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Annual Report of the Board of Regents 

of the 




Showing the Operations, Expenditures, and Condition of the 
Institution for the Year Ended June 30 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Ofllce 
Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price $4.25 (Cloth) 


Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, January 24, 1964. 

To the Congress of the United States: 

In accordance with section 5593 of the Revised Statutes of the 
United States, I have the honor, on behalf of the Board of Regents, 
to submit to Congress the annual report of the operations, expendi- 
tures, and condition of the Smithsonian Institution for the year ended 
June 30, 1963. 


Leonard Carmichael, Secretary. 



List of oflBcials v 

General statement 1 

The Establishment 20 

The Board of Regents 21 

Retirement of Dr. Kellogg 21 

National Portrait Gallery 22 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 23 

Finances 24 

Visitors 24 

Replacement of Smithson plaque 24 

Reports of branches of the Institution: 

United States National Museum 27 

International Exchange Service 64 

Bureau of American Ethnology 74 

National Zoological Park 107 

Astrophysical Observatory 147 

National Collection of Fine Arts 180 

Freer Gallery of Art 191 

National Gallery of Art 206 

Canal Zone Biological Area 219 

National Air Museum 225 

National Cultural Center 234 

Report on the library 246 

Report on publications 250 

Other activities: 

Lectures 257 

Science Information Exchange 257 

Smithsonian Museum Service 258 

Report of the executive committee of the Board of Regents 261 

Index _._ 587 



The Solar System, by Sir Bernard Lovell 279 

Advances in Astronomical Technology, by Aden B. Meinel 293 

The Analysis of Starlight, by Bernard Pagel ; 301 

Astronomical Photography from the Stratosphere, by Martin Schwarz- 

child 323 

The Smithsonian's Satellite-tracking Program: Its History and Organi- 
zation, Part 2, by E. Nelson Hayes 331 

The Neutrinos, by Melvin Schwartz 359 

The Antibiotics from a Botanical Viewpoint, by Kenneth L. Jones 369 

Atomic and Other Wastes in the Sea, by I. Eugene Wallen. — 381 



What is Cybernetics? by Donald M, MacKay 401 

The Use of the Electron Microscope in the Study of Fossils, by William W. 

Hay 409 

Color Changes in Animals, by D. B. Carlisle 417 

History of the Corbin Preserve, by Richard H. Manville 427 

The Southern Ocean: A Potential for Coral Studies, by Donald F. Squires. 447 

The Promise of Underwater Archeology, by George F. Bass 461 

Plants in the Arctic- Alpine Environment, by Stanwyn G. Shetler 473 

Concerning Whales and Museums, by A. E. Parr 499 

Tropical Subsistence Agriculture in Latin America: Some Neglected 

Aspects and Implications, by Raymond E. Crist 503 

An Archeological Reconnaissance in Hadhramaut, South Arabia — A 
Preliminary Report, by Gus W, Van Beek, Glen H. Cole, and Albert 

Jamme 521 

The Corrosion Products of Metal Antiquities, by Rutherford J. Gettens.. 547 

Religious Art East and West, by Benjamin Rowland __ __ 569 


, Following 

Secretary s Report: Page 

Plate 1 24 

Plates 2, 3 84 

Plates 4-7 108 

Plates 8-11 196 

Plates 12-14--. 212 

Plate 15 236 

Advances in Astronomical Technology (Meinel): Plates 1-4 300 

The Analysis of Starlight (Pagel): Plates 1-7 308 

Astronomical Photography from the Stratosphere (Schwarzchild) : Plates 

1-2 324 

The Neutrinos (Schwartz): Plate 1 366 

Atomic and Other Wastes in the Sea (Wallen): Plates 1-2 __ 388 

What is Cybernetics? (MacKay): Plates 1-3 404 

The Use of the Electron Microscope in the Study of Fossils (Hay) : Plates 

1-4 - 412 

Color Changes in Animals (Carlisle): Plates 1-2 420 

History of the Corbin Preserve (Manville): Plates 1-4 436 

The Southern Ocean: A Potential for Coral Studies (Squires) : Plates 1-4. _ 452 

Plants in the Arctic-Alpine Environment (Shetler): Plates 1-12 484 

Concerning Whales and Museums (Parr): Plates 1-8 500 

Tropical Subsistence Agriculture in Latin America: Some Neglected 

Aspects and Implications: Plates 1-8 516 

An Archeological Reconnaissance in Hadhramaut, South Arabia — A Pre- 

liminiary Report (Van Beek, Cole, and Jamme): Plates 1-8 532 

The Corrosion Products of Metal Antiquities (Gettens): Plates 1-10 556 

Religious Art East and West (Rowland): Plates 1-6 572 


June 30, 1963 

Presiding Officer ex officio. — John F. Kennedy, President of the United States. 
Chancellor. — Eabl Waeken, Chief Justice of the United States. 
Members of the Institution: 

John F. Kennedy, President of the United States. 

Lyndon B. Johnson, Vice President of the United States. 

Eael Wakben, Chief Justice of the United States. 

Dean Rusk, Secretary of State. 

Douglas Dillon, Secretary of the Treasury. 

RoBEBT S. McNamaba, Secretary of Defense. 

RoBEBT F. Kennedy, Attorney General. 

J. Edwaed Day, Postmaster General. 

Stewaet L. Udat.t., Secretary of the Interior. 

Oevtlle L. Feeeman, Secretary of Agriculture. 

Lutheb H. Hodges, Secretary of Commerce. 

W. Wn.T.ABP WiETz, Secretary of Labor. 

Anthony J. Celebbezze, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare. 
Regents of the Institution: 

Eabl Wabben, Chief Justice of the United States, Chancellor. 

Lyndon B. Johnson, Vice President of the United States. 

Clinton P. Andebson, Member of the Senate. 

J. William Fulbbiqht, Member of the Senate. 

Levebett Saltonstat.l, Member of the Senate. 

Fbank T. Bow, Member of the House of Representatives. 

Clabence Cannon, Member of the House of Representatives. 

Michael J. Kiewan, Member of the House of Representatives. 

John Nicholas Beown, citizen of Rhode Island. 

William A. M. Bubden, citizen of New York. 

RoBEBT V. Fleming, citizen of Washington, D.C. 

Ceawfoed H. Geeenewalt, citizen of Delaware. 

Caeyl P. Haskins, citizen of Washington, D.C. 

Jeeome C. Hunsakeb, citizen of Massachusetts. 
Executive Committee. — Robeet V. Fleming, Chairman, Claeence Cannon, 

Caeyl P. Haskins. 
Secretary. — Leonabd Cabmichael. 

Assistant Secretaries. — James C. Bbadley, Albeet C. Smith. 
Assistant to the Secretary. — Theodoee W. Tayxoe. 
Administrative assistant to the Secretary. — Mbs. Louise M. Peabson. 
Treasurer. — Edgab L. Roy. 

Chief, editorial and publications division. — Path. H. Oehseb. 
Librarian. — Ruth E. Blanchabd. 

Curator, Smithsonian Museum Service. — G. Caeeoll Lindsay. 
Buildings Manager. — Andeew F. Micheals, Je. 
Director of Personnel. — J. A. Kennedy. 



Chief, supply division. — A. W. Wilding. 

Chief, photographic service division. — O. H. Gbeeson. 


Director. — F. A. Taylor. 
Registrar. — Helena M. Weiss. 
Conservator. — C. H. Olin. 


Director. — T, D. Stewart. 

Assistant Directors. — R. S. Cowan, I. B. Wallen. 
Administrative officer. — Mrs. Mabel A. Byrd. 

Department of Anthropology : W. R. Wedel, head curator ; A. J. Andrews, 
exhibits specialist. 

Division of Archeology: Clifford Evans, Jr., curator; G. W. Van Beek, 

associate curator. 
Division of Ethnology: S. H. Riesenberg, curator ; G. D. Gibson, E. I. Knez, 

W. H. Crocker, associate curators. 
Division of Physical Anthropology: J. L. Angel, curator. 
Department of Zoology : H. H. Hobbs, Jr., head curator ; F. A. Chace, Jr., senior 
scientist ; W. M. Perrygo, in charge of taxidermy. 
Division of Mammals: D. H. Johnson, curator; H. W. Setzer, C. O. Handley, 

Jr., associate curators. 
Division of Birds: P. S. Humphrey, curator, G. E. Watson, assistant curator. 
Division of Reptiles and AmphiMans: Doris M. Cochran, curator. 
Division of Fishes: L. P. Schultz, curator; E. A. Lachner, W. R. Taylor, 

V. G. Springer, S. H. Weitzman, R. H. Gibbs, Jr., associate curators. 
Division of Insects: J. F. G. Clarke, curator; O. L. Cartwright, R. E. Crabill, 
Jr., W. D. Field, D. R. Davis, O. S. Flint, Jr., D. W. Duckworth, P. J. 
Spangler, associate curators. 
Division of Marine Invertebrates: D. F. Squires, curator; T. E. Bowman, 
C. E. Cutress, Jr., Marian H. Pettibone, R. R. Manning, associate curators. 
Division of Mollusks: H. A. Rehder, curator; J. P. E. Morrison, Joseph 
Rosewater, associate curators. 
Department of Botany (National Herbarium) : J. R. Swallen, head curator. 
Division of Phanerogams: L. B. Smith, curator; Velva E. Rudd, J. J. 

Wurdack, associate curators ; S. G. Shetler, assistant curator. 
Division of Ferns: C. V. Morton, curator. 

Division of Grasses: J. R. Swallen, acting curator; T. R. Soderstrom, asso- 
ciate curator. 
Division of Cryptogams: M. E. Hale, Jr., curator; P. S. Conger, H. E. 

Robinson, R. B. Norris, associate curators. 
Division of Plant Anatomy: W. L. Stern, curator; R. H. Eyde, associate 
Department of Geology : G. A. Cooper, head curator. 

Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: G. S. Switzer, curator; E. P. Hender- 
son, P. E. Desautels, associate curators; R. S. Clarke, Jr., chemist. 
Division of Invertebrate Paleontology and Paleobotany: R. S. Boardman, 
curator; P. M. Kier, Richard Cifelli, E. G. Kauffman, F. M. Hueber, 
M. A. Buzas, associate curators. 
Division of Vei'tebrate Paleontology: C. L. GazLn, curator; D. H. Dunkle, 
Nicholas Hotton III, associate curators ; F. L. Pearce, exhibits specialist. 


Oceanography Program: I. E. Wallen, assistant director; H. A. Fehlmann, 
supervisory museum specialist, Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center. 


Director. — F. A. Taylor. 

Assistant Director. — J. C. Ewers. 

Administrative officers. — W. E. Boyle, Virginia Beets. 

Department op Science and Technology : R. P. Multhauf , head curator. 

Division of Physical Sciences: R. P. Multhauf, acting curator ; W. F. Cannon, 

associate curator. 
Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering : S. A. Bedini, curator; E. A. 

Battison, R. M. Vogel, associate curators. 
Division of Transportation: H. I. Chapelle, curator ; K. M. Perry, J. H. White, 

Jr., associate curators. 
Division of Electricity : B. S. Finn, associate curator in charge. 
Division of Medical Sciences: S. K. Hamarneh, curator. 
Department of Arts and Manufactures : P. W. Bishop, head curator. 
Division of Textiles: Mrs. Grace R. Cooper, curator. 
Division of Ceramics and Olass: P. V. Gardner, curator; J. J. Miller II, 

assistant curator. 
Division of Graphic Arts: Jacob Kainen, curator; F. O. Griffith, Eugene 

Ostroff, associate curators. 
Division of Manufactures and Heavy Industries: P. W. Bishop, acting 

Division of Agriculture and Forest Products: E. C. Kendall, associate curator 
in charge. 
Department of Civil History: R. H. Howland, head curator; P. O. Welsh, 
curator ; Mrs. Doris E. Borthwick, Ellen J. Finnegan, assistant curators. 
Division of Political History: W. E. Washburn, curator; Mrs. Margaret 
Brown Klapthor, associate curator ; H. R. Collins, K. E. Melder, Mrs. Anne 
W. Murray, assistant curators. 
Division of Cultural History: C. M. Watkins, curator; Rodris C. Roth, asso- 
ciate curator; A. W. Hathaway, Mrs. Cynthia A. Hoover, J. N. Pearce, 
assistant curators. 
Division of Philately and Postal History: F. J. McOall, associate curator in 

charge ; C. H. Scheele, assistant curator. 
Divisio7i of Numismatics: Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli, curator; Mrs. Elvira 
Clain-Stefanelli, associate curator; Barbara F. Bode, junior curator. 
Department op Armed Forces History : M. L. Peterson, head curator. 

Division of Military History: E. M. Howell, curator ; O. R. Goins, Jr., asso- 
ciate curator. 
Division of Naval History: P. K. Lundeberg, curator; M. H. Jackson, 
associate curator. 

OFFICE OF exhibits 

Chief. — J. E. Anglim. 

Museum of Natural History Lahoratory: A. G. Wright, assistant chief; Julius 

Tretick, production supervisor. 
Museum of History and Technology Laboratory: B. W. Lawless, chief; B. S. Bory. 

production supervisor. 

Chief.— J. A. Collins. 



Director.— T. H. Reed. 
Associate Director. — J. L. Grimmer. 
General Curator. — Waldfried T. Roth. 
Zoologist. — Marion McCrane. 
Veterinarian. — Clinton W. Gray. 


Director. — F. H. H. Roberts, Jr. 
Anthropologist. — H. B. Collins, Jr. 
Ethnologists. — W. C. Sturtevant, Robert M. Laughlin. 

RiVEB Basin Sub\^ys. — F. H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director; R. L. Stephenson, 
Chief, Missouri Basin Project. 


Director. — F. L. Whipple. 

Assistant Directors. — C. W. Tillinghast, Charles Lundquist. 

Astronomers. — G, Colombo, L. Goldberg, G. S. Hawkins, I. G. Izsak, Y. Kozai, 

R. Martin, J. Slowey, L. Solomon, F. W. Wright. 
Mathematicians. — ^R. W. Briggs, D. A. Lautman. 

Physicists.— E. Avrett, N. P. Carleton, A. F. Cook, R, J. Davis, J. DeFelice, C. H. 
Dugan, G. G. Fazio, E. L. Fireman, F. Franklin, O. Gingerich, M. Grossi, P. V. 
Hodge, W. M. Irvine, L. G. Jaechia, W. Kalkofen, R. E. McCrosky, H. Mitler, 
R. W. Noyes, C. E. Sagan, A. Skalafuris, R. B. Southworth, D. Tilles, C. A. 
Geodesists. — W. Kohnlein, J. Rolff, G. Veis. 
Geologists. — O. B. Marvin, J. Wood. 
Division of Radiation and Organisms : 
Chief.— W. H. Klein. 
Assistant Chief. — W. Shropshire. 
Biochemists. — D. L. Correll, M. M. Margulies. 
Geochemist. — J. J. Sigalove. 
Plant physiologists. — P. J. A. L. deLint, J. L. Edwards, V. B. Elstad, 

L. Loercher, K. Mitrakos, L. Price. 
Electronic engineers. — J. H. Harrison, H. J. Lehfeldt. 
Instrument engineering technicians. — D. G. Talbert, W. N. Cogswell. 
Physicist. — B. Goldberg. 


Director. — T, M. Beggs. 

Associate curator. — Rowland Lyon. 

Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service. — Mrs. Annemarie H. Pope, Chief. 

Smithsonian Art Commission. — Paul Manship (chairman), Leonard Carmichael 
(secretary), Gilmore D. Clarke (vice chairman), David E. Finley, Lloyd 
Goodrich, Walter Hancock, Bartlett H. Hayes, Jr., Wilmarth S. Lewis, Henry 
P. McUhenny, Paul Mellon, Douglas Orr, Ogden M. Pleissner, Edgar P. 
Richardson. Charles H. Sawyer, Stow Wengenroth, Andrew Wyeth, Alexander 
Wetmore (member emeritus). 


Director. — John A. Pope. 

Assistant Director. — Harold P. Stem. 


Head curator. Near Eastern Art. — Richard Ettinghauseu. 
Associate curator, Chinese Art. — James F. Cahill. 
Ilead curator, Laboratory. — Rutherford J. Gettens. 



Bakl Wabben, Chief Justice of the United States, Chairman. 

Dean Rusk, Secretary of State. 

DooGLAS DtLLON, Secretary of the Treasury. 

Leonaed Oabmichael, Secretary of tJie Smithsonian Institution. 

Paul Mellon. 

John Hay Whitney. 

John N. Irwin II. 
President. — Paul Mellon. 
Vice President. — John Hay Whitney. 
Secretary-Treasurer. — Huntington Caikns. 
Director. — John Waxkeb. 
Administrator. — Ernest R. Feidleb. 
General Counsel. — Huntington Caibns. 
Chief Curator. — Pebby B. Cott. 

Advisory Board: 

Leonard Carmichael, Chairman. 

Maj. Gen. Brooke E. Allen, U.S. Air Force. 

Vice Adm. William A. Schoech, U.S. Navy. 

James H. Doolittle (Lt. Gen., U.S.A.F. Ret.) 

Grover Loening. 
Director. — P. S. Hopkins 
Head curator and historian. — P. E. Garber. 
Curators. — L. S. Casey, K. E. Newland. 
Curator. — R. B. Meyer. 

Director. — M. H. Moynihan. 


Howard F. Ah man son. 
Floyd D. Akees. 

Lucius D. Battle, Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cul- 
tural Affairs, ex officio. 
Ralph E. Becke:b. 
K. LeMoyne Billings. 
Edgab M. Bronfman. 
John Nicholas Brown. 
Ralph J. Bunch. 

Leonard Carmichael, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, ex officio. 
Anthony J. Celebkezze, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, ex 

Joseph S. Clark. 
J. AVhxiam Fulbbiqht. 


Mes. Geobge a. Garrett. 

Francis Keppel, Commissioner, U.S. Office of Education, ex officio. 

Mrs. Albert D. Lasker. 

George Meant. 

L. QuiNOY MuMFORD, Librarian of Congress, ex officio. 

Mrs. Charlotte T. Reid. 

Richard S. Reynolds, Jr. 


Mrs. Jouett Shouse. 
Roger L. Stevens. 
L. CoRRiN Strong. 
Frank Thompson. 

Walter N. Tobrinek, President, D.C. Board of Commissioners, ex officio. 
WiLLLAM Walton, 

William H. Waters, Jr., Cliairman, D.C. Recreation Board, ex officio. 
Conrad L. Wirth, Director of the National Park Service, ex officio. 
Jim Wright. 

Chairman. — Roger L. Stevens. 

Vice chairman. — L. Corein Strong. 

Treasurer. — Daniel W. Bell. 

Counsel. — Ralph E. Becker. 

Assistant secretary. — Mrs. James Cantre^^l. 

Assistant treasurers. — Paul Seltzer, Kenneth Birgfeld. 


John Nicholas Brown, Chairman. 

Leonard Carmichael, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, ex officio. 

RuFus E. Clement. 

David L. Kreeger. 

Feed Korth, Secretary of the Navy. 

Robert S. McNamara, Secretary of Defense, ex officio. 

Cyrus R. Vance, Secretary of the Army. 

Eael Warren, Chief Justice of the United States. 

William W. Whiteman, Jr. 

Henry B. Washburn, Jr. 

Eugene M. Zuckert, Secretary of the Air Force. 


National Portrait Gallery Commission: 
Catherine Drinker Bowen. 
Julian P. Boyd. 
John Nicholas Brown. 

Leonard Carmichael, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, ex officio. 
Lewis Deschlb^e. 
David E. Finley. 
WiLMABTH Sheldon Lewis. 
Richard H. Shryock. 
Frederick P. Todd. 

John Walker, Director of the National Gallery of Art, ex officio. 
Eael Wabeen, Chief Justice of the United States, ex officio. 



Honorary Smithsonian Fellows^ Collaborators, Associates, Custodians of 
Collections, and Honorary Curators 

Office of the Secretary 

John E. Graf 
Remington Kellogg 

United States National Museum 
museum of natural history 

J. M. Campbell, Archeology. 
C. G. Holland, Archeology. 
N. M. Judd, Anthropology. 
H. W. Krieger, Ethnology. 


Betty J. Meggers, Archeology. 

F. M. Setzler, Anthropology. 

W. W. Taylor, Jr., Anthropology. 

W. J. Tobin, Physical Anthropology. 


O. L. Austin, Birds 

W. W. Becklund, Helminthology. 

Mrs. Doris H. Blake, Insects. 

J. Bruce Bredin, Biology. 

W. L. Brown, Mammals. 

M. A. Carriker, Jr., Insects. 

Ailsa M. Clark, Marine Invertebrates. 

H. G. Deignan, Birds. 

C. J. Drake, Insects. 

K. C. Emerson, Insects. 

Herbert Friedmann, Birds. 

F. M. Hull, Insects. 

Laurence Irving, Birds. 

W. L. Jellison, Insects. 
Allen Mcintosh, Mollusks. 
J. P. Moore, Marine Invertebrates. 
C. F. W. Muesebeck, Insects. 
W. L. Schmitt, Marine Invertebrates. 
Benjamin Schwartz, Helminthology. 
T. E. Snyder, Isoptera. 
H. K. Townes, Insects. 
Robert Traub, Mammals. 
Alexander Wetmore, Birds. 
Mrs. Mildred S. "Wilson, Copepod Crus- 

C. R. Benjamin, Fungi. 
Mrs. Agnes Chase, Grasses. 
E. P. Killip, Phanerogams. 
E. C. Leonard, Phanerogams. 


F. A. McClure, Grasses. 

Mrs. Kittle P. Parker, Phanerogams. 

J. A. Stevenson, Fungi. 

W. N. Watkins, Woods. 


C. W. Cooke, Invertebrate Paleontology. 
J. T. Dutro, Invertebrate Paleontology. 
A. A. Olsson, Invertebrate Paleontology. 

W. T. Schaller, Mineralogy. 
W. P. Woodring, Invertebrate Paleon- 



Science and Technology 

D. J. Price 

Oivil History 

Mrs. Arthur M. Greenwood, Cultural 

E. O. Herber, History. 
I. N. Hume, Cultural History. 

F. W. McKay, Numismatics. 
Emery May Norweh, Numismatics 
R. Henry Norweb, Numismatics 

W. R. Furlong. 
F. O. Lane. 

Sister M. Inez Hilger, 
M. W. Stirling. 

Armed Forces History- 
Byron McCandless. 

W. L. Brown, Taxidermy 
Bureau of American Ethnology 
A. J. Waring, Jr. 

Astrophysical Observatory 

C. G. Abbot 

Freer Gallery of Art 

Oleg Grabar. 

Grace Dunham Guest. 

Frederick C. Crawford. 
John J. Ide. 

Max Loehr. 
Katherine N. Rhoades. 

National Air Museum 

I Alfred V. Verville. 

National Zoological Park 
E. P. Walker 

Canal Zone Biological Area 
O. O. Soper 

Report of the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution 

For the Year Ended June 30, 1963 

To the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution: 

Gentlemen : I have the honor to submit a report showing the activi- 
ties and condition of the Smithsonian Institution and its branches for 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1963. 


James Smithson directed that the Institution f oimded by him should 
be an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among 
men. The 117th year of the Smithsonian Institution, covered in the 
present report, shows notable achievements in research ; that is, in the 
increase of knowledge. The publications, museum displays, and the 
answering of letters requesting information have aU served during 
the year to further the diffusion of knowledge. 

In the pages that follow, reports of the activities of each of the 
bureaus of the Smithsonian present in some detail the story of the year. 
Additions to the collections, publications, new exhibits, new research 
findings, and explorations are all described. 

The year's most notable development has been the progress made 
in the completion of the great new Museum of History and Tech- 
nology Building. Tliis marble structure will be one of the largest 
and one of the most modern and effective museums in the world. 
Its 50 public exhibition halls will almost certainly be viewed each 
year by at least 5 million visitors. The building has been planned so 
that access to exhibits and the movement of visitors through the halls 
will be as convenient as possible and produce a minimum of what is 
often all too accurately called "museum fatigue." In plamiing each 
new exhibit an effort has been made to make every display a complete 
instructional unit. Space has also been set aside for the great study 
collections of the Institution in the fields of histoiy and technology, 
containing objects that are not on public exhibition but that are of 
importance to the thousands of research scholars, specialists, and 
collectors who come to the Smithsonian every year to learn more 
in detail about some particular field of inquiry. 



The new east- wing addition to tlie National History Building, virtu- 
ally completed by the end of the year, has been occupied by staff 
scientists. Many of the great biological and geological study and 
research collections of the Institution have been moved into space 
provided in this wing. The completion of these additional facilities, 
when supplemented by the later completion of the west wing, will 
again allow the opening of some large public halls of the Natural 
History Building that have had to be closed for many years in order 
to provide space for research activities. During the more than 50 
years between the completion of this great Natural History Building 
and the construction of these new wings, much exhibition space had 
necessarily been encroached upon. Now these fine halls, originally 
planned for natural-history exhibitions, can be returned to their 
proper use. 

As noted in the reports that follow, physical improvements have 
also been carried on at the National Zoological Park. Planning has 
also been completed for the renovation of the old Patent Office Build- 
ing. This building, by an act of Congress, has been assigned to the 
Smithsonian Institution as the new home of the National Collection 
of Fine Arts and of the new National Portrait Gallery. 

The Decade 1953-63 

Each annual report of the Smithsonian Institution describes the 
advances that have been made in a single period of 12 months. It 
may not be inappropriate occasionally in an ammal report to sum- 
marize accomplishments and changes that have taken place in the 
Institution over a longer period of time. The decade 1953-63 has 
been one marked by much progress at the Institution. As the present 
report is the last one that will be submitted to the Board of Regents 
by the present Secretary, it has seemed fitting to review here briefly 
some of the highpoints of this 10-year period. These years cover the 
major period of tenure of the present Secretary. 

It must be emphasized that all the advances made at the Smithsonian 
Institution during the period under review are a result of the actions 
and support of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 
and of the Congress of the United States. 

In the paragraphs that follow, brief smnmaries are presented of 
some of the major activities in tliis notable decade of each of the bu- 
reaus of the Smithsonian. 

United States National Museum, 1953-63 

Ten years ago, as at the present time, the United States National 
Museum consisted of two major sections. The Natural History Mu- 
seum, in terms of national and indeed international recognition, prob- 


ably the best known part of the Museum, has developed in the decade 
under consideration in an outstanding way. The other section, now 
called the Museum of History and Technology, has seen an equally 
important development. 

In 1953 there were more than 34 million cataloged objects in the Na- 
tional Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. By 1963 this number 
had grown to over 57 million such objects. Sometimes those who 
do not know intimately the work of the Smithsonian ask why the 
collections have been allowed to develop so rapidly. The answer, 
of course, is that the scientific work of the Smithsonian depends 
very largely upon the use of these study collections by literally 
thousands of competent investigators. Much of the world-famous 
scientific study of insects, of plants, of minerals, and of other areas 
of the natural resources of our Nation that is carried out at the Smith- 
sonian Institution, could not be performed if it were not for the pres- 
ence of these gi-eat, and in many cases unique, assemblages of care- 
fully documented and labeled scientific specimens. During the decade 
under consideration the staff of the Natural History Museum has been 
markedly strengthened so that it can more adequately perform nec- 
essary investigations related to these collections. Much of this re- 
search has specific applications to medicine, especially military medi- 
cine, the effect of radiation on living cells, insect control, general 
problems of conservation, the development of food resources, and the 
scientific knowledge of the natural history of the earth. 

Field investigations conducted by the Museum have more than dou- 
bled in number during this decade, and nearly all of them have been 
conducted, not with funds appropriated to the Smithsonian, but with 
gifts or grants made by individuals, foundations, or government agen- 
cies. Recently the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center was 
established to receive, screen, sort, and distribute for scientific study 
the animals, plants, and minerals collected in the expanding oceano- 
graphic program of the United States. Public and private funds have 
also made it possible for the Smithsonian to participate in the develop- 
ment of techniques for underwater scientific study. 

Only 10 years ago most of the corridors of the great Natural History 
Museum Building were lined from floor to ceiling with cases containing 
the working scientific reference collections of the Institution. Scien- 
tists were required to work on stepladders and in walled-off stairwells 
or beliind screens in exhibition halls. In 1958 Congress appropriated 
funds for the design of desperately needed additions to the Natural 
History Building that had been authorized many years before. The 
east wing, now complete, has added 214,000 square feet of space to 
allow the proper and effective housing of scientific collections of the 
Smithsonian. Funds have also been appropriated to allow the erection 


of the symmetrically matching west wing. Work on the building of 
this wing is expected to start in calendar year 1963. 

In 1953 the 72-year-old Arts and Industries Building was rather 
generally known in the American press as the "nation's attic." This 
old building for years had led most of the rest of the museums of the 
world in the popularity of its exhibits as measured by annual attend- 
ance, but it was almost pathetically inadequate to accommodate its 
great collections or to provide adequately for the tremendous crowds 
that pushed into it day after day. In 1955 Congress authorized the 
construction of a new building to be known as the Museum of History 
and Technology of the Smithsonian Institution. This additional mag- 
nificent building is now nearing completion and will soon be equipped 
with exhibits and be open to the public. The old Arts and Industries 
Building will not be abandoned but will be used for special exhibits 
and for the display of important objects that are appropriate for its 
large halls. 

During the decade under review, historians of science and tech- 
nology, some of them recent additions to the staff of the Institution, 
have systematized the collections of the Smithsonian in both history 
and technology. They have developed modem exhibits and have pre- 
pared scholarly publications to present to the world the results of their 
investigations of the collection of treasures housed at the Smithsonian. 
Until the beginning of this decade most of the publications of the 
Smithsonian Institution were in fields of study related to the sciences 
of astronomy, anthropology, botany, zoology, and geology. Today 
more than 250 monographs and books have been published to provide 
a scholarly basis for the understanding of some of the great collections 
of objects in the Museum of History and Technology. 

These new Smithsonian publications and the new exhibits in the 
fields of liistory and technology have brought t-o the attention of col- 
lectors all over America, and indeed all over the world, the significance 
of the Smithsonian's work. New interest in the Institution's collec- 
tions in the field of the decorative arts, and in the collections of furni- 
ture, silver, ceramics, textiles, and prints, has been especially notable. 
Increasingly during these years Smithsonian experts have taken 
important parts in the programs of seminars and museum conferences 
dealing with the preservation and understanding of objects in these 
fields. New methods of examination, interpretation, exhibition, and, 
above all preservation have been developed during this time in the 
workrooms and laboratories of the Smithsonian. 

During this period the Institution has participated in excavations 
at a number of colonial American sites. Nearly all this work has been 
fully or partly supported by funds provided from private sources. 
As a result of these studies new knowledge has come concerning the 


mode of life of Americans during the early years of the country, and 
the pottery, weapons, insignia, tools, and trade objects of our young 
nation are now much better understood than they were 10 years ago. 

One of the prime reasons for the vast increase in the number of visi- 
tors at the Smithsonian museums has been the development that has 
taken place in this decade in the presentation of exhibits. It is not 
by chance that the number of visitors in the old Smithsonian buildings 
on the Mall in 1952-53 totaled 3,429,000, whereas the number in 1963 
reached the amazing figure of 10,309,000. Since 1953, 28 large exhi- 
bition unit^ have been transformed from halls full of poorly lighted 
cases crammed with objects to well-labeled, modern, teaching ex- 
hibits. It is not an exaggeration to say that the truly creative work 
of the exhibit staff of the Smithsonian has become famous, not only in 
every other great museum of America but also in all the large museums 
in the rest of the world. 

A few additional notes may be made concerning developments in 
particular areas of interest : 

The Institution has long had one of the great collections of musical 
instruments of the country. Unfortunately, most of these were not 
in condition to be played and were not easily viewed. Many of the 
most important have been restored and can now be played. Some of 
them have been used in concerts provided free for the public by volun- 
teer musicians. A scientific analytical laboratory has been established 
at the Smithsonian, and here physical and chemical techniques are now 
employed in the important task of providing better methods for pro- 
tecting and conserving the treasures of the Smithsonian. During this 
decade the Wliite House has been generally renovated. Under the 
direction of the President of the United States and the staff of the 
Wliite House, the Smithsonian has played a role in the developm.ent 
of exhibits of the histoiy of the White House as now displayed in the 
visitor's entrance to this historic center of our Nation. An act of Con- 
gress, passed in 1961, provided that objects not needed for use or dis- 
play at any time at the Wliite House are to be transferred to the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

Annual reports of the Smithsonian list the splendid donations that 
come to the Institution in each 12-month period. Among the espe- 
cially notable gifts of the decade may be mentioned the following : 

President John F. Kennedy presented a magnificent volume, the 
"Atlas Nouveau" by Nicolas Sanson, 1692, beautifully bound for the 
instruction of the Dauphin of France. 

Mrs. Arthur M. Greenwood gave many objects illustrating American 
colonial living, including an entire two-story, four-bedroom house 
built in Massachusetts in 1678. 

720-018—64 2 


The Honorable and Mrs. Wiley T. Buchanan, Jr., purchased for 
the Museum 600 fine examples of early Rhenish and Dutch pottery ; 
Harry Winston gave the great blue Hope Diamond; and the estate 
of Mrs. Maude Monell Vetlesen, through her son Edmund C. Monell, 
donated 130 pieces of beautifully carved jade ranging in age from the 
INiing through the Ching dynasties. 

Dr. Hans Syz began presenting in annual installments one of the 
outstanding privately owned collections of fine European porcelain 
of the earliest period. Mrs. Herbert Arthur May made gifts of laces, 
glass, Americana, Indian materials, and the magnificent necklace of 
diamonds which Napoleon I gave to the Empress Marie-Louise on 
the occasion of the birth of their son in 1811. 

Lessing J. Rosenwald presented an outstanding English astrolabe 
of 1325 and a 16th-century folding sundial compass engraved with 
maps and travel routes of central Europe. The International Busi- 
ness Machines Corp. presented 21 beautifully engraved astrolabes 
from Persia, India, North Africa, and Europe of the 13th and later 
centuries, and 24 rare pre-Spanish textiles. 

Willis H. du Pont made two outstanding gifts : a collection of coins 
and medals struck in the name of Peter the Great, with a copy of 
the rare 11-volume monograph on Russian coins by the Grand Duke 
Georgii Mikhailovitch ; and 860 coins and medals issued in the reigns 
of Czar Ivan III and Czarina Elizabeth, also from the Grand Duke's 

The family of the late Henry T. Peters presented nearly 2,000 
lithographs by American printmakers other than Currier and Ives, 
from the "America on Stone" collection. 

Mrs. W. Murray Crane presented a fine collection of French and 
English furniture of the 18th century, and the Misses Helen R. 
and Elizabeth W. Newcombe gave the complete furnishings of a 19th- 
century American parlor. 

Senator Clinton P. Anderson, Regent of the Smithsonian, presented 
a fine copy of the Kelmscott Chaucer printed by William Morris in 
1896; and the late Mrs. Richard Saltonstall, mother of Senator 
Leverett Saltonstall, Regent of the Smithsonian, gave a handsome 
family carriage made by Thomas Goddard of Boston in 1851 ; included 
with the gift was a grant for its restoration. 

Mrs. Clara W. Berwick made several gifts, one of 176 pieces of 
early American glass; Mrs. George Hewitt Myers gave 48 pieces of 
rare Castleford porcelain of 1T90-1820. Arthur E. Wullschleger 
discovered a French hand-and-foot treadle loom of the 18th century 
equipped with a Jacquard mechanism of the early 19th century, which 
he restored and presented to the Smithsonian. 


Joseph J. Fenykovi donated an African elephant of record size. 

Mrs. John Logan (the former Mrs. Rebecca Pollard Guggenheim) 
presented a 423-carat sapphire. Ralph E. Becker gave many out- 
standing objects from his collection of political campaign materials, 
including a painted banner celebrating the victory of Thomas 
Jefferson in 1801. 

Through the foresight of Dr. Robert V. Flemmg, Regent of the 
Smithsonian, the Southern Railway Co. preserved and presented a 
fine example of a late steam locomotive which has been installed in 
the new Museum of History and Teclmology. 

The Revolutionary War gunboat Philadel'phia, complete with its 
camions and 700 pieces of military equipment fomid in it, was ac- 
quired from the estate of the late Col. Lorenzo F. Hagglund, who 
expressed in his will the ho^De that it be preserved in the National 
Museum. Also acquired was the unmatched W. Stokes Kirk collec- 
tion of 3,000 items of military insignia and accouterments. 

Dr. W. L. Libby presented the experimental equipment he used in 
developing the carbon-14 method of dating archeological objects. 
The Bell Telephone Laboratories gave 66 pieces of early telephone 
equipment for the telephone exhibit galleiy presented by the Bell 
System and the independent telephone industry. Gifts of the Ameri- 
can Telephone & Telegraph Co. include the duplicate Telstar com- 
munications satellite. The original equipment of the Nobel prize 
winners Drs. T. D. Lee and C. N. Yang employed in their nonparity 
nuclear experiments was collected for preservation, as was the elec- 
tronic digital computer "Maniac," the gift of Princeton Univei^ity. 

During the period a number of administrative developments 
strengthened the work of the United States National Museum. By 
act of Congress a National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 
has been established. The volunteer unpaid Jmiior League Docent 
Service and the Smithsonian Museum Service have both been estab- 
lished to provide better educational work for schoolchildren at the 
Smithsonian. The installation of an Audio-Guide system in many 
exhibition halls has given information about the collections that ap- 
peals to the ear to supplement the labels intended for the eye. 

International Exchange Service, 1953-63 

The International Exchange Service is one of the oldest units of 
the Smithsonian. Its work, origmated and organized by the first and 
great Secretary of the Smithsonian, Joseph Henry, more than a cen- 
tury ago, is specifically authorized in 49 international treaties and 

During the decade under considerations, the International Ex- 
change Service received for transmission more publications than in 


any like period of its long history. There were 12,704,583 pub- 
lications weighing 9,228,617 pounds received for forwarding tlirough 
the Service. 

The increased workload was handled at little or no additional 
increase in cost and with no additional employees. The use of card- 
board cartons in place of wooden boxes for packing publications for 
oversea shipments has resulted in a large saving. 

Direct booking of ocean freight shipments with the steamship lines, 
instead of through forwarding agents, has resulted not only in a large 
saving of the fees that would have been charged by the forwarding 
agents for their services but also in a more efficient operation. Three 
weeks or more were necessary under the old system of booking be- 
tween packing and the shipping of the publications to the steamship 
piers. Publications are now packed, booked, and shipped in a period 
of 1 day to 1 week. This method of transmission has reduced the 
amount of space necessary for storage of cartons of publications 
awaiting shipment to the steamship lines and has speeded up the 
turnover of publications on hand for shipment. 

A new method of processing publications for mailing has resulted 
in a faster transmission to the intended addressees. The old method 
of processing required a period of from 1 to 2 weeks before mailing. 
The new method provides for mailing on the day of receipt or the 
following day. 

Bureau of American Ethnology, 1953-63 

During the decade 1953-63 the activities of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology were concerned principally with expeditions and researches 
in. the field and publication of anthropological monographs. This 
unit of the Smithsonian, founded by the great Major John Wesley 
Powell, is possibly the first center in the country, or even in the world, 
for research in cultural anthropology. Its publications are famous 
wherever anthropology^ is studied. 

Of particular significance in the decade under review is the pro- 
gram in archeology carried on in the extreme northern part of the 
continent. In the earlier years of the period, archeological excava- 
tions were conducted at Comwallis Island in the Canadian Arctic, 
the work being sponsored jointly by the Smithsonian Institution and 
the National Museum of Canada. In the Hudson Bay area, investiga- 
tions on Southampton and Coats Islands occupied several seasons, 
a cooperative project of the Smithsonian Institution, the National 
Museum of Canada, and the National Geographic Society. Sub- 
sequently the American Philosophical Society joined in the financial 
sponsorship of those activities and attention was turned to Walrus 
Island. The extensive materials collected from the various islands 


greatly increased knowledge about the various peoples who have lived 
there over a long period of time. Articles about the results and sig- 
nificance of the studies were published by the Smitlisonian and in 
professional journals. 

An extensive program of archeological research was carried on at 
the important Olmec site of La Venta, Tabasco, Mexico. This was 
a cooperative project in which the Smithsonian Institution, the Na- 
tional Geographic Society, and the University of California partici- 
pated. The results obtained at La Venta, published as a bulletin of 
the Bureau, contribute significantly to a proper understanding of 
the place the Olmecs occupied in the cultural development of early 

During this decade excavations at Russell Cave in Alabama were 
sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and financed by the Na- 
tional Geographic Society. Russell Cave is important because of 
the long sequence of cultural deposits it contains, and the materials 
from it make possible the reconstruction of aboriginal developments 
over a period extending back about 9,000 years. Evidences for many 
cultural traits not previously recognized in the American South came 
to light during the course of the digging. The National Geographic 
Society subsequently purchased the cave and presented it to the Na- 
tional Park Service to be established as a national historic site. 

During the 10-year period the work of the River Basin Surveys 
progressed in a rewarding manner. During that time 23 reservoir 
areas were surveyed and archeological excavations were conducted in 
324 sites. The f mids for the program, transferred to the Smithsonian 
from other government agencies and private donors, were greatly 
increased during the last 3 years of the decade, making it possible 
to expand and speed up the salvage operations. Thirty-two papers 
reporting on the investigations and their significance were published 
during the period. Others are currently in press. The information 
thus far obtained has added tremendously to our knowledge of the 
aboriginal Americans. 

The archives of the Bureau, constituting a great national scientific 
research tool, have increased notably in size and diversity of material 
in this decade. Large collections of Indian photographs have been 
made available, and either the original negatives or copies have been 
added to the files. Included are 312 glass negatives of individual and 
group portraits of Indian delegates to Washington during the period 
1874-90. The papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher and her adopted 
son, Francis La Flesche, both of whom had been members of the Bu- 
reau staff in earlier years, were donated to the archives by Mrs. G. 
David Pearlman of Washington, D.C., in memory of her husband. 
The collection, filling 36 manuscript boxes, includes correspondence 


and other personal papers of both Miss Fletcher and La Flesche and 
also extensive ethnographic items relating to the Omaha, Osage, Paw- 
nee, Dakota, and Nez Perce Tribes, with smaller amounts on the Win- 
nebago, the Indians of Alaska, and a few other North American tribes. 
Much of this material has not been published and is a fruitful source 
of data for students investigating those groups. Another significant 
addition to the archives consists of papers of Dr. Frans M. Olbrechts 
relating to his studies of the Cherokee Indians of North Carolina in 
1926-31, when he was a collaborator of the Bureau. Dr. Olbrechts 
was associated with the Kominklijh Museum, Tervuren, Belgium, and 
following his death, Mrs. Olbrechts sent all his field notes and other 
pertinent data to the Bureau. 

A noteworthy event in the latter part of the 10-year period was the 
appointment of a librarian and the reopening of the Bureau library, 
with its extensive collection of reference works and documentary 
records concerning all aspects of the life of the American Indian. 

The Bureau issued several important bulletins during the period. 
One of the most noteworthy is "Isleta Paintings," a book outstanding 
both as a contribution to ethnology and as an excellent example of 
the effective use of good color reproductions for scholarly reasons. 

National Zoological Park, 1953-63 

The National Zoological Park was founded as the result of the ef- 
forts of the third Secretary of the Smithsonian, Dr. Samuel Pierpont 
Langley, about 75 years ago. It was established by an act of Congress 
and assigned to the Smithsonian Institution. Previously a number 
of great American animals, such as bison, were kept m pens near the 
original Smithsonian Building. During the years since its establish- 
ment, the Park has grown to become one of the world's great animal 
collections, as well as one of the most visited zoological parks in the 
world. In 1961 the Congress of the United States authorized the Fed- 
eral Government to make appropriations to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion for capital improvements at the National Zoological Park. As 
a result, funds have been provided for a master plan for the moderni- 
zation of the Zoo. This project, planned to be completed in 1972, 
will be carried out gradually so that there will be very little incon- 
venience to visitors or disruption of normal activities. One example 
of the additions made possible by this new program is the construct- 
ing of an aviary, 70 feet high and 120 feet in diameter, now nearing 

Gifts of animals have been numerous during this decade. Among 
them were a pair of Barbary apes from Sir Gordon MacMillan of 
MacMillan, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Gibraltar; tliree 
East Indian monitor lizards from Hon. Carlton Skinner, Governor of 


Guam ; a tuatara from the Government of New Zealand ; two Philip- 
pine macaques, early pioneers in space from the U.S. Air Force ; two 
Korean bears from President Syngman Rhee of Korea; pronghorn 
antelopes from both the Wyoming and the Montana State Fish and 
Game Commissions ; a pair of gorillas from Russell Arundel of War- 
renton, Va. ; emperor and Adelie penguins from Hon. Charles Thomas, 
Secretary of the Navy; a young Bengal tiger from the Ambassador 
of Pakistan, Syed Amjad Ali ; a pair of okapis from the Government 
of the Belgian Congo ; an African forest elephant from the Commu- 
nity of French Republics ; two dorcas gazelles from President Habib 
Bourguiba of Tunisia ; a spotted leopard and a male pygmy hippopot- 
amus from President William V. S. Tubman of Liberia ; an Indian 
rhinoceros from the Forestry Service of Assam; two Bengal tigers 
from Ralph Scott of Washington and Miami Beach; the beautiful 
white tigress "Mohini," from the Metropolitan Broadcasting Corp., 
the first to be seen outside of Rewa, India ; "Ambika," an Indian ele- 
phant, from the "Share Your Birthday Foundation" and the Maha- 
rajah of Mysore; six North African cranes from President Ibraliim 
Abboud of Tunisia ; tliree tree kangaroos from Sir Edward Hallstrom 
of Sydney, Australia ; and a sea-lion from Attorney General Robert 

The Zoo continued to be fortunate in its breeding program. Among 
the interesting births, the first in importance was that of "Tomoka," 
a male lowland gorilla, on September 9, 1961. Other noteworthy births 
were those of giraffes, pygmy hippos, gaur, Nile hippopotamus, eland, 
snow leopard, wisent, Cape hunting dogs, striped hyena, margay and 
serval cats, ring-tailed lemur, and lesser pandas. The kookaburras 
have laid eggs and successfully reared the young for the past 2 years, 
and the Surinam toads laid eggs and hatched them in their peculiar 
manner twice during the 10-year period. 

Purchases of miusual interest were a pair of cheetahs; two flat- 
tailed Brazilian otters (the fii'st to be exhibited in the United States) ; 
a pair of black rhinoceroses and a pair of the much rarer white rhinos 
(these also were the first to come to the States) ; two giant armadillos; 
two Pere David deer, the rare fossa from Madagascar; a pair of 
wisent, or European bison; a trio of Saiga antelope; two Sumatran 
orangutans; a pair of snow leopards; a trio of Masai giraffes; three 
Cape buffalo ; three brmdled gnus ; Dall sheep ; Pallas's cats ; maned 
wolves; two yaks; a Colombian red-eyed cowbird that had not been 
seen for so many years it was supposed to be extinct; pygmy teal; 
crocodile birds; and two king cobras. Scientific work, necessary to 
the maintenance of the great animal collection at the National Zoolog- 
ical Park and also important in adding knowledge concerning the con- 


servation of animals, lias also been carried on with increasing success 
during this 10-year period at the Zoo. 

Astrophysical Observatory, 1953-63 

During the decade ending in 1963 the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Obsei-vatory experienced greater change and generated more scientiiic 
data than in any other comparable period since its establislmient in 
1890. In the decade the staff has increased to over 300 members. 
Its publications include 130 special scientific reports, plus 7 volumes 
of a new scientific series, Smithsonian Contributions to Astrophysics. 

At the beginning of the decade the Observatory maintained tw^o 
high-altitude stations for solar observations : the resultant data were 
used to determine the solar constant and to relate it to atmospheric 
phenomena. Tliis important gromidbreaking study was discontinued 
in 1962 because the method had reached the limit of usefulness. 

When Loyal B. Aldrich retired as Director in 1955, Dr. Fred L. 
Whipple was appointed his successor, and in fulfillment of an arrange- 
ment with Harvard University the Observatory was moved to Cam- 
bridge, Mass., where it has gained much from close association with 
the large number of scientific research workers in that area. 

The following year the Observatory received, through the Smith- 
sonian Institution in Washington, the first of a series of grants from 
the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Founda- 
tion for the optical tracking of artificial earth satellites to be launched 
during the International Geophysical Year. At the end of the IGY 
in 1959, the resultant tracking program of the Observatory continued 
under a grant from the National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. The tracking camera was designed to achieve a position accu- 
racy of 1 second of arc, and a time accuracy of 1 millisecond in photo- 
graphing satellites. In addition, there were organized a Moonwatch 
program of amateur astronomers to make preliminary observations 
of satellites, a computations division to prepare orbital predictions 
and ephemerides, and a communications network to tie together the 
tracking headquaiters in Cambridge with the camera stations, the 
volunteer Moonwatch teams, and other Government agencies. 

When Sputnik I was launched on October 4, 1957, the first camera 
had been completed, the Moonwatch teams were ready to begin visual 
observing immediately, and orbital calculations and predictions com- 
menced. In the next 9 months 12 Baker-Nunn cameras were com- 
pleted and shipped to stations established by the Smithsonian Ob- 
servatory in Japan, Australia, South Africa, India, Iran, Spain, 
Peru, Argentina, and the Netherlands West Indies, as well as in 
Florida, New Mexico, and Hawaii. 

By the end of the decade the Moonwatch teams had made more than 
53,000 observations of 191 different satellites and the cameras 81,750 


observations of 73 satellites. The photoreduction division had deter- 
mined more than 54,000 precise satellite positions reduced to atomic 
time. Meanwhile, the Observatory had evolved a nmnber of com- 
puter programs to process observational data, prepare predictions 
of satellite passages, and provide the means of analyzing atmospheric 
densities and temperatures, solar radiation, the shape of the earth and 
similar phenomena. 

The research and analysis division of the Smithsonian unit has pro- 
duced some of the major scientific results of the U.S. space program, 
including determinations of the coefficients of spherical harmonics for 
the earth's gravitational potential, improved geodetic data, a theory 
of the critical inclination of satellite motion, and, from extremely 
accurate studies of atmospheric drag, determination of density and 
temperature in the high atmosphere as a function of time of day, and 
geographical position and solar activity. 

The space science of the Observatory has extended beyond satellite 
tracking. Project Celescope, as a part of NASA's orbiting astronomi- 
cal observatory, is now being developed to make an ultraviolet survey 
of the entire celestial sphere. An experiment on board one of NASA's 
orbiting solar observatories to study solar phenomena is being readied. 

A network of automatic camera stations will make simultaneous 
observations of meteors over an area of a million square kilometers. 
This advanced program will provide the basis for a scientific project 
of collecting meteorites and give vital new data for detailed study of 
hypervelocity entry, meteoritic physics, and the upper atmosphere. 

At the Observatory the first measurements were made of the radio- 
active isotopes, argon of atomic mass 37 and 39, produced by cosmic 
rays on meteorities in space. These measurements contributed to the 
determination of erosion rates of meteoritic materials of various kinds 
in space. Radiochemical analyses of recovered satellite materials first 
proved that solar flares introduce tritium into such material in space 
as well as producing transmutations of elements. The Observatory 
participated in a program showing that optical flare stars are also 
variable in the radio region of the spectrum. 

Other research at the Smithsonian Observatory in the decade 
included analyses of sophisticated problems in celestial mechanics ; pre- 
cision linking of the several geodetic networks of the earth; experi- 
ments involving the origins of life and the possibilities of the extra- 
terrestrial organisms; studies of comets, meteors, and interplanetary 
dust; new methods, theories, and conclusions relating to stellar at- 
mospheres and stellar pulsation; and other astrophysical problems. 

The Division of Radiation and Organisms is a special unit of the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Research in this unit during 
the past 10 years has been directed principally toward solving prob- 


lems in radiation biology, with specific emphasis on elaborating the 
intracellular mechanisms involved in regulatory responses of biolog- 
ical systems controlled by ionizing or nonionizing radiation. 

Emphasis has been centered on the precise determination of the 
initial processes involved in a number of diverse light-regulated re- 
sponses. In this division were determined the most precise and de- 
tailed action spectra that have been reported for photomorphogenic 
responses, such as bean hypocotyl hook opening, photoreversal of this 
response, seed germination, interaction of visible light with X-ray- 
induced chromosome aberrations, and the phototropic response of 
oat seedlings in the blue and near-ultraviolet spectral regions. From 
such action spectra, a great deal of significant information has been 
obtained about the primary photoreceptors responsible for the absorp- 
tion and transfer of radiant energy in biological systems. 

Kinetic studies have been carried out determining the time course 
of sensitivity, temperature-dependence of secondary dark reactions, 
the interaction of photomimetric substances, auxins and antiauxins, 
with the light-sensitive mechanisms. Descriptions have been educed 
for some of the physical factors in plant reactions, including optical 
and mechanical properties of cells. The morphological development 
of chloroplasts after irradiation has been examined and measured, 
using cytochemical techniques. 

Investigations have been focused on the intracellular biochemical 
mechanisms regulated or altered by radiation. These efforts have 
resulted in a number of published articles on clilorophyll synthesis, the 
effects of ionizing radiation on chlorophyll synthesis, and the activity 
and concentrations of various subcellular components isolated after 
irradiation, such as high energy phosphate compounds, mitochondrial 
activity, protein synthesis in the photosynthetic apparatus, pigment 
synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and various other enzymatic 

During the past several years, the division staff and facilities have 
expanded in order to approach radiobiological problems with a wider 
range of disciplines employing the most advanced tecliniques of bio- 
chemistry, biophysics, cytology, and plant physiology. A tempera- 
ture-regulated greenhouse with controlled environment rooms has 
been constructed with fmids provided by a nonpublic foundation, the 
Eesearch Corporation. The growth of plants under natural and 
artificial light conditions has been measured with great accuracy. 
Concurrently, the construction and acquisition of specialized auto- 
matic equipment for measuring the spectral distribution of total sky 
light at frequent intervals have been completed, and long-term correla- 
tions of daily and seasonal fluctuations with observed plant responses 
are being made. 


A carbon-dating laboratory has been operating in this unit of the 
Smithsonian for about a year, dating samples of archeological interest 
and initiatmg a research program aimed at developing new dating 
teclmics for geological samples. 

Two years ago a section was incorporated for research in marine 
biology. This work in pure science has been financed by special gifts 
from a non-Federal source, the Bredin Foundation. Marine orga- 
nisms are well suited to fundamental investigation of radiation re- 
sponses. Studies have been initiated to identify high molecular 
weight phosphate compounds and determine the metabolic role of 
these compounds in the conversion of radiant energy to chemical 

Electronic and instrument shop facilities are maintained for the 
design, construction, and service of the complex and highly specialized 
instrumentation necessary to research program of the sort mentioned 

The division has published widely and it is safe to say has achieved 
a favorable mternational reputation in radiation biology in the areas 
of techniques for the generation, control, and measurements of radia- 
tion; kinetics and biochemistry of photoresponses ; action spectra; 
and solar radiation measurements. Several foreign scientists have 
come to the division to study its methods for 1- or 2-year periods, 
and work has been done in collaboration with other laboratories 
utilizing our specialized facilities. 

National Collection of Fine Arts, 1953-63 

The original act establishing the Smithsonian Institution directed 
that it maintain a gallery of art. The National Collection of Fine 
Arts, as a bureau of the Smithsonian, is the oldest gallery of art 
directly related to the U.S. Government. 

In the decade under consideration many notable paintings, largely 
by distinquished American artists, have been added to the national 
collections under the care of the National Collection of Fine Arts, 
and restoration of anmy works of art in the collection of tliis bureau 
has been carried on. 

In the first year of the present decade the exhibits of the National 
Collection of Fine Arts were reorganized and a main hall was opened 
in the Natural History Building. During the years that have fol- 
lowed, many temporary exhibits of importance have been shown in 
the foyer gallery in the Natural History Building, and under the 
direction of the Traveling Exhibition Service of the National Collec- 
tion of Fine Arts, 375 shows, mainly in the field of the fine arts, have 


been organized and circulated in over 500 different museums through- 
out America, as well as in museums in many foreign countries. Al- 
most 4,500 showings have been made possible in this period by this 

The greatest event in the decade 1953-63 was the act passed by 
Congress in 1958 authorizing the transfer to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion of the historic and beautiful old Patent Office Building for con- 
version to art galleries. Plans are well underway for the establish- 
ment in this building of public galleries, study rooms, and restoration 
laboratories that will allow the National Collection of Fine Arts to 
display its great collections of American and other paintings in a 
manner that could never have been achieved in its present borrowed 
and incongruous space in the Natural History Building of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

Freer Gallery of Art, 1953-63 

The period 1953-63 is the fourth decade in the history of the Freer 
Gallery of Art. This unit of the Smithsonian Institution was es- 
tablished by the late Charles Lang Freer as a gallery for the display 
of great collections of art and as a center for the study especially of 
the art of the Far East and the Mddle East. 

The annual attendance of the Gallery during the decade has grown 
from approximately 70,000 to 183,000 per year. The collections have 
also developed in notable ways. Additions to the collections, as pro- 
vided in Mr. Freer's will and purchased with the income from his be- 
quest, have included over 450 major objects of art. The most signifi- 
cant of these additions have been in the fields of ]VIing porcelains and in 
Japanese painting. l^Irs. Eugene Meyer, the one survivor of the three 
persons permitted by Iklr. Freer's will to make gifts to the collection, 
generously has given in this period three Chinese bronzes and one 
Chinese painting. Members of the professional staff of the Freer 
during the decade have published research on the collections in 16 
books and over 100 articles. 

The Freer Gallery has continued during this decade its world- 
famous studies of the scientific composition of metallic, ceramic, and 
other objects of art, and the development of new preservation tech- 
niques. The Gallery during these years has been the base for the 
publication, under the auspices of the International Institute for 
Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, of the I.l.G. Abstracts 
(commonly called the Freer Abstracts) . The current number of this 
journal shows that almost 4,000 abstracts of published works on 
conservation have so far been made available to the whole museum 
world through this medium. 


National Gallery of Art, 1953-63 

The National Gallery of Art resulted from Andrew W. Mellon's 
munificent gift to the American people of his great collection of art 
and a splendid building in which to house it. 

Although a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, the Gallery is 
largely under the direction of a separate Board of Trustees of which 
the Secretary of the Smithsonian is an ex officio member. 

In the decade under consideration, 4,220 works of art were acquired 
by the Gallery, including outstanding gifts from the Samuel H. Kress 
Foundation, Horace Havemeyer, William Nelson Cromwell, Syma 
Busiel, the Fuller Foundation, Inc., Mrs. Mellon Bruce, Mrs. P. H. B. 
Frelinghuysen, and many others. 

During the period 45 temporary loan exhibitions were held and 
the annual series of lectures (A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts) 
was delivered. These lectures are in the process of being published 
in a notable series. Many articles and books by staff members have 
also been published during this time. 

The annual nimiber of visitors to the National Gallery of Art has 
more than doubled in the past 10 years, with an attendance of 1,793,500 
in fiscal year 1963 compared with 887,213 in fiscal year 1954. 

Funds appropriated by Congress for maintenance of the Gallery 
have increased from $1,274,473 in fiscal year 1954 to $2,100,769 for 
fiscal year 1964. 

National Air Museum, 1953-63 

This bureau of the Smithsonian Institution has made significant 
progress during the decade 1953-63. 

One measure of this progress is the increase in public interest in the 
small exhibit (less than 5 percent of its collection) which the Air 
Museum now has on display. For example, its old Aircraft Building, 
now called the Air and Space Building (a small metal building erected 
in 1917 as a test center for Liberty motors), had a visitor count of 
237,446 in fiscal year 1953. In fiscal year 1963 the count was 2,673,618. 

The greatest need of the National Air Museum has been for a suit- 
able building in which to display its great collection of the history of 
manmade flight. Progress has been made toward achieving this 
objective. In 1958 the Congress authorized the preparation of plans 
and specifications for a new National Air Museum Building and 
designated a beautiful Mall site for it. In 1963 planning funds were 
appropriated by the Congress and planning will now begin. 

Very important progress has been made during the decade in the 
teclmiques of storage, preservation, and restoration. In 1953 most 
of the collection of historic aircraft, engines, and other aeronautical 
materials were stored in an Air Force hangar at Park Ridge, 111. 


Space requirements of the Air Force made it necessary to move the 
collection. An area at Silver Hill, Md., close to Washington, was 
acquired by transfer, and temporary storage buildings were erected. 
The transfer of storage was completed in 1956. 

One of the buildings at Silver Hill was constituted as a restoration 
and preservation facility. With the congressional authorization of 
the new National Air Museum Building in 1958, this work was 
accelerated, and creditable shop facilities have been established, to- 
gether with the completion of connecting roadways between storage 
buildings and shop. By the end of the decade under consideration, 
this facility was engaged in the restoration and preservation of 
historic aircraft and engines in anticipation of the increased display 
requirements of the new Air Museum Building. 

The decade marked a very large increase in the collection of the 
Museum. A total of 3,424 historic specimens were added, including 
many full-size aircraft and, during the recent years, spacecraft. 
Notable among these accessions were : a Douglas DC airplane, No. 164 ; 
the "Excalibur" airplane which made the first nonstop solo flight over 
the North Pole; a Boeing 247-D airplane; a 1929 Link Trainer; a 
Pitcaim Autogyro of 1929 ; the "Ole Miss" Curtiss airplane ; a "Van- 
guard" launch vehicle; a Verville-Sperry "Messenger" airplane of 
1920; a bronze statue of Brig. Gen. William ISIitchell; the "First 
Recovered Nose Cone" from space; a "Jupiter C" launch veliicle; a 
collection of original records and memorabilia of Dr. Robert H. 
Goddard, given by Mrs. Robert H. Goddard; an original holograph 
manuscript of "Soaring Flight" by John J. Montgomery; a Ryan 
X-13 "Vertijet" airplane; the Lockheed "Sirius" airplane flown by 
Charles A. and Anne Morrow Lindbergh ; an "Atlas" launch vehicle ; 
the "Able-Baker" spacecraft ; a McDonnell FH-1 "Phantom" carrier- 
based aircraft; the first "space" camera; the "Que Sera Sera," first 
airplane to land at the South Pole; "Freedom 7," America's first 
manned spacecraft ; the "Sacred Cow," a Douglas C-54, the first Presi- 
dential airplane; an early Bellanca airplane; an original oil portrait 
of Gen. Claire Chennault and a number of his medals; a "Polaris" 
rocket; "Friendship 7," America's first manned orbital spacecraft; 
gear worn and used by Astronaut John Glenn on his historic flight in 
"Friendship 7"; and an original painting of Astronaut Alan B. 
Shepard, Jr., by artist James Scalese from the Honorable James G. 

One of the most important areas of progress during the past 10 
years has been the increase in the study library and reference files. 
This collection now numbers more than 12,000 books, more than 300 file 
cabinets of reference material, and approximately 100,000 photographs. 


The research work of the Musemn has increased along witli the 
increase in public interest in its exhibits. Most of the time of the 
professional staff is taken up with historical, teclmical, and biograph- 
ical research to provide a service to authors, publishers, historians, 
engineers, teachers, and students seeking authentic information. 

In addition, a considerable increase in liistorical and teclmical re- 
search is required in comiection with the accelerated restoration pro- 
gram of aircraft and engines. 

For the National Air Museum the decade has been a transition 
period. It has changed from a collecting and storing agency to a 
full museum operation that is commensurate with its world-renowned 
collection and its responsibilities to the public. It has developed new 
displays, research, studies, preservation and restoration teclmiques, 
and publications in a field of great American patriotic and historical 
interest — mamnade flight. 

National Portrait Gallery, 1961-63 

In 1961 Congress provided for the establisliment of the National 
Portrait Gallery. This gallery will be housed, together with the 
National Collection of Fine Arts, in the old Patent Office Building 
which, as noted above, has been transferred to the Smithsonian 

The Congress in 1962 provided for the establishment of a National 
Portrait Gallery Commission to advise the Smithsonian Institution in 
organizing and developing this new and important unit. 

National Cultural Center, 1958-63 

The National Cultural Center was established by an act of Con- 
gress in 1958, and the new unit was designated as a bureau of the 
Smithsonian Institution. Like the National Gallery of Art, the Na- 
tional Cultural Center is largely administered by its own special 
Board of Trustees. 

Since the establishment of the bureau the principal function has 
been coimected with raising the funds to erect a suitable building in 
the Nation's Capital to provide halls for the presentation of opera, 
symphonic concerts, dramatic performances, ballet, and other fields 
of the performing arts. 

Financial Resources, 1953-63 

During the decade many generous gifts of funds have come to the 
Smithsonian from private individuals and from foundations. Most 
of these gifts are for very specific purposes. The most notable of 
these private benefactions is the receipt of a legacy which, when finally 
settled, will be in excess of $li/^ million from the late Robert Lee 
Forrest. Another important benefaction came from the estate of 


Athertoii Seidell. Laura D. Barney has also been most generous to 
the Institution during this period, and she and her sister, Natalie C. 
Barney, gave the Smithsonian the Barney Studio House in 

At the begimiing of this period (June 30, 1952) the book value of 
the miexpended funds and endowments of the Smithsonian was 
$11,138,392. As indicated in the financial statement on a later page 
of this report, this sum has now reached a total of $22,534,920. The 
market value of the securities and assets of the endowment funds of 
the Smithsonian at the end of the period is in excess of $25,000,000. 
The income from the many funds that make up this total is expended 
according to the directions of the donors of the funds. 

During the decade Federal funds for building and for plannuig 
buildings have been j^rovided to the Smithsonian to a total of 
$61,012,000. At the beginnmg of the period the annual appropriation 
for the basic expenses of the operation of all the bureaus of the Smith- 
sonian Institution (except the National Gallery of Art and the Na- 
tional Zoological Park, which have separate budgets) was $2,553,200. 
The appropriation for these same parts of the Institution for the fiscal 
year 1964 is $13,124,000. At the start of the decade the annual op- 
erating appropriation for the National Zoological Park was $620,800. 
The appropriation for this part of the Institution for fiscal year 1963 
was $1,470,200. Capital appropriations for the National Zoological 
Park in this period, in addition to operating funds, have been $2,550,- 
000. The budget of the National Gallery of Art, which is admin- 
istered separately from the Smithsonian Institution as a whole, was 
$1,240,000 at the start of the decade, and the appropriation for 1964 
for this unit was $2,138,000. Gifts and grants for research projects 
and other specific purposes, exclusive of appropriated funds and all 
for the particular purposes specified by donors or grantors, have totaled 
$32,489,471 in the decade under consideration. 

It can be said with assurance, as the progress of the decade 1953- 
63 is reviewed, that the Smithsonian's donor, James Smithson, planned 
well when he directed that his Institution should concern itself with 
the great and related humanitarian functions of the increase and the 
diffusion of knowledge among men. 


The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 
1846, in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson, of 
England, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States 
of America "to fomid at Washmgton, under the name of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of 
knowledge among men." In receiving the property and accepting the 


trust, Congress determined that the Federal Government was without 
authority to administer the trust directly, and, therefore, constituted 
an "establishment," whose statutory members are "the President, the 
Vice President, the Chief Justice, and the heads of the executive 


The appointment to the vacancy in the class of citizen regent was 
effected by the approval on July 2, 1963, of a joint resolution of Con- 
gress designating Dr. William A. M. Burden of New York to succeed 
the late Dr. Arthur H. Compton as a Regent for the statutory term of 
6 years. 

The roll of Regents at the close of the fiscal year was as follows : 
Chief Justice of the United States Earl Warren, Chancellor; Vice 
President Lyndon B. Johnson; members from the Senate: Clinton 
P. Anderson, J. William Fulbright, Leverett Saltonstall; members 
from the House of Representatives : Frank T. Bow, Clarence Cannon, 
Michael J. lOrwan ; citizen members : John Nicholas Brown, William 
A. M. Burden, Robert V. Fleming, Crawford H. Greenewalt, Caryl 
P. Haskins, and Jerome C. Hunsaker. 

The customary informal dinner meeting, preceding the annual meet- 
ing, was held in the Great Hall of the Smithsonian Building on 
January 23, 1963. Exhibits showing some of the recent work of the 
Smithsonian bureaus were in place in the hall at the time of the dinner 
to apprise the Regents of current Smithsonian research developments. 
Dr. Richard S. Cowan spoke on "Research for a Tropical American 
Rain-Forest Exhibit" ; Dr. Robert P. Multhauf on "History of the 
Measurement of Gravity in the 19th Century" ; Dr. Jolm A. Pope on 
"The Freer Gallery of Art Research Project on Ancient Chinese 
Ceremonial Bronzes" ; and Dr. Fred L. Wliipple on "Scientific Study 
of Recovered Parts of Russian Sputnik IV." 

The annual meeting was held on January 24, 1963. The Secretary 
presented his published amiual report on the activities of the Institu- 
tion. The Chairman of the Executive and Permanent Committees 
of the Board, Dr. Robert V. Fleming, gave the financial report for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1962. 

The spring meeting of the Board of Regents was held at 5 o'clock 
in the Regents Room. A financial report was presented by the chair- 
man of the Executive Committee. The Regents then adjourned to 
the hall of fossil mammals for an informal dinner. 


On October 31, 1962, Dr. A. Remington Kellogg, Assistant Secre- 
tary of the Smithsonian Institution and Director of the United States 
National Museum, retired and assumed the status of honorary re- 

720-018—64 3 


search associate of the Smithsonian. During Dr. Kellogg's service 
as Director, beginning in 1948, the National Museum experienced a re- 
markable growth. The collections grew from 25 million specimens 
in 1948 to 56 million in 1962. A renovation of exhibits programs re- 
vitalized more than 20 exhibition halls in the National Museum. A 
wing was added to the Natural History Museum, and a new Museum 
of History and Technology was built. Dr. Kellogg directed the 
programs that resulted in these acliievements and participated 
strongly in their execution. 

Prior to becoming Director of the National Museum, Dr. Kellogg 
had served in the division of mammals, beginning in 1928 as assistant 
curator and becoming curator of the division in 1941. His main sci- 
entific interest has been, and continues to be, the biology of whales, in 
which field he is one of the world's foremost authorities. His re- 
search on the paleontology of whales has been widely acclaimed. It is 
altogether fitting, therefore, that he should now be conducting his 
scientific investigations in a workroom on the vertebrate paleontology 
floor of the museum wing which he helped to create. He is con- 
tinuing to publish his excellent scientific reports. 

On November 1, 1962, following Dr. Kellogg's retirement. Dr. 
Albert C. Smith, who had been Director of the Museum of Natural 
Histoiy since 1958, became an Assistant Secretary of the Institution. 


On April 27, 1962, Public Law 87-443 established the National Por- 
trait Gallery as a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution to "function 
as a free public museum for the exhibition and study of portraiture 
and statuary depicting men and women who have made significant 
contributions to the history, development, and culture of the people 
of the United States and of the artists who created such portraiture 
and statuary." 

This act of Congress also authorized the establislmient of a National 
Portrait Gallery Commission, to serve as an advisory body to the 
Board of Kegents in regard to programs, methods of operation, and 
selections of appropriate displays for the new Gallery. The members 
of the Commission, as announced on June 21, 1963, by the Chancellor 
of the Board of Kegents, the Honorable Earl Warren, are as follows : 

CatheriBe Drinker Bowen, author and historian, of Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Julian P. Boyd, author and historian, of Princeton, N.J. 

John Nicholas Brown, Regent of the Smithsonian Institution, of Providence, R.I. 

Lewis Deschler, Parliamentarian of the House of Representatives of the United 

States Congress, of Bethesda, Md. 
David B. Finley, former Director of the National Gallery of Art, of Washington, 

Wilmarth Sheldon Lewis, historian and biographer, of Farmington, Conn. 


Richard H. Shryock, author and historian, of Philadelphia, Pa. 
Col. Frederick P. Todd, Director of the U.S. Military Academy Museum, of West 
Point, N.Y. 

Ex officio: 

The Chief Justice of the United States. 

The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

The Director of the National Gallery of Art. 


Public Law 87-186 (August 30, 1961) established a National Armed 
Forces Museum Advisory Board in the Smithsonian Institution to 
provide advice and assistance to the Smithsonian Board of Kegents 
on matters concerning the portrayal of the contributions which the 
Armed Forces of the United States have made to American society 
and culture, the investigation and survey of lands and buildings in 
and near the District of Columbia suitable for the display of military 
collections, and the preparation of recommendations to the Congress 
with respect to the acquisition of lands and buildings for such 

This law additionally provides that the Smithsonian Institution 
shall (1) commemorate and display the contributions made by the 
military forces of the Nation toward creating, developing, and main- 
taining a free, peaceful, and independent society and culture in this 
country; (2) portray the valor and sacrificial service of the men and 
women of the Armed Forces as an inspiration to the present and future 
generations of America; (3) demonstrate the demands placed upon 
the full energies of our people, the hardships endured, and the sacrifice 
demanded in our constant search for world peace; (4) graphically 
describe the extensive peacetime contributions the Armed Forces have 
made to the advance of human knowledge in science, nuclear energy, 
polar and space exploration, electronics, engineering, aeronautics, and 
medicine; (5) interpret through dramatic display significant current 
problems affecting the Nation's security; and (6) provide a study cen- 
ter for scholarly research into the meaning of war, its effects on 
civilization, and the role of the Armed Forces in maintaining a just 
and lasting peace by providing a powerful deterrent to war. 

Members of the National Armed Forces INIuseum Advisory Board 
will serve 6 years, except for the initial Board which was appointed by 
the President in April 1962 to serve for terms of 2, 4, and 6 years: 

John Nicholas Brown, Regent of the Smithsonian Institution 

Rufus E. Clement, President of Atlanta University 

Fred Korth, Secretary of the Navy 

David L. Kreeger, Vice President of Government Employees Insurance Co. 

Cyrus B. Vance, Secretary of the Army 

Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States 


Henry B. Washburn, Jr., Director of the Boston Museum of Science 
William W. Whiteman, Jr., lawyer and financier, Oklahoma City 
Eugene M. Zuckert, Secretary of the Air Force 

The Advisory Board has held two meetings, during which it selected 
a chairman, John Nicholas Brown, adopted bylaws for its operation, 
considered the scope and extent of the Board's fmictions, and proposed 
areas of study. A number of potential Museum sites in the Greater 
Washington area have been considered, and several have been examined 
by the Advisory Board. 


A statement on finances, dealing particularly with Smithsonian pri- 
vate funds, will be found in the report of the executive committee of 
the Board of Regents, page 261. Funds appropriated to the Institu- 
tion for its regular operations for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1963, 
totaled $11,060,550. Besides this direct appropriation, the Institu- 
tion received funds by transfer from other Government agencies as 
follows: From the District of Columbia for the National Zoological 
Park, $1,504,997; from the National Park Service, Department of the 
Interior, for the River Basin Surveys, $271,000. 


Visitors to the Smithsonian buildings on the Mall again surpassed 
all records with a total of 10,309,836, which was 1,386,705 more than 
for the previous year. April 1963, with 1,720,716, was the month of 
largest attendance; August 1962 second, with 1,616,360; July 1962 
third, with 1,612,452. Table 1 gives a summary of the attendance 
records for the five buildings; table 2, groups of schoolchildren. A 
new method adopted for estimating the number of visitors at the Na- 
tional Zoological Park showed a total of 3,200,000 for the year. When 
this figure is added to the attendance in the Institution's buildings on 
the Mall, and to the 1,793,500 recorded at the National Gallery of Art, 
the total Smithsonian attendance for 1962 may be set at 15,303,336. 


In 1896 the Smithsonian Board of Regents caused to be erected a 
handsome marble memorial to James Smithson in the English Church 
of the Holy Ghost in Genoa, Italy, where he died on June 26, 1829. 
During World War II the church was gutted by fire following Allied 
bombardments and stripped of all fittings by looters. Following the 
war the church was restored, but all trace of the Smithson cenotaph 
had disappeared. 

It seemed appropriate and desirable that this memorial to the 
founder of the Smithsonian Institution be replaced, and in 1960 the 
Board of Regents so authorized. The new plaque, sculptured by Raf- 

Secretary's Report, 1963 







Smithson plaque as restored in English Church of the Holy Ghost, Genoa, Italy, 1963 



f aello Komanelli, of Florence, is a facsimile of a replica of the original 
which is erected adjacent to the Smithson tomb in the Smithsonian 
Building in Washington. Li May 1963 the Institution was notified 
by the xlmerican Consul General at Genoa that installation of the new 
memorial had been completed (pi. 1) . 

Thanks are due particularly to the following individuals for their 
interest and cooperation in helping to initiate or complete this project : 
John LePelley, of Paris, assistant vice president of the First National 
City Bank of New York ; David Balfour, former British Consul Gen- 
eral at Genoa ; S. A. H. Eley, Lord Bishop of Gibraltar ; F. J. Bailey, 
the Archbishop of Malta ; Stephen P. Dorsey, American Consul Gen- 
eral at Genoa ; and to sculptor Romanelli for his faithful creation. 

Table 1. — Visitors to certain Smithsonian buildings during the year ended June SO, 


Year and month 




September. . 

November. . 
December. -. 










258, 510 
264, 448 
79, 136 
64, 169 
55, 136 

39, 430 

51, 528 

76, 916 

298, 248 


197, 981 

1, 630, 280 

Arts and 

555, 775 
595, 337 
200, 639 
159, 731 
159, 100 
73, 199 

96, 555 
114, 532 
165, 820 
692, 693 
352, 299 
368, 502 

3,534, 182 


267, 106 
282, 016 

119, 261 

120, 189 

121, 763 
70, 306 

114, 159 
106, 570 
154, 488 
337, 878 
283, 510 
311, 151 

2, 288, 397 

Air and 



502, 686 
443, 142 
116, 104 
92, 541 
45, 726 

75, 033 
120, 853 
370, 947 
325, 157 
415, 076 

2. 673. 618 


28, 375 
14, 267 
11, 169 
10, 846 

10, 901 
20, 950 
15, 574 
20, 264 

183, 359 


1, 612, 452 
1, 616, 360 
529, 407 
456, 969 
439, 386 
229, 571 

321, 344 

354, 761 

528, 978 

1, 720, 716 

1, 186,918 

1, 312, 974 

10, 309, 836 



Table 2. — Groups of schoolchildren visiting the Smithsonian Institution during 
the year ended June SO, 1963 

Year and month 

Number of 

Number of 

Year and month 

Number of 

Number of 


12, 810 
25, 970 
32, 495 
12, 946 



23, 808 
17, 124 
41, 888 
77, 770 
165, 384 
53, 065 



August _ _ _ 












475, 048 


Report on the United States 
National Museum 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the condition 
and operations of the U.S. National Museum for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1963: 


During the year 1,723,830 specimens were added to the national 
collections and distributed among the 8 departments as follows : An- 
thropology, 11,993; zoology, 1,361,586; botany, 69,642; geology, 80,- 
414 ; science and technology, 2, 588 ; arts and manufactures, 2,910 ; civil 
history, 191,753; and Armed Forces history, 2,944. The largest di- 
visional acquisition was in the division of insects, which accessioned 
a total of 1,209,339 specimens. Most of this year's accessions were 
acquired as gifts from individuals or as transfers from Government 
departments and agencies. The complete report on the Museum, pub- 
lished as a separate document, includes a detailed list of the year's 
acquisitions, of which the more important are summarized below. 
Catalog entries in all departments now total 57,541,770. 

Anthropology. — The division of archeology received as its largest 
accession a lot of 8,431 specimens from Alaska collected for the Mu- 
seum by Dr. James A. Ford. His published monograph, "Eskimo 
Prehistory in the Vicinity of Point Barrow," made it possible to ac- 
cession the specimens according to the published types and illustra- 
tions. James P. Mandaville, Jr., donated a well-documented 
collection of 185 specimens from northern Arabia, including potsherds, 
terra-cotta figurine fragments, and an inscribed copper hoe blade. 
Three important collections of Iranian artifacts were presented by 
Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Cuomo, Mr. and Mrs. Daniel F. Magner, and 
C. Edward Wells. Represented among the 160 specimens are pottery, 
bronze weapons, inscribed mud bricks, and glazed architectural 
fragments, ranging in dates from 2000 B.C. to the third century A.D, 
A group of five Korean bronze weapons of the Han Dynasty was 
donated by Gen. George H. Decker. A rare anthropomorphic pottery 
figure from the Bahia culture of the Esmeraldas region was acquired 
from Mrs. Erika Burt. 

The division of ethnology received a collection of 25 items of tradi- 
tional court costume from Indonesia, presented by His Higliness Sri 



Paku Alam VIII, through the American Embassy in Djakarta. The 
Government of Vietnam, through its embassy in Washington, D.C., 
presented 67 specimens comprising a carved wooden chest, bronze 
vessels, and textiles. For use in the preparation of new exhibits, 103 
ornaments, household items, and weapons of the people of Burundi 
were obtained from David W. Doyle, American Vice Consul at 
Usumbura, Burundi. Also for exhibition, a Chinese collection of 
365 specimens was acquired from Taiwan with the assistance of the 
National Historical Museum and the Provincial Museum, under the 
direction of the Ministry of Education and Academia Sinica. 

The division of physical anthropology received, from the U.S. Army 
Research Institute of Enviromental Medicine, a collection of 50,000 
somatotype negatives. These were made during the U.S. Army sur- 
vey of male body build in 1945-46 under the direction of E. A. Plooton 
and form the basis for the Harvard system of rating body build. 
Largest of its kind, the collection will be available for study by quali- 
fied professionals. Received for study and exhibit purposes is a new 
set of casts of the original Neanderthal skeleton, gift of the Rheinisches 
Landesmuseum, Bonn, Germany, and excellent casts of Oreopitliecus 
from central Italy, received from the Natural History Museum in 
Basle, Switzerland. Other accessions include human skeletal ma- 
terials from Mexico, Alaska, and various parts of the United States. 

Zoology. — Staff members and cooperating agencies contributed ap- 
proximately 9,200 specimens to the division of mammals, most of these 
being collected by Dr. Charles O. Handley, Jr., and Francis M. Green- 
well in Panama. Others were collected by Naval Medical Research 
Unit No. 2, in Formosa; by Dr. Dale Osborn in Turkey; by Gary L. 
Ranch in Libya and Iran ; by the department of microbiology of the 
University of Maryland, in West Pakistan and Mexico ; and by Ken- 
neth I. Lange and James H. Shaw in the Malagasy Republic. Dr. 
Henry W. Setzer of the Museum staff participated in the last three 
projects. Other valuable collections were made as follows: by Miss 
Alena Elbl of the University of Maryland, in Ruanda Urundi; by 
Dr. L. G. Clark of the University of Pennsylvania, in Nicaragua, and 
by William J. Schaldach, Jr., in southern Mexico. Important speci- 
mens obtained for the exhibition series include a large male walrus, 
collected by Hugh H. Logan, and two paratypes of the bat Phili'p'pin- 
optems lanei, presented by Dr. Edward H. Taylor. 

To the collections of the division of birds, 2,259 bird skins, 1,011 
anatomical specimens, and 1 egg from Panama and 198 skeletons from 
Kenya were received through Dr. Alexander Wetmore ; 642 skins, 128 
skeletons, and 9 alcoholic specimens from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service; 198 skins from Formosa transferred from the U.S. Depart- 
ment of the Navy, U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, through 


Dr. Robert E. Kuiitz; and a collection of wooden game-bird calls, 
together with tape recordings demonstrating their use, from Dr. 
August© Euschi, director, Museu de Biologia Prof. Mello Leitao, 

In the division of reptiles and amphibians, several additions to the 
collections are noteworthy : a gift of 325 Colombian frogs, including 
types and paratypes, from Brother Hermano Niceforo Maria, Bogota, 
Colombia; a gift of 162 reptiles and amphibians collected in Mexico 
and Central America from Elkan J. Morris, Fairbanks, Alaska; 71 
reptiles and amphibians obtained for the Museum in South America 
and Panama by Dr. Charles O. Handley, Jr., and Francis M. Green- 
well; 70 amphibians acquired for the Museum from South America 
and Panama by Mrs. Doris H. Blake and Dr. Doris M. Cochran ; an 
exchange of 27 Colombian frogs with the Chicago Natural Histoiy 
Museum; and an exchange of 21 Brazilian frogs with Werner C. A. 
Bokermann, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

Exchanges of si^ecimens netted the division of fishes the major por- 
tion of the current year's new accessions. Received on exchange was 
the holotype of a new Dascylus from D. Wolfgang Klausewitz, Frank- 
fmt, Germany. Horace Loftin and Dr. R. W. Yerger sent, on ex- 
change, 10,000 fresh- water fishes from the Canal Zone, Panama, col- 
lected by Mr. Loftin. Other contributors of holotypes include Drs. 
Giles W. Mead and Henry B. Bigelow, Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Harvard University; Dr. George S. Myers, Stanford Uni- 
versity; and Loren P. Woods, Chicago Natural History Musemn. 
Among the contributors of paratypes were Dr. C. Richard Robins, 
University of Miami, Marine Laboratory ; Dr. Norman J. Wilimovsky, 
University of British Columbia; Dr. Jacques R. Gery, Laboratoire 
Arage, France ; and Dr. Jose Alvarez del Villar, Instituto Politecnico 
Nacional, Mexico. 

Tlie division of mollusks added a total of 23,967 specimens to its 
collections. Dr. Joseph Rosewater of the Museum staff collected 1,194 
marine and land mollusks on Eniwetok Atoll. Mr. and Mi's. Delmas 
H. Nucker donated 699 specimens of marine mollusks from the Caro- 
line Islands, and Dr. Tadashige Habe added 120 specmiens, of which 
28 are paratypes, of recently described mollusks from Japan. Holo- 
types of molluscan species and subspecies were received from Dr. Raul 
Guitart, Dr. Harry W. Wells, Messrs. Leslie Hubricht, Thomas L. 
McGinty, and William G. Pearcy, and from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service Laboratory, Pascagoula, Miss., through Harvey R. Bullis, Jr. 
A total of 1,257 helminthological specimens, among which were many 
types of new species, were added to the collection housed in the Para- 
sitological Laboratory of the Animal Disease and Parasite Research 
Branch of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Md. 


The division of marine invertebrates acquired a number of impor- 
tant collections. Leslie Hubricht of Meridian, Miss., presented his 
personal collection of 32,327 fresh-Avater invertebrates, containing 
what is probably the largest and most valuable series of American 
fresh-water isopod crustaceans ever assembled. A total of 33,177 
specimens were received from the Fourth Smithsonian-Bredin Carib- 
bean Expedition, 1960. Through Dr. Harry S. Ladd, the Paleon- 
tology and Stratigraphy Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey con- 
tributed 1,079 corals from the Marshall Islands, including 217 type 
and figured specimens described by Dr. J. W. Wells in his comprehen- 
sive monograph on Indo-Pacific reef corals. Through Dr. Arthur G. 
Humes, Boston University donated 852 copepod and isopod crusta- 
ceans. Approximately 974 isopod and 322 amphipod crustaceans were 
received from the Beaudette Foundation for Biological Research, 
through Dr. J. Laurens Barnard. Included in this group are 198 
paratypes of 4 species of isopods described by Dr. Robert J. Menzies. 

The U.S. Department of Agriculture, through Dr. William H. 
Anderson, transfen-ed to the division of insects the largest single 
accession ever received: a collection of Coccidae (scale insects) con- 
servatively estimated to contain 1 million specimens. Additional im- 
portant accessions include the Harold E. Box collection of 5,000 Neo- 
tropical cane-boring moths of the genus Diatraea; a donation of 8,000 
North American butterflies and moths by Dr. George W. Rawson ; the 
J. C. Hopfinger collection of butterflies and moths; 6,741 specimens, 
mostly Coleoptera, from William W. Pinch ; 805 Brazilian insects from 
Dr. C. M. Biezanko; 6,543 British Columbian insects from C. Garrett; 
6,612 specimens from N. L. H. Krauss, who has been a devoted con- 
tributor for many years; and 2,000 specimens from Guatemala from 
Dr. Thomas H. Farr. 

Noteworthy contributions to the collections by staff members in- 
clude 900 specimens, mostly European centipedes, from Dr. Raljjh E. 
CrabiU, Jr. ; 41,110 specimens collected in Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, 
and North America from Dr. Paul J. Spangler ; 400 specimens of but- 
terflies from the eastern United States from William D. Field ; 1,192 
miscellaneous insects, chiefly caddisflies, from Dr. Oliver S. Flint, Jr. ; 
7,826 specimens, mostly Microlepidoptera, from the northwestern 
United States from Dr. J. F. Gates Clarke; and 285 specimens, chiefly 
Orthoptera, from Dr. Ashley B. Gumey, U.S. Department of Agri- 
culture. Others making important donations were Drs. Nell B. 
Causey, G. E. Ball, W. L. Brown, Richard L. Hoffman, and Bernard 

Botany. — A fine lot of 4,143 herbarium specimens and 480 wood 
samples from Brazil, presented by Boris A. Krukoff, Smithtown, 
N.Y., adds appreciably to the national collections. Among them 


was a group of woods from laticiferous plants on which anatomical 
research was planned by Mr. Krukoff. Dr. Jose Cuatrecasas gave 
3,200 specimens which he collected in Colombia. Other gifts included 
620 excellent specimens of Pennsylvania plants from Mulilenberg Col- 
lege, Allentown, Pa. ; 850 cryptogams, mostly mosses, from Dr. F. J. 
Hermann, Adelphi, Md.; and 504 specimens from the University of 

Several large collections were received in exchange. A group of 
845 slides of pollen of African plants was received from Duke Uni- 
versity through Mrs. Shirlee Cavaliere and 765 slides from the Pan 
American Petroleum Corp. of Tulsa, Okla., through Dr. Donald W. 
Engelhardt. Gray Herbarium of Harvard University sent 1,037 
specimens collected by Dr. L. J. Brass on the Fourth Archbold Expe- 
dition to New Guinea. Other exchanges included 845 specimens of 
Asia and eastern Europe from the V. L. Komarov Institute of Botany 
of the Academy of Sciences, Leningrad, U.S.S.E. ; 888 specimens 
collected in Mexico by Dr. Faustino Miranda from the Instituto de 
Biologia, Universidad Nacional de Mexico; and 392 plants of Aus- 
tralia from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Eesearch 
Organization, Melbourne. 

Dr. Jolin J. Wurdack collected for the Museum 9,258 specimens in 
Peru ; Dr. R. S. Cowan and Dr. Thomas E. Soderstrom, 3,370 specimens 
in British Guiana ; and Dr. "William L. Stern, 439 specimens in Oregon, 
Wyoming, and Colorado. 

From the U.S. Geological Survey were transferred 801 specimens 
collected on the Pacific islands by Dr. F. E. Fosberg; from the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, 420 plants collected in Alaska by Frank 
Beals; and from the Agricultural Eesearch Service, Department of 
Agriculture, 235 specimens collected in Iran and Mexico by Dr. How- 
ard Scott Gentry. 

Geology. — A total of 3,885 specimens was received in the division 
of mineralogy and petrology. Among the important gifts are a very 
fine specimen of legrandite, Mapimi, Mexico, from Bernard T. Eocca, 
Sr., and an exceptional specimen of f airfieldite, Kings Mountain, N.C., 
from Carter Hudgins. Outstanding among specimens received by 
exchange was a collection of cerussite, azurite, and associated minerals 
from Tsumeb, South West Africa; a crystal of vivianite, 31 inches 
in length from the Cameroons; and a fine piece of malachite, from the 
Congo. New species received in exchange were: calumetite, Michi- 
gan ; angelellite, Argentina ; arsenate-belovite, fersmanite, gerasimov- 
kite, kupletskite, lomonossovite, and vinogradovite, from the 
U.S.S.E.; bafertisite, Inner Mongolia; bergenite. East Germany; 
bonattite, Canada; carobbiite, Italy; cuprorivaite, Italy; hydroames- 


ite, Hungary; reinerite, stranskite, and gallite, South West Africa; 
and schuetteite and wightmanite, California. 

A total of 815 specimens was added to the Roebling collection by 
purchase or by exchange. Among these are outstanding specimens of 
wulfenite, calcite, and agate from Mexico. Gem specimens include 
a 17-carat greenish-yellow brazilianite, from Brazil ; a 30-carat cat's- 
eye cerussite, from South West Africa ; and a 9.35-carat axinite from 
Baja California, Mexico. Acquired by purchase through the Canfield 
fund is a magnificent group of amethyst quartz crystals from Guer- 
rero, Mexico. The largest crystal measures 4 by 18 inches, and each 
is tipped by white quartz. 

New acquisitions to the gem collection include a 2.86-carat deep- 
pink diamond, Tanganyika, from S. Sydney De Young; a 235.5-carat 
morganite, Brazil, from Mr. and Mrs. Frank Ix, Jr.; a 277.9-carat 
citrine, Brazil, from Albert Cutter; and a 177-carat kunzite, Cali- 
fornia, from the American Gem Society. Gem specimens acquired 
by purchase through the Chamberlain fund for the Issac Lea collection 
include a 17.5-carat pink tourmaline cat's-eye and a 4,500-carat faceted 
smoky quartz egg, both from California ; and a 9-carat axinite, from 
Baja California, Mexico. 

During the year 20 meteorites were added to the collection, of which 
11 were not previously represented. The Bogou meteorite was of 
special interest. This 8.8-kilogram coarse octahedrite, which came 
to the Museum through the generous cooperation of the Government 
of Upper Volta and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, was ob- 
served to fall in Upper Volta on August 14, 1962. It is being ex- 
tensively studied in several laboratories because observed falls of iron 
meteorites are extremely rare. 

In the division of invertebrate paleontology and paleobotany, a 
number of important collections of invertebrate fossils were acquired. 
Among transfers of type specimens from the U.S. Geological Survey 
were: 68 Permian pelecypods described by K. Ciriaks of Columbia 
University; 369 specimens of Upper Cretaceous oysters from the 
western interior ; 40 Permian corals from Nevada with thin sections ; 
and 33 specimens and 87 thin sections of Middle Silurian corals from 
Quebec, described by W. A. Oliver, Jr. 

Funds from the Walcott bequest were used to purchase the Hughes 
collection of Tertiary invertebrates from Florida, numbering more 
than 50,000 specimens. The Walcott fund also provided means for 
staff collections which included 4,000 Upper Cretaceous mollusks 
from the western interior; 5,000 Tertiary invertebrates from Hamp- 
ton, Va. ; and 2,000 fossil echinoids from southwestern Florida. The 
Springer fund made possible the purchase of 210 Triassic echinoids 
and 72 Paleozoic echinoids from the western United States. 


Gifts from collectors outside the Smithsonian Institution include: 
221 type specimens of planktonic Foraminifera from Recent bottom 
sediments of the Pacific Ocean from J?kliss Frances Parker of the 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography; 1,000 Upper Cretaceous mol- 
lusks from Tennessee and Mississippi arranged by Margaret J. Hall 
through Mid-South Earth Science Club ; 6,000 Silurian brachiopods 
from Czechoslovakia collected by Dr. A. J. Boucot of the California 
Institute of Technology; 134 type specimens of Foraminifera from 
the Cretaceous Adelphia Marl of Arkansas from Dr. H. C. Skinner, 
Tulane University; 500 specimens of Middle Devonian brachiopods 
and corals from northern Ohio from Bernard Keith ; 100 Early Devo- 
nian invertebrates from Flute Cave, W. Va., from the Potomac Spele- 
ological Club; 50 specimens of early Ordovician brachiopods from 
Kielce, Poland- from Dr. R. B. Neuman; 23 rare and unusual Miocene 
mollusks from Virginia from Mr. and Mrs. W. M. Rice; and 62 thin 
sections of type Foraminifera from the Mississippian of southern 
Illinois and Kentucky from Mrs. D. E. N. Zeller of the University 
of Kansas. 

Outstanding specimen exchanges brought 76 specimens of Pliocene 
moUusks from the Scaldesian formation of Belgimn, through Dr. S. 
Amelmckx; 99 specimens of fossil invertebrates from Argentina 
through Dr. A. J. Amos ; 13 anunonites from the Cretaceous of Russia 
through Dr. D. P. Naidin ; and the Harris collection of type specimens 
of fossil crinoids, from the University of Houston. 

In the division of vertebrate paleontology, the major specimens of 
fossil vertebrates accessioned this year consist of two skulls and a 
skeleton of three different tetrapods from the Permian of Texas, 
and two partial skeletons of Mississippian amphibians, probably new 
to science, from West Virginia. The Texas material is of superior 
quality and will be most useful in morphological work. These speci- 
mens were collected by associate curator Nicholas Hotton III and 
James Kitching of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannes- 
burg, South Africa. 

A remarkably good collection comprising remains of a variety of 
Eocene mammals found by W. L. Rohrer in the Big Horn Basin 
of Wyoming was transferred from the U.S. Geological Survey. Note- 
worthy are skull portions of the large pantodont Goryphodon^ jaws 
and maxillae of the early horse Eyracothermtn and the lemuroid 
primate Pelycodus^ and the greater part of a skull of a rare leptictid 

Science a7id technology. — ^The division of physical sciences received 
from the Bell Telephone Laboratories the apparatus used by Dr. 
Clinton T. Davisson in his 1927 investigations of interference phe- 
nomena in crystals irradiated by electrons, for which he received 


the Nobel prize in physics in 1936. Received also was a full-scale 
reproduction of an observational armillary, one of the large astro- 
nomical instruments used by Tycho Brache, from L. S. Eichner. A 
sectioned model of a 1962 microscope showing its optical system was 
given by the E. Leitz Co. A large collection representing the history 
of the water meter was donated by A. A. Hirsch. 

The division of mechanical and civil engineering received an im- 
portant early (1905) example of steam turbine power, a Parsons 
turbine with direct-connected direct-current generator. The machine 
was presented by the Department of the Navy, San Francisco Naval 
Shipyard, through Eduardo Magtoto, General Superintendent; 
Varadero de Manila, Republic of the Philippines; and Rear Adm. 
Charles A. Curtze. Of a number of bridge models received is one 
of the famed bridge "Colossus." The original was the longest timber 
span for a century following its construction in 1812. The section of 
tools received the Rogers Bond Comparator No. 2 from the Pratt & 
Wliitney Co. This was the first instrument in this country used to 
transfer the length of a standard by microscopic measurement and to 
subdivide it directly, converting line-standard to end-standard meas- 
urement. The section of light machinery acquired, from the Amer- 
ican Watclunakers Institute, the James Ward Packard collection of 
complex watches. 

Senator Leverett Saltonstall, Regent of the Smithsonian, presented 
a piano-box buggy and a fine set of silver-mounted coach harnesses 
to the section of land transportation. A beautifully restored and 
fully documented farm wagon of 1860 was donated by Don H. Berke- 
bile. The section of marine transportation acquired several fine ship 
models, including a downeaster, the Emily F. Whitney^ and a Pitts- 
burgh & Cincmnati steam packet, the Buckeye State. 

The division of medical sciences lists as its most important acqui- 
sition a 17th-century Lambeth Delft pill tile bearing the coats of arms 
of the City of London and of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries. 
This was received through the generosity of Charles Pfizer & Co., Inc. 
Other gifts include the first ionization X-ray condenser dosimeter, 
developed and donated by Dr. Otto Glasser, and a Cambridge indi- 
cator dye-dilution curve apparatus, from Dr. Alfred Henderson. 

Through the generosity of Franklin Wingard, the division of elec- 
tricity acquired a large collection of radio material which greatly 
strengthens its holdings in tliis field. 

Arts and manufactur^es. — The division of textiles received an espe- 
cially well-executed 19th-century applique and stuffed- work quilt from 
Stewart Dickson. A very early silk throw, made for an ante-Civil 
War bride, was presented by Commander and Mrs. James P. 
Oliver, Jolm P. Oliver, and their aunt, Mrs. Ruth P. Hall. A very fine 


Brussels needlepoint and bobbin applique lace collar and Gros Point 
de Venice lace cape were presented by Mrs. Herbert May. An addi- 
tional group of seven beautiful oriental rugs was presented by Mrs. 
Clara W. Berwick. These included examples of wool and silk rugs, 
which are in both the Sehna and Ghiodes knot techniques. 

The division of ceramics and glass acquired, from Mrs. Ellouise 
Baker Larsen, of Lima, Ohio, her entire collection of Staffordshire 
ware. Consisting of about 900 pieces, this is the most important 
assembly of these ceramics in America. Mrs. Larsen has spent more 
than 30 years compiling data and gathering the representative pieces, 
many of which are extremely rare. Hugh D. Auchincloss, McLean, 
Va., donated five pieces of ancient glass illustrative of the high degree 
of artistic skill of the glassmakers when Rome dominated the Mediter- 
ranean. Dr. Hans Syz, Westport, Conn., presented another group 
of 18th-century German porcelains including fine pieces from Meissen, 
Hochet, Ludwigsburg, Nymphenburg, and Furstenberg. 

An important accession of the division of graphic arts was the 
color aquatint La Promenade Puhlique, by Philibert-Louis Debucourt, 
generally considered to be the finest example of French color print- 
ing of the last quarter of the 18th century. Other outstanding acces- 
sions were a chiaroscuro woodcut, The Death of Ananias, after 
Raphael, executed about 1530, by Ugo de Carpi, who is usually ac- 
cepted as the first and most important Italian chiaroscuro woodcutter ; 
and The Fountain of Trevi, one of the most desirable subjects from 
Giovamii Battista Piranesi's great series of etchings, Veduta di Roma., 
published in 1765. 

The eminent Hungarian artist Joseph Domjan, now an American 
citizen, donated his highly original vroodcuts Starlit Night, Peacock of 
the Carnations, and Moon-Shine Peacoch. Through its president, 
Prentiss Taylor, the Society of Washington Printmakers presented 
the color lithograph Black Fire, by Jack Perlmutter. Mr. Taylor, a 
well-known Washington artist, also donated a print of his lithograph 
La Presa-Marfil, together with the original preliminary drawing of 
the subject, the transfer drawings, and the zinc plate used in printing. 

The section of photography acquired some notable additions to its 
historical collections as well as items representative of significant cur- 
rent developments. Tlie Eastman Kodak Co. presented a matchbox 
camera developed during World War TI for the Office of Strategic 
Services, a 1922 cine-camera, Model-A, their first motion picture 
camera, and several cutaway cameras illustrative of design changes. 
Dr. Harold E. Edgerton donated a pair of deep-sea stereo cameras 
of his design. These were first used in 1954 by Capt. Jacques Yves 
Cousteau and by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Listitution. 


Noteworthy donations to the division of manufacturing and heavy 
industries inchide a collection of more than 300 tinware items, cover- 
ing the entire range of the 19th-century tinsmith's art, from Kenneth 
Jewett. President John F. Kennedy, through the U.S. Atomic Energy 
Commission, transferred a cube of uranium fuel used by Enrico Fermi 
in the world's first controlled neutron chain reaction (December 2, 
1 942) . Obtained from the Army Nuclear Power Program was a model 
of the first land-based nuclear power plant (SM-1), the prototype of 
small reactors being developed for the use of the U.S. Army in the 
field, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory provided a display show- 
ing the method of fabrication of the fuel elements used therein. The 
section of iron and steel was successful in locating the original Ajax- 
Wyatt electric induction furnace which was transferred by the Ajax 
Magnethermic Corp. 

The division of agriculture and forest products received, from 
Minneapolis-Moline, Inc., a 1918 Moline Universal Model D tractor 
with a two-bottom plow attached. The tractor is notable for its use 
of electrically operated accessories. Another historical item acquired 
by the division is an 1869 portable steam engine, the first made by the 
J. I. Case Co. and donated by that firm. 

Civil history. — Among the important accessions received in the divi- 
sion of political history is Mrs. John F. Kennedy's gift of her inaugu- 
ral-ball gown and cape, made of peau d'ange covered with several 
layers of white silk chiffon. Mrs. Kennedy also presented her dress of 
white ottoman silk worn at the inaugural gala on January 19, 1961. 
Items of clothing worn by Presidents William Howard Taft, Theodore 
Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, and Woodrow Wilson were presented by 
Charles R. Taft, Ralph E. Becker, John Coolidge, and the National 
Trust for Historic Preservation, respectively. A handsomely bound 
book presented to Theodore Roosevelt by the Faculty Club of the 
University of California, The Silva of Calif otmia, was given by his 
grandson, Cornelius Van S. Roosevelt. A number of items, including 
a fan, a brown satin apron, and other articles of the clothing which 
belonged to Dolley Madison, were donated by her great-great-great- 
grandniece. Miss Barbara Donald. Mrs. Herbert A. May donated the 
famous Napoleon diamond necklace presented by the Emperor to his 
wife, the Empress Marie-Louise, on the occasion of the birth of their 
son, the King of Rome. 

To the collections of the division of cultural history were added 
an important block-front tall clock from Rhode Island, a Philadelphia 
"pie crust" table, and other significant items, donated by Mrs. Francis 
P. Gar van. Mrs. Harry T. Peters and her children, Harry T. Peters, 
Jr., and Mrs. Charles D. Webster, presented 11 large folio lithographs 
by Currier and Ives and others, a valuable addition to the nearly 2,000 


prints given by this family. INIr. and Mrs. A. Philip Stockvis gave a 
varied group which includes an American Chippendale armchair. For 
the musical instruments collection, the Le Blanc Corp. presented a 
basset horn, contra-bass clarinet, bass clarinet, and two alto clarinets. 

The division of philately and postal history added 178,626 specimens 
to its collections. One of the most significant of the recent gifts came 
from Bernard Peyton of Princeton, N. J., who presented a Confederate 
States cover, to which is affixed a block of twelve 2-cent Jackson Con- 
federate stamps. This is the largest known block of these stamps 
on a cover. Funds donated by the Charles and Rosanna Batchelor 
Memorial, Inc., made possible valuable additions to the Emma E. 
Batchelor Air Mail Collection. 

The division of numismatics received significant contributions of 
rare half dollars from R. E. Cox, Jr., of Fort Worth, Tex. Extensive 
donations of the Messrs. Stack of New York City included original 
drawings for U.S. patterns and medals, and Harvey Stack gave a 
hitherto unknown variety of the extremely rare Indian Peace Medal 
dated 1843, portraying President George Washington and distributed 
by one of the fur-trading companies in the Missouri Territory. To 
our holdings in modern coins the Honorable R. Henry Norweb of 
Cleveland, Ohio, contributed a virtually complete collection of New- 
foundland issues dating from 1865-1947. Willis H. du Pont of Wil- 
mington, Del., added to his previous donations of Russian coins and 
medals formerly owned by the Grand Duke Mikhailovitch a group of 
778 coins struck during the reigns of Peter III and Catherine II up 
to 1774, and medals struck during the period from 1762-94. Mrs. 
Wayte Raymond of New York City contributed 620 important modern 
coins of the world, and Mrs. F. C. C. Boyd of New York City gave 572 
Mexican coins comprising many issues of the Revolutionary Period. 
Philip H. Chase of Wynnewood, Pa., donated a very rare album, The 
Cun^ency of the Confederate States of America^ prepared by Raphael 
P. Thian about 1880 and containing 286 notes and their descriptions. 
Mr. and Mrs. Isadore Snyderman of New York City presented to the 
Smithsonian a unique gold plaquette of 1906, made by Victor D. Bren- 
ner in commemoration of the removal of the remains of Jolin Paul 
Jones from Paris to Annapolis in 1905. 

Armed Forces history. — The collections of the division of military 
history were enriched by a unique Henry rifle once presented to 
President Lincoln and given to the Museum by Robert Lincoln Beck- 
with. The William De Laney Travis Civil War panorama "The Army 
of the Cumberland" was received from C. C. Travis and Mrs. Hattie 
Kidd. A fine group of decorations awarded to Capt. C. IT. Hunting- 
ton was presented by Mrs. Huntington. A rare Medal of Honor and 

720-018—64 4 


associated Civil War medals awarded Lt. Edward B. Williston were 
received from the Department of the Navy. 

The division of naval history acquired, from Capt. P. V. H. Weems, 
the Weems Memorial Library and its associated collection of naviga- 
tional instruments illustrative of the progressive solution of problems 
posed by aerial navigation from its earliest days. The collection in- 
cludes a notably fine run of Bowditch's The New American Practical 
Navigator from the 1st to 15th editions. Also included are navigation 
instruments used in the polar flights of Richard E. Byrd and Lincoln 

The division's miiform collection has been greatly enhanced by the 
gift of Mrs. Ernest J. King, widow of Fleet Adm. Ernest J. King, 
which included a number of her late husband's uniforms, orders, and 

Philip Wrigley presented rare and interesting naval uniforms 
including the period of World War I, and an extensive collection of 
contemporary naval uniforms was presented by the Department of 
the Navy and Jacob Reed & Sons of Philadelphia. 

The U.S. Coast Guard transferred a wide selection of objects per- 
taining to the history of that service. These included items of 
ordnance, two sets of gangway headboards, a first order catadioptric 
lens, original drafts of a wide variety of lighthouse lenses, a lifeboat 
and fully equipped beach cart, and, most important, eight extremely 
handsome models of revenue cutters. Floyd D. Houston of New 
Suffolk, N.y., presented his finely executed model of the submarine 
Holland^ first submarine in the Navy. 

Through the courtesy of M. E. Tucker and the government of 
Bermuda, head curator Mendel L. Peterson and museum technician 
Alan B. Albright collected a significant number of artifacts from 
underwater sites in the Bermuda reefs. These included materials of 
glass, ceramics, and metal from sites dating from 1595 through 1838. 


Dr. R. S. Cowan, assistant director of the Museum of Natural 
History, conducted a 5-week expedition to Baja California, Mexico, 
in February and March, primarily to collect data and materials for 
constructing a desert-life group in the future hall of plant life. With 
the assistance of modelmaker Paul Marchand and sculptor-artist 
Vemon R. Rickman, fiber-glass models and plaster models were pre- 
pared of several cacti and other plants characteristic of the desert. 
Dr. Cowan also made a systematic collection of wood specimens, almost 
half of which are new to the Smithsonian Institution wood collection. 

During November and December, Dr. I. E. Wallen, assistant direc- 
tor for oceanography, visited institutions specializing in marine 


sciences in England, Denmark, Sweden, Holland, France, Monaco, 
and Italy. He obtained information which has been useful m the 
planning of the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center. The 
establishment and functioning of this Center constitute perhaps the 
most important single accomplishment of the first year of the ocean- 
ography progi-am. At the close of the year Dr. Wallen was in East 
Pakistan on a temporary assigimaent as visiting professor of zoology 
for the Asia Foundation. 

During September and October Dr. T. D. Stewart, then head 
curator of anthropology (now director of the Museum of Natural 
History), was in Baghdad, Iraq, reconstructmg and studying the 
remains of Neanderthal skeletons IV and VI recovered in Shanidar 
Cave in 1960. The results of this year's work, embodied in a manu- 
script scheduled to be published in Burner^ the Journal of Archaeology 
and History in Iraq, led Dr. Stewart to the conclusion that the 
Shanidar Neanderthal population remained fairly homogeneous 
throughout the estimated 15,000 years during which their skeletons 
accumulated in the cave. 

The investigation of the late Pleistocene bone bed near Littleton, 
Colo., was underway again at the beginning of the year. Dr. Waldo 
K. Wedel, then curator of archeology (now head curator of anthro- 
pology), museum specialist George Metcalf, and exhibits specialist 
Peter W. Bowman continued to work until late in August, by which 
time some 2,400 square feet of deposits aromid an ancient spring had 
been excavated to depths up to 11 feet and extensive additional collec- 
tions made of mammoth, bison, and other mammal bones. Although 
conclusive evidence of man's association with the mammoth was not 
obtained, a stratified section of the deposit and recovery of several key 
artifact types in situ established man's presence here at least as far 
back as 7,000 years ago. 

From January to March Dr. Saul H. Riesenberg, curator of eth- 
nology; Dr. Clifford Evans, curator of archeology; and Dr. Betty 
J. Meggers, honorary research associate, were on the island of Ponape 
in the Caroline Islands of the Trust Territory in the Pacific studying 
ancient megalithic structures and the traditions relating thereto. 
Just off the eastern end of Ponape is a complex of artificial islets, 
known as Nan Madol, on which are structures made of columnar basalt. 
By using 25 workmen to clear the areas to be investigated, Drs. Evans 
and Meggers were able to excavate and map eight distinct parts of the 
complex. In the process they collected typical artifacts and a se- 
quence of carbon samples which may yield reliable dates. The team 
spent 6 weeks at the site. Dr. Riesenberg collecting the traditions 
related to the structures and Drs. Evans and Meggers investigating 
the archeological clues and interpretations provided by these traditions 


and, consequently, offering new leads for ethnological explorations. 
As a result of this unusual approach, they concluded that orally trans- 
mitted tradition has greater historical validity, at least m this area, 
than is generally recognized by most anthropologists. 

After finishing their work on Ponape, Drs. Evans and Meggers 
went to Japan and Taiwan to consult with Japanese and Chinese 
archeologists and to examine sites and collections of the Early-Middle 
Jomon Culture of Japan in order to determine the relationship be- 
tween that potteiy complex and the pottery complexes relating to the 
early Valdivia Culture of coastal Ecuador. The Valdivia Culture 
has yielded the earliest dated pottery in the New World (5,000-4,050 
years before the present, as determined by carbon-14 tests) . Not only 
is this pottery unexpectedly early for the New World, but also it indi- 
cates no relationship with any known New World culture. Since 
the Jomon pottery shows suprisingly similar features, and is of about 
the same antiquity, the records obtained during this trip open up 
many doors to research on the problem of transpacific movements of 
early populations. 

While in Japan, Di^. Evans and Meggers exammed the collections 
made by staff members of the University of Tokyo during two arche- 
ological expeditions to the northern Andes of Peru. Here also the 
pottery was found to bear directly upon some of the cultures of 
Ecuador. These rewarding contacts between American and Japanese 
archeologists having mutual interests promise to ojDen up a fruitful 
era of cooperation. 

Late in August Drs. Evans and Meggers, together with Dr. William 
H. Crocker, associate curator of ethnology, attended the 35th Inter- 
national Congress of Americanists in Mexico City, after wliicli they 
examined collections and sites in various parts of Mexico, giving par- 
ticular attention to those in Yucatan. 

Dr. Henry W. Setzer, associate curator of mammals, was engaged 
during much of the year in organizing and supervising field j^arties 
operating in Asia, Madagascar, and Mexico with the objective of mak- 
ing collections of small mammals and their ectoparasites. Late in 
August he went to London to study type and other specimens of 
mammals in the British Museum (Natural History). After this he 
spent brief periods with field parties in West Pakistan and along the 
Afghanistan border in Iran, consulted with American officials in 
Cairo, Egypt, and helped the Madagascar field party initiate work in 
the vicinity of Ihosy. Another trip late in February and early in 
March took him to Mexico, where he joined a field party on the 
Mexican plateau. 

Col. Robert Traub, who in January was appointed honoraiy re- 
search associate, worked closely with Dr. Setzer in organizing and 


participating in fieldwork in widely separated areas. During most 
of September and October he collected small mammals and their 
ectoparasites in West Pakistan, particularly in the Kagan Valley and 
in the vicinity of Lahore and Sialkot. From there he went to north- 
ern Thailand for 4 weeks. Then, late in February, he spent a month 
in Mexico collecting in the States of Veracruz, Guerrero, Mexico, 
Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas. 

From January to April Dr. Charles O. Handley, Jr., associate 
curator of mammals, with the assistance of Frank M. Greenwell of 
the Smithsonian's office of exhibits, continued his major project of 
studying the mammals of Panama. The areas investigated this year 
were the San Bias coast in extreme eastern Panama and the Bocas del 
Toro Archipelago and adjacent mainland near the Costa Rican bound- 
ary. The resulting mammal collection amounted to 1,914 specimens. 

In order to study the relationship of birds to arthropod-bome 
virus diseases, especially eastern equine encephalitis, Dr. Philip S. 
Humphrey, curator of birds, collected extensively in the vicinity of 
Belem and in Braganga, Brazil, from the end of January to the end 
of April. In this work he had the cooperation of the Belem Virus 
Laboratory, Fundagao Servigo Especial de Saude Publica, and the 
Museu Paraense "Emilio Goeldi," all of Belem. In addition to 986 
skins and 1,035 anatomical specimens, he took over 1,100 liver and 788 
blood samples. Since three or four different habitats are represented, 
Dr. Humphrey hopes that the serological findings can be subjected to 
ecological analysis. 

Field studies concerned with the birdlife of the Isthmus of Panama, 
under Dr. Alexander Wetmore, honorary research associate and re- 
tired Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, covered the period 
from early in Januaiy to late in March. The first work of the season 
centered on the white- winged dove colonies f oimd last year in the ex- 
tensive mangrove swamps along the lower Rio Pocri, below Aguadulce 
in the Province of Colce. These colonies were especially interesting, 
since elsewhere the doves inhabit drier upland localities. Traveling 
by dugout canoe along the river channels during these investigations, 
Dr. Wetmore found also the rare rufous-cro^vned wood rail, Aramides 
axillaris^ known previously in Panama only from a few reports 
around Almirante Bay on the Caribbean coast. In addition, he ob- 
tained information on wintering dowitchers among the many sand- 
pipers, and on gull -billed terns, all migrants from the north. 

Late in January Dr. Wetmore was a guest on the small motor vessel 
Pelican engaged in a study of the distribution of the spiny lobster, a 
cooperative project between the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries of 
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and agencies concerned with as- 
sistance to the Panamanian Government. Their route through the 


Canal and along the Pacific coast to islands off western Chiriqui gave 
opportunity for daily work ashore on Isla Parida and Isla Bolaiios, 
in continuation of the island survey of last year on the launch Barbara 

On his final fieldwork of the season Dr. Wetmore arranged a 
charter flight on a small plane east to Puerto Obaldia on the San Bias 
coast near the boundary with Colombia. After a few days' work near 
the town, he established a camp, in company with manmialogist Dr. 
Charles O. Handley, Jr., in the high forest back of Armila, the east- 
ernmost village of the Cuna Indians. Three pairs of the rare ant- 
bird Xenornis setifrons, known previously from five specimens, were 
special prizes here. 

As last year, the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory of Panama provided 
Dr. Wetmore with one of their teclinicians, Rudolfo Hinds, to serve 
as field assistant. 

Dr. Doris M. Cochran, curator of reptiles and amphibians, in com- 
pany with entomologist Mrs. Doris H. Blake, honorary research 
associate, was in South and Central America from the beginning of 
December through February visiting museums and making collections. 
The countries visited included Brazil (Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro, Sao 
Paulo, Santos, and Curitiba) ; Argentina (Foz de Iguassu, Buenos 
Aires, La Plata, Vila Bela) ; Peru (Lima, Pachacamac, Rio Blanco, 
and Rio Rimac) ; Colombia (Cali, Palmyra, Bogota, and Medellin) ; 
and the Canal Zone (Barro Colorado Island). As a result of the 
information and specimens obtained. Dr. Cochran expects to complete 
reports on the frogs of central Brazil and of Colombia, the latter in 
collaboration with Dr. C. J. Goin of Gainesville, Fla. 

Two associate curators of the division of fishes, Dr. Victor G. 
Springer and Dr. William R. Taylor, participated in oceanographic 
expeditions during the year. Dr. Springer was on the oceanographic 
vessel Geronimo^ operated by the Fish and Wildlife Service, when she 
left Boston for West Africa on March 5. Unfortunately, 4 days later 
the vessel malfunctioned and had to be towed into Bermuda for repairs, 
but again departed for Africa on March 12. During the 3 days in 
Bermuda Dr. Springer was able to make only night-light collections. 
After leaving Bermuda the vessel again malfunctioned and had to be 
towed back to port. Thereupon the cruise was canceled, and Dr. 
Springer, after further attempts at shore collecting, left for Wash- 
ington by air. In spite of limited collecting opportunities and un- 
favorable weather conditions, he returned with about 300 specimens. 

Dr. Taylor joined the Anton Bruun. of the International Indian 
Ocean Expedition when she left Bombay, India, early in March on 
her first cruise designed to obtain physical data and biological material 
from the Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal. Malfunction of the 


electrical equipment, winches, etc., and difficulties in obtaining fresh 
water caused changes in schedules and restricted the activities of the 
biologists aboard. As a result, Dr. Taylor late in April left the sliip 
at Vizagapatam. The collections obtained were limited to the An- 
daman Sea and offshore areas west of Burma. 

From early in March to late in May Dr. J. A. F. Garrick, research 
associate in the division of fishes, visited several museums and other 
institutions in Europe and Africa primarily to examine type material 
of the shark genus Carcharhinus for his revision of the group. He 
also wished to obtain additional locality records and to ascertain if 
any species had been overlooked or are not represented m the collections 
of U.S. musemns thus far seen. Dr. Garrick's findings show that 
much of the current nomenclature for the group is in error, particu- 
larly in regard to species of the Indo-Pacific, based primarily on the 
literature rather than on examination of types. As a result of tliis 
fieldwork, locality records for many species were greatly extended, and 
in several cases species thought to be restricted to one ocean were 
found to occur in other oceans or to be worldwide m distribution. The 
number of recorded species was increased by two. Because of the 
value of vertebral counts in identifymg shark species. Dr. Garrick 
X-rayed critical specimens whenever possible. About 90 specimens 
were so examined. In this and all other respects he received the fullest 
cooperation from the staffs of the institutions visited. 

From the middle of July through August Dr. J. F. Gates Clarke, 
curator of insects, conducted extensive field studies in Oregon and 
Washington. Wliile in Oregon he had the company of a colleague, 
James Baker, of Burns, Oreg. From numerous stations set up for 
collecting purposes at various altitudes, they obtained over 7,000 
specimens, including many novelties, which eventually will contribute 
much to our knowledge of the ecology and distribution of Microlepi- 
doptera of the Pacific Northwest. 

From the beginning of June until the end of September Dr. Ralph 
E. CrabiD, Jr., associate curator of insects, conducted further studies 
of myriapods, particularly in museums in Munich, Vienna, Hamburg, 
Copenhagen, and London. He was able to locate and examine pre- 
viously miknown material. He also spent a couple of weeks in the 
Bavarian Alps collecting topotypical specimens of centipedes for the 
national collections. 

Since joining the staff as associate curator of the division of insects 
this year, Dr. Paul J. Spangler, a specialist in aquatic beetles, has 
made several collecting trips, the longest of which, December 15-Janu- 
ary 26, took him to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Although 
the insect fauna from Puerto Rico is better known than that from other 
Caribbean islands, he fomid numerous new records and new species 


and collected approximately 14,000 insects. Although this material 
has as yet been examined only cursorily, 1 family (Isometopidao), 
12 genera previously unknown from the island, and numerous new 
species have been identified. The number of species of aquatic 
beetles known from Puerto Rico has been increased from approxi- 
mately 40 to 75, and larvae of about 35 of these have been established 
by rearing or association. The number of aquatic beetle species known 
from the Virgin Islands has been tripled. 

During 2 weeks in August Dr. Spangler collected also in South 
Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana, concentrating in the numerous and 
unusual habitats in Yellowstone National Park and vicinity. He col- 
lected approximately 10,000 insects during this trip. Although this 
material has not yet been thoroughly examined, several new species 
of water beetles have been found. In several rare genera the number 
of specimens present in the national collection has been doubled. In 
addition, rare and undescribed larvae of several species have been 
found and associated with their adults. 

At the beginning and end of the year Dr. Spangler in company with 
other members of the staff made day-long trips to collecting areas in 
Maryland and West Virginia. A trip to the vicinity of Oakland in 
Garrett County, Md., yielded several rare species for the first time 
and one apparently new species. 

Dr. Oliver S. Flint, Jr., associate curator of insects, continued his 
research on caddisflies. This year his major collecting effort came 
during the latter part of July when he went to Jamaica and again to 
Puerto Eico. On the island of Jamaica he obtained well over 1,000 
specimens of caddisflies belonging to about 20 species. Almost all 
these species are new to science, and one represents a genus new to the 
Antilles. The collection of nearly 5,000 specimens from Puerto Rico 
included an imdescribed caddisfly belonging to a genus unrecorded 
from that island. 

During the latter part of May, Dr. Flint, accompanied by William 
D. Field, made a 12-day trip through the Jefferson and Monongahela 
National Forests in Virgmia and West Virginia to Bluestone State 
Park in West Virginia. Little collecting of aquatic insects has been 
done in this area. 

A 12-day collecting trip for butterflies was made late in August by 
William D. Field, associate curator of insects, along the Blue Ridge 
Parkway in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee 
to the Great Smoky Momitains National Park. The 392 specimens 
obtained include species which contribute importantly to knowledge 
of these insects. As mentioned above, Mr. Field also accompanied 
Dr. Flint on a trip into the mountains of western Virginia and eastern 
West Virginia in the vicinity of Lewisburg, W. Va. Here he found 


a specimen of Pieris virginiensis Edwards, one of the rarest of eastern 
butterflies. Over 100 mature larvae of Ewphydryas 'phaeton Drury 
and a good series of GlaucopsycTie lygdamus Dbldy., another early- 
spring rarity, also were collected. 

During the latter part of August Dr. Donald R. Davis, associate 
curator of insects, conducted studies on Microlepidoptera in the 
Tenkiller Lake district of Oklahoma. As this is an area practically 
unknown entomologically, these studies Avere particularly significant 
in producing information on distribution, ecology, and new species. 
Prior to this, in July, on a visit to the Dismal Swamp area of Virginia 
in company with Dr. Flint, Dr. Davis collected 300 specimens of 
Microlepidoptera, along with a sizable sample of leaf miners. Three 
species of leaf miners were reared, and leaves mined by several addi- 
tional species were collected. 

Associate curator O. L. Cartwright, who in May accompanied Dr. 
Spangler to the vicinity of Oakland in Garrett County, Md., collected 
specimens of seven species of Scarabaeidae, including three rare 
species, the basis for new Maryland State records, and one species 
(nine specimens) apparently new to science. 

During July Dr. Donald F. Squires, associate curator (now curator) 
of marine invertebrates, was in New Zealand conferring with officers 
of the New Zealand Oceanographic Institute regarding the identifica- 
tion and study of deep-water coral banks, and with the New Zealand 
Geological Survey staff regarding the occurrence of such banks as 
fossils. At the Auckland Museum and Institute he studied recent 
collections of corals, particularly those made by fisheries research 
vessels. He also examined outcroppings of fossil deep-water coral 
banks at two localities in Wairarapa. 

In November, while participating in the annual meetings of the 
Bahamas National Trust, Dr. Squires conducted preliminary explora- 
tions, with other members of the Trust, of the reef tracts at Lyford 
Cay, New Providence Island. 

From late in March to early in May, Dr. Squires carried out field 
work on R/V Chain of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, as 
part of the international Equivalent I operation, in the area from 
Recife, Brazil, to Trinidad and east to longitude 25° W. He collected 
samples and made numerous bathymetric observations on the struc- 
tures knowTi as shelf-edge prominences off the Orinoco River Delta. 
Also, he made collections of corals from 40 to 200 fathoms in the 
vicinity of St. Paul's Rock and in the approaches to Paramaribo, 

As a participant in the International Indian Ocean Expedition from 
the middle of January to the middle of March, Charles E. Cutress, Jr., 
associate curator of marine invertebrates, visited the Indian Museum 


at Calcutta and studied sea anemones at Port Canning, the University 
of Madras, the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute at Manda- 
pam Camp, the Porto-Novo Marine Biological Station, and the Insti- 
tute of Science of the University of Bombay. En route to India 
Mr. Cutress examined anemone types at the British Museum (Natural 
History) and, on the way home, studied and collected anemone mate- 
rial at the Stazione Zoologica di Napoli. These studies will con- 
tribute to the solution of major problems of long standing in the 
classification of the sea anemones. 

As biological consultant of the National Science Foundation, Dr. 
Waldo L. Schmitt, honorary research associate, late in November 
joined an expedition to the Palmer Peninsula, Antarctica, to survey 
possible sites for a scientific station in that area. Delays in obtaining 
transportation on an icebreaker afforded Dr. Schmitt the opportunity 
to visit institutions and consult with biologists in New Zealand, par- 
ticularly at Christchurch, and to visit the USARP McMurdo Station 
on the shores of the Ross Sea ice shelf. He finally sailed on the U.S.S. 
Staten Island on January 5. During the ensuing 2^/^ months before 
returning to the Museum, he examined 20 possible sites for a station 
from the point of view of logistics, engineering problems, meteorolog- 
ical conditions, and biological potential. At the same time he made 
land, shore, and offshore collections by various means, including hook 
and line, traps, tow nets, and dredges. 

Continuing his work on the marine mollusks of the Indo-Pacific 
region. Dr. Harald A. Rehder, curator of mollusks, collected on the 
island of Tahiti from mid- January to mid-March. Here he con- 
centrated efforts in the coastal area immediately to the east of Papeete 
but also made several trips around the island, obtaining a good repre- 
sentation of mollusks from numerous localities in almost all districts. 
Dr. Rehder also gathered fresh- water mollusks at the mouths and 
along the courses of the three principal streams that traverse the Dis- 
tricts of Pirae, and examined the area for land snails. The results of 
this trip will assist in planning for future fieldwork in the southern 
Polynesian area. 

In connection with his studies on the families Tridacnidae and 
Littorinidae of the Indo-Pacific region. Dr. Joseph Rosewater, asso- 
ciate curator of mollusks, spent 6 weeks during February and March 
on Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshall Islands utilizing the excellent 
facilities of the Eniwetok Marine Biological Laboratory of the Atomic 
Energy Commission. Representatives of all four species of Tridac- 
nidae living around the atoll were collected and maintained in the 
laboratory. The brightly hued mantles of these specimens provided 
valid distinguishing differences, and dissection of the animals yielded 
additional valuable information regarding their anatomical distinc- 


tions. Although a spawning reaction was induced in two individuals 
of one species by the introduction of the sex products of a third, no 
development of possible fertilized eggs could be noted. It is theorized 
that natural spawning in this group may occur during the warmer 
summer months and that the event is initiated by the occurrence of a 
particular water temperature. Similar studies were carried out on 
specimens of Littorinidae. 

In connection with her research on Leguminosae, Dr. Velva E. 
Rudd, associate curator of phanerogams, joined a group of botanists 
from the University of California and the University of Mexico dur- 
ing December in a 10-day field trip in the region of San Bias, Mexico. 
En route she spent 2 days in Mexico City at the Instituto de Biologia, 
University of Mexico, examining plant specimens. The collections 
and field experience will be helpful in planning more intensive future 
work in the area. 

Dr. John J. Wurdack, associate curator of phanerogams, returned 
in December from Peru where he had continued on the field trip 
reported last year. Most of his collecting centered around Chacha- 
poyas in the northern highlands, with the last few months spent along 
the Rio Maranon from below Pongo de Rentema to Pongo de Man- 
seriche in the tropical rainforest. Total specimens exceed 12,000. 
Dr. Wurdack attributes much of the success of the trip to the help 
received from the staff of the Museo de Historia Natural "Javier 
Prado" in Lima, where one complete set of his specimens has been 

Dr. Harold Robinson, associate curator of cryptogams, spent most 
of May collecting bryophytes in Mexico. The work centered in the 
Valle Nacional area of northern Oaxaca, with short visits to Chiapas 
and Guerrero. Dr. Robinson estimates that about 300 specimens from 
the collection will be retained. 

Early in December, an algologist. Dr. Richard Norris, was added to 
the staff as associate curator. He left Washington almost immediately 
to join the first and some of the subsequent cruises of the Anton Bruun 
of the International Indian Ocean Expedition. 

While in Trinidad attending the Neotropical Botany Conference 
early in July, Dr. William L. Stem, curator of plant anatomy, gath- 
ered a small group of wood specimens from the northern part of the 
island. In the latter part of August, while on his way to attend the 
meetings of the American Institute of Biological Sciences in Corvallis, 
Oreg., he collected wood specimens in the Rocky Mountains of Colo- 
rado and in the Cascade and Coast Ranges of Oregon. 

During February and March, Dr. Stem, accompanied by two other 
members of his division, Dr. Richard H. Eyde, associate curator, and 
Edward S. Ayensu, research assistant, conducted fieldwork in Pan- 


ama, collecting not only specimens of fossil woods but also conven- 
tional herbarium specimens and associated wood samples in the fossil 
localities for comparison with the fossil flora. An abundance of fossil 
woods was found on the Azuero Peninsula, particularly in the environs 
of the village of Ocu. Two other localities for fossil woods, both 
on the isthmus proper, were discovered, one near the town of La Mesa 
and the other near Colorado, a tiny settlement southwest of Calobre. 
Petrifactions from the two new areas superficially resemble those 
from Ocu. 

Dr. G. A. Cooper, head curator of geology, in company with Drs. 
Thomas G. Gibson and Druid Wilson of the U.S. Geological Survey, 
in October visited a fossil site near Hampton, Va., known as Rice's 
Pit. Although this has become a very popular place for collecting, 
Dr. Cooper and his party obtained some good material, especially of 
the smaller fossils. Mr. and Mrs. William M. Eice, who own the pit, 
and Mrs. George Webb, a neighbor, donated examples of the rarer 

For a month beginning late in April, Dr. Cooper was occupied 
in a revisionary study of the stratigraphy of the Glass Mountains 
in the vicmity of Marathon, Tex. He was assisted by Dr. Richard 
Grant, of the U.S. Geological Survey, and Jolin L. Carter, museum 
teclmician. The trip took them to a number of places not heretofore 
visited by geologists and accessible only with great difficulty. The 
objective was to verify new views on Glass Mountains stratigraphy 
which had been developed as a result of work done on the brachiopods 

Dr. Cooper and his party spent a day at the end of May in the 
Chmati Mountains south of Marfa, Tex., looking for certain types 
of fossils reported to occur in that locality. From here they went 
to Van Horn, Tex., which they used as a base for forays into the 
Sierra Diablo, Guadalupe, and Apache Mountains. 

Early in September, Edward P. Henderson, associate curator of 
mineralogy and petrology, and Roy S. Clarke, Jr., analytical chemist, 
attended an informal conference in the British Museum (Natural His- 
tory) on methods of chemical analysis of meteorites. Before and after 
the meeting they inspected the museum's collections of meteorites and 
tektites and conferred with staff members about problems of organiza- 
tion, equipment, and scientific procedure. 

In the Netherlands, Messrs. Henderson and Clarke visited the Uni- 
versity of Utrecht and Prof. G. H. R. von Koenigswald, who has one 
of the world's finest tektite collections. Arrangements were made with 
him for an exchange. In Mainz, Germany, they discussed mutual 
problems with the staff of the Max Planck Institute. Dr. H. Wiinlce 
of the institute showed them a new shipment of tektites from which 


he generously proffered a selection of interesting and unusnal speci- 
mens. A visit also was made to the University of Heidelberg. 

Mr. Clarke then returned home by way of England, stopping again 
at the British Museum, while Mr. Henderson continued on to Copen- 
hagen, where he studied the meteorite collection in the Danish National 
Museum and arranged to exchange Philippine telctites for much- 
needed moldavites. He also spent 2 days with Dr. Vagn Buchwald, 
metallurgist with the Laboratory of Metals in Copenhagen, who is 
working on some specimens that were described from Smithsonian 

Back in England early in October, Mr. Henderson visited Dr. H. J. 
Axon of the department of metallurgy. University of Manchester, who 
also is working on specimens that have been studied in our laboratory. 
Next, he called on the York firm of Cooke, Troughton & Simms which 
made the metallograph used in our laboratory. Besides giving Mr. 
Henderson expert advice on the care and use of the instrument, mem- 
bers of the firm offered to make pictures of one of the meteorites he 
had with liim. 

A collecting party from the division of invertebrate paleontology, 
consisting of Dr. R. S. Boardman, curator; Dr. F. M. Hueber, asso- 
ciate curator; Dr. J. Utgaard, research associate; and F. J. Collier, 
museum specialist, went to western New York State for 3 weeks late 
in May. Following a recoimaissance of the Hamilton strata in the 
Cayuga Lake region, Drs. Boardman and Utgaard and Mr. Collier 
went on to Lockport, leaving Dr. Hueber at Cornell University to 
study paleobotanical collections housed there. In the Lockport area 
they obtained large numbers of Silurian Bryozoa which will enable 
reevaluation and statistical analysis of many species. Dr. Hueber 
rejoined the group at Batavia, where detailed collecting of the Hamil- 
ton strata was undertaken. As the party moved eastward to the Fin- 
ger Lakes region, they made extensive collections of Bryozoa from 
many localities at several stratigi'aphic intervals. A few fossil plant 
specimens were obtained which are considered especially important in 
taxonomic and moiphologic interpretations. After Dr. Boardman re- 
turned to Washington, the rest of the party continued the stratigi'aphic 
reconnaissance and detailed collecting eastward to the Ithaca area. 
The entire trip resulted in approximately half a ton of specimens, 
most of which fall into groups previously poorly represented in the 

Late in October, Dr. Richard Cifelli, associate curator of inverte- 
brate paleontology, obtained material for his study of the distribution 
of planktonic Foraminifera in the North Atlantic during the 2- week 
cruise of the R/V Crawford from Woods Hole, Mass. He collected 


28 plankton samples on a track from Cape Cod to the vicinity of Puerto 
Rico to Bermuda. 

For another scientific cruise beginning late in March, Dr. Cifelli 
joined the R/V Chain at Recife, Brazil, as a participant in the Inter- 
national Tropical Atlantic Ocean Expedition. Of particular interest 
to Dr. Cifelli were the nearly 100 plankton hauls collected which he 
will examine for Foraminifera in connection with his long-range pro- 
gram to study the relationship between the distribution of surficial 
plankton ic Foraminifera and oceanic circulation in the North At- 
lantic. Also of importance for the study of Foraminifera were the 
12 piston long-cores and numerous bottom sediment samples collected 
from the abyssal plain, continental slope, Orinoco shelf, and the Gulf 
of Paria. 

In June and July Dr. Erie G. Kauffman, associate curator of inver- 
tebrate paleontology, and F. J. Collier, museum specialist, spent 6 
weeks completing a biostratigraphic study of the lower Colorado group 
along the Front Range of the Colorado Rockies, tracing faunal zones, 
refining the zonation by use of ammonites and pelecypods, and tracing 
disconf ormities and f acies change. They were able to tie in 60 detailed 
stratigraphic sections along the Front Range and to correlate them 
with others in northern New Mexico and southern Wyoming, as well 
as with others in the intermontane parks of the middle Rockies. Ap- 
proximately 4,000 specimens were collected, predominantly pelecypods 
and ammonites. 

Wliile studying at the U.S. Geological Survey offices in Denver, 
Colo., during October, Dr. Kauffman spent two weekends in the vicinity 
of Colorado Si)rings collecting from previously measured Upper Cre- 
taceous sediments. This resulted in the addition of approximately 
300 well-preserved pelecypods and ammonites to the collections. 

A number of short excursions to the Upper Cretaceous outcrops of 
Maryland were undertaken by Dr. Kauffman and Dr. Norman Sohl, 
of the U.S. Geological Survey, as part of a continuing restudy of this 
rich but incompletely known fauna. Large collections from near 
Brightseat, Md., include many species, particularly gastropods, never 
before reported in the Middle Atlantic Coast Cretaceous. 

Late in August Dr. Nicholas Hotton III, associate curator of ver- 
tebrate paleontology, and James W. Kitching, research associate on 
leave from the Bernice Price Institute in Johannesburg, South Africa, 
journeyed to the Appalachian Mountains in search of field occurrences 
of middle and late Paleozoic vertebrate-bearing deposits. In quarries 
of the Greer Limestone Co., at Greer, W. Va., they collected 
partial skeletons, including one skull, of at least two amphibians from 
outcrops of the Greenbriar limestone (Mississippian). While in this 
area they examined beds above and below the Greenbriar outcrop 


along the valley of Stranger Creek but found no fossils. A Greenbriar 
quarry at Terra Alta, W. Va., also yielded no results, but one at Fair- 
chance, Pa., yielded scraps of fossil fishes. 

On September 6, Dr. Hotton, Mr. Kitching, and Gerald R. Paulson, 
museum technician, went to Chalk Point, in nearby Maryland, to col- 
lect the skeleton of a whale discovered during excavation for a facility 
of the Potomac Electric Power Co. The deposits at Chalk Point are 
assigned to the Calvert formation, of late Miocene age. The specimen 
turned out to be a squalodont whale that was about 15 feet long during 
life ; the amomit of wear shown by the teeth indicates that the indi- 
vidual was very old when it died. As recovered, the specimen consists 
of a large part of the lower jaw, a number of vertebrae, ribs, loose 
teeth, a scapula, and a complete flipper in good articulation. The find 
is significant as a locality record, and anatomically because of the 
excellent preservation of the flipper. The degree of wear on the teeth 
is interesting from the viewpoint of function. 

Dr. Hotton and Mr. Kitcliing conducted October fieldwork in sev- 
eral western States and in a variety of formations ranging in age from 
Permian to Oligocene. These include the Wliite River Oligocene and 
Pierre Cretaceous of South Dakota and Wyoming; the Permian, 
Triassic, and Paleocene of New Mexico ; and the Permian and Trias- 
sic of Texas. The most spectacular result of the trip was the dis- 
covery of an untouched pocket of vertebrates in the lower Permian 
along West Coffee Creek, Baylor County, Tex., which yielded four 
complete skeletons and five additional skulls of various amphibians 
and reptiles, plus a considerable amount of material of an as yet 
undetermined nature. These specimens represent a good portion of 
the fauna of the lower Permian of the United States. Most of them 
have been forwarded to the Bernard Price Institute for Paleontolog- 
ical Research, in Johannesburg, South Africa, in partial reciprocity 
for the excellent Beaufort material from South Africa that Mr. 
Kitching's help and the good offices of the institute enabled Dr. Hot- 
ton to collect. 

Howard I. Chapelle, curator of transportation in the Museum of 
History and Teclmology, made brief trips to Madrid and Barcelona, 
Spain, during December and May to examine the construction of a full- 
size replica of Columbus's flagsliip Santa Maria and to check the prog- 
ress of a scale model to be donated to the Smithsonian. The research 
for this project of reconstruction has been carried on by Captain de 
Corbita J. M. Marinez-Hidalgo, S.N., director of the Maritime Mu- 
seum in Barcelona, who previously had done similar research on a 
Spanish galley of the post-Lepanto period and for a caravel, specifical- 
ly the Pinta. The Maritime Museum is located in an ancient galley 
yard built before the battle of Lepanto (1571). The original stone 


galley slips and slieds remain and are restored and utilized for mu- 
seum halls. Interestingly, the lamiching ends of the slips are now 
about a block from the water. 

On his way to attend the 18th International Congress of the History 
of Medicine, held in Warsaw and Krakow, Poland, during September, 
Dr. Sami Hamarneh, acting curator of medical sciences, sought in- 
formation in his fields of interest through visits to the British Mu- 
seum, the Wellcome Medical Library and Museum, the British 
Pharmaceutical Society, and a number of institutions in Poland. 

In order to collect further data on the life of Frederick Carder, the 
Englisliman who came to America early in tliis century and estab- 
lished the Steuben Glass Works, Paul V. Gardner, curator of ceramics 
and glass, made several visits to Corning, N.Y., where Mr. Carder is 
living, and to various institutions where examples of Carder's work 
are preserved. 

From mid-August to mid-October Jacob Kainen, curator of graphic 
arts, was in Europe gathering material for an exhibition on typog- 
raphy and doing research for his study of the Dutch engraver 
Hendrick Goltzius (1558-1617) . He obtained typographical material 
from Monotype House, Ltd., London, and consulted with teclinicians 
and historians in London, Haarlem, and Brussels. Also he conducted 
research in various museums in London, Amsterdam, Eotterdam, 
Utrecht, Brussels, Paris, Venice, Florence, Rome, Milan, Parma, and 

John N. Pearce, assistant curator of cultural history, with Richard 
J. Muzzrole, archeological aide, in October, participated in a 10-day 
archeological investigation of the site of Jolin Frederick Amelung's 
"New Bremen Glass Manufactory." This, the first major glassmaking 
enterprise in the American Republic, was operated between 1785 and 
1795 in Frederick County, Md. The excavations were sponsored by 
the Corning Museum of Glass with the collaboration of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. Ivor Noel Hume, honorary research curator, who 
is chief archeologist of Colonial Williamsburg, Inc., was director of 
excavations, and Paul N. Perrot, director of the Corning Museum, was 
executive director of the project. With the evidence of structures and 
artifacts thus far revealed, it is expected that the results will con- 
tribute significantly to knowledge of 18th-century glassmaking in 
America as well as yielding particular information about this influen- 
tial primary source of American glassmaking skills. 

In November and again in December Mr. Pearce worked with mem- 
bers of the Maryland Archeological Society in excavations on the 
Morgan pottery site in Baltimore, a site which dates from the late 
colonial period. They were fortunate to find in one pit a layer rich 
with pottery sherds (possibly a working floor) between the undis- 


turbed subsoil and a sealing layer of relatively clean sand, presumably 
fill. Very few pottery fragments other than those of local stoneware 
were found in the test-hole portion of this layer, but all of those which 
were found were datable as within the period of operation of the 
pottery (1794-1837). 

Mr. Pearce and Mr. Muzzrole also conducted archeological excava- 
tions during May on the site of the early 18th-century City Tavern 
building in Annapolis. In locating the major foundation they identi- 
fied four (possibly five) periods of building and found builder's 
trenches of about 1780 containing cultural materials which after study 
will make quite accurate dating possible. 

At the beginning of the year, through the courtesy of E. B. Tucker 
and the government of Bermuda, Mendel L, Peterson, head curator of 
Armed Forces history, and Alan B. Albright, museum technician, 
collected a number of significant artifacts from underwater sites in 
the Bermuda reefs dating from 1595 through 1838. The earliest site 
yielded a rare pewter porringer. The site of the San Antonio^ a 
Spanish ship which sank in 1621, yielded more ordnance materials and 
traces of trade goods. The site of the Eagle, a Virginia Company 
ship which went down in 1658, produced clay pipes, a soapstone bullet 
mold, and a solid iron shot for the ship's main battery. The site of 
UHerminie, a French frigate which sank in 1838, was extensively 
explored, and from it were collected glass and unmarked porcelain 
from the wardroom services and a collection of perfect bottles, in- 
cluding those for brandy, wine, oil, and clarified olive oil, with the 
seal of the merchant. 

Frank A. Taylor, director, attended the Sixth General Conference 
of the International Council of Museums at The Hague, July 2-11, 
1963, where he was elected president of the International Committee 
of ICOM for Museums of Science and Technology. He visited mu- 
seums in Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Holland, and England. 


Highlights in the exhibits program during the year were the re- 
opening of three large halls of modernized exhibits in the Museum of 
Natural History and the beginning of the installation of exhibits in 
the new Museum of History and Teclmology. With the opening of 
the second hall of North American archeology, the hall of life in the 
sea, and the hall of dinosaurs and fossil reptiles, all but three of the 
galleries on the first floor of the Museum of Natural History have now 
been modernized. At the end of the year installation of exhibits in 
four halls of the new Museum of History and Technology began 
while the construction of exhibits continued. Exhibit units for 15 of 
the halls in the new museum were prepared. 

720-018—64 5 


The new hall of North American archeology includes 38 modernized 
displays. An introductoiy section of several units explains the ob- 
jectives and dating methods of systematic archeology; most of the 
rest of the hall is devoted to displays of the cultures of Indian groups 
in various regions of the United States. Curator Waldo K. Wedel 
prepared the scripts and selected the specimens for this hall with the 
expert assistance of Dr. C. G. Holland and Dr. W. A. Ritchie. The 
hall was designed by Eay Hayes and Mrs. Barbara Craig. 

Plans for the layout of the new hall of Old World archeology were 
completed by associate curator Gus Van Beek and exhibits designer 
R. O. Hower. This gallery will present a synopsis of Old World cul- 
tural history from earliest times to the end of the Roman Era. 

Contract renovation for the new hall of physical anthropology began 
on March 30. Exhibits designer Joseph Shannon and director T. D. 
Stewart, while still head curator of the department of anthropology, 
completed the plan for the new hall layout and the arrangement of 
cases. Dr. Stewart prepared detailed scripts for 14 of the exhibits and 
Dr. Angel completed the specifications for a large map of the peoples 
of the world. 

The new hall entitled "Life in the Sea" was officially opened to the 
public in February. The most impressive single exhibit here is the 
life-size blue whale prepared under the direction of Dr. Remington 
Kellogg, recently retired Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution. Other mammals depicted include the sea otter, several 
kinds of porpoises, and five other species of whales. A group of six 
jellyfishes and comb-jellies is shown by means of eight superimposed 
reverse-carved sheets of Plexiglas; side lighting provides very life- 
like qualities. A central alcove in the hall will eventually display 
deep-sea views, but an exceptionally fine temporary exhibit now oc- 
cupies this space. In each of the openings in the alcove, shells are 
presented in a gemlike display which attracts much favorable atten- 
tion. Among the other temporary installations is an exhibit of 137 
species of mollusks found in Polynesia, the Eastern Pacific region, 
and along our Atlantic coast. This and the other temporary exhibits 
in the hall will be replaced as rapidly as the permanent exhibit ma- 
terials can be installed. The hall has been developed under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Fenner A. Chace, Jr., in cooperation with exhibits de- 
signers Thomas Baker, Chris Karras, and Gorman Bond. 

Construction in the halls of comparative osteology and cold-blooded 
vertebrates was virtually completed at the end of the year. Most of 
the bird and small-mammal skeletons to be exhibited in the hall of 
osteology were cleaned and restored by Leonard Blush of the taxi- 
dermy staff. Dr. Leonard P. Schultz is directing the development of 
the hall of cold-blooded vertebrates, and scripts for more than half 


of the units have been prepared. Several casts of fishes were repaired, 
and one cast of a record-size 12-foot white sturgeon was produced by 
John Widener for the case on ancient fishes. This cast was prepared 
from a specimen obtained through the cooperation of Dr. Murray A. 
Newman, curator of the Vancouver Public Aquarium. 

All curators in the department of zoology participated in the plan- 
ning and development of a temporary exhibit entitled "Zoology in 
the Smithsonian Institution'' for viewing during the XVI Interna- 
tional Congress of Zoology, meeting in Washington during August 

A detailed statement of the purpose and scale for each unit in the 
future hall of plant life was prepared as a basis for more precise 
planning of the exhibits in this large gallery. Specifications for 
models in the rainforest life group were prepared and some of the 
models made. Early in 1963 a field party spent 5 weeks in the desert 
of Baja California, Mexico, collecting data and materials for the 
construction of a desert life group. Dr. R. S. Cowan, assistant di- 
rector for the Museum of Natural History, led the party and served 
as technical adviser and photographer; Paul Marchand and Vernon R. 
Rickman worked together to prepare models, molds, sketches, and 
other exhibit items. The work of the field party was greatly facili- 
tated by the use of the Vermilion Sea Field Station maintained on 
the east coast of the peninsula by the San Diego Natural History 

The large modernized hall of dinosaurs and other fossil reptiles was 
opened to the public in June. The dominance of the dinosaurs in the 
terrestrial fauna of the Age of Reptiles is illustrated by displays rep- 
resenting all major groups of dinosaurs. Examples range in size 
from one which had an arm bone 6 feet long to a tiny beast with a 
thigh bone smaller than that of a chicken. Many of the specimens 
were collected during the early U.S. Geological Survey explorations 
associated with the opening of the West between 1870 and 1895. Also 
displayed in this hall are reptiles from which mammals evolved. 
These animals apparently were never abundant in the United States, 
and the exhibited fossils were collected recently in South Africa. 
The displays of fossil reptiles are related to exhibits of fossil inverte- 
brates, fishes, and mammals in adjoining halls, so that the visitor can 
follow the history of life from its earliest traces almost to the present. 
Dr. Nicholas Hotton III, associate curator of vertebrate paleontology, 
planned the exhibits for the hall with the assistance of exhibits de- 
signers Ann Karras and Barbara Craig. Preparation has begun on 
four dioramas for exhibit on the balcony in the hall of dinosaurs. 
Using the scale of 1 inch to 1 foot. Jay N. Matternes and Norman 
Deaton will prepare these dioramas to depict land vertebrates of the 


Upper Triassic, the Upper Jurassic, and the Upper Cretaceous, and 
the sea vertebrates of the Upper Cretaceous. Mr. Matternes com- 
pleted the third mural painting, for the age of mammals hall, which 
depicts terrestrial life during the Oligocene in North America. Speci- 
fications were prepared for the fourth mural in the hall which will 
represent animal assemblages in the Pliocene Epoch. 

Eight new exhibits to be displayed in the halls of medicine, den- 
tistry, and pharmacy in the new Museum of History and Technology 
were temporarily installed in the gallery of medical sciences in the 
Arts and Industries Building; these include units on the develop- 
ment of the microscope, medical and dental equipment, and crude 
drugs. Exhibits planned or prepared to portray various phases of the 
history of medicine include a diorama showing the performance of 
an operation in about the year 1805, the corner of a ward in the Mas- 
sachusetts General Hospital as it appeared in 1875, and a dental office 
in Illinois during the period 1912-20. Most of the units have now been 
designed and produced for these halls under the direction of Dr. Sami 
K. Hamameh. 

Exhibits for the hall of tools, planned by curator Silvio A. Bedini 
in cooperation with exhibits designer Harry Hart, neared completion 
in the exhibits laboratory. Displays of the handtools of the black- 
smith, cooper, wheelwright, pump log maker, and woodworking trades 
were in the designing stage. In mid- June artist E. McGill Mackall 
of Baltimore installed the first unit in the new hall of tools — a large 
background painting showing skilled workmen fabricating marine 
propellers. An exhibit of a mid-19th-century machine shop was 
moved to the new building and will be erected early in the summer. 

The production of exhibits for the civil-engineering hall neared 
completion with the construction of a series of wooden arches illustrat- 
ing the American, Austrian, and English systems of tunnel timbering. 
The Bethelhem Steel Co. fabricated especially for this hall a cast- 
iron tunnel segment 10 feet in diameter, such as is used for lining 
tunnels through soft soil. The technical direction of this hall is 
the responsibility of associate curator Eobert M. Vogel, with exhibits 
designers John Brown and Harry Hart providing the design of in- 
dividual exhibits. 

In preparation for developing the exhibits in the future hall of elec- 
tricity, associate curator Bernard Finn made a study of the electrical 
exhibits in the museums of Europe. Substantial progress was made 
in the design of exhibits in the first third of the hall, devoted to wired 
communications and power. 

At the end of the year, the Pioneer locomotive of 1851 joined the 
historic engines, coaches, and streetcars now assembled in the railroad 
hall in the new Museum of History and Technology. These large, 


full-scale exhibits will be complemented by a series of models and 
specimens of equipment which will trace the history of railroads and 
street railways in the United States. Associate curator John H. White 
and exhibits designer Virginia Mahoney collaborated in the develop- 
ment and design of this hall. 

Curator Paul V. Gardner is revising his plans for the hall of ce- 
ramics in order to include important specimens received during the 
year. Recently acquired 18th-century German and English porce- 
lains, from several donors, were placed on exhibition in the Museum 
of Natural History. 

The American Petroleum Institute continued to render valuable 
assistance in the planning of exhibits for the new hall of petroleum. 
A model of the first fluid catalytic cracking plant, which began opera- 
tion at Baton Rouge, La., in May 1942 to produce high-octane gasoline 
for the United States and its allies in World War II, was placed on 
exhibit in the present petroleiun hall. 

The 50th anniversary of the establishment of the collection of dresses 
of the First Ladies of the "VVliite House was marked by the instal- 
lation of the Inaugural Ball gown and cape of Mrs. Jolin F. Kennedy. 
The project of making the mannequins of the First Ladies appear more 
lifelike has continued. The application of natural flesh tints to the 
features of more than half of the group has been completed. 

Exhibits for the hall of historic Americans, planned by curator 
Wilcomb E. Washburn in cooperation with exhibits designer Robert 
Widder, were nearing completion at the end of the year. Assistant 
curator Anne W. Murray continued to direct the fitting of historic 
women's dresses and men's suits on the mannequins to be exhibited in 
the hall of American costume. A series of 4 introductory panels has 
been designed and 15 exhibits completed for this hall. 

The exhibits in the cultural history hall in the Museum of Natural 
History were dismantled for transfer to the new Museum of History 
and Technology. The woodwork and fireplaces of the period rooms 
were carefully disassembled and moved to the new building. Twenty- 
five exhibits have been produced for the new hall of everday life in 
the American past, among them a series of units illustrating the 
influences upon early American home furnishings of cultural ele- 
ments imported by Spanish, French, British, Dutch, Flemish, Ger- 
man, and Scandinavian settlers. Installation of this hall is under 
the direction of curator C. Malcolm Watkins, and exhibits chief John 
E. Anglim designed the exhibits with the assistance of Deborah 

A difficult operation was successfully accomplished with the re- 
moval of Horatio Greenough's statue of George Washington from the 
chapel of the Smithsonian Building to the central corridor of the 


second floor of the Museum of History and Teclinology, where it 
stands at the entrance to the series of halls which will interpret the 
growth of the United States. Exhibits scripts for three of the five 
halls illustrating this growth were prepared by associate curator Peter 
Welsh in collaboration with Dr. Anthony N. B. Garvan, chairman of 
the Department of American Civilization, University of Pemisylvania. 
Exhibits designers Kobert Widder and Nadya Kayaloff prepared de- 
tailed designs for many of the units in the two halls of this series. 
George Watson restored an 18-century Peimsylvania waterwheel and 
gear-train wliich will illustrate the ingenuity and skill of the colonial 
millwright and demonstrate the use and transmission of power in his 

The production of exhibits for the hall of philately was begun, 
and 18 units have been completed. Associate curator Francis J. 
McCall and assistant curator Carl H. Scheele prepared the scripts 
for several series of exhibits in the hall devoted to the history of 
postal services in this country and abroad, methods of postal trans- 
portation, mail metering devices, and the design and production of 
U.S. stamps. Exhibits designer John Clendening is preparing the 
detailed layouts for these units. 

The history of the Armed Forces of the United States in war and 
peace is the subject of a series of exhibits in the new Museum of His- 
tory and Teclniology ; curator of military history Edgar M. Howell, 
curator of naval history Philip K. Lundeberg, and associate curator 
of naval history Melvin H. Jackson continued to write scripts and 
provide technical supervision for the design and production of these 
exhibits. A striking series of models of militarily historic ships 
was produced during the year. Other exhibits produced depict the 
role of the Army in the Mexican War, in frontier service during the 
middle 19th century, and in the Civil War, and the service of the 
Navy in the Mexican and Civil Wars. Exhibits designer Fred Craig 
designed the units for these halls. 

Design and production of exhibit units for the hall of ordnance 
are largely completed. Associate curator Craddock H. Goins sup- 
plied technical direction for the exhibits, the design of which was 
contributed by exhibits designer Jolm Brown. Among these is in- 
cluded an interpretation of the interchangeable-parts system of man- 
ufacturmg, a significant development in the history of firearms. 
Other units trace the development of naval artillery and naval guns 
and relate the history of tanks and armored warfare. Dr. Lundeberg 
prepared detailed specifications for those units concerned with the 
original Continental gunboat Philadelphia, which include original 
items of equipment recovered with the gunboat itself from the waters 
of Lake Champlain and graphic materials which help to explain 


the battle of Valconr Island on October 11, 1776, in which this gun- 
boat participated. 

Mr. Howell continued supervision of the preparation of the Star- 
Spangled Banner for exhibition in the central rotunda of the new 
building. Skilled seamstresses have sewed tapes to the flag backing 
to support this great national treasure in its new location. 

Following his appointment to the directorship of the Museum of 
Natural History, Dr. T. Dale Stewart assumed the chairmanship 
of the committee coordinating and supervising the modernization of 
exhibits in natural history ; he also continued planning and develop- 
ment of the new hall of physical anthropology. In addition to plan- 
ning for the future hall of plant life. Dr. K. S. Cowan, assistant 
director, coordinated the work of the curators and the exhibits staff 
involved in preparing exhibits for the Museum of Natural History. 

Exhibits chief John E. Anglim continued in charge of the planning 
and preparation of all exhibits and directly supervised the operation 
of the exhibit laboratory in the Natural History Building. In June, 
A. Gilbert Wright joined the staff of that laboratory to assist in its 
supervision. Julius Tretick supervised the production and installation 
of natural history exhibits. 

The installation of exhibits in four halls of the Museum of History 
and Technology was initiated late in the year. Exhibit units were 
prepared for 15 of the halls in the new museum during the past year, 
and 2 other halls were in the design stage. Assistant director John 
C. Ewers continued to coordinate the work of curators and exhibits 
staffs for the new museum. Benjamin W. Lawless supervised the 
design and production of exhibits for this museum, as well as the 
preparation of additional displays for the Air and Space Building. 
He was assisted by Bela S. Bory in production, Robert Klinger in 
the model shop, and Robert Widder in design. Carroll Lusk entered 
on duty as exhibits lighting specialist in January. The editing of 
the curators' drafts of exliibits scripts was continued by George 
Weiner, with the assistance of Constance Minkin and Edna Wright. 


For the ninth consecutive year the Junior League of Washington 
continued its volunteer docent program, conducting school classes 
from the greater Washington area through the Smithsonian museums. 
The program was carried out through the cooperation of curator G. 
Carrol Lindsay, Smithsonian Museum Service, with Mrs. Vernon 
Knight, chairman of the League's docent committee, and Mrs. Dickson 
R. Loos, cochairman. Mrs. Loos will serve as chairman for the 
forthcoming year, with Mrs. Arnold B. McKinnon as cochairman. 


During the 1962-63 school year 22,393 children were conducted 
on 783 tours, representing an increase of 8 percent over the previous 
year's participation. Since the beginning of the tour program in 
1955, more than 100,000 schoolchildren have been guided tlirough 
Smithsonian museum halls by the Junior League docents. 

Tours were conducted in the halls of everyday life in America, 
Indians of the Americas, the world of mammals, and textiles, for 
grades 3 through 6 ; and in the halls of gems and minerals, and power 
machinery, for grades 5 through junior high school. Tours in the 
everyday life in early America hall stopped at the end of November so 
that the exhibit could be moved to the new Museum of History and 
Technology. The Junior League has guided approximately 22,500 
schoolchildren through this hall since it opened in 1957. To replace 
the early America tour, a new tour through the hall of the world of 
mammals was offered beginning January 14, 1963. Four tours each 
day, 5 days a week, were offered every half hour from 10 through 11 :30 
a.m. in the halls of everyday life in early America, Indians of the 
Americas, and the world of mammals. Tours in the halls of gems and 
minerals, textiles, and power machinery were conducted on Monday 
through Friday at 10 and 11 a.m. 

Tours were conducted from October 1, 1962, through May 28, 1963, 
with the exception of the month of April 1963, when, as usual, tours 
were suspended because of the exceedingly heavy visitor traffic in all 
museum halls during the Easter and cherryblossom seasons. The 
great number of visitors to the Smithsonian museums during the early 
spring so overcrowd the exhibition halls that the school tours cannot 
be conducted satisfactorily. 

In addition to Mrs. Knight and Mrs. Loos, the members of the 
League's docent committee were : 

Mrs. A. Stuart Baldwin, Mrs. Thad H. Brown, Jr., Mrs. Challen E. Caskie, Mrs. 
Thomas R. Gate, Mrs. Dean B. Cowie, Mrs, Henry M. deButts, Mrs. Lee M. Folger, 
Mrs. Rockwood Foster, Mrs. Clark Gearhart, Mrs. George Gerber, Mrs. Gilbert 
Grosvenor, Mrs. Robert H. Harwood, Mrs. Walter M. Johnson, Jr., Mrs. Charles 
J. Kelly, Jr., Mrs. Lansing Lamont, Mrs. J. H. Lasley, Mrs. Peter Macdonald, 
Mrs. John Manfuso, Jr., Mrs. Samuel D. Marsh, Mrs. Earnest May, Mrs. Alex- 
ander McClure, Mrs. Robert McCormick, Mrs. Arnold B. McKinnon, Mrs. H. 
Roemer McPhee, Jr., Mrs. William Minshall, Jr., Mrs. L. Edgar Prina, Mrs. Arthur 
W. Robinson, Mrs. Donald M. Rogers, Mrs. Robert E. Rogers, Mrs. W. James 
Sears, Mrs. Walter Slowinski, Mrs. Joseph Smith, Jr., Mrs. James H. Stallings, 
Jr., Mrs. E. Tilman Stirling, Mrs. William R. Stratton, Mrs. Richard Wallis, and 
Mrs. Mark A. White. 

The Institution deeply appreciates the able and devoted efforts of 
these volunteers, whose services to the schools of the Washington area 
encourage effective use of the Smithsonian museum exhibits by teach- 
ers and students alike. 



During the year the new east wing of the Natural History Building 
was completed, and the department of geology and the divisions of 
birds and mollusks moved into their new quarters. For the first time 
in many years these units have adequate workrooms and laboratories 
as well as sufficient space in which to arrange the sj^stematic reference 
collections for the most effective service to the scientists who employ 
these unduplicated materials in essential research. The contract for 
the construction of the west wing and the remaining required renova- 
tion of the existing building had not been awarded at the close of the 

In May 1963, the General Services Administration accepted a lim- 
ited area of the new Museum of History and Teclinology Building 
from the general contractor. Exhibits for a nmnber of halls in this 
area have been moved to the building, and at the end of the year 
installations were proceeding in several halls concurrently. At the 
close of the year the construction of the building was estimated to be 
98 percent complete. 


Upon the retirement of Dr. A. Eemington Kellogg on October 31, 
1962, as director of the United States National Museum and as As- 
sistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Dr. Albert C. Smith, 
then director of the Museum of Natural History, was appointed As- 
sistant Secretary. Frank A. Taylor became the director of the United 
States National Museum in addition to being director of the Museum 
of History and Teclinology. 

On March 26, 1963, Mr. Taylor received one of the 10 National Civil 
Service League's career service awards for 1963. 

On November 1, 1962, Dr. T. Dale Stewart, head curator of an- 
thropology, became director of the Museum of Natural History. On 
December 9, 1962, Dr. Richard S. Cowan was appointed assistant di- 
rector of the Museum of Natural History. Dr. I. E. Wallen, formerly 
associated with the Atomic Energy Commission, was appointed assist- 
ant director for oceanography on August 5, 1962. 

During the fiscal year 1963, the following appointments were made 
to the scientific staff of the ISIuseum of Natural History : Dr. Paul J. 
Spangler, associate curator of insects, on July 8 ; George E. Watson, 
assistant curator of birds, on August 6 ; Dr. Donald Duckworth, asso- 
ciate curator of insects, on August 19; Dr. Victor G. Springer, associ- 
ate curator of fishes, on August 28 ; Dr. J. Lawrence Angel, curator of 
physical anthropology, on September 4 ; Stany wn G. Shetler, assistant 
curator of phanerogams, on September 4; Dr. Harold E. Robinson, 
associate curator of cryptogams, on October 15 ; Dr. Richard H. Eyde, 


associate curator of plant anatomy, on October 18; Dr. Francis M. 
Hueber, associate curator of invertebrate paleontology and paleo- 
botany, on November 1 ; Dr. Kichard E. Norris, associate curator of 
cryptogams, on December 4 ; Dr. Stanley H. Weitzman, associate cura- 
tor of fishes, on January 2 ; Dr. Robert H. Gibbs, Jr., associate curator 
of fislies, on January 30; Dr. Marian H. Pettibone, associate curator 
of marine invertebrates, on March 4; Dr. Martin A. Buzas, associ- 
ate curator of invertebrate paleontology and paleobotany, on June 5 ; 
Dr. Herman A. Felilmann, supervisor of the Smithsonian Oceano- 
graphic Sorting Center, on June 17; Dr. Raymond B. Mamiing, as- 
sociate curator of marine invertebrates, on June 24. 

Dr. David H. Dunkle was reinstated in liis jDosition of associate 
curator of vertebrate paleontology on December 16, 1962, after an 
absence of 2 years with the U.S. Geological Survey on assignment to 

Dr. Marshall T. Newman, associate curator of physical anthropology 
since 1942, resigned on July 6, 1962, to accept a teaching position at 
Portland State College in Oregon. 

Dr. Robert E. Snodgrass, honorar}^ collaborator since 1953 and one 
of the world's leading scholars in insect anatomy and morphology, 
died September 4, 1962, at the age of 87. At the time of his death he 
was preparing a handbook of insect morphology for students. His 
major work. Principles of Insect Morphology, published in 1935, 
stands as a basic text in the field. On the occasion of his 84th birthday 
in 1959 a special volume of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 
entitled Studies in Invertebrate Morphology, was published in his 
honor. In 1961 he was awarded the Leidy Medal by the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Among the additions to the staff of the Museum of History and 
Technology were the appointments of Dr. Bernard S. Finn as asso- 
ciate curator in charge of the division of electricity on August 20, 
1962, and J. Jefferson Miller II as assistant curator in the division 
of ceramics and glass on September 17, 1962. Miss Barbara F. Bode 
was appointed junior curator in the division of numismatics on Sep- 
tember 24, 1962. A. Gilbert Wright became assistant chief of the 
Natural History Exhibits Laboratory on June 2, 1963, coming to the 
Smithsonian Institution from the National Park Service. 

George T. Turner, associate curator in the division of philately, left 
the Museum of History and Teclinology on March 1, 1963, and Dr. 
Charles O. Houston, Jr., associate curator in the division of manufac- 
tures and heavy industries, on March 8. Dr. Lester C. Lewis, curator 
of the division of physical sciences, resigned on April 12, 1963. Joseph 
E. Rudmann of the office of head curator, department of science and 


tecluiology, transferred to a position elsewhere, effective May 10, 

Kespectf ully submitted. 

Frank A. Taylor, Director. 
Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 

Report on the 
International Exchange Service 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activities 
of the International Exchange Service for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1963 : 

The original plan of organization of the Smithsonian Institution, 
presented to the Board of Kegents by Joseph Henry in 1847, provided 
for a system of exchange of current Smithsonian publications which 
would afford the Smithsonian Institution the most ready means of en- 
tering into friendly relations and correspondence with all the learned 
societies in the world and of enricliing the Smithsonian Library with 
the current transactions and proceedings of foreign institutions. 

Wlien the first of the Smithsonian's long series of scientific publica- 
tions was published, copies were sent to scientific and learned mstitu- 
tions in foreign countries. In return, the Smithsonian Institution 
received many valuable publications from foreign institutions. To 
continue this desirable international exchange of scientific informa- 
tion, the Smithsonian Institution appointed agents in a number of 
foreign countries to distribute the Smithsonian publications. In re- 
turn, these agents received publications from foreign organizations 
which were forwarded to the Smithsonian Institution. 

In 1851 the privilege of transmitting publications through the 
Smithsonian Institution to other countries, and to receive in return 
publications from foreign institutions, was offered to governmental 
agencies, learned societies, and individuals in the United States. This 
opportunity for wide distribution of scientific publications was eagerly 
grasped and the system grew rapidly. Thus began a Smithsonian 
service that has increased steadily in usefulness, and the quantity of 
material handled has increased from a few hundred packages of pub- 
lications transmitted in 1849 to more than a million packages during 
the last fiscal year. 

In 1867 Congress provided that copies of all documents thereafter 
printed by order of either House be placed at the disposal of the Joint 
Committee on the Library to be exchanged through the agency of 
the Smithsonian Institution. This was the first official recognition 
of the Smithsonian exchange system. In 1875 there began a series of 
international meetings which led to the adoption, in 1886, of the Brus- 
sels Convention for the international exchange of literary and scientific 



publications, as well as for the exchange of governmental documents. 
The State Department requested the Smithsonian Institution to assume 
the responsibility of establishing in the United States a bureau of 
exchange to carry out the purposes of the Brussels Convention. The 
Board of Eegents of the Smithsonian Institution agreed to accept this 
responsibility, and the Smithsonian Institution has continued to carry 
out these functions up to the present time. 

The AYork of the International Exchange Service serves as a means 
of developing and executing, in part, the broad and comprehensive 
objective of the Smithsonian Institution, "the diffusion of knowledge." 
Over the years the operations of the Service have affected most bene- 
ficially the libraries of all learned institutions in the United States 
and have helped to promote the rapid growth of science through f acili- 
tatmg the international exchange of ideas. Libraries throughout the 
world have been enriched by the publications received through the 
Service from many institutions in the United States and, in turn, the 
libraries of the United States have benefited from the publications 
received from the institutions in foreign countries. 

The Service operates in this manner : Libraries, scientific societies, 
educational institutions, and individuals in the United States who wish 
to transmit their publications through the Service to foreign countries, 
on exchange or as gifts, advise the International Exchange Service 
of the names and addresses of the foreign organizations to which 
they wish to transmit their publications, and the general character and 
approximate weight of the publications they wish to send. If the 
publications are accepted for transmission, packing and shipping in- 
structions are furnished the sender. The transportation charges to 
the Smithsonian Institution must be prepaid, but there is no charge 
to the sender for the cost of transportation from the Smithsonian In- 
stitution to the intended addressees. Publications transmitted through 
the Service must be packaged and addressed by the senders. 

Shipments of addressed packages of publications are received by the 
International Exchange Service from foreign exchange bureaus for 
distribution in the United States. These packages are forwarded to 
the domestic addressees whose names and addresses appear on the 
packages. Addressed packages of publications weighing 111,609 
pounds were received during the past year from foreign sources for 
distribution in the United States. 

Publications weighing 796,622 pounds were received by the Inter- 
national Exchange Service during the year from approximately 250 
domestic sources for transmission to intended recipients in over 100 
foreigii countries. 

Packages of publications are mailed directly to the addressees in the 
countries that do not have exchange bureaus. During the past fiscal 


year the International Exchange Service mailed directly to the in- 
tended recipients in foreign countries addressed packages of publica- 
tions weighing 225,689 pounds, or 28 percent of the total poundage 
received, at a cost to the Smithsonian Institution of $51,604.18, or ap- 
proximately 23 cents per pound. 

The Service transmitted by ocean freight addressed packages of 
publications weighing 562,301 pounds, or 71 percent of the total pound- 
age received, to foreign exchange bureaus for distribution in their re- 
spective comitries. The cost to the Smithsonian Institution for 
forwarding these publications was $33,843.44, or approximately 6 cents 
per pound. Listed below are the names of the foreign exchange bu- 
reaus to which the International Exchange Service forwards addressed 
packages of publications for distribution. 


Austria : Austrian National Library, Vienna. 

Belgium: Service des iSchanges Internationaux, Bibliotheque Royale de Bel- 

gique, Bruxelles. 
China : National Central Library, Taipei, Taiwan. 
Czechoslovakia: Bureau of International Exchanges, University Library, 

Denmark: Institut Danois des :fichanges Internationaux, Biblioth&que Royale, 

Egypt : Government Press, Publications Office, Bulaq, Cairo. 
Finland : Library of the Scientific Societies, Helsinki. 

France: Service des ^changes Internationaux, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 
Germany (Eastern) : Deutsche Staatsbibliotbek, Berlin. 
Germany (Western) : Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bad Godesberg. 
Hungary: Service Hongrois des l&changes Internationaux, Orszdgos Sz^chenyl 

Konyvtiir, Budapest. 
India : Government Printing and Stationery Office, Bombay. 
Indonesia : Minister of Education, Djakarta. 
Israel : Jewish National and University Library, Jerusalem. 
Italy: Ufficio degli Scambi Internazionali, Ministero della Pubbliea Istruzione, 

Japan : Division for Interlibrary Services, National Diet Library, Tokyo- 
Korea : Korean Library Association, Seoul. 

Netherlands: International Exchange Bureau of the Netherlands, Royal Li- 
brary, The Hague. 
New South Wales : Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 
New Zealand : General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Norway : Service Norv^gien des l5changes Internationaux, Bibliotheque de I'Uni- 

versit6 Royale, Oslo. 
Philippines : Bureau of Public Libraries, Department of Education, Manila. 
Poland : Service Polonais des :fichanges Internationaux, Bibliotheque Nationale, 

Portugal: Servico Portugufis de Trocas Internacionais, Biblioteca Nacional, 



Queensland: Bureau of International Exchange of Publications, Chief Secre- 
tax-y's OflSce, Brisbane. 

Rumania: International Exchange Service, Biblioteca Centrala de Stat, Bu- 

South Australia: South Australian Government Exchanges Bureau, Govern- 
ment Printing and Stationery Office, Adelaide. 

Spain : Junta de Intercambio y Adquisici6n de Libros y Revistas para Bibliote- 
cas Publicas, Ministerio de Educaci6n Nacional, Madrid. 

Sweden : Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm. 

Switzerland: Service Suisse des ifichanges Internationaux, Biblioth^que Cen- 
trale F^derale, Berne. 

Tasmania : Secretary of the Premier, Hobart. 

Turkey : National Library, Anlsara. 

Union of South Aj^rica: Government Printing and Stationery Office, Caipe 

Union of Soviet Soclalist Republics : Bureau of Book Exchange, State Lenin 
Library, Moscow. 

Victoria : State Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Western Australia : State Library, Perth. 

Yugoslavia : Bibliografski Institut FNRJ, Belgrade. 


In accordance with treaty stipulations, conventions, and other agree- 
ments made between the United States and various foreign countries 
for the mutual exchange of oflScial publications, the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution transmits to the foreign recipients the official U.S. Govern- 
ment publications. The libraries that receive copies of all of the 
official publications are the recipients of the full sets of Government 
documents. The libraries that receive a selected list are the recipients 
of the partial sets of Government documents. During the fiscal year 
632,922 pieces weighing 220,700 pounds were received by the Smith- 
sonian Institution for transmission to the recipients of the full sets, 
and 74,951 pieces weighing 34,834 pounds were received for transmis- 
sion to the recipients of the partial sets. 


Argentina: Division Biblioteca, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Culto, 

Buenos Aires. 
Australia : Commonwealth National Library, Canberra. 

New South Wales : Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 

Queensland : Parliamentary Library, Brisbane. 

South Australia : Public Library of South Australia, Adelaide. 

Tasmania : Parliamentary Library, Hobart. 

Victoria : State Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Western Australia : State Library, Perth. 
Austria : Administrative Library, Federal Chancellery, Vienna. 
Belgium : Service Beige des ^changes Internationaux, Bruxelles.* 
Brazil : Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, 
Burma : Government Book Depot, Rangoon. 

See footDotes, p. 72. 


Canada : Library of Parliament, Ottawa. 

Manitoba : Provincial Library, Winnipeg. 

Ontario: Legislative Library, Toronto. 

Quebec : Library of the Legislature of the Province of Quebec. 

Saskatchewan : Legislative Library, Regina.^ 
Ceylon : Department of Information, Government of Ceylon, Colombo. 
Chile : Biblioteca Nacional, Santiago. 
China : National Central Library, Taipei, Taiwan. 

National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan. 
Colombia : Biblioteca Nacional, Bogota.. 
Costa Riga : Biblioteca Nacional, San Jose. 
Cuba: Direccion de Organismos Internacionales, Ministerio cle Relaciones Ex- 

teriores, Habana. 
Czechoslovakia : University Library, Prague. 

Denmark : Institut Danois des fichanges Internationaux, Copenhagen. 
Egypt: Bureau des Publications, Minist^re des Finances, Cairo. 
Finland : Parliamentary Library, Helsinki. 
France: Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 
Germany : Deutsche Staatsbibliothek, Berlin. 

Free University of Berlin, Berlin-Dahlem. 

Parliamentary Library, Bonn. 
Great Britain : 

British Museum, London. 

London School of Economics and Political Science. (Depository of the 
London County Council.) 
India : National Library, Calcutta. 

Central Secretariat Library, New Delhi. 

Parliament Library, New Delhi. 
Indonesia : Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Djakarta. 
Ireland : National Library of Ireland, Dublin. 
Israel : State Archives and Library, Hakirya, Jerusalem. 
Italy : Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione, Rome. 
Japan : National Diet Library, Tokyo.^ 
Mexico: Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores, Departamento de Informacion 

para el Extranjero, Mexico, D.F. 
Netherlands : Royal Library, The Hague. 
New Zealand : General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Norway : Utenriksdepartmentets Bibliothek, Oslo. 

Peru: Secci6n de Propaganda y Publicaciones, Ministerio de Relaciones Ex- 
teriores, Lima. 
Philippines : Bureau of Public Libraries, Department of Education, Manila. 
Portugal : Biblioteca Nacional, Lisbon. 
Spain : Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid. 
Sweden : Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm. 
Switzerland: Bibliotheque Centrale F6derale, Berne. 
Turkey : National Library, Ankara. 

Union of South Africa : State Library, Pretoria, Transvaal. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : All-Union Lenin Library, Moscow, 
United Nations : Library of the United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland. 
Uruguay : Oficina de Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, Montevideo. 
Venezuela : Biblioteca Nacional, Caracas. 
Yugoslavia : Bibliograf ski Institut FNR J, Belgrade.^ 

See footnotes, p. 72. 



Afghanistan : Library of the Afghan Academy, Kabul. 

Belgium : Bibliotheque Royale, Bruxelles. 

Bolivia : Biblioteca del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Culto, La Paz. 

Brazil : Minas Gekais : Departmeuto Estadul de Estatistica, Belo Horizonte. 

British Guiana : Government Secretary's Office, Georgetown, Demerara. 

Cambodia : Les Archives et Bibliotheque Nationale, Phnom-Penh.* 

Canada : 

Alberta : Provincial Library, Edmonton. 

British Columbia: Provincial Library, Victoria. 

New Brunswick : Legislative Library, Fredericton. 

Newfoundland : Department of Provincial Affairs, St. John's. 

Nova Scotia : Provincial Secretary of Nova Scotia, Halifax. 
Dominican Republic : Biblioteca de la Universidad de Santo Domingo, Santo 

Ecuador : Biblioteca Nacional, Quito. 
El Salvador: 

Biblioteca Nacional, San Salvador. 

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, San Salvador. 
Greece : National Library, Athens. 
Guatemala : Biblioteca Nacional, Guatemala. 
Haiti : Bibliotheque Nationale, Port-au-Prince. 
Honduras : 

Biblioteca Nacional, Tegucigalpa. 

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Tegucigalpa. 
Iceland : National Library, Reykjavik. 

Bombay : Sachivalaya Central Library, Bombay.' 

Bihar: Revenue Department, Patna. 

Kerala : Kerala Legislature Secretariat, Trivandrum. 

Uttar Pradesh : 

University of Allahabad, Allahabad. 
Secretariat Library, Lucknow. 

West Bengal: Library, West Bengal Legislative Secretariat, Assembly 
House, Calcutta. 
Iran : Imperial Ministry of Education, Tehran. 
Iraq : Public Library, Baghdad. 
Jamaica : 

Colonial Secretary, Kingston. 

University College of the West Indies, St. Andrew. 
Lebanon : American University of Beirut, Beirut. 
Liberia : Department of State, Monrovia. 

Malaya : Federal Secretariat, Federation of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. 
Malta : Minister for the Treasury, Valletta. 
Nicaragua : Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Managua. 
Pakistan : Central Secretariat Library, Karachi. 
Panama : IMinisterio de Relaciones Exteriores, Pananic^. 

Paraguay : Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Seecion Biblioteca, Asuncion. 
Philippines : House of Representatives, Manila. 
Scotland : National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh. 

See footnotes, p. 72. 


SiNGAPOKE : Chief Secretary, Government Offices, Singapore. 

Sudan : Gordon Memorial College, Khartoum. 

Thailand : National Library, Bangkok. 

Vietnam : Direction des Archives et Bibliotheqnes Nationales, Saigon. 


There are being sent abroad through the International Exchange 
Service 87 copies of the daily issues of the Federal Register and 105 
copies of the daily issues of the Congressional Record. The names and 
addresses of the recipients of the official journals are listed below : 

recipients of the congressional record and federal register 

Argentina : 

Biblioteca del Poder Judicial, Mendoza." 

Direccion General del Boletin Oficial e Imprentas, Buenos Aires. 

CAmara de Diputados Oflcina de Informacidn Parliamentaria, Buenos Aires. 
Australia : 

Commonvpealth National Library, Canberra. 

New South Wales : Library of Parliament of New South Wales, Sydney. 

Queensland : Chief Secretary's Office, Brisbane. 

Victoria : State Library of Victoria, Melbourne.'* 

Western Australia : Library of Parliament of Western Australia, Perth. 
Basutoland : Clerk to the Legislative Council, Maseru.' * 
Belgium, Bibliothfeque du Parlement, Palais de la Nation, Brussels.* 
Brazil : 

Biblioteca da CSmara dos Deputados, Brasilia, D.F.* 

Secretaria da Presidencia, Rio de Janeiro.* 
British Honduras : Colonial Secretary, Belize. 
Cambodia : Ministry of Information, Phnom Penh. 
Cameroon: Imprimerie Nationale, Yaound6.^* 
Canada : 

Clerk of the Senate, Houses of Parliament, Ottawa. 

Library of Parliament, Ottawa. 
Ceylon : Ceylon Ministry of Defense and External Affairs, Colombo.* 
Chile : Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional, Santiago.* 
China : 

Legislative Yuan, Taipei, Taiwan.* 

Taiwan Provincial Government, Taipei, Taiwan. 

Biblioteca del Capitolio, Habana. 

Biblioteca Piiblica Panamericana, Habana.' 
Czechoslovakia : Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved. Prague.* 
Egypt : Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Egyptian Government, Cairo.* 
Finland : Library of the Parliament, Helsinki,* 
France : 

Biblioth&que Assembl6e Nationale, Paris. 

Bibliothfeque Conseil de la Republique, Paris. 

Library, Organization for European Economic Cooperation, Paris.* 

Research Department, Council of Europe, Strasbourg.* 

Service de la Documentation l5trang6re Assemblee Nationale, Paris.* 
Gabon: Secretary General, A^sembl^e Nationale, Libreville.^* 

See footnotes, p. 72. 


Gebmany : 

Amerika Institut der Universitat Miinchen, Miinchen.* 

Archiv, Deutscher Bundestag, Bonn. 

Bibliothek des Instituts fiir Weltwirtschaft an der Universitat Kiel, 

Bibliothek Hessiseher Landtag, Wiesbaden.* 

Deutsches Institut fiir Rechtswissenschaft, Potsdam-Babelsberg IT.* 

Deutscher Bundesrat, Bonn.* 

Deutscher Bundestag, Bonn.* 

Hamburgisches Welt-Wirtschafts-Archiv, Hamburg. 

Westdeutsche Bibliothek, Marburg, Hessen.* * 
Ghana : Chief Secretary's Office, Accra.* 
Great Britain : 

Department of Printed Books, British Museum, London. 

House of Ckimmons Library, London.* 

N.P.P. Warehouse, H.M. Stationery Office, London." * 

Printed Library of the Foreign Office, London.* 

Royal Institute of International Affairs, London.* 
Greece : Bibliothfeque Chambre des D^put^s, Hellenique, Athens. 
Guatemala : Biblioteca de la Asamblea Legislativa, Guatemala. 
Haiti : Bibliothdque Nationale, Port-au-Prince. 
Honduras : Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional, Tegucigalpa, 
Hungary : Orszdgos Sz^chenyi Konyvtar, Budapest. 

Civil Secretariat Library, Lucknow, United Provinces.' 

Indian Council of World Affairs, New Delhi,* 

Jammu and Kashmir Constituent Assembly, Srinagar.* 

Legislative Assembly, Government of Assam, Shillong.* 

Legislative Assembly Library, Lucknow, United Provinces. 

Kerala Legislature Secretariat, Trivandnuu.* 

Madras State Legislature, Madras.* 

Parliament Library, New Delhi. 

Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Poona.* 
Ireland : Dail Eireann, Dublin. 
Israel : Library of the Knesset, Jerusalem. 

Biblioteca Camera dei Deputati, Rome. 

Biblioteca del Senato della Republica, Rome. 

International Institute for the Unification of Private Law, Rome.' 

Periodicals Unit, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 

Library of the National Diet, Tokyo. 

Ministry of Finance, Tokyo. 
Jordan : Parliament of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Amman.* 
Korea : Library, National Assembly, Seoul. 
Luxembourg : Assembl6e Commune de la C.B.C.A., Luxembourg. 
Mexico : 

Direccion. General Informacion, Secretaria de Governaci6n, Mexico, D.F. 

Biblioteca Benjamin Franklin, Mexico, D.F. 

Aguascalientes : Gobernador del Estado de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes. 

Baja California : Gobernador del Distrito Norte, Mexicali. 

Campeche : Gobernador del Estado de Cami)eche, Campeche. 

See footnotes, p. 72. 


Mexico — Continued 

Chiapas : Gobernador del Estado de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez. 

Chihuahua : Gobernador del Estado de Chihuahua, Chihuahua. 

Coahuila: Periodic© Oficial del Estado de Coahuila, Palacio de Gobierno, 

CoLiMA : Gobernador del Estado de Colima, Colima. 

Guanajuato : Secretaria General de Gobierno del Estado, Guanajuato.* 

Jalisco : Biblioteca del Estado, Guadalajara. 

Mexico : Gaceta del Gobierno, Toluca. 

Michoacan : Secretaria General de Gobierno del Estado de MichoacSn, 

MoBELOS : Palacio de Gobierno, Cuernavaca. 

Nayarit : Gobernador de Nayarit, Tepic. 

NuEVO Leon : Biblioteca del Estado, Monterrey. 

Oaxaca : Periodico Oficial, Palacio de Gobierno, Oaxaca.^ 

PuEBLA : Secretaria General de Gobierno, Puebla. 

QuEBETARO : Secretaria General de Gobierno, Secci6n de Archive, Queretaro. 

SiNALOA : Gobernador del Estado de Sinaloa, CuliacSn. 

SoNORA : Gobernador del Estado de Sonora, Hermosillo. 

Tamaulipas : Secretaria General de Gobierno, Victoria. 

Veracruz: Gobernador del Estado de Veracruz, Departamento de Gober- 
naci6n y Justicia, Jalapa. 

Yucatan : Gobernador del Estado de Yucatan, Merida. 
Netherlands : Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague.^ 
New Zealand : General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Nigeria : Office of the Clerk of the Legislature, Enugu.^ * 
Norway : Library of the Norwegian Parliament, Oslo. 
Pakistan : Secretary, Provincial Assembly West Pakistan, Lahore.^ * 
Panama : Biblioteca Nacional, Panama City.* 
Philippines : House of Representatives, Manila. 
Poland : Kancelaria Eady Panstwa, Biblioteka Sejmowa, Warsaw. 
Portuguese Timor : Repartigao Central de Administragao Civil, Dili." 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland : Federal Assembly, Salisbury.^ 
Rumania : Biblioteca Centrala de Stat RPR, Bucharest. 
Spain : Boletin Oficial del Estado, Presidencia del Gobierno, Madrid." 
Sweden : Universitetsbiblioteket, Uppsala.* 
Switzerland : 

International Labour Office, Geneva." ^ 

Library, United Nations, Geneva. 
Tanganyika : Library, University College, Dar es Salaam.^ * 
Togo: Ministere d'Etat, de I'lnterieur, de I'lnformation et de la Presse, Lome. 
Union of South Africa : 

Cape of Good Hope : Library of Parliament, Cape Town, 

Transvaal : State Library, Pretoria. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : Fundamental'niia Biblioteka Obshchest- 

vennykh Nauk, Moscow. 
Uruguay: Diario Oficial, Calle Florida 1178, Montevideo. 
YuGOSLAVL^ : Bibliografski Institut FNR J, Belgrade.^ 

^ Added during the 

^ Receives two sets. 

•"' Change in name. 

* Congressional Record only. 

s Federal Register only. 

« Three copies. 

"Two copies. 



The International Exchange Service accepts publications for trans- 
mission to addressees in all countries except to the mainland of China, 
North Korea, and Communist-controlled areas of Vietnam but will 
not accept packages of publications from domestic sources intended 
for addressees in the United States or in a territory subject to the 
jurisdiction of the United States. 

The number and weight of the packages received from sources in 
the United States for transmission abroad, and the number and weight 
of packages received from foreign sources intended for domestic 
addressees, are classified in the accompanying table. 

Received by the Smithsonian Institution for 


For transmission abroad 

For distribution in tlie 
United States 

Nmnber of 

Weight in 

Number o( 

Weight In 

U.S. parliamentary documents re- 
ceived for transmission abroad 

715, 347 

287, 664 

Publications received from foreign 
sources for U.S. parliamentary ad- 

12, 568 

14, 124 

U.S. departmental documents re- 
ceived for transmission abroad 

235, 396 

253, 131 

Publications received from foreign 
sources for U.S. departmental ad- 
dressees -- -- 


12, 090 

Miscellaneous scientific and literary 
publications received for transmis- 
sion abroad 

191, 187 

255, 827 

Miscellaneous scientific and literary 
publications received from abroad 
for distribution in the United 

47, 069 

85, 395 


1, 141, 930 

796, 622 

64, 190 

111, 609 

Total packages received 

1, 206, 120 

Total pounds received 

908, 231 

Respectfully submitted. 

Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

J. A. Collins, Chief. 

Report on the Bureau of 
American Ethnology 

Sm: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1963, conducted in 
accordance with the act of Congress of April 10, 1928, as amended 
August 22, 1949, which directs the Bureau "to continue independently 
or in cooperation anthropological researches among the American 
Indians and the natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection of 
the United States and the excavation and preservation of archeologic 


Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., director of the Bureau, devoted most 
of the fiscal year to office duties and to general supervision of the 
activities of the Bureau and the River Basin Surveys. 

Early in August, at the invitation of the Czechoslovak Academy of 
Sciences, Dr. Henry B. Collins, anthropologist, attended a meeting of 
the Permanent Council of the International Congress of Anthropo- 
logical and Etlinological Sciences in Prague. Following the meetings 
the delegates were taken on a week's tour to visit ethnographic mu- 
seums and inspect paleolithic and neolithic sites being excavated by 
Czech archeologists in Bohemia, Moravia, and Slovakia. 

On November 9-10 Dr. Collins participated in a symposium on Pre- 
historic Man in the New World held at Rice University, Houston, Tex., 
in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the university. His paper, 
discussing the present status and problems of archeological research in 
the American Arctic and subarctic, together with those of the 16 other 
participants in the symposium, will appear in a volume to be pub- 
lished by the University of Chicago Press. Dr. Collins's paper "Bering 
Strait to Greenland," evaluating the results of recent archeological 
discoveries in the American Arctic and their bearing on the problem 
of the origin and relationships of Eskimo culture, was published in 
December 1962 in Technical Paper No. 11, Arctic Institute of North 
America. Another paper, "Stefansson as an Anthropologist," was 
published in the Stefansson memorial issue of Polar Notes, No. 4- 

In December Dr. Collins was reelected to a 3-year term on the board 
of governors of the Arctic Institute of North America. He continued 


to serve as a member of the Institute's publications committee and as 
cliairman of the directing conmiitteo which is responsible for prepara- 
tion of the Arctic Bibliography, a reference work which sunnnarizes 
and indexes the contents of scientific publications in all fields, and in 
all languages, pertaining to the Arctic and subarctic regions of the 
world. The material for Volume 11 of tlie bibliography, edited by 
Marie Tremaine, was delivered to the Govermnent Prmting Office in 
October 1962. Approximately 1,500 pages in size, it will contain 
abstracts in English of 6,607 publications, of which 2,990 are of books, 
monographs, and papers published in Eussian, 2,638 in English, and 
979 in Scandinavian, German, French, and other languages. Ameri- 
can scientists and others interested in following the course of scientific 
research and economic and social developments in the northern parts 
of the Soviet Union find the bibliography a valuable source of informa- 
tion, including as it does English abstracts of Soviet publications on 
such widely varied subjects as acclimatization, acculturation, adminis- 
tration and government, aerial mapping and recomiaissance, agri- 
culture, archeology, botany and zoology, construction, economic condi- 
tions, education, electric power, fishes and fisheries, forestry, geology 
and geophysics, hydrology, ice navigation, maps and mapping, 
meteorology, mineral resources, mines and mining, oceanography, pale- 
ontology, public health and medicine, petroleum, petrology, railroads, 
transportation, wildlife conservation and management, etc. Abstracts 
of anthropological publications have formed a substantial part of the 
A7'ctic Bibliography from the beginning of the project. An attempt 
has been made, with considerable success, to summarize and index the 
contents of every paper that has been written on the Eskimos of 
Siberia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland; the Tlingit, Haida, and 
Tsimshian Indians of the Northwest Coast ; the northern Athapaskans 
and Algonkians ; and the native peoples of northern Eurasia. 

The Arctic Institute's Russian translation project — Anthropology 
of the North: Translations from Russian Sources — which Dr. Collins 
organized in 1960, continued its operations under a renewed grant 
from the National Science Foundation and the editorship of Dr. Henry 
N. Michael. The third volume of the series, an English translation of 
the late M. G. Levin's definitive work on the anthropology of north- 
eastern Asia {Ethnic Origins of the Peoples of Northeastern Asia), 
was published by the University of Toronto Press in May 1963. Addi- 
tional translations of Russian publications on Arctic anthropology 
are in the course of preparation. 

Dr. William C. Sturtevant attended the 35th International Congress 
of Americanists (Mexico City, August 19-25), the joint annual meet- 
ings of the American Indian Ethnohistoric Conference and the Con- 
ference on Iroquois Research (Albany, October 12-14) , the 61st annual 


meeting of the American Anthropological Association (Chicago, No- 
vember 15-18), and the annual meeting of the Central States 
Anthropological Society (Detroit, May 16-18). At the last he 
participated in a symposium on primitive art. 

Dr. Sturtevant's time in Washington was devoted to continuing 
research on the Iroquois and Seminole, to preparation of a paper 
titled "Studies in Ethnoscience" which he presented at the Social 
Science Kesearch Comicil's Conference on Transcultural Studies of 
Cognitive Systems (Merida, Yucatan, April 17-20), and to his duties 
as book-review editor of the American Anthropologist. Papers by 
him were published in the Florida Anthropologist and in Ethnohlstory. 

In July Dr. Sturtevant spent about 2 weeks continuing etlino- 
graphic fieldwork among the Seneca-Cayuga of Oklahoma, which he 
had begun the previous summer. This research, supported by a grant 
from the American Philosophical Society, is providing data on the 
most extreme variant of Iroquois culture, particularly on religion and 
ceremonial aspects, which casts a new light on the relatively well- 
known culture of the modern Iroquois communities in New York and 
Ontario. In October Dr. Sturtevant spent a few days on the Six 
Nations Reserve in Ontario, observing an important Iroquois religious 
ceremony and making inquiries for comparison with his Oklahoma 
data. In addition to this fieldwork. Dr. Sturtevant conducted archival 
research on the Oklahoma Seneca-Cayuga in the Indian Archives 
Division of the Oklahoma Historical Society in Oklahoma City 
(July 23-24) and museum research on Florida Seminole and other 
eastern Indian material in the Milwaukee Public Museum (Novem- 
ber 19-21 ) and in the College Museum of Hampton Institute, Hamp- 
ton, Va. (June 8-9). 

In November Dr. Robert M. Laughlin, ethnologist, began fieldwork 
in Chiapas, Mexico, where he collected and recorded ethnographic 
and linguistic materials, particularly myths and dreams, as well as 
numerous prayers, from the Tzotzil Indians of Zinacantan, Chiapas, 
and surrounding areas. A vocabulary of 2,200 items of the dialect 
of Zinacantan collected by Lore M. Colby in 1960 has been expanded 
to 4,000 by Dr. Laughlin. He recorded a series of 26 dreams in Tzotil 
from a Zinacantan informant. Because specific dream experiences 
determine the selection of shamans from the community and also pro- 
voke new religious feasts, it is expected that dreams will illuminate 
many aspects of Zinacantan world view. This material is being pre- 
pared for publication. 

Dr. Laughlin utilized the results of a week of ethnographic re- 
search in the Huastec area of the States of San Luis Potosi and 
Veracruz, Mexico, in January 1963, to supplement library research 
for the preparation of the chapter "Huastec" for the Handbook of 


Middle American Indians. Another chapter for the Handhooh^ en- 
titled "Tzotzil," is in preparation. Dr. Laughlin returned to Wash- 
ington in mid-May to check on data he had obtained in the field and 
to consult references in various libraries, and on June 14 left again 
for Mexico to continue his held studies. 


The River Basin Surveys, the unit of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology organized to cooperate with the National Park Service and 
the Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of the Interior, the 
Corps of Engineers of the Department of the Army, and State and 
local institutions in the program for salvage archeology in areas to 
be flooded or otherwise destroyed by the construction of large dams, 
continued its activities. An increase in funds made possible an ex- 
pansion of the program throughout the Missouri Basin. The investi- 
gations during 1962-63 were supported by a transfer of $271,000 from 
the National Park Service, a carryover of $64,498 Missouri Basin 
money, a grant of $7,285 from the Appalachian Power Co., and a 
carryover of $4,080 from an earlier contribution by the Idaho Power 
Co. The National Park Ser\'ice funds were to support the investiga- 
tions in the Missouri Basin, and the grant from the Appalachian 
Power Co. was to provide for archeological excavations along the 
Roanoke River in southem Virginia where the Smith Mountain 
Project is nearing completion. The balance from the Idaho Power 
Co. came from a grant originally made to conduct researches in the 
Hells Canyon Reservoir area along the Snake River, Idaho-Oregon, 
and the work this year was a continuation of that project. This par- 
ticular investigation was carried on as a cooperative project between 
the River Basin Surveys and the Museum of Idaho State College at 
Pocatello. The grand total of funds available for the River Basin 
Surveys in 1962-68 was $346,863. 

Activities in the field pertained, in large part, to surveys and ex- 
cavations. Most of the work was concentrated in the digging or 
testing of sites but surveys were made in six new reservoir basins. 
Five of the new reservoirs were in Kansas ; the sixth was in Nebraska. 
At the beginning of the fiscal year, nine excavating parties were in 
the field in the Missouri Basin and one survey party was operating 
in Montana. In September, digging was started in the Smith Moun- 
tain Reservoir area in southern Virginia, and in October a small group 
collected pollen samples from areas in western Nebraska. During 
February and early March one party excavated a site along the Chat- 
tahoochee River in Georgia. In May, a small group worked for a 
short period in South Dakota, while another made the reconnaissance 
of the six reservoirs previously mentioned. Also during May a party 


returned to the Smith Mountain area. During June, 11 parties began 
operations in the Missouri Basin and were fully occupied in the ex- 
cavation program at the end of the fiscal year. 

As of June 30, 1963, archeological surveys and excavations had been 
made, since the start of the salvage program, in a total of 264 reser- 
voir areas located in 29 different States. Furthermore, two lock proj- 
ects, four canal areas, and two watershed areas had also been ex- 
amined. Since 1946, when the program got underway, 5,009 sites have 
been located and recorded; of that number, 1,175 were recommended 
for excavation or limited testing. Because of the conditions under 
which the salvage operations need to be conducted, complete excava- 
tions, except in the case of a few small sites, are rarely possible. Conse- 
quently, when the term "excavation" is used, it generally implies that 
only about 10 percent of a site was dug. 

By the end of the year, 484 sites in 54 reservoir basins and one 
watershed area had either been tested or excavated to the degree where 
good information about them had been obtained. It has been the 
policy of the River Basin Surveys to dig in at least one example of 
the various kinds of sites reported in the preliminary surveys. The 
sites range in nature from those which were simple camping areas, 
occupied by early hunting and gathering Indians of about 10,000 years 
ago, to village remains left by historic Indians of the mid-19th cen- 
tury. In addition, the remains of frontier trading posts of European 
origin and of Army installations have also been examined. The re- 
sults of the investigations have been incorporated in reports which 
have been published in various scientific journals, in the Bureau of 
American Ethnology Bulletins, and in the Miscellaneous Collections 
of the Smithsonian Institution. River Bashi Survey.<i Paper No. 25, 
which constitutes Bureau Bulletin 182, pertaining to the work done in 
the John H. Kerr Reservoir Basin on the Roanoke River, Yirginia- 
N'orth Carolina, was published in October. River Basin Surveys 
Papers Nos. 26-32, which report on investigations in North Dakota, 
Montana, and Kansas, and comprise Bulletin 185, were released during 
June. Reports on other investigations in the two Dakotas and 
Kansas, consisting of Ri'ver Basin Surveys Papers 33-38, constituting 
Bulletin 189, were sent to the Printing Office early in the fiscal year 
and will be ready for distribution shortly after the beginning of the 
new year. Various members of the staff cooperated with representa- 
tives of other Federal agencies in the preparation of short popular 
pamphlets about some of the major reservoir projects. These pam- 
phlets were published by the cooperating agency and are distributed at 
the visitors' center for the reservoir concerned. 

As in previous years, the River Basin Surveys received helpful 
cooperation from the National Park Service, the Bureau of Reclama- 


tion, the Corps of Engineers, the Geological Survey, and numerous 
State and local institutions. The party leaders were assisted in many 
ways by the field persomiel of all the cooperating agencies, and the 
relationship was excellent in all areas. The National Park Service 
contmued to serve as liaison between the various agencies, both in 
Washington and in the field. The Park Service also prepared the 
budget estimates and justifications for the fimds needed to support the 
salvage program. 

General direction and supervision of the program were continued 
by the mam office in Washington. Work in the Missouri Basin was 
directed by the field headquarters and laboratory at Lincoln, Nebr. 
The projects in southern Virginia and Georgia were supervised by 
the Washington office. 

Washington Oflce. — Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., continued the 
direction of the main headquarters of the River Basin Surveys in 
the Bureau of American Ethnology throughout the year. Harold A. 
Huscher and Carl F. Miller, archeologists, were based at that office. 
Mr. Huscher had just returned from the Walter F. George Dam and 
Lock area on the Chattahoochee River below Columbus, Ga., at the 
begiiming of the fiscal year. He remained in the office during the 
summer and fall months, working on the accumulating records and 
collections from the 4 preceding years. Jn November he attended 
the Southeastern Archeological Conference and the Conference on 
Historic Site Archeology at Moimd State Park, Moundville, Ala., 
reading a report on the "Archaic of the Walter F. George Reservoir 
Area." On November 10 and 11, he attended the Eastern States 
Archeological Conference at Athens, Ga., reading a paper on "Generic 
Western Names Identifiable in the Southeast." On November 22-24, 
he participated m the 20th Annual Plains Conference at Lincoln, 
Nebr., where he discussed "Southern Athapaskan Names in Early 
Spanish Records." Early in February he returned to Georgia and 
completed emergency excavations at a site just south of the City of 
Columbus. In May he attended the joint meeting of the Society for 
American Archeology and the American Association of Physical 
Anthropologists at Boulder, Colo., reading a paper on "Intermontane 
Athapaskan Continuities." At the close of the fiscal year he was work- 
ing on liis materials from the Walter F. George Reservoir area. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Mr. Miller was in charge of an 
excavating party at the Tuttle Creek Reservoir area in northern 
Kansas. The results of his activities there are covered in the follow- 
ing section on the Missouri Basin. On September 10 he left for 
the Smith Mountain and Leesville Reservoir area in southern Vir- 
ginia and carried on excavations there until November 18, when 
weather conditions made it advisable to terminate digging until spring. 


While in the Washington office he worked on materials he had pre- 
viously collected in Georgia and also started detailed studies on the 
ceramic material he had obtained while digging at Russell Cave in 
Alabama. He also examined numerous archeological specimens sent 
to the Washington office by private collectors. In January he as- 
sisted in setting up a series of archeological exhibits at one of the 
schools in Newport News, Va. He also completed two short papers 
for publication, one describing certain polyhedral cores found in 
Kansas, the other discussing Chenopodium weeds as a source of food 
for Southeastern Indians. On May 15, Mr. Miller left Washington 
for Eocky Mount, Va., to resume his investigations in the Smith Moun- 
tain Reservoir Project area, and at the end of the year he and his 
small field party were digging in one of the best sites found in 
that locality. 

Alabama-Georgia. — Harold A. Huscher spent the week of Novem- 
ber 4-10 at the Walter F. George Reservoir, checking and photograph- 
ing sites as they were being progressively flooded by the rising waters 
of the reservoir. At the upper end of the reservoir the historically 
important Coweta Town House site, 1 RU 9, where Oglethorpe 
held a peace conference with the Creek chiefs in 1739, was being 
destroyed by grading for the new Phoenix City dock development. 

The Walker Street site (Key School site) , 9 ME 60, reported by 
David W. Chase, Fort Benning Infantry Museum, was being destroyed 
by an eroding drainage ditch and immediate salvage operations were 
recommended. Huscher returned to Georgia on February 7, 1063, 
and, working under an emergency grant, investigated this site, which 
proved to be an Early Woodland occupation level buried in a natural 
levee of the Chattahoochee River south of Columbus. With the as- 
sistance of David W. Chase of the Infantry Museum, power equip- 
ment was used in stripping the overburden from 1,600 square feet 
of the site. The exposed camp layers were then excavated using 
power-screening techniques. Post holes in linear and curvilinear 
arrangements were recorded, but no complete house patterns were 
worked out. Twenty occupational features, including pits and 
hearths, were recorded. Over 3,000 sherds and stone artifacts were 
recovered, of which 1,000 were sherds of the sand-tempered fine- 
checked (Cartersville Check Stamped) types. There were 40 exam- 
ples of the tetrapodal pot-base and 9 examples of the subrectangular 
flat pot-base, characteristic of the late Deptford Period. Minority 
pottery types were, in descending frequency, large check stamped, 
complicated stamped, linear check stamped, and simple stamped. A 
few sherds showed combinations of check stamped and complicated 
stamped, possibly transitional Deptford-Swift Creek forms belonging 
with Willey's New River Complicated Stamped. The characteristic 


point is triangular, thick cross-section, slightly excurvate sides, with 
baseline either straight, slightly concave, or slightly convex. The 
assemblage, seemingly a manifestation late in the Deptford Period, 
with some early traits of the Swift Creek complex appearing, most 
closely parallels that found in the submound and primary mounds 
at the Stark's Clay Landing site, 9 CLA 1 ("Mandeville Mound," 
University of Georgia), and the Mound at the Upper Francis Land- 
ing, 1 BR 15 ("Shorter Site," University of Alabama), and the 
Early Woodland level at the Russell Cave. 

Idaho-Oregon. — Under an agreement with the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, the Idaho State University Museum undertook archeological 
recoimaissance and excavations in the Hells Canyon Reservoir on the 
Snake River between Idaho and Oregon. Fieldwork began on March 
25, 1963, and concluded June 20, 1963. The project was under the 
general supervision of Dr. Earl H. Swanson, director of the museum. 
Max G. Pavesic, a graduate student at the University of Colorado, 
directed the fieldwork and was assisted by Roger Nance, Washing- 
ton State University, and by David Wyatt, University of Wash- 

Field headquarters were maintained at Oxbow Dam, where the 
Idaho Power Co. generously made available a trailer for residence 
and for laboratory work. Additional assistance during the excavation 
was given by the Morrison-Knudsen Corp., which provided the field 
party with a bulldozer. Grateful acknowledgment is also due to 
Jess Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Amos Camp, Dan Cole, Ross Parker, Ralph 
Page, and Rudy Lanning for the help they gave. 

The field studies were conducted throughout by tliree men whose 
work included intensive reconnaissance and excavation at an impor- 
tant village site (No. 10-AM-l). Ten archeological sites were lo- 
cated which were not reported in the original survey of Hells Canyon 
(Columbia Basin Project, River Basin Surveys, Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, 1951). These include three rockshelters, seven camp sites, 
and numerous rock cairns. Five cairns were excavated. The first 
was excavated entirely by hand because these appear to be a type 
of archeological feature. Cairns of this nature are constructed of 
large boulders, which sometimes weigh several tons and which are 
covered by earth. Reports of burials beneath the cairns were given 
to the crew, but no archeological materials or data were obtained 
from them and they remain unexplained at this time. 

An important village site was given careful attention by the field 
party. Two adjacent housepits, as well as the area between, were in- 
tensively examined by excavation. These lie on a north-south axis 
parallel to the river. The largest structure is approximately 25 feet 
in diameter, while the smaller measures approximately 12 feet across. 


It could not be determined whether there was any superimposition of 
the structures. Stratigraphically, and by the artifact inventory, the 
housepits appear to be contemporaneous. In both, the house fill is not 
more than 31/^ feet in depth. Little soil change was fomid in the fill, 
which was a dark loam near the top but became sandier with depth. 
Above the sterile soil, yelloAv sand and gravel, an ash layer is found 
throughout the limits of the housepits. Stratigraphically, there 
appears to be only one cultural occupation. 

Large quantities of tools, flakes, and bones were recovered, which 
indicate both intensive occupation and use of the area for hunting 
purposes. Preliminary examination of tlie artifacts suggests that 
occupation was late in prehistoric time, possibly early historic, and 
similarities can be seen with the Camas Prairie Phase reported at the 
Weis Rockshelter on Camas Prairie (B. Robert Butler, Contributions 
to the Prehistory of the Columbia Plateau, Occasional Papers No. 9 
of the Idaho College Museum) . 

Missouri Basin. — At the beginning of fiscal year 194:7 the Missouri 
Basin Project of the River Basin Surveys began its operations from 
the field headquarters and laboratory in Lincoln, Nebr. The Project 
has carried on its activities for 17 consecutive years from that location. 
The office and laboratory were at first housed with the Laboratory of 
Anthropology in the basement of the Social Sciences Building. They 
were then moved to a basement hallway of the University of Nebraska 
Library. Shortly thereafter much more space was made available in 
the basement of the just-completed Burnett Hall on the University 
campus, and the Laboratory of Anthropology and the project again 
joined forces. By 1950, both the project and the Laboratory of An- 
thropology had outgrown this space, and the Missouri Basin Project 
rented a building at 1517 O Street. The project laboratory was 
transferred to the new location, but offices were maintained in Burnett 
Hall. In 1953 the offices were moved to O Street and the entire project 
operated from that location for the following 10 years. During the 
present fiscal year expansion of the project and deterioration of the 
upper floors of the building at 1517 O Street made new quarters an 
absolute necessity. On May 1, 1963, the Missouri Basin Project rented 
a one-story building at 1835 P Street in Lincoln and moved to that 
location. It is a relatively new, fireproof building of 14,000 square 
feet, with all laboratory, storage, and office facilities on one floor. 

Activities during the current fiscal year, as in past years, included 
surveys, excavations, analyses of materials, and reporting of results 
of the salvage of archeological remains being destroyed by dam and 
reservoir construction within the Missouri Basin. Dr. Robert L. 
Stephenson served as chief of the project, except for approximately 
3 months when he was on leave and Dr. Warren W. Caldwell func- 


tioned as acting chief. During the summer months the work consisted 
mainl}'^ of excavations. Analyses and preparation of reports received 
the major attention throughout the remainder of the year. The special 
chronology program, begun in January 1958, was continued through- 
out fiscal 1963. 

At the beginning of the year the permanent staff, in addition to the 
chief, consisted of five archeologists, one administrative clerk, one 
administrative assistant, one secretary, one clerk-typist, one scientific 
illustrator, one photographer, and four museum aides. The tempo- 
rary staff included 4 archeologists, 5 field assistants, 3 cooks, and 83 
field crewmen. 

During July and August seven field crewmen were added to the 
temporary staff. By the end of the first week in August, the employ- 
ment of all the field crewmen and cooks had been terminated. Other 
terminations of temporary employees were made shortly thereafter. 
Four of the temporary archeologists and field assistants were trans- 
ferred to the permanent staff as archeologists. 

At the end of the fiscal year the permanent staff consisted of 21 
persons. These were, in addition to the chief, nine archeologists, one 
administrative assistant, one secretary, one administrative clerk, two 
clerk-typists, one scientific illustrator, one photographer, and four 
museum aides. The temporary staff consisted of 71 persons : 3 arche- 
ologists, 2 physical anthropologists, 4 cooks, and 62 field crewmen. 

During the year there were 25 Smithsonian Institution Eiver Basm 
Surveys field parties at work in the Missouri Basin. During July 
and August four parties were working in the Oahe Eeservoir area 
and four parties were working in the Big Bend Eeservoir area of 
South Dakota ; two parties were working in the Yellowtail Eeservoir 
area of Montana and Wyoming ; one crew was working in the Tuttle 
Creek Eeservoir area in Kansas ; and one party was surveying the Mis- 
souri Breaks area between Fort Peck and Fort Benton in Montana. In 
October a small crew was collecting pollen samples in western Ne- 
braska. In May, a small crew worked in the Fort Eandall Eeservoir 
area of South Dakota and a survey party conducted a reconnaissance of 
six proposed reservoirs in Kansas and Nebraska. During June, a crew 
was excavating in the Pony Creek area of Iowa; another crew had 
begun work on the James Diversion Project in South Dakota; one 
crew was at work in the Yellowtail Eeservoir of Montana and Wyo- 
ming; three parties were working in the Oahe Eeservoir; and four 
groups were excavating in the Big Bend Eeservoir, South Dakota. 
One special crew was not in the field but was at work during June in 
the laboratory at Lawrence, Kans., studying the skeletal remains from 
sites in the Oahe Eeservoir. 


Other fieldwork in the Missouri Basin during the year included 
14 parties from State institutions operating under cooperative agree- 
ments with the National Park Service and in cooperation with the 
Smithsonian Institution in the Inter- Agency Archeological Salvage 

At the beginning of the year Robert W. Neunian, assisted by John 
J. Hoffman and a crew of 10, was at work on the excavation of an 
early village of circular houses known as the Molstad site (39DW234) ,^ 
about 8 miles south of Mobridge, S. Dak., on the right bank of the 
Missouri River in Dewey County. This site will be subject to wave 
cutting at maximum pool level of the Oahe Reservoir. Artifacts 
and architectural details recovered indicate that the site had been a 
small, fortified village of the very early period of circular house occu- 
pation often referred to as the La Roche. There were live houses 
within an oval stockade and one larger house outside the stockade. 
The stockade was surrounded by a dry moat 2.6 feet deep and had 
a single large loop bastion on one side. The entire stockade line and 
five of the houses were excavated, as well as the bastion and two cross 
sections of the moat. The people who occupied this site during the 
15th or 16th centuries were culturally very closely related to those 
who occupied the Potts Village, some 2 miles upstream, which had 
been excavated previously by crews from the Missouri Basin Project. 

A second field party in the Oahe Reservoir, also directed by Robert 
W. Neuman with the assistance of James J. Stanek and a crew of 10, 
was at work at the beginning of the year excavating the Swift Bird 
site (39DW233), half a mile downstream from the Molstad site. 
This site comprised a group of two burial mounds of the Plains 
Woodland Period and a circular house depression that appears to 
belong to the La Roche Period. The burial mounds date from a 
period of some 1,500 or so years ago, w^hile the house dates from 
about 500 years ago. Mound 1 was a dome-shaped tumulus 75 feet 
in diameter and 4 feet high. Several articulated bison skeletons lay 
on the mound floor as did numerous large, charred timbers. Below 
these was a burial pit containing several secondary human interments. 
Artifacts were few and largely found within the burial pit. In most 
respects this mound resembled those excavated at the Boundary 
Mounds site at the North Dakota-South Dakota State line. Momid 2 
was slightly smaller and had articulated bison skeletons, secondary 

^ Site designations used by the River Basin Surveys are trinomial in character, consisting 
of symbols for State, county, and site. The State is indicated by the first number, accord- 
ing to the numerical position of the State name in an alphabetical list of the United States ; 
thus, for example, 32 indicates North Dakota, 39 indicates South Dakota. Counties are 
designated by a two-letter abbreviation ; for example, ME for Mercer County, MN for 
Mountrail County, etc. The final number refers to the specific site within the indicated 
State and county. 

Secretary's Report, 1963 


Walker Street site (Key School site), 9AIE60, a buried Deptford camp uu me CiiaUaiiuuciiee 
River, Ga. Overburden has been removed and the underlying camp levels are being 
excavated by units 10 feet square. River Basin Surveys. 

Probable house pattern showing at bottom of Deptford level. Shown here are indications 
of a subrectangular structure with supporting wall posts set in trenches. River Basin 

Secretary's Report. 1963 


Close-up view of the Sorenson site (24CB202) in the Big Horn Canyon within the Yellow- 
tail Reservoir area during excavation. Evidence of more than 7,000 years of occupation 
were uncovered in this small rock shelter. River Basin Surveys. 

View of the site (24CB203) at the confluence of Dry Head Creek with the Big Horn River 
within the Yellowtail Reservoir area. Smithsonian Institution field camp can be seen 
adjacent to the excavation area. River Basin Surveys. 


human burials, and a very few artifacts on the mound floor, but no 
burial pit. The circular house provided a minimal floor pattern with- 
out center posts and a small quantity of artifacts. This party also 
excavated Mound 3 of a series of five burial mounds at the Grover 
Hand site ( 39D W240 ) . That mound resembled Mound 1 at the Swift 
Bird site, including the burial pit. Eemains of 17 bison were re- 
covered from the mound fill and floor. A new site, the Stelzer 
(39DW242), was tested. It is situated about a mile downstream from 
39DW240. Occupational levels and artifacts indicate that this may 
be a substantial camp site of Plains Woodland times. Neuman's two 
crews shared a single camp and completed their fieldwork on Sep- 
tember 2 after 12 weeks in the field. 

A third field crew in the Oahe Reservoir was directed by Dr. Wil- 
fiam M. Bass, assisted by Jon Muller and a crew of six. Based in 
Pierre, this party utilized a caterpillar tractor and scraper to exca- 
vate large sections of the burial areas at the Sully site (39SL4), 
which is located approximately 20 miles northwest of Pierre, on the 
left bank of the Missouri River. It comprises the largest prehistoric 
village remams in the Missouri Basin and was excavated in previous 
years by Smithsonian Institution field crews. The large burial areas 
vv^ere not exhausted and, in order to get a sufficiently large sample of 
the physical remains of the people who had lived there some 250--400 
years ago, the current season's work was directed toward exhausting 
the burial areas. The heavy equipment was used to remove the over- 
burden above the graves. Each grave was then excavated by hand. 
During the first three seasons of work, 264 burials were excavated. 
This season an additional 293 were recovered, m.aking a total of 557 
burials from this one village. Brief investigations at other sites pro- 
vided additional burials. At the Swan Creek site (39P01), exca- 
vated during a previous season by a cooperating institution, a single 
burial was obtained. At the Bleached Bone site (39HU48), 20 
burials were recovered and 8 were taken from the Second Hand site 
(39PO207). In addition, a good quantity of burial artifacts was 
recovered, correlating the burials directly with the village areas and 
providing cultural meaning for the skeletal remains. This party 
completed its fieldwork on August 30 after a season of 12 weeks. 

The fourth Oahe Reservoir party was directed by Dr. Alfred W. 
Bowers, assisted by William B. Colvin and a crew of 10. Based at 
Mobridge, S. Dak., this crew excavated 14 circular earth lodges in the 
Red Horse site (39C034) just west of the bridge from Mobridge and 
at the mouth of the Grand River. This was a moderately large, 
fortified earth-lodge village of the late period and probably dates 
in the 18th century. A large artifact yield as well as good architec- 
tural details resulted from the excavations. Bowers's crew also exca- 

720-018—64 7 


vated a portion of the Davis site (39C014), some 200 yards west of 
the Red Horse site. There, a complex defensive system and a series 
of long rectangular houses were partly uncovered. Apparently there 
were at least two, and perhaps three, occupation periods represented, 
but time did not permit sufficient excavation to recover the whole 
story. The earliest occupation of the Davis site was several centuries 
earlier than that at the Eed Horse site. Continuation of the work 
was planned for the next season. 

In the Big Bend Reservoir area, three field parties were at work 
at the beginning of the year and a fourth party was added during 
July. One of the parties was directed by Dr. Warren W. Caldwell, 
assisted by Richard E. Jensen and a crew of 11. They excavated at 
two sites. The Langdeau site (39LM209) had been a village of long- 
rectangular houses and 15 depressions were visible. Four of these 
house remains were excavated, and three long trenches were dug in 
an unsuccessful attempt to find a fortification system. The houses 
were 30-40 feet wide with no small structural posts at the ends. En- 
trances were to the south or southwest and floors w^ere compact and 
stained with red ochre. Pottery found there is of the Anderson 
and Foreman types, suggesting relationship to the early rectangular- 
house period at the Dodd site near Pierre, but other artifacts were 
extremely exotic, including copper, shell, bone, and stone tools and 
ornaments. This crew's second excavation was at the Jiggs Thompson 
site (39LM208), located 9 miles north of Lower Brule in the loop of 
the Big Bend. This site had been a small village of 17 long- 
rectangular houses situated on a high terrace finger that was separated 
from the rest of the terrace by a moat 4.5 feet deep and 11 feet wide. 
Two houses were excavated, the moat was sampled, and numerous 
other test trenches were dug. The houses had been about 30 by 20 
feet with entrances to the south. They did not have end posts, but 
there were massive central support posts. Architecture and artifacts 
suggest a close relationship to the Langdeau site; both are in the 
Anderson-Foreman and Swanson traditions of early rectangular- 
house culture. This party completed its w^ork on August 26 after 
11 weeks in the field. 

The second Big Bend party was also directed by Dr. Caldwell, with 
the assistance of Richard E. Carter. It consisted of a crew of nine. 
Excavations were carried out at a two-component site (39LM2) 
overlooking Medicine Creek some 8 miles northwest of Lower Brule. 
This had been a village of small, rectangular houses with ramp 
entrances to the south, minimal end support posts, and many cache 
pits. The remains of the first occupation were overlain by those of a 
village of square (or subrectangular) houses, 35 feet in diameter, 
which had four central support posts of the kind usually fomid in 


late circular houses in the area. One house of each component, 
many cache pits, and several midden areas were excavated. Abundant 
pottery and other artifacts suggest that the earlier component relates 
to the Anderson and Over foci, while the later component was of the 
period of the Shannon Focus and similar to component C at the 
Talking Crow site. This party also sampled the Jandreau site 
(39LM221), 3 miles east of Medicine Creek in the same general area. 
Portions of two long-rectangular houses were excavated as were 
cross sections of the fortification moat. Ceramics recovered there 
suggest that the village may have been transitional between the An- 
derson Focus and the Thomas Riggs Focus and will date toward the 
latter part of the long-rectangular house period. In addition, minor 
tests were made at the Gilman site (39LM226) and at site 39LM228 
in the Medicine Creek Bottoms. The latter proved to have been a 
rectangular-house village of Over Focus affiliation, while the former 
was a circular-house village of the Shannon Focus. After 11 weeks 
in the field this crew completed its assignment on August 26. 

A third party in the Big Bend Reservoir area, sharing a joint 
camp with Caldwell's two crews, was directed b}'^ Vernon R. Helmen. 
This crew of three was frequently assisted by members of Caldwell's 
parties during the 2 weeks of its work (July 16-27). Helmen and 
his associates provided their services on a volunteer basis, and Mrs. 
Helmen made a useful study of the microecology of the flora of one 
earth lodge. The Helmen crew excavated one house in site 39LM223, 
a small village of the Shannon Focus. The circular house and several 
cache pits yielded Talking Crow and lona pottery. 

The remaining field party in the Big Bend Reservoir area was at 
work at the beginning of the year excavating the remains of Fort 
George (39ST202), a historic fur-trading post built in 1842 and 
operated briefly in opposition to the trading post of Fort Pierre 
Cliouteau. The crew of eight was directed by G. Hubert Smith, 
assisted by Lee G. Madison, and was based in Pierre with the Bass 
party. Fort George -was located on the right bank of the Missouri 
River some 15 miles downstream from Pierre. Remains of the log 
stockade, two blockhouses, and the interior buildings of timber were 
excavated and recorded. Artifacts were abundant and will, along 
with the architecture, provide a substantial picture of life at this 
early post, of which so little contemporary record remains. 

Two Missouri Basin Project field parties were at work at the begin- 
ning of the year in the Yellowtail Reservoir area in the Big Horn 
Canyon in Montana and Wyoming. Lionel A. Brown, with a crew 
of five, operated in the lower end of the reservoir from the Yellow- 
tail Dam south to the mouth of Dry Head Creek, a distance of some 
25 miles upstream from the dam. They excavated three large, dif- 


fuse, occupation sites and tested numerous rock shelters. Site 
24BH215 at the mouth of Black Canyon, 6 miles above the dam, was 
a stratified campsite with three levels of occupation. Artifacts were 
moderately abundant and included a few nondescript potsherds, 
corner-notched projectile points, and many scrapers, blades, and bone 
tools, but no evidence of structures. It appears to have been a camp 
intermittently occupied from a few hundred years ago to historic 
times. Site 24BH212 was a complex of occupations at the mouth of 
Bull Elk Canyon 18 miles above the dam. It contained six stone 
circles, two circles of shallow postholes, midden deposits, fireplaces, 
a profusion of scrapers and other small stone tools but very few pro- 
jectile points and no evidence of pottery. Five of the stone circles 
contained semicompacted floors, floor debris, and a central fireplace, 
and one had a midden deposit just outside the stone circle all empha- 
sizing the fact that they served the function of actual tipi rings. 
The circular arrangements of shallow postholes with a suggestion of 
floors indicate structures of temporary pole construction. Occupation 
was shallow with only one level apparent except in one small section 
of the site where three levels were apparent. Artifacts are not very 
diagnostic but probably represent a period of three or four centuries 
before White contact. The third major site excavated by Brown's 
crew was located on the opposite (left) bank of the Big Horn River 
at the mouth of Dry Head Creek some 25 miles above the dam. 
There, four levels of occupation produced large quantities of bison, 
deer, and elk bone, numerous small stone artifacts, an elk bone flesher, 
numerous fire pits, and basin-shaped pits but neither pottery nor 
structures. Several rock shelters between Black Canyon and Dry 
Head were investigated and tested but none proved to contain worth- 
while occupational materials. This party returned to the Lincoln 
headquarters August 31 after 11 weeks in the field. 

Wilfred M. Husted was in charge of the second Yellowtail field 
party excavating a series of sites in the upper reaches of the reser- 
voir. Working from various campsites between the village of Kane 
at the extreme southern end of the reservoir to Barry's Landing, some 
20 miles to the north, this crew used boat. Jeep, carryall, and foot 
transportation to resurvey this portion of the Big Horn Canyon and 
excavate five sites. A rock shelter (48BH206) was sampled but not 
completed owmg to difficulty of access. A large tipi ring site 
(48BH10) with 20 stone circles, on the left bank of Crooked Creek, 
was excavated. Five of the circles were dug and three of them 
contained central fireplaces as well as exterior fireplaces. One open 
campsite (48BH211) and several rock shelters were examined and 
tested but provided no useful archeological data. On the Wyoming 
side of the reservoir, a site at Barry's Landing (24CB201) was exca- 


vated. It had superimposed hearths and roasting pits and numerous 
projectile points and scrapers. The artifacts represent the latter 
part of the Middle Prehistoric Period overlain by an occupation of 
the Late Prehistoric Period. A nearby rock shelter (24CB223) was 
excavated and furnished similar material. The Sorenson site 
(24CB202) , half a mile below Barry's Landing, was completely exca- 
vated with excellent results. Five levels of occupation extending 
from historic times back to the pre-Middle Prehistoric Period were 
delineated. Lanceolate projectile points in the lowest level (dated 
at 7,500-7,800 years ago) were overlain by materials of the Middle 
and Late Prehistoric Period and capped by a historic occupation. 
Materials included cordage, basketry, hide, bone tools, stone tools, 
roasting pits, and hearths. In the resurvey of this section of the 
canyon, 21 new sites were located, of which 18 will be flooded. 
Husted's party completed the season's work August 30 after 11 weeks 
in the field. 

A survey party directed by Oscar L. Mallory, consisting of a crew 
of three, made a detailed reconnaissance of the Missouri Breaks along 
the Missouri River from Fort Benton to the upper reaches of the 
Fort Peck Reservoir. Beginning at the Fort Benton end of the 
Breaks, this party utilized boats, horses, vehicles, and foot transpor- 
tation to locate 55 archeological sites witliin tliis 180-mile stretch of 
extremely rugged river country. Of these sites, 20 were campsites, 
21 were campsites with tipi rings, 2 were burials, 3 were bison-kiU 
sites, and 9 were historic sites. Surface collections were made from 
most of these and two were tested. Artifact yield was minimal but 
enough to suggest a fairly long period of occupation and significant 
excavation potential in the area. 

The final JMissouri Basin Project field party at work at the begin- 
ning of the year was directed by Carl F. Miller who, with a crew of 
nine, was at work in the Tuttle Creek Reservoir of northeastern 
Kansas. With headquarters in the town of Blue Rapids, Kans., this 
party investigated seven sites in the upper reaches of the reservoir 
and excavated one. This was the last chance to examine any of the 
threatened sites in this reservoir, as the Avater was already rising, and 
by the summer of 19G3 any sites that were to be flooded would have 
been submerged. The Pisliney site (39MH2) received the attention 
of Miller's party most of the season and provided a single house 
structure, a portion of a second house, several cache pits, and a sub- 
stantial yield of artifacts. The houses at this site were square with 
rounded corners and the artifacts suggest a cultural position within 
the Central Plains Phase but with definite indications of influences 
from the south. Miller's party left the field on August 16 after 
working for a jDeriod of 9 weeks. 


Cooperating institutions active in the Missouri Basin at the begin- 
ning of the fiscal year included six field parties representing five State 
agencies in Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, and Montana. Dr. Dee C. 
Taylor with a crew from Montana State University conducted a survey 
of portions of the shoreline of the Fort Peck Reservoir in east-central 
Montana, locating archeological sites that have been exposed by bank 
erosion along the shores of the reservoir. Marvin F. Kivett, assisted 
by Dr. Roger T. Grange with a crew from the Nebraska State Histori- 
cal Society, completed salvage excavations in the area of the Red Wil- 
low Reservoir in southwestern Nebraska. Dr. Preston Holder, as- 
sisted by Dr. Emily Blasingham and a crew of University of Nebraska 
students, completed excavation and testing of sites to be flooded in the 
Norton Reservoir area of northwestern Kansas. Dr. Carlyle S. Smith, 
assisted by Walter Birkby and a crew of students from the University 
of Kansas, excavated two sites, sampled several others, and completed 
salvage work in the Melvern Reservoir area of east-central Kansas. 
Dr. Carl Chapman and a crew from the University of Missouri con- 
tinued the surveying and testing of sites in the Kaysinger Bluff Res- 
ervoir area in west-central Missouri. A second crew tested a large 
series of sites in the Stockton Reservoir area of central Missouri. All 
these parties operated under agreements with the National Park Serv- 
ice and in cooperation with the Smithsonian Institution in the Inter- 
Agency Archeological Salvage Program. 

The 1963 field season began with an archeological survey team imder 
Lionel A. Brown, assisted by Lee G. Madison and Stephen H. 
Schwartz. This team began operations on May 6 and completed its 
work on May 29. It investigated the proposed area of the Almena 
Reservoir on Prairie Dog Creek, in northwestern Kansas, fuiding no 
archeological sites but recording one paleontological locality. The 
members of the party next went to the proposed area of the Herndon 
Reservoir on Beaver Creek in Rawlins Comity, Kans., where they 
recorded one archeological site. In Ellis County, Kans., on Big Creek, 
the proposed Ellis Reservoir was surveyed and two sites were recorded. 
The proposed area of the Fort Scott Reservoir in Bourbon County, 
Kans., was next surveyed and six sites were located. The next survey, 
made in Anderson County, Kans., found seven sites at the location of 
the proposed Garnett Reservoir. The final reservoir of the six sur- 
veyed was the Angus Reservoir in Nuckols County, Nebr., where two 
archeological sites were recorded. A total of 18 archeological sites and 
1 paleontological locality were recorded in 6 reservoir areas. 

On May 13 and 14, G. Hubert Smith and Oscar L. Mallory con- 
ducted a brief investigation of the site of the Fort Randall Military 
Post, near the Fort Randall dam in southeastern South Dakota. 
As an aid to the U.S. Corps of Engineers in developing this for public 


use, Smith and Mallory pinpointed the significant cultural features 
and made recommendations for their development. 

On June 7 the Pony Creek field party began work in that part of 
Mills County, southwestern Io%Ya, where the Soil Conservation Serv- 
ice is constructing several very small reservoirs and terracing most of 
the adjacent valley area. Headquartered in the town of Glen wood, 
this party of eight, directed by Lionel A. Brown, had by the end of the 
year visited and tested six sites (three of which had not previously 
been recorded) and begun excavations in sites 13IML4 and 131VIL18, 
both of which appear to be villages of rectangular (or square) houses 
of the Nebraska Aspect. 

On June 6 Dr. Elden Johnson of the University of Minnesota joined 
the staff of the Missouri Basin Project and spent 4 days in a brief 
investigation of the area of the James Diversion Project for detailed 
survey and excavation early in the next fiscal year. 

The single field party in the Yellowtail Reservoir area of Montana 
and Wyoming, directed by Wilfred M. Husted, consisted of a crew 
of seA^en which left Lincoln on June 11. This crew started in the upper 
reaches of the reservoir where Husted's party left off the previous 
season. By the end of the year they had completed excavation of a 
small rock shelter and were continuing investigations on downstream. 

In the Oahe Reservoir area of central South Dakota, three field 
parties were operating at the end of the year. Robert W. Neuman, 
in charge of a crew of eight, began work on June 11 at the Grover 
Hand site (39DW240), a group of Woodland burial mounds on the 
right bank of the ISIissouri River some 9 miles below Mobridge. By the 
end of the year, Mound 1 at this site had been excavated. This mound 
contained a burial pit covered with timbers. Bison skeletons were 
found on the mound floor. 

The second Oahe party was directed by Oscar L. Mallory. With a 
crew of eight he began work on June 11 at site 39DW231, a presumed 
village or camp occupation site of the Plains Woodland Period that 
may be related to some of the burial mounds being dug by the Neuman 
party. The site is situated some 11 miles below Mobridge on the right 
bank of the Missouri River. Both the Neuman and Mallory crews 
camped at the Molstad ranch about a mile above the Grover Hand 
site, and both crews utilized 16-foot motorboats with 10-horsepower 
motors as their main means of transportation. This was necessitated 
by the high water of the Oahe Reservoir and the lack of roads in the 
area south of the Molstad ranch. 

The third Oahe party also began work on June 11 under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Alfred W. Bowers, who again joined the Missouri Basin 
Project staff for the summer, taking leave from his regular position 
at the University of Idaho. Dr. Bowers' crew of 10 camped at the east 


edge of Mobridge and started digging on the Davis site (39C014) at 
the west end of the Mobridge bridge. They had begun there the 
previous season and by the end of the year were well along with the 
excavations. They had also dug the last unexcavated lodge at the 
adjacent Eed Horse site (39C034) that Bowers's crew excavated in 
the 1962 season. 

One historic-sites party was in the field at the end of the year, 
having begun work on June 14. This party, directed by G. Hubert 
Smith, was searching for some of the more obscure historic sites in the 
Big Bend Keservoir area, such as Loisel's Trading Post, Fort 
Defiance-Bouis, and the Red Cloud Agency. If they find any of these 
sites they will begin a program of excavations. By the end of the 
year Smith had devoted considerable time to searching records in 
various historical files both in Pierre and at Fort Pierre. 

Three crews excavating prehistoric sites in the Big Bend area also 
began work on June 14. John J. Hoffman and a crew of 11 were at 
work at the end of the year on the series of sites, in the southeast cor- 
ner of Lyman County on the right bank of the Missouri some 20 miles 
below Pierre, known as the "La Roche Sites." There, each of several 
sites has been called "La Roche" and much interpretation has been 
based on a concept of "La Roche." Hoffman's party was to excavate 
each of the sites and endeavor to identify some one element as La 
Roche and correlate the others with it. By the end of the year ex- 
cavations were well under way in 39ST9, the site which W. H. Over 
many years ago designated as La Roche. 

The second Big Bend field party was directed by William J. Folan, 
who joined the Smithsonian Institution staff, for the summer season, 
from Southern Illinois University. This crew of eight camped with 
the Hoffman crew and was directing its attention to the same problem. 
The two crews started together on the same site so that they would 
begin with the same orientation. By the end of the year Folan's crew 
was ready to move its operations to one of the other related sites in 
the area. All the sites appear to represent villages of late circular 
houses, or at least have one component of this "La Roche" trait. 

Tlie third Big Bend field party was directed by Richard E. Jensen. 
It consisted of a crew of 11 and was camped on the left bank of the 
Missouri in the "pocket" of the Big Bend, some 40 miles by road below 
Pierre. It was to conduct excavations in a series of circular-house vil- 
lages nearby. By the end of the year progress had been made in work 
on the remains of an extensive, diffuse village, 39HU213. Widespread 
test trenching and the excavation of cache pits, middens, and a multiple 
burial had been completed. 

Dr. William M. Bass of the University of Kansas, and an assistant, 
Walter Birkby of the same institution, joined the Missouri Basin 


Project staff for the summer as temporary employees, in order to 
conduct laboratory research. Dr. Bass and his assistant analyzed a 
large quantity of skeletal material, excavated over the past several 
years by Dr. Bass, from several Missouri Basin sites in the Oahe 
Reservoir. Principal of these was the Sully site (39SL4) where 557 
burials have been recovered. Bass and Birkby were working in the 
new laboratory facilities at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. 

Cooperating institutions in the Missouri Basin at the end of the year 
included eight parties operating in five States. Dr. Dee C. Taylor 
and a Montana State University crew were continuing the shoreline 
survey of the Fort Peck Reservoir in east-central Montana, searching 
for and testing sites that had been exposed by bank erosion. Robert 
Gant and a University of South Dakota party were continuing a 
shoreline survey of the Gavins Point Reservoir in southeastern South 
Dakota, searching for and testing sites that had been exposed by bank 
erosion. Particular emphasis was being placed on the search for 
Plains Woodland and earlier sites. Both of these parties were con- 
tinumg work begmi the previous season. Dr. Preston Holder, assisted 
by James Marshall and a crew of University of Nebraska students, 
was excavating the Glen Elder site in the Glen Elder Reservoir in 
Mitchell County, north-central Kansas, and was searcliing for and 
testing additional sites within that reservoir. Dr. Carlyle S. Smith, 
assisted by Jon Muller and a party of Kansas University students, 
began the survey and testing of sites in the area to be flooded by the 
Milford Reservoir in Clay County, north-central Kansas. Dr. Carl 
Chapman had three University of Missouri parties at work at the 
end of the year. One was a survey group locating and testing sites 
in the area to be flooded by the Hackleman Comers Reservoir in south- 
western Missouri. A second party was excavating sites in the Kay- 
singer Blufi' Reservoir in west-central Missouri. The third party 
was digging sites in the Stockton Reservoir of west-central Missouri. 
Both of the latter were continuing work begun the previous season. 
Marvin F.'Kivett, assisted by Dr. Roger T. Grange, Jr., and a Nebraska 
State Historical Society crew, surveyed two small reservoirs, Calamus 
and Davis Creek, in central Nebraska. Both surveys located only a 
few sites of doubtful archeological potential and it was recommended 
that no further work be done there unless material is uncovered duririg 
earth-moving operations for the construction of the two dams. 

The Missouri Basin Chronology Program had been in operation for 
^V2 years by the end of the year. Cooperation of nearly all the 
archeologists and archeological institutions in the Plains area con- 
tinued as in previous years, and leadership and direction of the pro- 
gram continued to be by the staff archeologists of the Missouri Basin 


In October a Missouri Basin Project team composed of J. J. Hoff- 
man and Lee G. Madison joined Dr. Paul Sears of Yale University, 
Dr. J. G. Ogden of Ohio Wesleyan University, and Dr. Harry A. 
Tourtelot of the U.S. Geological Survey in a trip to collect fossil pollen 
cores in the sandhills of northwestern Nebraska. The field trip was 
a part of the chronology program and a part of a continuing program 
of palynology designed to reconstruct prehistoric floral conditions 
for a portion of the Missouri Basin. Cores were collected at several 
of the fossil lakes in the area and will be analyzed by Dr. Ogden. 

Other chronology studies included a continuation of the dendro- 
chronology section under the direction of Dr. Warren W. Caldwell, 
with the volunteer assistance of Harry E. Weakly. The carbon-14 
section continued to progress with the addition of 16 new dated 
samples of vegetal material, tested by the laboratory of Isotopes, Inc., 
of Westwood, N.J. Robert W. Neuman continued to be in charge 
of this section of the program and submitted several samples for 
dating to the new carbon-14: laboratory at the Smithsonian Institution 
in Washington, D.C. In addition, two samples were sent to the Uni- 
versity of Tesas for analysis in its carbon-14 laboratory. 

The laboratory and office staff of the Missouri Basin Project devoted 
most of its full effort during the year to processing specimen materials 
for study, photographing and illustrating specimens, preparing speci- 
men records, and typing, filing, and illustrating record and manuscript 
materials. The accomplishments of the laboratory and office staff are 
listed in tables 1 and 2. 

Dr. Robert L. Stephenson, cliief, devoted a large part of his time 
during the year to management of the overall Missouri Basin Project, 
including the office and laboratory in Lincoln, the several field activi- 
ties, and the preparation of plans and budgets. His individual arche- 
ological research and report writing was minimal during the year, 
but some further progress w^as made on the monograph "The Whitney 
Reservoir, Texas" and on analyses of specimens from his excavations 
at the Sully site (39SL4) in the Oahe Reservoir. He made final 
revisions on his manuscript "The Accokeek Creek Site : A Middle At- 
lantic Seaboard Culture Sequence" and submitted it to the University 
of Michigan for publication. He also revised a paper he read at the 
1962 meeting of the Society for American Archeology, entitled "Ad- 
ministrative Problems of the River Basin Surveys," for publication in 
American Antiquity. He continued to serve as chairman of the Mis- 
souri Basin Chronology Program; as assistant editor of "Current 
Research" in the Plains Area for American Antiquity; and, until 
December 1, as associate editor of the Plaitis Anthropologist. On 
December 1 he became editor of that journal. He also participated in 


the Visiting Scientist Program of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 
and lectured to student groups at Sutton and Sidney, Nebr. 

Dr. Stephenson attended the 191/^ Plains Conference in Pierre, 
S. Dak., in July and served as a panel member in a symposium on "The 
Salvage Program So Far." At the 20th Plains Conference in Lincoln 
on Thanksgiving weekend he served as local arrangements chairman 
and as chairman of a symposium on "Plains Chronology." During 
the period of December 12-21 he attended the "Management Develop- 
ment Program for Field Managers" of the U.S. Department of Agri- 
culture Graduate School, held on the Voorhis Campus of California 
State Polyteclmic College in San Dimas, Calif. He attended the 73d 
annual meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences in Lincoln on 
April 27 and the annual meeting of the Society for American Arche- 
ology in Boulder, Colo., on IMay 1-3. "Wliile at Boulder he participated 
in the meeting of the Committee for the Recovery of Archeological 
Eemains and reported on the year's activities of the Missouri Basin 
Project and on the prospects for the coming year. He wrote several 
book reviews for scientific journals, gave talks to various local civic 
organizations on the work of the River Basin Surveys, and represented 
the Smithsonian Institution at special occasions at the invitation of 
local civic organizations. He served throughout the second half of 
the year on the organizing committee for the INQUA meetings to be 
held in Boulder, Colo., in September 1965, and was named as one of 
the field conference organizers for a preconference field trip through 
the Plains area. 

Lionel A. Brown, archeologist, when not in charge of field parties, 
devoted most of his time to analyzing specimen materials he had 
recovered during the past year and to materials recovered by others 
in the Missouri Basin in previous years. He completed a major 
draft of a manuscript entitled "Archeology of the Lower Yellowtail 
Reservoir, Montana," which describes the work and material recovered 
from the several sites that he excavated and tested in that area during 
the summer of 1963. He completed a major draft of a preliminary 
manuscript entitled "Archeological Investigations in the Pony Creek 
Watershed, Iowa," which describes the work and reports the analyses 
of materials he recovered from that area of southwestern Iowa in 
the spring of 1962. This manuscript vnll be combined with the report 
of the work currently being done in that area to form an overall pub- 
lication on the Pony Creek researches. In the early spring he studied 
the specimens and field records from the Gillette site (39ST23) in 
the Oahe Reservoir, excavated by Donald D. Hartle of the I^Iissouri 
Basin Project in 1957, and nearly completed the major draft of a 
manuscript covering those investigations. 


In July Mr. Brown addressed the Billings Archeological Society in 
Billings, Mont., on the subject "The Amateur Archeologist in the 
Salvage Program." During Thanksgiving weekend he attended the 
20th Plains Conference in Lincoln and presented two papers, "A 
Survey of the Pony Creek Watershed" and "Archeology of the Lower 
Yellowtail Reservoir." Both were published in abstract in the Pro- 
ceedings of the 73d Meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences. 
He attended the meetings of the Society for American Archeology 
in Boulder, Colo., on May 1-3. At the end of the year he was again 
excavating archeological sites in the Pony Creek area of Iowa. 

Dr. Warren W. Caldwell, archeologist, was in the field from the 
beginning of the year until the end of August, He devoted the re- 
mainder of his time to specimen and field-record studies concerning 
sites that he had excavated in previous years. Primary attention was 
devoted to the analyses (with Richard E. Jensen) of sites 39LM208, 
39LM209, and 39LM232, excavated last year in the Big Bend Reser- 
voir of South Dakota by Caldwell and Jensen. He completed the 
analytical studies and began a manuscript reporting the results. He 
also completed analyzing materials from, and prepared a major draft 
of a monograph on, "Investigations at the McKensey Village (39AR- 
201), South Dakota," a site that he excavated in 1960. In collabora- 
tion with G. Hubert Smith, he prepared and submitted for publication 
a handbook for the U.S. Corps of Engineers' Reservoir Series, entitled 
"Oahe Reservoir : Archeology, History and Geology." This was the 
fourth handbook in this series, prepared by the same authors. He also 
prepared a popular article on "Fortified Villages of the Dakotas," 
published in Missouri Basin Progress. He published two book re- 
views in the Plains Anthropologist and prepared several administra- 
tive and progress reports concerning the work of the ]\Iissouri Basin 

Dr. Caldwell participated in the 191/2 Plains Conference in Pierre 
in July and discussed his current fieldwork. He participated in the 
20th Plains Conference in Lincoln at the end of November, presenting 
a paper on "Investigations in the Lower Big Bend Reservoir, South 
Dakota" and also serving as a panel member on "Plains Chronology," 
presenting a discussion of "Dendrochronology in the Plains — Past 
and Present." He attended the Y3d annual meeting of the Nebraska 
Academy of Sciences and presented a paper, "Primus in Orbe Deos 
Fecit Timor or Ceramics ad Nauseam," that was published in abstract 
in the Proceedings of the meeting. His paper "Fortified Villages of 
the Northern Plains" was read in absentia at the annual meeting of 
the Society for American Archeology in Boulder, Colo., on May 3. 
Throughout the year he continued to serve as chairman of the dendro- 
chronology section of the Missouri Basin Chronology Program, as con- 


tributing editor for book reviews for the Plains Anthropologist^ and as 
collaborator for the Plains area for ''Abstracts of New World Archeol- 
ogy." He participated in the visiting scientist program of the Ne- 
braska Academy of Sciences, lecturing to student groups at Gretna, 
Nebr., on January 8. During the period from September to June, on 
annual-leave time, he served as part-time assistant professor in the 
Department of Anthropology at the University of Nebraska and 
taught a course on "The American Indian." At the end of the year 
he was in the Lincoln laboratory analyzing specimens from past field- 

Jolin J. Hoffman, archeologist, when not in the field conducting 
excavations, devoted most of liis time to laboratory analyses and prep- 
aration of reports resulting from his work of the past season. He 
completed the analyses of specimen materials and records of his 1962 
excavations at the Molstad Village site (39DW234) in the Oalie Eeser- 
voir area and prepared a major draft of a manuscript on this work. 
He completed a short article on the "Molstad Village and the La 
Roche Sites" and submitted it to the Plains Anthropologist for publi- 
cation. By the time he returned to the field in Jime he w^as well along 
on a manuscript entitled "The Swift Bird Lodge (39DW233)." In 
July, Hoffman attended the 19l^ Plains Conference in Pierre and 
reported on his fieldwork during the season. At Thanksgiving, he 
presented a paper at the 73d annual meetmg of the Nebraska Academy 
of Sciences in Lincoln entitled "Temporal Ordering of the Chouteau 
Aspect." The end of the year found him again in the field engaged 
in archeological excavations. 

Wilfred M. Husted, archeologist, while not in the field conducting 
archeological excavations, was at work in the laboratory analyzing 
materials and preparing reports on his activities in the field during 
the 1962 season and also on materials that others had collected in pre- 
vious seasons. He wrote a "Preliminary Report of the 1962 Archeo- 
logical Investigation in the Upper Yellowtail Reservoir," which will 
be combined with a study of his 1963 season's work in the same area 
so that there will be a comprehensive monograph on the archeology of 
that region. He also completed the laboratory analyses of, and pre- 
pared a major draft of a monograph on "The Brice (39LM31) and 
Clarkstown (39LM4Y) Sites, Fort Randall Reservoir." These two 
sites were excavated in 1954 by the late Paul L. Cooper. At the 20th 
Plains Conference, November 22-24 in Lincoln, he presented a paper 
entitled "Investigations in Upper Yellowtail Reservoir, Montana- 

Richard E. Jensen, archeologist, spent July, August, and June 
in the field conducting archeological excavations and the remainder 
of the year in the laboratory in Lincoln analyzing materials and 


writing reports. He prepared descriptions of the artifacts and fea- 
tures recovered from the Langdeau site (39L1M209) , the Jiggs Thomp- 
son site (39LM202), and the Pretty Head site (39L1VI232), which he 
excavated in conjunction with Dr. CaldwelL They include various 
statistical analyses relative to sequential alinements and relation- 
ships to other sites. In July he gave a report of his current lieldwork 
at the 1914 Plains Conference in Pierre. During Thanksgiving he at- 
tended the 20th Plains Conference in Lincoln. On May 18, accom- 
panied by J. J. Hoffman and Dr. Stephenson, he attended an informal 
conference on Dakota pottery typology in Vermillion, S. Dak. He 
and Hoffman proceeded from Vermillion to the Big Bend Reservoir 
area to select campsites for the summer. At the end of the year he 
was again in the field excavating archeological sites in the Big Bend 
Reservoir area. 

Oscar L. Mallory, archeologist, when not in the field was at work 
in the laboratory examining materials previously collected. He stud- 
ied the background data and analyzed the specimens obtained from 
the "Missouri Breaks" area of Montana and prepared a report on 
the work entitled "An Archeological Appraisal of the Missouri Breaks 
Region, Montana." He then began a detailed analysis of the unusual 
collection of perishable goods from the Mouat Cliff Burial site 
(24:TE401) excavated last year by the Billings Archeological Society, 
in central Montana, near Hardin. He spent much of liis evening and 
weekend time working on "A Comparative Cultural Analysis of Tex- 
tiles from McGregor Cave, Wasliington," his thesis for a master of 
arts degree at Washington State College. In April he served, with 
Robert W. Neuman, as adviser to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 
in conference with the local community developers of Mobridge, S. 
Dak., on a project to reconstruct an earth-lodge village in that area 
He presented a paper, "Survey of the Missouri Breaks Area," at the 
20th Plains Conference in Lincoln on Thanksgiving weekend. At 
the close of the year he was conducting archeological excavations in 
the Oahe Reservoir area. 

Robert W. Neuman, archeologist, when not in the field was mainly 
at work in the laboratory doing research on materials excavated by 
him in past years in the Oahe and Big Bend Reservoir areas. From 
October 6 to 13 he was on loan to the University of South Dakota to 
assist in salvage excavations at the Wolfe Creek Mound site (39HT- 
201) in Hutchinson County, S. Dak. In the laboratory, lie corrected 
galley proof on his monograph "The Good Soldier Site (39LM238), 
Lyman County, South Dakota," being publislied by the Bureau of 
American Ethnology as a River Basin Surveys Paper. He did re- 
search on materials from his Big Bend excavations and brought to 
near completion a manuscript on "Preceramic Occupations in the Big 
Bend Reservoir Area, South Dakota." He also served as chairman of 


the radiocarbon section of the Missouri Basin Chronology Program. 
He reported on his current fieldwork at the IQYo Plains Conference in 
Pierre in July. He attended the 20th Plains Conference in Lincoln, 
November 22-24, where he served as a panel member in the sym- 
posium on "Plains Chronology," presenting a discussion of "Carbon- 
14 on the Plains — Past, Present and Future." In mid-April he and 
Oscar L. Mallory served as advisers to the U.S. Army Corps of Engi- 
neers in discussions -vrith local community supporters of a project to 
reconstruct an earth-lodge village near Mobridge, S. Dak. On April 
27 he served as chairman of the Anthropology Section of the 73d 
annual meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences in Lincoln and 
presented a paper entitled "A Brief Review of Anthropology in the 
Nebraska Academy of Sciences," that was published in abstract in the 
Proceedings of the meeting. This was the best attended and had the 
largest selection of outstanding papers of any of the meetings of this 
section of the Academy since its inception. He also attended the 
annual meetings of the Society for American Archeology in Boulder, 
Colo., May 1-3, where he presented a paper entitled "Check Stamping 
on the Northern Plains," that has been accepted for publication in 
American Antiquity. At the end of the year Neuman was conducting 
excavations in the Oahe Reservoir area. 

G. Hubert Smith, archeologist, spent July, August, and the last half 
of June conducting archeological excavations, and during the re- 
mainder of the year was in the Lincoln office analyzing and doing 
research on materials from historic sites in the Missouri Basin that he 
had excavated in previous years. He completed a report on the field- 
work done at the site of Fort George (39ST202) in the summer of 1962, 
and had a major draft of that manuscript ready for final typing at 
the end of the year. He continued with the preparation of the com- 
prehensive report on the site of "Like-a-Fishhook Village and Fort 
Berthold I and II (32:ML2), North Dakota." With Dr. Caldwell he 
prepared a popular booklet on "The Oahe Reservoir: Archcolog}^, 
History and Geology," that was published by the U.S. Army Corps 
of Engineers in their Reservoir Series, of which this is the fifth. He 
also prepared a book review published in American Antiquity in 

Smith attended the IQi/^ Plains Conference in Pierre in July and 
reported on his current fieldwork. During the Thanksgiving weekend 
he attended the Plains Conference in Lincoln, where he reported on 
"Excavations at Fort George, South Dakota." On January 10, he 
was the featured speaker at the meeting of the Yankton County His- 
torical Society in Yankton, S. Dak., where he gave an illustrated 
talk on "Salvage Archeology." On April 27 he attended the 73d 
annual meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences in Lincoln and 
presented a paper entitled "Ethnographic Contributions of Ferdinand 



V. Hayden." He attended the 17th annual meeting of the Mississippi 
Valley Historical Association and took part in the historic sites com- 
mittee meeting of that group. He addressed the Kansas City Ar- 
cheological Society on "Historical Archeology in the Missouri Basin" 
on May 7, and on May 19 he gave an illustrated talk on "Historic 
Buildings of Nebraska" at the Nebraska State Historical Society in 
Lincoln. At the end of the year he was again in the field conducting 
investigations of historic sites in the Big Bend Reservoir. 

Table 1. — Specimens processed, July 1, 1962-June 30,1963 


of sites 


Number of 

Big Bend _ 


4, 354 



24, 196 

Missouri Breaks 



22, 400 

Pony Creek _ .___ _____ 




Site totals . _ 


9, G67 

51, 799 

Collections not assigned site numbers. 


Overall collection totals _ ___ 



51, 823 

As of June 30, 1963, the Missouri Basin Project had cataloged 
1,391,219 specimens from 2,410 numbered sites and 60 collections not 
assigned site numbers. 

Specimens restored : Five pottery vessels and six vessel sections. 

Specimens donated to the Missouri Basin Project for comparative use: 
By the W, H. Over Museum, University of South Dakota, courtesy of Dr. Wesley 
R. Hurt— 75 pot rim sherds collected from 39GR1 (Scalp Creek site), 39WW7 
(Swan Creek site), and 39WW303. These sherds respresent eight pottery wares, 
namely: Akaska, Le Beau, Randall, Rygh, Scalp, Steamboat, Swan Creek, and 
Talking Grow. 

Table 2. — Record material processed, July 1, 1962-June SO, 196S 


Reflex copies of records 8,967 

Photographic negatives made 3, 128 

Photographic prints made 13, 712 

Photographic prints mounted and filed 7, 660 

Transparencies mounted in glass 66 

Kodachrome pictures taken in lab 72 

Cartographic tracings and drawings 38 

Illustrations 27 

Lettering of plates 12 

Profiles drawn 92 

Plate layouts made for manuscripts 18 


Virginia. — During the period September 10-November 18, 1962, 
Carl F. Miller conducted excavations in four sites in tlie Smith Moun- 
tain and Leesville Reservoir areas. Data obtained indicate that the 
cultural range represented extended from the terminal phase of Late 
Archaic around 4000 B.C. to the Middle Woodland Period at about 
A.D. 500. One of the characteristic artifacts normally associated 
with such remains, namely, stone projectile points, was scarce, while 
ceramics and bone tools were rather plentiful. There were numerous 
portions and fragments from clay tobacco pipes. As a matter of fact, 
those particular objects were much more numerous than has been 
indicated by evidence from that general area. 

Mr. Miller returned to the Smith Mountain Project area on May 
15, 1963, and from that date until the end of the fiscal year was 
occupied in the excavation of the Kales Ford site (44FR15). In 
the work there thirty-seven 10-foot squares were dug to a depth of 
5 feet ; 136 features and 1 partial burial were recovered. The burial, 
representing an early Middle Woodland Phase, was that of a male 
who was about 60 years of age at the time of death. Mortuaiy offer- 
ings consisted of two turtle-shell dishes. The use of turtle shells 
for dishes apparently was a well-established trait at that location. 
At least two new pottery types were found at the Hales Ford site, 
and they were apparently correlated to a similar textile-impressed 
type found in the John H. Kerr Reservoir area farther south on the 
Roanoke River. The latter, however, produced much less of this 
type than the Smith IMountain Reservoir. The significance of this 
will need to be determined by further studies in the laboratory. The 
projectile points i*ecovered are sufficient in number to illustrate a 
developmental series. This also is true of clay pipes. The bone mate- 
rial was particularly well preserved, and several new types of arti- 
facts were recovered. Potsherds number into the thousands, and it 
will be possible to restore a number of vessels from them. No Euro- 
pean material was found at the site, which apparently was abandoned 
well before the White man's influence reached that part of 
Virginia. No evidence was obtained relative to habitations and con- 
sequently nothmg is known of the type of dwelling used at that 

The material from the combined work in the fall of 1962 and the 
spring of 1963 will give an excellent source of information about a 
fairly long period of occupation in the upper reaches of the Roanoke 


The Bureau archives continued under the custody of Mrs, Margaret 
C. Blaker, archivist. She was assisted throughout the year by Miss 

720-018—64 8 


Regina M. Solzbaclier, and on a part-time basis by Miss Margaret 
V. Lee. 

During the week of September 30-October 6, Mrs. Blaker attended 
the annual meeting of the Society of American Archivists in Roclies- 
ter, N.Y., and searched for early photographs of American Indians in 
the collections of George Eastman House, the Rochester Historical 
Society, and the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences. A con- 
siderable number of fme stereoscopic views of the 1870's and 1880's 
were located at Eastman House, and copies of them are currently 
being made for the Bureau collections. At the University of Roches- 
ter Library Mrs. Blaker examined the notebooks of Louis Henry 
Morgan that deal with his visits to the Seneca Indians, and the cir- 
culars containing the original information collected and used by 
Morgan in preparing his Systems of Consanguinity^ published by 
the Smithsonian in 1870. Microfilm duplicates of the circulars will 
be made available to the Bureau through the library's special col- 
lections division. 

On October 12-15 ]\Irs. Blaker attended the joint annual meeting 
of the American Indian Etlinohistoric Conference and the Iroquois 
Conference at Albany, N.Y., and examined photographic and other 
pictorial resources on the American Indian in the New York State 
Museum. On November 14-19 she attended the annual meeting of 
the American Anthropological Association in Chicago and examined 
pictorial resources in the Newberry Library and the Chicago Natural 
History INIuseum. On May 20-21 she visited Carlisle, Pa., to see 
photographs in the collections of the Army War College and the 
Hamilton Library. Both of these institutions have albums of ex- 
cellent photographs of the students who attended Carlisle Indian 
school and of their parents, many of them distinguished chiefs, who 
visited the school. Arrangements for borrowing the albums for copy- 
ing are in progress. 

Ethnographic notes of the late Lyda Averill Taylor, on the Alabama, 
Choctaw, and Koasati, collected in Polk County, Tex., in 1936-40, and 
a partial draft of a manuscript on comparative southeastern ethnol- 
ogjj were received from John M. Goggin, to whom they had been 
given in 1960 by Walter W. Taylor. 

A ledger containing drawings of war scenes, apparently all drawn 
by the same Indian artist, was acquired. The book is undated and 
the artist unidentified, but he was probably a Cheyenne, since the short 
w^ritten titles indicate that the winners of the contests depicted were 
Cheyennes. Cheyenne warfare with a number of different tribes is 
portrayed — Osage, Snake (Shoshoni), Pawnee, Ute, Crow, Shawnee, 
Sac and Fox, Navaho, and Pueblo. There are also a number of 
pictures of combat with the U.S. Army. Two pictures depict the 



Cheyenne Indian "Horse Road in fight with General Miles near 
Red River," and another, the historic fight of the Cheyenne with 
Forsyth's scouts at Beecher's Island on September 17, 1868, in which 
Chief Roman Nose was killed. Another drawing depicts a Cheyenne 
battle with soldiers under Lieutenant Henley, 6th Cavalry, on Smoky 
Hill River, and one shows Indians running oil' cavalry horses at Fort 
Dodge, 1865. 

A sketchbook containing crayon and pencil drawings of Indian 
life on the Plains, made by a Cheyenne Indian named Buffalo Meat, 
while he was a prisoner at Fort Marion, Fla., about 1875 was received 
as a gift from Miss Julia Whiting of Middleburg, Va. 

A photograph of an oil painting of the Comanche cliief Yellow 
Wolf, made in 1859 by Col. Arthur T. Lee, and a photograph of a draw- 
ing made by Yellow Wolf were received through the courtesy of 
Charles F. Hayes III, of the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences, 
Rochester, N. Y., which owns the originals. 

Negatives of four sketches of Missisauga Indians, tliree of Hurons 
and two of Creek Indians, all drawn by Basil Hall in 1827-28, were 
obtained from the Lilly Library, Indiana University, which owns 
the original drawings. 

An important collection of photographic negatives and prints, taken 
by Jesse Hastings Bratley in the period 1893-ca. 1903, while he was 
teaching at Indian schools in the West, was lent by Francis V. Crane, 
director of the Southeast Museum, Marathon, Fla. A total of 280 
copy negatives were made and added to the Bureau files. Most of the 
negatives relate to the Dakota Indians of Rosebud Reservation, S. 
Dak.; the Havasupai of Cataract Canyon, Ariz.; and the Hopi of 
Polacca, Ariz. There are also a few photographs of Salish Indians 
of Puget Sound, and of Cheyenne and Arapaho from Contomnent, 

A series of 36 negatives taken at the mouth of Windy River, north- 
western extremity of Neultin Lake, southwestern Keewatm, Canada, 
in 1947 shows Caribou Eskimo and a few Cree Indians. The negatives 
include portraits; camp scenes showing food and hide preparation; 
and views of transport by canoe and on foot with pack and dog travois. 
They were made and donated by Dr. Francis Harper, Chapel Hill, 
N.C. Dr. Harper also donated five negatives showing Poosepatuck 
men and native fishing equipment, taken by him at the Poosepatuck 
Reservation, Mastic, Long Island, in 1909 and 1910. 

A series of 11 photographs taken at the Poosepatuck Reservation, 
Mastic, Long Island, showing members of the Poosepatuck tribe, and 
views taken at the June meeting at Poosepatuck in 1912, were copied 
from an album of snapshots owned by Walter B. Raynor, Patchogue, 
N.Y. Two photographs of White men's hmiting camps having pal- 


metto-thatch structures built in the Seminole style were from the same 

Nineteen portraits of Jicarilla Apaches and views taken on the 
Jicarilla Reservation near Dulce, N. Mex., ca. 1915-62, were copied 
from photographs lent by Dr. D. Harper Sims, Arlington, Va. 

Negatives of four views of the monument on the grave of the Choc- 
taw chief Puslimataha, in the Congressional Cemetery, Washington, 
D.C., were deposited by Dr. William C. Sturtevant. 

A photograph of a Shoshoni chief, Jack Edmo, and his family, 
taken about 1917, was donated by Mrs. Arthur White, Middleburg, 

A collection of 90 Indian portraits from the studios of a number of 
late 19th-century commercial photographers was obtained through 
Carl Russell, Orinda, Calif. Over 50 of the portraits are of members 
of various Dakota tribes ; other tribes represented are Apache, Crow, 
Dieguefio, Maricopa, Papago, and Yuma. 

A collection of approximately 675 photographic negatives made in 
the approximate period 1900-1920 has been acquired but is not yet 
cataloged in detail. The collection consists of studio and outdoor 
portraits, camp scenes, views of dances, and other subjects. Of the 
more than 25 tribes represented, the principal ones are: Apache, 
Arapaho, Assiniboin, and Gros Ventres; Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Crow, 
Dakota, Eskimo, Hopi, Osage, Pawnee, Seminole, and Wichita. 


During the year 1962-63, work continued on the organization of 
the collection and its records under the supervision of Mrs, Carol 
Jopling in the Bureau of American Ethnology Library. 

When the library's maps were evaluated, several very old and rare 
ones were discovered. Among them were a Nicholas Visscher map of 
the Western Hemisphere, Novissima et Accuratissima Totius Amer- 
ieae, and Nova Belgica et Anglia Nova by W. J. Blaeu (Amsterdam, 
1635) . Of particular interest to the Bureau, however, was the Census 
of the State of California (1852) map and a quantity of other North 
American maps with linguistic and archeological annotations. 

Some fine books were given to the library, including a set by Sir 
Richard Phillips, A Collection of Modern and Contemporary Voyages 
and Travels (London, 1805-) presented by Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, 

The librarian attended the Special Libraries Convention in Denver, 
June 9-14, 1963, and visited a nmnber of libraries and museums having 
special collections on the North American Indian and Western history. 


The following statistics will serve to indicate some of the work 
conducted m the library : 

Keference questions answered 1,820 

Library users 1, 301 

Publications circulated 1, 071 

Loans to other libraries 151 

Volumes sent for binding 1, 103 


The editorial work of the Bureau continued during the year under 
the immediate direction of Mrs. Eloise B. Edelen. The following 
publications were issued: 

Seventy-ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1961-62. 

U+29 pp., 2 pis. 1963. 
Bulletin 181. Isleta paintings, with introduction and commentary by Elsie 
Clews Parsons. Edited by Esther S. Goldfrank. xvi+299 pp., 142 pis. 1962. 
Bulletin 182. River Basin Surveys Papers, No. 25. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., 
editor, xvi+447 pp., 110 pis., 65 figs., 20 maps. 1962. 
Archeology of the John H. Kerr Reservoir Basin, Roanoke River, Virginia- 
North Carolina, by Carl F. Miller. With appendix: Human skeletal re- 
mains from the Tollifero (Ha6) and Clarksville (Mcl4) sites, John H. 
Kerr Reservoir Basin, Virginia, by Lucile E. Hoyme and William M. Bass. 
Bulletin 184. The Pueblo of Sia, New Mexico, by Leslie A. White, xii+358 pp., 

12 pis., 55 figs. 1962. 
Bulletin 185. River Basin Surveys Papers, Nos. 26-32, Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 
editor, xii+344 pp., 57 pis., 43 figs., 5 maps. 1963. 
No. 26. Small sites on and about Fort Berthold Reservation, Garrison 

Reservoir, North Dakota, by George Metcalf. 
No. 27. Star Village: A fortified historic Arikara site in Mercer County, 

North Dakota, by George Metcalf. 
No. 28. The dance hall of the Santee Bottoms on the Fort Berthold Reserva- 
tion, Garrison Reservoir, North Dakota, by Donald D, Hartle. 
No. 29. Crow-Flies-High (32MZ1) , a historic Hidatsa village in the Garrison 

Reservoir area. North Dakota, by Carling Malouf. 
No. 30. The Stutsman Focus : An aboriginal culture complex in the James- 
town Reservoir Area, North Dakota, by R. P. Wheeler. 
No. 31. Archeological manifestations in the Toole County section of the 

Tiber Reservoir Basin, Montana, by Carl F. Miller. 
No. 32. Archeological salvage investigations in the Lovewell Reservoir 
Area, Kansas, by Robert W. Neuman. 
Bulletin 188. Shonto : A study of the role of the trader in a modern Navaho 
Community, by William Y. Adams. xi-|-329 pp., 10 pis., 3 figs., 3 maps, 12 
charts. 1963. 

Publications distributed totaled 17,722 as compared with 19,326 for 
the fiscal year 1962. 


The staff artist for the Bureau of American Etlinology, E. G. Schu- 
macher, prepared the illustrations to accompany 16 manuscripts to be 


published by the Bureau, some as entire bulletins and others composing 
bulletins in the Anthropological Papers and the River Basin Surveys 
Papers series. The work included the drawing or redrawing of maps, 
diagrams, charts, and other text figures, and effectively combining and 
mounting photographs, all covering the fields of anthropology, arche- 
ology, and ethnology. Approximately 500 illustrations were prepared. 


Dr. M. W. Stirling, Dr. A. J. Waring, and Sister Inez Hilger con- 
tinued as research associates. Dr. Wallace L. Chafe, linguist on the 
staff of the Bureau from April 4, 1959, resigned on August 20, 1962, 
to accept an associate professorship in the department of linguistics at 
the University of California in Berkeley. 

In addition to the usual extensive correspondence answering specific 
questions, many of which were of a technical nature, the Bureau pre- 
pared several bibliographies to provide reference material for which 
there has been recurrmg demand. Among those recently compiled, 
the following were printed by the multilith process : 

SILr-2, 3d rev., 6/63: Selected bibliography on arrowheads. 5 pp. 

SIL-105, rev., 7/62 : Selected bibliography on Cherokee customs and history. 

6 pp. 
SIL-174, rev., 6/63: Selected references on the Indians of Southeastern North 

America. Compiled by William C. Sturtevant. 17 pp. 
SIL-363, 4/63 : Bibliography of wild food plants of Canadian Indians. Compiled 

by F. R. Irvine. 13 pp. 

Other bibliographies prepared are in typescript. 

More than 100 specimens, both ethnological and archeological, were 
received by mail or brought to the office for identification and such 
information as could be provided by Bureau specialists. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director. 
Dr. Leonard Carmicuael, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 

Report on the National Zoological Park 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the condi- 
tion and operations of the National Zoological Park for the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1963 : 


A number of accessions to the animal collection were due to the 
generosity of friends of the National Zoological Park, On January 6, 
1963, a fine Bengal tiger arrived from the zoo in Ahmedabad, India, 
as a gift from Kalph Scott of Wasliington and Miami Beacli. Al- 
though Samson is a noniially colored tiger, he carries the white genes, 
being both half-brother and uncle to Mohini, the Zoo's white tigress. 
Samson was bred under the direction of the Maharajah of Rewa. The 
two animals are now living together, and it is hoped that they will 
produce white cubs. 

Edward D. Sweeney and Ralph E. Becker, both of Washington, pre- 
sented a pair of husky yoimg polar bears which they acquired on a 
voyage to the Arctic last summer. 

The U.S. Air Force retired Ham, the chimpanzee astronaut, which 
on January 31, 1961, soared through space in a capsule boosted by an 
83-foot Redstone rocket. Ham's 16-minute ride took him to a height 
of 155 miles and a distance of 420 miles down the coast from Cape 
Canaveral. He seems to have adjusted nicely to his comparatively 
quiet routine in the Zoo's ape quarters, which he entered on April 5, 

The U.S. Forest Service captured a young adult female (cinnamon 
phase) American black bear, which was flown to Washington from 
New Mexico and installed in a cage adjoining that of the famous 
Smokey Bear. The formal presentation was made on September 8 
by New Mexico Forester Ray L. Bell on behalf of the Department 
of Game and Fish and the New Mexico State Land Office, the Ghost 
Ranch Museum, and the Governor and Senators of New Mexico. 
"Goldie," soon to be "Mrs. Smokey," was accepted on behalf of the 
Smithsonian Institution by Dr. Carmichael. 

The State of Hawaii sent a pair of nene, or Hawaiian geese. A 
few years ago these birds were threatened with extinction by hunters 
and predators. The State Fish and Game Division undertook a pro- 
gram of propagating the birds in captivity and then releasing them 
to join wild birds in sanctuary areas on Hawaiian volcanoes, and the 



numbers have now increased. The nene, the State bird of Hawaii, is 
an attractive bird and an interesting addition to the national collec- 
tion; it had not been exhibited here since 1936. The pair was pre- 
sented by the Honorable Daniel K. Inouye, Senator from Hawaii, on 
Jmie 19, 1963, and formally accepted by the Secretary of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. The Zoo is grateful to Paul Breese, Director of 
the Honolulu Zoo, for his efforts in obtaining for it these rare speci- 

Through Alton W. Hemba, American Consul General at Guayaquil, 
Ecuador, a large Galapagos tortoise (from Albemarle Island) was 
received as a gift from Dr. Jorge E. Proano P. 

Volkmar Wentzel, of the National Geogi-aphic Society, presented to 
the Zoo a young specimen of the giant forest rat which he obtained 
during his travels in Africa. This animal is now more than 2 feet 
long (including the tail) and is still growing. 

Dr. Doris M. Cochran, curator of reptiles and amphibians at the 
U.S. National Museum, presented a number of reptiles collected on a 
trip to Central and South America. 

A gift of two hummingbirds, Heliomaster squamosus and Collhri 
delphinae greeneivaUii, was received from Dr. Augusto Euschi, Santa 
Teresa, Brazil. Dr. Ruschi is an autliority on the Colibridae and is 
noted for his splendid collection of live birds. His visit to the Na- 
tional Zoological Park last September established the standards and 
methods of care for a large group of hummingbirds to be applied 
when the renovation of the birdhouse is completed. 

Kenneth Sather, Round Lake, Minn., sent four giant Canada geese 
(Branta canadensis major) , a form previously thought to be extinct : 
a welcome addition to the waterfowl collection. 

The National Zoological Park's animal collection has also been gen- 
erously enriched by the Eistophos Science Club of Washingion, D.C., 
and Mrs. Joseph Campbell, also of Washington. 

Space does not permit listing all gifts received in the course of the 
year, but the following are of special interest : 

Bogley, Samuel W., Ill, Hyattsville, Md., woolly monkey. 

Cochran, Dr. Doris, Washington, D.C., bronze vine snalie, 2 Central American 
toads', Brazilian strii>ed frog, Raddi's frog, Brazilian light-spotted frog, 14 
diamondback terrapins, South American water turtle. 

Dembin, Edward and Eugene, Washington, D.C., Western indigo snake, red- 
tailed boa, boa constrictor, bull snake. 

DePrato, Mario, Washington, D.C., river frog, Hermann's tortoise. 

Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association, Key Biscayne, Fla., through Jim 
Griffin, 2 mandarin ducks, chestnut-breasted teal, 2 fulvous tree ducks. 

Fulton, Mrs. Robert, Washington, D.C., keel-billed toucan. 

George's Pet Shop, Bladensburg, Md., speckled agouti, black agouti, 2 ja- 
guarondis, anaconda, 2 matamata turtles, 2 boa constrictors. 

Hadley, Mrs. Harry E., Annandale, Va., ocelot. 

Secretary's Report, 1963 



Secretary's Report, 1963 

Plate 5 


An unusually long-lived many-banded krait {Bungarus multicifictus). This specimen 
arrived at the National Zoological Park as an adult on April 3, 1958. 

v> •<>*.- . v"- 

Malayan monitor {J'aranus salvator), well caini ■utlagrd in L'lass in its outdoor summer cage 
occasionally stalks and catches birds. National Zoological Park. 

Secretary's Report, 1963 


at '? 


o ^ 

-a -^ ~ 

Secretary's Report, 1963 

> •. a -'.J- 



Hecht Co., Washington, D.C., blue peacock. 

Henderson, Paul, Silver Spring, McL, drill. 

LaDu, Dx\ Bert N., Bethesda, Md., habu snake. 

Locke, Otto Martin, New Braunfels, Tex., 5 coachwhip snakes, 4 racers, 2 

yellow bullsnakes, 2 indigo snakes. 
Olaf son, Joseph M., Falls Church, Va., jaguarondi. 
Purkis, Mrs. Dorothy, Washington, D.C., woolly monkey. 
Safeway Warehouse, Landover, Md., South American opossum. 
Silva, James R., Washington, D.C., red-shouldered hawk. 
Smith, Mrs. Hiram, Richmond, Va., ocelot. 
Smith, Mrs. Leland F., Washington, D.C., cockatiel. 
U.S. Department of xVgriculture, Beltsville, Md., mink. 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: Mason, Mich., bald eagle; Seattle, Wash., 4 bald 

eagles ; Washington, N.C., bald eagle. 
U.S. National Museum, through Dr. Philip Humphrey, 6 red-tailed tropicbirds. 


Following the procedure of previous years, all births and hatchings 
are listed below, whether or not the young were successfully reared. 
In many instances the record of animals having bred in captivity is 
of interest. 


Common nnme Numher 

Squirrel glider 1 

Rat kangaroo 1 

European hedgehog 1 

Ring-tailed lemur 1 

Squirrel monkey *1 

Black spider monkey 2 

Rhesus monkey 1 

Barbary ape 4 

Sooty mangabey *1 

DeBrazza's guenon *1 

Hybrid gibbon 2 

Chimpanzee 1 

Two-toed sloth 2 

Woodchuck 5 

Prairie-dog 2 

Beaver 1 

Crested rat 1 

Egyptian spiny mouse 9 

Patagonian cavy 9 

Speckled agouti *1 

Jackal 3 

Timber wolf 5 

Korean bear 2 

European brown bear 3 

Grizzly bear 2 

Hybrid bear 2 

Raccoon 2 


Common name Number 

Neumann's genet 5 

Formosan spotted civet 2 

Water civet 1 

Bobcat 1 

Serval 1 

Black leopard 2 

African lion 4 

Sea-lion 1 

Grant's zebra *1 

Collared peccary 8 

Hippopotamus , 1 

Pygmy hippopotamus 2 


White fallow deer- 
Axis deer 

Red deer 

Sika deer 






Virginia deer 3 








Caribou X reindeer 

Brindled gnu 


Cape buffalo 

Dorcas gazelle 

African pygmy goat 2 

Barbary sheep *2 


Common name Number 

Crested screamer 4 

Whooper swan 1 

Canada goose 4 

Wood duck 28 


Common name Number 
Mallard duck 33 

Peafowl 4 

Kookaburra 8 

Formosan red-billed pie 3 

Box turtle 1 

Painted turtle 10 

Red-lined turtle 31 

Yellow-bellied turtle 13 

Northern yellow-bellied turtle 10 

Crevice spiny lizard 31 

Ribbon snake 8 

Queen snake 6 

Garter snake 8 


During the process of the National Zoological Park's capital im- 
provement program, animals which are rare in the United States and 
would be crowded or poorly housed during the construction period 
are being sent to municipal zoos and other facilities. During the 
past year rare or valuable specimens have been dispersed to locations 
thought to have good breeding conditions as well as better living 
accommodations. Other animals have been dispersed with the under- 
standing that they or similar specimens will be returned when suitable 
portions of the new exhibit areas are available here in the park. These 
deposits are : 

Brookfield Zoo, Brookfield, 111., female Dall sheep. 

Busch Gardens, Tampa, Fla., male concave-casqued hornbill, female Solomon 

Islands cockatoo. 
Defense General Supply Center Preserve, Richmond, Va., male American elk. 
Round Lake Waterfowl Station, Round Lake, Minn., 31 cotton teals. 
St. Louis Zoo, St. Louis, Mc, male guar, 4 king penguins, Adelie penguin, 

female chimpanzee. 


The National Zoological Park continues a program of exchanging 
surplus animals with zoos of other countries. Notable exchange 
arrangements were negotiated with several foreign zoos. The West 
Berlin Zoo in Germany received 4 wood ducks, 2 turkey vultures, 
2 whistling swans, 2 great horned owls, a red-tailed hawk, a red- 
shouldered hawk, and 2 barred owls. El Pinar Zoo in Caracas, Vene- 
zuela, received 2 American alligators, a pair of wood ducks, and a 
female Nile hippopotamus. The Calgary Zoo, Alberta, Canada, 
received 2 scarlet ibises, 2 roseate spoonbills, 2 cattle egrets, 2 eastern 
glossy ibises, 2 little blue herons, a Louisiana heron, a red-shouldered 
hawk, an osprey, 2 chimachimas, 2 crested curassows, an Ariel toucan, 
2 barred owls, and 2 kookaburras. The Edinburgh Zoo in Scotland 


received 6 raccoons, 1 jaguarondi, 2 squirrel monkeys, 2 kinkajous, 
4 opossums, and 3 king snakes. 

The exchange of specimens with zoos and institutions in the United 
States is also continuing. With the decrease in wild animal popu- 
lations in various parts of the world, it becomes important to replace 
animal losses from stock propagated in other zoos. An actual sur- 
plus of any one kind of animal is best dissipated by distributing to 
other American zoos so that new displays and further propagation 
may be achieved. 

Animals obtained through exchange were : 

Baltimore Zoo, Baltimore, Md., Grant's zebra. 

Bronx Zoo, New York, N.Y., cusimanse, European dormouse, 2 otters. 

Buffalo Zoo, Buffalo, N.Y., 5 timber rattlesnakes, 2 black garter snakes, 2 
Blanding's turtles. 

Calgary Zoological Society, Alberta, Canada, 2 bald eagles. 

Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, Colorado Springs, Colo., 8 golden-mantled ground 

Cincinnati Zoo, Cincinnati, Ohio, clouded leopard. 

Columbus Zoo, Columbus, Ohio, 2 golden eagles, king vulture. 

Franklin Park Zoo, Boston, Mass., 2 giant salamanders, puma. 

Hanson, Charles, Oak Harbor, Ohio, Arizona king snake, ground snake, 2 shovel- 
nosed snakes, California mountain king snake, hooded merganser, 3 sidewinder 
rattlesnakes, alligator lizard, Texas long-nosed snake, eastern massasauga. 

Houston Zoological Gardens, Houston, Tex., 6 blotched water snakes, 2 yellow- 
bellied water snakes, diamondback water snake, 2 coral snakes, 6 water 
moccasins, 5 rat snakes, 7 western rattlesnakes, 2 speckled king snakes, 3 
Lindheimer's rat snakes. 

Hoxie Bardex Circus, Sarasota, Fla., wild hog. 

Kenefick, James H., Danielson, Conn., pygmy rattlesnake, 2 gopher tortoises. 

Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, 111., brown lemur, ruffed lemur. 

Mortimer, Bill, Anaheim, Calif., rosy boa, chuckwalla. 

Norfolk Zoo, Norfolk, Va., 4 cottonmouth water moccasins, 2 common king snakes, 
brown water snake, rainbow snake, 2 canebrake rattlesnakes. 

San Diego Zoo, San Diego, Calif., Allen's swamp monkey (male). 

Tote-Em-In Zoo, Wilmington, N.C., 2 star tortoises, leopard, African scorpion, 
4 African red-tail squirrels, puff adder, unidentified tortoise, tree shrew, 2 
moustached marmosets, African python, Indian python, titi monkey. 

Zinner, Hermann, Vienna, Austria, 12 European vipers, 3 sand vipers, 3 Aescu- 
lapian snakes, 3 European water snakes, 14 European lizards, 5 European 
turtles, 2 sand boas. 

The following animals were sent to other zoos and to private 
collectors in exchange : 

Air Force Institute of Pathology, Washington, D.C., water moccasin, Asiatic rat 

snake, many-banded krait, green palm viper, lesser Indian rat snake. 
Baltimore Zoo, Baltimore, Md., Nile hippopotamous. Grant's zebra. 
British Guiana Zoo, Georgetown, British Guiana, lion cub (female). 
Buck, Warren, Marlton, N. J., 4 Gelada baboons. 
Buffalo Zoo, Buffalo, N.Y., lesser panda, 2 Taiwan cobras. 
Busch Gardens, Tampa, Fla., 2 whistling swans. 


Cincinnati Zoo, Cincinnati, Ohio, 4 mallards, 4 wood ducks, 4 lesser scaups, 
4 canvasbacks, ringneck duck, redhead duck, emu, 2 glossy ibises, 2 scarlet 
ibises, 3 snowy egrets, Bengal tiger, 2 European brown bear cubs. 

Emperor Valley Zoo, Port of Spain, Trinidad, genet, cacomistle, 2 California 
ground squirrels, kinkajou. 

Franklin Park Zoo, Boston, Mass., 2 black swans, 2 whistling swans, cavy. 

Fresno Zoo, Fresno, Calif., 3 cattle egrets. 

Hanson, Charles, Oak Harbor, Ohio, lesser Indian rat snake, Aesculapian snake, 
Taiwan habu, palm viper, krait, western cottonmouth moccasin. 

Hoxie Bardex Circus, Sarasota, Fla., 2 squirrel monkeys. 

Jimmy Morgan Zoo, Birmingham, Ala., 2 magpies. 

John Ball Zoological Park, Grand Rapids, Mich., 2 scarlet ibises, 2 curassows, 

2 roseate spoonbills. 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., 4 canvasback ducks. 

Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, 111., lemur catta, pair Barbary apes. 

Lincoln Park Zoo, Oklahoma City, Olka., 2 scarlet ibises. 

Mortimer, Bill, Anaheim, Calif., 2 baby Cook's tree boas, Aesculapian snake. 

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., 4 fat-tailed gerbils, alligator, 

Neumann's genet. 
Palmer, Harold C, Douglasville, Ga., squirrel monkey, kookaburra. 
Patuxent "Wildlife Refuge, Laurel, Md., red-tailed hawk, 2 sparrow hawks, barn 

owl, 3 great horned owls, 4 barred owls, 12 wood thrushes, 9 buntings, warblers. 
San Diego Zoo, San Diego, Calif., Allen's swamp monkey (female). 
Southwick Game Farm, Blackstone, Mass., 2 axis deer. 
Zinner, Hermann, Vienna, Austria, Lindheimer's snake, 2 pilot black snakes, 

3 bull snakes, timber rattler, 2 western diamondback rattlesnakes, 2 southern 
copperheads, 3 water moccasins, 25 anoles, spiny-tailed iguana, common iguana, 
speckled king snake, common king snake, 2 common water snakes, diamond- 
backed water snake, 3 broad-banded water snakes, yellow-bellied water snake, 
3 blotched water snakes, 3 indigo snakes. 


The National Zoological Park lias been fortunate in purchasing a 
wild Grevy zebra stallion from Africa. This animal is particularly 
valuable in that wild blood has been assured in the continued breeding 
program of the Grevy herd here in the zoo. 

The same is true of a male Masai giraffe import. The reception of 
this animal completes a trio of these unusual animals, and it is 
hoped that they will produce fine offspring — important items in the 
program of the interchange of animals among zoos of the United 

A monkey or baboon island is a great attraction to visitors to any 
zoo. With the hope of a new island exhibit to be built, 16 Gelada 
baboons from Ethiopia were purchased and are being acclimated as 
eventual inhabitants of an island exhibit, Geladas are among the 
most hardy of the primate family, and it is expected that these speci- 
mens will condition to year-round outdoor environment with minimum 
heat requirements for their well-being. 


Other purchases of interest were : 


6 lungflshes 

3 cantils 

2 Mexican beaded lizards 

2 olive baboons 

2 South American wood rails 

1 wattled guan 





Species or 




























In the following list of mammals, sex is given where known; 1.0 
indicates one male, 0.1 indicates one female, 1.1 indicates one male and 
one female, etc. : 



Family and common name Scienttftc name Number 

Tachyglossidae : 

Echidna, or spiny anteater Tachyglossus aculeatus 0. 1 


Didelphidae : 

Opossum Didelphis marsupialis virginiana. 0. 1 

Murine opossum Marmosa sp 0. 1 

Central American opossum Didelphis marsupialis 2. 

Dasyuridae : 

Tasmanian devil Sarcophilus harrisii 1. 

Phalangeridae : 

Sugar glider Petaurus hreviceps 1. 1 

Squirrel glider Petaurus norfolcensis 2. 4 

Phascolomidae : 

Hairy-nosed wombat LasiorMnus latifrons 2. 

Mainland wombat Womhatus hirsutus 0. 1 

Macropodidae : 

Tree kangaroo Dendrolagus matscMei 1, 

Rat kangaroo Potorous sp 1.2 


Erinaceidae : 

European hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus 2. 1 

African desert hedgehog Paraechinus sp 0. 1 


Family and common name Sdentiflo name Numl)er 

Lemuridae : 

Ring-tailed lemur Lemur catta 2. 1 

Brown lemur Lemur fulvus 1. 1 

Lorisidae : 

Great galago Oalago crassicaudatus 1. 1 

Bushbaby Oalago senegalensis zanzibaricus- 2. 

Common potto Perodictieus potto 0. 1 

Cebidae : 

Douroucouli Aotus trivirgatus 2. 

Titi monkey CaUicehus cupreus 1. 

Capuchin Gehus capucinus 3. 5 

Weeping capuchin Ceius griseus 1. 

White-faced saki Pithecia pithecia 0. 1 

Squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus 2. 3 

Spider monkey Ateles geoffroyi 1. 5 

Black spider monkey Ateles fusciceps 1. 5 

Woolly monkey Lagothrix sp 1. 1 

Callithricidae : 

Pygmy marmoset Ceiuella pygmaea 1. 

Cottontop marmoset Saguinus oedipus 1. 

Red-handed marmoset Saguinus midas 0. 1 

Moustaehed tamarin Saguinus mystax 1. 1 

Cercopithecidae : 

Toque, or bonnet macaque Macaca sinica 1. 2 

Philippine macaque Macaca pMlippinensis 1. 

Crab-eating macaque Macaca irus 0. 1 

Rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta 3. 1 

Javan macaque Macaca irus mordax 2. 1 

Formosan macaque Macaca cyclopis 1. 1 

Red-faced macaque Macaca speciosa 0. 1 

Barbary ape Macaca sylvanus 5. 1 

Moor macaque Macaca niaurus 0. 1 

Gray-cheeked mangabey Ccrcocehus albigena 0. 1 

Agile mangabey Cercocehus agilis 1. 

Golden-bellied mangabey Cercocehus chrysogaster 1. 

Red-crowned mangabey Cercocehus torquatus 1. 1 

Sooty mangabey Cercocehus fuliginosus 3. 1 

Crested mangabey Cercocehus aterrimus 1. 

Black-crested mangabey Cercocehus aterrimus L 1 

Drill Mandrillus leucophaeus 1.0 

Olive baboon Papio anuhis 3. 2 

Gelada baboon Theropithecus gelada 7. 6 

Chacma baboon Papio comatus 1. 

Vervet guenon Cercopithecus aethiops 1. 

Green guenon Cercopithecus aethiops 3. 2 

Grivet guenon (color variant) Cercopithecus aethiops 0.1 

Moustaehed monkey Cercopithecus cepJius 1. 2 

Diana monkey Cercopithecus diana 1. 

Roloway monkey Cercopithecus diana roloway 0. 1 

DeBrazza's guenon Cercopithecus neglectus 1. 

White-nosed guenon Cercopithecus nictitans 0.1 


Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Cercopitliecidae — Continued 

Lesser white-nosed guenon CercopUhccus petaurista 1. 

Allen's swamp monkey AUenopithecus nigroviridis 1. 1 

Spectacled, or Phayre's, langur Presbytis phayrei 1. 

Hanuman, or entellus monkey Presbytis entellus 0. 1 

Crested langur Presbytis cristatus 1.0 

Pongidae : 

AVliite-lianded gibbon Hylobates lar 1. 1 

Wau-wau gibbon Hylobates moloch 0. 1 

Hybrid gibbon Hylobates lar X H. sp 0.5 

Siamang gibbon Symphalangus syndactylus 1.0 

Sumatran orangutan Pango pygmaeus 1. 1 

Bornean orangutan Pongo pygmaeus 0. 1 

Chimpanzee Pan satyrus 3.2 

Lowland gorilla Gorilla gorilla 2.1 


Myrmecophagidae : 

Giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla 0. 1 

Bradypodidae : 

Two-toed sloth Choloepus didactylus 3.4 

Dasypodidae : 

Nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus 0. 1 


Sciuridae : 

European red squirrel Scitirus vulgaris 2. 2 

Gray squirrel, albino Scitirus carolinensis 2. 

Tassel-eared, or Abert's squirrel Sciurus aberti 1. 

Western fox squirrel Sciurus niger 1.0 

Indian palm squirrel Funambulus palmarum 0. 1 

South African red squirrel Paraxerus palliatus 1.2 

Tri-colored squirrel Callosciurus prevosti 0. 1 

Formosau tree squirrel Callosciurus erythraeus 1.1 

Woodchuck, or groundhog Marmota monax 4.2 

Prairie-dog Cynomys ludovicianus 15 

California ground squirrel Citellus beecheyi 2.2 

Washington ground squirrel Citellus tvashingtoni 1. 1 

Golden-mantled ground squirrel Citellus lateralis 2. 4 

Eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus 1. 1 

Eastern chipmunk, albino Tamias striatus 1. 

Yellow pine chipmunk Eutamias amoenus 0. 1 

Townsend's chipmunk Eutamias townsendii 1.0 

Eastern flying squirrel Glaucomys volans 2. 3 

Heteromyidae : 

Kangaroo rat Dipodomys sp 2.0 

Castoridae : 

Beaver Castor canadensis 3 

Pedetidae : 

Cape jumping hare Pedetes capensis 2.1 

Cricetidae : 

White-footed mouse Peromysous sp 1.3 

East African maned rat Lophiomys ibeanus 2. 


Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Cricetidae — Continued 

Pine vole Microtus pinetorum 1. 

Gerbil Gerbillus pyraniidtim 0. 1 

Fat-tailed gerbil Pachyuromys duprasi 3.3 

Egyptian gerbil OerMllus dasyurus 0. 1 

Hairy-tailed jird Sekeetamys calurus 0. 1 

Muridae : 

Egyptian spiny mouse Acomys cahirinus 10. 14 

Egyptian spiny mouse Acomys dimidiatus 6. 10 

Giant forest rat Gricetomys gambianus ssp 1. 

Slender-tailed cloud rat Phloeomys cumingii 1. 

Gliridae : 

Garden dormouse Eliomys quercimis 0. 1 

Hystricidae : 

Malay porcupine Acanthion Irachyura 1. 

African porcupine Hystrix cristata 2.4 

Palawan porcupine Thecurus pumihis 1. 1 

Caviidae : 

Patagonian cavy Dolichotis patagonum 3.6 

Dasyproctidae : 

Hairy-rumped agouti Dasyprocta prymnolopha 2. 1 

Agouti, black phase Dasyprocta prymnolopha 1. 1 

Acouchy Myoprocta acotichy 1. 

Chinchillidae : 

Mountain viscacha Lagidium sp 0. 1 


Canidae : 

Dingo Cants familiaris dingo 1. 2 

Coyote Canis latrans 0. 1 

Common jackal Canis aureus 1. 1 

Timber wolf Canis lupus nuhilus 1. 3 

Texas red wolf Canis niger rufus 0. 1 

Arctic fox Alopex lagopus 1. 

Feunec Fennecus zerda 1. 1 

Gray fox Vrocyon cinereoargenteus 1. 2 

Red fox Vuipes fiilim 1. 

Raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides 1. 1 

Cape hunting dog Lycaon pictus 1. 1 

Ursidae : 

Spectacled bear Tremarctos omatus 1. 

Himalayan bear Selenarctos thiietanus 0. 1 

Japanese black bear Selenarctos thibetanus japoni- 

cus 1. 

Korean bear Selenarctos thihetanus ussuri- 

cus 1.1 

European brown bear Ursus arctos 1. 2 

Iranian brown bear Ursus arctos syriacus 1. 1 

Grizzly bear Ursus horribilis 1. 1 

Black bear Euarctos americanus 1.1 

Polar bear Thalarctos maritinius 1.2 

Hybrid bear Thalarctos maritinius X Ursus 

middendorffl, 2. 2 


Family and common name Scientifio name Number 

Ursidae — Continued 

Malayan sun bear Eelarctos malayanus 0. 2 

Sloth bear Melursiis ursinus 1. 1 

Proeyonidae : 

Cacomistle Bassariscus astutus 2.2 

Raccoon Procyonlotor 1.4 

Raccoon, albino Procyonlotor 0.1 

Raccoon, black phase Procyon lotor 1, 

Coatimundl Nasua iiasua 1.3 

Red coatimundi Nasua nasua 1.0 

Peruvian coatimundi Nasua nasua dorsalis 1.1 

Kiukajou Potos flavus 2.1 

Olingo Bassaricyon yabhi 1.0 

Mustelidae : 

Marten Martes americana 0. 1 

Fisher Martes pennanti 0.1 

British Guiana tayra J^ii'a Barbara poUocephala 1. 1 

Orison (JaUctis allamandi 1.0 

Zorilla Ictonyx striatus 1.0 

Wolverine Oulo gulo luscus 0.1 

Ratel MeUivora capensis 1.0 

American badger Taxidea taxus 1.0 

Golden-bellied ferret-badger Melogale moschata suhaurantiuca 1.2 

Common skunk Mephitis mephitis 2. 

California spotted skunk Spilogale putorius plienax 1. 

River otter Lutra canadensis 2.0 

Viverridae : 

Genet Oenetta genetta neumanni 2. 5 

Genet, black phase Oenetta genetta 1. 

Formosan spotted civet V iverrlcula indica 1. 1 

Linsang Prionodon linsang 0. 1 

African palm civet Nandinia binoiata 1. 1 

Formosan masked civet Paguma larvata taivana 1. 

Binturoug Arctictis binturong 1.0 

African gray mongoose Ecrpcstes ichneumon 0. 1 

African water civet Atilax paludinosns 1. 4 

African striped mongoose Crossarchus fasciatus 1.1 

Cusimanse Crossarchus sp 0.1 

White-tailed mongoose Ichncumia albicauda 1.0 

Black-footed mongoose Bdeogale sp 1.1 

Hyaenidae : 

Striped hyena Hyaena hyaena 1. 1 

Felidae : 

Bobcat Lynx rufus 1. 1 

Canadian lynx „ Lynx canadensis 1.0 

Caracal Lynx caracal caracal 1.0 

Jungle cat Felis rhaus 1.1 

Pallas's cat Felis mnnul 1. 1 

Serval Felis serval 0.2 

Leopard cat Felis bengalensis 1.0 

Golden cat Felis aurata 1.0 

Ocelot Felis pardalis 1.2 

720-018—64 9 


Family and common name Bcientiflo name Number 

Felidae — Continued 

Jaguarondi Fclis yagouuroundi 1.1 

Puma Felis concolor 1.1 

Leopard Panthera pardua 3.1 

Black leopard Panthera pardus 1.2 

Lion Panthera leo 4.4 

Bengal tiger Panthera tigris 2.1 

White Bengal tiger Panthera tigris 0. 1 

Jaguar Panthera onca 1. 

Clouded leopard Neofelia nehulosa 2.0 

Snow leopard Uncia uncia 1.1 

Cheetah Acinonyx jubata 1. 1 


Otariidae : 

California sea-lion Zalophus californianus 3.3 

Patagonian sea-lion Otaria flavesce^is 0. 1 

Phocidae : 

Harbor seal Phoca vitulina 1.1 


Orycteropodidae : 

Aardvark Orycteropus afer 1.0 


Elephantidae : 

African elephant Loxodonta africana 0. 1 

Forest elephant Loxodonta cyclotis 1. 

Indian elephant Elephas maximus 0.2 


Equidae : 

Mongolian wild horse Equus przewalskii 1.0 

Grevy's zebra Equus grevyi 1. 2 

Grant's zebra Equus iurchelU 1. 3 

Burro, or donkey Equus asinus 1. 

Tapiridae : 

Brazilian tapir Tapirus terrestris 1. 1 

Rhinocerotidae : 

Indian one-homed rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis 1.0 

African black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis 1, 1 

White, or square-lipped, rhinoceros Ceratotherium sinium 1.1 


Tayassuidae : 

Collared peccary Tayassu tajacu 4.3 

Hippopotamidae : 

Hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius 1. 1 

Pygmy hippopotamus Choeropsis liberiensis 1.4 

Camelidae : 

Bactrian camel Camelus bactrianus 0.1 

Llama Lama glama 2.4 

Guanaco Lama glama guanicoe 1.1 

Alpaca Lama pacos , 1.1 


Family and common name Soientiflo name Number 

Cervidae : 

White fallow deer Bama dama 3.3 

Axis deer Axis axis 3. 2 

Red deer Cervus elaphus 4. 3 

Sika deer Cervus nippon 3. ii 

P6re David's deer Elaphurus davidianus 1.0 

White-tailed, or Virginia, deer Odocoileus virginianus 2. 6 

American elk Oervus canadensis *1. 

Forest caribou Rangifer caribou 0.1 

Reindeer Rangifer tarandus 3.11 

Giraffidae : 

Nubian giraffe CHraffa camelopardalis 0.1 

Masai giraffe Olraffa c. tippelskirchi 1. 2 

Bovidae : 

Sitatunga Tragelaphus spekii 1.0 

Anoa Anoa depressicornis 1.1 

Yak Poephagus grunnien^ 1.3 

Gaur Bibos gaurus 2.0 

Cape buffalo Syncerus coffer 1. 4 

American bison Bison Mson 1, 

Brindled gnu Connochaetes taurinus 1.4 

Dorcas gazelle Gazella dorcas 3.4 

Saiga antelope Saiga tatarica 0.1 

Rocky Mountain goat Orcamnos americanus 0.1 

Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus 0. 1 

African pygmy goat Capra hircus 3. 2 

Ibex Capra ibex 1.0 

Aoudad, or Barhary sheep Ammotragus lervia 1.1 

Dall sheep Ovi.s dalli ♦O. 1 

Big-horn sheep Ovis canadensis 1.1 



Sphenlscidae : 

King penguin Aptenodytes patagonica *4 

Adelie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae *1 


Struthionidae : 

Ostrich Struthio cameliis 1 


Rheidae : 
Rhea Rhea americana 1 



Double-wattled cassowary Gasuarius bicarunculatus 2 

Dromiceidae : 

Emu Dromiceius novaehollandiae 2 

•On deposit at another zoo or sanctnarj 


Family and common name Scietitiftc name Ntimier 
Tinamidae : 
Pileated tinamou Crypturellus soui panamensis 1 


Diomedeidae : 

Black-footed albatross Diomedea nigripes 2 


Red-tailed tropicbird Phaethon ruhicaucia 3 


Peleoanidae : 

Wbite pelican Pcleeanus erytJirorhyncJios 3 

Brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis 1 

Dalmatian pelican Pelecanus crispus 2 


Ganuet Sula hassana 1 

Phalacrocoracidae : 

Double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorax atiritus auritvs 3 

Phalaci-ocorax auritus alhocili- 

Farallou cormorant atus 1 

European cormorant Phalacrocorax carho 6 


Ardeidae : 

Reddish egret Dichromanassa rufescens rufes- 

cens . 8 

Snowy egret . Egrctta thula 3 

Eastern green heron Brttorides virescens 2 

Louisiana heron JTydranassa tricolor 2 

Black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nyeticorax 12 

American bittern Botaurus lentiginosus 1 

Tiger bittern Tigrisoma lineatum 1 


Shoebill Balaeniceps rex 1 


American wood ibis Myctcria americana 2 

European white stork Ciconia ciconia 4 

"White-bellied stork Sphcnorhynchos aidimia 2 

Open-billed stork Anastomus oscltans 1 

Threskiornithidae : 

White ibis Ouara alha 2 

Scarlet ibis Gtiara ruher 2 

Black-faced ibis Theristicus melanopis 1 

Black-headed ibis Thresklornis melanocephala 1 

White-faced glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellns mexicana 1 

Eastern glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus falcinellns^^ 1 

Phoenicopteridae : 

Chilean flamingo Phoenicopterus chilevsis 1 

Cuban flamingo PJioenicopterus ruher 1 

Old World flamingo Phoenicopterus antiquorum 1 


Family and cotnmon name Scienttfto name Number 

Anhimidae : 

Crested screamer Chattna torquata 6 

Anatidae : 

Coscoroba swan Coscoroba eoscoroha 4 

Mute swan Cygnus olor 3 

Black-necked swan Cygnus tnelanocoriphtis 2 

Whoopor swan Olor cygnus 4 

Whistling swan Olor columhianus 11 

Trumpeter swan Olor buccinator 2 

Black swan Chenopis atrnta 7 

Egyptian goose Alopochen aegyptiacus 4 

White-fronted goose Anser albifrons 3 

Indian bar-headed goose Anser indicus 5 

Emperor goose Anser canagicus 2 

Blue goose Anser caerulcscens 6 

Lesser snow goose Anser caerulesceiis caerulcscens 2 

Greater snow goose Anser caerulcscens atlanticus 5 

Ross's goose Anser rossii 4 

Nene, or Hawaiian goose Branta sandvicensis 2 

Red-breasted goose Branta ruficoUis 4 

Canada goose Branta canadensis 26 

Lesser Canada goose Branta canadensis 5 

Giant Canada goose Branta canadensis major 4 

Cackling goose Branta canadensis 4 

White-cheeked goose Branta canadensis 3 

Canada goose X Lesser snow goose 

(blue phase), hybrid Branta canadensis X Anser 

caerulcscens 1 

Fulvous tree duck Dendrocygna bicolor 1 

Ruddy shelduck Casaixa ferruginae 2 

Wood duck Aix sponsa 104 

Mandarin duck Aix galericulata 12 

Indian cotton teal Nettapus coromadelianus *8 

Pintail duck Anas acuta 4 

Green-winged teal Anas crecca 1 

Chestnut-breasted teal Anas castanea 1 

Gadwall Anas strepera 4 

European widgeon Anas penelope 2 

Mallard duck Anas platyrhynchos 60 

Mallard duck X American pintail 

duck, hybrid Anas platyrhynchos X Anas 

acuta 1 

Black duck Anas rubripes 8 

Greater scaup duck Aythya marila 11 

Lesser scaup duck Aythya affinis 55 

Redhead Aythya americana 17 

Ring-necked duck Aythya collaris 18 

Canvasback duck Aythya valisineria 40 

Rosy-billed pochard Mctopiana peposaca 1 

♦Oa deposit at auother zoo or sanctuary. 


Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Anatidae — Continued 

Red-crested pochard Nettarufina 1 

BufSehead Buvephala alheola 1 

American goldeneye Bucephala clangula 1 

Baldpate Mareca americana 8 

Hooded merganser Lophodytes cucuUatus 1 


Cathartidae : 

Andean condor Vultur gryphus 1 

King vulture Sarcoramphus papa 1 

Sagittariidae : 

Secretarybird Sagittarius serpentarius 2 

Accipitridae : 

Hooded vulture Necrosyrtes monachus 1 

Griffon vulture Qvps fulvus 1 

Riippell's vulture Oyps ruppelUi 2 

African yellow-billed kite Milvus migrans 2 

Brahminy kite Haliastur indus 1 

Black-faced hawk Leucopternis melanops 1 

Red-winged hawk Heterospizias rneridionalis 1 

Red-tailed hawk Buteo jamaicensis 1 

Swainson's hawk Buteo swainsoni 1 

Mauduyt's hawk eagle 8pi::aetus ornatus 1 

Black-crested eagle Lopkaetus occipitalis 1 

Great black hawk Ictinaetus malaycnsis 1 

Golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos 5 

Imperial eagle Aquila heliaca 2 

White-breasted sea eagle Haliaee tus leucogaster 1 

Pallas's eagle Haliaeetus Icucoryphus 1 

Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus 9 

Harpy eagle Earpia harpyja 1 

Guianan crested eagle Morphnus guianensis 1 

Martial eagle Polemaetus bellicosus 1 

Bateleur eagle Terathopius ecaudatus 1 

Lammergeier Oypaetus harhatus 1 

Falconidae : 

Sparrow hawk Falco sparverius 4 

Duck hawk Falco peregrinus anatum 1 

Feilden's falconet Neohieraw cinereiceps 1 

Red-footed falcon Falco vespertinus 1 

Forest falcon Micrastur semitorqiiatus 2 

Chimango Milvago chimango 1 

Audubon's caracara Polyiorus cheriivay 2 

White-throated caracara Phalcoioenus albogularis 1 


Megapodiidae : 

Brush turkey Alectura lathami 1 

Cracidae : 

Wattled curassow Craw gloiulosa 2 

White-headed piping guan Pipile cumanensis 1 

Wattled guan Pipile sp 1 


Family and common name Bcientiflc name Number 

Phasianidae : 

Gambel's quail Lophortijx gambeli 2 

Valley quail Lophortyx californica vallicola 3 

Argus pheasant Argusianus argus 1 

Golden pheasant Chrysolophus pictus 3 

Red junglefowl Oallus gallus 3 

Black-backed kaleege pheasant Gcnnaeus melanonotus 2 

Silver pheasant Gennacus nycthemerus 1 

Peafowl Pavo cristatus 6 

Ring-necked pheasant Phmianns colcJiicus 1 

Ring-necked pheasant, albino Phasianus colchicus 2 

Ring-necked pheasant X Green pheas- Phasianus colchicus X Phasianus 1 
ant, hybrid. versicolor. 

Bhutan, or grey peacock pheasant Polyplectron Mcalcaratum 1 

Niunididae : 

Vulturine guineafowl AcrylUum vulturinum 1 


Gruidae : 

Siberian crane Grus leucogeranus 1 

European crane Gi-us grus 2 

Demoiselle crane Anthropoides virgo 4 

Sarus crane Grus antigone 1 

African crowned crane Balearica pavonina 5 

Psophiidae : 

Trumpeter Psophia crepitans 1 

Rallidae : 

Cayenne wood rail Aramides cajanea 1 

Virginia rail Rallus limicola 1 

Purple gallinule Porphyrula martinica 2 

Eurypygidae : 

Sun bittern Eurypyga helias 1 

Cariamidae : 

Cariama, or seriama Cariama cristata 1 

Otididae : 

Kori bustard Eupodotis Jcori 2 

Senegal bustard Eupodotis senegalensis 1 


Jacanidae : 

Common jacana Jacana spinosa 2 

Plaomatopodidae : 

Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus 1 

Charadriidae : 

Australian banded plover Zonifer trivolor 2 

European lapwing VpawIIus vanellus 3 

South American lapwing Belonopterus cayenncnsis 4 

Crocodile bird Pluvianus aegyptius 7 

Recurvirostridae : 

Black-necked stilt Himantopus mexicanus 1 


Ring-billed gull Larus delawarensis 3 

Kelp gull Larus dominicanus 2 


Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Laridae — Cou tinned 

Laughing gull Larus africiUa 3 

Herring gull Larus argentatus 1 

Great black-backed gull Larus marinus 1 

Silver gull Larus novaehollandiae 6 


Columbidae : 

Band-tailed pigeon Columha fasoiata 1 

High-flying Budapest pigeon Columha livia 1 

Black-billed pigeon Columha nigrirostris 1 

Triangular spotted pigeon Columha guinea 2 

Crowned pigeon Gotira victoria 1 

Blue ground dove Claravis preiiosa 4 

Ruddy ground dove Chaemepelia ruflpennis 1 

Indian emerald-winged tree dove Chalcophaps indica 5 

Diamond dove Geopelia cuneata 1 

Plain-breasted groxmd dove Columhigallina minuta 2 

Ground dove Columhigallina passerina 1 

Ring-necked dove Btreptopclia decaocto 5 

Blue-headed ring dove Streptopelia tranqueharica 2 

White-winged dove Zenaida asiatica 1 

Mourning dove Zenaidura macroura 1 


Psittacidae : 

Kea parrot Nestor nntahilis 2 

Banksian cockatoo Calyptorhynchus magnificus 1 

White cockatoo Kakatoe alha 1 

Solomon Islands cockatoo Kakatoe ducrops *1 

Sulphur-crested cockatoo Kakatoe galerita 2 

Bare-eyed cockatoo Kakatoe sanguinea 3 

Great red-crested cockatoo Kakatoe moluccensis 1 

Leadbeater's cockatoo Kakatoe leadheateri 6 

Cockatiel Nymphicus hollandicvs 5 

Yellow-and-blue macaw Ara aj-aurauna 4 

Red-and-blxie macaw Ara chloroptera 2 

Red-blue-and-yellow macaw Ara macao 2 

Illiger's macaw Ara maracana 2 

Brown-throated conure Gonurus aeruginosus 8 

Petz's parakeet Aratinga canicularis 2 

Rusty-cheeked parrot Aratinga pertinax 2 

Yellow-naped parrot Amazona auropalliata 2 

Finsch's parrot Amazona finschi 1 

Blue-fronted parrot Amazona acstiva 1 

Red-fronted parrot Amazona hodini 1 

Double yellow-headed parrot Amazona oratrix 4 

African gray parrot Psittacus erithaeus 4 

Black-headed, or Nanday, parrot Nandayus nanday 7 

Lineolated parakeet Bollyorhynchus lineolatus 5 

White-winged parakeet Brotogeris versicolorus 1 

Tovi parakeet Brotogeris jugularis 1 

•On deposit at another zoo or sanctuary. 


Family and common name Bcientifio name Number 

Psittacidae — Continued 

Greater ring-necked parakeet Psittacula cupatria 2 

Rose-breasted parakeet Psittacula alexundri 1 

Moustaelied parakeet Psittacula fasciata 1 

Lesser ring-necked parakeet Psittacula krameri 2 

Barraband's parakeet Polytelis swainsoni 1 

Quaker parakeet Myiopsitta monacha 7 

Grass parakeet Mclopsittacus undulatus 1 

Red-faced lovebird Agapornis puUaria ssp 2 

Rosy-faced lovebird Ayapornis roseicollis 1 

Black-headed caique, or seven-color 

parrot Pioniies melanocephala 2 

Yellow-tliighed caique Pionitcs leucogaster 1 


Musophagldae : 

White-bellied go-away bird Crinifer leucogaster 1 

Plantain-eater Crinifer africanus 1 

Cuculidae : 

Koel Eudynamys scolopacea 1 

Roadrunner Oeococcyx calif ornianus 2 

Coucal, or crow-pheasant Centropus sinensis 1 


Tytonidae : 

Barn owl Tyto alba 1 

Strigidae : 

Screech owl Otus asio 3 

Spectacled owl Pulsatrix perspicillata 1 

Malay fishing owl Ketupa ketupu 1 

Snowy owl Nyctea nyctea 4 

Barred owl Strix varia 1 

Burrowing owl Speotyto cunicularia hypugaea 2 

Nepal brown wood owl Strix leptogramtnica newarensis- 1 


Alcedinidae : 

Kookaburra Dacelo gigas 16 

Coraciidae : 

Lilac-breasted roller Coracias caudata 2 

Indian roller Coracias benghaletisis 2 

Bucerotidae : 

Concave-casqued hornbill Buceros hicomls *1 

Pied hornbill Anthracoceros malaharicus 1 

Abyssinian ground hornbill Bucorvus abyssinicus 2 

Leadbeater's ground hornbill Bucorims leadbeateri 1 

Grey hornbill Tockus birostris 1 

Great black-casqued hornbill Ccrtaogymna atrata 1 

Crowned hornbill Tockus alboterminatns 1 

Yellow-billed hornbill Tockus flavirostris 1 

•On deposit at another zoo or sanctuary. 


Family and comtnon name Scicutiflo name Numict 

Capitouidae : 

Asiatic great barbet Megalaima virctis 1 

Toucan barbet Semnonm ramphaatinus 1 

Ramptiastidae : 

Keel-billed toucan Ramphastos culminatus 2 

Sulphur-and-white-breasted toucan__ Ramphastos vitellinus 1 

Razor-billed toucanet Pteroglossus castanotis 2 


Tyrannidae : 

Kiskadee flycatcher Pitangus sulphuratus 4 

Eastern kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus 1 

Alaudidae : 

Horned lark Ercmophila alpestris 1 

Corvidae : 

Magpie Pica pica 1 

Yellow-billed magpie Pica nuttalU 1 

Asiatic tree pie Crypsirina formosae 1 

Magpie jay Calooitta formosa 1 

European jay Oarrulus glandarius 2 

African white-necked crow Corinis alius 2 

American crow Gorvus hrachyrhynchos 1 

Raven Gorvus coraip pritunpalis 2 

Indian crow Gorvus splendens 1 

Formosan red-billed pie Gissa caerulea 9 

Occipital blue pie Gissa occipitalis 1 

Hunting crow Gissa chinensis 1 

Inca jay Xanthoura yncas 1 

Paridae : 

Great tit Parus major 1 

Timaliidae : 

White-capped redstart Ghaimarrhornls leucocephalus 1 

Red-eyed babbler Ghrysomma sinense 1 

Scimitar babbler Pomatorhinus schisticeps 1 

White-crested laughing thrush Oarrulax iicolor 4 

Black-headed sibia Heterophasia capistrata 2 

Silver-eared mesia Mesia argentauris 3 

Pekin robin LeiotUrix luteus 5 

Pycnonotidae : 

Red-eared bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus 1 

Black-headed bulbul Pycnonotus atriceps 2 

Red-vented bulbul Pycnonotus cafer 4 

White-cheeked bulbul Pycnonotus leucogenys 3 

White-eared bulbul Pycnonotus leucotis 1 

Turdidae : 

Robin, albino Turdus migratorius 1 

European song thrush Turdus ericetorum 2 

Blackbird Turdus merula 1 

Cliff chat Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris 1 

Bombycillidae : 

Cedar waxwing B oniby cilia cedrorum 1 


Family and common name Sdentiflo name Number 

Sturnidae : 

Rose-colored pastor Pastor roseus 1 

Purple starling LamprocoUua purpureus 3 

Burchell's long-tailed starling Lamprotornis caudatus 1 

Amethyst starling Oinnyricmclus leucogaster 1 

Tri-colored starling Spreo supcrbus 1 

Jungle mynali Acridotheres tristis 1 

Lesser liill mynah Oracula religiosa indica 3 

Greater Indian Mil mynab Oractila religiosa intermedia 2 

Nectarinlidae : 

Variable sunbird Oinnyris venustus raceis 1 

Scarlet-tufted malachite sunbird Nectarinia johnstoni 1 

Beautiful sunbird Nectarinia pulchella 1 

Purple sunbird Nectarinia asiatica 1 

Zosteropidae : 

White-eye Zoateropa palpebrosa 2 

Chloropseidae : 

Blue-winged fruit-sucker Ohloropsis hardwickei 2 

Coerebidae : 

Black-headed sugarbird Chlorophanes spiza 2 

Bananaquit Coereba flaveola 1 

Parulidae : 

Kentucky warbler Oporornis formosus 1 

Redstart Setophaga ruticilla 1 

Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilltis 1 

Ploceidae : 

Red-naped widowbird CoUuspasser laticauda 4 

Giant whydah Diatropura procne 1 

Baya weaver Ploceus baya 3 

Vitelline masked weaver Ploceus vitellinus 1 

Red bishop weaver Euplectes orix 1 

White-headed nun Lonchura maja 2 

Indian silverbill Lonchura malabarica 1 

Bengalese finch Lonchura sp 3 

Cut-throat weaver finch Amadina fasciata 1 

Lavender finch Estrilda coerulescens 1 

Strawberry finch Estrilda amandava 1 

Common wasbill Estrilda troglodytes 1 

Zebra finch Poephila castanotis 7 

Gouldlan finch Poephila gouldiae 1 

Icteridae : 

Yellow-headed blackbird Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus- 1 

Rice grackle Psomocolax oryzivora 2 

Swaiuson's grackle Holoquiscalus lugubris 1 

Glossy cowbird Molothrus bonariensis 2 

Brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater 1 

Bay cowbird Molothrus badius 1 

Colombian red-eyed cowbird Tangavius armenti 1 

Red-winged blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus 2 

Red-breasted marshbird Leistes militaris 4 


Family and common name Scientiflc name Number 

Thraupidae : 

ralm tanager Tanagra paJmarum 1 

Blue tanager Thraupis cana 1 

White-edged tanager Thraupis leucoptvra 1 

Yellow-rumped tanagei* Ramphocelus ictcronotus 1 

Passerini's tanager Ramphocelus passerinii 1 

Maroon, or silver-beaked, tanager — Ramphocelus jacapa 2 

Fringillidae : 

Tropical seed finch OryzoJ)oriiS torridiis 2 

Rice grosbeak Oryzoborus crassirostris 1 

Evening grosbeak HeHpvriphona vespcrtina 1 

Black-throated cardinal Paroaria gularis 3 

Cardinal Richrnondena cardinnlis 1 

European linnet Acanthis cannabina 1 

European goldfinch Carduelis cardueiis 1 

Green finch Chloris chluris 1 

Lesser yellow finch Sicalis luteola 1 

Saffron finch Sicalis flaveola 3 

White-lined finch Spermophila lineola 4 

Slate-colored junco Junco hyemalis 1 

Buff-throated saltator Saltator maximus 1 

Tawny-bellied seedeater Sporophila rninuta 5 

Song sparrow Melospiza melodia 1 

Dickcissel Spiza americana 3 

White-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys 2 

Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinclla 1 

European bunting Emberiza calandra 1 

Jacarini finch Volatinia jacarini 4 


AUigatoridae : 

Caiman Caiman sclerops 4 

Black caiman Mclanosuchus niger 7 

American alligator Alligator mississipiensis 17 

Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis 2 

Crocodilidae : 

Broad-nosed crocodile Osteolaemus tctraspis 2 

African crocodile Crocodylus niloticvs 3 

Narrow-nosed crocodile Crocolyhis cataphractus 1 

Salt-water crocodile Crocodylus porosus 1 

American crocodile Crocodylus acutus 1 


Indian gavial Oavialis gangeticus 1 


Chelydridae : 

Snapping tui^tle Chelydra serpentina 13 

Alligator snapping turtle Macrochelys temminckii 1 

Kinosternidae : 

Musk turtle Bternotherus odoratus 4 

Mud turtle Kinosternon snbrubrum 6 

South American mud turtle Kinosternon cruentatutn 1 


Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Emydidae : 

Box turtle Terrapene Carolina 63 

Three-toed box turtle Terrapene Carolina triunguis 2 

Ornate box turtle Terrapene ornata ornata 1 

Florida box turtle Terrapene iaiiri 5 

Kura kura box turtle Cuora anihoinensJs 2 

Diamondback turtle Malaclemys terrapin 6 

Map turtle Graptcmys geographica 1 

Mississippi map turtle Graptemys kohni 3 

Barbour's map turtle Graptcmys barbouri 4 

Painted turtle Chrysemys picta 10 

Western painted turtle Chrysemys picta belli 12 

Southern painted turtle Chrysemys dorsnlis 1 

Cumberland turtle Pscudemys troostii 7 

South American red-lined turtle Pseudemys scripta callirostris — 2 

Yellow-bellied turtle Pseudemys scripta scripta 18 

Iled-bellied turtle Pseudemys rebrivcntris 8 

Red-eared turtle Pseudemys scripta elegans 33 

Southern water turtle Pseudemys floridana 7 

Florida red-bellied turtle Pseudemys nelsoni 2 

Central American turtle Pseudemys ornata 2 

Cuban water turtle Pseudemys decussata 1 

Chicken turtle Deirochelys reticularia 2 

Spotted turtle Clemmya guttata 2 

AVood turtle Clcmmys insculpta 5 

Iberian pond turtle Clemmya leprosa 2 

European water terrapin Clemmys caspica rivulata 13 

European poud turtle Emys orbicularis 3 

Blanding's, or semi-box, turtle Emys blandingii 3 

Reeves's turtle Chinemys reevesii 4 

Testudinidae : 

Duncan Island tortoise Testudo ephippium 2 

Galapagos tortoise Testudo vicina 2 

Galapagos tortoise Testudo elephantopus 1 

Giant Aldabra tortoise Testudo elephantina 2 

South American tortoise Testudo denticulata 5 

Star tortoise Testudo elegans 2 

Mountain tortoise Testudo emys 2 

Hermann's tortoise Testudo hermanni 1 

Gopher tortoise Oopherus polyphemus 2 

Texas gopher tortoise Gophcrus berlandieri 1 


African water turtle Pelusios sinuatus 2 

African black mud turtle Pelusios subniger 1 

Amazon spotted turtle Podocnemia unifilis 4 

Chelydidae : 

Southern American side-necked 

turtle Batrachemys nasuta 2 

Australian side-necked turtle Chelodina longicollis 3 

Matamata turtle Chelys fimbriata 2 

Small side-necked turtle Hydromedusa tcctifera 2 

Large side-necked turtle Phrynopa hilarii 7 


Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Chelydidae — Continued 

Krefft's turtle Emydura krefjtii 3 

Murray turtle Emydura macquarrii 3 

South American gibba turtle Mesoclemmys giVha 2 

Flat-headed turtle Platcmys platycephalu 2 

Trionychidae : 

Southern soft-shelled turtle Trionyx lerox 4 

Texas soft-shelled turtle Trionyx emoryi 1 

African soft-shelled turtle Trionyx triunguis 2 


Gekkonidae : 

Tokay gecko Oekko gecko 21 

Day gecko Phelsuma cepedianuni 2 

Day gecko Phelsuma sp 2 

Iguanidae : 

Common iguana Iguana iguana 2 

Carolina anole Anolis carolinensis 75 

Texas horned lizard Phrynosoma cornutum 1 

Crevice spiny lizard Sceloporus poinsctti 2 

Spiny-tailed iguana Ctenosaura acanthura 2 

Agamidae : 

Agamid lizard Hoplurus saxicola 1 

Scincidae : 

Mourning skink Egernia luctuosa 2 

White's skink Egernia whitei 3 

Greater five-lined skink Eumeces fasciattis 1 

Great Plains skink Eumeces ohsoletus 2 

Stump-tailed skink Tiliqua rugosa 1 

Malayan skink Mahuya multifasciata 2 

Gerrhosauridae : 

African plated lizard Zonosaurus si^ 2 

Madagascar plated lizard Zonosaurus tnadagascariensis 2 

Plated lizard Qerrhosaurus major 1 

Lacertidae : 

European lizard Lacerta strigata trilineata 1 

European green lizard Lacerta viridis 3 

European lizard Lacerta erhardtii 1 

European wall lizard Lacerta muralis 1 

Teiidae : 

Ameiva lizard Ameiva ameiva praesignis 1 

Yellow tegu Tupinamhis teguixin 2 

Whip-tailed lizard Cnetnidophorus tigris 1 

Teiid lizard Cnemidophorus sp 1 

Cordylidae : 

South African spiny lizard Cordylus vandami perkoensis 2 

Varanldae : 

Dum^ril's monitor Varanus dumerili 2 

Malayan monitor Varanus salvator 1 

Philippine monitor Varanus nuchalis 2 

Helodermatidae : 

Mexican beaded lizard Heloderma horridum 3 

Beaded lizard, black phase Heloderma horridum alvernensis- 1 


Family and common name Scientiflo name Number 

Anguidae : 

Glass lizard Ophisaurus x^entralis 3 

European glass lizard Ophisaurus apodus 2 


Boidae : 

Anaconda Etinectes murinus 1 

Cook's tree boa Corallus enydris cooki 4 

Emerald tree boa Corallus caninus 1 

Boa constrictor Constrictor constrictor 4 

Emperor boa Constrictor imperator 1 

Cuban ground boa Tropidophis melanura 1 

Rainbow boa Epicrates cenchria 3 

Cuban tree boa Epicrates angulifer 3 

Sand boa Eryx conica 3 

Ball python Python reyius 2 

Indian rock python Python molurus 3 

Regal python Python reticulatus 4 

African python Python seiae 1 

Acroehordidae : 

Elephant trunk snake Acrochordus javanicus 1 

Colubridae : 

King snake Lampropeltis getulus getulus 2 

Speckled king snake Lampropeltis getulus holhrooM 2 

California king snake Lampropeltis getulus califomiae- 1 

Florida king snake Lampropeltis getulus floridana 2 

Sonoran king snake Lampropeltis getulus splendida 1 

Scarlet king snake Lampropeltis triangulum dollata. 1 

Milk snake Lampropeltis triangulum 1 

Tropical king snake Lampropeltis polysonus 1 

Garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis 2 

Garter snake, melanistic phase Thamnophis sirtalis 4 

Ribbon snake Thamnophis sauritus 1 

Eastern hognosed snake Heterodon platyrhinos 1 

Common water snake Natrice sipedon 2 

Red-bellied water snake Natrix erythrogaster 1 

European grass snake Natrix natrix natrix 5 

Brazos water snake Natrix harteri 1 

Water snake Natrix harteri paucimaculata 2 

Diamondback water snake Natrix rhomhifera 4 

Queen snake Natrix septemvittata 1 

Brown water snake Natrix taxispilota 1 

Broad-banded water snake Natrix confluens 6 

Blotched water snake Natrix transversa 12 

Yellow-bellied water snake Natrix flavigaster 5 

Indigo snake Drymarchon couperi 1 

Western indigo snake Drymarchon erehennus 1 

Pilot black snake Elaphe obsoleta olsoleta 2 

Pilot black snake, albino Elaphe ohsoleta ohsoleta 1 

Corn snake Elaphe obsoleta guttata 1 

Corn snake, albino Elaphe olsoleta guttata 1 

Fox snake Elaphe vnlpina 1 


Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Colubridae — Continued 

Formosan striped rat snake Elaphe taeniura 5 

Lindheimer's snalie Elaphe lindhcimeri 2 

Great Plains rat snake Elaphe ernoi-yi 1 

Chicken snake Elaphe guadrivittata 1 

Aescuiapian snake Elaphe lonyisstma 4 

Aesculapian snake Elaphe longi^sima subgrisea 1 

Rainbow snake Ahastor erythrogrammus 1 

Formosan cat-eyed snake Dinodon rnfozonatum 4 

Cat-eyed snake Leptodeira annulata 1 

Black racer Coluber constrictor constrictor 1 

European racer Coluber jugularis caspius 2 

Red racer Masticophis flagellum frcnatum 1 

Eastern coachwhip Masticophis flagellum 1 

Western coachwhip Masticophis flagellum tcstaccus^ 2 

Ring-necked snake Diadophis punctatus edwardsii— 1 

Eastern worm snake Carphophis amoenus 1 

DeKay's snake Storeria dekayi 1 

Green whip snake Dryophis prasinus 1 

Bull snake Pituophis sayi 2 

Florida pine snake Pituophis mugitus 1 

Great Basin gopher snake Pituophis catenifer deserticola 1 

File snake Simocephalus capensis 1 

Wolf snake Lycodon flavomaciilatus 1 

Cat-eyed snake Eteirodipsas sp 1 

Green-headed tree snake Leptophis mewicamis 1 

Bronze vine snake Oxybelis aeneus 1 

Elapidae : 

Coral snake Micrurus tenere 1 

Indian cobra Naja naja 1 

Taiwan cobra Tfaja naja atra 11 

King cobra Ophiophagus hannah 2 

Many-banded krait Bungarus multicinctns 4 

Crotalidae : 

Southern copperhead Ancistrodon contortrix contor- 

trix 5 

Northern copperhead Ancistrodon contortrix mokeson- 2 

Broad-banded copperhead Ancistrodon contortrix laticinc- 

tus 1 

Cottonmouth water moccasin Ancistrodon piscivorus 3 

Western water moccasin Ancistrodon leucostoma 9 

Cantil Ancistrodon bilineatus 3 

Eastern massasauga Sistrurus catenatus catenattis — 1 

Pygmy rattlesnake Sittrurns miliarius 1 

Green palm viper Trlmeresurus graminevs 1 

Green palm viper Trimeresurus stejnegeri 1 

Mamushi Trimeresurus elegans 1 

Habu Trimeresurus flavoviridis 2 

Taiwan habu Trimeresurus okinavensis 1 

Western diamondback rattlesnake — Crotalus atrox 8 

Timber rattlesnake Crotalus horridus 4 

Viperidae : 

Puff adder Bitis arietang 1 



Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Cryptobranchidae : 
Giant salamander Megalohatrachus japonicus 2 

Amphiumidae : 

Congo eei Amphiuma means 1 

Auibjstomatidae : 

Spotted salamander Am'bystoma maculatum 1 

Salamandridae : 

Japanese red-bellied newt Diemictylus pyrrhogaster 8 

Red-spotted newt Diemictylus viridescens 14 

Broken-striped newt Diemictylus viridescens dorsalis- 7 


Bufonidae : 

Ajnerican toad Bufo terrestris americanus 1 

Fowler's toad Bufo woodhousei fowleri 3 

Blomberg's toad Bufo blomhergi 2 

Giant toad Bufo tnarinus 6 

Cuban toad Bufo peltocephalns 6 

Central American toad Bufo typhonius 2 

Pelobatidae : 

European spadefoot toad Pcloiates fuscus 3 

Pipidae : 

Surinam toad Pipa pipa 12 

African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 3 

Leptodactylidae : 

Colombian horned frog Ccratoplirys calcarata 2 


Raddi's frog Hyla raddiana 1 

Barking tree frog Hyla gratiosa 1 

European tree frog Hyla arborea 1 

Gray tree frog Hyla versicolor 2 

Microiiylidae : 

Narrow-mouthed toad Microhyla carolinensis 2 

Ranidae : 

River frog Rana heckscheri 1 

Ajfrican bull frog Rana adspersa 1 

American bull frog Rana catesbeiana 1 

Green frog Rana clamitans 1 

Leopard frog Rana pipiens 25 


Protopteridae : 

African lungfish Protopterus annectens 2 

Snake-headed fish Polypterus palmas 1 

720-018—64 — —10 


Family and common name Scientiflo name Number 

Characidae : 

Piranha Serrasalmus niger 1 

Metynnis Metynnis maculatua 1 

Black tetra Qymnoccrymbus ternetzi 1 

Cyprinidae : 

Zebra danio Brachydanio rerio 4 

Tiger barb Barbus partipentazona 1 

White cloud mountain fish Tanichthys albonuies 1 

Electrophoridae : 

Electric eel Electrophorua electrictia 8 


Poeciliidae : 

Flag-tailed guppy Lehistes rcticulatus 10 

Guppy LeHstes rcticulatus 15 

Black moUie Mollienesia latipinna 1 

Platy, or moonfish Xiphophorus maculatus 5 


Anabantidae : 

Climbing i)erch Anahas testudineus 3 

Kissing gourami Helistotna temmincki 1 

Centra rchidae : 

Common bluegill Lepomis macrochirua 1 

Cichlidae : 

Peacock cichlid Astronotua ocellaiua 1 

Egyptian mouthbreeder Haplochromia multicolor 1 

African mouthbreeder Pelmatochromia heUadorsalis 1 

Angelfish Pterophyllum eimekei 1 

Jack Dempsey fish Cichlasoma biocellatum 3 

Gobiidae : 

Bumblebee fish Bracliygobius doriae 1 

Locariidae : 

South American catfish Plecostomua plecostomus 2 



Cenobitidae : 

Land hermit crab GocnoUta clypeatua 23 


Theridiidae : 

Black-widow spider Latrodcctus mactans 1 

Aviculariidae : 

Tarantula Eurypelma sp 3 


Blattidae : 
Tropical giant cockroach Blaherus giganteua 50 



Planorbidae : 

Pond snail Helisoma trivolvis 30 



The National Zoological Park was without a veterinarian from 
July 1, 1962, mitil May 6, 1963, when Dr. Clinton Gray was appomted. 
During the interim, the director and the general curator, assisted by 
Thomas Schneider as medical technologist, shared the responsibility 
for the health of the animals. They were fortunate in having the 
cooperation and assistance of men in various fields of clinical 
investigation and medicine. Among these were : Dr. Leonard Marcus 
and staff, of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology ; Dr. Clarence 
Hartman and staff, of George Washington University; Dr. M. B. 
Chitwood, Dr. A. Mcintosh, and Dr. W. W. Becklund of the Beltsville 
Parasitological Laboratoi'y, Department of Agriculture; Dr. A. G. 
Karlson, Mayo Clinic, Kochester, Minn.; Dr. F. K. Lucas, director 
of the Livestock Sanitaiy Laboratory, Centreville, Md. ; and Dr. 
Anthony Morris of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. 

In October, Tomoka, the baby gorilla, became ill with an intestinal 
infection. Local pediatricians were called into consultation, but 
when the animal did not respond to treatment he was taken to Cliil- 
dren's Hospital and put in an animal research laboratory under the 
care of Dr. Everett Lovrein, resident physician, and Dr. Kobert E. 
Martin. Headkeeper Ralph Norris and senior keeper Bernard Gal- 
lagher stayed with the little ape 24 hours a day, and he made a speedy 
recovery. Despite a serious prognosis — Shigellosis complicated by 
dehydration and acidosis — Tomoka made a remarkable return to his 
normal weight gain after this hospitalization. 

Nikumba, the adult male gorilla, showed signs of having a cold 
about the middle of Jmie. Medication was given, and he appeared 
to be recovering, when he was stricken with bilateral paralysis. As 
of June 30, prognosis is impossible, but he is being treated by an 
orthopedic surgeon. Dr. Henry Feffer, and a neurosurgeon. Dr. Hugo 
V. Bizzoli, in consultation with Dr. Alf Nachemson, orthopedic sur- 
geon of the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. 

Specialists from George Washington University Medical School 
tried to establish a suspected pregnancy in Ambika, one of the Indian 
elephants, by means of electrocardiographic equipment. Electro- 
cardiographs had been taken in the Portland (Oreg.) Zoo when their 
elephants were pregnant. In the case of Ambika, however, no fetal 
heartbeat could be detected, and she has now gone past the time for 
giving birth since the last possible conception date. 

The bharal or blue sheep {Pseudois nayaur) was inadvertently 
omitted from the inventory printed in last year's annual report. On 
July 5, 1962, the last of the line, a female, died, and the post mortem 
showed liver abscesses. The original pair of these beautiful animals 
was brought to the Zoo in October 1937 by the National Geographic 



Society-Smithsonian Institution Expedition to Netherlands East 
Indies, having been secured from an animal dealer in Shanghai. 
Seven yoimg were bom in the National Zoological Park between 1939 
and 1945. 

Following are the statistics for the mortality rates at the National 
Zoological Park for the past fiscal year and a table of comparison 
with the past 7 fiscal years : 

Mortality, fiscal year 


Total mortality, 





past 7 years 

No autopsy for sundry reasons ' 













1957 549 

Attrition (within 7-14 days after 


1958 550 

Internal diseases.- __ 


1959 472 

Infectious diseases 

1960 532 



1961 517 

Injuries, accidents 


1962 584 

Miscellaneous (stillborn, old 
shock) - 



Undetermined ._ _ _ .- 

Total - 




1963 636 

• Reasons include preserving intact specimen for museum and research, progressed decomposition, insuf- 
ficient remains in case of predators, etc. 


Advanced planning for a National Zoological Park attendance sur- 
vey began in August 1961 under the direction of Albert ]\Iindlin, 
statistician of the Management Office, District of Columbia. The 
actual collection of data commenced on July 1, 1962, and was tabu- 
lated for the following 12 months. 

The primary purposes of the survey are to obtain objective estimates 
of the total number of visitors during the fiscal year, the average num- 
ber of visitors in the Park at any specific period during the year, and 
the average length of time a visitor's automobile remains within the 

The procedure involved hand-punching IBM porto-punchcards by 
specially trained and recruited employees on a statistically predeter- 
mined basis at all entrances and exits of the Zoo. Sample interviews 
of pedestrians and cars leaving at any gate were used as visitor deter- 
mining factors. 

The hand-punched-card data thus generated were mechanically con- 
verted into computer-adapted pmichcards and fed mto an especially 



programmed IBM 1401 B computer of the Science Information Ex- 
change of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Although tiie entire i)ioject had not been completed at the end of 
the year, projection of the data of the first 7 months forecasts a visitor 
population in excess of 3,200,000 from July 1, 1962, to June 30, 1963. 

Number of hus groups visiting the Zoo in fiscal year 196S 


Number of 

Number in 


Number of 

Number In 























2, 197 

15, 185 











64, 283 




Missouri __ 
















1, 734 








New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 





District of Colum- 




10, 047 






Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 


Texas _. 




Iowa. . 

19, 689 


2, 195 





Louisiana _ 




55, 429 


West Virginia 



4, 693 







206, 444 

About 2 p.m. each day the cars then parked in the Zoo are counted 
and listed according to the State or country from which they come. 
This is, of course, not a census of the cars coming to the Zoo but is 
valuable in showing the percentage of attendance by States of people 
in private automobiles. Many District of Columbia, Maryland, and 
Virginia cars come to the Zoo to bring guests from other States. The 
tabulation for fiscal year 1963 is as follows : 









South Carolina 


District of Columbia 

19. 3 






2. 5 

— __ .6 

New York 



North Carolina 

1. 9 







New Jersey 




West Virginia 

1. 3 








The remaining 8.2 percent came from other States, Canada, Canal 
Zone, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Newfoundland, Peru, 
Puerto Kico, and Saipan. 

On the days of even small attendance there are cars parked in the 
Zoo from at least 15 States, the District of Columbia, and foreign 
countries. On average days there are cars from approximately 22 
States, the District of Columbia, and foreign countries; and during 
the periods of greatest attendance the cars represent no less than 34 
dilTerent States and countries. 


Dr. Clinton W. Gray was appointed veterinarian on May 6, 1963, 
Prior to his appointment at the Zoo, Dr. Gray was employed as vet- 
erinarian by the Agency for International Development and spent 
considerable time overseas. 

Henry P. (Harry) Leech, who for more than 20 years had been 
associated with his father, L. Gordon Leech, in the management of 
the Zoo restaurant, died on June 26 at the age of 41. He was well 
known to Zoo visitors, and particularly to the "Anteaters" who meet 
in the fall to eat wild game at the restaurant. He will be greatly 
missed by his many friends. 

During the year eight employees retired. Pvt. Eobert Ewell, ap- 
pointed March 6, 1912, retired December 31, 1962. Most of his 50 
years of service had been with the police force on night duty. Roy 
Jennier, appointed October 18, 1929, was for many years in charge of 
the reptile house. He was a member of the National Geographic- 
Smithsonian Expedition to the East Indies in 1937. At the time of 
his retirement, December 31, 1962, he was supervisory animal keeper 
in the monkey house. James Derrow, who also retired on Decem- 
ber 31, was maintenance general foreman and responsible for all 
construction and repairs in the Zoo. He had been with the Park 
more than 30 years since his appointment on July 6, 1931. Michael 
Dubik, head supervisory gardener since July 31, 1956, retired May 24, 
1963, because of ill health ; Frank Mele, mason leader appointed July 
24, 1947, retired August 18, 1962: Mirza Wilson, chief operating 
engineer appointed June 19, 1950, retired April 27, 1963; Lizzie 
McDaniel, custodial laborer since May 1, 1953, retired February 8, 
1963 : and Dave Rose, laborer, appointed March 2, 1949, retired April 
30, 1963. 

The director attended the annual meeting of the American Asso- 
ciation of Zoological Parks and Aquariums in Kansas City, Mo., in 
September and was voted president-elect for 1962-63. He also at- 
tended the meeting of the International Union of Directors of Zo- 
ological Gardens in San Diego, Calif., later that same month. On 


November 20 he attended the foniial opening of the new zoo in 
Phoenix, Ariz. On March 1, he traveled to Fort Worth, Tex., for the 
board meeting of the American Association of Zoological Parks and 
Aquariums. On March 31, accompanied by Richard Dimon, project 
architect for the new consti-uction at the National Zoological Park, 
he left for a short study tour of European zoos. 

J. Lear Grimmer, associate director, attended the meeting of the 
American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums in Kansas 
City, and Travis E. Famitleroy, assistant to the director, attended the 
midwinter conference of the same association at Fort Worth. 

In 1963 there were 210 authorized positions, an increase of 5 posi- 
tions over 1962 : office of the director, 11 ; operations and maintenance 
department, which includes the mechanical division, police division, 
grounds division, and sei"vices division, 122, an increase of 4 (1 me- 
chanic, 1 hydi-aulic equipment operator, 1 tree maintenance worker, 
and 1 laborer) ; animal department, 76, an increase of 1 (night 
keeper) ; and the scientific research department, 1. 


In preparation for reconstruction work planned for the National 
Zoological Park, several existing areas were made suitable to house 
evacuated animals. The entire stock of the birdliouse was moved to 
various outdoor enclosures and to the old antelope house, which had 
been closed to the public for several years. Converting the antelope 
house into a temporary birdliouse required the construction of one 
large flight cage and the rewiring of some of the old antelope stalls. 

A number of animals that were heretofore housed singly were care- 
fully introduced to one another, and by keeping several together in one 
cage, additional space was made available. 

To utilize space further, the animal department continued the pro- 
gram begun last year of wintering tropical animals outdoore. A 
"flight cage" which had originally been built for indoor use by gibbons 
was rebuilt on the northeast side of the lion house. It was equipped 
with cinderblock and concrete shelters with one heat lamp and soil- 
cable floor heat in each shelter. A group of four young animals and 
a fully adult breeding pair were moved into this outdoor enclosure in 
August in order to give them sufficient time to become accustomed to 
the gradual drop of temperatures in autumn. The female of the 
adult pair gave birth to a baby in December, which she carefully 
nursed, bringing it outdoors for at least 2 hours a day except during 
bad weather. 

Theoretically much less suited to withstand severe winter tem- 
peratures outdoors was a pair of South American tapirs, transferred 
to the so-called beaver pond late in summer. A shelter with tinfoil 


insulation between two layers of boards was constructed, but no arti- 
ficial heat was installed. With the onset of cold weather, deep straw 
bedding was provided. Both tapirs were put on a diet of approxi- 
mately eight fish a day in addition to their normal ration of fresh 
vegetables and A-1 ration. Despite the fact that the pond froze 
over completely for the better part of 4 montlis, both animals sur- 
vived without any damage to the skin or feet. Neither animal ap- 
peared to object to the snow on the ground, and their customary 
summertime motion pattern was clearly indicated by footprints in 
the snow. 

Patagonian cavies, another unusual species, were also successfully 
wintered. Although these animals were provided with a noninsu- 
lated but well-built shelter, they preferred to make their own excava- 
tions in frozen ground and seek shelter below the house provided. 
Six yomig have been born in this enclosure since February. 

A number of tropical birds, primarily psittacines, wintered out- 
doors, provided only with minimal heated-perch shelters with infra- 
red lamps. 

Two female lion cubs born at the Zoo in March 1962 spent most of 
the winter in a large, exposed, open-air cage with no protection other 
than a continuously open indoor shelter which was rarely, if ever, 
used during the daytime. 

The total nimiber of accessions for the year was 986. This includes 
gifts, purchases, exchanges, deposits, births, and hatchings. 


The most important activity of the police division was the creation 
of a law enforcement school. Appointed as training officer, Lt. D. B. 
Bell formulated plans for a comprehensive training progi^am. Its 
value was readily recognized and received official approval for its 
implementation from the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 
The course encompassed ten 8-hour days of sessions, at the conclusion 
of which an examination was given to participants. It was a highly 
successful venture, and it is now a basic requirement of the National 
Zoological Park police that all new officers must take and pass the 

Three members of the division. Lieutenant Wolfe, Sergeant Grubbs, 
and Private Porter, were qualified as pistol instructors for the police 
force by special agent William Little, of the Security Branch, 
State Department, in September 1962. Fourteen visitors sent in 
written commendations on the courtesy, kindness, and consideration 
extended to the general public by the police. Through the efforts of 
Lt. J. R. Wolfe, 24 certificates were awarded by the American Eed 


Cross to employees of the National Zoological Park who have donated 
a gallon or more of blood to the blood-donor program. 

Six walkie-talkie sets were acquired to facilitate direct communica- 
tion between headquarters and the officers on outside duty in the 
Park. Two sets have been assigned to the animal department and 
have proved very useful. 

The police, under the supervision of Private Adams, assisted Albert 
Mindlin of the Management Office of the District of Columbia in 
making the visitors' survey, as noted elsewhere in this report. 

In January 1963 the Federal Bureau of Investigation requested 
from the division a monthly report on the number of arrests and 
complaints, to be used by the FBI in its compilation of data on the 
total crimes committed in the United States. 

A total of 92 truant children were picked up in the Park, and 
appropriate action was taken by the division. The police found 311 
lost children and returned them to their parents or chaperones. Eight- 
een pairs of eyeglasses and sunglasses, found and unclaimed, were 
sent to the Society for the Prevention of Blindness, and nine bags 
of clothing and miscellaneous articles, found and unclaimed, were 
turned over to Goodwill Industries. During the year 9,776 visitors 
stopped at the police station requesting various types of information. 
The first-aid station, at police headquarters, treated 69 severe cases 
and 705 minor cases. 

The American Eed Cross Blood Bank received 67 pints of blood 
from Zoo employees during the year. Total donations are now well 
over 700 pints. 


The mechanical division has the responsibility for the maintenance 
and repair of the buildings and facilities of the National Zoological 
Park. This responsibility is met by the heating and ventilating sec- 
tion, and by the building section which, in addition to continuing 
maintenance, constructed numerous new shelters, paddocks, and cages 
for the animals exhibited. 

The renovations of the puma house and the main bear line were 
completed. The interior dens at the puma house are now completely 
rebuilt. Five partition walls at the bear line were rebuilt, using the 
gunnite or sprayed concrete which proved so satisfactory during the 
previous year. 

A new exhibit for gibbons was constructed in the area adjacent to the 
lion house. The cage, 12 by 40 feet, provides two separate enclosures, 
each large enough to allow space for the gymnastics of these animal 


Results of the maintenance program are most apparent in the reptile 
building. The new paint in the visitor area and the rebuilding and 
decorating of the cages, along with the contract work done as a safety 
measure, have resulted in an orderly, well-kept building. Among the 
improvements not readily apparent are the new electric panels which 
provide uninterrupted service for the electric lighting as well as power 
for the refrigeration and other commissary activities in the reptile- 
house basement. 

The sign program, now well underway, required the coordination of 
the carpenter shop, paintshop, and metal shop to frame, paint, and 
erect the attractive and informative signs on the various exhibits 
throughout the Zoo. 

The remodeling of the birdhouse and the construction of the new 
east-west access road put an additional burden on the mechanical 
division, as temporary shelters and enclosures had to be improvised for 
the birds and animals dislocated by the new construction. A flight 
cage was built in the old antelope house to provide a temporary home 
for birds evacuated from the birdhouse. A shelter and enclosure 
were provided for the dorcas gazelles, relocated because of the new 
road. In addition, a new yard with heavy fencing was prepared for 
the Cape buffalo. 

The deep excavation required to maintain a suitable gradient for the 
new perimeter road unearthed a myriad of sewers and waterlines 
which had to be traced and relocated, thus adding to the already heavy 
workload of the plumbing crew. 

Many of the improvements made during the year were in the in- 
terests of safety. In cooperation with the District of Columbia De- 
partment of Buildings and Grounds, practically all the glass cage 
fronts at the reptile house were replaced, as were also several large 
panes of glass separating the visitors from the animals in the small- 
mammal house. 

The eagle cage, which is to remain in the remodeled birdhouse area, 
was painted under a contract with a local rigging company. 

The walkway from the fox line through the hollow up to the owl 
and silver-gull cages was resurfaced, and road repairs were made. 

The grounds department moved many plants from the birdhouse 
area to the center of the Zoo, sodded several areas where there previ- 
ously had been no grass, and enhanced the appearance of the Park by 
the addition of flower beds around the buildings. A number of plants 
and shrubs were purchased, and donations of flowers and plants were 
received from the District of Columbia Waterworks, the Botanical 
Garden, Navy Hospital, Naval Ordnance, and the management of the 
annual flower show. 


The building occupied by the grounds department was renovated to 
clear walkways and to store tools and equipment so as to eliminate 
trip hazards. Sf eel helmets, new ropes, and climbing equipment were 
placed in service, and an additional treeman was hired. Low limbs 
over bridle paths were cut, and dead limbs removed from 140 trees 
over walks and along the main road. Forty trees in bad condition 
were cut and removed. Large holes in lawns were filled in. 


After the plamiing, equipping, and staflhig of a sign laboratory in 
the basement of the elephant house, which was completed October 12, 
1962, the department's activities for the year were mainly concerned 
with the writing, designing, producing, and mounting of new modern 
animal identification labels for the Zoo. Durable outdoor labels are 
printed photographically on sensitized anodized aluminum. Other 
techniques of exhibits production successfully employed are silk- 
screen prints and film transparencies for indoor labeling. 

To date, five units of the Zoo have been completely relabeled — the 
puma house, main bear line, short bear line, ring cages, and the ele- 
phant house. The reptile house is being labeled. A total of 397 animal 
identification labels and other supporting Zoo signs (such as large 
maps of the Zoo, explanation of the new construction, building and 
safety signs) were produced and mounted in the period from Octo- 
ber 12, 1962, to June 30, 1963. 

Additional department activities during the year included artwork, 
charts, graphs, map work, a number of special projects, dissemination 
of animal information by telephone and correspondence, library main- 
tenance, and 18 special guided tours for groups of handicapped 
children, visiting schools, and foreign guests. 

On July 10, 1962, a group of 2,300 foreign exchange students visited 
the Zoo; on May 12, 1963, 9,248 School Safety Patrol children, trans- 
ported in 266 buses, came to the Zoo following their annual parade on 
Constitution Avenue. A gi-oup of the animal keepers, on their day off, 
entertained the underprivileged children from D.C. Junior Village, 
taking them on a tour of the Zoo and giving them lunch in the cafeteria. 
On May 24, 250 "Friends of the National Zoo" were given a guided 
night tour of the Park. 

The director gave two radio talks and three talks to local organiza- 
tions. He appeared on television, once in Sarasota, Fla., in connection 
with the proposed establishment of a zoo, and once on WTOP (Wash- 
ington) with Dr. W. T. Eoth, general curator. The associate director, 
J. Lear Grimmer, addressed the University Club, Wilmington, Del., 
in connection with the development of a zoo in that city. 


The September 1962 issue of Parks and Recreation carried an article 
by Charles Thomas, senior keeper, on wintering tropical birds and 
animals outdoors. J. Lear Grimmer's account of his work with the 
hoatzin in British Guiana appeared in the September issue of National 
Geographic Magazine. 


The National Zoological Park safety subcommittee, consisting of 
Lt. John R. Wolfe, chairman; Capt. C. E. Brink, police division; 
F. M. Dellar, administration office; Bert J. Barker, animal depart- 
ment; Eeily Straw, maintenance and construction; D. E. Schwartz- 
beck, grounds department; and Mrs. W. M. Holden, secretary, held 
monthly meetings to suggest, discuss, and make recommendations to 
the director on safety improvements. 

A self-survival course, given by the American Medical Association 
and sponsored by the American Red Cross, was attended by Sergeants 
Canter and Grubbs. Sergeants Canter and Kadlubowski attended a 
traffic workshop, sponsored by the National Safety Council. Shotguns 
were installed in locked gun cabinets with glass fronts, located in prin- 
cipal buildings, and seven keepers were given instructions in the proper 
handling of these guns in case of emergency. 

Steps of some buildings were painted with black and yellow stripes 
as a caution to the public. All buildings have been checked for fire 
hazards and have exit lights installed at main exits. 

Members of the subcommittee periodically inspect all buildings, 
grounds, and equipment in the Park and remove or correct all minor 
hazards affecting visitor or employee safety. 


At all times special efforts are made to mamtain friendly contacts 
with other Federal and State agencies, private concerns and individ- 
uals, and scientific workers for mutual assistance. As a result, the 
Zoo receives much help and advice and many valuable animals, and in 
turn it furnishes information and, whenever possible, animals it does 
not need. 

Through the cooperation of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and 
Charles A. Milton, chief game warden, Maryland Game and Inland 
Fish Commission, a number of waterfowl were obtained for the Zoo. 
Division headkeeper W. Widman and keepers Bruce Williams and 
Robert Williams were permitted to trap a number of wild ducks and 
geese on Chesapeake Bay. 

Special acknowledgment is due William Taback and John Pulaski, 
in the office of the Dispatch Agent in New York City, and Stephen E. 
Lato, Dispatch Agent in San Francisco, who are frequently called 


upon to clear shipments of animals coming from abroad, often at 
great personal inconvenience — late at night, or on a weekend. 

When it is necessary to quarantine animals coming into this country, 
they are taken to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's station in 
Clifton, N.J. During the past year, Dr. H. A. Waters and Andy 
Goodel, two of the officials stationed there, have been most cooperative 
in keeping the National Zoological Park informed as to the well- 
being of animals and birds being held there for quarantine. 

Animals that die in the Zoo are offered to the U.S. National Mu- 
seum. If the Museum does not need them, either as study specimens 
or as exhibits, they are sent on request to research workers in other 
institutions. Specialists at the Museum are always willing to be of 
help in identifying rare specimens that are acquired by the Zoo. 

The National Zoological Park cooperated with the National Capital 
Parks and lent small animals to Park naturalists and to the Nature 
Center in Rock Creek Park for demonstrations. 


Funds for the operation of the National Zoological Park are appro- 
priated annually under the District of Columbia Appropriation Act. 
The operation and maintenance appropriation for the fiscal year 1963 
totaled $1,470,200, which was $119,400 more than for the previous 
year. The increase consisted of $48,300 to cover salary increases for 
wage-board employees; $23,700 for within-grade salarj^ advancements 
for both general-schedule and wage-board employees; $18,000 to cover 
costs of reallocations; $17,820 to establish five new positions for 75 
percent of the year; $7,080 for the purchase of supplies and materials; 
and $4,500 for the purchase of new equipment. 

Of the total appropriation, 84.7 percent ($1,245,809) was used for 
salaries and related personnel costs, and 15.3 percent ($224,391) for 
the maintenance and operation of the Zoo. Included in the latter 
figure were $74,000 for animal food; $19,000 for fuel for heating; 
$26,680 for materials for building construction and repairs; $12,826 
for electricity; $13,725 for the purchase of animals; $6,255 for tele- 
phone, postal, and telegraph services; and $7,460 for veterinarian 
equipment and supplies. The balance of $64,445 in operational funds 
was expended for other items, including freight, sundry supplies, uni- 
forms, gasoline, road repairs, equipment replacement, and new equip- 


Money appropriated this year for new construction totaled 

During the first part of the fiscal year the preparation of detailed 
plans for the first phase of the capital improvement program was con- 


tinued. These plans were submitted in final form in November. Two 
separate bids were advertised and awarded. 

The Edrow Engineering Co. was awarded the contract for the 
renovation and modernization of the birdhouse and the constniction 
of a new walk-through flight cage. Work started on April 29, 1963. 
As noted elsewhere, the birds had been evacuated prior to this date. 
It is anticipated that the work will be completed in April 1964. 

The Cherry Hill Sand & Gravel Co. was awarded the contract for 
the relocation of the east- west access road. Work started on March 
27, 1963. The excavation and grading are now well underway, and it 
is anticipated that the road will be ready for use in early fall. 

National Capital Parks, Department of the Interior, is relocating 
Beech Drive, as mentioned in last year's report. This is being done 
for the National Park Service by the Bureau of Public Eoads. After 
tunneling through more than 780 feet of solid rock imder "Adminis- 
tration Hill," the top half of the tunnel was completed May 24, 1963. 

Plans for the second phase of the capital improvement program, 
which will consist of enclosures for the hardy hoofed stock on the 
present site of the buffalo and zebra pens a new entrance on Connecti- 
cut Avenue, and deer paddocks on the hill behind the birdhouse, are 
being drawn up by the architectural firm of Daniel, Mann, Johnson & 
Mendenhall. Plans are also being made for the redevelopment of the 
office area. 

All redevelopment work is being done under the direction of the 
District of Columbia Department of Buildings and Grounds. Special 
acknowledgment is due the director of that department and his able 

Respectfully submitted. 

Theodore H. Reed, Director. 
Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

/Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

Report on the Astroph} sical Observatory 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the op- 
erations of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for the fiscal 
year ended Jmie 30, 1963 : 

The Astrophysical Observatory includes two divisions : the division 
of astrophysical research in Cambridge, Mass., for the study of solar 
and other types of energy impinging on the earth; and the division 
of radiation and organisms in Washington, for the investigation of 
radiation as it relates directly or indirectly to biological problems. 
Shops are maintained m Washington for work in metals, woods, and 
optical electronics, and to prepare special equipment for both di- 
visions ; and a shop conducted in cooperation with the Harvard College 
Observatory in Cambridge provides high-precision mechanical work. 
Twelve satellite-tracking stations are in operation, in Florida, Hawaii, 
and New Mexico in the United States and abroad in Argentina, 
Australia, Curagao, India, Iran, Japan, Peru, South Africa, and 


Research at the Smitlisonian Astrophysical Observatory continues 
to yield new knowledge and increased imderstanding of a broad range 
of astrophysical phenomena.* 

Concerning members of the solar system — planets, satellites, mete- 
oroids, comets, etc. — the scientific staff have pursued many investiga- 
tions. The effe-cts of solar phenomena on these other members of the 
system received particular attention, befitting the rapidly increasing 
scientific interest in these topics and the increasuig national interest 
in space. 

The sun itself deserves ever more intensive observation and analysis. 
Observatory scientists have applied their talents to these studies. In- 
struments carried on Orbiting Solar Observatories have become a 
major source of solar data. 

Beyond the solar system, the stars, galaxies, nebulae, and inter- 
stellar matter present nmnerous research problems, many of which 
members of the Observatory staff have studied. Instrumentation now 

* Unless otherwise noted, research Is supported from Federal funds appropriated to the 
Smithsonian Institution. The Observatory, by support of the scientists, shares In the 
support of all research. Support from outside sources Is noted numerically where appro- 
priate and detailed In footnotes 1-20 on p. 164. 



being prepared for the Orbiting Astronomical Observatories is ex- 
pected to yield new data not obtainable from ground obsei^vatories. 
The use of electronic computers of great capacity and capability has 
allowed consideration of detailed aspects of stellar theories. 

A strong feature of the broad scope of the Observatory's scientific 
program is the ease with which a scientist investigating some particu- 
lar topic may draw on information and techniques generated by others 
pursuing different topics. Particularly gratifying were several cases 
in which instrumentation developed for a specific project was adapted 
to a quite different application. The many instances of cross-fertiliza- 
tion of scientific disciplines occurring within the Observatory's activ- 
ities make subdivision of its program difficult. This, however, is a 
small price to pay for the program's increased scientific value. 

Planetary sciences. — With the advent of intensive national and inter- 
national space programs, interest in the planets has increased remark- 
ably in both scientific and lay circles. Scientists, including those at 
the Observatory, have been attracted by the research opportunities 
offered by scientific spacecraft. 

Studies of the earth were the first to benefit from artificial satellites 
as a research tool. Scientists at SAO have been leaders in the utiliza- 
tion of satellite data for many such investigations. 

Three major areas of investigation are based on the precise satellite- 
tracking data obtained by the network of Baker-Nunn cameras.^ The 
first is the determination of the density of the earth's atmosphere 
as a function of position and time. These dependencies, in turn, 
are used in detailed analyses of atmospheric phenomena and their 
correlations with other geophysical and solar phenomena. The second 
important area of investigation is directed initially toward the detailed 
specification of the earth's gi'avitational potential. This specifica- 
tion of the geopotential is of basic importance in studies of the interior 
of the earth. The third area is the determination of accurate geo- 
metrical positions of the Baker-Nunn stations relative to one another. 
Kjnowledge of these positions contributes strongly to an improved 
geometrical figure of the earth. 

Although these three areas of investigation have quite different 
scientific objectives, they are nevertheless intimately related. Each 
depends on identification and isolation of factors that influence the 
accuracy with which a theoretical orbit may be made to fit the obser- 
vational data. Basically, the analytical process consists of finding 
the values of such parameters as atmospheric density, geopotential 
coefficients, and station coordinates, which optimize the agreement 
between theoretical and observed satellite positions. The effects of 
these factors are interrelated in such a way that scientific progress 

See footnotes on p. 164, 


in each of the three areas is best advanced by an iterative process 
in which refinements of the parameters are accomplished simultane- 
ously or cyclically for a number of satellites. This diverse program 
is under the broad guidance of Dr. Fred L. Whipple, director of the 

From 5 years of investigation since the first artificial satellite, we 
now know much about the high atmosphere. The past year saw 
Dr. Luigi G. Jacchia's timely preparation of a survey, "Variations 
in the Earth's Upper Atmosphere as Revealed by Satellite Drag," for 
the Reviews of Modem Physics} The comprehensive content of tliis 
review stands witness to the sensitivity and refinement of the tech- 
niques developed and employed at SAO. 

Analyses by Dr. Jacchia and Jack W. Slowey have established that — 

(1) Both electromagnetic (extreme ultraviolet) and corpuscular radiation 
from the sun contribute to the heating of the upper atmosphere. 

(2) Most of the energy carried by these two forms of radiation is absorbed 
at heights lower than 200 km ; the atmosphere above this level is heated by 
conduction from below. 

(3) The greater heating in the sunlit hemisphere gives rise to a permanent 
atmospheric "bulge," at the center of which the temperature is 40 percent 
higher than it is at the opposite point in the dark hemisphere. Because of 
the earth's rotation, this bulge travels around the globe at a latitude equal to 
that of the subsolar point; its longitude is the one for which the local time 
is 2 p.m. 

(4) The temperature of the upper atmosphere can be correlated with the 
decimetric (radio) solar flux, which exhibits variations with characteristic 
cycles of 27 days (caused by the rotation of the sun) and of 11 years (caused 
by the suuspot cycle). The temperature can be computed and instantaneous 
density profiles derived from atmospheric models when the decimetric solar 
flux is known. 

(5) The atmosphere of the earth is heated and expanded during magnetic 
storms by a factor directly related to the geomagnetic planetary index ap. 

(6) The semiannual effect in upper atmospheric densities is real. This shows 
that the solar wind contributes substantially to atmospheric heating, even during 
quiet periods. 

During the past year larger quantities of precisely reduced tracking 
data, particularly for satellites of quite different inclinations, have 
become available from the Baker-Nunn system. Imre Izsak, Dr. Yo- 
shihide Kozai, and their associates have used these enlarged data in 
new determinations of the coefficients in an expansion of the gravi- 
tational field of the earth in spherical harmonics.^ 

Mr. Izsak has given particular attention to determination of coef- 
ficients of higher-order tesseral and sectorial harmonics. The per- 
turbation theory of these effects being well developed, the problem 
actually consists of the construction of extensive computer programs 
that would analyze the large number of observations available. Sev- 

See footnotes on p. 164. 
720-018—64 11 


eral solutions have been obtained for the representation of the field 
of gravity. Tliese solutions are in reasonable agreement with results 
obtained from the analysis of surface gravity data. 

Other analyses of the geopotential are continuing. In Japan Dr. 
Kozai is at present seeking to establish whether the coefficients in the 
expansion of the earth's potential have seasonal variations. 

Using the representation of the geoid derived by Izsak, Kozai, and 
their colleagues, Chi-Yuen Wang has found a strong correlation 
between the distribution of heat flow and the undulations of the 
geoid.^ It is reasonable to say at this time that the ups and downs 
of the geoid may indicate cold and hot regions under the crust. 

Two approaches to the determination of more accurate station coor- 
dinates are being pursued at the Observatory. One of these recog- 
nizes that the deviations between values observed from a station 
and values predicted from theoretical calculations depend on errors in 
the presumed station coordinates. Those coordinates that produce 
minimum deviations are adopted as improved coordinates. Mr. Izsak 
and Dr. George Veis are now effecting this procedure simultaneously 
with improvements in the geopotential coefficients.^ 

The second approach is purely geometrical. If two stations simul- 
taneously observe a satellite, it is possible to calculate the direction 
cosines of the line joining the stations. During the past year a deter- 
mined effort by the Baker-Nunn stations produced a number of simul- 
taneous observations. Some of these were photographs of the light 
flashes from the ANNA geodetic satellite. Although we do not yet 
have so many simultaneous observations as we would desire, analy- 
sis by Dr. Veis, Jan Rolff, and Antanas Girnius have given reasonable 
values in satisfactory agreement with those of the other approach. 

For computation of datum shifts of large (continental) geodetic 
systems,^ Dr. Walter Kolinlein has developed special ellipsoidal trans- 
formations. These transformations are required to adjust the large 
system so that their relative configurations are in accord with the 
determined station locations. 

For full exploitation of these geodetic capabilities, a more extensive 
network than the 12 Baker-Nunn stations is desirable. An inexpen- 
sive satellite-tracking camera able to photograph many of the brighter 
satellites has been designed and fabricated under the direction of 
Dr. Veis and Robert W. Martin. This prototype camera is in experi- 
mental operation in Athens, Greece. 

Not only the orbit of an artificial satellite but also its motion about 
its center of mass is affected by its environment. A theory developed 
by Dr. Giuseppe Colombo has been confinned with the observation 

Se« footnotes on p. 164. 


of the changing in orientation of the spin axis of several satellites.^ 
The variation of the angular velocity of the satellites has been success- 
fully correlated with the variation of the component of the magnetic 
field normal to the spin axis. 

Dr. Richard H. Giese used optical observations (Baker-Nunn and 
Moonwatch) to develop methods of attitude determination for cylin- 
drical satellites with specular reflection.^ For diffuse reflecting cylin- 
ders the formula for intensity as a function of arbitrary angles of 
illumination and observation was derived and applied to numerical 
computations for a tumbling cylinder. 

Phenomena in the earth's liigh atmosphere are being investigated 
with several tools. As we have seen above, the atmospheric drag on 
satellites has provided a sensitive measurement of density variations 
above about 180 km. This altitude might be lowered if satellites of 
very high density were launched. Dr. Charles Lundquist is examin- 
ing the value of launching an ensemble of spherical satellites, some 
with high densities, as a noninterference experiment on a development 
flight of a large rocket vehicle. 

At altitudes between 80 and 100 km, the Doppler shifts in radar 
returns from meteor trails may be used to measure the velocity and 
direction of winds in the lower ionosphere. A project to make such 
measurements and to study wind relationships ^ to other ionospheric 
phenomena has been initiated by Dr. Mario Grossi in conjunction 
with the Harvard-SAO Radio Meteor Project.^ 

Laboratory studies of atomic collision processes* are being com- 
bined with a study of relevant problems in atmospheric physics in 
the work of Dr. Nathaniel P. Carleton and his associates. Dr. Charles 
H. Dugan, C. Papaliolios, and Miss Marion L. Shaw. The greatest 
effort has been applied to investigation of excitation of metastable 
states in O2, N2, and O by electron impact, and of the subsequent 
reactions of these metastable states with other gases, including exci- 
tation transfer and actual chemical reaction. Dr. Carleton, in collabo- 
ration with L. R. Megill of the National Bureau of Standards 
Boulder Laboratories, has used recent data on electron collisions to 
study the problem of electron heating by electric fields in the iono- 
sphere. The group is investigating, in particular, which features of 
the airglow and aurora may be caused by electron-impact excitation 
by the heated electrons. They conclude that the red lines of atomic 
oxygen, 6300-6364 A, are almost certainly excited by this means in 
low-latitude auroral forms, but that no other emission in the airglow 
or aurora is so excited. 

The atmospheres and surfaces of other planets are being studied. 
Dr. Carl Sagan has made theoretical studies of the expected limb- 

See footnotes on p. 164. 


darkening in planetaiy atmospheres, both at infrared and at micro- 
wave wavelengths, with particular reference to the atmosphere of 
Venus. Preliminary results predict only a moderate microwave limb- 
darkening from expected absorbers in the lower Cytherean atmos- 
phere. The model of the Jovian red spot, which assumes it to be a 
floating object, was examined and shown to be unlikely. 

Dr. Sagan was a coexperimenter on the infrared radiometer of the 
U.S. spacecraft Mariner 11, The experimental results indicated dis- 
tinct limb-darkening in the 10-micron region and no clear breaks in 
the Cytherean cloud layer. Dr. Sagan is also an experimenter for an 
infrared spectrometer designed for a forthcoming Mars fly-by mission. 

Study of the rings of Saturn continues. Dr. Allan F. Cook and 
Dr. Fred Franklin are undertaking a more accurate scattering theory 
for the sunlight illuminating the rings and a more accurate solution 
of the Boltzmann equation for the ring particles.' 

A theoretical mvestigation of the formation of absorption bands in 
a multiple scattering atmosphere was conducted by Dr. William M. 
Irvine. His investigation of strongly asymmetric multiple scatter- 
ing is continuing, with emphasis on the variation in limb-darkening 
as a function of asynmietry factor and optical depth. 

The existing theories of motion of the major planets are not satis- 
factory from the modern point of view, especially not for the require- 
ments of space travel. Their improvement, however, is hardly 
conceivable without progress in computer teclmology. Mr. Izsak is 
therefore considering the possibility of using digital computers for 
the construction of analytical perturbation theories. As a first step, 
a very efficient program has been developed for the computation of 
Laplace coefficients and their derivatives. With cooperation from an 
MIT team, a program has been written for the construction of symbolic 
expressions, called the Newcomb operators. At present, a generaliza- 
tion of these results is being investigated, together with their applica- 
tion to the problem of close commensurabilities in celestial mechanics. 

The orbits of the minor planets present problems which Dr. Don A. 
Lautman is considering. An analysis of the distribution of the peri- 
helia of the minor planets has been completed.^ Dr. Lautman and Dr. 
Colombo have examined the small-amplitude librations of a particle 
near the triangular point in the semirestricted three-body problem. 
They are extending this research to an analysis of orbits of minor 
planets whose periods are commensurate with that of Jupiter. 

The origin of the solar system and the production of isotopes in 
protoplanets are the areas Dr. Ilenri Mitler is studying. A com- 
parison of theoretical results with observations may allow a choice 

See footnotes on p. 164. 


among several possible alternative primitive compositions for a proto- 

Exobiology. — Ultraviolet irradiations of possible simulated primi- 
tive terrestrial environments, which Dr. Sagan performed in coopera- 
tion with Dr. C. Ponnamperuma, exobiology division, Ames Eesearch 
Center, NASA, have produced nucleoside phosphates and other mole- 
cules intimately involved in contemporary terrestrial biological proc- 
esses. Such synthetic reactions had been predicted by Dr. Sagan in 

Dr. Sagan made other studies on methods for detection of extrater- 
restrial life and on the frequency of possible advanced extraterrestrial 
life forms. Using Mie theory and a computer program, he is continu- 
ing a critical study of the panspermia hypothesis. 

In an experimental program performed by Dr. Sagan in coopera- 
tion with Dr. Stanley Scher at the University of California Space 
Sciences Laboratory,^ simulated Martian environments have been 
inoculated with a variety of terrestrial soil types and assayed for the 
survival of the contained terrestrial microorganisms. The preliminary 
results indicate that all samples of terrestrial soil tested have a popula- 
tion of microorganisms that can probably survive on Mars. This 
conclusion emphasizes the necessity for rigorous sterilization of Mars- 
impacting space vehicles. 

Lunar science. — The moon is now the object of intense investigation 
by many scientists from all parts of the world. This interest is 
stimulated, of course, by past and forthcoming lunar probes, orbiters, 
softly landed instrumentation packages, and eventual manned 

The Astrophysical Observatory is pursuing several lunar investi- 
gations which are closely related to its other programs and for which, 
therefore, the Observatory is peculiarly well prepared. One such 
topic is the determination of the moon's gravitational potential from 
analyses of the motion of bodies orbiting it. Attempts by the United 
States to launch lunar orbiters have been unsuccessful to date, but 
will undoubtedly meet eventual success. Dr. Kozai has completed an 
approximate analytical study of the motion of an orbiter. He is pro- 
ceeding with a program for numerically integrating the equations of 

Drs. Lautman and Colombo have shown that radiation pressure 
significantly changes the orbit of a "balloon" spacecraft and could 
effect a lunar capture of an initially geocentric orbit. 

The impacts of meteorites on the moon produce craters of all sizes, 
depending upon the size and velocity of the incident body. Tlie size 
distribution of lunar craters has been analyzed by Dr. Gerald S. 

See footnotes on p. 164. 


Hawkins. The results of this study can be correlated with meteorite 
size and velocity distributions from other investigations. 

MeteoritiG science. — The solar system contains much meteoric 
matter. The Observatory applies a vast range of teclmiques and 
instrumentation in its broad meteoritic research progi-am. Investi- 
gations include the nature of meteoritic matter in the solar system, 
the theory of meteors in the earth's atmosphere, observation of meteors 
by optical and radar instruments, mineralogical analyses of meteor- 
ites, metallurgical analyses of meteorites, and finally observations of 
artificial bodies simulating meteorites. 

During the past year Dr. Whipple has made new calculations of 
the frequencies of small bodies near the earth and their penetrating 
powers on thin surfaces in space. The measurements made in a NASA 
satellite have confirmed the general order of magnitude of the new 
calculations, which have reduced the meteoritic hazard by some three 
orders of magnitude since early calculations. In these and other 
overall studies of meteoric matter in the solar system. Dr. Wliipple 
draws on specific results from the diverse meteoritic investigations 
in which he cooperates as director of the Observatory. 

Dr. Richard B. Southworth has formulated a convenient quantita- 
tive description for the steady-state space distribution of particles 
under the Poynting-Robertson effect. Using this description and 
results from analyses of Comet Arend-Roland, he is studying genera- 
tion of the zodiacal cloud by cometary dust. 

Robert E. Briggs is now extending previous work on the space 
distribution of interplanetary particles to include a study of velocity 

Research into the concentration of micrometeorites in the vicinity 
of the earth continues. The many-pronged effort of Drs. Colombo 
and Lautman consists of: (a) Evaluation of the amount of dust 
placed into orbit aromid the earth as a result of meteors colliding 
with the m.oon and ejecting material; (b) gravitational focusing of 
interplanetary particles by the earth, the direct capture of inter- 
planetary particles moving mider the influence of the gravitational 
fields of the sun and earth, and the Poynting-Robertson effect; and 
(c) capture of particles by the combined effects of gravity, atmos- 
pheric drag, and radiation pressure. 

When particles from space plunge into the earth's atmosphere, 
they generate a trail of luminosity and ionization. Several scientists 
of the Observatory continue to work on the physical theory of meteors. 
Theoretical studies are being made by Drs. Cook, Hawkins, Richard 
E. McCrosky, and Franco Verniani. Most of these studies are closely 
linked with analyses of observational data.^' ^' ^ 


See footnotes on p. 164. 


Dr. Carleton and his associates are conducting laboratory experi- 
ments on ion-molecule and molecule-molecule collisions in the range 
of 200-2,000 ev energy.* One application of this work is a calcula- 
tion of the amount of excitation and ionization produced by micro- 
meteorites too small to be observed individually on their entry into 
the atmosphere. In that connection they have considered what limits 
can be set on the rate of influx of such micrometeorites, concluding 
that such effects are negligible. 

Statistical analyses of precisely reduced photographic meteor data 
from Super-Schmidt cameras are being made by Dr. Jacchia, Dr. 
Verniani, and Mr. Briggs. Their aim is to publish the wealth of in- 
formation, obtained through several years of meteor photography 
and painstaking reductions, concerning the interaction between the 
meteor body and the atmosphere. In particular, they can determine 
the mass, luminous efficiency, and tensile strength of a meteor body 
more accurately than has been possible before. 

In study of the spectra of meteors,^ Dr. Cook is working with Dr. 
T. Halliday of the Dominion Observatory, Ottawa, and Dr. P. M. 
Millman of the National Research Council of Canada. Currently a 
quantitative spectral analysis of Perseid spectra is under way. 

Work on daily motion of the radiant of the Quadrantid meteor 
stream was begun. Dr. Frances Wright will continue this project 
until all photographic film on hand has been measured, and the motion 
of the radiant is determined. This study will yield further knowledge 
of the nature of the Quadrantid meteor streams. 

Dr. McCrosky has continued a cooperative research effort with 
Harvard College Observatory, U.S. Air Force,^ MIT Lincoln Lab- 
oratory,^ and NASA, in which various successful attempts have been 
made to inject into the upper atmosphere, at meteoric velocities, bodies 
of sufficient and known size to reproduce the meteor phenomena. 

This research has led to improved values of the luminous efficiency 
of ablating hypervelocity bodies entering the atmosphere and of the 
masses and densities of meteoroids. 

The Radio Meteor Project ^ is a joint enterprise of the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory and Harvard University. The project has 
operated a multistation radar system at Plavana, 111., at a peak trans- 
mitter power of 4 megawatts. Meteors have been detected down to a 
limiting magnitude of +12 on the visual scale. Dr. Hawkins is the 
scientist in charge of this project. 

To determine the atmospheric trajectory of the meteoroid and its 
orbit in interplanetary space. Dr. Hawkins and Dr. Southworth have 
analyzed the radar echoes. Drs. Hawkins and Bertil-Anders Lindblad 
liave found that there is a definite difference in the populations of large 

See footnotes on p. 164. 


and small meteors.^ Between magnitudes +6 and +9 the average 
velocity of meteors detected on the radar system has changed by 5 
km sec "^ This is attributed to the smaller orbits shown by the fainter 
meteors. The faint meteors show total fragmentation as they enter 
the upper atmosphere of the earth. In general, each meteor disinte- 
grates into several hundred fragments, which together act as a cloud 
of independent particles. 

The objective of the Photographic Meteorite Recovery Program,* 
under the direction of Dr. McCroslr^, is to photograph the trails of 
extremely bright meteors so that the corresponding meteorite impacts 
may be determined and a search instigated for the meteorites. In the 
past year the project has completed the design of the station buildings, 
the cameras, and the photoelectric and control systems; selected and 
leased land at 16 sites in the Midwest ; selected local station attendants 
and their alternates at each site ; completed 16 buildings to the point 
where they are ready to receive cameras and begin operation; as- 
sembled, in Lincoln, Nebr., a team of four field personnel to operate 
the network and to recover freshly fallen meteorites ; operated a proto- 
type station at Havana, 111., for 3 months; and initiated production on 
all major components of the stations. 

The program for measuring radioactivities in material from outer 
space has continued on an expanded scale. In addition to tritium and 
argon radioactivities, Dr. Edward L. Fireman and his associates are 
now measuring carbon-14 and gamma-ray radioactivities from such 
isotopes as aluminum-26, manganese-54, sodium-22, and cobalt. 

During the past year Dr. Fireman and James C. DeFelice have 
measured tritium, argon-3T, and argon-39 in several meteorites, includ- 
ing the recently fallen Peace River. The resultant data provide 
comparative information on the production, intensity, and constancy 
of cosmic rays in space during a period of minimal solar activity. 
The absence of argon-39 in the Potter and Estacado meteorites indi- 
cates that they fell more than 1,500 years ago. The Estacado meteorite 
has been erroneously associated with an 1882 fireball. The argon-39 
and tritium contents of Farmington are similar to those of other 
chondrites, but the aluminum-26 content of Fannington is a factor 
of more than 50 lower than in other chondrites. The content of these 
radioactivities permits the determination of the exposure age from 
radioactive isotopes alone. The cosmic-ray exposure age of the Farm- 
ington meteorite is between 7,000 and 25,000 years. 

Studies of tritium concentrations in the metal phases of stony 
meteorites and in iron meteorites have continued during the past year. 
Dr. Fireman, Dr. David Tilles, and Mr. DeFelice plan further meas- 
urements to test the tentative hypothesis that tritium is lost from 

See footnotes on p. 164. 


kamacite and retained in taenite. Measurements of tritium in the 
Sputnik IV fragment and studies by Dr. Tilles of tritium retention in 
a proton-irradiated target have provided additional data on the reten- 
tion and loss of tritium in iron and steel. 

Dr. Tilles has nearly completed assemblmg the parts of the high- 
sensitivity mass spectrometer ^ for studies of noble gases in meteorites. 
Anticipated research studies with the spectrometer will include meas- 
urements of noble gas abundance and isotopic composition in separated 
phases of meteorites. 

Problems in the mineralogy and petrology of meteorites, with spe- 
cial reference to their temperature-pressure history and age, are being 
considered. In the course of these studies," Mrs. Ursula B. Marvin 
discovered zircon, heretofore milaiown in meteorites, in the Vaca 
Muerta mesosiderite. The zircon, which is radioactive, is of special 
significance in age determmations of any meteorite where it occurs. 
As part of a long-term project in collaboration with Dr. Fireman, 
Mrs. Marvin has separated mineral concentrates of high purity from 
Indarch, a stony meteorite abnormally rich in xenon and contammg 
the rare minerals CaS and MgS. She will study the mineralogy and 
petrology of this meteorite in detail. The radioisotope group will 
make age determmations on the separated fractions and a bulk sample. 

Initiating a program of study of the chemical compositions of micro- 
structures in chondrites, Dr. Jolm A. Wood used the electron micro- 
probe in the University of Chicago Division of Geological Sciences 
as an analytical tool.^^ At present, the focus of the study is the grains 
and particles of nickel-iron metal present in chondrites. The composi- 
tions and compositional gradients in these are determined by the 
thermal history of the chondrite containing them. This study should 
hence yield information about the nature and thermal history of the 
planet from which the chondrites were derived. 

Dr. Wood has also made a detailed theoretical study of the prop- 
erties of the most common class of meteorite, the chondrites, in an 
attempt to understand the processes that operated to produce them.^* 
He also studied the thermal history of nickel-iron phases and their 
compositional gradients in iron meteorites. Tliis involved the use 
of a digital computer to solve the diffusion equation of nickel in nickel- 
iron alloys for various postulated cooling rates and thermal histories." 
He found a thermal history that yielded the same nickel diffusion 
profiles observed in iron meteorites. Preliminary results indicate 
that the medium octahedrite iron meteorites originated in a small 
planet, about 200 km in radius; that this object originally accreted 
at a rate of --^0.5 cm per year; and that it originally contained a 
short-lived radionuclide ('^100 ppm of Al ^e or the equivalent), which 

See footnotes on p. 164. 


in decaying provided the planet with a pulse of high temperature 
followed by rapid cooling. Dr. Wood .spent most of the past fiscal year 
at the Enrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies, University of 
Chicago, working with Dr. Edward Anders on meteorite research. 

Dr. F. Behn Riggs, Jr., completed his investigation " of the use of 
an electron probe specially designed to use with very large meteorite 
sections without enclosing the specimen in a vacuum chamber. Sev- 
eral meteorites were studied with this instrument. 

To facilitate interpretation of metallurgical features of meteorites ^^ 
Dr. Matthias F. Comerford (in cooperation with Prof. H. H. Uhlig 
of M.I.T.) and Joseph I. Goldstein (in cooperation with Prof. R. E. 
Ogilvie of M.I.T.) are pursuing separate investigations of diffusion 
processes at the interface of two different si^ecimens of nickel-iron 
alloy. The dependence of the interdiffusion coefficients upon both 
temperature and pressure is being measured. Pressures up to 50,000 
atmospheres are being used in these experiments. 

Dr. Wright and Dr. Paul W. Hodge are pursuing a project to 
determine the amount and nature of extraterrestrial particles col- 
lected by the earth. This investigation has been furthered through 
collection, by diverse methods, of particles from a wide variety of 
geographical locations. The collected particles were microscopically 
examined and their chemical and physical properties determined. A 
total of 761 particles of possible extraterrestrial origin have been 
chemically analyzed with electron-probe teclmiques. The results are 
proving useful in establishing the chemical criteria for cosmic origin. 

Cometary science. — Comets have frequently been investigated by 
Smithsonian Observatory scientists. A basic understanding of their 
composition, structure, and resultant phenomena promises to clarify 
important aspects of the origin of the solar system. The relationship 
of comets to meteor showers and the response of comets to solar 
activity are likewise important topics. 

Currently, Dr. Whipple is directing liis attention to the problem 
of the cometary nucleus as evidenced in the brightness and deteriora- 
tion of the periodic comets. Starting from a combination of meteor 
and cometary studies he is performing calculations to ascertain more 
exactly the lifetime of a major comet such as Encke's, which has 
contributed a great complex of Taurid meteors. He is seeking to 
identify Comet Encke in ancient records in order to determine changes 
in period and brightness levels in the ancient past — perhaps 2,500 
years ago. This research employs studies of photographic meteor 
orbits, theoretical calculations, and cooperation with historians. 

Published photographs of Comet Arend-Eoland, examined by Dr. 
Richard B. South worth, combined with computed particle trajectories, 

See footnotes on p. 164. 


showed that the comet had seven tails. Each consisted of dust ejected 
in accordance with Wliipple's theory describing tliis process. The 
larger ejected particles collectively contain more mass than the small. 

Using photographs made by the Baker-Nunn cameras, Daniel 
Malaise ^^ is obtaining measurements of cometarj- tail activity. This 
inquiry bears on the interaction of the solar wind with the tails of 

During the summer of 1962 Dr. Pol Swings reviewed the possibili- 
ties for cometary research provided by the use of rocket vehicles and 
spacecraft. Observations of infrared and ultraviolet frequencies from 
orbiting observatories, measurements from a probe flight near a comet, 
and release of appropriate chemicals from rockets all offer significant 
opportunity for advancing cometary science. 

Dr. Charles A. ^Vliitney and Dr. Lundquist have initiated laboratory 
studies of the properties of ices in vacuum to provide several basic 
parameters for further theoretical descriptions of comets. Prelimi- 
nary theoretical studies of the nature of comets have indicated the 
need for several modifications of existing theories. 

Solar observations. — A historic advance in solar observation is the 
United States' Orbiting Solar Observatory program. To further its 
long-standing record of pioneering solar observations, Sx^O is playing 
an active role in this program. 

Dr. Giovanni Fazio was a coexperimenter on the first Orbiting Solar 
Observatory, launched in March 1962. The experiment provided the 
first view of a solar flare in the high-energy gamma ray (>100 Mev) 
portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Within the sensitivity of 
the detector, there was no evidence for gamma radiation. Data re- 
duction ^° is continuing, and theoretical calculations on the sun's 
production of gamma rays have been made. 

Dr. Leo Goldberg is directing a Harvard University project " to 
prepare instrumentation for the second Orbiting Solar Observatory, 
scheduled to be launched during the fall of 1963. The instrument is 
designed both to make scans of the solar spectrum and to obtain mono- 
chromatic solar images in the wavelength range 500-1500 A. Both 
the prototype and the flight models of the satellite instrimient have 
been delivered for integration into the spacecraft. A considerable 
number of the routine environmental tests have been passed. 

Design work has already begun on an improved model of the scan- 
ning spectrometer-spectroheliograph, which has been allocated space 
on board the fourth Orbiting Solar Observatory. Design work is 
also proceeding on a spectrometer that will operate in the short wave- 
lengths from 100-600 k}^ 

See footnotes on p. 164. 


Observations of magnetic fields and velocity fields in the solar 
granulation were carried out by Dr. R. W. Noyes at the McMath Solar 
Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Tucson during June 
1963. The data are now being analyzed. 

Dr. Fireman, Dr. Tilles, and Mr. DeFelice have continued measure- 
ments of tritium concentrations in recovered satellites. Such measure- 
ments made during the past year have pertained to a period of relative 
solar quiescence. The apparent upper limit for trapped tritium 
abundance was much lower in 1962 than it was following the No- 
vember 1960 solar flares. The measurements to date suggest that these 
large flares injected tritium into the trapped radiation belts with 
apparent lifetimes of months. This first evidence of direct solar in- 
jection of positive Van Allen particles is under continuing critical 

It is clear that particles and electromagnetic radiation from the 
sun produce many such diverse phenomena in the solar system. Their 
interaction with the earth's atmosphere results in large density varia- 
tions which are manifest in variations of satellite orbits. These 
radiations also influence cometary activity. The interpretation of 
these far-reaching interrelated phenomena is particularly challenging 
because of its very scope. The present period of minimum solar 
activity has many advantages for research on these matters. The 
Observatory is vigorously pursuing these topics, which will be in- 
cluded in the U.S. program for the Year of the Quiet Sun. 

Stellar ohservations. — The Observatory's astrophysical interests ex- 
tend beyond the investigations of the solar system. Using various 
instruments, SAO acquires and analyzes observational data on stars, 
galaxies, and interstellar matter in all forms. 

Like solar observations, stellar observations stand to benefit greatly 
from the advent of orbiting observatories. The Observatory is privi- 
leged to have responsibility for Project Celescope,^^ one of the two 
prime experiments on the first Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. 
Dr. Wliipple is project director, and Dr. Robert J. Davis is project 
scientist. Dr. Grossi has supervised electronic aspects of the project. 

The primary goal of Project Celescope is to obtain ultraviolet star 
catalogs in each of four colors between 1,000 and 3,000 A. The wave- 
length range requires that this observing program be carried out above 
the earth's atmosphere. Four separate telescopes equipped with 
ultraviolet-sensitive television photometers will be used. The present 
phase of the program is concerned primarily with procurement of 
the necessary equipment. The experiment has required the develop- 
ment of the following pioneering instrumentation and techniques: 

See footnotes on p. 164. 


ultraviolet-sensitive television camera tubes, Schwarzschild telescope 
systems, calibration lamps, a digital television photometric system, and 
automatic identification and cataloging of stars. 

The ultraviolet-sensitive television camera tubes required much 
research and development. The Project has been working for 4 years 
with Westinghouse Research Laboratories to procure these devices. 
Problems solved during the past year include Westmghouse's develop- 
ment of a new target material that has increased the tube's sensitivity 
and its suitability as a stellar photometer. Laboratory measurements 
of the spectral response of this tube were made by Dr. Om P. Rustgi. 

The telescope system to be used with Celescope requires the produc- 
tion of strongly aspheric optical surfaces mounted so as to survive the 
mechanical environment of satellite launching, and to be insensitive 
to large variations in temperature. 

For calibration of Celescope equipment in orbit, it was necessary to 
obtain two types of ultraviolet point sources. One, utilizing a low- 
pressure mercury-vapor arc, radiates intensely at 2,537 A. The other, 
utilizing a low-pressure xenon arc, radiates intensely at 1,470 A. The 
latter lamp required considerable developmental work in order to meet 
requirements for small size and power consumption, long life, and 
high efficiency. Dr. Rustgi and Clifford Miles have made laboratory 
tests of these sources. 

The requirement to use a television system as a stellar photometer 
posed problems of accuracy, reliability, linearity, and dynamic range 
not encountered in the usual type of television data transmission. The 
system, as developed by Electro-Mechanical Research, Inc., has proved 
able to meet the performance requirements. 

Finally, George Szabo, Mrs. Gail Wald, and Stephen Strom have 
prepared an ultraviolet identification catalog and are preparing tech- 
niques for automatic compilation and publication of the Celescope 
observational material. 

The accurate measurement of the number and direction of high- 
energy gamma rays from the universe is a difficult instrumentation 
problem. The importance of the measurement, however, justifies 
great effort toward its accomplishment. Dr. Fazio has completed a 
theoretical study of the production of gamma rays by cosmic radiation 
in our galaxy. Using the results of these calculations, he is planning 
further gamma-ray astronomy instruments for future orbiting observ- 
atories. A new type of detector for high-energy gamma rays, a mul- 
tiplate spark chamber, is now being developed at the Observatory. 

A program of spectroscopic observations of bright stars, which Dr. 
Whitney initiated at the Agassiz Station of Harvard College Observ- 
atory, will provide data for the theoretical work on the spectra of nor- 
mal stars. Drs. Wright and Hodge have located Population II 


Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud, in red globular clusters. A 
period-luminosity relation for these Cepheids has been established. 
This research is helpful in determining the extragalactic distance 

Six of the Baker-Nunn cameras have been used since 1960 to photo- 
graph flare stars in conjunction with radio-frequency measurements of 
their radio emissions.^ The cooperating radio observatories are Jod- 
rell Bank Experimental Station in England and the Commonwealth 
Scientific and Industrial Research Organization at Sydney, Australia. 
Leonard Solomon devised the photographic procedures used. The 
one major flare observed this year correlates in time with a major burst 
detected in the radio spectrum at Sydney. If these combined obser- 
vations are significantly correlated, as they appear to be, they consti- 
tute the first observations of radio energy from "normal" stellar 
objects. Many minor flares (from previous years) correlate with 
small bursts observed at Jodrell Bank. 

In collaboration with Prof. William Liller of Harvard, Dr. Gold- 
berg has begun an observing program designed to search for evidence 
of cyclic stellar activity similar to that connected with the solar sun- 
spot cycle. They will conduct the search by monitoring the intensities 
of the H and K emission lines of ionized calcium in the spectra of late- 
type stars. They will look for both short-term changes, such as may 
be produced by flares, and long-term cyclic variations. 

A star catalog ^ of gi'eat value to many astronomical enterprises has 
been completed under the direction of Dr. Vies, Mr. Solomon, and Mrs. 
Katherine Haramundanis. Initiated in 1959 under the Satellite 
Tracking Program, the SAO Star Catalog was conceived as the com- 
pilation of a large number of fundamental and differential catalogs 
to cover the sky in a standard coordinate system. The project used 
about 40 catalogs, providing data on approximately a quarter of a 
million stars. Preparation of the Star Catalog involved investigations 
of the details of the coordinate system and derivation of proper mo- 
tions of each catalog. Comparisons of several catalogs were also 
made in sky areas where the catalogs used did not provide adequate 
information, usually for proper motions. The complete catalog is 
stored on magnetic tape, while the publication of a book form is prog- 
ressing. A set of star charts is to be produced from the Catalog in 
Lambert-conformal projection, probably at two different scales. 

Stellar theory. — Theoretical studies of stellar atmospheres^" con- 
tinued in several directions under Dr. IVliitney's supervision. Ex- 
tensive calculations were performed concerning the structure of stellar 
convection zones and the nature of the perturbations they produce in 
stellar atmospheres. Investigations of the structure of shock fronts in 

See footnotes on p. 164. 


atomic hydrogen have been extended ; these represent a considerable 
refinement of the earlier work. Dr. Angelo J. Skalaf uris and Dr. Wolf- 
gang Kalkofen worked with Dr. Whitney on the latter studies. Dr. 
Owen Gingerich has examined some computational aspects of nongray 
stellar atmosphere models. In this connection, he has investigated 
several new opacity sources. Current work includes the addition of 
electron-scattering and absorption-line profiles to the computer 

Dr. Max Krook has developed a perturbation-iterative procedure 
for solving the structure equations for nongray stellar atmospheres. 
He and Dr. Eugene H. Avrett have applied this method to a number 
of cases and have found it to converge very rapidly. 

Dr. Noyes has made theoretical investigation of velocity fields in 
the solar atmosphere. The purpose of this work is to explain the recent 
observations of pronounced oscillatory motions in the solar atmos- 
phere. Particular goals are to reproduce the well-determined pe- 
riod of 300 seconds for the oscillation. The relevant equations, includ- 
ing the effects of radiative damping, have been put in a form suitable 
for numerical analysis on an IBM-7090 computer. Preliminary re- 
sults indicate that rapid change in radiative flux into the atmosphere 
induced by convection in the granulation, does indeed cause oscillatory 
motions of the solar atmosphere with the observed properties. 

In collaboration with Dr. Y. Ohman of the Stockholm Observatory, 
Dr. Goldberg is carrying out a theoretical investigation of the scat- 
tering of the Lyman-a emission line by tlie high-speed electrons of the 
solar corona. Profiles of the scattering emission line are being cal- 
culated for various assumed models of the corona as a function of dis- 
tance from the center of the solar disk. 

The radiation pressure exerted on a nonstationary gaseous cloud by 
a neighboring exciting star of high temperature has been considered 
by Dr. Y. Hagihara.^ He has employed quantum mechanical tech- 
niques and the assumptions that the atmosphere and the ions in the 
cloud are in systematic and random thermal motions. 

SuTnmary. — During the past year we have once more witnessed the 
ever-increasing recognition of astrophysical research as an essential 
component of the scientific needs of the nation. A previously un- 
heard-of situation now exists in which major national programs — 
such as manned lunar exploration in this decade — depend on astro- 
phj^sical information for their successful execution. 

The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory is proud that for 73 
years it has been generating and disseminating such knowledge. We 
also derive satisfaction from our realization that the research pro- 

See footnotes on p. 164. 


grams of tlie Observatory have gi'own and continue to grow as the 
appropriate Smithsonian Institution response to these requirements. 


On June 11, in ceremonies at the White House, Dr. Whipple re- 
ceived the President's Award for Distinguished Federal Civil Service. 

Dr. Wliipple and Drs. Fireman, Wood, and Tilles attended the 
Gordon Research Conference at Tilton, N.H., in July 1962. 

In August Dr. Avrett participated in the Third Colloquium on 
the Theory of Stellar Atmospheres, sponsored by Commission 36 of 
the International Astronomical Union, at Hailsham, England. 

Dr. Colombo presented a paper at the Symposium on Gyrody- 
namics, sponsored by the lUTAJNI, at Celerina, SAvitzerland. 

In September Dr. Lundquist presented a paper at the 13th Inter- 
national Astronautical Conference at Varna, Bulgaria. 


1 Supported by grant NsG 87/60 from the National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 

2 Supported by contract 19(e28)-3248 witli the U.S. Air Force. 

» Supported by grants G20135 and GP388 from the National Science Foundation to 
Harvard University and by grant NASr-158 from the National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
Diinistratiou to Harvard University. 

* Supported by contract 19(628)-2949 with the U.S. Air Force. 

6 Supported by contract AF19(604)5196 between the U.S. Air Force and Harvard 

* Supported by grant number NsG 126/61 from the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration to the University of California. 

'Supported by contract AF19(604)7400 sub 234 between Harvard University and MIT 
Lincoln liaboratory. 

* Supported by grant NsG 291-62 from the National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 

» Supported by grant NsF 160C7 from the National Science Foundation. 

'" Supported in part by grant NsG 282-63 from the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration to Dr. Clifford Frondel of Harvard University. 

" Supported by grant G 14298 from the National Science Foundation to the University 
of Chicago, 

*2 Supported by contract AT(ll-l) 382 between the Atomic Energy Commission and the 
Enrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies, University of Chicago. 

" Supported by contract AF18(600)-1596 with the U.S. Air Force. 

" Research supported by grant G2777 from the National Science Foundation to the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

's Research sponsored by fellowships from NASA, Fonds National de la Recherche Scien- 
tiflqiie, Belgium, and European Preparatory Commission for Space Research. 

M Supported by grant NAS5-3255 from the National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 

" Supported by contract NASwl84 between the National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 
tration and Harvard University. 

" Supported by grant NsG-438 from the National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion to Harvard University. 

1" Supported by contract NAS5-1535 with the National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 

" Research supported by grants Q-16339 and GP940 from the National Science Founda- 



Dr. Carleton presented a paper at the annual Gaseous Electronics 
Conference at Boulder, Colo., in October. 

Dr. Fazio presented a paper at the 1962 International Symposium 
on Space Phenomena and Measurements in Detroit. 

In November Dr. Fireman presented a paper at the Radioactive 
Dating Symposium in Athens, Greece. In December he attended 
the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting 
in Philadelphia. 

Dr. Tilles, Mrs. Marvin, and Mr. Slowey presented papers at the 
American Geophysical Union meeting at Stanford University, Palo 
Alto, Calif., in December. 

In January Dr. Whipple delivered a lecture at the Ninth Annual 
Astronautical Society Meeting in Los Angeles. He also attended 
ceremonies at the Goddard Space Flight Center commemorating the 
fifth anniversary of international tracking of space vehicles. 

Drs. Carleton, Lundquist, and Mitler attended the meeting of the 
American Physical Society in New York. 

Drs. Lmidquist, Fazio, and Jacchia attended the Goddard Scientific 
Symposium on Satellites in Washington, D.C. Dr. Fazio presented 
a paper at this meeting. 

In April, Dr. Wliipple took part in the Institute of Space Studies 
Symposium on the Origin and Evolution of Atmospheres and Oceans, 
held in New York City. He also presented a paper at the UGI meet- 
ing in Washington. 

Drs. Carleton, Fazio, Fireman, Jacchia, Tilles, and Whipple at- 
tended the American Geophysical Union meeting in Washington. 

Drs. "Wliipple, Jacchia, and Sagan presented papers at the COSPAR 
meeting in Warsaw, Poland, in June. Dr. Sagan also attended the 
12th International Astrophysical Colloquium in Liege, Belgium. 


In October 1962 and June 1963 several divisions of the Observatory, 
including those occupying space belonging to the IBM Corp. and to 
the Harvard University Press, moved to a building on Alewife Brook 
Parkway, about a mile from Observatory headquarters at the Har- 
vard College Observatory. This move places all personnel in only 
two locations, between which mail- and passenger-shuttle operates on 
a regular schedule. 

Also in October 1962 the IBM-7090 computer was taken over by, 
and moved to, the Harvard Computing Laboratory, from which the 
Observatory rents needed time. 

720-018 — 64 12 



The following papers by staff members of the Astrophysical Obser- 
vatory appeared in various journals. 

AvEETT, E. H., AND Kbook, M. The temperature distribution in a stellar atmos- 
phere. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 137, pp. 874-881, 19G3. 

• . A rapidly convergent iterative procedure for the calculation of the 

temperature-pressure relation in a stellar atmosphere. Journ. Quant. 
Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, vol. 3, pp. 107-113, 1063. 

AvRETT, E. H., AND LoESER, R. A Simple and accurate method for the evaluation 
of the Milne integrals. Journ. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, vol. 3, pp. 
201-209, 1963. 

Bills, D. G. ; Cakleton, N. P. ; and Oldenbebg, O. The half-life of the meta- 
stable level A' of the nitrogen molecule. In Advances in Molecular Spec- 
troscopy, pp. 197-200, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1962. 

Bkiggs, R. B. Steady-state space distribution of meteoric particles under the 
operation of the Poynting-Robertson effect. Astron. Journ., vol. 67, No. 10, 

Caeleton, N. P. The relation of the recent atmospheric dust measurements of 
Volz and Goody to the problem of meteoric influx. Journ. Atmos. Sci., vol. 19, 
pp. 424-^26, 1962. 

. See also Bills, Carleton, and Oldenberg. 

Cableton, N. p., and Megill, L. R. Electron energy distribution in slightly 
ionized air under the influence of electric and magnetic fields. Phys. Rev., 
vol. 126, pp. 2089-2099, 1962. 

Cableton, N.P., and Oldenberg, O. Lifetime of the lowest excited level of N. 
Journ. Chcm. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 3460-3463, 1962. 

Cableton, N. P., and Papliolios, C. Measured variation on the electronic transi- 
tion moment of the Vegard-Kaplan bands in Na. Joum. Quant. Spectrosc. 
Radiat. Transfer, vol. 2, pp. 241-244, 1962. 

Colombo, G. The magnetic torque acting on artificial satellites. In Proceedings 
of Conference on Gyrodynamics, I.U.T.A.M., Celerina, 1963. 

. See also Shapiro, Lautman, and Colombo. 

Colombo, G., and Lautman, D. A. On some singular orbits of an Earth-Moon 
satellite with a high-area mass ratio (abstract). Astron. Journ., vol. 67, p. 
573, 1962. 

Colombo, G, ; Latjtman, D. A. ; and Munfobd, C. On the libration orbits of 
a particle near the triangular points on the semirestricted three-body 
problem (abstract) . Astron. Journ., vol, 68, pp. 159-162, 1963. 

Cook, A. F. A proposed criterion for the mode of ablation of stone meteors. 
Smithsonian Contr. Astrophys., vol. 4, pp. 131-136, 1963. 

Cook, A. F. ; Jacchia, L. G, ; and McCrosky, R. E. Luminous efficiency of iron 
and stone meteors. Smithsonian Contr. Astrophys., vol. 7, pp. 200-220, 

DeFelice, J. See Tilles, Fireman, and DeFelice; Fireman, Fazio, and De- 
Felice; Fireman, DeFelice, and Tilles. 

DuTHiE, J. G. ; Hafner, E. M. ; Kaplon, M. F. ; and Fazio, G. G. Gamma rays 
at high altitude. Phys. Rev. Letters, vol. 10, p. 364, 1963. 

DuTHiE, J. G. ; Hafner, E. M. ; Kaplon, M. F. ; Fazio, G. G. ; and Savedopf, M. P. 
Primary y-rays (abstract). Amer. Phys. Soc, series II, vol. 8, p. 7, 1963. 



Fazio, G. G. ; Cook, C. J. ; and Hafner, E. M. High, energy gamma ray astron- 
omy. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. NS-10, pp. 10-14, 1963. 

. Search for high-energy gamma-rays from the sun (abstract). Trans. 

Amer. Geophys. Union, vol. 44, p. 83, 1963. 

Fazio, G. G. See also Fireman, Fazio, and DeFelice; Duthie, Hafner, Kaplon, 
and Fazio ; Duthie, Hafner, Kaplon, Fazio, and Savedoff ; Melissinos, Yaman- 
ouchi, Fazio, Lindenbaum, and Yuan. 

FiKEMAN, E. L. Density of the solar flare plasma. Journ. Geophys. Res. vol. 
67, p. 4890, 1962. 

. Tritium in meteorites and in recovered satellite material, In Tritium 

in the Physical and Biological Sciences, vol. 1, p. 69, IAEA, Vienna, 1962. 
See also Tilles, Fireman, and DeFelice. 

Fireman, E. L. ; Fazio, G. G. ; and DkFelice, J. Argon 39, tritium, and alumi- 
num 26 in the Farmington meteorite and its discordant exposure ages (ab- 
stract). Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, vol. 44, p. 83, 1963. 

Fireman, E. L. ; DeFelice, J. ; and Tilles, D. Tritium and radioactive argon 
and xenon in meteorites and in recovered satellites, In Radioactive Dating, 
vol. 1, p. 33, EAEA, Athens, 1963. 

Giese, R. H. Light scattering by small particles and models of interplanetary 
matter derived from the zodiacal light. Space Sci. Rev., vol. 1, pp. 589-611, 

Gingerich, O., and Stahlman, W. Planetary longitudes for years —2500 to 
+2000. Univ. Wisconsin Press, 1962. 

Gingerich, O. Krook's iterative procedure for the temperature distribution 
in model stellar atmospheres (abstract). Astron. Journ., vol. 67, p. 272, 1962. 

. A spiral galaxy of astronomers. Sky and Tel., vol. 25, p. 132, 1983. 

Goldberg, L. Stellar and interstellar observations. In Space Age Astronomy, 
pp. 203-212, Academic Press, New York, 1962. 

. The sun. In Hugh Odishaw, ed.. The Challenges of Space, pp. 129-142, 

University of Chicago Press, 1962. 

. The physics of the sun, its nature, structure and emission properties. 

In Donald P. Legalley, ed.. Space Science, pp. 88-112, John Wiley & Sons, 
Inc., 1963. 

. Means of observations. In Thornton Page, ed., Stars and Galaxies, 

pp. 14-12, Prentice-HaU, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1962. 

. The abundance of He^ in the sun. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 136, No. 3, 

Goldstein, J. I. Electron microanalysis of metallic meteorites. S.M. thesis, 

MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1962. 
Hawkins, G. S. Radar determination of meteor orbits. Astron. Journ., vol. 

67, p. 241, 1962. 

. A study of tektites. NASA Research Report No. 14, 1962. 

. New theory of the universe. Science Digest, p. 40, 1962. 

. A study of tektites. Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 68, p. 805, 1963. 

. Impacts on the Earth and Moon. Nature, vol. 197, p. 781, 1963. 

. The initial diameter of meteor trails. Smithsonian Contr. Astrophys., 

vol. 7, p. 23, 1963. 
. The Harvard Radio Meteor Project. Smithsonian Contr. Astrophys., 

vol. 7, p. 53, 1963. 
— . See also Southworth and Hawkins. 

Hawkins, G. S., and Lazarus, D. M. Meteor ionization and the mass of 
meteoroids. Smithsonian Contr. Astrophys., vol. 7, p. 221, 1963. 


Hembree, R. V. ; Lundquist, C. A. ; and Thompson, A. W. Scientific resiilts 
from Juiio-launched spacecraft. In E. Stuhlinger, F. I. Ordway III, J. 0. 
McCall, G. C. Bucher, ed., Astronautical Engineeriug and Science, p. 281, 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1963. 

Hodge, P. W., and Wright, F. W. The space density of atmospheric dust in the 
altitude range 50,000 to 90,000 feet. Smithsonian Contr. Astrophys., vol. 5, 
p. 231, 1962. 

Hodge, P. W. See also Wright and Hodge. 

IzsAK, I. G. The odd harmonic effect in the motion of the satellites 1960 Beta 2 
and 1960 Iota 2. Proc. of the First International Symposium on the Use of 
Artificial Satellites for Geodesy, p. 329, North-Holland Publ., Ajnsterdam, 

. On the critical inclination in satellite theory. Proc. of the First Inter- 
national Symposium on the Use of Artificial Satellites for Geodesy, p. 117, 
North-Holland Publ., Amsterdam, 1963. 

JACOHIA, L. G. Comment on paper by D. G. Parkyn. Satellite 1958 52 Data 
Analysis. Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 67, p. 2989, 1962. 

. The determination of atmospheric drag on artificial satellites. Dy- 
namics of Satellites, lUTAM Symposium, Paris, pp. 136-142, Spriuger-Ver- 
lag, BerUn, 1963. 

. Electromagnetic and corpuscular heating of the upper atmosphere. 

Space Research III, North-Holland Publ., Amsterdam, 1963. 

. Meteors, meteorites and comets ; interrelations. In G. Kuiper and B. 

Middlehurst, ed.. The Solar System, vol. 4, p. 774, University of Chicago 
Press, 1963. 

. Satellite studies of the upper atmosphere. Trans. Amer. Geophys. 


Union, vol. 44, p. 436, 1963. 
— . See also Cook, Jacchia, and McCrosky. 

Kalkofen, W. Relaxation of shock-heated hydrogen. Dissertation, Harvard 
University, 1963. 

KozAi, Y. Mean values of cosine function in an elliptic motion. Astron. 
Journ., vol. 67, p. 311, 1962. 

■ . Second-order solution of artificial satellite theory without airdrag. 

Astron. Journ., vol. 67, p. 446, 1962. 

. Secular perturbations of asteroids with high inclination and eccen- 
tricity. Astron. Journ., vol. 67, pp. 591-598, 1962. 

. Numerical results on the gravitational potential of the earth. Proc. 

of the First International Symposium on the Use of Artificial Satellites for 
Geodesy, p. 305, North-Holland Publ., Amsterdam, 1963. 

Potential of the earth derived from satellites motion. In M. Roy, 

ed.. Dynamics of Satellites, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1963. 

Krook, M. a perturbation method for non-gray stellar atmospheres. Astro- 
phys. Journ., vol. 137, p. 863, 1963. 

■ . See also Avrett and Krook. 

Lautman, D. a. On the distribution of the perihelia of the asteroids (abstract). 
AAS, 1963. 

. See also Shapiro, Lautman, and Colombo; Colombo and Lautman; 

Columbo, Lautman, and Munford. 

Loeser, R. See Avrett and Looser. 

LovELL, B. ; Whipple, F. L. ; and Solomon, L. Radio emission from flare stars. 
Nature, vol. 198, pp. 228-230, 1963. 


LuNDQtJisT, C. A. ; Naumann, R. J. ; and Wkbeb, A. H. Directional flux densities 

and mirror point distributions of trapped particles from satellite 1958 

Epsilon measurements. Joum, Geophys. Res., vol. 67, p. 4125, 1962. 
LuNDQUiST, C. A. See also Hembree, Lundquist, and Thompson. 
Maevin, U. B. Cristobalite in the carbo iron meteorite. Nature, vol. 196, pp. 

634-635, 1962. 
McCkosky, R. E., and Soberman, R. K. Research Note AFCRL-62-803, 1962. 
. Results from an artificial iron meteoroid at 10 km/sec. Smithsonian 

Contr. Astrophys., vol. 7, p. 199, 1963. 
McCroskt, R. E. See also Cook, Jacchia, and McCrosky. 
Melissinos, a. C. ; Yamanouchi. T. ; Fazio, G. G. ; Lindenbatjm, S. J. ; and 

Yuan, L. C L. 7r-nieson production in 2.9 Bev. p-p collisions. Phys. Rev., 

vol. 128. pp. 2373-2381, 1962. 
MuNFORD, 0. See also Colombo, Lautman, and Munford. 
Nigam, R. C. Secular decrease in the inclination of artificial satellites. AIAA 

Journ., p. 1455, June, 1963. 
Papliolios, C. See also Carleton and Papliolios. 
PONNAMPERUMA, C. ; Marixer, R. ; AND Sagan, C. Formation of adenosine by 

ultraviolet irradiation of a solution of adeneine and ribose. Nature, vol. 198, 

p. 1199, 1963. 
PONNAMPERUMA, C. ; Sagan, C. ; AND MARINER, R. Ultraviolet synthesis of ade- 
nosine triphosphate under simulated primitive earth conditions. Nature, 

vol. 199, pp. 222-226, 1963. 
RiGGS, B. F., Jr. Construction of a small valve for high vacuum. Rev. Sci. 

Instr., vol. 33, p. 1114, 1962. 
. Simple aid to pulse-height selection with scanning X-ray spectrometers. 

Rev. Sci. Instr., vol. 34, p. 312, 1963. 
. New design for a gas-flow proportional counter. Rev. Sci. Instr., vol. 

34, pp. 392-395, 1963. 
. Preparation of bent-crystals for monochromatizing X-rays. Rev. Sci. 

Instr., vol. 33, p. 875, 1962. 

Sagan, C. Li^ge colloq. highlights planetary physics (meeting review). Astro- 
nautics, October, p. 78, 1962. 

. Direct contact among galactic civilizations by relativistic interstellar 

spaceflight. Planetary and Space Sci., vol. 11, p. 485, 1963. 

. On the nature of the Jovian red spot. In Proc. 11th International 

Astroiihysical Colloq., Liese, p. 506, 1963. 

. Life beyond the earth. Voice of America Forum Lectures. Space Sci. 

Series, 1963. 

. Venus. Int. Sci. and Tech. No. 15, March, pp. 86-94, 1963. 

. Prospects for lunar organic matter. In Proc. Conf. on Lunar Explor- 
ation, Virginia Polytechnic Inst., ch. 17, 1963. 

Saoan, C, and EIellogo, W. W. Atmospherii Marsa i Veneri. Russian trans- 
lation by V. I. Moroz of NAS-NRC Publication No. 944, 1961. Published 

. See also Ponnamperuma, Mariner, and Sagan ; Ponnamperuma, Sagan, 

and Mariner. 

Skalafuris, A. J. Stability and structure of stellar shocks. Dissertation, 
Brandeis University, Waltham, 1963. 

Shapiro, I. I.; Lautman, D. A.; and Colombo, G. Capture of cosmic dust 
into circumterrestrial orbits. Trans. Amer, Geophys. Union, vol. 44, p. 71, 


Solomon, L. See Lovell, Whipple, and Solomon. 

SouTHWORTH, R. B. Theoretical Fresnel patterns of radio meteors. Presented 

at fall URSI meeting, Ottawa, 1962. 
. Deceleration of radio meteors (abstract). Astron. Journ., vol. 67, 

p. 283, 1962. 

. Dust in Comet Arend-Roland. Astron. Journ., vol. 68, p. 293, 1963. 

. Dynamical evolution of the Perseids and Oriouids. Smithsonian Contr, 

Astrophys., vol. 7, p. 299, 1963. 

On S. H. Dole's paper, The gravitational concentration of particles 

in space near the Earth. Planetary and Space Sci., vol. 11, p. 499, 1963. 

SouTHWORTH, R. B., AND HAWKINS, G. S. Statistics of meteor streams. Smith- 
sonian Contr. Astrophys., vol. 7, 261, 1963. 

Strom, S. E. Variations in the law of interstellar reddening. Astron. Journ., 
vol. 68, p. 80, 1963. 

TiLLES, D. Room temperature diffusion constant for hydrogen in proton-irradi- 
ated steel. Nature, vol. 194, p. 1273, 1962. 

. Silicon isotopes in pegmatites and igneous rocks (abstract). Journ. 

Geophys. Res., vol. 67, p. 1659, 1962. 

. Sputnik IV Symposium (review). Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, vol. 

44, p. 143, 1963. 
— . See also Fireman, DeFelice, and Tilles. 

TiLLEs, D. ; Fireman, E. L. ; and DeFelice, J. Tritium in Discoverer satellites. 

Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 67, p. 1660, 1962. 
. Radioactivities in the metallic phase of the Harleton meteorite. Journ. 

Geophys. Res., vol. 67, p. 3604, 1962. 
. H' and A" in a fragment of Sputnik IV. Trans. Amer. Geophys. 

Union, vol. 43, p. 457, 1962. 
. A search for the geomagnetically trapped tritium in satellite material 

flown June to September 1962. Trans. Araer. Geophys. Union, vol. 44, p. 

90, 1963. 
Whipple, F. L. Dust and meteorites. Astronautics, vol. 7, pp. 40-42, 1962. 
. Meteoritic erosion in space (abstract). Astron. Journ., vol. 67, pp. 285- 

286, 1962. 
. Meteoritic erosion in space. Smithsonian Contr. Astrophys., vol. 7, pp. 

239-248, 1963. 
. On the structure of the cometary nucleus. In G. P. Kuiper, ed.. The 

Solar System, vol. IV, ch. 15, pp. 639-662, University of Chicago Press, 

. See also Lovell, Whipple, and Solomon. 

Whitney, C. A. Theoretical aspects of the W Virginis phenomena. Astron. 

Journ., vol. 67, p. 286, 1962. 
. The duration of line-splitting in W Virginis. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 

136, p. 674, 1962. 
. The filtering of spectrophotometric noise. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 137, 

pp. 527-531, 1963. 
Wood, J. A. Jleteorites ; physics and chemistry. In G. P. Kuiper, and B. M. 

Middlehurst, ed.. The Solar System, vol. 4, ch. 12, University of Chicago 

Press, 1963. 
Wright, F. W., and Hodge, P. W. Space density of dust in the stratosphere. 

Nature, vol. 195, p. 269, 1962. 
. See also Hodge and Wright. 


The Special Eeports of the Astrophysical Observatory distribute 
catalogs of satellite observations, orbital data, and preliminary results 
of data analysis prior to journal publication. Numbers 90 through 126, 
issued during the year, contain the following material : 

No. 99, July 16, 1962. 

Chemical analysis of 643 particles collected by high-altitude aircraft and 
balloons, by F. B. Riggs, Jr., F. AV. Wright, and P. W. Hodge. 
No. 100, July 30, 1962. 

Accurate drag determinations for eight artificial satellites ; atmospheric 
densities and temperatures, by L. G. Jacchia and J. Slowey. 
No. 101, July 31, 19G2. 

Numerical results from orbits, by Y. Kozai. 
No. 102 (P-5), August 27. 1962. 

Catalog of precisely reduced observations : Satellite 1959 ol for the entire 
jear 1960, prepared by J. MacDonald, K. Haramuudanis, et al. 
No. 103, August 28, 1962. 

Satellite orbital data: Satellite 1959 Eta (Vanguard III), Sept. 1, 1960- 
Dec. 31, 1961, and Satellite 1960 d (Echo I), Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1961, by B. 
Miller, compiled by I. G. Izsak. 
No. 104 (P-6), September 10, 1962. 

Catalog of precisely reduced observations: Satellite 1961 SI from launch 
Feb. 16-June 30, 1961, prepared by J. MacDonald et al. 
No. 105, September 28, 1962. 

The trajectory of tektites, by G. S. Hawkins and S. K. Rosenthal. 
No. 106 (P-7), November 1, 1962. 

Catalog of precisely reduced observations: Satellite 1959 al from Jan. 1- 
June 30, 1961 ; Satellite 1959 77I from Jan. 1-June 30, 1961, prepared by 
P. Stem. 
No. 107, November 9, 1962. 

On some singular orbits of an earth-moon satellite v?ith a high area-mass 
ratio, by G. Colombo and D. A. Lautmau. 
No. 108, November 20, 1962. 

On the libration orbits of a particle near the triangular point in the semi- 
restricted three-body problem, by G. Colombo, D. A. Lautman, and 
C. Munford. 
No. 109, December 21, 1962. 

Re-entry and recovery of fragments of satellite 1960 el, by C. A. Lundquist, 
R. C. Vanderburgh, W. A. Munn, D. Tilles, E. L. Fireman, and J. DeFelice. 
No. 110, December 14, 1962. 

Project Celescope, an astrophysical reconnaissance satellite, edited by R. J. 
No. Ill, December 15, 1962. 

Possible contributions of space experiments to cometary physics, by P. 
No. 112, January 21, 1963. 

On the secular decrease in the inclination of artificial satellites, by R. C. 


No. 113, January 23, 1963. 

SatelUte orbital data : Satellite 1958 Alpha, Apr, 1-July 1, 1962, by B. Miller ; 
Satellite 1959 ol. Mar. Sl-June 30, 1062, by M. Gutierrez; Satellite 1959 
Eta, Mar. 31-June 30, 1962, by M. Hall ; Satellite 1959 tl. Mar. 31-June 30, 
1962, by M. Gutierrez ; Satellite 1960 a, Apr. 1-July 1, 1962, by M. Hall ; 
Satellite 1961 51, Mar, 31- June 30, 1962, J. Weingarten, compiled by I, G. 
No. 114 (C-31), January 28, 1963. 

Catalogue of satellite observations : Satellites 1958 Alpha, 1959 ol, 1959 Eta, 
and 1959 tl for Jan. 1-June 30, 1962, prepared by B. Miller, 
No. 115 (C-32), January 29, 1963. 

Catalogue of satellite observations : Satellites 1960 il, 1960 t2, and 1960 ^1, for 
Jan. 1-June 30, 1962, prepared by B. Miller, 
No. 116 (C-33), January 30, 1963. 

Catalogue of satellite observations : Satellites 1961 SI, 1961 ol, and 1961 o2, 
for Jan. 1-Juue 30, 1962 ; Satellite 1961 ^-l, Jan. 1-Sept. 19, 1962 ; Satellite 
1962 n, Mar, 7, 1962; Satellite 1962 tl, Apr. 8-May 16, 1962; Satellite 
1962 i2, Apr. 8-May 4, 1962 ; Satellite 1962 72, May 4-17, 1962 ; SateUite 
1962 ol, Apr. 28-May 20, 1962 ; Satellite 1962 o2, Apr. 28-May 4, 1962 ; 
Satellite 1962 aal, June 20-Aug. 8, 1962, prepared by B. Miller. 
No. 117, February 11, 1963. 

Satellite orbital data : Satellite 1958 Alpha, Jan. 1-Apr. 1, 1962, by B. Miller ; 
Satellite 1959 al, Aug. 1, 1961-Mar. 31, 1962, by M. Gutierrez; Satellite 
1959 Eta, Jan. 1-Apr. 1, 1902, by M. Hall ; Satellite 1959 tl, Jan. l-Apr. 1, 
1962, by B. Miller ; Satellite 1960 tl, Jan. l-Apr, 30, 1902 ; Satellite 1960 
a, Jan. 1-Apr. 1, 1962, by M. Hall; Satellite 1961 61, Jan. 1-Mar. 31, 1962, 
by J. Weingarten ; compiled by I. G. Izsak. 
No, 118 (P-8) , February 14, 1963, 

Catalog of precisely reduced observations : Satellites 1959 al, 1959 Eta and 
1960 12, July 1-Dec. 31, 1961, compiled by P. Stern. 
No. 119 (E-2), March 15, 1963, 

Satellite orbital data : Satellite 1959 al, Jan. 1, 1960-Dec. 31, 1961 ; Satellite 
1959 a2, Apr. 6-Aug. 26, 1960; Satellite 1959 Eta, Jan. 1, 1960-Dec. 31, 
1961 ; Satellite 1960 i2, Mar. 14-Dec. 31, 1961 ; Satellite 1961 51, Feb. 18-Dec, 
31, 1961, by P, Stern ; compiled by I, G, Izsak, 
No. 120, March 18, 1963. 

Satellite orbital data: Satellite 1958 Alpha, July 1-Sept. 30, 1962, by B, 
Miller; Satellites 1959 al, 1959 Eta, and 1959 tl, July 1-Sept. 30, 1962, 
by M, Gutierrez ; Satellites 1960 a and 1961 51, July 1-Sept. 30, 1962, by 
J, Weingarten ; Satellite 1960 tl. May 1-Sept. 30, 1982 ; compiled by I. G. 
No. 121, April 1, 1963. 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory program writeup (SCROGE), by 
J. R. Cherniack and E. M. Gaposchkin. 
No, 122, April 2, 1963, 

Combinations of least-squares approximations in the case of correlated 
variables, by P. L. Kadakia. 
No. 123, April 30, 1963. 

Precise aspects of terrestrial and celestial reference frames, by G. Yeis. 
No, 124, May 27, 1963. 

Notes on the design and operation of satellite tracking stations for geodetic 
purposes, by the staff of the Smithsonian Institution Astrophysical 


No. 125, May 28, 1963. 

An analysis of the atmospheric drag of the Exployer IX satellite from 
precisely reduced photographic observations, by L. G. Jacchia and J. 

No. 126, June 24, 1963. 

Satellite orbital data : Satellite 1958 o, Oct. 1-Dec. 31, 1962, by B. Miller ; 
Satellites 1959 al, 1959 v and 1959 tl, Oct. 1-Dec. 31, 1962, by M. Gutierrez ; 
Satellite 1960 y2, Apr. 13-May 30, 1960 ; Sept. 29-Oct. 23, 1962, by R. 0. 
Nigam ; Satellites 1960 d, 11 and 1961 51, Oct. 1-Dec. 31, 1962, by J. Wein- 
garten ; Satellite 1962 ael, July 10-Dec. 31, 1962, by M. Gutierrez ; Satel- 
lites 1962 /S\l, Oct. 27-Dec. 20, 1962 and 1960 /3/tl, Oct. 31-Dec. 31, 1962, 
by J. Weingarten ; compiled by I. G. Izsak. 


On July 22, 1962, Dr. Charles A. Lundquist joined the Observatory 
as assistant director for science. Other scientists who joined the staff 
during the year are physicists Dr. Eugene Avrett, Dr. Nathaniel P. 
Carleton, Dr. Charles Dugan, Dr. Giovanni G. Fazio, Dr. Owen 
Gingerich, Dr. William M. Irvine, Dr. Eobert W. Noyes, Dr. Carl E. 
Sagan, Dr. Franco Vemiani, and Chi- Yuen Wang; astronomer Dr. 
Gerald S. Hawkins ; metallurgists Dr. Matthias Comerf ord and Joseph 
Goldstein; geodesist Dr. Walter Kolmlein; and Daniel Malaise, 
NASA-COPERS fellow. Jack Coffey was appointed personnel di- 
rector, and Marc Malec was named contract specialist. 

Resignations during the year included those of Thomas Noonan, 
Dr. F. Belm Kiggs, and Dr. Om P. Rustgi, physicists; G. Nielson, 
administrative officer. Satellite Tracking Program; Dr. Pedro 
Zadunaisky and Rajendra C. Nigam, astronomers. 

Consultants at the Obsen^atory during the year were Dr. Gustav 
Bakos, Dr. Richard Giese, Dr. Yusuke Hagihara, Dr. Yoshihide 
Kozai, Dr. Otto Struve, Dr. Pol Swings, Dr. H. C. Van de Hulst, and 
Dr. George Veis. 

On June 30, 1963, the Observatory employed 335 persons. 

Prepared by W. H. Klein, Chief of the Division 

The research program of the Division is concerned with the effects 
of solar and ionizing radiation on biological systems, with emphasis 
on developing systematic concepts of the metabolic mechanisms and 
responses of living organisms as influenced and regulated by radia- 
tion. Areas of concentrated effort include problems relating to the 
regulation of metabolism by radiation, the determination of structure 
and function of macromolecules involved in energy storage, the meas- 
urement of seasonal changes in spectral distribution of total sky radia- 
tion and the correlation of these changes with plant responses. 


Plastids of flowering plants grown in the dark are converted to 
functional chloroplasts in the light. The antibiotic chloramphenicol 
partially inhibits light- dependent synthesis of whole leaf and chloro- 
plast protein, and chloroplasts from chloramplienicol-treated leaves 
lack the ability to catalyze light-dependent formation of TPNH 
(reduced triphosphopyridine nucleotide) and ATP (adenosine tri- 
phosphate) which are needed for photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixa- 
tion. Thus, nonfunctional plastids lack a number of structural pro- 
teins necessary for the generation of TPNH and ATP. Methods of 
isolating chloroplasts active in photoproduction of TPNH and ATP 
were examined. An unidentified inactivator was found in leaf homo- 
genates. The presence of this inhibitor accounts for the previous 
difficulties encountered in obtaining chloroplasts active in photopro- 
duction of TPNH and ATP. 

The proteins of functional chloroplasts from treated and untreated 
leaves differ. Purified plastids from treated leaves contain a larger 
fraction of protein that can be made water soluble. Immunological 
analysis, however, shows that the soluble fraction from chloroplasts 
of control leaves contains more protein components. Differences are 
related to structural differences visualized with the electron micro- 

Unlike flowering plants, many algae form chloroplast pigments in 
the dark. However, differences in quantity and quality of light have 
been reported to affect pigmentation and photosynthetic capacity. 
A number of littoral diatom isolates were found to grow well in the 
dark. Similar pelagic isolates are being sought. Methods of quanti- 
tatively extracting chloroplast pigments are being developed to com- 
pare differences in pigmentation between organisms grown in light 
and dark. 

Marine organisms are peculiarly suitable for fundamental iuA^^esti- 
gation of radiation responses, and a section was organized within the 
division for marine biology research. The long-tenn aim of this 
study is toward establishing an adequate understanding of the physi- 
ology and biochemistry of the occurrence, behavior, and potential har- 
vest of marine organisms. 

In the sea, algae carry out the conversion of light energy to chemical 
energy. Phosphorus compounds are involved and play an important 
role in the determination of the bulk and growth rates of the algae. 
A nmnber of types of phosphorus compounds in algae have been 
identified, quantitated, and used in structural studies. Metabolic 
activities of these compounds have been determined by the rate of 
incorporation of radioactive isotopes. Methylated ribose was demon- 
strated as a component of nucleotides of RNA (ribose nucleic acid) 


fraction. A number of sugars and neuraminic acids were demon- 
strated to be bound to the EN A. 

The morphological development of plastids in the presence of a 
carbohydrate substrate has been demonstrated to be controlled by the 
phytochrome pigment system which is photosensitive to red and far- 
red radiant energy. Microscopic examinations of leaf preparations 
sliow a red light-induced disappearance of starch from within young 
etiolated plastids. This observation has been substantiated by bio- 
chemical analysis which also indicated that starch degradation was 
preceded by a similar loss in total soluble sugars. In addition, these 
changes, which are appreciable in 6 hours and maximal in 12 hours fol- 
lowing a 3-minute exposure to light, correlate with the pronounced 
photomorphogenic leaf expansion. Studies of the kinetics of these 
changes, of temperature sensitivity and energy requirements for in- 
duction and reversal, have been completed as a necessary preliminary 
to an intensive study of the enzyme systems involved. 

Attempts to correlate physiological responses in a number of tissues 
to reported in vivo measurements of phytochrome concentrations have 
led to the conclusion that a simple one-pigment system appears to be 
inadequate in explaining the observed results. A far-red dose re- 
sponse curve was determined immediately after, and 1^^ hours after 
red induction. The data show a significant increase in sensitivity to 
far-red after 11/^ hours in both lettuce seed germination and bean hy- 
pocotyl hook opening. It was also observed that complete reversal of 
the induced response can be obtained with sufficiently large amomits 
of far-red energy from 2^ hours to 4% hours after induction for both 
lettuce and bean. Further, there is significant reversal of the red 
induction for at least a 10-hour period in both. 

Experiments using Avena mesocotyl inhibition in wliich non- 
inhibitory pretreatments of red irradiation were given 24 hours prior 
to inhibitory red treatments did not produce any change in sensitivity. 
The published in vivo measurements indicate that such pretreatments 
should have significantly reduced the level of phytochrome so that the 
sensitivity should have changed. Also, experiments in which red 
treatments were divided into two doses separated by 4-hour dark inter- 
vals, or given as one continuous dose, showed marked differences in 
the sensitivity to far-red reversal. These data do not fit reasonably 
with a single pigment system. 

Many biological responses, such as flowering, pigment synthesis, 
seed germination, stem elongation, and leaf expansion are controlled 
by photochemical reactions initiated by various portions of the visible 
spectrum. In a program of study never previously undertaken an)'^- 
where, measurements of specific spectral regions of sim and sky radia- 


tion are being recorded and correlated with plant growth responses of 
living material produced in natural daylight and in controlled en- 
vironment conditions. The greenliouse and controlled environment 
rooms, with such special features as automatically controlled changing 
light intensities and daylengths to reproduce natural conditions, have 
been developed and installed. The system for measuring smi and sky 
radiation has been developed and includes specially constructed 
thermopiles with filters which automatically measure solar radiation. 
A digital recording system has been adapted, with automatic data 
processing equipment for handling a larger amount of information, to 
register all data on punched tape. Measurements are being made at 
3-minute intervals for six different wavebands simultaneously. Direct 
measurements with photomultipliers using interference filters at two 
specific wavelengths, 660 and 730 m/x, indicate that there is an ap- 
preciable shift of as much as two-fold in the ratio of red to far-red 
near sunrise and sunset. These shifts may be of significant import in 
determining the effective daylength for biological responses which 
utilize the phytochrome system. 

The biological phase has been initiated, and at periodic intervals the 
plant material cultivated under precisely controlled conditions is 
observed and measured, and the data are recorded for purposes of com- 
parison and correlation. It is expected that the degree and/or fre- 
quency of physiological responses initiated by photochemical stimuli 
will demonstrate a direct correlation with measured daily and seasonal 
fluctuations in the energy and quality of solar radiation as observed 
over relatively long periods of time. 

It has been shown previously by Dr. W. M. Dugger, Jr., and Dr. 
O. C. Taylor at the Air Pollution Research Center, University of 
California at Riverside, that PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate) is an oxi- 
dant, naturally present in smog, which produces necrotic lesions on 
young leaves in the presence of light. These previous observations 
also suggested that PAN might be affecting the photosynthetic system 
of the plant. Thus, an attempt was made to determine if the intra- 
cellular site of PAN action could be determined. The spectral sensi- 
tivity of the light requirement in producing damage in bean seedlings 
in the presence of the smog oxidant was determined cooperatively 
with Drs. Dugger and Taylor, and this action spectrum indicates an 
interaction with a carotenoid pigment having a strong absorption be- 
tween 400 and 500 m/i. There is a residual small amount of damage 
for all wavelengths out to 700 mix. 

A concentration of 4 ppm PAN for 100 seconds with an intensity of 
200 /Aw/cm^ produces appreciable leaf damage. No leaf damage is 
observed if plants are kept in the dark immediately prior to or im- 
mediately following the fumigation with PAN with simultaneous 


light exposure. Thus the damage is indicated to be mediated not by 
chlorophyll directly, but through accessory carotenoid pigments in 
the photosynthetic system. 

In the study of the photoresponses of Phycomyces hlakesleeanus^ 
detailed action spectra for the growth and tropic responses at high 
intensities have been completed. Within the visible range, the spectra 
are identical, indicating that no detectable bleaching of the photo- 
receptor occurs. It is concluded that direct spectrophotometric 
measurements for the detection of in vivo changes in the pigment 
photoreceptor system would be miprofitable. 

Chromatographic and biochemical assays have been made of various 
compounds extracted from sporangiophores. These compounds in- 
clude amino acids, reducing and nonreducing sugars, carotenoids, 
flavins, and various phosphorylated compounds. Dark-grown or 
light-adapted sporangiophores were exposed to saturating pulse-up 
light stimuli and assays made at 1-minute time intervals after the 

No detectable changes could be observed for carotenoids or amino 
acids. Significant changes both in quantity and quality of compounds 
present were observed between adapted and stimulated growing zones 
for flavins in stage I and IV sporangiophores. Quantitative changes 
were also observed for reducing sugars. The time course of these 
changes can be correlated with the observed time course of the light 
growth response. 

One of the observed flavins, a blue fluorescing unknown, is present 
in large amoimts in light-sensitive stages of sporangiophore develop- 
ment and is not found in the light-insensitive mycelia or during for- 
mation of the yellow sporangium in stage III sporangiophores. The 
total amount of this material is also a function of the adaptation level 
of the sporangiophore with the highest concentration occurring in 
dark-adapted sporangiophores. 

The installation of a carbon-dating laboratory within the division 
was completed in September 1962, and the dating of a number of 
archeological samples has been completed. In addition to the service 
function, the carbon-dating program includes basic research in the 
techniques of dating by the use of the carbon- 14 method and research 
employing this method as a tool. 

The innovation of the use of mercury as the principal shielding 
material in the counting system has been most satisfactory and has 
resulted in low background levels and high precision. The absolute 
dates obtained with the mercury system are reliable when compared 
to those obtained by other laboratories. 

A research project to determine the residence time of water in vari- 
ous systems was started in October 1962. Preliminary experiments 


indicate that the carbon- 14 activity of ground or surface water can be 
readily determined and that this metliod can be used to determine 
several of the hydrologic characteristics of water-producing strata. 
Instrmnentation for this research has been completed and includes: 
(1) apparatus for extracting the bicarbonate and dissolved carbon 
dioxide from the water samples and (2) a system to convert the carbon 
dioxide to pure methane gas. 


Price, Leonard, and Klein, William H. Chlorophyll synthesis in X-irradiated 

etiolated bean leaf tissue. Radiation Botany, vol. 1, pp. 269-275, 1962. 
BIlein, W1LI.IAM H. Some responses of the bean hypocotyl. American Biol. 

Teacher, voL 25, pp. 104r-106, 1963. 
Shropshire, W., Jr. Photoresponses of the fungus Phy corny ces. Physiol. 

Rev., vol. 43, pp. 38-67, 1963. 
SisLER, Edward C, and Klein, William H. The effect of age and various 

chemicals on the lag phase of chlorophyll synthesis in dark grown bean 

seedlings. Physiol. Plantarum, vol. 16, pp. 321-328, 1963. 
DuGGEB, W. M., Jr. ; Taylor, O. C. Klein, W. H. ; and Shropshire, W., Jr. 

Action spectrum of peroxyacetyl nitrate damage to bean plants. Nature, 

vol. 198, pp. 75-76, 1963. 

OTHER activities 

The division was represented during the year at a number of scien- 
tific meetings. At the American Institute of Biological Sciences 
meeting in August at Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oreg., were 
W. Shropshire, L. Price, M. M. Margulies, R. L. Latterell, and W. H. 
Klein. Papers presented at the meetings included "The Effect of 
Light and Chloramphenicol on Development of Photosynthetic Ac- 
tivities of Leaves," by M. M. Margulies; "Responses of Phy corny ces 
to High Intensity Light," by W. Shropshire; and "Some Responses 
of the Bean Hypocotyl," by W. H. Klein. Dr. Klein attended the 
executive committee sessions of the American Society of Plant 

Dr. D. L. Correll traveled to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institu- 
tion, Yale University, and the Haskins Laboratories to confer on as- 
pects of marine biology research. In August Dr. Klein with a repre- 
sentative of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission visited the Univer- 
sity of Washington at Seattle. J. H. Harrison attended the Inter- 
mediate Seminar for Scientific Glass Blowers held at the State Uni- 
versity of New York in Alfred in September. In November, J. J. 
Sigalove and Dr. W. H. Klein went to Delaware, Ohio, to consult with 
Dr. J. G. Ogden of the carbon-dating laboratory at Ohio Wesleyan 
University. In January Dr. D. L. Correll and L. Lott made a col- 
lecting trip to the Florida Keys for specimens of marine algae. 


Leonard Price and Dr. K. JVIitrakos in February presented a sym- 
posium paper entitled "Photomorphogenesis and Carbohydrate 
Changes in Etiolated Leaf Tissue," at the 1963 meeting in Memphis, 
Tenn., of the Association of Southern Agricultural Workers. Also 
in February, Dr. W. Shropshire attended the 7th Annual Meeting of 
the Biophysical Society in New York City. 

In April, the division was represented at tliree scientific meetings. 
Drs. P. J. A. L. deLint and D. L. Correll attended the annual meet- 
ing of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 
J. H. Harrison attended the International Conference on Nonlinear 
Magnetics in Washington, D.C. Dr. Shropshire was an invited par- 
ticipant in the First American Meeting of the Royal Microscopical 
Society held at the National Institutes of Health. 

J. J. Sigalove conferred in May with Dr. W. Broecker and the staff 
at Lamont Geological Observatory in Palisades, N.Y. 

With the closing of the Table Mountain, Calif., Field Station, solar- 
radiation standards and some equipment were transferred to the di- 
vision. The standards are being used in the calibration of instru- 
ments for measurement of solar radiation. 

New members of the staff this year are Dr. David L. Correll, bio- 
chemist, and Joel J. Sigalove, geochemist. At the end of the year 
there were 29 members of the staff of the Division of Radiation and 

Respectfully submitted. 

Fred L. Whipple, Director. 
Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 


Report on the National Collection of 
Fine Arts 

Sm : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activ- 
ities of the National Collection of Fine Arts for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1963: 


The 40th annual meeting of the Smithsonian Art Commission was 
held in Washington on Tuesday, December 4, 1962. Members present 
were Paul Mansliip, chairman; Leonard Carmichael, secretary; Gil- 
more D. Clarke, David E. Finley, Lloyd Goodrich, Bartlett H. Hayes, 
Jr., Ogden M. Pleissner, Charles H. Sawyer, and Stow Wengenroth. 
James C. Bradley, Assistant Secretary ; Theodore W. Taylor, Assist- 
ant to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution ; and Thomas M. 
Beggs, Director, National Collection of Fine Arts, were also present. 

Kesolutions on the deaths of Robert Woods Bliss and i^rchibald G. 
Wenley were submitted and adopted. 

The Commission recommended appointment of Edgar P. Eichardson 
to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Mr. Wenley, and of Paul 
Mellon, to fill that caused by the death of Mr. Bliss. 

Recommendations were made for the reappointment of Gilmore 
D, Clarke, Stow Wengenroth, and Andrew Wyeth for the usual 4- 
year period. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: Paul 
Manship, chairman ; Gilmore D. Clarke, vice chairman ; and Leonard 
Carmichael, secretary. 

The following were elected members of the executive committee for 
the ensuing year: David E. Finley, chairman; Gilmore D. Clarke, 
Ogden M. Pleissner, Edgar P. Richardson, with Paul ISIanship and 
Leonard Carmichael, ex officio. 

Dr. Carmichael reported to the Commission on the progress in 
developing the old Patent Office Building to house the National 
Portrait Gallery and the National Collection of Fine Arts. He stated 
that plans had been submitted to the General Services Administration 
and that it was expected funds would be available to begin remodel- 


ing in the winter of 1963-64, with possible completion of the galleries 
in January 1966. 

A resolution was unanimously passed that the Smithsonian Art 
Commission "approves acceptance by the National Collection of Fine 
Arts of those examples of the work of Paul Manship, sculptor, both 
unique and of duplicate or multiple casting as he may leave to the 
gallery by last will and testament. In acceptance of these works, it 
will be understood that they shall not be subject to use as part of a 
lending collection but shall be accorded treatment as permament ac- 
cessions, subject to occasional loans for special exhibition, rotation on 
display in the continuing exhibition, and other normal uses to which 
regular acquisitions are put." 

The Commission recommended acceptance of the following for the 
National Collection of Fine Arts : 

Terracotta, Myron T. Eerrick (1854-1929), by Paul Manship (1885- ). 
Offered by the sculptor, New York City. 

Marble, Somnambula, by Randolph Rogers (1825-92). Offered by Mr. and 
Mrs. Fortunato Porroto, Washington, D.C. 

Oil, Le Ravin de la Mort les Eparges, by Joseph Victor Communal. Bequest of 
Frederick R. Wulsin through Lucien Wulsin, Jr., Co-executor of the estate. 

Oil, Self Portrait, by Edmund C. Tarbell (1862-1938). Offered by Mrs. Jose- 
phine Tarbell Ferrell and Mrs. Mary Tarbell Schaffer. 

Oil, Mrs. Edmund C. Tarhell, by Edmund O. Tarbell (1862-1938). Bequest of 
Mrs. Mercie Tarbell Clay. 

An oil and 15 watercolors by William Henry Holmes (1846-1933), together 
with a watercolor by Kenneth C. Holmes. Offered by Ajina Bartsch Dunn, 
Washington, D.C. : Chestnut Trees in Bloom (oil) ; Field of Vari-colored Grasses; 
Floicery Meadow; Field of Wheat in Shock; Field of Jim Pie Weed; The 
Babbling Brook; The Open Sea; A Maryland Dirt Road; Field of Blossoms; 
In Holland; Royal Oak; Windmills ; Michigan; Cherry Blossoms; Blossoms; 
On Sunset Hill; and Vase tvith Flower by Kenneth C. Holmes. 

A collection of 83 original sketches executed under the Work Projects Admin- 
istration Program was accepted for its historical significance. The sketches 
were offered as a transfer from General Services Administration through the 
Internal Revenue Service and were represented by the following examples: 
The Railroad Came to Town, by Saul Berman (1899- ) ; Preliminary Study 
for Mural, Trinity, Texas, Post Office, by Jerry Bywaters (1906- ) ; Deer and 
Buffalo Hunt, by Woodrow Crumbo ; Tung Oil Industry, by Xavier Gonzalez 
(1898- ) ; Arrival of Colonel John Donaldson, by F. Luis Mora (1874- ) ; 
Design for Mural for Post Office at Rockport, Massachusetts, by William Lester 
Stevens, A.N.A. (1888- ) ; and Fruit Packing, by Undetermined Artist. 

A collection of 71 watercolors by Cass Gilbert, N.A- (1859-1934), was offered 
by Mrs. Walter A. Bastedo, New Canaan, Conn., through the U.S. National 
Museum, and was represented by five examples as follows : Old House in Rouen; 
On the Canal, Bruges; Aqueduct; Battle Abbey; The Zicinger and Towers, 

720-018—64 13 


Three silhouettes by undetermined artists were acquired fi-om Mis. Helen 
Mofifat Langdon, Alexandria, Va. : Phoebe Cook DeWitt (1736-1824); Hannah 
DeWitt Shaw (1758-1844) ; and Ahigail Shaw Barkley (1792-1871). 

The Commission recommended that the following be held for sub- 
mission to the National Portrait Gallery Commission: 

Ten oil portraits offered by the International Business Machines Corp., New 
York City, through T. D. Jones, director: President James Abram Garfield 
(1831-81), by Ole Peter Hansen Balling (1823-1906) ; Fleet Admiral Ernest 
Joseph King (1878-1956), by Albert K. Murray (1906- ); Admiral Marc 
Andrew Alitscher (1887-1947), by Albert K. Murray (1906- ) ; Fleet Admiral 
Chester William Nimitz (1885- ), by Albert K. Murray (1906- ); Admiral 
William Frederick Ealsey (1882-1959), by Albert K. Murray (1906- ) ; Admiral 
Thomas C. Kincaid (1888- ), by Robert S. Sloan (1915- ) ; Secretary of State 
Cordell Hull (1871-1955), by Camir Gregory Stapko (1913- ) after Albert K. 
Murray (1906- ) ; Henry Clay (1777-1852), by Undetermined Artist; General 
Ulysses 8. Grant (1822-1885), by Samuel B. Waugh (1814-1885) ; and General 
of the Army George Catlett Marshall (1880-19.59), by .1. Anthony Wills. 

Two oils, Cass Gilbert (1859-1934), by Ernest Ludwig Ipsen (1869-1951), 
and Mrs. Cass Gilbert, by Sir Arthur Stockdale Cope (1875-1940), offered by 
Mrs. Walter A. Bastedo, New Canaan, Conn., through the U.S. National Museum. 


The following miniatures, watercolor on ivory, were acquired from 
the fund established through the bequest of Catherine Walden JMyer : 

No. 140. Ebenezer Williams (1769- ), attributed to Rembrandt Peale (1778- 

No. 141. Mrs. Ebenezer Williams, nee Martha Porter (1774- ), attributed 
to Rembrandt Peale (1778-1860). 

Nos. 140 and 141 acquired from Lt. Col. W. C. Williams, Arlington, Va., 
through Miss Vera Fisher. 

No. 142. Gentleman, by Peregrine F. Cooper (ac. 1840-90). 

No. 143. Gentleman, by Undetermined Artist. 

Nos. 142 and 143 acquired from Dorsey Griffith, New Market, Md. 

No. 144. Lady, by A. G. Rose. 

No. 145. Gentleman, by A. G. Rose. 

Nos. 144 and 145 acquired from James Anton, Washington, D.C. 

No. 146. Gentleman, attributed to Edward Greene Malbone (1777-1807). 

No. 147. J. G. E., by Rudolph Huber (1770- ) . 

No. 148. Gentleman in the manner of John Smart (1740/1-1811) . 

Nos. 146-148 acquired from Ethel K. Perdriau, Berkeley, Calif. 

No. 149. A Pioneer Woman by George Catlin (1796-1872). Acquired from 
Mr. David Silvette, Richmond, Va. 


Two oils, Portrait of Ruel P. Tolman (1878-1954) by Bjorn Egeli 
(1900- ) and Portrait of Louis XVI by Undetermined Artist, were 
lent by Mrs. Edward Kemper, Arlington, Va., October 18, 1962. 




Irutitutions Loam retiuned 

American Federation of Arts 3 3 

Bureau of the Budget 25 2 

Defense, Department of 1 1 

Durlacher Brothers, New York Citj' 2 2 

Federal Communications Commission __ 1 

Health, Education, and Welfare, Department of 2 2 

Huntington Galleries 1 1 

Immaculate Heart of Mary Retreat House 1 1 

Interior, Department of the 2 1 

Internal Revenue Service 1 

Joslyn Art Museum 1 

Justice, Department of 1 

Naval Historical Foundation __ 1 

Post Office Department __ 4 

President's Advisory Committee on Narcotic and Drug Abuse 6 

President's Committee on Equal Employment 10 

President's Committee on Intergovernmental Relations 12 

Public Buildings Service I 

State, Department of __ 4 

Treasury, Department of 1 1 

Un-American Activities Committee __ 1 

United Nations 1 

University of California 4 4 

U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia 3 2 

U.S. Supreme Court __ 2 

Veterans' Administration __ 2 

Washington County Museum of Fine Arts 1 1 

The White House (Food for Peace) 3 

Woodward & Lothrop 8 8 

90 44 

The following were added to the lending collection December 4, 

Oil, Coming Storm, by Ralph Iligan (1893-1960). Offered by Miss Agnes 
Iligan, East Elmhurst, N.Y. 

Two oils, Dordogne VaUey and Dordogne Valley, by William Didier-Pouget 
(1864- ). Offered by Mrs. Lawrence S. Lesser, Chevy Chase, Md. 

An oil, Bigradoo, by Owen J. Garde (1919- ). Offered by Allan Gerdau, 
New York City. 

Harold F. Cross restored the following paintings : Laura in Black 
Ilat, by Juliet Thompson ( -1934) ; Natalie, by Juliet Thompson; 
Reclining Model, by Carrier-Belleuse (1824-87) ; together with the 
following by Alice Pike Barney (1860-1931) : Alice Roosevelt; 
Arcady ; Lady loith Fan; A. P. Barney; and Laura Alice Barney. 

Frames for tlie paintings Reclining Model by Carrier-Belleuse, 
Laura in Black Hat by Juliet Thompson, and Lady with Fan by Alice 
Pike Barney, were renovated by Istvan P. Pf eiffer. 



Institutions Loans returned 

Barney, James Perrine __ 1 

Barney Npighborhood House 9 

Howard University 20 

Justice, Department of 2 

Lehigh University __ 1 

Post Office Department __ 1 

U.S. Senate 2 

31 5 


Additions to tlie principal during the year amounting to $2,301.50 
increased the total invested sums in the Alice Pike Barney Memorial 
Fund to $45,424.49. 


According to a provision of the Henry Ward Eanger bequest, that 
paintings purchased by the Council of the National Academy of Design 
from the fund provided by the bequest and assigned to American art 
institutions may be claimed during the 5-year period beginning 10 
years after the death of the artist represented, the following paintings 
were recalled for action of the Smithsonian Art Commission at its 
meeting December 4, 1962 : 

No. 44. Their So)i, by Oscar Edward Berninghaus, A.N.A. (1874-1952), was 
returned to the Art Chib of Erie, Erie, Pa., where it was originally assigned 
in 1924. 

No. 45. The Wood Cart, by Louis Paul Dessar, N.A. (1867-1952), was 
returned to Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Conn., where it was origi- 
nally assigned in 1925. 

No. 123. Gravel, Fish, and Soya Beans, by Carl Frederick Gaertner, A.N.A. 
(1898-1952), assigned in 1948 to the Swope Art Gallery, Terre Haute, lud., 
was accepted to become a permanent accession. 

The following paintings purchased previously but not assigned 
have been allocated to the institutions indicated : 

Title and artist Assignment 

249. Reflections, by Adolf Konrad (1915- Newark Museum, Newark, N.J. 


258. The Fascination of Toledo, by Carol Chattanooga Art Association, Chat 

M. Grant (1930- ). tanooga, Tenn. 

261. Turn Around, by Ed Graves (1917- Reading Public Museum and Art Gal- 

). lery, Reading, Pa. 

263. Monday Morning, by Herb Olsen Springfield Art Association, Spring- 

(1905- ). field, 111. 



The following paintings, purchased by the Council of the National 
Academy of Design since the last report, have been assigned as 
follows : 

Title and artist 

265. Dust to Dust, by Robert Philipp 

(1895- ). 

266. From Breda, by Xavier Gonzdlez 

(1898- ). 

267. Young Quitarist, by Leon KroU 

(1884- ). 

268. Low Tide (vvatorcolor), by William E. 

Preston (1930- ). 

269. Oit Brenner's Barn, by Robert xVllan 

Goiigh (1931- ). 

270. Conversation, by John Koch (1909- 


271. Grindstone Ledge (watercolor), by 

RoyM. Mason (1886- ). 

272. Desolation (watercolor), by D. Wu 

Ject-Key (1895- ). 

273. Dilworthtoivn (watercolor), by 

Philip Jamison (1925- ). 

274. Sampans and Junks, Hong Kong 

(watercolor), by Louis J. Kaep 
(1903- ). 

275. Old Bout Yard (watercolor), by An- 

tonio P. Martino (1902- ). 

276. Off Season, St. Ives (watercolor), 

by Tom Nicholas (1934- ). 

277. Autumn's Sentinels (watercolor), by 

Robert H. Laessig (1913- ). 

Dayton Art Institute, Dayton, Ohio. 

Assignment pending. 

The Berkshire Museum, Pittsfield, 

Art Center in La Jolla, La Jolla, 

Nebraska Art Association, Lincoln, 

Walker Art Museum, Bowdoin Col- 
lege, Brunswick, Maine. 

Grand Rapids Art Gallery, Grand 
Rapids, Mich. 

Assignment pending. 

Assignment pending. 
Assignment pending. 

New Mexico State University, Uni- 
versity Park, N. Mex. 

Georgia Museum of Art, University 
of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 

Addison Gallery of American Art, 
Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. 


In addition to 102 exhibits held over from previous years as indi- 
cated below, 25 new shows were introduced. The total of 127 shows 
was circulated to 333 museums in the United States. Two exhibitions 
were delivered to the U.S. Information Service for circulation abroad. 


1956-57: Japan II by Werner Bischof ; and The World of Edward Weston. 
1951-58: The American City in the 19th Century; Japanese Woodblock Prints; 

Theatrical Posters of the Gay Nineties; Burmese Embroideries; Japanese 

Dolls ; Thai Painting ; The Anatomy of Nature ; and Drawings by European 

1958-59: Advertising in 19th Century America; Religious Subjects in Modern 

Graphic Arts ; Our Town ; Stone Rubbings from Angkor Wat ; and Shaker 



1959-60: Early Drawings of Toulouse-Lautrec; Watercolors and Drawings by 
Thomas Rowlaudson ; Prints and Drawings by Jacques Villon ; American 
Prints Today ; Brazilian Printmakers ; Arts and Cultural Centers ; Bernard 
Ralph Maybeck ; Bazaar Paintings from Calcutta ; Sardinian Crafts ; Arctic 
Riviera ; Photographs by Robert Capa I ; Photographs by Robert Capa II ; 
Pagan ; Portraits of Greatness ; Contrasts ; Paintings by Young Africans ; 
and Japan I. 

1960-61: The Technique of Fresco Painting; Paintings by Ch'i Pai-Shih ; Birds 
of Greenland; The America of Currier and Ives; Drawings by Sculptors; 
The Graphic Art of Edvard Munch ; German Color Prints ; Eskimo Graphic 
Art ; Civil War Drawings I ; Civil War Drawings II ; American Art Nouveau 
Posters ; American Industry in the 19th Century ; America on Stone ; De- 
signed in Okinawa ; Okinawa — Continuing Traditions ; Prints by Munakata ; 
Contemporary Japanese Drawings ; Japan : by Werner Bischof ; The Spirit 
of the Japanese Print ; Americans — A View From the East ; Swiss Industrial 
Architecture ; Contemporary Swedish Architecture ; Mies van der Rohe ; 
Irish Architecture of the Georgian Period ; One Hundred Years of Colorado 
Architecture ; Brasilia — a New Capital ; Design in Germany Today ; De- 
signed for Silver ; Batiks by Maud Rydin ; American Textiles ; The Seasons, 
color photographs by Eliot Porter ; The World of Werner Bischof ; The 
Image of Physics ; Charles Darwin : The Evolution of an Evolutionist ; 
The Beginnings of Flight; The Magnificent Enterprise — Education Opens 
the Door ; The New Theati-e in Germany ; Tropical Africa I ; Tropical 
Africa II ; Symphony in Color ; Paintings and Pastels by Children of Tokyo ; 
Children's Art from Italy ; Hawaiian Children's Art ; and Designs by Chil- 
dren of Ceylon. 

1961-62: Tutankhamun's Treasures; Fourteen Americans in France; George 
Catlin, Paintings and Prints ; Physics and Painting ; UNESCO Watercolor 
Reproductions ; Belgian Drawings ; The Lithographs of Childe Hassam ; 
Contemporary Italian Drawings ; John Baptist Jackson ; Contemporary 
Swedish Prints ; Japanese Posters ; The Face of Viet Nam ; Architectural 
Photography (New Editions); Le Corbusier — Chapel at Ronchamp ; The 
Family, The Neighborhood, The City ; One Hundred Books from the Grab- 
horn Press ; Wisconsin Designer-Craftsmen ; Caribbean Journey ; The Swed- 
ish Film ; The Story of a Winery ; This Is the American Earth ; The Hidden 
World of Crystals ; Hummingbirds ; Brazilian Childi'en's Art ; Children 
Look at UNESCO ; and My Friends. 


Paintings and Sculpture 

The Daniells in India India Library, London, Mrs. Mildred 

Archer ; P & O Lines. 
Eskimo Carvings Eskimo Art, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. ; 

Canadian Embassy. 
Holland : The New Generation Municipal Museum of Amsterdam, W. 

J. H. B. Sandberg; The Embassy of 

the Netherlands. 
John Sloan Wilmington Society of the Fine Arts, 

Bruce St. John, Director, 
Contemporary Japanese Sumi Paint- 
ings Japan Society, New York; Kokusai 

Bunka Shinkokai, Tokyo. 


Drawing and Prints 

American Prints Today, 1962 Print Council of America, New York 


Contemporary American Drawings XXth American Drawing Annual, Nor- 
folk ; Addison Gallery of American 
Art, Bartlett Hayes. 

Work by Ernst Barlach German Barlach Society; Dr. Wolf 

Stubbe, Hamburger Kunsthalle. 

Old Master Drawings from Chatsworth. Trustees of the Chatsworth Settlement ; 

Devonshire Collection ; Duke and 
Duchess of Devonshire ; British Em- 

English Watercolors and Drawings Anonymous lender. 

Eskimo Graphic Art II Canadian Embassy ; Eskimo Art, Inc., 

Ann Arbor, Mich., Eugene N. Power. 

European Posters Graphis Magazine, Zurich, Switzerland, 

Ken Baynes. 

Oriental Art 

Pakistan Stone Rubbings Mrs. Ethel Jane Bunting, Washington, 



Contemporary Canadian Architecture. Royal Architectural Institute of Can- 
ada ; Embassy of Canada. 

Twelve Churches California Redwood Association, San 

Francisco, Calif. 

100 Sketches by Eric Mendelsohn Mrs. Louis Mendelsohn, San Francisco, 


Pre-Hispanic Mexico Mexican Government Tourist Office ; Or- 
ganization of American States, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Besitjn and Crafts 

Today's American Wallcoverings American Institute of Interior Design- 
ers ; Resources Council, New York 

Craftsmen of the City Irving Sloane, International Business 

Machines Corp. 

The Tradition of French Fabrics Brunschwig and Fils ; French Embassy. 

Children's Art 

A Child's World of Nature Junior School, School of the Art Insti- 
tute of Chicago, 111. 

West German Students' Art United States Committee for Refugees ; 

Germany Indivisible ; German Em- 



Historic Annapolis Historic Annapolis, Inc., Annapolis, Md. 

Civil War Drawings III American libraries; Library of Con- 
gress, Washington, D.O. 

The Old Navy, 1776-1860 Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde 

Park, N.Y. ; National Archives, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 


Special services were performed under contracts with Keyes Porter 
and Delight Hall, Unfortunatel}^, death prevented the completion of 
a study begun by the late George C. Groce, author. 

Contracts were let for the relining and restoring by Harold F. Cross 
of the following : 

Portrait of a Lady, by Abbott H. Thayer (1849-1921) ; Her Leisure Hour, by 
Irving Wiles (1861-1948) ; John Tyler (1790-1862), by G. P. A. Healy (1808- 
94) ; Sundoion, by George Inness (1825-94) ; Large Landscape, by Thomas 
Barker (1769-1847) ; Adoration of the Kings, by Bernard Van Orley (1485/93- 
1542) ; Lady in White (No. 1), hy Thomas AV. Dewing (1851-1938) ; Lady in 
White (No. 2), by Thomas W. Dewing (1851-1938) ; The Happy Mother, by Max 
Bohm (1868-1923) ; Cardinal, by Titian (1477-1576) ; and Mrs. Houston, by 
Thomas W. Dewing (1851-1938). 

Henri G. Courtais contracted for renovation of the following 
paintings : 

Venetian Scene, by Francesco de Guardi (1712-93) ; Windstorm, by John 
Constable (1776-1837) ; Portrait of Thomas Hopkinson (1709-51), by Robert 
Feke (1705/24-1750/69) ; The Great Western, by William Marsh (ac. 1844-58) ; 
Stephen Decatur (1779-1820), attributed to Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828); The 
Smoker, by Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863) ; Mrs. Rohert Wetmore, by Henry 
Inman (1802-46) ; New Year's Shooter, by George Luks (1867-1933) ; Head of a 
Young Woman (Lconori), by James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903) ; Water 
Carriers, Venice, by Frank Duveneck (1848-1919) ; John Gellatly (1853-1931), 
by Irving R. Wiles (1861-1948) ; The Sermon, by Gari Melchers (1860-1932) ; and 
The Holy Family, with St. Elizabeth, by Peter Paul Rubens ( 1577-1640) . 

Nine original sketches executed under the Work Projects Adminis- 
tration were restored and remounted by Istvan P. Pfeiffer. Mr. Pfeif- 
fer gilded frames for the following paintings : Landscape loith Fig- 
ures, by Thomas W. Dewing (1851-1038) ; Lady in White {No. l),hy 
Thomas W. Dewing (1851-1938) : and Head of a Young Woinan 
(Lconori), by James A. McNeill Whistler (1834-1903). 

A physical inventory of paintings, sculptures, and prints accessioned 
by the National Collection of Fine Arts and a catalog listing of same 
were begun by staff members. 

In addition to the approximately 20,500 requests for information 
received by mail and telephone, inquiries made in person at the office 
numbered 1,680. In all, 302 works of art were examined by the staff 


Special catalogs were published for tlie following traveling exhibi- 
tions: Work by Ernst Barlach; Old Master Drawings from Chats- 
worth ; and The Daniells in India. Folders announcing the following 
exhibits were also published : Pakistan Stone Rubbings ; 100 Sketches 
by Eric Mendelsolin; History Exhibitions; Children's Art Exhibi- 
tions ; Natural History and Science Exhibitions ; Prmts and Drawings 
Exhibitions ; and Architectural Exliibitions. 

Staff members served as jurors of a number of local art exhibitions 
and gave illustrated lectures to clubs. 

As plans develop for the National Collection of Fine Arts' occu- 
pancy of the Civil Service Commission Building (the Old Patent 
Office) , necessary additions are being made to staff. During the last 
year the following were named to the positions indicated : Donald R. 
McClelland, exhibits designer; Amie Castrodale, research assistant; 
Linwood Lucas, museum aide; and Nancy Brooks, clerk-stenographer. 


July 8-Septei)iber 3, 1962. A Centennial Exhibition of Paintings by Edmund 
C. Tarbell, N.A. (1862-1938), with the cooperation and assistance of Mrs. 
Josephine Tarbell Ferrell, Mrs. Mary Tarbell Schaffer, Mrs. John Staley, the 
Corcoran Gallery of Art, and the U.S. National Museum. The exhibition con- 
sisted of 26 paintings, 12 medals, and memorabilia. 

September 15-October 11, 1962. Fifth Biennial Creative Crafts Exhibition, 
sponsored by The Kiln Club of Washington, D.C. ; Ceramic Guild of Bethesda ; 
Cherry Tree Textile Designers ; Clay Pigeons Ceramic Workshop ; Designers- 
Weavers ; and Potomac Craftsmen. The exhibit contained 215 items including 
ceramics, textiles, weavings, enamels, sculpture, and jewelry. An illustrated 
catalog was privately printed. 

September IT -November 11, 1962. Pre-Hispanic Mexico, sponsored by the 
Government of Mexico and the Pan American Union and circulated by the 
Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, was shown in the lobby 
of the Natural History Building. A brochure was privately printed. 

October 20-Novembcr 8, 1962. The 69th Annual Exhibition of the Society of 
Washington Artists. The show consisted of 78 paintings and 23 sculptures. A 
catalog was privately printed. 

November 17-December 9, 1962. The Art of Thailand, sponsored by the Am- 
bassador of Thailand and the Washington-Bangkok Friendship Council, and 
with the cooperation of the Division of Ethnology, U.S. National Museum. The 
King's birthday was celebrated on December 5, 1962. 

November 17-Deccmber 9, 1962. Contemporary Japanese Sumi Painting, 
organized by Kokusai Bunka Shinkokai, Tokyo, and circulated by the Smith- 
sonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. The exhibition consisted of 
30 paintings. An illustrated catalog was privately printed. 

November 17-December 9, 1962. The Daniells in India [Thomas Daniell, R.A. 
(1749-1840), and William Daniell (1769-1837)], circulated by the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. The show consisted of 50 watercolor 
paintings. An illustrated catalog was privately printed. 

December 16, 1962-January 3, 1963. The 25th Metropolitan Art Exhibition 
sponsored by the American Art League. The exhibit consisted of 101 paintings 
and 12 sculptures. A catalog was privately printed. 


January 12-February S, 1963. European Posters, circulated by the Smith- 
sonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. The show consisted of 39 
posters by 19 artists. A catalog was privately printed. 

January 12-Fel)ruary 3, 19G3. 100 Books from the Grabhorn Press, circulated 
by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 

February 9-March 3, 1963. Eskimo Graphic Arts, circulated by the Smith- 
sonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. The exhibit included 50 
stone-block and sealskin prints. 

February 9-March S, 1903. Eskimo Carvings, circulated by the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. The show consisted of 50 carvings in 
stone, bone, and ivory. 

March 10-28, 1963. Contemporary German Books, sponsored by the Ambas- 
sador of Germany and the Boersenverein des Deutschen Buchhaudels E.V. A 
catalog was privately printed. 

April 7-25, 1963. The G6th Annual National Exhibition of the Washington 
Water Color Association. The exhibition consisted of 150 watercolors, prints, 
and drawings. An illustrated catalog was privately printed. 

April 22-28, 1963. National Coin Week exhibition, sponsored by the Nation's 
Capital Coin Club. 

May 5-24, 1963. The 30th Annual National Exhibition of the Miniature 
Painters, Sculptors, and Gravers Society of Washington, D.C. The exhibit con- 
sisted of 157 items including painting, sculpture, bookbinding, and graphics, and 
included a special showing of work of the founding members, Alyn Williams, 
Hattie E. Burdette, Benson B. Moore, Marian U. M. Lane, and Elizabeth 
Muhlhofer. An illustrated catalog was privately printed. 

May 4-31, 1963. A Retrospective Exhibition of the work of John Sloan, 
organized by the Wilmington Society of the Fine Arts and circulated by the 
Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. The show included 37 
paintings, 31 drawings, and 36 etchings. An illustrated catalog was privately 

June 8-30, 1963. The 1st National Exhibition of Art Directors sponsored by 
the Art Directors Club of Metropolitan Washington and the National Society 
of Art Directors. An illustrated catalog was privately printed. 

Kespectfully svibmitted. 

Thomas M. Beggs, Director. 
Dr. Leonard CARsncHAEL, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

Report on the Freer Gallery of Art 

Sib : I have the honor to submit the 43d annual report on the Freer 
Gallery of Art, for the year ended June 30, 1963. 

Fifteen objects were added to the collections by purchase as follows : 


62.26. Chinese, Ch'ing dynasty, by Wang Yiian-ch'i (1642-1715), dated 1704. 

Landscape in the manner of Ni Tsan. Init and colors on paper. Two 
inscriptions and five seals of the artist on the painting. Kakemono: 
height : 0.955 ; width : 0.505. 
62.29. Chinese, Ch'ing dynasty, by Wang Shih-min (1592-1680), dated 1670. 
Landscapes in old styles. Six paintings and one leaf of calligraphy, 
originally from an album. Ink and color on paper. Sis inscriptions 
and 13 seals on paintings; 11 seals on leaf of calligraphy; colophon 
with one seal. Outside label inscribed. HandscroU : height: 0.318; 
length: 8.375. (Illustrated.) 

62.27. Japanese, Edo period, Buddhist school. Scroll VII of the EoT<e Kyo 

(Lotus Stitra). Gold with touches of color, on blue paper. Height: 
0.280 ; width : 3.920. 

62.28. Japanese, Ashikaga period, early 16th century, Muromachi-Suiboku school, 

by Shuko. Hawk. Ink on paper. Height : 0.959 ; width : 0.447. 
G2.30- Japanese, Momoyama period. Decorative school, by Nonomura Sotatsu 
62.31. (fl. ca. 1600-1630). Trees. A pair of six-fold screens. Ink and colors 

on gold leaf. Height : 1.540 ; width : 3.578. (62.30 illustrated.) 
62.32 Turkish, Ottoman school, early 17th century. A young prince and at- 
tendant of which two hemistiches in nasta'Uq are given above painting. 
Mounted as album leaf with marginal designs of gold cloud bands and 
floral rinceaux on dark ground. Miniature : height : 0.085 ; width : 
0.060. Album leaf : height : 0.210 ; width : 0.125. 

62.33. Chinese, T'ang dynasty, white ware. Wide shallow bowl with turned- 

over rim and flat, unglazed base. Clay : light buff stoneware. Glaze : 
opaque white with fine crackle. Decoration: none. Height: 0.092; 
diameter: 0.315. 

62.34. Chinese, Ming dynasty, about 1400, celadon ware. Wide bowl with 

foliate rim; small foot; circular hole in base underneath. Clay: 
fine-grained high-fired gray porcelain. Glaze: transparent, thick, 
grayish-green celadon. Decoration: bowl sides fluted inside and out 
to match foliation of rim ; molded ornamental lotus plaque applied in 
relief inside center covering hole in base. Height: 0.126; diameter: 



62.22. Japanese, Momoyama period (1574-1602), Shino ware (red). Shallow, 

almost flat, circular dish with slightly recessed foot. Clay : coarse 
light gray stoneware fired red on the surface. Glaze : milky, semi- 
opaque, bubbly, uneven. Decoration : bamboo sprays painted in black. 
Height : 0.022 ; diameter : 0.213. 

62.23. Japanese, Edo period, Kakiemon ware. Dish with fluted rim; five spur 

marks on base. Clay : white porcelain. Glaze : transparent, slightly 
bluish. Decoration: Chinese scene of two figures in a garden by a 
house, in slip relief under the glaze. Inscriptions, rim decoration, and 
iulcu mark on base in underglaze blue. Height: 0.054; diameter: 

62.24. Japanese, Momoyama period, Shino-Oribe ware. Dish with foliate rim, 

scalloped cavetto, and low foot-rim. Clay : coarse gray stoneware. 
Glaze : buff, semiopaque, bubbly, rough. Decoration : a very sketchy 
flower in brown in center. Height : 0.032 ; diameter : 0.191. 

62.25. Japanese, Momoyama period, Shino ware. Dish with flaring foliate rim ; 

knobs on sides ; three loop feet. Clay : coarse gray stoneware. Glaze : 
grayish white ; semiopaque ; crackled ; spur marks inside. Decoration : 
grasses in the center and a fence around cavetto painted in brown. 
Height : 0.053 ; diameter : 0.171. 
63.1. Japanese, Edo period, Kutani ware, 17th century. Vase, pear-shaped; 
decorated with overglaze enamels, in red, yellow, and turquoise. 
Height : 0.256 ; diameter : 0.146. (Illustrated.) 


62.21. Japanese, Fujiwara period, late 12th century. Miroku Bosatsu. 
Mandorla shows gilt design. Arms restored. AVith pedestal. Figure : 
height: 0.9S0 ; width: 0.750; depth: 0.50S. Overall: height: 2.060; 
diameter : 1.140. (Illustrated.) 


Forty Chinese and Japanese paintings and one Persian manuscript 
were restored, repaired, or remounted by T. Sugiura, Oriental picture 
mounter. F. A. Haentsclike, illustrator, remounted 47 Persian, In- 
dian, and Arabic paintings. Eepairs and regilding of three frames 
for American paintings were done outside the Gallery. Dr. F. Zach 
of Catholic University repaired and rebound one Indo-Persian 


Changes in exhibitions amounted to 237, which were as follows : 

American art: Prints 35 

Chinese art : 

Bronze 5 

Lacquer 2 

Painting 49 

Pottery 12 

Glass 8 

Christian art: 

Manuscripts 14 

Stone sculpture 2 

Japanese art: 

Painting 7 

Pottery 3 

Near Eastern art : 

Glass 67 

Metalwork 1 

Painting 27 

Pottery 5 



The library is principally a place for the acquisition and conserva- 
tion of books. But it is also intrinsically a place for browsing or 
study in fields of interest to the individual so that he may become a 
contemporary of all ages. During the year 909 acquisitions (other 
than slides) were added to the library ; 263 of these were by purchase 
and 646 by exchange and gift. Outstanding gifts were: Modem 
Japanese Prints^ by James Michener, the gift of Mr. and Mrs. Felix 
Juda ; Chinese Calligraphy and Paintings in the Collection of John M. 
Crawford., the gift of James Cahill ; 265 photographs for the study 
collection, the gift of Bungaku Kenkyusho of Japan. An outstand- 
ing purchase was Hasshu gafu (the book of painting of eight varie- 
ties) , a Japanese edition using the woodblocks dated 1672. 

The year's record of cataloging included a total of 1,507 entries, 
of which 697 analytics were made and 365 new titles of books, pam- 
phlets, and scrolls were cataloged. Additions to the continuations 
of sets of books numbered 32, and 4,087 cards were added to the card 
catalog. Only 7 percent of these were available as printed cards 
from the Library of Congress; this indicates the amount of original 
cataloging in the library. 

The slide collection has continued to grow. A checklist for slides 
of the Freer collection was instituted. Acquisition of 1,329 slides 
was completed, and 3,120 slides were bound and labeled. This last 
process included the classification for filing in the slide cabinets. A 
total of 5,989 slides were lent, of which 4,764 were for the use of 
staff members in their lectures. 

There were 181 requests for bibliographic information by telephone 
and letters. In all, 766 scholars and students who were not members 
of the Freer staff used the library. Ten of these saw and studied the 
Washington Manuscripts, and three came to see the library 

The library's holdings of the Dewing letters were laminated by the 
Archival Eestoration Associates, Inc., and it is hoped to have the 
Wliistler letters laminated soon. 

Hale Lancaster Darby served as volunteer for the intern program 
for the summer. This program is to interest young people in 

Two archival gifts of study material were transferred to the li- 
brary during this past year. The Aga-Oglu archives have been 
arranged in a file cabinet, and the Herzfeld archives remain to be 
studied and put in order. 


Five publications were issued by the Gallery as follows: 

Ancient glass in the Freer Gallery of Art, by Richard Ettinghausen, 44 pp. with 

99 illus., bibliography. (Smithsonian Institution Publication 4509.) 
Freer Gallery of Art. Pamphlet containing a brief history of the Gallery and 

collections, 16 pp., 8 illus., 3 plans. (Smithsonian Institution Publication 

Chinese Album Leaves, by James Cahill, 40 pp. with 32 illus. and descriptions, 

frontispiece. (Smithsonian Institution Publication 4476.) 
The Field of Stones, by Richard Edwards, xxi+131 pp., 50 pis., frontispiece. 

Oriental Studies, No. 5. (Smithsonian Institution Publication 4433.) 
The Whistler Peacock Room, reprint ed. 1962, 22 pp., 9 illus., bibliography. 

(Smithsonian Institution Publication 4024, revised.) 

Publications of staff members were as follows : 

Cahill, James F. Archibald G. Wenley, 1898-1962. Artibus Asiae, vol. 25 

(1962), pp. 197-198. 
. Collecting paintings in China. Arts Magazine, vol. 37 (1963), pp. 

66-72, illus. 
. Concerning the I-p' in style of painting, by S. Shimada. Translated 

by J. Cahill. Oriental Art, n.s., vol. 8, pp. 130-137, illus. 
. The Crawford collection ; Chinese painting and calligraphy. Oriental 

Art, n.s., vol. 8 (1962), pp. 163-166. illus. 
. Some rocks in early Chinese painting. Archives of the Chinese Art 

Society of America, vol. 16 (1062), pp. 77-87, illus. 
Ettinghausen, Richard. A. G. Wenley (1898-1962). Cosmos Club Bulletin, 

vol. 16, No. 2 (February 1962), p. 204, pc.rtrait. 

. Arabische Malerei. Geneva, Skira, 1962. 

. An early Ottoman textile. First International Congress of Turkish 

Arts, Ankara, 1959. Communications presented to the Congress. Ankara, 

1961, pp. 134-140, pis. 78-94. 

. Estetica. Enciclopedia Universale delVArte, vol. 5 (1962), cols. 94-95. 

. The evergreen tradition of Moslem art. Art Neics, vol. 61 (1963), No. 

9, pp. 26-29, 55-56, illus. (part col.). 
— . Genere e Profane Figurazioni: Oriente. Enciclopedia Universale 

delVArte, vol. 5 (1962), cols. 670-671. 
— . Iconismo e Aniconismo : Islamismo. Enciclopedia Universale delVArte, 

vol. 7 (1962), cols. 156-158. 

— . La Peinture Arabe. Geneva, Skira, 1962. 

— . Turkey: ancient miniatures. Preface by R. Ettinghausen. Green- 
wich, Conn., New York Graphic Society, 1961. 26 pp., illus., 32 col. pis. 
— . Turkish elements on silver objects of the Seljuk period of Iran. First 

International Congress of Turkish Arts, Ajikara, 19."9. Communications 

presented to the Congress, Ankara, 1961, pp. 128-133, 32 figs, on pis. 77-87. 
— . Review of "A bibliography of the Architecture, Arts and Crafts of 

Islam to 1st Jan. 1960," by K. A. C. Creswell. Journal of the American 

Oriental Society, vol. 82 (1963), pp. 395-396. 
— . Review of "Persian gardens and garden pavilions," by Donald N. 

Wilber. The Middle East Journal, vol. 16 (1962), pp. 546-547. 
— . Review of "The Seljuks in Asia Minor," by Tamara Talbot Rice. The 

Middle East Journal, vol. 16 (1962), p. 390. 


Gettens. R. J. Maya blue: an unsolved problem in ancient pigments. American 

Antiquity, vol. 27 ( 1962) , pp. 557-564. tables. 
. Minerals in art and archeology. Smithsonian Annual Report for 

1961, 1962. pp. 551-568, 8 pis. 
. Tumacacori interior decorations. In collaboration with Charles R. 

Steen. Arizoniana, the Journal of Arizona History, vol. 3 (1962), pp. 

7-33. pis. 
PoPK, John A. A Chinese Buddhist pewter with a Ming date. Archives of the 

Chinese Art Society of America, vol. 16 (1962). pp. 8^-91. illus. 
. Review of "Archaeology in China ; vol. I. Prehistoric China," by Cheng 

Te-k'un. Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 80 (1960), pp. 

. Review of "Chinese and Japanese Cloisonne Enamels," by Sir Harry 

Garner. Oriental Art, n.s., vol. 9 ( 1963) , pp. 41-42. 

Stern, HARor.o P. The Perfumed Lady, by Moronobu. Art Association of In- 
dianapolis, Ilerron Museum of Art Bulletin, vol. 49 (1962), pp. 4-8, illus. 

. Ukiyoe paintings of Tokugawa Japan. Bulletin of the Japan Society, 

London, vol. 3, No. 36 (1962) , pp. 5-11. 

. Review of "The Folk Art of Japan," by Hugo Munsterberg. Artilus 

Asiae, vol. 25 (1962). pp. 213-214. 

. Review of "The Hokusai Sketchbook," by James A. Michener, Artihus 

Asiae, vol. 25 (1962). pp. 219-220. 
Trousdale. W. B. Architectural landscapes attributed to Chao Po-chii. Ars 

Orientalis, vol. 4 (1961). pp. 11-19. illns. 
. A Chinese handle-bearing mirror from Northern Afghanistan. Artihus 

Asiae, vol. 24 ( 1961 ) , pp. 11-19, illus. 
Wenley, Archibald G. A Chinese Sui dynasty mirror [with] "Note on the 

composition, fabrication and condition of this Sui dynasty mirror," by 

Rutherford J. Gettens. Artibus Asiae, vol. 25 (1962), pp. 141-148, plates. 
West, Elisabeth H. Jade ; its character and occurrence. Univer.sity Museum, 

University of Pennsylvania. Expedition, vol. 5 (1963), pp. 2-11, illus. 
. A ring-mount for micro-cross-sections of paint and other materials. 

Studies in Conservation, vol. 4 (19.59) , pp. 27-31, illus. 


The photographic laboratory made 15,453 items during the year as 
follows : 11,072 prints, 722 negatives, 3,415 color slides, 160 black-and- 
white slides, and 84 color sheet films. At the sales desk 56,574 items 
were sold, comprising 4,727 publications and 51,847 reproductions (in- 
cluding postcards, slides, photographs, reproductions in the round, 
etc.). These figures indicate a marked increase in the work of both 
the photographic laboratory and sales desk over that of previous years. 


The exterior of the building appears to be sound. The roof was 
repaired but further repairs will be necessary. The sidewalk at the 
north front of the building was replaced. The cleaning of the ex- 
terior stonework is scheduled to commence in the new fiscal year. 

In the interior, the structural steel in the attic is in need of paint- 
ing. A fluorescent lighting system was installed over the galleries. 


The attic heating system was altered by the installation of steam- 
heated units in the air ducts. Work continued on the maintenance 
of the bronze doors and fittings. The director's office was partitioned, 
and decoration, with the exception of the galleries, was carried out 
wherever necessary. Floor-level sills were installed throughout the 
ground level, and the vault was replastered and painted. Panel-case 
storage was expanded, and additional fire precautions were instituted 
with the extension of the spray booth and construction of a storage 
area in the subbasement for flammable materials. The areas in need 
of repair in the auditorium are being replastered. 

The cabinet shop continued to make and repair furniture and 
equipment as the need arose. 

Seasonal plantings in the courtyard flourished, and the brick walks 
which had deteriorated were replaced. 


The Gallery was open to the public from 9 to 4 :30 every day except 
Christmas Day. The total number of visitors to enter the main en- 
trance was 183,359. The highest monthly attendance was in August : 

There were 3,062 visitors who came to the Gallery office for various 
purposes — for general information, to submit objects for examina- 
tion, to consult staff members, to take photographs or sketch in the 
galleries, to use the library, to examine objects in storage, etc. 

The series of illustrated lectures was continued as follows: 


October 16. Dr. Michael Sullivan, University of London, England, "Real- 

ism in Chinese Art." Attendance, 181. 

November 13. Prof. Oleg Grabar, University of Michigan, "Medieval Jeru- 

salem." Attendance, 212. 

January 22. Prof. Donald Keene, Columbia University, "Japanese Books 

and Their Illustrations." Attendance, 205. 

February 12. Prof. Pramod Chandra, University of Chicago, "Indian 

Painting of the Bundi School (17th and 18th Centuries)." 
Attendance, 64. 

March 12. Dr. John A. Pope, Freer Gallery of Art, "Chinese Collec- 

tors." Attendance, 200. 

April 16. Dr. James F. Cahill, Freer Gallery of Art, "Yiian Chiang 

and the Fantastic Landscape in China." Attendance, 203. 

The Smithsonian Institution used the auditorium as follows: 

July 17. Museum Service. Lecture by Dr. "Werner of the British 

Museum, "New Methods in Conservation." Attendance, 


Secretary's Report, 1 963 

Plate 8 

62.21. Japanese wood sculpture, Fujiwara period, late 12th century; Miroku Bosatsu 

Freer Gallerv of Art. 

Secretary's Report, 1963 

Plate 9 



Secretary's Report, 1963 


Secretary's Report, 1 963 

Plate 1 1 

63.1. Japanese pottery, Edo period, Kutani ware, 17th century; vase. Freer Gallery of Art. 


July 18. Museum Service. Lecture by Dr. Werner, "Scientific Ex- 

aminatiou in Conservation." Attendance, 53. 

July 20. Museum Service. Public lecture by Dr. Werner, "The Sci- 

entific Examination of Paintings and Antiquities." At- 
tendance, 170. 

August 16. Museum Service, Showing of the film, "The Salvage of 

the Warship Vasa." For the Division of Naval History. 
Attendance, 151. 

October 5. National Air Museum conference. Attendance, 85. 

November 13. Committee on Oceanography conference. Attendance, 584. 

(Two sessions.) 

April 24. Museum Service. Lecture by Hugh Wakefield of the Vic- 

toria and Albert Museum, London, England, "English 
Victorian Glass." Attendance, 97. 

Throughout the year, outside organizations used the auditorium as 
follows : 

Washington Film Society, 15 times. Total attendance, 3,206. 

U.S. Department of Agriculture, 34 times. Total attendance, 4,846. 

U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 13 times. Total attend- 
ance, 1,416. 

The Peace Corps, once. Attendance, 151. 

The Women's Committee of the National Symphony Orchestra, once. Attend- 
ance, 112. 

The Washington Center for Metropolitan Studies and the Washington Art Coun- 
cil, once. Attendance, 121. 

The Archaeological Institute of America, twice. Total attendance, 335. 

Fashion Group, Inc., 5 times. Total attendance, 821. 


Tlie work of the staff members has been devoted to the study of new 
accessions, of objects contemplated for purchase, and of objects sub- 
mitted for examination, as well as to individual research projects in 
the fields represented by the collection of Chinese, Japanese, Persian, 
Arabic, and Indian materials. In all, 6,984 objects and 1,130 photo- 
graphs were examined, and 451 Oriental language inscriptions were 
translated for outside individuals and institutions. By request, 29 
groups totaling 786 persons met in the exhibition galleries for decent 
service by the staff members. Fourteen groups totaling 141 persons 
were given docent service by staff members in the storage rooms. 

Among the visitors were 118 distinguished foreign scholars or per- 
sons holding official positions in their own countries who came here 
under the auspices of the Department of State to study museum ad- 
ministration and practices in this country. 

During the year the technical laboratory examined the following 
objects by various methods, including microscopic and microchemical, 

720-018—64 14 



X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet light, spectrochemical analysis, and spe- 
cific gravity determination : 

Freer objects examined 195 

Outside objects examined 53 

These include 52 objects cleaned and/or repaired ; 19 inquiries were answered 
by letter. 

The following projects were undertaken by the laboratoiy during 
the year : 

1. For 6 weeks in October and December 1962, Miss E. West worlved at the 
Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts, New Yorli University, where 
she continued spectrochemical analyses of Chinese bronzes from the Freer 

2. Continued analyses by wet chemical methods of Chinese bronzes in the 
Freer Collection. 

3. Continued systematic collection of data on technology of ancient copper 
and bronze in the Far East. 

4. Continued studies on corrosion products of ancient metal objects. 

5. Continued editorship of IIC Ahsti'acts published by the International In- 
stitute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Worlds, London, England. 

By invitation, the following lectures were given outside the Gallery 
by staff members (illustrated unless otherwise noted) : 


July 13. Dr. Ettinghausen, at the International Glass Congress, 

Washington, D.C., "Ancient Glass in the Freer Gallery 
of Art." Attendance, 45. 

September 13. Mr. Gettens, at a symposium on archeological chemistry, 

American Chemical Society, Atlantic City, N. J., "Com- 
position of Ancient Chinese Bronze Cei'emonial Vessels." 
Attendance, 35. 

October 11. Dr. Pope, at the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada, 

"Chinese Export Porcelain." Attendance, 400. 

October 12. Dr. Pope, at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 

"The Civilization of Angljor." Attendance, 40. 

October 22. Dr. Cahill, at Connecticut College, New London, Conn., 

"The Contemporary Relevance of Chinese Painting." 
Attendance, 130. 

October 23. Dr. Cahill, at Yale University, New Haven, Conn., "Sub- 

ject and Expression in Chinese Painting." Attendance, 

October 23. Dr. Ettinghausen, at the Lions Club, Vienna, Va., "Travels 

in the East." Attendance, 140. 

October 24. Dr. Cahill, at the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York 

City, "Subject and Expression in Chinese and Recent 
Western Painting." Attendance, 300. 

October 26. Dr. Ettinghausen, at the Baltimore Museum of Art, Bal- 

timore, Md., "Treasures from the Near East in the Freer 
Gallery of Art." Attendance, 360. 

October 30. Dr. Pope, at the Pierpont Morgan Library, "Chinese Col- 

lectors." Attendance, 190. 




November 12. 











December 4. 




January 8. 

January 10. 

January 11. 

January 16. 
January 23. 

February 12. 

February 13. 
March 13. 

March 13. 

Dr. Cahill, at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kans., 
"Confucian Humanism and Chinese Art." Attendance, 

Dr. Cahill, at the University of Kansas, "The Contemporary 
Relevance of Chinese Painting." Attendance, 250. 

Dr. Cahill, at the University of Kansas, "Subject and Ex- 
pression in Chinese Painting." Attendance, 60. 

Mr. Gettens, at the American Chemical Society, Stam- 
ford, Conn., "Minerals in Art and Archeology." At- 
tendance, 50. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, at the Hermitage Foundation, Norfolk, 
Va., "Persian Paintings." Attendance (lecture given 
twice), 65 and 75; total attendance, 140. 

Dr. Stern, at the Pierpont Morgan Library, "The Chinese 
Influences in Japanese Painting." Attendance, 320. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York City, "Connoisseurship in Islamic Art." Attend- 
ance, 10. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, at Asia House, New York City, "Formal- 
ism and Realism in Persian Painting." Attendance, 325. 

Dr. Cahill, at the State University of Iowa, Iowa City, 
"Yuan Dynasty Painting" and "The Contemporary Rele- 
vance of Chinese Painting." Attendance, respectively, 
12 and 350. 

Dr. Cahill, at the College of St. Theresa, Winona, Minn., 
"Values in Chinese Painting." Attendance (lecture 
given twice), 400 and 350; total attendance, 750. Also, 
"The Philosophical Background on Chinese Landscape 
Paintings." Attendance, 15. 

Dr. Cahill, at the College of St. Theresa, "Forms and Ma- 
terials of Oriental Painting" and "The Contemporary 
Relevance of Chinese Painting." Attendance, respec- 
tively, 20 and 400. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, at St. Margaret's Episcopal Church, 
Washington, D.C., "Islamic Art." Attendance, 48. 

Dr. Pope, at the annual dinner meeting of the Board of 
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, "Freer Gallery 
Research Project on Ancient Chinese Ceremonial 

Mr. Gettens, at the Marshall Laboratory of E. I. du Pont 
de Nemours & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., "The Blue Pigments 
of Antiquity." Attendance, 75. 

Dr. Pope, at the Japan Society, New York City, "Japanese 
Porcelain and the Dutch Trade." Attendance, 150. 

Dr. Cahill, at the Fogg Art IMuseum, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass., "The Contemporary Relevance of 
Chinese Painting." Attendance, 150. 

Dr. Pope, at the National Society of the Colonial Dames of 
America, Washington, D.C., "Chinese Blue-and-white." 
Attendance, 60. 



March 20. Dr. Stern, at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, 

Pa., "Popular Painting of Tokugawa Japan." Attend- 
ance (lecture given twice), 55 and 200; total attendance, 
Dr. Stern, at the Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, Wash., "Pop- 
ular Painting of Tokugawa Japan." Attendance, 100. 
Dr. Stern, at the M. H. DeYoung Memorial Museum, San 
Francisco, Calif., "Popular Painting of Tokugawa Japan." 
Attendance, 150. 
Dr. Stern, at the Dickson Art Center, Los Angeles, Calif., 
"Hokusai." Attendance (lecture given twice), 200 and 
150 ; total attendance, 350. 
Mr. Gettens, at the Conservation Center, New York Uni- 
versity, New York City, "Corrosion of Ancient Copper and 
Bronze Metal Objects." Attendance, 12. 
Dr. Ettinghausen, at Southern Illinois University, Carbon- 
dale, 111., "Old and New Testament Subjects in Islamic 
Art," Attendance, 95. 
Dr. Stern, at the Japan Society of Southern California, Los 
Angeles, "Popular Painting of Tokugawa Japan." At- 
tendance, 2-50. 
Dr. Ettinghausen, at Southern Illinois University, "Idealism 
and Reality in Persian Miniatures." Attendance, 55. 
Dr. Ettinghausen, at the University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Mich., "Miniatures of the Safavid Period" and 
"Unpublished Persian Miniatures of the Mongol Period." 
Attendance, respectively, 16 and 16. 

April 25. Dr. Stern, at the Chicago Art Institute, Chicago, 111., "Popu- 

lar Painting of Tokugawa Japan." Attendance, 75. 

April 26. Dr. Stern, at the University of Chicago, "Hokusai." At- 

tendance, 100. 

May 3. Dr. Cahill, at the National League of American Pen Women, 

Washington, D.C., "Literary Artists of China." At- 
tendance, 30. 

May 8. Mr. Trousdale, at the University of Michigan, Ann 

Arbor, Mich., "Central Asian Painting — Part I." At- 
tendance, 16. 

May 10. Mr. Trousdale, at the University of Michigan, "Cen- 

tral Asia Painting — Part II." Attendance, 16. 

May 17. Dr. Pope, at the National Museum, Stockholm, Sweden, 

"History of the Early Trade in Chinese Porcelain." At- 
tendance, 200. 

May 20. Dr. Stern, at the Cosmos Club, Washington, D.C., "Popular 

Painting of Tokugawa Japan." Attendance, 250. 

June 6. Miss E. H. West, at the annual meeting of the International 

Institute for Conservation — American Group, Institute of 
Fine Arts, New York University, "The Alteration of 
Early Chinese Jades." Attendance, 75. 

June 9. Dr. Stern, at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 

"Innovations in Japanese Art." Attendance, 250. 

April 4. 

April 8. 

April 18. 

April 18. 

April 18. 

April 19. 

April 19. 

April 22. 



Members of the staff traveled outside Washington on official 
business as follows : 

July 13. 

July 16. 

July 20. 
August 3-5. 

August 8. 
August 10-11. 

August 13-14. 
August 24. 
September 7-9. 

September 12-14. 

September 25. 
September 26. 
October 2-5. 

Dr. Stern, in New York City, met with representatives of 
Shorewood Press to discuss reproductions of Freer Gal- 
lery objects to be used in a forthcoming book on draw- 
ings. Examined objects at various dealers. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, in Corning, N.Y., attended meetings of 
the Sixth International Congress on Glass at the Corning 
Glass Center. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York City, examined objects at 
several dealers. 

Dr. Stern, in New York City, attended a meeting at the 
Japan Society re : Restorer Training Program. Met with 
a representative of Shorewood Press to discuss overruns, 
prints, and quality control of reproductions of Freer 
objects. Attended the exhibition of Rockefeller por- 
celains at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

Miss E. H. West, in Philadelphia, Pa., visited the University 
Museum where she examined jades in the collection and 
helped plan a jade exhibition to be shown during the 

Dr. Stern, in New York City, attended a meeting at Asia 
House re: Japanese Government Loan Exhibition (1965). 
Met with Prof. Donald Keene of Columbia University 
regarding his lecture to be given at the Freer Gallery in 
January 1963. 

Dr. Cahill, in Toronto, Canada, visited the Royal Ontario 
Museum, where he examined objects in storage and in 
a private collection. 

Mr. Gettens, at the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, Md., 
examined miscellaneous objects for the purpose of mak- 
ing a selection for color photography. 

Dr. Cahill, in New York City, attended the Rockefeller 
exhibition of Chinese porcelains and the Faberge collec- 
tion at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Also examined 
Far Eastern objects at several dealers. 

Mr. Gettens and Miss E. H. West, at Atlantic City, N.J., 
attended a symiwsium on Archeological Chemistry spon- 
sored by the American Chemical Society. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, in Winchester, Va., examined objects in 
a private collection. 

Dr. Pope, at the Baltimore Museum of Art, examined 
objects offered to the Museum. 

Dr. Cahill, at the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York 
City, attended the opening of the exhibition of John M. 
Crawford, Jr.'s collection of Chinese paintings. Served 
as chairman of a conference on Chinese painting held at 
Asia House. Attended a lecture by Dr. Michael Sullivan 
at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University. 
Examined objects which were to be auctioned at the 
Parke-Bernet Galleries. 



October 11-14. 

October 12-14. 

October 17-18. 

October 17-20. 

October 26- 
December 4. 

November 8-9. 

November 9-16. 

November 13-15. 

November 15-16. 
November 17-20. 

November 18-21. 

November 29-30. 

December 4. 

Dr. Pope, in Toronto, Canada, examined Chinese porcelains 
at the Royal Ontario Museum, and in several private 

Mr. Gettens, in Toronto, Canada, visited the Royal Ontario 
Museum, where he made a technical examination of a 
number of objects and conferred with staff members. 

Dr. Cahill, in New York City, attended a lecture by Prof. 
Max Loehr of the Fogg Art Museum at the Pierpont 
Morgan Library. 

Dr. Stern, in New York City, saw the Crawford collection 
at the Pierpont Morgan Library. Discussed publication 
problems with representatives of Shorewood Press. 
Discussed the Restorer Program with Mrs. John D. 
Rockefeller III, Douglas Overton, and Kojiro Tomita. 
Examined a newly damaged Chinese painting at Rocke- 
feller Center. Examined numerous objects at several 

Miss E. H. West conducted research at the Conservation 
Center, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, New 
York City. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York City, examined numerous 
objects at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Assisted in 
giving a doctoral examination at Columbia University. 

Dx*. Cahill, at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kans., 
gave seven informal talks to classes, and an interview on 
the university radio station. In Kansas City, Mo., ex- 
amined the Nil Wa Chai collection of Chinese paintings at 
the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and also ex- 
amined a number of Far Eastern objects at the Uni- 
versity of Kansas Art Museum. 

Mr. Gettens, in New York City, visited the Kapp & Strobel 
Ivory Works and the New York University Conservation 
Center. In Stamford, Conn., attended a meeting of the 
Western Connecticut Section of the American Chemical 
Society. In Philadelphia, visited the University Museum 
to study sculpture in connection with his study of "Min- 
erals in Art and Archeology." 

Dr. Ettinghausen, in Norfolk, Va., examined objects at the 
Norfolk Museum, and visited the Hermitage Foundation. 

Dr. Stern, in New York City, met with Prof. Donald Keene 
of Columbia University concerning the latter's forthcom- 
ing lecture at the Freer Gallery. Examined numerous ob- 
jects at several dealers. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, in Cambridge, Mass., examined objects 
at the Fogg Art Museum, and in several private collec- 
tions. In Dublin, N.H., examined the Ray Winfield 
Smith collection of Near Eastern glass. 

Mr. Gettens, in Philadelphia, attended the opening of the 
Chinese Jade Exhibition at the University Museum. Ex- 
amined objects at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, where 
he also took samples from several pewter objects. 

Mr. Gettens and Mr. Schwartz, at the Walters Art Gallery, 
examined and photographed numerous objects. 




December 2-5. Dr. Pope, with Dr. Osvald Sir6n of Stockholm, Sweden, 

went to Mount Kisco, N.Y., to examine objects in the col- 
lection of Mrs. Eugene Meyer. In New York City, exam- 
ined numerous objects at several dealers. 

December 4-6. Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York City, assisted in giving a 

doctoral examination at Columbia University and exam- 
ined objects at several dealers. In Philadelphia, visited 
with Prof. S. D. Goitein at the University of Pennsylvania, 

December 12-13. William B. Trousdale, at the University Museum in Phila- 
delphia, examined objects in the Chinese Jade Exhibition. 

December 12-14. Dr. Cahill, in Philadelphia, visited the Chinese Jade Ex- 

hibition at the University Museum. In New York City, 
attended the opening of the exhibition of Persian Paint- 
ing at Asia House and examined objects at several 

December 26. Dr. Ettinghausen, in Baltimore, attended a luncheon meet- 

ing at the Walters Art Gallery. 

December 31. Dr. Stern, in New York City, examined numerous objects 

at several dealers. 

January 9. Dr. Cahill, in Minneapolis, Minn., examined Chinese ob- 

jects in the Minneapolis Institute of Art. 

January 12. Dr. Cahill, in Chicago, saw the Chinese exhibitions at the 

Field Museum of Natural History and examined various 
Chinese and Japanese objects at the Art Institute of 

January 23-24. Mr. Trousdale, at the University Museum in Phila- 

delphia, arranged for the photographing of Chinese jades 
selected from the current exhibition, for a review to ap- 
pear in Oriental Art. 

January 24-25. Dr. Pope, in Baltimore, attended a meeting of the board of 

directors, and the annual meeting of the College Art 

January 24-25. Dr. Ettinghausen, in Baltimore, attended the annual meet- 

ing of the College Art Association. 

February 1. Martin P. Amt returned to a dealer in New York City two 

objects that had been under consideration at the Freer 
Gallery of Art. 

February 1-2. Mr. Gettens, in New York City, attended a symposium on 

"Teaching Microscopy" under the auspices of the New 
York Micro.scopical Society at the American Museum of 
Natural History. Examined objects at the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, and at a dealer. 

February 1-2. Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York City, attended the exhibi- 

tion of Persian Painting at Asia House and examined ob- 
jects at several dealers. 

February 1-4. Dr. Pope, in New York City, served as chairman of 

A.C.L.S.-S.S.R.C. Joint Committee for Grants on Asia 
and examined objects at a dealer. 

February 4. Mr. Trousdale, at the University Museum in Phila- 

delphia, measured and oversaw the photographing of 
Chinese jades for a review of the exhibition for Oriental 




February 4. Miss E. H. West, at the University Museum in Philadelphia, 

examined and took samples from objects in the Chinese 
Jade Exhibition. 

February 14-15. Dr. Pope, in New York City, examined objects at several 
dealers. In New Haven, Conn., examined Chinese ob- 
jects at the Yale University Art Gallery and, in Middle- 
town, Conn., a large number of Japanese tsuba at the 
Davidson Art Center, Wesleyan University. 

February 15-16. Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York City, examined Near Eastern 

objects at several dealers. 

February 20-23. Dr. Stern, in New York City, attended the opening of the 

Tea Taste in Japanese Art Exhibition at Asia House. 
Examined numerous objects belonging to several dealers 
and one private collector. 

February 26-27. Dr. Pope, at the Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio, 

examined numerous objects and photographs. 

March 1. Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York City, examined objects at 

several dealers and one private collector. 

March 14. Dr. Cahill, in New York City, examined objects at several 

dealers, and attended the Tea Taste in Japanese Art Ex- 
hibition at Asia House. 

March 14-15. Dr. Pope, in New York City, attended the Tea Taste in 

Japanese Art Exhibition at Asia House and examined 
objects at several dealers. 

March 16. Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York City, examined objects at 

several dealers. 

March 20. Dr. Stern, at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, examined 

numerous Far Eastern objects. 

March 26. Dr. Pope, in Philadelphia, attended the Founders' luncheon 

meeting of the Association for Asian Studies. 

March 26. Dr. Stern, in New York City, discussed publishing problems. 

with representatives of Shorewood Press. 

March 29. Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York City, examined objects at 

several dealers. 

March 29-May 6. Dr. Stern, in Seattle, Wash., visited the Seattle Art Museum, 
where he studied the Far Eastern collection. In San 
Francisco, Calif., studied the collections at the M. H. 
DeYoung Memorial Museum, and examined objects for 
several individual collectors. In Los Angeles, Calif., 
studied the collections at the Los Angeles County 
Museum, and examined objects for several individual col- 
lectors. In Kansas City, Mo., examined Japanese objects 
at the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, and for an 
individual collector. In Chicago, 111., visited the Art 
Institute of Chicago to see the exhibitions and study 
Japanese objects in storage. In Cleveland, Ohio, visited 
the Cleveland Museum of Art to see the exhibitions and 
study Japanese and Chinese objects in the collection, and 
examined objects in a private collection. In New York 
City, met with the publisher of Shorewood Press and 
examined objects at a dealer. 




April 18. Mr. Gettens, in New York City, examined objects at the 

Metropolitan Museum of Art and at one dealer. 

April 23. Dr. Ettinghauseu, at the Cleveland Museum of Art, exam- 

ined Sasanian silver and Indian miniatures. 

April 27. Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York City, examined Persian and 

Sasanian objects at several dealers. 

April 29. Dr. Pope left to attend the opening of the Museum of Far 

Eastern Antiquities in Stockholm, Sweden, and to study 
collections elsewhere in Europe ; to return in July. 

May 10-11. Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York City, met with Mr. N. 

Pevsner, publisher of the Pelican History of Art, and 
examined objects at several dealers. 

May 22-24. Mrs. L. O. West and Mrs. M. H. Quail attended the annual 

meeting of the Museum Stores Association at the Minne- 
apolis Institute of Arts and the "Walker Art Center, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

June 5-12. Mr. Gettens, in New York City, attended meetings of the 

American Group of the International Institute for Con- 
servation of Museum Objects at the Institute of Fine 
Arts, New York University. He also attended a meeting 
of the Board of Consulting Fellows of the New York 
University Conservation Center. Visited the New York 
Public Library for reference material, and the American 
Museum of Natural History in search of minerals in art. 
Examined a number of photographs of ancient Chinese 
bronzes belonging to the Royal Ontario Museum and 
examined several objects at a dealer in order to acquire 
pigment samples. 

June 6-7. Miss E. H. West, in New York City, attended the annual 

meetings of the American Group of the International 
Institute for Conservation of Museum Objects at the Insti- 
tute of Fine Arts, New York University. 

June 13-14. Dr. Stern, in New York City, attended the Buddha Image 

Exhibition at Asia House, met with a representative of 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., concerning publication prob- 
lems, and examined numerous objects at several dealers. 

June 17. Mr. Trousdale left for the Far East and Europe to 

give lectures and do research. He will return in October. 

As in former years, members of the staff undertook a wide variety 
of peripheral duties outside the Gallery, served on committees, held 
honorary posts, and received recognitions. 

Respectfully submitted. 

John A. Pope, Director. 
Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 

Report on the National Gallery of Art 

SiK : I have the honor to submit, on behalf of the Board of Trustees, 
the 26th annual report of the National Gallery of Art, for the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1963. This report is made pursuant to the pro- 
visions of section 5(d) of Public Resolution No. 14, 75th Congress, 
1st session, approved March 24, 1937 (50 Stat. 51) . 


The statutory members of the Board of Trustees of the National 
Gallery of Art are the Chief Justice of the United States, the Secre- 
tary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution, ex officio. The three general trustees con- 
tinuing in office during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1963, were Paul 
Mellon, John Hay Wliitney, and John N. Irwin II. Chester Dale, 
who had been a general trustee since 1943 and president since 1955, 
died on December 16, 1962. Rush H. Kress, who had been a general 
trustee smce 1955, died on March 22, 1963. On January 25, 1963, Paul 
Mellon was elected by the Board of Trustees to serve as president of 
the Gallery and Jolin Hay Wliitney was elected vice president. 

The executive officers of the Gallery as of June 30, 1963, were as 
follows : 

Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the John Walker, Director. 

United States, Chairman. Ernest R. Feidler, Administrator. 

Paul Mellon, President. Huntington Cairns, General Counsel. 

John Hay Whitney, Vice President. Perry B. Cott, Chief Curator. 
Huntington Cairns, Secretary-Treasurer. 

The three standing committees of the Board, as constituted at the 
annual meeting on May 2, 1963, were as f ollow^s : 


Chief Justice of the United States, John Hay Whitney. 
Earl Warren, Chairman. John N. Irwin II. 

Paul Mellon, Vice Chairman. 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, Leonard Carmichael. 


Secretary of the Treasury, C. Doug- John Hay Whitney, 
las Dillon, Chairman. John N. Irwin II. 

Paul Mellon. 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, Leonard Carmichael. 




Paul Mellon, Chairman. John N. Irwin II. 

John Hay Whitney. John Walker. 


At the close of fiscal year 1963, full-time Government employees 
on the staff of the National Gallery of Art numbered 301. The U.S. 
Civil Service regulations govern the appointment of employees paid 
from appropriated public funds. 

Continued emphasis was given to the training of employees under 
the Govermnent Employees Training Act. 


For the fiscal year ended Jmie 30, 1963, the Congress of the United 
States in the regular annual appropriation and a supplemental ap- 
propriation required for pay increases under Public Law 87-793, 
approved October 11, 1962, provided $2,113,850 to be used for salaries 
and expenses in the operation and upkeep of the National Gallery of 
Art, the protection and care of works of art acquired by the Board of 
Trustees, and all administrative expenses incident thereto, as au- 
thorized by joint resolution of Congress approved March 24, 1937 
(20 U.S.C. 71-75, 50 Stat. 51 ) . 

The following expenditures and encumbrances were incurred : 

Personnel compensation and benefits $1,760,670.00 

All other items 350,099.34 

Unobligated balance 3, 080. 66 

Total 2, 113, 850. 00 


There were 1,793,500 visitors to the Gallery during the fiscal year 
1963, an increase of 460,994 over the total attendance of 1,332,506 
reported for fiscal year 1962. The daily average number of visitors 
was 4,941. This increase was in large measure due to the exhibition, 
for a period of 27 days, of the Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci. 
During that period 518,525 persons viewed the painting and total at- 
tendance was 673,872. 


There were 1,206 accessions by the National Gallery of Art as gifts, 
loans, or deposits during the fiscal year. 



During the year the following gifts or bequests were accepted by 
the Board of Trustees : 

DonoT Artist Title 

George Mathew Adams, Legros Hempstead Heath. 

New York, N.Y. 

Do do A Lady with a White Collar 

and Cap. 
Mrs. Mellon Bruce, New Orazio Gentileschi.. The Luto Player. 
York, N.Y. 

Miss Alice Dodge, Wash- Inness Lake Albano, Sunset. 

ington, D.C. 

Mrs. Peter H. B. Freling- Goya The Bookseller. 

huysen, Convent Station, 

Do do Duke of Wellington. 

Mrs. Olga Roosevelt Sargent Miss Grace Woodhouse. 

Graves, Washington, 

National Gallery of Art Joos van Cleve Joris W. Vezeler. 

Purchase Fund, Andrew 
W. Mellon Gift. 

Do do Margaretha Boghe, Wife or 

Joris W. Vezeler. 


Frederick C. Oechsner, German School, 20th Death Mask of Ernst Bar 
Washington, D.C. Century lach. 


George Matthew Adams, Legros Three drawings and 22 prints. 

New York, N.Y. 

The Ford Foundation, Cusumano Picnic on the Beach. 

New York, N.Y. 

Mrs. James McBey, James McBey Eleven etchings. 

London, England. 

Frederick C. Oechsner, Kollwitz Riot. 

Washington, D.C. 

Lessing J. Rosenwald, Altdorfer The Beautiful Virgin of 

Jenkintown, Pa. Ratisbon. 

Do van Meckenem The Nativity. 

William H. Schab, New Swiss, 15th Century The Crucifixion with the 

York, N.Y. Woodcut. Virgin and St. John. 
W. G. Wendell, Hartford, Stow Wengenroth.. Jacob Wendell House, Ports- 
Conn, mouth, N.H. 

Do do Warner House, Portsmouth, 


In the fiscal year 1963 gifts of money were made by the Old 
Dominion Foundation, the A. W. Mellon Educational and Charitable 
Trust, Avalon Foundation, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Andre 


Meyer, Mr. and Mrs. Howard Jensen, the Washington Post Co., 
and the Eugene and Agnes JMeyer Foundation. An additional dis- 
tribution was received from the estate of William Nelson Cromwell. 
Mrs. Mellon Bruce gave money and securities to establish the Ailsa 
Mellon Bruce Fund to be used by the Trustees for the purchase of 
works of art for the National Gallery of Art and for educational 
purposes related to works of art. 

The following works of art were received on loan by the Gallery : 

From Artist Title 

Chester Dale, New York, N.Y. Bellows Blue Morning. 

Do Monet The Seine at Giverny. 

Mrs. Charles R. Henschel, do Still Life: Game. 

New York, N.Y. 

Mr. and Mrs. David Lloj^d Bonnard Le Jardin de Bosquet. 

Kreeger, Washington, 

Do Van Gogh Vase of Flowers. 

Do Monet Varengeville. 

Do-. Picasso Caf6 de la Rotonde. 

Do Redon Au Fond de la Mer. 

Do Renoii- Bather. 

Mrs. Eugene E. Meyer, Dufresne Still Life. 

Washington, D.C. 

Do Renoir Nude. 

Do do Man Lying on a Sofa. 


The following works of art on loan were returned during the fiscal 

To ArtUt Title 

Trustees for Harvard Uni- 547 objects of Pre-Colum- 

versity (Robert Woods bian art. 

Bliss Collection), Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Mrs. Charles R. Henschel, Monet Still Life: Game. 

New York, N.Y. 

Mr. and Mrs. David Lloyd Bonnard Le Jardin de Bosquet. 

Kreeger, Washington, 

Do Van Gogh Vase of Flowers. 

Do Monet Varengeville. 

Do Pica.sso Cafe de la Rotonde. 

Do Redon Au Fond de la Mer. 

Do Renoir Bather. 

Mrs. Eugene E. J^Iej'er, Dufresne Still Life. 

Washington, D.C. 

Do Renoir Nude. 

Do do Man Lying on a Sofa. 




The American Federation of Arts, New York, N.Y., circulated 
the following Avorks of art during the fiscal year to the Municipal 
Art Gallery, Los Angeles, Calif. ; M. H. De Young Memorial Museum, 
San Francisco, Calif. ; Atlanta Art Association, Ga. ; Virginia Museum 
of Fine Arts, Richmond; Cincinnati Art Museum, Ohio; Carnegie 
Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., and the Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, 
Texas : 

American Federation 
Arts, New York, N.Y. 



Joseph Badger. 

Mrs. Isaac Foster. 








Abby Aldrich Rockefeller 
Folk Art Collection, 
Williamsburg, Va. 
Colby College, Waterville, 

The Jewish Museum, New 

York, N.Y. 
North Carolina Museum of 
Art, Raleigh, N.C. 




Oklahoma Art Center, 
Oklahoma City, Okla. 







John Bradley Little Girl in Lavender. 

Bundy Vermont Lawyer. 

Earl Family Portrait. 

Hofmann Berks County Almshouse. 

Linton Park Flax Scutching Bee. 

Susanne Walters Memorial to Nicholas M. 


Unknown Jonathan Benham. 

do The Start of the Hunt. 

do The End of the Hunt. 

do The Sargent Family. 

do Alice Slade. 

do Joseph Slade. 

do General Washington 

White Charger. 

do Blue Eyes. 

do The Hobby Horse. 

do Mahantango Valley Farm 

do Civil War Battle Scene. 

Field Ark of the Covenant. 

Unknown Burning of Old South 

Church, Bath, Maine. 

C. E. B Moses Rescued from the 


British School Pocahontas. 

Peale General William Moultrie. 

Stuart Mrs. Richard Yates. 

The us Isaac Motte. 

Healy Daniel Webster. 

Henri Catherine. 

Ryder Mending the Harness. 

Sargent Repose. 

Stuart George Washington. 

Sully Andrew Jackson. 

Zeliflf The Barnyard. 


To Artist Title 

Storm King Art Center, Homer Hound and Hmiter. 

Mountainville, N.Y. 

Historical Society of Talbot Unknown At the Writing Table. 

County, Md. 

Do do Boy in Blue Coat. 

Do do Burning of Old South 

Church, Bath, Maine. 

Do do Civil War Battle Scene. 

Do do Columbia. 

Do do Mount Vernon. 

Do do The Trotter. 

Do do Twenty-two Houses and a 


Do do Village by the River. 

Do do "We go for the Union." 

Do Hofmann View of Benjamin Reber's 


Do Johnston The Westwood Children. 

Virginia Museum of Fine Toole Skating Scene. 

Arts, Richmond, Va. 

Washington County Mu- Healy Abraham Lincoln. 

seum of Fine Arts, 
Hagerstown, Md. 

The White House, Wash- Lamb "Emancipation Proclama- 

ington, D.C. tion." 

Woodlawn Plantation, Polk Washington at the Battle of 

Mount Vernon, Va. Princeton. 


The following exhibitions were held at the National Gallery of 
Art during the fiscal year 1963 : 

Exhibition of the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Andre Meyer. Continued from 
previous fiscal year through July 8, 1962. 

Prints with Color. From the Rosenwald Collection. Continued from previous 
fiscal year through August 23, 1962. 

Lithographs hy George Bellows. From the Mellon, Rosenwald, and Addie Burr 
Clark Memorial collections. Continued from previous fiscal year through 
October 16, 1962. 

Water Colors 6y Winslow Homer from the Collection of Mrs. Charles R. 
Benschel. July 6 through September 12, 1962. 

Etchings and Lithographs hy Edoitard Manet. From the Rosenwald Collec- 
tion. August 24 through December 13, 1962. 

A General Selection of Material from the Index of American Design. Septem- 
ber 21, 1962, to continue into the next fiscal year. 

American Prints Today-1962. Sponsored by the Print Council of America. 
September 23 through October 14, 1962. 

Drawings from the National Gallery of Art collections. October 27, 1962, through 
March 17, 1963. 

Etchings by G. B. Tiepolo, G. D. Tiepolo, and Canaletto. From the Rosenwald 
Collection. October 27, 1962, through June 11, 1963. 

Old Master Drawings from Chatsworth. From the Devonshire Collection. 
October 28 through November 25, 1962. 


A Selection of Christmas Prints. From the National Gallery of Art collections. 
December 14, 1962, through February 26, 1963. 

John Oadshy Chapman, A Retrospective Exhihition. From 21 public collections 
and private lenders. December 16, 1962, through January 13, 1963. 

Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci. Lent to the President of the United States 
and the Ajnerican people by the Government of the French Republic. Janu- 
ary 8 through February 3, 1963. 

Jacques Callot: A Selection of Prints from the Collections of Rudolf L. Baumfeld 
and Lessing J. Rosenwald. February 3 through March 17, 1963. 

Hercules and the Hydra and Hei'cules and Antaeus by Antonio del PoUaiuolo. 
Lent by the Republic of Italy. February 4 through February 10, 1963. 

Industry and Ingenuity. From the Index of American Design. February 27 
through May 2, 1963. 

Landscape Prints. From the Rosenwald Collection. May 2, 1963, to continue 
into the next fiscal year. 

Prints and Drawings by Mary Cassatt. From the Rosenwald Collection. June 
13, 1963, to continue into the next fiscal year. 

Exhibitions of recent accessions. "Oysters" by Manet, continued from previous 
fiscal year through August 9, 1962; "Street in Venice" by Sargent, August 10 
through September 13, 1962; "Duke of Wellington" by Goya, November 19 
through December 27, 1962 ; "The Lute Player" by Gentileschi, April 5 through 
May 13, 1963 ; "Joris W. Vezeler" and "Margaretha Boghe, Wife of Joris W. 
Vezeler" by Joos van Cleve, June 21, 1963, to continue into the next fiscal year. 


Special exhibitions of graphic arts from the National Gallery of 
Art collections were circulated during the fiscal year to 29 museums, 
universities, schools, and art centers in the United States and abroad. 

Index of American Design. — Forty-eight exhibitions (2,104 plates) of material 
from the Index were circulated to 18 States, the District of Columbia, and to 
Bath, England. 


Under the direction of Dr. Perry B. Cott, chief curator, the cura- 
torial department accessioned 53 gifts to the Gallery during the fiscal 
year 19G3. Advice was given with respect to 1,716 works of art 
brought to the Gallery for expert opinion and 25 visits to collections 
were made by members of the staff in connection with offers of gifts. 
About 4,350 inquiries, many of them requiring research, were answered 
verbally and by letter. 

Dr. Hereward Lester Cooke, curator of painting, acted as consultant 
to National Aeronautics and Space Administration with duties of 
organizing and supervising commissions to artists for paintings of 
themes relating to the space program. 

Dr. Katharine Shepard, assistant curator of graphic arts, gave a 
graduate course in "Ancient Sculpture" the first semester and a grad- 
uate course in "Ancient Painting" the second semester, at Catholic 
University, during the past academic year. 

Secretary's Report, 1963 

Plate 12 

Secretary's Report. 1963 




o ^ 
re M 



Secretary's Report, 1%3 

Plate 14 

Gentileschi: The Lute Plaver. National Gallerv of Art. Gift of Mrs. Mellon Bruce. 


The Eichter Archives received and cataloged over 133 photographs 
on exchange from museums here and abroad ; 987 photographs were 
purchased and about 1,000 reproductions have been added to the 
archives. The Iconographical Index was increased by 600 photo- 


Francis Sullivan, resident restorer of the Gallery, made regular and 
systematic inspection of all works of art in the Gallery and on loan to 
Government buildings in Washington, and periodically removed dust 
and bloom as required. He relined, cleaned, and restored 11 paintings 
and gave special treatment to 29. Twenty-seven paintings were 
X-rayed as an aid in research. Experiments were continued with 
synthetic materials suggested by the National Gallery of Art Fellow- 
ship at the Mellon Institute of Industrial Kesearch, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Technical advice on the conservation of paintings was furnished to 
the public upon request. Special treatment was given to works of 
art belonging to Government agencies, including the U.S. Capitol, 
Treasury, Supreme Court, Army Medical Museum, and General Serv- 
ices Administration. In other instances advice was furnished the 
various agencies concerning the care and conservation of paintings. 

Mr. Sullivan made trips to various cities in connection with the loan 
of paintings to the Gallery for special exhibitions. He also made a 
trip to Los Angeles as a special representative of the Department of 
Justice in comiection with the recovery of two paintings belonging to 
the Ufiizi Gallery, Florence, Italy. 


Dr. Colt wrote the foreword to the National Gallery of Art and its 
Collections, a booklet reproducing 40 paintings in the Gallery's col- 

William P. Campbell, assistant chief curator, wrote the catalogs 
for the Winslow Homer Water Color exhibition from the collection of 
Mrs. Charles R. Henschel and the Jolin Gadsby Chapman exhibition. 

Dr. Cooke wrote an article for the National Geographic Magazine, 
September 1962 issue, entitled "Early America as Seen by Her Native 
Artists" based on the collection of Edgar W. and Bernice Clirysler 
Garbisch. He also wrote the text for 16 National Gallery leaflets. 

Mrs. Mary Elizabeth C. Burnet, museum curator, assisted in the 
preparation of the catalogs of the Winslow Homer Water Color ex- 
hibition and the John Gadsby Chapman exhibition. She also worked 
on the proposed Check List of American Paintings in the National 
Gallery of Art. 

720-018—64 15 



During the fiscal year 1963 the Publications Fund placed on sale 
four new books : Treasures from, the National Gallery of Art, edited 
by Huntington Cairns and John Walker, the third in a series of large 
books containing 85 color reproductions of paintings in the National 
Gallery of Art collection; The Eternal Present: The Beginnings of 
Art by Sigf ried Giedion, the A. W. Mellon Lecturer in the Fine Arts 
for 1957 ; Prints compiled by Carl Zigrosser, with an introduction by 
Lessing J. Rosenwald; and One Hundred and Otie Masterpieces of 
American Primitive Painting, with preface by John Walker. An 
English translation of Dr. Perry B. Cott's section on the National 
Gallery of Art in Paintings of the World'^s Great Galleries was made 
available, together with five new catalogs of temporary exhibitions: 
Water Colors hy Winslow Homer from the Collection of Mrs. Charles 
R. Henschel; American Prints Today, 1962; Old Master Drawings 
from Chatsworth; John Gadshy Chapman — American Painter and 
Illustrator; and Jacques C allot — A Selection of Prints from the Col- 
lections of Rudolf L. Baumfeld and Lessing J. Rosenwald. 

In addition to 6 new collotype reproductions of paintings by Inness, 
Renoir, Bellotto, Vlaminck, and Feti, the Publications Fund intro- 
duced 40 color reproductions in a new format, 19 by 25 inches in size. 
Thirty-seven new postcards and 44 new 11- by 14-inch subjects were 
published, bringing the total subjects available in these formats to 
152 and 201, respectively. 


The program of the Educational Department was carried out under 
the direction of Dr. Raymond S. Stites and his staff. The staff 
lectured and conducted tours on works of art in the Gallery's col- 

Attendance for the general tours, tours of the week, and picture-of- 
the-week talks amounted to 38,846. The attendance at the Sunday 
afternoon lectures in the auditorium totaled 14,209. 

Special tours, lectures, and conferences were arranged for a total 
of 16,567 persons. The^e special appointments were made for Gov- 
ernment agency groups, and at the request of congressional offices, 
for educators, foreign students, club and study groups, religious orga- 
nizations, conventions, and women's organizations. These special serv- 
ices were also given to school groups from many parts of the country. 

The program of training volunteer docents continued and special 
instruction was given to approximately 130 volunteers from the Junior 
League of Washington and the American Association of University 
Women. By special arrangement with the public and parochial 


schools of the District of Columbia and surrounding counties of Mary- 
land and Virginia, these volunteers conducted tours for 66,528 children, 
representing an increase over last year of 7,279. The volunteers also 
guided 663 Safety Patrol girls on tours of the Gallery and special tours 
were given for 25,445 children who came to see the Mona Lisa while 
it was on exhibition at the Gallery. Altogether, 92,636 children bene- 
fited from the services of the volunteer docents. 

Fifty-two lectures were given in the auditorium on Sunday after- 
noons. Of these, 22 were delivered by members of the staff of the 
National Gallery and 24 by guest lecturers. John Pope-Hennessy 
delivered the 12th Amiual Series of the A. W. Mellon Lectures in the 
Fine Arts on six consecutive Sundays on "The Artist and the Indi- 
vidual : Some Aspects of the Portrait." 

The slide library of the Educational Department has a total of 
45,682 slides in its permanent and lending collections. During the 
year 1,408 slides were added to the collections. Altogether, 397 per- 
sons borrowed 11,964 slides from the collections. It is estimated 
that the slides were seen by 24,840 viewers. The Carnegie Slides, a 
group of 2,500 on American art, which are in the Educational Depart- 
ment slide library, were borrowed by 45 persons. 

Members of the staff participated in outside activities delivering 
lectures and papers, and conducting meetings. One staff member 
taught a course at a local university. Staff members prepared ma- 
terial for the school tour program and the slide lending program, and 
prepared scripts for the Lectour recordings. Thirty-five radio talks 
were prepared, recorded, and broadcast on station WGMS. 

A printed calendar of events was prepared and distributed monthly 
to a mailing list of more than 8,300 names, an increase of 1,000 names 
over last year's mailing list. 


The Office of Extension Services, under the direction of the curator 
of the Index of American Design, Dr. Grose Evans, circulates to the 
public traveling exhibits, films, slide lectures, and filmstrip sets of 
works of art in the National Gallery of Art's collections. There are 
27 traveling exhibits in circulation lent free of charge except for ship- 
ping expenses. These were circulated in 262 bookings and were seen 
by an estimated 131,000 viewers. The Extension Service circulated 
33 framed collotype exhibits among the public schools of the District 
of Columbia and the general public. Two additional exliibits were 
prepared, and the Traveling Exhibition Service of the Smithsonian 
Institution circulated one to 14 borrowers. The other was prepared at 
the request of Senator Pell of Ehode Island and was shown in 18 


Rhode Island cities and towns. Two films on the National Gallery 
of Art were circulated in 152 bookings and were seen by approximately 
45,600 viewers. A total of 1,065 slide-lecture sets were circulated 
in 2,749 bookings and were seen by approximately 164,940 viewers. 
The Extension Service reached approximately 384,560 persons during 
the year; this is an increase of 143,710 over the number of persons 

served last year. 


During the year the library, under the supervision of Miss Ruth 
E. Carlson, accessioned 4,852 publications, of which 4,640 were ob- 
tained through exchange, by gift, or purchased from private fmids. 
Government funds were used to purchase 19 books and 24 subscriptions 
to periodicals, and for the binding of 169 volumes of periodicals. A 
total of 1,610 photographs were added to the library's stock and were 
acquired by exchange or purchased from private funds. 

During the year 2,475 publications were cataloged and classified, 
8,568 cards were filed, and 2,609 periodicals were recorded. Library of 
Congress cards were used for 657 titles ; original cataloging was done 
for 483 titles; and 18 cards were sent to the Union Catalog, Library 
of Congress. There were 11,455 periodicals circulated, and 5,353 
charged out to the staff. There were 6,082 books shelved in routine 
work. The library borrowed 1,363 books and 1 microfilm on inter- 
library loan. 

The exchange program w^as continued during the year and 1,130 
National Gallery publications were distributed in accordance with this 
arrangement. The Gallery received 2,251 publications of various types 
under the program. 

The library is the depository for black-and-white photographs of 
works of art in the Gallery's collections. These are maintained for 
use in research by the staff, for exchange with other institutions, for 
reproduction in approved publications, and for sale to the public. 
Approximately 6,129 photographs were stocked in the library during 
the year and 1,310 orders for 7,607 photographs were filled. There 
were 386 permits for reproduction of 919 subjects processed in the 


The Index of American Design, under the supervision of Dr. Grose 
Evans, circulated 116 sets of color slides (5,698) throughout the 
country; and 232 photographs of Index materials were used for ex- 
hibits, study, and publication. The photographic file has been in- 
creased by 82 negatives and 83 prints. Twenty-five permits to re- 
produce 117 subjects from the Index were used. Special exhibits of 
Index material were prepared at the request of various groups, in- 


eluding the U.S. Department of Labor. Ten exliibits were refur- 
bished and three sets of slide notes were rewritten. 

The material of the Index was studied during the year by 502 
visitors conducting research, collecting material for publication and 
design, and gathering illustrations for publications. 

The curator of the Index held conferences with important scholars, 
attended meetings, lectured on American folk art to USIA personnel 
and three other groups, and conducted tours for several foreign visi- 
tors interested in Index material. 


The Gallery building, mechanical equipment, and grounds have 
been maintained throughout the year at the established standards. 

Replacement of the sidewalk on the Mall side of the building, be- 
tween Fourth Street and Seventh Street, was accomplished under a 
contract let by the National Park Service, Department of the Interior. 

The Gallery entered into contracts for the conversion of a pas- 
senger elevator from manual to automatic operation and for the com- 
plete renovation of the skylight on the west wing of the building. 
Work under these contracts will be completed during the next fiscal 
year. The passenger elevator conversion will complete the program 
of converting all such elevators to automatic control. 

Storm windows were installed at the windows in the Print Storage 
Room to eliminate the condensation which formed on the inside of 
the windows during cold weather. This treatment is planned for all 
other windows in the building as funds become available. 

The Gallery greenhouse continued to produce flowering and foliage 
plants in quantities sufficient for all decorative needs of special open- 
ings and day-to-day requirements of the Garden Courts. 


During the fiscal year 1963 Lectour, the Gallery's electronic guide 
system, was used by 66,321 visitors. This reduction in the use of 
the system as compared with fiscal year 1962 is largely due to the fact 
that it was not feasible to operate the system during the 27 days of 
the Mona Lisa exhibition. 

Lobby D, the room in which recent acquisitions are exhibited, was 
wired for Lectour by the Gallery staff; Lectour talks can now be pro- 
vided for all new acquisitions. 


Forty Sunday evening Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation concerts 
were given during the year in the East Garden Court. The National 
Gallery of Art Orchestra, conducted by Richard Bales, played eight 


of these concerts. Two concerts were made possible in part by a grant 
from the Music Performance Trust Fund of the American Federation 
of Musicians. The National Gallery Strings, conducted by Mr. 
Bales, furnished music during the openings of two Gallery exhibitions 
during the year. The concert on Sunday evening, October 21, 1962, 
was dedicated to United Nations Day. Six Sunday evenings, from 
April 28 to June 2, were devoted to the Gallery's 20th American Music 
Festival. All concerts were broadcast in their entirety by radio sta- 
tion WGMS-AM and FM. Wasliington music critics continued their 
coverage of these concerts. During the intermissions of the con- 
certs, talks were delivered by members of the staff of the Educational 
Department on art topics, and by Mr. Bales on the musical programs 
of the evening. The Gallery orchestra, conducted by Mr. Bales, 
played two concerts at Hammond High School in Alexandria, Va. 
Four 1-hour long concerts were taped by the National Gallery or- 
chestra, Mr. Bales conducting, and were televised on WTOP-TV. 
Paintings from the Gallery's collections were featured. Mr. Bales 
spoke to three groups on music, and was commissioned by the Grego- 
rian Institute of America to write six piano pieces entitled "Holiday 
at the White House." The National Gallery orchestra and Mr. Bales 
received a citation from the American Association of University 
Women for the cultural and educational contribution made to the 
community by their television programs. 

In response to requests, 54,489 copies of "An Invitation to the Na- 
tional Gallery of Art" and 1,602 information booklets were distributed 
to Congressmen and various organizations holding conventions in 

Henry B. Beville, head of the photographic laboratory, and his 
assistants, processed 20,347 items including negatives, prints, slides, 
color transparencies, and color separations. 

A total of 200 permits were issued to persons to copy works of art, 
and 169 permits to photograph were issued. 


An audit of the private funds of the Gallery will be made for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1963, by Price Waterhouse and Co., public 
accountants. A report of the audit will be forwarded to the Gallery. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Huntington Cairns, Secretary. 
Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary., Smithsonian Institution. 

Report on the Canal Zone Biological Area 

Sir : It gives me pleasure to present herewith the annual report on 
the Canal Zone Biological Area for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1963. 


Following is the list of 87 scientists, students, and observers who 
made use of tlie Canal Zone Biological Area facilities on the mainland, 
and/or visited Barro Colorado Island last year and stayed for several 
days in order to conduct scientific research or observe the wildlife of 
the area. In addition, scientists of other research and teclmical organi- 
zations in the Canal Zone and the Republic of Panama made use of 
station facilities. 

Akre, Mr. and Mrs. Roger D., 

Kansas State University. 
Anderson, William, 

Gridley, Calif. 
Andrews, H. T., 

"Washington University. 
Ayensu, Edward S., 

Smithsonian Institution. 
Barghoorn, Dr. and Mrs. Elso S., 

Harvard University. 
Barth, Dr. Robert, 

Harvard University. 
Bennett, Dr. and Mrs. Charles, Jr., 

University of California. 
Bishop, Alison, 

Cornell University. 
Blake, Doris H. 

Smithsonian Institution. 
Blest, Dr. Andrew David, 

University College, London. 
Brown, Floyd, 

"Washington University. 
Brown, Dr. "William L., 

Cornell University. 
Chapin, Dr. and Mrs. James P., 

American Museum of Natural 
Cochran, Dr. Doris, 

Smithsonian Institution. 

Principal interest 
Myrmecophiles associated 

with army ants. 




Behavior and physiology of 

Ecology and microclimatology. 

Behavior of primates. 


Behavior of Lepidoptera. 

Behavior and ecology of 

amphibians and reptiles. 
Behavior and ecology of ants. 






Collier, Dr. George, 

San Diego State College. 
Covich, Alan, 

"Washington University. 
Dressier, Dr. Robert L., 

Washington University. 
Duellman, Dr. William E., 

University of Kansas. 
Eisenmann, Dr. Eugene, 

New York, N.Y. 
Eisendrath, Mrs. Erna, 

Washington University. 
Elofson, Dr. Olaf, 

Sundsvall, Sv^eden. 
Eyde, Dr. Richard H., 

Smithsonian Institution. 
Fisher, Dr. and Mrs. Kenneth B., 

West Covina, Calif. 
Flinn, Michael, 

Inst, of Laryngology and Otology, 
Greenwell, Frank, 

Smithsonian Institution. 
Handley, Dr. Charles, 

Smithsonian Institution. 
Harty, Dr. Stephen T., 

Mount Holly, N.J. 
Heatwole, Dr. Harold, 

University of Puerto Rico. 
Hecht, Dr. Max K., 

Queens College, New York. 
Hilger, Julie, 

Duke University. 
Holgerson, Dr. Holger, 

Stavauger, Norway. 
Hughes, Dr. and Mrs. B., 

Bogotd, Colombia. 
Hunt, George, 

Harvard University. 
Kamstedt, Brit, 

Stavanger, Norway. 
Kremer, Dr. Peter, 

Washington University. 
Leen, Nina, 

Life Magazine, New York, N.Y. 
Lewis, Harold, 

Life Magazine, New York, N.Y, 
Livermore, Mr. and Mrs. J. W., 

West Redding, Conn. 
Livingston, Luzern G., 

Narberth, Pa. 

Principal interest 
Behavior and ecology of 






Observation of wildlife. 


Observation of wildlife. 

Study of bats and acoustic 
organs of various neotropical 

Assistant to Dr. Handley. 


Behavior and ecology of amphibians, 

reptiles, and arachnids. 
Behavior and ecology of 


Littoral marine entomology. 

Observation of wildlife. 

Behavior and ecology of 

Assistant to Dr. Holgerson. 


Photography of primates. 

Assistant to Miss Leen. 

Observation of wildlife. 




Loftin, Horace, 

Florida State University. 
MacArtliur, John C, 

Marlboro College. 
MacArtliur, John W., 

Marlboro College. 
Matthews, Henry, 

Lansdowne, Pa. 
McKitterick, Dr. Andy, 

Cornell University. 
Meseth, Earl, 

Washington University. 
Myers, Charles W., 

University of Kansas. 
Nelson, Kurt, 

Chicago, 111. 
Nickerson, Dr. Norton, 

Washington University. 
Norcross, Mrs. Emily, 

Washington University. 
Ortleb, Edward, 

Washington University. 
Outten, Dr. L. M., 

Mars Hill College. 
Pavelko, Charlotte, 

Pasadena, Calif. 
Prescott, Dr. and Mrs. G. W., 

University of Montana. 
Pye, Dr. and Mrs. David, 

Inst, of Laryngology and 
Otology, London. 
Rassmussen, Mr. and Mrs., 

Washington University. 
Raven, Mrs. Yvonne, 

Ajnerican Museum of Natural 
Rettenmeyer, Dr. and Mrs. Carl, 

Kansas State University. 
Reynard, Dr. George B., 

Riverton, N.J. 
Risebrough, Dr. R. W., 

Howard University. 
Ross, Dr. and Mrs. R. D., 

Ambler, Pa. 
Ruckes, Dr. and Mrs. Herbert, 

American Museum of Natural 
Sartori, Alexandra, 

Harvard University. 
Sexton, Dr. Owen J., 

Washington University. 

PrincApal interest 
Ecology of fresh-water fish. 

Ecology of birds. 

Ecology of birds. 


Behavior of cockroaches. 

Assistant to Dr. Sexton. 


Observation of wildlife. 



Behavior and ecology of amphibians 

and reptiles. 

Observation of wildlife. 


Study of bats and acoustic organs of 
vai'ious neotropical animals. 

Ecology of amphibians and reptiles. 

Observation of widlife. 

Behavior and ecology of army ants. 

Sound recordings of bird songs and 

Observation of wildlife. 



Observation of wildlife. 

Behavior and ecology of amphibians 
and reptiles. 



Stern, Dr. William L., 

Smithsonian Institution. 
Strandtmann, Dr. and Mrs. R. W., 

Texas Technological College. 
Swinebroad, Dr. Jeff, 

Rutgers State University. 
Taylor, Dr. Edward, 

Lawrence, Kans. 
Tyson, Edwin L., 

Florida State University. 
Wetmore, Dr. Alexander, 

Smithsonian Institution. 
Willis, Edwin O., 

University of California. 
Wilson, Mrs. Mae, 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
Zweifel, Dr. and Mrs. Richard G., 

Ajnerican Museum of Natural 


Approximately 155 visitors were permitted to visit the island for a 

Table 1. — Annual rainfall, Barro Colorado Island, Canal Zone 

Principal interest 




Bat populations. 


Ecology and behavior of birds and 

army ants. 
Observation of wildlife. 

Ecology of amphibians. 








104. 37 
118. 22 
101. 52 

123. 30 
113. 52 
101. 73 
122. 42 
143. 42 


124. 13 
117. 09 
115. 47 



111. 10 

120. 29 

113. 56 

114. 68 

106. 56 
101. 51 

104. 69 

105. 76 
105. 32 

107. 04 
110. 35 

108. 98 
110. 12 
110. 62 
110. 94 

109. 43 
108. 41 

108. 55 

109. 20 


111. 96 
120. 42 



83. 16 

114. 86 


112. 72 

104. 97 

105. 68 
114. 42 
114. 05 

100. 20 

140. 07 
100. 21 
100. 52 

109. 30 



109. 84 


1946 .- - - 

108. 81 




107. 49 


106. 43 






106. 76 

1931- - - - 

107. 07 



107. 28 
106. 94 





106. 87 
106. 82 











107. 09 
107. 30 

1938 _ 

106 98 


106. 70 


106. 48 



107. 41 
106. 95 


107. 07 


Table 2. — Comparison of 1961 and 1962 rainfall, Barro Colorado Island (inches) 




Years of 

1962 excess or 

excess or 











10. 13 

8. 43 

2. 14 














+ 1.89 

+ 1.71 

+ .77 
+ 3.23 


— 0. 92 


March. _ _ 

— 2.05 


— 3. 66 











+ 3.25 
— 2.31 





100. 21 

100. 52 

107. 07 

— 6.55 

Dry season 

Wet season. 




— 3. 66 



The only major construction on Barro Colorado last year was a new 
boathouse. This will provide additional space for protection of the 
launches, speedboats, and canoes. 

Maintenance activities on the island continued as usual. All houses 
were painted and their roofs repaired ; new rain gutters were installed ; 
the motor of the launch Snook and the three generators were com- 
pletely overhauled ; all the trails were cleared ; and extensive repairs to 
the animal cages and pens were completed. 

The expansion of the library also continued. New equipment was 
provided for both the library and the office. 

Two guards were hired to maintain a constant patrol of the island. 
Tliis has greatly alleviated the problem of poaching. 


The director continued research on the behavior of passerine birds 
and primates. Edwin L. Tyson completed liis study of bat popula- 
tions on the island, and Robert M. King finished work on the cyto- 
taxonomy of Panamanian Compositae. A new scientific aide, 
Thomas Crebbs of Eutgers University, has begim a study of the 
ecology, population structure, and behavior of several species of 
Fringillidae in the Canal Zone and adjacent parts of the Republic 
of Panama. 



Trust funds for the maintenance of the ishxnd and its living facili- 
ties are obtained by collections from visitors and scientists, table 
subscriptions, and donations. 

The following institutions continued their support of the laboratory 
through the payment of table subscriptions: Eastman Kodak Co., 
New York Zoological Society, and Smithsonian Institution. A new 
table subscription was received this year from Kansas State Univer- 
sity. Donations are also gratefully acknowledged from Dr. Eugene 
Eisenmann and C. M. Goethe. 


The research program of the bureau will expand considerably in 
the coming year. 

Two new scientists will be added to the permanent staff : Dr. Robert 
L. Dressier and Dr. Neal G. Smith. Dr. Dressier is a botanist and 
Dr. Smith will work on ecology and animal behavior. 

The National Science Foundation has approved a grant to install 
an electric cable from the mainland to the island. This will provide 
a reliable and abundant supply of electric power for the laboratory, 
replacing the costly and deficient generators which have always been 
a serious problem. The Panama Canal Company, which will install 
the cable, has already started preliminary work. It is hoped that the 
whole project will be completed before the end of the year. 

As a result of these additions, it will be possible to install new 
equipment in the laboratory, keep more extensive records of scientific 
data, and build up collections of specimens. In particular, it is 
planned to reorganize and enlarge the herbarium and the botanical 
section of the libraiy as rapidly as possible. 


The Canal Zone Biological Area can operate only with the excellent 
cooperation of the Canal Zone Government and the Panama Canal 
Company. Thanks are due especially to the former Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, Col. "Walter P. Leber; the Executive Secretary, Paul M. Run- 
nestrand, and his staff; the Customs and Immigration officials; and 
the Police Division. Also deeply appreciated are the technical advice 
and assistance provided by P. Alton Wliite, former chief of the 
Dredging Division, and members of his staff, and C. C. Soper of the 
Eastman Kodak Co. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Martin H. Moynihan, Director. 
Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

Report on the National Air Museum 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activities 
of the National Air Museum for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1963 : 

Staff studies and planning for the new National Air Museum Build- 
ing and exhibit continued. The fiscal 1964 budget presented to the 
Congress included planning funds for the new building. 

Public interest in the historical air and space flight exhibit of the 
Museum continued to increase. The visitor count in the Air and 
Space Building for fiscal year 1963 was 2,673,618. For fiscal year 
1962 it was 1,986,319. The largest single day's count was 38,355 
(July 15, 1962). 

Many historically significant accessions were received by the Mu- 
seum during the year. Among them were: memorabilia of Col. 
Harold B. Willis, member of the Lafayette Escadrille, from Harold 
B. Willis, Jr. ; original thermometer and barometer used by Dr. John 
Jeffries, first American to fly in a balloon ascension in England, No- 
vember 30, 1784, from Dr. James Howard Means; multiple-stage 
rocket engine cluster for the space probe launch veliicle Juno 11^ from 
the Jet Propulsion Laboratory ; bronze bust of Wilbur Wright, from 
Elmo N. Pickerill ; the original Friendship 7, first U.S. orbital manned 
spacecraft, and flight clothing and gear from the Friendship 7 orbital 
space flight, from NASA ; American flag carried by astronaut Glenn 
on the Friendship 7 flight, from John H. Glenn, Jr. ; four engines used 
on the X-15 aircraft, from the Department of the Air Force; bronze 
sculpture of pioneer Charles S. (Casey) Jones, from the Academy of 
Aeronautics ; medals and other memorabilia of Gen. Claire L. Chen- 
nault, from Mrs. Chennault ; original oil portraits of astronauts Alan 
B. Shepard, Jr., and Jolin H. Glenn, Jr., by artist Bruce Stevenson, 
from Mrs. Stevenson and son ; and the original Sperry airplane Gyro 
Stabilizer and Sperry Gyro Horizon instruments, from the Sperry 
Gyroscope Co. 

Information service continues as an active function of the Museum. 
Historical, technical, and biographical information on air and space 
flight is furnished to authors, researchers, historians, schools. Govern- 
ment agencies, students, and the public. 


No meetings of the Advisory Board were held during the year. 
Member Vice Admiral P. D. Stroop, USN, assigned to duties away 



from Washington, D.C., was replaced by Vice Adm. William A. 
Schoecli. Capt. E. P. Aurand, USN, was appointed alternate for 
Admiral Schoech. 


Many distinguished visitors came to the Museum to see the exhibit 
or to participate in special presentation and commerative ceremonies 
during the year. Among these were President John F. Kennedy; 
Attorney General and Mrs. Robert Kennedy; Astronaut and Mrs. 
John H. Glenn, Jr.; U.S. Senator Clinton P. Anderson; James E. 
Webb, Administrator of NASA; Edmimd Converse, president of 
Bonanza Airlines; His Excellency, Antonio Garrigues, Ambassador 
of Spain, His Excellency, Dr. Roberto T. Alemann, Ambassador of 
the Argentine Republic ; and Lafayette Escadrille pilot, Col. Charles 
H. (Carl) Dolan. 

The director attended several annual meetings of aviation, aero- 
space, and educational organizations and societies. He also visited 
a number of Air Force and Navy bases, the FAA Academy, NASA 
space centers, and contractors of these agencies in the aerospace flight 
program. He lectured frequently on these visits. Much new histori- 
cal material for the museum has resulted. 

Paul E. Garber, head curator and historian, and curators Louis S. 
Casey and Kenneth E. Newland represented the Museum at a number 
of aviation and aerospace meetings during the year and spoke on the 
work of the Museum. Mr. Garber delivered 40 lectures. 


Continuing experiments with display techniques in the Air and 
Space Building provide valuable experience in planning the exhibits 
for the new building. 


Storage, restoration, preservation, and the preparation of specimens 
for display in the new building continue at the Silver Hill, Md. 


A variety of services were extended during the year to the Federal 
Aviation Agency, NASA, the Library of Congress, the Department 
of Justice, the U.S. Navy, and the U.S. Air Force. 


The library, reference files, and photographic files of the Museum 
have increased in valuable research materials during the year. As 
space permits, these are bemg integrated into the files for the use of 
the Museum staff and other researchers. 


The cooperation of the following persons and organizations in pro- 
viding tliis material is sincerely appreciated and acknowledged : 

Ais FOKCE, Department of the, Air National Guard Bureau, Washington, D.C. : 
Photostats, clippings, and typed pages, describing activities of the Air National 
Guard in Arkansas. 

Air Force, Db:partment of the ; Charles V. Epplet, Edwards AFB, Calif. : 
Photos of Air Force parachutes, aircraft, and engines. 

Allen, Maj. Gen. Brooke E., Washington, D.C. : 1 booklet. The Boiling Story. 

American Aviation Publications, Inc., Washington, D.C. : Book, Aviation Age, 
June 1953, "Key to Survival — Research and Development." 

Army Missile Command, Redstone Arsenal, Ala. : Jupiter C drawings. 

Baker, Miss Mary C, San Diego, Calif. : Four pages of photostats of a letter 
to Miss Baker from her brother regarding the construction of the floats for the 
entire Curtiss hydroplane. 

Baldwin, Leon C, Fulton, N.Y. : Photostatic copy of a letter to the donor from 
Miss Ruth Curtiss, pertaining to the Baldwin airship. Signal Corps No. 1, 
which was designed and built by Thomas Scott Baldwin and powered by an 
engine developed by Glenn Curtiss. 

Balzer, Vernon W., Palos Verdes Estates, Calif. : Approximately 250 papers, 
being mostly correspondence, between Stephen M. Balzer (the donor's father) 
and Samuel P. Langley, Secretai-y of the Smithsonian Institution, his assistants 
including Charles M. Manly, and his successors including Dr. Charles G. 
Abbot, for the period November 5, 1898, to January 25, 1932. 

Bellanca, Mrs. Dorothy, Galena, Md. : Periodicals, "L'Aeroteconica" Italian 
technical reports ; "Air Ministry Aeronautical Research Committee Report 
and Memoranda" ; "Commissariala Dell Aeronautica" ; "Monografie Scientifiche 
Di Aeronautica" ; "The Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society" ; "Ameri- 
can Helicopter" ; 1 book. The Fighting Tanks Since 1916, by R. E. Jones, G. H. 
Rarey, and R. J. Icks ; photos and lists of Bellanca Aircraft ; brochure, etc. 

BoBn)ECKER, Kenneth S., East Orange, N.J. : Boedy's Alium, mounted photos of 
aviation personalities including negatives and index to mounted collection. 

Brazalton, David, Bartonville, 111. : 3 plate tracings of the Naval Aircraft 
Factory's N3N-3 convertible seaplane and Curtiss SOC-1 Seagull. 

British Embassy, Washington, D.C. : 3 photos, A-49,499 Vickers Vimy ; A-49,- 
499-A Vickers Vimy ; A-49-499-B Alcock and Brown ; photostat of The New 
York Herald, Monday, June 16, 1919, front page. 

Burton, Sqd. Ldr. John, British Embassy, Washington, D.C. : Manuals on the 
Mosquito MK 35 (De Havilland). 

Caproni DiTaliedo, Countess Gianni, Italy: 3 books, Timina Caproni Guasti 
and Achille Bartarelli, L' Aeronautica Italiana NelV Imagine 1487-1875 (Milan, 
Museo Caproni, 1938) ; Timina Caproni Guasti and Achille Bertarelli, Fran- 
cesco Zamheccari Aeronauta, Bologna (1752-1812) (Milan, Museo Caproni, 
1932) ; Gli Acroplani Caproni. 

Carcoran, Donald, Burns, Oreg. : Scrapbook containing 11 photos, 6 newspaper 
clippings of Henry Toneray and his helicopter. 

Cassogneres, Everett F., East Haven, Conn. : Photocopies of articles describ- 
ing the Ryan Aeronautical Co., their ST trainer airplane, and the Menasco D-4 
engine used to power this airplane; 1 photo of the Ryan STA airplane built 
in 1936, now owned and flown by the donor. 

Clark, Barrett, New York, N.Y. : 4 records, RLP 3401 "Wonderland of Science," 
a child's introduction to the automobile and the airplane; Riverside 5508 
"World War I Fighter Planes in Action" ; Riverside RLP 5505 "Air Force" ; 
Riverside RLP 5510 "World War II Combat Planes in Action." 


Clark, Edwin R., Fitchburg, Mass. : Two newspapers, Springfield Republican, 
Monday, June 18, 1928 ; Boston Traveler, Tuesday, June 19, 1928. 

Clevengek, Cloyd p., D.F., Mexico : A multiautographed book. Modern Flight, by 
Cloyd P. Clevenger, illustrated by Clayton Knight, 

COFFYN, KiNGSLAND A., Philadelphia, Pa. : 1 photo album ; 1 scrapbook contain- 
ing newspaper articles and photographs. 

Cross, John W., Washington, D.C. : 28 issues of the Official Airline Guide. 

Crowther, G. Rodney, III, Chevy Chase, Md. : 2 photographic prints 8 by 10 
inches taken of Echo I satellite at 1,000 miles altitude, September 3, 1960. 

Day, Cuktiss, Elkhart, Ind. : Holterman scrapbook. 

Day, Mrs. Gladys, Pacific Palisades, Calif.: Charles H. Day memorabilia; 
1 scrapbook from Charles Healy and Gladys Day. 

Doubleday & Co., Inc., Garden City, N.Y. : 4 flat-disk phonograph records, 33% 
rpm longplaying records, "Sounds of the U.S. Air Force, 191(>-1960, Blast 
Off" ; "America's First Man in Orbit," astronaut John Glenn in Friendship 7; 
Aurora-!, astronaut Scott Carpenter; Sigma-7 astronaut Wally Schirra. 

FisKE, Mrs. Garnder, Boston, Mass. : Scrapbook of G. H. Fiske ; front page of 
May 22, 1927, issue of "La Presse" showing purported photo of Lindbergh; 
framed print containing two pictures, one showing ascent of Englishman, 
Cocking, in parachute basket; second shows tragic collapse of parachute 
during descent; framed print showing an exact representation of the first 
aerial ship Eagle. 

Frantz, Harry W., United Press International, Washington, D.C. : Articles 
on early press flights, "Atlantic Clipper Pioneers Air Route Through Pillars 
of Hercules," June 22, 1939 ; "Trans-Atlantic Press Flight, Atlantic Clipper," 
June 17-25, 1939 ; "Across the Andes," dated November 4, 1943. 

Gainer, J. E., American Airlines, Washington, D.C. : A group of Glenn L. Mar- 
tin aircraft specifications in the form of press releases ; a report on the German 
commercial airline the Deutsche Luft-Hansa by O. E. Kirchner. 

General Precision, Inc., Link Division, Binghamton, N.Y. : Data on Link 

Hall, Mrs. Roger T., Cabin John, Md. : Framed color print of Montgolfier free 
flight balloon ; framed color print of Charles balloon landing after first free 

Hildes-Heim, Erik, Fairfield, Conn. : A 32-page illustrated leaflet titled, "Aero- 
nautics in New York State" by Preston R. Bassett, reprinted from "New York 
History" journal ; papers and photos pertaining to Dr. William W. Christmas. 

I.A.S. Student Activities, David Katjeman, New York, N.Y. : 37 films. 

Ipland, J. C, St. Petersburg, Fla. : 2 photos, J. D. Hill's airplane at Hadley 
Airport : Mr. Hill and Col. John Brown. 

Jarrett, Col. G. B., Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. : Copies of drawings of 
British, German, and French World War I aerial bombs; copy of drawing 
of Flechettes. 

Juptner, Joseph P., Orange, Calif. : Book, U.S. Civil Aircraft, ATO Numher- 
1 to 100, Vol. I by donor. 

Kerley, Robert V., Detroit, Mich. : Air Service Engineering Division Report, 
September 16, 1924, Engine Performance Curves and Sectional Views; Develop- 
ment of Aircraft Engines by R. Schlaifer and Development of Aviation Fuels 
by S. D, Heron, bound in one volume; Aviation Fuels and their Effects on 
Engine Performance, NAVAER — 02-1-511; Aviation Fuels and their Effects 
on Engine Performance and Research on Aviation Spark Plug Problems by the 
Ethyl Corp. 

Keknan, Stafford, Washington, D.O. : 2 books. World Aviation Annual, 1948; 
American Heroes of the War in the Air. 


Key, William G., Washington, D.C. : 2 books, OU Aeroplani Caproni; also other 
material on Caproni. 

Laibd, E. M., Boca Raton, Fla. : Laird Airplane Co., brochure. 

Lamb, Dr. W. Kaye, Dominion Archivist, Pdblic Archives of Canada, Ottavs'a, 
Canada : 2 drawings of general arrangements FC-2W2 landplane, general 
arrangements FC-2W2 seaplane (modified FC-2W). 

Lewis, Fkedemc, New York, N.Y. : Fifteen 5- by 7-inch glass negatives of Wright 
1911 glider at Kitty Hawk, N.C. 

Manning, Wing Cmdr. R. V., Royal Canadian Air Force, Ottawa, Canada : 
2 volumes containing excerpts from RFC and RAF communiques of World 
War I. 

McCall, Mrs. E. F., Oxford, Miss. : 31 pieces of correspondence from Chanute, 
W. Wright, Dr. Abbot, and Bellanca ; 140 pages of assorted papers on "The 
Soaring Flight of Birds" and ''The Construction of a Small Aeroplane." 

McCauley, Ernest G., Fort Lauderdale, Fla.: 2-page report by Mr. McCauley 
titled "Commemorating the Flight of the Spirit of St. Louis" ; "Thrust for 
the Air Age" by Ted Durosko, a reprint from "Flying," November 1958, Ziff- 
Davis Publishing Co. 

McComb, Robert P., Moultrie, Ga., and Miller, Howard M., Fort Wayne, Ind. : 
71 copies of outdated magazines, "Popular Aviation" ; "Aerial Age Weekly" ; 
"Western Flying"; "Sperryscope" ; "Flight"; "Model Airplane News"; "U.S. 
Air Services." 

Meyer, Robert B., Bethesda, Md. : Book, An Airplane in Every Oarage, by 
Daniel R. Zuck. 

Moorehouse, Harold E., Williamsport, Pa. : 48 5- by 4-inch photos from the 
flying pioneers biographies used in A.A.H.S. 

Murphy, Sherwin, St. Joseph, Mich. : Copy of unfinished biography on Augustus 

Nathanson, Harey D., Brooklyn, N.Y. : 2 manuals, Details of Aerial Bombs 
by Air Ministry, February 1918 ; Silhouettes of Aeroplanes by Unknown. 

Navy, Department of the, Washington, D.C. : 441 photographs from Adm. J. L. 
Callan's photograph album. 

Newland, Kenneth E., Alexandria, Va. : Book, Spitfire, by John W. R. Taylor 
and Maurice F. Allward, 1946. 

Norman, Wallace, Warren, Mich. : Three-view drawing of Curtiss Robin Air- 

Oakes, Robert S., National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C. : Handbook 
titled Instrtictions for the Care and Operation of Model A-l-E Hispano-Suiza 
Aeronautical Engines. It was published during July 1918 by the Wright- 
Martin Aircraft Corp. of New Brunswick, N.J. 

Parrish, Wayne W., American Aviation Publications, Washington, D.C. : 
Assorted aviation material. 

Pawley, William D., Miami, Fla.: Booklet, Americans Valiant and Qlorious, 
a brief history of The Flying Tigers by William D. Pawley. 

Prince, Frederick H., Jr., Old Westbury, N.Y. : 3 bound volumes of "La Gueri'e 
Aerienne" for the period of November 1910 to May 1918. 

Read, Rear Adm. Albert C, Miami, Fla. : 1 book. The Flight Across the Atlantic, 
by Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor Corp. ; a biographical sketch and service record 
of Rear Admiral Read ; numerous cablegrams and naval signal dispatches ; 
N-C-4 flight reports; pilots report, N-C-4; Radio Report-Trans Atlantic 
flight ; newspaper clippings ; magazine articles ; U.S. Department of Agriculture 
Weather Bureau maps. 

Reynolds, Bruce C, Santa Barbara, Calif. : Barnstorming with Bamhart as 
told to Bruce Reynolds by George E. Barnhart. 
720-018—64 16 


Spangler, Charles B., Mountain View, Calif. : A book, America's First Spaceman, 
by Jewel Spangler Smaus and Charles B. Spangler. An autographed copy. 

Spargo, John, Old Bennington, Vt. : Postcards from the Oaproni Aeroplant in 
Italy collected in 1918. 

Springer, Thomas Eric, Los Angeles, Calif. : 60 photos ; 1 souvenir issue of 
Douglas Aircraft 50th Anniversary of Naval Aviation ; various newspaper clip- 
pings on Mr. Springer ; biographical sketch. 

Stadlman, Anthony, San Francisco, Calif. : Photos, drawing, biographical 
sketch, and newspaper clippings. 

Talbott, Mrs. H. E., New York. N.T. : Album of photos of the Dayton Wright Co. 

Trainor, George E., Ford Motor Co., Washington, D.C. : Films, "This is Aero- 
nautronic" and "Blue Scout." 

Teuitt, James M., The Washington Post, Washington, D.C. : Memorabilia of 
James R. McConnell. 

Vernon, Victor, St. Petersburg, Fla. : Scrapbook of Victor Vernon. 

Vincent, Sydney A., St. Petersburg, Fla. : 4- by 5-inch photos of Park A. Van 
Tassell's balloon ; Ivy Baldwin's balloon ; S. A. Vincent gliders ; Ivy Baldwin's 

Walker Company, L. L., Houston, Tex. : 15 books and pamphlets on airport, 
aircraft, and engines, etc. 

Winter, Henry, San Cleinente, Calif. : 1 canceled check of the Aeronautical 
School of Engineers (June 1911). 

Young, Edward H., St. Louis, Mo. : Booklet, Instone Air Line Time Table, dis- 
tributed in the fall of 1921. 

Zonta International, Chicago, 111. : Photo of Amelia Earhart ; portrait, head 
and shoulders. 


Additions to the National Aeronautical and Space Collections 
received and recorded during the fiscal year 1963 totaled 443 specimens 
in 81 separate accessions, as listed below. Those from Government 
departments are entered as transfers unless otherwise indicated; 
others were received as gifts or loans. 

Academy of Aeronautics, La Guardia Airport. New York, N.Y. : Life-size bronze 
bust of Charles S. (Casey) Jones, pioneer aviator, educator, and founder of 
the Academy of Aeronautics (N.A.M. 1381). 

Air Force, Department of the, McClellan Air Force Base, Calif. : Collection 
of 213 models, 1: 72 size, modeled by Roy S. Stone (N.A.M. 1360). Andrews 
Air Force Base. Md. : Gun camera from F-86A aircraft (N.A.M. 1364). 
Systems Command, Washington, D.C. : XN-1, first U.S. all-inertial autonavi- 
gator to be successfully flight tested on a system; XN-2, first U.S. stellar- 
inertial autonavigator to successfully track stars in daylight flight (N.A.M. 
1382) . Systems Comiiand, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio : Thiokol 
XLR-11 Rocketjets with serial Nos. 5, 6, 13, and 14. These engines powered 
the X-15 aircraft (N.A.M. 1379). 

American Airlines, Washington, D.C. : Diorama-type model of an American 
Airlines Boeing 707, showing interior layout of aircraft (N.A.M. 1344). 

Avco Research and Advanced Development, Wilmington, Mass. : Original nose 
cap of the RVXl-5 nose cone test vehicle (N.A.M. 1401). 

Bonanza Airtjnes, Las Vegas, Nev. : Model of the Fairchild F-27 as flown by 
Bonanza Airlines (N.A.M. 1357). 


Brown, Maj. Kimbeough S., Bedford, Mass. : Contemporary French tapestry 

commemorating Lindbergh's flight to Paris (N.A.M. 1345). 
Bryant, Glenn D., Mississippi State College, State College, Miss. : Roll of 

gas cell material from airship Shenandoah (N.A.M. 1347). 
Champlin, William H., Jr., Rochester, N.H. : Verville Sports Trainer aircraft, 

single engine, two-place biplane (N.A.M. 1392). 
Chennault, Mrs. Claire L., Washington, D.C. : Memoi-abilia of General Claire L. 

Chennault including 20 medals and awards plus a Chinese scroll recounting 

the history of the Flying Tigers (N.A.M. 1387). 
Chrysler Motors Corp., Detroit, Mich. : Scale model of Mercury Redstone launch 

vehicle used in flight by Astronaut Alan Shepard, May 5, 1961 (N.A.M. 

Cochran, Miss Jacqueline, New York, N.Y. : 1961 General Electric Trophy for 

outstanding achievement in aviation. Distinguished Service Medal, and Medal 

of the French Legion of Honor, all awarded to the donor (N.A.M. 1343). 
Da VIES, Col. John M., Falls Church, Va. : Crash helmet worn by donor in Italy, 

World War I (N.A.M. 1374). 
DeSibotjr, Mrs. Robinson, Washington, D.C. : Bronze medal commemorating the 

first North Pole flight of Richard E. Byrd, May 9, 1926 (N.A.M. 1353). 
Di Taliedo, Dr. Giovanni Caproni, Milano, Italy: Caproni Commemorative 

Gold Medal (N.A.M. 1352). 
Doolittle, Gen. James H., Redondo Beach, Calif. : Five personal watches either 

used by or awarded to the donor (N.A.M. 1398). 
Dornier-Werke, Germany: Model of Dornier DO-28 aircraft (N.A.M. 1355). 
Douglas Aircraft Co., Washington, D.C. : Model of a Douglas DC-2 aircraft 

(N.A.M. 1369). 
Druoker, Leslie, Chicago, 111. : Copy of gold Glenn Flight Commemorative Medal- 
lion which was presented to Mrs. Glenn (N.A.M. 1410) . 
Fourteenth Air Force Association, Allentown, Pa. : Original American Flag 

used by "Flying Tigers" at General Chennault's headquarters in China, and 

original design of 14th Air Force shoulder patch (N.A.M. 1380). 
Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, Pa. : Aircraft engine combustion starter 

(N.A.M. 1362). 
Galbratth, Fred E., Sr., Rutherford, N. J. : Parts and fragments from the 

America used on Admiral Byrd's transatlantic flight (N.A.M. 1367). 
Gall, Capt. Donated F., Newark, Del. : Piece of outer skin fabric from airship 

Shenandoah (N.A.M. 1384). 
General Motors Corp., Allison Division, Garden City, N.J. : Model of Lockheed 

Electra II, 1 :79 size (N.A.M. 1335). 
Glenn, John H., Jr., Manned Spaceflight Center, Houston, Tex. : Flag carried 

by Glenn on flight of Friendship 7 (N.A.M. 1414). 
Grumman Aircraft Corp., Bethpage, Long Island, N.Y. : Three models of Grum- 
man Aircraft: A2F-1 Intruder; AO-1 MohaivJc; and XF5F-1 Skyrocket 

(N.A.M. 1336). Model of a Grumman W2F-1 aircraft (N.A.M. 1366). Model 

of a Grumman XFlOF-1 Jaguar aircraft (N.A.M. 1370) . 
Hall, Mrs. Robert T., Cabin John, Md. : Purchase of two contemporary prints 

of first Montgolfier flight and the first Charles flight (N.A.M. 1396). 
Hartwick, Herbert D., Cayucos, Calif.: Model of Junkers-Larson JL-6, single 

engine monoplane (purchase) (N.A.M. 1342). 
Hoffman, Mrs. Cora Bennett, Estate of; New York, N.Y. : Memorabilia of J. 

Floyd Bennett (N.A.M. 1371). 
Ivey, Robert C, Parma, Ohio : Model, 1 : 24 size of Fokker F7/3m Southern 

Cross (N.A.M. 1395). 


Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. : Second, third, and fourth stage 
rocket cluster for the space-probe launch vehicle Juno II (N.A.M. 1346). 

Kaylas, Alexander J., New Haven, Conn. : Memorabilia connected with donor's 
activities as a member of the 14th Air Force in World War II (N.A.M. 1400). 

Kelly, Kenneth, Bethesda, Md. : Two World War I aircraft machineguns : 
one, a Geiman Spandau with ammunition belt and case; the other, a British 
Vickers aircraft machinegun (N.A.M. 1337). 

Klean, Lester E., Bensenville, 111.: Model of Wright brothers' 1903 Flyer (pur- 
chase) (N.A.M. 1399). 

Kuegle, R. p., Hampton Falls, N.H. : Bowlus Baby Albatross sailplane single- 
place pod fuselage with tubular boom support for empenage (N.A.M. 13S8). 

McKnew, Dr. Thomas, National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C. : Seven 
framed color portraits and pictures of astronauts (N.A.M. 1338). 

Martin Company, Baltimore, Md. : Martin Matador Missile (N.A.M. 1372). 

Massin, Alex, Toronto, Canada: Four USAF uniform insignia, World War II 
(N.A.M. 1391). 

Means, Dr. James Howard, Boston, Mass. : An original holograph manuscript 
by Francis Herbert Wenham of England, "On Some Conditions of Aerial 
Flight," delivered by Octave Chanute before the Boston Aeronautical Society, 
March 1, 1897 (N.A.M. 1340). Thermometer and barometer used by Dr. John 
Jefferies in a balloon ascension in England, November 30, 1784, and Jan- 
uary 7, 1785, for first flight across the English Channel. First American to 
fly (N.A.M. 1341). 

Members of WAF and USAF Nurses, New York, N.Y. : Wood inlay picture by 
Paul Spindler of a McDonnell F-101 Voodoo airplane flying over a French 
village (N.A.M. 1363). 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley Research Center, 
Hampton, Va. : Model of Bell X-1 wind tunnel (N.A.M. 1393). Lewis Re- 
search Center, Cleveland, Ohio : General Electric TG-180 turbojet engine 
(N.A.M. 1413). General Electric 1-40 turbojet engine (N.A.M. 1412). Wash- 
ington, D.C. : Friendship 7 spacecraft with manikin and display-rig ; also astro- 
naut's personal equipment (N.A.M. 1368). John Glenn's flight clothing (N.A.M. 

Navy, Department of the, Washington, D.C. : Propeller and drive assembly 
for a fuel pump used on the NC-3 during 1919 flight across Atlantic (N.A.M. 
1349). Bureau of Naval Weapons, Washington, D.C: Aichi M6A1 Sieron 
Aircraft (Japanese), a J-35 aircraft engine and a Liberty engine propeller 
(N.A.M. 1365). Aichi B7A-1 Grace Aircraft, a Japanese Navy carrier bomber 
(N.A.M. 1377). Curtiss N-9 Navy training aircraft. World War II, missing 
components (N.A.M. 1405). Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. : General Elec 
trie electrically operated TG-100 turboprop cutaway (N.A.M. 1356). Naval 
Observatory, Washington, D.C. : A select group of navigation instruments 
illustrative of developmental steps in historical technical progress (N.A.M. 
1351). Navy Air Material Center, Philadelphia, Pa.: Group of five models 
of U.S. Navy types to random scales— N-1, NC-7, HS-3, H-16, and ZR-1 
Shenandoah (N.A.M. 1354). 

Newcomb, Charles J., Trappe, Md. : Wright brothers Model K, 1 : 16 size model 
of 1915 aircraft (purchase) (N.A.M. 1404). 

Newland, Kenneth E., Alexandria, Va. : Scale model of Thor-Able launch 
booster with model of RVXl-5 nose cone on top (N.A.M. 1402). Scale model 
of Jupiter Rocket Launch vehicle used in Able-Baker project (N.A.M. 1407). 

Northrop Aircraft Corp., Hawthorne, Calif. : 1 : 30 model of Northrop T-38 
aircraft in which Jacqueline Cochran established speed records August-Oc- 
tober 1961 (N.A.M.1376). 


Pan Ameeican Aieways System, New York, N.Y. : Six flags and two poles from 

the Yankee Clipper used on transatlantic flights (N.A.M. 3350). 
PiCKEEiLL, E. N., Mineola, N.Y. : Life-size bronze bust of donor (N.A.M. 1359). 

Bronze bust of Wilbur Wright (N.A.M. 1358). 
Ramsey, Mrs. Dewitt, Washington, D.C, : Bas-relief portrait in Wedgwood of 

Sir John Alcocli and a collection of seven prints of watercolors illustrating 

famous flights (N.A.M. 1373). 
Rochester City School District, Rochester, N.Y. : Continental Motors Corp. 

Engine, model A65-8, 4-cylinder, air cooled ; equipped with starter, Stromberg 

carburetor and Sensenich propeller (N.A.M. 1378). Link Aviation Devices, 

Binghamton, N.Y., Trainer No. S-W C-37142 Jitter Bug. Jr. (N.A.M. 1409). 
Rockwell, Col. Paul, Asheville, N.C. : French Voluntaire World War I medal 

awarded to KifEen Rockwell, a member of the Lafayette Escadrille (N.A.M. 

Showers, Mrs. Elsie F. : Aircraft float light, World War II (N.A.M. 1348). 
Soaring Society op America, Los Angeles, Calif. : The "Gold C" and "Diamond 

O" plaques awarded by the Soaring Society of America (N.A.M. 1361) . 
Spanish Air Force, Washington, D.C. : Model of Domier Wal Plus Ultra, first 

aircraft to complete crossing of South Atlantic from Spain to Argentina, 

January 21-31, 1926 (N.A.M. 1385). 
Sperry Gyroscope Co., Great Neck, N.Y. : Gyro stabilizer for airplanes. Used in 

tests aboard a Curtiss "S" Flying Boat at Hammondsport, N.Y., by Lawrence 

Sperry in 1913. Immediate predecessor of the 1914 model which won the 

50,000-fr. safety prize in Paris (N.A.M. 1390). 
Stevenson, Mrs. Bruce and Son, New York, N.Y. : Life-size portrait in oils ; one 

of John H. Glenn, Jr., and the other of Alan B. Shepard, Jr. (N.A.M. 1389). 
Talbot, Mrs. Harold E., New York, N.Y. : Propeller with clock in hub (N.A.M. 

Thaw, A. Blair, Washington, D.C. : Marlin Rockwell machine gun said to have 

been used by Col. William Thaw on his Spad aircraft in World War I (N.A.M. 

Tracy, Daniel, Cleveland, Ohio: Model of Deperdussin aircraft (purchase) 

(N.A.M. 1394). 
Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Va. : Lycoming air-cooled radial 

aviation engine (9 cyl.) Model R-680-BA, serial No. 2,751.240 h.p. (N.A.M. 

WiLLARD, Kenneth A., Los Altos, Calif. : Radio-controlled, gasoline-powered 

model airplane (N.A.M. 1403). 
Willis, Harold B., Jr., Boston, Mass. : Memorabilia of Col. Harold B. Willis as 

a member of the Lafayette Escadrille (N.A.M. 1339). 
Wise, Mrs. Dorothy, Washington, D.C. : Memorabilia of "Flying Tigers" Opera- 
tions in China, World War II, including silk map of Western and Eastern China 

used by Capt. John Birch (N.A.M. 1383). 
Wrigley, Philip K., Chicago 111.: Curtiss 1911 flight control, Westmore pro- 
peller manufactured in Chicago, Curtiss propeller (World War I). Paragon 

propeller (N.A.M. 1415). 

Eespectfully submitted. 

Philip S. Hopkins, Director. 
Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary., Smithsonian Institution. 

Report on the National Cultural Center 

Sir : I have the honor to submit, on behalf of the Board of Trustees, 
a status and financial report on the National Cultural Center for the 
period April 1959 through June 30, 1963. 


Public Law 85-874, September 2, 1958, established the National 
Cultural Center as a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, to be 
directed by a Board of Trustees to be composed as follows : The Sec- 
retary of Health, Education, and Welfare; the Librarian of Congress; 
the Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs; the Chairman 
of the Commission of Fine Arts; the President of the Board of 
Commissioners of the District of Columbia; the Chairman of the 
District of Columbia Eecreation Board ; the Director of the National 
Park Service; the Commissioner of U.S. Office of Education; the 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution; 3 Members of the Senate 
appointed by the President of the Senate and 3 Members of the House 
of Kepresentatives appointed by the Speaker of the House of Kepre- 
sentatives ex officio ; and 15 general trustees who must be citizens of 
the United States. 

Mrs. John F. Kennedy and Mrs. Dwight D. Eisenhower serve as 
honorary cochairmen. 

In addition, the act provided for the establishment of an Advisory 
Committee on the Arts, composed of such members as the President 
may designate to serve at the pleasure of the President. The mem- 
bers of this committee are individuals who are recognized for their 
knowledge of, or experience or interest in, one or more of the per- 
forming arts. 

At the present time, the Board of Trustees and elected officers of 
the Center are as follows : 


Howard F. Ahmanson. 
Floyd D. Akers. 
Lucius D. Battle. 
Ralph E. Becker. 
K. LeMoyne Billings. 
Edgar M. Bronfman. 
John Nicholas Brown. 
Ralph J. Bunche. 


Leonard Carmichael. 
Anthony J. Celebrezze. 
Joseph S. Clark. 
J. William Fulbright. 
Mrs. George A. Garrett. 
Francis Keppel. 
Mrs. Albert D. Lasker. 
George Meany. 


Trus tees — Continued 
L. Quincy Mumford. 
Mrs. Charlotte T. Raid. 
Richard S. Reynolds, Jr. 
Frank H. Rieketson, Jr. 
Leverett Saltonstall. 
Mrs. Jouett Shouse. 
L. Corrin Strong. 

Frank Thompson. 
Walter N. Tobriner. 
William Walton. 
William H. Waters, Jr. 
Conrad L. Wirth. 
Jim Wright. 

Chairman. — Roger L. Stevens. 

Vice Chairman. — L. Corrin Strong. 

Treasurer. — Daniel W. Bell. 

Counsel. — Ralph E. Becker. 

Assistant Secretary. — Mrs. James Cantrell. 

Assistant Treasurers. — Paul Seltzer, Kenneth Birgf eld. 

As directed in the act, the Board shall (1) present classical and 
contemporary music, opera, drama, dance, and poetry from this and 
other countries ; (2) present lectures and other programs ; (3) develop 
programs for children and youth and the elderly in such arts designed 
specifically for their participation, education, and recreation; and 
(4) provide facilities for other civic activities at the Cultural Center. 

Wliile congressional action provided the site upon which the Center 
will be built, it was specified that construction funds should be 
raised by the voluntary contributions of the American people. Con- 
gress therefore authorized a nationwide fund-raising campaign, the 
first such national campaign committed to a cultural enterprise. 


Since the beginning of 1962, the Center has been vigorously engaged 
in a number of varied fund-raising programs: 

(1) Presidents business committee. — Under the chairmanship of 
Ernest E, Breech, formerly chairman, Ford Motor Co., and now di- 
rector and chairman of Trans World Airlines, Inc., a committee has 
been formed to seek contributions to the Center from American indus- 
try and business. The goal set is $6 million, or one-fifth of the total 
cost of the Center. Some of the most prominent businessmen in 
the United States have agreed to serve upon this committee and to 
solicit industrial contributions within those areas with which they 
are identified. 

(2) Seat endowment campaign. — The President has appointed 
Edgar M. Bronfman, president of Joseph E. Seagram & Sons, Inc., 
as chairman of the Seat Endowment Committee. By means of this 
program, individuals and organizations are able to endow a per- 
manent seat in one of the Center's three halls. A tax-deductible 
donation of $1,000 will entitle the donor to lasting recognition as a 
virtual founder of the Center and his gift will be acknowledged by 
a bronze plaque affixed to the back of the seat. 


(3) Service band recordings. — For the first time, the music of the 
four U.S. military bands has been recorded for sale to the public, and 
all profits from the sale of the albums are being given to the Cultural 
Center. The records were released by KCA Victor in May 1963 and 
to date have sold nearly 150,000 copies. The Center receives 95 cents 
per album after the initial overhead of approximately $20,000 has been 

(4) Washington area campaign. — The Greater Washington area, 
under the chairmanship of Mrs. Hugh D. Auchincloss, has been 
charged with the responsibility of raising $7.5 million, or one- fourth 
of the total cost of the Center. The committees have now been formed 
and all fund-raising projects in this area put into vigorous action. 
Involving some 5,000 workers, the programs include a Special Gifts 
Campaign to solicit donations of $1,000 and over, and a General Cam- 
paign enlisting support from the area's schools and imiversities, busi- 
nesses, labor unions, the professions, fraternal orders, etc., for con- 
tributions of up to $1,000. 


With the advent of 1962 the Trustees, feeling that the original $75 
million concept of the Center was unnecessarily costly, asked the archi- 
tect, Edward Durell Stone, to furnish an alternative design. In the 
summer of that year, Mr. Stone provided a series of plans for group- 
ing the three halls (1,200-seat theater; 2,750-seat symphony hall; and 
2,500-seat hall for opera, ballet, and musical theater) under a single 
roof — at less than one-half the original cost. In addition, a garden- 
like roof area, with retractable roof insuring use in all weather, was 
designed to accommodate band concerts, art exhibits, festivals, chil- 
dren's theater, theater-in-the-round, and two restaurants. 

In September 1962 the new model was presented to the Center's two 
honorary cochairmen, Mrs. Kennedy and Mrs. Eisenhower, as well 
as to the Board of Trustees and the Commission of Fine Arts. It was 
received with unanimous enthusiasm and approval. 

The site designated by Congress for the Center is the area in the 
District of Columbia bounded by the Inner Loop Freeway on the east, 
the Theodore Roosevelt Bridge approaches on the south. Rock Creek 
Parkway on the west, and New Hampshire Avenue and F Street on 
the north. 


By June 1963, all the aforementioned fund-raising programs were 
well launched, and prospects of attaining individual program quotas 
were promising. In March 1963 a conditional grant of $5 million 
was secured from the Ford Foundation, payable when the Center's 
fund-raising total reaches $15 million. 

Secretary's Report, 1963 

Plate 15 



In addition to thds welcome boost to the campaign, the Center was 
fortunate in receiving a most generous gift of marble from the Gov- 
ernment of Italy. 

Approaching the expiration of the 5-year term for fund-raising 
specified in the original act, a 3-year extension, to September 1966, 
was pending in Congress at the end of the fiscal year. Under the terms 
of the extension, the number of general trustees will be increased from 
15 to 30. 

While the outset of a national fund-raising campaign of this magni- 
tude must inevitably be slow, the time has now arrived — when we 
have one-third of the total funds required — when we can anticipate 
with confidence the rapid realization of our ultimate goal to create 
in the Nation's Capital a national center for the performing arts. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Roger L. Stevens, Chairman. 
Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary., Smithsonian Institution. 

The National Cultural Center Financial Report for the period 
July 1, 1963, through November 30, 1963, follows: 



Decemler 4, 1963 
Washington, D.C. 

To The Board of Trustees of 
The National Cultural Center 
Washington, D.C. 

Gentlemen : 

We have examined the books and recorcls of THE NATIONAL CULTURAL 
CENTER for the period July 1, 19G3, through November 30, 1963, and submit our 
report herewith as follows : 

Exhibit A— Balance Sheet as of November 30, 1963. 

Exhibit B — Statement of Income, Expenses, and Fund Balance for the 

Month of November 1963 and the Five Months Ended November 30, 1963. 

Exhibit C — Statement of Income, Exj^enses, and Fund Balance for the 

Period from Inception April 1, 1959 through November 30, 1963. 
Exhibit D — Analysis of Cash in Banks for the Period from Inception April 1, 

1959 through November 30, 1963. 
Schedule 1 — Schedule of Time Deposits. 

Schedule 2 — Public Relations and Fund Raising Fees for the Period from 
Inception April 1, 1959 through November 30, 1963. 

Our examination was made in accordance with generally accepted auditing 
standards and accordingly included such tests of the accounting records and 
such other auditing procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. 

In our opinion the accompanying report presents fairly the financial position of 
THE NATIONAL CULTURAL CENTER at November 30, 1963 and the results 
of its operation for the period then ended in conformity with generally accepted 
accounting principles. 

Respectfully submitted, 

(S) John J. Addabbo 
Certified PuMic Accountant 



November 30, 1963 

Cash in banks: 

General accounts : 

National Cultural Center — general 

account $1,006,548.96 

Time deposits— Schedule 1 1, 690, 321. 47 $2, 696, 870. 43 

Reserve accounts: 

National Cultural Center — reserve 

account 40, 156. 37 

Time deposits— Schedule 1 201, 678. 53 247, 834. 90 

Petty cash 619. 37 

Deposit with airlines 850. 00 

Pledges receivable: 

National General Account 5, 439, 167. 00 

National tangible property 1, 168, 000. 00 

National Seat Reserve Account 7, 500. 00 

President's Business Committee 579, 800. 01 

T.V. National 9, 210. 00 

Washington Area Building Fund — general 

account 325, 333. 46 

Washington Area Building Fund — reserve 

account 369, 683. 77 

Washington Area Seat Reserve Account 30, 236. 24 

Washington Area Federal Employee Drive.- 4, 335. 50 
Washington Area Federal Employee Drive — 

Seat Endowment 2, 075. 00 

Washington area tangible property 35, 000. 00 

School Children's Reserve Fund 300. 00 7, 970, 640. 98 

Fixed assets: 

Cost of land — 146,000.00 

Construction costs 348, 870. 57 

Furniture and equipment $6, 466. 67 

Less: Reserve for deprecia- 
tion 2,131.71 4,334.96 499,205.53 

Other assets : 

Videotape — Closed Circuit Telecast assigned 

value 150, 000. 00 

Deferred charges— Creative America 107,000.00 257,000.00 

Total assets 11, 673, 021. 21 


EXHIBIT A — Continued 



Payroll taxes accrued _ $551. 89 

New worth: 

Pledges receivable $7, 970, 640. 98 

Fund balance 3, 701, 828. 34 

Total net worth 11,672,469.32 

Total liabilities and net worth 11, 673, 021. 21 



For the Month of November 1963 and Five Months Ended November 30, 1963 



Five Months 

Contributions and pledges paid in : 
General accounts : 

National General Account _ 

$507, 897. 66 
300, 233. 99 

$1, 531, 492. 95 

President's Business Committee 

689, 149. 99 

Fine Arts Gifts Committee 

5, 000. 00 

Closed Circuit Telecast — net proceeds 

Washington Area Building Fund — general 
account . 

470. 00 

2, 268. 90 

2, 159. 92 

3, 375. 00 

908. 90 
40, 896. 07 

Washington Area Federal Employee Drive- 
Austrian Embassy Benefit — net proceeds. . 
Peter Pan Benefit 


11,247. 11 

3, 875. 00 

Total general accounts 

816, 294. 59 

2, 396, 014. 05 

Reserve accounts: 

National Seat Reserve Account 

1, 200. 00 

2, 051. 69 
1, 400. 00 

1, 000. 00 

457. 67 

1, 145. 00 

7, 000. 00 

Washington Area Building Fund — reserve 

65, 176. 92 

Washington Area Seat Reserve Account 

Washington Area Federal Employee 
Drive — seat endowment 

7, 905. 95 
12, 200. 00 

School Children's Reserve Fund 

18, 840. 18 

John F. Kennedy Memorial Fund 

1, 145. 00 

Total reserve accounts 

7, 254. 36 

112, 268. 05 

Total income 

823, 548. 95 

2, 508, 282. 10 

EXHIBIT B—Continued 


For the Month of November 1963 and Five Months Ended November 30, 1963 



Five Months 

Expenses : 

Salaries — major 

Salaries — D. C 

Extra help 

Depreciation — furniture and equipment. 

Equipment — rental and repairs 


Office supplies and postage 

D.C. area expenses — general 

College Drama Festival 

Band recordin g 

Sousa Memorial Fund 

Seat endowment 

Printing and publicity 



Telephone and telegraph 

Travel and maintenance 

Taxes — payroll and Civil Service 




President's Business Committee 

Federal Employee Drive 

Public relations fees 

Total expenses. 

Excess of receipts over expenses 

Fund balance — beginning of period. 
Fund balance November 30, 1963-- 

$3, 889. 57 

1, 736. 18 



55. 75 


418. 52 

1, 000. 00 

58. 00 

578. 93 
1, 943. 92 

159. 60 

1, 273. 88 

1, 300. 80 


150. 00 

3, 000. 00 

15, 805. 19 

807, 743. 76 
2, 894, 084. 58 

3, 701, 828. 34 

$24, 403. 29 

13, 836. 75 

805. 41 

260. 30 

345. 38 


3, 047. 84 

4, 048. 19 
1, 000. 00 



129. 90 

1, 772. 52 

13, 193. 95 

658. 63 

4, 156. 84 

7, 894. 63 


987. 53 

1, 200. 00 

1, 329. 45 
25, 025. 25 

2, 012. 50 
18, 000. 00 

125. 690. 52 

2, 382, 591. 58 
1, 319, 236. 76 

3, 701, 828. 34 




For the Period From Inception April 1, 1959, Through November 30, 1963 

Income : 

Contributions and pledges paid in: 
General accounts : 

National General Account $1, 778, 157. 44 

President's Business Committee 1, 193, 074. 99 

Fine Arts Gifts Committee 12, 500. 00 

Closed Circuit Telecast — net pro- 
ceeds 362, 205. 44 

Washington Area Building Fund — 

general account 1,147,526.59 

Washington Area Federal Employee fl 

Drive 128,223.28 ■ 

Austrian Embassy Benefit — net pro- 
ceeds 11, 247. 11 

Peter Pan Benefit 3, 875. 00 

Total general accounts $4, 636, 809. 85 

Reserve accounts : 

National Reserve Account 510. 00 

National Seat Reserve Account 17, 666. 58 

Washington Area Building Fund — 

reserve account 170, 202. 60 

Washington Area Seat Reserve Ac- 
count 26, 375. 90 

Washington Area Endowment Fund. 894. 64 

Washington Area Federal Employee 

Drive— Seat Endowment 1 2, 200. 00 

School Children's Reserve Fund 18, 840. 18 

John F. Kennedy Memorial Fund 1, 145. 00 

Total reserve accounts 247,834.90 

Totalincome 4,884,644.75 

Expenses : 

Salaries— major 362, 899. 28 

Salaries— D.C 78,187.14 | 

Salaries— Fine Arts 10,475.87 1 

Extra help 5, 830. 82 

Depreciation — furniture and equipment- . 2, 131. 71 

Equipment — rental and repairs 4, 047. 61 

Meetings 2, 213. 71 

Oflice supplies and postage 20, 243. 32 

D.C. area expenses — general 9, 912. 49 

Fine Arts Gifts Committee 9, 057. 88 

College Drama Festival 1, 000. 00 

Band recording 1, 655. 29 

Sousa Memorial Fund 58. 00 

Seat endowment 1,997.84 

Printing and pubUcity 42, 205. 19 


EXfflBIT C — Continued 

For the Period From Inception April 1, 1959, Through November 30, 1963 

Expenses — Continued 

Promotion $51, 958. 05 

Publications 8, 365. 26 

Telephone and telegraph 36, 191. 94 

Travel and maintenance 83, 255. 38 

Taxes — payroll and Civil Service 14, 728. 45 

Unclassified 1, 973. 37 

Accounting 11, 900. 00 

Insurance 4, 347. 48 

Interest 5, 088. 89 

President's Business Committee 87, 818. 95 

Federal Employee Drive 2, 012. 50 

PubUc relations fees— Schedule 1 320, 009. 99 

Miscellaneous fees 3, 250. 00 

Total expenses $1, 182,816.41 

Excess of receipts over expenses — fund balance 3, 701, 828. 34 


For the Period From Inception April 1, 1959, Through November 30, 1963 

Cash in banks — general account: 

Contributions and pledges paid into general account — Ex- 
hibit C $4, 636, 809. 85 

Payroll taxes withheld 551. 89 

Total received 4, 637, 361. 74 


Operating expenses— Exhibit C $1, 182, 816. 41 

Expenditures to acquire assets: 

Petty cash— Exhibit A 619. 37 

Deposit with airUne — Exhibit A 850. 00 

Fixed assets— Exhibit A. 499, 205. 53 

Other assets— Exhibit A 257,000.00 1,940,491.31 

Cash in banks — general account 2, 696, 870. 43 

Cash in banks — reserve accounts: 

Contributions and pledges paid into reserve accounts — 

Exhibit C 247, 834. 90 

Cash in banks — reserve accounts 247, 834. 90 



November 30, 1963 

Time Deposits per Exhibit A — Balance Sheet: 

General accounts $1, 690, 321. 47 

Reserve accounts 201, 67 . 53 

Total time deposits per balan ce sheet 1, 892, 000. 00 

Schedule of time deposits 




rate per 


American Security & Trust Co 




$40, 000. 00 

Washington, D.C. 




100, 000. 00 




9, 000. 00 




18, 000. 00 




125, 000. 00 




100, 000. 00 

Perpetual Building Association 




200, 000. 00 

Washington, D.C. 

Manufacturers Hanover Trust Co. 




200, 000. 00 

New York, N.Y. 

Irving Trust Co 




200, 000. 00 

New York, N.Y. 

National Bank of Detroit 




200, 000. 00 

Detroit, Mich, 

Morgan Guaranty Trust Co 




200, 000. 00 

New York, N.Y. 

Manufacturers Nat'l Bank of De- 





200, 000. 00 

Detroit, Mich. 

Home Savings and Loan Associa- 

tion. _ 



4. 85 

300, 000. 00 

Beverly Hills, Calif. 

Total time deposits 

1, 892, 000. 00 



For the Period From Inception April 1, 1959, Through November 30, 1963 

Tamblyn and Brown — April 1959 to January 1960 $58, 250. 00 

George A. Brakeley and Co.— April 1960 to June 1961 106, 000. 00 

Randolph G. Bishop— April 1959 to June 1961 25, 749. 99 

Carleton Sprague Smith — August 1960 to February 1961 7, 860. 00 

Lobsenz and Co. — December 1961 to August 1962 68, 000. 00 

Ruder and Finn— August 1962 to January 1963 27, 150. 00 

Thomas Deegan and Co.— February 1903 to November 1963 27, 000. 00 

Total 320, 009. 99 

720-018 — 64 17 

Report on the Library 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activities 
of the Smithsonian library for the fiscal year ended Jime 30, 1963 : 


The acquisitions section received 118,101 publications during the 
year. Included in this total were 3,065 purchased items and 1,057 
journal subscriptions. The rest were received as gifts and exchanges. 
Arrangements were established with 142 scientific and learned or- 
ganizations for the exchange of additional publications, and 1,540 
items required special search to obtain. 

Interested donors presented the library with valuable and diflScuIt 
to locate publications. Some of the outstanding are : 

"Colonial Records, 1660-1790," and "Pennsylvania Archives, 1661-1790," from 
Mrs. William A. McGuire, Johnstown, Pa. 

"Susquehanna Company Papers," edited by Julian P. Boyd, from the Cornell 
University Press. 

Cortesao, Armando, and Avelino Teixeira da Mota. Portugaliae Monumenta 
Cartographica. Lisbon, 19G0. 5 vols, and index, from the Commissao Executiva 
do V Centena'rro da Morte do Infante D. Henrique, Lisbon, Portugal. 

34 volumes from the estate of Mrs. Helen Augusta Mosher, Marblehead, Mass. 

28 volumes on art from the library of the late Henry Salem Hubbell, Miami, 

647 volumes from the estate of Mrs. Dora W. Boettcher, Washington, D.O. 

972 periodicals on electronics from Mrs. J. B. Brady, Somerset, Md. 

Ross, Marvin C. "Catalogue of the Byzantine and Early Mediaeval Antiquities 
In the Dumbarton Oaks Collection," vol. 1, Metalwork, Ceramics, Glass, Paint- 
ings, from the author, Washington, D.C. 

45 issues of the Baltimore Sun Almanac, 1876-1925, from Miss Ruby Smith, 
Washington, D.C. 

American Topical Society. Flowers and botanical subjects on stamps, from 
Dr. Willard F. Stanley, Fredonia, N.Y. 

Bruce, A. W. "The Steam Locomotive in America," from Thomas T. Taber, 
Madison, N.J. 

Antrim, Earl. "Civil War Prisons and Their Covers," from the author. 
Nampa, Idaho. 

Dredge, James. "A Record of the Transportation Exhibits at the World's 
Colnmbian Exposition of 1893," from Mrs. B. B. Bierer, Jr., Washington, D.O. 

Greenwell, G. C. "A Practical Treatise on Mine Engineering, 1855," from 
Cornelius U. S. Roosevelt, Washington, D.C. 

Perlman, Bernard B. "The Immortal Eight, American Painting from Eaktns 
to the Armory Shovi' ( 1870-1913 ) ." 1962. 

Brooks, Van Wyck. "John Sloan, a Painter's Life." 1955. From Mrs. John 
Sloan, Wilmington, Del. 



Duplicate and extraneous materials sent to other libraries amounted 
to 58,818. Of this, 51,512 pieces went to the Library of Congress, 
3,018 to the National Library of Medicine, and 1,375 went to other 
agencies. The section handled a total of 176,919 pieces of material 
during the year. 


The catalog section cataloged 7,146 volumes, recataloged 234 items, 
transferred 203 publications, discarded 583 volumes, recorded 32,981 
serials in the Serial Record, and filed 31,270 cards into the card cata- 
log. In addition, 563 trade catalogs and 1,945 titles of short-form 
cataloging were added to the collection. Cataloging of newly ac- 
quired publications on a current basis was emphasized. 

The binding unit prepared 6,600 volumes of books and journals for 
binding by a commercial binder. The hand-binding staff preserved 
2,957 volumes and pamphlets which were either too fragile or valuable 
to be sent outside the Institution for repair. 


The reference librarians answered 31,769 requests for specific types 
of information, replied to 2,511 pieces of correspondence, circulated 
35,781 books and journals, and cleared the loan records on 28,874 
volumes. No record is kept of the circulation of books and journals 
assigned to the division collections where they circulate freely within 
the division. Publications borrowed from other libraries, chiefly the 
Library of Congress, totaled 6,423, and 992 volumes were lent. The 
reading and reference facilities of the central and branch libraries 
were used by 27,267 persons. 


The branch library for the Museum of History and Technology 
answered 13,057 reference questions, circulated 13,509 books and 
journals, and added 563 trade catalogs to the collection. Visitors 
using the library facilities totaled 6,212. 

The Bureau of American Ethnology branch library answered 1,964 
reference questions, circulated 1,100 books and journals, and provided 
assistance of 1,300 visitors. With improved physical rearrangement 
of the collection, addition of new equipment, and a revised system 
of book selection, the use and importance of this library are developing. 

Procedures for ordering and binding of books and journals were re- 
vised for the branch library of tlie Smithsonian Astrophysical Observ- 
atory, Cambridge, Mass. The number of visitors using this library 
was 7,083, reference questions answered numbered 2,521, and 1,998 
books and journals were circulated. 

A plan to organize and control the collection in the entomology 
branch library was put into operation. A. J. Spohn, formerly with 



the National War College, was appointed librarian to succeed Miss 
Emily Bennett. 


With the addition of the east wing to the Natural History Building, 
the central library acquired new space adjacent to its present location. 
Renovation of this entire area was completed in April. 

Features that contribute to the usefulness of the library consist of 
new equipment, adequate workspace for the staff, reading and brows- 
ing areas, new bookstacks with sliding reference shelves, study carrels, 
electric book lifts, bibliographical and packing areas, a rare book 
room, air conditioning, and good natural and artificial lighting. 

The library for the National Collection of Fine Arts was moved to 
the second floor of the Natural History Building. Floor plans for 
this library, and for the library of the National Portrait Gallery in 
the Patent Office Building, were reviewed, and an estimate for furni- 
ture and equipment was submitted. 


Mrs. Mary A. Huffer was appointed chief of the reference and cir- 
culation section and Jack Marquardt assumed the duties of reference 
librarian in charge of the central reference section. Salvador 
Waller, formerly with the Office of Technical Services, joined the 
catalog section, and Miss Mildred Raitt, formerly with the Chamber 
of Commerce, was appointed order librarian. 

Staff members attended the Special Libraries Association and 
American Library Association annual conferences. Special courses 
and seminars provided the staff with an opportunity for growth and 



Smithsonian central library including the Museum of 

Natural History 

Museum of History and Technology 

Astrophysical Observatory (SI) 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cam- 
bridge, Mass 

Radiation and Organisms 

Bureau of American Ethnology 

National Air Museum 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

National Zoological Park 




Total recorded 
volumes, 1963 


} 353, 774 


13, 407 




2, 167 


39, 894 




14, 519 



431, 548 


Unbound volumes of periodicals and reprints and separates from serial pub- 
lications, of wliich there are many tliousands, have not been included in the 
above totals. 
Exchanges : 

New exchanges arranged 142 

Specially requested publications received 1, 540 

Cataloging : 

Volumes cataloged 9, 888 

Catalog cards filed 31,270 

Serials: Number of serials recorded 32,981 

Circulation : Loans of books and periodicals 35, 781 

Binding and repair : 

"Volumes sent to the bindery 6, 705 

Volumes repaired in the library 2, 957 

Kespectf ully submitted. 

KuTH E. Blanchard, Librarian. 
Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 

Report on Publications 

Sm : I have the honor to submit the following report on the publica- 
tions of the Smithsonian Institution and its branches for the year 
ended June 30, 1963 : 

The publications of the Smithsonian Institution are issued partly 
from federally appropriated funds (Smitlisonian Reports and publica- 
tions of the National Museum, the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
and the Astrophysical Observatory) and partly from private endow- 
ment funds (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, publications of 
the Freer Gallery of Art, and some special publications) . The Institu- 
tion also edits and publishes imder the auspices of the Freer Gallery 
of Art the series Ars Orientalis, which appears under the joint imprint 
of the University of Michigan and the Smithsonian Institution. In 
addition, the Smithsonian publishes for sale to visitors a guidebook, 
a picture pamphlet, postcards and a postcard folder, color slides, a 
filmstrip on Smithsonian exhibits, a coloring book for children, and 
popular publications on scientific and historical subjects related to its 
important exhibits and collections. Through its publication program 
the Smithsonian endeavors to carry out its founder's expressed desire 
for the diffusion of knowledge. 

The chief of the division continued to represent the Smithsonian 
Institution on the board of trustees of the Greater Washington Educa- 
tional Television Association, Inc., of which the Institution is a mem- 
ber, and served on its executive committee. He and the assistant chief 
of the division represented the Institution at the annual meeting of 
the Association of American University Presses held in June at Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Miss Ruth B. MacManus, assistant editor, who had been associated 
with the editorial operations of the Smithsonian Institution since 1928, 
died on November 17, 1962. 

Ernest E. Biebighauser, a member of the editorial staff since 1953, 
left the Institution on January 7, 1963, to accept a position with the 
Coast and Geodetic Survey of the Department of Commerce. 


In this series there were issued 3 papers as follows : 

Volume H5 

No. 3. The problem of the Viduinae in the light of recent publications, by Her- 
bert Friedmann. 10 pp. (Publ. 4506.) July 20, 1962. (50 cents.) 



No. 4. Uniformity among growth layers in three ponderosa pine, by Waldo S. 
Glock, Paul J. Germann, and Sharlene R. Agerter. xiv+375 pp., 71 figs., 13 pis. 
( Publ. 4508. ) February 21, 1963. ( $6. ) 

Volu7ne 146 

No. 1. Aboriginal cultural development in Latin America : An Interpretative re- 
view, edited by Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans, vi+148 pp., 20 figs. 
(Publ. 4517.) June 17, 1963. ($5.) 



The complete volume of the Annual Report of the Board of Regents 
for 1961 was received from the printer on November 15, 1962. 

Annual Rei)ort of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution showing 
the operations, expenditures, and condition of the Institution for the year 
ended June 30, 1961. x+579 pp., illus. (Publ. 4478.) 

The general appendix contained the following papers (Publ. 4479- 

Some astronomical aspects of life In the universe, by Su-Ssu Huang. 

X-rays from the sun, by Herbert Friedman. 

The challenge of space exploration, by Robert C. Seamans, Jr. 

The Smithsonian's satellite-tracking program, by B. Nelson Hayes. 

The main lines of mathematics, by J. L. B. Cooper. 

Early experiments in instrument flying, by James H. Doolittle. 

Three famous early aero engines, by Robert B. Meyer, Jr. 

Organic chemistry : a view and a prospect, by Sir Alexander Todd. 

The new age of the sea, by Philip B. Yeager. 

Drilling beneath the deep sea, by William B. Benson. 

A natural history of trilobites, by H. B. Whittington. 

Chromosomes and the theory of heredity, by C. D. Darlington. 

Tropical climates and biology, by G. S. Carter. 

Outdoor aerobiology, by P. H. Gregory. 

The detection and evasion of bats by moths, by Kenneth D. Roeder and Asher 

E. Treat. 
The honey bee, by James I. Hambleton. 
Evolution, genetics, and anthropology, by A. E. Mourant. 
Australopithicines and the origin of man, by J. T. Robinson. 
The skull of Shanidar II, by T. D. Stewart. 

Heyerdahl's Kon-Tiki theory and its relation to ethnobotany, by F. P. Jonker. 
Minerals in art and archeology, by Rutherford J. Gettens. 


The report of the Secretary, which will form part of the 1962 Annual 
Report of the Board of Regents, was issued January 24, 1963. 

Report of the Secretary and financial report of the Executive Committee of the 
Board of Regents for the year ended June 30, 1062. x+241 pp., 16 pis. (Publ. 



Brief guide to the Smithsonian Institution, new ed. 80 pp., illus. (Publ. 4507.) 

October 9, 1962. (25 cents.) 
Preliminary field guide to the birds of the Indian Ocean, by George E. Watson, 

Richard L. Zusi, and Robert E. Storer. x+214 pp., 19 pis., 17 maps. (Publ. 

4541. ) February 28, 1963. 
Correspondence between Spencer Fullerton Baird and Louis Agassiz — Two 

pioneer American naturalists, collected and edited by Elmer Charles Herber, 

237 pp., 16 pis. (Publ. 4515.) June 21, 1963. ($5.) 
Author-subject index to articles in Smithsonian Annual Reports, compiled by 

Ruth M. Stemple and the Editorial and Publications Division. vi-f200 pp. 

(Publ. 4.503.) January 30, 1963. 


A biographical sketch of James Smithson. 20 pp., illus. (PubL 2276.) April 23, 

1963. (50 cents.) 
Anthropology as a career, by William C. Sturtevant. 20 pp. (Publ. 4343.) 

April 12, 1963. ( 20 cents. ) 
The story of transportation, by E. John Long. 36 pp., illus. (Publ. 4312.) 

May 25, 1963. (50 cents.) 


The editorial work of the National Museum continued during the 
year under the immediate direction of John S. Lea, assistant chief of 
the division. The following publications were issued : 


The United States National Museum annual report for the year ended June 30, 
1962. viii+195 pp., illus. January 24, 1963. 


100, volume 14, parts 1-4, Title page, table of contents, and Index, vii+443- 

461 pp.. May 16, 1963. 
228. Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology : Papers 19-30, 

by members of the stafC and others. 

Pai>er 29. The development of electrical technology in the 19th century : 

2. The telegraph and the telephone, by W. James King. Pp. 273-332, 
80 flgs. Sept. 17, 1962. 

Paper 30. The development of electrical technology in the 19th century : 

3. The early arc light and generator, by W. James King. Pp. 333-407, 
92 flgs. Sept. 17, 1962. 

233. Host relations of the parasitic cowbirds, by Herbert Friedmann. Ix-f-276 

pp. June 13, 1963. 
235. American military insignia, 1800-1851, by J. Duncan Campbell and Edgar M. 

HowelL xv+124pp.,277flgs. June 27, 1963. 



Volume lis 

Title page, table of contents, and index. Pp. i-v+637-660. Jan. 9, 1963. 

No. 3459. Plectrotaxy as a systematic criterion in lithobiomorphic centipedes 

(Ohilopoda: Ldthobiomorpha), by Ralph E. Crabill, Jr. Pp. 899-il2, 1 fig. 

July 12, 19G2. 
No. 34G1. Synopsis of the Neotropical cockroach genus Macrophyllodromia 

(Orthoptera : Blattoidea, Epilampridae), by Isolda Rocha e Silva Albuquerque. 

Pp. 421-428, 14 figs. Aug. 29, 1962. 
No. 3465. The heleomyzid flies of America north of Mexico (Diptera: Heleo- 

niyzidae), by Gordon D. Gill. Pp. 495-603, 96 figs. Aug. 30, 1962. 
No. 3466. The non-brachyuran decapod crustaceans of Clipperton Island, by 

Fenner A. Chace, Jr. Pp. 605-635, 7 figs. Aug. 29, 1962. 

Volume 114 

No. 3467. Scarab beetles of the genus Onthophagus Latreille north of Mexico 

(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), by Hendy F. Howden and Oscar L. Cartwright. 

Pp. 1-135, 11 figs., 9 pis. Jan. 9, 1963. 
No. 3468. New species of spider wasps, genus Auplopus, from the Americas south 

of the United States (Hymenoptera: Psammocharidae), by R. R. Dreisbach. 

Pp. 137-211, 13 pis. Mar. 19, 1963. 
No. 3469. Some North American moths of the genus Acleris (Lepidoptera : Tortri- 

cidae), by Nicholas S. Obraztsov. Pp. 213-270, 7 figs., 18 pis. May 7, 1963. 
No. 3470. A revision of the North American annelid worms of the genus Cam- 

larincola (Oligochaeta: Branchiobdellidae), by Richard L. Hoffman. Pp. 

271-371, 79 figs. Mar. 6, 1963. 
No. 3471. Geographic variation in the thrush Hylocichla ustulata, by Gorman 

M. Bond. Pp. 373-387, 1 fig. Mar. 6, 1963. 
No. 3472. Review of the hawlsfishes (family Cirrhitidae), by John E. Randall. 

Pp. 389-451, 16 pis. May 28, 1963. 
No. 3473. Studies of Neotropical caddisflies, I : Rhyacophilidae and Glossoso- 

matidae (Trichoptera), by Oliver S. Flint, Jr. Pp. 453^78, 8 figs. Apr. 16, 

No. 3474. Weevils of the genus Maemactes, by David G. Kissinger. Pp. 479-486, 

1 fig. Mar. 19, 1963. 


The editorial work of the Bureau continued under the immediate 
direction of Mrs. Eloise B. Edelen. The following publications were 
issued during the year : 

Seventy-ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1961-62. 

ii+29 pp., 2 pis. 1963. 
Bulletin 181. Isleta paintings, with introduction and commentary by Elsie Clews 

Parsons. Edited by Esther S. Goldfrank. xvi-f 299 pp., 142 pis, (Incl. 12 pis. 

in color). 1962. 
Bulletin 182. River Basin Surveys Papers, No. 25. Archeology of the John H. 

Kerr Reservoir Basin, Roanoke River, Virginia-North Carolina, by Carl F. 

Miller. With appendix: Human skeletal remains from the Tollifero (He6) 


and Clarksville (Mcl4) sites, Jolm H. Kerr Reservoir Basin, Virginia, bj 
Lucile E. Hoyme and William M. Bass, xvi+447 pp., 110 pis., 65 figs., 20 
maps. 1962. 
Bulletin 184. The Pueblo of Sia, New Mexico, by Leslie A. White, xil+358 pp., 

12 pis., 55 figs. 1962. 
Bulletin 185. River Basin Surveys Papers, Nos. 26-32. xii+344 pp., 57 pis., 43 
figs., 5 maps. 1963. 

No. 26. Small sites on and about Fort Berthold Reservation, Garrison Reser- 
voir, North Dakota, by George Metcalf. 
No. 27. Star Village: A fortified historic Arikara site in Mercer County, 

North Dakota, by George Metcalf. 
No. 28. The dance hall of the Santee Bottoms on the Fort Berthold Reserva- 
tion, Garrison Reservoir, North Dakota, by Donald D. Hartle. 
No. 29, Crow-Flies-High (32MZ1), a historic Hidatsa village in the Gar- 
rison Reservoir area. North Dakota, by Carling Malouf. 
No. 30. The Stutsman Focus : An aboriginal cultui-e complex in the James- 
town Reservoir area, North Dakota, by R. P. Wheeler. 
No. 31. Archeological manifestations in the Toole County section of the 

Tiber Reservoir Basin, Montana, by Carl F. Miller. 
No. 32. Archeological salvage investigations in the Lovewell Reservoir area, 
Kansas, by Robert W. Neuman. 
Bulletin 188. Shonto : A study of the role of the trader in a modem Navaho com- 
munity, by William Y. Adams, xi-f 329 pp., 10 pis., 3 figs., 3 maps, 12 charts. 


The editorial work of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
continued under the immediate direction of Ernest E. Biebighauser, 
until his transfer to the Department of Commerce. The year's publi- 
cations in the series Smithsonian Contributions to Astrophysics are 
as follows : 

Volume 5 

No. 12. North-south asymmetry In solar spottedness and in great-storm sources. 
Pp. iii+ 187-208, 13 figs. 1962. 
A long-term north-south asymmetry in the location of solar sources of great 

geomagnetic storms, by Barbara Bell. 
On the unequal spottedness of the two solar hemispheres, by John G. Wolbach. 
On short-period relations between north-south asymmetry in spottedness and 
in great-storm sources, by Barbara Bell and John G. Wolbach. 
No. 13. Neutral hydrogen between galactic longitudes 200° and 265°, by R. J. 

Davis. Pp. 209-230, 6 figs. 1962. 
No. 14. The space density of atmospheric dust in tlie altitude range 50,000 to 
90,000 feet, by Paul W. Hodge and Frances W. Wright. Pp. 231-238, 2 figs., 
1 pi. 1962. 
No. 15. Solar radio bursts of spectral types II and IV : Their relations to optical 
phenomena and to geomagnetic activity, by Barbara Bell. Pp. 239-257, 2 figs. 

Volume 7 

Proceedings of the symposium on the astronomy and physics of meteors, held at 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass., August 28-Sep- 
tember 1, 1961. Whole volume, iv-f 314 pp., 117 figs., 22 pis. 1963. 



The following catalogs were issued by the Smithsonian Traveling 
Exhibition Service during the year : 

The Daniells In India, 1786-1793. [44] pp., iUus. (Publ. 4513.) 1962. 
Old Master drawings from Chatsworth. 46 pp., 144 illus. 1962. 


The field of stones: A study of the art of Shen Chou (1427-1509), by Richard 

Edwards. Freer Gallery of Art Oriental Studies, No. 5, xxi+131 pp., 51 pis. 

(Publ. 4433.) Nov. 7, 1962. ($11.) 
Ancient glass in the Freer Gallery of Art, by Richard Ettinghausen. 44 pp., 

with 99 illus. (incl. 3 pis. in color). (Publ. 4509.) July 16, 1962. ($1.65.) 
Chinese album leaves in the Freer Gallery of Art, by James Caliill. 48 pp., 

with 35 illus. (incl. 2 pis. in color). (Publ. 4476.) Nov. 30, 1962. ($1.) 
The Whistler Peacock Room (rev. ed.). vii+22 pp., 7 pis. (Publ. 4024.) Dec. 11, 

1962. (35 cents.) 
The Freer Gallery of Art of the Smithsonian Institution (reprint). 16 pp., illus. 

( Publ. 4504. ) Aug. 8. 1962. ( 15 cents. ) 


The annual reports of the American Historical Association are 
transmitted by the Association to the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution and are by him communicated to Congress, as provided in 
the act of incorporation of the Association. The following report was 
issued during the year : 

Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 1961. Vol. 1, Pro- 
ceedings. 1962. 



In accordance with law, the manuscript of the 65th annual report of 
the National Society, Daughters of the American Eevolution, was 
transmitted to Congress on May 16, 1963.^ 


Requests for publications and information continued to increase 
during the year. The publications distribution section, mider the im- 
mediate supervision of Mrs. Eileen M. McCarthy, received 38,397 
requests for publications from foreign and domestic libraries, uni- 
versities, research institutions, educational establishments, and in- 
dividuals throughout the world. Visitors to the office and replies to 
inquiries numbered 30,053. 

A total of 899,788 copies of publications and miscellaneous items 
were distributed : 67 Contributions to Knowledge ; 13,207 Smithsonian 

^ D.A.R. reports are published as Senate documents and are not available from the 
Smithsonian Inetltntlon. 


Miscellaneous Collections; 8,576 Annual Keport volumes and 31,025 
pamphlet copies of Keport separates; 50,136 special publications; 164 
reports of the Harriman Alaska Expedition; 43,257 publications of 
the National Museum ; 17,722 publications of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology ; 112,343 catalogs and leaflets of the National Collection of 
Fine Arts ; 546 publications of the Freer Gallery of Art ; ^ 18 Annals 
of the Astrophysical Observatory; 9,646 Smithsonian Contributions 
to Astrophysics; 679 War Background Studies; 1,763 reports of 
the American Historical Association; and 11,928 publications not 
issued by the Smithsonian Institution. Miscellaneous items: 15 
sets of North American Wild Flowers and 127 North American Wild 
Flower prints ; 8 Pitcher Plant volumes ; 75,365 Guide Books ; 17,529 
picture pamphlets; 359,232 postcards; 25,626 postcard folders; 19,993 
color slides; 96,230 information leaflets; 228 statuettes; 4,355 View- 
master reels. 

The following titles were issued and distributed to libraries as a 
result of the Institution's participation in the National Science Foun- 
dation translation program : Marwinals of Eastern Europe and North- 
&rn Asia {In^ectivora and Chiroptera), vol. 1, by S. I. Ognev; 
Mammals of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia {Camivora Fissi- 
pedia), vol. 2, by S. I. Ognev; Mammals of U.8.S.R. and Adjacent 
Countries {Camivora Fissipedia and Pinnipedia), vol. 3, by S. I. 
Ognev; Mammals of U.S.S.R. and Adjacent Countries (Rodents), 
vol. 5, by S. I. Ognev ; Forty Years of Soviet Anthropology, by G. F. 
Debets ; Short-Ears and Long-Ears on Easter Island, by N. A. Buti- 
nov ; Problems in the History of Primitive Society, by N. A. Butinov ; 
Terrestrial Mollushs of the Fauna of the V.S.S.R., by I. M. Likharev 
and E. S. Eammel'meier; Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries 
{Amphibians), by A. M. Nikol'skii; Famm of U.S.S.R. {Crustacea, 
Anomura), vol. 10, No. 3, by Y. Y. Makarov; The Chalcid Faun/i of 
the U.S.S.R. {Chalcidoidea) , by M. N. Nikol'skaya; Flora of the 
U.S,S.R., vol. 2, Y. L. Komarov, editor; Special Ichthyology, by G. Y. 
Nikol'skii ; Freshwater Fishes of the U.S.S.R. and Adjacent Countries, 
vol. 1, by Leo S. Berg; Fauma of U.S.S.R. — Fishes {Gadiformes) , 
vol. 9, No. 4, by A. N. Svetovidov; Fimdamentals of Paleontology, 
Yu. A. Orlov, editor. 

Kespectfully submitted. 

Paul H. Oehser, 
Chief, Editorial and Publications Division. 
Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

• In addition to those distributed by the Gallery itself. 

Other Activities 


C. Fayette Taylor, emeritus professor of automotive engineering, 
Massachusetts Institute of Teclinology, delivered the fourth Lester D. 
Gardner lecture, on "Aircraft Propulsion : A Review of the Evolution 
of Aircraft Povrerplants," in the auditorimn of the Freer Gallery of 
Art on the evening of October 5, 1962. This lecture was published in 
full in the general appendix of the Annual Eeport of the Board of 
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for 1962 (pp. 245-298) . 

Dr. Jolin Howard Young, W. H. C. Vickers associate professor of 
archeology, Johns Hopkins University, lectured on "The Royal Sculp- 
tures of Commagene" in the auditorium of the Freer Gallery of Art 
on the evening of February 8, 1963. This lecture was sponsored 
jointly by the Smithsonian Institution and the Archaeological Institute 
of America. 

Hugh Wakefield, keeper of circulation, Victoria and Albert Mu- 
seum, London, England, lectured on "English Victorian Glass" in the 
auditorium of the Freer Gallery of Art on the evening of April 24, 

Several lectures were sponsored by the Freer Gallery of Art and the 
National Gallery of Art. These are listed in the reports of these 


The Science Information Exchange receives, organizes, and dissemi- 
nates information on scientific research in progress. Its mission is to 
facilitate planning and management of scientific research activities 
supported by Government and non-Government agencies and institu- 
tions by promoting the exchange of information that concerns subject 
matter, distribution, level of effort, and other data pertaining to cur- 
rent research in the prepublication stage. It helps program directors 
and administrators to avoid imwanted duplication and to determine 
the most advantageous distribution of research funds. It serves the 
entire scientific community by informing individual investigators 
about who is currently working on problems in their special fields. 

The reorganization and expansion of the Exchange to provide cur- 
rent research information in the physical sciences, in addition to the 
life sciences, have constituted the major task during the past year 
and have progressed quite satisfactorily. The new physical sciences 



division now has 15 members. The total staff has gi'own to about 
115, and the plant capability and capacity have been almost doubled. 

The acquisition of current research projects and proposals increased 
sharply from an annual rate of about 56,000 in 1962 to almost 75,000 
in 1963. The total number of active projects on file has risen from 
33,000 to almost 58,000. 

Many new research programs have been added, and many new agen- 
cies, such as the Departments of Agriculture, Conunerce, and Inte- 
rior, have begun to register their current research activities. All Fed- 
eral agencies with substantial research programs in basic and applied 
research are now participating. As the coverage of Federal programs 
approaches comprehensive proportions, increasing attention is being 
directed to securing the cooperation of universities, private founda- 
tions, State and city government research organizations, and indus- 
trial laboratories. 

The January 10, 1963, report of the President's Scientific Advisory 
Committee, entitled "Science, Government, and Information," noted 
the work of the Exchange and recommended its continued activity on 
a stronger and broader base. The expanded scope in physical sciences 
and the increasing participation by Federal and non-Government 
agencies, as noted above, are well underway. 

The Federal Council for Science and Technology has agreed that on 
July 1, 1963, the National Science Foundation will undertake the re- 
sponsibility for the support of the Exchange through contractual 
arrangements for its continued operation by the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. Government- wide interests will be served by an advisory board 
of representatives from each of the participating Federal agencies. 


The Smithsonian Museum Service, through appropriate educational 
media, interprets to museum visitors and to the general public the 
objects, specimens, and exhibits in the several Smithsonian museums 
and develops interpretative and educational material relating to the 
work of the Institution in the fields of science, natural history, art, 
and history. The Museum Service also cooperates with the volun- 
teers of the Junior League of Washington, D.C., who conduct the 
Junior League Guided Tour Program at the Smithsonian. A more 
complete report of this activity, directed by G. Carroll Lmdsay, cu- 
rator, is carried in the Report on the U.S. National Museum 
(pp. 69-60). 

The Museum Service provided assistance to professional groups 
and individuals visiting the museums of the Institution or planning to 
do so. Assistance in the form of lectures, answers to inquiries, and 
special tours of certain museum areas was rendered to college and uni- 


versity groups visiting the Institution and to other groups and indi- 
viduals from the United States and abroad, visiting or planning to 
visit the Smithsonian in a professional capacity. Mr. Lindsay served 
as consultant on museum organization and practices to representatives 
from other museums on several occasions. 

The Audioguide or radio lecture system in the Museum of Natural 
History was expanded to include two additional exhibit halls: Life 
in the Sea, and Dinosaurs and Other Fossil Reptiles. A total of 37 
Audioguide lectures are now available in the JMuseum of Natural 

During the year Mrs. Linda S. Gordon joined the Museum Service 
staif as museum teclinician in zoology and Mrs. Marjorie M. Halpin 
as museum technician in anthropology. Mrs. Gordon and Mrs. Halpin 
serve as docents and carry on related work to improve the Museum 
Service program of interpreting the museum exhibits to the visitor. 

The assistant curator, Mrs. Sophy Bumham, wrote, produced, and 
directed a 16-mm. color motion picture which depicts the construction 
of the life-size model of the great blue whale exliibited in the new Hall 
of Life in the Sea. Mrs. Bumham, in cooperation with the various 
subject specialists involved, also continued her work in the preparation 
of the Audioguide lectures. 

Special "touch" tours for several groups of blind students were ar- 
ranged during tlie year. Specimens and objects from the reference 
collections as well as selected portions of the public exhibits are in- 
cluded in the programs arranged for blind persons. 

One-page guide maps which provide floor plans and brief summaries 
of the exhibits shown in the ISIuseum of Natural History and in the 
Arts and Industries Building were prepared. These proved most 
useful in visitor orientation and in answering written inquiries re- 
garding the exhibits in these buildings. 

The Museum Service continued to assist radio and television pro- 
ducers wishing to feature Smithsonian exhibits and scientific work. 
In addition to several local radio and television productions based on 
various aspects of Smithsonian activity, two half-hour programs 
featuring the transportation collections were broadcast on a national 
television network. 

The Museum Service again conducted, in cooperation with the 
University of Maryland, a 5-day workshop on the educational re- 
sources of the Institution. This workshop is designed to acquaint 
graduate students in education with the broad scientific and cultural 
resources of the Smithsonian of value in school curricula. 

The program carried out in cooperation with the Urban Sendee 
Corps under the direction of Mrs. Arthur Goldberg proved success- 
ful. Local junior high school students were provided with lectures 


and tours of museum exhibits designed to increase their knowledge 
of the exhibits and work of the Institution. 

More than 400 35-mm. slides of objects, specimens, and exhibits in 
the various museums were accessioned, cataloged, and added to the 
slide library. Slides from this library were used extensively by the 
Smithsonian staff and by borrowers from the United States, Canada, 
and Europe. 

The Museum Service made arrangements for various Smithsonian 
public functions and events, including films, lectures, and the opening 
of new halls and exhibits. Mailing lists for announcements of these 
events were maintained and kept current. 

The Smithsonian Calendar of Events, a listing of special events 
of the Institution, was prepared and distributed monthly. 

The curator attended the following conferences and gatherings: 
The Southeastern Museums Conference in Richmond, Va. ; the Con- 
ference of the Society of Architectural Historians in Baltimore, Md. ; 
Annual Winterthur Seminar on Museum Operation and Connoisseur- 
ship at Winterthur, Del.; the Museum Store Association Annual 
Meeting, Minneapolis, Minn. ; and the opening of the Mellon Collection 
of British Paintings, Virginia State Museum of Fine Arts. He also 
attended and gave a slide lecture to the National Trust Conference 
for Historic Museum Associates, held at Woodlawn Plantation, Va., 
and participated in a panel discussion at the convention in Denver, 
Colo., of the Department of Audiovisual Education, National Educa- 
tion Association. 

The curator and the assistant curator traveled to Cambridge, Mass., 
to speak to the staff of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
on the work and history of the Smithsonian Institution and to view 
operations there. They also visited museums in the Boston area. 

The assistant curator traveled to Baltimore, Md., to view facilities 
of five museums. 

Report of the Executive Committee 

of the Board of Regents of the 

Smithsonian Institution 

For the Year Ended June 30, 1963 

To the Board of Regents of the Smithsonmn Institution : 

Your executive committee respectfully submits the following report 
in relation to the funds of the Smithsonian Institution, together with 
a statement of the appropriations by Congress for the Government 
bureaus in the administrative charge of the Institution. 



The original bequest of James Smithson was £104,960 8s 6d — 
$508,318.46. Refunds of money expended in prosecution of the claim, 
freight, insurance, and other incidental expenses, together with pay- 
ment into the fund of the sum of £5,015, which had been withheld dur- 
ing the lifetime of Madame de la Batut, brought the fund to the 
amoimt of $550,000. 

The gift of James Smithson was "lent to the United States Treasury, 
at 6 per centum per annum interest" (20 USC 54), and by the Act of 
March 12, 1894 (20 USC 55), the Secretary of the Treasury was 
"authorized to receive into the Treasury, on the same terms as the 
original bequest of James Smithson, such sums as the Regents may 
from time to time see fit to deposit, not exceeding, with the original 
bequest, the sum of $1,000,000." 

The maximum of $1,000,000 which the Smithsonian Institution was 
authorized to deposit in the Treasury of the United States was reached 
on January 11, 1917, by the deposit of $2,000. 

Under the above authority the amounts shown below are deposited in 
the United States Treasury and draw 6 percent interest : 

Unrestricted funds Income J06S 

James Smithson $727, &40 $43, 658. 40 

Avery 14,000 MO. 00 

Habel 500 30.00 

Hamilton 2,500 150.00 

Hodgkins (General) 116,000 6,960.00 

Poore 26,670 1,600.20 

Rheea 590 35.40 

Sanford 1,100 66.00 

Total .$889,000 53,340.00 

720-018—64 18 261 


Restricted fundt Income 196S 

Hodgkins (Specific) 100,000 6,000.00 

Reid 11, 000 660. 00 

Total 111,000 6,660.00 

Grand total 1, 000, 000 60, 000. 00 

In addition to the $1,000,000 deposited in the Treasury of the United 
States there has been accumulated from income and bequests the sum 
of $4,489,870.56 which has been invested. Of this sum, $4,254,290.71 is 
carried on the books of the Institution as the Consolidated Fund, a 
policy approved by the Regents at their meeting on December 14, 1916. 
The balance is made up of several small funds. 


(Income for the unrestricted use of the Institution) 


Investment 1963 Income 1963 

Abbott, W. L., Special 

Avery, Robert S. and Lydia* 

Gifts, royalties, gain on sale of securities 

Hachenberg, George P. and Caroline 

Hamilton, James* 

Hart, Gustavus E 

Henry, Caroline 

Henry, Joseph and Harriet A 

Higbee, Harry, Memorial Fund 

Hodgkins, Thomas G. (General)* 

Morrow, Dwight W 

Olmsted, Helen A 

Poore, Lucy T. and George W.* 

Porter, Henry Kirke 

Rhees, William Jones* 

Sanford, George N.* 

Smithson, James* 

Taggart, Gansen 

Witherspoon, Thomas A 
















595. 27 
656. 92 
288. 17 
369. 45 
639. 29 
771. 40 
915. 42 
636. 17 
918. 26 
975. 50 
469. 22 
269. 73 
760. 56 
575. 46 
749. 28 
409. 80 
933. 47 
566. 45 
383. 08 

$1, 195. 47 

3, 169. 51 

22, 155. 81 

322. 73 




3, 933. 55 

713. 50 

2, 430. 75 

6, 205. 05 


13, 059. 81 

22, 980. 99 





10, 355. 33 

1, 721, 782. 90 

86, 991. 42 

•In addition to funds deposited In the United States Treasury. 




(Income restricted to specific use) 


Investment 1963 

Income 1963 

Abbott, William L., for investigations in biology 

Armstrong, Edwin James, for use of Department of 
Invertebrate Paleontology when principal amounts 
to $5,000- _ 

Arthur, James, for investigations and study of the 
sun and annual lecture on same 

Bacon, Virginia Purdy, for traveling scholarship to 
investigate fauna of countries other than the 
United States 

Baird, Lucy H., for creating a memorial to Secretary 

Barney, Alice Pike, for collection of paintings and 
pastels and for encouragement of American 
artistic endeavor 

Barstow, Frederick D., for purchase of animals for 
Zoological Park 

Brown, Roland W., endowment fund for study, cai-e, 
and improvement of the Smithsonian paleobotan- 
ical collections 

Canfield collection, for increase and care of the 
Canfield collection of minerals 

Casey, Thomas L., for maintenance of the Casey 
collection and promotion of researches relating to 

Chamberlain, Francis Lea, for increase and promo- 
tion of Isaac Lea collection of gems and mollusks. 

Dykes, Charles, for support in financial research 

Eickemeayer, Florence Brevoort, for preservation and 
exhibition of the photographic collection of 
Rudolph Eickemeayer, Jr 

Hanson, Martin Gustav and Caroline Runice, for 
some scientific work of the Institution, preferably 
in chemistry or medicine 

Higbee, Harry, income for general use of the 
Smithsonian Institution after June 11, 1967 

Hillyer, Virgil, for increase and care of Virgil Hillyer 
collection of lighting objects 

Hitchcock, Albert S., for care of the Hitchcock 
Agrostological Library 

HrdliSka, Ale§ and Marie, to further researches in 
physical anthropology and publication in con- 
nection therewith 

Hughes, Biuce, to found Hughes alcove 

Johnson, E. R. Fenimore, research in underwater 

Loeb, Morris, for furtherance of knowledge in the 
exact sciences 

$165, 109. 55 

2, 089. 87 
63, 339. 47 

79, 347. 09 
58, 066. 07 

45, 424. 49 
1, 583. 31 

51, 587. 95 
60, 573. 77 

19, 851. 46 

44, 599. 17 
68, 185. 96 

17, 214. 51 

$8, 365. 46 

100. 80 

3, 209. 16 

4, 020. 23 
2, 930. 34 

2, 301. 50 


1, 769. 32 

3, 069. 03 

1, 005. 81 

2, 259. 67 

3, 454. 71 

872. 21 

14, 079. 36 

713. 34 



10, 408. 64 

527. 35 

2, 499. 05 

126. 60 

83, 754. 55 
30, 315. 09 



038. 91 
535. 92 

11, 608. 94 

559. 84 

138, 028. 26 


993. 40 




Investment 1963 

Income 1963 

Long, Annette and Edith C, for upkeep and pres- 
ervation of Long collection of embroideries, 
laces, and textiles 

Maxwell, Mary E., for care and exhibition of 
Maxwell collection 

Myer, Catherine Walden, for purchase of first-class 
works of art for use and benefit of the National 
Collection of Fine Arts 

Nelson, Edward W., for support of biological studies 

Noyes, Frank B., for use in connection with the 
collection of dolls placed in the U.S. National 
Museum through the interest of Mr. and Mrs. 

Pell, Cornelia Livingston, for maintenance of Alfred 
Duane Pell collection 

Petrocelli, Joseph, for the care of the Petrocelli 
collection of photographic prints and for the 
enlargement and development of the section of 
photography of the U.S. National Museum 

Rathbun, Richard, for use of division of U.S. 
National Museum containing Crustacea 

Reid, Addison T., for founding chair in biology, in 
memory of Asher Tunis* 

Roebling Collection, for care, improvement, and 
increase of Roebling collection of minerals 

Roebling Solar Research 

Rollins, Miriam and William, for investigations in 
physics and chemistry 

Smithsonian employees' retirement 

Springer, Frank, for care and increase of the Springer 
collection and library 

Strong, Juha D., for benefit of the National Collec- 
tion of Fine Arts 

Walcott, Charles D. and Mary Vaux, for develop- 
ment of geological and paleontological studies and 
publishing results of same 

Walcott, Mary Vaux, for publications in botany 

Younger, Helen Walcott, held in trust 

Zerbee, Francis Brinckle, for endowment of aquaria 


$859. 93 
31, 063. 94 

31, 990. 18 
35, 220. 43 

1, 521. 54 
11, 739. 42 

11, 740. 81 

16, 844. 71 

28, 170. 38 

191, 139. 84 
39, 714. 73 

231, 028. 56 
36, 863. 17 

28, 401. 10 

15, 835. 07 

759, 454. 03 

91, 675. 71 

117, 024. 81 

1, 502. 30 

$43. 58 
1, 573. 88 

1, 620. 85 
1, 784. 50 

594. 76 

594. 87 
853. 47 

1, 427. 32 

9, 684. 34 

2, 012. 21 

11,416. 13 
1, 869. 30 

1, 439. 00 

802. 31 

38, 440. 22 

4, 644. 87 

6, 201. 46 

76. 12 

2, 649, 532. 62 

133, 092. 67 

*In addition to funds deposited in the United States Treasury. 


Early in 1906, by deed of gift, Charles L. Freer, of Detroit, gave 
to the Institution his collection of Chinese and other Oriental objects 
of art, as well as paintings, etchings, and other works of art by Wliis- 
tler, Thayer, Dewing, and other artists. Later he also gave funds for 
construction of a building to house the collection, and finally in his 
will, probated November 6, 1919, he provided stocks and securities to 
the estimated value of $1,958,591.42, as an endowment fund for the 
operation of the Gallery. The fund now amounts to $10,596,154.61. 


Invested endowment for general purposes $2, 610, 782. 90 

Invested endowment for specific purposes other than Freer 
endowment 2, 879, 087. 56 

Total invested endowment other than Freer 5, 489, 870. 46 

Freer invested endowment for specific purposes 10, 596, 154. 61 

Total invested endowment for all purposes 16, 086, 025. 07 


Deposited in the U.S. Treasury at 6 percent per annum, as au- 
thorized in the U.S. Revised Statutes, sec. 5591 $1, 000, 000. 00 

Investments other than Freer endowment (cost 
or marlset value at date acquired : 

Bonds $1,640,161.47 

Stocks 2, 721, 044. 83 

Real estate and mortgages 115,006.00 

Uninvested capital 13, 658. 66 4, 489, 870. 46 

Total investments other than Freer endowment 5, 489, 870. 46 

Investments of Freer endowment (cost or mar- 
ket value at date acquired) : 

Bonds $5,480,542.36 

Stocks 5, 114, 287. 57 

Uninvested capital 1,324.68 10,596,154.61 

Total investments 16, 086, 025. 07 



June 30, 1963 


Current funds: 

United States Treasury current account $920, 365. 77 

In banks and on hand 531, 701. 82 

1, 452, 067. 59 
Travel and other advances 22, 126. 88 

Total general funds 1, 474, 194. 47 


Cash — United States Treasury current 

account $3,340,087.03 

Investments — stocks and bonds (quoted 

market value $1, 622, 254. 85) 1, 634, 613. 56 

Total restricted funds _.. 4, 974, 700. 59 

Total current funds 6, 448, 895. 06 

Endowment funds and funds functioning as endowment: 
Investments : 

Freer Gallery of Art: 

Cash $1, 324. 68 

Stocks and bonds (quoted market value 

$15,687,715.55) 10,594,829. 93 

10, 596, 154. 61 
Consolidated : 

Cash $13, 322. 98 

Stocks and bonds (quoted 
market value 
$5,619, 651. 94) 4, 240, 967. 73 

4, 254, 290. 71 
Loan to United States 

Treasury 1, 000, 000. 00 

Other stocks and bonds 

(quoted market value 

$168, 188. 86) 120, 238. 07 

Cash 335.68 

Real estate at book value... 115, 006. 00 5, 489, 870. 46 

Total endowment funds and funds functioning as endow- 
ment 16, 086, 025. 07 

22, 534, 920. 13 

EXHIBIT A— Continued 



Current funds: 
General : 

Unexpended funds — unrestricted $1, 474, 194. 47 

Total general funds _ 1, 474, 194. 47 

Restricted (Exhibit C) : 

Unexpended income from endowment $1, 384, 769. 95 

Funds for special purposes (gifts, grants, 

etc.) 3, 589, 930. 64 

Total restricted funds 4, 974, 700. 59 

Total current funds 6, 448, 895. 06 

Endowment funds and funds functioning as 
endowment (Exhibit D) : 

Freer Gallery of Art $10,596,154.61 


Restricted $2, 879, 087. 56 

General 2,610,782.90 5,489,870.46 

Total endowment funds and funds functioning as endow- 
ment 16,086,025.07 

Total 22,534, 920. 13 




Year ended June 30, 1963 



Gifts and grants 

Current receipts: 
Endowment income: 

Freer Gallery of Art- _ 

$440, 732. 83 

56, 742. 24 

139, 974 67 

69, 209. 35 

128, 812. 83 

Other restricted funds . 

Unrestricted __ 

Investment income 

Gifts and grants, including admin- 
istrative overhead- _ 

$6, 854, 937. 05 

Publications and photographs 

$91, 292. 43 


9, 372. 45 

Total current receipts 

844, 844. 37 

91, 292. 43 

6, 854, 937. 05 


EXHIBIT B— Continued 



Year ended June 30, 1963 



Gifts and grants 

Current expenditures: 

Adnainistrative _ _. _. 


17, 629. 76 

220, 979. 97 

Research- __ 

$3, 081, 622. 19 


Total salaries 

356, 820. 58 
117,772. 13 

18, 666. 44 

8, 437. 20 
5, 460. 40 

38, 726. 56 

17, 872. 25 
946. 77 

1, 958. 97 

22, 203. 30 

16, 846. 36 

2, 637, 41 
5, 148. 12 
4, 571. 27 

9, 443. 07 

96. 50 

(1, 582. 99) 

3, 081, 622. 19 

Purchase for collection 

Researches and exploration and 
related administrative ex- 
penses : 
Travel . 

Equipment and supply - 

Other __. 

3, 773, 314. 86 

Publication and photographs 

49, 231. 30 

Buildings, equipment and grounds: 
Buildings and installations 

Court and grounds maintenance- 

Technical laboratory 

Contractual services — custodian 
and legal fees _- - 

Supplies and expenses: 

Meetings, special exhibits 


Photographs and reproductions - 

Sales desk 

Stationery and office supplies 

Postage, telephone, and tele- 

Employees' withholding payments, 

Total current expenditures 

626, 113.69 

49, 231. 30 

6, 854, 937. 05 

Excess of current receipts over 

current expenditures 

Balance at beginning of year 

$218, 730. 68 

42, 061. 13 

$260, 791. 81 
1, 213, 402, 66 

Balance at end of year 

1, 474, 194. 47 





Year ended June 30, 1963 


Funds for special 

purposes (gifts, 

grants etc.) 


Balance at beginning of year 


$2, 993, 960. 51 

$4, 204, 860. 01 


Income from restricted endow- 
Freer Gallery of Art 

Other restricted funds 

496, 274. 53 
281, 941. 04 

496, 274. 53 

281, 941. 04 

778, 215. 57 
34, 766. 08 

778, 215. 57 

Less custodial costs 

34, 766. 08 

Net income from restricted 
endowment _ _ 

743, 449. 49 
30, 028. 25 

743, 449. 49 

Sale of publications 

1,091. 17 

7, 062, 356. 85 

450, 644. 31 

31, 119.42 

Gifts and grants . 

7, 062, 356. 85 

Other _ ... 

17, 626. 04 

468, 270. 35 

2, 002, 003. 28 

10, 508, 052. 84 

12, 510, 056. 12 


Transfer to current income, 
net of custodial cost: 
Freer Gallery of Art 

407, 462. 20 

55, 246. 79 

139, 974. 67 

407, 462. 20 

Other restricted funds 


6, 854, 937. 05 

6, 910, 183. 84 
139, 974. 67 


602, 683. 66 

6, 854, 937. 05 
66, 185. 15 

7, 457, 620. 71 
66, 185. 15 

Income added to principal, 


3, 000. 00 

11,549. 67 

Transfer to (from) gifts and 

(3, 000. 00) 

Balance at end of year _ 

617, 233. 33 

6, 918, 122. 20 
3, 589, 930. 64 

7, 535, 355. 53 
4, 974, 700. 59 





Year ended June 30, 1963 

Balance at beginning of year $15, 236, 651. 39 


Gifts and bequests $126, 799. 50 

Income added to principal as prescribed 

by donor 11, 549. 67 

Proceeds from sale of Table Mountain 

installations 12, 000. 00 

Net gain on investments 699,024.51 849,373.68 

16, 086, 025. 07 
Balance at year end consisting of: 

Unrestricted 2, 610, 782. 90 

Restricted for: 

Freer Gallery of Art 10,596, 154.61 

Other collections and research 2, 879, 087. 56 

16, 086, 025. 07 
The practice of maintaining savings accounts in several of the 
Washington banks and trust companies has been continued during the 
past year, and interest on these deposits amounted to $12,764.30. 

Deposits are made in banks for convenience in collection of checks, 
and later such funds are withdrawn and deposited in the United States 
Treasury. Disbursement of funds is made by check signed by the 
Secretary of the Institution and drawn on the United States Treasury. 
The Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts and grants from 
the following : 

Academic Press, a gift to the Rathbun Fund. 

American Chicle Co., a contribution for the improvement of the United States 

National Herbariimi collection. 
American Philosophical Society : 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Life History and Taxonomic 

Studies of the Water Beetles of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands." 
Grant for the entomological collecting and research in British "West Indies. 
Grant for the entomological collecting and research in Mexico. 
Anniston Public Library, a gift to prepare a scientific evaluation of a collection 

of birds. 
Appalachian Power Co., additional grant for archeological surveys in the Smith 

Mountain Reservoir on the Roanoke River. 
Atomic Energy Commission, additional grant for support of research entitled "A 
Study of the Biochemical Effects of Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation of 
Plant Metabolism during Development." 
Lucy H. Baird, in settlement of bequest. 


Bredin Foundation : 

Grant for research entitled "Ocean Food Chain Cycla" 
Grant for research entitled "Biological Survey of Dominica Project." 
Roland W. Brown, a bequest for the care and improvement of the paleobotanical 

James Campbell, a contribution to the Zoo Animal Fund. 
De Beer Consolidated Mines, Ltd., a gift to defray expenses in exhibiting the 

Hope Diamond in France. 
Department of Air Force : 

Additional grant for research directed toward the study of stellar scintilla- 
Additional grant for upper atmosphere image study. 

Additional grant for research directed toward the studies of rate of accre- 
tion of interplanetary matter by the earth. 
Additional grant for the study of atmospheric entry and impact of high 
velocity meteorites. 
Department of the Army : 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Mammals and Their Ectopara- 
sites from Iran." 
Grant for support of research entitled "Potential Vectors and Reservoirs of 

Disease in Strategic Overseas Area." 
Grant for support of research on the analysis of bird migration in the 
Pacific area and the study of ecology of birds and mammals on one 
or more Pacific islands. 
Department of Interior, a grant for service on the taxonomy of Peruvian fishes. 
Eistophas Science Club, a contribution to the Zoo Animal Fund. 
Fashion Group of Washington, a gift to the Historic Dress Fund. 
Ford Foundation : 

Grant for the support of the preparation of an up-to-date history of the 

United States Flag over a 3-year period. 
A gift to the Freer Gallery of Art for the publication and distribution of an 
illustrated scholarly catalogue of the collection of Armenian manuscripts. 
General Atomic Division, a donation to the Meteorite Fund. 
General Motors Corp., a gift for the construction of two dieselectric locomotive 

Esther Goddard, a gift to help struggling scientists. 
Graham Foundation, a gift to the Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service for 

the Alvar Aalto Exhibition. 
Ethel R. Holmes : 

Gift to the Milton A. Holmes Memorial Numismatics Fund. 
Gift to the Milton A. Holmes Memorial Philately Fund. 
Institute of International Education, a contribution for matters pertaining to 

International Exchange program. 
Edwin A. Link, a gift to the Marine Archeology Fund. 
Link Foundation : 

Grant for the 1963 Edwin A. Link Lecture. 

Grant for the publication of "Famous Firsts of Space Flight." 
For support to tie James Means Memorial Fund : 
Cabot Foundation 

Ward M. Canady Educational and Charitable Trust Co. 
Ward M. and Marian C. Canady Trust Co. 
EUen Loomis 
Edward Mallinckrodt, Jr. 


Paul Mellon and Kaufmann Charitable Foundation, a gift to the Smithsonian 

Traveling Exhibition Service. 
Miami University, a grant for the preserving of the collection of herbaceous 

stems in Panama. 
Museum of France, a contribution toward exhibition of the Hope Diamond. 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration : 

Additional grant for support of research entitled "The Motion of Artificial 

Additional grant for the scientific and engineering study for instrumenting 

an orbiting telescope. 
Additional grant for research entitled "Optical Satellite Tracking Program." 
Grant for the systematic recovery of meteorites and the photography of 

meteorites in flight. 
Grant for consultant services to be provided to the California Museum of 

Science and Industry. 
National Institutes of Health : 

Additional grant for support of research entitled "Studies of Asian Biting 

Grant for support of research entitled "Anthropology of Chronic Disease in 

Relation to Social Efficiency." 
Grant for support of research entitled "Chronic Diseases in Relation to 

Social Efficiency." 
National Science Foundation : 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Tertiary Forests of the Tonasi- 

Santiago Basin of Panama." 
Grant for the support of research entitled "Systematic Significance of 

Schinoid Spines." 
Grant for the support of research entitled "Phanerogams of Colombia." 
Grant for the support of research entitled "Systematic and Distribution of 

North American Calanoid and Hai*pacticoid Copepoda." 
Grant for the support of research entitled "Ecology and Behavior of Suncus 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Photoresponses and Optical 

Properties of Phycomyces Sporangiophores." 
Grant for the support of research entitled "Taxonomy of Bamboos." 
Grant for the support of research entitled "Lower Cretaceous Ostracoda of 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Marine MoUusks of Polynesia." 
Grant for the support of research entitled "Tertiary Echinoids of the Eastern 

United States and the Caribbean." 
Grant for the support of research entitled "Monographic Revision of Car- 

charinid Sharks of the Tropical Indo-Pacific Oceans." 
Grant for the support of research entitled "Zoogeography of Southern Ocean 

Scleractinian Coral Faunas." 
Grant for the support of research entitled "Magalithic Structures of Nan 

Mandol, Ponape." 
Grant for the support of research entitled "Frogs of Western BrazU and of 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Prehistory of Southwest Vir- 


National Science Foundation — Continued 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Indo-Australian Vespidae sens, 
lat. and Sphecidae." 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Publication of an English Trans- 
lation of Flora of Japan, by Jisaburo Ohwi." 

Grant for the support of research entitled "An Archeological Investigation 
of the Key School Site, Georgia." 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Collection of Meteorites and 
Tektites in Australia." 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Revision of the Genera of Pale- 
ozoic Bryozoa." 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Oldest Fossil Bryozoa of the 
United States." 

Grant for the support of research entitled "The Flora of Fiji." 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Mammals of Southeastern United 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Permo-Triassic Reptiles of South 

Grant for the support of research entitled "South Asian Microlepidoptera, 
particularly the Philippine Series." 

Grant for the support of research entitled "The Mammals of Panama." 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Scientific Community in England 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Shanidar IV-VI Neanderthals." 

Grant for the support of research entitled "European Tertiary Dicotyledon 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Revision of the Beetles of the 
Genus Neohrotica Jacoby." 

Grant for the support of research entitled "The American Commensal Crabs 
of the Family Pinnotheridae." 
Northwest Federation of Mineralogical Societies, a gift for lectures given by 

Dr. Paul E. Desautel in Portland and Spoliane. 
OflSce of Naval Research : 

Additional grant to provide advisory and consultant services. 

Additional grant to perform psychological research studies. 

Additional grant for research of information of shark distribution and distri- 
bution of shark attack aU over the world. 

Additional grant for studies concerning the development of a proposal for 
an institute for laboratory of human performance standards. 

Additional grant for support of research entitled "Microlepidoptera of the 
Island of Rapa." 

Additional grant for support of research entitled "A Study of Anatomy and 
Taxonomy of Hawaiian Woods." 

Additional grant to perform aeronautical research studies. 

Additional grant for the purpose of conducting systematic zoological re- 
search on the marine fauna of Tropical Pacific Area. 

Additional grant for research and development task order. 
B. T. Rocca, Sr., donation for the purchase of crystal tourmaline from Brazil. 
Rockefeller Foundation, grant for the support of research entitled "Cooperative 
Field Studies of Relationship of Birds to Arthropod-transmitted Virus Disease 
in the Region of Braganca, Brazil." 
Frank R. Schwengel, a gift toward the study of mollusks of Polynesia. 


For support of Science Information Exchange : 
Atomic Energy Commission 
Department of Defense 
Federal Aviation Agency 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
National Institutes of Health 
National Science Foundation 
Veterans Administration 
Social Science Research Council, a gift for the conference on Transcultural 

Studies of Cognitive System in M^rida, Mexico. 
Theodore Szybowicz, a contribution toward the Moonwatch Study. 
Tucson Gem and Mineral Society, grant for the inspection of an exhibit of 

gems and minerals. 
The United Educators, Inc., a gift for the use by the National Air Museum for 

reference materials. 
UNESCO, a gift to defray costs on UNESCO Visiting Committee for Tropical 

University of Hawaii, a gift for research on mollusks at Eniwetok, Marshall 

University of Michigan, a gift to defray costs on publication of Ars Orientalis. 
Ellen Bayard Weeden Foundation, a gift for the Freer Gallery of Arts Library 

Wilmington Society of Fine Arts, a contribution to the Smithsonian Traveling 

Exhibition Service. 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution : 

Additional grant for the study of plankton collections. 
Grant for the Indian Ocean Expedition training program in Bermuda. 
Gift to provide funds to permit the participation in the International Indian 
Ocean Expedition. 
Charles M. Wormser, a gift to provide acquisitions for the division of numis- 

The following appropriations were made by Congress for the Gov- 
ernment bureaus under the administrative charge of the Smithsonian 
Institution for the fiscal year 1963 : 

Salaries and expenses $11, 060, 550. 00 

National Zoological Park 1, 504, 997. 00 

The appropriation made to the National Gallery of Art (which is 
a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution) was 2, 113, 850.00 

In addition, funds were transferred from other Government agen- 
cies for expenditure under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution 
as follows : 

Working funds, transferred from the National Park Service In- 
terior Department, for archeological investigations in river 
basins throughout the United States $271, 000. 00 

The Institution also administers a trust fund for partial support of 
the Canal Zone Biological Area, located on Barro Colorado Island 
in the Canal Zone. 



The report of the audit of the Smitlisonian Private Funds follows : 

The Boabd of Regents, 
Smithsonian Institution 
Washington, B.C., 20560 

We have examined the balance sheet of private funds of Smithsonian Institu- 
tion as of June 30, 1963, and the related statement of current general private 
funds receipts and disbursements and the several statements of changes in funds 
for the year then ended. Our examination was made in accordance with gen- 
erally accepted auditing standards, and accordingly included such tests of the 
accounting records and such other auditing procedures as we considered necessary 
in the circumstances. 

Land, building, furniture, equipment, works of art, living and other specimens 
and certain sundry property are not included in the accounts of the Institution ; 
likewise, the accompanying statements do not include the National Gallery of 
Art, the National Cultural Center and other departments, bureaus and operations 
administered by the Institution under Federal appropriations. The accounts 
ol the Institution are maintained on the basis of cash receipts and disbursements, 
with the result that the accompanying statements do not reflect income earned 
but not collected or expenses incurred but not paid. 

In our opinion, subject to the matters referred to in the preceding paragraph, 
the accompanying statement of private f imds presents fairly the assets and funds 
principal of Smithsonian Institution at June 30, 1963 ; further, the accompanying 
statement of current general private funds receipts and disbursements and several 
statements of changes in funds, which have been prepared on a basis consistent 
with that of the preceding year, present fairly the cash transactions of the 
private funds for the year then ended. 

Washington, D.C, August 29, 1965. 
Respectfully submitted. 

Peat, Mabwick, Mitchell & Co. 

(S) Robert V. Fleming, 
(S) Caryl P. Haskins, 
(S) Clarence Cannon, 

Executive Com/mittee. 

to the 


720-018—64 19 


The object of the General Appendix to the Annual Report of the 
Smithsonian Institution is to furnish brief accounts of scientific dis- 
covery in particular directions ; reports of investigations made by staff 
members and collaborators of the Institution ; and memoirs of a gen- 
eral character or on special topics that are of interest or value to the 
numerous correspondents of the Institution. 

It has been a prominent object of the Board of Regents of the 
Smithsonian Institution from a very early date to enrich the annual 
report required of them by law with memoirs illustrating the more 
remarkable and important developments in physical and biological 
discovery, as well as showing the general character of the operations 
of the Institution; and, during the greater part of its history, this 
purpose has been carried out largely by the publication of such papers 
as would possess an interest to all attracted by scientific progress. 

In 1880, induced in part by the discontinuance of an annual sum- 
mary of progress which for 30 years previously had been issued by 
well-known private publishing firms, the Secretary had a series of 
abstracts prepared by competent collaborators, showing concisely the 
prominent features of recent scientific progress in astronomy, geology, 
meteorology, physics, chemistry, mineralogy, botany, zoology, and 
anthropology. This latter plan was continued, though not altogether 
satisfactorily, down to and including the year 1888. 

In the report of 1889, a return was made to the earlier method of 
presenting a miscellaneous selection of papers (some of them original) 
embracing a considerable range of scientific investigation and discus- 
sion. This method has been continued in the present report for 1963. 

An "Author- Subject Index to Articles in Smithsonian Annual 
Reports, 1849-1961" (Smithsonian Publication 4503) was issued in 

Reprints of the various papers in the General Appendix may be 
obtained, as long as the supply lasts, on request addressed to the 
Editorial and Publications Division, Smithsonian Institution, Wash- 
ington, D.C., 20560. 


The Solar System' 

By Sir Bernard Lovell 

Professor of Radioastronomy, University of Manchester, England 

During the last few years there has been a renewal of interest in 
the problems of the solar system. This interest has been stimulated 
by the discoveries made by using space probes and by the results 
of research programs of the radio telescopes, which have revealed many 
new facts about our immediate environment in space, the explanations 
for which are not yet understood. 

The basic astronomical data about the solar system are well known. 
The earth, moving in a nearly circular orbit 93 million miles from the 
sun, is a member of the sun's family of planets. Mercury, at a mean 
distance of 36 million miles from the sun, and Venus, at a mean dis- 
tance of 67 million miles, are in orbits closer to the sun. The orbit 
of Mars lies outside that of the earth at a mean distance of 141 million 
miles. Then comes the outer planetary system of giants: Jupiter, 
483 million miles from the sun, Saturn (886 million miles), Uranus 
(1,783 million miles), Neptune (2,793 million miles), and Pluto 
(3,666 million miles). 

The inferior planets — Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars — are dis- 
tinguishable from the giants by the fact that they have approximately 
the same size and density. Compared with the earth as unity, the 
densities range from 0.69 for Mars to 1.1 for Mercury, and the diam- 
eters from 0.37 for Mercury to 0.97 for Venus. The giant planets 
are in a different category, with densities much smaller than the earth 
(from 0.13 for Saturn to 0.25 for Jupiter), but they are of enormous 
size, ranging from Uranus which is 4 times the diameter of the earth, 
to Jupiter, over 11 times the earth's diameter. The outermost planet 
Pluto is exceptional: although its dimensions are not accurately 
known, it must be small, with the highest known density in the solar 
system. Between the inferior and giant planets, that is, between the 
orbits of Mars and Jupiter, there is a swarm of minor planets, or 
asteroids, the largest of which is Ceres with a diameter of 400-500 
miles, but many are probably only a few miles in diameter. The 

1 This article appeared as Cliapter II of "The Exploration of Outer Space," a collection of 
five lectures by Sir Bernard Lovell, published in 1962 by Harper and Row, 49 East 3od 
Street, New Yorli, N.Y. 



MARS 12-6 



Figure 1. — ^The solar system. 


Numbers give the distance of the planet from the sun in 
light minutes. 

number of asteroids is not known but there are probably between 
50,000 and 100,000. 

The dimensions of the solar system are determined by the extreme 
orbit of Pluto which is slightly elliptical. Although at its closest 
approach to the sun the orbit of Pluto lies inside that of Neptune, the 
most distant point of its orbit takes it 4,566 million miles away. At 
this point the light from the sun to Pluto takes about 61/^ hours on 
its journey. And so the size of the earth's abode in space is epitomize<i 
by the 93 million miles or 8 light minutes which separate us from the 
sun and the 6i/^ light hours of the farthest point of Pluto's orbit from 
the sun. Although these distances are enormous by terrestrial stand- 
ards it has to be remembered that once we move out from this system 
we have to travel for 4i/^ years at the speed of light before we get to the 
nearest star and then for 100,000 years to the extreme reaches of the 

The parent of the solar system — the sun — has a diameter of 865,000 
miles (that is excluding the solar atmosphere) and is 332,000 times 
the mass of the earth. The weight of the sun is about lO^'^ tons ; that 
is, a thousand billion billion ^ tons. The energy output of the sun 

' The use of "billon" in this article refers to the English billion ; that Is, one million mil- 
lion (as distinct from the American billion, which is one thousand million). 


is about 4X10" or nearly a billion billion kilowatts. This energy 
is produced by thermonuclear processes which convert 4 million tons 
of the solar matter into energy every second. The conversion takes 
place in the center of the sun where the temperature is about 20 
million degrees centigrade and the pressures amount to several thou- 
sand million atmospheres. Under these conditions the atoms may bo 
stripped of electrons, in which case matter is said to be degenerate. 
These transmutations in the interior of the sun involve the conversion 
of 564 million tons of hydrogen to 560 million tons of helium every 
second. Although the solar material is being used at this rate the 
processes have already been operative for at least 4,000 million years. 
The sun's mass is so tremendous that this rate of use of its material 
represents only about one-tenth percent of its mass evei*y 10,000 million 


Until quite recently we have tended to think of the space between 
the sun and the earth and the planets as being empty — a near vacuum, 
not possessing many factors of interest to geophysics or astronomy. 
We were aware that the earth was surrounded by the ionosphere — a 
region of electrons of varying density extending to a few hmidred 
kilometers above the earth's surface — and that the density of electrons 
in these regions appeared to be related to the condition of the solar 
surface and to be generally under solar control. Apart from this, the 
various bodies seemed to be rather disconnected except for the gravi- 
tational forces which controlled their motions. One of the most 
remarkable changes of opinion during the last few years is in respect 
of this situation in interplanetary space, because it now appears that 
this space is not empty. On the contrary, the interplanetary space 
must now be visualized as a medimn where the conflict of a complex 
of radiation, ionized particles, and magnetic forces is determining 
the geophysical environment of the earth and the planets. 


Tlie discovery of the ionized particles trapped in the Van Allen 
belts around the earth has led to a searching inquiry regarding their 
origin. The inner belt seems to be composed chiefly of protons which 
are believed to be the decay products of neutrons moving out from 
the atmosphere of the earth, where they have been produced by cosmic 
ray bombardment. The outer zone of electrons is mistable and the 
present theory of the origin of the electrons is that they are part of 
the stream of material which is being blown away from the sun. It 
is possible that in the region of about 10 earth radii we have the 
interfacial bomidary, where the earth's own enviroimaent is coming 
to terms with these solar forces. The sun has an intensely hot central 


region where the thermonuclear energy-producing processes are taking 
place. However, its surface temperature as observed from earth 
through ordinary optical instruments is about 6,000°. Systematic 
observation of this solar surface reveals a number of variable features. 
The most striking is the apparition of sunspots, whose appearance on 
the disk varies in an 11 -year cycle. Although sunspots were observed 
by Galileo — who was involved in a bitter dispute with Father Scheiner 
over the priority of discovery — their origin and nature are still not 
fully understood. Occasionally, when there is a rapidly changing 
group of sunspots, a solar flare occurs, accompanied by a violent 
ejection of hydrogenous material. The study of sunspots and solar 
flares with spectrohelioscopes and other optical instruments has in 
recent years been supplemented by radio astronomical studies. One 
of the earliest discoveries made during the rapid development of radio 
astronomy after the war was that sunspots, and particularly on the 
occasions when they associated to such an extent that a big flare 
occurred, generated powerful radio waves. Many types of intense 
and sporadic radio wave emissions from the sun are now recognized, 
in association with disturbances on the solar surface. The corona 
or atmosphere of the sun also generates radio waves which, although 
much weaker than the irregular outbursts, are present all the time. 
When the sun is eclipsed the vast gaseous layer of the corona can be 
seen streaming out to a few solar radii. This coronal gas is in a state 
of turbulent motion and the conditions are such that at half a solar 
radius above the visible disk there are about 30 million atoms per c.c. 
and the effective temperature is a few million degrees absolute. These 
conditions create a most interesting situation and recent calculations 
indicate that there is a resultant outward pressure which causes the 
material of the solar corona to expand outward continually with a 
speed of between 500 and 1,500 km./sec. This streaming material is 
known as the solar wind. The experimental evidence for the existence 
of this solar wind has, until recently, been rather scarce, but in the 
spring of 1961 the Americans launched a space probe equipped with 
instruments specifically designed to detect the existence and measure 
the constitution of this material streaming from the sun. Although 
the probe stayed up for only about 48 hours it succeeded in its task of 
recording and measuring the existence of the solar wind in the inter- 
planetary space. The situation which occurs when sunspots and flares 
are seen on the solar disk is a violent modulation of this steady stream- 
ing away from the sun, because on these occasions the material of the 
corona and chromosphere is ejected at velocities several times that of 
the normal streaming velocity of the coronal material. 

Another intriguing new concept concerns the behavior of magnetic 
fields. Hitherto we have tended to visualize magnetic fields as entities 


belonging to a magnet whose magnetic field moved with it. Astronom- 
ically it was believed that magnetic fields were localized in bodies like 
the earth, the sun, and some of the stars. Now it is realized that if there 
is a gas in a liighly ionized condition, like the material of the solar wind, 
moving in interplanetary space where the free path is thousands of 
kilometers, then this material carries its own magnetic field. This 
concept of the trapped magnetic field — contained in a stream of gas, 
coming from the solar corona or from the shell of a star, moving 
away into space so that the ionized particles and the magnetic field 
move together, actually being transported through space to another 
part of the solar system or another part of the cosmos — has become 
of great importance in theoretical astrophysics. The possibility of 
magnetic fields moving in this way with the gas appears to be one 
of the controlling influences which may govern the organization of the 
interplanetary material and indeed of the interstellar gas in the cos- 
mos as a whole. The fact that this gas streaming from the sun carries 
with it a magnetic field is a matter of great importance as far as the 
earth is concerned, because when this solar wind reaches the neighbor- 
hood of the earth then the earth's magnetic field is disturbed. The 
electrons which are streaming away from the sun can then be injected 
into the earth's own magnetic field ; they become trapped in it and in 
this way the outer layer of the Van Allen belts is probably formed. 
These ideas provide a good explanation of the situation whereby this 
outer belt of electrons is so subject to solar control, why it disappears 
in a magnetic storm, and the processes by which it is repopulated after 
a matter of some days. In principle the earth's field should present 
a fairly solid barrier against the injection of particles of comparatively 
low energy from outside, but it is tliis distortion of the magnetic field 
by the traveling fields coming away from the sun which facilitates 
the injection. 

The whole phenomenon of the earth's magnetic storms and the au- 
rora borealis, or tlie northern lights, must be tied up with these par- 
ticles which are trapped in the Van Allen belts. The aurorae were 
known to be associated with solar flares and it was believed that the 
phenomena were caused by the particles streaming out from the region 
of the flare on the sun and reaching the neighborhood of the earth after 
a period of 24 to 30 hours, when they entered the atmosphere and 
gave rise to ionization at a height of 100 kilometers or so. This 
explanation is now obviously incorrect because it is known that the 
particles from the sun are trapped in the outer Van Allen belt. The 
formation of the aurora seems to be associated with the draining of 
the particles from the outer belt during a magnetic storm. Appar- 
ently the primary aurora particles do orginate in tliis outer belt and 
the function of the magnetic storm in the aurora phenomenon is to 


produce the magnetically disturbed condition wliich allows the par- 
ticles to escape from the belt and enter the atmosphere down the 
earth's own lines of force. 

The phenomenon of the traveling solar magnetic field is of great 
interest in many other aspects of physics, particularly in cosmic ray 
physics. The primary cosmic ray particles are believed to be gener- 
ated in the galaxy and it has been known for a long time that their in- 
tensity, incident on the earth's atmosphere, decreased when there was 
a severe magnetic disturbance. This ejffect was so closely linked with 
the modulation of the earth's field that it had been assumed to be 
a local terrestrial effect, in that the variation of the cosmic ray inten- 
sity was governed by the changes in the earth's field. During 1960 
and 1961 Simpson of Chicago discovered, by cosmic ray-counting 
experiments in the American space probes Explorer VI and Pioneer 
V, that this decrease observed on earth was accompanied by a simul- 
taneous decrease in the counting rate of the apparatus in the probes 
when they were many millions of kilometers away in interplanetary 
space. Clearly, it is the variation in the magnetic field in interplane- 
tary space itself which is controlling this intensity variation and not 
the local field of the earth, and the variable interplanetary fields of 
tliis nature must arise through the magnetic field trapped in the 
material streaming away from the sun. 

In addition to the material which streams away from the solar 
corona, and the high energy protons which are ejected at the time of 
solar flares, the sun frequently ejects large quantities of low energy 
protons. All these radiations present a serious hazard to the astro- 
naut intending to travel in interplanetary space and considerable 
thought is already being given to possibilities of predicting the nature 
and timing of these solar outbursts. 

Whereas the space probes have become avenues through which we 
are learning about the influence of the sun in interplanetary space, 
the observations of the solar radio emissions have revolutionized 
our picture of the sun itself. The powerful emissions of radio waves 
during smispots and solar flares are the most obvious radio phenomena 
associated with the sun. But the observation of the less intense radio 
emissions from the solar corona has revealed an interesting situation. 
If we imagine ourselves looking at the sun with radio eyes instead of 
with ordinary eyes, then we would observe quite a different object in 
the sky. At a wavelength of 21 cm., mstead of the uniform disk 
which we usually see, its appearance would be that of a disk that was 
brighter toward the edges and was flattened instead of circular. It 
would extend much farther into space than it does when visually 
observed. If our eyes were tuned to look at a rather longer wave- 
length in the meter waveband then we should begin to think that the 
sun was monopolizing the whole sky. On wavelengths of several 


meters the corona of the sun, or the radio sun, has been traced out to 
something like 20 or 30 solar radii. All this is compatible with the 
picture we have already formed of the influence of the solar atmos- 
phere extending throughout great distances of mterplanetary space. 


In addition to the complex of radiation and ionized particles in 
space, there is a vast debris of small particles mainly composed of 
stone or iron. The most common manifestation of these is the ap- 
pearance in the sky of a meteor or shooting star. Occasionally the 
particles are so big that they penetrate the atmosphere and fall to the 
earth as meteorites. The common shooting stars occur when the earth 
encounters this debris in its journey through space; the particles are 
heated by friction as they enter the outer layers of the atmosphere, and 
have generally evaporated completely at about 100 kilometei*s above 
the surface of the earth, leaving behind a transient trail of light. 
The occurrence of these meteors has been known for centuries and they 
may be seen in any clear dark sky with the naked eye at a rate of 
about 10 per hour. These are the sporadic meteors wliich appear to 
be distributed with a fair degree of uniformity in interplanetary 
space. On the other hand at particular times of the year, say in 
August or in December, the rate rises to 50 to 100 per hour for a few 
nights. These are the shower meteors which appear to radiate from 
a particular point in the sky and generally occur with considerable 
regularity from year to year. 

The question of the origin of these meteors in the solar system 
is another problem of great contemporary interest. The earth moves 
in its orbit around the sun at a speed of about 29 km./sec. ; as well as 
this motion of the earth around the sun, the sun itself and the entire 
solar system are moving through space with a velocity of about 20 
km./sec., in the direction of the star Vega. To an observer outside 
the solar system the motion of the earth would appear to be like that 
of a giant corkscrew. In this journey the earth occasionally runs 
mto the streams of debris which are concentrated in orbits around the 
sun. These enter the atmosphere of the earth and give rise to the 
showers of meteors. 

These concentrations of debris are, in many cases, closely associated 
with comets. Although the origin of the comets is uncertain, we 
know that they are contained within the solar system moving under 
the gravitational control of the sun and are not visitors from inter- 
stellar space. The nucleus of the comet is an icy conglomerate of 
various carbon compounds, and most of the comets have a long tail 
wliich may stream behind the head for millions of kilometers. In 
this tail or in the orbit of the comet we have these very large numbers 
of small specks of dust which may have been evaporated from the 


nucleus as the comet approaches the sun. One comet which has 
been of considerable contemporary interest in the study of meteors 
during the last decade is the Giacobini-Zinner Comet. In October 
1946 the earth crossed the orbit of the comet only a few days from 
the position of the nucleus. For a few hours between midnight and 
6 a.m. on October 10 thousands of meteors could be seen in the sky, 
but before this and afterward the meteor rate was of the usual 
sporadic value of a few per hour. This was a clear and spectacular 
demonstration of the close relationship between meteors and comets. 

The systematic study of meteors has been severely handicapped by 
the difficulty of making observations, as the sky is so frequently 
either obscured by cloud or made light by moonlight. Radio astron- 
omy has given us new methods of investigating these meteors which 
overcome the difficulty of cloud, moonlight, or daylight. When the 
meteoric particle evaporates in the high atmosphere it leaves behind 
a trail of ionized particles as well as the luminous trail by which we 
see it. The electrons in this ionized trail are efficient scatterers of 
radio waves, A beam of radio waves transmitted from a radio tele- 
scope is scattered by the trail and the returned signal can be detected 
by the receiving part of the telescope equipment as a transient echo. 
If the recording equipment consists of a cathode ray tube with a 
suitable time base, it is possible to observe the diffraction pattern 
which is formed as the ionized trail crosses the perpendicular from 
the receiver to the trail. This is the radio analog of the diffraction 
of light at a straight edge — ^the rhytlmiic variations in brightness as 
the shadow merges into the light. In the radio case, since the range 
can be measured and the wavelength is known, the precise velocity 
of the meteor can be determined. If these observations are made from 
three spaced receiving stations using one transmitter, the exact orbit in 
space of a single meteoric particle can be obtained. 

The relative infrequency of the meteors seen by a single observer 
gives a false impression of the vast numbers which the earth encoimters 
in its journey through space. The number entering the earth's atmos- 
phere which are big enough to produce a trail sufficiently bright to be 
seen in a small telescope is about 8,000 million every day. These are 
small grains of dust weighing only about a ten-thousandth of a gram. 
Using radio techniques one can detect particles of even smaller size, 
and the numbers increase by about 2^ times for every fainter magni- 
tude. The particles detected by the most sensitive radio-meteor 
equipment available today are probably being swept up by the earth 
at the rate of about a million million per day. The numbers seem 
to increase endlessly as the size goes down, but when the radius of the 
particles is less than about a millimeter then these particles are too 
small to burn up. For these the ratio of the surface area to the mass 
is so large that the energy of interaction when the particles begin to 


enter the atmosphere is radiated away and the flight of the dust gi-ain 
is stopped before evaporation occurs. These are the micrometeorites 
which eventually fall to earth as dust. From a study of the deposits 
on the ocean bed it has been estimated that the earth collects some- 
thing like a million tons per annum in tliis way. 

The micrometeorites are now the subject of investigations using 
satellites and space probes, and many space veliicles launched by the 
Americans and Russians have been equipped with some form of 
micrometeorite detector. In principle, the detection of these micro- 
meteorites in space should be simple — by allowing them to collide with 
a diaphragm which is equipped with a microphone : when a dust gram 
hits the diaphragm it will make a sound in the microphone and be 
telemetered back to earth. In practice these unpact methods have 
proved to be difficult because the microphones record noises other than 
the impact of the dust grains ; the calibration, too, is micertain. The 
techniques have now been refined and we have some idea of the amount 
of dust of this extraordinarily small size which exists in space. For 
particles which weigh a hundred-millionth of a gram the rate of im- 
pact is found to be equivalent to one particle per 1,000 second over 
a surface of area 1 square inch. For particles wliich weigh a thou- 
sand-millionth of a gram the rate is found to be 1 every 100 second. 
The quantity of this dust is 1,000 to 10,000 times greater than the 
particles which are big enough to burn up in the atmosphere. 

From some of the recent analyses of the micrometeorite recordings 
in the American satellites, Whipple of the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory has concluded that a large quantity of this small dust ap- 
pears to be traveling in an orbit around the earth. It appears that in 
some circumstances which are not yet understood some of this fine dust 
gets trapped in gravitational orbits around the earth. So we seem to 
have two new situations arising. We have the trapped radiation, the 
protons and electrons in the Van Allen belts (that is a magnetic trap- 
ping) , and also a gravitational trapping of fine dust in the vicinity of 
the earth. 

At the other end of the scale of size, as the particles become bigger 
their numbers decrease. Objects which we see in the sky as bright 
fireballs probably weigh about a gram, and there may be a million 
of these entering the earth's atmosphere every day. If the meteor 
is much larger than this it will not be completely evaporated in its 
journey through the atmosphere and some part of it will fall to earth 
as a solid body. Something like 500 kilograms of this material per 
year fall to earth in this way as meteorites. Occasionally these 
meteorites are extremely big and there are classic examples such as 
the meteor crater in Arizona and the Siberian meteorite which fell 
in 1908 and devastated 100 square miles of countryside. If ever a 
meteorite of this size fell on a populated area then there would 


indeed be a calamity, but oddly enough tliere seems to be no well 
attested case of anyone being killed by a meteorite fall. Some years 
ago a person in America was injured by a meteorite but even this 
was from the first bomice of a small fragment. There has been some 
discussion about the dangers of these meteors and meteorites to space 
travelers, but the chances of being hit by anything which could do 
serious damage to a space ship is so small that none of the experts 
really worry about it. Of course the astronauts who land on the 
moon will need protection, because there is no atmosphere to act as 
a shield even from the micrometeorites. 

The refinement of the measurements made in space probes and 
satellites, coupled with further development in the ground-based 
photographic and radio-echo meteor work, will certainly lead to a 
much better understanding of the role of these particles in the 
formation and evolution of the solar system. At present it is believed 
that the large meteorites which fall to earth have a different origin 
from the meteors. Are the meteorites an extension of the size range 
of meteors, or are they a separate class ? Does all this debris represent 
samples of the primeval material left over from the fonnation 
of the solar system or is it the consequence of some subsequent 
planetary catastrophe? It is clear that an extraordinarily complex 
situation exists in the solar system in the space between the earth 
and planets and the sun, not only of electromagnetic radiation but 
of corpuscular radiation, and of solid material particles in the form 
of dust and pieces of stone and iron. 


The techniques of radio astronomy and the space probe seem to be 
on the verge of increasing markedly our knowledge of the moon and 
the planets. For example, in the case of the moon, the radio astro- 
nomical work has already given some extremely interesting results. 
Ten years ago it was a difficult teclmological problem to transmit 
radio waves from earth and pick them up again 2i/^ seconds later 
after they had been reflected from the surface of the moon nearly 
a quarter of a million miles distant. Now^, with the large radio 
telescopes, this is an easy technical task but, as so often happens with 
new scientific experiments, completely unexpected effects were en- 
countered. The moon appears to be fairly uniformly bright to the 
eye, and it was assumed that if radio waves of uniform strength were 
transmitted to the moon, then they would be scattered uniformly 
from the lunar surface so that the signals collected by the radio 
telescope and recorded as echoes on a cathode ray tube would always 
be of the same strength. It was surprising to find that this was not 
the situation. The transmissions from the telescope were made in the 
form of short pulses which were expected to be recorded as pulses 


of uniform strength after scattering from the Imiar surface. In fact, 
very marked irregularities in the strength of the returned echoes were 
found. The individual pulses, separated in time by a second or so, 
varied in strength and there was also a long-period variation in the 
average strength of the returned signals with periods of 15 or 30 
minutes. It appears that these short-period and long-period effects 
are quite different phenomena. The long-period variation is the re- 
sult of an influence on the radio waves of the earth's magnetic 
field as they traverse the space between the earth and the moon. 
Most of this influence occurs in the ionized regions of the earth at a 
height of about 200 to 400 kilometers, and the variation is caused by 
the rotation of the plane of polarization of the radio waves — the 
Faraday effect occurring in the earth's ionosphere. The exploitation 
of this effect in a systematic manner has provided a method of 
measuring the total number of electrons between the earth and the 

The short-period fading which takes place in periods of seconds 
has a different origin. This fading is an effect of the libration of the 
moon. Because of the irregularities of the slight ellipticity of the 
motion of the moon around the earth, it never presents exactly the 
same face but gives the effect of a slight oscillation laiown as libration. 
It seems that the nature of the lunar surface is such that even for 
radio wavelengths it does not reflect as a smooth body but has a num- 
ber of plateaus which reflect the radio waves back to earth. The re- 
flecting qualities of adjacent parts of the limar surface differ so much 
that we get these very large variations in amplitude. An investiga- 
tion of the statistics of this phenomenon leads to a surprising con- 
clusion. In the case of the reflection of light, the moon behaves 
like a ball of chalk which appears almost uniformly bright in a beam 
of light. On the other hand, when radio waves are directed toward 
it the moon scatters similarly to a polished ball-bearing in a beam of 
light — the central region of the ball appearing much brighter than 
the remainder of the surface. Wlien radio waves are reflected from 
the moon it seems that they are not returned uniformly from the whole 
forward hemisphere of the moon but predominantly from a small part 
of the forward hemisphere — a hemispherical cap only about a fifth of 
the radius of the lunar surface. This is a striking illustration of the 
overall smoothness of the moon as far as wavelengths of the order of 
a meter or so are concerned. 

This discovery had an interesting practical result. The suitability 
of the moon had often been considered in relation to the problem 
of bouncing radio messages from one side of the earth to the other, 
using radio wavelengths so short that the earth's ionosphere was 
penetrated and, therefore, there could be no interference from sun- 
spots. It had been decided that this was impossible because the moon, 


reflecting over such a large area, would introduce so much distortion 
that the signals would be unintelligible. However, the conclusion 
reached from the study of the short-period fluctuations, that only 
the central part of the lunar hemisphere was effective, entirely al- 
tered this situation, and it seemed at least possible that if one modu- 
lated the radio waves going out from the radio telescope with speech 
instead of with the pulses, then one might at least be able to get back 
intelligible speech reflected from the moon. This proved to be the case, 
and it is now possible to converse intelligibly between any two points 
of the world, from which it is mutually visible, by using the moon as 
a reflecting surface. 

Radio telescopes have been used to measure the radio emissions from 
several of the planets in the region of centimeter wavelengths. This 
is the thermal emission appropriate to the temperature of the body, 
and useful comparisons with the temperatures derived by optical 
studies are being made. More surprising is the detection of large 
sporadic outbursts on long wavelengths from Jupiter. The energies 
involved in the generation of these radio waves must be enormous. 
There is some evidence that the events occur on the surface of the 
planet rather than in its atmosphere. Should this be the case, the 
forces at work must be equivalent to the energies involved in several 
hydrogen bombs, or in giant volcanic eruptions like the explosion of 

The extension of the lunar radar experiments to the nearer planets 
presented a major challenge. The moon is 240,000 miles distant and 
the return journey of the radio waves from earth takes 214 seconds. 
At close approach Venus is nearly 30 million miles away and the radar 
signal would take over 5 minutes on the journey there and back to 
earth. In terms of sensitivity of apparatus it is 10 million times more 
difficult to achieve success here than with the lunar echo. However, 
a beginning has been made. An American team with a transmitter 
of very great power on an 80-foot radio telescope, and a team at Jod- 
rell Bank using a smaller transmitter on the 250-foot radio telescope, 
have both achieved initial success in these Venus experiments. Even 
with these preliminary results a direct measurement of the distance of 
the planet has been made and the range of uncertainty about the value 
of the solar parallax has been significantly reduced. It is hoped that 
in the near future further extension of this work will enable the rate 
of rotation of the planet to be measured. It is likely, too, that the 
experiments will give some guidance on the nature of the surface of 
the planet. 

At the moment no one can be sure whether the first determination 
of the rotation period of Venus will come from these radio-astronom- 
ical studies or from instruments carried in a space probe, which either 
ofbits or make a close approach to the planet. There are, however. 


many aspects of these lunar and planetary studies which can be 
achieved only by the physical presence of instruments carried in space 
probes. Lunik II crashed its instruments onto the lunar surface. 
Soon we may expect control to be exercised in the final stages of flight. 
Then either a soft landing can be made and the instruments main- 
tained in working order on the lunar surface, or the probe can be 
placed in close orbit around the moon. Then we shall have the poten- 
tial for studying the lunar atmosphere and magnetic field (if any 
exists) ; and for making detailed measurements on the lunar surface, 
which may well have a decisive influence on many outstanding con- 
flicts of opinion. The history of many eons of time is contained on 
the lunar surface, which must be almost untouched by erosion. Is 
there, for example, an identity of material between the meteorites 
which crash to earth and the surface of the moon ? The anal3^sis of 
certain meteorites made by Urey seems to indicate that at some stage 
in their history they must have gone through processes of heating 
which could occur only in the interior of a body of lunar size ; and that 
these meteorites which we handle today are the result of a shattering 
of these moons in collision. If this is correct there must, at some 
stage in the evolution of the solar system, have been at least 10 objects 
the size of the present moon which eventually disintegrated in mutual 
collisions. It seems that these lunar investigations may well hold 
the key to a major problem in the evolution of the solar system. 


Various forms of evidence indicate that the earth is about 4,500 
million years old. In the first half of tliis century we believed that the 
earth and the planets were torn out of the sun in the form of great 
tongues of solar gas by the gravitational attraction of a passing star. 
The wandering star passed on its journey and eventually after eons of 
time the molten gas cooled down and formed the planets and the earth. 
One significant feature of this theory was that the close encounter of 
two stars in this way must be an extremely rare accident and in spite 
of the trillions of stars in the universe the solar system was probably 
imique. Today we are aware of reasons why the earth and the planets 
could not have been torn from the sun in this way. For example, 
98 percent of the mass of the entire solar system is in the sun, but 
98 percent of the angular momentum of the system resides in the 
planets. Since the division of angular momenta must have occurred 
at the time of formation of the solar system, this represents an im- 
possible situation. Gaseous material torn out from the sun with that 
distribution of momenta would dissipate quickly and could not possibly 
have aggregated into planets. 

Today we believe that the solar system was formed in quite a differ- 
ent way. Originally, the sun, which is an average star, was probably 


surrounded by a nebula of dust and gas. These particles of dust suf- 
ered collisions with one another and a certain degree of accretion 
or coagulation occurred. This process continued through a thousand 
million years or so, the coagulations all the time getting bigger and 
bigger, with fragmentation occurring as the larger particles collided. 
Eventually these became powerful accretors of material, and it is 
possible dynamically to explain with some degree of precision how the 
planets of various sizes and mass were formed in this manner. 

One uncertainty in the argument concerns the process by which 
the sun collected the original nebula of gas and dust. There seem 
to be two possibilities. Interstellar space is full of clouds of dust, 
and it may be that the sun as it journeyed through space ran into 
one of these very dense clouds and carried with it tliis large nebula 
which must at that time have spread over billions of miles representing 
the extent of planetary orbits. Or it is possible that the event which 
gives rise to the birth of a star like the sun involves the simultaneous 
creation of thousands of stars from the primeval cloud of hydrogenous 
material, and that so much dust and gaseous material remains that 
the stars themselves are left with a nebula of gas and dust as part 
of this formation process. 

There are important consequences of these new ideas. On the for- 
mer ideas that the planets were torn out of the sun, the origin of the 
solar system was a rare accident; it must have been miique in the 
entire universe in spite of the vast numbers of stars which existed. 
In this theory the earth must originally have been extremely hot, 
and therefore all the biological processes which have since occurred 
must have been events which took place subsequent to the cooling down 
of the earth. On the accretion theory the situation is quite different. 
The formation of planetary systems from the nebulae around stars 
may be a frequent occurrence in the universe, and our own solar sys- 
tem can no longer be regarded as unique. Another important corol- 
lary is that this accretion of planetary systems occurs in a cold state 
and any prebiotic material wliich exists on the interstellar dust of the 
nebulae will be carried over to the planets. 

Advances in Astronomical Technology^ 

By Aden B. Meinel 

Director, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona 

[With 4 plates] 

Astronomy is a branch of science that has contributed much to the 
rapid expansion of the frontiers of modern technology. The unique 
technical problem faced by the astronomer is the f aintness of the stars 
and other objects with which he must work. Telescope mirrors meas- 
ured in meters across are needed to gather enough flux of this faint 
light to permit its study. Celestial objects are also so far away that 
their apparent size is so small that the astronomer's telescope must, in 
addition, focus the faint light it gathers to a sharp focus. 

Most celestial objects are in reality very hot and luminous but ap- 
pear faint because of their great distances from us. The brightest 
star, Sirius, with an intrinsic luminosity 28 times that of our sun is 
approximately 10,000 million (1 followed by ten zeros) times appar- 
ently fainter than the sun, and it is one of the closest of the visible 
stars. The faintest galaxy of stars that can be detected with the 
200-inch Palomar telescope is so remote that its light has taken over 
1 billion years traveling at the velocity of light (300,000 km/sec) to 
reach us from the depths of space. These two problems, faintness 
and small angular size, set the unusual characteristics of astronomical 
instrumentation and research. 

The eye is little used in astronomical work today except in the ex- 
amination of the moon and planets. 'V\niile the eye is exceedingly 
sensitive to light it does not have the property of integration. In 
other words, the eye will not detect any star fainter than one it can 
see in the first second of time. A photographic plate, on the other 
hand, will record ihoi picture of stars 100 times fainter in 100 seconds 
than it will record in 1 second. In recent decades the astronomer has 
principally Avorked with the photographic process to determine the 
position, motion, and brightness of celestial objects. Photography 
still represents a method of information storing unrivaled for pictorial 

1 Reprinted by permission from The Indian d Eastern Engineer, 104th Anniversary 
Number, 1962. 

720-018—64 20 293 


display as is evidenced by the accompanying photographs. The 
fastest photographic emulsions, however, utilize only about 1 percent 
of the incident light. The best photoelectric devices available to the 
astronomer today can utilize approximately 30 percent of the light. 


The principal auxiliary instruments currently used on a telescope 
are the photoelectric photometer and spectrophotometer, the photo- 
graphic spectrograph, the photographic camera, and recently a new 
device, the image intensification tube. A spectrograph is a most power- 
ful device in the hands of the astronomer. It can reveal many 
interesting properties of a star, such as temperature, mass, chemical 
composition, the extent of its atmosphere, whether the star is single, 
a binary system, etc., its motion toward or away from the observer and 
indirectly, but effectively, the absolute brightness, distance and even 
the age of the star. I cannot go into the many interesting details of 
how each of these things is learned, but I hope that the recitation of 
this list will give the reader a glimpse into the fascinating world open 
to the astronomer. 

The astronomer has pushed the telescope close to its maximum useful 
size in the current century. At this time we have four telescopes 
that have been built with mirror diameters of 100 inches or more. 
In order of size these telescopes are the 200-inch Hale telescope on 
Mount Palomar, completed in 1947 ; the 120-inch on Mount Hamilton, 
in 1959 ; the 104-inch now being placed in operation in the U.S.S.R. : 
and the famed 100-mch on Mount Wilson, completed in 1919 and 
which did much to revolutionize observational astronomy in the hands 
of Hubble and Baade. A giant telescope of 240-inch aperture and 
of revolutionary design is reported under design by the Institute of 
Optics in Leningrad. A new telescope of 150-inch aperture has also 
reached the design stage at the Kitt Peak National Obser\^atory 
in the U.S.A. 

Since new and larger telescopes cost much in return for a relatively 
small gain in distance reached and in new knowledge, astronomers are 
now concentrating upon the use of new methods to make better use 
of the starlight that is collected by our terrestrial telescopes. They 
are also looking forward to the utilization of space telescopes, but 
before I speak of these new telescopes it is necessary to appreciate the 
handicaps with which the astronomer is faced with his telescopes 
located upon the surface of the earth. 

The atmosphere limits the usefulness of a large telescope even on 
the clearest night atop a mountain. The small turbulences present 
in the atmosphere that are accompanied by thermal differences make 
it impossible to sharply focus a telescope. The air itself will not 
permit the far ultraviolet light or the infrared light to reach the 


highest mountain. In addition, the night sl^ background is not 
entirely dark. Far fi'om the lights of the city and on a moonless 
night one can see with the dark-adapted eye well enough to read the 
large headline type of a newspaper. The stars are therefore seen by 
a telescope as upon this faintly luminous background. This diffuse 
"light of the night sky" and the lack of sharpness of focus from at- 
mospheric turbulence combine to set the limit in faintness to which a 
telescope can reach. 

The total briglitness of the night sky backgi'ound with a large tele- 
scope is approximately equal to that of one 20th magnitude star per 
square second of arc. It is obvious, therefore, that Ave cannot tolerate 
many square seconds of arc in a detector when we wish to observe a 
23d magnitude star. Since the light of the night sky is a diffuse 
source, its brightness does not depend upon the mirror diameter of 
the telescope but only upon the ratio of the focal length divided by 
the aperture, called the f-ratio or f-number of tlie telescope. 


Faced with the above limitations the astronomer has four means 
at his disposal where gains can be made as follows : 

1. Increase the size of the telescope mirror, 

2. Increase the efficiency of the detector, 

3. Decrease the aperture, and thereby the night sky noise at the 

4. Place the telescope above the atmosphere, either on a high balloon 
or a satellite. 

The first alternative, building a larger telescope, has been con- 
sidered. Wliile it is within the scope of present teclmology to build 
a 400-inch telescope, its cost would be in the vicinity of $40 million. 
Its ultimate benefits would be doubtful in terms of the great expense 
because of the limitations imposed by atmospheric seeing unless a 
site with unprecedentedly fine seeing could be found. 

The term "seeing" is used by the astronomer to refer to two dis- 
turbances caused by the atmosphere. They are (a) time fluctuations 
in the intensity of the wavefront arriving at various points at the 
telescope aperture, and (b) time fluctuations in the direction of arrival 
of the wavefront. The first is called "scintillation" and is readily 
seen with the unaided eye as twinkling. The second effect is usually 
referred to as "seeing" since it affects the ability of the telescope, 
especially a large one, to focus sharply. Kesearch into seeing has 
shown that these effects are most serious close to the land surface. 
To minimize these effects telescopes are now located, at no small in- 
convenience and expense, upon the summits of mountains in relatively 
smooth air. In the best sites tlie average seeing diameter for a large 
telescope is between 1 and 2 seconds of arc. Upon rare occasions the 


seeing may approach 0.2 to 0.3 second of arc, as has been noted at 
Pic du Midi in France ; however, this size is still much larger than the 
theoretical resolving power of a large instrmnent. As a consequence 
a very large telescope can promise only a larger picture of the same 
blurred celestial object as would be obtained with one perhaps only 
one-half as big. 

The second possibility for improvement is in the efficiency of the 
detection of the photons. The photographic process, widely used for 
many years, has the ability to record stars over a wide range of 
brightness, although the accuracy of the measure of brightness is 
relatively low. One photograph may record star images over a 
range of 20 magnitudes (10^ in intensity) and also record a million 
information elements per square millimeter. Information densities 
up to 5 million elements per square millimeter are possible under 
laboratorj'- conditions. The quantum efficiency of a photographic 
emulsion is low, ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 percent. There is little hope 
for a large improvement in the photographic process itself since 
individual silver grains in the emulsion are quite good detectors. The 
quantum efficiency for a single gi'ain to be developable in terms of 
absorbed photons is 25 percent. One developed grain, however, does 
not provide a detectable quantity since every grain produced by 
chemical reaction called "fog" would be indistinguishable from a 
"star". Only when groups of 20 or more grains are developed does 
one recognize the clump as an entity on the background of fog grain 

In recent years much effort has been devoted to the utilization of the 
high quantum efficiencies approaching 30 percent for the photoelectric 
detector. The photomultiplier is a commercially available device of 
high efficiency and built-in amplification which has been widely used 
in astronomy and nuclear physics. The internal amplification of 
such a device of 10^ produces a measurable pulse each time a photo- 
electron is emitted from the cathode. The cathode will occasionally 
reject a "thermal" electron spontaneously as a consequence of the 
low work function of the caesium compound emitting surface. These 
thermal electrons produce what is called the "dark current," which 
adds a noise background to the signal. A good photomultiplier at 
room temperature will have a dark current of 10 to 20 electrons per 
second from a 1 cm.^ photocathode surface. Because the dark current 
emission is temperature dependent, the astronomical use of photo- 
multipliers for use on faint objects is always with the device cooled 
to dry-ice temperature ( — 80°C). At this low temperature a good 
tube will have a dark current of about 0.2 electron per second per cm.^ 

The photomultiplier is an excellent detector of a single object at a 
time. The output current is accurately linear over a wide range of 
intensities; hence, the brightness of a star can be measured veiy 


accurately. In practice, the photoelectric photometer isolates a single 
small region of the sky at the focus of the telescope. The size of the 
diaphragm of the photometer is kept small in order to reduce the 
noise signal from the background of the sky, but large enough to 
permit the blurred image of the star to pass completely througli the 
hole and to allow for inaccuracies in the guiding of the telescope. 
The usual size of the diaphragm is 1 to 2 mm. diameter. 

The high efficiency of the photoelectric surface has led to efforts to 
construct an imaging system where the astronomer could take a "pic- 
ture" of many stars at a time rather than one by one. While the 
theory of an image tube is very simple — one needs only to electron- 
ically accelerate and focus the electrons emitted from the cathode upon 
a fluorescent screen or directly upon a photographic emulsion — ^the 
practical attainment of an image tube proved full of technical diffi- 
culties. The earliest use of an image tube in astronomy was by 
Krassovsky (U.S.S.R.) who adapted an infrared snooperscope tube 
to photograph the infrared airglow spectrum, a task not possible at all 
with the photographic emulsion since it is not sensitive to the infrared 
beyond 1 micron wavelength. The first image tubes to rival and 
exceed the direct photograph were made in France by Lallemande. 
While the use of these in astronomy has permitted unusual observation 
such as the rotational velocity of the nuclear regions of the Androm- 
eda nebula by Walker (U.S.A.), each tube must be made minutes 
before use — hardly like taking a photographic plate out of a box 
purchased months beforehand. 

The adaptation of the television tube method to astronomy has 
recently become possible by the development of tubes with high 
sensitivity to low levels of light and with integrating properties. 
Many astronomers in the U.S.A. are now experimenting with systems 
using commercial tubes with good success. The promise of this type 
of image tube is foreshadowed by the time in the near future when 
astronomers will want to have their "photograph" taken from a space 
telescope transmitted back to the earth. 

A vast technology has developed for infrared detection in the region 
from 1 to 12 microns and which has only recently been applied to 
astronomy. The principal reasons for the lack of development of 
infrared astronomy are that the atmosphere transmission is highly 
variable in these wavelengths and detectors are still senstitive enough 
only to permit one to reach the brightest stars with a large telescope. 
To illustrate the problem of background noise in the case of an infra- 
red telescope it is only necessary to remember that the maximum of 
the infrared emission from material at room temperature is at 10 
microns. The detector therefore looks at the star through a telescope 
that is literally glowing with its own light even though it is night and 


completely dark to the eye. As a consequence, much remains to be 
explored of the heavens when infrared telescopes can be flown from 
balloons or space telescopes where the telescope can be made very cold. 


The third possibility for improvement in the operating efficiency 
and research potential of a telescope has now been opened through 
advances in balloon teclmology. As mentioned earlier, the efficiency 
of a telescope increases when the "seeing" image size is decreased. 
Much effort has been expended in the location of the Palomar and 
Kitt Peak observatories to find a site with the best seeing conditions. 
It does not appear that much can be gained in this direction for 
future telescope locations as long as the terrestrial atmosphere is 
involved. Only when one can place liis telescope above the atmos- 
phere does the theoretical resolving power of a telescope become 
obtainable. Balloon-borne telescopes offer this possibility. 

At balloon altitudes of approximately 80,000 feet there is effectively 
no seeing disturbance even from direct sunlight on the telescope. Wliile 
visual observations have been made from balloons, the first successful 
demonstration of high resolution photography was made with the 12- 
inch Stratoscope I by Schwarzschild (U.S.A.). This mimanned 
photographic telescope has taken superb direct photographs of the 
sun, achieving the full theoretical resolution of the telescope. 

At the present time the 36-inch Stratoscope II system is nearing 
completion. This instrmnent is large enough to permit the observa- 
tion of planets, stars, and nebulae, and it is designed to yield a guid- 
ance accuracy of 0.1 second of arc over extended periods. The 
achievement of this accuracy should, for instance, permit the solution 
of the existence or nonexistence of the "canals" on the planet Mars. 
Other balloon-borne telescopes are planned and several have failed. 
The launching and operation of as precise an instrument as a telescope 
from the tenuous platform provided from a balloon are complicated, 
and the probability for a malfunction of some portion of the system 
is a real threat to the success of the flight. 

Rockets have been used for the last decade to obtain brief glimpses 
of the sun and stars from completely above the atmosphere. Even 
though a rocket-borne telescope has only 3 to 4 minutes of observing 
time, such a telescope is the only device that astronomers have had to 
observe the far ultraviolet beyond the atmospheric cutoff at a wave- 
length of 3000A. Beautiful far ultraviolet spectra and Lyman alpha 
photographs of the solar disk have been obtained by Tousey (U.S.A.) . 
The recent flights by Steelier and Milligan (U.S.A.) have observed the 
spectrum of stars in the far ultraviolet. Since their observations 
showed that the theoretical predictions of the ultraviolet brightness 
of the hot O and B type stai*s was incorrect by a large factor much 


interest now exists in the pending operation of the first space tele- 
scopes. Telescopes as developed for use in the early rocket veliicles 
have been severely limited by the space available in the nose cone of 
the rocket. The accompanying photograph shows the instrument 
flown by Stecher and Milligan to illustrate this point. Their instru- 
ment was designed very compactly. A 10-inch telescope and diffrac- 
tion grating was fitted into a space 14 inches in diameter and 12 
inches in length. 

The success of the rocket experiments and the great promise for 
the exploration of the miiverse m the far ultraviolet has led to the 
initiation by NASA (U.S.A.) of a spacecraft system capable of carry- 
ing a 36-inch telescope and all its related instrumentation. The 
program plans tliree such systems at an expected cost of $100 million. 
This is a large amount of money on any monetary scale and is justified 
by the fact that in no other way is it possible to learn what such an 
instrument will be able to tell us. The payload for the OAO telescope 
will be in excess of 4,000 pounds, the largest unmanned scientific pay- 
load to be launched to date by the U.S.A. 

The most obvious gain to be had from a space telescope is, of course, 
the accessibility of the ultraviolet. Tliis region of wavelengths is 
of great interest to the astrophysicist since the resonance absorption 
and emissions from atoms occur m this region. A less obvious ad- 
vantage, and one that will require more teclinological development, 
is that an orbital telescope can work at the theoretical resolving power 
of the optical system, since no "seeing" disturbance is present. Given 
sufficient guiding accuracy, possible in free space, one could use dia- 
phragms of very small angular size and increase the star-to-sky signal 
by 5 magnitudes over the same telescope on earth. If T.V. devices of 
sufficient information handling capability become available then high 
resolution studies on a fulltime basis will be possible. This possi- 
bility is of special interest for the observation of time- variable phe- 
nomena at a predetermined time or for long periods of time since 
neither weather nor daylight will interfere with the work of a space 

Space telescopes pose engineering problems that are not encountered 
in terrestrial telescopes and whose solution is required before successful 
missions can be made. The launching g-forces are an example. 
During the launching phase the telescope will be subject to thrust 
and vibration forces up to the order of 10 g's. As a consequence, either 
the engineer must find a structural design that will preserve optical 
collimation or the astronomer will have to have controls to permit liim 
to realign his optical systems after the telescope arrives in orbit. The 
lack of proper collimation could seriously degrade the performance 
of a space telescope. 


The second major problem in the design of the space telescope is 
that produced by its thermal environment while in orbit. Sunlight 
intermittently illuminates one side or the other of the space craft. 
This variable heating on one side coupled with the intense cold of 
outer space on the other produces a large and changing temperature 
gradient between the outer skin of the space craft and the telescope. 
It will be necessary to keep the thermal gradient small in the optical 
system if high resolution performance is to be obtained. The problem 
of computing what the thermal gradients will be before the space 
craft is in orbit is a difficult mathematical problem, and one that must 
be done with accuracy before the engineers can design a structure to 
meet the requirements. 

The third problem area, one common to all complicated mecha- 
nisms, is that of lifetime. Even when the probability of failure is 
very small for any one component of a system, when several hundred 
thousand components must function correctly the probability of fail- 
ure of the system becomes large enough to present trouble. In the 
case of the orbiting astronomical observatories, the design lifetime is 
to be one year — an exceedingly difficult specification to design with 
confidence in the results. The environment of the hyper-vacuum of 
space causes many problems that we have no counterparts on earth. 
Lubricants evaporate, even gross metal, like magnesium, evaporates 
at such a high rate as to weaken structures. Moving parts tend to 
weld together since all the surface contaminants that contribute to 
low friction on earth evaporate. Primary cosmic rays can ruin the 
best high voltage insulation at a single impact, not to mention the 
gradual destruction of electronic components by the energetic particles 
in the Van Allen radiation belts. The list of problems rapidly ex- 
tends as one looks closer into the actual design of a space telescope, 
yet the rewards of a new view of the universe draw astronomers 

Smithsonian Report, 1963. — Meinel 

Plate 1 

1. The summer Milky Way photographed with an all-slcy camera in infrared Hght. 
brightness at the horizon is due to the upper atmosphere airglow of the earth. 


2. Image orthicon telescope picture of the \\ liirlpnol Xebula taken with an image orthicon 
tube attached to the 20-inch reflector at the Organ Pass observing station of the Dearborn 
Observatory. This picture would require a 100-inch telescope to photograph this object 
in the same exposure time with ordinary photographic plates. 

Smithsonian Report, I963.--Meinel 

Plate 2 

"2 o 

o V, 

O . ON 

fcJ3 < ^ 

^ ^ 

aj cB -T! 

5 _^ H 

■^0 3 


•V O r^ 
o '^ ^ 
r?, -TJ ^ 

■- -^ -n S g: 

Smithsonian Report, 1963.— McincI 

Plate 3 

Photograph of the spiral nebula in Ursa Major (M 81) taken with the 200-incli Paloniar 


Smithsonian Report. 1963. — Meinel 

Plate 4 

1. Dearborn Observatory telescope control console. 

2. Inflation of the launch balloon. Stratoscope II is in the center ui the pholograpli. 

The Analysis of Starlight ' 

By Bernard Pagel 

Royal Greenwich Observatory, Sussex, England 

[With 7 plates] 

Astronomy is a branch of science that enjoys a universal fascination. 
One of the reasons why it fascinates people is that the sheer romance 
of the night sky never palls even for the most hardbitten observer — 
at least in the warm and comparatively short nights of the smnmer. 
In winter it has to be admitted that observing is not quite so romantic 
after one has been at it for six hours or more, but there are always 
enough interesting things in the sky itself to compensate one for the 
ejffort. Another fascination exerted by astronomy is the literally 
uneartlily appearance of the moon, the planets, star clusters, and 
nebulae seen through a small telescope or even a good pair of bi- 
noculars; then also there is the possibility of the existence of other 
worlds, some of which may for all we know be inhabited by in- 
telligent beings, and all the exciting prospects of space exploration 
by automatic instruments or even by human astronauts, which are 
being brought a step further from science fiction and a step nearer to 
reality practically every day. 

But astronomy also has a special appeal of its own on more strictly 
scientific grounds than these. The Ancients believed the heavenly 
bodies to be incorruptible and not subject to the laws governing 
our unhappy sublunary world, and our present belief that the same 
physical laws apply in the heavens as on the Earth is really a new 
and still staggering idea that goes no further back into history than 
the Newtonian revolution in science. The first applications of this 
idea were to the study of the motions of planets, comets, and, later 
on, double stars in the light of Newtonian mechanics ; and it was not 
until the middle of the 19th century that the spectroscopists got to 
work, starting with the discoveries of Kirchhoff and Bunsen, and 

^Reprinted by permission from The Advancement of Science (London), vol. 19, No. 82, 
March 1963. 



showed that the stars are made out of the same familiar elements of 
matter that we have here — hydrogen, sodimn, calcium, iron, and even 
compounds such as cyanogen and titanium oxide. Li the 20th century, 
modem atomic physics has provided us with two basic innovations 
in our thinking about the nature of stars both of which were first 
noted by Sir Arthur Eddhigton : the first of these is the fact that the 
material throughout a star, even at its center, is virtually a perfect 
gas although the material in the central regions of the Sun is 100 times 
as dense as water. This is because the temperature is so high — at 
about 15 million degrees — that the atoms lose almost all their electrons 
and become ionized ; the stripped nuclei and free electrons that remain 
take up very much less space than do ordinary atoms, and so they 
can be compressed to very considerable densities without departing 
appreciably from the ordinary behavior of ideal gases as summarized 
in Boyle's and Charles' laws. A second important consequence of 
modern atomic physics has been the realization of the mechanism which 
enables the stars to shine: they derive most of their energy from 
thermonuclear reactions that are very similar to the controlled fusion 
processes that people are now trying to reproduce in the laboratory. 

These nuclear fusion reactions most commonly involve hydrogen, 
which is the most abimdant element in the universe, and the energy 
that comes out of the reaction is the nuclear bmding energy that is 
released when four hydrogen nuclei, or protons, are fused together 
into one nucleus of helium, or a-particle. The weight of the helium 
nucleus is slightly less than four times the weight of the proton, and 
the difi^erence is available as energy in accordance with the well-known 
equation of Einstein, E—mc^. It is quite amusing to note that helium, 
which is the second most abundant element in the universe after hydro- 
gen, was first discovered in the spectrum of the Sun by Sir Norman 
Lockyer at the total eclipse of 1868, a quarter of a century before the 
gas was isolated in the laboratory by Sir William Eamsay; and in 
a more general way we can say that the nuclear transformation of 
hydrogen into heliiun that is going on in the deep mteriors of stars is 
just one example of the fact that astronomy can provide the physicist, 
and nowadays even the technologist, with an extension of his labora- 
tory facilities to a vast range of temperatures, pressures, and, of course, 
sheer size, if only we have the wit to understand what is actually 
happening. In fact, one astronomer of my acquaintance recently 
remarked that the whole of physics and chemistry, as studied in 
laboratories, is just a special case of astrophysics. 

Apart from the application of astronomy as an extension of our 
terrestrial laboratories, astrophysics provides us with an opportunity 
of investigating the answers to questions of a more or less historical 
character, such as : {a) How did the Sun, the planets, and in particular 
the Earth come into existence? and (b) Wliy do the chemical elements 


exist in the proportions in which we actually find them? The first 
question has proved to be a somewhat elusive one, but the second 
question — that is the one about the chemical elements — has made a 
great deal of progress in the last few years as a result of observational 
advances, and also very much as a result of the better miderstanding 
that we now think we have of the way in which stars change or 
"evolve" in the course of time, together with a coherent theory by 
Fred Hoyle and several collaborators on the synthesis of the elements 
by nuclear reactions in stars. We have seen that hydrogen is being 
transformed into helimn in the interior of the Smi, and spectroscopic 
analysis reveals that helium is about half as abmidant by weight in 
the universe as hydrogen. "Wlien we look for the common heavier ele- 
ments such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, we find that there is much 
less of them, just a few percent in comparison with hydrogen. Still 
heavier elements, which astronomers tend to lump together in cavalier 
fashion by referring to all of them as "metals", are even less common, 
at least among the stars and Imninescent clouds of interstellar gas 
that can be investigated with the spectroscope : all of them 2)ut together 
on the average account for less than a tenth of 1 percent of the cosmic 
mixture of elements. The situation here on the Earth, which consists 
mostly of heavy elements, thus seems to be quite exceptional; pre- 
sumably the hydrogen and helium, which are usually far and away 
the most abundant elements, escaped at an early stage in the Earth's 
history simply because they are so volatile. 

The relative proportions of the commoner metals like calcium, so- 
dium, and iron do not appear to differ very radically from one another 
in most stars ; indeed they seem to be present in rouglily similar propor- 
tions to one another in the Earth, in meteorites, in stars, and in clouds 
of interstellar gas. But the proportion of metals as a whole relative 
to hydrogen, while always small, varies quite widely from one star to 
another, ranging over a factor of maybe some hundreds. The varia- 
tion in metal abundance appears to be related to the ages of stars, the 
stages that they have reached in the course of their evolution, and 
their distribution within the Galaxy ; and I should like to say some- 
thing in a very general way about these things and about our pres- 
ent ideas on the origin of the heavy elements, and then something 
in a little more detail about such related spectroscopic investigations 
concerning metal abundances and other characteristics among the 
relatively nearby stars as are now being carried out at the Royal 
Greenwich Observatory in Herstmonceux and elsewhere. 


When we look up at the night sky we see a number of stars in all 
directions; these are relatively near to us in space, the stars visible 
to the naked eye being generally between 10 and 1,000 light-years 


away ; that is to say they are at such distances that the light from them 
takes between 10 and 1,000 years to reach us. These distanc&s are 
of course unimaginably vast by ordinary human standards, since light 
takes a mere 8 minutes to traverse the distance of 93 million miles 
between ourselves and the Sun. But they are quite small distances in 
comparison with the size of the Galaxy — which is the name that we 
give to the complete system of stars, or "island universe," that is de- 
fined by the Milky Way and to which we ourselves and all the visible 
stars belong. The Milky Way itself sweeps out a narrow belt in the 
sky, which is simply the projection of a large thin disk containing the 
Sun, many of the intrinsically bright stars (especially those that have 
a high surface temperature) , and clouds of luminescent gas and dark 
obscuring dust. 

A typical portion of the Milky Way, as seen through a telescope, 
is shown in plate 1, and you can see how the stars are mixed together 
with shining gas clouds and black clouds of dust that are generally 
referred to briefly as interstellar matter. 

Recent work has shown that the Milky Way system is a typical 
spiral galaxy, somewhat similar to the great spiral nebula in Ursa 
Major that is shown in plate 2. This is a galaxy rather like our own 
viewed from an oblique angle so that we can see something of its 
structure. The brighest stars are concentrated in spiral arms, to- 
gether with lanes of obscuring dust which appear as dark streaks 
over the central blob. The position of the Sun in our own Galaxy 
corresponds to a point in the outermost spiral arm but one, at a dis- 
tance of about 30,000 light-years from the center, and the stars visible 
to the naked eye are confined within a sphere whose diameter is 
somewhat less than the thickness of one spiral arm. 

Plate 3 shows another similar galaxy seen edge-on, which is known 
as the "Sombrero Hat" nebula. The spiral arms, defined by the hor- 
izontal streak of dark matter, are seen to be concentrated in a flat disk, 
which corresponds to what we see projected on the sky in our own 
Galaxy as the Milky Way. The particular interest of this picture 
is that it shows very clearly that we have at least two distinct popu- 
lations of stars which interpenetrate : on one hand the disk and spiral 
arm population, concentrated toward a central plane which turns out 
to be exactly perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the whole system ; 
and on the other hand a spherical or "halo" population which is dens- 
est around the center of the galaxy but shows very little flattening 
toward the plane. The disk and halo populations were christened 
by the late Walter Baade as Population I and Population II respec- 
tively; and the two populations differ from each other both in the 
physical characteristics of their component stars and also in the lands 
of orbits in which the stars revolve round the center of the Galaxy, 
somewhat in the same way as the planets revolve round the Sun in the 


Solar System. The disk stars of Population I revolve in circular 
orbits that are confined to the central plane, and the Sun, for example, 
is estimated to go right round a galactic circle in this plane in a period 
of 200 million years ; whereas the stars of the halo population go round 
in elliptical orbits that are often steeply inclined to the plane. 

The two stellar populations also differ from each other in their age. 
The key to the age difference is that stars are formed by condensation 
out of the diffuse clouds of interstellar matter which are concentrated 
in the flat spiral arms, and so any stars which are young must also 
be concentrated in spiral arms. The halo Population II, which is 
devoid of interstellar material, is in a kind of fossilized state because 
star formation must have stopped there at an early stage in the history 
of the Galaxy, We imagine that the whole Galaxy itself started off 
as a diffuse cloud of gas condensing under the effect of its own gravi- 
tational attraction and that while it was condensing groups of stars 
separated out of it at every stage, and indeed are still doing so at the 
present time. Owing to the rotation of the primeval gas cloud, it 
would have been gradually flattened out into a disk by centrifugal 
force, but the stars that had been formed before appreciable flattening 
had occurred would have been left behind in a spherical or spheroidal 
bulge ; and this is more or less what we observe. 

Many stars are concentrated in more or less compact physical 
groups known as star clusters; well-known clusters are the Pleiades 
and the Hyades, which are near to the Milky Way and are typical 
members of the spiral arm population or Population I; these are gen- 
erally referred to as galactic or open clusters. One such cluster, the 
Double Cluster in Perseus, is shown in plate 4, figure 1. 

The stars of the spherical population, or Population II, also are 
frequently (though by no means always) found in clusters. These 
tend to be richer in stars and more compact than the galactic clusters, 
and they are known from their shape as globular clusters. One exam- 
ple of a globular cluster is the system Messier 13 in Hercules shown in 
plate 4, figure 2. 


Star clusters of both kinds have proved particularly helpful in 
studying the evolution of stars in the course of time, because we can 
suppose that all the stars in any one cluster were formed at a single 
moment from one cloud of dust and gas, but that different clusters 
may have been formed at different times in the past. In order to 
understand how we interpret the observations of clusters, we shall 
now have to go into some details both about the nature of stars and 
al)out the kinds of observation that it is possible to make. 

Suppose that a cloud of interstellar matter with a mass of the order 
of 10^® g. or about 1,000 times the mass of the Smi starts to condense 


under its own gravity and has reached a stage where it fragments 
into a number of smaller masses each of wliich then condenses further 
into an indi^ddual star. The individual clouds, or proto-stars, will 
go on contracting and in doing so they will convert their gravitational 
potential energy into heat which then escapes as radiation. In the 
last century this process was put forward by Helmholtz and Lord 
Kelvin as the main source of stellar energy, but it is easily shown that 
the Sun could not have lasted long enough on contraction alone to 
satisfy geological evidence as to the age of the Earth, which is now 
believed to be about 5,000 million years, and the discrepancy led to 
long and sometimes acrimonious debates in the British Association 
and elsewhere between Kelvin and the geologists, led by T. H. Huxley. 
However, as the contraction of the proto-stars goes on, their internal 
temperature and pressure will steadily increase until finally the con- 
ditions at the center have become sufficiently extreme for the hydro- 
gen to undergo a nuclear transmutation uito helium; the energy 
produced by the reaction will be carried outward by processes of radi- 
ative and convective transfer until it reaches the surface, from which 
it will then bo radiated away into space. In order to reach a steady 
state, the whole star must adjust itself until two conditions are ful- 
filled: first, the energy radiated from the surface (or in other words 
the star's total luminosity) must exactly balance the energy liberated 
by nuclear reactions in the deep interior; and second, the pressure in 
every layer of the star must exactly balance the weight of the layers 
lying on top of it. When these conditions are worked out in detail, 
it turns out that the whole structure of the star, and notably its bright- 
ness and its size, are completely fixed by its mass. This is the basis 
of the famous mass-luminosity relation, which says that the light 
output of a star increases rapidly with the mass, about as the cube, so 
that a star with twice the mass of the Sun should have about eight 
times its intrinsic brightness. 

Unfortmiately we can only measure the masses of a few stars in 
nearby double systems, and there is no general method of finding the 
masses of stars in clusters. However, there is another relationship 
that comes out of these considerations of a star's internal equilibrium : 
the brightness is related to the surface temperature, varying as about 
the 12th power of the latter, so that our star with twice the mass of the 
Sun and eight times its brightness should have a surface temperature 
of about 1.2 times that of the Sim or 7,000°, as compared with the 
Sun's surface temperature of about 6,000°. 

Now we can estimate the surface temperatures of stars in two differ- 
ent ways. Wlien you heat up a poker, then at fairly low temperatures 
the radiation from it is concentrated in the infrared part of the spec- 
trum. As the temperature is raised, the energy distribution shifts 
its maximum from the red to the yellow and then to the blue and 


finally, at very high temperatures, to the ultraviolet. With a good 
telescope, or even in good weather with the naked eye, the differences 
in color between different stars are quite obvious when we look at 
them. Cool stars like Betelgeuse, at the top left corner of the con- 
stellation of Orion, are red, while hot stars like Rigel at the opposite 
corner of Orion are bluish white. To study these differences in color 
in a quantitative way, astronomers measure the brightnesses of stars 
with photomultiplier cells attached to the end of the telescope which 
are covered by optical filters of differently colored glass. Most com- 
monly two such glass filters are used which let through mainly yellow 
light and mainly blue light respectively, and in this way one obtains 
a so-called color index which gives some indication of the distri- 
bution of light in the continuous spectrum and hence of the surface 

A second method of estimating surface temperatures is provided 
by the spectroscope, which reveals the characteristic dark absorption 
lines of the different substances present in gaseous form in the visible 
surface layers of the stars. Most stellar spectra can be classified into 
a continuous series of "spectral types" ranging from spectra with dark 
lines of helium and hydrogen at one end of the scale to spectra with 
lines of metals and molecules like CH, CN", and titanium oxide at the 
other end. The different spectral classes do not, in general, represent 
different chemical compositions, although we saw earlier that such 
differences in composition do indeed exist; but the main cause of the 
different kinds of spectra that we see is the effect of thermal excitation 
of the atoms, molecules, and electrons, which prevents the molecules 
and metallic atoms from showing up in the spectrum unless the 
temperatures are comparatively low. At higher temperatures the 
molecules dissociate into their constituent atoms and the metallic 
atoms lose their electrons to become ionized, while hydrogen and 
helium atoms become excited to the rather high energy levels in which 
they need to be in order to absorb light in the visible part of the spec- 
trum. The various spectral classes are arranged in order of diminish- 
ing surface temperature from about 30,000° at one end of the scale 
to about 3,000° at the other end, and for certain historical reasons 
the different classes have come to be designated by a series of letters 
of the alphabet : OBAFGIvMUNS ; these letters seem to be arranged 
in a completely arbitrary order, but m fact they can easily be re- 
membered as the initial letters of the sentence "Oh, be a fine girl ; kiss 
me right now, sweetie." 

Plate 5 shows some typical spectra of the various different classes, 
with the hot, bluish wliite 0-type stars at the top and cool, red M-type 
stars at the bottom. The gradations are perfectly continuous, and 
each class (corresponding to one of the letters) is subdivided further 
into decimal fractions so that A5, for example, is halfway between 


AO and FO. We see that the hottest stars, at the top of the diagram, 
have lines of ionized helium, He*, and of ordinary helium; and when 
we go from class O to the slightly cooler class B, the ionized helium 
fades away but hydrogen becomes stronger. In class A, hydrogen 
reaches it maximum strengih and completely dominates the spectrum, 
but this is not because hydrogen is any more abundant in these stars 
than in the others, since in fact a detailed analysis shows that the 
stars illustrated here have approximately the same chemical composi- 
tion, with hydrogen much the most abmidant element. The reason 
for the progression is simply that hydrogen is mostly ionized to 
H* in the O and B stars, and since H"^ is merely a proton with no 
electrons, it does not produce any line spectriun. When the tem- 
perature is reduced to about 10,000°, corresponding to type AO, the 
hydrogen is largely in its ordinaiy neutral state, but the temperature is 
still high enough to keei:* an appreciable proportion of the atoms ex- 
cited to their second quantiun level with a stored energy of about 10 
electron volts for each excited atom; they have to be in this excited 
level to produce the lines of the Balmer series in the visible spectrum, 
whereas when they are in the ground state, with no stored energy, they 
only absorb in the far ultraviolet Lyman series that can be detected 
only from rockets and satellites above our atmosphere. "Wlien we 
go further along the sequence to FO, corresponding to a surface 
temperature of about 7,000°, there are correspondingly fewer hydrogen 
atoms excited to an energy of 10 electron volts and the hydrogen 
lines become weaker; but now two strong lines show up that arise 
from ionized calcium in its lowest energy state — the so-called H and 
K lines discovered by Fraunhofer in 1815. Wlien we come to type 
GO, which represents stars that are just about as hot as the Sun, 
the lines of ionized calcium are the strongest ones in the whole 
spectrum and the hydrogen lines are still strong enough to be the 
next runners up. But now we see a number of additional lines 
arising from metals in the neutral state; that is, the atoms are being 
bombarded less energetically by photons and electrons, and therefore 
many of them are able to preserve their structure intact and show their 
characteristic absorption spectrum, exactly as they do in the ordinary 
electric arc. Most of the lines are due to iron, which is one of the most 
abundant metals : strong lines of iron can be seen around 4400 A and 
around 4050 A, and there is also a strong line of neutral calcium near 
4200 A. At 4300 A, there is the first indication of an absorption 
band caused by a molecule; this is the simplest hydrocarbon, CH, 
and as we go on to still cooler stars of type K, with surface tem- 
peratures of about 4,000°, we see the molecvilar bands and the lines 
of iron and calcium growing steadily stronger, since the molecules 
become more abundant and the atoms settle down more and more 

Smithsonian Report. 1963. — Pagel 

Plate 1 

Field in iMilky Way. (From Atlas of the Universe, Nelson, plate 47.) 

Smithsonian Report, 1963. — Pagel 

Spiral galaxy M81 in Ursa Major. (From Atlas of the Universe, Nelson, plate 74.) 

Smithsonian Report. 1963. — Pagel 

Plate 3 

Smithsonian Report. 1963. — Pagel 

1. A galactic cluster — the double cluster of Perseus. 

2. A globular cluster — M 13 in Hercules. 

imithsonian Report, 1963 





T Sco 



y Hya 

h > 

109 Vir 

(i ATI 







i Boo 

f Eri 






1. Spectra of main sequence stars (05 to K2). The bright lines of iron in the comparison 
spectrum at the bottom can be matched with dark hnes in the coolest stars. 

Hf He I 






7jC Ma 




HD 167356 , 



HD 164514 



89 Her 



<^ C Ma 

i ' 1 u 

: Men \ 


> P«-'g 

y. Sco 

■HJ^^K r " 







Ca 1 1 

Sr II 

Sr I! 






2. Spectra of supergiant stars (BO to Ml). Note the sharpness of the hydrogen Hnes 
compared with figure 1, above. (Photographs on this page by RadcHffe Observatory 
X 10, from Astronomical Spectroscopy, by A. D. Thackeray.) 

Smithsonian Report. 1963. — Pagel 

Plate 6 

The Crab nebula. 

Smithsonian Report, 1963. — Pagel 

11 II 

i I 


_J L_ 





0~> -^ « rO 

!^ I I ^ 


00 — rO ^ 

O ^ ^ ^ 



into their lowest energy levels. We shall come back to the cool type 
spectra later. 

Having seen that there are two ways of estimating the surface 
temperatures of stars, either from the spectral type or from the color 
index, we now have to consider how we can derive their true bright- 
nesses from photometric measurements. To do this, we have of course 
to allow for their distances away from us, since we would not other- 
wise know whether a certain star was very luminous and very far 
away or quite faint but very close to us in space. A typical example 
of the importance of the distance effect is provided by the well-known 
stars Vega and Rigel, which both have about the same apparent 
brightness ; but Rigel is about 30 times as far away from us as Vega, 
and so its intrinsic brightness must be about 900 times as great. 
If the distance is less than about 100 light-years, we can measure it by 
a trigonometrical surveying method using the diameter of the Earth's 
orbit around the Sun as a baseline ; this is referred to by astronomers 
as measuring the parallax. If they are farther away but in a cluster, 
we can estimate the distance of the whole cluster, sometimes rather 
rouglily, by identifying stars in it whose brightnesses we think we 
know on the grounds that they are the same breed of animal as 
some nearby star that has been done by the trigonometric method. 

In this way we can take a group of stars and plot the luminosities 
against the surface temperatures, as estimated from the color dis- 
tributions or spectral types ; generally the color indices are preferred 
as being more accurate. Figure 1 shows such a color-lmninosity 

Surface Temperature 

/ 0,000 7,000* 




^ith the I 







04 0-8 

Co/our Index 


Figure 1. — Color-luminosity diagram for the Hyades. 
720-018 — 64 21 


diagram for the nearest galactic cluster, the Hyades, which are ex- 
ceptional in that we can estimate their distance rather accurately 
by a trigonometrical method based on their group motion. 

We have seen that if the stars are in equilibrium and uniform 
throughout, the hot stars should be much brighter than the cool ones. 
Astronomers have a peculiar habit of plotting the temperature scale 
backward, with the hot stars of spectral types O and B on the left 
and cool stars of spectral types K and M on the right, and we see 
that most of the stars do indeed lie on a line going from top left to 
bottom right in the diagram, which is known as the "main sequence" 
or "dwarf sequence." 

There are however, a few stars definitely not on the main sequence. 
These stars are bright, about 100 times as bright as the Sun, and 
cool (that is, as hot as the Sun or cooler), and it follows from this 
that they must be very much larger, having something like 10 times 
the solar radius of 700,000 km. These stars, of which there are many 
well-known examples like Arcturus and Capella, are therefore called 
"giants," in contrast to "dwarfs" like the Sun which lie on the 
main sequence. According to current theories of stellar evolution 
developed in the last 10 years by Allan Sandage, Martin Schwarz- 
child, Fred Hoyle, and others, a star is believed to remain on the 
main sequence for a long period of time in the earlier part of its 
life history, and the length of its lifetime on the main sequence 
depends on how bright it is. A hot star will last only for a few 
million years, while a relatively modest star like the Sun, which is 
much more sparing in using up its nuclear fuel resources, is estimated 
to be able to last for over 10,000 million years. When a certain pro- 
portion of the hydrogen in its central regions has been transmuted into 
helimn, the star is no longer able to remain in a steady state on the 
main sequence, but swells up to form a red giant; and this state of 
affairs is reached much sooner by a bright, hot star than by a faint 
cool one. In a young cluster, therefore, the main sequence will 
stretch upward to include stars of considerable brightness, and the 
upper limit where the main sequence terminates will gradually travel 
downward in the diagram in the course, of time; that is, with 
increasing age, the stars that have just left the main sequence will 
gradually become fainter and so the age of a cluster can be judged 
from observation of its color-luminosity diagram. The age of the 
Hyades is estimated in this way to be a few hundred million years. 

Wlien we look at the corresponding diagram for a typical globular 
cluster, like the one shown in figure 2, we see the main sequence 
terminating much lower down, at about three or four times the 
Sun's brightness. Most of the bright stars in globular clusters, and 
in the halo Population II generally, are red giants, and the bright 
blue stars are completely absent. It is concluded from this that 

00 o-tf 08 12 






co/npafzct iq 
with the Sun. 

00 0-4 08 

Co /out Index 

Figure 2. — Color-luminosity diagram for a globular cluster, M92. 

here we have a very old stellar population with an age of about 
10,000 million years — almost as old as the Galaxy itself. We also 
notice that the main sequence is somewhat lower in the diagram than 
the main sequence of the Hyades; these stars are referred to as 
"subdwarfs," and the existence of subdwarfs is closely related to the 
evidence that we have that there is a big difference in cliemical 
composition between the two stellar populations in the sense that the 
old stars of Population II seem to have a much lower abimdance of 
metals mixed in with their hydrogen than have the younger stars 
of Population I. The difference between the two degrees of metal 
abundance is considerable, generally a factor of about 100. 

To account for the difference in metal abundance between the 
stars of different ages, Hoyle suggested some time ago that when 
a star has gone through the giant phase of evolution, it runs out 
of hydrogen to an ever-increasing extent and further nuclear reactions 
have to occur involving heavier elements, particularly helium. Wlien 
the Ulterior of the star has contracted and heated up sufficiently, 
helium nuclei can fuse together with one another or with hydrogen 
to produce a number of chemical elements up to atomic weight 56, 
corresponding to iron. Still heavier elements, going all the way up 
to uranium and beyond, can then be built up by capturing neutrons, 
and in this way Hoyle, Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge, and William 
A. Fowler of California Institute of Teclinology have put forward 
a detailed theory which is in tolerably good agreement with the relative 
abundances of the heavy elements found in nature. A further idea is 
that, at a late stage of evolution, many stars explode; this is the so- 
called supernova outburst in which a star suddenly becomes about 


a million times brighter and then gradually fades away over a period 
of a few months; this is observed to happen quite frequently in 
external galaxies, although the last outburst seen in our Galaxy was 
in 1604. When the star explodes as a supernova, it forms a vast 
expanding cloud of gas like tlie famous Crab nebula shown in plate 
6. This nebula is the relic of a supernova outburst in the constella- 
tion of Taurus witnessed by Chinese and Japanese astronomers in 
A.D. 1054 and it has been steadily expanding since then. It is 
supposed that such a cloud will eventually diffuse into the interstellar 
medium together with the heavy elements that were manufactured in 
the star just before the outburst, and in this way more and more 
heavy elements become mixed with the original interstellar hydrogen 
clouds as time goes on; these clouds in turn will eventually con- 
dense into a new generation of stars, which will therefore contain 
a larger admixture of metals than previous generations. In other 
words, young stars will have a bigger proportion of heavy elements 
than old stars ; and this prediction is partially borne out by observa- 
tions of the spectra of stars in globular clusters. 


These general ideas have brought us up to a point where I should 
like to say something about the very nearby stars, those within a 
mere 60 light-years or so from the Sun, which have recently been 
studied from various points of view at the Royal Greenwich Observa- 
tory. These stars are near enough for us to be able to distinguish 
between dwarfs and giants by the trigonometric surveying method of 
finding their distances, and we can also see dwarfs that are compara- 
tively cool and faint because they are not too far away. We can 
also determine at what speed and in what direction they are traveling 
through space, and thus judge whether they are going round the cen- 
ter of the Galaxy in circular orbits, like the stars of Population I, or in 
elliptical orbits like the older stars of Population II. On the other 
hand, these stars do not belong to clusters, and so they form a confus- 
ing jumble of different ages and chemical compositions, and the pur- 
pose of this work is to sort out exactly what kind of star we are dealing 
with in each case : that is, to determine its physical and chemical prop- 
erties and its genetic relationship, if any, with the stars in the galactic 
and globular clusters. 

Figure 3 shows the color-luminosity diagram for these nearby stars 
determined by Olin J. Eggen. We see that most of the stars are 
rather cool and faint as compared with the stars in young clusters, 
but there is a group of rather faintish giants (known as 
"subgiants") which must have been around for long enough to 
have evolved away from the main sequence. In addition to stars like 
the Sun, on the normal main sequence, a number of stars are below, 











1 1 







II 1 

) 1 1 i 



- ^ 




. • 

, • Subgiantt 






with the Sun 



• • 


1 1 




— 1- 


1" . 


Subdwarfs -^ '^f'-^"* 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

02 0-4- OS 

Colour Index. 



Figure 3. — Color-luminosity diagram for stars within 64 light-years. 

or perhaps I should rather say to the left of, the main sequence, and 
these are further examples of the stars that are known as subdwarf s ; 
these stars are of considerable interest because they appear to be re- 
lated to the dwarfs in the globular clusters. For one thing, they 
appear to be going round the center of the Galaxy in elliptical orbits, 
sometimes with quite liigh eccentricities and inclinations to the galactic 
plane. Furthermore, when their spectra are examined, they tend 
to show a deficiency in metals, which is another resemblance to the 
stars in globular clusters. They seem to be interloping members of 
the halo-type Population II, or possibly an intermediate class be- 
tween the extreme population types. 

The fact that subdwarfs are shown lying below the main sequence 
does not necessarily mean that they are peculiarly faint for their sur- 
face temperature (that is to say, peculiarly small in size), because the 
measured color that is plotted along the horizontal axis is itself 
affected by the presence of dark absorption lines superimposed on the 
continuous spectrum. It was noticed about 60 years ago by Sir Arthur 
Schuster that the absorption lines are not uniformly distributed 
throughout the spectrum of a star, but that they become systematically 
stronger and more numerous as one goes from the red end to the blue 
and on to the ultraviolet. Since the absorption lines remove some 
of the energy that would otherwise be detected when we make our 
measurements through yellow and blue glass filters, a star having 
faint lines due to low abundance of the metals will seem to be rela- 
tively brighter in the blue, as compared with the yellow, than another 
star of the same surface temperature, but having liigher metal content 


and stronger absorption lines. Therefore the first problem that 
arises in interpreting the position of subdwarfs in the color-luminosity 
diagram is to sort out the effect of temperature on the color from 
the effect of metal abundance, that is to say we have to decide whether 
star A is more blue than star B because it is hotter, or because it has 
a lower abundance of the metals. For stars that are about as hot as 
the Sun, this problem has been solved by making photometric obser- 
vations through a third glass filter that lets tlu'ough the ultraviolet, 
making use of the fact that comparison of the three different values of 
the brightness obtained by measuring through the three different glass 
filters gives an indication of the strength of the absorption lines and 
hence of the metal content. 

Wlien we come to somewhat cooler dwarfs, with surface tempera- 
tures of the order of 4,000° and corresponding to spectral type K, 
the whole effect becomes more subtle and complicated, and it is this 
section of the main sequence that we have recently been considering 
from the viewpoint of the theory of stellar atmospheres. As the stars 
become cooler, a high proportion of the metal atoms settle down into 
their lowest energy states and produce numerous very strong absorp- 
tion lines which overlap, so that in the blue part of the spectrum it 
is no longer meaningful to speak of a continuous background at all. 
Another difficulty is that there is little obvious difference between the 
spectra of dwarfs and subdwarfs when they are as cool as this. 

One factor having an important influence on the intensities of ab- 
sorption lines is the degree of transparency, or of opacity, of the stellar 
atmosphere. So far, we have dealt only with the dark absorption 
lines in the spectra of stars and said nothing about the continuous 
backgromid light on which they are superposed, except to compare the 
latter to the black-body type of radiation emitted by a heated poker. 
In the 19th century, stars like the Sun were believed to be essentially 
solid or liquid bodies, owing to their high density, and the continuous 
radiation from them was believed to be quite analogous to the light 
radiated from an ordinary solid or liquid heated to mcandescence. 
The dark absorption lines are, of course, characteristic of matter in 
the gaseous state, and so it was supposed that they were produced by 
a gaseous atmosphere very similar to the atmosphere of the Earth, 
only hotter of course. Nowadays we know that the Smi is a gaseous 
body throughout, and when we talk about the solar atmosphere or 
stellar atmospheres in general, we merely mean the layers of the star 
which we can see because they are close to the surface, making no dis- 
tinction between the layers where the continuous radiation comes from 
and the layers producing the dark lines, since both are essentially the 
same surface regions. This introduces some extra complication into 
the problem of predicting how intense we should expect a given absorp- 
tion line in the spectrum to be, since there will now be a competition 


between the selective absorption at the line wavelength of our atoms 
of hydrogen, calcium, or iron on the one hand, and the continuous 
absorption of the atmosphere, at all wavelengths, on the other hand. 
If the atmosphere is transparent, then we can see a large number of 
atoms of calcium or hydrogen and the absorption lines will be corre- 
spondingly strong; whereas if the surface layers are more opaque, 
we shall see weaker lines even if the number of hydrogen and calcium 
atoms per gram is the same. 

Now the continuous absorption of light in cool stellar atmospheres 
is due to a negative ion of hydrogen, H", which consists of a proton 
surrounded by two electrons and absorbs light by losing the extra 
electron to form ordinary atomic hydrogen. The number of H" ions 
in the atmospliere itself depends on the rate at which neutral hydrogen 
atoms can capture free electrons, and these electrons are supplied in 
turn by ionization of the metals; the degree of ionization of the 
metals is here about a half, so that there is one electron for every two 
metallic atoms. If we now compare a dwarf and a subdwarf, the 
subdwarf having fewer metal atoms by a factor of a hundred or so, we 
see that the subdwarf has not only fewer metal atoms capable of pro- 
ducing a dark absorption line, but also fewer electrons to provide 
general opacity in the atmosphere, so that the subdwarf atmosphere is 
considerably more transparent. Consequently the metallic absorp- 
tion lines do not become fainter to the same degree as one might nor- 
mally liave expected, certainly nothing like the factor of some hundreds 
shown by the abmidances, and even the weakening that does occur in 
the metallic lines can be more or less got rid of by choosing your sub- 
dwarf at a lower surface temperature ; you will recall from the picture 
of the spectral sequence how rapidly the intensities of the dark lines 
increase with diminishing surface temperature toward the end of the 

These points are strikingly displayed by a series of spectra of K- 
type dwarfs taken by Olin C. Wilson at Mount Wilson and Palomar 
Observatories (pi. 7). 

The interpretation that I have placed upon these spectra, which is 
not necessarily accepted by other people, is along the lines of what 
I have just said. In each pair, the lower spectrum represents a sub- 
dAvarf with fewer metal atoms in its atmosphere than are present in 
the normal dwarf shown above, though not by the large factor of 100 
that I have been quoting up to now. The difference is probably by 
a factor of 5 or 10. The subdwarf, however, which is marked "b," 
has a more transparent atmosphere than the normal dwarf marked 
"r," so that the absorption lines due to metals look about equally strong 
in the two spectra. However, the lines due to hydrogen — H gamma 
and H delta— are quite different as can be seen ; they are stronger in the 
spectrum of the subdwarf because its atmosphere is more transparent 




































^ 1-0 





























rs CO Q2 QS C8 KO Kl K3 K4 KS K6 

Mount Wilson type. 

K7 MO Ml 


Figure 4. — Color index plotted against Mount Wilson spectral type for dwarfs. (Cour- 
tesy Royal Observatory Bulletins, 1962.) 

owing to the shortage of electrons, and so more hydrogen atoms appear 
in the line of sight. But it should be borne in mind that the hydrogen 
lines are also sensitive to temperature, and it has not been established 
that the stars in each pair actually have the same surface temperature ; 
so that this conclusion may not turn out to be right in all cases. 

There is another curious effect which has been pointed out by 
Wilson, which is that the stars whose spectra have been shown display 
a big difference in color at one spectral type. The interesting thing 
here is that it seems to be the subdwarf, which was marked "b" for 
blue, that is relatively brighter in the blue band of the spectrum 
although its temperature is about the same as that of the normal 
dwarf marked "r" for red ; in spite of the appearance of the spectra, 
on which the lines seemed to be equally strong within the very limited 
degree of accuracy afforded by mere visual examination, the lines 
must really be a little weaker in the subdwarf and cause the color 
distribution to go in this direction although the subdwarf is no hotter, 
and perhaps even a little cooler, than the normal dwarf. 


Figure 4 illustrates how the effect shows up in the color index, 
which has been plotted here on the y-axis against spectral type on the 
a?-axis. The straight line represents the effect of variation in tempera- 
ture alone for stars having the chemical composition of the Sun, or 
Population I; such stars are tentatively identified here as stars 
traveling in a circular orbit around the center of the Galaxy, and they 
are shown as black dots. Ivnown subdwarfs are represented 
by crosses, and the open circles represent stars that are moving in 
elliptical orbits round the center of the Galaxy, and it is suspected 
that some of these would actually turn out to be subdwarfs as well, 
if their distances were better known. For the stars of spectral types 
F and G, about as hot as the Sun, the dots, circles, and crosses are 
distributed anyhow, but when we come to type K, there is a definite 
tendency for the subdwarfs and other elliptical-orbit stars to lie be- 
low the others in the diagram, that is to say their blue light is too 
strong for their spectral types because of general faintness of the 
lines. The general effect is in accord with theory and provides a pos- 
sible method of judging the chemical composition of a star from 
comparatively simple observations and with only a fairly rough 
knowledge of its distance. 

Unfortunately the spectral types of stars can only be assessed rather 
roughly, but we can confirm these conclusions for a limited niunber of 
stars by appealing to photometric measurements in a relatively un- 
popular region of the spectrum, the red and infrared, where absorption 
lines are weak and so we have a better chance of judging the surface 
temperatures of stars from observations of the color distribution. 

Figure 5. — R-1 color index plotted against B-V color index. (Courtesy Royal Observa- 
tory Bulletins, 1962.) 


This is shown in figure 6, where a red and infrared color index 
measured at the Lick Observatory, Calif., and at Mount Stromlo 
Observatory in Australia is plotted on the vertical axis against the 
ordinary blue-yellow color index on the horizontal axis. The vertical 
axis is now essentially a measure of surface temperature, with cooler 
stars toward the top and right of the diagram, and the tendency of 
the subdwarfs and elliptic-orbit stars is to lie to the left of the line 
defined by the normal dwarfs of Population I, just as we would expect 
from the relative weakness of their dark absorption lines in the blue 
part of the spectrum. These results are now being extended by 
Gerald E. Kron, of the Lick Observatory, who is observing the bright- 
nesses of the stars in six colors — infrared, red, green, blue, violet, and 
ultraviolet, and his work should soon enable a clear and quite reliable 
distinction to be made between the effects of surface temperature and 
metal abundance on the measurements. 


Probably more than enough has been said now about the somewhat 
technical details of the interpretation of the brightnesses, colors, and 
spectra of the stars, and it may be worth while to try to recapitulate 
a little and especially to repeat some of the reasons why we consider 
this work to be of general interest. We have seen some — I think — very 
pleasing pictures of external galaxies that are believed to bear close 
similarity to our own Milky Way system, and some of the inferences 
that can be drawn from them as to the two main stellar populations 
existing in the Galaxy at large and also in our own neighbor- 
hood. At one extreme we have Population II distributed in a spheri- 
cal halo around the center of the Galaxy, consisting of old stars and 
devoid of interstellar matter. At the other extreme we have Popula- 
tion I concentrated in the central plane of the Galaxy and especially in 
spiral arms, in which new stars are still being formed by condensation 
out of the interstellar medium. The examination of the color-lumi- 
nosity diagrams of the clusters that are characteristic of the two 
stellar populations, aided by a great deal of theory developed mainly 
over the last 10 years, has led to a picture of the way in which stars 
evolve in time which perhaps does not quite explain everything, but 
does at least provide a framework into which a wide variety of ob- 
servations can be fitted. This theory has been accompanied by the 
suggestion of Fred Hoyle and his collaborators that the chemical 
elements in the universe, and in particular on the Earth, were formed 
by nuclear synthesis from hydrogen, helium, and neutrons in the in- 
teriors of hot stars which then exploded as supernovae; this mecha- 
nism scatters the newly formed heavy elements into the interstellar 
medium, where they mix with the hydrogen already there and form 
an enriched or contaminated medium — whichever way you prefer to 


look at it — from wliich new generations of stars will condense. This 
picture is in general agreement with spectroscopic observations which 
show that stars believed to be old, like the ones in globular clusters, 
have a much lower admixture of metals in their atmospheres than 
stars thought to be yomig, like the ones in the Hyades, although there 
is surprisingly little difference in metal abundance between the oldest 
and youngest clusters of Population I. Most stars in clusters, how- 
ever, whether of the globular or the galactic variety, are a very long 
way off and their distances and real brightnesses can only be estimated 
by indirect methods that are often little better than guesses. Further- 
more, the clusters undoubtedly contain stars that are intrinsically faint 
and so cannot be observed at all. 

For these reasons, our ideas as to the nature of stars and the course 
of stellar evolution need to be completed by examining the stars that 
are near to us in space, especially those which are so near that we can 
measure their distances directly. Except in the case of the Hyades, 
such stars do not usually belong to clusters, but they may have escaped 
from clusters in the past; furthermore, we can try to relate them to 
the stars that are in clusters by observing their motions in space — or 
in other words their orbits round the center of the Galaxy — and 
their physical and chemical properties, and it is with this last question 
that I have been primarily concerned. 

The problem of sorting out the true nature of a star from the 
physical and chemical point of view is quite a complicated one, which 
has to be tackled from various different angles. First there is the 
theory of stellar structure, whose task it is to calculate the relation- 
ship between the luminosities and surface temperatures of stars and 
to predict how these quantities will change in the course of time, that 
is to develop a picture of stellar evolution. Then there is the theory 
of stellar surfaces, which says what happens to the atoms and electrons 
in the atmosphere and tries to predict the distribution of energy in 
the continuous spectrum and the intensities of the various absorption 
lines, when the luminosity, surface temperature and chemical composi- 
tion of the atmosphere are given. 

Wlien we try to verify these theories by making observations, we 
come up against a number of difficulties. Ideally, we should like to 
make direct physical measurements of the quantities discussed in the 
theory, that is we should like to measure the total brightnesses and 
surface temperatures of stars and then make a quantitative chemical 
analysis of the line spectrum to determine the relative abundances of 
the elements. But the amount of light reaching us from a star is very 
small, and so we cannot usually examine either the continuous spec- 
trum or the line spectrum in the amount of detail that we should like; 
the only star that is really satisfactory in this respect is the Sun. 


To make what use they can of the minute amounts of light that we 
get from most stars, astronomers have developed their primitive- 
sounding methods of photometry through colored glass filters and 
spectral classification from spectra taken with low resolving power; 
nowadays spectral classification is often done in a more quantitative 
way by isolating a narrow band of the spectrum containing the absorp- 
tion line one is interested in with the aid of an interference filter or 
a spectrometer, but the principle is still not so very different from the 
older and cruder method of looking at the spectrum under a micro- 
scope and saying that line A is stronger than line B but weaker than 
line C. All these methods can be broadly described as methods of 
stellar classification, and they have two great advantages. The first 
advantage is that relatively little light is required and so one can 
examine stars, clusters of stars, and even galaxies at very great dis- 
tances; and methods have been developed of estimating the age of a 
galaxy from the color distribution or spectrum of the galaxy as a 
whole, without even looking at the individual stars belonging to it. 
The other advantage of such methods is their rapidity. Naturally 
if the measurements are comparatively simple, one can observe a large 
number of stars in a reasonably short time and so by now extensive 
lists are available giving spectral types and color indices for thou- 
sands of stars. On the other hand, the experience of the last few 
years has shown that one can quite easily be fooled by the results of 
these classification methods, because a given result can come about 
from different causes. An example of this is that the color and the 
spectral type of a star depend on its chemical composition as well as 
on its surface temperature; and another example wliich complicates 
the issue further is the fact that, if the distance of the star is not 
known at all, we still have the problem of deciding just how bright 
it is. 

The moral of this is that the extensive lists of comparatively simple 
observations on many stars have to be supplemented by an intensive 
attack on a relatively small number of cases by using the more power- 
ful but laborious approach of taking spectra with as high a resolving 
power as possible and examining the weak lines as well as the strong 
ones. This has been done so far for no more than about 100 stars, 
which is far too few, and of course there are difficulties, in particular 
the fact that it requires huge telescopes to collect enough light for 
the purpose, even for the study of most of the comparatively nearby 
stars. A very hopeful technical development in this direction is that 
of image converter or image intensifier tubes, which have already 
been brought to a considerable degree of perfection by Professor 
Andre Lallemand of Paris Observatory, and which promise to be 
about 100 times as sensitive as ordinary photography. Even this 
development, however, does not mean that we shall be able to do 


without large telescopes, and I hope very much that by about 1966 we 
shall have a 98-mch telescope operatmg in tliis country, at Herst- 
monceux, which we shall be able to use in extending these investiga- 
tions ; and if tliis can be supplemented by an even larger telescope in 
the Southern Hemisphere, then that will be even better. 

Astronomical Photography from the 
Stratosphere ' 

By Martin Schwarzchild 

Eugene Higgins Professor of Astronomy, Princeton University 

[With 2 plates] 

Throughout the centuries astronomers have labored under one 
enormous handicap that has set harsh limits to all their observational 
work. Between celestial objects which are the subject of the astrono- 
mer's research and his telescope lies the earth's atmosphere, a murky 
restless layer which forever garbles our only source of information 
on the universe around our earth. This handicap imposed by the 
earth's atmosphere has made itself felt most strongly in three broad 
areas : First, no ultraviolet light with wavelengths shorter than 3,000 
angstroms can penetrate the earth's atmosphere at all; this loss of 
the ultraviolet prohibits us from studying the bulk of the light 
emitted from the hottest and most energetic stars and prevents us 
from making accurate measurements regarding many of the astro- 
nomically most important chemical elements which have their main 
absorption lines in this spectral region. Second, large blocks of the 
infrared spectnim are completely blocked out by the earth's atmos- 
phere and thus we have been unable to study the cooler stars in detail 
and to measure the absorption bands of many of the key chemical com- 
pounds. Third, even the ordinary visible light, though not absorbed 
by the earth's atmospliere — or at least absorbed only to a minor 
degree — does not reach our telescopes ungarbled; the turbulence of 
the atmosphere bends the light rays from the stars slightly and thus 
prevents us from getting as sharp pictures of the celestial bodies as 
our instruments otherwise would permit. Even at the best mountain 
observatories on those rare occasions when the atmosphere above be- 
Iiaved relatively quiescently only a veiy small number of astronomical 
photographs have been obtained which show details as small as half 
a second of arc; this angle corresponds to half a mile on the moon, 

1 The 28th annual James Arthur lecture on the sun, given under the auspices of the 
Smithsonian Institution on May 8, 1962. 



200 miles on the sun, and several light years in the nearest stellar 
systems such as the spiral Andromeda Nebula. Clearly, even our best 
photographs have been coarse indeed. 

The astronomical profession had adjusted itself through the cen- 
turies to labor under this all-prevailing handicap. Then, about a 
decade ago new technical tools appeared which promised to remove 
this handicap for good : Eockets began to lift above the earth's atmos- 
phere small telescopes with which for a few short minutes the ultra- 
violet light of the sun and the stars could be studied ; balloons carried 
astronomical cameras above 95 percent of the atmosphere and brought 
down for the first time sharper photographs of astronomical objects ; 
now satellites are being developed which will carry major astronom- 
ical instruments far above the earth's atmosphere and may permit 
effective research there for long time intervals. 

It is hard to describe the force of the impact that this development 
has had on astronomy as a science and on astronomers as persons. 
Even now astronomers are far from having reached a balanced adjust- 
ment to the new circumstances ; we are still swaying back and forth 
between elation and bewilderment. Nevertheless, I think it is by 
now obvious that the new tools of rockets, balloons, and satellites open 
up an immense area for astronomical research, though it would be 
clearly a grave mistake to consider these new tools actually as replace- 
ments for the old ground-based instruments and techniques, rather 
than as decisive and stimulating additions. 

If, from here on, I concentrate entirely on one specific astronomical 
balloon project — Project Stratoscope — my sole reason is that I am 
very closely acquainted with this activity. Project Stratoscope is 
only a minute facet in the entire program of off-the-ground astro- 
nomical and geophysical research. However small in the overall re- 
search picture, for those of us involved it has been and continues to 
be an absorbing and immensely exciting activity. 

Project Stratoscope arose from a specific scientific problem. The 
tremendous energies produced by hydrogen burning in the interior of 
the sun are carried out to the surface by enormous convective move- 
ments of the gases in the outer layers of the sim. These convective 
movements can actually be seen on the surface of the sun in the form 
of the granulation, the fine mottled structure covering the entire solar 
surface at all times. It became clear that to understand the detailed 
mechanism by which this convective motion of the gases transports the 
heat energies outward is an unavoidable prerequisite to following the 
evolutionary changes of any star such as the sun. On the other hand, 
it became desperately clear that, though the detailed observational 
study of the solar granulation would help much toward this under- 
standing, such detailed observations on the ground were made essen- 
tially impossible because of the image deterioration caused by the 

Smithsonian Report, 1963. — Schwarzchild 

Plate 1 

1. Stratoscope I. The cylindrical cell at the buUuin uf the luaiii tube contains the 12-inch 
primary mirror. The flat elliptical container is the 35-mm. fllm magazine. Beside it, 
the rectangular box houses the TV camera which transmits the same picture just being 
photographed down to the ground station. 

Section of the solar surface photographed vviili SudiuhLupe 1. 'I'hc peuLunbra of the 
sunspot consists of nothing but narrow long filaments. The sunspot is surrounded b}" 
the granulation which co\-ers the entire solar surface; the bright patches of the granula- 
tion are hot convective gas masses rising from the interior. 

Smithsonian Report, 1963. — ^Schwarzcliild 

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earth's atmosphere. For this reason we decided to study the possi- 
bility of sending a telescope up on a balloon with the specific purpose 
of obtaining high-definition photographs of sample areas on the solar 
surface. "Wlien these studies indicated that such an undertaking 
appeared technically feasible we decided to go ahead with it — elated 
and filled with awe at the same time. 

The instrument built for this specific research, Stratoscope I, had 
to fulfill two central conditions : First, it had to contain optics capable 
of producing a highly enlarged image of the solar surface on the 
photographic emulsion ; for this purpose a parabolic mirror 12 inches 
in diameter was used as the primary optical element followed by an 
enlarging lens which produced an image of part of the solar surface 
with a scale equivalent to a telescope with a 200-foot focal length. 
Second, this telescope had to be pointed toward the sun by electrical 
motors steered by electronic devices so steadily that the telescope would 
not turn by more than about a fifth of a second of arc in the required 
exposure time of about two-thousandths of a second of time, an 
extremely exacting condition on pointing steadiness indeed. 

We flew this instrument for the first time in the summer of 1957. 
After a preliminary test flight with a dunmiy telescope to determine 
whether the balloons and launching techniques then employed were 
capable of safely carrying a delicate optical instrument into the strato- 
sphere and whether the return of the instrument by parachute was 
practicable, two flights were carried out with Stratoscope I, itself. 
These two flights brought down 16,000 photographs of parts of the 
solar surface. Nearly all of these photographs were of poor quality 
because of a number of instrumental inadequacies disclosed by sub- 
sequent analysis. Among this vast number of photographs, however, 
we found about half a dozen superb ones, which for the first time 
showed the detailed structure of the convective elements in the solar 
granulation well. We returned home from that first flight season 
jubilant — and still filled with a sense of awe. 

The next 2 years we were strenuously occupied by measuring and 
analyzing the fundamental characteristics of the solar convection 
shown on our best photographs and deducing from these data tentative 
conclusions regarding convective energy transport in stars relevant 
for the theory of stellar evolution. At the same time we concentrated 
hard to eliminate the instrumental faults shown up in the first flights 
of Stratoscope I. Also, we made one major modification of the instru- 
ment which increased greatly the effectiveness of this telescope as a 
research tool. This was the addition of a radio-command link from 
a ground station to the unmanned balloon telescope by which the 
focus of the telescope could be regulated and by which the telescope 
could be pointed at will to any portion of the solar disk. To make 
this command link effective we also added a small television link 

720-018—64 22 


which permitted us to see in the ground station exactly the picture 
being photographed at the telescope. 

In the summer of 1959 we were ready for another sequence of 
flights. The character of these flights was entirely different from 
those in 1957 in one decisive respect. In 1957 after launch the entire 
balloon and telescope system operated completely automatically, ac- 
cording to its built-in program of operations without any possibility 
of human influence during the flight. In 1959, when the balloon had 
reached its stable altitude of 80,000 feet in the stratosphere, a small 
group of engineers and astronomers in the ground station took over 
the actual operation of the telescope through the newly added com- 
mand and television links. It is hard to describe the excitement we 
felt as for the first time we saw on the television screen the picture of 
a piece of the solar surface and as this picture moved about over the 
surface of the sun in perfect accordance to the radio commands we 
gave. We thus could select during the flight particularly favorable 
areas for our research, such as areas on the solar disk far removed 
from any apparent disturbance like sun spots or prominences. Or, 
in contrast, we could move to an area occupied by an active sunspot 
group to study the effects of the magnetic fields in the sunspots on 
the convective gas motions. 

If human control during the flight so greatly increased the effective- 
ness of this research undertaking, one might ask whether it would 
not have been better if one of us had gone up in a sealed capsule with 
the telescope. I believe that such a manned flight would not have 
been a good choice; the effort required to safeguard the life of the 
person going up would seem far larger than the effort required in 
developing the necessary radio links to permit human control from 
the ground. Furthermore, the person in his capsule, attached to the 
same suspension from the balloon to which the telescope itself must 
be attached, would have had to avoid any motion whatsoever to pre- 
serve perfect quietness for the telescope pointing. This strong convic- 
tion that mimanned balloon flights are preferable for this type of 
astronomical experiment in no way implies the opinion that manned 
high-altitude balloon flights have not been of decisive value. Indeed, 
I believe that without the vital and energetic enthusiasm for manned 
stratospheric balloon flights balloon technology would never have 
developed to the state that permitted us to lift Stratoscope I into the 
stratosphere. I strongly suspect that mucli the same situation will 
hold in the satellite field. It seems entirely plausible that most of the 
research results from the space program will come from unmanned 
space vehicles. It appears equally true, however, that the natural 
human urge for manned flight into space is the essential driving force 
behind the teclmological developments necessary for any space flights. 

But back to Project Stratoscope. After a series of four flights we 


returned home in the fall of 1959 with a couple of hundred high- 
definition solar photographs. These contained not only detailed pic- 
tures of the granulation, both in undisturbed and in highly disturbed 
magnetic regions, but also full-time sequences of both types of areas. 
Thus it became possible in the subsequent analysis to determine not 
only the distribution of sizes of convective elements in the solar atmos- 
phere but also the average period of time a typical convective element 
exists. These observational data have greatly strengthened our theo- 
retical picture of convective heat transport in stars. As a matter of 
fact we at Princeton as well as astronomers at other institutions are 
continuing with the theoretical developments helped and stimulated 
by these measurements. 

The sun is by no means the only celestial object of which higher 
definition photographs are needed for the solution of fundamental 
astronomical research problems. The sky is full of objects the essen- 
tial details of which are blurred on photographs taken with telescopes 
on the ground. There is Venus with its cloud cover, the structure 
of which has hardly been glimpsed. There is the great Orion gas 
nebula in which we are sure from indirect evidence stars are now 
being formed; but whether this giant gas mass is smooth or knotty 
or filamentary we still cannot judge from our present photographs 
though we need to know before we can securely develop a theoiy of 
the origin of stars. There is the Andromeda spiral nebula with its 
incredibly dense stellar nucleus defying photographic resolution. 
Many items can be added to this list, all referring to objects that are 
typical examples of the celestial phenomena filling the universe around 
us. Of all these it is only for the sun that the modest aperture of 12 
inches of Stratoscope I would suffice to obtain substantially sharper 
photographs than those already available from the ground. The other 
objects would require a telescope with at least a 36-inch aperture. 
After the first successful flights of Stratoscope I it was tempting to 
start studying the feasibility of a larger balloon-borne telescope and 
in due course we did begin the design and construction of such an 
instrument — now called Stratoscope II. 

The requirements regarding optical perfection and pointing accura- 
cy are, of course, much higher for the larger Stratoscope II than they 
were for Stratoscope I. For example, the pointing accuracy will have 
to be better than a thirtieth of a second of arc over exposure times as 
long as 1 hour to make Stratoscope II fully effective. The require- 
ments on optical perfection and on guidance are much less stringent 
if Stratoscope II initially is used not for high-definition photography 
but for spectrophotometric investigations in the infrared. The latter 
presents another effective astronomical use of a balloon-borne tele- 
scope since the few percent of the atmosphere above 80,000 feet are 
practically transparent in the infrared (though they are still entirely 


opaque in the ultraviolet). We decided therefore to take a more 
cautious approach and first use Stratoscope II for a study of the infra- 
red spectrum of Mars during its opposition early in 1963. Strato- 
scope II was ready for infrared spectrophotometric research in 
February of this year and was laimched on its first flight on the eve- 
ning of March 1. The events of that night could not have been more 
exciting for any of us involved. 

The late afternoon launching went entirely smoothly ; the specially 
designed balloon, capable of flying a gross load of 13,000 pounds, 
lifted the 3-ton telescope off the ground by a newly developed static 
launching method with accelerations not exceeding 0.2 g. In the 
meantime the ground station had been set up about 200 miles down- 
wind along the predicted flight path for the night. This ground 
station provided a link between the engineers and scientists in it and 
the telescope high above it that was far more extensive and versatile 
than that used in Stratoscope I. In total more than 70 different com- 
mands could be transmitted to the instrument and a similar number 
of data relative to the telescope could be read in the ground station 
via a telemetry channel. Even a full-scale television channel was 
available to make possible the acquisition of any object in the sky. 
Through these radio links Stratoscope II is perhaps at the moment 
the most versatile scientific robot operated from a far distance by 

Plowever, as might not be so unexpected, this robot misbehaved in 
a variety of ways during his first flight. A series of inadequacies and 
direct failures occurred throughout most of the night. The versa- 
tility of the command system made it possible, however, to analyze 
the difficulties sufficiently well to make possible their correction prior 
to the next flight, and even to overcome to a certain extent their nega- 
tive consequences during that first flight. This series of technical 
difficulties greatly reduced in quality and quantity the scientific ma- 
terial acquired during the night. Nevertheless, it was possible in 
the last observing hour to obtain a number of tracings of the infrared 
spectrum of Mars which in combination with the recent observations 
from the ground in other wavelength regions have already contrib- 
uted to our knowledge about the chemical composition of the Martian 

At the end of the night, when the observational work had been 
concluded, one more hair-raising complication occurred. The descent 
of the balloon was initiated by a radio command which opened the 
helium valve at the top of the balloon. After the valve had opened 
and enough helium had escaped to give the balloon the appropriate 
moderate descent rate, another command was given to close the helium 
valve to avoid any further acceleration. This command failed and 
in spite of a variety of experiments the helium valve could not be 


persuaded to close again. In consequence the balloon with the tele- 
scope descended more and more rapidly. Finally it became necessary 
to cut (by another radio command) the balloon from the parachutes 
and let the telescope come down to earth on the parachutes which are 
always carried as a safety device. This type of landing is very much 
rougher than direct landing by balloon. Nevertheless, by miraculous 
luck the damage suffered by the whole instrument at landing was 
quite modest and its repair less than a tenth of the total cost of the 

It is obviously always a bit of a disappointment when a first flight 
of a new instrument does not right away provide all the new ex- 
citing scientific data of which theoretically it is capable. But this 
dims little the pleasure that the new data, however limited, have given 
us, and much increases our eagerness to correct the inadequacies of the 
instrument and to get it ready for its next flight. 

I have sketched the story of Project Stratoscope up to its present 
status. May I once more emphasize that Project Stratoscope is only 
a small facet of the total space activity in this country. But even 
this small facet clearly requires funds beyond the means of an individ- 
ual university. Project Stratoscope has been sponsored by three Gov- 
ernment agencies. Office of Naval Eesearch, National Science Foun- 
dation, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration. These 
three agencies have in Project Stratoscope a remarkable record not 
only in continuous effective cooperation with each other but also in 
their persistence of giving us astronomers in Princeton the freedom to 
make the scientific and teclmical decisions. 

Even with this strong financial and moral support from the Gov- 
ernment, however, we astronomers in Princeton would still be incapa- 
ble of carrying out the Stratoscope experiments if it were not for 
the existence of daring engineers and the commercial firms to which 
they belong who are ready to cast their lot for a good while into a 
risky pioneering undertaking like Project Stratoscope. We astron- 
omers may know the scientific problems which need attacking and 
may understand what basic type of instrumentation is needed, but it 
is the ingenious engineers who — in close and continuous contact with 
us — design, build, and operate the entire equipment and thus make this 
type of experiment possible. 

Of all the factors, however, which have to be favorable to make an 
undertaking like Project Stratoscope possible, historically the most 
remarkable seems to me the spirit prevalent at this time in this country 
that gives us with enthusiasm the opportunity to proceed with an 
endeavor that basically has an abstract scientific character and aim. 
For an astronomer it is an incredibly wonderful time and place to 
be alive. 

The Smithsonian's Satellite-tracking 
Program: Its History and Organization 

PART 2^ 
By E. Nelson Hayes 

Chief, Editorial and Publications Division, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

That evening of October 4, 1957, the Observatory Philharmonic 
Orchestra, wliich drew its performers from both Harvard and Smith- 
sonian, held its first rehearsal for the tenth annual concert to be given 
the following spring. As the rehearsal proceeded, the players were 
one by one quietly called from the room. There was business at hand. 
The Eussians had launched an artificial earth satellite, and these 
men and women were needed to attempt preliminary estimates of the 
orbit, to answer inquisitive and often anxious telephone calls from the 
public, to meet with newsmen, and otherwise to do the thousand and 
one tasks that marked the beginning of a new era of astronomy. 

It would not be too much to say that the rather abrupt ending of 
that night's rehearsal was the end also of a tune when astrophysical 
research was the private and what seemed to be the impractical pur- 
suit of scientists isolated from the main stream of public life. Since 
that evening, and perhaps for the first time since the Renaissance, the 
astronomer has helped to guide the destinies of nations. 


Word of the lamiching of Sputnik I had first reached the Observa- 
toiy at 6 :15 of that Friday evening of October 4, 1957. Eveiyone had 
left for the weekend except Dr. J. Allen Hynek, associate director in 
charge of the tracking program, and Kenneth Drummond, his assist- 
ant. They were leisurelj^ discussing plans for the following week 
when the telephone rang. Hynek casually lifted the phone and gave 
his name. 

"Do you have any comments on the Russian satellite?" It was a 
reporter from a Boston newspaper. Although not taking him quite 

1 Part 1 was pubUshed in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1961, 
pp. 275-322. The present article takes the development of the satellite-tracking program 
up to early 1958. Other parts are to follow. 



seriously, Hynek asked him to read the full dispatch. Only then 
did he realize that the months of planning and work had suddenly and 
unexpectedly culminated in the launching of a satellite that now had 
to be tracked by whatever facilities were operational. 

After a few moments of dazed unbelief, Hynek and Drummond 
began telephoning staff members and some Moonwatch team leaders. 
A few of both had to be convinced that this was not a joke, that this 
was indeed the zero hour, not one that they had planned for, but here 

As staff members arrived at Kittredge Hall, where most of the 
satellite-tracking offices were, so also did dozens of people from press, 
radio, and television. The building was soon a blaze of lights, to which 
were added the brightness of television and movie lamps and the blind- 
ing glare of flashbulbs. It must have been a spectacular display, for a 
woman living several blocks away reported that the building was on 
fire, and soon confusion was compounded by a pumper and a hook- 
and-ladder dispatched to the scene. 

Dr. Fred L. Whipple, director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory, and Leon Campbell, chief of the Moonwatch program, 
were attending a meeting of the U.S. Committee for the IGY in 
Washington, D.C. At the end of the afternoon session of October 4, 
Dr. Whipple boarded a plane to return to Cambridge, and Mr. Camp- 
bell went with Dr. Afshar of Iran to Springfield, Va., about 15 miles 
out of Washington, where as guests of Moonwatch team-leader Robert 
Dellar they w^ere to attend a practice observing session. At about 
quarter to seven, Mrs. Dellar called Leon Campbell into the house 
saying "The Observatory is on the telephone. Mr. Drummond says 
Russia has launched a satellite!" 

In a three-way conversation, Campbell told Drummond and Hynek 
that the Moonwatch network was sufficiently well organized to enable 
some teams to observe the satellite. He also suggested that, since he 
would be on his way the following afternoon to a meeting of the Inter- 
national Astronautical Federation in Barcelona, Spain, Armand Spitz 
be asked to come to Cambridge to take over temporary direction of 
Moonwatch operations. Reached later that evening. Spitz promptly 
agreed and set out for Cambridge. 

What had been planned as a mock obsei*ving session now became an 
actual search for a satellite, the first such attempt in the Western 
world. The telescopes formed the fence pattern that had earlier been 
determined as the most efficient teclmique for a Moonwatch team, and 
soon the observers were at the eyepieces. It was, however, a frustrat- 
ing and frustrated effort. They did not have the parameters of the 
orbit ; and in any case they were attempting to see what no man had 
ever seen before by a method that had never previously been employed. 


That team was not to make its first observation of Sputnik I mitil 
October 15. 

Campbell then went to the IGY headquarters in Washington, where 
for a few hours he served as liaison officer between the Observatory and 
the scientists in Washington who were attempting to determine the 
orbit of Sputnik I from the little information available. Early the 
following morning he flew to Boston. 

Meanwhile, Dr. Wliipple had arrived at Logan Airport in Boston 
at about 6 :30 p.m. Since evidently no effort had been made to con- 
tact him while he was on the plane, he took a taxi directly to his home 
in Belmont. His wife told him the news, and he immediately went 
to the Observatory, where he stayed until four in the morning, orga- 
nizing the activities of dozens of people, meeting with the press, and 
otherwise dealing with the initial problems of the program. 


The satellite-tracking program faced a number of pressing prob- 
lems. The first of these was communications. On October 4 there 
was not a single TWX (teletypewriter exchange) machine installed 
in the communications room; in fact, because extensive alterations 
were being made to the offices at Kittredge Hall, there was not even a 
communications room. Charles M. Peterson pulled every string in 
his bow, and late that night the first teletype machine was in operation, 
supplemented, of course, by telephone communications. 

The next need was to track the satellite. The first Baker-Nunn 
camera to be assembled at the Boiler and Chivens plant in South 
Pasadena, Calif., was not operational on the night of October 4. 
It had been disassembled and was scattered all over the plant ; some 
of the gears and other intricate parts had been sent back to contractors 
for remachining or refinishing. When Dr. Hynek reported to the 
staff members in South Pasadena that the Russians had launched a 
satellite, work had progressed so far that they discussed the possibility 
of readying the camera for a Saturday night observation of the satel- 
lite. Only word from Dr. "Wliipple that the orbit was definitely 
poorly situated for observations in Pasadena led to their canceling this 
plan. Two days later, Boiler and Chivens set Wednesday afternoon 
of October 9 as the deadline for the completion of an operational 

Meanwhile, the Observatory received observations of a sort on the 
evening of October 4, and early the next morning fairly good obser- 
vations from the Geophysical Institute in College, Alaska. From 
these data the Observatory was able to advise Moonwatch teams when 
and where they might be able to sight the satellite. Within a few 
days a number of Moonwatch teams sent good observations, although 
actually not of the payload but of its rocket carrier. 


Third, the Observatory had to develop as quickly as possible a 
means for determining accurate predictions of transits of the satellite. 
This required that in the agonizing weeks to follow the staff work 
out a successful empirical program, as opposed to the more theoretical 
methods that Drs. Leland Cunningham and Donald A. Lautman had 
been preparing. 

Finally, the Observatory found itself with many responsibilities 
for which there was no adequate executive direction from the higher 
echelons of the Government. The Observatory became the one 
reliable American source of information about Sputnik I. Thou- 
sands of inquiries poured into Kittredge Hall and extra staff had to 
be hired for whom there was no budget allowance. In addition, a 
reasonable public information program had to be set up for the press, 
radio, and television people who, almost literally, besieged the 
Observatory during the weeks that followed. 

(Satellites 1957 Alpha and Beta) 

The launching of the first satellite by the U.S.S.E. came as an 
overwhelming surprise not only to the American public but also to 
most officials of the United States Government, including those 
responsible for the IGY program. Fortunately, however. Dr. 
Whipple had given considerable thought to this possibility. In a 
memorandum to Dr. Schilling dated June 18, 1957, he stated that 
as a matter of policy the Observatory should be on the alert to make 
orbital calculations and to issue predictions for use not only in the 
United States but also throughout the world. He conceived this to 
be an undeniable aspect of the Observatory's responsibility to the 
IGY. He added that in case of an unexpectedly early satellite or 
other space effort the announcement card system of the Harvard 
College Observatory could easily be expanded to provide rapid pub- 
lication of such data, to be followed by scientific results issued in the 
journals. He concluded that all members of the Smithsonian 
satellite-tracking program should consider themselves to be on a gen- 
eral alert beginning July 1. He ended the memorandum — "Exciting 
thoughts, aren't they?" 

Later that month a group of Soviet scientists participated in the 
third symposium on cosmical gas dynamics at the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory in Cambridge. During their visit the Kussian 
delegates showed considerable interest in the IGY program for optical 
tracking of satellites and suggested close cooperation between Moon- 
watch and a comparable group then being organized in the U.S.S.R. 
This interest even extended to the possibility of direct communica- 


tioii between Cambridge and Moscow, in addition to the regular 
CSAGI world-warning system. 

Late in July, Dr. Whipple wrote to Dr. Joseph Kaplan, chaimian 
for the U.S. National Committee for the IGY, a letter concerning the 
acquisition, optical tracking, and data analysis of U.S.S.R. satellites 
that might be launched during the IGY. Dr. Whipple felt that 
serious consideration should bo given to the establislunent of addi- 
tional Moon watch teams at higher latitudes, possibly to 65° north 
and south, and ultimately to the possibility of expanding the Baker- 
Nunn camera to 20 network stations. He made clear that these 
prospects had been in the minds of the Smithsonian staff for some 
months and involved such further matters as additional computa- 
tional requirements, public relations problems, the obtaining of pre- 
liminary orbital data, and above all the question of how the Observa- 
tory should fund the tracking of satellites not lamiched by the United 
States. There was clear agreement on the part of the Observatory 
staff' that the nature of the Smithsonian charter involved an obliga- 
tion that it track any and all satellites and issue the results of such 
efforts to the public and to the scientific community. 

Meanwhile, the Russians had made it perfectly evident that they 
hoped and planned to launch a satellite before the United States did. 
The IGY satellites were supposed to broadcast on a frequency of 108 
megacycles. The Russians announced, however, through the pages 
of their journal Radio that their satellites would broadcast on 20 and 
40 me. in order to permit the flight of certain basic experiments and 
the telemetering of data to ground stations. Most U.S. agencies paid 
no attention whatsoever to these announcements, so that when Sput- 
nik I was launched there was not a single radio-tracking system in the 
United States able to monitor the satellite. In the words of one 
rather bitter critic, the United States was "caught with its antennas 

The only optical tracking facilities available m the United States 
on October 4, 1957, were those of the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory. As a consequence, the Observatory had to undertake 
immediately an optical tracking program that involved locating and 
following the satellite, issuing predictions, and similar activities not 
fully provided for under the IGY grants to the Observatory. This 
necessity put a heavy strain on the budget, particularly for personnel. 
The scientists who promptly and willingly undertook to process the 
data that resulted from the early Moonwatch tracking had to carry 
on for a number of weeks without positive assurance of additional 
fmiding and witliout precise assignment of responsibilities. 

On October 9 the U.S. National Committee for the IGY did issue 
a memorandum on Sx^utnik I. Under the heading of Tracking Data, 


it stated that "visual and optical data should be sent to the Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge," and radio data 
to the Vanguard Control Center at Naval Research in Washing- 
ton, D.C. The memorandum went on to say that "in general, the 
above institutions should be allowed to make statements on the data 
and the analysis, for these institutions have been assigned respectively 
the optical and radio-tracking tasks. Statements by others in these 
technical areas should be discussed with this office. Statements by 
the above two institutions should also, if at all possible, be phoned 
in prior to release." This gave the Observatory an IGY mandate 
to issue tracking data and other information about the satellite. 

Sputnik I (1957 a 2) was a sphere approximately 22 inches in diam- 
eter and weighing 184 pounds, made of aluminum alloys, with 4 
spring-loaded whip antennas. The power supply for telemetering 
information to ground stations was a chemical battery. The perigee 
of the initial orbit was 142 miles, the apogee 158 miles, and the period 
96.17 minutes; the inclination to the equator was 64.3°; speed at 
perigee was 18,000 miles per hour, and at apogee, 16,200 miles per hour. 

Little information was immediately forthcoming from the Rus- 
sians, who showed considerable reluctance to release data concerning 
the satellite itself. The payload was probably painted black and 
therefore not visible. The Baker-Nunn cameras never did acquire 
it, although the Harvard super-Schmidt meteor cameras photo- 
graphed it on Thanksgiving Day at both Organ Pass and Sacramento 
Peak, N. Mex. 

What was, then, being tracked was the rocket (1957 a 1). On the 
basis of the first sightings made at College, Alaska, by Dr. Gordon 
Little and his group. Dr. Whipple called Dr. McCrosky of the Harvard 
Meteor Program and asked whether it could possibly be a meteor. He 
replied that he did not think so but rather believed that it was the 
rocket of Sputnik I. This actually was the first time that anyone had 
thought about the rocket stage, since all were primarily concerned 
with the payload. 

There followed a policy discussion as to whether Dr. McCrosky's 
speculation should be issued to the press before it was proved. The 
decision was that he should be allowed to speak as an individual 
scientist giving his personal view. This he did, and shortly there- 
after the Russians made the same announcement. In an ironic sequel, 
the Russians later claimed that one of their rocket bodies had fallen 
in Alaska and that the Americans had it and would not give it to 
them. A committee of three, consisting of Dr. Schilling, Dr. Whit- 
ney, and Stuart Fergusson, determined from computations and all 
other possible sources of information that the rocket had indeed not 
landed in U.S. territory. 


A year later, when Dr. Wliipple was in Russia, lie and a few other 
American scientists visited the exposition of agriculture and mechan- 
ical arts to inspect the model of the satellite that was there on display. 
He confirmed certain physical measurements and other features of 
the satellite. Up to that time the Russian scientists still had not 
provided such fundamental data as the mean cross-sectional area of 
the satellite. 

On November 3 the Russians launched their second satellite, 1957 
Beta, carrying instruments to detect cosmic-ray, ultraviolet, and X-ray 
radiation, and an 11-pound dog that died after approximately 100 
hours at zero gravity. Transmitters and power supply were similar 
to those on board Sputnik I. Its perigee was 140 miles, apogee 104 
miles, inclination to the equator 65.4°, and its speed 18,000 miles per 
hour at perigee, and 15,000 miles per hour at apogee. The satellite 
re-entered the atmosphere and decayed on April 13, 1958. 


The public reaction to Sputnik I was, in the words of Dr. Hynek, 
"a strange mixture of awe, admiration, and fear, the last enhanced, 
of course, because there had been no warning." In those early days 
people wrote thousands of letters, made hundreds of telephone calls, 
to the Observatory. A few were frankly incredulous; they simply 
refused to believe that the Russians had the teclmical capability to 
launch an artificial satellite when the United States had not yet done 
so. Others were openly fearful ; they believed that Sputnik I carried 
either atom bombs to destroy the United States or television cameras 
to spy on her. Not a few felt that the scientist was once again med- 
dling in cosmic affairs that were not his business ; their arguments over- 
looked the fact that man had already profoundly modified his natural 
environment and would inevitably continue to do so. Then there were 
the angry ones, who were ready and willing to blame everyone in the 
Federal Government from President Eisenhower to the obscurest 
technician in a laboratory for the failure of the United States to beat 
the Russians into space. Finally, and these were the most numerous, 
there were those who simply wanted to know ; they offered hundreds 
of questions for answer: What exactly was the orbit of Sputnik I? 
How had it been launched ? "^Vliat instruments did it carry ? How 
long could it be expected to stay up ? Many of these inquiries were 
from children eager to learn, reflecting a youthful concern for things 
scientific that was in itself a credit to American education and would 
provide the materials for the quickening of the American school sys- 
tem in response to the challenge of Sputnik I. 

Both AVliipple and Hynek had a profound conviction that the people 
were entitled to know everything. It was their policy from the be- 


ginning that no question would go unanswered if the answer could 
be found. There was never "no comment !" Their thesis was based on 
the charter of the Smithsonian Institution, which refers to "the in- 
crease and diffusion of knowledge." They leaned heavily on that word 
"diffusion," in the argument that the Smithsonian was a public institu- 
tion engaged in nonclassified work. Others outside the Observatory 
wanted the information given out differently; especially there was 
pressure from IGY headquarters in Washington to have all news 
statements and releases channeled through that office. Both Wliipple 
and Hynek resisted manfully and successfully. 

The Observatory became quite literally the information center for 
the entire Western world on this new and frightening object in the 
sky. It was in many ways a terrible responsibility. The slightest 
word of Wliipple or Hynek to the press carried enormous weight. To 
this was added the complicating factor that Sputnik I was launched 
into an orbit that made it invisible over the United States for some 
days. Consequently, in the first few press interviews Whipple and 
Hynek had to make judicious guesses on the basis of Russian an- 
nouncements. Their guesses turned out to be correct, and this fact 
helped to establish in the minds of both the press and the general 
public that the word of Observatory officials was reliable. 

Much of the success of the Observatory in its public relations dur- 
ing those days was the result of the hard work and tactful understand- 
ing of Dr. John White, the Observatory's press officer. He helped 
to "interpret" questions from and replies to the press and served as 
a kind of watchdog over the remarks made by the Observatory scien- 
tists. There were inevitably, of course, a few slips. Perhaps the 
most glaring of these was a Boston headline reading "Mysterious 
Force Grips Sputnik," which some imaginative news reporter wrote 
after Dr. Hynek released a statement to the effect that the orbit of 
Sputnik I could not be explained solely by the laws of Newton, since 
other factors such as atmospheric drag were involved. 

Of the many reporters who descended on the Observatory that 
night and stayed through the exciting days and weeks that followed, 
only a few had any special training or background in science. Most 
of them were pulled off other assignments. For example, one reporter 
to the Massachusetts Legislature was sent over to Kittredge Hall 
because at that time the legislature was not in session. He became an 
expert in satellites almost overnight. 

The newsmen were quick, intelligent, and earnest and showed a 
remarkable facility for moving into a complicated area of scientific 
research and development for which they had no suitable background. 
Most of them, incidentally, went back to their own fields later after 
the newspapers had been able to find or train science reporters and 



The confidence of these reporters was urgently needed. First, 
the Observatory wanted to see in print stories that were accurate 
in fact and reassuring in tone. This was a particularly difficult task 
both for the scientists and for the reporters because the latter, with 
little background information, had to write intelligent and intelligible 
stories in a matter of minutes. Second, the Observatory wanted to keep 
to a minimum stories that would arouse further fear and anxiety among 
the public. When someone telephoned a newspaper — as frequently 
happened — and said that he had seen a gigantic flying saucer over his 
house, the paper had the choice of printing the story or of calling the 
Observatory for its opinion. More and more the newspapers did the 
latter. Then the Observatory would say that the report was ex- 
tremely exaggerated and that probably the man had seen a weather 
balloon or something of that sort. Inquiries made directly to the 
Observatory were handled in a similar manner. 

How hysterical was some of the response, and how necessary the 
calm reassuring word of the Observatory, can be judged from 
events in November. One evening a spectacular red aurora — one of 
the most startling ever recorded by astronomers — frightened thou- 
sands of people. The Observatory received hundreds of telephone 
calls, as did also the newspapers. People thought that the Russians 
were painting the sky red or that they were sending a rocket toward 
the moon, or that a hydrogen bomb had been exploded — there seemed 
to be no end to the menaces that were seen in this quite natural 
phenomenon. Through replies to the individuals and statements to 
the press, the Observatory was able to calm the public by telling them 
what was actually happening. 

A similar incident occurred later that winter when the planet Mars 
seemed to be close to the moon. The Russians made one of their pe- 
riodic announcements that they were going to send a probe to the 
moon, and suddenly people saw this little dot of light and became wor- 
ried. Many had never even seen the planet before Sputnik I went up. 
Again, the Observatory sent out reassuring statements. Both these 
incidents served to dramatize one of the major results of Russian 
Sputnik I. Millions of people who literally had never before bothered 
to observe the night skies became increasingly knowledgeable of 
astronomical matters. 

From the first, the Observatory held press conferences daily, at 
9 a.m. and at 3 p.m., and these went on for several months. Some 
newspaper reporters deliberately asked odd questions designed to trap 
Whipple and Hynek into foolish or melodramatic answers. The con- 
ferences were an attempt to establish some kind of order and to give 
the principals an opportunity to speak under organized conditions 
and without improper competition among the papers. 


At each conference a member of the scientific staff of the Observatory 
would release the news that had occurred since the preceding one 
and give reporters a chance to ask questions. All the papers received 
this material on an equal basis and handled it as they wished. There 
also was established the standard practice of permitting a reporter to 
see anybody working on a special project; by this means he could 
obtain not a news scoop but a color or angle story. If another reporter 
asked for the same story, he would be told that someone else was on 
it but that if he still wished to pursue it he could. 

Over the months the confidence of press, radio, and television 
gradually grew. In time they cut down their "death watch" to one 
man, and each wire service took a turn at night, usually sleeping on 
the table in what had once been the ladies' lounge in Kittredge Hall. 
Here, "Chief" Peterson had set up a battery of telephones as another 
step to preserve fair competition among the newsmen. The final 
result of these policies was that the reporters left the staff pretty much 
alone except when the Observatory really had some news to release. 

Sputnik I was certainly the best and most widely publicized achieve- 
ment of modern science. Leafing through the thousands of news- 
paper clippings on file at the Observatory, one is again and again 
impressed with the accuracy and the thoroughness of the reportage. 
And in view of the scarcity of solid information in those first weeks 
after October 4 it can be said that never was so much known by so 
many about so little. 


Although the Observatory had planned to have Moonwatch fully 
operational by March 1958, the program was in fact sufficiently ready 
when Sputnik I was launched to begin supplying observations almost 
immediately. On October 6 a dubious observation was reported by 
the team in Terre Haute, Ind. The first confirmed Moonwatch ob- 
servations were made on October 8 by groups in Sydney and Woomera, 
Australia; the first in the United States on October 10 by the team 
in New Haven, Conn. 

During those first weeks, essentially all the observational data from 
visual sightings were furnished by Moonwatch, and from these the 
Observatory derived such orbital elements and predictions as were 
then possible. 

Here again. Dr. Whipple's conviction, founded upon a profound 
knowledge of astronomy and a no less profound understanding of 
human nature, proved to be correct. He had earlier insisted that the 
Moonwatch program be an effort of amateur astronomers and science 
enthusiasts, at a time when the military services and other Government 
agencies felt that amateurs could not be trusted to carry on such a 


complex and vital program. The miique success of Moonwatcli 
demonstrated what amateurs could do when properly inspired and led. 
And it should not be overlooked that it was certainly the least expen- 
sive effort of the entire IG Y program of the United States. 

Toward the end of 1957, two significant steps were taken to improve 
the Moonwatch observations. On November 1 a satellite simulator 
built under contract by Jack A. Wegener of Gloucester, N.J., was 
delivered, with arrangements being made for the completion of two 
more by early 1958. The instrument was intended for training Moon- 
watch teams in observing satellites. Through an eyepiece the ob- 
server could watch an image similar to that which would appear 
through a Moonwatch telescope sighted on a satellite. The first 
simulator was sent to a team in the southwest United States, and the 
Observatory then planned to send it from station to station for train- 
ing purposes. 

As an aid to the many Moonwatch teams scattered around the 
earth and distributed through a considerable range of latitude, the 
National Geographic Society in cooperation with the Observatory 
had by the end of 1957 designed a map and overlay kit that could 
be used for making estimates of the times at which observation of 
Sputnik I or II should begin and the altitude and azimuth of the 
probable passage. These aided considerably in providing the teams 
with the means of making their own satellite predictions. 

By the end of 1957 there were 115 Moonwatch teams registered in 
the United States, and another 90 in foreign countries — 71 of them 
in Japan. Teams in the United States, Australia, Chile, Japan, and 
Curagao had made a total of approximately 700 observations of satel- 
lites 1957 Alpha and 1957 Beta. The program had successfully de- 
veloped into a tracking project not only for the acquisition of satellites 
but also for observations of them during their "dying" stages. 


Meanwhile, an efficient communications network had been built up 
by "Chief" Peterson. Messages were being handled through teletype 
machine models 28 and 19 linked with the commercial network of 
American Telephone and Telegraph. The first was used primarily 
for two-way conference calls, the second for the transmission of data 
to domestic sources and for contacts with overseas networks via 
American Cable and Eadio, Western Union, and R.C.A. A Navy 
teletype macliine (NTX) model 19 provided noncommercial contact 
with all Government and military installations through the military 
comLmunications network. Operations were conducted on an around- 
the-clock basis. 

Peterson had an extraordinary ability to conjure up the communi- 
cations facilities needed and to get word to anyone anywhere. He 

720-018—64 23 


could by means that were not always quite clear locate people for 
Whipple or Hynek, relying occasionally, one suspects, not only on tele- 
phone and telegraph companies but also on any other sources of 
mformation. The network he developed was the means by which 
the very life blood of the tracking program was circulated. 

Dr. Whipple felt that the results of the optical satellite-tracking 
program should be distributed to the scientific community as promptly 
as possible. He therefore conceived a series of special reports that 
would publish observations, orbital elements, and scientific results 
in a matter of days after they had been processed at the Observa- 
tory. On October 14, ten days after Sputnik I was launched, the first 
of these was issued, The PreliTninary Orbit Information for Satellites 
al and a2 by Schilling and Sterne, which listed Moonwatch and other 
observations. The special reports have continued to be published in 
ever-increasing numbers. 


At the end of September, tests of the first Baker-Nunn camera in 
South Pasadena showed that: (1) The best focus with as yet unfin- 
ished optics was within 1 mm. of the value predicted by the manufac- 
turers; (2) the image produced by the optics w^as composed of three 
parts — an outer halo, an intermediate core, and a sharp inner core; 
(3) the initial collimation of the mirror was satisfactory; (4) opera- 
tion of the camera in several of its modes of mechanical movement 
indicated that the triaxial mount was highly successful; and (5) 
some mechanical vibration was observed at high operating speeds 
although this apparently had little effect on the film exposure. Dr. 
"Whipple then knew for certain that the camera was capable of track- 
ing and photographing the IGY artificial earth satellites. 

By September 30, several electronic time standards had been re- 
ceived from the Norrman Laboratories and were being tested. Also 
Shapiro & Edwards had completed the design of the slave-clock elec- 
tronic circuit and delivered a prototype to Boiler and Chivens, where 
it was installed in the first camera. The first photographs taken by 
the complete assembly were rushed to Washington by Stefan Sydor 
and there displayed to the press and to scientists and admmistrators 
attending the IGY meeting. No longer could anyone say that Van- 
guard was being deliberately delayed because the Baker-Nunn camera 
was not ready. 

After the camera had been torn down, minor adjustments made, 
and the instrument then reassembled, it was set to photograph the 
first transit of 1957 a 1 over South Pasadena. On the evening of 
October 17, everything and everyone were ready. The camera was 
in good operating condition. Dr. Henize, Sam Whidden, Gerry Bar- 


ton, and Aubrey Stinnett had received the appropriate predictions 
from headquarters in Cambridge. 

Wlien the satellite appeared in the sky it looked like a large air- 
plane light. In this transit it was orbiting so low and was so large 
that one probably could have photographed it with a Brownie camera. 

Although the observers had no difficulty in acquiring the satellite 
visually, they did have problems in pointing and training the camera 
in the right direction. No one had ever used a satellite- tracking cam- 
era before, and the orbital information was rather inexact except for 
the time of the satellite's appearance over the horizon. The predic- 
tions called for it to be in an area 29° SSW, although in fact it 
appeared at approximately 41°. 

By might and main the observers swung the camera around until 
it was sighted along the correct altitude and then moved it by its 
power drive to the proper elevation. They then started the film 
mechanism. The satellite took approximately a minute and a half to 
move from horizon to horizon. 

Wlien they developed the film, the observers found that the image 
of Sputnik I appeared on only four or frames. Had they been 
more expert they would have been able during such a transit to 
photograph the satellite on every frame. 

Tliey now had the first satellite film ever made by a tracking cam- 
era of the Western world. Prints were made of the best frames and 
distributed to the press. The wide publicity that resulted properly 
convinced millions of Americans that if the Russians had put up a 
satellite, United States scientists had been going through an orderly 
process of research and development and were now actually able to 
track the object. 

In the nights that followed, the observers reviewed their tracking 
techniques and within a short time were able to photograph the satel- 
lite without difficulty. The camera remained in operation in South 
Pasadena for about 3 weeks, until Sputnik I was no longer visible 
in that part of the United States. It was then disassembled and 
loaded on a van that had been esj^ecially provided and equipped by 
Bekins, a large moving and storage company in southern California. 
Gerry Barton rode aboard the van from South Pasadena to Las 
Cruces, a trip of a little more than 24 hours. 


In November only one Baker-Nunn camera was in operation to 
photogi'aph Sputnik I, and no one in this country knew what and 
when the Russians would launch in the next month or two. 

The staff of the New Mexico station of the Harvard Meteor Project 
demonstrated that the super-Schmidt camera was capable, without 
any adaptation, of photographing so bright an object as Sputnik I. 


Whipple and Hynek then decided upon an interim program for 
satellite observations, making use of the super-Schmidt camera. One 
was shipped to the site of the station in Hawaii where, under the 
direction of Dr. McCrosky, it was operational early in January 
1958 and by March had taken a number of satellite films. 

A second super-Schmidt camera of the Harvard Meteor Project 
was sent to Argentina under the supervision of Kenneth Morrison. 
The observing station there had not yet been completed, the power 
supply was not working, generators for auxiliary power had proved 
unreliable, and a small fire had done some damage. The situation 
was quite unmanageable, and Morrison was never able to use the 
super-Schmidt to photograph either Sputnik I or Sputnik II. 

The Observatory also borrowed two Small Missile Telecameras 
from the Army Bureau of Ordnance and shipped these to West Palm 
Beach and to Curagao. By March these telecameras were tracking 
satellites. Oinetheodolites were shipped to the stations in Peru, India, 
and Iran as a possible backup system for the launching of an American 
satellite. And, of course, the super-Schmidt at the New Mexico 
station continued to photograph Sputniks I and II until the Baker- 
Nunn camera was installed there. 

In mid-1958 this backup program was discontinued. 


In September 1957 the men who were to be the first observers at 
the Baker-Nunn camera stations went to South Pasadena, Calif., 
where they had an opportunity to become acquainted with the camera, 
even though not a single one had yet been completed. They could 
at least see the interior details and could discuss some of the operating- 
problems that might arise. They were also of some help in looking 
after the construction of the camera-house test facilities that were 
being built next to the Boiler and Chivens plant. 

These first observers had little in common except an intense interest 
in satellite tracking and a romantic desire to visit foreign places. 
They had all been inspired by the vision and enthusiasm of Whipple 
and Hynek, and they felt themselves to be pioneers in a new and 
splendid enterprise. 

The group was led by Dr. Karl Henize, Observatory astronomer 
for the satellite-tracking program. A man of unusual knowledge, 
he taught as much by doing as by preaching. His deputy was James 
Knight, welding engineer and lover of telescopes, whose ability to 
organize men and equipment was invaluable to the program. He 
later became senior observer at the station in Spain, and then station 
chief in South Africa. Working closely with them in training the 
fii*st observers was Aubrey Stinnett, whose knack with machinery 


had already been a major factor in the development of the Baker- 
Nunn camera. He was to become the first station cliief at Hawaii. 

Among the observers was Morgan Thomas, an extremely keen 
amateur astronomer who by profession had been a teclinical photog- 
rapher for Boeing Aircraft; a side activity was the production of 
documentary films on natural history. The group drew heavily on 
his mature experience in organizing and rmining things. He later 
became the first station chief at Iran. 

Sam "VVliidden, who had earlier been on the Harvard Meteor Project, 
was actually the first observer to be signed by Smithsonian. He had 
already become something of an expert in the processing of the film 
to be used in the Baker-Nmm cameras. He married Marty Holt of 
the Cambridge staff and together they went to the station in India, 
where he was the sole American representative. Later, upon their 
return to this country, he served as a teclinical liaison officer between 
the Baker-Nunn network and the Moonwatch program. 

Walt Lang, a bearded giant, a graduate of Texas A. and M., and 
a former pilot of the United States Air Force and later a mathematics 
instructor, brought to the program an expert knowledge of building 
design and construction. A man of unusual energy, he went on to 
supervise the construction of the other stations in North and South 
America, and later was chief of the station in Hawaii. 

Also from Texas A. and M. was Martin Burkliead, the youngest of 
the group. An enthusiastic electronics engineer, he became chief of 
the station in Peru and with characteristic devotion and dedication 
developed there a number of valuable teclmiques for observing 

An astronomer and mathematician, Kobert Cameron made his most 
significant contribution to the program in developing techniques for 
precise setting of the Baker-Nunn camera from often inaccurate 
predictions. He later became the first chief of the station in South 

From Australia came John Grady, who had been working at the 
Woomera rocket range in the development of missile-tracking tech- 
niques. After serving as station chief in Australia through its form- 
ative months, he went to Cambridge as specialist in photographic 
and tracking systems. 

Responsibility for the Norrman clock was in the hands of Gerald 
Barton, an expert in electronics and foreign languages, who instructed 
the observers in the intricacies of the timing system. Working closely 
with him was Bud Led with, who taught the tricks of computing and 
allowing for the speed of radio time signals. 

Two others who were not obsei-vers but were at the New Mexico 
station at that time should also be mentioned. George Bandemer, 


a cartographic engineer, was assigned to the project from the Aero- 
nautical Chart and Information Center of the United States Air 
Force. He brought with him an invahiable knowledge of the working 
problems of those who map the world from imperfect angular ob- 
servations. His own interest in satellite tracking grew as he worked 
with the group, and eventually he became station chief in Argentina. 
Jed Durrenberger, a senior photomechanical engineer, served as a 
consultant on the assembly, adjustment, and inspection of the Baker- 
Numi camera, and in addition, led the Moonwatch team in Las Cruces. 

In the early days of the satellite tracking, at Organ Pass, N. Mex., the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory shared quarters with the 
Harvard Meteor Project, which was also directed by Dr. Whipple. 
At one end of the building Smithsonian personnel were preparing for 
the arrival of the Baker-Nunn camera and its auxiliary equipment; 
at the other end Charles Tougas, Edward Horine, Gunther Schwartz, 
and Kenneth Morrison were working on the meteor program and at 
the same time taking photogi'aphs of Sputnik I with their super- 
Sclimidt camera. These four knew the night sky with a thoroughness 
that comes only after many months of intensive observation. Their 
knowledge became singularly significant in the early development of 
tracking techniques with the Baker-Nmm camera. Later, Tougas, 
Morrison, and Horine joined the Smithsonian staff, and each became 
a station chief. 

In October Martin Burkhead and Walter Lang arrived at Organ 
Pass to prepare for the shipment of the Baker-Nunn camera and to 
uncrate and store the supplies of chemicals, fihns, and other materials 
that would be needed. When the Norrman clock came, they set it up. 
They erected a prefab powerhouse and put in a 110-volt amplifier, a 
5-kilowatt generator, and the wiring to the camera house. 

About 2 weeks before the Baker-Nunn arrived at Organ Pass a bad 
storm took away the roof and one wall of the camera house. With 
the help of the Harvard Meteor staff, Lang and Burkliead rebuilt the 
walls and contracted for a new roof, which was installed on Novem- 
ber 2. The next day they painted the floor. On November 4 the 
camera and the observers arrived from South Pasadena, Calif. With 
them came Dr. Henize, who was in charge of the group, and Aubrey 
Stinnett and James Knight. The training session, which began on 
November 12 after the camera had been installed, was to last until 
December 6. 

The men lived at a motel, some 20 miles from the station, owned 
and operated by George and Irma Duchenki, who were not only host 
to the group but also father and mother and, when the per diem 
allowance of the observers did not come through from Cambridge or 
Wasliington, friendly bankers. 


Those weeks were not without dramatic moments quite unrelated 
to the satellite-tracking program. Nearby St. Augustine Mountain, 
some 8,000 feet high, became a challenge to those who were not fully 
taxed by the demands of setting up the first station. On one climb, 
Stinnett fractured an ankle and had to be carried down the mountain 
by Whidden, Grady, and Henize. He was promptly appointed safety 
officer for the group. One evening Bandemer, in the excitement of 
pointing out to the Duchenkis a transit of Sputnik I, fell into the grease 
pit of the gasoline station next door and had to be hospitalized for 
cuts and bruises. 

The training program itself was, of course, wholly without prece- 
dent. There had been some talk about preparing an observer's man- 
ual, but this proved to be impossible since there was not even a proto- 
type camera to work with at that time. The observers were eager to 
learn the necessary techniques for the full operation of a tracking 
station. This involved considerably more than the camera itself. 
They had to learn how to maintain the Norrman clock, to develop 
the film, to cany through a field-reduction program of measuring the 
position of the satellite image on the film, and to maintain efficient 
communications with headquarters in Cambridge. 

Tlie first films taken with the camera in New Mexico were out of 
focus because the primary corrector cell had unfinished optics. This 
cell remained in use until March 1958, when it was replaced. There- 
after, the camera was able to acquire the faint image of Explorer I. 

Time reduction was very primitive. None of them knew much 
about the corrections that had to be applied to "\"\nW time in order 
to calibrate the Norrman clock. At the Harvard Meteor Project, 
timing was needed to an accuracy of only one-half second, in no way 
comparable to the millisecond that was the goal of the satellite- 
tracking system. 

The film of the Baker-Nunn camera was somewhat difficult to work 
with when compared with the concave molded frames used in the 
Harvard ]\Ieteor Project. And there was no microscope available for 
finding the star field in which the satellite image appeared. 

Moonwatch was of major assistance in pinpointing predictions for 
the first camera. Observatory predictions sent from Cambridge were 
off by 5 or 10 minutes in Alamogordo, Las Cruces, Albuquerque, and 
Phoenix. A small group in El Paso — actually not a registered Moon- 
watch team — called in observations at the last minute to Las Cruces. 
The Observatory even arranged a conference with five local Moon- 
watch teams so that they would, wlien they saw a satellite passage, 
telephone the position and their location to the Organ Pass station. 
Finding the satellite image itself was then no particular problem, 
especially as 1957 a 1 was a very bright object. The observers could 
run the film through a projector and look among the streaks with 



five breaks representing the star images to find the point that was 
the satellite image; at that time the camera was simply matching 
the apparent motion of the satellite across the sky. Later, the oscil- 
lating technique was used experimentally, but then abandoned as un- 

This was, then, a simultaneous process of developing rather in- 
volved technical methods and of teaching them to one another. By 
the end of the first training session, profiting from the experience and 
knowledge gained in those 6 weeks, the Observatory was able to plan 
a more efficient and more thorough program for the next group of 
observers who came through Cambridge and New Mexico early in 


As each Baker-Nunn camera was completed and tested at the Boiler 
and Chivens plant in South Pasadena, it was couriered by a member 
of the Observatory staff, usually on a MATS plane, to the station 
for which it was intended. Table 1 indicates the schedule of ship- 
ment, the dates of first successful observations, and the object photo- 
graphed. By mid-1958 the Observatory could announce that all 12 
Baker-Nunn camera stations were operational. 

Table 1. — Shipping schedule of Baker-Nunn cameras and first successful 



Date camera shipped 

Date of first observation 

photographed i 

New Mexico 

South Africa 

November 2, 1957. ._ 

February 3 _ 

November 26, 1957. _ 

March 18, 1958 

March 11, 1958 

March 18, 1958 

April 15, 1958 

August 29, 1958 

July 4, 1958 

May 20, 1958 

June 22, 1958 

June 10, 1958 

July 10, 1958 

July 4, 1958 

1957 al 

1958 Alpha 


February 22 

March 2__ 

1957 Beta 


1957 Beta 


March 20 

1958 Alpha 

India . - 

March 30 

1958 51 


April 8._- -- 

1958 Alpha 

Iran _ 

May 1 

1958 51 


May 5 _- 

1958 Alpha 

Florida. _ 

May 8.- _- 

1958 52 


May 15 

1958 52 


May 28 

1958 Alpha 

I The designation for the first satellites was decided by Dr. Whipple, as later explained in the Smithsonian 
Contributions to Astrophysics, vol. 2, No. 10, p. 189 (1958): "Notation system for satellites. The tentative 
system of notation, suggested by Whipple, identifies each artificial earth satellite in the following manner: 
the year of launching is followed by a letter of the Greek alphabet to indicate the order of the satellite's 
launching within the year, and, when more than one object is observed from one launching, a number is 
added to indicate relative brightness. When the orbiting rocliet assembly or assemblies from one launching 
are referred to as a whole, or when the components are not distinguished nor considered separately, the 
Greek letter is spelled out and the succeeding number is omitted." 


The first Baker-Nunn films of Satellite 1957 a 1 were taken at 
South Pasadena on October 17 and at the Organ Pass station in New 
Mexico on November 26; of 1957 Beta, New Mexico, December 13; of 
1958 Alpha, South Africa, March 18, 1958; and of 1958 Beta, New 
Mexico, March 19, 1958. 

Of the 12 Baker-Nunn camera stations, the two in Australia and 
Japan were staffed entirely by nationals, and equipped by them ex- 
cept for the camera, clock, and electronic accessories. In some of the 
other countries, at least one national was on the staff of the station, 
and usually several others provided practical support for station 

There were three types of stations. First, there were those wholly 
operated by fully professional astronomers or their equivalents; these 
were the stations in Tokyo, India, and Australia, where all or most of 
the staff were nationals. Second, there were the wholly American 
groups in Florida, Hawaii, and New Mexico. The remaining six 
were a "mixed" operation, which proved to be eminently successful. 
At these stations the Observatory had to develop a working relation- 
ship between its own high-speed, fairly well integrated organization 
and the local people working at and with the station; and because 
this was essentially an American-oriented scientific program and be- 
cause in most of the countries there was a lack of personnel trained 
to do the technical work at the station, the chief of the group was an 

The Observatory program had been based on the assumption that 
at most each station would have to observe not more than three or 
four satellites during a single night's operation. Actually the de- 
mands became much heavier as more and more satellites were launched 
in 1958 and in the years to follow. It is a remarkable tribute to 
designers and builders of the Baker-Nunn camera and the associated 
equipment that the stations have proved capable of meeting this ever 
increasing responsibility. 

Again, a historical accident as far as the Americans were con- 
cerned offered the time necessary for the stations to develop into a 
smooth, efficient network. If after Sputnik I the Eussians had im- 
mediately launched Sputnik II, III, IV, V, and VI — all of them 
designed for long life — and if Vanguard had been initially successful 
the Observatory w^ould have had to reorganize its program. For- 
tunately, with only two or three objects to track during those first 
few months opportunity was provided for slower but better develop- 
ment of techniques. The stations' basic problem in the early days 
was making the equipment work and getting reliable results. It was 
necessarily a program of trial and error. At each station the staff 
would develop their own particular means and methods of tracking 
satellites. Some were good, some were mediocre, some w^ere dowm- 


right bad. And no matter what the methods, considerable difficulty 
resulted in correlating the observations from all of the stations. 
Again, the independence of the first observers proved to be both a boon 
and a bane, and many of the problems that arose were not to be settled 
until the first station chiefs' conference in June 1959. 

Certain operational hazards plagued the stations for many months. 
Brief interruptions in tracking occurred in Iran because of cold 
weather and mechanical troubles with the camera ; in Florida, Curasao, 
and Japan, because the slave clock had to be overhauled; in India, 
because of maladjustments of the film transport system. 

Each station had its unique problems. In a letter from South 
Africa to Ken Drummond, Jim Knight neatly summed up several 
of the pressures experienced in South Africa : "You should know that 
the job here entails certain things beyond normal situations at noimal 
stations. In addition to running the station, one must act as Moon- 
watch coordinator for three teams in the Union of South Africa, and 
now one in Rhodesia. On top of this, there is Dr. Hynek's observing 
program at Radcliffe, probably a continuing one, and the additional 
task of spending hours working on time propagation studies." 

And at every station there was the necessity for dealing tactfully, 
constructively, and intelligently with the local people. In a sense, the 
nine Baker-Nunn camera stations overseas might be thought of as 
harbingers of the Peace Corps, and like that group they had both 
their successes and their failures. 

The first months of the stations were all the more exciting and all 
the more frustrating because the initial predictions from Cambridge 
were not of the desired accuracy. The perturbations of a satellite 
with a significantly low perigee are such that if it is not observed on 
a regular schedule or if bad weather or poor twilight conditions inter- 
fere for a few weeks, predictions of time may become uncertain by a 
matter of minutes, and of the position of the orbital plane by a matter 
of tens of miles. In this situation, the observer had to develop search 
techniques, which might require a half hour of preparation, a half 
hour of observing, and many hours of scaiming the films. 

For 1957 a 1, the observers tried all the observing techniques that 
could be used with the Baker-Nunn camera. They kept the camera 
motionless, so that the satellite image would appear as a trail; they 
tracked the satellite so that the stars would form trails and the object 
would be a pinpoint; and they used the oscillating technique that 
allowed both modes. The last method was not used very much after 
the first few months because the observers soon realized that they were 
devoting a good deal of time and energy to obtaining results that 
really were not needed, particularly for satellites of the brightness of 
1957 Alpha and Beta. 


Insofar as possible the Observatory wanted long-arc observations; 
in other words, photographs that showed the satellite as it appeared 
over the horizon, at culmination, and through to the other horizon. 
AVliile the camera could track at variable speeds in order to match the 
apparent motion of the satellite, it could not follow the same pattern 
without changes in altitude of the line of sight. There were two 
aspects to this problem : one, to predict the path ; the other, to have 
the camera follow it. The observers improvised various means of 
achieving these ends. 

When the camera followed the motion of the satellite, the satellite 
image on the film would appear as a pinpoint and therefore might be 
very difficult to find. The observer soon discovered that elongated 
images could be obtained just by holding the shutter open and jig- 
gling the mechanism a little bit. By this means they had their first 
real opportunity to detect faint satellite images. 

Since some of the predictions were not accurate, the observer often 
had to pattern the sky for the satellite ; that is, he would scan the sky 
with a camera, making changes of altitude and other corrections, 
hopping by this means to catch the satellite. 

After the film was developed, the observer had to identify the posi- 
tion of the satellite image among the stars. The staff of the Harvard 
Meteor Project in New Mexico had literally memorized the night sky. 
When, using the super-Schmidt, they photographed a satellite pas- 
sage, they made a mental note that it went 2° south of the star Fomal- 
haut. They then took out the CD star chart and fitted the field against 
that of the film. 

The new observers of the Smithsonian program had no such knowl- 
edge and experience, so they had to find other means of identifying 
the star field quickly. Tables were prepared for rapidly converting 
azimuth and altitude, known sidereal time, and even the right ascen- 
sion and declination, on a star chart. Also mechanical means such as 
a navigation globe were developed. 

At first obsen^ers would spend as much as 9 or 10 hours identifying 
the star field. As the satellite load increased, this became an im- 
possible procedure. Each station developed its own particular tech- 
nique for identifying the star field, and only much later would these 
be standardized to a common procedure. 

Finally, most of the stations had some problems with the power 
supply to the Norrman clock and the slave clock. At the New 
Mexico, Florida, Hawaii, and South Africa stations there were only 
small and infrequent fluctuations of power in the commercial line, 
and few power failures. At the other oversea stations, however, the 
voltage fluctuations were often quite considerable so that the time 
presentation of the slave clock would vary considerably. When the 


field-reduced satellite position and time were sent to Cambridge, the 
errors in timing became, of course, a source of errors in new predictions 
generated from them. 


The Soviet Union told the outside world little concerning the orbits 
of Sputniks I and II. In fact, much of the data they distributed to 
the Western press and to the IGY consisted merely of the times of 
transit over major cities in both hemispheres. Nevertheless, scientists 
of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and those of other 
agencies and organizations were able in a very short time to issue 
relatively accurate information and even, later, to predict the demise 
of Sputnik II so precisely that the Kussians claimed they must be 
fabricating rather than forecasting. 

The problems that confronted the computations staff on the night 
of October 4 seemed overwhelming. The orbital programs that had 
been worked out by Drs. Cunningham and Lautman could not be used 
in tracking Sputnik I. The initial orbit determination program that 
Slowey and Briggs had written was still being debugged and would 
not be ready for a day or two for practical computations. 

None of these programs included air drag; scientists everywhere 
had believed that it would have only a small effect on the orbit of an 
artificial earth satellite because they greatly underestimated the at- 
mospheric density between 100 and 200 km. above the surface of the 

Then too, the United States had planned to launch its first satel- 
lite — which it assumed would be the first satellite — at a height at 
which air drag would not have been a very important factor. Sput- 
nik I, however, was moving low in the atmosphere. 

Furthermore, the errors of the first observations received by the 
Observatory were much larger than those that astronomers were ac- 
customed to in the study of celestial mechanics. The computation 
methods at hand were necessarily sensitive to errors of observations, 
so that when the observations were poor, the orbit derived from them, 
if one could be derived at all, was necessarily poor. 

Finally, the practical philosophy of the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory was to accumulate as many observations as possible, 
rather than to work with a minimum number from the field. Ulti- 
mately, the effort to combine dozens of observations into the determina- 
tion of an orbit proved highly successful. At first, however, provi- 
sional tecliniques had to be developed to use whatever data were at 

The Observatory was not, of course, alone in this dilemma. The 
satellite-orbit programs of other observatories failed initially for 
much the same reasons. In all fairness, it should be noted that no 


one could have realized all the intricacies of atmospheric density deter- 
mined by seasonal, diurnal, and solar variations. Indeed, had it been 
possible to predict these intricacies, there would have been consider- 
ably less purpose to any passive tracking system. 

In the months that followed the laimchmg of Sputnik I the compu- 
tations staff of the Observatory had a very difficult and very busy 
time. They rapidly gained the experience that they all had lacked, 
experience that had been impossible before a satellite was actually 
launched. They realized early the magnitude of the job before them, 
and were particularly conscious of the importance of air drag in the 
computing of satellite predictions. All of them were mider constant 
and heavy pressure, not only to organize an efficient means of gener- 
ating predictions but also to help establish and maintain good rela- 
tions with a now somewhat doubting public. Most of them during 
those first weeks worked as much as 18 hours a day. Cots were set 
up at Kittredge Hall, so that many of the computers simply did 
not go home at all until they had achieved a basic and necessary 

Their diligence and devotion were matched by those of other mem- 
bers of the Observatory staff, and especially of the wives of all of 
them. Headed by Mrs. Whipple and Mrs. Hynek, these good women 
maintained a constant supply of coffee, sandwiches, clean shirts, and 
other necessities. 

The first observations were, to say the least, rather inconsistent; 
that is, the format and the data were not the same from one to the 
next. In addition, some of these observations came from places that 
had not been adequately "located" ; for example, if someone informed 
the Observatory that he had witnessed a transit of the satellite, the 
computers had to fuid out as exactly as possible the coordinates of 
liis position. There was, then, a complex job of the bookkeeping, 
as well as an equally complex task of reducing the data to a consistent 

In addition to its own scientists and technicians the Observatory 
called on mathematicians and astronomers of the Harvard staff, par- 
ticularly Drs. Frances Wright and Eichard McCrosky, to help during 
these first stages. 

Jack Slowey, Eobert Briggs, and Dr. John Eossoni of IBM soon 
had the initial orbit program in operation. Through the traditional 
Harvard Aimouncement Card (No. 1375) a preliminary estimate of 
the orbit of Sputnik I was published on October 15. 

In theory, an orbit can be predicted from a set of any three observa- 
tions. In their urgency to derive the orbit of Sputnik I, mathemati- 
cians of the Observatory took such a set of three observations and 
fed it through the initial orbit program. When the results did not 
seem to match their estimate of the orbit, they rejected it and tried 


another set. Eventually, one orbit determined by this means fairly 
well matched their estimate, and it was this that was distributed to 
the scientific community and to the press. 

Thereafter, the staff processed individually each of the observa- 
tions, most of which were naked-eye or Moon watch sightings made in 
the United States ; no photographic observations were available dur- 
ing the first 2 weeks. The Observatory was primarily interested, at 
this point, in making predictions of transits over the United States. 
Many data were required to eliminate errors. 

On a large map of the United States the computers marked for 
each sighting a spot to indicate where the observer was. Ideally, his 
observation would have: (1) The time at which he made it; (2) the 
azimuth, or the direction along the horizon; and (3) the elevation 
above the horizon. Observations in a different form, in which data 
were given with respect to the star background, had to be reduced to 
readings of azimuth and elevation. 

From the position of the observer, the staff would draw a line in 
the direction in which he saw the satellite, w^hich was the azimuth 
that he observed. They computed from the orbital period the height 
of the satellite above the surface of the earth. 

If the orbit is perfectly circular, then its height above the earth 
is essentially independent of its position in the orbit. One takes the 
elevation above the horizon at which the satellite was observed, and 
combines this datum with the height estimated from the orbital period. 
One can then calculate by simple trigonometry the distance of the 
satellite from the observer, and on this azimuth line, mark a point for 
the estimated position of the satellite. 

This was done for one evening's observations. Say the satellite 
passed over New England. There would be perhaps half a dozen 
observations. From each of these one derived a point representing 
the position of the satellite projected onto the surface of the earth 
at the time of the observation. There resulted half a dozen points, 
more or less on a line. A straight line was drawn among these points 
as well as possible. By noticing how the points fell in relation to the 
line, one could go back and correct the estimate of the height of the 
satellite and obtain a more consistant analysis of these particular 
observations. The line on the surface of the earth represented a 
trajectory of the satellite for that evening's pass. Then, from a 
similar set of data for the following evening, one plotted another 
line on the surface of the earth, representing the passage of the sat- 
ellite for that evening. At this point, there was enough information 
to compute with fair accuracy the period of the satellite — essentially 
its velocity — and find the position of the line on the surface of the 
earth for the following evening just by extrapolating the data. The 
Observatory staff did this partly by using a theory that predicted the 


motion of this line produced by the flattening of the earth, but since 
they did not know with sufficient accuracy what the flattening was, 
they did not trust the extrapolation they obtained this way. 

After the first week or so the staff became a little more sophisticated. 
Instead of going to the map, they would start with a desk computer. 
The problem was again one of trigonometry, of finding the position 
of the satetille, plotting the positions of the satellite corresponding to 
the observations, and then trying to fit lines through them so that 
they could predict ahead. The major difficulty was that the orbital 
period was shortening fairly drastically, so they needed a good way 
of determining how the period changed with time to allow them to 
extrapolate ahead. 

When Dr. Luigi Jacchia of the Harvard Meteor program returned 
from Italy late in October, Dr. Whipple asked him to take a hand 
in the computations work. He immediately considered what stop- 
gap measure might best utilize Moonwatch and other observations 
to derive more accurate and more automated predictions. He devised 
the so-called subsatellite program that could be fed into an electronic 
computer to reduce each observation. From a fairly accurate orbit — 
and by this time the Observatory had such orbits — the program would 
compute for each observation the position of the node and the time 
of the crossing of the equator. Then, from a diagram based on these 
two quantities, the program would allow one to follow the object and 
to make predictions for a fairly long period of time. After some 
preliminary experiments with the program by hand computation. Dr. 
Jacchia asked Eobert Briggs to set it up for the IBM-650, an elec- 
tronic computer with which he was familiar. By late November, the 
Observatory was able to reduce an observation in something less than 
one minute of machine time and to prepare reasonably precise pre- 
dictions of transit of Satellites 1957 Alpha and 1957 Beta. 

The program developed by Jacchia could not be used by itself to 
derive orbital elements. There were five other orbital elements that 
still had to be determined (see part 1 of this history) . The program 
could derive discrepancies between the observations and the assumed 
orbital elements, in much the same way that Lautman's program 
was later to operate. It was now a question of taking these discrep- 
ancies and plotting them in order to decide which orbital element 
most needed correction, improve that one, and then continue this 
analysis of the observations again to find a new set of discrepancies ; 
and so on. Although, in a sense, the program was, as Dr. Hynek 
described it, a "quick and dirty approach," for the next year and a half 
it was the work horse of the Computations and Analysis Division. 

Jacchia found that he had unofficially taken on the task of pre- 
dicting the positions of the first two Russian satellites, which he con- 
tinued to do until April 1958, and which resulted in his writing the 


historically memorable Special Keport No, 15 on the demise of 
Sputnik II. 

By the end of 1957, the initial orbit determination program of 
Slowey and Briggs had been completed, debugged, and was being 
used to generate orbits. A loading routine had been written to per- 
mit observations to be read directly into tlie computer in the form 
in which they were received, with reduction being done internally and 
automatically. Another addition to the program was the inclusion 
of a routine to find suitable starting values for the topocentric dis- 
tances that the program used to obtain correct orbits. On December 
28 Mr. Slowey presented a general description of the method and 
program to a meeting of the American Astronomical Society in 
Indianapolis, Ind. It was estimated that the program was at least 
90 percent effective in producing orbits from sets of observations 
chosen at random. 

By the end of the year, 1,956 observations of Satellite 1957 a 1, 43 
dubious observations of 1957 a 2, and 494 observations of 1957 Beta 
had been processed. 

A master list of station coordinates, including the identification 
number and the height of the station above sea level, had been com- 
piled in a form that could be used as input for the IBM-704 com- 
puter. Included in this list were all registered Moonwatch teams, 
selected American and foreign observatories, and a number of 
miscellaneous observers. 

Predictions were by this time essentially of two types; the first 
consisted of an ephemeris giving the time and longitude of all cross- 
ings of the 40th parallel; these were distributed to the press, to obser- 
vation teams throughout the world, and to interested individuals and 
agencies. The second consisted of an ephemeris giving more detailed 
and specific information for special observation teams such as Moon- 
watch. Both ephemerides were programed for the IBM-704 


Meanwhile the American public had been clamoring for a U.S. 
satellite, to challenge the dramatic successes of the Soviet space pro- 
gram. Seemingly the only possibility for a launching lay with Proj- 
ect Vanguard, since it was the one official satellite program for the 
IG Y ; no alternative was being developed. 

While the public was impatient, the directors of Vanguard were 
proceeding with necessary and commendable caution. They had de- 
fined the project as "a complete system for space exploration," for it 
included not only the design, manufacture, test, and launch of the 
rocket and its payload but also the development of launch, tracking 
computation, and other operational facilities. 


As a pioneer undertaking, Project Vanguard was confronted with 
delays and frustrations toward which the public showed singularly- 
little sympathy and understanding. In addition, the project was 
plagued by lack of adequate funding. The program had been 
specifically designated as nonmilitary, in keeping with the spirit of 
the IGY, yet the monies for it came out of the budget for the Depart- 
ment of Defense. To further complicate matters, first plans for 
Vanguard grossly underestimated the funding that would be 

On December 6, 1957, what had originally been planned as a test 
became in fact the first American attempt to orbit a small sphere 
carrying a radio transmitter. The effort failed, to worldwide pub- 
lijCity that was remforced by a second miss on February 5, 1958. One 
result has been that in the minds of many Americans, Project Van- 
guard was a failure, when in fact the program "produced a basic 
concept of launch vehicles . . . (and) pioneered the use of advanced 
state-of-the-art techniques." ^ 

On November 8, 1957, the newly appointed Secretary of Defense, 
Neil H. McElroy, ordered the Army to undertake its own satellite 
launching. By coincidence or contrivance. Von Braun and his group 
had almost ready an assembly of Redstone and Sergeant rockets to 
send a satellite into orbit. The payload that had been planned for 
the Vanguard satellite was modified for the Army assembly, and a 
target date of January 31, 1958, set for the launching. 

'"The Early Tears: Goddard Space Flight Centor," National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration, 1964, p. 16. 

720-OlS— G4 — —24 

The Neutrinos' 

By Melvin Schwartz 

Professor of Physics, Columbia University 

[With one plate] 

In recent months, the attention of physics has centered upon the 
most elusive of all elementary particles — the neutrino. A recent ex- 
periment at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Columbia Uni- 
versity has shown that there exists in nature t^vo independent types 
of neutrinos — one associated with electrons and the other associated 
with mu mesons. This experiment has also opened a new chapter 
in high energy physics — namely, the study of energetic neutrino 

To understand the neutrino and the history of its discovery, we 
must go back some 30 or 40 years. At that time, much less was known 
about nuclear physics than is known today but, on the other hand, 
the triumphs of quantum mechanics were fresh and exciting and 
many of the conservation laws of physics were on a very firm foot- 
ing. In particular, conservation of energy was a cornerstone of the 
edifice which had been built up in the three centuries since Newton's 

While investigating the behavior of nuclei, physicists had noted the 
phenomenon called beta decay. They observed that occasionally a 
nucleus would spontaneously emit an electron (or its antiparticle, a 
positron) and change into another nucleus (fig. 1). Now if this were 
all that were happening, we vrould expect the electron and the re- 
sidual nucleus to travel off in opposite directions, with the electron 
having a unique energy. We Avould expect that the total energy 
of the electron and the residual nucleus should add up to the total 
energy of the initial nucleus (including the energy equivalent of the 
masses involved by means of the relation E =mc^) . 

Now in these early experiments it was not possible to observe the 
residual nucleus, but measurements of the electron energy alone indi- 
cated a difficulty. Its energy was not unique; indeed, it showed a 
continuous spectrum of energies up to a certain maximum value. 

1 Reprinted by permission from Discovery (London), vol. 23, No. 11, November 1962. 



• e* 

proton — ^ neutron + neutron — ^ proton + 

positron + neutrino electron + anti neutrino 

Figure 1. — Two examples of beta-decay, that' on the left occurring only within the nu 
cleus. It was to carry away excess energy in beta-decay that the neutrino was first 
postulated in the 1930's. Decay is governed by the weak interaction. 

This maximum value corresponded to the energy that might have 
been expected for all of the electrons. The lack of uniqueness of 
the electron energy appeared to be prima-facie evidence of a lack 
of energy conservation in beta decay. 

Now, with the level of sophistication which prevails in today's 
physics, the answer would have been obvious. As it was, it took the 
enormous insight of Wolfgang Pauli to see it. To solve the dilemma, 
he suggested that another particle had to be emitted — a particle carry- 
ing no charge and having a mass less than that of the electron. This 
particle would serve to carry away the energy that was clearly 
missing. The only known particle with mass less than the electron 
was the photon — the quantum of light. That was easily ruled out 
in the case of beta decay and so the particle which was sought was 
one whose presence was completely unknown until then, 

A very short time later, Enrico Fermi struck the crucial blow in 
favor of the Pauli hypothesis. He developed a theory which ex- 
plained, in large measure, the detailed shape of the electron spectrum 
from the beta decay. That is to say, he was able to predict, with 
accuracy, the probability of observing particular electron energies. 
The key ingredient of his theory was a new particle which he labeled 
the neutrino — "the little neutral one." To agree with experiment, the 
mass of the neutrino had to be very small compared to that of the 
electron. At present, it is assumed to be zero. 


Before proceeding, let us make a slight digression based on work 
which has taken place since that time. For every particle which 
can exist in nature there is an antiparticle whose existence is also 
allowed. In the case of a particle which carries an electrical charge, 
the antiparticle carries an equal and opposite charge. The positron, 
for example, is the antiparticle of the electron. In the case of an 
electrically neutral particle, the antiparticle is, of course, also neutral. 
Now in the latter case the antiparticle and particle may be completely 


indistinguishable, in which case they are assumed to be the same 
particle. Experiments done in the last 10 years have shown that the 
neutrino and the antineutrino are in fact distinguishable in some of 
their physical properties. Insofar as beta decay is concerned, the 
appearance of an electron seems to be accompanied by the production 
of an antineutrino while the appearance of a positron seems to be 
accompanied by the production of a neutrino (fig. 1). The decision 
as to which shall be called neutrino and which antineutrino is made 
by convention. 


To return to our story, beta decay is an example of a class of inter- 
actions which have acquired the label "weak." In nature there appear 
to be four quite distinct types of interactions, each with its charac- 
teristic strength. Listed in order of decreasing strength they are: 
Strong, electromagnetic, weak, and gravitational. The first three are 
the only ones which concern us when we discuss nuclear phenomena. 
Their respective strengths are roughly in the ratio of 10" to 10" to 
1. The strong interactions are responsible for holding a nucleus 
together against the repulsive electromag-netic interactions among 
the various protons. The weak interactions are responsible for beta 
decay. Among the above three types of interactions the neutrinos 
participate only in the weak. Were it not for this class of inter- 
actions, neutrinos would not exist at all (or, at best, they would be 
completely undetectable and irrelevant to the rest of nature). It is 
the weakness of its interaction with matter that makes the neutrino 
so elusive. Just how difficult it has been to detect will shortly become 


As we have said, the neutrino was born out of the theoretical need 
to preserve one of the fundamental laws of physics. Since it was 
first proposed, more detailed experiments have shown that its presence 
was also necessary to preserve other conservation laws. For example, 
measurements of the direction in which the residual nucleus went 
showed an apparent violation of momentum conservation. The same 
neutrino also resolved the difficulty here. Furthermore, it was neces- 
sary for the neutrino to carry away angular momentum — indeed, pre- 
cise measurement showed that the neutrino carries the same intrinsic 
angular momentum as the electron. All of these experiments served 
to endow the neutrino with practically all of its properties before 
it was ever observed directly. 

But now we turn back the clock again some 20 years for the be- 
ginning of another major chapter in the neutrino story — the dis- 
covery of the pi meson (or pion, as it is often called) . Hideki Yukawa 
had calculated that the forces which bind a nucleus together should 


*- o i/ 

(muon coupled) 

pi meson — »»-mu meson 
+ anti-neutrino 

"0 o 
(electron coupled) 

e • ^ o 

(muon coupled; 

mu meson - 
neutrino + 

-^- electron + 

Figure 2. — Decays of pion and muon both involve neutrinos (or antineutrinos). It is 
now known that two kinds of neutrino are involved, as indicated in the diagram. 

be the result of a particle with a mass equal to several hundred, elec- 
tron masses. A search for the pi meson in cosmic rays led to the 
discovery of a particle with a mass not too different from the predicted 
one. However, detailed experiments showed that this new particle 
did not participate in the strong interactions and hence could not be 
the pion. It was subsequently called the mu meson (or muon). Its 
origin was a complete mystery until sometime later when the pion 
was finally found and observed to decay spontaneously into the muon. 
But now the picture was again not quite complete. During this 
decay of a pion into a muon there was also an apparent failure to 
conserve energy and momentum. Another particle had to be formed 
as well. Careful measurement indicated that the neutrino fitted per- 
fectly, and so for many years the same neutrino which participated 
in beta decay was presumed to participate in pion decay (fig. 2) . Fur- 
thermore, a study of the muon itself showed that it apparently decayed 
in several millionths of a second into an electron, a neutrino, and an 


Historically, this brings us to the mid-fifties and the beginning of 
a new era in the understanding of the weak interaction. One of the 
fundamental "principles" in the development of quantum mechanics 
until that time was the law of parity conservation. It states that 
the laws of physics which one would deduce from observing nature 


directly must be identical to the laws of physics one would deduce 
from observing nature through a mirror. About that time, however, 
physicists observed what appeared to be a violation of the parity law 
in the decay of the K meson — which also took place by way of the 
weak interactions. 

As is always the case, physicists tried to preserve the rule by in- 
venting all sorts of other schemes. However, T. D. Lee and C. N. 
Yang, surveying all of the experimental evidence existing until that 
time, pointed out (in a now famous paper which won the Nobel 
Prize for physics in 1957) that the only evidence for parity conserva- 
tion existed in the realm of the strong and electromagnetic inter- 
actions. They proposed a series of experiments to investigate the 
validity of this rule in the realm of the weak interaction. The first 
crucial experiment was performed by E. Ambler and C. S. Wu at the 
U.S. National Bureau of Standards in 1956 and showed conclusively 
that parity was not conserved in beta decay. They thus resolved 
the problem at hand and opened the way for a large series of addi- 
tional experiments on beta decay, pion decay, and muon decay. 

In each of these reactions, the violation of the parity rule became 
apparent. Insofar as the neutrinos were concerned, the parity viola- 
tion gave rise to a most fascinating aspect of their behavior. A 
neutrino always travels as though it were a left-handed screw. An 
antineutrino, on the other hand, travels like a right-handed screw. 
The verification of these and other properties of the weak interaction 
encompassed one of the most productive periods in modern physics. 
Further progress was made shortly afterwards when R. Feynman 
and M. Gell-Mann, in a brilliant paper, showed that all the features 
of both beta decay and muon decay can be explained by one relatively 
simple theory which seemed to be quite universal in its aspects. In- 
deed, almost too universal, for it predicted that there was no difference 
in the basic interaction of the electron and muon with other particles. 
In a sense, this was quite puzzling because the two particles differ in 
mass by a factor of 200, and physicists tend to think of mass as largely 
the result of interaction properties. This puzzle is, as yet, unresolved. 
And, as we will shortly see, it has become even sharper in recent 


The mid-fifties also saw another great achievement in neutrino 
physics — the first direct observation of neutrino-induced reactions. 
C. Cowan and F. Reines, working at a large nuclear reactor, observed 
antineutrinos which were emitted by beta deca3^s within the reactor. 
On the average, these particles could spend a full year traveling in a 
straight line through solid lead before being absorbed. It was only by 
passing a phenomenal number of them through a detector that they 


could be detected at all. Those few which did interact in the de- 
tector initiated the reaction : 

anti-neutrino + proton — ^- 
neutron + positron 

Figure 3 

It was the simultaneous appearance of the reaction products which 
indicated to the experimenters that an antineutrino had been stopped. 
The completion of this experiment yielded the final proof that the 
neutrino really existed — anticlimatic in a sense but, nevertheless, 

As we have said before, the theoiy was, in some sense, in good 
shape. It was possible to calculate low-energy neutrino phenomena 
with substantial accuracy. However, in all of this there was a basic, 
deep-rooted difficulty. The theory predicted that as the neutrino en- 
ergy increased, its reaction rate should increase proportionately. 
Above a certain energy this leads to serious difficulties which make 
the theory untenable. Just how the theory would have to be modified 
to avoid these difficulties is not at all apparent. The simplest pro- 
posal — one which actually dates back to Yukawa — is that there exists 
a particle which is responsible for the weak interactions. This par- 
ticle, by introducing a certain level of structure to the weak inter- 
actions, could serve to moderate the interaction rate at high energies 
and, consequently, avoid the difficulties. The particle in question is 
referred to by physicists as the "intermediate boson." 

One difficulty with the intermediate boson theory was pointed out by 
G. Feinberg several years ago. He showed that if there were such a 
particle involved in the weak interactions, then one should expect that 
once in every 10,000 or so ordinary muon decays the muon should 
decay into an electron and a gamma ray (rather than an electron, a 
neutrino, and an antineutrino). Experimental tests showed that this 
event happened less than once every 10^ normal muon decays. This 
seemed to rule out the mtermediate boson and Lee and Yang also 
pointed out that any mechanism for removing the weak interaction 
difficulty at high energies would run into the same problem. The 
only solution to this paradox and one which had been favored by 
numerous theorists seemed to be that the neutrino coupled to the muon 


and the neutrino coupled to the electron (fig. 2) are not the same par- 
ticle. If this were the case, the decay of a muon into an electron and 
a gamma ray would be absolutely forbidden independent of the exist- 
ence of an intermediate boson. 


It remained then to devise a proper test for this hypothesis. B. 
Pontecorvo of the Soviet Union and the author independently pointed 
out that it is feasible to do experiments with high energy neutrinos 
in presently existing or planned accelerators. In these accelerators, 
protons are brought up to energies in the multibillion-electron-volt 
region and are then allowed to strike a target. Out of this target 
come mainly pi mesons, most of which decay shortly into muons and 
their neutrinos. If these neutrinos were identical to the electron- 
coupled neutrinos, when they interacted with matter (a neutron in a 
nucleus, for example) they would produce electrons as often as muons. 

Figure 4 

If they were different from the electron-coupled neutrinos, they 
could produce only muons and no electrons at all. 

The proposed experiment has just been completed at Brookhaven 
National Laboratory by a group including G. Danby, J. M. Gaillard, 
K. Goulianos, L. Lederman, N. Mistry, J. Steinberger, and the author. 
In this experiment (fig. 5) pions produced by 15 Bev protons are 
allowed to travel for some 70 feet before striking a 40-foot thick steel 
shielding wall. During this interval, about 10 percent of the pions 
decay, sending their neutrinos forward. The remaining pions, muons, 
and all other debris are stopped by the wall, but the neutrinos pene- 
trate it as though it were nonexistent. Behind the wall, in a well- 
shielded room, stands a spark chamber (pi. 1, fig. 1) — an instrument 
which can be made to show a track of sparks whenever a charged 
particle passes through it. This spark chamber also acted as the tar- 
get for the neutrinos, and consisted of 10 tons of aluminium in the 
form of 1-inch thick plates. 












y none found 

^ ' (29 expected 
if only one 

Figure S. — Author and colleagues used this experimental arrangement to detect neutrino 
interactions. Pions from accelerator target travel 70 feet before striking steel shield; 
on the way about 10 percent decay to muons and neutrinos. Neutrinos pass through 
shield to spark chamber where about 1 in 10'^ interact. Lower diagram shows number 
and types of these interactions: shaded interaction was not observed, indicating that 
there is more than one kind of neutrino. 

Neutrinos, of course, show no tracks; but their reaction products 
do. The chamber is triggered whenever a charged particle originates 
within it. After passing some 10" neutrinos through it, 51 inter- 
actions were observed. Of these, 29 showed the production of a muon 
alone and 22 showed the production of a muon along with a pion or 
something else. If there was only one neutrino, one would have also 
expected the production of 29 single electrons which would have been 
easily identified in the chamber. No such electrons were observed, 
leading to the conclusion that the neutrinos coupled to muons are not 
the same as those coupled to electrons. 

One of the implications of this discovery is quite clear. It re- 
moves a major objection to the intermediate boson, and the next 
neutrino experiments will be designed to search for it directly. This 
boson, if it does exist and has a mass not much greater than the mass 
of the proton, can be produced directly along with a muon by 
presently available energetic neutrinos. Indeed, the Brookhaven 

Smithsonian Report, 1963. — Schwartz 







! ] H 

♦ . 

i * 



! ■ 

1 A 

• • 


. - • • 




* ^ •. 


■ '■ 

■- -i 1 

1. A typical event in the Brookhaven spark chamber showing one of the 29 nau mesons 
produced by the interaction of neutrinos. (See lower half of fig. 5.) 

2. Tlie 10-ton spark chamber at the Brookhaven Laboratory, used to detect neutrino 
interactions, showing that there are two kinds of neutrino. 


experiment has some events which could be interpreted as the pro- 
duction of such a particle. The boson is expected to live for only 
about 10"" seconds before decaying, and can only be detected by 
means of its decay products ( which should include electrons, or muons, 
along with their respective neutrinos). An event could then be 
characterized, for example, by the appearance of two muons — one, 
the primary muon, and the other resulting from the decay of the boson. 
Finally, one may hope that future neutrino physics will yield 
sufficient data about the weak interactions at high energies to lead to 
a comprehensive theory of these interactions. One may even hope 
to shed some light on the basic difference between the electron and the 
muon which, in some way, should be related to the difference between 
their respective neutrinos. At any rate, the future of neutrino physics 
seems quite exciting. 

The Antibiotics from a Botanical Viewpoint' 

By Kenneth L. Jones 

Professor, Department of Botany, University of Michigan 

Botanists have participated energetically in antibiotic research 
primarily because certain lower plants, familiarly molds, are the sole 
source of most of the antibiotics used in medicine and agriculture. 
The discoveiy and elucidation of the structure and growth require- 
ments of these valuable plants have been a lively area of botanical 
study. There are ancillary considerations which have given antibiotic 
research a botanical flavor, such as the realization that the causal 
organisms of disease may be members of the plant kingdom, notably 
the fungi. 

The term "antibiotic" was first suggested by Professor Selman 
A. Waksman, of Rutgers University, New Jersey, an eminent re- 
searcher of lower plants — the actinomycetes. The word "antibiosis" 
had been used at least as long ago as 1889 by P. Vuillemin to describe 
absolute antagonism of one organism to another and it subsequently 
came to denote the converse of "symbiosis." Waksman, however, 
gave the word "antibiotic" a special meaning in order to set off 
microbial antagonists from other antibacterial substances. His full 
definition, enunciated in 1947, was : 

An antibiotic is a chemical substance, produced by micro-organisms, whichi 
has the capacity to inhibit the growth of and even destroy bacteria and other 
micro-organisms. The action of an antibiotic against micro-organisms is selec- 
tive in nature, some organisms being affected and others not at all or only to 
a limited degree; each antibiotic is thus characterized by a specific anti- 
microbial spectrum. The selective action of an antibiotic is also manifested 
against microbial versus host cells. Antibiotics vary greatly in their physical 
and chemical properties and in their toxicity to animals. Because of these 
characteristics, some antibiotics have remarkable chemotherapeutic potentialities 
and can be used for the control of various microbial infections in man and 
in animals. 

When Professor Waksman formulated the antibiotic concept in 1947, 
three of the five antibiotics destined to revolutionize medicine had 
already been discovered : penicillin, streptomycin, and Chloromycetin. 

iKeprinted by permission from Michigan Quarterly Review, vol. 1, No. 3, Summer 1962. 



Penicillin, the first to be discovered, was derived from a blue- 
green mold, Penicillium, commonly known from blue cheese or the 
spoilage of citrus fruits, bread, moist tobacco, or leather. The anti- 
biotic penicillin was discovered in 1929 by Alexander Fleming, of 
St. Mary's Hospital, London. Its commercial production, however, 
waited on a cooperative effort by American scientists, engineers, and 
industrialists, akin to the concurrent pooling of energies to create the 
atomic bomb. The great healer, penicillin, partially restored life 
against the havoc of the great destroyer. 

In retrospect, the botanical aspects of the cooperative effort con- 
cerned (1) selection and improvement of the mold, and (2) the 
establishment of the most favorable conditions for growth of the 
mold as a penicillin producer. In other words, there was a genetical 
approach, aimed at obtaining superlative germ plasm, and an ecologi- 
cal one, to provide it the best means of expression. 

Since Penicillium is lamentably sexless, the genetical program 
could not exploit breeding procedures, as can be done with yeasts in 
the fermentation business. It was necessary to resort to an exten- 
sive selection process, in which literally thousands of molds from 
soil samples w^ere tested for antibiotic (penicillin) yield. For this 
purpose soil samples from various remote parts of the world were 
flown by the military to Peoria, Illinois, the home of the federal 
Northern Regional Research Laboratories, where the total program 
was centered. As it chanced, the mold of choice resided right in 
Peoria and was picked up via a spoiled cantaloupe by a laboratory 
technician, affectionately called "Moldy Mary." This prize-winning 
mold was identified by Drs. Raper and Thom as Penicillium 

Now a new technique, characteristic of the dawning atomic era, 
was brought into play to improve Penicillium chrysogenum. This 
was radiation. Scientists set out to alter the genetical nature of the 
mold spores by X-radiation and ultraviolet, something never at- 
tempted before for practical purposes. These pioneer researchers 
met with inordinate success almost at once. New strains of mold 
were obtained which yielded as much as 500 times the penicillin of 
the original isolate of Fleming. Incidentally, radiation is today a 
choice means of strain improvement in molds used in industry. Each 
corporation has its own carefully guarded organisms, although admit- 
tedly the improvements are seldom of the magnitude attained in 
Penicillium in the days of high drama when it was about to make 
its debut. 

The great innovation on the environmental side was the submerged- 
culture process. It happens that Penicillium^ and molds generally, 
are avid users of oxygen and therefore grow only on the surface of 
liquids. It seems ridiculous to us nowadays that initially Penicillium 


Avas grown on the surface of liquids in quart milk bottles. For each 
batch of penicillin, several thousand bottles had to have their con- 
tents separately inoculated, incubated, and harvested. No wonder 
"practical people" despaired of the antibiotic ever coming into mass 
production. Then, some ingenious person had the idea of using, in- 
stead of quart milk bottles, 15,000 gallon tanks upended, through 
which sterilized compressed air gushed. The tanks w'ere practically 
teemmg with mold submerged in corn steep liquor. Soon penicillin 
was turned out in carload lots, and the production cost was less than 
that of packaging. Sir Alexander Fleming refused all patent rights 
on penicillin ! 

Professor Selman Waksman was the discoverer of the second anti- 
biotic to come into widespread use, streptomycin. Its name stems 
from Streptonvyces^ the genus on which Waksman earned his master 
of science degree at Rutgers in 1916. He systematically tested each 
of some 10,000 separate cultures for antibiotic production. To stu- 
dents of lower plants, the fact that most of these isolates of Strepto- 
myces possessed antibiotic properties was probably a more important 
datum than that one, StreiJtoinyces griseus, yielded the valuable strep- 
tomycin. It became apparent that soil organisms, particularly the 
genus Streptomyces, held high promise for future exploitation. Anti- 
biotics from true bacteria turned out to be dreadfully toxic to man 
in many instances. 

The next major antibiotic, Chloromycetin, was isolated from a 
uew species of Streptomyces in 1947. It was announced by a group 
of researchers emj^loyed in the Detroit laboratories of Parke, Davis 
and Company, working in collaboration with Professor Paul R. 
Burkholder, then chairman of the Department of Botany at Yale 
University, and Professor David Gottlieb of the Department of Plant 
Pathology at the University of Illinois. Burkholder isolated the 
organism from soil collected in a mulched field near Caracas, Vene- 
zuela, so that it was accordingly named Streptomyces venezuelae. At 
about the same time, Gottlieb obtained it from a soil sample taken 
from the campus in Urbana. Students of these lowly plants are 
aware of the fact that they occur quite generally in soils but particu- 
lar variants, producing useful antibiotics, may be rather localized, 
so that it pays to explore over a wide geographic range. This is a 
tolerable idea to botanists, W'ho are prone to wander and collect speci- 
mens, other than soil samples. The new antibiotic was named 
Chloromycetin. This name w^as retained as a trademark by Parke, 
Davis and Company, but the substance w^as later given the nonpro- 
prietary name, chloramphenicol. Its discovery aroused great interest, 
as it was active against a relatively wide range of infectious agents, 
including the bacteria of typhoid and undulant fever, various rick- 
ettsiae, and the larger viruses, including that of scrub typhus. The 


antibiotic could be administered orally, a property greeted warmly 
by those who had submitted to the indignities of multiple shots 
of penicillin. 

Incidentally, the chemical constitution of chloramphenicol and 
methods of synthesizing it were worked out in 1949 by Dr. Mildred 
Eebstock. It is the first, and so far the only, antibiotic to be made 
commercially by total chemical synthesis, which soon displaced the 
fermentation process for producing it. The manufacturing plant for 
the commercial synthesis, belonging to Parke, Davis and Company, 
is at Holland, Michigan. The distaff side may well be proud of its 
role in the development of antibiotics. It was Dr. Mary Florey, 
British physician, who first used penicillin successfully on human 
beings suffering gravely from bacterial infection, and a woman assist- 
ant in the Peoria Laboratory, now Mrs. Steven J. Steven, of Brook- 
field, Illinois, who obtained the choice PenicilUum chrysogenum. 

Aureomycin was discovered in 1948 by the renowned botanist B. M. 
Duggar, who was in his "retirement" from the University of Wis- 
consin, as an employee of the Lederele Laboratories at Pearl River, 
New York. Fellow botanists were particularly pleased to have a great 
researcher in theoretical botany win laurels when he turned to an 
applied field. He had been a leader in plant pathology and then in 
radiation biology. (Parenthetically, Michigan's beloved Harley 
Harris Bartlett reported that it was Duggar who first grasped the 
parallelism between viruses and genes — in fact, he had remarked that 
viruses are escaped genes. ) Aureomycin is derived from Streptomyces 
aureofaciens : its name denotes the golden color of the mold and of 
the antibiotic, and not that it is taken orally^ as a well-known news- 
paper claimed ! 

The last of the major antibiotics, terramycin, was discovered in 
the laboratories of the Charles Pfizer and Company, Brooklyn, New 
York, in 1950. It is derived from the actinomycete Streptomyces 
rimosus. No claim can be made by botanists for the discovery or de- 
velopment of this antibiotic. Aureomycin and terramycin are perhaps 
better known to the public as the tetracyclines. Aureomycin is chlor- 
tetracycline, and terramycin is chemically designated oxytetracy- 
cline. Both are used commonly as broad-spectrum drugs, active 
against a wide variety of bacteria and even certain amoebae and 

It is remarkable that no antibiotic to rival penicillin or the tetracy- 
clines has been discovered since 1950, in spite of large-scale attempts 
by industry to locate favorable natural sources. This may mean that 
the storehouse of these valuable substances in nature is indeed limited, 
or perhaps that the search has been too restricted. Several safe and 
effective antibiotics have been made available for medical use. Those 
derived from Streptomyces lead the list: erythromycin, colymycin. 


Table 1. — ^The number of actinomycetes present as spores or viable filaments in a gram 
of soil from several sites in Ann Arbor. These are predominantly in the genus 


8 feet 
Soil site Top inch 2 feet down 4 U^^ down down 

1 18,100,000 3,493,000 16,850 67 

2 18,600,000 600,000 402,000 2 

3 10,200,000 970,000 214,000 680 

4 13,700,000 1,620,000 31,200 1,770 

5 25,400,000 1,900,000 27,000 10 

6 15,100,000 2,091,000 52,000 6,740 

viomycin, cycloserine, carbomycin, kanamycin, novobiocin, and neomy- 
cin are representative. Some of these are valuable replacements of 
penicillin for patients who are sensitive to the latter or where, as is 
common in staphylococcus infections, the causative organism is resist- 
ant to penicillin. Many natural products, including antibiotics, are 
being tested today for possible control of cancer. The Sloan-Kettering 
Foundation is the center for this research. 

The lower plants responsible for most antibiotics of commerce are 
members of two unrelated genera, PenicilUum and Streptomyces. 
The first is a coarse-filamented fungus in which the threads and 
spores are of the order of 10 microns in diameter. The filaments are 
clearly cellular with spherical nuclei. They spread, digesting organic 
materials, and in the fullness of tmie, form a bloom of greenish spores 
that appear as a powder to the naked eye. Occasionally, under lab- 
oratory conditions, botanists have observed PenicilUum to reproduce 
sexually with the formation of a special type of spores, ascospores. 
This characteristic places the genus with the ascomycete fungi, to 
which also belong various mildews and even the delectable truffles and 

The actinomycetes, or "actinos," to which the genus Streptomyces 
belongs, abound everywhere in topsoils where they thrive on plant 
residues. Table 1 gives a characteristic census of actinomycetes, es- 
sentially Streptomyces^ per gram of dry soil. A gram corresponds 
to a "pinch" as used in recipes for baking biscuits. These data were 
obtained in Ann Arbor at fresh excavations for dwellings in this 
burgeoning community. The numbers of viable cells which plate out 
as colonies in the laboratory are seen in the table to decline rapidly 
the farther down in the subsoil one samples. This is attributable 
partly to decrease in nutrients (dead leaves, roots, and twigs) but 
largely to the lack of oxygen. The prevalence of Streptomyces in 
soils is manifest to all of us in a more direct manner, as the spores are 
responsible for the pungent, spicy odor of newly turned soil which one 
can sense while cruising at 90 miles per hour over a country road in 
springtime. Volatile aromatic substances are wafted from the spores 
of Streptomyces into the atmosphere. Incidentally, the relatively 
few "actinos" that occur in the deeper layers of the subsoil are liable to 

720-018—64 25 


be of a less common genus of a nonsporing nature, termed Actinomy- 
ces. These aberrant, anaerobic plants have their own unique chem- 
istry, structure, and life potential. Some of their representatives 
were known to the medical profession as far back as 1860 as the 
causal organisms of "lumpy jaw" in cattle and man. They are now 
identified as agents of dangerous pulmonary abscesses and other in- 
fections ("actinomycoses") which are very stubborn — often yielding 
only to appropriate antibiotics derived from their kin^ the Streptomy- 

An actinomycete of any description exists in the soil as a spider- 
weblike entanglement of filaments of the diameter of bacteria (one 
micron). Under a light microscope, these filaments are too narrow 
to reveal their internal structure, as is true of bacteria generally. The 
electron microscope becomes the instrument of choice in delineating 
the finer parts of the protoplasm of all microorganisms, as it gives 
a magnification up to 150 times that of light microscopes, with the dis- 
advantage, however, of portraying only dead, dried specimens as 
mounted in a high vacuum. The filaments thus treated portray 
complicated, infolded membranes, granules of diverse sizes and com- 
positions, and irregular islands of nucleoplasm. The continuous (non- 
septate) tubular filaments branch profusely. The branches may im- 
politely disregard one another or be more amicable and intertwine, 
interlock, or even fuse. Filaments from two or more plants may 
thus contain segments of a polyglot character, with opportunities for 
a mixing of diverse genetical materials. 

The actinomycetes are usually classified as a filamentous order of 
bacteria. Streptomyces is one of a half-dozen genera of actinomy- 
cetes. It is characterized by the formation of spores in long chains, 
at the end of special coarse, aerial filaments which protrude above the 
substance on which the plant is growing. In nature the spores are 
blown helter-skelter by the wind, to germinate into filaments if they 
chance to fall on a moist, comfortably warm surface. They may, 
however, remain dormant for months, protected as they are by a thick 
waxy wall, derived from the filament within which they formed. The 
walls have recently been observed under the electron microscope as 
smooth or variously ornamented, for example, with spines like a mini- 
ature cocklebur. The ornamentations prove to be a convenient crite- 
rion for the delineation of species. 

The fine structure of the interior of the very small spores and 
filaments is being studied at the University of Michigan by Dr. Pearl 
Lui Chen, a botanist of the Albion College faculty. The spores are 
killed and preserved by chemical treatment, with as little distortion 
in structure as possible. They are then imbedded m a plastic, sec- 
tioned on a machine into several serial slices per spore. These slices 
are appropriately mounted on grids for observation under the electron 


microscope, whicli has an inbuilt camera to record the selected observa- 
tions for publication in scientific journals. 

The spores contain nuclear material which is not identical in quan- 
tity or configuration from spore to spore, even within a given chain. 
This may explain why cultures established from single-spore isolations 
of sister spores are dissimilar. In other words Streptomycetes may 
have inbuilt "reasons" for being variable which have enhanced their 
natural survival. Charles Darwin delighted in extolling the case for 
evolution in the large, variable, wide-ranging genera. StrejHomyces 
would have qualified eminently. 

How to identify and classify species within the genus Streptomyces 
such as Streptomyces griseus^ S. rhnosus, S. venezuelae^ and S. alhus 
has not yet been satisfactorily resolved. The first monographer, Ru- 
dolph Lieske, of Leipzig, in 1921 gave up the task as insuperable 
because of the inordinate variability of the Actinomycetes. The dif- 
ficulty has been many times compounded since then by the enormous 
size of collections of Streptomyces in industrial laboratories, gathered 
from the four corners of the earth. Never have biologists been pre- 
sented with such a welter of representatives of a genus in any group 
of living things. This is a worrisome situation both for industry 
and for science. Industrial establishments, seeking to recoup expenses 
incurred in developing an antibiotic, wish to obtain patents that will 
protect them from competitors using the same streptomycete. This 
requires that a botanist write a description for the species (perhaps in 
Latin!) that will be so firm and unequivocal that no other pharma- 
ceutical manufacturer will produce the same drug. Unfortunately, 
the species in question may be exasperatingly variable, alienating the 
affections of the botanist. If he describes it too narrowly, other com- 
panies may land on variants which do not fit the description and 
proceed to produce the same antibiotic with impunity. On the other 
hand, if the species description is too loose, the patent lawyers may 
disallow it and rival interests contend that an unfair attempt is being 
made to corner the fungi ! 

On the scientific side, there is, as I have intimated, no generally 
agreed upon system of classification of Streptomyces. Official com- 
missions in this country and in Europe, including Eussia, are still 
struggling over "valid criteria" for classification. Many members 
of the commissions are experimentalists who have not served an ap- 
prenticeship in taxonomy, which is really a great science, requiring 
years of experience before one can hope to have a "feel" for appre- 
hending characteristics and judging their significance in the delinea- 
tion of species. Darwin w^as not writing in a moment of levity in the 
Origin when he stated that the concept of species is subjective. It 
has validity only insofar as the individual researcher "knows" his or- 
ganism, much as a shepherd knows his sheep. 


Western readers should be informed that Russian and American 
taxonomists of Actinomycetes have enjoyed excellent relationships. 
For example, immediately on announcement of a committee in the 
United States to study actinomycete classification, G. F. Gauze, of 
the Institute for the Study of New Antibiotics of the Academy of 
Medical Sciences of the USSR, made available for English trans- 
lation his monograph, Problems in the Classification of Antagonistic 
Actinomycetes, which was just going to press in Russia. Through 
Dr. Gauze's personal assistance the English version was published 
promptly. He and several colleagues have paid visits to the United 
States in recent years, and have shown a lively and friendly interest 
in the mutual exchange of scientific data. 

The Actinomycetes have been under investigation in the Department 
of Botany at the University of Michigan since 1938. One of the more 
significant and unexpected findings was that normal filaments of 
Streptomyces^ freshly isolated from nature, may carry a temperate 
virus. Dr. Elwood Shirling, now professor of the Department of 
Botany at Ohio Wesleyan University, made this discovery. The 
viruses and the Streptomycetes are in harmonious relationship. Only 
when there is disharmony is the presence of the virus evident. Then 
the filaments dissolve and a mass of free infectious virus particles is 
released. It has been confirmed that temperate viruses are commonly 
present in normal filaments of Streptomyces. There is practical con- 
cern to alter Streptomycetes favorably by inoculation with foreign, 
temperate viruses. Theoretically, we should like to know how the 
viral genes intercalate into the inheritance mechanism of the filament. 

In quite another branch of science and technology from those we 
have been considering, botanists serve medicine, agriculture, and for- 
estry. As we mentioned in the introductory paragraph of this article, 
the causal organisms of disease may be members of the plant kingdom, 
notably the fungi. Botanists are employed in isolating, identifying, 
classifying, and establishing the life histories of the myriad of fungi 
that parasitize man, animals, crop plants, and forest trees. There 
is a lively demand for medical mycologists, as fungiis infections, in- 
cluding the deep ones which are lethal, have been considerably on 
the increase during the past 15 years, whereas those attributable to 
bacteria have declined. Actually, the reported increase of fungus 
diseases may reflect improved diagnostic measures, as well as the fact 
that people are living to be older and the physiologically senescent 
are probably more prone to fungus infection. 

Since 195Y relief against deep fungus infections has come through 
treatment with a new antibiotic. Amphotericin B, derived from Strep- 
tomyces nodosus and developed by Squibbs as "Fungizone" and "My- 
steclin F." It has been used quite successfully, administered with 
tetracycline, by an intravenous drip method. 


Ringworm infections, including athlete's foot, which are actually 
caused by fungi and not by worms, are a pesky annoyance. They are 
a fringe or filamentous benefit of modern bargain-basement existence. 
A remarkable remedy against the fungi of ringworm has recently 
come upon the market in the antibiotic griseofulvin, which incongru- 
ously must be admmistered orally. This antibiotic was among the 
very first to be discovered. It was tried only topically and found 
wanting as a deterrent to ringworm, and promptly disregarded. Re- 
cently, a chance oral administration revealed its extreme effectiveness. 
It is readily absorbed by the gastrointestmal tract and exerts its fung- 
istatic action in the newly growing skin, hair, and nails which, with 
shedding or cuttmg, are replaced by normal structures free of fungi. 
Dr. Jolm Ehrlich of the Parke, Davis and Company reports: "It is 
the only major advance in the therapy of infection caused by dermato- 
phytes [skin fungi] in at least a half centuiy." The antibiotic griseo- 
fulvin, is named from the mold which produces it, Penicillium 

Flowering plants and conifers are parasitized by fungi which may 
cause gTeat destruction; witness the loss of our elms from a fungus 
which is transmitted by a bark beetle. Any plant has countless fun- 
gus spores on its exposed surfaces, and it is not unusual to have local- 
ized networks of fungus filaments within the healthy tissues. One of 
the well-established, symbiotic, natural associations in plants is the 
mycorrhiza (mycor-, fungi, and -rhiza, root) in which particular 
species of fungi form a mantle over the young, active roots and may 
penetrate into the cells. Mycorrhiza occur commonly among conifers, 
heaths, and orchids but probably are of wide occurrence. These as- 
sociations are apparently of a symbiotic nature : the fungus acquires 
a food source, and the higher plant derives vitamins and a more ade- 
quate mineral supply, as the filaments of the fmigus spread beyond the 
roots into leaf mold, where their presence is detected by the f ruitmg 
bodies, mushrooms or toadstools, which they produce seasonally. In 
orchids, the filaments of the fungus grow throughout the plant from 
root to topmost leaf ; in fact, the developing seeds within the flowers 
are inoculated with the fungus and carry it away when they are shed, 
tucked within their cells. Conifers cultivated in a new area may not 
succeed unless the appropriate fungus is introduced into the soil. 

Where trees in a forest are manifestly diseased one would do well 
to suspect the growing conditions, rather than the entrance of a new 
virulent pathogen. Something is usually awry ecologically or phys- 
iologically, such as the water supply or mineral nutrition. These 
conditions bring on a lowering of disease resistance. 

Under cultivation, the entire situation may be so unnatural for 
plants that diseases become a major problem to the grower. Approx- 
imately 30,000 important plant diseases have been studied by botanists. 


Fungi are particularly common disease agents in plants where they 
are responsible for such ailments as white pine blister-rust, corn smut, 
potato scab, wilt of fruit trees, blights of vegetables and ornamentals, 
and root rots of many crops. 

One scientific approach against plant diseases is to exploit the nat- 
ural disease resistance of individual plants by producing disease- 
resistant strains. Apart from the time such a program obviously 
entails, often special difficulties are encountered in attempting to com- 
bine disease-resistant factors (genes) with those for high-yield or 
favorable appearance. Always lurking under cover is the adaptable 
parasite, able to evolve and grow on the new "resistant" plants. 

The use of sprays to kill fungi has become a widespread practice. 
However, on a large scale this may be prohibitively expensive, as 
nearly all fungicides are ineffective except at high concentrations. 
Unfortunately, many are detrimental to the plants and poison birds 
and even man, if proper precautions are not taken. 

Since antibiotics operate at extremely low concentrations and may 
be absorbed by plant cells, it was logical to try them as sprays against 
bacterial infection. This was first done successfully in the United 
States by W. J. Smith, of the Wyoming Experiment Station, in 1949. 
He used a streptomycin preparation against the bacteria that cause 
halo blight of beans. Subsequently, antibiotic preparations came into 
rather wide use against bacterial infections, including bacterial spot 
of tomatoes and peppers, blast of stone fruits, wildfire of tobacco, seed- 
piece decay and blackleg of potatoes, and bacterial wilt of chrysanthe- 
mums. Special preparations of streptomycin and the tetracyclines 
have been developed by commercial companies for agricultural use. 

The Upjohn Company of Kalamazoo, Michigan, has pioneered in the 
development of the antibiotics effective against fungus infections of 
plants. Their Actidione is derived from Streptomyces griseus, the 
same organism that produces streptomycin. Actidione controls such 
fungus infections as melting out of golf turf, onion mildew, and mint 
rust. As little as one-third of an ounce of Actidione is sufficient for the 
treatment of 50,000 square feet of turf. Antibiotics, unlike ordinary 
fungicides, become a part of the cell sap of each individual cell of 
the plant, "grow" with the plant, and are proof against rain. 

It has been found by R. L. Wain, of the University of London, for 
example, that griseofulvin can be transported freely within plant 
tissues and confers a systemic fungicidal effect. As pointed out above, 
griseofulvin was the first compound found to be effective in the sys- 
tematic treatment of ringworm in man. 

Professor Wain has indicated that : 

Natural resistance to infection may also be associated with the presence of 
protective chemicals within the plant cells. Whilst animal cells are completely- 
filled with protoplasm, adult plant cells contain only a thin layer of this material 


lining their walls. The remainder consists of vacuoles filled with a watery solu- 
tion of salts. In plant defensive mechanisms the protoplasmic layer may have 
a detrimental effect on the parasite, and there may also be protective substances 
present in the aqueous contents of the cell. Among the examples which have 
been cited to illustrate chemical protection against fungi under natural condi- 
tions are the presence of protocatechnic acid in the scales of onions resistant to 
smudge, phenolic substances in wheat varieties resistant to rust and linamarine 
in varieties of flax showing resistance to Fusarium wilt. Again, it has been 
recently shown that various phenolic compounds present in apple and pear leaves 
are toxic to the fungi causing apple and pear scab. Fungicidal compounds have 
also been isolated from rye, maize and wheat plants. 

One must of course question the advisabilty of man using regularly, 
as food, plant or animal tissues that carry even a trace of antibiotics. 
Poultry, beef, and pork may thus be suspect, as farm animals are raised 
on feed fortified with antibiotics to speed meat production. It is not 
an easy matter to determine accurately the effects of very slight doses 
of antibiotics taken into the human alimentary tract over a period of 
several years. I do, however, believe that the food and drug regula- 
tions in this country are carefully formulated and realistic from the 
public health point of view. 

My colleague. Professor Dow V. Baxter, renowned forest patholo- 
gist, has Ivindly called to my attention that, since 1947, penicillin has 
been successfully used to control a severe bacterial infection in the 
giant cactus which graces parts of the Arizona deserts. Diseased cacti 
attacked by the bacterium Erwinea carneg'ieana were treated by in- 
jecting penicillin with a hypodermic needle into the lesions. The 
tissue is largely of a succulent nature, and the antibiotic diffuses 
through the plant for a considerable distance. 

A recent lead article in the Journal of Forestry (September 1960) 
states that "a major breakthrough in the control of white pine blister 
rust caused by the fungus, Cronartium rihicola Fischer, has been 
accomplished with the antibiotic Actidione. Sprayed on the basal 
portions of trunks, Actidione is absorbed and translocated upward 
to kill the causal fungus in blister rust infections on western white 
pine (Pinus montwola Dough). This work was carried on by joint 
efforts of the Forest Service and The Upjohn Company, of Kalama- 
zoo, Michigan." It is pointed out that control of the blister rust has 
been so phenomenal that "danger exists in becoming too optimistic 
abut the possibilities of discontinuing a ribes destruction program to 
prevent new infections." Kibes is a generic name commonly used to 
indicate both currant and gooseberry bushes, the intermediate host- 
plants of the white pine blister rust fungus. 

The role of antibiotics in nature is not easy to demonstrate directly 
because their concentration is so extremely low. To what extent soil 
microbes, such as Streptomyces and Penicillium, ward off competitors 


by their antibiotic production is unknown, as is their effect on crop 

An American audience may well be interested in the comments 
coming from a leading Russian scientist on this fundamental subject. 

We enriched the soil artificially with actinomycetes — producers of strepto- 
mycin, and we grew in this soil plants — peas and wheat. The sap of such plants 
was tested for its bactericidal effect on Bac. mycoides and Staph, aureus. 
Death of the bacterial cells in the sap of the experimental plants followed after 
8-12 hours, and in the sap of the control plants which were grown in soil not 
enriched with actinomycetes, there was only suppression of growth, but death 
of the bacteria was not observed. 

The extrapolation of these results to nature is expressed by 
Krasil'nikov as a very intriguing hypothesis of plant immunity ! 

Actinomycetes, bacteria, and fungi which produce antibiotic substances grow 
in the soil in the rhizosphere of plants [rhizosphere means in the immediate 
vicinity of the roots]. They saturate this zone or microfoci in the soil with 
the products of their metabolism, including antibiotics. The latter enter the 
plants through the roots and exert their action there. It is self-evident that the 
concentration of antibiotics in soil, when formed under natural conditions, will 
be lower than the concentrations ci'eated upon artificial introduction. How- 
ever, under natural conditions these substances are constantly formed and there- 
fore one would assume that their entrance into plants is not stopped during the 
whole vegetative period. 

Having entered the plant tissues substances protect them against the penetra- 
tion of microbial parasites, suppress the growth of those that have already 
invaded, produce or elevate the toxicity of the plant sap, and thus elevate to a 
larger or smaller extent the immunological properties of the plant. 

In other words, microbial agents are factors which increase the resistance and 
insusceptibility of plants to infection." 

In this article, I have deliberately selected items of botanical interest 
in the field of antibiotic research and development. It is not too 
generally appreciated that the source of most of these remarkable 
drugs has been lower plants whose structure, life history, natural 
occurrence, isolation, and identification have been the concern of 
botanists. Other specialists, including the bacteriologists, engineers, 
chemists, druggists, agriculturists, nutritionists, veterinarians, clini- 
cians, and medical doctors, have each made their unique and great 
contributions to the discovery, development, and use of antibiotics. 

One is sobered on reflection that these natural products, which 
assuage man's suffering and increase his food supply, came into his 
keeping in an era of cruel wars and unprecedented population upsurge. 

" N, A. Krasirnikov, Soil Microorganisms and Higher Plants, p. 385, 1961. 

Atomic and Other Wastes in the Sea' 

By I. Eugene Wallen 

Assistant Director for Oceanography, Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 


[With 2 plates] 

During the production of useful devices for modern civilization, 
raw materials are consumed only in part with various portions re- 
maining as wastes. Often the success of a competitive business is 
related to its imagination in further processing the wastes into a 
second product and perhaps others from subsequent wastes. 

Normally the primary and secondary products do not c-ompletely 
consume the original raw material. Even with