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Full text of "Annual report of the Boston Water Board, for the year ending .."

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 




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F R THE 



Year ending January 31, 189 




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NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



BOSTON WATER BOARD, 



TEAR ENDING JANUARY 31, 1895. 



Printed fax tfje Department. 




BOSTON: 

ROCKWELL AND CHURCHILL, CITY PRINTERS. 

1895. 






, 



Office of the Boston Water Board, 

City Hall, Boston, February 1, 1895. 
Hon. Edwin U. Curtis, 

Mayor of the City of Boston: 

Sir : The Boston Water Board, in charge of the Water- 
Supply Department, herewith submit their annual report 
for the financial year ending January 31, 1895. 

The receipts and disbursements of the department for the 
year were as follows : ( 

The total receipts of the Water- Works, from all sources, 
for the year ending January 31, 1895, were as follows, viz. : 

Income from sales of water . . . $2,091,959 60 
Income from shutting off and letting on 

water, and fees 4,099 76 

Elevator, fire and service pipes, sale of 

old materials, etc 50,829 04 

$2,146,888 40 



The total expenditures of the Water-Works, from rev- 
enue, for the year ending January 31, 1895, were as follows, 
viz. : 

Current expenses, viz. : 

Water-Supply Department . $537,071 28 
Less stock used purchased in 

previous years . . . 4,782 12 



$532,289 16 
Water-Income Department . 64,765 52 

$597,054 68 

Interest on funded debt . ' . . . 833,771 04 

Sinking-fund requirement, 1893-94 . . 229,380 00 

Carried forward, $1,660,205 72 



2 City Document No. 39. 

Brought forward, $1,660,205 72 

Refunded water-rates . . . . 2,774 76 

Extension of mains, etc. .... 263,111 67 
Amount paid Chelsea, Somerville, and 

Everett, under contracts . . . 152,657 96 

Balance to sinking-fund .... 68,138 29 



$2,146,888 40 



COST OF CONSTRUCTION, AND CONDITION OF THE WATER 

DEBT. 

Cost of construction of Water-Works to February 1, 

1894 $24,449,065 36 

Cost of construction of Water- Works to February 1, 

1895 » 25,400,581 03 



Increase during the year . . . .• . . $951,515 67 



Stock on hand February 1, 1894 $144,785 23 

Stock on hand February 1, 1895 . . . . . 156,982 22 



Increase during the year ...... $12,196 99 



The outstanding Water Loans February 1, 1894, were . $17,157,273 98 
The outstanding Water Loans February 1, 1895, were . 17,761,273 98 



Increase during the year $604,000 00 



The Water Sinking-Fund February 1, 1894, was . $7,914,715 13 

The Water Sinking-Fund February 1, 1895, was . 2 8,444,773 55 



Increase during the year ...... $530,058 42 



Net Water Debt February 1, 1894 .... $9,242,558 85 
Net Water Debt February 1, 1895 .... 9,316,500 43 



Increase during the year ...... $73,941 58 



1 See page 23. 

2 Consisting of investments (city of Boston bonds) $8,310,460.00 and cash to the amount, 
of $129,313.55. 



Water-Supply Department. 



EXTENSION OF MAINS. 

The work of extending mains exceeded that of the previ- 
ous year by about one and one-half miles, 17.9 miles having 
been laid and 5.1 miles having been abandoned; making a 
total of 572.8 miles of pipe now connected with the Cochituate 
system. To meet the requirements of the city in its rapid 
growth, from twenty to twenty-five miles of pipe should be 
laid annually, so it will be seen that the average during the 
past year was considerably below what it should have been. 
As during the previous year, we were obliged to economize 
in many directions in the effort to keep within the appro- 
priation allowed us for this work. The total amount 
appropriated was $250,000, and the amount expended was 
$263,111.67, being $13,111.67 in excess of the appropria- 
tion ; but as there remains on hand stock to the amount of 
$19,013.58 over the amount on hand at the beginning of the 
year, it leaves the actual cost for extensions $244,098.09, or 
$5,901.91 less than the appropriation. These expenditures 
have been provided for entirely from water revenue. 

The second force main (36") from the Chestnut Hill to 
the Fisher Hill reservoir has been laid during the year, at a 
cost of $72,461.94, including connections. The excessive 
cost was largely due to the fact that a portion of the pipe 
was necessarily laid at a great depth. In view of the con- 
templated new main from Washington Village to South 
Boston flats, via Dorchester avenue and D street, the pipe 
contract for 1894 was considerably increased ; but as we were 
obliged to postpone this work for another year, we have the 
pipe on hand, and we hope to be able to carry out this work 
during the coming summer. 

The main across the new Dover-street bridge has been 
completed and connected, and the temporary pipe which 
supplied water to South Boston during the work of abol- 
ishing the grade crossing, has been removed. 

This temporary pipe was a source of great anxiety, as it 
passed through a large building for storing lumber in a lum- 
ber-yard, and in case of fire would have been in a very 
dangerous position. The Board took every precaution to 
protect it, by having it enclosed in a sheet-iron box and 
placing a line of automatic sprinklers inside the boxing. 

Considerable work has been done during the year in 
enlarging the pipe system and locating new hydrants in the 
district formerly covered by the Jamaica pond aqueduct 
service. 

The Board contemplate beginning early in the spring the 
important work of laying a new high-service supply main 



4 City Document No. 39. 

from the junction of Fisher Hill avenue and Boylston street, 
in Brookline, to the city proper. This main will be 48 
inches in diameter to the junction of Huntington avenue and 
Heath street, where it will be reduced to 42 inches, and con- 
tinued through Huntington avenue and Boylston street, 
across the Common to Park-street gate. A 36-inch main 
will be laid from the corner of Huntington avenue and Heath 
street, across the Roxbury district to Grove Hall, for the 
improvement of the supply in Roxbury and Dorchester. 
The estimated cost of this work when completed is $400,000. 
It is hoped that when this work is finished an ample sup- 
ply of water can be furnished in all the various localities 
from which complaints have come for several years past of 
lack of water, particularly during extreme cold weather in 
■winter, when many water-takers allow their taps to run con- 
tinually to prevent the water from freezing, thereby causing 
a great loss of head, and in many instances, in the more ele- 
vated localities, even taking away the supply entirely for 
several days at a time. 

CONSUMPTION OF WATER, RAINFALL, ETC. 

The daily average consumption of water during the past 
year was 46,560,000 gallons on the Cochituate and Sudbury, 
and 10,282,100 gallons on the Mystic ; that of the combined 
supplies being 56,842,100 gallons, or a decrease of 2.3 per 
cent, over the previous year. The consumption per capita 
was 97.4 gallons. 

The rainfall was below the average, the total for the year 
on the Sudbury water-shed being 39.74 inches. Although 
the season of 1894 was an unusually dry one, yet with the 
addition of the new basin No. 6, which was filled during 
the winter and spring, and from which water was drawn for 
the first time, we were enabled to supply the needs of the 
city without much anxiety so far as the Cochituate and Sud- 
bury supply was concerned. 

The water in Mystic lake fell to such a point that by 
September 12 it was necessary to let on the Cochituate water 
to supply Charlestown, as the Mystic supply would not have 
been sufficient for that district and the cities of Chelsea, Som- 
erville, and Everett. Pumping was resorted to from August 
31 to November 15, and the water in the lake reached a 
lower point than ever before. The old temporary pumps 
and engines at the lake were in such bad condition through 
age and use, that, by advice of the City Engineer, two new 
engines and one new pump were purchased, and the pump 
and one of the engines were at once put into service. 



Water-Supply Department. 



HARBOR SERVICE. 



The submerged pipes for supplying water to Long, Rains- 
ford, and Gallop's islands and Fort Warren are still a 
source of great annoyance and expense to the Board, espe- 
cially during the cold weather. Notwithstanding the fact 
that they are buried at the shore ends, the storms cause the 
water to wash the covering away, thereby exposing the pipes, 
and when there is any great decrease of the circulation they 
freeze and burst. 

Between Long and Gallop's islands and between Long and 
Rainsford islands the pipes are of wrought iron, three inches 
in diameter, and are so badly eaten by rust that it is very 
difficult and expensive to keep them sufficiently in repair to 
maintain the supply even in the summer season. 

In order to provide for emergencies, and also to furnish a 
supply for fire purposes, the Board of Commissioners of 
Public Institutions have constructed a reservoir on Long 
island which has a capacity of 1,300,000 gallons. Water 
was admitted to this reservoir on December 7, 1894. 

The Board have recommended to the Commissioners of 
Public Institutions that a reservoir be built on Rainsford 
island; and also to the Board of Health, that one be built 
on Gallop's island, — so that the buildings on those islands 
may have a supply of water in case of emergency. The 
work of extending pipes for the harbor system was com- 
menced in the year 1888, and water was let into the pipes 
August 21, 1889. 

It is proposed, during the coming season, to lay new lines 
of pipe between all of these islands (with the exception of 
the line from Long island to Fort Warren, which was laid 
by the United States Government), and, if possible, to pro- 
tect them from freezing. 

The original cost of laying the entire system from Nepon- 
set to Moon, Thompson's, Long, Rainsford, and Gallop's 
islands, and the change from the low to the high service 
system, was $66,024.93, andthe repairs on the same, up to 
February 1, 1895, have amounted to $12,891.72. 

The following is an extract from a letter of the Board to 
Mayor Matthews, on January 18, 1894, concerning the 
whole harbor pipe system: "These submerged pipes are a 
constant source of expense to this department, and we should 
be glad to turn all the pipes, from the point where they 
leave the mainland, over to the Public Institutions, and 
deliver them water without charge." 



6 City Document No. 39. 

NEW HIGH-SERVICE PUMPING-ENGINE. 

The first shipment of the parts of the new 20,000,000- 
gallon per day high - service pumping-engine was made 
February 17, 1894, and the work of setting it up at the 
Chestnut-Hill pumping-station was begun at once. As 
stated in our last report, it was hoped to have had the pump 
in operation by July 1, but many unforeseen delays occurred 
which made this an impossibility. It became necessary to 
build an addition to the boiler-house in order to accommo- 
date the new boiler constructed by the Atlantic Works, and 
considerable delay was experienced in securing a special car 
from the Calumet & Hecla Mining Company, which they 
were courteous enough to allow us to use to transport the 
boiler from the works at East Boston to Chestnut-Hill sta- 
tion, as an ordinary flat car would have made the load too 
high to pass beneath the railroad bridges. On account of 
the various delays the new engine was not ready to receive 
steam until October last. The engine has been run from 
time to time in order to get the bearings and joints in proper 
condition before finishing the work of lagging and painting. 
It is now expected that the pump will be put into service 
by about the middle of March. The new boiler is in place 
and working very satisfactorily. This boiler will furnish 
steam to the engine at considerable less expense for coal 
than boilers of the ordinary type. 

FIRE SERVICE. 

It has been the aim of the Board to keep the fire service 
of the city up to the highest standard, and the proposed pipe 
referred to, under the head of Extension of Mains, is for 
increasing that service throughout the business district. 
Constant watch has been kept upon the hydrants during the 
cold weather, and the Fire Department has had no serious 
trouble from them this winter, as yet. It will be the policy 
of the Board to extend the high service in the business sec- 
tion as rapidly as necessity requires. Owing to the increased 
number of high buildings, and the extension of the auto- 
matic-sprinkler system, many demands have been made for 
high service. In May last the Board requested the City 
Engineer to report what work Was necessary to be done in 
order to furnish better fire protection. He subsequently 
reported, recommending larger pipes and more hydrants in 
many of the streets, and the Board will from time to time 
carry out his recommendations. 

In addition to the pressure-recording gauges that were 



Water-Supply Department. 7 

placed in many of the fire-engine houses last year, more have 
been added, and arrangements have been made with the Fire 
Commissioners whereby, in case of a conflagration in the 
high-service district of the city proper, if the recording gauge 
at City Hall shows a pressure of not more than 25 pounds, 
certain gates between the high and low service mains will 
be opened at once by employees of this department ; the 
location and number of the gates to be opened to depend 
upon the locality and magnitude of the fire, thus ensuring 
an ample supply of water when needed. 

WHITEHALL POND. 

On August 2, 1894, by the advice of the Law Department 
and with the approval of the Mayor the Board settled with 
Eben D. Jordan, owning two-thirds, and on August 30 with 
Wood Bros. & Newhall, owning one-third, of Whitehall 
pond, for an aggregate sum of $286,500. Plans are being- 
drawn for a new dam, and a contract for its construction 
will probably be made during the coming summer. When 
this dam is finished and the pond cleaned the quality of the 
water will be greatly improved, and the storage capacity of 
the Sudbury supply increased sonie 1,256,900,000 gallons. 

All the land damages and claims abutting on the pond 
have been settled, with the exception of four or five small 
cases which the Board expect to dispose of at an early day. 

BASIN 6. 

Basin 6 was filled during the winter and spring, and 
water was first drawn from it in September. The work of 
finishing around the basin was continued during the season, 
and is practically completed. The Board, on January 1, 
turned the care and maintenance of this basin over to the 
superintendent of the Western Division. 

Much work has been done in straightening out the brook 
leading from the basin to the Sudbury river below the dam, 
and in building filtering beds to be used in conjunction with 
the basin, and a keeper's house has been provided at one end 
of the dam. There being a large swamp at the head of Basin 
6, in which the water became discolored, by being held 
back, it was deemed advisable to take several acres of land 
for the purpose of controlling the outlet into the basin. 

BASIN 5. 

A portion of the land for this basin, comprising 198.01 
acres, was taken by right of eminent domain April 2, 
1894, in order that the construction of the new dam might 



8 City Document No. 39. 

be begun at once, and the balance (2,247.17 acres) was 
so taken April 30, 1894, the takings being duly recorded in 
the counties of Worcester and Middlesex. Work on the 
new dam was begun by Moulton & O'Mahoney, contractors, 
early in May, and it was pushed as rapidly as possible until 
the cold weather set in, when it was covered and thoroughly 
protected from the frost. This work will be resumed as soon 
as the weather will permit. One contract for stripping in 
the basin was let to Auguste Saucier on August 27, and the 
work is now being prosecuted. Other contracts for strip- 
ping will be advertised for in the spring, and it is expected 
that enough of the dam and stripping will be completed so 
as to admit of the filling of the basin to a height of 25 feet, 
by another winter. Many of the claims for damages and 
for land taken have been settled. In the report of last year 
attention was called to the numerous conferences held with a 
committee of citizens of Southboro', in regard to the chang- 
ing of the roads in that town, necessitated by the construc- 
tion of Basin 5. The result of these conferences was that 
the following agreement was entered into between the town 
of Southboro' and the city of Boston : 

The city of Boston, a municipal coloration in the county of Suffolk, 
acting by its water board, and the inhabitants of the town of South- 
boro', a municipal corporation in the county of Worcester, acting by its 
committee thereunto duly authorized, on this fourteenth day of February, 
A.D. eighteen hundred and ninety-four, agree as follows : 

First: Said town consents to the discontinuance by said city of 
certain parts of the town, county and other public ways in said town 
substantially as shown in blue on a plan hereto annexed, and to the 
laying out, relocating, altering, building, reconstruction and repair of 
certain other parts of said ways, which shall thereafter be highways, 
substantially as shown in red on said plan, and to the changing of the 
grade of certain other parts of said ways substantially as shown in 
yellow on said plan, all of which said water board deems necessary 
for the proper building by said city of its new water-basin in said town. 

Second: Said city may discontinue said parts of ways shown in blue 
as aforesaid and shall do the work on said parts of Avays shown in red 
and yellow as afoi'esaid in a good and workmanlike manner, making 
the travelled parts of said ways shown in red and yellow not less than 
twenty-five feet wide, and of good material, and to the satisfaction and 
acceptance of the county commissioners of Worcester county, and 
shall secure to all persons desiring to use any of said parts shown in 
red, yellow or blue, a safe and convenient wa} r of travel over or around 
each part from the time said city shall construct or commence work on 
the same until the completion of the substitute therefor in the manner 
aforesaid, and shall at all times during the progress of its work secure 
safe and convenient ways of travel between Southboro' and the neigh- 
boring towns, and between the different parts of said town. 

Third; Said city shall, wherever practicable, fence the said parts of 
ways shown in red or yellow with substantially built field-stone walls, 
and where it is impracticable to place such Avails, shall fence said parts 
of said Avays Avith an iron fence not less than four feet in height, made Avith 
two iron gas-pijae rails not less than two and one-half inches in diame- 



Water-Supply Department. $ 

ter, fixed in iron posts not less than three inches in diameter, and with 
said posts securely fixed in stone bases, where and as the board of 
selectmen of said town shall request. 

Fourth : Said city shall either take all land lying between Rice's 
Mill and Williams' Mill, so called, and between the line of said basin 
on the north and a line marked A and B upon the annexed plan on the 
south, and compensate the several owners therefor, or it shall build a 
new way which shall comply with the requirements of the first, second 
and third clauses, for ways to be built by it, and which shall run from 
a point near the junction of the Willow Bridge road and the road from 
Fayville to Marlboro', to a point on the old County road from Framing- 
horn to Southboro' near the house of Sullivan T. Ball. 

Fifth: Said city shall not commence the construction of any part of 
said basin, or of any structure connected therewith, except the dam 
thereof, until descriptions of all lands and other property to be taken for 
said basin or structures have been filed in the Registry of Deeds for the 
county of Worcester, and said city shall file such descriptions in said 
Registry before May 1, 1894. 

Sixth : Said city shall pay all damages that shall be sustained by any 
person in his property, to which damages he vaay be legally entitled by 
reason of any discontinuance, relocation, alteration or change of grade 
of any public way in said town by. or on the petition of, said city, 
its officers or agents, and shall indemnify and save harmless said town 
from every suit brought against said town from any cause arising from 
any such discontinuance, relocation, alteration or change of grade of 
any public way in said town so made, or from any defect in any such 
way from the time said city shall obstruct or commence work on the 
same until the completion thereof in the manner aforesaid, and shall 
upon reasonable notice appear in, and defend every such suit, and 
satisfy all judgments in such suit. 

Seventh : Said town by its selectmen may, during the construction 
of said basin and ways, furnish a proper and sufficient lock-up in said 
town, and may appoint and employ, at wages not exceeding two dollars 
and a half per clay per man, police officers in such numbers as may be 
agreed upon b}^ said selectmen and said water board, or the agency 
in charge of its water supply, or in case they cannot agree, in such 
numbers as the chief of the district police force may determine to 
be necessary to protect persons and property in said town, and said 
city shall pay the expense incurred for said lock-up and said police 
officers as herein provided, at fixed periods at intervals not exceeding 
six months, as said board or agency and said selectmen may agree 
upon. 

Eighth : Said town may take water from said basin for the purposes 
of a public water supply for said town not exceeding two hundred 
thousand (200,000) gallons per day, and may do all necessary and 
reasonable acts to take said water. 

Ninth : Said town, or persons designated by the selectmen of such 
town and approved by said board or agency, may, under such reason- 
able regulations as said board or agency may deem necessary for the 
preservation of the purity of the water of said basin, cut and remove ice 
from said pond to be sold, delivered and used only in said town, and 
may construct and maintain ice-houses for the purpose of storing ice, 
not exceeding two in number, of a total capacity not exceeding twenty- 
five hundred (2,500) tons, in such place and of such size and construc- 
tion as said board or agency and said selectmen shall agree upon, and 
the inhabitants of said town may under such reasonable regulations as 
said board or agency may deem necessary for the preservation of the 
purity of the water of said basin, cut and remove ice from said basin 
for their individual use in said town. 

Tenth: Said city shall before July 1, 1894, pay to the treasure!' 



10 City Document No. 39. 

of said town for the use of said town, the sum of fifty thousand 
dollars ($50,000), being the estimated cost to said town of building 
other highways, and the extra cost of repairing the Avays hereinbefore 
mentioned, when raised or altered by said city. 

CITY OF BOSTON, 
By 

Thos. F. Doherty,^ 

J. W. Leighton, > Boston Water Board. 

Wm. S. McNary, ) 

Inhabitants of the TOWN OF SOUTHBORO', 
By 
Charles F. Choate, ") 
Joseph Burnett, 

Francis D. Newton, J> Committee of said Town. 
John A. Salmon, 
De Clinton Nichols, J 

Approved: N. Matthews, Jr., 

Mayor. 

This agreement was confirmed by an Act of the Legislature approved 
March 14, 1894. 

Several conferences were also had with the commissioners 
of the counties of Worcester 'and Middlesex in regard to the 
proposed changes of highways, and on March 3 the City 
Engineer was requested to prepare plans and specifications 
which were approved by the Worcester county commis- 
sioners, April 10, for building two roads to take the place of 
two of those which were to be discontinued. The contract for 
their construction was awarded to Berry Bros., June 6. 
These roads have been completed, and they will be opened 
to public travel in the spring. The town has appointed a 
police force, for which the city pays, according to the 
above agreement. In anticipation of the adoption by 
the State of a metropolitan water-supply from the Nashua 
river, the plans of the gate-house at Dam No. 5 were modi- 
fied so as to adapt the structure to the increased flow which 
would be required on account of an additional supply from 
said river. 

FUTURE SUPPLY. 

In recent reports attention has been called to the very im- 
portant subject of a future supply of water for Boston. As 
the limit, after the full development of the Sudbury system 
will be reached in a few years, this subject has been con- 
stantly kept in mind by the Board for several years. The 
Legislature of 1892 appropriated $40,000 to enable the State 
Board of Health to inquire into the matter of a metropolitan 
supply for Boston and its suburbs within a radius of ten 



Water-Supply Department. 11 

miles ; and it is expected that a report will be made by them 
to the Legislature some time next month, when this very 
important subject will doubtless receive the consideration 
which it deserves ; in the meantime work will be continued 
in the development and for the purification of the entire 
water system of the Sudbury river and its tributaries. 

CEDAR SWAMP. 

Cedar swamp, which is in the towns of Hopkinton and 
Westboro', and through which much of the water of the Sud- 
bury river flows, and derives its high color, contains 1,500 
acres, about half of which has been bonded, and it is hoped to 
obtain rights of drainage through a large part of the remain- 
ing lands to build canals so as to drain the entire swamp. 
When this is done, the most important source of discolora- 
tion of the water will be remedied. It is expected that good 
progress will be made in this work before another winter. 

FILTRATION. 

The filter beds at the outlet of Pegan brook, in Natick, 
which have now been in operation several years, have given 
satisfactory results. Studies on filtration have been pursued 
during the past year, both for the Cochituate and Sudbury, 
and the Mystic systems, and much data has been obtained, 
which will be of great value in future in caring for the city's 
water-supply. Plans have already been prepared for a series 
of beds to filter the water of Marlboro' brook, which flows 
through a part of that city, and into the new Basin 5. 

MYSTIC DEPARTMENT. 

In our last report attention was called to the proposed 
park in Winchester, which would remove one of the most 
serious nuisances upon the Abajona river. It was the 
opinion of the Board that the removal of several tenement- 
houses on the banks of the river, a tannery, stables, and 
various other buildings and workshops, would be a great 
advantage in the work of purifying this water-supply. After 
numerous conferences with authorities of the town of Win- 
chester and the Metropolitan Park Commissioners, arrange- 
ments were finally made, with the approval of the Mayor, 
and providing the City Council should so authorize, to con- 
tribute the sum of $60,H00 towards the removal of these 
buildings, and the converting of this territory into the Metro- 
politan park scheme. On November 22 a communication 
was sent to the Mayor, and by him forwarded to the City 



12 City Document No. 39. 

Council, asking for a loan of $65,000 in order to carry out 
the plans agreed upon. The matter was laid over for the 
present city government to take up, which it is expected it 
will do at an early day. 

The new pumping-engine for the Mystic works is being 
constructed by the Geo. F. Blake Manufacturing Company, 
and it is expected that it will be set up and in working order 
in the early fall. A contract was made with Mack & Moore, 
October 27, 1894, to build an extension to the pumping- 
station in order to accommodate this new engine, and this 
work is now in process of construction. The foundations for 
the new engine are finished and ready for the heavy parts of 
the machinery, as soon as the roof of the building is completed. 
Owing to the low condition of Mystic lake, the Cochituate 
water was turned on to Charlestown September 12, and is 
now supplying that district. 

The Cochituate high service has supplied the Bunker Hill 
section continually since June 29, 1893. The abolishment 
of the grade crossing at Chelsea bridge made it necessary to 
relay the pipes which supply Chelsea and East Boston. East 
Boston was supplied through 20 and 24 in. pipes, and Chelsea 
by a 16-in. pipe. In place of these a new line of 30-in. 
pipe was laid to supply East Boston, and a 24-in. pipe 
to supply Chelsea. These pipes were laid through land of 
the Boston & Maine Railroad Company, along the line of the 
street, so as to avoid the foundation of the piers of the high- 
way bridge over the railroad tracks. In the near future the 
quality of the Mystic water will be greatly improved, as the 
town of Winchester has constructed, and the city of Woburn 
is about to construct, sewers, and it is hoped that Stoneham 
will soon do so. It is expected that the North Metropolitan 
sewerage system, into w T hich the sewers of these communities 
will enter, will be in operation by the coming spring. 

SEWERAGE SYSTEMS OF MARLBORO', WESTBORO', 
FRAM1NGHAM, AND NATIGK. 

The Marlboro' sewerage system is working very satis- 
factorily, and house connections are continually being made. 
Great improvement has already been noticed in the water of 
Basin 3, into which the Marlboro' brook flows. 

The town of Westboro' is also continually extending its 
sewerage system, which has removed what has heretofore 
been a serious menace to one arm of the head-waters of the 
Sudbury river. • 

The Framingham sewerage system was constructed several 
years ago, the city of Boston agreeing to pay the sum of 



Water-Supply Department. 13 

$25,000 towards it; but payment has been withheld, owing 
to the construction of an under-drain, which was allowed to 
discharge into Beaver Dam brook. The authorities have 
now decided to build a filtering-bed, to care for the water 
pumped from the under-drain, and the Board have agreed 
to assist the town in completing the same. This matter, it 
is expected, will be entirely consummated during the coming 
summer. 

By Chapter 459 of the Acts of 1894 the town of Natick 
was empowered to construct and maintain a system of sew- 
erage and sewage disposal. Section 2 of this act provides 
that said town shall build and maintain its collecting-reser- 
voir and pumping-station at such place on the southwesterly 
side of Lake Cochituate, between West Central street in 
said Natick and said lake, as the Boston W T ater Board shall 
approve ; shall cany the sewers connecting with said pump- 
ing-station across or through the filter-beds and adjacent 
lands of said city as said Water Board shall approve ; shall 
carry its sewers, pipes, and conduits across Lake Cochitu- 
ate only by routes south of the location of the main line of 
the Boston & Albany Railroad Company ; and shall con- 
struct and maintain its sewers, pipes, conduits, reservoirs, 
and pumping-apparatus and sewage-fields in such manner 
as the State Board of Health shall approve. And in consid- 
eration thereof said city of Boston, by its Water Board, 
shall allow the main line of sewers connecting with the 
pumping-station of said town to be constructed through or 
across the filter-beds and adjacent lands of said city with- 
out any payment for the right so to do or for any damages 
caused thereby, and shall, upon the building of said pump- 
ing-station and the laying of said main line from Cochituate 
street in said Natick to said pumping-station, pay to the 
treasurer of said town the sum of $18,000. 

Conferences have been held with the sewer committee of 
said town, and arrangements have been made for the town to 
carry the sewage across Lake Cochituate at its southern ex- 
tremity, and its adjacent location to the Boston & Albany 
Railroad Company, to a pumping-station to be located on 
the westerly side of the lake, near the village of Walker- 
ville, so called ; from which point the sewage will be 
pumped to the filtration-fields adjoining those now occupied 
by Framingham. When this system of sewerage is com- 
pleted another great source of pollution to Boston's water- 
supply will be removed. 



14 



City Document No. 39. 



ELECTROLYSIS. 

During the year, Messrs. Stone & Webster have con- 
tinued their investigations as to the effect of the electric 
currents on the water-pipes. We are satisfied that some 
electrolytic action is taking place in our water-pipe system. 
And, as it is very important that this action be carefully 
watched in order to prevent any serious damage from occur- 
ring, the Board have authorized the City Engineer to em- 
ploy, from time to time, whatever expert assistance he may 
deem necessary. 

BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY. 

The biological studies and experiments at the laboratory 
at Chestnut Hill, have fully demonstrated by their results 
the great advantage of work of this character. The accurate 
knowledge of the condition of the waters of the various ba- 
sins and reservoirs has amply compensated the department 
for the expenditure incurred. 

ASSETS AND LIABILITIES. 

The Board recently requested the City Engineer to make 
a careful estimate of the value of the property of the Water 
Department, in order that a statement of the assets and 
liabilities might be incorporated in this report. In making 
this estimate he has taken into account only what he consid- 
ered to be the actual market value. The following is a 
copy of his estimate : 

City of Boston, Engineering Department, 

50 City Hall, January 31, 1895. 
Col. Thomas F. Doherty, 

Chairman Boston Water Board : 
Sir : The following is the estimated present value of the Boston 
Water- Works : 
Reservoir No. 1 . 

u u O 



4 



5, partially constructed 



Whitehall pond . 
Farm pond 
Lake Cochituate 
Sudbury-river aqueduct 

Carried forward, 



$340,000 00 

487,000 00 

620,000 00 

1,050,000 00 

1 500,000 00 

1,080,000 00 

386,000 00 

20.000 00 

1,800,000 00 

3,650,000 00 



(,933,000 00 



1 This does not include value of land taken, but not paid for. 



Water- Supply Department. 



15 



Brought forward, 
Cochituate aqueduct . 
Chestnut-hill reservoir 
Brookline reservoir 
Fisher-hill reservoir 
Parker- hill reservoir . 
East Boston reservoir 
South Boston reservoir 
Chestnut-hill pumping-station, buildings 
" " machinery 

W. Roxbury high service, machinery and buildings, 
East Boston " " " " " 

Pipe-yard and buildings . 
Distribution system (573 miles) . 

Total Sudburv and Cochituate works 



&9, 933, 000 00 

1,100,000 00 

2,280,000 00' 

250,000 00 

190,000 00 

206,000 00 

150,000 00 

50,000 00 

200,000 00 

240,000 00 

25,000 00 

35,000 00 

250,000 00 

7,400,000 00 



$22,309,000 00 



Mystic Water- Works : 
Mystic lake and conduit 
Engine-house and machinery 
Reservoir . 
Distribution system (38.6 miles), 

Total Mystic works 

Total 



,250,000 00 
200,000 00 
200,000 00 
600,000 00 



2,250,000 00 



. $24,559,000 00 



Yours respectfully, 

William Jackson, 

City Engineer. 

Considering the financial condition of this department it 
is well to note that the loss of revenue from several of 
the other city departments is a very serious matter. For 
instance, in the year 1891 the revenue derived from other 
departments was $116,895.14, whereas during the past year 
Ave have only received $45,096.15, being a loss of $71,- 
798.99. Since the year 1891 no charge has been made to 
the Street Department for water for street-sprinkling pur- 
poses, or to the Fire Department for hydrants. On the 
other hand, the expense to this department of restoring 
streets to the condition they are found in when openings are 
made for extensions or repairs of pipes has been very 
largely increased, inasmuch as the roadwaj^s are now more 
thoroughly and expensively built than formerly. 

We now receive from the Fire Department $2 per year 
for the care and maintenance of each hydrant, and the esti- 
mated cost to meet the demands for fire service is $15 per 
year per hydrant. 



16 



City Document No. 39. 



The total cost of construction of the water- works 
to February 1, 1895, was .... 

Value, January 31, 1895 ..... 
Stock on hand January 31, 1895 



Net debt, Januaiy 31, 1895 
Surplus of assets over liabilities 



$25,260,439 83 

$24,559,000 00 
156,982 22 

$24,715,982 22 
9,316,500 43 

S15 399,481 79 



DETAILED STATEMENT OF THE COST OF COCHIT- 
UATE, SUDBURY, AND MYSTIC SYSTEMS OF THE 
BOSTON WATER WORKS TO FEBRUARY 1, 1895. 

Cochituate Supply. 



Lake Cochituate : 

Amount paid for lake 
Factories at outlet, $50,000, less 
amountreceived for insurance, 
Roads, bridges, swamps, etc, 
Dam at outlet . 
Lower dam at outlet 
New dam at outlet . 
Gate chamber, superstructure 
Raising lake, including dam 

ages .... 
Pegan brook dam 
Willow dam 
Dudley pond and connections 

Compensating reservoirs 

Land and water damages, Cochit 

uate .... 

Engineering expenses to January 

1, 1852 .... 
Cochituate aqueduct : 

Brick aqueduct 

Newton tunnel 

Brookline tunnel 

Bridges, culverts, and waste 
weirs .... 

Siphon 



$100,000 00 

20,818 22. 
3S,332 48 
8,458 20 
10,940 08 
33,436 49 
29,907 12 

28.002 18 
1,394 06 
1,567 29 

18,982 23 



5817,717 73 

102,297 36 

47,378 26 

74,499 54 

26,532 35 



$291,838 35 
66,859 80 

248,827 34 

,40,000 00 



1,068,425 24 



Total cost of Cochituate supply 



'15.950 73 



Water-Supply Department. 



17 



Sudbury- River Supply. 

Reservoir No. 1 : 

Land damages . . . $67,759 46 
Reservoir, including one-third 

of cost of 48-inch pipe . 44,455 20 

Foundation of clam . . . 75,157 97 

Superstructure of dam . . 50,325 74 

Gate chamber, superstructure . 10,988 92 

Additional work, gates, etc. . 8,456 52 



Reservoir No. 2 : 

- Land damages . . . $165,013 78 
Reservoir, including one-third 

of cost of 48-inch pipe . . 71,591 86 

Foundation of dam . . . 80,419 83 

Superstructure of dam . . 57,602 56 

Gate chamber, superstructure . 5,579 12 

Additional work, gates, etc. . 9,381 00 

Removal of shallow flowage . 76,365 96 

Reservoir No. 3 : 

Land damages . . . $40,512 61 
Reservoir, including one-third 

of cost of 48-inch pipe . - 53,952 26 

Foundation of dam . . . 111,179 65 

Superstructure of dam . . 70,534 25 

Gate chamber, superstructure . 6,984 25 

Additional work, gates, etc. . 6,251 98 

Removal of shallow flowage . 129,987 72 

Reservoir No. 4 : 

Land damages . . . $26,330 00 

Reservoir . . . . 265,517 93 

Dam 521,998 45 

Reservoir No. 5 : 

Expenditures to date, including 
land ..... 

Reservoir No. 6 : 

Land damages . . . $26,876 59 

Reservoir .... 334,183 02 

Dam ..... 549,241 57 

Whitehall pond : 

Land damages . . . $32,474 61 

Reservoir .... 28,841 33 
Amount paid Messrs. Jordan & 

Wood 233,200 00 



Carried forivard, 



557,143 81 



465,954 11 



419,402 72 



813,846 38 



279,818 86 



910,301 18 



294,515 94 
1,440,983 00 



18 



City Document No. 39. 



Brought forward, 
Cedar swamp .... 
Work about Farm pond 
Roadway in Framingham 
Laud damages, exclusive of amts. 

otherwise specified . 
Water damages paid to mill-owners 

below Dam 1 . ... 
Damages paid mill-owners at 

Ashland ..... 
Water damages on Indian brook . 
Legal expenses .... 

Temporary connection with Lake 

Cochituate .... 

Investigations of Shawshine and 

Charles livers, etc. . 
Protection of supplies : 

Paid toward Marlboro' sewerage 

system 
Paid toward Westboro' sewerage 
system .... 

1 Land damages 
Miscellaneous .... 



Engineering and engineering ex- 
penses from 1872 to 1881 
Office expenses, travelling, etc. . 
Miscellaneous . 
Sudbury-river conduit: 

Section A. Dam 1 to Farm pond, 
Farm-pond conduit (across 

pond) .... 
Section 1 ... 

"2 ... 

"3 . . . • 

"4 ... 

"5 ... 

" 6, Rockland-st. tunnel 

"7 ... 

" 8, Badger-hill tunnel 

"9 ... 

" 10, Waban bridge . 

"11 ... 

"12 . . 

"13 ... 

"14 ... 

" 15, Charles-river bridge 

"16 . 

"17 ... 



119,062 88 

94,000 00 
15.700 00 
30,127 76 



562,000 00 

20,000 00 
83,903 81 
11,610 58 



$67,548 89 

157,837 97 

69,851 42 

111,479 70 

156,725 19 

92,556 00 

94,967 25 

111,241 17 

148,382 58 

92,905 32 

119,857 19 

182,710 40 

130,344 68 

178,342 75 

105,802 44 

165,696 78 

202,712 55 

87,145 68 

88,693 62 



1,440,983 00 
14,695 21 
17,297 94 
23,947 32 

340,696 38 



558,890 64 
75,611 73 
27,646 59 



177,514 39 

300,371 22 
80,594 74 
35,282 93 



Carried forward, 



52,364,801 58 $5,093,532 09 



1 Previous to 1891, land purchased for protection of supply was charged to the general 
account of Land Damages. 



Water-Supply Department. 



19 



Brought forward, 

Section 18 

"19 

" 20, Beacon-st. tunnel . 
" 21 

Gate chamber, superstructure, 
Chestnut-hill reservoir . 

East siphon chamber, super- 
structure .... 

West siphon chamber, super- 
structure .... 

Waste-weir chamber, super- 
structure, Newton 

Waste-weir chamber, super- 
structure, Natick . 

Waste-weir chamber, super- 
structure, Sherborn 

Waste-weir chamber, super- 
structure, Needham 

Siphons, sluice-gates, additional 
work, etc. .... 

Connections with Chestnut-hill 
reservoir .... 



Total cost of Sudbury supply, 



!, 364,801 58 $5,093,532 09 

20,422 56 

76,170 00 

336,630 70 

39,038 34 

9,471 13 

7,585 81 

9,915 45 

2,438 19 

2,564 18 

2,440 29 

2,570 50 

121,499 71 

87,113 51 
3,082,661 95 



i, 176, 194 04 



Distributing-Reservoirs and Distribution. 



Brookline reservoir : 
Land 

Construction . 
Gate chamber 

Beacon-hill reservoir : 
Land 
Construction . 

Total 
Credit by sale of land 

Chestnut-hill reservoir : 
Land 

Construction . 
Stable . 

South Boston reservoir : 
Land 
Construction . 



Carried forward, 



$,418 93 
108,301 92 
33,356 36 



$145,107 10 
368,426 11 

$513,533 21 
150,000 00 



$144,418 32 

2,124,521 06 

8,103 55 



£55,103 23 

35,804 87 



,077 21 



363,533 21 



2,277,042 93 



90,908 10 
>,931,561 45 



20 City Document No. 39. 

Brought forward, $2,931,561 45 

East Boston reservoir : 



Land . . . . . 023,862 50 

Construction .... 42,240 59 



Parker-hill reservoir: 

Land $99,678 91 

Construction .... 98,765 00 

Gate-house, superstructure . . 4,675 00 

Keeper's house . . . 2,674 90 



Fisher-hill reservoir : 

Land $92,042 00 

Construction, contract . . 75,967 27 

Sluice-gates . . . - . 1,215 00 

Gate-house, superstructure . 8,912 00 

Grading, engineering, advertising, 12,999 08 



West Roxbury high service : 

Engine-house, including land . $6,741 50 

Pumps and boilers . . . 2,299 56 

Standpipe . 10,945 00 

Right of way, grading, etc. . 2,360 50 



66,103 09 



205,793 81 



191,135 35 



Roxbury high service : 

Engines, engine - house, and 

standpipe .... 103,829 53 

Brighton high service : 

Engine-house, pumps, boilers, 

and reservoir . . . 7,745 00 

East Boston high service : 

Pumping-station, old . . $4,200 00 

Pumps and boilers, old . . 4,800 00 

Pumping-station . . . 8,973 26 

Standpipe, including land . 8,749 10 

Boilers and pump foundations, 1,234 86 

Grading, etc. .... 2,250 90 

30,208 12 



22,346 56 



Chestnut-hill pumping-station : 

Engine and boiler-house . , $205,172 89 
Gaskill engines, Nos. 1 and 2, 48,083 20 
Leavitt engine, No. 3 (to date), 148,178 18 
Two horizontal tubular boilers, 6,003 00 
Belpaiie boiler and economizer, 16,417 01 
Economizer, pumps, piping, 
dynamos, engines, electric 
work, and miscellaneous . 15,324 46' 
H. R. Worthington Co., dam- 
ages for loss of contract . 45,907 52 

485,086 26 

Carried forward, $4,043,809 17 



$45,217 50 
32,000 00 


$4,043,809 17 


$13,217 50 
75,199 70 


88,417 20 
94,832 16 



Water-Supply Department. 21 

Brought forward, 
Jamaica- pond aqueduct : 

Amount paid .... 
Amount received 

Balance .... 
Amount paid . 

Pipe yards and buildings 
Engineering expenses to Jan. 1, 

1852 ...... 57,873 58 

Distribution : 

Distribution to January, 1850, $1,600,000 00 

Extension to East Boston . 254,267 05 

40-inch main .... 304,991 83 

48-inch main, Chestnut-hill 

reservoir to Brookline avenue, 254,300 00 

48, 24, and 30 inch mains, Com- 
monwealth avenue, Francis 
street, and Massachusetts 
avenue .... 87,402 28 

24-inch main across Chelsea 

creek . . ' . . . 24,878 08 

12-inch main, South Boston 

high service . . . 27,860 29 

10 and 12 inch main, East Bos- 
ton high service . . . 13,960 07 

12-inch main, Breed's - island 

high service . . . 22,700 00 

Mains for West Roxbury high 

service . . . 19,000 00 

Mains for new high service 

works 151,275 23 

Mains to Long, Thompson's, 

and Gallop's islands, etc. . 66,024 93 

Mains to Deer island . . 74,840 8u 

Mains for fire service . . 31,191 42 

24 and 30 inch mains to Charles- 
town and East Boston . . 158,925 88 

Other mains and services . 6,315,273 15 

9,406,891 01 



Total cost of distributing-reservoirs and dis- 
tribution $13,691,823 12 



22 



City Document No. 39. 



SUMMARY OF COST OF SUDBURY AND COCHITUATE 

WORKS. 

Cochituate supply : 

Lake Cochituate . $291,838 35 
Compensating reservoirs . . 66,859 80 
Land and water damages . . 248,827 34 
Engineering; expenses to Janu- 
ary 1, 1852 .... 40,000 00 
Cochituate aqueduct . . 1,068,425 24 

,715,950 73 



Sudbury supply : 






Reservoir No. 1 




$257,143 81 


" " 2 ' . 




465,954 11 


" " 3 




419,402 72 


" "4 




813,846 38 


" " 5, to date . 




279,818 «6 


" 6 




910,301 18 


Whitehall pond 




294,515 94 


Cedar swamp . 




14,695 21 


Work about Farm pond . 




17,297 94 


Roadway in Framingham . 




23,947 32 


Land damages, not otherwise 




specified 




340,696 38 


Water damages 




558,890 64 


Temporary connection 


with 




Lake Cochituate . 




75,611 73 


Investigations of Shawshint 


! and 




Charles rivers, etc. 




27,646 59 


Protection of supplies 




177,514 39 


Engineering and engineerin 


gex- 




penses 




300,371 22 


Office expenses, travelling, 


etc, 


80,594 74 


Miscellaneous . 




35,282 93 


Conduit and connections 


> at 




Chestnut-hill reservoir 


dis- 


3,082,661 95 


Distributing reservoirs and 




tribution : 






Brookline reservoir . 




$200,077 21 


Beacon-hill " (net cos 


t) ; 


363,533 21 


Chestnut-hill " 




2,277,042 93 


South Boston " 




90,908 10 


East *« " 




66,103 09 


Parker-hill " 




205,793 81 


Fisher- hill " 




191.135 35 


Roxbury high service 




103,829 53 


Brighton "• " 




7,745 00 


East Boston high service . 




30,208 12 



8,176,194 04 



Ca rried jo rward, 



1,536,376 35 $9,892,144 77 



Water-Supply Department. 



23 



Brought forward, 
"West Roxbury high service 
Chestnut-hill pumpiug-station 
Jamaica-pond aqueduct 
Pipe-yards and buildings . 
Engineering expenses 
Distribution 



$3,536,376 35 

22,346 56 

485,086 26 

88,417 20 

94,832 16 

57,873 58 

9,406,891 01 



1,892,144.77 



Total cost of Sudbury and Cochituate works 

Cost of Mystic works to February 1, 1895 : 

Land damages 
Dam .... 
Grubbing at lake 
Lowering Mystic river 



13,691,823 12 

823,583,967 89 



Conduit 

Engine-house 

Engine 

Reservoir . 

Distribution 

Buildings . 

Engineering, inspection, and salaries 

Mystic- Valley sewer . 

Miscellaneous 

Total cost of Mystic works . 
Total cost of combined supplies 



17,167 26 
9,393 26 
3,012 06 



$69,840 42 
161,499 55 



'1,855 38 



29,572 58 
129,714 30 



231,339 97 
141.856 26 
872,258 55 
18,603 05 
53,216 27 
83,608 70 
24,446 88 

. $1,676,471 94 
. $25,260,439 83 



Changes have been made in the construction account of the 
Cochituate works on the books of the department, to make the 
total correspond after February 1, 1895, as shown by the follow- 
ing statement : 
Cost of construction to February 1, 1895, as per 

book account '$23,724, 109 09 

Add cost of new dam at Lake Cochituate, paid 

for from revenue ...... 33,436 49 



Deduct cost of temporary pump- 
ing plant at Lake Cochituate 
(now abandoned, and which was 
not properly chargeable to con- 
struction) .... 

Credit by sale of Beacon-hill reser- 
voir lot . 



^23,757,545 58 



$23,577 69 
2 150,000 00 



173,577 69 



Cost of Sudbury and Cochituate works (as above), $23,583,967 89 



1 In statement of cost nn page 2 the cost of the Mystic works ($1,676,471.94) is included. 

2 This money was used for municipal purposes, aud was not credited to water-works. 



24 



City Document No. 39. 



The outstanding Water Loans on this date, February 1, 
1895, are as follows : 



6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
5 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

5 

6 

6 

5 

5 

6 

6 

6 

6 

5 

5 

4 

4 

4i 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

J 2 

4 

3* 

4 

34- 

4 
4 

34 

4 
4 
3 

34 

4 



Loans. 

per cent. Currency, 



Date of 
Maturity. 

Due Dec, 1897 
" June, 
" Oct., 



1898 
U 



" Sterling Loan, 
(£399,500), 
" Currency, 



" " Gold Loan, 
" " Currency, 

" " Gold Loan, 



" " Currency, 

U It 11 



" " Currency Loan, 
" " Loan, 



April, 1899 
Jan., 1901 
April, 1901 
July, 1901 
July, 1902 



Oct., 

April, 

Jan . , 

April, 

Jan., 

April, 

July, 

Oct., 

Oct., 

Jan., 

April, 

April, 

Oct., 

Oct., 

Jan., 

April, 

July, 

Oct., 

April, 

April, 

July, 

Oct., 

April, 

April, 

July, 

Oct., 

Jan., 

April, 

Oct., 

Jan., 

April, 

April, 

Oct., 

Oct., 

Jan , 

Jan . 

April, 

July. 

Oct., 

Oct., 

Jan., 

April, 

April, 

April, 



1902 

1903 

1904 

1904 

1905 

1905 

1905 

1905 

1905 

1906 

1906 

1906 

1906 

1906 

1907 

1907 

1907 

1907 

1908 

1908 

1909 

1909 

1910 

1912 

1913 

1913 

1914 

1914 

1914 

1915 

1915- 

1915 

1915 

1915 

1916 

1916 

1916 

1916 

1916 

1916 

1917 

1917 

1917 

1917 



Carried forward 



$500,000 00 
450,000 00 
540,000 00 
250,000 00 
625,000 00 
688,000 00 
330,000 00 
100,000 00 

1,947,273 98 

905,000 00 

8,000 00 

38,000 00 

161,000 00 

142,700 00 

44,000 00 

6,000 00 

1,000,000 00 

82,550 00 

8,750 00 

552,000 00 

2,000,000 00 

4.000 00 

8,000 00 

5,000 00 

1,000 00 

1,000 00 

12,000 00 

588.000 00 

82,000 00 

268,000 00 

280,000 00 

324,000 00 

111,000 00 

336,000 00 

466,000 00 

18,500 00 

16,000 00 

50,000 00 

50,000 00 

145,700 00 

50,000 00 

23.000 00 

100,000 00 

58.000 00 

128,500 00 

75,000 00 

25,000 00 

286.300 00 

21,000 (0 

200,000 00 

275,000 00 

161,000 00 

$14,547,273 98 



Water-Supply Department. 



25 









Date of 








Loans. 


Maturity. 


Amount. 


Brought forward, . . ■ 






$14,547,273 98 


4 per cent. Loan, Due July, 1917 






7,000 00 


4 






•' Oct., 1917 






160.700 00 


4 ' 






" Jan , 1918 






20.000 00 


4 






< " April. 1918 






6,300 00 


U ' 






" July, 1918 






100,000 00 


2 

4 






" Oct., 1918 






100,000 00 


4 






" April, 1919 






200,000 00 


34 ' 






" Oct , 1919 






145.000 00 


u 2 

4 ' 






" Oct., 1919 






300,000 00 


3A ' 






" Nov., 1919 






130,000 00 


"2 

3i ' 






" Jan., 1920 






220,000 00 


"2 

4 ' 






" Oct., 1920 






384,000 00 


4 ' 






" April, 1921 






100,()00 00 


4 






" Oct., 1921 






162,500 00 


4 ' 






" Jan , 1922 






100,000 00 


4 ' 






" April, 1922 






75,000 00 


4 ' 






" Oct., 1922 






283,000 00 


4 ' 






" Oct., 1923 






576,275 00 


t ' 






" Oct., 1924 






144,225 00 






$17,761,273 98 




Summary. 




3 


per cent. Loans, 


$200,000 00 


3^ 


< t .< .«. 


1,170,000 00 


4 


<< If 14 


5,714,000 00 


4-1 




268,000 00 


5 


" " Currency Loans, 


13,000 00 


5 


" " Gold 


3,552.000 00 


5 


" " Sterling " 


1,947,273 98 


6 


" " Loans, 


4,897,000 00 




Total . . . . $17, 


761,273 98 



26 



City Document No. 39. 



Cocliituate Water Debt, Gross and Net, 

At the Close of Each Fiscal Year. 



Fiscal Year. 



1847-48.. 
1848-49.. 
1849-50.. 
1850-51 . . 
1851-52.. 
1852-53.. 
1853-54. . 
1854-55.. 
1855-56.. 
1856-57.. 
1857-58.. 
1858-59.. 
1859-60.. 
1860-61.. 
1861-62.. 
1862-63.. 
1863-64.. 
1864-65.. 
1865-66.. 
1866-67.. 
1867-68.. 
1868-69.. 
1869-70.. 
1870-71.. 
1871-72.. 
1872-73.. 
1873-74.. 
1874-75.. 
1875-76.. 
1876-77.. 
1877-78.. 
1878-79.. 
1879-80.. 
1880-81 . . 
1881-82.. 
1882-83.. 
1883-84.. 
1884-85.. 
1885-86.. 
1886-87.. 
1887-88.. 
1888-89.. 
1889-90.. 
1890-91.. 
1891-92.. 
1892-93.. 
1893-94.. 
1894-95.. 



Gross Debt. 



$2,129 

3,787 

4,463 

4,955 

5,209 

5,972 

5,432 

5,403 

5,230 

5,031, 

4,724, 

4,754, 

3,846, 

3.455, 

3,012, 

2,992, 

2,992, 

2,942, 

3,152, 

3,370. 

3,867, 

5,107, 

5,731, 

6,482, 

6,812, 

6,912, 

7,863, 

8,123, 

9,735, 

11,548, 

11,545, 

11,753, 

11,697, 

11,631. 

11,631, 

11,955, 

12,882, 

13,045, 

13,491, 

14,142, 

14,741, 

14,941, 

15,696, 

16,267, 

16,423. 

16,758, 

17,055, 

17,761, 



,056 32 * 
,328 98 
,205 66 
,613 51 
,223 26 
,976 11 
,261 11 
961 11 
961 11 
961 11 
961 11 
461 11 
211 11 
211 11 
711 11 
711 11 
711 11 
711 11 
711 11 
711 
711 

711 11 
711 11 
711 
711 

711 11 
711 11 
711 11 
711 11 
711 11 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
473 98 
473 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
773 98 
773 98 
773 98 
273 98 
273 98 



Sinking-Funds. 



Net Debt. 



11 
11 



11 
11 



M,100. 
1,185, 
1,268. 
1,372 
1,533. 
1,560. 
1,709. 
2,043 
2,143 
1,771. 
1,989 
2,281. 
2,607 
2,746, 
3,106. 
3,385. 
3,947 
4,373. 
4,864, 
5,440. 
5,979. 
6.471. 
7,019, 
7,649. 
8,444. 



000 00 
049 67 
234 97 
953 62 
890 28 
917 83 
492 60 
764 73 
847 85 
692 92 
300 88 
857 89 
768 46 
505 58 
323 82 
201 26 
616 92 
Mi 09 
092 54 
819 47 
297 80 
545 34 
058 38 
504 87 
773 55 



$2,129,056 32 
8,787,828 98 
4,463,205 56 
4,955,613 51 
5,209,223 26 
5,972,976 11 
5,432.261 11 
5,403,961 
5,230,961 
5,031,961 
4,724,961 
4,754,461 
3,846,211 
3,455,211 
3,012,711 
2,992,711 
2,992,711 
2,942,711 
3,152,711 11 
3,370,711 11 
3,'867,711 11 
5,107,711 11 
5,731,711 11 
5,382,711 11 
5,627,661 44 
5,644,476 14 
6,490.757 49 
6,589,820 83 
8,174,793 28 
9,839,218 51 
9 501,509 25 
9,609,426 13 
9,925,581 06 
9,641,973 10 
9,349,416 09 
9,347,505 52 
10,135,768 40 
9,939,150 16 
10,106,272 72 
10,194,657 06 
10,367,969 89 
10,077,181 44 
10,255,454 51 
10.288,476 18 
9,952,228 64 
9,739,715 60 
9,405,769 11 
9,316,500 43 



1 No account taken of amounts borrowed temporarily from 1346 to 1852 and afterwards 
funded by the issue of the water bonds that figure in this statement. 



Water-Supply Department. 



27 



Mystic Water Debt, Gross and Net, 

At the Close of Each Fiscal Year. 



Fiscal Year. 


Gross Debt. 


Sinking-Funds. 


Net Debt. 


Surplus. 


186 9 63 : 


$ 100,000 00 
308,000 00 
583,000 00 




$100,000 00 
308,000 00 




1863 64 






1864-65 




583,000 00 




1865 66 


641,000 00 




641,000 00 




1866-67 


958,000 00 




958,000 00 




1867-68 


1,020,000 00 




• 1,020,000 00 




1868 69 .... 


1,022,000 00 
1,022,000 00 
1,172,000 00 
1.357,000 00 




1,022,000 00 




1869 70 




1,022,000 00 




1870 71 




1,172,000 00 
1,338,848 45 




1871-72 


$18,151 55 




1872-73 


1,364,000 00 


77,768 46 


1,286,231 54 




1873-74 2 .... 


1,403,000 00 


186,655 21 


1,216,344 79 




1874-75 


1,280,000 00 


138,228 76 


1,141,771 24 




1875-76 


1.318.000 00 


45,616 62 


1,272,383 38 






1,228,000 00 


96,701 18 


1,131,298 82 




1877-78 


1,228,000 00 


175,831 79 


1,052,168 21 




1878-79 


1,153,000 00 


252,380 48 


900,619 52 




1879-80 


1,153,000 00 


318,137 06 


834,862 94 




1880-81 


1,153,000 00 


366,898 39 


786,101 61 




1881-82 


1,127,000 00 


468,225 12 


658,774 88 




1882-83 


1,027,000 00 


506,705 12 


520,294 88 




1883-84 .. . 


840,000 00 


330,540 15 


509,459 85 




1884-85 


839.000 00 


444,453 69 


394,546 31 




1885-86 


839,000 00 


521,541 93 


317,458 07 




1886-87 


839,000 00 


603,555 62 


235,444 30 




18J-7-88 


839,000 00 


666,965 00 


172,035 00 






839,000 00 


715,811 53 


123,188 48 






839,000 00 


767,306 65 


71,693 36 




1890 91 


690.000 00 


680,929 44 


9,070 57 




1891 92 


482,000 00 


550,208 70 




$68,208 70 
138,254 01 


1892-93 


441,000 00 


579,254 01 




]893 94 


102,000 00 


265,210 26 




163,210 26 


1894 95. . 








3 166,894 12 






» 





1 The fiscal year of the city of Charlestown began March 1 and ended February 28. 

2 To April 30, Charle-itown annexed to Boston January 5, 1874. 

3 Transferred to Cochituate Water Sinking-Fund. 



28 



City Document No. 39. 



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Water-Supply Department. 



29 



DETAILED EXPENDITURES UNDER THE SEVERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS. 

February Draft, 1894, to February Draft, 1895. 

Extension of Mains, etc. {from Revenue). 

Labor $94,725 97 

Teaming 6,597 93 

Blasting 5,921 52 

Water-pipes, contracts (including in- 
spection, $1,787.49) . . . 115,431 07 

Stock 35,255 68 

Miscellaneous . . . . . 5,179 50 



Additional Supply of Water {from Loans). 

(Account of Basin No. 6, Whitehall pond, Cedar 
swamp, Protection of Supply, and Basin No. 5.) 



Salaries and labor 

Materials ...... 

Contract, pipes and specials for Dam 

No. 5 

Contract, two roads, in Framirigham 

and Southboro' .... 
Contract, stripping shallow flowage, 

and two roads, Section A, Basin 5 

(on account) ..... 
Contract, Dam 5 (on account) . 
Contract, riprap and paving on Dam 

No. 6, balance (total, $14,018.19), 
Engineering and supplies . 
Land damages .... 
Teaming ..... 
Travelling expenses . 
Printing, stationery, and advertising 
Miscellaneous .... 

(Account of High Service.) 

Labor . . . . 
Materials ...... 

1 Contract, additional pumping-engine 
No. 3 (on account) 

Carried forward, 



$31,372 71 
9,791 44 

4,326 12 

12,670 63 



13,254 98 
88,439 39 

6,822 96 

23,485 17 

416,440 81 

3,351 38 

1,429 84 

577 41 

7.137 93 



$6,805 75 
10,968 95 

15,000 00 



,111 67 



,100 77 



,774 70 $619,100 77 



1 Payment of $25,000 also made on this contract from appropriation for High Services. 



30 City Document No. 39. 

Brought forward, $32,774 70 $019,100 77 
Contract, addition to puraping-station 

(on account) ..... 2,097 25 
Settlement of Worthington pump con- 
tract suit 45,907 52 

Miscellaneous . . . . . 745 32 

$81,524 79 



$700,625 56 



High Service (from Loans). 

Account of High- service Pumping- 
engine No. 3, for Chestnut Hill, viz. : 

1 Contract for engine (on account) . $25,000 00 

Contract for Belpaire boiler . . 10,490 00 
Contract for addition to pumping-sta- 

tion (on account) .... 1,500 00 
Work by contractors for pumping-en- 

gine outside of contract . . 1,749 99 
Work and materials in connection with 

boiler foundations, etc. . . . 1,243 67 

Inspection ..... 1,632 74 

Valves, iron and steel, etc. . . 662 04 

Freight on boiler and materials . . 333 38 
Labor, new force-main from Chestnut 

Hill to Fisher Hill Reservoir . . 5,804 87 

Miscellaneous 106 20 



5,524 89 



MAINTENANCE ACCOUNTS, COCHITUATE SYSTEM. 

(From Revenue ) 
February Draft, 1894, to February Draft, 1895. 

Boston Water Board: 

Salaries of two Commissioners, Chief 
Clerk and Secretary, Executive 
Clerk, Purchasing Agent, two 
Assistant Clerks, Messenger, and 
Special Agent .... $16,896 97 

Travelling expenses .... 3,109 83 

Printing and stationery . . -» 537 30 

Advertising, postage, and miscella- 
neous 4,026 58 



$24,570 68 



Carried forward, $24,570 68 



Payment of $15,000 also made on this contract from appropriation for Additional Supply 
of Water. 



Water-Supply Department. 



Brought forward, 

Eastern Division: 

Salaries of Superintendent, Assistant 
Superintendents, Clerks, and Fore- 
men ...... 

Travelling expenses and transportation 
of men ..... 

Printing and stationery 

Miscellaneous ..... 



.5,928 47 

1,256 39 

428 49 

57 02 



Western Division : 
Salaries of Superintendent, Assistant 

Superintendent, and Clerks 
Travelling expenses . 
Printing and stationery 
Miscellaneous .... 



>27,< 



655 
345 
253 



23 
33 

47 
71 



Engineering .... 

New meters, and setting 

Meters, repairing 

Machine-shop, Albany street 

Telephones .... 

Cochituate Aqueduct 

Sudbury Aqueduct 

Main-pipe relaying (including stock and labor) 

k ' repairing " " " " 

Hydrants " " " " " 

Stopcocks " " " " " 

Hydrant and stopcock boxes, and repairing (includ 

iug stock and labor) ... 
Tools and repairing (including stock and labor) 
Streets '> ' k " " " 

Fountains " " " " " 

Stables " " " " " 

Waste-detection ...... 

Basins, Framingham and Ashland (including stock 

and labor) ...... 

Service-pipe repairing (including stock and labor) 
Protection of Sudbury and Cochituate supply 
High service, Chestnut Hill (including fuel, salaries 

repairs, etc.) ...... 

High service, East Boston (including fuel, salaries 

repairs, etc.) ...... 

High service, West Roxbury (including fuel, salaries 

repairs, etc. ) . . . . 

Albany-street yard 
Chestnut-Hill Reservoir (including stable, care of 

grounds, etc.) .... 
Parker-Hill Reservoir 
Brookline Reservoir 



31 

$24,570 68 



17,670 37 



28.902 74 

2,465 05 

13,664 33 

19.736 78 

8,586 10 

1,780 65 

2,136 19 

11,455 71 

15,605 33 

18,458 36 

20,755 38 

4,957 41 

4,880 31 
9,029 14 
6,522 88 
3,198 59 
20,488 82 
27,197 33 

5,854 56 

23,297 63 

1,265 45 

26,109 87 

4,372 51 

3,379 15 
5,366 49 

12,493 87 
2,218 78 
1,156 47 



Carried forward, 



:7,576 93 



32 



City Document No. 39. 



Brought forward, 

East Boston and South Boston Reservoir 

Fisher-Hill Reservoir 

Lnke Coehituate .... 

Chestnut-Hill driveway . 

Taxes ...... 

Dam.-iges ..... 

Analyses of water, etc. . 

Merchandise sold (pipes and castings, in cases of 
emergency) , and stock charged off, which was 
used on additional supply work .... 

Filtration 

Biological Laboratory ...... 

Natick filters ....... 



347,576 


93 


1,806 


04 


2,619 


64 


5,996 


68 


12,188 


38 


2,400 


81 


2,379 


53 


280 


00 


969 


94 


4,647 


69 


1,275 


75 


12,113 


67 



$394,255 06 



MAINTENANCE ACCOUNTS, MYSTIC SYSTEM. 

(From Revenue.) 
February Draft, 1891, to February Draft, 1895. 

Boston Water Board: 

Salaries of one Commissioner and one 
Assistant Clerk . . . . $5,788 92 

Printing and stationery . . . 115 92 

Advertising, posttige, travelling ex- 
penses and miscellaneous 



Superintendent's Department : 

Salaries of Superintendent, Assistant 

Superintendent, and Cler 
Printing and stationery 
Travelling expenses . 
Miscellaneous . 



1,152 90 



$5,747 71 

187 34 

480 50 

98 60 



Engineer's Department 

Meters, repairing 

Off and on water (labor) 

Main-pipe laying (including stock and labor) 

" repairing " 
Service-pipe laying " 
" repairing " 
Hydrants, repairing " 
Gates " " 

Streets, repairing " 

Lake .... 
Conduit 

Carried forward, 



$7,057 74 



6,514 15 

3,210 50 

3,706 13 

2,736 61 

316 29 

1,007 86 

1,228 22 

1,759 42 

1,570 19 

844 91 

502 25 

19,131 98 

862 15 

550,448 40 



Water-Supply Department. 



33 



Brought forward, 
New meters, and setting .... 

Stables ....... 

Reservoir ....... 

Pumping service (salaries, wages, fuel, repairs, etc.) 
Repair-shop ...... 

Fountains ....... 

Tools and repairing . . . . . 

Mystic Sewer (repairs, and pumping and treatment 

of sewage) ...... 

Waste-detection Service .... 

Protection of water sources (including salaries of 

three Special Agents on Pollution) . 
Analyses of water . 
Filtration ....... 

New Pumping-engine No. 4 (on account) 
Damages ....... 

Miscellaneous ...... 



$50,448 


40 


848 


50 


' n,358 


54 


5,273 


12 


34,280 


34 


2,566 


68 


772 


31 


504 

f 


29 


t 

19,016 


75 


8,555 


51 


5,802 


75 


30 


00 


439 


49 


7,183 


32 


125 


00 


241 


17 


$141,446 


17 



34 



City Document No. 39. 



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w-* 



T3 ... — ■£ 
— M ii ft 



s a 



Ph Ph 



■3 a a 



I !* 



cu -£ 



S s 2 



=h a 



<3 03 



-a i, a 



ft P> a 



a s a 

O !j c 

XI « » 

En a A 



r-t CO CO 



i-H rH CO 



38 City Document No. 39. 



Conclusion. 

We annex hereto appendices, in which will be found the 
reports of the several 'Superintendents and the City Engi- 
neer, showing more in detail the condition of the works and 
what has been accomplished. They are as follows : 



Appendix A. — Western Division. 
Appendix B. — Eastern Division. 
Appendix O. — Mystic Division. 
Appendix D. — Report of Engineer. 



Respectfully submitted, 

Thomas F. Doherty/, 
John W. Leighton, 
Charles W. Smith, 

Boston Water Board. 



GENERAL STATISTICS. 



Sudbury and Cochituatb Works. 

Daily average consumption in gallons 

Daily average consumption in gallons per inhabitant 
Daily average amount used through meters, gallons 

Percentage of total consumption metered 

Number of services 

Number of meters and motors 

Length of supply and distributing mains, in miles.. 

Number of fire-hydrants in use 

Yearly revenue from water-rates 

Yearly revenue from metered water 

Percentage of total revenue from metered water 

Cost of works on February 1, 1895 

Yearly expense of maintenance <■ 

Mtstic Works. 

Daily average consumption in gallons 

Daily average consumption in gallons per inhabitant 
Daily average amount used through meters, gallons 

Percentage of total consumption metered 

Number of services 

Number of meters and motors 

Length of supply and distributing mains, in miles.. 

Number of fire-hydrants in use 

Yearly revenue from water-rates 

Yearly revenue from metered water 

Percentage of total revenue from metered water ... . 

Cost of works on February 1, 1895. 

Yearly expense of maintenance 



1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


41,312,400 


47,453,200 


46,560,000 


96.1 


107.5 


99.8 


11,225,900 


11,651,600 


11,170,400 


27.2 


24.5 


24.0 


65,074 


66,586 


68.556 


4,412 


4,585 


4,877 


536 


560 


572.8 


5,793 


6,042 


6,217 


$1,433,413 78 


$1,637,531 94 


$1,644,405 25 


$649,672 31 


$683,948 52 


$672,474 17 


45.3 


41.8 


40.9 


$22,243,351 56 


$22,727,456 03 $ 


23,583,967 89 


$392,762 21 


$433,408 18 


$440,840 63 


9,810,800 


10,742,500 


10,282,100 


78.8 


84.4 


87.6 


1,862,200 


1,921,570 


2,014,000 


19.0 


17.9 


19.6 


21,588 


22,398 


23,257 


550 


482 


515 


160 


165 


173.7 


1,223 


1,306 


1,446 


$394,008 75 


$421,573 48 


$447,554 35 


$105,685 56 


$109,367 37 


$115,811 32 


26.8 


25.9 


25.9 


$1,713,227 00 


$1,721,609 33 * 


$1,676,471 94 


$129,354 49 


$160,643 97 


$156,214 05 



* $52,637.00 credited on account of sale of portion of Mystic Sewer. 



Water-Supply Department. 39 



APPENDIX A. 



REPORT OF THE RESIDENT ENGINEER AND 
SUPERINTENDENT OF THE WESTERN DIVI- 
SION. 



South Framingham, January 1, 1895. 

Thomas F. Doherty, Esq., 

Chairman Boston Water Board: 
Sir : The annual report for the Western Division of the 
Boston Water-Works is submitted herewith : 

Sudbury-River Basins. 

Water-shed, 7S.2 Square Miles. 

The rainfall for 1894 was 40.3 inches at Framingham, and 
38.2 at Chestnut-Hill Reservoir. The mean rainfall on the 
Sudbury-river water-shed was 40.58 inches, which is about 7.4 
inches less than the average. With so small a rainfall, the 
city would have been short of water had it not been for the 
storage in Basin H, the new basin just completed. This 
reservoir was nearly filled during the winter and spring of 
1894, and its addition to the supply enabled us to meet the 
demands of the city. 

Preparations were made early in the year for the construc- 
tion of Basin 5, which was described in my last report. As 
this involved the taking of upwards of 2,000 acres of land in 
a populous neighborhood, the work necessitated many sur- 
veys, plans, and negotiations with different authorities, not- 
ably the selectmen and a special committee of citizens from 
Southboro' and the County Commissioners of Worcester and 
Middlesex counties. 

In accordance with an agreement finally reached and rati- 
fied by the Legislature, complete descriptions and plans of 
all the property to be taken, covering 151 sheets of legal 
cap and comprising 228 separate parcels of land, were filed 
on April 2 and April 30, 1894. 

A contract had been previously made, Ju\y 27, 1893, with 
Moulton & O'Mahoney for the building of the dam, for 
$454,729.90. 

Owing to the length of time occupied in the negotiations, 



40 City Document No. 39. 

the execution of the above contract was delayed, but on 
April 10, 1894, the contractors began stripping the site of 
the dam. This work was prosecuted with vigor during the 
year, a*nd $86,250.71 have been expended thus far on the 
contract. In March it became evident that the scheme for 
supplying the Metropolitan district from the Nashua river 
would receive favorable action from the State Board of 
Health, and the plans of the dam were modified so as to 
embrace three outlet pipes of 48-in. diameters, instead of 
two as originally contemplated. This change was made to 
permit a larger quantity of water to be drawn for the supply 
of the Metropolitan area than would be necessary for Boston 
alone. The amended plans were approved by the County 
Commissioners on April 25. The modification of this con- 
tract involves an extra expense to the city, estimated at 
$21,154.34. It is expected that this amount will be re- 
funded to the city, together with other extra expenses, when- 
ever the scheme is carried out b} 7 the State. On February 
14, $50,000 were paid to Southboro' for the discontinuance 
of several miies of highway in that town, and to enable the 
town to build new roads in other places. 

On May 18 a contract was made with the McNeal Pipe 
and Foundry Company for the outlet pipes for $4,326.12 — 
$21.15 per ton for the 48-inch pipes and $41.90 per ton for 
the specials. During the early summer plans and specifica- 
tions were prepared for Section A, stripping, shallow flowage, 
and the building of two roads at the Sawins Mill end of the 
basin. 

The following table shows the bids for this work : 



Water-Supply Department. 



41 



Canvass of Bids, August 23, 1894. 



Biddee and Address. 



Items and Estimated Quantities. 



Anguste Saucier, South 
Franiinghani 

Berry Bros., Fayville . . . 

Chas. McDermott, Brock- 
ton 

Thos. F. Maney, Boston . 

Moulton & O'Mahoney, Bos- 
ton 

Oonners & Co., Lowell . . . 

Newell & Snowling, Ux- 
bridge 

H. S. Tuttle, Swampscott . 

Neil McBride, Boston . . . 

Davis & Newell, Boston . . 

R. A. Halone & Son, Bos- 

Wm. H. Mague, W. New- 
ton 

H. P. Nawn, Boston .... 



$0 19; 

21; 

23 

27; 

27 
27| 

29 
291 
28 
351 

40 

45 

67 



v b 



H 

CO 



$7 00 
8 00 



$5 25 
3 00 



12 00 5 00 
9 32 7 75 



12 00 
11 86 

11 00 
10 00 

12 00 
10 50 

10 00 

10 00 

13 00 



6 00 
8 50 

8 00 

6 50 

7 00 
5 50 



6 00 

7 00 



$6 00 

5 00 

6 00 

6 00 

7 00 

7 50 

8 00 
6 50 

6 00 

7 00 



8 00 
7 50 



o a 



$0 85 
75 

60 

87^ 

1 25 

2 65 

1 00 

80 

1 50 
45 

75 

85 

2 00 



$1 20 
1 00 

1 50 
1 50 

3 00 

1 50 

2 00 

3 00 

4 00 
1 50 

1 00 

1 80 
4 00 



oi* 



$3 50 
3 00 

3 00 

3 00 

5 00 
1 75 

4 00 

1 50 
4 00 
3 25 

2 00 

3 00 
25 00, 



Totals. 



$52,018 50 
55,146 00 

61,829 00 
70,485 00 

74,520 00 
75,260 17 

76,198 00 
77,251 50 
78,678 00 
93,308 00 

96,156 00 

108,485 00 
165,641 50 



The contract for the work was let to Auguste Saucier, for 
$52,018.50. Thus far only $11,285.14 have been expended 
on account of this contract, owing to unexpected delays. 
The takings of a portion of the lands of the Burnetts', and of 
the Deerfoot Farm Company, were made in such a way that 
the land, after being filled, was to be restored to the original 
owners, the city reserving simply a narrow strip in the 
centre of the takings. An injunction was brought, by the 
parties interested, to prevent the city working on the land 
where the easement only was taken ; and this injunction has 
not been dissolved. 

In May, plans and specifications were drawn for the build- 
ing of two roads, in Framingham and Southboro', to replace 
a road running across the site of the new dam. Advertise- 
ments were issued for proposals, and the following bids re- 
ceived : 



42 



City Document No. 39. 



Canvass of Bids, June 4, 1894. 



BlDDEE AND ADDBESS. 



Berry Bros., Fayville .... 

W. L. McDermott, Brockton, 

Auguste Saucier, South Fra- 
mingham 

Quimby & Fergusan, South 
Boston 

John McBride, Boston . . . 

MeCusker Bros. & Co., Wal- 
tham 

G-ennaro, Long, & Little, So. 
Braintree 

Newell & Snawling, Ux- 
bridge 

O'Connor, White, & Quinn, 
Beverly 



Items and Estimated Quantities. 



£0 19 
27 

221 

3T 
29 

30 

29 

40 

1 00 



|1 25 
1 50 



2 00 
1 40 

1 75 

1 50 

2 00 
2 33 



o o o 

o-S)S 



$7 25 
9 00 



9 00 
9 17 

10 00 

9 50 

13 00 

10 00 



$3 75 
3 48 



5 00 
5 50 

4 00 

4 50 

00 

4 50 



1.1 



$3 50 
•5 00 



5 50 

9 17 

5 00 
5 00 
8 00 



$4 25 
6 00 



$3 75 
3 00 



4 75 4 95 



6 00 
6 00 
6 00 
6 00 



4 50 

7 50 
2 00 

8 00 



Totals. 



$12,242 75 
14,226 20 

15,083 50 

17,500 00 
17,681 57 

18,863 -00 

18,S97 00 

19,306 00 

35,759 00 



The contract was awarded on June 7 to Berry Brothers 
for $12,242.75. This work was completed by the end of the 
year, and cost $12,670.63. It was designated as "a portion 
of proposed Framingham-Marlboro' road," and "proposed 
road to F. S. Hawkins." The first named extends from 
the present Framingham road, near the house of X. F. 
Brewer, a distance of 4,229 feet, and the second road is a 
branch of the first, extending frcom a point 1,300 feet easterly 
from Stony brook to the present highway near the house of 
F. S. Hawkins, a distance of 3,567 feet. 

The above contracts embrace all the work that has been 
undertaken during the year in connection with the pro- 
posed basin. Many engineering problems have, however, 
been studied and surveys made preparatory to next season's 
work. It is highly desirable that a large part of the con- 
struction should be undertaken at once. Many expenses 
will be saved, such as police duty, etc., and the bottom 
could be flowed in the spring of 1896, which would enable 
us to gain a whole year in time. 



Water-Supply Department. 43 

Before the dam was begun deep borings were made to 
determine the position of the bed-rock in the foundation and 
its nature. It was known from these borings that the rock 
was extremely rotten in places, and much broken by seams 
of slate, etc. When the foundations were opened, however, 
and excavation begun, it was thought best to go much deeper 
than the original plan contemplated. 

Every precaution has been taken to go as deep and to ex- 
cavate the soft rock as widely as practicable. The rubble 
laid in the trench was of unusually good character, thor- 
oughly imbedded in cement, and most carefully and consci- 
entiously inspected. 

In September a few cases of typhoid fever developed at 
the dam, and soon spread with something of the nature of an 
epidemic. As its origin seemed mysterious, Prof. Wm. T. 
Sedgwick was asked to make an investigation. He found 
the source of the fever to be in some cheap milk sold in 
Marlboro'. A sanitary system of inspection was estab- 
lished at once, and vigorous efforts made to keep the disease 
from spreading. For this or other reasons we had the satis- 
faction of seeing the epidemic die away gradually. 

No unusual growths of alg?e have occurred this year in 
the sources of supply, but the color of the water in the city 
taps has been .57 at Park square, and .51 at Mattapan, on 
the average. [Platinum scale.] Last year it was .55 and 
.50 at the same places, showing a slight increase. The con- 
sumption of water has been less this year than last year, and 
other things being equal the color should have been less, on 
account of the fact that all the water sent to the city beyond 
a certain fixed amount received from Cochituate lake, is 
made up from the higher-colored Sudbury. Accurate color 
determinations have enabled us to trace the cause to the gen- 
eral higher color of the Sudbury water this year, and also 
that we have been unable to draw from Basin 3, during the 
epidemic of typhoid at the head-waters of that basin. 

During the latter part of the year a large amount of land 
was bonded in Cedar swamp for the proposed drainage 
scheme, and there is now no reason why this work should 
not be undertaken during the coming season. 

When the Framingham sewerage system was constructed 
a few } T ears ago, an underdrain was built under the sewer. 
This underdrain served the purpose of carrying off the soil 
water which found its way into the trenches during construc- 
tion. The authorities of Framingham kept this underdrain 
open and discharged it into Beaver Dam brook for several 
years after the completion of the system. It served the val- 
uable purpose to the town of lowering the water tables and 



44 City Document No. 39. 

keeping the cellars dry. Boston, however, took the ground 
that this underdrain was a constant menace to the purity of 
the waters of Beaver Dam brook, a feeder of Lake Cochitu- 
ate. Analyses of the water were made at stated intervals, 
and a close watch maintained on the condition of the effluent. 
Boston also refused to pay the $25,000 which it had agreed 
to subscribe towards the Framingham sewerage scheme as 
long as the underdrain was maintained. A number of studies 
were made to determine how the matter could be settled. 
All differences between the city and town were adjusted in 
December by an agreement on the part of the town to adopt 
the recommendation of the city and construct some filter 
beds not far from the sewage pumping-station upon which 
the underdrain water could be discharged. Boston pays 
$6,000 more, or $31,000 altogether, when the plans are car- 
ried out, and it is expected that the work will be done early 
in the coming summer. The amount ,of water to be pumped 
from the underdrain was measured for a long time over a 
weir, and found to average 160,000 gallons daily. Three 
final projects were submitted to the town for the disposal of 
this water: No. 1, by pumping on to filter beds situated on 
the south-west side of the hill near the pumping-station ; No. 
2, by pumping to filter beds on the north-east side of the hill ; 
and No. 3, by mixing the underdrain water with the sewage 
and pumping it altogether to the present sewage fields out- 
side of the water-shed. The estimated cost of these schemes 
was $7,430 for No. 1, $10,402 for No. 2, and $7,025 for 
No. 3. 

Basin 1. 

Grades, H. W., 161.00; Tops of Flash-boards, 159.29and 138.41 ; Grestof Dam. 157.54. 

Area, Water Surface, 143 acres ; Greatest Depth, 14 ft. ; Contents, below 161 ,00, 

'376,900,000; below 159.29, 288,400,000 gals. 

On January 1, 1894, this basin stood at elevation 155.55, 
and remained at about this height until January 29, when it 
gradually fell to 154.90, February 14. On February 23 
water was wasting over the stone crest, and continued to 
waste till April 3. 

On April 4, when both sets of flash-boards were placed on 
the dam, the basin was at 157.34 ; but it soon rose ; and on 
April 7 water was wasting over the flash-boards, and con- 
tinued to waste till April 10, when the waste-gates were 
opened, to lower the basin, so as to remove flash-boards. 
On April 12 waste over the stone crest began, and con- 
tinued until May 7, when both sets of flash-boards were 
again placed in position. From May 26 to June 14 water 
flowed over the flash-boards. The basin fell to 157.32, Oc- 
tober 25 ; and then rose to 157.70, November 8, when, both 



WATER-SuprLY Department. 45 

sets of flash-boards being removed, waste over the stone 
crest began, and continued until December 3. The basin 
fell to 156.52 on December 5, and was kept at about ele- 
vation 156.50 until December 14, when it rose, and, on De- 
cember 16 water was wasting over the stone crest. 

The highest elevation reached during the year was 159.62, 
May 29 ; and the lowest, 154.90, February 14. 

Water was drawn wholly from this basin for the supply 
of the city, from 7 A.M., January 1, to 1 P.M., March 15 ; 
and from 11 A.M., December 3, to the end of the year. 

The supply was drawn partially from this basin and par- 
tially from Basin 2, from 3 P.M., October 30, to 3 P.M., 
October 31 ; and partially from this basin and partially 
from Basins 2 and 3, from 1 P.M., March 15, to 11 A.M., 
April 10. 

If the work of improving the shallow flowage of this basin 
is to be undertaken this year, it will be necessary to make a 
topographical survey of the basin at once. 

Basin 2. 

Grades, IT. W., 168.00; Topsof Flash-boards, 167.12andl66.49 ; Crest of Dam, 165.87. 

Area, Water Surface, 134 'acres ; Greatest Depth, 17 ft. ; Contents, below 168.00, 

568,300,000 ; below 167.12, 629,860,000 gals. 

January 1, 1894, the water in this basin was at elevation 
160.17 ; but it fell to 159.15, January 15. It then rose to 
160.00, January 18; and kept between 160.00 and 161.00 
until February 10, when it rose slightly, and remained at 
about 161.50 until February 19. A rapid rise then ensued, 
and on February 22 water was flowing over the stone crest, 
and continued to overflow until April 4, when both sets of 
flash-boards were placed in position. On February 6 water 
began to overflow the flash-boards, and so continued until 
February 12, when both sets of flash-boards were removed. 
Waste over the stone crest continued till May 7, when both 
sets of flash-boards were again placed in position. On May 
25 water commenced to waste over the flash-boards, and so 
continued until June 5, when an extra set of flash-boards 
was placed on the regular flash-boards. The basin then 
rose a little on June 5 ; but then fell to 160.06, July 17, 
when the flow of water from Basin 4 was started, and the 
basin rose to 162.02, August 1. From August 1 to Decem- 
ber 1 there was a gradual rise each month between the fol- 
lowing levels : 

In August, from 161.66 to 162.70; in September, from 
162.33 to 163.10; in October, from 162.94 to 164.36; and 
in November, from 163.34 to 165.17. 

Durino; the above-mentioned months water was drawn the 



46 City Document No. 39. 

larger part of the time, — first from Basin 4, and afterwards 
from Basin 6, — to keep Basin 2 moderately full; and also, 
when not needed for that purpose, to keep the elevation of 
the basin from fluctuating during the experiments at the si- 
phon pipes. On December 1 the basin stood at grade 
1(34.55 ; and then fell to 163.94, on December 3, when it 
began to rise; and on December 15 water flowed over the 
stone crest, and continued to overflow until the end of the 
year. 

Both sets of flash-boards were placed in position on April 
4 ; removed on April 12 ; and again placed in position on 
May 7. On June 5 an extra set of flash-boards was placed 
on the regular ones ; but all flash-boards were finally re- 
moved on July 27. 

The highest elevation of the basin reached during the 
year was 167.36, on June 6; and the lowest, 159.15, on 
January 15. 

Water for the supply of the city was drawn wholly from 
this basin from 11 A.M., May 19, to 11 A.M., May 21; 
from 11 A.M., June 11, to 11 A.M., June 20 ; from 7 A.M., 
July 18, to 3 A.M., August 24; from 7 A.M., August 25, 
to 3 P.M., September 7 ; from 3 P.M., September 10, to 3 
P.M., October 30; from 1 P.M., November 2, to 12 M., 
November 17; from 3 P.M., November 21, to 1.20 P.M., 
November 22 ; and from 3 P.M., November 27, to 3 P.M., 
December 1. 

Water was drawn partially from this basin and partially 
from Basin 1, from 3 P.M., October 30, to 3 P.M., October 
31 ; partially from this basin and partially from Basin 3, 
from 11 A.M., April 10, to 11 A.M., May 19; from 11 
A.M., May 21, to 2 P.M., May 23 ; from 11.30 A.M., May 
26, to 7 A.M., June 1 ; from 2 P.M., June 4, to 11 A.M., 
June 11 ; from 11 A.M., June 20, to 7 A.M., July 11 ; from 
3 A.M., August 24, to 7 A.M., August 25 ; from 3 P.M., 
September 1, to 3 P.M., September 10; from 12 M., No- 
vember 17, to 7 A.M., November 20; from 3 P.M., No- 
vember 23, to 3 P.M., November 27; and from 3 P.M., 
December 1, to 11 A.M., December 3; and partially from 
the basin, and partially fromBasins 1 and 3, from 1 P.M., 
March 15, to 11 A.M., April 10. 

In the spring, Fountain-street bridge was entirely re- 
planked, as both the bottom and top floors were found to be 
in need of renewal. This was the first time that the bottom 
floor was renewed, though the top floor had been partially 
renewed several times before. The bottom floor was 3-in. 
hard-pine, and the top 2-in. spruce. In the autumn, the 
windows in the gate-house, at Dam 2, were repaired, and 



Water-Supply Department. 47 

the frames and sashes painted on both sides. The windows 
had not been touched before since the house was built. All 
of the woodwork in the house, except the floor and ceiling, 
was varnished. 

All forms of animal and vegetable life have been unusually 
low during 1894. In September diatoms appeared in small ^ 
quantities. Chlorophyceee and Cyanophyceas were present 
occasionally from June to October. Infusoria were found in 
small numbers in the spring and fall and occasionally during 
the summer. The mean number of organisms in standard 
units was 42 per c.c., and the mean amorphous matter 332 
per c.c. 

The mean mid-depth temperature of the water during the 
year was 52.8° Fahrenheit, based on weekly observations. 

The mean color was .89, new standard [platinum]. 

Basin 3. 

Grades, H.W., 177.00; Crest of Dam {no flash-boards), 175.24. 
Area at 177 .00, 233 acres ; Contents, below 177.00, 1,224,500,000 gals. 
Area at 175.24, 248 acres ; Contents, below 175.24, 1,081,500,000 gals. 
Greatest depth, 21 feet. 

On January 1, 1894, the water in this basin stood at ele- 
vation 168.53, but it gradually rose, and on February 21 
was flowing over the stone crest, and continued to overflow 
until May 8, with the exception of a short time on April 3 
and 4. The water now fell to 174.18 on May 12, but soon 
rose again, and on May 23 was flowing over the stone crest, 
and overflowed until June 6. The water then receded to 
168.41, July 19, 20, and 21, when it gradually rose to 170.46 
on August 6. The water now remained between 170.00 and 
172.00 until October 26, when it. rose rapidly, and on 
November 8 was flowing over the, stone crest, and continued 
to overflow until December 4. It receded to 174.81 on 
November 6, remained nearly stationary until December 13, 
then rose rapidly, and on December 14 was flowing over 
stone crest, and overflowed until the end of the year. 

The highest elevation reached was 176.14 on March 7, and 
the lowest 168.41 on July 19, 20, and 21. 

Water for the supply of the city was drawn wholly from 
this basin from 2 P.M., May 23, to 11.30 A.M., May 26 ; 
from 7 A.M., June 1, to 2 P.M., June 4 ; and from 7 A.M., 
November 20, to 3 P.M., November 21. Water was drawn 
partially from this basin and partially from Basins 1 and 2 
from 1 P.M., March 15, to 11A.M., April 10; partially 
from this basin and partially from Basin 2, on dates already 
given under the head of Basin 2. 

Almost no water was drawn from this basin during the 



48 City Document No. 39. 

summer on account of the epidemic of typhoid fever in Marl- 
boro' and at Dam 5 . 

Diatoms were present in the spring and fall. The spring 
growth was slight and of short duration. The maximum 
occurred April 23, when there were 200 per c.c, chiefly 
Tabellaria. Tiie fall growth began in October, after the 
water had been stirred up by some very high winds. The 
maximum growth was attained in November, when there 
were about 700 per c.c. Asterionella and Tabellaria were 
most abundant and were about equal in number. Stephano- 
discus was present in October for the first time in Basin 3. 
Chlorophycese were present in small numbers during the 
summer and fall. Cyanophyceae did not appear until August. 
The growth was not as extensive as in former years, but 
during the last of September, and again in October, Coelo- 
sphrerium was abundant near the gate-house. Infusoria were 
found in small numbers in the spring and fall. 

The average number of standard units of organisms was 
220 per c.c, and of amorphous matter 311 per c.c. 

The average mid-depth temperature was 52.5° Fahrenheit, 
and the mean color of the water, platinum standard, 0.77, 
almost exactly the same as last year. 

Although the plans and specifications for the filter basins 
on the Marlboro' brook were prepared more than a year ago, 
nothing has yet been done in the way of construction. I 
recommend that these basins be built as soon as the frost is 
out of the ground. 

The windows in the gate-house have been repaired, as in 
the case of the other dams already mentioned. 

Basin 4. 

Grades, H. W., 215.21 ; Tops of Flash-boards, 215.21 and 214.89; Crest of Dam, 

214.23. 

Area, Water Surface, 167 Acres ; Greatest Depth, 49 feet; Contents, below 215.21, 

1,416,400 Gallons. 

On January 1 the surface of the water in this basin stood 
at elevation 178.83 ; but the water gradually rose, and on 
June 6 was flowing over the flash-boards, both sets of flash- 
boards having been placed on the stone crest on May 26. 
This waste continued until July 7, when the water began to 
fall, reaching 215.14 on July 17, at which time the flow to 
Basin 2 was started. On September 11 the outlet gate was 
closed. The water fell from 215.14, July 17, to 185.01, 
September 12, making about 30 feet in depth drawn out of 
this basin in less than two months. From September 12 the 
water gradually rose to 196.10, December 31. 

The highest elevation reached during the year was 215.36, 
on June 27, and the lowest 178.83, on January 1. 



Water-Supply Department. 49 

In April quite a large number of shrubs were set out near 
the banks of the outlet brook and the overflow, just below 
the dam, and in May some pine-trees were planted in front 
of the out-buildings near the attendant's house. 

In the spring the walks were all resurfaced and rolled. 

The organisms in this basin have been unusually low. 
Last year they averaged 87 per c.c. ; this year, 23. The 
amorphous matter averaged last year 397 per c.c. ; this year, 
220 per c.c. 

The temperature at the surface has averaged 53.2° ; mid- 
depth, 49.4° ; bottom, 46.4° ; and the color at the dam has 
averaged 0.71, almost exactly the same as last year; and of 
the influent (regardless of quantity), 1.04. 

Basin 6. 

Grades, ff. W., 295.00 ; Top of Flash-boards, 295.00; Crest of Dam, 294.00. 
Estimated Area, 185 Acres ; Estimated Contents, 1,530,300,000 Gallons. 

Storage of water in this basin was for the first time begun 
by closing the outlet gate at 11 A.M., January 10, 1894, but 
no measurement of the elevation of the surface of the water 
was taken until 7 A.M., January 12, when it stood at grade 
248.91. The water rose rapidly to 288.26, May 1, then 
slowly to 292.66 on July 1, and remained nearly stationary 
during July. From August 1 it fell to 292.52 on Septem- 
ber 7, at which time one of the outlet gates was opened in 
order to draw water for the supply of the city. The water 
now fell to 274.19 on October 31, then rose to 275.28 on 
November 13, and kept at an average elevation of about 
275.25 until November 30, when, the outlet gate being 
finally closed, the water rose to 278.78 on December 31. 
The highest elevation reached during the year was 292.75, 
August 5 and 6. 

It will be seen from the above that the water from this 
basin was used for the first time to supply the city during the 
autumn. Although the paving was not completed until June 
7, the basin was allowed to fill until the surface reached the 
pavers, and it was only by extra exertions that the contrac- 
tors succeeded in keeping out of the way of the water. It 
was fortunate for the city that this basin was completed and 
filled this year, as there would have been a short supply 
without this additional storage. 

The dam is the most complete and thorough in execution 
that the city has ever constructed. The leakage has been 
about 60,000 gallons per day — less than half that of Basin 
4. By a series of vertical pipes built into the embankment 
at different points of its cross section, it has been found that 



50 City Document No. 39. 

the water table in the clam does not extend into the em- 
bankment below the line of the core wall, and that it perco- 
lates easily the fine material placed against the up-stream 
face of the core, following the rise and fall of the basin with 
only about 1 foot loss of head. The outside of the embank- 
ment was graded and the entire dam completed October 19. 

The filter basins below the dam were begun September 20, 
and one bed partially completed. 

The Avater in Basin 6 contained a slight growth of diatoms 
in May, and again in September and October, but at no time 
did they reach 100 per c.c. Chlorophycese were present in 
very small numbers in September and October. Cyanophy- 
ceae, were entirely absent from the water. In May and June 
Synura were washed in from the swamp above the basin. 
Kotifers at that time were also quite abundant. Other 
infusoria were found in small numbers throughout the sum- 
mer and fall. Crenothrix was abundant near the dam in 
August. The amorphous matter was generally low, but 
about the last of September it became quite abundant. 

From observations on the color, and from numerous chem- 
ical analyses made while the basin was filling for the first 
time, it is thought that the basin is doing better work in the 
purification of its influent than Basin 4, but we cannot be 
surely convinced of this fact until we have had the opportu- 
nity to make further investigations. The stripping of the 
basin was done more thoroughly than in the case of Basin 4. 

Whitehall Pond. 

Elevation, H. W., 327.91 ; Bottom of Gates, 317.78. 
Area at 327.91, 601 acres; Contents, between 327.91 anal 317.78, 1,256,900,000 

gallons. 

On January 1, 1894, the surface of the water in this pond 
stood at elevation 324.94, or 2.97 feet below high water. 
It remained at about this height until March 3, when it rose, 
reaching 326.20 on April 8. From this date the water re- 
mained between 326.20 and 326.82, until June 4, and then 
fell to 324.35 on September 19, and then fell more rapidly 
to elevation 322.40 on October 25. The water now rose to 
elevation 322.59 on October 27, remained about stationary 
until November 3, rose to elevation 322.72 on November 7, 
fell to 322.39 on December 7, and finally rose to 323.23 on 
the 31st. 

The highest point reached was 326.82, on June 4, and the 
lowest, 322.39, on December 7. 

No more water than was necessary for the use of Wood 
Brothers' shoe factory was drawn from the pond during the 
year with the exception of a short time from August 1 7 to 



Water-supply Department. 51 

August 21, and from September 13 to October 18, when a 
daily flow of about ten millions was drawn to keep up the 
supply of water for Basin 2. The outlet gate was closed 
and no water drawn from the pond from July 1 to July 9, 
and from December 7 to December 31. 

Weir measurements of the waste, both when the gate was 
open and closed, have been taken as usual during the entire 
year. 

In the spring the scows and dredger which were anchored 
in the pond were found to be in a bad condition. The wood 
of the sides and bottom had commenced to decay, and they 
and the steamer were towed down the pond to the dam and 
drawn out on the shore. Openings were made in the ends 
of the scows and dredger to permit the circulation of air 
through them, and their decks were thoroughly calked and 
then painted. 

Farm Pond. 

Grades, H. W., 149.25 ; Low Water, 146.00. 
Area at 149.25, 159 acres; Contents, between 149.25 and 146.00, 165,500,000 gals. 

On January 1, 1894, the water in the pond stood at ele- 
vation 148.74, but it rose gradually, and on February 21 had 
reached high-water mark. From this date the water re- 
mained on an average somewhat above high water until June 
14, when it gradually fell to 148.17 on September 16. The 
water stood at about this height until October 25, when it 
rose to 148.50 on November 6, and reached 148.79 on De- 
cember 31. 

No water was drawn from this pond during the year for 
the supply of Boston. 

The Framingham Water Company has pumped 117,000,- 
000 gallons during the year, an average of 320,548 gallons 
daily. 

The total amount of water wasted was 5,400,000 gallons, 
all of which was used in cleaning the aqueduct. 

Lake Cochituate. 

Grades, II. W., 134.36; Invert of Aqueduct, 121.03; Top of Aqueduct, 127.36. 

Area, Water Surface at 134.36, 785 acres. 

Contents, between 134.36 and 127.36, 1,615,180,000 ; between 134.36 and 125.03, 

1,910,280,000 gals. 

Approximate Contents, between 134.36 and 121.03, 2,447,000,000 gals.; between 

134.36 and 117.03, 2,907,000,000 gals. 

On January 1, 1894, the lake stood at 127.94, and grad- 
ually fell to 127.33 on February 13. From this date the 
lake began to rise. Between March 13 and June l(i water 
from the Sudbury river was turned into the lake. On April 
26 the surface reached 134.20. It was kept a little above 
134.00 with the aid of the Sudbury supply until June 16, 
when it gradually fell to 126.10 on December 15, and then 



52 



City Document No. 39. 



rose to 126.30 on December 31. No water has been wasted 
from the lake at the outlet during the year. 

In March 529,100,000 gallons were turned into the lake 
from the Sudbury sources; in April, 134,100,000; Ma}^, 
215,800,000; June, 80,700,000; October, 1,100,000; No- 
vember, 400,000; December, 1,000,000 gallons ; or a total 
amount of 962,200,000 gallons. 

Some repairs were made during the autumn to the drive- 
way near the outlet dam, and the embankment of the old 
dam was taken down to a level a few feet below high-water 
mark. Nine hundred and twenty-seven square yards of 
paving were placed on the slopes of the driveway. 

The filter beds at Pegan brook have been used the larger 
part of the time during the year. 

The following table shows the total number of gallons of 
water pumped, the amounts delivered to each bed, etc., for 
each month of the year : 





No. of 
Days 
which 

Pumps 
ran. 


Amount of Water 
Pumped. 


Amount of Watee Delivered 
on to Beds. 


Month, 1894. 


Total for 
the Month. 


Average for 
each Day 
Pump run. 


No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 




Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


January 

May 

September .... 


31 
25 
22 
30 
30 
30 
15 
19 
10 
12 
18 
22 


18,655,000 

19,770,000 

17,505,000 

32,364,000 

30,472,000 

19,258,000 

10,279,000 

5,827,000 

3,693,000 

6,974,000 

12,738,000 

14,912,000 


601,800 
790,800 
795,700 
1,078,800 
1,015,700 
641,900 
685,300 
306,700 
369,300 
581,200 
707,700 
677,800 


2,638,000 
3,919,000 

16,075,000 
6,482,000 

5,036,000 
1,055,000 

3,733,000 


6,708,000 

12,211,000 

5,427,000 

3,995,000 

10,279,000 

791,000 

2,638,000 

565,000 


16,017,000 
15,851.000 
10,797,000 
20,153,000 
8,970,000 
8,781,000 

2,676,000 
12,738,000 

11,520,0110 


December .... 




3,392,000 


For the Tear . . 


264 


192,447,000 


729,000 


38,938,000 


46,006,000 


107,503,000 



Total amount of coal used during the year was 180,980 
pounds. 

Water ran over the overflow in the dam across Pegan 
brook, during the entire twenty-four hours, on February 19, 
20, 22, 23, 24, and 25, and during fourteen hours in the night 



AYater-Supply Department. 53 

on March 3 and 4, and on April 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 
and 20. Bed No. 1 was cleaned in June and September; 
Bed No. 2 was cleaned, and the surface — which was quite 
uneven — was levelled in August ; and Bed No. 3 was cleaned 
in July and August. Although the water in No. 3 froze 
during the cold weather in January and February so as to 
form ice six inches thick, the surface of the bed did not 
freeze. 

On February 22 the embankment of Bed No. 1, directly 
over No. 2 drain, caved in, and the force main was broken. 
In consequence of this break, no water could be pumped 
on to the filter beds until February 26. 

About two hundred feet of underdrain were dug up in 
May, and relaid ; and, besides this work, a considerable 
amount of labor has been expended in putting the filter beds 
into better condition. We have found no trouble in filtering 
the whole flow of the brook during the winter. In very 
severe weather the ice sometimes becomes attached to the 
bottom of the beds, but the applied water finds its way 
through holes under the ice, and filters through the sand. 

Diatoms appeared as usual in April and November. The 
spring growth reached its maximum, 700 standard units per 
c.c, during the later part of May, when Melosira, Asterio- 
nella, and Tabellaria were present in about equal numbers. 
In May Melosira and Asterionella disappeared, but the 
Tabellaria continued to increase until June, when there were 
about 450 per c.c. Stephanodiscus was present during May 
and June. Diatoms were absent from the water from July 
1 to October 1. Asterionella appeared in October and in- 
creased gradually to 700 per c.c. on December 12, after 
which they rapidly declined. Melosira and Stephanodiscus 
were present in small numbers during November and Decem- 
ber. Chlorophycese were present in small numbers from 
June to November. Cyanophycese were present from JuTie 
to the end of the year. They were most abundant in Sep- 
tember. Infusoria were present in the spring and fall, and 
Crenothrix was abundant after the fall turning over. In 
December the water had a disagreeable taste, caused by the 
simultaneous presence of Asterionella, Synura, and Anabsena 
(sterile). 

The southern extremity of Lake Cochituate is separated 
from the lake by what is known as the circular dam. The 
bottom of this portion of the lake is a bed of peat and mud 
of considerable depth. In August an examination was made 
of the condition of the water over the peat. At that time the 
water was about five feet deep. At the bottom an intensely 
thick growth of weeds (chiefly Chara) was found, which were 



54 



City Document No. 39. 



covered with a growth of oscillaria and some of the filament- 
uoas green alga?. Diatoms and desmids were abundant, and 
infusoria were found in swarms. The effect of this growth 
of vegetable matter is probably to form a matting which in a 
measure prevents the stirring up of the mud. It is probable 
that if the mud was kept in a state of agitation by the wind 
the effect would be to discolor the water. This was shown 
by the following laboratory experiment : 

A mass of the mud was placed at the bottom of a jar and 
the jar filled with a practically colorless water, color 0.03. 
For the first twenty-four hours the water was very turbid. 
After two days it became quite clear in the upper portion of 
the jar. This clear water was then siphoned off, filtered 
through paper, and the color read. It was 0.30. 

Color samples taken throughout this portion of the lake 
did not show any material increase in color from the bottom : 



No. 1, 200 feet from last culvert on Beaver Dam 
brook, surface . . . . . . . 

No. 2, at circular dam, surface .... 

No. 3, 500 feet from circular dam towards Dug pond, 
surface . . . 

No. 4, 500 feet from circular dam towards Dug pond, 
bottom ...'..... 



0.44 
0.45 

0.43 

0.50 



Sample No. 4 was somewhat turbid. This could not be 
removed by filtering, and probably accounts in part at least 
for the high color. 

The following table shows the condition of the feeders of 
the lake : 



Feeders to Lake Cochituate. 

Means of Monthly Observations. 



% 


<B 










Locality. 


a 

s 




1 


o 
A 


a 




ft 








o 




a 


o 


&d 




o 
















E" 1 


O 


O 


< 


W 


Beaver Dam brook, mouth of brook . 


"53.9° 


0.80 


58 


286 


547 ' 


" " " last culvert . . . 


55.1° 


0.79 


26 


297 


563 






0.78 


57 


174 


406 






0.19 
0.76 


165 
51 


195 
212 


259 






435 






0.25 


85 


1,480 
973 


5,039 






0.58 


09 


388 









Water-Supply Department. 55 

Dudley Pond. 

Grades, IT. W., 146-46 ; 18-inch Pipe, 130.36 and 127.36. 

Area, Water Surface, 81 acres; Greatest Depth, 27 feet ; Contents, above 130.36, 

250,000,000 gals. 

On January 1, 1894, the pond was at elevation 130.36, or 
16.1 below, high water. On February 8 the stop-planks 
were put in at the outlet-chamber, and the water rose slowly 
to 139.96 on December 31. 

In August and September the old gate-chamber was torn 
down and a new one built. The foundation of the old 
chamber was a wooden platform laid on about a foot of clay. 
The masonry of the new chamber was laid on concrete, one 
foot in depth, placed on a 2-in. spruce platform. It now 
contains an 18-in. iron valve to control the flow of water 
from the pond. Grooves have been built in the masonry 
for stop-planks. 

SUDBURY-ElVER AQUEDUCT. 

Grades, 141,362 at Farm Pond; 124,051 at Terminal Gate-House. 
Length, 15.89 miles; Size, 7ft. 8 in. X 9 ft.; Capacity, 109,000,000 gals. 24 hours. 

The three portions of this aqueduct are in goodcondition. 
The supply and Farm pond aqueducts were cleaned by ma- 
chine, February 20. The main aqueduct was cleaned by 
machine, between Station 46+00 and the West Siphon 
Chamber, on March 9. The tunnels between Farm pond 
and the West Siphon Chamber were cleaned by hand, as was 
also that portion from Farm pond to Station 46+00, and 
from East Siphon Chamber to Chestnut-Hill Reservoir, on 
April 5 and 6. 

The 48-in. pipes in Basin 1 have been flushed into the 
river below Dam 1 once during the year. The three por- 
tions of the aqueduct have been in use for the same length of 
time, or 343.7 days, the flow having been stopped except for 
cleaning, and the experiments at the siphon pipes, on two 
occasions only, and then for but a few hours. 

The amount of water sent to the city has been 11,450,- 
600,000 gallons, or a daily average of 31,372,000 gallons. 
Besides the above, 962,200,000 gallons have been run to 
Lake Cochituate. 

New houses were built in the autumn over the manholes at 
Stations 17 and 59. 

On March 1 and 2 the Rockland and Badger Hill tunnels 
were cleaned, and on March 9 and 10 the westerly portion 
of the aqueduct was cleaned by machine from Station 46 to 
the Siphon Chamber. The portion from Station to Sta- 
tion 46 could not be cleaned on account of an accumulation 
of gas from leaks in the gas mains in South Framingham. 
This portion was, however, cleaned by hand on April 5 and 



56 City Document No. 39. 

8 after the gas difficulty had been overcome. At the same 
time the lower portion from the Easterly Siphon Chamber 
to Chestnut-Hill Eeservoir was cleaned. The black deposit 
was less than in the westerly section, and there was no 
spongilla. In Beacon-street tunnel 8 cubic feet of rock 
which had fallen from the roof was found at Station 779-J-52. 
The concrete lining is in perfect condition. 

The channel at Clark's Waste Weir has been repaired. 
The original masonry below the outlet was founded on sand, 
and it did not extend low enough to prevent scour. An ex- 
cavation 3 feet 8 inches in depth was made beneath the side 
walls and apron, and a layer of broken stone 2 feet 2 inches 
was rammed into place, and on top of this a layer of concrete 
1 foot in thickness was deposited and brought up by careful 
ramming to the under side of the old masonry. Paving laid 
in cement was placed on top of the concrete. 

The walk on top of Charles-river bridge was resurfaced 
with two coats of tar on July 16 and 19. 

A number of experiments have been made on the flow of 
water through the Rosemary Siphon pipes with different 
heads, and after these were completed the northerly pipe was 
carefully scraped November 12-15. The pipe had been in 
use about 18 years. It is 48 inches in diameter and 1,800 
feet long. The inside surface was about half covered with 
small tubercles. These were skilfully removed, and care 
taken not to injure the old tar coating under the tubercles 
any more than was necessary. The capacity of the pipe was 
increased about 25 per cent, by the process, and its original 
condition nearly restored, as far as loss by friction is con- 
cerned. It took 4 days with 14 men to do the work of 
scraping. Two tip-cart loads of iron rust were wheeled out, 
and the pipe carefully washed and brushed after the scraping. 
Each man scraped and cleaned 396 feet of surface per day. 

Some of the most experienced of the men on the aqueduct 
force have superintended the loaming and sodding at Dam 6. 

The condition of the Waban arches has been the subject 
of some solicitude on account of the action of frost. Ex- 
tended observations on these arches have been made, the re- 
sult of which has led me to believe that the permanency of the 
masonry is threatened by the freezing of the water at the ex- 
posed outlets, and the consequent accumulations of the water 
inside of the arches, saturating the spandrels until it runs 
out of the tell-tale pipes. It is not so difficult to provide a 
proper remedy when a correct diagnosis of the trouble has 
been reached, and some plan for providing a permanent out- 
let beyond the reach of frost, for the drainage of the leakage 
water, will be made during the coming season. 



Water-Supply Department. 57 

Cochituate Aqueduct. 

Grades, 121 .03 at Lake ; 1 16.77 at Brookline Reservoir. 
Length, 14.60 miles; Size, 5 ft. X 6 ft. 4 in. ; Capacity, 20,000,000 gals, per 24 hours. 

This aqueduct has been in constant service during the 
year, excepting from 5 P.M.. March 18, to 5 A.M., March 
22, when the flow was stopped to clean the aqueduct. A 
depth of 6£ feet was maintained, except from January 18 to 
January 30, from February 20 and from October 5 to end of 
the year, when the lake was not high enough to furnish this 
flow. 

When the aqueduct was cleaned spongilla was found be- 
tween the lake and Dedman's brook in rather larger quanti- 
ties than usual. 

New rods have been provided for the gates at the Waste 
Weirs. The old rods have not been renewed since 1848, 
and were nearly rusted away around and beneath the nuts 
that held them in place. The new rods are of galvanized 
iron, 7 feet 8 inches long, If inches in diameter, with two 
composition nuts to each rod. 

The loam on the site of the new boulevard, Newton Centre, 
has been removed and stored on the line of the Sudbury 
aqueduct for future use. 

The siphon culverts have been thoroughly cleaned. 

On July 26 an accurate system of observations were made 
on the water flowing in the Cochituate aqueduct to ascertain 
whether there was any material difference in the color of the 
water due to the infiltration of ground water or any other 
cause. The colors were observed from 8 A.M. at the lake to 
7.30 P.M. at Chestnut-Hill Reservoir, the idea being to fol- 
low the same water as far as practicable in its passage under- 
ground. The readings varied from .27 at the lake to .255 
at the reservoir, but the slight variations noticed were with- 
in the limits of accuracy of the colorimeter, and when com- 
pared in Nessler tubes no difference could be detected, so 
that it may be stated that there is no change in the color of 
the water in its passage from the lake to the reservoir. 



Chestnut-Hill Reservoir. 

//. IF., 125.00; Dam, 128 ; Effluent pipes, 99.S0. 

Area, Lawrence Basin, 37.5 acres; Contents, 166,000,000 gals. ; Bradley Basin, 87.5 

acres ; Contents, 391,000,000 gals. 

Total Contents above grade, 100.00, 557,000,000 gals. 

A new 36-in. main was laid from the pumping-station to 
Fisher-Hill Reservoir during the summer, and in conse- 
quence the grounds were much cut up around and in the vi- 
cinity of the pumping-station. Permanent connections at 
two places on this main were made for piezometric obser- 



58 City Document No. 39. 

vations, and a large and substantial weir erected at the ter- 
minus of the pipe at Fisher-Hill Reservoir, to measure the 
water flowing from the pumps during duty trials. 

It will be necessary to make a direct connection during 
the present year with the Bradlee basin, from the pumps, 
on account of the difficulty of keeping up the head in the 
wells with the present arrangements. 

The driveways and walks have been kept in excellent 
order during the year, and thousands of visitors have en- 
joyed the quiet and beauty of the grounds. 

Brookline Reservoir. 

H. W., 123.00; Area, 23 acres ; Greatest Depth, 24 feet ; Contents, 119,583,960 gals. 

Everything in connection with the Brookline Reservoir is 
in good order. No work other than that pertaining to main- 
tenance has been done on this reservoir during the year. 

FiSHER-Hrix Reservoir. 

IT. W., 241.00; Pipe Inverts, 220.00 ; Depth, 21 feet ; Contents, 15,400,000 gals, above 

223. 

This reservoir is in good condition. 

Inspection of Water Sources. 

The following is a digest of the report of Mr. J. S. Con- 
cannon, Chief Inspector : 

Total number of cases inspected .... 688 

Old cases ........ 669 

New cases ........ 19 

Of the above, 170 are reported as remedied, 394 safe at 
present, 45 seem safe, 46 suspected, 33 unsatisfactory. 
Fifteen legal notices were sent. No legal injunctions were 
found necessary during the year. 

Biological Laboratory. 

During the year 1894, 2,475 microscopical examinations 
of water, 100 examinations of sand, and 2,200 cultures of 
bacteria, were made at the laboratory. 

The following is a list of some of the special studies made 
during the year : 

The color of the water in the different basins and their in- 
flowing streams, with reference to the seasonal changes. 

The study , of certain species of bacteria found in the 
water. 



Water-Supply Department. 59 

The fermentation tube, and its use in determining the 
presence of Coli communis in the water. 

The effect of sunlight on bacteria. 

The effect of varying degree of acidity of culture media on 
bacterial growth. 

The microscopical examination of the scum on the surface 
of sand filters. 

The cause of the seasonal distribution of some of the mi- 
cro-organisms found in the water. 

Culture experiments with certain diatoms, with reference 
to their need of air. 

The temperature of the water in the different reservoirs, 
with special reference to the phenomenon of stagnation. 

Attention has frequently been called in the reports of the 
Western Division for several years past to the various phe- 
nomena connected with the period of " stagnation " in Lake 
Cochituate and other basins or sources of supply. In the 
seventeenth annual report for 1892, several diagrams were 
given, showing the temperatures in the lake, every five feet 
in depth, from April until December. Many years ago the 
writer thought he had discovered some of the effects of this 
extraordinary condition of things prevailing during seven 
months of the year, but he found in some of the very early 
reports of the department references to the same phenomena, 
showing that they were in a measure understood soon after 
the Cochituate works were built. The studies pursued dur- 
ing the past five years have, however, thrown more light 
on many of the details connected with the changes in the tem- 
perature of water, and it may not be out of place to draw up 
a brief resume of the subject of "stagnation," as it has been 
observed on the Boston Water- Works. 

As far as the temperatures of water in deep ponds are 
concerned, the year may be divided into three parts. Dur- 
ing the winter, that is to say, in December, January, and 
February, the water at the bottom is warmer than at the 
surface, it being at about 39.2, the point of maximum den- 
sity, but varying several degrees from this point, depending 
upon expanse, depth, and local circumstances. On the 
breaking up of the ice in March, April, and also during the 
"great overturning" in November, the water is in complete 
circulation, and has the same temperature throughout. 
During the other seven months, April to November, the 
water is colder at the bottom, and warmer at the surface. 
This embraces the different conditions ; two periods of " stag- 
nation," one short one in the winter, when the surface is 
colder than the bottom ; one Ions; one in the summer, when 



60 City Document No. 39. 

the opposite conditions of temperature prevail, and the pe- 
riods of circulation in April and November. 

The long period of "stagnation" in the summer is by far 
the most interesting and important >in results. In Lake Cochit- 
uate at a depth of sixty feet, when the upper layers begin to 
grow warmer in the spring, the water is left at the bottom 
with a temperature of about 44°, and at this temperature it 
remains for more than half the year without any change 
whatever. If the diagrams already published and alluded 
to be studied, it will be seen that the effects of the wind are 
generally not felt below ten feet in depth ; that is to say, the 
upper ten feet are practically of the same temperature in the 
summer. The effects of heat and of stirring up, finally, by 
the middle of July bring the temperatures of the fifteen-feet 
curve nearly to the surface. At twenty feet there is very 
little effect, the water remaining for three months at that 
depth about 15° cooler than the surface. 

In a larger lake it is probable that the effects of the wind 
are felt much below twenty feet, but it is practically true that 
in Lake Cochituate the effects of the w T ind are not felt more 
than twelve feet from the surface. From twenty to sixty feet 
there is a steady decrease in temperature, without material 
variation, to the sixty-foot line, where the temperature main- 
tains a perfectly level line throughout, with hardly a varia- 
tion of a tenth of a decree. 

We will now see what are some of the effects of this 
phenomenon which we are discussing. The water in the 
summer may have a temperature as high as 84°, observed 
by the writer, feeling like warm water to the hand when the 
latter is immersed in it. By sinking a bottle in the same 
spot to a depth of sixty feet, water at 43° — practically ice 
cold water — may be brought to the surface. But this water 
at the bottom is not of good quality. While it has been 
lying in a quiescent condition during the summer, it has been 
gradually accumulating all the settlings from the water 
above, so that at the depth of forty feet it may be of the 
color of lemonade, while at the bottom it is very yellow and 
full of dirt. The water, too, at these depths is deficient in 
oxygen, and would not be at all suitable for domestic pur- 
poses. The water on the surface, on the contrary, during 
these whole seven months, is clear, white, sparkling, and in 
excellent condition for drinking. 

As the water cools in the autumn the lake gradually turns 
completely over, and generally by the middle of November 
the process has been completed, and the water is of the 
same temperature from top to bottom — as the bad water 
comes to the surface it distributes its long summer accu- 



RELATION. BETWEEN GROWTHS OR DIATOMS AND INRUSORIA 
AND THE PHENOMENON OR 
STAGNATION AND CIRCULATION IN LAKE? COCHITUATE, 
I890-/835: 

GOO . . . . / V-i ■ . . . . . €00 





CIRC Ui-AT/Or'. 



SURF, \CET:~MfC -DEPTH "AND 



INRUSORIA 





COLO R 



[NE^SHLCR £CA(_cJ 



<.:ircul.a 



JAN FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV. DEC. 



Water-Supply Department. 61 

mutations in a most disagreeable manner. To be sure, a 
large amount of the organic matter is thus oxidized and 
otherwise destroyed, but while this is going on the diatoms 
and the infusoria find an abundant amount of food brought 
within their reach, with plenty of oxygen, and they begin to 
increase rapidly. The infusoria belong to the animal king- 
dom, and the diatoms to the vegetable. The number of the 
latter may, therefore, be very much greater than the former 
without producing as bad tastes in the water. 

The winter period of stagnation to which we have alluded 
is due to a somewhat different cause. Here, although the 
water is four or five degiees warmer at the bottom than at 
the surface, it is nearer the point of maximum density, while 
the surface is lighter, although colder, being in the neighbor- 
hood of the freezing point. The effects of the turning over, 
however, in the spring, are exactly the same in principle as 
in November, although not as marked in degree. The dia- 
toms and infusoria increase largely in this period of circu- 
lation. 

The microscopical examinations which are made weekly 
in the laboratory of the Western Division show all these 
various phases perfectly. 

No r6sum6 of stagnation phenomena would be complete 
without a reference to the amount of iron contained in the 
bottom layers. This whole subject of iron in natural waters 
will be found most fully discussed in the report for 1892 
already alluded to. When the dark waters from the bottom 
are brought to the surface in the summer, they rapidly grow 
darker, so that the color taken on the first exposure to the 
light sometimes increases threefold by the time it has been 
brought into the laboratory for examination. The average of 
five different determinations made by Mr. Hollis, at my 
request, between the last of August and the first of Novem- 
ber, when the water at the bottom is at its maximum color, 
showed, during three successive summers, that the water at 
the bottom, on collection, had a color equal to six times that 
of water at the surface, and that after exposure the color in- 
creased to twenty times that at the surface. 

The ferric hydrate in falling from the upper layers to the 
quiescent layers gives up its oxj'gen for the further oxidation 
of the organic matter, and the iron is thus nearly all reduced 
to the ferrous or colorless form. When drawn to the surface 
and exposed to oxygen the ferrous changes rapidly to the 
ferric condition, giving a yellowish appearance to the water. 

A study of the degree and consequent effects of the sum- 
mer stagnation period gives us the means of judging both of 
the original purity of the water and the condition of the 



62 City Document No. 39. 

reservoir in which it is stored. Many engineers are disposed 
to sneer at the idea of the necessity for removing all the or- 
ganic matter from the bottom and sides of the valley which 
is to form a storage basin for a domestic supply. There is 
a marked difference in the condition of the water below the 
twenty-foot line in the summer in a properly prepared basin 
and one that is not treated. In the basins on the Boston 
Water-Works which have been stripped of loam, stumps, etc., 
and which have had their shallow flowage removed, the water 
is comparatively good all the way to the bottom even in 
October, when the effects of a long period of stagnation are 
best studied. Oxygen is present, showing that there is not 
enough organic matter present in a state of decomposition 
to use up the oxygen ; the organisms are few, because there 
is not sufficient food to support large growths, and the amor- 
phous matter is small in amount. In a sheet of water not 
so treated, however, we find a very different condition of 
affairs : there is no oxygen at the bottom, a high color, much 
organic matter (where decay has been arrested from a lack 
of oxygen) , and a considerable amount of amorphous matter. 
All of these objectionable characteristics are distributed 
throughout the whole vertical section on the overturning, 
in November, resulting;; in large growths of diatoms and in- 
fusoria. It is no wonder that the water occasionally " tastes 
bad" under these conditions. 

The following more detailed description of the diatom and 
infusoria growths in the Boston reservoirs has been prepared 
by Mr. G. C. Whipple, assistant in charge of the laboratory 
work : 

Diatoms, or, technically, the Diatomacese, are minute plants, 
forming a group of microscopic algje, remarkable for their 
siliceous epiderm, and for their variety of form and mark- 
ings. They are unicellular, though in some genera the cells 
are united into filaments. The cell contents consist of a 
membrane, cell sap, nucleus, chromatophore plates, and 
sometimes oil globules and starch grains. Living diatoms 
are surrounded by a gelatinous envelope, which, on account 
of its transparency, can be seen only by adding coloring 
matter to the surrounding fluid. Of the cell contents biolo- 
gists are at the present time most interested in the oil glob- 
ules, because it is being proved that the oils present in the 
micro-organism are the direct cause of many of the bad 
tastes and odors of certain drinking-waters. 

Of the one hundred and more genera into which the dia- 
toms have been classified, there are not more than twenty 
that are commonly found in our water-supplies, and only six 
have, thus far, been found to be of practical importance ; 



Water-Supply Department. 63 

namely, Asterionella, Tabellaria, Melosira, Synedra, Ste- 
phanodiscus, and Diatoma. Some of the other genera 
occasionally met with are Cyclotella, Cymbella, Epithemia, 
Fragilaria, Gomphonema, Meridion, Navieula, Nitzschia, 
Pleurosigma, Schizonema, Stauroneis, and Surirella. 

The six most important genera are not always observed 
in the same reservoir. Generally there are certain diatoms 
peculiar in certain ponds. Lake Cochituate, for instance, 
often contains large growths of Asterionella, Tabellaria, 
and Melosira, and smaller growths of Synedra and Stepha- 
nodiscus. Basin No. 3 contains Asterionella, Tabellaria, and 
Synedra, but no Stephanodiscus nor Melosira. In Basin 
No. 2 only Synedra and Cyclotella are found. 

Diatoms appear with considerable regularity each spring 
and fall, but the genera which appear at any given season 
are not always the same. If we consider, for example, the 
spring growths in Lake Cochituate, we find that in 1890 the 
Asterionella first appeared, and that this growth was soon 
followed by one of Tabellaria. In 1891 the growth was 
chiefly Asterionella, Melosira appearing about the same 
time, but not developing to any great extent. In 1892, 
Melosira was the predominant diatom ; in 1893, Melosira 
and Asterionella ; and in 1894, Tabellaria, Asterionella, and 
Melosira. 

A comparison of the microscopical examinations of the 
different reservoirs of the Boston Water-Works shows that 
Basins No. 2 and No. 4 never have extensive diatom 
growths, but that in Basin No. 3 and Lake Cochituate these 
plants develop regularly in the spring and fall. 

There are two periods of the year, each about six weeks 
long, when the water is in circulation from top to bottom. 
It is during these periods that the diatoms develop. Micro- 
scopical examinations have shown that both in Basin No. 3 
and in Lake Cochituate the diatom growths occur soon after 
stagnation ends. The Asterionella, for instance, generally 
appears about one week after the turning over. It then in- 
creases, reaching its maximum growth in from twenty-five 
to fifty days. 

The bottom temperature of Lake Cochituate is consider- 
ably lower than the bottom temperature of Basin No. 3 
during the summer months, on account of its greater depth ; 
hence its turning over occurs later in the year. This ex- 
plains why the fall growth of diatoms occurs later in Lake 
Cochituate. 

The examinations of the State Board of Health furnish 
corroborative evidence that the seasonal distribution of 
diatoms is controlled by the circulation and stagnation of the 



64 City Document No. 39. 

water. This may be seen by comparing the diatom growths 
in deep and shallow ponds. On the assumption that diatoms 
grow best immediately after the turning over, we should 
expect to find in the deep ponds two periods of diatom 
growth, — one in the spring, following the winter stagnation, 
and one in the fall, after the summer stagnation. In the case 
of shallow ponds, however, we should expect to find a spring 
growth following the winter stagnation, and for the rest of 
the year a uniform or irregular distribution. This is found 
to be the case. Of twelve ponds and reservoirs more than 
30 feet deep, eleven show a well-defined spring and fall 
growth, while in one instance the growth was uniform^ dis- 
tributed ; and of seventeen ponds and reservoirs less than 30 
feet deep, eleven have diatom growths appearing at irregular 
intervals, but having a slight spring maximum, while four 
have both a spring and a fall growth. 

Infusoria. — The water of the Sudbury and Cochituate 
water-supplies ordinarily contains very few organisms which 
can properly be classed as animals. Probably 95 per cent, 
of the total number of micro-organisms found each year are 
plant forms. Nevertheless, the animal forms are important, 
because a comparatively small number is sometimes sufficient 
to make the water very disagreeable, and because they are 
liable to sudden and extraordinary developments, when, if 
they increase sufficiently, the water may be rendered entirely 
unfit for use. The worst tastes which have appeared in the 
water-supplies of Massachusetts have been caused by growths 
of infusoria. 

Because of the importance of these micro-organisms the 
following data have been brought together in regard to 
the infusoria and other animal forms found in the waters of 
the Boston supply. 

The animal micro-organisms usually found in surface 
waters are ordinarily classified by biologists under the fol- 
lowing heads : 

Rhizapoda. 
Infusoria. 
Rotifera. 
Crustacea. 

A few forms are found which cannot be included in this 
classification ; for instance, the fresh- water sponges, Hydra, 
certain insect larvae, and certain worms. 

Hydra vulgaris, a very interesting animal belonging to 
the Hydroid Zoophytes, is often found on the walls of the 
gate-houses, on the screens, etc. It is of no special interest, 
however, from a sanitary point of view. 



Water-Supply Department. 65 

Fresh-water sponge is quite abundant on the walls of the 
aqueducts. Both Spongilla and Meyenia have been found. 
They belong to the Spongidee, or Porifera, a class of Pro- 
tozoa. A favorite habitat of the Spongilla is on the walls of 
the Coohituate aqueduct just below the gate-house at the 
lake. Another place where it is very abundant is in White- 
hall pond, where it grows on the old stumps in the shallow 
flowage. Several genera are found there, and they often 
grow into masses of considerable size. Spongilla also grows 
to some extent in the city mains. This may be inferred from 
the fact that at certain seasons the sponge-spicules are found 
in the samples from the city taps (Park square), while at 
the same time they are absent from the water as it leaves the 
reservoirs. At times sponge collects in considerable quanti- 
ties on the screens at Chestnut-Hill and Brookline Reservoir 
gate-houses. At present the sponge gives little or no 
trouble, save for the labor of cleaning it from the walls of 
the aqueducts ; but in 1878 it developed in considerable 
quantities, and was thought to be the cause of the " cucum- 
ber taste " which at that time rendered the water very disa- 
greeable. 

Among the vermes may be mentioned Anguillnla fluvia- 
tilis, a nematoid w r orm akin to the vinegar eel. This is 
sometimes found in stagnant water, and especially in water 
contaminated by sewage. It is very seldom observed in the 
Boston reservoirs, and is never seen in the service-pipes, 
except, perhaps, at some dead end. 

Rhizopoda. 

The rhizopods are quite unimportant. They are never 
found in reservoirs in large numbers. In the Boston water 
they have seldom been observed. One reason for this is the 
fact that there are but a few genera which are naturally free- 
swimming. The rhizopods love best to move slowly along 
in the ooze at the bottom of a pond, or to congregate on the 
stems and leaves of some aquatic plant. Most of them are 
quite sluggish in their action. They are contented to remain 
quietly on some submerged stem or log, and allow their food 
to be brought to them. Occasionally they are found freely 
floating in the water. Amoeba, Actenophrys, Arcella, Eu- 
glypha, Difflugia, Trinema have been observed at different 
times. Amoeba may be found at almost any time by scrap- 
ing the walls and screens of the gate-house. 



66 City Document No. 39. 



Rotifera. 

The rotifers, or wheel-animalcules, are quite often seen in 
all of the reservoirs, but never in large numbers. Anurcea 
is the most common one, and several species of it are found. 
Other genera which have been observed are the following : 

* Rotifer vulgaris. 

* Conochilus. 
* Polyarthra. 

* Synch oela. 
Asplanchna. 
Triarthra. 
Mastigocerca. 
Flosoularia. 
Lacinularia. 
Brachionus. 

Those which are starred are the most important. 

Conochilus appears in Basins 2 and 3 during the early 
part of each summer. It is also frequently present during 
the periods of the Cyanophycese growths in Basin 3, i.e., in 
August and September. The largest number of rotifers 
which we have ever seen in a single sample was found in the 
estuary of Beaver Dam brook, June 30, 1892, when there 
were eighty Conochilus per cubic centimeter. This is equiv- 
alent to about 1,600 standard units. The water at that 
time had quite a strong taste, but as other organisms were 
present at the same time, the distinctive taste of Conochilus 
could not be determined. 

Crustacea. 

Among the Crustacea the Cyclops and Diaptomus, belong- 
ing to the order Copepoda, and the Daphnia, Bosmina, and 
Alona, of the order Cladocerca, are frequently found. They 
are found at all seasons, but chiefly during the summer 
months. Cyclops in its adult and Nauplius forms is the most 
important crustacean. 

Infusoria. 

The most important of the animal forms are the Infusoria. 
They form a very large group of Protozoa, in which there is 
found a large number of free-swimming forms. 

The infusoria have been carefully studied by Ehrenberg, 
Stein, Pritchard, and others. W. Saville Kent, in his 
"Manual of the Infusoria," published in 1880, has given very 
complete descriptions and a classification of all the known 
infusoria. At the end of this report will be found a key to 



Water-Supply Department. 67 

the identification of the infusoria commonly found in the 
Boston water-supply. It is based on Kent's classification. 

Many of the infusorial forms are sedentary. They may be 
found on the leaves and stalks of water- weeds, and on the 
fresh-water algae growing in shallow ponds or along the 
edges of brooks. These occasionally become detached from 
their seats, and are found floating in the water. There are 
others, not sedentary, which find their food only among the 
fresh-water algae. They spend their whole life swimming 
about these plants. They, too, are sometimes found floating 
in the water. Certain genera, however, are not confined to 
the shores and shallow waters, but are able to find suste- 
nance in deeper waters. They are the infusoria which cause 
trouble. 

Such infusoria must, obviously, find their food-supply in 
the water itself, and it naturally follows that they will be 
most abundant where there is plenty of food for them, and 
that they will appear at those seasons of the year when their 
food is most abundant. Comparatively little is known in 
regard to the fooxi required by the different infusoria ; but 
certain general principles have been laid down to serve as 
guides. 

The infusoria are classed in the animal kingdom. They 
differ in many respects from the plant micro-organisms with 
which they are often found. According to Kent, "the primary 
basis for the distinction between the plants and animals is 
associated with the phenomena of nutrition. In a general 
way it may be said that animals have the capacity to ingest 
solid particles of food, and depend upon such solid food 
ingestion for their growth and the display of their various 
vital functions. Plants, on the other hand, are nourished by 
the absorption of their food in a purely liquid state. Chemi- 
cally, also, there is a difference between the food of animals 
and that of plants. Animal forms are absolutely dependent 
on proteaceous, or ready-manufactured, organic matter for 
their food-supply ; but plants, with a few exceptions, are 
able to manufacture this substance themselves out of the 
crude material distributed, in the liquid or gaseous condition, 
in the fluids which they imbibe." 

From the foregoing we may infer that among the conditions 
necessary for the growth of infusoria one of the most impor- 
tant is a sufficient abundance of very minute particles of 
organic matter distributed through the water ; and to this, 
experience justifies us in adding a sufficient supply of oxy- 
gen. A study of the local and seasonal distribution of the 
infusoria indicates that these conditions are fulfilled whenever 
the infusoria develop in large numbers. 



68 



City Document No. 39. 



Seasonal Distribution. 

The microscopical examination of over 12,000 samples of 
water from the reservoirs of the Boston water-supply during 
the past five years has given us an excellent idea of the 
seasonal distribution of the infusoria in those reservoirs. 
The results of these examinations have been collated, and a 
partial summary of them is given in the following table : 



Average Number of Standard Units of Infusoria in a Cubic 
Centimeter of Water during each Month of the Year. 





Lake 
Cochituate. 


Basin 2. 


Basin 3. 


Basin 4. 


Average. 


January 
Febraary 
March . 
April . 
May . . 
June 
July . 
August 
Septembe 
October 
ISToveinbe 
Decembe 


r 

r 

r 






17.4, 

12.0 

12.6 

35.0 

31.6 

9.8 

5.4 

4.2 

6.4 

14.6 

13.0 

14.0 


4.2 

9.2 . 

4.2 
12.6 
17.4 
10.6 
10.6 

8.4 

6.4 
22.2 
12.8 
11.8 


15.6 

6.0 

5.2 

23.4 

18.0 

8.0 

5.4 

12.0 

20.6 

24.4 

57.2 

34.5 


2.6 
1.6 
2.6 
14.4 
1.8 
1.2 
2.4 
5.0 
5.4 
5.4 
1.2 
0.4 


10.0 
7.2 
6.2 
21.4 
17.2 
7.4 
6.0 
7.4 
9.7 
16.7 
21.1 
15.2 


Mean 






14.7 


10.9 


19.2 


3.7 


12.1 



In the reservoirs mentioned in the table the samples were 
collected each week from the surface, mid-depth, and bottom. 
The results are expressed in Number of Standard Units 
(one standard unit equals 400 square microns) per c.c, and 
the figures indicate the average numbers for each month of 
the year. Each figure represents the average of about 
seventy-five samples. 

An inspection of curves plotted from the table shows that 
there are two well-defined maxima, one in April and the 
other in November. In the summer the growth is much 
lower, but yet is of some importance. During the winter in- 
fusoria are also found, and usually just under the ice, where 
the oxygen is most abundant. There is a striking contrast 



Water-Supply Department. 69 

between the Boston Water-Works curve and those siven bv 
Mr. G. N. Calkins and by Prof. S. W. Williston, the former 
for the water-supplies of Massachusetts, based on the exam- 
ination of 912 samples from 26 supplies during three years, 
and the latter for the water-supplies of Connecticut, based 
on the examination of about 300 samples from 12 supplies of 
the State during a period of two years. 

The Massachusetts curve differs from the Boston curve at 
all points of inflection. It has two maxima, — a major max- 
imum in February and a minor maximum in July. The 
lowest point on the Massachusetts curve is found in Novem- 
ber, when the Boston curve is at one of its maxima. The 
Connecticut curve agrees with the Massachusetts curve in 
having a February maximum, and with the Boston curve 
in having a November maximum. The reason for the differ- 
ences between these curves is that both the Massachusetts 
and Connecticut curves are based on results obtained from 
a large number of water-supplies differing greatly in their 
character. 

That fact also accounts for the irregularity of those curves. 
Some supplies have immense growths of infusoria in the 
winter, others in the summer ; and these excessive growths 
in a few supplies control the shape of the curves, regardless 
of the smaller numbers which may be found with great regu- 
larity in other places. This emphasizes the fact that each 
water-supply must be studied by itself. 

There is a striking similarity between t'he shape of the 
curve representing the seasonal distribution of infusoria and 
that of the seasonal distribution of diatoms. Both have well- 
marked spring and fall maxima, and it is a noteworthy fact 
that these maxima occur at those times when the water is in 
complete circulation from the top to the bottom. This com- 
plete circulation occurs in the spring, after the ice has broken 
up, and in the fall, after the summer stagnation has ceased. 
There appears to be a logical reason why the growths should 
occur at this time. 

When the water turns over in the spring and fall, the lower 
layers are brought to the surface. These lower layers of 
water are somewhat heavily charged with partially decom- 
posed organic matter, and when this organic matter comes in 
contact with the oxygen, which is abundant near the surface, 
its oxidation is completed. The oxidation is indicated by 
the increase in the nitrates, and is brought about, of course, 
through the agency of bacteria. At the bottom of the reser- 
voirs there is a deposit of very finely divided organic matter. 
When the water turns over, much of this is scattered through 
the water. At the same time it is probable that various 



70 City Document No. 39. 

plants and animals which have been lying in a dormant con- 
dition are also brought up and scattered through the water. 
Finding themselves liberally provided with food, both 
diatoms and infusoria develop rapidly. The infusoria find 
their food in the fine particles of organic matter brought up 
from the bottom, in the organic matter of the growing 
plants, and in the bacteria which are carrying on the decom- 
position ; furthermore, oxygen is abundant. 

These conditions are best illustrated in Lake Cochituate, 
where the stagnation phenomena are most marked. In 
Basins 2, 3, and 4 the growths occur in the spring and fall ; 
but the conditions in those basins are somewhat modified by 
the drawing down of the basins, and the fact that extensive 
growths of infusoria are sometimes washed into the basins 
from the swamps and ponds on the upper portions of the 
water-shed. If we consider Basin 3, for instance, we find 
that there is a spring growth in April, as in Lake Cochituate. 
Late in the summer the infusoria begin to increase, and they 
ordinarily reach their maximum growth in October ; but in 
November, 1893, the Synura and Dinobryon developed in 
very large numbers in the mill-ponds a short distance above 
the head of the basin, and these were soon washed into the 
basin. Apparently they found the conditions favorable to 
their growth, for they remained abundant for several weeks. 
It was this growth that caused the maximum point on the 
Basin 3 curve to appear in November instead of in October. 
Basin 2 has occasionally been seeded in like manner. 

As the various genera of infusoria differ somewhat in re- 
gard to their seasonal distribution, and their effect on the 
water, it is best to consider each genus separately. The fol- 
lowing are some of the infusoria found in the Boston water- 
supply : 

Dinobryon is one of the most common infusoria in water- 
supplies. It is found every year in the Boston water, but 
never in numbers sufficient to cause trouble. It has been 
found in the spring and fall in Lake Cochituate and Basins 
2 and 3, but during the summer months it is practically 
absent. In Basin 4 it is seldom found. In February, 1891, 
it was quite abundant in Farm pond, and in Whitehall pond 
it has several times attained a considerable growth. Dino- 
bryon does not go to pieces as rapidly as many infusoria, 
and consequently it is found in the Chestnut-Hill Reservoir, 
and occasionally in the service-pipes. 

An examination of the microscopical analyses of the vari- 
ous water-supplies of Massachusetts shows that Dinobryon is 
found most often in the spring months, but that there is, 
also, a considerable fall growth. During the past few years 



Water-Supply Department. 71 

there have been several cases where Dinobryon has caused 
trouble by its great development. These occurrences were 
seasonally distributed as follows : 



January 


. 2 


May . . 


. 6 


September 


. 3 


February . 


. 4 


June 


. 


October . 


. 2 


March . . 


. 3 


July . . 


. 3 


November 


. 2 


April . 


. 1 


August 


. 1 


December 


. 



It is somewhat contrary to our experience in Boston to 
find Dinobryon growing vigorously during the hot weather ; 
but some supplies have vigorous growths in July. This in- 
dicates that temperature is not the main cause influencing its 
seasonal distribution. 

Dinobryon sometimes appears and disappears with great 
rapidity. In Breed's pond. Lynn, there were 1.410 per c.c. 
on May 25, 1893 ; and in less than a week, during which 
the weather was excessively hot, they disappeared com- 
pletely. 

Dinobryon, when present in large numbers, gives to the 
water a very disagreeable taste. It is, in some respects, 
similar to that caused by Synura ; but it is not as strong 
nor as oily, although it is doubtless caused by oil globules, 
which are often observed. The taste is a persistent bitter 
one, producing a stinging sensation at the back part of the 



tongue. 



Synura has several times been quite abundant in the res- 
ervoirs of the Boston supply. These growths are described 
in the Annual Report of the Boston Water Board for 1893, 
page 75 : "The most extensive growth of Synura which has 
been found in Boston water occurred in the ponds on Stony 
brook, just above Basin 3, in November and December, 
1893. Both in Rice's and in Nichols' mill-ponds the number 
of colonies frequently reached 200 per c.c. (equal to about 
1,000 standard units). These were gradually washed down 
into Basin 3. At one time 2,000 standard units were found 
in the influent stream. They soon became numerous in Ba- 
sin 3 and Basin 1. They were present in the Sudbury gate- 
house, at the Chestnut-Hill Reservoir, in almost every sample, 
during November and December. A few were seen in the 
effluent gate-house and even in the service-taps, but not 
in numbers sufficient to impart much of a taste to the water." 

As a rule, Synura growths have occurred in the Boston 
supply in the spring and fall. This is quite generally true 
for other supplies, although Synura occasionally develops 
in the summer. 

Synura is one of the most disagreeable of the infusoria. 



72 City Document No. 39. 

It hits a strong, stinging-, bitter taste, sometimes being dis- 
tinctly oily, and occasionally resembling the taste of a cu- 
cumber. A comparatively small number is sufficient to 
cause a noticeable taste. 

Uroglena is a very offensive infusorian when present in 
large numbers. It causes a very intense, oily smell. It is 
occasionally found in the Sudbury water, but always in small 
numbers. It usually appears in the winter. 

The only large growth that has been noticed in the Boston 
water occurred in Whitehall pond, in June, 1891. An ac- 
count of this may be found in the Report of the Boston 
Water Board for that year. The Uroglena appeared .very 
suddenly. On June 11 there were 150 colonies per c.c. at 
the lower end of the pond, where they were most abundant. 
The water had a reddish-brown color. This color soon 
changed to a light-brown ; and in a few days the water 
cleared. The odor caused by the Uroglena was intensely 
oily. It was carried by the wind to a considerable distance 
from the pond. 

Several water-supplies, both in Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut, have been afflicted with Uroglena. 

Mallomonas is an infusorian which seldom causes trouble, 
because it is not found in large numbers. As many as 200 
were once found in a cubic centimeter of water, and at that 
time the water had a slight sweetish, aromatic taste, similar 
to that caused by C 'ryptomonas and Chloromonas, which the 
Mallomonas resembles, in having a bright-green color. 

Mallomonas is found in Basin 3 in the fall, and in Lake 
Cochituate in both spring and fall. 

Cryptomonas is not often found in the Sudbury and Co- 
chituate supplies ; but in the ponds just above Mystic lake 
it is often abundant. Horn pond, in particular, has tre- 
mendous growths of Cryptomonas, usually in the winter. 
Glen Lewis and Walden ponds, Lynn, are likewise famous 
localities for Cryptomonas, as well as Chloromonas. 

Cryptomonas causes a very strong taste, which resembles 
that of a violet. It is sweet and aromatic, and not alto- 
gether unpleasant. 

Trachelomonas is found in Lake Cochituate at all times of 
the year, but is most common in the fall. It is found in 
greatest numbers at the bottom, where the water is stagnant, 
without oxygen, and heavily charged with partially decom- 
posed organic matter. 

In Basin 3 it is found only during the latter part of the 
summer. There, also, it seems to be associated with the 
stagnant water, being found most commonly at the bottom 
until the time of the turning over of the water, after which 



Water-Supply Department. 73 

it is more evenly distributed. It is not found to any extent 
in Basins 2 and 4. 

Trachelomonas seems to be associated with decomposing 
organic matter. It belongs to the same family with the Eu- 
glena, which is a notable filth infusorian. The facts that it 
has a rich brown color, and that it is found at the bottom of 
our ponds, where the stagnant water is rich in iron com- 
pounds, seem to indicate that iron may be the cause of its 
brown color, and perhaps may be necessary to its existence. 

Trachelomonas is not a common organism in water-sup- 
plies, though it has been found as high as 500 per c.c. The 
water containing it had a very strong, earthy taste, but 
that was doubtless caused by the amorphous matter, which 
was exceedingly abundant, and not by the Trachelomonas. 

Peridinium and Glenodinium are very much alike, and 
are often mistaken for each other. They are not abundant 
in the Sudbury and Cochituate water, although there is an 
occasional spring growth in the lake, and in Basin 3 they 
are sometimes found during the summer. In Mvstic lake, 
however, Peridinium grows vigorously every summer. At 
times the number has been as high as 3,500 standard units 
per c.c. They are in great measure the cause of the offen- 
sive odor which is noticed every summer in the Mystic water. 
They usually appear in June or July and last until October. 

Peridinium has been found at all seasons of the year, and 
extensive growths have occurred in January, March, June, 
and October. Usually, however, its maximum growth is 
attained in the summer. 

Codonella, according to the reports of the State Board of 
Health, is seldom found in the water-supplies of Massachu- 
setts, but in Lake Cochituate and in Basins 2 and 3 ap- 
pears quite regularly in the spring and fall. Their number 
is generally small, but the organisms are of large size. 
They have never appeared in numbers sufficient for us to 
determine their effect on the water. The Codonella animal- 
cule is usually enclosed in a lorica. Occasionally it leaves 
this, and is found moving briskly about in the water by 
means of its rapidly moving cilia. 

Tintinnidium, or Tintinnus, as it would more properly be 
called, is akin to Codonella. It is not common in water- 
supplies generally, but in Lake Cochituate it is usually 
present in the spring months. 

The species ordinarily found corresponds to Kent's Tin- 
tinnidium. semiciliatum. In Whitehall pond we have ob- 
served a species somewhat different from the semiciliatum. 
It differs chiefly in having its lorica transversely wrinkled or 
folded, instead of being perfectly cylindrical. As it is free- 



74 City Document No. 39. 

swimming, it is more properly classed as a Tintinnus, and 
we have designated it as Tintinnus corrugatus. 

Vorticella is occasionally found during the summer. It 
is more common in Basin 3 than in other portions of the 
Boston supply. It is naturally a sedentary form, and one 
reason why we find it in our samples from the middle of the 
reservoir is because it attaches itself to floating algae. It is 
often found on bunches of Anabama and Qylindrospermum. 
As far as we have observed the Vorticella does not feed on 
these algas, but uses them as a means of being carried 
through the water. 

Epistylis is similar in many respects to Vorticella. It 
generally appears in clusters. It is not common in Lake 
Cochituate. In the basins it is occasionally found in the 
early summer and sometimes in the fall. 

Euglena is not found to any extent in the Boston supply. 
It has occasionally been seen in Stony brook above Basin 3, 
and in Pegan brook. It is also found in the Abajona 
river and at the head of Mystic lake. It is an important 
organism, because its presence is generally an indication of 
pollution. In waters w 7 hich are badly polluted it often 
grows vigorously. Near the laboratory there is a brook 
which receives the drainage of several houses. Euglena is 
sometimes so abundant in this brook that every stick, stone, 
and plant is covered with a bright green layer, and the water 
itself is green with them. 

Paramecium is another infusorian usually found in pol- 
luted water. It is not found in the Boston supply, except 
occasionally in Pegan brook. 

Besides those already mentioned, Monas, Cercomonas, 
Pleuronema, Bursaria, Phacus, Acineta, Uvella, Nassula, 
Coleps, Placus, Zoothamnium have occasionally been ob- 
served. 

A KEY TO THE INFUSORIA FOUND IN THE BOSTON 
WATER-SUPPLY, ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICA- 
TION OF W. SAVILLK KENT. 

Sub-kingdom Protozoa. 

Legion. Infusoria. 

Protozoa, with definite form and provided with an external 
membrane, bearing either flagella or cilia: Mouth and anus 
usually, contracting vacuole, and one or more nuclei always, 
present. (1) 

(1) Animalcules bearing one, two, or more long, lash- 
like flagella, which mostly represent the sole organs of 
progression, but are occasionally supplemented by cilia, 



Water-Supply Department. 75 

pseudopodia, or other locomotive or prehensile appendages. 
Oral or ingestive system varying in character; definite, dif- 
fuse, or indistinct. One or more contractile vesicles almost in- 
variably represented. Multiplying rapidly by binary fission 
and by the subdivision of their entire body-mass into sporular 
elements. The sporular reproductive process, often pre- 
ceded by the complete fusion or conjugation of two or more 
adult zooids. (a) Glass Flagellata, or MastigopJiora. 

(1) Animacules partly or more or less completely clothed 
with vibratile cilia, which constitute the essential organs of 
locomotion and prehension ; no supplementary lash-like ap- 
pendages or flagella ; certain of the cilia often modified in 
the form of setae, styles, or uncini ; occasionally possessing 
more or less distinct membraniform expansions ; a well- 
developed oral and anal aperture mostly present. (6) Class 
Giliata, or Trichophora. 

(1) Animalcules bearing neither flagellate appendages 
nor cilia in their adult state, but seizing their food and effect- 
ing locomotion, when unattached, through the medium of 
tentacle-like processes developed from the culicular surface 
or internal parenchyma ; these tentacles simply adhesive, 
or tubular, and provided at their distal extremity with a cup- 
like sucking disc ; an endoplast and one or more contractile 
vesicles usually conspicuously developed ; trichocysts rarely, 
if ever, present ; increasing by longitudinal or transverse 
fission, or by external or internal bud-formation, (c) Glass 
TenlaciiUfera. 

(a) Ingestive area diffuse ; flagella representing the sole 
organs of locomotion. (d) Order Flagellata-Pantosto- 
mata. 

(a) Ingestive area constituting a true and distinct mouth : 
flagellum not supplemented by cilia, (e) Order Flagel- 
lata- Eusiomata. 

(a) Ingestive area constituting a true and distinct 
mouth : flagellum supplemented by a more or less highly 
developed ciliary wreath, (f) Order Cilio- Flagellata. 

(b) Cilia distributed over the entire surface of the body, 
similar, or differing but slightly in character, (g) Order 
Holotricha. 

(6) Cilia distributed over the entire cuticular surface ; 
the oral series of conspicuously larger size, (li) Order 
Helerotricha. 

(b) Cilia not universally distributed, mostly limited to a 
conspicuous circular or spiral adoral wreath. («) Order 
Peritricha. 

(c) Tentacles wholly or partially suctorial, (j) Order 
Sudor ia. 



76 City Document No. 39. 

(d) Flagellum single, terminal. Animalcules naked, 
freely swimming ; no pedicle or caudal appendage, globose 
or ovate ; anterior border rounded ; polymorphic. Genus 
Montis. 

(d) Animalcules naked, with a tail-like caudal filament, 
flagellum single ; entirely free-swimming, never attached. 
Genus Gercomonas. 

(e) One flagellum. Animalcules mostly highly meta- 
bolic ; endoplasm colored brilliant green ; free-swimming, 
no abnormal pharyngial dilation, (k) 

(e) Two flagella. Endoplasm enclosing two laterally 
disposed olive or yellow pigment bands. Flagellate ap- 
pendages, with but rare exceptions, two in number, of 
similar or diverse length, (n) 

(f) Bearing one or more flagella and a distinct ciliary 
girdle, (r) 

(f) Flagellum single, terminal ; body clothed with long 
setose cilia, oval, persistent in form, free-swimming, usually 
green color. Genus Mallomonas. 

(g) Bearing cilia only, (s) 

(g) Bearing cilia and a membraniform expansion. Mem- 
brane non-vibratile, extending in front of and around the 
oral fossa in a hood-like manner; or.al aperture and hood- 
like membrane ventral ; cilia rigid, setose ; without a caudal 
seta. Genus Pleuronema. < 

(h) ■ Oral cilia forming a simple, straight, or oblique 
adoral fringe. Animalcules free-swimming, broadly ovate, 
somewhat flattened on one side, anteriorly truncate ; peris- 
tome-field pocket-shaped, deeply excavate, situated obliquely 
on the anterior half of the body, having a broad oral fossa in 
front, and a cleft-like lateral fissure, which extends from the 
left corner of the contour border to the middle of the ven- 
tral side ; no tremulous flap ; pharynx very long, funicular, 
bent towards the left, and forming an immediate continua- 
tion of the peristome excavation, adoral ciliary wreath very 
broad, much concealed, lying completely within the peris- 
tome cleft ; the cilia of general surface very fine, disposed 
in longitudinal rows ; anal aperture postero-terminal ; en- 
doplast band-like, curved or sinuous ; contractile vesicles 
distinct, usually multiple. Genus Bursaria. 

(Ji) Oral cilia describing a spiral or circular course 
around the oral aperture, (u) 

(?') Animalcules naked, sedentary or attached ; ovate, 
campanulate, oral aperture terminal, eccentric, associated 
with a spiral fringe of adoral cilia, the right limb of which 
descends into the oral aperture, the left limb encircling a 
more or less elevated, protrusible, and retractile ciliary disc. 



Water-Supply Department. 77 

Animalcules solitary, attached through the medium of a 
retractile pedicle. Genus Vorticella. 

(i) Animalcules associated in dendriform colonies, (v) 

(j) Animalcules multitentacular, tentacles similar ; lori- 
cate, tentacles similar, lorica pedicellate. Genus Acineta. 

(h) Naked, (m), 

(k) Loricate. Genus Trachelomonas. 

(m) Highly metabolic, having a caudal prolongation. 
Genus Euglena. 

(m) Persistent in shape. No snout-like prominence. 
Genus JPhacus. 

(n) One flagellum ; animalcules persistent in shape. 
Genus Ohloromonas. 

(n) Two flagella. (o) 

(o) Naked. (p) 

(o) Loricate, (q) 

(0) Immersed within a gelatinous zoocytium. Zooids 
not directly united, possessing independent contractile vesi- 
cles. Genus Uroglena. 

(p) Solitary, free-swimming, flagella inserted beneath a 
lip-like prominence. Genus Oryptomonas. 

(p) Social, united in spheroidal free-floating clusters. 
Genus Uvella. 

>(q) Social, forming a compound branching zoothecium. 
Genus Dinobryon. 

(q) Social, united in free-floating spheroidal clusters. 
Genus Synura. 

(r) Flagellum single, ciliary girdle central, encuirassed. 
No horn-like processes. (I) 

(r) With horn-like processes. Genus Geratium. 

(1) Cuirass facetted. Genus Peridinium. 
(I) Cuirass simple. Genus Glenodinium. 

(s) Animalcules asymmetrical, with distinct dorsal and 
ventral regions ; oral operture ventral. (I) 

(s) Animalcules symmetrically ovate or cylindrical, oral 
aperture terminal or lateral ; pharynx distinct, often armed 
with rod-like teeth. Persistent in form, mouth lateral. 
Genus JSTassula. 

(s) Animalcules symmetrically ovate; oral aperture ter- 
minal ; cuticular surface indurated. No anterior or buccal 
seta. Carapace with spinous processes. Genus Goleps. 

(t) Cuticular surface soft and flexible, with an oblique 
adoral groove. Genus Paramoecium. 

(t) Cuticular surface indurated; free-swimming; no dis- 
tinct pharynx. Genus Placus. 

(u) Animalcules permanently or temporarily adherent ; 
peristome and adoral cilia enclosing the entire funnel-shaped 



78 City Document No. 39. 

or variously expanded frontal border. Peristome-field, sub- 
circular or infundibulate. Genus Stentor. 

(•«) Animalcules ovate or pyriform, adoral cilia surround- 
ing the anterior extremity in a simply circular manner. 
Loricate: animalcules adherent to lorica by retractile ped- 
icle, freely floating in the water. Genus Tintinnus. 

(u) Animalcules loricate, free-swimming, oral cilia form- 
ing two circlets, those of the outer circle attenuate, tenta- 
culiform. Cilia of the inner circlet spathulate or lappet-like. 
Genus Oodonella. 

(v) Pedicle retractile. Contractile stalk of entire colony 
continuous throughout. Genus Zoothamnium. 

(v) Pedinle ligid. Ciliary disc axial ; no collar-like mem- 
brane. Genus Epistylis. 

Filtration Experiments. 

These experiments, already described in previous reports, 
were continued through the greater part of the year, but 
were finally concluded, and the apparatus thrown out of use, 
the data accumulated having proved sufficient for the purposes 
for which the investigations were begun. 

The six large tanks, having an area of one one-thousandth 
of an acre, were used for experiments on continuous filtra- 
tion through sand at a rate of 1,500,000 gallons per acre per 
day. Experiments with bone, charcoal, and dried alumina 
have been continued with tanks having an area of one forty- 
thousandth of an acre. Experiments on the purification of 
water by precipitation with ferric chloride, followed by rapid 
filtration through sand, were begun October 16. 

Chemical and biological analyses of the applied water and 
effluents were made weekly until October 16. The results 
of these analyses have been plotted, giving continuous pro- 
files which show graphically the purifications produced by 
each tank. 

The work has been under th,e immediate charge of Mr. W. 
E. Foss, C.E., who has prepared the following description 
of some of the experiments made under my direction, to 
determine the effects of sunlight on the decolorization of 
water. These observations were made in connection with 
our filtration experiments. 

The first experiment was begun November 26, 1890. 
Three one-gallon bottles were filled with water from the tap. 
Sample No..l was analyzed at once, sample No. 2 was put 
in a dark closet, and No. 3 was exposed to sunlight in a 
window. June 28, 1891, samples Nos. 2 and 3 were 
analyzed, sample No. 3 having been exposed to bright sun- 



Water-Supply Department. 79 

light for 800 hours. The results of the analyses are given 
in Table I. They show that the color of the water was only 
slightly reduced in the sample kept in the dark, while it was 
entirely removed from the sample exposed to sunlight. Ob- 
servations of the color were not made during the interval, and 
it is not known how many hours exposure to sunlight were 
necessary to reduce the color completely. The nitrogen as 
albuminoid and free ammonia was reduced and the nitrogen 
as nitrites and nitrates increased in the dark, while in the 
sample exposed to sunlight the nitrogen as albuminoid and 
free ammonia and nitrites increased, while the nitrogen as 
nitrates was reduced. 

Samples Nos. 4 to 10 inclusive were collected from the 
tap for the purpose of following the changes which might 
take place under the action of sunlight from month to 
month. No. 4 was analyzed at once, and Nos. 5, 7, and 
9 were put in a dark closet, while Nos. 6, 8, and 10 were 
exposed to sunlight on a bench out of doors. A sample 
from the dark and one from the sunlight was analyzed each 
month. The results of the analyses are given in Table I. 
It will be seen that an exposure to sunlight for 238 hours 
was not quite sufficient to remove the color completely. In 
almost every case nitrogen as albuminoid and free ammonia 
was higher, and the nitrogen as nitrates lower, in the sam- 
ple exposed to sunlight than in the one kept in the dark. 
In the samples Nos. 5 to 10 inclusive the clear supernatant 
portion only was analyzed, the sediment not being included. 
As the results seemed to show a loss of nitrogen, it was 
thought that it might be in the sediment, and analyses were 
therefore made of a mixture of the samples kept in the 
dark, and also of a mixture of the samples exposed to sun- 
light, the sediment being included. The results are shown 
by Nos. 11 and 12, and seem to show that there had not 
been a loss of nitrogen. 

Analyses Nos. 13 and 14 show the changes which took 
place in a very dark water from an exposure to sunlight for 
543 hours. The samples were collected October 24, 1891, 
from the bottom of Lake Cochituate, at a point 55 feet deep, 
where the water had been stagnant for some time. When 
collected the sample contained a large amount of ferrous 
iron, and dissolved oxygen was entirely absent. Soon after 
collection the ferrous iron became oxydized, increasing the 
color of the water to 4.50. 

Analyses Nos. 15 to 23 inclusive show the changes from 
exposure to sunlight in samples from the Cochituate and 
Sudbury sources and from the Bradlee Basin of the Chestnut- 
Hill Reservoir, which contains a mixture of the other two. 



80 City Document No. 39. 

An increase in the nitrogen as albuminoid and free ammonia 
and decrease in nitrogen as nitrates, oxygen consumed and 
color, in the samples exposed to sunlight, is noticed when 
they are compared with the samples kept in the dark. 

August 1, 1892, an experiment was begun to determine the 
action of sunlight for each month in the year. Three sets 
of samples were used in this experiment to see if there was 
any difference in the action on waters having different in- 
tensity of color. One set was from Cochituate aqueduct, 
average color 0.23 ; one from Terminal chamber, average 
color 0.79 ; and one from Chestnut-Hill Reservoir, average 
color 0.53, being a mixture of the other two. The sam- 
ples were collected about the first of each month, and 
one of each set kept in the dark, while another was exposed 
to sunlight in a box, having three sides and the top of plate 
glass, which allowed exposure of the samples to sunlight 
under similar conditions throughout the year. The temper- 
atures and colors of the samples were taken weekly, but in 
the tables presented herewith only the means for each month 
are given. The weekly observations showed that the 
changes went on uniformly. As a basis for comparison the 
reduction of color per 100 hours of sunlight has been calcu- 
lated for each month. The total reductions due to exposure 
to sunlight were obtained by subtracting from the reduction 
which took place in the sample exposed to sunlight any re- 
duction which took place in the companion sample kept in 
the dark. The results of the experiment are given in Table 
II. An examination of them shows that, while the total 
reduction in color was greatest during the summer months, 
the reduction per 100 hours of bright sunlight is practically 
constant for all seasons of the year. It is also seen that the 
reduction in color varies almost directly with the amount of 
color present, being in each case about 20 per cent, of the 
original color. 

An experiment was also arranged to see if the sunlight 
affected the water applied to the filters and the various efflu- 
ents alike. The results are given in Table III. The only 
differences noticed are slight, and appear to be due to differ- 
ences in the original colors. 

The following experiments were made to determine, if 
possible, in what manner the reduction in color by expos- 
ure to sunlight was brought about. 

As the exposure of a sample of water to sunlight was 
accompanied by an increase in temperature of the water, an 
experiment was arranged in which the temperature of the 
water was maintained at a high point without exposure to 
sunlight. Two samples of a very highly colored water 



"Water-Supply Department. 81 

from the bottom of Lake Cochituate were kept on the radi- 
ator in the office, one covered with a black cloth bag and 
the other exposed to the light. They were kept in this man- 
ner from October 27, 1891, to December 8, 1892; the 
average temperature during the interval was 93° Fahr. 
The sample kept in the black bag was reduced in color from 
4.50 to 4.00, or 0.50 ; the one exposed to the light was re- 
duced in color from 4.50 to 3.30, or 1.20. 

The results show that heat alone was not the cause of the 
reduction in color. 

Experiments to see if sedimentation would hasten the re- 
duction of color were arranged. Samples of water were 
exposed in glass jars having disks of glass arranged in a 
series of horizontal layers about one-half inch apart, being 
separated by small pieces of glass. Samples were also ex- 
posed in glass tubes four feet long. Observations on the 
reduction in color of the water near the top and at the bot- 
tom of the tubes were made. No increased reduction of 
color was noticed in either case due to sedimentation. 

From an examination of the results of all of the exper- 
iments that had been made, it did not appear that the sed- 
iment in the samples exposed to sunlight was any greater 
than in the samples kept in the dark. 

It was thought that the reduction of color in the samples 
exposed to sunlight might be due to a chemical change «:oino- 

1*111 •/» ooo 

on, caused either by the action of bacteria or by the ac- 
tinic rays of the sun's light. 

That the reduction was due to the action of bacteria did 
not seem probable, for in several cases examinations were 
made, and the results always showed that the organisms and 
bacteria died out in the samples exposed to sunlight and in 
the samples kept in the dark. 

An experiment made to see if the reduction in color was 
due to chemical action, due to the actinic rays of the sun's 
light, was arranged as follows : 

Samples of water from the same source were exposed to 
sunlight in bottles of different colored glass, companion 
samples being kept in the dark. 

The colors of the bottles used were white, blue, yellow, 
and red. The experiments were continued for two months. 
From the means of these given in Table IV. it appears that 
the color of the water was reduced the most in the white 
and blue bottles, being about the same in both cases. The 
reduction of color of the water in the yellow and red bot- 
tles was only about one-half as much, showing that the blue 
or actinic rays were the most effective in reducing the color. 

In what way the sun's rays produce the reduction in the 



82 City Document No. 39. 

color of a water is unknown. Downes and Blunt ] found that 
the action of sunlight entirely prevented the development of 
bacteria under favorable conditions, and that the red and 
orange-red rays delayed their development, while the blue 
and violet rays entirely prevented their growth. They ex- 
plain this action of light as due to the gradual process of 
oxidation, which is induced by the sun's rays in the 
presence of oxygen. It is possible some similar action 
takes place in the reduction of color by the sun's rays. 

The depth below the surface of a pond at which the sun's 
action would be effective in reducing the color of the water 
has not been investigated, but it would undoubtedly vary 
with the character of the water. 

Conclusion. 

From the foregoing experiments the following conclusions 
have been drawn : 

The color of waters such as we have been considering can 
be entirely removed by sufficient exposure to sunlight. 

The action is influenced but slightly, if at all, by increase 
in temperature. 

Sedimentation does not increase the action to any appre- 
ciable extent. 

The amount of reduction in the color of a given water is 
the same per 100 hours of sunlight at all seasons of the 
year. 

The amount of the reduction varies almost directly with 
the amount of color present in the water. 

1 "Micro-Organisms in Water," by P. and G. C. Frankland, 1894. 



Water-Supply Department. 



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86 



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89 



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90 City Document No. 39. 

Quality of the Water. 

The water in Boston has been excellent in quality 
throughout the year. In December the tap water had a 
somewhat disagreeable, oily taste, due to Synura, Asterio- 
nella, and Anabasna (sterile form), which all came from 
Lake Cochituate, but on the average the number of organ- 
isms found in the water has been unusually low. 

The following tables give, first, the average condition of 
the water as delivered to the consumer, and then means of 
monthly analyses of different parts of the sources of supply. 
They afford a ready means of comparison with the condition 
of the water as given in the last annual report. 

The other tables contain the results of examinations made 
at the biological laboratory, a table for changing colors from 
the Nessler to the platinum standard, and a table of annual 
expenditures and rainfall. 

Very truly yours, 

Desmond FitzGeeald, 

Resident Engineer and Superintendent. 



Water-Supply Department. 



91 





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City Document No. 39. 



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Water-Supply Department. 



93 



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City Document No. 39. 



8 «S 



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Water-Supply Department. 



95 



Pi 

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Infusoria. 

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j Infusoria. 

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( Infusoria. 

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( Infusoria. 
/ Chlorophycere. 
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< Diatomaceae. 
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( Infusoria. 
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March . . . 
April .... 
May .... 
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July .... 
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September . 

October . . . 

November . 
December . . 


a 
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96 



City Document No. 39. 



OS 



Remaeks. 


Infusoria. 

( Chlorophyce.ie. 
J Infusoria. 
( Diatomacese. 

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January 
February . 
March . . 
April . . . 
May . . . 
June . . . 
July . . . 
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September 

October . . 
November 
December . 


a 
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Water-Supply Department. 



97 



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Si 9 






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CO 


CO 


in 




CO 


in 






























1 




» 




CO 


t- 


rH 


<N 


<* 


■«# 


© 


iH 


OS 


CO 


■* 


OS 


| O 




^ 


-* 




Q 


CC 


o 






















CO 














^ 


CO 


in 


■5* 




1 ° 






























1 






o 


H 


os 


<N 


fc. 


OS 


o 


OS 


CO 


CO 


05 


■* 


a 






s 


CO 


CO 


CO 


© 




o 




















m 




M 








L- 


1^ 


*" 


CO 




Tt> 


CO 










„_ 


CN 


o 


to 


o 


•* 


CO 


iH 


*=H 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 






o 


-* 


ii3 








CO 




rH 














oi 


PQ 


















cu 


ITS 


CO 


CO 


in 


































^ 




t- 


CO 


in 


CO 


IH 


CO 


^ 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


05 


CO 






S 


CO 


-* 


o 




(M 




















<1 


CO 


co 






CO 


*~ 


t- 




CO 


in 


CO 


CO 


in 




































<N 


o 


© 


CO 


CO 


o 


in 


OS 


OS 


m 


CM 


o 


rH 






3 


CO 


CO 


o 


L~ 


CO 


CO 


CO 


















0Q 






















CO 


CO 


m 








© 


CO 


,_, 


■* 


J, 


T* 


^_ 


o 


OS 


CM 




© 


h< 




H 


o 






















55 








3 


W 




CO 


-* 


-tf 




■* 


■* 


-* 


■* 


-f 


CO 


T* 


































































w ■ 


tj 




<M 




fc- 


rH 


OS 


CO 






CO 


»o 


lO 


© 




o 
O 


s 






en 


<M 
























CO 


CO 


■5)1 


■* 


•* 


■5* 


•<* 


H4 


■* 


■^ 


CO 


^ 




M 
































u 


1H 


OS 


*- 


CO 


iffl 


CO 


t- 


CM 


rH 


CO 


-^ 


CO 


CO 




H? 





in 


in 


OS 


CO 


rH 


o 










5? 










0Q 


















CO 




CO 


m 




w 
































H 
































& 
































o 
































a 




































if 



a 

C3 


if 

a 

s 


3 


r, 
ft 
■A 


>> 


CD 

a 
3 
l-B 


p 

rj 


l 
3 


fH 

CD 

s 

CD 

O, 
CD 

02 


CD 

o 
o 

O 


It 

,a 

a 

CD 

> 

o 


CD 

§ 

o 

09 

ft 


a 

CD 

3 





100 



City Document jNo. 39. 



Temperatures (Fahrenheit), 1894. 



' 












Chestnut Hill 
Reservoir 

GrATE-HoUSES. 


Chestnut Hill 
Reservoir. 


GO 


Taps. 




















Month. 


■a 
m 


01 

a 
g 

3 

o 

o . 
O 


+3 

a 
o 

p 

m 


oi 

C3 
u 

a 
m 


6 


a 

o 

o 
M 


M 
o 

o 

K 

ffl 
37.2 


a 1 

M 

03 


a 

ft 
a 

C3 


January . 












35.8 


38.3 


37.1 


36.8 


36.8 


37.1 


41.3 


39.6 


February . 
March . . 












35.6 


37 6 


36.3 








36.8 


37.0 


38.1 












40.0 


41.2 


41.1 


42.5 


42.7 


43.0 


41.0 


41.9 


38.9 


April . . . 












45.7 


46.1 


45.2 


45.9 


44.7 


44.7 


45.4 


46.4 


43.1 


May . . . 












60.4 


59.9 


59.9 


61.1 


60.3 


56.4 


60.6 


59.3 


51.1 


June . . . 












66.0 


65.9 


64.9 


70.2 


67.1 


62.1 


66.4 


66.3 


57.7 


July . . . 












73.6 


75.3 


73.3 


77.5 


73.8 


60.6 


75.1 


73.6 


63.9 


August . . 












71.9 


72.8 


72.5 


73.3 


72.0 


65.6 


72.9 


72.4 


66.3 


September 












67.5 


69.1 


68.9 


69.3 


68.2 


67.1 


68.7 


69.3 


63.0 


October . . 












56.5 


57.6 


57.4 


57.3 


57.2 


57.1 


57.4 


58.0 


59.2 


November . 












43.6 


45.6 


43.8 


43.5 


44.0 


43.8 


44.1 


46.4 


50.6 


December . 












36.9 


37.9 


36.0 








37.6 


38.7 


42.8 




52.8 


53.9 


53.0 


54.2 


53.5 


51.1 


53.6 


54.2 


51.2 



Water-Supply Department. 



101 






o 







■ 












Ol 


t^. 


CM 


-e 


o 


oa 


1 o» 






































■iu9ri{fni 


1 




• 






CM 




rt 


^ 


1-1 


1-< 


rt 


1 ^ 






















CO 




CO 


tfS 


i en 




































































JO 










































£ 


—' 




CO 














































•*oa 
















,-5 


rH 












<1 










































Ol 


a> 


CO 


CO 




cs 




o 


i s 




































•PIH 








































CO 






00 


CO 


CO 


in 


-* 








utig 






• 








I- 


U3 


»fi 








CO 










































CO 


CO 


CM 












© 




















































































CM 




CO 


CM 


^c 








































































15 


































cc 


















CM 


h* 








































nog 






























<1 

pq 


















































ho 














•PIH 


a- 


00 












CO 


ȣ0 


IO 


lO 


co 








IN 


o 




























•jng 


a 


00 


t- 




t— 






CO 


U0J 


»o 




CD 










1 o. 




U0 












iO 




,_! 










•laenpaj 


1 ^ 




CO 


o> 


rH 


co 


o 

rH 


rH 




00 


CM 


OS 




































































































CO 

8 


































o 


CO 


CO 




00 












c 








































•;og 












rH 


















pq 


































cm 




CO 








o 






CM 


CM 










































PIH 




































:o 




rH 


CM 


— 


CO 
















•jng 










00 


00 


cs 










CO 










CO 


CO 


(N 


^ 


US 




t- 








~ uo 










•inanuni 










CN 






O 


OS 




- 


O 


OJ 






CM 




CO 




CO 






















■nBaj^ 






t- 




as 




00 




CO 




O 








IN 
g 
CO 




































CO 


CO 




CO 










CO 










"log 










CJ5 


I-t 


CO 








o 




°l 




< 
































w 




<N 


>o 






CO 






















































'P\K 
























rH 








CN 


CO 




























•jng 


a> 








o 




00 








o 


rH 


00 








t. 


CT> 


ICO 


-t 


■* 


o 




r_< 




,_, 




GO 








































































































to 




CO 




CO 




















P 


•aeaj^ 












CO 




CO 


»C5 


IO 


CO 


CO 


CO 




H 
































a 
o 




o 




e 


o 


o 


01 


















■*og 










CO 


U3 


o 


CO 


CM 

1-1 


o 


CO 




co 




O 


































iO 


-f 


oo 


o 




CO 


















M 

Hi 


•piw 


"! 






CO 


01 


01 


01 


01 


01 


CM 


CO 


CO 






































cm 




OO 
























•ang 








CM 


CM 


01 


01 


CM 




CM 


CO 




CM 






W 
































H 
































fc 
































O 

2 




,4 










a 

60 

3 






2 


U 

-3 


CO 








c 





03 


t. 


>> 


- 


>> 


Ph 


O 


> 
o 


CO 


3 








i-s 


Ph 


a 


«l 


3 


*s 


i-s 


<1 


02 


o 


fc 


c 







102 



City Document No. 39. 



Colors, 1894. (Platinum.) 



Month. 



January . 
February . 
March . . 
April . . . 
May . . . 
June . . . 
July . . . 
August . . 
September 
October . . 
November 
December , 

Mean . . 



Chestnut Hill 

Reservoir 

Gate-Houses. 



.65 
.72 
.85 
1.06 
.87 
.74 
.76 
.68 
.94 
.94 



.81 



.64 
.59 
.54 
.53 
.55 
.57 
.65 
.53 
.54 
.49 
.58 
.77 



.58 



Chestnut Hill 
Reservoir. 



.56 
.56 
.55 
.56 
.54 
.75 
.55 
.50 
.58 






Taps. 



.56 

.54 
.53 
.54 
.59 
.63 
.51 
.54 
.49 
.59 
.71 



.57 
.50 
.47 
.45 
.46 
.53 
.56 
.46 
.48 
.43 
.51 
.64 

.51 



Water-Supply Department. 



103 



Bacteria, 1894. 



Month. 



January , 
February , 
March . , 
April , . . 
May . . . 
June . . . 
July . . . 
August . . 
September 
October . . 
November 
December . 

Mean . , 



Chestnut Hill 

Reservoir 
Gate-Houses. 



294 

436 

137 

48 

54 

65 

789 

26 

65 

95 

85 

49 



20 

141 

74 

22 

58 

24S 

1,553 

192 

192 

387 

161 

44 



97 

148 

110 

76 

71 

90 

1,080 

221 

219 

242 

228 

124 



Chestnut Hill 
Reservoir. 



25 

152 

36 



101 
77 
260 
180 
647 
569 
152 
181 
120 



110 
50 
298 
187 
650 
701 
432 
225 



ga 
m 



52 

70 

40 

57' 

47 

80 
164 

83 

64 
126 

37 

17 



Taps. 



73 

42 

32 

32 

30 

157 

46 

102 

109 

29 

50 

27 



30 

72 
107 
92 
80 
65 
60 
42 
30 
22 



104 



City Document No. 39. 



Table for Transforming Color Readings from the "Ness- 
ler " to the " Platinum " Standard. 



Natural 
Watbb Standard. 


1 
O 


.Ol 


.02 


.o:t 


.04 


.05 


.06 


.or 


.08 


.09 





.18 
.26 
.33 
.39 
.46 


.02 

.19 

.27 

.34 

.40 

.47 

.53 

.58 

.64 

.71 

.82 

.89 

.96 

1.03 

1.10 

1.17 

1.23 

1.30 

1.37 

1.44 


.04 

.20 

.27 

.34 

.40 

.47 

.53 

.59 

.64 

.72 

.82 

.89 

.96 

1.03 

1.10 

1.17 

1.23 

1.30 

1.37 

1.44 


.06 

.20 

.28 

.35 

.41 

.48 

.54 

.59 

.65 

.73 

.83 

.90 

.97 

1.04 

1.11 

1.18 

1.24 

1.31 

1.38 

1.45 


.08 

.21 

.29 

.35 

.42 

.48 

.54 

.60 

.66 

.74 

.84 

.91 

.98 

1.05 

1.12 

1.18 

1.25 

1.32 

1.39 

1.46 


.09 

.22 

.29 

.36 

.42 

.49 

.55 

.60 

.66 

.75 

.84 

.91 

.98 

1.05 

1.12 

1.19 

1.25 

1.32 

1.39 

1.46 


.11 

.23 

.30 

.37 

.43 

.50 

.56 

.61 

.67 

.77 

.85 

.92 

.99 

1.06 

1.13 

1.20 

1.26 

1.33 

1.40 

1.47 


.13 

.24 

.31 

.37 

.44 

.50 

.56 

.61 

.68 

.78 

.86 

.93 

1.00 

1.07 

1.14 

1.20 

1.27 

1.34 

1.41 

1.48 


.15 

.24 

.32 

.38 

.45 

.51 

.57 

.62 

.69 

.79 

.87 

.94 

1.01 

1.08 

1.15 

1.21 

1.28 

1.35 

1.42 

1.49 


.17 




.26 




.32 




.38 




.45 




.51 




.57 




.58 

.63 

.70 

.81 

.88 

.95 

1.02 

1.09 

1.16 

1.29 
1.36 
1.43 


.62 




.69 




.80 




.87 




.94 




1.01 




1.08 




1.15 




1.21 




1.28 
1.36 




1.42 




1.49 





























Water-Supply Department. 



105 



a 

H 



CO 
3 

s 

© 



r»s 





CO t-i 


00 


CO 


(M 


WO 


CM 


CO 


3 


CM 


cs 


wo 


cc 








3 


•* 


-f 


O 


ICO 


00 


o 


^* 




CM 


o 




rH O 


t- 


CM 


CO 


00 


iro 


■* 




CO 


CO 


o 


3 




O 00 


eo 






-f 






CO 


■* 


00 




3 


•stoox 


O CM 


t- 


© 


C^ 


CO 


•* 


CO 


01 




OT; 


CO 


3 




























CO CO 




CO 


co- 


00 


00 


t^ 


en 


-f 


en 








€& 
















1-1 




rH 


3 




























<* 




CD ( 


o> 


wo 


co 


00 


CO 


CO 


CO 






3 


CN 










ffi 


CD 


CO 


CM 


CM 


CO 




CO 


-f 


3 


3 




V 


CO 


CO 


o 




»i0 


OS 


3 


3 


3 


en 






•noi^BJi.ii.j 




■* 


co 


>* 


CO 


■* 


CO 
CO 


-f 




3 


CN 


en 


1— 




4& 






















■<* 




























» 






CO 


CM 


CO 


rH 


CM 


CO 


CO 


*a 


<M 


■* 




CM 




C\ 


CO 


t- 


CO 


00 


o 


-!• 




wo 


cn 


en 


^ 


CO 


•jdacr 


C 


^* 


CN 

00 


(M 


00 

3 


lO 

en 


CM 


CM 

— . 


Ji 


CO 


^* 


wo 


CM 


noijogdsaj 


<» ■* 


CO 


■* 


H* 


CO 


00 


CO 


^* 


CO 


(CO 


t " 


"^ 




























» 






CO 




'tf 


3 


CM 


CO 


CO 






-r 


en 


CO 




IT 


CO 




wo 






o> 




o 


CO 




eo 


^* 


ndaa 


O. 


iH 


CO 


CO 

-r 


CO 


CO 


CO 

iro 


p 


H* 


-+ 


00 
CO 


CO 
00 


fl 


XBoiSototg 


» eo 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CM 


01 


CO 


CO 


CM 


H* 


co" 




























«& 






o 




o 


3 


i-O 


3 


io 


o 


wo 


3 


3 


^t< 






wo 




CM 


3 


r-t 


3 




3 


en 


CO 


^r 


rH 


MT0AJ999 , a; 




s 


CO 


CM 


-r 


CO 

3 


CO 


en 

CO 


CM 


00 

CO 


co 


3 


CM 

CO 


IIIH -laqsi.! 




H» 






rH 










CM 


■* 


00 


€& 






lO 


o 


o 


O 




3 


l!0 


*o 






U0 










wo 


Ir- 


o 


en 


3 


•CM 




Tf 


oo 


CM 


■* 


•jtoAjasg'ji 




CM 


CO 


00 


3 


CO 


CO 


CO 
CO 


CO 


rH 
00 


CO 

CO 


O 
CM 


CO 


ani^ooaa 


























rH^ 




-1 


CM 




CO 


CO 


wo 


3 


CO 


CM 


a> 


fr- 


00 


CO 




ec 


Jt— 




CM 


CM 


CO 


CO 




a> 


co 


OO 




CO 


'ABAVOAUQ 


a 


CM 


,_, 


3 


00 


en 


Ol 


3 


^_ 


CO 


00 


-# 


CO 


iiih 


t 


3 


oo 


-t< 




M 


-f 




CO 


00 


00 


CM 


00 


<¥ 


r CO 


t- 


oo 


CO 


O^ 


c^ 


CO 


r-H^ 


00 


CM 


GO 


T-I. 


itin^saqo 












rH 


rt 


rH 


1-1 




rT 




CM 




c 




rH 


r4 


H* 


>o 


rH 


CO 


CM 


CO 


r^ 


CO 


CO 








o 


3 


00 


CM 


© 


CO 


CM 




CO 


Tjl 


rH 


•IIOAJ9S3 , a; 


c 


en 


Jr- 


CO 


3 


CO 


7-1 


en 


^ 


w 


WO 


00 


,_( 


lira 




CO 


en 


CO 






CO 




3 


en 




3 


CM 


c 


o 




3 


en 






en 


a^ 


en 




CM 


•H^ 


?nn;saqo 


■# 


* !-T 


rH * 


i-T 




r " r 


rt " 




rt " 




** 


cm" 


wo" 
4& 




IT 


3 




wo 


■* 




-f 


»o 




-r 


-v 




00 






CO 


CO 


CO 


CM 




o 


Tjl 




■* 


3 






•s-teana 


c 


CO 










CO 


■* 


■* 






CM 


wo 




o 


o 


wo 


CM 


0-1 




CO 




-f 


c; 






treSaj 


5 


CO 


^f 


wo 


-* 


■* 


CM 


CM 




°i. 


eo 


WO 


3 

cm" 

■C* 




c 


o 


o 




CO 


CM' 




OO 


CO 




CO 


CO 


OO 




cc 


o 


CO 


o 


3 






CO 


CM 




CO 


CO 


3 


•8:p3iHiqooQ 


c 


OS 


o 


o 
so 


o 

CO 


o 


o 


00 

CO 


CO 


W3 
CO 


CO 


WO 
CM 


3 
3 


a^raq; 


# 


r-l 


3^ 


CO 


IH 


CM 


C) 


CM 


CM 


rf 


en 


CO 


3. 
wo" 






WO 


CO 


WO 




CM 


3 


-f 


CO 




CO 


T-I 


CM 






Jr- 


00 


o 




■* 


O 


CO 


wo 


CM 


CO 


CO 


tr- 


"tonpanby 


w 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 

3 


3 
CN 


01 


OS 


CO 

CO 


00 
CO 


CM 

CM 


CO 
3 


ico 

3 


sienjiqooQ 


•Sf 


r IH 


(M 


wo 






rH 


rH 




CM 


CO 




C0_ 
cm" 




a 


3 


o 


CO 


■* 


CO 


-f 




cs 






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106 



City Document No. 39. 



Table of Rainfall at Chestnut Hill Reservoir for Year ending 
December 31, 1894. 



Date. 


o 

o 
a 

M 


on* 

p h 
m 


Duration. 


Date. 


o 

1— I 


°.s 

m 


Duration. 


Jan. 5 
" ' 6 


0.02 
0.04 


Rain. 
Snow. 


11.45 a.m. to 6.30 p.m. 
6.30 p.m. to 11.45 p.m. 


Mar. 25 
" 26 


( 0.04 


Rain and 

Snow. 


2.00 p.m. to 

6.15 a.m. 


" 10 
" 15 
" 16 


0.17 
| 0.30 


Rain. 


2.15 p.m. to 11.45 p.m. 
10.00 p.m. to 

7.30 a.m. 


" 29 


0.22 


Rain and 

Snow. 


4.30 a.m. to 8.30 p.m. 


Total. 


1.14 






" 18 


{ 0.14 


« 


10.00 p.m. to 

7.00 a.m. 










" 19 










" 24 


) 




3.00 p.m. to 


Apr. 4 


0.43 


Rain. 


10.00 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. 


" 25 


[ 0.43 




4.00 a.m. 


" 6 


0.02 


" 


9.25 a.m. to 3.00 p.m. 


" 26 

" 27 


( 1.30 


Snow. 


10.00 p.m. to 

5.00 p.m. 


" 7 
" 8 


1 
1 
\ 1.08 


Snow. 


10.30 p.m. 
to 


" 29 
" 30 


| 1.50 


Snow and 
Rain. 


2.00 p.m. to 

2.30 p m. 


" 9 
" 11 

" 12 
" 13 


J 

i 

} 1.41 
1 


Snow and 
Rain. 


1.30 p.m. 
7.00 p.m. 


Total. 


3.90 






to 










" 14 
" 21 
" 24 


J 

0.08 
0.22 


Rain. 


8.00 a.m. 


Feb. 4 
" 5 


I 0.23 
J 0.68 


Snow. 

Snow and 
Rain. 


2.30 p.m. to 

2.30 a.m. 
12.45 p.m. to 

1.15 p.m. 


11.40 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. 
1.45 p.m. to 11.45 p.m. 


" 9 
" 10 


Total. 


3.24 






" 12 


| 1.20 


Snow. 


4.25 p-m. to 

3.30 p.m. 










" 13 








' 


" 15 

" 18 


0.95 
0.36 


Snow and 
Rain. 
Rain. 


1.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. 
5.00 a.m. to 2.30 p.m. 


May 4 
" 5 


0.26 
( 0.30 


Rain. 


5.30 p.m. to 11.30 p.m. 
6.30 p.m. to 


" 19 


) 




3.35 p.m. to 


6 


J 




11.30 a.m. 


" 20 


J 0.35 


« 


4.45 a.m. 


" 19 


0.65 


CI 


12.05 a.m to 3.30 a.m. 


" 26 


0.04 


Snow. 


9.00 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. 


" 20 
«« 21 

" 23 
" 24 
" 25 


| 0.07 

i 0.95 
0.05 


ic 


6.00 a.m. to 

3.30 p.m. 


Total. 


3.81 






11.30 a.m. to 

8.00 p.m. 


Mar. 14 


0.12 


Rain. 


12.30 a.m. to2.30p.m- 


6.00 p.m. to 7.30 p.m. 


" 15 


0.15 


Snow. 


3.50 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. 


" 29 


1.17 


" 


2.00 a.m. to 11.45 a.m. 


" 21 


0.04 
| 0.57 


Rain. 


1.20 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. 
6.15 p.m. to 

2.00 p.m. 


" 31 
Total. 


0.82 




2.45 a.m. to 11.50 p.m. 


" 22 

" 23 


4.27 







Water-Supply Department. 107 

Table of Rainfall at Chestnut Hill Reservoir. — Concluded. 



Date. 


A 

o 
a 


°s* 


Duration. 


Date. 


Inches. 


m 


Duration. 


June 2 
" 3 


| 0.15 


Rain. 


6.40 p.m. to 

3.00 a.m. 


Oct. 4 
" 5 


| 0.46 


Rain. 


4.00 a.m. to 

7.30 a.m. 


« 21 


0.05 


" 


12.50 p.m. to 1.10 p.m. 


" 9 
" 10 
" 13 
" 14 
" 25 
" 26 


0.31 
1.72 

J 1.32 


' 


2.00 a.m. to 7.30 a.m. 
5.30 a.m. to 5.00 p.m. 
12.30 p.m. to 

3.30 a.m. 
3.15 p.m. to 

4.30 a.m. 


Total. 


0.20 






July 3 
3 


j 0.13 


Rain. 


5.00 a.m. to 7.45 a.m. 
2.20 p.m. to 2.40 p.m. 


" 14 
" 21 


0.07 
1.13 




12.40 p.m. to 1.00 p.m. 
1.00 p.m. to 2.00 p.m. 


" 30 
" 31 


| 0.52 


« 


8.30 a.m. to 

5.00 p.m. 


" 22 
" 24 


0.31 
0.80 




3.00 a.m. to 7.45 a.m. 
2.15 a.m. to 3.15 p.m, 












Total. 


6.04 






" 25 


0.82 




6.30 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. 


















" 29 


0.07 




9.00 p.m. to 10.00 p.m. 


Nov. 3 


0.60 


Rain. 


7.45 a.m. to 12.50 p.m. 










5 
" 6 


| 1.43 


Rain and 
Snow. 




Total. 


3.33 






6.45 a.m. 










" 8 
" 9 
" 10 


0.37 
I 0.30 


Snow. 

Snow and 
Rain. 


11.15 a.m. to 8.00p.m. 
1.30 p.m. to 

10.30 a.m. 


Aug. 3 
" 4 


0.12 
0.03 


Rain. 


7.00 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. 
6.30 a.m. to 10.00 a.m. 


" 9 


0.27 


" 


4.00 a.m. to 8.30 a.m. 


" 14 


0.17 


Rain. 


8.30 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. 


" 9 
" 10 


| 0.10 


« 


9.00 p.m. to 

6.30 a.m. 


" 17 
" 21 


0.11 
0.21 


: 


10.30 a.m. to 4.15 p.m. 
8.45 a.m. to 7.30 p.m. 


" 13 


25 


" 


4.30 a.m. to 10.00 a.m. 


" 25 


0.12 


Snow. 


1.00 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. 


« 14 
" 20 


0.10 
1.40 


" 


5.00 a.m. to 7.15 a.m. 
11.50 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. 


" 30 


0.10 


" 


12.45 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. 




Total. 


3.41 






Total. 


2.27 














0.47 
i 0.78 


Snow. 

Snow and 
Rain. 


8.15 a.m. to 6.45 p.m. 
12.30 p.m. to 

11.30 p.m. 


Sept. 6 
" 8 


0.05 
0.34 


Rain. 


3.00 a.m. to 6.15 a.m. 
3.00 p.m. to 9.30 p.m. 


8 
" 9 


" 10 
" 15 


0.02 
0.12 




6.30 p.m. to 7.30 p.m. 
5.00 a.m. to 6.00 a.m. 


" 11 
" 12 


| 0.94 


Snow and 
Rain. 


8.00 a.m. to 

7.30 p.m. 


" 17 


0.15 




9.30 a.m. to 12.15 p.m. 


" 25 


0.22 


Rain. 


1.00 a.m. to 6.15 a.m. 


" 19 
" 20 


[ 1.82 




1.30 p.m. to 

9.30 a.m. 


" 26 

" 27 


| 1.65 


Snow and 
Rain. 


8.30 p.m. to 

1.30 p.m. 


Total. 


2.50 






Total. 


4.06 







Note. — Total Rainfall for year, 38.17 inches. 



108 City Document No. 39. 



APPENDIX B. 



KEPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE 
EASTERN DIVISION. 



Water-Supply Department. Eastern Division, 

Boston, Mass., February 1, 1895. 

Col. Thomas F. Doherty, 

Chairman Boston Water Board: 
Dear Sir : I herewith respectfully submit the annual 
report of the Eastern Division for the year ending January 
31,1895: 

Extension or Mains. 

During the year there have been laid 17.9 miles of pipe 
mains, and 27,111 feet of pipe have been abandoned, mak- 
ing a total of 572.8 miles now connected with the system. 

A 36-inch force main was laid from the High Service 
Pumping Station at Chestnut Hill to Fisher Hill Reservoir, 
and there was also a 20-inch main laid in Brookline through 
Centre, Harvard, and Fuller streets. This pipe was laid by 
the town of Brookline, we furnishing the pipe and paying 
them for the labor. 

The work of relaying a 20- inch and a 12-inch pipe across 
Dover-street bridge is almost complete, there being only a 
small piece on the South Boston side to take up, and this 
we expect to do as soon as the weather permits. 

There were laid for the Park Department system 1,505 
feet of 8-inch pipe through Jamaicaway between Perkins 
and Pond and Pond and Prince streets. This pipe is not 
included in the total number of miles laid in our system. 

Stop-cocks. 

The number of stop-cocks established during the year was 
241. Of this number there were two 36-inch connected 
with the 36-inch force main, and in addition to these there 
was a 36-inch check-valve put on. Forty-eight stop-cocks 
were abandoned, making the total number now in service 
6,359, all of which have received the usual attention in mat- 
ters of oiling, testing, etc. 



Water-Supply Department. 109 



Hydrants. 

Two hundred and forty-nine hydrants were established 
and 74 abandoned, making a net increase for the year of 
175, and there are now 6,2 L7 in service connected with the 
system. 

Sixteen of the new-pattern post hydrants with indepen- 
dent shut-off were put in during the year. There are still 
] ,125 Boston hydrants, old pattern, in service, and I recom- 
mend that during this coming season 100 of them be re- 
placed by hydrants of the Lowry or Post pattern. 

Special attention has been paid to all complaints made by 
the Fire Department, such as raising or lowering hydrant 
barrels or boxes. All hydrants have been examined and 
oiled frequently during the summer, and have also had their 
usual care during the cold weather. The Fire Department is 
furnished by this department with the salt used on hy- 
drants, and we have delivered of this to the various houses 
of the department during the year 4,734 sacks. 

Service-Pipes. 

Most of the pipes that were connected with the Jamaica 
Pond system have been relaid and connected to our pipes 
during the year. They were in most cases £-inch pipes 
which did not give a sufficient supply, and were replaced by 
f-inch. 

Under the present law ot laying out new streets we were 
obliged to lay 103 pipes in Newbury street, 55 in Ivy street, 
74 in Mountfort street, 128 in Parker street, and 32 in St. 
Germain street, making a total of 392 pipes from which no 
revenue is derived at present. 

During the year 2,451 service-pipes have been laid, with 
an aggregate length of 59,781 feet, and 481 have been aban- 
doned, making a net increase of 1,970 pipes during the 
year. 

Water-Posts. 

Twenty-nine water-posts were erected, and 4 abandoned, 
making the number now in use 366. These are erected at 
the request of the Superintendent of Streets or his agent. 
All repairs on them are made by us, and charged to the 
Street Department. 

Fountains. 

Fountains have had their usual care during the year. 
Two for the use of man have been erected : one on Dale 



110 Citt Document No. 39. 

street opposite Washington park, and the other on Dudley 
street, at Guild row. That at Union Depot was changed 
from a single to a double fountain. In East Boston the 
fountain for the use of animals, situated on Bennington 
street, corner of Chelsea street, was replaced by a new 
one. 

From a humane consideration and a love for dumb ani- 
mals, I would suggest that too many of these fountains can- 
not be established. 

Keservoirs. 

East Boston. — The bank on the north of the reservoir 
was sowed with grass-seed in the spring, and rammed. The 
fence around the grounds was painted, together with the 
house that is used as the headquarters for the men of the 
district. All the grounds have been paid their usual atten- 
tion. 

Parker Hill. — During the summer special attention was 
paid to the care of the grounds ; the keeper's house was 
painted, as was the gate-house, steps, and the fence around 
the grounds. 

South Boston. — Owing to the care they have received, 
the grounds are in exceptionally good condition. A sad 
accident occurred December 25. One Alexander Wilkin- 
son, an eight-year old boy, while skating, broke through the 
ice and was drowned. His body was recovered. To avoid 
further accidents of like nature, the ice has since been 
broken up. 

High-Service Tanks. 

The tanks at Mt. Bellevue and Breed's island are in good 
condition. During the coming year it will be necessary to 
paint both of them. The surrounding grounds are in good 
condition. 

Meters. 

Cochituate Division. — Four hundred and twenty-four 
meters have been set, 131 have been discontinued, and 6 
have been lost in service, making a net gain of 287, and the 
total number now in use, 4,333. 

Mystic Division. — Fifty-five have been set, and 22 dis- 
continued, making a net increase of 33, and the total now 
in service, 494. 



Water-Supply Department. Ill 



Waste Detection. 

Premises examined ...... 69,239 

" on which defective fixtures were found, 11,035 

" reexamined ..... 12,701 

Second notice to repair . . . . . 1,525 

Wilful-waste notices issued .... 123 

The defective fixtures may be divided into the 

following classes : 

Ball-cocks and valves ..... 7,333 

Faucets, sink-bowls, hopper, and bath-tubs . 4,524 

Service-pipes burst inside building • ... 72 

Wilful waste 123 

In connection with the Deacon meter system, out of 2,504 
night examinations by means of the sidewalk stop-cocks, 
there were found 765 defective fixtures, and 41 wilful waste. 
There were also 100 hand-hose reported for non-payment. 



Deacon Meter System. 

Work was commenced April 1, and ended for the season 
December 1. During this period all sections on the Coehit- 
uate system were tested once, and most of them twice. On 
the Mystic system there were no tests made, partly on ac- 
count of the main being laid through Chelsea street, and 
later on account of the dry summer and consequent fall of 
Mystic lake. 

There are now connected with the system 83 meters ; 76 
on the Cochituate and 7 on the Mystic. 

The following table shows a summary of the results 
attained : 



112 



City Document No. 39. 









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Water-Supply Department. 113 

High-Service Stations. 

Chestnut Hill. — No. 1 pump has been overhauled, and 
such parts as were found to he badly worn were taken out 
and their dimensions taken for new pieces, with w T hich they 
will be replaced as soon as possible. 

The same may be said of No. 2 pump. The boilers have 
been carefully examined and such repairs and additions as 
were necessary have been made. The dynamo engines have 
been overhauled and the armature taken out and repaired. 

The new Engine No. 3 was started for the first time on 
December 2, and has received several trials to date. 

East Boston and West Moxbuvy Stations. — There is 
little to say regarding these stations. They have been well 
cared for and are in good condition. 

Maintenance. 

Owing to the large amount of other work on hand during 
the past season, we have been unable to reach that of relay- 
ing a number of streets in the city proper, for which we 
have the permission of your Board. I hope to complete 
this work during the coming season, as a longer delay would 
be dangerous. 

Of repairs on pipes of all sizes we have made 1,703 
during the year. Of those on main pipes (349) we have 
found the most numerous causes to be defective joints (126), 
defective packing (101), and defective stop-cocks (25). 
The causes of leaks and stoppages on service-pipes, which 
number 1,354, are many, but chief among them are: Rust, 
501; fish, 50; struck by pick, 153; settling of earth, 222. 
It will be seen that these arc causes which cannot well be 
guarded against. On the whole, considering the amount of 
excavation performed by other departments, as well as by 
outside corporations, and the severity of the winter so for, 
I feel that we have been very fortunate. The following- 
tables show in detail the work performed by this depart- 
ment : 



114 



City Document No. 39. 



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Water-Supply Department. 



115 



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Water-Supply Department. 



117 



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118 



City Document No. 39. 



Statement of Location, Size, and Number of Feet of Pipe 
Laid during- the Year ending- January 31, 1895. 

Note. — B., indicates Boston; So. B., South Boston; E. B. East Boston; Rox., Roxbury; 

Dor., Dorchester: W. R., West Roxbury; Bri., Brighton; Brk., Brookline; 

Chn., Charlestown. 



In what Street. 


Between what Streets. 


5 




a 

Q> 


In the field 


Chestnut Hill ave. and Pumping-station . 


Bri. 


36-in, 


2,129 


Chestnut Hill ave. . . 




*' 


" 


169 


« ,< . 




Brk. 


" 


538 




Chestnut Hill ave. and Fisher Hill Resv. 


" 


<l 


2,618 
5,454 
















Chn. 


30-in. 


1,375 






Brk. 


■' 


95 




Chestnut Hill ave. and Pumping-statiou . 


Bri. 


" 


20 
1,490 














Scott's court and Chelsea ^bridge .... 


Chn. 


24-in. 


384 






W.R. 


" 


825 
1,209 
















B. 


20-in. 


646 






So. B. 


" 


382 






W.R. 


" 


300 






Brk. 


» 


1,666 






" 


« 


1,413 


Fuller st 




" 


" 


387 






4,794 
















Rox. 


16-in. 


30 






" 


" 


1,330 






Dor. 




2,798 
4,158 






— — 






B. 


12-in. 


309 




Washington st. and Harrison ave. . . . 


" 


'< 


346 






" 


" 


131 






" 


" 


141 










27 
954 



Water-Supply Department. 



119 



Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 


Between what Streets. 


strict. 













s 


M 










954 






B. 


12-in- 


24 












648 


D st 




« 






636 




S. B. 
E. B. 






172 




172 






" 






411 






" 






62 






" 






298 






" 






454 






Rox. 






14 






285 


St. Alphonsus st. . . . 
Massachusetts ave. . . 




« 






200 




«■ 






872 






" 






1,745 


Gainsborough st. . . . 




" 






24 






« 






135 






Dor. 






481 


W. Selden st 




: 






2,261 






425 




Rockville st. and ST. Y. & N. E., R.R. . 


" 






545 




Off Oakland st 


: 






368 






139 






" 






136 






■< 






165 






" 






236 




Dorch. ave. and N. Y., N. H. & H. R.R 


123 






,< 






1,262 






70 






" 






53 






« 






374 






598 






" 






36 


Jamaicaway 




W. R. 






1,338 








15,716 



120 



City Document No. 39. 



Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 


Between what Streets. 


j, 




Ji 






5 


6 


bo 

a 

ID 










15,716 






W. R. 


12-in. 


475 








» 


709 






" 


" 


120 




Off Belle ave 


■< 


u 


231 






" 


« 


774 






" 


" 


1,008 


Commonwealth ave. . 




Bri. 


« 


2 324 

2,314 

143 










190 






52 




Total 12 inch 


24,056 












B. 


10-in. 


200 




" 


" 




203 




" 


" 




199 






u 




33 






« 




384 


St. Germain at. . . . 


Massachusetts ave. and Dalton st. . . . 


" 




352 






S. B. 




501 




Off st 


844 




Rox. 




37fi 




Off Blue Hill ave 


Dor. 


I 


411 






333 






W.R. 


« 


492 






327 






Bri. 




245 

4,: ion 






B. 


8-in. 


no 




Washington st. and Harrison ave. . . . 


" 


" 


254 


Columbus ave 


Berkeley st. and the railroad bridge . . 


" 


" 


150 






" 


" 


915 






" 


" 


279 




Brookline avo. and Charlesgate West . . 


" 


" 


1,138 




2,846 



Water-Supply Department. 



121 



Statement of Location, Size, etc. 



Continued. 




Marine park . . . 
Wood Island park 
Farrington st. . . 
Chesterfield st. . . 
Homestead st. . . 

Leon st 

White st 

Waldeck st. . . , 

Lindsey st 

Magdala st. . . . , 
Oakridge st. . . 
Waldeck st. . . 
Ballou ave. . . . 
Welles ave. . . . 
Northern ave. . 
Templeton st. . 
Hutchinson st. . 
Holden st. . . . 
Argyle st. ... 
Rosseter st. . . 
Nightingale st. . 
Duncan st. . . . 
Adams st. ... 
Pierce ave. . . . 
Fenton st. ... 
Jamaicaway . . 
Farquliar;st. . . 
Montview st. . . 
Farrington st. . 
Landseer st, . . 
Parental School 
Aldrich st. . . . 
Mendum st. . . 
Ashland st. . . . 



Brought forward 

Oft Q st 

Off Parkway 

Orient ave. and Tower st. . . 

Off Massachusetts ave 

Humboldt and Elm Hill aves. 

Off Ruggles st 

Gleason st. and Glen Road . . 
Stratford and Lindsey sts. . . 

Off Waldeck st 

Codman and Van Winkle sts. . 
Morton and Codman sts. . . . 
Melville ave. and Tremlet park 
Jones ave. and Pratt st. ... 

Ocean and Argyle sts 

Whitfield and Washington sts. 
Adams st. and Dorchester ave. 
Codman and Brook sts. ... 

Off Boston st 

Ashmont st. and Talbot ave. . 
Bullard st. and Bowdoin ave. . 

Off Bernard st 

Greenwich and Fenton sts. . . 
Ashmont and Beaumont sts. . 

Off Adams st 

Fenton place and Clayton st. . 

Pond and Prince sts 

South and Selwyn sts 

Park and Mt. Vernon sts. . . 
Kenneth and Anawan aves. . 
La Grange and Bellevue sts. . 

Offspring 

Beech and Cornell sts. .... 
Fairview and Walter sts. . . . 
Sherwood st. and Brown ave. 
Carried forward ..... 



S. B. 

E. B. 



Dor. 



W. R. 



2,846 

IT 

802 

833 

24 

1,147 

17 

96 

59 

665 

399 

506 

74 

48 

51 

257 

1,277 

212 

48 

12 

341 

36 

129 

867 

6 

72 

1,667 

181 

382 

147 

191 

828 

354 

192 

365 

15,148 



122 



City Document No. 39. 



Statement of Location, Size, etc. —^Continued. 



In what Street. 



Woodlawn st. . . 

Clifford st 

Weld Hill St. . . . 

Temple st 

Perkins st. . , . . 
Stratford ave. . . 
Commonwealth ave 

Street 

Strathmore road . 
Commonwealth ave 

Haverhill st. . . . 
Falmouth st. . . . 
Chauncy st. ... 

Tufts st 

Fabin st 

Hathaway st. . . . 
Williams court . . 

India sq 

Raleigh st 

Bristol st 

Dover st 

Chandler st. . . . 
St. Botolph st. . . 
Chester place . . . 
West Fourth st. . 

Story st 

Fifth-st. place . . 

Falcon st 

Street 

Thurston st. . . . 

Falcon st 

Wood Island park 
W. Eagle st. . . . 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward 

Off Hyde Park ave , 

Canterbury and Grew sts 

Off Hyde Park ave 

Spring and Hillcrest sts 

Prince st. and Jamaica Way 

Anawan and Clement aves 

Harvard and Allston sts 

OffHobartst 

Commonwealth and Chestnut Hill aves 

Brighton ave. and Harvard st 

Total 8-inch 

Causeway st. and the water 

St. Paul and Norway sts 

Bedford st. and Rowe pi 

Kingston and Lincoln sts 

Newland and Ivanhoe sts 

Congress and Aldine sts. . • 

Washington st. and Court sq 

Atlantic ave. and India st 

Beacon st. and Bay State Road .... 
Albany st. and Harrison ave 



Berkeley and Tremont sts 

Albemarle and Cumberland sts. . . . 
Northampton st. and Shawmut ave, . 
Foundry st. and Dorchester ave. . . . 

G and H sts 

Off West Fifth st. . , 

Brooks and Putnam sts 

Off Bayswater st 

A new st. and Butler ave 

Border and Meridian sts 

Off Parkway 

Border and Meridian sts 

Carried forward 



W. R. 



B. 



B. 



So. B. 



E. B. 



6-in. 



15,148 

1,094 

1,007 

150 

221 

1,845 

96 

2,076 

71 

487 

10 

22,205 

355 

145 

242 

183 

410 

32 

10 

192 

189 

80 

205 

547 

197 

254 

408 

90 

211 

264 

309 

252 

144 

100 

293 

5,112 



Water-Supply Department. 



123 



Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



Morris st 

Addison st 

Carey st 

Chapel st 

Amory terrace . . . 
Notre Dame st. . . . 

Rock st 

Rockdale st 

Rand place 

Cherokee st 

Arundel st 

Ivy st 

Eldora st 

Landsdowne st. . . 
Moreland st 

Batavia st 

Whiting st 

Forbes st 

Roger ave 

Courtland st 

Cameron st 

Stanmore place . . . 

Lambert ave 

Cathedral st 

Roslin st 

Roach st 

Clinton st , 

Hartland st. ... 

Miller's lane . . . 

Norfolk terrace . . 

Cook st 

Ditson st 

Humphreys square 
Belfort st 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward . . 
Brooks and Putnam sts. 



Riverside and Terry sts 

Weston and Sarsfield sts 

Amory st. and Amory ave 

Dimock and Bragdon sts 

Regent and Rockland sts 

Off Cobden st 

Off Rand st 

Hillside and Pontine sts 

Beacon and Mountfort sts , 

St. Mary and Mountfort sts. ... 

Hillside and Sunset sts 

Massachusetts ave. and Allerton st. 
Dennis st. and Blue Hill ave. . . . 

Parker and Falmouth sts , 

Warren and Moreland sts 

Centre st. and Chestnut ave. . . . 
Parker st. and Huntington ave. . . 



Off Heath st 

Off Warren st 

Bartlett and Dudley sts 

Off Fenwick st 

Harley and Washington sts 

Pleasant st. and Dorchester ave. . . . 

Off Waterlow st 

Saxton st. and Tuttle ave 

Washington st. and Baker place . . . 
" Norfolk sts. . . . 

" Chamberlin sts. , 

Leroy and Westville sts 

Dudley and Iona sts 

Saxton st. and Dorchester ave. . . . 
Carried forward 



E. B. 



5,112 
112 
212 
47 
33 
117 
264 
144 
206 
24 
145 
322 
938 
36 
277 
56 
8 
159 
303 
24 
23 
40 
276 
153 
124 
266 
58 
67 
48 
36 
207 
120 
120 
167 
238 
1 10,482 



124 



City Document No. 39. 



Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



Freeman st. . . . 

Kilton st 

Bowdoin square 
Cushing place . 
Montague st. . . 
Tremlet park . . 

Leeds st 

Oak ave 

Morrill st. . . . 

Ast 

D st 

Willis st 

Withington st. , 
Stratford st. . , 
Remington st. 
Nottingham st. , 
Hopestill st. . . 
Clement st. . . . 
Elmont st. . . , 
Draper court . . 
Payson ave. . , 
Phillips place . . 
Auckland st. . . 
Salcomhe st. . . 
Gibson st. . . . 

White st 

Carlos st. ... , 
Lyndhurst st. . . 

Don st 

Paisley park . 
Street .... 
Mora st. . . . 
Corwin st. . . 
Holliday st. . . 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward 

Faulkner st. and Charles st. . . 
Wheatland and Talbot aves. . 
Westville and Dakota sts. . . 

Off Cushing ave 

Ashmont and Roslin sts. . . . 
Waldeck and Hooper sts. . . . 

Off Savin Hill ave 

Adams and Plain sts 

Pleasant and Bakerfield sts. 



Euclid and Torrey sts 

Off Waldeck st 

Centre st. and Nixon ave. . . . 
Bullard st. and Bowdoin ave. . 
Northern and Southern av. s. . 
Off Nixon ave 

" Waterlow st 

Clarkson and Bowdoin aves. . 
Hancock and Glendale sts. . . 

Off Dudley st 

Belfort and Alton sts 

Dudley and Cushing aves. . . 
Adams st. and Dorchester ave. 
Gleason st. and Glen road . . . 
Lauriat and Chapman aves. . 
Washington and Allston sts. . 
Lauriat and Chapman aves. . 
Upland and Bourneside sts. . 

Off Arcadia st 

Washington st. and Milton ave. 

Westville and Arcadia sts. . . 

Bowdoin st. and Geneva aye. . 

Carried forward 



Dor. 



10,482 

57 

60 
453 

75 

253 

9 

102 

48 
401 
400 
404 
400 

48 
101 
210 
449 
336 
192 

96 
160 
114 
183 
157 
233 
233 

89 
314 
ISO 
325 
571 
170 
530 

96 
253 
18,184 



Water- Supply Department. 



125 



Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Concluded. 



In what Street. 



Saxton st. . . . 
Hecla st 

Walton st. . . . 
Neponset court. 
Congreve st. . . 
Sharon st. ... 

Wren st 

Montview st. . . 
Fletcher st. . . . 

Clive st 

Sycamore st. . . 
Johnson st. . . . 
Argyle st. . . . 
Gilman st. . . . 

Jones Bt 

Plainfield st. . . 
Anson st. . . . 

Allen st 

HadwinWay . . 

Street 

Heathcote st. . . 
Mozart st. . , . 
Perham st. . . . 
Garfield st. . . . 
Hobart st. . - . 
Bentley st. . . . 
Berwick Road . 
Eulita Terrace . 
Windsor Road . 
Cypress st. . . . 
Deer Island . . 



Wood-Island park 
Spring Terrace . . 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward 

Hartland and Belfort sts 

Adams st. and Dorchester ave 

Harley and Washington sts 

Off Neponset ave 

Off South st 

Canterbury and Rowe sts 

Rutledge and Robin sts 

Henshaw and Park sts 

Off South st 

Boylston st. and Spring Park ave. . . . 

Rindge and Florence sts 

Baker and Johnson sts 

From Cornwall st 

Canterbury and Sutton sts 

Fairview and Walter sts 

Off Reyes st 

South st. and N. Y., N. H., & H. R.R. . 

Off Anawan ave 

Ham met st. and Hyde Park ave 

Off Canterbury st 

Off Poplar st 

Walter and Selwyn sts 

Ivory and Mt. Vernon sts 

Off Washington st 

Faneuil and Brook sts 

Henshaw and Sparhawk sts 

Commonwealth ave. andChiswick Road, 
Winship st. and Chestnut Hill ave. . . . 

Off Lanark Road 

Murdock and Lucas st 



Total 6-inch 



Off Parkway . 
Off Bowers st. 
Total 4-in. 



W. R. 



E.B. 
Rox. 



18,184 

76 

571 

48 

256 

378 

24 

462 

11 

377 

140 

107 

204 

22 

165 

255 

265 

36 

62 

65 

223 

256 

117 

349 

209 

842 

19 

73 

354 

77 

200 

1,176 

25, 603 

373 
142 
515 



126 



City Document jNTo. 39. 



Statement of Pipes Abandoned. 



In what Street. 



Albany st. . . . 
Union park . . . 
Dartmouth st. . 
Fairfield st. . . 
Hereford st. . . 
Haverhill st. . . 
Bristol st. ... 

Dover st 

Tremont st. . . 
Dover st 

East Sixth st. . 
Payson ave. . . 
Perkins st. . . . 

Hayward place . 

Fabin 

Court square . . 
Haverhill st. . . 
Williams court . 
Chelsea st. . . . 



Between what Streets. 



Bristol and Troy sts 

Albany st. and Harrison ave. . . . 
Newbury and Marlboro' sts. . . . 

Causeway st. and the water . . . 
Albany st. and Harrison ave. . . . 

Hollis and Warrenton sts 

Harrison ave. and the water . . . 

At Q st 

Hancock and Glendale sts. . . . • 
Prince st. and Jamaica Way . . . 

Washington st. and Harrison ave. 

Newland and Ivanhoe sts 

Court st. and Williams court . . . 
Causeway st. and the water . . . 
Washington st. and Court square . 
On Chelsea bridge 

Scotts court and Chelsea bridge . 



So.B. 

Dor. 

W.R. 



Chn. 



12 in. 


636 


6 in. 


915 


" 


200 


« 


203 



20 in, 
12 in. 



24 in 
20 in, 
8 in. 
4 in. 



20 in 
24 in 
20 in 
24 in 



205 
300 



35 

28 

825 

300 

825 

254 

410 

279 

327 

10 

1,375 

1,280 

384 

384 



Water-Supply Department. 



127 



Statement of Pipes Abandoned on the J. P. A. System. 



In what Street. 



Tremont st. . 

Parker st. . . 
Trernont st. . 
Sarsfield st. . 
Leon st. ... 
Hampden st. . 
Kernble st. . . 
Albany st. . . 
Washington st. 
Eustis st. . . . 
Vernon st. . . 
Palmer st. . . 
Cottage st. . . 
Weston st. . . 
Chapel place . 
Kent st. ... 
Maiden lane . 
Reading st. . . 
Island st. . . . 
Dearborn st. . 
Eustis st. . . . 
Gerard st. . . 
Hampden st. . 
Prentiss st. . . 
Chadwick st. . 
Mall at. . . . 



Between what Streets. 



Vernon and Pynchon sts 

Huntington and Rogers aves , 

Vernon and Pynchon sts 

Tremont and Chapel sts 

Off Ruggles st 

Keinble and Albany sts 

Hampden and Gerard sts. 

Hampden st. and Hartopp place . . , 

Eustis and Zeigler sts 

Washington and Dearborn sts. . . . , 

Washington and Cabot sts 

Washington and Eustis sts 

Tremont st. and N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R 

Tremont and Chapel sts 

Weston and Sarsfield sts 

Washington and Vernon sts 

Hampden and Reading sts 

Kemble and Swett sts , 

Kemble and Gerard sts. , 

Eustis st. and Hartopp place 

Dearborn and Adams sts 

Kemble and Farnham sts 

Kemble and Prescott sts 

Tremont st. and N. Y., N. H., & H. R.R 

Hampden and Yeoman sts 

Dearborn st. and Harrison ave. . . . 



m 



12 in. 
10 in. 
6 in. 



6 in., 4 in, 
and 3 in. 



6 in. and 
4 in. 



Bin. 
8 in. 



10 in. 
4 in. 



4 in. and 
3 in. 



4 in. 



,200 
600 
291 
325 
300 
17 
,000 
750 
,600 
,150 
350 
,200 
100 
300 
250 
23 
25 
250 
,100 
750 
250 
650 
300 
650 
250 
600 
800 



128 



City Document No. 39. 
Statement of Pipes Lowered. 



In what Street. 


Between what Streets. 


5 




at 

n 

»3 






E. B. 
Rox. 
Dor. 
W. R. 
Dor. 

W. R. 


10-in. 
16-in. 
12-in. 

8-in. 

6-in. 


345 




190 
495 






30 


Off Walnut ave 


310 
100 
200 







Cochituate Meters Applied. 







Diameter in 


Inches. 




Totals. 




4 


3 


2 


li 


1 


1 


6 

5 














2 

1 

15 


44 


2 














1 




4 
1 
1 


5 


6 


10 


11 


95 




1 








4 


1 

15 
10 


32 

234 

10 


1 
1 
2 


39 








250 




2 


4 


5 


3 


36 








8 


9 


11 


17 


37 


294 


48 


424 







Cochituate Meters Abandoned. 





Diameter in Inches. 


Totals. 




4 


3 


2 


14 


1 


4 


6 
S 














3 
9 
3 
23 
6 


32 
1 

2 


3 




1 


4 




5 
2 


7 

2 
17 


58 




6 










25 






4 


4 


6 


39 










1 


8 


4 


13 


26 


44 


35 


131 







Water-Supply Department. 



129 



Cochituate Meters Sent to Factory for Repairs. 





Diameter in Inches. 


Totals. 




4 


3 


H 


1 


3 


6 
3 








1 

1 


3 


8 
5 
3 


53 


65 






1 


7 






3 




1 






12 


13 
















1 


1 


2 


15 


16 


53 


88 







Meters Purchased. 









Diameter 


in Inches. 




Totals. 




6 


4 


3 


2 


11 


1 


1 


5 
8 




1 
1 


5 


4 


11 


7 


16 


72 




116 




1 




1 


3 








38 
300 




42 






1 

2 


1 


51 


353 






1 




3 


















2 


7 


7 


14 


8 


67 


410 




515 







Mystic Meters Applied. 







Diameter in Inche 


s. 




Totals. 




4 


3 


2 


H 


l 


4 


6 
S 








1 
2 
1 










1 




1 


1 

1 




2 
1 

9 


4 


3 


13 




3 






25 

2 




34 








1 


l 


4 












1 


2 


5 


l 


12 


31 


3 


55 







330 



City Document No. 39. 



Mystic Meters Discontinued. 



Crown . . . 
Hersey . . . 
Metropolitan 
Wortbington 



Totals 



Diameter in Inches. 



Totals. 



Mystic Meters in Service January 31, 1895. 









Diameter 


in Inches. 






Totals. 




6 


4 


3 


2 


H 


1 


1 


5 

s 








1 

8 
2 


1 

16 
3 










2 




3 


8 
1 


2 
2 


31 

6 
22 
69 


43 


98 


209 




14 


55 
53 


6 


77 






11 


6 


39 


8 


192 








Totals 


3 


20 


17 


59 


12 


128 


151 


104 


494 







Mystic Meters sent to Factory for Repairs. 





Diameter in Inches. 


Totals. 
















s 


5 

s 
















4 

1 


9 


13 
















1 
































5 


9 


14 



















Water-Supply Department. 131 

Cochituate Meters in Service January 31, 1895. 







Diameter 


in Inches. 










6 


4 


3 


2 


n 


1 


if 


5 

g 


















56 

1 

1 

377 

1 


1 

1,178 


56 
















2 
















1 




2 


23 


34 


49 


112 


246 


2,021 




1 




1 


1 

2 










2 




6 


12 


22 
1 


40 
102 


132 
662 


18 
4 
1 
5 

57 


232 






769 












1 










1 

116 








6 




2 


11 


23 


102 


530 


401 


1,242 




5 


37 


63 


178 


237 


918 


1,631 


1,264 


4,333 







Meters Changed. 



Cause. 



Not registering 

For test 

Unsatisfactory 

Stoppage 

Leak at body 

Leak at coupling 

Leak at spindle 

Clock broken 

Clock defaced 

Enlargement of service-pipe 

No force 

Frozen 

Meters burst 

Spindle stuck 

Hands caugbt 

Hands loose 

To relocate 

Totals 




132 



City Document No. 39. 



Meters Repaired in Service. 



Cause. 



Leak at coupling . . 
Leak at spindle . . 
Leak at stop-cock . 
Not registering . . 
Clock broken . . . 
Clock defaced ... 
Clock unsatisfactory 
Ratchet broken . . 
Gear broken .... 
Spindle stuck ... 
Cap broken .... 
Check valve broken . 
Intermediate worn . , 
Piston-rod bent . . . 

Disc broken 

Driving-pawl stuck , 
Glass broken ... 



Totals 



COCHITUATE. 



29 
97 
3 
39 
79 
48 
370 



Mystic. 



General Statement of Meters for Year ending 1 January 

31, 1895. 



In service January 31, 1895 

New set 

Discontinued 

Lost in service 

Changed 

Changed location 

Tested at shop 

Repaired at shop 

Repaired at factory .... 
Repaired in service .... 
Purchased 



COCHITUATE. 



Meters. Boxes. 



4,337 

424 

131 

6 

900 

22 

2,131 

498 

88 

680 

515 



Mystic. 



Meters. Boxes 



494 
55 
22 



221 
63 
14 
63 



Water-Supply Department. 



133 



Hydrants Established and Abandoned during- the Year. 





Established. 


"3 
o 
H 


Abandoned. 


"3 
o 
E-i 






t- 

is 

o 
►J 


o 


u 
o 

pa 


c 
o 

o 

pq 


>> 

te 
o 

i-l 


o 

Ph 


o 
i-l 

M 


a 
o 

o 

- 


a 

t-H 




15 


29 

4 

19 

35 

49 

43 

8 

2 

1 


l 


l 


45 

5 

20 

43 

70 

55 

8 

2 

1 


7 




6 


21 
1 
2 
8 
6 
2 
2 

42 


34 
1 
3 
12 
13 
9 
2 


11 




4 




1 
2 
3 
3 


2 
1 


1 
3 


1 

2 
5 
4 


17 




5 

17 
9 


l 
l 


31 




57 




46 
6 












2 








3 


1 










24 


190 


32 


249 


10 


4 


18 


74 


175 



Total Number of Hydrants in Use January 31, 1895. 





o 

(-1 


o 
Pu 


Es 
o 
hJ 

PQ 


a 
o 

o 

M 


a 

o 

o 

PQ 


a 
o 
H 




699 
214 
139 
663 
577 
125 
79 


275 
97 
103 
230 
471 
508 
277 
17 


60 
22 
23 
66 
196 
171 
59 


1 


490 
258 
136 
88 
62 
46 
34 


1,524 




592 




401 




1,047 

1,^06 

850 

449 




17 




5 






3 

7 


8 
















7 
6 

2 






7 












6 






2 










1 


1 
















2,501 


1,993 


597 


1 


1,125 


6,217 



134 



City Document No. 39. 



Water-Posts. 



District. 



Boston .... 
South Boston . 
East Boston . 
Roxbury . . . 
Dorchester . . 
West Roxbury 
Brighton . . . 



Number 

in use 

Jan. 31, 1894. 



Established 

during 

the year. 



Abandoned 

during 

the year. 



Number 

in use 

Jan. 31, 1895. 



Hydrant barrels changed for repairs 
Hydrant boxes renewed 
Stop-cock boxes renewed 
Dead ends blown off 
S. W. cocks repaired . 
Main cocks repaired 
New S. W. cocks put on 
Boxes over bridges repaired 
Fire reservoirs repaired 
Hydrant boxes repaired in service 
Stop-cock boxes repaired in service 



355 

117 

164 

150 

145 

45 

71 

4 

10 

269 

268 



Water-Supply Department. 135 

Repairs of Pipes during- the Year ending- Jan. 31, 1895. 





Diameter of Pipes in Inches. 


Totals. 




4S 


36 
1 

2 


30 

2 


28 

5 


24 
1 

1 


'JO 
23 
6 

29 


16 

12 

1 

1 

2 
16 


12 

40 
6 
3 

15 
9 
9 
3 

85 


8 

9 
1 

2 
4 
2 
1 

20 


6 

68 
8 
9 
26 
13 
10 
2 

4 

1 

141 


4 

34 

1 
3 

1 
3 

46 


3 

5 

1 

1 

7 


2 

9 
3 
4 
1 
6 
4 

27 


3 
2 

5 


M 
4 

4 


1 

17 
1 
2 
5 
1 

26 


3 

14 
2 

4 


E 


5 

15 
5 

IS 
4 
2 

47 






478 
135 
117 
257 
123 
85 
22 

1 


722 


South Boston 

Dorchester 

Long Island 


1 


171 

148 

343 

161 

114 

28 

1 

6 

4 

4 

1 




1 


3 


2 


5 


20 


1,218 


1,703 



Causes of repairs that have been made on pipes of 4-inch 
diameter and upwards : 



Blasting 






8 


Settling of earth 






15 


" in sewer 






5 


" in tunnel . 






1 


" over foundation- wall 






1 


" in channel . 






2 


Struck by pick 






2 


Defective joints 






126 


' ' stop-cocks 






25 


" pipe 






15 


" packing . 






101 


" check-valve 






1 


" stuffing-box 






13 


" gland 






1 


Changed grade 






1 


In way of W. E. St. Ky. 






2 


" Park Dept. 






1 


" sewer 






8 


" tunnel 






1 



Carried forward, 



32 y 



186 



City Document No. 39. 



Brought forward , 






329 


Took out meter and connected with pipe . 


2 


Drilled . 


. . . i 


3 


Frozen . 


. . ■ 




5 


Cap blown off 


. 




2 


Clamp loose 


. 




1 


Put in air chamber . 


. . < 




1 


Capped on each side of bridge 




1 


Changed connection 


. . • 




1 


From low to high service ^H 




1 


Eaten by soil . 


. 




1 


Carried over tunnel 


• 




2 


On 3-inch and on service-pipes : 




Stopped by rust 


. 


501 


" dirt 


. . 




29 


fish 


• • • 




50 


" gasket . 


. • 




3 


Eaten by soil 


. • • 




5 


" electricity 


. . 




3 


Broken by pick 


. 




153 




' settling of 


earth 




222 




' pounding f 


rom Pumping-station 


3 




' settling in 


service-pipe box 


5 




; settling in 


sewer trench . 


33 




' frost 


. . 




7 




•' blasting 


. . 




3 




' steam-roller . 




2 




•' plough . 


. 




1 


Gnawed by rats 


. 




11 


Defective pipe 


. 




. 57 


" coupling . 


. 




29 


" joints 


. 




. 33 


" stop-cocks 


. 




26 


' ' valve 


. . 




. 14 


" packing . 


. 




. 14 


In way of sewer 


. 




13 


" B. E. Lt. Company 




2 


" Park Dept 


. 




1 


W. E. St. 


Ry. 




2 


N. E. Tel. 


Co. 




5 


" edgestone 


. . 




9 


Changed grade 


. . 




. 68 


" direction inside line . 




1 


Clamp 


loose 


• 




1 



349 



Carried forward , 



1,306 



349 



Water-Supply Department. 



137 



Extended across new line 

Frozen ....... 

Cock blown out . . . . . 

Took out S. W. cock and connected with 
pipe ....... 

Connected to new main .... 

Put cock in cap for blow-off 



3 

30 

3 

5 

5 

2 



1,354 

1,703 

In addition to the above, 381 service-pipes were shut off 
for repairs inside street line, and notice of the same sent to 
the On and Off Division of the Income Department. 



Statement of Leaks and Stoppages from 1850 to 1894. 



Year. 



Diameter in Inches. 



Four inches and 
upwards. 



1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 



32 

64 

82 

85 

74 

75 

75 

85 

77 

82 

134 

109 

117 

97 

95 

111 

139 

122 

82 

82 

157 

185 

188 



Less than four 
inches. 



72 
173 
241 
260 
280 
219 
232 
278 
234 
449 
458 
399 
373 
397 
394 
496 
536 
487 
449 
407 
707 
1,380 
1,459 



Total. 



104 
237 
323 
' 345 
354 
294 
307 
363 
311 
531 
592 
508 
490 
494 
489 
607 
675 
609 
531 
489 
864 
1,565 
1,647 



138 



City Document No. 39. 



Statement of Leaks and Stoppages from 1850 to 1894. 

Concluded. 





Diameter 


in Inches. 




Tear. 


Four inches and 
upwards. 


Less than four 
inches. 


Total. 


1873 


153 
434 
203 
214 
109 
213 
211 
135 
145 
170 
171 
253 
111 
150 
172 
216 
183 
180 
194 
212 
327 
349 


1,076 

2,160 

725 

734 

801 

1,024 

995 

929 

883 

1,248 

782 

1,127 

638 

725 

869 

1,140 

849 

718 

758 

1,232 

1,555 

1,354 


1,229 


1874 


2,594 




928 




948 




910 


1878 


1,237 


1879 


1,206 


1880 


1,064 


1881 


1,028 


1882 


1,418 


1883 


953 


1884 


1,380 


1885 


749 


1886 


875 


1888 


1,04L 
1,356 


1889 


1,032 


1890 


898 


1891 


952 


1892 


1,444 


1893 

1894 


1,882 
1,703 







Respectfully submitted, 

William J. Welch, 

Superintendent. 



Water-Supply Department. 139 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE 
• MYSTIC DIVISION. 



Office of Superintendent, 
Corner Medford and Tufts Streets, 

Boston, February 1, 1895. 

Col. Thomas F. Doherty, 

Chairman, Boston Water Board: 
Sir : The report of the Mystic Division of the Boston 
Water-Works from January 31, 1894, to February 1, 1895, 
is herewith submitted. 

Mystic Lake. 

Water was wasted over the dam until June 8, when the 
highest point was recorded, B.89 above tide-marsh level. 
After this date the surface gradually lowered, and in August 
preparations were made for pumping into the conduit. The 
pumping machinery, consisting of two Hoadley engines and 
boilers and two centrifugal pumps, was repaired and placed 
in position. The cast-iron gratings at the inlets of the 
gate-chamber were replaced with new ones, and the gates 
repaired and refitted with new stems. 

On August 31, with the surface of the lake at 8.42 below- 
high water and only 2.75 above the conduit invert, the 
pumping into the conduit began. The surface of the lake 
continued to fall, and reached a lower point than ever before 
making it necessary to lengthen the suction-pipes. As the 
pumping machinery which had been in use for years was of 
insufficient capacity two new 60-horse power engines and 
boilers and one new pump, having a capacity of 18,000,000 
gallons per day, were purchased. As the service of either 
pump could not be dispensed with, and as the engine-room 
was already inadequate, a new engine-house was constructed. 
The engine-house is a wooden frame building, 65 ft. X 19£ ft., 
supported by a pile foundation. To make an approach to 
the new building some filling was required, so the riprap 
was removed and utilized again on the extended water front. 

On October 10 the surface of the water reached its lowest 
point, 0.91 below the conduit invert, but after this date it 



140 



City Document No. 39. 



began to rise. The old engine in Engine-house No. 2 was 
disconnected and removed, but further work of setting up 
the second new engine and boiler was suspended. On 
November 15 the lake had risen to 2.72 above the conduit 
invert. Pumping was stopped, and the water again flowed 
by gravity to the Pumping-station. 

The sources of supply have been carefully looked after 
throughout the year. The Metropolitan Sewerage Commis- 
sion built a siphon under the Abajona river, near the rail- 
road, and have riprapped the banks adjoining the abutments, 
making an improvement at that point. Bacon's bridge has 
been rebuilt with a much stronger structure than the former 
one. A new fence was built on the west side of Mystic 
street opposite the ledge, also one near the dam, on the 
division line of the Brooks' property. The gate-tender's 
house has also been repaired. A force of men were engaged 
throughout the summer months in removing the vegetable 
growth from the shallow portions of the river and ponds. 
There was a large decrease in this growth during the past 
year. The filtration experiments, which have been carried 
on for upwards of two years, have been discontinued, it 
having been demonstrated that the entire Mystic supply 
could be filtered so as to furnish water of a satisfactory 
quality. 

The rainfall on the Mystic water-shed for the past twelve 
months was as follows : 



February 


3.31 


August 


2.52 


March 


1.09 


September . 


2.52 


April . 


3.48 


October 


5.58 


May . 


5.18 


November 


3.49 


June . 


0.72 


December 


3.97 


July . 


3.45 


January 


3.54 


Total 


. 


• 


38.85 




Eeservoir. 





Two 30-inch stop-gates in the gate-chamber were repaired, 
new valve-rods were substituted, and the gearing was rear- 
ranged, the old 10 to 1 gears were replaced with gears 4 to 
1, thus greatly facilitating the operation of the gates. The 
walks and grounds about the reservoir received the usual at- 
tention. About seventy-five loads of stone were carted from 
the ledge, and will be properly distributed at a favorable op- 
portunity. 

The city of Medford was supplied with Mystic water one 
day in July and one day in January. On September 12 the 
Cochituate water was turned on to the Charlestown District. 



Water-Supply Department. 141 

Conduit. 

The conduit was cleaned and inspected twice during the 
year, and, at the last inspection, a large crack was discovered 
about eio;ht feet from the o-iite-chamber. It extended around 
the conduit, leaving intact only about three feet at the 
bottom, and was immediately repaired by being grouted. 
The force-mains are in good condition. The necessary 
changes and repairs at the pipe-chamber which have been 
recommended in previous reports will be made in the spring. 

Pumping-Station. 

The work on the extension of the engine-house was begun 
November 1. The pump-well and the foundations will be 
completed in about three weeks and the walls and roof about 
April 1. 

The extension of the building necessitated a rearrangement 
of the drains, and a 12-inch cast-iron pipe was substituted 
for the tile drain that took the discharge from Engine No. 3. 
Outside of the building wall this was enlarged to a 16-inch 
iron pipe, which was run to the manhole of the main drain 
on the south-west side of the engine-house. A 6 inch iron 
pipe was run from the well-pump to the manhole on the 
west side, and connection was made with the conductors of 
the building. 

The engines and boilers received some slight repairs 
during the year, and the independent air-pump was over- 
hauled ; two new composition plungers, two new bronze 
metal piston-rods, and a new set of valves and covers were 
substituted for the old ones. 

The old well-pump of 1,000,000 gallons' capacity, which 
has been in use for over twenty years, is now undergoing re- 
pairs. In the pump-well of Engine No. 3, the south-west 
wall was strengthened by the addition of sixteen inches of 
brickwork. A course of brick was laid in the bottom, and 
the entire surface of the well was plastered with Portland 
cement. 

The bridge opposite the engine-house was strengthened 
and repaired; the engineers' residences were repaired and 
supplied with steam-pipes and radiators connected with the 
boilers of the engine-house. 

The stable and the wagon-house were also repaired, and 
about two acres of the adjacent grounds were ploughed and 
manured. 



142 City Document No. 39. 

Mystic-Valley Sewer. 

The quantity of sewage pumped from January 31, 1894, 
to February 1, 1895, was 120,188,032 gallons to which was 
appl'ed as a precipitant 281,535 lbs. of crude sulphate of 
alumina. 

The quantity of sludge thrown down by the alumina sul- 
phate was 3,302,678 gallons, which was pumped into the set- 
tling-basins for subsequent removal. The amount of coal 
used was 393,472 lbs. The average quantity of sewage 
pumped per day was 337,606 gallons, and the average quan- 
tity of sludge pumped per day was 9,277 gallons, which is 
2| per cent, of the sewage. 

The alumina sulphate was applied at the rate of 2,342 lbs. 
per million gallons of sewage, or one part of alumina sulphate 
to 3,557 parts of sewage. The removal of sludge from the 
settling-basins during the past year was done largely by a 
neighboring farmer who values it highly for grass land. 

In May the engine was dismantled four days for repairs, 
consisting of realignment, resetting of valves, and rebabbit- 
ing of boxes on main shaft. 

It is expected that the sewage now treated at this station 
will be discharged into the Metropolitan sewerage system on 
and after July 1, 1895, and this plant will then be discon- 
tinued. 

Chemical precipitation of the sewage from Tidd's tannery, 
in Stoneham, was continued the past year. The total 
quantity of sewage pumped by the proprietors was 5,244,545 
gallons, and the total quantity of sludge pumped was 680,000 
gallons. 

The amount of alumina sulphate used was 51,571 pounds, 
making the rate of application of the precipitant 1 to 847. 
The percentage of sludge pumped to sewage pumped was 13. 

During the time that experiments in chemical tanning 
were being made at this tannery the sewage was so offensive 
that some treatment became necessary. 

At Fitzgerald's tannery, in Stoneham, a series of tanks 
were built at the owner's expense. They were arranged in 
such a manner that the heavy particles of sewage would 
settle in flowing from one tank to another over separating 
partitions. No chemicals were used, but the sewage from 
the beam-house contained more or less lime which acted as 
a precipitant. This method was continued for four or five 
months until the experiments were finished. 

The effluent discharged from the precipitation tanks at the 
Mystic station has always been somewhat colored, but as 
the addition of a sufficient quantity of lime or alumina to 



Water-Supply Department. 143 

render the effluent colorless would greatly increase the cost, 
it has been thought to be better economy to use a sufficient 
quantity of precipitant to remove the solid matter, and a fair 
percentage of the matter in solution, and obtain a reasonably 
clear effluent. 

At Tidd's tannery the sewage was different in character 
than at Mystic station and less colored, yet it required more 
precipitant pro rata to throw down the solid matter. The 
effluent, however, was always clear and colorless, or near- 
ly so. 

Sources of Supply. 

The Metropolitan sewer is expected to be in operation in 
six or eight months, and the city of Woburn and the towns 
of Winchester and Stoneham are constructing or arranging 
to construct, their respective sewerage systems, so that in a 
short time the Mystic water will be greatly benefited. 

A summary of the inspection work for the past year, as 
reported by Mr. John S. Concannon, Chief Inspector, is as 
follows : Total number of cases inspected, 694. Of these 
are, "old cases," 682; "new cases," 12. The present 
condition of all inspected cases is, at "present safe," 463 ; 
"apparently safe," 68: "suspected," 44; "unsatisfactory," 
46; "remedied," 73; legal notices served, 43. 

In all cases where legal notices were served the cases 
were attended to and the pollution prevented. 

Distribution- Pipes. 

The distribution-pipes in Charlestown were extended by 
the addition of 2,612 feet of four-inch pipe, 24,941 feet of 
six-inch pipe, 5,519 feet of eight-inch pipe, 2,446 feet of 
ten-inch pipe, and 878 feet of twelve-inch pipe. 54,543 
feet of pipe were relaid. 

There now remains in Charlestown 6,139 feet of cement- 
lined pipe, varying in size from 2 to 20 inches. 

The abolishment of all grade crossings on Chelsea bridge, 
which was authorized by the Legislature, and is now being 
done by the Boston & Maine R.R. Co., necessitated an entire 
change in the arrangement of the main pipes supplying 
Chelsea and East Boston. In place of the old 16, 20, and 
24 inch pipes there were laid a 24-inch and a 30-inch pipe, 
the smaller pipe being for the supply of Chelsea and the 
larger for East Boston. Permission was obtained of the 
railroad corporation to lay these pipes on their property, 
and 1,12*8 feet of each size were permanently laid. In 
addition, 384 feet each of 16- inch and 30-inch pipe were laid 



144 



City Document No. 39. 



along the side of the temporary street adjoining an unfinished 
portion of the main thoroughfare, and in the coming sum- 
mer, when this portion of the road is ready, the 24-inch 
and the 30-inch pipes will be continued and the temporary 
pipes removed. 

Hydrants and Gates. 

One hundred and forty-eight new hydrants, 5 street 
Lowry hydrants, and 143 Post hydrants, were established 
in addition to 5 Lowry and 23 Post hydrants set in place of 
26 Post hydrants abandoned. Two hundred and thirty-eight 
gates were established — one 24-inch, three 16-inch, thirteen 
12-inch, twenty-two 10-inch, thirty-eight 8-inch, one hun- 
dred and thirty 6-inch, and twenty-seven 4-inch. There 
were forty-four 4-iuch, thirty-one 6-inch, six 8-inch and 
one 12-inch abandoned. Thirteen gate boxes and eleven 
hydrant boxes were replaced by new ones. 

Fountains and Stand-Pipes. 

Four new drinking-fountains were established, and twelve 
new stand-pipes were erected for street-watering purposes. 

Service-Pipes. 

Eight hundred and fifty-nine new services were laid, dis- 
tributed as follows : Charlestown, 61; Chelsea, 122; Ever- 
ett, 315; Somerville, 361; for which 18,436 feet of pipe 
were required. Three hundred and ninety-nine services 
were repaired. Twelve services were removed and larger 
ones substituted. Six service boxes were renewed. 

Thirty-one stoppages by eels and thirteen by rust were 
forced out. Twenty-seven leaking services were repaired. 

New Services. 





|-in. 


|-in. 


I-in. 


1-in. 


lj-in. 


2-in. 


3-in. 


4-in. 


6-in. 


Total. 


Total ft. 








27 


41 

86 
307 


15 
3 

355 


3 
3 
5 
3 




1 


1 






61 
122 
315 

361 


1,232 




3 


1 


3,740 




1 
1 


1 
2 




5,736 






1 




7,728 










27 


434 


373 


14 


4 


2 


3 


1 


859 


18,436 



Water-Supply Department. 



145 



Summary of Services, February 1, 1895. 





Charlestpwn. 


Chelsea. 


Everett. 


Somerville. 


Totals. 




6,144 
164,028 


5,609 
150,957 


3,289 
65,443 


8,215 

274,067 


23 257 




654,495 





Breaks and. Leaks on Distribution-Pipes. 





4. in. 


6-in. 


8-in. 


10-in. 


12-in. 


16-in. 


30-in. 


Totals. 






2 

8 

11 

18 


1 
3 
3 
6 








1 


4 




10 
3 
15 


7 
2 

1 






28 










19 




1 


1 




42 






Totals 


28 


39 


13 


10 


1 


1 


1 









146 



City Document No. 39. 
Distribution-Pipes Relaid. 



Location. 



Charlestown : 
Chelsea Bridge. 

Chelsea : 
Fifth st 



Fremont ave. 
Cottage st. . . 

Watts st 

Division st. . 

Wharf st 

Tudor st. ... 
Clark ave.... 
Lawrence st. 
Crescent ave. 
George St.... 
-Chestnut st. . 



Beacon st. . 
Chestnut st. 
Carey ave. . 



Everett ave. 



Auburn St.... 
Williams st. . 
Everett : 
Union ave.... 

Mystic st 

Robbins st. . . 

Kippy st 

Harvard st. . . 

Shute st 

Chelsea 

Ferry Spring. 

Union st 

Ferry st 



Original ,, .. 
Size. 



16-in. 



Carried forward. 



8-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
3-in. 
4-in. 
3-in. 
4-in. 
3-in. 
3-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
3-in. 
4-in. 
10-in. 
6-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 

3-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
6-in. 



4-in. 6-in. 8-in. 10-in. 12-in. 16-in. 24-in. Totals. 



b-in. 
6-in. 



380 

1,082 

173 

257 

173 

1,347 

1,423 

390 

860 

490 



780 
97 

206 
615 
625 
275 



672 

832 

456 

1,113 



12,246 



975 
272 



800 

2,100 

550 



4,992 



593 

4,266 



5,299 



2,183 



780 



2,567 



1,512 



975 
272 
380 

1,082 
173 
257 
173 

1,347 

1,423 
390 
860 
490 
S00 

2,100 
550 
780 
97 
75 
206 
615 
625 
275 

126 
672 
832 
456 

1,113 
295 

2,548 
780 
593 

4,266 



1,512 27,522 



Water-Supply Department. 



147 



Distribution-Pipes Kelaid — Continued. 



Location. 


Original 4in> 
oize. 


6-in. 8-in. 


10-in. 


12-in. 


16-in. 


24-in. 


Totals. 




- 


126 

15 

13 
6 


12,246 

337 

268 

15 

367 


4,992 

248 


5,299 


780 


2,567 


1,512 


27,522 




4-in. 
2-in. 
6-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 

3-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
3-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
6in. 
4-in. 

6-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
6-in. 
4-in. 
4 in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
6-in. 
4-in. 
6-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
6 in. 
6-in. 


248 












337 














268 














15 














367 














15 


Somerville : 














13 
















6 




7 
47 
21 

389 
18 

585 
15 
36 
27 

70 
27 
24 

270 
574 
516 
52 
30 
118 

456 












7 














47 




778 










799 












3S9 




60 










78 












585 




1,319 










1 334 






2,750 




i 


2,786 
27 


Evergreen ave 










60 




2,775 






2 775 








130 










27 














24 




1,182 










1,182 
270 
























574 














516 














52 








1,690 






1,720 












118 






4,055 








4,055 
456 












413 
27 

781 
14 










413 












27 
















781 








14 




160 


16,515 












Carried forward.. 




9,874 


9,354 


7,995 


2,567 


1,512 


47,977 



148 



City Document No. 39. 



Distribution-Pipes Relaid. — Concluded. 



Location. 


Original 
Size. 


4-in. 


6-in. 


8-in. 


10-in. 


12-in. 


16-in. 


24-in. 


Totals. 


Brought forward . . 


4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
6-in. 
4-in. 
6-in. 
6-in. 
6-in. 
4-in. 
12-in. 
4-in. 
6- in. 


160 


16,515 


9,874 

1,122 

1,000 

61 

34 

428 

40 

1,360 


9,354 


7,995 


2,567 


1,512 


47,977 
1,122 
1,000 






















61 












34 












428 












40 












1,360 




1,674 
313 








1,674 
313 












80 

394 

60 






80 








394 








60 












160 


16,515 


13,919 


11,341 


8,529 


2,567 


1,512 


54,543 







Water-Supply Department. 



149 



Extension of Distribution-Pipes. 



Location. 


4-in. 


6-iu. 


8-in. 


10-in. 


12-in. 


14-in. 


16-in. 


20-in. 


Totals. 


■Charlestown : 




1,157 

24 
360 
614 

48 














1,157 
24 


Chelsea: 
































360 


















614 


















48 






1,000 












1,000 
1,504 






1,504 

72 

1,550 

278 

400 

300 


























72 


















1,550 


















278 


















400 


















300 


•Everett : 


337 
332 














337 
















332 




316 














316 




180 














180 




170 

333 

1,571 

595 

334 

15 

508 

431 

500 

15 

18 














170 


















333 


















1,571 


















595 


















334 






1 












15 


















508 


















431 


















500 


















15 






1,496 












1,514 






805 
505 










805 


















505 




140 

207 


28 












168 
















207 


















Carried forward. . . 


1,196 


11,141 


2,496 


1,310 










16,143 











150 



City Document No. 39. 



Extension of Distribution-Pipes. — Continued. 



Location. 


4 -in. 


6-in. 


8-in. 


10-in. 


12-in. 


14-in. 


16-in. 


20-in. 


Totals. 


Brought forward.. 


1,196 
325 

187 


11,141 


2,496 


1,310 










16,143 
325 


























187 
681 




681 
128 
388 
290 
1,348 
334 






























128 
















388 


















290 


















1 348 


















334 




17 
17 














17 


















17 




420 

109 

222 

340 

148 

210 

14 

134 

145 

38 

41 

19 

545 

300 

319 

486 

92 

27 






780 








1,200 
109 
































222- 


















340- 
















148 


















210 


















14 



















134 


















145 


















38 


















41 


















19 


















545 


















300 


















319 


















486 


















92 


















27 




173 














173 


510 














510 








45 










45 






15 
15 
15 












15 
















15 
















15 




1,915 
















Curried forward. . . 


18,474 






780 








25,020- 













Water- Supply Department. 



151 



Extension of Distribution-Pipes. — Continued. 



Location. 


4-in. 


6-in. 


8-in. 


10-in. 


12-in. 


14-in 


16-in 


20-in 


Totals. 


Brought forward . . 
Somerville : 


1,915 

3 

6 

52 

285 

40 

7 

8 

293 

3 


18,474 


2,496 


1,355 


780 








25 020 












9 














15 


Lexington avenue . . . . 






























285 




34 




891 










965 












7 


















8 
















293 


Wyatt street 




















10 

6 

6 

316 

345 

278 

55 

219 

6 

21 

96 

65 

7 

115 

16 

6 

7 

7 

158 

24 

8 

266 

21 

42 














10 


















Q 








100 










106 
































345 


















278 


















55 






















































21 


















96 




































7 








































































7 




































158 


















24 


















s 


































21 


















42 




















Carried forward .. 


2,612 


20,617 


2,496 


2,346 


780 








28 S51 











152 



City Document No. 39. 



Extension of Distribution-Pipes. — Continued. 



Location. 


4-in. 


6-in. 


8-in. 


10-in. 


12-in. 


14-in. 


16-in. 


20-in. 


Totals. 


Brought forward . . 


2,612 


20,617 

8 

20 

18 

62 

722 

150 

153 

100 

7 

16 

18 

6 

62 

283 

10 

7 

20 

7 

218 

602 

7 

342 

35 

563 

132 

9 

6 

472 

214 


2,496 


2,346 


780 








28,851 

8 
























20 


















18 


















62 


















722 


















150 








100 










253 














100 


















7 


















16 


















18 


















6 


















62 


















283 


















10 


















7 


















20 


















7 


















218 


Sycamore street 




3 

600 












605 












607 
















342 


















35 



















563 


















132 


















9 


















6 


















472 


















214 






52 
204 
239 

33 












52 


















204 


















239 


















33 




















Carried forward . . 


2,612 


24,886 


3,627 


2,446 


780 








34,351 









Water-Supply Department. 



153 



Extension of Distribution Pipes. — Concluded. 



Location. 


4-in. 


6-in. 


8-in. 


10-in. 


12-in. 1 14-in. 


16-in. 


20-in. 


Total. 


Brough t forward.. 


2,612 


24,886 


3,627 

567 
431 
100 
218 
504 
72 


2,446 


780 






34,351 
























431 


















100 


















'IS 


















504 


















72 










6 
76 
16 


























76 


















16 






55 












55 




















Totals 


2,612 


24,941 


5,519 


2,446 


878 




i 


36,396 






i 



154 



City Document No. 39. 



Length of Pipes, Relaid, Extended, and Abandoned. 



1894. 


3-in. 


4-in. 


6-in. 


8-in. 


10-in. 


12-in. 


16-in. 


24-in. 


Totals. 


Charlestown : 














384 


1,582 


1,896 
1,157 








1,157 






























1,157 








3S4 
1,896 


1,512 


3,053 

1 896 




































1,157 

9,173 
5,150 








1,512 


1,512 


1,157 

13,945 
6,150 


Chelsea : 


4,697 
1,000 


75 






































14,323 

206 


5,697 
975 


75 
75 








20,095 
13,945 




3,807 


8,882 














Net increase or decrease 

Somerville : 


3,807 


8,882 

19 

697 


14,117 

3,282 
6,467 


4,722 

8,679 
3,023 










6,150 
25,771 


6,042 
1,091 


7,749 

98 














11,376 














716 
9,020 


9,749 
13,836 


11,702 
2,775 


7,133 


7,847 
80 






37 147 




60 






25 771 










Net increase or decrease. . . . 


60 


8,304 

141 
1,915 


4,087 

4,060 
12,167 


8,927 

543 
1,496 


7,133 

5,224 

1,355 


7,767 

780 
780 






11,376 


Everett : 


2,183 




12,931 






17 713 












Total laid 




2,056 
6,561 


16,227 
5,907 


2,039 


6,579 


1,560 


2,183 




30 644 




126 


12,594 
















Net increase or decrease 


126 


4,505 


10,320 


2,039 


6,579 


1,560 


2,183 




18,050 



Water-Supply Department. 



155 





3-in. 


4-in. 


6-in. 


S-in. 


10-in. 


12-in. 


16-in. 


24-in. 


Totals. 






160 
2,612 


16,515 
24,941 


13,919 

5,519 


11,341 

2,446 


8,529 
878 


2,567 


1,512 


54,543- 




, 


36,396 
















2,772 
24,463 


41,456 
19,949 


19,438 
3,750 


13,787 

75 


9,407 
80 


2,567 
1,896 


1,512 


90,939 




3,993 


54,206 






Net increase or decrease . . . 


3,993 


21,691 


21,507 


15,688 


13,712 


9,327 


671 


1,512 


36,733- 



156 



City Document No. 39. 



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Water-Supply Department. 



157 



Hydrants Established. 





Established. 


si 

a 
o 

3 

a 




« 


u 

o 
h-1 


M 


o 




Remarks. 




10 








5 
13 
56 
74 








13 
56 
97 






























Totals 


10 




166 




148 









Total Number of Hydrants in use February 1, 1895. 



Charlestown 

Chelsea , 

Everett 

Somerville 

Medf ord 

Pumping-station 



37 



74 
196 
257 
642 

2 
2 



336 
200 
257 
642 



Totals. 



1,173 



21 



1,446 



Kespectfully submitted, 

Eugene S. Sullivan, 

Super in tendent. 



158 City Document No. 30. 



APPENDIX D. 



REPORT OF THE ENGINEER. 



Engineering Department, 

City Hall, January 31, 1895. 

Thomas F. Doherty, Esq., 

Chaii'man Boston Water Board: 
Sir : I hereby submit the following report of the work 
done and records kept during the past year : 

Sources of Supply. 

The rainfall during the year 1894 was much below the 
average, and in consequence the supply of water in the dif- 
ferent storage reservoirs was reduced to a very small amount. 

The rainfall and quantities collected on the several water- 
sheds were as follows : 





Sudbury. 


Cochituate. 


Mystic. 


Rainfall in inches 


39.74 


39.08 


39.24 


" collected in 








inches 


16.182 


12.99 


14.40 


Daily average yield 








of water-shed in 








gallons 


57,937,800 


11,674,000 


18,429,500 



Reservoir No. 1. 

Grades, H. W., 161.00; Tops of Flash-boards, 159. 29 and 158.41; Crest of 3am, 15 7.5 4. 

Area, Water Surface, 143 acres ; Greatest Depth, 14 ft. ; Contents beloio 161.00, 

376,900,000; Below 159.29, 288,400,000 gals. 

The surface of this reservoir was about 2 feet below the 
crest of the dam on January 1, 1894, and no water was 
wasted until February 23. With the exception of four days 
in April, water was wasted over the dam from February 23 
until May 7, when the flash-boards were placed upon the 
dam. On May 26 the reservoir was full and waste began 
over the flash-boards, continuing until June 13. 

The flash-boards were removed on November 8, and waste 
occurred from November 8 to December 3, from December 
16 to 22, and on December 27 and 28. 

This dam is in good condition. 



Water-Supply Department. 159 



Reservoir No. 2. 

Grades, If. W., 168.00; Tops of Flash-boards, 167. 12 and 166.49 ; Crest of Dam, 163.87. 

Area, Water Surface, 134 acres ; Greatest Depth, 17 ft. ; Contents, Beloxo 168.00, 

668,300,000 ; Below 167.12,629,860,000 gals. 

This reservoir was 7 feet below the level of the top of the 
flash-boards on January 1, 1894. On February 23 the water 
level reached the crest of the dam, and the reservoir remained 
full until the middle of June, when it was drawn upon for 
the supply of the city, and on July 17 it was 7 feet below the 
flash-boards. During August and September water was run 
into the reservoir from Reservoirs 4 and 6, raising the water 
surface about 2 feet, and in November and December it was 
gradually filled so that on January 1, 1895, the water sur- 
face was about 1 foot below high water. 

The dam is in good condition. 

Reservoir No. 3. 

Grades, H. W., 177.00; Crest of Dam (no Flash-boards), 175.24. 

Area at 177.00, 263 acres; Contents, below 177.00, 1,224,600,000 gallons. 

Area at 176.24, 248 acres ; Contents below 176.24, 1,081,500,000 gals. 

Greatest Depth, 21 ft. 

On February 1, 1894, this reservoir was 2.68 feet below 
high-water mark. On February 21 waste began over the 
dam, and continued during the greater portion of the time 
until June 6. On July 18 the surface had fallen to 168.42, 
or 6.82 feet below the crest of the dam. On November 8 
the reservoir was again full, and has continued at or near that 
point to the present time. 

The dam is in good condition. 

Reservoir No. 4. 

Grade's, H. W., 215.21 ; Tops of Flash-boards, 215.21 + and 214.89 ; 

Crest of Dam, 214.23. 

Area, Water Surface, 167 acres ; Greatest Depth, 49 ft.; Contents below 215.21, 

1,416,400,000 gals. 

On February 1, 1894, this reservoir was 29.45 feet below 
high- water mark. It was gradually filling during March, 
April, and May, and reached high-water mark on June 6. 

On July 17 it was drawn upon for the supply of the city, 
and on September 11 the reservoir was practically empty, 
and the outlet gate was closed. Since November 1 it has 
been gradually filling. 

The dam is in good condition. 

Reservoir No. 5. 

Work upon the construction of the dam was commenced 
on April 10 by the contractors, and has been prosecuted 
throughout the year. About two miles of new highway have 
been built to replace a road ,cut off by the dam. Surveys 



160 City Document No. 39. 

have been made and plans and specifications are now being 
prepared for removing the shallow flowage in the reservoir 
from the dam to Southboro'. It is proposed to leave the 
shallow flowage on the Marlboro' branch of the reservoir, 
which is at a higher level, until next vear. 

The following report of Desmond FitzGerald, resident 
engineer, gives further information in regard to the work on 
this reservoir, as well as other matters connected with addi- 
tional supply : 

South Framingham, Mass., January 1, 1895. 
William Jackson, Esq., City Engineer,: 

Dear Sir : The following brief report of engineering work 
for the year 1894 on Additional Supply is submitted. 
Basin No. 6 was sufficiently completed on January 1 to be 
put into service, and furnished the city with water during the 
summer. It was filled in the spring, and as the water rose 
the riprap was added on the up-stream slope. Later in the 
season the walk on top of the dam was added, and the slope 
on the down-stream side sodded and seeded. The dam and 
basin may be said to be entirely completed, although the 
filter beds in connection with Gate-house No. 2 have only 
been fairly commenced. 

The branches and gates for the distribution of the water 
have, however, been placed in position. On the last day of 
April the taking plans were filled for Basin No. 5. 

They covered 228 separate parcels of land, and the descrip- 
tions required 151 sheets of legal cap. The final locations of 
all the roads have been determined. There are 1.66 miles of 
road to be raised, 5.8 miles to be rebuilt, and 8.43 miles to 
be discontinued. The work of cross sectioning the entire 
basin is now under way. 

On April 10 Moulton & O'Mahoney began work on 
Basin No. 5, and have made excellent progress. The strip- 
ping under the dam has been completed, the trenches exca- 
vated, and the core-wall laid on its foundations for about half 
the length of the dam. In the centre of the valley the rock 
was found to be of very poor quality, as was expected, 
and the excavations were carried out deeper than the plans 
called for. The three 48-inch pipes in the Gate-house have 
been laid and covered with rubble masonry, and the founda- 
tions for the overflow carried across the bed of the stream 
and completed to grade 190. The following table shows the 
materials handled : 

Soil stripping . . 29,794 cubic yards. 

Earth excavation . . 36,548 " 



Water-Supply Department. 



161 



Rock excavation . 


14,607 cubic 


yards. 


Concrete masonry 


3,348 " 


i i 


Rubble " 


6,410 " 


1 1 


Brick < ' 


21 " 


i t 


Range work ' ' 


164 " 


t i 


Dimension " 


84 << 


1 1 


Plastering " 


1,207 squar 


e " 



Early in the spring plans and specifications were prepared 
for buildino- about two miles of new highway below the dam 
to replace a road cut off by the dam. Berry Bros, secured 
the contract on June 7, and work began on June 18, and was 
completed on November 16. The following is a table of 
quantities : 

November 24, 1894. 

Fourth and final estimate of work done and material fur- 
nished on two roads in Framingham and Southboro, by Berry 
Bros. , under their contract dated June 7, 1894. (199-1894- 

27:) 



27,245 cubic yards 


Earth excavation, Item ' 


' «,' 


at 0.19 


$5,176 55 


555.4 " " 


Rock " . . " 


' b,' 


" 1.25 


694 25 


287 


Split stone Masonry, " 


' c," 


" 7.25 


2,080 75 


459.4 " 


Dry rubble " " 


' d; 


" 3.75 


1,722 75 


113.2 


Paving in mortar " 


' e," 


" 3.50 


396 20 


35.75 " 


Concrete . . " 


"/,' 


" 4.25 


151 94 


652.85 rods 


Stone wall . . " 


' 9, 


' " 3.75 


2,448 19 


Total 


$12,670 63 



Very truly yours, 

(Signed) Desmond FitzGerald, 

Resident Engineer. 



Reservoir JSFo. 6. 

Grades, H. W., 29S.00; Top of Flash-boards, 295.00; Crest of Dam, 294.00. 
Estimated Area, 185 acres; Estimated Contents, 1,530,300,000 gals. 

This reservoir was so nearly completed that it was used 
for the storage of water during the spring of 1894. 

There was not sufficient rainfall to completely fill the 
basin, but the surface rose to within 2.25 feet of the high- 
water mark. During September and October water was 
taken from this reservoir for the supply of the city, and its 
surface was lowered about 18 feet. The outlet s;ate was 
closed on November 30, and on December 31 the water had 
risen to 278.78. The riprap on the up-stream slope of the 
dam has been completed, the down-stream slope sodded and 
seeded, and a walk made on the top of the dam. 

In the fall it was found that a dam on a stream near the 



162 City Document No. 39. 

head of the reservoir had been rebuilt by the owners of the 
land, thus flowing a large swamp. The dam and about forty 
acres of land above have been taken for the purpose of re- 
moving the dam and deepening the brook. 
The dam is in good condition. 

Whitehall Pond. 

Elevation, H. W. 327.91; Bottom of Gates, 317.78. 
Area at 327.91, 601 acres; Contents, between 327.91 and 317.78, 1,256,900,000 gals. 

On January 1 the surface of the pond was 2.97 feet below 
high water. During the spring it rose, and on June 4 was 
326.82 or 1.09 below high water. On September 19, it had 
fallen to 324.35, and on October 25 to 322.40. 

During October, November, and December it remained 
near this height, rising during the latter month to 323.23 on 
December 31. About 10,000,000 gallons per day were 
drawn from the pond from August 17 to 21, and from Sep- 
tember 13 to October 18. During the remainder of the year 
no water was drawn from the pond except to supply Wood 
Bros, shoe factory. Plans and specifications for a new dam 
at the outlet of the pond are now being made. 

Cedar Swamp. — Surveys have been made for the taking 
of land, and plans and specifications have been prepared for 
the draining of the swamp. 

Farm Pond. 

Grades, H. W. 149.25; Low Water, 146.00. 
I Area at 149.25, 159 acres; Contents, between 149.25 and 146.00, 165,500,000 gals. 

No water was taken from this pond for the supply of the 
city. The surface of the pond was about .50 below high- 
water on January 1, 1894. On February 21 it reached high 
water mark and remained at or near that point until June 
14. The lowest point reached was 148.17 on September 16, 
and on December 31 it was 148.79, or .46 feet below high 
water mark. 

The Framingham Water Company has drawn 117,000,000 
gallons from the pond during the year. 

Lake Gochituate. 

Grades, H.W. 134.36; Invert Aqueduct, 121.03; Top of Aqueduct, 127.36. 
Area, Water Surface, at 134.36, 785 acres; Contents, between 134.36 and 127.36; 

1,515,180,000; between 134.36 and 125.03; 1,910,280,000 gals. 

Approximate Contents, Between 134.36 and 121.03, 2,447 ,000,000 aals.; Between 

134.36 and 117-03, 2,907,000,000 gals. 

The dam is in good condition. 

On January 1 the surface of the lake was 6.42 feet below 
high-water mark. On March 13 water was turned into the 
Jake from the Sudbury river, and on April 1 it was 1.76 



Water-supply Department. 163 

below high water. On May 1 the lake was practically full, 
and it remained near high-water mark until the middle of 
June, after which its surface gradually fell until December 10, 
when it reached the lowest point during the year, 126.10 
above tide-marsh level, or 8.26 below high water. Since that 
date it has risen slightly, and is now, February 1, 7.46 below 
high-water mark. The beds for filtering the water of Pegan 
brook have been in use during the greater portion of the 
year, and 192,447,000 gallons of water have been pumped 
on to the beds. No difficulty has been experienced in the 
operation of the beds during the winter. 

Water has been drawn from the different reservoirs as 
follows : 

From 



7 


A.M. Jan. 1 to 


1 


P.M. 


Mar. 15 


1 


P.M. Mar. 15 " 


11 


A.M. 


April 10 


11 


A.M. April 10 " 


11 


A.M. 


May 19 


11 


A.M. May 19 " 


11 


A.M. 


May 21 


11 


A.M. May 21 " 


2 


P.M. 


May 23 


2 


P.M. May 23 " 


11.30 A.M. 


May 26 


11.30 A.M. May 26 


7 


A.M. 


June 1 


7 


A.M. June 1 " 


2 


P.M. 


June 4 


2 


P.M. June 4 " 


11 


A.M. 


June 11 


11 


A.M. June 11 " 


11 


A.M. 


June 20 


11 


A.M. June 20 " 


7 


A.M. 


July 18 


7 


A.M. July IS " 


3 


A.M. 


Aug. 24 


3 


A.M. Aug. 24 " 


7 


A.M. 


Aug. 25 


7 


A.M. Aug. 25 " 


3 


P.M. 


Sept. 7 


3 


P.M. Sept. 7 " 


3 


P.M. 


Sept. 10 


3 


P.M. Sept. 10 " 


3 


P.M. 


Oct. 30 


3 


P.M. Oct. 30 " 


3 


P.M. 


Oct. 31 


3 


P.M. Oct. 31 " 


1 


P.M. 


Nov. 2 


1 


P.M. Nov. 2 " 


12 


M. 


Nov. 17 


12 


M. Nov. 17 " 


7 


A.M. 


Nov. 20 


7 


A.M. Nov. 20 " 


3 


P.M. 


Nov. 21 


3 


P.M. Nov. 21 " 


l.: 


20 P.M. 


Nov. 22 


1.20 P.M. Nov. 22 " 


3 


P.M. 


Nov. 23 


3 


P.M. Nov. 23 " 


3 


P.M. 


Nov. 27 


3 


P.M. Nov. 27 " 


3 


P.M. 


Dec. 1 


3 


P.M. Dec. 1 " 


11 


A.M. 


Dec. 3 


11 


A.M.Dec. 3" 


7 


A.M. 


Jan. 1 



' 1 


, 2,3, 


' 2, 


3. 


' 2. 




■ 2 


3. 


' 3. 




' 2, 


3. 


• 3.' 




• 2, 


3. 


2. 




i 2 


3. 


• 2. 




■ 2, 


3. 


' 2. 




' 2, 


3. 


• 2. 




; 1, 


2. 


No 


flow, 


' 2. 




; 2, 


3. 


' 3. 




■■ 2. 




No flow. 


2, 


3. 


2. 




2, 


3. 


1.' 





164 



City Document No. 39, 



The heights of the water in the various storage reservoirs 
on the first day of each month are given below : 







Reservoirs. 


Farm 
Pond. 


White- 
hall 
Pond. 


Lake 




No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


No. 4. 


No. 6. 


COCHIT- 
UATE. 




Top of 
Flash- 
boards. 

159.29 


Top of 

Flash- 
boards. 

167.12 


Crest 

of 
Dam. 

175.24 


Crest 

of 
Dam. 

215.21 


Top of 

Flash- 
boards. 

295.00 


High 
Water. 

149.25 


High 
Water. 

327.91 


Top of 

Flash- 
boards. 

134.36 


January 1, 1894 
February 1, " 
March 1, " 
April 1, " 
May 1, " 
June 1, " 
July 1, 

August 1, " 
September 1, " 
October 1, " 
November 1, " 
December 1, " 
January 1, 1895 




155.55 
155.05 
157.87 
157.71 
157.75 
159.56 
159.12 
158.52 
157.86 
157.46 
157.34 
157.69 
156.50 


160.17 
160.61 
166.12 
166.01 
166.02 
167.24 
162.92 
162.02 
162.57 
162:94 
164.08 
164.55 
166.00 


168.53 
172.32 
175.54 
175.40 
175.39 
175.54 
172.62 
169.29 
170.92 
170.95 
172.77 
175.40 
175.24 


178.83 
185.92 
192.70 
204.84 
211.39 
214.60 
215.26 
207.36 
191.63 
185.54 
187.55 
191.90 
196.18 


259.33 

268.42 
281.52 
288.26 
291.08 
292.66 
292.68 
292.54 
283.30 
274.23 
275.29 
278.84 


148.74 
148.98 
149.27 
149.32 
149.50 
149.39 
149.03 
148.66 
148.34 
148.19 
148.34 
148.49 
148.79 


326.700 
326.800 
326.435 
325.812 
324.900 
323.6S0 
322.570 
322.445 
323.230 


127.94 
127.59 
128.22 
132.60 
134.13 
134.24 
133.24 
131.59 
129.88 
128.14 
126.74 
126.27 
126.28 



Aqueducts and Distributing Reservoirs. 

The Sudbury-river aqueduct has been in use 343.7 days, 
and has delivered 11,450,600,000 gallons into Chestnut Hill 
Reservoir and 962,200,000 gallons into Lake Cochituate. 

The Cochituate Aqueduct has been used 361.5 days, and 
delivered 5,520,092,100 gallons. Both aqueducts have been 
cleaned during the year. 

The distributing reservoirs are in good condition. 



High Service Pumping-Stations. 

The daily average quantity pumped at the Chestnut Hill 
station was 8.12 per cent, more than in 1893. 



Engine No. 1 was run 4,401 hours 

55 minutes, pumping . 
Engine No. 2 was run 4,642 hours 

20 minutes, pumping . 
Engine No. 3 pumped . 



1,864,913,005 gallons 

1,927,061,540 
3,856,050 



Boston Water Works. 

Diagram showing the heights of Sudbui'y Rivef RoserVoil'S Nos. 1, 2 and 3. Fart 
Pond and Cochituate and Mystic Lakes during the yeai' 18 34-. 




'"cZL'Lohs. 




*mu€,ry. 


Fthnjory 


tfarcA 


Apr.l 


May 


e/i^ 


^^ 


August- 


dept*».i.r 


Ocfcie,- 


Novembn- 


C*c~,t~- 




f 


























ns 

IT 
ItS 

ISS 

ISO j 
\ 

la 
-J 

\ 


























T 




"" 


















































1 

u 


a 

I 

"7 


5 

i 
> 




























































V 


















































N.. 












/^" 












\ 


































































J~\~ 




■ ^ ■ ■ 


- -~i- 




1^ OJ) 


^~5 






15a 




^—h 






t-iv/- 


















— /- 








yyfa j' 

















d ■ 






S£_*r/?*-o 


^ 
















^ 






























r"iy 




































































































































































































































S r 




























































































































































































































Q 
kl 
































































































^ 


*f a«_ 
























» 

5 
u 

I2S 

s 
-s 






























y 
























y 












































— 








































- 














































































































































































































































































; 


■ \f* 










\ 
























v 


































s* 
















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I 
















X 
























"\ 


















































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Vx_ 

































































































































































Boston Water Works. 

Diagram showing the heights of Sudbury RiVei' Reservoirs Nos. -4 and 6. and 
the Rainfall on the Sudbury Rivet' Water Shed during the yecn" I894-. 




ofartt/o/-x 


/«A«/iwy 


Ma^ch 


Spri! 


/l/o^ | ofeno 


o'^ 




J^f.mtnr 


Oc/oAeA- l/fewrrA*,- 


C*emit,b*- 




„ft"!',°~ 


1 


' r "l 


1 


|l ' 






| 


■ i 


"1 jl'l 


' 


1 r 11 ' 


' 




II | 


T 




H" 


H 


i 














1 1 


ir 










1 




> 




















| 


1 














i 




i 








































f. 


































-1 




wra 




































































5c 

JI3 

ft** 

m 
























































2*> 

its- 


































































































' 










^^^ 


- 




















/" 




flfj£ ^ 




s 
















/ 






















1 
























J 
























s 
























y _ _ 












k 
























\ 
























\ 






L 




















































































































































t 


































































































i 

i 
i 


































































































































































































































































►»—¥-•■, 












n 










7" 




\ 
























\ 
















































\ 












r 








/ 






\ 


















/ 






\ 
























*- ' 


















/ 






























































































~ 










































































« 
























































































































j 
























/ 


























/ 
























s 














































/ 




'*/ 






















X 


























y 











































































































































































































$15,150 


31 


7,929 


59 


548 


48 


842 


59 


660 


81 


$25,131 


78 


$0,052 


6.62 



Water-Supply Department. 165 

Total amount pumped . . . 3,795,830,595 gallons 

Total amount coal used . . . 4,637,660 lbs. 

Percentage ashes and clinkers . . 7.4 

Average lift in feet . . . 126.18 

Quantity pumped per lb. of coal . 818.59 gallons 

Daily average amount pumped . 10,399,500 " 

Table VII. on page 182 shows in detail the work done by 
the engines and boilers. 

Cost of Pumping. 

Salaries 

Fuel .... 
Repairs . . 

Oil, waste, and packing- 
Small supplies 

Total 

Cost per million gallons raised one foot high . 
" " " il pumped to reservoir . 

Engine No. 3 has been in process of erection during the 
year, and was started for the first time on December 3. 

The work of lagging and painting the engine is now being 
done, and the work will soon be completed. This engine, 
shown on accompanying plates, possesses several novel 
features. 

It has been built by the Quintard Iron Works, of New 
York, from designs furnished by E. D. Leavitt, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

It is a triple expansion, three-crank rocker engine, with 
pistons 13.7, 24.375, and 39 inches in diameter and 6-foot 
stroke. The cylinders are vertical and inverted, and are 
carried together, with valve gear, on an entablature sup- 
ported by six vertical and six diagonal columns. 

The steam and exhaust valves are gridiron slides, worked 
by cams on a horizontal shaft, which is driven by gearing 
from the crank shaft. The cut-off of the high-pressure 
cylinder is regulated by the governor through the agency of 
a hydraulic cylinder, which advances or retards the cut-off 
cam by means of a spiral sleeve ; the cut-offs of the other 
engines are fixed. The steam passes into the high-pressure 
cylinder through a separator forming a part of the inlet side- 
pipe. After expanding in this cylinder it passes through a 
tubular reheater to the intermediate cylinder, and thence 
through another similar reheater to the low-pressure cyliuder. 



166 City Document No. 39. 

The reheaters have steam of boiler pressure, or 185 pounds 
per square inch, on the inside of the tubes, and the working- 
steam on the outside. 

All the cylinders are steam-jacketed on the heads and bar- 
rels, the low-pressure cylinder with steam at 100 pounds and 
the others at 185 pounds. The jackets and reheaters using 
steam of boiler pressure are drained back to the boilers, 
while the low-pressure cylinder jacket and the working- 
steam side of the reheaters are drained by automatic traps 
discharging into the feed-water heater. 

The engine cross-heads work on guides cast in the vertical 
columns. The motion is transmitted from the cross-heads 
by links to beams or rockers carried in pedestals on the bed- 
plate of the engine. From these beams the connecting-rods 
work off in one direction and the pump links in the opposite 
direction, but inclined at an angle of about 30 degrees from 
the horizontal. The leverage of the various pins in the 
beams is such that the stroke, which is six feet in the case of 
the steam pistons, is reduced to four feet for the pump plung- 
ers, which is also the amount of the double throw of the 
cranks. The crank-shaft has three cranks set at angles of 
120 degrees, the low-pressure crank leading, followed by the 
intermediate and high-pressure cranks. 

The shaft is carried in four adjustable four-box pedestals, 
w T ith overhung end cranks. Between two of these pedestals 
is the fly-wheel, and between the other two the gear for 
driving the cam-shaft. There are three double-acting in- 
clined pumps, having plungers 17.5 inches in diameter and 
of 4 feet stroke. The pumps are seated on foundations at a 
lower level than those for the engines, the pump chambers 
being tied to the engine bed plate by horizontal girders, as 
well as by the pump cross-head guides, which are inclined 
30 degrees from the horizontal. This peculiar arrangement 
of inclined pumps was found necessary to suit existing con- 
ditions of engine-house, pump- well, etc. 

The pump bases, or suction chambers, six in number, one 
for each end of each pump, are connected together, and the 
bases of each pump are connected b}^ a separate suction- 
pipe. 

The lower or working pump chambers are surrounded by 
annular spaces throughout their height, forming vacuum 
chambers. 

The upper pump chambers contain the delivery nozzles, 
and above these are the air chambers, all six of the latter 
being connected by pipes. Each end of each pump has one 
suction and one delivery valve, consisting of a number of 
rigidly connected rings covering annular openings in the 




. SECTION THROUGH INTERMEDIATE 



, —^^^^^•^^^^,-■..■^.,,^4 ^ 



. i ■ 







fl3QV! 



■ 



R3\l 






/ 9 O 


Q 


o o fr — i 


j 








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o o a "!=H 


j 








jr=* ° ' 


o o o°|=i 


f 








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fl°° ' 


oo?ng 


1 



























S.OR 






■ 







Water-Supply Department. 167 

valve seats. The speed necessary for the required duty 
capacity of 20,000,000 gallons per 24 hours is 50 revolutions 
per minute, but the engine has been designed to run easily 
at 60 revolutions. The head pumped against is 128 feet, or 
about 55 pounds per square inch. 

Each pump contains one Suction and one delivery valve, 
each about three feet in diameter. The use of these large 
valves, together with the phenominally high speed, is made 
possible by the method of working the pump valves, which 
is the invention of Prof. Kiedler, of the Royal Polytechnic 
School, of Berlin, Germany. This invention consists in clos- 
ing each valve positively at just the moment of reversal of 
stroke by means of the levers and rods shown in the cuts. 

After closing the valves the mechanism moves out of the 
way, leaving the valves free to open automatically. This is 
the first engine of the type built in this country, but they 
are no novelty abroad, being in use at many water-works, 
notably those of London, Berlin, Hamburg, Leipzig, Buda- 
Pesth, Breslau, Rotterdam, Heilbron, Manheim, Mulhausen, 
etc., at some of which places speeds of 75 revolutions per 
minute are attained. 

The condenser is of the surface type, having 1,410 square 
feet of tube surface, with water passing through the tubes. 

The condensing water is taken from one of the upper 
pump chambers, and after passing through the condenser is 
delivered into the force main. A butterfly valve in one or 
the pump discharge-pipes permits the quantity of condensing- 
water to be easily regulated. The air-pump is of the single- 
acting bucket type, 24 inches diameter and. 12-inch stroke, 
situated directly below the condenser, and worked by an 
arm on one of the pump valve gear rocker shafts. 

Steam for the engine is furnished by a Belpaire fire-box 
boiler having two separate furnaces and a common combus- 
tion chamber. The boiler is 34 feet 4 inches in length, 
with a least internal diameter of shell of 90 inches. The 
tubes are 201 in number, 3 inches in diameter, 16 feet 
long. The feed water, before entering the boiler, passes 
through a Green Economizer, where it is heated by the 
escaping gases from the boiler. 

To accommodate the new boiler an addition has been made 
at the rear of the boiler-house at a cost of $3,597.25. 

At the West Roxbury pumping-station the daily average 
quantity pumped was 121,500 gallons, an increase of 25.4 
per cent, over the amout pumped in the previous year. 

At the East Boston station 385,000 gallons per day have 
been pumped for the supply of the high-service district, and 
30,800 gallons per day for the Breed's Island high-service. 



168 City Document No. 39. 



Mystic Lake. 

Grades, H. W., 7.00; Invert of aqueduct, —4.17; Contents between 7.00 and 1.SO, 
' 442,000,000 gallons. 

On January 1, 1894, the lake surface was 3.15 feet below 
high water. On January 19 it^had risen to grade 5.70 above 
tide-marsh level, and the stop-planks were removed from the 
dam. Waste continued from January 19 to 22, and from 
January 26 to May 3. 

Additional stop-planks were then placed on the dam, and 
during the month of May the lake remained near high-water 
mark. 

Waste occurred over the dam from May 21 to June 8, 
after which date no waste was permitted except at the con- 
duit wasteway and at the lishway, which was finally closed 
on June 20. During July the lake surface fell from 5.46 to 
2.35, and on August 31 the water was 8.42 feet below high- 
water and but 2.75 feet above the conduit invert. 

The temporary pumps used to raise the water into the 
conduit were then started, and the surface of the lake con- 
tinued to fall until, on October 10, it was 12.08 feet below 
high-water and 1.90 feet lower than any previous record. 

On November 1 the water surface had risen to grade — 3.72, 
and on November 15 the use of the temporary pumps at 
the lake was discontinued. On December 1 the lake sur- 
face was at grade 0.67, and on January 1, 1895, at grade 
3.35. As the old engines and pumps which were in use at 
the lake were of insufficient capacity and badly worn, two 
new 60 H. P. engines and boilers and an 18-inch centrifugal 
pump have been purchased. A pile foundation and wooden 
frame engine-house, 65 ft. X 19^ ft., has been built, and the 
new pump and one of the engines placed in position and con 
nected with the conduit. 

The dam at the outlet of the lake is in good condition. 

Mystic-Valley Sewer. 

During the year 1894, 116,908,000 gallons of sewage was 
pumped and chemically treated with sulphate of aluminum. 

Table XL, on page 194, gives the monthly quantities of 
sewage pumped, coal and aluminum used, etc. With the 
completion of the North Metropolitan Sewer, which will 
occur during the present year, the operation of the plant will 
be discontinued. 

Mystic Conduit and Keservoir. 

The conduit has been twice cleaned during the year. 

In the annual reports for the past three years necessary re- 



Water-Supply Department. 



169 



pairs have been recommended at the conduit screen chamber, 
and as they have not yet been carried out the recommenda- 
tions are renewed. 



Mystic Pumping-Station. 



731,942,300 gals. 

531,822,000 " 

2,487,654,400 " 
3,751,418,700 " 
.10,277,900 " 
8,763,800 lbs. 
11.2 
148.62 
428.1 gals. 

53,057,500 ft.-lbs. 



Engine No. 1 was used 3,337| hours, 

pumping ..... 
Engine No. 2 was used 2,585 hours, 

pumping ..... 
Engine No. 3 was used 7, 5 18^ hours, 

pumping . 
Total quantity pumped 
Daily average quantity pumped 
Total quantity of coal burned . 
Percentage ashes and clinkers . 
Average lift in feet .... 
Quantity pumped per lb. of coal 
Average duty of engines per 100 lbs. 

coal, no deductions ... 

Cost or Pumping. 
Salaries .... 

Fuel 

Repairs .... 
Oil, waste, and packing 
Small supplies 

Total 

Cost per million gallons raised one foot high, 
* ' " " " pumped to reservoir, 

Table VIII., on page 191, shows in detail the work done by 
the engines during the year. Work upon the new engine 
for this station has been in progress at the works of the Gr. F. 
Blake Manufacturing Company during the year, and the en- 
gine is now nearly ready for erection. On October 30, a 
contract was made with Mack & Moore for building an ad- 
dition to the engine-house and for the necessary foundations 
for the engine. 

Work under the contract was begun about November 1. 
The engine foundation is now nearly completed, and it is ex- 
pected that the erection of the engine will be commenced by 
April 15 and completed during the year. 

Consumption. 

The daily average consumption for the year was as fol- 
lows : i 



$11,242 


27 


19,175 


62 


1,576 


30 


. 784 


36 


146 


10 


$32,924 


65 


$0,059 


8.777 



170 



City Document No. 39. 



Sudbury and Cochituate Works 
Mystic Works 



40,51)0,000 gals. 
10,282,100 " 



Total for combined supplies . . 56,842,100 " 

a decrease of 1,353,600 gallons, or 2.3 per cent, from that of 
the previous year. One cause of the decreased consumption 
was the warmer winter of 1893-94. The mean temperature 
for the month of January, 1893, was 10 degrees lower than 
for January, 1894. The consumption of the months of Jan- 
uary, February, and March, 1894, was 473,372,500 gallons 
less than for the corresponding months of the previous year,, 
equivalent to 1,296,900 gallons per day for the entire year. 
The decrease is also due in a considerable measure to the de- 
pression in business, as the quantity of water sold by meter 
measurement averaged 400,000 o-allons per day less than in 
1893. 

On account of the insufficiency of the Mystic supply, all 
of the Charlestown District lying east of Cambridge street 
was supplied from the Cochituate works from 3.30 P.M., 
of September 12, until the end of the year. The following- 
table shows the consumption per inhabitant for the past two 
years : 

Consumption. 



Month. 



January . 
February . 
March . . 
April . . . 
May . . . 
Juue . . . 
July . . . 
August . . 
September 
October . . 
November 
December . 

Average 



Cochituate. 



Consumption in 
Gallons per Capita. 



1893. 



1894. 



Mystic. 



Combined Supplies. 



Consumption in 
Gallons per Capita, 



1893. 



123.7 
117.6 
111.4 
104.1 

99.0 
100.4 
110.6 
108.3 
105.5 
104.2 

99.3 
106.9 



107.5 



108.1 

109.6 

99.7 

88.9 

92.6 

101.4 

110.3 

104.0 

98.2 

95.0 

94.8 

97.5 



111.5 
103.7 
91.9 
76.9 
76.7 
81.5 
80.6 
77.6 
71.8 
75.7 
75.0 
90.9 



1894. 



91.9 
95.4 
83.0 
79.0 
82.1 
96.4 
93.3 
S1.8 
94.3 
80.1 
81.3 
92.8 



Consumption in 
Gallons per Capita. 



1S93. 



120.9 

114.5 

107.0 

98.1 

94.0 

96.1 

104.0 

101.5 

98.0 

97. S 

93.9 

103.3 



102.4 



1894. 



104.5 

106.5 
96.0 
86.7 
90.2 
100.3 
106.5 
99.0 
97.6 
92.6 
92.7 



97.4 



Water-Supply Department. 171 



Distribution. 

On the Cochituate works, 17.88 miles of pipe were laid and 
5.13 miles abandoned, making a net increase of 12.75 miles, 
and a total of 572.8 miles now connected with the system. 

About three miles of the pipe which was abandoned was 
formerly connected with the Jamaica pond supply, and was 
located in streets where there were mains connected with the 
Cochituate system. The work of laying a new 36-inch force 
main from the Chestnut Hill pumping-station to Fisher Hill 
reservoir has been completed during the year. 

The portion of the new 20-inch main for the supply of 
Brighton, which is in the town of Brookline, 3,446 feet in 
length, was laid by the superintendent of the Brookline works. 

The relaying of the 20-inch low service and the 12-inch high 
service mains on Dover street, between Albany street and 
Dorchester avenue, caused by the change of grade and rebuild- 
ing of Dover-street bridge, has been practically completed. 

The raising of the grade and abolition of grade cross- 
ings on Chelsea street, between Medford street and the 
city of Chelsea, made necessary a relocation of the mains 
supplying Chelsea and East Boston. For a length of about 
1,400 feet a 30-inch main has been substituted for the 24- 
inch and 20-inch mains supplying East Boston, and a 24-inch 
main substituted for the 16-inch main supplying Chelsea. 
These new mains have been* laid outside the street location, 
on the property of the Boston & Maine Railroad Company. 

The distributing mains connected with the Mystic works 
have been extended 6.89 miles, and 10.33 miles have been 
relaid, in most cases with pipes of larger diameter. The 
total length now in service is 173.7 miles. 

There has been an increase of 175 in the number of 
hydrants connected with the Cochituate works, making a 
total now in use 6,217. 

On the Mystic works 148 hydrants have been added, and 
the total now connected with the works is 1,435. 

Two hundred and fifty-five petitions for main pipe have 
been reported upon, and 30 contracts for rock excavation 
have been made. Various profiles have been made, levels 
taken, and grades and lines furnished for the main pipe lay- 
ing. All pipe laid has been located and plotted on the 
plans. 

Corrosion of Pipes by Electrolysis. 

The investigations of the effect of electrolysis upon the 
water-pipes have been continued during the year, under 
the supervision of Messrs. Stone & Webster, and in brief 
the results arrived at are as follows : 



172 City Document No. 3D. 

1. In certain places throughout the city electrolytic action 
is taking place, and pipes have already been more or less 
injured and are subject to premature decay. 

2. The many excavations which have been made about 
the city for the purpose of inspecting the pipes have given 
only negative results, revealing no marked action, and yet 
not proving that the natural decay had not been accelerated 
by electrolysis. 

3. Action of a serious nature is confined to special locali- 
ties, where, owing to certain conditions of the railway system, 
abnormal currents are flowing through the earth, but as a 
whole, the action has been reduced to so small an amount 
that it is now difficult to detect. 

4. In the places where action is found special precautions 
in provision of return feeders, and connections with the 
piping system by the Street Railway Company, will ordinarily 
reduce the difficulty to a small amount. 

5. It is impracticable to entirely eliminate electrolytic 
action, but by a constant inspection of the water system as a 
whole, with a view of locating points where difficulty is 
liable to occur, and applying such remedies as are well 
known, the danger can be reduced to a minimum. 

6. The action at any one point is liable to increase or 
decrease temporarily from various causes, and tests made at 
any one locality at any specified time give no reasonable 
assurance that the same condition of affairs will exist for any 
considerable length of time. 

7. A very small difference in potential, as little as one- 
thousandth of a volt, will cause electrolytic action. 

8. Measurements of small difference of potential between 
water-pipes and the adjacent earth are of value principally in 
indicating the direction of flow of electric current rather than 
amount, and are not entirely reliable unless special precau- 
tions in measurements are taken. 

This is on account of the battery action, thermal effects, 
and other disturbing influences. 

9. The most practical way of reducing the liability of 
injury to pipes to a minimum is by detecting the places 
where action is occurring, through a carefully organized 
system of inspection and tests, and requiring the Railway 
Company to provide suitable return conductors or make 
proper connections with pipes or rails where it is found that 
such action exists. 

10. Special provision can be made for measuring the 
flow of current from certain pipes to the ground, and, by 
devices of this sort installed at various places throughout the 
city, the most reliable information can be obtained in regard 



Water-Supply Department. 173 

to the quantity of current flowing away from the pipes in 
any particular section, and a determination made of their 
actual rate of deterioration. , 

The following is Messrs. Stone & Webster's report in 
detail : 

William Jackson, City Engineer, Boston, Mass. : 

Sir : In accordance with your request, we have, during the past year 
continued the investigation which was commenced some two years ago 
to determine the extent of the corrosive action of electric currents upon 
the pipes of the water system in the city of Boston, and beg to submit 
the following : 

It has been our purpose during the past year to conduct such tests and 
experiments as would enable us to determine as definitely as possible 
the extent of the injury which has been done up to the present time, and 
also to predict, if possible, how long a time would probably elapse before 
damage of a serious nature would result to the piping system as a whole 
from electrolytic corrosion, if allowed to continue at its present rate. 

It was clearly set forth in our report of a year ago that currents of a 
considerable magnitude were found to be flowing from place to place, 
through the earth and along the water pipes, but no definite conclusions 
had at that time been reached as to the extent of damage already done 
and the rate at which it was progressing. 

The results which have been obtained during the past year enable us 
to state quite positively that up to the present time the effect upon the 
piping system as a whole has not been serious in the city of Boston, 
although in other places where we have conducted tests during the past 
year, we have found that rapid decay was occurring, clearly due to elec- 
trolytic action. The reason of the slight action which has been found 
here is, primarily, that the street railway system is comparatively well 
equipped with return wires which conduct the greater part of the current 
back to the power-station without serious damage to the piping system. 

Measurements of Potential of Piping System. 

During the last year a large number of readings have been taken of 
the difference of potential between the hydrants and the adjacent 
ground, and it has been found that this difference, which was formerly 
in many cases quite large, has been reduced to a comparatively small 
amount in nearly all parts of the city. 

The marked change in this respect over the tests made during the 
previous year shows that the flow of current from the pipes must have 
been materially reduced, and that the Railway Company are continually 
improving their system by bonding the rails and providing new return 
wires to the power station. 

Some difficulty has been experienced in the investigation of this sub- 
ject on account of the fact that changes in the return system of the 
Street Railway Company are made so frequently that difference of 
potential between pipes and surrounding earth in any particular locality 
frequently varies widely from time to time, and thus prevents any sys- 
tematic study of the action which is taking place at a point where a con- 
siderable difference of potential is once discovered. 

During the tests of a year ago, the greater part of our measurements, 
which were made for the purpose of determining the potential differences, 
were taken between the pipes, or the hydrants connected with the pipes, 
and the rails ; but a careful study of the conditions convinced us that 
tests of this sort are unreliable, and consequently all measurements made 
during the past year have been taken between the pipes and the earth in 
their immediate vicinity. 



174 City Document Xo. 39. 

The practical way in which the measurements have been made is illus- 
trated in Plate I., where it will be seen that a rod is inserted in the 
hydrant box, and a metallic connection upon the bottom of this rod 
touches the ground in the vicinity of the pipe, while the other pole of 
the measuring instrument is placed in contact with the metal of the 
hydrant, the valve stem usually being used for this purpose 

In course of the investigation some question arose as to whether the 
true difference of potential between a pipe and the surrounding earth is 
obtained by a measurement of this sort, and in order to decide this ques- 
tion as definitely as possible, the following readings were taken at sev- 
eral points where excavations had been made throughout the city : 

First. The actual difference of potential between the pipes and the 
ground immediately surrounding them, which is, of course, the meas- 
urement desired, was observed. * 

Second. The difference of potential between the pipe and the surface 
of the ground Avas observed. 

Third. The difference of potential between the piping system and 
the earth at the base of the nearest hydrant box was measured in the 
way described. 

In the twelve places where satisfactory observations were made the 
potential between the pipes and the surface of the ground, and also the 
jDotential between the pipes and the earth at the base of the hydrants, 
was found always to have the same sign as the j)otential between the 
pipes and the ground immediately surrounding them. 

This would seem to prove conclusively that the method regularly 
adopted gives the correct polarity of the reading, and approximately 
the correct value. 

The object of the various measurements which were made of the 
differences of potential was principally to determine the polarity, and 
the differences so obtained are to be considered of value as indicating 
the direction rather than the amount of current flowing. 

Many measurements were taken in the city proper, and also in South 
Boston, East Boston, and Charlestown. The work was begun in Jan- 
uary, 1894, and over 700 different hydrants have been visited and about 
900 observations made. In many places the same hydrants have been 
frequently visited, to determine whether or not considerable changes in 
jjotential difference took place from time to time. 

The results of these tests are on file, but we have not thought it neces- 
sary to insert them in this report, as the polarity at different points is 
indicated on the accompanying map, which shows the location of positive 
and negative hydrants throughout the city. The heavy full line shows 
a positive polarity, indicating a flow of current from the pipes to the 
ground, with consequent electrolytic action. The broken line shows a 
negative polarity at some observations and positive at others, and, being 
thus subject to change, it may be safely concluded that serious action is 
not going on in the district where such a state of affairs exist. 

The results of these tests show that the theoretical assumption in re- 
gard to the existence of a clearly defined danger district is not borne 
out in practice, and that in a city where l'easonable provision for the 
return of current to the power-station has been made, the effect of elec- 
trolytic action, though slight, is widely distributed. 

In the immediate proximity of the power station most of the pipes 
were found very decidedly negative to the surrounding earth. 

Pipes at points far remote from the power-station in a few places 
were found very decidedly positive, due in some cases to the fact that the 
railwaj T return circuit is not sufficiently lai'ge, or is otherwise defective ; 
and in others, to the fact that the piping system is not uniformly contin- 
uous in the direction of the power-station, and the return current has a 
tendency to follow it as far as possible, and then leave it for the earth. 



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Water-Supply Department. 175 

From the observations made it lias been shown that the potential and 
the polarity of the piping system in many places is continually chang- 
ing, even when the quantity of current returned remains substantially 
the same. 

This is due : 

First. To the degree of moisture in the soil from time to time, which 
affects the. electrical resistance of the earth as a whole. 

Second.- To the influences of electrically poor joints in the piping- 
sj'stem. 

Third. To the fact that lines of piping are not continuous from all 
parts of the city in a direct line to the power-station, on which account 
there is a tendency for the current to go across from one pipe to 
another, and the amount of current which so flows depends to a consid- 
erable extent upon the condition of the soil, which is subject to change. 

Fourth. To the fact that the copper wires which bond the rails some- 
times become corroded at the joints and affect the resistance of the 
return circuit, particularly where no supplementary wire is used. 

Fifth. To the changes in the return system made by the Street Rail- 
way, from time to time, which, even if at points remote from the loca- 
tion of hydrants tested, make considerable differences in the potential 
observed. 

Difference of Potential required to Produce Electrolysis. 

The difference of potential obtained in the observations just described 
varies from 0.5 to .0005 volts, the average being perhaps about .02 
volts. 

It was formerly supposed that a difference of from 1 to 2 volts was 
required to produce electrolytic decomposition, but recent scientific in- 
vestigations have been made which prove conclusively that a very small 
difference of potential is sufficient to cause electrolytic action. 

As this question of amount of difference required for the production 
of electrolytic effects was an important one, we thought it desirable to 
conduct a series of tests with a view of determining, as definitely as pos- 
sible, the minimum potential requisite. 

For this purpose three cells were made up with electrodes of bright 
sheet iron immersed in a dilute solution of common salt. 

The plates of the first cell (A) were subjected to an electromotive 
foi'ce of .01 volts ; of the second cell (B) to an electromotive force of 
.002 volts, while the third cell (C) was not connected at all to the 
source of electrical supply, and was only used to observe the rate at 
which the natural rusting of the iron would take place. 

The method of procedure was to immerse all the electrodes at one 
time, and after ten minutes to test for iron in the solution by means of 
ferricyanide of potassium. Then to test again, from time to time, and 
to note which cells showed the strongest reaction. 

Three independent tests were made, all giving the same results, 
which were as follows : 

Table Showing Reaction in Test for Iron in the Electrolyte. 



Time after immersion. 


Cell (A) .01 volt. 


Cell (B) .002 volts. 


Cell (C) volts. 


10 minutes. 


Trace. 


Trace. 


None. 


20 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


Trace. 


30 


Strong. 


Distinct. 


Just visible. 


60 


Strong. 


Strong. 


Slight. 



From the above investigation it is obvious that an electromotive 
force, even so low as .002 volts, is sufficient to cause injurious action 
from electrolysis. 



176 City Document No. 39. 



Flow of Electric Currents through Piping System. 

During the first year of our investigation into the matter of electro- 
lytic action we secured abundant evidence that large currents were 
almost continually flowing through various parts of the piping system, 
and the question arose immediately as to the amount of damage that 
such currents were doing. 

The tests made during the past year have confirmed the results ob- 
tained at first, and we have therefore thought this matter of sufficient 
importance to make it an object to conduct special laboratory tests to 
determine the probable extent and nature of injury resulting from this 
cause. 

In this city no well defined case of serious trouble from the passage 
of currents through the pipes themselves has been discovered, although 
some difficulty from electrical disturbances has been reported when 
making connections to the main Avater-pipe upon Dover street, near the 
South Boston bridge. But tests have so far revealed nothing of note. 
In other cities we have found serious action resulting from this cause 
at points where anything in the nature of an electrically insulated joint 
occurs. 

Plate III. shows a section of pipe which was examined under our 
direction in a city where considerable trouble had been experienced from 
electrolytic action. This particular piece of pipe was situated at a dis- 
tance of some two miles from the nearest electric power-station, and it 
so happened that the tendency of the current was to flow from the ad- 
jacent railway system to Section A, and thence to B, in the direction of 
the power-house. At X there was a rubber gasket, and under the bolt 
heads were cotton washers, so that Section A was electrically insulated 
from Section B. This made it necessary for the current to pass from 
the inner surface of A to the water, and then back again to the surface of 
B, in order to get around the joint. 

When we first noticed the rubber gasket, this condition of affairs was 
expected ; and, upon inspecting the inside of the pipe, it was found that 
the inner surface of A was covered with scales, and pitted in many 
places to a depth of 1-16 of an inch, while the inner surface of B was 
as clean and smooth as upon the day it was first laid. 

As the current flowing through this pipe was not large — probably 
not amounting, on an average, to more than a fraction of an ampere — 
it seemed probable that in many places trouble might occur even in a 
leaded bell and spigot joint, where, through corrosion or other cause, the 
electrical connection was poor ; and even to a greater extent in pipes 
where cement joints were used. 

We have shown by experiment that the action of a current flowing 
through piping with cement joints, as shown by Plate IV., is exactly simi- 
lar to the action on the joint with the rubber gaskets described above, 
except that a portion of the current leaves the outside of the pipe and 
passes through the earth around the joint. This was impossible where 
the joint came within a manhole, as in the case just mentioned. 

It may be well to state, however, in this connection, that where 
cement joints are used throughout a piping system, the breaks in the 
electrical continuity are so frequent that the pipes do not act to any 
great extent as conductors, so that very little current flows. 

With regard to lead joints, we have conducted several experiments to 
determine whether or not an injurious action would be caused if the 
current flowing through the pipe should be comparatively large. 

The first test was conducted on a section of cast-iron pipe, made up 
with lead joints, as shown in Plate V. This was placed in a box of sand, 
with the two ends projecting, and filled with water. 

A current of 200 amperes entered at the point marked -\- , and left at 
point marked — . The current was allowed to pass for about nine 



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Water-Supply Department. 177 

hours ; then it was shut off for about thirty-six hours ; then allowed to 
flow again for nine hours; and so on. Two hundred amperes was a 
large current for the size of the pipe, and it was Sufficient to heat it 
perceptibly, especially at the joints. 

After this current had flowed for 70 hours, making a total amount of 
14,000 ampere hours, the pipe was removed and examined. The inside 
of the pipe showed no marked corrosion, but the water had become very 
turbid, indicating electrical action. On the outside the rust was marked 
at the points R; also, slight rust was present on some other parts. 

The rust at the points E. is accounted for from the fact that a portion 
of the current left the pipe at those points and passed around the joint 
through the moist sand. 

This shows that if a large current is flowing longitudinally in an iron 
pipe, even with good joints, an injurious action is likely to occur at the 
joints. 

Another and quicker method used for showing the same thing was 
adopted in the following test : 

The apparatus for this test consisted of two systems of iron pip- 
ing, made as in Plate V. Both of these were filled with water and 
supported by a wooden frame. 

A current of about 200 amperes was passed at intervals through one 
of the systems of piping. No current was passed through the other ; 
-and from time to time samples of water were taken simultaneously from 
both pipes. In this way we are able to compare the rate at which the 
water in each pipe became turbid. 

The experiment was stopped after 4,700 ampere hours of current had 
passed. The difference in the samples, while not being striking, was so 
well marked that there was no mistaking that the pipe with the current 
jDassing through was rusting the more rapidly. 

From this test it is evident that the flow of an electric current along an 
iron pipe will increase the rate of decay of the pipe to some extent. 

.Signs of Electrolytic Action, 

In carrying on such investigation as this it was at once recognized 
that it would be of great advantage to be able to note definitely whether 
the pipes which are submitted to us for inspection have been acted upon 
electrically, or are simply corroded from natural causes. With this in 
view, a study of the characteristic appearance, of both lead and iron 
pipes, when subjected to electrolysis, was undertaken in order to dis- 
-cover, if possible, signs by which the polarity of the pipes could be 
known in cases where the action had not been sufficiently energetic to 
• produce the well-known pitting marks. 

Samples of both lead and iron pipes were obtained for these tests 
from the Water Department. These pipes had been removed from the 
streets and were somewhat corroded. Several pairs of each of these 
were placed in damp sand, and a current of about one ampere was passed 
from one to another, thus making one pole of each pair positive to the 
sand and the other negative. This current was maintained for about 
three weeks during nine hours of each da}* - , and occasional inspections 
were made, with the following results : 

Lead Pipes. 

Both pipes of each pair were originally somewhat corroded, and a 
small amount of scale adhered to the surface. When the positive pipe 
was taken out and examined after afew days' run ; a mass of sand, about 
a quarter of an inch in thickness, adhered to it ; and the particles of this 
sand were apparently cemented together with black and with salts of 
lead. Upon scraping off this outside coating of sand, purplish brown 
salts of lead could be seen adhering to the surface of the pipe, and after 



178 City Document No. 39. 

current had been jDassed through the pipe for a sufficient length of time 
the well-known pit-marks were observed. The negative electrode, 
when removed from the sand, was clean, of a grayish color, and with 
little or no sand adhering to it, and of practically the same appearance 
as a similar pipe buried in sand and entirely free from electrolytic action 
of any sort. 

The above distinctions between the positive and negative electrodes, 
while not clearly defined in all cases, were sufficiently marked to enable 
us to determine pretty definitely "whether or not a pipe was subjected to 
electrolytic action, if inspection were made immediately after the pipe 
was removed from the ground. 

Iron Pipes. 

In the case of the iron pipes, the indications were less marked. The 
pipes were originally covered with a fine incrustation of sand, the 
particles of which were very firmly cemented together. When the pipes 
were inspected after a few days' run, the only thing observed was that 
the scale cracked off more easily where electrolytic action had taken 
place than where no action whatever was present; but there was no 
clearly defined difference between the negative and positive pipes, and 
as a whole the results obtained were not sufficiently definite to warrant 
a determination as to whether or not iron pipes which are slightly cor- 
roded have been subjected to electrolytic influences. 

Bate of Deterioration due to Electrolysis. 

In places where electrolytic action is slowly taken place on account 
of the effect of the return currents from the Street Railway system, it is 
important to determine as accurately as possible the actual rate of decay 
due to this cause. 

Where the action is marked, occasional inspections will, of course, give 
a rough idea of this ; but in the majority of places throughout the city 
of Boston deterioration is not taking place rapidly enough to make this 
practicable, so that it seemed desirable to devise some means of actually 
determining the rate at which the metal is being taken away from any 
particular length of pipe. With this in view, the apparatus shown in 
Plate VI. was devised. 

This consists of a wooden box (A) of about 7 feet in length; filled with 
tar, and placed around the service-pipe (S) beneath the surface of 
the street. Upon the outside of this box is fastened a sheath of lead 
(L) whose entire surface is of known relation to the surface of the pipe 
(S). From the lead sheath, and also from the pipe, wires are led 
through the tube (C) to a point (B) at the surface of the street, where 
they are available for connection with an ammeter or voltmeter, as 
clesh-ed. 

All flow of current away from the pipe (S) throughout the distance 
where, it is insulated by the box (A), is of course prevented ; but if the 
terminals of the wires at (B) are connected together through an am- 
meter, the tendency, of course, will be for the current which would 
naturally leave the pipe (S) to flow up the wire (X) and back by way 
of the wire (Y) to the lead sheath, and thence from the sheath to the 
ground. 

Several devices of this sort were installed at various places through- 
out the city and measurements of current taken, but as the apparatus 
was not put in use until late in the fall, the heavy snows during the win- 
ter have prevented satisfactory results. 

In other places where we have installed apparatus of this sort, and 
especially in cities where electrolytic action is taking place at a rapid 
rate, it has been found that quite reliable measurements as to the 
quantity of current flowing away from a pipe could be obtained, and as 
a given quantity of cm-rent deposits a certain amount of metal in a 



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Water-Supply Department. 179 

given space of time, it has been possible to determine quite accurately 
the rate at which the pipe submitted to test is undergoing deterioration. 

We have recently devised a piece of apparatus, which is illustrated in 
Plate VII., for obtaining even more satisfactory results than could be ob- 
tained from the apparatus illustrated in Plate VI., and if the tests in this 
city are to be continued, we should advise that devices of this sort be 
installed at various places through the city, and that frequent measure- 
ments of the flow of current be made. 

The apparatus consists simply of two insulating joints (A) and (B) , 
with a length of service-pipe, say, ten feet, between them. Wires from 
each side of each of these insulating joints are carried to the surface of 
the street. By the insertion of a delicate ammeter between the wires 
(c) and (d), a measurement of the quantity of current flowing from the 
main to the service-pipe can be obtained, and if the wires (a) and (b) are 
left disconnected, this measurement gives approximately the quantity 
current flowing away from the section (A-B) to the earth, and enables 
one to determine roughly the rate of deterioration. 

By connecting the wires (a and b) together, and leaving the ammeter 
as shown, connected with wires (c and d) a measurement can be ob- 
tained of the quantity of current flowing away from the entire length 
of service-pipe. 

The question will probably be asked whether or not the current flow- 
ing through the water in the pipe is not sufficient to vitiate the results, 
even although an insulated joint in the metal itself is inserted. 

In reply to this we would say, that the resistance of the ammeter and 
leads is so small in comparison with the resistance of the water that im- 
practical purposes it may be said that all the current flowing from the 
main into the service-pipe will pass through the ammeter (H) and be 
there recorded. 

(Signed) Stone & Webster. 



General condition or the Works. 

The completion of Reservoir No. 6 has increased the daily- 
capacity of the Sudbury and Cochituate supply about 4,000,- 
000 gallons, and the safe capacity of the works in a year of 
extreme drought is now about 41,500,000 gallons. 

As the daily average consumption during the past year 
was 46,560,000 gallons, it is evident that there is a liability 
that the supply may be insufficient before Reservoir No. 5 
can be completed. The consumption from the Mystic works 
is now about 11,500,000 gallons per day, an amount far in 
excess of their capacity. Even during the past year, which 
was not exceptionally dry, 40,000 people in the Charlestown 
district were supplied from the Cochituate works for nearly 
four months, and Mystic lake was drawn to such a low point 
by the temporary pumps that the quality of the water was 
affected by the infiltration of salt water from the Lower 
Mystic lake. 

Although the completion of Reservoir ~No. 5 will raise the 
safe total capacity of all the sources of supply to 61,500,000 
gallons per day, it is evident that the daily consumption, 



180 City Document No. 39. 

which is now about 57,000,000 gallons, will soon be in excess 
of the yield of our sources of supply. 

Another consideration is the question of the necessity of 
abandoning the Mystic supply on account of the difficulty in 
preserving the purity of the water. The annual reports 
for the past fifteen years have reiterated the statement that 
the quality of the water from this source is constantly de- 
teriorating, and that it is not practicable, on account of the 
large population residing on the water-shed, to make any 
permanent improvement in the quality. As the Mystic supply 
cannot be abandoned until an additional supply is obtained, 
and as the construction of Reservoir No. 5 will complete the 
development of the Sudbury river supply, it is evident that 
immediate steps should be taken to procure an additional 
supply sufficient to meet the requirements of the city for 
future years. 

In consequence of the great increase in the high-service 
consumption the supply mains from Fisher Hill Reservoir 
anc( in the Roxbury District are inadequate to furnish a sup- 
ply without an excessive loss of head. At times the Parker 
Hill Reservoir has been nearly emptied, and residents on the 
higher land have been entirely deprived of their supply. 

To remedy this difficulty the laying of a 48-inch main has 
been recommended from the junction of Fisher Hill avenue 
and Boylston street to the corner of Huntington avenue and 
Heath street. At this point the main will be divided, a 42- 
inch main continuing through Huntington avenue and Boyl- 
ston street for the supply of the city proper, with a connection 
at Wait street for the supply of Parker Hill Reservoir ; the 
other branch, 36 inches in diameter, to be carried through 
Heath street and across the Roxbury district. 

The new pumping-engines at the Chestnut Hill and Mystic 
stations will furnish sufficient pumping capacity to meet the 
requirements at those stations for the next five years. 

At the East Boston station all of the pumps are in need of 
repairs, and a new pump should be purchased for the use of 
the Breed's Island service. 

The relaying of the old tuberculated mains with pipes of 
larger size and the laying of new supply mains has not kept 
pace with the growth of the city for the past few years. 
About 10 miles of the new and enlarged mains which have 
been recommended to your Board since 1891 still [remain to 
be laid, and I recommend that the work be pushed as fast 
as possible. From threes to four miles of the old 4-inch and 
(>-inch pipe and from 100 to 200 of the old pattern Boston 
hydrants should be replaced each year, to meet the demands 
for better fire protection. 



Water-Supply Department. 181 

Appended to this report will be found the usual tables of 
rainfall, consumption, etc., for the past year, and in addition, 
tables are given of the rainfall, rainfall collected, and per- 
centage collected on the Cochituate water-shed since 1863, 
on the Sudbury-river water-shed since 1875, and on the 
Mystic water-shed since 1878. These will be found valuable 
for future reference. 

Yours respectfully, 

William Jackson, 

Oily Engineer. 



182 



City Document No. 39. 



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BOSTON WATER WORKS. 

Diagram showing the rainfall and daily average Consumptic 
for" each rnonth. 




■jpBiiipiHpi Ir |l]ip 'ill 


*► 



Water-Supply Department. 



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s 


c 


c 


c 


c 


c 


<= 


— 


c 


c 


cr 


c 


c 







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— 


c 


in 


c 






cr 


cr 


r 


cr 


c 


c 


c 





S 




cy 




c 


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cc 


c 




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CO 


SrS.i: 


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cr 


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cc 


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co r~ 


e 


CT 


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cc 






CN 


CO 




CO c 




Os 




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cc 


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cc 







































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cc 


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cr 


cr 








It of 
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from 

r. 






c 


c 


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c 


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Water 

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cr 


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c 


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c 


c 


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r 


cr 


c 


cr 


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cr 


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of W 
to L 
late a 
nit II 
rvoir. 


so 


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cr 


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cc 


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a 


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22 



Water-Supply Department. 



187 







■* 




n 


o 


— 1 O 


















ta 


o 




rs 10 




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■^ 







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© 

r> © 


co 


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to 










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188 



City Document No. 39. 



1 








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V 


CN 




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llected. 






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cc 


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v. 


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Rainfall 

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Water-Supply Department. 



189 



si 



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191 



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192 



City Document No. 39. 



TABLE IX. 

Statement of Operations at the East Boston Pumping- Station for the Year 

1894. 







Engine No. 2 






Engine No. 3 




03 
O 


5 




















o 
a . 

P 
Ig 

o o 
Eh 


a 


1894. 


do 

p 

% 

s 

p 
p< . 

tf d 

03 
Eh 


£2 

3 
O 

gas 


6 
> 

03 

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bit 

a 

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p 

3 

a . 

— s> 

$ a 


I 2 
o 

g-g 

& . 

£p,3 


bo 
c3 
u 
ffi 
> 

03 
_>> 

'a 
R 

Gallons 
25,400 


03 

c . 
P o 

H" 5 


Month. 


Jlrs. 


M. 


Gallons. 


i 

Gallons 


Hrs. 


M. 


Gallons. 


Pounds. 


Per ct. 


Jan. . 


276 


50 


11,362,540 


1 
366,500 


56 


50 


757,020 


30,800 


19.1 


Feb. . 


276 


05 


11,847,640 


423,100 


55 


20 


793,440 


28,300 


32,960 


18.7 


March, 


266 


25 


11,453,960 


369,500 


63 


15 


915,000 


29,500 


30,740 


18.9 


April . 


297 


55 


12,327,140 


410,900 


64 


40 


925,080 


30,800 


34,260 


18.7 


May . 


269 


00 


10,921,820 


352,300 


64 


20 


912,240 


29,400 


30,040 


18.8 


June . 


255 


25 


10,538,080 


351,300 


80 


25 


1,119,660 


37,300 


31,960 


18.9 


July . 


292 


50 


12,422,060 


400,700 


88 


00 


1,275,840 


41,200 


34,310 


18.7 


Aug. . 


2S3 


50 


12,034,120 


388,200 


68 


50 


973,860 


31,400 


32,550 


18.7 


Sept. . 


264 


10 


11,154,220 


371,800 


64 


05 


940,500 


31,400 


30,370 


18.9 


Oct. . 


309 


25 


12,709,900 


410,000 


60 


15 


891,060 


28,700 


34,200 


18.7 


Nov. . 


293 


20 


11,637,360 


387,900 


57 


20 


812,160 


27,100 


32,400 


19.0 


Dec. . 


313 


50 


12,123,160 


391,100 

1 


62 


00 


900,240 


29,000 


36,050 


19.1 


Totals, 


3,399 


05 


140,532,000 


3S5,000 


785 


20 


11,246,100 


30,800 


390,640 


18.9 



Note. — Engine No. 1 was not run during 1894. 



Water-Supply Department. 



193 



TABLE X . 

Statement of Operations at the West Roxbury Pumping- Station for the 

Year 1894. 



1894. 


so 

a 

ll 

o 

Eh 


Total amount 
pumped. 


T3 
a a) 

gft 

2s 

53 O 

0| 


s o 

Pi° 

*?£ 

a 53 

g p. 
& 


«1 

a s 
23 

a o 

Cj o 
*j o 

o <a 

H 


CD 

^ m 
c8 5J 

• 3 

ao 

55§ 


© 

SB 
eS 
u 

CD 

> 


Month. 


Hours. 


Min. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Pounds. 


Per cent. 


Feet. 


-January . . 


275 


00 


3,229,275 


104,200 


139.8 


23,100 


20.3 


136.26 


February . 


253 


30 


3,198,000 


114,200 


140.6 


22,750 


20.0 


135.82 


March . . . 


259 


30 


3,152,400 


101,700 


138.9 


22,700 


20.4 


136.36 


April . . . 


255 


30 


3,090,150 


103,000 


153.2 


20,175 


20.2 


135.66 


May .... 


320 


00 


4,001,700 


129,100 


165.4 


24,200 


20.9 


136.82 


June . . . 


364 


30 


4,700,925 


156,700 


170.3 ' 


27,600 


18.6 


136.95 


-July .... 


424 


00 


5,377,875 


173,500 


166.2 


32,350 


19.4 


137.70 


August . . 


321 


30 


4,022,175 


129,700 


172.8 


23,275 


16.5 


137.53 


September . 


315 


00 


3,865,500 


128,900 


176.5 


21,900 


16.0 


136.42 


October . . 


292 


00 


3,183,450 


102,700 


166.0 


19,175 


15.5 


137.21 


November . 


285 


30 


3,059,550 


102,000 


153.4 


19,950 


17.5 


137.01 


December . 


316 


00 


3,470,100 


111,900 


143.4 


24,200 


18.0 


136.95 


Totals and 
averages, 


3,682 


00 


44,351,100 


121,500 


157.6 


281,375 


18.7 


136.72 



194 



City Document No. 39. 



TABLE XI. 

Table showiny Work done at Mystic Sewage Pumping- Station during the- 

Year 1884. 



1894. 



January . 
February . 
March . 
April . . , 
May . . . 
June . . 
July . . . 
August . . 
September 
October . . 
November 
December . 

Totals 



ffrs. JHn. 



471 
474 
548 
497 
433 
511 
490 
527 
472 
508 
496 
498 



5,931 






Gallons. 



585,000 
291,000 
091,000 
759,000 
,389,000 
610,000 
778,000 
255,000 
154,000 
263,000 
693,000 
040,000 



116,908,000 



Lbs. 



24,060 
24,785 
29,440 
22,475 
21,600 
25,060 
23,150 
23,855 
18,225 
20,975 
21,390 
19,350 



274,365 



Lbs. 



29,150 
29,500 
33,200 
29,800 
25,650 
17,300 
25,950 
29,500 
28,800 
29,900 
29,300 
29,700 



> a vo 
a 3 p. « 

& ci P<+j 



Gallons* 



337,750 



342,300 
367,500 
390,000 
371,000 
322,700 
320,300 
292,600 
298,500 
281,200 
319,400 
334,200 
368,000 

334,000 



Water-Supply Department. 



195 



TABLE XII. 

Rainfall in Inches and Hundredths on Sudbury River Water-shed for 

the Year 1894. 



1894. 


>> 

u 

03 
3 

a 

C3 

•-s 


03 
3 
u 
,Q 


p 


ft 
< 




a 

3 

►a 


>> 

3 
1-3 


3 
SO 
3 
< 


CD 

a 

a 

ft 

0) 

m 


u 

o 
o 
O 


u 

a 

a 

> 
o 

12! 


CD 

1 
OJ 

ft 






0.025 






















2 




















515 


3 












0.420 
0.005 


0.210 
0.290 


0.700 
0.045 






0.605 




4 


0.045 
0.085 


0.295 




0.375 


0.110 








5 




0.460 






6 








0.290 
0.005 






0.190 


1.260 




7 
















8 
















0.200 


1.645 


0.375 
0.280 




9 






0.010 


0.890 








0.145 




10 




0.730 










675> 


11 


0.135 
0.055 


0.030 




0.025 


0.100 










12 












0.875 


13 


1,295 
0.865 


0.095 
0.160 


1.625 








0.210 










14 

15 


0.020 






0.250 


0.140 
0.030 


0.050 


0.730 


0.150 




16 


0.220 








0.075 








17 














0.350 








18 




0.310 
















0.110 






0.145 






0.615 














20 


0.245 










0.760 


1.755 








21 




0.075 


0.160 
0.040 

0.325 


0.280 


0.460 


0.090 
0.500 




0.395 




22 
























0.030 
0.785 
0.080 
0.025 


0.170 














0.460 






0.845 
0.800 












25 








0.150 




26 




0.145 


0.060 








1.670 




27 


1.160 


2.490 


28 
























29 

30 


1.785 




0.175 




1.545 




0.195 




0.090 


0.760 


0.100 




31 








0.445 
































Totals . 


4.090 


3.910 


1.435 


3.415 


4.235 


1.155 


3.255 


2.030 


2.635 


5.345 


3.425 


4.810 



Total rainfall during the year, 39.740 inches, being an average of two gauges, located at 
Framingham and Ashland. 



196 



City Document No. 39. 



TABLE XIII. 

Rainfall in Inches aud Hundredths at Lake Cochituate for the Year 1894. 



1894. 


3 

a 

c3 
t-5 


u 
a 
3 

£ 
fa 


^5 

o 

% 


<1 


>> 


a 
a 

3 


>. 
^ 


3 
& 

3 
< 


3 
B 
a 


3 

O 

O 


3 

g 

> 
o 


3 

g 

a> 

o 

0) 

A 




















































0.49 














0.45 


0.22 
0.23 


0.71 
0.05 






0.54 




4 . . 








0.33 


0.16 




















6 


0.04 


. . . 


0.01 


0.01 


0.29 








0.10 




1.46 




- 










































0.16 


0.16 


































0.63 
















1.53 


0.64 


0.64 














































0.84 
















0.14 


0.29 
0.03 


0.06 


0.92 


0.17 




15 




0.85 


0.13 












































































0.02 














































1.29 


1.62 








21 


• • . 




0.03 




0.86 


0.79 






































































0.26 


0.66 












0.16 












0.23 




















































2.1S 










































































































Totals . 


3.95 


3.89 


1.16 


3.27 


3.70 


1.61 


3.61 


2.57 


2.27 


5.14 


3.53 


4.38 



Total rainfall during the year, 39.08 inches. 



Water-Supply Department. 



197 



TABLE XIV. 

Rainfall in Inches and Hundredths at Mystic Lake for the Year 1894, 



1894. 


CS 

3 

a 

1-3 




P ' 
3 


ft 
< 




R 
P 
>-5 


►a 


m 

3 
6B 

3 


V 

a 

ft 

0Q 


O 
O 


u 

a 

> 

O 


a 

o 

ft 


































































0.16 


0.38 


0.44 






0.77 


0.44 












































6 


0.10 




. . . 




0.32 








0.06 


. . . 


1.59 


































0.03 
















































0.78 


0.03 










0.86 


0.02 


1.70 


0.35 


0.47 




































0.81 


























14 






0.10 


1.73 






0.01 


0.02 




1.36 


0.18 








































































































































0.68 


1.58 


















0.34 


0.34 


0.67 


. . . 


0.23 


















































































25 


0.40 








0.94 


. . . 


0.69 








0.09 


0.25. 




















































2.0© 






















































Totals . 


3.93 


3.31 


1.09 


3.48 


5.18 


0.72 


3.45 


2.52 


2.52 


5.58 


3.49 


3.97 



198 



City Document No. 39. 



« I 






Si 





cs 


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CO 


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CO 


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to 


t- 


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cs 


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c; 


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3S 


ci 


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cc 


cc 




ca 


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CO 


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oi 


c4 


CS 


cs 


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CO 


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r3 


tH 


to 


cs 


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OS 


<N 


t- 


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b- 


CO 


o 


-* 


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o 


a 


°i 


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c 


Cl 


CO 


OS 


r- 


I- 


y- 


rH 


rH 


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c> 


d 


T- 


o 


rH 


r^ 


^ 


3 






























,_, 


,_, 


CO 


e» 


M 


_ 


-(< 


OS 


CO 


OS 


,- 


o 


t- 


,Q 


c 


CT 


a 


oc 




a 


o 


c 


11 


IC 


tc 


iC 


OS 


4) 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


cc 


CO 


o; 


CO 


CO 


CO 


cs 


« 


pH 


























CO 




CO 


in 


■c 




o 


CO 


CO 


cc 


-+ 


M 


-t 


in 


to 


a 

03 


■ct 


c 

cc 


CO 


d 

CO 


cr 
CO 


cr 

CO 


■ct 

CO 


CO 


cc 

cc 


CO 
CO 


C'l 


CO 

cc 


CO 


i-s 


























CO 
























c 






























c 






























b 































_c 








m 

o 
< 






















, T 


c 


CD 






















c 


c 


s 


h! 






















t 


, 


Ph 
















c 
c 






-. c 

5 




c 

CI 


> 










c 








c 

6 


o 1 


c 


r? 

c 
e 


: i 


> 13 




c 

6 


c 

1 


5 


* 

1 

c 


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a 


I 

1 i 


c 

I 


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1 


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C 




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c 

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c 


J 


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p 


c 
c 

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PC 


s 

a 

c 


c 

- 


. 1 


< 





Water-Supply Department. 



199 



TABLE XVI. 

Table showing the Temperature of Air and Water at Various Stations 
on the Water- Works. 











Temperature of Air. 


Temperature of 
Water. 


1894. 


Chestnut Hill Reservoir. 


Framingham. 


Brookline 
Reservoir. 


Mystic 
Engine- 
House. 




S 

3 

.§ 

a 


a 

3 
S 

"5 

% 


a 

C3 


a 
a 


a 

3 

a 

3 

s 


a 

as 

1 


a 


a 

C3 

1 


January 
February 
March . 
April . 
May . . 
June . 
July . . 
August 
Septembe 
October 
Novembe 
Decembe 


r 
r 






56.5 
52.5 
70.5 
80.5 
89.0 
97.0 
105.5 
92.5 
90.0 
76.5 
65.0 
55.0 


0.0 
-10.0 
17.0 
18.0 
34.5 
41.5 
50.0 
42.0 
40.0 
32.5 
11.0 
5.0 


28.9 
25.9 
41.8 
47.5 
59.3 
69.7 
75.9 
69.1 
65.2 
52.8 
36.6 
30.4 


54.0 
49.0 
69.0 
79.0 
88.0 
95.0 
98.0 
90.0 
90.0 
76.0 
64.0 
52.0 


-6.0 

-14.0 

15.0 

16.0 

30.0 

40.0 

47.0 

40.0 

31.0 

28.0 

8.0 

0.0 


26.7 
24.2 
40.6 
45.8 
57.7 
69.3 
74.2 
67.2 
63.8 
51.3 
35.2 
27.7 


37.2 
36.9 
40.8 
45.6 
59.7 
66.5 
74.5 
73.2 
68.2 
57.2 
43.8 
37.6 


36.2 
35.8 
38.0 
43.7 
58.9 
66.9 
75.9 
72.4 
67.2 
53.8 
41.5 
36.1 



200 



City Document No. 39. 






Jjo 


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CD 


CD 


s 


CM 


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CM 


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CM 


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CO 

CO 


Ol 


CD 




inj* 


p9 


CM 




1-. 


CM 


CD 
CM 


CO 


01 


CO 


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CM 


OS 


s 


rt 


M 


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Sp 






































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01 


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EH 




















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10 


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CO 


d 


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CM 


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CO 


as 


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CM 




































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as 


t- 


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o 




CO 


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P 


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CO 


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CS 


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CO 


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CO 




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CO 


co 


co 


CO 


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CO 


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rH 




TT 


01 


CO 


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CO 
















CO 


-f 


■* 


CO 




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CO) 


CM 






CO 


CM 


CM 


CM 


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Q, 
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rH 


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CM 




CM 




CM 


00 


CM 




CM 


CO 


CO 


eo 


eo 


o 


-* 


01 


rB 


^ 




CO 


Ol 


uo 










CD 














o 


CO 
















lO 


o 


O 


C0 


OS 






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01 


OS 




C3 


CO 


CO 


lO 


CO 


lO 


CM 














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CO 


Ol 


S 








































CO 


CO 


>o 


o 


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rr, 










CO 


o 






eo 


eo 


ITS 


ifO 






OS 






"St* 




o 




CO 


CO 




35 




Ol 




CS 


o 


o 


rH 


1 -* 


o 


Tjl 




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CM 


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CM 


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o 


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-* 


a 








■* 


CO 


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lO 




CD 




CO 


CM 


CO 


OS 


t- 


o 


„ 




CO 


OS 


-T 














CN 
















-* 


CO 


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CM 












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Ol 




rH 


CO 


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CM 




d 






































<> 






































h 






































h 














































CO 


r_ 


m 




o 


,_, 


CM 


CO 


_,, 


o 


CO 


,_ 


CO 


OS 


o 




CO 


CO 


CO 






S 




CO 


*~ 


l ~ 


*7 


\~ 


CO 


CO 








00 



go co oo go 



Water-Supply Department. 



201 



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202 



Oty Document No. 39. 



TABLE XVIII. 

Rainfall Collected, in Inches, on Cochituate Water-shed, 1863 to 1894. 



Year. 


r* 5 

3 



a 
a 

1-3 


>> 

3 

.5 

<s 


.a 

o 


a 
< 


>> 


a 
n 


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>-2 


a 
< 


3 

a 

n, 

02 


o 
o 

6 


g 

> 

o 

6 


B 

o 

p 


O 


■ o 
JO 


1803 . 






, 


1.93 


3.11 


3.71 


4.42 


1.44 


0.67 


2.97 


1.51 


0.98 


1.32 


2.65 


2.17 


26.88 


6.78 


1864 . 








2.39 


1.56 


4.05 


2.65 


1.62 


0.49 


0.41 


0.68 


0.49 


1.43 


1.25 


1.33 


18.35 


3.01 


1865 . 








2.15 


1.74 


4.66 


2.70 


4.70 


0.34 


0.46 


0.47 


0.45 


0.70 


1.00 


1.13 


20.50 


2.0S 


1866 . 








0.73 


2.84 


1.76 


1.63 


1.29 


1.10 


1.20 


0.64 


1.34 


0.93 


0.99 


1.56 


16.01 


4.11 


1867 . 








1.10 


5.24 


3.50 


2.87 


2.20 


0.65 


0.59 


2.10 


0.31 


1.02 


1.10 


1.12 


21.80 


4.02 


1868 . 








1.22 


1.12 


3.84 


3.48 


6.17 


1.59 


0.45 


1.18 


1.85 


0.95 


1.96 


1.17 


24.98 


4.43 


1869 . 








1.82 


1.84 


3.31 


2.49 


2.20 


1.07 


0.74 


0.58 


1.10 


2.37 


1.30 


3.17 


21.99 


4.79 


18T0 . 








4.71 


3.93 


3.38 


6.87 


1.66 


0.97 


0.53 


0.41 


0.86 


1.11 


0.88 


0.77 


26.08 


2.91 


1871 . 








1.03 


2.28 


2.53 


1.58 


2.00 


0.87 


0.43 


0.85 


0.39 


0.69 


1.30 


1.21 


15.16 


2.36 


1872 . 








1.15 


0.93 


1.41 


3.08 


1.10 


1.49 


0.14 


1.32 


1.70 


1.69 


2.00 


1.21 


17.22 


4.85 


1873 . 








3.09 


1.57 


3.89 


6.09 


2.66 


0.45 


0.62 


1.40 


0.78 


2.04 


1.86 


2.68 


27.13 


4.84 


1874 . 








3.55 


2.19 


1.84 


3.19 


2.78 


1.96 


0.95 


0.92 


0.53 


0.52 


0.58 


0.51 


19.52 


2.92 


1875 . 








0.13 


2.92 


2.66 


3.15 


1.39 


1.48 


0.25 


0.62 


0.60 


1.19 


1.96 


1.22 


17.57 


2.66 


1876 . 








1.09 


1.78 


5.19 


4.20 


1.43 


0.51 


0.84 


0.29 


0.88 


0.49 


1.85 


0.99 


19.54 


2.50 


1877 . 








1.20 


1.37 


6.81 


3.24 


2.04 


0.92 


0.65 


0.67 


0.46 


1.16 


2.69 


1.96 


23.17 


2.94 


1878 . 








3.25 


3.97 


5.40 


2.86 


1.66 


0.76 


0.47 


0.84 


0.29 


0.73 


2.07 


4.04 


26.34 


2.33 


1879 . 








1.29 


2.32 


3.30 


4.48 


1.40 


0.77 


0.33 


0.95 


0.61 


0.60 


0.72 


1.04 


17.81 


2.49 


1880 . 






. 


1.47 


2.24 


1.79 


1.57 


0.44 


0.06 


0.33 


0.23 


0.24 


0.49 


0.83 


0.61 


10.30 


1.29 


1881 . 








1.19 


2.23 


5.66 


1.79 


1.26 


1.31 


0.16 


0.09 


0.23 


0.18 


0.84 


1.40 


16.34 


0.66 


1882 . 








1.84 


3.00 


3.67 


0.93 


1.55 


0.62 


0.06 


0.07 


0.97 


0.84 


0.58 


0.92 


15.05 


1.94 


1883 . 






• 


0.84 


1.59 


2.04 


1.66 


1.26 


0.07 


0.02 


0.07 


0.62 


0.59 


0.41 


0.94 


10.11 


1.30 


Am'ta forward 


37.17 


49.77 


74.40 


64.93 


42.25 


18.15 


12.60 


15.89 


15.68 


21.04 


28.82 


31.15 


411.85 


65.21 



Water-Supply Department. 



20; 



Rainfall Collected, in Inches, on Cochituate Water-shed, 1863 to 1894, 

Concluded. 



Year. 


u 

Bi 

3 

a 

C3 
Hs 

37.17 


3 
s 
u 

ft 


.a 

o 


p. 


>> 

42.25 


6 
a 

3 
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18.15 


1-3 

12.60 


3 
3 
<\ 

15.89 


a 

CD 

15.68 


a> 
£> 

o 

a 
O 

21.04 


1 
> 
o 

6 


CD 

.a 

a 

o 

R 


o 


3 4, 

I* 

-* 


Am'ts forward 


49.77 


74.40 


64.93 


28.82 


31.15 


411.85 


65.21 


1884 . 








1.84 


2.86 


4.67 


4.00 


1.39 


0.67 


0.26 


0.61 


0.13 


0.34 


0.62 


1.82 


19.21 


1.34 


1885 . 








1.90 


2.00 


2.21 


2.36 


1.61 


0.43 


0.00 


0.33 


0.25 


0.79 


2.05 


1.64 


15.57 


1.37 


1886 . 








2.28 


7.93 


3.51 


2.52 


1.09 


0.18 


0.25 


0.14 


0.30 


0.42 


1.20 


2.10 


21.92 


1.11 


1S87 . 






. 


4.06 


4.34 


4.70 


3.36 


1.35 


0.82 


0.72 


1.33 


0.64 


0.49 


0.70 


0.96 


23.47 


3.18 


1888 . 








1.13 


2.77 


4.76 


3.45 


2.37 


0.53 


0.47 


0.94 


2.31 


2.57 


4.21 


5.46 


30.97 


6.29 


1889 . 








4.50 


1.85 


2.08 


2.17 


1.20 


1.18 


1.63 


3.43 


1.79 


1.91 


2.95 


3.26 


27.95 


8.76 


1890 . 








1.92 


2.04 


5.87 


2.23 


1.85 


1.41 


0.33 


0.46 


1.40 


3.40 


1.49 


2.11 


24.51 


5.59 


1891 . 








6.26 


6.62 


8.03 


4.31 


0.88 


0.77 


0.50 


0.72 


0.76 


0.79 


0.83 


1.60 


32.07 


2.77 


1892 . 








3.18 


1.64 


3.12 


0.90 


2.03 


0.49 


0.33 


0.56 


0.60 


0.57 


1.09 


0.84 


15.35 


2.06 


1893 . 








0.64 


2.55 


4.12 


2.42 


1.83 


0.75 


0.38 


0.77 


0.42 


1.09 


1.00 


1.68 


17.65 


2.66 


1894 . 








1.27 


1.69 


2.55 


2.15 


0.91 
58.76 


0.45 
25.83 


0.38 

17.85 


0.41 

25.59 


0.46 
24.74 
0.77 


0.66 
34.07 


0.92 


1.14 


12.99 


1.91 


Totals . . . 


66.15 
2.07 


86.06 
2.69 


120.02 


94.80 


45.88 


53.76 


653.51 


102.25 


Aver 


ig 


es 




3.75 


2.96 


1.84 


0.81 


0.56 


0.80 


1.06 


1.43 


1.68 


20.42 


3.19 



204 



City Document No. 39. 






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CO 


CM 


C) 


eo 


CM 


CI 






CI 


" 






CM 






-* 


cs 


iO 


^ 


o 


"* 


fc_ 


os 


<o 


£_ 


O 


CM 


CO 


CO 


CO 


^* 










iO 


CO 


co 




OS 


CO 


OS 


— 


CO 


CI 








CO 








IH 








CO 










CO 





■CO 


o 


•* 


OS 


IO 


t- 


o 


<N 


•* 


CO 


OS 


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CS 


O 


CO 


















CO 


CD 








CC 


© 










■* 








CO 


CI 


CO 


IM 


CO 




CI 


IM 


CO 
OS 


CO 


CO 


CM 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


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o 


© 


Ol 


t- 


£_ 


CM 


M 


o 


CO 




CO 




CO 


tH 


t- 




-f 


iO 


CO 


-f 






CD 










1-1 
























iO 




CO 


fc. 


CO 


o 


o 


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CM 


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CT. 


CM 


£_ 


o 


Ol 


■* 


o 


o 






o 


iO 


o 




CO 


CO 




■* 


CD 


en 




O 


CD 
































** 




o 


r4 


J, 


CO 


-* 


IO 


eo 


CO 


,_, 


,_, 


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CO 


CM 


OS 


CO 


(M 




CO 


CO 




■* 




t- 


















co° 




CO 








CO 


■5* 




CO 


I- 


CS 




CM 


IM 


CD 
O 


CO 



CO CO 


OS 


IO 


,_ 


o 


o 


CM 


OS 


OS 


00 


^ 


iO 


CO 




w 


OS IM 






CD 


CO 


CI 




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■* 


CM 






















1-1 




CO 


CO 


»o 






CN 




iO 


CO CO 


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^ 


CD 


CO 


CO 


CO 


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OS 


^ 


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j_ 


CO 


■* 


-* 


T OS 


CO 


IO 


CO 


f 






CO 






























CD 


CO 




r^ 




CO 


o 

CO 


OS 


i-H O 


CO 


OS 


,__ 


OS 


o 


o 


LO 


OS 


CO 


t- 






o 


CO 


CO CO 


IO 




CI 




CM 


IO 






































































I-l 


CM 


CO 




■eo os 


CO 


■* 


CM 


CO 


CO 


o 


t_ 


■* 


OS 


lO 


__, 


iO 


o 


CO 


© IO 


■5* 




o 




o 


CO 






























t- 


' H 


CO 


cc 


uC 


CO 


^t< 


o 

CM 




o o 


CM 


CO 


1-1 


CO 


CM 


>o 


IO 


o 


CO 


CD 


o 


CO 


CO 


o 




OS 




CO 


CO 


© 




CI 


CM 






















CO 




CM 






a 


CO 


CM 


CO 


CD 
CO 


iO 































eg 

60 




o 


rH<MCO-*l«OCOt-CCGSOWO!CO-t 

ccoocococococococoososososos 
cococococococococococococcco 


ea 

> 



206 



City Document No. 39. 



^9 


o 


c» 




CO 


cs 


-cp 


o 




iO 


o 


o 


wo 


US 


WO 


lO 


wo 






wo 
















CM 












CO 


o 


os 






CO 
























CO 




CM 












CM 


o> 




CO 


CO 




CM 


o 


CM 












1.0 


CS 




o 






CO 


CO 






CM 


-+ 


CM 


CO 


CO 






o >» 

S3 
































CM 


1-1 


1—1 


1-1 


1-1 


o 

CO 


rH 


«* 














































m 


o 


CO 


CO 




cs 




OS 


•* 


o 




W3 


wo 




uo 


o 


o 


o 






~ 


- 








CO 




SQ 








0: 




CO 


-r 










o 


01 


CO 






























































^*1 








-f 


OS 








CO 








CO 














H 


^f 


■* 


^f 




■^r 


CO 


■>* 


CO 


CO 


r* 


-* 


Tf 


^* 


wo 




«ra 


■5* 


^* 


-cr 


CO 


r. 


-* 






o 


o 




■>* 




OO 


CO 


o 


o 


o 


WO 


o 


in 


o 


o 


W0 


W0 




o 


m 


(M 


o 




Ol 




--o 




















Cs 








CM 










CS 




CO 




CO 




31 


01 








cs 




CO 




CO 






CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


ft 


o 


CO 


O 


CO 


■* 


CM 


CO 


CM 


CO 


WO 


CM 


•■* 


CO 


WO 


CO 


lO 


» 




■* 


■* 


CO 


CO 






-* 




■* 










o 








o 




o 


o 


o 


o 




W5 


CO 


. 


> 








































CM 










CO 


o 


CO 




o 








_ 


CO 


CO 


CM 




01 


CO' 








CM 


<=>. 


!zi 


-* 


WO 


m 


"" 


CM 


rt 


■>* 


~ 


" 


CM 


CO 


Tf 


CM 


*" 


CO 


" 


CO 


wo 


CM 


CO 


CC 




















'cH 


o 


o 


WO 


wo 


WO 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


wo 


uo 


CH 


o 






■* 














o 






CO 






















cj 


OO 


CM 


o 








en 


o 




T* 




CM 




Ci 




W3 






o 




=» 


=i 


O 


^* 




CO 


CO 


o 


CO 


CM 


CM 




CM 


WO 


CO 


CM 


"* 


■w 


o 


CO 


" 


-r 


ws 


CO 


-* 
















_ 






WO 




m 




IC 




o 


o 


o 


wo 


W5 


CM 


wo 


























o 












■* 


CO 


CO 






ft 


TT 


CC 


CO 


CI 


CO 


CO 








CO 


-r 


cs 


CO 


o 


CO 


c 


CO 








CO 


=>. 


02 


CO 


*& 


© 


1-1 


" 




CM 


CO 


rt 


o 


1-1 


CM 


" 


CO 


■* 


CO 


CM 


01 


rH 


CM 


CO 


. 














CO 




_ 


.o 




wo. 


o 


o 


>n 


,o 


W0 


wo 


o 


wo 


o 


CD 


CM 


bo 












o 




© 


















CM 














L- 




OS 






CO 


:d 










CM 


CM 














CN 


=1 


<j 


o 


" 


CO 


CO 


CO 


■<* 


rt 


~ 


o 




t- 


^* 


wo. 


to 


Tf 


CO 


-f 


~t> 


W3 


1CM 


cc 


TH 














m 






o 










lO 


o 


o 


wo 


o 


o 


wo 




o 










r-- 


CO 






CO 


cc 




CM 


to 




o 






OS 


CO 








<? 




wo 




OS 


as 


OS 












•* 
























•-5 


CO 


CI 


CM 


CM 


CO 


CO 


CM 




CM 




1-1 


CO 


CO 




CO 


CM 


CO 


■* 


CM 


CO 


-f-' 


CO 




















o 








o 


u3 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


W0 


o 


' 






























CO 




CO 














a 


CM 


o 


-* 


CO 








CO 




-f 


CO 


-f 


CO 






o 














•-5 


CD 


CM 


CN 


CO 


CO 


CM 


■° 


rt 


CM 


CO 


CM 


1-1 


<M 


Ol 


(M 


CM 


CO 


CM 


« 




wo 


CM 










CO 














,n 






o 




o 


o 


wo 


o 


w?> 


CO 


W0 


>> 




















































o> 


m 


CO 


o 






-r 


■* 


OS 




CO 


o> 


CM 


o 












a 


CO 


CM 


CO 


o 






CO 




■* 


CO 


c *" 


CM 




-* 


CS 


wo 


CM 


wo 


CO 


"* 


o 

CO 


CO 










o 


CO 




o 


^ 


wo 




,n 


,n 




,n 




W0 


W0 


o 


wo 


wo 


t- 


TJ< 


















cq 






-J 


Ol 




CM 




















CM 






L- 








CO 




-r 


CO 


CM 


CM 






CO 


Ol 












<5 


CO 


*^ 


CO 


wo 


■* 


CO 


-1 




rH 


T 


CO 


CI 


■* 


CM 


CO 


CM 


CO 


o 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


cj 














o 

















in 


wo 


W3 


o 


o 


W0 


o 


wo 
















































Tf 


CO 


CO 




CO 




:c 






CO 


CO 


OS 


o 


CO 


b- 


■* 


o 


CO 










CO 


^ 


CO 


^* 


wo 


CO 


" 


<M 


1-1 


T 


1—1 


CO 


•* 


CO 


cs 


t- 


CO 


•<* 


CO 


H 


CO 


-* 


















<o 


wo 


WO 




o 


o 


o 




wo 


W0 


o 


wo 


= 


!0 


CO 




























































CO 






W0> 


CO 


01 






CD 
















CO 


«* 


o 


WO 


CO 


CO 


-X 


■•# 


CO 


CO 




CO 




CO 


" 


CO 




CO 


CO 


CO 


00 


•* 






















wo 


o 




o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


© 


wo 


o 


CD 


CO 


a 
a 

>-3 




























































o 


CO 


o 




CO 






















CM 


ri 


CO 


ws 


CM 


CO 


wo 


irt 


cm 


wo 


-* 


CO 


JO 


-cr 


id 


CM 


t- 


wo 


CM 


■<* 


CO 




k 














































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CO 












































m 


CJ) 


r-1 










































o 


cu 

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o 


CD 


>- 


CO 


ra 




•H 




M 


■* 


on 


CO 




CO 


a> 


o 


re 


CM 

OJ 


CO 

CT- 


OS 


1 


en 


XI 








oc 


cc 


X 




oc 



























Water-Supply Department. 



207 























•^< 








© 


© 


© 


© 




<M 


© 


© 




© 


























■* 






























I- 




CM 




00 


-* 




00 


o 




























<y< 


"- 1 


■- 1 


cm 


'-' 


o 


1-4 


rt 


© 


1-1 


7-1 


© 


rH 


© 


*~ 


id 


r " 1 


1-1 


rH 


1-1 


** 


CM 




Si 
















































■+** 
















































. 1 




















■>* 


© 


ire 


fr- 


© 


© 


CO 


CM 


CO 


-^ 


CM 


© 


-n 


























































-* 








ire 








© 




ci 






















Tot 




















CO 






-+ 






© 


*- 


© 




© 




CM 




CI 


Ol 


CM 


CO 


1-1 


1-1 


CM 


1—1 


"* 




~ 




CM 




CM 






rt 






-* 






1 


















ire 


© 


^ 


© 




00 




m 




ire 


1 _ ( 


I- 


CO 


-* 




6 1 
















■- 


-# 










ci 


© 


















o 


CO 


CO 


to 


CO 


CO 


CO 




CO 












© 


















1-1 


o 


CM 


ire 


o 


o 




o 


° 










ire 


CO 


rH 


© 


© 






ire 


























C) 


CO 




© 








© 


-H< 


© 


CM 


ire 


CO 




















© 


ire 


o 






CO 




>c 


© 


CI 


© 












o 
S3 




CO 


•* 


Ol 


CO 


CO 


CD 


CO 
































CM 


' H 


CM 


CM 


o 


o 


O 


© 


© 


© 


CM 


" 


© 


■* 


CO 


CM 


o 


rH 


© 




© 
M 


" 














TO 






■* 




CO 


© 


o 


© 


CO 




CO 


■re 


"* 


*n 


CO 


, 


^_ 


















CO 






Tf< 


© 








© 






















■* 




© 






CO 


















© 










© 






O 


1-1 


o 


r " 1 


© 


© 


o 


o 


© 


© 


© 


o 


© 


© 


CO 


CM 


•* 


© 


o 


© 


© 


- , 


o 








m 










o 


© 




© 


© 


CO 




T* 


CM 


© 


o 


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^ 


00 


© 


^_ 






















































CO 


CO 




CM 






CO 


































* 


o 


° 


o 


© 


o 


o 


o 


© 


© 


© 


© 


° 


© 






o 


o 


o 


© 


o 




© 










m 


m 




CM 


■5* 




© 


CO 




CO 


Cd 




-* 


>o 


o 


© 


<M 


CO 




"O 






















-* 






























P 






CM 






CI 




o 
































<1 


o 


o 


O 


o 


© 


o 


o 


o 


© 


o 


© 


© 


o 


© 


CM 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


















CO 


_,, 


© 


© 


^ 


© 


TX 


© 


o 


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© 


CM 


CI 


t— 


-* 


© 






















© 


© 












© 










o 








ire 


CO 


CO 


CI 


CI 


CO 


T* 




CM 


CO 














CM 


CO 




CM 








>-s 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


o 




© 


o 


© 


© 


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o 








ro 












CO 


00 


© 


ICO 


© 


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ao 


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CO 


CO 


CM 












































CM 
























































1-5 




© 


rH 


CD 


o 


o 


CM 


o 


O 


© 


o 


© 


© 


© 




o 


o 


o 


© 


© 


© 


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^ 






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CO 


CO 


CO 


iro 


© 


CM 


© 




© 


no 


CO 




© 


CO 




>> 














CI 


o 


















CO 


■* 








© 






© 




-f 


© 


© 




CO 






CO 










-* 


o 






-* 




<=. 




a 


CM 


<M 


CM 




1-1 


o 


" 


CM 




" 


CM 










CI 


" 


CM 


>£> 


1-1 


5 


CM 








CO 










Oi 




© 




CO 




CM 


© 


■* 


© 


00 


■<* 




CM 


© 


ire 






































CO 


© 




CO 




© 












CO 




o 








© 


















© 




o 






<a 










CM 


CM 




CM 


T* 


CO 


CO 


■* 




CM 


CO 


"* 










co" 


















































■a 
o 














CM 


-« 


CO 


CM 


ire 


CI 


© 




CO 


CO 


*rj* 


CO 


© 


CM 




CO 


















































00 


© 


ire 


(M 




-F 




© 






CO 












© 


■<* 




© 




=> 




















































^ 










































_ 
















© 












CM 




CO 


ire 


© 


CO 


CO 


■* 


lO 


© 


_, 


ire 




-3 






CM 


































© 








■* 


c-i 


»re 


33 




© 




00 












CM 
















>-i 




fq 


CM 


N 




CO 


C-l 


CM 


CM 


CO 




Tt< 


CM 




■* 


CO 


rt 


CM 


Itt 


" 


c 


" 


ci 

© 


CO 






tH 








a. 


O 


O 


CO 


^ 


ire 


CO 


© 


© 


CO 


CO 




CO 


m 


CO 


© 


c 


t _ 




























































C-l 


CM 


_ 




CM 






CM 


© 


© 


CO 


© 










CM 








1-5 


o 


" 




CO 


" 


CM 


o 


CM 


© 


" 


CM 


CM 


■>* 


1-1 


-il 


CI 


>o 




o 




■* 


CM 




fS 




























































































o 
















































6J] 




r" 










































"3 


p 
















O 


















© 














■< 






















































CO 




00 


CO 


CO 


CO 






CO 


X 


00 


CO 


00 






ex 











208 



City Document No. 39. 



TABLE XXII. 

Percentage of Rainfall Collected on Sudbury River Wate?--shed, 
1875 to 1894. 



Year. 


a 
P 
a 
a 


>> 

S 

2 


,£3 
O 

5 


ft 
162.9 


59.5 


0) 

a 
p 
i-s 

24.0 


~p 

1-5 

16.0 


p 

61) 

< 


u 
<o 

a 

a> 

"St 
CD 
XJ1 

10.4 


O 

o 

O 

23.8 


.3 

> 
o 

46.5 


g 


110.7 


44.9 


1° 

c ~ 


1875 . . 






7.6 


76.5 


76.5 


12.8 


16.0 


1876 . . 






62.7 


54.2 


106.5 


135.4 


73.5 


18.8 


3.6 


42.0 


6.9 


18.6 


32.6 


22.3 


48.2 


10.1 


1877 . 






36.5 


206.9 


102.7 


120.3 


67.0 


42.5 


12.2 


5.9 


31.9 


13.2 


42.2 


264.4 


57.9 


11.7 


1878 . 






57.3 


66.5 


133.4 


48.5 


260.2 


22.5 


7.7 


12.2 


21.5 


14.3 


41.6 


89.0 


52.6 


12.9 


1879 . 






50.4 


77.4 


80.9 


114,1 


125.8 


18.8 


7.1 


10.8 


12.9 


15.6 


13.2 


19.0 


45.3 


10.3 


1880 . 






56.0 


74.9 


73.9 


65.0 


50.0 


14.2 


5.0 


5.3 


8.6 


4.8 


19.9 


11.0 


31.9 


5.4 


1881. 






13.3 


53.6 


124.6 


133.4 


49.0 


42.8 


21.0 


19.4 


13.0 


11.2 


16.7 


34.9 


46.6 


15.4 


1882. 






37.2 


85.2 


191.2 


82.1 


45.5 


54.9 


8.7 


5.9 


6.0 


25.7 


31.5 


24.5 


45.9 


9.2 


1883. 






21.2 


43.0 


161.4 


126.3 


40.0 


21.6 


7.7 


19.1 


10.4 


5.9 


19.5 


9.7 


34.1 


7.9 


1884. 






34.9 


72.5 


143.1 


111.8 


53.0 


20.9 


10.9 


9.8 


8.9 


6.0 


11.4 


31.9 


50.5 


9.3 


1885 . 






46.8 


56.4 


262.1 


86.9 


68.4 


25.7 


7.8 


6.0 


14.7 


11.8 


33.3 


77.0 


43.4 


8.9 


1886. 






40.9 


123.2 


101.7 


151.1 


42.9 


23.9 


6.3 


4.1 


7.0 


8.0 


25.0 


36.6 


49.5 


6.2 


1887 . 






88.8 


95.3 


104.4 


106.0 


154.5 


26.9 


5.5 


7.2 


14.5 


12.0 


23.8 


29.6 


56.7 


8.5 


1888. 






45.3 


88.3 


95.9 


188.3 


60.3 


28.7 


14.9 


10.9 


23.2 


71.4 


65.9 


100.6 


62.2 


30.4 


1889 . 






92.4 


116.4 


100.9 


71.4 


53.3 


40.3 


12.6 


61.2 


30.9 


51.6 


53.3 


127.3 


58.2 


33.2 


1890. 






88.4 


70.3 


84.0 


122.3 


46.8 


48.3 


7.8 


6.1 


13.2 


38.6 


174.7 


33.5 


50.9 


23.1 


1891 . 






76.7 


107.3 


122.7 


106.0 


51.7 


18.9 


7.8 


6.1 


14.7 


9.8 


17.0 


26.3 


55.8 


8.9 


1892 . 






57.0 


50.1 


85.9 


181.1 


40.2 


26.8 


9.0 


11.3 


13.9 


19.2 


20.7 


76.9 


39.3 


11.8 


1S93 . 






26.4 


30.3 


157.7 


101.7 


77.8 


31.9 


11.0 


5.9 


10.8 


9.7 


25.1 


29.2 


45.2 


8.6 


1894. 






30.2 


40.8 


278.2 


82.9 


35.4 


62.6 


8.8 


18.4 


9.8 


12.5 


42.1 


26.5 


40.7 


12.0 


Totals . . 


970.0 


1589.1 


2587.7 


2297.5 


1454.8 


615.0 


191.4 


280.4 


283.2 


383.7 


756.0 


1180.9 


959.8 


259.8 


Averages . 


48.5 


79.5 


129.4 


114.9 


72.7 


30.7 


9.6 


14.0 


14.2 


19.2 


37.8 


59.0 


4S.0 


13.00 



Water-Supply Department. 



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City Docuivient No. 39. 



TABLE XXIV. 

Rainfall Collected, in Inches, on Mystic Water-shed. 1878 to 1894. 



Year. 


3 
p 
a 


>, 

3 
P 

,3 

fa 

3.97 
2.33 
2.54 
2.14 
3.03 
1.43 
3.89 
1.81 
7.70 
3.61 
3.32 
1.83 
2.23 
5.97 
1.76 
2.14 
1.87 

51.57 

3.03 


43 

cs 

4.91 
3.&1 
1.95 
fi.79 
4.19 
1.88 
5.42 
2.05 
3.91 
3.60 
4.2S 
1.60 
5.37 
7.21 
3.03 
4.52 
3.05 

67.07 

3.95 


5. 
<! 

2.21 
3.97 
1.50 
2.17 
1.16 
1.63 
3.85 
2.03 
3.24 
3.75 
3.27 
2.27 
2.93 
3.43 
1.33 
2.72 
2.27 

43.73 

2.57 


2.16 
1.95 
0.96 
1.51 
1.85 
1.20 
1.48 
2.18 
1.27 
1.89 
2.88 
2.18 
3.00 
1.40 
2.10 
4.42 
1.31 

33.74 

1.98 


6 

P 

0.7S 
0.97 
0.51 
2.05 
0.81 
0.52 
0.85 
0.86 
0.55 
1.27 
0.84 
1.89 
1.92 
1.01 
1.17 
1.04 
0.91 

17.95 

1.06 


P 
1-3 

0.48 
0.54 
0.67 
0.87 
0.35 
0.30 
0.58 
0.47 
0.41 
0.87 
0.39 
1.33 
0.43 
0.42 
0.66 
0.47 
0.49 


SJJ 
P 

1.11 

0.70 
0.54 
0.35 
0.22 
0.22 
0.60 
0.54 
0.25 
1.35 
0.54 
2.05 
0.46 
0.44 
0.49 
0.69 
0.38 


3 

43 

a 

<D 

ft 

d) 

m 

0.56 
0.48 
0.45 
0.31 
0.53 
0.1S 
0.23 
0.34 
0.32 
0.48 
1.31 
1.06 
0.58 
0.42 
0.56 
0.41 
0.36 


4= 
O 

"5 
O 

0.71 
0.34 
0.36 
0.29 
0.58 
0.39 
0.27 
0.68 
0.38 
0.57 
2.74 
1.21 
2.61 
0.58 
0.45 
0.55 
0.58 


u 

V 
43 

a 

> 
o 

fe 

1.75 
0.45 
0.44 
0.50 
0.39 
0.42 
0.35 
2.41 
0.88 
0.71 
5.04 
2.49 
1.95 
0.56 
1.07 
0.71 
0.91 


4= 

a 

o 

ft 

3.63 
0.69 
0.59 
0.87 
0.57 
0.44 
1.17 
2.39 
1.43 
0.91 
5.08 
3.06 
2.49 
0.87 
0.87 
1.27 
0.90 


15 

o 

25.82 
16.94 
12.21 
18.67 
15.05 
9.31 
20.18 
17.55 
22.65 
22.17 
31.12 
25.48 
26.04 
28.60 
15.98 
19.69 
14.40 


a>-= 


1878 . 

1879 . 

1880 . 

1881 . 

1882 . 

1883 . 

1884 . 
18S5 . 

1886 . 

1887 . 

1885 . 

1889 . 

1890 . 

1891 . 

1892 . 

1893 . 

1894 . 








3.55 
1.21 

1.70 
0.82 
1.37 
0.70 
1.49 
1.79 
2.31 
3.16 
1.43 
4.51 
2.07 
6.29 
2.49 
0.75 
1.37 


2.86 
2.06 
2.02 

1.82 
1.68 
1.09 
1.68 
2.03 
1.36 
3.27 
,4.98 
5.65 
4.08 
1.86 
2.16 
2.12 
1.81 


Totals 


37.01 


9.73 
0.57 


10.93 
0.64 


8.58 
0.51 


13.29 
0.78 


21.03 
1.24 


27.23 
1.60 


341.86 
20.11 


42.53 


Aver 


ig 


es 




2.18 


2.50 



Water-Supply Department. 



211 



TABLE XXV. 

Percentage of Rainfall Collected en Mystic Water-shed, 1878 to 1894. 



Year. 


u 

C3 
P 

a 


3 




< 


>> 

(S 


a 
a 

1-5 




3 
Sao 

P 


a 

0! 

ft 

0) 

CO 


a> 

o 
o 
O 


.o 

s 

O 


a 

0) 

p 


5 


C p 


1878 . 






62.6 


69.2 


125.0 


38.6 


322.9 


29.6 


13.5 


14.8 


17.7 


14.3 


30.8 


74.9 


47.8 


14.9 


1879 . 






C6.6 


85.4 


93.9 


S5.3 


104.9 


24.5 


22.6 


12.8 


29.7 


44.2 


16.2 


18.6 


48.0 


20.1 


1880 . 






64.9 


60.1 


78.4 


68.8 


47.3 


34.3 


9.2 


14.7 


31.7 


13.5 


22.9 


23.8 


35.5 


13.5 


1881 . 






14.2 


58.9 


101.5 


141.1 


50.7 


29.9 


33.3 


51.9 


14.1 


13.6 


14.3 


26.3 


44 5 


23.9 


1882 . 






24.8 


64.8 


168.4 


55.0 


40.4 


38.6 


14.9 


20.8 


6.3 


30.0 


22.2 


25.5 


38.4 


12.3 


1883 . 






26.1 


46.7 


84.S 


65.9 


33.5 


31.8 


10.8 


25.7 


12.1 


7.2 


21.1 


14.7 


29.8 


10.3 


18S4 . 






31.5 


63.9 


127.3 


121.2 


50.2 


18.3 


15.5 


12.4 


33.5 


9.9 


17.4 


25.6 


45.5 


14.0 


1885 . 






37.1 


53.3 


174.5 


58.8 


55.3 


19.6 


•22.8 


9.2 


23.7 


12.2 


38.2 


113.6 


39.4 


13.6 


1886 . 






36.6 


107.3 


101.9 


154.3 


43.0 


35.5 


11.1 


7.8 


10.7 


13.4 


21.7 


29.7 


49.7 


10.7 


1887 . 






60.2 


80.8 


72.0 


81.3 


112.0 


47.3 


13.2 


27.1 


32.0 


18.7 


23.4 


25.6 


47.8 


20.3 


1888 . 






35.2 


101.3 


82.5 


115.2 


56.6 


38.1 


17.5 


8.8 


15.3 


55.3 


73.6 


96.4 


54.8 


22.7 


1889 . 






81.8 


98.2 


70.2 


63.0 


46.9 


57.0 


15.8 


52.2 


22.5 


33.7 


44.1 


107.0 


50.6 


27.3 


1890 . 






75.6 


66.0 


80.4 


121.8 


47.6 


56.9 


19.0 


12.7 


15.6 


29.5 


141.2 


53.5 


52.8 


22.1 


1891 . 






100.7 


117.6 


118.7 


109.0 


57.0 


22.8 


13.3 


11.3 


19.3 


12.1 


21.7 


25.6 


60.3 


13.3 


1892 . 






55.0 


58.5 


75.7 


163.6 


37.5 


28.3 


25.7 


10.2 


27.7 


24.3 


23.1 


75.2 


40.9 


19.2 


1893 . 






33.3 


28.6 


177.3 


80.7 


70.6 


49.5 


23.2 


12.6 


20.5 


13.4 


31.5 


29.1 


44.5 


15.6 


1894 . 






34.8 


56.5 
1217.1 


280.1 

2012.6 


65.4 
1589.0 


25.3 


125.S 


14.2 


15.1 
320.1 


14.3 

346.7 


10.5 

355.8 


26.0 
589.4 


22.7 
787.8 


36.7 
767.0 


12.9 


Totals . . 


841.0 


1201.7 


687.8 


295.6 


286.7 


Averages . 


49.5 


71.6 


118.4 


93.5 


70.7 


40.5 


17.4 


18.8 


20.4 


20.9 


34.7 


46.3 


45.1 


16.9 



212 



City Document No. 39. 



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213 



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214 City Document No. 39. 

SUMMARY OF STATISTICS. 
REPORT FOR 1894. 



Boston Water-Works, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, 
supplies also the cities of Somerville, Chelsea, and Everett. 

Population by census of 1890 : 

Boston 448,477 

Chelsea 27,909 

Somerville 40,152 

Everett 11,068 



Total 527,606 

Date of construction : 

Cochituate Works . 1848 

Mystic " 1864 

By whom owned. — City of Boston. 

Sources of supply. — Lake Cochituate, Sudbury river, and 

Mystic lake. 
Mode of supply. — Sixty-five per cent, from gravity works. 
Thirty-five " " pumping " 

Pumping. 

Cochituate. Mystic. 

Builder of pumping 

machinery . . Holly Mfg. Co., H. R. Worthington. 

and Quintard 
Iron Works. 
Description of coal used : 

a Kind . . Bituminous. Bituminous, 

c Size . . Broken. Broken, 

e Price per gross 

ton, in bins . $4.40, $4.52 $4.45, $3.85, 

$3.75, $5.25 
/Per cent, of ash, 7.4 11.2 

Cochituate. Mystic. 

Coal consumed for year, in 

lbs 4,637,660 8,763,800 

Total pumpage for year, in 

gallons .... 3,795,830,595 3,751,418,700 
Average dynamic head, in 

feet .... 126.18 148.62 

Gallons pumped per lb. of 

coal .... 818.6 428.1 

Duty in foot-lbs. per 100 

lbs. of coal . . . 86,459,300 53,057,500 



Water-Supply Department. 



2i5 



Cost of pumping figured on 

pumping-station expenses 

viz. : 
Cost per million 

raised to reservoir 
Cost per million 

raised one foot high 



gallons 



gallons 



COCHITUATE. 

25,131.78 

$6.62 
$0,052 



Mystic 



,924.65 



1.777 



1.059 



Consumption. 
Estimated population . 466,500 

Estimated No. of consumers, 460,000 

Total consumption, gallons, 16,994,405,800 
Passed through meters . 4,077,196,000 



117,400 

116,000 

3,752,970,500 

735,110,000 



Percentage metered . 




24.0 


19.6 


Average daily consumpt" 


on, 






gallons . 




46,560,000 


10,282,100 


Gallons per day, each 


in- 






habitant 




99.8 


87.6 


Gallons per day, each con- 






sumer . 




101.2 


88.6 


Gallons per day to each tap, 


679.2 


442.1 


Distribution. 






Mains. 






COCHITUATE. 


Mystic. 


Kind of pipe used, < 


n , j Cast-Iron, Wrought- 
Iron, and Cement. 


Sizes .... 


48 in. 


to 4 in. 


30 in. to 3 in. 


Extended, miles . 




12.75 


6.9 


Total now in use . 




572.80 


173.7 


Distribution-pipes lest 








than 4-in., length 








miles 




1.7 


4.7 


Hydrants added . 




175 


148 


Hydrants now in use 




6,217 


1,446 


Stop-gates added . 




193 


156 


Stop-gates now in use . 




6,359 


"2,138 




Services. 




Kind of pipe used, < 


Lead. 




Lead and 
Wrought-Iron. 


Sizes . 


1 in. 


to 6 in. 


i in. to 4 in. 


Extended, feet 




49,841 


18,436 


Service-taps added 




1,970 


859 


Total now in use . 




68,556 


23,257 


Meters added 




291 


33 


Meters now in use 




4,337 


494 



Motors and elevators in 
use .... 



540 



21 



216 City Document No. 39. 



Boston Water Board, 
Organized July 31, 1876. 

Timothy T. Sawyer, from July 31, 1876, to May 5, 1879; and from 

May 1, 1882, to May 4, 1883. 
Leonard R. Cutter, from July 31, 1876, to May 4, 18834 
Albert Stanwood, from July 31, 1876, to May 7, 1883. 
Francis Thompson, from May 5, 1879, to May 1, 1882. J 
William A. Simmons, from May 7, 1883, to August 18, 1885. 
George M. Hobbs, from May 4, 1883, to May 4, 1885. 
John G. Blake, from May 4, 1883, to August 18, 1885. 
William B. Smart, from May 4, 1885, to March 18, 1889. 
Horace T. Rockwell, from August 25, 1885, to April 25, 1888. 
Philip J. Doherty, from March 18, 1889, to May 4, 1891. 
Thomas F. Doherty, from August 26, 1885, to May 5, 1890; and 

from May 4, 1891, to present time. 
Robert Grant, from April 25, 1888, to July 18, 1893. 
John W. Leighton, from May 5, 1890, to present time. 
William S. McNary, from August 15, 1893, to November 5, 1894. 
Charles W. Smith, from January 23, 1895, to present time. 

Organization of the Board for Year 1894. 
Chairman. 
Thos. F. Doherty. 

Secretary and Chief Clerk. 
Walter E. Swan. 

City Engineer and Engineer of the Board. 
William Jackson. 

Superintendent of the Western Division and Resident Engineer of 
Additional Supply. 

Desmond FitzGerald. 

Superintendent of the Eastern Division of Cochituate Department. 
William J. Welch. 

Superintendent of Mystic Division. 
Eugene S. Sullivan. 

t Deceased. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Analyses of water 83-91 

Bacteria in water . . . . . . . ... 103 

Biological laboratory 14-58 

Brookline reservoir . . . . . . . ... 19-58 

Cost of construction ......... 2-16 

Cost of Cochituate works . . . . .. • 22 

Cost of Sudbury-river works 22 

Cost of Mystic works , 23 

Consumption of water ........ .4-38-169 

Cedar Swamp . . . 11-18 

Cochituate aqueduct 16-57 

Contracts made and pending 34 

Color of water • 101 

Chestnut Hill reservoir 19-57 

Chestnut Hill pumping-station 20-113-164 

City Engineer, Report of ... , 158 

Distribution system . . . . . . . . •.''..'• 171 

Dudley Pond ■ . 55 

Deacon meter system . . . . . . . • 111 

Eastern Division, Report of Superintendent 108 

Extension of mains ......... 3-108-143 

East Boston reservoir 20-110 

Electrolysis 14-171 

Expenditures , • ■ 1-29 

Fire service ............. 6 

Future supply ........... 10-180 

Filtration 11-78 

Framingham sewerage system . 12 

Farm Pond . 51-162 

Fisher Hill reservoir 20-58 

Fountains 109-144 

General condition of the works . 179 

Harbor service .......... 5 

High-service pumping-engine No. 3 6-165 

Hydrants .... 109-133-144-157 

Inspection of water sources ........ 58 

Long Island, Supply for 5 

Lake Cochituate \ . . . 16-51-162 

Mystic pumping-engine, No. 4 12 



218 Table of Contents. 

PAGE 

Mystic department .......... 11-139 

Marlborough sewerage system ....... 12-18 

Maintenance, Cost of ........ . 38 

Meters 110-128 

Mains laid and length connected with Cochituate Works . . 114-118 

Mains abandoned ... i ..... . 126 

Mystic Division, Report of Superintendent ..... 139 

Mystic Lake 139-168 

Mystic reservoir . . . . . . . . . . 140 

Mystic aqueduct .......... 141 

Mystic pumping-station ......... 141-169 

Mystic Valley sewer 142-168 

Mains connected with Mystic works ...... 156 

Natick sewerage system ......... 13 

Organization of Board .......... 216 

Present value of works ......... 14 

l'arker Hill reservoir ......... 20-110 

Quality of water .......... 90 

Receipts ............ 1 

Rainfall . 4-106 

Reservoir No. 1 17-44-158 

Reservoir No. 2 17-45-159 

Reservoir No. 3 . 17-47-159 

Reservoir No. 4 ........ 17-48-159 

Reservoir No. 5 7-17-39-159 

Reservoir No. 6 7-17-49-161 

Repairs of pipes .......... 135 

Sewerage systems .......... 12 

Sudbury-river aqueduct . . . . . . . . . 18-55 

Sinking-lunds ........... 28 

Statistics 38-214 

Stopcocks 108 

Service-pipes .......... 109-116-144 

South Boston reservoir . . . . . . . . . 19-110 

Stagnation of water ......... 59 

Tables : 

Average height of water in mains in city ..... 189 

Chestnut Hill pumping-station, monthly records . . . 190 

Daily average consumption, 1888-1894 ..... 182 

Diversion of Sudbury-river water, 1887-1894 .... 183 

East Boston pumping-station, monthly records . . . 192 

Heights of reservoirs on first of each month .... 164 

Hydrants in use January 31, 1895 133 

Mystic pumping-station, monthly records .... 191 

Mystic Sewage pumping-station, monthly records . . . 194 

Monthly rainfall on Cochituate water-shed, 1863-1894 . . 200 
Monthly rainfall collected on Cochituate water-shed, 1863- 

1894 202 



Table of Contents. 



219 



Monthly percentage of rainfall collected on Cochituate water- 
shed, 1863-1894 204 

Monthly rainfall on Sudbury-river water-shed, 1875-1894 . 206 
Monthly rainfall collected on Sudbury-river water-shed, 1875- 

1894 . . . ' 207 

Monthly percentage of rainfall collected on Sudbury-river 

water-shed, 1875-1894 208 

Monthly rainfall on Mystic water-shed, 1878-1894 ... 209 

Monthly rainfall collected on Mystic water-shed, 1878-1894 . 210 
Monthly percentage of rainfall collected on Mystic water-shed, 

1878-1894 211 

Mains laid during the year, and lengths in use January 31, 1895, 1 14 
Rainfall on and yield of Lake Cochituate water-shed, 1852- 

1894 184 

Rainfall on and yield of Sudbury-river water-shed, 1875-1894, 186 

Rainfall on and yield of Mystic-lake water-shed, 1876-1894 . 188 

Rainfall on Sudbury-river water-shed, 1894 .... 195 

Rainfall at Lake Cochituate, 1894 196 

Rainfall at Mystic lake, 1894 197 

Rainfall at various places in Eastern Massachusetts, 1894 . 198 

Service-pipes laid and abandoned ...... 116 

Temperature of air and water, 1894 ...... 199 

West Roxbury pumping-station, monthly records . . . 193 
Water meters in use January 31, 1895 ..... 130-131 

Yield of Sudbury-river water-shed, 1875-1894 .... 212 

Temperatures of water ......... 99 

Water revenue .......... 1-38 

Western Division, Report of Superintendent of ... . 39 

Water posts 109 

Westboro' sewerage system ........ 12-18 

Water loans, outstanding 24 

Water sinking-funds 28 

Water debt . 2-26 

Whitehall Pond 7-17-50-162 

Waste detection Ill 



mmi