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Full text of "Annual report of the Boston Water Board, for the year ending .."






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SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



BOSTOiN AVATER BOARD, 



Year ending January 31, 1893. 



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BOSTON: 
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Office of the Boston Water Board, 

City Hall, Boston, February 1, 1893. 

Hon. Nathan Matthews, Jr., 

Mayor of the City of Boston : 

Sir : The Boston Water Board, or Water-Supply Depart- 
ment, submit their annual report for the financial year ending 
January 31, 1893. 

The following is a comprehensive summary of the dis- 
bursements by the department for said year : 

Money expenditures, Cocliituate Water- 
Works (see page 23) . . . . $947,842 39 

Money expenditures, Mystic AYater-Works 

(seepage 24) 118,949 83 



$1,066,792 22 



Add decrease in stock during year (see 

page 25) 3,981 61 



$1,070,773 83 



Current expenses, Cochituate 

Water- Works . . . $350,743 68 
Current expenses, Mystic 

W^ater-Works . . . 120,205 50 

Extension of mains, etc. . 221,992 71 

Additional supply of water . 313,844 53 

High service . . . 63,987 41 

$1,070,773 83 



We submit a brief summary of the principal facts of in- 
terest in relation to the work of the department, together 
with a detailed statement of the doings and condition of 
the separate divisions. 



2 City Document No. 39. 

REVENUE. 

The total receipts of the Cochituate Works from all 
sources for the twelve months ending January 31, 1893, 
have been $1,457,936.37, of which amount $1,433,413.78 
was received from sales of water. The total receipts of the 
Mystic Water- Works from all sources for the same period 
have been $395,792.47, of which $394,008.75 was from sales 
of water; of this amount the sum of $137,621.36 was paid 
to the cities of Chelsea, Somerville, and Everett, under their 
several contracts with the city of Boston. Water has been 
furnished for street-sprinkling without charge to the Street 
Department, and the charge for hydrants to the Fire Depart- 
ment has been reduced from $15 to $2 per hj^drant or fire 
reservoir, a reduction in Cochituate and Mystic revenue from 
the Fire Department equal to $63,371.00. 

By Chap. 213, Acts of 1892, the Water Board was author- 
ized to charge the purchase and laying of pipes to revenue, 
after the expenses and charges of distribution, the interest 
on the outstanding water loans, and the sinking-fund charges 
have been paid. Consequently, the Board has been required 
to expend from loan for extension of mains during the past 
year only $134,566.78. The remaining cost of extension of 
mains, $87,425.93, has been paid from the surplus revenue. 

EXTENSION OF MAINS. 

Nearly eighteen miles of pipe mains have been laid during 
the year, and the total length now connected with the works 
is 535.87 miles ; 2,447 service-pipes have been laid; 203 
hydrants have been established, and 53 abandoned ; and the 
total number of hydrants now in service is 5,853. 

In accordance with the practice in many other cities, a 
rule was adopted January 1, 1893, charging the cost of 
all new service-pipes hereafter to the water-taker. 

The Board has also adopted the policy of charging the 
cost of extensions of the high-service mains for the supply 
of automatic sprinklers or fire-pipes to the parties asking 
for such extensions. 

At the request of the Board of Health, in order to pro- 



Water-Supply Department. 3 

vide the proposed cholera hospital on Gallop's island with 
water, 2,874 feet of six-inch pipe was laid on Long island, 
and from its terminus a temporarj^ wrought-iron pipe was 
laid under water from Long to Gallop's island. This work 
was done by contract. A 30-inch main was laid from the 
junction of Tremont street and West Chester square, through 
East Chester park and Swett street to Boston street, at Wash- 
ino;ton Villao;e, South Boston. 

JAMAICA POND AQUEDUCT CORPORATION. 

By Chap. 371, Acts of 1892, the city was authorized to 
take, through the Park Commissioners, by [)urchase or other- 
wise, Jamaica pond and Ward's pond as a public park, and 
in pursuance thereof the real estate, pumping-station, etc., of 
the Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Corporation was acquired by 
the city, January 10, 1893. At the same time the Water 
Board bought the pipe system of the Jamaica Pond Aqueduct 
Corporation, by which the citizens of the Roxbury District 
were chiefly supplied with water. The price paid for the 
entire property was $125,000, of which the Water Board paid 
$75,000. When possession was taken, the Jamaica pond 
water was shut off and the Cochituate and Sudbury water 
turned on, and the citizens of Roxbury are now supplied 
solely with Cochituate and Sudbury water. The pipe sys- 
tem purchased from the Jamaica Pond Company includes 
about nine mile of pipes in what is known as the Roxbury 
District. The city has had parallel pipes in some of these 
streets, but the district has been chiefly supplied by the 
Jamaica Pond Company, the rates of which have been 
slightly less than the city rates. 

The Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Corporation, which has thus 
ceased to exist as a water company, was incorporated Febru- 
ary 27, 1795. By an act of the General Court, Luther 
Eames, Nathan Bond, and William Page, and their associates, 
were vested with corporate powers for the management and 
direction of the business, as a company, of bringing fresh 
water into the town of Boston by subterraneous pipes. By 
a subsequent act, June 10, 1796, this corporation was 
empowered to assume the title of " The Aqueduct Cor- 



4 City Document No. 39. 

poration." The corporation was authorized to bring from 
any part of the town of Roxbury into the town of Bos- 
ton all such fresh water as they, the said Luther Eames, 
Nathan Bond, and William Page, and their associates, in their 
private and natural capacities then had or hereafter should 
have a right to dispose of or to convey from the springs or 
sources thereof. The water Avas brought from Jamaica 
pond through four main pipes of pitch-pine logs, two of four 
inches bore and two of three inches, the lateral pipes having 
a bore of one and a half inches. The lineal extent of the 
water-pipes in Boston was about fifteen miles, and they 
reached north as far as Franklin street, and branched off 
easterly through Harrison avenue into Congress street, 
nearly to State street and to Broad street. They also 
branched off westerly through Pleasant and Charles streets, 
extending as far as the Massachusetts General Hospital, 
which was supplied with Jamaica-pond water. The capital 
of the company, so far as can be ascertained, was about 
$130,000, or about $1,300 a share, but the shares became 
much depreciated in value. In 1840 this company laid a 
ten-inch iron pipe from the pond to Bowdoin square. (The 
foregoing statement is compiled from one of the articles in 
Dr. N. B. Shurtleff's "Boston in the Olden Time," as quoted 
on pages 2-3 of the " History of the Introduction of Pure 
Water into the City of Boston," by Nathaniel J. Bradlee 
(Boston, 1868), and from Mr. Bradlee's text.) 

When, in 1836, the acquisition and introduction of a sup- 
ply of water by the city of Boston was being considered, the 
aqueduct corporation presented a memorial to the city 
government offering to supply the city with "ten times" 
the quantity of water furnished " upon any reasonable assur- 
ance that your memorialists will have no reason to fear any 
more formidable competition than that of a private corpora- 
tion." " On the other hand, should the city of Boston decide 
that it will furnish a supply of pure water to the citizens, 
itself, your memorialists hereby tender their water-works to 
the city for a reasonable compensation." In October, 1846, 
after the passage of the Cochituate Water Act, memorials 
were received from Edward A. Raymond and others and 
from Josiah Bradlee and others respecting the supply from 
Jamaica Pond, and asking the city to adopt such measures 
as may be deemed expedient to relieve them from the present 
difficulty in obtaining a supply of water. These were re- 
ferred to the Committee on Water of the City Council, 
which, on December 17, reported that they considered the 
petitions equivalent to a request that the city should pur- 
chase the Jamaica Pond Aqueduct under the authority 



Water-Supply Department. 5 

granted in the Abater Act (Sect. 16, Chap. 167, Acts of 
1846), and that they had applied to the Water Coraraission- 
ers to obtain their opinion as to its value ; and that the 
AVater Commissioners in their reply recommend its pur- 
chase if it can be made for the sum of $80,000 ; that this 
price is the estimated value of the property and franchise in 
the hands of the present proprietors, after introduction of 
water by the city, but that it would be of greater value to the 
city. [See Bradlee's History, pao-es 18-19, 65-66. Also 
City Documents, 1846, on water, Nos. 14^, 20, 21, 26, 32, 
47.] November 10, 1848, the directors of the Jamaica 
Pond Aqueduct Corporation sent a memorial to the City 
Council praying the city to purchase the property, in which 
they said " that they do not ask redress as equals, who suffer 
in competition with equals, but as a few private individuals 
who are sacriticed on the altar of public accommodation, — 
a very few, whose property is destroyed for the whole re- 
mainder." This was referred to the Committee on Water, 
who reported December 14, recommending the desired 
purchase for the sum of $75,000, and an order was passed 
authorizing the same in one branch of the City Council, but 
it was non-concurred in by the other. [Bradlee, page 81,] 
January 27, 1851, a memorial was received from the 
Jamaica Pond Corporation asking for a hearing in regard to 
the sale of their property to the city, which hearing was 
granted on Alarch 2iy. On April 2 the Cochituate Water 
Board voted to offer to the corporation the sum of $45,000 
for their property, including all claims for damages. This 
offer was accepted by the corporation on April 30, and after 
a question raised by the City Council as to whether the 
Board had the power to make the purchase had been dis- 
posed of b}^ the City Solicitor, the purchase was completed 
June 12, 1851, by the payment of $45,217.50, in return for 
"a deed of all the property, estate, rights, and privileges of 
the corporation, and all debts due it since April 30, last, and 
a release to the city of all claims." [Bradlee, pa^es 138- 
140.] 

During the year 1852 the city of Roxbury offered to pur- 
chase the Jamaica Pond Aqueduct from the city of Boston 
for $35,000; but the offer was not accepted. In 1853 
an offer of $28,000 for the property was made by Eliphalet 
Baker, again on May 24, 1854, $27,500, and on May 31, 
of the same year, $30,000 ; but these several offers w^ere 
declined. In 1856 it was decided by the Cochituate Water 
Board that it was best to sell the property known as 
the Jamaica Pond Aqueduct, with the condition "that no 
Avater should be supplied within the present limits of the 



6 City Document No. 39. 

city of Boston," and the president 'was authorized to adver- 
tise for proposals for the same. The reason for coming 
to this conclusion was, that "all the objects for which the 
purchase was originally made had been or would be ac- 
complished," namely: ''First, To be rid of rival works; 
second, To quiet all claims for injury to their pipes by 
laying down our pipes ; third. To annul the privilege of 
breaking up and injuring the streets, whenever and wherever 
they saw fit." In answer to the advertisement, Messrs. 
George H. and T. B. Williams, of Eoxbury, made an offer 
of $32,000 for the property, which was accepted, and the 
property passed out of the ownership of the city. [See 
Bradlee, passim, pages 149-176.] 

Eoxbury was annexed to Boston in 1868, and question 
having arisen as to the exclusive right of the Jamaica Pond 
Aqueduct Corporation to lay pipes in Roxbury, the City 
Solicitor gave an opinion March 24, 1868, that the Jamaica 
Pond Company "has no exclusive right to supply water" to 
Roxbury, and that " the city has full right to lay pipes and fur- 
nish the Cochituate water to all persons within the limits of 
that territory who choose to take it." December 3, 1869, a 
communication was received by the Cochituate Water Board 
from the Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Corporation offering to sell 
the property to the city for $225,000. It was voted not to 
accept the proposition. February 18, 1871, a committee was 
appointed to consider the expediency of purchasing the 
property. October 12, 1874, a petition was received by 
the City Council from a number of citizens of Ward 17 
asking the cit}^ to purchase Jamaica pond and supply Ward 
17 from that source. The communication was referred to 
the Committee on Water, who obtained a written opinion as 
to the value of the property and the best methods of supply- 
ing the West Roxbury and Brighton districts with water, 
from the City Engineer, and subsequently reported that 
the price ($200,000) asked for that property was more than 
its real value (City Document, No. 108, 1874). [See His- 
tory of the Boston Water- Works, 1868 to 1876, by Desmond 
FitzGerald,^as.sm, pages 3, 12, 19, 55.] 

The matter of purchase was mooted by the city govern- 
ment of 1880 ; but no action was taken. In 1881 the 
Jamaica Pond Corporation offered to sell the property to the 
city for $100,000, or to have price fixed by the city, the city 
to choose all referees if desired. This offer was repeated in 
1882; but no action was taken. February 11, 1886, the 
corporation again offered to sell the property to the city for 
$100,000 and taxes for the current year, or at such price as 
should be fixed by three disinterested men, — one named by 



Water-Supply Department. 7 

the city, one by the corporation, and the third by the two so 
chosen. March 17, 1887, this offer was substantially re- 
peated, and on March 22 the Water Board wrote to the 
Aqueduct Corporation that the Committee on Water had re- 
quested them to state that the committee would recommend 
to the City Council the purchase of the property for $75,000 
if the corporation would sell for that price. This oft'er was 
refused by the corporation, March 24. June 6, 1889, an 
order was passed by the Common Council requesting the 
Water Board to report to that body as to the advisability of 
purchasing the property. June 10, 1889, the Water Board 
"wrote to the corporation to inquire for what sum the corpo- 
ration would sell its property and franchises, and on June 11 
received an ofler to sell for such sum as three disinterested 
persons should name, or $100,000 and taxes. June 13 the 
Water Board transmitted this offer, with a communication, to 
the Common Council, urgently recommending the purchase. 
May 11, 1891, the Water Board wrote to the Aqueduct Cor- 
poration to inquire if the corporation was ready to renew the 
offer of June 11, 1889, and on May 11 received a reply that 
the corporation would sell its propeity and franchises for 
such sum as might be awarded b}- three disinterested 
referees. May 25 the Water Board wrote to the Mayor, 
renewing its arguments, and calling attention to the fact that 
the Park Department wished to acquire the real estate of the 
corporation for park purposes, and the communication was 
transmitted by the Mayor to the City Council with a recom- 
mendation that the property be purchased. The passage by 
the Legislature of Chap. 371, Acts of 1892, above re- 
ferred to, enabled the Park Department to purchase the real 
estate without an order from the city government, and the 
pipe system was bought by the Water Board at the same 
time by agreement with the Park Commissioners. 



CONSUMPTION OF WATER. 

The rainfall during the past year was the smallest since 
1883, and the statistics show a large percentage of increase 
in the amount of water consumed. The daily average con- 
sumption per head of population on the Sudbury and 
Cochituate supply the past year was 95.3 gallons, and on 
the Mystic supply 78.6 gallons, as against 89.3 and 74.7 
the previous year. The daily average consumption was 
41,312,400 gallons on the Cochituate and Sudbury, and 
9,810,800 on the Mystic, as against 37,686,900 and 9,055,- 
200 respectively in 1892. 



8 City Document No. 39. 

HIGH-SERVICE PUMPING-ENGINE. 

On June 8 a contract for $120,500 was made with N. 
F. Palmer, Jr. & Co., of New York, for buildins; and erect- 
ing a new high-service pumping-engine for the Chestnut- 
hill Pumping-station, to be constructed in accordance with 
plans prepared by Mr. E. D. Leavitt. This engine, which 
will have a pumping capacity of 20,000,000 gallons in 
twenty-four hours, will be completed within a few months, 
and will be an important and necessary addition to the plant. 
Owing to the rapid growth of the city and the increasing 
number of tall buildings, the demands upon the high service 
have become so great that at times both of the present 
engines now in service, each of which has a pumping capacity 
of 8,000,000 gallons, have to be worked. The policy in 
most cities is to deliver water in the basement of buildings, 
and oblige the water-takers to pump it to the upper stories, 
but the water-takers of Boston have become accustomed to 
expect that water will be made to flow freely in the tops of 
the highest buildings without the assistance of pumps, tanks, 
adequate plumbing, or any of the appliances which the 
water-takers of New York and other places expect to pro- 
vide at their own expense. It is extremely doubtful if the 
city can afford to continue the policy of providing a pressure 
that will send water to the top story of the highest buildings, 
and certainly it would seem reasonable that those who erect 
high buildings should protect themselves by suitable appli- 
ances against the falling off" in the pressure certain to occur 
at times of excessive consumption, as during the present cold 
winter. 

BASIN 6. 

The work of construction on Basin 6 was continued from 
early in April until the end of the season. The dam was 
raised 21 feet, both gate-chambers were built to grade, A'"alves 
were placed in the lower gate-house, and the wasteway was 
completed. Of the work of stripping, the contracts for 
sections A, B, and C have been completed, and both D and 
E are nearly completed. The contract for Ewas let January 
13, 1892, to John Berry & Co., for 40 cents per cubic yard, 
on an estimated amount of $47,786. By the end of another 
season this basin will be finished and ready to be filled dur- 
ing the winter of 1893-94. 

ADDITIONAL BASIN. 

It is important that the work of constructing a new basin 
on the Sudbury water-shed be begun at once. The plans and 



Water-Supply DePAIIT3IENT. 9 

surveys for this basin are being made, and the hinds for the 
same will be taken as soon as the necessary funds are pro- 
vided by the City Council. A loan order for $2,500,000 
was introduced January 2, 1893, and has passed one branch 
of the city government. This sum will be required for the 
construction of this large basin, which will have a capacity 
of about 12,500,000 gallons daily, — nearly three times the 
capacity of Basin 4 or (5. In view of the large increase in 
consumption of water, indicating the rapid growth of the 
city, it is imperative that there be no delay in building this 
basin. In the event of a series of dry j'ears we should not 
have more than sufficient water for the needs of the city, 
even including the supply from Basin 6, which will not be 
available until 1895. It will take about five years to com- 
plete a new basin. 

MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF THE SUPPLY. 

The sewerage systems of the city of Marlboro' and the 
town of Westboro' have been completed, and the sums 
due these communities under our contracts with them have 
been paid, and both of these systems are working satisfac- 
torily. As we stated in our report a year ago, decided im- 
provement in the quality of the water of Basin 3 is likely to 
result from this removal of a large portion of the sewage 
of Marllioro' from the w\ater-shed of the Stony-brook 
branch of the Sudbury. Although the sewerage system of 
Framingham has been in active operation for about three 
years, we have up to this time declined to pay the $25,000 
which bj^ the terms of the contract the city of Boston was to 
pay on the completion of the system, for the reason that the 
surfiice-water of the town of Framingham, contrary to the 
plans approved by us, is allowed to flow under the sewer 
into a brook tributary to our water supply. The authorities 
of Framingham have been considering the best method of 
diverting this surface-water so that it may cease to be a 
source of possible future danger to the city of Boston, and 
plans are now being prepared with a view^ to a final disposi- 
tion of thematter in a satisfactory manner. We are glad to 
report that the town of Natick has recently submitted to us 
plans of a proposed sewerage system for that town. These 
plans have been carefully considered by us, and we have 
written to the authorities of Natick, that on the condition 
that certain minor modifications be made therein, the Water 
Board will advise the City Council of Boston to appropriate 
a specified sum by way of contribution to the expenses of 
the system. 

The Board has directed the City Engineer to prepare 



10 City Document No. 39. 

plans for the filtration of the water of Pegan brook, which 
work will be undertaken early in the spring. The water of 
this brook has been steadily improving, but in view of the 
fact that some time must elapse before a sewerage system for 
Natick can be completed, we have deemed it wise to under- 
take this improvement in order to avert any possible dangers 
of pollution during the coming season. Work will also be 
begun on the important scheme of draining Cedar swamp at 
the head-waters of the Sudbury supply, to which reference 
was made in our last report. It was not practicable to begin 
work in 1892, owing to the serious engineering difficulties in- 
volved. On the Mystic arrangements have been entered 
into with the proprietor of a large tannery at Stoneham for 
chemically treating and subsequently filtering the sewage 
from his premises, with a view to treating the sewage from 
other tanneries in the same manner, if this experiment prove 
successful. 

FILTRATION OF THE MYSTIC SUPPLY. 

Special attention is called to the accompanying report of 
the City Engineer, wherein he recommends the filtration of 
the Mystic supply. The Water Board have at various times 
in their annual reports stated that the Mystic water was far 
from satisfactory in its present condition, and intimated that 
it might become desirable to abandon it. As the result of 
a series of experiments authorized by this Board, the En- 
gineer estimates that by an expenditure of five hundred and 
seventy-five thousand dollars ($575,000), a satisfactory fil- 
tration plant can be built on the shore of Mystic lake. It 
will also be necessary to build a new engine, boilers, and 
engine-house, at an estimated cost of $150,000, if the Mystic 
system is to be retained. At present Charlestown is the only 
portion of Boston supplied with Mystic water. This district 
uses only about 3,000,000 gallons daily. We supply, how- 
ever, Everett, Chelsea, and Somerville, by contract, with 
Mystic water, and the amount of water consumed by Charles- 
town, Everett, Chelsea, and Somerville combined is at pres- 
ent greater than the natural yield of the Mystic supply in 
a period of drought, which is only 7,000,000 gallons daily. 
This year these communities used a daily average of 9,810,800 
gallons. These communities are growing, and there will not 
be enough water for all of them for any great length of time, 
or whenever we have a dry series of years. If the city of 
Boston is to retain the Mystic supply, we should at once be 
authorized to expend the necessary sum for making the water 
wholesome, and providing a suitable pumping plant. 



Water-Supply Department. 11 

CAPACITY OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FOR FIRE PURPOSES. 
Early in the year the Board requested the City Engineer 
to make investigations as to how the water-pipe system for 
protection against fire of Boston compares with the systems 
in other large cities of the United States, and a competent 
representative was sent to make personal inspection of the 
resources of New York, Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
Washington, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Chicago, 
Detroit, and Cleveland. The results of this inspection, 
which appear in the accompanying report of the City 
Engineer, and which will repay careful examination, estab- 
lish conclusively that Boston is at least not second to any 
of the other cities of the country in the capacity of its water- 
pipe system for supplying water to extinguish fires. Plans 
of the entire city, dividing the city into districts, and show- 
ing the capacity of the distribution system at every point, 
have been prepared and furnished to the Fire Department. 

THE FUTURE OF THE SUPPLY. 

As regards the future of the supply, the Water Board on 
December 2, 1892, submitted the following special report to 
the Mayor. The table thereto appended shows the popula- 
tion of Boston and its suburbs from 1850 to 1890, with 
estimated population from 1890 to 1920, also the population 
within the present city limits, and the population of metro- 
politan districts within six and ten miles of City Hall. In our 
report of last year the Board called attention to the fiict that 
by the end of ten years the capacities of the Sudbury will be 
exhausted, and that the needs of the cities and towns neigh- 
boring to Boston will probably have to be considered in 
connection with any problem of a new source of supply for 
Boston. As no funds are at the disposal of this Board for 
the prosecution of independent investigations, and as the in- 
terests of other committees are likely to be concerned, it 
seems to us desirable that the Legislature should authorize 
the appointment of a metropolitan commission for the con- 
sideration of this question. 

Office of the Boston Water Board, 

City Hall, Boston, December 2, 1892. 

Hon. Xathan Matthews, Jr., 

Mayor : 
Sir : The Boston Water Board has the honor to submit the followmg 
statement regarding the quantity of the water suj^ply and the immediate 
and prospective needs of the city as regai'ds the future development of 
the Sudbury system by the construction of additional basins, and the 
necessity of considering the i^roblem of a new source of supply. 



12 . City Document No. 39. 

Basin 6, so called, on Indian brook, now in process of construction, 
•will be completed hj the end of another year, adding about four million 
gallons daily to the supj)ly. 

In order to avoid the certainty of a scarcity of Avater in case of drought, 
the work of constructing a new and much larger basin on the Sudbury 
river should be begun forthwith. 

When the special report of March, 1888. Avas made by the Water 
Board and City Engineer, it was figured that the full dcA^elopment of the 
Sudbury and Cochituate system Avould yield only 49,000,000 gallons 
daily, but as appears from the communication of the City Engineer, 
hereto annexed, later and more thorough investigations justify the con- 
fident statement that this yield can be increased to 67,000,000 gallons 
daily. 

It appears from these studies that two basins of very large capacity 
can be built, one on the Stony-brook branch and one on the main sti-eam 
of the Sudbury river, each of which Avill add from ten to twelve million 
gallons daily to the supply, and the cost of either of Avhich will be about 
12,500,000. 

The cost of building Basin 6 Avill be about two hundred and twenty- 
fiA^e thousand dollars ($225,000) per one million gallons net daily yield, 
while for a new and larger basin, as designed, the cost per one million 
gallons net daily yield will be less than two hundred thousand dollars 
($200,000). 

This decrease in estimated cost is due to the fact that a basin on a very 
large scale can be built at a less cost than a smaller one, provided the 
other conditions are not dissimilar. 

A new basin can be built in from five to seven years without an in- 
crease in the net water debt. 

Of the $1,045,000 loan for additional water supply, approved Novem- 
ber 13, 1889, the balance December 1 ($227,495.14) remaining Avill be 
necessary for the completion of Basin 6 and for the settlement of the 
damages that may be aAvarded in consequence of the taking of Whitehall 
pond. 

Accordingly for this new work a neAV loan is necessary, and Ave re- 
spectfully request that our necessities may be laid before the city 
gOA^ernment. 

The advantages accruing from the construction of a ncAV basin AA'ill 
be not only to increase the supply of the city in time of drought from 
ten to twelve million gallons dailj^ but also materially to increase the 
purity of the Avater, and on this point the Board cannot speak too 
forcibly. 

When one additional basin is completed the city Avill have a supply of 
from 51,000,000 to 53,500,000 gallons daily, Avhieh, according to^the es- 
timates of the increase of j^opulation hereto annexed, Avill no more than 
meet the requirements of the district noAV supplied by the Sudbury and 
Cochituate systems in the year 1900. 

By further developments, such as raising the dam at Whitehall pond 
eight feet, raising the dam at Lake Cochituate, improving Basin 1, 
and building a compensating reservoir to supply the 1,500,000 gallons 
daily which are required by laAV to be sent doAvn the Sudbury below 
Dam 1, and the possible construction of a second new basin on the 
Sudbury system, the combined supplies can be made to furnish 67,500,- 
000 gallons daily, Avhich, according to an estimated four per cent, annual 
increase over the consumption in 1890, Avould be the supply required in 
1905, provided that no additional territory than at present be supj^^lied 
from the Sudbury and Cochituate system. 

It may be said that Avhile the construction of one ucaa' basin isimpera- 
tiA'e in order to develop the Sudbuiy system to meet present needs and 
also to serve as an adjunct to any future supply- of the city, further in- 
vestigations may prove that a second basin cannot be adA^antageously 



Water-Supply Department. 



13 



built, in which case the ultimate capacity would be reduced ten million 
gallons daily. 

It will be seen that we are rapidly nearing the time when a new source 
of supply must be provided, and we take this opportunity to call public 
attention to the fact. 

In connection with the problem of any new supply for the city of 
Boston, the requirements of adjacent cities and towns may well be taken 
into account, as their rapid growth will soon render their present sup- 
plies inadequate. 

In this connection we call attention to the annexed table, showing the 
population of Boston and its suburbs from 1850 to 1890, with estimated 
population from 1890 to 1920. 

Very respectfulh", 

BOSTON WATER BOARD, 
By Robert Grant, 

Chairman. 



City of Boston, Engineering Department, 

50 City Hall, December 2, 1892. 
Mr. Robert Grant, 

Chairman Boston Water Board : 
Sir : In compliance with your request, the following estimate of the 
ultimate capacity of the Sudbury and Cochituate water supplies have 
been prepared. The increased capacity over that shown by the estimate 
of March 3, 1888, is mainly due to the enlargement of the proposed 
basin on the Stony-brook branch, Xo. 5, and to a jDrojected basin to be 
made by excavating Cedar swamj) ; later surveys and studies having 
shown that the increased development is possible. 

The estimate of the capacit}' of the different basins has been made 
without any allowance for water stox'ed in the groimd surrounding them, 
and is as follows : 

Present Ultimate 

Capacity. Capacity. 

9,700,000 12,300,000 

10,100,000 6,700,000 

5,200,000 5,200,000 

4,700,000 

12,300,000 

3,300,000 3,300,000 

9,200,000 4,800,000 

17,100,000 

37,600,000 67,400,000 
1,500,000 

68,900,000 



Lake Cochituate 

Basins 1 and 2, and Farm pond 

Basin 4 . 

Basin 6 

Cedar swamp 

Whitehall pond 

Basin 3 

Basin 5 



Compensating reservoir 



The net increase due to the different 

Raising Whitehall pond 8 feet 
Cedar swamp basin 
Basin 5 .... 

Basin 6 .... 

Raisins' Lake Cochituate 



mprovements is as follows : 

1,000,000 
9,900,000 
12,700,000 
3,700,000 
2,600,000 



29,900,000 

^ These results, however, can only be obtained in actual practice by the 
most skilful management. 



14 City Document No. 39. 

Appended is a table showing population of Boston and its suburbs 
from 1850 to 1890, with, estimated population from 1890 to 1920, also 
the total population within the present city limits and the population of 
metropolitan districts within six and ten miles of the City Hall. 

Yours respectfully, 
(Signed) William Jackson, 

City Engineer. 

We append tables showing in detail the expenditures for 
the financial year, the condition of the water debts, and of 
general statistics, etc. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Robert Grant, 
John W. Leighton, 
Thomas F. Doherty, 

Boston Water Board. 



TABLE SHOWING POPULATION OF BOSTON AND ITS SUBUUBS FKOM 1850 TO 180O, 
With Estimated Population from 1890 to 1920, also the Total Population within the present City Limits, and tlie Population of Metropolitan Districts within Six and 



Ten miles of the City Hall. 



City Proper . . 
East Boston . 
South Bostou . 
Roxbury . . . 
Doi-cliester . . 
West Roxbury 
Brigbton . . . 
Charlestown . 



13,30U 
18,364 
7,969 

2,356 
17,216 



61.9 
27.1 



126,296 
16,963 
16,912 
16,469 



6.75 
21.25 
47.35 

6.1 



133,563 
19,356 
24,921 
25,137 
9,769 
6,310 
3,376 
25,066 



141,083 
21,872 
29,363 
28,426 
10,717 
6,912 
3,854 



138,781 
26,616 
39,215 
34,763 
12,261 



35.7 
24.8 



140,669 
29,347 
64,147 
60,429 
16,788 
11,783 
6,200 
33,556 



147,075 
29,926 
66,369 
67,123 
17,890 
14,032 



147,138 
31,419 
61,634 
6.5,965 
20,717 
17,424 
8,523 
36,673 



161,330 
36,930 
66,791 
78,411 
29,638 
24,997 
12,032 
38,348 



166,170 
42,470 
73,470 
90,170 
39,500 
33,330 
16,040 
39,100 



171,.500 
48,840 
80,820 

103,700 
49,400 
43,330 
21,390 
39,900 



174,580 
53,720 
88,900 

119,250 
61,740 
54,170 
26,740 
40,700 



178,070 
59,100 
96,000 

137,140 
74,080 
66,020 
33,420 
41,500 



181,630 
65,000 
103,700 
150,850 
88,900 
78,020 
40,100 
42,340 



18.5,260 
71,500 
112,000 
165,940 
106,680 
93,630 
48,130 
4.3,180 



Total, 6 miles radiii 



247,496 



Soraerville 
Cbelsca , 
Everett . 
Cambridge 
Brooklinc 
Maiden . . 
Medford . 
Rcvei-e . . , 
Winthrop 



3,640 
6,701 

16,215 
2,616 
3,520 
3,749 



30.46 
22.8 



5,806 
10,151 

20,473 
3,737 
4,692 



8,025 
13,396 



5,164 

5,866 

4,842 

921 



9,353 
14,403 



14,085 
18,547 
2,220 
30,634 
6,650 
7,367 
6,717 
1,197 



47.2 
16.9 



21,868 
20,737 

3,651 
47,838 

6,675 
10,843 

6,627 

i,e 



24,933 

21,782 
4,169 

62,669 
8,057 

12,017 
7,573 
2,263 
1,043 



29,971 

25,709 
5,825 

59,658 
9,196 

16,407 
9,042 
3,637 
1,370 



40,152 
27,909 
11,068 
70,028 
12,103 
23,031 
11,079 
5,61 



50,190 
32,100 
15,600 
80,600 
15,730 
32,240 
13,300 
7,930 
4,090 



62,740 
36,910 
21,830 
92,600 
19,660 
45,140 
15,950 
11,100 
6,130 



75,290 
42,450 
28,380 
106,600 
24,6«0 
58,680- 
19,150 
15,550 
8,580 



90,340 
40,690 
36,900 
122,480 
29,500 
75,280 
23,000 
20,200 
11,160 



108,400 I 
51,360 
46,100 

140,850 
35,400 
94,100 
27,670 
26,300 
13,940 



154,9.30 
42,480 

117,030 
33,100 
34,160 
17,430 



Newton . 
Hyde Park 
Qniney . . , 
Melrose . 
Arlington 
Watertown 
Belmont . . 
Waltham . . 
Winehcster . 
Wolnmi 
Milton . . 
btoucbiiui 
Saugus . . , 
I,ynn . . 
Nahant . . 
Wakcflcld 



5,017 
1,200 
2,202 
2,837 

4,464 
1,353 
3,956 
2,241 
2,085 
1,662 
14,257 



5,921 
1,976 
»,670 
3,678 

6,049 
1,801 
6,448 
2,666 
2,518 



S.75 
7.65 
16.4 
0.5 
27.3 
13.2 
21.4 
40.7 



6,778 ( 
2,632 
2,681 
3,270 
1,11 
6,31 
1,937 
6,287 
2,669 
3,206 
2,024 
19,083 



13.16 
2.95 
15.6 



6,718 
2,865 
2,760 
3,779 
1,278 
6,896 
1,9C8 



2,006 
20,747 



12,826 
4,136 
7,442 
3,414 
3,261 
4,326 
1,613 
9,065 
2,645 
8,560 
2,683 
4,613 
2,247 

28,233 



51.7 
27.6 



25.6 
52.7 



61.3 
29.4 



16,105 
6,316 
9,155 
3,990 
3,906 
6,099 
1,£ 

9,946 
3,099 
9,,568 
2,738 
4,984 
2,578 

32,600 



12.2 
15.6 
14.3 



4,100 
6,426 
1,616 

11,712 
3,802 

10,931 
3,206 
4,890 
2,625 

38,274 



18.2 
14.9 



19,769 
8,376 

12.145 
6,101 
4,673 
6,238 
1,' 

14,609 
4,390 

11,750 
3,665 
5,650 
2,855 

45.867 
637 



24,379 
10,193 
16,723 
8,619 
6,629 
7,073 
2,098 
18,707 
4,81 
13,409 
4,278 
6,166 
3,673 
55,727 



29,2.50 

11,720 

20,900 

U,3I 
6,750 
8,130 
2,620 

23,380 
5,590 

16,520 
6,140 
7,070 
4,400 

66,900 
970 



35,100 
13,470 
26,130 
15,160 
8,100 
9.3.")0 
3,020 
29,230 
6,430 
17,850 
6,160 
8,130 
5,280 



42,120 
16,500 
32,660 
19,700 

9,730 
10,750 

3.620 
36,510 

7,390 
19,610 

7,400 

0,350 

6,310 
96,.'!30 

1,170 
10,100 



50.660 
17,820 
39,200 
25,600 
11,700 
12,360 

4,3.50 
43,850 

8,.500 
21,600 

8,500 
10,750 

7,290 
110,770 

1,291 



68,130 
20,600 
47,030 
32,000 
13,440 
14,200 

5,220 
52,620 

9,780 
23,760 



8,390 

127,380 

1,420 

12,290 



66,8.50 
23,570 
66,440 
40,000 
15,4.50 
16,360 

6,260 
63,140 
10,260 
26,130 
10,250 
14,220 

9,650 
146,500 

1,560 



Total, 10 miles radia 



GENERAL STATISTICS. 



SUDBUBT AND COCHITUATE WORKS. 



Daily average consumption in gallons 

Daily average consumption in gallons per inhabitant 

Daily average amount used through meters, gallons 

Percentage of total consumption metered 

Number of services . 

Number of meters and motors 

Length of supply and distributing mains, in miles 

Number of fire-hydrants in use 

Yearly revenue from water-rates 

Yearly revenue from metered water 

Percentage of total revenue from metered water 

Cost of works on Jan. 1, 1891, Feb. 1, 1892 and 1893 

Yearly expense of maintenance 

Mystic Works. 

Daily average consumption in gallons 

Daily average consumption in gallons per inhabitant 

Daily average amount used through meters, gallons , 

Percentage of total consumption metered 

Number of services 

Number of meters and motors 

Length of supply and distributing mains, in miles 

Number of fire-hydrants in use 

Yearly revenue from water-rates 

Yearly revenue from metered water 

Percentage of total revenue from metered water 

Cost of works on Jan. 1, 1891, and Feb. 1, 1892 and 1893. . , 
Yearly expense of maintenance 



ISOO. 



33,871,700 

82.5 

9,034,800 

26.7 

60,718 

4,078 

498.7 

5,398 

.■$1,382,422 53 

$.o54,047 36 

40.1 

.$20,995,015 00 

$381,147 10 

8,341,400 

70.6 

1,537,400 

18.5 

19,520 

414 

152.3 

1,073 

$332,634 02 

.$89,526 42 

26.9 

.$1,708,781 59 

$144,184 44 



1891. 



37,686,980 

89.3 

10,186,400 

27.0 

62,877 

4,357 

519 

5,643 

* $1,838,494 30 

t $606,451 00 

33 

* $21,643,526 91 

i,755 92 

9,055,200 

74.7 

1,845,500 

20.4 

20,566 

427 

158 

1,116 

5,784 26 

t $102,719 26 

25.2 

$1,710,943 70 

* $174,421 92 



1S93. 



41,312,400 

95.3 

11,225,900 

27.2 

65,074 

4,412 

536 

5,793 

$1,433,413 78 

$649,672 31 

45.3 

$22,243,351 56 

$350,743 68 

9,810,800 

78.6 

1,862,200 

19 

21,588 

550 

160 

1,223 

$394,008 75 

$105,685 56 

26.8 

$1,713,227 00 

$117,922 20 



■ Thirteen monthB. 



t Twelve months. 



Water-Supply Department. 15 



EARNINGS AND EXPENDITURES. 

The total receipts of the Cochituate Water- Works, from 
all sources, for the. year ending January 31, 1893, were as 
follows, viz. : 

Balance of revenue from 1892-93 $60,877 61 

Income from sales of water . . . $1,433,413 78 
Income from shutting off and letting on 

water, and fees 2,706 75 

Elevator, fire and service pipes, sale of 

old materials, etc. .... 21,815 84 

1,457,936 37 

$1,618,813 98 



The total expenditures of the Cochituate 
Water- Works from revenue, for the year end- 
ing January 31, 1893, were as follows, viz. : 

Current expenses, viz. : 
Water-Supply Department . $350,743 68 
Less stock used purchased in 

previous years . . . 2,519 23 

$348,224 45 
Water-Income Department . 44,537 76 

$392,762 21 

Interest on funded debt .... 810,981 63 

Sinking-fund requirement, 1891-92 . . 240,435 00 

Refunded water-rates .... 963 05 

Extension of mains, etc. .... 57,851 63 

1,502,993 52 

Balance to 1893-94 $15,820 46 



The total receipts of the Mystic Water- Works, from all 
sources, for the year ending January 31, 1893, were as fol- 
lows, viz. : 

Income from sales of water $394,008 75 

Income from shutting off and letting on water, and fees, 756 25 

Service-pipes, repairs, etc 1,027 47 



$395,792 47 



The total expenditures of the Mystic Water- Works from 
revenue, for the year ending January 31, 1893, were as 
follows, viz. : 



Itj City Document No. 39. 



Current expenses, viz. : 
Water-Supply Department .... $118,949 83 
Water-Income Department .... 10,404 66 



$129,354 49 

Interest on funded debt . . . . 19,257 50 

Refunded water-rates .... 128 19 
Amount paid Chelsea, Somerville, and 

Everett, under contract . . . 137,621 36 
City Treasurer, amoimt advanced to meet 

deficit of 1891-92 29,856 63 

Mystic Water Sinking-fund . . . 50,000 00 
Extension of mains, etc., Cocbituate 

Department 29,574 30 



,792 47 



Water-Supply Department. 



17 



MAINTENANCE ACCOUNTS, COCHITUATE WATER- 
WORKS. 



(From Revenue.) 

February Draft, 1892, to February Draft, 

Boston Water Board: 
Salaries of two Commissioners, Chief 

Clerk and Secretary, Executive 

Clerk, Purchasing Agent, Asst. Clerk 

and Messenger, and Special Agent . $15,566 50 
Travelling expenses . . . . 2,164 08 

Printing and stationery . . . 676 51 

Advertising, postage, and misceUaneous, 1,044 35 



Eastern Division : 

Salaries of Superintendents, Clerks, 

and Foremen S16,146 81 

Travelling expenses and transportation 

of men 1,250 20 

Printing and stationery . . . 822 66 

Miscellaneous ..... 506 64 

Western Division-: 

Salaries of Superintendent, A<5sistant 

Superintendent, and Cleriis . . $24,373 73 

Travelling expenses .... 1,980 39 

Printing and stationery . . . 376 22 

Miscellaneous 399 41 

Engineering . 

New meters, and setting . 

Meters, repairing . 

Machine-shop, Albany street 

Telephones 

Cochituate Aqueduct 

Sudbury Aqueduct . 

Main pipe relaying (including stock and labor) 

" repairing "• •' " '' 

Hydrants " '' '• " '' 

Stopcocks " " " " " 

Hydrant and stopcock boxes, and repairing (inclnd 

lug stock and labor) ..... 
Tools and repairing (including stock and labor) 
Streets " " " " " 

Fountains " " " " " 

Stables " " " " " 

Waste-detection " "■ " '' 



1893. 



»,451 44 



18,726 31 



27,129 75 

2,198 76 

8,015 
19,532 

8,179 

1,436 

2,197 
11,858 26 

9,241 73 

7,830 73 
22,914 20 

5,415 19 



3,800 
8,020 
7,565 
3,521 
26,042 
20,847 



28 
62 
69 
23 
24 



03 
63 
07 
89 
12 
25 



Carried forward, 



$233,924 42 



18 



City Docu3ient No. 39. 



Brought foriuard, 
Basins, Framiugham and Ashland (including stock 

and labor) ....... 

Service-pipe repairing (including stock and labor) 
Protection of Sudbury and Cocbituate supply • 
High service, Chestnut hill (including fuel, salaries 

repairs, etc.) ...... 

High service, East Boston (including fuel, salaries 

repairs, etc.) ...... 

High service, West Roxbury (including fuel, salaries 

repairs, etc.) . . . . . . • 

Albany-street yard ...... 

Chestnut-hill Reservoir (including stable, care of 

gi'ounds, etc.) ..... 
Parker-hill reservoir .... 
Brookline Reservoir .... 

East Boston and South Boston Reservoirs 
Fisher-hill Reservoir 
Lake Cocbituate 
Chestnut-hill driveway . 
Taxes ..... 
Damages .... 
Analyses of water, etc. . 
Merchandise sold (pipes and castings, in cases of 

emergencj') 
Filtration .... 
Biological Laboratory 



$233,924 42 

10,933 89 

21,782 40 

1,374 02 

22,676 06 

3,005 99 

3,038 60 
6,497 74 



69 
44 
62 
22 
54 
50 



15,470 

1,689 

1,186 
723 

1,472 

3,334 
12,026 06 

1.389 56 
1,861 90 

280 00 

100 77 
6,584 88 

1.390 38 

$350,743 68 



Water-Supply Department. 



19 



MAINTENANCE ACCOUNTS, MYSTIC WATER-WORKS. 

(From Revenue.) 

February Draft, 1892, to February Draft, 1893. 

Boston Water Board : 
Salaries of one Commissioner and one 

Assistant Clerk .... 
Printing and stationery . ' . 
Advertising and postage 
Travelling expenses and miscellaneous. 

Superintendent's Department : 

Salaries of Superintendent, Assistant 

Superintendent, and Clerk 
Printing and stationery 
Travelling expenses .... 
Miscellaneous ..... 

Engineer's Department . 
Meters, setting and repairing 
Off and on water (labor) 
Main-pipe laying (including stoc 

" relaving " *' 

" repairing "■ " " 821 46 

Service-pipe laying *' " " 1,467 66 

" repairing " '• '* 2,040 63 

Hydrants and gates, repairing (including stociv and 

labor ........ 

Streets, repairing (including stock and labor) . 
Lake ........ 

Conduit ........ 

New meters and setting ..... 

Stables ........ 

Reservoir ....... 

Pumping service (salaries, wages, fuel, repairs, etc.) 
Repair-shop ..... 

Fountains ..... 

Tools and repairing 

Mystic Sewer (repairs, and pumping and treatmen 

of sewage) .... 

Waste-Detection Service 
Protection of water sources (including salaries of 

three Special Agents on Pollution) 
Analyses of water .... 
Filtration ..... 
Merchandise sold .... 
Taxes ...... 



So, 091 


67 




40 


10 




32 


25 




169 


10 


$5,333 12 


S5,486 


82 


84 


69 




454 


45 




78 


69 


6,104 65 
1,815 00 




^ 


. 


. 


2,164 40 


. 


. 


3,290 09 


nd laboi") , 


2,283 30 


.4 




1,759 77 



2,082 


08 


455 


11 


10,246 


67 


1,645 


88 


2,000 


54 


5,267 


05 


4,921 


06 


, 26,212 


62 


2,336 


09 


670 


89 


287 


03 


21,853 


75 


7,126 


35 


6,511 


21 


90 


00 


1,082 


69 


231 


77 


104 


63 


$120,205 


50 



20 



City Document No. 39. 



DETAILED EXPENDITURES UNDER THE SEVERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS. 

Februart Draft, 1892, to February Draft, 1893. 
Extension, of Main ft, etc. {from Loans and Surplus Revenue) . 
Labor . ' . . . . . $90,383 20 

Teaming 5,188 50 

Blasting 9,939 09 

Water-pipes, contracts . . . 72,463 82 

Stock 40,504 55 

Miscellaneous 3,636 48 



$222,115 64 



Additional Supply of Water (from Loans). 
(Account of Basin No. 6, Whitehall pond. Cedar 
swamp, and Surveys and Borings for Basin No. 5.) 

Salaries and labor .... $46,761 19 

Materials ...... 18,202 92 

Contract, filling on Dam No. 6 (on 

account) . . . . • 23,434 26 

Contract, stripping Section A, Basin 

6, balance (total, $25,407.72) _ . 10,697 09 
Contract, stripping Section B, Basin 6, 

balance (total, $23,276.24) . . 14,351 15 
Contract, stripping Section C, Basin 6, 

balance (total, $36,868.80) . . 23,700 94 
Contract, stripping Section D, Basin 6 

(on account) 23,345 57 

Contract, stripping Section E, Basin 6 

(on account) 39,672 79 

Contract, 2 sluice gates, at Basin 6 . 1,603 81 

Contract, upper section, wasteway, 

Dam 6 22,392 13 

City of Marlboro', balance of contract 

for a sewerage system to protect 

city water suppl}' (total contract, 

$62,000) 20,666 67 

Town of Westboro', on account of 

contract for a system of sewage dis- 
posal for the protection of tlie Bos- 
ton water supply .... 13,33333 
Engineering and supplies . . . 20,389 55 
Land damages ..... 17,537 56 

Teaming 10,067 85 

Freights and express . . . . 784 58 

Travelling expenses .... 804 02 

Printing, stationery, and advertising . 379 23 

Miscellaneous 5,719 89 



JI3.844 53 



1 $122.93 of tbis atuoBut uot u»ed, and earried into tbe Stock aeeount. 



Water- Supply Department. 21 

High Service (from Loans). 

(Account of High-service Pumpiug- 

eDgiae No. 3 for Chestnut hill). 

Contract for engine (on account) . $42,277 82 

Design, drawings, royalties, and in- 
spection ..... 3,490 01 

Steel forgings (on account) . . 6,340 44 

Beam castings ..... 879 27 

Miscellaneous, bolts, nuts, etc. . . 1,362 36 

Stock and labor on foundations (day- 
work) ...... 8,416 56 

Contract-work, foundations (on ac- » 

count) 891 31 

$63,657 77 



22 City Document No. 39. 



COST OF CONSTRUCTION, AND CONDITION OF 
THE WATER DEBTS. 

Cost of construction of Cochituate Works 

toFeb. 1,1892 $21,643,526 91 

Expended from Feb. 1, 1892, to Feb. 1, 
1893, as follows, viz. : 

Additional Supply of Water . $313,844 53 
Extension of Mains, etc. . 221,992 71 

High Service . . . 63,987 41 

599,824 65 



Cost of construction of Cochituate Water- 
Works to Feb. 1, 1893 .... $22,243,351 56 



The outstanding Cochituate Water Loans, 

Feb. 1, 1892, \vere . . . .$16,423,773 98 

Issued during the year 1892-93, as follows : 
(^Additional 
Appropriation, { y^ltev,^ 

I 4%Lotms, $235,000 00 



["Extension 
J of Mains, 
] etc., 4% 
I Loans . 100,000 00 



335,000 00 



Total Cochituate Debt, Feb. 1, 1893 . . $16,758,773 98 



Cochituate Water Sinking-Fund, Feb. 1, 

1892 $6,471,545 34 

Cochituate Water Sinking-Fund, Feb. 1, 

1893 ....... 7,019,058 38 



Net Cochituate Water Debt, Feb. 1, 1892 . $9,952,228 64 
" " " Feb. 1, 1893 . 9,739,715 60 



Water-Supply Department. 



23 



Cost of construction of Mystic Works to 

Feb. 1, 1892 $1,710,943 70 

Cost of construction of Mystic Works to 

Feb. 1, 1893 1,713,227 00 

The outstandino; Mystic Water Loans, Feb. 

1, 1892, were $482,000 00 

Paid during year 1892-93 .... 42,000 00 

Total Mystic Debt, Feb. 1, 1893 . . $440,000 00 

Mystic Water Sinking-Fund, Feb. 1, 1892, $550,208 70 

Feb. 1, 1893, 579,254 01 



TOTAL MONEY EXPENDITURES, COCHITUATE WATER- 
WORKS, FROM FEBRUARY 1, 1892, TO FEBRUARY 1, 
1893. 

Stock 
Labor 
Salaries 

Travelling expenses 
Printing 
Stationery . 
Advertising 
Postage 

Freights and express 
Rents 
Gas . 
Teaming 
Repairs 

Land damages, etc. 
Taxes 

Miscellaneous 
Irispectioa of pipes 
Blasting- 
Water-pipe contracts 
Coal and wood . 
Pnmping Service, salaries 

" ^ " fuel 

" " repairs 

" " oils, etc. 

" " small supplies 

Miscellaneous contracts 
Engineering 
Engineering supplies . 
Hay and grain . 



nio,813 


99 


296,062 


70 


63,945 


85 


10,919 


30 


1,773 


37 


610 


86 


560 


61 


233 


96 


1,539 


97 


3.366 


17 


235 


53 


17,467 


98 


14,528 


60 


17,537 


56 


1,389 


56 


7,365 


47 


2,072 


09 


10,527 


48 


74,733 


48 


3,609 


76 


10,150 


40 


6,593 


29 


192 


51 


574 


95 


352 


48 


259,355 


85 


20,338 


76 


305 


55 


5,684 


31 



7,842 39 



24 



City Docuivient No. 39. 



TOTAL MONEY EXPENDITURES, MYSTIC WATER- 
WORKS, FROM FEBRUARY 1, 1892, TO FEBRUARY 1, 

1893. 



Stock . 

Labor . 

Salaries 

Advertising 

Printing 

Stationery 

Taxes . 

Rents . 

Gas 

Postage 

Travelling expenses 

Coal and wood 

Freights and express . 

Teaming . . 

Hay and grain 

Repairs 

Miscellaneous 

Telephones . . 

Pumping Service, salaries 

" " fuel . 

" " repairs 

" " oils, etc. 

" " small suppl 

Engineerins: 



Mystic Sewerage Station, viz 

Salaries and wages 

Fuel 

Chemicals 

Repairs 

Small supplies . 



$7,527 


19 


42,238 


41 


24,635 


72 


32 


25 


116 


83 


96 


25 


104 


63- 


25 


00 


53 


50 


30 


00 


2,808 


80 


251 


73 


256 


55 


11 


00 


901 


05 


1.821 


19 


281 


16 


443 


98 


9,613 


93 


11,830 


68 


511 


09 


744 


51 


348 


44 


27 


50 


8,616 


82 


818 


22 


2,941 


94 


724 


47 


1,136 


99 



$118,949 83 



Water-Supply Department. 25 



STATEMENT OF STOCK ACCOUNTS. 

Increase. Decrease. 
Cochituate Water-Works, viz. : 

Stock on hand, February 1, 1892 . .$2.5.080 37 

" *' " February 1, 1893 . 22,561 14 

Decrease during year . . . .$2,519 23 $2,519 23 

Mystic Water- Works, viz. : 

Stock on hand, February 1, 1892 . $5,205 85 

" February 1, 1893 . 3,950 18 

Decrease during year . . . $1,255 fi7 1,255 67 

Extension of Mains, etc., viz. : 

Stock on hand, February ], 1892 . $07, .'^44 62 

" " " February 1, 1893 . 97,467 55 

Increase during year . . . $122 93 $122 93 

High Service, viz. : 

Stock on hand, February 1, 1892 . $4,643 39 

.. .. .. February 1, 1893 . 4,313 75 

Decrease during year . . . $329 64 329 64 

$122 93 $4,104 54 



Total decrease in stock during year 1892-93 .... $3,981 61 



26 



City Document ISTo. 39. 



OUTSTANDING LOANS. 

The outstanding Cochituate Water Loans at this date, 
February 1, 1893, exclusive of the Additional Supply, are 
as follows : 



6 per cent. Sterling Loan 

(£399,500) . . 11,947,273 98 
6 per cent. Gold Loans, 100,000 00 
5 per cent. Cur. Loan 1,000 00 



6 per cent. Loans 



4,253,000 00 <; 



4 per cent. Loans 



2,314,000 00 < 



3i per cent. Loans 



3 per cent. Loan . 



990,000 00 < 



200,000 00 

$9,805,273 98 



$500,000 
450,000 
540,000 
250,000 
625,000 
688,000 
330,000 
413,000 
38,000 
161,000 
142.700 
6,000 
82.550 
8,750 
4,000 
8,000 
5,000 
1,000 
280,000 
111,000 
257,000 
50,000 
144,200 
23,000 
. 58,000 
28,500 
236,300 
21,000 
161.000 
7,000 
160,700 
20,000 
6,300 
100,000 
200.000 
250,000 
100,000 
100,000 
50,000 
50,000 
100,000 
75,000 
25.000 
240,000 
100,000 
130,000 
220,000 



Due Oct., 1902 
Due April, 1906 
Due Oct., 1907 
Due Dec, 1897 
Due June. 1898 
Due Oct., 1898 
Due April, 1899 
Due Jan., 1901 
Due April, 1901 
Due July, 1901 
Due April. 1903 
Due April, 1904 
Due Jan., 1905 
Due April, 1905 
Due Oct., 1905 
Due Jan., 1906 
Due April, 1906 
Due Oct., 1906 
Due Jan., 1907 
Due April, 1907 
Due July. 1907 
Due April. 1910 
Due July, 1913 
Due Jan., 1914 
Due Jan., 1915 
Due April, 1915 
Due Oct., 1915 
Due Jan., 1916 
Due April, 1916 
Due Oct., 1916 
Due Jan., 1917 
Due April, 1917 
Due July, 1917 
Due Oct., 1917 
Due Jan., 1918 
Due April, 1918 
Due Oct., 1918 
Due April, 1919 
Due Oct., 1920 
Due April, 1921 
Due Jan.. 1922 
Due April, 1915 
Due Oct., 1915 
Due Jan., 1916 
Due July, 1916 
Due Oct., 1916 
Due April, 1917 
Due July, 1918 
Due Nov , 1919 
Due Jan., 1920 
Due April, 1917 



AVater-Supply Department. 27 

The outstanding loans on account of Additional Supply of 
Water on February 1, 1893, are as follows : 



6 per cent. Loans 



5 per cent. Gold Loans 

5 per cent. Cur. Loan 
4^ \)er cent. Loan 

3i per cent. Loans . 



4 per cent. Loans 



$644,000 < 


$100,000 


Due July, 


1902 


492,000 
8,000 


Due April, 
Due Jan , 


1903 
1904 




44,000 


Due July, 


1905 


f 


' 1,000,000 


Due Oct., 


1905 


3,452.000 ^ 


452,000 


Due April, 


1906 


[ 2,000,000 


Due Oct., 


1906 


12,000 




Due April, 


1908 


268,000 




Due Oct., 


1909 


180,000 j 


35,000 


Due April, 


li)17 


1 145,000 


Due Oct., 


1919 


1 


588,000 


Due April, 


1908 




82,000 


Due .July, 


1909 




324,000 


Due April, 


1912 




336,000 


Due Oct., 


1913 




209.000 


Due Jan.. 


1914 




18,'500 


Due Aj^ril, 


, 1914 


2,397,500 < 


16,000 
i 1,500 


Due Oct., 
Due April, 


1914 
, 1915 




100,000 


Due April. 


, 1916 




50,000 


Due Oct., 


1916 




300.000 


Due Oct., 


1919 




134,000 


Due Oct., 


1920 




1 162,500 


Due Oct., 


1921 


1 


^ 76,000 


Due Oct., 


1922 


$6,953,500 









The outstanding My.stic Water Loans at this date, Febru- 
ary 1, 1893, are as follows : 

6 per cent. Currency Loans, $39,000 Due July 1, 1893 

- , n T -lAo AAA S $6,000 Due Oct. 1, 1893 

5 per cent. Currency Loans, 108,000 J io2,000 Due April 1, 1894 

, , T iqaaaS s'oOO Due April l', 1898 

4 per cent. Loans . . . 18,000] j^I^qq Due Oct. 1,1913 

oi ^T haaaaS 60,000 Due Oct. 1,1896 

SU^er cent. Loans . . .110,000] -^I^qq Due Oct. 1,1897 

3d per cent. (Mystic Sewer) 

Loans . " . . . 130,000 Due April 1, 1916 

3i per cent. Loans . . . 35,000 Due April 1, 1896 

$440,000 



28 City Document No. 39. 



The following statement shows the appropriations by the 
City Council for an additional supply of water, and the 
amount of expenditures to February 1, 1893 : 

APPROPRIA.TIONS. 

Oct. 21, 1871. — Transfer from Reserved 

Fund .... $10,000 00 
Apr. 12, 1872. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow . . . 100,000 00 
Apr. 11, 1873. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow . . . 500,000 00 
Feb. 26, 1875. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow . . . 1,500,000 00 
Oct. 1, 1875. — Premium on $1,000,000 

bond, under order of 

February 26, 1875 . 83,700 00 

Apr. 1, 1876. — Premium on $452,000 

bonds, under order of 

February 26, 1875 . 47,786 80 

July 1, 1876. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow . . . 2,000,000 00 
Oct. 1, 1876.— Premium on $2,000,000 

bonds, under order of 

July 1,1876 . . 221,400 00 
Apr. 20, 1878. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow . . . 600,000 00 
Apr. 11, 1879. —Order for Treasurer to 

borrow . . . 350,000 00 
Aug. 17, 1881. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow . . . 324,000 00 
June 2, 1883. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow . . . 621,000 00 
Oct. 14, 1884. — Order for Treasm-er to 

borrow . . . 150,000 00 

May 28, 1887. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow . . . 35,000 00 

Nov. 13, 1889. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow . . . 1,045,000 00 
Oct. 24, 1891.— Forfeiture of contract 

bond . . . 2,500 00 

Dec. 24, 1892. — Transfer . . . 20,000 00 

$7,610,386 80 
Less transfers June 4, 1888, and Janiiary 

3, 1890 12,946 48 



$7,597,440 32 



EXPENDED. 

1871-72 $2,302 81 

1872-73 61,278 83 

1873-74 including $20,897.50 discount 

on bonds sold, January, 1874 . 114,102 77 



Carried forward, $177,684 41 $7,597,440 32 



Water-Supply Department. 



29 



Brought foru'ard. 








$177,684 41 


17,597,440 32 


1874-75 224,956 68 




1875-76 














783,618 49 




1876-77 














1,924,060 24 




1877-78 














1,257,715 26 




1878-79 














635.658 08 




1879-80 














213,350 97 




1880-81 














97,406 78 




1881-82 














35,677 98 




1882-88 














167,621 48 




1883-84 














428,625 79 




1884-85 














276,292 13 




1885-86 














139,187 68 




1886-87 














128,109 32 




1887-88 














30,382 77 




1888-89 














2,398 90 




1889-90 














18,518 01 




1890-91 














288,710 59 




1891-92 














281,271 82 




1892-93 














313,844 53 






7,365,036 86 
' $232,408 46 


Balance 


unex 


pend 


edFe 


brua 


^7 1' 


1898 


. 



1 $227,500 unnegotiated on this date. 



30 



City Document No. 39. 



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Water-Sdpplt Department. 



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36 CiTr Document No. 39. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE 
EASTERN DIVISION. 



Office of Superintendent of Eastern Division, 

710 Albany Street, Boston, February 1, 1893. 

Robert Grant, Esq., Chairman Boston Water Board: 

Dear Sir : I herewith respectfully submit the annual re- 
port of the Eastern Division for the year ending Januarj^ 3 1 , 
J893. 

Distribution of Mains. 

Nearly eighteen miles of pipe mains have been laid during 
the year, and 4,270 feet of pipe have been abandoned, 
making a net increase in the disti'ibution system of 17.08 
miles, and a total length of 535.87 miles now connected with 
the works. 

The work of extending the 30-inch main through Chester 
square and Swett street, connecting it with the 20-inch main 
on Dorchester avenue, was completed early in the spring. 
This pipe is connected to the 36-inch and the 30-inch mains 
on Tremont stieet. 

A 6-inch pipe main was laid from Squantum to Thompson's 
island, a distance of 6,760 feet, and there were 155 feet of 
4-inch pipe laid for service-pipe on the island. There were 
also 2,874 feet of 6-inch pipe laid on Long island, and 991 
feet of 6-inch pipe laid on Gallop's island. All of this pipe 
was laid by John Cavanagh & Co. 

The high service was extended as follows : Mather street 
to Nixon street; Blue Hill avenue, between Tileston avenue 
and Fremont street; Fremont street, between Blue Hill 
avenue and River street; Norfolk street, from Blue Hill 
avenue to Delhi street, Dorchester. 

The high service was also extended in State street, be- 
tween Merchants row and Broad street; Merchants row, 
between State street and Chatham street ; Chatham street, 
between Merchants row and Chatham row ; and Devonshire 
street, from Franklin street, 251 feet towards Milk street, 
city ; W. Broadway, between Dorchester and F streets, 
South Boston ; Johnson street and Buckley avenue, Rox- 
bury, were also changed to high service. 

The 40-inch pipe was raised and relaid across the new 
bridge on Brookline avenue, betvreen Francis street and 
Aspinwall avenue. 



WATER-SuprLT Department. 37 

Two hundred and ninety-four petitions for extensions of 
mains have been received, and 234, including 15 of 1891, 
have been oi-jinted and mains extended. 

Stopcocks. 

During the year there were 245 stopcocks established and 
2(j abandoned, making a net increase of 219, and a total of 
5,910 now in service. 

Two 3()-inch stopcocks were established to shorten the 
line in case of emergency : one at the corner of Treniont 
and Francis streets, and the other on the 40-inch main at 
Brookline avenue and Francis street. 

Hydrants. 

Two hundred and three hydrants have been established 
and 55 abandoned, making a net increase of 148, and a total 
of 5,853 hydrants now connected with the system. Twenty 
of the old pattern Boston hydrants have been replaced by 
hydrants of the Post and Lowry pattern. 

The Post hydrant, with independent shut-off or valve for 
each steamer connection, is almost perfected; four of them 
now in service have proven satisfactory, and I expect to have 
a number of them ready to be put in when we commence 
laying pipe in the spring. 

Service-Pipes. 

Two thousand four hundred and forty-seven service-pipes 
have been laid, with an aggregate length of 59,807 feet, and 
250 have been abandoned, making an increase of 2,197 pipes 
during the year. I reconunend that a rule be made to 
govern the number of pipes a building should have. 

High-Service Works. 

Chestnut Hill Station. — The engines, boilers, and other 
property at this station are in good condition. Early in the 
year the addition for the electric engine was completed. An 
Armington & Syms til- inch X \^2, inch engine was bought, 
set up, and connected to the spare dynamo. The old Payne 
engine was practically rebuilt, set up in the new room, and 
the old dynamo repaired, which gives us a duplicate electric 
plant. 

The work on the foundation for the new engine is pro- 
gressing satisfactorily. 

West Roxhtry Station. — The pumps and boilers at this 
station are in o-ood condition. 



38 City Document No. 39. 

East Boston Station. — The boilers at this station are in 
good order. Pumps Nos. 1 and 2 should be overhauled 
during the coming year, and such parts as are badly worn 
should be renewed. Pump No. 3 should be entirely rebuilt ; 
and I recommed that the one of the same pattern now stored 
at the Albany-street yard be repaired. This would save all 
the delay caused by repairing No. 3. 

The grounds around the Water Tower at Mt. Bellevuc, 
West Roxbury, are in good condition, but the tower should 
be painted during the coming year. The one at Orient 
Heiofhts, East Boston, is in good condition. 

Pipe Yard and Buildings. — The machine-shop is in good 
condition. The asphalt on the second floor of the stal)le is 
in a bad condition, and it should be renewed during the 
coming summer. I would respectfully call your attention to 
my recommendation of last 3'ear, in regard to a two-story 
brick building to be erected on the north side of the yard. 

Dist7'ict Yards. — The yards at East Boston, Dorchester, 
and Brighton are in good condition, but the one at West 
Eoxbury is in i)Oor condition, and I would again recommend 
that a site be obtained for a yard for this district. 

Reservoirs. — The grounds around Parker Hill, East 
Boston, and South Boston are in good condition. 

Meters. 

Cochituate Division. — Two hundred and ten meters htive 
been applied, and 137 have been discontinued, making a net 
increase of 73, and the total number in service 3,912. 

Mystic Division. — Forty-nine meters have been applied 
and twenty have been discontinued, making a net increase 
of 29, and the total number in service 435. 

Waste Detection. 

The following table shows the work done by the inspec- 
tors in this depai'tment during the past year, having inspected 
the entire territory supplied by the Cochituate and Mystic 
systems : 

Premises examined . . . . . . 74,943 

Defective fixtures ...... 10,964 

Reexamination . . . . . . . 9,737 

Second notice to repair issued . . . . 815 

Second reexamination made .... 858 

Wilful-waste notices issued . . . . 140 

Hopper water-closets not self-closing reported . 42 



Water-Supply Department. 



39 



The defective fixtures may be divided into the following 
classes : 



Ball-cocks .... 

Faucets, — sink, bowl, and bath-tub 
Water-closets .... 
Services burst inside building 
Services burst outside building . 
AYilful waste .... 



0,031 
3,852 
1,739 

751 
89 

140 



Deacon Meter System. 

There are now in use 81 meters, — 74 on the Cochituate 
system and 7 on the Mystic system. 

The consolidated results of the readings of the various sec- 
tions are shown in the following table, in which is given the 
final readinof of 1891 and the first and last reading: of 1892 : 





a 
o 

"5 
ft 
o 


1891. 


1893. 




2d Reading. 


1st Reading. 


2d Reading. 




Daily con- 
sumption. 


Night 
consump- 
tion. 


Daily con- 
sumption. 


Night 
consump- 
tion. 


Diiily con- 
sumption. 


Night 
consump- 
tion. 


Cochituate .... 
Mystic 


337,900 
42,600 


Gallons. 
50.6 
40.6 


Gallons. 
31.3 
26.2 


Gallons. 
52.8 
39.7 


Gallons. 
32.9 
23.8 


Gallons. 
54.2 
43.0 


Gallons. 
35.0 
27.3 



In connection with the meters, out of 3,746 night exami- 
nations by means of the church and sidewalk shut-offs, there 
were 1,454 detections of defective fixtures, and 14 of wilful 
waste. There were also 658 hand-hose reported for non- 
payment. 

Water-Posts. 

Seventy-three water-posts have been erected and four 
abandoned, making an increase of 69, and the total num- 
ber in use 320. 

Fountains. 

Six drinking-fountains were established and one aban- 
doned. 

Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Company. 

The pipe system of the Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Works 
became a part of the Eastern division January 10, 1893. 

The following tables show in detail the work performed 
by this division during the year : 



40 



City Document No. 39. 



Statement of Location, Size, and Number of Feet of Pipe 
laid during tlie Year ending- January 31, 1893. 

Note. — B. indicates Boston; S.B., South Boston; E.B., East Boston; Rox., Roxbury; 
Dor., Dorchester; W.R., West Roxbury; Bri., Brighton. 



In what Street. 



Chester sq 

East Chester park 
Swett 



Chester sq. 
Swett . . . 



Commonwealth ave. 

Deerfield 

Dudley ave. . . . . 



Berkeley .... 
Deertield . . . . 

Swett 

Byron 

Prescott . . . . 
Brookline ave. . 
Creighton . . . 
Fenway .... 
Hunneman . . . 

Lawn 

Parker Hill ave. 

Parker 

Riverway . . . 

Swett 

Westminster . . 
Ashmont . . . . 
Blue Hill ave. . 
Blue Hill ave. . 
Dewey 



Between what Streets. 



Washington and Tremont . , 

Albany and Washington . . . 

East Chester park and Boston 

Total 30-inch 



S.B.and B.| 



Shawmut ave. and Tremont 

Albany and EUery 

Total 24-inch 



B. I 24 
S.B.&. Rox. 



Deerfield and Sherborn .... 

Beacon and Commonwealth ave. 

Bellevue ave. and Brandon . . . 

Total 16-inch 



W.R. 



OvertheB.& A. R.R. bridge .... 
Commonwealth ave. and Bay State road 

Boston and EUery 

Saratoga and Bennington 

CheUea and B., L., & R. B. R.R. . . . 

Boylston and Bellevue 

Day and Centre 

From Parker 

Washington and Harrison ave 

From Hayden 

Hillside ave. and Parker 

Huntington ave. and Westland ave. . . 
Huntington ave. and Brookline ave. . . 
East Chester park and M.Y. & N.E. R.R., 

Ruggles and Williams 

Newhall and Neponset ave 

Fremont antj Tileston ave 

Evelyn and Morton 

Danube and Howard ave 

Carried forward 



B. 



S.B. 
E.B. 



Dor. 



30 



1,278 

46 

2,101 



3,425 



84 
121 
205 



132 
895 



213 

33 

70 

138 

57 

326 

358 

26 

513 

118 

291 

195 

3,799 

282 

378 

72 

1,452 

lb7 

29 

8,487 



"Water-Supply Department. 
Statement of Liocation, Size, etc. — Continued. 



41 



In what Street. 



Fremont 

Harvard 

Lauriat ave. . . . 
Mountain ave. . . 

Milton ave 

Morton 

Magnolia 

Nelson 

Park 

Kockville 

Savin Hill ave. . . 

Westville 

Water 

Brandon 

Beech 

Moss Hill road . . 
Newhergh . . , . 

Prospect 

Vermont ave. . . . 

Williamrt 

Washington . . . 

Weld 

Woodland ave. . . 

Belvidere 

Devonshire . . . . 

Stanhope 

Taylor 

Brook 

Albany-street yard 
Boylston sq. . . . 
Cromwell . . . . 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward . . , 
Norfolk and Blue Hill ave. . 

School and Kilton 

Lyons and Mountain ave. . . 

From Lauriat ave 

Fuller and Fairmount . . . 
Fuller and Codman .... 
Quincy and Lawrence ave. . 

Norfolk and Evans 

Dorchester ave. and Vinson 
Oakland and Blue Hill ave. . 
Spring and Grampian way . 

Draper and Dltson 

Walnut and Taylor 

Dudley ave. and Aldvich . . 
Cypress and Newbergh . . . 
May and Woodland road . . 
Brandon and Berry .... 
Amherst and Linden .... 

From Corey 

Washington and Plainfield . 
Schumann and Cottage . . . 
Dwinel and Aid rich .... 
Moss Hill road and Pond . . 

Total 12.inch 



Dalton and Bothnia . 
Franklin and Milk . . 
Berkeley and Morgan 
Water and Franklin . 
Berry and Hill . . . . 
Total 10-inch . . . 



From Albany st 

Washington and Boylston . . 
West Chester park and Dalton 

Carried forward 



Dor. 



W.R. 



Dor. 
W.R. 



8,487 
409 
375 
485 
590 
183 
163 
118 
186 

1,021 
632 
126 
224 
307 
481 

1,058 
917 
578 
108 
329 
153 

2,042 

207 

458 

19,637 

298 
251 
433 
172 
60 
1,214 

183 
364 
450 

997 



42 City Document No. 39. 

Statement of Liocation, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



Chatham row . 
Chatham . . . 
Gilbert pi. . . 
Merchants row 
State ..... 



Stanhope 

AVest Chester park 
Washington . . . 

Jackson 

Gladstone .... 
Brunswick .... 
Elmwood . . . . 
Hampshire . . . . 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward .... 

State and Chatham 

Merchants and Chatham row . 

Summer and Aldine 

State and Chatham 

Merchants row and Broad . . 
Washington and Devonshire . 

Morgan and O. C. R.R 

St. Botolph and O. C. R.R. . . 
Boylston and Boylston square 
Boston and Dorchester ave. . 

Selma and Park 

Warren and Blue Hill ave. . . 
Linden park and King .... 
Ruggles and Vernon ..... 



Kingsbury ...... Granger and Bainbridge 



Pontine . . 

Reading . . 

Texas . . . 

Argyle . . . 

Brookford . 

Ballon . . . 
Bowdoin sq. 



Bernard 

Clayton 

Fenton 

Huntoon 

Kenwood 

Mayfield 

Melville ave 

N. Munroe terrace . . 

Nightingale 

Puritan ave 

Rosemont terrace . . . 



Norfolk ave. and Clifton . . 

Swett and Kemble 

Tremont and Elmwood . . 
Dorchester and Welles aves. 
Danube and Howard ave. . 

From Jones ave 

Westville and Geneva ave. . 
" " Dakota . . . 

Harvard and Nightingale . . 
Freeport aad Fenton . . . . 
Clayton and Fenton pi. . . . 
Medway and Butler . . . . 
Washington and Seaborn . 

From Pleasant 

Upland and Dorchester ave. 
Prom Neponset ave 

" Bernard 

" Richfield 

" Rosemont 



SB. 
E.B. 
Rox. 



Dor. 



Carried forward 



997 
1-53 
249 
184 
115 
207 
145 
247 
42 
IS 
174 
108 
488 
413 
475 
48 
589 
1,128 
322 
299 
96 
227 
214 
2b0 
211 
8 
252 
181 
481 
436 
615 
500 
699 
87 



Water-StjppIiY Depaktment, 43 

Statement of liOcatioii, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



W. Park 

Aldrich 

Brandon 

Boylston 

Billings 

Burley 

f arquhar 

Granville 

Hemlock 

Lotus pi 

Mendum 

Proctor 

Prospect 

Rosllndale ave. . . 

Selwyn 

S. Walter .... 
Sycamore .... 

Temple 

Argyle road . . . 

Aldie 

Appleton road . . 

Dustan 

Faneuil 

George 

Hill 

Kinross road . . . 
Western ave. . . . 

Albany-st.yard . . 
Commonwealth ave, 

Lenox 

New comb .... 
St. Stephens . . . 
Willow 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward .... 
Washington and Herbert . . . 
Brandon and Cornell .... 
Linden and Bellevuc ave. . . 

Centre and Burr 

From Centre 

Dale and Metropolitan ave. . . 

South and Centre 

From Beech 

Washington and Bellevue ave. 

" " Stony Brook 

Fairview and Walter 



Linden and Brandon 

Cornell and Beech 

Hewlett and Farquhar 

Robert and S. Fairview 

Poplar and Hathorne 

Willow and Keath ave 

Commonwealth ave. and Chiswick road, 

Franklin and Everett 

From Lake 

Cambridge and No. Beacon .*..... 

Bigelow and Washington 

Spring and No. Beacon 

Murdock and Lucas 

Commonwealth ave. and Sutherland road, 

Market and the bridge 

Total 8-inch 



From Albany 

Kenmore and Brookline ave. 
Reed and Harrison ave. . . 



From Gainsborough . . 

Beacon and Mt. Vernon 

Carried forward . . 



Dor. 
W. R. 



10,746 
318 
654 
804 

32 
295 
185 
799 
407 
599 
326 
110 
305 
544 
455 

41 
100 

24 
486 
245 
402 
556 
162 
183 
416 
171 
598 
129 



83 
313 
213 
216 
83 
35 
943 



44 City Document No. 39. 

Statement of Liocation, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



Douglass . . . . 
East Fifth . . . 
Howell . . . . 
Old Harbor pi. . 
West Broadway 
Webster pi. . . 
Bremen . . . . 
Falcon . . . . . 
Morris .... 
Wordsworth . . 

Buckley ave. . . 
Burney . . . . 
Dacia . . . . < 
Duncan . . . , 
Eldora . . . . . 
Edgewood pai'k 
Farnham . . . , 
G-rotto glen . . , 
Holborn park . , 
Hammet ave. . . 
Hutchings . . . 
Hygeia road . . 
Ingleside . . . . 
Intervale . . . , 
Johnsou ave. . • 
Juniper . . . , 

Kent , 

Linden Park . . 
Mausur . . . , 
Mort'land ... 
Posen .... 
Rand pi. . . . 
Sunset .... 
Smith .... 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward 

Eighth and Ninth 

H and I 

Boston and Dorchester ave 

Old Harbor and Atlantic 

F and Dorchester 

From Fifth 

Curtis and Saratoga 

Meridian and Brooks 

Putnam and Brooks 

Bennington and B., L., & R. B. R.R. 

Pope and Saratoga 

From Johnson ave 

Tremont and Dell ave 

Dove and Dalmatia 

Ruggles and Ward 

Hillside and Sunset 

From Edgewood 

Gerard and Reading 

From Day 

From Holborn 

Weston and Sarsfleld 

Harold and Humboldt ave 

Gaston and Blue Hill ave 

Dacia and Blue Hill ave 

Warren " " " 

Centre and Buckley ave 

Thorntou and Juniper terrace . . . 

Roxbury and Vernon 

Simmons and Linden ave 

Day and Schiller 

From Dennis 

" Ai'klow 

" Rand 

Hillside and Eldora 

Whitney and Bumstead lane .... 
Carried forward 



S.B. 



Rox. 



943 
228 
251 
122 

48 
758 
172 
138 
641 
116 

84 
275 
156 

53 
133 

84 
270 

86 
110 
101 
152 
132 

55 
513 
144 
601 

23 
202 
210 
212 
104 

33 

64 

113 

136 

231 

7,694 



"Water-Supply Department. 
Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



45 



In what Street. 



Shepard . . . 
Schiller . . . 
Southwood , . 
Street . . . . 

Vine 

Willow Park . 
Blomedon . . 
Bellevue . . . 
Barnes . . . . 
Brent . . . . 
Birch . . . . 
Bicknell . . . 
Court . . . . 
Coolidge ave. . 
Cook's court . 
Corwin . . . . 
Chipinan . , . 
Chapman ave. 
Coffey . . . . 
Ditson . . . . 
Dean ave. . . 

Ellet 

Evelj-n . . . 
Elmont . . . 
Edwin . . . . 
Fremont pi. . 
Gayland ave. . 
Gibson .... 
Greenhays . . 
Humphrey sq. 
Hodges court . 
Harlow . • . . 
Hartford pi . . 
Howe . . . . 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward . . , . . 

From Tremont , 

Minden and Heath 

Edgewood and Blue Hill ave. 

From Heath 

Dudley and Forest 

From Shawmut ave 

" Tolman 

Quincy and Kane 

Dorchester ave. and O. C. R R. 
"Washington and Carlisle . . . . 
Lauriat ave. and Oak terrace . . 

Har\-ard and White 

From Stoughton , 

Standish and Warner aves. . . , 

From Fremont pi 

Westville and Arcadia 

Norfolk and Torrey 

Birch and Lyons , 

Newhall and Neponset ave. . 

Leroy and Josephine 

From Howard ave , 

Adams and Dorchester ave. . , 
Norfolk and Blue Hill ave. . . . 
From Waterlow 

" Dorchester ave 

" Fremont 

" Judson 

Adams and Dorchester ave. . . 

Magnolia and Cedar 

Dudley and Iowa 

From Norfolk 

" Harlow 

" Washington , 

" Hancock , 



Carried for ward 



Kox. 



Dor. 



7,694 
213 
245 
135 
157 
140 
149 
193 

48 
328 
378 

52 
301 
184 
241 
170 

43 

51 
317 

46 
113 
163 

99 
646 
192 
1,148 
333 
112 

3d 
170 

60 
162 

69 
.168 
197 



46 CiTT Document No. 39. 

Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



Howard pi. . . . 
Intervale park . 
Jones ave. . . . 
Kenwood .... 
Lombard .... 
Leroy ..... 
Mattapan .... 
Miller's lane . . 

Mellen 

Merlin 

Mario w . . . . 
Moultrie .... 

Morse 

Kixon ..... 
NepoDsetave. . 
Oleander .... 
Percival ave. . . 
Patterson .... 

Roslin 

Richview .... 
Stanton .... 
Shawmut park . 

Street 

Saco 

Sidney pi. ... 
Columbia terrace 
Shenandoah . . 
Sagamore . . , 

Spring 

Spencer . . . . 

Street 

Savin Hill ave. . 
Tileston ave. . . 
Upland 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward ...... 

From Howard ave 

Upland and Bournside 

Ballon and Pratt 

AUston and Seaborn 

Bushnell and Carruth 

Ditson and Geneva ave 

Blue Hill and Tileston aves. . . . 

Washington and Baker pi 

Ashmont and Ocean 

W. Park and Jackson pi 

Park and Vinson 

From Seaborn 

Washington and Bowdoin ave. . . 

Mather and Centre 

Tileston and No. Munroe terrace . 

Bird and Alexander ave 

Church and Fox ave 

Codman and Brook 

Harley and Washington 

From Hillside 

Norfolk and Evans 

From King 

" Dalmatia 

" Neponset ave 

" Waterloo 

" Columbia 

Carruth and O. C.R.R 

Belfort and Romsey 

Savin Hill ave. and Bay 

Wheatland and Talbot aves. . . . 

From Tolman 

Spring and Grampian way . ■ , . 

Walk Hill and Mattapan 

Park and Melville ave 



Dor. 



Carried forward 





14,753 
167 


6 


" 


531 


" 


321 


" 


187 


" 


446 


" 


144 


" 


289 


" 


139 


" 


446 


" 


509 


" 


371 


" 


402 


" 


83 


" 


237 


" 


60 


" 


176 


" 


37 


" 


177 


" 


220 


" 


146 


" 


209 


" 


244 


" 


161 


" 


212 


" 


372 


" 


132 


" 


379 


" 


151 


" 


261 


" 


195 


« 


179 


" 


124 


" 


15 


" 


778 



23,253 



Water-Supply Depart.ment. 
statement of Liocation, Size, etc. — Continued. 



47 



In what Street. 



Upham 

Vaughan ave. . . . 

Vinson 

Waterloo 

Weetville 

"Wentworth . . . . 
Wrentham park . . 

"Walton 

Arundel 

Boylston terrace . . 

Boj-nton 

Cross 

Cranston 

Elgin 

Franklin park . . . 

Guernsey 

Hillside ave 

Hastings 

Havey 

Hillcrest 

Lamartine terrace . 

Loretto 

Linden 

Newbern 

Plainfield 

Perham 

Peter Parley road . 

Paul Gore 

Richards ave 

Robert , 

Rockview . . . . , 

Street . 

St. Thomas . . . . , 
Street 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward , 

Hancock and Gushing ave 

From Geneva 

Park and SJarlow 

Harvard and Elmont 

Draper and Corwin 

From Norfolk 

Dorchester ave. and O. C. R.R. . . . 

Harley and Washington 

Selwyn and Centre 

Centre and Boylston 

Centre and Call 

Augustus and Hillside ave 

Sheridan and Sheridan ave 

Hillcrest and 0. C. R.R 

From Morton 

South and O. C. R.R 

From Wenham 

Centre and Carl 

From Dudley ave 

Loretto and Elgin 

From Lamartine 

Centre and Hillcrest 

Prospect and Brandon 

Canterbury and Hyde Park line . . 

Williams and Keyes 

Mt. Vernon and O. C. R.R 

Forest Hill and Washington .... 

Danforth and Chestnut ave 

Huntington ave. and Hyde Park line 

Brookfield and So. Walter 

Green and St. John 

From Paul Gore 

Woodman and South 

From Wenham 



Dor. 



W.R. 



Carried forward 



23,253 

139 

24 

677 

42 

lOT 

363 

221 

183 

404 

1,205 

200 

65 

86 

93 

514 

350 

55 

335 

168 

307 

159 

640 

258 

220 

115 

642 

121 

387 

36 

32 

321 

143 

91 

190 

31,986 



48 City Document No. 39. 

Statement of L/Ocation, Size, etc. — Concluded. 



In what Street. 



Wenhain .... 

"Walter 

Alcot 

Bayard 

Berwick rond . . . 
Brentwood .... 
Chiswick road . . 
Duck lane .... 

Dunboy 

Everett terrace . . 

Garden 

Leicester 

Lawrence .... 
Kantasket ave. . . 

Street 

Shannon 

Surrey 

Surrey pi 

Street 

Selkirk road . . . 

Street 

Tremont 

Westford .... 
Westford pi. . . . 
Long island . . . 
Gallop's island . . 
Thompson's island 

Doody's court . . 
Humboldt park . . 
Maiden lane . . . 

Street 

Street 

Thompson's island 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward 

Weldon and Yale 

Centre and Bussey 

Mansfield and Franklin 

Kenneth and "Weitz 

Commonwealth ave. and Chiswick road, 

Franklin and Athol - . . . . 

Englewood ave. and Selkirk road . . . 

Smith and Western ave 

High and Faneuil 

From Westford 

Murdock and Lucas 

Surrey and Washington 

From Market 

Washington and Union 

From Webster 

Washington and Union 

Market and Leicester 

From Surrey 

" Murdock 

Sutherland and Kilsyth roads 

Duck lane and N. Harvard 

Washington and Newton line 

Raymond and Raymond 

From Westford 



Total 6-inch . . . 
From Geneva ave. . . , 

" Bower 

Reading and Hampden 
From Heath 

" Centre 



Total 4-inch 



Bri. 



Dor. 
Rox. 



31,986 
423 
555 
334 
60 
419 
248 



190 

202 

121 

202 

222 

50 

170 

222 

142 

217 

112 

180 

195 

217 

108 

2,874 

9S1 

6,772 

4 8,327 

143 

33 

41 

139 

154 

155 

665 



Water-Supply Department. 



49 



Statement of Pipes Lowered. 



In what Street. 


Between what Streets. 




<o 








P 


QD 




Dorchester ave. . • . 




Dor. 
WR. 


12 


484 


Dorchester ave. • . . 


Barnes and Welles ave 


246 


Franklin park .... 


From Morton 


213 


Total 12-inch 








89-3 














^^~ 






E.B. 


6 


250 


Clarkson 


Quincy and Barrington 


Dor 


260 


Sawyer ave 

Hillside ave 






jj 


125 


From Wenham 


W.R. 


« 
« 


136 


Street 




Bri. 


157 


Tale 




115 


Englewood ave. . . . 


Chiswick road and Chestnut-hill ave 

Total 6-inch 


163 




1,206 












Belaid. 












R6x. 


40 


213 




Laid Blow-off. 




Swett 


Near N. Y. & N. E. R.R. bridge 


Rox. 


12 


14 


Washington 


LaGrange and Cottage 

Abandoned Blow-off. 


W.R. 


4 


14 






Rox. 


4 


59 









50 



City Docibient No. 39. 



Pipes Abandoned during the Year ending January 31, 

1893. 



In what Street. 



Berkeley . . . 
Tremont .... 
Pranklin park . 

Lincoln .... 

Stanhope . . . 
Temple .... 
Shepard .... 
Small-pox hospital 
Westminster . . . 
Savin Hill ave. . . 

Taylor 

Water 

Albany-street yard 
Boylston sq. . . 
Chatham row . 

State 

Texas 



Between what Streets. 



Over the B. Ss A. R.R. bridge 
Heath and Brookline line . . 

From Morton 

Total 12.inch . 



Cambridge and Franklin 



Berkeley and O. C. R.R. . 
Hancock and Derne . . . 

From Tremont 

" Swett 

Ruggles and Williams . . 
Spring and Grampian way 
Water and Franklin . . . 
Walnut and Taylor . . . 
Total 6-inch 



From Albany st 

Boylston and Washington . 

Chatham and State 

Devonshire and Washington 

Tremont and Elmwood . . . 

Total 4-inch 



B. 
Rox. 
W.R. 



Bri. 



Rox. 



Dor. 



B. 



Rox. 



455 



281 



45 
22 
329 
378 
250 
172 
307 



2,183 



820 
238 
153 
145 
184 



1,040 



QQ 



12 

6 and 12 

10 

12 

6 and 8 



Water-Supply Department. 



51 



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52 



CiTr Document No. 39. 



CO 

a 



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83 



© 
fa 

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d 



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"Water-Supply Department. 



53 







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54 



City Document No. 39. 



Meters in Service, January 31, 1893. 



COCHITUATE. 


Diameter in Inches. 


Total. 


6 


4 


3 


2 


1^ 


1 


1 


1 


Worthington 


1 
2 


10 
18 


22 
32 


115 
36 


98 
80 


550 
206 


436 

241 

319 

76 

242 

3 

2 

2 


78 
1,172 



19 
4 
4 
6 
2 
2 


1,310 
1 787 


B. W. W 


319 






1 


5 


11 


23 


38 
51 
1 
1 


173 






297 


Ball & FittB 












s 


Thomson 








1 


1 


11 










4 


Nash 














2 
















1 


1 




















3 


29 


59 


163 


202 


847 


1,322 


1,287 


3,912 



Meters Applied. 





Diameter 


IN Inches. 








COCHITUATE. 

1 


6 


4 


3 


2 


1| 


1 


1 


1 


Total. 










5 

4 


4 
9 


18 
6 


37 

22 

1 

3 

28 


1 
38 

1 

1 


65 




1 


3 


2 


85 


B. W. W 


1 


Hertey 










3 


22 


7 












50 














1 


Am. Frost 














1 


1 




















1 


3 


2 9 


16 


46 


92 


41 


210 



Water-supply Department. 
Meters Discontimied, 



55 







Diameter in 


Inches. 






COCHITUATE. 


4 


3 


2 


n 


1 


s 


' 


Total. 






1 


4 
2 


3 

4 


9 
3 


16 

3 

15 


7 
59 


40 




1 


72 


B.W. W 


15 








2 




2 

1 


4 








4 


1 


5 












1 




















1 


1 


8 


7 


15 


38 


67 


137 



Meters Purchased. 





Diametee in Inches. 




COCHITUATE. 


6 


4 


3 


1| 


1 


3 


1 


Total. 




1 
1 


5 
7 


1 
4 

1 


5 
26 


3 

8 


50 
60 




65 




106 




1 










62 

1 


175 
1 


2 
2 


237 












4 












2 




















2 


12 


6 


31 


74 


286 


4 


415 



Meters sent to Factory for Repairs. 





Diameteb in 


Inche 


s. 




COCHITUATE. 


2 


n 


1 


i 


1 


Total. 






1 


6 
13 
2 


1 

17 
3 


72 


8 






102 




1 


1 

1 


7 




1 








2 




2 














1 


3 


21 


28 


72 


120 



56 



City Document No. 39. 



Meters in Service, January 31, 1893. 









DiAMETEB 


IN Inches. 








Mystic. 


6 


4 


3 

6 

S 


2 


n 


1 


3 


1 








10 
7 
1 


36 

11 

3 


7 
2 
2 


73 

32 

6 


56 
42 


9 
93 


197 




2 


197 




12 


B. W. W 




1 




1 


Ball & Fitts 






2 


1 






3 










8 


17 




25 


















2 


18 


16 


51 


11 


119 


116 


102 


435 



Meters Applied. 





Mystic. 


Diameter in Inches. 






4 


3 


2 


n 


1 


S 


i 




Worthington 




2 
1 


1 
1 
1 


3 


1 


2 


6 
3 


10 


15 




15 








2 

7 


3 










9 




16 














3 


3 


3 1 


11 


18 


10 


49 



Meters Discontinued. 





Mystic. 


Diameter in Inches. 






3 


2 


1 


1 


» 


Total. 






2 


4 
1 
2 


1 
3 


6 


7 






10 




1 




3 












1 


2 


7 


4 


6 


20 



Water-Supply Department. 



57 



Meters sent to Factory for Repairs. 





Mystic. 


Diameter in Inches. 






1 


i 


i 


Total. 






3 
5 


11 


3 






16 




1 


1 












1 


8 


11 


20 



Meters Repaired in Service, 



Leak at spindle . 

" coupling . 

" packing . 

" stopcock . 
Clock broken , . 
" defaced . . 
Spindle broken . 
Gear " 

Lever " 

Pawl '< 

Ratchet " 
Stopped by fisli . 
Don't register . . 
Piston-rod broken 
Clock detached . 



Causes. 



Cochituate. 

62 
38 

9 

2 
32 
17 

3 

4 

2 

1 

1 



222 



Mystic. 



58 



City Document No. 39. 



Meters Changed. 



Causes. 



Ordered out for test , ■ 
Would not register . , 
Injured by hot water . 

No force 

Burst 

Body broken 

Gear " 

Clock " 

Valve " 

Spindle " 

Enlargement of service 

Clock defaced 

Leak at spindle . . . . 

Stopped by frost . . . . 

" " solder . . . 

Leak at body 

" " coupling . . . 

Lever broken 

Defective packing . . . 
Stoppage 



Cochituate. 



Mystic. 



208 

272 

9 

133 

88 

2 

8 

43 

1 

2 

46 

12 

37 

39 

2 

20 

10 



872 



Watee-Supply Depaetment. 



59 



General Statement of Meters for the Year ending 
January 31, 1893. 



In service, January 31, 1893 

New Bet 

Discontinued 

Changed 

Changed location 

Tested at shop 

Repaired at shop 

Repaired at factory .... 
Repaired in service .... 
Purchased 



COCHITUATB. 



Meters. 



3,912 
210 
137 
872 
21 

1,813 
330 
120 
222 
415 



Boxes. 



31 



Mtstic. 



Meters 



435 

49 

20 

89 

1 

138 
27 
20 
77 



Boxes. 



14 



Hydrants Established and Abandoned during the Year. 





Established. 


3 

o 


Abandoned. 


1 






o 


1 


>> 


a 
o 

o 

n 


>> 

o 


1 


o 


a 
o 

o 

M 


i 




2 


9 
3 

4 
17 
61 
43 
12 

2 


1 




12 
3 
4 
23 
84 
53 
22 
2 






2 


6 
3 

4 
5 
1 
1 


8 
3 

9 
19 

8 

8 


4 














3 

4 

1 


2 


2 
10 

7 
4 


4 




2 
4 
5 
5 


4 
18 
5 
4 


1 

1 


14 




65 


"West Roxbury 

Brighton 


45 
14 




2 














18 


151 


32 


2 


203 


8 


2 


25 


20 


55 


148 



GO 



City Document No. 39. 



Total Number of Hydrants in Use, January 31, 1893, 







1 


o 
1-1 


a 
1 


c 
o 

o 
P5 


Totals. 

1 




673 
211 
138 
667 
574 
119 
77 


227 

87 

84 

163 

363 

414 

256 

16 


68 
20 
24 
65 
187 
159 
59 


1 


518 
262 
138 
97 
72 
50 
36 


1,486 
581 






384 






1,196 

742 






428 




16 




5 






3 

7 


g 










7 






7 
4 
2 






7 


Long Island o . . . . » . . . 










4 












2 
















2,464 


1,623 


582 


1 


1,183 


5,853 



Water-Posts. 



DiSTKICT. 


Put in during 
the year. 


Abandoned 
during the year. 


Number now 
in Service. 




20 
1 
8 
8 

13 
6 

17 


1 
2 

1 


42 


East Boston 

South Boston 


23 
25 




60 


Dorchester 


72 




59 


Brighton 


39 






Totals 


73 


4 


3''0 







Water-Supply Department. fil 

Repairs of Pipes during the Year ending Jan. 31, 1893. 





Diameter of Pipes in Inches. 


Total. 




48 
1 

1 


40 
2 

2 


36 

1 

1 


30 
6 
2 

8 


28 

1 

1 


24 
2 

2 


20 

9 
2 
2 
4 

17 


16 
8 

1 

e 


12 

22 
3 
3 

4 
3 

44 


8 
9 

1 
1 
2 

1 

14 


6 

49 
3 
4 

20 
1 
6 

83 


4 

23 

1 
1 
3 

1 

1 

30 


3 

6 
1 

7 


2 
7 

4 

1 

1 
13 


n 

6 

1 
1 

8 


n 

5 


1 

19 

1 

3 

2 

25 


i 

12 

1 
2 

2 

1 

18 


s 


h 

7 

7 

8 

30 

62 






471 

142 

67 

203 

106 

70 

45 


663 


South Boston 

East Boston 

Roxbury 

Dorchester 

W. Roxbury 

Brighton 

Deer Island 


161 

94 

278 

117 

82 

48 

1 


Totals 


1,104 


1,444 



Causes of leaks that have occurred on 4-inch and upwards : 



Settling of earth 
Blasting . 
Defective joints 

" pipes 

'* stopcocks 

" packings . 

" stuffing-box 

In way of sewer trench 
Cap blown off 

Of causes on 3-inch and les 

Settling of earth 

" service-box 

' ' sewer trench 

Gnawed by rats 

Eaten by soil . 

Blasting . . . 

Struck by pick 

Broken by steam-roller 

Changed grade of street 

Changed location 

Uprights in way of edgestone 

Pipe in way of sewer trench 

Defective joints 

" packing . 



14 

9 
74 
11 

7 
78 
12 

6 

1 
— 212 



209 

5 

13 

13 

18 

3 

50 

1 

23 



50 

6 

24 

14 



Canned foi'ivard, 



437 



212 



62 



CiTT Document No. 39. 



Brought forvnard 
Defective coupllna; 










4^7 

. 26 


' ' stopcock 










. 45 


' ' pipes 
Stopped by dirt 
" gasiset 










158 
34 
11 


" tish 










45 


" rust 










363 


" frost . 










113 



212 



1,232 

1,444 

In addition to the above, 325 service-pipes were shut off 
for repairs inside of the street line, and notice of the same 
was sent to the On and Off Division of the Water-Income 
Department. 



Hydrant barrels changed for repairs 
Hydrant boxes renewed 
Stopcock boxes renewed 
Deacon meter boxes renewed 



263 

98 

191 

7 



Statement of Leaks and Stoppages from 1850 to 1893. 





DiAMETBB 


IN Inches. 




Tear. 


Four inches and 
upwards. 


Less than four 
inches. 


Total. 


1850 


82 
64 
82 
85 
74 
75 
75 
85 
77 
82 
134 
109 
117 
97 
95 


72 
173 
241 
260 
280 
219 
232 
278 
234 
449 
458 
399 
373 
397 
394 


104 


1851 


237 


1852 . . 


323 


1853 


345 


1854 


354 


1855 


294 


1856 


307 


1857 


363 


1858 


401 


1859 


531 


1860 


692 


1861 


508 


1862 


490 


1863. . 

1864 


494 
489 







Water-Supply Department . 



63 



Statement of Leaks and Stoppages from 1850 to 1893. 

Concluded. 





DiAMBTEB IN INCHES. 




Teak. 


Four inches and 
ujiwards. 


Less than four 
inches. 


Total. 


1865 


Ill 
139 
122 
82 
82 
157 
185 
188 
153 
434 
208 
214 
109 
213 
211 
135 
145 
170 
171 
253 
111 
150 
172 
216 
183 
180 
179 
212 


496 

636 

487 

449 

407 

707 

1,380 

1,459 

1,076 

2,160 

725 

734 

801 

1,024 

995 

929 

833 

1,248 

782 

1,127 

638 

725 

869 

1,140 

849 

718 

758 

1,232 


607 


1866 


675 


1867 

1868 


609 
531 


1869 


489 


1870 


926 


1871 


1,565 


1872 


1,647 


1873 


1,229 


1874 


2,554 


1875 


928 


1876 

1877 


948 
910 


1878 


1,237 


1879 


1,206 


1880 


1,064 


1881 


1,028 


1882 


1,418 


1883 


953 


1884 


1,380 


1885 


749 


1886 


875 


1887 


1,040 


1888 


1,356 


1889 


1,032 


1890 


898 


1891 


952 


1892 


1,444 







Eespectfullj yours, 

William J. Welch, 

/Superintendent, 



64 City Document No. 39. 



EEPORT OF THE RESIDENT ENGINEER AND 
SUPERINTENDENT OF THE WESTERN DIVI- 
SION. 



South Framingham, January 1, 1893. 
Robert Grant, Esq., Chairman Boston Water Board: 

Sir : The annual report for the Western Division of the 
Boston Water-Works is submitted herewith. 

SUDBURY-RlVER BaSINS. 

Water-shed, 75.2 square miles. 

The rainfall for 1892 was 40.96 inches at Framingham, 
and the mean rainfall taken at Framinirham, Dam 4, and 
Cordaville, was 41.61 inches; about 6.39 inches below the 
average. The quantit}' of water has been sufficient, and 
the quality has been good. The very low rainfall in Sep- 
tember and October caused heavy draughts upon the stor- 
age, but the dry period was hardly long enough to cause 
anxiety in regard to the supply. The greatly increased 
consumption of water, however, points to the necessity for 
a large increase at an early dsiy. 

Surveys have been continued throughout the year on 
different portions of the water-shed, principally in connec- 
tion with the takino-s of land on the borders of the brooks 
and for the construction of additional basins. During the 
latter part of the summer and the whole of the autumn 
Basin 4 was drawn down for the use of the cit}'^, greatly to 
the benefit of the quality of water delivered. 

The careful studies of the condition of the various sources 
of supply, already inaugurated, have been maintained during 
the year. 

The construction of Basin 6 has been vigorously pushed 
during the working season. Almost all of the stripping has 
been finished, and the embankment forming the dam is now 
more than half completed. Another season will see this 
important work finished and readv to be filled in the winter 
of 1893-94. 

The color of the water delivered to the consumers has been 
higher than in 1891, for reasons that will be alluded to 
farther on. 



Water-Supply Department. 65 



Basin 1. 

Grades, n. W., 161.00; Stone Crest, 157 .54. 
Area, 149 acres; Greatest Depth, 14 ft. ; Contents, 288,000,000 gals. 

On January 1, 1892, this basin stood at elevation 157.00 
above tide mai'sh level in Boston, from which all heights are 
reckoned. On January 3, waste over the crest began and 
continued until April 1(), when both sets of flash-boards 
were put in place. The surface fell to 155.55 on April 29, 
then rose to the top of the flash-boards on May 12, and 
water' was wasted, with the exception of a ^qw days towards 
the last of May, until June 7. The w^ater then gradually 
fell to 155.97 on September 24. Both sets of flash-boards 
were removed on August 24. During the remainder of the 
year the water was kept at al)out the level of the crest. 
The highest elevation was 159.60 on May 16, and the lowest 
155.55 on April 29. 

Water was drawn wholly from this basin for the supply of 
the city from January 9 to July 20, the water from the 
other basins being carried through Basin 1 on its way to the 
aqueduct. The 48-in. main in the bottom of this basin is in 
very })oor condition, and a limited amount of water only can 
be drawn through it without causing trouble. It should be 
thoroughly repaired during the coming year and before the 
consumption in the city reaches such a point as to interfere 
seriously with the work. I renew my recommendation of 
last 3'ear that studies should be made at once for putting this 
basin in as good condition as Basins 2, 3, and 4, with a view 
to using it as an additional settling basin. A flow of at least 
one and one-half millions of gallons has been daily passed 
into the river below the dam in accordance with the law. 

Basin 2. 

Grades, n. W., 168.00 ; Stone Crest, 165.87. 
Area, 137 acres ; Greatest Depth, 17 ft ; Contents, 530,000,000 galls. 

On January 1, 1892, the surface of the water was at eleva- 
tion 163.55, and rising rapidly. On January 3 it flowed 
over the stone crest, and so continued until April 21, with 
the exce[)tion of four days in February and two days in 
March. Both sets of stop-planks were put in position on the 
above date, and on April 28 waste over the planks began. 
This overflow contiiuiing an extra set of flash-boards was 
placed on top of the regular planks, and on May 11 the 
water had risen sufEciently to overflow, which did not cease 
until June 29. The surface then receded slowly. 

On July 20 one of the gates vvas opened to draw the sup- 



66 City Document No. 39. 

ply for the city, and the water fell to 161.36 on August 18, 
at which time the surface began to rise due to the drawing 
down of Basin 4. On September 23, one set of flash-boards 
was put in place to prevent overflow, and on October 8 the 
water reached grade 166.03. On November 19 the flash- 
boards were removed and water began to run over the crest. 
The basin was kept full with slight waste at times until 
December 12, when the water began to fall, reaching 163.30 
on December 31. The highest elevation during the year 
was on May 23, 167.97, and the lowest on November 10, 
159.54. 

Water for the supply of the city was drawn wholly from 
this source from January 1 to January 5 ; August 26 to 
August 29; August 31 to September 10; September 12 to 
November 5 ; November 17 to November 19 ; November 20 
to November 21 ; November 25 to November 27 ; Novem- 
ber 29 to November 30 ; and from December 9 to December 
11. 

The supply was drawn partially from this basin and par- 
tially from Basin 3 from July 20 to August 23 ; August 23 
to August 26; August 29 to August 31 ; September 10 to 
September 12 ; November 5 to November 17 ; November 19 
to November 20 ; November 23 to November 25 ; Novem- 
ber 30 to December 1 ; December I to December 4 ; Decem- 
ber 7 to December 9 ; and from December 11 to the end of 
the year. 

Until April there were very few organisms in Basin 2. 
During the spring there was a slight growth of Synedra, fol- 
lowed by a slight growth of Cyclotella. The latter were 
again abundant in September, decreasing during October and 
increasing again greatly during November. They disap- 
peared suddenly during the last part of November. These 
Cyclotella were very minute. Protococcus was present from 
April to November, and was most abundant during July and 
August. 

Cedar swamp, about eight miles above Basin 2, furnishes 
a breeding place for many troublesome organisms, which, 
under favorable conditions, may develop in great numbers 
and be carried down to stock the reservoirs below. A 
notable instance occurred during the month of August, 1892. 

During the first week of this month there was a great 
quantity of Anabsena (Cyanophyceoe) in Cedar swamp 
pond, about 8,400 filaments per c.c. 

On August 15, after a rain, the Anabaena was carried 
down streiim and into Basin 2, where 2,064 filaments per c.c. 
were found at the upper end of the basin. A week later it 
was abundant at the gate-house and on the screens at Farm 



\Yater- Supply Department. 07 

pond, and immediately afterwards appeared at the terminal 
chamber at Chestnut-hill Reserv^oir, where there were 32(i 
filaments per c.c. By September 1 it had become distributed 
through the reserv^oir, and was found in small quantities in 
the city taps. The Anabcena flourished in Basin 2 for about 
a month ; then it gradually decreased and by October 17 had 
practically disappeared. The filaments were quite long, 
many of them being over one millimeter in length and easily 
seen with the naked eye. When present in great quantities 
the water assumed a turbid appearance, and at times had a 
peculiar taste varying from time to time and described by 
Mr. AVhipple as resembling the taste of a nasturtium stem, 
and sometimes distinctly oily or musty. The taste could 
not be traced to the city taps. 

This abnormal growth of Anabaena appeared in Cedar 
Swamp pond immediately after the hot weather in July. 
The history of its development and passage through the 
basins and aqueducts is interesting as showing the influence 
of these particular dangers and the great advantage of abun- 
dant storage between the sources of supply and the city 
taps. 

The average color of the water in Basin 2 at the surface, 
mid-depth, bottom, and throughout the extent of the basin, 
with the exception of a slight increase at the inlet, is 
remarkal)ly uniform. It has been almost exactly 1.01 
throughout the year. 

Basin 3. 

Grades, n. TT., 177.00; Stone Crest, 175.24. 
Area, 283 acres; Greatest Depth, 21 feet ; Contents, 1,081,000,000 galls. 

On January 1, 1892, this basin stood at elevation 1(37.19, 
and on the 18th had risen high enough to flow over the stone 
crest, and continued to overflow until June 25, except for a 
number of days in February, March, and May, due to the 
waste-gates having been opened, and a few days in June 
when the experiment was tried of placing temporary flash- 
boards on the dam. The water fell to grade 169.14 on 
August 210, due to drafts for the supply, and the surface was 
kept at about this level until November 16. After this date 
the water rose gradually, and on December 12 reached 
174.50, and on the 31st was at 171.86. 

The highest point reached during the year was 176.17 on 
June 14 and the lowest 167.19 on January 1. 

Water for the supply of the city has been at no time 
drawn solely from this source, but has occasionally been 
drawn partly from this basin and partly from Basin 2. 



68 City Document No. 39. 

On August 8 it was noticed that the water at the bottom 
of the basin had quite a strong musty taste, but at no time 
during the year has the water been as bad us usual. 

The spring growth of diatoms was Lirge ; Synedra and 
Asterionella developed first, the latter soon disappearing. 
The Synedra, however, remained abundant through May. 
Then came a growth of Tabellaria continuing through July, 
followed by a short run of Cylotella. Chlorophycete and Cyan- 
ophyceiE (Microcystis and Coelospherium) were unusually 
abundant during the summer ; the latter developed to such 
an extent during the last of August and the first of Septem- 
ber that a thick scum was frequently seen on the surface. 
Tal)ellaria and Astrionella grew rapidly during September 
and October. In November the latter disappeared, but the 
former flourished during the remainder of the year. 

The mean temperature of the water has been about 52^° 
Fahr. The mean color has been somewhat higher than in 
1801. 

Plans have been perfected for a filter basin on the Marl- 
boro' brook. Surveys and plans were completed for takings 
on the line of this brook, and on October 25th a taking was 
made of about 32.8 acres of land in the City of Marlboro' 
for the purpose of preventing future pollution, as popula- 
tion extends, and for the purpose of building filter beds to 
filter the waters of the brooks before discharging them into 
the feeders to the basins. The result of this experiment 
cannot be accurately foretold. 

Basin 4. 

Grades, R. W., 21o.21; Stone Crest, 214.21. 
Area, 162 acres; Greatest Depth, 49 feet ; Contents, 1,416,400,000 galls. 

On January 1, 1892, the surface of this basin stood at 
elevation 207.85. The water gradually rose and on January 
21 was flowing over the stone crest. This waste continued 
until April 25, when the lower set of flash-boards was set in 
position. May 3, the basin was wasting over the flash- 
boards, and so continued until May 22, when the boards were 
removed. On May 31 they were restored, and on June 2 the 
second set added. June 10, the water began to run over the 
second set, and so overflowed until July 17. On August IH 
the supply for the city was drawn from this source, and the 
basin was practically emptied during the remainder of the 
summer and the autumn. The water was drawn down to 
grade 185.34 on November 5, the lowest point reached dur- 
ing the year. About twenty-nine feet of water were used 
and contributed materially to keep up the quality of the sup- 
ply in the city. 



WATER-SurPLY Department. 69 

The flow of Cold Spring brook has been continuously 
gauged at the iidet to the basin to form an estimate of the in- 
fluence of the storage in the soil surrounding the basin, on 
the available quantity of the supply. 

During the autumn the l)asin force was employed in grad- 
ing and planting the grounds around the new outlet channel 
and in repairing damages caused by the construction force 
last year. 

The quality of the water has been excellent during the 
whole year. The prevailing organism has been the Cyclo- 
tella. It was present in January, again in May and June, 
aud again in October, November, and December when the 
numbers were unusually high. The organisms were very mi- 
nute however, and the Hgures reported do not represent cor- 
rectly the amount of organic matter present. This suliject 
of quantity i'pr.s7<.s' mimbers will be discussed more fully un- 
der another heading. Thei'e were two short growths of 
Synedra in May, June, and October. Protococcus in small 
quantities was present at all times. 

The color of the inlet averaged 1.43 this year against 1 23 
in 1891, and the color of the water generally was higher than 
last year. 

The drafts on this basin, coupled with the general studies 
made in the laboratory on the colors of the waters, h.is led 
me to the conclusion that it will be difficult, if not impossi- 
ble, to maintain a standard of color throughout the year in 
the tap-water. 

As the basins will be generally exhausted by the early 
winter, in the process of equalizing the flow, the supply must 
then be kept up by the more direct flow of the streams, so 
that in the winter it is prob;»ble that the color of the water 
in Boston will bo high compared with the rest of the year, 
or until the melting snows bring relief. This convince^ me 
of the imj)ortance of carrying out the following plans in the 
near future: 1st, the judicious limiting of the consumption 
of water; 2d, the provision of storage on a more geixMous 
scale than it is now customary to provide for, even with our 
liberal figures; and 3d, the securing of a large area In the 
country adjacent to the aqueducts for the filtration of the 
supply, a measure which I believe the future will demand. 

Whitehall Pond. 

Elevation, II.W., 327.91; Bottom of Galeif, 311.70 ; Area, 60S acres; Contents, 
1,237,000,000 galla. 

On January 1, 18'.>2, the surface of the water in this ])ond 
stood at elevation 322.93, or 4.98 feet below high water. 
The pond then gradually rose to 325.10 on April 10, then 



70 City Document No. 39. 

fell to 324.89 on April 29, again rose to 325.42 May 29, the 
highest point reached during the .year, and then gradually 
receded to 322.39 November 9, the lowest point reached. 
The pond then rose slowly to 323.06 on December 31. 

The gates were closed from 7 A.M. November 29 to 
7 A.M. December 12. During the remainder of the 3'ear 
one gate has been partially open all the time to provide water 
for the mills as they wish to use it. A Aveir measurement 
has been kept of the amount of the flow from the water-shed. 
Owing to the dry season it has been unnecessary to waste 
any water from Whitehall pond during the year. In fact, 
with the ordinary supply drawn for the mills, the pond has 
notiilled during the year. 

The dredging plant built last year has been anchored 
securely in the pond and regularly inspected. During the 
summer the decks were wet down twice a day to prevent 
them from opening. 

Daily heights are now kept of this pond, and the influence 
of its storage taken into account in calculating the yield of 
the Sudbury-river water-shed. 

Much time has been given during the 3^ear to questions 
connected with the suits for damages occasioned by the 
"faking," and there are now prospects of a speedy trial of 
what is known as the " Whitehall Pond case." 

Hypothetical tables of yield of the 4.353 square miles, 
comprising the Whitehall-pond water-shed (20 per cent, 
water-surface), have been prepared covering sixteen years 
by months. 

There was no unusual growth of organisms in this source 
of supply during 1892. In the winter Infusoria (Gleno- 
dinium, Dinobryon, and Synura) were abundant, chiefly in 
the shallow portions, which have been exposed during the 
greater part of the year. Late in the autumn Uroglena 
uppearccl at the outlet in small numbers, but sufficient to 
give an oily taste to the water. 

The usual color of the upper pond was 0.50, and at the 
weir^ or outlet, the color has been 0.90. On the shallow 
flowage the color varies from 0.70 to 2.00. 

Farm Pond. 

Grades, n.W., 149.23; Area, 165 acres; Contents, 167,500,000 galls. 

On January 1, 1892, the water in this pond stood at 
elevation 148.99. The surface has been kept at about high- 
Avtiter mark during the year. 

Water was drawn from this source for the sup]:)ly of the 
city from 7 A.M. January 1 to 2 P.M. Februai-y 25," 7 A.M. 



Watek-Supply Department. 71 

May 14 to 10 A.M. July 21, 7 A.M. August 18 to 1 P.M.^ 
August 22, and from 10 A.M. August 30 to 9 A.M. 
September 12. 

The Framingham Water Company has pumped 82,800,000 
gallons from the pond during the year, or 226,000 gallons 
daily. The highest elevation reached was 149.50 on May 
23, and the lowest 147.91? on January 12. 

Lake Cochituate. 

n. W., 134.36 ; Area, 800 acres; Capacity above 127.36, 1,308,000,000 galls. 

January 1, 1892, the lake stood at elevation 127.34. The 
surface then rose to 132.43 on January 29. On that day 
water from the Sudbuiy was turned into the lake, and Ma}'' 4 
the surface stood at high water. From May 20 to May 28 
the waste-gate was opened. June 20 the draught from the 
Sudbury was finally stopped. The lake fell to 127.53 
November 13, and to 127.50 December 10 ; at this time the 
flow in the aqueduct was shut off and the surface rose to 
128.39 December 31. The flash-boards have not been re- 
moved from the dam at the outlet during the year. The 
amount of water drawn from the Sudbury was 902,300,000 
gallons and the amount wasted 281,000,000 gallons. Owing 
to lack of water we have been unable to carry on experi- 
ments at the outlet dam to determine the co-efiicients of gate 
and roll-way. 

At the beginning of the year Melosira and Asterionella 
were very abundant. In February the former declined, but 
increased again in March and April. During the first week 
in May they suddenly disappeared. Asterionella were pres- 
ent throughout the spring months. Synedra, Tabellaria, 
Stephanodiscus, and Cyclotella were present during this 
part of the year. In the winter. Infusoria (principally 
Synedra) were present under the ice and gave an un[;leasant 
taste to the water. In June Chlorophycese (Protococcus) 
and Cyanophycete (Microcystis) appeared and remained 
abundant throughout the summer. In October, Asterionella 
developed even before the water turned over, the growth 
lastino' about a month. It decreased durinsj November and 
increased again in December, and was accompanied by a 
growth of Stephanodiscus and Melosira. 

At the bottom, circulation ceased about the middle of 
April. The color gradually increased to 2.50, where it re- 
mained constant for three months. This color is not as high 
as has been obtained in previous years. The turning over 
occurred November 8—15. The mean temperature at the 
bottom during stagnation was 44.3 Fahr., and it only varied 



72 



City Document No. 39. 



two or three tenths of a degree from this temperature for 
three months. Temperatures were taken at intervals of five 
feet in the vertical during the period of stagnation, and they 
are shown in the accompanying phite. The averages of 
these temperatures compared with the averages for 1891 
appear on the second plate. It will be noticed that the 
curves cross each other. The explanation is this : In 1891 
the temperature of the air from April 15 to November 15 
was higher than during the corresponding season in 1892, 
consequently the surface temperatures are higher in 1891 ; 
but in 1892 the hot weather came early, and the lower layers 
became warmer before circulation ceased. 

The following examinations have been made of the brooks 
feedinir the lake : 



Snake brook, at month . . . 
Pegan brook, at mouth . . . 

Dug pond outlet 

Course brook, at mouth . . 
Beaver dam brook, at mouth 



No. of 
Obs. 



Usual 
Color. 



0.45 
0.15 
0.12 
0.8-1 
0.80 



Minimum 
Color. 



0.12 

0.07 
0.06 
0.47 
0.48 



Maximum 
Color. 



0.95 
0.40 
0.20 
1.60 
1.40 



Dudley Pond. 

Grades, n. W., 746.16; ISinch Pipe, 130.36 ; 18-inch Pipe, 127 .36. 
Area, 81 acres ; Greatest Depth, 27 feet ; Contents, 230,000,000 galls. 

On January 1, 1892, the suiface of the water in this pond 
was at elevation 139. 4G, or 7 feet below high water, and the 
stop-planks were out of the gate-chamber. When the 
planks were replaced on March 21 the elevation of the pond 
was still 139. 4G and rose slowly to 139.81 on December 31. 
The masonry in the chamber having been in a bad condition 
for some time, advantage was taken of the low stage of water 
to repair the stonework. It was partially taken down and 
thoroughly rclaid and pointed. The iron cover has been 
securely fastened and locked to prevent interference with the 
stop-planks. 

SUDBURY-EIVER AqUEDUCT. 

Grades, 141.352 at Farm Pond; 124.061 at Terminal Gate-IToiise. 
Length, 13.89 miles ; Size, 7 ft. 8 in. X 9 ft. ; Capacity, 109,000,000 galls. 24 hotirs. 

The three portions of this aqueduct are in good condition. 
The su[)ply and Farm-])ond aqueducts were cleaned by ma- 
chine on August 23 and November 22. 

























































































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i 



Plate in 




Water-Supply Department. 73 

The main aqueduct was cleaned b}^ machine between Farm 
pond and the \\'est Syplion Chamber on November 29, and 
by hand between the East Syphon Chamber and Chestnut- 
hill Reservoir ou December 5 and 6. 

The 48-inch pipe in Basin 1 has been twice flushed into 
the river below Dam 1. 

Owing to work during the early part of the year on the 
Beacon-street tunnel, the main aqueduct has been in use 
only during- 275 days. In addition, however, it was in use 
as far as Course brook waste-weir for 10 days. The 
supply aqueduct was in use for 285 days. As the supply 
for the city was drawn for some time from Farm pond, the 
Farm-pond aqueduct was in use only during 171 days, or 114 
days less than the supply aqueduct. 

The amount sent to the city has been 9,635,200,000 gal- 
lons, or a daily average of 20,320,200 gallons for the year. 
Besides the above, 902,300,000 gallons have been run to 
Lake Cochituate. 

As the usual spring cleaning was omitted this year the 
the interior of the aqueduct was very dirty in November. A 
heavy coating of black deposit was found throughout the 
whole length, with large ])atches of a fibrous growth tilled 
with mud. The growth of Spongilla Fluviatilis exceeded 
any previous experience with this aqueduct. It occurred in 
large patches all along the line, and the concrete bottoms 
of Rockland and Badger Hill tunnels were covered with the 
sponge. 

From the West Pipe Chamber to the terminal gate-house 
the black deposit was not so extensive, but sponge was found 
in great jiatches, and in Beacon-street tunnel it was as bad as 
in the other tunnels. These facts emphasize the importance 
of semi-annual cleanings. 

During the 3car the fences on the road crossings from 
Newton Centre to South Natick have l)een rebuilt. All 
the brush growing along the line has been mowed and re- 
pairs upon the eml)ankments have been made. 

It has been found necessary to mow the grass on all em- 
bankments. If this is not done, the roots of the grass decay 
and it affords a chance for the moles to burrovr in winter, 
making holes in the embankments. 

On January 14, 1892, the third season's work of lining the 
Beacon-street tunnel was begun. The track and tunnel were 
first cleaned and the bottom prepared. Centres were taken 
down and reset and one switch removed. 

February 1, laying of concrete was begun at Stations 
800 + 85 on the bottom and at 801-4-05 on the top, and on 
April 26 the work was completed to 798+10 on the bottom 



74 



City Document No. 39. 



and 798+ 18 on the top. About 280 feet of lining were put 
in place. The westerly end was finished with steps to 
facilitate the carrying on of the work in a westerly direction, 
should it be found necessary to continue the lining in the 
future from farther giving away of the roof. As it is not 
intended to do more at present, all the cars, tools, and mate- 
rials were removed and the shanties sold at auction. The 
track only was left. 

The total cost of the concrete laid during the year was 
$12.85 per cubic yard. The following statistics cover the 
whole three seasons' work : 



Lining begins Station . 




798+18 


" " ends " 




810 


Total length 




1,182 feet. 


Eate of progress per day 




6.4 " 


Cubic yards of concrete 




3,402 


" " p'er lineal foot . 




2.88 


Cement used, Portland 






cement 


3,969 


casks. 


Rosendale cement 


486 


<c 


Total .... 


. 


4,455 casks. 


Sand ..... 


. 


8,910 " 


Cracked stone 


, 


22,275 " 


Total cost .... 


. 


$55,685.40 



Cost per cubic yard, including track 

and all expenses . . . . $16.37 

No stone has fallen from the roof of the unlined portions 
during the year, with the exception of three small pieces 
about 10 pounds in weight, found December 5 at Station 
793. The suits for damages at Rosemary brook, caused by 
flooding lands below the blow-offs, have Ibeen settled by the 
Law Department by the payment of $1,176.82. As the 
city is lial)le for damages whenever water is let out of the 
aqueduct for cleaning or repairs, I recommend that steps be 
taken to secure the right to flood the low lauds as far as 
Charles river. 

CocHiTUATE Aqueduct. 

Grades, 121.03 at Lake ; 116.77 at Brookline Reservoir. 
Length, 14.60 miles ; Size, 5 ft.X 6 ft. 4 in. ; Capacity, 20,000,000 galls, per 24 

hours. 

This aqueduct has been in constant service throughout the 
year, with the exception of about twenty-five days, four days 
for cleaning, and after December 10, twenty-one days, on 
account of the construction of sewers in Newton. 



Water-Supply Department. 75 

A de[)th of six and one-half feet was maintained through- 
out the year, with the exception of three days in January, 
and from December (5 to December 10, when the lake was 
too low to permit this amount of Avater to be run. 

The usual spring cleaning was omitted this year, but on 
November 14, 15, Ki the brick-work was swept from the 
lake to Brookline reservoir. The aqueduct was very dirty. 
From the lake to Station 28, one-half the surface was 
covered with sponge, and from this point to Station SO, 
Division ] , two-thirds of the surfice was covered with the 
same growth. A lai-ge amount of sponge was found from 
Wellesley to Grantville waste-weir. From the East Cham- 
ber it was less abundant, and occurred in smaller patches as 
far as Brookline reservoir. The Newton tunnel was very 
dirty, a heavy black miul having settled there. Brookline 
tunnel showed some evidence of sewage, but in much less 
degree than formerly. 

Plans were made in October liy the city of Newton with 
reference to changing the line of Ibnnmond's brook, near the 
Newton Centre waste-weir. As the [)lan involved a con- 
siderable lowering of the channel, it became necessary early 
in December to prepare for the work. The aqueduct was 
first uncovered as low as possibFe without interfering with 
the safety of the structure, and on December 10 water was 
shut off, and the flow to the city maintained wholly by the 
Sudbury-river aqueduct. The aqueduct was plastered inside 
to make it as water-tight as possible, and the brickwork 
hung up by chains supported from three IG-inch sticks ex- 
tending across the trench, but notwithstanding these pre- 
cautions the brickwork leaked so badly when the water was 
turned on, December 20, that the water was shut off again 
and more thorough repairs undertaken. Four additional 
chains were added, and tiiey were tightened by jack-screws. 
The lagging around the aqueduct was pointed and grouted, 
and cavities back of the sheeting filled with concrete. The 
joints inside Avere cut out, pointed, and plastered for a 
distance of 125 feet. When water was finally let on, the 
repairs proved efiicient in stopping all leaks. The work of 
building the masonry structure under the aqueduct is now in 
progress. 

Chestnut-Hill Reservoir. 

H. W., 123.00 ; Dam, J 28.00 ; Effluent Pipes, .99.80. 

Area, Lawrence Bnain, 37. n acres ; Contents, 166,000,000 ; Bradley Basin, 87.3 acres ; 

Contents, 891,000,000. Total contents above grade one hundred, 

337,000,000 galls. 

The work of changing the lines of the driveway near the 
intermediate and terminal gate houses was completed early 
in the season and shrubbery planted. 



7(3 City Document No. 39. 

A Vay^g amount of work has been done on the grounds in 
connection with maintenance. The greater part of the fence 
separating the drive wa}^ from the reservoir was removed in 
July, the City Solicitor having given the o[)inion that there 
was no h'gal necessity for the fence. During the summer 
and autunm a great number of visitors resorted to the reser- 
voir to enjoy the beautiful views. A hundred extra settees 
were [)laced in difierent portions of the grounds. 

The mixtures of Sudbury and Cochituate water were so 
regulated as to produce the same resultant colors at the 
Chestnut-hill and Brookline effluent gate-houses. In 1891, 
when less perfect means were taken, the average color at 
Brookline was 0.10 lower than at Chestnut hill. In Decem- 
ber, owing to the shutting down of the Cochituate flow, the 
colors were very much increased in the reservoirs and at the 
city taps, and a material reduction cannot be looked for until 
the breaking up of the ice. 

Brookline Eeservoir. 

//. W., 123.00 ; Area, 23 acres; Greatest Depth, 2ifeet; Contents, 119,583,960 galls. 

Everything in connection with the Brookline reservoir is 
in good order. One-half of the water used in Boston has 
been sent through this reservoir during the year. No other 
work beyond the usual maintenance has been done. 

Fisher-Hill Reservoir. 

//. W., 247.00; Pipe Inverts, 220.00; Depth, 21 feet; Contents, 1.3,400,000 galls. 

above 223. 

The reservoir is in good condition. The grounds have 
been maintained as usual by the Chestnut-hill Reservoir 
force. 

Biological Laboratory. 

This laboratory has turned out excellent work throughout 
the 3'ear, and proved a valuable adjunct t;) the j^roper manage- 
ment of the different sources of supply. Weekly examina- 
tions are still made of all the Boston waters and results 
recorded. Mr. E. C. Whipple is the assistant in charge of 
all the laboratory work. 

During the year 2,310 microscopical and 2,160 bacteriologi- 
cal examinations of water have been made, besides numerous 
special studies of bacteria, algre, infusoria, etc. The total 
numl)er of microscopical examinations thus far made in the 
laboratory probably exceeds 7,000. 

In addition to the regular weekly and monthly 
reports, 92 special reports have been made on subjects con- 



Water-Supply Department. 77 

nected witli the filtration of water, and special examinations 
of the reservoirs, brooks, etc. 

Good photographs have been taken of nearly all of the 
important organisms. 

A radical change is to be made in the manner of recording 
the organisms present in a sample of water. Heretofore the 
actual number of the organisms have been counted without 
regard to their size. But inasmuch as their sizes vaiy con- 
sideralily, an improvement has been made in the adoption of 
a standard unit. This unit is the same as that previously 
used for the estimation of the amorphous matter, i.e., a 
square, 20 microns (.020 m.m.) on aside. After January 1, 
1893, all results are to be expressed in terms of this stand- 
ard unit. 

During the year several problems connected with the 
taste and odors -imparted to the water by certain organisms 
have been investigated. One of the most interesting 
occurred during Januai'v and February, 1892, when the reser- 
voirs were covered with ice. At that time the water drawn 
from the taps had a slight but somewhat disagreeable taste, 
variously described as " bitter," " sweetish," " spicy," 
" fishy," etc. It was most noticeable on the dead cncls and 
at places where little water was used. Careful microscopical 
examinations were made in all parts of the city, and where- 
ever the taste was strongest, there was always found a com- 
paratively large number of infusoria. Most important of 
these was the Synura uvella, a brown-colored, s})h{eroidyl 
colony, composed of from 25 to 80 individuals, joined to- 
gether by their posterior extremities ; the colony moving 
through the water with a tumbling motion. These infusoria 
and the acompanying tastes were traced backwards through 
the reservoirs and conduits till it was found that they origi- 
nated in the northern division of Lake Cochituate. 

There they were most abundant immediately below the 
ice. Samples of the water from this spot had the same 
taste as was observed in the taps, only somewhat stronger. 
Experiments at the laboratory showed that when a sample 
of the water was filtered, the filtrate was quite free from 
taste, but that the organisms filtered out, had a strong taste, 
very characteristic and difficult to describe, but somewhat 
resembling a bitter almond, combined with a peculiar spicy 
taste. The infusoria did not increase to any great extent, 
either for want of food, or because the Crustacea, which 
developed abundantl}^ about that time, devoured them. 

The four subjects reproduced on the helioty[)e plates 
accompanying this report were photographed in the 
laboratory. 



78 City Document No. 39. 

Inspection of Pollutions Department. 

The following is a digest of the operations of the depart- 
ment as reported by Mr. J. S. Concannon, Chief Inspector : 

Legal notices sent ..... 34 
Cases inspected (old) ..... 739 
Cases inspected (new) .... 358 

Of the 1,097 cases inspected, 489 are reported as 
"Remedied," 369 as "Safe at present," 41 "Seem safe," 44 
" Suspected," 154 " Unsatisfactory." 

No legal injunctions were found necessary during the 
year. 

FiLTKATiON Experiments. 

Experiments on intermittent and continuous sand filtration 
have been conducted with depths of sand of from 34 to 63 
inches, and rates of flow of 300,000 to 1,500,000 gallons per 
acre per day. The removal of color and the loss of head 
for different depths of same grade of sand, and with rates of 
flow from 250,000 to 5,000,000 gallons per acre per day 
have been investigated. 

Experiments on continuous filtration with dried Alumina 
and Polarite at rates of flow of 500,000 to 3,000,000 gallons 
per acre per day have been conducted. Experiments have 
been made with Pasteur and other filters and with the 
Anderson process, so called. 

Experiments have been made on removal of color from 
water by exposure to sunlight and effect of storage of applied 
water and effluents in an open tank. 

The filter-station has been in charge of Mr. William E. 
Foss, Assistant Engineer. The chemical analyses have been 
made under the direction of Dr. Thomas M. Drown. 

Mr. Frederick L. HoUis, Assistant, has made at my 
request ah elaborate and valuable investigation into the 
colors of our waters with reference to the presence of iron, 
and his report is submitted herewith. 

Briefly stated this examination shows that in the Boston 
waters, and in surface waters generally, the color is due, 
almost wholly, to carbonaceous matter, and not to iron. 

During the period of stagnation the bottom layers at Lake 
Cochituate accumulate a considerable amount of iron in the 
ferrous state which oxidizes to the ferric condition as soon as 
brought to the surface and exposed to the air. The effect of 
this action is to increase the color rapidly, and within a few 
hours it reaches maximum. The amount of the color 




W-M*^ 



Zygnema and Spiro(;vra (Chlorophyce/*: ) x 125. 




Conjugating Form or Spirogvra x 285, 



NEGATIVE BY w. G. CURT 




AnABvENA (CVANOFHYCEy^:) X 2S5. 




COELOSPHAERIUM (CvANuPH YCE/E | X 285. 



MCLIOTVPf PRINTING < 



EGATIVE BY W. G. CURT 



Water-Supply Department. 79 

corresponds to the amount of iron and mtmganese present. 
This accumulation of iron in the deep holes of the lake is 
caused by the gradual deposition of ferric hydrate from the 
surface layers, which in presence of organic matter undergo- 
ing decomposition, and owing to the absence of oxygen, 
becomes reduced again to the ferrous or colorless condition. 

In closing I desire to call attention to the excellent work 
performed by my assistants in their several departments. 

A great deal of time has been devoted to investigating the 
capacities of the present sources of supply and the effect of 
possible developments in the near future. Tables have been 
prepared showing the yields of d liferent portions of the 
water-shed, and the jn'elds with varying storage develop- 
ments, and numerous studies and plans have been made tor 
the drainage of the Cedar-swamp territory and the construc- 
tion of two new basins, one of them involvino; the raisins: of 
the Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Quality of the Water. 

The quality of the water has on the whole l)een very good 
throughout the year. 

The following tables give, first, the average condition of 
the water as delivered at a tap in Boston (luring the year 
1892; and secondly, means of monthly analyses in 1892 of 
different portions of the supply. They afford a ready means 
of comparison with the condition of the water as given in 
the last annual report. 

The succeeding tables contain the average results of bio- 
logical examinations made during the past year, together 
with temperature observations and rain-fall records. 

Ver}'^ truly yours, 

Desmond FitzGerald, 
Resident Engineer and Superintendent. 



80 



City Document No. 39. 






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r-t 


o 


CO 


oo 


o 


to 


o 


to 


to 


«~ 


•<* 


in 






CO 


'rr 


-* 


1* 


CO 


CO 


to 




t^ 


in 




^ 






M 








^ 














TJI 


CO 


in 






■* 


^ 


05 


e-i 


CO 


^ 


OS 


to 


o» 


to 


CO 


CO 


o> 




O 

cq 


\n 


t^ 


to 


00 


to 






'^1 




in 


•Nl 


in 


^ 
























■^ 


CO 


in 




































t~- 


>-* 


^- 


t— 


f-4 


C5 


00 


>o 




t- 


.n 


o> 


to 


K 


T3 


•* 


lO 


o 


00 


l. 


,_, 


■^ 


fy^ 


,^ 










<) 


i 


CO 




CO 


■* 


lO 


t- 


^ 


'~ 


to 




^ 


CO 




« 
































^ 


X 


o 


^ 


„ 


o 


to 


Tl 


CO 


o 


_ 


0^ 


o 




3 


^ 


n 






OD 




t-« 


~-p 


00 


in 


^1 
























to 






CO 








o 


CO 


^_, 


m 


•* 


^ 


^ 


r~t 


(N 


CO 


o 


CO 


o 




O 


CD 


<» 


00 


e^ 


^ 


•:♦ 




^ 


,y 




in 




ci 


^ 




CO 




-1" 


•<* 


•* 


■v 


■* 


■^ 


•^ 


■* 


CO 


■rf 


H 






























< 




























































t< 






























a 




•* 


in 


IM 


CO 


f— » 


to 


-* 


oo 


t~ 


00 


CO 


o 


CO 


■a 


to 


(^ 


t^ 


CO 




,_, 


,^ 






^ 


1^ 


(^ 


in 


;g 






CO 




-^ 


■o 


lO 


o 




■a 


■^ 


CO 


"* 




























































►-1 




CO 


o 


00 


t- 


05 


00 


Ol 


CO 


o 


to 


t- 


o 


rH 


3 
32 


■* 


-* 


»o 


^ 


to 


CO 


«0 


iC 


^^ 




,^ 


in 


CO 










TJl 


o 








to 




-* 


CO 


in 


ta 
































E-i 
































^ 
































o 
































a 




>. 




















o 


a 

o 

<0 










OS 
3 
3 


3 

2 


J3 
a 

a 


p< 


^ 


0) 

3 


>. 


3 
M 
3 




o 


8 








i-s 


1=1 


< 


y 


l-i 


1-S 


<! 


CD 


O 


^ 


ft 




I 



City Docu.ment No. 30. 



TABLE IV. 

Temperatures for 1892 (Fahrenheit). — Concluded. 



Month. 



Jannary . 
February . 
M arch . . 
April . . . 
May . . . 
June . . . 
July . . . 
August . . 
September 
October . . 
November 
December . 



Mean 



Chestnut-TIill 

Keseuvoir 
Gatehouses. 



35.3 
35.8 
35.3 
4S.2 
56.5 
71.5 
74.8 
73.9 
67.8 
56.8 
4J.5 
36.9 



O 



37.5 

37.8 
37 9 
45.2 
54.5 
69.4 
73.4 
74.8 
67.5 
57.8 
48.3 
40.4 



oo.l; 
36.6 
35.9 
47.0 
55.8 
69.5 
73.0 
74.3 
68.2 
57.2 
46.1 
35.4 



Chkstndt-TTill 
Kesekvoib. 



02 



53.1 53.7 52.9 53.6 52.7 49 



34.5 
34.5 
37.5 
48.1 
57.5 
71.3 
76.6 
75.3 
67.9 
57.3 
46.3 
35.8 



36.0 
35.5 
37.6 
47.1 
56.2 
69.2 
72.8 
72.2 
67.3 
57.4 
45.7 
35.9 



a 



36.8 
36.3 
37.8 
47.3 
55.8 
57.5 
59.6 
62.1 
64.7 
67.3 
46.3 
.36.1 



^3 



R^ 



36.7 
36.8 
36.2 
46.9 
55.7 
70.1 
73.7 
74.6 
67.9 
56.9 
45.6 
36.2 



38.1 
38.8 
36.8 
46.8 
55.1 
69.0 
73.1 
72.9 
66.7 
57.3 
47.1 
37.9 



53.1 53.3 



43.4 
40.3 
38.9 
43.6 
49.1 
57.2 
62.9 
64.5 
62.3 
57.4 
50.8 
43.7 



51.2 



The above figures are based on weekly observations. 



WaTER-SuPPLY DePARTxMENT. 



89 





o 








a 




o 




OD 




P 




a> 






k 








ca 




< 


• 



cc 



© 



o o o 



CO t-( ifi 



l~ <M 0> O 



00 on (M CO 



CI r-( i-( r-i rH 



C5 — ' rH O 



l— lO ?o 



c r> 5P ■£, 2 





.o » 


g 


o 


CO 

to 


CO 


CO 


to 


s 


- 


oo 




-* 


























o 




e 


o 


CD 

to 


t- 




to 


to 


o 


00 




K 


— 


























•d 


U5 to 


o 


o 


to 


s§ 


CD 


OS 

to 


to 


f; 


- 


Od 


^ 


S 



























<5 2 


c^ 


o 


o 


■o 

o 


ci 


to 


-f 


to 


§ 


2 


g 


TO 


o 


^^ 








'-' 


'-' 


— 


" 








" 


" 


^ 




g 


!D 


[r 


- 


X 


CI 


^^ 


g 


CO 


00 


CO 


o 


OS 












'-' 


'^ 


-' 








" 




O 


o 

00 


O 


- 


n 


o: 


?? 


to 


Cl 


n 

OS 


n 


-)< 


o 


2 


C3 












'"' 


" 


-' 








-' 


^ 


2 


o 


^ 


00 


?« 


to 

00 


a 


b 


b 


to 

00 


■<5 


CO 


03 


CO 


S 












" 


" 


'^ 












5 


o 

00 


« 


CO 


.- 


.o 


o 


b 


00 


to 

00 


£ 


CO 


OS 


to 


OQ 












-' 


-' 















■a-^ 


OS 

o 


00 


to 


K5 

OS 


6i 


to 


C5 

O 


oo 


b 


00 


to 

CO 


s 


o 


5 ^ 


"^ 








" 


" 


•^ 




'-' 




-" 


'-' 


'^ 


a 


o 


o 


OS 


CO 
00 


<» 


g 


OS 


oo 


CS 


to 

00 


00 


s 


o 


'"' 










'"' 


"^ 










^ 


'-' 


o 


OS 
CS 


ss 


00 


03 


a 


g 


CO 
CO 


00 


OS 


g 


o 

OS 


CD 


s 


P 












"^ 


'"' 










-' 


'-' 


-;:; 


CO 

o 


00 


OS 


CO 


OS 


- 


s 


x> 


g 


» 


OS 


s 


o 


i 


" 










'- 


'-' 










-- 


" 


■~ 


b 


OS 


00 


s 


to 

CS 


to 

CO 


o 


00 


Ol 

CS 


to 


CS 


-f 


o 


m 


■^ 










•^ 


'-' 










^ 


'- 



= ". 


o 


-T 


00 


■M 


Ol 


CO 


oo 










00 




^ ■s 














rr 


"* 








































^ o 










^ 


















a 


o: 


^ 


c< 


_p 


n: 


n 


o 


^^ 


^_, 


~1 






^ 














•V 


to 


oo 


3S 


CS 


■«l 


Cl 


lO 


a 




























^ 


^ 


oo 


m 


^ 


r-1 


^ 


^ 








^ 


r^l 




o 














Cl 




CO 


-* 


oo 


CO 


o 


a 














'-' 


C) 


Cl 


CI 






^ 


•a 




^ 


o 


CO 


to 


Cl 


-* 


CI 


d 


^ 




05 










CO 










Cl 






C4 






























































■c 


m 


C5 


r-1 


^ 


^ 


^ 










<n 


.o 


















r-i 








Cl 


Cl 


03 





























•? p^ a < s 



o ;z; fi 



90 



City Document No. 39. 



TABIiE V. — Colors, 1892. — Concluded. 



Month. 



January . 
February 
March . . 
April . . 
May . . . 
June . . 
July . . . 
August . 
September 
October . 
November 
December 

Mean . 



Chestnxtt-IIill 

Reservoir 
Gate-Houses. 



OQ 



.37 
.74 
.77 
.76 
.58 
.87 
.94 
.78 
.77 
.79 
.85 
1.37 



.80 



2.1 
.25 
.27 
.25 
.24 
.22 
.24 
.17 
.12 
.10 
.1» 
.26 



.45 

.50 
.59 
.4& 
.42 
.40 
.59 
.52 
.42 
.49 
.45 
.92 



Chestnut- Hill 
Reservoib. 



.44 
.57 
.57 
.45 
.39 
.40 
.57 
.52 
.44 
.49 
.45 
.93 



.52 



.44 

.54 
.58 
.45 
.40 
.42 
.57 
.51 
.45 
.49 
.45 
.92 



.53 



« 








o 




>■ 




(3 • 




S s 


<i 


^5 


Eh 






z a 






O" 


go 


m 


o 


H 


<A 


<i 


pa 


C 


.46 


.48 


.51 


.52 


.60 


.57 


.49 


.46 


.42 


.40 


.45 


.45 


.60 


.57 


.52 


.49 


.41 


.47 


.43 


.46 


.43 


.47 


.94 


.92 


.52 


.52 



.48 
.47 
.52 
.42 
.27 
.39 
.55 
.45 
.34 
.35 
.37 
.76 



Water-Supply Department. 



91 



Bacteria, 1892. 





Chestnut -Hill 

Reservoir 
Gate-Houses. 


Chestnut-Hill 
Reservoir. 




H 


















H 


Month. 


5 
m 


6 


1 


<S 

s 

CD 


•a 

i 


8 





3 -J 

° H 


2 


Ph 
H 

2 


January 

February 


162 
315 


97 

61 


108 
136 








100 
110 


113 
86 


92 


95 


78 


97 


75 


March 


644 


99 


237 


132 


104 


301 


142 


120 


55 




252 

70 

170 

326 

83 


67 
190 
583 
544 

93 


120 
227 
204 
379 
33 


48 
74 
24 
35 
32 


49 
409 
973 
851 
634 


129 

512 

1,U1 

991 

748 


98 
48 
45 
48 
68 


65 
67 
61 
61 
61 


65 




70 




133 




161 


August 


91 


September 


158 


127 


365 


54 


1,421 


570 


95 


102 


58 


October 


119 


192 


253 


98 


622 


376 


85 


71 


46 


November 


247 


612 


291 


180 


516 


544 


165 


63 


36 


December 


112 


64 


101 


36 


129 


158 


63 


39 


29 


Mean 


222 


227 


205 


73 


517 


506 


88 


76 


76 



92 



City Document No. 39. 










Cl 


CO 


CO 


o 


j^ 


O 


rv^ 


OO 


Cl 


ro 


,_« 


o 


CO 








CO 








o 




OO 


rH 




Ci 


00 


Ci 


CO 




• 


'O 


CO 


,_, 


o 


Ol 


,_( 


CO 


(X) 


•T 


o 




in 


IN 














CO 














CD 


Oi 




C3 










00 




C0_ 


Ci^ 








o_ 


C3_ 


































o 




o 




CI 


l-^ 


CO 


co" 




« 


to 


lO 


of 


:£ 




H 


^ 
























03 






o 


(» 


a 




















r— 






o 


00 






















■^ 






(M 


CO 


o 




















03 




•s.?0Aing 


"M 
^ 


■^ 


CO 




















00 






^ 


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CO 


03 


c-> 
















in 






00 


CO 


o 


CO 


CO 
















m 




•]9annx 


o 


o 


CO 
(M 


o 


m 
















-oi 




guiarx 


«■ 


cJ 


co" 




















03_ 
00 






CO 


OD 


_ 


o 


OO 


CO 


in 


CO 


=» 


r^ 


in 


CO 


CO 






o 


o» 


r-( 


xO 






CO 






IN 


^ 




m 






J_ 


o 


CO 


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00 


00 


1— 


CO 


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in 


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o 




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-* 
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T}l 


C) 


8 


§ 


o 


i 


■cr 


§ 




CO 


CO 






CO 


C35 


.^ 


c^ 


CO 


o 


,-H 


OO 


— 


CO 


t— • 


o 


n 






CO 


CO 


T— 1 


m 


lO 




00 


o 


o 


IN 


CD 


in 


IN 




•jnonnaBdoQ 


-1" 


Til 


(M 


^ 


o 


s 


s 


CO 


§ 


o 


O 


CO 

CO 


Ti* 




uouaadsui 




-* 


-ct 


■^ 


^ 


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'il 


^ 


CO 


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ii 




CO 






C^ 


J. 


00 


CM 


OS 


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^ 


CO 


CO 


CD 


Ol 


o 


■N 






03 


03 








■^ 


Tjl 




(M 


CO 


IN 




tH 




•;nonn.iT;doQ 


U5 


o 

CO 




s 


CO 


t- 


CO 


in 


in 


CO 


^ 


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CO 
CD 




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«. 


CO 


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CO 


03 


CO 


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CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 




-* 
» 






O 


o 


O 


in 


o 


00 


■n 


o 


in 


— 


o 




•* 
















o 






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CO 


o 


o 


in 




•JT0Aja83>X 


r-1 






O 


in 


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CO 


M 


s 


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CO 


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inii-joiisij: 














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S 






o 


Ira 


O 


o 


■o 


1^ 


to 


o 


■n 


^1 


o 


in 


O 








<M 


o 


CO 


^ 


o 






(M 


CB 


o 


IN 


in 




•jiOA.iosaa 


CO 


lO 


§ 


<M 

o 


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o 

■T 


s 


t^ 


in 


CO 


in 

CO 


O 






eutiJioo-isx 


s 




?-( 














IN 




r-l 


S 






UO 


o 


CO 


M 


o 


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r^ 


O 


L, 


■n 


CO 






O 


CO 


o 


CO 






^ 












o 




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t— 


^ 


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o 


00 


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C) 


o 


^ 


C-] 


CO 


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in 




11!H 


CO 


c-t 






Ol 




6> 


o 


•» 






CO 


CO 






o 


o 






OJ^ 


Ci 








o 




o_ 




-}nutsoiio 


s 








'^'" 






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" 


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CO 


CO 


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00 


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CO 


IN 


,— . 


o 


IN 






CO 


l>- 


CH 


o 


IM 


CO 


o 








CD 




CO 




•aioAjasoji 


»o 


C5 


Ol 


OS 


IN 


CO 


^^ 


CO 


M 


CO 


00 


If^ 


t- 




ll!H 




CO 


rH 


o 






CO 




CD 


03 




c~> 


t- 










■* 


CO 




(N 


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o_ 








-ina^soqo 


CO 


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"" 


IH 










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IN 


oo" 






-* 


a> 


1^ 


,^ 


OO 


o 


(M 


CO 


CO 


CO 


,_l 


■cf 


in 






CO 


uo 


CO 


in 


CB 


in 


CO 




03 


o 


1— 1 


CJ 


-* 




•ojuniiqaoo 


§ 


OO 


to 


S 


^ 


^ 


s 


OO 

CO 


in 


C3 


en 




03 
00 




9i\Vl 


^ 


c^ 


fH 


CO 


CO 




CO 


■^ 


CO 


l» 




^ 


C0_ 

co" 






o 


o 


»o 


iC2 


o 


o 


o 


in 


■n 


in 


in 


03 


03 






r-t 


U5 


<M 


t— 


00 


o 


o 


OJ 


IM 


I-- 


IN 




03 




•^onpanbv 


S 


■n 


s 


O 


lO 


cs 


CO 
(M 


o 


§ 


C-J 


O 

o 


OO 


00 




SllilUlipOQ 


<& 
















l?J 


IN 


^31 


2- 


in" 






CO 


Oi 


o 


lO 


Oi 


o» 


o 


in 


-o 


« 


CC 


in 


CO 








CO 


CO 


^ 


■^ 


OO 


to 


00 




O 


IN 


o 


CO 




•:jonp9nbv 


CO 


g 


CO 


00 


(M 


o 

CD 


t^ 


§ 


00 


t- 


O 


CD 


CO 




il-iaqpug 


s 


c^ 


(N 


<M 


^ 


CO 


CO 


CO 


5 


CO 


CO 


CO 


^ 
«» 






CD 


00 


iO 


»o 


r-l 


C-l 


o 


,— 1 


CO 


iC 


CK 


OO 


1 CD 






CO 


o 


OJ 


o 


r-* 


r-t 


<M 


(N 


m 


■T 




1—1 


CO 






o 


CO 


f_( 


o 


■01 


CD 


o 


o 


Cl 


00 


IN 


CO 


1 T)l 




•saisca 




CO 




o 






o 




03 


05 










o_ 


CO 


CO 




i-^ 


in 


in 


*o 


■^ 


1* 


T* 


00 


in 






(n" 


c^ 


1-7 


tH* 


^ 
















IN 






«& 
























s 






1^ 


f-H 


lo 


O 


r-4 


(M 


1^ 


1—i 


CO 


03 


IN 


-^ 


1 o 






o 


t— 


I—" 


rH 


<N 


CO 


OO 


r-i 


CO 


CI 


»— 1 


^ 


m 




•nOIBTATQ 


OO 


T* 


N 


O 


r-i 


CI 


CO 


t~ 


O) 


CO 


CD 


,_, 


1 ■ CO 






-n 




(M 


IM 


CO 






^ 






CD 






uaa)a,)Xi 




o_ 


r^ 


IH 




<3 

1-1 


00 




CO 


CO 






S 












. 






. 










CO 














, 


• 




* 












o 
































f^ 










e-i 
































05 
































ao 






















CO 












































^ 










„- 


U* 


^ 


o 




>> 


1 










^, 


^ 


^- 


i-T 


r-T 


3 


1 


^ 


I 


C 


a 


■2 






1 








□ 

3 
1-5 


>5 

1-5 




o 

o 


o 











Water-Supply Department. 



93 



Table of Rainfall at Chestnut-Hill Reservoir for Year ending- 
December 31, 1892. 



Date. 


a 


o . 
^ = 
o'3 


• 

Duration. 


Date. 


o 

o 

a 


Snow or 
Raiu. 


Duration. 


Jan. 2 
" 3 


1 1.15 


Rain. 


2.50 p.m. to 

12.30 a.m. 


Apr. 21 

" 22 


1 0.48 


Rain. 


4.00 p.m. to 

12.30 a.m. 


" 6 
" 12 
" 13 
" 14 
" 15 
" IS 
" 19 


0.50 
1 1.30 


Snow and 
Uaiu. 

Rain. 


9 30 a.m. to 11.30 p.m. 
4.00 a.m. to 

11.00 a.m. 
6.30 p.m. to 

5.00 p.m. 
3.50 p. 11. to 

5.30 a.m. 


" 22 
" 23 
" 29 


\ 0.21 
0.06 


" 


3.30 p.m. to 

6.00 a.m. 
12.30 p.m. to 5.50 p.m. 


/ 0.55 


Snow and 
Raiu. 


Total. 


0.75 






1 0.79 


Rain and 
isuow. 


May 1 


007 


Rain. 


5.20 p.m. to 11 00 p.m. 


" 19 


0.16 


Snow. 


12.10 p.m. to 11.30 p.m. 


" 2 
" 4 
" 11 


0.30 
0.42 

0.60 




12.45 p.m. to 10.30 p.m. 
1.45 a.m. to 6.00 a.m. 
9.00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. 


Total. 


4.45 
















" 15 
" 19 
"' 20 


1.02 
1.12 




2.00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. 
8.30 p.m. to 

11.50 a.m. 


Feb. 2 
" 3 


0.96 


Kain and 
iSuow. 


3.00 p.m. to 

4.15 p.m. 




" 7 
" 8 
" 11 


1 0.30 
1 1.35 


Snow and 
liiiin. 

Snow. 


4.30 p.m. to 

5.00 a.m. 
5.30 a.m. to 

1.30 a.m. 


" 21 
" 2:1 
" 23 
" 26 


1.34 
0.36 




6.00 a.m. to 11.30 p.m. 
10.30 p.m. to 

10.00 a.m. 
12.15 a.m. to 8.00 a.m. 


" 14 
" 15 


1 0.07 
0.10 


Rain. 

Showers 
and mist. 


9.00 p.m. to 

4.00 a.m. 
6.30 p.m. to 10.00 p.m. 


" 27 


0.13 




9.40 a.m. to 2.00 p.m. 


" 25 


Total. 


6 08 






Total. 


2.7S 






June 3 
" 6 
" 8 
" 9 
" 14 


0.27 
0.32 

J 0.29 

0.13 


Rain. 


8.30 a.m. to 12.30 pm. 
4.15 p.m. to 4.50 p.m. 
11.00 p.m. to 

7.00 p.m. 
7.30 p.m. to 10.30 p.m. 


Mar. 1 
" 2 
" 3 


1 
1 
)■ 1.06 

1 
J 


Snow. 


11.15 a.m. to 

5.00 p.m. 




" 8 


0.70 


Rain. 


3.15 p.m. to 11.45 p.m. 


" 17 


1.18 


" 


3.40 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 


«' 10 


0.43 


" 


7.00 p.m. to 11.55 p.m. 


" 25 


0.44 




4.00 a.m. to 8.00 a.m. 


" 18 
" 19 


1 1.06 


Snow. 


2.00 a.m. to 

9.30 a.m. 


•' 25 
" 26 


0.43 
0.41 




3.50 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. 
5 35 p.m. to 11.45 p.m. 


" 23 


0.70 


Snow and 
Rain. 


12.20 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. 


" 28 


0.42 





1.00 a.m. to 4.30 a.m. 


Total. 


3.95 






Total. 


3.89 





94 City Document No. 39. 

Table of Rainfall at Chestnut-Hill Reservoir. — Concluded. 



Date. 




2 


u 

° a 
a 


Duration. 


Date. 




u 


Duration. 


t 


>— ( 


02 






HH 






July 1 




0.19 


Rain. 


10.00 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. 


Oct. 9 


0.07 


Rain. 


6.00 a.m. to 8.00 a.m. 


" 3 




0.14 




7.30 a.m. to 8.30 a.m. 


" 16 


0.38 


" 


7.00 a.m. to 3.00 p.m. 


3 




0.74 




5.35 p.m. to 11.00 p.m. 


" 26 


0.12 


" 


6.30 a.m. to 7.30 a.m. 


" 9 
•' 16 
" 25 
" 29 
" 31 




0.04 
0.16 
0.44 
0.31 
1.33 




6.30 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. 
3.00 a.m. to 6.30 a.m. 
2.10. a.m. to 3.00 a m. 
8.40 p.m. to 11.15 p.m. 
12.10 p.m. to midnight. 


" 29 


0.10 


" 


9.00 a.m. to 4.45 p,m. 






Total. 


2.39 










Nov. 2 


) 




1.30 a.m. to 














\ 0.61 


Rain. 














3 

" 5 


0.13 


Snow. 


3.30 p.m. 
6.30 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. 


Total. 




3.35 
















If 






7.30 p.m. to 














( 0.09 


Showers. 


Aug. 1 




0.06 


Rain. 


Midnight, July 31, to 
11.30 a.m. 


" 8 
" 9 


) 




6.30 a.m. 
8.45 p.m. to 


3 




0.34 


** 


3.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. 


" 10 


1 1.86 


Snow and 
Rain. 


3.30 p.m. 


5 




0.25 


*' 


5.50 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. 


" 15 


) 




9.15 a.m. to 


.< 12 




2.19 


" 


12.10 a.m. to 8.30 a.m. 




!'■" 


Rain. 














" 16 




11.45 a.m. 


" 13 




0.31 


*' 


1.30 a.m. to 3.00 a.m. 


" 18 


0.28 


,c 


5.30 p.m. to 10.00 p.m. 


" 25 








3.45 p.m. to 


" 28 


0.18 


Suow and 


9.05 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. 


" 26 


1 


2.46 


" 




" 29 


1 


Rain. 


9.45 a.m. to 


" 27 


J 






6.00 a.m. 


" 30 


I 0.40 


Snow. 


6.00 p.m. 


" 27 


) 


0.05 


Mist. 


8.00 a.m. to 










" 28 


\ 


1.00 a.m. 




















Total. 


5.26 






" 31 




0.26 


Rain. 


7.00 p.m. to 10.45 p.m. 


Dec. 8 










) 














9.20 a.m. to 


Total. 




5.92 








\ 0.82 


Rain. 














9 
" 14 


0.32 


Snow .ind 


2.00 a.m. 










5.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. 


Sept. 14 




1.62 


Rain. 


5.30 a m. to 10.30 p.m. 


" 20 


0.09 


Rain. 
Snow. 


5.30 a.m. to 12.15 p.m. 


" 24 




0.12 


" 


2.00 p.m. to 3.30 p.m. 


" 25 


0.06 


I, 


3.30 p.m. to 7.30 p.m. 


" 26 




0.42 




5.45 a.m. to 11.15 a.m. 


Total. 


1.29 






















Total. 




2.16 














Oct. 3 


~l 






2.00 p.m. to 








" 4 


1 


1.72 


Rain. 




Tot 


al Rainfall for ye.i 


r 1892, 42.27 inches. 


5 


1 
J 






11.30 a.m. 











Water-Supply Department. 95 



AN INVESTIGATIOX OF THE CAUSE OF THE 
COLOR OF NATURAL WATER. 

By Frederick S. Hollis. 

The cause of the color of natural water is attributed by 
all who have written upon the subject, as far as I am able 
to ascertain, to the organic impurities. 

Tidy,Mn his article on the color of water, says: "The 
color of a surface water is caused by the peaty or vegetable 
impurities, and the color varies with the condition of the 
vegetaljle matter present. " He tinds that the color imparted 
by very recently formed peaty matter is yellowish green, 
that by recent peat a brownish olive green, while that ob- 
tained from old peat is a true brown or coffee color entirely 
free from the olive tint. 

Dr. Drown,- in his article on "The Odor and Color of 
Surface ^^'aters," comes to the same conclusion. Artilicial 
colored waters were prepared by him by extracting leaves 
in distilled water, and it was shown that for the same color 
the amount of albuminoid ammonia was less with subsequent 
extractions. 

Color. Alb. am. 

First infusion of leaves . ... . .8 .0494 

Subsequent infusion of same leaves . .8 .0178 

Infusion of old leaves .... .9 .0072 

My own work, while confirming the conclusion that the 
coloring matter may be derived from such vegetable matter 
as leaves, seems to justify the conclusion that the color of a 
natural water is, in some cases at least, dependent to a large 
extent on the iron and manganese contents in combination 
with the extractive organic matter. 

In a study of the cause of the color of water are found 
the rather different problems of : 

I. The cause of the increase of color, during warm 
weather, of water from the bottom of the deeper ponds, and 

II. The cause of the more permanent color of surface 
waters, as those from shallow ponds and swamps and from 
brooks and rivers. 

I. 

The cause of the color, during warm weather, of water 
from the bottom of the deeper ponds, and its further increase 
on exposure to light and air. 

1 Jour. Chem. Soc. 1880, p. 293. 2 Technology Quarterly 1888, p. 256. 



9lJ 



City Document No. 39. 



During the suniniGi' of 1800, weekly samples of water 
were taken from different depths of Lake Cochituate and the 
different storaire basins of the Baston Water- Works, for bio- 
logical examination, and the temperature and color of these 
samples were also noted. 

A conspicuous feature of the samples collected at the bot- 
tom of some of these sources, notably Lake Cochituute and 
Basin 8, was their darker color than samples collected near 
the surface, and the fact that this color increased still further 
on exposure to light and air, so that on reaching the labora- 
tory some hours later the color was frequently found to be 
three times that on collection. 

At the request of iMr. Desmond FitzGerald, of the Boston 
Waterworks, I undertook a study of the water from the 
deeper layers of these sources with reference to their higher 
color. 

The following tables fiom the reports of the biological 
work referred to above, show the gradual increase of c(dor 
at the bottom of the three sources to which I confined my 
work : 

I*ake Cochituate. — Depth, 60-65 feet. 



1890. 


SURPJiCE. 


Mid-Depth. 










Temp. 


Color. 


Temp. 


Color. 


August 5 


78.5° F. 


.10 


50.0» F. 


.20 


" 11 


72.2 


.10 


50.0 


.20 


" 19 ........ 


72.9 


.15 


51.0 


.30 


" 26 


70.0 


.15 


49.0 


.30 


September 3 


70.4 


.10 


49.0 


.30 


" 9 


70.5 


.10 


49.0 


.30 

1 


15 


J63 amorplioiis mat., 
no creuollirix. 


145 .imorplious mat.,' 
uo crenothrix. 1 


20 


105 amorp 
DO creuc 


lous mat., 
thrix. 


164 amorp 
no crenc 


lions mat., 
thrix. 








Bottom. 


Temp. 


Color. 


45.0" F. 


.80 


45.0 


2.80 


45.0 


3.80 


44.S 


2.80 


45.0 


2.30 


44.8 


2.60 


753 amorp 
much cr 


10US mat., 
unothrix. 


940 amorp 
some cri 


ions mat., 
uothrix. 



WaTER-SuPPLY DEPAPtTMENT. 



97 



Basin 3, Fi'araingliain. — Depth, about 20 feet. 




1 A heavy wind during this interval mixed the water from all depths, causing a uniform 
color. 

Basin 4, Asliland. — Depth, 30-35 feet. 




None of the samples from the bottom of this reservoir 
darkened more than slightly on exposure. 

Amorphous matter and crenothrix not abundant at the 
bottom. 

The overturn of the water in Basin 3, due to the wind- 
storm noted in the tal)les, prevented its further study during 
that summer, but the water of Lake Cochituate and Basin 4, 
owing to their greater depth, was not disturbed at the bottom, 
and the study of the water from these sources was com- 
menced immediately. 

Lake Cochituate. 

On September 28, 1890, samples were taken for chemical 
analysis at the surface and at depths of 15, 30, 40, 50, and 60 
feet, and the amount of oxygen held dissolved in the water at 
these depths was determined. 

The surface water was found to be well aerated, containing 
96.9% of the amount of oxygen necessary for its saturation 



98 City Document No. 39. 

at the observed temperature. The amount of oxygen so held 
decreased to 12.2% of saturation at a depth of 40 feet, while 
below this depth the water was completely deoxidized, show- 
ing the stagnation of the water below the depth to which it 
is kept in circulation by the action of the wind. 

The color of the water of these bottom layers was much 
darker than at the surface and increased on exposure. The 
chemical analysis of the samples from these depths showed 
corresponding variations in the water between the surface 
and bottom. The large amount of free ammonia and of oxi- 
dizable carbonaceous matter in solution as revealed by the 
test of oxygen consumed, together with a sharp, disagreeable 
odor in water from the bottom layers, showed the presence 
of a considerable amount of organic matter undergoing de- 
composition. 

These conditions are similar to those observed by Dr. 
Drown for Jamaica pond,^ and later, for various ponds ^ and 
reservoirs in the State. A similar series for chemical analy- 
sis and determination of iron, which gave similar results, 
was taken the last of October, and during the following year 
chemical analyses were made monthly of water from the sur- 
face and bottom layer,, from April to October, inclusive, to- 
gether with two determinations of the amount of dissolved 
oxygen at different depths, made during August and Septem- 
ber, and a chemical analysis was made of water from the bot- 
tom on the last of October of the second year following. 

These results are given on the following analysis sheet : 

Basin 3 — Framingham. 

Basin 3 differs from Lake Cochituate in that it is only 
about 20 feet deep, and in the more varied composition of its 
water, which makes it more liable to change from local con- 
ditions. 

During 1891, chemical analyses and determinations of 
iron and manganese were made monthly, from April to Sep- 
tember, inclusive, of water from surface and bottom of Basin 
3, and determinations of the amount of dissolved oxygen at 
different layers during August and September. The results 
while confirming in a general way those obtained from Lake 
Cochituate, where the conditions remain constant for the en- 
tire summer, have not the same value. They are given on 
the following analysis sheet. 

> Special Report of the Massachusetts State Board of Health (Examiuation of Water Sup- 
plies). 1890, p. 662. 

' On the Amount of Dissolved Oxygen contained in Waters of Ponds and Reservoirs at dif- 
ferent depths. — Report of the Massachusetts State Board of Health, 1S91, p. 373. 



WATEK ANALYSIS. BOSTON WATER- WORKS. — LAKE OOCHITUATE. 

Parts in 100,000. 



Lake Cochituate. 



Surface 
15 feet 



Surface - 
Bottom . 
Surface . 
Bottom . 
Surface 
Bottom . 
Surface . 
Bottom . 
Surface . 
Bottom . 
Bottom . 

Bottom . 

1 Bottom 



October 31 . 



October 27 . . 
23, '91 



June S 

8 

July IS 

18 

August 21 

" 21 

September 29 

29 

October 27 . 

1893. 
October 27 . 

March 29, '92 



10.55 
U.30 



Dnfll- 
12.90 



Albuminoid 



.0170 
.0190 
.0174 
.0218 
.0156 
.0262 
.013i 
.0244 



.0003 
.0003 
.0008 
.0003 
.0003 
.0002 
.0002 
.0003 
.0002 



.0002 
.0002 
.0002 
.0004 
.0004 
.0006 
.0002 
.0005 
.0003 



.0050 
.00.50 
.0270 
.0290 
.0070 

.oo.™ 

.0060 
.0110 
.0020 
.0030 



Unfil- 
1.53 



Di8. O — September 18, 1890. 

Surface 21.0- C. 

15 feet 21.0 

30 " 10.0 



96.9!( Satn. 
S8.3 
20.4 
12.2 



ample collected October 23,1891, e 

Di8. O — August 16, 1891. 
Temp. 

Surface 24.U" C. 79.15!4 

10 feet 19.5 83.60 

20 " 12.5 33.86 

30 " 10.0 21.33 

40 " 9.5 20.93 

45 '■ 9.5 1.65 

50 ■' .... 8.0 ' 0.00 

571 " bottoai . 7.5 0.00 



:posed to suuligbt du 



sharp disagreeable odor. 



Dis. — September 28, 1891. 

Surface 31.0" C. 90. K 

10 feet . , . . ■ 14.0 81.10 

20 " 14.5 32.70 

30 " 11.0 9.37 

40 " , 11.0 7.85 

50 " 10.0 .00 




WATER ANALYSES. 



BOSTON WATEK-WOKKS. — BASIN NO. 3. 
Parts in 100,000. 



Surface 

Bottom 

Surfiiee .... 

Bottom 

Surface July 

Bottom 

Surface . . August 

Bottom " 19 

Surface' September 2S . 

Bottom' " 2S 



^ 


-i 


3.90 


2.16 


.3.75 


1.30 


4.75 


1.80 


4.95 


1.40 


5.25 


2.46 


S.30 


2.05 


(3.25 


2.40 


7.20 


2.45 


5.05 


1.45 


5.60 


1.95 



.02.)6 
.0220 

.0212 

.0232 

.0214 

.0250 

.0190 

.0228 



^Watijr in Baeiu 3 turned over by high wind. 



Dia. O — August 20, 1891. 

Surface 85. HO 

6 feet 85.06 

12 " 5S.9'7 

14 " 0.00 

15 " . . . . 0.0 

17 " 0.0 

19 " O.OiO 

21 " O.(J0 



Dis. O — October 1, 1891. 

Surface 

10 feet 



gtr< 






WATER ANALYSES. BOSTON WATEK-WOKKS. 
Parts in 100,000. 



BASIN NO. 4. 



Surface .... 
10 feet . . 
20 " .... 
Bottom, 29 feet 
Surface .... 
Bottom .... 
Surface .... 
Bottom .... 
Surface .... 
Bottom .... 
Surface .... 
Bottom .... 
Surface .... 
Bottom .... 



July 

August 19 . 

" 19 . 

September 29 . 

" 29 . 



3.30 
3.00 
3.10 
3.05 



3.20 
3.20 
3.25 



1.90 
2.20 
2.20 
1.70 
1.85 



.0188 
.021* 
.0220 
.0210 



.0202 
.0150 
.0208 
.0142 
.0134 
.0118 



.0132 
.0140 
.0182 
.0136 
.0122 
.0110 
.0150 
.0126 



.0004 
.0004 
.0014 
.0028 



.0002 
.0032 
.0004 
.0002 
.0002 
.0008 
.0000 
.0008 



.0002 
.0002 
.0002 
.0002 



.0001 
.0002 
.0001 
.0001 
.0002 
.0002 
.0000 
.0001 



.0060 
.0050 



.0050 
.0040 
.0090 



.0040 
.0020 
.0060 



92.2 
87.0 



84.50 
1.5.10 



Die. O — September 25, 1890. 

Surface 18.2"C. 92.0X satn. 

10 feet 18.0 87.0 



. O— August 20, 1891. 



12.5 
13.0 
13.0 






Water-Supply Department. 99 

Basin 4 — Ashland. 

Basin 4 differs from the other two sources in that all the 
loam was removed from the ground forming the bottom of 
the reservoir, and samjjles of earth collected from the bottom 
at its deepest part show that it is still composed of clean, 
sandy material. The water that it receives from Cold Spring 
brook, although higher colored than that from Stony brook, 
is a normal surface water, uncontaminated except from vege- 
tation. The determination of dissolved oxygen shows that 
at no time during the summers of 1890 and 1891 was the 
water from the bottom layers completely deoxidized. 

The color of the water from these layers was generally 
less than twice as dark as at the surface and did not increase 
on exposure. 

The foregoing analyses show, particularly by the tests of 
ammonia and oxygen consumed, — which are measures of 
the nitrogen and carbon, — the presence of a considerable 
amount of organic matter at the bottom of those })onds in 
which the darkening of the water was most noticeable. The 
ultimate end of these constituents of organic matter is nitric 
acid for the nitrogen and carbonic acid for the carbon. 

If, however, there is only a limited amount of oxygen 
available to support this decomposition, which is a process, 
of oxidation brought about mainly by the action of micro- 
organisms, the process is arrested when the oxygen is used 
up ; and, in the case of water at the bottom of deep ponds, 
this process cannot be completed until the surface water 
cools to its point of greatest density in autumn and sinks to 
the bottom, carrying with it a fresh supply of oxygen. The 
absence of oxygen from the lower layers, and the fact that 
the constituents of the organic matter were found in a par- 
tially oxidized form, show that these were the conditions 
when the samples were taken. The similarity between the 
water down to a depth of 40 feet, and its abrupt change 
below this depth, indicates that the wind-storm before noted 
caused a thorough mixing down to this depth and that the 
water had not remained stagnant a sufficient length of time 
to regain its old conditions. 

The presence of the larger amount of decomposable organic 
jnatter in the bottom layers, as compared with those near the 
surface, can readily be accounted for by the fact that all 
organic matter in the pond, whether derived from living 
organisms that had their growth in the waters, or brought in 
from outside sources, either by influent streams or blown in 
as leaves in autumn, tend to find their way to the bottom 



100 City Document No. 39. 

layers, which thus become the field of decomposition of any 
matter from all the water of the pond. This points to the 
conclusion that, below the depth at wdiich the water is kept 
well aerated by currents maintained by the action of the 
wind upon its surface, the amount of decomposition as re- 
vealed by the disappearance of oxygen depends upon the 
proximity to the bottom rather than to depth below the sur- 
face ; and this fact is borne out by the results obtained from 
the simultaneous study of both shallow and deep ponds. 
One of the most marked characteristics of the water from 
the deeper layers is their greater color and the rapid increase 
of color on exposure to light and air. 

The average of five different determinations made between 
the last of August and the first of November, when the water 
at the bottom is at maximum color, during three successive 
summers, shows that the water at the bottom on collection 
had a color equal to six times that of water at the surface, 
and that on exposure the color increased to twenty times that 
at the surface. 

Under the direct action of sunlight, after the maximum 
color is reached, this coloring material is rapidly thrown out 
of solution, most of it settling out as a precipitate and the 
remainder can be removed bypassing through filter paper. 
The rapidity of this action, which depends upon the active 
power of the sunlight, varies greatly with the season of the 
year. 

A sample of water, collected October 6, 1891, from bot- 
tom of Chestnut Hill Reservoir, in which all oxygen had 
been exhausted, increased in color from .75 to 3.00 on expo- 
sure. After two weeks' exposure, only a small part of which 
was under the condition of sunlight, most of the color had 
disappeared, and upon filtering, it was found to be almost per- 
fectly decolorized. 

Practically this same result can be brought about in a 
much shorter time by a rapid oxidation by drawing air 
through such a sample with an aspirator. A sample from 
the bottom of Jamaica pond had a color, as soon as received 
at the laboratory, of .38, and was somewhat cloudy ; on fur- 
ther exposure to the air for one hour its color was increased 
to .70. The color of another portion of the same sample 
was increased by aeration to 1.50, but on filtering through 
filter paper, its color was reduced to .38, its original color, 
showing that the material causing the color had been oxi- 
dized and existed in a state of suspension. 

The turl)idity of the water from bottom layers was always 
noticeable ; and after its maximum color was reached, this 
turbidity rapidly became more marked, the particles finally 



WATER ANALYSES. — BOSTON WATER-WORKS. 
Sample kept in the dark. Parts in 100,000. 





Dati or 


1 


1 


Residue on 
Etapoeation. 


o 


Nitrogen. 


§ 

6 

o 


W 


i 
It 




Locality. 




1 


E 


"m^ohT" 


1 

£ 


< 


i 


Keuarks. 




Collection. 


Examination. 


Dnfll. 
tered. 


Filtered 




Chestnut-Hill Reservoir, water from tap, 


1891. 
July 17 


1891. 
July 17 

August IS .... 

September 18 . . . 

Oolober 16 ... . 

1892. 
April 15 


.30 

.31 
.80 
.30 

.25 


4.55 


Filtered 
1.25 


Filtered 
3.30 




.0162 

.0130 

.0098 

.0098 

Mixed 
.0102 


.0154 

.0106 
.0090 

.0072 


.0000 

.0000 

.0002 

.0002 

Mixed 
.0004 


.0001 

.0000 
.0002 
.0004 

.0000 


.0200 

.0150 
.0250 
.0210 

.0250 


.61 

.51 

.39 

.36 

Mixed 

.36 

Filtered 

.38 


1.69 

1.56 
1.63 


.0363 


Settled ; only clear part tested. 


























.0356 

















WATER ANALYSES. - BOSTON WATER-AVORKS. 
Sample exposed to siiulig-lit. Parts In 100,000. 





Date op 


Color. 


H 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 




Nitrogen. 


■a 
1 

1 
1 
O 


1 


21 




Locality. 


Collection. 


Examination. 


S.9 


1 


T=S=" 


E 

a 
1 




1 
g 
■? 


Remarks. 




Unfll-- 
tered. 


•Filtered 




Chestnut-Hill Reservoir, water from tap. 


1891. 
July 17 

" IT 

" 17 

" " 


1891. 
Jnly 17 . . . 

August 18 . . . 

September IS . . . 

October 10 . . . 

1892. 
April 15 . . . 


.30 

.03 

.00 
.00 

.00 












.0154 

.0128 

.0124 
.0000 

.0110 


.0000 

.0004 

.0008 

.0000 

Mixed. 
.0176 


.0001 

.0001 

.0003 
.0000 

.0022 


.0200 

.0120 

.0150 
.0000 

.0030 


.51 

.25 

.29 

Mixed. 

.17 
Filtered 

.15 


1.69 
1.76 
1.69 


.0363 
.0370 


Settled; only clear part tested. 

Exposed to 238 hours, bright sun- 
light. Settled ; only clear part 
tested. 

Settled; only clear part tested. 

Exposed to 567 hours, bright sun- 
light. 


4.68 


2.04 


Filtered 
2.64 




.0128 






■ ■ ■ 








j 
1 




Mixed. 
.0142 



Water-Supply Department. 101 

collected together and settled out as a flocciilent brownish- 
red precipitate, having the appearance of precipitates of 
ferric iron. This, together with the presence of crenothrix, 
so generally associated with the presence of iron, in the bot- 
tom laj^ers when the water showed the greatest tendency to 
darken, led me to determine the iron in the first sample from 
the bottom of Lake Cochituate. Manganese, which is simi- 
lar to iron in the formation of its salts, Avas also found in 
the sample, and its determination was included in all subse- 
quent analyses. 

In the following table the relation between color and iron 
and manganese contents is shown for water from the bottom 
of Lake Cochituate and Jamaica pond. 

The uniformly high results for iron and manganese, 
calculated from the color, using the factors deduced from 
averages, may be due to the difficulty in determining the 
initial color, as it darkens immediate!}' on exposure. 

In these examinations the amount of iron and manganese 
^vas determined in the residue from a considerable quantity 
of water by means of the basic acetate method. 



102 



City Document No. 39. 



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Water-Supply Department. 103 

The presence of this large amount of iron in the bottom 
of ponds may be explained in the same way as the pro- 
duction of pond and bog iron ore.^ All surface waters 
coming from a district covered with veo;etation contain more 
or less iron. This iron is derived from two sources : the 
vegetation itself, which will be discussed under Iron in 
Surface Waters, and from the soil and iron-contaiuinff 
rocks. 

As before stated, the ultimate end of the carbon of or- 
ganic matter is carbonic acid. If there is a lack of oxygen 
from atmospheric sources to support this decomposition, the 
organic matter takes it from any available ferric oxide, thus 
converting the iron to a soluble ferrous salt, in which form 
it is carried off with the surface water. 

During its passage, or at least upon reaching a pond 
where the surface portion into which it enters is well aerated 
by being kept in a state of motion by the wind, the iron is 
reoxidized to a precipitate of ferric hydrate. This falls of 
its own weight to the bottom, where it gives up its oxygen 
for the further oxidation of the organic matter which is there 
undergoing decomposition. 

The iron is thus nearly all reduced to the ferrous or color- 
less form, which by its oxidation on exposure after collection 
causes the increase of color due to its presence in the ferric 
condition. In the presence of the organic matter this ferric 
iron remains soluble for a time, but finally settles out as fer- 
ric hydrate, leaving the water colorless. 

Thus it will be seen that the iron, so far as it is received 
into a pond, aids by giving up its oxygen in the oxidation or 
purification of the water at the botton of the pond. 

The determination of the oxygen consumed, which is a 
measure of the oxidizable carbonaceous matter existing in the 
water in a state of solution, represents the decomposed por- 
tion of the organic matter which causes the reduction of the 
iron and with which much at least of the iron is probably 
in combination. The presence of this material in the case 
of surface waters is of even more importance in influenc- 
ing the color, and it will be further discussed under that 
head. 

Iron, when thus deposited in ponds which contain an 
insufficient amount of organic matter to reduce it all to the 
soluble condition, forms pond ore which is similar to bog ore 
deposited in swamps. These deposits of pond ore seem to 
be of very general occurrence. Hansman describes their 
occurrence in Scandinavian lakes where their formation is 

' Formation of Bog and Pond Ores. N. H. and H. V. Winchell's Report on Iron Ores of 
Minnesota, p. 221. 



104 City Document No. 39. 

very rapid. Honeyman ^ describes their occurrence in 
Grand Lake, Nova Scotia, and Swank ^ records their pres- 
ence in many of the ponds of Eastern New England, from 
which in early times it was collected as a source of iron. 

My analysis of such an ore, collected in October, 1892, 
from the bottom of Sandy pond iu Lincoln is of interest, as 
it shovvs that this sample contained much more manganese 
than iron : 

Loss on ignition . . . . . 21.51 

Insoluble residue ... . . 20.49 

Fe. O3 24.40 

Ai; O3 3.00 

Mn O2 37.34 

97.74 

An analysis of ooze collected from the bottom of Lake 
Cochituate late in September, 1890, at a time Avhen there 
was no oxygen in the bottom layers, and when most of the 
iron must have been in solution, shows the presence of 2.04% 
of Fe = 2.91% Fe^Og. 

Tanh 2. 

Tank 2 at Chestnut Hill, which is a six-foot tank of 
cypress, had at the time the experiment was made, a thin 
layer of stones in the bottom. It was washed and filled with 
reservoir water on July 25, 1890, and on July 28 a dis- 
solved oxygen sample taken at the outlet showed that the 
water in the bottom of the tank w^as entirely deoxidized. 

July 31, 1890, teaiperature, surface 80°. 

" underdrain 77°. 

outlet 69.5°. 

After cleaning the outlet pipe the effluent was entirely de- 
oxidized ; after running 10 gallons, effluent, 3% saturated; 
after running 60 gallons, effluent, 11% saturated; after 
running 500 gallons, effluent, 33% saturated. 

The effluent first drawn from the tank had a strong pun- 
gent odor, and after drawing 1,500 gallons a faint trace of 
the odor remained. The samples collected darkened on 
standing, and a red flocculent precipitate settled out, which 
in nearly every case contained crenothrix. 

On August 8, 1890, the effluent, after clearing the pipe, 

1 Pamphlet — Nova Scotia Supeificial Geology — Transactions of the Royal Society, 
Catiada. Vol.1. 

■■i Statistics of Iron and Steel Production of the United States, Census 1880. 



Water-Supply Department. 105 

had a strong pungent odor and was entirely deoxidized, and 
after drawing 500 gallons the same odor could be detected, 
and the water was only 57% saturated. 

The color of the first two samples taken was darker than 
the others, and increased on standing. 

The tank was refilled after takinoj the series August 8, 
and on August 13 the disagreeable odor again appeared at 
the outlet, and a sample showed no dissolved oxygen. 

On August 22 the effluent had a very disagreeable and 
pungent odor, some of the first drawn gave a faint test for 
hydrogen sulphide. 

On August 29 six large bottles of effluent were collected 
through a tube into the bottom of the bottles to prevent 
oxidation, to be kept for experiment. 

The six samples taken August 29, 1890, remained un- 
opened, but exi)osed to the light for about a month, after 
which they Avere set away in a dark cupboard. 

When collected they had a color of from .4 to .5, and 
darkened somewhat on standing. On March 24, 1891, they 
were opened and examined with the following result : 

No. 1, color .18, contained slight white precipitate, al)un- 
dant test for H2S. 

No. 2, color .06, heavy red precipitate, Fe and organic 
matter, no odor nor H^S. 

No. 3, color .07, heavy red precii)itate, no odor nor HgS. 

No. 4, color .09, some red precipitate, no odor nor HgS. 

No. 5, color .09, some red precipitate, no odor nor H.jS. 

No. 6, color .10, slight red precipitate, no odor nor HgS. 

No. 1 aerated for twenty minutes read .80, and the odor 
of hydrogen sulphide disappeared, a red precipitate of iron 
slowly accumulated, showing that the sample held as much 
iron as the others, but that it had been reduced to the 
ferrous or colorless form. 

The bame disappearance of oxygen and the development 
of a deeper color in the lower layers were noticed in Tank 1 , 
which was of cypress, similar to Tank 2. 

The color of the water in the tanks, as viewed from the 
surface, appeared to become lighter on exposure in the tank. 

These experiments show that the action that goes on in a 
six-foot tank and in a gallon bottle, when tightly stoppered, 
is the same as that at the bottom of a deep pond. 

The reduction of the iron in only the first sample drawn 
from Tank 2, may be explained by the fact that this contained 
more putrescible organic matter than the others, as it repre- 
sents the water at the extreme bottom of the tank, which 



106 City Document No. 39. 

contained the organic matter collected from all the water 
stored in it. 

Reduction Experiments. 

The reduction of the precipitate of ferric iron, in the case 
of the water contained in the bottle, which must have been 
accomplished by the growth of micro organisms led me to 
make the following experiments to see how rapidly and to 
what extent ferric iron could be reduced under known con- 
ditions. In all the following experiments the liquid entirely 
tilled the bottle, so that the liquid when once deoxidized 
might not by contact with the air take on more oxygen and 
retard the reduction. Sugar was added to the amount of 1 
gram per 100 cubic centimetres, and it was seeded with fresh 
yeast and the temperature maintained at 80° F. 

Tests made on all before allowing them to stand showed 
that none contained ferrous iron. 

Watee erom Cedar Swamp. 

A dark swamp water, color 4.0, had been standing in the 
laboratory for some time ; all the iron was oxidized, part of 
which had settled out with organic matter as a brown pre- 
cipitate. After standing four days a faint test for ferrous 
iron was obtained, and the amount of ferrous iron was 
shown by frequent tests to increase regularly. After stand- 
ing two weeks the dark-colored precipitate had disappeared, 
as well as the brown color of the water, although so turbid 
as to make an accurate test of its color impossible. 

Ferric Chloride. 

This test was made in the same way, using distilled 
water, to which sufficient ferric chloride was added to give a 
color of about 1.0. Under the same conditions, the first 
test for ferrous iron was obtained after six days of g:owth, 
and this increased until the experiment was discontinued 
after about four weeks. 

Ferric Hydrate. 

This test was made under the same conditions as the 
others, using .3125 grams of ferric hydrate (Fe2033H20), 
obtained by precipitating the iron in this form from .1682 
grams of iron. After four days of action the mixture gave 
an abundant test for ferrous iron, and the amount increased 
regularly. 

After seven weeks of action the mixture was filtered rap- 



Water-Supplt Department. 107 

idly through a Inrofe ribbed filter, and the amount of ferrous 
iron in solution derived from the ferric hydrate added was 
determined. It was found to amount to 12.03'^. 

The liquid containing the ferrous iron was turbid and 
greenish yellow. 

On exposuie and during evaporation it became a dark 
brownish color, and when nearly evaporated the iron settled 
out as a reddish brown flocculent precipitate. It had every 
appearance of a dark natural water exposed under the same 
conditions. 

Irox IX Ground Water. 

It is a well known fact that ground water often contains 
sufficient iron in solution to cause by its oxidation on expo- 
sure a decided color. This has been studied liy Peifke^ and 
Frjinkel with reference to city supplies derived from ground 
water in certain parts of Germany. 

The}' devised a method for its purification, depending 
upon the rapid oxidation of the iron, by passing it in the 
form of spray through a colurim of coke, and the su1)sequent 
removal of the precipitated iron by filtering rapidly through 
a shallow sand filter. As most of my Avork has been con- 
fined to the source of suppl}' of the Boston water, which is 
derived entirely from surface water, comparatively few such 
waters have come to my attention. 

Many of our springs,^ which represent the ground water, 
are known to l)e chal3'beate. 

M}'^ determination of the amount of dissolved oxygen in 
water flowing from artesian wells situated in diflerent por- 
tions of the Bostf>n basin, and which were taken late in ^■'o- 
vember when nearly the maximum amount of dissolved oxy- 
gen is present, show by the very small amount of dissolved 
oxygen present that the conditions, during part of the year 
at least, are favorable for the reduction and solution of iron 
by the water, which, upon exposure, would cause a color due 
to its oxidation. 

Dissolved Oxygen in Flowing Artesian Well-Water. 

17 feet below normal grade of surface, 12.92% saturation. 

22.85 feet below normal grade of surface, 3.48% 
saturation. 

34.38 feet below normal g'rade of surface, .89 

41.60 feet below normal grade of suri^ice, 2.26 
saturation. 

^ Filteranlagen fiir Stadtische Wasserleitung. 
2 Peale. — Mineral Springs of the U. S., p. 21. 



108 City Document No. 39. 

The average per cent, of saturation of three flowing wells 
having depths of about forty feet, but situated comparatively 
near the outcrop of the ledges forming the base of the drain- 
age area was, on December 1, 1892, 25.5. 

An analysis made the last of November of gas bubbling 
from the bed of a shallow spring showed that it contained 
less than half the amount of oxygen found in air. 

Such water, especially if it contains also organic matter in 
solution, is especially favorable for the growth of crenothrix 
and allied forms. Frequently such ground-waters upon 
coming to the surfece as springs, support these growths to 
such an extent as to cause a considerable accumulation of 
ferric oxide. An analysis of a deposit formed in this way 
shows the following composition : 

Loss on ignition . . . . .33.3% 

Insoluble residue . . . . . 8.3% 

FeA . 58.3% 

MnOa 1% 

Cause of the Color of Surface- Water. 

The color of a surface-water, as one from a brook or river 
which is kept well aerated by coming in contact with the air, 
forms, in some ways, a decided contrast with the dark waters 
from the bottom of ponds. One of the most marked points 
of difli'erence is, when protected from the light, the greater 
permanence of its color, so great, in fact, is the permanence 
after the putrescible organic matter in suspension is removed 
by filtration (preferably by filtration through a sheet of 
sandstone or porous tile) that it ma}^ be kept practically 
indefinitely without loss of color, provided it is carefully 
protected from the light. A sample of a dark surface-water 
when thus filtered, may, by dilution with distilled water, be 
made to match in intensity of color the Nesslerized ammonia 
standards which are used for reading the color of water, and 
a set of color standards thus made has the advantao;e of being 
of the exact hue of the waters examined. Such a set has 
been used in reading the color of waters examined for the 
city of Boston, and also for the Massachusetts State Board 
of Health, since June, 1890, and some of the first color 
standards are still in use. 

As stated at the beginning of the pa[)er, the color depends 
to a certain extent upon the nature of the materials from 
which it is derived A sample collected in May or June is 
generally a clear brownish yellow, and represents a mean 
between the extremes of the greenish-^-ellow color imparted 



AVater-Supply Department. 109 

by freshly decomposing organic matter and the dark brown 
of older material. 

In order that the color may remain permanent it is 
necessary, as stated above, to protect the water carefully 
from the light. 

On the following sheet are given analyses of samples of 
water collected from the tap at the Filter Station, which rep- 
resents a sample from the well aerated portion of the Chest- 
nut-Hill lieservoir, one kept in the dark, which retained its 
color, the other exposed to sunlight and which was decolor- 
ized after a month. 

If there is a similarity between the cause of the color of a 
surface-water and that from the bottom of a pond, the color 
of which has been shown to depend upon the presence of 
iron and manganese, it is clear that there should be found in 
the surface waters varying amounts of iron and manganese 
according to the color present. 

As a natural water is an infusion of organic matter, a set of 
preliminary experiments was made to determine the amount 
of iron in different leaves, and in peat and peat-forming ma- 
terial, which upon their decomposition would be added to 
the water. 

Amount of Iron in Different Leaves. 

Maple leaves contain 42.0 parts per 100,000 — .042% ; 
1 ton contains 1.20 ll)s. FeaO^ 

Elm leaves contain 52.0 parts per 100,000 = .052% ; 1 
ton contains 1.48 lbs. FcoOs. 

Chrysanthemum leaves contain 53.4 parts per 100,000 = 
0.53% ; 1 ton contains 1.56 lbs. FegOg. 

The amount of iron in different colored leaves of the same 
species (coleus). 

Amount taken, 1 gram of fresh leaves : 

Parts per 100,000, 
p . Iron extracted in 36 Iron rcmnining Total iron 

^° "'• hours in 30i{ alcohol. in leaf. in leaf . 



Purplish black 


3.0 


4.0 


7.0 


Purple and pink . 


2.0 


5.0 


7.0 


Yellowish green 


1.0 


3.5 


4.5 


White . 


.5 


3.8 


4.3 



The chlorophyl of leaves was formerly considered to be 
the part which contained the most iron, but more recent 
work has shown that the iron is practically confined to 



110 City Docujment No. 39. 

the cells and is not part of the chlorophyi. An examina- 
tion was made of chlorophyi extracted with chloroform from 
chrysanthemum leaves, using Soxh lets' apparatus. This 
extractive matter, consisting mainly of chlorophyi, was 
found to contain only 1.4 parts per 100,000. of its weight of 
iron, which represented only 3.3% of the iron contained in 
the leaf. 

That the iron in whichever part it exists is extracted by 
means of water, is shown by the following experiments : 

By boiling 20 minutes, 69.2% of the iron is removed from 
maple leaves, and 47.7% from elm leaves. 

The Color and Amount of Iron and Manganese larPARXED to 
One Liter op Distilled Water Br One Gram of Leaves. 

Maple Leaves. 

Parts per 100,000 of solution. 

Total Fe 
and Mn. 

Extracted 8 days. Color .37 Fe = .0034. Mn = .0020 — .0054 

Subsequent extraction, 

same leaves, " .20. Fe = .0006. Mn = .0006 

Boiled 15-20 miuutes " 24.00. Fe = .2560. Mn =: .1700 — .4260 

.1 color = .018 parts Fe and Mn. 

Elm Leaves. 

Parts per 100,000 of solution. 

Total Fe 
and Mn. 

Extracted 8 days. Color .22. Fe = .0016 Mn — .0040 — .0056 

Subsequent extraction, 

same leaves, " .20. Fe z= .0011 Mn = .0011 

Boiled 15-20 minutes, " 15.00. Fe = .2400 Mn = .2000 — .4400 

.1 color = .016 parts Fe and Mn. 

The Determination of the Amount of Iron in Dif- 
ferent Peat-forming Materials, and in Peat at 
Different Depths. 

(Samples from Cold Spring Swamp, Newton.) 

All of the determinations of iron in leaves and their 
decoctions have been confined to the commoner species of 
trees, as the maple, elm, and oak. The leaves of such trees, 
although abundant in swamps, where they are i>lo\vn by the 
wind in autumn and find a lodgement, do not, however, add 
very materially to the accumulation of peaty material, which 
is the natural colorins; matter of surface-waters. 

Peat is an accumulation of organic matter generally under 
water, where the decomposition, or the destruction of the 
material is less rapid than its accumulation. 

The under part of such a deposit gradually becomes 
changed to the fine black mud or muck which is mixed with 



Water-Supply Department. Ill 

some sand. A sample of this black mud taken at a depth 
of from two to three feet contained but 13.4% of ash, the 
remaining 86.6% being volatile and organic matter. Tree 
stumps exposed on the surface of a deposit of peat pass 
through the state of brown vegetable mould, and are finally 
incorporated with the deposit ; those embedded while sound 
in the nniss of peat, remain almost indefinitely without 
decomposition. 

Amount of Iron in 1 Gram of Different Materials, 
(dried at 100° C.) 

Leaflets of Common brake .... 

Meadow grass, growing from tussock . 
Meadow moss, fresh ..... 

Meadow moss, one year or more old, and 
some grass ...... 

Recent peat, from tussock .... 

Brown vegetable mould, from decayed stump 
Black peaty muck, from 2 to 3 feel 



.00006og = 


.006% 


.0000(55g = 


.006% 


. 000380a — 


.03«% 


.OOlOOOg — 


.190% 


.000340g = 


.034% 


.002100g = 


.210% 


.009200g =z 


.920% 



112 



City Document No. 39. 



The Color and Amount of Iron in Surface-Waters. 



















"3 
o 


a 
o 

O 


Parts per 100,000. 






6 






o-o • 

S rt o 
o « o 


O SOP 

•^ a o 


Boston tap 












.45 




.014 




. . 


.030 


+ .016 


Lake Couhituate, surface 












.22 


.41 


. . . 




. . 


.014 




» 














.64 


.59 


.060 


.040 


.100 


.043 


— .017 

















.24 


.48 


.030 


.050 


.080 


.016 


— .014 


" 














.20 


.43 


.060 


.030 


.090 


.013 


— .047 


<i 














.15 


.44 


.110 


.040 


.150 


.010 


— .100 


II 














.15 


.34 


.110 


.040 


.150 


.010 


— .100 


Basin 3, surface 
















.62 
.68 
.60 
.35 
.31 
.50 


.62 
.69 
.72 
.65 

.84 


.070 
.040 
.100 
.170 
.040 


.030 
.030 
.040 
.030 
.020 


.100 
.070 
.140 
.200 
.060 


.041 
.045 
.040 
.023 
.020 
.033 


— .029 
+ .005 

— .060 

— .147 

— .020 


Basin 4, surface 
















.69 
.58 
.50 
-42 
.25 


.70 
.64 
.67 
.73 
.58 


.070 
.050 
.060 
.060 
.110 


.100 
.020 
.020 
.030 
.040 


.170 
.070 
.080 
.090 
.150 


.045 
.038 
.033 
.028 
.016 


— .024 

— .012 

— .027 

— .032 

— .094 


Dismal Swamp, Va. 














6.25 




.312 






.418 


+ .106 


Cedar Swamp . . . 














4.00 




.255 






.268 


+ .013 


Westboro' series, September 22, No. 


1 




.43 


.46 


.017 






.028 


+ .011 


' 2 




.07 


.21 


.014 






.004 


— .010 


11 <. 3 




.08 


.25 


.021 






.005 


— .016 


" " 5 




.24 


.38 


.014 






.016 


+ .002 


" " 6 




.06 


.17 


.009 




. . 


.004 


— .005 


11 .. .. « 7 




.10 


.24 


.017 






.006 


— .011 


« .< << " ■< 8 




.85 


.80 


.019 




. . 


.057 


+ .038 


«' " " " " 9 




2.30 


1.96 


.037 




. . 


.154 


+ .117 


" " " " " 10 




1.75 


1.54 


.035 




. . 


.117 


+ .082 


II II " 1 . . 


.48 


.46 


.005 






.032 


+ .027 


" " " " " 2 . 


.05 


.29 


.009 






.003 


— .006 


,1 1, II '< " 3. . 


.12 


.25 


.019 




. . 


.008 


— .011 


" '< " " 4, . 


.55 


.55 


.007 






.036 


+ .029 


II <i <( " " 5 . . 


.14 


.26 


.006 




. . 


.009 


+ .003 






" 




<■ 


'< 


6 




.41 


.42 


.007 






.027 


+ .020 



Water-Supply Department. 



113 



Color and Amount of Iron in Surface-Waters. — Continued. 



Westboro' series, September 22, No. 7 , 



Indian Brook 

Whitehall Pond, shallow flowage . 

" Upper Pond 

" Pond at weir 

Chesi nut-hill Reservoir 



Tank 6, effluent 
13 " 



Influent stream, Quincy Reservoir 

Quincy Reservoir 

Randolph Brook 

Houghton Pond 

Oak Ridge, N. J. Reservoir .... 



Average 



.12 
.95 
1.60 
1.70 
2.80 
.70 
.48 
.76 
.40 
.51 
.52 
.51 
.63 
.11 
.00 
.17 
.02 
.10 
.00 
.20 



.01 



.00 



.02 
.70 
1.25 
.65 
.04 
.15 



.64 



Parts peb 100,000. 



•21 

.78 

1.62 

1.55 

2.68 

.83 

.52 

.83 

.46 

.49 



.07 
.39 
.58 
.51 
.16 
.48 



f=< 



.020 
.015 
.022 
.035 
.042 
.010 
.016 
.010 
.017 
.022 
.019 
.014 
.022 
.012 
.010 
.008 
.009 
.017 
.011 
.008 
.002 
.008 
.009 
.065 
.205 
.015 
.008 
.020 



.043 



oS 

B 



5'5 § 

p o « 

i-?o 



.008 
.063 
.107 
.113 
.187 
.046 
.032 
.050 
.026 
.034 
.003 
.034 
.042 
.007 
.000 
.011 
.001 
.006 
.000 
.013 
.000 
.000 
.001 
.046 
.083 
.043 
.002 
.010 



— .012 
+ .048 
+ .085 
+ .078 
+ .145 
+ .036 
+ .016 
+ .040 
+ .009 
+ .0i2 

— .011 
+ .020 
+ .020 

— .005 

— .010 
+ .003 

— .008 

— .Oil 

— .011 
+ .005 

— .002 

— .006 

— .008 

— .019 

— .122 
+ .028 

— .006 

— .010 



.1 color corresponds to .0067 parts Fe per 100,000. 



114 City Document No. 39. 



The Action of Reagents on Colored Surface-Water. 

Hydrogen peroxide acts as a decolorizing- agent of a dark 
surface-water. The addition of 10% of a 20-volLime solu- 
tion discharged 70% of the color of a surface-water reading 
4.0, in »0 hours, and com[)leted the decolorization within 
two weeks. A very slight precii)itate was formed. 

As commercial hydrogcm peroxide contains a little hydro- 
chloric acid, a blank determination was made, using the 
amount of hydrochloric acid present in the hydrogen })er- 
oxide used. Although somewhat more rapid than when 
caused by the action of diffused light it was shown that the 
decolorization was not increaed by the presence of this very 
small amount of hydrochloric acid. 

Nitric, sulj)huric, and hydrochloric acids, when present in 
considerable quantities, aid the decolorization, the rapidity 
depending on the amount present. They prevent the forma- 
tion of a precipitate. 

Caustic potash increases the color; in man}^ cases doubling 
it. No precipitate foruLs, even upon long continued boiling 
with a concentrated solution. 

Flocculcnt alumina, which completely decolorizesthe water, 
removes, at the same time, the iron. 

The presence of certain organic substances prevents the 
precii)itation of iron as ferric hydrate, and when the iron is 
thus held in solution it imparts a color to the liquid. 
By thus imparting color to distilled water, sufficient to 
match the color of samples of surface-water of known iron 
contents, it should, clearly, be possible to determine what 
part of the color of the surface-water is caused by the iron. 

An experiment of this kind was made, using some of the 
connnoner oiganic substances that prevent the j)recipitation 
of ferric salts. Ferric iron in the presence of gl^'cerine 
causes a reddish color; of tartaric acid, a greenish-yellow 
color; of sugar, a clear yellow color; and of tannin, with 
which it gives a black color in the case of strong solutions, 
in very dilute solutions gives a purplish red. 

It is clear that these last two are the ones most likely to 
be present in surface-water, the sugar from sap and tannin 
extracted from the bark. The presence of these two would 
also account for the brown hue of a natural water. 

Such an artificial colored water, colored by iron held in 
solution by means of sugar, with a few drops of dilute tannin 
solution to give the required hue, matched perfectly a 
natural surface-water ; but it was necessary to add nearly 
ten times as much iron as was calculated from the average 
of buch waters— .1 color = .0067 parts of Fc per 100,000. 



Plot showing the amount of Iron in NaturalWater Standards. 

WATER USED IN MAKING STANDARDS FROM CEDAR SWAMP-WESTBORO.MASS. 



a. z 
oo 

-I r 

o < 



25 

2.4 

2.3 

2.2 

2.1 

2.0 

1.9 

1.8 

1.7 

1.6 

1.5 

1.4. 

1.3 

1.2 



.9 
.8 
.7 
.6 
.5 



^ -4 



I 



ooogooogooo2ooooooogo<^ 
QOoQQQQQoopPQqqqooqqoo 



IRON SCALE, PARTS F£. PER 100 000. 



Water-Supply Department. 115 

From this, together with the fact that the amount of iron 
corresponding to a color of .1 is, in ihe case of a surface- 
water, only one sixty-fifth of that in a coh)red water from 
the bottom of a deep pond, it is necessary to conchide that 
the color of a surface-water is practically independent of the 
iron contents. 

The cause of the color of a surface-water is, therefore, 
mainly the organic matter in solution, and it will be noticed 
on the foregoing table that the organic matter, as revealed 
by the test of oxygen consumed, follows closely the color. 



116 City Document No. 39. 



EEPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE 
MYSTIC DIVISION. 



Superintendent's Office, 
Charlestown District, February 1, 1893. 

Robert Grant, Esq., Chairman Boston Water' Board : 

Sir : The report of the Mystic Division of the Boston 
Water-Works from February 1, 1892, to February 1, 1893, 
is herewith submitted. 

Mystic Lake. 

Water overflowed the dam almost constantly until June 7, 
and again from June 27 to July 7. From this date the sur- 
face of the lake gradually lowered until November 1, when 
the lowest depth during the year was recorded, 6.72 feet 
below high water, or 1.28 feet above the point at which it 
would be necessary to pump the water into the conduit. 
This was 4.45 feet above the conduit invert. On December 
1 it was 2.63 below high water, and on January 1 it was 
1.50 below. In October, the temporary engines and feed- 
pump were overhauled, new grate-bars put in the boilers, 
the centrifugal pumps, after being patched in several places, 
were lowered into place, and all arrangements completed for 
the expected pumping. Fortunately, after November 1, the 
water rose, and quite rapidly, so the preparations were 
abandoned. The lake, ponds, rivers, and feeders received 
all the required care and attention. Wedge and Horn ponds 
and that section of the Abajonna river above Whitney's dam 
were constantly patrolled during the warm season, and all ob- 
jectionable algge and other contaminating matter removed. 
All along the banks of the supply, overhanging shrubs were 
cut away, and where needed the beds of the streams were 
raked and gravelled. The gate-keeper's house and the en- 
gine-house received some slight repairs and the roads and 
fences near the dam were trimmed and improved. 

Reservoir. 

The stonework in the basins of the reservoir has been re- 
pointed with Portland cement, the brickwork repaired in 
several places, and both basins have been thoroughly 
cleaned. When preparing to make these improvements. 



Water-Supply Department. 117 

the drain, a sheet-iron cement-lined pipe, was found to he 
detective, so 36 feet of new 12-inch cast-iron pipe was sub- 
stituted. The banks have been top dressed, as usual, and 
about 100 feet of one of the adjoining roads graded and 
repaired. The gate-house, walks, seats, banks, roads, and 
fences are now in good condition. I respectfully recommend 
that next spring the bottoms of both basins be reconcreted. 

Conduit. 

During the past year the conduit has been twice cleaned, 
jflnshed, and inspected, and at the last inspection it was found 
in good order. 

I intend the coming season to place a 3G-inch gate and 
pipe on the blow-ofi\ in order to expedite the cleaning and 
flushing, and to better exclude the tide-water. I shall also 
place new sills and grooves for the screens in the screen- 
chamber, and shall raise the roof of the chamber to facilitate 
the chanofing of the screens. The force mains are in ffood 
condition. 

Pumping-Station. 

During the year the consumijtion on this division increased 
11.8 per cent, over that of last year. In January, 1893, 
owing to the extreme cold weather, the consumption was 
greater tiian that of any previous month. A daily average 
of over 14,000,000 gallons was pumped, and on several days 
the pumping exceeded 16,000,000 gallons. 

The estimated pumping capacity of the three pumps is but 
18,000,000 gallons daily, so it was necessary to run the 
pumps to almost their full extent. If the 8,000,000-gallon 
pump had broken down, the two 5,000,000-gallon pumps 
could not have supplied the demand. One of the 5,000,000- 
gallou pumps has been in use since 1864, the other since 
1866, and the 8,000,000-gallon pump since 1872. 

These pumps require repairs frequently, and especially 
Pump No. 1, a 5,000,000-gallon pump. I respectfully call 
the attention of the Board to the above facts, and to the ex- 
pediency of replacing Pump No. 1 with a new one of at least 
12,000,000 gallons pumping capacity. In December, a 
Lamprey Patent Furnace-mouth Lining was placed in each 
of the six boilers on a six months' trial. 

A new feed-pump has been set up in the boiler-room, the 
dynamo repaired, new fronts similar to those on boilers 
Nos. 4, 5, and 6 have been put on boilers Nos. 1, 2, and 3, 
six new windows put on east end of engine-house, 800 feet 
of coal-car tracks relaid, and painting and papering done at 
the eno-ineers' residences. 



118 City Document Xo. 39. 

I rcsi'jcctfully rccoramencl, as a matter of economy, that a 
laio-er chimney be erected, as the present one is of insuffi- 
cient draught. 

INIystic-Yalley Sewer. 

From February 1, 1892, to February 1, 1893, 135,459,762 
gallons of sewaoe wjis pumped, to which was fipplied as a 
prcci|)itant, 840,608 lbs. of crude sulphate of alumina. The 
quantity of sludge precipitated and subsequently pumped 
daring the same time was 3,326,806 galh)ns. The greater 
part of this sludge, when sufficiently hard to handle by ex- 
cavation, was carted away by farmers, wiio used it as a 
fertilizer. The quantity of coal used was 358,685 lbs., or 
179.34 tons. The quantity of sewage pumped during the 
year ending January 31, 1893, exceeded that of the corre- 
sponding months of the preceding jear by 11 per cent., as 
likewise the amount of i)recipitant used, while in the 
amount of coal used there was a decrease of nearly 7 per 
cent. 

The buildings at this station are in good condition, but 
the tanks are beginning to show signs of weakness. In 
August, the floor of Tank No. 4 was raised several inches by 
the pressure of water due to the leakage of the adjoining 
Tank No. 3 ; at the same time, the partition sejiarating the 
tanks was thrown out of position, thereby rendering both 
tanks unfit for use until repaired, Avliich required about four 
weeks' time. The sludge-gates in the tank building, and the 
flnmes that convey the sewage to the several tanks were re- 
paired, new tubes put in the boiler and two patches made; 
the feed-pump was repaired, and the suction-pipe from the 
lake uncovered, in oider to remove the defective lengths, 
and to make n(3W joints. The coal-bin was strengthened, 
and one of the chemical vats repaired. 

The sulphate of alumina was formerly shipped to us in 
barrels, but is now delivered in l)ulk. In order toexpedite the 
unloading from the railroad cars, the chemical building 
was moved nearer the track. Now the alumina can be 
shovelled from the cars into the building, similar to the 
arrangements for the coal. 

Sewage Treatment at Stoneham. 

At Tidd's tannery in Stoneham arrangements have been 
made for chemically treating the sewage liom these prem- 
ises, and subsequently filtering it. The plant consists of two 
tanks, built of wood, each twenty feet in width by thirty feet 
in length, situated side by side, and having a working- 
capacity of 22,500 gallons per day. 



WATER-ScprLY Department. 119 

The floors of the tanks slope to\V!ird each othor, and 
deliver into open drains, which are divided by the [)artition 
that separates the tanks. These open drains slope toward 
and discharirc into a brick well, from which the sludge is 
pumped into settling basins on the adjacent grounds. The 
effluent water is to be discharged through numerous holes, 
bored through one end of the tanks on to an a|)roii lloor, 
which discharges into an 8-inch pipe, laid under the railroad 
and connected with the filters. 

Two li Iters have been built on the meadow opposite the 
tannery, adjoining the raih'oad location. They arc each 60 
feet square, witii embankments built of turf and soil, and are 
provided with sluice-gates to regulate the flow of the water. 

The drainage material of the filters is nine inches in 
depth, and Avas laid on a plank flooring. This filtering 
material consists of ordinary sand, about as coarse as fine 
mortar sand, and has an average depth of two feet three 
inches. It is tlesigned to use the filter intermittenti}-, at the 
rate of 350,000 gallons per acre, per day. 

The power required for pumping the sewage and sludge is 
to be fuinished by the tannery company, at their exi)euse, 
as soon as their new engine is ready for action. 

Pollution Inspection. 

"Work in this department has been conducted in a diligent 
and systematic manner. The total numl)er of cases inspected 
during the year is ()6l, of which ()05 are old cases and 
7i3 are new cases. Hie inspected cases are in the follow- 
ing condition : 383 " i-resent Safe," 83 " Seem Safe," G2 
"kemedied," G8 " Suspected," ^5 "Unsatisfactory." 

Filtration Experiments. 

The experiments in filtering water at the filtering station 
in AVcst Aledford have been continued with satisfactory 
results. 

The reports of analyses made by Professor Drown, of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, encourage the con- 
tinuation of the experiments. 

' Distribution-Pipes. 

The distril)ution-pipes have been extended by the addition 
of 3l) feet of 3-inch pipe, 2,101 feet of 4-inch pipe, 15,741 
feet of ij-inch pipe, 2,881 feet of 8-inch pipe, 187 feet of 10- 
inch pipe, and 120 feet of IG-inch pipe. 

There are remaining in Charlestown G,350 feet of cement- 
lined pipe, varying in size from 2 inches to 20 inches. 



120 



City Document No. 39. 



Hydrants and Gates. 

One hundred and seven new Post hydrants have been es- 
tablished and twenty-one old ones removed. 

One hundred and ten new gates have been set, two 20- 
inch, two 12-inch, four 10-inch, seven 8-inch, seventy-three 
6-inch, twenty-one 4-inch, and one 3-inch. 

Service Pipes and Boxes. 

One thousand and thirty new sevices were laid, distributed 
as follows : Charlestown, 47 ; Chelsea, 151 ; Everett, 303 ; and 
Somerville 529, in which 32,039 feet of lead pipe were con- 
sumed. 

One hundred and fifty services were repaired. Twenty- 
eight |-inch tin-lined services were removed and |-inch sub- 
stituted. Fourteen wooden service-boxes have been replaced 
by iron ones. 

Fifty-five stoppages by eels, seventeen by rust, and six by 
moss were forced out. Nineteen leaking services were re- 
paired and eight frozen ones thawed out. 

iffew Services. 



Size 


l-in. 


Jin. 


l-in. 


5-in. 


6.in. 


Total number. 


Total ft. 






Number 


26 


15 


3 


1 


2 


47 


1,395 



Suminary of Services connected with Works, February 1, 

1893. 





Charlestown. 


Chelsea. 


Everett. 


Somerville. 


Total. 


Number of services 

Number of feet 


6,034 
161,464 


5,382 
144,513 


2,690 
54,078 


7,482 
252,904 


21,588 
612,959 



Breaks and Leaks on Distribution-Pipes. 



size of Pipes 


2-in. 


3-in. 


4-in. 


6.in- 


8-in. 


le-in. 






1 

2 






1 
10 
26 
47 


1 

2 
47 


1 


4 




2 
3 


20 
18 
31 


34 




48 






128 









Water-Supplt Department. 



121 



Distribution-Pipes Relaid. 



Location. 


Original 
Size. 


4-in. 


6-in. 


8-in. 


10-in. 


12-in. 


14-in. 


16-in. 

1 


20in. 


Total. 


Charlestown, Lin wood pi, 

Chelsea 

Chelsea 


4-in. 
4-in. 
6-in. 
8-in. 




216 

3,598 

927 










1 




216 














3,598 
927 
















40 
700 










40 


'• Ferry st 

" High st 

" Tufts court • . 


6-in. 
6.in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 


391 


32 


346 
400 










1,078 
400 




















391 






2,150 
1,310 










2,150 




6-in. 
















1,310 


" Oalj st 

" Corey st. ... 
" Chelsea st. . . . 
" Union are. . . . 


4-iu. 
4-in. 
6-in. 
3-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
6-in. 
4-in. 
10-in. 




12 

59 

16 
830 
50 
17 
17 
21 














12 














59 


34 




1,157 




50 




1,241 
16 














830 


" Wintbrop st. . . 
" Liberty st. . . . 














50 














17 














17 


" Baldwin ave. . . 


272 
700 












293 












700 


" Elmwood pi. . . 


244 














244 














2,900 


2,900 




4-in. 

6.in. 

8-in. 

10-in. 


36 














36 


Somerville 


5,786 














5,786 


4,094 












4,094 








4,361 










4,361 




12-in. 








9,139 








9,139 




14-in. 
16-in. 










115 






115 














403 




403 




















Total 


671 


11,581 


5,84e 


8,561 


10,296 


115 


453 


2,900 


40,423 









122 



City Document No 39. 



Extension of Distribution-Pipes. 



Location. 


4-in- 


e.in. 


8in. 


10 in. 


16-in. 


Total. 


Charlcstown : 




295 
357 
295 








295 


Tibbetts street 










357 












295 




250 
124 








250 












124 




18-t 
195 

190 

218 

15 
3,403 

93 








184 












195 












190 












218 


B. & M. U R ) 


85 






100 


Chelsea bridge ) 








3,403 
93 


Everett : 












158 








158 




390 
120 
425 
330 
751 
396 
328 
377 








390 












120 












425 






73 


84 




487 






751 












396 












328 












377 




120 

580 








120 












580 




17 
492 
133 
496 








17 












492 












133 












496 






248 


. . . 




248 






280 
529 






280 




35 


531 






566 




529 














Carried forward 


l,3o2 


10,309 


852 


84 




12,594 



Water-Supply Department. 



123 



Extension of Distribution-Pipes. — Concluded. 



Location. 



Brongltt foricard . 
Buckman street . . . . 
Garfield street . . . . 

Bennett street 

West End Hallway . , 
Prospect street . . . . 
Willard street ...... 

Ferry street 

Broadway court . • . . 
Somerville 



1,352 



2,146 



10,309 
60 
643 
56 
12 
24 
24 



15,674 



24 
2,081 



2,957 



lO.in 



12-iu. 



Total. 

12,594 
60 

643 
56 

282 
24 
24 
72 
24 
7,386 

21,165 



124 



City Document No. 31). 






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Water-Supply Department. 



125 



Hydrants Established. 





Established. 






o 


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62 

4 
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Total 






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107 




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Total Number of Hydrants in use February 1, 1893. 




Respectfully submitted, 

Eugene S. Sullivan, 

Superintendent. 



126 City Document No. 89. 



EEPORT OF THE ENGINEER. 



City of PjOSton, 
Engineer ixG Depautment, 
50 City Hall, February 1, 1893. 

Mr. Robert Grant, Chcdrman Boston Water Board: 

Sir : I hereby submit the following report of the work 
done and records kept during the past year, for your Board : 

Sources of Supply. 

The rainfall during the past year was the smallest since 
1883, and the percentage collected was also unusually small. 
The storage in the several lakes and reservoirs was gradually 
reduced during the summer and fall months until November, 
when all fears of a short supply were removed by the large 
rainfall during that month. 

The rainfall and quantities collected on the several water- 
sheds were as follows : 





Sudbury. 


Cochitnate. 


Mystic. 


Rainfall in inches 


41.83 


39.04 


39.115 


" collected in 








inches 


16.456 


15.35 


15.98 


Daily average yield 









of water- shed, gal- 
lons . . . 58,753,000 13,753,500 20,390,700 

The quality of the water from all the supplies has been 
as good as usual, and the supply from Sudbury river is 
gradually being improved. 

The condition of the different reservoirs during the year is 
given below. 

Ileservoir JS!o. 1. — Water was wasting at the dam from 
January 3 to April 15, and from May 12 to June 7. 

No water was wasted for the balance of the year, except 
during six days in November and ten days in December, 
other tlian the daily flow of one and a half million gallons 
required by law. 

The dam is in good condition. 

Reservoir jVo. 2. — Water was flowinu; over the dam 



AVater-Supply Department. 127 

almost constantly from January 4 to July 10. From this 
date till August 18 the surface of this reservoir was gradu- 
ally lower, and at the latter date was at grade 161.813, or 
5.76 feet below the top of the flash-boards. 

During the balance of the year the surface of this reser- 
voir rose and fell, reaching its lowest point on November 10, 
when it was 7.58 feet below the top of flash-boards; on 
January 1, 1890, it was 4.08 below. 

The dam of Reservoir 2 is in good condition. 

Reservoir JSfo. 3. — The water in this reservoir was 8.05 
feet below the crest of the dam on January 1, but was flow- 
ing over the crest on January 18, and continued to do so 
almost constantly until the last of June. From this date 
the surface gradually fell until August 26, wdien it was 6.20 
feet below the crest of the dam. This was the lowest point 
reached during the year. On January 1, 185)3, it stood at 
grade 171.58, or 3.66 feet below the crest of the dam. The 
dam of this reservoir is in good condition. 

Reservoir iVb. 4. — The surface of the water in this res- 
ervoir Avas 6.36 feet below the crest of the dam, on January 
1, but had filled to overflowing on January 21, and contin- 
ued in this condition until August 16, when the gates were 
opened to furnish a portion of the supi)ly for the city. 
From this date the water gradually fell to grade about 
185.34, or 28.87 feet below the crest of the dam, when the 
outlet gate was closed. On January 1, 181)3, the water had 
risen to grade 194.22, or 19.99 feet l)eh)w the crest of the 
dam. The dam at Reservoir 4 is in good condition. 

Farm Pond. — The water in this pond has been kept at 
an average height of 148.92 above tide marsh level. The 
conduit through the pond was used all the year except froni 
May 14 to July 20, and from August 18 to August 30, 
when the supply was drawn through the pond. 

The Framingham Water Company has juunped 82,800,000 
gallons from the pond, an average of 226,200 gtillons per day. 

Lake Cochiluate. — On January 1 the w^ater in this lake 
was 7.02 feet below high-water mark, and the lake did not 
fill until! May 4. AVater was wasting at dam on May 20 to 
24, and iNIay 26 to 28, inclusive. 

The lake continued near high-water mark until the latter 
part of June when it began to fall and continued to do so 
with great regularity until November 13, when it was 6.80 
feet below high-water mark. 

The lowest point reached was on December 8, when it was 
6.91 feet below high water. 

No water was drawn from the lake after December 10, and 



128 



City Document No. 39. 



on January 1, 1893, the surface was at grade 128.41, or 5.95 
feet below high water. The dams are in good condition. 

Water has been drawn from the different reservoirs as 
follows : 

Reservoir No. 1. 



January 9 to II, inclusive. 
January 14 to 17. 
January 22 to 24 
January 28 to 30. 
February 4 to 7. 
February 11 to 14. 
February 18 to 21. 



February 25 to 28. 
March 3 to 6. 
March 10 to 13. 
March 16 to 20. 
March 24 to 27. 
March 29 to July 19. 



Reservoir No. 2. 



January 1 to 5. 
AuOTst 26 to 27. 
September 1 to 9. 
September 13 to Novem- 
ber 14. 
November 18. 



November 21. 
November 26 to 27. 
November 29. 
December 9 to 10. 
December 13 to 17. 



Reservoirs Nos. 2 and 3. 



July 20 to August 25. 
August 28 to 31. 
September 10 to 12. 
November 5 to 17. 
November 19 to 20. 



November 23 to 25. 
November 30 to Decem- 
ber 4. 
December 7 to 8. 
December 11 to 12. 



The heights of water in the various storage reservoirs on 
the first day of each month are given below : 



Water-Supply Department. 



129 





Rbservoiks. 


Farm 
Pond. 


Lake 

COCHITU- 
ATB. 




No.l. 


No. 2. No. 3. 


No. 4. 




Top of 
Flash- 
boards. 

159.29 


Top of 
Flash- 
boards. 

167.12 


Crest 

of 
Dam. 

175.24 


Crest 

of 
Dam. 

215.21 


High 
Water. 

149.25 


Top of 
Flash, 
boards. 

134.36 


January 1, 1892 

February 1, " 

March 1, " 

April 1, " 

Mayl, " 

June 1, " 

Julyl, " 

August 1, " 

September 1, " 

October 1, " 

November 1, " 

December 1, " 

January 1, 1893 


157.20 
157.86 
158.00 
157.95 
155.72 
159.54 
156.84 
156.70 
156.35 
156.89 
156.22 
157.60 
157.44 


163.55 
166.10 
166.15 
166.23 
167.21 
167.69 
167.38 
162.63 
164.79 
165.83 
159.70 
165.71 
163.04 


167,19 
175.49 
175.58 
175.64 
175.05 
175.57 
174.89 
171.94 
169.60 
169.88 
170.14 
173.51 
171.58 


207.85 
214.42 
214.49 
214,56 
214.78 
214.58 
215,31 
214.43 
210.55 
199,68 
187.40 
190,66 
194.22 


148.99 
148.50 
148.65 
149.14 
149.00 
149.21 
149.45 
149.05 
148.95 
14S.S9 
148.55 
148.81 
148.63 


127.34 
130.09 
180.27 
132.75 
134.17 
134.23 
133.83 
132.23 
130.84 
129.51 
127.98 
127.75 
128.41 



Aqueducts and Distributing Reservoirs. 

The Sudbuiy-river aqueduct has been used 322 days, and 
the Cochituate has been used 342 days, conveying water to 
the distributing reservoirs. The former has delivered 
9,633,200,000 gallons into Chestnut-hill and Brookline reser- 
voirs, equal to a daily supply of 28,800,000 gallons ; and the 
Cochituate aqueduct has delivered 5,464,800,000 gallons, or 
14,930,000 gallons per day. For 44 days the Sudbury 
aqueduct has also conveyed water to Lake Cochituate, de- 
livering 902,400,000 gallons into the lake. 

A nearly uniform depth of six and one-half feet wjis main- 
tained in the Cochituate aqueduct while in use. The 
aqueduct was not used after December 10, on account of 
excavations under it by the city of Newton. 

The rate of flow in the Sudbury aqueduct was varied from 
day to day to maintain the desired depth of water in the 
distribution reservoirs. Both aqueducts were cleaned as 
usual during the year. 

The Chestnut-hill, Brookline, Fisher-hill, Parker-hill, 



130 



City Document No. 39. 



and East Boston reservoirs and the Breed's island water- 
tower are in good condition. 

I renew the recommendations made in the last annual re- 
port in regard to Chestnut-hill and South Boston reservoirs, 
and the water-tower on Bellevue hill. 



High-Seevice Pum ping-Stations. 

At Chestnut hill the puraping-engines and boilers are in 
excellent condition. It has been necessary to run the 
pumps much above their rated capacity, and although the 
normal capacity of each pump is 8,000,000 gallons in 24 
hours, Engine No. 2 has pumped over 11,000,000 gallons 
in 24 hours with apparent safety. 

A duplicate dynamo and engine has been added to the 
lighting plant, which is now located in a wooden extension 
built in the rear of the boiler-room. 

The foundations for Engine No. 3 are nearly completed, 
and the work of building the engine is progressing rapidly. 

The table on page 170 shows in detail the work done by 
the pumping-engines and boilers during the year. 

Engine No. 1 was used 3,976| 

hours, pumping 
Engine No. 2 was used 3,758| 

hours, pumping 
Total amount pumped . 
Total amount coal consumed 
Percentage, ashes and clinkers 
Average lift in feet 
Quantity pumped per lb. of coal . 
Daily average amount pumped 



1,569,863,445 gallons. 

1,480,154,830 " 
3,050,018,275 " 
3,548,105 pounds. 
8.5 
126.27 
859.6 gallons. 
8,333,400" " 



The amount pumped is an increase of 14.7 per cent, over 
that of 1891. 

The boilers have been run alternately, one boiler being 
sufBcient to furnish the steam for lio-htinof and heating the 
pumping-station and other buildings near it, besides that 
required for pumping. 



Cost of Pumping. 
Salaries 

Fuel .... 
Kepair? 

Oil, waste, and packing 
Small supplies 



,150 40 

7,490 76 

192 48 

574 95 

352 48 



Total 



$18,761 07 



Water-Supply Department. 131 

Cost per million gallons raised one foot high, $0,049. 

Cost per million gallons pumped to reservoir, $6.15. 

At the West Roxbury pumping-station, 33,588,(>75 gal- 
lons have been pumped, or a daily average of 91,800 gal- 
lons, an increase of 39.1 per cent, over the amount pumped 
in 1891. 

At the East Boston pumping-station an average of 18,400 
gallons per day has been pumped into Breed's island water- 
tower, an increase of 36.3 per cent, over the amount 
pumped in 1891. 

Since July 22 water has been pumped dailj^ into the 
East Boston reservoir during the day time to furnish an 
additional head for the high-service district. The check- 
valve with bypass, against which the pumps work, is 
weighted to give about 20 pounds additional pressure on the 
mains while pumping. About 400,000 gallons were pumped 
daily for this service. 

The small pump that was formerly used at the Brighton 
pumping-station is badly worn, and requires a good deal of 
attention to keep it in running order. The two larger 
pumps can be maintained in good condition with ordinary 
repairs. 

Mystic Lake. 

Water was wasted over the dam almost constantly from 
January 14 to June 7, and from June 27 to July 7. From 
this date the surface of the lake gradually fell until it was 
6.72 feet below high water on November 1 ; this was the 
lowest point reached during the year. 

During November it tilled to within 2.70 feet of high 
water, and on January ] , 1893, the lake was eighteen 
inches below high- water mark. The pumps were placed in 
position to pump water into the conduit in October, but the 
November rains raised the level of the lake before it became 
necessary to use them. 

One of rain-gauges used in the calculation of the yield of 
the water-shed was moved from Symmes Corner to the 
north reservoii', Winchester, on September 1. 

Mystic Valley Sewer. 

The pump was run 346 days during the year, working 
6,142| hours, and has pumped 134,576,100 gallons of sew- 
age, an average of 389,500 gallons per day of pumping. 

The amount pumped is 12.9 per cent, more than was 
pumped in 1891. 

The total amount of sulphate aluminum used during the 
year was 338,065 lbs., and 182.9 tons of coal were used in 
pumping. 



132 City Document No. 39. 



Mystic Conduit and Eeseevoir. 

The conduit is in good condition, except that a new gate 
should be placed on the blow-off pipe. 

Both divisions of the reservoir Avere cleaned in June. The 
brick paving on the slopes was found to be in better condi- 
tion than it was at the time of the previous cleaning, and but 
few repairs were necessary. 

There are serious objections to the method now used for 
cleaning the reservoir, and to remedy it a drain should be 
laid to the Mystic river, through which the deposits that 
collect in the reservoir can be flushed ; or sufficient time 
should be allowed for the deposits to dry, so that they can 
be hoisted over the banks. 

If the flushing method be continued, the concrete bottom 
of the reservoir should be renewed, as it is now badly disin- 
tegrated. I renew the recommendation that new sills and 
grooves for the screens be placed in the screen-chamber, and 
that the roof of the chamber be raised to facilitate the chang- 
ing of the screens. 

Mystic Pumping-Station. 

The increased consumption has required that in addition 
to the 8,000,000-gallon pump, one of the smaller pumps be 
run several hours nearly every day, thus reducing the duty 
obtained in 1891. 

The running of Pumping-engine No. 1, which was built in 
1864, is neither satisfactory nor economical; the pump has 
outlived its usefulness. New fronts have been placed on 
boilers Nos. 1, 2, and 3, and the Lamprey attachment for 
heating the feed-water has been placed inside the fire doors. 

I renew the recommendations made in the last report, 
which have not been carried out. 

Engine No. 1 was in use 669^ 

hours, pumping . . . 131,022,700 gallons. 

Engine No. 2 was in use 3,897| 

hours, pumping 
Eno'ine No. 3 was in use 8,042 

hours, pumping 
Total amount pumped . 
Total amount coal consumed 
Percentage ashes and clinkers 
Average lift in feet 
Quantity pumped per lb. of coal 
Average duty of engines per 100 

lbs. of total coal, no deduction . 56,709,000 ft. lbs. 



799,198,200 *' 

2,666,495,500 '« 
3,596,716,400 

7,873,000 pounds. 
10.2 
148.84 
456.8 gallons. 



Water-Supply Department. 



133 



Daily average amount pumped . 9,827,100 gallons. 

The amount pumped was an increase of 8.8 per cent, over 
that of 1891. 

Cost of Pltmping. 

Salaries $9,613 93 

Fuel . . . . . 
Kepairs .... 

Oil waste and packing . 
Small supplies 



14,294 


22 


511 


09 


744 


51 


348 


44 


$25,512 


19 


$0,048 


7.09 



Total 

Cost per million gallons raised one foot high 
Cost per million gallons pumped to reservoir 

The table on page 171 shows in detail the work done by 
the pumping-engines during the year. 

Consumption. 

The daily average consumption for 1892, and a comparison 
with that of 1891, is shown by the following table : 



189a. 



January . . 
February . 
March . . . 
April ... 
May ... 
June . . . . 
July . . . , 
August . , 
Septeniber 
October . . , 
November 
December . 

Average 



COCHITUATB. 



SO 

□ 

o 



36,756,400 
38,881,500 
38,395,100 
37,171.000 
37,055,900 
41,564,000 
45.738,100 
45,031,600 
45,261,000 
44,626,700 
41,347,800 
43,766,400 



41,312,400 



98.7 
104.3 
108.1 
104.0 
101.3 
109.9 
117.1 
114.1 
111.3 
114.9 
112.8 
118.3 



109.6 



So 



9,878,200 
10,332,200 
9,970,500 
9,145,000 
9,204,900 
10,146,300 
10,702,900 
9,751,500 
9,549,400 
9,340,500 
9,230,000 
10,473,700 



9,810,800 









105.2 
109.1 
113.2 
113.7 
104.1 
107.0 
111.7 
106.9 
104.6 
100.9 
107.5 
116.9 



108.3 



Combined 

Supplies. 



ao 

SI 
SO 
a 
o 



46,634,600 
49,213,700 
48,365,600 
46,316,000 
46,260,800 
51,710,300 
56,441,000 
54,783,100 
54,810,400 
53,967,200 
50,577,800 
54,240,100 



51,123,200 






i,", 00 



100.0 
105.3 
109.1 
105.8 
101.8 
109.4 
116.0 
112.8 
110.0 
112.2 
111.8 
117.1 



109.4 



134 City Document No. 39. 

The daily average consumption per head of population 
was as follows : 

Sudbury and Cochituate supply . . . 95.3 gallons. 

Mystic supply 78.6 " 

Combined supplies ..... 91.6 " 

The above figures show an increase of 9.6 per cent, in the 
consumption from the Sudbury and Cochituate works from 
that of the previous year; of 8.3 per cent, increase in the 
consumption for the Mystic Works, and of 9.4 per cent, in- 
crease for the combined supplies. 

Distribution. 

The total length of main j'ipe laid on the Cochituate 
division was nearly 18 miles, and 4,270 feet of pipe have 
been abandoned, making a net increase of a little more than 
17 miles in the total length in use. 

Only about 1,500 feet of pipe were relaid with larger 
sizes to improve the tire service, and 1 recommend that at 
least one mile of the old mains be relaid this year for that 
purpose. 

The laying of the 30-inch main to South Boston was com- 
pleted on May 27th. 

This main connects with the 30 and 36 inch mains in Tre- 
mont street at West Chester, park and extends through 
Chester park and Swett street to Washington Village, a dis- 
tance of 7,600 feet, connecting with the 20-inch main in 
Boston street. 

A spiral weld steel pipe was used for crossing the sluices 
in Swett street ; the ])ipe being reduced to 24 inches in diam- 
eter at the two bridges, which are considered to be tem- 
porary structures. 

A 6-inch pipe was laid from Squantum to supply the 
Asylum and Farm School on Thompson's island. The 
work was done b}^ John Cavanagh & Co., who were the 
lowest bidders. The length of the pipe was 6,760 feet, 300 
feet under the channel between Squantum and the island 
being laid with the Ward flexible-jointed pipe. Water was 
turned on in this pipe July 5. 

Water-pipes were laid from the pipe on Long island to 
the hospitals on Gallop's island in the fall ; 2,874 feet of 6- 
inch pipe on Long island and 991 feet of 6-inch pipe on 
Gallop's island were laid by John Cavanagh & Co., under a 
contract. A temporary 3-inch wrought-iron pipe 3,798 
feet in length, on the bottom of the channel between the 



"Water-Supply Department. 135 

islands was laid by George W. Townsend, under a contract. 
The pipe was put together with screw couplings by divers 
and was laid in two weeks' time. The temporary pipe was 
naid for by the Board of Health. 

The sea-water has been so unusually cold that the G-inch 
pipe between Moon and Long islands was frozen, after hav- 
ing successfully passed through four winters without accident. 
The pipe is encased in a wooden box of 3J-incli phink and is 
buried in a trench where there is less than 10 feet of water 
over the pipe at low tide. The freezing probably began in 
deep water, as the water in the bay was only 28 degrees above 
zero. 

In Charlestown the mains were extended 2208 feet, and 
216 feet of 4-inch pipe were relaid with 6-inch pipe. 

Additional Supply. 

The development of the Sudbury system has been contin- 
ued during the past year. The work of building the basin 
on Indian brook (Basin No. 6) has made fair progress, 
and it will be so far advanced at the end of the present 
season that the basin can be put into service. The surveys 
for additional basins have been nearly finished, and their 
construction must be commenced at once, as the increasins: 
consuni[)tion of water by the city has more than kept pace 
with development of the water supply, and even with Basin 
No. 6 the works have barely sufficient capacity in a dry 
year to supply the present consumption. 

For particulars, see the following report of Desmond 
FitzGerald, Resident Engineer: 

South Framingham, Mass. January 30, 1893. 
William Jackson, Esq., City Engineer: 

Sir : I submit herewith a brief report of engineering work 
accomplished during the past year by the Additional 
Supply force. 

At Basin No. 6 the core- wall was uncovered early in April, 
and on April 2b the first gravel was delivered on the dam. 
Work on the shallow flowage, stripping of basin, and building 
up of the dam Avas actively prosecuted throughout the season. 
The dam has been raised from grade 250 to 271, or 21 feet. 
Both gate-chambers have been built to grade. The valves 
have been placed in the lower gate-house. The wasteway has 
been completed. Excellent progress was made by the con- 
tractors in stripping the basin. Sections A, B, and C, which 
were let in 1891, have been completed and final estimates 
made. Section D is nearly finished. Section E, above the 



136 



City Docibient No. 39. 



Cordaville road, was let to John Berry & Co., on January 
13, and is practically completed. 

Mr. N. S. Brock, Assistant Engineer, has been in charge 
of Basin 6. 



Work done at Basin 6 during 1892. 



Concrete . . . . 


4,11H 


cubic 


yards. 


Backfilling . . . . 


148 


(( 


(( 


Plaster . . . . 


2,140 


square 


yards 


Embankment 


126,726 


cubic 


yards 


Loaming slope 


1,572 


( i 


( ( 


Eiprap " 


2,546 


it, 


( ( 


Stone crushed 


1,579 


1, i 


( ( 


Sand and gravel screened 


1,521 


( i 


( i 


Stone masonry 


256 


i i 


i t 


Brick " 


143 


li 


i I 


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321,516 


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660 


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526 


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747 


square 


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1,136 


cubic 


(( 


Dimension masonry 


102 


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(( 


Coping 


1,420 lineal feet. 



During the winter of 1891-2 surveys for Basin 5, on 
Stony brook, were extended and a new plan made showing 
contours to grade 250, extending down stream as far as 
Nichol's mill. 

A large amount of engineering work has been done on 
problems connected with Cedar swamp. After many trial 
lines, a line for the principal canal has been located and 
plans perfected for all details of construction. 

In May, studies were begun for a basin on the site of this 
swamp. This involves raising the B. & A. R.R. l)etween 
Chattanooga and Westboro', and extensive excavations of 
mud. Plans and approximate estimates have been prepared. 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) Desmond FitzGerald, 

Resident Engineer. 



Water-Supply Department. 137 

Sewerage Systems. 
South Framingham, MarTboro\ Westbord' , Natidk. 

The sewerage system of South Framingham has, with the 
exception of the dischai-fring from the town underdrain, 
worked satisfactorily. The city of Marlboro' and the town 
of Westboro' have so far completed their sewer system as 
to have them in successful operation. 

The town of Natick has made a plan of works and seems 
to be in earnest to do something this year. 

Filtration of the Mystic Supply. 

Although the quality of the water furnished by the Mystic 
works has been comparatively good during the past year, 
the large and increasing population on the water-shed, to- 
gether with the objcctional)le character of the large number 
of factories on the borders of the streams, renders the task 
of maintaining the purity of the water a more difficult one 
from year to year ; and in case of an epidemic of cholera or 
typhoid fever in Winchester or Woburn, thci e would be great 
danger in using the Mystic water unless it was thoroughly 
filtered. 

If the Mystic works are to be continuecl in use as a source 
of supply for ten years, and I can see no way by which they 
can be aliandoned before that time, I am of the opinion that 
a filtration plant should be at once constructed. 

Judging from the results of the experiments of the State 
Board of Health and of your Board, I can see no reason 
why, if this is done, these works should not furnish water of 
satisfactory quality. 

With this end in view, surveys and estimates have been 
made of the cost of works capable of filtering the entire 
Mystic supply. 

The scheme of works as planned comprises seven filtering 
basins, each having an area of about one acre, to ]>e built on 
the shore of the lake, near the present dam, with a pumping- 
station and engines to raise the water from the lake to the 
filter basins. 

The estimated cost of these works is $.')75,000. 

Capacity of Distribution System. 

In accordance with a vote of your Board, dated January 27, 
1892, an investigation has been made of the capacity of the 
distribution system, considered with reference to the water 
supply available for fire protection, and comparisons have 



138 City Document No. 39. 

been made with the distribution systems of other large cities 
in the United States. 

Connected with the Sudbury and Cochituate works, there 
were, January ], 1892, 514.4 miles of supply and dis- 
tributing mains, of which 468 miles are of sizes from 4 inches 
to 16 inches in diameter, and may be properly termed the 
distributino; mains. The remainino; 46.4 miles consist of 
main pipes from 20 inches to 48 inches in diameter, which 
are not tapped for service-pipe or fire-hydrant supplies. 

From the Chestnut-hill and Brookline reservoirs the water 
is brought to the city, a distance of about four miles, by 
four mains, 30-inch, 36-inch, 40-inch, and 48 inches in 
diameter. 

These mains will supply in the city, with a pressure of 40 
pounds to the square inch, at least 100 cubic feet per second, 
which is equivalent to an ample supply for 100 steam fire- 
engines. 

Since the great fire of November 9, 1872, the distribution 
system of Boston has been greatly improved by the relaying 
of about 40 miles of 4 and 6-inch mains, with others of much 
greater capacity, and also by the introduction of larger and 
improved patterns of hydrants. 

Throughout the business portion of the city, 16-inch, 12- 
inch, 10-inch, and 8-inch pipes are extensively used ; the 
proportion of these sizes being about 45% of the total distri- 
bution. 

Throughout the mercantile section of the city, embracing 
the district bounded by Washington street, State street, 
Broad street, Atlantic avenue. Federal street, and Beach 
street, a system of water supply is provided for fire protec- 
tion, in addition to the supply afforded by the hydrants 
connect(ed with the low-service distribution pipes, by a sep- 
arate system of distribution-pipes to be laid throughout this 
district for the sole purpose of supplying water under high 
pressure (80 to 90 pounds) to stand-pipes and sprinkler 
systems in the buildings of the district. This enables the 
property-owners in this district to provide themselves with a 
water supply for fire protection, which is available at all 
times, and which will not be affected by the drafts which are 
made by the fire department from the hydrants. 

In the residential districts, the pipes are somewhat smaller, 
and in the suburban sections of Dorchester, "West Roxbur}'-, 
and Brighton the capacity of the distribution system for fire 
protection is, as must be expected, much smaller than in the 
more thickly settled portions of the city. 

Connected with the distributing mains there were 5,682 
hydrants, and 238 reservoirs for use in case of tire. 



Water-Supply Department. 139 

Four styles of hydrants are used, viz., the Boston, the 
Lowry, the Boston Lowry, and the Post. 

The Boston hydrant is the pattern exclusively used from 
1848 to 1808. It has a barrel three inches in diameter, with 
a single 2|-inch outlet, and is supplied by a branch pipe 
from the main 4 inches in diameter. 

The hydrants of this pattern are being gradually replaced 
by others of greater capacity. 

The Lowry hydrant, of which there were 2,449 in use, has 
a 9-inch barrel, and is arranged to supply four steam fire- 
engines, by moans of a portable chuck having two 2^-inch 
and two 4-inch outlets, each outlet being provided with a 
separate valve. 

Hydrants of this pattern are generally placed directly over 
the supplying main, and at the junction of connecting pipes. 
When [)laced in the sidewalk they are supplied by 9-inch or 12- 
iuch branches from the mains. 

The Boston Lowry hydrant has a 6-incb barrel, and is 
supplied by a 6-inch branch pipe from the main. This hy- 
drant is generally placed in narrow sidewalks where the 
Post hydrant would inconvenience public travel. Four 
steamers can be attached to this hydrant, I)ut when set in 
the sidewalk it is not often convenient to attach more than 
tw^o steamers. 

The Post hydrant has a six inch barrel supplied by a 6- 
inch branch pipe, and has one 4-inch and two2i-inch outlets. 

As previously stated, the hydrants used from 1848 to 
1868 had 3-inch barrels with a single outlet two 2^-inches in 
diametei-, and at the latter date there Avere in use in the 
City Proper, South Boston, and East Boston, 1,590 hydrants 
of this pattern. 

During the past twenty years a large number of these old 
hydrants have been rei)laced by h3'drants of the Lowry and 
Post patterns, so that to-day the number of "Boston" 
hydrants in use in the City Proper, South Boston, and East 
Boston, is 660 loss than in 1869. 

Throughout the business portion of the city the hydrants 
are spaced from 150 to 250 feet apart, and from 250 to 300 
feet in the residential districts. 

Below are given extracts from the report of Mr. Dexter 
Brackett, Assistant Engineer, who visited the larger cities of 
the country and made a personal examination of their distri- 
bution systems. 

"A com])arison of the distribution system of Boston with 
those of the other large cities of the country shows that the 
system here is not behind the modern practice in the matter 
of fire protection. 



140 City Document No. 39. 

"As a result of a personal examination of the systems in 
New York, Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, 
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Chicago, Detroit, and 
Cleveland, the following tables and accompanying plans have 
been prepared. 

" The plans in all cases cover the thickly settled business 
portions of the cities. 

" Table No. 1 &hows the length in miles of the different 
sizes of pipe in use in the cities named, and table No. 2 gives 
for each city the percentage used of the different sizes : — 



Water-Supply Department. 



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Water-Supplt Department. 143 

" Bearing in mind the fact that pipe less than six inches in 
diameter is of very little value for fire protection, a study of 
the tables shows very clearly the comparative value of the 
different sj'stems. It will be noticed that the proportion of 
the sizes below eight inch is less in Boston than in any of 
the cities examined. 

"Baltimore has 235 miles, or more than one-half of its 
distribution system of 3 and 4-inch pipe ; Chicago has 207 
miles, Detroit 166 miles, and Cincinnati 103 miles, while 
Boston has but 24 miles. On the other hand, Boston 
has 147 miles of 12-inch pipe, the proportion of this size 
being larger than in any of the other cities. 

"The efficiency of a system for tire protection depends not 
only upon the size of the mains, but also on the number and 
capacity of the fire hydrants connected with those mains. 
If, as in some of our large cities, the hydrants used are of 
small capacity with a single outlet, allowing of but one 
steamer connection and spaced from 300 to 500 feet apart, 
the efficiency of the system is much diminished by the ina- 
bility to concentrate a large number of steamers near any 
given point. To perform effective service, a steamer should 
not be obliged to use more than 500 feet of 2^-inch hose to 
reach the fire. With a line of hose 600 feet in length a 
water-pressure of 120 pounds at the steamer will give an 
effective fire stream aliout 60 feet above the ground and will 
discharge 240 gallons per minute, while with 100 feet of 
hose the same pressure would give an effective stream of 94 
feet in height and discharge 340 gallons per minute. 

"It is, therefore, of great advantage to have hydrants of 
large capacity so located that a large number of steamers 
may be placed within a short distance of the fire. 

"The Lowry hydrant, used in Boston, being located in the 
centre of streets and provided with outlets for four steamer 
connections, permits of the concentration of the steamers 
much better than an}^ other hydrant in general use. At the 
Bedford-street fire on Nov. 28, 1889, fifty-two steamers 
were in service and none were located more than 600 feet 
from the fire. In Brooklyn and St. Louis the hydrants 
have but one outlet or hose connection. 

"In New York 80 per cent, of the hydrants have but one 
2J-inch outlet, and all of the hydrants set there during the 
past year, 1891, were of this pattern. Table No. 3 shows 
the number of hydrants and fire reservoirs in use in the dif- 
ferent cities with the number and size of hose connections. 



144 



City Document No. 39. 



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MAP OF A SECTION 

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SHOWINC 

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DEI.AWARE 



PHILADELPHIA 
Shect No. 2. 



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Water-Supply Department. 



145 



"As before stated, the sizes of the mains and the number 
and capacity of the hydrants are all factors in determining 
the value of any distribution system as a means of fire pro- 
tection. 

"Taking all of these facts into consideration, a study has 
been made of the corresponding portions of the systems of 
several cities as shown on the accompanying ]')lans. 

"CalcuUitions have been made as to the number of steamers 
that will receive an ample supply of water from hydrants 
located within 500 feet of various points. The points se- 
lected and the results attained for each city are shown by 
the following tables and by the figures enclosed by circles on 
the plans : 

" Tables shotving the member of In/drants and fire reservoirs located 
within 500 feet of different points in or near the business sections 
of the cities named, also the number of steamers, each of 500 gallons 
capacity, that tvould receive an adequate siqyplij of tvater from 
those hydrants: 



New York. 

Canal street, junction Bowery 
Canal street, junction Broadway . 
Franklin street, junction AVest Broad- 
way ..... 
Washington street, junction Chamber 

street ..... 
Prince street, junction Broadway . 
Church street, junction Park place 
Chamber street, junction Park row 
Christie street, junction Kivington 

street ..... 
Cherry street, junction Clinton street 
Grand street, junction Margin street 
Broome street, junction Clinton street 
Market street, junction Madison street 
Pearl street, junction Peck street 
Spring street, junction Varick street 



Hydrants. Res. 

35 
31 

25 

26 
26 
24 
27 

23 
18 
16 
15 
12 
11 
10 



Steamers. 

62 
47 



44 

42 
42 
41 

38 

35 
26 
26 
17 
12 
12 
10 



Chicago. 

Randolph street, junction Wabash ave. . 
Adams street, junction La Salle street . 
Wabash avenue, junction Adams street . 
Van Bureu street, junction Dearborn 
street ...... 

Lake street, junction Franklin street 



11 


4 


32 


14 


2 


30 


11 


2 


27 


16 




27 


13 


1 


27 



146 



City DocuiiENT No. 39. 



Madison street, junction Fifth avenue 
Ontario street, junction La Salle street 
Van Buren street, junction Franklin 

street ..... 
Eandoli)h street, junction La Salle street 
Ontario street, junction Market street 
Union street, junction Indiana street 
Madison street, junction Jeiferson street 
Ontario street, junction Pine street , 
Van Buren street, junction Jefferson 

street . . . . 

St. Louis. 
Locust street, junction 11th street . 
Locust street, junction 3d street 
Clark street, junction 3d street 
Carr street, junction Broadway 
Mai'ket street, junction 7th street . 
Gratiot street, junction 7th street . 
Market street, junction 14th street 
Franklin street, junction 13th street 
O'Fallon street, junction 9th street 
Gratiot street, junction 14th street . 
Papin street, junction 21st street 
Market street, junction 21st street 
O'Fallon street, junction IGth street 
Carr street, junction 21st street 





nydrants. 


Res. 


steamer 


. 13 


1 


25 


14 




25 


. 10 


1 


22 


, 11 


1 


22 


8 


1 


18 


10 




17 


:, 10 




17 


9 , 




14 


9 




.13 


. 19 




19 




19 




19 




IG 




16 




16 




16 




13 




13 




12 




12 




11 




11 




11 




11 




8 




8 




7 




7 




6 




6 









5 • 




5 




5 




4 




4 



Boston. 

Washington street, junction State street 
AVasliington street, junction Essex street 
Washington street, junction Franklin 

street ..... 

Hay market square 

Franklin street, junction Pearl street 
Summer street, junction Federal street 
Hanover street, jtmction Fleet street 
Kneeland street, junction South street 
Washington street, junction Pleasant strec 
Tremont street, junction Dover street 
Causeway street, junction Leverett street 
Pleasant street, junction Piedmont street 
Dover street, junction Harrison avenue 
Boylston street, junction Berkeley street 



. 24 


4 


60 


, 20 


2 


54 


19 


2 


51 


22 


2 


51 


20 


1 


50 


18 




50 


21 




49 


16 




40 


.t, 18 


2 


36 


. 14 




36 


t, 20 


3 


35 


t, 18 


3 


26 


12 




26 


t, 11 




25 



Water-Suppey Department. 



147 



Baltimore. 



HydrantB. Res. 



Calvert street, junction Baltimore street, 21 

Liberty street, junction Baltimore street, 12 

Calvert street, junction Franklin street, 11 

Lombard street, junction Frederick street, 13 

Camden street, junction Eutaw street, 8 

Lombard street, junction Central avenue, 8 

Gorman street, junction of Greene street, 7 

Orleans street, junction Central avenue, 6 

Fremont street, junction Portland street, 5 

Philadelphia. 

Market street, junction 12th street . . 14 

Chestnut street, junction KJth street . 13 

Spring Garden, junction ()th street . . 15 

Chestnut street, junction 5th street . . 15 

]\Jarket street, junction 2d street . . 14 

Spruce street, junction 12ih street . . 9 

A\'alnut street, junction 22d street . . 8 

Poplar street, junction 27th street . . 11 

Vine street, junction 3d street . . 11 

Fairmount street, junction 10th street , 10 

Fairmont street, junction 19th street . 10 

Spruce street, junction 18th street . . 8 

Vine street, junction lltli street . . 7 

Vine street, junction I8th street . . 7 

Brooklyn. 

Fulton street, junction Flatbush avenue . 15 

Fulton street, junction Adams street . 15 

Nassau street, junction Adimis street . 11 

Hicks street, junction Peirrepont street . 10 

President street, junction Fifth avenue . 10 

Seventh avenue, junction 9th street . 10 

Court street, junction Congress street . 9 

Bond street, junction Wykoff street . 9 

Park street, junction North Portland street, 8 

Hoyt street, junction Secor place . . 7 

Fulton street, junction Adelphi street . 6 

Columbia street, junction President street 6 

Sullivan street, junction Van Brunt street 5 

Clinton street, junction Fourth place . 5 



steamer. 

37 • 
29 
25 
23 
16 
15 
12 
10 
7 



23 
18 
18 
17 
Ki 
14 
13 
12 
12 
10 
10 
10 
8 
7 



15 
15 
11 
10 

10 
10 
9 
9 
8 
7 
6 
6 
5 



5." 



A careful study of the facts given warrants the conclusion 
that Boston has as good if not a better system of water dis- 



148 



City Document No. 39. 



tribution for fire purposes than any of the other large cities 
of the country ; that the Lowry hydrant in use here will 
supply more steamers than any other hydrant in general use, 
and that the Boston pattern of Post hydrant is of greater 
capacity than that used by many other cities. 

Of the 1,200 old style hydrants and 24 miles of 4-iuch 
pipe that are now in use about 50 per cent, should be re- 
placed within a few 3^ears. 

x\ppended are tables showing for all sections of the city 
the number of steamers that it is estimated would receive a 
supply of 500 gallons per minute each from hydrants located 
within 500 feet of the locations given. In considering these 
tables, it must be borne in mind that 500 gallons per minute 
provides for two efficient streams from each steamer, and as 
at any tire some steamers will be using but one line of hose, 
and others will be stopped at any given moment, the number 
of steamers, which under the usual circumstances, could be 
adequately supplied would be somewhat larger than the 
figures given. 

City Peoper — Business Section. 

Albany street, junction Canton street . 
Albany street, junction Concord street 
Albany street, junction Dover street . 
Albany street, junction East Chester park 
Albany street, junction Oak street 
Albany street, junction Randolph street 
Albany street, junction Union Park street 
All)any street, junction Wareham street 
Albany street, junction Way street 
Atlantic avenue, junction Central wharf 
Atlantic avenue, junction Clinton street 
Atlantic avenue, junction Federal street 
Atlantic avenue, junction India street . 
Atlantic avenue, junction Oliver street, 
Atlantic avenue, junction Pearl street . 
Beach street, junction Albany street 
Beach street, junction Harrison avenue 
Bedford street, junction Kingston street 
Bowdoin square ..... 
Brattle square ..... 
Causeway street, junction Beverly street 
Causeway street, junction Friend street 
Causeway street, junction Leverett street 
Chapman street, junction Shawmut avenue 
Chaj)man street, junction Village street 
Charlestown street, junction Bevei-ly street 



26 
27 
25 
3o 
32 
K) 
1() 
32 
30 
35 
45 
50 
45 
40 
50 
40 
40 
50 
33 
50 
25 
33 
35 
22 
2t) 
60 



Water-Supply Department. 



149 



Charlestown street, junction Causeway street 
Columbus avenue, junction Berkeley street . 
Columbus avenue, junction Ferdinand street 
Columbus avenue, junction Pleasant street 
Commercial street, junction Charter street 
Commercial street, junction Clinton street 
Commercial street, junction Fleet street 
Commercial street, junction North street 
Commercial street, junction Richmond street 
Commercial street, junction State street 
Court street, junction Sudbury street . 
Eliot street, junction Carver street 
Federal street, near the bridge . 
Federal street, junction p]ast street 
Federal street, junction Kneeland street 
Ferdinand street, junction Melrose street 
Fort Hill square .... 

Franklin street, junction Congress street 
Hanover street, junction Cross street . 
Hanover street, junction Fleet street . 
Harrison avenue, junction Castle street 
Harrison avenue, junction Dover street 
Harrison avenue, junction Harvard street 
Harrison avenue, junction Oak street . 
Ha^'market square .... 
Kneeland street, junction Lincoln street 
Leverett street, junction Charles street 
Leverett street, junction Mi not street . 
Merrimac street, junction Chardon street 
Milk street, junction Oliver street 
North street, junction Cross street 
Piedmont street, junction Pleasant street 
Prince street, junction Salem street 
Prince street, junction Snowhill street. 
Scollay scjuare ..... 
Travers street, junction Canal street . 
Tremont street, junction Boylston street 
Tremont street, junction Castle street . 
Tremont street, junction Eliot street . 
Tremont street, junction Mason street . 
Tremont street, junction Pleasant street 
Tremont street, junction School street 
Tremont street, junction Winter street 
Washington street, junction Bedford street 
Washington street, junction Boylston street 
Washington street, junction Castle street 
Washington street, junction Hanover street 



31 
25 
24 
30 
24 
56 
48 
48 
48 
60 
33 
29 
12 
35 
20 
20 
50 
50 
45 
49 
30 
2Q 
30 

30 
45 

40 

29 

40 

35 

50 

36 

25 

48 

28 

35 

32 

30 

35 

33 

20 

33 

15 

15 

40 

48 

25 

CO 



150 



City Document No. 39. 



Washington street, junction Hollis street 
Wasliington street, junction Milk street 
Washington street, junction State street 
Washington street, junction Summer street 
Winthrop square .... 



32 

55 
60 
43 
50 



City Proper — ^Residential Section 

Allen street, junction Blossom street . 
Beacon street, junction Arlington street 
Beacon street, junction Charles street . 
Beacon street, junction Chester park . . . 

Beacon street, junction Exeter street . 
Beacon street, junction Joy street 
Berkeley street, junction Chandler street 
Boylston street, junction Ai'lington street 
Boylston street, junction Berkeley street 
Boylston street, junction Clarendon street . 
Boylston street, junction Exeter street 
Cambridge street, junction Blossom street . 
Caml)ridgc street, junction Hancock street . 
Charles street, junction Allen street 
Charles street, junction Cambridge street 
Charles street, junction Revere street . 
Clarendon street, junction Appleton street . 
Columbus avenue, junction Clarendon street 
Columbus avenue, junction Dartmouth street 
Columbus avenue, junction Holyoke street . 
Columbus avenue, junction Rutland square . 
Columbus avenue, junction West Chester park 
Commonwealth avenue, junction Clarendon street 
Commonwealth avenue, junction Fairfield street 
Dalton street, junction Dundee street . 
Dartmouth street, junction Buckingham street 
Harrison avenue, junction Dedham street 
Harrison avenue, junction Newton street 
Harrison avenue, junction Worcester street . 
Huntington avenue, junction Dartmouth street 
Huntington avenue, junction Gainsborough street 
Huntington avenue, junction Holyoke street 
Huntington avenue, junction Newton street . 
Marlborough street, junction Berkeley street 
Marlborough street, junction Dartmouth street 
Marlborough street, junction Hereford street 
Mt. Vernon street, junction Brimmer street 
Mt. Vernon street, junction Louisl)urg square 
Myrtle street, junction Grove street . 



AVater-Supply Department. 



151 



Myrtle street, junction Irvins: street . 

Shuwnmt avenue, junction Chester square 
Shawmut avenue, junction Concord street 
Sbawmut avenue, junction Lenox street 
Shawmut avenue, junction Newton street 
Siiawmut avenue, junction Union park 
Somerset street, junction Ashburton ])lace 
Tremont street, junction Camden stieet 
Tremont street, junction Clarendon street 
Tremont street, junction Dartmouth street 
Tremont street, junction Pembroke street 
Tremont street, junction ^Vorcester street 
Warren avenue, junction Dartmouth street 
Washington street, junction Dedham street 
AVashinu'ton street, junction Newton street 
AVashington street, junction Northampton street 
Washington street, junction W'allham street 
AVest Chester park, junction Belvedere street 
AA'^est Chester [)ark, junction A\'cstland avenue 



South Boston. 

A street, junction Congress street 
Dorchester avenue, junction Broadway 
Dorchester avenue, junction Dorchester street 
Dorchester avenue, junction East First street 
Dorchester avenue, junction Kemp street 
Dorchester avenue, junction Middle street . 
Dorchester avenue, junction AVest Seventh street 
Dorchester street, junction Broadway . 
Dorchester street, junction Eighth street 
Dorchester street, junction East Second street 
Dorchester street, junction Newman street . 
Dorchester street, junction Old Harbor street 
Dorchester street, junction AA^oodward street . 
Dorr street, junction Earl street . 
East Broadway junction I street . 
East Broadway, junction M street 
East Broadway, junction O street 
East Eighth street, junction G street . 
East Eighth street, junction Mercer street 
East Fitih street, junction N street 
East First street, junction I street 
East First street, junction L street 
East First street, junction O street 
East Fourth street, junction L street . 
East Fourth street, junction P street . 



152 



City Document No. 39. 



East Ninth street, junction K street 

East Ninth street, junction Old Harbor street 

East Second street, junction P street 

East Seventh street, junction I street 

East Seventh street, junction N street 

East Sixth street, junction G street 

East Sixth street, junction H street 

East Sixth street, junction L street 

East Sixth street, junction P street 

East Third street, junction 1 street 

East Third street, junction K street 

East Third street, junction O street 

Foundry street, junction West Fourth street 

Foundry street, junction Ontario street 

Granite street, junction Mt. Washington avenue 

Granite street, junction Richards street 

Newman street, junction Lowland street 

Old Harbor street, junction Telegraph street 

Pacific street, junction Thomas park 

Ward street, junction Preble street 

West Broadway, junction B street 

West Broadway, junction F street 

West Fifth street, junction B street 

West Fifth street, junction F street 

West First street, junction B street 

"West First street, junction D street 

West First street, junction F street 

West First street, junction Granite street 

West Fourth street, junction A street . 

West Fourth street, junction D street . 

West Ninth street, junction D street . 

West Ninth street, junction Lark street 

West Seventh street, junction D street 

West Seventh street, junction F street 

West Third street, junction A street . 

West Third street, junction C street . 

West Third street, junction E street . 



12 
12 
12 
15 
12 
5 
12 
14 
12 
16 
12 
9 
18 
15 
14 
20 
6 
3 
8 
9 
18 
17 
18 
14 
14 
18 
14 
25 
20 
22 
17 
15 
20 
20 
25 
14 
16 



East Boston. 

Bennington street, junction Chelsea street 
Bennington street, junction Marion street 
Bennington street, junction Putnam street 
Brooks street, junction Condor street 
Central square .... 
Chelsea street, junction Brooks street 
Chelsea street, junction Curtis street 



14 
14 
15 

8 
21 
16 

4 



Water-Supply Department. 



153 



Chelsea street, junction Decatur street 
Chelsea street, junction Engle street . 
Chelsea street, junction Marion street . 
Chelsea street, junction Porter street . 
Condor street, junction Putnam street 
Eagle street, junction Falcon street 
Marginal street, junction Cottage street 
Marginal street, junction Lewis street . 
Marginal street, junction Orloans street 
Alargina! street, junction K. B. & L. R.R. 
Maverick street, junction Border street 
Maverick street, junction Cottage street 
Maverick street, junction Lamson street 
Maverick street, junction London street 
Meridian street, junction Condor street 
INIeridian street, junction London street 
Meridian street, junction Maverick street 
Meridian street, junction Princeton street 
jNIcridian street, junction Trenton street 
]\Ieridian street, junction White street 
Moore street, junction Homer street . 
Porter street, junction Havre street 
Princeton street, junction Brooks street 
Princeton street, junction Marion street 
Princeton street, junction Prescott street 
Princeton street, junction Putnam street 
Saratoga street, junction Moore street 
Saratoga street, junction Swift street . 
Sumner street, junction Cottage street 
Sumner street, junction Jeflrics street . 
Sumner street, junction Lamson street 
Sumner street, junction Lewis street . 
Sunnier street, junction Liverpool street 
Sumner street, junction Orleans street 
White street, junction Brooks street . 
White street, junction Putnam street . 



10 
10 
12 
10 
12 
17 
13 
14 
14 

« 
U 
12 

8 
16 
12 
20 
16 
21 
18 
17 

4 
12 
10 
10 
12 
12 

6 

8 
13 

8 

8 
16 
16 
15 
12 
10 



Chaelestown. 

Alford street, junction Arlington avenue 
Arlington avenue, junction Dorrance street 
Austin street, junction Lawrence street 
Bartlett street, junction Concord street 
Bartlett street, junction Cross street . 
Bartlett street, junction Salem street . 
Bartlett street, junction Walker street . 
Bunker Hill street, junction Belmont street 



6 
20 
18 
18 
17 
13 
10 



154 



City Document No. 3d. 



Bunker Hill street, junction Concord street 
Bunker Hill street, junction Pearl street 
Bunker Hill street, junction Quincy street 
Bunker Hill street, junction Tufts street 
Ctimhridge street, junction Parker street 
Cambridge street, junction Perkins street 
Chelsea street, junction Henley street . 
Chelsea street, junction Prospect street 
Chelsea street, junction Vine strtet 
Front street, junction Arrow street 
High street, junction Concord street . 
High street, junction Green street 
Hioh street, iunction Lexington street . 
Main street, junction Auburn street 
Main street, junction Haverhill street . 
Main street, junction Medford street . 
Main street, junction Mill street . 
Main street, junction Salem street 
Medford street, junction Baldwin street 
Medford street, junction Chelsea street 
Medford street, junction Lexington street 
Medford street, junction Mead street . 
Medford street, junction Pearl street . 
Perkins street, jimction Brighton street 
Russell street, junction Mead street 
Rutherford avenue, junction Allen street 
Rutherford avenue, junction Dunstable street 
Rutherford avenue, junction Mill street 
Tremont street, junction Edge worth street 
Tremont street, junction Lexington street 
Union street, junction Main street 
Union street, junction Washington street 
Warren street, junction Water street . 
Water street, junction Joiner street 
Winthrop street, junction Main street . 



18 

20 

17 

18 

10 

17 

20 

16 

18 

20 

18 

16 

18 

20 

17 

23 

20 

20 

19 

20 

20 

16 

10 

15 

12 

12 

20 

12 

18 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 



ROXBURY. 

Alaska street, junction Perrin street 
Albany street, junction Hunneman street 
Albany street, junction Mall street 
Blue Hill avenue, junction Cherry street 
Blue Hill avenue, junction Edgewood street 
Blue Hill avenue, junction Moreland street . 
Blue Hill avenue, junction Quincy street 
Blue Hill avenue, junction Waverley street 
Brookline avenue, junction Burlington avenue 



18 

16 

10 

8 

8 

6 



WATEE-SurPLr Department. 



155 



Brookline avenue, junction Francis street 
Brookline avenue, junction Lon<iwood avenue 
Brookline avenue, junction Maple avenue 
Cabot street, junction ^^' incisor street . 
Cedar street, junction Hawthorn street 
Centre street, junction Cedar street 
Centre street, junction Heath 
Centre street, junction Lamartine street 
Centre street, junction Pynchon street 
Centre street, junction Sheridan avenue 
Centre street, junction Walden street . 
Centre street, junction Wyman street . 
Circuit street, junction Kegent sti'cet . 
Clifton street, junction Langdon street 
Dale street, junction jMills street 
Day street, junction Creighton street . 
Dudley street, junction Adams street . 
Dudley street, junction Dearborn street 
Dudley street, j miction Dennis street . 
Dudley street, junction Elmwood street 
Dudley street, junction Hampden street 
Dudley street, junction Highland street 
Elm Hill avenue, junction Cheney street 
Elm Hill avenue, junction Howland street 
Eustis street, junction Magazine street 
Hampden street, junction Norfolk avenue 
Heath street, junction Bickford street 
Heath street, junction D;iy street 
Highland street, junction Cedar street 
Highland street, junction Ellis street . 
Highland street, junction Marcella street 
Highland street, junction Milmont street 
Humboldt avenue, junction Crawford street 
Humboldt avenue, junction Munroe street 
Huntington avenue, junction Longwood avenue 
Huntington avenue, junction Parker street 
Lambert avenue, junction Bartlett street 
Lambert avenue, junction ]\Iilmont street 
Moreland street, junction Fairland street 
Mt. Pleasant avenue, junction Fairland street 
Norfolk avenue, junction Gerard street 
Norfolk avenue, junction Magazine street 
Palmer street, junction Winslow street 
Parker street, junction Parker Hill avenue 
Parker street, junction Prentiss street . 
Pynchon street, junction Cedar street . 
Pynchon street, junction Heath street 



156 



City Document In'o. 39. 



Regent street, junction Fountain street 
Roxbury street, junction Linden Park street 
Ruggles street, junction Duncan street 
Euggles street, junction Parker street 
Ruggles street, junction Warwick street 
Ruggies street, junction Westniinster street 
Shawmut avenue, junction Hammond street 
Shawniut avenue, junction Ruggles street 
Tremont street, junction Bunistead lane 
Tremont street, junction Heath street . 
Tremont street, junction Francis street 
Tremont street, junction Parker slreet 
Tremont street, junction Prentiss street 
Tremont street, junction Pynchon street 
Tremont street, junction Ruggles street 
Vernon street, junction Auburn street 
Vernon street, junction Haskins street 
Walden street, junction Minden street 
Walnut avenue, junction Bainbridge street 
Walnut avenue, junction Circuit street 
Walnut avenue, junction Dale street . 
Walnut avenue, junction Townsend street 
Warren street, junction Clifford street . 
Warren street, junction Dunreath street 
Warren street, junction Munroe street 
Warren street, junction Regent street . 
Warren street, junction Warren place . 
Warren street, junction Waumbeck street 
Washington street, junction Atherton street 
Washington street, junction Bartlett street 
TV'ashington street, junction Circuit street 
Washington street, junction Dale street 
Washington street, junction Dudley street 
Washington street, junction Nawn street 
Washington street, junction Ruggles street 
Washington street, junction Thorndike street 
Washington stieet, junction Thornton street 
Washington street, junction Townsend street 
Washingt(m street, junction Vernon street . 
Washington street, junction Westminster avenue 
Westminster street, junction Windsor street 
Winthrop street, junction Cleveland street . 



7 
6 
13 
12 
22 
18 
10 
20 
12 
16 
12 
20 
16 
26 
20 
10 
10 
8 
12 
10 
10 
14 
12 
12 
14 
10 
14 
12 
14 
8 
10 
15 
24 
18 
24 
25 
18 
16 
20 
11 
9 
6 



Dorchester. 

Adams street, junction Ashmont street 
Adams street, junction King street 



Water-Supply Department. 



157 



Adams street, junction Minot street 
Adams street, junction Neponset avenue 
Adams street, junction Richmond street 
Allston street, junction Centre street . 
Ashland street, junction Mill street 
Ashland street, junction Park street 
Ashmont street, junction Carruth street 
Ashmont street, junction Train street . 
Bird street, junction Bodwell [)ark 
Boston street, junction Eastnian street 
Boston street, junction Mt. Vernon street 
Bowdoin street, junction Adams street 
Bowdoin street, junction Olney street . 
Bowdoin street, junction Washin^rton street 
Blue Hill avenue, junction Columbia street 
Blue Hill avenue, junction Harvard street 
Blue Hill avenue, junction Norfolk street 
Blue Hill avenue, junction Kiver street 
Blue Hill avenue, junction Wales street 
Carruth street, junction Beale street . 
Columbia street, junction Bird street . 
Columbia street, junction Seaver street 
Columbia street, junction Quincy street 
Columl)ia street, junction 8tan\vood street 
Columbia street, junction AVashington street 
Commercial street, junction Greenwich street 
Commercial street, junction Park street 
Cottage street, junction Boston street . 
Cottage street, junction Clifton street . 
Cottage street, junction Norfolk avenue 
Cottage street, junction Pleasant street 
Crescent avenue, junction Carson street 
Dorchester avenue, junction Adams street 
Dorchester avenue, junction Ashmont street 
Dorchester avenue, junction Beach street 
Dorchester avenue, junction Codman street 
Dorchester avenue, junction Commercial street 
Dorchester avenue, junction Crescent avenue 
Dorchester avenue, junction King street 
Dorchester avenue, junction Leeds street 
Dorchester avenue, junction Mayfield street 
Dorchester avenue, junction Mt. Vernon street 
Dorchester avenue, junction Parkman street 
Dorchester avenue, junction Savin Hill avenue 
Dorchester avenue, junction Washington street 
Dudley street, junction Cottage street . 
Dudley street, junction Howard avenue 



9 

5 

2 

4 

5 

3 

2 

4 

14 

12 

4 

4 

5 

8 

5 

4 

4 

() 

2 

4 

4 

4 

5 

8 

11 

9 

17 

8 

12 

9 

4 

12 

8 

5 

5 

18 

13 

7 

12 

14 

10 

8 

16 

5 

18 

11 



158 



City Document No. 39. 



Dudley street, junction Magnolia street 
Dudley street, junction Monadnock street 
East Chester park, junction Clapp street 
Erie avenue, juncticm Michigan avenue 
Freeport street, junction Pleasant street 
Freeport street, junction Preston street 
Glen street, junction Trull street 
Hamilton avenue, junction Clark street 
Hancock street, junction Rill street 
Hartford street, junction Robinhood street 
Harvard street, junction Gleason street 
Harvard street, junction School street. 
Harvard street, junction Wales street . 
Hcnvard avenue, junction Quincy street 
Howard avenue, junction Sargent street 
Lauriat avenue, junction Lyons street . 
Magnolia street, junction Howard avenue 
Magnolia street, junction Robinhood street 
Milton avenue, junction Evans street . 
Minot street, junction Sheridan street . 
Neponset avenue, junction Commercial street 
Ncponset avenue, junction Minot street 
Neponset avenue, junction Park street 
Neponset avenue, junction Pope's Hill street 
Neponset avenue, junction Taylor street 
Norfolk avenue, junction Marshfield street 
Norfolk street, junction Cliipman street 
Norfolk street, junction Freemont street 
Norfolk street, junction Nelson street . 
Ocean street, junction Welles avenue . 
Pleasant street, junction Maytield street 
Richtield street, junction Puritan avenue 
River street, junction Cedar street 
River street, junction Temple street 
Sanford street, junction Cedar street . 
Sanford street, junction Temple street . 
Savin Hill avenue, junction Grami)ian way 
Savin Hill avenue, junction Midland street 
Sawyer avenue, junction Gushing avenue 
Walnut street, junction Ericsson street 
Walnut street, junction Franklin street 
Washington street, junction Ashmont street 
AV'ashington street, junction Centre street 
AVashington street, junction Fuller street 
Washington street, junction Wheatland avenue 
Wheatland avenue, junction Whitlield street 



AYATER-SuprLY Department. 



159 



West Roxbury. 

Alveston street, junction Grccnough street 
Alveston street, junction Revere street 
Anawan avenue, junction Beech street. 
Ana wan avenue, junction Park street . 
Ashland street, junction Florence street 
Beech street, junction Sycamore street 
Bellevue street, junction Oriole street . 
Bellcvue street, junction Rutledge street 
Boylston street, junction Burr street . 
Boylston avenue, junction Amory street 
Brookside avenue, junction Cornwall street . 
Brown avenue, junction Ashland street 
Brown avenue, junction Poplar street . 
Centre street, junction Boylston street. 
Centre street, junction Burroughs street 
Centre street, junction Central avenue 
Centre street, junction Corey street 
Centre street, junction Eliot street 
Centre street, junction Green street 
Centre street, junction La Grange street 
Centre street, junction May street 
Centre street, junction Mt. Vernon street 
Centre street, junction Orchard street . 
Centre street, junction Pond street 
Centre street, junction Spring Park street 
Centre street, junction AValter street . 
Chestnut street, junction Fessenden street 
Corey street, junction ("arl street 
Corey street, junction Weld street 
Eliot street, junction Brewer street 
Green street, junction Boylston avenue 
Green street, junction Chestnut avenue 
Green street, junction Laniaitine street 
Grove street, junction AVashington street 
Tlyde Park avenue, junction Ashland street 
Hyde Paik avenue, junction Neponset avenue 
Keycs street, junction Starr street 
Metropolitan avenue, junction Poplar street 
Pond street, junction J-Cliot street 
Pond street, junction May street 
Pond street, junction Prince street 
Poplar street, junction Sycamore street 
Prince street, junction Perkins street . 
Rockview street, junction St. Johns street 
South street, junction Custer street 



160 



City Document No. 39. 



South street, junction Keyes street 
Spring Park avenue, junction Rockview street 
Spring street, junction Baker street . 
Spring street, junction Clarence street 
Walk Hill street, junction Canterbury' street 
Walk Hill street, junction Hyde Park avenue 
Washington street, junction Albano street . 
Washington street, junction Ashland street . 
Washington street, junction Beach street 
Washington street, junction Boylston street 
Washington street, junction Cornwall street 
Washington street, junction Metropolitan avenue 
Washington street, junction School street 
Weld street, junction Church street 
Weld street, junction Willow street 



10 
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Brighton. 

Allston street, junction Allston square 
Bennett street, junction Parsons street 
Brighton avenue, junction Cambridge street 
Brighton avenue, junction Chester street 
Brighton avenue, junction Harvard avenue 
Brooks street, junction Faneuil street . 
Brooks street, junction Newton street . 
Cambridge street, at Charles river 
Cambridge street, junction Gordon street 
Cambridge street, junction Harvard avenue 
Cambridge street, junction North Harvard street 
Cambridge street, junction Sparhawk street 
Cambridge street, junction Washington street 
Chester street, junction Ashford stieet 
Chestnut Hill avenue, junction South street 
Chestnut Hill avenue, junction Union street 
Englewood avenue, junction Isleworth street 
Everett street, junction Lincoln street 
Everett street, junction Western avenue 
Faneuil street, junction Parsons street 
Harvard avenue, junction Commonwealth avenue 
Lake street, junction Ken wick street . 
Market street, junction North Beacon street 
Market street, junction Sparhawk street 
Market street, junction Western avenue 
North Beacon street, at Albany R.R. . 
North Beacon street, junction Dustin street . 
North Harvard street, at Charles river 
North Harvard street, junction Western avenue 



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Water-Supply Department. 161 

Wiishington street, junction Allston street ... 4 
Washington street, junction Foster street . . .10 

Washington street, junction Lake street ... 8 
Washington street, junction Market street . . .10 

Washington street, near Newton line .... 2 
Washington street, junction Shannon street ... 8 
Washington street, junction Tremont street . . 5 

Washington street, junction Union street ... 6 

In General. 

A contract was made with Donovan & Brock on August 
22 for building the masonry foundations for Engine No. 3 at 
Chestnut-hill Pumping-station, and the work is nearly com- 
pleted. 

A contract was made with N. F. Palmer, Jr., & Co., of 
New York, on June 8, for building and erecting Pumping- 
engine No. 3, in accordance with plans made by Mr. E. D. 
Leavitt. 

The engine will be triple expansion, working three double- 
acting pumps, with the Kiedler patent valve gear, capable at 
fifty revolutions of pumping 20,000,000 gallons in twenty- 
four hours, and maintaining a duty of 140,000,000 ft. lbs. 
per 100 lbs. of coal. 

Plans have also been made by Mr. Leavitt for a 90- 
inch Belpaire boiler, to supply steam at 185 lbs. pressure 
for the engine. 

The rebuilding of the Brookline-avenue bridge over Muddy 
river, i-equired the shutting off of the 40-inch main for 
several months, and the head throughout the low service was 
materially reduced. The pipe is relaid in the form of a 
siphon over the arch of the bridge. 

The 30 and 3(i-inch mains must be relaid over the new 
bridge on Tremont street at the Brookline line. New 36- 
inch valves were placed in the 36 and 40-mch mains near 
the corner of Francis street. Five bents of piles, with 
10 X 10 hard-pine caps, were placed under the 40-inch 
main in Beacon street, near Exeter street, to replace the old 
trusses which supported the pipe over the former sluices of 
the Water Power Company. 

A plan of a storage reservoir of a capacity of one million 
gallons, for Long Island, has been made for the Directors of 
Public Institutions. This reservoir will cause a more con- 
stant circulation on the pipe line to the island, and the danger 
of freezing the pipe will be lessened. 

Forty contracts for rock excavation were made during the 
year. ' Two hundred and ninety-five petitions for main pipe 



162 City Document No. 39. 

extensions were reported upon in regard to grade of street, 
size of pipe, and cost of laying. 

The pipe laid has been measured, the gates and hydrants 
have been located and plotted on the plans. 

Thirty-three profiles of unaccepted streets have been made 
and grades given for grading the streets and laying pipes 
where required. 

The records from the four pumping-stations, the lakes, 
reservoirs, the Mystic sewer, and the returns from pipe 
foundries, etc., have been carefully kept. 

Appended to this report will be found the usual tables of 
rainfall, consumption, yield of water-sheds, etc. 

Respectfully submitted, 

William Jackson, 

Gity Engineer, 






r.;j;>i-. : i .1 ri.\ I O r.- 



H^Efe 



BOSTON WATER WORKS. 

Diagt^m showing the rainfall and daily aversge Consumption 
foi'each month. 



yearly Averages shown fhus - 




Water-Supply Department. 



163 



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City Document No. 39. 






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Total 
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wasted 
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Amount of 

Water used 

y Pramingha 

Water Co. 







































































CD_ 





0^ 


o_ 


o_ 





o_ 





0^ 
























cT 


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1 -o 1 












































Water 
Lake 
1 and 
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ir. 































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0. 





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d to 
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s 
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CD 


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CO 







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moui 
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m 








































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> 




















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' 




II 



160 



City Docuiment No. 3^. 



-5 ^i 



'S 









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5s, l-Cl 



5^:3^:3 






































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fl.St3 
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w 


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in 





^ 





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CO 




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s 


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of R 

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Water-Supplt Department. 



m 



CO CO CD lO « 



tOt-CO-^CDCOCiOi 



to C-l CO (M t- 
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CC CO CO CO 

cc" >r:r co" o" 



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to i-( CO 1-1 (N (M 

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BosTOM Water Works. 

©iagi-'an-j sl^owii^g +I7C l?clgb-l's of SudbuCy l^iVei^ l^esei v/ou-S, Fai-np Pb9d, aipd (?ocf7ifuate ai?^ 
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Water-Supply Depaetmknt. 



169 



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in 


o 








N 


CO 


to 


-* 


.n 


a> 


CO 


~ta 


o 


to 


CI 


o 


■^ 


■J33J 


■^ 


C5 


00 


to 


CO 


■* 


"i 


to 


tc 


lO 


rH 


o 


"* 


CO 


1^ 


■^ 


-* 


5 

r-l 


^ 


1 




^ 


1 


■^ 


i 




r-i 


CO 




•TBOO 


» 


^ 


o 


d 


OS 


t-; 


<n 


t- 


to 


^ 


GO 


"^ 


to 


00 ' 


JO pnnod J9d 


e 




s 


■=* 


*M 


tc 


CJ 


^ 


§ 


d 
to 


d 
to 


M 


tc 


d 


padmnd .•CiijnBii^ 


i^i 


■* 


'il 


■J 


-* 


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■5 


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^ 


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^ 


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o 


00 

d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


o 


d 


Cl 


•a 

d 


d 


^ 


d 


saqsB "jaao Ja<j 


tH 












—1 




'H 






l-t 


1-1 


•8J85iall3 




rX 


to 


■* 


IH 


>n 


^ 


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^ 


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o 


j^ 


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00 


poB s9q'aB 




to 


°. 


t: 


O 


-* 




". 




OO 


CO 


g 


". 


03 


JO lanotuB 


fff 


(N 


ci 


cf 


r-4 


cT 


cT 


CI 


cf 


cf 


ci 


CI 


cT 


aSt;.i9AB i^^UBO; 


































to 


r-l 


~oo 


<N 


t^ 


t^~ 


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d 


^ 


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o 


T^ 


•pauinsaoo 




<N 


^- 


a 


s 


QC 


to 
co_ 


o 

en 


h 


co_^ 




§ 


in 


s 


IB03 JO jniiocaB 


■CJ 


'^" 


<>J" 


^ 


J^ 


d 




CO 


^ 


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CO 


Oi 




^ 


3:^EJ3AB XjIBd 


s 


<N 


CI 


d 


<N 


l-H 


cq 


CI 


CI 


CI 


CI 


" 


c 


CI 






O 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 






o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 




o 


o 


•padnind 


2 


M 


(N 




CO 






o 


to_ 


o^ 


■^ 


to 


to 


rH 




tf 


o 




<= 


d 


■rf 




d 






to 






lanonic 




s 


CO 




CI 




CO 


o 


^ 


-* 








s 


aSBI9AB ^IlBQ 


<l 


oT 


CO 

o 


C5 

d 


d" 


Ot) 


<= 


d' 


d 


d" 


d- 


Cl 


o 
c 


00 






























o 






o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 








o 


o 


o 






o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 




o 


o 


o 


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ca 






Tt" 


00 


CI 


CO 




■^ 




o 


o 


s 


•padojnd 


^ 




to" 


i 




CC 


CO 


CO 


CO 




-*■ 


CO 

o 


CO 


innorau jbjox 


^ 


to 


ii5 


CO 


to 


-* 






C) 


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lO 


t-^ 


CO 


to" 




ias 


«r 


o 


d 


co" 


tc 


^ 


i-T 


CI 


to" 


d' 


d 


ci 


■2 




o 


(3> 






t^ 


CO 




o 










in 






CO 


OJ 


CO 


CI 


CI 


CO 


CO 




d 


Cl 


CI 


CO 


co" 








o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 
to 




I'S 




o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


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o 


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c 


o 


in^ 




s 


o 


^ 


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o 


o_ 


Cl_ 


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CI_ 




C) 


in 






























^ a< 


o 


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to 




TJT 




-* 




a> 


M 


o ir 




uo 


& 


e^ 


-* 


o 


to 






o 


a> 


Cl 




■* 




SS 


e 


co_ 


(M 




°i 


Ol 


C0_ 


c\ 




^. 


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lO 


to 


'■S 




























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tt 


cT 


to 


tc 




ci 


TjT 




CO 






ci 


d 


to 


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^ 


CO 


-* 




K 


CO 


OO 


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M 


Cl 






to 






« 


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d 






ci 


c 


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4 


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in 


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lO 


in 


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ao 


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^ 


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^ 


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r-l 




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CO 


Ti 


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♦=T3 




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Hg--3 






05 




-«1< 




to 








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CO 




Cl 


CI 


CI 


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CO 


00 

CO 






O 






o 




o 


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Q 




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o 






o 






o 






o 






o 


. 


5 a 


g 

o 


to 

Qo" 






-*" 




co" 


CO 

d" 






^ 






cT 




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O) 






05 




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o 






to 






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00 






o 






o_ 






in_ 






o 


6 
is 


<i ft 


<i 


o 






d" 




cT 

r-t 


CO 






rH 












o 






o 




la 


■o 






in 






in 




M 


•S 


o 






CO 




■* 


"* 






tH 








3 


^^ n • 


^ 




























i5 

1 a 


C3.13 u 


'^ 


























































































o 










CI 


^ 






in 






o> 




1 


01 










to 








m 






to 




». 








CO 






*"* 












to 






























-a . 


w 


■5S 


















h 








§s 


9 






>. 














a 




a 


a 


" M 


H 


1 


3 


3 


j: 
















E 


.2 =s 






1^ 


^ 

/= 


;- 


ft 


> 


'1 


>> 




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o 


c 


a 










s 


i 


<1 


^ 


>i 


< 


03 


O 


^ 


e 


) 



172 



City Document No. 89. 



Rainfall in Inches and Hundredths, on the Sudbury River Water-shed for 

the Year 1892. 



1S92. 


m 
P 


s 




ft 

<1 




0) 

p 

13 
1-5 


1 
>> 

1-5 


3 
< 


S 

a 


a> 
1 
O 


3 
H 
o 


S 

a 

CD 

Q 


1 










0.065 




0.175 










025 


2 


1.895 


0.880 


1.100 




0.260 






0.615 




3 . . 




0.770 


0.175 


0.795 






0.010 


4 






0.070 


0.050 




0.125 
0.590 


0.070 
0.070 




5 . . 


















g 


0.620 
















0.055 


100 


7 . 


















0.065 




8 




0.290 
O.OSO 


0.690 


0.025 














0.615 


9 

10 


0.045 




0.290 


0.220 






0.060 






0.330 












2.275 




w 


0.015 
1.520 


1.645 




' 0.480 




0.175 
0.605 


0.980 
0.140 








12 

IS 

14 . 






0.100 










0.160 








0.225 




2.440 






0.280 


15 

16 


0.600 








0.900 
















0.335 








1.655 




17 












1.110 






0.285 




IS 

19 

20 


0.800 
0.320 




1.215 












0.320 














0.045 






0.080 


















0.095 


21 






0.490 
0.125 


2.120 
















22 






















23 






0.725 


0.790 


0.125 














24 




0.030 
0.025 










0.150 








25 










0.420 




1.110 








26 








0.235 
0.125 


0.150 








27 










0.395 


0.275 
0.305 


1.770 








28 














0.140 




29 








0.120 










0.110 




30 

31 


0.035 








0.020 








0.590 












1.345 


0.130 
































Totals . 


5.850 


3.140 


4.060 


0.830 


5.585 


2.760 


4.230 


4.440 


2.840 


1.170 


5.800 


1.125 



Total rainfall during the year, 41.830 inches, being an average of two gauges, located at 
Fr.aminsham and Ashland. 



Water-Supply Department. 173 

Rainfall in Inches and Hundredths at Lake Cochituate for the Year IS 92. 



1893. 


03 

C 
a 


C3 
!3 


i 


p. 

< 


1 


>-3 




so 

< 


'H. 
m 


<o 
o 

O 


3 


u 
x> 

a 

o 

o 


1 

2 

3 


1.21 


0.96 


1.54 




0.07 
0.71 


0.02 
0.16 


0.13 
0.72 


0.29 






0.60 


0.05 


•1 






0.86 






5 

6 

7 


0.54 








0.01 






0.02 


0.04 




0.17 
06 


0.11 


8 




0.31 


0.60 
0.28 


0.07 
















0.64 


9 

10 .... , 


0.04 




0.45 


0.12 






0.05 


2 17 


11 




1.32 












1.04 










12 

13 


1.39 








0.55 






O.OS 










1-t 

15 


0.56 


0.17 






0.97 


0.38 


0.46 




2.57 






0.27 


16 














0.17 








1 43 




17 












1.10 








0.28 






18 






1.08 
















42 




19 


1.03 
















01 








20 
























09 


21 




0.02 




0.49 
0.12 


2.85 
















22 
















23 

24 






0.62 






0.09 






0.02 








25 




0.02 






0.21 


0.54 


0.37 










0.02 


26 


2.22 


0.23 


0.01 






27 










0.09 


0.48 








28 

29 








0.10 


0.07 
0.36 






0.22 


0.29 




30 

31 


0.01 










0.01 


1.07 


0.14 




























Totals . 


4.78 


2.80 


4.12 


0.78 


5.46 


3.23 


3.47 


3.79 


2.87 


1.42 


5.14 


1.18 



Total rainfall during the year, 39.04 inches. 



174 



City Document No. 39. 



Rainfall in Inches and Hundredths on the Mystic Water-shed for the year 

1892. 



1893. 


3 

1 


5 
a 


a 
1 


< 




a 

D 




5fj 

< 


a 

o 
a. 
o 

CO 


O 

O 


3 

.a 

1 


a 
§ 


1 .... 










0.090 




0,165 


0.070 






0.180 


020 





1.070 


1.010 


1.130 










3 




0.695 


0.205 
0.005 


0.770 


0..'i25 
0.015 
0.400 


0.030 

0.035 


0.030 
0.060 
1.035 


0.405 
0.085 




4 

5 






0.025 


0.005 


6 


0.580 














0.110 




















0.030 




8 




0.295 


0.660 
0.380 


0.015 














710 


9 

10 


0.040 




0.405 


0.220 


0.015 
0.010 




0.055 


1.870 


020 


11 




1.535 




0.560 
0.035 












12 












1.050 
0.150 










13 


1.425 




















14 


0.140 








0.330 


0.170 
0.160 


1.615 






250 


15 

16 


0.345 


0.005 




0.980 


0.410 


1.295 




17 












1.095 








18 


0.875 
0.145 




1.125 














0.260 




19 












0.015 






20 






















0.035 


21 




0.005 




0.515 
0.125 


2.255 
















22 


















23 






0.705 


0.630 


0.070 














24. . . 


0.005 
















25 


0.030 








1.025 














26 










0.215 




2.225 
0.090 


0.310 


0.105 






27 










0.120 


1.010 


0.015 
0.175 






28 








0.025 
0.110 






0.145 

0.375 




29 








0.005 


0.005 






0.140 




30 


0.030 








31 












0.900 


0.270 






























Totals . 


4.515 


3.015 


4.005 


0.815 


5.5S5 


4.150 


2.575 


4.820 


2.005 


1.835 


4.645 


1.150 



Total rainfall during the year, 39.115 IncfaeB, being an average of two gauges, looated at 
Mystic Lake and Winchester. 



Water-Supply Department. 



175 



a 



O ■* t- CO 



CO lO O O Gi 
CO C-:) CO CO CO 



CO O rH Ci CD 
i-H (M (M O <N 



Oi Gi r-t 



OO b- rH (N r-t 



CD CD CO fM 



"i '^ 




CO 

c-i 


e4 


- 


rA 


(m' 


- 


2 


CO 


a o 




o 


CO 


^ 


CC 


i-H 


s 


CO 


o 



1-H fN <M rH 



CO CO C^ (N c<) r>^ 



»0 t- CO Oi 



C^ « CO CO 



CO C^ CO CO -* 



CO OO OO 



lOiOiOCDOOO-^ 



»0 iH 00 »ft 05 T*1 



C<l lO UO CO CD CO 



CO (M CO CO 



CO CO C^ »C^ CO CO 0^ 



-i^ 


"S 


a 

3 


1-^ 


QQ 


(U 


.2 


_o 


a 



6 ^ ^ 



176 



City Docu.ment No. 3D. 



Rainfall Received, and Collected, IS 92. 





SUDBtTKY. 


COCHITUATB. 


Mtstic. 






0) 


'6 




•6 


■d 

. 01 




■6 


73 


Month. 


"3 


-5 " 




3 
a 

"3 


— o 

.2 o 


o a) 

:- o 
3 u 


"3 

en 

a 
1 


.So 
1° 


o:=! 
P-i 




Inches. 


Inches. 


Per 
cent. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Per 
cent. 


Inches. 
4.515 


Inches. 
2.49 


Per 
cent. 


January . . 


5.850 


3.335 


57.01 


4.78 


3.1S 


66.55 


55.04 


February . 


3.140 


1.574 


50.13 


2.80 


1.64 


58.50 


3.015 


1.76 


58.46 


March . . . 


4.060 


3.488 


85.90 


4.12 


3.12 


75.67 


4.005 


3.03 


75.72 


April . . . 


0.830 


1.504 


181.15 


0.78 


0.90 


115.52 


0.815 


1.33 


163.57 


May .... 


5.585 


2.245 


40.20 


5.46 


2.03 


.S7.13 


5.585 


2.10 


37.54 


June . . . 


2.760 


0.739 


26.76 


3.23 


0.49 


15.26 


4.150 


1.17 


28.30 


July . . . 


4.230 


0.382 


9.03 


3.47 


0.33 


9.52 


2.575 


0.66 


25.70 


August . . 


4.440 


0.500 


11.26 


3.79 


0.56 


14.68 


4.820 


0.49 


10.19 


September . 


2.840 


0.396 


18.94 


2.87 


0.60 


21.10 


2.005 


0.56 


27.71 


October . . 


1.170 


0.224 


19.18 


1.42 


0.57 


40.16 


1.835 


0.45 


24.29 


November . 


5.800 


1.204 


20.75 


5.14 


1.09 


21.22 


4.645 


1.07 


23.09 


December . 


1.125 


0.865 


76.89 


1.18 


0.84 


71.09 


1.150 


0.87 


75.23 


Totals and ) 
averages, ) 


41.830 


16.456 


39.34 


39.04 


15.35 


39.32 


39.115 


15.98 


40.85 



WATER-SurPLY Department. 



177 



Table showing the Temperature of Air and Waier at Various Stations on 
the Water-works. 





Temperature of Air. 


Temperature of 
Water. 


1893. 


Cheatnut-Hill Kcservoir. 


Fi 


amiugham. 


Brookline 
Reservoir. 


Mystic 
Engine- 
House. 




Maximum. 


S 

3 

E 
c 

i 


Mean. 


S ' Maximum. 

1 


S 

3 

a 
i 


3 
a 
© 

IS 






January . 






62.0 


1.0 


28.0 


-3.0 


25.7 


36.5 


36.3 


February 








44.5 


3.5 


27.6 


49.0 


-1.0 


27.6 


36.8 


35.9 


March . . 








56.5 


12.5 


32.3 


58.0 


8.0 


31.3 


36.7 


35.0 


April . . 








77.0 


25.5 


48.3 


76.0 


21.0 


46.3 


48.0 


45.2 


May . . . 








83.0 


31.0 


55.8 


83.0 


27.0 


54.7 


55.7 


55.8 


June . . 








94.5 


43.0 


69.8 


96.0 


38.0 


69.5 


69.3 


70.8 


July. . . 








94.0 


48.0 


72.0 


96.0 


45.0 


70.9 


74.3 


74.5 


August . 








95.0 


53.0 


70.1 


94.0 


48.0 


68.5 


74.7 


75.8 


September 








80.5 


40.5 


62.3 


80.0 


34.0 


60.3 


67.6 


66.5 


October . 








75.0 


30.0 


50.8 


77.0 


23.0 


49.6 


56.4 


56.9 


November 








66.5 


19.0 


40.1 


65.0 


16.0 


38.7 


45.5 


47.2 


December 








45.5 


0.0 


27.3 


45.0 


-2.0 


26.6 


36.6 


36.8 



178 City Document No. 39. 

SUMMARY OF STATISTICS. 
REPORT FOR 1892. 



Boston Water-Works, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, 
supplies also the cities of Somerville, Chelsea, and Everett. 

Population by census of 1890 ; 

Boston 448,477 

Chelsea 27,909 

Somerville ....... 40,152 

Everett 11,068 



Total . . 527,606 

Date of construction : 

Cochituate Works 1848 

Mystic " 1864 

By whom owned. — City of Boston. 

Sources of supply. — Lake Cochituate, Sudbury river, and 

Mystic lake. 
Mode of supply. — Sixty-five per cent, from gravity works. 
Thirty-five " " pumping " 

Pumping. 

Cochituate. Mystic. 

Builder of pumping 

machinery . . Holly Co. H. R. Worthington. 

Description of coal used : 

a Kind . . Bituminous. Bituminous. 



c Size 


Broken. 


Broken. 


e Price per gross 

ton, in bins, 
yPer cent, of ash, 


$4.66 
8.5. 


$4.13 
10.2. 


oal consumed for year, 
lbs. 


Cochituate. 

in 

3,548,105 


Mystic. 

7,873,000 



Total pumpage for year, in 

gallons . . . 3,050,018,300 3,596,716,400 

Average dynamic head, in 

feet ... . 126.27 148.84 

Gallons pumped per lb. of 

coal .... 943.8 456.8 



Watee-Sdpplt Department. 



179 



Duty in foot-lbs. per 100 lbs. 


COCHITITATE. 


Mystic. 


of coal .... 


99,195,300 


56,709,000 


Cost of pumping figured on 






pumping-statiou expenses, 






viz : . . . . 


$18,761.07 


$25,512.19 


Cost per million gallons 






raised to reservoir . 


$6.15 


$7.09 


Cost per million gallons 






raised one foot high 


$0,049 


$0,048 


Consumption. 




F.stimated population . 


433,600 


124,800 


Total consumption, gallons, " 


L5, 120,353, 700 


3,590,740,400 


Passed throush meters 


4,108,687,500 


681,577,500 



Average daily consumption, 

gallons .... 41,312,400 9,810,800 

Gallons per day, each in- 
habitant . . . 95.3 78.6 

Gallons per day to each tap, 635 454 







Distribution. 










31ai 


US. 










COCHITUATE. 


Mystic. 




Kind of pipe used. 


[ 


Cast-iron. 


Cast-iron , Wrought- 
Iron and Cement. 


Sizes . 




48-in 


to 4-in. 


30-in 


to 3-in. 


Extended, miles 


, 




17. 




2.4 


Total now in use 


. 




536. 




160.4 


Distribution-pipes 


less 










than 4-in., length 










miles 


, 









5.5 


Hydrants added . 


. 




148 




107 


Hydrants now in 


use 




5,834 




1,223 


Stop-gates added 


. 




219 




110 


Stop-gates now in use . 




5,910 




1,799 






Services. 






Kind of pipe used. 


\ 


Lead 




Leac 
Wroug 


and 
at-Iron. 


Sizes . 




f-in. 1 


to 6-in. 


^-in- 


to 4-in. 


Extended, feet . 






59,807 




31,584 


Service-taps added 






2,197 




1,032 


Total now in use . 






65,074 




21,588 


Meters added 






73 




29 


Meters now in use 






3,912 




435 



Motors and elevators in 



use 



554 



27 



180 City Document No. 39. 



CIVIL ORGANIZATION OF THE WATER-WORKS, FROM 
THEIR COMMENCEMENT TO FEBRUARY 1, 1893. 

Water Commissioners. 

Nathan Hale, J James F. Baldwin, J Thomas B. Curtis. From 

May 4, 1846, to January 4, 1850. 

Engineers for Construction. 

John B. Jervis, of New Yoi-k, Consulting Engineer. From Mav, 
1846, to November, 1848.^ 

E. S. Chesbrough, Cliief Engineer of the Western Division. From 
May, 1846, to January 4, 18504 

William S. Whitwell, Chief Engineer of the Eastern Division. 
From May, 1846, to January 4, 1850. 

Engineers having Charge of the Works. 

E. S. Chesbrough, Engineer. From November 18, 1850, to Octo- 
ber 1, 1855. t 

George H. Bailey, Assistant Engineer. From January 27, 1851, 
to July 19, 1852. 

H. S. McKean, Assistant Engineer. From July 19, 1852, to October 
1, 1855. t 

James Slade, Engineer. From October 1, 1855, to April 1, 1863. J 

N. Henry Crafts, Assistant Engineer. From October 1, 1855, to 
April 1, 1863. 

N. Henry Crafts, City Engineer. Fi-om April 1, 1863, to November 
25, 1872. 

Thomas W. Davis, Assistant Engineer. From April 1, 1863, to 
December 8, 1866. 

Henry M. Wightman, Resident Engineer at C. H. Reservoir. From 
February 14, 1866, to November, 18704 

A. Fteley, Resident Engineer on construction of Sudbury-river 
works. From May 10, 1873, to April 7, 1880. 

Joseph P. Davis, City Engineer. From Nov. 25, 1872, to March 20, 
1880. 

Henry M. Wightman, City Engineer. From April 5, 1880, to"' April 
3, 1885. t 

William Jackson, City Engineer. From April 21, 1885, to present 
time. 

Desmond FitzGerald, Resident Engineer on Additional Supply. 
From February 20, 1889, to present time. 

After January 4, 1850, Messrs. E. S. Chesbrough, W. S. Whitwell, 
and J. Avery Richards were elected a Water Board, subject to the 
direction of a Joint Standing Committee of the City Council, by an ordi- 
nance passed December 31, 1849, which was limited to keep in force 
one year; and in 1851 the Cochituate Water Board was established. 

Cochituate Water Board. / 

Presidents of the Board. 

Thomas Wetmore, elected in 1851, and resigned April 
7, 1856$ Five years. 



Water-Supply Department. 



181 



John H. "Wjxkins, elected in 1856, and resigned June 

5, 1860$ Four years. 

Ebenezer Johnson, elected in 1860, term expired April 

3, lS65t Five years. 

Otis jSTorcross, elected in 1865, and resigned January 

15, 1867t One year and nine months. 

John H. Thorndike, elected in 1867, term expired April 

6, 1868$ One year and thi'ee months. 

Nathaniel J. Bradlee, elected April 6, 1868, and re- 
signed January 4, 1871$ . . . Two years and nine months. 

Charles H. Allen, elected January 4, 1871, to May 4, 

1873 Two years and four months. 

John A. Haven, elected May 4, 1873, to Dec. 17, 

1874$ One year and seven months. 

Thomas Gogin, elected Dec. 17, 1874, and resigned May 

31, 1875 Six months. 

L. Miles Standish, elected Augusts, 1875, to July 31, 

1876$ One year. 



Members of the Board. 

Thomas Wetmore, 1851, 52, 53, 54, and 55$ . . Five years. 

John H. Wilkins, 1851, 52, 53, *56, 57, 58, and 59$ . Eight years. 

Henry B. Rogers, 1851, 52, 53, *54, and 55$ . . Five years. 

Jonathan Preston, 1851, 52, 53, and 56$ . . . Four years. 

James W. Seaver, 1851$ One year. 

Samuel A. Eliot, 1851.$ 

John T. Heard, 1851$ One year. 

Adam W. Thaxter, Jr., 1852, 53, 54, and 55$ . . Four years. 

Sampson Reed, 1852 and 1853$ Two years. 

Ezra Lincoln, 1852$ One year. 

Thomas Sprague, 1853, 54, and 55$ .... Three years. 

Samuel Hatch, 1854, bb, 56, 57, 58, and 61 . . . Six years. 

Charles Stoddard, 1854, 55, 56, and 57$ . . . Four years. 

William Washburn, 1854 and 55$ .... Two years. 

TiSDALE Drake, 1856, 57, 58, and 59$ . . • - Four years. 

Thomas P. Rich, 1856, 57, and 58$ .... Three years. 

John T. Dingley, 1856 and 59$ Two years. 

Joseph Smith, 1856$ Two months. 

Ebenezer Johnson, 1857, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, and 64$ Eight years. 

Samuel Hall, 1857, 58, 59, 60, and 61$ . . . . Five years. 

George P. French, 1859, 60, 61, 62, and 63$. . . Five years. 

Ebenezer Atkins, 1859$ One year. 

George Dennie, 1860, 61, 62, 63, 64, and 65 . . . Six years. 

Clement Willis, 1860$ One year. 

G. E. Pierce, 1860$ ' One year. 

Jabez Frederick, 1861, 62, and 63$ . . . . Three years. 

George Hinman, 1862 and 63 Two years. 

John F. Pray, 1862$ One year. 

J. C. J. Brown, 1862 One year. 

Jonas Fitch, 1864, 65, and 66$ Three years. 

Otis NoRCROSS, * 1865 and 66$ Two years. 

John H. Thorndike, 1864, 65, 66, and 67$ . . . Four years. 

Benjamin F. Stevens, 1866, 67, and 68 . . . . Three years. 

William S. Hills, 1867 One year. 

Charles R. Trajn, 1868$ One year. 

Joseph M. Wightman, 1868 and 69$ . . . . Two years. 

Benjamin James, * 1858, 68, and 69 .... Three years. 

Francis A. Osborn, 1869 One year. 

Walter E. Hawes, 1870$ One year. 



182 



City Document No. 39. 



68, 69, 70, 



68, 69, and 



John O. Poor, 1870 .... 
HoLLis R. Gray, 1870 .... 
Nathaniel J. Bradlee, 1863, 64, 65, 66, 67, 

and 71t 

George Lewis, 1868, 69, 70, and 71J . 

Sidney Squires, 1871 J . 

Charles H. Hersey, 1872 

Charles H. Allen, 1869, 70, 71, and 72 

Alexander Wads worth, *1864, 65, 66, 67, 

72 

Charles R. McLean, 1867, 73, and 74t 
Edward P. Wilbur, 1873 and 74 
John A. Haven, 1870, 71, 72, 73, and 74^ 
Thomas Gogin, 1873, 74, and 75* . 
Amos L. Noyes, 1871, 72, and 75 . 
William G. Thacher, 1873, 74, and 75t 
Charles J. Prescott, 1875 . . ' . 
Edward A. White, 1872, 73, 74, 75, and 76tt 
Leonard R. Cutter, 1871, 72, 73, 74, 75, and 76t 
L. Miles Standish, 1860, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 74 

and76tt 

Charles E. Powers, * 1875 and 1876tt 
Solomon B. Stebbins, 1876t. 
Nahum M. Morrison, 1876f . 
Augustus Parker, 1876t 



75, 



One year. 
One year. 

Nine years. 
Four years. 
One year. 
One year. 
Four years. 

Seven years. 
Three years. 
Two years. 
Five years. 
Tiiree years. 
Three years. 
Three years. 
One year. 
Five 3'ears. 
Six years. 

Ten years. 
Two years. 
One year. 
One year. 
One year. 



*Mr. John H. Wilkins resig-ned Nov. 15, 1855, and Charles Stoddard was elected to 
fill the vacancy. Mr. Henry B. Rogers resigned Oct. 22, 1865. Mr. Wilkins was re- 
elected Feb., 1856, and chosen President of the Board, which office he held until his 
resignation, June 5, 1860, when Mr. Ebenezer .Johnson was elected President; and 
July 2 Mr. L. Miles Standish was elected to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resig- 
nation of Mr. Wilkins. Otis Noi-cross resigned .Jan. 15, 1867, having been elected 
Mayor of the City. Benjamin James served one year, in 1858, and was reelected in 
1868. Alexander Wadsworth served six years, 1864-69, and was re(^lected in 1872. 
Thomas Gogin resigned May 31, 1875. Charles E. Powers was elected July 15, to fill 
the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Mr. Gogin. 

t Served until the organization of the Boston Water Board. 

t Deceased. 



Water-Supply Department. 183 

Boston Water Board, 

Organized July 31, 1876. 

TmoTHY T. Sawyer, from July 31, 1876, to May 5, 1879 ; and from 

May 1, 1882, to May 4, 1883. 
Leonard R. Cutter, from July 31, 1876, to May 4, 1883. 
Albert Stanwood, from July 31, 1876, to May 7, 1883. 
Francis Thompson, from May 5, 1879, to May 1, 1882. J 
William A. Simmons, from May 7, 1883, to Aug. 18, 1885. 
George M. Hobbs, from May 4, 1883, to May 4,. 1885. 
John G. Blake, from May 4, 1883, to Au^. 18, 1885. 
William B. Smart, from^May 4, 1885, to'lMarch 18, 1889. 
Horace T. Rockwell, from Aug. 25, 1885, to April 25, 1888. 
Philip J. Doherty, from March 18, 1889, to May 4, 1891. 
Thomas F. Doherty, from Aug. 26, 1885, to May 5, 1890 ; and from 

May 4, 1891, to present time. 
Robert Grant, from April 25, 1888, to present time. 
John W. Leighton, from May 5, 1890, to present time. 

Organization of the Board for Year 1892. 

Chairman. 
Robert Grant. 

Secretary and Chief Clerk. 
Walter E. Swan. 

City Engineer and Engineer of the Board. 
William Jackson. 

Superintendent of the Eastern Division of Cochituate Department. 
William J. Welch. 

Superintejident of the Western Division and Resident Engineer of 
Additional Supply. 

Desmond FitzGerald. 

Superintendent of Mystic Department. 
Eugene S. Sullivan. 

\ Deceased. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Report of the Water Board : 

Disbursements .......... 1-2 

Revenue ........... 2 

Extension of mains, etc 2-3 

Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Corporation ..... 3-7 

Consumption of water ........ 7 

High-service pumping- engine ....... 8 

Basin No. 6 ......... . s 

Additional basin ......... 8-9 

Improvement of quality of water, etc. ..... 9-10 

Future supply .......... 11-14 

General Statistics. (See also Summary of statistics, p. 178) . 14^ 

Earnings and expenditures ....... 15-16 

Maintenance Accounts ........ 17-19 

EXPENDITORE ACCOUNTS IN DeTAIL 20-21 

Cost of Construction and Condition of the Debts . . 22-23 

Money Expenditures 23-24 

Stock Accounts 25 

Outstanding Loans, etc 26-29 

List of Contracts 30-35 

Report of Superintendent of Eastern Division . . . 36-63 

Distribution mains and hydrants 36-37 

High-service vrorks ......... 37-38 

Reservoirs, waste detection. Deacon meter-system, meters, 

water-posts and fountains 38-39 

Tables of pipe laid, hydrants established, etc 40-63 

Report of Superintendent of Western Division . . . 64-79 

Sudbury-river basins , . 64-69 

Whitehall pond 69-70 

Farm pond .......... 70-71 

Lake Cochituate 71-72 

Aqueducts .......... 72-75 

Chestnut-hill, Brookline, and Fisher-hill reservoirs . . . 75-76 

Biological laboratory 76-77 

Pollution 78 

Filtration 78-79 

Quality of water ......... 79 

Analyses and rainfall tables, etc. ...... 80-94 

Cause of color of natural water (by F. S. Hollis) . . . 95-115 



186 Table of Contents. 

PAGE 

Report of Superintendent of Mystic Division . . . 116-125 

Report of the Engineer . . . . . . . . 126-162 

Yield of sources of supply . ....... 126 

Sudbury reservoirs and Lake Cochituate ..... 126-129 

Aqueducts and distributing reservoirs ..... 129-130 

High-service pumping-stations ....... 130-131 

Mystic lake 131 

Mystic sewer 131 

Mystic conduit, reservoir, and pun-kping-station . . . 132-133 

Consumption .......... 133-134 

Distribution 134-135 

Additional supply ......... 135-136 

Sewerage systems ......... 137 

Filtration of Mystic supply ....... 137 

Capacity of distribution system ...... 137-161 

In general .......... 161-162 

Tables of consumption, diversion of Sudbury-river water, amounts 
drawn from Lake Cochituate, rainfall, operations of pumping- 
stations, etc. . ......... 163-177 

Summary of Statistics 178-179 

Civil Organization of the Board, 1845-1892 .... 180-183 



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