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Full text of "Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution"

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THIRTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPOIIT 



OF THE 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TO THE 



SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



1913-1914 



IN TWO PARTS— PART 1 




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U V SUf ERWT£J4D£NT Of OOCUMf NTi 

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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Smithsonian Institution, 
Bureau of American Ethnology, 

Washington, D. C, August 15, 1914- 
Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the Thirty- 
fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914. 

With appreciation of your aid in the work under my 
charge, 

Very respectfully, yours, 

F. W. Hodge, 
Ethnologist-in- Charge . 
Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



CONTENTS 



REPORT OF THE ETHNOLOGIST-IN-CHARGE 

rage- 
Systematic researches 9 

Special researches 23 

Manuscripts 29 

Publications 31 

Illustrations 34 

Library 34 

Collections 35 

Property 36 

Miscellaneous 36 

Recommendations 37 

Note on the accompanying paper 39 

ACCOMPANYING PAPER 

Ethnology of the Kwakiuth, by Franz Boas 41 



REPOrxT OF THE ETHNOLOGIST-INCHArxGE 



THIRTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

/ 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



F. W. Hodge, Ethnologist-in-Charge 



THE operations of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, were con- 
ducted in accordance with authority granted by the 
act of Congress approved June 23, 1913, making appro- 
priations for the sundry civil expenses of the Government, 
and with a plan of operations submitted by the ethnologist- 
in-charge and approved by the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution. The provision of the act authorizing the re- 
searches of the Bureau of American Ethnology is as follows : 

American ethnology : For continuing ethnological researches among 
the American Indians and the natives of Hawaii, mcluding the exca- 
vation and preservation of archreologic remains, under the direction 
of the Smithsonian Institution, includmg salaries or compensation of 
all necessary employees and the purchase of necessary books and 
periodicals, including payment in advance' for subscriptions, $42,000 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

The systematic researches were conducted by the regular 
stafT of the bureau, consisting of nine ethnologists, including 
the ethnologist-in-charge and several special investigators. 
These operations may be summarized as follows: 

Mr. F. W. Hodge, ethnologist-in-charge, was occupied dur- 
ing most of the year with the administrative affairs of the 
bureau. Considerable attention, however, was devoted to 
the preparation of the annotated bibliography of the Pueblo 
Indians, which is probably more extensive than that of any 



10 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

other group of tribes, as Pueblo written history commenced 
•in the year 1539, and the writings pertaining thereto, are 
exceedingly voluminous. The bibliography is recorded on 
cards, the number of which is now about 1,900. The cata- 
loguing of the vast amount of manuscript material bearing on 
the subject has been somewhat simplified by the recent publi- 
cation of Bolton's Guide to Materials for the History of the 
United States in the Principal Archives of Mexico, published 
by the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and Twitchell's 
Spanish Archives of New Mexico, although without consulta- 
tion of the documents themselves it is not possible to give 
more than the title in most cases. In the spring Mr. Hodge 
made a brief visit to the library of the Presbyterian Board 
of Home Missions in New York City, where he was enabled 
to record the titles of numerous published writings on mis- 
sionary efforts among the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico, not 
accessible elsewhere. In this bibliographical work he has had 
the assistance of Mrs. Frances S. Nichols and Miss Florence 
M. Poast. ]\Ir. Hodge continued to represent the bureau on 
the Smithsonian Advisory Committee on Printing and Publi- 
cation, and the Smithsonian Institution on the United States 
Board on Geographic Names. 

Early in the autumn of 1913 Mr. Hodge made a reconnois- 
sance of a group of ruins, evidently prehistoric, on a mesa 
rising from the southwestern margin of the CeboUita Valley, 
about 20 miles south of Grant, Valencia County, New Mexico, 
and only a few yards from the great lava flow that has spread 
over the valley to the westward for many miles. While no 
very definite information regarding the origin of this ruined 
pueblo has yet been obtained, there is reason to suppose that 
it was occupied by ancestors of the Tanyi, or Calabash, clan 
of the Acoma Tribe, and is possibly the one known to them 
as Kowina. 

These ruins consist of a number of house groups forming a 
compound. That the structures were designed for defense 
is evident, for not only are they situated on an almost impreg- 
nable height rising about 200 feet above the valley, but the 
houses themselves partake of the form of fortifications, 



ADMINISTEATIVE EEPORT 11 

while the only vulnerable point of the jnesa is protected at 
the rim by means of a rude breastwork of stones. Moreover, 
the outer walls of the buildings, some of which still stand to a 
height of several feet, are pierced only with loopholes, 
entrance to the structures doubtless having been gained by 
means of portable ladders, as in some of the pueblos of to-day. 
The houses of the great compound, consisting of four com- 
pact groups of buildings, were evidently "terraced" on the 
plaza side, the rooms facing this court perhaps having been 
only a single story in height. As a fiu-ther protection to the 
pueblo, the eastern side was defended by a low wall, pierced 
by three gatewaylike openings, extending from the north- 
eastern to the southeastern corner of the compound. 

The rooms indicated in the ground plan of the four house 
groups number approximately 95 (for the northern group), 
58 (eastern group), 32 (central group), and 102 (southeastern 
group), or an aggregate of 287 rooms. At the time of its 
occupancy the number of rooms in the compound probably 
approximated 550. In addition, there are traces of four or 
five single-story rooms abutting on the defensive wall bound- 
ing the northeastern part of the compound. A short dis- 
tance from the southwestern angle of the southwestern house 
group are two smaller detached houses, the southernmost one 
consisting of 24 rooms in a long tier, 2 rooms deep, extending 
approximately north-northwest and south-southeast. The 
other structure, about 55 feet northwestward, is rectangular 
and contains 11 rooms in its ground plan. Four kivas are 
traceable among the rooms of the m.ain compound — one in 
the northwestern, one in the central, and two in the south- 
western group. In each case, so far as is determinable 
without excavation, the outer walls of the kivas are rectangu- 
lar, while the inner walls are circular and slightly recessed a 
short distance above the floor. 

About 500 feet southeastward from the main compound, 
at the edge of the mesa, stand the well-preserved walls of 
another structure, consisting of a double row of rooms, the 
outer wall, or that overlooking the mesa rim, extending 28 
and 15 feet, respectively, beyond the northwestern and south- 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

western corners of the building proper, in order to give 
further protection. The length of this outer wall from angle 
to angle is about 132 feet. It exhibits one of the finest ex- 
amples of masonry to be seen in the ancient pueblo ruins of 
the Southwest, for not only have the building stones been 
dressed to shape, but their faces have been finished by peck- 
ing, with such labor as to confirm the belief that the ancient 
village was designed for permanent occupancy. The south- 
ern corner of the outer defensive wall is not only curved, but 
the stones of which it is built are rounded by careful pecking, 
a most unusual feature in pueblo architecture. That this 
last structure was designed to protect the most vulnerable 
part of the mesa is evident from the fact that the outer wall 
is without openings of any kind and extends beyond the rooms 
of the structure, and because the adjacent mesa rim is pro- 
tected by a rude low wall, especially at such points as re- 
quired ready defense against attack from below. As already 
noted, the walls of these ruins are noteworthy by reason of 
the excellence of their masonry, special effort having been 
made to produce a pleasing effect in the exterior faces. Of 
the inner walls so much can not be said; but as there is no 
question that when the houses were occupied the rooms vvere 
smoothly plastered, there was little need of the elaborate 
finish accorded the exposed masonry. Shght attention was 
paid either to regularity in the shape of the stones or to 
smoothness of surface in building the inner w-alls, nor was the 
aboriginal mason more particular in bonding the inner and 
outer courses than in " Iweaking" the joints of the outer face. 
It seems remarkable that, possessed of such patience and ex- 
pertness as the buildings here display in other ways, they 
seem to have been unaware of the necessity of avoiding the 
construction of their walls in such manner that in places as 
many as six or seven vertical joints occur practically in line. 
In this brief report only mere mention can be made of many 
other interesting architectural features of these ruins, as well 
as of another pueblo ruin, more or less circular in shape, 
situated a few miles northeastward on a low mesa at the ex- 
treme head of CeboUita Valley, which here forms a small but 
beautiful canyon. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 13 

The inhabitants of the great compound first described 
obtained their water supply by means of two principal 
reservoirs fed by the drainage from the great sandstone 
shelf on the southern slope of the mesa summit. These 
reservoirs are natural depressions in the rock, but the capac- 
ity of the larger one, which measures 35 by 90 feet and is 
about 5 feet in maximum depth, has been greatly augmented 
on the western side by an artificial retaining wall 14 feet 
long and 10 feet in thickness, with an exposed face of 2l 
feet on the reservoir side. So well did this reservoir evi- 
dently serve the ancient mesa dwellers that during seasons 
of unusual rain, water still stands to a considerable dejoth 
within the de])ression. The smaller reservoir is triangular 
in outline and measures about 15 by 19 feet. An inter- 
esting feature in connection with the larger reservoir is the 
remains of a rude dike extending 60 feet along the rocky 
shelf above referred to, built for the purpose of diverting the 
flow of rain water from its natural course into the reservoir. 

It is not yet known where the ancients of this pueblo 
customarily buried their dead, but probably the interments 
were made in the talus of the mesa, as is the case with the 
Hopi, of Arizona, to-day. There was found, however, in the 
corner of the shallow cavern in the northern face of the mesa, 
above the talus, a small cist, formed by a low and broken 
wall of masonry, which contained the somewhat incomplete 
skeletons of two adult females, one incomplete skeleton of 
a boy, and the incomplete and defective skeletons of two 
infants. With one excej^tion these remains had been greatly 
disturbed by rats, which had burrowed their way through 
the bones and their accompaniments to the bottom of the 
cist and fairly filled the repository with cactus spines, excreta, 
and other debris of nest building. The remains were accom- 
panied with several pottery vessels, chiefly bowls, one of 
which was covered with a well-preserved mat, plaited of a 
fi])rous plant which Mr. Lyster H. Dewey, of the Department 
of Agriculture, identifies as a scirpus, and almost certainly 
Scripus validus. The ornamentation of this pottery, as well 
as of the numerous sherds scattered about the ruins, consists 
of plain red, black on red, white on red, plain black, black 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

on white, brown on white, brown on red, and many other 
combinations of color. All the decorations noted were in 
geometrical designs. 

On the northern face of the mesa, but practically hidden 
from view except from one point in the valley below, is a 
small house shelter of excellent masonry, built beneath an 
overhanging ledge of the cliff which forms the roof. This 
shelter, which is provided with a single small opening over- 
looking the valley to the northward, was seemingly designed 
as a lookout station either for watching the crops or an ap- 
proaching foe. Across the valley, on the eastern side of the 
first great mesa directly opposite that on which the ruins 
are situated, is another small cliff lodge, now accessible only 
by artificial means. Examination of the interior, as in the 
case of the cliff lodge above described, yielded nothing of 
interest. Farther up the valley, on the northern side, in 
plain view near the base of a mesa, is a larger cliff lodge, filled 
to a considerable depth with detritus from the soft stone 
forming the roof and side walls. Examination of the floor 
of this lodge a few years ago by Mr. Hodge yielded a few 
corncobs, one or two small objects made of yucca leaves, 
and a wooden drumstick of a form such as the Zuhi now 
employ. 

Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, ethnologist, spent the month of 
July, 1913, in the ofhce continuing the preparation of his 
monographic report on the aborigines of the West Indies, 
especially describing the many objects from these islands 
in the noteworthy collection of George G. Heye, Esq., of 
New York. He made a visit to New York toward the close 
of the month to study recent additions to this collection and to 
supervise the j^reparation of the illustrations for his rejDort. 
It became necessary, in order to make this memoir as com- 
prehensive as possible, to investigate types of the Guesde 
collection, now owned by the Museum fiir Volkerkunde in 
Berlin. Accordingly Doctor Fewkes went to Europe at his 
personal expense and spent August, September, and October 
studying these types and also many undescribed Porto Rican 
and other West Indian objects in various museums. Draw- 
ings of about 140 specimens, many of which have not been 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 15 

described, were made during the course of these studies in 
Berlin. He also visited the museum at Copenhagen, Den- 
mark, which contains many old specimens from the Danish 
West Indies and some rare types of prehistoric objects from 
Porto Rico, all of which were either drawn or photographed. 
West Indian objects were found also in the museum collec- 
tions of Leipzig, Dresden, and Vienna. Some time was 
given to an examination of the dolmens and megaliths in 
the neighborhood of Berlin and elsewhere in northern 
Germany, and of the numerous moiuids and prehistoric 
workshops on the island of Rugen in the Baltic Sea. 

Doctor Fewkes spent his vacation on the shoie of the 
Mediterranean, which he crossed, visiting the most striking 
ruins in Egypt, penetrating as far south as Assouan, and 
making special studies of the remaining evidences of neo- 
lithic man at Abydos and El Kab on the banks of the Nile. 
He had always in mind a study of prehistoric irrigation in 
this region, with a view to comparing the works with similar 
remains in Arizona. In the museums at Cairo and Assouan 
Doctor Fewkes examined considerable material dating back 
to late neolithic times and found a remarkable similarity 
not only in architectural features but also in stone imple- 
ments, basketry, bone implements, and other artifacts from 
the valley of the Nile and those from our Southwest. One of 
the important features of the visit to Egypt was a study of 
methods of excavation and repair of ruins adopted by Egyp- 
tologists. On his return from Egypt Doctor Fewkes passed 
through Greece and southern Italy and was able to acquaint 
himself with the method of excavation and repair of ancient 
ruins in these countries, especially those on the Acropolis 
and at Pompeii. 

Doctor Fewkes arrived in Washington in April and imme- 
diately resumed work on his report on the aborigines of the 
West Indies, which was continued during April and the 
greater part of May. In the latter month he again took the 
field and spent the whole of June in archeological research in 
the Mimbres Valley, New Mexico. In this work he was able 
to enlarge our knowledge of the distribution of pottery 
symbols and to add important collections to the National 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Museum. The Mimbres Valley is practically the northern 
extension into the United States of an inland basin known in 
Chihuahua as the Sierra Madre Plateau. The fact that its 
drainage does not connect with any stream that flows into 
the Atlantic or the Pacific Ocean imparts a peculiar character 
to its geographical environment. On the southern part of 
this plateau, as along the Casas Grandes River, mounds and 
ruins of large size are well known, from which have been 
taken some of the finest pottery in the Southwest; but the 
archeology of the extension of this plateau into New Mexico 
has never been adequately examined. In his brief recon- 
noissance Doctor Fewkes collected evidence that the prehis- 
toric culture of the Mimbres Valley was strikingly character- 
istic. The decorated pottery from the ruins in this valley is 
unlike that of any other region. It consists mainly of mor- 
tuary food bowls, which the prehistoric inhabitants were 
accustomed to break or "kill" and place over the heads of 
the deceased, who were buried beneath the fioors of the 
houses. About 60 specimens of beautiful pottery, more than 
half of which are ornamented with painted figures of human 
beings and animals, were found or purchased. As these are 
the first examples ever brought to the National Museum from 
this region, the results are gratifying. They afford through 
their geometrical ornamentation, and especially because of 
the life forms which predominate, an interesting insight into 
the ancient culture of the Pueblo region to the north and in 
the Gila Valley to the west. It is Mexican in type, and some 
of the fragments are practically identical in form and orna- 
mentation with the beautiful pottery from Casas Grandes. 
Chihuahua. 

During the year Doctor Fewkes added about 350 pages of 
manuscript to his report on the aborigines of the West 
Indies, which was approaching completion at the close of the 
year. 

Shortly before the close of the preceding fiscal year Mr. 
James Mooney, ethnologist, proceeded to the reservation of 
the East Cherokee Indians in western North Carolina for the 
purpose of continuing the translation and elucidation of the 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 17 

large body of sacred formulas, \witten in the Cherokee 
language and alphabet, which he had obtained from the native 
priests and their surviving relatives some years ago, and 
about one-third of which he had already translated, with ex- 
planatory notes. In connection with this work a large num- 
ber of plants noted in the formulas as of medicinal or other 
value were collected and transferred to the division of botany 
of the National Museum for scientific identification. In this 
collection were several specimens of the native corn of the 
Cherokee, still cultivated as sacred by a few of the old con- 
servatives. On examination by the experts of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture this corn was found to be a new and 
hitherto undescribed variety of special food importance under 
cultivation. Return was made from the field early in 
October, 1913. 

In June, 1914, a brief trip was made into Prince Georges and 
Charles Counties, Maryland, for the purpose of investigating 
the status and origin of some persons of supposedly Indian 
descent, concerning whom several inquiries had come to the 
bureau. Mr. Mooney foimd, as he had supposed, that these 
people, numbering in all several hundred, were, like the 
Pamunkey of Virginia and the so-called Croatan of North 
Carolina, a blend of the three races, Indian, Negro, and White, 
with the Indian blood probably predominating. They con- 
stitute and hold themselves a separate caste, distinct from 
both white and negro. They probably represent the mongrel- 
ized descendants of the Piscataw^ay tribe, and are sometimes 
locally distinguished among themselves as "We-Sort," that 
is, "Our Sort." 

On June 22, 1914, Mr. Mooney again started for the East 
Cherokee to continue work on the sacred formulas, with a 
view to speedy publication. 

His time in the office during the winter and spring was 
occupied chiefly with the extended investigation of former 
Indian population, together with routine correspondence and 
I'eplies to letters of inqviiry. On request of the Department 
of Justice he prepared an extended deposition on tribal 
ranges and Indian depredations in northern Mexico and 

75052—21—35 eth— pt 1 2 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

along the Rio Grande, which was officially characterized as 
one of the most important and interesting that had ever 
come before the department. 

In pursuance of his investigations of the Creek Indians 
and allied tribes, Dr. John R. Swanton, ethnologist, pro- 
ceeded to Oklahoma early in July to attend the busk cere- 
monies, and was present at those of the Eufaula, HililDi, 
Fish Pond, and Tukabachi Creeks. Notes were taken on 
all of these and photographs obtained of various features of 
all but the last. At the same time, with the valued assist- 
ance of Mr. G. W. Grayson, of Eufaula, Doctor Swanton 
gathered further ethnological information from some of the 
old people, and continued this' work after the ceremonies 
ceased. Somewhat later he visited the small body of Indians 
in Seminole County who still retain a speaking knowledge of 
Hitchiti, and added about 40 pages of text to that previously 
obtained, besides correcting a portion of Gatschet's Hitchiti 
vocabulary. He made an arrangement with an interpreter 
by which 100 pages of additional text were received after 
his return to Washington. 

While some time was devoted to studies of the Alabama, 
Hitchiti, and Choctaw languages, most of Doctor Swanton's 
attention while in the office during the year was centered on 
two particular undertakings. One of these was the proof 
reading of the Choctaw-English section of Byington's Choc- 
taw Dictionary, and the compilation, with the efficient help 
of Miss M. C. Rollins, of an Engiish-Choctaw index, which 
will comprise about 350 printed pages, to accompany it. 
The other was work on the first draft of an extended report 
on the Creek confederacy, of which the historical part, con- 
sisting of 300 typewritten pages, is practicallj' completed. 

At the beginning of the year Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnolo- 
gist, undertook the work of editing and copying the Seneca 
text " Shagowenotha, or The Spirit of the Tides," which was 
recorded by him in the form of field notes in 1896 on the 
Cattaraugus Reservation, New York. This particular piece 
of work, forming a text of 3,692 native words, was completed 
in August, 1913. The task of making a literal, almost an 
etymological, interlinear translation of this text was next 



ADMINISTKATIVE EEPORT 19 

undertaken and was completed in November, yielding an 
aggregate of 11,411 English words in the rendering. The 
other of the two native texts in Seneca, "Doadanegen and 
Hotkwisdadegena," which was recorded in the form of field 
notes by Mr. Hewitt in 1896, was next edited and copied; 
this work was completed by the close of December and 
consists of 4,888 native Seneca words. The literal inter- 
linear translation of this text then taken up was completed 
in Fel^ruary, 1914, making 14,664 English words in the ren- 
dering. 

On finishing these translations Mr. Hewitt commenced the 
reading and digesting of the Seneca material of the late 
Jeremiah C'urtin for the purpose of providing notes and 
explanations to the stories, a task that was made the more 
difficult by the fact that Mr. Curtin's field notes of explana- 
tion and identification are not available. One of the longest 
of the stories collected by Mr. Curtin, "Doonogaes and 
Tsodiqgwadon," comprising 149 typewritten pages, required 
144 notes varying in length from three or four lines to sev- 
eral pages; but this story is of exceptional length. The 
entire Curtin material has now been reread and annotated. 
Mr. Hewitt also completed the notes for his introduction to 
the "Seneca Mj^ths and Fiction," and the final writing was 
almost finished by the close of the year. 

As opportunity offered, Mr. Hewitt continued to work on 
a sketch of the Iroquois language, and he has now in hand 
about 75 pages of manuscript, in addition to a considerable 
body of notes and diagrams for incorporation into final form. 

Mr. Hewitt also made a week's study of the voluminous 
manuscript "Dictionary of Words that have been Made 
Known in or Introduced into English from the Indians of 
North, Central, and South America," compiled by the late 
William R. Gerard, with a view of ascertaining its value 
for publication by the bureau. This examination was made 
difficult by the fact that the compiler of the dictionary had 
access to many works which were not available for Mr. 
Hewitt. 

Unfortunately the work summarized above was often 
interrupted, owing to the need of frequently calling on Mr, 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Hewitt for the preparation of data for replies to correspond- 
ents, wlaose inquiries pertained to linguistic, historical, 
sociological, and technical matters. In connection with this 
work there were prepared 110 letters, rarely exceeding a 
page in length, although some occupied several pages and 
required considerable study and research in gathering the 
needed data for reply. 

During the year Mr. Francis La Flesche, ethnologist, 
recorded the rituals and accompanying songs of five addi- 
tional Osage ceremonies, known as Wawatho°, Wadoka 
Weko, Wazhi"gao, Zhi°gazhi"ga Zhazhe Thadse, and Wex- 
thexthe. Of these the Wawatho° is complete; the record 
fills about 150 pages, including songs, diagrams, and illus- 
trations. This ceremony, which is of religious significance 
and is reverenced by all the people, has been obsolete for 
about 20 years, and there now remain only two men in the 
tribe who remember it in most of its details. It was a peace 
ceremony that held an important place in the great tribal 
rites of the Osage, for through its influence friendly relations 
were maintained among the various gentes composing the 
tribe, and it was also the means by which friendship with 
interrelated tribes was established and preserved. Early 
French travelers mention this ceremony as being performed 
by the Osage in one of the tribes of the Illinois confederacy 
during the second decade of the eighteenth centuiy. Unlike 
the Osage war ceremonies, which are complex and composed 
of several steps or degrees, the Wawatho" is simple and 
complete in itself. The " pipes, " sometimes called calumets, 
which are employed in its performance, consist of a number 
of sacred symbolic articles, each of which, with its attendant 
ritual, was in the keeping of a certain gens of the tribe. 
The assembling of these articles formed an essential part of 
the ceremony, for it was on this occasion that the ritual, 
which explained both the significance of and the precepts 
conveyed by the sacred articles, had to be recited. This 
Wawatho" ceremony resembled that of the Omaha, Ponca, 
Oto, and Pawnee tribes, differing only in minor details. To 
the intelligent thinking class the aims and purposes of the 
ceremony are clear, but there are among the Osage, as 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 21 

among other tribes, those who can not comprehend fully 
the deeper, broader teachings of such a rite, and because of 
this restricted view superstitious beliefs regarding it now 
prevail among the lower classes. 

The record of the Wadoka Weko, one of the seven war 
ceremonies, consists of 89 pages of manuscript, with 32 
songs. This rite, which is the sixth degree of the war 
ceremony, is divided into eight parts, exclusive of the 
introductory rites, and consists of rituals and songs per- 
taining to the ceremonial cutting of the scalps for distribu- 
tion among the various gentes for their sacred packs. One 
of these parts has to do with the odo"^, or " honors, " won by 
the warriors in battle. While this ceremony is recorded 
completely, it is not yet ready for publication, since it is 
one of seven interdependent degrees the study of which is 
not yet finished. 

Wazhi°gao, the bird ceremony for boys, is another of the 
seven degrees, and is regarded as important. It has been 
transcribed in full, but the notes thereon have not yet been 
elaborated for pu1)lication. 

Zhi°gazhi°ga Zhazhe Thadse (naming of a child), a cere- 
mony that bears no direct relation to any other, is regarded 
as essential to the proper rearing of a child, and is still prac- 
ticed. This ceremony has been recorded in its entirety, but 
still lacks the descriptive annotation necessary before publica- 
tion. 

The Wexthexthe, or tattooing ceremony, the last of the 
five recorded by Mr. La Flesche, was taken down from its 
recitation by one of the men who had participated therein. 
This transcription is still, in a measure, fragmentary, but 
enough has been obtained to give a fair idea of the signifi- 
cance of the tattoo designs employed. The notes on the 
Wexthexthe are not yet prepared for pubhcation, as there 
is still a possibility of recording the ceremony in its entirety. 
A set of the implements used by the Osage in tattooing have 
been obtained for illustration and have been deposited in 
the National Museum. There has also lieen placed in the 
museum a waxohelo^ga, or great sacred pack, which once 
belonged to WaQeto"zhi°ga, a prominent man of the tribe. 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

who died in 1910. After much persuasion his widow re- 
hictantly consented to part with this sacred article, together 
with its buffalo-hair and rush-mat cases. This pack consists 
of the skin and plumage of a white pelican, the bird which 
in Osage mythology revealed through a dream the mysteries 
of tattooing and provided the implements therefor. 

All the above-described ceremonies studied by Mr. La 
Flesche have still a strong hold on the Osage people; this, 
together with the fact that every initiated person accjuired 
his knowledge at great expense, has made it almost impossible 
to record the ceremonies in full from those who have been 
induced to speak about them. 

Mrs. M. C. Stevenson, ethnologist, continued her studies of 
the ethnology of the Tewa Indians of New Mexico, devoting 
special attention to the pueblo of San Ildefonso, with a view 
of elaborating her memoir on this group of tribes, which con- 
sists of about 400 pages of manuscript, material relating to 
almost every phase of Tewa customs and beliefs having been 
added in whole or in part during the course of the year. 
Perhaps the most important of the new data gathered by 
Mrs. Stevenson on these interesting sedentary people relate 
to their ceremonies with respect to human sacrifice. The 
conservatism of the Tewa and the secrecy with which most 
of their numerous rites are conducted make them a difficult 
subject of study and one requiring considerable time. Mrs. 
Stevenson's memoir had reached such a stage of completion 
that at the close of the year she was making final arrange- 
ments for acquiring the materials still needed for illustrations. 

Shortly after the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. Truman 
Michelson, ethnologist, proceeded to Tama, Iowa, to renew 
his researches among the Fox Indians. After successfully 
commencing these studies he proceeded to Tongue River 
Reservation in Montana for the purpose of studying the 
remnant of the Sutaio Trilie incorporated with the Cheyenne. 
It seems that some ethnological information can still be 
obtained in regard to specific Sutaio matters, l3ut little of the 
language remains. Doctor Michelson compiled a fairly large 
Sutaio vocalnilary, but fewer than a dozen words are funda- 
mentally different from the corresponding Cheyenne terms. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 23 

Such grammatical forms as could be obtained indicate that 
Sutaio sheds little or no light on the divergent Algonquian 
type of the Cheyenne language. 

Returning to Tama to renew his Fox studies, Doctor 
Michelson succeeded in elucidating the social organization 
almost to completeness. It appears that the two major 
divisions of the tribe are not purely for rivalry in athletics, 
but rather are ceremonial. Doctor Michelson was successful 
also in obtaining the very long myths of the culture hero and 
the Mother of all the Earth. It is evident that the actual 
Fox society still corresponds in a measure to that given in the 
myths. 

In October Doctor Michelson proceeded to Kansas to in- 
vestigate the Sauk and Fox of the Missouri. A reconnois- 
sance only was made here, and some of the Fox material 
obtained at Tama was translated. In November he re- 
turned to Washington, and in January, 1914, visited the 
Carlisle Indian School for the purpose of studying special 
points of grammar and phonetics with some of the Sauk 
and Fox pupils. Thence he made a trip to New York City, 
taking with him one of the pupils for the purpose of con- 
sulting Dr. Franz Boas, honorary philologist of the bureau, 
on certain mooted points pertaining to the Fox language. 
While in New York a few tracings were made with the 
Rousselot apparatus. 

In May Doctor Michelson again visited Carlisle for the 
purpose of making a translation of the story of a sacred 
bundle of the Fox Indians, which he has recently procured. 

Toward the end of the fiscal year Doctor Michelson de- 
voted some time to the problem whether the Yurok and 
Wiyot languages of California were Algonquian, as had been 
recentl}' claimed, and reached the conclusion that the existing 
evidence does not justify such a classification 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES 

Work on the Handbook of American Indian Languages 
was continued under the personal direction and editorship of 
Dr. Franz Boas, honorary philologist. Part 2, which is in 
preparation, is to contain grammatical sketches of the 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Takelma, Coos, Siuslaw, and Alsea languages of Oregon; 
the Kutenai, of Montana; and the Chukchee. The Takelma 
sketch was published in advanc^e in separate form in 1912. 
During the present year the printing of the sketch of the Coos, 
by Leo J. Frachtenberg, which forms pages 297-429 of part 
2, was finished. The manuscript of the Siuslaw, also by 
Doctor Frachtenberg, was completed and revised, and, 
except for a small part, is in galle}^ form. The Chukchee 
sketch likewise has been set up in galleys and revised, and 
new material on the dialects of the language, having become 
available, has been added. The printing of the sketch pro- 
ceeded necessarily slowly, since the notes had to be read by 
the author, Mr. Waldemar Bogoras, who lives in Russia. 
A full treatment of this grammar is particularly desirable, 
since it serves to define the relationships of the American 
languages toward the west. Doctor Frachtenberg, a fuller 
report of whose work will follow, has made progress with his 
studies of the Alsea. The grammatical material and the 
texts have been extracted and studied, and the latter, which 
are to form the basis of the sketch, have been copied for the 
printer. Dr. A. F. Chamberlain, a valued collaborator, 
whose untunel}' death we lament, furnished a sketch of the 
Kutenai language. It was necessary to make a detailed 
study of this sketch. This was done by Doctor Boas partly 
during the winter in New York with the help of a Kutenai 
boy and partly during the month of June among the In- 
dians of Montana and British Columbia. The report on 
this sketch was completed. A certain amount of prepara- 
tory work for the sketch of the Palish language was also 
done, more particularly a map showing the distribution of 
the Salish dialect, based on researches by James Teit, was 
completed. The expense of the field work for this map, 
which has occupied four years, was met by Mr. Homer E. 
Sargent, of Chicago, to whose lively interest in the Hand- 
book and related subjects we are deeply indebted. The 
vocabularies on which the map is based are in an advanced 
stage of preparation. Much time was devoted by Doctor 
Boas during the year to the preparation of a report on the 
mythology of the Tsimshian Indians, based on material 



ADMINISTRATIVE EEPOBT 25 

written during a period of 10 years by Henry W. Tate, 
himself a Tsimshian. Owing to his recent death it was 
necessary to close the collection, the expenses of which have 
been defrayed from private sources. The monograph was 
completed and is in type for publication in the Thirty-first 
Annual Report. 

Brief reference to the researches of Dr. Leo J. Frachtenberg, 
ethnologist, has been made in connection with the preparation 
of part 2 of the Handbook of American Indian I^anguages. 
The beginning of the fiscal year found Doctor Frachtenberg 
in the field in Oregon, where, from June to September, he was 
engaged in linguistic and ethnologic work on the Kalapooian 
family. During these months he collected a number of gram- 
matical notes and nine texts in the dialect of the so-called 
Calapooia Proper, but owing to lack of sufficient means for 
continuing this field work he was compelled to discontinue it 
in October. The linguistic researches into the Kalapooian 
family l^rought out a number of interesting points, of which 
the most salient are as follows: Phonetically the family is 
related closely to the Lutuamian (Klamath) and Sahaptin 
groups. Certain pronominal forms and a few numerical 
terms are identical with the Klamath and Sahaptin forms. 
In all other respects, chiefly morphological, Kalapooian bears 
close resemblance to the Coos, Siuslaw, and Yakonan stocks. 
A particularly close affiliation exists between this and the 
Coos family in the phonetic structure of words. While the 
phonetics of both languages are divergent, both are what may 
be termed vocalic languages and are practically free from any 
difficult consonantic clusters. The Calapooia texts thus far 
obtained deal chiefly with the Coyote cycle and are identical 
with myths found among the Coos, Molala, Klamath, Maidu, 
Chinook, Alsea, Takelma, Salish, and other tribes of the 
Pacific area. The mythology as a whole is typical of that 
region in the absence of true creation myths and in the multi- 
tude of transformation stories. 

A survey of the linguistic phase of the Kalapooian stock 
shows it to embrace the following dialects : Calapooia Proper 
(also called Marysville) , Chelamela, Yamhill, Atfalati, Wa- 
pato Lake, Ahantsayuk, Santiam, Lakmayut, and Yonkallat. 



26 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

These dialects show certain degrees of interrelationship, 
which may be formulated as follows: Calapooia, Santiam, 
Lakmayut, and Ahantsayuk form one closely related group; 
another group embraces the Yamhill and Atfalati dialects, 
while Yonkallat seems to constitute a group of its own. No 
information as to the Chelamela dialect could be obtained. 

In July Doctor Frachtenberg received what seemed to be 
trustworthy information that some Willapa Indians were still 
living at Bay Center, Washington, l)ut on visiting that point 
he found the reputed Willapa to be in fact members of the 
Chehalis tribe, thus proving conclusively that the Willapa 
are entirely extinct. 

Doctor Frachtenberg returned to New York late in October 
and was engaged until the beginning of December in the 
preparation of the Siuslaw grammatical sketch for the Hand- 
book of American Indian Languages, additional work on 
which became necessary because of the fact that during his 
stay in the field he had received further information con- 
cerning this extinct stock. In December Doctor Frachten- 
berg took up his duties in Washington, becoming first engaged 
in supplying references from the Siuslaw texts in the gram- 
matical sketch of that language. At the close of the year 
this sketch was in type. Doctor Frachtenberg also prepared 
for publication a Siuslaw-English and English-Siuslaw vocab- 
ulary, containing 90 typewritten pages. He furthermore 
prepared an English-Coos glossary, which may be utilized in 
the near future, as it has been found desirable to add such 
a glossary to each volume of native texts. 

On completion of this work Doctor Frachtenberg com- 
menced the preparation of the Alsea texts collected by Dr. 
Livingston Farrand in 1900 and by himself in 1910. These 
texts, consisting of 31 myths, tales, and narratives, and com- 
prising 195 typewritten pages, will be submitted in the near 
future with a view to publication as a bulletin of the bureau. 

At the close of the fiscal year Doctor Frachtenberg was 
preparing for another field season in Oregon, with the view 
of finishing his studies of the Kalapooian stock and of con- 
ducting similar researches among the Quileute. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPOKT 27 

Mr. W. H. Holmes, of the National Museum, continued his 
work on the preparation of the Handbook of American An- 
tiquities for the bureau, reaching the practical completion of 
part 1 and making much headway in the preparation of part 
2; progress in this work, however, was necessarily delayed 
owing to the pressure of many duties connected with a head 
curatorship in the National Museum. 

During August, 1913, Mr. Holmes made a visit to Luray, 
Virginia, for the further study of an ancient village site near 
that place and the examination of certain implement-making 
sites in the vicinity. In June he visited Missouri for the pur- 
pose of studying certain collections owned in St. Louis and 
for the reexamination of an ancient iron and paint mine at 
Leslie. It was found, however, that recent mining opera- 
tions had been carried so far that traces of the aboriginal 
work at the mine were practically obliterated, and besides the 
mine was found to be filled with water, making effective 
examination impossible. From St. Louis he proceeded to 
Chicago, where studies were made of certain collections with 
a view of obtaining data necessary to the completeness of the 
Handbook of American Antiquities. 

In her studies of Indian music Miss Frances Densmore made 
two trips to the Standing Rock Reservation, South Dakota 
(one in July and August, 1913, and one in June, 1914), where 
she engaged in investigations at Bullhead, McLaughlin, and 
the vicinity of the Martin Kenel School. This research com- 
pleted the field work for the proposed volume of Sioux music, 
the material for which, subsequently prepared for publica- 
tion, consists of 323 pages of manuscript, 98 musical tran- 
scriptions of songs, 20 technical analyses of songs, and 33 
original illustrations. 

The practical use which musical composers are making of 
the results of Miss Densmore's studies is very gratifying. Mr. 
Carl Busch has adapted for orchestral purposes four of the 
songs rendered by Miss Densmore and published by the bu- 
reau, as follows: (1) Chippewa Vision, (2) Farewell to the 
Warriors, (3) Love Song, (4) Lullaby. Mr. Heinrich Ham- 
mer, of Washington, has composed a Sun Dance Rhapsody 



28 BUREAU OP AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

and a Chippewa Rhapsody. Mr. Charles Wakefield Cadman 
has composed, for the voice, two of the Chippewa songs, 
"From the Long Room of the Sea" and "Ho, Ye Warriors 
on the Warpath." Mr. S. N. Penfield has harmonized two 
vocal quartets, "Manitou Listens to Me" and "Why Should 
I be Jealous?" For the violin Mr. Alfred Manger has pre- 
pared a " Fantasie on Sioux Themes," and Mr. Alberto Bim- 
boni has well advanced toward completion an opera bearing 
the title "The Maiden's Leap." Certain of the orchestral 
arrangements have been played by the Chicago Symphony 
Orchestra (formerly known as the Thomas Orchestra) , as well 
as by the symphony orchestras of Washington, Minneapohs, 
and Kansas City. It is interesting to note the demand for 
Sioux themes in advance of their publication. These have 
been furnished in manuscript as far as possible to those de- 
siring them for specific and legitimate use. Two of the com- 
positions in the foregoing list are based on such themes. 

Work on the volume of Sioux music is approachmg com- 
pletion. This will be larger than either of the bulletins on 
Chippewa music, and, while the same general plan has been 
followed, there will be much that is new, both in subject 
matter and in style of illustration. 

During the year work on the Handbook of Aboriginal 
Remains East of the Mississippi was continued by MrJD,_ I. 
Bushnell, jr., under a small allotment from the bureau, and 
ipproximately 90,300 words of manuscript were recorded 
on cards geographically arranged. The entire amount of 
manuscript now completed is about 321,000 words, and the 
bibliography thus far includes 306 titles. As a result of the 
notes received from the Wisconsin Archeological Society, 
through the courtesy of its severe tary, Mr. Charles E. Brown, 
of Madison, every county of that State will be well repre- 
sented in the Handbook. It is to be regi-etted that more 
information regarding aboriginal remains is not forthcoming 
from certain other parts of the country east of the Mississippi, 
especially the New England States, which at this \mting are 
not adequately represented. The bureau is indebted to 
Mr. Warren K. Moorehead, of the department of archeology 
of Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, for the gen- 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 29 

erous use of original data gathei'ed by him in Maine in ad- 
vance of its publication by the academy. 

Mr. James Murie, as opportunity offered and the limita- 
tions of a small allotment made by the bureau for these 
studies allowed, continued his observations on the ceremonial 
organization and rites of the Pawnee tribe, of which he is a 
member. The product of Mr. Murie's investigation of the 
year, which was practically finished but not received in 
manuscript form at the close of June, is a circumstantial 
account of " The Going After the Mother Cedar Tree by the 
Bear Society," an important ceremony which has been 
performed only by the Skidi band during the last decade. 

In the last annual report attention was directed to a 
proposed series of handbooks of the Indians of the several 
States and to the arrangements that had been made for 
such a volume, devoted to the tribes of California, by Dr. 
A. L. Ki'oeber, of the University of California. The author 
has submitted sections of the manuscript of this work for 
suggestion, and, although his university duties have delayed 
its completion, there is every reason to believe that when the 
material is finished and published it will form an excellent 
model for the entii-e series. It has been hoped that the 
pecuniary means necessary for the preparation of these State 
handbooks would be provided in accordance with the esti- 
mate of an appropriation submitted for this purpose, Ijut 
unfortunately the desired provision was not made. 

Prof. Howard M. Ballou, of Honolulu, has submitted from 
time to time additional titles for the List of Works Relating 
to Hawaii, compiled in collaboration with the late Dr. 
Cyrus Thomas. The material for this bibliography is in the 
hands of Mr. Felix Neumann for final editorial revision, and 
it is expected that the entire manuscript will soon be ready 
for composition. 

MANUSCRIPTS 

The large collection of manuscripts in possession of the 
bureau has been in continuous charge of Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt. 
A few noteworthy additions were made during the year 
besides those prepared or which are in process of preparation 



30 BUREAU Oi-' AMKIilCAN ETHNOLOGY 

by members of the staff. Among these may be mentioned 
the " Dictionafy of Words that have been Made Known in 
or Introduced into Enghsh from the Indians of North, 
Central, and South America," by the late William H. Gerard, 
a work requiring many years of assiduous labor. The manu- 
script was acquired for a nominal consideration from Mrs. 
Gerard, and it is the design to publish the dictionary as 
soon as it can be given the customary editorial attention. 
Before his death Mr. Gerard presented to the Ijureau an 
original manuscript of 31 pages, with 21 diagrams, on 
"Terminations of the Algonquian Transitive and Indefinite 
Verbs and their Meanings," to which Dr. Trumian Michelson 
has appended a criticism. 

Additional manuscripts worthy of special note ai-e the 
following: 

J. P. Diuin: Translation of Miami-Peoria Dictionary, Part 2, Alter 
to Assomer. The original of this <Uctionary is in the John Carter 
Brown Library, of Providence, through whose courteous hbnirian, 
Mr. George Parker Winship, the bureau has been provided with a pho- 
tostat copy. 

J. P. Dunn: Translation of the History of Genesis, second chapter, 
from the Miami-Peoria Dictionary above cited. 

Cyrus Byington: Manuscript notebook, 1844-1848 and 1861. 
Kindly presented by Mi-s. Eliza Luies, daughter of this noted mission- 
ary to the Choctaw. 

James A. Gilfillan : Chippewa Sentences. A small quarto notebook 
kindly presented by Miss Emily Cook, of the Office of Indian jVffairs. 

Parker Marshall: Various memoranda on the location of the 
Natchez Trace. 

H. A. Scomp: Comparative Choctaw and Creek Dictionary, con- 
sisting of 1,0.54 sheets, 20 by 36 inches. 

Francisco Pareja: Confessionario, in Spanish and Tiniuqua. Pho- 
tostat copy furnished by the courtesy of the New York Historical 
Society. 

Francisco Pareja: Catechismo, m Timuqua. Photostat copy fur- 
nished by the courtesy of the New York Historical Society. 

Francisco Pareja: Explicacion do la Doctrma, in Timuqua. Pho- 
tostat copy furnished by the courtesy of the New York Historical 
Society. 

V. C. Fredericksen : Origin of the Eskimo and their Wanderings, 
with photographs. (The author is a Danish missionary iia Green- 
land.) 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 31 

From time to time the bureau has been put to considerable 
expense in having photostat copies made of imique manu- 
scripts and of excessively rare books indispensable to its 
researches. It is therefore fortunate that the opportunity 
was afforded, late in the fiscal year, to acquire a photostat 
apparatus which has since been in constant service. The 
urgent need of such an instrument was made especially mani- 
fest when the Rev. George Worpenberg, S. J., librarian of St. 
Marys College, St. Marys, Kansas, generously accorded the 
bureau the privilege of copying a number of valuable original 
linguistic manuscripts in the archives of the college, pertain- 
ing chiefly to the Potawatomi and including a dictionary and 
a grammar recorded by the late Father Maurice Gailland. 
Manuscript copies of these voluminous linguistic works could 
have been made only after infinite labor by an expert and at 
an expense far exceeding the entire cost of the photostat ap- 
paratus. By the close of the year the making of the fac- 
simile reproductions had been commenced by Mr. Albert 
Sweeney, under the immediate direction of Mr. De Lancey 
Gill, illustrator. 

An opportunity was afforded at the close of the year to 
replace the wooden partition and ceiling of the manuscript 
room with terra cotta and to install a fireproof door and 
window coverings, thus giving for the first time adequate pro- 
tection to the bureau's large collection of priceless unpul)- 

lished material. 

PUBLICATIONS 

The editorial work of the bureavi has lieen continued by 
Mr. J. G. Gurley, editor, who has been assisted from time to 
time by Mrs. Frances S. Nichols. The following publications 
were received from the press during the year: 

Bulletin 53, '-'Chippewa Music — II," by Frances Densmoro. 

Bulletin 56, " Ethuozoology of the Tewa Indians," by Jiuiius Hen- 
derson and John P. Harrmgton. 

" Coos: An Illustrative Sl'etcli," by Leo J. Frachtenberg. Extract 
from Handbook of American Indian Languages (Bulletin 40, part 2). 

The status of other publications, now in press, is as follows : 

The proof reading of the Twenty-ninth Annual Report, the 

accompanying paper of which, entitled " Ethnogeography of 



32 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the Tewa Indians," by John P. Harrington, is an exhaustive 
memoir presenting many technical difficulties, was nearly 
completed during the year. About two-thirds of the memoir 
is in page form. 

The Thirtieth Annual Report, comprising originally, in ad- 
dition to the administrative section, three memoirs: (1) 
"Tsimshian Mythology," by Franz Boas; (2) "Ethnobotany 
of the Zuili Indians," by Matilda Coxe Stevenson; (3) "An 
Inquiry into the Animism and Folk-lore of the Guiana In- 
dians," by Walter E. Roth. Extensive additions to the 
first-named memoir, received after the report had been put 
into type, necessitated the division of the contents, and ac- 
cordingly this section was transferred to the Thirty-first Re- 
port. Approximately two-thirds of " Tsimshian ^Mythology" 
has been paged, and the Zuni memou- also, now the first ac- 
companying paper of the Thirtieth Annual, is in process of 
paging. 

To the Thirty-second Report will be assigned a memoir 
entitled " Seneca Myths and Fiction," collected by Jeremiah 
Curtm and J. N. B. Hewitt and edited with an introduction 
by the latter, the manuscript of which is about ready for 
editorial revision. 

Bulletin Jfi {pt. 2), "Handbook of American Indian 
Languages." The work on this l^uUetin has been canied 
along steadily under the immediate supervision of its editor, 
Doctor Boas. Two sections — Takelma and Coos — have been 
issued in separate form (aggregating 429 pages), and two 
additional sections, dealing with the Chukchee and Siuslaw 
languages respectively, are in type, the former being " made 
up" to the extent of about 50 pages. 

Bulletin 4.6, "A Dictionary of the Choctaw Language," 
by Cyrus Byington (edited by John R. S wanton and Henry 
S. Halbert). The first (Choctaw-English) section of this 
work was completed dming the year and is practically ready 
for the press. The manuscript of the second section (English- 
Choctaw directory), comprising 36,008 entries on cards, was 
sent to the Printing Office April 30 to June 13, but no proof 
had been received at the close of the year. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 33 

Bulletin 55, "Ethnobotany of the Tewa Indians," by 
Wilfred W. Robbins, John P. Harrington, and Barbara 
Freire-Marreco. After this bulletin was in type it was 
found advisable to incorporate a considerable amount of 
valuable material, subsequently gathered and kindly offered 
by Miss Freire-Marreco. The change involved recasting in 
a large measure the original work. The second galley proof 
is in the hands of Miss Freire-Marreco for final revision. 

Bulletin 57, " An Introduction to the Study of the Maya 
Hieroglyphs," by Sylvanus Griswold Morley. The manu- 
script and illustrations of this memoir were submitted to 
the Pul)lic Printer the latter part of April. Engraver's 
proof of the illustrations, with the exception of a few pieces 
of color work, have been received and approved. Owing to 
the heavy pressure of public business, the Printing Office 
had been unable to furnish proof of the letterpress by the 
close of the year. 

Bulletin 58, " List of Publications of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology." The page proof of this bulletin is in the 
hands of the printers for slight correction, preparatory to 
placing it on the press. 

The total number of publications of the bureau distributed 
during the year was 12,819, classified as follows: 

Report volumes and separate papers 2, 810 

Bulletins 9,943 

Contributions to North American Ethnology 22 

Introductions 5 

Miscellaneous publications 39 

Total ._.. 12,819 

As during several years past the extensive correspondence 
arising from the constant demand for the publications of 
the bureau has been in immediate and efficient charge of 
Miss Helen Munroe and Mr. E. L. Springer, of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, assisted by Mr. Thomas F. Clark, jr. 
The distribution of publications has been made in accord- 
ance with law and with entire satisfaction by the office of 
the Superintendent of Documents on order of the bureau. 

75052—21—35 eth— pt 1 3 



34 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOCY 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

The preparation of the illustrations for the publications 
of the bureau, the making of photographs of the members 
of delegations of Indians visiting Washington, and the 
developing and printing of negatives made by the staff of 
the bureau during the prosecution of their field work have 
been in charge of Mr. DeLancey Ciill, illustrator, assisted 
successively by Mr. Walter Stenhouse and Mr. Albert 
Sweeney. In addition the numerous photostat copies of 
manuscripts and books, aggregating about 2,500 exposures, 
have been made under Mr. Gill's supervision, as elsewhere 
mentioned. Of the visiting deputations, representing 17 
tribes, 79 photographic exposures were made; 92 negatives 
of ethnologic subjects were required for reproduction as 
illustrations; 512 negatives made by the members of the 
staff in the field were developed and 381 prints made there- 
from; 105 photographs were printed for presentation to 
Indians and 627 for publication, exchange, and special dis- 
tribution. In addition to the photographic work, which 
constitutes the major part of the illustrative material 
required by the bureau, 54 drawings were made for repro- 
duction. 

The series of photographs, representing 55 tribes, which 

had been exhibited by the New York Public Library and 

the Public Library Commission of Indiana, was borrowed 

in June by the Providence Public Library for a similar 

purpose. 

LIBRARY 

The reference library of the bureau, which consists of 
19,240 books, about 12,894 pamphlets, and several thousand 
unbound periodicals, has been in continuous charge of Miss 
Ella Leary, librarian, assisted by Mrs. Ella Slaughter. Din- 
ing the year 708 books were accessioned, of which 143 were 
acquired by purchase and 137 by gift and exchange, the 
remaining 428 being represented by volumes of serials that 
hitherto had been neither bound nor recorded. The peri- 
odicals currently received numbered 629, of which only 16 
were obtained by piu'chase, the remainder being received 
through exchange. Of pamphlets, 150 were acquired. Dur- 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 35 

ing the year 1,195 volumes were sent to the bindery, and of 
these 695 were bound and returned to the bureau. 

The endeavor to sujoply deficiencies in the sets of publica- 
tions of institutions of learning has continued without 
remission. Among the more important accessions of this 
kind during the year were Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fiir 
Erdkunde zu Berlin, 20 volumes; Instituto Geografico 
Argentino, Boletin, 10 volumes; and Konigliches Museum 
fiir Volkerkunde, Veroffentlichungen, 8 volumes. 

The librarian has prepared a monthly bulletin of accessions 
for the use of the staff, and has furnished information and 
compiled bibliographic notes for the use of correspondents. 
In addition to the constant drafts on the library of the 
bureau requisition was made on the Library of Congress diu'- 
ing the year for an aggregate of 300 volumes for official use, 
and in turn the bureau library was frequently consulted. by 
officers of other Government establishments. 

An appropriation having been made by Congress, in 
behalf of the Institution, for installing modern steel book- 
stacks in the eastern end of the large exhibition hall on the 
first floor of the Smithsonian building, and provision having 
been made for affording the proposed increased facilities to 
the library of the bureau, which for four and a half years 
had been installed in the eastern galleries of the hall men- 
tioned, the books therein were removed in February to the 
gallery and main floor of the western end of the hall and the 
eastern galleries were demolished. Although this work of 
removal occupied two weeks, it was done without confusion 
and practically without cessation of the library's activities. 
The new stacks were in process of erection before the close 
of the fiscal year. 

COLLECTIONS 

The following collections were acquired by the bureau or 
by members of its staff, and, having served the purpose of 
study were transferred to the National Museum, as required 
by law. 

Eight fragments of ancient British pottery. Gift to the bureau by 
Rev. Robert C. Nightingale, Swaffam, Norfolk, England. (55735.) 



36 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Potsherds, fragments of human bones, and three heads. Gift to 
the bureau by Mrs. Bruce Keid, Port Arthur, Texas. (.55758.) 

Parts of five skeletons (three complete skulls and fragments of two 
skulls) from a burial cist in a cave about 20 miles south of Grant, 
New Mexico. Collected by F. W. Hodge, Bureau of American Eth- 
nology. (56134.) 

Thirty-one etlmological objects from the Cherokee and Catawba 
Indir.ns. Collected by Jtuncs Mooney, Bureau of American Eth- 
nulogy. (56312.) 

Six photographs of Aztec antiquities. Purchased from W. W. 
Blake, City of Mexico. (56609.) 

Stone phallus from Mesa Verde, Colorado. Gift to the bureau by 
H. C. Lay, Telluride, Colorado. (56719.) 

Arrow pomt found on the north fork of Roanoke River, about 3 
miles from Blacksburg, Virginia. Gift to the bureau by Prof. 
Otto C. Burkhart, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Vir- 
ginia. (56679.) 

PROPERTY 

The principal property of the bureau consists of its library, 
comprising approximately 35,000 books and pamphlets, a 
large collection of manuscripts for reference or in process of 
preparation for publication, and several thousand photo- 
graphic negatives. With the exception of a portion of the 
library, this material could not be duplicated. In addition, 
the bureau possesses a photostat apparatus with electric- 
light equipment, several cameras, dictagraphs, and other 
appliances for use in conducting scientific research in the 
field and the office, necessary office furniture and equipment, 
and a Umited supply of stationery, supplies, etc. Also under 
control of the bureau, but in immediate custody of the Public 
Printer, as required by law, is a stock of numerous publica- 
tions, chiefly annual reports and bulletins. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Quarters. — The only improvements made in the quarters 
occupied by the bureau in the Smithsonian building, as set 
forth in the last report, have been those incident to the 
reconstruction of the library and the fireproofing of the 
manuscript room, above alluded to, and the painting of the 
walls of four rooms, made necessary partly by inadequate 



ADMINISTRATIVE KEPORT 37 

lighting. In addition to the space previously occupied, a 
room on the fourth floor of the eastern end of the Smith- 
sonian building was assigned temporarily to the bureau for 
the use of two members of its staff. 

Office force. — The personnel of the office has remained 
unchanged, with the exception of the resignation of one 
messenger boy and the appointment of another. It has 
been necessary to employ a copyist from time to. time in 
connection with the editing of Byington's Choctaw Dic- 
tionary. The correspondence of the bureau has been con- 
ducted in the same manner as set forth in the last annual 
report and as hereinbefore mentioned. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

The chief needs of the Bureau of American Ethnology lie 
in the extension of its researches to fields as yet unexploited. 
Attention has freciuently been called to the necessity of 
pursuing studies among Indian tribes which are rapidly 
becoming extinct, or modified by their intimate contact with 
civilization. These researches can not be conducted unless 
the means are provided, since the present limited scientific 
corps, with inadequate allotments of money to meet the 
expenses of extended field investigations, is not equal to the 
immense amount of work to be done. Unfortunately many 
opportunities for conducting these researches which were 
possible a few years ago have passed away, ow ing t o the 
death of older Indians who alone possessed certain knowledge 
of their race. Much can still be done, however, if only the 
means are afforded. 

It is scarcely necessary to repeat, in connection with this 
general recommendation, the estimate for an increase, 
amounting to $24,800, in the appropriation for the bureau 
and the brief reasons for urging the grant of this additional 
sum, inasmuch as these items will be found in the printed 
Estimates of Appropriations, 1915-16. 

F. W. Hodge, 
Ethnologist-in-Charge. 



NOTE ON THE A(rOMPANYING PAPER 

A paper of considerable importance, edited by Dr. Franz Boas, of 
Columl)ia University, is appended to this report. Tlio material for 
the paper was collected and recorded by Mr. George Hunt, a mixed- 
blood Kwakiutl, of Fort Rupert, British Columbia, who is respon- 
sible for the accuracy, the authenticity, and the character of the 
contents of the paper. Mr. Hunt also collaborated in a similar way 
with Dr. Boas in a former work, entitled "The Social Oi-ganization 
and the Secret Societies of the Kwakiutl Indians," published in the 
Report of the United States National Museum for the year ending 
June 30, 1895. 

The accompanying paper, entitled "Ethnology of the Kwakiutl," 
deals with the arts aiul industries, the methods and devices employed 
in hunting and fishing, the methods and means of gathering and 
]ireserving other kinds of food, the recipes for preparing food for 
consumption, and the beliefs and customs of a group of several 
tribes or peoples, more or less closely related, who dwell on the 
Pacific coast of North America, in the vicinity of Fort Rupert, on 
Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and are called the Kwakiutl. 

The languages spoken by these tribes belong to the Wakashan 
linguistic stock, which, as constituted by Powell, is composed of two 
large groups of fundamentally related languages, to one of which 
the name Kwakiutl is applied, and the name Nootka to the other. 
In 1904 the Kwakiutl group of dialects was spoken by 2,17.3 ]icrsons — 
a numl^er which is, however, gradually decreasing. 

The name Kwaki^itl, in its original and more restricted sense, was 
applied to this group of tribes, consisting of the Walas-Kwakiutl 
(Great Kwakiutl), Komoyue, Guetela, and Komkutis. But in time 
the Komoyue camped at Tsaite, and a portion of the Kwakiutl who 
emigrated from their congeners are known as the Matilpe. By enu- 
merating the Matilpe and the Komoyue apart from tlie other tribes 
or septs, the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs limits the name 
Kwakiutl to the Guetela, Komkutis, atul the Walas-Kwakiutl (Great 
Kwakiutl). 

The Kwakiutl are essentially a fisher folk, and so to them all 
other gainful pursuits are of secondary importance. 

Many Indian tribes, distinct in physical characteristics and dis- 
tinct also in languages, but who are one in culture, occupy the 
Pacific coast of America between Juan de Fuca Strait and Yakutat 
Bay. This they are because, in large measure, their industries and 

39 



40 BTJEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

arts, their beliefs and customs, differ so markedly from those of all 
other Indian peoples. Notwithstanding this great uniformity of 
cultiu-e, however, a closer study of the elements of it discloses many 
things that are peculiar to single tribes, which show that this cul- 
ture is the natural result of a gradual and convergent development 
from several distinct sources or centers, every one of these tribes 
having added something peculiar to itself to the sum of this develop- 
ment. 

The ten'itory occupied by these tribes is a mountainous coast, 
deeply indented by numerous sounds and fiords, which encompass 
many islands, both large and small. Travel along the coast is very 
easy by means of canoes, but access to inland places is cpute difficult, 
rugged hills and dense forests rendering travel here very trying, even 
forbidding. A few fiords deeply indent the mainland, and the 
valleys, opening into them, make possible access to the center of the 
high ranges, separating the highlands of the interior from the coastal 
lands, establishing an effective barrier between the people of the 
coast and those of the interior. These barriers have forced these 
tribes to occupy a rather isolated area, and thus they have devel- 
oped a cidture peculiar to themselves, without marked traces of 
intrusive influence. 

The following are Kwakiutl groups and subgroups of peoples: 
Haisla dialect^Kitamat and Kitlope. Heiltsuk dialect — Bella- 
bella, China Hat, Nohuntsitk, Somehulitk, and Wikeno. Kwakiutl 
dialect: Koskimo subdialect — Klaskino, Koprino, Koskimo, and 
Quatsino; Namti subdialect — Nakomgilisala and Tlatlasikoala; Kioa- 
Mutl subdialect — Awaitlala, Goasila, Guauaenok, Hahuamis, Koek- 
satenok, Kwakiutl (including Matilpe), Lekwiltok, Mamalelekala, 
Nakoaktok, Nimkish, Tenaktak. Tlauitsis. and Tsawatenok. The 
Hoyalas subdialect formerly constituted a Kwakiutl division or 
group, which is now extinct and whose affinities are unknown. 

Among the Kwakiutl proper there is a "ceremonial of cannibal- 
ism" which is the most important part of the ritual to wliich it be- 
longs. It is the belief of the living Kwakiutl that cannibalism was 
introduced among them from the Heiltsuk about 1S30. On the 
other hand, the Tsimsliian claim that they acquired this revolting 
custom from the Heiltsuk about 1820. This would seem to indicate 
that cannibalism was limited for a time to the comparatively small 
habitat of the Heiltsuk. But there is no evidence that it originated 
with the Heiltsuk. 



ACCOMPANYING PAPER 



41 



ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL 

BASED ON DATA COLLECTED BY GEORGE HUNT 

By FRANZ BOAS 



43 



PREFACE 

The material contained in the following pages was collected partly 
in connection with the work of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, 
partly after the close of the expedition, largely with funds provided 
by friends interested in the scientific work of the Department of 
Anthropology in Columbia University. 

After working with me in 1893, 1897, and 1900, dui'ing which time 
he gained much practice in writing the Kwakiutl language, Mr. Hunt 
spent several weeks in New York in 1901. During this time the gen- 
eral plan of work was decided upon, and, following instructions and 
questions sent out by me, Mr. Hunt recorded data relating to the 
material culture, the social life, customs, and beliefs of the Kwakiutl 
Indians. So far as accuracy and contents are concerned, he is re- 
sponsible for the material contained in this book. It will be noticed 
that a number of data have been recorded several times, generally 
at intervals of several years, and the agreement of the statements 
is a guaranty of the accuracy of the record. Much of the information 
in regard to cookery was obtained by Mi-. Hunt from Mrs. Hunt, 
who was born in Fort Rupert, and who was thorouglily familiar with 
the duties of a good housewife. In 1900 I had the opportunity of 
obtainiiig a considerable amount of information from her, which will 
be recorded in a general etlmological discussion of the material con- 
tamed in these volumes. 

I have classified the material according to contents, an undertaking 
which has sometimes led to the necessity of breaking up a record 
containing data relating to material culture, customs, and beliefs. 

Mr. Hunt has taken pains to make his descriptions as accurate as 
possible. This procedure has given rise to a certain amount of 
repetition that could not be eliminated by the editor. 

The order in which the material contained in the present volume 
was written by Mr. Hunt is indicated in the critical remarks at the 
end of Part 2 of this work. 

In accordance with the rules laid down in the report on tran- 
scribing American languages, adopted by a committee of the American 
Anthi-opological Association and printed by the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, I have adhered to the alphabet used in the previous publica- 
tions on the Kwakiutl. 

Franz Boas. 

November, 1916. 

45 



EXPLANATION OF ALPHABET USED IN RENDERING 

INDIAN SOUNDS 



I e, I, e, a, o, o n 
% e, e, ii, d, d, 6 ft 
u 

E obscure e, as in flower. 

i e are probably the same sound, intermediate between tlie continental values 

of i and e. 

i i in hill. 

e e in fell. 

a has its continental value. 

6 German o in voll. 

u are probably the same sound, intermediate between the continental values 

of and ». 
e a somewhat douljtful sound, varying greatly in its pronunciation among 

different individuals between e and H. 

a German a in Bar. 

d cue in law. 

« indicates that the preceding consonant is pronounced with n position of the 

mouth. 



Velar 

Palatal 

Anterior palatal 
Alveolar 

Labial 

Lateral 

Glottal stop 



Sonant 



g{w) 

m 

b 



Surd 



Hw) 

t 

t 

(is) 
P 



h, y, w. 



Fortis 



Spirant 
surd 



Nasal 



t 



{w) 
k! ' 
t! 

Us!) 
p! 
l! 



X 

x(%u) 

X' 



I, I' 



I Sonant. 

In this whole series the sonant is harder than the corresponding English sound. The 
surd is pronounced with a full breath, while the fortis is a surd with increased air 
pressure in the oral cavity, produced by muscular pressure of tongue, palate, and 
cheeks, accompanied by glottal or lingual closure, which shuts the lungs off from 
the oral cavity. Tliis produces great stress and suddenness of articulation. The 
sonant is so strong that it is easily mistaken for a surd. 

The velar series are h sounds pronounced with the soft palate, x corresponds to ch 
in German Bach. The palatal series corresponds to our g (hard) and h. .r is like x, but 
pronounced farther forward, g' and k' sound almost like gy and ky (with consonantic 
y); X' is the German ch in ich. d, t, and s are almost dental, i, L, and l! are pro- 
nounced with tip of tongue touching the lower teeth, the back o-E the tongue extending 
transversely across the hard palate, so that the air escapes suddenly near the first 
molars. The sounds are affricative. In I the tip of the tongue is in the same posi- 
tion, but the back of the tongue is narrower, so that the air escapes near the canine 
teeth; the sound is purely spirant. I is the same as the English sound. ^ is a very 
faint glottal stop. The e.xclamation mark is used throughout to indicate increased 
stress of articulation and glottalization. 

47 



CONTENTS 



I. Industries 

P«ge 

The making of dishes . . 57 

Dish for pounding salal-berries 59 

The making of boxes • 60 

The making of oil-boxes 82 

Sewing wdth cedar-withes 93 

Care of canoe 94 

Wooden sail ' 97 

Mat sail and mast 100 

The making of horn spoons (1) 102 

The making of horn spoons (2) 104 

Cedar-bark breaker 109 

Bag of sea-lion hide 109 

Spruce-roots and cedar-withes Ill 

Cedar-withes 115 

Spruce-roots (1) 116 

Spruce-roots (2) 118 

Oedar-withes 120 

Cedar-bark (1) 120 

Cedar-mats 125 

Shredding cedar-bark 126 

Yellow cedar-bark 129 

Cedar-bark (2) 130 

Shredding cedar-bark 132 

Open-work basket 134 

Cedar-bark basket (1) ". 136 

Basket for viburnum-berries 138 

Basket for wild carrots '139 

Cedar-bark basket (2) 139 

Huckleberry-basket 140 

Box for picking salmou-berries 140 

Tump-line 141 

Back-protector 142 

Belt 143 

Implement for peeling cedar-bark 143 

Spade 144 

Digging-stick for clover 146 

Digging-stick for roots 149 

Digging-stick for cryptochiton 150 

Hook for devil-fish (1) 151 

Hook for devil-fish (2) 152 

Spear for sea-eggs 154 

Hook for picking elderberries 155 

Pole for gathering eel-grass 155 

Flounder-spear 157 

Fishing-tackle for flounders 157 

75052—21—35 eth— pt 1 4 49 



50 TABLE OF CONTENTS Ieth. ANN. 33 

I'age 

Fish-trap for perch 159 

Net for sea-eggs 1G3 

Staging for drying roots 160 

Frame for drying berries 107 

Rack for holding baskets 171 

II. Hunting, Fishing, and Food-Gathering 

Goat-hunting ] 73 

Sealing 174 

Catching flounders 178 

Fishing kelp-fish 181 

Mshing perch 183 

Gathering herring-spawn 184 

Catching devil-fish 185 

Gathering seaweed 185 

Digging clover 186 

Digging cinquef oil-roots 188 

Digging sea-milkwort 194 

Digging bracken-root 195 

Digging fern-root 195 

Gathering fern-roots 190 

Digging erythronium 197 ' 

Digging lupine-roots 198 

Digging carrots 200 

Digging lily-bulbs 201 

Picking elderberries 204 

Picking salal-berries 205 

Picking currants 208 

Picking huckleberries 209 

Picking s.ilmon-berries 211 

Picking crabapples 213 

Picking viburnum-berries 216 

Picking chokecherries 218 

Picking dogwood-berries 220 

Picking gooseberries 221 

III. Preservation of Food 

Cutting dog-salmon 223 

Roasted old salmon 223 

Middle piece of salmon 225 

Backbones of salmon 226 

Split salmon 227 

Fresh roasted backbone 229 

Pectoral fins of dog-salmon 230 

Dog-salmon cheeks 231 

Roasted dog-salmon heads 234 

Dog-salmon spawn (1) 235 

Dog-salmon spawn (2) 235 

Quarter-dried salmon 236 

Spawn of silver-salmon 237 

Sockeyesalmon 238 

Old sockeye-salmon 239 

Roasted silver-salmon 241 



BOAS] TABLE OF CONTENTS 51 

Page 

Halibut 241 

Dried codfish 253 

Herring-spawn 254 

Preserving roots 255 

Elderberries 255 

Salal-berries 264 

Salal-berries and elderberries mixed 269 

Currants 275 

Viburnum-berries 281 

Crabapples 286 

Qotlxole 290 

Qotlxole mixed with oil 291 

Curing seaweed ( 1 ) 292 

Curing seaweed (2) 295 

Boiled huckleberries 296 

Viburnum-berries with oil 300 

The first dog-salmon of the season 302 

IV. Recipes 

Roasted salmon -. , 305 

Blistered salmon 308 

Scorched salmon 309 

Preserved brittle salmon 310 

Cold roasted-salmon 312 

Old salmon, roasted 313 

Boiled salmon 313 

Old dried salmon 315 

Fresh dried salmon 316 

Green salmon 316 

Soaked green salmon (1) 318 

Soaked green salmon (2) 319 

Salmon preserved in cellars 322 

Middle part of salmon , cold or boiled 323 

SpUt-backs 325 

Soaked backbones, boiled or blistered 325 

Fins and tails 327 

Salmon-cheeks 329 

Fresh salmon-heads 331 

Preserved salmon-heads 332 

Steamed salmon-heads 334 

Boiled salmon-heads 336 

Mush of boiled salmon-heads 338 

Milky salmon-spawn 339 

Salmon-spawn with salmon- berry sprouts 342 

Sticky salmon-spawn 343 

Roasted salmon-spawn 344 

Boiled spawn of silver-salmon 345 

Sockeye-salmon 346 

Silver-salmon 348 

Sun-dried salmon (Gwasila) 350 

Boiled silver-salmon 353 

Boiled salmon-guts 355 

Fresh halibut-heads and backbone 357 

Halibut-tips 359 



52 TABLE OF CONTENTS [eth. ann. 35 

Page 

Dried halibut 360 

Halibut-skin and meat 361 

Blistered half-dried halibut 363 

Boiled dried halibut 361 

Scorched halibut-skin 365 

Poked halibut-skin 3G7 

Boiled halibut-edges 368 

Roasted halibut-edges 370 

Dried halibut-head 371 

Dried halibut-stomach, boiled and soaked 373 

Soaked dried halibut-fins 375 

Halibut-spawn 377 

Middle piece of halibut 378 

Fresh codfish (1) 379 

Fresh codfish (2) 382 

Tainted codfish 386 

Codfish-head 388 

■Roasted codfish 390 

Another kind of roasted codfish 391 

Eed cod , 392 

Black cod 392 

Kelp-fish (1) 393 

Kelp-fish (2) 397 

Kelp- fish (3) 400 

Broiled dried kelp-fish 402 

Split kelp-fish 403 

Boiled kelp-fish gills and stomachs 405 

Roasted kelp-fish 408 

Perch 410 

Roasted perch 413 

Flounder 413 

Flounder eaten with spoons 417 

Steamed flounder 418 

Fresh herring-spawn on cedar-branches 422 

Soaked herring-spawn 422 

Half-soaked herring-spawn 424 

Eating herring-spawn 425 

Herring-spawn with kelp 426 

Herring-spawn with salmon-berry shoots 428 

Mountain-goat butchering 428 

Stomach-fat of mountain-goat 432 

Mountain-goat brisket 436 

Steamed mountain-goat meat 439 

Cooking mountain-goat meat 441 

Roasted mountain-goat meat 443 

Mountain-goat skin 443 

Boiled mountain-goat meat 445 

Porpoise ^'**' 

Seal butchering 451 

Steamed seal-meat 461 

Seal-head 462 

Whale 464 

Boiled whale-tail 468 



BOAS] TABLE OF CONTENTS 53 

Page 

Boiled devil-fish 470 

Scorched devil-fish 472 

Devil-fish with oil 473 

Steamed devil-fish 474 

Boiled sea-slugs 475 

Roasted sea-slugs 479 

Baked sea-slugs 480 

Roasted chiton 480 

Boiled chiton 483 

Large chiton 484 

Baked large chiton 486 

Boiled large chiton 487 

Raw and roasted sea-eggs 488 

Boiled sea eggs 491 

Raw sea-eggs 493 

Flat sea-eggs 494 

Picking flat sea-eggs off the rock at low water 496 

Blue sea-eggs 498 

Barnacles 499 

Another way of preparing barnacles 504 

Cry ptochiton 506 

Baked cryptochiton 508 

Winkles 509 

Eel-grass 510 

Seaweed 514 

Powdered seaweed 515 

Salmon-spawn with seaweed 516 

Clams with seaweed 516 

Fern-root (1) 517 

Eating fern-roots 523 

Fern-root (2) 524 

Fern-root (3) 526 

Cooking clover 527 

Another way of cooking clover 531 

Baked clover-root : . . 533 

Raw clover-root 534 

Cinquefoil 535 

Erythronium 544 

Boiled erythronium 547 

Raw and baked erythronium 548 

Boiled lupine-roots 550 

Steamed lupine-roots 552 

Carrots -■ ~- 553 

Sea-milkwort 557 

Lily 560 

Boiled lily-bulbs 563 

Elderberry cakes 564 

Unripe elderberries ; 567 

Salal-berry cakes 569 

Raw salal-berries 571 

Cakes of currants 572 

Raw currants 575 

Mashed currants and salal-berries 577 



54 TABLE OF CONTENTS (eth. ann.35 

Page 

Huckleberries 580 

Mashed huckleberries 581 

Cleaning huckleberries 582 

Viburnum-berries with water and oil 583 

Ripe sucked viburnum-berries 585 

Steamed viburnum-berries 586 

Brittle crabappleS 593 

Crabapples and oil 594 

Mashed steamed crabapples 594 

Salal-berries and crabapples 594 

Bunch-berries 596 

Gooseberries 597 

Currants 601 

Solomon's sjal 601 

V. Beliefs and Customs 

Signs 603 

Body feelings as signs 603 

Cries of the Raven 606 

Eating 607 

Picking huckleberries 607 

Customs relating to sealing 607 

Customs relating to porpoise-hunting 608 

Customs relating to salmon-iishing: 

Dog-salmon 609 

Silver-sal mon 610 

Sockeye-salmon 612 

Customs relating to fish traps 613 

Customs relating to sea-eggs 614 

Beliefs relating to the devil-fash 614 

Customs relating to canoe-building 615 

Customs relating to fern-roots 616 

Customs relating to currants 616 

Customs relating to cedar-bark 616 

Customs rslating to the felling of trees 617 

Prayers 619 

Prayer to young cedar 619 

Weather charms 620 

Hunting taboos 637 

Means of having children 644 

Birth 649 

Treatment of infants: 

Washing the new-born child ^ 656 

Forming the head of the child 657 

Oradling the child 658 

Treatment of the infant 666 

Twins 673 

Cauterizing 694 

Cripples 696 

Navel-string 697 

Maturity 699 

The sweat-bath 702 

Death 705 



BOAS] TABLE OF CONTENTS 55 



The ghost country 710 

The soil of man 713 

Shamanism 728 

K' lalmodelanaga 733 

Tlie initiation of one of the Tslots'.ena of the AwaSilEla 742 

VI. Social Customs 

Customs relating to eating 750 

Distribution of porpoise 750 

Distribution of seal 750 

Feast of currants •• 751 

Huckleberry feast 754 

Viburnum-berry feast 755 

Salmon-berry feast 760 

Crabapple feast 762 

Feast of salal-berries and crabapples mixed 768 

Feast of qotlxole 775 

Social position and marriage laws 776 

Chief's daughter 776 

Chieftainess 779 

Endogamy 781 

Marrying outside of one's tribe 782 

The eagles 784 

Names and crests of the Maamtag"ila 785 

Names 786 

Speeches delivered in feasts 788 

Swear-words 793 

Index I 



I. INDUSTRIES • 

The Making of Dishes. — The dish-maker takes | along his ax 1 
when he goes into the woods. When he | reaches a patch of alder- 
trees, he picks out a good one | that has no knots and that is not 
twisted, for he is || careful that it is straight when it is split ui 5 
two. After he has found | a good one, he chops it dowai. It must 
be six spans | aroimd at the bottom. When it falls down, he chops 
oflf I one fathom length from the tough part at the butt, | and he 
measures off four spans in length and || chops it off there. After it 10 
has been cut off, he splits it in two | straight through the heart of 
the wood. After it has been split in two, he chops off | the heart of 
the wood, so that the block is one span thick. | He chops it off 
carefully, so that it is level and that it has no twist, | for the heart 
of the tree wiU be the bottom of the dish. Wlien this is done, || he 15 
chops out the sides so that they are wide in the middle. The dish 
is one span wide | at each end, and it is one span and four | fingers 
wide in the middle, for it bulges out. | The bottom part of the end 
is one short span long, | and the height is one hand-width, || including 20 
the thumb. | The bottom is one short span | wide and three spans 



The Making of Dishes (Loqwelaxa loq.'we). — Wa, hcEm daax"sa ^ 
loqwelaenoxw^axa loqlwes sobayowaxs lae laxa aL!e. Wa, gil- 
^mese lag'aa laxa LlasmadzEXEkiilaxs lae doq lux^idxa ek'etElaxa 
k!e§,se Llenaka. Wa, he^mesexs k'lesae kMtlpEla qa^s he^mae 
doqwasoseda naqlEqe lax kuxsEntsE^we. Wa, g-lPmese q!axa 5 
ek'axs lae soplioxodxa qlELlEplEnx'se^sta laxEns q!waq !wax'ts!a- 
na^yex, ylx wag'it!EXLaasas. Wa, g'll^mese tlax'^idExs lae tEm- 
k'odxa ^nEmp!Enk"e laxEns batax qa lawayes tlEmgiiltslEXLa^yas. 
Wa, la baHdxa moplsnk'as wasgEmas laxEns q!waq!wax"ts!ana- 
*yexs lae tErax"sEndEq. Wa, g'iPmese laxsExs lae kiixsEndEq 10 
naqlEqax domaqas. Wa, giPmese kiixsaakflxs lae sopalax 
domaqas qa ^nEmdEnes lawoyas hftyaqnxa domaqe. Wa, la 
aek"!a sop&,laq qa nEqEles. Wa, he^mis qa k'leses sElgwasnokwa 
qaxs he^mae awabEwesa loqlwes domaqe. Wa, g'JPmese gwalExs 
lae sosEbEnodzEndEq qa lexoyowes ylxs ^uEmdEnae wadzExg'iwa- 15 
sasa oba^yasa loqlwe. Wa, la modEnbaleda '^uEmplEnke laxEns 
q!waq!wax"ts!ana^yex yix ^wadzEgoyiiwasa laxes k-akilx^alaena^ye. 
Wii, la oxsg'iwa^yas ^uEmplEnk'osta laxEns ts!EX"ts!ana^yaxsEns 
q!waq!wax"ts!ana^yex. Wa, laEmxLa laxs ^wFlaEn q!waq!wax-ts!a- 
na^yex le^weus qomax ylx ^walagiikllasas. Wa, la ^uEmplEng-apa 20 
S,wabayasexEns ts!EX"ts!ana^yasEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yex jtx ^wa- 
dzEgabasas. Wa/^la modEn laxEos q!waq!waxts!ana^yes yix 

57 



58 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. as 

and I four finger widths long. | This is the size of the large feasting- 

25 dish when a feast is given to many tribes. || When the sides have been 
chopped, it is | in this way: 1.^-; ^ ; ~->Then he puts it right-side 

up and chops out the inside, [ ] Uo that it is hollow. | The 

bark is still on that ])artl<;;;;;;;;^^^j^^^^;3;;_:iJ that will be the inner side. 
Now he chops it off; and ] he only stops chopping it when it is two 

30 finger-widths || thick all around and at both ends. Then he carries 
it I home on his shoulder, and he puts it down in his house, | takes 
his adz, and adzes the bottom so that it is level. | When this is 
done, he adzes the outside. It | is adzed well. Then he also adzes 

3,5 the ends well || on the outside; and when this is done, he adzes along 
the sides | so as to make them thin. He just feels the thickness. | 
After this has been done, he takes his small crooked knife and | 
scoops out two grooves on the outer side. When this is done, he | 

40 takes spawn of the dog-salmon, chews it, and spits it into || his paint- 
dish. He takes coal and rubs it in | the place where is the salmon- 
spawn that has been spit out. When it is really | black, he takes his 
paint-))rush, dips tlie end of the | ^__^_-.^_^^_,,.^^-^^^ paint-brush 

into the black color, and paints all A^^--— ^^^ around [ 

the rim of the dish, in this waj': D When this 

45 is done, || he puts it away, so that it V^^T ■ '^^^' "^li'io^- Then 

it is done. | ^^-i>c^<:ri^:;^!^=='^-^ 

•_*3 mamoplEnk'Elayas laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex ytx ^wasgEmabasa. 
G'aEnixat! loqlusa ^walase kiwelasx.i q!eq!Egala k!wel lelqwala- 

"2.5 La^ya. Wa, gil^mese gwal sopalax ewanodza-yasexs lae g"a 
gwaleg-a (Jig.). 

Wa, la hang'aElsaq qa^s sobElEgindeq qa lobEg'ax'^ldes. LaEm 
axale XEklumas lax ogug'a^yas. Wa, he^me la s6p!ets6^se. Wa, 
al^mese gwat sobElEgiqexs lae maklEu laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yex 

30 yix wagwasas ha-stala LE^wis waxsbElExse. Wa, la wekilaqexs 
lae na^nak" laxes gokwe. Wa, la hangalllas laxes g'okwaxs lae 
ax^edxes kMIniLayowe qa^s k!iml-'Idcx awaba^yas qa nEqEles. 
Wa, giPmese gwalExs lae kMtml^idEx ewanodza^yas. Wa, laEm 
aekMaxs lae kMimLaq. Wit, lii aek!a kMimPidEx oxsg'iwa^yas 

35 laxa l lasadza^yas. Wa, giFmese gwalExs lae k' IlmLElEgEndEq 
qa pElsgEmx'^Ides. Wa, laEm a.Em plexwax wagwasas. Wii, 
giPmese gwalExs lae a.x^edxes ama^ye xElxwala kiwedaya qa^s 
k!wet!edexa malts !aqe lax oxsgiwa^yas. Wa, g-tl^mese gwalExs 
lae S,x^edxa ge^nasa gwaxnise qa^s malex^videq qa^s kwetslales 

40 laxes k'!at!aase. Wa, la ax^edxa dzEgute qa^s ytldzElts !ale lax 
la q!6ts!EWatsa kwesdEkwe ge^na. Wa, giPmese la alak'Iala la 
tsloltoxs lae ax^edxes habayowe. Wa, la hapstEnts oba^yasa 
habayowe laxa tsloitowe gElyaya qa^s kMatledes lax awi^stas 
Sgulaxta^yasa l6q!we g'a gwiileg'a (fig.). Wa, g-JPmese gwalExs 

45 lae gexaq qa lEmx^wides. Wii, laEm gwal laxeq. 



BOAS] INDUSTBIES 59 

This size of dish is used at a feast by six men. | If it is three 46 
spans I long, then two ' guests eat out of | one dish. It is used in 
lesser feasts. || The dish for a feast to the host's own numaym- 50 
is two spans and a half long. | It is used by three guests. | A 
dish two spans long | is used by husband and wife | and their chil- 
dren; and those that are one sj)an and four finger-widths || long are 55 
used for the chief's daughter | and tlic chief's son. Two (a man and | 
his friend) eat out of it too; | and the dish for a woman whose hus- 
band is away is | smallest. It is one span long. ] It is only for one 
person. || That is all now. | 60 

Dish for pounding Salal-Berries. — The husband \ of the woman 
first goes to get a good piece of cedar-wood without knots, three | 
spans long and | four spans || wide and one short span high. | He 65 
takes his ax and chops out | the inside, until it is hoUow and like 
a box. When | it gets thin, he takes his hand-adz, turns it bottom- 
side up, I and adzes it over finely at the bottom and the ends, || so '0 
that it does not slant; and after he has finished the outer side, | 
he puts it bottom downward and he adzes it inside, so that there are 

Wii, heEm q!EL!alas6sa k!wele bebEgwanEme ^wala^j^asa loqlwe. 46 
Wa, gll-mese yudux"p!Enk'e laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yexyix ^was- 
gEmgig'aasasa loqlwaxs lae maema^leda kiwele bebEgwauEmxa 
^naFuEmexLa ioqiwa. Wii, lasm la laxa gwasa^ye k!welasa. Wii, 
he^mis loq!usa k!welasaxes ^nE^memota babELalas ^wiisgEmgl- 50 
g'aase loqlwa. Wa, laEm yaeyQdoxulasosa kiwele bebEgwiinEma. 
Wii, he^misa malplEnk^e LaxEns q!wiiq!wax'ts!iina^yex yix ^wiisgEm- 
g'ig'aasasa loq!we. Wa, lasm helExstalilats !esa hayasEk^ala 
LE^wis sasEme. Wa, he^misa modEnbalaxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yex 
laxa ^nEmplEnk^as ^wiisgEmgig'aase helExstalil lalogiimsa k!edele 56 
Lo^ma LawElgEma^yasa g'igEma^ye. Wii, laEm maltaq LE^wis ^iie- 
mokwe. Wa, he^mis loq!usa tslEdaqaxs laasnokwaes la^wunEma 
ama^yinxa^yasa leloqiweda ^uEmplEnk^as ^wiisgEmg ig^aase liixEns 
q!waq!waxts!iina'yex. Wii, laEm helExstallltsa ^uEmokwe. Wa, 
aEm ^wi^la laxeq . 60 

Dish for pounding Salal-Berries. — Wa, heEm gJl ax^etso^s hl^wunE- 
masa ts!Edaqa ek'e klwaxLawaxa k' lease LlEuaka. Wii, lii yQdux"- 
plEok' laxEns q!waq!wax"ts!ana^yex ylx ^wasgEmasas. Wa, la 
modEnbaleda ^nEmp!Enke liixEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yex yix 
wiidzEwasas. Wa, la ts!EX"ts!iina^ye ^wiilasgEmasas liixEns q!wa- 65 
^q!waxts!ana^yex. Wii, la ax^edxes sobayowe qa^s sople.dex 
6ts!aLas qa^s lopts!odeq qa yuwes gwex'sa gildase. Wii, g1l- 
^mese la pElsgEnrxs lae lix'edxes k!imLayuw8. Wa, lii qEp!Elsa- 
qexs lae aek^la k' limLEltsEmdEq LE^wis awaba^ye LE^wis oba^ye 
qa k' leses senoqwa. Wa, giPmese gwiilxa osgEma^yaxs lae 70 
hangaElsaq qa^s k' liniLElEg indeq qa k- leases tEnx'tsIas. Wa, 

1 Evidently a mistake, instead of four. 

' A numiym is one of the subdivisions of the tribe. See pp. 795 et seq. 



60 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [bth. ann. 35 

72 uo lumps. I After he has finished this, he takes his straight knife 
and I his bent knife, and he cuts all around the corners with the 
straight knife, | around the inside of what he is working at; and 

75 after he has done so, || lie takes his crooked knife and shaves out the 
inside until it is very | smooth. This is the box for pounding salal- 
berries, and it is | just like a box after it is finished. Now the box 
for pounding salal-berries is finished, | for it is called that way. | 
1 The Making of Boxes. — Now 1 will talk again | about her husband, 
who has to make a box for the lily-bulbs. | 

He takes his wedge-basket, | his stone hammer, and his ax, and 
5 he goes to a || patch of cedar-trees in the woods, looking for a good 
tree, | the bark of which runs straight up and down, without a twist. 
When 1 he finds one of this kind, he chops the cedar-tree | down 
on the side on which the branches are, so that it falls on its back | 
when it falls. When he passes the heart of the tree while chopping, 

10 he goes around || and chops the smooth side; and when it falls, it 
goes down on the side where it has been chopped in | deeply, and 
falls on its back. Now the cedar-tree lies on its back; | and the 
smooth side, which is the best side, is on top. He chops it off two | 
fathoms from the foot of the tree; and when | he has chopped down 

15 to the heart of it, he measures || eight spans, beginning at the place 



72 glPmese gwalExs lae S,x^edxes nEXX'ala kMawayowa LE^wis 
xElxwala k"!awayowa. Wa, la xQtse^stalasa UExx^ala k'lawayo 
lax ewanux"ts!awases eaxElasE^we. Wa, g^tl^mese gwalExs lae 

75 §,x^edxes xElxwala k'lawayowa qa^s xElxulEgindes laq qa alak'la- 
les qese oguga^yasa lEg'atsIaxa nEklule. Wa, la yuEm la 
gwex'sa g'ildasaxs lae gwilla. Wa, laEm gwala lEg'atsIaxa nEk Id- 
le qaxs he^mae LegEmse. 
1 The Making of Boxes. — Wa, la^mesEu edzaqwal gwagwex'sx'^IdEl 
lax la^wunEmas yixs lae xEselax'^id x'okumatsIeLe xaxExadzEma. 
Wa, heEm Sx^etsoses q!waats!ases lEt !EX"sE^yase LEmJEmg'a^ya. 
Wa, he^mises pElpElqe LE^wis sobayowe. Wa, la qas^Ida qa^s la 
5 laxa wilg'lxEkula laxa aLle alax ek'etElasa welkwe. Wa, he^misa 
uEqEmg^ustawas tslageg'a^yexa kMese kMilplEiia^ya. Wa, g-il- 
^mese qlaxa he gwex'se, lae hex'^idaEm soplExSdEq gwekMotlE- 
xawa^yes sop lExotsE^we laxa L!Enx'k!5t!Ena^yas qa tiexilses 
qo tlax'^idi.o. Wa, g'il^mese lak'lodile sobela^yas lae lak!ot!Exoda 

10 qa^s s6pk'!aedzEndeq. Wa, la gwagwaaqaxs lae tlax'^id laxa wun- 
qElas sobele laxa Swlga^yas. Wa, la^me tlek'lEsa welkwe. Wa, 
laEm ek' !Ek- !aesala yixa wilEmas. Wa, la tEmx^wIdxa mal- 
plEnk'e laxEns bai.ax g'ag'iLEla laxa oxLa^yas. Wa, giPmese 
lalaqe tEmkwa^yas lax domaqasexs lae bal^itses qlwaqlwax^tsla- 

15 na^ye qa malgiinalplEokes ^wasgEmasas g'aglLEla lax tEmkwa- 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 61 

where he | chopped into it; and when he has chopped down to | the 16 
heart of the tree, he chops off more chips, in order to | spread it 
wider for the wedges to be put ia. When | the wedges can he on 
the sloping chopped side, he drives them in in this way: The first 

/ — <5^ ~ti_^^' — T\ one II that he drives m is the longest one of 20 

V L/ the board wedges at | the far side from where 

he stands.' He takes the next shorter one | next to it and drives 
it in close to the one that he has driven in, and | he takes the 
next shorter one and drives it in | close to the one that he drove 
before; and || the seven wedges are one shorter than the other as 25 
they are driven into the end of the tree; and the one nearest j 
to the workman is the shortest wedge. Then he | strikes the top 
of each once while he is striking them with his stone hammer, | and 
he strikes them backward and forward. | As soon as the wood 
splits, he pries it off so that it falls on its back, and he marks || 
on the end the thickness of two fingers. Then | he takes his ax 30 
and drives it in on the mark that he put on the wood, j After 
he has done so, he again takes up his wedges and | puts them 
in as he did before when splitting out the block. | He continues 
doing this as he keeps on splitting them off. Only || the first (board) 35 
that he spUts off is thick. The next one is only one | finger-width 
thick I if the cedar is very good, for generally the first one split off 



^yasexs lae tEmx^wIdEq. Wa, g'il^mese lalaqe tEmkwa^yas lax 16 
domaqas lae sag'illlaxes tEmkwa^ye qa qwesg'Iles sa5stowa qaxs 
LEmgasilae qaes LEmlEmgayowe. Wa, g'lPmese helak'lale LEm- 
lEmg'ayas la dex^widayo laxa g'a gwaleg'a (jig.) lae he g"il 
degwilbEodayowa glltlEg'a^yases latlayowe LEmg'ayowa lax 20 
qwesotlEna^yases Laxwalaase. Wa, la a,x^edxa ts !ats lakwalaga- 
wa^ye qa^s dex^waLElodes laxa mak'ahi laxa la degwilba^ya. Wa, 
laxae ax^edxa ts !ats lakwalagawa^yas qa^s dex^waLElodes laxa 
makalaxat! laxa la dedegwilba^ya. Wa, la^me ts lEgu^naktileda 
a,LEb6ts!aqe LEmlEmg'ayoxs lae dedegwilba^ya. HeEm makala 25 
laxa latlaenoxweda tslEklwaga^yasa LEmlEmgayowas. Wa, la 
^nal'nEmp lEnxtodalases pElpElqaxs lae pElgEtE^weses pElpElqe 
laxa LEmlEmg'kyowe. Asm aedaaqi^alaxs pElgEtayaaq. Wa, 
g'lPmese xox^widExs lae k!wet!edEq qa nELaxes. Wa, la xiildEl- 
bEndxa maldEnas wagwase laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex. Wa, la 30 
S.x^edxes sobayowe qa^s maelbEndes uEgElEnexa la xuIdEkwa. 
Wa, gll^mese gwalEXs lae et!ed ax^edxes LEmlEmgayowe. Wa, 
hcEmxaawise gwale gwalaasdasexs laxde latlodxa tEmgikwe. 
Wa, ax'sa^mese he gweg'ilaxa la hanal lat.'aso^s. Wa, laLa 
^nEm^Em w^kweda g'aloyas qaxs fi.^mae la ^naPnEmdEn laxEns 35 
q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex yix wagwasasa la memaklla iatlalayos 
ytxs Lomae ek'a welkwe qaxs hemEnala'mae peLax^wideda gale 

' See Publications of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. V, p. 328, fig. 54. The figure shows the 
order of the wedges. The split is placed vertically, not horizontally as described here. 



62 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etu. ann.36 

38 runs outward: | therefore the first one that is split off is thick. | 
As soon as it has been spht, he carries the boards out as he is going 

40 home; || and when he has carried them all out, he takes his adz | 
and adzes them smooth. When he has finished | one side, he turns 
them over and adzes the other side also; so that they all have the 
same | thickness. When they are half a finger-width thick, | they 

45 are done, and he put,s them on edge. Then he adzes down || one 
edge to make it straight ; and after that has been done, he puts them 
down flat, | takes a piece of cedar-stick and splits it so that it is 
thin, and | he takes his straight knife and cuts off the end so that | it 
is square at the end. He measures one span | and a short span, 

50 beginning at the end that he cut off, || and there he cuts it off. He 
uses this as a measure for the width | of the bo.x that he is making. 
He puts it down and takes his | straight knife, and again puts on 
edge the board out of which | he is making the box. Then he shaves 
off the edge smooth, so that it is very | straight and smooth; and 

55 when it is really || straight, he puts it down flat. Then he takes his | 
cedar-stick measure and puts it down on one end of the box | that 
he is makmg. The end of the measure is flush with the | straight 
edge that he has shaved off. He marks with his knife | the other end 

38 latodayowa. Wa, he^mis lagilas wakwa g'ale latoyos. Wa, 
giPmese wIweIxsexs lae yilx^ult lalaqexs lae na^nak" laxes gokwe. 

40 Wa, giPmese ^wlloltlaxs lae hex'^ldaEm ax^edxes k!imLayowe 
qa^s k' limLEldzodeq qa nenEmadzowes. Wa, giPmese gwala 
S.psadzE^yaxs lae lex'^idEq qa^s k' !ImLEldz6dexaaq qa 'nEmokwes 
w§,gwasas. Wa, gtPmese la klodEne wagwasas laxEns q!wa- 
q!waxts!ana^yex lae gwala. Wa, lii k'!ot!Elsaq qa^s klEnil^idex 

45 apsEnxa^yas qa nEqEles. Wa, g iPmese gwalEXs lae paxElsaq 
qa^s ax^edexa kIwaXLawe qa^s xoxVideq qa wilEnes. Wa, la 
S,x^edxes oExx'ala k'lawayowa qa^s k!tmt6dex oba^yas qa 
^nEmabes 5ba^yas. Wa, la bal-itses q!waq!waxts!ana^yaxa ^nEm- 
plEnk'e he^mesa ts!Ex"ts!ana^ye gag'iLEla laxa k" limtba^yasexs 

50 lae kMlmtodEq. Wa, laEm mEnyayonox"LEs qa.^wadzE^wasLEses 
WElasE^weda xEselasE^was. Wa, la katlElsaq qa^s ax^edexes 
uExx'ala klawayowa. Wa, laxae et!ed k^ !6t lElsaxes WElasE- 
^weda xEselasE^was. Wa, aek!a klax^widxa awEnxa^ye qa ala- 
klales la uEqEla. Wa, he^mes qa qeses. Wa, gIFmese la ala- 

55 k!ala la nEqElaxs lae .xwelaqa paxElsaq. Wa, la S,x^edxes k!wax- 
Lawe mEnyayowa qa^s k^adEdzodes lax apsba^yases wulasE^weda 
XEselasE^was. Wa, hiEui ^uEmabale mEnyayas LE^'wa UEqEnxa- 
^yas ylx lax^de k"!axwas6s. Wa, la xiiltletses klawayowe lax 
^walalaasas oba^yas mEnyayfi,s. Wa, la laxa Spsba'^ye. Wa, 



iicAsl INDUSTRIES 63 

to which the measure reaches, and he goes to the other end of the 
board || and does the same thing there, in this way: I J J. 60 



(1) is the measure at the one end, and (2) when 4__ 
he moves it to the other end; and | he marks it ' ^ — 

with his knife at (3), as he did before, and at (4); and | after he 
finishes measuring it, he takes his hand-adz and | adzes off (5). 
Now he splits it off, so that the width is greater than || the height 65 
of the box which he is going to make ; and he takes | the piece that 
he has spht off from the edge of the box that he is making, and 
shaves | one edge off with his knife so that it is straight; and when 
it is quite | straight, he places it on one end of (3), and he places 
the I straight-edge on the mark that he has put on, and he also 
puts it II at the other end of the mark that he made at (4), and 70 
he marks with his straight | knife along the straight-edge. As soon 
as I the mark that he makes is plain, he takes off the straight- 
edge and puts it away, and | he takes his hand-adz and adzes 
down toward the mark that he put on, | as far as its end. As soon 
as he finishes adzing it, and when || he comes close to the mark that 75 
he has put on, he puts down his adz and | he takes his straight 
knife and shaves it. | He shaves it off smooth and straight. | After 
he has finished it, he shaves off the other end, so that all the | chop- 
ping-marks come off; and when the rough end has been finished, || 
he takes up his straight-edge and another piece of thin spht cedar- go 



heEmxaawise gwex'^idEq g'a gwaleg"a {fig.). Wa, heEm mEn- go 
yayose (1) laxa apsba^ye. Wa, he^mis (2) ylxs labEnd laq qa^s 
xult!e.deses k'liiwayowe lax (3) laxes gwex'^idaasax (4). Wa, 
gIPmese gwal niEnsaqexs lae Sx^edxes k' !imi.ayowe qa^s k" !im- 
Lodex (5). Wii, laEm xowEyodEq qaxs Swlla^mae ^wadzogawa^ye 
wulasEHvas lax ^walasgEmasLasa xEtsEmLe. Wa, la ftx^edxes 65 
xowEyowe lax 3,WEnxa^yases willasE^we qa^s k' lax^wideses k'!a- 
wayowe lax &psEnxa^yas qa iiEqEles. Wa, gil^mese la fi,lak"!ala 
la uEqElaxs la k'adEdzots 3,psba^yas lax (3). Wa, laEm uex- 
sta^ye nEgEnosElas lax xulta^yas. Wa, laxae kadsdzotsa 
apsba^yas lax xQlta^yas lax (4). Wa, la xultletses nExx'ala 70 
k'lawayowe lax awEnxa^yasa nEgEnose. Wa, glPmese la 
awElx"se xulta^yasexs lae axodxes nEgEnose qa^s lii g'exaq. Wa, 
la ax^edxes k'liniLayowe qa^s klimLale lalak' lEnaxes xiilta^ye 
hebEndalax oba^yas. Wa, glFmese gwal klimLalaq ytxs lae 
ex-ak" lEndxes xulta^yaxs lae g'lg-alilaxes kMiniLayowe. Wa, la 75 
Sx^edxes nEXxala k'lawayowa qa^s kMax^wideq. Wa, laEm 
aek'Iaxs lae k'laxwaq qa uEqEles; wa, he^mis qa qeses. Wa, 
giPmese gwalExs lae k'!ax^wIdEx Spsba^yas qa lawayes sopa- 
^yasxa le^noqwa. Wa, g-iPmese ^iHawa lenoxba^yasexs lae et!ed 
ax^edxes nEgEnose LE^wa ogii^lamaxat ! xok" wI^En k!waxxS,wa. so 



64 ETHKOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 38 

81 wood, 1 and lie cuts off the end of the cedar-stick that he took up last. | 
He measures it off three spans long. | There he cuts it off, and with 
it he measures the board | at which ho is working, in this way, 

85 slanting : As soon || as he finds the end of the measure, 



he marks v^^ it | in the middle of the board with his knife, 



and he 1 measures it with his cedar-stick, in this way: 



He is trying 
he has found 
his 1 knife in 



to find the middle; | and as soon as 
the middle of the board, he marks it with 
the middle, and he takes a cedar-stick 



90 and || he cuts off again one finger-width. | Then he takes his drill and 
drills through the end. As | soon as the drill-hole goes through, he 
puts it on the board out of which he is making a box. ] He tries to 
put the end of the drill as the end shows at the 1 under side of the 

95 cedar-stick measure at the mark in the middle of || the board at 
which he is working, in this way: i 1 As soon as | the 



end of the drill goes in a little 1 1 1 at the middle of 

the board at which he is working, he bevels ] the other end of the 
measure, and he marks along it at the end of the beveled meas- 
ure, I on the edge of the board at which he is working; and he 
100 turns || the free end which has been beveled so that it goes to the 
other edge, and | he marks its end. After he has done so, he takes 
off I his beveled measure and he takes his straight-edge and | puts 

81 Wa, la k'ltmtbEndxa alagawa^ye Sx^etsos klwaxxawa. Wa, la 
brd^idxa yudux"p!Enk'e IfixEns qlwaqlwax'tslana^yox laxa xokwe 
kIwaxLawaxs lae kltmttslEndEq. Wii, la mEns^IdEs laxa wtilasE- 
^was g"a gwiilega {jig.). Wii, laEm senoqwfda. Wil, g'lFmese 

85 q!iix ^wfdagilasas oba^yasa mEnyayaxs lai" xQlt!etsC'S k'lfiwa- 
yowe lilx UEgEdza^yases wulasE^wO xEselasE^wa. Wii, lii mEn- 
s^Ttsa klwaxLilwe g^a gwalOga (fig-). Wii, laEm q!aq!aax UEgEdziVyas 
(1). Wii, g'lPmC^se q!iixa nEgEdza^yasexs laO xultlctses kMawa- 
yowe laxa nEgEdza^yas. Wii, lii ax^tfdxa klwaxLuwa qa^s 

90 et!ed(" kitmtodxa ^UEmdEno lax dba^yas laxEus qlwaqlwax'tsla- 
na^yox. Wii, lii ax^edxr-s sElsme qa^s sElxsodex Oba^yas. Wii, 
g'iPmese laxs;iwe sEla^yas lae k'adEdzOts Ifixes wulasE^wo XEse- 
lasE^wa. Wa, laEm nanaxstE^was Oba^yasa sEJEmax nf'lbalae lax 
bEnadzE^yasa mEnyayowi^ klwaXLfiwa laxa xiilta^yi' lax nEgEdzit- 

95 ^yas wulasE^was XEsrdasE^wa g'a gwiilega {fig.). Wii, g'tPmosf" 
uExstodEq lai"' xaLlEx^^d sEbc'^Ida qa xaLlEbEtes Oba^yas sElsmas 
lax uEgEdza^yasrs wiilasE^we xEsfdasE^wa. Wa, lii senogudzots 
^psba^yas qa^s xultlr^dex wiilg'ilasas oba^yasa senOgudza^ye mEn- 
yayo hlx SpsEnxa^yases WElasE^we. Wii, laxaO mElbax'^idBq 
100 qa^s sOnogudzodf'S qa^s gwebax'^idOs laxa SpsEnxa^ye. Wii, laxae 
xultledEX wQlgTlasas oba^yas. Wii, giPmr-so gwalExs lae ax^aLE- 
Iddxes S("nogwayowr' mEnyayowa. Wii, lii 2-x^edxes UEgEnose qa^s 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 65 

it down on the thin mark on eacli | edge. He wants the measure 
to he II on the end of the beveled mark (1). | The straight edge of 5 
his measure is turned towards the rough end of | the board at which he 

is working, in this manner, ■ and he marks it with his 

straight knife. | Now he "^ takes off the straight-edge 

and he puts it down, and | '' he takes his straight knife 

and cuts along with it at || the mark, so that the end is smooth | and 10 
so tliat it does not slant. As soon as the rough end has been cut 
off, I he takes the cedar-stick and splits it so that it is thin and 
square. | It is another measure. He splits out two pieces, and he 
measures | them so that one of them is two spans long || where he 15 
cuts it off with his straight knife and puts it down. Then | he 
takes up one of the square split cedar-sticks and cuts off | one end 
of it square, and he measures it so that it is | one long span and 
one short span | long; and he cuts it off with his knife. || The cedar- 20 
stick two spans in length j is to be the measure for the long side 
of the box, and the measure for the short side | is one short span 
and one long span. First he takes | the shorter measure and puts 
it down on one edge of | the box that he is making, beginning at 
the place where he cut the edge smooth. || He puts down the 25 

k'adEdzodes lax WElba^yases xiilta^yo laxa apsEnxa^ye LE^wa awfln- 3 
xa^yasa apsEuxa^ye. Wa, la^me ^nex" qa ^uEmEnxfiles nEgEuosa 
uy oba^yasa senogudza-ye xiilta^ya lax (1). W:i, laxae guyinxa^ya 5 
uEgEundza^yas UEgEnosas liixa lenoxba^yas wulasE^was xEselasE- 
^wa. Wii, lag-agwalega (X^.). Wii, lii xult!etses nExxiila klfiwayowe 
laq. Wa, laEm ax'aLElodxes UEgEuose qa^s k'atlallleq. Wii, lii 
ax^edxes nExxala k'lawayowa qa^s xiildElEna^yes laxes UEqEla 
xultay^a. Wii, laEm xiiltaqexs lae xQltodEq qa qeses oba^yas. Wii 10 
he^mis qa k' leases senogwats. Wii, g^iPmese lawiiye lenoxba^yas lae 
ax-edxa k!waxLawe qa^s xox-'wideq qa wIlEnes k'lEWElx^una ogii- 
flaEmxae lax mEnyayas. Wii, lit malts !aqe xtVyas. Wii, lii bal-'itses 
q!waq!waxts!ana^ye qa malplEuk'es ^wiisgEmasasa ^nEmts!aqas lae 
k'!imtts!Entses nExx'iila k'!awayowe liiq. Wii, lii katlalllaq qa^s 15 
ax^edexa ^uEmtsIaqe xok'' k'lEWElx^Qu kIwaxLilwa qa^s klimtodex 
oba^yas qa ^uEmabes. Wit, laxae baHtses q!waq!waxts!ana^ye liiq 
qa ^UEmplEnk'es laxEUs gilt lax biii.a. Wii, hi'^misa ts !Ex"ts liina^ye 
esEg'iwa^yasexs lae k!imtotses k'liiwayowe liiq. Wii, heEm niEn- 
yayoltsexa gildolasLases wulasE^we xEselasE^wa malplEn^as ^was- 20 
gEmase klwaxxawa. Wii, he^mis mEnyayoltsexa tslEg'oliisa esEg'E- 
yowasa tslEX^tsIana-ye kIwaxLawa. Wii, hi'^mis g-il ax-'ets5^seyed? 
tslEkwagawa^ye mEuyayowa qa^s kadEdzodes lax apsEnxa^yases 
wiilasE^we g'iigiLEla laxa la aek'laak" xiitts laakwa. Wii, laEm ^he- 

7."i0r)2 — 21 — 35 ETH — PT 1 5 



'66 ETHNOLOG-Y or THE KWAKIUTL [eth. an.v. 35 

25 measure at the end of the board at which he is working in tliis 
way:] and he cuts in a httlc with his straight knife 



as far ^ us | the end of the cedar measure goes. After 



he has done so, | he takes off the measure and puts 

it down on the other edge, | in this way: p= and he marks 

30 the end with his knife. 11 After he has 



clone so, 



takes off the measure and puts it down. | He takes his straight- 
edge and hiys it down along | the ends of the measures, in this 



way : 
marivs 
that he 



After he has put down | the straight-edge at the 
he cuts ak)ng it witli liis | knife on the board 
is working. After doing so, he puts down || 



35 the straight-edge and he takes up the longer cedar-stick | measure 
and he puts it down on the edge of the board on wliich he is working. | 
He puts the end of his measure on the mark which he made | for the 
short end, in this manner, and he makes a small 



mark | at its end. After he has done so, he takes 



40 off the measure || for the long side and puts it 

down on the other edge, and he | does the same as he did before 
when he measured it. After | he has done so, he takes off the measure, 
puts it down, | takes his straight-edge, and puts it down along the 
marks. Now ] he turns the straight-edge along the two marks 

45 that he has made || on thC; board, in this way: , — , 1) Wheii 



the straight-edge is j on the marks on the | | board, 



25 



30 



mabaleda niEuyayowe lo-' oba^yasa wiilasE-'was g a gNvaleg'a (fg.). 
Wii, la xaLlEx^rd xiitletses nExxiila k"!awayowe lax ^walalaasas oba- 
^yasa mEuyayowe kIwaxLawa. Wii, giPmese gwalExs lae ax^aLE- 
lodxes niEuyayowe qa^s lii kadEdzots laxa apsEnxa'ye ga gwii- 
leg-a (Jig-)- Wii. laxae xultletses k!awayowe liix ^wiilalaasas oba^yas 
Wii, giPmese gwalExs lae ax^aLElodxes mEnyayowe qa^s k'atlall- 
leqexs lae ax^edxes nEgEuOse qa^s k'adEdzodes liix ^walalaasdiis 
oba^yasa mEnyayowe g-a gwiileg-a {jig.). Wii, gil-mese la UExstaye 
nEgEnodza^yas uEgEnosas lax xultaH'asexs lae xiildElEneses klji- 

• I wayowe laxcs wulasE-we. Wii. g il-mese gwalExs lae iix'aLElodxes 

or nEgEuose qa^s katlallleqexs lae ax-'edxa g iltagawa'j'e k!wiix'°En 
menyayowa qa^s k'adEdzodcs hxx awunxa^yases wulasE^we. Wii, 
hiEm ^uEmabale oba^yasa mEuyayowi^ LE^wa la xuklEk" qaeda ts.'E- 
g-olaLe, ga gwiilega {fg.). Wii, lii xaLlEx'Id xfiltledEx ^valag-i- 
lasas oba^yas. Wit, g'lPmese gwalExs lae ax^aLElodxes mEnyoyaxa 

An g'lltlola *^1'^^'^ kadEdzodes laxa apsEuxa^yas. Wii, laxae hi'Em 
gwex^idqes gwex'^idaasaxa gnix^Ide mEus^Itso^s. Wii, giPmese 
oAvalExs lae ax^aLElodxes mEnyayowe qa^s g'eg'allleqexs lae 
ax^edxes nEgEuose qa^s k'adEdzodes laxa lii xuIdEkwa. Wii, laEm 
irwenodza^'ya uEgEuOdza^yas laxa male xw(?xiUte liix wiix-sEnxa\yas 

45 wiilasE'was ga gwiileg-a (fg.). Wit, g-iPmese UEqEmstaya UEgEnOse 
lax xwexidtEiixa^yas wulasE-'wasexs lae xfildolEneq yfses UExxiila 



uoAsj INDUSTEIES 67 

ho cuts along it with his straight | knife. After doing so, he takes 47 
off his I straight-edge and puts it down. He takes the measure for ] 
the short side and puts it down on the edge of the board on which he 
is working, starting at tlie || mark wliicli he put on, and he puts a 50 
small mark at the end of | this measure. He takes off the measure 
for the short side and | puts it down on tlie otlier edge (of the board), 
and he does as | he did before. After he has marked it, he takes it 
off I and puts it down. Then he takes his straight-edge and puts it 
down II on the 
this manner: 



board at which he is working, in 55 
He takes his straight j knife and 
cuts close along the straight-edge, and | he takes it oft' after he 
has finished and puts it down. Then he takes | his measure for 
the long side and lays it down along the edge from j the place that 
he has marked, and he puts a small mark at its end. || Then he takes 60 
it off and puts it down on the other edge of the | board at which he 
is working, and he makes a small mark at its end. Then j he takes 
his measure, puts it down, and takes his | straight-edge and lays it 
on. As soon as the straight-edge has been placed | on the small 
marks, he takes his knife || and marks along it. After this has been 05 
done, he measures the | thickness (1) ' of the end by means of a 
split cedar-stick; and when he has found | the thickness, he lays it 

k'lawayowa laq. Wii, g'lPmese gwalExs lae ftx^aLElodxes UEgE- 47 
nose qa^s k-at!alileq. Wii, laxae et!ed ax^edxes mEnyayaxa ts.'E- 
gola qa^s kadEdzodes lax awunxa^yases wulasE^ve g-:igiLEla laxes 
xiiltexde. Wii, laxae xaLlEX'^Id xult!edEx Valalaasas oba^yas 50 
mEnyayas. Wit, laxae ax^aLElodxes mEnyayaxa ts!Eg'ola qa^s 
k'adEdzodes laxa apsEiixa^ye. Wii, laxae heEm gwex'^Idqes 
gwex^'idaasaxa g-ilxde. Wii, g-iPmese gwal xultaqexs lae ax^aLE- 
lodEq qa-s k'at!illiles. Wii, lit ax^edxes nEgEnose qa^s k'adEdzo- 
des laxes wulasE^we g'a gwiilega {fig-). Wii, laxae ax^edxes UExxiila 55 
klawayowa qa-'s xultledes laxa magilEna-yaxes UEgEnOse. Wii, 
lii ax^aLElodqexs lae gwala qa^s g-ig-alileq. Wii lii ax^edxes mEn- 
yayaxa g'lldola qa^s k'adEdzodes laxaaxa iiwunxa^ye giig'iLEla 
laxes xulta'ye. Wii, lii xaL!Ex'-Id xuItledEx 'walalaasas oba-'yas. 
Wii, lii ax^aLElodEq qa^s lii kadEdzots laxa ixpsEnxa^jases wula- 60 
sE^we. Wii, laxae xaLlEX'^Id xiilt!edEx Hvalalaasas oba^yas. Wii, 
lii ax^aLElodxes mEnyayowe qa^'s g'egallleq. Wii, lii ax^edxes ue- 
gEuose qa^s k'adEdzodes liiq. Wii, g'il^mese UEqEmstode nEgEnO- 
dza^yas laxa la xaLlaak" xuldEkwaxs lae ilx^edxes k'lawayowe 
qa^s xuldElEua^yeq. Wii, g'll^mese gwalExs lae niEns-'IdEx wa- 65 
gwasas (1) xa oba^ye yisa xokwe klwaxLawa. Wii, g'lPmese qlalax 
wagwasasexs lae k'adbsntsa kIwaxEne mEnyayo lax ^waxsEnxa^ya 

I See figure on p. 68. 



68 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ietii. ann. 35 

67 off at the end of the board with his cedar-stick measure on the two 
edges I (5), starting from the mark that he made between 4 and 5. | 

70 He marks each end with the straight knife, and, after || doing so, he 
takes off his measure, puts it down, takes ] his straight-edge, and lays 
it down l)etween (4) and (5); t.r.d \ when (he ttraif;ht-edge is on the 

marks, he marks ] it with his straight knife. ^ Then 

he cuts off the end so | that it i~ in this way: i s 3 i After 

75 he has done so, he takes his || straight knife and 

cuts straight into the cutting at (1) across the \\hole | width ot the 
board at which he is workiiig; and afler he has cut through half the | 
thiclviiess of the l)oard that is being ni.de, he cuts at (2). and | cuts it 
to the same depth as he cut the fu"-t. Then he cuts in at (3); and | 

80 after ho has cut half through tlu^ fhicknefs of the board, || he cuts at 
(4), and when he has cut half throujih he stops. | Then he goes back 
to (1 ). He takes his straight-edge and lays it on | the board at which 
he is working. He measures Ihe width of half a little | finger from the 
mark at (1) and marks it, and | he does the same at the other edge. 

85 After doing so, he takes his || straight-edge and lay:- it down on thef.c 

marks and cuts along on the ] right-hand side o" 

the first mark which he put on, in this way: i 234 and he 
also I marks on the right-hand side of (2) and on 

the right-hand side of | (3); and after doing so, he takes his straight- 
edge and 1 jjuts it down. Then he takes his whetstone and sharpens his || 

68 (5), g'ag'iLEla lax xulta^yas lax a^wagawa^yas (4) lo^ (5). Wii, 
lii xtilxiiltbEndEq yises UEXxiila k!awayowe laq. Wii, gipmese 

70 gwalExs lae ax^aLElodxes mEnyayowe qa^s g'ig'allleqexs lae ax^- 
edxes uEgEuose qa^s lit k'adEdznts lax awagawa^yas (4) uf (5). Wit, 
g-iPmese UEqEmstode nEgEnodza^yas lax xulta^yasexs lae xuldEiE- 
neses nExxiila klawayowe laq. Wii, laEm xiiltslEndEq qa lawsi- 
yes qa g'iis gwiilega {fig.). Wit, g iPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxes uex- 

75 X iila kliiwayowa qa-'s iiExbEtEude xfdt!edEx (1) labEndEX ^wadzE- 
wasases widasE^we. Wii, g'Jl^mese uEgoyode ^wiilabEdasas xulta- 
'yas lax wagwasasa wiilasE-wasexs lae et!ed xut!edEx (2). Wii, 
heEmxaawise ^walabEte xuta'yas laqexs lae et!ed xut!edEx (3). Wii, 
g il^Emxaawise uExsEnde xiita^yas lax wiigwasases wulasE^waxs lae 

go xut!edEX (4). Wii, giPmese nExsEude xuta^yas laqexs lae gwala. 
Wii, lii aedaaqa liix (1). Wii, laEm ax^edxes uEgEnose qa^s k'adE- 
dzodes laxes wulasE^we. Wii, lii mEns^idxa ^nsmdEne laxEns sEltla- 
x'ts!iina^yex g'iigiLEla hix xiita^yas (1). Wii, lii xult!edEq. Wii, la- 
xae hi'Em gwex'^Idxa apsba^yas. Wii, g"il-mese gwalExs lae ax^edxes 

85 nEgEUose qa^s kadEdzodes liixa la xiildEkwaxs lae xiiklElEneq lax 
hi'lk!6t!Ena-'yases gilxde xulta^ya, xa ga gwidega {fg.). Wii, laxae 
et!edxult!ed helk' !6t !Ena^yas (2). Wii, laxae xilltledEx helk-!ot!E- 
na^yas (3). Wii, g'lFmese gwiilExs lae ax^aLElodxes uEgEnosEla qa-s 
g-ig'ahleq. Wii, lii iix^edxes tIesEme t!eg'ayowa qa^s tlex'^ahibEn- 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 69 

straight knife so that it is very sharp. When the Iviiife is very ] 90 
sharp, he cuts into the last Hne that he puis on. | The laiife is held 
(with the hand) slanting | to the right; and when the cut reaches 
the bottom of the cut that has been made | straight down, a tri- 
angular piece comes off. || Then ho i-haves it out clean, so that the 95 
kerf is smooth. Now (1) | has been cut out. Then he does the 
same at (2) as he | did at (1); and after he has done so, he does it 
at (3), I and he does what he did at (2). After he has | done so, he 
splits off one-half the thickner.s of the board at (4) with his || knife, 2OO 
and then he splits it off. Now he shaves it off so that it is 
smooth and | very straight, so that the joint is smooth, for that 

is I the name of (4). As soon as he has finished, 

it is in this way : After | this has been done, he tiu'ns 

over the board at which he is working. He takes his | straight-edge 
and puts it on the board. Tlien he lays it on the back, || just over 5 

the _ ^ — -p groove that he cut at (1 ). When it is in this 

way, 12 3 4 I hen: arks straight over the groove along the 
side of this straight-edge. | He wants the board to be thin between 
the kerf ] and the mark on the back at (1); and he does the same | 
at (2) and (3). As soon as this is done, he takes his crooked || knife jg 
and sharpens it on the vrhetstone; and when | it is very sharp, he 

dexes nExx"ala k" lawayowa qa alak' !ales ex'ba. Wa, g'H^mese la ala- 90 
k- !ala la ex'be nExx^iila k' lawayasexs lae xOt ledxes ale xulta^ya. Wii, 
laEm olale 5xta^yas xiida^yiis k' lilwayowa gwagwaak ales oxtit^ye la- 
XEns hi'lk' !5tts !ana^ycx. Wii, g'tPmese laxLe xiitletsE^was laxa oxLa- 
^yasa UExbEta xutiis lae aEm k'atwultslowe xwatmotas. Wa, laEm 
aEm a(>k!axs lae k'lax^wIdEq qa qestowesa xuta^yas. Wii, hcEm (1) 95 
g ale xutletsos. Wii, lii etledEx (2). Wii, lii lieEinxat! gwex ^IdEq 
laxes gwex-^idaasax (1). Wii, g'iPmese gwalExs lae etledEx (8). 
Wii, lii heEmxat! gwex"^dEq laxes gwex'^Idaasax (2). Wii, gil- 
^mese gwalExs lae naqlEgBudalax wagwasas (4) yises xiidiiyowe 
k'lawayowaxs lae paklodEq. Wii, laEm aek"!axs lae k'laxwaq qa 200 
iilak!ales iiEqela. Wii, he^niis qa qesesa sakoda-ye qaxs ht'^mae 
LegEms (4). Wii, giFmese gwalExs lae g'a gwiilega (fig.). Wii, gil- 
^mgse gwalExs lae lex^ElTtaxes wttlasE^we. Wii, la ax^edxes UEgE- 
nose c[a^s k'adEdzodes laxes wiilasE^we. Wii, la k'adeg-fnts lax 
nExsawasa la xudEltslEwakwa lax (1). Wii, g iPmese la g'a gwiliega 5 
(fig.) \a, UExsiisa xtidElts lEwakwaxs lae xaLlEX'^Jd xiildElEnexes ue- 
gEUOjEla. Wii, a-mese gwanala qa pElbidaHvesa awiigawa^yasa xudEl- 
tslEwakwe LE-wa xildeka^ye lax (1). Wii, lii hi'Emxat! gwex'^I- 
dEx (2) l6^ (3). Wii, g il^mese gwalExs lae ax^edxes xElxwala 
k- lawayowa qa^'s t!ex-^ideq hlxes t!eg-ayowe tIesEme. Wii, g'll- 
^inese illak'Iiila la ('xbaxs lae xElxuldzodEX modEue laxEns q!wa ^^ 



70 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ietii. axn. 35 

12 shaves off four finger- | widths on the upper side of the cut that ho has 
just made. It is two | finger-widths that he shaves off on each | 
side of the mark that he put on, in this way: — ^^ < -3: x i ^^ 

15 soon as the back || at (1), (2), and (3.) has " ^ been 

hollowed out, and | they have all the ?ame thickness, he stops shav- 
ing it off. Then he | takes well-splitting red-pine wood and splits 
it I like tongs. The pieces arc; four | spans long and three finger- || 

20 widths thick. They are split out square. There are | two pieces. 
Then he puts them down p | on the board at whicli 

so I that the ends of 
equally on both sides 



he is working, in this way: 
theboard-protoct or project 



of the 1 board. As soon as the board is in the center of the 
board-protector, he marks | -the edges of the board at which he is 

25 working. After doing so, || he takes off the l)oard-protector. He 
takes his straight | knife and cuts out a notch at the place where 
he made a mark for | both edges of the board. Then he adds to it 
one I finger-width, so that it is a little longer than the width of the 
plank, I and he sliaves the wood out between the two marks, so that 

30 the part removed is half the I thickness of the plank at which he is 
working, and he puts it down. Then lie takes up the other piece, and 
he I measures it by the part that he has finished 

and he imitates what he has done [— gniirt ^ 

Acj onriTi I a« it ic; floiif" it, \:^ in this wjiv: ' » ' 



As soon I as it is done, it is in this way: 
the board-protector when it is finished. 



before. 
Tiiis is 



12 q!wax'ts!ana^yex lax uEXEna-'yases ale xulta^ya. Wii, laEm mae- 
maldEu laxEns ci!waq!waxts!ana\vex yix xEl.xuldzotsE^W'as lax 
waxs5t!Ena^yasa xuldEkwexa g-a gwaleg-a (./i//.). Wii, g-iPmese la 

15 .xiilboyiHe (1) jnx awTga^yasexs lac ogwaqax (2); wii lit et!edEx(3). 
Wii fil^mese la ^nsmokwe wlwagwasas lae gwal xELxuldzE^waq. Wii, 
lii ax^edxa wunagulexa egaqwa lax xiisE^we. Wii, lii xoxVldEq qa 
vowes o-wexsa tslesLalax. Wii, la mop!Enk'e ^wasgEuiasas hlxEns 
"q!waq!wax-ts!ana^yex. Wii, lii yudu.x^dEne ^wagidaasas ItlxEns 

20 q!waq!waxts!ana^yex laxes kMEWulklwena^ye. Wii, lii hex'sEndEqqa 
malts !es. Wii, lii kadsdzots laxes wulilsE^we ga gwiilega (fig.) qa 
k!euses i>-iltagawes oba^yasa LlEbEdza^ye lax waxsEnxa^yases willa- 
sE^we. Wii, g'lFmese nalnaqEloyaleda l lEbEdza^yaxs lae xult letses 
iiEXXiila k'!awayo lax WitlEnxa^yascs wiilasE^we. Wii, gfl^mese 

or o-vvalExs lae ax^aLElodxa LlEbEdza'ye. Wii, lii ax^edxes UExxiila 
k- lawayowa qa^s k" limtbEtEudexes xwexiilta^ye lax wulg-Jlasas wax- 
sEUxa^yases wQlasE^ve. Wii, laEm ginw'asa ^uEmdEne laxEns q!wa- 
qlwax'ts'.ana^yex qa g-jig ilstales lax ^wadzEwasases wulasE-'we. Wii, 
lii kMax^wTdEx awagawa^yases k" !imtbEtEnda^ye qa uExsEndesex 

on wagwasases wulasE^we. Wii, lii g-ig-alilasexs lae ax^edxa apsEX'se qa'^s 
niEiis^ides laxa la gwala. Wii lii nanaxtslEwax gwiilaasas. Wii, gil- 
«mese tnvalExs lae g-a gwiileg-a (./?//.) yixa l lEbEdziiyaxs lae gwala. 



lioAsj INDUSTRIES 71' 

As soon as it is iinislKHl, lie takes twisted ceclai'-withes and he ties 33 
them I to the ends of (1) and (2) and ties them on tightly; and he twists 
them on so that || the board-pi'otector can not get out of shape. Then 35 
he puts the board-protector on the board. | After doing this, ho takes 
up another piece of red-pino wood and | splits it so that it is two 
finger-widths in thickness, | and it is also square. He takes his 
straight knife | and shaves it off on one side so that it is straight; 
and when || it is very straight, he shaves off the under side, | which 40 
is to lie flat on the plank. When this is also | straight, ho puts it 
down on the plank on which he is working. This will be the instru- 
ment for bending the corners | when he bends the corners of the 
board at which he is workuig. | After he has done so, he goes to get 
driftwood for heating stones; || and v hen he has the driitwood, ho 45 
piles it up in a heap close | to the lire. He takes a basket, goes down 
to I the beach in front of the house, and puts medium-sized stones into 
it; I and when he thinks he has as many as he can carry, he carries 
them up the beach I into the house m which he is making the box. 
He poui's II them out by the side of the fue. Then he goes down to 50 
the beach again, j carrying his basket, and he puts more stones | into 
it (some Indians call this " putting stones into the | stone-carrying 
basket''); and Mhen he has as many as he thinks he can carry, he | 



Wii, giPmese gwala lae ax^edxa sElbEkwe dEwexa qa^s qEX'^aLE- 33 
lodes lax (1) l6^ (2). Wii, lasm lalak !tit !axs lae niElg-aaLElots qa ' "• 
kMeses qlwecpileda iJEbEdza^ye qo lal iJEbEdzodLEs laxa wiHasE^we. 35 
Wa g'iPmese gwalExs lae ax'edxa o;u^la^maxat! wiinagula cja^s 
xox^wTdexa maldEne laxEUs q!waq!waxts!ana^yex yix wag-idasas. 
Wii, laEmxae k'lEWElx^iina. Wii, lii ax^cdxes nExx-iila k-!iiwa- 
yowa qa^s ai'k'Ie k' lax^wid ii jisot lEna^j-as qa UEqEles. Wii, o-fl- 
^mese alakMala la UEqElaxs lae et!ed klax'wTdEx bEnk'IotlEna- 40 
^yasxa k-adEdzayaySLas lax widasE^was. Wii, gil^Emxaawise la 
nEqElaxs lae kadsdzSts hixes wulasE-we. Wii, heEm k'ogwayuwe 
qo lill kox^wIdElxes wiilasE^wexa kMEWElx^iine wiinaguta. Wii, 
g'll^mese gwiilExs lae hi'-x'^idaEm anex^edxa q!exa-'le qa^s t!eqwa- 
pEla. Wii, g Tb'mese lalxa q!exa4axs lae nioj,wali}as lax niagin 45 
walisases lEgwlle. Wii, lii iix^edxa lExa^ye qa^s lii lEnts.'es lax 
LlEma^sases gokwe Wii, lii xE^x"ts !iilasa lia^yiiFa t!esEm laq.- 
Wii, gib'mesti gwaniila l6k"sexs lae kMox^iisdesElaci qa^^s lii k"!o- 
gw7LElaq laxes wule^ase g-okwa"xes wulasE^we g'okwa qa^s lii giigE- 
nolisas laxes lEgwJle. Wii, lii xwelaqEntsIesa liixa iJEma^ise k-!6x- 50 
k-!5tElaxes t!'igats!e lExa^ya. Wii, laxae et!ed t!;ixts!alasa t!esEme 
laq. Wii, la ^nekeda waokwe bak!umas xE^x"ts lalasa tlessme laxes 
xEgwats!e tIesEma. Wii, g-iPEmxaawise gwanala lok^sexs lae 
k'loqulTsaq qa-'s lii k'lox^usdesElaq qa^s lii kMogwiLElaq laxes 



72 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ietii. an.n. 35 

55 takes (the basket) up the beach and mto the || house in which ho is 
making the box, and ho goes and empties it out by the side of the 
fire. When | he thinks he has enough, he builds up the fire with 
driftwood, | pihng it on crosswise; and after building the fire, he 
puts on I the stones on the crossed driftwood ; and when he has put 

6'J on I the stones, the box-maker takes the basket, || carries it down to 
the ])each, and gathers dulco, which | he throws into his basket. When 
it is fidl, I he carries it on his back up the beach and puts it down 
close I to the fire and stones. He empties it out on the floor, which he 
is going to dig out to | put the red-hot stones in. Then he takes 

65 liis II basket again, goes down to the beach, carrying his basket, and | 
brings up dead eel-grass from tho high-water mark. He puts it j in 
the basket; and when it is full, | he carries it up the beach on his 
back, and he puts it down j near the pile of dulce. After he has done 

70 so, he takes his || drill and well-splitting cedar-wood and puts them 
down I close to tho basket with eel-grass; and he takes the board | at 
which he is working and puts it down on a level place on the 
floor of tho house. Then | he takes his wife's digging-stick which 
she uses for digging clams, | and ho pushes the point of the digging-stick 

75 into the floor at ; ; ; each end || of the grooves on the 

edge of the board at which he has been work- 

ing, in this way, * i I from (1) to | (4), and also from 

55 wull^lasaxes wulasE^e qa^s lii giigEndlisas laxes lEgwTle. Wil, g^il- 
^mese k'otaq laEm helalaxs lae JEqwelax'^itsa q!exa^le. Wii laEm 
gayi^liilas. Wii, g'lPmese gwal lEqwelaxs lae t!aqEyindalasa 
tlesErae laxa gayi'liilakwe q!exa^la. Wii gfPmese wllk'Eyindeda 
t!esEmaxa lEgwllaxs laeda wiiMenoxwe k!oqulTlaxa lExa^ye qa^s lii 

60 k!oqunts!esElaq laxa LlEma^ise qa^s le kliilgilaxa LlESLlEkwe qa^s 
lii lExtslalas laxes l !esl lEgwats !e lExa^ya. Wii, g'll^mese q6t!axs 
lae oxLEX"^idaq qa^s lii oxLosdesElaq qa^s lii oxLEgalTlas lax onali- 
sases tleqwapa^ye lEgwTla; wii, qa^s giix^iilTles hixes ^lap !alilasLe qa 
xE^x"ts !Ewasltsa xIxExsEmiila t!esEma. Wii, liixaeetled dax'^Idxes 

65 lExa^ye qa^s lii xwelaqEnts !es laxa l !Ema^ise k' !oqulaxes lExa^ye. Wii, 
lii ax^edxa ts !ats lEsmote laxa ya^x"m6tasa yExwa qa^s lExtsIales 
laxes tsats!Esmodats!e lExa^ya. Wii, g^iFEmxaiiwise qotlaxs lae 
oxLEX'^IdEq qa^s lii oxLosdesElaq qa^s lii oxLEgalilaq liix magm- 
wahlasa mEwele LlEsLlskwa. Wii, giPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxes 

70 sElEme LE^wa egaqwa liix xusEwe khvaxLilwa qa^s lii g-Ig-alilas liix 
magtnwalTlasa ts!ats!Esmodats!e lExa^ya. Wii, laxae ax^edxes wiila- 
sE^we qa^s pax^aliles laxa ^UEmaele liix awTnagwilases gokwe. Wii, 
lii ax^edEX klilakwases gEnEme, ylx dzegayowasexa g'iiweq!iinEme. 
Wii, lii tslEx^bEtalllas oba^yasa k'.'iliikwe liix waxsba^yasa xwexii- 

75 ta^ye lax wax'SEnxa^yas wQlasE^wasxa g"a gwiilega (fig.) lax (1) lo^ 
(4)". Wii, lii etIedEX (2) lo^ (5); wii, laxae 6t!edEX (3) l6-' (6). Wii, 



noA.s] INDUSTRIES 73 

(2) to (5), and also from (3) to (6). As soon | as he has made 77 
the holes straight down at each end of the grooves, | he takes 
up the board at which he is working, and he puts it down on 
edge in the corner of the house. | Then lie digs up the soil from 
(1) to (4) four fingers || wide and a short span | deep; and when 80 
it is deep | enough, he digs up from (2) to (5), doing the | same 
as before; and after doing so, he digs it up from (3) to | (6); and 
when it is deep enough, it is this way.' || This hole is called the 85 
" steaming-place of the box-maker for the box-board." | After he has 
dug them, he takes his tongs, | picks up the red-hot stones, and 
puts them into | (1); and when he has covered the whole length of 
the hole and it is nearly | filled, he does the same at (2), putting 
in the red- || hot stones; and when it is also nearly full, he puts | 90 
red-hot stones into (3) ; and when | that is also nearly fuU, he 
puts down his tongs, takes the | dulce, and places it on top of 
the red-hot | stones; and he does not stop putting on dulce until 
it is level with the || floor. He does this in the two holes beside 95 
the first one into which he | put dulce. As soon as he finishes 
with the dulce, he takes | eel-grass and puts it over the dulce; 
and after this is done | in the tliree holes, he takes | the board 
at which he is working and places it on top of it, laying the || kerfs 300 

giPmese ^wPla la kwax"kuwiie UEqEla^s wax'sba^yasa xwexuta^yaxs 77 
lae ax^alilaxes wfilasE^we qa^s lii k'lox^ivalllas lax onegwilases gokwe. 
Wii, lii giig'tlil laplldxa tlska lax (1) lalaa lax (4) xa modEnas 
^wadzEgas laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yex. Wii, la ts !Ex"ts laiia^ye 80 
^walabEtahlasas ItixEns qlwaqlwax^tslana^yex. Wii, g'iPmese hela- 
bEtalilExs lae et!ed ^lapIldEX (2) Ifdaa lax (5). Wii, laxae hcEm 
gwex'^IdEq. Wii, gil^mese gwalExs lae et!ed ^.aplIdEx (3) lalaa lax 
(6). Wii, g'lpEinxaawise helabEtalllExs lae ga gwiileg'a.' Wii, 
heEm LegadEs k'ltilasasa wlwii^lenoxwaxs xEselaaxa xEtsEme, yixa 85 
la ^labEgwelkwa. Wii, g iPmese gwal ^lapaxs lae ax^edxes klipLiilaa 
qa^s k'ltplldes laxa x'Tx'ExsEmala tIesEma qa^s lii k'!ipts!ots lax 
(1). Wii, g'lFmese mEgiigiltslaxte ^liipa^ya loxs lae halsElaEin k-!es 
q5t!a; wii, laxae et!edEx (2). Wii, laEmxae k !ipts lillasa xIxexse- 
mala tlessm hiq. Wa, g^iPEmxaawIse Elaq qot!axs lae et!ed kMiplid- 90 
xa xIxExsEmala t!esEma qa^s lii k'liptsliilas lax (3). Wii, g'll^Em- 
xaawlse Eliiq q6t!axs lae k"at!alllaxes klipLfilaa qa^s lii lEx^ed hixa 
lIeslIeLwc qa^s la IexeHs laxstalas lax oku^ya^yasa xIx'ExsEmala 
tIesEina. Wii, aPmese gwal lExasa LlEsLtekwaxs lae ^nEiniigas LE^wa 
awlnagwilij. Wii, lii hiistasm gwEX'^dxa maldzEqe ogii^la lilx gllxde 95 
lExts lotso^s. Wa, giFmese gwfdtsa LlESLlEkwaxs lae ax^edxa ts!a- 
tslEsmote qa^s lExEyindes liixa lIeslIeIvwc. Wii, laEinxae ^iiaxwaEin 
he gwex'^idqexs yudux"dzEqae. Wii, g iPmese gwfilExs lae ax^ed- 
xes wiilasE^we qa^s paqsyallles laq. Wa, laEm nanaxstE^wasa 



1 The ditches here described are dug from points indicated by the numbeis on the sketch on p. 72. 



74 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [ktii. ann. 35 

300 "vcr the places where the ste.am comes out; and when the kerfs 
are right over | the places where he put the red-hot stones, he | takes 
the eel-grass and throws it on top of the | board at which lie is 
working, right over the kerfs, in tins way;' and when it is | piled 
5 on thickly, he takes his bailer, fills it with || water, lifts up one 
end of the board, and | pours on the water into the three holes 
where the | box-maker is steaming the board. After he has poured 
on I the water, he puts down the ])oard so that it lies on the | 

10 steam. He takes his tongs, picks up red-hot || stones, and places 
them on top of the eel-grass | wliich he put on last along 
the three kerfs; and | when lie has put the red-hot stones close 
together, he takes eel-grass | and throws it on top. Then he puts 
down his tongs, | takes his bailer, fills it with water, and pours it 

15 along II the three rows of red-hot stones which are covered with | eel- 
grass. After finishing this, he takes more eel-grass j and throws it 
over the red-hot stones as the steam is coming out. | Then he takes 
his straight knife and | splits cedar-wood into thin pieces. He 

20 shaves them off || so that they are sharp, and measures them so that 
they are four fiuger-widtlis | long; then he cuts them off. When | 
he has made many of these, he stops. These will be the pegs for the j 

300 xfita^ye laxa la k'lfdEla. Wii, g'lFmese la ^naxwa nsqEmsta^ya 
.xwexfdta^ye laxa la xexE^x"ts!Ewax"sa x'Tx'ExsEmala t!esEmxs lae 
ax^ed laxa ts!ats!Esm5te qa^s lEXEdzodes lax ek' !adzE^yases wfdasE- 
^we lax nExsawasa xwexulta^ye, g'a gwalega.' Wii, g iPmese la 
wakwa ts!ats!Esm6tas lae ax^edxes tsidayowe qa^s tsex"^ides laxa 
5 ^wfqie. Wii, lii LlEl^'ostodEx apsba^yases WElasE^we. Wii, he^mis 
la giigELEyindaatsesa ^wilpe ^naxwa laxa yudux^dzEqe k'lfdasasa 
wewu'ienoxwaxs xEselaaxa xEtsEme. Wii, g'lPmese gwfd gucjasa 
^wilpe laqexs lae paqaxotses widasE^we qa^s piiqEymdes liixa la 
k"!iilEla. Wii, lii ax^edxes k'lipLalaa qa^s k'!ip!ides laxa xixExsE- 

10 mfda t!esEma qa^s k- !ipEyindales li\xa lEXEdzii^ye ts!ats!Esmota 
IfibEudrdax uEgElEna^yasa xwexiilta^ye laxes yridux"ts!aqae. Wii, 
"•il^me e la tiisaleda xMX'ExsEmala tIesEmxs lae ax^edxa ts!iits!ES- 
mote qa^s lEXEyindiiles laq. Wii, lii glg^alllaxes k'lipL'llaa qa^s 
ax^edexes tsiilayowe qa^s tsex'^ides laxa ^wiipe cja^s tsldzElEiia^yes 

15 laxa yridux"ts!agE^niil ilia x-ix'ExsEmilla tlesEma la lelEXEyalaxa 

tsIatslEsmote. Wii, g il^mcse gWillExs lae ax^edxa waokwe ts!jts!Es- 

. mota qa^s lEXEyindfdes liixii xixExsEmfda t!esEmxs lae k Mnda. 

Wii, g'il^mese gwiilExs lae ax^edxes nExx'iila k' !rnvayowa qa^s 

xox^wides laxa k!waxLiiwe qa wIswEltowes. Wii, lii k lax^wTdEq 

90 qa wIswElbcs. Wii, lii mEns=idEq qa modEnes liixEns q!wriq!wax"- 
tsliina^yex yix awiisgEmasasexs lae k!imtts!EndEq. Wii, giPmese 
q!enEme k' laxwa^yasexs lae gwfda. Wii, hcEm LabEmltsexes XEse- 

i That is, over the kerfs as indicated in the figure on p. 72. 



HOAS] INDUSTRIES 75 

box that he is making. After this is finished, he takes up the 23 
well-splitting | cedar-wood and splits it not quite as thick as the || 
little finger. He splits up much of this. When | this is done, he takes 25 
a long cedar-bark rope and puts it into | the water in order to soak it. 
He dips it up and down, so that it gets | soaked quickly; and when 
it is soaked, he takes it out of the water. He shakes off | the water 
and lays it out straight, so that it does not get tangled when he puts 
it around || the box that he is making when he bends the corners. 30 
When everything is ready, | he takes the board-protector and the 
instrument for bending the corners, | so that they are also ready. 
Then he | takes the tongs and picks up the hot eel-grass and the ( hot 
stones that are on top of the box-board. He || puts them down at a 35 
place not far from where the box-board is being steamed; | and when 
they are all off from the board, he takes the | board-protector and 




I Now 

l)OX- 



pu(s it over the end of tjie lioard, in this way: 
the board-protector is near the end of the 

board. Then | he takes the implement for ""^H]/^ bend- 

ing the corners (1,4),' and ])uts it on towards the side of kerf || (1,4), 40 
very near to the body of the kerf. He steps j with both feet on the ends 
of the bendiiig-tool at | (1,4).^ Then he takes hold of the | ends of the 
board-protector with his hands, and lie pulls it up, to bend the corner of 

lasK^we. Wa, g'll^mese gwalExs lae et!ed ax^edxa eg'aqwa k!wax- 23 
Lfiwa lax xasE^we qa^s xox^wideq. Wii, lii halsElaEm wiswEltoga- 
wesens sElt!ax'ts!ana^yex. Wii, laEmxae qleuEme xayas. Wa, g il- 25 
^mese gwalExs lae ax^edxa gTltla dEnsen dEUEma qa^s lExstEndes 
laxa ^wfipe qa pexVides. Wfi, laEm dzobEltalas qa ha^nakweles 
pex^vlda. W^i, gil^mese pex^wIdExs lae axwiistEndEq qa^s k- IeMIcx 
^wfibEklEna^yas qa^'s Llax^alTles qa k-Iesesxol^idEl qo lal qEx'sEmdEl 
Ifixes wulasE^WE qo lal k'ox^wIdLEq. Wii, g'lPmese la ^niixwa gwali- 30 
Iexs lae ax^edxes LlEbEdziVye qa gaxes gaela LE^wa kogwayowe 
qa gaxes ogwaqa gaela. Wii, g-iPmese ^naxwa gwalllExs lae ax^- 
edxes k'lipLiilaa qa^s kMiplIdes liixa tslElqwa ts !;Tts lEsmota LE^wa 
ts lElts lElxsEme t!e-^Ema lax ek" !adzE^yases xEselasE^we, qa^s kMiplii- 
hlEles laxa k!ese qwesalfdll Ifixes UEg'asaxes xEselasE^we. Wii, 35 
giPmese «wllg Eldzowe xeselasE^wasexs lae dfix'^idxes LlEbE- 
dza^ye qa^s q!6x^waLElodes lax oba^yases xEselasE^we ga gwiileg'a 
{fig.). Wii, laEm maxba-'ya l lEbEdza^ye lax xEselasE^was. Wii, laxae 
dax'^ldxa k'ogwayowe (1, 4) qa^s k'adEdzodes laxa gwek' lotsta'^ye 
lax (1,4) xiita^ya. Wit, laEm max-^Euex xiita^yas. Wii, lii t!epa- 40 
tases waxsoltsedza^ye gog iguyo lax wax-sba^'yases kogwayowe 
(1,4). Wii, lii dadEbEntses wax-solts lana^ye lax wax-sba^yasa l!e- 
bEdza^ye. Wft, la^me gElqostodEq qa k-ox^wides kMosiis xesela- 

1 These are the kerfs in order: 1, 4; 2, 5; 3, 0. See figure on p. 72. 
' That is, the ends ol the tool. 



76 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. asx. 35 

the box I that he is making; and when he has bent it over enough, lie 

45 takes off the board-protector || and puts it on the other end at (2, 5) : 
and I when it is near the kerf at (2, 5), he stops the board-protector, 
and he | takes off the instrument for bending the corner and puts it 
down at (2, 5). He | steps on the ends with his feet, | takes hohl of 

50 the board-protector witli his hands, and pulls it upward; || and he 
only stops pulling when it is bent up enough. Then | he places the 
board-protector at the other side of (3, 6) , and | he does as he did before 
when he bent with it. Now tlie | three kerfs are bent, forming the 
corners of the box that he is making. As soon as | this is done, he 

55 takes the long cedar-bark rope and ties it around || the box that he is 
making, which has now the shape of a box. Then he puts together 
the I two end joints of the box that he is making to fit them; and he 
pulls the I cedar-bark rope tight, twisting it around. He winds it 
around many times, | so that the box tliat he is making does not get 
twisted. After doing so, | he takes his drill and drills holes through 

60 the two ends, in this way: ^--|\ II After he has put the drill- 
holes through, he pulls out f\i^ *^'^^ drill, puts it down, j and 
takes up one of the cedar x ]; J Pf^gs which he shaved to a 
point, I puts it into the mouth \i^ to wet it with saliva so | that 
it is I slippery; and when it is wet all over with saliva, he puts 

65 it into the drill-hole before it gets dry || and drives it in with 
a round stone ; and when [ the peg does not go in any farther when 

sE^was. Wa, g iHmese helale k'oqwa^yas, lae ax^odxes LJEbEdza^ye 

45 qa^s la q lox^waLElots laxa apsba^ye lax (2, 5). Wii, guPmese ex'a- 
k'lEndEX xiita-'yas (2, 5) lae walases l lEbsdza^j^e. Wa, lii ax-'a- 
LElodxa kogwayowe qa^'s la katstots lax (2,5). Wa, laxae t!et!E- 
bEutses g ogEguyowe lax wax'sba^yasa k'ogwayowe. Wil, la dadE- 
bEntses waxsoltslana^ye laxa LlEbEdza^yaxs lae gElqostodEq. 

50 Wii, laEmxae ah'Em gwal gElqaqexs lae Jiehlle k^oqwa^yas. Wii, 
111 aEm kax'^aLElodxa LlEbEdza^ye lax apsot lEna^yas (3, 6). Wii, 
laxae asm nEqEmgiltEwexes g'ale koqwas5s. Wii, la^me ^wPla 
k'ogEkwa yudux^tsiaqe xuta^ya liix xEselasE^was. Wil, giPmcse 
gwalExs lae ax^edxa g-ilt!a dEnsEn dEUEma qa^s qEX'SEmdes 

55 faxes xEselasE^waxs lae qlolatsEmala. Wii, la^me aeklax sak o- 
da^yases xEselasE^we qa bEnbEgrdes. Wii, lii Ifiklwet !edxa qExsE- 
ma'^ye giltla dEnsEn dEUEma. Wa, la^me q!ep!ene^steda qEX'sE- 
ma^ye qa kMeses qlweqiile xEselasE^was. Wii, gil-'mese gwiila lae 
itx^edxes sElEme qa^s sElEmxodesxa sakodaexa ga gwiilega (fg.). 

60 Wii, gil^mese lax'siiwe sEla^yasexs lae lexodxes sElEme qa^s katfa- 
lllesexs lae diig ilTlaxa ^nEmts!aqe hixes k' !axwa«ye LabEm k!wax^- 
Ena qa^s haniklEndeq qa kliinxElaleses k !uneL lExawa^'yas qa 
tsax-^Enes. Wii, g iFmese la haniElxEniilaxa k!uneL!Exawa^yaxs 
lae hayalomalaa dexostots laxes sElaS'e yixs kles^mae lEmx^'imx-^- 

65 Ida. Wii, laEm deqwasa loxsEmo tlesEm laq. Wii, gil^mese gwai 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 77 

he drives it iii, he drills another hole at the other comer, ] and when the 67 
drill-hole goes through, he pulls out the drill, | puts it down, and takes 
up another cedar peg, and | docs as he did before with the first one. 
He chives it in || witliaround stone; and after doing so, lie measures | 70 
three finger-widths, beginning with the first | peg that he drove in, 
and he drills another hole through it; | and when it is through, he 
pulls out his drill and puts it down. | He wets the peg with saliva, 
and II drives it in with the stone. He continues doing this | in all the 75 
holes which ho makes at distances of three finger-widths apart, | and 
there is one cedar peg in each of them. | That is the way in which in 
ancient times the people j pegged the corner joint of a box with cedar 
pegs. The present Indians || sew them togetherwith twisted, thin cedar- 80 
withes, which are soaked ior four days in | urine to make them soft, 
and so that they do not | rot c[uickly, for they have a red color. Only 
two I finger-widths apart are the drill-holes for cedar-withes | on the 
coiner joint of the box that is being made. After the pegging || has 85 
been finished, the box-maker unties the cedar-bark rope with which | 
he kept it together, and he puts it away. Then he takes the board 
that will be the bottom of | the box, and his adz, and he puts them 

sEX"ts!eda LabEm deqwaxs lae et!ed sElx'sodxa apsEnxa^ye. 66 
Wii, g il^Emxaawise laxsawe sEla'yasexs lae lexodxes sElEme qa^s 
g'Igalilesexs lae dag^illlaxa ^iiEintsIaqe klwax^Eu LabEma. Wit, Iii 
heEmxat! gwex"^idqes g'ilx'de gwex'^daasa. Wii, Iii dex^wltsa 
loxsEme tIesEm laq. Wii, g'llmese gwiilExs lae niEns^aLElotsa 70 
yudux^dEne hlxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yex g'iig'iLEla liix gilx'de 
Lap litso^sesa klwax^Ene LabEma. Wii, hc^rais la et!ed sElx'^Itsose. 
Wii, giPmese liix-saxs lae lexodxes sElEme qa^s g'ig'aliles. Wii, 
laxae et!ed klunx^Endxa LilbEme laxes k !uiieL lExawa^ye qa's 
etiede dex^wltsa tIesEme laq. Wii, ax'sii^mese he gwegulaq 75 
labEndales sEla^yexa yfidux^dEnes iiwiilagiilaase laxEns q!wiiq!wax'- 
ts!ana^yex. Wii, he-mis la q Iwalxostalaxa klwax^Ene LabEma. 
Wii, heEm gweg-ilatsa gildzEse bEgwilnEmaxs LiLpaasa klwax^Ene 
LabEm liix sak'oda^yases xEselasE^we. Wii, laLoxda alex bak!um 
tlEiiitlEgotsa sElbEkwe wil^En hapstJLlIl moplEuxwa^ses ^nala laxa 80 
kwiits !e qa iilak' !ales la pekweda dEwexe. Wii, he^mis qa k" !eses 
gEyol qlfds^ldExs lae L!aL!Ex^una. Wii, liiLa hSmiildEngiila laxEns 
q!wiiq!waxts!ana^yex yix awalagalaasasa sEla^ye qaeda dEwexaxs 
t '.Emt lEgoyuaxa sak'oda^yasa xEsela. Wii, g'lPmese gwal Lapaqexs 
lae qwelk !wetEndxa cjEx^sEma^ye giltia dEusEn dEiiEma qa^s 85 
qEs^edeq qa^s Iii g'exaq. Wii, Iii ax^edxa paqlExsdeLases xEsela- 
sE^we LE^wis k'limLayowe. Wii, Iii pax^alllaq qa^s k!imLEldza- 



78 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL, I inii. Ann. 36 

88 down flat, and he adzes off the Hat side | tu make it smooth. When it is 
very smooth and level, | he turns over what is to be the bottom of the 

90 box, for that is its name, and || he adzes it again. After he has 
adzed it, he takes | split cedar-sticks and the bo\- that he is making, 
and he puts it down on the floor, in this way : i \ Then he takes 



one of tlie split cedar-sticks and measures it 




I crosswise at 
measure in at 
end II of the 



tlie four corners. He flrst puts the i cedar 
1*5 (1), going across to (2), and he pushes the 

measure into the inner corner at (2), and lie marks the distance of 
the corner | on the measure from (1). Then he takes liis measure | 
and puts it crosswise at (3) , and pushes the measure | into the comer 
at' (4); and when tlie distance of the corners from (3) [to (4) is the 
same as the distance of the corners from (1) to (2), then the box is 
400 not awry || that is made by the box-maker. Then he takes his 
straight j knife and cuts off his measures wiicrc he has marked them, | 
and he takes another split cedar-stick and j puts it down so that the 
end is equal to the end that he has cut off, and he j cuts them to the 
5 same length; and he does the same to the two other jj cedar-sticks, so 
that they have the same measure in length. | After he has done 
so, he puts one end of the cedar-stick in the | corner of tlie 
box that he is making, close to the upper rim, and he ))uts the 
other I end of the (same) stick in the upper corner at (2), in this 

88 ^y^^. ^^ ^iiEniadzox^wldes. Wii, g'lFmese alak"!ala la ^UEmadzoxs 
lae lexElIlaxa paqlExsdayalase qaxs he-mae LegEmse qa^s ogwaqe 

90 kliiuLEldzodEq. Wii, giHiiese gw'al k-liniLEldzE-weqexs lae ax^edxa 
xokwe kIwaxLawa LE^wis xEselasE^we. Wii, lii hang-alllaq (fig-)- 
Wii, lii dax-^'idxa ^nEmts!aqe liixa xokwe kIwaxLiiwa qa^s mEiisi^iiles 
laxa mowe k'!ek!osa. Wii, heEiii gil kat!aLElodaatsesa niEiiya_ 
yowe kIwaxLawe (1) la hayosEla lax (2). Wii, laEm sEkale oba- 

95 ^yasa niEnyayowe lax oneqwas (2). Wii, lii xiiltledEx WElg'Ilasas 
liixa niEnyayowe hix oneqwas (1). Wii, lii ax^aLElodxes mEiiyayowe 
qa-'s lii k'titlaLElots lax (3). Wii, lii sEkale oba^yasa mEuyayowe 
liix oneqwas (4). Wii, giPmese iiEm iiExstode ^wadzEqawilasas (3) 
l6^ (4) lax ^wiidzEqawilasas (1) Lo^ (2). Wii, laEm k!es k!we^x"sE- 
400 male xeselasE^wasa WE^lenoxwe. Wii, a^niese la dax^^idxes iiExx'iila 
k'lawayowa qa^s kMimttslEndexes inEuyayowe UExstodxa xfddE- 
kwe. Wii, lii et!ed dax'^Idxa ogiria-'iinixat! xok" klwaxLawa qa^s 
kTikEtodes qa ^UEmiibales LE^wa la k!initts!aakwa. W^ii, lii k!init- 
tslEndaxaaq qa ^nEinasgEmes. Wii, lii etiedxa malts !aqe ogu^la 
5 klwaxLawa k-!inik!iiiitts!illaq qa ^ne'namasgEmes LE^'wa niEuyayo- 
wS. Wii, giPniese gwala lae kut'.altslSts oba^yasa k!waxLawe laxa 
k'losiises wiilasE^we liixa magixsta^yas ots!:iwas. Wii, lii qEtlal- 
tslots apsba^yas liixa UEqawa (2) k" losaxa ga g^vii}eg•a (fg.)- Wii, lii 



UUASJ 



INDUSTRIES 



79 




Then | lie takes the other measured spHt cedar- 




aud puts II one end 
Now I it is this way. 
two split I measured 

other side oi the box that he is making. 

and drills through the two joints of 

making, | in this way: 

takes II a well-shaved 

puts the cedar peg in 

Then he takes up the 

drives in the cedar peg. 

takes his drill and drills 

beginning at the hole which he drilled first; 



and the other end 10 
He does the same 
cedar-sticks at the 
I He takes his drUl 
the box that he is 
As soon as he has drilled through, he 
cedar peg, pidls out his driU, and | 15 
the place where his drill was before. | 
stone with his right hand, | and he 
When the peg does not go any farther, | he 
a hole at a distance || of three finger-widths, 20 
and when the drill has 
gone through, he pulls out the drill and j puts a cedar peg in the place 
where the drill had been, | and he takes the stone and drives in the 
cedar peg. j He continues doing tliis until he finishes driving in the 
pegs II in the box that he is making. When it has been pegged, he 25 
takes some of what was left | when he split the boards for making the 
box. He takes a | broad short board and puts it down. He takes 
his I adz and adzes it all over so that it is level; and | when the 
ridges that were on it have been adzed ofT, he turns it over and || 
does the same on the other side. When the ridges that were on it 30 



tied dax-^Idxa ^nsmtslaqe xox"mEnek" klwaxLawa qa k'itlalts lodes 
oba^yas (3) k- !osas. Wit, la cjEtlaltsIots apsba^yas lax (4). Wa,laga 10 
gwidaxs lae gwala (fig.). Wii, laxae hi'-Em gwex'^Itsa malts !aqe 
xox^niEnEk" klwaxLawa laxa epsana^yases wulasE^we. Wa, la 
ax^edxes sElEme qa^s sElx'sodexa wiwaqoda^yas oba^yases wQlasE- 
-wexa g"a gwaleg'a (jig-). Wil, g'lFmese lax'sawe sEla^yas lae ax^edxa 
aek'laakwe k'lsik" klwaxLawa; wil, lil lexodxes. sElEme. Wa, lii 15 
L layogwaaLElotsa klwax^Ene LabEm lax k' lEqwalaasdiises seIeuic. 
Wii, lii dax'^itses hi-lk' lolts lana^ye laxa tlesEme. Wii, lii de^x^- 
wits laxa klwax^Ene LabEma. Wit, g-iPmese gwal sE^?;"ts!a de- 
qwe LiibEmasexs lae etied dax^idxes sElEme qa^s sElx'sodes 
iaxa yudux"dEne laxEns qlwaqlwaxtsliina^yex g'iigiLEla lax gale 20 
SEles. Wit, g'lPmese laxsawe sEla^yas lae lexodxes sElEme. Wii, 
lil L layogwaaLElotsa k Iwax^Ene LabEm lax k* lEqwalaasdases seIehic. 
Wil, lilxae dax'^ldxa tIesEme qa^s dex^wides laxa klwax^Ene LilbEma. 
Wil, ox'sii^mese he gwegila hlbEndalax Lilpax ^wadzosgEmasases wu- 
lasE-WE. Wil, g'il^mese ^wi'la la LabEkwa lae ax^edxa g"iiyole taxes 25 
latlanEme yixs lilxde latla qa^s xeselasE^wa. Wil, la^me ax^edxa 
wadzowe tslEgudzo hxtlaakwa qa^s pax^alileq. Wil, lil ax'edxes 
klmiLayowe qa^s kliniLEldzodes laq qa . ^nEmadzox^wides. Wit, 
g iFmese ^wPla k'limLitlax t let lEnxdza^yas lae lex'^IdEq qa^s hexat! 
gwex^^IdEx apsadza^yas. Wil, g"^tlEmxaawise ^wFlawe tIetlEnxdza- 30 




80 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

31 have also been adzed off, | he adzes it on the surface, so that it is 
level; and after | he has finished, he turns it over; and after | he has 
done so, he takes the box that he is making and puts it on the | bottom 
l)oard of the box that he is making, in tliis way, ^^ ^ and 

35 he marks it all round witli the straight knife 
the outside of the box that lie is making. As 
as his marks go around, | ho takes off the box 
he is making and puts it down, and he takes up again | his straight 
knife and cuts off the edges along | the mark that had been made; and 
when it has been cut off all along the mark, | he cuts off the ends along 

40 the marks; and when the two ends are off,|| he takes up again the box 
that he is making and puts it on again. Then | he marks along the 
inside of the box, | on the bottom board of the box that he is making; 
and I when he has marked all around it, he takes off the box that he is 
making and puts it down. | Then he takes his straight knife and cuts 

45 along || the mark that he put on first; and when he has cut half the 
width of the little finger | in depth all around the bottom board of 
the box, he | cuts it off and removes it. As soon as he finishes, it is in 
this way: ii ii | Then he takes the box that he is making and 

puts it on I so that the inside fits well to the bottom. Then 

50 he takes ' ' I his 11 drill and drills in a slanting direction in 



this way: / "^^ A \ turning the box that he is making upside 



down. He 
that he is 



puts one foot | on the bottom board of the box 
making; and when his driU comes through. 



31 ^yasexs lae eEk' !a k' !imLEldz5dEq qa ^uEmadzowes. Wa, giPmese 
gwaia lae lex'^idEq qa^s hexat! gwex^dxa apsadzE^yas. Wfl, gil^- 
Emxaawise gwalExs lae ax^edxes wiilasE-we qa^s handzodes laxa pa- 
qlExsdeLas wulasE'was (jig.). Wii, lii xultse^stalases nExx^ala k" !awa- 

35 yowe lax l lasadzE^yases wulasE^we. Wii, g'iPmese la^sta xQlta^ya- 
sexs lae &x^aLElodxes wulasE^we qa^s hangallles. Wii, laxae dilx-^ld- 
xes uExx'iila k'lawaj'owa, qa^s k'liix^widex ewanxa^yas ItilaklE- 
naxes xulta^ye. Wii, g'tPmese liiklEnde k!axwa^yas laqexs lae 
xults!EndEx waxsba^yas. Wii, g'iPmese ^wFliiwa wax'sba^yaxs lae 

40 xwelaqa diix'^Idxes wulasE^we qa^s handzodes laq. Wii, laxae 
xuldElts '.iilax ots!awases wulasE^we. Wii, laEm xultse'stalax ^wiila- 
laasas otslawases wulasE^we laxa paqlExsdeLases wiilasE^we. Wii, 
g iPmese lii^ste xiilta^yasexs lae ax^aLElodxes wiilasE^we qa^s hanga- 
lileq. Wii, lii dax'^Idxes uExxiila k!awayowa qa^s xuldElEna'yexes 

45 g'llx'de xulta^ya. Wii, g'll^mese kModEn laxEns sElt!ax'ts!ana^yex 
yix ^wiilabEdasas xulta^ya- liix awc^stiisa paqlExsdeLas wulasE^was, 
lae k"!axiilaq qa liiwiiyes. Wii, g'lPmese gwalExs lae g'a gwiileg'a 
ifig.). Wii, lii dax'^dxes wulasE^we qa^s handzodes laq. Wii, g'll- 
^mese bEnale otsliiwas liixa piiq!Exsda^ye lae hi'x-^idaEm ax^edxes 

50 sElEme qa-'s masLlEkalae sElEmasexs lae sElx'^idEq ga gwiilega {fg.) 
l&x qEpalaena^yases WElasE^we. Wii, lii t !ebEdzE^weses apsoltse- 
dza'ye laxa paq lExsda^yases WElasE^we. Wii, gul^mese lilx"siiwe 



BOAS] 



INDUSTEIES 



81 



he takes a cedar-stick and his straiglit knife and | cuts it, 
making a peg. When he has finished many, he || puts tlie pegs in the 
whole number of holes that he has drilled. When he has done so, 
he I takes the other cedar board that he split, which is one hand- 
width thick. I He puts it down at the place where he is working, 
takes his stone hammer and his | wedges, and marks a line on one 



end with his 
this form : 
takes his 



marker, that is a short blunt-ended wedge, | in 



As soon as he finishes marking the end,||he 
wedges and drives them along the hne that 
he made on the end. | The wedges are close together as they are stand- 
ing on the end of what he is splitting. | Then he strikes them lightly 
with his stone hammer, striking them one at a time ; | 
when he has split off the piece, then it is in this form, t 



-J ' 

__/ as 



and 

IS he 

had planned it | for the cover of the box that he is making. When this 
is done, || he takes his adz and adzes it well all over on both sides; 
and I when all the ridges have been adzed off, he adzes the top side | 
of what will be the top of the cover that he is making. | 

When the cover has been finished, he takes his small crooked | knife, 

turns the box that he is . making on its side, and he cuts 

grooves on it in this way: II I ''■'"'d when his grooves go all 

round, hehas u \ V\ 11 finished his box for lily bulbs, j 

When it is O ^j^ V y iiiilililll *^lono, his wife takes twisted 
cedar-bark ||pr | rope | and puts it around 

in this way: \| | f 



sElEmas, lae ax^edxa kIwaxLawe LE^wis nExx'ftta k' lawayowa qa^'s 
klax^wideq. Wii, laEm Lapelaq. Wii, giPmese gwala q!enEme la 
k" !axwes lae Lap !lts lax ^waxaasases sEla^ye. Wii, giPmese gwala lae 
ax^edxa wakwe k!wagEdzo lat!aakwaxa amxLits wagwase. Wii, gaxe 
pax^Elsas laxes g'Edase. Wii, lii ax^edxes pElpElqe le^wIs LEm- 
lEmg-ayowe. Wii, lii maelbEntses maelbanowe tslEklwa LEmgayo 
laqxa g'a gwiileg'a {fig.). Wii, g'il^mese gwal maelbEndqexs lae 
ax^edxes LEmlEmgayowe qa^s dex"st6dales laxa maelba^ye. Wii, 
laEm mEmkiiie LEmlEmg'ayfisexs lae q!waelba^ya lax latoyoLas. 
Wii, lii halsElaEm degutEweses pElpElqe lilxes ^niii^nEmp lEnxtoda- 
laena^yaq. Wii, giPmese lawiiye latoyas lae g'a gwiile senataseg-a 
{fig.) yix yikuyeLasa xEselasE^was. Wii, g'iPmese gwalExs lae 
ax^edxes k"!imLayowe qa^s aek'Ie k' IimLEldzodEx wawax'sadza^yas. 
Wii, g'il^mese ^wi^lawe t !Ent lEixxdziVyasexs lae ai'k' !a k' limHdEx 
ek'!adzE^yasa yikuyeLasa xEselasE-was. 

Wii, g iPmese gwala yikwaya^yaxs lae ax^edxes klwedayowe ame 
xElxwala. Wii,qox^walilaxes xEsela^ye qa^s aek' !e k!wet!edEq {fig.). 
Wii, giPmese lii^sta k!weta^yas lae gwala x'ogwatsle xEtsEma. 
Wii, g-ih'mese gwala lae gEUEmas ax-edxes niEla^ye dEnsEn dEUEma 
qa^s WElxsEmdes laq {fig.). 

75052—21—35 eth— pt 1 6 



55 



60 



65 



70 



53 



GO 



65 



70 



82 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. an.v. ?e 

I The Making of Oil-Boxes. — I have forgotten to talk about the meas- 
urhig I of the oil-boxes. The husband of the | woman who picks 
viburnum-berries takes his seven wedges and his | hammer for split- 
5 ting boards in the wedge-bag of sea-lion skin. || He carries these on 
his back and goes into the woods, carrying liis ax | in one hand. 
He is gomg to a place where he knows of a cedar-tree which has 
moss on its back, and which has been lying on the ground for a long 
time; | for the box-maker looks for this kind of a tree when he wants 
to make an oil-box, | because it bends, and it does not split easily, 
although I the heat strikes it for a long time when they are trying 

10 out the oil at Knight Inlet. As soon || as he comes to a trunk that 
has no branches or knots, he puts his wedge-bag down on the 
ground | and chops into the log near the top of the cedar-tree. 
When I the place chopped out is a little over one span 
deep, I he measures three spans, | making more 

15 room for starting his chopping, in this way: Q ~vt^^ 3 II ^^ 

soon as the new notch has the same depth as | 

the first one, he chops out the block between ' the 

two notches. | Wlien it comes off, it is this way : ( ^ '"^^'^T Z) Tli*' 

long slantmg place that he has chopped out • is | 

the place where he will put his wedges in. Now he starts 

20 where he | cut in, and measures off ten spans || and four finger- 
widths. I There he chops into the tree, and the chopping at 

1 The Making of Oil-Boxes. — Wa, hexoLEn L.'ElewesE^wa mEnsa- 
^yasa dEngwats !emote. Wa, hcEm gil ax^etsos la^wunEmasa t lElts !e- 
noxwe tslsdaqes lat!ayowe aLEbotsIaq LEmlEmgayowa LE^wes 
lat'.Ex'SE^yase pElpElqaxs q!wats!ae laxes q!waats!e lIcxehs- 
5 gEma. Wa, laEm oxxalaqexs lae aLe^sta dak"!otElaxes soba- 
yowe. Wa,laEm lal laxes qlatsE^wa plEldzek'ila la ge^s t!a^s LEk" 
welkwa, qaxs he^mae alaso^sa ^wi^wiilenoxwaxa dEngwats lexe, 
qaxs tslExae; wa he^mesexs k"!esae tslEtaxs wax'^mae la giila 
tslElqwasosa Llesalasa sEmxdEma lEqIusxa dzaxune. Wa, g-11- 

10 ^mese lagaa laxa ek'etElaxs lae hex^^idaEm oxLEgaElsaxes q!wa- 
ats!e. Wii, la tEmx^wIdxa gweba^ye laxa 6xta-"3'asa welkwe. Wa, 
g'lFmese esEg"Eyowe la ValabEdats sopa^yas laxEns qlwaqwax'- 
tslana^yex lae baFldxa yudu.x"p!Enk-e laxEns q!waq!wax"ts!a- 
na^yex lae sagillla s6p!ed gaglLEla laxes g'ale sopa^yaxa g^a gwa- 

15 leg"a (fig-)- Wii, glPmese la^nEmale ^walabEtsas ale tEmkwes LE^wis 
gale sopa^yaxs, lae kugELElodEx awagawa^yases tEmkwa^ye. Wa, 
gll^mese liiwaxs lae g'a gwaleg'a {fig.). Wa, heEm q !waiaasLEs LEm- 
lEmg'ayowasxa la g'iltsto senoqwala sopes. Wa, la g'agiLEla laxes 
tEmkwa-ye (1), lae bfd^idxa nEqaplEnke laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!a- 

20 na^yex. Wa, he^misa modEne laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^'yaxs 
lae sobEtendEq. Wa, la^me gwagwaaxstale senoqwalaena^yas 



isoASJ INDUSTRIES 83 

this place slants toward | the base of the codar-tree. This place is 22 
not as wide open as the one which he chopped out first, | but it is 
much deeper than the one that he chopped out at the top, | at (1). 

When it is deep enough, it is this way: Then || he takes 25 

his wedge-bag and takes out his wedges V/ and his | stone 

hammer, and he puts them down at (1) at the top of the 

cedar-tree. | Then he drives in the wedges with his stone hammer. | 
He hammers on each one at a time. | The seven wedges are all 
close together. When the top piece comes off, 

he turns it on its back. || Then he measures C j ^ 30 

tlie thiclaiess of one finger, | which lie will split 

off from the top piece. He takes the short | marking-wedge and 
drives it into the log in this way ; ^,^~^__^^ Then | he takes 

a straight-edged cedar-stick and /<C^ ^^^ i:)laces it on the 
end of the piece that had been v^-^:^^^^^^^ wedged off from 
the I cedar-tree at (1), as far as (2), ^ — -i^'^ and he marks 

along it. After he lias done so, || he takes his marking-wedge and 35 
his stone hammer, and puts his | marking wedge into the line that has 
been marked out, and drives it in with his hammer, | so that the 
wood splits a little. Then he pulls it out again | and puts it m at the 
end of the place where he drove it in before, and he pulls out liis | 
marking-wedge and strikes it again with the hammer. He || does so 40 
along the whole length of the Ihie that has been marked with his mark- 
ing-wedge. Then | he takes his wedges and drives them into the line that 

sopa^yas laxa oxLa^yasa welkwe. Wii, laEm k"!es lexstowe sobela- 22 
^yas. Wii, la^me khvayala wunqElagawes gale sobeles laxa oxta'ye 
lax (1). Wii, giPniese helabEtaxs lae g^a gwiileg'a (Jig.). Wii, la 
ax^edxes q!waats!e, qa^s Lox^wultsalexes LEmlEmg^ayowe LE^wis 25 
pElpElqe, qa^s qlwaelbEndes laxa witeta^yasa welkwe (1). Wii, 
la^me degutEweses pElpElqe laq. Wii, la^me ^mll^nEmp.'Enxtoda- 
laxs lae deqwases pslpElqe liixa LEmlEiiig'ayowaxs mEmk'E- 
wakwaeda iiLEbots !ats !e (Jig.). Wii, g'iPmcse UELEwe apsodilasa 
wilkwaxs lae mEns^'idxa ^uEmdEiie liixEns q!wiiq!wax"ts!ana^yex, 30 
yix wiigwasa la latoyoLEs liixa iipsodile. Wii, lii ax^edxa ts !Ek !wa 
maelbano LEmg'ayowa qa^s ma(?lbEndesxa g'a gwiileg^a (fig.). Wii, 
la^me ax^edxa iiEgEiiosEla k!waxLilwa, cja^s k'adelbEiides liixa aps5- 
dlle welkwa lax (i) la lax (2). Wii, la xuklElEneq. Wa, g'lPmese 
gWiilExs lae iix^edxes maelbanowe LE^wis pElpElqe. Wii, lii Liik- lEntses 35 
maelbanowe. LEiiigayowe laxa la xiildEkwa, qa^s dexHvideses pEl- 
pElqe laq, qa xiiLlEx^^ides xoxwax^ida. Wii, lanaxwe xwelaqa lex- 
^wklEq, qa^s xwelaqe Lax'^ldes lax oba^yases lax'de lexHvidaasxes 
maelbanowe LEmg'ayowa, qa^s etlede dexVldEq. Wii, aPmese 
gwalExs lae labEnde maelba^yas laxa xiildEkwe. Wii, la ax^- 40 
edxes LEinlEmg'ayowe, qa^s degijfna^yes laxa maiilba-'ye. Wii, 



84 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 3j 

42 has been marked out. | As soon as the board that ho.spHts out turns 
over, he does the | same as he did before ; and when he has enough, | 
he carries the boards that he has spht off and puts them dowT^i flat 

45 outside of his house. || Then he takes his hand-adz and adzes them 
all over. After he | has done so, he turns them over and adzes the 
other side, | adzing it all over nicely. After this has been done, he 
puts the board on edge and | adzes off the edges so that they are 
straight. When | this has been done, he puts it down flat. He 

50 takes a cedar-stick and splits it in two so | that it is the thickness 
of our little finger. He cuts off one end | square, and from this point 
he measures off | three spans. Then he cuts it off. Now the cedar- 

55 stick is | three spans long. | This he lays on the || other end of the 
box out of which he is makmg an oil-box. He marks as far as ] 

After doing so, | he takes off the 
and puts it down at the | other 



its end in this way: 
cedar-stick measure 
end of the oil-box 



that he is making, and he does the 



60 same | with the straight-edge as he did before: he marks its end ; and, || 
after doing so, he takes a straight-edged cedar-board, | puts it down 
lengthwise, on the oil-box that he is making, | flush with the 
straight line that runs from one mark to the other on | each end of 
the oil-box that he is making, and he marks along it | the whole 

65 length. After this has been done, he puts it on edge, takes his || hand- 

42 gil^mese nELawe liitoda^yasexs lae et!eda; wa, la aEmxat! he 
gwex'Ides g'ilxde gwegilasa. Wa, g-iPmese heloLExs gaxae wix"- 
wult !alaxes lat lanEme, qa^s la pax^Elsas lax l lasana^yases g"okwe. 

45 Wa, la ax^edxes kMiniLayowe, qa^s k- ItmLEldzode. Wa, giPmese 
gwalExs lae lex-^idEq qa^s etiede k' llmLEdzodxa apsadzE-'j'c laxes 
aek'Iaenae klmLaq. Wa, g-iPmese gwalExs lae k^ox^ulsaq, qa^s 
k" liniLEnxEndex awunxa^yas, qa uEqEnxEles. Wa, giPmese gwa- 
lExs lae pax^Elsaq, qa^s ax^edexa k IwaxLawe, qa^s xox"sEndeq, qa 

50 yuwes wag-itEns sElt!ax'ts!ana^yex. Wa, la kMlmtodsx oba^yas, 
qa ^uEmabes. Wa, he^'mis g'agiLElaxs lae baHtses q!waqhvax-ts!a- 
na^yaxa yudux"p!Enkaxs, lae k'limtslEndEq. Wa, laEm j'udux"- 
plEnk'e ^wasgEmasas laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex, ylx ^wasgEma- 
sasa klwax^Ene mEnyayowe. Wa, he=mise k-adEdzodayos lax 

55 apsba^yasa wulasE^wa dEngwatsIe. Wa, la xut!aLElodEx ^wa- 
lag-ilasas oba^yasxa g-a gwaleg-a {jig.)- Wa, gtPmese gwalExs lae 
Sx^aLElodxes mEnyayowe k!waxLawa, qa^s liixat! kadEdzots laxa 
apsba^yases dEngwats !eg-ilasE^ve. Wa, laEmxae lieEm giiyinxEn- 
dale uEqEnxa^yas. Wa, laxae xiitlaLElodEx oba^yas. Wa, gll- 

60 ^mese gwalExs lae ax-'edxa nEqEiixEla nEgEnosEla klwaxLawa qa^s 
k^adEdzodes aots!aqala LE^we widasE^we dEugwatslit. Wa, la^me 
nanaxtE^was uEqEnxa^yasa nEgEnosEla laxa xwexiilta^ye lax wax's- 
ba^yas wulasE^was dEngwats'.axs lae xuldElEiidEq hebEudalax 
^wasgEmasas. Wa, g'tPmese gwalExs lae klox^ulsaq, qa^s iix^edexes 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 85 

adz, and adzes along the mark that he has put on. When he | 65 
nearly reaches this Ime, he stops. Then he takes his straight | knife 
and cuts off so that ovor3^thing comes off do^vn to the mark. After | 
the board has been cut smooth, he lays it down flat again and puts it 
on the other edge, | and he cuts the other edge also so that it is 
straight; and || after doing so, he puts it dowai flat. Three spans | is 70 
the width of the oil-box. He | takes the cedar measure and cuts off 
its end so that it is square. | He measures it off so that it is two spans 
long, I and cuts it off. Tlien he lays it on the || middle of one end of 75 
the oil-box tliat he is making, and marks it. | .After doing so, he 
measures with his cedar measure | to find out the center of the 
box that he is making. Wlien he has foimd it, | he 

marks it and measures it in this wa}^: RH 1 T/H | Now the 
cedar-stick is beveled so that he may 1^^ I 1""^^ find out which 
way it slants. || As soon as he finds that it is not §0 

square, he takes his straight-edge | measure and lays it on the 
end of the box that lie is makmg, and | he marks along it; 
and after he has fuiished, he takes his straight \ knife and 
cuts across the grain, cuttmg off the slanting end. | As soon 
as this is done, he takes another cedar-stick || and splits it so that 85 
it is flat and one span wide. | It is very thin. He cuts off | the end 
so that it is square, and, after doing so, he measures | it so that it is 

k' ItmLayowe qa^s k" !imLElEna-yexa xiildEkwe. Wii, giPmese la- 55 
k" !End Elaq laqexs lae gwala. Wii, la dax'^idxes nExx'ala 
k' !awaj'owa, cja^s k" lax^wideq, qa ^wFlawesa xulta^yas. Wii, giPmese 
la ai'k- !a \v lakiixs lae pax^Elsaq, qa^s xwelaqe k- !ox^iilsaq, qa^s 
k-!axnvidex apsEuxa^yas, qa ogwaqes nEqEla. Wa,, g-lPmese 
gwiilExs lae et!ed pax^Elsaq. Wii, laEm yudux"p!Eng-adzowa 70 
wulasE^was dEugwatsle liixEns qlwaqlwax'tslana^'ye. Wa, lii 
iix^edxa kKvaxLawe, qa^'s k-!lmtodex oba^'yas, qa ^nEmabes 
oba^yas. Wii, lii bal^idEq qa malplEnkes ^wiisgEmasas laxEns 
q !waq Iwax'ts liina^yex lae kMimtodEq. Wii, la k'iidEdzots lax 
nEgEdza,^yas apsba^yases wulasE^we dEugwatsIii. Wii, lii xultbEU- 75 
dEq. Wii, gil-mese gwalExs lae mEnsi-liilases kIwaxLiiwe niEnya- 
yowa, qa% q!ii'"stex UEgEdzii-'yases wiiliisE^we. Wii, glPmese q la- 
qexs lae xut!iiLEl5(lEq. Wii, lii niEnsi-'liilaq g-a gwiileg-a (Jig.). Wii, 
laEm senoqwaleda kIwaxLiiwe niEuyayowa, qa^s qliistex senogwas- 
laxas. Wa, glPmese qlii^stax senoqwalaxs lae ax^edxes UEgEnosEla oq 
kIwaxLawe mEnyayowa, qa^s k-atbEndes liixes wuliisE^we, qa^s 
xuldElEuayeq. Wii, gih'mese gwalExs lae ax'edxes nExxiila 
k'lawayowa, qa^s gEgexsale k- la.xHvidEq, qa^'s kMaxalex senoqwa- 
-yas. Wa, g iPmese gwiilExs lae ax^edxa k'.waxLiiwe ogil^laEmxat!, 
qa^s xox-Videq qa pEx-'Eues, qa ^nEmdEnes ^wiidzEWasas laxEns §5 
q'.wiiq'.wax-ts'.ana^yex. Wii, lii pEldzowa. Wii, Inxnc li'IlmtodEx 
oba^yas qa "^uEmabes. Wa, gIFmRse gw'alExs lae baJ-'IdEq, qa 



86 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etii. asn. 36 

three spans long. | Then ho cuts it off. Tlicn ho measures two spans 
90 and two || finger- widths for the end (of another one), which he also 
cuts off. I Next, ho places the shorter | measure on the edge of the box 
that he is making, beginning at the | end, and marks the end of the 
measuring- | stick. Then he takes it off. He puts it down on the 
95 upper side || and marks its end again. Then he takes the | straight- 
edge and puts it do-mi so that it touches the marks, | and he marks 
along it. As soon as he has done this, he takes the longer one of 
the I cedar measures, puts it down on the box that he is making, | 
beginning at the last mark that he put on, and he marks its end; || 
100 and he also puts it on the other edge and marks its | end. After 
this has been done, he takes his straight | cedar-stick and puts it 
down close to the marks that he has just made, and | marks along it. 
Then he puts it down on the floor. He takes the shorter | cedar 
5 measure and puts its end dowm on the edge || of the box that he is 
making, boginnmg at the last mark that he has put on, and he| 
marks its end. Then he takes it off and puts it down | on the other 
edge and marks its end. | After this has been done, he takes his 
straight-edge and puts it down on | the box that he is making so that 
10 it touches the marks that he has put on, and he marks along it; || and 

88 yudux"p!Enkes ^wasgEmasas laxEns q!waq!wax-ts!ana^yaxs lae 
k' limtts lEndEcj. Wii, hlxae et!ed bal^idxa liamaldEngaliisa malplEU- 

90 k'e laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex, ytx ^wasgEmasas laaxat! k'limt- 
ts!EndEq. Wa, giPmese gwalExs lae katEnxEntsa tslElnva- 
gawa^ye niEnyayo lax awunxa^yases wulasE^ve g-aglLEla lax 
Sba^yas. Wii, lii xult laLElodEx ^walalaasas oba^yases mEnyayowe 
k!waxLawa. Wii, lii ax^aLElodEq, qa^s lii l\'atEnxEnts liixa ilpsEnxa- 

95 fyas. Wa, laxae xiilt laLElodEx ^walalaasas. Wa, lii ax^'edxes 
uEgEnose, qa^s k'adEdzodes qa nExstaj^esex xwexiilta^yasexs lae 
xiildElEncq. Wii, giPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa giltagawa^ye 
k!waxLawa mEnyayowa, qa^s lii k'atEnxEnts laxes wulasE^we g'ii- 
g iLEla lax ale xultes. Wii, lii xiilt !aLElodEx ^walalaasas oba^yas. 
100 Wii, laxaes liixa apsEnxa^j'c. Wii, laxae xult!aLElodEx ^valalaasas 
oba^yas. Wii, giPmese gwiilExs lae ax^edxa UEgEnosEla k.'wax- 
Liiwa, qa^s lii k'atlaLElots liix nEqEliisa xwexulta^ye. Wa, la 
xiildEh'EndEq. Wii, laxae kat!iilllaqexs lae S,x^edxa tslEkwaga- 
wa^ye kIwaxLawa mEuj'ayowa, qa's liixat! kadEdzots lax awOnxa- 
5 lyases wulasE^we g'iig'lLEla laxes ale xulta^ya. Wii, laxae xiiltla- 
LElodEx ^villalaasas oba^yas. Wii, lii ilx'aLElodEq, qa^s lit k-iitEn- 
xEuts liixa apsEnxa^ye. Wii, lii xult !aLEl6dEx ^wiilalaasas. Wa, 
gIPmese gwiilExs lae ax'edxes UEgEnosEla, qa^s lii kadEdzots laxes 
wulasE^we. Wii, giPmese uEqala Lax xwexfdta^yasexs lae xuHeIe- 



noAS] INDUSTRIES 87 

after all the places where the short sides are to be bent have been 10 
marked, and also | the long sides of the oil-box that he is making, he 
takes the measure of | the longer cedar-stick and puts it down on the 
edge of the | box that he is makmg so that it touches the mark that 
he made last. He marks the | end of the measure, takes it off, and 
puts it down || on the other edge, and he marks the end of it again. 15 
After this has been | done, he takes his straight-edge, puts it down so 
that I it just touches the marks along it. This is | the place where 
the two ends of the oil-box that he is making will meet. After he has 
done so, it is | in this way.' Then he takes his straight knife and || 
cuts out the marks for the bending of the sides, | in this way.^ The 20 
ends are cut out in this manner.^ After this has been done, he takes | 
a basket, goes down to the beach of the house where he is making 
the box, and | puts stones into his basket. As soon as | it is full, 
he carries them in on his back into the house in which he is making 
the box, II and he pours down the stones by the side of the fire. 25 
Then he goes down again | and puts stones into his basket, j When 
it is full, he carries them on his back | into the house in which he is 
making the box. He pours them down by the side | of the fire. 
When he thinks he has enough, he stops. || He rakes up his fire and 30 
puts the stones on top of it. | When this is done, he takes the box 



neq. Wa, g'il^mese ^naxwa xuldEkwa k'!ek"!osasa tslEg'ola LE^wa 10 
gtldolas wulasE^was dEngwatsia; wa, laxae ax^edxa msnyayowasa 
glldolasexa glltagawa^ye klwaxLawalii k'adEdzots lax awunxa^yases 
wulasE^we. Wa, laEm sEXEnex ale xiiltes. Wa, la^me xut laLElodEx 
oba^yases mEnyayowe. Wa, laxae ax^aLElodEq, qa^s la k'at laLElots 
laxa apsEnxa^ye. Wii, laxae xultlaLElodEx 5ba^yas. Wa, g iPmese 15 
gwalExs lae iix^edxes uEgEnosEla kIwaxLawa, qa^s kadEdzodes, qa 
nEqales laxa xwexulta^ye. Wa, la xudElEueq. Wa, hesm sak-o- 
deltsa oba^yas wulasE^was dEngwatsia. Wii, glFmese gwalExs lae 
g-a gwiilega {fig.)- Wa, la ax^edxes nExx-aia k!awayowa, qa^s 
xuxQtsox^wIdexa la xwexiildEkwaxa g^a gwaleg'a {fig.). Wa, laLa 20 
g'a gwale xiilta^yasa sakoda^ye. Wii, giPmese gwiilExs lae ax^edxa 
lExa^ye, qa^s lit lEntsIes Lax LlEma^isases wii^latsle g-6kwa. Wa, la 
xE^x"ts liilasa tIesEme laxes xEgwatsIaxa tIesEme lExa^ya. Wa, g'il- 
^mese qotlaxs lae oxLosdesElaq qa^s lii oxLaexElaq liixes wii^latsle 
g-okwa, qa^s lii giigEnalisas laxes lEgwlle. Wii, lii etEntsIesa, qa^s 25 
liixat! etied xE^x"ts!otsa tlesEme laxes xEgwatslaxa tIesEme lExa^ya. 
Wii, g-iPEmxailwise qotlaxs lae oxLEx-^IdEq, qa^s lii oxLosdesElaq 
qa^s liixat ! oxLaeLElaq liixes wii^latsle g'okwa, qa^s lii gugEuolisas 
laxes lEgwlle. Wii, g^iPmese kotaq laEm helalaxs lae gwala. Wa, 
lii lElqox^wIdxes lEgwile, qa^s XE^x"Lalax-^idexa tlesEmg liiq. Wii, 30 
g IFmese gwalExs lae iix^edxes wiiliisE^we qa^s pax^allles lax 

1 See figure on p. 68. 2_See figure on p. 69. 



88 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann.35 

32 which he is making and puts it down | close by the fire. He marks 
on the floor a point on each side of the marks that he has put on | the 
three corners of the oil-box that he is making. Then | he takes the 

35 box away and puts it down flat at a place not far from || where he is 
working. He takes his wife's clam-digging stick and digs up | the 
soil. The hole that he digs is of the same length as the width | of the 
box that he is making, and the width of the hole is one span, | and 

40 it is one span deep. | As soon as he has done so, he takes the || large 
basket, goes down to the beach, and picks off | duke and throws 
it into a basket. | When it is full, he carries it on his back up the 
beach, | into the house in which the box is being made. He puts it 
down at the place | near where he dug the holes. As soon as this is 

45 done, he takes good, easily-splitting || pine-wood and sphts it with 
his knife into thin pieces. | He cuts them round with sharp | points. 
The length of each is four finger-widths. | He cuts them of the same 
size as the size of his drill, and he uses them to peg | the ends of the 

50 box together. (Some people sew the ends || of the box with cedar- 
withes.) I As soon as he has cut enough pegs, he goes to get his drill, | 
and also the tongs, which he brings and puts down. As soon as this 
is done, | he-takes his large bucket and goes to draw fresh water. | 

32 mag'lnwalisases Isgwile. Wa, la xult lalilax wlwax'sba^yases xwexu- 
ta^ya yudux"ts!aqe klekMSsaltsa dEngwatsle wiilaso-'s. Wa, la 
Leqiihlaxes wulasE^we, qa^s lii pax^alilas laxa k'lese qwesalalll 

35 laxes eaxalase. Wa, la ax^edEx kltlakwases gEnsme, qa^s ^lap!i- 
dexa dzEqwa. Wa, laEm ^UEmasgEnie ^lapa^yas lo^ 'wadzEwasases 
wQlasE^we. Wa, la ^naPnEmplEU laxEus q!waq!waxts!ana^3'ex, yix 
^wrwadzEgasas. Wa, laxae ^nal^uEmplEnk'e 'wI-walabEtalilasas 
laxEns q!waq!wax-ts!tina'3'ex. Wa, giFmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa 

40 ^walase lExa^ya, qa^s lii lEutsIesEla laxa LlEma^ise, qa^s lii kliilgt- 
laxa LlESLlEkwe qa^s lii lExtslalas liixes LlEgwatsle lExa^ya. Wa, 
g'lPmese qot!axs lae oxLEx'^IdEq, qa^s gaxe oxLosdesElaq, qa^s la 
oxLaeLElaq liixes wu4ats!e g'okwa. Wii, la, oxLEg'alilas laxa 
uExwiila laxes ^lapa^ye. Wii, giPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa eg'aqwa 

45 lilx xasE^we wiinagula, qa^s xox^wIdeseskMawayowe liiq, qa^s wlswiil- 
tEwes. Wa, la k- lax^wldsq qa IcElx-Enes. Wii, he^mis, qa wIsweI- 
bes oba^yas. Wa, lii maemodEne iiwiisgEmasas laxEns q!wii.q!wax"- 
ts'.iina^yex. Wii, la^me niinamagit !aq LE^wis sElEme qo Lap!ldLEs 
laxa sak'oda^yases wuliisE^we. Wii, laLa t !Emt lEgodeda waokwe 

50 wIwii4enox"sa wIswEltowe dEwex liix sak-oda^yases wuhxsE-we. Wa, 
clPmese helale k"!axwa^yas LiibEma lae k' lEngalllaxes sElEme. 
Wa, he^mise k' lipLillaa, qa g axes k'adela. Wa, giPmese gwiilExs 
lae ax^edxes ^walase nagatslii, qa^s lii tsex'^idEx ^WEViip!Ema, 
qa^s g'iixe hiing-alllas. Wa, lii ax^edxa k'!ak"!Ek!obane qa g'axes 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 89 

Then he takes pieces of old mats and || puts them down; and after 55 
he has done so, he sees that the stones on his | fire are red-hot. Then 
he I takes his tongs and picks off the red-hot stones and | puts them 
into the holes that he has dug. He does not fiU them too fuU of | 
stones; and when there are stones in every hole, || he takes the GO 
basket with dulce, takes out the dulce, and | puts it on the red-hot 
stones. He puts on a great deal of it, so that the | dulce in the 
three holes forms a thick layer. When this is done, J he takes the 
box that he is making and puts it down over the holes. He puts the 
grooved side down, | and he places the holes just under the grooves. || 
Then he puts dulce over all the grooves. | As soon as a thick layer 65 
has been put on, he lifts up one end of the box that he is making | so 
that it does not stand quite straight on edge. He takes his bucket | 
and pours water on the three holes for steaming. After doing so, | he 
puts down the box that he is making, as the steam begins to come 
out. II He covers it with pieces of old mats. After | this has been 70 
done, he takes weU-sphtting pine-wood and spHts it | so that it is two 
finger-widths in thickness and square, j He measures off five spans 
for the I length of the red-pine wood, and splits it so that it is || like 75 
tongs. After this has been done, he takes split cedar-strips | and 
ties them to one end, so that the pine-wood does not split, j After he 

gwalila. Wa, g'iPmese gwalExs lae dox^waLElaxa XE^x"Lalalise laxa 55 
lEgwile t!esEmxs lE^mae ^naxwa memEultsEmx'^ida. Wa, la 
dax'^idxes kMipLalaa, qa^sk'!tp!ides laxa x ixExsemala tIesEma, qa^s 
la k"!ipts!alas laxes ^lapa^ye. Wit, la k'les helq!alaq Loma qotlaxa 
tlesEme. Wa, giPmese ^naxwa la xEqluxLalaxa tlesEmaxs lae 
ax^edxa LlEgwatsle lExa^ya, qa^s lEx^wiilts lodexa LlESLlEkwe, qa^s la 60 
lEx^alodalas laxa x"ixExsEmala t!esEma. Wii, awila^mese waklweda 
LlESLlEkwe laqexs yudux'^dzaqae. Wa, g'lPmese gwalExs lae 
ax^edxes wttlasE^we qa^s la paqEyuits laq. Wa, la^me bEnsalaxa 
xwexiidEkwe. Wa, la nenEqale k' !ek' lalasas laxa xwexudEkwe. 
Wa, la modzodalasa LlESLlEkwe lax neuExsawasa xwexudEkwe. 65 
Wa, giPEmxaawise la wakwa lae wuyEnxEndxes wulasE^we, qa 
halsEla^mes k'!es k" lox^walilExs lae ax^edxa ^wabEts!ala nagatsia, 
qa^s tsetsadzElts !axtalexes yudux"dzEqe kMekMalasa. Wa, gll- 
^mese gwalExs lae paqEylntses wulasE^we laqexs lae kMalEla. Wa, 
la ax^edxa kMak!Ek-!obana qa^s lit LEbegindiilas lilq. Wit, g iFmese 7( 
gwalExs lae ax^edxa egaqwa lax xasE^we wuniigula, qa^s xox"s^- 
Endeq, qa maldEne^stalis liixEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex, yix ^wag'i- 
dasas. Wii, lit biiPidxa sEk!ap!Enk!e liixEns q!wiiq!waxts!ana- 
^yex, ylx ^wiisgEmasasa wunilgule. Wa, la xox^wIdEq qa yowes 
gwex'sa tsIesLiilax. Wii, g'iPmese gwalExs lae ftx^edxa dzEXEkwe 75 
ts!eq!adzo dEuasa, qa^s yiLlExLEndcs laq qa kleses hex'sa x6x"sa. 



90 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. an.v. 36 

77 has done this to the piece protecting the sides of the box when the 
corners are being bent, | he takes off the old mat which he had 
spread over the side of the box that he is steaming, ] and he puts it 

SO down a little ways from where he is working, and || he removes from 
the box aU the dulce that has been steamed. | When it is aU off, 
he takes hold of one edge of the box that he is making, which is now 
])liable. | He lays it down flat on a place where it is level. Then he 
takes the protector of the box, | he opens the two legs while he is \ 
lifting the box-board from the floor, and puts the board between the 

85 legs of the tongs. || He places this close to the slanting side of the 
groove that he has made in the board. Then he places both feet, one 
on I each end of the protector. He takes hold of the two corners of 
the box-board that he is making and | pulls it upward. Then the 
side of the box begins to bend ; and | when it is in this way,' he moves 
his protector to the following | groove; and he does the same as he 

90 did before when he bent the first groove; || and after he has bent the 
three grooves, he takes a | long cedar-bark rope and winds it around 
the box that he is making. Now | he pushes the one end agaiiist the 
groove that will fit it at the other end; and after doing this, | betakes 
his drill and drills a slanting hole through the two ends that are fitted 
together. | The distance between these holes is three finger-widths. || 

95 When he has pushed his drill through, he pulls it out | and puts in its 
place a peg of red-pine wood, which he | hammers in with a stone. 

77 Wa, gIPmese gwala L!EbEdzEweyasa k'oqwiix klosases wulasE- 
^waxs, lae ax^edxa LEpEya^ye k'lak'lEkMobaneses kunsasE^wes 
wulasE'we, qa^s la LEpIalilas laxa qwaqwesala laxes eaxElase. Wa, 

80 1a xekuldzodxes wulasE^we, qa lawiiyesa la L!op L!ESL!Ek\va. Wa, 
g'il^mese ^wilgildzoxs lae dEnxEndxes wulasE-waxs lae peqwa qa^s 
lii pax^alilas laxa ^uEmaele. Wii, lii dax'^idxes l lEbEdza^j'asa 
koqwiix k' !osases willasE^we, qa^s la aqalamasExs waxsan5dzExsta- 
^yasexs lae wegihlaxes wulasE^waxs lae L!EbEdzots laxes wulasE^ve. 

85 Wii, laEm he gwagawa^ya senoqwala xuta-yaxs lae t!et!EpbEndxa 
LlEbEdza^yases g"5g igiiyowaxs lae dadEnxEndxes wulasE^we, qa^s 
gElqostodeq. Wa, he^mis la be^naktilatsa klosase willasE^we. Wii, 
gil^mese la ga gwiilegaxs (fig.) lae LeguLElodxes LlEbEdzoye liixa 
^HEme xiita^ya. Wa, laxae ixEm naqEm2;tltowexes gllxde gwegi- 

90 lasa. Wa, gll'mese ^wi-la la k'ogEkwa yudux"diila xiitiis lae iix'edxa 
g"llt!a dEusEn dEUEma, qa^s qExsEmdcs laxes wiiliisE^we. Wii, laEm 
sEX'ba^ya siikodae laxa qEmtba^j^as. Wa, gIFmese gwiilExs lae 
ax^edxes sElEme, qas Liinexalaes sEla^ye laxa sak'oda^ye. Wa, 
lii yaeyudux"dEn laxEns q!wiiq!wax'ts!ana-yex ylx awalagalaasas 

95 sEla^yas. Wa, gllnaxwa^mese laxsawe sEla^yasexs lae lex^uLE- 
lodxes sElEme, qa^s LlayogwaaLElodesa Avunx^une LabEm laq, qa^s 
dex^widesa tIesEme liiq. Wa, glPmese ^wpla la LabEkwa, liie 

' At right angles. 



BOAS] INDUSTKIES 91 

When it has all been pegged together, he | takes a short board which 97 
is the end of the box that he is making, and | puts it down flat. He 
takes hold of each side of the box that he is making and puts it on 
top of his board. || He takes his drill and marks all round the outside 200 
of the I box that he has made; and as soon as he has marked all 
round it, he takes it off | and puts it down at a place not far from 
where he is working. Then he | takes his straight knife and he cuts 
the board until he reaches the mark that he put | round the bottom 
of his box. When he reaches || the mark up to which he is cutting, 5 
he cuts it very smooth with his crooked I knife at the place where the 
box is going to fit on the bottom board of the box that he is making. | 
Then he pounds up charcoal and puts it into the shell of a | horse- 
clam. He pours some water on it, stirs it, and | when it is mixed, he 
takes soft cedar-bark, dips it in, || takes the box that he is making 10 
and turns it bottom-side up. | When it is in this position, he soaks 
some shredded cedar-bark in the charcoal mixture, | and paints it all 
round the bottom edge of the box that he is making. He lays the 
bottom board | flat on the bottom of the box, and sits down on it, so 
that it is I pressed down against the box. After doing so, || betakes 15 
it off, and then he examines it to see if the black paint is all over 
the bottom board, | then there is no leak. If the black is in patches, 
then there will be | leaks at the points without paint. He takes his 
crooked | knife and shaves off all the black paint; and when | it is • 

S,x^edxa ts !ats !ax"sEme g'ayol lax oba^yases wulasE^we. Wa, la 98 
l)ax^ali}as. Wii, lit dananodxes wflla^ye, qa^s lii handzots laq. Wa, 
lii ax^edxes sElEme, qa^s xiitse^stalis lax L!asadza^yas ftwi^stases 200 
wiila^ye. Wa, gIFmese lii'^sta xiilta^yasexs lae ax^aLElodxes wiila- 
^ye, qa^s la hangalllas laxa k'lese qwesala laxes eaxElase. Wa, la 
dax'^ldxes nExxala kMawayowa, qa^s kMax^wldeq lalak' linaxcs xiil- 
ta^ye lax awl^stiisa paqlExsdE'ye. Wa, giPmese ^wPla lak'lede 
k'laxwa^yas laxa xwexiilta^yaxs lae aek'la k'iax^wltsa xElxwala 5 
k'lawayowe lax kIwadzayaasLas wtila^yas laxcs paqlExsdeLe. Wa, 
la^me qlwel^idxa tslolna qa^s k!ats!5des laxa ^walase xalaetsa 
mEtlana^ye. Wa, la gtiqiEqasa ^wape laqexs lae xwet ledsq. Wii, 
gll^mese lElgoxs lae ax^edxa k adzEkwe, cja^s dzopstEndes liiq. 
Wii, lii ax^edxes wula^ye, qa^s ek!axsdiilamaseqexs lae qEp.'Esa. lo 
Wa, la dostEndxa hapstaakwe kadzEk" laxa ts lolna^stala qa^s 
gEltse^tsales liix 5gwiiga^yas5s wula^ye. Wii, lii ax^edxa piiq lExsde- 
Las, qa^s paqlExsdEndes laq. Wii, lii k!wadz5dEq, qa -'niixwes 
qlEsaLEla. Wii, g'iPmese gwalExs lae six^aLElodEq. Wa, g-lPmese 
iix^aLElodqexs lae dox^widEq. Wii, glPmese ^niixwa ts!oHdExs lae 15 
k'leils g'ilx'a laq. Wii, glFmese l5lasaleda ts!olaxs lae IieEm 
g'llx'eda lolasawawa^ye. Wii, he^mis la iix^edaatsexes xElxwala 
k'liiwayowa, qa^s xaLe k" !ak" !ax^wuqEwaxa ts!5lna. Wii, g-ll^mese 



92 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. as 

all off, he takes some more soft cedar-bark, dips it into the charcoal || 

20 mixture, and rubs it over the edge of the box that he is making; then 
he puts I on the bottom board; and when the black charcoal is no 
longer in patches, | he takes his drUl and driUs | slantingly through 
(the side and the bottom). When he gets through, he puUs out his 
drill, I takes one of the pegs, wets it in his mouth with his sahva, 

25 and, || when it is wet all over, he puts it into the driU-hole. | He takes 
his stone hammer and drives it in. When it is all in, | he stops 
hammering. He takes his drill and drills another hole | three finger- 
widths away from the first one ; | and when that also passes through, 

30 he wets another peg in his mouth || with his saliva. Then he pulls 
out his drill, | changes, and puts the peg in its place in the drill-hole. 
Then he takes the | stone and drives in the peg, as he did before. 
He I continues doing this, going around drilling and putting in pegs; 
and I when he has pegged all round the bottom, the oil-box is 

35 finished; || for the time when he makes the box is when the | winter 
is over and just before the olachen run in Knight Inlet. | Oil has to be 
put in the oU-box first, in order to make it tight | by filling the 
pegged edge of the bottom with oil. When | the time for picking 

40 viburnum berries comes, the oil box is empty. || Then the berries are 
put in; and now the juice of the viburnum berries will not run out, | 
although they leave it in the box for a whole winter. | That is all. 

^wplaxs lae etied ax^ustEndxa kadzEkwe dzop^stalaxa ts !5lna^stala 

20 ''wapa, qa^s laxat ! gEltse^stalas lax awe^stas wula^yas. Wa, lalaxae 
pax^aLElotsa paq!Exsda^ye laq. Wa, gil^mese kMeas lolasawa^ya 
tslolniixs lae hex'^idaEm ax^edxes sElEme, qa^s sElx'^Idexa Lane- 
xalexs lae lax'sa. Wii, gtPmese laxs^xs lae lex^wldxes sElEme, qa^s 
dax-^idexa ^uEmtsIaqe LabEma, qa^s mElx^undeses k !uneL lExawa^ye 

25 laq. Wii, giPmese klunx^Enalaxs lae Lastots laxes sEla^ye. Wa la 
dax-^'ldxa tIesEme, qa^s degiitodes laq. Wa, giPmese laxLaxs lae 
gwal deqwaq. Wa, la etIed dax'^idxes sElEme, qa^s sElx-^dexa 
yudux"dEne laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yex g^agiLEla laxes g'ale 
sEla^ya. Wa, gipEmxaawise lax'saxs lae mElx'iintses klOneLlExa- 

30 wa^ye laq, qa klunx-Eualisex lae lex^widxes sElEme, qa^s Llayo- 
o'waaLElSdeses LabEme la Lastots laxa sEla^yaxs lae dax-'Idxa 
t'.esEme qa^s degutodes laqexs lae dex"bEtEndEq. Wii, ax"sii^mese 
hi^ gwe^niikulaqexs lii^stalae sEpniikula, qa^s LiibE^niikuleq. Wii, 
o-lPmese lElgowa Lapa^yases lae gwale wiila^yas dEngwatsIa, ytxs 

35 he^mae wulx'^ldEX'dEmsexes wuliisE^we dEngwats!exs g'alae gwiit 
ts!awunxa, yixs k!e.s-mae qwaxulisa dzHxune lilx Dzawade, qaxs 
he^mae giltslaweda Lle^naxa dEngwats!e, qa alakMales amxaxs lae 
qoqut la^'stowe sak'oda^yas LE^wes piiq'.Exsda^yaxa L!e-"na. Wii, g'tl- 
^mese t!Elt!Elts!Enxxa tiElsaxs lae loptslaweda dEngwats!;ixa L!e^na. 

40 Wii, lii tlEltslalaxa tiElse. Wa, la^me hewaxa g-llx'sale ^viipa- 
ga^yasa tiElsaxs wax'^mae lElgogwilaxa ^uEmxEnxe tslawiinxa. 
Wa, laEm gwala. 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 93 

Sewing with Cedar-Withes. — The man takes alongbone drill | and two 
split boards which he places side by side. Then he | drills close to the 
end slanting, and passes through the edges of the | two spht boards, so 
that the end of the drill passes out , , on the 



7 la tr (4 <5 '* to 13 



12 15 16 17 10 21 



As soon 5 
I knife 
cedar- 



other side of the || other board, thus: 
as he comes to the end, he takes his 
and cuts a groove into it, in which the 
withes lie. | After cutting the grooves, he turns it over and cuts a | groove 
on the other side, where no groove has been cut (on the upper side). 
When he gets to the end, | he takes the twisted cedar- withes andputs the 
thin end through (1). || HepuUsit; and when it reaches the thick end, 10 
he takes | a cedar stick and cuts it so that it has a sharp point, and 
drives it m | alongside of the cedar-withe. Then the end of the cedar- 
withe comes out at (2). | He pulls it tight and twists it, and 
pushes it in | at (3), and it comes out at (4). He pulls it tight, and|| 15 
hammers it with a diabase pebble so as to| drive it mto the groove, 
while another man is pulling | the cedar- withe, for it always requires 
two men to work at boards. He twists the | cedar-withe tight and 
smooth and pushes the thin end into (5), | and it comes out at (6). 
He pulls at it and hammers it with the stone; || and when it lies in 20 
the groove, he twists the cedar- withe and | pushes it into (7), so that 
it comes out at (8); and | he does the same as he did before; and 



Sewing with Cedar-Withes. — Wa, la ax^edxa g'llte xax^En sElEma. 1 
Wa, la ax^edxa malExsa ladEkwa. Wa, la gwasodEq. Wii, la 
sElx'^Idxa maxba^ye Liinexales sEla^ye la hex'sala lax ewunxa^yasa 
malExsa ladEkwa qa^s lii neFlde oba^yasa sElEme lax apsadza^yasa 
^UEmxsa g"a gwaieg'a (fg.). Wa, g iPmese labEndExs lae ax^edxes 5 
k- lawayowe qa^s xuxiitadzEndeq ylx laLe k'atbEdatsa dEwexe. Wa, 
gil^mese gwal xuxiideqexs lae lex'^IdEq qa^s et!ede xuxiidex'^IdEx 
nExsawasa k' !ese xiidEk" laxa apsadzE^ye. Wa, gtPmese labEndExs 
lae ax^edxa sElbEkwe dEWexa qa^s nex'sodes wllba^yas lax (1). Wa, 
la nex^odEq. Wii, gIFmese lagaa lax LEx"ba^yasexs lae ax^edxa 10 
klwaxLa^we qas k'lax^wideq qa wllbes. Wa, la degunodzEnts laxa 
onodza^yasa dEwexe. Wii, laEm nel^ede oba^yasa dEwexe lax (2). 
Wii, lii nex^edEq qa^s lEk !iit !ldeq. Wit, lii sElp!("doq qa^s nexsodes 
lax (3). Wa, gaxe hex-sala lax (4). Wa, lii nex^edEq qa^s lEklu- 
tlcdcq. Wa, lEdzeg'intsa qetsEme ts!Eq!iils t !esEm laxa dEwexe qa 15 
tiEbeg'es laxa xuxudeka^yaxs lae ncxaleda ^uEmokwe bEgwiinEmxa 
dEwcxe qaxs ma^lokwaeda eaxalaxa ts !Ex"sEme. Wa, laxae sElp !ldxa 
dEwexe qa lEklutsowes sElpa^yasexs lae nex'sots wilba^yas liix (5) 
qa liis nePid lax (6). Wa, lilxae nex^edqexs lae Isdzeglntsa t!esE- 
me laq. Wa, gll^emxaawise t!Ebegaxs lae sElpIedxa dEwexe qa^s 20 
nex-sodes lax (7). Wa, g-axe nelbax-^id lax (8). Wa, iiEmxaawise 



94 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ietii. ann. js 

23 he contmucs to tho end of all the holes | up to (22). Then he drives 
in tlie point of a cedar-stick at its sides. | 
1 Care of Canoa. — I forgot this when I was talking about | the canoe- 
buildcr, wlio spreads open the canoe, makmg a small canoe. When 
ho I pours water into it, and the stones are nearly red-hot, | he 
5 pours four buckets of water, || and there is one bucket of urine which 
he I pours into the canoe, and he carries four more buckets of water, | 
pours them into it, and he also carries one bucket of urme | and 
pours it into the water in the | small canoe. Then eight buckets of 

10 water || have been poured into the small canoe, and two buckets 
of urine, | so that it may not bo split by the heat of the sun after the 
canoe-builder shall have finished it. | Tliat is the reason why they 
put urine hito it. As soon as enough | water and urine are put into 
it, he puts red-hot stones into the canoe. | When tlie canoe-builder 

15 linislies this, || he takes a rush mat and a dish or a small steaming- 
box| and perch-oil (that is the oil obtained from | percli-liver). He 
places the stcammg-box by the side of the fire of his house, and | he 
takes the rush mat and puts it into the fire. | As soon as it burns, he 

20 places it on the side of the steamrng-box, so that || the cliarcoal falls 
into the box. When he thinks he has enough, | he takes his hammer 

22 naqEmg iltilxes gegilasaxa gag'iU^ye. Wa, la labEndalax ^waxaasa 
hlgaa lax (22) xs lae dex^'wltsa wllba kIwaxLawe lax onodza^yas. 
1 Care of Canoe. — Wit, ga^mesen LlElewesoxgiin lex' gwagwexs^ala 
laxa Leq!enoxwaxs lae LEpaxes Leqa^ye xwaxwagiima yixs lae 
gux^alExsElasa ^wape laqexs lae Elaq memEnltsEmx'^ideda t lesEme. 
Wa, he^maaxs lae gux^alExsasa mowexLa nagats!e ^wapa laxa 
5 xwaxwagiima. Wa, la ^uEmexLa nagats!eda kwatsle la giigeg'in- 
dayoseq. Wa, laxae et!ed tsex'^idxa mowexLa nagats!e ^wapa qa^s 
laxat! giix^alExsas. Wa, laxae et!ed tsex'^id laxa kwatslexa 
^nEmexLa nagats!a qa^s lii gugegints laxa la toxs ^wapsa 
xwaxwagume. Wa, giPEm malEXLagiyo nagats!eda ^wape la 

10 gux^alExdzEmsexa xwaxwagiimaxs lae malEXLa nagats!eda kwatsle 
qa k'leses ts!at!alExs l lesasE^waasa LlesEla qo gwalamasLa Leq!e- 
noxwaq. Wa, heEm lag'ilasa kwatsle laq. Wa, g il^mese helaleda 
^wape LE^wa kwatslaxs lae k' !ip !alESElasa xIxixsEmala t!esEm 
laq. Wa, g iPmese gwatamaseda Leqienoxwaxa xwaxwagumaxs lae 

15 ax^edxa kuleye. Wa, he^mesa loq!we loxs amayae q!6lats!es 
ax^etsE^we; wa, he^mesa dzeklwese, yix tsEnxwa^yas Lewuliisa 
g'omaga. Wa, la hanolisasa q!6lats!e laxeslEgwilases g'okwe. Wa, 
la ax^edxa kftleye qa^s axLEndes laxes lEgwilases gokwe. Wa, 
glPmese x'lx^edExs lae axiigints laxa q!6lats!e qa tex^altslale 

20 ts !ots lahnotas laxa q!olats!e. Wa, g'IPmese k'otaq laEm hclalaxs 
lae ax^edxes pElpElqe qa lEsElgayes lexba^yas laq qa q!weq!ults!es 



BOASJ 



INDUSTRIES 95 



and crushes the charcoal with the strikiiig-head mto dust, | so that 22 
it becomes like flour. After this has been done, he pours the] perch- 
oil into it. Then he stirs it; and when it becomes a | thick paste, he 
turns the canoe bottom-side up, takes an || old mat and tears off 25 
enough to squeeze it in his hand. Then he puts it into | the mixture 
of oil and coal and blackens the outside of the | small canoe. He 
rubs it well, so that it will penetrate the cedar wood; | and when it is 
all covered, he finishes at the end of the canoe. | Therefore they do not 
put a sun-protector on the outside of the small canoe when it is 
blackened || outside with oil mixed with charcoal, for the heat of the 30 
sun does not go through. | They do this way with small canoes and 
with I big canoes. | 

As soon as this is finished, the canoe is turned right-side up, and | 
supports of cedar-wood are put on each side of the bow and on each 
side of the stern. || Short boards of cedar-wood are placed on the 35 
seats; and when | it is aU covered, the man pours fresh water into it 
so as to I keep the inside of the canoe cool. When the weather is 
hot, |- he takes a dipper and sprinkles water so as to wet the inside 
of the canoe | in the morning. When the owner of the canoe has 
no short boards, || he cuts off branches of yomag cedar-trees and | 40 
places them on the seats of the canoe the whole | length of the canoe, 
so that neither the sim nor the | cold winds of whiter pass through, 

qa yuwes la gwex'sa qfeex. Wit, gll^mese gwalExs lae guqlEk-asa 22 
dzeklwese laqexs lae xwet!edEq. Wii, giPmese lElgoxs lae 
gEuk a. Wa, la qEp !alisaxa xwaxwagiimaxs lae ax^edxa k' !ak" !5- 
banaxs lae kwapodxa aEm helalalax q IwetsEmesE^waxs lae axstsnts 25 
laxa qteltslEqEla tslolna. Wit, lit q!woxsEmts lax osgEma-yasa 
xwaxwagume. Wa, lii dzEk'ak'ats qaalakMales lalaqa k.'waxLawe. 
Wii, gll^mese ha^mslxsEmdqexs lae gwala lo^ oba^yas. Wa, hcEm 
lag'itas hewilxa t !ayasE''wa osgEma^yasa xwaxwagiimaxs q !wa^x"sE- 
makwaasa q!Elts!EqEla ts!6lna qaxs wixsaeda tsMqwasa L.'esEla 30 
laq. Wa, la ^naxwaEm he gweg'ilasE^weda xwaxwagflme LE^wa 
ilwawe xwaxwakluna. 

Wa, glPmese gwalExs lae t lax^alidzEma qa^s qeqEdEnoLEmtsE- 
^wesa k'.waxLawe LE^wis wax-sanoLlEXLa^ye. Wa, la pax^alExdzE- 
ma tsIatslEx^same lax ek' !ot !Ena^yas LeLEXExsas. Wa, giPmese 35 
Emtslaxs lae gugExsalasa ^WE^wap!Eme laq qa hemEnala^mese 
wiidaxsa oxsasa xwak!una. Wa, gIPmese tslEtsJElgusa ^naliixs 
lae ax^edxa tsexLa qa^'s xodzElExsElesa ^wape laxa oxsasa xwak!u- 
naxa gaala. Wa, giFmese kMeas ts !ats !E^x"sEma xwagwadiisa 
xwak'.iinaxs lae tsex'^Idxa ts!ap!axasa dzadzaxmEdzEme qa^s 40 
lii Lox^'iindalas lax LeLEx'Exsasa xwakluna, lElbEndEx ^was- 
gEmglgaasasa xwak!iina. Wa, laEm wIxsEwatsa L.'esEla le^we 
yoyiixa ts!awunxe qaxs he^mae xEULEla hoxwamasa yoyaxa xwa- 



96 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIXJTL (eth. ann. 36 

for the cold wind | cracks the inside of the canoe ; for when the cold 

45 winter wmd is coming, the canoe-owner || bails out the water, so that 

it is dry inside. He takes | coarse cedar-bark mats and spreads them 

over the seats, | and he covers over the sides and each end | so that 

the cold wind does not go through. | 

After the canoe has been finished, he goes to split from a cedar- 

50 tree 1| narrow boards. These are one span | wide and one [ finger 
thick. I Their length is one and a half | fathoms. If they are split out 

55 for a small canoe, | four of these are made for bottom-boards ; and || for 
a large traveling-canoe twenty | are spht out for bottom-boards. 
He does the same as he does whea splitting out | roof-boards. The 
only difference is that they are not adzed. When | the owner of the 
large canoe goes traveling, he first | lays down on the beach the 

60 boards, beginning at the bow of the canoe, and || he places them more 
than a fathom apart, in this way.' | This is called "place over which 
the traveling-canoe is pushed down." When | they have all been 
put down, many men take hold, one on ] each side of the thwarts 
and also one | on each side of the bow, pressing their backs against 
the sides of the bow so that they lift it up and that it does not shove 

65 the boards out of place, and || also one on each side of the stern, who 

kWna, yixs glPmae yowe^nakulaxs lae hex'^ida^ma xwagwadasa 

45 xwak!una tsalax-'idEq, qa lEmxuxses. Wa, heEm la ax^edaatsexa 
awadzoledEkwe gildEdzo lewa^ya qa^s la LEp!Endalas lax lble- 
xExsas. Wa, laEm aEmxaq lax waxsanegiixsas LE^wa wax'sba- 
^yas qa kMeses lax'sawa yoyiisa tslawunxe laq. 

Wa, giPmese gwala xwak!unaxs lae latlEx-^idxa welkwe laxa 

50 ts!elts!Eq!a ladEkwa, ylxa ^naxwa^me ^nah'nEmplEnk- laxEns 
q !waq !waxts !ana^yex ytx awadzE^wasas. Wa, la ^ne^nEmdEn laxEns 
q!waq!waxts!ana^j^ex ylx wiwagwasas. Wa, la UEqlEbode esEg'i- 
wa^yas laxEns baLiiqe awasgEmasas. Wa, gil^mese xwaxwi- 
gume lat lagilasexs lae moxsEme latla^yas qa paxts. Wa, g-fl- 

55 ^mese ^walas mElexatsIe xwakliinaxs lae maltsEmgustaxse latla^yas 
qa paxts. Wa, laEm heEm gwegilaxs latlaaqe gweg'ilasasa lat!axa 
saoliwe. Wa, lex^a^mes ogii^qalayosexs heyadzae. Wa, gil^mese 
mElexElaLa xwagwadasa ^walase xwaklunaxs lae lieEm gll la paxa- 
hsElayowa ladEkwa g'iigtlis lax aguwa^yasa xwakluna, j'ixs haya- 

60 qaaxa ^nal^nEmplEnke laxEns baLaqe awalagoledzasas g"a gwalega.' 
Wa, heEm LegadEs wPx"dEmaxa mElexatsIe xwakliine. Wa, gll- 
^mese ^wilgalisExs laeda qleuEme bebEgwanEm q Iwalxokii IndEX 
wax'sba^yas LeLEXExsas he^misa wax^sanoLEma^ye tetEginoLEmex 
ewanoLEma^yas qa^s waleq qa kleses klqEdzEwexa wF.x"dEma. Wa, 

65 laxae wax'sodEXLa^ya ma^okwe wiq !wiixLa^ya. Wa, lada ^UEmo- 

1 Laying them down parallel, as a runway for the canoe. 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 97 

push ahead. Then one | man shouts, "Wo!" and then all the | men 65 
push together at the stern and pull on each side | at the ends of thci 
thwarts. Those pull with the right hand at the ends of the thwarts, 
holding I with the left hand the side of the canoe, who stand on the 
left-hand side of the canoe. j| And those pull with the left hand on 70 
the ends of the thwarts | who stand on the right-hand side and hold 
with the right hand the side of | the canoe. When they have taken 
it down to the sea, they take | the split boards and place them in the 
bottom of the canoe; and when they are | all in, they put the cargo 
on top of the boards. When || the canoe has been loaded, they start 75 
bow first; and when they arrive | at the place where they are going, 
they go ashore stern first as they go to the beach. | The steersman is 
the first to go ashore. He pulls up the stern | of the canoe. When 
the crew is ashore, they unload | the cargo; and when everything is 
out, they take || the bottom-boards ashore and put them down, ,SU 
beginning at the stern of the canoe; and they | lay them down up to 
the place where they will put the canoe on the beach. They pull it 
up I over the boards, and leave it at a level place on the beach. 
Then they | gather all the split boards and put them over the seats, 
so that I the heat of the sun does not strike the canoe. That is all. || 

Wooden Sail. — Now I will talk about the sail of the | ancient l 
people, which was sewed together of boards. First they | look for a 

kwe bEgwaiiEm hasEla^ae woxa. Wit, he^mis la -'nEmax'^idaatsa 66 
bebEgwauEme wi^x"wld laxa oxLa^ye. Wa, hiLa gElqeda waxsaxdza- 
-yas oba^yasa LeLExEXse yises helk"!otts!ana^yaxs dag'iiga^yases 
gEmxolts lana^ye laxa ogwaga^yasa gEmxaxdza^yasa xwakluna. Wii, 
la he gElqe gEmxolts lana^yasa he gwaxdza^ya helklotaga^yaxa 70 
LeLEx'Exse. Wa, la dag'ageyeses helk!6tts!ana^yas laxa ogwaga^yasa 
xwaklQna. Wil, gtPmese laxstalisaxa dsmsxaxs lae ax^edxa wFx"- 
dEma ladEkiix.s qa'^s lii paxsas laxa xwakluna. Wa, glPmese^wilga- 
alExsExs lae modzodalases mEmwala laxa paxse. Wa, glPmese 
^wilxsExs lae ^iiEqagiwalaxs lae sEpleda. Wa, gtl^mese lagaa 75 
laxes lalaiixs lae aLaxLax-^Ida qa^s klax'^allsexs lae lagallsa. Wa, 
he^mis g'aloltaweda LEnxLa^yasexs lae lalta qa^s wawat!EXLEn- 
dalexes ya^yats!e. Wa, lawisLe hox^wiiltawe le^lotas qa^s molto- 
dexes mEmwala. Wii, gll^mese wlloltawe mEmwalasexs lae axwul- 
todxa paxse qa^s paxalisEles gagiles lax oxLa^yasa xwakluna qa^s 80 
la paxpEges lalaa lax ha^nedzaLas. Wit, lax'da^xwe watEldzodEq 
laxa wi^x"dEma qa^s la hangalisas laxa ^nEmaese. Wa, la q!ap!e- 
gilisaxa ladEkwe paxsa qa^s la pak'llndalas laxa lblexexsc qa 
k'leses Llesasosa LlesEla. Wa, laEmxaa gwal laxeq. 

Wooden Sail. — Wii, la^mesEn gwiig^vex•s^alal lax yawapE^ya^yasa 1 
gale bEgwauEmaxa gwasEwakwe ts!Ex"sEma. Wii, hcEm gil la 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 1 7 



98 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL ( eth. anx. .« 

3 thick moss-covered cedar-tree that has been lying on the ground lor a 

long time. When | it lias been found, one and a half fathom-lengths are 

5 split off. II Each jiioce is two spans wide | and one finger-width thick. | 

I do not know how the edges are fitted together. | They are well 

adzed . . . Then | he takes a long bone drill, and he takes two 

10 pieces of the boards || and lays tlicm side by side. He drills near the 
end in a slanting direction | through the edges of the two split 
boards, so that the point of the drill comes through | on the other side 
of the other board, in this manner.' . . . When | this is done, he 
takes another (board) and places it alongside of the last one, and | he 

15 drills it in the same way, and sews it together as he sewed || the first 
one; and he only stops adding to it when it is two fathoms | wide. 
Then he takes a split board half j a finger-width thick and four j 
finger-widths wide. Its length is equal | to the width of tlu^ boards 

20 that have been sewed together. He places it on top || of one end of 
the sewed boards. He takes his | drill and drills through it one 
finger-width | from the edge of the piece of wood that forms now t he 
straight | crosspiece of the short boards that have been sewed 
together. He drills straight | through, and at a distance of three 



3 alas5seda LEkwe p lElsEnala la ge^s k'atlES welkwa. Wa, gtPmese 
qiaqexs laelat!tx"'Idxa nEq!EbodasesEg'iwa^yelaxEns baLax. Wa, la 
5 ^naxwaEm maemalp!Enk' laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yQx ylx awadzE- 
wasas. Wa, la ^nal^uEmdEn laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex ylxwiwa- 
gwasas. Wa, • la^mEn k'!es qlaLElax gweg"ilasasexs lae bEnax 
eEwagawa'yas. Wii, laxaa amEmayastowe k'limLa^yas. . . . Wii, 
la ax^edxa gtlte xax^Eu sElEma. Wii, la a,x^edxa maiExsa ladEkwa. 

10 Wii, la gwasSdEq. Wii, la sElx'^idxa max'ba^ye Lsi^nexales SEla^ye la 
hex^sala lax ewflnxa^yasa matexsa ladEkwa qa^s lii nel^ede oba^yasa 
sElEme lax apsadza-yasa ^nEmxsa ga gwalega.! . . . Wii, la 
gwalEXs lae ax^edxa ^nEmxsa qa^s gwasEnxEndes laq. Wii, laxae 
heEm g\vale sEla^yas laq LE^'we t lEmt !Egoda^yase t!Emt!Egodaena- 

15 ^yasa g'ale axes. Wii, aPmise gwal gwasEnxEndalaqexs lae malplEn- 
ke ^wiidzEwasas laxEns biiLax. Wii, laEm ax^edxa ladEkwe k-!o- 
dEn laxEus q!waq!wax-ts!iina^yex ylx wagwasas. Wii, la m5- 
dsn laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yex ylx ^wadzEwasas. Wa, la heEm 
^wasgEme ^wiidzEwasasa gwasEwakwe ts!Ex"sEma. Wa, la pagE- 

20 dzots lax apsba^yasa gwasEwakwe ts!Ex"sEma. Wii, if. ax^'edxes 
SElEme qa^s sElx'^idxa ^nEmdEnas ^wadzswase laxEos q!wa- 
q!waxts!ilna^yex g'iig-iLEla liix awaxa^j^asa la 'nEraEnxalcda 
xwalba^ye l6^ oba^yasa gwasEwakwe ts!Ex''sEma. Wii, laEm hex-sale 
sEla^yas laq. Wa, la yudux"dEn lilxEns q !waq iwax^ts lana^yex 

' Here the method of sewing is described in detail. See figure on p. 93. 



KOAs] INDUSTBIES 99 

finger-widths || from the first hole he drills through again; and then 2,5 
he drills | other holes at the same distances. The drilling continues 
over the | whole length of the cross end-piece. He also cuts grooves 
into it; and after | the grooves have been cut between alternating 
pairs of drill-holes, he turns the | sewed boards over and cuts grooves 
on the opposite side, over those (intervals) in which he did not cut |! 
grooves (on the other side). After he finishes, he turns it over. 30 
Then he takes | twisted cedar-withes and sews them together | in 
the way in which he sewed the short boards. As soon as | he has 

finished doing this at (1), J_^ ^ he drills at (2), and 

he does | the same as he II -~_r-.~„~_"„'-. I 1 did at (1) ; and after 
he has done it, he || puts 1 J KI~^Zru-C~Z I 1 the crosspiece at the 35 
other end, and he drills 1 I ~_~„°_"U~_~- 1 1 it at (3), and | he 
does the same as he did at ' ' ~— "l-~-r— ""-TL H (l) and (2) ; and | 

finally he does it at (4); \}J_ ]_| and when he reaches 

the end, he has finished. , . , Now, that | is the 

sail of the ancient people before any white people came; to wit, | short 
boards sewed together. The canoe-mast is short, for it || just shows 40 
above the top edge of the board sail when | it is standing up in the bow. 
They just push up one end, | for the lower edge lies hard against the 
mast when | it is standing. The wind just blows against it and presses | 
the board sail against the mast when the canoe is running before the 
wind. When || it gets calm, they lay it down flat towards the stern, 45 

ylx ^walalaasas la et!ed sElx'^Itso^s. Wii, laxae lax'sixs lae et!ed 25 
sElx'^dxa hemaxat! ^walale. Wa, hi hcbEndale sEla^yas lax 
^wasgEmasasa xwalba^ye. Wa, laxae xiixfldex-^idEq. Wa, g'iPmese 
gwal xuxudek'ax eawagawa^yasa sEla^yaxs lae lex'^idxa gwasE- 
wakwe ts!Ex"sEma qa^s xwexudex^idex nExsawasa k'!ese xwe- 
xudeg Ikwa. Wa, laxae lex^Idqexs lae gwala. Wa, laxae ax^edxa 30 
sElbEkwe dEwexa. Wa, lit heEm t'.Emx'^ldaeneqes t lEmalaena^yas 
liix'de t!Emt!Eg6dalaxa gwasEwakwe ts!Ex"sEma. Wa, gtPmese 
gwalExs lae sElx'^idEx (2), ytxs laaLal gwille (1). Wa, aEmxaawise 
nEqEmgHtEwexes g^ale gwegilasEx (1). Wii, giPmese gwalExs lae 
pax^aLElotsa xwatba^ye laxa apsba^ye. Wii, laxae sElx'^idEx (3). 35 
Wa, aEmxaawise nanaxts lEwaxes gwegllasax (1) l6^ (2). Wii, la 
ElxLalax (4)we. Wii, giPmese labEndqexs lae gwala. Wii, heEm 
yawapE^yesa g'ale bEgwanEmxs k" lesmaol gaxa mamaiax yixa gwasE- 
wakwe ts!Ex"sEma. Wa, la tslEklwe Lap!eqas laxa xwakluna ylxs 
haisEla^mae nelEtala lax ek' lEnxa^yasa gwasEwakwe ts!Ex"sEmaxs 40 
lae Laxs laxa agiwa^ye. Wii, a^mese Laqo'stoyiwe iiwunxa^yasexs 
laaLal tEsales banEnxa^ye lax ox"sTdza'yasa yawappleqaxs laaLal 
Laxsa. Wii, a^mise la yolay5sa yala qa^s lii tEsp lega^ya gwasEwa- 
kwets!Ex"sEm laxa Lapleqaxs uEqlExLalae laxayala. Wii, g-lPmese 
qlox^widExs lae aEm pax^alExdzEm gwagwaaqa laxa gwiilExsasa 45 



100 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL rExii, AN>f. 35 

46 away from | the mast; and the middle of the board sail lies against 

the mast as it is standing on edge. | After they have taken it down. 

they take down the mast and put it down | into the bow; and they 

push up the I board sail and shift it towards the bow, so that it lies 

50 flat II in the bow of the canoe. The sail of a large j travehng-canoe 

is of this size. | 

1 Mat Sail and Mast. — A woven mat was the sail of j small canoes. 

It was made of the middle part of cedar-bark, for the [ weaving is 

5 made of narrow strips. Its length is one fathom | and two spans, || and 

its width is one fathom. There are four holes in one edge, i by means 

of which it is strapped to the mast, in this way: j and there is 

top corner; j 
end of the 
m an peels]! 
for the mat 



one hole in each corner to put the sprit into the 
and the hole in the lower corner is for the lower 

10 sheet I to pass through. When it is finished, the 
a young cedar-tree, which is to be the mast 
sail. I He passes twisted cedar-bark rope through the four holes 
in the side of the sail, | and puts it around the mast to hold 
the sail. He uses a small | young cedar-tree for the sprit, and he 
uses I twisted cedar-bark rope and puts it around the mast below 

15 the II middle to hold the lower end of the sprit. | Finally he takes well- 
made, twisted, thin cedar-bark rope, j sometimes five fathoms in 



46 Lap !eqe laxes nalnaqEyoy^laena^yaxa Lap leqaxs lae tsagExsa. Wa, 
o-iFmese pax^alExsExs lae k' !tgulExsasE^weda Lap !eqe qa^s la k'adEg'i- 
yodayo laxa ag'iwa^e. Wa, a^mise la Lax^widayoweda gwasEwakwe 
ts!Ex"sEm qa^s la xEmx'^dayo laxaaxa agiwa^ye qa las pagEgiwe 

50 laxa ^g'iwa^yasa xwakluna. Wa, heEm yawapE^yesa ^walasc niE- 
lexats !e xwak !une ^valayasas. 
1 Mat Sail and Mast. — Wii, laLa k' lEdEkwe le^wa^ye ya^wapEya^yasa 
xwaxuxwagiimexa gayole laxa naq !Eg'a^ye dEnasa, ytxs ts !elts !Eq !a6- 
ledEkwaes kMita^ye. Wa, la malplEnxbala laxEns q!waq!waxts!a- 
na-'yex ylxa ^nEmp!Enke laxEns baLfiqe ^wasgEmasas. Wa,l a ^iiEm- 
5 plEnk'iyowe ^wadzEwasas. Wa, la modzEqe kwakuxunxa^yas qa 
nEyimx'salatsa t lEmqEmk- !inaLasa laxa Lapleqe ga gwiileg-a {fig.). 
Wit, laxae kwax'saweda dzeg^asLasa dzeg'inoLEma^ye laxa eklinxa- 
^yas. Wa, laxae kwax'sawe bEnEnxa^yas qa nex'salatsa wadE- 
notslExsdeLe. Wa, glFmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa saqlflgidEkwe 

10 dzadzaxmEdzEma qa yawapleqsa lekuya^ye yawabEma. Wa, la 
nEylmx'sotsa mElkwe dEnsEn dEnEm laxa modzEqe kwakuxunxes. 
Wa, la t!EmqEmk!ints laxa ya^wapleqe. Wa, la ax^edxa wile 
dzadzaxmEdzEma qa's dzEklnxEndes laq. Wa, laxae ax'edxa 
mElkwe dEnsEn dEnEma qa^s galop lEndes laxa bEnk!olts!a^yas 
15 nEgoya^yasa Lapleqe qa dzeg-atsa dzeg-inoLEma^ye. Wa, la 
alElxsdlaxs lae ax^edxa aek!aakwas niEla^ye wIIeu dEnsEn dEnEma, 
'nal^nEmp lEuae sEkMaplEnke ^wasgEmasas laxEns baLax qa^s galo 



UOAS] 



INDUSTBIES 



101 



length, and | passes its end through the sprit-hole in the upper corner, 18 




to the other end in the lower 
lower corner sheet. || When it 20 



ancient people | before any 
consisted of two round sticks 
These were three finger-widths 
Then 11 the canoe-builder 



and he does the same | 
corner. That is the 
is finished, it is thus: | 
The mast-hole of the 
white people came here 
in the I bow of the canoe. 

apart.! The ends were sewed with cedar-withes. Then || the canoe-builder 25 
took lieavy cedar-withe ropes and small cedar-wood | and ineasured the 
middle point for the mast-hole. After | he had found the middle, he 
marked off a hole | measuring one finger-width and a half, beginning | 
at the middle mark. He took the same distance || from the middle on 30 
the other side of the mark. | Three finger-widths is the distance of the | 
marks on each side of the mark in the middle. Then he takes | the 
heavy cedar-withe and ties it around the two bars. | After putting two 
turns into the cedar-withe rope, jj he puUs it up between the two bars 35 
and draws it tight ; 1 and he winds it between the I crossbars and ties 



the ends. He does | the same on the 
side. The mast stands between the two 
bars and the | cedar-withes, in this manner : 
mast stands in (1). || This finishes aU I 
about the making of a canoe. 







F 









































other 
cross- 
The 
know 40 



p!aLElodes oba^yas laxa dzeg'asEnxa^ye. Wa, laxae heEm gwex'^Itsa ig 
apsba^yas laxa kwax'sawe laxa banEnxa-ye. Wa, heEm wadEno- 
dzExsdese. Wa, g'tPmese gwalExs lae g'a gwiilega {fig.). " 20 

Wil, he^mesa kwawoyasa Lapleqasa g-ale bEgwanEmxs k!es- 
^ma5lex gaxa mamalax, yixa malts !aqe leElxln lex-exs laxa 
ag-iwa^yasa xwakluna. Wa, la yudux"dEn laxEns q!waq!waxts!a- 
na^yex ylx awalagalaasas ytxs lae t!Emt!Embalaxa dEwexe. Wa, la 
ax^ededa Leq!enoxwaxa LEkwe dEwexa. Wa, lit niEns^itsa ^wile 25 
xok" klwaxLa^wa lax nEgoya^yasa kwa^woyoLasa Lapleqe. Wa, 



g-fl^mese qiaqexs lae xiildoyodxa malts !aqe kwa^woya. Wii, la 
mEns^idxa kModEnosEla laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yex g'agiLEla 
lax nEgoya^yasexs lae xiiltledEq. Wa, laxae heEmxat! ^walale 
xtilta^yas lax apsiiLElasa nEgoya^ye xiilta^yaxs lae xultledEq. Wii, 30 
laEm yudux"dEn laxEns q!wiiq!wax'ts!iina^yex ylx awalagalaasasa 
xwexulta^ye lax wax'seLEliises xulta^ye lax nEgSya^yasexs lae ax^edxa 
LEkwe sElbEk" dEwexa qa^s qax'odes lilxa malts !aqe LCLEXExsa. 
Wii, gll^mese miilp lEne^staxs lae ek'lEbax'^idEx oba^yasa dEwexe 
lax awagawa^yasa malts !aqe LeLEXExsa qa^s lEk!iit!exs lae 35 
nex^edEq. Wii, lit klllgll^Ents laxa dEwexe lax awagawa^yasa 
LBLEx^Exsaxs lae moxwaLElots oba^yas. Wii, laxae hiJEm gwex'^- 
idxa apsaLEliis. Wa, heEm L&Lagawayaatsa Lapleqa awagawa^yasa 
dEwexe. Wii, la ga gwiileg'a {fig.)- HeEm Lax'salatsa Lap!eqe (1). 
Wa, lawIsLa ^wi^la gw^ala laxEn q!ale lax gwegilasaxa xwakluna. 40 




102 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ietii. ann. 3S 

1 The Making of Horn Spoons (1). — Now I will talk about the | making 
of the horn spoon, the Ijlack spoon-. | When the head of the mountain- 
goat is taken off, it is | kept in the corner of the house for four days, 
5 and it is placed || not far from the side of the fire of the house; and | 
when the heat of the fire strikes it, the spoon-maker | turns the head 
over all the time; and when it gets warm, | he places it nearer the 
fire. He watches it all the time | so that it does not get burnt. 

10 When he thinks it is warm through and through, || he takes hold of 
the head and tries to pull | the hair off. When it gets loose, he 
knows that | the horns are also loosened. He takes hold of | the 
horn with his right hand, and with his left hand he holds | the nose 

15 of the head. Then he twists the horn a little and || pulls it off. Now 
the horn has been blown off by the steam. He | also does the same 
with the other one. When he has them off, | he takes his hand- 
adz and a block of wood and he adzes it. | He adzes 
it at the concave side of the horn, [ placing the '^ 

thick end on the block of wood, in this manner: || 

20 As soon as he has it off, he adzes off the "mouth" 
of the spoon so that it is round, j in this manner: 
After he has done so, he measures three | finger- / \ widths 
beginning at the | top of the horn, and he adzes it (J so that it 



1 The Making of Horn Spoons (1). — Wa, la^mEn gwagwexs^alal laxa 
k'aseliix wuL!axasa ^niElxLowexa tslololaqe kats!Enaqa. Wa, 
he^maa^s lae Sx-'etsE^we xEweqwasasa ^mElxLaxs lae moplEn- 
xwa^se ^nalas ftxel lax onegwilasa g'5kwe, qa^s la ax^alilEm 
5 laxak'lese XEULEla uExwala lax onalisasa lEgwilasa gokwe. Wa, 
laLe Llesalasos Llesalasa lEgwlle, wii lada kaselaenoxwaxa k"a- 
ts!Enaqe liemEnalaEm lex'i^lalaq. Wii, g'iPmese ts lElgii^naku- 
laxs lae L!aL!asolElas laxa lEgwile. Wii, lit hemEnalaEmq!aq!alalaq 
qa k'.eses k!umElx'^ida. Wii, gtl^mese la k'otaq laEmtslElxsa lax 

10 WEyoq !uga^j'asexs lae dax'^Idxa XEweqwe qa^s gunx'^Ide p!Elx''idEx 
habEtsEma^yas. Wii, gIPmese k-lEux'^idExs lae q!aLElaqexs 
lE^mae k' !lnEmg'aaLEle wIwuLlaxs. Wii, hex'Hda^mese dax'^itses 
helk'!6tts!ana-ye laxa wiiiJaxe, wii lii diilases gEmxolts !ana^ye laxa 
xi^ndzasa xEweqwaxs lae halsElaEm sElx-wIdxa wuLlaxaxs lae 

15 nexodEq. Wii, la^me tEk'oyosa klalEla lax fiwaga^yas. Wa, lii 
heEmxat! gwex'^idxa apsodata^yas. Wii, glPmese lawiixs lae 
ax^edxes k' fimLayuwe LE^va tEmglkwe lEqwa qa^s k' ItmldEmaq. 
Wii, lii k' !tmlodEx oklwaedza^yasa wiiLlaxasa ^mslxLaxs lae lIeh- 
qale LEx"ba^yas liixa tEmgtkwe lEqwa; ga gwiile^'a {fig.). Wii, 

20 g'll^mese lawiixs lae k' Ilml^IdEx awaxsta^'yas qa kilx'txstax-^ides 
g-a gwiileg'a (fig-)- Wii, giPmese gwiilExs lae ^mEns^idxa yudux"dEne 
laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex yix ^wasgEmasas g'iiglLEla laxa 



I'.OAS] INDUSTBIES 103 

is I notched in this phice, and it is in this wav 11 when he has 23 
finished it. || "A 

He puts away his hand-adz and takes his T^ straight knife. | 25 
In former times the people rubbed them down (J with rough 
sandstone | when they were making black horn spoons. Now 

there is water in a dish, | and the man puts it down at his left- 
hand side while he is rubbing the horn. He | puts the thick end into 
the water, and he holds it by the small end || with his left hand. With 30 
his right hand he holds a rough | sandstone and rubs the horn. | 
Nowadays the modern men adz it. They shave it down | to smooth 
it after they just begin cutting it. | After all this, he puts a small 
kettle half full of water over the fire, || and he takes two cedar-sticks, 35 
each one span long | and half the thickness of a | finger. He takes 
split I cedar-bark and ties the ends of the cedar-sticks together with 
the cedar-bark. Then he gets | another piece of cedar-bark ready to 
tie the other end j| after having put the spoon in between. Then it 40 
is this way.' | When the kettle boils up on the fire, he takes the | 
spoon and puts it in. He does not leave it in a long time | before 
taking it out again. Then he puts the spoon near its "mouth," 



max'ba^yas oxta^yasa wuLlaxax lae k'liml^idEq qa^s kimktm- 23 
dEnodzEndeq. Wa, lag'a gwaleg'axs lae gwal k'.lmLaq {fig.). 

Wii, lii g'exaxes k!lmLayaxs lae ax^edxes nExx'ala klawaya ylxs 25 
k"!oL!aaLal dasgEmak" dE^na t!esEme g'ixElasa g'ale bEgwanEmxs 
k'aselaaxa ts!6l6laqe k'ats!Enaqa q!6ts!asE^waeda loqlwilsa ^wape. 
Wii, la ha-nel lax gEmxagawalilasa gexiixa wuLlaxe. Wa, la 
ax^stEntsa LEx"ba^yas laxa ^wape. Wa, lii dalax wllEta^yas ytses 
gEnix6lts!ana^yaxs la^e dalases helk^lottslana^ye laxa kMoiJa das- 30 
gEmak" dE^na tlesEma. Wii, lii gex^idxa wuLlaxe. Wii, liiLai 
k'!lmLas6sa alex bEgwanEma. Wa, la^me kMax^wIdEq qa^s qaqe- 
ts!eq qa qes^edes laxes hiiene^me ales k" !oxflg'ale. Wii, g'll- 
^mese gwalExs lae hanxxEntsa ha^uEme nEgoyoxsdalaxa ^wape. 
Wii, lii Sx^edxa malts !aqe klwaxLawa ^nal^uEmp lEuk'e aw^sgE- 35 
masas laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex. Wii, lii k!odEn laxEnsq!wa- 
q Iwax-ts lana^yex yix awagwidasas. Wii, lii ax^edxa dzEXEkwe 
dEnasa qa^s yaLodex 5ba^yasa kIwaxLawasa dEnase. Wii, la 
gwalllasa ^nEmts!aqe dsnas qa^s yaLodayolxa Spsba^ye q5 lal 
ax^aLElaLa k'ats!Enaqe laxa LlEbiisaq. Wii, laEm g'a gwiileg'a.' 40 
Wa, gll^mese niEdElx^wIdeda hanx'Lala laxa lEgwilaxs lae ^x^edxa 
k'atslEnaqe qa^s SxstEndes liiq. Wii, lii k'!es alaEm ge^stalaxs 
lae axwiistEndEq. Wii, lii axotsa awana^yas kilx'lxsta^yasa 



1 That is, two straight sticks tied loosely together at one end. 



104 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etil ann. 35 

45 between | the cedar-sticks, in this manner, j || and he takes 

the cedar-bark and ties it on near the end / of the spoon- 
spreader I into which the spoon is put. ph He bends back 
tlie point, I and holds it by putting it into y W cold | water, so 
that it sets. Then it does not bend back \^ again, but is 
kept in position | as it gets cold. Next he takes off the spoon-opener, 

,50 and || lie takes dried dog-fish skin and rubs it all over it, so that it 
becomes very | smooth inside and outside. When it is quite | 
smooth, it is finished. Now the black horn spoon is finished after 
this. 
I The Making of Horn Spoons (2). — Let me first talk about the | horn 
spoons, how they are made. When | the mountain-goat hunter goes 
out to hunt, the spoon-maker asks | him to break off the horns of the 
5 goats that he will get, for || the mountain-goat hunter only wants the 
tallow and the | kidney-fat and the meat. He does not want the 
bones and the | horns. Therefore the spoon-maker | asks him for 
these. In the morning, when daylight comes, the | mountain-goat 

10 hunter goes hunting; and after he has kiUed || a mountain-goat, he 
takes off the tallow, | kidney-fat, and the meat, and finally he cuts 
the skin around I the bottom of the horns ; and when he has cut off 



k'ats!Enaqe lax a,wagawa^yasa LlEbasak' g'a gwaleg'a (fig.). Wii, la 

45 ax^edxa dEnase qa^s yli^'aLElodes laxa Spsba^yasa LlEbase lax 

laena^yas LEbskwa k'atslEnaqe, wii, la LlotlExodEx oxawa^yas 

qa LlotlExales. Wa, la dalaqexs lae axstEnts laxa wuda^sta 

^wapa qa L?Emx^wides. Wii, la^me xakMalaEm la LEpale ogu- 

ga^yasexs lae wudEX'^Ida. Wa, lii axodxa LlEbase. Wa, lii 

50 ax-'edxa lEmokwe xulgweg'a^ya qa^s xulxsEmdeq qa alak!ales la 

qesa yix 6gug"a^yas LE^wis osgEma^ye. Wii, gil-mese la alak!ala 

la qesaxs lae gwala. Wii, laEm gwalatslololaqe k'atslEnaqe laxeq. 

J The Making of Horn Spoons (2) . — Wega^maLEn gwagwexsEx'^id laxa 

tslololaqe kuts!EnaqExs lae kaselasE^wa. Wii, he^maaxs g-alae lala- 

eda tEWi^nenoxwaxa ^mElxLowe. Wii, la axk'hilaso^sa kfiselaenoxwe 

bEgwauEma qa^s tEpiilex wfiLlaxases yanEme ^niELxLowa, qaxs 

5 lexa'mae axso-'sa tetEwe^nenoxwaxa ^mElxLowes yEx"sEnia^ye LE^va 

mEtlose LE^wa Eldzas. Wii, la k'leus itx^ets5s lax xaqas LE^wa 

wuLlaxas. Wii, hc^mis lagilasa k'aselaenoxwe hawaxElaq qa^s 

ax^edeseq. Wii, g'iPmese ^nax'^idxa gaaliixs lae qas^ideda tEwe- 

^nenoxwaxa ^mElxLowe. Wii, lii tEwex-^ida. Wii, g-iPmese tEwe^na- 

jO nEmaxa ^mElxLaxs lae hex'^idaEm iixiilaxa yEX"sEma^ye LE-wa 

mEt!6se LE^wa Eldziis. Wii, lii alElxsdalaxs lae t lotse^stalax oxLa- 

^yasa wIWLiL !axas. Wii, g"il^mese[lii^ste tlosa^yas lax k!uts!asexs lae 



uuASJ INDUSTRIES 105 

the skin, | he takes a hammer and pounds off the horns. Now 
they break off from | the bone core. He continues doing this !| with 15 
all the mountain-goats that he has killed. And when he has killed 
enough, he carries them down | from the mountain where he was 
hunting; and when he arrives at home, he | immediately goes and 
gives the horns to the spoon-maker, | who at once takes a basket and 
goes down to the beach | in front of his house, carrying (the basket) 
in his hand. He puts stones into it, || enough so that he can carry 20 
them up I and he takes them into his house. Ho puts fhcm down 
near | his fire, and he builds up the fire and puts the stones | on. 
When this is done, he takes a steaming-box and | places it next to 
the fire, and he also takes his large water-bucket || and goes to draw '-^5 
some water, and he pours the water into the steaming-box I so that 
it is half fuU. After this is done, he takes the tongs | and puts them 
down, and also his adz and his straight | knife, so that they are 
ready on the floor of the house; and he also takes a piece of fire-wood, | 
which he places next to the fire. When all these have been || put 30 
down, he places the stones on the fire until they get red-hot. | Then 
ho takes his tongs, picks up the red-hot | stones, and throws them 
into the steaming-box which contains water, and | he continues put- 
ting in red-hot stones. As soon as the water I begins to boil, he 



dax'^Idxa tIesEme qa^s lEgELElodexa wIwuLlaxe. Wa, la^me fcEpIide 13 
k IwalaLElasasxa xaqe. Wil, a^mise la hi' gwe^nakulaxes tEwe^na- 
uEuie ^niElxLowa. Wii, g il^mese hi'l^oLExs gaxae oxLaxElaxes tE- 15 
we^nanEme laxa nEgii. Wil, g iPniese lag'aa laxes gokwaxs lae 
hex'^idaEm la tslasa wuLlaxe laxa k'aselaenoxwe bEgwanEma. Wii, 
hi'X'^ida^mese ax^edxa lExa^ye qa^s lit kloqulaqexs lae lEnts!esEla 
lax LlEma^isases gokwe, qa^s lit xE^x"ts!alasa t!esEme laq. WiL, 
a^mise gwanala qa^s lokwesexs lae oxLEX'^idEq qa^s la oxLosdesE- 20 
laq, qa^s lii oxLaeLElaq laxes g'okwe, qa^s lil oxLEgalilas lax ma- 
ginwalisases lEgwile. Wil, lii lEqwelax'^ida, qa^s xE^x"Liilesa t!esE- 
me laxes lEgwile. Wil, gil^mese gwiilExs lae ax^edxa q!olats!e, qa 
g-axes haniilisEx lEgwilas. Wil, haxae ftx^edxes ^walase nagatslil, 
qa^s lil tsex-^idEx ^wapa. Wii, lii guxtslotsa ^wape laxa q!olats!e, 25 
qa uEgoyoxsdales. Wii, g'lPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa ts!esLiila 
qa gaxes kadela. Wit^ hi'^mises k'!imLayowe LE^wis nExx'iila 
k'!awayowa, qa gaxes gwalel g'ex'g'aela. Wii, he^misa lEqwa, 
qa g'axes k'adel lax onillisases lEg-wile. Wii, giPmese g'ax ^wl-la 
gex'g'aelExs lae meniEnitsEmx'^Ideda xE^x"Lalalise t!esEm laxa 30 
lEgwile. Wil, lil dax'^'idxes tsIesLala, qa^s k-!ip!ldes laxa x'Ixse- 
mala t lesEma, qa^s lii k' lipstEuts lax ^vvabEts!awasa q!olats!e. Wa, 
lil banal k" !}pstalasa x'lx'ExsEmiila t!esEm laq. Wii, giPraese mE- 
dElx^wideda ^wapaxs lae gwal k!ipstalaq. Wii, lii dax'^Idxa wiwfi- 



106 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL fEi'ii. ann. 35 

35 sto])s putting in stones, t.akes the horns, || and puts them into il . 
He does not leave them there a long time, before | he takes up his 
tongs, feels for the horn, and when he finds one, | he takes soft 
shredded cedar-bark and puts it into his hand | in order not to burn 
it as he takes hold of the point of the horn. He strikes with | the 
thick end against the piece of fire-wood on the floor. Then the core 

40 that is left inside || jumps out. Now the horn is hollow. He con- 
tinues I doing this with all of them; and when they are all done, he 
measures off two | finger-widths from the point at the concave | 
(belly) side, in this way: ^^^ Beiiy. Then lie takes his straight j 
knife and cuts a notch '-^^^^^^^ZZ::^ into it, slanting towards 

45 the II thick end. Tlien he ^'^''^- puts down his knife and 

measures | three finger-widths from the point where he made the 
notch, I towards the big end, and he puts a small notch there. [ Then 
he puts down his knife, takes his [ adz and adzes off the horn, begin- 

50 ning at the first notch. He adzes off one-half || its thickness between 
the two notches. Then he turns the horn over, | holding it by the thick 
end, and adzes it off so that it is a little rounded, and so that it is 
hollow in the middle, j After this has been done, he adzes off the 
thick end so that it is round; j and when this is done, it is in this 
way: C \ ^-^ Then he takes | red-pine wood that splits 

55 well ^'=:^^^^ and sphts it in pieces of the size of our || middle 

35 L!axe, qa^s l:i SxstEnts laq. W;i, k'!est!e illaEin ge^stahlExs lae 
ax'edxa tsIesLala, qa^s k-!ap!Eles laq. Wii, giPmese liiLxa ^uEme 
q!5lk" wuL!axExs lae ax^edxa q!oyaakwe k'adzElcwa, qa^s sax'tsla- 
naleqexs lae dax'^Its lax wllba^yasa wuLlaxe. Wa, la xusErttsa 
LEx"ba^ye laxa lEqwa k'adela. Wa, ho^mis la dExHvfllts lEwats go- 

40 gfdga^yas. Wa, la^me kwakwux-'ideda wuL!axe. W:i, :ix"sa-mese 
he gwegilaxa waokwe. Wii, g-iPmese ^wl-laxs lae mEns^Idxa mal- 
dEuS laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^ye g-iigiLEla lax wiiEtii^yas lax 
ok !waedza^yasxa g^a gwiileg-a {jig.)- Wii, lii dax'^ldxes nExx^iila 
klawayowa qa^s k'!imtbEtEndexa Liinexala gwagwaaqala liixa 

45 LEx"ba^yas. Wa, lii g'Ig'alilaxes kMawayowe, qa^s etlede niEns^idxa 
yudux^dEne laxEns q!waq!wax"ts!ana^yex g^iigiLEla lax k'!imta^yas 
gM-agwaaqa laxa LEx"ba^ye. Wii, laxae xaLlEX'^Id k'lImtbEtEndEq. 
Wii, lit g igalilaxes kMawayowe, qa^s das^ldexes k' !imLayowe, qa's 
k'!lml'idexa g'iig'iLEla lax gale k'llmtes. Wii, lii nEgoyode k!im- 

50 La^yas lalaa lax ale klimtes. Wii, lii xwel-'idxa wuLlaxe, qa^s 
dalex LEx"ba^yasexs lae k'limb'IdEq, qa k'ak-Elxales, qa xfdboyoles. 
Wii, f^iPmese gwiilExs lae kMiml^IdEx LEkluxLa^yas, qa k'ak'Elx'ales. 
Wii, g iPmese gwalExs lae g'a gwiileg-a {Hg.). Wii, lii ax^edxa eg'aqwa 
lax xasE^we wrmiigfda. Wii, lii xoxox"s^EndEq, qa yuwes liwagwItEns 

55 ^nolaxts!ana^yaxsEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex. Wii, lii baHtsa ^nsm- 



iioAS] INDUSTBIES 107 

(inj^cr, and he measures off one | span for its length. Then he 5('> 
takes his | straight knife and cuts it off, and when he has cut off | 
■the same number and spht as many as the number of black horn | 
spoons that he is making, then he takes spruce-root and sphts 
it in two, II puts it into a small dish with water in it to soak, | 60 
and he takes his' straight knife and splits one end of the | 
pine-sticks to make them like a pair of tongs; and when | the ends 
of all of them have been split, ho takes the split roots and ties the 
other end, | in this way.' He does this with all of them; and when || 
they all have been tied with the roots, he builds up his fire, | takes 65 
the stones out of the steaming-box, and puts them back on the fire. | 
When they are all on, he waits until they are red-hot. | When they 
are red-hot, he takes | his tongs and picks out the hot stones and 
puts them back || into the water in the steaming-box; and when the 70 
water begins to boil up, | he takes the adzed horns and puts them | in. 
As soon as they are in, he takes the roots and | puts them down at 
the place where he is seated, and also the split pine-sticks. Wlicn he 
thinks I that the horns are hot enough, he takes his fire-tongs and || 75 
picks up the horns. He takes one of the | spoon-moulds, — the pieces 
of pine-wood tied at one end, — and puts the | spoon between its legs. 

plEnke laxEns qlwaqlwax'tsana^yex yix awasgEmasasexs lae ax^edxes 56 
nExxala k'lawayowa, qa^s k-!imts!Endeq. Wii, g'lPmese ^wi^Iaxs 
^axes heeneme waxatslaqa xokwe wunagule waxexLaasasa ts!oIolaqe 
k'ats!EnaqExs5s. Wii, lii ax^edxa L!6p!Ekasa alewase, qa^s papax'sa- 
leq. Wii la ax^stalas laxa ^wape q!6ts!iixa lalogiime, qa pex^wldes. 60 
Wii, lii ax-edxes nExx'iila k'lawayowa, qa^s xox^widex epsba^yasa 
wlwunagiile, qa yuwes gwex-sa ts!esLaIax. Wii, g-fPmese ^wPla 
xobaakwa lae iix^edxa paakwe LloplEk'a, qa^s yil'ides liixa epsba- 
^yas g"a gwaieg'a.* Wii, lii ^naxwaEm he gwex'^IdEq. Wii, giPmese 
^wrta la yaelbalaxa L!op!Ek"axs laii lEqwelax-'idxes lEgwIle. Wii, lii 65 
iix^wustalaxa tIesEme laxa q!olats!e, qa^s lii xEx"LEndalas lilxes lEgwi- 
le. Wa, g'lPmese ^wilxxalaxs lae iiEm la esElaq, qa meniEnltsEm- 
x'^ldes. Wa, gtlmese memEnltsEmx'^ideda t!esEmaxs lae dax'^Id- 
xes tsIesLala, qa^s klipides laxa xIxExsEmala t.'esEma, qa^s liixat! 
kllpstalas laxaax ^wabEts lawasa q!olats!e. Wii, g'll^mese niEdElx- 70 
-wideda ^wapaxs lae ax^edxa lii k'!lk'!huLEk" wuLlaxa qa-'s lii axsta- 
las laq. Wii, gil^mese ^wl^lastaxs lae ax^edxa L!op!Ek-e, qa g-axes 
g-ael lax kiwaelasas LE^wa xokwe yaelbaak" wilnagiila. Wa, a^mise 
gwanala, qa ts lElx^widesa wiiLlaxaxs lae dax'^Idxes ts!esLala, qa^s 
k!tp!ldes laxa ^nEme wul liixa. Wa, lii dax^lxa 'nEmts.'aqe 75 
LlsbEga^yexa xokwe yilbala wunagula, qa^s LlEbEg'indes laxes 
tslololaqe katslEnaqaxs lae peqwa. Wa, a^mise gwanala, qa 

1 See footnote on p. 103. 



108 KTHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann.36 

7S Since the horn is pHtible, he can spread it | as wide as he wants. Then 
he takes root and ties the | other end of the spoon-mould. After he 

SO has done so, it is in this way.' After || he has done so with one, he 
does the same with the others; and after he has | finished, he puts 
some more red-hot stones in the steamlng-box ; | and when the water 
begins to boU up, he takes | mountain-goat tallow and puts it down 
where he is working. Then he puts a dish | down where he is seated, 

85 takes the || water-bucket with water in it, and pours the water into 
the dish. After | doing so, he takes the spoon with the spoon-mould 
on it I and puts them into the boding water. When he thinks that | 
they are hot through, he takes them out one by one, | and rubs them 

90 all over with the tallow; and as soon as he has done so, || he throws 
them into the cold water in the dish. He does this | with all of them. 
He wants them to become brittle, | therefore he does so. As soon as 
they have all been put into the cold water | in the dish, he takes 
them out, unties the roots which he has tied I around the mould, and 

95 takes dogfish-skin from the back of the dogfish, and |i polishes the 
outside and the inside. When they are smooth both outside | and 
inside, they are finished. He continues doing this | with all of them, 
and in this way the horn spoons are made. | Now, that is all. | 



7S ^wadzEgEgaatsexs lae ax^edxa L!6p!Ek-e, qa^s yiKdes laxa apsba- 
^yasa L!EbEga-ye. Wii, \ix ga gwillaxs lae gwaleg'a.' Wii, gil- 

80 ^mese gwalExs lae iiEm he gweg'ilaxa waokwe. Wa, g iPmese gwa- 
Iexs lae xwelaqa kMtpstalasa xlx-ExsEmala tIesEm laxa q!5lats!e. 
Wa, giPmese mEdElx^wideda ^wapaxs lae ax^edxa yasEkwasa 
^mElxLowe, qa gaxes gaela lax eaxElasas. Wii, lii ax^edxa lo- 
q!we, qa^s g'axe k'agalilas laxaaxes k!waelase. Wa, la ux^edxa 

85 nagatsle ^wabEts hillla, qa^s giixts!odesa ^wape laxa loqlwe. Wii, 
g-iPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa LlEbEgaakwe ts!ets!ololaqa, qa^s lii 
ax^stalas laxa maEmdElqula ^vapa. Wii, g-iPmese kotaq laEm 
iilakMiila la ts!ELx^vida, lae ^niil'nEmEmk'axs lae k' .'Ip^wustalaq, 
qa^s haniElxsEmde dEX'SEmtsa yiisEkwe laq. Wii, guPmese gwalExs 

90 lae ts!ExstEnts Laxa wuda^sta ^wabE ts !a.lilxa l6q!we. Wii, lii ^na- 
xwaEm hi' gwex'^idxa waokwe. Wii, laEm ^nex' qa LlEmx^wides 
lag-llas hi"> gweg'ilaq. Wit, g'iPmese -wPla^sta laxa wuda^sta ^wabE- 
tslalilxa loqlwiixs lae iix^wustiilaq, qa^s qwelalexa LloplEk'e yael- 
besa LlEbEga^ye. Wii, lix ax^edxa xfdgwega^yasa xfdgume, qa^s 

95 xiilx^videx osgEma^yas LE^wes ogug'a^ye. Wii, g'iPmese la qetsEma. 
Wa, he^misexs lae qedzEga lae gwiila. Wii, iix"sii^mese he gwegl- 
laxa waokwe. Wii, heEm gwegilatsa ts!6l6laqeliixa tslololaqe 
k-atslEnaqa. Wii, laEm gwal laxeq. 

I See figure on p. 104. 



DOAS] 



INDUSTBIES 109 



Cedar-Bark Breaker. — The man takes a (bone from the) | nasal 1 
bone of a whale, and he takes a thin-edged rough sandstone | and a 
small dish, and he poure water into it so that it is | half full. Then 
he puts it down where he is going to work at a cedar-bark breaker. || 5 
He takes the bone and measures it so that it is | two spans and four 
finger-widths in length. | Then he puts the rough sandstone into the 
water in the | dish, and he saws the bone off so that the end is square. 
He I does the same with the other end. When both ends are square, || 10 
he rubs the edges so that they are straight; and when the edges are 
straight, | he measures the width of one hand for its width, and | he 
measures with a cedar-stick to find the center, in this manner.' | 
As soon as he finds the center, he marks a line across, and he rubs [ 
on each side of the line to make a hole thi'ough it, which serves as 
a grip. As soon as he has finished || rubbing the hole through 1.5 
which serves as a grip, | he rubs along the lower edge so as to 
sharpen it. Now he has finished | the bark-breaker. | 

Bag of Sea-lion Hide. — As soon as this is done, he takes the | skin 
of a sea-lion which has been dried. He spreads it out, and he 1| 
measures two spans. Then he puts a | straight-edge of cedar-wood on 20 
it and marks along the edge, so that it may be straight. Then he | cuts 
along, following the line; and he also lays the straight-edge of cedar- 
Cedar-Bark Breaker. — Wa,la Sx^ededa bsgwanEmaxa xaqe ga^yol 1 1 
l5x xagelba^yasa gwE^yime. Wit, la ax^edxa pElEuxe k"!oL!a dE^na 
t!esEma. Wii, he^misa lalogum qa^s giixtslodesa ^wape laq qa nEgo- 
yoxsdalesexs lae hang'a^lilas laxes eaxElasLaxa kadzay5Laxa k'adzE- 
kwe. Wa, lii ax^edxa xaqe qa^s mEns^ideq qa ^wasgEmats. Wii, lii 5 
ha^modEngala lax malp!Enke ^wasgEmasas laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!a- 
na^yaxs lae ax^stEntsa k'!oL!a dE^na t!esEm laxa ^wabEts lawasa 
lalogume. Wa, la x'iltslEnts laxa xaqe qa ^nEmabes. Wa, la heEm- 
xat ! gwex'^idxa apsba^ye. Wii, g'tPmese ^ne^namabaxs lae gex^i- 
dEx oxwil^yas qa ^nEmEnxEles. Wii, giPmese la ^nEmEnxElaxs lae 10 
baHtses ts !Ex"ts lana^ye q!waq!waxts!ana^yex laq qa wadzEwats. 
Wii, liixae mEusi^liilasa k IwaxLa^we lax nEgoya^yas g"a gwaleg'a {fig.) 
Wii, glPmese q!axa nEgoya^yaxs lae xilltaxodEx. Wa, lii g'ex^idEx, 
wax'sana^yasa daasexa la sax"sto kwax"sa. Wa, g'iPmese gwalExs 
lae gexsodxa sax"stowe kwax'saxa daas. Wii, g'tPmese gwalExs 15 
lae gexxiilabEndEq qa opesx ii^yes ex'ba. Wii, laEm gw^ala k'aya- 
y4xa k'adzEkwe. 

Bag of Sea-lion Hide. — Wii, giFmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa pESE- 
na^yasa L!exEnaxs lae lEmokwa. Wii, la LEp!alilaq. Wii, lii baP- 
idxa malplEnke laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana'yex. Wa, la k'adEdzotsa 2(1 
UEgEnose kIwaxLo laqexs lae xiiltledEq, qa uEqElesexs lae bEXE- 
lEndxes xulta^ye. Wa, laxae 5gwaqa kadsdzotsa UEgEnose kIwaxLo 

1 See illustrations in Publications of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. V, p. 372. 



110 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 3S 

wood I on the other side and marks along it and cuts following the 

25 line. | Now it is two spans wide, || and he cuts along six spans | for 
the length as he lays his straight-edge of cedar-wood down at the 
end of the | six spans which he has marked off, and he cuts along the 
line that he has marked. | Then he doubles it up in the middle of 
the long side and bends it over, and he steps on it, | so that the sides 

30 may be close together. Then he punches holes tlirough the edges || two 
finger-widths apart. That is | where the cord will pass through when 
he sews it; and when | it is finished, he puts the straight-edge of 
cedar-wood on a piece two | spans wide and marks a line on it, and 

35 cuts along it. | This piece is seven spans in length. || It is to be the 
carrying-strap for the wedge-bag, and he | puts on the straight-edge 
of cedar-wood on a piece half | a linger wide and marks a line on it 
and cuts along it. This | long strip serves to sew up the sides of the 
wedge-bag. | As soon as this is done, he puts it for a short time into || 

40 water, together with the wedge-bag. Only the carryings-trap is not 
put into the water. | He does not leave it in for a long time before 
he takes it out. | Then he takes the narrow strip of sea-lion skin 
and pushes one end| through the holes. Then he puts one end of the 
carrying-strap to | one side and sews it on. This sewing goes down- 

23 lax apsEnxa^yasexs lae xilt!edEq. Wii, laxae bExElEndxes xulta^ye; 
lasm malp!Engadzowe ^wadzEwasas laxen q!waq!wax-ts!ana^yex. 

25 Wii, laxae baFldxa q!EL!apEnk-e laxEns q!waq!wax-ts!ana^yex qa 
^wasgEmatsexslaek'adEdzodaxaases nEgEnose k!waxL5 laxHvalaasa- 
sa q!EL!ap!Enkaxs laexult!edEq. Wii, laxae bEXEtendxes xiilta^j^e. 
La^me gwanax^'idEq liixes gildolase qa nEgExxiiles. Wii, lii t !ep !edEq 
qa q !asox-widesexs lae LlEoqEmsalases klawayowe lax ewiinxa^yas 

30 lil liEmaldEngale laxEus q!waq!waxts!ana'^yiiqe LlEnqa^ya. Wii, 
heEm gayimxsalasltsa qlEniiLa qo q!Enq!Egox«^widLEq. Wii, gil- 
^mese gwalExs lae et'.ed k-adsdzotsa nEgEnose k!waxLo laxa maklEne 
laxEns q!wilq!waxts!iina^yaxs lae xultledEq. Wii, lii bExlEndEq. 
Wa, la aLEbop!Enke ^wasgEmasas laxEns qlwaqlwax^ts'.ana^yex. 

35 HeEm aoxLaasLEsa q!waats!eLasa LEmgayowe. Wii, lii et!ed k'iidE- 
dzotsa nEgEnose k'.waxLo laxa kModcnas ^wadzEwase laxEns q!wa- 
q!wax-ts!ana^yaxs lae xultledEq. Wii, lii bExlEudEq. Wa, laEm 
wilt!eq. Wii, hesm q'.EnqlEqIoyoltsexa ewiinxa^yasa q Iwaats leLasa 
LEmlEmg'ayowe. Wii, gtl^mese g-walExs lae yawas-'id ax^stEnts laxa 

40 ^wape ^wi4a LE^wa q Iwaats !eLe. Wii, lex-a^mese k' !es la ax^stanoseda 
aoxLaasLe. Wii, .k" lest !a ge^stala liixa ^wilpaxs lae ax^wustEndsq. 
Wii, lii ax^edxa qlEuyowe bExEk" pESEnesa LlexEne qa^s ^nexsS,les 
laxes L lEnqa^ye. Wa, lasm ax^aLElots oba^yasa aoxLaase lax ono- 
dzExsta^yas. Wii, lii qliiqiEnklnaq. Wii, la^me haxElame qlsna^yas 



BOAS] IISTDUSTHIES 111 

ward II to the bent bottom of the wedge-bag. He does j the same at 45 
the other side. | Then the wedge-bag is finished. | 

Spruce-Eoots and Cedar-Withes. — When the season approaches when I 
the huckleberries are ripe, j the woman makes her huckleberry- 
basket, and I it is ready when the berries are ripe. She takes her 
digging-stick and her small ax, | going to the place where small 
spruce-trees are growing, and where she knows that the ground is 
soft. As soon as || she reaches there, she pushes one end of her clam- 5 
digging stick into the ground and | pries up the roots of a young 
spruce-tree. As soon as the roots come out of the ground, j she 
picks out thin and small ones. She takes hold of them and puUs 
them out. | These may be more than a fathom in length; j and when 
she reaches the end, she takes her small ax and || chops them off. 10 
The woman who is getting the roots j continues doing this. When 
she has enough, she coils them up and ties them j with small roots 
in four places, so that they are this way ; ^^^^^ i -^ soon 
as this is done, she carries them in her right g^ ^& hand and j 
goes home. She puts them down in a cool ^ R corner of 

the house. || Then she takes a mat and ^^^^^ spreads it 15 
Over them. As soon as she has done tlris, j she again takes her small 
ax and goes to a place where young cedar-trees grow; | and when she 
reaches there, she looks for those that have straight long branches, | 
that are not twisted; and when she finds a | young cedar-tree that 



lax gwanax^idaasas oxsda^yasa q!waats!e. Wii, la heEmxat! gwex - 45 
-idxa apsana^ye. Wii, la^me gwala q!waats!;isa LEmlEing-ayu laxeq. 

Spruce-Eoots and Cedar- Withes. — Wii, he^maaxs lae Elaq gwatlsnxa 1 
lae gegaex^ededa tslEdaqe, qa-s lExile, qa^s k'!Elats!ela gwadEme,qo 
uEgEXLodLo. Wa, la ax^edxes k- lElakwe LE^'wis sayobEmaxs lae 
laxa alewadzEmxEkula laxes qiale tElq'.uts tiEk'a. Wii, g U^mese 
lag"aa laqexs, lae ts !Ex"bEtElsas oba^yases k' !Elakwe, qa^s k !wet lEqol- 5 
sElexa L!eL!6p!Ek'asa alewadzEme. Wii, gll'mese laqolsa LleiJoplE- 
k'axs lae aleqaxa UEqsla wila, lae dayodEq, qa^s nEx^uqolsEleq. 
Wii, la ^naPuEmplEna esEg-tyo laxEns baLiiqe awasgEmasas. Wii, 
g'U^mese lagaa laxa abasemilsexs lae diix"^idxes sayobEme, qa^s 
tsExsEndeq. Wa, ax^sii^mese he gweg-ilaxs LlaiJoplEk-aeda 10 
tslEdiiqe. Wii, g'tPmese heioLExs lae qlElf/nakulaq, qa^s yael^LElo- 
dalesa wiswEltowe L!op!Ek' laxa mox^widalaLEJa liiq xa g a gvviiJeo-a 
(Jig.). Wii., gIPmese gwalExs lae qlElxillases helk' lots liina-'ye laqexs 
lae nii^nakwa. Wa, lii q!Elxwalllas laxa wudanegwilases g'okwe 
qa^s ax^edexa le^wa^ye, qa^s nax^sEmllles laq. Wii, glPmese gwalExs 15 
lae et!ed dax'^idxes sayobEme, qa^s liixat! laxa dzadzEsEXEkula. 
Wii, g-lHmese lag'aa laqexs lae alex'^'Idxa g-tlsgllt !iis tEXEme, ytxa 
^uEmagitexa k'lese sElplEna. Wii, gIPmese q!axa ^nEmtsIaqe 



112 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ietii. axx. r.5 

20 has these, she chops it down. || When it falls, she breaks ofl' the 
straight branches; and when | she has enough, she puts the thick 
ends together and takes tlain cedar-withes | and twists them. When 
this is done, slie ties them around the thick ends of the cedar-twigs. | 
She ties them ^_v;?^5^^^^^,^ ^t four places, so that they are 
in this way: ^"^ ^^^^~ | As soon as this is done, she car- 

25 ries them home on her slioulder; and when || she enters the 
house, slie puts them down at the place where she always sits. | 
There she unties the cedar-withes; and after they have been taken 
off, I she strips off the branches of the fu"st one that she takes up; 
and after she has taken them all off, | she begins at the thin end of 
the cedar-withes and splits them in two | towards the tliick end, right 

30 tlu-ough the heart. After they have been split in two, || she puts 
down the other half and splits the first half again in two ; | and after 
this has been split in two, she takes up | the other half which she had 
put down on the floor, and sphts it in two also. | Now the cedar- 
withes have been split into four pieces. When this has been done, | 

.35 she takes up another cedar-withe and strips off the branches; || and 
after this has been done, she splits it in the same way as she did the 
fii-st one; | and she continues doing so with the other cedar-withes; | 
and after splitting them, she picks out the pieces containing the sap | 
and places them by themselves; and she takes the remainder of 

dzEsEq" ax^Enalaqexs lae hex'^da-'Em soplExodEq. W:i, g'il-'mesc 

20 tlax-^idExs lae dzadzatuqEwaxa eketEla tExEnia. Wii, g'lFmese. 
heloLExs lae q!op!exLEndEq, qa^s ax^edexa wile giltla dEwexa, 
qa^s sElpIedeq. Wa, g'lPmese gwalexs lae yll^aLElots lax oxLa^yas. 
Wii, lii mox^wldale yfLa^yas laq. Wa, la ga g-walaxs lae gwala {fig.). 
W;i, gil^mese gwala lae wex'SEyap !alaqexs gaxae na^nakwa. Wii, 

25 gll-mese laeL laxes gokwaxs lae ax^ahlas laxes heniEnelase k Iwaelasa. 
Wii, Iti qwelalax ytLEmases tayaxamauEme. Wii, g-il^mese ^wFlawa 
lae xikalax q Iwak' lEna^'yases gale diix'^itsE-'wa. Wii, gll-'mese ^wi-'la- 
gllEnxs lae gabEndEX wilEtayasa tEXEmaxs lae pax'SEndEq guyo- 
lEla lax oxLa^yas naqlEgEudalax domaqas. Wii, gil^mese paxsaa- 

30 kuxs lae g-igalilaxa apsodilasexs lae ettslEnd paxsEndxa iipsodilasa 
la g'aela. Wii, glPEmxaawise la pax'saakilxs lae g-ig-alilasexs lae 
et!ed dag-ihJaxa apsodelexa gilx-de k'atlalelEms, qa^s ptix'sEndeq. 
Wii, laEm m6x"seda '"nEmtsIaqe tEXEma. Wii, gil'mese gwala lae 
et!ed dUgllllaxa ^nEmtslaqe tEXEma, qa^'s xik-alex q!wak-!Ena^yas. 

35 Wii, gil-'mese gwalExs liiaxat! pax'sEndEq lilxes gweg-ilasaxa gilx'de 
papExsalaso^s! Wa, ax"sii^mese he ^eg'ilaxa waokwe tEXEma. 
Wii, gIPmese ^wi% la paiikuxs lae mamEnoqEwaxa ts!ets!Exeg-a- 
^yases pa^ye qa q!ap lilies. Wii, la ax^edxa paa^ye qa^s ylLEmdes laq 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 113 

what she spht and ties it together | in this way : ^^^,_=i=__^ She does 
the same to the inner part. As soon || as ^g^^^^^ every- 40 
thing has been tied together, she lays the '' "'''*=?-■ withes 
over her fire | to get dry; for when she sphts them, the bark also 
comes off. | After this has been done, she takes the roots and 
unties them, | and she straightens them out. Then she takes good | 
straight-splitting red-pine wood and splits it like a || pair of tongs. 45 
She takes a thin root and ties it at a place | fom- finger-widths from 
the unsplit end; | and after doing so, she takes her straight knife 
and I cuts off the end of the tongs which serve for stripping off the 
bark of the roots, and j thus the end is sharp. She cuts it again at the 
end where she tied the tongs with roots. As soon as this has been 
finished, || she puts it into the floor close to the fire, | with the split 50 
end upward, and the sharp end in the ground, leaning (outwards) | 
towards the fire, in this way: m As soon as this has 

been done, | she takes one /J7 of the long pieces of 

root and coils it up again. W Then | she puts it 

on the middle of the fire £- ^^.^ takes her tongs, and || 

holds the root with them. Then she turns it untU all the bark has 55 
been burnt black. | As soon as the bark has been burnt black, | she 
takes it off with the tongs and puts it down next to the implement for 
stripping off the bark | of the root. Then she takes the end of it and 
puts it between the | legs of the tongs for stripping off the bark from 

g'a gwiilega {fig.). Wa, laxae heEm gwex'^idxa naqlEga^j^e. Wa, 
gtl'mese^wFla la yaeLEmalaxs lae LPsaLElots lax uExsta-yases lEgwile, 40 
qa lEmx^wides qaxs he^mae lawalats xexEx"^una^yasexs lae papEX'sa- 
laq. Wii, glPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa LloplEk'e qa^s qwelalex 
yiLEmas. Wa, la daPldEq qa^'s dal'alileq. Wii, lii dax'^Idxa eg-aqwa 
lax xasE^we wttnaguta. Wii, lii xox^wIdEq qa yuwes gwex'sa 
ts!esLalax. Wa, lii ax^'edxa wile LloplEk'a, qa^s yil^aLElodes liixa 45 
modEne laxEns q!waq!wax"ts!ana^yex g'iigiLEla laxa k'!ese xQkwa" 
Wii, gil^mese gwalExs lae da.s;'^idxes iiExx iila k' liiwayowe qa^s 
k'!ax^widex oba^yasa x'lk'ala^yax xEx"^una^yasa L!6p!Ek'e qa 
ex^bes g'iigiLEla liixa la yil-Ene LloplEk'a. Wii, g'tPmese gwalExs 
lae ts!Ex"bEtalilas oba^yas liixa onalisases lEgwile. Wii, laEm 50 
ek^Eba^ya x5kwaxs laiiLal g'ebElalilEles ex'ba^ye laxes Llastalae- 
na^ye laxa lEgwIte, g'a gwiilega {fig.). Wii, gfl^mese gwalExs lae 
dax'^Idxa ^uEmtslaqe glltia L!6p!Ek'a, qa-'s xwelaqe qEs^idqexs lae 
LlEX'LEnts lax nEXLaliises lEgwile. Wii, lii dax'^idxes ts!esLiila qa^s 
k'!ip!ides laqexs lae liilexlLalas qa ^niixwes k!wek!umElk'Eye xex"-u- 55 
na^yas. Wii, g tPmese ^naxwa la kKvekliiniElk'Eyax'^ide xExHlna- 
^yasexs lae k'!lp!idqEs k'!lp!ahles lax mak' lEXLa^yasa Laele x'lk'ala- 
yax xEx"^una^yasa LloplEk'e. Wa, lii dilbEndEx oba^yas qa^s k'iik'E- 
todesa LlaLlax'ELalakwe LloplEk' lax awiigawa^yasa x'ik's'ayax 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 1 S 



114 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. S5 

60 the roots that have been burnt over the fire. || She takes hold of the 
top of the legs of the tongs with the j left hand, presses them together, 
while she piiUs the roots through the tongs with the | right hand. 
Then the bark | peeb oiT, and the sap comes out. As soon as all | the 
bark is off, she puts the other end in and strips off the bark of the || 

65 root that she is holding; and she continues fur a long time | pulling 
it to and fro, stripping off the bark of the roots by pulling them 
through. She only | stops doing this when the root is white all over, 
for they are dry. | After doing this, she takes another | root and does 
the same as she did with the first one with which she was working; || 

70 and she only stops when all the bark is stripped off. | Then she sphts 
them in two thi'ough the middle, sphtting the whole length ; | and 
after splitting them in two, she sphts the halves into two again. | 
Then she splits each root into four pieces. She continues doing this 

75 with I aU the roots; and when they have all been split, she || scrapes 
them. Then she takes her husband's straight knife | and puts it 
down at the left-hand side of her foot. She takes | the spht root 
with the left hand and puts it | against the right side of the heel of 
her left foot. | Then with the right hand she takes the straight 

80 knife || and puts the back of the knife against the root, and presses 
it down against it, [ and puUs the root tlirough with the right hand. 
Then she tm'ns the root over, | pulhng it thi'ough between the heel of 



60 xEX"^iina^yasa LloplEkaxs lae dax'^itses gEmxolts!ana-ye lax oxta- 
^yas waxsanodzExta^yasexs lae q !weq Iwasalaqexs lae nex^Itses 
helk'!6tts!ana-ye laxa L'.oplEke. Wii, h6=mis la qusalats xex"^- 
lina^yas. Wii, laxae saaqale saaqas. Wii, gll'mese ^wIlgtlEnxes 
xEx"^ima^yaxs lae xwel^IdEq qa^s ogwaqe xik"5dEx xEx"^una'yases 

65 dalasox"de. Wii, lit geg illl aedaaqiinaxwa kakEtots laxes x'lk'a- 
layax xEx"^una^yasa LloplEk'e qa^s xwelaqe nexsodEq. Wii, al^mese 
gwal he gwegilaqexs lae alak!iila la ^niElklEua qaxs lae Ismx^un- 
x'^ida. Wii, gil-mese gWillExs lae et!ed dax'^Idxa ^uEmtslaqe 
LloplEk'a. Wii, laxae aEm nilqEmgiltaxes gilxde gweg'ilasa. Wa, 

70 al-mese gwiilExs lae ^wPla la xlk'Ewakwe xEx'^^unil^yas. Wii, lii 
niiqlEqax domaqasexs lae piix'^idEq hebEndaL.>> awasgEmasas. Wa, 
gtPmese malts !exs lae ettslEnd paxsEudxa waxsodilas. Wii, la^me 
mox"sEndxa ^niil-nEmts !aqe l !op lEk'a. Wii, ax"sii^mese he gweg'ilax 
^waxaasasa Llop'.Eke. Wii, g iFmese ^wi^la la papEx-saakuxs lae 

75 kexet!edEq. Wa, laEm Sx^edEx nExx'iila k" lawayoses la^wimEme, 
qa^s dzex^wahleses gEmxoltsidza^ye g^Sgiiyowa. Wii, la dax'^itses 
gEmxoits !ana^3^e a^yaso liixa paakwe L!op!Eka, qa^s pax^aLElodes 
iax helk' lotsEma^yas mEkluxLax'sIdza^yases gEmx5ltsidza^ye g'ogii- 
yowa. Wa, lii dax^^Itses heIk'!ots!ana^ye laxa uExxiila kMawayowa 

80 qa^s katlEndes awlg'a^yas liixa Llop.'Ek'e. Wii, lii tEsalakats laqexs 
lae nex^edxa LloplEk'ases helk' !5tts lana^ye. Wii, la xweiiHiilaxa 



BOAS] INDUSTEIES 115 

her foot | and the back of the straight knife. Then she only stops 
doing this || when the knife does not get wet any more. Then the 85 
scraped root is really | white, because it is very dry; and it | is phable. 
That is the reason why it does not l)reak; for she is | going to make a 
well-made basket out of it to shake the huckleberries into. After | 
she has done this, she does the same with the cedar withes, and | she 
treats them in the same way, scraping || the water out of them. | 89 

Cedar-Withes. — While the man is making the digging-stick for 1 
digging I clover, his wife goes into the woods looking for long cedar- 
branches that I spht straight, which are the thickness of our fingers, | 
and wliich also have no branches. They oidy have || leaves on each 5 
side, and these are called | "cedar-branches." As soon as the 
woman finds the cedar-branches, | she puUs them down and breaks 
them off. Sometimes there are many on | one cedar-tree, and there 
are not many on other cedar-trees. | When the woman who gathers 
cedar-branches gets enough, || she ties one end of the branches which 10 
have been put together with twisted cedar-branch rope; and | after 
tying up one end, she goes home carrying on her shoulders the 
branches which she has gathered. | She puts them down in a cool 
corner of the house. Then ] she sits down and splits them tlu-ough 
the heart. When | they have been spht in two, she sphts each half 
in two, and || she sphts them again in two, and she sphts them once 15 

L !op lEk'axs lae nexsawi^lalaq laxes ^mEk IiixLaxsidza^yases g'oguyowe 82 
Lo^ awlga^yasa nExxiila k!awayowa. Wii, aPmese gwal he gweg'i- 
laqexs lae k'!eas la klungegesa k'!awayowe. Wit, laEm alak'Iala la 
^niEpmElk-lEneda kexEk" L!6p!Ekaxs lae lEmlEmx^'una. Wa, he^mi- 85 
sexs lae peqwa. Wa, he'mis lagilas kMes eaL!ema qaxs alak'.'alae 
aeklaakwa lExa^yaxs k' lElats !eLaxa gwadEme. Wa, glPmese 
gwalExs lae hcEmxat! gwex'^Idxa tExEme. Wa, laEmxae he gweg'ila- 
qexs lae k'exalax ^wapaga^yas. gg 

Cedar-Withes. — Wa, he^mexslaeeaxEledabEgwanEmaxats!oyay4xa j 
LEX'SEme, wa la gEnEmas la laxa aLle tayaxamax tEXEma laxa 
gilsgilt!a uEqEla tExEmsa wilkwexa yfi awagwitEns q!waq!wax'- 
ts!ana^ye. Wii, he'mesexs kMeasae LlEnaka, ylxs 4^mae qwagl- 
lEna^ya ts!ap!axmEnexwe lax waxsanodza^3'as. Wii, heEm Lega- 5 
dEs tEXEme. Wii, gtPmese qliida tayaxamiixa tExEmaxs lae liex-'i- 
da^Em dzEtaxElax'IdEq, yixs ^nal-nEmp!Enae q!exLaleda ^oEm- 
tslaqe wllx"xa tEXEme. Wii, lit kMes qlexLtdeda waoliwe wilkwa. 
Wa, glFmese heloLa tayaxEmiixa tEXEmaxs lae yiLEmdxcs tEXE- 
maxs lae q !ap !egEmakwa ytsa sElbEkwe dEwexa. Wii, giPmese gwal 10 
ylLEmdqexs lae nix^nakwa laxes gokwe wikilaxes tayaxamauEme 
tEXEma. Wii, lit ax-alilaq laxa wudanegwilases g^okwe. Wii, 
hex-^ida^mese klwagahla qa-s dzEt!edeq naqlEqax domaqas. Wa, . 
giPmese la dzEts !aakiixs lae ptLx^sEndxa apsodele. Wii, liixae 
ettslEnd pax'sEndEq. Wii, laxae helox"sEndaxat ! paxsEndEq. 15 



116 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth.ann.35 

16 more in two. | Sometimes the branches are spht into twenty pieces, 
if I the woman who spHts the branches is expert in sphtting them 
into I thin pieces. When they arc all split, she puts them away. | 
1 Spruce-Roots (1). — Then slie gets ready again to go into the woods | 
to dig spruce-roots where she knows that the ground is soft, | and where 
young spruce-trees are growing, for really long | and thin, and without 
5 branches, are the roots of young spruce-trees in soft ground. || When 
she finds them, she pulls out the | root, as it is showing half way 
on the ground. She pulls out the whole length, | for they are long; 
and when she comes to the point where it divides, | she bites it 
off, so that it breaks off, and she does so with the others ; and | when 

10 she thinks she has enough roots, she takes the roots || and coils them 
up. Then she takes a long thin root and | ti&s it to one side of the 
coil. After she has | done so, she carries the coil of roots that she 
has obtained and goes home to ber house, | and she puts it down in a 
cool corner of the house. Then | she sits down and unties the tying 

15 of the coiled roots; and |1 when the tying is ail off, she carries the 
uncoiled roots | and puts them down alongside the fu'e of her house. 
She takes the tongs | and ties a thin root around its neck, so that 
they may not spht when she | puUs off the bark of the root. When this 
is done, she takes | one of the long roots and puts it over che &re, || 

16 Wa, la ^nal^uEmp lEna maltsEmgustox"seda ^uEmtslaqe ek'etEla 
tEXEma laxa ts!Edaqaxs eg'tlwatae lax papEX'salaxa tEXEme ylxs 
pElspadza^e. Wil, giHmese ^wFla la paakfixs lae gexaq. 

1 Spruce-Roots (1). — Wii, laxae xwanal-IdExs lae aLe^sta laxa axle 
qa^s la LloplEkax L!6p!Ekasa alewasc laxes q!ale tElqlus t!Eka, 
ylx qlwaxasasa alewadzEme, qaxs he^mae alaklala gilsgllt!a 
EketEle wlswiile L!op!Ekasa tElq!usas tiEka qlwaxatsa ale\vadzE- 
5 me. Wa, g IPmese qlaqexs lae hex'^idaEm gElxiiqolsaxa L!6p!E- 
k'axs neloylwElsae laxa tlK.ka. Wa, lit nexaq laxes awasgEmasaxs 
g'ilsg ilsta^e. Wa, g'lFmese lag'aa lax qExbax'^Idaasasexs lae qlEX"- 
sEndEq qa ELElses. Wa, iVmise la he gweg'ilaxa waokwe. Wii, 
g ll^mese kotaq laEin helales LloplEg'auEmaxs lae lix^edxa L!op!Eke 

10 qa^s qEs^edeq qa q lElx^walesexs lae ax^edxa wlltowe LloplEk'a qa^s 
yiHdes laxa apsaneqwasa la WElxts lEwak" L !op lEk'a. Wii, glPmese 
gwalExs lae qlElxulaxes iJoplEg'ilnEmaxs lae nil'nakwa laxes g'okwe 
qa^s laxat! q !Elx-'walilas lax wiidanegwelases g-5kwe. Wa, la hex^i- 
dasm k!wag"allla qa^s qwclodex ytLewa^yases qlElxwala L!6p!Ek'a. 

15 Wii, giPmese -wFlawe yiLewa^yasexs lae dalaxa la dzakwala l !op !Ek'a 
qa^s lii genolisas laxa lEgwilases g'okwe. Wii, la ax^edxa tslesLala 
qa^s yiL'.Exodesa wiltowe iJoplEk- laq, qa kMeses xox^vldEl qo lal 
xlk'alax xEx^una^'yasa L!6p!Eke. Wii, giPmese gwiilExs lae ax^ed- 
xa ^nEmtsIaqe laxa gtlstowe Lloplfik'a qa^s k'atLEndes laxa lEgwIle 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 117 

beginning next to where it is being held, and pulling it slowly, | until 20 
it gets hot all over. As soon as the bark is hot, | she puts it be- 
tween the tongs next to | where she is holding it with the left hand. 
She squeezes the legs of the | tongs together under it. Then she puUs 
it thi'ough with her i| right hand. Then the bark peels off. | As soon 25 
as all the bark is off, she puts it down on the | left-hand side, and she 
takes up another root and | puts it oyer the fire, and she does the same 
as she did before | to the first one at which she was working when she 
put it over the fire. || When all the bark has been taken off the roots, | 30 
she splits them before they are really dry. | She begins spUtting at 
the thin end through the heart, | going towards the thick end. 
When it has been spht in two, she takes | each half and splits it again 
in two; and when this has been split, || she sphts it again in two; and 35 
she does the same to the other half, | for the woman wishes to have 
roots split into thin strips | to weave the basket that she is making. 
Sometimes she splits eight strips out of one | clean root when she is 
sphtting it. When it has all been spht, | she takes the cedar-bark 
splitting-bone (the ulna of the foreleg of the || deer) and grinds it 40 
well, so that it has a sharp point and also so that | it is thin. That 
is the bone for sphtting cedar-bark of the woman when she is making 
mats, I when she is splitting cedar-bark, and when she is makuig 

g'agtLEla laxa niak^ala lax dalasE^wasexs lae aoyaa nex^nakfllaq qa 20 
ekes ts lElgii^nakulaena^yas. Wii, gil^mese tslElx^wid ^naxwe ogwi- 
da^yas xEk!umasexs lae k'ak'EtStsa mak^ala lax daiasE^wasexs 
lae qlwes^Itses gEmx5lts !ana^ye lax wax'sanodzExsta^yasa ts!esLa- 
laxs bEnxtolila. Wii, he^mis la nexsalatsexa LloplEk'e yises 
helk!6lts!ana^ye. Wa, he^mis la qusalatsa xEx"^flna^yas. Wa, 25 
glFmese ^wFlaweda XEx"^iina^yasexs lae k'atlalllas laxes gEinxa- 
gawalile. Wii, laxae et!ed dax^^idxa ^nEmtslaqe L!op!Ek'a qa^s 
katLEndes laxa lEgwile. Wii, laEm aEmxat! nEqEmgiltEwexes 
gwegilasaxes g"llx"de axsE^waxs liix'de LlEX'LEnts liixes lEgwlla 
LloplEke. Wii, gtPmese ^wPla la saq !wag"IdEkwa L!op!Ek'axs lae 30 
ha^yalo^miilaa papEx"sEndqexs k'les^mae alaEm lEmx^wIda. Wii, 
laEm hi' g il pax'^itso^se wllba^ya ylxs nuci!Eqaax domaqas gwS- 
yolEla liix LlEkumii^yas. Wii, g'lPmese la piixsaakiixs lae ilx'edxa 
apsodile qa^s etiede pax'SEndEq. Wii, gil^mese pax-saakwa lae 
etts lEndaxat ! pax"sEndaxaaq. Wii, la heEmxat! gwex'^idxa apsEx- 35 
siis yixs ^nek'aeda tslEdaqe qa pElspElesa paakwe L!op!Ek"a qa 
klilgEms lExehis, ytxs ^nal^nEmplEnae malEg'ij'6x"seda ^nEmts!aqe 
ek'etEla LloplEk'axs lae paakwa. Wii, glPmese Hvi^la la paakiixs 
lae ax^edxa qlwetanaxa sEgtnodza'yas g"alEmalg'Iwa^ye g'ogiiyosa 
gewase, yixs lae aek- !aak" gexEkwa qa ex"bes. Wa, hc^mis qa 40 
pEldzowes. Wii, heEm qlwetanasa tslEdaqaxs kMItaaxa le^wa^ye 
yixs lae papEx'salaxa dEnase loxs lae dzEdzExs^alaxa dEnase. 



118 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Iktii. ann. 35 

43 narrow strips of bark. | This she uses when she is working at the 
roots. She stretciies out | her left foot on the floor, and she takes one 

45 end of the spht || root with her left hand and she puts down a root | 
on the right-hand side of her heel. | She takes hold with the right 
hand of the bone cedar-bark splitter and she | lays it on the | root 
and presses the bone implement against the root. Then | she puEs it 

50 through, pressing it tightly against her heel. || Thus she squeezes out 
all the sap in the root. If there is | much water in it, she pulls the 
root tlu-ough four times its | whole length between her heel and the 
bone. When | all (he sap is out, the roots become really white, flat 

55 spht I roots. She does this with aU of (the roots). When || all the 
roots have been scraped, she coils them up and | puts them away 
for a while. | 
1 Spruce-Roots (2). — The woman takes her ax and her | clam-digging 
stick and her cedar-bark belt, and she carries them | while she is 
going into the woods, where she knjows that small spruce-trees are 
growing and | where the soil is soft. When she comes to the place, 
5 she puts down her ax || and her digging-stick. She takes her cedar- 
bark belt, and she | puts the corners of her blanket over her left 
shoulder, and she puts the cedar-bark | belt around her waist over 
the blanket. She pins the blanket with a pin of | yew-wood shaved 

43 Wii, he^Em ax^etso^sa LlaLloplEX'silaxa L!op!Ek-e. Wa, la dzex- 
^wahlases gEmxoltsidza-ye goguyowa. Wa, la dabEudxa paakwe 

45 LloplEk^a yises gEmxoltslana^ye. Wii, lit kat!iiLElotsa L!op!Ek-e 
lax helk- !odEnwa'j'as ^mEk luxLax'sldza^yases gEmxoltsidza-ye. Wa, 
lii diix'^itses helkMoltslilna^ye hixa qhvetanilxs lae k-at!Ents laxa 
iJop!Ek-e. Wii, la tEsalakatses qlwetana laxa LloplEk'axs lae 
nex^edqexs lae tEtstexLaxsIdzex ^mEk!uxLax-sidza^yas goguyowas. 

50 Wii, he^mis la x-Ik'alats ^vapaga^yasa LloplEk'e. Wii, g'tl^mese 
q!eq!aqElaxes Hvapaga^yaxs lae moplEua nexsodxa Lloplske hxxes 
^wasgEmase laxes ^mEk!uxLax'sidza\yases g-oguyowe. Wii, g'lPmese 
^wi^iawe ^wapaga^yasexs lae alak'Iiila la ^niElmadzowa paakwe 
L!5p!Ek-a. Wii,' lii he^staEm gwex-'idxa waokwe. Wii, glPmese 

55 ^wl^la la xig ikwa L!6p!Ek'axs lae aek!a q!Elx-wIdEq qa^s yawas^Ide 
g"exaq. 
1 Spruce-Roots (2). — Wii. lii ax^ededa tslEdiiqaxes sayobEme le'^wIs 
k- lllakwe; wii, he^meLes dEndzEdzowe wiiseganowa. Wii, lii dalaqexs 
lae iiaLaaqa liixa iiL!e hix q!ayasasa alewadzEme LE^wis q!ale tEl- 
q!uts tiEk'a. Wii, g-iPmese higaa liiqexs lae gig-aElsaxes sayobEme 
5 LEVis kMilakwe. Wii, lii iix'edxes dEndzEdzowe wiiseganowa qa^s 
tlElEx-^'idexes ^uEx^una^yaxs lae qEk-iyintsa dEndzEdzowe wiiseg'a- 
nowe laqexs lae qEnoytdaq laqexs lae t!EmgEx"sa k-!ax"baakwe 
L!Emq!eda la t !Emt laqiilax ^nExHma^yas lax gEmxoltsEyapIa^yas. 



BOAsl INDUSTRIES 119 

to a sharp point, over her left shoulder. | After doing so, she takes her 
digging-stick, || puts one end into the ground, and pries up the roots; 10 
and when | the roots come out of the ground, she picks out straight 
medium-sized roots | without branches. She takes hold of them and 
pulls them out. | When she reaches the thick root from which it 
branches off, | she takes her small ax and chops it off. Then || she 15 
goes back to the place where she started and takes hold again of the 
root and puUs it out | towards the thin end; and when she comes to 
the place where | it branches out, she takes her ax and cuts it off. 
Then | she coils it up. Some of the wood-digging women call this | 
qEs^ld. Then she takes the thin || roots and ties them in four places, 20 
in this way; ' and she continues | doing so wliile she is getting the 
roots. I 

As soon as she has enough, she goes to a patch of young cedar-trees | 
and looks for good cedar-withes which are long, | without branches. || 
She cuts off those that are not twisted. When she thinks | she has cut 25 
off enough, she ties them with twisted cedar- | withes in four different 
places, in this way.- After | she has done so, she carries away what 
she has cut off, and she just stops | to pick up the roots which she has 
dug, and goes home. || 



Wa, g'iPmese gwalElsExs lae dax'^idxes k"!ilakwe, qa^s ts!Ex"bE- 
tElses oba^yas qa^s k!wet!EqalsElexa LloplEk'e. Wa, g'lHmese 10 
neEulEiigaElseda L!op!Ek'axs lae doqlux^Idxa hayalag-ite naqElaxa 
k' lease qlwak'lEna^ya. Wa, he^mis la dak'lEntsos qa^s nex^uqal- 
sEleq. Wa, g-iPmese lag'aa laxa LEkwe L!op!Eka, yix qlwaxE- 
wasasexs lae dax'^idxes sayobEme, qa^s tsEX'SEndeq. Wa, la 
gwa^sta laxa gag'ildzasas, qa^s et!ede duyodqes nEx^iiqalsEleq 15 
gwagwaaqEla lax wilba^yas. Wa, g iPmese hlgaa lax q!ets!axbax'- 
^Idaasasexs lae dax'^idxes sayobEme, qa^s tsExsEndeq. Wii, la 
qlElx^wIdEq. Wa, la ^nek'eda waokwe L!aL!op!Ek'!aenox" tsledaqa 
qEs^ida, yixs lae qlElx^widEq. Wa, lit ax^edxa wiswultowe l!o- 
plEk^a, qa^s qEX'^aLElodes laxa mox^wldalaxa ga gwalega.' Wa, 20 
ax"sa^mese hi? gweg'ilaxs L!aL!op!Ek"!ae. 

Wa, g'iPmese hel5LExs lae et!ed qas^ida, qa-s lit laxa dEusma- 
dzEXEkrditxa dzEsEqwe. Wit, la^me aleqaxa ('■xEme tEXEmaxa gils- 
gilt!a. Wit, he^misex kMeyiisae q!wiik'!Ena''ya. Wii, he^mis la 
tsEkaxElasosexes dogulek-les klilpEla. Wit, gipEmxaawise k'otaq 25 
laEm holies tayaxamanEmaxs liiaxat! qeqEnoyotsa sElbEkwe wis- 
wfdto dEwex laxa mox=widiilaLEla laq xa g'a gwalega.^ Wa, g-il- 
^mese gwalExs g'axae wik"Elaxes tayaxamauEme. Wa, iVmese la 
dildabalaxcs L!aL!op!Ek!anEmaxs gaxae nit'nakwa laxes g'okwe. 

> See figure on p. 111. 2 See figure on p. 112. 



120 ETHNOLOGY OF THE . KWAKIUTL [etu. ann. 36 

1 Cedar-Withes. — After this is done, the man looks for long thin | cedar- 
withes in the woods. When he finds them, he takes them and | 
carries tliem home to his house. He puts one of them over | his fire; 
and when its bark is thoroughly warm, he takes his || tongs and puts 
5 the thick end of the withes between them, and he bites it | and pulls 
at it while he squeezes together the legs of the | tongs with his right 
hand. Then he strips the bark off with the tongs. | When it is all off, 
he twists it; and after | twisting the whole length of it, he puts it into 
urine while it is folded and twisted into a piece |1 one span in length, 

10 being twisted together | like a rope. When they are all done in this 
way, he puts all of them into urine | and leaves them there over night. 
Then he takes them out, and the cedar-withes turn red | like blood. 
That is why they are put into | urine, that they may not get rotten 
quickly. || 

15 Cedar-Bark (1). — In the morning, when day comes, he goes, carrying | 
his bark -lifter; and when he comes to a place with many young cedar- 
trees, I he searches for one that has no twist in the bark, and that is 
a good tree | without brandies. Immediately he puUs off cedar- 
withes from I another young cedar-tree, and he twists them; and 

20 after he has || twisted them from end to end, he puts them around the 
butt of the young cedar-tree | about half way up to our chest, (half a 
fathom) I above the ground. He ties them on tightly and ties the 

1 Cedar- Withes. — Wa, giPmese gwalExs lae alax g'llsgultla wis- 
wuIeu dEwex laxa aL!e. Wa, g'lFmese q!aqexs lae ax'edEq. Wa, 
l;i dalaqexs lae na-nak" laxes g'okwo. Wii, lii axLEntsa -UEmtsIaqe 
laxes lEgwiie. Wa, g iPmese tslElxsawe ts laxEna^yasexs lae ax^edxes 
5 tslesLala qa^s ax5desa LEkiima^yas laqexs lae qlEX'^IdEx LEkunia- 
^yas qa^s nex^edeqexs lae q !weq Iwasiila wax'sanodzExsta'yasa 
tslesLala yises' helk"!6tts!ana^3'^e. Wii, he^mis la x"ik"alax tsIaxEna- 
^yas. Wii, g'tPmese ^wi^liixs lae sElp!edEq. Wii, giPmese labEnde 
sElpa^yasexs lae axstEnts liixa kwiitsliixs lae ^nEmplEnk" laxEDg 

10 q!wiiq!wax'ts!ana^yex, yix ^wasgEmasasexs lae mslkwa yo gwex'sa 
dEHEmex. Wii, g'iPmese ^wi^la la gwiilExs lae ^wFla^sta liixa kwiitsle. 
Wii, lii xamaslalxa ganoLaxs lae ax'wustEndqexs lae L!EL!Ex^"wuna 
dEwexe he gwexs EpElx^iinale. Wii. hcEm lag'ilas axstano laxa 
kwiits!e qa kleses gEyoL cjluls^lda. 

15 Cedar-Bark (1). — Wii, g il-mese =nilx-idxa gaaliixs lae qas^ida diila- 
xes L'.oklwayowe. Wii, g'iPmese lag'aa lax qla^yasa dzEs-Eqwe^ 
wii, lii alex-^Idxa k!ese k'!tlp!Enes ts!axEna^ye loxs ek'etElae yfx 
k'!eiisae LlEiix-Ena^ya. Wii, liex'^ida^mese dzEtaxod lax dEwexasa 
ogii^lame dzEs'Eqwa. Wii, lii sElp!edEq. Wii, gil'mese labEnde 

20 sElpa^yasexs lae qEx^plegEnts liix oxLa^yasa dzEs^Eqwe. Wii, 
laaiiawise lo^ nEq!Ebod laxEns baLilqe wfdg'osto^wasas g'iix'^Id 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 121 



After this he 23 
in beneath the 
the cedar-tree. 25 
When I he is 
the bark are 



ends together. | Now it is in this manner: 
takes the | bark-lifter and pushes its end 
twisted withes || which are tied around 
Then he lifts the bark off the tree, /i^f:'^^^^ 
almost around the tree, aU the ends of /'(rv^ 
torn I into strips up to the cedar-withes which are tied around 
the young cedar-tree, and for this reason | he put the cedar- 
withes around the young cedar-tree, so that the sjjlitting of the ends 
does not pass it. | The torn shreds are all below the ring of cedar- 
withes, II for the women want the cedar-bark as broad as possible 30 
when they peel it off. | If they did not put the cedar-withes around 
the young cedar-tree, | the bark would come off in narrow strips, and 
therefore | they put the cedar-withes around it. Aftenvards he 
takes the cedar-withes off. As soon as they | are off, he throws them 
away, and lie takes hold of the bark and || puts the ends together 35 
although they are split into shreds. Then he puEs | upward without 
splitting it. When it is whole, it measures | one hand and thi'ee 
finger-widths in width. Wlien | he has pulled off the bark the length 
of one fathom, j he steps back one fathom from the place where he 
stood first, from the jj foot of the young cedar, and he puUs backward 40 
as he puUs at the cedar-bark, | and he continues doing so. When he 
reaches j the branches, the far end of the bark that he is puUing off 
becomes narrow and breaks off; | and when it comes down, he turns 

laxa awi^nakliise. Wii, la lEk!ut!edExs lae mox^wIdEx oba^yas. 22 
Wa, laEm ga gwitlega (fg.). Wii, giPmese g\valExs lae ax^edxes 
L!ok!wayowe qa's LlExbEtEndes lax bilnilLElasa dEwexe, la qEX'- 
p!egexa dzEs^Eqwaxs lae L!ok!ux^wIdxa tsIaqEmse. Wii, g'lFmese 25 
Elaq lii^ste L !ok !wa^yasexs lae ^naxwaEm quLEme^stale oba^yas 
lag"aa laxa dEwexe qEX'pleg'axa dzEs^Eqwe. Wii, heEm lagilas 
qEX'p!egintsa dEwexe laxa dzEs^Eqwe qa kleses hayaqeda dzExa- 
xa la quLEme-'stiila liix oba^yasa ts!;iqEmse laxa dEwexe yixs 
ax^exsdaeda tsledaqe qa awadzowesa dEnasaxs lae pawiilax ts!a- 30 
geg-a^yas. Wii, g-iPEmlax^wise kMeslax qEx-p!ek-ilalaxa dzEs^E- 
qwaxa dEwexe, liilaxe ts!elts!Eq!astolaxa dEnase. Wii, he^mis sena- 
taliisa dEwexe. Wii, lil kwelELElodxa dEwexe. Wii g iPmese la- 
wiixs lae ts!EX'edEq qa-'s dax-^idexa ts!iiqEmse. Wii, laEm 
q!ap!ex-^idxa oba-'yaxs wiix-'mae la quLEme^stala. Wii, lii ae- 35 
k- !axs lae qusostodEq. Wii, la-'me sEnx-^IdExs lae mEnekwe ^wa- 
dzEwasas qa ^iiEmplEiikes laxEns q!wilq!waxts!ilna^yex. Wii, gil- 
smese ^UEmplEnke ^wiisgEmasas qiisa^yas liixEiis baLiixs lae ^uEm- 
plEiik- laxEns baLiiqe ^walalaasas Ludzasasa sEnqlenoxwe lax oxxa- 
^yasa dzEs^Eqwe. Wii, lii L!ot!edExs lae qusostodxa tsIaqEmse. 49 
Wii, lii hanal he gweg'ilaq. Wii, gil-mese Lagaa laxa ^valalaa- 
sasa LlEniikaxs lae wilbax^^lde SEnganEmasexs lae klulbELEla. 



122 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [kth. ann. 36 

it over so that it lies on its inner side, | with the sap side downward, 

45 and he puEs off another piece || in the same manner, and the same 
width as the first one. He does | the same with that. As soon as 
everything has been taken off from the good side of the tree, | he 
stops. ... I 

Tliis is the size of a young cedar-tree. The bark of a young cedar- 

50 tree is best | when it is two spans in diameter at the butt-end || and 
when the outside bark is mouldy color. Bark is good to be shredded | 
when it is black outside, because the bark is tough, when the bark 
of the young cedar-tree is shredded. | Mats and halibut fishing-lines 
made of the bark of | young cedar-trees last a long time. If the man 
takes cedar-bark from a | large cedar-tree, it is brittle, therefore 

55 they do not use it. || 

When the bark-peeler has peeled off enough bark, he begins | to 
take off the outer bark of what he obtained, and he just takes the 
long strips | of what lie has peeled off and ho measures three spans. | 
Then he bertds it over | so as to break the outer bark towards the 

60 inside, || and he presses the pieces together on the inner side in this 
way.' This is the place where | the outer bark spHts from the inner 
bark, and the | bark-peeler lifts the broken end of the outer bark 
and I peels it off. When it is off, he measures again the same | 



43 Wa, giHmese gaxaxaxs lae hox'^ida^ma sEuqIenoxwe hax^wtilsaq 
qa haqidElses sEnganEmaxa dEnase. Wii, la et!ed qusodxa he- 

45 ^maxat ! ^wadzowe yix ^wadzowasasa gale qus63'os. Wii, laxae he- 
Emxat! o-wex'^IdEq. Wii, gil'mese ^wFlawe exk- !odEna'yasexs lae 
gwala. 

Wa, he^mesa ^wagidasasa dzEs^Eqwe. Wa, heEm eke dEna- 
sasa dzEs^Eqwaxs malplEuxsaes ^wagidase laxEns q !waq !wax'ts !a- 

50 na^yex. Wii, he^misexs qiixegaes ts!aqEmse. Wa, he^mis ek' k'asa- 
lilsa tsloleg'as tslaqsmsE, yixs tslExaes dEnase LE^wa kasalasasa 
dzEs^Eq". Wa, heEm gegiila ieVa^ya LE^wa logwaami^yaxa p!ii^yexa 
g ayole liix dEnasasa dzEs^Eqwe. Wii, g'lFmese gayola dEnase 
lilxa welkwe lae L!Ela. Wii, ho^mis liigilas k'!es axsE^we. 

55 Wii, giFmese hefoLa sEnqlenoxwaxes sEoganEmaxs lae ts!a- 
qodEx ts!ageg-a-yases sEnganEme yixs a^mae ax^edxa gilsg'iltla- 
dzowe sEnganEms. Wii, lil biiHdxa yudux^plEuke laxEns q!wa- 
q!waxts!ana^yex, yix awasgEmasasa sEuganEmasexs lae dzox^widEq 
qa kox'wides ts lagega^yas gwiigwaaqa lax 6k!waedza^yas. Wa, la 

60 q !as6x^wldama oklwaedza^yas ga gwiilega.' Wa, he^mis xltleda- 
masEx oba^yasa tslagega^yaxs lae k'oqwa. Wii, a^mesa sEnqle- 
noxwe gElx^ldEx wax'sotstii^yasa la kogEk" tsliigeg'exs lae paWE- 
yodEq. Wii, giPmese lawiixs lae et!ed mEns^ldxa he^maxat! «was- 

1 That is, he folds it over inward, so that the outer bark breaks. 



BOAS] 



INDUSTRIES 



123 



length as before, and again bonds it over and breaks || the outer bark; 65 
and he lifts it up on each side where the outer bark | has been broken, 
and peels it off. He continues to do this, | beginning at the broad 
end of the bark and going towards the narrow end, so that | the 
broad end of the peeled bark comes from the lower end of the young 
cedars. | The narrow end comes from the top of the cedar-tree. 
After II he has peeled off the outer bark, he folds the cedar-bark in the 70 
places where he broke it | when the outside had to be taken off, 
Jn this manner: ^-- t^ ^^ Then he folds it so that the j broad 

middle of the bundle, and the narrow 




end IS in the 

end I on the '■^ J^ v^i-^- ^^ outside; and the narrow end is used to 
tie the bundle in. the middle, in this way.' When | it is all tied in 
the middle, he places the bundles one on top of another. || Then he 75 
ties them at each end so as to make one bundle out of them, in this 

manner: | , and after he has done so, he takes two 

twisted cedar-twigs | and ties the end 



pieces of 
of them 
tyings. 




on each side 
in this way: 




of the end 
After this 
the pack- | 
of peeled 
it stands 80 
Ms house. I 



has been done, he puts ius arms through 

ing-straps on each side of the bundle 

cedar-bark, and || he carries it home. Now 

on end on his back as he is carrying it into 

Then he puts it down in the corner of the house, for he does not 

want I the heat of the fire to reach it, nor the light of the sun to touch 

gEme ^wasgEmasasa g'alaxs lae et!ed dzox^widEq qa k'ox^wides 
tslagega^yas. Wa, aEuixaawise gElx^idEx wax'sotsta^yasa la k'ogEk"- 05 
ts!ageg-exs lae pawEyodEq. Wil, a^mese he gwe^nakiilaq g"ag'i- 
LEla Lax ^wadzoba^yas sEngauEmas lag'aa lax wilba^yas, yixs he- 
^mae ^wadzobes sEnganEmaseda gayole lax oxLa^yasa dzEs^Eqwe. 
Wa, he^mis wllbes sEiiganEmasa ok' !Eba^ye. Wa, g'lPmese ^wpla la 
pawEyakwa tslageg'a^yaxs lae aEm la naqEmgiltEwe dzoqwa^yasexs 70 
lae k' !ox^widEq ga gwiileg'a {fi(J-). Wii, laEmxae hoEm gtl k"!ox- 
^witsose ^wadzoba^yas qa liis naqlEga^ya. Wii, lii Llasadza^ye wllba^- 
yas qaxs he^mae la yiLoyodayose oba^yase g'a gwaleg'a.' Wii, gil- 
^mese ^wFla la yaeLoyiilaxs lae iix^edxa la yaeLoytlla qa^s pageg'indiiles 
laxes ^waxaase. Wii, la yaelbEndEq qa matsIabEkwes g"a gwiileg'a 75 
{jig^. Wii, gil^mese gwalExsae ax-'edxa malts !aqe sElbEk" dEwexa 
qa^s t'.EmqEmg'aaLElodes oba^yas laxa ewanodza^yas qeqtx'ba^yas 
g"a gwiileg'a {fig-). Wii, giPmese gwalExs lae p!Emx'sases ox'sEya- 
p !a^ye laxa aoxLaase lax wax'sanil^yasa matslabskwe sEngansms qa^s 
oxLEx'^ideq. Wii, laEmLiiwek'ilaqexsg'axae nii^nakwa laxes g'okwe 80 
qa^s lii oxLEg'ahlaq laxa onegwile qaxs k'lesae helq!olEm lagaatsa 
L!esEliisa lEgwile. Wii, he^mesa ^naqflliisa LlesEla qaxs giPmae 

> It is turned over the middle of the bundle, and the narrow end is tucked under the turns that 
hold the bundle in the middle. 



124 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 3B 

83 it when it is | not covered and before it is split. Then it gets dried | 
and stiff, and it is difficult for the women to split it || apart. | 

85 As soon as the woman has given a meal to her husband, | she takes 
her bark-splitter made of the fore-leg of a black bear or of a | deer. 
It has a flat end, for it is sharpened on a sandstone. She goes | and 

00 sits down where the bundle is. She unties the || end straps, and she 
takes out one piece of what her husband has peeled off. | She unfolds 
it and at once covers the others with a mat. | Then she takes her 
cedar-bark splitter and with it | she splits off the outer layer of bark,, 
starting at the broad end. She splits it off and pulls it apart, | going 

95 towards the thin end. When it is off, she uses the splitter || again to 
remove the middle layer. Then she also splits o,ff down to the | 
nari'ow end, she splits the second middle layer, and | finally she 
splits off the inner side. As soon as everything is split off, | she hangs 
it up outside of the house, so that the wind may blow through it and 
the I sun get at it, and it gets dry quickly. After this has been 
100 done, she goes back into || her house and takes another piece of bark, 
and she does | the same as she did with the first one when she spht 
it into four pieces. | Now, after it has been spht into four pieces, it 
is called dEuas. I 



83 k'les nax^witsoxs kles^mae papEx'saakwa. Wa, la lEmx^wida. 
Wa, laxae Llax^eda. Wii, la iaxumaleda ts!Edaqaxs lae papEx's^- 

85 EndEq. 

Wii, g'll^mese gwal LlExweleda tslEdaqaxes la^wunEmaxs lae 
ax^edxes qlwetana, jnxa gayole lax g-alEmalgiwa^yasa Lla^ye LE^wa 
gewase. Wii, la pElbaxs lae g-exEk" hlxa dE^'na t!esEma. Wa, la 
khvagalil lax axelasasa mats!abEkwe. Wii, la qweltsErndsx qe- 

90 qExba^yas. Wii, lii ax^edxa ^nEmxsa lax sEnganEmases la- 
^wiuiEme qa^s dzox"sEmdeq. Wii, hex^^ida^mese nax"sEmtsa le- 
^wa^ye liixa waokwe. Wii, la ax-'edxes qlwetana qa^s q!wet!edes 
Laxa lelEgwega^ye g-aglLEla liixa ^wadzoba^yas. Wa, lii pawsyodEq 
labEndEq laxes wilba^ye. Wa, g'lFmese lawaxs lae q!wet!ed 

95 et!edEx ts!ets!Exeg'a^ye. Wii, laxae pawEyodEq labEndEq laxes 
wilba-'ye. Wii, Laxae q!wet!ed etledEx naq!Ega^ye. Wii, laEm pax.- 
sEndsq l5^ ts !ets lExedza^ye. Wii, g'lPmese ^wPla la paakiixs lae 
gexQlsaq liixa l lasanii^yases gokwe qa ysllasE^wesesa ystla LE^wa 
L!esEla qa halabales lEmx^wida. Wa, g'TPmese gwalExs lae laeL 
100 liixes gokwe qa^s etiede ax^edxa ^nEmxsa qa^s et!edexat! de- 
qEnig iltuxes lae^na^ye maemox"salaxs paakwa ^ntilnEmxs. Wii, 
laEm lil LegadEs dEnasaxs lae gwiil maemox"sala paakwa. 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 125 

After it has been drying for four clays outside of the house, | it is 
quite di-y and it is stiff. Then she || folds it in the same way as she 5 
folded it when it was first folded by her | husband in the woods, and 
the broad end is folded first. | Then she ties the middle with the 
narrow end, and she puts the cedar-bark into a basket, | and she puts 
down the basket with cedar-bark on hanging-poles, so that | the 
heat of the fire just reaches it. || It never gets mouldy when it is 10 
really dry. | If the cedar-bark were not thoroughly dry, it would 
become | mouldy at once, for nothing is like cedar-bark for getting 
mouldy when | it is damp, for it gets mouldy at once. Therefore it 
is dried for four || days in the wind and sun. Then it is put away, 15 
and she works at it in winter. | 

Cedar-Mats. — The broad strips for matting are taken from the 1 
outer layer of cedar-bark, | which is s])ht into strips two fingers 
wide I for being made into mats and coarse clover- | baskets and for 
protecting new canoes. The next one || is the middle layer of bark. 5 
This is next best for narrow strips | for ordinary woven mats and 
ordinary baskets, | and it is also good for halibut fishing-hnes | and 
for anchor-hnes for the halibut-fisher, j The inner part is also spht 
into very narrow strips for || twiUed mats and for well-woven spoon- 10 

Wii, g'lPmese moxse ^ualas xilalaxs laxa l lasana^yases go- 3 
kwaxs lae alak'!ala la lemxwa lae la LlasLlExdza. Wa, la kMox- 
^widEq laEm uEm naqEmgiltiix k" loxwayasexs galae k' lox^wltso^s 5 
la^wunEmas laxa aLle. Wa, he^Emxat! gil k' !6x^witso^se ^wadzoba- 
^yas. Wa, lii yiLoyots wllba^yas. Wa, la gits!ots laxa Llabate 
qa^s la h&ngaaLElotsa dEnyatsIe Llabat laxa q!ElIle laxa ek'le qa 
heliiles lagaaLElaena^yasa L!esElasa lEgwilasa g^okwe laq. Wa, 
laEm hewiixa xidzEX'^idExs alaklalae lEmx^wida. Wa, he^maa 10 
qo k'leslax ulak'lalalax lEmxwalaxa dEnase, wa, lalaxe hex'^ida- 
^Emlax xidzEx'^id^ax qaxs k'leasae ^nEmax'iswuta dEnasaxs 
dElx"ae yixs hex'^da^mae X'ldzEX'^ida. Wa, hc^mis lag'ilas moxse 
^nalas x'ilaso^ laxa yala LE^wa LlesEla. Wii, laEm g'exaq qa^s 
eaxEleLEqexa tsla^wunxe. 15 

Cedar-Mats. — Wii, heEm awadzElEdEkwe k!tta^yasa lelEgwega- 1 
^yexa maemaldEnas awiidzE^wasaxs lae dzEdzExsaak" laxEus q!wa- 
q Iwax'ts lana^yex, ylxs lae lexwIlasE^wa LE^wa yibElosgEme t lEgwats !e 
L'.iibata LE^wa tIayolEmasa alolaqe xwak!una. Wii, la mak'ileda 
ts!ets!Exega^ye. Wii, heEm miikllaxaaek-aakwas kMita^ye ts!elts!E- 5 
qaledEkwas k'!at!Emak" le^wa^ya LE^'wa k'latlEinakwe L!iiL!Ebata. 
Wii, he^misa logwaanayaxa p!a^ye yixs he'mae ek" dEnEma 
ts!ets!Exeg'a^ye LE^wa dEnwayasa loElqlwenoxwaxa pla^ye. Wii, 
he^misa naqlega^ye, wii hcEm iilak"!iila ts !elts !Eq laohdEkwe k Kta- 
^yas sEWElkwe le^wa^ya LE^wa aek'Iaakwas k!ita=ya k^ek'ayat 10 



126 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann.36 

12 baskets | and twilled baskets. None of the | double twilled baskets 
are found nowadays. In these the | daughters of the chiefs of the 
tribes kept their combs. The strong inner side | is the same as the 

15 inner part, for it is good for everything. || They are both the same. 
You know already how the | woman measures the length of the cedar- 
bark when making mats and baskets. | Now I have finished talking 
about it. I 

Shredding Cedar-Bark. — Now I will talk about tlie making of soft | 

20 cedar-bark; (The man) takes a small ax, for I || have finished talk- 
ing about the bark-peeler which is used on | young cedar- trees. He 
chops around the bottom of a young cedar-tree | with black bark. 
He uses the small ax for lifting the bark | from the tree at the bot- 
tom, and he does the same as he does when | he peels cedar-bark. 

25 After peehng off || the rough outer bark, he also makes a bundle of it 
and I carries it on his back into the house. He puts it down by the 
side I of the fire of his house. Then his wife unties | the strings at 
the ends, and she takes up one of the pieces of bark for making soft 
bark and unfolds it. | She hangs it up back of the fire of the house, || 

30 and she does the same with all the others. Now they are | hanging 
there in order to get dry quickly, for they are very thick. | It takes 
six days before they get dry. As soon | as they have been hung up, 

11 LE^'wa sEWElx"sEme LlaLtebata. Wii, he^misa k'leasa laxa qeqa- 
palola sesElx"sEm LlaLlEbata, yix gtyimts lEwasas xEgEmasa 
k' !esk" lEdelasa g'igama^yasa lelqwfdaLa^ye. Wa, heEm tsIetslE- 
xedza^ye, heEmxaa gwex'sa naq!Ega-ye yixs k!easae klesegats 

15 qaxs ^nEmaxisae a^ma. Wii, laEmLas q!aLElaEmx gwegilasasa 
tslEdaqaxs lae mEnmEntsIalaqexs lexwiliLaxa dEnase LE^wa Llabate. 
Wa, la^mesEn gwal gwagwex^s^ala laq. 

Shredding Cedar-Bark. — Wii, la^mesEn gwagwexs^alai laxa k'asi- 
liixa kasalase dEnasa. Wa, heLeda sayobEme axalas qaxg'ln- 

20 la^meg'aLal gwal gwagwexs^ala laxa Lloklwayasa sEnq !enoxwaxa 
dzEs^Eqwe. Wa, laEm tsEX'se^stalax 5xLa^'yasa dzEs^Eqwexa 
ts!6leg"as tsax^Ena^^'e. Wa, la heEm L!6k!uleda sayobEmaxs lae 
Lloklwax'^idxa tslaqEmse. Wa, la §,Emxat! naqEmgiltaxes gwe- 
g'ilasaxs lae sEnqaxa dEnase. Wii, giPmese gwal pawalax 

25 tslageg'a^yasexs lae heEmxat! gwex'^ldqexs lae mats!ap!edEq. 
Wa, la oxLaeLaq laxes g'okwe qa^s oxLEgallles laxa maglnwali- 
sas lEgwilases g'okwe. Wa, hex'id^mese gEnEmas gudEsgEmdEx 
qeqlxba^yas. Wa, lit ax^edxa ^nEmxsa laxa k asalase qa^s dzox"- 
sEmdeq. Wa, la gex^wits lax aogwiwalllasa lEgwilases gokwe. 

30 Wii, la^mes ^wPlaEm he gwex'^idxa waokwe. Wii, la^me LesE- 
laLEla qa^s halax^tsle lEmx^wida qaxs alak'lalae wakwa. Wii, la 
^nal^nEmp lEna qlELlExse ^naliis k'les lEm^wumx'^ida. Wii, gtl- 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 127 

the husband of the woman takes bone from | the nasal bones of the 
whale, and he takes a thin-edged rough || sandstone. (Here follows 35 
a description of the manufacture of the | cedar-bark breaker, p. 
109.) I 

She takes an old yew-wood paddle and places it | edgewise on the 
fire of her house. When the edge is burned off | on one side, she 
sprinkles water on it, so that the fu'e goes out. || She takes a rough 40 
sandstone, | puts it into water in a small dish, and rubs off | 
the charcoal and gives it a sharp edge on one side of the cedar- 
bark n, . -, holder. | When this is done, it is in this 

way: | '^ ^ She also takes a pun ting-pole and 

measures off two spans. || Then she bvirns it off; and | when it is burned 45 
thi'ough, she di'ives it into the floor near the fire of her | house. She 
stops driving it into the ground when | the length that is standing out 
is one span and two finger-widths. | Then she takes cedar-bark rope 
and the paddle, and she places || the flat end of the paddle next to 50 

the top of the n stake, and she ties it on 

with I cedar ry, -— ^ r rope; and when it is finished, 

it is this way : | 1 1"" >■ — 

When the cedar-bark holder is ready, and when [ the cedar-bark 
is dry and brittle, the woman takes one of the | pieces of cedar-bark 



^mese LesElaLElaxs lae la^wunEmasa tslEdaqe ax^edxa xaqe ga^yol 33 
lax xagelba^yasa gWE^ylme, wii, la ax^edxa pElEnxe k!oL!a dE-'na 
tIesEma. (Here follows a description of the manufacture of the 35 
cedar-bark breaker, p. 109). 

Wil, la ax^edxa sewayomote LlEmqJEsgEma qa^s k'loxLEndes 
apsEnxa^yas laxa lEgwlhases g^okwe. Wii, giPmese klwaglla 
klumElx-^Ide apsEnxa^yasexs lae xos-'Itsa ^wape laq qa kMilx^idesa 
xlqEla laq. Wa, laxae ax^edxa k"!oL!a dE^na tIesEma qa^s 40 
ma^x"stEndes laxa ^wabEtslixsa lalogume. Wa, la g'exalas laxa 
ts!6lna. Wii, he^niis qa exbEnxes iipsEnxa^yasa k-asdEmele. Wii, 
g'tPmese gwalExs lae g^a gwiilega (fig-)- 

Wii, laxae ax^edxa dzomeg-ale qa^s biiPldexa maiplEnk'e laxEns 
q!wiiq!wax-ts!ana^yex, yix ^wasgEmasasexs lae lE^x"sEndEq. Wii, 45 
giPmese 1e^x"sexs lae dex"^walilaq laq mag'lnwahsasa lEgwilases 
g'okwe. Wa, al^mese gwal deqwaqexs lae la maldEne esEgiwa^yas 
laxEns baLiix'sEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex,ylx ^wasgEmasasa la Laela. 
Wii, lii ax^edxa dEusEne dEUEma LE^wa sewayowe. Wii, lii k'adE- 
nodzEnts pExba^yas laxa magitii^yasa Laele. Wii, la yil^aLElotsa 50 
dEUEme laq. Wii, glFmese gwalExs lae g-a gwiileg-a (fg.). 

Wii, laEm gwallla kasdEmlle. Wii, glPmese alakMala lii 
lEmxwa tsoseda kasalasaxs lae ax^ededa tslEdaqaxa ^nEmxsa 
laxa k^asalase. Wa, la LEplaLElots lax UEqSstawasa lE^ile. 



128 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etu. an.n. 35 

55 and spreads it out just over the fire. || Then she takes a cedar-stick 
two spans in length | and of the thickness of our | first finger. She 
takes the narrow spht cedar-bark and | ties it around one end of the 
stick. When this is done, she sphts | one end like a pair of tongs, 

60 and this is called || "cedar-bark holder.'.' When the cedar-bark is | 
thoroughly heated, she puts it between these tongs, | the broad end 
first. The holder is four , — :::==^ finger-widths | 

from the end, in this way: / J Then the wom- 

an takes I the shredding- /j lr17| r "Q implement. 

She puts her right leg ' ^ ' I llir ^^ ^^'^"^ ^'^"^ S^ip 

65 of the II paddle and sits ,|||"| on it, so that 

the tip of the paddle is j 1' I;- H between her 

legs. She takes her shredding-implement in her right hand and j holds 
the cedar-bark holding-tongs (in the left), and squeezes | them 
together so that the stick fits close to the cedar-bark. The | tied end 
is turned towards the woman who is going to soften it with the 
70 shredding-implement. || The end of the cedar-bark just shows over the 
edge of the paddle when | she begins to shred it. Every time she 
strikes, she pushes the bark ahead a little, and she | keeps on doing 
so until she reaches the narrow end. As soon as | she reaches the 
end, she coils it up, and she does the same with the other pieces. | 
75 When aU have been finished, she opens them out and plucks off the || 
rough strips that are made in shredding; and when these are all off, | 

55 Wa, laxae ax^edxa khvaxLawc malplEuke ^wasgEmasas laxEns 
q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex. Wit, la yuEm wagitox wagidasaxsEns 
s!Emalaxts!ana^yex. Wit, lit ax^edxa ts!eq!a dzEXEk" dEnasa qa^s 
ytl^aLElodes lax apsba-'yas. Wa, g'll-mese gwalExs lae xox'wIdEx 
apsba^'yas qa yuwes la gwex^sa ts!esLalax. Wit, heEm LegadEs 

60 LlEbEdzEwesa k'asaxa kasalase. Wa, la axaxodxa kasalasaxs lae 
alak-Iitla la ts!Elx'wida. Wit, lit LlEbEdzotsa LlEbEdztV^-e lax 
^wadzoba^yasa k^asalase laxa modEne laxEns q!wiiq!waxts!ana^yex 
g'iiglLEla lax 5ba^yas g'a gwiilega {fig^. Wit, la, dax'^ideda tslEda- 
(laxa kadzayo. Wit, lit gaxsEq !ases heik' !otsIdza^ye laxa q Iwedzasasa 

65 sewayowaxs lae k!wak!EndEq. Wii, laEm LJEnxsale oxta^yas lax 
awaga-yasexs lae dax'^dxes k'adzayowe ytses helk" !5lts lana^ye. Wa, 
lit diidEgoxa LlEbEdza^yasa k"asalase hix Eqataba'yas qa^s q!weq!wa- 
saleq qa bEndza^yesa L!EbEdza-ye liixa k'iisalase. Wii, la gwiisax- 
Laleda yiLEXLa^yas laxa tslEdaqaxs lae k"ak"a^yaxes k'asasoLe. Wa, 

70 halsEla^mese nelbala lax ek' lEiixa^j' asa sewayoweda k'asalasaxs lae 
kas^ida. Wit, qlwalxo^mese wI^x"widExs lae k^as'ida. Wit, lit 
hex'sitEm gweg'ilaxs lae labcndEx wilba'yas. Wit, giPmese 
labEndEqexs lae q lElo^nakiilaq. Wii, lit et!edxa waokwe. Wii, 
giPmese ^wFla gwal kadzEkuxs lae dzax"sEmdEq qa^s k!idwalex 

75 kakismotasa k'adzayowexa la mola. Wa, g-iPmese ^wFlaxs lae 



BOAS] INDUSTKIES 129 

she puts away in a small box what she has shredded off. This is 76 
rubbed | and used for towels after washing the face. Then | she 
folds up the cedar-bark weU and puts it into her box. | That is all 
about this. || 

Yellow Cedar-Bark. — The same is done with the yellow cedar-bark, | 1 
which is peeled off in the same way as the red cedar-bark. It is also 
di'ied in the | sun and in the wind outside of the house. Sometimes | 
it takes six or eight days || to dry it so that it is thoroughly dry, 5 
because it is quite thick. The outside bark is | hardly peeled off 
from it. When it is di'ied thorouglily, | the woman takes it down. | 

She puts it into her smaU canoe, and she paddles to a place where 
there is | a deep bay and where it is always calm inside, so that waves 
never || get into it, and the salt water is always quite warm. She | 10 
lands on the beach and puts the yellow cedar-bark into the water. | 
She places it down lengthwise at low-water mark and puts | stones on 
each end. | After this is done, she goes home. || 

Then her husband also goes to work and looks for | a whale-rib. 15 
I do not know how he works it | when he is making the cedar-bark 
beater. | 

When it has been finished, he gives it to his wife. After | the 
yellow cedar-bark has soaked for twelve days, the woman || goes 20 



g-exaxes klulanEme laxes xaxadzame. Wa, heEm la qloyasos 75 
qa^s dedEgEmyoxs lae gwal ts lots lExitdxes goguma^ye. Wa, laxa 
aekMa klox^widxa kadzEkwe qa^s lii g"ets!ots laxes xEtsEme. 
Wa, laEm gwal laxeq. 

Yellow Cedar-Bark. — Wa, le lieEm^xaa gwegilasE^weda dexwaxs lae i 
sEnqasE^wa lax gweg'i^lasaxa dEnase. Wii, la^xae xilaso^ laxa 
LlesEla LE^wa yala lax LlasantVyasa gSkwe. Wii, le ^nal^uEmp lEna 
qlELlEplEnxwa^se ^naliis loxs ma^lgunaip !Enxwa^sae x'llsa, qa 
alak!ales lEm^wumx-^ida, qaxs iilak'Ialae wakwaxs halsEla^mae 5 
pawEyakwes ts!agaga^ye. Wa, g'iPmese lEm^'wumx-idExs lae &xa- 
xodeda tslEdaqaq. 

Wii, le ^moxsas laxes xwiixwagume qa^s le sex^wid qa^s le laxa 
q!aq!6xLiihse laxa hemEniilaEm qloxstallsa, yixa k"!ese kwElElitsle- 
noxwa. Wii, le liOmEnalaEm tslElxsteda dEmsx'e. Wii, le hSnga- jq 
litses ^ya^yatsle laqexs lae ^ya^stEutsa dexwe laq. Wii, laEm 
dalallsax awagEmasasa g'ilsg'lltla dexwa qa^s t!et!iixbalisesa tIesEme 
lax wax'sba^yas oba^yas laxa wulxiwa^yasa x'ats !a^ye. Wii, gil^mese 
^wi^lala ^ya^stalisExs lae nii^nak" Laxes g'okwe. 

Wii, laLa la^wunEmas ogwaqaEm^xat ! eaxEla, yixs lae aliix gslE- 15 
masa gwE^ylme. Wii, la^niEn k!es qlaLElax gweg'i^asasexs lae 
eax^Tdxa t lElwayaxa dexwe. 

Wii, glFmese gwalExs lae ts!as laxes gEOEme. Wii, gll^mese 
g'iig'Iwalaxse ^nalasa dexwe la ^ya^stalisExs laeda tslEdaqe laxs laxes 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 1 9 



130 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIXJTL linn. ann. 35 

21 in her small canoe, carrying the bone beater and a flat | diabase 
pebble. | 

When she comes to the place where she put her cedar-bark, she takes 
out the flat | stone and puts it down on the shore. | She takes her bone 

25 bark-beater in her right hand and || takes hold of the end of the bark 
with her left hand, for the woman is sitting on the ] right-hand side 
of the yellow cedar-bark, facing towards the sea. | She does not pull 
very fast when she is puUing it out of the water, and puts it over | the 
flat diabase stone on wliich she beats it. | She first beats the broad 

30 end of the cedar-bark ; and when || she reaches the end, she coils it 
into her small canoe. As soon as | she has finished it, she goes to her 
home; and when she arrives | there, she carries the beaten yellow 
cedar-bark to a place outside of the house and hangs it up | on the 
halibut di-ying-poles. Wlien evening comes, | she gathers the beaten 

35 cedar-bark and spreads a new mat over it, || so that it may not get 
damp again. After it has been drying for four days, | it is thoroughly 
dry. She folds it up and puts it away | in a basket. Now it is 
finished, for she works at it | in winter-time. | 
1 Cedar- Bark (2) . — The woman goes into the woods to look for | young 
cedar-trees. As soon as she finds them, she picks out one that has 
no I twists in the bark, and whose bark is not thick. | She takes her 

20 xwaxwagume dalaxes xax^Ene tiElwayS, LE^wa pExsEme tslEqliils 
t lesEma. 

Wa, glPmese lagaa laxes ^yaasaxs lae t!ax^ultodxa pExsEme 
ts!Eq!uls t'.esEma qa^s pax^llses lax max'stalise laxa dEmsxe. Wa, 
la dax'^idxa xax^Ene tlslwaya yises helk!olts!ana^ye. Wa, la dax'^I- 

2 K dEx oba^yasa dexwe ylses gEmxolts lana^ye, jtxs hae k !waesa ts !Edaqa 
helk' !6tagawalisasa dexwaxs L!asgEmalae laxa L!asakwe. Wa, 
la k!es aPnakiilaxs lae nex^ustalaq. Wa, he^mis la paqElalats laxa 
pExsEme tslEq'.ultsEm tlesEma. Wa, he^me la tiElwatseq. Wa, 
laEm heEni g il t lElxwasoseda ^wadzoba^yasa dexwe.- Wa, glFmese 

30 labEndqexs lae qEsalExsaq laxes xwaxwagume. Wa, glPmese ^wi^la 
gwalExs lae na^nakwa laxes g'okwe. Wa, g"ll^mese lagaaxs lae 
dasdesElaxa tiElSkwe dexwa lax l !asana^yases g'okwe; lae gex^wid 
laxa lEm^wasaxa k' lawase. Wa, g'llnaxwa^mese dzaqwaxs lae 
q!ap!ex-^ldxa ttelokwe dexwa qa-'s LEbEglndesa Eldzowe le^we^ laq 

35 qa k'leses et'.ed dElx'^'ida. Wa, gil^mese moplEnxwa^se ^nala 
xllalaxs lae lEm^wumx-^ida. Wa, lae kMox^widEq qa^s g'exeqexs 
lae axts'.alaxa Llabate. Wii, laEm gwal laxeq qaxs eaxEleLaqexa 
laLa ts i.awunxa. 

Cedar-Bark (2). — Wa, hesm gll S,x^ets6^sa tslEdaqaxs lae laxa aLle 
aliix dzEs^EXEkulas Lax'Lose. Wii, g'iPmese q!aqexs lae aleqax k' !esa 
k'!tlp!Enes tslageg'e. Wa, he^mis qa kMeses w&x^wuna'ye tslageg'a- 



UOAS] INDUSTEIES 131 

hand-adz and . . . cuts the back of the bottom || of the young cedar. 5 
She leaves a strip four | finger-widths wide, wliich slie does not cut when 
she cuts around the tree, and | she peels off a strip two finger-widths 
wide. I This is what tlie women who get cedar-bark call "making a 
road," I for after that she peels off a broad strip which is to go high 
up. After she has taken off the || narrow strip which makes the road, 10 
she begms to peel at the lower end, starting with her adz | at the 
place where she cut around. The broad piece is one | span wide. 
Then she peels it off, and | as it goes up high, she steps back from the | 
place where she stands ; and if the young cedar-tree is smooth high 
up, she II goes far back. 15 

While she is going backward, she holds slack the cedar-bark that 
she is peeling off, | when it falls back to where it was before. Then 
the woman who peels the cedar-bark puUs at it, j so that it comes off. 
What she is peeling off becomes narrower as it goes upward, | and 
it just runs into a point and breaks oif when it reaches way up. j Im- 
mediately the woman puts it down on the ground, with the inner 
side downward, and the outer bark outside, jj Then she peels off 20 
other pieces as she did | the first one; and she stops peeling when a 
strip I four fingers wide is left on tiie cedar-tree. That is | what the 
people of olden times refer to as being left on the young cedar-tree, 
so that 1 it should not be without clothes and to keep it alive. || 



^yas. Wa, la §,x^edxes k'llmLayowe qa^s . . . tsEklExxEn- 
dexa dzEs^Eqwe lax awlg'a^yas. Wa, la ham5dEngala laxEns 5 
q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex yix wiinEmas tsEX'se^stEnda^yas. Wii, la 
L!ok!ux'^idxa maldEne laxEns q!waq!wax-ts!ana^yaxs lae saqIwodEq. 
Wa, heEm gWE-yosa sesaq !waenoxwe tlexila qa sEx"ts!esa laLa 
et!ed saq!woy5LEs lag'aal laxa ek!e. Wii, g'tPmese lawayeda ts!e- 
qlastowe t!ex r'layoxs lae Llokliix-^itses k'llmLayowe laxa giigiLEla 10 
laxes tsEX"se-stEnda^yaxa ^wadzowe, ytxa ^nal'nEmp !Enae ^nemp !En- 
gidzo laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yaqe ^WildzEwasasexs lae saqIwodEq. 
Wii, g'ilnaxwa^mese aek!Egilale saq !wa^yasexs lae kMax'Els laxes 
Ladzase. Wa, giPmese Lomax'^Id ek'etEleda dzEs^'Eqwaxs lae k!wa- 
g'ila qwesgile k' !a^nakulaena^yas k" !Esk' lEsaxes saqIwanEme dE- 15 
nasa qa las k!iit!Endxes S,xasde. Wa, he^mes lanaxwa nex^edaatsa 
saq Iwaenoxwaq LlaLlodaaqaq. Wa, la ts!eq!Eba^nakulaxs lae ek"!o- 
lEleda saqlwiluEme. Wii, a^mese la EltslExs lae liig'aa liixa ek'le. 
Wii, hex'^ida^mese ts!Ediiqe hax-WElsaq qa ek' !adza^yesa tsltiqEmse. 
Wii, lii et!edxat! saq!wax'^Idxa wa5kwe. Wa, a^mise n^iqEmg-il- 20 
tEwexes gtlx'de gwegilasa. Wii, a^mise hex'^idaEm gwal saqlwaxs 
lae modEume ^wiidzEwasasa la ax^Enexa dzEs^Eqwe. Wa, heEm 
g\VE^yosa g'ale bEgwanem ax=alag'iltseqa tslElgumsa dzEs^Eqwe qa 
k'leses xExanaEma, wii, he^mis qa q!uliiy5s. 



132 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 36 

25 As soon as the woman has enough, she takes inp at the broad end 
what she peeled off, | and she breaks off the outer bark | for a distance 
four spans in length. She goes on peeling off the | outer bark 
towards the narrow end, and she continues doing this | until she 

30 reaches the narrow end. When || the outer bark has been taken off, 
she folds it up, and she measures | a length of four spans. Then she 
folds it over. In folding it, she places the outer side outside. | She 
first folds the broad end; | and after she has gone the whole length, 
she ties the narrow end around it; ] and she does the same with the 

35 others which she has peeled off. As soon as all || have been tied in 
the middle, she takes a long narrow strip of cedar-bark and | puts it 
around each end, in this way.' After she has done so, she takes | 
another piece of cedar-bark and puts it on as a packing-strap. The | 
two packing-straps are tied to the two end ropes; and she just 
measures it 1 until it is long enough when she puts her hands 

40 through them when she puts it through, |1 carrying it on her back. 
After she has done so, she puts her hands through the | packing- 
straps and carries the bundle on her back. In her hands she carries 
the I adz, and she goes home to her house. 1 
1 Shredding Cedar-Bark.^ — ^As soon as she has finished, she takes her 
cedar-bark | and hangs it over her fire. She takes her cedar-bark 



25 Wa, giPmese heloLExs laeda ts tedaqe 3.x^edxes saq IwanEme qa^s 
g'abEnde laxa ^wadzoba^ye qa^s kox^widexa ts!agega'3'asxa mo- 
plEnke laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana'yex. Wa, la pawalaxa tslagega^ye 
gWEy5lEla laxa ^wadzoba^yas. Wa, S.x"sa^mese la he gwegilaqexs 
labEiidalaaq lagaa lax ts!eq!Eba^yas. Wa, g'iPmese ^wFlawa ts!a- 

30 qlega^yaxs lae klox^widEq. Wit, laEmxae baHdEq qa moplEukes 
^wasgEmasas k'loxwa^yas. Wii, laEm he Llasadza^ya makalaxa 
tslagega^ye. Wii, laEinxae he g"tl k' lox^witso^se ^wadzoba^yas. Wa, 
gll^mese labEndEx ^wasgEmasasexs lae qEnoyots wilba^yas. Wa, 
ax'sii^mese he gwegilaxa waokwe sEnganEms. Wil, gll^mese ^wl^la 

35 qeqEnoyale sEngauEmasexs lae 5,x^edxa ts!eq!adzowe dEnas qa^s 
qeqExbEndes laq; ga gwaiega.' Wa, gJPmese gwaiExs lae ax^edxa 
ogii^la^maxat ! dEnasa qa^s aoxLaas^edeq. Wii, la^me gegalopiila liida 
malts !aqe eaoxLaase liixa male qeqExba^ya. Wii, a-mese mEnsiiia 
qa heh'asgEmes qo lal plEmxsases e^eyasowe qo lal p!Emxsal laq qo 

40 lal oxLEx^^idELEq. Wii, g'il^mese gwalExs lae p !Emxs5tses e'eya- 
sowe lilxa oxLolEme qa^s oxLEx-ideq. Wii, a^mise la dak' lotElaxes 
k' limLayowaxs lae qiis^ida. Wa, laEm nii^nak" liixes g'okwe. 

Shredding Cedar-Bark.^ — Wii, giPmese gwtila lae ax^edxes dEnase 
qa^s gex"stodes laxes lE^-wile. Wii, lii a.x^edxes kadzayowaxa 

1 See figure on p. 123. 

' This follows a description of the preservation of elderberries, p. 262, line 55. 



BOAS] INDUSTBIES ' 183 

beater | and padcUe, and she drives the longest one of her wedges 
into the floor. | Then she takes the cedar-bark and spUts off a strip. || 
She takes the padcUe and phices it alongside the wedge driven into 5 
the floor, and she ties | them together with the spht bark. After 
this is done, it is in this way.' | After she has finished the holder for 
beating cedar-bark, she takes the cedar-bark beater and | puts it 
down where she is going to beat the bark. When | the cedar-bark 
gets black from the heat, she takes it down and puts it by her side. |1 
Then she takes a cedar -stick one span | in length and splits off one 10 
side I of the cedar-bark, and she ties one end of the stick at the bot- 
tom two finger-widths | from the end. When that | is done, she 
takes her straight knife and splits one end of the stick, || so that it is 15 
like tongs. When she has done so, this is the holder | of the bark 
that she is going to shred, and it is like this (like a pair of tongs). 
Wlien this | has been done, she takes the cedar-bark and coils it up, 
the narrow end on the | left-hand side of the paddle on which she is 
going to shred the cedar-bark. She puts the bark on | with the 
broad end. It is in this way.^ Now the || woman who shreds the 20 
cedar-bark holds the place where the holder is tied up in her left | 
hand, and with the right hand she takes the cedar-bark beater. | 
She puts her left leg over the paddle and | sits down on it. The handle 



dEnase LE^wa sewayowe. Wa, la dex^walilasa g lit laga^yases LEm- 3 
gayowe. Wa, la ax^edxa dEnase qa^s dzExaxode laq. Wii, lii 
ax^edxa sewayowe qa^s k'adEnodzEndes laxa degwJle. Wii, lii yil^- 5 
etsa dzEXEkwe denas laq. Wii, gil^mese gwiilExs lae ga gwiilega.' 
Wa, g IFmese gwala k'asdEmelaxs lae ax^edxes k'adzayowe qa^s lii 
g'igalllas liLxes k'adzasLaxa dEnase. Wii, g'iHmese la cjlwiiqlu- 
qiiyax'^Ideda dEnasaxs lae gexwaxodEq qa^s lii gig'alllas laxes 
kadzasLaq. Wa, lii ax^edxa kIwaxLawe ^nEmplEnk' liixEns q!wa- 10 
q!wax'ts!ana^yex ytx ^wasgEmasas. Wii, lii dzExod lax S,wunxa- 
^yasa dEnase qa^s ylLlExLEndes lax oxLa^yasxa maldEnk e hlxEns 
q!waq!waxts!ilna^yex giig^LEla laxa oba^yas. Wa, g-tPmese 
gwiilExs lae ax^edxes uExx'iiia k' liiwayowa qa^s xox^wldexa apsba- 
^yas qa yuwes gwexsa tsIesLalax. Wii, g-iPmese gwiila k!ibE- 15 
dzayayasa k'asiixa kadzEkwaxs lae g'a gwiilega.' Wa, glPmese 
gwiilEXs lae ax^edxa dEnase qa^s qlElxwallles tsleqlfiba^yas gEm- 
xagawalilasa kasdEmile sewayowa. Wa, lii kMibEclzotsa k!lbE- 
dzd^ye lax ^wiidzoba^yasa dEnase. Wa, lii g-a gwiileg-a.^ Wii, lasm 
qlwetsEma^ya k'atslenoxwax ylL lExLa^yasa k' ItbEdzayases gEm- 20 
xoltslana. Wii, la dastE^weses helk' !olts !ana^ye lax daasases ka- 
dza^yaxs lae gax^Eneses gEmxoltsidza^ye laxa sewayowaxs lae 
kIwaklEneq. Wii, lax'Ex"sale gext^^yasa sewaj'owe lax mEng'asa. 

1 See figure on p. 127. ' See figure on p. 128. 



134 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

of the paddle shows at her backside, and | the bark hardly shows on 
25 the right-hand side of the paddle. Then || she begins to beat it, and 
she pushes it on with the left hand every time | she beats it; and she 
continues doing so until she | reaches the end of the whole length of 
the cedar-bark. When she | reaches the end, she puts down the 
cedar-bark beater, takes the broad | end of the shredded cedar-bark, 
30 and lays it down flat on her knee. She || keeps it in the same way 
as she had it placed over the paddle, and she peels off | what came 
off by beating it. It is aU in strips; and when she has taken it 
off, I she puUs it off, and she continues plucking off what is on the 
shredded cedar-bark; and when | she has plucked it off along the 
whole length, she sphts it into strips one | finger wide.* 
1 Open- Work Basket. — She takes split cedar-withes and | picks out 
four back pieces of the split cedar-withes. These | are to be the cor- 
ners of the flat-bottomed basket (the four pieces). Then | she takes 
another one different from the four pieces, which is to form the 
5 stiif II bottom of the flat-bottomed basket. Then she takes thin spUt 
cedar-withes and puts | them into the bottom, and she takes spht 
roots and | ties them together /////^ with them. Now it 

is tied crosswise in this way, | i 1 1 1 I (i \ il being placed and 
tied close together. The ^^^^^^\—\^¥— length of the bot- 
10 torn is I two spans and four \\\\\\\\ finger-widths; || that 

is, where the corner withes are w" tied in. | As soon 



Wa, lit halsElaEm neibaleda dEnase lax helk^IodEdza^yasa sewayo- 

25 waxs lae k'as^idEq. Wii, lit q!walxoEm wIx"wIdEq ylses gEmxol- 

tslana^yaxs lanaxwae kas^idsq. Wa, ax"sa^mese he gweg'ilaqexs 

lae labEndalax ^wasgEmasasa denase. Wa, g'il'mese labEndEx 

^wasgEmasas lae g'ig'alilaxes k'adzayowe. Wa, la dax'^Idxa ^wadzo- 

ba^yasa k'adzEk" qa^s paxkax'^tndes laxes okwax'a'ye. Wa, laEm 

30 hex'saEm banadza^yeda fixalaxde laxa sewaj^owe. Wa, lit qusa- 

laxes kadzEla^yaxs lae lenoqwala. Wa, giPmese ^wllg'Eldzoxs lae 

nex^edEq qa^s hanale qusEldzE^wexes k'asela^ye. Wii, gil-mese 

^wlIgEldzo laxes ^wasgEniasaxs lae dzExalaxa ^nal^nEmdEne laxEns 

q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex ylx awadzEwasas. 

1 Open-Work Basket. — Wa, lii ax^edxa paakwe tEXEma qa^s mEn- 

maqexa mots!aqe eweg^esa paakwe tEXEma. Wa, heEm LlaLlE- 

xEnots !Exsdesa LEq!Exsde lExa^ya, ytxa motslaqe. Wa, lii ax^- 

edxa ^nEmts!aqe ogii^la laxa motslaqe. Wa, heEm LlaxExsdesa 

5 LEqiExsde lExa^ya. Wii, lii ax-edxa pElspEle paak" tEXEma qa^g 

katlEndes laxa l laxExsdE^ye. Wii, lii ax^edxa paakwe L!op!Eka 

qa^s k' !ilx-^Tdes laq. Wii, laEm galopale k- !ilk-a^yas g-a gwiilega 

(^^.) laxes mEmkEwaklwena^yes k"!ilk'a^ye liix hamodEngiilaena- 

^yas ^wiisgEmasasa iJiixExsda^j^e lax malplEnk'e liixEns q!waq!wa- 

10 x'tslana^yex. Wit, he^mis lii wax'ba^yaatsa L!aL!EXEnots!Exs- 

'See Doghair, p. 1317. 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 135 

as she finishes tying the flat | bottom, she takes the material for 12 
twining round the flat-bottomed basket and she puts it | on the 
corners, which are bent upward. | The twining consists of spht 
roots, and the crosspieces consist of split cedar-withes. || She ties the 15 
basket with the best quality | of thin roots. She twines it on as she 
is tying it on with | the root twining, and the sides of the basket stand 
up and down. | This is called the "standing side of the flat-bottomed 
basket." | Other basket-makers call it "standing up straight." She || 
continues doing this, moving upward until the basket is one span 20 
high. I As soon as it is one | span high, she takes thick | split root 
and bends the tops of the warp-strands. | When all the warp-strands 
of the sides are bent over, || she ties them into a round coil around 25 
the mouth of the flat-bottomed basket. | This is called "the tying at 
the mouth of the flat-bottomed basket" | (what she is tying now). 
As soon as tliis is finished, she takes the narrow split cedar-bark | and 
makes a rope, which she puts on each side of the flat-bottomed basket 
at I the middle, lengthways. This is called the "carrying-rope of 
the II flat-bottomed basket." Some baslvet-makers call it | "piece 30 
for tying on cross-straps." Now the j flat-bottomed clover-basket 
is finished. | 



da^ye. Wa, g'tl^mese gwal k- Itlx'^aLElodalasa qlwaaba^yasa n 
oxsda^ye lae ax^edxa xvvemasa LEqiExsde lExa^ya qa^s katlEnde 
laxa qlwaaba^yaxs lae ekiEbala. Wa, laEm paak" L!op!Ek'a 
xweme. Wa, la paak" tExEma q!waab^^yasa LEqiExsde lExa^ya. 
Wa, he^mis la kMUkilasa lExelaenoxwa aekMaakwe paak" wis- 15 
wultowe LloplEka. Wii, laEm niElg'aaLElodalasa kMtlg'ime 
LloplEk" laxa xweme LE^wa la ek'lEbaFlda q!waaba-'ye. Wii, 
laEm LegadEs q IwasgEma^yasa LEqiExsde lExa^ya. Wii, liida 
waokwe lExelaenox" LeqElas qlwaele hlxa q hvasgEma^'ye. Wii, lii 
hex'siiEm gwegulaq liilaa qa ^nEmp lEnk'ostawise ^walasgEmasas 20 
laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yex. Wii, g'tl^mese laLEx ^uEmplEn- 
k'ostawe ^wiilasgEmasas liixEns q!waq!wax-ts!iina^yaxs lae ax^edxa 
LaLEkvvala paak" L.'oplEka qa^s gwiigwanagEtodexa qhvaele. Wa, 
g'iPmese la ^wi^la la gwanagEkwa oxta^yasa qlwaele ek' lot lEnda- 
laxa xwemaxs lae kMllg ilEndEx iiwiixsta^yases LEq!Exsde lExa^ya. 25 
Wa, heEm LegadEs k' ItlglxstEndesa LEq!Exsde lExa^ya ylx la 
k" lllk'aso^s. Wii, giPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa dzEXEkwe dEnasa 
qa^s mElgaaLElodes lax waxsana^yasa LEqiExsde lExa^ya lax 
nEgoya^yas glldolasas. Wii, heEm LegadEs klakMogwase ytsa 
LEqiExsde lExa^ya. Wii, liida waokwe lExelaenox" LeqElas 30 
miimadase laq. Wii, laEm gwiila ts loyats leLaxa LEx'sEme 
LEq lExsd lExa^ya. 



136 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [ktii.a.sn. 35 

1 Cedar-Bark Basket (1). — Now the flat-bottomed basket is finished. | 
Then the woman takes cedar-bark and puts it down at the place where 
she is seated, | not far from the lire of the house, so that the | heat of 
the fire just strikes it. She measures the cedar-bark with her hand || 
5 and cuts off a length of five spans | with her fish-knife. When the 
cedar-bark has been cut, | she splits it so that it is one | finger-width 

I This will be the 
soon as all II the 



wide in the middle, in this manner: 

10 bottom of thecinquefoil-basket. As 

cedar-bark has been split in the middle, the woman who makes the 
basket takes cedar-sticks | and splits them in square pieces half the 
thickness of the | little finger, and she measures them so that each is 
two spans | long. Then she breaks them off. ] \Vhen this has been 

1 5 done, she takes a narrow strip of || split cedar-bark, and she takes the 
two I cedar-sticks that have been measured and places them together 
crosswise, in tliis way: | Then she | ties them together with 

the narrow split cedar- I bark. As soon as this has been 



T 



finished, she | takes | another one of the cedar-sticks that 

have been measured and puts it | on the other end of those that have 

ties it on with narrow || spht 
After this has been done, she | 
the cedar-sticks that have been 



20 been tied together, and she 
cedar-bark, in this manner: 
takes up another one of 
measured, and she puts it | on the ends of the two sticks, and she ties 

1 Cedar-Bark Basket (1). — Wa, laEmLa gwala LEq lExsde lExa^ya; wa, 
laxaeda tslEdaqe ax-edxa dEnase qa^s ax^aliles laxes k!waelase laxa 
kMese alaEm qwesaia lax lEgwilases gokwe qa a^mese heiale Lles^ala- 
ena^yasa lEgwlle laqexs lae niEnmEiitsIalaxa dEnase. Wa, laEm 
5 baHtses q!waq!waxts!ana^ye laq. Wii, sEk'!ap!Enke baLa^yasexs 
lae t!6ts!Entses xwaLayowe laq. Wa, g'iPmese ^wPla la t!ot!Ets!aa- 
kwa dEnasaxs lae dzEdzExsEndEq qa 'iiaHnEmdEnes laxEns q!wa- 
q'.wax'ts'.ana^yex ytx awadzEwasas ylxa nEgsdza^yas g-a gwafega 
{jig.) yixa oxsdeLasa LEg"ats!eLe Llabatelaso^s. Wa, gU^'mese ^wPla 

10 la dzExoyEwakuxs laeda Llabatelaenoxwe tslEdaq ax^edxa k.'wax- 
Lawe qa^s xox-'wideq qa k' !ek' !EWElx-'unes. Wii, la k' !6dEn laxEns 
sElt !axts !ana^yex ytx Swagwidasas. Wa, lit baHdEq qa maemalp Ieu- 
k'es awasgEmasasa mots!aqe laxens qlwaqhvaxts.Tma^yaxs lae 
k'oxsEndEq. Wa, g'lPmese gwalExs lae ax'edxa ts!elts!Eq!astowe 

15 dzEXEk" dEnasa. Wa, laxae ax^edxa malts !aqe laxa mEoekwe 
k!waxLawa qa k'ak-Etodes oba^'yas g"a gwalega {fig.). Wa, la 
yaLotsa ts!Eq!adzo dzEXEk" dEnas laq. Wa, glPmese gwalExs lae 
et!ed «.x^edxa -uEmtsIaqe mEnek" k!waxLawa. Wa, laxae k-atbEnts 
lax apsba^yasa la yaLEwakwa qa^s yll^aLElodes ytsa ts!eq!adzowe 

20 dzEXEk" dEnas laq; g'a gwalega {fig.). Wa, glFmese gwalExs lae 
et!ed ax^edxa ^UEmtslaqe mEnek" kIwaxLawa qa^s k'akEtbEndes 
lax oba^yasa malts !aqe. Wa, laxae yaLEmg-aaLElots waxsba^yases 



BOAS] 



INDTJSTKIES 



137 



it to both ends. | She just ties it on with narrow spht cedar-bark. 23 



Now I it is this way, j, 
basket, for || that is T 
are called. Therefore J_ 
same size when they 
is neither | bigger nor 
are measured. | When 
bark that has been split 



[and it is the stiff bottom of the clover- 
what the cedar-sticks tied together 
all the I clover-baskets are of the 
are made by the basket-makers. One 
smaller than another, for the bottoms 
this is done, the woman takes the cedar- 



25 



and measured 
splits it again down to one end,|| in this manner: 
takes the stiff bottom and places 
middle of the cedar-bark, in this way : 
weaves it like a mat in I coarse 



so that 

bottom. 

way, 

woven 

in II spUt 

been 




off, and she 
Then she 30 
it I on the 
and she 



into narrow strips, starting from 
stiff bottom, in this way: 
split it, she takes a long strip of 
cedar-bark, puts the end 
ners of the stiff bottom into the 
of the basket, and she ties the 



it is of the |l||| llll ||||| same size as j the stiff 
Now it I is woven in this 

and it is lllllillllllllll called | "the bottom 
in broad strips;" namely, the bottom woven 
cedar-bark. When the stiff bottom has 35 
covered, | the woman sphts the cedar-bark 

the 




edge of the 
After I she has 
narrow split | 
through the cor- 
II woven bottom 40 
I two ends to the 



25 



30 



alEm katlaLEloya yisa ts!eq!adzowe dzEXEkwa dsnas laq. Wa, la 23 
ga gwalaxs lae gwaleda LlaxaxsdeLasa LEg-ats!eLe Llabata {fig.) 
qaxs he-'mae LegEmsa yaLEwakwe k!waxLawa lagilas ^nEmalasa 
LEgatsIe Llabataxs lae kMttasE^wa ylsa Llabatelaenoxwe k'leas 
^walats. Wa, laxae k!eas amas qaeda mEnyayowexaL!axExsda^ye. 
Wa, g-il^mese gwalExs laeda ts!Edaqe ax^edxa niEnmEntsIaakwe 
dzExoyEwak" dEnas qa^s dzEx^ede et !edxa dsnase labEnd lax apsba- 
^yas, g-a gwaleg-a {fig.). Wa, la ax^edxa L!axExsda^ye qa^s axdzo- 
des laxa uEgEdza^yas g-a gwaleg-a {fig.). Wa, lii k-!it!edEq qa 
awadzohdEkwes. Wa, he^mis qa ^nEmadzoweses k-!ita^yc LE-wa 
L!axExsda^ye. Wii, laEm ga gwalr k- !lta^yaseg-a {fig.). Wa, heEm 
LegadEs k-!it!ExsdE^ye awadzohdEk", yLxa oxsdEye, ylxs lae o-adzE- 
qaieda dzExEkwe dEnasa. Wa, gipmese haniElgidzowa LlixExs- 35 
da^yaxs laeda tslsdaqe helox"sEnd dzEdzExsEndxa g-aglLEla lax 
ewunxa^yasa LlaxExsda^ye qa ts!elts!Eq!astowes {fig.). Wa, gll- 
^mese gwal dzEdzExs^alaq lae ax^edxa g llstowe ts!eq!adzo dzEXEk" 
dEnasa qa^s nexsodes lax k-!ek-!osasa LlaxExsda^ye hex'sila lax 
awadzolldEkwe k-!it!ExsdEndesa Llabate. Wit, lit mokflmgaaLElots 40 
wax-sba^yas laxa k- !ek- losasa L!axExsda^ye g-a gwalega {fig.). Wil 



138 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL, [eth. ann. 35 



42 corners of the flat bottom, in this way: 

strips of split cedar-bark to 

they cross, in this manner: 

done, I she hangs the strings 
45 pole in the corner of the 





I Then she ties on 
the center, | where 
As soon as this is 



that she has tied to it to a 
II house, and she measures 
the height so that she may sit by its side when she is weaving 
it; and | she ties the cedar-bark strings to the pole, and now it 
is I in this way.' As soon as this is done, she takes long, split, | 
narrow cedar-bark, which is called "woof." It is as wide as 

50 this.^ And she begins | weaving at the corner of her basket || and 
weaves around it. After she has gone around once, she | adds on 
another strip and continues weaving. Now there are two woof- 
strands. I After she has gone around once, she puts on another one 
and weaves it in ; | and after she has gone around once, she adds on 
still another one | to weave with. Now there are four of them. 

55 Now she weaves around; || and as soon as she has the size that she 
wants for the height of the cinquefoil-basket, | she twists in the warp- 
strands. When this has been finished, she continues j making baskets, 
for sometimes she needs as many as ten baskets if she has a large | 
cinquefoil-garden. | 
1 Basket for Viburnum-Berries. — You know akeady all the ways of work- 
inc I roots and cedar- withes : therefore I will | talk about the way in 



42 la mox^witsa gllstowe dzExEk" ts!eq!astowe dEnas laxa uExdzawas 
gadzexedaasas g-a gwaleg-a {fg.). Wit, giPmese gvvalExs lae 
o-ex"sEq lEntsa ale mox^waLElodayos laxa qlEklEmelaxa onegwilas 

45 g'okwa. Wa, a^mise gwanala qa^s k Iwanalileqexs lilLe k'lttaq lae 
mox'witsa tegwelEme dEnas laxa qlEldEmele. Wii, laEm g'a 
cnviilega.' Wa, glFmese gwaiExs lae ax^edxa gllsgilstowe dzEXEk" 
tsIelts'.EqIastowe dEnasa. HeEm Legadss k!tdEma g-aEm awadzE- 
watse gada.- Wii, lii k'!it!aLElots laxa kMosases l !abatelasE-we 

50 qa^s niEle^stalexs lae kMataq. Wii, glPmese lii'steda ^nEmts!aqaxs 
lae glnwasa ^uEmtsIaqe kMidEma laq. Wa, la malts !aqa klidEma. 
Wii, CT-th'Emxaawise lii^staxs lae glnwasa ^nEmts!aqe qa^s k!it!a- 
LElodes. Wii, g-iPEmxaawise lii^staxs lae ginwasa ^nEmtsIaqe 
k'lidEma. Wii, la^me m5ts laxse^stalaxs lae k' !ittse^stalaq. Wii, 

55 o- iPmese lag'aa liix gWE^yas qa ^valasgEmatsa LEg-ats'.eLe Llaba- 
tExs lae malagExstEndEq. Wii, g-tl^mese gwalExs lae hanal 
L'.abatela qaxs ^nal^nEmp lEuae nsqasgEme Llabatila^yasa lexEdzas 
LEgEdzowe. 
1 Basket for Viburnum- Berries. — Wii, laEmLas qliiLEla ^naxwa gweg'i- 
latsexa Llop'.Ek'e LE^wa tEXEmaxs lae eaxElaq. Wii, hetlEn lagila 
^nex" qEn gwagwexs^ale laxa tsledaqaxs lae lExelaxa kloxstano- 

1 See last figure. ' About 6 mm. wide. 



BOAS] 



INDUSTRIES 



139 



which the woman makes the basket | for viburnum-berries. It is made 
differently from other baskets. The weaving || is done in the same 
way. The only thing that is different is that the sides are straight 
up and down, | and the bottom is flat. It is measured so as to fit into 
the I box for steaming viburnum-berries. The bottom is bent square, 



in this way: 
side. It is | 
one long 
short side, 
two fingers | 
loosely into 
four II spans 




I There are two handles to it, one on each 
two spans laigh, and || two spans long, and 10 
span and one short span | is the length of its 
I The box for cooking viburnum-berries is 
wider than this size, so that the basket fits 
I the box when it is put in. The box is 
high. As soon as | the coolcing-basket for 15 
viburnum-berries has been finished, it is put down at a damp place, 
so that I the weaving may not get loose, for it is not weU woven . | 

Basket for Wild Carrots. — The wife makes a | cedar-bark basket. 
You know ah-eady about the making of || baskets, for it is the same 20 
as the cinquefoil-basket. The only | difference is that it is shallower 
than the cinquefoil-basket. | The basket for can-ots is made of 
broad strips. | 

Cedar-Bark Basket (2). — You know already | how baskets are made, i 
The only difference in the basket for j lily bidbs is that it is woven 



waxa tlslse lExa^ya, yix ogu^qalae laxwa laElxa^yex yixs yo^mae 
gwille k'lilka^ya. Wii, la lex'aEm ogii^qalayosex heyanae LEq!- 5 
Exsdae, yix; lae niEnek", qa^s a^me heldzExbEta lax laxalts!;! laxa 
q !olats leLaxa t!Else. Wii, la k' !ek" logEkwe oxsdE^yas ga gwiilega 
{fig.). Wii, la male k' !ek' !6gwasas lax wax-sana"yas. Wii, la malp Ieu- 
k'ostiiwe ^walasgEmasa hixEns q!waq!wax"ts!ana^yex. Wii, laxae 
malplEnk'e gildoliis liixEn q!wiiq!wax'ts!iina^yex, yixs ts!Ex"ts!ane- lo 
balaeda 'nEmp!Enke laxEns q!wiiq!wax'ts!ana^yex, yix ts!Eg'otiis. 
Wii, liiLe miildEne lalexalagawa^yasa q!olats!eLaxa ttelse laxEns 
q!waq!waxts!ana^yex qa dzEbEqelesexs lae hiinaxaltslawa k"!6xsta- 
nowe lExiixa t!Else. Wa, lii mop !Enk'ustiiwe ^walasgEmasas laxEns 
q!waq!waxts!ana^yex, yixa q!olats!axa ttelse. Wa, gil^mese 15 
gwaia k' !oxstanowe lExiixs lae hauegwelEm Laxa dElnele qa k' !ese 
s'le^nakide k'lHka^yas, qaxs klesae aekMaakwe k' lilka^yas. 

Basket for Wild Carrots. — Wii, laLa gEUEmas LliibatTlaxa dEn- 
tsEme Lliibata, qax lE'maaqos q!aLElax gweg'ilasasa l !iibatlliixa 
Llabate qaxs he^mae gWiileda t!Egwats!e Llabata. Wii, lex-a'mes 20 
ogu^x^idayosexs ii^mae kwiikwatsEmalaga^vesa t!Egwats!e Lliibata. 
Wii, laxae awadzohdEkweda k- lidela^yasa xEtxEt!aats!e L!abata. 

Cedar-Bark Basket (2). — Wii, laEmLasnaxwa q !aLElax gwayi^Iiilasasa l 
Llabatila. Wii, lex'a^mes ogiVqalayosa Llabatila qa^s x'ogwatslexa 



140 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ibth. ann. si 

flat and low, for its length | and breadth are two spans each and it is 
5 one I! span high. It has | no holes along the rim for lashing, as the 

other baskets have, | for lashing them when they are being tied up. 

The baskets for lily-bulbs have the tops of the sid&s bent backward. | 

That is all about this. | 

Huckleberry-Basket. — As soon as this is done, she begins to make the 
10 basket || for shaking the hucldeberries into ; but I will not | talk about 

the making of the basket, for the only thing that is different about 

the huckleberry-basket | is that it has a wide mouth and low sides 

and narrow ^g^- ^w^wj^-ss n.. bottom, | and that it is very finely made 

in this way : fflmn^ffllffll When | this is finished, she makes another 
15 smaller has- \roK^Aun|B l'^<'t of medium size. || It is made in the 

same way as ''™aQsJiij|p!'^ ^^^ large | swaUowing-basket. | 

Box for picking Salmon- Berries. — Let me for a while talk about 

what the hooked box for picking salmon-berries is, | and what its 

sizes are. It is just this. The box is made of the best kind of cedar- 
20 wood, and || the hooked box is well made. It is | made as light as 

possible, and it is made in the same way | as they make the oil-box ; 

and these are its sizes. It is | one span and a short span liigh, and 
25 is I one span and four fingers long, || and one span wide. | It has the 

3 x'okOmaxs pEqElae ylxs kiitElae, ylxs malp lEnk'ila^laes gildolase 
LE^wis ts lEgoIa laxEns q !waq !wax'ts !ana^yex. Wa, :l-mesLa ^nEmp Ieu- 
5 k'ustawe ^walasgEmasas laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yex. Wa, laxae 
k'lcils t!Emagats!Exstes he gwiileda LlaLlEbataxs malagExstalae 
qa nEyEmxs'alatsa tiEmagimas yixs ii^mae gwagu^nagEtE^wakwe 
oxta^yasM awaxsta-yasa x'6gwats!e Llabatd. Wii, laEm gwal laxeq. 
Huckleberry-Basket. — Wil, gii^mese ^wi^la gwalExs lae k'!llats!eg-i- 

10 laxes k!ilats!eLaxa g^vadEme lExa^ya. Wa, laLaLEn k' !es gwag\vex'- 
s^alal laqexs lae lExelaq. Wii, la lex'aEm ogu^qalayosa kMllatsliixa 
gwadEmaxs lexExstae; wii, lii kutEla; wii, laxae t!ogwapa; wii, 
hi'^misexs alakMiilae t!6lt!oxsEma g^a gwiilega {fig.). Wii, g'lPmese 
. . . gwalExs lae et!ed k!ilats!eg'ilaxa amaye helomagEm k"!ilats!e 

15 lExa^ya. Wii, laEmxae heEm gwaleda ^walase nag'e k!ilats!e 
lExa^ya. 

Box for picking Salmon-Berries. — Wit ga^masLEn gwiigwexs^E- 
x'^Id lax gwexsdEmasa gaLEkwe hiimyatslexa qIamdzEkwe, ylx 
^walayasas ylxs lex^a^mae wulx'^ItsE^wa alii la ek' kIwaxLawa, qaxs 

20 alae la aeklakwa gaLEkwaxs lae wulasE^wa. Wii, he^misexs alae 
k!wak!wayaak", qa^s klutsEme. Wii, la yuEm gwiiie wiila^yase 
wula^yasa dEngwats!e. Wii, ga^mes ^walayatsega, ylxs ^uEm- 
p'.Enk'ae he^mesa ts !Ex"ts !ana\ye ^walagostawasas ; wii la modEnba- 
leda ^nEmp!Enke LaxEns q!waq!wax-ts!ana^yex ylx g-lldoliis; 

25 wii, lii ^nEmp!Enk'e tsEgoliis laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yex. 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES ' 141 

thickness of one-half of the tip of the httle finger, | and it is well made. 27 
It is grooved all over with fine grooves, in tliis manner.' | When it is 
done, the wife of the box-maker takes the very best | cedar-bark to 
make a packing-strap. The cedar-bark is split || into very narrow 30 
strips, and each end is twisted to a rope. In the middle it is woven 
like a mat, | in this way: As soon as 

the forehead-strap is ^fesssss^^^^^^fl^^^^^ finished, | she 
twists a smaU cedar-bark rope; and 

when she thinks | it is long enough for being tied around the hooked 
box, slie stops I twisting rope. She takes the hooked box, turns it 
around, and half way up its height || i i i she winds the cedar- 35 
bark around it as tightly as possible. She puts it around 

four times, | and she ties the end to ' ~j p ^ (j) and (2). After | 
she has done so, she cuts off the cedar- bark rope | at (3). 

Then she takes the part that she has ' - J ^ '^ ' cut off and makes a 
loop underneath, passing over the bottom board, brings it up, 
and takes a turn | at (4). She puts it around four times. Then 
she ties the end at || (4). As soon as this is done, she takes the 40 
packing-strap which passes around her forehead, and | puts it on 
with two half-liitches at the end at (1) and also at (2). | That is the 
carrying-strap for the hooked box. That is all about this. || 

Tump-line. — As soon as the basket has been finished, | she takes 1 
cedar-bark and measures off one long fathom [ and two spans for | its 



Wa, la k!odEn laxEns sElt!ax'ts!ana^ye laxa makMEmextsIa^yaxs 26 
ytx wax"sEmasas. Wa, la aek" laakwa, ylxs k IwedEkwaega gwiilega.' 
Wa, gll^mese gwalExs lae gEnEmasa wu-'lenoxwe ux^edxa alaxat! ek" 
dEnasa, qa^s q !alEyogwileq. Wii, laEm ts!elts!Eq!astowe dzExa- 
^yase dEiiase, ylxs lae mElkwes wax'sba^ye. Wa, la kidoyEwa- 30 
kwa g-a gwaleg-a {f(j.). Wa, glHmese gwala qIalEyowaxs 
lae mEbf^idxa ^wil^Ene dEnsen dEUEma. Wa, glPmesc kotaq 
laEm helala ^wasgEmasas lax WEbcsEmeses gaLEkwaxs lae gwal 
mElaq. Wii, la ax^edxa gaLEkwe qa^s uEgoyode ^walasgEmasexs lae 
qEX'SEmts laq, qa^s lEk'.utsEmde qEnoyots. Wa, la moplene^sta 35 
laqexs lae ylPaLElodEx oba^yas lax (1) l6^ (2). Wa, giPmese 
gwalExs lae tlotslEndEq. Wii, lii galop lets oba^yases tlosoyowe 
lax (3), qa^s lii x'tmaabodalax paq !Exsda^yas, qa^s gaxe galop !lts 
lax (4). Wii, laEmxae moplene'stax lae ytl^aLElots oba^yas lax 
(4). Wii, glPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa qIalEyowe qa^s lii max- 40 
^waLElots apsba^yas lax (1); wa, laxaes fipsba^yas lax (2). Wii, 
laEm aoxLaekwa gaLEkwe laxeq. Wii, laEm gwala. 

Tump-Line. — Wii, gll^mese gwale klilatslEg-ila^yas lExa^ya, lae 1 
ax^edxa dsnase qa^s baPldeq qa ^uEmplEnkes laxEns baLxa; 

> See figure below. 



142 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIXJTL [eth.ann.3b 

5 length. Then she takes the straight knife and || cuts it off, and she 
puts the bark into water to get soaked. | She docs not leave it there 
long before taking it out. Then she | spUts it into narrow strips; and 
after it has been spUt, | she twists it into a rope three | spans long; and 
then she continues plaiting it like a mat, beginning with the rope 

10 that she has twisted. |1 This plaiting is three spans long, and serves 
as a strap over the forehead for carrying the basket. | When she 
reaches the end, she twists it again, beginning at the end of the | mat- 
ting, and the twisted rope is also three spans long. | After it is fin- 
ished, I it is in this way.' This is called the "forehead-strap," and is 

15 tied II to the opening of the huckleberry-basket which she has made. | 

Back-Protector. — After she has finished all the baskets, | she quickly 

sphts cedar-bark five spans in length; | and when she thinks she has 

enough, | she takes some narrow spht cedar-bark and she weaves the 

20 middle || together in this manner, . -—^ so as to keep the 

strands close together. This is two ^^^^^= spans | in width. 
As soon as this has been finished, j A she hangs it over 

the mat-stick, and she sits down at the place | where hangs the cedar- 
bark that she is going to weave, and she begins weaving in the 
middle. | When she reaches the end, she puts in the selvage; and 



3 he^misa malp'.Enkes esEg'iwa^yas laxEns q !waq Iwax'ts lana^yex, 
ytx wasgEmasasexs lae dax'^idxes uExx'ala klawayowa qa^s 
5 t'.otslEndSq. Wa, la hiipstEndEq laxa ^wape qa pex-wides. Wa, 
kMestIa gestalilExs lae ilx^vustEndEq laxa ^wape, qa^s tsleltslE- 
qlastogwilexs lae dzEdzExsalaq. Wa, g'11-mese ^wi=ia la dzEXEkuxs 
lae aek'Ia mElx'^idEq qa yudux"p!Enk-esa mElkwe laxEns q!wa- 
q!wax'ts!ana^yex. Wii, lil k'!it!ed g'ag'lLEla lax mEla'yas. Wa, 

10 la yudux"p!Enk'^Emxae ^wasgEmasasa k" !idEdzEwakwe qlalsyowa. 
Wii, giPmese labEndEq lae et'.ed mElx'^id giig'lLEla lax oba^yasa 
k' lldEdzEwakwe. Wa, laEmxae yudux"p lEnke ^wasgEmasas mEla- 
«yas laxEns q!waqwax'ts!ana^'yex. Wii, g'iPmese gwalExs lae 
ga gwiitega.' Wii, laEm LegadEs q!alEyowe. Wii, lii t lEmx^aLslots 

^5 lax awaxsta^yases k-!ilats!eg'ilae lExa^ya. 

Back-Protector. — Wii, giPmese gwal ^wi'le l labatela^'yasexs lae 
hanax^wid dzEdzExsEndxa dEnasexa sskMaplEnk^as awasgEmase 
ItLxEns q!wiiq!wax'ts!ilna^yex. Wii, g'tPmese kotaq laEm hel^a- 
laxs lae a,x'edxa ts!eq!adzowe dzEXEk" dsnasa qa^s yiboyodes 

20 laxes dzExex'de g"a gwiileg"a (Jig.) qa qlasales liix malplEnk' lena^yas 
^wadzEwasas laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yex. Wii, g'iPmese gwiilExs 
lae gex"sEq!Ents laxa k' litdEmelaxa le-'wa^ye. Wa, lii k !wag-alila lax 
gEwela^sas qa^s k'!it!edeq giig iLsla lax ytboyoda^yas. Wii, 
giPmese labEndqexs lae malagEstEudEq. Wii, g'iPmese gwal 

> See figure on p. 141. 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 143 

after|| she has finished weaving it, she turns over what she is weaving, 25 
and she again starts from | the middle and weaves downward; and 
when she gets to the end, | she puts in the selvage. After this has 
been done, | she takes it down, takes her fish-knife, and cuts off the 
rough ends | that are sticking out. When she has cut them off all 
around the || selvage, the back-protecting mat for digging clover is 30 
done. I 

Belt. — She also splits cedar-bark into narrow strips of the same 1 
width as the one she used | when splitting bark for the back-protector 
for digging clover. | This is the width.' She weaves it so that it is 
three fingers | wide and one fathom long. || When she comes near the 5 
end, she lets it | taper; and when it is one fathom | long, the end is 
narrow; and she twists a rope out of the same bark that she used | 
for weaving; and wlien the rope is also one | fathom long, she ties a 
knot at the end || so that it will not untwist. Now the cedar-bark 10 
belt is I two fathoms long. She uses it when she goes to dig clover. | 

Implement for peeling Cedar- Bark. — When (a person) gets ready to 
go I to peel off cedar-bark in the woods, he takes | his small ax, 
and he takes a branch of pine, flat at one end, four || spans long, and 15 
two finger-widths | in diameter. He also takes a flat, | rough sand- 

malaqaqexs lae xwel^ELodxes k"!ltasE^we qa^s g"agiLElexat! laxa 25 
yiboyoda^yas qa^s banolEle k!itaq. Wa, gIPEmxaawise labEndEx 
oba^yasexs lae malagExstEndEq. Wa, gil^mese gwalExs lae 
gexwaxodEq qa^s Ax-'edexes xwaxayowe qa^s tlosalex oba-'yasa 
qlwadzayaq. Wa, g'11-mese ^wFla tlosodxa waxsabala laxa mala- 
qa^yas lae gwala LEbeg"eLe le^wexs tsIoseLaxa LExsEme. 30 

Belt. — Wa, laxae dzEdzExsEndxa dEnase heEmxae awadzEwe 1 
dzExa^yase dzExa^yas qaes LEbegeLe le^'wexs tsIoseLaxa lex'se- 
mexaga awodzEweg'a.^ Wii, la k'lltledEq qa yOduxMEnes wadzE- 
wasas laxEns q !waq Iwaxts !S,na^yex. Wa, la ^nsmp lEnke ^wasgEma- 
sas laxEns baLax. Wii, gil^mese Elaq labEndqexs lae tsleqltVna- 5 
kiile oba^yas. Wit, gil^mese labEncLxa ^nEmplEnke laxens baLiixs 
lae wilba. Wa, la mElx'^idxa ^wile dEusEn dEnEma gayolEm laxa 
k'lttasE^wa qaxs he-mae obese. Wii, giPEmxaawise ^nEmplEnk' 
laxEns baLiike mEla^yas dEusEn dsuEmaxs lae mox"bEndEq qa 
kMeses qwelaxbax-^'ida. Wa, laEm malplEuke ^wasgEmasas dEne- 10 
dzowe wuseganos q5 lal ts!5salxa LEX'SEme. 

Implement for peeling Cedar-Bark. — Wit, he^maaxs lae xwanalE- 
leda lilLe sEnqalxa dEnase laxa aLle. Wii, he^mis S-x^etso^ses 
sayobEme. Wii, liiLa pExbaalnva LlEnak'asa m6mox"de moplEnke 
^wasgEmasas laxEns q!wiLq!wax"ts!ana^yex. Wa, lit maldEoxsa^we 15 
^wagidasas laxEns q!waq!wax"ts!ana^yex. Wa, la S.x^edxa pExsEme 

1 About 6 mm. 



144 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL (ktu. ann. 36 

18 stone and places it by the side of the | fire of his house. He puts the 
end of the pine-branch | into the fire; and when it is burnt, he takes 

20 it II by the big end and puts the burnt end on the rough sandstone, | 
and he rubs it on it so that one end of it wQl become flat, 

and it is bent I in this manner: When tliis is done, he 

does the same to the | other side. Then the end is flat ; and he rubs 
the corners off, | so that the point is rounded, Hke this: \ As 

25 soon as the point is really sharp, || he takes tallow of J the 

mountain-goat and chews it ; j and he takes the bark-hf ter with which 
he is going to peel the cedar-bark, and puts the j flat end into the fire of 
his house. When it gets quite j hot, he puts the chewed tallow on both 
sides of I the flat end. He keeps on turning the bark-lifter while the jj 

30 tallow is melting, so that it spreads over both sides. Then he j puts it 
up near the fire so as to let the tallow soak in. When | it almost catches 
fire, he stops heating it. Then he puts it down | in the corner of his 
house so as to let it cool quickly; | and when it is cool, it is hard. 

35 After that it is ready. || This is the bark-lifter of the fii-st people when 

they went to peel red cedar-bark | and yellow cedar-bark, of wliich 

they made blankets before the white men came | in early days, j 

1 Spade. — Her husband makes the spade for digging lily-bulbs. | It is 

also chopped out of yew-wood. When he goes into the woods and | he 

17 k!5L!a dE^na tlesEma qa^s g-axe pax^alilas laxa mag-lnwalisas 
lEgwIlases gokwe. Wa, la LlEnxLEnts wilba^yasa L!oxQlp!Enkasa 
m5mox"de laxes lEgwile. Wii, gIPmese x'ix^edsxs lae dax'^TdEx 

20 LEx"ba^yas qa^s ax^alodesa kluniElba^ye laxa k'loLla dE-'na t!esEma 
qa^s yllsElales laq, ylxa a,psotba^ye qa pExbes, yLx wakalaena^yas- 
ga gwalega (fig.). Wii, gtPmese gwalExs lae ogwaqaxa apso- 
tlEna^yes. Wii, la^me pExba. Wii, ItixaeyllsElalax wax'sotba^yas qa 
kElx-bes ga gwiileg'a (fig.). Wii, g'iPmese la alak'!iila la eex'baxs 

25 lae a,x^edxa yasEkwasa 'mElxLowe qa-'s malEx^wideq. Wii, la 
ax^edxa l !ok IwayoLaxes sEncpxsoLa dsnase. Wii, lii LlEnxLEnts 
pExba^yas laxa lEgwilases gokwe. Wii, glPmese alaklala la 
ts !Elx^widExs lae axbEntsa maleglkwe yasEk" liix wax'sadza^yasa 
pExba^yas. Wii, a^mise lexiHiilaxa L!ok!wayaxs lae yax^Ideda 

30 yasEkwe qa lils hamElaLEla hix waxsadza^yas. Wii, lii et!ed 
pEx-^IdEq laxa lEgwIle qa la^aqesa yasEkwe laq. W"ii, g-iPmese 
la Elaq xix^edExs lae gwal pExeq. Wii, a^mese hi k-adEne- 
wwilaq laxa onegwilases g'okwe qa halabales k'ox^wlda. Wii, 
o-iPmese kox'wIdExs lae LlEnix^vIda. Wii, lahne gwiilala laxeq. 

35 Wii, heEm Lloklwayasa g'ale bEgwauEmxs sEnqaaxa dEnase 

LE^wa dexwe qa^s klobawasilaxs kles^maoiex g-axa mamal^ax 

liixa qwesalii ^nala. 

1 Spade. — Wii, laLa hi^wunEmas eaxElaxa tsloyayiixa xokume. 

Wa, heEmxaeda LlEmqIe sopletsos yixs lae aliiq laxa iiLle. Wii 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 145 

finds (yew trees), he chops down one that is two | spans in diameter. 
When the tree falls, he measures off || two spans and chops it off with 5 
his I ax. After he has done so, he splits it tlirough the heart. | He 
takes the side without branches | and chops off all the heart-wood so 
that it comes off and so that | it is flat. After he has done this, he 
chops the other side so || that it is two spans thick, and | he chops it 10 
well until it is smooth and of tlie same thickness. After | doing so, he 

measures one short span ~ ^^ n and | chops it 

so that it is in this way: I ^ i 3 and he chops 

the top I so that it has a crcsspiece on it. After finishing one edge, || 15 
he does the same with the other edge. Now the end, | beginning 
at the bottom (1) is square. This is the digging-point, which extends 
to (2), I the middle handle, and towards (3), the crosspiece on top. 
After doing so, | he carries it in his hands as he goes home. He puts 
it do^vn and | takes a piece of fire-wood, on which he adzes it. He 
takes his adz || and takes hold of the spade for lily-bulbs. With his | 20 
left hand he holds it by the point, and he places the crosspiece (3) | on 
the fire-wood. In his right hand he takes the adz, and | he first 
adzes down at the middle handle (2), which he makes round. | When 
it is round, he turns the end so that the point (1) || stands on the 25 



gil^mese qlaqexs lae hex'^idaEm s5p!Exodxa modEiix'sa laxEns 3 
q!waq!waxts!ana^yex. Wii, giPmese t!ax'^IdExs lae bal^idxa 
malp'.Enk-e laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yaxs lae tEmx"sEntses soba- 5 
yowe laq. Wa, gil^mese lax'SExs lae naq!Eqax domaqasexs lae 
kuxsEndEq. Wa, la^mes hi' ax^etso^se wllEmases ok !waedza^ye. 
Wii, la aek'Ia sopalax domaqas qa lawiiyes. Wa, he^mis qa 
^nEmadzowes. Wa, giFmese gwala lae sopledEx apsadzE^yas qa 
maldEnes laxEns fi!waq!waxts!ana^yaqe wagwasas. Wa, laxae 10 
a('k!a sopaq qa ^uEmadzowes wagwasas. Wa, g-iPmese gwalExs 
lae baHdxa ts !EX"ts lana^ye laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yaxs lae 
sopledEq qag-es gwale g'a (/</.). Wa, laxae sobEtEndxa oxta^yas 
qa gextEweLas. Wa, glPmese gwala apsotEnxa-yaxs lae heEmxat! 
gwex'^dxa apsEnxa^yas. Wa, Ti^mise la kMtwElx^una oxLa^yas 15 
g-ag-iLEla lax oxi.a^yas (1) xa tseg^va3^oba^"ye hcgustala laxa (2) 
daadzoyEwe lagaaLEla laxa (3) gextiVye. Wa, g-JPmese gwatexs 
lae dak' lotElaqexs lae na^nak" laxes gokwe. Wa, lii ax^alilaq qa^s 
ax^edexa lEqwa qa^s kMimldEmaq. Wa, laxae Sx^edxes klmiLa- 
yowe qa^s dax'^idexa ts!oyayoLaxa x-okiime qa^s daleses gEmxol- 20 
ts!ana^ye lax (1) tsegwayoba^yas. Wa, la Lak'lEnts (3) gexta^ye 
laxa lEqwa. Wa, lit diilases hoik' !olts lana^ye laxa k' IimLayowaxs 
lae he gil kliml^itso^se (2) daadzoyEwe qa lex'^Enx'^Ides. Wii, 
giPmese lex'^Enx'^idExs lae xwePldEq qa hes la LEnqalas (1) 
tsegwayoba^yas laxa lEqwa. Wii, lii k' ImaPldEq qa pElbes yo gwii- 25 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 1 10 



146 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

25 fire-wood, and he adzes it so that the ___^ — , puiat becomes 
thm I like an adz, in this manner:' As soon as this 

is done, he takes | his crooked knife and shaves it off so as to make it 
smooth. Now | the digging-point is sharp; and he smooths the 
crosspiece on top | by shaving it. As soon as he has done so, he hard- 

30 ens it by means of tallow. || You know the way it is done with the 
digging-stick for clover when it is heated | by the fire and rubbed 
with tallow to make the point brittle. | He does it in the same way 
when he is making the spade for lily-bulbs | when lie is hardening 
the point of the spade that he is making. | 
1 Digging-Stick for Clover. — First | this is searched for by the man. 
He takes his ax to go into the woods | to look for a yew-tree without 
branches. As soon as he finds one, he | cuts down the thick yew-tree 
5 that has no branches. || When it falls dowTi, he measures | five 
spans and | four finger-widths, nearly six spans, | then he cuts it off; 
and when it has been cut off, he splits it in two | through the heart. 

10 When it has been split in two, he splits one side || again in two 
through the heart; and when this has been split, | it is triangular (in 
cross-section). He measures two spans | and four finger- widths | 
four spans, and cuts a notch into it, so that it is in size three | spans 



26 loxda sobayox; g'a gwiileg'a {fig.). Wa, g'iPmese gwalExs lae ax^- 
edxes xElxwala k" !awaj'owa qa^sack" !e k- laxwaq qa qeses. Wa, laEm 
exbes tsegwayoba^yas Wii, laxae qaqetslax gexta'yas laxes k"!a- 
^wena^yaq. Wa, gil'mese gwalExs lae p lap !ets !asa yasEkwe laq, — xes 

30 la^mos q!ala lax gwegilasasas tsloyayuxa LEX"SEmaxs lae pEx'aso 
laxa lEgwlle qa-'s yils^etasE^wesa yasEkwe qa LlEmx^wides oba^yas. 
Wa, hc^mis uEqEmgtltE^\ves5sa eaxElaxa tsloyayiixa x'okumaxs 
lae p lap lets !ax tsegwaySba^yases tsloyayogwila-'yas. 
1 Digging-Stick for Clover (Tsloyayoxa LExsEme). — Wa, heEm 
gll la aliiso'sa bEgwauEme; ax^edxes sobayowe qa^s lii laxa axle 
alax ek-etEla LlEmqla. Wii, glPmese qlaqexs lae hex'^daEm 
soplExodEq ylxa LEkwe LlEmqla l5xs kleasae LlEnx'^Ena^ya. 
5 Wa, g"iPmese t!ax"^idExs lae mEus^idEq ylses qlwax^tslana-ye. 
Wa, la baPidxa sEkMaplEnk'e laxEns q Iwaq Iwax'ts lana^yex he^misa 
modEue laxEns qlwaqlwaxtshina-'j^ex j^lx qliiqlaLlEplElayasexs lae 
sopsEudEq. Wii, gil'mese la tEmgikuxs lae kilxsEndEq qa^s naqlE- 
qex domaqas. Wa, gll^mese kuxsaakliisExs lae etsJEndxa apsodele 

10 kuxsEndEq naqlEqax domaqas. Wii, giPmese kiixsaak Iusexs lae 
kloklulnosa. Wii, lii niEns^ldxa malplEnk'e laxEns qlwacjlwax'- 
tslana^yex, he^misa modsne babELawes laxEns qlwaqlwax'tslana- 
^yaxs lae sobEtEndEq qa ^wiloylwes qa yudux"dEnes laxEns qlwa- 



' Seen sideways. 



BOAS] INDUSTEIES 147 

in this manner, ^ < at (1). When || 

this is done, he chops 4<^ T\ at (2) so that it 15 

is three spans | from ^ * (1) to the end at 

(4). I When it is squared, starting from (1), he cliops out the heart | 
so that it all comes off; and when it is all off, he chops the one side | 
so it is flat (3). When it is finished, he lays it down flat || and he 20 

chops (6) and (5) so that they are this way: ,-— 7V_J— When 

it is I triangular in cross-section, he chops at — — — C^ (3) so 

that it is pointed and so that it | bends back. Now it is one hand 
wide at (7), and it is four | finger-widths under each side of (7).| 
When this is done, | he carries it on his shoulders and goes home. 
Then he ^ ^^ puts it down and || takes 25 

his adz. ^-r;?^^^^^^ First he measures | 

the grip ^ _--'^C^^^^^ ^* ^^^" ^^^ length is one 

hand- ^ "^^^ width. He | cuts around it 

with his ^ adz, so that the handle of 

the digging-stick (6) | is two fingers thick; and he does the same 
at (4), so that the grip is one | hand-width in length. When this 
is done, || he adzes (6) so that it is round; and after he has done 30 
so, I he adzes the back (3), going to the hard point (1) of the | 
digging-stick. When this is done, he adzes the beUy (2), | going 
towards the hard point of the digging-stick (1) ; and when this is 
done, 1 he takes his crooked knife and straight knife and cuts a 

q'.waxtslana^yex yix ^wag-idasas g-a gwilleg'a {jig^ ylx (1). Wa, 

glPmese gwalExs lae sopalax (2) qa yudux"dEnes laxEns q!wa- 15 

q!wax-ts!ana^yaqe ^wag-idasa g-iigiLEla lax (1) laxLEnd lax (4). 

Wii, glPmese la k'lEWElx" giiglLEla lax (1) lae sopalax domaqas ^% 

qa ^wi-lawe lawa. Wa, glh'mese ^wPlaxs lae soplEldzodxa fipsod- 

dz&^ye qa pEx^edes (3). Wii, la gwalaxs lae hax^wElsasqexs lae 

sopledEx (6) l6^ (5) qa g'as gwiilega {jig.). Wa, gll'mese la 20 

k'!ok!ulnosExs lae sop!ed (3) qa wilbax'^ides. Wa, he^mis qa 

t'.eqales. Wii, laEm EmxLe ^wadzok lunasas (7), la modEne laxEns 

q!waq!waxts!ana^yaqe bEnadza^yas (7). Wa, gtPmese gwatexs lae 

wikllaqexs lae nii^nakwa laxes gokwe. Wii, lil wex-'alilaqexs lae 

ax^edxes kMlmLayuwe. Wii, he^mis g'il mEns^itso^seda {fig.) (5) 25 

q!wedzadzEta^ye ylxs EnixLae ^wasgEmasas laxEns a^yasaxs lae 

tsEx-se^stalases k!imLa>aiwe laq qa maldEnes ^wagidasas (6) 

k!llxp!eqe. Wii, laxae heEm gwex-^ldEx (4) ytxs EmxLa^maaxat ! 

laxEns a^yasowe ylx ^wiisgEniasasa daadzoya-ye. Wa, g'tPmese gwa- 

Iexs lae aek- !a k' liml'IdEx (6) qa lex-^Enx-^ides. Wii, g-th'mese gwa- 30 

Iexs lae aek- !a k- liml^idEx (3) awega'^yas lag-aa lax (1) p.'esba^yasa 

tsloyayowe. Wii, giPmesc gwalExslae k'limftdEx (2) ok!waedza^ye 

lagaa lax (1) p!esba=yasa tsloyayowe. Wii, giPmese gwiilExs lae 

ax^edxes xElxwala LE^wes nExx-iila kMawayowa. Wa, lil qEmdo- 



148 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 36 

35 notch II at (7) with the straight knife, and he shaves it off so that it is 

hollow in the middle, | in this way: j,,^ ^ and he does the 

same at (5) . | After this has been ZI ~ done, he takes the 

crooked knife and shaves off j the whole digging- 

stick smoothly. When it has all been shaved off, | he puts it over the 

40 fire of liis house to dry, || and it stays there four days drying. When 
it is dry, he takes j perch-oil and pours it into a large j clam-shell. 
Then he takes tallow, which he puts down j by the side of the fire of 
Ms house ; and he takes down his j digging-stick and heats the ends 

45 over the fire of his house. When || it is burnt black, he takes the tallow 
and rubs it j on the end of the digging-stick. When tliis is done, he 
heats it again | over the fire, and he only stops heating it when it is 
scorched at the point j and when the tallow begins to boil as it is melt- 

50 ing. Then | he takes also the perch-oil which he put into the large 
clam-shell, || and he takes rubbed shredded cedar-bark, puts it into the j 
perch-oU and rubs it on the digging-stick. When it is rubbed all over | 
and oiled with perch-oil, he heats the digging-stick over the fire of liis | 
house; and when it is really hot, he again takes the j shredded cedar- 

55 bark, puts it into perch-oU, and rubs it || on the hot digging-stick. 
When it is rubbed all over, | he stands it upright in the cool corner 
of the house. Then the | digging-stick for digging clover is finished. 

36 yodEx (7) yisa uExxiila kMawayowa qa^s kMax^wide qa x llboya- 
lesga gwiileg-a {fig.) yix (7). Wa, laxae heEm gwex'^idEx (5). 
Wa, giPmese gwalExs lae ^x^edxa XElxwala qa^s aek!e k!ax'wid 
ogwida^yasa ts!5yayowe. Wa, g'iPmese ^wi^la k.'okwe ogwida^yas 
lae Les^aLElots lax nEqostawases lEgwile qa lEmx^wIdes. Wa, la 

40 moxse ^naliis x"llElaLEla. Wit, gIPmese lEmx^wIdExs lae ax^edxa 
dzeklwese qa^s k!unxts!5des laxa ^walase xoxul.^- !imotsa mEt!a- 
na^ye. Wa, lii ax^edaxaaxa yasEkwe qa^s gaxe g'ig'alilas lax 
maginwalisasa lEgwilases g5kwe. Wii, he^mis la axax5daatsexa 
tsloyayowe qa nox^wide 5ba^yas laxa lEgwilases g'okwe. Wii, g 11- 

45 ^mese la klumla^nakulaxs lae ax^edxa yasEkwe qa^s mEgulbE^yes 
laxa 5ba^yasa tsloyayowe. Wii, gil-mese gwalExs lae et!ed pEx'^id 
laxa lEgwlle. Wii, aPmese gwal pExaqexs lae k!wek!ilmElklyax'^- 
Ide oba^yas loxs lae niEdElx^wideda yasEkwaxs lae yaxa. Wa, laxae 
ax^edxa dzeklwese q!6ts!axa xoxulk' !im6tasa ^walase mEt!iina^j^axs 

50 lae ax^edxa qloyaakwe kadzEkwa qa^s dzopstEndes laxa dzek!we- 
saxs lae dzEgtlEnts liixa tsloyaj^owe. Wii, giPmese haniELx-'En la 
q!Elex"sa dzeklwesaxs lae piipax iLalasa ts!oyayowe laxa lEgwilases 
gokwe. Wii, giPmese la alaklala la tslslqwaxs lae et!ed ax^edxa 
k'adzEkwe qa^s dzopstEndes lilxa dzeklwesaxs lae etied dzEgil^snts 

55 laxa tslElqwa ts.'oyayowa. Wii, g'tPmese hamElx^Enxs lae dalaq 
qa^s lii Lanegwelas lax wudanegwelases gokwe. Wa, laEm gwala 
tsloyaywaxa LExsEme laxeq. 



UOAS] 



INDUSTRIES 149 



Digging-Stick for Roots. — First, the man makes | a digging-stick of 1 
yew-wood for digging carrots. When it is nearly | spring, and the 
plants begin to have buds, the man | takes his ax and goes into the 
woods to look for a yew-tree. When || he finds one, he picks out a 5 
good branch without knots, which is | bent and about two finger- 
widths thick. I He chops it off close to the trunk; and when it is off, | 
he measures off three spans and chops it off. | Then he chops off the 
end so that it is flat, and || it is hke the stick for peeling off hemlock- 10 
bark. After chopping it, he | goes home to his house. He carries it 
along. When | he arrives at his house, he puts down what is to be 
the digging-stick for digging carrots. He takes his | crooked knife 
and his straight knife and takes what is to be the digging-stick | for 
carrots and sits down. First the || bark of the yew-wood digging- 15 
stick for carrots is shaved off' with a straight knife. | When it is all 
off, he shaves off the sap, so that it is | all off ; and when it is all off, 
he puts down his straight | knife, takes his crooked knife, and shaves | 
the digging-stick that is being made. He shaves it well, || so that it 20 
is smooth; and when it is smooth, | he shaves off the end so that it is 
flat, and he also makes it smooth and | a ^.^^^^^^^^^^^ 3 little bent. 
There is a knob at the other end, in this way: i | When the 

Digging-Stick for Roots. — Wa, hcEm g'il ax^etso^sa bEgwanEma 1 
ts!oyayuxa xEtEme, ylxa L!Emq!e. Wa, h("^maaxs lae Elaq cjlwa- 
xEuxa yixs galae tEmx'^ideda q!waq!wExemase, liida bEgwanEme 
ax^edxes sobayowe qa^s la laxa axle aliix LlEmqIa. Wa, la g'lHmese 
q!aqexs lae doqliiqa lax i'k'a LlEnk'edEmsxa ek"etEla loxs ok'aes 5 
wawakalaena'ye lo^ qa maklEnes ^'wagidasas laxEns q!waq!wax-- 
tslana^yex. Wii, la sop!EXLEndEq. Wii, g'lPmese lax"SExs lae 
baHdxa 3n1dux"p!Enke laxEns ci!waq!wax'ts!ana^yaxs lae tEmx"- 
sEndEq. Wii, lii sop !edEx oba^j^as qa pExbes oba^yas. Wa, laEm 
yo gwaloxda Lloklwayaxwa laqe. Wa, g'iPmese gwal sopaqexs lae 10 
na^nakwa laxes g'okwe. Wa, laEm dalaq. Wa, g'lPmese lag'aa 
laxes gokwaxs lae ax^alilasa tsIoyayoLaxa xEtEmaxs lae ^x^edxes 
xElxwaia LE^wis nexx'ala k'awayowa. Wa, la dax"^idxes ts!oya- 
yoLaxa xEtEme qa^s k!wag"alllexs lae ho g'll kMaxalayoxa xEx^ii- 
na^yasa L!Emq!Ek!Ene ts!oyayowes nExx-Jila k-Iawayowa. Wa, 15 
g'll^mese ^wi^laweda xEx^iina^yasexs lae k'laxalax xodzeg'a^yas qa 
^wl-lawes ogwaqa. Wii, g iPmese ^wi^Ltxs lae g-egalilaxa uExx-ala 
k'!awayowa qa^s dax-4dexes xElxwala kliiwayowa qa-'s k' lax^wldes 
lax ogwida^yases ts!oyayogwilasE-we. Wii, la^me ack"!axs lae k'!a- 
xwaq qa qes^Enes. Wii, g^il'mese qiiqotslaakuxs lae ack'Ia k'lax^wi- 20 
dEx oba^yas qa pExbes. Wii, laEmxae qaqets!aq qa qeses laxes 
k'ak'Elx'balaena^ye. Wii, la mEgutalaxa loxsEme g'a gwaleg-a {fig.) 
yixs lae gwiila tsloyayaxa xEtEme. Wti, la LeqEleda waokwe 



150 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. m 

digging-stick for carrots (some | Indians call it rock carrot) is 

25 finished, he puts it down by the fire of the house || so that 
the heat will strike its back; and when it begins to smoke, he | 
turns it over so that the inner side (2) is towards the fire; and when 
this I also begins to smoke, he takes deer-taUow and rubs it on | all 
over the stick and the knob (3). The name of | this knob is "top 

30 handle." Then he puts it down again by the side of the fire, || and 
turns it over so that the melting tallow will soak into | the digging-stick. 
When it nearly catches fire on account of the heat, | he wraps soft 
cedar-bark around his hand, takes hold of | the handle at the end of 
the digging-stick, and pushes the flat digging-point | (4) into the hot 

35 ashes. He watches it; and || when the hot ashes seems to boil up, 
he knows | that the point of the digging-stick is burnt black. | Then 
he takes the top handle of the digging-stick | and pushes it into the 
tallow; and when it has been there long enough, he | heats the point 

40 of the digging-stick again. When the melted || taUow at the end 
begins to boil, he dips it into cold | water and takes it out again. 
Now it is brittle. | Now the digging-stick for carrots is finished. ] 
1 Digging-Stick for Cryptochiton. — First the man goes | into the woods 
to get a branch of yew-wood. When he finds | a curved branch, he 
chops it off. When it is off, | he measures off two spans. Then he 



baklums xEtxEtIa laq. Wa, la k"adnoUsas lax lEgwilases gokwe 

25 qa l les^alasE^wes Swiga^yas yix (1). Wa, g^iPmese kwax'^IdExs lae 
lexElesaq qa L!ask!aesales oklwaedza'yas yix (2). Wa, g il^Emxaa- 
wise kwax'^idExs lae ax^edxa yasEkwasa gewase qa^s dzEketledes 
laq qa hamElx^Endeseq Lo'me mEguta^ya yix (3). HeEm LegadES 
qlwedzadzEtii^ye. Wa, laxae et!ed k-adnolisas laxes lEgwile. Wa, 

30 la^me lexi^liilaq qa labEtesa yaxa yasEk" lax ogwida^yasa tsloyayo- 
waxa xEtxEtla. Wa, g'll^mese Elaq x'lx^etses laena^ye tslElqwaxs 
lae saxts!analaxaq!oyaakwe kadzEkwaxs lae dax^^IdEx q!wedzadzE- 
tiVyasa tsloyayowaxa xEtxEtIa qa^s l lEnxbEtalisesa ts!oyayoba- 
^yas yix (4) laxa tslElqwa gtt^na^ya. Wa, la doqwalaq. Wa, g'il- 

35 ^mese hi' gwexs la maEnidElqiileda ts!Elqwa gti^njixs lae q!aLE- 
laqexs lE''mae klumla^nakiileda ts !oyayoba^yasa tsloyayowe. Wa, 
la hex"^ida^mese dax'^ldxa q IwedzadzEta^yasa tsloyayaxa xEtxEtIa 
qa^s LlEnx^edes laxa yasEk\ve. Wii, g'iPmese gagiilaxs lae et!ed 
pEX'^itsa ts !oyayoba^ye Ifixa lEgwile. Wa, giPmese maEmdElqu- 

40 leda yaxa yasEk" lax oba^yasexs lae LlEnxstEots laxa wiida^sta 
^wfipa. Wii, la xwelax-'ustEudEq. Wii, la^me LlEmx^wida laxeq. 
Wii, la^me gwala ts!oyoy:ixa xEtxetla laxeq. 
1 Digging-Stick for Cryptochiton. — Wii, heEm g'il la axs5sa bEgwa- 
UEme laxa aL!e LlEnaklasa L!Emq!e. Wii, g'lPmese q!axa 
wawakalaxs lae sopodxa LlEuake. Wii, g'll^mese lawaxs lae 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES, 151 

cuts it off, II and he chops the end until it is fiat on one side. It 5 
is two finger-widths | in thickness. After chopping j the ends, he 
goes home, carrying the chiton digging-stick in his hands, j He 
goes into his house, takes his knife, j and cuts off the bark and 
the sap; and when || it is all off, he cuts the end so that it may be flat and 10 
thin and | smooth, and it also has a round point, in this way.' Now 
the digging-stick for cryptochitons is finished. | He takes deer-tallow 
and I puts it down close to the fire. Then he takes the digging- 
stick for cryptochitons and | pushes the flat end into the ashes where 
it is not very hot. jj He watches it; and as soon as it begins to 15 
burn, he rubs the tallow j on both sides, and he keeps it a while. 
Then he puts | the flat end back into the hot ashes; and he does not 
keep it there long | before he takes it out and rubs more tallow on 
both sides, | and he heats it by the fire of his house. When || it is 20 
nearly burning, he puts it down in the corner of the house, so that it 
cools off quickly; | and as soon as it gets cold, the point is brittle. | 
Hook for Devil-Fish (1). — When the devil-fish hunter gets ready j to get 
devil-fish, he first goes to get a long thin | young hemlock-tree. After 
he finds it, he cuts it down, so that || it falls down. He cuts off the 25 
branches and measures a piece two j fathoms long. Then he cuts off 

bal^idxa malplEnke laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yexs lae tsEx^sEndEq. 
Wii, la s6p!edEx oba^yas qo pExbes apsba'yas. Wii, maldEnx'sawe 6 
^wag'idasas laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yex. Wit, g'lPmese gwal sopax 
oba^yasexs lae nir'nak^'a. Wii, laEm dak'!6tElaxes qlEnj^aj^axa 
qlEiiase. Wii, lii laeL liixes g'okwe. Wii, lii fixledxes k"!iiwayuwe 
qa^s k'laxa'lex xEx"wuna^yas lo^ xodzeg'a^yas. Wa, g'tpmese 
^wFlaxs lae aek'Ia k'!ax"bEndEx pExba^yas qa pEles; wii, he^mis qa 10 
qeses; wii, he^mis qa kilxbes, g'a gwiilega'xs' lae gwala q!Enya- 
yoLaxa qlEuase. Wii, lii ax^edxa yiisEkwasa gewase qa^s g'axe 
k Iwanolisaxes lEgwile. Wii, lii ax^edxa qlEnyayoLaxa q!Enase qa^s 
LlEngeses pExba^yas laxa giina^ye liixa helaliis tslslqwalaena^ye. Wa, 
lii doxdoqwaq. Wii, giPmese k!flmElx"^idExs lae dzEX'^itsa yasEkwe 15 
liix wiiwaxsadza^yas. Wii, lii gagiilExs lae xwelaqa Llsnxalisasa 
pExba^yas Laxa tslElqwa gii^na^ya. Wa, kMestIa &laEm gaesExs 
lae diix'^idEq qa^s etiede dzEX"^itsa yasEkwe laxaax wawax'sadza- 
^yas. Wii, lii papax'Lalas laxa lEgwllases g-6kwe. Wii, gIPmese 
Elaq xix-edExs lae S.x^iililas liix onegwilases g"okwe qa halabales 20 
wildEx'^ida. Wii, giPmese wudEX'^idExs lae LlEmx^wide oba^yas. 

Hook for Devil-Fish (1). — Wii, he^maaxs lae xwanaPideda netsleno- 
xwaxa tEq!wa. Wii, he^mis gtl la ax^etso^seda giltla wIIeu q!wa- 
q IwaxmedzEma. Wii, giPmese qlaqexs lae tsEk" lEXLEndEq qa 
tlax'^ides. Wii, egulEndEx LlEuak-as. Wa, lii baPid qa malp lEnk'es 25 
lixxEus biiLax ytx ^wiisgEmasas. Wii, lii k' laxalax xEx^una^yas. Wa, 

• ' Sea figure on p. 144.; 



152 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ikth. ann. 35 

27 the bark; | and when it is all off, he sharpens the tliick end. | He 
measures four finger-widths from the | thick end and cuts in 

30 a notch in this manner: .,^;— - - . Then he || cuts a piece 

of hemlock-wood four fingers long, | in this 

shape: ^ — ~..__^^ After "~~'' ' this is done, | he takes 

spruce- root and splits it, and he takes | the hook of the 

devil-fish spear and fits into the notch of the devil-fisli spear, | and 
he ties \;_^ ^^ ^^ with the split root. 

When m it===~ he has finished, || it is like 

35 this: ^^tenw_ Then he sharpens the thin 

end to ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^— — — -^''^^ J feel for the devil-fish. | 
1 Hook for Devil-Fish (2j. — Now I have finished talking about him | who 
makes the kelp fishing-line. Now I shall talk about him who goes 
to get I devil-fish to put on his line. First he has to take his | 
straight-edged knife, which he takes when he goes into the woods to 
5 look for a slim hemlock-tree. || As soon as he has found one, he cuts 
it down, so that it falls | on the ground. He cuts off the branches. 
After he has cut off the | branches, he cuts the top off. Sometimes | it is 
two fathoms, sometimes three fathoms long. Finally he cuts off the | 

10 bark, until it is white, and he cuts off || the top until it is sharp. 
He does not sharpen the butt-end of the | pole for fisliing devil-fish. 
As soon as he has finished the long pole for fishing devil-fish, | he looks 

9y gtPmese ^wpl§,xs lae kMax^wIdEx LE^x"ba^yas qa ex^bes. Wil, la 
mEns^Idxa modEne laxEns q !waq !waxts lana^yex gag'lLEla laxa 
oba^yasa LE^x"ba^yasexs lae qEmtledEq g'a gwaleg'a (Jig.). Wa, 

30 la modEnas ^wasgEmase laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex gayol laxa 
qlwaxase. Wii, lii g'a gwiileg'a (fg.). Wii, gIPmese gwalExs- lae 
ax^edxa LloplEkasa alewase qa^s dzExsEndeq. Wa, la Sx^edEx 
galbELasa nedzayowe qa-s klt!aLElodes laxa qEmtba^yasa nedza- 
yowe. Wa, lii yll^aLElotsa dzEXEkwe LloplEk^ laq. Wa, g'il^mese 

35 gwalExs lae g'a gwiileg-a (_;^^.). Wii, la k- lax^widxa wilba^ye qa 
exbesa plewayobaS'axa tEqIwa. 
1 Hook for Devil-Fish (2). — Wa, la^mEn gwal g^vagwex•s^iila laxa pEna- 
yogweliixa pEnayowe. Wa, la'mesEn gwagwexs^alal laxa tateliixa 
tEqlwa qa telElasexes pEniiyowe. Wii, lieEm g'il ax^etsoses uex- 
x'iila k"!awaya qa^s daakiaxs lae aLe^sta aliix glltlii wil qlwaxasa 
5 laxa aL!e. Wii, glFmese q!aqexs lae kMimtlExLEndEq qa t!ilga- 
Else. Wii, lil k'limtalax LlEnak'as. Wii, g'lPmese ^wHl^weda 
LJEuak^axs lae k'ltmtodEx wilEta^ya. Wii, la ^nal'UEmp lEna 
malplEuk' laxEns baLax loxs yudux"p!Enkae. Wii, lawIsLa 
k'laxwalax xEx^unayas qa ^mElklEnes. Wii, laxaa k'lax^wedEx 

10 wIlEtayas qa ex'bes. Wii, laLa k"!es ex'beda LEx"ba^yasa nedza- 
yoLaxa tEqlwa. Wii, g'tPmese gwala g'lltia nedzayaxa tEqlwiixs 
lae et'.ed alex'^idEx wilagawa^yasa gilx'de axauEms ylxs belts le-; 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 153 

for a stick smaller than the fii-st one, which is the size of a | short span 13 
when the fingers are put around the butt-end of the | long pole for 
fishing devil-fish.' The one for which he is looking must be small. i| 
As soon as he finds it, he begins to cut it down with his straight- 15 
edged knife. | Then he does the same as he did with the former one; | 
only this is different, that the two ends are sharp, | and that it is 
shorter than the one he first made, for it is only a | fathom and a half 
long. There is also a hook nuide of the concave side of || hemlock 20 
on it. After he has shaved off | with his straight-edged knife, the 
butt-end of the pole for fishing devil-fish he cuts a notch three | finger- 
widths long, made in this way;- and as soon as | the notch is deep 
enough, he takes the brittle convex side of the hemlock- | tree and 
cuts it until its butt-end is sharpened. || He measures four finger- 25 
widths I and cuts it off so that it is | flat on one side. Alter he has cut 
it, he takes | spruce-root, splits it, and scrapes off the bark | and the 
juice; and when it is done, he takes the pole || for fishing devil-fish, 30 
puts the short end into the notched-end of the | pole for fishing devil- 
fish, and ties it on with the split root. | Now it looks | like this.^ 
Now there is a hook at the end of the pole for fishing devil-fish. | This 

^staEns ts!Ex"ts!ana^yexs baLa lax qlwesEndayo lax LEgutfi,^yasa 13 
glltla nedzayaxa tEq!wa.' Wa laLaLe wawilalaLe la alaso^s. Wii, 
giPmese qiaqexs lae k' !tmt lEXLEudEntses UExxala klawayowe 15 
iaq. Wil, la heEmxat! gwex'^idqexs gweg'ilasaxa gale Tixiis. Wii, 
lex'a^mes ogu^qalayosexs ^naxwa^mae eex'bes waxsba^ye. Wa, 
he^misexs ts !Ek Iwagawayaasa gile ^xiis qaxs a^mae ^uEqlEbode 
esEgiwa^yas laxEns baLa. Wii, he^mesexs galbalaaxa l lEmwega^yasa 
qlwaxase Lasa. Wil, he^maaxs lae gwal k' laxwasa nExx iila k' lawayo 20 
lax LEX"ba-yasa nedzayaxa tEq!wa. Wii, le qEmtledxa yudux"- 
dEne laxEns q!wilq!waxts!ana^yexa g'a gwiilega.^ Wii, gIPmese 
hePabEte qEmta^yasexs lae ax^edxa L!Emwega^yasa qlwaxase 
Lasa. Wii, la k' '.ax^vidEq qa eex'bes ilpsba^yas yix LEx"ba^yas. 
Wii, gtl^mese eexbaxs lae niEns^idEq qa modEnes laxEns q!wa- 25 
qlwaxtslana^yex. Wa, le kltmtsEndEq. Wil, le k'lax^widEq qa 
pExkMottenes. Wii, glPmese gwiil k!iixwaqexs lae ax^edxa l!o- 
p!Ekasa alewase qa^s dzEt'.edeq. Wil, le k'exodEx xEx^una^yas 
lo^ w&paga^yas. Wii, gtPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa nedzayaxa 
tEqlwa LE-wa ts!Ex"st6. Wii, le ax^aLElots lax qEmtba^yasa 30 
nedzayowaxa tEq!wa. Wii, le ylb'etsa dzEdEkwe L!op!Ek- Iaq. 
Wil, la^mese g'a gwiilega.' Wii, laEm galbaleda nedzayaxa tEqlwa. 
Wii, hcEm nesEliixa tEqlwiixs lEmwaes gokwaseda tlesEme liixa 
wulxiwa^yasa x"ats!a^ye. Wii, heEm LegadEs nedzayaxa tEqlwa. 

1 That is, one short span circumference at the butt-end. 

2 See figure 1 on p. 152. = See figure 4 on p. 152. 



154 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ietu.ann.3s 

is used to catch devil-fish when its hole is dry | at low tide. Now its 
35 name is " pole for pulling," || and the name of the long pole is "imple- 
ment for pulling out at half tide | from the hole under water when the 
tide is not out far." | There is no hook at the end of the long pole | 
for fishing devil-fish. | 
1 Spear for Sea-Eggs. — First there is taken l)y the maia a thin | young 
hemlock-tree in the woods. When he finds one that is clear of 
branches and long, | he cuts it down with a knife, so that it falls; 
and I when it falls, he measures off three and a half fathoms in length. || 
5 Then he cuts off the top. He cuts off the bark | and the sap. He 
tries to make it one and a half | finger-widths in thickness. After this 
has been done, | he takes thin yew-wood branches for prongs. He 
measures the prongs to be | two spans and four finger-widths in 
10 length. II These are to be at the end of the sea-egg spear. | He cuts off 
the ends so that they are sharp-pointed, and he also cuts off | the 
lower end so that it is flat. When this is done, he digs out | the 
roots of a spruce-tree and splits them in two. | Then he peels off the 
15 bark; and when this is done, he cuts || the butt-end of the spear- 
shaft until it is square. | Then he takes the prongs and lays the 
flat ends against | the square end of the spear-shaft, and he ties 
them on | ^^^ with the spUt spruce-root, so that it is in 

this way : "^^^ 

35 Wit, he^mis LegadEs nanesaniEndzayowa glltagawa^ye nedzaya 
laxa tEgwatsle t!esEmxs tlEpslae; yixs kMesae ^walasa xats'.a^ye. 
Wii, laEm k!eas galbala, ytxeda giltagawa^ye nedzayaxa tEqIwa. 
1 Spear for Sea-Eggs. — Wa, heEm gil la axso^sa bEgwauEma wile 
q!waq!waxadzEm laxa aL!e. Wii, giPmese q!axa eketEla gilt !axs 
lae hex-^idaEm k" !tmt lExodEq qa tlax'ldes. Wa, glPmese 
t!ax-^ldExs lae balndEq qa mamoplEnk-ihsesa nEqiEbode laxEns 
5 baLax. Wa, la klimtodEx oxtii-yas. Wii, lii klaxalax xEx'una-yas 
LE^wes xodzeg'a^ye. Lasm laloLla qa mamaldEnxsales laxEns 
q!waq!wax-ts!ana^3^ex yix ^wagidasas. Wii, giPmese gwalExs lae 
ax^edxa wiswule LlEmqla qa ts!e^x"bes. Wa, lii ^mEns^Ideq qa 
hamodEngales laxEus qlwaqlwaxtslana'^yex lax malplEnk'e awas- 

10 gEmasasa' m6ts!aqe ts!et3!e^^x"ba^yasa mamaseq!wayop!eqeLaxa 
mEseqwe. Wa, lii k' lak' !ax"baq qa eex'bes. Wa, laxae k' !ax=wldEx 
eoxLa^yas qa pepEqiEXLes. Wii, giPmese gwalExs lae -iaplldEx 
LloplEkasa alewase. Wii la pax'sEudEq qa malts lesexs lae sa- 
qlwodEx xEx^'una-yas. Wti, gll^mese gwalExs lae k' lax^wulEx oba- 

15 «yasa miimaseq Iwayop !eqe ytx LE^x"ba^yas qa k" lEWulx-'unes. Wii, 
lii, ax^edxa ts!et3!ex"ba'ye qa^'s pax^aLElodales pepEq!EXLa-'yas lax 
k- !ek- !Ewulx"ba^yasa mamaseq!wayoLe. Wii, lii ytPaLElotsa pax-- 
saakwe LlopiEk- laq. Wii, la ga gwiileg'a {pj.). 



BOASJ INDUSTRIES 155 

Hook for picking Elderberries. — Those who pick elderberries first go | 1 
to make a hook of a smaU hemlock-branch of | the size of our first- 
finger and one fathom in length. | The woman shaves off the bark 
until it is smooth; || and after this is done, she takes a piece of the same 5 
hemlock-tree, | which .is thinner and is to form the hook. She | 
shaves off the bark of this also, and it is one | span long. Then she 
cuts it off I and measures two finger-widths from the || end. There 10 

she cuts a notch which goes half way through | the 

thickness of the pole. It is in this way: After | this is 

done, she does the same thing with the piece that is to form the hook; 
and when | the notch is also cut in one-half the thickness of the piece 
that is to form the hook, | she takes split spruce-root, puts it into water, || 1 5 
and soaks it. After it has been soaked, she takes the piece that is to 
be the hook at the end | and puts the two notches together. She | takes 

up the soaked split root and ties the // two pieces together. 

When I it is finished, it is this way: | // 

Pole for gathering Eel-Grass. — First the man || goes to look in the 20 
woods for a bent young hemlock-tree; and when | he finds one, he 
cuts it at the bottom with his adz; and when | it falls, he measures 
off two fathoms and a half. | Then he cuts off the top. At the top it 



Hook for picking Elderberries. — Wii, heEm g'll la ax^etso^sa 1 
tslexaLaxa tslex'ines gaLayoLaq ylxa wile qlwaxasaxa yo ^wag'i- 
tEiis tslEmalaxtslana^yex. Wii, lit esEg'Eyowe ^wasgEmasa laxEns 
baLax. Wii, lit aek!axs lae k!axalax xEx^tina^yas qa qes^Enes. 
Wa, g'll^mese gwalExs lae ax-edxa g-fiyol-maxat ! laxa q!waxase. 5 
Wa, laLa wawilalagawcsa galp!eqLe. Wii, laxae aeklaxs lae 
klaxalax xEx^una^yas. Wii, lit ''nEmplEuke laxEns q!waq!wax"- 
ts!ana-yex ylx ^wiisgEmasasexs lae klimttslEndEq. Wii, lii 
mEns^'idxa miildEne laxEns q!w£iq!waxts!ana^yex g-itg-lLEla liixa 
oba^yasexs lae qEmthstEndEq qa negoyodesex ^wagidasas yix 10 
^walabEdasas qEmta^yas. Wii, lii g'a gwiileg-a (fig.). Wii, gll^mese 
gwalExs lae ogwaqa he gwex'^ldxa galpleqLe. Wit, gIPEmxaawise 
uEgoyode ^walabEdasas qEmta^yas lax ^wagidasasa galpleqLe, lae 
ax^edxa paakwe LloplEk-sa iilewase qa^s hapstEndgs hlxa ^wape 
qa pex^wides. Wii, gtPmese pex^widExs lae ax^'edxa galbeLe 15 
qa^s kak-Etodeses qeqEmta'^ye lo^ qEmta^yasa galpleqLe. Wa, lii 
ax^edxes peqwasE^we paak" LloplEka qa^s yiiLodes laq. Wii., 
g'lHmese gwala lae ga gwiiieg-a {fig.). 

Pole for gathering Eel-Grass.— Wit, he^mis g-ll la aliiso^sa 
bEgwauEme laxa aLle wak'alii q!waq!waxadzEma. Wii, gll^mese 20 
qlaqexs lae tsEk'lExodEq ylses kMlmLayowe. Wii, g-lPmese 
tlax-^idExs lae baHdEq yisa nEq.'Ebodiis babELawa^ye laxEns 
baLiixs lae tsEk-odEx oxta^yas. Wit, lii maldEnx-sawe ^wag-idasas 



156 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. Axx.st, 

25 is two I finger-widths tliick. Tlien he takes his straight || knife and 
cuts ofl the bark and the sap. | When they are all ofl, it is a finger- 
width and a half thick | at the thin end, and it is harcUy thicker at 
the I other end. The tip is more cui'ved than the | butt. At each 

30 end there is a knob. || When it is finished, he goes home carrying it; 
and as soon as he enters | his house, he puts down the twisting-stick 
by the side of the fire. | Then he takes deer-tallow and puts it down 
where he is working at the | twisting-stick. Then he takes the 
twisting-stick and pushes it to and fro over the | fire. He pushes it 

35 to and fro until the whole stick gets warm; || and when it is very hot, 
he takes the | taUow and rubs it over the twisting-stick. As soon as 
it is I all covered with tallow, he pushes it to and fro over the fire ; | 
and when the taUow nearly catches fire, then he rubs on | some more 

40 tallow ; and when it is covered with tallow, || he puts it down in the 
corner of the house, where it cools off quickly. | He wishes it to be 
brittle and stiff. Therefore he does so | with the taUow. As soon as 
it gets cold, he takes soft cedar-bark | and the twisting-stick, and 
wipes it off with the soft shredded cedar-bark, | so that all the tallow 

45 comes off from the surface. When it is all off, it is finished. || That 
is all about tliis. I 



oxta^yas laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex. Wa, la &x^edxes nExx'ata 

25 k'lawayowa qa^s k!axalex xEx^iina^'yas lo^ xodzeg'a^yas. Wa, 
glHmese ^wi^laxs lae mamaldEnx'sala ^wag'idasas laxEns q!wa- 
q!wax'ts!ana^yex ylxa wllEta^ye. Wii, lii halsElaEm LaLakwaleda 
apsba^yas. Wa, la xEULEla wak-alagawesa wllba^ye, ytxa 
LE^x"ba^ye. Wa, la memox"balaxa loElxsEmeda wax'sba^yas. Wa, 

30 gtl^mese gwalExs lae nii^nakwa dalaq. Wii, g'lPmese la laeL laxes 
g'okwaxs lae k'adEuohsasa klilbayowe laxes lEgwile. Wa, la 
ax^edxa yasEkwasa gewase qa^s g'axe g'eg'alllas laxes eaxElasaxa 
k'lilbayowe. Wa, la ax-'edxa kMilbayowe qa^s k'ak'adELales laxes 
lEgwile. Wii, laEm wlqwi^iilaq qa ^nEma^nakules ts lElgu^nakiile 

35 ogwlda^yas. Wii, g'tl-mese alak"!ala la ts!Elx^wldExs lae ax^edxa 
yiisEkwe qa^s yllset!ldes laxa k"!tlbayowe. Wii, giPmese mEgfi- 
gitxa yasEkwaxs lae xwelaqaEm la k'ak'adELalas laxes lEgwile. 
Wa, gll^mese Elaq x'ix^ededa yiisEx^una^yasexs lae xwelaqa yllse- 
t!ltsa yiisEkwe laq. Wii, giPmese la mEgfig-Itxa yiisEkwaxs lae 

40 k'atlilhias laxa onegwilases gokwe qa hillabales wiidEx-^ida. 
Wa, laEm ^nex' qa LlEmx^wides qa l laxes, lagilas he gwegUasa 
yasEkwe laq. Wii, gtPmese wudEX'^idExs lae ax^edxil kiidzEkwe 
LE^wa klilbayowe. Wii, lii degitletsa qloyaakwe kadzEkwe liiq 
qa lawiiyes yasEx^una^yas. Wii, giPmese ^wi^laxs lae gwala. Wii, 

45 laEm gwal laxeq. 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 157 

Flounder-Spear. — The first thing to be done by the | flounder- 1 
fisherman is to get a spear-shaft for flounder-fishing. He | has to get 
tough wood for the prongs. It is spht in two | in this manner.' It 
is spht through the heart, and cut at the ends || which are made 5 
sharp. When this has been done, he takes bird-cherry bark and the | 
shaft, and he so cuts the sides that they are flat, | and he also cuts 
one side of the prongs so that they will fit | on the end of the shaft. 
When he has finished this, he takes the | bird-cherry bark and ties 
it to the prongs and the shaft. || He ties it very tightly. When it is 10 

done, I it is like this: Now the flounder-spear 

is finished. | ^^^=^ 

Fishing-Tackle for Flounders. — When a man goes to catch many | 
flounders, he takes the leg-bone of a deer wliich is | thoroughly dry, so 
that it is white, and he breaks it up || lengthwise into slender pieces. As 15 
soon as it is broken up, he measures off | pieces two finger-widths long, 
and breaks them off | at the end, so that they are aU the same length. 
When this has been done, | he takes a flat, rough sandstone. He | 
also takes a dish and pours water into it until it is half full. || Then 20 
he puts the sandstone into it; and he takes | one of the thin bones, 
dips it into the water, and | puts one end against the sandstone and 



Flounder-Spear. — Papa^yaxa paese, ytxs he^mae gtl la axso^sa 1 
]mpayaenoxwaxa paeseda saEnts!6 qa^s papayayowa. Wa, he^me- 
Lal ax^etso^seda tslaxinse qa dzex"besxa xokwe qa^s malts !e g'a 
gwiilega.' Wii, laEm naqlEqax domaqas. Wa, la k-!ak-!ax"bEndEq 
qa exbes. Wii, glFmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa lEn^wume LE^wa 5 
saEntslo. Wa, la k'lak'lEWEnodzEndEq qa pepEgEnoses. Wit, 
laxae k!ax^wldxa epsanodza^yasa dzedzegume qa bEngaaLEles 
laxa obaS'asa saEntslowe. Wii, giPmese gwillExs lae ax^edxa 
lEn^wume qa^s k'ltlx'^aLElodes laxa dzedzegume LE^wa saEnts!owe. 
Wii, laEm aElaxs lae kMilk'!ak-5dEq. Wii, giPmese gwalExs lae 10 
g-a gwiilega {jig^. Wii, hiEm gwala papayayoLaxa paese. 

Fishing-Tackle for Flounders. — Wit, he^maaxs q !aq lEyoL^aeda bE- 
gwanEmaxa paese, lii ax^edEx xaqas g-og'Egiiyiisa gewasaxs lae 
lEmlEmx^unx-^'ida yixs lae momx-'iina qa^'s tEtEpsEndeq laxes o-Jl- 
dolase qa wiswul'Enes. Wit, giPmese ^wiweIx'sexs lae mEns^edEq 15 
yises q!waq!waxts!ana^ye qa milldEnes SwilsgEmasasexs lae tEpa- 
lax epsba^yas qa ^nEmes awasgEmasas. Wii, giPmese g^v-alExs 
lae ax^edxa dE^nasgEme t !esEmaxa pEgEdzowe k' loltsEma. Wii 
laxae ax^edxa loqlwe qa^s guxtslodesa ^wape liiq qa uEgoyoxsda- 
iTsexs lae mox"stEntsa dE^nasgEme t!esEm- laq. Wa, lii ax^edx- 20 
^nEmtsIaqe laxa xaxmEnexwe qa^s hapstEndes laxa ^wapaxs lae 
tEsalots apsba^yas laxa dE^nasgEme tIesEma qa^s yilsElalax'^ides 



I It is cut through the center lengthwise. 



158 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. an.n. 36 

23 rubs it | until it is sharp-pointed, and he does the same with the 
other end. As | soon as it is sharp-pointed, he rubs the middle part 

25 so that it is round; and when || it is round, it is done. He does this 
with all of them. | When he has finished fifty, he puts them away, for 
that I is the number of bones for the flounder fishing-hne. Then he 
takes I hair and twists a length of two | spans; that is, hair of women. 

30 And when he has || enough of these, the same number as the pohshed 
bones, then he puts them away. He takes | cedar-bark and gives it to 
his wife, and she goes at once | and puts it into the water to soak. 
After it has been there for one night, | the woman takes out the cedar- 
bark and splits it into | long, narrow strips, and she twists it until 

35 it is moderately thick. || When it is forty fathoms long, it is finished. ] 
Then (the man) stretches it outside of the house | tightly, so that it is 
stretched (taut). It remains there for four days. | Then he takes 
down the twisted cedar-bark fishing-line | and coils it up and puts it 

40 down in his house, and then || he takes dried back-sinew of the deer 
and shreds it, and | twists it until it is like thread. As soon as ho 
has I twisted much of it, he takes the round bones and the twisted-] 
hair thread and ties one end of / the twisted hair to the 

45 round bone. I He ties the hair II to f the crosspiecea httle 

beyond the middle, in this way : Nm- He does this with all of 



23 qa ex'bax'^ides. Wa, laxae lii'Em gwex-^ldxa apsba'ye. Wa, gil- 
^mese ox-baxs lae yilsElalax'^idEq qa lex-«Enx-^Ides. Wa, g il^mese 

25 la lex'Eux-^IdExs lae gwala. Wa, la he^staEm gwex'^Idxa waokwe. 
Wa g'lFmese ^wi^la gwala sEkMasgEmg'ustuxs lae gexaq qaxs he- 
^mae awaxweda xaxEX^Enasa l lagedzayawaxa paese. Wa, la ax'ed- 
xa sE^ya qa^s met!edeq qa maemalplEnkes awasgEmasas laxEn 
q!waq!waxts!ana^yex, yixox sE^yiixsa tsledaqe.x. Wa, giPmese 

30 helala lax ^waxaasasa gixEkwe xaqexs lae gexaq. Wa, la ax^ed- 
xa dEnase qa^s la ts'.iis laxes gEnsme. Wa, hex'^ida^mese la 
hapstalisas laxa wa qa pe.xHvides. Wii, g-il^mese xama^stalisExs 
lae Ex^wu^stEndEq yixa tslEdaqe laxa dEnase qa^s dzEdzExsEndeq 
qa ts !elts !Eq !astowes g'tlsgildsdzowa. Wii la mElx'^edEq qa hela- 

35 c'ites. Wa, la mosgEmgostuplEuke ^wasgEmasas laxEns baLax. 
Wa, giPmese gwalExs lae dox-wulsaq lax l !asan;Vyases g'5kwe 
qa^s lEk!ut!Elseq qa tslas^ides. Wa, 'la moplEnxwa^se ^nalas 
he gwex'sExs lae ax^edxa l '.agedzaamPye yixa mElkwe dEnsEn 
dEUEma qa^s qEs^edeq qa^s la qEs^alilaq laxes g-okwe. Wa, la 

40 Sx^edxa lEmokwe adegesa gewase qa^s dzEdzExsEndeq qa^s mEl- 
x-4deq qa medEkwes he gwex'sa q!Eny5. Wa, giPmese q!e- 
nEme meta^yas lae ax^edxa leElx^^Ene xaq LE^wa medEkwe 
sesE^yak' lEna. Wa, la yiPaLElodalasa leElx'^Ene xaq lax epsba- 
«yasa medEkwe sE^ya. Wa, la g'ekMolts!a^ye yiLalaasasa sE-ya 

45 laxa galodayowe lex'^En xaqa g'a gwalega (,jig-)- Wa, la ^naxwaEm 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 159 

them; | and when they are finished, he gathers | up the ends of the hair 45 
threads and ties them with twisted sinew, | so that they are all gathered 
together, and he hangs them up in the corner of his house. The | 
round cross-bones are hanging downward. || 

Fish-Trap for Perch. — First the nian takes | cedar-bark and soaks it in 1 
the river. Tlien he goes into the woods | carrying his hand-adz ; and 
when he comes to a place where there are | many straight young hem- 
lock-trees, he cuts the tall || slender trees which are a little over four 5 
finger-widths in diameter. | As soon as the tree falls down, he measures 
off four spans. | Then he cuts it oft'. That is the measure | which he 
uses in cuttuig off twenty-four pieces of the same length ; | and he cuts 
off twenty of them four || finger-widths thick, longer than the first 10 
ones. I After he has done so, he measures a length of two | spans and 
cuts it off. He cuts sixteen | of this length. After he has done so, | 
he measures them three spans || long and cuts them off. There are 15 
twelve of these all of the same | length. After he has done so, he 
sharpens the points of the twelve. | These will be the posts for the 
perch-trap at one end. ] And ho also sharpens the sixteen ] short ones 
which are two spans in length. || These wiU be the entrance. And 20 

he gwex-^idxa waokwe. Wa, g iFmese ^wi^la gwalExs lae q!ap!ex-'I- 46 
dEx epsba^yasa sesE^yaklEU qa^s yiHdesa medEkwe atlEma qa 
q!ap!exLalesexs lae tex^walllas lax onegwilases g'okwe. Wa, laEm 
bebEnba^yeda leslx'^Ene galodayu xaqa. 

Fish-Trap for Perch. — Wa, hi'Em g il Sx^etso^sa bEgwanEma 1 
dEnase qa^s la t!eltalesaq laxa wa. Wii, la laxa aL!e qa^s da- 
lexes k'limLayuwe. Wii, gil^mese lagaa laxa k' !iq Iwekidiixa 
q!enEme q!waq!waxmEdzEmxs, wii, lit tsEk" lEXLEndxa giltla 
^wilaxa halsEla^me LEkwagawesEns q!waq!waxts!ana^3='ex. Wii, 5 
g iFmese tlax'^idExs lae bilFldxa moplEnke laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!a- 
na^yex yix ^wasgEmasasexs lae tsEX'SEndEq. Wii, he^mis la mEn- 
yayosexs lae hanal tsEtsEx's^alaxa hamots laqiila ^UEmasgEma. 
Wii, lii et!ed tsEtsEX'sEndxa maltsEmg'ostiiwe modEn liixEns q!wa- 
q!wax'ts!ilna-'yex, yix giltagawa-'yas hlx g'ilx'de tsEk^es. Wa, 10 
g'iFmese gWillExs lae baPidxa malplEnk'e laxEns q!waq!waxts!a- 
na^yex yix ^wasgEmasasexs lae tsEX'SEndEq. Wii, lii qlELlEtsIagE- 
g'lyuwe tsEka^yas hex^sii awiisgEme. Wii, g il-mese gwalExs lae 
et!ed bal^Iclxayudux^plEnk'e lilxEns q!waq!wax-ts!ana-'yex,yix^was- 
gEmasasexs lae tsEX'SEndEq. Wii, la malts !agEg-iyowa hex'sa 15 
awiisgEme. Wii, giFmese gwillExs lae dzodzox"bEndxa malts !agE- 
g'lyowe. Wii, hi'Em LexEmltsa LaLEuiwayoLe Liiwayii liix epsba^yas. 
Wii, laxae dzodzox"bEndEx epsba^yasa q!EL!Ets!agEg"iyuwe ts!El- 
ts!Ek!waxa maemalplEnqas aM'iisgEmas laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!iina- 
^yexyixa xoIoslS. Wii, g ib'mese ^wl^la gwala lae ax^edxa L!op!Eke 20 



160 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

21 when it is all done, he takes roots ] and ties them together in the 
middle. He puts them together and carries them | home to his house. 
When the tide is half down, ] he takes his stone hammer and cedar- 
bark that he had soaked in the river and | carries the posts for the 

25 trap down to the beach, and he || puts them down where the beach is 
not very steep and where it is sandy. He 1 imties the roots in the mid- 
dle of the bundle, and he first takes out one | of the pieces four spans in 
length 1 for a measure, and he lays it down and he marks along it | in 
this manner.' Then he takes it up and lays it down at one end of 

30 the II line, in this manner,' and he marks along it. He takes it up 
again | and lays it down on the other end of the first line, in this 
manner,' and he | marks along it. After he has done so, he takes up 
two pieces | two spans in length, and he | puts them down on 
each side of what has been marked, in this way, |» j * ^' 

35 and he || marks along them. As soon as this is done, |„ ,^ 

he takes his stone hammer j and one of the posts 




three spans in length, | and he drives it in at (1); and |„^-^ "^^ 
when I one span and a half shows, | then he takes \^^ >< 

40 another one and drives it in at (2). When || the top is level with the 
first one, he drives another one in | at (3), and other ones at from 



21 qa^s yiLoyodes laqexs lae q lap lego x^widsq qa^s wik'ileqexs g'axae 
na^nakwa laxes g5kwe. Wa, g il^mese naEnxsEg'ilaleseda x'alsla- 
XElaxs lae ax^edxes pElpElqe LE^wa dEnase tieltales laxa wa. Wa, 
la wikilaxa LaLEmwayoLe qa^s la wikintsiesElaq laxa LlEma^ise qa^s 

25 la wix^^alisaq laxa k"!ese alaEm tsedesa laxa ('X'stEwese. Wa, la 
qwelodxa yiLoya^ye LloplEk'a. Wa, he^mis gll dax-^itsoseda ^nEm- 
tslaqe g'ayol laxa moplEnk'as ^wasgEmase laxEns qlwaqlwax'- 
tslana^yex qa's mEnyayowa qa^s k'atlaliseq. Wii la xudElEneq 
g'a gwiileg'a.' Wa, la dag'ilisaq qa^s katlalises lax apsba^yasa 

30 xiildese ga gwaleg'axs' lae xtildEtendEq. Wii, laxae etied dagilisaq 
qa^s katlalises laxa apsba^yasa g'ale xiiltes ga gwalega.' Wit, laxae 
xuldElEneq. Wa, gIPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa malts laqe laxa 
malplEnk'as awasgEmase laxEns qlwaqlwax'tslana^yex qa^s k"a- 
tEmgaUses lax waxsanodzExsta^yasa la xflldEkwa g"a gwiileg'a (Jig.) 

35 qa^s xwexuldElEndeq. Wii, g iPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxes pElpElqe 
LE^wa ^nEmtslaqe laxa dz6dzoxiilayixayridux"plEnk'as 5,wasgEmase 
laxEns qlwaqlwaxtslana^yex qa^s dex^waliseq lax (1). Wit, giL 
^mese ^nEmplEnk'a la nelala LE^wa nExsa^ye laxEns qlwaqlwaxtsla- 
na^yexs lae etietsa ^uEmtslaqe dex^walisaq lax (2). Wii, gil-mese 

40 ^nEmiltox^wid LE'^wa g'ale deqwesexs lae et letsa ^nEmts laqe dex^wa- 
lisaq lax (3). Wa, la etietsa waokwe dex«walisaq lax (4)-(ll). 

> See outlines of cut on this page. 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 161 

(4) to (11). I The last one he drives m at (12). | These are the posts 42 
of the perch-trap. As soon as | this is done, he takes the soaked 
cedar-bark, sphts it into long strips, H and, when it is all split, he 45 
takes up | one piece of the stops four spans in length | and lays it 
down at the outer side of the back of the perch- | trap, close to the 
posts. Then he ties it with cedar-bark | to the posts, and he ties it 
together with the back; for he first ties it to || posts (l)-(4), which are 50 
the back-stop. As soon as this is done, lie takes ] another one of the 
same length and lays it down on top ] of what he has already tied on 
the back-stop at post (4), and he ties it on to | the back-stop and the 
side-stop, and he ties the side-stops on to posts | (5), (6), and (7). 
When this is done, || he takes another one of the same length and lays 55 
it down on the ] upper side of the side-stop at post (1). He ties it on, 
and I ties the side-stop to posts (12), (11), and (10). When this | is 
done, he takes one of the pieces two spans in length, | with sharp 
point towards (9), and || he places the thick end under the side-stop 60 
at (10). I Then he ties together the entrance and the side-stop at 
(10), and he ties the entrance to | (9), and he does the same with 
(7) and (8). When | this is done, he takes another one of the four- | 
span sticks and places it over the || side-stops, and he ties it together 65 

Wa, la etiedxa alElxsda^ye ^nEmtslaqa dex^walisaq lax (12). Wa, 42 
heEm dzodzoxulasa LaLEmwayuwe Lawayowa. Wa, giPmese gwa- 
Iexs lae ax^edxa pegEkwe dEnasa qa^s dzEdzExsEndeq qa g ilsgil- 
stowes ts!elts!Eq!iistowa. Wa, giPmese ^wPweIxsexs lae dax^^idxa 45 
^uEmtslaqe laxa mSp'.Enk'as ^wasgEmase laxEns .q!waq!wax"ts!a- 
na^yex qa^s k'atlalises lax Llasadza^yas awap!a^yasa LaLEmwayowe 
Lawayowa makimk' lEne lax dzodzoxulaxs lae yil^itsa dEnase laxa 
dzodzQxula qa^s yaLodesa Emxapla^ye LE^we heEm gil yaLotsose 
(l)-(4) LEWa Emxapla^ye. Wit, giPmese ^wi^laxs lae ax^edxa 50 
^nEmtslaqexa he^maxat! ^wasgEme qa^s katlEndes laxa ek" lot !Ena- 
^yasa la yiLElaLEla Emxapla^ya lax (4). Wa, laxae yaLodxa Emxa- 
p.Ia^ye LE^wa EmxEnwa^ye. Wa, laxae yilLodxa EmxEnwa^yc lax 
(5) ; wil, la heEmxat! gwex'^idEx (6) l6^ (7). Wii, g iPmese gwalExs 
lae ax^edxa ^uEmtslaqexa he^maxat! ^wasgEme qa^s kat!Endes la- 55 
xai'klotlEna^yasaEmxapIa^yelax (1). Wii, lilyaLodijq. Wa, liiet!ed 
yaLodxa EmxEnwa^ye lo^ (12) lo^ (H), he^mise (10). Wii, g'lPmese 
gwalExs lae dilx'^idxa ^nEmtslaqe laxa malplEnkas S,wasgEmase 
laxEns q!waq!wax-ts!ana^yex qa^s gwebales ex'ba^yas lax (9), lae 
k'at'.Entsa LEX"ba^ye lax bEukMotlEna^yasa EmxEnwa^ye lax (10) 60 
lae yaL5dxa xolsoe lax (10) LE^wa EmxEnwa^ye. Wii, lii yaLodEx 
(9) LE^wa xolose. Wii, lii, hcEmxat! gwex-^IdEx (7) lo^ (8). Wii, gJl- 
''mese gwalExs lae etled dax'^idxa ^uEmtsIaqe laxa moplEnke laxEns 
q !waq Iwax'ts lana^yex yix ^wasgEmasa qa^s k'at lEndes lilx ek' !ot lEna- 
^yasa EmxEnwa^ye. Wii, lii yaLodEq lo^ (1) lo^ (2) lo^ (3) ; wii, 65 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 1 11 




162 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

66 at (1), (2), (3), and | (4). When this is done, he takes another one of 
the same | length and lays it on top of the back-stop, and he | ties 
it at (1), (12), (11), and (10), and he does the same | with the other 

70 side at the entrance. As soon as there are eight 1| rows, it is finished. 
Then he takes pieces four spans and | four finger-widths in length 
and puts them down, and he | takes up another one and lays it on it, 
in this manner: . ■ He | ties them together at (1), 

and he places the ^ other ones on (2) and (3), and | 

he also ties them at (4). When this is done he 

75 takes up another one || and places it one finger- 

width I apart ■ ' from the first one and ties it on at 

both ends; and | he continues tymg on all the others, going towards 
(4) and (3). As | soon as it is all covered, it is like this. 
When it is finished, ho | goes up from the beach and 

80 breaks off hemlock-branches in the woods. He || carries : 
them down to where he is making the perch-trap and 
puts them down, and he goes up again and takes small : 
clams, which he gets for bait | for his fish-trap. He car- 
ries them down and breaks the shells of the clams | and scatters them 
in the trap. As soon as this is done, he puts | the cover over the trap. 

85 He puts hemlock-branches on top of it, so that || it is dark inside, and 
he places four large stones ] on top of the hemlock-branches to keep 
it under water. Then it is done. I 



66 he^mise (4). Wa, g'll^mese gwalExs lae et!ed dax'^dxa he^maxat! 
^wasgEme qa^s kat !Endes lax ek" !ot !Ena^yasa Emxap !a^ye. Wa, laxae 
yaLodEq lax (1) lo- (12) l6^ (11) ; wii, he^mise (10). Wa, lahcEmxat! 
g^^'ex■^Idxa apsana^ye LE^wa xolose. Wa, gil^mese malgunalts !a- 

70 kostalaxs lae gwala. Wa, la dax'^dxa sayakMap!Enk'Elasa 
modEne laxEns q!waq!wax-ts!ana^yex qa^s k'atlalise. Wa, la da- 
x^^ldxa ^uEmtslaqe qa^s katbEndes laq; g'a gwiilega (fig.). Wii, la 
yaLodEx (1). Wa, la et!ed k"atbEntsa waokwe lax (2 — 3), wii la 
yaLodEq (4). Wii g'fPmese gwalExs lae et!ed dax'^dxa ^nEmts!aqe 

75 qa^s katledes laxa ^nEmdEne laxEns q!waq!wax-ts!ana'yex yix awii- 
lagtilaasas LE^wa g'ale ax^aLElodayosexs lae yaelbEndEq. Wii, lii 
ha^nal yit^aLElodalasa waokwe lalag'aaLElaa lax (4) l6^ (3). Wa, 
g iPmesE Emdzoxs lae g'a gwiileg'a (Jig.)- Wii, g'lFmese gwalExs lae 
ISsdesa laxa LlEma^e qa^s la LlEx^wIdEx qlwaxa laxa aLle qa^s 

QQ lit gEmxEnts !esElaq lax Sx^etsasas LaLEmwayowas Lawayowa. Wii, 
lii xwelax^usdesa qa^s lii S,x^ed laxa g"aweq!anEme tatelauEms 
qaes Lawayowe. Wa, la dEntsIesElaq qa^s la tEptshilasa tele gawe- 
qlansma qa^s gwelalts lodales laq. Wa, g"il^mese gwalExs lae paqE- 
y5tsa siila laxa Liiwayowe. Wa, la xEsEyintsa qlwaxe laq qa 

or plEdEk'iles. Wii, lii t lilqEyindalasa mosgEme ftwiikwas tlesEm 
lax okG^ya^yasa qlwaxe qa wunsalayos. Wa, laEm gwal laxeq. 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 163 

Net for Sea-Eggs. — You kiiow already how nettle-bark | is cleaned 1 
and what is done with it. When it is put | on the netting-needle, they 
take the netting-measure, which is half a finger wide | and four 
finger-widths || long, and they net on it. | After they have netted 5 
three spans in length, the ends are netted together. Thus | the 
mouth is three spans around, and they net downward ; | and as soon as 
it is two spans long, | they net the bottom together. Then the scraping- 
net for flat sea-eggs is like a basket. II It is this way: ^^^qv After he 10 
has finished netting it, | he takes his ax and goes ^^^ ^^'^ *'^^ 
woods looking for the root of yeUow-cedar; | and '^^ when he 
finds a yellow-cedar tree, he digs out a root ^^^ which is | 
moderately thick, and he measures five spans | and then cuts it off. 
He splits it thi'ough the || heart; and when it is in two parts, he chops | 15 
off the heart on one side so that it all comes off, and he chops off the | 
sap. Then he tries to make it half a finger | thick; and he chops off 
the two edges, so that it is two finger-widths wide, 1 its whole length 
from end to end. || After finishing it, he carries it out of the woods and 20 
takes it into his house; | and he puts it down on the floor, and he takes 
his crooked knife, | sits down, and takes the yellow-cedar wood and 
he shaves | the two edges straight; and after doing so, | he shaves oft' 

Net for Sea-Eggs. — Wii, laEmLas qlaLElax gwegilasaxa gunaxs 1 
lae a,xsE-'wa LE^wa ^naxwa eaxeneq. Wa, g'tPmese la qEttsIoyo 
laxa yEgay5 lae ax^edxa tslEwekwexa k' lodEnosElas wagwasas 
laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex. Wa, la modEn laxEns q!waq!wax'- 
ts!ana^yex yLx ^wasgEmasas. Wa, la ytxEntsa gunelaq. Wa, la 5 
yudux^plEnke ^wasgEmasasexs lae yaqodEx oba^yas. Wii, laEm 
yudux"p!EX'sIte ^wadzEg'lxstaasas. Wii, la ylqaxodEq. Wii, gil- 
^mese miilplEnke ^wasgEmasas laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^yaxs lae 
yaqodEx oxsda^yas qa^s yiwila gwex'sa Llabatexa xElodzayowaxa 
amdEma. Wii, laEm g'a gwiileg^a (jfig.). Wii, gll^mese gwal ytqaqexs 10 
lae ax^edxes sobayowe cja^s lii laxa aL!e aliix LloplEk'asa dexwe. 
Wa, g-lFmese qlaxa dex"mEsaxs lae Hap!ldEx LloplEk'asxa hela- 
g'ite L!op!Ek"a. Wii, la bal'idxa sEk!ap!Enk"e laxEns q!waq!wax- 
ts!ana^yex ytx ^wasgEniasasexs lae tsEX'sEndEq. Wa, lii naqlEqax 
domaqasexs lae x5x"sEndEq. Wii, g'iPmese malts !exs lae sopsl- 15 
lax-^id 5.psodile domaqs qa ^wi^lawes. Wii, lii sopS,lax"^idEx xodze- 
g'a-yas. Wii, laEm laloLla qa k'lodEnes laxEns q!waq!waxts!a- 
na^yex ytx wagwasas. Wii, lii sopledEX ewunxa^yas qa maldEnes ^wa- 
dzEwasas laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!iina^yex hebEndala liix ^wasgEmasas. 
Wa, g'iPmese gwiltexs lae dalt !alaq qa^s lii daeLElaq laxes g'okwe. 20 
Wa, lii k'at!alilaq qa^s Sx^edexes xElxwala k'lawayowa. Wii, lii 
kiwagalila qa^s dax'^Idexa dEyodzowe. Wii, he^mis gll k!ax- 
^witso^se ewunxa^yas qa naEnqEnxEles. Wii, g'lPmese gwalExs lae 
klodzodEx 5.psadzE^yas qa qedzEdzowes. Wa, gU^mese gwalExs 



164 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann.35 

25 the one flat side so that it is smooth. After doing so, he || turns it 
over and shaves off the other side until it has a thin edge, | and it 
is half a finger thick. | After doing so, he takes a basket, goes to the 
beach, | picks up stones, which he puts into the basket. | When he 

30 has enough, he carries them on his back into his || house and puts them 
down by the side of the fire. | He puts the stones on the fire, and he 
takes the basket and he | goes down again to the beach and plucks off 
didce; | and when his basket is full, he carries it up the beach | into 

35 his house, and he puts it down on the floor. || Then he digs a hole by 
the side of the fire of the same length | as the stick of yellow cedar 
which is to be steamed to make a hoop for the scraping-net. One | 
span is the width of the hole that he is digging, ] and its depth is the 
same. When this is finished, he takes | mats, so that they are ready 

40 for use, and he takes the tongs to put || the red-hot stones into the 
hole, and he puts them mto the hole that has abeady been dug. | 
When it is nearly full, he takes his dulce and throws it on the | red- 
hot stones; and when a thick layer has been put on, | he puts the 
yellow-cedar stick on it, and he takes ] more dulce and throws it on 

45 to it; and as soon as there is a || thick layer of dulce on the yellow 
cedar, he takes water and | throws a little on top the whole length of 
the yellow-cedar stick, | and he covers it over with mats. After he 

25 lae lex'^Id qa^s kladzodex S,psadza^yas qa pslesa ^psEnxa^ye. 
Wa, laLa k' !5dEnx"sa^ma apsEuxa^ye laxEns q !waq Iwax'ts lana^yex. 
Wii, g'tPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa lExa^ye qa^s la laxa LlEma^ise 
qa^s la tiaqax tIesEma qa^s la t!axts!alas laxa lExa^ye. Wa, 
giPmese hel^atslaxs lae Sxxosdesa qa^s la oxLaeLElaq laxes 

30 gokwe qa^s la oxLEgalilas lax mag'lnwallsases lEgwile. Wa, la 
xE^x"LEnts laxes lEgwIle. Wa, la xwelaqa ax^edxa lExa^ye qa^s la 
xwelaqEnts !es laxa LlEma^ise. Wa, la klfibf^id laxa LlEsLlEkwe. 
Wa, giPmese qot!e lExa^yasexs lae 5xLEx"^id qa^s lii oxLosdesEla 
qa^s la oxLaeLElaq laxes gokwe qa^s la 5xLEgalilaq. Wa, lii 

35 4ap!allla laxa mag'tnwalilases lEgwIlaxa ^nEmasgEme lo^ uEkaso- 
Lasxa dEyodzowe qEX'ExsteLasa xElodzayowe. Wa, la ^uEmplEnk' 
laxEns q !waq Iwax'ts lana^yex ylx ^wadzEqawilasas ^lapa^yas. Wii, lii 
heEmxat! ^walabEtalile. Wii, g-lPmese gwillExs lae ax^edxa IceI- 
wa^ye qa gaxes gwa^ila. Wii, lii ax^edxa ts'.esLala qa^s k"!tp!edes 

40 laxa x-Ix-LxsEmala tIesEma qa^s lii k'ltptslalas laxa ^labsgwelkwe. 
Wa, la Elaq qotlaxs lae ax^edxa LJESLlEkwe qa^s lEXEylndes lax 
5ku^ya^yasa x-ix-LxsEmala t!esEma. Wii, g-lPmese waklwaxs lae 
ax^edxa dEyodzowe qa^s paqlsqes laq. Wii, laxae ax^edxa 
waokwe LlEsLlEkwa qa^s lExeglndes laq. Wii, gil^mese la w§,x"- 

45 wunaya LlESLlEkwe laxa dEyodzoxs lae ax^edxa ^wape qa^s 
xELlEX'^Ide tsadzELEylnts lax ^wasgsmasa kunyasaxa dEyodzowe. 
Wa, la nas^Itsa le^wa^ye laq. Wii,' glPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa 



BOAS] ^ INDUSTRIES 165 

has finished, he takes a | round billet, and he cuts it with an ax un- 
til it is round. | Its size is three spans around. || When it is done, he 50 
takes thin cedar-bark rope, so that it is | ready for use. After it has 
been steamiag quite a while, he | takes off the covering mats and he 
pulls out the yellow-cedar wood that has been steamed, ] and he puts 
it around the end of the round piece of fire-wood, | and he ties it 

tightly to the fire-wood, in this manner: TT\ After he has tied 

it on with a || rope, he heats it by the ^L-X) Qxe of the house. 55 

Now 1 he heats it all roimd until it is burnt black. Then he takes 
tallow and | rubs it on it while it is still warm. When it is cov- 
ered I with tallow, he puts it down in the corner of the house, until 
it I cools off quickly. Now he wants it to become brittle and || to 60 
retain its hoop shape and to not spring back again. | Therefore 
the tallow is put on. When it gets cool, he | takes the hoop for the 
mouth of the scraping-net for flat sea-eggs, and he takes the ] driU 
and drills ten holes to sew on | the mouth of the scraping-net. After 
he has done so, it is || in this maimer: a;:^:::^ Then he takes the 65 
scraping-net and ] nets its mouth to the ff ^ hoop. It is a dif- 
ferent kind of I nettle-bark twine that ^inff^ lie puts tlirough the 
drill-holes. It passes through | two meshes. As soon as 

this is done, he takes a small | hemlock- ' tree two fathoms 



lex'^Ene lEqwa qa^s k-.'iml^Ideq qa lex-^Enes. Wa, he^mis qa 48 
yudux"p lEnse^stes ^wagidasas laxEns q !waq Iwax'tsana^yex. Wa, 
glh'mese gwalExs lae ax^edxa ^wlle dEnsEn dEUEma qa gaxese 50 
gwa^lila. Wit, gil^mese gagiyala la giye kunsasE^wasexs lae 
nasodEx nayimas leElwa^ya. Wii, lii lEx^uqodxes kunsasE^we 
dEyodza. Wii, la qEX'se^stEnts lax oba^'yasa k!ax"baakwe lEqwa. 
Wii, la ylPidxa max'^ina^yaxa lEqwa (Jig.). Wii,g ll^mese gwal yiLasa 
dEUEme laqexs lae pEX'iMEq laxa lEgwIIases g-okwe. Wii, laEm 55 
pEx-se^stalaq qa kluniElx'^ides. Wii, lii ax^edxa yasEkwe qa^s 
dzEkildzodes laqexs he^mae Hies tstelqwe. Wii, glPmese hamEl- 
se^steda yasEkwe laqexs lae ax^alllas laxa onegwilases gokwe qa 
odax'^ides wiidEX'^Ida. Wii, laEm ^nex- qa LlEmx^wJdes qa 
xak'lEmtsIawes lax laena^yas wak'ala qakleses edesa dzax^wida. 60 
Wa, heEm lag-ilasa yasEkwe laq. Wii, g'll^mese wildEX'^idExs lae 
axodxa wfllg'ixsteLasa xElodzayaxa amdEma. Wii, lii ax^edxa 
sElEme qa^s sElEmx'sodexa UEqadzEqe sEla^ya qa nEyimxso- 
watsa t lEmgExsta^yasa xElodzayowe. Wii, g'iPmese gwiilExs lae 
g'a gwiilega (fg.). Wii, lii ax^edxa yigEkwe XElodzayo, la^me 65 
ytxdzodEq laxa wiilg'lxsteLas. Wii, laEm ogiiMaEm medsk" 
gunkMEne la nex"soy5s Laxa sesEla^ye qa^s la hex'sala laxa mae- 
maltsEmtowe ytgela^ya. Wii, glPmese gwalsxs lae ax^edxa wTle 
qvvaxasa malplEnk'e ^wiisgEmasas laxEns baLax. Wa, lii k'laxalax 




166 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

70 in length, cuts off || the bark and the sap; and when it is all off, he 
cuts I off the thick end so that it is flat, and he puts t on the end of 
his scraping-net | for flat sea-eggs to serve as a net- 
handle, for thus is called what they tie to the end of it ; 
and he takes a split spruce-root and ties the ] scrap- 
ing-net for small, flat sea-eggs to the end of the net- 

75 handle. After he has || done so, it is in this way: | 
1 Staging for drying Roots. — After they have eaten, | they go out of 
the house. Immediately (the man) goes into the woods, | carrying 
his ax, and he cuts down four | good-sized long, straight cedar-trees 
5 that have no branches. He measures off || three fathoms and cuts 
them off. I The four sticks are each three fathoms in length. | Then 
he measures off one fathom and | cuts them off, and he chops off 
eight of the same length. | As soon as all these have been cut off one 

10 fathom in length, || he sharpens one end. When | all the ends are 
sharp, he carries them on his shoidders and | carries them into his 
house, and he throws them down where he is going to put them up 
for I a staging. When they are all in the house, he takes one | of the 
sharpened sticks and drives it into the ground close to the inner |l 

15 back-rest in the comer of the right-hand side of the house; and when 
it is I two spans in the ground, he | takes another one of the sharp- 

70 xE^x"w^flna^yas lo^ xodzeg'a^yas. Wa, gll^mese ^wi'laxs lae k' !ax- 
^wldEX LE'x"ba^yas qa pepEgEnoses. Wa, la ^xbEntsa xElodzayo- 
waxa S,mdEma laxa xElospIeqe qaxs he^mae LegEmsa lal yllbayaats. 
Wa, lit &x^edxa dzEdEkwe LloplEk-sa alewase qa^s yll^'aLElodesa 
xElodzayowaxa amdEma lax oba^yasa xElospleqe. Wa, gtPmese 

75 gwalExs lae g'a gwaleg'a (fig.). 
1 Staging for drying Roots. — Wa, giPmese gwal LlExwaxs lae 
hoquwElsa qa^s la laxes g'okwe. Wa, hex'^ida^mese la laxa aLle 
dak!otElaxes sobayowe qa^s la soplExodxa motslaqe g'llsglltia 
ha^yah'ag'it ek'etEla naEnk'Ela dzESEkwa. Wa, la bal^idEq qa 
5 yaeyodux"p!Enk'es laxEns baLaqe awttsgEmasasexs lae sopsEudEq. 
Wil, la^me ^nEmax"e awasgEmasasa mots.'aqe lax yudux"p!Enk'e 
laxEns baLax. Wa, lit et!ed baHdxa ^nEmplEnk'e laxEns baLiixs 
lae sopsEndEq. Wij, la malgunalts!aqa sopa^yas hex'sa awasgEme. 
Wii, g'tPmese ^wFwElxs^eda ^naPuEmp !Enk"as awasgEmase laxEns 

10 baLaxs lae dzodzox"bEndEx epsba^yas qa eex^bes. Wii, gil^mese 
^wPla la dzodzox"baakuxs lae yilkiilsaq qa^s lii yilx^wult !alaq qa^s 
la yilgwcLElaq laxes g'okwaxs lae yllx^walilaq laxes ax-alilasLasa 
k'lagilLe. Wii, giPmese ^wPlaeLaqexs lae a,x^edxa ^uEmtsIaqe 
laxa dzodzox"baakwe qa^s dex^waliles laxa mag'idzii^yasa tsaqlEx- 

15 La^ye lax onegwilasa helk' lotewalTlasa g"okwe. Wii, g'lHmese 
malplEnke ^walabEtalllasas laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!iina^yaxs lae 
S,x^edxa ^uEmtsIaqe dzodzox"baakwa qa^s dex^waliies laxa 



BOAS] INDUSTRIES 167 

ened sticks and drives it into the floor | one span distant from the 18 
first I post ; and he takes one of the long sticks for a crosspiece and || 
lays it down outside, in this manner: 11 Then he 20 

takes another one I of the sharpened poles ■ and drives 

it down at the other end of the long stick that he had laid down ; | and 
when it is two spans in the ground, | he takes the other sharpened 
stick, I places it at the same distance as at the other end, and drives 
it into the floor. || When it is also two spans deep in the ground, | he 25 
takes his hand-adz and adzes off the tops | of all the posts, so that 
they are hollowed out. These are called "notches for the beams," 
and I they are in this manner: /vj As soon as they 

have all been notched out on top, I I | he takes a 

beam and places it over the post || at one end, and he puts the 30 
other end on the top of the other post, | so that it is in this man- 
n e r : ( ^ . p When the staging is finished, he 

I the baskets with long cinquefoil-roots 
— and he does the same along the other 



puts 

on it, - 

side. I .3.5 

Frame for drying Berries. — Now we wiU talk about the work | of 1 
the husband of the woman, for he does not sit still in his house while | 
his wife is picking elderberries. First he has to look for a good | 
cedar-log which is soaked in water and soft, for this splits straight. || 
After he has found one, he chops it with his ax on the imder side. | 5 

^uEmplEnk'e laxEns q!waq!wax-ts!ana^yex, ytx awalagohlasasa Le- ig 
Lame. Wa, la ax^edxa ^uEmts !aqe laxa k" laxdEmaLe qa^s 
k'at laliles lax Llasalilas g"a gwaleg"a (Jig.), la ax^edxa ^uEmtsIaqe 20 
laxa dzodzox"baakwe qa^s dex^wallles laxa apsba^yasa la k'adela. 
Wa, gIPEmxaawise malplEnk'e ^valabEtalilasas laxEns q!wa- 
q!wax'ts!ana^yaxs lae ax^edxa ^nEmts!aqe dzodzox"baakwa qa^s 
ua^naxts!owex awalagohlasasa apsba^yaxs lae dexbEtalllaq. Wa, 
gipEmxaawise malplEnk'e ^walabEtalllasas laxEns q !waq Iwax'ts !a- 25 
na^yex lae ax^edxes kItmLayowe qa^s k'ltmLEtodeq qa xubEtowes 
^naxweda LeLame. HeEm LegadEs qiasexa k'atslEwasLasa kMaxdE- 
maxa g'a gwaleg'a (fig.). Wa,, glPmese ^wFla la q!eq!adzEkwa oxta- 
^yasa LeLamaxs lae ax^edxa k"!axdEma qa^s kadEtodes laxa Lamasa 
apsba^ye. Wa, laxae ogwaqa k'adEtotsa apsba^yas laxa Lame. 30 
Wa, la^me g:a gwaleg'axs {fig.) lae gwala k'lag-ile qa g'exdEmasa 
Laxabatsle L!aL!abata. Wa, la heEm xat! gwex'^Idxa apsodEqla. 

Frame for drying Berries. — Wii, la^mesEns gwagwex'sEX'^idEl lax l 
la^wimEmasa tslsdaqaxs k"!esae §,Em kiwael laxes g'okwaxs lae 
tslexes gEnEmaxa tslex'ina. Wii, heEm g'tl la alaso^se ek"a k!wax- 
Lawaxa kliinklimqlEqexa tElqwe qaxs he^mae egaqwa lax pats.'asE- 
^we. Wii, gll-mese qiaqexs lae sopletses s5bayowe laxa wilEme qa^s 5 
tEmx"bEtEndeq g"a gwaleg'a (^^.), g'lPmeso uEgoyode tEmkwa^yas 



168 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

6 He chops into it this way : Q ts" \ As soon as he has chopped 
half way down | to the heart of the wood, he 
measures from the place where he has | chopped nine spans of our 

10 hand. | Then he chops in, and cuts in || as deep as before at the other 

end. Then he stops chopping. Now it is | in this way: ^^ — ^ ^ — . 

Then he takes his wedges and drives them in at the ^ 

end I of (1), towards the top of the cedar- tree; and he uses his stone 
hammer to drive them in ; [ and when he has a piece wedged off, he turns 

it over on its back. Then it is in this way : | ^ — ^ > Then he 

wedges the piece which he has cut off from ^ ^ the tree 

15 into pieces. He splits it up small enough so that he || can carry it out 
of the woods. After he has cut it into pieces, he carries it home on his 
shoulder | out of the woods and into his house. There he | throws it 
down in the corner of the house ; and after all has been carried out, 
he I takes his adz and puts it down. He also takes his straight | knife, 

20 his wedge, and his stone hammer, and he || splits off the thickness of one 
of our fingers ; | and when it has come off, he measures pieces two finger- 
widths I in width. He takes his straight knife and | splits the wood with 
it. He continues to do so until he has many of the same size. | When 

25 he thinks he has spht out enough, he takes his straight i| knife and one 
of the cedar-sticks which he has split and cuts it well | and straight on 
one side, so that it is straight and flat. | After he has done so, he turns 

7 lax lalaa lax domaqas lae baHtses q!waq!waxts!ana^ye g'agtLEla 
laxes tEmkwa^ye. Wii, la ^na^nEmap !Enk" laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!a- 
na^yex yJx baLa^yasexs lae tEmx^widEq. Wa, g'iPEmxaawise la 

10 -nEmale ^walabEdasas LE^wa apsba^yaxs lae gwal sopaq. Wa, laEm 
g"agwa}eg'a(^,9.). Wa, lii ax^edxes LEmlEmg'ayowe qa^s qlwaelbEn- 
des lax (1) xa wilEta^yasa welkwe. Wit, la pElgEtEweses pElpElqe 
■laq. Wii, glPmese uELaxe latoyas laxa welkwaxs lae g"a gwaleg'a 
{jig.). Wii, lii LEmlEmx'SEndxes latoyowe. Wa, a^mese gwanala qa^s 

15 lakweses qo liil yllx^iilt lalaLEq. Wii,g"tPmese ^wFweIx'sexs lae yElx- 
^wldEq qa^s yllx^ult !alaq qa^s lii yllgweLElaq liixes g"okwe. Wii, lii 
yElx^valllaq lax onegwiiases g'okwe. Wii, giPmese ^wi4olt!axs lae 
ax^edxes k'limLayowe lii g'Ig'alllaq. Wii, he^misLaLes uExx'iila k"!a- 
wayowe. Wii, lii ax^edxes LEmg'ayowe LE^we pElpElqe. Wii, lii 

20 latodxa ^uEmdEne laxEns q!waq!wax"ts!ana^yex, ylx wagwasas. 
Wii, g'il^mese lawiixs lae mEns^itsa maldsne laxEns q!waq!wax"ts!a- 
na^yex qa ^wadzEwatsex, lae ax^edxes nExx'iila k"!iiwayowa qa^s 
xox"sEndeq. Wa, lii hex'siiEm gweg'ilaxa qleuEme hi^x'sii awagwite. 
Wa, gil^mese k'otaq laEm helales xa^yaxs lae ax^edxes uExx'iila 

25 k'lawayowa LE^wa ^uEmtslaq laxes xa^ye k!waxLawa qa^s aekMe 
k" liixwax apsot lEna^yas qa nEqEles; wii, he^mis qa pEx^Enes. Wii, 
g-iPmese gwalExs lae lex'^idEq qa^s k" lax^wldex awlg'a^yas qa lene- 



BOAS] INDUSTEIES 169 

it over and cuts the back so that it is round ] and also straight. After 28 
doing so, he takes another one | and does the same as he did to the first 
one he made, and he || continues doing so with the others. When all 30 
have been cut out, he | splits some smaller than our little fuiger. He 
takes I his straight knife and cuts them square. | When he thinks he 
has enough of these, he measures these off | two spans and two finger- 
widths II in length. Then he cuts them off. There are many of 35 
these I which he has cut the same length. After they have been done, 
he takes his j wedge and his stone hammer and he wedges the other | 
cedar-sticks into thin pieces. When they are all in pieces, he takes 
his I straight knife and the cedar-sticks which he has wedged into 
pieces and || splits them into small pieces with his straight | knife, so 40 
that they are the thickness of half the thickness of our little finger. | 
Now he has split out very many. After doing so, he takes the | fu-st 
one which he made two finger-widths in width, and he cuts | square 
holes a little larger than the size of om- little finger || four finger-widths 45 
from the end of what he | is cutting. As soon as the hole passes 
through, he measures | two spans from this hole, and there he makes 
another hole; | and when it also passes through, he measures off two 
more spans j from the last hole he made; and he continues to do so, 
proceeding to the end of the stick. || As soon as this side-stick has been 50 

g'es Lo^ qa uEqEles. Wii, g'lFmese gwalExs lae et!edxa ^UEmtslaqe. 28 
Wa, iiEmxae nanaxtslEwaxes g iLx"de axa^ya. Wii, ax'sa^mese he 
gweg'ilaxa waokwe. Wii, g'lFmese ^wi4a lakMakwa. Wii, la et!ed 30 
xox^widxa wawilalagawa^yasEns sElt!axts!iina^yex. Wii, lii iix^ed- 
xes nExx'iila kMiiwayowa qa^s k"!ax^wideq qa k' lEWElx^iines. 
Wa, g'il^Emxaiiwise k^otax laEm helalaxs lae baHdEq ylse q!wii- 
q!wax'ts!iina^yaxa malplEnk'e he^misa maldEne biibELawe lilxEns 
q!waq!waxts!ana^yaxs lae k'llmtslEndEq. Wii, laEmxae q leuEme 35 
k'limta^yas he gwex^se. Wii, giPmese gwiilExs lae ax^edxes 
LEmg'ayowe LE^wis pElpElqe qa^s LEmlEmx'salexa waokwe k !wax- 
Lawa qa pElspadzowes. Wii, giPmese ^wi^wulx'sExs lae Sx^edxes 
uExx'iila k'liiwayowa qa^s laxat! S.x^edxes LEmk'asox"de k!wax- 
Lfiwa. Wii, la helox"s^End xoxox"salaq yises uExx'ala kMawa- 40 
yowe laq qa k'lodEnes wSgwasas laxEns sElt!ax'ts!ana^yex. Wa, 
la alak"!ala q!enEme xsVyas. Wii, g'lFmese gwalExs lae ax^edxes 
gilx'tle Sxa^yaxa maemaklEnas awadzEwase. Wii, la k'lex'sodxa 
k- !EWElx"stowe haisElaEm lalexalagawesEns sElt!ax'ts!ana^yex ylxs 
modEuae laxEns q!wiiq!wax'tsiina^yex g'iig^LEla liix oba^yase 45 
k'lex-sotsE^was; giPmese lax'sawe k' lesoda^yasexs lae baPitses 
q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yaxa malplEuk'e g'iig'lLEla lax k' lexsoda^yas. 
Wa, gJpEmxaiiwise lax'saxs lae et!ed baPldxa malp'.Enke g'iigi- 
LEla lax ale klex'sodes. Wii, a^mise he gwe^nakiilax liibEudalae. 
Wa, giPmese gwala l !iiL lExEuwa^yaxs lae g'a gwiileg'a {fig.)- Wa, 50 



170 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

51 finished, it is this way: ' ' Then he | puts it down. Then 

he takes the other one and puts it down by the side of the one that | 
he has finished, and he marks it according to the first one, so 
that the hole that he is to make will be in the corresponding place ; | 
and after he has marked it, he cuts the holes through it; and when 
these are | finished, he takes a square piece of the size of our little 

55 finger || and two spans and two finger-widths in length, | which is 
called "crosspiece for tying on." He measures one | finger-width 
from the end of it. Then | he takes his straight knife and cuts a 
notch around it. He cuts off | a little all n)und, so that it fits into 

60 the hole of the side-stick. He || pushes it through the hole that he has 
cut; and when he has cut off enough | so that it fits in tight for the 
end to pass through, | he only stops pushing it in when | it fits tightly 
against the shoulder of the notch, | he does the same with the other end 
of the I crosspiece as he did to the former end. After | doing so, he 

65 continues the same with the others ; and || when all of them have been 

finished, it is in this way : After this has been done, | 

he takes cedar-bark and (234*6 soaks it in water. After 
doing so, I betakes the tliinpieces of cedar-wood 

half as I thick as our little finger and one finger-width | in width. These 

70 are to be the middle sticks. When he has || put them aU down at the 
place where he is sitting making the drying-frame, after | they have 
all been brought there, he takes the soaked cedar-bark and puts it 

51 la k'atlalilaq qa^s iix^edexa ^uEmtslaqe; la k'adEnodzElllas laxa 
la gwala. Wii, la xultledEq qa naqallltsa k'!ek!ex"SEwakwe. Wa, 
g-tPmese gwal xultaqexs lag k" Isylmxsala. Wa, glPsmxaawise 
gwalExs lac ftx^edxa k" lEWElx^unexa yo ^wiigitEns sElt!ax'ts!ana- 

55 ^yexxa hamaldEngala laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex awasgEmas. 
Wa, heEm LegadEs k" lElx'dEma gayege. Wa, la mEns^itsa ^nEm- 
dEne laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex g"ag"}LEla laxa 5ba^yasexs lae 
ax^edxes nExx'ala k' lawayowa qa^s k' .'imtse^staleq. Wa, xaLlEX'^id 
k' !ax''se^stala qa lieladzEqElis laxa LlaLlEXEiixa^ye. Wa, lanaxwe 

60 LlEnxstots laxes k' !ex'soda^ye. Wa, g'lFmese helale tEk'alaena- 
^yases lao lax'sawe oba^yas. Wa, al^mese gwai q lomtaqexs lae wala 
lax k" !imtse^stalaso^x"das. Wa, laxae heEm gwex'^Idxa apsba^yasa 
k"!ELx"dEma gayeg'a^ya, ylxes gwex'-idaasaxa apsba^yas. Wa, g'il- 
^mese gwala ^nEmts!aqaxs lae hex^saEm gweg'ilaxa waokwe; g^ll- 

65 ^mese ^wi^la gwalExs lae g'a gwiileg'a {jig.). Wa, g'lPmese gwalExs 
lae Sx^edxa dsnase qa^s la pex"stEnts laxa ^wape. Wa, g'JPmese 
gwalExs lae ax^edxa pepatslaakwe pelspEle k !wek !wagEdzowaxa 
k' !5dEnas wagwase laxEns sElt!ax'ts!ana^yex. Wii, la. ^uEmdEne 
awadzE^wasas laxEns q !waq!wax'ts!ana^j^e, ylxa nExtsIa. Wii, gil- 

70 ^mese g'ax ^wllg'alll lax k Iwaelasasexs k" !ttk' !Edeselae. Wii, giPmese 
^wilg'alllExs lae ax^edxa pex"stalile dEnasa qa^s g'axe g'eg-aliiasexs 



liOAS] INDUSTBIES 171 

down. I He calls his wife to split it into narrow strips, | and she 72 
immediately comes and sits do\VTi and | splits the cedar-bark into 
narrow strips for him to tie on the middle sticks of the || drying-frame. 75 
After splitting off one strip, she gives it to her | husband. He takes 
it, and also one of the split sticks from | the middle sticks of the 
drying-frame, and he puts it on at (1) and close | to (7),' and he ties 
it on with split cedar-bark, | and he sees to it that there is no turn in 
the cedar-bark. After tying it on, he takes up || another one of so 
the split sticks and places it alongside of the first one, | which 
he put on also at (1). Then he ties it also to the crosspiece. | 
He continues doing this at (1); and as soon as it has been filled up 
to (8),' I the side-stick, then he ties them on at (2); and after that 
has been fiUed, | he ties them up at (.3), (4), and (5). Now the drying- 
frame II has been finished ; and when ^^^^^^^^^^ all the sticks 85 
have been tied on, it is in this way: |^^^^^| After | the dry- 
ing-frame has been finished, he gives it to his wife. | 

Rack for holding Baskets. — His wife, however, takes easily- 1 splitting 1 
cedar-wood and splits it so that (the pieces are) one finger j thick one 
way, and half | a httle finger thick the other way. She measures 
them II by the inside of the empty oil-box. Then she cuts them off; 5 
and when | she thinks she has enough of these sticks, she measures 



lae Le^lalaxes gEUEme qa g'axes dzeldzEqIastogwIla dzEdzExsEndxa 72 
pegEkwe dEnasa. Wa, la hex'^Ida^mese la gEnsmas klwag'allla 
qa^s dzEdzExsEnde dzeldzEqlastogwilaxa yaeLElaLaxa uExtslawasa 
k- !itk' lEdesLe. Wa, giPmese dzExodxa ^nEmxsiixs lae ts!as laxes 75 
la^wiinEme. Wa dax'^IdEq. Wa, he^misa ^UEmxsa pats!aak" g-ayol 
laxa uExtsIaLasa k' !itk' lEdesLe qa^s k^atlEndes lax (1) lit max"^E- 
nex (7); wii, la yIPaLElodEq ytsa dzExskwe dEnasa. Wil, la kMes 
helq!alaq k'!ilp!eda. Wii, g'tl^mese gwal yiLaqexs lae et!ed ax^edxa 
^uEmxsa patslaakwa qa^s k'adEnodzEndes laxes g'llx"de ax^aLElo- 80 
dayowa liixaax (1) k'lElx'dEma gayolEma. Wii, laxae yll^aLElodEq. 
Wii, ax"sii^mese he gweg'ilax (1). Wii, g^iPmese lEnxEnd lax (8) 
LlilLlEXEnxa^ya, lae et!ed yll^Endalax (2). Wii, gtPmese lEnxEndEq 
lae et!ed ytl^Endalax (.3) l5^ (4) lo"^ (5). Wii., laEm gwiila k'ltk-.'E- 
desaxs lae ^wPla yELEkwe (6). Wa, liig-a gwiileg'a {fig.). Wii, 85 
g'lPmese gwala k' !ftk' !Edesaxs lae ts!as laxes gEnEme. 

Rack for holding Baskets. — Wa, laLa gsnEmas ax^edxa eg'aqwa 1 
lax xasE^we klwaxLtxwa, qa^s xox^wldeq, qa ^niil^nEmdEndzayaa- 
kwes iiwadzEwase liixEns q!wiiq!wax'ts!ana^yex. Wii, liikModEn 
laxEns sElt!ax-ts!iina^yex, yix wiwagwasas. Wii, lit heEm mEns^itse 
g'oldoliis otslawasa dEngwats lemotaxs lae kMlmtslEndEq. Wii, g-ll- 5 
^mese k'otaq laEm helales axa^yaxs lii mEns^Itsa ^nEmtslaqe lax tslE- 

1 (7) and (8) are the two long side-sticks. 



172 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

7 with another stick the | width of the empty oil-box. One finger- 
width I on each side is the size of these square pieces of cedar-wood. | 
She makes four pieces of the same size, and all of the same length. || 

10 After they have been cut off, she takes cedar-bark and | puts it into 
water and leaves it there until it gets soaked. | Wlien she tliinks it is 
soaked, she takes it out and splits it | into narrow strips. After 
doing so, she takes | one of the sliorter cedar-sticks, one of the pieces 

15 to which the rack on which || the basket rests is tied when crabapples 
are being boiled, and she takes | one of the flat pieces of cedar and 
places it lengthwise, so that the two are | in this way.' Then she 
takes split cedar-bark and ties together | the two ends of the "rack 
that she is making. After this has been done, | she takes up one of 

20 the long cedar-sticks || and puts it down flat on the crosspieces, and 
she ties these together with cedar-bark. | She continues doing this 
from one end of the crosspieces to the other. | Wlien she reaches the 
other end, she takes another one of the shorter | cedar-sticks and 
ties it under the rack. | She measures so that equal distances are 

25 between the || four cross-sticks. She ties them also with cedar-bark. | 
She does this with all four sticks. After she has | done so, it is in 
this way.^ | 



g'oliisa dEngwatsIemote, ylxa ^uEmdEne^stalas ^wag'idase laxEns 
q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex laxes k' !Ewulx^unena^ya klwaxLawe. Wa, 
la motslaqa hex'sa awagwite. Wii, laxae hex'saEmxat! awasgEme. 

10 Wii, gtPmese gwal k'!imk'!imtts!alaqexs lae ax^edxa dEnase qa^s 
hapstEndeq laxa -'wape, qa yawas^ide hapstahla, qa pexHvides. Wa, 
g-iHmese k'otaq laEm pex^widEx lae ax^wiistEndEq qa^s dzEdzExs^- 
Endeq qa ts!eits!Eq!astowes. Wii, giPmese gwalExs lae fix^edxa 
«nEmts!aqe laxa ts Ifikwagawa^yasa kKvaxxawe, yLx k'lilx'dEmaLasa 

15 handzowasa k' !ltk- ItdesElasa qlolaxa tsElxwe. Wa, laxae dax-^idxa 
^nEmxsa laxa g'lltagawa^ye k!waxLawa qa^s k'ak-Etodex oba^yas 
o-a gwiileg'a'. Wii, lii ax^edxa dzEXEkwe dEnasa qa^s lii yaLo- 
dayonox"s lax oba^yases kMitk-lEdesIlasE^'we. Wii, g-il^mese gwal- 
^aLElaxs lae et!ed ilx^ecLxa ^nEmxsa laxa g-iltagawa^ye klwaxLawa, 

20 qa^s I'ixa paxEnts laxa k- lilx'dEma. Wii, liixae yiiLodEq ylsa dE- 
nase. Wii, ax"sii^mese he gwegilaxs liibEndalaaxa kItLx'dEma. Wa, 
CT-lPmese hxbEndqexs lae et!ed dax'^idxa ^nEmtsIaqe laxa ts!Ekwa- 
gawa^ye k'.waxLawa qa^s lii k'iidabots lax awabo^yasa kMitkME- 
dese. Wii, laEm aEm niEnsi^liila, qa ^nEmes awalagalaasLasa 

25 motslaqe k' !ek' lllx'dEma. Wii, laEmxae ytLodalasa dEoase laq. 
Wii, lii ^naxwaEm he gweg-ilaq laqexs motslaqae. Wii giFmese 
gwalaxs lae g-a gwiileg-a.^ 

1 Tied together at the ends at right angles, 

2 See figure ol frame, p. 171. There are only four cross-sticks. 



II. HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 

Goat-Hunting. — Wlien the mountain-goat hunter | goes up the moun- 1 
tarn to hunt goats, he searches for thick, long | cedar-withes. Some- 
times these are two fathoms long | and of the thickness of the fourth 
finger. They have no branches. || He twists them weU, going towards 5 
the thick end. | He steps on the top while he is twisting it; and 
when I the piece that he has twisted is long, he steps near the end 
of the I twisted piece and continues twisting it. He does not stop 
until I the whole length has been ^^______= twisted; and he 

puts a knotted loop at one end. ^^^^^ Now it forms a || 

snare for catching goats where T J they have a single 10 

trail on a mountain. | As soon ^-==^ as he finds a place 

on the trail that is near a precipice upward and downward, | and also 
a tree standing i / ^* ^^® outer side of the trail, then 

he ties| the thick ^^^ Ji ■ end of the snare to the bottom of 

the tree. He J^^'^X'^: opens the | loop and puts it be- 

hind the tree, "v^^^^^^^^ ^^ *'^® middle of the goat-trail, 

in this way:|| pi iMwn^^'-^^ Now the tree is (1); the precipice | 15 
above is (2); jM^:'"'^^^ ^ the snare is (4); | the trail is (4); 
the precipice a/W**?, 'A/'w.' below the trail is (3). | 



Goat-Hunting. — Wa, he^maaxslaeda tEwe^nenoxwaxa ^mKlxLowe 1 
ek'Iesta laxa nEg'a. Wa, la alex^^Idxa helagite giltla sElbasedEm- 
sa wiLkwe yixs ^naFnEmp lEnae malp!Enk"e wasgEmasas laxEn 
baLax. Wa, la yowag'itEns sEltlax. Wii, la k'leas LlEnk'edEms. 
Wa, laaek'Iaxs lae g'axtodExs lae sElpledEq gwayolEla lax oxLa- 5 
^yas yixs tiepalaax oxtil^yasexs lae sElpaq. Wa, g'iPmese gagil- 
tale sElpa^yasexs lae wi^x"widEq qa^s t!ep!ldexa mak"ala laxa la 
SElbEkwa. Wa, la^xae et!ed sElpleda. Wa, ai^mese gwalExs lae 
labEndEx ^wasgEmasas. Wa, la max"bEndEq (^^.). Wa, laEm x'ima- 
yoixa ^mElxLowe lax ^nEmx'^idaasas tiEX'ilas laxa nEg'a. Wii, 10 
g'll^mese q!axa mag'ilx'iwa^ye tiExila laxa eLlExsdalaa, wa, 
hc^mesa Lasaxs Lalae lax l !as5tstiVyasa tiEX'ila; wa, lii m6x"p!e- 
gEnts LEx"ba^yasa x'lmayo lax oxLa^yasa Lase. Wii, la qEX'stotsa 
X imayowe lax aLa^yas lax nExstii^ya t lEX'ilasa 'mElxxowe g'a gwii- 
lega (Jig.). Wii, hcEm Lase (1); wii, he^mes tsetala tIesEme lax 15 
i'k lanekwasa tiEx'ila (2); wii he^mes x'lmayowe (4); wa, hO.^mes 
tEX'ile (4); wa, he^mes eLlExsdalaa (3). 

173 



174 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

As soon as he has finished this, he leaves; and after four | days he 

20 goes to look at his snare; and if a goat has been snared, || he can 
see it a long ways off hanging down at (3) . Now the | snare has caught 
a goat which has died. He pulls it up, | takes the snare off the 
neck of the goat, | and sets it again. Then he takes the goat | a little 

25 ways off from the place of his snare. || Then he cuts it open and takes 
out the intestines, but he keeps | the tallow. He twists cedar-withes 
and I ties togetlier one fore-leg and one hind-leg | with the cedar-withes, 
and he does the same with | the legs of the other side. Then he puts 

30 the tallo'wr into the || belly. He cuts holes through each i side of the belly 
with his knife, pushes the | thick end of the cedar-withe into it, and 
sews it up. I After he has sewed it up, he puts his arms through | the 
legs that have been tied together, so tliat the goat lies with its belly 

35 on his back, || and he carries it down the mountain. 

1 Sealing. — And they do the same way when hunthag | seal as they 

do when huntmg porpoise; and | the huntmg-canoe for seal-hunting 

is the same as the hunting-canoe for porpoise-hunting. | 

5 As soon as it gets dark, at new moon the hunter gets ready, 1| and 

carries down his small hunting-canoe, | which he lauoiclies on the sea. 

18 Wa, g-iPmese gwalExs lae b;1s. Wa, g-il^mese mop lEnxwa^se 
^nalasexs lae doqwaxes ximayowe. Wa, giPmese xumtslaxa 

20 ^mElxLaxs lae doqiilaqexs tekwuma-'yae lax (3). Wa, la^me x'i- 
maxillaxa xlmayowaxs lae lE^la. Wa, la nexostodEq qa^s x'i- 
modexes ximayowe lax q!oq!onasa ^mElxLowe. Wa, la xwelaxa- 
lodaEm ximastotses ximayowe laq. Wa, gaxesa ^mElxLowe laxa 
qwaqwesala lax x'imaasases ximayowe. 

25 Wil, la qwax^idEq qa^s lawiyodex yaxyig'ilas. Wa, la axelax 
yix''sEma^yas. Wa, la ax^edxa dEwexe qa^s sElpledeq. Wa, la 
q !ap lex'^idxa g'alEmg-algiwa^ye g'ogu^yos LE^wa apsoltsedza^ye 
alEmxLes qa^s yaLodesa dEwexe laq. Wii, laxae hi'Em gwex'^idxa 
epsoltsedza^ye. Wa, lit ax^edxa yix"sEma^yas qa^s a,xts!odes lax 

30 tEk'las. Wa, la Sx^edxes k'lawayowe qa^s l lEnqEmsales lax wax'- 
sane^x^sta^yas qwaqa^yas tEk'lasa ^mElxLowe. Wii, lit LlEnxsaias 
LEx"ba^yasa dEwexe laq. Wa, laEm qlEnkMaedzEndEx tEk'liis. 
Wa, g'lFmese gwal qlEnaqexs lae plEmxsases e^eyasowe liixa la 
yaLEwak" g-og-igu^yosa ^mElxLowe. Wa, la^me he gwek-Elaqexs 

35 lae banolEla laxa nEgii. 
1 Sealing (Alexwaxa megwate). — Wa, heEmxaa gwegilaxs aiexwa- 
axa megwates gweg'ilasaxs alexwaaxa k-!6lot!e. Wa, heEnxxaawis 
alewatsleses aiewatslaxa k'lolotloxes alewats'.axa megwate. 

Wii, glPEm plEdEx-^idxa xasawayaeda ^mEkiiliixs lae xwanaHde- 

5 da aiewinoxwe qa^s lii LElLElbEndxes aiewatsle xwiixwaguma qa^s 

lii hanstalisas laxa dEmsx'e ^wapa. Wii, la lasdesa qa^s ax^edexes 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 175 

Then he goes up the beach and takes his | canoe-box in whicli he 7 
keeps his harpoon-points and his harpoon-hne, | and also the blue 
hellebore-root and peucedanu7n-seeds, and also sinew. | Then the 
hunter paddles with his steersman. . . . || All these are taken aboard 10 
the small canoe. As soon as they go aboard | the little huntmg- 
canoe, they take their | paddles and paddle; and when they nearly 
arrive at the island, | the hunter puts his paddle down on the 
second thwart | behind him. The points of the harpoon turn 
towards the stern, and the two points || are pushed against the stem- 15 
seat on the left-hand side of the Uttle canoe. | The handle of the 
harpoon-shaft lies on the left-hand side of the bow, | where the har- 
pooneer is seated. | 

Then he pulls his harpoon-shaft out of the stem-seat ; and he pushes 
it, handle first, foi-ward and | places it in the bow of the Httle canoe. || 
He puts it down on his right side. Then he opens the canoe-box, ] 20 
takes out the harpoon-line and the harpoon-points, and ties the end of 
the I line to the harpoon-line. | 

After this has been done, he puts the pomts on the prongs, | and he 
ties the ends of the guide-rope. Then he turns || the harpoon the other 25 
way, and ties the line on, where he holds it with his | left hand, as he 
is throwing the harpoon at what he is going to spear. As soon as he 
has finished) | then he puts the prongs and the harpoon-points 



odzaxs glldasa, yLx g"Iylmts!Ewasas LeLEgtkwas LE^wis qlElkwe; 7 
wa, he^misLes axsole LE^wa qlExmeue; wa, he^misa at!Eme; wa, 
he^mise alex"sayuwe sesEwayo LE^wis k !waxLa^ye. . . . Wa, he^mis la 
^wilxdzEms laxes alewasELEla xwaxwaguma. Wa giPmese hoguxs 10 
laxes alewasELEla xwaxwagumxs lae hex'^ida^Em dax-^Idxes sesE- 
wayowe qa^s sex^wide. Wii, glFmese Elaq lag'aa laxa mEk-alaxs 
laeda alewinoxwe katases alex^sayowe sewayii laxes gwaaplElExse 
LEX'Exsa lax gwabalExts lena^yas dzegiimas mast^s qEXEnexa 
LEx'ExstEwilExse lax gEmxotaga^yases alewasELEla xwaxwaguma. 15 
Wa, la gwexLale xabats lExsda^ya lax gEmxotaga^yas laxes 
kiwaxdzase. 

Wa, la tEgulExsaxes mastowe qa^s wFx"wideq xwelala qa lits 
k-adeg'iwe lax ag-iwa^yases alewasELEla xwaxwaguma. Wa, la 
lag'5ts laxes helk- lotagawa^yaxs lae x'ox^wldxes odzaxse qa^s 20 
ax^wuts !6dexa qlElkwe LE^wa LEg-ikwe. Wit, la m6x"bEntsa 
LeLEg'tkwe laxa maxba^yasa qlElkwe. 

Wa, gIPmese gwalExs lae kMox^bEutsa LeLEglkwe laxa dzedze- 
giime. Wa, la yiPedEx oba^yasa t !amak- lExawa^ye. Wa, lit xweHd- 
xa mastowe qa^s max^waLElodeses q!Elkwe lax dalaasLases 25 
gEmxolts lana^yas qo sEX'^IdLo. Wa, glPmese gwalExs lae 



176 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ANN. 36 

28 into the sea-water, | so that the prongs swell and hold the harpoon- 
points better. | 

After he has done so, he puts it down in the bow of the little || 

30 hunting-canoe. He coils up his canoe-luie in the canoe-box. | When 
he comes to the middle, he takes his bladder and puts it into | the 
sea-water and pushes it down so as to moisten it. He | takes the 
middle of the harpoon-line and ties on the neck of the | bladder with 

35 two half-hitches. Then he puUs it tight and puts it || into the bow of 
the httle hunting-canoe just above the | canoe-box. He coils up the 
other half | of the other end of the spearing-line underneath it. | 

As soon as this has been done, he begins to paddle. He keeps 
close I to the shore of the island and watches. As soon as he sees a 

40 seal diving, — || which he recognizes by the phosphorescence, — he puts 
his paddle (into the water) . Then ] he grasps the end of his harpoon- 
shaft. If the seal should be frightened away, | the steersman puts 
his paddle | edgewise into the water and moves it about so as to | 

45 produce phosphorescence. When the seal sees this, it comes || back 
to look at the phosphorescence around the paddle. Then | the har- 
pooneer harpoons it as it comes swimmmg along on the left-hand 
side I of the hunting-canoe. ] 

As soon as he hits it, he hauls iu the hne, so | that the seal kicks 



27 LlEnstEntsa dzedzegume LE^wa LeLEgikwe laxa dsmsxe ^wapa 
qa posHdesa dzedzegume qa Elba^yesa LeLEgikwe. 

Wa, g'iPmese gwalExs lae k'adEgiyots laxes alewasELEla xwa- 

30 xwaguma. Wa, la qEsEytndalases qlElkwe laxa odzaxse. Wa, 
gtPmese nEgoyoxs lae ax^edxes poxiinse. Wa, lii mE-x"stEnts 
laxa dEmsx'e ^wapa qa^s Lagiinses qa pe^x"sEmx'^ides. Wa, la 
3,x^edEx nEgoya^yases qlElkwe qa^s qludzEmk' llndes lax owaxsta^yasa 
poxunse. Wa, la nex^edsq qa lEk!ut!aLEles. Wa, la getslalg'l- 

35 yots lax og'iwa^yases alewasELEla xwaxwagiima lax ekIelExsasa 
odzaxse. Wa, laxae qESEylndalas laxa apsEX'se. Wa, laEm 
bEnaxse apsba^yasa q!Ellcwe. 

Wa, gll^mese gwalalExsExs lae sex^wida. Wa, laEm makiLlala 
laxa «mEk-alaxs lae hela-ya. Wa, glPmese dox^waLElaxa megwa- 

40 taxs maLlalae bex'SEmalaxs lae katases sewayowe. Wa, la 
xapstodEx xabats lExsda^yases mastowe. Wa, gil-'mese hawl- 
naHdeda megwataxs lae klwaxLa^yas klokwalamasxes sewayowe 
qa^s LlEnxstEndes laxa dsmsx^e ^wapa qa^s yawLx'Ueq qa 
bEndzales. Wa, g'lPmese dox^waLEleda megwataqexs gaxae 

45 aedaaqa qa^s awulp laltEwex bex'asa sewayowe. Wa, he^mis la 
SEX'^idaatsa alewinoxwaqexs g'axae ma^nakula lax gEmxanoLE- 
ma^yas alewatslas xwaxwaguma. 

Wa, g'lHmese q!apaqexs lae hex'^idaEm nex^edxes qlElkwe qa 
kwatslEXLasx'a ylsex kMegEmasa &lewats!e xwaxwagumaxs lae 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHEKING 177 

against the bow of the hunting-canoe as it || is diving down. Wlien 50 
the seal is going to a patcli of kelp or | seaweed, then the hunter takes 
his harpoon-shaft and pushes it | at the side of the seal's head as it is 
diving along swimming under | the water. Then it turns and leaves | 
the seaweed; ft)r tlie seal, when it is harpooned, || searches first for 55 
seaweed or a kelp-patch, and wriggles through it. | Then it often hap- 
pens that the harpoon-line breaks or that tlie seal puUs out | the 
harpoon-points. Tlierefore an expert hunter | hauls in his harpoon- 
line as soon as he hits the seal, to watch that it | does not go to a kelp- 
patch. II 

If the hunter is mexperienced and spears a seal, he lets | the line 60 
run out when the seal is swimming; and when | the line has run out 
entirely, then (the seal) hauls the hunting-canoe, and | the hunter is 
surprised to find his fine twisted in the kelp as the seal j goes to and 
fro in it; and then it comes off, || and the hunter has difficulty in 65 
pulling back his fine and clearing it | from the kelp. | 

An expert hunter just steers the seal with his harpoon | to make it 
go seaward. When | it comes up, as its breath is at an end, he takes 
the harpoon, || he puts the prongs close to the harpoon-line and the | 70 
barbed points, and pushes it down. It does not take long before the 



max-4da. Wa, glPmese lalaeda megwate laxa wadolk^ala LE^wa 50 
qIaxqiElesaxs lae ax^ededa alewinoxwaxes mastowe qa^s lIeux^- 
edes lax onoLEma^yasa megwate lax t lEpsEmalaena^yasexa 
^wapaxs ma^nakiilae. Wa, hex-^ida-'mese mElglLa^ya qa^s bEwesa 
wadolk-ala qaxs he-'mae gll alaso^sa megwataxs g-alae sex'^I- 
tsE'wa q!ax'q!ElIse LEhva wildolkala qa^s lii x'llxilk!iit!Eqaci 55 
Wa, he^mis qliinala aledaatsa qlElkwe loxs a^mae k' teqcwa lcle- 
g'tkwe laxa megwate. HeEm lagilasa eg^tlwate alewinox" hex'^- 
idaEm nex^edxes q!Elkwaxs g'alae sEx'^Ida qaxs q!aq!alalaaq qa 
k'leses la laxa wadolkala. 

Waxe yiigllwata alewinoxwaxs sEx'^idaaxa megwate, lii aEm 60 
tslEngweg'exes qlElkwaxs lae max"^ida. Wii, gtPmese ^wFlaste 
cjlfilkwasexs lae sEp!ededa alewatsles xwaxwaguma. Wii, a^mese 
qlayaxaxs lae x-imsgEma^j^es qlElkwe Laxa q!ax'q!Elise qaxs 
hex'^ida^mae ts!ats!Elxsrdax'^Ideda megwate laqexs lae liiwii. 
Wii, la laxumaleda alewinoxwaxs lae nexsawi^liilaxes qlElkwe 65 
lilxa q!axq!Elise. 

Wilx'eda egllwate alewinoxwa a^mese nanaqasilases mastowe 
laxa megwate qa liis ' miixtlano laxa Lliisakwe. Wii, g'lPmese 
q!6''nakulaxs lae laba^nakule hasa^yasexs lae ax^edxes miistowe 
qa-s qExEndes dzedzegumas laxes qlElkwe lax mag-aanjVye lilxa yn 
LeLEglkwaxs lae qlodEnsaq. Wii, k' lest !a giilaxs lae ^wlballsEmeda 
75052—21—3.5 eth— pt 1 12 



178 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [ i:th. ann. 36 

72 seal's breath is at an end. | As soon as it stops moving, the hunter 
rises in the canoe | and stands in the middle of his canoe, a little 
towards the stern. | He holds the nose in the right hand, and with 

75 the left hand 1| he takes the fore-flipper. He pushes the seal down, 
pulls it up suddenly, | and hauls it aboard. He lays it crosswise in 
the stern of the hunting- 1 canoe. | 

Then he twists out the harpoon-heads and washes them ; and when | 
the blood is all off, he puts them back at the end of the harpoon. || 

80 When this is done, he starts to paddle. | 

Late at night lie knows that the seals | finish swimming among the 
islands, for they all are then on the sleeping-rock. | The hunters know 
all the sleeping-rocks | of the seals. As soon as he comes near the || 

85 sleeping-rock, he paddles strongly in his hunting-canoe; and when he 
comes in sight of | the sleeping-place and the seals tumble into the 
water, then | the hunter stands up in the canoe, grasps the end of his 
harpoon, and | spears the seals as they swim under water, where they 
are seen by the phosphorescence; | and he does the same as I de- 

90 scribed before. || When his hunting-canoe is full of hair- seals he goes | 
home. I 
1 Catching Flounders.' — When it is a fine day, the | wife of the man 
gets ready m the morning to go and get clams | and cockles for bait; 

72 megwate. Wa, glFmese nEq lox^wIdExs lae LaxulExsa alewinoxwe 
qa^s gaxe lax gwak' lodoyii^yases alewasELEla xwaxwaguma. Wii, 
la dale helk!otts!ana^yasex xlndzasaj. Wii, la dale gEmxoltsIa- 

75 na^yasex gElqla^yas lae wigunsaq qa^s odax'^ide nexostodEq qa^s 
nex^alExseq. Wii, lit gEyaxs lax gwak' !6doyawelExsasa alewasE- 
LEla xwaxwaguma. 

Wii, lii sElpodxes LeLEg'lkwe qa^s tsIoxHvIdeq. Wii, giPmese 
^wFlaweda Elkwiixs lae xwelaqa axbEnts laxes mastowe. Wii, 

80 gIPmese gwillExs lae sex^wida. 

Wii, laEm giiia ganuLa. Wii, laEm qloLElaxa megwataxs lE^mae 
gwal miiLlala laxa ^maEmk"&la qaxs lE^mae ^wllg'aala laxes k!we- 
klwilse. Wii, lii ^naxwa^^m qloLEleda esElewinoxwax k !wek !wiisasa 
megwate. Wii, lii gil^mese lag'aa laxa la ^nExwala laxa k!wiisaxs 

85 lae alax'^id sex^wida qa yix'es alewasELElesexs lae tekiilodxa 
klwiise. Wii, giPmese L!ex'steda megwataxs lae LaxulExseda ale- 
winoxwe xapstewex xabats lExsda^yases mastowe. Wii, he^mis la 
SEX'^idaatsexa megwataxs lae bex'sEmala maxtlala laxa ba^ne. 
Wii, laxae heEm gwegilaqes gweg'ilasaxEn g-Jlxde gwiigwexs^a- 

90 lasa. Wii, giPmese qot!a alewasELEliisexa megwataxs lae nii^nak" 
laxes gokwe. 
1 Catching Flounders.' — Wii, g'iPmese ek^a ^naliixa gaaliixs lae 
gEUEmasa bEgwauEme xwanaPida qa^s lii tatelaxa gaweqlanEme 

1 Continued Irom p. 159, line 49. 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 179 

and when she has many clams and | cockles, she goes home to her 
house. As soon as she arrives on the || beach of her house, slie takes 5 
a piece of broken shell of a horse-clam | and cuts open the small clams 
and cockles to take off | the shells. She throws these into the water, 
and puts the edible msidcs | mto a basket. When she has done so, 
the woman goes ashore. | Her husband takes the flounder-fishiiig line 
and the || cross-bones witli tlie hair, and he carries them dowai to the 10 
beach where the | fishing-canoe is. He lays out the fishmg-line on the 
beach | near the canoe; and wlicn | it is stretched out straight, he 
takes one of the | cross-boues with the hair-line, measures off two 
fathoms, || and ties the end of the hair-line of the cross-bone to the 15 
fishing- 1 line. When this is done, he takes another | one of the cross- 
bones with the hair-line, measures half a fathom, | and ties the end of 
the hair-line of the cross-bone to the | fishing-Hne. The fifty are all 
the same distance apart; |1 namely, half a fathom. When they are | 20 
all on, he takes [ . | f | the cleaned clams and cockles for 

puts on the bait. The cross- 
through the I clams and cockles 
when they are baited. | As soon 
the fisherman || coils up the fish- 25 



bait, and he | 
bone is pushed 
in this manner 
as all are baited. 



LE^wa dzale. Wa, giPmese q!EyoLxa g'aweqIanEme LE^wa 
dzaltixs lae nit^nakwa laxes g"6kvve. Wii, giPmese lag'alis lax 
LlEma^isases g'okwaxs lae hex'^ida^Em ax^edxa tEp!ayas6x mEt!a- 5 
na^yex qa^s Elx'^idexa gaweqlauEme LE'wa dzale qa lawiiyes 
xoxQlk' limotas. Wa, la ts!Exstalaq. Wa, laLa axtslalas hamts la- 
was laxa lExa^ye. Wa, g'iPmese ^wi^la gwalExs lae laltaweda 
tslEdaqe. Wa, la la'wuiiEmas ax^edxa Llagetslaana^ye LE^wa 
galodaana^ye sesE'yak' !Ena qa^s lii dEnts!esElaq lax hanedzasasa 10 
L!agedzats!e xwaxwagiima. Wii, lii l lax'iilisaxa l lagedaana^ye 
dEUEina lax aLaxsdza^yasa Llagedzatsle xwaxwagiima. Wii, g'll- 
^mese la uecjeIc l liigets lena^yasexs lae ax^edxa ^UEmtslaqe galo- 
daanawe sE'yaklEua. Wii, la bill^Idxa malplEnk'e hixEns baLaxs 
lae ytl^aLElots oba-'yasa galodaanawe sE^yak'lEn laxa L!agedza- 15 
ana'ye dsnEma. Wii, glPmese gwillExs lae et!ed ax'edxa ^iiEm- 
tslaqe galodaanawe sE^yak'lEua. Wii, lii biiPidxa uEqlEbode laxEos 
baLiixs lae ytl^iiLElots oba^yasa galodaanawe sE^yak'lEii laxa 
L !agedzaana^ye dsuEma. Wii, lii he^staEm awalagaleda sEkMas- 
gEmg'osta nenEC[!Eb6des awalagalaase. Wii, gth'mese ^wIlg'aaLE- 20 
laxs lae Sx^edxa Elgikwe telalas g'ilweqlanEma LE^wa dzale qa^s 
lii tePlts laq. Wii, laEin LlELlEnqlEqasa galodayowe xaq laxa 
g'aweqIanEme LE^wa dzale. Wii, la ga gwiileg"axs (Jig.) lae telkwa. 
Wii, g-iPmese ^wPla telkiixs laeda l lagets lenoxwe bEgwauEm 
qEs^edxa Llagedzayowe c^a^s lii qEs^iilExsaq laxes Llagedzats.'eLe 25 



180 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth.ann. 30 

2G iug-line in his fishing- 1 cauoo in front of the stern-thwart. Wlien he 
has done so, | lie looks for two medium-sized elongated stones for 
anchors at each end of the | fishing-line. When he has found 
them, he puts them into his | fishing -canoe. Then he goes up 

30 the beach and || takes his fishing-paddle from his house. He goes 
down, carrying it, | to the beach, and goes into the stern of his 
fishing- 1 canoe. Then he paddles and goes to the fishing-place where 
the water is not | very deep. It is sufficiently deep if the fishing-fine 

35 fies three | fathoms deep. As soon as he reaches it, || he takes up one 
of the elongated „<*=*=*=^ stones ] and the end of the fishing- 
line, and ties the ^ end of it to the middle of the | 

elongated stone. ( f ) When this is done, he puts it 

overboard : and | ^"^ when the anchor reaches the bot- 
tom, he takes his paddle and paddles. | When the small canoe begins 

40 to go ahead, the line runs out into the water. 1| When it is all in the 
water, he takes the | other elongated stone and ties it on, four fath- 
oms I from the end of the fishing-line. Then he takes his paddle | and 
paddles again, so as to stretch the fishing-line, and he puts overboard 
the I stone anchor. y^ .^=''~"=*»=«fi When it touches the 

bottom, he takes f^^^ f^ /^~^ ^ round cedar-wood || 

45 float of this shape ||r 10/ f \ and ties it to the end 

of the fishmg-fine. ^^^^J \ J I Then he tlirows it 

into the water. ^v___^ Then he goes home 

26 xwaxwaguma lax ostEwIlExsas. Wa, g"lPmese gwalExs lae 
alex'^dEX maltsEuia ha^yal'a sESEX"sEm t!esEma qa qlElqlElsbesa 
Llagedzaana^ye. Wa, g'tl^mese qlilqexs lae t liix-'alExsaq laxes 
LlagedzatsleLe xwaxwaguma. Wa, lii lasdes laxa LlEma^ise qa^s 

80 lii ax-edxes Llagetsa^yasesewayowa laxes gokwe qa^s liixat! dEntsIe- 
sElaq laxa LlEma^ise. Wa, la laxsa lax oxLa^yases l lagedzats lexe 
xwaxwaguma. Wa, la sex^wida qa^s lii laxa l !iigedzasexa k'lese 
wunqElas ^wape, ytxs he^mae lielaesa yudux"p!Eng-ese laxEns 
baLax yix ^walaedzasasa Llagedzase. Wii, g-il^niese lag-aa laqexs 

35 lae hex'^idaEm ax^'edxa ^nEmsgEme laxa sEx"sEme tIesEma (j^^.) 
Lo^ oba^yasa L'.ilgedzayowe qa^s ytLoyodes oba^yas lax uEgoytVyasa 
sEx"sEme t!esEma. Wii, g-ll^mese gwiilExs lae qlElstEnts. Wii g-il- 
^mese liig'alisa qlEltsEmaxs lae diix'^Idxes sewayowe qa^s sex^wide. 
Wii, g'iPmese sEpIededa xwaxwagiimaxs lae qlulex's^Em la tslEux"- 

40 staleda Llagedzayowe. Wa, g-lPmese ^wl^la^staxs lae ax^edxa ^uEms- 
gEme sEx"sEme tIesEma qa^s ylLoyodesa mop!Enk-e g'ag-lLEla 
liix apsba^yasa Llagedzayowe liiqexs lae et!ed dax'^Idxes sewayowe 
qa-'s sex^wide qa lEk!ut!alisesa Llagedzayowaxs lae qlElstEutsa 
tIesEme. Wii, giPmese liig'alisExs lae ax^edxa loxsEme k!waxsEme 

45 pEwiixbe g"a gwaleg'a {fig.) qa^s ylPaLElodes oba^yasa Llagedza- 
ana^ye laqexs lae tslExstEuts. Wa, la na^nakwa laxes g'okwaxs lae 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 181 

to his house | after having finished on the water. In the evening 47 
he goes into liis fishmg- | canoe and paddles to the place where 
he left his fishing-line; and | when he reaches the round cedar- 
wood float at the end, he takes it || and puts it into his small canoe, 50 
and he hauls in his | fishing-line. Then he takes off the flounders, 
and black-edged(?)floundci-s | which hang on the hooks; and as soon 
as he has them all off, he takes | clean clams and halts his fishing- 
line; and I after he has baited it, he takes his paddle and paddles; || 
and when his small canoe starts, then the line runs out into the 55 
water. | When it is all in, he puts the | stone anchor into the water; 
and when it touches the bottom, he takes the round cedar- | float at 
the end and tlirows it into the water. Then he goes home. He picks 
up some I dry driftwood. When he thinks he has enough to steam || 
the flounder standing on edge, he goes home | to his house. When it is GO 
high water he throws out the | driftwood on the beach of his house. 

Fishings Kelp-Fish. — The woman takes the harpoon for getting large l 
sea-eggs | and a flat-pointed prymg-stick of yew-wood used for prymg 
off mussels, | and she puts them aboard her small canoe in which 
the fish-trap is kept, | and she also puts aboard her new fish-trap. 
Then she takes the harpoon, || which is made of a thin rod of red pine. 
Sometimes it is thi'ee fathoms long. | Two points of tough wood are 5 



gwal^aLa^ya. Wa, het!a la dzaqwaxs lae laxs laxes L!agedzats!e 47 
xwaxwaguma qa-s la sexut!a lax axalasases Llagedzayowe. Wit, 
g'il^mese lag'aa lax loxsEme kIwaxsEm pEwaxbexs lae dax'^idEq 
qa^s ^mEx"^wa}Exses laxes xwaxwagiimaxs lae dEnx'^Idxes iJage- 50 
dzaana^ye. Wii, la^mese kliidzElEuexa paese LE^wa k'!ada la 
tete^x''beq. Wa, g'lFmese ^wi^lamasa lae xwelaqaEin ax^edxa 
Elg'lkwe g"aweq!anEma qa^s tePides laxes Llagedzayowe. Wii, 
gti'mese ^wFla la telkuxs lae ax^edxes sewayowe qa^s sex^wide. 
Wa, g"tl^mese sEbELaya xwaxwagiimaxs lae qlulex's^Ein tslEnx"- 55 
stale Llagedzayas. Wii, giFmese ^wFlastaxs lae q!ElstEntsa t!e- 
sEme. Wii, giPmese hlg'allsexs lae ftx^edxa loxsEme k!wilxsEme 
pEwaxbe qa^s tslExstEndes. Wa, lii nii^nakwa. Wa, lii anexbiilaxa 
lEmxwa qlexala. Wii, g-iPmese kotaq laEm hela hax t!eqwapdE- 
maxa k' lot laakweLe t'.eqwabEk" paesa, wii, lawisLc nii^'nakwa 60 
laxes g'okwe. Wa, gih'mese yixulaxs lae hex'^daEm sEp^uItodxa 
q!exale liix Llsma^isases g'okwe. 

Fishing Kelp-Fish. — Wii, le'da tsJEda'qe ax^e'dxes ma'maseqiwa- 1 
yople'qe sa'Entslo LE^wa pExbaa'kwe LlE'mqla xo'layiixa xo'le 
qa^s le LEx^walExsElas la'xes LEgats!e'Le xwa'xwagiima. Wii 
he'^misLes a'ltsEine LEgE'ma. Wii, laE'm wi'lxsa sa'Eiits!o, ytxa 
•wi'le wu'nx^iina. Wii, la ^niiPnE'mplEna yri'dux"p!Enk-e ^wa'sgE- 5 
masas la'xEns bii'Lax. Wii, la k' Iilxbii'laxa ma'lts!aqe e^e'x'ba 



182 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

7 tied to its end, | in this manner: ^^ The tjnng 

is made of split | spruce-root. ' iiiiiiiiiiii r°°^ — ^ ^j^^ \ts\- 

ploment for prying off mussels is made of a ijrolvon | paddle in 

10 this way: It is four spans long, || and the flat end 

is four "^^ ^ ) fingers wide. | The handle is round. | 

Tliat is all ahout it. | 

The woman carriers her paddle as she goes aboard her small fishing- | 

15 canoe, and she first goes to search for sea-eggs, for || these are the bait 
for the fish-trap. As soon as she finds the sea-eggs, she spears them | 
with the harpoon; and when she has enough for baiting the fish- 
trap, I she breaks the sea-eggs and puts them into the fish-trap; and | 
when there are no sea-eggs, she pries off mussels with the prying- 

20 stick; | and when she has enough bait for the fish-trap, || she breaks 
them to pieces and puts them into the trap. Then she looks | for a 
place where eel-grass is growmg mider water. She selects a place 
about two I fathoms deep. Then she | takes her fish-trap and puts 
it overboard, so that it is placed on the bottom among the eel-grass, | 

25 so that the kelp-fish do not see distinctly that it is a fish-trap. || Evi- 
dently the kelp-fish smell the bait uiside and go in. | After the fish- 
trap has ])oen under water for some time, she hauls | it up and takes 
the fish out. There may be six | or eight fish in it. When she has 

'7 tsIa'x'EDsag'a gwaleg'a {jig^. Wii, la yELEmno'x"sa dzEdskwe' l!6'- 
plEk'sa ale'wase. Wii la'Leda xo'layaxa xo'le k'o'qiEwesox 
se'wayax g'a gwiileg'a {fig.) ■ Wii, la mop lEuk'e ^wa'sgEmasas lil'xEns 

10 q!wa'q!wax'ts!iina^yex. Wii, lit mo'dEn la'xEns q!wa'q!wax'ts!ii- 
na^yex yix ^wa'dzobaasas tse'gwayoba^yas. Wii, lii'Le le'x'^Een 
6'xLa^yas. Wii, laE'm gwa'lek'. 

Wii, le'da tslEda'qe dii'laxes se'wayiixs la'e laxs laxes LEgatsIeLe 
xwii'xwaguma, le he g'tl la alii'sE^we mEse'qwa, qaxs he'^mae 

15 telts!iisa LEgE'me. Wii, g"i'Pmese qlii'xa niEse'qwaxs la'e sEX'^I'tsa 
sa'Entslo liiq. Wii, g'lHmese he'lala liix te'Itslawasa LEgE'maxs la'e 
tso'tsox'SEndxa mEse'qwe qa^s mo'ts lodes liixa LEgE'me. Wii, g'i'l- 
^mese k'leii's mEsd'qwa la'e hi' tse'x-'widaasa xo'le yise's xo'la- 
yowe. Wii, g'l'l'Emxaa'wise lie'lala lilx teltslii'wasa LEgE'maxs la'e 

20 tEtEpsE'ndsq qa^s lii m6'ts!odEs la'xa LEgE'me. Wa, le ii'lex-^IdEx 
ts!il'ts!Ek!wiixa ts!iL'ts!ayime. Wii, he''"mis qa malp!E'nk'es hx'- 
xEns bii'Liiqe ^walEnsElasa'sa ^wii'pe. Wii, he'x'Hda^mesa tslEdii'qe 
dii'x'^idxes LEgE'me qa^s ts!Enx"stE'ndes qa hanil'qesexa ts!ats!a- 
yi'me qa k'le'ses q!iilp!alt:i'leda pExTtaqexs LEgEma'e. Wii, lil'- 

25 xEnteda pEx-i'te me'sElax teltshi'was, la'g'iia latsK'laq. Wii, g-i'l- 
^mese gagil'la g'Eyi'nsEleda LEgE'me lii'xa -wii'paxs la'e dE'nx'^i- 
tsE^wa qa^s kliilsItsE^waeda pEX"i'te. Wii, laE'm q!e'ts!iixs q!EL!a'e 
Loxs malgQnala'e. Wii, g'l'Pmese la hcFo'Lcda LEqa'sa LEgE'maxs 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 183 

caught enough fish m the trap, | she goes home. She goes right up 
from the || beach into her house. She takes up her small basket | 30 
and carries it down to the beach. She carries it in her hand | and 
puts it into lier small canoe, and she | puts the fish into the little 
basket. As soon as the small basket is full of kelp-fish, | she carries 
it up in her hand from the fishuig-canoe. She | carries it in one hand 
up the beach and into the || house. Then she puts it down m the 35 
rear of the house. | 

Fishing Perch (Taking perch out of the fish-trap). | — The time when l 
the jjcrch go into the trap is at | high tide, when the trap is mider 
water. As | soon as the ebb-tide goes way down, the trap is dry on 
the ])each. || The owner just watches for the splashing of the perch | 5 
that are caught and are splashmg in it. As soon as they are quiet, | 
the perch fisherman takes a medium-sized basket and can-ies it down 
to the beach | to where his trap is; and he takes off the fom' | ballast 
stones and puts them down, and he takes off the hemlock-branches || 
and puts them down on the beach, and he takes off the roof and he | 10 
lays it down on the beach, and fuially he takes out the fish from the | 
trap and puts them mto the basket. When | he has taken them all 
out, he takes out the broken shells of the clams that served for bait; | 
and when they are all out, he carries up his || fish-basket and takes it 15 

la'e nii'-nakwa la'xes g'o'kwe. Wa, he'x'^ida^mese la la'sdes la'xa 
LlEma^ise qa^s la lae'L la'xes g'o'kwe, wa, la, kMo'qillllaxa la'laxame 30 
qa^s lit k'!o'qunts!e'sElaq laxa LlEnia^ise. Wa, la k' !6'x-'walExsa 
la'xes LEga'tsIe xwa'xwaguma. Wii, la da'x'^Idxa pEX'I'te qa^s 
k'!ixts!6'des la'xa la'laxame. Wii, g'i'Pmese qo'tlaaxa pExi'teda 
la'laxamaxs la'e k'lo'gulExsaq la'xa LEga'tsIe xwa'xwaguma qa^s 
la k' lo'x^wusdEsElaq la'xa LlEma^ise qa^s le k' lo'gweLElaq la'xes 35 
g'o'kwe. Wa, la k"!o'x^waliiaq lax one'gwilases g'o'kwe. 

Fishing Perch. — Klidsaxa Lamawe laxa LaLEmwayowe Lawa- 1 
yowa. Wii, lu'Em la latshilatsa Lamawe lilxa Lawayuxs lae wa- 
WElgEma'yaaxs lae g'iyinsEla laxa dEmsx'e ^wapa. Wa, g'll- 
^mese k!wilyaxaxs lae x'atsle^staxs laeda Lilwayowe lEmxwalese. . 
Wii, iVmesa axnogwadiis x'ltslaxnlaqexs lae kiisx'EsgEmlisExs lae 5 
delak"ileda milts !awas Lamawa. Wii, g'll^mese sEltledExs laeda 
L&LEmwaenoxwe ax-edxa heHa lExa^ya qa^s lii kMoqiintslesE- 
laq lax Sx^edzasases Liiwayowe. Wa, lii t!iiqEmaxodxa mos- 
gEme Elg'iis tIesEma qa^s tlax^iiliseq. Wii, la xEsiixodxa qlwaxe 
qa^s xEsalises laxa LlEma^ise. Wii, lii paqodEx saliis qa^s pax^a- 10 
llses laxa LlEma^ise. Wii, lawisLe k!uls^Idxa miitshiwasa Lawa- 
yowe qa'^s k'!Exts!aIes laxa k!iilyats!e lExa^ya. Wii, g'il^mese 
^wil5lts!axs lae ax^wOltsIodxa tapesawa^ye xoxulk^ !imotasa tele g'a- 
weqlilnEma. Wa, g'il^mese -wl^lolts liixs lae k" lox^usdesaxes LEm- 
watsle lExa^ya qa^s le k'logweLElas laxes g'okwe. Wii, la fix^ed 15 



184 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [ktu. a.nn. 35 

16 into his house. Thon he takes | the dams and carries them down to 
the beach | and breaks them and puts them into his trap; and after 
he has done so, | he puts the roof on again. He puts the liemlock- 
branches over it | and puts on four medium-sized stones over the|| 

20 hemjock-branches. Then it is ready again when the tide comes m. \ 
Thon ho goes up. | 
1 Gathering Herring-Spawn. — Wlicn tlic herring is about to spawn, | 
tlieman who goes after herring-spawai looks for fine ] hemlock-branches 
with smooth leaves. Wlicn he finds them, | he goes home. Then he 
5 watches for the herring to spawn. || As soon as the sea begins to look 
milky, the man goes | for the hemlock, and Ijreaks off long branches 
of the I hemlock; and after he has broken off many, | he carries them 
to the spawTiing-place. Then he takes long | cedar-poles and takes 

10 them to the spawnmg-place; and he also || takes stout rope and long 
stones, and he ties the end | to the long stones. Then he takes a thin, 
long I rope and takes a long pole and puts it | into the sea. Then he 
takes the hemlock-branches and ties them to the | pole with the long, 

15 thru rope; and he only stops when || the hemlock reaches the end of 
the long pole. Then he puts it into the water at the | spawning-place 
of the hen-ings, and he takes the big rope and | tics its end to the pole, 
and he puts the stone into the water. | Tlicn it is an anchor when it is 
in the water. I 



16 laxa g'aweqIanEme qa^s la dalaqexs lae IsntsIesEla laxa LlEma^ise 
qa^s lii tEpts!;ilas laxes Lawayowe. Wa, g'lFmese gwalExs lae 
xwelaqa paqimts siilas. Wa, laxae et!ed xESEylntsa qlwaxe laq. Wa 
laxae et'.ed tliiqEylntsa niosgEme ha'yal^a t!csEma lax oku^ya^yasa 

20 qlwaxe. Wii, laEmxae gwales qo yi.xwaLo. Wa, laEm lasdesa. 
1 Gathering Herring-Spawn. — Wa, he'nnaaxs la'e plExiile'da wa'- 
^na'ye; wa, le'da wa'ts!enoxwe bEgwa'uEm, he'x""idaEm la a'lilx e'k'a 
q!wa'xa, yt'xa ^nEma'xLas kMfi'momo. Wii, gl'l^mese q!a'qexs 
la'e nit'^nakwa. Wii, la q!a'q!aliilaxa wa'^na-ye qa wii 'slides. Wa, 
5 gi'Pmese dzEmo'^na'kiileda dE'msx'iixs lae'da bEgwii'nEme qil's^id 
qa^s le lii'xa q!wii'xe qa^s LlEx-wIdexa gi'lsg"ilt!a liix wllts!aniisa 
qlwix'xase. Wii, g'l'l^mese la qle'uEme LlEgwil'nEmasexs la'e 
gE'mxElaq qa^s les lii'xa wa'yade. Wii, la e'tled ax^e'dxa g'iltla 
tlzEXEqwa' qa^s lexat! ax'ii'llsaq la'xa wil'yade. Wii, la'^xaa 

10 ax^e'dxa LE'kwe dEUE'ma LE^wa g-iltsEme t!e'sEma. Wii, la mo'x"- 
bEnts lii'xa g'lltsEme tIe'sEma. Wii, la ^x^e'dxa wi'ltowe g"t'It!a 
(lEUE'ma. Wii, la ax^e'dxa gi'lt!a dzESEqwa' qa^s k'atstE'ndes 
la'xa dE'msx'e. Wii, la ax^e'dxa qlwa'xe qa^s le jilEnda'Jas la'xa 
dzEsEqwe' yi'sa g'iltla wi'lto dEUE'ma. Wii, ii'l^mese gwii'lExs la'e 

15 lii'bEndeda q!wa'xaxa g i'lt!a dzEsEqwa'. Wa, la LlEstE'nts lax 
wil'yasLasa wil'-'na^ye. Wii, la ilx^e'dxa LE'kwe dEUE'ma qa^s 
mo'x"bEndes lii'xa dzEsEqwe'. Wii, la ax^stE'ntsa tIe'sEme. Wii, 
laE'm q!E'ltsEma ybcs la'e axa'la. 



UOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHEKING 185 

For four days it is left iii the water. || After it has been in the water 20 
for four days, the herrings have finished spawning. | Tlien tlie man 
talces his canoe and washes it out. | Wlien it is clean, he goes out to 
wliere the hemloclv is in the water. | He unties the rope, and puts the 
henilocli with tlie spawn on it | into the canoe. |] 

Catching Devil-Fish. — There is no hoolv at the end of the long pole | 1 
for fishing devil-fish, for the only end with which they spear the devil- 
fish is the thin end.' | Wlien tlie man who fishes for devil-fish in deep 
water | feels for it in its hole, for |1 that is the name of the stone house 5 
of the devil-fish, he feels for its | body and he strikes for the hard 
part. I He makes a thrust at it twice. Then he puUs out the pole 
and I puts it into his small fisliing-canoe. | Tlien it does not take long 
before the devil-fish comes out of its hole; and he takes || his long 10 
spear and spears it, lifts it up, | and puts it into the smaU canoe. 
Immediately | he takes out the intestines. He never strikes it on 
the rock to kill it, | for he wishes (it to be hard). ^ . . . 

Gathering Seaweed. — When a woman goes to gather |1 seaweed at a 15 
place where there are nice smooth stones, she plucks it off | when the 
rock on wliich it is is wet. When the sun shines, she just | peels it off 
from the rock when it is dry aU over. Then she puts it into her | 

Wii, la mo'plEnxwa^se ^na'las he gwe'wala la'xa dE'msx'e. Wa 
g-i'Pmese mo'xse ^na'las tlewiilaxs la'e gwal wa'seda wa'^na^ye. 20 
Wa, le'da bEgwanEme ax^e'dxes xwa'kluna qa^s tslo'xug'indeq. 
Wa, gi'Hmese e'g'ig'axs la'e Lla'sta lax Sxa'lasases t!e'yo. Wa, la 
qwe'l^idxa dEUE'me qa^s ax^a'lExsElexa qlwa'xe la an^&'ndsxLala 
la'xes xwa'k!una. 

Catching Devil-Fish. — Wa, hxEm k' !eas galbala yLxeda giltagawa^ye 1 
nedzayaxa tEcjIwa' qaxs lex'amae se'qElaxa tEqIwe'da wl'lba-'yasa 
g i'ltagawa^ye. Wii, he'^maaxs la'e ple'xwaLEleda nanesaniEnsiixa 
tEqlwii'xs kiwae'lae la'xes g'o'lvwe tIe'sEma laxes tEgwa'tsle qaxs 
he'^mae Le'gEmsa g'o'kwasa tEqIwa' tIe'sEma. Wa, la p!e'x^widxa 5 
ba'k'awa^yasa tEqlwa'. Wa, hex-'ida^mese LlEnx^edxa ple'sa. 
Wii, malp.'Ena^mese LlEnx^edqexs la'e le'x^widxes nanesaniEndza- 
yowe qa-'s k"at!ii'lExses la'xes nanesamEiidza'tsIe xwa'xwagiima. 
Wa, kMestIa gii'laxs g-ii'xae mo'ltslaweda tEqlwa', wa, la da'x'^Id- 
xa g"t'lt!a nane'saniEndzayo qa^s sEx-'I'deq. Wii, le k!we't!a- 10 
lExsaq la'xes nanesamEiidza'tsIe xwil'xwagiima. Wii, he'x'^ida- 
^mese la'wiodEx be'x'bek' las. Wii, la^me hewaxaEm k' le'lax'^IdEq 
qaxs 'ne'k-ae (cja ple'ses). 

Gathering Seaweed. — Wii, he'^maaxs la'eda tslEda'qe lEqa'xa 
lEqlEstE'ne lil'xa e'k'e ^uEma'a tle'sEma. Wa, la k!u'lg"ilalaq yixs 15 
k!u'nq!ae axa'sas. Wa, g"i'Pmese Lle'sasosa Lle'sElaxs la'e a'Em 
qusEliilaq la'xa tIe'sEmaxs la'e lEmlE'mxuya qa^s axtsl&'Ies la'xes 
^wa'lase lExa'ya. Wa, gi'Pmese qo'tleda lExa'yaxs la'e giix^alExsas 

' See figure on p. 152. ' The end ot this description is missing. 



186 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL I eth. ann. 36 

large basket. When the basket is full, she pours it | into her canoe, 

20 and she spreads a mat over the || short boards in the canoe. As soon 
as the canoe is full of seaweed, | she goes home. | 
1 Digging Clover. — Now she is ready when the | season for digging 
clover arrives; that is, when the leaves of the clover | are kiUed by 
the frost, and winter is coming. | 
5 As soon as there is frost at night, the woman || gets ready in tlie 
morning. She takes her clover digging-stick | and her flat-bottomed 
basket, her back-protector, | and her cedar-bark belt, and she walks 
down to the | clover-garden. There she puts down her tools in the 
direction towards | sunrise, so that the sun is at her back when it 

10 rises, and || it does not shine into her eyes, so that slie can see dis- 
tinctly the I clover wluch she is digging, for generally the women 
pick up I other kinds of roots when they are digging clover. When 
she I has put down her tools, she takes her mat and spreads it over 

15 her | back so that the lower end is a little above tlie || heels. Then 
she takes the cedar-bark belt | and puts it around her waist, and she 
puts the cedar-bark | rope over it; that is to say, the end of the belt. 
She ties on | the end. Then she takes her flat-bottomed basket and 
puts it dowai | in front in the direction where she is gomg to dig. 

20 Finally she takes |1 her diggmg-stick and sits down on the back- 



la'xes ya'yatslaxs la'e LEbs'xsa le^wa^ye lax o'kuya^yasa pa'xse 

20 ts!a'ts!ax"sEma. Wa, g'i'Fmese qo'tleda ya'yatslasexa lEqlEsts'- 
naxs la'e nii'-nakwa. 
] Digging Clover. — Wii, la^me gwalala qo lag'aal laxa tsIotslE- 
ylnxaxa LEX'sEme ytxs lae xiils^ide mamamasa LEX'sEmaxs lae 
glwes^etso^sa giwesaxa la tslawenes^ida. 

Wii, g il'mese g'iwesaxa ganoLaxs lae hex"^ida^meda tslEdaqe 
5 xwanaPldxa gaala. Wa, laEm ax^edxes tsloyayoLaxa LExsEme 
LE^wis LEq!Exsde lExa^ya i.E^wis LEbeg'a^ye le^wa^ya. Wa, 
he^miscs dEiiedzowe wuseganti. Wii, lii qiis^id qa^s lii laxes 
LEg'Edzowe. Wa, het!a ax^sxlisases eaxElayoLa guylnxelise lilx 
nelasasa LlesEla qa^s oxLalalisexa L!esEliixs g'axae nel-cda qa^s 

10 k"!ese L!ilL!ets!elexstalii lacjexs g'axae nePeda qa^'s q!ul))!altalexa 
LEx'sEmaxs lae ts!5saq qaxs qlunalae dadakineda ts!edaf[axa 
ogiiqlemase LloplEk'Exs ts!5saaxa LEX'sEme. Wii, g'tPmese iix^ii- 
lisaxes eaxElayoLaxs lae ax'edxes le^wa^ye qa^s LEbegtndes liixes 
awig'a^ye. Wa, a^mise gwanala aek- lalagawa^yes bEuba-yasa 

1,5 le^wa^'yases SxLax^sedza^yaxs lae iix^edxa dEuedzowe wi1seg"ano 
qa^s qEk'lyindes laq laxes qEoase. Wa, lii qEk"lyintsa wlie mElk" 
dEusEn dEOKra obesa wuseg"anowe liiq qa^s mox-'waLElodes 
oba^yas. Wii, lii ax^edxes LEq!Exsde lExe qa^s hang^alises laxes 
HEqEmiilise liixes guyolElasLe qo tslos^IdLo. Wii, lawesLe ax^ed- 

20 xes tsloyayowe qa^s k!wadzolisexes LEbeg'a-ye ie^wa^ya. Wa, 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 187 

protecting mat. | Now she works while she is sitting. She pokes down 21 
her digging-stick so that | the point is one span deep in the ground. | 
Then she pries up the clover | easily, turning down the stick, for she 
does not wish to break the || clover-roots, and she pokes it again into 2o 
the ground so that it stands up, | and she picks out the clover-roots 
and throws them into her flat-bottomed basket. Wlicn | she has 
picked all the clover-roots out of the soil, she | pries up some more 
clover with her diggmg-stick, and she again | puts the diggmg-stick 
standmg where she is going to pry up || the roots next time, after she 30 
has fhiishcd picking out what she has just pried up; | and she con- 
tinues to do so. I She does this every day, for sometimes | it takes the 
woman five days to work over her | clover-garden when it is large. 
In the evening || she takes the mats and pours the clover on several | 35 
mats, and covers it with others where she has dug it up; | and in the 
morning she takes the mat-covermg off and | spreads it out, and 
scatters the clover-roots on them so as to get dry, if | it should be a 
fine day in the moriimg; but if it should be a bad day ha the || morn- 40 
ing, then she does not take off the mat-covering until | the sky clears 
up, for it is said that it is not good for the clover | to be dried in the 
house. They say that if it is dried in the house, | it shrinks up ; but 

la^me k!wak!wasdenaqExs lae ts!Ex"bEtalisaxes ts!5yayowe qa 21 
^iiEmplEnkes laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex ylx ^walabEtalidzasasa 
oba^yas ts!6yayasexs lae klwetlEqallsaxa LExsEme laxes k'!ets!e- 
na^ye ealtsilaxs lae k!wet!edEq qaxs gwaqlElaaq EElts!aleda 
LEX'sEine. Wa, la et!ed ts!Ex"bEtalIsaxes tsloyayowe qa Laesesexs 25 
lae niEnx'^idxa LEx'sEme cja-s ts!Exts!ales laxes lExaya. Wii, g"ll- 
^mese ^wIlg'ilk'aniEnaxa LEX'SEme laxa dzEcjwaxs lae et!ed 
k !wet lEqalisaxa LEx'sEine ytsa tsloyayowe. Wii, laxae et!ed 
ts!Ex"bEtallsaxes tsloyayowe qa Laeses lax et!edLe k !wet lEcjale- 
dzEmLEs c^o lal gwalL mEnmaqalxes la al kIwetlEqaledzEma. 30 
Wa, laEmxae aEm naqEmgiltEwexes gibc'de gwegulasa. Wa, 
ax'sa^mese la he gwegilaxs hie tslosaxa ^ne-'nala ylxs ^nal^oEm- 
plEnae sEk'laxse ^nalasa tsEdaqe sEnyEnbEiidxa ^nala tslosaxes 
LEg'Edz5waxs lexEdzae. Wii, g'tlnaxwa^mese dzacjwaxs lae aEm 
ax-edxa leElwa\ye qa=s lit giigEdzotsa LEX'SEme laxa wa5kwe 35 
leElwa^ya qa-'s naxuytndesa waokwe liiq liixes tsloyasaq. Wa, 
g'llnaxwa^mese laxa gaaliixs lae iix^edxa naxuya^ye leElwa^ya qa^s 
LEpIalisecj. Wii, lii lEndzotsa LEx'sEine \a.c[ qa^s x'lPaliseqexs 
egidzalaeda ^nalaxa gaala. Wa, giPmese yaxdElxEleda ^nalaxa 
gailliixs lae hewaxa axodEx naxuya^yas leElwa\ya, lalaa hlx 40 
egldox^widEX'dEmLasa ^nala,- qaxs k" lesaaEl eka LExsEmaxs 
x'ilalelEmae laxa g'okwe. G"iPEm^lae xilalelEm liixa gokwaxs 
lae hex^idaEm xuls^ida. Wii, h¥lae k' !es xiile^nakulaxs xiPale- 



188 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ietii. ann. 36 

it does not shrink when it is dried | at the place where it is dug. The 

45 soU II is not washed oflf. If the sky has been clear for two days, | the 
roots are dry all over. Then the dirt drops off. j Then the woman 
takes her basket, goes to the | pile of clover, and puts (the roots) into 

50 the clover-basket. | When all the baskets are fuU, || the woman takes 
dry grass and places it on top of the | clover-baskets. After she has 
done so, she takes a | thin cedar-bark rope and ties up the top of the 
baskets. | Then she puts them into the canoe and goes home to the 

55 winter house, | for they dig clover at another place, for || the best 
clover grows at Knight Inlet and at Gwa^ye. Now she arrives at her | 
winter house. She does not put down the clover- 1 basket near the fire 
of the house, but she | puts it in a cool comer of the house. Now 
she waits for | the winter before cooking the clover-roots. As soon 

60 as the people begin the winter ceremonial, then || the people are in- 
vited to eat tlie clover. | 
1 Digging Cinquefoil-Roots. — The same digging-stick j is used for 
digging cinquefoil-roots which is used for clover. Sometimes | the 
man who makes the digging-stick makes a smaller digging-stick | for 
5 the cinquefod-roots, for it is thinner and it is one span || shorter than 
the clover digging-stick ; | and the basket for cinquefoil-roots has | no 



dzEmae laxa tsloyasaq. Wa, laxae k!es ts loxwalasE^wa dzEx- 

45 ^ima^yas. Wii, g'iPmese malplEoxwa^s eg'idziileda ^naliixs lae 
lEmlEuix-unx'^ida. Wii, he-mis la q!upahits dzedzEx^una^yas. 
Wa, he'"mis la §,x^edaatsa tslEdaqaxes LlaLlEbate qa^s las lax 
modzasasa LEX'SEme qa^s lii lExts!:ilas laxa LEgats!e LlaLlEbata. 
Wii, gil-mese ^wPla la qoqutleda LeLEg'ats!e LlaLlEbatExs laeda 

50 tslEdiiqe ax^edxa lelElxLowe k'letlEma qa^s tslak'tylndales laxa 
LeLEg"ats!e L!ilL!Ebata. Wii, gtl^mese gwalExs lae ax^edxa 
^wIlEne mElk" dEnsEn dEOEma qa^'s tlEmaklyindales liiq. Wii, 
laEm moxsas laxes ya^yatsle qa^s lil nil^nakwa laxes tslEwEnxE- 
lasc g"okwa qaxs ogii^la^mae awlnagwise axilsaxa LEX'sEme yixs 

55 hiie Dzawade lo^' Gwa^ye ck' qlwilxats. Wii, laEm lag^aa laxes 
tslEWEnxElase g'okwa. Wii, k!est!a he mogwalilases LeLEg'ats!e 
L'.iiLlEbata laxa ^uExwaia Laxa lEgwilases g'okwe, ytxs hiie 
mogwalilac[e wudanegwilases g'5kwe. Wa, laEm liilaal laxa ts!a- 
wunx^idLa qo hamex'silax"^IdLEq. Wa, g'iPmese ts lets lex^ede 

60 g'5kulotasexs lae Le^lalases LEx'sEme laq. 
1 Digging cinquefoil-roots (Tslosaxa t!Ex"sose).^HeEmxat! tsIosE- 
laxa t!Ex"s6se tsloyayaxa LEX'SEme. Wii, laLa ^naPnEmp teneda 
ts!oyayogwilaenoxwe tsloyayogwilaxa hek!umg'ilIl-'Em qa tsloya- 
yoxa t!Ex"sose, yixs ^wilwilalae. Wii, hixae ^uEmplEiik- LaxEns 
5 q !waq !wax"ts lana^yex yix ts lEkwagawayanEmasa ts loyayaxa t !ex"s5- 
sasa ts!5yayaxa LEX'sEme. Wii, he^misa tsloyatsle lExa^ya yixs 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 189 

flat bottom, as the one that is used for digging clover, for the same | 7 
basket that is used for clams is used for cincjuefoil-roots; | and the 
other cincjuefoil-basket is smaller. It is for the lower roots, || for 10 
these are very long, and they grow under the curly | cinquefoil-roots. 
As soon as the season for digging cinquefoil-roots in the autumn 
arrives, then | the woman who owns a cinquefoil-garden takes her 
cedar-bark belt and | mat, two cinquefoil digging-baskets, and her | 
digging-stick, and goes to the cinquefoil-garden. || When she arrives 15 
there, she puts down her baskets | and her digging-stick, and she 
spreads the mat on her back. | She takes her woven cedar-bark belt 
and puts | it around her body over the mat. After | she has done 
so, she sits down on the lower end of the back-protector mat. || Then 20 
she takes her digging-stick and pokes the end into the ground in one 
corner of her | cinquefoil-garden. The point of the digging-stick does 
not go in deep. | Then she pries it up. Then the cinquefoil-roots 
show themselves, and | the woman .picks out the short, curly | 
cinquefoil-roots and puts them into the larger || basket which stands 25 
at her right side. She puts down | the smaller basket on the left-hand 
side. After | she has picked out the cinquefoil-roots, she takes her 
digging-stick again and pushes | the end into the ground at the place 
where she dug first, for the small cinquefoil-roots are only four fingers 



kMesae LEqiExsda he gwex'se ts!6yats!axa LEx'sEme, yixs yuq!a- 7 
la^maoxda dzeg'atslaxa g'aweqlauEme ts!oyats!axa t!Ex"s6se. Wa, 
lit a^ma^yaleda ^uEmsgEme ts!6yats!es qa^s axtslalasxa Laxabiihse 
yixa gilsg"ilstowe t!Ex"s6sa. Wii, q!waxa lax ewaabalisasa tlEmkwa 10 
t!Ex"s6se. Wa, gil^mese ts lots lEyinxxa Layinxaxs laeda t!Ek'ila- 
gwade tslEdaq ax^edxes dEnedzowe klEdsk" wiiseganowa LE^wa le- 
^wa^ye. Wa, he^meses maltsEme ts!ets!oyats!e laElxa^ya LEwis 
tsloyayowaxs lae qas^Id qa^s la laxes t!El\"ilakwe tiEgudzowa. 
Wa, g'iPmese lag'aa laqexs lae axEmg'alisaxes ts !ets !oyats leLe laEl- 15 
xa^ya LE^wis tsloyayowe. Wa, la LEbeg"intses LEbeg'a^ye le^wa^ya. 
Wa, la ax^edxes dEiidzEdzowe k' lidEk" wiiseg'anowa qa^s qEk"i- 
yindes laxa LEbeg'a^yas le^wa^yaxs lae wiisex-^Its. Wa, g'il^mese 
gwalExs lae kIwadzodEx bEnba^yases LEbeg'a^ye le^wa^yaxs lae 
dax'^idxes tsloyayowe qa^s ts !Ex"bEtalisex awunxelisases tlEk'Ila- 20 
kwe tlEgiidzowa. Wa, la k"!es wiingEg'Jle oba^yasa tsloyayo- 
waxs lae klwetledEq. Wa, he^mis la nePedaatsa tlEx"sose. Wa, 
he^mis la mEnx'^idaatsa tsloyenoxwe tslEdaqxa t lEmt lEmguxLowe 
tslEltslEx"stowe tlEx"sosa qa^s lExtsliiles laxa ^walasagawa^ye tslo- 
yatsle Isxaxs hanesae lax helk' lotagawalisas. Wa, hetla hanesa 25 
amayagawa^ye lExa^ye gEmxagawalisas. Wa, gil^mese -wilg'El- 
qaxa t!Ex"sosaxs lae etled &x^edxes tsloyayowe qa^s ts!Ex"bEtalisas 
oba^yas Isxxes g^ilx-de ^liipa-'ya qaxs tr'mae maldEue ^walabEtalasasa 
tlEx"sose laxEns qlwaqlwax'tslana^yex. Wa, laLa modEne ^wala- 



190 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth.ann. 35 

30 deep, | but the long lower roots are four fingers || deeper, if the sand | 
is good and does not contain pebbles. The reason why there are no 
long cinquefoil-roots | at Nimkish River is that there are many small 
pebbles. Gwa^ye | in Knight Inlet is the only place where the long 
cinquefoil-roots grow, | for the soil in the cinq uef oil-gardens is half 

35 sand and half light || clay, and therefore the cinquefoil-roots and 
the I long roots grow well. iVs I said before, the short cinque- 
foil-roots are on top, | of the long roots below. Therefore the 
woman who is digging cinquefoil-roots | pushes down her digging- 
stick again after she has picked up all the short roots; for the | short 
roots and the long roots do not keep together, although they belong 

40 to one 1| stem. Now I will stop talking about this, and I | will talk 
again about the woman who is digging. She [ does not pry up the 
sand quickly, but she digs up the sand and clay slowly, | so that the 
long cinquefoil-roots do not break and that they come up in 
long strings ] when she is picking them out of the sand; and she puts 

45 them into the || basket for the long cinquefoil-roots. She keeps on 
doing so over the whole garden- | bed, and she only stops digging 
after she has worked over the whole ground. | In the evening, when 
it gets dark, the woman who is digging cinquefoil-roots | takes her 
short roots and puts them on a pile, and covers them over with | mats; 

50 and she does the same with the long roots, for 1| sometimes it takes 



30 bEtalasasa Laxabalise laxEns qlwaqlwax^tslana^yex laqexs ek'aeda 
egise yixs k' !easae t !at ledzEma. HeEm lag'ilas k' leiis Laxabalise 
Gwanaxs qleuEmaes t!at!edzEme. Wa, lex'a^mese Gwa^j'e, yix 
wasa DzawadEenoxwe ex" qlwaxatsa Laxabahse LE^wa t!Ex"s6se 
qaxs naxsaaplaes tiEk'ilakwe t!Egudz6 lo^ eg'ise LE^wa k!use 

35 L!eq!a. Wa, he^mis lagulas ek'e qlwaxena^yas t!Ex"sosas LE^wis 
Laxabalise. LaxEn laEinx'de waldEmaxs ekMayaeda t!Ex"sosasa 
Laxabahse. Wa, he/niis lag'ilasa tsloyenoxwe ts!Edaq et!ed ts!ox"- 
bEtalisases ts loyayowaxs lae ^wi-loLxa t !Ex"s6se qaxs k' !esae Lawa- 
galeda t!Ex"sose LE^wa Laxabitlisaxs wax'^mae ^uEmes yisx-Enexa 

40 tlEgwanowe. Wa, la^mEu gwal gwagwex's-'ala laxeq. Wji, la- 
^mesEn etledEl gwagwex's^ala laxa tsloyenoxwe tslEdaqExs lae 
k"!es ealtsilaxs lae k !wet Iqalisaxa eg'ise LE^wa kluse L!eq!a qa 
k"!eses aEltsIeda Laxabalise qaxs sayEnaaq qa gilsg'ilstowesexs 
lae sex'illaq laxa eg'ise qa^s la LEx"ts!alas laxes senats!axa Laxa- 

45 billise lExa^ya. Wa, hex'saEm gweg'llax wadzEgasases tiEk'Flakwe 
tlEgiidzowa. Wa, al^mese gwal tslosaqexs lae ^wilg'ildzowa. Wa, 
giliiaxwaEm k' lllto^nakiilaxa dzaqwiixs laeda tsloyenoxwe ts!Edaq 
a,x^edxes tlEx^sose qa^s q!ap!esgEmg'aliseq. Wa, la n6x"sEmtsa 
leElwa^ye laq. Wa, la hoEmxat! gwex'^Idxa Laxabalise qaxs ^nal- 

50 ^nEmp'.Ena^e moplEuxwa^se ^nalasa tsloyenoxwe tslsdaq tsiosaxes 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 191 

the woman four days to dig over her | cinquef oil-garden. In the 51 
morning, when day comes, the | owner of the cinquefoil-garden goes 
to the pile of short roots | and of long roots and takes off the mat 
covering of the piles | of short and long roots, and spreads the roots 
out so that they are close together. || After she has done so, she 55 
takes the roots and scatters them, | and she does the same with 
the long roots. After she has done so, | she leaves and goes home to 
her cinquefoil-digging house. Now | she dries the short roots so that 
the sand on them gets dry. Wlien | she arrives at her house, she 
takes her cinqucfoil-ba.skets and looks them over, || and she takes 60 
them to the place where she left her | short roots and long roots dry- 
ing. As soon as she arrives there, she | takes up the short roots and 
puts them into the baskets; | and when they are all in, she takes dry 
grass and | puts it on top as a cover; and after it has been put on, || 
she takes cedar -bark split for this purpose one finger | wide and ties 65 
up I the cinquefoil-baskets. After she has done so, she gathers | 
them together and covers them with mats. Then | she takes cedar- 
bark and splits it into narrow strips. || She lays down one of the pieces 70 
of split cedar-bark, | takes the long cinquefoil-roots and puts the ends 
together, laying them down | on the strip of cedar-bark. Wlien she 

tiEk'Hakwe tlEgildzowa. Wa, g'iPmese ^nax'^idxa gaalaxs laeda 51 
t '.Egwadasa t !Ex"s6se qas^id qa^s la lax mEx^mEwedzases t !Ex"sose 
LE^wa Laxabalise qa^s ax^edexa nenax"sEma^ye leEpwesa mEX'inE- 
wise t!Ex"sosa LE^wa Laxabahse qa^s mEmk"illexs lae LEplahsElaq. 
Wa, g'iPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa t!Ex"sose qa^s lendzodales laq. 55 
Wa, laxae he-Emxat ! gwex-^idxa Laxabillise. Wa, g'iPmese gwalExs 
lae bas qa^s lit nii^nak" laxes ts!Ewedzats!e g'okwa. Wa, laEm 
x"ilElsaxa t!Ex"sose qa lEmx^wides eg'isEna^yas. Wa, g'lPmese 
lag'aa laxes g'okwaxs lae hex'^idaEm k' lEnEmg-alllaxes tletlEgwa- 
tsIeLe L!aL!Ebata qa^s lii dalaqexs lae aedaaqa lax x'iledzasases 60 
t!Ex"sose LE^wa Laxabalise. Wa, g'lPmese lag'aa laqexs lae he 
g-il q!ap!ex'^itsEVeda t!Ex"sose qa^s texts liiles laxa LlaLlabate. 
Wa, giPmese ^wiltsluxs lae ax^ed laxa lEmxwa k"!et!Ema qa^s 
tslak-iymdales laq. Wii, giPmese gwal ts!ak'iyindalaqexs lae 
ax^edxa hek lumg'illla^ye dzEXEk" dEnasaxa ^naPuEmdEnas Swa- 65 
dzE^was laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex. Wii, la t lEmiikiyindiilas 
laxa t!Egwats!e L!aL!abata. Wa, g^iPmese gwalexs lae q!ap!eg'a- 
lisaq qa^s nax"sEmdesa leElwa^ye laq. Wa, g'iPmese gwalExs lae 
iix^edxa dEnase qa^s helox"sEnde dzEdzExsEndEq qa ^wis^wiila- 
dzowe. Wa, la k^atlalisaxa ^uEmtsIaqe dzEXEk" dsnasa, wii, la 70 
ax^edxa Laxabitlise qa^s ^nemabEndiileq qa^s la k"at!ets laxa dE- 
nase. Wa, g-il^mese belts !e^staax"sEns q!waq!wax-ts!ana^yex 



192 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ietu.ann. as 

73 can put her fingers | around them, she squeezes them together 
and ties them firmly in the middle. | They are this way when 

75 they have been tied: , When || this has been done, she 

does the same with ^^^^^- the others, and she only stops | 
when they are all ^^^^^^ tied in bundles in the middle. 
Sometimes | she has '^'^ ^~~^ more than a hundred bundles of 
long cinquefoil-roots belonging to one woman who has a good | 
cinquefoil-garden. After this has been done, she puts the | long 
cinquefoil-roots into the basket; and when they are all in, she 

SO takes || grass and puts it on top, and she ties it down with 
cedar-bark. | Then in the evening she gathers up | the baskets 
for long cinquefoil-roots, and she spreads mats over them. | 
After she has done so, she goes home to her digging-house. | In the 
morning, when daylight comes, the woman and her husband get 

85 ready. || They launch their canoe into the sea, | push down the roof- 
boards of the digging-house | and place them in the bottom of the 
canoe. When | the bottom of the canoe is all covered, the baskets 
with short roots | are placed on the boards in the canoe; and when 

90 they arc all in, || they take the baskets with long roots and put them | 
on top of the baskets with short roots; and when they are aU in, | 
they put the bedding and provisions on top. When everything is in, | 
they take the mats and spread them over the load. | When everything 

73 lax qlwedzoyodaq lae qEno^yodEq qas }Ek!ut!ede ylPedEq. 
Wa, laEm ga gwaleg'axs lae yiLoyala (_/?</.). Wa, g'iPmese 

75 gwala lae hanal lie gweg'ilaxa waokwe. Wii, al^mese gwalExs 
lae ^wFla la qeqEno'yaleda Laxabiilise yixs ^naFuEmplEuae g"ex"- 
sogug'Ey6x"sayokwa Laxabiilisasa ^uEmokwe tslEdaqaxa ek'as 
tlEk'i^lakwe. Wa, g'iPmese gwalExs lae LEx"ts!alas liixa Laxa- 
bats!e L!aL!Ebata. Wa, g'lPmese ^wiltslaxs laaxat! ax-edxa k'!e- 

80 tiEme qa^s tslak^iyindes laq. W'a, laxae t lEmak iynitsa dEuase laq. 
Wa, g'lPmese ^wFla la gwalExs laaxat! q!ap!eg"alesaqexa dza- 
qwaxa LeLaxabats!e LlaLlEbata qa^s LEpsEmdalesa leEPwa'ye laq. 
Wa, g"iPmese gwalExs lae nii^nak" laxes ts!Ewedzats!e g^okwa. 
Wa, g'll^mese ^nax'^idxa gaalaxs lae xwanaHda ts!Ewesde tslEdaqa 

85 LE^wis la^wunEme qa^s wI^x"stEndexes xwak!una laxa dEmsx'e 
^wapa. Wa, lii weqwaxslax siilases tslEwedzatsIex'de g'okwa 
qa-"s la paxsEla laxes xwakliina. Wa, g'lPmese hamElxalExs lax 
oxsasa xwak!unaxs lae he g'll moxdzEma t!Egwats!e L!aL!Ebata qa 
mag-idz:Vyes laxa paxsaxs lae mEXEdzEweq. Wii, g'fFmese ^wil- 

90 xsa lae moxsElaxa Laxabatsle LlaLlEbata. Wit, laEm mEXE- 
ymdalas laxa t!Egwats!e LlaLlsbata. Wa, g'lPmese ^wllxsasexs 
lae mokiiymdalases mEmwiila hiq. Wa, g-iPmese ^wiLxsasexs lae 
5,x^edxa leE^wa^ye qa^s LEpEyindales lax okuya^yases ma^ye. Wa, 
gMpmese gwalExs lae hogiixs laxes ya^yats !e xwakluna. Wa, lada 



iioAS] HX7NTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 193 

is aboard the canoe, the || man stands in the stern of tlie canoe, 95 
which he steers. | He looks at his clover-digging house and prays to 

■'*■' • • • I 

As soon as he arrives at^the beach of his winter house, | he puts the 

stern of his traveling-canoe landward and backs in. | The man gets 

out of the traveling-canoe, and || unloads the cargo when the tide is 100 

high. If it is low tide, he | ties a long cedar-bark rope to the stern 

seat of his | traveling-canoe and carries up the end of the rope to 

high-water mark, | where he ties it to a stone which serves as an 

anchor. After he has done so, | the (couple) are invited by their 

relatives to eat, if it is || low tide when they arrive. If it is high tide, 5 

they are only | invited when the cargo has been carried up the beach. 

They | put the baskets with the long roots and those with the short 

roots in two different places. | The baskets with the long roots are put 

on the right-hand side of the | house, and the baskets with the short 

roots are placed on the left-hand || side of the house, for these corners 10 

are cool. As soon as | all have been carried up, they go to the one 

who invited them. ... As soon as this has been done, | (the man) takes 

the baskets with long cinquefoil-roots and puts them across | the 

two beams. ^ If there are many baskets with long roots, there may 

be four layei-s, one on top of the other, | from one end of the staging 



bEgwanEme LaxLexa xwakluna qaxs he^mae LEnxLa^ya. Wa, 95 
doqwalaxes tslEwedzatsIex^e g'5kwa qa^s tslElwaqeq. ' . . . 

Wii, gil-mese lag'aa lax L'.Ema^isases tslawunxElase g'okwa lae 
aLaxLa^nakfllaxes ya^yatsle xwak!una qa^s k' lEx'^alisexs lae lat- 
taweda bEgwanEme laxes ya'yats!e xwakliTina. Wa, hex'^ida^mese 
moltodxes mayaxs yixulalisae. Wa, g-Jh'mese x'ats!aesExs lae loO 
aEni mogwanotsa gnltla dEUEm laxa LEXEqlEXLaya^yases ya-'ya- 
ts!e xwakliina qa^s la^s oba'yas laxa ya^x"motasa yjxwa qa^s 
mox^bEndesa t!esEme laq qa q!Elsbes. Wa, g'iPmese gwal he 
gwex'^idqexs lae Lalelalasoses LeLELala qa las L.'Exwa laq. yixs 
xats!aesae lag'alitslEnxas. Wa giPmese yixulalisExs lae al^Em 5 
Lalelalasoxs lae 'wPlosdese mEmwaliis. Wa, laEm alEwila 
niogwalilElasasa Laxabatsle LlaLlEbata LE^wa t!Egwats!e, yixs 
£naFnEmp!Enae he mogwalilEina Laxabatsleda helk" !otewalilasa 
g-okwe. Wa, la he mogwalllEma t!Egwats!e LlaLlEbata gEnoxo- 
tewalilasa g'okwe, yixs wudanegwilae. Wa, g'iPmese ^wi4osde- 10 
sExs lae Lax-'wid laxa Lalelalaq.- . . . Wa, g-iPmese gwalExs 
lae ax^edxa Laxabatsle LlaLlsbata qa^s mEXEndales laq, yixs 
g'll-mae qleuEma Laxabatslaxs lae mox^wedgustala maxo^nakula 
hayimbEndEx awasgEmasasa k' lagile. Wa, g'lPmese ^wilgaaLE- 

' See page 618. 

2 Then follows the description of the making of a raised platform for keeping provisions (p. 166). 

75052—21—35 eth— pt 1 13 



194 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL, [etii.ann.3d 

15 to the other. When they are all on, 1| ho takes mats and spreads 
them over them, so that the | frost can not get at them, for he does not 
wish them to freeze. Now | it is called "staging for long cinquefoil- 
roots," and it is also called | "staging on wliich long cinquef oil-roots 
are thrown." After this has been done, | he does the same, putting 

20 on the stage the || baskets with short roots; and after this has been 
done, he spreads | mats over them. Generally he does not put up 
one I basket of long cinquef oil-roots when the baskets are piled up ; | 
and when there are many people in his tribe, he keeps out four | 
baskets with short cinquef oil roots to cook them for the people; but || 

25 more than one basket of long cinquefoil-roots is never kept out, for 
only the chiefs | eat the long cinquefoil-roots. The common people [ 
eat the short roots. | 
1 Digging Sea-Milkwort." — When the | plants first begin to giow and 
the tops begin to sprout, | the woman takes her digging-stick which 
she uses for clams, | and her small basket, and goes to a place where 
5 she has seen || milkwort growing. In the following year there is 
nothing to be seen in the springtime, \ and she just digs for it. She 
sits down and pushes | the point of her digging-stick into the sand, 
and she pries up the sand. | Then she picks out the milkwort-roots 



15 laxs lae Sx^edxa leEPwa^ye qa^s LEpEyindales laq qa k'leses 
lax'sitweda g'Ewesmise laq, qaxs gwaq!Elaaq wildala. Wa, laEm 
LegadEs LaxapdEmil k'lagli laxeq. W,a, la, LeqEleda wa5kwas 
k' laxdEmllasasa Laxabatsle LlaLJEbata laq. Wa, giPmese gwa- 

20 Iexs lae iiEui nEqEmg"ilEweqexs lae ax^alilasa t lExdEmilasasa t!e- 
tlEgwats'.e L!aL!Ebata. Wa, giFmese gwalExs laaxat! LEpEvmtsa 
leEl^wa^ye laq. Wa, la q!iinalaqas k'leslasa 'uEmsgEme Laxaba- 
tsle Llabat laxes la malaLEla laxa LaxapdEmile k'!agTla. Wa, 
giFmese qleuEme gokidotasexs lae axelaxa mosgEme t!et!E- 
gwats'.e L'.aLlEbala qa^s tlEqulasE'wa. Wii, laLe k'les hSyaqax 

25 ^nEmsgEma Laxabatsle Llabata qaxs lex'a^maeda g'lg'Egama-'ye 
LELiixapg'Exa Laxabalise. Wii, laLeda bebEgwanEmq!ala^nie 
t!Ex"t!aq"xa t!Ex"s6se. 
1 Digging Sea-Milkwort' (Tslosaxa hoqiwale). — -Wa, he^maaxslae g'il 
qlwaxEnxa lae Elaq tEnix^alise oxttVyasa q!waq!wuxEma lae 
ax^ededa ts!Edaqaxes kMilakwexa dzeg'ayaxa g-aweq!anEme 
LE^wes lalaxamaxs lae qas^Id qa-"s la laxes qlaetsE^we qlwaxatsa 
5 hoq'.walaxa apsEylnxde qaxs kleasae dogiil q!waxaxa q!waxEnxe 
qaxs a^mae tsIosElaq. Wa, la kiwag'alis qa^s ts!Ex"bEtalisex 
oba^yases tslosElaxa kMtlakwe. Wa, la k !wet lEqahsaxa eg'ise. 
Wa he^mis la mEnx'^daatsexa hoqiwale qa^s la tslExtslalas laxa 

1 aiaux maritima, t. Femald. 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 195 

and throws them into | the small basket which stands on the ground 
in front of her. She continues doing so || while she is digging. When 1 
her basket is full, she goes | home, carrying the basket in her hands. | 

Digging Bracken ' - Root. — The woman | takes her back-protecting 
mat and her cedar-bark belt, | and her digging-stick which she uses for 
digging clams. Then |] she goes to a place whei'e she knows fern is 15 
growing and where | the soO is soft. As soon as she arrives, she 
spreads the mat over her back | and she puts on the woven cedar- 
bark belt. After | she has done so, she sits down on one end of the 
mat, holding the | digging-stick, and she pushes the point of the 
stick into the ground. || Then she digs up the gi-ound; and when she 20 
reaches the fern-root, | she foUows the whole length of the root, for it 
is very | long; and when she reaches the soft end, she | breaks it off; 
and if it is very long, she coils it up. She continues | doing so as she 
is digging. When she has enough, she takes a || spruce-root and ties 25 
it around the midtUe, and she folds the roots up in a bundle, | which 
she carries on her back to her house, using her digging-stick as a 
walking-stick, for the load of fern-roots is really heavy when the old 
woman finds many. | 

Digging Fern --Root. — The woman takes her | yew-wood digging- 1 
stick and a large basket, | which she carries on her back. She uses 
her digging-stick as a cane. Then she walks, | looking for fern-root. 

lalaxamaxs hanesae lax uEqEmalisas. Wii, ax'sa^mese he gweg'i- 
laxs ts!osae. Wa, giPmese qotle lEXEliisexs lae na^nakwa laxes 10 
g'5kwe koxk' !otElaxes hoq!waleats!e lalaxama. 

Digging Bracken-Root (Sakwaxa sagiime). — HeEm ax^etso^sa ts!E- 
daqes LEbeg"a^ye le^wa^ya LE^wes dEnedzowe wuseg'anowa. Wa, 
he^mesLaLes kMllakwexes dzeg'ayowaxa g'aweqlauEme. Wa, la 
qas^id qa^s la laxes qIatsEwe qlwaxatsa sagiime, ylxa aEm 15 
tElq'.iits tiEk'a. Wa, g'lPmese lag'aa laqexs lae LEbeg-intses 
le^wa^ye qa^s qEk'iyindeses dEnedzowe wiiseg'ano laq. Wa, giPmese 
gwala lae kIwadzodEx apsba^yases LEbeg^a^ye le^wa^ya dalaxes 
k-Iilakwe. Wa, lii q!umtbEtElsax oba^yases k' lilakwe qa^s ^lap!e- 
dexa dzEkwa. Wa, g-lPmese lak^Eudxa sagiimaxs lae aEm hegti- 20 
lEne labElEnex ^wasgEmasasa L!op!Ek'asa sagume qaxs alakMalae 
g-llsg-tlt!e L.'oplEk-as. Wa, giPmese lag-aa laxa q!wayots!axs lae 
altslEndEq qa^s q lElx^wIdeqexs Lomae giltla. Wa, la hex'saEm 
gweg-ilaxs sakwae. Wa, g-ll^mese heloLEqexs lae ax^ed laxa 
L!op!Ek'asa S,lewase qa^s qEnoyodes laqexs lae gwanaqi^lalakwa. 25 
Wa, la oxxalaqexs lae na^nak" laxes g'okwe sek' laqElaxes k' !llakwe 
qaxs alak" !alae glint !eda sagiimaxs oxLaakwaaxs q lEyoLanEmaasa 
laElklwana^ye. 

Digging Fern -Root (Nesaxa tsak'os). — Wa, heEm ax^etso^sa l 
tslEdaqes l !Enq Isk- !lne kitlakwa LE^wes ^walase lExa^ya. Wa, 
la 5xLala. Wa, LaLa sek- laqslaxes k- Illakwe. Wa, la qas^id qa^s 

* Piendium aquilinum. 2 ztryopteris spinulosa dUatata. 



196 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. .v. 

5 As soon as she finds large ones, she puts her 1| basket down on the 
ground and pokes with her digging-stick under the root of the fern. | 
She holds with her left hand the top of the digging-stick, and she holds 
with her | right hand the leaves of the fern, and she pulls at it, and | 
she pries it up with her digging-stick. As soon as she gets it out, she 
plucks off the | leaves, and she throws the root into the basket. She 

10 continues || doing so, puUing it out, and she only stops when her 
basket is fuU. | Then she breaks off some slim hemlock-branches and 
puts them on top | of the fern-root. After she has done so, she 
can-ies her | fern-root basket on her back and goes home. | 

15 Gathering Fern-roots.' — Generally the tribes go || to get fern-roots 
when they are hungry and | they can not go to get other kinds of food ; 
and those who have to camp for a long time in bad weather. | Then they 
go to gather fern-roots. The | man makes a stick for peeling bark like 
the stick for peeUng hemlock-bark. | It is the same length. It is 

20 bent andhas a fiat point, jj Generally it is four spans long. | The 
woman carries it with her basket and goes to | look for loose moss in 
which the fern gi'ows. When she finds | many plants of the fern- 
root growing among the loose moss on rocks, | she sits down and 

25 plucks off the moss; |1 and when she comes to the rock, she takes her 
peeling-stick and | pushes it along the rock under the moss, and she 

lil alixxa tsak'ose. Wa, gil^mese q!axa awawc lae oxLEg'aElsaxes 
5 lExa-ye. Wil, la LlEngabotses k'lllakwe lax L!op!Ek'asa tsak^ose. 
VVil, la dale gEmxolts laniisex oxta^yasa kMUakwe. Wa, la nesale 
helk'!otts!anasexs yisxinasa tsak'osaxs lae nex^edsq. Wa, la 
k!wetaxsllases k'lllakwe laq. Wa, gll-'mese laLEq lae klulodEx 
ylsx'inas. Wa, la lEX'ts!otsa tsak'use laxes lExa'ye. Wa, hexsa- 

10 ^mese gweg'ilaxs nesae. Wa, al-mese gwalExs lae q!ot!e IexeIjIs. 
Wii, la LlEx^wid laxa wIswiilEtayasa q!waxe qa-s tslak'iyindes 
laxa okuya^yasa tsak'use. Wii, la gwalExs lae oxLEx-idxes 
tsag'atsle lExa^ya qa^s lit nii^'nakwa. 

Gathering Fern-roots(LEkwaxa Isk Iwa-'ye) . — HeEmq !unala lEkwax- 

15 dEmxa lEklwa^'yaxs palaeda g'ayole laxa lelqwalaLa^'ye yixa 
wayapolEla laLElaxa he^maomase LE^'wa ylyag'tdzanEmasa ^nalaxs 
g'ayagillsElae. Wa, he^mis la lEkwaxa lEk!wa^ye; wa, he^mis ax^e- 
tsosa bEgwauEma L!6k!wayowe he gwexse L!5k!wayaxalaqe. Wa, 
la hcEmxat! -'wasgEme laxes hanqwahxena^ye p^xbaakwa. Wa, la 

20 q!imala mop'.Enk'e ^wasgEmasas laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex. 
Wii, he^mis daax"sa tslEdaqe LE-"wis lExa^yaxs lae qas^id qa's lii 
alax htisdExwa plElEms q!waxatsa lEk!wa^ye. Wa, g'll'"mese q!axa 
qlenEme ylsx-Ensa lEk!wa="ye q!waq!uxEgexa hasdexwa ptelEmsaxs 
lae hex-^idaEm kIwiigElodEq qa^'s mapElalexa pIslEmse. Wa, 

25 g-ii'mese lagila laxa t!esEmaxs lae ax^edxes L!ok!wayowe qa-'s 
iJEnqElales lax awaba^yasa plElEmese qa^s L'.okliSgllodeq. Wii, 

I Polypodium glycorrhiza D. C. Eaton. 



liOASJ HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHEKING 197 

pries it off the rock. | As soon as it turns over, she pulls the moss apart 27 
and pulls out the | fern-roots, which she throws into her basket. 
She continues | doing so; and when her basket is full, || she carries it 
home. I Then she puts it down by the side of the fire. | 30 

Digging Erythi-onium. — Now I will speak again | about the 1 
erythronium, how it is dug; for the | woman takes the same digging- 
stick that is used for short cinquefoil-roots, and the back-jjrotecting 
mat, and her | cedar-bark belt, and she takes a small-meslied flat- 
bottomed II basket; and she goes to the bank of the river, for that is 5 
the only place | where the erytlu'oniiun-plant grows. As soon as she 
arrives where it grows, | when the leaves first come out of the ground, 
she carries a large | horse-clam shell. Then she takes her back- 
protecting mat and | spieads it over her back, and she takes her 
cedar-bark belt and || puts it on over the mat, putting it around her 10 
waist. Then | she takes a large horse-clam shell and her digging- 
stick, and she | takes her small-meshed flat-bottomed basket and puts 
it down on her j left-hand side. Then she sits on the end of the j 
mat and pushes the end of the digging-stick into the ground and pries 
up the soil. Il Then she scrapes the soil with her clam-sliell | and picks 15 
out the erythronium plants from the soil and throws them | into her 



g'lPmese iiEi.Elaxs lae bel^idxa plEJEmse. Wa, ^^mese la lEk'^laxa 27 
Ifiklwa^ye qa^s le LEx"ts!alas laxes lEXEla. Wa, la hex'silEm 
gweg"ilaxa waokwe. Wa, g'lPmese qot!e Isgwatsles lExa^ya lae 
k" loqwalaxes lEgwats!e lExa^ya qa^s lii na'nakwa laxes g'okwe. 30 
Wii, la k' !ogun5lisases lEgwats!e lExa^ya lax lEgwIlases g'okwe. 

Digging Erythronium. — Wa, la^mesEn edzaqwal gwagwex's- 1 
-alal iaxa x'aasx'Eiitlaxs lae tsIosasE^wa yixs he^mae ax^etso^sa 
tslEtiaqes tsloyayaxa t!Ex"s6se LE""wis LEbeg'a^ye le'wa^ya LE^wis 
dEnedzowe wflseg'anowa. Wii, he^niisa t !6lt !Ex"sEme LEqiExsd 
lExa^ya. Wa, la qas^ida lax ogwiigilisasa wlwa qaxs lex'a^mae 5 
qlwiixatsa x'aasx'Eutle. Wa, giPmese lag'aa lax qiayasaxs g'alae 
q!waq!iixEt6x^wide ylsxinas, wa, la dalaxa -vvalase xalaetsox 
mEtlana^yex. Wa, he^mis g'tl Sx^etso^ses LEbeg'a^ye le^wa^ya qa^s 
LEbeg hides. Wit, lii ax^edxes dEnedzowe wilseg'anowa qa^s qEne- 
gindes laxes LEbega^ye le^wa^ya. Wit, la wuseg'oyots. Wa, la 10 
ax^edxa ^walase xalaetsox mEtlana^yex LE^wis tsloyayowe, laxae 
ax-edxes t !6lt !Ex"sEme LEqlExsd lExa^ya qa^'s hang-allses laxes 
gEinxotEinalise. Wa, lawisLe k!wadzodEx oba^yases LEbeg'a^ye 
le^wa^ya, wa, la LlEuxbEtalisas oba^yases tsloyayowe qa^s k!wet!e- 
deq. Wii, he^mis la xElpElg'ayaatsesa ^walase xalaes Iaxa t.'Ek'a. 15 
Wa, la mEnmaqaxa x'aasx'Entle Iaxa tiEk'a qa^s lii tslExtsIalas 
laxes lEXEla. Wa, giPmese wakwa x"aasx"Ent!axs lae ^uEmiil-I- 



198 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [ETn.ANN. 3d 

IS basket. If there are many plants, it is only a short time ] before the 
basket is fuU; and when | the small-meshod flat-bottomed basket is 

20 full, she carries it home in her hand. || After entering the house, she | 
puts down the basket inside of the door of the house to keep it cool 
and so that the roots | do not get dry, for they are dirty. | 
1 Digging lupine-Roots. — In spring, when I tlie salmon-berries begin 
to have buds and the olachen first arrives in | Kniglit Inlet, the season 
arrives when the tribes are hungry | when tliey first arrive at Knight 
5 Inlet. Then the woman first takes her digging-stick || for clover 
and her basket and her | woven cedar-bark belt, and goes to the I 
flats back of the liouses of the olachen fishermen. When she finds 
tlie I tops of shoots of lupine as they come out of the ground, she puts 
down her | lupine-basket and her digging-stick. She takes her || 

10 narrow back-protector and spreads it on her back, and she sees to it 
that I it reaches down to her heels. Then she ])uts a belt I over it 
and ties it around her waist. When she has finished, ] she takes her 
digging-stick and lier lupine-basket and sits dowii close to the | shoots 

15 on the end of her back-protecting mat. || She pushes the pomt of the 
digging-stick into the ground close to the | lupine-shoot, and she 
pries it up. As soon as the roots come out, | she picks them out of 
the clay and throws them into her | basket ; and when she has jjickcd 

18 dExs lae qotles lEXEla. Wa, g'il^mese qotle x"aasx'Ent!aats!as 
t!olt!Ex"sEm LEqiExsd lExa^ya lae k"!6qulaqexs lae nii^nakwa 

20 laxes g"6kwe. Wa, g"il-mese laeL laxes gokwaxs lae hex'^IdaEm 
hftnstolilas lax 5.weLElas t!EX'ilases gokwe qa wudasE^wes qa k'!eses 
lEmlEmx"sEmx'^ida qaes dzedzoxsEma^yas. 
1 Digging Lupine-Roots (Q!tinsaxa q!wa^ne). — Wa, he^maaxs lae gil 
bolex^wideda qlwalmlsaxa la qlwaxEnxe yixs lae gH nelElesa 
dzaxu^ne lax Dzawade, ylxs he^mae palaEuxsa lelqwalaLa^yaxs 
g'alae la^meLes lax Dzawade; wa, he^mis g'il ax^etsosa ts!edaq!a- 
5 yases tsloyayaxa LEx'sEme, LE^wis lExa^ye, le^wIs dEnedzowe 
k' lidEdzE^wak" wuseg'anowaxs lae qas^id qa^s lii ladzolisaxa Swa- 
dziilise lax aLanii^yasa g'igokwasa dzawadala. Wii, gil-mese q!axa 
Sxta^yasa qliindzanaxs g^alae q!waq!uxEt6x^wida lae g'Ig'allsaxes 
q!unyats!eye lExa^ya LE^wa ts!oyayowe. Wa, la ax^edxes wlla- 

10 dzowe LEbege le^wa^ya qa^s LEbegindes. Wa, la doqwala qa 
sEk" lEXLax'sIdza^yesex oxLax'sidza^yasexs lae qEx'Eylntsa wtiseg'a- 
nowe laqexs lae wQsek' lExsdalaq. Wa, g'iPmese gwalExs lae 
ax^edxes tsloyayowe LE^wis q lilnyats !eye lExa^ya qa^s klunxEllsexa 
qliindzanowaxs lae kIwadzEwex oba^yases LEbega^ye le^wa'ya. 

15 Wa, la ts!Ex"bEtaIisas oba^yases ts!oyayowe lax awEuxElIsasa 
qlundzanowe qa-s k!wet!qaliseq. Wa, giPmese g'ax LEx^walisa 
qlwa^naxs lae mEnmaqaq laxa L!eq!a qa^s la LEx"ts!silas laxes 
q!to^yats!e lExa^ya. Wa, g'iPmese ^wilg'ilqeda Leqiaxa qlwa^nax? 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 199 

all the roots out of the clay, | she takes her digging-stick again, 
pushes it into the ground as she || did before, and she picks out the 20 
lupine-roots and | puts them into her basket. She contmues doing 
this; I and when her basket is full, she carries it hi her one hand. | 
She takes the digging-stick in the other hand and goes home. | Then 
she puts down the basket at her place, and || she places the digging- 25 
stick upright at one side of the door. | Then she takes a small dish 
and pours some fresh water into it. | When it is half full, she puts it 
down by the side of her place. She takes her ] basket and places it 
by the side of the small dish | wliich contains water. Then she takes 
some of the lupine-roots and puts them into the || water in the small 30 
dish, and she washes them all over, so that the clay | comes off. As 
soon as all the clay is off, she | begins to eat the roots, with her hus- 
band and her children ; | and they only stop when they have enough. 
After eating lupine-root | for some time, they become dizzy, as though 
they were drunk || after having drunk whisky. After eating lupine- 35 
root, I they put away what is left over. Wlien | the woman and her 
husband eat too much of the lupine-roots, they become really drunk. | 
Their eyes are heavy, and they can not keep them open, and | their 
bodies are hke dead, and they are really |J sleepy. Then they go and 40 
lie down in their rooms and | sleep; and when they wake up, they 

lae et!ed ax^edxes ts!6yayowe qa^s ts!Ex"bEtalises oba^yas laxes 
giLx'de gwex'^daasa. Wa, laxae mEnmaqaxa q!wa^ne qa^s la 20 
LEx''ts hilas laxes qliinyatsle lExa^ya. Wa, ax'sa^mese he gweg'ilaqe. 
Wa, g'lPmese q6t!e q!unyats!as lExa^ya lae k*!oqwalaxes q!unyats!e 
lExa^ya. Wa, la dak' lotElaxes tsloyayowaxs g'axae na^nakwa. 
Wa, la k' lox^walilaxes q!unyats!e lExa^ya laxes k!waelase. Wa, 
laLa he Lag"alilases tsloyayowa apsotstillilas tlsxilases gokwe. 25 
Wa, la ax^edxa lalogume qa^s guxtslodesa ^wE^wap!Eme laq qa 
nEgoyoxsdallsexs lae hangalilas laxes kiwaelase. Wa, la ftx^edxes 
q!unyats!e lExa^ye qa-s hang'aliles lax mak'iigililasa lalogume 
^wabEtsIala. Wa, la S,x^ed laxa qlwa^ne qa^s LEx^stEndes lax 
^wabEts!awasa lalogume. Wa, lii ts!6ts!ox^iinaq qa lawa^yes L!e- 30 
L !Eq !ak- lEua^yas. Wa, giPmese ^wFlawa l !eL !Eq !ak' lEna^yasexs lae 
q liinsq Iwas^Idxa q!wa^ne LE^wis la^wianEme Lo^mes sasEme. Wa 
al'mese gwalExs lae poh'ida. Wa, g'iPmese gagala gwal q!uns- 
qlwasaxa qlwa^naxs lae k'lEdElx^ida he gwex'sa wunalaxs lae 
gwal naqaxa nEnqlema. Wa, g'll^mese gwal q !unsq Iwasaxa q!wa- 35 
^naxs lae g'exaxes anex'SiV'ye. Wa, g"il^mese Lomax'^id q!ek\'Eseda 
tslEdaqe Lo^mes la-wiinEmaxa q!wa^naxs lae alax'^id la wii^nala 
la giinsgtlntles gegEyagEse la k'leas gwex'^idaas dEx'ala. Wa, 
laxae lElEmg"it!lde oklwina^yas. Wa, laxae alakMala la bEq!u- 
lEla. Wa, he'mis la iiEm la kulEmg'alllats laxes g'eg'aelase qa^s 40 



200 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 35 

41 feci well again, because I they are no longer drunk. That is all 
about this. | 
1 Digging Carrots.' — Tlic woman takes this (cedar-bark basket), | the 
yew-wood digging-stick, her back-protecting | mat and her cedar- 
bark belt. She goes to the | rocks, for carrots generally grow on 
5 rocks where there is grass || on the points of land. When she reaches 
the point where many carrots | were growing the past season (for the 
woman only goes there if she knows | that there were many of them, 
for they have not come out yet), she takes her | back-protecting mat 
and puts it on her back, and she takes her | belt and puts it over it 

10 around her waist, then |j she ties the mat on her back. She takes her 
<ligging-stick I and sits down on the rock. Then she puts her basket 
down in | front of her, and she peels off the grass and the roots from 
the rocks with her yew-wood I digging-stick, so that it turns over 
and the roots show. Then | she picks out the carrots and throws 

15 them into her basket. || After she has selected them from among the 
roots of (other) plants, | she takes her digging stick again (some women 
call it the | peeling-stick for carrots) and she does | as she did before 
when she peeled it off from the rock. After filhng her carrot-basket, | 
she puts it on her back. Generally she uses the peeling-stick for 

20 carrots as a walking-stick. || She goes home to her house; and when she 

41 mex^ede. Wa, g'iPmese tslEX'^ldExs lae es^Ek' la bebEgwauEma lae 
gwal wunata. Wa, laEm gwal laxecj. 
1 Digging Carrots (Ts!6saxa xEtEm'). — Wii, he^mis S,x^etsosa ts!E- 
daqe LE^wis LlEmqlEk'lEne tsloyayowa. Wa, he^mises Lebega^ye 
le^wa^ya LE^wis dEnedzowe wiiseg'anowa. Wa, la qaseiJa laxa 
awlnaklwa qaxs he^mae qlunala q!waxatsa xEtxEt!eda k'!edEk!wa 
5 laxa ewaelba^ye. Wa, g'iPmese lag'aa lax qiayasasa xEtxEt!a 
ci!waxa apsEyinx'de qaxs a^maeda tslEdaqe heEm lagllExs qluLE- 
laaqexs q!enEmae laq qaxs k'!es=mae qlwax^ida. Wa, lii ^x^edxes 
LEbeg'a^ye le^wa^ya qa^s LEbegindes. W^ii, la Sx^edxes dEnedzowe 
wiiseg'anowa qa^s qEneg'Indes laqexs lae wuseg'oyodEs. Wii, la^me 

10 qaqak'Enax LEbeg'a^yas le^wa^ya. Wii, lii ax^edxes ts!oyayowe 
qa^s k!wag'aale. Wa, laEm ha^ne xEtxEt!aats!iis Lliibat lax nEqE- 
malaiis. Wa, la L!ok!ug"ilodxa kMetlsme ylses LlEmqlEkMlne 
ts!oyayo qa heleIbs cja ^naxwes nel^ededa L!op!Ek'e. Wa, la 
mEnmaqaxa xEtxEtla qa^s ts lExts lales laxa Llabate. Wa, 

15 g'ih'mese ^wllg'llqeda oguq!eniase L!op!Eksa qlwasqliixElaxs lae 
et!ed dax'^idxes tsloyayowe yixs LeqElaeda waokwe tsledaqas 
L!ok!ugElayoxa xEtxEtIa laq. Wa, laxae iiEm uEg'EltEwexes 
g-lLx'de gwex'^idaasa. Wii, g'il^mese qot.'e xEt!asiis Llabataxs lae 
oxLEX'^IdEq. Wa, la qlunala sEklaoElaxes L!ok!wayaxa xEtxEtla. 



I Continued from p. 139, line 22. 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 201 

enters, | she puts down her load and puts it on the floor b_v tlie side 21 
of the fire. | 

Digging Lily-Bulbs.* — As soon as (the digging-stick) is finislied, (the ] 
man) gives it to liis wife. | In tlie morning, when day comes, the 
woman arises and | eats before she goes out. i\iter she has finished 
eating, I slie takes her back-protector and her cedar-bark belt || and 5 
her new basket for lily-bulbs and also the | digging-stick for lily- 
bulbs. She goes to the flat on the beach, for ] there the lily grows and 
there is soft sand. When | she reaches the place where there are 
many lily-blossoms, slie | puts down her new basket for lily-bulbs and 
her digging-stick for || hly-bulbs, and she puts the mat on her ])ack. 10 
She puts on the | cedar-bark belt, which she ties around her waist. 
After doing so, I she sits down on the lower end of the back-protector, 
for I the end of it reaches as far as her heels. She pvits down her | 
new basket for lily-bulbs in front of her. She takes her |J flat-edged 15 
digging-stick and pushes the point into the sand on one side | of the 
lily-plant; and when the point is half way in, she | pulls out her 
digging-stick and pushes it into the sand again on one side of the 
plant, i in this way: I I and she pulls it out and pushes it again 

into the sand | at I ' | the upper side, in this way.- She puUs 



Wa, la na^nakwa laxes g-6kwe. Wa, g-tPmese laeL laxes g'okwaxs 20 
lae oxLEg'alllaq laxa mag'lnwallsasa lEgwilases g'okwe. 

Digging Lily-Bulbs.' — Wa, g'tPmese gwalExs lae ts !as laxes gEnEme. 1 
Wa, g'lPmese ^nax'^Idxa gaalaxs lae Lax^wldeda ts.'Edaqe qa^s 
heyasElexs k'!es^mae la qas^ida. Wa, giPmese gwal heyasElaxs 
lae ax^edxes LEbeg"a^ye le^wa^ya LE'wis dsnedzowe wtiseganowa 
LE^wes altsEme x'ogwats.'e dEntsEm Llabata; wa, he^misLes ts!o- 5 
yaysixa x'okiime. Wa, lit qas^id qa^s la, laxa awadziilise qaxs 
he^mae ex- q!waxatsa x'okume loxs tElgwesae. Wa, glPmese 
lag^aa laxa q!e,nEme gogidEtE^wesa x'okumaxs lae hex'^idaEm 
g'ig'alisaxes altsEme x'ogwatsle Llabata LE^wis ts!oyayaxa 
x'okiime. Wa, la LEbegintses le^wa^ye qa^s qEk'tyindeses dEne- 10 
dzowe wiiseg'anowe laq qa's wiiseg'oyodes. Wa, g'il'mese gwalExs 
lae k IwadzodEx bEnba^yases LEbeg'a^j'e le^wa^ya qaxs sEk' !EXLax'- 
sidze^maax oxLax^sidza^yas g-og'Eguyas. Wa, la hangalisaxes 
altsEme x'ogwatsle Llabat laxes iiEqpmalise. Wa, la dax'^Idxes 
pExba ts!oyayowa. Wa, LlEnxbEtEnts pExba^yas lax apsanoL lEXLa- 15 
^yasa x'ogwanowe qa nEgo^yowes tsegwayoba^yas. Wa, la k'lE- 
qulisaxes ts!6yayowe qa^s et'.ede LlEnxbEtalisas lax S,psan6L!Ex- 
La^yas ga gwiiiega (Jig.). Wa, laxae k'lEqOlisaq qa^s et!ede lIeux- 
bEtallsas laxa apsanoL lEXLa^yas g'a gwaleg'a.' Wa, la k" lEqfdisaq 

1 Continued from p. 146, lino 33. s See figiire to left. 



202 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etii.ann._3b 

20 it out II and pushes it into the sand again so that the cuts (in the sand) 
meet. Then she | pries out the lily plant and bulb in this way: | 
The lily-plant is the black spot in the middle of the square. 
Then | she breaks the soil and picks out the bulb, and she 
breaks off the I stem of the lily-bulb and throws it away. 



25 Then she throws the || bulb into her bulb-l)asket. She continues 
doing this | as long as she is digging lily-bulbs. She digs them up 
very quickly when she is digging, for | three finger-widths is the width 
of tlie I digging-stick for lily-bulbs. As soon as the basket is full, I 

30 and when it is a fuie day, she goes to get a mat from her house, || and 
she spreads it out where she is digging. She takes hold of her | basket 
on each side and pours the bulbs on the mat which has been spread out, 
and I she goes on digging as she did before. Now, the bulbs that 
have been poured on the mat are getting dry; j and when the basket 
has been fiUed again, | she pours it out again on the mat. When 

35 evening comes || and it is fine weather, she gets another | mat from 
her house and spreads it over the | bulbs that she has dug so that they 
may not get wet from the night dew. | Wlien day comes, the woman 
goes back to where she is digging the | l)ulbs, and she takes along 

40 another mat, which she spreads out. jj She takes the one that was 
spread over the i i bulbs and spreads it out close to I the 



B 



one on which she | I poured the bulbs. The three mats are 



spread in this way : j She scatters over them the bulbs which 



20 qa^s etlede l lEnxbEtalisas laxa la lElgEwats l lEnqa^yasexs lae k!we- 
t!Eq:llisaxa x'Sgwano LE-'wa x-6kume laxa g-a gwalag-a {fig.). HiiEm 
x-6gwanoweda uExtslowe tsloltsEm topala. Wa, a-mise hex-'^idaEm 
wax-sEndxa dzEqwa qa^s daqodexa x-okume qa^s klulpodexa x-o- 
kiime laxa x-ogwanowe qa^s tslEx^edeq. Wa, laLa ts!Exts!otsa 

25 x-okiime laxes x-6gwats!e Llabata. Wa, ax'sa^mese he gweg-ilaxs 
tslosaaxa x-6kume. Wa, laLa ha'nakwelaxs lae tslosa qaxs 
yuduxMEnae laxEns q!waq!wax-ts!ana^yex yLx '^wadzobaasas tse- 
gwayoba^yasa ts!6yayaxa x'okilme. Wa, g-iPmese qot!e x'ogwa- 
ts!as L!abata lae ax'edxa le'wa^ye laxes g-5kwe, ytxs egldziHaeda 

30 ^nala qa^s la LEpIalisas laxes tsloyase. Wa, la tetEgEnodxes 
x-ogwats!e Llabata qa^s la gugEdzots laxa LEbese le^wa'ya. Wa, 
xwelaqa^mese la ts!os^lda. qaxs' lE'maaLal x-Eleses, la gugEdzoyoxa 
LEbese le-'wa^ya. Wa, g-il^Emxaawise qotle x-5gwats!as Llabataxs 
lae et!ed gugEdzots laxa LEbese le^wa^ya. Wa, gU^mese la dza- 

35 qwaxs yixs eg-idzfdaeda dzaqwa, wa a^mese la ax^edxa ogu^la'maxat ! 
le-'wa^ya laxes g-okwe qa^s lii LEpsEmlisas laxes x-ogwanEme 
x-6kuma qa k" leses xwelaqa klunx^id laxa gosaxElaxa ganuLe. Wa, 
giPmese ^nax'^idxa gaaliixs lae etiededa tslEdaqe laxes x-6gwasaxa 
x-5kume qa^s dalexa ogiVWmaxat ! le^'wa^ya qa^s LEpIaliseq. Wa, 

40 laxae Lx^'ed LEpEyalisaxa x-ogwanEmas x-6kuma qa^'s LEpEnxEllses 
lax modzoyaasasa x-okume g'a gwaleda yfiduxwe leElwa^ya. {fig.). 
Wii, la gweldzotses x-6gwanEme'x-6kflm laq qa ha^nakweles lEmo- 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 203 

she has dug, so that they may dry quickly. | After doing so, she 43 
f^oes again and digs lily-bulbs; and | when she has filled her basket, 
she goes and pours tliem on the || mat. Wlien it gets dark, she goes 45 
and gets more mats ] from her house, and spreads them over the 
bulbs that she has dug. I When she has many, she stops. When it is 
])ad weather, in the | evening she takes short boards and makes a 
roof over them. | There are four posts for it, and she puts two small || 
beams over them ; and she lays on the short split cedar boards, | that 50 
it maybe tight if it should rain. If it is a fine dav in the | morning, 
she takes off the boards of short split cedar-wood and scatters | the 
bulbs over the mats. If the weather is fine, it takes more than I six 
days to dry the bulbs thoroughly in the sun. Now I will || stop for a 55 
short time talking about tlie woman.' . . . | 

After ^ the woman has put the rope around the box for lily-bulbs, | 
she carries it on her back to where she has dried the | bulbs, and she 
puts the bulbs into the box. When | it is full, she takes some Idy- 
leaves || (some Indians call it lily-plant) and she puts them on top. | 60 
Some Indians call this the soft cover for the lily-bulbs. After doing 
this, I she puts the cover on. Some Indians call this "putting the | 
flat cover on the box for lily-biilbs." When it is a fine morning, | 



tD 



^nakiila. Wa, g'iPmese gwiilExs lae et!ed x"o.%^widxa x^okume. Wa, 43 
g'ilnaxwa^mese qotleda x'ogwats!as LlabatExs lae giigEdzots laxa 
le-wa^ye. Wa, g'ilnaxwa^mese dzaqwaxs lae ax^edxa leEPwa^ye 45 
laxes g'okwe qa^s la LEpEytnts laxes xogwanEme x'okuma. Wa, 
giFmese qlEyoLExs lae gwala. Wa, gll'mese yak" lElxElaxa dza- 
qwaxs lae ax^edxa ts !ats !a^x"sE^me qa^'s la sesgEmlisas laq. Wii, 
laEm mots!aqe LCLamas. Wa, la k'ak'EdEtotsa malts !aqe wiswul 
k'ek'atewe lacj. Wa, a-mese la paqEmk' lEna^ya ts!ats!a^x"sEme 50 
laq qa amxes qo yogux'^idLo. Wa, giPmese eg'idzoleda ^nalilxa 
gaalaxs lae sewayodEX salas ts!ats!a^x"sEma qa^s gweldzodesa 
x'okiime laxa leElwa'ye. Wa, gtb'Em aegisa ^nala lae hayaqax 
qlELlExse 'naliisa x'ilaxa x-okunie laxa L!esEla. Wa, la^mEn 
yawas^id gwal gwagwex's^ala laxa ts!Edaqaxs hae.' ... 55 

Wa,-g"iPmese gwaleda tslEdaqe wElxsEmdxesx'ogwatsIe xEtsEma 
lae hex'^idaEm la oxLalaxa xEtsEme qa^'s la lax x'ildzasases 
x'okume. Wa, lii k!ats!6tses xokiime laxa xEtsEme. Wa, gil- 
'meseqotlaxs lae S,x-'ed lax yisx-Enasa xokume. Wa, la ^nek-eda 
waokwe baklflm xogwano, qa^s tslak'iyindes. Wa, laxae ^nek'eda 60 
waokwe bak!um tIak'Eyindes laxa x'okiim. Wa, g'iPmese gwalExs 
lae paqEmts. Wii, laxae ^nek"eda waokwe bak!um yikuyindesa 
yikuya^ye laxa x'ogwatsle xEtsEma. Wa, g'lPmese ek'a gaalaxs 
lae hex'^idaEm la moxsases x'ix"ogwats!e xexEtsEm laxes x'ogu- 

1 Continued on p. 60. - Continueti from p. 81, line 72. 



204 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth.ann. 35 

65 she puts all the boxes with lily-bulbs aboard the || canoe; and when 

they are all aboard, they start for home, | going to the winter village. | 

When they arrive at their house, they unload the canoe, | if it is 

high water at the time of their aiTival. Then they put down the 

boxes I in a cool corner of the house, for the lily-bulbs easily dry up || 

70 when the boxes are put down where it is warm; therefore they are | 
put into a cool corner of the house. There the owner of the roots will 
keep them until the | winter comes and the tribe have a winter 
ceremonial. | 
1 Picking Elderberries, — You know | the way of making various kinds 
of baskets. The basket | of those who pick elderberries is a small- 
meshed basket.' . . . | In' the morning, when it is fine weather, the 
5 woman takes her || hook, her cedar-bark belt, and her small-meshed | 
large basket, which she cames on her back, and she goes to the place 
wliere elderberries are growing, | for elderberi-ies grow only on the banks 
of rivers. There the | woman goes who picks elderberries. As soon as 
she reaches the elderberry-bushes, | she puts there her baskets on the 

10 gi-ound, for generally she has two || or even three baskets for can-ying 
elderberries. She takes her belt | and puts it round her waist; and 
after doing so, she takes her | smallest basket for elderberries and 
hangs it in front of her body. | First she picks off the hemes growing 



65 LE^latsle xwak!una. Wii, giFmese ^wilxsaxs lae alex^illesa. Wa, 
la-'me na^nakwa qa^s la laxes ts'.SwunxElase g'ox"dEmsa. 

Wa, g-ib'mese lag'aa laxes g'okwaxs lae hex-idaEm moltodExs 
yixijlalisaaxs lae lagalisa. Wa, lii he mogwalllElasa xexEtsEma 
wudanegwilases g'okwe qaxs x'Elyak'aeda x'okumaxs ts!ats!Elqwa- 

70 laes niExelasa x-ix'6gwats!e xexEtsEnia. Wa, he^mis lag'ilas he 
mogwalelEma wiulanegwllasa g"6kwe. Wa, laEm lalaal laxa 
ts!awunxe qo ts!ets!ex^idLe g'okulotasa x'ogwadasa x^oktime. 
1 Picking Elderberries (Ts!ex'axa tslex'ina). — Wa, laEmLas q!aLE- 
lax gwegilasasa lExelaxa ogiiqala laElxa=ya. Wa, he^mis Iexe- 
lasa tslex'axa tslex'lneda t!olt!oxsEme lExa^ya.' . . . Wa,^ 
g'il-mese egidzalaxa gaalaxs lae hex'^da^ma ts!Edaq ax^edxes 
5 gai.ayowe LE-wes dEiidzEdzowe wuseg'anowa LE^wes t!6lt!oxsEme 
^walas lExa^ya. Wa, la 5xLalaqexs lae laxa ts!enadaxa tslex^Ina, 
yixs leX'a^mae ts'.enadeda ogwaga^yasa wiwa. Wa, he^mis lalaasa 
ts!e^nenoxwe ts!Edaqa. Wa, g'll-mese lag'aa laxa ts.'ex'mEdzEXE- 
kwalaxs lae hanEmg'aElsElaxes laElxEla qaxs qliinalae maltsEma 

10 Loxs yiidux"sEmae ts!enats!e laElxa^ya. Wii, la ax^edxes wiisega- 
nowe qa^s wiiseg'oyodes. Wa, gil-mese gwalExs lae ax^'edxes 
amayaga^yases ts!e''nats!e lExa^ya qa-'s nanayagsmes. Wa, het!a 
g-ii ts!ex-lts6''seda banaaba^yas. Wii, gil^mese qot!e nanayagE- 

» Continued on p. 155, line 1. ^ Continued from p. 155, line 18. 



iiOAS] HITNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 205 

below; and when the | basket hanging on the front of her body is full, 
she pours the berries into the large basket; || and after she has picked 15 
off from the bushes, aU the eklerberi'ies growing below | she takes the 
hook and pulls down the elderberries growing on the upper part of 
the I bushes, and she picks them off; and when the basket hanging 
in front of her body is fuU, | she pours the berries which she has 
picked into the large | basket for carrying elderberries. She con- 
tinues doing so with her hook, pulling down || the berries on the upper 20 
part of the bushes. After all the | baskets have been filled with 
elderben-ies, she ties down the top, for they are | all heaping fuU. 
After doing so, she carries one at a time | on her back, and she goes 
to ami fi'o, caiiying them down the river. | 

Picking Salal-Berries. — You know the | ways how baskets are made. 1 
They use a large small-meshed | basket for picking saial-bcrries. One 
basket is large, | and the next one is medium-sized, and the smallest 
kind of basket is carried in front of the body. || The name of the large 5 
basket of the woman is "swallowing-basket," | and the next basket 
is called ''middle-one;" | and "front-basket" is the name of the | 
smallest one. In the morning, when it is clear, the woman puts | her 
salal-berry picking baskets one into the other. She takes her belt | 
and puts it into the baskets, and she takes || goat-taUow and chews it. 10 
As soon as she has chewed it, she puts it | into the palm of her right 

masexa ts!ex"Tnaxs lae giiqasases tsIenanEme laxa ^walase lExa^ya. 
Wa, g"lPmese ^wllg'ElEXLOwa banaaba^yasa tsIex'iuEsaxa ts!ex'inas, 15 
lae ax^edxes gaLaj'owe qa^s gaLaxEles laxa ek' !ala ts lenxLawesa 
ts!ex'mEse. Wii, he/mis la tslenatsex. Wa, g'il^Emxaawise q6t!e 
nanayagEmasexs lae giiqasases tslenauEme laxa -'walase ts!enf ts!es 
lExa^ya. Wa, ax"sa^mese he gwegulases g'aLayowe la gaLaxElas 
laxa ek'lala tslenxLawesa tsIex'mEse. Wii, giPmese ^naxwa la 20 
qoqutle ts!ets!enats!as laElxa^ya, lae tiEmakEyhidahxq qaxs ^na- 
xwa^mae L!eL!ak'Emala. Wa, giPmese gwala lae ^nal^nsmsg'E- 
niEmqaxs lae oxLalaqexs lae oxLatosElaq laxa wa. 

Picking Salal-Berries (Nskwaxa uEkliile). — Wii, laEnn.as ^naxwa ] 
q!aLElax gwegilasasa lExeliixa lExa^ye. Wa, la wilxsd t!olt!oxsEme 
lEXEliisa nEkwaxa nEklule. Wii, he^misexs ^walasaeda ^uEmsgEme; 
wii, lii heleda ^iiEmsgEme; wa, he^misa nanaagEmxa ilmayaga^yas 
lEXElas. Wii heEm LegEmsa ^walega^yasa lExElasa tslEdacje niig'e. 5 
Wa, la helomagEmx'Leda miik'ilaq. Wa, la nanaagEmxxeda 
amayaga^yas. Wii, g'iPmese egidzalaxa gaaliixs lae k!wak!us6- 
daleda tslEdiiqaxes nEgwatsIeLe laElxa^ye. Wa ax^edxes wuseg'a- 
nowe, qa^s g'its lodes laxes laElxa^ye. Wa, la ax^edxa yasEkwasox 
^niElxLox qa^s malex^wideq. Wa, g'iFmese ^wFweIx'sexs lae axdzox"- 1 
tsIandEs laxes helk'!ots!iina^ye. Wa, dziik'ots laxes gEmxoltsa- 



206 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etii.ann. 3g 

13 hand and rubs it with the left | hand. When it is all over her hands, 
she I rubs it on her face, so that a thick layer of taUow is on her | 

15 face, and so that the mosquitoes cannot bite through it. || This is 
called "taUow sitting on the face." | 

After she has done so, she takes her salal-picking cedar-bark hat | 
and puts it on. On her back she carries the baskets, and | she also 
takes her paddle and goes down to the beach where her | salal- 

20 berrying canoe is. She launches it and goes aboard. || She sits in the 
stern, and puts the baskets into the canoe. Then | she paddles, 
going to an island where salal-berrics grow, for these are the only | 
places where salal-berries gi-ow well. When she arrives there, she 
ties a stone to her | small canoe, carries the baskets on her back, and 
goes into the woods | to pick salal-bciries. When she reaches the edge 

25 of the salal-berry patch, || she puts down her baskets, takes her belt | 
and puts it round her waist. After that she takes her | front-basket, 
the smallest one of her baskets, and hangs it in front of her chest. 
She puts her | two baskets upright on the ground, | and she picks off 

30 the salal-berries and puts them into the front-basket. || 'V\Tien it is 
full, she pours them into theswallowing-basket, the largest one | of the 
salal-berry baskets. She continues picking them into her front-bas- 
ket. When I it is lieapingfuU, she poui-s them into the medium-sized 
basket; and j as soon as it is full, she pours them into the swallowing- 



12 na^ye. Wa, gll'mese la hamElgEdzE-we lax e-eyasasexs lae dzE- 
dzEk'Euits laxes gogiima^ye. Wa, laEm wakweda yasEkwe lax 
gogiima^yas, qa k'!eses lax'sawe qlEkElasa LesLEua laq. Wa, 

15 heEm LegadEs k!wak!uxumakwasa yasEkwe. 

Wa, giFmese gwalExs lae ax^edxes nEkiimle dentsEm LEtEmla 
qa^s LEtEmdes. Wa, la oxLagintses nenEgwats!e laElxa^ya. Wa, 
la dagilx'Lalaxes se^wayowe qa^s la lEnts!es lax hanedzasases 
nEgwats!eLe xwaxwagiima. Wa, la wr'x"stEndEq qa^s la laxsEq. 

20 Wa, laEm klwaxLaqexs lae hangaalExsaxes laElxa^ye. Wa, la 
sex^wid qa^s la laxa uEgwade laxa ^mak^ala qaxs lex^amae ex" 
qlwaxatsa lEnEmx^de. Wa, gll'mese lag'aaxs lae mogwanodxes 
xwaxwagume. Wa, la oxLagmtses laslxa^yaxs lae aLe^sta laxes 
uEgwasLaxa nEk!ule. Wa, gil'mese lEnxEndxa q!eq!axLalaxa 

25 nEk!uiaxs lae oxLEga^saxes laElxa^ye. Wa, la ax^edxes wuseg'a- 
nowe qa^s wusex'^Ides. Wa, giPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxes nana- 
agEmexa amayaga^yas lEXElas qa^s teklupEleq. Wa, la heli^lalax 
hanx'hatslena^yasa maltsEme laElxa-ya qa alakMales t!et!axEsa. 
Wa, la k!ulp!ldxa uEklule qa^s la k!ulpts!alas laxes nanaagEme. 

30 Wa, g'il^mese qotlaxs lae guqasas laxes nage^xa ^waleg"a^yas 
nEgwatsIas lExa^ya. Wa, la hanaJ k!iilpts!alaxes nanaagEme. Wa, 
g'llnaxwa^mese qotlaxs lae giiqEylnts laxes iiag^a^ye. Wa, gil- 
^mese la Llak'Emalaxs lae et!ed guxtslalaxes helomagEme. Wa, 



uoAs] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHEKING 207 

basket; and | when that is also full and the berries are heaped high, 
she II picks them into her front-basket; and when this is also hea])ing 35 
full, I she puts it on the ground. Then she breaks off good henilock- 
branches and | puts them on the opening of the salal-baskets all 
around; and when | she has put them in standing aU around tlie 
salal-berry baskets, she | bends down the ends and ties the hemlock- 
branches down in this way.' || After tying them down with cedar-bark 40 
rope, which is on the basket, she | puts the swallowing-basket down | 
into her small canoe, and she goes back and j carries the medium- 
sized basket, and she hangs the | front-basket over her chest, and she 
carries one on each side as she jj comes out of the woods, and puts 45 
them in the bow of the travelhng-canoe. As soon as | she has done 
this, she goes aboard her travelling-canoe and paddles | home to her 
house. As soon as she ari'ives on the | beach of her house, she carries 
the largest ] basket on her back and takes it up into her || house. 50 
She puts it down at a place not too near the fire. | She goes down 
again to the other two berry-baskets, and she carries j one on each side 
as she walks up, in the same way as she had done when she came out 
of the woods | when she picked the berries on the island, and she 
puts them down, j 

gipEmxaawise q6t!axs laxes laena^yaxat! Lliik'Emala, wii, laxas 
k!ulpts!6dxes nanaagEme. Wa, gipEmxaawise Llitk'Emalaxs lae 35 
hang^aElsaqexs lae LlEx^wIdxa eke qlwaxe qleuEma. Wa, la 
q!axstEnts lax awe^stils awaxsta^yases nenEgwats!e. Wa, g'il^mese 
^wilala qlwaxtaakwa yudux''sEme nenEx"ts!ala laElxa^ya lae 
gwagunaxbax'^idxa oba^yasa t!ak"Ema^ye qlwaxa, ylxs lae gwal 
tlEmakEyintsa naiame dEnsEn dEUEma laq. Wa, g"lPmese ^wPla 40 
la t lEinakEyaakiixs lae oxLag'Entsa nEgwats!e nag^e qa^s la oxle- 
g'aalExsas laxes ya^yatsle xwaxwaguma. Wa, la xwelaxsag'a qa^s 
la oxLag'Entsa helomagEme uEgwatsla. Wa, lii tEk!upElaxes 
nanaagEme nEgwatsIaxs g'axae tetEkwasElaxa maltsEmaxs g^axae 
laltlala qa^s hanag'Eyodes lax ^g'iwa'yases ya^yats!e. Wa, gil- 45 
^mese gwalExs lae laxs laxes ya^yatsle. Wa, la gaxe sex^wida 
qa^s g'axe na^nakwa laxes g'okwe. Wa, g'iPmese lag'alis lax 
Ltema^isases g'okwaxs lae hex'^idaEm oxLEgllExsaxa ^walegEyas 
lEXElasxa nag'a^ye qa^s la oxLosdesElaq qa^s la oxLaeLElaq laxes 
g'okwe. Wa, la oxLEg'alltas laxa k- !ese uExwala lax lEgwIlas. 50 
Wa, la etEntsIes laxa maltsEme uEgwatsIe laEbca^ya, laxae tetE- 
kwasElaqexs g"axae lasdesEla laxes gwalaasaqexs g'axae l^ltlalas 
laxes uEgwasde laxa mEk'ala. Wa, laxae hS,nEmg"alilas. 

■ That is, the branches are put in between the berries and the basket, tips up, and are then bent over 
from nil sides toward the middle and tied together so that they cover the berries. 



208 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 35 

1 Picking Currants ' (qlesena). — The same baskets | are used by the 
women to pick currants as are used when picking salal-berries, ( and 
there are three of them. When the woman sees that the weather 
is line in the morning, she | takes her baskets and her cedar-bark 
5 belt II and her cedar-bark hat, and puts the baskets on her back. | 
Then she puts on her cedar-bark hat and goes out to the phice where | 
the currant bushes grow. As soon as she gets there, she puts down | 
her currant-picking baskets. She takes her cedar-bark | belt and puts it 

10 around her waist. After doing so, she takes || her front-basket, hangs it 
in front of her chest, hung from a strap around her neck. | She pmches 
off the stems of the currants, and | breaks them off and throws them 
into her front-basket. When it is | full, she pours it into the swallow- 
ing-basket. Then she goes on pinching off | more currants at the lower 
ends of the stems. She pinches them off and throws them into the || 

15 front-basketfor currant-picking; and when it isfull,she goes back and j 
pours them on top of those which she poured in first. When they are 
level with the top of the basket, | she stops pouring them into the swal- 
lowing-basket. She does the same as she did before with the medium 
sized basket; | and when it is also level with the top, she stops pour- 
ing them in, | and she also fills her front basket; and when this is 

-0 full, II she gets skunk-cabbage leaves, which she puts as a covering 
over the | three curraut-baskets. When they are all covered with | 

1 Picking Currants' (Qlesaxa qlesena). — Wa, heEmxat! qledza- 
tslesa ts!Etlaqaxa qlesenes lExslaxs lax'de nEkwaxa nEk!i'i}a yu- 
dux"sEme laElxa-ya. Wa, g'tl'mese ek' lEdzillaxa gaaliixs lae he- 
x'^ida^ma tslEdaqe ax^edxes laElxa^ye LE^wis dEndzEdzowe wuse- 
5 g'anowa le^wIs dEntsEme LEtEmla. Wa, la oxxalaxes laslxa- 
^yaxs lae LEtEmtses dEutsEme LEtEmlaxs lae qas'id qa^s lil lax 
qlwaxasasa qlesniEses. Wii, gtPmese lag"aa laqexs lae hang'a- 
Elsaxes q!eq!edzats!e laElxa-ya. Wa, lii ax^edxes dEndzEdzowe 
wuseganowa qa's wuse^^'oyodes. Wa, giPmese gwalExs lae ax^ed- 

10 xes nanaagEme lExa^ya qa^s teklupEleqexs lae qEnxalax aoxxaasas 
qa^s la e]:)!EXLax oxLa^yas ytsx'Euasa q!esena qa^s epilliqexs lae 
eptslalas laxes q!edzats!e nanaagEm lExa^ya. Wa, g-Jl'mese qo- 
t!axs lae guxtslots laxes nag'e. Wa, lii xwelaqa ep.'EXLax'^idEx 
oxLa^yasa yisx'Euasa qlesena qa^s epaliqexs lae epts!alas la.xaaxes 

15 q!edzats!e nanaagEm lExa'ya. Wa, g'll^mese qot!axs laaxat guqE- 
ytnts laxes gtlx'de guxts!6ya. Wa, gll^mese ^uEmak^Eyaxs lae gwal 
giiqEytndalaxa neg'a^ye. Wa, la heEmxat! gwex'^idxa helomagEme. 
Wa, g ih'Emxaawise ^nEmak'Eyaxs lae gwal guqEylndalaq. Wa, 
laxae qaqutlaaxes nanaagEm lExa^ya. Wa, glPmese qot!axs lae 

20 map led laxa kMEkMaoklwa qa-'s tslak'Eyindixles lax okuya^yasa 
q!eq!edzats!e yudux"sEm laElxa^ya. Wa, gll-'mese 'naxwa la ts!e- 

' Ribea petiolare Dougl. 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 209 

skunk-cabbage leaves, she breaks off straight twigs of huckleberry- 22 
bushes, I and pushes four of them through the top of each of the 
currant- ( baskets. They are put across over the skunk-cabbage leaves; || 
and after she lias done so, it is this way: ,^.-r~t~Tx T^^^ repre- 25 
sents the mouth of a | currant-basket; and / J when they 

are turned on their sides, | none of the cur- I 1/ rants drop 

out through the | skunk-cabbage covering, ^^ — i-'^ because the 
huckleberry-twigs that have been pushed through | hold them in 
tight. First she carries the large basket out on her back || and she 30 
carries it into her | house, and she goes and puts it down in a cool 
corner of the house. Then | she goes back and brings out of the 
woods the medium-sized currant-basket, | and she takes it into her | 
house. Then she puts it down next to the large basket. Then || 
she goes back and brings the currant-basket which is carried in front. 35 
She I carries it out of the woods and brings it into her house and 
puts it down | where the others are. | 

Picking Huckleberries.' — As soon as this (the hook for picking 1 
berries) is finished, (the woman) | gets ready to go and shake off 
huckleberries | in the morning. ... In the morning, when day 
comes, I she arises and eats a light breakfast. After doing so, || she 5 
takes her two huckleberry-baskets and her paddle | and her mat to 



ts!ak'Eyaax"sak'!Ek'!aok!waxs lae LJEx^wldxa naEnqEla gwademsa 22 
qa's lii LlEnqEmstilasa maemotslaqe lax ttwaxsta^yasa q!eq!edzats!e 
laElxa^ya. Wa, laEm ek'IadzEndalaxa ts!ets!ak'Ema^ye k'lEk'Iao- 
k!wa. Wii, lag"a gwalaxslae gwala (^^.). Wa, hebolaEm la awaxstesa 25 
q!eq!edzats!e laElxa-ya. Wa, g'lPmese la waxEm la qox^witsa q!e- 
q!edzats!e laElxa^ya qaxs k'leasae la gwex'^idaas la lawaye ts le- 
ts !ak'Eya^yas k"!Ek'!aok!wa qaeda la Elalayoseda la LfenqErnx'silla 
naEnqEla gwadEmEsa. Wa, la heEingll oxLEx'^itso'seda qledzats.'e 
nage Isxa^ya, qa^s g'axe oxLoltlalaq qa^s la oxLaeLElaq laxes 30 
g'okwe, qa^s la oxLEg'alllaq lax wudanegwilases g'okwe. Wa, la 
xwelaxsag'a qa^s laxat! oxLEx^^'idxa helomagEme q!edzats!e 
lExa^ya, qa^s g'axexat! oxLoltlalaq, qa^s la oxLaeLElaq laxes 
g'okwe, qa^s la oxLEg'alllas lax la hanelatses nag'a^ye. Wa, lit 
xwelaxsag'a, qa^s la oxLEX'^idxa nanaagEme q!edzats!a, qa^s g"axe 35 
oxLoltlalaq, qa^s la oxLaeLElaq laxes g'okwe. Wa, la oxLEg'alilaq 
lax hfix'hanelasases gilx'de hanEmg'alllEma. 

Picking Huckleberries.' — Wa, gtPmese gwalamasqexs lae hex4- 1 
daEm xwanab'Ida, qa^s lalag'Il k'.Elal laxa k'lEladaxa gwadEme, qo 
^nax-''IdElxa gaala . . . Wa, gtPmese ^nax'^Idxa gaalaxs lae 
gag'ustii, qaxs xaLlEx'^ide gaaxstalax'^ida. Wa, gil^mese gwalExs 
lae dax'^idxes maltsEme k'!ek'!Elats!e laElxa^ya LE^wis se^wayowe; 5 
wa, he^mises k!waye le^wa^ya; LE^wis dEntsEme LEtEmla, LE^'wis 

' Continued from p. 140, line 16, 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 1 14 



210 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth.ann. 33 

7 sit on, her cedar-bark hat and her | cedar-bark belt. She carries 
them all as she is going down to the | beach to the place where she left 
her canoe that she is to use when she goes huckleberrying. | She goes 
aboard, sits down in the stern, and paddles, and she goes to the || 

10 huckleberry-patch on an island, for that is where huckleberries grow, | 
that are good to be picked, and the women go there for picking | huckle- 
berries. As soon as she arrives there, she puts out the anchor-line | 
of her canoe. She takes her belt | and puts it around her waist, over 

15 her blanket; |1 and after doing so, she takes her two | baskets and 
puts the smaller basket into the | larger one. She carries them on her 
back, I placing the forehead-strap over her forehead. She puts on 

20 her | hat, and, after doing so, she goes out of her || canoe into the 
thicket, for there are always many | salal-berry-bushes outside of the 
huckleberry-bushes. When | she reaches the huckleberry-bushes, she 
puts down her | baskets and hangs the medium-sized basket | on her 

25 chest, and she goes to the place where she sees many || huckleberries 
on the bushes. She stands under them and bends them down into 
the I basket and shakes off the | huckleberries into it. As soon as 
the huckleberries fall into the basket, | she strikes the bushes with 
the right hand, and all the | huckleberries fall off into the basket. 

7 dEnedzowe wiiseganowa. Wa, la ^wPlEukulaqexs lae lEntsIes laxa 
LJEma^ise lax hanedzasasesk'lElEtlaatsIiixagwadEme xwaxwaguma. 
Wa, la laxs laqexs lae kIwaxLEndqexs lae sex'wida, qa^s la laxes 

10 k'lEladaxa gwadEme laxa ^mEk'ala qaxs hemEuala^mae heladxa 
k" !ek' !EldEmsaxa gwadEme. Wa, he^mis lalaasa tslEdaqexes k"!E}- 
dEmsaxa gwadEme. Wa, glPmese lag-aa laqexs lae q Isldzanodxes 
k'lElEtlaats'.axa gwadEme xwaxwaguma. Wa, la dax'^Idxes wiise- 
g'anowe qa^s qEnoy5des laxes qEnase lax okuya^yases nEX'una^ye. 

15 Wa, g'tPmese gwalExs lae dax-'Idxes maltsEme k'Iek" !Elats!e 
laEbca^ya qa^s hunts lodeses helomagEme k" lElats !e lExa laxa 
'walase nage k'lElatsle lExa'"ya. Wa, la oxLEx'idqexs lae qEX'I- 
walaxa qlalsyowe. Wa, la LEtEmtses kMElsmlaxa gwadEme 
LEtEmla. Wa, gll^mese gwalExs lae liilta laxes kMElEtlaatsle 

20 xwaxwaguma, qa^s la lalaqa laxa q !waxolkwala, qaxs hemEnala- 
^mae lenokiile Llasalaasa k'lEldEmsaxa gwadEme. Wa, g'il-'mese 
lao"aa laxa gwadEmdzEXEkfdaxs, lae hang'aElsaxes k-!ek'!Elats!e 
laElxa^ya. Wa, la ax^'wults !odxa helomagEme lExa^ya, qa^s 
teklfibodesexs lae qas^ida qa^s la laxes la dogul qlexLalaxa gwa- 

25 dEme. Wii, la LaxLElsaqexs lae gElex^widEq, qa^s la gElex''ts lots 
laxes kMElatsIe helomagEme lExa^'ya. Wa, he-'mis lii k" lElalatsexa 
gwadEme. Wa, gilnnese gwal texts !uleda gwadsmaxs lae LEqEl- 
geses helk"!olts!ana^ye laxa gwadEmse. Wit, g'iPmese ^wFlaxalts !a- 
wa gwadEme laxa k!Elats!e helomagEme lExa^ya lae mEx^edxa 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 211 

Then she lets go of the || huckleberry-bush, as there are no more 30 
berries on it. She goes to another bush with | many huckleberries, 
and she does as she did with the | first one. When the small basket is 
full, she I pours the huckleberries that have been shaken off into her 
larger | basket, and she does as she did before to the other one, || and 35 
she shakes off the huckleberries into her small basket; and when | the 
large basket is all fuU and also the small one, | she takes skunk- 
cabbage leaves and spreads them over the two | baskets. She ties 
down the top, and | after doing so, she carries the larger basket on 
her back and || the small one in front of her body. Then she goes 40 
home. I 

Picking Salmon-Berries. — When | the salmon-berries ripen, and l 
when the man wants to give a | salmon-berry feast, he engages many | 
women to go picking salmon-berries. Then they aU take their || 
hooked salmon-berry picking boxes and their front- 1 baskets to pick 5 
the hemes in, which are used besides the hooked boxes for holding 
the picked hemes. ' . . . | 

Now ^ the hired women take the front- | baskets and the hooked 
boxes along, for each of them has besides (a box) | a basket. They 
also take their paddles and go down || to the beach in front of their 10 
houses. Then they go into their | small canoes, and generally there 

gwadEmEsaxs lae lobExLtlla, qa^s la Lex^wid laxa ogu^lamaxat! 30 
qlexLillaxa gwadEme. Wii, lii uEmxaawise naqEmgiltowexes 
g'ilx'de gweg'ilasa. Wa, g'il-mese qot'.e helomagEmasexs lae 
guqosases k'lElauEme gwadEm laxes ^walase nag'e k'lElatsIe 
lExa^ya. Wa, laxae et!ed uEm naqEmg'iltoxes g'ale gweg'ilasaxs 
lae et!ed k' !Elts lodxes helomagEme kMElats!e lExa^ya. Wa, gil- 35 
^mese ^naxwa q6qut!e ^walase nag"e lExiis LE^wa helomagEmaxs 
lae ax^ed laxa k" !ik' !aok !wa qa^s LEpEyindes laxes maltsEme gwe- 
gwadatsle laElxa-'ya. Wa, la t!Emak'EyindEq. Wa, gtl-mese 
gwalExs lae oxLagintsa ^walasagawa^ye gwadatsla. Wa, laLa 
tek'.upElaxa amayagawa-ye gwadatsle lExa^yaxs g'axae na^nakwa. 40 

Picking Salmon-Berries (Hamsaxa qlEmdzEkwe). — Wa, he^maaxs 1 
lae L!oL!Ep!Enxsa qlEuidzEkwe; wa, giPmese q lEmdzEkwelaexsdeda 
bEgwauEmaxa qlEmdzEkwe, yixs helae. Wa, la helaxa qlsyokwe 
tslEdaqa qa las hamsaq. Wa, hex'^ida^mese ^naxwa iLx^edxes 
gegaLEkwe hehEmyats !axa qlEmdzEkwe. Wa, he^misa nanaagEme 5 
lExa^ya. Wa, heEm hanodzesa gaLEkwe hamyatsles. . .' 

Wa,Ha^me ^naxwa^ma he^anEme tsedaqdagilxLalaxes nanaagEme 
lExa^ya LE^wis gaLEkwexa ^nah'uEmsgEme, yLxs a^mae h-inosElaxa 
nanaagEme lExa^ya; wa, he^mises sesE^wayowe, qa^s la hoquntsles 
lax LlEma^isases g'igokwe, qa^s la hogfixsEla laxes hehEmyats !e- 10 
Laxa qlEmdzEkwe xwaxuxwaguma. Wa, la qlimala memema^l- 

> Here follows the description of the berrying-box, p. 140, line 17, to p. 141, line 43. 
« Continued from p. 141, line 34. 



212 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth.ann.ss 

12 are j two in each canoe paddling; and they are going with the bow 
ahead to where they know j many sahnon^ben-y bushes grow. They 
do not all wish to keep together, — | the whole number (of women). 
As soon as they come to a place where they are going to pick salmon 

15 berries, || they go ashore out of their small canoes, and | take their 
baskets and hooked boxes along. | The hooked box is caixied on the 
back, and in front of their bodies hang | the baskets. They have 
tied the small canoes ] ashore by means of the anchor-line. After 

20 this has been done, they go back to the place where the || salmon- 
beiTy bushes gi-ow; and when they come to a place where there are 
many salmon-berries | on the bushes, they put down the hooked box 
so that it stands upright, | and they begin to pick. They put the 
berries into the | front-basket; and when it is fuU, they pour the 
salmon-berries which they have | picked into the hooked box. They 

25 do so every time || when they fill the front-basket. When the box 
is full, I they fill the front-basket too; and as soon as it | is full, they 
carry it on their backs to the hooked boxes. Then they | put them 
into the small canoe, they go | aboard, and go home to their houses. 

30 As soon as they arrive || at the beach of the house, they hang the 
front- 1 basket in front of the body. The man who engaged them goes 
down to the beach | and carries up the hooked boxes, and he pours 
the I benies into an empty oil box. | 

12 tslalaxs lae sex^wida. Wa, la^me heEm gwamag'iwales q!ale 
q!eq!adEx qlwalmEse liixes k" !ets lena^ye helqlala q!ap!ala laxes 
^waxaase. Wa, g'il^mese lag'aa laxes hehEmyasLaxa q!EmdzEkwaxs 

15 lae hox^wultax'da-xwa laxes heliEmdzELalatsle xwaxuxwaguma, qa^s 
dedagilxLalexes nanaagEme lExa^ya LE^wis gaLEkwe hamyatslexa 
qlEmdzEkwe. Wa, la oxLalaxa gaLEkwe ylxs laaLal tetek!upElaxes 
nanaagEme lExa^yaxs lae mogwanodxes hehEmdzELalats!e xwaxu- 
xwaguma. Wa, g'U^mese gwalExs lae aLe^sta laxa qlwalmEdzE- 

20 xEkula. Wa, gil-mese laqa laxa q !eq !axLalaxa qlEmdzEkwe 
qlwalniEsa, lae oxLEg'aElsaxes gaLEkwe. Wa, a^mise la nEngatols 
hansaxs lae hiims^Ida. Wa, la^me hamtslalasa qlEmdzEkwe laxes 
nanaagEme lExa^ya. Wa, g'il^mese qot!axs lae guxts!6tses ham- 
yauEme qlEmdzEk" laxa gaLEkwe. Wa, la hex'saEm gwegilaxs 

25 lanaxwae qot!es nanaagEme lExa^ya. Wa, gU'mese q6t!e gaLE- 
kwasexs lae qaqot!aaxes nanaagEme lExa^ya. Wa, g'iPmese 
qot'.axs lae 5xLEg"iIsaxes qlEmdzEgwatsle gaLEkwa, qa^s g'axe 
oxLEg'aalExsas laxes hamdzELalatsle xwaxwagume. Wa, lax'da^xwe 
laxs laqexs g'axae na-nak" laxes g'okwe. Wa, g'il-'mese lag'alis 

30 lax LlEma^isases g'okwaxs lae lex"aEm teklubayes nanaagEme 
lExa^ya, qa^s a6k!iinaaq. Wa, lada helauEmaq lEntsles laxa Ltema- 
^ise, qa^s lii, oxLosdesaxa q!EmdzEx"ts!ala gaLEkwa, qa^s la guxts!otsa 
qlEmdzEkwe laxa dEngwatslEmote. 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 213 

Picking^ Crabapples. — The same kind | of large swaUowing-basket 1 
and the medium-sized basket | and the front-basket are used by the 
woman for picking | crabapples, when she goes to pick them at 
Knight Inlet and Gwa^ye^, for these are the only places where large || 
crabapples grow that are not rotten. They are not rotten inside, | 5 
and therefore the women who pick crabapples go to these places, for 
they are not | like the craliapples of the islands, which are rotten 
outside I and inside. They only become harder when | the women 
boil them. Therefore they pick the crabapples || that I have men- 10 
tioned. The season for picking crabapples is | when they are stiU 
green. The woman who works on crabapples watches | until they 
are large enough. When they are large enough, | the woman gets 
ready, takes the | three baskets which 1 have named, |j the paddle, 15 
and the punting-pole, her cedar-bark belt, | and her cedar-bark hat, 
and goes aboard her small | canoe. She puts her baskets aboard, 
and I the belt around her waist. She wears her | cedar-bark hat; 
and when she is ready, she stands in the || bow of the small canoe, 20 
takes the punting-pole | and pimts up river stern fii-st, when she is 
poling up the river at Knight Inlet. | When she comes to a place 
where there are many crabapple trees, she puts ashore | and steps 

Picking Crabapples (TsElxwaxa tsElxwe). — Yixs h^emaaxat ! tsEl- 1 
^watsleda ^wfdase niige lExa^ya LE^wa helomagEme lExa^ya. Wa, 
he^misLeda nanaagEme lExa^ya, ytsa tslEdaqaxs lae tsElxwaxa 
tsElxwe lax Dzawade lo^ Gwa^ye, qaxs lEx'a^mae awawadx5x 
tsElxwex Loxs k'lesae q!fllqilltsEm!i,. Wii, laxae kMes q!ulq!rdeqa; 5 
wa, lag'ilas ^nEmeyastayaatsa tsetsEpwenoxwe tsledaqa, yixs k" !esae 
he gwex'se tsElxwase tsElxwasoxda ^maEmk'alaxs q!weq!ulq!ultsE- 
mae loxs q!weq!ulq!uleqae. Wa, la aEin p!ep!EtsEmx'^IdExs 
wax"aeda ts!Edaqe qlolaq. Wa, he^mis lagulas lex'aEm tsEPwasEn 
lax'de Le.LEqElasE^wa, yixs he^maaxat! tsElxwax'dEmxa tsElxwaxs 10 
he^mae ales lEnlEnxsEma. Wii lex'a^mes aEm doqwalaso^sa tsEl- 
tsEl^wenoxwe tsedaq, qa awox^wldesa tsElxw^e. Wa, giPmese awox- 
^wldExs laeda tslsdaq hex^^idaEm xwanai'ida. Wa, la^me ax^edxa 
yudux"sEme laElxa^yaxEn lax'de LCLEqElasE^wa. Wii, he^misa 
se^wayowe LE^wa dzomegale. Wii, he^mises wuseg"anowe dEndzE- 15 
dzowa LE^wis dEntsEme LEtEmla. Wa, lii laxs laxes tsElxuLElatsle 
xwiixwaguma. Wii, ux^iiiExsaxes laElxa^ye, qa^s wusex'^Ideses 
dEndzEdzowe wuseg'anowa laxes gwiilElaene^me LEtEmalaxes 
dEutsEme LEtEmla. Wa, giPmese gwalExs lae Laxiig'iwex ag'i- 
wa^yases tsElxuLElatsle xwaxwagiimaxs lae dax-^Idxes dzomeg'ale, 20 
qa^s tenox^wide hE^x"dzEgEmiilaxs lae tenostiila lax was Dziiwade. 
Wii, g'iPmese lag'aa liix tsElx^mEdzEXEkulaxs lae t !enogwaElsaxes 
tsElxuLElatsle xwaxwagiimaxs lae l^tawa, qa^s moxulsex oba^yases 



214 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

out of the canoe. She ties up the end of her | anchor-hne (some 

25 Indians call it the tying line). || After she has done so, she carries the 
throe I baskets on her back, one inside the other; and she carries 
them along, looking for a tree | with many crabapples. Then she 
puts down her | large basket and takes out the t econd basket, | 

30 which she also puts down, and takes out the front-basket. || This she 
hangs in front of her body and picks crab-apples, | picking them off in 
bunches. She puts them into her | front-basket; and when that is 
full, she pours it ] into the large basket. Then she goes back and 
picks off more | crabapples into her front-basket; and when it is 

35 full, II she pours them again into the large basket. She continues j 
doing this ; and when the large basket is full, | she does the same with 
the medium-sized basket; and when that also is full, | she picks into 
her front-basket; and when that is also full, j she carries the large 

40 basket on her back, and pours its contents || into the small canoe, in 
case there are many crabapples | on the trees; and she also pours 
the other basket into the canoe, | and she goes on picking apples into 
her front-basket, and | she does as she was doing before. When j 

45 the thi-ee baskets are full, she carries the || large basket on her back 
into the | small canoe. She goes back and carries the medium-sized | 



qlEldzana^ye, ytxs Leqalaeda waokwe bakliimas mogwana^ye, laxa 

25 qlEldzana^ye. Wa, g'iPmese gwalExs lae oxxEX'^idxes yudux"SEme 
laElxexs k!wak!usaiae, qa^s la oxLayak'Elaq, qa^s la alaxa S.lak"!ala 
la qlexLalaxa tsElxwe tsElx"mEsa. Wa, ex'^mese hang-aElsaxes 
naff'ae ^walas lExa^ya, qa^s hunoltslddexa helomagEme lExa^ya. 
Wa, laxae hangaElsaqexs laaxat! hanoltslodxa nanaagEme lExa^ya. 

30 Wa, he^mis la tekluboyosexs lae tsElx^wldxa tsELxwe. Wa, 
laEnrxae epiEXLax ^nal-nEmxLalaena^yas, qa^s la epts!alas laxes 
tsEl^watsle nanaagEm lExa^ya. Wa, g-lPmese qotlaxs lae giixtslots 
laxes ^walase nag'e lExa^ya. Wa, la et!ed la eptslalax'^idaxaasa 
tsElxwe laq laxes nanaagEme lExa^ya. Wa, g iPEmxaawise q6t!axs 

35 laaxat! et!ed guqasas laxes ^walase nag'e lExa^ya. Wa, ax'sa'^mese 
he o-weg'ilaq. Wa, g'iPmese qotleda ^walase nag'e lExasexs lae 
heEmxat! gwex--idxa helomagEme lExa^ya. Wa, g-Il^mese qot!axa- 
axs lae eptslalaxes nanaagEme lExa^ya. Wa, g'iPmese qot.'axaaxs 
lae oxLEX'^idxes ^walase nag'e lExa^ya, qa^s la gQx^alExsaq laxes 

40 tsElxuLElats !e xwaxwaguma, ylxs qlenEmae tsEltsElxuxxawa^yasa 
tsetsElx"mEse. Wa, la ^naxwaEm gux^alExsElaxa waokwe laElxa- 
^ya. Wa, laxae et!ed epts!alax'^Idxes nanaagEme lExa^j^a. Wii, 
laEmxae ^.Em naqEmg'iltEwexes g'ilx'de gweg'ilasa. Wa, g'lpEm- 
xaawise ^naxwa qoqutle yudux"sEme laElxesexs lae oxxEX'^Jdxes 

45 ^walase niig'e lExas, qa^s g'axe oxLEg'aalExsaq laxes tsElxuLElats !e 
xwaxwaguma. Wa, laxae aedaaqa oxLEX'^idxes helomagEme 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 215 

basket, while she is carrying the front-basket in front of her body. 47 
When I all the baskets have been put into the canoe, she steps into 
the I bow of the small canoe, takes the paddle, || pushes the canoe 50 
off shore, and paddles. She goes down stern first, j drifting down the 
river. As soon as she arrives in front of her | house, she goes ashore, 
and then her | husband goes to meet her, and carries on his back the 
large | basket with crabapples up the beach and into his house. || 
Then he puts it down. He spreads out a new mat; and when | that 55 
is done, he pours the crabapples on to it. When the basket is | 
emptied, he goes back, carrying it down on his back, and he gives it 
to his wiie; \ and he carries up the medium-sized basket, which he 
also I carries on his back, going up the beach, and he goes and car- 
ries it into his house. Then || he pours the crabapples on the mat at 60 
the place to' which he had carried the firet | crabapples; and when 
this is done, he goes down again, | carrying the empty basket on his 
back. He gives it | to his wife, who fills it with crabapples, and also 
the large | basket. The large basket has abeady been filled in the 
canoe i| when he arrives. Then he | carries it on his back up the 65 
beach into the house, and | he puts it down. Then he carries on his 
back the medium-sized | basket, he carries it up and puts it down | 



lExa^ye laxes tek lupElaena-'yaxes nanaagEme lExa^ya. Wa,g'lPmese 47 
^wIlg'aalExs lax tsElxuLElats!as xwaxwagiimxsexs lae laxsa lax 
agi^wa^yases tsElxuLE^lats !e xwaxwagumaxs lae dax'^Tdxes se^wa- 
yowe, qa^s qlotElsesexs lae sex'wida. Wa, la^me hE^x"dzEgEmalas 50 
g'axae y5lala laxa wa. Wit, g'll^mese lag^aa lax nEgEt!ases 
g'okwaxs lae ^uEmsalisa. Wa, giPmese niEmsalisExs lae la^'wu- 
nEms lalalaq, qa^s QxLEgilExsexa ^walase nag'e tsEpwatsIe 
lExa^ya, qa^s la oxLOsdesElaq, qa^s la oxLaeLElaq laxes g'okwe. 
Wa, la oxLEg'a^Iilas. Wa, la LEpIalllasa Eldzowe le^wa^ya. Wa, 55 
gil^mese gwalExs lae gilgEdzotsa tsElxwe laq. Wa, g'lPmese la 
loptslaxs lae xwelaqa oxLEnt IsesElaq, qa^s tslawes laxes gEnsme. 
Wa, la oxLEx-'idxa helomagEme tsEpwats!e lExa^ya, qa^s laxat! 
oxxalaqexs lae lasdessla, qa^s la oxLaexElaq laxes g^okwe. Wa, 
laxae gugEdzotsa tsElxwe laxa le^wa^'ye, yix la giigEdza^hlats g'ale 60 
la oxLaeLEms tsElxwa. Wa, giPmese gwalExs lae xwelaqa oxLEn- 
tslesElaq laxa loptslEwe helomagEme lExa^ya, qa^s liixat! ts!as 
laxes gEUEme, qa k' !ats lodesesa wulExse tsElx" laq LE'wa Hvalase 
nag'e lExa^ya. Wii, la^raes qot!alalExsa ^walase tsEpwatsle nag'e 
lExa-yaxs lae lag'aa. Wa, hex'^daEmxaawise oxLEx'^idEq, qa^s la 65 
oxLosdesElaq, qa^s la oxLaeLElaq laxes g'okwe. Wii, a^mese 
hang'alilasexs lae etEnts!esa, qa^s lit oxLEX'^Idxa helomagEme 
lExa^ya. Wa, g'tlx^Emxae oxLosdesElaq qa^s g'axe oxLEg'alllas 



216 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etii. ann. 35 

70 where the other baskets are. Finally his wife || comes up, carrying 
the front-basket. She goes up the beach and | puts it down with 
the other baskets containing crabapples. Then she | eats a Uttle 
food. After doing so, she asks her husband to | help her clean off 
the stems of the crabapples. | 
1 Picking Viburnum-Berries. — The | season for picking viburnum-berries 
is towards tlie end of summer, when it is nearly autumn.' ... | As 
soon as the viburnum-berries are nearly ripe, when they are still green, | 
5 the woman gets ready to pick them. She takes her || three baskets,^ 
the large swallowing basket, the medium-sized swaUowing-basket, | 
and the small front-basket. These are the same as the baskets into 
which huckleberries and | salal-berries are picked. She carries the 
baskets on her back, | and goes down in the morning to the beach in 
front of her house, where her | small canoe is. She puts the basket 

10 aboard the canoe and || goes in. Then she takes her punting-pole 
of henrlock and | punts up the river of Knight Inlet, for that is the 
only place where viburnum-berries grow. | As soon as she reaches 
the place where viburnum-berries grow, she backs the stern | of the 
small canoe towards the shore, and she leaves the canoe. She | takes 
out the anchor-line and ties it to the end of a stake. After doing so, || 

15 she takes her baskets, carries them on her back, and puts them | down 
to where she sees many viburnum-berries on the trees. She only | 
takes her front-basket, which she carries in front of her body, and. 



laxes hil^naktilasaxa waokwe laEbca^ya. Wa, la-me he^me gEUEmas 

70 tekliipElaxa nanaagEmaxs gaxae htsdesEla. Wa, la heEmxat! la 

hiinqaseda waokwe tsetsEl^watsle laElxa^ya. Wa, la^me xaLlEX'^id 

LlExwa laxeq. Wa, gil'mese gwalExs lae helaxes la^wiiiiEme qa 

liis g-iwalaq qo k'lntalaLEx tsEltsElx"raEts!EXLa^yas. 

1 Picking Viburnum-Berries (TiElsaxa tiElse). — Wa, he^maaxs lae 

Elaq t'.EltlElyEnxa la gwabEndxa heEnxe, jixs lae ex'ala lavEnxa. . .' 

Wii, g'lPmese Elaq L!obExL5deda tiElsaxs he^'mae ales lEntenxsEme, 

laas xwanaHdeda t!Elts!ELElaLe ts!Edaqa. Wa, laEm ax^edxes 

5 yudux"sEme laElxa^yaxa ^walase nag'e LE'^wa helomagEme. Wa, 

he/mises nanaagEme, ytx k'lElatslasexa gwadEme, loxs uEkwaaxa 

nEk!ule hex-saines lEXElase. Wa, la oxLEX'^ldxes laElxa^yaxa 

gaala; qa^s la lEntsles laxa LlEma^isases g'okwe lax hanedzasases 

t!EldzELElats!eLe xwaxwaguma. Wii, la oxLEg'aalExsases laElxa^ye 

10 laqexs lae laxsa. Wii, lii dax-^Idxes dzomegale qlwaxasEna qa^s 

tenox'wide lax wiis Dzawade, qaxs lex'a^mae ex' q!waxatsa tiElse. 

Wii, giPmese lag'aa laxa tlElsniEdzEXEkiiliixs lae kMax'Elsa oxLa- 

^yases tiEldzELElatsle xwaxwaguma, qa^s lii lalta. Wii, lii diig-t- 

lExsax mogwanii^yas, qa^s mox^'walisex oba^yas. Wa g'lPmese gwa- 

15 Iexs lae ax^edxes laEbca^ye, qa^s oxLEx-^Ideq, qa^s la oxLEgaElsas 

liixes la dogul q!exLiila t!Els l5xa tlElsniEse. Wa, lex'a-mes ax^e- 

tso^ses nanaagEme lExa^ya, qa's la tek!ub6tsex lae LoxLElsaxa 

' Continued on p. 118. 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHEKING 217 

stands under | the tree that has many berries. She plucks off 1? 
a bunch at a time | and puts them into her front basket. It does not 
take II long before the front-basket is filled; and when it is full, she 20 
goes I and pours the berries into the large swaUowing-basket. 
Then | she picks some more into the front-basket; and when that is 
fuU again, | she goes back and pours them into the large swallowing- 
basket; and when her | large basket is fuU, she does the same with 
the second medium-sized basket. || When there are very many ber- 25 
ries, I she spreads her blanket in the bow of the canoe, | and carries 
the large swallowing-basket to the canoe and j pours out the vibm-nirai- 
berries that are in the swaUowing-basket on the blanket; j and she 
does the same with the medium-sized basket. Then || she goes back 30 
to the place where she was picking berries, and tries to fill the j 
three baskets again. When they are full, | she carries them on her 
back and puts them aboard the canoe; and when | they are all aboard, 
she unties the anchor-line from the stake, | goes aboard, and drifts 
downstream. || Then she goes home. As soon as she arrives at the 35 
beach | in front of the house, her husband comes down to meet her, 
and he carries on his back | the large swaUowing-basket. He carries 
it up the beach, | and puts it down at a cool place in the house. Then 
he goes down again, | and carries on his back the medium-sized basket, 

qlexLala tiElsmEsaxa tiElse, qa^s k!ulp!edex ^nal^uEmxLalaena^yasa 18 
t!Else, qa^s lii k!idpts!alas laxes nanaagEme lExa^ya. Wa, k'!est!a 
galaxs lae qotle nanaagEme lExas. Wii, g'lFmese qot!axs lae 20 
qEpasases t lElyauEme laxa ^walase nag'e lExa^ya. Wa, laxae et !ed 
klfdptslalaxes nanaagEme lExa^ya. Wa, g'lPEmxaawise qot!axs 
lae qEpasas laxa ^walase nag"e lExa^ya. Wa, gil^mese q6t!eda 
^walase nag'e lExaxs lae hcEmxat! gwex'^Idxa helomagEme lExa^ya- 
Wa, g'tPmese alak'Iala q!enEma tiElse lae iix^edxes ^nEx^una^ye, 25 
qa^s la LEpIalExsas lax agiwa^yases t!EldzELElats!e xwaxwaguma 
Wa, la oxLEX'^idxes tteldzatsle ^walas nag'e lExa^ya, qa^s la 
qEbEdzotsa tlEltsIslx'dasa ^walase nag'e lExa laxa LEbExse ^uex^u 
nils. Wa, laxae heEm gwex'^ldxa nanaagEme lExa^ya. Wa, la 
aedaaqa laxes tiElyasaxa tiElse, qa^s la qaqotlaa ^naxwaxes 30 
yudux"sEme laElxa^ya. Wa, g'tPmese ^naxwa qoqutlaxs lae oxle- 
g'aalExsElaq laxes t!EldzELElats!e xwaxwagfima. Wa, g'lPmese 
^wilg'aalExsExs lae qwelodEx moklwasas mogwanii^yases tlEldzELE- 
latsle xwaxwaguma. Wa, la laxs laqexs g'axae yolx'^Ida. Wa, 
g'ax^Em na^nak" laxes g'okwe. Wa, g'll^mese g'ax^alis lax LlEma^i- 35 
sases g'okwaxs lae lalale la^wunEmaseq. Wa, hex'^ida^mese oxle- 
g'llExsaxa ^walase nag'e t!Elyats!aIa lExa^ya, qa^s la oxLosdesElaq 
qa^s la oxLEg'lllIas laxa wudanegwilases g'okwe. Wa, laxae etEn- 
tslesa, qa^s la oxLEg'ilExsaxa nanaagEme t Ifilj^ats lala lExa^ya, qa^s 



218 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth.ann.ss 

40 and || carries it up the beach to his house, and he | puts it down at the 
same place where he put the large basket. | Then he goes down again, 
and takes hold of each corner of the blanket containing the berries, | 
and he carries them up into his house | and puts them down where 
the berry baskets stand. | 
1 Picking Qotlxole. — When the | qot'.xole are nearly ripe, when it is 
nearly winter, | the woman takes a flat^bottomed basket. Some- 
times there are | three or even four flat-bottomed baskets. This 
5 is also on the || upper coiu-se of the Knight Inlet River. It is 
named by the DEuax'da^x" | L'.ak'.um, what is called by the Kwa- 
kiutl qot'.xole. They call the man who has them " owner of qot !xole," | 
and they call the picldng qotaxE. The DEnax'da^x" | call the 
picking Llahwa. \ 

10 I wUl speak of this as the Kwakiutl speak. || The woman takes her 
baskets, as she goes down to the beach carrying the | baskets on her 
back, one inside of the other. She goes aboard her small canoe, and | 
she puts the baskets into the canoe. Then she takes the punting- 
pole, I stands up in the bow of the small canoe, and | poles up the 

15 river. She goes stern first, poling up the river || of Knight Inlet. 
As soon as she arrives at the place where the berries grow, she goes 
ashore. I First she takes the anchor-line of her small canoe I and ties 



40 liixat! oxLosdesElaq, qa^s lit oxLaeLElaq laxes g"6kwe, qa^s la 
oxLEg'alilas lax hane4asasa ^walase nag'e t !Elyats liila lExa^ya. 
Wa, lii etEnts!esa, qa^s lii dadEnxEndxa tiEldzEdzala ^nEx^unes, 
qa^s g'axeqlEnep^wiisdesElaq, qa^s la qlEnebeLElaq laxes g"okwe, 
qa^s la q!Enep!ahlas lax hfix'hane^lasasa t let Ifilts liila laElxa^ya. 
1 Picking Qotlxole (Qotaxa qot!xole). — Wa, he^maaxs lae 
Llopeda qotlxoliixa la Elaq tslawunxa. Wa, he'mis la fix^edaatsa 
tslEdaqaxa LeLEqiExsde laElxa^ya, ytxs ^nal-uEmplEnae yfidux"- 
sEma Loxs mosgEmae laElxa^yas LeLEqlExsdEX'sa, ytxs he^maaxat! 
5 la nEldzii Dzawadexa gwE^yasa DEnax'da^xwe L!egwada, qaxs 
L!ak!umx'Laeda gwE^yowasa Kwag'ule qotlxole. Wa, la qodEdxE- 
lax g'ayasas, wa, la qotaxElaxa mEnaq. Wa, laLeda DEnax'da- 
^xwe LlakwaxElaxa mEnaq. 

Wa, hetlaLEn yaqlEndasLC gwek' lalasasa Kwag'ule. Wa, la- 

10 ^mes ax^ededa tslEdaqaxes laElxa^ye, qa^s la lEutsles oxLalaxes 
laElxa^yaxs lae klwak Insula, qa^s la laxs laxa xwaxwagume. Wa, 
la oxLEgaalExsaxes laELxa^yaxs lae dax'^Idxa dzomeg'ale, qa^s 
Laxug"ewa^ye lax ug"iwa^yases qodELElatsleLe xwaxwagumaxs lae 
ten5x^'wida. Wa, la^me hE'x^tslEgEmalaxs lae tenostala laxa was 

15 Dzawade. Wa, gH^mese lagaa laxa qodadaxs lae uEmsElsa. 
Wa, hii^mis g"ll ux^etso-scda mogwanayases qodELElatsle xwaxwa- 
giima, qa^s la mox^wits oba^yas laxa i-ag-agelisaxa wa. Wa. 



BOAS] HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 219 

the end to a tree standing on the bank of the river. | After doing so, 18 
she carries tlie baskets on her back | to the place where she knows 
many berries are growing; and when || she comes to where they are 20 
thickest, she puts down her baskets, | puts the cedar-bark belt 
around her waist, and, | after doing so, she puts on her cedar-bark 
hat. Then | she places the baskets apart, one in each place among 
the I plants, and she picks off the berries and puts them uito the || 
nearest basket. She is sitting between the baskets. | Therefore she 2.5 
puts them into the nearest one, and therefore sJie puts them | into 
every basket that has been put dowTi all around the woman. As | 
soon as aU the baskets are full, she does not carry them on her back, | 
but she takes hold of each side with her hands || and carries them out 30 
of the woods, taking them to her | small canoe. She puts them down 
in the bow of the | canoe; and when they are all in, she | goes into 
the bow of the canoe, after having untied the anchor-line. | Then she 
takes her paddle and pushes off her small || canoe, and she paddles. 35 
She drifts down the river; | and as soon as she reaches the front of the 
house, she goes ashore. | When she arrives, she takes hold of the 
baskets on each side | with her hands, and carries them up the 
beach. ] After they have all been taken up, she eats a little. | 



g'iPmese gwala lae oxLEgElExsaxes qeqodatsIeLe laElxa^ya qa^s j^g 
la oxJLayak'Elaq laxes q!ale q!eq!adxa qot!xole. Wa, g'll^mese 
lag"aa lax wagwasasexs iae oxLEg"aElsaxes qeqodatsIeLe laElxa^ya. on 
Wa, la^me wusex'^itses dEndzEdzowe wiiseg'anowa. Wa, giPmese 
gwalExs laaxat! LEtEmtses dEntsEme LEtEmla. Wa, giPmese 
gwalExs lae gwelElsaxes laElxa^ye, qa ^nal^uEmsgEmeses hehEngexa 
qotmEse. Wa, la mEnx'^Idxa q5t!xole, qa^s la guxts!alas laxa 
DExwala lExa laq laxes iiene^me uEq !E»Ilesxes laElxa^ye. Wa, 25 
he^mis la guxts '.otsoses ex'ax-idaasa, lag-ila ^naxwaEm giixtslti- 
laq laxes ^waxaasasa laElxa^yaxs hehEne^stalaaxa tslEdaqe. Wa, 
g-tHmese ^naxwa qoqut!e qeq6dats!as laElxa^ya, lae kMes oxLalaq, 
yixs a^mae dadanoweses wax'soltslana^ye lax wax-sana^yases 
qodatsle lExa^yaxs lae daltlalaq, qa^s la dag'aalExsElaq laxes qq 
qodELElats!e xwaxwagiima, qa^s la hang-aatexsaq laxa aguwa^yases 
qodELElatsle xwaxwaguma. Wa, g'il-mese ^wilg'aalExsExs lae 
laxsa laxa oxLa^ye laxes laeneEmx'de qwelElsaxa mogwanaya. 
Wa, la dax-^idxes se^wayowe qa^s qlodEtlodexes q5dELElats!e 
xwaxwaguma. Wii, la^me sex^wida, qa^s g-axe yolala laxa wa. oc 
Wa, g-iPmese lag'aa lax uEgEtlases g'okwaxs lae uEmsahs lax 
LlEmansas. Wa, gll^mese lag'aaxs lae TiEmxat! dadanoweses 
wax-solts'.ana^ye e^eyaso lax wax'sanii^yases qodatsle lExaxs g-axae 
lasdesEla. Wa, glPmese ^wPlosdesaxs lae xaLlEx-^Id L.'Exwa. 



220 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL 1kth.ann.35 

1 Picking Dogwood-Berries. — | The women use the same large basket 
and medium-sized basket | and front-basket. When the man thinks | 
they will give a feast of dogwood-berries, he engages many old |1 
5 women to go and pick tlie berries. They each carry on the back 
their | three baskets, one inside the other; and when | they come to 
a place where there are many of them, they put down the baskets, 
take out tlie | front-basket and hang it in front of tire body, and begin 
to pick. I They pick the berries very fast, and some people call the 

10 picking qEk-a. || As soon as the women fill the front-basket, | they 
pour (the berries) into the large basket and go on | picking as 
before; and when the front-basket is filled, | again they pour the 
contents into the large basket. Tliey continue | doing this while 

15 they are picking; and as soon as the three || baskets are filled with 
berries, they carry them on their backs, — the ] large baskets, — and hang 
the front-baskets in front of the body, | and then they go home to the 
house of the man who engaged them. As soon | as they go in, they 
put down the large baskets, and | the man takes an empty oil-box 

20 and pours the bei-ries || into it. When the large basket is empty, he 
gives it back to the | owner, and then the women who picked tlie 
berries go | home. They take for themselves the berries in the front- 



1 Picking Dogwood-Berries. — QEkaxa qEk" !aale ' yixs he^mae la qE- 
g'atslesa tslEdaqes nag'a^ye ^walas lExa^ya LE-wa helomagEme 1e- 
xa^ya Lo^mes nanaagEme lExa^ya, ylxs g'iPmae nenk" leqEleda 
bEgwanEme, qa^s qskelexa qsklaalaxs lae helaxa q'.Eyokwe laEl- 
5 kluna^ya, qa liis qEk'axa qEk'Iaale. Wii, la ^naxwaEni oxLalaxes 
yaeyfidux^sEme lasLxa-'yaxs k!wak!usalae. Wa, giPmese lag'aa lax 
qiayasas, lae oxLEg'aElsaxes laElxa-'ye. Wa, la ax^wultslodxa 
nanaagEme lExa^ya, qa^s lii, tek.'iipElaqexs lae h&ms^ida. Wa, la 
Lomax'^Id halabaleda hamsaxa qEk' !aale, ytxs qEk'axElaeda wao- 

10 kwe tsledaqxa hamsaq. Wa, g-lPmese qot!e nanaagEme lExa- 
sexs lae guxtslots laxes nag'e ^walas lExa^ya. Wii, la et!ed ham- 
s^idaxat!. Wa, giPEmxaawise qot!e nanaagEmas lExaxs lae 
et!ed guxts!ots laxaaxes nag'e ^walas lExa^ya. Wa, la hex'sa 
gweg'ilaxs hSmsae. Wa, gil^mese ^naxwa qoqiitle yudux^sEme 

15 qeqEg'ats!es laElxa^yaxs, g'axae oxLolt !alaxes qEg'atsle nage 
^walas lExa^ya. Wa, la tek!upElaxes qEgatsle nanaagEme lExa- 
^yaxs g'axae na^nakwa laxa g'okwas helauEmaq. Wa, g'IPmese 
laeLExs lae oxLEg'alilasa qEg'atsle ^walas lExa^ya. Wii, leda 
bEgwanEme ax^edxa dEngwats!emote, qa^s lii guxtslotsa qEk'!aale 

20 laq. Wii, giPmese lil Iopts!aweda nag'e ^walas lExaxs lae ts!as lax 
axnogwadas. Wa, he^mis la nii^nagwatsa tslEdaqe qEk'llg'Js laxes 
g'okwe. Wa, la^me aoklunaxa qEg'atsle nanaagEm lExa^ya. Wa, 

I Comus canadensis L. 



BOAS] ■ HUNTING, FISHING, AND FOOD-GATHERING 221 

basket, | and they tell the man where they left the medium-sized | 
basket. Tlien he engages some young men of his own || numaym ' to 25 
bring them out of the woods. Then they pour them | into the 
empty oil-box. | 

Picking Gooseberries. — These | are taken by the women by shaking 1 
them off on a new large | mat. They also use the large basket and 
the cedar-bark | belt and cedar-bark hat and a short || piece of a 5 
punting-pole. The woman goes to a gooseberry- | patch while the 
gooseberries are still green. 1 The woman looks for large ones; and 
when she sees them, she | puts down her basket. She takes her 
belt, I puts it over her blanket around her waist. || After doing so, 10 
she takes her cedar-bark hat; and | when this is done, she takes her 
large mat and j spreads it under the gooseberry-bush which has 
many gooseberries on it. Wlien | this is done, slie takes the broken 
pole and with it strikes | the gooseberry-bush, striking off the goose- 
berries II so that they aU fall on the mat. j When the gooseberries are 15 
all off" from tire bushes, | the woman takes her large basket and puts 
it down next | to the mat on which the gooseberries have fallen. 
She lifts the mat by two corners ] and pours the gooseberries into 



he^misexs nelaaxa bsgwanEmas handzasasa qEg"ats!e helomagEm 23 
lExa^ya. Wa, he^mis helag'iltsexa ha^yal^a g'ayol laxes ^nE^me- 
mote, qa liis oxLolt lEudEq. Wa, la^me ^wi^laEm la giixtsloyo 25 
laxa dEngwatsIemote. 

Picking' Gooseberries (TiEmxwaxa t!EmxwaIe). — Wa, heEm 1 
ax^etsosa tslEdaqes k' !Eldzowaxa tiEmxwales Eldzowe ^walas le- 
^wa^ya, wa. he^misLes niig'e ^walas lExa^ya LE'wis dEiidzowe 
wiiseg'anowa, LE^wis dEiitsEine LEtEmla; wii, he^misa ts!Ex"stowe 
k'oqiEwe dzomeg'ala. Wii, la qas^Ida, qa^s la laxa t!Emx"mEdzE- 5 
xEkiila, ylxs he^mae ales tenlEuxsEma tiEmxwale. Wa, lex'a^'mes 
doqwalas5sa tslEdaqa awawe. Wa, g'tPmese dox^waLElaqexs lae 
oxLEg'alisaxes lExa^ye. Wii, lii ax^edxes dEndzEdzowe wuseg"a- 
nowa, qa^s qEkiylndes laxes ^nEx^una'ye liixes qEnase. Wa, 
giPmese gwalExs lae lEtEmtses dEntsEme LEtEmla. Wii, g-11- 10 
^mese gwalExs lae itx^edxes k"!Eldzowe Eldzowe le^wa^ya qa^'s lii 
LEbabots laxa t!Emx"mEse q!exLiilaxa tiEmxwale. Wii, gll'mese 
gwill^alisExs lae iix^edxa k'oqlii^ye dzSmegala, qa^s kwexElEXLa- 
wa^yes laxa t!Emx"mEse. Wa, la^me kwexaxElaxa t!Emxwale, 
qa las qubfidzodalaxa q liibEdzowasa tlEinxwale le^wa^ya. Wa, 15 
g'iPmese ^'wilg'ElEXLowa t !Emx"mEsaxes t!EnixuxLawTx-daxs lae 
ax^ededa ts!Edaqaxa nag'a^ye ^walas lExa^ya, qa^s la hslnEnxEnts 
laxa qlubEdzowasa tlsmxwale le^wa^ya. Wa, la dadEnxEndxa 
le^wa^ye, qa^s la laatslotsa tlEmxwale laxa nag'a^ye ^walas 

' The subdivision of the tribe to which he belongs. See p. 795 et seq. 



222 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etii.as.n 35 

20 the large || basket. Sometimes she spreads her mat three times | 
under the gooseberry-bushes. Then her large basket is full. | When 
it is fuU, she folds up her mat, puts it on top | of the gooseberries in 
the basket, and carries the basket on her back | home to her house 
and puts it down. |{ 



20 lExa^ya. Wa, la ^nal^nEmp lEna yudux"p lEnaEm LEbabotses 
le^wa^ye laxa t !Emx"mEsaxs lae qot!es nag'a^ye ^walas lExa^ya. 
Wa, g'll^mese qotlaxs lae kMox^wIdxes le^wa^ye, qa^s LEpEyindes 
laxes tlEm^watsle nage ^walas lExa^ya. Wa, la oxLEX'^Jdqexs 
g'axae nii^nakwa laxes gokwe. Wa, la oxLEg-alilas. 



III. PRESERVATION OF FOOD 

Cutting Dog- Salmon.' — When | a woman cuts dog-salmon, she i 
takes off its giUs; | then she cuts off the head and takes it off; then 
she cuts the | back of the dog-sahnon along the upper side of the 
dorsal fin, beginning at the || back of the neck, and down to four 5 
fingers-width from the meat of the tail. | Tlren slie turns the salmon 
round and turns it over, and | she cuts from the salmon-tail up to 
the I back of tire neck, and the meat on the | backbone is half thick 
and half thin (medium thiclaress). As soon as she has taken it off", 
she puts away the || outer side that is going to be made into preserved 10 
salmon.^ | 

Eoasted Old Salmon (Those that have finished spawning | in the 
upper part of the river). — Now we will tallv about the Nimkish | when 
they go to catch salmon at Prairie, above Gwane, | wlien tlrey | 
want to get dog-sahnon that is not fat wheii it arrives at Prairie. || As 15 
soon as it is evening, tlie river people get ready to | catch salmon at 
the place for tying up the canoe that belonged to his ancestors; for 
they have traditional places for tying | up their canoes when catch- 
ing dog-salmon with hooks at night. As soon as | a man discovers 
any one who has tied his canoe there, the owner begins to fight with 



Cutting Dog-Salmon' (TIelalas xak"!adzo). — Wa, he^maaxs lae 1 
xwaPideda tslsdaqaxa gwa^xnise; wa, hiEm axodEx q!6sna^yas 
Wa, la qax'^idEq qa lawas hex'tla^yas. Wa, la xwaHdEx 3.^we- 
g"a^yasa gwa^xnise ekMStlEndalax k' lidega^yas g'iix'^id lax oxLa- 
ata^yas lag'aa laxa modEne lax q lEmElxsda^yasa tslasna^yas. 5 
Wa, la xweFldxa k' lotEla qas lex'^Ideq. Wa, laEmxaawise 
xwai^Ida, g'ax'^Id lax wubcwaxsda^yasa k' lotEla la ek" IoIeLi lax 
oxxaatii^yas. Wa, laEm ^naxsaap! l5^ wakwa q !EmEldz6^yasa 
xak'adzo lo^ pEl. Wa, giPmese lawamasqexs lae g'exaxa wiidzE- 
kwexes xEmsilaso^Le. ^ 10 

Roasted Old Salmon (TslElak' LlobEk"; yLxa la gwal xwela^wa 
lax ^nEldzasa wlwa). — Wil, la^mesEn gwagwexs^alal laxa ^nEmge- 
saxs lae laxes wiwametslase Odztilase, lax ^nEldza Gwane qaxs ax^- 
exsdaaxa gwa^xnisaxs lae gwal tsEnxwaxs lae lag'aa lax Odzalase. 
Wa, g'il^Em dzaqwaxs laeda wlwametslenoxwe xwanal^Ida qa^s le 15 
negwesa lax mokwa^yases g'ale, qaxs nenuyamtsles^mae mokwa- 
^yasxes gaLa^yaxa gwa^xnisaxa ganuLe. Wa, g'iPmese nEgELa- 
yodxa la mokwala laqexs lae xomaHde iixnogwadas LE^wa la 

1 See also p. 302. 2 Continued on p. 226, line 17. 

223 



224 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth.ann.bo 

him who goes to | steal sahnoii with the hook. Therefore the 

20 Nimkish always || disappear at night, for they club one another when] 
one does not give in to the owner (of such a place). Therefore they 
just I club one another with tlieir punting-poles. (I just wish to | 
tallv about this.) As soon as evening comes, the | river people start, 

25 and tie their canoes to the tying-places |1 where the salmon go to 
spawn. When it gets dark, (the man) feels about with his hook tied 
to a long shaft. Wlven there are many | salmon, it does not take 
long before he fills (his canoe). Wlien it is full, | he goes home. As 
soon as day comes, his wife takes an | old mat, spreads it over her 

30 back, and then she takes her || belt and puts it over the old mat on 
her back. | As soon as she has done so, she takes her carrying-basket, | 
puts it on her back, and goes down to the place where the sahnon- 
canoe of her husband is. | Then she first takes up the best of the dog- 
salmon, whose skin is not wliite. | Of this she makes preserved sal- 

35 mon. Aftei'wards she carries up those whose skin is white; || and 
when all the best salmon have been taken up from the beach, | the 
one with white skin is first cut open. She does the same | as she 
does with tlie one about whicli I spoke first,' — namely, the salmon 
speared at the mouth of the river, — | when it is cut open. The onlj' 
point that is different is when | it is roasted, for the salmon with 

g'iloLa gaLa laq. Wa, heEm lag'itdaseda ^nEmgese qluuala 

20 xisaxox ganuLEx, qa^s kwexaplEx'^ida^maaxs yax'stSsaeda ^ue- 
mokwaq gaxa axnogwadas. Wa, he^mis lagilas iiEm la 
kwexap !EX"^Itses dzomegale laxeq. (Wa, a^mEn ^nex' qEn gwfi- 
gwex'sEx'Ex'^ide laxeq.) Wa, giPEm dzagwelex'^na^kulaxs laasa 
wiwametslenoxwe alex^wld qa^s le mox^waLEla laxes mdkwa^ye laxa 

25 tslEnaasasa k'lotElaxs xwela^wae. Wa, giPmese plEdEx'^IdExs 
lae lEx^iUx'^Itses galbala g"ilt!a saEntsla. Wa, glPmese q!enoma 
kMotEliixs lae kMes gex'idExs lae qotla. Wii, giPmese qotlaxs 
lae na^nakwa. Wa, giHmese ^nax^^IdExs lae gEUEmas ax^edxa 
k" !ak" lobane, qa^s LEbeg'indes laxes awlg'a^ye. Wa, la ax^edxes 

30 wiiseg'anowe, qa^s qEkiyEndes laxa k" !ak' !obaua^ye la LEbeg'Is. 
Wa, gil^mese gwalExs lae 3,x^edxes oxLaats!e lExa^ya, qa^s 6x- 
LEleqexs lae lEntslEyala lax hanaasas yaluEgwatsIases la^wunEme. 
Wa, la^mes he gil ax'etsosa ck^e gwa^xnisaxa k"!ese tslElak'a. 
Wa, heEm xa^masllasoltse. Wa, ah'mese la oxLEX'^Idxa tsIets.'Ela- 

35 k'axs lae 'wi^losdE^yamasxa ek'e k' lotEla. Wa, gil^mese ^wi^los- 
dE^yamasqexs lae he gil xwal-itsE'wa tslElak'e. HeEm gweg'i- 
laqe gweg"IlasaxEn gilx'de waldEma sEg'inete lax ox"siwa^yasa 
wa,' ylxs lax'de xwaLasE^wa. Wii, lex'a^mes oguqala^yosexs lae 
LlQpasE^wa, yixs k'lesae tilaEm Llopa tslElak'e LlobEkwa yixs lae 

•Seep. 223. 




BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 225 

white skin is not as thoroughly roasted || wlien it is roasted, because 40 
it is not fat; and it is not hung up for a long time | to dry over the 
fire of the house of the river people. | They try to make it thoroughlj' 
dry before it is taken down by the | woman, and she puts it away at 
the place where the food is kept for the winter. | Even if it is kept 
a long time, it does not get mouldy, and it does not || get a bad taste, 45 
for it is not fat. Therefore it is liked | by the Indians. Now wo 
will talk about it when it is | given as food in winter by the one who 
obtained it. | . . . 

Middle Piece of Salmon. — When the | woman cuts dog-salmon, 1 
mpiking preserved salmon of what she is cutting, she | leaves the 
meat on the skin thick. After she has | cut it, she takes the cut- 
ting-board and puts it down outside of the || house, in this man- 
ner.' When the meat on the skin is too thick, | she cuts it off four 5 
finger-widths on the side of (the fish) from which | 
she is going to make preserved salmon. Then she 
cuts downward from the back of the neck of the | 
dog-salmon, and she cuts down to the tail of the 
dog-salmon. Then | she hangs it on the stage be- 
low the upper stage at the place on which || the 'rj — IM 10 

preserved salmon is hung. As soon as it is half 
dried, the woman takes it down | and binds (the 
pieces) together with split cedar-bark, in this way: | 

L!opasE-wa, qaxs k"!esae tsEnxwa. Wa, he^misexs galae la x'iIe- 40 
laLEla lax nEqosta^wasa lEgwIlasa g'okwasa wiwametslenoxwe. 
Wa, laEm laloLla qa alak' lalasLas lEmx^wIdEl, qo lal axaxoyoltsa 
tslEdaqe, qa's gexeq laxa g'a^yasas dedamaliisexa laLa ts!a.wunx'- 
edEL. Wii, wax'^Em la gala la k' !es xitslEX'^ida. Wa, k^les^Em- 
xaawise q!esp!Ex"^ida, qaxs k'leasae la tsEnxwa^ya, lag'ilas ex'^a- 45 
g-isa bak!iime. Wa, la^mesEns gwagwex's^alal laqexs lae ha^m- 
gilayoxa ts!awunxe yis axaiiEmaq. . . . 

Middle Piece of Salmon (Q!aq!aq!eO. — Wa, he^maaxs laeda 1 
ts'.Edaqe xwaLaxa gwa^xnisaxs lae xamasilaxes xwaLasE^we. Wa, 
la^mese wakweda qlEmlEdziVyasa wiidzEkwe. Wii, g'lPmese gwal 
xwaLaxs lae Jix^edxes tiEledzowe, qa^s ax^Elseq lax Llasana^yasa 
g'okwe g'a gwaleg'a.' Wa, gil^mese xEULEla wagudzd^yeda qlEm- 5 
lalaxs lae tiElsodxa modEnas ^wadzE^was lax apsEiixa^yases 
xamsilasoLe. Wa, laEm g'ax'^ide tiElsoyas lax oxLaata^yasa gwa^x- 
nise. Wa, la laxsdEnd lax wuxwaxsda^yasa gwa^xnise. Wa, 
he-mis la gexwatses laxa qlElabo-'yasa qlE^Iie qa gexwalaatsa 
xa^mase. Wa, g-il-mese kMayax^wuJExs laeda tslEdaqe ftxaxodEq, 10 
qa^s yibEdzodeq g'a gwaleg"a yisa dzEdEkwe dEnasa (Jig.). Wa, 

» That is, placing its upper end on a log, so that the cutting-board slants down toward her. 
7.'50.52— 21— 35 ETH— PT 1 in 



226 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etii.ann.86 

12 Then she hangs them uj) again where thoj' were hanging before. As 
soon as they are | really dry, the woman takes them down again 
and puts them | into a basket made to hold the middle parts of the 

15 salmon. As soon || as they are all in, she puts (the basket) away 
at a place where she made room for it | under the stage where she 
put her preserved salmon. | 

Backbones of Salmon. — The woman takes cedar barK and | splits it, 
and she takes two backbones (of dog-salmon) and puts them together | 
at the tails ; that is the place where she tics them together with cedar- 

20 bark in || tliis manner : ^ « Then she hangs them up on the 

stage under wliich | tlie ^K^ preserved salmon is dried, that 

it may have the full heat ij^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^' ^^^'^ when | it be- 
gins to be dry, the woman 1^^^^^ makes two baskets of cedar- 
bark ; | and when she fin- 1^=^ ^^% ishcs them, she puts them down 
and takes down tlic backbones. | When they are all down, she sits 

25 down and begins to break off the tails || from the backbones, and she 
throws the tails into | one basket, and she tbrows the backbones into 
the other one; | and when they are both full, the woman puts away 
the I two baskets under the stage on which she keeps the preserved 

30 salmon. | Tliis is to be food for winter use, and it is called [| "back- 
bone for soaking." It is a small basket into wliich she puts the | 
salmon-tails, and the name of the basket is "tail-receptacle." The | 

12 la ct!ed gex-wIdEq laxes g'Uxde gexwalaasa. Wa, g'iPmese la 
iilax'^Id la lEmx^wida lae axaxoj-a yisa tslEdaqe. Wa, la axts!ots 
laxa L!abate hekweleEm cpx g'itslE^watsa q!aq!aq!a-'ye. Wii, g-il- 

15 ^mese ^wPla axtslots laqexs lae g-exaq laxes g'ayaslla^ye qa g'ayats 
lax awaba-'yas kMag'ile qa axatsa xa^mase.' 

Backbones of Salmon. — Wa,^ la ax^ededa tslEdaqaxa dEnase qa^s 
ts!Ex^edeq. Wa, la ax-'edxa ma^e xakMadza, qa^s qlaplex'^idex 
ts!ets!asna^yas. Wa, he^mis la yaLodaatseq, yisa dEnase; g-a 

20 gwaleg-a (Jig-)- Wa, la^mese gex^wIdEq laxa qlElaba^yasa lEm^wa- 
saxa xa^mase qa L!esalasE^wesesa lEgwiie. W:i, g'iPmese Ieiux- 
^wuIexs laeda tslEdaqe Llabatilaxa ma4e L'.aLlEbataxa dedEutsEme. 
Wii, g-iPmese gwalExs lae mExalllaq, qa^s axaxodexa xak' !adzo. Wa, 
g-il^mese ^wi'laxamasqexs lae kiwag'allla qa^s k'oqalexa ts!asna^ye 

25 laxa xak'ladzowe. Wa, la^mes ts lExts !alasa ts.'asna^ye laxa ^UEnis- 
gEme L'.abata. Wa, la^mes tslExtsIalasa xak'ladzowe laxa ^uEms- 
gEm. Wa, g"iPmese ci6qut!axs lae g'exeda ts!Edaqaxa ma4- 
tsEme LlaLlabat lax awaba'yasa k-!ag'ite qa gex"dEmasa xa^mase. 
Wa, laEm he^mawalalxa tslawunxe. Wa, heEm LegadEs tielalas 

30 xakMadzowe. Wa, la^mes aEmayaleda Llabate, yix g-Its!E^wasasa 
ts'.ana^ye. Wa, heEm Legadeda Llabatas ts!asna^yaats!e. Wa, la, 

1 Continued in Publications of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. V, p. 430. 

'Continued frnnv p. 22:1, line 10. 



BOAS] PKESERVATION OF FOOD 227 

basket into Avliich she puts the backbones is hirger; it is called | 32 
"backbone-receptacle." That is all about this.' | 

Split Salmon, — When the | woman cuts open the dog-salmon, she 1 
takes oir the gills of the | dog-salmon, and then she cuts open and 
takes oil' its liead, and she | cuts open the back on the upper side of 
the back fui. || The meat on the backbone is not thick; and she cuts 5 
down I to the tail, and she breaks off the tail. Then she | puts 
down on the ground what has been cut. She takes the backbone and 
cuts off the I meat that was on it from the back of the salmon's 
neck, and | she cuts down to four finger-widths from the place where 
she broke off the salmon's || tail. Then the woman turns over what 10 
she is cutting, and | she cuts off the meat that was left on it; and 
when she reaches down | to the same distance that she has cut be- 
fore on the other side, she breaks off the | backbone and throws it 
away when it is only bone. Then it is thus: | j Now the meat 

is divided at the ends, and a piece of the Ji backbone || is 15 
at the upper end. This is called "tail-hold- // \\ ing-together." 
As soon as the woman finishes tliis, | she ^ ^ hangs this, 
what is called "spht-down," on a frame made for the purpose, | 
outside of the house. When the weather is bad, she | hangs it 
up on the staging in the house. Now it is hanging in this man- 



^alaseda Llabate, yix g'ltslE^wasasa xak'!adzo. Wa, heEm Lega- 32 
dEs xak'!adzats!e. Wa, laEm gwal laxeq.' 

Split Salmon (Leqwaxa). — Wa,^ hemaaxs lae xwaPldeda ts!E- 1 
daqaxa gwa^xiiise; wa, laEm hiJEm g'il axoyose q!osna^yasa gwa^x- 
nise. Wa, lawIsLa qax'^ulEq, qa lawiiyes hex'tla^yas. Wii, la 
xwal^idEx aHvIg'a'^yas ek-!ot!Endalax k- !ideg-a^yas. Wa, la^mes 
k- !es^Enrxat ! wiigudzir'ye q lEmlalasa q !oq !uy6. Wii, la hxxsdEndaEni 5 
laxa ts!asna^ye. Wii, laEm k-oqodEx tslasna^yas. Wii, la^mese 
k' IixElsaxa la wiidzEkwa. Wii, la ax^edxa q!oq!uyo qa^s tlElsodex 
qlEmlEdzEwexxlas g'ex'^'id lax oxLaatii^yasa kMotEla. Wa, la 
liig"aa liixa modEne g'iix'^id lax g'ax'saasas k"6q6yox"diis laxa 
tslasna^ye. Wa, la^meseda tslEdaqe lex"^idxes tlElsasE^we. Wii 10 
laEm^xaiiwise tiElsodEx q!EmlEl<]zEwex'diis. Wii, giPmese lag-aa 
iiix ^wiilag'ilasdiise xwaLa^ye liixa apsiidzE^yaxs lae k'oqodxa qo!- 
qluyo qa^s tslEx^Idexa la aEm la xaqa. Wii, laEm la g'a gwiileo"a 
{fig.). Wa, laEm qExbiida qlEmlale. Wii, he^mis q!6q!uy6wa 
ek'lEba^ye. Wa, heEm LegadEs k!wawaxsde. Wa, g-IPmese gwii- 15 
Iexs laeda tslEdaqe gex^iints laxa hekwelae qa ge^wasxa Leqwaxa 
lax L lasanu^yases g'okwe. Wii, glPmese '^yiix'sE^me ^niiliixs lae 
heEm gexwasE^wa q'.Ellle liixa g'okwe. Wa, lag-a gwiitaxs lae 

1 Continued in Publications of the Jcsup North Paciflc Expedition, Vol. V, p. 435. 

2 Continued from ibid., p. 433. 



228 ETHN0L9GY OF THE KWAKIUTL [bth.ann. 8t 

ner: | rry^^-'-TX — After it has been hanging thus for three days, || 

20 i t is //Tf 1 \ ^^^^^ dried. Then the woman takes it down | 
a n d LJ V — straightens it out, so that the spht-down hangs 
straigl^t down from the end of the tail-hokUng-together. | Then she 
hangs it up again : t the place where it was hanging before, | and 
it is in this way: 11 She just leaves it again hanging over 

one night. | Then — -^ ^ the woman takes it down, and slie pulls 

25 out the short / / \\ bones that are left || in the spUt-down. 
As soon as all the LJ v— J bones are out, she rubs it | as the 
women do when they are washing clothes; | and therefore the split- 
down is soft, and therefore also it is | white. After she has fin- 
ished rubbing it, she hangs it up again | at the place where it was 

30 hanging before; and when it is really dry, the || woman takes it down 
again and puts it on a mat. As soon as it is | all down, she takes two 
cedar-bark baskets and puts them down at the place where she is 
worlung, I and she takes the split- down and breaks off the tail- 
hohling-together and | throws it into one of the baskets. Then she 
rubs I the spUt-down again; and after she has done so, she throws it 

35 into the || other basket; and she continues doing so, and only | stops 
when it is aU finished. Then she puts away the two | baskets under 
the staging where she keeps the preserved salmon. | It serves for 
winter food.' | 



gexwalega {jig-)- Wa, g'il^mese la yfiduxflxse ^naliis he gwale 

20 orexwalaena^yas lae k' !ayax^wlda. Wa, leda tslfidaqe axaxodEq 
qa^s dab'edeq, qa ^naEnqaIax"^idesa Leqwaxa ^uExbEndxa k!wa- 
waxsdE^'ye. Wa, lae et!ed gex^und laxes g'llx'de gexwalaasa. 
Wa, g'a gwaleg'a (fig-)- Wa, aEmxaawise xa-'malax gexwalaxs 
laeda tslsdaqe axaxodEq qa^s qlEkolexa tsEltslEkwe xaq exdzo- 

25 wexa Leqwaxa. Wa, giFmese ^wPlamasxa xaqaxs lae qlEwex'- 
^IdEq yo gwegilox gweg^ilasasa tsledaqaxs ts!oxwaaxa gwll- 
gwiila. Wa, lag'llas tElkwa Leqwaxa. Wa, hcEmxaawis lagllas 
inElniadzE^we. Wa, giPmese gwal q!oyaq lae et!ed gex^wIdEq 
laxes gexwalaase. Wa, giPmese alax'^Id lEinx^wedaxs, lae et!ededa 

30 tslfidaqe axaxodEq qa^s axdzodales laxa ie^wa^ye. Wa, giPmese 
^wl^laxaxs lae ax^edxa ma^le LlaLlEbata qa^s ax^aliles laxes eaxE- 
^lase. Wa, la ax^edxa Leqwaxe, qa's koqodexa klwawaxsdE^ye, qa^s 
ts!Exts lodes laxa ^uEmsgEuie Llabata. Wa, la^mese et !ed q!Ewex- 
Idxa Leqwaxa. Wa, gfPmese gwalExs lae ts!Exts!ots laxa ^uEms- 

35 gEme Llabata. Wa, laEm hexsaEm la gweg'ila. Wii, al'mese 
gwalExs lae ^wFlamasxes axsE-we. Wa, la g'exaxa ma^tsEme 
LlaLlEbata lax awaba^yasa k!aglle (ja axatsa xa^mase. Wa, laEm 
hemawalalxa tslawunxe.' . 

1 Continued in Publications of tlie Jesup Nortli Pacific Expedition. Vol. V, p. 433. 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 229 

Fresh Roasted Backbone. — When | the dog-salmon is cut by the 1 
woman, | the dog-salmon is put on an old mat to be cut. Then | the 
woman cuts off the gills of the dog-salmon, so that they || are attached 5 
only to the end of the intestines of the dog-salmon. Then she cuts 
off I the head; and as soon as it is off, the woman | begins to cut, 
beginning at the back of the neck of the dog-salmon, and going to 
four finger-widths | from its tail. Then she cuts along the upper side 
of the dorsal fui; | then she turns around what she is cutting, and she 
cuts into it || on the upper (dorsal) side where she stopped, four fin- 10 
ger-widths from the tail of the dog-salmon. | Then she cuts it, beginning 
from there, until she reaches the back of the neck. | Then the meat 
on the backbone is thick when she takes it off from the | skin. When 
there are many backbones, the woman | takes straight-spUtting pine- 
wood and she splits it in || pieces to make roasting-tongs. These are 15 
four spans | in length. As soon as she fuiishes sphtting them, she 
puts them into the ground | where she is working. Then she takes 
the intestines of the dog-salmon and 1 rubs them on the roasting:- 

O.I o 

tongs. As soon as they arc all slimy, | she takes cedar-bark and ties 
it around under the || spht part of the roasting-tongs; and after she 20 
finishes t3dng it, she takes | the backbone and puts it crosswise into 
the roasting-tongs; and as soon as | four have been put in, she ties a 
piece of cedar-bark | just over them. Then she takes four more pieces 



Fresh Roasted Backbone (Alxwase LlobEdzo xak'!adzo). — Wa, 1 
he'^maaxs lae xwa'LasE^weda gwa^xnise, yisa tslEda'qe; wii, laEm 
k' lEgEdzo'tsa gwa^xnise laxes xwaLEdzo'we k"!a'k!obana. Wii, 
la^mese ts.'o's^Ideda ts!Eda'qax qlo'sna^yasa gwa^xnise, qa a^mes 
axbii'xa ya'x'ylg"ilasa gwa^xnise. Wa, la^mes qa'x'^idEq qa lawa- 5 
yes hex-t!a-'yas. Wa, g-iFmese lawa'yexs la'e xwa'Hdeda tslEda- 
qaxa g'ii'x'^ide lax oxLaattVyasa gwa^xnise la'g'aa la'xa mo'dEne 
lax tsla'sna^yasa gwa^xnise. Wa, laE'm e'kMotlEndalax k'llde'g'a- 
^yas. Wa, la xwe'l^idxes xwa'LasE^we. Wii, la^me'se xwa'lbEtE'ndEx 
nExsa'wases wa'laasde la'xa mo'dEne liix tsla'sna^yasa gwa^xnise. 10 
Wii, la^mes xwii'PldEq g'ii'x'^id laq la'laa lax o'xLaata^yas. Wa, 
laEm wa'kwe qls'niEldza^yasa xak"!idz6xs la'e la'wii lii'xes dese- 
na'^ye. Wii, giPmese qle'uEmeda xa'kMadzaxs la'eda tslEda'qe 
ax^'e'dxa eg"a'kwa lax xa'sE^we xE'x"mEsa. Wii, la^mese xo'xex"- 
sE'ndsq, qa's Llo'psayogwileq. Wa, las'm moplEnk'e bii'La^yas 15 
qa ^wasgEmats. Wii, gi'Pmese gwal xa'qexs la'e La'g'aElsaq la'xes 
e'axE^lase. Wa, la^me's iix^e'dxa ya'x'yig'Ilasa gwa^xnise qa^s 
yilts lElE'ndes la'xa l lo'psayoLe. Wa, g'l'l^mese la ^na'xwa k' !ek' !e- 
la'laxs la^e ax^e'dxa dEna'se qa^s yll-aLE'lodes la'xa bE'nba^yasa 
xa'^yasa Llo'psayo. Wii, gi'Pmese gwiil ylLa'qexs la'e ax^e'dxa 20 
xa'kMadzo qa^s ge'g'aalts lodes la'xa Llopsayo. Wii, gi'Pmese 
mo'weda la ax^a'ltsloyoxs la'qexs la'e yil'aLE'l5tsa dEna'se lax 
e'k' leLEliis. Wa, la e'tled stx^e'dxa mo'maxsit! xa'kMadzo qa^a 



i 




!! 




= 


:: 




ip 




p 



230 ETHNOLOGY OF TIIli; KWAKIUTL |etii.ann.35 

of backbone and | puts them over those that have been tied in. As 
25 soon as these four are also done, || she ties (the tongs) up again above 
them, and she keeps on | doing so; and she only stops when she 
reaches the end of the roasting-tongs. | That is in this way: 
As soon as they are full, she takes | four slender pieces of 
spUt pine and places them lengthwise | on the ends of the 
30 backbones in the roasting-tongs. Now there is one || long 
strip of split pine on each side. Then she takes six 
pieces | and pushes them through between the two legs of — 1 — 
the roasting-tongs; then | she puts one on each side of the back- 
bones; then she pushes them over (the long split sticks) , | and thus 
they are fastened. After tliis is done, she puts them in the groimd 
by the side | of the fire of the house; and when tlicy begin to 
35 blacken, the woman || takes them and puts them right over the fire. | 
Now tliey are finished, and they are called "roasted backbones" 
after tius. | 
1 Pectoral Fins of Dog- Salmon (Pectoral fins of the dog-salmon 
taken | at the u])per part of the river). — When the woman cuts the | 
dog-salmon and she fuiishes taldng ofi" the gills, she | cuts around the 
5 neck of the dog-salmon, and cuts off the || pectoral fins, half a finger 
thick, I and they arc just hanging dovra. Then she also | cuts off 
the anal fins and takes them off. She puts them into a | l^asket; 

S,xe'g-indes la'xa la yiLEkwa'. Wa, g'i'pEmxaa'wise ^wl'^leda 

_'5 mo'waxs la'e e'tled yil'e'dEx e'kMeLEliis. Wa, laE'm he'xsil 

gwe'g'ile. Wa, a'h'mes gwa'lExs la'e qluxtowe'da Llo'psayowo. 

Wa, laE'm g'a gwa'leg-a (jig.). Wa, gi'Pmese qluxto'xs la'e lix^e'd- 

xa mo'ts!aqe wiswul xok" xEx"me'sa. Wa, la ao'dzaqalamasEq 

lax 5ba^yasa la L!o'pts!ols xa'k'Iadzo. W"a, laE'm wa'x'sasElaxa 

.'Ul gi'lsgiltla xok" xEx"mE'sa. Wa, la e'tled ax'e'dxa q !el lEts la'qe 

qa^'s LlE'nxsodes na'qodala xEwe'hi^yasa Llo'psayo. Wa, laE'm 

wa'x-satslEndalaxa xa'k' ladzowe. Wii, laE'm e'k'IodEnts laq. 

Wit, he'^mis la Ela'layose. Wa. gi'Pmesc gwa'lExs la'e La'nollsaq 

la'xa lEgwI'hises g'o'kwe. Wit, gi'1-niese la klfimElx-^I'dExs la'e 

;'.5 ax^e'deda tsleda'qaq qa^s Le'saLElodes la'x.i ^nExsta''yases lEgwi'le. 

Wii, laE'm gwa'la. LaE'mLa Le'gadEs Llo'bEdzo xa'kMadzo id'xeq.' 

1 Pectoral Fins of Dog-Salmon (PELlExa'^wesa gwa'xnise g'a'yol 

lax 'nE'ldzasa wa). — W'il, lie''maaxs la'e xwa'Leda ts.'Eda'qaxa 

gwa^xnise. Wii, g'i'1-mese gwal lawii'Iax qlo'sna^yasexs la'e 

t!o'tse^stElaxa o'xawa^yasa gwa^xnisaxs la'e tlatlo'sk-inasmxa 

5 pELlExa'^wa^yas. Wii, la^me's k'lo'dEn la'xEns q!wa'q!wax'ts!a- 

na^yex, ylx Ela'la'^yas laE'm a'Em la te'kwala. Wa, laEmxaa'wise 

t!5's6dxa pELa'ga^ye. Wa, laE'mLa lawiiq. Wa, I4 S,xts!a'Ias la'xa 

• Continued in Publications of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. V, p. 437. 



I'OAS] PRESERVATION OF I'OOD 231- 

and after she has shced that wliich is to be preserved salmon, | she 8 
hangs it up at the phice where she is going to dry it. After she 
finishes hanging it up, || she takes a drying-rack and puts the anal 10 
fins on it, and she scatters them | over it. Then she puts it up right 
over the fire, so that the heat | of the fire strikes it. She fuiishcs 
that ; and when | the salmon is half dry, the woman takes down that , 
which is to be preserved salmon. | Then she takes her fish-knife and 
cuts off the pectoral fuis || and throws them also into a basket. After 15 
she has done so, | she hangs up the basket with the pectoral fins in 
it by the side of the | drying-rack on wliich the anal fhis are. After 
this is done, | she gathers the drying-poles and spreads on them that 
which is to be preserved salmon, | with the meat side downward, to 
the fire. || When she has done so, she watches the pectoral fins and 20 
the I anal fins until they are thoroughly dry. As soon as they are 
thoroughly dry, | she puts them away as food for the winter. She 
does I the same with the salmon-tails, which are also put on a drying 
rack I when they are dried. Now we shall talk about the way || they 25 
are cooked. 

Dog- Salmon Cheeks, (Plucked cheek, the head of the dog-salmon i 
when it is | roasted, to keep it for winter use). — | 

When the Nimldsh go to catch salmon in the river Gwane, above, 
and when there are many dog-salmon, the || woman cuts off their 5 



lExa'^ye. Wa, g'i'h'mese gwa'lExs la'e tlE'ls^'edxa xa^ma'sLaxs la'e 8 
ge'x^wldEs la'xes x"ila'sLaq. Wii, g'i'Pmese gv/al ge'xwaq la'e 
ax^e'dxa k'!ltk'!Ede'se qa^s axdzo'desa pELa'ga^ye laq lagwe'ldzEwe 10 
laq. Wa, la La'hiLElots la'xa nExsta'^yasa lEgwi'le qa L!e'sEg-6- 
stalasE^weses Lle's^alasa lEgwi'le. Wii, la gwa'la. Wa, g'i'l'mese 
k' la'yax^wldeda xa^ma'sLaxs la'eda tslEda'qe axa'xodxes xa^ma'sLe. 
Wa, la^mes ax^e'dxes xwai.a'yowe qa^s tlo'salexa pe'pELlExawa^ye''' 
qa^s ts!Exts!a'les la'xa lExa"^maxat!. Wii, gi'l^mese gwal ^wi'^laxs 15 
la'e tex^waLElotsa pEL lExawa^yaats !e lExe lii'xaaxa apse'LElasa 
k" !itk' lEile'sexa la lixdza'yaatsa pELii 'go.^ye. Wii, gi'Pmese gwii'l^aLE- 
laxs la'e q!ap!e'x-^Idxa gayo qa^s LEplaLElodesa xa^ma'sLe Laq. 
Wa, laE'm ^na'xwaEm bana'dzE^ye qlEmEldza'^yas la'xa lEgwi'le. 
Wii, g'l'l^mese gwa'la la'e dii'doqwlli^xa pEL texii'wa^ye LE^wa pELii'- 20 
ga^ye qa a'lak' !ales lE'mx-wida. Wii, gi'Pmese a'la la lE'mx^wi- 
dExs la'e g'e'xaq qa^s la'k' lEsElalxa tslawii'nxLa. Wii, he'Enixaa 
gwe'gllaxa tslii'sna^ye k' !itk' lEde's^Einxaa axdza yaasasexs la'e 
lE'mxwasE-'wa. Wii, la^me'sEns gwa'gwex's^alal laqexH la'e 
ha^mex'si'lasE^wa. . . . ' 2.'") 

Dog-Salmon Cheeks. (P!e16s, yix he'xt!a^yasa gwa^xnise, yixs 1 
Llo'bEkwae qa^s axelasE-we la'laa lii'xa tsla^wu'nxe). — 

Wa, he'^maaxs la'e wi'^wamesa ^nE'mgese la'xes wii Gwil-ne 
la'xa ^nE'ldzas. Wii,. g'i'1-mese qle'uEma gwa^xnisaxs la'eda tslE--"' 

iContinued on p. 3:^7, line 1. 



232 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL, [eth.ann.8b 

6 heads. Then the woman takes | wood of the rcd-pinc that splits 
readily. (She makes pieces) one span and four fingers long, | and 
she splits them to make roasting-tongs. Sometimes she makes | one 
hundred, and sometimes she makes two hundred. | After her work is 
finished, she gathers them up, and takes them to the place where 

10 she II cuts dog-salmon. Then she puts up on the ground one pair 
of tongs, and | puts the salmon-head on the end of the tongs, which 
are open; | and she just stops pushing down the head | when the 
points of the tongs reach up to the eyes of the head. | The roasting- 

15 tongs are not tied with cedar-bark. After || she has fuiished with 
one of them, she puts down what she has finished; | then she takes 
another pair of roasting-tongs and | puts them up in the place where 
the first ones have been standing. Then | she tloes with them the same 
tiling as she did with the first ones. | She goes on doing so with the 

20 others. After she has || finished, her husband takes much fire-wood 
and makes a fire | on the beach. When the fire that he makes 
blazes up, they | take the heads in the roasting-tongs and place them 
around it. | First the throats are roasted; and when they begin to 
be black, j they turn them all round, so that the nape of the neck is 

25 next || to the fire on the beach. As soon as the skin is blackened, 
they are taken from the fire j and put down on the beach; and when 
they cool off, she | takes the salmon-heads out of the roasting-tongs 

5 da'qe qak a'lax he'x't la^yas. Wa, la ax^e'deda tslEda'qaxa e'g'a- 
qwa lax xa'sE^we wuna'gule. Wa, la mo'dEnbala la'xEns ba'Lax. 
Wii, la xo'x^widEq qa^s Llo'psayogwileq. Wa, la ^na'I^nEmp !Ena 
la'kMEnde axa'^yas loxs lo'L^maax ma^lplE'nyage Sxa'^yas. Wii, 
gi'Pmese gwa'le axa'^yasexs la'e q!ap!e'x'^IdEq qa^s las la'xesxwa'I- 

10 dEmsaxa gwa^xnise. Wa, le La'g'aElsaxa ^nE'mtslaqe Llopsaya qa^s 
k!waxto'desa he'x"t!a^ye lax lae'na^yas aqa'le wa'x'sanotslExsta- 
^yasa Llopsayowe. Wa, a'l^mese gwal we'qwaxElaxa he'x't!a^yaxs 
la'e la'g'ae 6'ba^yasa Llopsayowe lax gegEya'gEsasa hext!a^ye. 
Wa, laE'ni la k'!ea's yiLE'msa Llo'psayowe dEna'sa. Wa, gl'l- 

15 -mese gwa'lamasxa ^nE'mts!aqaxs la'e LEx^ulisaxes la gwa'lama- 
tsE^wa. Wa, la'xaa e'tled ax^e'dxa ^nE'mts!aqe Llo'psaya qa^s 
La'stolises lax La'dzE^wasdases gl'lx'de axsE^wa'. Wa, he'Em- 
-xaa'wise gwe'x'^klEq la'xes gl'lxde gwe'gilasxa g'i'lxde axso's. 
Wii, a'^mes la he gwe-nil'kulaxa wao'kwe. Wii, gi'Pmese gwa'- 

20 Iexs la'e la'^wunEmas ax-'e'dxa qle'nEme lEqwa' qa^s lEx^wa'lise 
lii'xa LlEmii'^ise. Wa, gi'Pmese xl'qosta lEqwe'la^yasexs la'e 
ax^e'dEX'da-x"xa L!eL!o'pts!ala he'x'tle^ qa-s le qlwa^stalas laq. 
Wa, laE'm he g'll Llo'pasose q!oq!ona's. Wa, g'i'l^mese klumE'i- 
x"^idExs la'e le'x'^idEq ^wl'^la qa hes la awa'p!a^yas la UExwa'- 

25 laxa lEgwise'. Wa, gl'I^mese kliimE'lx-^Ide Lle'sasexs la'e axsEn 
da'laq qa^s k"a't!allsEleq. Wa, g'l'Pmese k'ox^widExs la'e &x6'- 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 233 

and puts them down on the beach | by her side. When she has 2S 
taken them all off, she takes the roasted salmon-heads | and breaks 
open the jaws. She spreads them out so that they are || spread out 30 
flat. Then she takes out the edible part inside the head, and only | 
the skin and the bones are left on the "plucked cheek." As soon 
as I this is done, she takes a long drying-rack. Sometimes it is | a 
little over a fathom in length. The width of the drying-rack is | two 
spans and four fuiger-wddths. || She puts her "plucked salmon- 35 
cheeks" on it. They are all spread out | when they are on the 
drying-rack, and they are close together | on it. As soon as this is 
all done, she takes what she has done | and puts it just over the 
fire of the house, where it is really | hot. When she fuiishes, she 
requests her husband to || go and call those who are walking about 40 
in the village, the men the | children and the women, and even the 
weak old women, | to go and eat the edible part taken out of the 
head when it was lifted | from the roasting-place of the "plucked 
cheek." Immediately the | man calls all the men and all the 
women || and children seen by him to come quickly and to eat the 45 
roasted | salmon-heads. It is not long before all those whom he | 
invited come dowii to the beach, and they sit around the heap of 
roasted edible insides of the | salmon-heads. Then they begin to 



dalaxa LleLlo'psayowe, yi'xa hehe'x-tla^ye, qa^s a,x^all'sEleq la'xes 27 
apsa'lise. Wa, gl'Fmese ^wi'^laxs la'e ftx^e'dxa L!6'bEkwe hex'- 
t!a^ya qa^s wa'x'se^stE'ndex qlwayo'sas. Wa, la LEpsE'ndsq qa 
LEpa'les. Wa, la lawayodEx ha'mtslawasa he'x't!a-'ye. Wii, a'^mes 30 
la Lies LE^wa xa'qeda la axa'la la'xa plElo'se. Wa, g'i'Pmese 
-wl'^la gwa'lExs la'e ax^e'dxa k' !itk' tede'se gi'It.'a ^na'l^nEmp!Ena 
e'sEgiyo la'xEns ba'Laqe ^wa'sgEmasa. Wa, la hamo'dEngala 
la'xEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex,yix ^wa'dzEwasasak'IitkMEde'se. Wa, 
he'^mis la axdzo'dalatseses p!El5'sLe. Wa, laE'm ^wi'^laEm LEpa'- 35 
taxs la'e g^IdzEwexa kMitklEde'se. Wa, la mEmk'o'laxs la'e 
g-i'dza^ya. Wa, gi'Pmese ^wl'^laxs la^e ax^e'dxes axa'-'ye qa-'s le 
La'laLElots la'xa nEqo'stases lEgwI'lases g'o'kwe la'xa a'la la Lle'- 
saia. Wa, g-i'Pmese gwalExs la'e axkMa'laxes la'^wiinEme qa 
les Le'^lalaxa g'ayi'mg-ilsElaxa be'bEgwauEme Lo^me g-i'ngtna- 40 
uEme LE^wa tsle'daqe LE-'wa wa'x'^me la wa6'yats!ala ts!e'daqa 
qa les ha^ma'pEx hamtsla'wasa he'xtla^ya, ylxs la'e ^mE'wes 
la'xa Llo'basdasexa la plElo'sa. Wa, he'x'^ida^mese le'da bEgwa'- 
uEme Le^lalaxa ^na'xwa be'bEgwanEm LE^wes dogule tsle'daq 
Lo^ma g-i'ng1nanEm qa g-a'xes ha'labala he'x-hax-^Idxa L!o'bEkwe 45 
hex-t!a^ya. Wa, k-!e'st!a ga'laxs g'a'xae ^vl'^la ho'quntslesa Le'- 
^lanEme qa^s le kliitse^sta'lisElaxa ^mEwe'se Llo'bEk" hcimts!a'sa 
he'x"t!a^ye. Wii, la'x'da'^xwe hamx-^i'da. Wa, gi'Pmese po'Pi- 



234 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann.36 

oat; and as soon as thoy liave had enough, | they carry away what 
50 they coukl not eat. They carry || it in their hands and go home. 
But the owner of the | heads which are called "plucked cheeks" 
goes up from the beach and makes a fire under the ' ' plucked cheeks." | 
When they are dry enough, (the woman) takes them down and puts 
them into a | large basket. Then she puts them away for the 
winter. | That is the end. || 
1 Roasted Dog-Salmon Heads (Heads of | dog-salmon when they are 
roasted and dried, with the edible insides). — | 

When the woman cuts oil the head of the | dog-salmon, ami when 

5 she has many salmon-hesads, she takes the || same number of sliort 

roasting-tongs of the same Idnd as the roasting-tongs | for roasting 

the "plucked cheek," and she does in the same way as she does | when 

she roasts them. Each point of the roasting-tongs is pushed | into 

each side of the neck of the salmon-head, and reaches up to the eyes. | 

When this is done, she puts them up around the fire on tlie ground, || 

10 outside of the house. First the jaws are roasted; and | when they 

begin to be black, she turns them around ^vith the nape of the neck | 

towards the fire; and when that begins to be black also, she takes 

them I into the house. Then she puts them up with the | roasting- 

15 tongs over the fire, right where it is really hot. || They stay there a 

dEXS la'e ^wi'^laEm mo'tElaxes k'!e'ts!a^yawa^ye qa^s les da'k'Iota- 

50 laqexs la'x"da^xwae na'^nakwa. Wa, la'Leda axno'gwadasa he'x^- 

tla^ye, yi'xa p!El5'se lo'sdesa qa^s le lEqwe'laabEwexes plElo'sa. 

Wa, g-i'Pmese lE'mx-wulExs la'e axa'xodEq qa^s g'e'ts lodes la'xa 

^wa'lase lExa'^ya. Wa, laE'm ge'xaq qae'da tsla^wii'nxe. Wa, 

laE'm gwa'la. 

1 Roasted Dog-Salmon Heads (X-o'xwasde, yix he'x-t!a^yasa gwa^x- 

nisaxs LlopasE^wae qa^s lE'mxwasE^we ^wl'^la LE^wis ha'mtsla).— 

Wa, he'^maaxs la'e qa'x-'Ideda tslEila'qax he'x'tla^yasa gwa^x- 

nise. Wii, gi'Pmese la qle'uEmeda he'x'tla^yaxs la'e iix^e'dxa he'- 

5 ^maxat! wa'xeda tslE'ltsIsklwa LleLlo'psaya; he gwe'x^se Llopsa- 

^yasa Llo'paxa plElo'se. Wa, la he'Emxat! gwa'le gwii'laasasexs 

la'e Llo'paq. Wa, lasm LlE'nqale wa'x-sanotslExsta-j'asa L!o'psayo 

lax e'wanulxawa^yasa he'x'tla^ye. Wa, la la'g'aa lax gegEya'gEsas. 

Wit, gi'l^mese gwa'lExs la'e gwii'stElsaq lax lEqIuse', lax Lla'sa- 

10 na^yases g'o'kwe. Wii, laEm he g'il L!6p!etsose oxLasx'a'j'a. Wa, 

g'i'Pmese kliimElx'^IdExs la'e le'x'^idEq ^wi'^la qa hes guyapla'- 

leda lEqIiise'. Wii, gl'pEmxaa'wise kliimElx'^klExs la'e ax^e'dEq 

qa^s le lae'Las la'xes g'o'kwe. Wii, la Le'saLElots ^wl'^la LE^wis 

LleLlo'psayowe lax e'kMa^yases lEgwI'Ie lax nEga'sasa S,'la Lle'sala. 

15 Wii, la he'x'silEm lii. Wa, H'l'mese axii'xod, la'e a'lak'!iila la 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 235 

long time, and she takes them down when they begin to be quite | 16 
dry. Then she takes off the roasting-tongs, and | she ties the roasting- 
tongs together and puts them in the corner of the house. | That is 
also what the woman does when she roasts the "plucked checks." 
Then | she takes a large cedar-bark basket and puts the roasted 
heads || into it; then she puts it away for winter use. | 20 

Dog- Salmon Spawn (1) (Scattered spawn of the dog-salmon, | caught 1 
in the upper part of the rivers when the dog-fish are spawning). — | 
When a woman cuts the fish caught by her husband, | she takes a 
high box and puts it down at her || left side at the place where she is 5 
cutting; and after | the woman has fuiished cuttmg the dog-salmon, 
and when | what she is cutting is opened out, then she scoops out 
with her hands the scattered I spawn and puts it into the tall box; 
and after she has | done so, and the box is full of the scattered 
spawn, II her husband goes up and puts it down in the | corner of the 10 
house. Then short boards are put down flat on top of it, that | the 
rain may not drip in when it rains. When | that is done, he leaves 
it, for the cover is not water-tight, for | the men will always go and 
take out some of it. | 

Dog-Salmon Spawn (2). — Now we will talk about the sticky (spawn), j 1 
When the tall box is full of spawn, when | the woman cuts the dog- 

lE'mx^wIda. Wa, lawI'sLa ax&'laxa L!eL!5'psayowe. Wa, la 16 
yiLo'yodxa LleLlo'psayowe qa^s g^e'xeq la'xa one'gwilases g^o'kwe 
he'smxaa gwe'x-'Ideda tsteda'qaxs L!opaaxa plElo'se. Wa, la 
ax^e'dxes ^wa'lase dE'ntsEm Lla'bata qa^s g-e'ts!odesa x-6'xwasde 
laq. Wii, la g'e'xaq qa^s he'lelayolxa tsIawii'irsLa. 20 

Dog-Salmon Spawn (1) (Gweletse, yix ge'^nasa gwa^xnisaxs g"aya- 1 
nEmae lax ^nE'ldziisa wl'wa; yixs la'e xwi'laweda gwa^xnise). — Wa, 
hc'^maaxs la'e xwa'Hdeda tslEda'qax ya'nEmases la'^'wunEme 
la^mes he gil ax^e'tsoseda La'watse qa^s ha'ng'allses lax gEm- 
xagawallsas kiwae'dzasasexs la'e xwa'Plda. Wii, gi'Pmese gwa'la 5 
la'e xwa'l'ideda tslEda'qaxa gwa^xnise. Wa, g'i'h'mese nEialese 
xwa'La^yasexs la'e LE'lx'^Itses ee^yasowe la'xa gwe'ledza^ye 
ge'^nii qa^s LEltsI^'les la'xa La^watsa. Wii, a'l^mese gwal he gwe'- 
g'ilaxs la'e q5't!eda Lil'watsaxa gwele'dza^ye ge'^nii. Wa, g'i'l- 
^mese q5't!axs la'e la'^wiinEmas la'sdesa qa^s le ha'ng^alilas lax 6'ne- 10 
gwilases g'o'kwe. Wa, la paqE'mtsa ts!ii'ts!ax"sEmelaq, qa k'le'ses 
tsax"ts!a'lasosa tsa'xwiixs lil'naxwae yu'gux'^ida. Wii, g'i'1-mese 
gwa'lExs g'a'xae bas qaxs k'e'sae aE'nrxiix pa'qEma^yas qaxs 
qluna'laeda be'bEgwa'nEme la tsEyo'lts!6d liiq. 

Dog-Salmon Spawn (2). — Wii, la^me'sEngwa'gwex-s^alal la'xa q.'E'n- 1 
kwe. Wa, he'nnaaxs la'e q6't!eda Lii'watsiixa ge'^niixs g-jl'lae 
xwa'Leda tslEdaqaxa gwa^xnise. Wa, la iix^e'deda tslEda'qaxes 



236 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ietu. ann. 36 

salmon, she takes a | dish and washes it out. Wlien it is clean, slie || 
5 dips up the fresh salmon-spawn into it. When it is half full, | she 
stops, and she takes a smooth stone and pounds | it so that it all 
bursts. After it has all burst, she | stops pounding it. Then she 
takes a good-sized seal-bladder and | puts the burst salmon-spawn 

10 into it. She just fimshes putting it into it || when it is full. When 
it is full, she takes a twisted cedar-bark rope | and ties the neck of 
the bladder firmly. After this has been done, | she hangs it up not 
very near to the fire, in the | rear of the house. Then it remains 
hanging there until | the fern and the salmon-berries begin to sprout. || 

15 The juice of this is also used by painters for making the paint | stick 
on what they paint. | 

Quarter-Dried Salmon. — Tliis is | another way of (preparing) 
soaked green salmon. Now we will talk about | the way of (prepar- 

20 ing) quarter-dried green salmon. When || dog-salmon are first 
speared, when very old, the wife of the | one wlio speared them car- 
ries them up with her fingers, and places them on the mat on which | 
she cuts open the dog-salmon that her husband has obtained. | Then 
she takes her fish-knife and cuts the old dog-salmon. | She first cuts 

25 the gUls at the neck || of the salmon, and then she cuts off the head 
and takes it off. | Then she cuts down along the back from the neck 



l5'q!we qa^s tslS'xug'indeq. Wa, gi'l^mese egig-a'xs la'e 
5 gu'xtslotsa alo'mase ge'^ne laq. Wa, gi'I=mese nEgo'^yox^widExs 
la'e gwa'la. Wii, la ax^e'dxa qe'tsEme tIe'sEma qa^s lE'sElgEndes 
laq qa ^naxwes qux'-i'da. Wii, gi'l'mese 'wi'^la qiix'^I'da, la'e 
gwal lEsE'lgeq. Wii, la itx^e'dxa he'l^a po'xuntsa me'gwate qa^s 
pEnts!a'lesa kugikwe' ge'^ne lilq. Wii, a'l^mese gwal pEnts!a'laqexs 

10 la'e qo't'.a. Wa, gi'l-'mese qo'tlaxs la'e ax-'e'dxa mE'lkwe dEna'sa 
qa^s aEle' ytLExsts'nts la'xa poxtinse. Wii, g-fl^mese gwa'la la 
te'x^walllas la'xa k'les xE'nLEla nExwa'la la'xa lEgwi'le lax 
6'gwIwaHllasa go'kwe. Wii, laE'm he'x'silEm tegwi'le la'laal 
lil'xa qlwa'xEndLasa sa'gflm LE^wa qlwa'lEme. Wa, he'^misexs la'e 

15 axso'sa k!a'k-!Et!e'noxwe qa ^wa'ptdases k-.'ii'tEliixes k!atasE^we, 
yLxs kliitlEga^'yae. 

Quarter-Dried Salmon (Dze'lelak"; k!5'lox"). — Wa, gaEm ^nEmx'^- 
idiilaxaat! t!elk" k!o'Ioxwa. Wii, he'^mawIsLaLEns gwagwex-s^ahiLe 
gwe'gilasaxa dze'Jelakwe klo'loxwa. Wa, he'^niaaxs g-a'lae 

20 sEgEkwa' gwa^xnisaxs la'e tslEla'ka. Wa, le'da gsnE'masa 
sEg'Ekuliiq ga'sx-Ex-^i'dEq qa^s le k'lEgEdzo'ts lil'xa le'^wa^ye, ylx 
xwa'LEdzii'sex ya'nEmases la'^wuuEme gwa'xiiisa. Wa, la^mes 
ax^e'dxes xwaLayowe. Wa, la xwa'l^Idxa tslEla'k'e gwa^xnisa. 
Wii, he'Em g'il t lo's^Itsosexs la'e t!6's^idEx qlo'sna^yas o'xawa- 

25 ^yasa kMo'tEla. Wa, la'wisLa qti'x-^klEq qa la'wes he'x-t!a^ya. 
Wa, la xwa'l^idEx awl'g-a^yas g-ii'x-^Id lax o'xLaata^yas la'gaa 



liOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 237 

down I to four fiiiger-mdths above the tail. A little | meat is left 27 
on the backbone. The meat on the green salmon is thick. | Then 
she takes split-cedar sticks and || spreads (the green salmon) as she 30 
does the dried green salmon. As soon as | she has spread it, she 
hangs it up in the smoke of the fire of her | house. Sometimes it 
hangs there one day; | then it is half dried. As soon as it is half 
dried, the woman takes it down | and looks for a mixture of sand and 
clay on the || bank of the river; and as soon as it is dry, she digs it 35 
out; I and when she has dug two spans deep into the ground, | she 
spreads out one of the quarter-dried green salmon in it; then | she 
takes grass and puts it over it; then she strews a | handful of dirt 
(sand and clay mixed) over it. As soon as it is covered with || dirt, 40 
she takes another green salmon and | spreads it out in the hole; then 
she puts grass | over it, and she again puts dirt on it. | Sometimes 
one woman puts a hundred in | one hole. Then she covers it above 
with dirt, || and much grass is put under it; | and it is still there 45 
when winter arrives. | 

Spawn of Silver- Salmon. — Now I shall talk about the | spawn of the 1 
silver-salmon and of the sockeye-salmon caught by trolling; for they 
are alike, | and their spawn is small. When | tlie woman cuts what 



la'xa mo'dEne lax e'k'Ia^yas ts!a'sna^ya. Wa, laE'm la ho'lale 27 
q'.E'mlEdza^yas q!6'q!u^yas. Wa, la wa'kwe qlEmtedza'^yasa 
kMo'loxwe. Wa, la^me'se ax-'e'dxa xo'kwe klwaxLa'^wa qa^s 
qEt!e'deq lax gwa'laas^masa lEmo'kwe klo'loxwa. Wa, gi'l^mese 30 
gwal qEta'qexs la'e ge'x^widEq la'xa kwa'xilasa lEgwi'lases 
go'kwe. Wa, la -'na't^nEmplsna ^nE'mxsa^me ^na'las ge'x^QlaLElaxs 
la'e k' la'yax^wlda. Wa, gl'l^mese k' !a'yax^widExs la'e axa'xodeda 
tslEda'qaq qa^s le a'lex'Idxa na'xsaap!e lo^ e'gise lo^ L!e'q!e lax 
o'gwaga^yasa wa. Wa, la g'i'l^Em lE'mxwaxs la'e ^laple'dEq; wa, 35 
g-i'1-mese malplEnxbEts'lsEla la'xa a^wi'nakluse ^la'pay^asexs la'e 
LEpbEtE'lsasa ^nE'me dze'le^lak" k' lo'lox" laq. Wa, la^me's ax^- 
e'dxa k"!e't!Eme qa^s axdzo'des la'qexs la'e xa.LlEx-^i'd k'la'dzotsa 
go'xsEma^yaakwe dzEqwa laq. Wii, gi'Pmese hamElgldzo'^ya 
dzEqwa' la'qexs la'e e't!ed ax^'e'dxa ^nE'me klo'loxwa qa^s 40 
LEbeg'l'ndes laq. Wii, laE'mxaa'wis ax^atdzo'tsa k'le'tlEme 
laq. Wa, laE'mxaa'wise k'ladzotsa dzEqwa' laq. Wa, la ^nal- 
^nEmplEna la'kMindeda he gwa'la axesa ^nEmo'kwe tslsda'q la'xa 
^nEmtslEqlEse ^la'pa^ya. Wa, la ae'k'la tslEme'g'intsa dzEqwa' 
la'qexs la'e qle'nEma k'!e't!Eme la axa'bEwes. Wa, laE'm 45 
he'x'saEm le la'g'aa la'xa la ts!awu'nxa. 

Spawn of Silver-Salmon. — Wa, la^me'sEn gwa'gwex's^alal la'xa 1 
ge'^niisa do'gwmete dza^'wu'na LE^wa mEle'k'e, yLxs ^uEma'xis- 
^maaxs he'^mae a'les a'm^Emae ge'^niis. Wa, he'^maaxs la'e 



238 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL (ktii. ann. 35 

5 lior husband has caught by trolling, and also || the sockeye-salmon 
cauglit in salmon-weirs, she puts the spawn down on the beacli | on 
tlie right-hand side of the place where s!ie is sitting and cutting. As 
soon as slie has finished | cutting, she takes a drying-rack, made on 
purpose, and puts | the spawn on it in tliis manner: ji " J » |i ji " 
As soon as this is done, | she puts it up just over the 
lU fire, so that it is smoked by tlie smoke. || It is left there 
along time, and it is only taken down when it is | really 
dry ; and it is put into a spoon-basket of open weave, | 



and then she liangs it vip again | behind the fire so that I I Til iiT H 



g^ 



it gets just enougli heat from it. Then it is | called "dried-part- 
of-salmon," and its name is "whole-piece." || 

15 Sockeye-Salmon. — that is, (old) wliite sockeye-salmon. | Wlien 
the sockoye gets white in the upper part of the river, | it is called 
"ugly sockeye salmon;" and it is speared by tliose wlio live on the 
rivers ] at tlie spawning place of the ugly socke3'e-salmon at the 
upper part of the river. As soon as | (a man) gets many, his wife 

20 cuts some .^./ri^s^.- of them in the same waj^ || as the dog-salmon 
are cu t / \ wlicn thej' are made into green dry salmon. | 
She just / \ cuts right down the back of the salmon in this 

manner: '—^ — ' 1 She does not allow it to be taken into the 
liouse, for she does not allow it | to be smoked by the smoke. Her 
husband only | puts up tlie staging for hanging up what has been 

xwa'l'Ideda tslEda'qax do'gwanEmases la'^wiinEme Lo^ma La'wa- 
5 yotslo mEle'k'a, wa, la^me'se ax^a'llsElaxa ge'^ne lax he'lk'Io- 
tagawa'lisases k!wae'dzasaxs xwa'Lae. Wa, g'i'l-niese gwal xwa'- 
Laxs la'e ax-'e'dxa hekwe'lae k'lttk'lEde's qas LEx"dz6'da- 
llsa ge'^ne laq; g-a gwii'Ieg-a (Jig.). Wa, gl'1-mese gwa'lExs la'e 
La'g'aaLElots lax nEqo'stases lEgwI'ie qa kwa'x^asE-wesesa kwa- 

10 xi'la. Wa, la ga'la axEla'LEla. Wa, a'l'mese axa'xoyoxs la'e 
a'lak"!ala la lE'mx'wida qa^s Hxtslo'yowe la'xa yibElo'sgEme 
k'a'yats!a. Wil, laEm^xaa'wise xwe'laqa te'x'^walilEm la'xa o'gwl- 
wallhisa lEgwI'le qa hela'Jisa Lle'saliisa lEgwi'le laq. Wii, laE'm 
Le'gadEs la'llEm'we'dzEk" loxs sEne'tslex'Lae. 

15 Sockeye-Salmon. — Ta'yaltslala, yi'xa la tslEla'x'^Id mEle'k-a. 
Wa, gi'l'Em la tslEla'x^^Ideda mEle'k'e lax ^uE'ldziisa wa, la'e 
Le'gadEs mEla'le. Wii, he'^mis la s^.ta'sosa wI'wamets!enoxwe 
lax la xwe'lawaatsa mEla'le lax ^nE'ldzasa wa. Wa, gi'Pmese 
q'.Eyo'Lqexs la'e gEnE'mas xwa'Hdxa wao'kwe qa yo'wes gwa'- 

20 lox xwa'La^yasex xwa'La^yasa gwa^xnisaxs la'e k'lo'loxwilaq. 
A'EmnEqa'xodxwa'HdEx awl'g'a^yasa k'lo'tEla g-a gwa'leg'a (Jig.). 
Wii, la k'!es he'lq!alaq la lae'L la'xa g'o'kwe qaxs kMe'sae he'l- 
q'.iilaq kwa'x'asosa kwa'x'Ila. Wii, a'^miseda lii'^wiinEmas 
qaxE'lsa qa ge'x"dEmasa la xwii'Leses gEUEme. Wii, he'Emxaii'- 



DOAs] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 239 

cut by his wife; and the || woman hangs up what she has cut, and it 25 
is dried by the | sun and the wind. It is left hanging tliere with 
cross-sticks | of broken cedar in the tails, wliich | cross over the two 
drying-poles. It is left tliere for a long time, so that it becomes roaUy 
dry. I When it begins to be dry, it is named "sun-dried salmon." || 
When it begins to be really diy, tlie woman | takes it down and takes ,30 
off tlie cross-pieces of cedar-wood from the tails. As soon | as tliey 
are all off, she gathers them, and takes them into her | house. She 
takes a box and tilts it over by the side of the | fire; and soon it 
becomes warm, and tlien it becomes dry inside. After it is |1 quite 35 
dry inside, she puts it down on the floor of the house not far from the | 
fire, so that it is heated b}' the heat of the fire. Then she | takes the 
sun-dried salmon and puts it away well in it. After | she lias done 
so, she puts the cover on the box containing the sun-dried salmon. | 
Then the cover is tied down with cedar-bark rope. || Then she 40 
finishes it. | 

Old Sockeye-Salmon. — I will again talk about ugly sockeye- 1 
salmon. | When a man has caught many ugly sockeye-sahnon, his 
wife I makes sun-dried salmon of some of them. Others she splits 
in two; | and when she gets tired of cutting sun-dried sahnon, || she 5 
just splits the others in two. She just cuts off 1 the heads of the 

wiseda tslEda'qe la ge'x^widxes xwa'La^ye. Wa, laEni Lle'sasosa 25 
Lle'sEla LE^wa ya'la. Wa, la^mes hex'sa'Em ge'xwale ge'gE^yaxs- 
dalaxa k'o'gEkwe kIwaxLa'wa. Wii, he'^misa gay5'sEla la'xa 
ga'yo ma'^Itslaqa. Wa, la ga'taEm he gwa'le qa a'lak*!ales lEmx- 
^wida. Wa, gi'Pmese lE'mx^wIdExs la'e Le'gadEs ta'yaltslala. 
Wa, g'i'Fmese la a'lakMala lE'nix^wIdExs la'eda tslEda'qe axa'- .30 
xodEq qa^s lawa'lexa gegE'yaxsdE^yas kIwaxLa'wa. Wa, gi'l- 
^mese ^wi^la'masqexs la'e q!ap!ex'^idEq qa^s le niEwe'Las la'xes 
g'o'kwe. Wa, la ax^e'dxa xatsE'me qa^s qogunoliseq la'xes Ie- 
gwi'le qa^s pEx'tslo'deq qa lE'mx^walts!ax'^ides. Wii, gi'Pmese 
lE'mx^waltslax'^idExs la'e ha'ng'alllas la'xa k'!e'se qwe'sala la'xes 35 
lEgwI'ie qa Lle'salasE-'weses Llesalasa lEgwi'le. Wii, la^me'se 
ax-'e'dxa ta'yaltslala qa^s le ae'k'la lia'ntslalas Itiq. Wii, gl'Pmese 
gwii'lExs la'e yikuyl'nts yikuya^yasa tii'yalts!alaats!e xatsE'ma. 
Wii, la^mese tiEmakiyi'uts tlEma'k'iya^yasxa dEnsE'ne dEnE'ni laq. 
Wii, laE'm gwiil la'xeq. 40 

Old Sockeye-Salmon. — Wii, he'EmxaEn gwa'gwex's^alasLa mElo'le, 1 
yixs gi'l'mae q!Eyo'Leda bEgwa'nEmaxa mElo'laxs la'e gEnE'mas 
ta'yaltsliilagilaxa wao'kwe. Wii, la qlwa'xsegilaxa wao'kwe. 
Wa, he'^maaxs la'e wio'l^ida la'xes xwii'Llena^yaxa ta'yaltslala. 
Wii, a'^mise la qlwa'k^llaxa wao'kwe. Wa, laE'm a'Em la qak'a'- ,^ 
lax he'x'tla^yasa niElo'le. Wii, laE'mxaa'wise xwa'LodaEmxaax 



240 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. so 

7 Ugly sockeye-salmon, and she also cuts off the | backbone; and she 
cuts down across, dividing the body of the | salmon into two pieces, 
which are only held together by the tail. | As soon as she fuiishes, her 

10 husband puts up poles; || then he puts up posts on each end of which 
rest the long poles over which the split salmon are hung. | After he 
has done so, tlie woman takes the split salmon and | hangs them over 
the poles in tliis mamier: '\J ^ and | they are also put 

up outside of the house, 'll //\\ /T\\ ll ' and the | sun and the 
wind dry them, and there M [J Ll U *^^y ^^'^y ''' ^°^S time 1| 

15 before they are dry. As soon as night comes, | 

tlie woman takes a large mat of coarse cedar-bark 

and spreads | it over tliem to cover them, so that they may not get 
damp I by the dew of the niglit; and when it is a fine day, | she 
uncovers them again m the morning and takes off the large naat cover- 

20 ing, 11 so that tlie heat of the sun and the wind may reach them; 
and wlien it is | raming, she does not uncover them. When tliey 
are really dry, 1 the woman takes them down and takes them into 
the liouse. 1 Then she takes a cedar-bark basket and puts them into 
it. After 1 tliey have been put in, she puts them away close to the 

25 fire. H Tliis will be food for the winter. Sometimes they 1 do the 
same with the silver-salmon. They do not do the same with dog- 
salmon 1 and other kinds of salmon. Tliat is all of this. | 



7 xa'k'Iadzas. Wa, la ha'xEle xwa'La^yas la ma^ltslE'ndEx o'gwi- 
dii^yasa k' lo'tEla. Wa, la'me'se le'x-aEm la ElEga'layoses ts!a'sna-ve. 
Wa, g i'Pmese gwa'la, la'e ax^E'lse la'^wiinEmrsexa dzo'xume; laE'm 

10 LaLEbE'lsaq qa k'a'dEtayaatsa ge'x^dEmaLasa qlwa'xsa^ye. Wa, 
g-i'Pmesc gwa'lExs la'asa tslEda'qe ax^e'dxa q!wa'xsa'ye qa^s 
qEXEnda'le ge'x'undalas laq, g'a gwa'ieg-a (Jig.). Wa, laE'mxaa 
he'Em la axEldzE'ma Lla'sana^yasa g-6'kwe. Wa, laE'mxae he'^ma 
L'.e'sEla LE^wa ya'la lE'mxwaq. Wa, la^me'se hex'sa'Em ge'xwa- 

15 laxs k-!e's^m:ie lE'mx^wida. Wa, gi'Pmese ga'nuHdExs la'naxwa- 
eda ts'.Eda'qe ax^e'dxa ^waTase qlule'dzo te'^wa^ya qa^s LEp!e'- 
des lax 6'kMa^yas qa no'kwes qa k'!e'ses xwe'laqa dE'lx-^ida'ma- 
tso^sa go'siixa ga'nuLe. Wa, g-fPmese e'ka ^na'laxa gua'liixs 
la'e xwe'laqa lo's^idEq qa la'was nawE'masxa ^wa'lase le'^wa^ya 

20 qa Lle'sasE'wesesa Lle'sEla LE^wa ya'la. Wa, gl'Pmese yo'- 
o-waxs la'e k'les lo's^idEq. Wa, gl'Pmese a'laklala lE'mx^wi- 
dEXS la'eda tslEda'qe axa'xodEq qa-'s Ic lae'Las la'xes g'o'kwe. 
Wa la ax^e'dxa Lla'bate qa's ha'nts lodes laq. Wa, gl'Pmese 
gwal ha'nts lalaqexs la'e^ g-g'xaq la'xa uExwa'la la'xes lEgwi'le. 

25 Wa laE'm he'lelayolxa tslixwu'nxLa. Wa, la ^na'PnEmplEna he 
gwe'g'ilasE^weda dza^wQ'ne. Wa, la k' !es he gwe'g-dasE-'weda gwa^x- 
nise LE^wa wao'kwe k'lo'klutEla. Wii, laEm gwal la'xeq. 




BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 241 

Eoasted Silver- Salmon. (Roasted tails of silver-salmon caught by | 1 
trolling.) II 

When the silver-salmon caught by trolling is cut open, | the 30 
tail is left on the backbone. After | the woman has cut it, she 
takes the roasting-tongs and breaks off the \ tail from the backbone, 
and she puts the salmon-tails | crosswise into the roasting-tongs in 
this manner: m Often || the salmon-tails are taken off after the 35 
backbone has CP been roasted, ! in this manner 
they only i-c break them off after they have 
roasted. | d'H After the tails have been put 
the roasting- CP tongs, | they are put by the 
of the fire; — ^ — and when the skin is blackened, | 
are taken away and laid down || just over the fire, so 
the heat of the fire goes right up to them; | and when the 
of the house gets hungry ,he just takes | them down and eats of them. 
And if he does not eat all (he has taken down), he just | puts it back 
above. | 

Halibut. — [The method of halibut fishing has been described in 
"The Kwakiutl of Vancouver Island'" (Pubhcations of the Jesup 
North Pacific Expedition, Vol. V, pp. 472—180). The account con- 
tinues as follows :] 

As soon as (the halibut-fisher) enters his house, his wife | quickly 1 
gives him something to eat; and when he begins to eat, his wife | 
goes out of the house, carrying her small basket, in which she has 
four fish-knives. | She is going to work on aU the halibut lying on 
their backs on the beach. || 

Eoasted Silver-Salmon. — Llo'bEk" ts!a'sne-sa dza^wu'ne do'gwineta. 1 
Wa, he''maaxsla'exwa'intsE-'weda do'gwauEme dza-'wu'na. Wa, 30 
la'me'se axala-meda tsla'sna^ye laxa xa'k'Iadzas; wa, g-il-mese gwal 
xwa'Leda tslEda'qaxs la'e ax-e'dxa Llo'psayowe qa^'s k'o'qalexa 
tslasna'ye laxa xa'kMadzowe qa^s le ge'g-aaits!aUsa tslasna^ye la'xa 
Lla'psayowe g'a gwa'leg-a (Jig.). Wii, la q!una'laEmxat! a'l-'Em 
la'wodayowa tsla'sna'yaxs la'e Llo'pa la'xa xa'k' ladzowe, yixs 35 
g-a'e gwa'leg-a (fig.). Wa, a'l-mese koqa'layoxs la'e Llo'pa. Wii, 
he''"maaxs la'e gwal axa'ltslodalayS la'xa Llo'psayoweda ts!a'sna'ye. 
Wa, la^me'se La'noHdzEm la'xa lEgwI'le. Wa, la-me'se klumE'lx*- 
nda-'me Lle'sasexs la'e ax-e'tsE^wa qa^s Le'saLElodayowe lax nEqo'- 
stasa lEgwi'le qa Lle'sEg-ostalasE^weses Lle'salasa lEgwI'le. Wa, 40 
g-1'Pmese po'sqlEX'^deda g-o'gwadasa g-Q'kwaxs la'e 4'Em axaxo- 
dEq qa-s ha,-mx-'ide laq. Wa, g-i'1-mese k- !es ^wi'%qexs la'e a'sm 
xwe'laxaLElots la'xa e'k'!e. 

Halibut. — Wa, g-i'Pmese lae'L la'xes g-o'kwaxs la'e gEnE'mas 1 
ha'labala Ltexwe'laq. Wa, g'i'Pmese hamx'i'dExs la'e gEUE'mas 
la'wElsa da'laxesIa'Iaxameg-i'tslE-'watsesmo'wexwa'xuLaya. Wa, 
laE'm laL e'ax-edElxa ^na'xwa-me UEluELe'sa p!ep!a''ye. 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 1 16 



242 ETHNOI/)GY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth, ann.so 

5 Now I will talk about the woman, what she is going to do after | her 
husband has finished fishing; for the man never | helps his wife this 
side of his going out | fishing (after he has finished fishing), and also 
when he has hauled the halibut out of his halibut-fishing canoe.' . . || 

10 As ' soon as the woman sits down on the beach at the place where | 
the halibut have been put down, she takes out her four knives, and | 
she takes a sandstone and whets her knives on it. | As soon as the 
four knives are sharp, she | first takes the fin-knife; for the four 

15 knives all have names. || The first knife is the fin-knife; | the next 
one, the cutting-knife; the next one, the tiaking-loiife ; and | the last 
one, the splitting-knife. She sits down by the head of the halibut, 
and I she cuts open the lower part of the belly of the halibut, (in 
this manner:)^ ^«^^^v ^^® ^^^® ^^ around it. | Then 

she turns it >^ "^^^Sj^^ /) backward and takes the cut- 

20 ting-knife and || v**'\ C!) ^( cuts under the cheek-fins, and 

cuts out the ^ ^^ gills. As | soon as she has them 
off, she puUs ^^P^"^ outthe intestines of thehalibut, 

and she | cuts off the guts so that they come off from the stomach. 
Then she turns the stomach inside out, so as to | spread it, and puts 
it down. Last she cuts off the pectoral fins, | on the other side, and 



6 Wa, la^me'sEn l&sL gwagwex's^alaL la'qexs laeda tslEda'qe heL 
laL e'axalaLEqexs la'e gwa'ies ia'^wiinEme lo'qwa, qaxs hewa'xa- 
^mcLeda bEgwa'uEme g-6'x^wIdElxes gEUE'me gwa'sagaweses lae'- 
na^ye lo'qwa. Wa, he'^misexs la'e gax"s6lta'laxa p!ep!a'^ye la'xes 
l5'gwats!e.' . . . 

10 Wa,^ gi'l^mese kiwa'g'aliseda tslsda'qe lax k' !ixk' llge'dzasa 

p!a'^yaxs la'e ax^wiilts!6'dxes xwa'xilLayowe mo'wa. Wa, la 

ax^e'dxa t le'gayowe dE^na'sgEm qa^s g'e'xalalises xwaLayowe laq. 

Wa, g'l'Pmese ^wi'% e'x'bax'^ideda mo'we xwa'xuLay5xs la'e he 

gil ax^e'tsoseda pELa'layo xwa'Laya, qaxs ^naxwa^mae Le'gadeda 

15 mo'we xwa'xQLayo. Wa, he'Em ga'leda pELa'layowe xwa'Lay&; 
wa, he'^misa gEltslE'me; wa, he'^misa xwa'Layowe; wa, he'^mis- 
Leda tlE'lyayowe. Wa, la k!wa'g\ilis lax oxta'lisasa pla'^ye. Wa, 
la xwa'i-'idEx bs'nba^yas tEk'la'sa pla'^ye {fig.). Wa, la xwaltse'- 
^sdEnq. Wa, la uEl^aLE'lodqexs la'e ax^e'dxa gEltste'me qa^s 

20 xwa'xiiLap'.e'dexa pEL'.E'mya^ye qa^s xwaLS'dexa qlo'sna^ye. Wa, 
gil^mese lawaxs lae go'loltslExa ya'x-yig'Ilasa pla^ye. Wa, la xwa'- 
Lodxa tslEyi'me qa lawayes la'xa mo 'quia. Wa, la le'x'SEmdEq qa 
Lle'plEqalesexs lae S,x^a'lisaq. Wa, lawI'sLa hewEyo'd xwa'Lodxa 
pELa' la'xa apsa'dzE^ye qa^s ftx^a'liseq. Wa, la xwa'ltse^stalaxa 

> Continued in Publications of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. V, p. 480. 

• Continued from ibid., p. 480. 

• That is, close to the edge of the fish. 



BOAS] 



PRESERVATION OF FOOD 243 



puts them down. Then she cuts around the || skin, keeping close to 25 
the edge-fin. She only stops cutting when she | arrives at the end 
of the tail [salt-taste tail]. Then | she begins to cut from behind the 
head of the halibut, at the place where she first cut it. She | does 
the same on the other side. Then she cuts off the skin of the white 
side. I As soon as the skin is off, she cuts down along the middle 
of the II backbone of the halibut; and when she reaches the backbone, 30 
she again | cuts, beginning from the rough edge, cutting close to the | 
ribs, imtil she reaches the backbone. Then she takes off one side of 
the I halibut and puts it down, (in this manner:) 
Then she does the same also | on the other side. 
As soon as it is off, she turns it over and cuts 
off also II the skin of the black side. As soon as 
it is off, she cuts | also that side of the rough-edge, and goes on 
to the backbone. Wlien she ] reaches it again, she cuts down 
straight | to the backbone, and she puts it down with what came 
from the other side. | Then she does the same also to the 
other side that was still on. || As soon as all the meat of the 40 
halibut is off, she takes off the apron-side (spawn) | and puts it 
down. Then she cuts off the head, and she | takes the rib of an elk 
and takes hold of the tail. Then she | 
lifts the backbone of the halibut by the 





tail and cuts oft' the ribs, | cutting them "MWpKT' 
close to the backbone, (in this manner:) '""«^'^''^'<S<!> 



Lle'se ma'k'InxEndalaxa qlwa'qlunxa^ye. Wa, a'l^mese gwal xwa'- 25 
Laxs la'e la'g'aa la'xa o'xLa^yasa dE'mp!axsda^ye. Wa, he'Em 
g'a'gULEle o'xLaata^yasa pla'^ye gi'lp!Edasa xwa'La^yas. Wa, la 
e'tledxa apsE'nxa^ye. Wa, la sa'pSdxa ^mEla'dza^ye Llesa. Wa 
g'iPmese lawa'da Lle'saxs la'e ^nEqa'xod xwa'l^edEx ^nEXEna'^yas 
hamo'masa p la'^ye. Wa, g'iPmese la'g'aa la'xa h&mo'maxs la'e e't !ed 30 
xwa'Hd ga'g'ELEla laxa q!wa'q!unxa^ye. Wa, laEm ma'k'Ildzoda- 
laxa xi'la qa^s le wala la'xa hamo'mS. Wa, la axo'dxa &ps6'dEdza- 
^yasap!a'^ye qa^s ax^a'lises {fig.). Wa, la'xaa e'tledhe gwe'x'^Idxa 
apsE'nxa^ye. Wa, gi'l^mese lawa'xs la'e le'x'lllsaq qa^s 6'gwaqe 
sapo'dxa ts!o'lats!a^ye Lle'sa. Wa, gi'Pmese lawa'xs la'e xwa'HdEx 35 
5.wii'nxa^yasa q!wa'q!unxa^ye qa^s la'lae la'xa h&mo'mo. Wa, g'i'l- 
^Emxaawise la'g"aa la'qexs la'e ^nEqa'x5d xwa'l^edEx ^nEXEna'^ya- 
xaash&mo'mo. Wa, la'xaa g'I'gilisas la'xesg'a'yanEme la'xa Spsa'- 
dza^ye. Wa, laxaa he'Em gwe'x'^Idxa la ftx^a'laLEleda a,psE'nxa^ye. 
Wa, gi'Pmese ^wi^oweda qlE'mlalasa p!a'^yaxs la'e axo'dxa tsa'ple- 40 
dza^ye qa^s ax'a'liseq. Wa, la qak"6'dEx ma'legEmanos. Wa, la 
ax^e'dxa gElE'masa lIewe'Isb qa^s da'x^dexa dE'mplaxsda^ye qa 
S,'k'!axsdalesa hamo'masa pla'^yaxs la'e kwexa'laxa xila'. Wa, 
laE'm ma'g'ilEnexa hamo'mo {fig.). Wa, gi'Pmese ^wrta la'weda 



244 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth.anx. 35 

45 As soon as the ribs are off, || the woman takes cedar-bark and ties the 
tail-ends of^| both sides of the ribs of the backbone together, (in 
this manner:) ^/Tf^ Then she carries them | up and hangs 

themjustover ]\^^^^ki the fireplace of the house. She | takes 
her roasting- j):^^ ^^o^ tongs and takes them down to where the 
fins are. | She ^^3 ^^^/ takes them at once, and puts four fins 

50 in one pair of II ^~~^ ^^^ roasting-tongs. She ties the roasting- 
tongs on top with cedar-bark. | Then she takes thin split cedar- 
wood, and puts it over each side, (in this maimer:) | fh 
As soon as she has done so, she gathers driftwood on i-JLMi^ 
the beach, | and makes a fire; and when the fire that j^ 
she has made blazes up, she | picks up stones and puts ^ 



X^ci 



"rjy 



^ 
?= 



55 them on the fire that she has made. As soon as || there °^e 
are enough on it, she takes the fins in the roasting- 
tongs and I puts them up by its side. Then she gathers 
the backbones | while the tail is still attached to them ; and she takes 
the I stomachs and puts them down on the beach, not far from the 
stones in the fire. | Then she also takes mats and puts them down 

60 there also with her || tongs, and also a bucketful of water. As soon | 
as the fins are roasted, she takes them away from the stones on the 
fire; ] and when the stones are red-hot, she takes her | tongs and 
with them takes off the wood that is left on the fire. | When it is all 



45 x'i'laxsla'e ax^e'deda tslEda'qaxa dEna'se qa^s ya'Lode 6'xsda^yasa 
wa'x'sot '.Ena^ye x'l'lasa h&mo'ma qa^s ya'Lodex {jig^ . Wa, la da'laq 
qa^s le ge'x^waLE'lots lax ^nEq6'st§,was lEgwi'lases g'o'kwe. Wa, la 
ftx^e'dxes L!o'psayowe qa^s le Is'ntsles lax axa'sases pELa'. Wa, 
he'x'^ida^mese ax^e'dsq qa^s axtslo'desa m5'we pELa' la'xa ^UE'me 

50 Llo'psaya. Wa, la k'lilg-Etotsa dEna'se laxa L!o'psayowe. Wa, 
la ax^e'dxa xo'kwe wi'sweI k!waxLa'^wa qa^s k'!aa't!edes laq {Jig^. 
Wa gi'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e q!ap!e'x'^idxa qle'xale la'xa LlEma^e 
qa^s lExwa'Use. Wa, g'i'Pmese x'I'qostawe lEqwe'la^yasexs la'e 
xo'x^wldxa tle'sEme qa^s xEx"La'les la'xa lEqwe'la^yas. Wa, g'i'l- 

55 ^mese he'l^a lax na'qa^yasexs la'e ax^e'dxa Llo'ptslala pELa' qa^s 
le La'nollsas laq. Wii, la^me'se q!ap!e'x'^klxa hamo'mo, j^ixs he'- 
^mae a'les axa'Ie dE'mp!axsda-yas laq. Wa, la'xaa ax^e'dxa 
mo'qula qa g'a'xes g'ae's laxa k"!es qwe'sala la'xa t le'qwapa^ye. 
Wa, la'xaa ax^e'dxa le'Epwa^ye qa^s g"a'e ax^a'lisaq LE'wis 

60 k'lipLa'la; wa, he'-'misa na'gatsle la qo'tlaxa -wa'pe. Wa, g'l'l- 
^mese Llo'pa pELa'xs la'e axsE'ndEq la'xes t!e'qwapa^ye. Wa, 
g'i'Pmese ^na'xwa la x'l'x'lxsEmx'^Ideda tIe'sEmaxs la'e ax^e'dxes 
k'!ipLa'la qa^s k'llpsa'les la'xa xTx'iq!ayawa^yasa gu'lta. Wa, 
g'l'Pmese ^wPlaxs la'e Sx^e'dxa tsla'tslEsmote qa^s lExse^sta'les 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 245 

off, she takes old eel-grass, and puts it around |1 the red-hot 65 
stones; and she plucks off | broad-leaved grass, and throws it 
over the | hot stones. As soon as they are covered, she takes the ] 
stomach and puts it on the stones. Then she takes the head and | 
puts it on the stones, close to the old eel-grass, inside of it. || As soon as 70 
this is done, she takes the fins that have not been roasted and | puts 
them on also, and also some of the rough-edge and of the | backbone, 
which she puts on also, and also the tail and the | apron-part. As 
soon as it is all on, she takes her mats and | spreads them down to 
one side of what she is steaming. Then she takes a 1| bucket with 75 
water and pours it over what she is steaming. | After she has finished 
pouring the water, she takes the mats and covers it | with them, so 
that the steam cannot come through. After she has done so, | she 
takes her fish-basket and picks up the guts of the | hahbut, and the 
liver and the shme. After she has it all, || she carries it down to the 80 
beach, and she throws it into the sea. | Then she washes out her fish- 
basket, so that aU the slime comes off | from it; and then she goes 
up the beach, takes the pieces cut off from one side of the halibut, 
and I scrapes off the blood. After she has done so, she spreads them 
out 1 on the beach, so that they are not one on top of the other, but 
very close together || at the edges. Then she covers them over with 85 
a mat, for it is not | good if they are split while they are still fresh. 

la'xa Swi'^stasa x-I'x'ixsEmala tIe'sEma. Wa, la'xaa k!u'lx-^Id 65 
la'xa awa'dzoxLo k'le'tlEma qa^s lExa'lodales lax o'kuya^yasa 
tslE'lqwa t!e'sEma. Wa, g'i'Fmese ha^mElxa'laxs la'e fix^e'dxa 
mo'qula qa^s ax^a'lodales. Wa, la'xaa fix^e'dxa ma'legEmano qa^s 
fix^a'lodales la'xa ma'k'aia la'xa tsIa'tslEsmote lax o'tslawas. Wa, 
g-i'Pmese ^wi-laxs la'e ax^e'd la'xa kMe'se Llo'pletsos pELa' qa-'s 70 
le'xat! ax^a'lots laq. Wa, he'^misa wao'kwe q!wa'q!unxa^ya LE^wa 
hamo'mo qa^s le'xat! ax^a'lodalaq, Lo^ma dE'mplaxsda^ye, LE^wa 
tsa'p lets la^ye. Wa, gi'l^mese ^wPlaxs la'e fix^e'dxes le'El^wa^ye qa^s 
Le'LEpIa'liseq lax ma'ginwalisases nEka'sEwe. Wa, la ax^e'dxa 
^wa'bEtslala na'gatsia qa dza'dzELEyl'ndes la'xes uEk'a'sEwe. Wa, 75 
gi'Pmese gwa'l dza'saqexs la'e ax^e'dxa le'Epwa^ye qa^s na's^ides 
laq qa kMe'se k'u'x"saleda kla'lEla laq. Wa, gi'Pmese gwa'lExs 
la'e ax^e'dxes kMo'gwatsle lExa^ya qa^s le mEnts!a,'lasa tslEyi'masa 
pla'^ye LE-wa dewa'ua LE^wa k'le'la. Wa, g'i'Pmese ^wHaxs la'e 
k' lo'quntsle'sElaq la'xa LlEnia^ise qa^s le qEpstE'ndsq la'xa dE'msx'e. 80 
Wa, la ts!o'x-widxes kMo'gwatsle lExa'^ya qa ^wi^lowesa kle'Ia 
la'qexs la'e l5'sdesa qa^s le ax^e'dxes apso'dele xwa'Le p!a'^ya qa^s 
k"e'xalexa E'lkwa. Wa, g'i'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e gwel^ali'sElaq 
la'xa LlEma^ise qa k'!e'ses haqEwinekala. Wa, la'La mEmk'a'- 
la^me ewE'nxa^yas. Wa, la na'kuyintsa le^wa^ye laq, qaxs kMe'sae 85 
ek- lax tlE'lsasE^waxs he'^mae a'ies ge'te. Wa, he'^mis la'gilas 



246 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth.ann.ss 

87 Therefore | they are only split the following day. After she has 
finished covering them, | she calls those who are walking about to 
come and sit down on the | beach. As soon as they arrive, she takes 

90 off the covering of || what she is steaming. Then she spreads a mat 
on the beach, as a place on which to throw | the bones that are left 
over when they eat. As soon as the guests finish eating, | the woman 
watches that aU the | guests throw on the mat the bones that are 
left over. | As soon as all the guests begin to eat, taking up their 

95 food II with their hands, while they are eating; and when they eat, | 
they throw all the bones that are left over, and the fat skin, | on the 
mat spread on the beach. After they have eaten, the | guests get up 
from the beach and go down and | wash their hands in the sea. 
100 When they have finished, they [j all go home to their houses and 
drink water there; | and the woman scrapes off from the stones 
the rest of the food of her | guests, and puts it on the mat; and she 
puts the I rest of the food of her past guests on it, and she carries it 
down to the beach, | and she shakes it into the sea. Then she washes 
5 off II the mat, so that it is clean. After she finishes | washing it, she 
carries it back, and hangs it at the place where the | hahbut is dried. 
After she finishes, she gathers the skins of the | hahbut and takes 
them into her house to hang them up j over the fire, so that they are 

87 a'lEml tiE'lsasolxa gaa'lasa lEnse. Wa, g'i'Fmese gwal ^na'xwaxs 
la'e ^la'q!ug"a^lxa giyi'mgilsEla qa g'a'xes klus^a'lIsEla la'xa 
LlEma^e. Wa, g-I'Pmese g'a'xExs la'e le'tledxa nayi'mases 

90 nEk'a'sE^we. Wa, la LEpla'hsxa le'^wa^ye qa tslEgEdzo'dalatsa 
ha^ma'paxes xa'qesawa^ye. Wa, gl'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e hamx'^- 
i'deda Le^lanEme. Wa, hiE'm q!a'q!alaleda ts!Eda'qe qa ^na'xwa- 
^mesa kiwe'le tslEgEdzo'dalases ha^mo'te xaq la'xa le^wa^ye. Wa, 
g'i'Pmese h&mx"^i'dExs la'e ^na'xwa^ma Le-'lanEme xa'maxtsla- 

95 nases e'^eyasowedas la'xes ha^ma'^ye. Wa, gl'Pmese hamx'^i'dExs 
la'e tslEgEdzo'dalases xa'qesawa^ye LE^wa tsEnoxmo'dEmas Lies 
la'xa LEbe'se le-'wa^ya. Wa, g i'Pmese gwal ha-'ma'paxs la'eda 
kiwe'le qlwa'gtlis qa^s le ho'q'.iintsles la'xa LlEma^ise qa^s le 
tslE'ntslEux^wId la'xa dE'msxe. Wa, gi'Pmese gwatexs la'e 
100 ^na'xwa na'^nakwa la'xes g"igo'kwe qa^s le na'x^Idxa ^wa'pe laq. 
Wa, la'Leda tslEda'qe k"exa'lodxa k"!e'ts!ayawa^ye ha'mx"SE^weses 
Le^lanEme qa^s Sxdzo'dales la'xa le^wa^ye. La axe'g^lnts lax 
ha^mo'tdasa Le^lanEmx'de qa^s le qlEne'psntsIesElaq la'xa LlEma^ise 
qa^s le laaxstE'ndEq la'xa dE'msxe. Wa, la tsIo'x^wQldzo- 
5 daEmxa le^wa^ye qa e'g'idzox^wldes. Wa, g'i'Pmese gwal ts!o'- 
xwaqexs g"a'xae da'laq qa^s g'axe gex^wa'lisaq la'xa ge'x"dEmaxa 
k'la^wase. Wa, gi'Pmese gwa'lqexs la'e qlaple'x'^Idxa LleLle'sasa 
pla'^ye qa^s le lae'Las la'xes g'o'kwe qa^s le ge'x^waLE'Iots lax 
nEqo'stawases lEgwI'Ie qa LJe'salasE^wesesa Lle'salas. Wa, laE'm 



BOAS] 



PRESERVATION OF FOOD 247 



heated by the heat. 1| The meat-side of all of them is upward. 10 
This is the way that the Indians call ] " turning up the back." Then 
she takes a rest, for she will | split the haUbut that is to be dried 
on the following day. | 

This is the way the Indians do when they catch the first hahbut. | 
Everything is steamed by the women, for it is said that the haUbut 
know II that the one who caught them first is thankful for it. There- 15 
fore I it is steamed at once when it is first caught; and it is said, that, 
if I the one who caught halibut first does not cook it right away, he 
will not I have another bite. The fisherman will go out in vain 
trying to | fish halibut. Therefore they do this way when haUbut is 
first caught. || The woman does not do thus when | more hahbut is 20 
caught by her husband. When they first take out the stomach of | 
what is next caught by her husband, then they throw it all into the | 
sea, with the guts and the heads | and the backbone and the apron- 
part. Often they also || throw the fins into the water. Sometimes 25 
they I hang up the fins at the drying-place of the hahbut, so that they 
get haK dry. | As soon as they are half dry, they boil them, and eat 
them with spoons | with the Uquid. But the woman only now and 
then eats j roasted fins, when she takes a rest from sphtting her hali- 
but, II the four that are being roasted while she is steaming the 30 
stomach and | the other parts. | 

^na'xwaEm e'k'Iadza^ye E'lsadzE^yas. He'Em gwE^yS,'sa ba'klume 10 
nElEna'^yeda he gwa'le. Wa, laE'm x'o's^Id la'xeq qaxs a'l^meLe 
tiE'lsalxes k" !a'wasTlasoLaxa la'La ^na'x'^IdElxa lE'nsLa. 

Wa, he'Em gwe'g'ilatsa ba'klume qaes g'ale lo'gwanEm pla'^ya 
yixs k'leo'sae k'les he'x'^idaEm nEk^a'sosa tslEda'qe qaxs q!a'Ia- 
^maa^laeda p!a'^yaqexs mo'loJE-maaxs g'a'lae la'LanEma la'g'ilas 15 
he'x'^idaEm nEX'^i'tsE-wa, yisa ga'loLaq. Wa, qa^lao k' le'slax 
he'x-^idaEm lax ha'me'x'silasolax yls lo'gwanEmaq la'^laxe k' le'slax 
la'lax e'tled lax qlEk'a^so laxExs la'e wax- e'tled lo'qweda lo'- 
qlwenoxwaxa pla'^ye. Wa, he'^mis la'gilas he gwe'g'ilaxes g'a'lo- 
LanEme p!S,'^ya. Wa, k'!e'sc!a la he gwe'guleda tsteda'qax la 20 
e't!ed lo'gwanEmses la'^wiinEme. Gi'Pmae la'wEyodEx mo'qulasa 
a'le l5'gwanEmses la'^wunEmaxs la'e a'Em tstexsta'laq la'xa 
dE'msx'e, ^wi4a LE^wis tslEyl'me, Lo^ma ma'legEmanowe. Wa, 
he'^misa hamo'mowe LE^wa tsa'p!edza^ye. Wa, q liina'laEmxaawise 
tslExstalaxa pELa' la'xa dE'msx"e. Wa, la ^na'l'nEmp !Ena ge'x- 25 
^walisxa pELa' la'xa lE'mx"dEmaxa k'la'wase qa k^ !a'yax^wldes. 
Wa, g'l'l^mese k' la'yax^widExs la'e hsi'nx'LEndEq qa^s yo'seq 
LE^wis ^wa'pala. Wa, la'Leda tslsda'qe le'x'aEm hamx^^I'dnaxwa 
la'xa L'.o'bEkwe pELa', yixs la'Le xo's^idExs la'e tiE'lsaxes k'!a'- 
wasexa mo'we Llo'pasosexs la'x'de nEk'a'xa mo 'quia LE^wis 30 
wao'kwe. 



248 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKirTL Leth, ank. 8S 

32 As soon as the autumn comes, when the haUbut are really fat, | 
the fishermen go out again to fish halibut for food in | winter. Their 

35 wives take out the stomachs and || cut off the gills, and they split 
them open and spread them out on the beach; and they | spread 
them right over the fire of the house, so as to dry them; | that is 
called "dried stomach." And they cut off the | head, and they cut 
off the lower jaw and open it out, | and they cut on each side of the 

40 bone in the head. || As soon as it is off, [the woman] throws it away 
on the beach, | at the place where the brain was. And she spreads 
the outer skin also | just over the fire of the house. That is called | 
"dried head." And she takes the fins and hangs them up at | the 
same place where she first hung the others; and that is called "dried 

45 fins." II Then she takes the ribs and hangs them up, in the same way 
as I I have said before [p. 244]; and this is called "ribs." | And she 
takes the rough-edges and ties them together at the tail-ends, and 
she I hangs them up at the same place where the others are, and this 
has the same name. | And she also takes the tail and cuts down the 

50 side; || and as soon as it is spread, she takes out the end of the back- 
bone, I and she also spreads it over the poles where the others were; 
and this is called | "dried tail." And she also takes the apron-part 
and I hangs it up where the others are, and this is called "dried 
apron." | And she also takes the skin and spreads it on a cutting- 

32 Wa, g-i'l^mese la'ylnx^edExs la'e §,'lak"!ala la tsE'nxweda pl^'^ye 
la'as e'tled la lo'x^wideda l6'^lq!wenoxwaxa p!a'^ye qa^s la'kMESE- 
lalxa tsiawu'nxe. Wa la gEgEnE'mas axa'laxa mo'qula qa^s t!o- 

35 sodexa q!o'sna^ye. Wa, la vl'mHdEq qa LEpa'lisexs la'e LEplEn- 
da'las lax nEqo'stowases lEgwI'lases g'o'kwe qa lE'mx^ides. 
Wa, he'Em Le'gadEs mo'qwasde. Wa, la'xaa qax'^idEx ma'- 
legEman^s. Wa, la t!o's^IdEx o'xLasx'a^yas qa wa'x'se^stes. 
Wa, la'xaa tlo'tlEdzEnod k'atsla'ena^yasa xaxtsla'wasa ma'legE- 

40 mano. Wa, g'i'Pmese lawa'xs la'e ts!EqE'nts!esxa g'i'tslE^wa- 
sasa lEqwa'. Wa, la'xaa LEpIa'LElotsa helo'sgEmae la'xaaxa 
nEqo'stawasa lEgwi'lases g'o'kwe. Wa, he'Em LegadEs ma'- 
leqasde. Wa, la'xaa ax^e'dxa pELa' qa^s ge'x^undales la'xaax 
axa'sasa g'i'lxde &x''a'LEl6daya. Wa, he'Em Le'gadEs paLasde. 

45 Wa, la'xaa ax^e'dxa xl'la qa^s ge'x^wide lax gwa'laasasEn gl'l- 
x'de wa'ldEma (see p. 244). Wa, he'Em Le'gEmse x'i'la. Wa, 
la ax^e'dxa q!wa'q!unxa^ye qa^s ya'Lodex o'xsda^ya. Wa, la'xaa 
te'x^waLElots lax axa'sasa wao'kwe. Wa, he'x'saEm Le'gEmse. 
Wa, la'xaa ax^e'dxa ds'mplaxsda^ye qa^s t!o's^Idex ono'dza^yas. 

50 Wa, g'l'l^mese LEpa'laxs la'e la'wayodxa o'ba^yasa hSmo'mo. Wa, 
la'xaa LEp!a'LEl5ts lax axa'sasa wa5'kwe. Wa, he'Em Le'gadEs 
dE'mpIaxsdeyasde. Wa, la'xaa ax^e'dxa tsa'p!edza^ye qa^s te'x- 
^waLE 'lodes la'xes wao'kwe. Wa, he'sm Le'gadEs tsa'p!edza- 
^yasde. Wa, la'xaa fix^e'dxa L!e'se qa^s LEbEdzo'des la'xa t!Ele'- 



BOAS] PKESERVATION OF FOOD 249 

board || for dried halibut. The meat side of the skin is upward. | 55 
Then she takes her sphtting-knife, and she cuts under the | thick 
layer of fat of the skin, and two finger-widths is the width | of split- 
ting it; and she continues cutting [what she is doing] until she comes 
to the I tail, for she begins at the neck, and it just does || not come 60 
off; and she does the same with the other side; this is | caUed "torn- 
from-the-edge." The torn-ofi edges | do not come off from the skin. 
As soon as | the woman finishes, she hangs it up at the place where 
the others are. | She puts the meat-side upwards; but when it has 
been hanging four || days, the woman takes down the skin, and she 65 
tears off the | torn-off edges. And when they are all off, the woman 
takes a | narrow piece of cedar-bark and ties them in the middle, and 
she hangs them up | again not very near to the fire, namely, | the 
torn-off edges. Then she hangs up the skin again also. This is 
only II done to those that are caught in the autumn, when the hahbut 70 
is just I getting fat. . . } 

When the guests have gone out, | the woman sharpens her fish- 
knives, in the evening; j and when she has done so, she takes the 
cutting-board j and scrapes it off, so that it is clean. After she has 
done so, she || puts it down on the beach where she is going to split 75 

dzaxa k'la'^wase. Wa, laK'm e'k"!adza^ye E'lsadza^yasa L!e'se 55 
Wa, la Sx^e'dxes tiE'lyayowe xwa'Laya. Wit, la tiE'lyabodxa 
wa'kwe tsetsE'nxiinxesa Lle'se. Wa, la ma^lE'ne wa'dzEwasasa 
t!E'lyab6tsE^was. Wa, he^na'kiila^mese axa'^yas la'g'aa la'xa 
oxsdE'yas ga'giLEla la'xa o'xawa^yas. Wa, ha'lsEla^mese [la 
k!es la'waxs la'e e'tled he gwe'x'^Idxa apsE'nxa^ye. Wa, he'Em 60 
Le'gadEs xwa'xiisE'nxa^ye, yi'xa tsE'ntsEnxOnxa^ye. Wa, laE'm 
k'les lawa'eda xwa'xusEnxa^ye lax Lle'se. Wa, g'l'Pmese gwa'- 
Iexs la'eda tslEda'qe ge'x^waLE'lots lax axa'sasa wao'kwe. Wa, 
laE'm he e'kladza^ye E'lsadza^yas. Wa, he'tla la mo'bEnxwa^se 
^na'lasexs la'eda ts!Eda'qe axa'xodxa L!e'se qa^s xwa'sodalexa 65 
xwa'xGsEnxa^ye. Wa, gl'l^mese ^wl'laxs la'eda tslEda'qe S,x^e'dxa 
ts!e'q!e dEna'sa qa^s yiLo'yodeq. Wa, la'xaa xwe'laqa te'x^waLE'- 
lots la'xa k'le'se xE'nLEla ^nExwa'la la'xa lEgwi'le, yi'xa xwa'- 
xiisEnxa^ye. Wa, la xwe'laqasa Lle'se 6'gwaqa. Wa, las'm le'x'aEm 
he gwe'g'ilasE^weda logwanEmaxa la'yinxe, yixs he'^mae a'les tsE'n- 70 
x^wideda pla'^^ye. . . . ' Wa, g'i'Pmese ^wFla ho'quwElseda Le^a- 
nEmx'daxs lae'da tslEda'qe g'e'xi^lalaxes xwa'xtiLayowaxa la dza'- 
qwa. Wa, g'i'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e ax^e'dxes tiEle'dzowe qa^s 
kexEldzo'deq qa e'gidzowes. Wa, gi'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e ax^a'- 
lisaq la'xa LlEma^ise lax Sxa'sases tlE'lsasoLe. Wa, laE'm gwa'- 75 

'Here follows a description of the cooking and eating of halibut-heads (pp. 357-359). Then the text 
continues as above. 




250 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL, [eth.ann.m 

76 the (halibut). Now she is | ready for the following day. As soon 
as day comes, the | woman goes down to the beach, to the place where 
she is going to cut the halibut; | and she sits down at the place where 
the cutting-board is already put up, in this manner: | 
Then she takes one-quarter of the halibut and puts it 

SO down on its back on the || cutting-board. The skin- 
side is next to the cutting-board, | and the side next 
to the ribs is upward. Then | she cuts it downward, in 
this manner: pj ■ i -*! She begins at the neck of the hahbut, | and 
goes half way / / 1/ down the quarter towards the thin end. It 
is I tliickerat khl I o^® ^'c^A, and its length is two spans of 

85 our II fingers \ | / and two finger- widths. Then she does | 
the same to XV the other quarter; and if one piece is cut 
too long, I she \j cuts it off and throws it into a basket 

which is made on purpose | for the unused cut-off pieces. When 
she has done so with the j other pieces at which she is working, 

90 she puts them on a mat spread out on the beach. Then || she takes 
one piece and puts it down on the cutting-board; for | all the hali- 
but is cut into long, square pieces.' Then | she cuts them length- 
wise, going straight down the long thick pieces of halibut. She | 
cuts them, beginning at the thick end, going towards the thin end. | 
She stops cutting when they are half the width of a little finger || 

95 thick. Then she turns her knife down flat, and she cuts under | one 

76 lala qae'da la'La ^na'x-^idEL. Wii, g I'l^mese ^na'x'^idExs la'eda 
tslEda'qe lE'ntsles la'xa LlEma^ise lax axa'sases tiE'lsasoLe. Wa, 
la kiwa'g'ahsa la'xa la gwa'les Lae'sa tiEle'dzog'a gwa'leg'a (JiQ-)- 
Wa, la ax^e'dxa Spso'dele pla'^ya qa-'s nELEdzo'des la'xa tlEle'- 

80 dzo. Wa, laE'm he ma'k'aleda 3,xa'sdasa Lle'se la'xa tiEle'dzo. 
Wa, la e'k'!adza"'ya ma'kahixde la'xa xl'la. Wa, la=me'se t!o'- 
saxodEq g-a gwa'leg'a {^jig.), ga'giLEla la'xa o'xawa^yasa pia'^ye 
la'g'aa la'xa ^nEgo'ya^yasa fipso'dile la wi'swulba. Wa, la lele- 
kwe'da apsba'^yas. Wa, la ma^lp!E'nk'e awa'sgEmasas la'xEns 

85 q!wa'q!wax'ts!ana^ye, he^me'sa ma^IdE'ne. Wa, la'xaa he'Em 
gwe'x'-Idxa JlpsEX'se la'xa o'xsdE-ye. W^a, g'l'l'mese g'i'ltlag'aaxs 
iae t!6's6dEq qa ts'.ExtsIo'desa qle'g'aa la'xa lExa''ye, hekwe'le 
qae'da t!o't!asesawa^ye. Wa, g I'Pmese ^wPla he gwe'x'^Idxa wao'- 
kwe la'xes lae'na^ye g-e'dz6dalas la'xa LEbEse' le^wa^ya. Wa, la 

90 ax^e'dxa ^nE'mtsIaqe qa's kadEdzo'des la'xes ttele'dzowe qaxs 
la'e ^na'xwaEm la k'le'k'lEWElx^una pla'wedzEse. Wa, la^me'se 
nEgElE'ndalax nEx^Ena'^yasa kMEwE'lkwe pla'^ya. Wa, la^me'se 
t!6'saq g-ii'giLEla la'xa LE^x"ba^ye la'g-aa la'xa wllba-yas. Wa, 
a'l^mese gwal t!5'saqexs la'e k'lo'dEne wa'gwasas la'xEns sEt!ax'- 

95 tsla'na^yex; wa la pa'x^ldxes tiE'lyayowe qa^s tiE'ltlEldzapexa 

» That is, square in cross-section. 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 251 

side of what she is working at; and then she rolls out the halibut, 96 
thus I the piece that she is cutting becomes thin ; and she only stops 
when it is spread out. | Then she rolls it up again and turns it over, 
and she also cuts it thin | (on the other side) ; and she does not stop 
cutting until it is all spread open. She || goes on doing so with the 20O 
others. As soon as all the halibut is cut thin, | she hangs the pieces 
up on the drying-place . - ^^^ for the dried hali- 

but, I in this manner: 'AT^TTT^TyT^^^^'T^' She hangs them 
up lengthwise. | After / v""^"^ ^°^°^ ^""'^y \ they have all 
been hung up, the / \ / \ woman takes 

her I fish-knives and puts » them into her 

small basket, and carries them || away with the basket in which the 5 
cut-off tips of the halibut are.' . . . | 

When ^ it is evening, the woman goes down to the | beach, to the 
place where the drying halibut is. Then she gathers up the dry- 
ing-poles I on which the drying-halibut hangs. As soon as she has 
gathered them all, | she covers them over with mats, so that the || 
dew of the night wUl not get at them. | 10 

When day comes, she takes off the covering- 1 mats, and she spreads 
out again the drying-poles on which the drying halibut hangs. | 
She does so every evening and every | morning. Sometimes it takes 
three days || before the drying-halibut is half dry. When it is half 15 

apso'dilases ^xsE^we'. WiL, la len^na'kuleda p!a'^ya. Wa, la 96 
wiPna'kiilaxs la'e tte'lsaq. Wa, a'l^mese gwa'lqexs la'e LEp!e'- 
da. Wa, la le'x'^EndEq qa^s xwe'l^ideq. Wa, la'xaa tlE'ls^IdEq. 
Wii, a'lEmxaa'wise gwal tlE'lsaqexs la'e ^wl4a LEpa'la. Wa, la 
lie^staEm gwe'x'^'Idxa wao'kwe. Wii, g'i'Pmese ^wi^la la tiEle'kwa 200 
p!S,'^yaxs la'e ge'x^widEq la'xa ge'x"dEmaxa k'la'^wase. Wa, laE'm 
g'a gwa'leg\a {fig.). Wa, laE'm ge'x"sEq!ala la'xes gildo'lase. 
Wa, gl'Pmese la ^wFla gEyo'kuxs la'eda tslsda'qe ax^e'dxes 
xwa'xiiLayuwe qa^s la'ts!odes la'xes la'laxame. Wii, la da'laq 
LE^wa lExa'^ye, yix la g'i'tslEwatsa tlo'tlEsba^ye pla'^ya.' ... 5 

WiL,^ g'I'Pmese dza'q^^axs la'eda tslEda'qe lE'nts!es la'xa l!e- 
ma^ise lax axa'sases kMa'^wase. Wa, la q!ap!e'x"^Idxa gega'yo, 
ylx la ge'xwalaatsa kMa'^wase. WiL, gi'Pmese ^wPla q!ap!e'x''I- 
dExs la'e na'kunEntsa le'Epwa^ye laq qa k'le'sese la'g'aaLEleda 
go'siixa ga'nuLe laq. 10 

Wii, gi'Pmese ^na'x'^IdExs la'e e'tled la'wt3"odxa ^nilwE'me le- 
^wa^ya qa^s e'tlede gwe'Pidxa gega'yowe, ylx ge'x"dEmasa kMa'- 
^wase. Wa, la he'mEnalaEm he gwe'gilaxa dza'dzaqwa LE^wa 
gegaa'la. Wii, la ^na'I^uEmplEna yfi'dux"p!E'nxwa^se ^na'liisa 
kla'^wase k'les kMa'yax^wida. Wa, gl'Pmese kla'yax^widExs 15 

1 Continued on p. 359. > Continued from p. 359. 



252 



ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL 



I ETH. ANN. SS 



16 dry, | she takes down all the drying halibut, and she opens them, so 
that they are spread open. | Then she hangs them up again lengthwise. 



They are hanging | in this way: 
fine day, they are then ready in | 
20 they are thoroughly dry. As 
comes, they are taken down 
are opened out again and | spread out on the beach 
spread out on the drying-poles. As soon as | much halibut is ready. 




When it is a 
one day, and 
soon as || day 
again, and 
Then they are 




the drying halibut out | on the beach, 
and when it is dry, | she folds it in 

wise, in this way: and she 

on a stage made j;^-^ -^^ ori pur- 
corner of the ^-— --- — house, 
and the woman piles one 
I another. Then they 
other, and they become 
ishes this. | 
As soon as all the dried halibut is flat, || being piled up one on 
another, they get damp again. Then the | woman takes large bas- 
kets, made on purpose, and she puts | the dried halibut into them, 
one hundred in each. Finally | she puts (the baskets) in a place 
where the damp can not get at them. Now this is done. | 



she spreads 
in this manner: 
halves length- 

25 puts it away || 
pose in one 
in this manner: 
halibut on top of 
weight one on an- 
flat. I That fin- 

30 




16 la'e axEma'xodxa kMa'^wase ^wi^a. Wa, la dzax^wi'dEq qa da'!"^- 
ides. Wa, la xwe'laqa g-i'lg-aaLE'lodalaq. Wa, laE'm la ge'g-i- 
lala g'a gwa'Ieg-a {jig.). Wa, g'i'Pmese e'k'a ^na'laxs lu'e he'lala- 
Emxa ^nE'mxsa ^na'laxs la'e a'lax-^Id k' la'yax^wlda. Wa, gl'l- 

20 ^mese ^na'x'^IdExs la'e e't!ed axa'xoyo qa^s e't!ede dzax-wldEq qa 
LeLEpa'lesexs la'e LEpIa'LElots la'xa ge'gayo. Wa, gi'Pmese 
q!a'q!ex-silaxs pla'^yaxs la'e LEplall'sElaxa lak'la'yax'wid k'la'^was 
la'xa LlEma'ise g'a gwa'leg-a {jig.). Wii, g-i'Pmese lE'mx^'wldExs 
la'e uEgEXLa'ia kMo'x-'wIdEq g-a gwa'leg-a {jig.) qa^s le ge'xaq 

25 la'xa k'la'gele, hekwe'leEm lax one'gwilasa g-o'kwe g'a gwa'leg'a 
{jig.). Wa, laE'm ^mswe'g-Indaleda tslEda'qasa k'la'^wase la'xa 
wao'kwe. Wa, las'm gQ'ngwatolll qa ^ne'^uEmadzox-wIdes. Wa, 
laE'm gwal la'xeq. 

Wa, g-i'Pmese ^na'xwa la naEngEdzo'x^wIdeda k-!a'^wasaxs la'e 

30 gae'PmEwega'yapla. Wii, las'm xwe'laqa la pe'x'wida, wa, le'da 
ts!Eda'qe ax^e'dxa hekwe'la^ye awo' Lla'LlEbata. Wa, la hants!6'da- 
lasa k'la'^wtise lae'laklEudtsIaweda ^na'l^nEmsgEme. Wa, lawi'sLa 
g-e'xaq la'xa kMe'se la'g-aaatsa dE'lx'a. Wa, laE'm gwal hx'xeq.' 



I Continued on p. 360. 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 253 

Dried Codfish. — When they can not | catch any hahbut and they 1 
have much codfish, | the woman takes out the guts, and she does in 
the same way as I | described before when she cuts what has been 
caught by her || husband; and she also does in the same way when 5 
she spreads open the meat | while the skin is still on. As soon as | the 
bone is taken off, the woman takes off the skin and throws it away. | 
Then one-half of it is this way: ^ ? Then the woman | cuts 

it in two lengthwise. Then there ^ . are four pieces on both 

sides. II Then she cuts straight ' — _J down one-half of | one 10 

side in this manner, ■ and she does in the same way | 

as she does with the -!!!^\^^ halibut when she cuts them 

thin, and they are | — ^ hung up at the place where 

halibut is dried. It is done in the same manner. | As soon as it gets 
dry, it is all white; and when it is || bad weather, it is dried in the 15 
house, behind | the fire. When it gets dry, it is all red. | All this 
does not keep well, the sun-dried as well as the j smoke-dried (fish). 
That is all about this. | 

The dried codfish is treated in tlie same way, and they also || do 20 
everything with it that they do with dried halibut. It is eaten as 
breakfast in the morning | when there is no dried salmon in the 
house. I 



Dried Codfish (Ne'sasde k'la'^was). — Wa, he'^maaxs k'lea'sael 
gii^yo'Lasxa pla'^ye, wa, gi'l^mese qle'nEmaeda ne'tsla^ye, wa, 
le'da tslEda'qe he'x'^idaEm la'wtyodExya'x'yigila lax gwa'laasasEn 
gwa'gwex's^alase gwe'g'ilatsexs g'tla'e xwa'FidEx ba'kulanEmases 
la'^wunEme. Wa, la'xaa he'Eni gwe'g'ilaxs la'e LEpa'le qlE'mlala- 5 
sexs he''mae a'les axa'la la'xes Lle'se. Wa, g'l'Pmese lawa'ye 
xa'qasexs la'eda tsEda'qe tlE'lsodEx Lle'sas qa^s tslEx^e'deq. 
Wa, la g'a gwa'leda epso'dllaseg'a {jig.). Wa, le'da tslEda'qe 
ma^lts!E'ndEq la'xes gi'ldolase. Wa, laE'm mo'x'seda wa'x'sodlle. 
Wa, la^me'se ^nEqa'xod xwa'HdEx ^nEx^Ena'^yasa §,psEX'sa'sa 10 
aps5'dlle g'a gwa'ieg'a (Jig.). Wa, la'Em he'Em gwe'g'ilaqe gwe'- 
g"ilasaxa p!a'^yaxs la'e tlE'lsasE^wa. Wa, la he'Emxat! la ge'xwa- 
sE^we lax ge'^wasaxa k' la'^wase. Wa, la he'Emxat! gwe'g'ilasE^we. 
Wa, gi'Pmese lE'mx^wIdExs la'e ^ms'lmaxsa. Wa, g"l'Pmese yE- 
ya'gisa ^na'laxs la'e he'Em lE'mxwasE^weda g'o'kwe lax o'gwiwa- 15 
lilasa lEgwi'le. Wa, g'i'l^mese lE'mx^widExs la'e L!a'L!Eq!uxsa. 
Wa, la k!es ga'la e'k'anaxwa LE^wa Lla'LlesdEgota Lo^ma kwa'- 
kwax"dEgole. Wa, laE'm gwal la'xeq. 

Wii, la he'Emxat! gwe'gilasE^weda ne'sasde kla'-wasa; he'Emxaa 
gwa'yi^laleda kMa'-wasasa p!a'^ye, yixs gaa'xsta^yaaxa gaa'laxs 20 
kMea'sae xa'mas g'ae'l la'xa g'o'kwe. 



254 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth.ann.85 

1 Herring-Spawn. ' — When (the man) has all (the spawn) in the 
canoe, | he goes ashore at a point where the wind blows hard. 
Thenhe | takes the long -u-^^d^ poles and puts 

them up in this way : | -^^^^^^^^^^^yE» This is called 
"standing on rock;" /^^^lS^^^^a^lF^^ ^^_ and when he 
5 has finished |j hanging / ^^^1^^^^^^^^^^ \ up the hem- 
lock-branches with \ ' the spawn on 
it, and when it is fine weather | and the wind is blowing hard, 
(the spawn) gets dry in six days; | and when it is all dry, the 
man takes down the | hemlock-branches with the spawn on 
them and puts them on the rocky place, and | his wife wipes 
off the herring-spawn from the hemlock-branches. Then she 'puts 

10 it II on a mat; and when it is done, she covers it with a mat, | 
when it is evening. In the moiming, when day comes, she | spreads 
all the mats, and she scatters the herring-spawn over them; and 
when I it is really dry, she takes her boxes and she | picks out 
from among the white herring-spawn large pieces and puts them into 

15 the II boxes; and when (a box) is full, she takes the cover | and puts 
it on. Then she puts it away in a dry place in the house, j This is kept 
to be eaten in winter. Then she takes a j medium-sized cedar-bark 
basket and puts into it the red spawn. | This is sold to other tribes, 

20 for II this is not good to be kept long. Now that is all about hemlock- 
branches with I herring-spawn on them. . . . Kelp is also towed 

1 Herring-Spawn. — Wa,' gi'l^mese ^wIlg'aaiExs la'xa xwa'klunaxs la'e 
la'gaala la'xa S-'wi'lba^ye yix la'klwemadzasasa ya'la. Wa, la ax^- 
e'dxa gl'lsg'iitla dzESEqwa qa^s qa'xalodes g"a gwa'leg'a (fig.). Wa, 
he'Em Le'gadEs qa'qia. Wa, g'i'Pmese gwa'tExs la'e ge'x^waLElo- 
5 da'lasa En^EndExLa'la q!wax laq. Wa, g'i'Pmese ae'g'isa ^na'- 
liixs la'klwemasaeda ya'la, wa la lE'mwumx'^Idxa qlsLlExsa' ^na'la. 
Wa, gl'Pmese ^wl'^la lE'mx^widExs la'eda bEgwa'nsme ax^axo'dxes 
En^EndEXLa'la qlwa'xa qa^s ax^aloda'leq la'xa t!edzEk!wa. Wa, la 
gEUE'mas qE'mxalaxa aE'nte la'xa qlwa'xe. Wa, la k'la'dzodalas 

10 la'xa le^wa^ye. Wa, gi'1-mese ^wl'^laxs la'e ^naktiyl'ntsa le'wa^ye 
la'qexs la'e dza'qwa. Wa, gl'l ^na'x'^idxa gaa'laxs la'e ^wl'^la 
LEp la'lodalaxa le'Epwa^ye qa^s gweldzolalesa aE'nte laq. Wa, g"i'l- 
^mese a'lak!ala lEmx^wi'dExs la'e fix^e'dxes xEXEtsE'me; wa, la 
mE'nmaqaxa ^mE'la aE'ntaxa 5,^wa'^wastowe qa-s la latsla'las la'xa 

15 XEXEtsE'me. Wa, g'I'Pmese qoqQtIaxs la'e ax^e'dEx yikuya'^yas 
qa^s ylk&yi'ndes laq. Wa, la g'e'xaq la'xa lEmwe'le la'xa go'kwe. 
Wa, he'Em axe'lasos qa^s ha^ml'Ixa tsl&wQ'nxe. Wa, la ax^e'dxa 
ha^ya'Pa Lla'LlEbata qa^s k"!ats!o'desa L!a'L!ax"deeleqata aE'nt 
laq. Wa, he'Em la'xoyos la'xa a'logflla le'lqwalaLa^ya, qaxs 

20 k'le'sae ga'la e'kMa he gwe'xse. Wa, laE'm gwal la'xa qlwa'xe 
En^Endaxxa'la. . . .^ Wa,^ he'^misa qla'xqtehse la da'paso qa^s 

> Continued from p. 185. > Continued on p. 422, line 1. ' Continued from p. 422, line 12. 



BMS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 255 

and I put into the spawning-place. It is also anchored there; | and 22 
when the herring finish spawning, after four days, | the kelp with 
the spawn on it is taken out of the water; and || the hair of the kelp 25 
is pulled off from its stem and is hung on the poles | on the point 
where the wind blows hard, and the | woman always turns it over; 
and she does not do so a long time, | before it gets dry ; and when it 
is quite dry, | the stems of kelp are coimted into lots of ten, which 
are laid flat || one on another, and are tied in the middle with 30 
cedar bark, this way: c^^5i=,jt=:sr- Then they are put into a box, 
and I a cover is put l^^^g^^^ on tight. Then it is put away 
in a dry place | in the ^^^^^t^---=^= house. This is to be eaten in 
winter. That is all about this. | 

Preserving Eoots. — See p. 188. 

Elderberries. — After' all (the berries) have been carried down- i 
stream, (the woman) spreads a | mat at a place not too near tlie fire. 
She unties | the cords of her elderbeny-basket, and pours tlie berries | 
on the mat that has been spread down. She sits down by the side 
of it, and puts the || empty baskets down on her left-hand side. Then 5 
she takes up one bunch of | elderbeiTies at a time and strips off the 
elderberries into the cleaning-basket. | As soon as they are all off, 
she throws away the stem and | takes up another bunch of elderberries 
and strips the berries | into the basket in which she had carried the 

le'xat! SxaLayo'dayo la'xa wa'yade. Wa, laE'mxae §,'Em qls'lsala. 22 
Wa, g't'l^mese gwat wa'seda wa'na^yaxa la mo'plEnxwa^s ^na'laxs 
la'e Sx^usta'noweda En^EndEXLa'la q!ax'q!Eli'sa. Wa, la klulpa'la- 
yEwa Swa'dzo sE^ya'sa q!a'x"q!Elise qa^s la te'x^ilnda'layo la'xa 25 
dzo'xilme la'xa Swi'lba^ye lax lik!we'madzasasa ya'la. Wa, le'da 
ts!Eda'qe he'mEnataEm le'x-lexaq. Wii, k'!e'st!a ge'x-^Id he gwe'- 
gilaqexs la'e lEmx^wi'da. Wa, g'l'l^mese a'laklala la lEmx^wi'de 
la'e ho's^tsE^wa ^nas'nqaxsa q!a'x"q!Elise. Wa, la papEqa'laxs la'e 
yiLoyo'tsasa dEna'se {fig.). Wa, la g^e'tsloyo la'xa xEtsE'me. 30 
Wa, la aEmxa'sE^we yikOya^ya'sexs la'e g-e'xayo la'e Ism^wi'le la'xa 
g'o'kwe. Wa, laE'm ha^ml'lxa ts!&wii'nxe. Wa, laE'm gwal la'xeq. 

Preserving Eoots. — See p. 188. 

Elderberries. — Wa,' giPmese ^wl^latosamasqexs lae LEpIalilasa 1 
le^wa^ye laxa kMese nExwala laxes lEgwile. Wa, la qwelEyindEx 
tlEmakiya^yases ts!enats!e lExa^ya. Wa, la qEbsdzotsa ts!ex"ina 
laxa LEbele le^wa^ya. Wii, la klunxElIlaq yixs lae ha^nela ^nEmsgEme 
loptsla lExa lax gEmxagawalilas. Wa, la^mes dax'^idxa ^nEmxxala 5 
ts!ex"ina qa^s x ix-ts!alisa tslex'ina laxa lExa^ye x"ig'ats!eq. Wa, 
glPmese ^wIlgllEXLoxs lae tslEx^edEx tslenanas. Wa, laxae et!ed 
ax^edxa ^nEmxLala ts!ex"ina. Wa, laxae x'Ix'ts!4lasa tslex'ina 
laxes x"ixts!alasaqes xlglkwagiitsla ts!enats!e lExa^ya. Wa, 

I Continued from p. 205, line 23. 



256 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. an.v.86 

10 elderberries. 1| When these are also off, she throws away the stems, 
and I continues doing so with the other elderberries. When they are 
aU I off, she goes to pick more elderberries. In the morning, when 
daylight comes, | she does the same as she did before when she went 

15 to pick elderberries; | and when her baskets are full, she || ties down 
the top and she carries them down river on her back, | canying one 
basket at a time; and she does the same as she did with the | 
elderberries she picked first, stripping the berries. When | they are 
all off, she puts them into the baskets; and | when this is done, she 

20 spreads a mat over them so that the || soot of the roof can not drop 
on them during the night. In the morning, when daylight comes, | 
she takes her paddle, goes to her small canoe and | launches it, in order 
to go and get fire-wood. When she reaches | the place where there 
is much driftwood, she puts it aboard her small canoe; | and when 

25 it is fuU, she goes home. When || she reaches the beach of her house, 
she takes out of the canoe the | driftwood that she has obtained ; and 
when it is all on shore, she asks her | husband to carry it up | into 
the house. Then her hasband goes and | carries it up into his house; 

30 and his wife goes, takmg her clam-digging stick || and a shell of the 
hoi-se-clam. She sits down on the floor in the | middle of the house, 
and with the end of her digging-stick digs up | the ground. Then she 



10 giPEmxaawise ^wIlg1lEXL§, lae tslEx^edEx ts!enan§,s. Wa, ax"sa- 
^mese he gweg-ilaxa waokwe tslex'ina. Wii, g'lPmese ^wMa la 
x'igikwaxs lae et!ed ts!ex'axa tslex'inaxa la ^nax"-idxa gaala, wa, 
laxae asm he gweg'iles glLx-de gweg^ilasExs lax"de tslex'axa ts'.e- 
x"ina. Wa, glPEmxaawise qoqutle ts!ets!enats!as laElxa^yaxs lae 

15 tlEmaklyEudalaq. Wii, g-axe oxLatosElaq laxa wa. Wa, laEm- 
xae ^naPnEmsgEmEmkaq. Wii, laxae heEm gwex-'idqes g-ilx'de 
gwegnlasxes g-ilx-de tslenanEmxs lae x-ix-^IdEq. Wa, g-il^mese 
^wi4a la x'lg'Ekuxs lae -wi^la la laaxts!alas laxa laElxa^ye. Wa, 
g'iPmese gwalExs lae nakiiyindalasa le'wa^ye laq qa k' !eses q !up !e- 

20 qElaso^sa 'q!wal6bEsaxa la ganoLa. Wa, giPmese ^nax'^idxa ga- 
alaxs lae ax^edxes se^wayowe qa^s la laxes xwaxwagiime. Wa, 
la wi^x"stEndEq qa's la aneqax q'.exala. Wa, giPmese lag-aa lax 
qiayasasa q!aq!exEmaxs lae moxsaq laxes xwaxwagume. Wa, 
giPmese qot'.e xwaxwagumasexs g-axae na^nakwa. Wa, gil^mese 

25 g-ax^alis laxa LlEma'isases gokwaxs lae hex-'idaEm moltodxes 
qlexanEme. Wa, giPmese ^wi^loltaxs lae hex'^idaEm axk-!alaxes 
la^wunEme qa las wex-wusdesElaxa q!exale qa las wegiLElaq 
laxes g-okwe. Wa, la^mese wlx'wusdese la'wimEmaseq qa^s la 
wIg'iLElaq laxes g-okwe. Wa, lata gEUEmas ax^edxes kMIlakwe 

30 LE^wa ^walase xalaetsox mEtlana^ye. Wa, la k!wagalil laxa 
awagawalilases g-okwe. Wa, la ts !Ex^walllaxes k'lilakwe laxa 
awiiiagwlle. Wa, he-mis g-agllilatsexs lae bal-itses q!waq!wax'- 



EOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 257 

starts and measures | tlii-ee long spans and one short one for the lengtli 33 
of her I digging, and the same for the width of the hole she, 
digs with her digging-stick. || Then she cleans the soil out with the 35 
large clam-shell. When | it is one span and four finger-widths | 
deep, she stops digging. Then she takes the small | pieces of drift- 
wood and puts them into the hole; aiKl when they are level | with 
the floor, she takes larger pieces of driftwood and || puts them down 40 
on the sides of the hole. Then she puts one down on each side, 
inside of these two, | and she lays otlier medium-sized sticks cross- 
wise close together over the | four pieces. After this has been done, 
she takes her medium-sized hand- | basket, goes down to the beach, 
and puts stones | into it. When it is full, she carries it up || into her 45 
house, and she pours the stones over the wood that she has built up. 
She I keeps on doing this, and does not stop until there are many 
stones on it. | When she thinks there are enough, she stops. She 
takes the | large basket, goes into the woods, where she is going to 
look for dead fern and | skunk-cabbage. First she plucks off the 
dead fern-fronds; and when || her basket is full, she breaks off the 50 
broadest leaves of skunk-cabbage; | and when she has broken off 
many of them, she piles them on top of the fern-fronds | and ties 
them down. She puts the basket on her back and carries | it out of 



tslana^yaxa mam5p lEnk'Elasa ts !Ex"ts lana^ye ylx ^wasgEmasas 33 
4ap!ahlaLas. Wa, la heEmxat! ^wadzEgEg-axs lae lap!ltses kMila- 
kwe. Wa, la gololtslalasa ^walase xalaes laxa tiEk'a. Wa, g'il- 35 
^mese modEnbaleda ^nEmplEnk'e laxEns q!waq!waxts!ana^ye ylx la 
^walabEtalilasas ^lapa^yasexs lae gwal ^lapa. Wa, la ax'edxa amEm- 
sye q!aq!exEma qa^s Loxts lodes laq. Wa, g'tPmese ^UEmakiya 
LE^wa awlnagwilaxs lae ax^edxa LasLakwala q!exala qa^s k^ak'E- 
dEnodes laq. Wa, la k'akEtotsa malts !aq lax awagawa^yas. 40 
Wa, la gElvEyindalasa mEmk'Ewakwe hayaPasto q!exal laxa mo- 
tslaqe. Wil, g'il'mese gwaiExs lae ax^edxes hela k'!6gwats!e 1e- 
xa^ya qa^s la lEnts!e laxa iJEma^se qa^s la x6x"ts!alasa tlesEme 
laq. Wa, gil^mese qot!axs lae oxLosdesElaq qa^s la oxLaeLElaq 
laxes gokwe qa^s la guqEylnts laxes eaxalasox"de. Wii, la he- 45 
x-saEm gwegile. Wa, al^mise gwalExs lae qlensma t!esEme. Wa, 
g-lHmese k'otaq laEm helalaxs lae gwala. Wa, la ax^edxa ^wa- 
lase lExa^ya qa^s la laxa aLle. Wii, hxEm lal axlxa gEmse l6^ k'lE- 
k'!a6k!wa. Wa, het!a g-Il kliilx-^itso^seda gEmse. Wa, g'lPmese 
q6t!e lExa^yas lae p!ox^widxa awadzoxLowe klEk' !a6k!wa. Wa, 50 
g'ipEmxaawise q lenEme p !6gwanEmasexs lae mokuy tnts laxa gEm- 
se, qa^s t Ismakiyindeq. Wii, la oxLEX'^idEq qa^s g'axe oxloI- 
tlalaq qa^s la oxLaeLElaq laxes gokwe. Wa, lii oxLEg'alilas 
7.5052 — 21—35 eth— pt 1 17 



258 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etii.ann.36 

the woods into the house. She puts it down on the floor, | not too 

55 close to the pile of wood and stones. She does not set fire || to it 
until daylight. As soon as the wood is burnt up, she | takes her 
tongs, which are in readiness on tlie floor of the house. She also 
takes a long-handled | large ladle and a large dish. If | there are many 
elderberries, there are three, or even four, | large dishes for holding 

60 the boiled elderberries. This is all || she needs for her work. When 
the stones are red-hot, | she takes her tongs and picks out what is left | 
of the drift-wood and the small pieces of charcoal. When | these 
are all out of the fire from the stones, she levels down the top of the | 
red-hot stones so that it is level; and after this has been done, she || 

65 takes the dead fern-fronds and sprinkles a little water over tlieni, 
just enough to | dampen tliem; and after this has been done, she 
throws them on the red-hot | stones. When these are thickly 
covered with dead fern-fronds, she takes the | broad leaves of skunk- 
cabbage and spreads them over the dead fern-fronds as smootlily as 
possible; | and she bends the edges of the skunk-cabbage leaves in at 

70 the sides || of the hole that she has dug ; and she only stops when she 
has four layers of | skunk-cab})age leaves on top of the fern-fronds. 
After doing so, she | takes her elderberry-basket, and she pours the 
berries over the | skunk-cabbage leaves; and when all have been 
pom-ed on, she takes many | skunk-cabbage leaves and spreads them 

laxa k'lese nExwaia laxa t leqwabEgwIle. Wa, al^mese mEnabo- 

55 tsa gfdta laqexa la ^nax^^Idxa gaala. Wa, gil^mese x'lqostaxs lae 
ax-edxes k!ipLalaa qa gaxes gwalel k'adela. Wa, he^misa g'ilt!Ex- 
Lala ^walas katslEnaqa. Wa, he^misa ^walase loqlwa. Wa, g'il- 
^mese qleuEma ts!exinaxs lae qlunala j^uduxiixLa loxs mEwex- 
Laeda awawe dzeg'atslexa ts!exiua loElqlwa. Wa, heEm waxe 

60 S,x^exstsE^was qa^s eaxalaya. Wa, g;iFmese memEnltsEmx'^ideda 
t!esEmaxs lae ax^edxes klipLalaa qa^s k* !ips'alax"^idexa x'Ix'e- 
qlayawa^yasa qlexale LE^wa am^Emayastowe ts!olna. Wa, g'il- 
^mese ^wilgilqeda t!esEmaxa gultaxs lae ^nEmak^Eylndxa x'Ix'ex- 
sEmala t!esEma qa ^nEmak'Eyes. Wa, gil'mese gwalExs lae 

65 S.x^edxa gEmse qa^s xaLlEX'^ide telx'Eg-ELEyintsa ^wape laq qa 
dElx'es. Wa, g"iPmese gwalExs lae lEXEyindalas laxa x"Ix"exse- 
mala tlesEma. Wa, giPmese la wakwa gEmsaxs lae ax^edxa 
awaxLowe k'!Ek"!aok!wa qa^s aek'le LEpEyindalas laxa gEmse. 
Wa, laxae ek' lEbax'^ide oba^yasa k!Ek'!aok!wa lax wax'sane- 

70 qwasa ^labEkwe, wa aPmese gwalExs lae modzEkwaleda k' !e- 
k"!!iok!wa lax okwaya^yasa gEmse. Wa, gil-mese gwalExs lae 
k" !oqulihxxes ts lets lenats !e laElxa^ya qa^s la giiqEylndalas laxa 
k'Ek"!aok!wa. Wa, giPmese ^wllts!axs lae ax^edxa qleuEme k'lE- 
k'!aok!wa qa^s lexat! LEpEyindalas lax okuya^yasa tslex'ina. Wa, 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 259 

over the elderberries. || She stops when these are very deej), and she 75 
waits for the | berries to be cooked. Then she washes the hii'ge 
dishes and the | large long-handled ladle; and after doing so, she | 
rests for a little while. When evening comes, she peels off the 
skunk-cabbage covering | from the elderberries which have been 
steamed; and after the skunk cabbage has been taken off, || she takes 80 
the large dislies and puts them all round it. J Then she takes the large 
ladle and dips into the cooked | elderberries. She puts them into 
the large dish ; and | when it is full, she continues dipping into them 
and pouring them into the other elderberry-dishes. | When all have 
been taken out of the steaming-hole, she takes || other skunk-cabbage 85 
leaves and spreads them over the cooked-elderberry | dishes, for she 
does not want the soot to fall into them. She | leaves them that way 
over night, so that they wUl cool off and become | cold in the night, 
and also that they may become thick. | In the morning, when day 
comes, the woman who works at the elderberries takes a straight- 
splitting II cedar-stick, square in cross-section, of the thickness of 90 
one-half of our || little finger. She takes her knife and | measures off 
pieces of square cedar-stick two | spans long. Then she cuts them 
off. There | are two of the same length. Then she measures off || 
two pieces, each one short span long, and she takes the straight- 95 
edged knife and cuts them off. | Now there are two each two sjians 

giPmese la qlex'dzEkwalaxs lae gwala. Wa, ^^mise la esElaq qa 75 
Llopes. Wa, he^mis la tsloxugindaatsexa awawe loElqlwa i.E^'wa 
^walase gilt lEXLala k'atslEuaqa. Wa, giHmese gwalExs lae 
yawas^id x'os'ida. Wa, la dzaqwaxs lae kusalaxa uEyime klEk'Iao- 
k!wa lax okuya'yases nEk"asE^we ts!ex'ina. Wa, giPmese ^wPlaweda 
k'Ek"!aok!waxs lae ax^edxa awawe loElq!wa qa^s la ka^stalllElas laq. 80 
Wa, la ax^edxa ^walase k'atslEuaqa qa^s tseqes laxa ku'"nekwe ts!e- 
x'ina qa^s la tsetslalas laxa awawe dzeg'EgwatsIe loElqlwa. Wa, 
g'iPmese qotlaxs lae hanal tsets!alaxa waokwe dzeg'EgwatsIe IoeI- 
q!wa. Wa, g'iPmese ^wilg'Elts!awa kunyasaq lae ax^edxa k'lE- 
k!aok!wa waokwa qa^s la LEpEylndalas laxa dzEgEgwats!e IoeI- 85 
q!wa qaxs gwaqlElaaq qlupEyindalaso^sa qlwalobEse. Wa, laEm 
xamaelL hel gwaeLe qa^s alak'Ialil wiidEX'^Ida; wa, he^mis qa 
wudaqetlesexa ganoLe; wa, he^mis qa gEnx'^ides. Wa, g'iPmese ^na- 
x'^idxa gaaljixs laeda ts!ats!ex'sila tstedaq ax^edxa eg-aqwa lax xa- 
sE^we kIwaxLawa. Wa, la k'lodEue k' lEWElx^unena^yas laxEns 90 
sElt!ax'ts!ana^yex yix^wag"idasas. Wa, la ax^edxes k' lawayowe. Wa, 
la baHdxa kMEwElx^une k!waxLawa qa malplenk'es laxEns q!wa- 
q!waxts!ana^yex ytx awasgEmasasexs lae kMimtslEndEq. Wa, la 
malts !aqa ^uEmasgEme. Wa, laxae bal^itses ts!Ex"ts!ana^ye laxa 
malts laqaxs laaxat! ax^edxes uExx'ala k'lawayowa qa^s k'limtslEU- 95 
deq. Wii, laEm malts !aqa maemalplEukas awasgEmase laxEns 
q!waq!wax'ts!aua^yex. Wa, la malts lax^Emxaeda ts!ets!EX"ts!aua- 



260 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etii.ann. 35 

97 long, I and there are also two (each) one short | span long. She uses 
these to | measure the width of the elderberry-cakes. It is like this.' || 

100 After she has finished, she takes the broadest skunk-cabbage leaves 
and I spreads them out on a mat. Then she takes her husband's 
crooked | knife and cuts out the middle vein of the leaves of the | 
skunk-cabbage, trying to get it of the same thickness as the | edge 
of the leaf. After doing this with many of them, she puts downi 
5 flat II all the skunk-cabbage leaves which she has cut, (putting them 
flat) oil the fire of her | house, so that they will get soft. She wants 
them to get a little j heat only, and therefore she puts them on the fire 
for a little while. | After doing this with all of them, she puts them 
away. Sometimes j they leave the elderberries in the house for 

10 three days, so that they may get very || thick before making them 
into cakes. Now they are ready to be | made into cakes. ^ | . . . 

Tlie ^ woman takes the drying -frame for the elderberry -cakes. | She 
puts it down where she is gomg to put the elderberries on it. She 
takes I the skunk-cabbage leaves which have been heated, and the 

15 middle vein of which has been cut out, and she puts them on || the 
drying-frame smoothly. As soon as the j skunk-cabbage leaves have 
been spread over the drying-frame, she takes her straight | knife and 

98 ^yes awasgEmase laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex. Wa laEm k'adayol 
qa awadzE^wasLEs lEqiiLases tsIendzoLexa g'aLa gwalaLeg'a .' 

100 Wa, g'il^'mese gwalExs lae ax-edxa awadzowe k!Ek'!aok!wa qa^s pa- 
gEdzodes laxa LEbele le-'wa^ya. Wa, la ax^edEx xElxwala k!a- 
wayases ia^wunEme qa^s xElxwales lax t lEnxEdzo^yas nEgsdza^yasa 
k!Ek!aok!wa. Wa, laEm laloLla qa ^nEmakwes ^wagwasas i.E^'wa 
awfmxa^ye. Wa, g'U^mese qlexse la hii gwex'^itso^sexs, lae papagE- 
5 Lalasa k-!axEwax"s tlEutlEnxEdza^ye k-!Ek-!a6k!wa lax lEgwIlases 
g'okwe qa lelEndEdzox^wIdes. Wa, laEm aEm ^nex" qa xaLlEx'i- 
des ts!Elts!Elgiidz6x^wIdEx lae yawas^Id paxxEnts laxes lEgwIle. 
Wa, giPmese ^naxwa la gwaiaxs lae g'exaq qaxs ^ual"nEmp!En.ie 
yudux"p lEuxwa^se ^nalas he gwaehi dzeg'Ekwe ts!exlna qa 
10 alakMales la gEuk'axs lag lEqasE^wa. Wa, laEm gwallla lalaal lax 
lEqax'dEmLaq. - . . . 

Wa,^ la ax^ededa tslEdaqaxes lEgEdzowe kMitkMEdesxes ts!endzoLe 
qa^s lii pax^alilas laxes lEgasLaxes tslendzoLe. Wa, la ax^edxes 
pEnkwe k!axEwax"s t !Ent lEnxEdzE^we k'!Ek'!aok!wa qa^s aek'Ie 
15 LEbEdzodfdas laxes lEgEdzowe k'.'itkMEdesa. Wa, giPmese labEnde 
LEpa^yas k'!Ek!aok!wa laxa k' !itk' lEdesaxs lae ax^edxes nExxala 
k" !awayowa qa^s t losalexa la ^wadzogawa^yasa nExts lawasa k' !ttk- !e- 

1 A rectangular cake. 'Continued on p. 167, line 1. ' Continued from p. 171, line 86. 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 261 

cuts off all those that are broader than the middle sticks and that 17 
hang over the drying-frame. | When she has cut them all off, she 
takes her measuring-stick | (for the 
berry-cakes) and places it do\vii at (1), 



a 3 4 5s 



and she takes || one of the dishes con- * ^ I I I I J_ T 20 
taining the cooked elderberries and puts 
it down at (1), next | to the drying-frame. Then she takes her large 
long-handled ladle | and a large shell of the horse-clam, and j she dips 
the ladle into the cooked elderberries. She sits | down on the floor 
at one end of the drying-frame at (1), and takes her measuring- || rod 25 
and puts it down at the end at (1) ; and she puts down | three sticks ; 
and as soon as they have all been put down, she takes the large | 
ladle which is full of cooked elderben'ies, and pours them into | the 
cedar-stick mould. Then she takes the large shell | of the horse- 
clam, which she turns on its back, and presses the back of the jj shell 30 
on the cooked elderberries, so as to spread them inside of the | cedar- 
stick mould. Now she presses them with the back of the shell, | so 
that they settle down and have the same thickness as the | cedar- 
stick mould, and have the same thickness aU over. | After doing so, 
she takes off one of the moulding- || sticks, the one nearest to (1), and 35 
also two I side-sticks, but she does not touch the | cedar-stick mould 
nearest (2). Now she puts down the j cedar-stick mould; one short 

dese. Wa, g"lPmese la ^wHa la ttewekwaxs lae ftx^edxes k'atse- 18 
stalayoLe mEnyayowa qa^s g'edzodes lax (1). Wa, laxae ax^edxa 
^nEmexLa dzegEgwats!axa tslex'ina l6q!wa qa^s gaxe hanballlas 20 
lax (1) k!Itk!Edesa. Wa, la ax^edxa ^walase g1lt!EXLala kats!E- 
naqa. Wa, he^misa ^walase xalaetsox mEtlana^yex. Wa, lii 
tseqasa k'atslEnaqe laxa dzeg'Ekwe ts!ex"ina (Jig.). Wa, la k!wa- 
ballhxxa k'!itk!Edese lax (1). Wa, lii ax^edxes k'atse^stalayowe 
mEnyayowe. Wa, la k'atbEnts lax (1). Wa, la k'ats e^stalasa yu- 25 
dux"ts!aqe laq. Wa, giPmese gwal^;iLElaxs lae dax'^idxa ^wah^se 
k"ats!Enaqaxs lae qotlaxa dzeg'Ekwe tslex'ina qa^s la tsetslots laxa 
mEnyayowe kIwaxLawa. Wa, la ax-edxa ^walase xalaetsox 
mEtlana^yex; wa, la uELaleda xrlaesaxs lae axElges awTg'a^j^asa 
xalaese laxa dzegEkwe ts!ex"ina qa gwelalts!awe lalaneq" laxa 30 
mEnyayowe kIwaxLawa. Wa, laEm L;^qliIges awlg'ayasa xalaese 
laq qa qlEsmEnkwes. Wa, he^mis qa ^UEmales wagwasas LE^wa 
mEnyayowe k!waxLawa. Wa, hc^mis qa ^uEmakwe wagwasas. 
WiJ., giPmese gwala lae ax^aLElodxa ^UEmtsIaqe mEnyayowe 
kIwaxLawaxa gwaqEnwa^ye lax (1). Wa, he'misa maltslaqe gege- 35 
ba^ya. Wa, la^me hewiixaEm Labrlaxa mEnyayowe klwaxLawa 
gwiiqEnwe lax (2). Wa, la k'atEmg'aaLElotsa memEnyayowe 
kIwaxLawa ^naPnEmtsIaq lax wax'sba^yaxa tslEg'ola. Wa, lii, 



262 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Iktii. ann. 35 

stick at each end, | and she puts down the long cedar-stick measure 

40 at the end, || this way: ., . i i i i ^^ter doing so, 

she again takes her ; = _J ^^ = ^^ . ; ladle, | which is 
always kept filled with cooked elderber- 

ries, and I she pours them into the cedar-stick mould; and she 
again takes the | large shell, and she does the same as she did 
with the first one. | She continues doing so with the others, 1| 

45 and she only stops after finishing the whole length of the drying- 
frame. I As soon as all the elderberries have been made into cakes, 
she calls her husband | to take hold of the end of the elder- 
beiTy drying-frame, and they | put it up right over the fire where 
salmon are always dried; | and when they have all been put there, 

50 they buUd up the fii-e so that it burns || well, for slie wishes them to 
dry quickly. When | there is a good fu-e underneath, the elderberry- 
cakes dry in one day, and they are really | dried (tlu-ough) . She leaves 
them drying there one day and one night. | In the morning, when 
day comes, the woman takes her breakfast, the one who makes the | 
elderberry cakes.' || 

55 Wlien= (the cedar bark) is all split into strips, she takes her cklcr- 
ben-y-cakes | and piles up the drying-frames | wliich she is going 
tie together in bundles. She takes up one of the strips of 
soft cetlar-bark | and breaks it in two. She puts (the two pieces) 
down on the door, on a mat that has been spread out. Then she takes 

k'atlaLElotsa g-lldola mBnyayowe kIwaxLawa lax oba^yas g-a gwa- 

40 leg-a (^gr.). Wa, g-il-mese gwalExs lae et!ed dax'^Idxa k'atslEnaqe 
qaxs hemEuala-'mae qotlalalllxa dzeg-Ekwe ts'ex-Ina. Wii, laxae 
tsets!ots laxa mEnyayowe klwaxLawa. Wa, laxae et!ed ax-edxa 
^walase xalaesa qa^s he^mexat ! gwex-^Itse laxes gllx'de gwegilas 
g-ale lEqasE^wa. Wa, ax"sa^mese he gweg-ilaxa waokwe. Wa, 

45 aPmese gwalExs lae labEndEx ^wasgEmasasa k' !itk- lEdese. Wa, 
ffil-mese ^wFla la lEgskwa tslendzowaxs lae LeHalaxes la^wunEme 
qa gaxes dadEbEndxa ts!endz6dzala k- !itk- '.Edesa qa^s la Lag'a- 
aLElots lax uEqostawases lEgwlle lax x-ildEmase xaxamase. Wa, 
gil-'mese ^wilg'ustaxs lae lEqwelax'^idxa lEgwaba^yf.s qa alakMales 

50 ex- xiqEla qaxs walaqelaaq halabala lEm.xHvlda. Wa, gih'mese 
ek-e L!esaabiVyas lae helalaEmxa ^uEnixsa ^naliixs lae alaklala 
lEm.x'^wIda. Wa, la hexsaEm x-ilElaLElaxa ^nala LE-'wa ganoLe. 
Wa, gil-'mese 'nax'^idxa gaalaxs lae gaaxstalax-^ided;i lEqIenoxwaxa 
tslexina ts'.Edaqa.' ... 

55 Wa,^ g-iPmese ^wFla la dzEdzExsaakwa Lie ax^edxes tslendzowe 
qa g-axes papEqEwek'ales dzedzendzodzala k'leklEtkMEdesa lax 
yaeltsEmasLaseq. Wa, la ax^'edxa ^uEmtslaqe dzEXEk" k-adzEkwa 
qa^s EltslEndoq. Wa, la k-ak-EdEdzolIlas laxa LEbele ELdzo le^wa^ya. 
Wa, la ax^edxa tslendzowe sEkMaxsa qa^s papEqodes lax ek'la^yasa 

•Herefollows a description of thcsliredding of cedar-bark, p. 132, line 1. ' Continued from p. 134, linc34. 



liOAs] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 263 

five cakes of elderbemes, one on top of the other, and || puts them fiO 
on the two strips of soft cedar-bark, (in this way) : 
and when | the edges are even, she pulls the — 
two strips of cedar-bark tight and ties the ends to- 
gether. I As soon as she finishes it, she takes up another | piece of 
soft split cedar-bark and breaks it in two; and she puts down the 
pieces on the | mat that has been spread out. Then she takes the 
bundles of elderbeiTy-cakes that have been tied and || puts them 65 
on it. She ties them crosswise, the same way as the first, | in 

this manner: This is what they call one bundle of 

elderberry- C ^ 1 ~] cakes, | when five cakes of elderbemes 

are tied to- > — 4- 1 — < gether. She continues doing so with | 

what she in- tends to keep in the house, to be eaten hi 

winter. She uses | a medium-sized box. Wlien she finishes tying the 
elderberry-cakes into bundles, || she tilts (the box) to one side, near the 70 
fire ; and when it is warm inside and really | dry, she puts the bundle 
of elderberry-cakes | into the box. When it is full, she puts the | 
cover on and ties it down. Wlien this is done, | she puts the elder- 
berry-box away in a place where it is always dry; || that is, where the 75 
heat of the fu-e can reach it. After she has done so, she | gathers up 
the cakes that she did not tie into bundles, and puts them into an- 
other I small box, and she tlirows all the elderberry-cakes into it. | 
When they are all in, she puts the cover on, | ties it down, and puts 
(the box) down by the side of the first box. || 

la ax^axel malts!aq dzEXEk" k'adzEkwa (fig.). Wa, glPmese la 60 
^naxwa ^uEmEnxalaxs lae lEk!ut!ed yaltsEmtsa malts !aqe dzEXEk" 
k^adzEkwe laq. Wa, giPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa ^uEmtsIaqe 
dzEXEkwe k'adzEkwa qa^s Elt^lEudeq. Wa, laxae k'adEdzodalas lax 
LEbele le-'wa^ya. Wa, la ax^edxa la yiltsEmala tslendzowa qa^s 
axEyindes laq. Wa, laEm galopalaxs laeyll'ets laxesg tLx^de yiLa^ya 65 
g"a gwaleg'a (fig.). Wa, heEm gwE^yo ^nEnix^sayok" tslendzowa la 
yiltsEmala sEkMaxsa ts!ets!endza. Wa, la hexsaEm gweg'ilaxes 
gwE^yo qa^s hiingwil qa^sts!ex"ts!ax's5lxa tsIawunxLa. Wa, lii ax^ed- 
xa hela xaxadzEmaxs lae gwal yaeltsEmaxes ts!ets!endzowe. Wa, 
la qogiinolisas laxes lEgwlle qa^s pEx'ts!odeq. Wa,g'tl^mese alak" !ala 70 
la lEmx"ts!axs lae aek"!a hants!alaxa yaeltsEmala ts!ets!endzo laxa 
ts!endzoats!e xaxadzEma. Wa, giPmese qotlaxs lae yikuyiuts 
ylkuya-'yas. Wii, la tiEmak'EyindEq. Wa, g'lPmese gwalExs lae 
h&ngalilases ts!endzoats!e xaxadzEme laxa hemEnahi/me lEm^wila 
yLx lagaaasasa L!esalases lEgwIle. Wa, g-ll'mese gwalExs lae 75 
q!ap!egill}axes k"!ese yiltsEntso^ tslendzowa qa^s la ax^edxa 5gii- 
4a^me xaxadzEma. Wa, la pElx'^altslalasa tslendzowe laq. Wa, 
giPmese ^wllts!axs laaxat! jikiiyints yikwaya^yas. Wa, laxae 
t lEmak'EylndEq qa^s lexat! hanolllas laxa gllx'de hang'alllEms. 



264 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth.ann. 35 

] Salal-Berries.' — She takes a large dish and puts it down by the | 
side of her salal-berry baskets. She unties | the tops of the salal- 
berry baskets; and when | this is done, she pulls out the hemlock- 
5 branches which cover the top. || Then she takes a medium-sized mat 
and spreads it outside of where she sits, where | she is going to pluck 
the salal-berries off the stems. She takes hold of a salal-berry branch | 
and plucks off the berries from the stems, and she goes on and puts | 
the cleaned berries into the dish, and she throws the branches | on 
the mat that has been spread out. She cleans them very {piickly; 

10 and II after all the berries have been cleaned which she put into the 
dish, I and after the branches have been put on the mat that has 
been spread out, | she folds up the mat holding the branches, | and 
she goes out and shakes them out outside of the house. Then she 
goes back into | the house. She takes her front-basket, goes down 

15 to the II beach in front of her house, and picks up fresh stones, which | 
she puts into her small basket, enough so that she can | carry them. 
Then she carries the basket on her back into the house, | and she puts 
it down by the side of the fire. Then | the stones are poured out by 
the side of the fire. Then she goes down agaui, carrying her front- 

20 basket, || and puts more stones into it; and when | she has enough, 
she carries them on her back into the house, and | puts them on top 



1 Salal-Berries. — Wa, la ax^edxa ^walase loqlwa qa^s g'axe kano- 
lilas lax hftxhanelasases nenEgwatsIe laElxa^ya. Wa, la qwelE- 
yhidEx t!et!Emak'Eya^yases nenEgwats!e laEbca'ya. Wa, giPmese 
gwalExs lae lEkumwalax tlak'Eya^yases nenEgwats.'e q!waxa. Wa, 
5 la ax^edxa hel^a le^wa^ya qa^s LEp lallleq lax l lasalllases k IwaelasLaxs 
liiLe kImtlcdELxa uEkliile. Wa, la dax'^Idxa ^nEmts!aqe laxa 
nEk!ule qa^s k!ulp&lexa nEk!ule laxes ylsx'Ene, qa^s la k"!ats!otsa 
kImdEkwe uEkliil laxa loqlwe. Wa, la ts lEgEdzodalasa yEsx'ine 
laxa LEbele le^wa^ya. Wa, lii halabalaxs lae k'Imtaq. Wa, gll- 

10 ^mese ^wi^la k'ImdEkwa nEk!ule la k"!ats!axa ktmdEgwats!e loq!wa. 
Wa, laxae ^wi^ladza^ya yisx'Ene laxa kimdEdzowe LEbel le^wa^ya. 
Wii, g'll^mese ^wi^axs lae q lEnepElilaxes kirndsdzowe le^wa^ya 
qa^s lii laaqEWElsaq lax L'.asamVyases g'okwe. Wa, lii edeL laeL 
laxes gokwe qa^s ax^edexes nanaagEme qa^s lii lEntsIes laxa 

15 LlEma^isases gokwe. Wa, lii xEx"^wIdxa alExsEme tlesEma qa^s 
lii xEx"ts!&las laxes nanaagEme. Wa, a^mise gwaniila qa^s 
lakwesexs g'axae oxLosdesElaq qa^s lii oxLaeLElaq laxes gokwe. 
Wii, lii oxLEg'alilas lax onalisases lEgwile. Wa, laEm gugEnolisas 
liixes lEgwIlexa tIesEme. Wa, laxae etEntsIesa k'loqidaxes nana- 

20 i'gEme qa^s laxat! et!ed xEx"ts!alasa tIesEme laq. Wa, g'lPmese 
helatslaxs lae oxLosdesa qa^s laxat! oxLaeLElaq laxes g'okwe qa^s 

1 This follows the description of the gathering of salal berries, p. 207, line 53. 



iioAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 265 

of those she brought m first. She just puts | the basket \vith stones 211 
in it on the floor, and she builds up the fire so | that it is high. She 
takes good dry fire-wood and || lays it across the top of the fire. Wlien 2!'-, 
this is done, | she piles stones on top of it; and when they are all 
on, I she takes a low box and washes it out. | Wlien this is done, she 
puts it down. She takes a small steaming- | box and pours water 
into it half way up from the bottom; and she || leaves it there just 30 
outside of the low box, at a place between it | and the fire. Theii 
she takes the fire-tongs and puts them down on the floor. | Now it is 
all done, and she waits for the stones to get red-hot, | as they arc 
stUl on the fire. | 

Now we will talk for a Uttle while about the low-sided box for 
mixing salal-berries. || It is three long spans and one short span | in 35 
length, and it is just two | long spans in width, and it | is one span 
m height. | The corners made in the same way as the boxes for 
keepmg preserved salmon. || That is all about this. | 40 

As soon as all the stones which are on the fire are red-hot, | the woman 
who works on the salal-berries takes the dishes containing the cleaned | 
berries and puts them down by the side of the low box for making 
salal-berry cakes; | she takes the tongs and puts them down at the 



la oxLaqas laxes gilx^de xEgwanEma. Wa, a^mese la hangelila 22 
t!ets!ala lExaxa xEgwIle t!esEma. Wa, la hel^Idxes lEgwIle qa 
q!ap!esgEmllles. Wa, la ax^edxa eke lEmxwa lElqwaEma qa^s 
gayi^liilax'^ideq lax okuya^yases lEgwile. Wa, gIPmese gwalExs 25 
lae xEquyindalasa tIesEme laq. Wa, giPmese ^wIlksyEndExs lae 
ax^edxa bEngEla t!Eqagi^Iats!a qa^s aekMe tsIoxug'Ii^dEq. Wa, 
g'iPmese gwalExs lae hang^alilas. Wa, laxae ax^edxa ama^ye 
q!olats!a qa^s guxts!odesa ^wape qa ^nEgoyoxsdales. Wa, laEm 
ha^nel lax l lasotaga^yasa bEng'Ela t!Eqagi^lats!a lax awagawa^yas 30 
LE^wa lEgwIle. Wa, laxae ax^edxa tsIesLala qa gaxes k'adela. Wii, 
laEm ^wFla laxeq. Wa, a^mise la esEla qa memEnltsEmx'^Ideda 
t'.esEme la xEx^Lalales lax lEgwIlas. 

Wii qEns yawas^ide gwagwexsEx'^id laxa bEngEla tlEqagi^la- 
ts!a, ylxs mamoplEnkfilaasa ts!Ex"ts!ana^ye laxEns qlwaqlwax^- 35 
tslana^yex yix ^wasgEmg'Eg'aasas. Wa, la nExnEqEla malplEnk" 
laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex yJx ^wadzEgEg'aasas. Wa, la 
^nEmplEnkosta laxEns q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yex ylx ^walasgEmasas. 
Wa, la yiiEm gwale widayasox wfda^yasa xEtsEmaxs k^ogEkwae. 
Wa, la^mEn gwal laxeq. 40 

Wa, giPmese ^naxwa la mEmEnltsEmx'^ideda xEx"Lalalese t!e- 
sEmxs lae ax^ededa nanakli'dtslla ts!Edaqxes k imdEx"ts!alaxa nE- 
k'.ide loElqlwa qa^s g'axe k'anolllElas laxa bEng'Ela tlEqagi- 
*lats!a. Wa, laxae 5.x^edxes tsIesLala qa g"axes k'adel lax eaxElas- 



266 HTHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth.ann. 35 

45 place where she is going to work. || Then she takes up with both 
hands the cleaned salal-barries and | pours them into the low box for 
making salal-berry cakes, for its name is | "low box for making salal- 
berry cakes." She puts the berries into it; and | she only stops pour- 
ing in salal-berries when they are four | finger-widths deep, when they 

50 are levelled down on top. || Then she takes the tongs and takes up 
with them the red-hot stones. | First she dips them into a steaming- 
box containing water, so that | the ashes that stick on the stones will 
come off, and so that they may not be too hot | and burn the salal- 
berries when they are put in. | After dipping the stones in, she puts 

55 them in one corner of the || salal-berries; and she continues doing so 
with the other red-hot stones. | Wlien she finishes, it is this way. 
Then | with both hands she takes more salal-berries 
and pours them on the red-hot stones which | are in 
the salal-berry box; and when these are also four | 
finger-widths in depth, then she takes the tongs and 

00 takes up || more red-hot stones. She dips them into the steaming- 
box I with water in it, and puts them on the salal-berries; | and 
when these are all covered with stones, she pours more | salal- 
berries on top; and when these are all in, she again | puts in more 

65 hot stones; and when they are all covered || \\ath hot stones, she 
takes a medium-sized mat | and spreads over it, for now it boils up; 

45 Las. Wa, la gox^wid laxa lEx^tsIala kImdEk" nEklula qa^s la 
gox"ts!alas laxes t!Eqag"i^lats!e bEng'Ela qaxs he-mae la LegEm- 
sa bEng'Ela t!Eqag"Flats!ax3 lae goxtsloyowa nEk!fde laq. Wa, 
al^mese gwal goxtslalasa nEklulaxs lae modsn laxEns q!wa- 
q!wax'ts!ana^yex yix wax"ts!Ewasas yixs lae ^nEmak'E^yaakwa. 

50 Wa, la ax^edxes tsIesLala qa^s k!ip!ides laxa x'ixExsEmala tIesEma 
qa^s la gagilaslla hS.pstEnts laxa q!olats!ets!ala ^wapa, qa lawalesa 
k !wek IiitsEma^yaq guna^ya. Wa, he^mis qa k' !eses xEnLEla ts lElqwa 
qa kleses k!umElx'^Ideda nsklule qo lat k!ip!Eqalts laq. Wa, gil- 
^mese la hapstaakweda t!esEmaxs lae k"!ip!Eqas lax apsbalts !awasa 

55 uEklide. Wa, la hexsii gweg'ilaxa waokwe x'lx'ExsEmala tIesEma. 
Wa, g'lPmese gwalExs lae g-a gwaleg-a {fig.). Wa laxae et!ed 
gox^wld laxa nEklule qa^s goxuyindes laxa x'ix'ExsEmala tIesEmaxa 
la axEgexa nEklule. Wa, gilEmxaawise modEne wS,gwasas laxEns 
q!waq!wax'ts!ana^yexs lae et!ed ax^edxes tsIesLiila qa^s k'!!p!edes 

60 laxaaxa x'lx'ExsEmala tlesEma qa^s la hapstEnts laxa ^wabEtsIa- 
wasa q!olats!e. Wa, laxae kMlplEqas lax okuya^yasa nEk!ide. 
Wa, gil'Emxaawise la hamElqEyhidqexs lae et!ed goxuyindalasa 
nEklfde laq. Wa, g'iPmese ^wilg'Elts!ayeda nEk!ulaxs lae et!ed 
k' lipEylndalasa tslElqwa t!esEm laq. Wii, guPEmxaiiwise hamEl- 

65 qEyE^yeda tslElqwa t!esEm laqexs lae ax^cdxa heladzowe le^wa^ya 
qa^s LEpEylndes laq, qaxs lE^mae maEmdElqula. Wa, giPmese 



BOAS] 



PRESERVATION OF FOOD 267 



cand after | she has done so, she takes an elderberry-cake that has not 67 
been tied up in bundles mth | shredded cedar-bark, and puts it up 
on edge over her fire. | It gets brittle quickly, and she goes down to the 
beach in front of her house || to look for a flat sandstone; and when 70 
she fuids one, | she takes it up and puts it down by the side of the 
box in which | the salal-berries are bemg cooked. She takes her 
husband's stone hammer and | places it on the flat sandstone. Wlien 
the elderberry-cake is quite | brittle, she takes do^\ai the elderberry- 
cake and she takes a new || mat and spreads it out. She puts the flat 75 
sandstone on the | mat and takes up the cake of elderberries, places 
it I on the saiidstone, and she takes the stone hammer and pounds | 
the elderberry-cake so that it breaks m pieces. When it is all broken 
up, I she takes up the pounded elderberry-cake with both hands, 
rubs it together || so as to make a powder of it, and she only | stops 80 
when it is all like flour. After she has broken up | one of the elder- 
berry-cakes, she takes others, for generally | they break ten cakes of 
elderberries for making the | salal-berry cakes. After ten elderberry- 
cakes have been broken up, || she takes off the mat that has been 85 
spread over the salal-berry box, for | they are done when they stop 
boiling. She takes a ladle | and a large dish and puts them down 
by the side of the low salal-berry box. | Then she takes the tongs 

gwalExs lae ax-edxes ts!endzewats!e, ylxa k'!ese yaeltsEmalaxa 67 
ic'adzEkwe qa^s la pElk-Emg'aaLElots laxa nEqostawases lEgwile 
qa halabales tsos^eda. Wa, la lEnts!es lax L lEma^isases g'okwe 
qa^s la alax pEgEdzowa dE^na tIesEma. Wa, glPmese q!aqexs 70 
lae ax^edEq qa^s gaxe pax^alllas lax apsanalllases t!Eqag"ilasE'we 
uEkliila. Wa, la ax^edEx pElpElqases la^wunEme qa^s la mEgu- 
dzots lax pEgEdzowe dE^na tIesEma. Wa, g-iPmese jilak'Iala 
la tsosaxs lae axaxodxa tslendzowe. Wa, la ax^edxa Eldzowe 
le^wa^ya qa^s LEp!allles. Wii, la pagEdzotsa dE^na t!esEm laxa 75 
ie^wa^ye. Wa, Iji ax^edxa ^nEmxsa tslendzowa qa^s pax^alodes 
laxa dE^na t!esEma. Wa, la ax^edxa pElpElqe qa^s lESEldzodes 
laxa tslendzowe qa q!weq!ults!es. Wa, gil^mese ^wPweIx'sexs 
lae gox^witses wax'solts!ana^ye e^eyaso laxa q!welkwe tslendzowa 
qa^s helox"sEndeqexs lae dzak"odxes e^eyasowe. Wa, Siamese SO 
gwalExs lae yoEm gwex'sa quxex. Wii, gtPinese ^wI'wElxseda 
^nEmxsa ts!endzowa lae et!edxa waokwe qaxs heniEnala^mae 
nEqaxse tslendzowe qlwelasE^wasa ts!Edaqe qas axEgEmxes t lEqa- 
g-llasE^we nEk!uhi. Wa, giFmese ^wl^la la q!welkwa UEqaxsa tslen- 
dzowa lae axodxa }e^wa^3'e LEpEmalilasa t!Eqagi'lats!e bEng^Ela qaxs 85 
lE^mae L'.opaxs lae gwal niEdElqula. Wa, la ax'edxa k-atslsnaqe; 
wa, he^misa ^walase loq!wa qa^s la k'anolilas laxa tlEqag'i^latsle 
bEng'Ela. Wa,, la ax^edxa tsIesLala qa^s klaplEles laxa t!esE- 



268 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIXJTL Ieth. ann. S6 

and feels for the stones, | which are in the bottom, under the 
90 boiled salal-berries ; and when || she gets hold of a stone, she takes a 
spoon and scrapes off the jam that | sticks to the stone. After 
scraping it off, she puts | (the stone) into the dish; and she continues 
doing this with the other stones. | Wlien all the stones are out, she 
takes the dish wdth the stones, | goes out, and throws them out of the 
95 house. Then || she goes back with the dish and puts it down. Then 
she takes her tongs | and stirs the salal-berries. She stirs them for a 
long time. Then the | boiled salal-berries become liquid. Next she 
takes a spoon | and dips it into the pounded elderberries, and pours 
these into the boiled | salal-berries; and she continues stirring them 
100 with the tongs. When || all the pounded elderberries have been 
thrown in, it gets thick. | After finishing this, she takes her drying- 
frame, (the same one) that is used in making elderberry-cakes, | and 
she also uses the (same) measure that she used to measure the elder- 
berry-cakes, I and also the skunk-cabbage leaves heated over the 
fire, for she does everything | with the boiled salal-berries, making 
5 them into cakes, as she did when || making cakes of the elderberries; 
and she also ties them into bundles | with shredded cedar-bark in the 
way in which she tied the dried elderberries. | Thus they are tied 
into bundles with shredded cedar-bark, and they are put into a 
(square) box, which is | called "salal-berry box" because it contains 



maxs lae xEgundzes laxa Llope nEklula. Wa, gil^mese lalxa 
90 tIesEmaxs lae ax^edxa k'ats!Enaqe qa^s ktxalexa t!Eqaxs lae 
k!wek!utsEmexa tIesEme. Wa, gil^mese 'wilg'EltsEmxs lae k!ip- 
ts!5ts laxa loq!we. Wa, ax^sa^mese he gwegilaxa waokwe t!esE- 
ma. Wa, giPmese ^wPlosteda tlesEmaxs lae dag'illlaxa t!ets!ala 
l6q!wa qa^s la giiqEWElsaq lax l !asana^yases g'okwe. Wa, g'ax- 
95 ^mese k'alaxa loq!we qa^s kagalUes. Wa, la ax^edxes ts!esLala 
qa-'s xwet!edes laxa Llope nEklula. Wa, la geg'illlExs lae ala- 
kMala la ^wapaleda L!ope nEklula. Wa, la ax^edxa k'atslEnaqe 
qa^s tseqes laxa qlwelkwe tslexina qa's la tseqElas laxa Llope 
nEk!iila. Wa, la hemEnalaEm xwetasa ts!esLala laq. Wa, gil- 
100 ^mese ^wFlaqeda qlwelkwe tslex ina laqexs lae gEnx'^ida. Wa, 
gil=mese gwalExs lae ax^edxes k" iitk' lEdesexes lEgEdzox"daxa tslen- 
dzowe. Wa, lieEmxaawis mEnyayases mEnyayaxa tslendzowe. 
Wa, laxae pEnkwa k'lEk'laoklwa laxa lEgwile, yixs a^mae naqEm- 
gilto laxes la gweg ilasxa Llope nEklulExs lae lEqaq laxes gweg"ila- 
5 saxs liix'de lEqaxa tslendzowe. Wii, hcEmxaawise gwalaxs hie yael- 
tsEmalaxa k'adzEkwe laxaax gwalaasasa tslendzowaxs lae yael- 
tsEmalaxa k'adzEkwe. Wa, laxae xEtsEme hantslEwasaxa Lega- 
das nEgudzEwatsle xEtsEma, yixs lae gutslEwax"sa nEgudzowe 



UOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 269 

the salal-berry cakes. | Those are not the best salal-berries that are 
mixed with || elderberries ; for they make them in a (claeap) way to sell 1 1 
them, and also for her | husband to give a feast of salal-berry cakes. 
They do the same with the | salal-berries as they do with the elder- 
berries when a feast is given. | The only difference is that the dislies 
are called | "salal-berry-cake dishes." That is all about the one 
way of doing this. || 

Salal-Berries and Elderberries mixed — (Strips of caked salal- 1 
berries) . | In this ' (box) salal-berries mixed with elderberries are 
pounded before they are ripe. | Tliis is what I talked about first, for 
they are made as cheaply as possible, because they are for sale | or 
given at a feast to different tribes. Therefore the salal-berries are 
not pure; || and they put in the elderberries so that they will show 5 
up better and | that the salal-berry cakes will dry more quickly, when 
elderberries | are mixed with them, for this is sold cheaply. | 

Now I will talk about the salal-berry cakes, wliich are made care- 
fully by the | women for their own food and for their husbands, their 
children, and their || relatives. When (the woman) makes the salal- 10 
berry | cakes mixed with elderberries, she does not pick the largest 
salal-berries seen by her, those wlrich grow well, | she keeps these to 
be picked when they are | ripe. When they are quite ripe, she 
takes her three | baskets, the same ones that were used before, 

tiEqa. Wa, heEm k'!es aek'Iaak" nEgudzo t!Eqeda la g'eqElaxa 
tslex'ina, ylxs hae senatseq qa^s laxoya. Wa, he^mis qo tiEqa- HO 
g'ilaexsde la^wunEmasex nEgudzowa, wa laxae hiiEm gwegila- 
sE^weda nEgudzowe tiEqe gwegilasaxa tslendzowaxs lae k!wela- 
dzEma. Wa, lex'a^mese ogiix'ideda LegEmasa loElqlwaxs t!Ext!aga- 
tsliixa nEgudzowe. Wii laEiu gwala ^nEmx'^idaia gweg'ilasEq. 

Salal-Berries and Elderberries mixed (TiEqelaxa heyadzo nEgiidzo 1 
tlEqa). — Wa,' la hesmLai kMilx'amEnqula nEkluia axEqElaxa ts!en- 
dzowEn gale gwagwexs-alasa qaxs yayaqelakwaaxs laxoyEwexe 
Loxs kIweladzEmae laxa qlenEme lelqwalaLa^ya, lagilas k!es 
sayoqwa nsklule. Wa, he^mis lag'ilasa tslex'ina q!aq!ek'!es. Wii, 5 
he^misexs halabalae lEmx^wideda nEgudzowe tlEqaxs laeda ts!en- 
dzowe axEgeq, yixs holaloxwaaxs kilxwasE^wae. 

Wa, la^mesEn gwagwex'SEX'^IdEl laxa nEgiidzowaxs aek" lasE^waasa 
tslEdaqe qa^s helelayo LE^wis la^wflnEme LE^we sasEme Lo^mes 
Lei-ELala. Wii, hii^maaxs lae gwal eaxElaxa tsletslEnqEla nEgudzo 10 
t'.Eqa laxes kMetslena^ye nEkwaxes dogule awa nEkliila, yfxa ek'as 
qlwax^edaena^ye. Wa, laEm guLlEsaq qa^s lal nEkwaLEq qo lai 
qlayox^wldEl. Wa, g'iPmese q!iiyoqwaxs lae ax^edxes yudux"sEme 
laElxa^ya ylxaaxes g'ilx'de nEgwatsIa. Wa, la heEmxat! gweg'i- 

I Continued from description of the dish for pounding salal-berries (p. 60, line 78). 



270 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etii.ann.35 

15 and she does everything | as she did before when she went to pick 
salal-berries, as I first described; | and she also does as I said before, 
when she picks the salal-berries off the branches, | and she puts 
them into the same dishes; and when they have all been cleaned, | 
she takes the mortar-box for the salal-berries, and she puts it down 
on the floor | where she is going to work; and she also takes her 

20 husband's stone hammer and places it || on the edge or by the side 
of the mortar-box. Then she takes the | dish containing the cleaned 
salal-berries and puts it down next to the mortar-box; | and she puts 
in both hands and takes out the | cleaned salal-berries and places 
them in the mortar-box. When | they are two finger-widths deep 

25 in the || bottom of the mortar-box, she takes her | stone hammer 
and pounds them until they burst, and she continues | pounding 
them until she sees that they have all burst. Then she takes the | 
large dish and pours the pounded salal-berries into it. After | pour- 
ing all out, she takes some more of the cleaned salal-berries, || 

oO puts them into the mortar-dish, and when they are | two finger- 
widths deep m the | mortar-box, she takes lier stone hammer and 
pounds them. | She pounds them for a long time; and when she sees | 
that they have all burst, she puts the hammer down on the floor || 

35 and pours the pounded salal-berries into the dish. | She continues 

15 les gweg'ilasaxs g'alex'de nEkwaxEn glLx'de gwagwexs^alasa. Wii, 
laxae heEm gweg ilaqes gweg'ilasaxs lae kliilpalaxa nEklide. Wii, 
laxae heEm k'!ats!alaseda loElq!we. Wa, g'iPmese ^wFlala kimdE- 
kwaxs lae ax^edxa lEg'atslaxa nsklule qa^s gaxe hang'alilas laxes 
eaxElasLe. Wa, laxae ax^edEx pElpElqases la^wunEnie qa^s g axe 

20 mEkwiigElIlas laxes lEgats'.axa nEk!ule. Wa, \& ax-'edxa klmdE- 
gwats'.axa nEklule loqlwa qa^s g'axe k'anodzEnts laxa lEg'atsIaxa 
nEklule. Wa, la gox^witses wax'solts!ana-ye e^eyaso laxa kimdE- 
kwe nEk!ida qa^s la goxtslalas laxa lEg'atsIiixa nEk!ule. Wii, gil- 
^mese maklEn laxEns q!waq!wax"ts!ana^yex \'lx wagwasasa kimdE- 

25 kM'e nEk'.ul lax otslawasa lEg'atsIiixa nEklulaxs lae dax'^Idxa 
pElpElqe qa^s lESElgEudes laq qa ^wi-'les kux=Ida. Wii, lii gegUll 
lESElgeq._ Wii, g ll^mese doqiilaq laEm ^wPla kuk'axs, lae ax^edxa 
^walase loqlwa qa^s la qEposasa lii lEdzEk" nEk!ul laq. Wa, gtl- 
^mese ^wllasExs lae etied gox^wid laxa kimdEkwe nEklula qa^s 

30 lexat! goxtslots laxa lEg'atslaxa nEklule. Wa, glPEmxaiiwise 
maldEn liixEns q!waq!wax"ts!ana^yex ytx w&gwasas lax otslawasa 
lEgats!axa nEk!utaxs lae dax'^idxa pElpElqe qa^s lESElga'yes laq. 
Wa, laxae gegilllExs lEsElga^yaaq. Wa, gil'Emxaiiwise doqidaq 
laEm ^wl^la kukiix"sExs lae gegalilases Ifidzayowe pElpElqaxs lae 

35 qEpasasa la lEdzEk" nEk!ul liixa lEdzEgwats!e nEk!ul l5q!wa. 
Wa, ax^sa^mese la he gweg'ilaxa waokwe k'undEk" nEkliila. Wa, 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 271 

doing this with the other cleaned sahil-berries, and | only stops when 37 
they have all been pounded. She does not make them into cakes 
quickly, | but leaves them for two nights in the dish, covered over 
with a mat, before | makuig the cakes. || 

Now I will talk about the long strips of dried salal-berries. When | 40 
the woman gets ready to dry them, after leaving them two nights 
covered | over with a mat, so that no soot will drop into them and | so 
that they will get thick, — for she can not make them into cakes 
immediately | after pounding, because the berries are full of juice^ 
and therefore || she leaves them for a long time to dry up, — then she 45 
takes up the drying-frame, | the (same) one as she used when she dried 
elderberries mixed with salal-berries, | and also the heated skimk- 
cabbage. She puts the heated | skunk-cabbage leaves down fiat the 
whole lengtli of the drying-frame. She puts them on very ( smoothly; 
and when they are all down on the drying-frame from end to end, || she 50 
takes her straight knife and cuts the curved edges | of the skunk-cabbage 
leaves that hang down over the two side-pieces of the drying-frame | 
(this is called by some people "stiff edge of the drying-frame)". | 
After cutting them all off, she takes a large horse clam-shell | and a 
large spoon, and she takes the pounded-salal-berry dish || and puts it 55 
down by the side of the drying-frame. She | takes the ladle, dips 
it in, and stirs it until they are well mixed | with the juice; and when 

al^mese gwalExs lae ^wi^la la IsdzEkwa. Wa, k'!est!a ya^nag'aala 37 
lEx^edEq. Heda la malExse ganoLas 'nakuyalaxa le^wa^yaxs lae 
lEx^edEq. 

Wa, la^mesEn gwagwex's^Ex'^IdEl laxa heyadzo nEgiidzSxs laeda 40 
tslEdaqe xwanaPid qa^s lEqeq laqexs lae malExses ganoLe naxiim- 
lllxa le^wa^ye qa kMeses qlwaplEqElaso^sa qlwalobEse. Wii, he^mis 
qa alaklales gEnx'^ida qaxs k' !eS,sae gwex"^idaas lEx^edqexs g'alae 
gwal lEsElgeq qaxs alak'!alae q'.euEme saaqas. Wa, he^mis lag-iias 
he gwaele qa lEmlEm5x"des. Wa, la ax^ededa tslEdaqaxa k'!itk!E- 45 
dese, yixes k' !itElax'daxs galex'de Isqaxa ts!ets!EnqEla nEgiidzo- 
wa. Wa, he^misapEnkwe k"!Ek'aok!wa. Wa, lapagEdzotsapEnkwe 
k!Ek!a6k!wa lax ^wasgEmasasa k-'.ltk'lEdese. Wa, laEm aek!axs 
lae hamElgEdza^ya k'!Ek!aok!wa papEqo^nakulaxs labEndalae. Wa, 
la §,x^edxes nExx"ala k" lawayowa qa^s t losalexa kilk'Elx'Enxa- 50 
^yasa k"!Ek'!a6k!waxs lae k'lesala lax k^ak'EtEnxa^yasa kitklEdese; 
yixs LeqElaeda waokwas L!aL!EXEnxe laxa kak'EtEnxa-ya. Wa, 
giPmese ^wFla t !6sEwakuxs lae a,x^edxa ^walase xalaetsa mEt lana^ye. 
Wa, he^misa ^walase katslEnaqa. Wa, la Sx^edxa lEg"Ex"ts!alaxa 
nEklule l6q!wa qa^s gaxe hauEnxElllas laxa klitk^Edese. Wa, lii 55 
dax-^idxa k'atslEnaqe qa^s tseqes laq qa^s xwetledeq qa lElgowes 
LE^wis saaqe. Wa, giPmese alak- !ala la lElgoxs lae tsex'^itsa katsls- 



272 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth.ann.35 

58 the berries are well mixed, she dips the | spoon into them until it is 
heaping full of the pounded salal-berries ; and she pours | them on 
one end of the drying-frame. Then she takes a straight cedar-stick || 

60 and puts it down (crosswise) near the end of the drjdng-frame, in tliis 

manner: | The tliickness of the cedar-stick is one- 

lialfof the : : little finger, | and it is just squeezed 

between the two side-pieces of the ilrying-frame. 

Slie I does the same at the other end; and after doing so, she takes 
the I clam-shell, turns it over, and uses it to smooth the pounded 

65 salal-berries || on one end of the drying-frame. Then the pounded 
salal-berries are levelled down | to the crosspiece of cedar-wood, and 
she presses | the pounded salal-berries agamst the two side-pieces. 
As soon as she has spread all the pounded | salal-berries, she cUps the 
spoon into the berries again and pours them out at the | end of the 

70 salal-berries. She continues doing this until || she reaches the end 
of tlie drying-frame; and when she reaches the other crosspiece, | 
she stops. After doing so, it is in this way: 
Sometimes she has as many as twenty drying- 



frames with I pounded salal-berries, or even more when the salal- 
berries are growuig well | in summer, and when the woman is indiis- 
75 trious in pickmg salal-berries. || After this has been done, she asks 
her husband to come and help her | put the frames up just over the 
fire, not very high, | for the woman must bend her head when she 

58 naqe qa Llak'Emallsexa lEg'Ekwe uEkliila qa^s la tsedzots lax apsba- 
^yasa k' !ltk" lEdese. Wa, la ax^edxa k IwaxLawe qa^s nEgEnosa. Wa, 

60 lii katbEnts laxa max'ba^yasa k!itkMEdese g'a gwa^lega (^(/.),ylxs 
k' lodEnae laxEns sElt lax'tsana^yex ylx wS.gwasasa klwaxLawe. Wa, 
la aEm qataweltEwe lax L!aL!EXEnxa^yasa k'litklEdesc. Wii, laxae 
heEm gwex'^idxa apsba^ye. Wii, g'iPmese gwalsxs lae iix^edxa 
xalaese qa^s nELalamaseqexs lae gweldzodalaxa lEgEkwe nEklul lax 

65 apsba^yasa k' !itk' lEdese. Wa, laEm ^uEmakaleda lEg'Ekwe nEk!ul 
LE^wa geba^ye kIwaxLawa. Wa, la lalEnxEndxa LlaLlEXEnxa^yasa 
lEg'Ekwe nEk!ula. Wa, g'ihiaxwa^mese gweldzod ^wFlasa lEgEkwe 
nEk!ulExs lae et!ed tsex'^etsa k'atslEnaqe qa^s la tsedzots lax la 
^walalaats oba^yasa nEklule. Wii, ax"sii^mese he gwegilaxs lae 

70 labEndalaxa k'!itk'!Edese. Wii, g'il^mese lag'aa laxa ^uEme geba- 
^ya lae gwala. Wa, g'll-'mese gwalExs lae g'a gwaleg'a (Jig.), ylxs 
^niil^nEmplEnae maltsEmgustaxseda k' !itk' lEdese la axdzalaxa 
lEg'Ekwe HEkluIa lo^xs hayaqamaaq, ylxs helaeda nEklule laxes 
qlwax^edaena^ye lo^xs sE^x"ts!aeda tslEdaqe la nEkwaxa UEkliile. 

75 Wii, g'lPmese gwalExs lae axk" !alaxes la^wtiuEme qa g'axes g'ewalaq 
qa^s Les-aLElodes lax nEqostawases lEgwIlexa k" !ese alaEm ek' !ala 
qaxs g'imxwala^maeda ts!Edaqaxs lae LawabEwexa k' !itk' lEdesaxs 



BOAS] PEESERVATION OF FOOD 273 

is standing under the drying-frame | when it is put up over the 77 
fire. Now the woman takes hold of one end, | and her husband of 
the other, and they put the salal-berry cakes (for now their name 
is changed) || over the fire. After doing so, her husband | builds up 80 
the fire with very dry alder-wood. | The reason wliy they use alder- 
wood to burn underneath is because it gives no sparks | and it makes 
a very hot fire, for the owner of the salal-berries wishes them | to dry 
quickly. As soon as the fire burns well, they watch || the drying- 85 
frames that they may not catch fire, and they do not leave (the cakes) 
there for more than two | hours. Then they are luilf dry. Now | 
the berry-cakes are done; and she takes them all down and puts 
down on the floor one | of the drying-frames. Then she takes down 
another one and puts it on top | of the one on the floor; and she con- 
tinues doing so, putting them one || on top of another. After she has 90 
taken them all down, the woman | takes an empty drying-frame and 
places it over the top | one wliich has the long strips of salal-berry 
cakes on it. Then she turns it over on the | empty one. The woman 
is careful that the salal-berry cake | is flush with the end of the 
empty drying-frame, and || that the sides are straight along its sides; 95 
for all the frames are made of the same length | and of the same 
width. As soon as | she has finished, she calls her husband to come 
and take hold | of the drying-frames that he face to face. Then her 

lae Lestaya lax ek'la^yasa lEgwIle. Wa, laEm dadEba^ya tslEdaqe 78 
LE^wis la^winiEmaxs lae Lestodxa tiEqa qaxs lE^mae Llayoxxaxs 
lae Lesta^ya laxa lEgwTle. Wii, giPmese gwalExs lae la^wunEmas 80 
lEqwelax'^idxes lEgwilasa LlasmEsexa alak'lala la lEmxwa. Wa, 
lieEm lag'ilas he lEgwabEwiseda LlasmEsaxs k'lesae anobexostala. 
Wa, he^misexs Lomae L!esEg'ustala qa^s ^nek'ae qa halabales 
lEmx^wides tlEqa. Wa, gil^mese xlqostawe lEqwela^yas lae q!aq!a- 
lalaq qa k'!eses x'ix^ede k' !itk" lEdesas. Wii, k'!est!a malts lagELE- 85 
lag'ila laxa q!aq!alak"!a^yaxa ^nalaxs lae k' layax^wlda. Wii, laEm 
Llopa t!Eqa. Wa, lii axaxod ^wi^aq qa^s pax^alllesa ^nEmxs 
k" !ltk' lEdesa. Wa, la et!ed axaxodxa ^nEmxsa qa^s pagegmdes 
laxa lii pagela. Wii, lii hanal iixaxElaxa waokwe qa^s la ^wi4a 
pagegindalas laxa waokwe. Wa, giPmese ^wi^laxaxs laeda tslEdaqe 90 
ax^edxa lobEdzala k' !itk" lEdesa qa^s lii papEqodEq LE^wa ek'lEu- 
xehle t lEqadziilaxa heyadzowe tiEqa. Wii, laEm bEnasaleda 
lobEdzala. Wa, la doqwaleda tslEdaqaxa tiEqadzala k'lltk'lEdes 
qa ^uEmabales oba^yas LE^wa lobEdzala k" !itk" lEdesa. Wii, he^mis 
qa ^nEmEnxales ewEnxa^yas qaxs ^nsm^maes awasgEmase. Wii, 95 
laxae ^nEm^me !iwa.dzEwasasa kiek'litk'lEdese. Wa, giPmese 
gwalExs lae Le^liilaxes ia^wiinEme qa giixese dadEbEndxa lii 
haqala k*!ek'!ttk"!Edesa. Wa, la^mese la^wunEmas dabEndxa 
75052—21—35 eth— ft 1 18 



274 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL I ktii. ann. 35 

husband takes hold of | one end, and the woman takes hold of the 
100 other (end). They || lift them up at the same time, and then turn 
them over so that the drying-frame with the salal-berry cake is on 
top; I and when they turn them over, the cake falls upon the | 
empty drying-frame, and the strip of salal-berry cake has been 
turned over. | Then they put it again just over the fire. | After tliis 
has been done, she takes the same drying-frame | from wliich she 
5 had taken the strip of salal-berry cake. || She peels off the heated 
skunk-cabbage leaves which stick to it, and throws them away. | 
Then she turns it over and puts it on the next one; and she does | as 
she did before with the first one, turning over the cakes; and she 
continues | doing this with the others. It takes only one day | to 
• 10 dry all of them. When they are all dry, the woman || takes a small 
square box, takes oiT the cover, and she tilts it on one side by the side 
of the fii'e, | so that it will get dry uiside. | As soon as the mside is 
very dry, she puts out the fire. | Then, without help, the woman 
takes down the drying-frames and | puts one on top of another, as 
15 they had been before, when she turned them over. || She takes the 
small square box of medium size and places it | near the drying- 
frames. Then she takes up the end of one strip of salal-berry cake, | 
puts it mto the bottom of the salal-berry box, | and the end up 
agauist the narrow end of the small box. When part of it | covers 

apsba^ye. Wa, liida tslEdaqe dax-^idxa apsba^ye. Wii, la ^nEma- 
100 x'^Id wix^^Idqexs lae lex-^idEq qa hes la ek'lagawa^ya tiEqadzala 
k' !itk- !Edesa. Wa, gll-mese lex'^Tdqexs lae laseda t lEqa laxa lobE- 
dzala k' !itk' lEdesa. Wii, laEm lenkwa heyadzowe tiEqa. Wa, 
hex'^ida^mese la xwelaqa Les^aLElots lax nEqostawases lEgwIle. 
Wa, giPmese gwalExs lae ax'edEx sixdzayaasdiisa heyadzowe tiEqa 
5 qa-'s kiisalexa ts!agEts!aye pEuk" k!Ek'!aok!wa qa^'s tslEx^edeq. 
Wa, la hiix^widEq qa-s laxat! papEqodEq. Wa, lae heEm gwex'^Id- 
qes gtlx'de gwex'^idaasxes gibfde lexasE-wa. Wit, ax"sa-mese he 
gwegilaxa waokwe. Wa, la ^nEmxsa-mese ^nalaxs hxe ^wi-la 
lEmx-wida. Wa, g-lPmcse ^naxwa lEm^wEmx'^Ida laeda tslEdaqe 
10 ax^edxa xaxadzEme qa^s axodex yikuya'yas qa^s qogiinolisesa 
xaxadzEme laxes lEgwile qa alakMalcs lEmx'wide 6ts!awas. Wii, 
giPmese alak'.ala la lEmx"ts!axs lae klilx^edxes lEgwIle. Wa, 
liinaxula^meda ts!Edaqaxs lae axiixElaxa k'!ekMitk!Edese qa^s 
pilpEqo-'nakuleq hixes liixde gwaelasExs liix-de lex'aq. Wii, la 
15 ax^edxa xaxadzEme, ylxa. hela XEtsEma qa^s g'axe hangalila lax 
maklnxelilasa kMek'!itk!Edese. Wii, lii diibEndxa heyadzowe t!Eqa 
qa^s ts!Enx"ts!ales lax oxLa^yasa hayadzEwatsIe t!Eqa xaxadzEma. 
Wa, la sEkale oba^yas laxa apsanextslawasa xaxadzEme. Wa, 
g-lPmese hamElxaltsIaxs lae gwiinax^'edEq qa ^nEmiilasos k'!o- 



uuAsJ PRESEKVATION OF FOOD 275 

the bottom, she folds it back so that it is of the same size || as the 20 
bottom of the small box. It is in this way | ^___^_^ when it is 



folded. I 
when they 
leaves over 



put into the small box into wliich it is being 
She continues doing this with the others; and 
are all m, | she heats some new skunk-cabbage 
the fire; and | when they are soft, she takes the crooked knife of 
her husband, || cuts out the thick vems in the middle, and, when they 25 
are all off, | she Ixeats them again over the fire. She does not stop 
until they are almost brittle | and very dry. Then she puts the 
leaves on top of the | strips of salal-berry cake, and she tucks them in 
all round inside the box | containing the strips of salal-berry cakes, 
so that it is very tight. After doing this, || she puts the cover on 30 
and ties it down. Wlaen | tliis has been fhiished, she puts it dovm 
in a place where the heat of the fire reaches it, and | she leaves it 
there until winter ; for generally | the cannibal dancers wish to eat only 
long salal-berry cakes, | when the owmers of the long salal-berry cakes 
have a winter ceremonial, and also || the liead chiefs of the owners of 35 
long salal-berries | wsh to eat them; but the poor people of the tribe | 
eat salal-bcrries mixed with elderberries when tliey are given at a 
feast. I Now this is fuiished. | 

Currants'. — After doing so, (the woman) takes a large dish and | 1 
puts it down by the side of the currant-baskets. She pulls out the | 

xwa^yas LE^wa paqlExsda^yasa xaxadzEme. Wa, la g"a gwalegaxs 20 
(fig.) lae hants!a laxa xaxadzEme laxes ci!Elx"ts!aena^ye. Wa, la 
ax"saEm he gwegilaxa wa5kwe. Wil, giPmese '"wilts !axs lae 
ax^edxa alomase k!Ek'!aok!wa qa^s pEx^^Ideq laxes lEgwIle. Wa, 
gil'mese pEx^widExs lae ax^edEx xElxwalases la^wiinEme qa's 
xElxwalex t lEnt lanxEdza^yas. Wii, gll'mese ^wi^laxs lae et!ed 25 
papax'ELalas laxes lEgwIle. Wa, al'mese gwalExs lae Elaq tsos^eda 
qaxs lae alak" !ala la lEmx'wIda. Wa, lit aek" !a paqEymts laxa 
heyadzowe tiEqa. Wii, laEm dzopas liix ewaneqwas okuya^yasa 
heyadzowe t lEqa qa alak' !ales Emxa. Wii, giPmese gwiilExs lae 
yikiiylnts ylkiiya^yas. Wa, lii tiEmakEyhidEq. Wii, g'ih'mese 30 
gwalExs lae hilngalTlas laxa lilgaaasas Llesalas lEgwIla qaxs 
hexsii^meLe ha^nel lag'aal liixa liiLa tslawunx^Ida qaxs qliiniilaeda 
hamatsla ^nex' qa^s lex'ame t!Ext!ilqxa heyadzowe tiEqaxs lae 
ts!ets!ex')de g-okidotasa tiEgadiisa heyadzowe tiEqa. Wii, he^misa 
xamagEma^ye g^IgEgamesa g'okulotasa tiEgadiisa heyadzowe tlE- 35 
qaxs -'nek'ae qa^s t!Ext!aqeq, yixs lilaLas bEgiilida-'yas g'okiilots 
nEngtidzoguxa ts!ets!EnqElaxs lae klweladzEma. Wii, la^niEn 
gwiil lilxeq. 

Currants. — Wii, giPmese gwiila, lae ax^edxa %'iilase loqlwa, qa 1 
g'axese hilnallLxa niig'e q!edzats!e lExa^ya. Wii, lii lEk"Em6dxa 

1 Eibes bracteosus, Dougl., Ribes petiolare, Dougl. Continued from the description of gathering currants. 
See p 209, line 37. 



276 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL lEin.ANN. ss 

3 huckleberry-branches that have been pushed through the baskets, 
ami she takes off | the skunk-cabbage covering and puts it down, 
5 and she takes a mat || and spreads it outside of tlie basket. | She puts 
the large cleaning-dish on the left-hand side of the | currant-baskets. 
When everything is ready, she takes | one branch of the currants. 
She takes hold of it with her left | hand, and pulls off the berries with 

10 lier right hand, and || she drops them into the large dish for holding 
the cleaned berries. She | continues doing so, cleaning the currants. 
When they are all cleaned, she takes her | front-basket, goes down 
to the beach in front of her house, and | picks up twelve stones. 
When they are all in, | she carries it on her back into the house 

15 and || puts it down by the side of the fire. Then she puts the 
stones I into the fire; and after doing this, she takes a | square 
box and puts it down next to the fire, and also her tongs, which | 
she puts down on the floor, and also a large, long-handled | ladle, which 

20 she puts next to the square box. || She also takes skunk-cabbage 
leaves which were used for covering the berries, cuts out the mid- 
ribs, I and, after these have been cut out, she heats them over the' 
fire. I She contmues to do this until they get very brittle. Then she 
puts them into a | small dish and breaks them to pieces until they 

25 ai'e as fine as | flour. When this is done, and the stones that || she 
has put on the fire are red hot, she takes a small steaming-box and | 

3 LeLask'Eya^ye gwadEmsa qa^s tslEx^Ideq. Wa, laxae lawEyodxa 
nfisEya-'yas k-!Ek!a6k!wa, qa^s a,x-"allleq. Wii, la ax^edxa le^wa^ye, 
5 qa^s LEp!alileq lax Llasalilases naga^ye q!edzats!e lExa^ya. Wa, 
hcLatla ha^nela ^walase k'imdatsle }6q!we gEmxanalllasa nag'a^ye 
q!edzats!e lExa^ya. Wa, gil-mese gwalEmg'alilExs lae dax'^Idxa 
. ^nEmts!aq!EXLa qlesena, qa^s daxi.ayex yisx'Enase yises gEmx5l- 
ts!ana^ye. Wa, la x'ik'alaxa q!esenases helkMotsIana^ye, qa^s la 

10 k-!ats!5ts laxa k-imts!alase ^walas l6q!wa. Wli, ax"sa^mese he 
gwegulaxs k'imtaaxa qlesena. Wa, g'il^mese ^wPlaxs lae ax^edxa 
nanaagEm lExa^ya, qa^s lii tents !es lax LlEma^isases g'okwe qa^s 
la xE^x^tslotsa g-ag-iwala tIesEm laq. Wa giPmese =wilts!axs 
gaxae oxLosdesElaq qa^s la oxLaeLElaq laxes g'okwe, qa^s la oxLa- 

15 nSlisas laxes lEgwile. Wil, hex-nda^mese XE-x"wE]ts!alaq, qa^s la 
xE-'x"LEndrdas laxes lEgwlle. Wa, gfl^mese gwalExs lae ax^edxa 
k' limyaxLa, qa^s g-axe h&nolisas laxes lEgwile LE^wis tsIesLala. He- 
Emxat! ax^etso% qa g-axes k'adila. Wii, he^misa ^walase gilt !ex- 
Lala k-ats!Enaqa ax^etso^s, qa g-axes g'enalllxa klimyaxLa. Wa, la 

20 ax^edxa ts lets !ak-Eyex' das k-lEk'Iaoklwa qa^s klaxalex tlEntlEnxE- 
dza^yas. Wa, giPmese ^wFlaxs lae pEx-^idEq hxxes lEgwile. Wa 
al^mese gwal pEx-aqexs lae alakMala la tsosa. Wa, lii axtslots laxa 
liilogum^, qa^s tsosElgEndeq. Wii, aPmese gwalExs lae yo la gwex'sa 
qiix6x. Wii, gll^mese gwalExs lae memEnltsEmx-^ideda tlesEme 

25 xE^x"Lalales laxa lEgwile. Wa, la ax^edxa ama^ye qlolatslii, qa^s 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 277 

pours some water into it, until it is half full. She puts it down | be- 26 
tween the square box and the fire. Then she takes the large | long- 
handled ladle, dips it into the currants, and pours (them) | into the 
square box; and when one-half of the currants are in the box || one- 30 
half are stiU in the large dish containing the cleaned berries. | 
Then she takes her tongs, picks up the red-hot stones, | and dip them 
quickly into the water in the steaming-box and | puts them into the 
currants. She puts in six red-hot | stones. Then she dips more of the 
cleaned currants with her large || long-handled ladle out of the dish 35 
containing the cleaned currants | and puts them over the red-hot 
stones. She only | stops when they are all in. Then she again takes 
her tongs and again picks | up red-hot stones, which she first puts 
into I the water in the steaming-box, and she puts these on the 
currants. || She only stops when six stones have been put in. | Then 40 
she takes a mat and covers over the currants that she is steaming. | 
She leaves them this way all day and all night. Then the woman | 
goes into the woods looking for broad skunk-cabbage leaves; and 
when she has found some, | she breaks off the broadest leaves. || 
When she has many of these, she digs up spruce-roots, which she | 45 
splits in two and which she ties in the middle. When tliis is done, 
she carries | everything home and puts it down at the left side of the 

guxtslodesa ^wape laq qa nEgoyoxsdales. Wa, la hanagots lax 26 
awagawa^yasa k'ltmyaxi.a LE^wa lEgwile. Wa la ax^edxa ^walase 
giltlEXLala k"ats!Enaqa qa^s tseqes laxa qlesena qa^s la tsetslalas 
laxa klimyaxLa. Wa, giPmese nExseda qlesena la tsEyadzEms 
laxa klimyaxLa LE^wa g'etsla laxa k'imdEgwats!e ^walas loqlwa, 30 
lae ax^edxes ts!esLala qa^s k"!ip!edes laxa x'lxsEmala t!esEma, 
qa^s la hanax^wld hapstEnts lax ^wabEtslawasa q!6lats!e, qa^s 
la k'!ip!Eqas laxa qlesena. Wa, la q!EL!EsgEma x'lxExsEmala 
tlesEm la k!ip!gEmseq. Wa, laxae et!ed tsex^^Itsa ^walase gil- 
t!EXLala k'atslEnaq laxa }Ex"ts!ala kimdEk" q!esena, qa^s lexat! 35 
tsekEyints laxa la axEqElaxa x'ix'ExsEmala t!esEma. Wa, Siamese 
gwalExs lae ^wi^la. Wa, laxae et!ed ax^edxes ts!esLala, qa^s kMlpIe- 
des laxaaxa x'ixExsEmalat!esEma, qa^s lexat! gag'alaslla hapstEnts 
lax ^wabEts!awasa q!6lats!e. Wa, la k'!ip!Ekas lax okuya^yasa qle- 
sena. Wa, aHmese gwalExs lae ^wl^leda ci!EL!EsgEme tlesEma. Wa, 40 
la ax^edxa le^wa^ye qa's ^naxumdes laxa qlolasE^wasa qlesena. Wa, 
ax"sa^mese he gwaelxa ^nala i.E^wa ganuLe. Wa, la^meseda tslEdaqe 
laxa axle aljixa awadzoxLowe k"!Ek'!aok!wa. Wa, glPmese qiaqexs 
lae p!ap!ox^wEqEwaxa awadzoxLowe laxa kMEk'!aok!wa. Wa, 
g'il^mese qlEyoLExs lae ^laplldxa L!op!Ek'asa alewase, qa^s pak'tex- 45 
sEndeq qa^s yiLoyodes laq. Wii, giPmese gwalExs g'axae gEmxE- 
laq, qa^s la na^nak" laxes gokwe, qa^s la gEmxEuolisas laxes 1e- 



278 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

48 fire. | Then sho takes her husband's crooked knife and | sits down 
where the skunk-cabbage leaves have been placed. She cuts up 
,50 the II tying of the spruce-roots which have been split in two, takes 
liold of a I leaf of skunk-cabbage, and she cuts off the mid-rib, so 
that it is the same | thickness in the middle and at the edges, then j 
she takes hold of another one and slie does the same as she did with 
the I first one. She continues doing this with the others; and || 
55 when all have been finished, she heats them by the fire; and when j 
they are soft and thin, she puts them down on a mat. She docs | the 
same with all of them. When they are all done, she takes j the 
drying-frames, the same ones that were used for the salal-berry 
cakes, | and she also uses the same cedar measure which she used 
60 for II mixed elderberry and salal-berry cakes. She takes the four | 
cedar-sticks, and puts them on the drying-frames, and she also | takes 
a large horse-clam shell and puts it dowai. j Finally she takes off the 
mat that has been spread over the steaming-box j m which the cur- 
es rants are. She takes up another medium-sized || dish and puts it on the 
corner of the square box. She takes the | large shell sind skims off the 
juice of the boiled currants, | since the boiled berries have all gone 
down in the | juice. She skims the juice into the dish which she 
placed on the corner of the box; j and she does not stop until the 

4S gwlle. Wa, la ax^edEx xElxwala kMawayoses la^wflnEme, qa^s la 
if ! wag" all! lax gEmxelasasa k'lEkMaoklwa. Wa, la tlotslEndxa 

50 yiLoyoye pak' !Exsaak" l !6p lExsa alewase. W'ii, la dax'^ldxa UEinxsa 
k'!Ek!aok!wa, qa^s xElxwalex t!Ent!EnxEdza'yas, qa ^uEmes wa- 
gwasasa UEgEdza^ye LE^wis ewunxa'ye. Wa, giPmese gwalExs lae 
et!ed dax'^idxa ^nsmxs cja's a^mexat! he gwex'^ldsq laxes gwex'^T- 
daasdiixes g ilx'de nxsE^wa. AYil, ax"sa'mese he gwegilaxa waokwe. 

55 Wa, g'iPmese ^wMaxs lae pEx^^IdEq laxes lEgwIle. Wa, g-iPjnese 
lEudEdzoxhvida, lae pagEdzolTlas laxa LEbTle le^wa^ya. Wit, la ^na- 
xwaEm he gwex'^idxa waokwe. Wii, g-il^mcse ^wFlaxs lae ax^ed- 
xa k' !itk' !Edese, yixaax k' !itk' lEdesElasexa nEgudzowe t !Eqa. 
Wil, laxae hesm niEnyayoseda k!waxLawe, yixes mEusEliixa ts!e- 

60 ts'.EuqEla nEk'.ula. Wii, he-mis ax^etsS^seda m6ts!aqe niEnyayowe 
kiwaxLawa, qa's g edzollles laxa k' !ek' litk" lEdese. Wa, laxae 
ax^edxa ^walase xalaetsox mEt!ana^yex qa^s g'axe glg^alilas. 
AVii, lawesLe axodxa le^wa^ye LEpEmaliltsa k'limyaxLa qlola- 
tslexa q'.esena. qa-'s gigallles. Wa, la ax^edxa ogii^la^me hela 

65 loqlwa, qa-'s kagiigEndes laxa klimyaxLa. Wii, lii dtlx'-ldxa 
-wfdase xfdaesa, qa-s ax'wldexa saaqasa q!esenaxs g'iixae q!5- 
kiiyexa qlolkwe qlesenaxs lae wimdzeses hamaese lax awaba^yasa 
saaqe. Wii, la ax"ts!alas hixa }oq!we la hiingiigexa kMImyaxLa. 
Wil, al-mese gwiilExs lae lEmokwa q!6lkwe qlesena. Wa, gil- 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 279 

boiled currants are dry. When || this is done, she takes the tongs, 70 
with which she searches for the stones | that are still in the bottom 
of the box. I She takes out the stones and puts them down by the 
side of the fire. When | all the stones have been taken out, she takes 
a smaU dish into which she puts the | powdered skunk-cabbage, and 
she empties it into the boiled || currants. When it is all in, she takes 75 
her tongs and | stirs it; and she only stops stu-ring when it is all | 
mixed. Now the boiled currants are thick. When she has | done so, 
she takes the heated skunk-cabbage leaves and spreads them | on 
the dr^dng-frame along the whole length. After || doing so, she takes 80 
the cedar-stick measures and lays them down on the drying frame, | 
in this way,' so that the four measures are at (1). | She takes the large 
shell and dips it into the boiled currants, | and she pours them out 
inside the measures at (1). Then she turns | the shell on its back 
and spreads (the currants). Wlien the}' are spread all over, || 
she presses them so that they fill the corners of the mould and | so 85 
that they are pressed close together. After doing this, | she con- 
tinues doing so with the others, when she makes berry-cakes. Wlien 
the I cakes have all been made to the end of the frame, she puts it 
just over the fire; | and after doing this, she takes another drying- 
frame, and II she does the same as she did to the first one when she 90 

^mese gwalExs lae ax^edxa tslesiala qa^s kMapIeles laxa t!esE- 70 
maxs he^mae ales xEgwes lax oxLa^yasa k' !lmyaxLa. Wii, 
laEm k'lipiistalaq qa^s k" IibEnolisEles laxes lEgwIle. Wa, g"il- 
^mese ^wi-l5steda t!esEmaxs lae ax^edxa lalogume, yix axtslEwasasa 
qlwelkwe tsEwek" k'!Ek!aok!wa, qa's la kMaqas laxa qlolkwe 
q!esena. Wii, giPmese ^wPlaqaxs lae ax^edxes tsIesLala qa^s 75 
xwetledes laq. Wa, al-mese gwal xwetaqexs lae alakMala la 
lElga. Wii, la^me la gEnk'eda qlolkwe q!esena. Wii, giPmese 
gwalExs lae iix^edxa pEnkwe k!Ek'!aok!wa qa^s LEbEdzodales 
laxa k' !itk" !Edese labEudiilax ^wiisgEmasas. Wii, giPmese 
gwalaxs lae dax'-Idxa msnyayowe kIwaxLiiwii qa^s k'atEmgaaLE- 80 
lode g^a gwaleg'asa' mots!aqe k!wek!waxEn mEnyayo liix (1). 
Wa, la ax^edxa ^walase xalaes qa^s tseqes liixa qlolkwe qlesena 
qa^s lii tsedzots lax otslawasa mEnyayowe liix (1). Wii, uELala- 
masxa xalaesaxs lae gweldzots liiq. Wii, g'U^mese gweldzodExs 
lae Laqwaq, qa lalaneqwes liix ewiinxa^yasa mEnyayowe. Wii, §5 
he^mis qa gwalEles qlEsmEnx^wIda. Wa, g'il-mese gwalExs lae 
aEm he gwe^niikiilaxa waokwaxs lae lEqaq. Wii, giPmese labEnde 
lEqa'yasexs lae hex'idaEm Liistots lax nEqostawases lEgwile. Wa, 
giPmese gwiilExs lae et!ed iix^edxa ^uEmxsa k'!Itk"!Edesa. Wa, 
^Emxaawise nEqEmg^iltEwexes gwegilasaxes gllx'de lEgEdzotsE- 90 

1 See figure on-p. 261. 



280 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [bth. ann. 35 

91 put the cakes on. | She continues doing this until aW the currants 
have been made into | cakes. After this is done, she takes a mat and 
spreads it over them, | so that the soot of the fire will not fall on 

95 them | and so that the heat of the fire will go up to it. || They need 
a strong heat to dry quickly, for the | cakes of currants do not dry 
quickly. Sometimes it takes three or | even five days to dry them. 
Wlien they are | dry, she takes ilown the drying-frames and | places 
them one on top of another by the side of the fire. When they have 
100 all been taken down, || the woman takes an empty drying-frame and 
puts it on top of I one with a currant-cake on it. She takes care that 
the edges are flush | on all sides and at the ends of the two drying- 
frames. I Then she calls her husband to come and help her turn over 
5 the I currant-cakes; and when her husband comes, the woman || takes 
one end of the two drying-frames which he together, | and her hus- 
band takes hold of the other end. Both hft them up at the same 
time, I and they turn them over. Then the currant- cake is turned, | 
and falls on the empty drying-frame. All the | currant-cakes 

10 and the heated skunk-cabbage leaves fall off together. || When 
they take off the now empty drying-frame, she puts it down | and 
peels off the skunk-cabbage leaves that stick to the backs of the | 
currant-cakes. When the skunk-cabbage leaves have been taken off, | 
they put (the frames) up where they were before, and they do the 

91 wa. Wa, a^mise he gwe^nakulaxs lae ^wl4a lEgEkweda qledzEdzowe 
tEq!a. Wa, g'iPmese gwalExs lae ax-edxa le^wa^ye qa^s LEbeg'in- 
des lax ek' ladza'yas, qa k!eses la qlubEdzodaleda qlwalobEse laq. 
Wil, he/mis qa alak'Iales Llesalaso^sa LlesEg'ostalasa lEgwile, qa 

95 halax'ts!es lEmo^nakula qaxs k'lesae gEyolenox lEmx^wIdeda 
qledzEdzowe t!Eqa, yixs ^nal-uEmp !Enae yfiduxiixses ^nala lo^xs 
lag^aae lax sEk'!ap!Enxwa^ses ^nala lalEm^wa. Wa, g'iPmese Ieuix- 
^widExs lae ^naxwa LeLaxoyEwa k'!ek!itk'!Edese, qa^s gaxe 
papEqEwenekala laxa onalisasa lEgwIle. Wa, g'iPmese ^wl4axaxs 
100 laeda tslEdaqe ax-edxa lobEdzala k' !itk"!Edesa, qa^s la pagEdzots 
laxa axdzaliixa q!edzEdzowe t'.Eqa. Wit, lit aek'ila qa nenamEn- 
xale e^wEnxa-ya LE^we oba^yasa malExsa k'!ek'!itk'Edesa. Wa, 
la Le'lalaxes la^wunEme, qa g'axes g'lwalaqexs lixLe lexalxes 
qledzEdzowe t!Eqa. Wa, g^lPmese g'axe LVwunEmasexs lae dabEn- 
5 deda ts'.Edaqaxa apsba^yasa papEqala malExsa k'!ek'!itk'!Edesa. 
Wa, la laHvunEmas dabEndxa apsba-yas. Wa, lit ^uEmax-'IdExs 
lae wegiLElodEq, qa^s lex'^Ideq. Wii, he^mis la ladzatsa q!edzEdzowe 
tiEqa laxa lobEdzala k'!itk"!Edesa. Wa, la ^nEmax^^IdaEm lasa 
q!edzEdzowe t!Eqa LE^wis axdzayaasa pEnkwe k'!Ek'!a5k!wa. Wa, 

10 giPmese ax^aLElodxa la lobEdzala kMitkMsdesa qa^s la pax^alilas. 
Wii, la qiisalaxa k'!EkMa6k!wiixs lae klutala lax e^eweg'a^yasa 
q!edzEdzowe t!Eqa. Wii, gtPmese ^wi=iawa k'!Ek!aok!wiixs lae 
xwelaqostod LagaaLElots. Wa, la hesmxat! gwex'^Idxa miik'iliiq. 



BOAS] PRESEEVATION OF FOOD 281 

same with the next one; | and after all (the cakes) have been turned 
over, they spread a mat || over them, and they are left there only one 15 
night. Then they are | dry all through. Then she takes down the 
drying (frames) and puts them down. Wlien they have all been put 
down, she gathers up the | currant-cakes and puts them in piles of 
five, I and ties them with soft shredded cedar-bark, as she did with 
the II cakes of elderberries mixed with salal-berries when they were 20 
tied into bundles, and about which I talked before. | She also puts 
them into a dry small box which she keeps | not too far from the fire 
of the house, so that | the heat of the fire strikes it, for the currant- 
cakes get damp easily, | unless they take good care of them and if 
they do not know how to treat them. || That is, all about this. | 25 

Viburnum-Berries. — TVTiile' (the man) is carrying in (the berries), i 
his wife goes up the beach, | and the man goes aboard the canoe j to 
get driftwood. Meanwhile his wife eats. | The husband does not stay 
away long before he comes back; and as soon as || he reaches the 5 
beach, he backs up the stern of his small canoe and | goes ashore. 
He throws ashore the driftwood that he brought; and when it | is 
all out, he carries it up on his shoulder into his | house, and he throws 
it down at the place where he intends to build the fire | to cook the 
viburnum-berries. As soon as all the wood has been carried up, he 

Wa, gil^mese ^wl4a la lenkflxs lae et!ed LEbeglntsa le^wa^ye lax 
ek" !adzE^yas. Wa, ^uEmxsa^mes la ganoLe hex'dEmas gwalaLE- 15 
laxs lae alaklala la lEmx^wida. Wa, la LCLaxodxa k!ek!itk!E- 
dese, qa^s pax^alllEles. Wa, gIPmese ^wIlg'alilExs lae q!ap!ex-^idxa 
q!eq!edzEdzowe t!Eqa, qa^s papEqodaleq, qa sesEk'!axsagales. 
Wa la yaeltsEmasa qloyaakwe k'adzEk" laq, lax gwaiaasasa ts le- 
ts lEnqEla nEgudzoxs lae yaeltsEmakwaxEn g'ilx'da gwagwex's^alasa. 20 
Wa, laxae hants!oyo laxa pExtsEwakwe xaxadzEma, qa^s la hanga- 
lilEm laxa k" !ese xEnLEla qwesala laxa lEgwIIasa g^okwe, qa laga- 
aasesa Llesalasa lEgwIle, qaxs alakMalae dElnaka qledzEdzowe 
tiEqaxs kMesae aekilasE^wa visa k!ese qIaLEla gwegilasaq. 
Wa, laEm gwala. 25 

Viburnum-Berries. — Wa,' g'iPmese ^wilosdesa lae lasdese gEUEmas, 1 
wa, la laxsa bEgwauEmaxa t!EldzElalats!exde xwaxwagiima, qa^s 
la q!exats!enox"s laxa q!exale. Wa, la^me LlExwa gEUEmas. Wii, 
k'!est!a alaEm gillaxs g'axae aedaaqe la^wiinEmas. Wa, giPmese 
g'axallsExs lae aLaxLax'^idxes q!exats!e xwaxwaguma, qa^s lalta- 5 
wexs lae sEpIiiltalax'^idxa qlexale q!exanEms. Wa, g'iPmese " 
^wFloltaxs lae yilx^iisdesElax'^IdEq, qa^s la yllgweLElaq laxes 
gokwe, qa-'s la yllx^walllas laxes gwE^yo, qa^s lEx^walPlasLEx 
L!obasLasa tlElse. Wa, g'lPmese ^wi^osdesExs lae xamax-^ida- 

' Continued from p. 218, line 44. 



282 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etii. ans. 35 

lU [himself] goes || and takes a basket, goes down to the beaeh, | picks 
up stones, and puts them into the basket. He puts in as many as 
he can | carry. Then he stops putting them in and carries them in 
one hand | up the beach into his house. Ho puts | them down at 
the phxce where he intends to work at the unripe viburnum-berries. 

15 When || ho thinks there are enough stones, he stops. | You know 
ah'eady everything about the ways of buihUng a fire to heat | stones, 
for there is only one way of heating stones for steaming | and for 
heating water for steaming. The | man has to go out to get drift- 

20 wood and stones || for this purpose, because his wife is working at the 
viburnum-berries. When he has finished building the fire, | he puts on 
the stones, but he does not light the fire under them. Then | the 
man goes to help his wife, who is sitting by the side of the mat on 
which he has poured | out the viburnum-berries; for the woman 
does that first after she | has eaten, after coming home. She goes 

25 and spreads a new mat, || takes the large berry-basket, and | 
pours the viburnum-berries on the mat. She does the same | with the 
front-basket and with the medium- | sized basket. Now her baskets 
are empty. | Then she takes the smallest basket, the front-basket, || 

30 and puts it down on her left-hand side. She sits down next to the | 
mat on which the viburnum-berries are, and she takes a bunch of | 
berries and picks the berries off the stems, and she puts them into 

10 Emxaaxs lae ax^edxa lExa^ye, qa^s la lEntsIes laxa LJEma^ise, qa^s 
la xEx"ts!alasa tIesEme laxa lExa^ye. Wa, S,^mise gwanala, qa^s 
lakwesexs lae gwal xEx"ts!alaqexs lae kMoqulisaq, qa^s g'axe 
k' loxHvusdesElaq, qa^s gaxe k'logwcLElaq laxes g'okwe. Wa, la 
k' !5x^walilas laxes t!ats!Eltse4asLaxa kMElx'e tlElsa. Wii, la^me 

15 hex'^idaEm gwalExs lae k'otaq laEm helales xEgwansme tIesEma. 
Wii, laEniLas ^naxwa q!aLElax gwegilasasa la lEqwelaxa ts!ats!El- 
qlwaasLaxa tlesEme qaxs ^nami'lala^mae gwayi'lalasa laxa nEk"aLe 
LE^wa q!olaxes qlolasoLaxs lae ts!ats!Elci!waxa t!esEme. Wa, hcEm 
lagiiashex'saEm laeaxEleda bEgwauEmaxa cjlexate LE^wa t !esEmaxs 

20 lae gEUEmas eaxElaxa tiElse. Wa, g'iPmese gwat^allla lEqwaxs 
lae mokuyalaxa tlessmaxs k'les^mac menabEwakwaxs laoda bEgwa- 
nEme gox^wldxes gEUEmaxs lae klunxelllxa le=wa^ye la qEbEdza- 
lllatsa tiElse, yixs he'mae gil ax^etso-'sa tslsdaqaxs g-alae gwal 
LlExwaxs g'alae g'ax nii^nakwaxs lae iix^edxa Eldzowe le^wa^ya, qa^s 

25 LEp'.alileq. Wa, la ax'edxa Hvalase niige t!Elts!tila lExa^ya, qa=s lii 
qEbEdzotsa t IeIsS laxa LEbele le^wa^ya. Wa, laxae heEmxat ! gwe- 
x-^'Idxa uanaagEme lExa^ya. Wa, laxae lieEm gwex-^ulxes helo- 
magEme lExa^ya. Wii, la-"me ^wi^la lii l6pEmts!awa laslxa^yas; 
wa, lii iix^edxa amiiyaga^yases laElxa-'yexes nanaiigEme lExa^ya, 

30 qa^s hung' allies liixes gEmxagawalilaxs lae klunxelllxa tlEldzEdzala 

LEbel le^wa^3'a. AVii, lii diix'^Idxa nEXLilla t!Elsa, qa-'s k!ulpalexa 

■ tiElse laxes tlEldzanowe, qa^s la k'!ats!alasa tiElse laxa nanaagEme. 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 283 

the small basket. | She throws the stems down on the right-hand 33 
side. In | this way her husband helps her; and as soon as they have 
picked off all the || berries, the man lights the fitre under the 35 
place where he is about to heat | the stones. As soon as it burns, 
he takes the high | steaming-box and puts it down by the side of the 
fire. He I takes two large water-buckets and goes to draw fresh 
water; | and as soon as he comes carrjnng a bucket of fresh water in 
each hand, || he goes to the place where the steaming-box is standing, 40 
and pours the water into it. | There are only two buckets of water 
poured in. | That is sufficient for the high steaming-box. After he 
has done so, | he takes the basket for holding the berries, puts it next 
to the I steaming-box, and he takes the long tongs || and the water- 45 
bucket and puts them down. Then he goes to draw | fresh water, 
which he places between the steaming-box and the fire. | The red-hot 
stones are to be dipped into this water. When it is all there, he | 
takes an empty oil-box and puts it down. Then | he draws some 
more water in another || large bucket. When he comes back, he 50 
pours the water into the | empty oil-box and washes it out. After 
doing so, he | goes and puts it down where it is to be left until winter 
comes; | however, he has poured away the dirty water with which 
the box has been washed out. | As soon as this is done, and when he 

Wa, la tslEqF.lasa tlEldzanowe laxes helkMotagawallle. Wii, he-mis 33 
la gEx"-'widaats la^wimEmaseci- Wil, g il-mese =wi^la la k!ulbEkwa 
tiElsaxs lae menabodeda bEgwanEmaxes gwalelexdeda ts!tits!E- 35 
q !waasLaxa t lesEme. Wa, glh'mese xlqostaxs lae ax^edxa Lawats !exa 
yix"sEme q!6lats!a, qa^s g'axe hanolisas laxa lEgwIle. Wa, laxae 
ax^edxa maltsEme awa na.EngatsIa, qa^s la tsex'^IdEx ^wE^waplEma. 
Wa, g ll'mese g'ax wax'SEnkidaxa ^wFwabEts!ala naEngats!exs lae 
he^nakulaEms laxa yix"sEme q!olats!a, qa^s la guqasasa ^wape laq. 40 
Wa, laEm maltsEma naEngatsle qoqiitlaxa ^wape guxts !6yosexs 
lae helats!awa yix"sEme q!olats!exa ^wape. Wa, giPmese gwalExs 
lae ax^edxa k'loxstanowe lExaxa tiElse, qa's gaxe ha^iolrfas laxa 
ytx"sEme q!6lats!e. Wa, laxae et!ed Sx^edxa glltle k- Itj^Lfilaa qa^s 
gaxe k-at!alllas. Wa, la ax^edxa nagatsle, qa^s la tsex'^id laxa 45 
^wE'waplEme, qa-'s g'axe hanagots laxa q!6lats!e LE-"wa lEgwIle 
qa^s habasxes k-!tpLalaa. Wa, glPmese ^wlIg-alllExs laeda bEgwa- 
uEme ax^edxa dEngwats!emote, qa^s g'axe hangalTlas. Wa la 
et!ed la tsii laxa -'wape. Wa, laEm he tsayatslesada ^nEmsgEme 
^walas nagats'.a. Wa, g-iPmese g-ax aedaaqaxs lae giixts lots laxa 50 
dEngwatslemote qa-s ts!oxugindeq. Wa, gij-'mese gwalExs lae 
hangalitas laxes hemEnelasLe ha-'nelalL lalaal laxa laLa tslawim- 
x'^edEl, yixs laatal guqodxa neqwa Svapa yixs tsoxugindayaseq. 
Wa, glFmese gwalExs lae dSx^waLElaqexs lE^mae mEnmEnltsEmX-^I- 



284 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etu. ann. 35 

55 sees that the stones are red-hot, || he takes his long tongs, | puts the 
end into the bucket with water which stands between the | steaming 
box and the fire, and, when the end of the tongs is wet, he picks the | 
red-hot stones out of the fire and puts them into the steaming-box; 
he I continues doing this with the other red-hot stones; and when || 

60 the tongs catch fire at the end, he puts the end into tlie | bucket of 
water. The man is careful that | the water does not boil up, for he 
only wants it to be real hot. | When it has nearly come to a boil, he 
stops putting stones into it. | Then he takes the front-basket, which is 

65 now filled with viburnum-berries, || and pours the berries into the cook- 
ing-basket. Then (thewoman) | fills the front-basket with more berries, 
which are in the | medium-sized swallowing-basket, and she pours these 
too into the cookmg- 1 basket. Wlien it is nearly full, she stops. Then 
the man takes hold of the | handles of the cooking-basket and puts 

70 it II into the hot water in the steaming-box. The woman watches | it 
carefully while it is covered with water, for (the berries) must not 
be cooked too long. | She takes it out of the hot water every now 
and then, and watches it. | Wlien (the berries) all turn red, they 
are at once | taken out and poured into the empty oil-box, || 

75 which has already been put down at the place where it is to stay 



55 deda tIesEme lax lEgwIlas. Wa, lit dax'^idxes glltla k'ltpLalaa qa^s 
LlEuxstEndes oba^yas laxa ^wabEts!ala nagats!e hanagawalllxa q!6- 
lats!e LE'wa lEgwIIe. Wii, g'il-mese la klunxbalaxs lae k!ip!its laxa 
xIxExsEmala tlesEma, qa^s la k'llpstEnts laxa q!6lats!e. Wa, la 
hanal he gweg'ilaxa wa5kwe x^Ix'ExsEmala tIesEma. Wa, g'tl- 

60 ^naxwa^mese x'lxbax'^ide oba^yas k^ltpLalaas lae LlEuxstEnts laxa 
^wabEtsIallle nagats!a. Wa, la-me qIagEmaleda bEgwauEme qa 
k!eses mEdElx^wideda -'wape qa a^mes alak!ala ts!Elx"sta. Wii, 
g iPmese Eliiq mEdElx'widExs lae gwal kMipstalasa t!esEme liiq. 
Wii, la ax^edxa nanaagEme lExa-ya, ytxs lae qotlalalllxa tiElse, 

65 qa^s lii guqasasa tiElse laxa k'!oxstanowe lExa^ya. Wii, liinaxwe 
et'.ed k'!asasa tiElse laxa nanaiigEme lExa-yaxa k'!ots!awaxa 
helomagEme lExa^ya, qa^s lii et!ed giiqasas laxa k'loxstanowe 
lExa^ya. Wii, giPmese Elaq qot!axs lae gwala. Wa, lii dag'aaLEla 
lax k' !ek- lak'ogwaasasa k'loxstanowe lExa^ya, qa^s lii k'loxstEnts 

70 laxa ts!Elx"sta ^wap q!6ts!axa qlolatsle. Wii, la Lomax-^Id q!aq!a- 
lalaqexs lae hauEndzesa, qa k'leses hiix'SEqla Llopalaena^yas. Wii, 
la^me yala k' !ox-wustEndEq laxa ts!Elx"sta ^wapa, qa^s ci!aq!alaleq. 
Wa, gIPmese ^naxwa la L!aL!Ex"sEmx'^idEXs lae hex'^idaEm 
k'lox^wOstEndEq, qa^s lii guxts!6ts liixa dEngwats!emotaxs lae 

75 gwalll ha'nel liixes hemEne^lasLe hii^ne^las lalaal liixa tsIawunxLa. 



BOAS J 



PBESEEVATION OF FOOD 285 



until winter. | As soon as the cooking-basket is empty, (the woman) 76 
pours I in more raw viburnum-berries; and when it is full, she puts it 
down hy the side of the | steaming-box, and she puts a few more 
red-hot stones | into it. When (the water) nearly boils up, she 
puts II the cooking-basket in, and watches it until they j get red or 80 
sometimes whitish yellow. Then they are | done. When they have 
that color, they are taken out, and | the woman then goes and pours 
them into the empty oil-box. When four | basketfuls (of berries) 
have been poured into the empty oil-box, || she takes another empty 85 . 
oil-box, washes | it out, and, after doing so, she puts it down along- 
side of one that has been filled with | viburnum-berries ; and she pours 
in also four j basketfuls of steamed vibm-num-berries. Sometimes | a 
couple will put up as many as ten oil-boxes full of viburnum-berries, || 
when they have a strong desire to do so, for they help each other 90 
when they wish to have j many oil-boxes full of viburnum-berries. 
When they are all done, | (the woman) goes to draw fresh water in a 
large bucket, and | four bucketfufe are poured into each of the oil- 
boxes containing steamed vibiu-num-berries. | When water has been 
poured into all of them, they || take a board and lay it as a cover on 95 
top of the oil-boxes containing the berries. | They keep it there until 
the winter, | when the people will have a whiter ceremonial. That 
is all about this. | 

Wa, giPmese la l5pts!S,weda k"!oxstanowe lExa^yaxs lae et!ed gux- 76 
tslotsa k'lilxe t'.Els laq. Wa, g'iPmese qot!axs lae hanolTlas laxes 
q'.olatsle, qa^s xaLlEX'^Ide k' !ipstalax'Jtsa x'ix'ExsEmala t!esEm 
laq. Wa, giPEmxaawise Elaq mEclElx^widExs lae k' !oxstEntsa 
tlfiltslala k!oxstanowe lExil laq. Wa, laEmxae q!aq!alalaci qa 80 
L!aL!Ex"sEmx'^Ides lo-xs ^mElxdeeleqalae lEnxeda waokwaxs lae 
L!opa. Wa, g'iPmese he gwestox^wulExs lae k' !ox^iistEndEq, qa^s 
la guxts!5ts laxa dEugwatsIemote. Wa, giPmese la mEwexxa 
qoqutleda k!5xstanowe lExa, la giixtsloyosexa dEngwats lemotaxs, 
lae e!ted ax^edxa ogu^la^maxat ! dEngwats !em6ta, qa^s tslox^wu- 85 
gtndeq. Wii, giPmese gwalExs lae hangogwalilaq LE'wa la helats!a 
t!Elyats!e dEngwats lemota. Wa, laxae gfixtslotsa mowexa k!e- 
kloxstanowe laElxe qlolk" tiEls laq, ytxs ^nah'nEmp !Enae 
nEqasgEme dEngwats !emote t!Elyats!asa ha^yasEkala, ylxa Ik- 
klwemasas naqa^ye, qa-'s gawalaplaaxs -'nek'ae qa qlexxeses t!e- 90 
tlElyatsle dEngwats !em5ta. Wa. glPmese ^wl4a L!opaxs lae tsex'^Id- 
xa ^wE^waplEme, yisa liwawe naEngatsIa, qa^s le giiqEyindalasa 
maemosgEme awa naEngats'.e laxa ^nal^uEmsgEme t!Elyats!e 
dEngwats lemota. Wa, gIPmese q!walots!Ewax"sa ^wapaxs lae 
ax^edxa ^wadzowe saokwa, qa^s papanaqes laxes t!et!Elyats!e 95 
dEngwats lemota, qa pepaqEmes. Wa, laEm edzelLExa tslawunxxa, 
qo ts lets lex^IdELe g'okulotas. Wa, laEm gwala. 



286 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL |i;th. asx 35 

1 Crabapples. — The woman takes the Uirge basket, | wliich is still 
full of crabapples, and pours these | on the mat at the same place 
where the first lot were poured out. | She does this with all of them, — 
5 the medium-sized basket and the || front-basket. Wlien they are 
empty, she puts them down all around | the crabapples which she 
had poured on the mat. After tiiis is done, | she sits down on the 
right-hand side of the basket in the front corner, and | her husband 
sits down at the right-hand side of the medium-sized basket. | The 

10 baskets are on the left sides of the || woman and her husband who are 
sitting down. Then they take up each a bunch | of crabapples and 
pmch off the stems of the crabapples | with the right hand. With 
the left they hold the | crabapple-stems, which are in bunches; and 
when the crabapples have been picked off, | the woman puts the 

15 cleaned crabapples into the front-basket, || and her husband puts the 
cleaned crabapples into the | medium-sized basket. They continue 
doing this while they are cleaning them ; | and when the baskets have 
been filled, they pour them | into the large basket. They oidy | 

20 stop pouring them into the large || basket when it is very full. Then 
the woman takes a | large dish and pours into it the clean crab- 
apples and those which | her husband has cleaned; and generally 



1 Crabapples. — ^Wa, la^me ax^ededa tslEdaqaxa nagae ^walas lExa 
^ya, yixs he-'mae ales tsElx"ts!alaxa tsElxwe, qa^s guqiEqesa tsEl- 
xwe glts!aq laxa lax\le gtigEdzoyosexa LEbele leHva^ya. Wa, 
la^me ^naxwaEm he gwex'^Idxa helomagEme lExa^ya LE^wa na- 
5 naagEuie lExa^ya. Wii, g'iPmese la lopEmtsIaxs lae hane-stalas 
laxa tsElxwe la k'ladzalllaxa le-wa^ye. Wa, g'iPmese gwalExs lae 
klwagalll lax helk' lodEnwalllasa nanaagEme lExa^ya. Wa, g'axe 
la^wiinEinas kiwagalil lax helk' !6dEnwalllasa helomagEme lExa^ya. 
Wa, laEm gegEmxagawallla laElxa'ye lax k'.iidze'lena^yasa tslE- 

10 daqe LE^wis hVwunEme. Wa, lax'da-xwe dax-Idxa ^nalniEmxLala 
laxa tsElxwe qa^s ep!EXLe mag-inodalaxa tsElxwaxs lae epalaq 
yises helk"!ots!ana^ye. Wii, la he dalayoses gEmx5lts lana'ye lax 
tsEltsElx"mEts lEXLa^yas. Wa, giPmese ^widawa tslElxwaxs lae 
k!ats!6deda ts'.Edaqases kimta^ye tsElx" laxa nanaagEme 1e- 

15 xa-'ya. Wii, liiLa lii-'wunEmas he k'latslalases kimta^ye tsElxwa 
helomagEme lExa^'ya. Wa, ax"sii^mese he gwegulaxs k imtaaq. 
Wii, giPmese qoqiltle k"ekimdats!iisexa tsElxwaxs lae guxts!6ts 
liixa ^wsilase k'lmdEgwatsIexa tsElxwe niige lExa^ya. Wii, al- 
■mese gwfil guxtslalaxa ^walase kimdEgwats !exa tsElxwe niige 

20 lExaxs iae alak"!ala la qot!a. Wii, laxae six'ededa tslEdaqaxa 
^wiilase loq!wa, qa^s la guxtsla'ases k'lmta^ye tsElx" liiq lo^ k im- 
ta^yases la^wOnEme. Wa, la q!uniila ;ix-'edxa k'limyaxLa lo^xs 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 287 

she takes a short oil-box or | a liigli box and pours the cleaned crab- 23 
apples into it, | in case she is pickhig a great many. When all the 
crabapples have been cleaned, || the husband of the woman goes to 25 
get driftwood, | for it is hard work to prepare crabapples. There- 
fore I the man helps his wife. Wlien he gets home from getting | 
driftwood, he carries it on Iris shoulder into the | house, and puts it 
down where he is going to build a fire. As soon as || all the drift- 30 
wood has been carried in, he puts down two medium-sized logs, | 
which will be the side-pieces. Between them he puts small pieces | of 
dry driftwood. He places larger pieces of driftwood | crosswise 
over the side-pieces for the stones to rest on. Wlien | this is done, 
he takes a basket, goes down to the beach, || and puts stones into the 35 
basket. | Wlien he flunks he has as many as he can carry, he 
carries them on liis back up the beach, | and carries them uito the 
house in which the crabapples are being prepared. | Then he puts 
(the basket) down on the wood that is built up for it. | He brings 
many stones which he has picked up; find when he has brought in 
enough, || he lights the fire under the wood and stones. When | 40 
it is burning, he takes an empty oil-box and puts it down along- 
side I of the wood and stone in order to heat it. Then he goes and 
gets I two large buckets and draws water in them. He | pours the 



t) 



hae ax^etsE^wa Lawatsa, qa^s guxts lalasosa k'imdEkwe tsElxwa, 23 
yixs q!enEmaeda tsElwauEmas. Wii, giPmese ^wFla la k imdEkwa 
tsElxwaxs lae he^me la^wQnEmasa tslEdaqe la qlexaxa qlexale, 25 
qaxs laxumlaeda tsElxwaxs eaxElasE-wae. Wa, he-mes lag'ilas 
g'iwaleda bEgwauEmaxes gEiiEme. Wa, giPmese gaxExs qlexex'- 
daxa q!exalaxs lae hex'^idaEm wex'^IdEq, qa^s la wegiLElaq laxes 
gokwe, qa^s la wex'^alliaq laxes lEx^walllasLe. Wa, giPmese ^wl- 
^losdesa q!exalaxs lae k'at'.alllasa ma'lts!aqe ha^yah'agit q!exala. 30 
Wii, heEm kak'EdEnwa^ye. Wa, la Lolaxotsa g"alastoyowe amE- 
ma^yasto lEmxwa qlexala. Wa, la ax^edxa iiwawastala qlexala, 
qa^s gekEyiudales qa tliixt'.Emasa tlesEme. Wa, gil^mese 
gwalExs lae ax^edxa lExa^ye, qa^s la Isntsles laxa LJEma^ise, 
qa^'s la t!axts!alasa tIesEme laxes t!agats!exa tlesEme lExa^ya. 35 
Wa, gil^mese gwanala lax"sexs lae oxLEx-'idEq, qa-'s lii oxlos- 
desElaq, qa^s la oxLaeLElaq laxes tsatsElx"se^lats!eLe gSkwa. 
Wii, la oxLEgalilaq qa^s lii t !iiqEyindalas hlxes la gwiilila^ya. Wii, 
lil qleuEme tliiganEmas tIesEma. Wii, glPmese heb'ale tlaganE- 
masexs lae tsenabotsa gulta lilxes t!eqwapa^ye. Wa, gIPmese 40 
xlqostaxs lae ax^edxa dEngwats!emote, qa^s g-axe hii^nolisas Laq 
hixa t '.eqwapa^yas, qa ts !ElxsEmx"^ides. Wa, he-mis la iix-'edaatsexa 
awawe ma^tsEm naEngats!a, qa^s la tsex'^id laxa ^wap, qa^s lii 
giixts!alas laq. Wii, g-il^mese la nEgoyoxsdiilaxa ^wapaxs lae gwiila. 



288 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etii. ann. 36 

45 water iiito the box. When it is half full, he stops. || Then he takes 
his tongs and puts them down on the floor.' 

(As I soon as tliis is done, the man takes a bucket and goes to | 
draw water; and when he comes back, he puts it down between the | 
empty oil-box and the fire.) Now all \ the stones on the fire are red-hot. 

50 Then he || takes the tongs, dips the end into the | bucket, and picks 
out the red-hot stones. He | dips them into the water so that the 
ashes that stick on them come off;| and after doing so, he puts them 
into the water m the steaming-box. | He continues doing this, and 

55 does not stop until || the water really boils up. Then he takes the | 
rack and puts it mto the boiling water. | After doing this, he takes 
the largo basket containing the cleaned crabapples, | puts tliem on the 
rack of the one who steams crabapples, | and he also takes the medium- 

60 sized || basket and puts it in, and he also takes the | front-basket and 
puts it in. I As soon as they are all in, they are covered with hot 
water. Then | the man takes his tongs and picks up more | red-hot 

65 stones, which he dips into the water, || and then puts them in, so that 
the water really boils up. | When it is boiling, he takes a rest. | His 
wife watches the crabapples. She takes a ladle | and dips it into 



45 Wa, laxae ax^edxes klipLalaa, qa g'axes kadela.' . . . Wa, 
g'iPmese gwalExs lae ax^ededa bEgwanEmaxa nagatsie, qa^s la 
tsaxa ^wape. Wa, giPmese g'ax aedaaqaxs lae hanagots laxa 
dEngwats!emote LE^wa lEgwile. Wa, la^me ^naxwa la memEnl- 
tsEmx-^ideda tIesEme tlaxLalales laxa lEgwile. Wa, he^mis la 

50 dax-^idaatslexes k'lipLalaa, qa^s LlEnxstEndes laxa ^wabEts lawasa 
nagats!axs lae k!ip!lts laxa x'lxExsEmala t!esEma. Wa, laxae 
hapstEnts laxa ^wape, qa lawayes k !wek lutsEmayaq guna^ya. Wa, 
gil^mese gwixlExs lae kMipstEnts lax ^wabEtsIdwasa q!olats!axa 
tsElxwe dEngwats!emota. Wa, la hex'sa gweg-ile. Wii, aFmise 

55 gwalExs lae alak' !ala la maEmdElqiileda ^wape. Wa, la ax^edxa 
k-!itk-!Edese, qa-'s lii paxstEnts laxa maEmdElqiila '^wapa. Wa, 
gil'mese gwalExs lae nx^edxa ^walase kimdEgwatsIe nage lExa- 
^ya, qa^s la hundzots laxa k'litk-lEdesasa tsatsElx"sllaxa tsELxwe 
q!6tasE-wa. Wa, laxae ax^edxa kimdEgwatslaxa tsElxwe heloma- 

60 gEm lExa'^ya, qa^s laxat! ha^nodzEnts laq. Wa, laxae ax^edxa 
fc-lmdEgwats !axa tsElxwe nanaagEm lExa^ya, qa^s la hanagots laq. 
Wa, g-il^mese ^wFlastaxs lae tiEpsEmxa tslElxMa ^wapa. Wa, lii 
ax^ededa bEgwanEmaxes kMij^Lalaa, qa-'s etiede k!ip!lts laxa 
x-Ix-ExsEmala tlesEma, qa^s laxat! hapstEnts laxa ^wape. Wa, 

65 la xaLlEx-^Id k-!lpstalas, qa alax'^dag-es msdElx^wideda ^wape. 
Wa, gll^mese alak!ala la maEmdElqulaxs lae xos^ida. Wa, 
hetlale gEnEmas la q!aq!alalaq. Wa, laEm ax^edxa k-ats!Enaqe, 

1 Then follows the description of the manufacture of a drying frame, p. 171. line 1, to p. 172, line 27. 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 289 

the crabapples and feels if they get soft. | When they are soft all 
through, they are done. Then she || calls her husband to take out 
the three | baskets with the boiled crabapples. They pour these into 70 
the empty oil-box | which has been washed out by the wife of the 
man, and which is now ready to be placed | where the crabapples are 
to be kept. They | pour in the steamed crabapples. If they do not 
boil all the || other crabapples, the woman puts the green cleaned | 75 
crabapples into the three baskets, and | her husband puts more red- 
hot stones mto the cooking-box. | As soon as the water boils up, he 
puts in I the three baskets with crabapples and does the || same as he 80 
did before; and after the crabapples have been boiled, | he takes the 
two large buckets, goes to draw some | water, and pours it on, 
because he wants to have two- | thirds more water than crabapples. | 
After he has done this, he takes a short board and puts it on. || He 85 
keeps them there until winter comes, when the tribe of the crabapple- 
owner have a winter ceremonial. | Sometimes the chiefs want to 
give a crabapple-feast, for | this is one of the great feasts of the 
tribes. | That is all about the cooked crabapples. | 



qa^s tsex'^Ides laxa tsElxwe, qa^s plex^wide, qa tEltElx"sEmx-^- 68 
ide. Wa, gll^mese la tEltElx"sBmxs lae L!opa. Wa, la^me Le- 
^lalaxes la^wunEme qa^s k'lox^iistalax-^Idexa yudux"sEme q!eq!olx"- 70 
tslala laElxaxa tsElxwe, qa^s la giixtslalas laxa ogii^la^max'at! 
la ts!oxugits6^sa gEnEmasa bEgwauEmexa la gwa^Il ha^nel laxes 
hemEne^lasLe ha^nelasa tsEl^watsIe dEngwatsIemota. Wa, he^mis la 
guxtslalatsesa q!olkwe tsElxwa. Wa, g'il^mese k'!es ^wrta qloHdxa 
waokvve tsElxwa lae a^ma tslEdaqe xwelaxts!6tsa IsnlEnxsEme 75 
k'imdEkwe tsElx" laxa yudux"sEme la tsetsElx"ts lalaxa tsElxwe la- 
aLes la^wunEme et!ed kMipstalasa x'lx'ExsEmala t!esEm laxes q!olas- 
Laq. Wa, gil^Emxaawise mEdElx^wIdeda ^wapaxs lae k' loxstEnda- 
lasa yudux"sEme tsetsElx"ts!ala laElxii laq. Wa, aEmxaawise nE- 
qEmg'tltEwexes g'tlx'de gweg-ilasa. Wa, g'IPmese ^wi4a la q!olkwe SO 
tsElxwasexs lae ax^edxes awawe ma^ltsEm naEngats!a, qa^s la tsaxa 
^wape, qa^s lii guq!aqas laq. Wa a^mese ^nex" qa ma^lplEnes 
he ^waxeda ^wape ^waxaasasa tsElxwaxs lae gwala. Wa, g'iPmese 
gwalExs lae ax-edxa ts!ats!Ets!ax"sEme qa^s la paqEmlilas laq. Wa, 
laEm lalaal laxa tsIawiinxLa, qo ts!ets!ex''IdLe,g-okulotas tsEPwadas 85 
Loxs kilxwasE^waasa g'igEma^yas tsElxweliLaxa tsElxwe, yixs he- 
^mae g'Igexa ^walase k!weladzEmxa qleuEme lelqw^laLa^yaxa 
tsElxwe. Wa, lasm gwal laxa qlolkwe tsElxwa. 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 1 19 



290 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etu. ann. 3". 

1 Qot.'xole.' — When she has finished, she takes a dish and | puts the 
IxTrics into it. Then she takes oil and pours | much of it on. There 
is more oil than there are berries. | When this is done, she takes a 
5 wooden spoon and puts it do^Tl^ next || to her seat. Then she calls 
her husband and her | children to come and eat the berries; | and 
when they have all come, the woman gives them spoons; | and after 
doing so, she takes up the dish with the berries | and puts it before 

10 tliem. Then they all begin to eat the berries. || They eat them with 
their spoons. | Wlioever is not accustomed to eat them drains off the 
oil to make them dry when | he is eating them, but the berries choke 
one when they are eaten; | and therefore any one who does not like 
to eat oil with them must chew them a long time, and | can not 

15 swallow them: he just has his mouth full i| of berries. But if he is 
experienced in eating them, he does not take many | berries in his 
spoon, and he takes much oil, | when he puts them into his mouth; 
and he does not chew them long | before swallowing, for the oil makes 
them shppery. After eating the berries, | they do not drink water, 

20 and just || go out of the house. They do not drink water for a long 
time, because they | do not want the oil to rise into their throats. 
Tliis is one way to do -with the berries, when | they are given at a 

I Q6t!xole.' — Wa, gil-mese gwalExs lae ax^edxa loqlwe, qa^s k!a- 
tslodesa qot.'xole laq. Wa, la ax-edxa Lle^na, qa-'s kunq'.Eqesa 
qlenEme laq. Wii, laEm he qlagawa^ya Lle^nasa qotlxole. Wa, 
g'il^mese gwalExs lae ax^edxa kikayEme, qa g-axes gael lax hemE- 
5 ne^lase k!waelats. Wa, he^mis la Le'lalatsexes la^wunEme LE^wis 
sasEme qa g-axes k'.us^alila, qa^s qotqwat ledexa qot!xole. Wa, 
g'iPmese gaxda^xuxs laeda tslEdaqe tslawanaesasa kakEtslEnaqe 
laq. Wa, glPmese gwalExs lae kagllliaxa qotqudatslcLe l6q!wa, 
qa^s la kaxdzamolllas laq. Wa, hex'^ida'mese ^naxwa qotqwa- 

10 tledxa qotlxole. Wa, la-me yosases k'akEtslEnaqe laq. Wa, 
heEm yagUwat qotqwata x^atslalaxa Lle^na, qa lEmokwesexs lae 
qotqwat ledEq, qaxs alak"!alae mEkwa lax qotqwatsE^wae. Wa, 
heEm geg'llil wul^Em malekwaqiixa k'llltasa Lle^na. Wa, la 
k'leas gwex^daas nEx^widEq. Wa, he^mis la aEm la q5t!aeL!E- 

15 xS,latsexa qotlxole. Wax-ida eg-Ilwate, yixs klesae qlesgEma 
q5t!xolaxs xEx"ts!ae lax k'atslEnaqas. Wa, het!a qlensma Lle- 
'naxs lae yosk' lEdzEnts. Wa, k!est!e geg-llll malekwaqexs lae 
HEX^widEq, qaeda Lle^naxs tsax'ae. Wa, giPmese gwala qotqwa- 
daxa qotlxolaxs lae k!es nagekllaxa ^wape. Wa, la^me aEm 

20 boquwElsa. Wa, la^me kMes gEyol nax^edxa ^v ape qaxs gwaqlE- 
lae lEwumsa Lle^na. Wa, la^me gwal laxa ^nEmx'^idala, yJxs 
he^mae gwequxs lae qotelagila qlenEme lelqwalaLa^ya lax gwala- 

1 This description tollows that of the gathering of qotlxole (p. 218, line 1, to p. 219, line 39). 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 291 

feast to many tribes. It is the way | I have described before. I 23 
will only talk about it | when they are put into boxes for winter use. 
They are just put into || (square) boxes, and the cover is put on and 25 
it is tied down. | Then they are put in a cool corner of the house, | 
and they are eaten m the way I have just described. | That is all. | 

Qot !xole mixed with Oil. — When many berries have been picked by 1 
the I woman, she asks her husband to get a | high box that does not 
leak and to put it down; and then he builds up | the fu-e and puts 
stones mto it. There || are very many stones. Then he takes his 5 
bucket and goes to draw | a bucketful of water; and when he comes 
back, I he puts it down next to the fire. When tliis is done, he takes 
his I tongs and puts them down by the fire. He takes his [ oil-box 
and puts it down by the fire. Wlien || this has been done, he takes 10 
the basket with berries and | puts them down next to his high boxes, 
and pours | them in. As soon as (the boxes) are nearly full, he 
stops pourmg them in. | He continues doing this until the other 
boxes are all full. | As soon as (the berries) are all in, he just waits 
for the II stones which he put on the fire to be red-hot; and when he 15 
sees I that they are getting red-hot, he takes his tongs, | picks up 
the red-hot stones, dips them into the | water in the bucket so that 

asasEn la q Iwel^idayowa, ylxa lex'aEmLEn gwagwex's^Ex'^IdaasL 23 
laqexs lae hankwa qaeda tsliiwiinxe, yixs a^mae k'!ats!5yo laxa 
xexEtsEme. Wa, a^mese la yikiiyintsoses ylkwaya=yaxs lae tiEmaki- 05 
yintsE^wa, qa^s la hangalllEm laxa wildanegwilases gokwaxa qo- 
dats!e xexEtsEma. Wa, he=mis qotqwat leneqEn lax"de gwagwex'- 
s^aJasa. Wa, laEm gwala. 

Llakwe qotlxola. — Wa, he^maaxs q!enEmae qodanEmasa ts!E- 1 
daqe qotlxola. Wii, la axk'Ialaxes la-wunEme, qa ax^edesexa La- 
watsaxa alii, la Emxa, qa g'axes hax'hanila. Wa, la lEqwelax'^Id 
laxes lEgwIle. Wa, la xEx"Lalaxa tIesEme laxes lEgwile. Wa, la 
qlenEmk'as^ma tlesEme. Wa, la ax-'edxes nagats.'e, qa^s la tsasa c 
^nEmsgEme nagatsle laxa ^wape. Wa, gil=mese gax aedaaqaxs 
lae hiFnolisas laxes lEgwIle. Wa, gIPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxes 
k'lJpLalaa, qa^s gaxe kadEnoljsas laxes lEgwile. Wa, la ax^edxes 
dEngwatsle qa^s gaxe ha^nolisas laxes lEgwile. Wa, g'iPmese 
gwalExs lae ax^edxes qeqot Ixoleats !e laElxa^ya, qa^s gaxe in 
MnEmg"alilElas lax hfixha-ne^iasasa LeLawatsa. Wa, la guxts!o- 
dalas laxa EeLawatsa; wa, g"il=mese Elaq qotlaxs lae gwal guqas 
laq. Wa, la hexsaEm awaxatsla laxa waokwe LeLawatsa. Wa 
g'iPmese ^wilts!axs lae aEm la esEla qa memEnltsEmx-^Idesa 
tlesEme xEx"Lalalis laxa lEgwile. Wa, giPmese dox^'waLE- 1 c 
laqexs lE^mae memEnltsEmx'^idExs lae dax'^Idxes k"!lpLalaa, qa^s 
kMlpIides laxa xIx'ExsEmala tlesEma qa^s la hapstEnts laxa 



292 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. as 

the ashes that stick to them come off, | and puts them into the oil 

20 which is in the oil-box. || He continues doing this, and does not stop 

until the oil in the box begins to boil. | He does not dip out | the 

boiling oil immediately to pour it on the berries in the box, | but he 

takes a large shell of a horse-clam and skims off the | froth floating 

25 on the hot oil. When that is all off, || he takes a long-handled ladle 

and dips it into the hot oil. | Then he pours it on the berries, and he 

does not stop until | the berries are covered by the boiling oil. He 

leaves them there, on the floor of the house, | until the oil thickens. 

He leaves them there for two days to get entirely cooled off. | Then 

30 he takes the boxes containing the berries and the oil and || puts them 

down in a cool corner of the house. After he has put them there, 

he I takes the cover, puts it on, and ties it down. | After he has 

done so, he takes an old mat and | spreads it over them, and there 

they will stay until winter comes. | 

1 Curing Seaweed (1).' — A woman inexperienced in working | seaweed 

spreads it out at once on the beach to | dry. Then the seaweed 

that is treated that way is tough. | An experienced woman only takes 

5 the II seaweed out of the canoe, and she takes a mat and j covers it 

over on the beach, after she has piled it up on the beach, | even when 

the day is fine. She does not spread it for a long time, for she wishes j 

18 'wabEtsIawasa nagatsle, qa lawayes k!wek!utsEmayaq guna^ya. 
Wa, lii k'lipstEnts laxa l !e-'nats !awasa dEpgwats!e. Wa, la hex"- 

20 saEm gwegilaq. Wa, al^mese gwalExs lae alak'Iala la maEmdEl- 
quleda l le^nats !awasa dEngwats !e. Wa, k" !est !a yanag'aala tsex-^ld- 
xa maEmdElqula L!e^na, qa^s la guqEyints laxa qodatsle Lawatsa. 
Wa, la ax^edxa ^walase xalaetsa mEtlana-ye, qa^'s ax-'widexa 
a^awiis okfiya^yasa ts!Elx"sta Lle^na. Wa, g'il-mese ^wplawa 

25 a^awaxs lae ax-edxa tsexLa, qa^s tsex'^ides laxa ts!Elx"sta Lle^na 
qa^s la giiqEyindalas laxa qotlxole. Wa, al^mis gwalExs lae tlEpE- 
yeda qot!xolaxa maEmdElqula L!e'na. Wa, la hexsaEm haxha^nile 
qa Llax'^Idesa Lle^niixa la ma^lExsa ^nala, qa rdak!ales wuilEX-Ida. 
Wa, la ax^edxes L!agwats!axa qotlxole Lawatsa, qa's la hiing'a^li- 

^0 las laxa wudanegwilases g'okwe. Wa, g-iPmese gwal'alllExs lae 
ax^edEX yikuya-'j^as, qa^s yJkuyindes laq. Wa, la^me tlEmaklyln- 
dEq. Wa, giPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa k!ak!Ek!obana, qa^s 
LEpEyindes laq. Wa, laEm lalaal laxa ts!awunxLa helgwaeLe. 
1 Curing Seaweed (1).' — Wa, g I'l'mese ya'g ilwateda ts !Eda'qe a'axsi- 
laxa lEqiEstE'naxs la'e he'x'^IdaEm lex'alisaq la'xa LlEma^ise qa 
lEmx^'wI'des. Wa, he'Em LlasLlExdzo IsqlEstE'neda he gwe'x'^i- 
tsE^we. Wa, g'i'Pmese e'g'ilwateda tslEda'qaxs la'e a'Em molto'd- 
5 xa lEqlEstE'ne la'xes ya^yatsle. Wa, la Sx^e'dxa le'wa^ye qa^s 
«nax"sEmli'ses la'qexs la'e q lap lesgEmllsa la'xa LlEma^ise yixs 
wa'x'mae e'k'a ^na'la. Wa, la k-les gEyol lex'ali'saq qaxs ^ne'k'ae 
qa xas^I'des. Wa, he'tia la mo'xse ^na'lasexs la'e le'tledxa le^wa^ye 

1 Continued from p. 186, line 21. 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 293 

it to rot. After it has been in this way for four days, she takes off the 
mat I cover. Then she takes a drying-rack made for the || seaweed, 10 
to dry it on. It is made of broad split cedar, and is | one fathom in 
length, and three | spans is the length of the four crosspieces. | That is 
the width of the drying-rack. Then she spreads the seaweed | on it. 
Now she dries it in the sun and the wind. || Sometimes one woman has 15 
ten drying-frames on which | seaweed is drying. Wlien it is a fine | 
day, she turns the seaweed over at noon, and | in the evening it is 
entirely dry. Wlien it is dried, | the woman rolls it all up and puts 
it away in her house. || Now it is rolled up in a mat; and when it is a 20 
fine day, | she starts again in her canoe. She is going to get chitons. 
As soon I as she has many, she goes home.' | 

After^ the men have eaten the chitons, they go out of the house | 
after they have drunk water. The woman takes the dish from which 
they have eaten || and puts it down at the place where she is going to 25 
work at the seaweed. | Then she takes her small box and puts it 
down at the place where | the dish is. Then she takes cedar-branches 
and breaks off the | soft tops and puts them down. Then she takes 
the cover of her | little box and puts it down on its back. Then she 
takes the seaweed and spreads || it on the box-cover. She folds it over 30 

na'kuyes. Wii, la ax^e'dxa k'litkMEde'sexa hekwe'Ie^me qae'da 
lEqiEstE'Ae qa lE'm^wats yixa awi\'dzos xa^ye k!waxLa'wa, Iat!a 10 
^nE'mplEnk- la'xEns ba'Le awa'sgEmasas. Wa, lat!a yu'dux"p!Enk- 
laxEns q!wa'q!wax'ts!ana^yex, yi'xa m6'ts!aqe gayo'lEms. Wa, 
he'^mis ^wa'dzE^watsa k" !ltk' lEde'se. Wa, la lEntso'tsa lEqiEstE'ne 
laq. Wa, laE'm lE'mxwaq la'xa Lle'sEla LE^we ya'la. Wa, 
las'm ^uEi^nE'mplEna ^'nEqa'xseda k" !itk- lEde'se lEmo'dzosa 15 
^nEmS'kwe tslEda'qa la'xa lEqlEstE'ne. Wa, g-i'Pmese e'ka 
^na'liixs la'e le'x-'idaEmxa leqlEstE'naxa ^nEqii'la. Wa, la lE'mx- 
^wldaEm ^na'xwaxa la dza'qwa. Wa, g-1'Pmese lEmx^wi'dExs lae'da 
ts!Eda'qe le'x'^EndEq ^wFla qa^s le g'e'xaq la'xes go'kwe. Wa, 
laE'm le'x-^Enalaxa le'^wa-'ye. Wa, gl'Pmese e'k-a ^na'laxs la'e 20 
e'tled ale'x^wida. Wa, laE'm lai qlE'nsax q!ana'sa. Wa, g'l'Pmese 
lalxa q!e'nEmaxs g-a'xae na'^nakwa.' . . . 

Wa,= g-i'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e ho'qtiwElseda qlE'nsqIase, ylxs la'e 
gwal na'qaxa ^wa'pe. Wa, leda tslEdaqe S.x^e'dxa ha^maatsle'x'de 
lo'qlwa qa^s le ha'ng'a^lllaxs la'xes e'axE^lasLaxa lEqlsstE'ne. 25 
Wa, la ax^e'dxes xa'xadzEme qa^s g'a'xe ha'ng'a^lilas lax la ha^ne'- 
Matsa lo'qiwe. Wii, la'xaa S,x^e'dxa ts!ap!a'xe qa^s k'oqa'lex tEltEl- 
guta^yas qa^s ax^a'lIlEles. Wa, la ax^e'dEx yikuya'^'yasa xa'xa- 
dzEme qa^s nEl^a'lIleq. Wa, la ^x^e'dxa lEqiEstE'ne qa^s LEbE- 
dzo'des la'xa yikuya'^ye. Wa, la qlanepi^la'laq qa *nEmala'ses 30 

1 Here follows a description of how the chitons are cooked and eaten (see p. 483). 

2 Continued from p. 484, line IS. 



294 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [kth. ann.ss 

31 SO that it is folded the same size | as the box-cover. Then she takes 
a mouthful of the liquid of the | chitons, and she spreads it out again. 
Then she blows water from her mouth over it. | She takes four 
mouthfuls of the dirty water and blows | it on it. Then the seaweed 

35 gets aU wet, || and she folds it up again to the size of the cover. | 
Now it is four fingers thick. | As soon as this is done, the woman takes 
the soft tips of | cedar-branches and puts them in the bottom of the 
small box. Then she takes the | seaweed and puts it on the branches; 

40 and she takes more || cedar-branches and lays them over the seaweed. 
When I no more shows, she takes another piece of seaweed and | 
does the same as she did to the first one which is in the | little box; 
and she does not stop imtil all the seaweed is in the | small box. As 

45 soon as she has finished, she takes a long || rope and ties it aroimd the 
small box. Then she draws the rope tight, | because she docs not 
wish the small box to burst open, and she | puts stones on top of it. 
As soon as she has finished, she takes | short boards and measures the 
size of the top of the small box, so | that they fit the corners of the 

50 inside of the small box. Then she puts it down flat || on the seaweed. 
Then she takes up stones and puts them on the | small box containing 
the seaweed; and she does not stop until there is no | room to put 
stones on, for there are | many stones to put on the top of the box 

31 kMo'xwa^yas LE^wa yllrtiya'^ye. Wa, la hS,'msgEmd lax ^wa'palasa 
qiana'se qa^s e'tlede LEple'dEq. Wa, la sElbExHvI'ts lax a,wa'ga- 
^yas. Wa, mo'plEna ha'msgEmd la'xa neqwa ^wa'pa qa^s sElbEx- 
^wi'des laq. Wii, laE'm ^na'xwaEm la LEx^e'deda teqlEstE'naxs 

35 la'e e'tled kMo'x^wodEq qa ^uEma'lases LE^wa yikuya'=ye. Wa, 
la'xae mo'dEn la'xEns q!wa'q!wax-ts!ana^yex yix wa'gwasas. Wa, 
wi'Pmese gwa'lExs la'eda ts!Eda'qe &x-e'dxa tEltElx"ba'^yasa 
ts!a'p!axe qa^s tslak' !ExLE'ndes la'xa xa'xadzEme. Wa, la ax^e'dxa 
lEqlEstE'ne qa^s axyi'ndes la'xa ts!a'p!axe. Wa, e'tled ax^e'dxa 

40 tsla'plaxe qa^s hamElqsyi'ndes la'xa lEq!EstE'ne. Wa, g-fPmes 
k-!eo's la ne'lalasexs la'e e'tled a,x^e'd la'xa lEqiEstE'ne qa^s 
a'^mexat! ^uEgEltodxes g'l'lx'de gwe'g'ilasxa la'g-its!a, la'xa xa'xa- 
dzEme. Wa, a'Pmese gwalExs la'e ^wl'^ltslamasxa lEqlEstE'ne la'xa 
xa'xadzEme. Wa, gi'l^mese gwa'lExs la'e ax-e'dxa g'i'ltla dE- 

45 nE'maqa^s qEX'sE'mdes la'xa xa'xadzEme. Wii, laE'm lEklutEle'da 
dEnE'me qaxs gwa'qlElaaq yimltsle'da xa'xadzEme qo xEqu- 
yl'ntsa tIe'sEme laq. Wa, g-i'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e ax^e'dxa 
ts!a'ts!ax"sEme qa^s ^mE'ns-'Ides lax o'kuya^j^asa xa'xadzEme qa 
bEnbane'qwes lax o'tslawasa xa'xadzEme. Wa, la pa'qEyints 

50 la'xa lEqiEstE'ne. Wa, la tla'x^ldxa tIe'sEme qa^'s le t laqEylndalas 
la'xa lEga'tsle xa'xadzEma. Wa, a'lmese gwa'lExs la'e kMeo's 
la gwa'yak- !alas e't!ed la t !a'x^aLEleda tIe'sEme qaxs la'e q!e'- 
nEma la tliiqElaLEla lax o'kuya^yasa lEga'tsle xa'xadzEma. Wa, 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 295 

containing the seaweed. | Sometimes they are left this way hi the 
house for one month. || When the woman thinks that the seaweed 55 
sticks together, | she takes off the stones when it is a fine day. | 
Then she takes out the seaweed, which is now one ] finger thick. Then 
she takes it out of the | house and puts it flat on the beach, where it 
is dry; and |1 when it is evening, she takes it up and takes it into the 60 
house. I Then she puts it back mto the small box, and she again | 
puts cedar-branches between them; and she also puts | stones on it 
again. She does this four times; and after | she has done so four 
times, she puts them into a small box, || after she has taken out the 65 
cedar-branches and also the | stones on it. Now she only puts on 
the cover, and the cover is | tied down. Then it is put away. That 
is all about this. | 

Curing Seaweed (2). — They drive into the floor two | poles half a 
fathom long, and sharp at the ends. Then || they spht cedar- wood; 70 
and when it is in thin pieces, these are two | finger-widths wide and 
half a finger-width | thick, and they are a little more than half a 
fathom long. | Then they take spht narrow cedar-bark and tie one end 
to the pole • | standing alongside of the fire, and they do the same 



la ^na'l^nEmp lEna ^nE'msgEmg'ilaxa ^mEku'la he gwae'le la'xa 
g'o'kwe. Wii, g"i'Pmese k'o'teda tslsda'qaq laE'm kluto'x^wi- 55 
deda teqlEstE'naxs la'e tiaqaxodxa t!e'sEme ylxs e'k'aeda ^na'la. 
Wa, la ax^wultslo'dxa lEqlEstE'naxs la'e ^na'l^nEmdEn la'xEns 
q!wa'q!wax'ts!ana^yex yix wa'gwasas. Wa, la la'wElsas la'xes 
g'o'kwe qa^s le pa 'x^alisElas la'xa LlEma^isa la'xa lE'm^wese. Wa, 
g-ri-mese dza'qwaxs la'e ax^ali'saq qa^s le lae'Las la'xes g'o'kwe. 60 
Wa, la'xae xwe'laxtslots la'xa xa'xadzEme. Wa, la'xae tsIa'tslE- 
k'odalasa ts!a'p!axe laq. Wa, la'xaa e't!ed^Emxat! la tIa'qEyintsa 
t!e'sEme laq. Wa, la moplEna he gwe'x'^IdEq. Wa, gi'l'"mese 
mo'plEnaxs la'e gwa'la. Wii, laE'm g'e'tslayo la'xa xa'xadzEme, 
yixs la'e la'woyEweda ts!a'p!axe. Wa, he'^mesa t!a'gEme t!e'- 65 
sEma. Wii, la <\'Em la yikuyi'ntsoses yikiiya'^ye. Wii, la t!E- 
ma'k'intsE^wa. Wii, la g'e'xasE=wa. Wa, laE'm gwiil la'xeq. 

Curing Seaweed (2). — Wii, la'xae de'x^walelEma malts!a'qe dzo'- 
xuma na'qlEbode awa'sgEmasas. Wii, la dz5'dzEx"baa'kwa. Wa, la 
x5'x^witsE%eda klwaxxa'we qa pE'lspadzowes. Wa, la mae'maldEn 70 
hi'xEns q!wii'q!wax'ts!ana^ye awa'dzEwasas. Wa, la klo'dEne we- 
wa'gwasas. Wii, la hS,yaxk' lo'dbode awa'sgEmasas la'xEns ba'Lax. 
Wa, la 5.x^edxa tslEXEkwe ts!eq! dEnasa qa^s ytl^aLElodes oba^yas 
laxa la Lana'les la'xa lEgwI'le dzo'xuma. Wii, la e'tled he gwe'x"- 
^idxa apsba'^ye. Wa, la q!EL!Ets!a'qa xo'kwe kIwaxLa'wa la 75 



296 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL I eth. *,,.■«. a» 

5 at II the other end. There are six split cedar-sticks | tied to the 

poles in this way: n n When it is done, | they take the 

seaweed, break it = -. = in pieces, and, when | the pieces 

are thin and flat, ,-^ ^, they hang them over the jdrying- 

80 rack. As soon as • == =^ it is browned by the fire, || it is 

turned over; and when it is browned again, | it is 

taken down from where it had been put, and 

placed on dressed deer-skin. Then it is made into a bunch. | A wedge 
is taken, and with it it is beaten as it is j lying on the board on 
the floor of the house. Tlien it is just hke | powder after it has been 

85 beaten, and it is shaken into the || small box. Then a tight cover is 
put on, and it is placed in a j dry place in the house. 

Boiled Huckleberries. — The woman goes j to get driftwood after 
she has picked huckleberries, | when she has many and they have been 
cleaned. | She goes herself to get driftwood; and when she gets 
5 home, || she carries it up the beach into the house, and | she throws 
it down. After she has carried in all the driftwood, she takes a 
medium-sized | basket and goes down to the beach m front of her 
house. She | puts stones into it, as many as she can carry. | Then 

10 she carries it on her back into her house || and puts it down. Then 
she continues carrying stones. | When she thinks she has enough, 

76 yae'llala la'xa dzo'xume g'a gwa'leg-a (Jig.). Wa, gt'l^mese gwa'- 
Iexs la'e Sx^efesE^wa lEqlEstE'ne qa^s pa'pEX'salasE^we. Wa, g'1'1- 
*mese la pE'lspEla g't'lsg'lldEdzoxs la'e ge'x'^waLElodalayu la'xa 
lEmx"dEma. Wit, g'lPmese la kiilx'wIdExs lae ^wFla le'x"^ItsE^wa. 

80 Wa, g't'l^Emxaa'wise la kii'lx^widExs la'e ^wi'^la &xa'maxoya qa^s 
axdzo'dayuwe la'xa ^wa'dEkwe. Wa, la qlEne'psEmtsEVa. 
Wa, la ax^e'tsE^weda LE'mg'ayowe qa^s tls'lx^wldyowe laqe'xs 
la'e axdza'lilxa pae'le sao'kwa. Wa, laE'm la yo gwe'x'sa ts!6'- 
layoxs la'e gwal t lElxwasE^wa. Wa, a'^mese la laaxts!6'yo la'xa 

85 xa'xadzEmaxs lae aEmxasE^wes yikiiya'^'ye qa's ge'xasE^we la'xa 
lEm^wI'le la'xa g'o'kwe. 
1 Boiled Huckleberries (Dzeg-Ek^ gwadEm). — -Wa, heEm gil ax^e- 
tso^sa ts!Edaqa q!exale lEqwa, yixs g-alae gwal k-!Elaxa gwadE- 
me, ylxs qlEyoLaaq. Wa, laEmxaawise ek'lEgEkwa. Wa, lasm 
gwalllaxs lae aneqaxa q!exale. Wa, gil^mese g ax na^nakiixs lae 
5 hex'^idaEm wex-wusdesElaq, qa^s la weg'iLElaq laxes gokwe, qa^s 
la wex-^alilaq. Wa, g'il^mese ^wi^losdesxa qlexalaxs lae ax^edxahela 
lExa^ya qa^s la lEutsIes laxa LlEma^isases gokwe. Wa, la xe^x"- 
tslodalasa tlesEme laq. Wii, a^mese gwanala, qa=s lakwesexs lae 
oxLEX'^ideq qa^s g"axe oxLosdesElas qa^s la oxLaeLElaq laxes g'6- 

10 kwe qa^s la oxLEg'alllas. Wa, la hanal xEqwaxa tIesEme. Wa, 
g'il-mese k'otaq laEm helaxs lae ax'edxa malts !aqe h&a^yalag'it 



BOAS] PRESEEVATION OF FOOD 297 

she takes two medium-sized | pieces of driftwood and puts them 12 
down as side-pieces at the place where she intends to | build her fire, 
and between them she puts kindUng-wood. When | the kindhng- 
wood is leyel with the two side-pieces, || she takes short pieces of 15 
driftwood and puts them crosswise over the side-pieces. | The stones 
are to be placed on these. When (the wood) is all on, she puts the 
stones on top of it; | and after the stones are all on, she lights | the 
fire underneath. When it blazes up, she takes the | huckleberries, 
which she is gomg to cook m a high square box, which she puts down 
next to the fire which she has made, and also her || long tongs and a 20 
bucket filled with water. She | places the bucket with water next 
to the fire, so that it may get warm. | After doing so, she takes 
spawn of the humpback-salmon and | puts it down in a dish. She 
takes her huckleberry- | baskets and pours the huckleberries into the 
high box in which || they are to be cooked. When the box is nearly 25 
full, she stops I pouring in huckleberries; and when the stones get 
red-hot, | the woman who cooks the huckleberries takes her | tongs, 
picks up the red-hot stones, and | dips them into the water in the 
bucket, so that the || ashes that stick to them come off. Then she 30 
puts them uato the huckleberries which she is cooking. | She con- 
tinues doing this, and the hot stones sink down | in the berries. 
There are not very many stones which she puts in, | when they begin 

q!exala qa^s k'ak'EdEnodes laxes gWE^yo qa^s lEx-'walilasxes 1e- 12 
qwela^ye. Wa, la ax^odalases g-alastayowe laq. Wa, g'iPmese la 
^nEmak'Eyeda g^alastayowe LE-wa malts !aqe xwexwalEnwa^yaxs 
lae ax^edxa ts!Elts!Ex"stowe qlexala, qa^s gek-Eylndales laq, qa 15 
XE^x^dEmasa t!esEme. Wa, giPmese ^wIlgaaLElaxs lae xEquylnda- 
lasa t!esEme laq. Wa, g'TPmese 'wilk-EyindExs lae mEnabotsa 
gOlta laq. Wa, g-lPmese xiqostaxs lae ax-edxes dzegatsIeLaxa 
gwadEme Lawatsa, qa g-axes Mnalesxa lEqwela^yas. Wa, he^mesa 
g-ilt!a kMlpLalaa. Wa, he^mesa nagatsle qotlaxa ^wape. Wa, laEm 20 
hanolisasa ^wabEts!ala nagatsle laxa lEqwela^yas qa ts!Elxstax-^I- 
des. Wa, giPmese gwalExs lae ax^edxa ge^na hanone, qa^s g-axe 
hang-ali^lasexs g-ets!ae laxa Irdogiime. Wa, la ax'edxes gwegwa- 
datsle laElxa^ya, qa^s la guxtslalasa gwadEme laxa Lwatsaxa 
dzeg-ats!eLaq. Wa, g-ih'mese Elaq qotleda Lawatsaxs lae gval 25 
guqasa gwadEme laq. Wa, g'iPmese memEnltsEmx-^ideda tfesE- 
maxs lae hex-^ida^ma dzek'aLaxa gwadEme tslEdaq dax-^Idxes 
k-!lpLalaa, qa^s k!ip!ides laxa x LxExsFmala tlesEma, qa^s la 
hanax^wid hapstEnts lax ^wabEtslawa nagatsle, qa ^wllawesa 
giina^ye kiweklutalaq. Wa, la k-lipEylnts laxa gwadEme dze- 30 
k-aso^s. Wa, la hanal he gwegile a^mese hamEnsEleda tslElqwa 
t!esEmlaq. Wa, k-!est!a akiEm qleuEma tIesEme la k-!lp!EgEmse- 
qexs lae mEdElx^wida. Wa, la k-ag'ililaxa ge^nets!&la lalogflma, 



298 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etii. a.n.x. 35 

t,o boil. Then she takes the dish with spawn | and empties it on the 

35 boihng huckleberries. Next she takes || a mat and covers (the high 
box), so that the steam does not come out; | and she piles up the fire 
over the rest of the red-hot stones. | Then she rests a long time before 
she takes off the mat covering. | When she sees that the salmon- 
spawn is turning white, she takes a | broken paddle and stirs with it 

40 the hucldeberries which have been || mixed with sahnon-spawn. As 
soon as they are mixed, she puts down her | broken stirring-paddle. She 
takes the tongs and | feels for the stones wliich are piled together in 
the bottom of the box in which the | huckleberries were boiled. She 
puts them down by the side of the | fire. When they are all out, 

45 she takes up more || red-hot stones that are on the fire. She first | 
dips them mto the bucket with water, and then she | puts them again 
into the huckleberries that she is cooking ; and she only stops | when 
the huckleberries mixed with salmon-roe are thoroughly boiling. | 

50 Then she spreads the mat over them. || After doing so, the woman 
goes mto the woods to break off | broad leaves of skunk-cabbage. 
She does not break off very many of them, and | takes them home. 
Then she | takes her husband's crooked knife and cuts off the veuis | 
in the middle of the leaves. As soon as (the veins) are all cut 

55 off, she warms the leaves by the fire to make them || pliable and 

qa^'s giiqEyindes laxa la maEmdElqula gwadEma. Wii, la ax'edxa 

35 le^wa^ye, qa^s naxwodes laq qa k- !eses kEx"saleda k- !alEla. Wa, 
a^mese q lap lesgEmtsa lEgwile laxa waokwe x'lx-ExsEmala t!esEma. 
Wa, la gagiilaxs lae x-os^idExs lae axodxa ^naxumaliie le^wa^ya. 
Wii, g'iPmese doqulaxa ge^ne la ^mEHmElsgEmx'^ida lae ax^edxa 
qlEkwase se^wayowa, qa^s xwet!ldes laxes dzekasE^we gwadsma, 

40 qa lElgowes LE^wa ge^ne. Wa, g-iPmese lElgoxs lae g-ig-alitaxes 
xwedayowe q!Ekwas se^wayowa. Wa la ax^edxes k!ipLalaa qa's 
k'!ap!Eles laxa tIesEmaxs lae xEq !iixLales laxa dzeg-ats!axa 
gwadEme k'limyaxxa, qa^s k' !Ip lalllEles lax maginwallsasa 
lEgwile. Wii, g'il^mese ^wFidstaxs lae etled k'!ip!ed laxa x-Ix-ex- 

45 sEmala tIesEm xrx'-^Lalales laxa lEgwile, qa^s lii gag-alasela 
k'ltpstEnts lax ^wabEts lawasa nagats!e. Wa, laxae et!ed k-!ipE- 
ylnts l^xa dzek'asE^waseda gwadEme. Wa, iil-Em gwiilExs 
lae alakMala la maEmdElqules dzek-asE^we miilaqEla ge^ne LE'wa 
gwadEme. Wa, liixae ax^edxa le^wa^ye, qa^s LEpEyindes laq. 

50 Wa, gH^mese gwalExs lae laxa aLlexa tslEdiiqe, qa^s lii p!ox^wId 
laxa ilwadzoxLowe kME;V 'aoklwa. Wii, lii k'!es q!exse pIogwanE- 
masexs g'iixae gEmxElaqexs g^axae nii^nakwa. Wa, hex^ida^mese 
ax^edEx xElxwala k'lawayases lii^wiinEme, qa^s klaxalex t!Ent!En- 
xEdza^yas. Wa, glh'mese ^wMaxs lae pEX-^IdEq laxa lEgwile, qa 

55 lEnlEndEdzox^wides. Wa, g'iPmese gwalExs lae la^wunEmas ax^ed- 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 299 

thill ; and after she has done so, her husband takes | a short board 56 
and makes a cover for the box. He | fits it so that it will not leak. 
Then his wife | takes olachen-fat that is left after the oil has been 
dried out of the olachen in | Kiiight Inlet. She puts it on a board, 
takes a stone || and hammers it until it becomes a thick paste, which 60 
is very sticky. | After she has done so, she takes her tongs and with 
them picks the | stones out of the bottom of the box in which the 
huckleberries with salmon-spawn have been cooked. | When all the 
stones are out, she takes the pounded fat | and puts a httle all around 
the opening of the || box. Then she fits the cover on the box so that 65 
it I lies on the olachen-fat and so that it is air-tight. | Then her hus- 
band sits down on it, and the woman takes more olachen-fat and | 
smears it all around between the box and the cover. She takes | 
the heated skunk-cabbage leaves, cuts off a strip two finger-widths 
wide, II and sticks it on to the olachen-fat j all around the box cover. 70 
When this is done, she puts it down in a | cool corner of the house. 
She leaves it there until the | season of the winter-ceremonial. | 

I have forgotten this. She spreads the heated skunk-cabbage 
leaves || over the boiled huckleberries mixed with salmon-spawn. | 75 
She spreads them smoothly all around the corners; and after doing 
so, she puts on | the cover. All tliis is done in the same way with 

xa ts!ats!ax"same, qa^s yikuyilg'ileq qaeda Lawatsa. Wii, la^me 56 
babanaakwa qa k'!eses hatsaleda hasa^ye laq, yixs laaLes gEUEme 
Sx'edxa q'.aboqwe yix sEmyak'awa^yasa sEmk'axa dzax^une lax 
Dzawade, qa^s lEgEdzodes laxa sax"dzEse. Wa, la ax^edxa t!esEme, 
qa^s lEsElgEndes laq, qa alak!ales gEnx'^ida, qa alak"!ales kliita. 60 
Wa, gH^mese gwalExs lae ax^edxa k!ipLalaa, qa^s k- Iip^Qstales laxa 
t!esEmaxs lae xEqluxxales laxa dzeg'ikwe malaqElaxa ge-'ne LE^wa 
gwadEme. Wa. giPmese ^wi^losteda t!esEmaxs lae ax^edxa lEdzE- 
kwe qiaboqwa, qa^s xaLlEX'^ide gsls^its lax awe^stas awaxsta^yasa 
Lawatsa. Wa, la ax^edxa ylkGya^ye, qa^s ylkuylndes laq. Wa, 65 
la^me papaxk-Enaxa qiaboqwe, qaxs aEmxaakwae. Wa, la k!wa- 
kiEylnde la^wunsmaseqexs laes gEUEme ax^edxa qiaboqwe, qa^s 
gEltse^stalis lax awe^stas paqalaena^yasa ^yikuya^j^e. Wa, la ax^ed- 
xa pEnkwe k!Ek'!a6k!wa, qa^s bExalexa maldEndzayaakwe laxEns 
q!waq!wax-ts!ana^yex. Wa, la klfldeg-ints laxa q!ab6qwe lax 70 
Swe=stasa ylkuya^ye. Wa, laEm gwal laxeq. Wa, la hang-alllas 
laxa wudanegwilases g'okwe. Wa, laEm lalaal laxa tsetsIeqlEn- 
xaxa ts!;\wtinxe ha^nel laq. 

Wa, hexoLEn lIeIcwcsoxs LEpEyindaasa pEnkwe k'!Ek-!aok!wa 
laxa dzegikwe malaqElaxa ge^ne LE^wa gwadEme. Wa, laEm ae- 75 
kMaxs lae LEpEyints laq. Wii, g'IPmese gwiilExs lawisLae yikiiyints 
ylkuya^yas. Wii, heEm ^nami^liilote gwiig-ilasaxa gwadEme LEHva 



300 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann.ss 

78 huckleberries, | with large blueberries, small blueberries, and scarlet 
berries ( ?) . All of these are treated in the same way, | the four kinds 
that I have just named, in the same way as the red huckleberries are 

80 treated when they are || picked and eaten. The eating of the large 
blueberries, the eating of the small blueberries, | and the eating of the 
mountain scarlet berries (?) is the same. | Another name of the 
small blueberries is "mouldy blueberries." That is all about this. | 
1 Viburnum '-Berries with Oil. — Nowl wll talk about | the viburnum- 
berries mixed with oil, for there is only one way of cooking them, | 
as I have described. When they have been cooked, | they pour them 
5 into the large swallowing-basket and the || medium-sized swallo-wdng- 
basket, and also into the front-basket; and when | they are all full 
of steamed viburnum-berries, the woman takes a | high box, wliich is 

10 two spans | wide and long, | and which is three spans liigh. || The 
cover is made to fit on (air-tight). Tliis is put down by the | woman. 
Then she takes a large dish and puts it down next | to her seat, and 
she takes oil and pours it | into the large dish. When it is half full, 
she stops I pouring m the oil. She takes a small basket, goes down 

15 to the beach, || and puts six stones into it. She carries them back in 
one hand, | coming up from the beach, and carries them into the 
house, and | she puts them down next to the fire. Then she puts 

78 SElEme LE^wa noxwa LE^wa tsEltsEle; ^naxwaEm he gweg-ilasE^wa 
mox-widalaxEn LeLEqElasE^we lax gwaja^lalasaxa gwadEmaxs lae 

80 k'lElasE^wa Loxs lae gwatgiitsE^wa, LE^va sEsElEmg-axa sElEme, 
LE^wa nox"naxwaxa noxwa, LE^wa tsEtsEltsElegaxa tsEltsEle. 
HeEm ^nEm LegEmsa ^noxwe quxalas. LaEm ^wFla gwala. 
1 Viburnum'-Berries with Oil. — Wa, la^mesEn edzaqwal gwagwex's^alal 
laxa L!akwe tMsa ylxs ^nEmaaLe gweg-ilasaqexs lae L!aL!op!a- 
sE^wa laxEn g-ale waldEma. Wii, he'maaxs lae gwala L!aL!op!aqexs 
lae Llopa. Wa, a^mise guxts!alayo laxa nag-a^ye LE^wa heloma- 
5 gEme lExa^ya Loxs lE^maeda nanaagEme lExa^ya. Wa, g il^mese 
^naxwa qoqut!axa q!6lkwe t!Elsaxs laeda ts!Edaqe ax^edxa Lawa- 
tsaxa yix"sEme, yixs ma^lp !Enxse^stalae laxEns q!waq!wax-ts!a- 
na^yex, yix ^wadzosgEmasas. Wa, laxae heEm g-Udo^latse. Wa, 
la yudux"p!Enk-e ^walasgEmasas laxEns q!waq!wax-ts!ana^yex. 

10 Wii, la babanaakwe yikwa-'yas. Wa, heEm g-ax hang-alFlEmsa 
ts!Edaqe. Wa, la ax^edxa ^walase loqlwa, qa^s g-axe hang-alilas 
laxes kiwaelase. Wa, laxae ax^edxes L!e^na, qa^s la guxtslots 
laxa ^walase loqlwa. Wa, giPmese nEgoyoxsdalaxs lae gwal 
guqas. Wa, la ax^edxa lalaxame, qa^s la lEnts!es laxa L!Ema%e, 

15 qa^s xE^x"ts!odesa qlELlEsgEme t!esEm laqexs g-axae k-!6xk-!otE- 
laqexs g-axae losdesEla, qa^s la kMogweLElaq laxes g-okwe. Wii, lii 
k- !ogun6lisas laxes lEgwIle. Wii, hex'^ida^mese xEx"LEntsa tlesEme 

I Viburnum pauciflorum Pylaine. 



BOAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 301 

them I on the fire, and she takes the bucket of water and | puts it 
down where she is going to work. She takes her tongs and || puts 20 
them down. Then she takes a small dish and puts it down. | Then 
she takes a bucket of water, and she pours the water | into the small 
dish. Now she watches the stones which are on the | fire until they 
are just hot enough to be a little red. | As soon as they have that 
color, she takes her tongs, || picks up the stones, dips them into the 25 
small dish with water | in it, so that the ashes on them come off, and 
she I puts them into the oil. She does the same with the other | 
stones; and when all the oU is melted, she takes a | bucket of water 
and pours it on the melted || oil. After it has staid there a little while, 30 
she picks the stones out | and throws them down by the side of the 
fire. After she has taken them all out, she | takes a large ladle, dips 
it into the oil and water, and moves it up and down. | When she has 
done this a little while, the oil and water are mixed, and | they get 
cold, and the mixture of oil || and water looks white. Wlien they are 35 
well mixed, she takes a basket of viburnum-berries | and pours the 
berries into the high box. When | they are all emptied out, the box 
is full. Then she takes the dish in which she has | the water mixed 
with oil, and places it across the corner of the berry-box, and | pours 
(the contents) very slowly over the || viburnum-berries. Then the 40 



laxes lEgwile. Wa, la Sx^edxa nagatsle ^wabEts lalaxa ^wape, qa^s 18 
g-axe hang'alllas laxes eaxElase. Wa, la ax^edxes tslesLala, qa 
g-axes k'adela. Wa, la ax^edxa lalogume qa^s g-axexat! k'ag-ali- 20 
las. Wa, la Sx^edxa nagats!e ^wabEtslalilxa ^wape, qa^s la guqa- 
sas laxa lalogume. Wa, la doqwalaxa t!esEme xEx"Lalales laxa 
lEgwlla, qa a^mes hi'lale tslElqwalaena^yas qa halsEla^me x'lxsEm- 
x'^ida. Wa, giPmese he gwegusgEmx-^IdExs lae ax^edxes tsIesLala, 
qa^s k'!lp!ides laxa t!esEme, qa^s lil hapstEnts laxa ^wabEts!all- 25 
laxa lalogume, qa ^wFlawesa guna^ye k!wek!iltsEmeq. Wa, lii 
k'!ip!Eqas laxa Lle^na. Wii, la hanal he gweg-ilaxa waokwe 
tlesEma. Wa, gIPmese ^wHla yax^Ideda L!e-'naxs lae ax^edxa 
nagatsle ^'wabEtsIalilxa ^wape, qa-'s la guqiEqas laxa yaxEkwe 
Lle^na. Wa, glPmese gagalaxs lae k' lip^ustalaxa tIesEme laq, 30 
qa^s k' libEnolisEles laxes lEgwIle. Wa, giPmese ^wPlo^staxs lae 
ax^edxa ^walase k-ats!Enaqa, qa^s tseg-ostalesa L!e^na LE^wa ^wape. 
Wa, giPmese gegililExs lae lElgoweda L'.e^na LE^wa ^wapaxs lae 
wiida^stax'^Ida. Wa, la^me alak'lala la ^mElstowa qElokwe Lle^na 
LE^wa ^wape. Wa, g-iPmese lElgoxs lae ax^edxa t!et!Elts!ala 35 
laElxa^ya, qa^s la giixts'.alas laxa yIx"sEme Lawatsa. Wa, gll- 
^mese ^wPIosexs lae Elaq qot!a. Wa, la kag-illlaxa qEl6x"ts!aIaxa 
Lle^na loqlwa, qa-s la k'ag'iigEnts laxa t!Elsts!ala Lawatsa, qa^s 
k'!ese eattsilaxs lae qEbE^nakulasa qElokwe Lle'na lax okuya^yasa 
tiElse. Wa, he^mis la ts!axalts!alatsa qElokwe Lle^na lax awaga- 40 



302 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

41 water and oil run down among the | berries. She keeps the dish with 
the mixed oil and berries turned over for a long time, | because the 
mixture does not run very fast. It runs in among the | vibiirnum- 
berries. When the mixed water and oil does not run in any more, 
she puts I the dish upright and places it on the floor of the house, 

45 for II the berries are now covered with water and oil. She takes the 
cover of the | box, and her husband takes a | drill and his straight 
knife and splits good | red-pine wood. He cuts it out and makes 
pegs out of it. When | he has done so, he drills through the cover 

50 and the edge of the || box, pulls out his drill, wets the pegs with his 
saUva, I and, when one is wet all over, he puts it into the | drill-hole 
and takes a stone and drives in the peg. | The drill-holes are three 

55 finger-widths apart. | He puts a peg mto every hole. After || he has 
done so, he puts the box down in a cool corner of the house. That is 
all about this. | 
1 The First Dog-Salmon of the Season. — Now I will talk | about the 
salmon obtained by those who fish [on the rivers] at the mouth of 
the I river, when they are going to eat (the salmon) quickly. When 
the dog-salmon are seen j jumping at the mouth of the river, the 
5 man at once || takes his fishing box and opens it, and he takes 
out I his two harpoon points, and he prepares them. And after j he 

41 ^yasa tiElse. Wa, la gael qogu^nakulasa qElogwatslaxa Lle^na 
loqlwa qaxs k'lesae albaleda qElokwe L!e^naxs lae ts!ats!aqElaxa 
t!Else. Wa, g-IPmese gwal ts!axEleda qElokwe Lle-'naxs lae t!ax^Id- 
xa qEl6x"ts!alaxa Lle^na loqlwa. Wa, la hang-aliiaxa loq !wa, qaxs 

45 lE'mae t'.EpEyalaxa qElokwe L!e^na. Wa, la ax^edEx yikuya^yasa 
L lagwats !axa tiElse i.awatsa. Wa, la ax^ede la^wunEmasexes 
sElEme LE^wa nExxala k'lawayowa, qa^s xox^widexa egaqwa 
wttnagula. Wa, lii k'lax'widEq, qa^s Lapelax-^ideq. Wa, g-IPmese 
gwalExs lae sElx'^idEx yikiiya^yas hex'sala lax ogwaga-'yasa La- 

50 watsa. Wa, la lExuLElodxes sElsmaxs lae mElx^untses kluneLlE- 
xawa^ye laq. Wa, g-iPmese la klunxEnalaxs lae Lastots laxes 
sEla^ye. Wa, la ax^edxa tIesEme, qa^s dex"bEtEndesa LabEme. 
Wa, la yaeyudux^dEne Swalagalaasae sEla^yas laxEns q!waq!wax'- 
ts'.ana^yex, yixa la q Iwalxostalaxa LabEme. Wa, gIPmese gwalExs 

55 lae hilng-alllas laxa wiidanegwllases g-okwe. Wa, laEm gwala. 
I The First Dog-Salmon of the Season.' — Wa, la^me'sEn gwa'gwex-s^a- 
lal laqe'xs g-a'lae la'loLlasosa wiwametslenoxwe lax o'x"siwa^yasa 
wa, qa^s hala'xwasE^wa. Wa, he'-maaxs la'e do'gula gwa^xni'se 
Ek'a lax 5'x"siwa^yasa wa. Wa, he'x-'ida^meseda bEgwa'nEme 
5 &x^e'dxeswI'wak-ayEwa'ts!e qa-'s x'o'xHvideq. Wa, la ax^wults!o'd- 
xes ma^ltsE'm mema'sa qa^s hashe'naqeq. Wa, gi'I^mese gwal 
hashe'naqaqexs la'e ax^e'dxes t!a't!aq!wayowe qa-'s hashe'naxe- 

1 Here follows a prayer to the salmon (see p 609, also p. 223). 



iioAS] PRESERVATION OF FOOD 303 

has prepared them, he takes his harpoon shaft and prepares | it, 8 
putting on the prongs, so that they fit on firmly. | As soon as he has 
done so, he goes to the beach where his fishing canoe is. || Then he goes 10 
to spear the sahnon, which swim in the | mouth of the slough. Then 
he begins to spear them. If there are many | dog-salmon, it does 
not take long until he has obtained many. ] Then he goes home.' | 
Then the woman herself^ rephcs, " Yes," and goes up from the bank 
of the river, and || takes an old mat and spreads it out on the beach 15 
seaward from | the high-water mark. As soon as she has done this, 
she goes down to the beach | where the spearsman's canoe is, and 
she puts her fingers into the gills of two j dog-salmon, two in each 
hand. Then she carries the | four salmon up from the beach, and 
she puts them on the old mat which is spread out on the beach. || 
After she has taken them all out, she takes her fish-knives and | sharp- 20 
ens them on a whetstone; and after she has sharpened | them, she 
takes a small mat and spreads it out on the beach by her side. Then 
she I puts the salmon on it. Then she can just reach the | salmon, 
when she takes it to cut it open. Then she does the saime as she || 
does when she is cutting open dog-salmon to be roasted, and she 25 
only I cuts the meat thin along its sldn, and the | edges of the cut 
salmon are left on in this manner.^ | After she has cut it on her 

dex dze'gumas qa^s bE'nx'^Idesa me'mase laq qa E'Palales. Wa, 8 
gi'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e la'Ents!es la'xes t!a't!aq!waats!axs ha-ne'- 
sae. Wa, laE'm lal t!a't!aq!walxa klo'tElaxs mEna'lae lax o'x"si- lo 
wa^yas wa'yalasas. Wa, la^me'se tlax^wi'da. Wa, g'l'Pmese q!e'nE- 
meda gwa^xnisaxs la'e k'les ge'x'^IdExs la'e qteyo'La. Wa, gax 
na'^nakwa.' . . 

Wa, la q!ule'x's-'Em^ wa'xeda tslEda'qaxs la'e lS,'sdes qa^s le 
ax^e'dxes k!a'k!5bane qa^s g-a'xe LEpla'lisaq lax Lla'sa^yasa 15 
yaa'xmote. Wa, g-i'Pmese gwa'ialise Sxa'^yasexs la'e lE'nts!es 
lax ha^ne'dzasasa t !a't !aq !waats !ex-de. Wa, la gasx'EX'^I'dxa mae'- 
mal^e gwa^xnis lax wa'x's5lts!anas. Wa, la^me'se gaso'sdesElaxa 
mo'we k!6tEla qa^s le klEgEdzo'dalas la'xa LEbe'se k"!a'k'!obana. 
Wa, gl'Pmese ^wFloltamasqexs la'e ax^e'dxes xwa'xuLayowe qa^s 20 
g-g'xElalax'^ldeq la'xa ge'xesdEme. Wa, g'i'l^mese gwal g'e'xa- 
qexs lae ax^edxes amay^e le'^wa^ya qa^s LEpla'liseq la'xa o'gwage- 
llsas k'!Eg-ats!a'sexa k'!o'tEla. Wa, a'^mese he'ltslapElaxa k'lo'tE- 
laxs la'e da'x'^idEq qa'^s xwa'l^Ideq. He'Emxaa gwe'gilaqe gwe'- 
g'i^lasasa xwaLaxa L!obEkwelasE^wa gwa^xnise. Wa, le'xa^mesex 25 
psla'e tlE'lsa^yas yix q lEmElts la^yas Lle'sas. Wa, he'^mesexs kMa'- 
k' !EwasEnxElaeda tlEle'kwe; g'a gwa'leg-a {fig.^). 

Wa, g'i'Pmese gwal tiE'lsaq laxes tlEle'dzowe xag'agwa'lega^ la'e 

1 Here follows a prayer, p. 609. ' She answers her own prayer. " See first figure on p. 304. 
' On a slanting board supported by a log See figure on p. 250. 




304 ETHNOLOGY OP THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann.>» 

cutting-board in this manner/ | _^X''>->^ she takes her basket 
30 and puts into it what she has \j T? cut. Then || she car- 
ries it up on the beach and takes it \ \ / / into her house. Then 
she takes the I drying-poles, wliich \\ // are always left in their 
places in the houses of the river \LZ/ people. | Then she 
hangs the cut salmon lengthwise on the drying-poles in this manner : | 
After she has done so, she takes short boards 
and I puts them under the place where she has 
hung up her cut salmon. She does || not 
allow the heat to strike what is now hanging 
lengthwise on the | drying-poles. Sometimes 
it hangs for one day; then the woman f looks 
at it. As soon as it is half dry, the woman takes it down; and | she 
gathers together the drying-poles, and she puts the cut salmon up 
40 again; | but it is spread out. Now it is spread out when she || puts 
it up again ; and it only differs from preserved skin of salmon | caught 
with a hook in the upper part of the river, in that (the salmon) is not 
fat I when it is found spawning | in the upper part of the river, 
while it is really fat when it is speared at the | mouth of the river. 
45 And as soon as they finish cutting up || the speared salmon, the 
woman at once gathers the shme and | everything that comes from 
the salmon, and puts it into the basket, and | she goes and pours it 
into the water at the mouth of the river. 

Jix^edxes lExa^ye qa^s S,xts!6daleses tlElsa^j-e laq. Wa, la k'lox^- 

30 usdesElaq qa^s las lae'Las la'xes g'o'kwe. Wa, la^mes ax^e'dxa 
gayoqaxs he'mEnala^mae Sx^a'laLEla la'xa wl'wamedzatsle go'kwa. 
Wa, la^'me'se ao'tslaqaleda t!Ele'kwe la'xa ga'yowe; ga gwa'lega 
{fig.). Wa, gl'l^mese gwa'lExs la'e ax^e'dxa ts!a'ts!Ex"sEme qa-s 
he'lEwabodes la'xa la g ila'laLElats t!Ele'kwe. Wa, laE'm 

35 k!es he'lqlalaq xa^magaaLEleda L!e's-ala la'xa la gila'laLEla la'xa 
gayo. Wa, la ^na'PnEmp!Ena xa^malaLElaxs la'eda tslEda'qe do'x- 
^widEq. Wa, gi'Pmese k' la'yax-'widExs la'eda tslEda'qe axa'xodEq 
qa^s q!a'p!eg-aaLElodexa gega'yowe. Wa, la^me'se xwe'laqostod 
LEpIa'LElotsa tiEle'kwe la'xa e'k"!e. Wa, laE'm LEpa'iaxs la'e 

40 e't'.ed e'kMe^stEndEq. Wa, le'x-aEm 5'guqaiayos la'xa t!E'lsa 
qa^s xamsllaxs ha'ela ga'Le ^nE'ldzasa waxs la'e tsle'nas^ldeda 
gwa^xnl'saxs la'e xwe'la^wa la'xes la q!a'nEm qa^s xwe'la^waas 
lax ^nE'ldzasa wi'wa, ylxs a'lae tsE'nxweda ,sEg'ine'te lax ox"- 
siwa^yasa wl'wa. Wa, he^'mesexs g'i'l^mae gwal xwa'LasE^wa 

45 sEg'ine'taxs I'ae hex'^ida^ma tslsdaqe q!ap!ex"^idxa k"!ele LE^wa 
^na'xwa g'ayo'l la'xa k' !otEla qa^s lExtsIo'des la'xa lExa'^ye qa^s 
la qEpstE'nts laxa ox"siwa^yasa ^wa. 

' On a slanting board supported by a log. 



IV. KECIPES 

Eoasted Salmon. — This is when the man goes catching salmon | at 1 
night. Tluit is what is called by the river people "taking salmon | 
with hooks at night up the river," when they are going to dry | the 
roasted dog-salmon for wanter. Dog-salmon are speared || by the 5 
river people at the mouth of the river when they are going to eat 
them at once, | while the dog-salmon are still phosphorescent. 
Then they mil not | keep a long time mthout getting mouldy when 
they are roasted, for they are fat. | 

Now I shall talk about the salmon speared at the mouth of the 
river | when it is still phosphorescent. When the man || who spears lo 
the salmon gets one, he goes home as soon as he has | speared it. 
His wife at once takes an | old mat and spreads it over her back; 
then she takes her | belt and puts it on over the old mat on her back. | 
Then she takes along a large basket in wliich to carry the dog-salmon 
on her back. || She goes to the canoe of her husband and puts | four 15 
dog-salmon into her carrying-basket. Then she goes up the beach to 
the place | whore she is going to cut them. She puts them on an | 
old mat, which is spread on tlie ground outside of the house. As soon 
as I she has tlirown them on the ground, she takes her fish-knife and 
sharpens it; || and after she has sharpened it, she cuts off the gills of 20 

Roasted Salmon. — Wa, he^maaxs la'eda bEgwa'nEme ya'l^nEkii- 1 
|axa ga'nuLe; wa, he'Em gwE^yo'sa wiwaya'laenoxwe negwl'saxa 
ga'Laxa gwa^xnl'saxa ga'nuLe la'xa ^nE'ldzasa wa, ylxs x lle'Laxes 
Llo'pasoLe gwa^xni's qae'da ts'.awii'nxe. Wii, he/^mis sEka'sosa 
wiwaya'laenoxwa gwa^xnise lax o'x"siwa'yasa wiis, yixs ha'labaleLe 5 
ha^ma'xs he'^mae a'les bE'nkweda gwa^xni'se, qaxs k-!ea,'sae 
gwe'x-^idaas ga'la k'!es xits!EX'^i'deda Llo'bEkwaxs tsE'nxwae. 

Wii, he't!aLEngwa'gwexs^alasLa sEgine'te lax o'x"siwa^yasa wa, 
yixs he'^mae a'les bE'nkweda gwa^xnl'se. Wa, he'^maaxs la'e 
sEk-e'da ya'1'nEkIwenoxwaxa gwa^xni'se. Wa, gl'Pmese gwal 10 
sEk-a'xs la'e nii'^nakwa. Wii, he'x'^ida^mese gEnE'mas la ax^e'dxes 
k!a'k!obane qa-s LebEg i'ndes la'xes awi'g'a^ye. Wii, la ax^e'dxes 
wiise'ganowe qa^s qEk'iyu'ndes la'xes Le'beg-a'ye kla'kMobane. 
Wa, la^mes o'xLEx'I'dxes ^wa'lase o'xLaats!iixa gwa^xnl'se. Wa, 
la^me's lax ya''yats!ases la'^wunEme. Wa, la^me's k!Exts!o'tsa 15 
mo'we gwa^xni's la'xes o'xLaakwe lExa'^ya. Wa, la^me's la'sdets 
qa^s les lii'xes xwa'b'idaasLaq. Wa, la^me's axts!6'ts lii'xa 
k!ii'k!obane LEplEsa' lax Lla'sana^yases g'o'kwe. Wa, g-1'l^mese 
qEp!Elsaqexs lae ax^edxes xwaLayowe qa^s tlex'^Ideq. Wa, gll- 
^mese gwal tieka'qexs la'e t'.o's^'IdEx qlo'sna^yasa gwa^xnise. 20 
7.")0!)2— 21— 3.5 ETH— PT 1 20 305 



306 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann 35 

21 the dog-salmon. | When the gills are off, she cuts around the | neck, 
but she does not cut off the head from the backbone. Then | she cuts 
from the back of the neck down to four finger-widths from the tail on 
the upper side. | Now a tliin strip of flesh is left on the backbone. || 

25 As soon as the cut reaches down to the belly, she turns it around, | 
and she begins to cut from the tail upward to the back of the neck. | 
As soon as she takes off the backbone, she | takes her roasting-tongs 
and takes the slime and rubs it | over the roasting-tongs, so that they 

30 may not get burned when they stand || by the fire of the house. 
Then she winds cedar-bark around the tongs one | span from the 
bottom of the roasting-tongs; | and when this is done, she takes one 
of the cut salmon and | puts it crosswise into the roasting-tongs. 
Then she takes cedar-bark and ties it | tight above the cut salmon; 

35 and after she has || tied it, she takes another salmon and puts it | the 
other way, above the one that she put in first. | Then she again takes 
cedar-bark and ties it above the salmon. | After she fuiishes tying it, 
she splits cedar-wood, — | long and slender pieces. These are called "the 

40 lock." I! Then she pushes one of these on each side, two finger-widths 
from I the edge of the salmon-meat, tlirough between | the legs of the 
roasting-tongs, lengthwdse of the salmon; | and after she has finislied 
this, she pusl\cs long ones across | the salmon and the "locks" wliich 

21 Wa, gl'l^mese lawa'masxa qlo'sna^yaxs la'e tlo'tse^stE'ndEx oxa'- 

• '.. wa^yas; la kMes qako'dEX he'xtla^yas lax XEkla'dzas. Wa, la 

xwa'HdEX o'xLaata^yas ha'xEla la'xa mo'dEne lax e'kla^yas 

■ ts la'sna^yas. Wa, laE'm pEle' q!EmEldza'=yasa xa'kiadzowe. Wa, 

25 g-i'Pmese la'gaa lax tEk'!ases xwa'LasE^waxs la'e xwe'l^IdEq. Wa, 
la ga'bEtEnd xwa'l^edEX wElxwa'xsda^yas e'klolEla lax 6'xLaata- 
^yases xwa'tasE^we. Wa,gi'l-mese lawa'masEx xa'kMadzasexs la'e 
ax^e'dxes Llo'psayowe qa-s ax^e'dexa kMe'la qa^s yiltslEl^E'ndes 
la'xa L'.o'psayowe qa k!e'seLEs klumElx'^i'dEl qo lal Lana'lesL 

30 la'xa lEgwi'las. Wa, la qEX'^i'tsa dEna'se la'xa ^nE'mplEnke 
la'xEUs q!wa'q!wax'ts!ana^ye, g'a'x'^id lax o'xLa^yasa L!o'psayowe. 
Wa, g-1'l^mese gwa'lExs la'e ax^e'dxa xwa'LEkwe k!o'tEla qa^s 
o-e'ts!odes la'xa Llo'psayowe. Wa, la ax^e'dxa dEna'se qa^s ylPi'de 
lEklude'ts lax e'k'Ia^yasa xwa'LEkwe kMo'tEla. Wa, gl'Pmese 

35 gwal yiLa'qexs la^e e'tled ax^e'dxa ^uE'me klo'tEla qa^s xwe'la- 
iemaseqexs la'e ge'ts !6ts lax e'kleLElasa gl'lx'de axts!o'yos. Wa, 
la'xaa ax^e'dxa dEna'se qa^s yiH'des lax e'k-lEnxa-'yas. Wa, 
g'i'Pmese gwa'le ylLa'^yasexs la'e xo'x^widxa k Iwa^xLa'^we, 
wi'swulta, la g I'lsgilsta. Wa, he'Em Le'gadEs k!a'adEme. Wa, 

40 la^me'se La's^itsa ^na'l^nEmtslaqe la'xa ma'ldEne g-a'x-^ide lax 
ewu'nxa^yasa qlE'mladza^yasa k'!o'tEla. Wa, la na'qodalax 
e'wanuts'.EXsta^yasa L!o'psayowe ao'ts!aqala LE^wa k' lo'tEla. Wa, 
o-i'l^mese gwa'lxeq la'e La's^itsa gl'lsg ilstowe lax na'qawa^yaaa 



BOAS] RECIPES 307 

she first put on. Now there is || one on each side of the roasting. 45 
tongs in this manner: | Then the same is done on the 

other side. After this is ^^ ^^ finished, | the woman puts (the 
tongs) up by the side of ^U fl^ the fire. She fu'st turns | the 
meat side towards the Ij'hI— i fire; and when it is done, | she 
turns it around to the Ml ~lij skin side. As soon as that is 
done, the II man requests ^~";r^ permission from his wiie to in- 50 
vite his friends | to come and eat the roasted salmon while 

it is warm. I As soon as his wife tells him to go ahead and call 
them, I the man goes and invites them. Then his wife takes a 
mat, I which is to be the food-mat of the guests of her husband; 
then she || spreads a mat for the guests of her husband to sit on; 55 
and it does not | take long before her husband comes back fol- 
lowed by his guests, for | they try to come before the roasted 
salmon cools off. | Immediately they sit down on the mat that has 
been spread out; and when | tliey are all in, the woman takes the 
food-mat and || spreads it in front of her husband's guests. Then 60 
she goes back | and takes the two roasted salmon in the tongs; and 
she takes them out, | one for each two men. Then she lays tliem 
skin down, | on the food-mat. When there are four men, | tliere 
are two food-mats, and there is one || roasted salmon. There is no 65 

k' lo'tEla LE^wa g'i'lxde itx^a'LEloyos k' la'adEma. Wa, laE'm *nal- 
^nEmtslaq lax wa'x'sot lEna^yasa Llo'psayowe; g'a gwa'lega (Jig.). 45 
Wa, laxa'e he'Em gwa'leda apsa'dza^yas. Wa, gl'Pmese gwa'lExs 
la'eda tslEda'qe La'nollsas la'xes lEgwI'le. Wa, laE'm gwa'sala 
laxes qlE'mladza^ye la'xa lEgwI'Ie. Wa, g^i'l^mese l!o'pexs la'e 
le'x'^IdEq la'xes Lle'sadza^ye. Wa, g'l'Pmese Llo'pExs la'eda 
bEgwa'nEme hana'k'axes gEnE'me, qa^s Le'^lalexes ^ne^uEmS'kwe 50 
qa g'a'xes hExha'q"xa L!o'bEkwaxs he'^mae a'les tslE'lqwe. Wii, 
gl'Pmese wa'xe gEUE'mas qa Le'^alagus la'e he'x-^Ida^meda 
bEgwa'uEme la Le'^lala. Wa, la'La gEnE'mas ax^e'dxa le'^wa^ye 
qa ha^ma'dzoLEs Le^ansmLases la'^wunEme. Wa, la'xaa LEp!a'- 
lilax klwadzE^we'soLas Le4anEmLases la'^wfmEme. Wa, k'!e'st!a 55 
ga'laxs ga'xae la'^wiinEmas hogwI'k'Elaxes Le4anEmE, qaxs 
ha^ya'lEmk"!aaqexs k'le's^mae wudEX'^i'deda Llo'bEkwe. Wa, 
he'x'^da^mese kludzEdzo'lilxa LEbe'le le'^wa^ya. Wa, gi'Pmese 
^wI'lg-alllExs la'eda tslEda'qe ax^e'dxa ha^ma'dzowe le'^wa^ye qa^s 
le LEpdzamolllas lax Le^anEmases la^wunEme. Wa, g'axe aedaaqa 60 
qa^s ax^e'dexa L!6pts!a'la ma4 L!eL!6'bEkwa qa^s le xlk'lEX'^I'dxa 
^nE'me qae'da ma^lo'kwe be'bEgwanEma. Wa, la nELEdzo'lIlas 
la'xa ha^ma'dzowe le'^wa^ya. Wa, gi'Pmese mo'kwa be'bEgwauE- 
maxs la'e ma'^Ia ha^ma'dzowe le'slwa^ya; wii, la ^nal^nEmeda Llo'- 
bEkwe. Wa, laE'm k- lea's Lle'^na tslEpa's qaxs Lo'mae tsE'nxweda 65 



308 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

66 oil for dipping, for the | dog-salmon is very fat wliile it is still phos- 
phorescent, when it is jumping in the mouth of the rivers. | Then the 
guests themselves break it and eat the salmon | speared at the mouth 
of the river. Early in the morning, | dog-salmon speared at the mouth 

70 of the river is not eaten, for it is fat; || it is only eaten in the after- 
noon and evening. | Whenever it is eaten in the morning, it makes 
those who eat it feel sleepy the whole day long, | for it is very fat. 
Therefore they are afraid | to eat it in the morning. As soon as the 

75 guests fuiish eating it, | the man takes what is left and eats it || with 
his wife, while his guests drink water freshly | drawn. After they 
finish drinking, the guests go out. | They only wash their hands in 
their houses; and | after the man has finished eating with his wife, 

80 he I gathers the bones and the skin left by his guests, || puts them 
on a mat, and throws them into the sea on the | beach. Tliis is all 
about the salmon speared at the mouth of the river. 
1 Blistered Salmon. — And we will also talk about the green | salmon 
almost dry. The woman takes the almost dried green | salmon from 
the place where it is hanging. | She takes her tongs and picks up the 
5 green salmon, and || blisters the meat-side of the green salmon by 
the fii-e. As soon as | the green salmon gets grey, she turns it and 
places the skin-side | towards the fire; and as soon as the skin is 

66 gwa^xni'saxs he'^mae a'le^s bE'nkwexa mE^na'la lax 6'x"siwa^yasa 
wi'wa. Wa, la qltile'xsEm LE'nqweda k!we'laxs liExha'qwaaxa 
sEgine'te lax 6'x"siwa^yasa wa. La k' !es gaa'xstexagaa'leda hExha'- 
qwaxa sEgine'te gwa^xne'sa lax o'x"siwa^yasa wa qaxs tsE'nxwae. 

70 A'l^Em ha^mx-l'tsoxa la gwal UEqa'leda ^na'la LE^wa dza'qwa. 
Gi'b'EmLa hExha'x"soxa gaa'laxs la'e lox"-me'qa sE'nbexa ^na'lada 
ha^ma'paq qaxs xE'nLElae tsE'nxwa. Wa, he'^mes la'g ilas kilE'm 
ha^mii'xa gaa'la. Wa, gi'l^mese gwal hExha'qwa Le-'lanEmaxs la'e 
he'x'^ida^meda bEgwanEme la ax^edxa ha-'mote qa^s wa'waq!aayowe 

75 LE^wis gEnE'maxs la'aLal nax^e'des Le^lanEmaxa a'lta ^wap tsa'- 
nEnis. Wa, gl'Pmese gwal nii'qaxs la'e ho'qilwElseda k!we'lde. 
Wa, laE'm a'l^Eml ts!E'nts!Enkwal la'xes gig 6'kwe. Wa, g'l'l- 
^meseda bEgwa'nEme gwal wa'waqlaayo LE^wis gEnE'maxs la'e 
q'.ap'.e'x'^idxes ha^mo'te xaq LE^wa Lle'sases kIwe'ladzEmaxs la'e 

80 axdzo'ts la'xa le'^wa^ye qa^s le kla^stE'nts la'xa dE'msxe la'xa 
iJEma^se. Wa, laE'm gwal la'xa sEgine'te lax o'x"siwa^yasa wa. 
1 Blistered Salmon. — Wii, he'EmlxaEns gwa'gwex's^alaLa a'lxwase 
k!o'loxwa. Wa, gi'pEm qa'tse^staleda ha^yalaxa a'lxwase k'!6'- 
lo?wa la'eda tslEda'qe S,x^e'dxa klo'loxwe la'xe ge'xwalaase. 
Wa, la Sx^e'dxes ts!e'sLala qa^s k"!ip!e'des la'xa k'lo'loxwe qa^s 
5 pExa'les E'lsadza^yasa klo'loxwe la'xa gii'lta. Wa, gi'Pmese 
qiixdzo'^nakiileda klo'loxwaxs la'e lex-^IdEq qa^s gwa's^ideq i.le'sas 
la'xa gu'lta. Wa, gl'Pmese hamElgsdzo'deda pE'nsa lax L!e'sasa 



BOAS] EECIPES 309 

covered with blisters, | the woman knows that it is done. Then | S 
she puts it on the dish-mat. || 

She takes water and sprinkles it over it to make it soft; | and after 10 
she has sprinkled it with cold water, she takes the | oil-dish and 
pours oil into it; and after she has done so, she | takes the blistered 
green salmon and puts it down flat, and places it before | those who 
are going to eat it. Then she takes an oil-dish and puts it || outside 15 
of the blistered green salmon.' ... As soon as the woman | takes the 
cup, the man breaks off a piece of the blistered | salmon and dips it 
into the oil, and puts it into his mouth. | He himself breaks off bits 
from what he is eating. | 

Scorched Salmon. — Dried ^ salmon is the breakfast of the Kwakiutl.|| 
In the morning, as soon as they arise, the wife of the | chief takes 20 
dried salmon and scorches it by the fire. As soon as | she finishes 
scorching it, she pounds it on a mat spread out on the floor, to | 
remove the scales loosened by the fire. As soon as she finishes 
pounding it on the floor, | she rubs it to make it soft; and after she 
has rubbed it, || she pounds it again on the floor of the house. Then 25 
she folds up the scorched dried salmon | and puts it down on the 
floor. Then she takes a dish and puts it down at | the place where 

kMo'loxwaxs la'e q'.a'leda tslEda'qaqexs lE^ma'e Llo'pa. Wa, la S 
S,xdzo'ts la'xa he'iaxsta'lile le'^wa^ya. 

Wa, la ax^e'dxa ^wa'pe qa^s xosEldzo'des laq qa pe'qwes. Wa, 10 
gl'Pmes gwal x5'sasa wiida^sta' ^wap la'qexs la'e ax-e'dxa ts!E- 
ba'tsle qa^s k!unxts!o'desa Lle'^na laq. Wa, g'I'Pmese gwa'Ia la'e 
ax^e'dxa la nELdza'lllatsa pE'nkwe k'lo'loxwa qa^s le axdzamo'lllas 
lil'xa ha^ma'pLaq. Wa, la ax-'e'dxa ts!Eba'ts!e qa^s le k^a'x-^rts 
lax Lla'sa^yasa jjs'nkwe k'lo'Ioxwa'. . . Wa, g I'l'mesedatslEda'qe 15 
da'x'^ldxa k!wa^sta'xs la'eda bEgwa'nEme k!6'p!ed la'xa pE'nkwe 
k'lo'Ioxwa qa^'s ts!Ep!e'des la'xa Lle'^na qa-'s tslo'quses la'xeq. 
Wa, laE'm q!ide'xsEm k'!o'pk!opa la'xes ha^ma'^ye. 

Scorched Salmon. — Wa,^ he'Em gaa'xstesa Kwa'g'ula xa^ma'se. 
Wa, iie'^maaxs ga'lae La'x^wldxa gaa'la, wa, la ax^e'de gEnE'masa 20 
g'l'gama^yaxa xa^ma'se qa^s tslEx-^u'.eq la'xa lEgwi'le. Wii, g'i'l- 
^mese gwal ts!Exa'q la'e xusxiidzl'laq la'xa LEbl'le lE'^wa^ya qa 
la'wesa tslExmo'tasa gu'lta. Wa, gi'lnnese gwal xiisxudzi'laqexs 
la'e qlwe'x'^klEq qa pe'x^wides. Wii, gl'Pmese gwal qlo'yaqexs 
la'e e't!ed xiisxiidzilaq. Wii, la k!6'x"sEmdxa tsls'nkwe xa^ma'sa 25 
qa^s gi'g'allleq. Wa, la ax^e'dxa lo'qlwe qa^s ax^a'lileq la'xes 
klwae'lase. Wa, la e'tled Sx^e'dxa tslE'nkwe xa^ma'sa qa^s ts!a- 



1 Part of the description of the eating of the salmon has been omitted, it being a repetition of pre- 
vious descriptions. 
! Lines 19-22 repeated from Publ. Jes. Exp. Vol. V, 427-428. 



310 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann.36 

27 she is sitting, and she takes up again the scorclied dried salmon, | 
opens it, and spreads it out; then she breaks out the belly-part | and 
puts it down. Then she breaks the dried salmon to pieces and puts 

30 it into the || dish. As soon as she has finished, the woman arises 
again and | dips some oil out of the oil-box which stands in the 
corner of the] house. Then she takes an oil-dish [dipping-receptacle], 
and when it is full | she [comes] and puts it down on the floor at the 
place where she is sitting.' . . . After (the man) | has taken a drink 

35 he takes a piece of the dried salmon, folds it up, chews || it, and 
then dips it into the oil. 
1 Preserved Brittle Salmon. — Many men | Uke to eat preserved 
brittle old salmon roasted. | When a man goes to visit one who has | 
5 preserved roasted salmon, the one who has || roasted old salmon at 
once requests the one who comes to visit him to go himself and | 
invite his friends. Immediately the man goes | and invites his 
friends who are sitting on the summer-seat. | As soon as the one who 
invites them comes, | they aU go out of (the summer-seat), and they 
all go into the house with the one who goes to visit. Then a mat || 

10 is spread out, and the one who goes to visit shows the guests where 
to sit. I Then the one who goes to visit does not sit among | his 
friends. Immediately the woman goes and opens the | basket in 
which the roasted salmon is kept, and her husband tends the fire. | 

28 x^wl'deq qa LEpIe'des. Wii, la'wisLa klo'podEx tEklEqa's qa^s 
gl'galiles. Wa, la k!6'k!upsalaxa xa^ma'se qa axtsla'les la'xa 

30 lo'q!we. Wa, g'i'Pmese gwa'la, le e'tled Laxulileda tslEda'qe qa^s 
le tsa'x'^Id la'xa dE'ngwatsIe Lle'^naxs ha-nelae laxa one'gwilasa 
g-6'kwe. Wa, laE'm la da'laxa ts!Eba'ts!e. Wa, q6't!a^mesexs 
ga'xae k'a'g'alilaq la'xes klwae'lase.' . . . Wa, gi'Pmes gwal 
na'qaxs la'e 3,x^e'd la'xa xa^ma'se qa^s k"!o'x"sEmdeq. Wa, 

35 la ma'lex"bEndEq qa^s tslsple'des la'xa Lle^na. 
1 Preserved Brittle Salmon. — Wa, la qle'uEma be'bEgwanEme 
ax^e'xsd qa^s ha^ma'pexa la ge'masxa tso'sa tslEla'k" L!o'bEkwa. 
Wa, gt'l'Em la qa'tse^staleda ^nEmo'k" bEgwa'nEm la'xa axno'- 
gwS,dasa ge'mase Llo'bEkwa; wa, la he'x'^ida^mesa axno'gwadasa 
5 tslEla'ke L!6'bEk" 8,xkMa'laxa qa'tse^stala qa les qliile'x's^Em 
Le'^lalaxes ^ne^nEmo'kwe. Wa, he'x"ida^mese la qa's^deda bEgwa'- 
UEme qa^s le Le'^lalaxes ^ne^nEm5'kwaxs awa'qwalae la'xa awa'- 
qwa^ye. Wa, g'll^mese leda Le^lalaqexs ga'xae hoqiiwEls qa^s g"a'xe 
^wi'^laho'gwlL la'xes qa'tse^stalase. Wa, laE'm gwa'leleda le'^wa^ye 

10 LEbEgwilkwa. Wa, a'^mese he'^ma qa'tse^stalax'de qia'x'sldzexes 
Le'-ianEme. Wa, la^me'seda qa'tse^stalaxde k"!es la k!wa'g'i- 
lilxes ^ne^nEmo'kwe. Wa, he'x'^ida^mesa tslEda'qe la xSx^widxes 
L!6'bEgwats!e Lla'bata. Wa, la'La la'^wunEmas he'laxes lEgwi'le. 

' Part of the description of the eating of the salmon has been omitted. 



BOAS] RECIPES 311 

Then the one who went to invite takes roasted sahnon and puts it 
down flat || on the fire, with the skin of tlie roasted sahnon down- 15 
ward. I As soon as the skin is scorched, he breaks it quickly to pieces 
and I puts it on the mats that have been spread out. The woman 
only I looks on. As soon as he has done so, he takes the dish and | 
puts the broken roasted salmon into it. Then he also takes || oil and 20 
pours it into an oil-dish; and | after he has done so, he takes up the 
dish and the oil-dish which he puts into the dish | at the farther side, 
and he also takes water for them. | Then they rinse their mouths; 
and after they have rinsed their mouths, | they drink. After they 
have fiiaished drinldng, they eat. || Then the owner of the house just 25 
watches the one who | came to visit liim when he is attending to 
the oil; for the guests take much oil | for dipping. They sometimes 
drink oil | when they get choked ; and the one who went to invite will 
pour in oil | whenever the oil-dish is empty [of oil]. When [! they 30 
nearly finish eating, the one who went to invite draws fresh water, | 
and he does not stay long before he comes back, and | he places the 
bucket with the water in it in front of his friends. | Then he takes 
away the dish, and puts it down at | the place where the woman is 
sitting, and the guests drink at once of the || water. After they have 35 
fuaished drinking, they just | wait for the second course. That is 
the end. | 

Wa, le'da qa'tse^stalaxde ax^e'dxa Llo'bEkwe qa^s pElxxE'ndes 
la'xa lEgwIle. Wa, laE'm bEna'dza-'ye Lle'sasa Llo'bEkwe. Wil 15 
g'l'Pmese tslEX'^i'de L!e'sasexs la'e ha'labala LE'nLEnxsEndEq qa^s 
axdzo'des la'xa le'^wa^ye la LEbsla'. Wa, a'^meseda ts.'Eda'qe x'l'- 
ts!axilaq. Wa, gl'1-mese gwa'lExs la'e ax^e'dxa lo'qiwe qa^s 
k"!a'ts!6desa LE'ngEkwe L!6'bEk" laq. Wit, he'Emxaa^wise ax^e'd- 
xa Lle'^na qa^s k!unxts!6'des la'xa tslEba'tsle. Wa, gi'Pmese 20 
gwa'lalilExs la'e k'a'x-^itsa lo'qiwa LE^wa ts!Eba'ts!e la kane'q ■ 
lax Lla'saneqwasa lo'q!wa. Wii, he'Emxaa'wise la'sa ^wa'pe laq. 
Wa, la^me'se ts!Ewe'L!Ex6da. Wa, g^i'Pmese gwal tslEwe'LlExo- 
dExs la'e na'x^ida. Wa, gi'l^mese gwal na'qaxs la'e hamx'^i'da. 
Wa, la^me'da axno'gwaditsa g'okwe a'sm x'i'tslaxilaxa qa'tse- 25 
^stalax'daxs la'e aa'xsTlaxa Lle'^na, qaxs lE^ma'e q!e'q!Ebaleda 
k!we'laxa Lle'^naxs tslEpae. Wa, la na'x-'ede ^na'xwa la'xa L!e- 
^naxs la'e ^msk'lExa'. Wii, he'^mis la k!unxts!6'daatsa qa'tse^sta- 
lax'diixs la'e 'wI'lg"Elts!aweda ts'.Eba'tslitxa Lle^na. Wa, g-lPmese 
Ela'q gwa'la ha^ma'paxs la'eda qji'tse-'stalax'de tsax a'lta ^wa'pa. 30 
Wa, k'!e'st!a ga'x-^idExs ga'xae ae'daaqa. Wa, a'^mese la 
h&'nx-dzam5lilasa nagats!e' ^wa'bEtsIala lii'xes ^ne^nEmo'kwe. 
Wa,-_he'x'^ida^mese Sx^e'dxa l6'q!we qa^s le hS,'ng"alilas lax k!wa- 
e'lasasa tstedii'qe. Wa, la he'x'HdaEm na'x^ideda kiwe'laxa 
^wa'pe. Wa, g'l'Pmese gwiil nii'qaxs la'e k'Em la awu'lgEmg'a^Iil 35 
qa^s he'legintsE^we. Wii, laE'm gwa'la. 



312 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

1 Cold Roasted Salmon. — But now this is finished -nath two ways of 
doing wi til | roasted salmon-backs, — the fresh roasted salmon-backs; | 
and we have talked about the old soaked roasted | salmon-backs. 
5 Now we will go on and talk about the || roasted salmon-backs when 
they are fed to young men, even | when they are really dry, in 
winter. When they are | given to young men, they are broken into 
three pieces | and put on the food-mat. | They are just put down in 

10 front of the guests, || and the oil-dish is also put down | in front of 
what is to be eaten. Then water is taken by the | man and given 
to liis guests to I rinse their mouths, and they drink some of it after 
they have finished rinsing their mouths; | and after they have 
fuiished drinking, they eat the dry salmon, which is really brittle; || 

15 and only that is different from the soaked salmon, | that they do 
not take much oil when they dip it; but they take | much oil when 
the brittle salmon-back is dipped in, for | the food chokes them. 
There is also always a bucket | of water standing in front of those 

20 who are eating the roasted salmon-back; || for, as soon as those who 
are eating it get choked, they | take some water and wash down what 
chokes them.' . . . | As^ soon as the young men fuiish eating, they drink 
much I oil; namely, the oil that is left in the oil-dish; | and after 

1 Cold Roasted Salmon. — Wa, laE'mLa gwa'la ma^le'dala gwe'g'ilasxa 
Llo'bEdzowe xa'kladza. Wa, la'xa a'lxwa^se Llo'bEcizo xa'kla- 
dza. Wa, la'x'dEns gwa'gwexs^ala la'xa ge'mase t!elk" Llo'bE- 
dzo xa'k!adza. Wa, la^me'sEns wa'g'ii gwa'gwexs^alal la'xa 
5 Llo'bEdzo xa'k-!adzaxs hamgi'layae la'xa ha^ya'Ha, wa'x'^mae 
la a'lak-!ala la lE'mxwaxa ts!awu'nxe. Wa, he'-maaxs la'e 
hamgi'layo la'xa ha^'yal^a la a'Em yS'lyudux^sEnd ko'k'EX's^En- 
tsE^wa qa^s axdzo'dayuwe la'xa he'lExstalUe ha^madzo' le'- 
^wa^ya. Wa, a'-'mis la ^xale'lEm lax Lla'sExdzama^yasa Le'^la- 

10 nEme. Wa, a'Emxaa^wise la ha'ng'alelEma tslEba'tsle lax L!a'- 
sEnxellltsa ha^me'Le. Wa, laE'mxaa'wise he'Em g il ax^e'tso^sa 
bEgwa'nEma ^wa'pe qa^s le tsa'x-^Its la'xes Le^lanEme qa tslswe'- 
LlExodes. Wa, la na'x-'Id la'qexs la'e gwal tslEwe'LlExoda. Wa, 
o"i'Pmese ^wal na'qaxs la'e harnx'^'i'dxa le a'laklala la tso'sa 

15 qae'xs la'e lE'mxwa. Wa, le'x'a-mesLaL o'gQqalayos la'xa t!e'l- 
kwaxs k!e'sae qle'qtebElaxa iJe'^niixs ts'.Epa'e. Wii, la'La q!e'- 
qlEbalaxa Lle'^naxs ts'.Epaa'sa tsosa Llo'bEdzo xa'kladza, qaxs 
mEkwae laxo'x ha^ma^yex. Wa, la he'mEnil^Emxat ! ha^neleda na- 
gatsle lax Lla'sExdzamalllasa ha^ma'pxa Llo'bEdzowe xa'k!a- 

20 dzS,, qa^s gl'Pmae ^mEkMEXo'weda ha^ma'paqexs la'e he'x'^idaEm 
tsa'x-^Id la'xa ^wa'pe qa ^mskwa'xes ^mEkMExa'wa^yas.^ • • Wa,= 
gl'Pmese gwal ha^ma'pa ha^ya'laxs la'e q!a'q!ek-!Eya na'x^edxa 
Lle'^na, yixe's ane'x'sa^ye la'xa Lle'^na g-I'tsKxa tslEba'tsle. Wa, 

1 Continued in Publications of tlie Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. V., p, 428. 
» Continued from ibid., p. 428. 




BOASl BECIPES 313 

they finish drinking the oil, they drink some more water; || and after 25 
they finish drinldng water, they wait for the | next course. That 
is all. I 

Old Salmon, roasted. — Now I mil talk about the | roasted old 
salmon when it is eaten before it is quite dry. | It is broken to pieces 
and put into a dish, || and the oil-dishes are filled with oil, for much 30 
oil I is mixed with fresh salmon coming from the upper part of the 
rivers; for | people really choke with tins food, and sometimes those 
who eat | the roasted old salmon have to drink oil when they get | 
choked. The host always pours oil into the || oil-dishes of his guests. 35 
After the guests fijiish eating, | they drink much water. This is 
also the brealdast-food | of the Kwakiutl, and they also do the same: 
they rinse | their mouths with water before they eat. Now we liave 
finished ^\'ith this. | 

Boiled Salmon. — Now I will talk about the cooking of salmon that 
isspeared, | whenitisnotreally dry. When | the speared salmon ishnlT 
dry, the woman takes it down. | Then she takes a kettle and 
puts it on the || fire, and she pours water into it. Then slic 
takes her | fish-knife and cuts (the salmon) to pieces in this way: 
and I after she has cut it, she puts it into the kettle before 

gi'Hmese gwal na'qaxa Lle'^'naxs la'e e'tled na'x^Id la'xa ^wa'pe. 
Wii, g'l'l^mese gwal na'qaxa ^wa'paxs la'e awxi'Igamgalll qa^s 25 
he'leg'lntsE^we. Ija^nie gwal. 

Old Salmon, roasted. — He'EmlxaEn gwa'gwex's^alaLa tslEJa'ke 
Llo'bEkwa, ylxs hamgl'layaaxs kMe's^mae lE'mx^weda a'la^ma. 
Wii, laE'm k!o'k!upsalasE^wa qa^s axts!6'yuwe la'xa lo'qiwe. Wa, 
la qo'qutleda ts!ets!eba'ts!axa Lle'^na qaxs qle'qlEbalaya^eda 30 
alxwa'se tsle'nas g'a'yol lax ^nE'ldziisa wlwa', qaxs a'lak'la- 
lae ^mEkwa' la'xox ha^ma^yex. Wii, la ^na'l'^nEmplEna nax- 
na'qeda ha^ma'paxa tslE'lginete L!6'bEx"xa Lle'^naxs la'e ^mE- 
klExa'. Wa, la he'mEnala^ma k!we'lase giiqa'sa Lle'^na lax isle- 
ts lEba'tsIiises Le'^ilnEme. Wa, gl'Pmese gwal ha'ma'peda k!we'- 35 
laxs la'e q!a'q!ek"!Eya na'x^edxa ^wa'pe. Wa, g'aE'mxaat! gaiix- 
stesa Kwa'g'ulaxa gaiL'la. Wii, he'Emxaa gwe'gilaxs ts!Ewe'L!E- 
xodaaxsa ^wa'paxs kMe's^mae ha-mx'^i'da. Wa, la-mEns gwal laq. 

Boiled Salmon. — Wii, la^me'sEn gwa^gwexs^alal la'xa sEg'ine'taxs i 
la'e ha,^me'x^sIlasE^wa, yixs k'le's^mae a'laEm lE'mx^wida. Wa, 
he'^maaxs la'eda sEgine'te k!a'ya^x"wlda, la'eda tslEda'qe Sxa'- 
xodEq. La^me's &x^e'dxa ha'nxxanowe qa^s ha'nxLEndes lil'xa 
lEgwi'le. Wa, la guxts!6'tsa ^wa'pe laq. Wa, la ftx^e'dxes xwa'- 5 
Layoweqa^st!6't!Ets!Endeq; g'agwa'les t'o'sa^yega {fig.)- Wa,gi'l- 
^mese gwal tlo'saqexs la'e fix^stE'nts lii'xa ha'nxxanaxs k'le's^mae 



314 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL I inn. ann. 3» 

8 it I begins to boil. Then she takes a stone and puts it on top 
of it I to keep it under the water; and after she has done so, she; 

10 takes || a dish and a kelp bottle Avith oil in it, and puts them | at the 
place where she is sitting; and she does not leave (the salmon) long on 
the fire, I before it is done. Then she takes it off, and at once she | 
takes her tongs and lifts it out and puts it into the dish. | After it is 

15 all out, thou she smoothes it in the dish, so || that it is level. Then she 
takes her kelp with oil in it, and she | pours it over the quarter-dried 
salmon in the dish. | After she has done so, she gives water to those | 
whom she is going to give to eat. As soon as they have rinsed their 
mouths, they drink; | and after they funsh drinking water, she puts the 

20 dish II before those whom she is going to give to eat. When this is 
done, they go to draw | fresh water for them to drink after they have 
eaten; and it is not | long before he who went to draw water comes 
back; and after those | to whom she has given to eat have eaten, the 
woman takes soft | white cedar-bark and gives it to those to whom 

25 -she has given to eat, to Avipe their hands with, || and to take the oij 
off of the hands of those to whom she has given to eat, for there is 
really much | oil on their hands, and they are always covered Avith 
oil when they are eating quarter-dried | speared salmon with oil for 
their food. After they have | wiped their hands, the woman takes | 

S mEdE'lx^wida. Wa, la ax^e'dxa tIe'sEme qa^s ^mEkwayl'ndes laq 
qa wii'nsalayos. Wa, gi'Pmese gwal aa'xsilaqexs la'e ax^e'dxa 

10 lo'qiwa LE^wes ^wa'^wadg L!e'^nats!ala qa^s ga'xe ax-a'lllas la'xes 
klwae'lase. Wa, k!e'st!a ge'xLaleda ha'nLEndas la'xa lEgwI'laxs 
la'e L!6'pa. Wii, la^me'se ha'nxsEndEq. Wa, he'x'^ida^mese 
ax^e'dxes tse'sLala qa^s lEx^iistE'ndeq qa^s Sxtsla'les la'xa loq!we. 
Wii, g'i'Pmese ^wi'^lo^staxs la'e gwe'lalts!ots la'xa }6q!we qa 

15 ^nEma'kiyes. Wa, la ax-e'dxes ^wa'^wade L!e'^nats!ala qa^s k!un- 
gELEyi'ndes la'xa la g'its!a'xa lo'q'.weda kliingEgEkwe ts!ets!ElE- 
mala. Wii, gi'Pmese gwa'HalilExs la'e tsa'x'^Itsa ^wa'pe la'xes 
ha^mgi'lasoLe. Wa, g-l'Pmese gwal tslEwe'LlExodExs la'e na'x'Ida. 
Wii, g'i'Pmese gwal na'qaxa ^wa'paxs la'e ka'gimlllasa lo'q!we 

20 la'xes ha^mg-i'lasoLe. Wa, g-i'Pmese gwa'l-alllExs la'e tsii'x'^ItsE- 
^weda ii'lta ^wap qa na'geg iles qo gwal ha'^ma'pLo. Wa, k!e'st!a 
ga'laxs g'ii'xae ae'daaqeda tsa'xa ^wa'pe. Wa, g'i'Pmese gwal 
ha^ma'pa hfVmgi'lasE^waxs la'eda tslEda'qe Sx^e'dxa qlo'yaakwe 
ka'dzEkwa qa^s le ts!as la'xes hii^mgi'lasE^we qa dedE'nx^wIdes 

25 qa lawa's q!E'lq!Elts!iina^yases ha^mgi'lasE^we qaxs a'lae qle'uEme 
q!E'lq!Elts!iina^yas qaxs he'niEnala^mae tiEbEgEli'sa klii'nqa^yasa 
sEg'ine'te ts!e'ts!ElEmiilaxa Lle'^naxs ha^ma'^yae. Wii, gi'Pmese 
gwal dedE'nkweda ha^mg'i'lasE^waxs la'eda tslEda'qe ax^e'dxa 
6'gu^la^me lo'q!wa qa^s qEptslo'desa ^wa'pe liiq. Wa, la e'tled 



BOAS] HECIPES 315 

another dish and pours water into it, and she || puts it berore those 30 
to whom she has given to eat, and they wash their hands. | After 
they have done so, the woman gives them water | to drink. After 
they have fmished drinking, they wait for | the next course. That 
is the end. | 

Old Dried Salmon. — Now we will again talk about dried salmon. | i 
That is the way of cooldng fresh dried salmon, what I said first;' | and 
this is the way of cooking old dried salmon, what I am going | to say. 
This is when it is the middle of winter, when || all the women put 5 
down the soaking-boxes in the corner of their houses. | Then (the 
woman) puts into the water much dried salmon. Now she soaks 
it I to make it soft. In the morning, as soon as day comes, the 
woman | takes some of the soaked dried salmon and folds it up; then 
she puts it I into a kettle and places it over the fire of her house. || 
Next she pours not much water on it. Then it begins to boil; | and 10 
the kettle is not over the fire long, when | she takes it off. Then the 
woman takes a dish and | puts it down, and she takes (the salmon) 
out with her tongs and | puts it into the dish. Then she waits imtil 
it gets cool; || and as soon as it is cool, she takes it and breaks it 15 
into I small pieces. Then she puts it into the dish; then | slie takes 
the oil-dish and pours oil into it; and then | she puts it before him to 
whom she is going to give to eat. Others pour the | oil on the 

qax'dzamo'lllas la'xes ha^mg'I'lasE^we. Wa, laE'm tslE'ntslEn- 30 
x^wlda. Wa, gi'Pmese gwa'fexs la'eda ts'.Eda'qe tsa'x-^Itsa ^wa'pe 
laq qa na'x^ides. Wa, gi'Pmese gwal na'qaxs la'e awii'lgEmg-alil 
qa^s he'leg intsE^we. Wa, laE'm gwa'la. 

Old Dried Salmon. — He'EmlxaEns gwa'gwexs^alasLa xa^ma'se. 1 
Wa, he'Em hame'xsllaene^xa a'lxwase xa^ma'sEn gi'lx.de wa'I- 
dEma. Wa, he'^mis hame'xsllaenexa ge'mase xa^ma'sgln la'LEk' 
al wa'klEma.' Wa, he'-maaxs la'e nEgEttsE'meg'i tslawu'nxa la'e 
^nil'xwa^medatsle'daqe ax^a'lllxa t!e'lats!e lax 5'negwilases g"6'kwe. 5 
Wa, la mo'stallltsa qle'nEme xa^ma's laq. Wa, laE'm tie'laq qa 
tE'lx^wides. Wa, gi'l^mese ^na'x'^Idxa gaa'laxs la'eda tslEda'qe 
ax^edxa la'xa tielkwe xa^ma'sa qa^s k"!o'x"sEmdeq qa^s !lxts!o'des 
la'xa ha'nx'Lano qa^s ha'nxxEndes la'xa lEgwilases g'o'kwe. Wa, 
la a'l-Em gu'q!Eqasa kMe'se qle'nEm ^wap laq. Wa, le mEdElx- 10 
^wlda. Wa, kMe's^Emxaa'wise ge'x'Lala ha'nxxala la'xa lEgwI'laxs 
la'e ha'nxsEntsE^wa. Wa, la ax^e'deda tslEda'qaxa lo'qwe qa^s 
ha'ng'allles. Wii, la ax^e'dxes ts!e'sLala qa k"!ipustE'ndeq qa 
k'!ipts!6'des la'xa lo'q!we. Wa, la ka'k'Ewaq qa wudEX-^i'des. 
Wa, gl'Pmese wudEX-^i'dExs la'e ax^e'dEq qa^s kMo'klupsE'nde 15 
qa am^Ema'yastowes la'e axtslodalas hi'xa lo'qlwe. Wa, la 
Sx^e'dxa ts!Eba'ts!e qa^s k!unxts!o'desa L!e'^na laq. Wii, laE'm 
k"a'gEmlllas la'xes ha^mg'I'laso^Le. Wa, le'da waS'kwe klu'nqlEqasa 

' See p. 310. ~ 



316 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ikth. ann. 33 

20 soaked salmon when they break it into the dish; and || the Ivoskimo 
drink the Uquid of the soaked salmon as they eat it, for | they have 
no oil. I 

Fresh Dried Salmon. — The food of those who catch salmon | is fresh 
dried salmon. Before the (dried) salmon is dry, | it is taken by the 

25 woman and put down on a mat. Then || she takes her fish-knife and 
cuts the quarter-dried salmon; | and she puts it into a kettle, and she 
puts the kettle over the | fire of the house. Then she pours water into 
it; I and it does not stay there long boiling, when she takes the kettle 
off the fire. | Then she puts it down on the floor, and takes a dish, 

30 and oil from a || kelp bottle in which the oil is kept. Then she 
puts (the salmon) down at the place where she is sitting. | Then she 
takes her largest spoon and scoops out | the quarter-dried salmon 
and puts it into the dish. As soon as she has | spread out the 
quarter-dried salmon evenly in the dish, she takes the kelp bottle | 
in which the oil is, and pours (the oil) over the food to be served. || 
1 Green Salmon. — This is another breakfastr-food of the | Kwakiutl, 
when they live at the river catching salmon. It is the "green 
salmon" | cut straight along the back. This is the way it is cut :• 
At this time it is not | really dry, and therefore it is called 
5 "half-dry || green salmon." The woman just takes it down 
from where it is hanging; | then she puts it on a food-mat, 




LlE'^na la'xa tie'lkwaxs la'e k'lo'ptslEwak" la'xa lo'qiwe. Wa, 
20 le'da Go'sgimoxwe na'xnaqax ^wa'palasa tielkwaxs t!e'lt!alae qaxs 
k!ea'sae iJe'^na. 

Fresh Dried Salmon. — Wa, he/Em ha^ma'sa wPwa'miseda dze'- 

dzElmala tiEle'k". Wa, he'^maaxs he'^mae a'les dze'leda xa^ma'se 

la'as axii'xayasa ts!Eda'qe qa-'s axadzo'des la'xa le'^wa^ye. Wa, la 

25 ax^e'dxes xwa'Layowe qa^'s t!6't!Ets!Endexa dze'dzElmala xa^ma'sa. 

Wa, la axts!o'ts la'xa ha'nxxanowe. Wa, la ha'nxLEnts la'xa 

lEgwIlases g-o'kwe. Wa, lawI'sLa gu'qlEqasa ^wa'pe laq. Wa, 

k!e'st!age'g iltsIlamaE'mdElqulaxs la'e ha'nxsEndxes ha'nx'LEnde. 

Wa, la ha'ngalllasexs la'e ax^e'dxa }5'q!we le^wIs Lle'^na, la'xa 

30 -wa'nvadets!alax-de Lle'^na. Wii, la iix-'a'lilas la'xes k!wae'lase. Wa. 

la ax^e'dxa Hva'lega^yases ka'kEtslEnaqe, qa^s XElo'stEndes la'xa 

dze'dzElmala qa^s axtslo'des la'xa lo'qiwe. Wa, gi'Pmese ^'wl'^laxs 

la'e ^uEma'g-aaltsIodxa dze'dzElmaliixs la'e ax^e'dxa ^wa'^wade 

g I'tsE^watsa Lle'^na qa^s k!u'nq!Eqes la'xes ha^rag I'^layuLe. 

1 Green Salmon. — Wa, gaE'mxat! ^nEmx'^Idala gaa'xstesa Kwa'- 

giilaxs la'e go'kiila la'xes wFwame'dzaseda kfo'loxwexa nEge'- 

ga^yas xwa'La^ye. A'Emga gwiile x%va'La^yasega {fifj.) . Wii, la k' !es 

a'laEm lE'mxwa. Wa, he'^mis la'giias la Le'gadEs kla'yaxwa 

f) k' lo'loxwa. Wa, laE'mxaa a'^meda tslEda'qe axa'xodqexs ge'xwa- 

laLElae. Wii, laE'm iixdzo'ts la'xa ha^me'xslladzE^we le'^wa^ya. 



BOAS] KECIPES 317 

aiul she takes her fish-knife and cuts up the green salmon. | 7 
Then what she is cutting is in small pieces. When she finishes tliis 
work, I she takes the kettle and puts it over the fire, and she || pours 10 
water into it. As soon as it boils, she takes | the half-dry green 
salmon and puts it iiito the | boiling water on the fire. However, it 
is not on the fire really long, when she takes it off. | Then she puts it 
down and takes a dish, which she puts down; | then she takes oil from 
the kelp bottle and puts that down; then she || takes an oil-dish and 15 
puts it down; and as soon as | all these things named have been 
brought, she takes the tongs and takes out | the cut pieces of green 
salmon and puts them into the dish. She | takes them up with the 
tongs because they are [not] quarter dry, and they are not | dry. This 
is called "half-dry green salmon." As soon as the dish is || full, she 20 
levels it out so that it is level. Then she | takes an oil-dish and 
pours the oil into it.' | . . . (The^man who cats it) takes what he is 
going to eat and folds it up. He chews | one end of it; and as soon 
as what he has chewed is soft, he dips it | into the oil and puts it 
into his mouth; and he continues doing this wliile || eating. | 25 

As soon as he finishes eating, the woman rises from her | place and 
takes the dish and the oil-dish. Then she | puts them down near 



Wa, la ax^e'dxes xwa'Layowe qa^s t!o't!Ets!E'nde la'xa kMo'loxwe. 7 
Wa, laE'm am^ama'yastowe t!o'sa^yas. Wa, la gwa'le axa'^yasexs 
la'e ax^e'dxa ha'nx-Lanowe qa^s ha'nxxEndes la'xa lEgwI'le. Wa, 
laguxts!6'tsa^wa'pe laq. Wa, gi'Pmese mEdElx-'wi'dExsla'e six^e'd- 10 
xa la kla'yaxwa kMo'lox" qa^s axstE'ndes la'xa la ha'nxLala 
maE'mdElqiila. Wa, k'!e'st!a a'laEm ge'xxalaxs la'e ha'nx'sEn- 
dEq. Wa, la ha'ngalliaqexs la'e ax^e'dxa lo'qiwe qa^s ha'ngaliles. 
Wa, la ax^e'dxes L!e'^na ^wa'^wadets!ala qa^s ax^a'llles. Wii, la e'tled 
ax-e'dxa ts!Eba'ts!e qa^s ha'ngaliles. Wa, gi'l^mese ^wFla gax 15 
Sxe'lEn Le'LEqElasE^waxs la'e ax^e'dxa ts!esLala qa^s klipiista'lexa 
t!6't!Ets!aa'kwe kMo'loxwa qa-s k!lpts!a'les la'xa lo'qiwe. He'Em 
hi'gilas klipiistalaqexs kMe'sae dze'dzElmala. Wa, la k!es 
lE'mxwa. He'Em Le'gadEs kMa'yaxwa k'loloxwa. Wa, gl'Pmese 
qo'tleda l5'q!waxs la'e ^nEma'gaalts!odEq qa ^nEma'kiyes. Wa, 20 
la ax^e'dxa tslEba'tsle qa^'s k!unxts!6'desa L!e'^na laq.' . . Wii,^ la 
da'x'^Id la'xes ha-'ma'Le qa-'s k!6'x"sEmdeq. Wa, la male'x"bEn- 
dEq. Wa, gl'b'mese la tE'lx^'wIde male'kwa^'yasexs la'e tslEple'ts 
la'xa Lle'^na qa^s tslo'qliises. Wii, he'x'sa^mes la gwe'gilaxs 
ha^ma'pae. 25 

Wa, gl'Pmese gwal ha^ma'pExs la'eda tslEda'qe La'xulil la'xes 
k'.wae'lase qa^s le ftx^e'dxa lo'qiwe LE^wa tslEba'tsle qa^s ga'xe 

I Continued in Publications or the Jcsup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. V, p, 429. 
• Continued from ibid., p. 429. 



318 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

28 the place where she is sitting. Then she pours | the green sahnon 
thatislcftover back into the kettle in which it was boiled.' . . . Then- 

30 the man sits down || and waits for her to give him the second course. 
I shall I talk about this later on, for I am talking now about | the 
V)roakfast. ] 
1 Soaked Green Salmon (1). — Now I will talk again | about soaked 
green salmon,— the food of those who do not go to catch | salmon in 
green salmon that have been dry for a long time. | They are always 
5 winter, — soaking in a soaking-box, which stands in the || corner of the 
house, full of water. Dried green salmon are always kept | in it. After 
they have been soaking for two days, | they get soft; then the soaked 
green salmon are taken | and folded up. The kettle is taken, | and 
the soaked green salmon are put into it. Then (the kettle) is put || 

10 over the fire of the house. As soon as it is well over the fire, | 
water is poured into it; but now it is a longer time over the fire | 
boUing before the cook takes it off. Then she takes | a dish and she 
puts it down, and she again takes an oil-dish | and oil and ])uts it on 

15 the floor where she is sitting. Then she || takes her tongs and takes 
up the soaked green salmon | out of the kettle and puts them into 
the dish. Then she | waits for tliera (to cool off). Then she takes a 
food-mat and spreads it | before tlie one to whom she is going to give 

28 ka'galilas la'xes klwae'lase. Wii, la qapstE'ntsa he^maxi.a^ye 
klo'lox" la'xa ha'nxLEndaatslex'daq.' . . . Wa,^ la kiwag-ahleda 

30 bEgwanEih, qa^s awii'lgEmgalile qa^s lic'leg'lntsE^we. Wa, a'l^EmlwI- 
sEn gwa'gwexs^alaL laq qaE'n le'xa^ene^me gwa'gwex's^aiasa 
ha^ma'yaxa gaa'la. 
1 Soaked Green Salmon (1). — Wa, he'^niEn lal e'tledEL gwa'gwexs^a- 
lasLa t!e'lkwe kMo'loxwa. Wii, he'Em ha^ma^j'asa kMe'se wl'^wa- 
mets lenoxwaxa ts!awunxa la gii'las lEmo'kwa k!o'loxwa. Wa, 
la he'mEnalaEm fle'laso^ la'xa t!e'lats!axs ha^ne'lae lax one'- 
5 gwilasa g 6'kwe qo'tlaxa ^wa'pe. Wa, la he'mEnalaEm ax'sta'- 
^layoweda lE^mO'kwe kMo'lox" laq. Wa, he't!a la malplE'n^stElsa 
tle'lasE^we k'!5'lox" la'qexs la'e pe'x^wlda. Wii, la §,x^e'tsE^weda 
tie'lkwe k'!6'loxwa qa^s k'!o'x"sEmtsE^we. Wa, la ax^e'tsE^weda 
hanxLanowe qa^s axts!o'yoweda tie'lkwe kMo'lox" laq. Wa, la 

10 ha'nxLanO la'xa lEgwi'lasa g"6'kwe. Wa, gi'Pmese E'lg'aaLElaxs 
la'e wu'qiEqasosa ^wa'pe. Wa, la^me'sLa ge'gex'LalaEm maE'm- 
dElqulaxs laeda ha^mex'sllElg'ise hanxsEndEq. Wii, la^mes ax-'edxa 
lo q!we qa^s ax^a'llles. Wii, laEmxaa'wise ax^e'dxa tslEba'tsIe 
LE^wa Lle'^na qa^s ax^a'liles lil'xes klwae'lase. Wa, la e'tled 

15 ax-e'dxes ts!e'sLala qa^s kMipiYstE'ndexa tie'lkwe kMo'loxwa 
la'xa hS.nx'Lanowe qa^s k"!lpts!6des lii'xa lo'qiwe. Wa, la 
k"a'k"Ewaq. Wa, la ax^e'dxa ha^madzo le'^wa^ya qa^s le LEpEmll'- 

1 Continued in Publications of the Je?up Nortli Pacific Expedition, Vol. V, p. 430. 

2 Continued from ibid., p. 430. 



BOAS] RECIPES 319 

breakfast; and as soon as the soaked (salmon) are lukewarm, | she 
breaks them in pieces small enoiigli for one || bite.' ... 20 

As soon as she has finished breaking the soaked green sahuon, 
she spreads them out | so as to make them level in the dish- 
Then she takes tlie od-dish | and ])ours the oil into it. As soon 
as she has done so, she takes | the dish and the oil-dish and 
puts them || in front of the one to whom she is going to give to 25 
eat. She puts down the oil-dish just | outside of the dish; and after 
doing so, slie draws water and | gives it to him who is going to eat. 
Then the man who is going to eat takes | a mouthful of water and 
rinses the mouth; and after | rinsing the mouth, he drinks. After 
drinking, he takes || a piece of the soaked salmon and dips it in the 30 
oil and puts it into his mouth. | He never chews it, because it is 
soft. Then he keeps on | doing this while he is eating; and when it 
is nearly all gone, he stops | eating-. . . . | 

After he finishes drinking, he waits for the second course. || That is 35 
the end of this. 

Soaked Green Salmon (2) . — When a man wishes to | invite his tribe 1 
the following day, he | asks permission of his wife to give a feast (to 
his friends) on the foUt.wing day. | The woman at once makes her 
husband go and fetcli || water and pour it into the soaking-box. 5 

las la'xes gaa'xstala'matsE^we. Wii, gl'Pmese k-6'x^wideda t!e'l- IS 
kwaxs la'e k!6'k!upsEndEq qa haya'Pastowcs lax ^nE'mp!En- 
q'.EtsIa^ye.' ... 20 

Wa, glPmese gwal k!opaxa tielkwe kMoloxuxs lae goli^lalaq 
qa ^nEmag'aalts!owes laxa loqlwe. Wa, la ax^edxa ts!Ebats!e, 
qa^s kliinxtslodeq yisa Lle^na. Wii, gil^mese gwalExs lae ax^e- 
deda ts!Edaqaxa loq!we Le^wa ts!Ebats!e qa^s la k^axdzamotsa 
loqlwe laxes ha^mgilasE^we. Wii, la kax-^itsa ts!Ebats!e lax Llii- 25 
sa^yasa loqlwe. Wa, gll^mese gwalExs lae tsex-^idxa ^wape qa^s 
lii tslils lilxa ha^mapLe. Wa, lii dax'^Ideda ha^mapLaxa ^wilije, 
qa^s hamsgEmdilaq qa^s ts!EweL!Ex6de. Wa, g'iPmese gwiil tslE- 
wcLlExodExs lae nax-ida. Wa, giPmese gwal niiqaxs lae diixa 
laxa t!elkwe k'lolox" qa^s tslEpledes laxa Lle^na qa^s ts!oq!uses. 30 
Wii, laE'm hewii'xa ma'lex"bEn(lEq qaxs tE'lqwae. Wii, a'xsii^mes 
he gwe'g-llaxs ha^ma'pae. Wa, gi'1-Emse Ela'q ^wi'^laxs la'e gwal 
ha^ma'pa.^ . . . 

Wii, gi'Pmese gwal na'qaxs la'e S.wE'lgEmg'alil qa^s he'leg'in- 
tsE^we. Wii, laE'mxaa gwa'la. 35 

Soaked Green Salmon (2).— Wii, he'^maaxs la'e ^ne'keda bEgwa'nEme 1 
qa^s Le'lalTlxes go'lg'tikulotaxa la'La e'tledEl ^na'x'^idEL. Wii, la- 
^mese hana'k'axes gEnE'me qa^s klwe'laselqexa la'La ^na'x'^IdEL. 
Wii, he'x'^ida^mesa tslEda'qe axk'!il'laxes lii'^wilnEme qa les tsiix 
^wa'pa qa^s qEptsIo'yoxa t!e'lats!e. Wii, he'x-^ida^mese la tsa'ye 5 

' Here follows p. 760, lines 1-3. " The description of the eating of the salmon has been omitted. 



320 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [kth. ann. 35 

6 Her husband goes at once | and pours water into the soaking-box, that 
stands in the | corner of the house; and when it is hnK full of water, 
the I woman takes roasted salmon and puts it into it; and | when it is 

10 (lone, the man goes to get fire-wood and || takes it into his house. 
Now it is evening. As soon as | night comes, they lie down; and 
therefore in the morning, when daylight comes, | the man arises and 
builds a fire in his house ; and as soon as the | fh-e in tlie house blazes 
lip, he sends one of his house-feUows to go and | call aU the men; and 

15 it is not long before the messenger || comes back. Immediately they 
clear the house; | and after they finish clearing it, they take the 
kettle and | put it down in front of the fire; and the woman takes | 
her dishes and places them at the place where she is sitting, and also | 

20 the oil-dishes and oil. As soon as this is all ready in the house, || the 
man goes to caU the guests again. He stays a long time outside 
calling them, but | the men come in one by one into the house. At 
last they are | all inside. Then a drum is taken and is | put down 
on the right-hand side of the guests. Immediately the | song- 

25 leader begins to sing the new songs. Now they || sing a feast-song, 
and the host takes the soaked | salmon out of the water and puts it 
into the large kettle. | When it is full, it is put over the fire, and | 
then water is poured into it. It does not boil long | before the kettle 



6 Ifi'^wunEmas qa^s qEpts'.a'les laxa t!e'lats!axs ha^ne'lae la'xa 
o'negwilases go'kwe. Wii, gi'Pmese nEgo'yoxa ^wa'paxs la'eda 
tslEcia'qe ax-'e'dxa Llo'bEkwe qa^s le axstE'nts laq. Wil, gil- 
-'mese gwa'lExs la'aseda bEgwanEme S,ne'x^edxa lEqwa' qa^s ga'xe 

10 ax-a'lilas la'xes go'kwe. Wa, laE'm dza'qwa. Wa, gi'Pmese ga'- 
nuh'idExs la'e ku'lx'^kla. Wa, gi'lgih'mas ^na'x'^Idxa gaa'liixs la'- 
eda bEgwa'nEme La'x^wTd qa^s lEgwi'lexes g-6'kwe. Wa, gl'l^mese 
x'i'qostawe lEgwI'la^yasexs la'e '"ya'laqases ^nEma'elwiite qa les 
Le'^lalaxa ^na'xwa be'bEgwanEma. Wa, k'.e'stia ga'laxs ga'xae 

15 ae'daaqeda Le 'lalElglse, wa, he'x'^ida^mese e'x-'wldxa g-o'kwe. 
Wii, gi'h'mese gwal e'kwaqexs la'e ax-'e'dxes ha'nx'Lanowe qa 
g-a'xes ha^ni'l la'xa ostii 'iTlases kgwi'le. Wa, le'da tslEda'qe ax^e'd- 
xes lo'Elq'.we qa g-a'xes mExe'l la'xes kiwae'lase. Wa, he'^misa 
ts!e'ts!Ebats!e LE^wa L!e^na. Wa, glPmese ^wi^la la gwa'llla, laasa 

20 e'tse^'sta. Wa, laE'm ge'gilsa e'tse-sta. Wa, laE'mLa ^nai^uEmo'- 
k!ilmk-eda bEgwa'nEmaxs g'a'xae hogwi'LEla. Wa, ladza'la^me 
^wi-'laeLa. Wa, hex'^ida^mese ax^etsE-weda mEna'ts!e qa^s le axa- 
lelEm lax lie'lk-lodEnfiLEmalilasa kiwe'le. Wii, he'x-^ida^mese 
na'qlaq'.a^yas dix'qalasa a'ltsEme qlE'mdEma. Wii, la'x-Ma^x"^me 

25 klwe'^lala dE'nxEla. Wii, la'Leda k!we'lase ax^'ustE'ndxa t!e'l- 
kwe Llo'bEk" qa^s ga'xe iixtslo'ts ha'xa ^wa'lase ha'nxLiinowa. 
Wa, gi'l^mese qo'tlaxs la'e ha.'nx-LEnts lii'xa lEgwI'le. Wa, a'l- 
^mese gfiq'.Eqa'sa ^wa'pe laq. Wil, k!e'st!a ge'g-ilil maE'mdElqu- 



BOAS] llECIPES 321 

is taken off. It is only on the fire waiting || for the guests to finish 30 
singing. As soon as they finish singing, | the man takes a mat and 
spreads it out, and he takes | his long tongs and takes the roasted 
boiled salmon out with them. | Immediately the woman takes one 
roasted salmon and | puts it into each dish; and when || one roasted 35 
salmon has been put into each, the woman breaks it into small pieces | 
just the right size for our mouths; and | after she has broken it in 
pieces, she pours oil into the | oil-dish. After she has done so, the 
man | takes the drum and puts it down by the door of the house; 
and II he puts down the dishes and gives one dish to each two men, | 40 
when really all the tribes are guests in the house; | and as soon as all 
the dishes have been put down, he takes a bucket and | places it 
before the guests highest in rank, and they rinse | their mouths ; and 
after they have rinsed their mouths, they || drmk. After they have 45 
finished drinkhig, they begin to eat; and | when they begin to eat, 
the man goes to draw fresh water, for | they drink after they finish 
eating. After they have eaten, | the man takes away the dishes and 
takes them to the place where his | wife is sitting. After he has 
taken them away, he puts the bucket || with water before the guest 50 
highest in rank; then he dips j the cup into it and gives it to him; 

laxs la'e ha'nxsana. Wa, a^mesl'la ha^ne'la e'sEla qa gwa'- 
les dE'nxEleda Le'^lanEme. Wa, g'i'l^mese gwal dE'nxElaxs la'e 30 
ax^e'deda bEgwa'nEmaxa le'^wa^ye qa^s LEpla'lileq. Wa, la ax-e'd- 
xes g-i'lt!a ts!e'sLala qa^s LExusta'lexa ha'nx'Laakwe L!6'bEkwa. 
Wa, he'x'^ida^meseda tslEda'qe ax^e'dxa ^naFuE'me Llo'bEkwa qa^s 
axtslo'dales la'xa -'niih'nEme'xLa lo'ElqIwa. Wa, g'i'Pmese q!wa'- 
lots lEwax^sa Llo'bEkwaxs la'eda tslEda'qe k'!6'k!upsalaq qa am^a'- 35 
mayastowes qaa'^mes ha^ya'PatslEk'ila la'xEns sE'msex. Wa, gt'l- 
^mesegwal k!o'k!upsalaqexs la'eda tslfida'qe k!'unxts!odalaxa ts!e'- 
tslEba'tslasa Lle'^na. Wa, gl'Pmese gwa'l^alllExs la'eda bEgwa'nE- 
me ax^e'dxa mEna'ts!e qa^s les la'xa tiExI'lases go'kwe. Wa, la 
ka'x-''Itsa lo'ElqIwe. Wa, laE'm maema^lo'kwa bEgwii'nEme la'xa 40 
^UEme'xLalo'qlwaxsa'lae ^wi'^laeLEla kiwe'la le'lqwalaLa^ye. Wa, 
gi'Pmese -'wl'%'alileda lo'elqiwaxs la'e k'!o'kulilxa na'gatsle qa^s 
les lax nExdzama'lilasa nena'xsalasa kiwe'le. A¥a, la'xda^xwe ts.'E- 
we'LlExoda. Wa, gl'Pmese gwal tslEwe'LlExodExs, la'x'da^xwae 
na'x^lda. Wa, gl'Pmese gwai na'qaxs la'e hamx-^i'da. Wa, 45 
gt'Pmese hamx'^idExs la'e tsayeda bEgwa'nEmax a'lta ^wa'pa qa 
na'gegilts qo gwal ha^ma'pLo. Wii, gi'Pmese gwal ha^ma'pExs 
la'eda bEgwauEme ka'g-ililxa lo'slqlwe qa^s les lax k!wae'lasases 
gEnE'me. Wa, gi'l'mese ^'wi'^'lamasEq la'e hangEmli'iasa ^wa'bE- 
tslala na'gatsle la'xa na'xsalaga-'yasa kiwe'le. Wa, la tsii'x-^itsa 50 
k'.wa^sta' laq qa^s ts!Ewe's laq. Wa, la'x'da^xwe ^wl'-ia na'x^Ida. 
75052 — 21 — 35 eth — pt 1 21 




322 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ANN. 35 

52 then they all drink; | and after they finish drinking, the woman 
washes | four dishes and pours water into them, and the | man puts 

55 them before the guests. Then || they all wash their hands; and after 
they have washed their hands, | they wait for the next course. 
That is the end of this. | 

Salmon Preserved in Cellars. — (It has been described before [p. 237], 
how salmon is kept in cellars for winter use.) 
1 When there are no more | salmon in the rivers, the cellar is dug 
up. The salmon are washed in water | until all the clay and sand 
come off. As soon as all | the dirt is off, they are soaked in the river 
5 and are left there over || night. As soon as day comes, the woman 
takes I out of tlie river wliat has been soaking. Now the quarter- 
dried I green salmon are thick; they are just like fresh salmon. | The 
woman just takes her fish-knife, and they are cut this way | 

10 into twelve pieces. Then she puts them into a || kettle; 
then she puts it on the fire and pours water over | it. 
Then it is boiled a long time before it is taken off. | She 
stirs (the meat). As soon as it is all to pieces, she | puts 
the kettle back over the fire. Then it is left over the fire a very 
long time. | When it is done, it becomes a mush; and she pours || 

15 oil into it while it is stiU over the fire, and it is stirred agam. | Then 
the kettle is taken off and put down. Then | spoons are given to the 

52 Wa, gi'Pmese gwal na'qaxs la'eda tslEda'qe tslo'xug'indxa mo- 
we'xLa lo'Elqlwa qa^s guxts!6'desa ^wa'pe laq. Wa, le'da bE- 
gwa'uEme hang'alilas lax nExdzama'lIlasa k!we'le. Wa, la^me'se 

55 ^na'xwa ts!E'nts!Enx^wIda. Wii, gl'Pmese gwal ts!E'nts!Enkwaxs 
la'e awuigEmgalll qa^s he'legintsE^we. Wa, laE'm gwal la'xeq. 
1 Salmon Preserved in Cellars. — Wa, gl'Pmese la k!e6's k!o'k!u- 
tEleda wl'^waxs la'e ^la'p!Eqoya qa^s le ts.'o'x'witso^ la'xa ^wa'pe 
qa ^wi'^les lawa'eda L!e'q!a LE^wa e'g'ise. Wa, gi'Pmese ^wi'^13,- 
weda tslEqwa'xs la'e t!e'HdEq la'xa wa. Wa, la xa'mastalisxa 
5 ga'nuLe. Wa, g'I'Pmese ^ua'x'^ldExs la'eda ts!Eda'qe axwilstE'nd- 
xes tle'lasE^we la'xa wa. Wa, laE'm la wa'kweda dze'le^lakwe 
k'lo'lox". Yu'Em la gwe'x'sa alo'mase k'lo'tEla. Wa, a'^mesa 
tslEda'qe ax^e'dxes xwa'Layowe qa^s t'.otlEtslE'ndeq; ga gwa'laga 
(Jig.) malEg'Eyo'wexs la'e t!6't!Ets!aakwa. Wa, la axtslo'ts la'xa 

10 ha'nxLanowe. Wa, la^me'se ha'nx'LEntsexs la'eqEplEqa'sa ^wa'pe 
laq. Wii, la^mes la ge'giltse laE'm maE'mdElqulaxs la'e hanx'sE'n- 
dEq. Wa, la xwe't!edEq. Wa, g-1'Pmese q!we'q!ults!Exs la'e 
xwe^laqa ha'nx'LEndEq. Wa la^me'se la a'la la ge'xxala ha'nx"- 
Lala; wa, g I'Pmese la L!6'pExs la'e xa's^ida. Wa, la gu'q!p:qaso^sa 

15 L!e'^naxs he'^mae a'les ha'nxxale. Wa, la e't!ed xwet !etsE^wa. 
Wii, lawI'sLa ha'nx'sEntsE^wa qa^s ha'ng-allles. Wii, laE'm ts!a'yeda 
k a'kats '.Enaqe la'xa k Iwe'le. W a, la ax^e'deda ts lEda'qaxa ielo'q !we 



BOAS] RECIPES 323 

guests, and the woman takes the dishes | and she pours into them the 18 
quarter-dried sahuon that is to be eaten with spoons. Then the 
dishes are nearly | full,' . . . They are not given a second course. 
Sometimes || green salmon are just put into a kettle and boiled for a 20 
short time, | when they are taken off and cut to pieces. They are 
put I into the dish without water. Then oil is poured over them. | 
The man only takes them from the dish with his hands | and eats 
them.' . . . Then (the guests) just lie down on their seats and || 
wait for the next course imtil it is done. Another | course is not 25 
given when they have eaten witli spoons the quarter-dried green 
salmon. This is | the way of the Denax'da^x" in Knight Inlet. 

Middle Part of Salmon, cold or boiled. — The description of a feast 
continues with the following notes on the preparation of middle parts 
of the sahnon - : 

(1) Then the woman j takes a dish and puts it down at the jalace 1 
wliere she is sitting; then she goes | and opens the basket in which 
the middle part of the salmon is, | and she breaks off the cedar-bark 
with which the middle parts of the salmon are twined together. 
When there are four || men, the woman takes eight middle parts | of 5 
salmon and breaks them up into two dishes, | four pieces into each 
dish. As soon | as she has broken them, she takes her oil-dish and 
pours I oil into it.^ . . . They* take up what they are going to eat 
and II fold it over, and chew it to make it soft, and then they dij) it | 10 

qa^s ts!ets!a'lesa yEwi'kwe dze'le^lak" laq. Wa, gl'Pmese Elaq 18 
qo'tlaxs'. . . Wa, laE'm k!es he'leglntsE^wa. Wa, le ^nal^nE'm- 
plsna a'Em axts!o'j^o la'xa ha'nxLanowe qa^s ya'was-ide mEds'lx- 20 
^wkIexs la'e ha'nxssntsE^waxs la'e t!6't!Ets!aak". Wa, a'^mese ax- 
tslo'yo la'xa lo'qlwe kMeo's ^wa'paga^ya. Wa, la k !unq !Eqaso^sa 
Lle'^na. Wa,le'da bEgwa'nsme a'Em daitji'laq la'xa l6'q!waxs la'e 
ha^ma'pEq. ' . . . Wa, la'La a'ETn t!e'k imga^liia. Wa, laE'm 
e'sa^lil qa^s he'leg'lntsE^we. Wa, laE'm gwa'la. Wa, la'i.a k'!es 25 
he'leg'indg'ilExs yo'sasE^waeda dze'le^lakwe k'!6'loxwa. Wa, g'aE'm 
gwe'g'ilatsa DEna'x^da^xwe lax Dza'wade. 

Middle Part of Salmon, cold or boiled. — 'Wa, ^le'da tslEda'qe 1 
ax^e'dxa l5'q!we qa-'s ka'g'aliles la'xes kiwae'lase. Wa, la qa's^id 
qa^s le x'o'x^widxa Lla'bate, yix ge'tslE^wasases q!a'q!aga^ye. Wa, 
la a'l^edxa dEna'se ya'polayosa q!aq!agaye. Wa, gl'pEm mo'kwa 
be'bEgwanEmaxs lae'da tsEda'qe ax^e'dxa ma^Iguna'lExse q!a'q!a- 5 
ga^ya, qa^s p!6xts!a'les Ijl'xa ma-lEXLe' ioElqlwa. Wa, las'm 
mae'moxse p!o'xts!6y6s la'xa ^na't^nEme'xLa lo'qiwa. Wa, gi'l- 
^mese gwal plo'qwaxs la'e ax^e'dxes ts!Eba'ts!e qa^s k!ii'nxts!odesa 
iJe'^na laq. ^ . . . Wa, ^ laE'm ax^e'd la'xes ha^mii'Le qa^s kMo'x"- 
sEmdeqexs la'e male'x"bEndEq qa tE'lx^widesexs la'e tslEpIi'ts 10 

1 Here follows a description of the eating of the food,wliicii tias been omitted. 

2 Continued from Jesup Expedition, etc., Vol. V, p. 436, line 24. 

' Continued from ibid, p. 431, line 7. ' Continued on ibid, p. 430, line 25. 



324 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

11 into the oil; and then they put it into their mouths and they hegin 
to eat,' . . . and (the men) wait for the second course. | That is the 
end. I 

(2) When the middle parts of the salmon are reaUy dry, they are 

15 soaked || in the soaking-box, which stands in the corner of the house. | 
It is always filled with water; and the woman | always puts the 
middle parts of the salmon into it, so tliat it is full ; and when | she 
goes to take the middle parts of the salmon to cook them, she | puts 
in again some more dried middle parts of the salmon, and changes || 

20 them for those that have been taken out.^ . . . When her husband 
comes, I the woman takes the soaking middle parts of the salmon 
and 1 counts two pieces of the middle parts of the salmon for each | 
man; and so she takes twelve pieces. She | puts them into the 

25 kettle; and her husband puts the kettle || on the fire, ami he also 
poiirs water into it. | Then the woman takes two dishes and also | 
two oil-dishes, and puts them down where she sits. | The kettle is 
not very long over the fire, when it is taken off; | and the man also 

30 takes the tongs || and takes out the soaked middle parts of the sal- 
mon and puts them also into | a large dish wliich stands on the floor 
of the house, | made for tliis kind of cooking.- 



. 3 



11 la'xa Lle'^na. Wa, la'wisLa ts!o'q!iisas, wa, laE'm ha^mx-^I'dEX'- 
da^xwa. ' . . . Wa, laE'm awu'lgEmg-alll qa^s he'leglntsE^we. 
Wa, laE'm gwa'la. 

(2) Wa.gl'Pmese la a'la la lE'mx^weda q!a'q!aga^yaxsla'e t!e'las6 

15 la'xa t'.e'lats'.axs ha^ne'hxe la'xa onegwilasa g'o'kwe. Wa, laE'm 
he'mEnalaEm la q!6'ts!asosa ^wa'pe. Wa, la^me'sa tslEda'qe he'- 
niEualaEmxat! axsta'lasa q!a'q!aga^ye laqqa qo'tles. Wa,he'^maaxs 
la'e ax^wiistE'ndxa q!a'q!aga^ye qa^s ha^me'xsilasE^we. Wii, la 
a'Em xwe'laqa ax^e'dxa lE'mxwa q!a'q!age^ qa^s Lla'yo^stE'ndes 

20 hl'xes la axusta'na.^ . . . (Wa, giPmese g-axe la^wunEmasexs) 
la'eda ts!Eda'qe ax^e'd la'xes tle'lasE^we qla'qlaga^'ya. Wa, laE'm 
ho'sEmtsa mae'ma^lExsa q!a'q!age^ la'xa ^na'l^nEmokwe begwa'- 
uEma. Wa, laE'm ax^e'dxa ma^lExsa'g-Eyowe. Wa, he'^mis la 
axtslo'yosexa ha'nxLanowe. Wit, la^me'se ha'nxLanos la'^wunE- 

25 mas la'xa lEgwI'le. Wa, he'Emxaa'wise la gu'qiEqasa ^wa'pe laq. 
Wa, la ax^e'deda tslEda'qaxa ma^lEXLa' lelo'q!wa. Wa, he'^misa 
ma^lEXLa^maxat ! ts!ets!Eba'ts!a qa^s le k^a'galElas la'xes k!wae'- 
lase. Wii, la k!es a'laEm ge'xxaleda ha'nxxanax, la'e ha'nx-sana 
lii'xa lEgwI'l. Wa, he'Em^xaa'wiseda bEgwa'nEme ax^e'dxa tsle's- 

30 Liila qa^s kMipwiista'lexa t!e'lkwe q!ii'q!age qa^s k!ipts!a'les lii'xa 
6'gu^la^maxat ! ^wa'las io'qiwa gax ha^ne'la; hekwe'leEm qae'da 
he gwa'las ha^me'xsllasE^we.^ . . . 

' Continued in Jesup Expedition, etc., Vol. V., p. 431, lines 1-14. 

^Continued in ibid., p. 431, lines 15-39. 

3 Continued in ibid., p. 431, line 40, to p. 432, line 4. 



BOAS] RECIPES 325 

Her husband breaks to pieces the soaked middle parts of salmon, 33 
and I he measures what he is breaking so that they will be the right 
size for our mouths; || and his wife pours oil into the oil-dishes; | and 35 
after the man has finished brealdng what he is working at, | the guests 

finish singing.' . . . Then (the man) takes up two| 

oil-dishes and puts ^Y-^ CD ~"|| them|inthefarsideof thedish, | 
in this manners lc i _ ""T :^ ... As soon as (the guests) 

finish, they wait || for X x ^ the next course. 40 

Split-Backs. — (The split-backs are eaten without being boiled or l 
blistered. The man takes the " split-down " and folds it up and dips 
it into the oil and puts it into his mouth.) He does not chew it 
before he [dips it into the oil, for it is really soft.' . . . After | 
the men have finished drinking, they wait for the second course. | 
That is the end of this. For they never soak this split-down, || be- 
cause it does not get hard, although it may be old. Even if it is two | 5 
years old, it never gets hard, for it is really worked thoroughly. There- 
fore I it keeps always soft. That is the end. | 

Soaked Backbones, boiled or blistered (1). — (The woman) takes | the 
soaked backbones out of the water in the soaking-box, and puts them|| 
on a mat that is spread at the place where she is sitting. Then the 1 
man | breaks them into three pieces and puts them into the kettle, j 

Wa,' le la'-wunEmas plo'x^wldxa tie'lkwe q!a'q!aga^ya. Wii, 33 
laE'm a'Em ^ms'nsases p!6'qwa^ye qa belts lEqEles la'xEns sE'msex. 
Wa, la'La gEnfi'mas k!il'nxts!otsa Lle'^na la'xa ts!ets!Eba'ts!e. 35 
Wii, g'ii^mese gwal plo'qweda bEgwa'nEmaxes axsE^wa'xs lae 
gwal dEnxEleda k!wele.' . . . Wa, la'xaa ka'gililxa ma^lEXLa' 
islets !Eba'ts!a qa^s le k'ane'qwas lax Llasaneqwasa lo'qiwe; ga 
gwa'lega (^f/.).- . . . Wii, gl'l-'mese gwa'lExs la'e awii'IgEmg-alil 
qa^s heiegintsE^we. 40 

Split-Backs. — Wa, las'm kMes male.x-'bE'ndqexs k'leVmae tslE- 1 
pirts La'xa Lle'^na qaxs a'lae tr/lqwa.' . . . Wii,'' gl'Pmese 
gwiil na'qaxs la'e awu'lgEmgalileda l)Egwa'nEme qa^s he'legintsE- 
^we. Wii, laE'm gwal la'xeq qa k' !e'ts!ena^yas tIe'lasEwa Le'qwaxa, 
qaxs hewii'xae p!e's^IdEx wii'x'^mae la gil'la, wii'x'^mae lama^lE'nxe 5 
ts!awu'nxas la liewii'xaEm p!e's^'Id qaxs a'lae ae'kMaakwa; la'gllas 
he'mEnalaEm tE'lqwa. Wa, laE'm gwa'la. 

Soaked Backbones, boiled or blistered (1). — Wii, la^me's ax^iis- 
tE'ndxa t!e'lkwe xii'k!adz:\ lii'xa t!e'lats!e qa^s ga'xe axdzo'ts 
la'xa le'^wa^yeLEbe'la lax kiwae'lasa. Wa, la^me'seda bEgwa'nEme lo 
ya'lyudux"sala ko'koxsalaq qa^s ha'ntslales la'xa ha'nxxanowe. 

1 Continued in Jesup E.xpedition, etc., Vol, V, p. 432, lines 4-21. 
^Continued in ibid., p. 432, line 21, to p. 434, line 40. 
= Continued in ibid., p. 4.34, line 40, to p. 435, line 8. 
' Continued from ibid., p. 435, line 8. 



326 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etu. anx. 3-, 

12 After he has done so, he puts the kettle on the fire; and | as soon as it 
stands tliere firmly, the man pours water into it; | and it does not 

15 take long before it begins to boU. Then the kettle is taken off; || and 
the woman takes five dishes and | puts them down, and also five 
oil-dishes. As soon as | it Ls all on the floor, the man takes his tongs, 
and I takes the soaked backbone out of the water and puts it into the 

20 dishes.' I . . . When they finish (eating) they wait for a second || course. | 

(2). — Sometimes the soaked backbone is blistered by the | fire of the 

house to heat it, when there are not many who have been | invited, — 

for instance, two men, — or when the owner of the house | is given this, 

25 to eat by his wife. She just goes and takes some || soaking backbone, 
and blisters it by the fire. Wlien | it is done, she puts it on a food- 
mat; I and an oil-disli is taken and oil poured into it. | Wlien it is 
put on the food-mat outside | of the blistered soaked backbone, it 

30 is eaten by the one || man and his wife and his children, in this man- 
ner. I Sometimes old people desire to eat it blistered in this | way, 
for it has a different taste from boiled | soaked backbone, and there- 

35 fore some men like it. | They never sing when their food || is going 
to be soaked backbone; for this is going to be their food when few 

12 Wa, g'l'l^mese gwa'lExs la'e ha'nx'LEnts la'xa lEgwi'le. Wa, 
gi'Pmese E'lxLalaxs la'eda bEgwa'uEme gii'qlEqasa ^wa'pe laq. 
Wa, la^rae'se ge'g'IltsllaEm la maE'mdElqulaxs la'e ha'nxsana. 

15 Wa, le'da ts'.Eda'qe §,x^e'dxa sEkMe'xLa lo'ElqIwa qa^s ga'xe 
mEx^a'lllas LE^wa sEkMe'xLa'maxaeda ts!ets!Eba'ts!e. Wii, g'i'l- 
^mese ^wi'lg'alllExs la'eda bEgwa'uEme ax^e'dxes tsle'sLala qa^s 
k' ItpwEstalexa tie'lkwe xa'k-!adz5 qa^s k'!ipts!a'les la'xa lo'ElqIwe.' 
. . . (Wa, g'iPmese gwala) la'e awiI'lgEmgalil qa^s he'legln- 

20 tsE^we. 

(2) . — Wii, la ^na'l^nEmp !Ena pEne'sasE^wa t !E'lkwe xa'k" !adzo la'xa 
lEgwi'lasa go'kwe, qa ts!E'lx-wIdes, yixsk'!e'sae qle'nsma Le'^la- 
HEme, ylxa ma^lo'kwe be'bEgwanEma loxs he'^maeda go'gwadiisa 
g'o'kwe ha^mg'i'laso^ses gEUE'me. Wii, a'^mes la ax^e'd la'xes 

25 tle'lasE^we xa'k!adza qa^s pEnnoll'seq lii'xa lEgwi'le. Wii, gl'l- 
^mese L!5'pEx . la'e a'Em axo'dzoyo la'xa ha-mii'dzowe le'^wa^ya. 
Wa, la ax^e'tsF/wa tslEba'tsIe qa^s k!u'nxts!6tsE-'wesa L!e'^na. 
Wa, a'^mes la ka'dzodayo lii'xa ha^rail'dzowe le'^wa^ya lax i.Iii'sa- 
lilasa pE'nkwe t!elk" xil'k!adz6. Wii, laE'm he''mesa ^nEmo'kwe 

30 bEgwa'nEm le^wI's gEUE'me Lo-me's sii'sEmeda he gwii'le. Wa, la 
^nii'l^nEmp !Ena^ma q!u'lsq!ilPyakwe bebEgwii'nEm ha^mae'xsdxa he 
gwe'kwexa pEnnole'dzEkwe qaxs o'guxp!amae la'xa ha'nxLaakwe 
t!elk" xil'k-ladza. Wii, he'^mis la'g-ilas ax^e'xstso^sa ^nal^uEmo'- 
kwe la'xa bEgwii'nEme. Wii, la kMes dE'nxElagllExs ha-mii'^ye'- 

35 Leda tie'lkwe xa'k!adza, yix ha^ma^e'Le qaxs ho'lalaeda ha'mii'paq 

1 Continued in Jesup Expedition, etc., Vol. V, p. 436, line 12, to p. 437, line 22. 



BOAS] RECIPES 327 

are eating, | for there are never many who eat this kind of cooking; I 30 
and the only time they eat this is in the morning. That is | all 
about this. | 

Fins and Tails (1). — Now I wiU talk about the cooking | of the pec- 1 
toral hns and anal fins and the tails of the | dog-salmon. These three 
kinds are [never not] always eaten at | noon and in the evening. 
When they are going to eat pectoral fins || and anal fins and tails, a 5 
soaking-box is taken, | and water is poured into it. Then (several 
handfuls of) | pectoral fins are picked up and put into it. For four 
days they are soaking in it. | Then they are taken out and put into 
a kettle; and | water is poured on them before tliey are put on the 
fire. II Wlien they are covered with water, they are put on the | fire. 10 
Sometimes they are kept boiling until it is nearly noon, | for they try 
to boil the bones soft. Wlien the bones are boiled to pieces, | the 
kettle is taken off the fire. Then the | woman takes a dish and i)uts 
it alongside the kettle. || Then she takes a large spoon, | and ladles 15 
out the pectoral fins, and she pours them into the | dish. When they 
are all in it, she places it before the one who is to eat it; | and next • 
water is given to drink to him who is going to eat it. As soon | as (the 
guests) finish drinking, they eat. No oil is || dipped with it when 20 

qaxs kMe'sae q!e'nEmenoxwa ha^ma'paxa he gwii'las ha^me'xsi- 36 
laene^. Wa, le'x'aEmxaa ha^ma'pdEmqeda gaa'la. Wa, laE'm 
gwa'la. 

Fins and Tails (1). — Wa, la^me'sEn gwa'gwexs"^alal la'qexs la'e ha- 1 
^me'x-sllasE^weda pELlExa'wa'ye LE^wa pELa'ga^ye LE^wa tsla'sna- 
^yasa gwa^xnl'se. Wa, k' !eya's k" !es ha'^maEnxg^ada yu'duxwldala- 
k'xa nEqa'la LE^wa dza'qwa. Wii, g I'l^Emha^ma'La pELlExa'wa^ye 
LE^wa pELa'ga^ye LE'wa ts la'sna^yaxs la'e gEyo'l ax'e'tsE^wa t!e'la- 5 
ts'.e qa^s guxtslo'yaeda ^wa'pe laq. Wii, la^me'se k'la^stanoweda 
pELlExa'wa^ye laq. Wii, he't!a la mo'plEnxwa^stali'l lii'qexs la'e 
ax^wusta'na qa^s axts!5yuwe la'xa ha'nxxanowe. Wa, lii'xaa gE- 
yo'l guqlEqa'sosa ^wa'paxs kMe's^mae ha'nxxana la'xa lEgwi'le. 
Wa, g'l'i^mese la qlo'giililxa ^wa']Kixs la'e ha'nx'LEndayo la'xa 1e- 10 
gwl'le. Wa, la'me-'se ^niiPnEmp !Ena sla'q^Em k!es ^nEqii'lagila 
maE'mdElqtila, qaxs xa'xayasE^waes xii'qe. Wa, gi'Pmese xa's^I- 
deda xii'qaxs la'e h§,'nxsanoweda ha'nx-Lanowe. Wa, la^me'seda 
tslEilii'qe ax'e'dxa lo'qlwe qa^s ka'galiles liix o'nii'^yasa ha'nx'La- 
nowe. Wii, la^me'seda tslEdii'qe ax^e'dxa ^wa'lase k'a'tslEnaqa 15 
qa^s xii'lostEndes lii'xa pELlExa'wa^ye. Wii, la xE'ltsIalas la'xa 
lo'qlwe. Wii, gi'Pmese ^wi'^lts!axsla'e kii'gEmlllas lax ha^ma'pLaq. 
Wa, la^me'sa ^wa'pe ma'k'iliiq qa na'x^Itsosa ha^ma'pLe. Wii, gi'l- 
^mese gwal nii'qaxs la'e hamx'^i'da. Wa, laE'm k' lea's Lle'^na tslE- 
pa'sos laqexsha^mapaaxgada pELlExa^wa^ye LE^wa pELaga^ye LEwa 20 



328 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL (eth, ann. 36 

21 they eat these pectoral fins and anal fins and | tails. After they 
have eaten, the woman takes | the dish out of which those have 
eaten to whom she has given to eat, | and she takes water and pours 
it into it. Then slie puts it back before those to whom she has given 

25 to eat, | and they wash their hands in it. After || they have done so 
they are given water to drink. | Often they are not given a second 
course after eating | pectoral fins and anal fins and also tails. | The 
guests just go out of the house. The | old people always eat that, 

30 about which I am talking. || Only poor people have, for tlicir food, 
these three kinds | about which I am talking. That is all. | 

(2) . — When there are many roasted salmon-tails, | the owner invites 
his friends early in the morning to come | and eat breakfast in his house. 

35 As soon as the guests are all in, || the man wlio invited them takes a 
food-mat and spreads it on the floor | in front of his guests. Then 
he takes the roasted salmon-tails | and puts them down lengthwise 
on the food-mat. Then lie takes | water and gives it to them; and 
after they finish drinking, | they begin to eat. As soon as the guests 

40 begin to eat, || the man takes his bucket and goes to draw fresh water 
for I drinking afterwards. As soon as he comes back, he piits down 
on the floor the | bucket with water in it; and after they have 
finished eating the salmon-tails, | the man puts the bucket with 

21 tsla'sna^ye. Wii, g i'Pmese gwal ha^mapExs la'e Sx^e'deda tslEda'- 
qaxa io'qlwe, ylx ha^maats!e'x'dasaha^mg'I'lasE^was, qa^s ax^e'dexa 
^wa'pe qa^s guxts !6'des laq. Wa, la xwe'laqak'a'gEmlllas la'xes ha^m- 
gl'lasE^we. Wa, la^me'se ts!E'nts!Enx'wIdExda'x" laq. Wii, g'i'l- 

25 ^mose gwa'lExs la'e tsa'x'^Itsosa -wa'pe. Wa, laE'm na'x^IdEX'- 
da^x" laq. Wa, la qluna'la k!es he'leg'intsE^weda ha^ma'paxa pE- 
L!Exawa^ye LE^wa pELaga^ye. Wa,hemisLeda ts!asna^ye. Wii, laEm 
aEm ho'quwElseda Le^lanEmxde. Wii, laE'mxaa'wiseda q!uls- 
qlii'lyakwe he'mEniila ha^mii'pEx gwe'xsdEmasgin gwii'gwexs^a- 

SOlasEk'; le'xa^meda wi-wosElaga hemawiilanux"sg"ada yu'dux"wl- 
dalag'in gwa'gwexs'alasa. Wii, lar/m gwiila. . . 

(2). — Wii, g'l'Pmese q!e'nEma Llo'bEkwe tsla'sna^ya, la'e he'x'^i- 
da^ma axnO'gwadiis Le'^lalaxes ^ne^nEmo'kwaxa ga&'la qa ga'xes 
gaa'xstala lax g'o'kwas. Wa, la g-l'pEm ^wi'^laeLeda i.e'^'lanEmaxs 

35 la'e(]a Le'^laliiq ax^e'dxa ha-miidzowe le^wa^ya qa^s LEpIiililes lax 
Lla'sExdzanicVyases Le^hluEme. Wii, la iix^'e'dxa L!6'bEkwe ts!ii's- 
na^ya qa^s le k^adEdzo'ts la'xa ha^mii'dzowe le'^wa^ya. Wa, la 
ax^e'dxa ^wa'pe qa^s le tsii'x'^Its Itlq. Wii, gi'Pmese gwiil nii'qaxs la'e 
ha^mx'^I'dExda^xwa. Wii, g i'l-mese ha^mx'i'deda Le^liinEmaxs la- 

40 eda bEgwii'uEme ax^e'dxes na'gatsle qa^s le tsax a'lta ''wil'pa qa 
nage'giLEs. Wa, gt'Pmese giix ae'daaqaxs la'e kMo'x^walllxa nii'- 
gatsle ^wa'bEts!ala. Wii, gl'Pmese gwiil ha'mii'pa ts!ets!ii'snegiixs 
la'eda bEgwa'nEme ha'ng'imlTltsa ^wa'bEtslale na'gatsle laq. Wa, 



BOAS] RECIPES 329 

water in it before them, and | immediately they drink of it. After 
they finish drinking, || they go out. There is no oil to dip witli it, 45 
and I there is no dish, and they do not rinse their mouths; for | the 
first people said that the silver-salmon would disappear | if tliese 
three kinds of things were done. | Therefore they take for them a 
new food-mat; and || they do not wipe their hands when they eat 50 
roasted salmon-tails | and roasted backbones of silver-salmon; for 
often the guests just rub | their hands, after they' finish eating, to 
dry off I the fat of their food. The owner of the | sahnon-tails eats 
some of what has been left over by those who have eaten, || when he 55 
gets hungry, and he does the same way with roasted | backbones. 
That is aU. | 

Salmon-Cheeks. — As soon as winter comes, (the woman) takes | her 1 
soaking-box and puts it down in the corner of the house; | then she 
draws water (and pours it) into the soaking-box until it is half fidl 
of water. | Then she takes the basket in which she keeps the "plucked 
cheeks" and pours them into the || soaking-box. She soaks them 5 
four days in the house. After | they have been soaking four days, 
tlie woman requests her husband, | even if it is noon, to go and 
invite the old chiefs | to come and eat the "plucked cheeks," for only 
the chiefs I cat this kind (of food). The man at once goes and jl 



he'x-^ida^mese na'x^klEX'da^x" laq. Wa, gl'l^mese gwal na'qaxs 
la'e hd'quwElsa. Wa, las'm k'leo's L!e'^na tslEpa's. Wa, he'- 45 
^mesexs k- !eo'sae lo'q !wa. Wa' he^misexs k" !e'sae ts Iewb'l !Ex5d c[axs 
^ne'k'aeda g^a'le bEgwa'nEmcjexs he'x'^ida^mae kMeyo'x^wIdeda 
dza^wu'naqexs ax^e'tsE^waeg'ada yu'dux^wldalaga. Wa, he'^mis 
hi'g-ilas ax^e'dgllxa aldzEwe' ha^madzo' le'^wa^ya. Wa, he'^mis 
la'gilas k!esxat! dedE'nkweda ha^ma'paxa L!6'bEkwe ts!a'sna-'ya 50 
i.o^ma Llo'bEkwe xa'k!adz6sa dza^wu'ne, qluna'lae a'Em dzil'k'o- 
deda Le'-ianEmaxes e=eyasowaxs la'e gwal ha^ma'pa qa lE'mxwa- 
LElesa tsE'nxwa^yeses ha^ma'^ye. W^a, a'^mes leda axno'gwadasa 
tsla'sna^ye, yix k' !e'ts!a^yaway^asex le'x'de ha^ma'p laha'mx'hEmk-a 
la'qexs la'e po'sq!EX-^ida. Wa, la he'Emxat! gwe'g-ilaxa Llo'bE- 55 
kwe xa'k- !adza. Wa, laE'm gwa'la. 

Salmon-Cheeks. — Wa, gi'Pmese ts!a^wu'nx^IdExs la'e ftx^e'd- l 
xes t!e'lats!e qa^s le ha'ng-alllaq la'xa o'negwTlases g'o'kwe. 
Wa, la tsa'tslotsa ^wa'pe laq, qa nEgoya'lesa t!e'lats!axa ^wape. 
Wa, la Sx^e'dxes p!Elodzats!e lExa'^ya qa^s guxstE'ndes la'xa 
t!e'lats!e. Wa, la^me'se m6'p!Enxwa^s t!e'ltalila. Wit, g-i'h'mese 5 
mo'plEnxwa-'s ta'llla, la'eda tslEda'qe axkMalaxes la'^wunEmaxa 
wa'x-^Em la nEqa'la qa les Le'^lalaxa q!ulsq!u'lyak" gl'gigEma^ya 
qa g-axes plEplElo'sgaxa plElose, qaxs le'x'a^maeda g T'gigama^ye 
ha^ma'pxa he gwe'x-se. Wa, he'x'^ida^mesa bEgwa'nEme la La'lll- 



330 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ANN. as 

10 selects the chiefs whom he intends to invite in. It is not long before 
they all come into | his house. [I have forgotten that his wife | at 
once spreads out mats for the guests to sit down on the floor. | Those 
who have been invited go riglit in and sit down on | the spread mats.] 

15 As soon as they are all in, the || man takes a kettle and pours water 
into it, I and he puts it on the fire in his house; but his wife goes on 
with her work. | She takes a basket, and takes the "plucked cheeks" 
out of the water* and puts them into the | basket, and pours them 
into the kettle which | is boiling over the fire in the house. Then the 

20 woman takes dishes and || puts them down where she is sitting, and 
she also takes tongs; | and when she thinks that (the "plucked 
cheeks") are done, her husband takes | the kettle from the fire. 
Immediately the woman takes her tongs | and takes out the " plucked 
cheeks" and puts them into the dishes; | and when they are aU in 

25 the dishes, she places || one dish in front of each four men. As soon j 
as this is done, she takes a bucket with water in it and places | it in 
front of the guests; then they drink; | and when they finish drinking, 
tliey begin to eat; | and when they begin to eat, the woman takes 

30 another || dish and pours the liquid of the "plucked cheeks" into it. 
Tlien she counts one | spoon for each guest, and she goes and gives 
them each one. She | takes up the dish with the liquid in it and 

10 qE^waxa gT'g'igama^ye. Wa, k' !e'st !a ga'laxs g'a'xae ^wl'^la ho'gwl- 
LEla lax go'kwas. Wa, he'xoLEn LlEle'wesE^we gEUE'masexs he'- 
x-^ida^mae LEp!a'lllElaxa le'Elwa^ye qa kludzEdza'lPlasLEsa klwe'ls- 
La; wa, lil'gllas he^na'kula^ma Le-ianEme qa-'s le kludzEdza'Ii- 
laxa LEbEgwI'lkwe le'El-wa^ya. Wa, gl'Pmese ^wI'^laeLExs la'eda 

15 bEgwa'nEme ax^e'dxa ha'nx'Lanowe qa^s guxtslo'desa ^wa'pe laq. 
Wa, la ha'nx-LEnts la'xes lEgwI'le. Wa, la'La a'x"sile gEnE'mas, 
ax^e'dxa lExa'^ye qa^s le klo'stEndxa plElo'se qa^s k'!ats!o'des la'xa 
lExa'^ye qa's la guxts!o'ts la'xa ha'nx'Lala ha'nxLana. Wii, la^me'se 
maE'mdElqula ge'gilila, la'asa ts!Eda'qe ax^e'dxa l6'Elq!we qa^s 

20 g'a'xe ax^^'lTlas la'xes kiwae'lase; wa, he'^mlse tsIe'sLala. Wa, 
gi'Pmese ko'taq laE'm L!5'pa la'e la'^wiinEmas ha'nxsEndxa 
ha'nx Lanowe. Wa, he'x'^ida^meseda tslEda'qe ax^e'dxes tsIe'sLala 
qa k' !ipwusta'lexa pMo'se qa^s k'!ipts!a'les la'xa lo'Elqlwe. Wa, 
gi'Pmese -'wi'^ltsla la'xa l6'Elq!waxs la'e k-ax'dzamo'lllas la'xa 

25 mae'mokwe be'bEgwanEma la'xa ^na'l^iiEmexLa lo'qiwa. Wii, g'l'I- 
^mese ^wl^laxs la'e ax^e'dxa ^wa'bEtsIala na'gatsla qa^s le ha'nx^- 
dzamolTlas la'xes k!we'lekwe. Wii, lie'x'Hda^mese mi'x-ldExda- 
^xwa. Wii, g'I'l-'mese gwal nil'qaxs lil'x'da^xwae ha^mx'^i'da. Wa, 
gil^mese hamx-^i'dExs la'eda tslEdiiqe ax^e'dxa o'giVla^maxat ! l5'- 

30 q!wa qa^s guxts!6'des ^wii'paliisa plElo'se laq. Wa, la'xaa ho'sEmtsa 
kTi'lcEtslEnaqe lil'xa kiwe'le qa's le ts!as laq. Wii, lii'xaa ka'- 
o-illlxa ^wa'bEtsIala l5'q!wa qa^s le kaxdzamo'lilas laq qa yo'- 



■BOAS] RECIPES 331 

places it in front of them, to | eat it with spoons while they arc 33 
eating the "plucked cheeks." They eat (the liquid) with spoons | 
while they are eating (the heads). After they have eaten, || the 35 
woman takes up the dish and pours out what was in it. | Then she 
pours some good water into it, and she | places it in front of her 
guests again. Then they wash their hands; | and after they have 
done so, the bucket with water in it is put before them, | and they 
drink out of it. After || they finish drinking, they go out; for no 40 
second course is served after | eating the "plucked cheeks," and also 
no oil is dipped with it. | Therefore only licpiid of the "plucked 
cheeks" is drunk while they are | eaten. That is the end. | 

Fresh Salmon-Heads. — Sometimes they eat (the salmon-heads) at 1 
once when they are soft, for often | the old people come to the owner 
of this kind (of food to ask to be invited). | Then it is just put down 
on a food-mat and placed in front of those || who ask to be invited. 5 
They do not eat it in the morning, only | at noon and in the evening; 
and those who eat it do not rinse their mouths, | for that is only done 
in the morning. They only drink water | before they eat the roasted 
heads, and they also drink water | after they finish eating; and then 
they take a mouthful of water || and squirt it over their hands to 10 
wash them, for | their hands are greasy from the fat of their food, 

tslek'Eleseqexs ha^ma'paaxa plElo'se. Wa, la'x'da^xwe y5'- 33 
tslekllaqexs la'e ha^ma'pa. Wa, g'i'l^mese gwal ha^ma'pExs 
la'eda tslsda'qe k'a'gllllxa lo'Elqlwe qa^s le gux^i'dEx g'i'tsia- 35 
xdaq. Wa, la^me'se guxts!o'tsa e'k'e ^wap laq. Wa, laEmxaa'wi- 
se kaxdzamo'lilas la'xa khve'lde. Wa, laxda^xwe ts!E'nts!Enx- 
^wlda. Wa, gi'Pmese gwalExs la'e ha'ngEmlilEma ^wabEts!ala 
nagatsla'. Wa, he'x-^ida^mese na'x^IdExda^x" laq. Wa, gi'l- 
^mese gwal na'qaxs la'e ho'qtiwEls qaxs k'!e'sae he'legintsE^wa 40 
ha^ma'paxa plElo'se. Wa, laE'mxaa k'lea's Lle'^na tsEpa'sos. 
Wa, he'Em la'gilas a'Em na'qasE^we ^wa'palasa plElo'saxs ha- 
^ma^yae. Wa, laE'm gwa'la. 

Fresh Salmon-Heads (Xo'xttsde). — Wa, la -na'l^nEmp lEna he'- 1 
x-^ida^Em ha'mx'^i'dqexs he'^mae a'les tslE'lqwe, yixs qluna'lae 
qa'tse'staleda q'.iilsq'ulyakwe laxa axno'gwadiisa he gwe'x'se. Wa, 
laE'm a'Em axdzo'yo la'xa ha^madzowe' le'^wa^ya qa^s le axdzamo'- 
iPlEm la'xa qa'tse^stala. Wa, la k' !es ha^ma'xa gaa'la, le'x-a^ma 5 
nEqa'la LE^wa dza'qwa. Wa, la k' !es tslEwe'L.'Exodeda ha^ma'- 
paq qaxs la^me'x'de gaa'xstala. Wa, laLa na'x^iiaEmxa ^wa'paxs 
k'le's^mae ha^mx'^i'dxa xo'xiisde. Wa, la'xaa na'x^IdaEmxs lae 
gwal ha^ma'pa. Wa, he'^mis laxat! ha'msgEmdaats la'xa ^wa'pe 
qa^s ha'mx'tsIanE'ndesexs la'e tslE'ntslEnx^weda, qaxs qlE'lqlEl- 10 
ts!anae lax tsE'nxwa^yases ha^ma'^ye qaxs a'^mae da'x"^ldxa se'sE- 



332 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ANN. 35. 

12 for they just take | the whole roasted salmon-heads and hold them 
when tliey eat them, therefore | their liands are very greasy. As 
soon as they finish, | they go out of the house, for no second course is 

15 served after fresh || roasted salmon-heads. That is aU about this. | 
Preserved Salmon-Heads. — Now we will talk about the | roasted 
salmon-heads when they cook them in winter. Wlien | it is winter, 
the common people are invited to come | to the house of the owner 

20 of the roasted salmon-heads. Then || they do again the same thing 
that I told of before,* when they spread out | mats behind the fire- 
place of the house for the guests to sit down on | when they come in. 
As soon as they are in, | they are led by the woman to their seats on 

25 the spread | mats. Wlien they are all in, the || woman at once takes 
the basket in which she keeps the salmon-heads, and she puts it 
do\vn I at the place where she is sitting; and her husband takes a 
large | kettle and puts it down also, next to the place where his wife 
is sitting. | At once the woman opens the top of the basket, | and 
she takes out the roasted salmon-heads and puts them into the 

30 kettle. || Then she places them in it so that all stand on the part 
where | the head has been cut off, and so that the faces of the roasted 
heads are upward; and she only | stops when the kettle is fuU. Her 

12 nala x'5'xusda, qa^s deda'lallleqexs la'e ha^ma'pEq. Wa, he'^mis 
la'g-Jlas xE'nLEla q!E'lq!Elts!ane. Wa, gl'Pmese gwa'lsxs la'e 
a'Em ho'quwEls qaxs kle'sae he'leg'intsE^wa ha^ma'paxa a'lxwase 

15 xo'xusda. Wit, laE'm gwal la'xeq. 

Preserved Salmon-Heads.' — Wa, la^me'sEns gwa'gwexs^alal la'xa 
xo'xusdiixs la'e ha'me'x'sllaqexs la'e ts!a^wu'nxa. Wa, he'^maaxs 
la'e tsla^wu'nxa la'e Le'^lalasE^weda be'bEgwanEmq!alaEm qa g'a'xes 
lax go'kwasa axno'gwadasa x-o'xiisde. Wa, he'Emxaa'wis gwe'- 

20 x'^Ide gwi'gilasasa gig'i'leyin wa'ldEma laE'm LEp!a'lelEma le'- 
^wa^ye lax 6'gwiwalliasa lEgwi'lasa g"o'kwe, qa k!iidzEdzo'lllas6sa 
Le^anEme q5 g'axL ho'gwiLo. Wii, gl'Pmese gax ho'gwiLExs 
la'e qla'x'sldzesosa tslEda'qe qa las kludzEdzo'lllEla la'xa LEbEl- 
kwe' le'^wa^ya. Wa, gl'l^mese ^wi'^laeLExs la'e he'x'^da^ma 

25 tslEda'qe ax^'e'dxa x'o'xusdaatsle L!a'bata qa^s ga'xe ha'ngalllas 
la'xes k!wae'lase. Wa, la'La la'^wunEmas ax^e'dxes ^wa'lase 
ha'nx'Lana qa^s g-a'xe ha'ngalllas la'xaaxa kiwae'lasases gEnE'me. 
Wa, he'x'^ida^meseda tslEda'qe xo'x^widEX tiEma'g imasa Lla'bate. 
Wii, la ax^wu}ts!a'laxa x-6'xusde qa^s le axtsla'las la'xa ha'nx-- 

30 Lanowe. LaE'm ae'k'Ia k!uts!a'las qa ^na'xwa^me he kiwa'iayoses 
qa'k'a^ye. Wa, laE'm e'klF.gEmlts'.aweda xo'xiisde. Wa, a'Pmese 
gwa'lExs la'e qo't!eda ha'nxLanowe. Wii, la'La la''wunEmas 

' See p. 330. 



BOAS] RECIPES 333 

husband | at once takes up two buckets and goes to draw water | 33 
for the liquid of what is being cooked. As soon as he comes back, || 
he pours (the water) into (tlie kettle). Wlien it is half full of water, | 35 
his wife takes an old mat and covers it over, so | that the steam may 
not come through when it boils. As soon as | this has been done, 
she puts the kettle on the fire. Immediately | the guests begin to 
sing the songs of their ancestors. || Four songs are sung. Then the | 40 
host takes the dishes and puts them down at the place where his | 
wife is sitting; and when that is done, she dips up some water, so 
that I everything stands ready on the floor of the house. After it 
has been boiling for a long time, the | kettle is taken off; and it just 
stands on the floor of the house, || for she wants (what is being 45 
cooked) to swell up. After the guests finish singing, | and when the 
hostess thinks that what is being cooked is (thoroughly) soaked, | then 
she takes the tongs and takes off tlie covering. | Then she takes a large 
long-handled ladle and takes out | what has been cooked and puts 
it into the dishes; || and she only stops when they are aP full of what 50 
has been cooked. | Then (the host's) wife takes an old [bad] food- 
mat and I spreads it out in front of tlie guests. After she lias done 
so, I her husband takes up the dislies and places them before his | 
guests. There are four men to each dish. || After tliis has been done, 55 

he'x-^idaEm k'!5'qulllxa ma^ltsE'me nena'gatsia qa^s le tsax ^wa'pa 33 
qa ^wa'palases ha^me'xsTlasE^we. Wa, g'i'Pmese g'ax ae'daaqaxs 
la'e giiqlEqa's laq. Wa, a'^mese tlEpEya'x^^idxa ^wa'paxs la'e 35 
S,x^e'de gEnE'masexa k'!a'k'!obane qa^s nasEyi'ndes laq qa 
k'le'ses k'ux"s£i'leda k'la'lsla qo mEdE'lx^wklLo. Wa, gl'Pmese 
gwa'lExs la'e ha'nx'LEnts la'xa lEgwi'le. Wa he'x'^ida^mese 
dE'nx^ededa kiwe'lasa gl'ItslEyalayo q!E'mdEma. Wa, laE'm 
mo'sgEmeda dE'nx^edayos qlE'mqiEmdEma. Wa, la^me'sLaLeda 40 
k!we'lase ax^e'dxes l6'Elq!we qa g-a'xese niEx^a'lil lax k!waeHasases 
gEUE'me. Wa, la gwa'lExs la'e tsa'x'^idxa ^wa'pe qa ga'xese 
ha^ne'l gwa'llla. Wa, la^me'se ge'glllb'Em la maE'mdElqiileda 
hS,'nxLaiaxs la'e ha'nxsEndEq. Wa, a'Emxaa'wise la ha^ne'la, 
qaxs ^ne'kae qa po's^ide. Wa, laE'mLa gwal dE'nxEleda k!we'le. 45 
Wa, gl'Pmese ko'tlededa klwe^lasaq laE'm po's^ides ha^me'x'sllaxs 
la'e ax^e'dxa tsIe'sLala qa^s k!ip!rdes la'xa nayl'me qa^s axo'deq. 
Wii, la ax^e'dxa ^wa'lase gl'ltlEXLala k^a'tslEnaqa qa^s xElo'ltsIales 
la'xes ha^me'xsilasE^we qa^s le XEltsIa'las laxa lo'ElqIwe. Wa, 
a'l^mese gwa'lExs la'e ^wI'^lolts!amasxes ha^me'xsflasE^we. Wa, 50 
la^me'se gEUE'mas ax^e'dxa ^ya'x'sE^me ha^madzo' le'^wa^ya, qa^s 
le LEpdzamo'lilas la'xes Le^lanEme. Wa, gl'l^mese gwa'lExs la'e 
la'^wunEmas k'a'g-ililxa }o'Elq!we qa^s le kaxdzamolIlElas la'xes 
Le%nEme. Wa, laE'm mae'malasE^wa ^na'l^nEmexLa lo'q!wa. Wa, 
gi'l^mese gwa'lExs la'e tsa'x'^itsa ^wa'pe laq qa na'x^ides laq. Wa, 55 



334 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

56 she dips up some water, and tliey drink it; | and after they have 
finished drinking, they begin to eat. Tlicy just take up | one 
salmon-head and hold it in their hands when they are eating, | and 
they throw the bones on the food- | mat; therefore an old [bad] 

60 food-mat is used, || for the fat of the salmon-heads sticks | to the 
mat. And after they have eaten, the woman | takes up the eating- 
dishes and pours out into the kettle | the food that was left. Then 
she washes them out; | and after she has done so, she pours some 

65 water into them, and she puts them again || before those to whom 
she has given to eat; and at once they all | wash their hands; and 
after the | men have washed their liands, the host draws some water, 
and they | aU drink; and after they have finished drinking, | the 

70 oldest one among the guests speaks, praising the host; || and when he 
stops speaking, the host thanks them for their | words; and when he 
stops speaking, they wait for the | second course. That is all of this. | 
1 Steamed Salmon-Heads. — Now I will | talk about the salmon- 
heads steamed (on hot stones) , | — the heads of all kinds of salmon. 
When I the woman cuts the salmon, as soon as she finishes, her || 
5 husband cuts fire-wood; and after he has done so, he ] digs a hole 
on the beach. Then he puts the split fire-wood lengthwise | into it. 

56 gl'l^mese gwal na'qaxs la'e ha^mx'^Ida. Wa, laE'm a'Em da'x'^Id- 
xa ^nii'l'nEmsgEme he'x't!a^ya qa^s da'Iallleqexs la'e ha^ma'pEq. 
Wa, la^me'se tslEgEdzo'dalaxa xa'qesawa^ye la'xes ha^madzo'we 
le'^wa^ya. He'Em la'g'ilas he ax^e'tsosa ^ya'x'sa^me ha^madzo' 

60 le'^wexs, yixs XE'nLElae k'.u'teda tss'nxwa^yasa he'xtla^yasa k'!o'- 
tEla la'xa le'^wa^ye. Wa, gi'lmese gwal ha-ma'pExs la'eda ts!Eda'qe 
ax^e'dxa ha'^maats!ex-de lo'Elq!wa qa's le guxts!o'tsa k!ets!a^yawa- 
yasa ha'ma'xde la'xa ha'nxxanowe. Wa, la tsloxuglndEq. Wa, 
g-I'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e guxts!o'tsa ^wa'pe laq, qa^s la'^xat! e't!ed 

65 k'axdzamo'lilas la'xes ha^mg-rlasox"de. Wa, he'x-'ida'mese HvPla 
tslE'ntslEnx^wIda. Wa, g'l'l^mese gwal ts!E'nts!Enkwaxs la'eda 
bEgwa'nEme, ylxa Le^lanEmaq tsii'x'^itsa ^wa'pe laq. Wa, la'x'da- 
^xwe ^wi'^la na'x-'Ida. Wa, g-i'Pmese gwal na'qaxs la'e ya'q!eg'a''le 
q!u'lyak!uga^yasa k!wel. Wa, laE'm tslE'lwaqaxa Le^laiiEmaq. 

70 Wii, gi'l'mese qlwe'l^TdExs la'e mo'mElklaleda klwe'lasas wa'ldE- 
mas. Wa, gi'Hmese qlwe'h'edExs la'e awu'lgEmg'a^il qa^s he'le- 
g'lntsE^we. Wa, laE'm gwal la'xeq. 
1 Steamed Salmon-Heads (KIwE^yaa'k" hex'tle). — Wa, la^me'sEn 
e'dzaqwal gwa'gwexs'alal la'xa he'x"t!a^yaxs la'e nEk'a'sE^wa, 
ylx he'xt!a''yasa ^na'xwa k'!6'k!utEla. Wa, he'^maaxs la'e xwa'- 
Leda tslEda'qaxa k" lo'tEla. Wa, gl'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e la'^wii- 
5 nEmas LE'mlEmxsEndxa lEqwa'. Wa, g-i'l^mese gwa'lExs la'e 
la'plalisa la'xa LlEma^ise. Wa, la L5'xts!alasa LE'mg'Ekwe lEqwa' 



BOAS] RECIPES 335 

After he has done so, he piles stones into it; | and when the fire-wood 8 
is covered with stones, | he puts fire under the pile of wood and 
stones; and when the pile of wood and stones blazes up, || he goes 10 
back into the woods and gets | skunk-cabbage leaves; and when he 
. gets many of tlaem, he brings them and puts them down | near the 
pile of wood and stones; and he takes his tongs | and he brings his 
bucket. His wife takes off | the gUls from the salmon-heads, and 
lier husband takes || eel-grass, drifted ashore; and after this has been 15 
done on the beach, | and when the stones are hot enough the man takes 
his tongs I and takes up a fire-brand and puts it do\vn on the beach, 
far away from | the place wliere the heads are to be steamed; and 
when all the fire has been taken out, | he levels the stones; and when 
they are all level, || he takes the eel-grass and puts it around the 20 
stones; | and when this has been done, he takes tlie skunk-cabbage 
leaves and spreads them | over the stones; and he only stops wlien 
there are four layers | of skunk-cabbage leaves spread out. As soon 
as this is done, he takes the | salmon-lieads and places them, nose 
upward, on the skunk-cabbage leaves. || As soon as they are all on 25 
the stones, he takes several skunk-cabbage leaves and | spreads them 
over the salmon-heads; and when these are spread also four layers 
thick, I he takes his bucket, dips up sea-water | on the beach, and 
brings it up to the steaming-hole. | Then he takes mats and places 



laq. Wa, g'i'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e XEquylndalasa tIe'sEme laq. 7 
Wa, g"i'l^mese hamElqayi'ndeda tle'sEme la'xa lEqwa'xs la'e 
mEna'botsa gu'lta la'xes tleqwapa^ye. Wa, g'i'Pmese x'i'qostowe 
t!e'qwapa^yasexs la'e a'Le^sta la'xa a'Lle qa^s le ax^e'd la'xa IQ 
k' !Ek'!ao'k!wa. Wa, g^i'Pmese qlEyo'LEqexs g'a'xae gE'mxalesaq 
la'xa nExwa'la la'xes t !e'qwapa^ye. Wa, la'xaa ax^e'dxes k' !ipLa'la 
qa g'a'xes kade'se LE^wis na'gatsle. Wa, la'La gEnE'mas axa'lax 
q!5'sna^yasa he'x't!a^ye. Wa, la'xae la'^wiinEmas ax^e'd la'xa 
qulE'me ts!a'ts!ayi'ma. Wa, gl'Pmese ^wi'^la g'ax gwa'^Iisaxs la'e 15 
memEnltsE'mx'^ide. Wa, le'da bEgwa'nEme ax^e'dxa kMtpLa'la 
qa^s kMipsa'Iexa gu'lta qa^s ax^a'lisEles la'xa qwa'qwesalaEm la'xa 
nEg'a'sLaxa he'x't!a^ye. Wa, gl'l^mese ^wi'^lx'seda gu'ltaxs ^nEma'- 
k^Eyindxa t!e'sEme. Wa, g'i'Pmese ^wi'^la ^nEma'k'E^yaxs la'e 
ax^e'dxa ts!a'ts!Esm6te qa^s le axse-'sta'las lax awe'^stasa t!e'sEme. 20 
Wa, gi'Pmese gwa'laxs la'e ax^e'dxa k'lao'klwe qa^s LEp!a'lodales 
la'xa tIe'sEme. Wa, a'l^mese gwa'lExs la'e m5'x"dzEk!weda 
LEpIaa'kwe k'!ao'k!wa. Wa, g'i'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e S,x^e'dxa 
he'x-t!a^ye qa^s le kliidzEdzo'daias la'xa k!Ek!ao'k!wa. Wa, 
gl'l^mese ^wl'%aalaxs la'e ax^e'dxa wao'kwe k!Ek-!ao'k!wa qa^s 25 
LEpEyl'ndales la'xa he'x-t!a^ye. Wa, gi'Pmese laxat! mo'x"dzE- 
kwalaxs la'e ax^e'dxes na'gats!e qa^s le tsa'x'Its la'xa dE'msxe 
la'xa LlEma^ise. Wa, ga'xe ha^no'lisas la'xes ns'k-asoLe. Wa, 
la ax^e'dxa le'Elwa^ye qa^s ilxno'lises laq. Wa, la ax^e'dxa 



336 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ANN. 35 

30 them by tlie side of it, and he takes a || pointed cedar-stick and 
pokes holes through tiie covering of skunk-cabbage leaves, for the 
water to go through when he pours it on. Wlien | all this is done, 
he takes the bucket of water and ])ours it over the | skunk-cabbage 
leaves; tlien he takes the mats and covers them over the leaves, | so. 
that the steam can not come through. After he has covered (the 

35 steaming-hole) || he calls his friends to come and sit down on the 
beach at the place where he is steaming | salmon-heads. After they 
have been sitting there some time, the man uncovers | what he is 
steaming; and the guests at once | sit around the steamed salmon- 
heads, and they at once eat by picking the heads | with their liands 

40 while they are still hot; || and after they have eaten, water is drawn 
and I is drunk afterwards, and the hands are washed. After they 
finish drinking | water and washing their hands, they go home. | 
That is the way in which the Indians cook the heads of the dog- 
salmon I when they are first caught, and of the liumpback-salmon 

45 and of sUver-salmon caught by troUing, and || of aU the other kinds 
of salmon. | 
1 Boiled Salmon-Heads. — Now I will | talk about boiled salmon- 
heads. I Wlien the woman finishes cutting the | dog-salmon and 
5 silver-salmon, when they are first caught, || her husband at once takes 
a kettle and pours water into it, | and his wife takes off the gUls from 

30 e'xba k!waxxa'^wa qa^s LlE'nqEmxsales la'xa nayi'me k'lEklao'- 
k!wa qa gayi'mxsalatsa ^wa'pe qo tsa's^idLo. Wa, gi'Pmese 
gwa'lExs la'e ax^e'dxa ^wa'bEtslala nagatsla' qa^s tsa'tslELEyl'n- 
des la'xa k-!Ek!a6'k!vva. Wa, la ax-e'dxa ie'EPwa^ye qa's na's^'Ides 
laq qa kMe'ses kix"sa'leda k!alEla. Wa, gi'l^mese gwal na'saqexs 

35 la'e Le'^lalaxes ^ne^nEmd'kwe qa les k!us^a'lis lax ^xa's nEga'sa- 
sexa he'xtla^ye. Wa, gl'Pmese gaga'la kliidze'sExs la'e lo'tlededa 
bEgwa'nEmaxes nEk'a'. Wa, he'x'^ida^mesa le'da Le^lanEme qa^s 
le klutse^sta'laxanEg'Ekwe' he'x"t!a^ye. Wa, he'x'^ida^mese xamax"- 
ts!a'na lia-'mx-^i'dxa he'x't!a^ye, yixs he'^mae a'les ts!E'lqwe. 

40 Wa, gi'Pmese gwal ha^ma'pExs la'e tsiix'^ItsE^weda ^wa'pe qa 

. na'geges, l6 qa ts!E'nts!Egwayos. Wa, gi'I^mese gwal na'qaxa 

^wa'paxs la'e tslE'ntslEnx^wida. Wa, la'xda^xwe na'^nakwa. Wii, 

he'Em ha^me'x"silaene^sa ba'klumaxa he'x'tla^yasa gwa^xnisaxs 

ga'loLanEmae LE^wa ha^no'ne LE^wa do'gwinete dza^wu'na, Lo^ma 

45 ^nii'xwa k!o'k!utEla. 
1 Boiled Salmon-Heads (Ha'nxLaak" hextle^). — Wa, la^me'- 
sEn gwagwexs^alal la'xaa he'x'tla^yaxs hJl'nxLaakwae. Wa, 
he'^maaxs ga'lae gwal xwa'teda tslsda/qaxa ga'loLanEme 
klo'tElaxa gwa^xni'se Lo^ma dza^wu'ne. Wii, he'x'^idamese la'- 
5 ^wiinEmas ^x^edxa ha'nxLanowe qa^s guxtslo'desa ^wa'pe laq. 
Wa, laLa gEnE'mas S,xa,'lax qlo'sna^yasa he'xt!a^ye. Wa, gl'l- 



BOAS] EECIPES 337 

the heads. | After this has been done, she puts the salmon-heads into 7 
the kettle; | and when it is fuU, she takes an old mat and | covers the 
salmon-heads which are in the kettle. || After she has covered them, 10 
she puts them over the fire. | Then they invite whom they like to 
invite among their tribe; | and when the guests come in, the woman 
takes I her dislies and her spoons, and takes them to the place where 
she is sitting. | The kettle has not been boiling a long time, || before 15 
it is taken off the fire. Then the cover is taken off. | The woman takes 
a long-handled ladle made for the purpose, | and dips out the 
salmon-heads one by one, and | puts them down into a dish. Then 
she counts the salmon-heads, so that | there are two for each man. || 
There are eight salmon-heads in each dish for | four men. After she 20 
has done this, a | food-mat is spread on the floor of the house in 
front of the guests, and | an empty dish is taken and put down out- 
side I of the food-mat spread on the floor. Then || the dish with the 25 
heads in it is picked up and placed before the guests, | inside of the 
empty dish and nearest to the guests; | and (the woman) also takes 
the spoons and distributes them among the guests. [ The guests at 
once pick off the skin of the salmon-heads | and eat it; and after all 
the skin has been eaten, || they pick off the bones and suck them. 30 

=mese gwa'lExs la'e axtsla'lasa he'x'tla^ye la'xa ha'nxxanowe. 7 
Wa, gl'Pmese q5't!axs la'e Sx^e'd la'xa k-la'kMobane qa^s na'sE- 
ylndes la'xa he'xtla^yaxs la'e g-e'ts!ii la'xa ha'nx-Lanowe. Wa, 
gl'Pmese gwal na'saqexs la'e h^'nx-LEnts la'xa lEgwI'le. Wa, IQ 
la Le'^lalaxes gwE^yowe qa^s Le'^lalaso la'xes go'kdlote. Wa, 
gl'l^mese g-ax ^wI'^laeLeda Le4anEmaxs la'e gEnE'mas ax^e'd- 
xes l5'Elq!we LE^wis k'a'kEtslEnaqe qa ga'xes Sxe'l lax k!wae'- 
lasas. Wa, kMe'stla a'laEm ge'g'ilil maE'mdElquleda ha'nx-La- 
n§,xs la'e ha'nx'sana. Wa, he'x'^ida^mese &x6'yuwe na'sEya- 15 
^yas. Wa, le'da tslEda'qe ax^e'dxa hekwila^ye gi'ltlEXLala Ica'- 
tslEnaqa qa^s ^na'l^nEmsgEmEmk-e XElo'ltsIalaxa he'x'tla^ye qa^s 
le xE'ltslalas la'xa lo'qiwe. Wa, laE'm ho'saxa he'x'tla^ye qa 
mae'ma^tsEmk- !Esesa ^nal^nEmo'kwe bEgwa'nEma. Wa, laE'm 
ma%una'ltsEma he'xtla^ye la'xa ^uEme'xLa lo'qiwa qae'da mo'- 20 
kwe be'bEgwauEma. Wa, g'l'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e LEp!a'lilEma 
ha^madzowe' le'^wa^ya lax ^nExdzamSlIltsa kiwe'le. Wa, la'xaa 
ax^e'tsE^weda lo'ptslawe lo'qiwa qa^s le k'la'dzodayo lax Lla'sEnxa- 
^yasa la LEbe'l ha^madzo' le'^wa^ya. Wa, lawe'sLa k-a'g11Ilxa 
he'xts!ala lo'qiwa qa^s le k-a'x'dzamolilas la'xa klwe'Ie. Wa, 25 
laE'm a'Lesa lo'ptsia lo'qiwa qa^s le ma'k-ala la'xa kiwe'le. Wa, 
a'xaa ax-'e'dxa ka'k'EtslEnaqe qa^s le tslEwanaesas la'xa kiwe'le. 
Wa, he'x-^ida^meseda kiwe'le xElwii'lax Lle'tsEma'^yasa he'x'tla^ye 
qa^s hamx-^I'deq. Wa, gl'Pmese ^wl^la hamx'^i'dxa Lle'tsEma- 
^yasexs la'e xe'lx-^idEx xa'qas qa^s kllx-'we'deq. Wa, gl'Pmese 30 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 1 22 



338 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

31 Then, ] after all the good meat has been sucked off, they throw the 
bones whicli they have been sucking | into the empty dish which has 
been put down for the | bones that have been sucked off, to be thrown 
into it. After all the | bones have been taken out of the head, they 

35 pick up out of the dish with their hands || the edible part of the 
salmon-head and eat it; and after | they have finished eating it, the 
man takes away the dish with the bones in it, | and pours them into 
the kettle, and he washes | the dishes out, and he pours water into 
the dishes and places them in front | of those who have eaten the 

40 salmon-heads, and they wash their hands. || After they have finished 
washing their hands, the man | draws some water for them, and they 
drink it; and after they have finished drinking, | they go out. That 
is all about this. | 
1 Mush of Boiled Salmon-Heads, — Heads of all | kinds of salmon, 
eaten with spoons, — that is what I am going to talk about. This is 
the same as | I have told before; and the only difference is that they 
are not | covered with an old mat, and that they are left to boil a 
5 long time on the fire, so that they || fall to pieces. The reason why 
the salmon-heads are boiled to pieces is because they are always | 
stirred, so that the salmon-heads are broken. Then the kettle | is 
taken off from the fire, and the salmon-heads are dipped out into a 
dish, and | it is put in front of those who are going to eat it; and | 



31 ^wi^la kMixo'dEx e'g'E^masexs la'e ts lExts !§,'lases k!a'x"mote xaq 
la'xa lo'ptsia lo'q!wa qaxs he'^mae la'gilas ha'ngalilEme qaeda 
k'!ax"m5te xa'qa qa ts!Exts!a'laseq. Wa, g'l'l^mese ^wi'^lamasxa 
xa'xsEma^yasa he'xt la^j^axs la'e xa'maxtslana da'giltslodxa 

35 hamtslawasa he'x'tla^ye qa^s ha^mx'^Ideq. Wa, gl'Pmese gwal 
ha^ma'paxs la'e he'x'^ida^ma bEgwa'nEme ax^e'dxa xa'xtslala 
lo'qiwa qa^s le qEpts!o'dEs la'xa h&'nx'Lanowe. Wa, la tslo'xu- 
g'indEq. Wa, la qEptsIo'tsa ^wa'pe laq qa^s le ha,nxdzamo'lilas 
la'xa hexha'x-daxa he'x-t!a^ye. Wa, la'x-da^xwe tslE'ntslEnx- 

40 ^weda. Wa, g'i'Pmese gwal tslE'ntslEnkwaxs la'eda bEgwa'nEme 
tsa'x'^itsa ^wa'pe laq qa na'x^ides. Wa, g-1'Pmese gwal na'qaxs 
la'e ho'quwElsa. Wa, laE'm gwal la'xeq. 
1 Mush of Boiled Salmon-Heads. — Yue'k" he'xtlesa ^na'xwa k!o'- 
kWtElagin e'dzagumLEk'. Wa, he'Emxaa gwa'leda g'l'lxxlEn 
gwa'gwex's^alasa. Wa, le'x'a^mes o'gii^qalayosexs kleo'sae na'- 
yEm k"!a'k'!6bana. Wii, he'^misexs ge'xxa^lae maE'mdElqiila qa 
5 xa's^ides. He'Em la'gilas xa'xts !eda he'xt !a^ya qaxs he'mEnel^mae 
xwe'tasE^wa qa lE'lx'sesa he'x'tla^ye. Wa, la h3,'nx"sanaweda 
h&'nxxano la'xa lEgwi'le. Wa, la tsatslo'dayo la'xa l5'q!we qa^s 
le ka'xdzam5lllas la'xa yCi'saLaq. Wa, la ts lEwanaedzEma ka'- 
k'Ets'.Enaqe la'xa Le^lanEme. Wa, la he'x'^idaEm yo's^idEq. 



BOAS] RECIPES 339 

spoons are given to the guests. Then they at once eat it. || There are 10 
hardly any bones to blow out, for it is really boiled to pieces. | After 
they have eaten it, water is drawn, and they drink it; | and after 
they have finished drinking it, they go out. | No oil is taken with tliis, 
as with wliat I have been talking about before. 

Milky Salmon-Spawn. — Wlien (the salmon-spawn) has been in the 
house for some time, || it is cooked, and then it is called "milky." | 15 
This is put into a kettle, and some water is poured over it; [ then it is 
stirred, and they just stop | stirring when it is quite milky. Then 
the kettle is put | on the fire, and the man watches it; and when || 
it gets warm, the man takes a large | stirring-ladle with a long 20 
handle, made for this purpose, and stirs it with it, | and he continues 
stirring it while it is boihng. It is not | left to boil a very long time, 
and is taken off from the fire when | it is done. The milky spawn || 
with its liquid is dipped out into a dish, and oil is poured into it. 25 
Then | it is placed before those who are to eat it, and they eat it 
with spoons. | After they finish eating with spoons, they drink fresh 
water, | and they drink water before tliey begin to eat it. | This is 
eaten by the Indians at noon and in the evening. || They do not eat 30 
the milky spawn in the morning, for it makes them sleepy, | on 

Wa, laE'm h^'lsElaEm po'xolax xa'qas qaxs a'lae xa'sa. Wa, 10 
gi'l^mese gwal yo'saxs la'e tsa'x'^itsosa ^wa'pe. Wa, la na'x^I- 
dEq. Wa, g I'Pmese gwal na'qaxs la'e ho'quwElsa. Wa, las'm- 
xaa k' lea's L!e'^na laq LE^wa gl'lx'dEn wa'idEma. 

Milky Salmon-Spawn. — . . . .' la'e ga'gaelEla la'xa go'kwe qa^s 
ha^me'xsIlasE^we. Wa, he'Em Le'gadEs dzEmo'kwe. Wa, he'- 15 
^maaxs la'e tse'tslo^yo la'xa ha'nxxanowe, wa, la^me'se guqlEqa- 
sosa ^wa'pe. Wa, la^me'se xwe't letsE^wa. Wa, a'h'mese gwal 
xwetasoxs la'e a'lak!alala dzE'mx"sta. Wa, lawi'sLa ha'nxLauil 
la'xa lEgwi'le. Wa, la^me'seda bEgwa'nEme do'qwalaq. Wa, g i'l- 
^mese dzEs^e'dExs la'eda bEgwa'nEme ax^e'dxa hekwe'la^ye ^wa'las 20 
xwe'dayo k'a'tslEnaqa gi'ltlEXLala qa^s xwe't!edes laq. Wa, la- 
^mes he'mEnalaEm xwe'taqexs la'e mEdE'lx^wida. Wa, k'!e'st!a 
fi,'IaEm ge'gUil maE'mdElqulaxs la'e ha'nx'sana. Wa, laE'm 
Llo'pa. Wa, la^me'se tse'ts!6y6 laxa l6'q!weda dzEmo'kwe ge'^ne 
LE^wis ^wa'pala. Wa, la k!u'nq!Eqasosa L!e'^na. Wa, lawi'sLa 25 
k'a'x'^idayo la'xa ha^ma'pLaq. Wa, laE'm yo'sasa ka'tslsnaqe 
laq. Wa, g'I'Fmese gwa'Ia yo'saxs la'e na'gek'ilaxa a'lta ^wa'- 
pa, yixs na'naqalgiwala^mexdaxa ^wa'paxs k!e's^mex"de yo's^ida. 
Wa, yu'Em ha^mii'sa ba'klumaxa nEqa'la LE^wa dza'qwa. Wa, 
la k'les yo'saxa dzEmo'kwe ge'^nexa gaa'la, qaxs kwalatslEmae 30 
qae's tsE'nxwa^ye. Wa, la la^me'sEn gwa'gwex-s^alal la'xaaxa 

1 Continued from p. 235, line 14. 



340 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL (eth. ann. 35 

32 account of its fat. Now I will talk also about the | milky salmon 
when it lasts until the winter. | Then it is called "clayey." Wlien 
the I old men are invited at noon or in the evening by the one who 

35 owns it, — for this also is not || eaten in the morning, — when all | the 
guests are in, the owner who invited them takes a kettle and | 
washes it out well, so that it is quite clean. He takes it up, | and puts 
it down by the side of the box in which the milky spawn was | before 

40 it began to rot. Then he takes || a large clam-shell and dips out the 
really | rotten-smelling spawn, and dips it out into the kettle; and 
when I the kettle is half full of salmon-spawn, the man stops dipping 
it out. I Then he takes up tlie kettle and puts it down | by the side 

45 of the fire, and pours water into it; and he only || stops pouring into 
it when the kettle is half full of water. He does not | stir it. As 
soon as it is done, he takes another | kettle and washes it out well 
with water; and when it is | clean, he puts it down on the floor of 
the house; and then he takes from the floor of the house | the 

50 kettle in which the salmon-spawn is, and puts it over the fire; || and 
when it is on the fire, he takes his long-handled stirring- | ladle and 
dips up the salmon-spawn and its liquid, and pours it back | into the 
kettle; and he continues doing this until it | boils over. He never 
stirs it: he only | dips it up. He does not dip it up for a long time, 

32 ax^e'daasaxa dzEmo'kwe ge'^nexs la'e la'gaa la'xa la tsl^wii'nxa. 
Wa, laE'm Le'gadEs Lle'gEkwe la'xeq. Wa, he'^maaxs la'eda 
q!ulsq!ii'lyakwe Le^'lanEmxa nEqii'la Lo^ma dza'qwa, yixs k'le's^ma- 

35 axat! gaa'xstexa gaa'la, ylsa axno'gwadas. Wa, g'i'l'mese ^wi'- 
^laeLeda Le^lanEmaxs la'eda Le'^lala 2,x^'e'dxa ha'nx'Lanowe qa^s 
ae'kMe tslo'xug'indEq qa a'lak' lalese la e'glg'a. Wa, la k'lo'qfi- 
laq qa^s le ha^no'lilas la'xa Lle'gEgwatsle La'watsa, ylxs dzEmo'- 
gwatslaaLEXs kle's^mexde qlaPe'deda ge'^ne. Wa, la^me'se ax'e'd- 

40 xa xa'laesasa mEtla'na^ye qa^s XElo'lts!6de la'xa a'lak!ala la 
q!alp!a'la ge'^na qa^s le XElts!a'las la'xa hanxxa'nowe. Wa, g i'l- 
^mese nEgo'yoxsdaleda ha'nx'Lanoxa ge'^naxs la'e gwal xEltsIa'leda 
bEgwa'nEmaq. Wa, la k' lo'qwalllxa h&'nxLanowe qa^s le hano'- 
lisas la'xa lEgwile. Wa, la giiqlEqa'sa ^wa'pe laq. Wli, a'i^mese 

45 gwal gii'qaxs la'e nEgS'yaleda ha'nx'Lanaxa Hva'pe. LaE'm kMes 
xwe'tledEq. Wa, gi'Pmese gwa'la, la S,x^e'dxa o'gti^la^maxat ! 
h§,'nxLana qa^s ae'kMe tslo'xuglntsa ^wa'pe laq. Wa, gi'Pmese 
eg'Eg^a'xs la'e ha'ngalilaq. Wa, lawi'sLa k' !o'qwalilxa ha'nx'- 
Lano, ylx la S,xtsE^wa'tsa ge'^ne qa^s ha'nxxEndes la'xa lEgwI'le. 

50 Wa, g'i'Pmese la'xxalaxs la'e ax^e'dxes gi'ltlExi.ala xwe'day5 k a'- 
ts'.Enaqa qas tse'gostalls la'xa ge'^ne LE^wis ^wa'pe qa^s xwe'laqa- 
^mexat! guxstE'nts laq. Wa, laE'm hex'sa'Em gwe'gilaq la'laa lax 
tE'nx'^IdEX'dEmLas. Wa, laE'm hewa'xaEm xwe'tledEq. A'x'saEm 
tse'g"ostalaq. Wii, la k"!es gegilil tse'g'ostalaqexs la'e ya'was^Id 



BOAS] RECIPES 341 

before it || boils a little; and as soon as it boils over, it is taken off 55 
tbe fire | and poured into tbe cold kettle. Then it | is done. The 
reason why it is quickly poured into tlie | cold kettle is, that, if it is 
allowed to boil for a long time, then the | water gets clear, and the 
spawn separates from the liquid. || Wlien it is poured into the cold 60 
kettle I as soon as it begins to boil over, then it is just Uke boiled 
flour, and it is mushy. | Immediately the man takes the dishes and | 
puts them down close to the place where the kettle is standing | in 
which the clayey spawn is. Then he takes a long-handled || ladle 65 
and dips up the clayey salmon, and puts it | into the dishes; and 
when the dishes are full of tlie | clayey spawn, he takes oil and pours 
it into it, — I really much oil. The reason why they take much | oil is 
that.it chokes those who eat it. After (the man) finish || putting oil into 70 
it, he puts it before the guests, | and his wife takes her spoon-basket 
and distributes the spoons | among the guests. They do not drink 
water before | they eat it. They just eat it right away. As soon 
as I thejr begin to eat, the man draws fresh water for his guests to 
drink || after they have eaten. As soon as the one who went to 75 
get water comes back, | he puts down the water that he has drawn, 
and waits for his guests to finish | eating; and after they finish eating, 

msdE'lx^wIda. Wa, g'i'l^mese tE'nx'^IdExs la'e ha'nx-sEndayo 55 
qa^s le guqa'dzEm la'xa wudEsgE'me ha'nxxano. Wa, laE'm 
Llop la'xeq. Wa, he'Em la'gllas ha'labala gfiqa'dzEm la'xa 
wudEsgE'me ha'nxLana, ylxs gi'l^mae ge'gilil tE'ntEnkilaxs la'e la 
q lo'ltse^sta. Wa, laE'm gwe'b'ideda ge'^ne LE^wis ^wa'pala. Wa, 
gi'Pmese he'x'^idaEm guqa'dzEm la'xa wiidEsgE'me ha'nxxanaxs 50 
g'a'lae tE'nx'^ida; wa, la yfi gwe'xsa ha'nxLaakwex qiixa' la gE'n- 
k'a. Wa, he'x'^ida^meseda bEgwa'nEme &x^e'dxa lo'Elqlwii qa^s 
g'a'xe mEx^alilElaq la'xa ma'kala^me lax ha^ne'^lasasa h8,nxLa- 
nowe, yix la g'l'tslE^watsaL'.e'gEkwege'^na; wa, la ax^e'dxa gl'ltlEX- 
La k-a'ts!Enaqa qa^s tse'x-^ides la'xa L!e'gEkwe ge'^nii qa^s tse- 55 
ts!a'les la'xa lo'ElqIwe. Wa, g'l'Pmese qo'qut.'eda lo'ElqIwaxa 
Lle'gEkwe ge'^nexs la'e ax^e'dxa Lle'^ne qa^s k!uq!Eqe's laq, yisa 
4'lak-lala la qle'nEma Lle'^na. Wa, he'Em la'g'ilas q!e'nEma 
Lle'^na la'qexs mskwa'e la'xox ha^ma'^yex. Wa, gl'Pmese gwal 
klu'nqasa Lle'^na la'qexs la'e kaxdzamo'lllas la'xes Le^anEme. 70 
Wa, la'La gEnE'mas ax^e'dxes k'a'yatsle qa^s le tslEwanae'sas 
la'xa kiwe'le. Wa, laE'm k!es na'naqaigiwalax ^wa'paxs k'!e's- 
*mae yo's^ida. Wa, laE'm a'Em he'x-^idaEm yo'sa. Wa, gl'l- 
^mese yo's^IdExs la'eda bEgwa'nEme tsax a'lta ^wa'pa qa na'ge- 
g'eses Le^lanEme qo gwa'lL yo'saL5. Wa, gi'Pmese g-ax ae'daa- 75 
qeda laxde tsaxs la'e h&'ng'alilxes tsa'nEme qa^s e'sEle qa gwa'les 
yo'ses Le^lanEme. Wa, g-1'Pmese gwal yo'saxs la'e S,x^e'dxa Io'eI- 



342 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ans. 35 

78 he takes the dishes | and puts them down at the place where his wife 
is sitting. | Then he takes the water and places it before his guests, || 

80 and they drink; and after they have finished drinking, they | go out. 
They never eat anything before they eat salmon-spawn, | and those 
who eat it never eat a second course with it. | 
1 Salmon-Spawn with Salmon-Berry Sprouts. — When | salmon-ben-y 
sprouts are eaten, the dried salmon-spawn is taken and eaten with 
it, I for it is not dipped in oil, for dried salmon-spawn and oil do not 
5 agree: | therefore they do not dip it into it. It is also eaten || with 
fern-root, when it is eaten by the old women and | men. It is eaten 
with salmon-berry sprouts | and fern-roots, because it makes one 
feel sick when it is eaten alone, | when it is not eaten witli these two. 
It does not make one feel sick, | when the salmon-spawn is eaten 

10 with salmon-berry sj) routs and fern-root. \^lien || the winter 
dancers are brought back, and the singing-masters continue to sing, | 
the whole length of the night in the winter, and | when the speaker 
of the house has to speak every time (a dancer) goes out of the 
house, I when they lose their voices, they take dried salmon-spawn | 
and pass it to those who have lost their voices, that they may eat 

15 it. II They chew it for a long time, and they swaUow the juice | that 
is in their mouths, for what comes from it is just like what comes from 
gum. Then | they have no longer lost tlieir voices; and also the 

78 q!we qa^s g'a'xe mEx^a'lilas la'xes klwae'lase LE^wis gEnE'me. 
Wa, la ^x^e'dxa ^wa'pe qa^s le hanxdzamo'lllas la'xa kiwe'le. 

80 Wa, la'xda^x" na'x-'Ida. Wa, gi'Pmese gwal na'qaxs la'e ho'qu- 
WElsa. Wa, hewa'xaEm ha^malgiwaleda h&^ma'paxa ge'^ne. Wa, 
la'xaa k!es he'llg'lntsE^weda ha^ma'paq. 
1 Salmon-Spawn with Salmon-Berry Sprouts. — Wa, gi'Pmese ha^ma'^ya 
qlwa'lEme, la'e ftx^e'tsE^weda la'llEm^we'dzEkwe qa^s ma'yEme laq, 
yixs k^le'sae tslEpa'sE^weda Le'^na,qaxs ao'tsIagaedala'llEm^wedzE- 
kwe LE^wa Lle'^na; la'g'ilas k'!es tslE'pEla laq. Wa, laxaa ma'yEm 
5 la'xa sagume, yixs ha'^mayaa'sa q!ulsq!ii'lyakwe tsle'daqa Lo=ma 
be'bEgwauEme. Wa, he'Em la'gilas ma'yEm la'xa q!wa'lEme 
LE^wa sagume, yixs ts!E'xsEmts!E^maaxs le'x^a^mae ha^ma'^ya, 
yixs k'le'sae ma'yEma ma^l^eda'la. Wa, la k"!es ts'.ExsEmsEle'da 
ma'sasa lallEm^we'dzEkwe la'xa qlwa'lEme LE^wa sagume. Wa, 

10 he'^mesexs gi'Pmaeda nena'gade he'mEnalaEm dE'nxElaxs kik'i'l- 
nElaeda ts!e'ts!eqax ^wa'sgEmasasa ga'nuLaxa la ts!awu'nxa Lo^ma 
ya'yaq lEntemelasexs hemEnk' !ala^mae yaqlEntlalax la'naxwaas la- 
wElsa yaexa. Wa, g'i'Pmese LlEml^edExs lae ftx^etsE^weda la'llEm- 
^we'dzEkwe qa^s le tslEwa'nae'dzEm la'xa la LleLlE'mla qa hSmx"^- 

15 i'deseq. Wa, la ge'gllll ma'lekwaq qa^s nEqwe'xes ^wa'paeLlxa- 
wa^yaxs la'e he gwex's gwa^le'k'eda g'a'yole laq. Wa he'x'^ida^mese 
gwal LlE'mla. Wa, he'^misa k-!a'k!Et!enoxwe, gi'Pmae k-!a'taxa 



BOAS] BECIPES 343 

painter, when he paints | the front of a house, takes rubbed cedar- 18 
bark and | puts it into his mouth, and he takes dried salmon-spawn 
and II he bites a piece off from it, and he chews it with the cedar- 20 
bark; | and as soon as his mouth is full of that which is just hke gum 
and milk, | he spits it into his paint-dish, and he does not stop until 
the paint-dish is nearly | fuU. Then he takes out of his mouth what 
has been chewed | and puts it into his brush-box; then he takes a || 
piece of coal and rubs it in the hquid that he spit out; | and he 25 
only stops when his paint is really black. | That is all about this. | 

Sticky Salmon- Spawn. — As soon as spring comes, then | the bladder 
with salmon-spawn is taken down from where it hangs, and it is broken 
open at the side. || Then a piece of sticky spawn is taken out when ] 30 
the salmon-sprouts are brought into the house. They peel them, 
and eat the sticky spawn with the | salmon-berry sprouts when they 
eat, and when they do not want to eat the sprouts | dipped into oil, 
for oil and sticky spawn do not agree; | and some men, when they 
have no sticky spawn, dip salmon-berry sprouts into || oil, and also 35 
fern-roots, wlien they are eaten | by the old women and men. 
When I the women go to dig fern-root, they | come home when they 
get a great many. Immediately they sit down by the fire and | roast 
the fern-roots under the fhe in the house. As soon as | the bark is 40 
blackened all over, it is done. Then she takes a piece of fire-wood 

tsa'k'Ema^yasa g'o'kwe la'e S,x^e'dxa q!6'^yaakwe k'a'dzEkwa qa^s 18 
S,xe'Les la'xes sE'mse. Wa, la Sx^e'dxa la'llEm'wedzEkwe qa^s 
qlEX-^i'de laq. Wa, la ma'mElek'oq LE^wa k'a'dzEkwe. Wa, 20 
gl'Pmese qo't!aeL!xoxa he gwex's gwa^le'k^a dzE'mx"st6, la'e 
hamtsla'las la'xes k"!a't!aase.' Wa, a'l^mese gwa'lExs la'e Ela'q 
qo'tles k"!a't!aase, wa, he'x'^ida^mese 5,x6'dxes male'kwasox'de 
qa^s ge'ts!odes la'xes haba'yoatsle ga'gUdayEma. Wa, la ax^e'dxa 
tslEgu'te qa^s gexEltsIa'les lax la q!6'ts!Ewa'tses hamts!a'layox"de. 25 
Wa, a'l^mese gwa'lExs la'e a'lak-Iala la ts!5'ltox^wIde kMa'tElaLas. 
Wa, laE'm^xaa gwa'la. 

Sticky Salmon-Spawn. — Wa, g'i'Pmese q!wa'xEnxExs la'e 2,xa'xo- 
yowa q!E'ngwats!e la'xes te'kwalaase qa^s qwabEno'tsawe. Wa, 
la'naxwa xa'Llax'^id §.x^e'tsF/weda qlE'nkwe, ylxs ga'xae gE'mxela 30 
qlwa'lEme. Wa, la se'x'^itso qas mayEmaeda qlE'nkwe la'xa 
qlwa'lEmaxs la'e ha^ma'^ya, yixs q'.E'msae tslEpe'deda se'x'axa 
qlwa'lEmaxa Lle'^na, qaxs a6'ts!agaeda Lle'^na LE^wa qlE'nkwe. 
Wa, gi'Pmese k' lea's qls'nkwa wao'kwe bEgwa'nEma la'e tslEpa'xa 
Lle'^naxs se'xaaxa qlwa'lEme. Wa, he'^mesa sa'gumaxs sa'x'SE- 35 
kwaeda q!ulsq!u'lyakwe Lo^ma le'Elk!wana^ye. Wa, gl'Pmese la 
sa'kweda tslEdaqaxa sa'gflme; wa, gi'Pmese qlEyo'lqexs la'e 
na'^nakwa. Wa, he'x'^ida^mese kiwano'lisxes lEgwi'ie qa^s L!e'x'^- 
idexa sa'gume lax awa'bolisases lEgwI'le. Wa, gi'Pmese k!we- 
klumElk'lEnx'^idExs la'e L!6'pa. Wa, la ax^e'dxa lEqwa' qa^s 40 



344 



ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL 



[ETH. ANN. 35 



41 and | puts it down on the floor of the liousc; and she takes her 
shortest wedge, | and she takes the roasted fern-root, and, holding it 
in the left hand, | she puts one end of it on the fire-wood; tnen she 
begins to beat | it with the wedge, and she only stops beating it 

45 when it is flattened out. || After she has beaten it soft, she measures 
off lengths of | four finger-widths and breaks them off; | and after 
this has been done, she puts them on a food-mat. | Then she takes 
some of tlie sticky spawn to eat with the roasted | fern-root, and they 
eat the fern-root. When there is no sticky spawn to eat with the 

50 fern-root, || they dip it into oil. | 

1 Roasted Salmon-Spawn. — Now I wall talk again about the spawn. | 

Wlien various kinds of salnfon are first caught by the fishermen who 

go trolling, | tlie woman takes tlie whole salmon-spawn, and she 

takes tlie roasting-tongs | and she puts the sahnon-roe into them 



5 doubled up in this way: || 
puts it up by the side of the 
over, she takes it off. Then ^ 
once, while it is still hot; <^ 
when it is cold; and it is 
10 drinkmuch water after hav- 
roe. Then a flat stone is 




After this has been done, she 
fire; and when it is | white all 
it is done. | It is' eaten at 
for I it is not eaten afterwards 
not dipped into | oil, but they 
ing eaten || the roasted salmon- 
put on the fire; | and when it is 



41 k'a't!a^hleq. Wa, laxaa ftx-'e'dxa tslEklwa'ga^yases LE'mg-ay5. Wa, 
la 5,x^e'dxa LlE'nkwe sa'gum qa^s da'leses gE'mx6lts!ana la'qexs 
la'e k'a'tlets 5'ba^yas la'xa lEqwa'. Wa, he'^mis la tls'lx^widaa- 
tseq, yisa LE'mg'ayo. Wa, a'l^mese gwal tiE'lxwaqexs la'e pepE- 

45 xEnx'^lda. Wa, g'i'Pmese gwal tiE'lxwaqexs la'e ^mE'ns^idEq qa 
mo'dsnes 8,wa'sgEmas la'xEns q!wa'q!wax'ts!ana^ye, la'e aEltsIa'laq. 
Wa, gl'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e ftxdzo'ts la'xa ha^madzo'we le'^wa^ye. 
Wa, la ax^e'd la'xa qlE'nkwe qa^s ma'sesexs la'xa Llsnk" sa'- 
gumxs la'e LlEX'Llax'a. Wa, gi'Pmese Idea's qlE'nkwa LlExxIa'- 

50 x'axs la'e ts!Epa'xa Lle'^na. 
1 Roasted Salmon-Spawn. — Wa, la^me'sEn e'dzaqwaltsa ge'^ne. Wa, 
he'^maaxs ga'lae la'LanEma k'!o'k!utElasa d6'dEk!wenoxwe; wa, la 
ax^e'deda tslEda'qaxa sEne'ts!a^ye ge'^na qa^s ftx^e'dexa L!6'psay6 
qa^s gwa'naxEndalesa ge'^ne laq, g"a gwa'Ieg'a (Jig-). Wa, gi'Pmese 
5 gwa'lExs la'e La'nolisaq la'xa IsgwI'le. Wa, g-l'Pmese ^na'xwa 
^mE'PmElsgEmx-^klExs la'e a'xsana. Wa, laE'm Llopa laxe'q. Wa, 
he'x'^ida^mese hamx'^i'tsE^wa, yixs he'^mae a'les tslE'lqwe, qaxs 
k" le'sae ha^ma'xs la'e wudEX'^I'da. Wa, k" le's^Emxaa ts !EpEla' la'xa 
L !e'^na. Wa, la q !ek" lEts !a^ya ^wa'paxs la'e na'x^Ideda ha^ma'pdaxa 

10 L'.o'bEkwe ge'^na. Wa, la'xaa laxLanoweda pE'xsEme t!e'sEma. 
Wa, gi'Pmese tslE'lxsEmx'^Idaxs la'e k"!lpsanS,'weda tIe'sEme la'xa 



BOAS] RECIPES 345 

hot, the stone is taken off from the | fire and laid by the side of the 12 
fire. Then the | whole salmon-spawn is taken and is laid down 
lengthwise on the hot stone | in this manner: ^-^-^^^-^ This is 

named "stuck-on-the-stone." As soon || as i* ^--^^^fe,^^ ^^ ^ o'^ ^^ 
the stone, it is put up edgewise by the fire, ^^::::^^^^^^-^^^^^ ^'^ ^^^^*' I 
tlie spawn is heated. As soon as it all turns ^J^"^ white, | 

it is done. Then it is taken off from the fire and scraped off; | 
and it is eaten at once, whUe it is stUl hot; it is also | not dipped 
into oil by those who eat it, only much water || is drunk after it has 20 
been eaten; also it is not used for inviting people of | another house; 
only the owner of this kind of | spawn eats what is stuck on the 
stone. I 

Boiled Spawn of Silver-Salmon. — The | spawn of the silver-salmon, 
when it is first caught by troUing, is also boiled. || After the woman 25 
has cut open the salmon, she takes | a kettle and puts spawn into it. 
Then she pours | water into it, until it covers the spawn. | Then she 
puts it on the fire. It is not left to bod long, before it becomes white. | 
Then it is taken off the fire. The woman just takes the spoons || and 30 
gives them to her children and to her husband, | and the woman just 
puts the kettle with the spawn in it | before her children and her 
husband, and they eat it with spoons. | They only eat quickly the 

lEgwi'le qa^s paxale'lEme la'xa ona'lise. Wa, la^me'se &x^e'tsE^wa 12 
SEne'dza^ye ge'^na qa^s le k'adEdzoda'layo la'xa tste'lqwa t!e'sEma; 
g'a gwa'Ieg'a (_/7gf.). Wa, he'Em Le'gadEs k!ut!aa'k". Wa,gi'Pmese 
^wl'^la la Sxa'laxs la'e k' !6'gunolidzEm la'xa lEgwi'le qa hes 15 
Lle'salasE^weda ge'^ne. Wa, g'I'Pmese ^wi'^la la ^mE'lx'^TdExs la'e 
Llo'pa. Wa, he'x'^ida^mese axsa'nS qa^s k"o'sEl5tsE^we. Wa, la 
he'x"^idaEm ha^mx"^itsE^wa, yixs he'^mae a'les ts !Elq". Wa, laE'mxaa 
k' lea's L!e'^na tslEpa'sosa ha^ma'paq. Wa, §,'^mes qle'uEma ^wa'pe 
na'geg'esa ha^ma'paq. Wa, la'xaa k'les Le^lalayo la'xa o'gu- 20 
^latslEse gok" be'bEgwanEma. A'Em le'xa^ma axno'gwadasa 
ge'^ne he gwe'g'ile ha^ma'pxa k!ut!aa'kwe. 

Boiled Spawn of Silver-Salmon. — Wa, la'xaa ha'nxLEntsE^weda 
ge'^naxs g'a'lae la'LanEmeda do'gwinete dza^wu'na. Wa, laE'm 
gl'l^Em gwal xwa'LasE^wa, yi'sa tslEda'qe. Wa, la ax^e'dxa 25 
hJL'nxxanowe qa^s axtslo'desa ge'^ne laq. Wa, la qEplEqa'sa 
^wa'pe laq qa tiEpEya'lesa ge'^naxa ^wa'pe. Wa, la ha'nxxEnts. 
Wa, kMe'stIa ge'gilil maE'mdElqulaxs la'e ^mE'PmElsgEmx'^Ida. 
Wa, la h&'nx'sEndEq. Wa, a'^meseda tslEda'qe ax^e'dxa ka'k'E- 
tslEua'qe qa^s tslEwa'naeses la'xes sa'sEme le^wIs la'^wunEme. 30 
Wa, a'^mese ha'nxdzamolileda tslEda'qasa hS,'nxLanowe ge'^ne- 
ts!ala la'xes sa'sEme LE^wis la'^wunEme. Wa, la'xda^xwe yo's^ida. 
Wa, laE'mxaa a'l^Em ha^ma'^ya dze'le hala'xEk" ge'^nexs la'e 



346 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [bth. an.n. 35 

fresh salmon-spawn | at noon and in the evening. It is not eaten in 
35 the morning, for || it makes one sleepy. After they have eaten the 
salmon-spawn, | they drink water. That is aU about the salmon- 
spawn. I 
1 Sockeye-Salmon. — Now' I will talk about the | way it is cooked. 
When winter comes, the | woman takes her soaking-box and puts 
it down in the corner of the | house. Then she pours water into 
5 it. When it is half full || of water, she takes the basket with 
the spMt salmon and ] brings it out, and puts it down near the 
soaking-box. Then she takes out the | split salmon and puts them 
into the soaking-box. After she has done so, | she takes two large 
stones and puts them on top of | the split salmon that are to be 
10 soaked, to keep them under water. || Sometimes they are left in four 
or six I days soaking in the house. As soon as they are soft, the 
woman | takes a kettle and puts it by the side of the fire; then | she 
takes out the split salmon, and takes them where the kettle is stand- 
hag. I Then she cuts the spht salmon into three pieces with her fish- 
15 knife, || and she puts them into the kettle. | After she has done so, 
she takes a piece of old mat and covers over | the split salmon that 
is in the kettle. | After she has tucked in (the mat) all around, she 
pours a little | water over it. Then she puts it over the fire. As 

UEqa'la Lo^ma dza'qwa. Wa, la k'les ha^me'xa gaa'la, qaxs 

35 kwa'lats!Emae. Wa, gi'1-mese gwal ha^ma'pa yo'saxa ge'^nexs 

la'e na'gek'ilaxa ^wa'pe. Wa, las'm gwa'ia ge'^ne la'xeq. 

1 Sockeye-Salmon. — Wa,' la^me'sEn gwa'gwexs^alal la'qexs la'e 

ha^me'x'sllasE^wa. Wa, he'^maaxs la'e ts!awil'nx^Ida. Wa, le'da 

tslEda'qe Sx^e'dxes t!e'lats!e qa^s hS,'ng'allJeq lax one'gwilases 

g'o'kwe. Wa, la guxtslo'tsa ^wa'pe laq. Wa, gl'Pmese nEgo- 

5 yS,'laxa ^wa'paxs la'e 5,x^e'dxes q!wa'xsayaa'ts!e Lla'bata qa^s 

g'a'xe hano'lilas la'xa t!e'lats!e. Wa, la-'me'se Lo'x^wEltsIodxa 

qlwa'xsa^ye qa^s Lo'x^stalls la'xa t!e'lats!e. Wa, g'i'Pmese gwa'lExs 

la'e da'x'^Idxa ma^ltsE'me aw4' tIe'sEma qa's t!a'qEyi'ndes 

la'xa tle'lasE^waseda q!wa'xsa^ye qa ^wii'nsales la'xa ^wa'pe. Wa, 

10 la^mes ^na'l^uEmplEna mo'p lEnxwa^se ^na'las l5xs q!EL!Ep!E'n- 

xwa^sae ^na'las tie'itallla. Wa, gl'Pmesepo's^idExsla'eda tslEda'qe 

S,x^e'dxa hS,'nx"Lanowe qa^s le h5,^n5'lisas la'xa lEgwi'le. Wa, la 

Lo'x^wiJstE'ndxa qlwa'xsa^ye qa^s leslaxha^ne'lasasa h3,'nx'Lanowe. 

Wa, la^me'se ya'lyudux"sala t!o't!Ets!alasa xwa'Layowe la'xa 

15 qlwa'xsa^ye. Wa, la^me's m5'ts!6ts la'xa h8.'nx"Lanowe. Wa, 

g'l'Pmese gwa'lEXs la'e ^xo'dxa k"!a'k'!6bana qas na'sEyindes 

lax 6'kwEya^yasa qlwa'xsa^ye la g'i'tsia la'xa ha'nxLanowe. Wa, 

gi'Pmese gwal ts'.o'pax e'waneqwasexs la'e guqiEqasa hS'lalbida^we 

^wap laq. Wa, la hS.'nxLEnts la'xes lEgwi'le. Wa, gi'l^mese la 

' Continued from p. 240, line 27. 



BOAS] EECIPES 347 

soon as it || boils, she strikes with her tongs the covering on top, | so 20 
that no steam may come through the cover | of what is on the fire. 
It boils a long time. | Then she takes it off; then the kettle remains 
standing on the floor of the house. | Then the woman takes a dish 
and an oil-dish and oil, || and takes them to the place where she is 25 
sitting; and | after she has put them all down, she takes her tongs and 
takes ofi the covering of the | kettle, and she puts it down with her 
tongs at the end of the fire; | and she also takes out with the tongs 
the spht salmon that she has cooked, | and she puts them into a dish. 
As soon as they are || all out of the water, she spreads out the split 30 
salmon in the dish; | and when this is done, she takes oil and pours it 
into the | oil-dish; and after this is done, she takes a food-mat | and 
spreads it before those who are given to eat. | After this is done, she 
takes up the dish and the oil-dish || and places them in front of her 35 
guests. The oil-dish is put j inside of the dish. When this is done, 
she I dips up some water and gives it to those who are going to eat. | 
At once they rinse their mouths; and after they have done so, they 
drink; | then they begin to eat. They themselves break to pieces || 
the split salmon that is given them to eat; and they dip it into oil 40 
and I put it into their mouths; and after they have finished eating, 
the I woman goes and takes the dish and takes it to her seat, | and 



maE'mdElqulaxs la'e kwe'xases ts'.e'sLala lax o'kwEya^yas nayimas 20 
qaxs k!e'sae he'lq!alaq k'Ex"sa'leda kMa'tela lax naylmases 
ha'nxxEnde. Wa, la^me'se ge'gllll^Em maE'mdElqfllaxs la'e 
ha'nxs^EndEq. Wa, a'^mese la ha^ne'Ieda ha'nxLanowe. Wa, 
la'Leda ts!Eda'qe ax^e'dxa lo'q!we LF/wa ts!Eba'ts!e LE^wa Lle'^na 
qa g-a'xes axe'l lax kiwae'lasas. Wa, gi'Pmese ^wi'^la g-ax 25 
ax^a'lilExs la'e ax^e'dxes ts!e'sLala qa^s kMspIe'des lax naylmases 
ha'nxLEnde. Wa, la k'!ip!a'lllas la'xa obe'xLalalllases lEgwI'le. 
Wa, laxaa he'^ma tsIe'sLala k" !ip^usta'lay6sexes ha^me'x'sllasE- 
^weda qlwa'xsa^ye qa^s le k'!ipts!a,'las la'xa lo'qiwe. Wa, g'l'Pmese 
^wi'^lo^staxs la'e gwe'ialts!6tsa q!wa'xsa^ye la'xa lo'qiwa. Wa, 30 
gl'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e 5,x^e'dxa Lle'^na qa^s k!unts!5'des la'xa 
ts!Eba'ts!e. Wa, g'i'pEmxaa'wise gwa'lExs la'e ^x^e'dxa ha^ma- 
dzowe' le'^wa^ya qa^s le LEpdzamo^Ilas la'xes ha^mgi'lasE^we. 
Wa, g-i'l^mese gwa'lExs la'e k-a'g1lllxa l6q!we LE^wa ts!Eba'ts!e 
qa^s le kaxdzamo'lilas la'xes Le'^lanEme. Wii, la'La ka'ts!E^weda 35 
ts!Eba'ts!e lax 6'ts!awasa lo'qiwe. Wa, g'i'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e 
tsa'x-^idxa ^wa'pe qa% le tsa'^x-^its la'xa ha^ma'pLe. Wa, he'x'^i- 
da^mese tslEwe'LlExoda. Wa, gl'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e na'x-eda. 
Wa, la'x-da^xwe ha^rnx'^i'da. Wa, laE'm q!ulex-s^Em kMo'klupsa- 
leda ha'mg i'lasE^waxa qlwa'xsa-'ye qa^s tslEplides laxa Lle^na qa^s 40 
ts!6'q!uses la'xes SE'mse. Wa, gl'Hmese gwal ha^ma'pa la'eda 
tslEda'qe la k-a'gllllxa lo'qiwe qa^s les la'xes k!wae'lase. Wa, 



348 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. anx.ss 

she pours out into the kettle the food that is left; then she | washes 
45 it out with water; then she pours water into it, and she puts || it 
again before those to whom she has given to eat. At once | they 
who have been eating wash their hands. When | the guests begin 
to eat, the husband of the woman draws fresh ] water; and when 
they finish washing their hands, | the bucket with water in it is 
50 put before them, and || they drink; and after they finish drinking, 
they wait for the | second course. That is the end of this. | And 
when the owner gets hungry, she takes a split salmon out of the 
soaking -box; | then she takes the tongs and holds it between 
them, and scorches it by the | fire in this manner; 
55 and as soon as the steam comes through, || she 
knows that it is done; but this is called | "cooked, 
quickly for those who are hungry," and this is 
also dipped in oil | when it is eaten. That is all 
about this. | 

1 Silver-Salmon.' — In the evening the man invites the | chiefs to 

come and eat with spoons the fresh silver-salmon. | Wlien aU the 

men are in the house, he takes his kettle | and pours water into it. 

5 Then he puts it on the fire. || His wife takes four fresh split silver- 




43 la qEpstE'ntsa hS,^mx's§,^ye la'xa ha'nxxanowe. Wa, la^me'se 
tslo'xugintsa ^wa'pe laq. Wa, la qEptsIo'tsa ^wa'pe la'qexs la'e 

45 xwe'laqa k'ax'dzamo'lllas la'xes ha^mgi'lasE^we. Wa, he'x'^ida- 
^mese tslE'ntslEnx^wIdEX'da^xwa ha^ma'pde. Wa, gl'pEniLa'x'de 
h&^mx'^i'deda Le'^lanEmaxs la'e la'^wunEmasa tslEda'qe tsax a'lta 
-'wa'pa. Wa, gl'l^mese gwal ts!E'nts!Enkweda k!we'laxs la'e 
ha'ngEmlllEma ^wa'bEtslala na'gatsle laq. Wa, la'x'da^xwe 

50 na'x^ida. Wa, gl'Pmese gwal na'qaxs la'e Swu'lgEmga^lil qa^s 
he'legintsE^we. Wa, laE'm gwal la'xeq. Wa, g'i'pEm po'sqleda 
a,xno'gwadas la'e a'Em ax^wiistE'ndxa qlwa'xsa^ye la'xa t!e'lats!e 
qa^s Sx^e'dexa ts!e'sLala qa^s k" !ipa'leqexs la'e pExa'q la'xes 
lEgwi'le; g^agwa'leg'a {Hg.). Wa, gi'1'mesekixumxsa'wedakMa'lEla 

55 la'qexs la'e qIa'LElaqexs lE^ma'e Llo'pa. Wa, he'sm Le'gadEs 
ha'laxwasE^wesa po'sqia. Wa, laE'mxaa tslEpa's la'xa Lle'^naxs 
la'e ha^ma'pEq. Wa, laE'm gwal la'xeq. 
1 Silver-Salmon.' — Wa, la dza'qwaxs la'eda bEgwa'nEme Le'^lalaxa 
gi'gigama^ye qa ga'xes yo'saxa dze'le o'klwinesa dza^wu'ne. Wa, 
g"l'l=mese ^wI'^laeLExs la'eda bEgwa'nEme ax^e'dxes ha'nxLanowe 
qa^s gtixtslo'desa ^wa'pe laq. Wa, la h&nx"LE'nts. Wa, la'La 
5 gEUE'mas ax^e'dxa mo'we dzel xwa'LEk" dzS^wuna qa^s k'aqEla- 

' The first silver salmon of the season is caught by trolling. It is cut in a ceremonial manner, head and 
tail being left attached to the backbone. These are roasted and eaten at once, as will be found described on 
p. 610. The meat of the silver-salmon is boiled. 



BOAS] EECIPES 349 

salmon and slices their meat | crosswise. When the water in the 6 
kettle is boiling, | she puts the four fresh silver-salmon into it. The 
woman only | stirs it when it has been boiling for some time, to 
break it into pieces. | After she has finished stirring it, she takes 
three dishes, || when there are twelve men who will eat with spoons lo 
the fresh silver-salmon, | and she takes twelve spoons which are 
really new, | and the large dipping-ladle. As soon as | they have 
all been put down, she washes out the three dishes and the spoons ; | 
and after she has done so, she puts the meat of the || silver-salmon 15 
into the dishes. When the dishes are filled, | she spreads a food-mat 
in front of (the men) ; and the man | takes up the dishes and places 
them before four | men, and he places another before four | others, and 
again one dish before four others. || After all the dishes have been 20 
put down, he distributes the spoons | to them; then he gives them 
water to drink. | After they have finished drinking, the one highest 
in rank prays the same | prayer that they said when they first ate 
the roasted eyes;' | and after he stops speaking, they begin to eat 
with spoons. Wl:en || they begin to eat, the man takes up a bucket 25 
and goes to draw | fresh water; and when he comes back, he puts 
down the | bucket with water in it, and waits for them to finish 
eating. After they finish | eating, the man takes up from the floor 



tE'mdeq. Wa, gl'Pmese mEdE'lx^wIdeda la hS,'nxLalaxs la'e 6 
SxstE'ntsa mo'we dzel dz^^wu'n laq. Wa, a'i^meseda tslEda'qe 
xwe'tledqexs la'e ge'g'Illl maE'mdElqtila qa qlwe'qWItsles. Wa, 
gi'Pmese gwal xwe'taqexs la'e Sx^e'dxa yu'duxflxLa lo'ElqIwaxs 
ma^lo'gugiyoeda be'bEgwanEm yo'salxa dze'le dza^wu'na. Wa, 10 
he'^misa ma^lEXLa'g'iyowe k'eka'tslEnaqaxa a'lii la El5'laqa. Wa, 
he'^misa ^wa'lase tsa'xLa k'a'tslEnaqa. Wa, gl'Pmese ^wi'^I- 
g'alllExs la'e tslo'xug'indalaxa yu'duxtixLa lo'Elqlwa LE^wa k"ek'a'- 
tslEnaqe. Wa, g'l'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e tsa'ts!odalasa qlE'mlalasa 
dz&^wu'ne la'xa lo'Elqlwa. Wa, gi'Pmese ^wI'^ltslEwakwa la'e 15 
LEpdzamo^lilasosa ha^ma'dzowe le'^wa^ya. Wa, le'da bEgwa'nEme 
k-a'gililxa lo'Elq!we qa^s le k'ax-dzamo'lllas la'xa mo'kwe 
be'bEgwa'uEma. Wa, la e'tletsa ^uEme'xLa lo'qiwa la'xa mo'x"- 
^maxat!. Wa, la e'tletsa ^UEme'xLa lo'qiwa la'xa mo'x"^maxat!. • 
Wii, gi'Pmese ^wi'%ali}a lo'ElqIwaxs la'e k-a's^itsa k'a'k'EtslEnaqe 20 
la'x'da^xwEq. Wa, la tsa'x-^Itsa ^wa'pe laq qa na'x^ideseq. Wa, 
gl'Pmese gwal naqaxs la'eda na'xsalaga^yas tslE'lwax^Ida, yl'sa 
tslE'lwaqElasa gi'lx'de ha-'ma'pxa L!o'bEkwe xIxExsto'wakwa.' 
Wa, gl'Pmese qlwe'l^edExs la'x'da^xwae yo's^Ida. Wa, g-i'Pmese 
yo's^IdExs la'e klo'qullleda bEgwa'nEmaxa na'gats!e qa^s le tsax 25 
a'lta ^wa'pa. Wa, gl'Pmese g'ax ae'daaqaxs la'g ha'ngaliltsa na'- 
gats!e ^wa'bEtsIala, qa^s e'sEle qagwales yo'sa. Wa, gl'Pmesegwal 
yo'saxs la'eda bEgwa'nEme k!5'qulilxa na'gatsle ^wa'bstsala qa^s 

' Seo p. 611. 



350 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKITJTL [eth. ann. 35 

the bucket with water in it ami | puts it ia front of his gaests. 

30 Then they drink, and || tlie man takes up the dishes and puts them 
down at the place | where his wife is sitting. Tlien he takes the 
spoons and | puts them down at the place where his wife is sitting. 
As soon as | this is done, the guests go out. They do the same with | 

35 the dog-salmon when it is caught for the first time. || They also do 
the same thing with tlie dog-salmon when it is | dried for winter, 
when they are going to keep it in the same way as the | silver-salmon. 
They do not pour oil over it, because it is really | fat: therefore they 
give it to eat only in the evening. | This is also the way when silver- 
salmon caught by trolling is eaten with spoons in the morning. || 

40 He who eats it is never strong; he always feels sleepy the | who^e 
day, and he is not strong: therefore it is first eaten in the | evening. 
As soon as the dog-salmon coming from the upper ])art of the | river 
is eaten, they pour much oil over it, for it is dry; | and there is never 

45 a time when they do not eat it in the morning, at noon, and || in the 
evening. They are afraid to eat it in the morning, when it just 
jumps I at the mouth of the river, for it is really fat. That is | the 
cause of making (those who eat it) sleepy. That is the end of this. | 
1 Sun-Dried Salmon (Gwasila) . — Wlien winter comes, (the woman) 
always | takes sun-dried salmon for breakfast-food; | and wlien she 
takes some of it, she takes her tongs and puts it fiat between | them 

le h&'nx'dzamSllla la'xa kiwe'le. Wii, la'x'da-'xwe na'x^Ida, la'aL a 

30 seda bEgwa'nEme k^a'gllllxa lo'ElqIwe qa^s le k'a'galllElas lax 
klwae'lasases gEnE'me loxs la'e ax^e'dxa k'a'kEtslEnaqe qa^s 
la'xat! ax^a'lIlElas lax klwae'lasases gEnE'me. Wa, gi'Pmese 
gwa'lExs la'e ho'quwElseda k!we'lde. Wa, he'Emxaa gwegi'lasE- 
^weda gwa'^xnesaxs ga'lae la'LanEraa. 

35 Wa, he'^mise, he'Emxaa gwe'gilasE^weda gwa'^xnesaxs la'e 
lE'mxwasE^wa qaLe'da ts!S,wu'nxe, ylxs axelakweLe gwegi'lasaxa 
dza-'wii'ne. Wa, laE'm k'les k!ii'nq!Eqas5sa Lle'^na qaxs a'lae 
tsE'nxwa. He'^mis la'g'ilas al^E'm h§,^mg'I'layoxa la dza'qwa. 
Wa, he'^maaxs yo'sasE^'waeda do'gwinete dza^wu'nxa gaa'la. He- 

40 wa'xatia la qliiqlula'x^ideda yo'saq. A'Em he'mEnalaEm la'lasaxa 
na'la, k!es ia'loqula. Wa, he'^mis la'g'ilas a'l^Em yo'sasoxa 
dza'qwa. Wii, gl'Pmese he'deda gwa'^xnise gayo'l lax ^nE'ldzasa 
wa, yo'saso^wa, la'e kld'nqlEqasosa qle'nEm Lle'^'na qaxs ts!e'nasae. 
Wa, he'EmLal kMea's k!es yo'sdEmqxa gaa'la LE^wa nEqa'la L5-'ma 

45 dza'qwa. Wa, la kllE'm yo'sasoxa gaa'laxs he'^mae a'les niEna'la 
lax 6'x"siwa^yasa wa, qaxs Lo'mae tsE'nxwa. Ho'Eraxat! lo'x"- 
megEme. Wii, laE'm gwal la'xeq. 
1 Sun-dried Salmon. — Wii, le ts !a.wii'nx^idExs la'e he'mEnalaEm 
ax^e'd la'xa ta'yalts!ala qa^s gaa'xsta^yaxa gaii'la. Wa, he'^ma- 
axs la'e ftx'^e'd laq; la^me's iix^e'dxes tsIe'sLslla qa''s k!EbEts!a'^yes 



BOAS] BECIPES 351 

in this manner: [If] Then the skin side is first bUstered, 

not II too near I ^ the fire, so that all the scales are 5 

blistered off. | N'^j ""V-^ Then, when it is covered with bUsters, 
she turns it over p''^ | and blisters the flesh side. And as 

soon as it is all J gray, | she takes a bucket with water 

in it, and takes a mouthful and | blows it over the flesh side of the 
scorched sun-dried salmon || to wet it with water; and after she has lo 
done so, | she takes the tongs and folds over what she is cooking, | 
so that the skin is outside. Then she puts it under a mat and | steps 
on it; and after she has stepped on it, she takes it out again | and rubs 
it in the same way as women do when washing clothes; || and after she 15 
has done so, she strikes it on the floor, so that the | scales which have 
been scorched drop off. After she has done so, she takes small dishes, | 
and oil-dishes and pours oil into them. After she has done so, | she 
takes the scorched sun-dried salmon and breaks it up into pieces in 
the I small dishes. After she has done so, she takes some water and || 
rinses her mouth with it. Then she drinks of it; and after | she has 20 
finished drinking, she takes the broken sun-dried salmon and chews 
one end; j and when what she has been chewing is soft, she dips it 
into the | oil and puts it into her mouth and chews it and swallows 
it; I and she continues doing so; and she only stops when it is nearly 

laq g'a gwa'leg'a {iig.). Wa, la^me's he g'il pExa'sose Lle'sas k"!es 
XE'nLEla ma'xLala'masEq la'xa lEgwile qa ^na'xwes pE'ns^ede 5 
go'bEtas. Wa, g I'Pmese ha^mElgEdzo'deda pE'nsiiqexs la'e le'x'^i- 
dEq qa^s pEX'^i'dex qls'mladzE^yas. Wa, g i'Pmese ^ua'xwa qux^i'- 
dExs la'e ax^e'dxa na'gatsle ^wa'bEtsIala qa^s ha^msgEmde laq. 
Wa, la sElbEx^wits lax qlE'mladza^yasa ts!E'nkwe ta'yalts!ala 
qa hamElx^a'LElesa ^wa'pe lax 6'dza^yas. Wa, gl'Pmese gwa'lExs 10 
la'e axo'dxa ts!e'sLala. Wa, la k- lo'xsEmdxes ha^me'x'siIasE^we 
he Lla'sadza^ya Lle'se. Wa, la gibabo'lllas la'xa le'^wa^j^e qa^s 
t!e'p!edeq. Wa, gi'Pmese gwal tie'paqexs la'e xwe'laqa ax^e'dEq 
qa^s qlEwe'x-^ideq yo gwe'giloxda tsteda'qaxs ts!5'xwaaxa gwet- 
gwa'la. Wa, gl'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e xusxiidze'Hits la q!Qpa'- 15 
les tslaxmotas. Wa, gi'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e ax^e'dxa la'logume 
LE^we ts!Eba'ts!e qa^s k!uxts!o'desa Lle'^na laq. Wa, gi'l^mese 
gwa'lExs la'e ax^e'dxa tslE'nkwe tayalts!ala qa^s kMoptsIo'des la'xa 
lalogume. Wa, g'i'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e tsa'x'^id la'xes ^wa'pe qa^s 
tslEwe'LlExode laq. Wa, la na'x^id laq. Wa, glFmese gwal 20 
na'qexs la'e ax^e'd la'xes k' lobEkwe tayaltslala qa^s male'x"bEndeq. 
Wa, gi'Pmese tE'lx^wide ma'lekwa^yasexs la'e ts.'EplI'ts la'xa 
Lle'^na qa^s ts!o'q!uses qa^s male'x^wideq qa^s nEx^wTdeq. Wa 
he'xsa^mise gwe'g-ila. Wa, a'i^mise gwa'lExs la'e Ela'q ^wi^laq. 



352 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 85 

25 all gone. || After she finishes eating, she drinks water; and | then she 
puts away the eating-dish. I have forgotten that, when the woman | 
first takes the sun-dried sahnon out of her box, she scratches | the 
scales from the skin before she scorches it, so that it may be well 
covered with | small blisters after she has scorched it. They do this 

30 way only || with sun-dried salmon. It is also soaked when it is | 
very hard, when the spring of the following year approaches. This | 
is done the same way as the soaking of all kinds of soaked salmon 
which I I talked about before. Sometimes it is only taken out of 
the soaking-box | by the woman and by her husband; and (the 

35 woman) takes her tongs || and puts it in in this manner,' and she 
blisters it by the fire | while it is still wet, and she turns it over and 
over. I Then the scales are never blistered off, because it is wet. 
This is I just like soaked salmon when it is done. When it is | done, 
she put it down on the food-mat on the skin side, and takes off 

40 the II tongs. Then she takes her oil-dish and she pours oil | into 
it. After she has done so, she dips water up to | rinse the mouth; 
and after she has rinsed her mouth, she drinks; | and after she has 
finished drinking, she breaks pieces of the blistered sun-dried salmon | 
which is lying on its back, and she dips it into the oil. She continues || 

45 breaking off pieces from the blistered sun-dried salmon which is 



25 Wa, gl'l^mese gwal ha^ma'pExs la'e na'x-'Idxa ^wa'pe. Wa, la 
g-e'xaxes ha^maa'tslex'de. Wa, he'xoLEn LlEle'wisE^wa tslsda'qaxs 
gIPmae axwialtslo'dxa ta'yalts!ala la'xes xatsE'me qlulEldzo'dEx 
go'bEtadza^yas Lle'sasexs kle's^mae tslEx^^i'dEq qa e'kcLEs amE'- 
ma^yastowe pE'ns^IdaeneLas tslEX'i'Las. Wa, laE'm le'xaEm he 

30 gwe'gilasE^weda ta'yaltslala. Wa, la'xaa tIe'lasoEmxaaxs la'e XE'n- 
LEla p!e'saxa la he'Enbax-^idxa la aps^yE'nxa. Wa, la he'Em 
gwe'gilasE^we t!e'lena^yaxa ^na'xwa tletlEle'maxEn ga'le gwagwe- 
xs^alasa. Wa, la'xaa ^na'l^uEmp !Ena a'Em a,xwxista'no la'xa tle'la- 
ts!e, yi'sa tslEda'qe Lo^mes la'^wunEme qa^s ax^e'dxes ts!e'sLala 

35 k'lEbEtsIa'^yes laq, g'a gwa'lega' qa^s pEx-e'q la'xa lEgwi'laxs 
he'^mae a'les klu'nqe. Wa la^mes le'x'Halaq. Wa, la'La hewa'- 
xaEm pE'ns^ide go'bEtas qaes k!unq!ena^ye. Wa, k'Em. yu'Em 
gwe'x'soxdatle'lkwaxs la'e Llo'pExs hilnx-Laa'kwae. Wa,g1'Pmese 
i'.S'pExs la'e nELEdzo'ts la'xes ha^ma'dzowe le'^wa^ya qa^s axo'dexa 

40 ts'.e'sLala. Wa, la ax^e'dxes tslEba'tsle qa^s klii'nxtslodesa Lle'^na 
laq. Wa, gi'Pmese gwa'lEXs la'e tsiix'^idxa ^wa'pe qa^s tslEwe'- 
LlEXode laq. Wa, gi'Pmese gwal ts!Ewe'L!ExodExs la'e na'x^id 
laq. Wa, gi'Pmese gwal na'qaxs la'e k!6'p!ld la'xa la UELEdz^,'- 
lile pEuk" ta'yaltslala qa^s ts!Ep!e'des la'xa Lle'^na. Wa, a'xsa^mes 

45 la k!o'pk"!opa la'xa pE'nkwe ta'yaitslalaxs nELEdza'lilae la'xa hS,- 

• See figure on p. 351. 



BOASJ RECIPES 353 

lying on its back on the | food-mat, and she dips it into the oQ; and 46 
she only | stops when what she is eating is nearly all gone. After 
she has finislied eating, | she dips up water and drinks it; and | 
after she has finished drinking, she takes a mouthful of water and 
squirts it on her hands || and washes her hands; and after she fin- 50 
ishes that, she | puts away the food-dish. Then she takes the 
second course. | That is all about the bUstered sun-dried salmon.' | 

Boiled Silver- Salmon. — After | the silver-salmon has been caught 1 
by troUing, the | woman takes one, the head, backbone, | and tail 
of which have been cut off, and the split silver-salmon is spread open. || 
Then it is placed on an old mat | which is spread on the floor near the 5 
fire of the house. She takes lier smaU kettle | and washes it. After 
washing it, she | pours it half fuU of water and puts it on the | fire. 
She takes her fish-knife and y. cuts crosswise what she is || 

going to cook, in tliis manner, r~T ^H] on the outer (skin) side; | 10 
and after she has cut it cross- I wise, the water in the kettle 

on the fire begins to boil. | \ i f Then the woman takes the 
cut silver-salmon | and puts it \ / into the water; and when 
the salmon is in it, | the water ^—^ in the kettle stops boil- 
ing. Then the woman || watches to see when it begins to boil again; 15 

^madzowe' le'^wa^ya qa^s tslEpIe'des la'xa Lle'^na. Wa, a'Hmese 45 
gwalExs la^e Elaq ^wPlaxes ha^ma^ye. Wa, g'i'Pmese gwal ha^ma'- 
pExs la'e tsa'x'^id la'xa ^wa'pe qa^s na'x^Ide laq. Wa, gi'Pmese 
gwal na'qaxs la'e ha'msgEmdxa ^wape. Wa, la ha'mx-ts!anEndala- 
sa ^wa'pe qa^s ts!E'nts!Enx^wIde. Wa, gi'l'mese gwa'lExs la'e 50 
gexaxes ha'^maatslex'de. Wa, laE'm ax^e'd qa^s he'legana. Wa, 
laE'm gwal laxa pE'nkwe ta'yaltslala. 

Boiled Silver-Salmon (Ha'nxxaak" dogwinet dzS,^wu'n). — Wa, 1 
gi'pEmxaa gwal xwaLasE^weda do'gwinete dza^wuna, laeda tslE- 
da'qe ax^e'dxa ^UE'me la'wEyakwes he'x'tla^ye le^wIs xa'k'Iadzowe 
Lo^me's ts'.a'sna^ye. Wa, la^me'se a'Em la LEpa'leda xwa'LEkwe 
dzS,^wii'na. Wa, la^me'se k'ligEdzo'ts la'xa k' !a'k' lobane le- 5 
bex'La'lalil lax lEgwi'lases g-5'kwe. Wa, la Sx^e'dxes hauE'me 
qa^s ts!6'xugindeq. Wa, gl'Pmese gwal ts!o'xug'lndqexs la'e 
guxtslo'tsa ^wa'pe laq, qa nEgo'yales. Wa, la hanxxE'nts la'xa 
lEgwi'le. Wa, la ax^e'dxes xwaLa'yowe qa^s qa'qEtEmdexes 
ha'nx'LEntsoLe ; ga gwa'lega (Jig.) Lla'satslEndalax Lle'sa. Wa, 10 
giPmese gwal qa'qEtEmaqexs la'e msdE'lx^wideda h^'nxxala 
ha'nEma. Wa, hex'^ida^mesa tslEda'qe fi,x^e'dxa xwa'LEkwe dzS,- 
^wfl'na qa la^stE'ndes laq. Wa, g'i'l^mese la^ste'da klo'tEla la'qexs 
la'e gwal maE'mdElquleda ha'nxxanowe. Wa, la^me'sa tslEda'qe 
q!a'q!alalaq qo mEdE'lx^widLo. Wa, gi'Pmese mEdE'bc^wIdExs 15 

1 See also p. 612. 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 1 23 



354 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etu. ann.35 

16 and when it begins to boil, | she takes her spoon and pushes the 
end into it, so that the | meat of the silver-sahnon is broken up; 
and when it is all in small pieces, | she stirs it a little. She does not 

20 let it boU a long time, | before she takes it off, for it is done. || Then 
she takes her small dish and dips the boiled | silver-salmon into it. 
After she has done so, she calls her husband | and her children to 
come and sit down; and when they are all | seated, she gives each a 
spoon, draws some | water and gives it to them to drink. After || 

25 drinking, they eat with spoons; and after eating, they | drink some 
more cold water. That is what the Indians call | "cooling down." 
After drinking, the man | takes the dishes and pours out into the | 

30 kettle what is left in them. Then he takes the kettle, carries || it 
out of the house, goes down to the beach, and | pours the contents 
into the sea, and he washes it out | so that it is clean. No oil 
is poured in. Wlien | the sockeye-salmon is first caught in the 
salmon-weirs | up the river, it is treated in the same way. The only 

35 difference between this and the way they do with || dog-salmon 
caught on the upper part of the river is that they put | much oil 
into it, for it is lean, and that they pour out | outside of the house 
what is left over. That is all I about this. I 



16 la'e Sx^e'dxes ka'tslEnaqe qa^s dzek'ilga^yes laq qa qlwe'qlQltsIes 
qlE'mlalasa dza^wu'n. Wii, gi'l^mese ^na'xwa am^E'mayast& la'e 
xa'LlEX'^idaEm xwe'tlidEq. Wa, k"!e'st!a a'laEm ge'gilil mEdE'l- 
qiilaxs la'e h5,'nx'san5 la'xa lEgwi'le qaxs lE^ma'e Llo'pa. Wa, 

20 he'x-4da^mese ax^e'dxes la'logume qa^s tsetslo'desa ha'nxxaakwe 
dza^wu'n laq. Wa, g'i'l^mese gwa'lExs la'e Le'^lalaxes la'^wunEme 
LE^wT's sa'sEme qa g'a'xes klus^a'llla. Wa, g'l'l^mese g'ax ^wl'^la 
klfldzi'la la'e tslEwa'naesasa ka'kEtslEnaqe laq. Wa, la tsa'x'^Idxa 
^wa'pe qa^s le tsa'x'^Its laq qa na'x^ideseq. Wa, gll^mese gwal 

25 na'qaxs la'e yo's^ida. Wa, g'i'Pmese gwal y5'saxs la'e e'tled 
na'x^idxa ^wap wuda'^sta. He'Em gwE^yo'sa ba'k!ume k'6'- 
xwaxoda. Wa, gi'Pmese gwal na'qaxs la'eda bEgwa'nEme k'a'- 
g-ililxa la'logiime qa^s le k"Ep^stE'ntses k' le'dzayawa^ye laxa han- 
xxanowe. Wa, la'xaa k-o'kulilxa h§-'nxxanowe qa^s le k'lo'qE- 

30 wElsElaq la'xes go'kwe, qa^s le lE'nts!esElas la'xa LlEma^ise qa^s 
le qEp^stE'nts la'xa ds'msx'e. Wa, la'xaa he'Em ts!o'xug'indEq 
qa e'gEgls. Wa, laE'm k'!et\s k'lu'ngEms Lle'^na. Wa, he'Emxaa- 
wise gwe'gilasE^weda mEle'kaxs g"a'loLanEmae la'xa La'wayowe 
lax ^nE'ldzasa wl'^wa. Wa, le'x'a^mes 6'guqalayosa ^ya'^yauEme 

35 gwa^xnl's lax ^nE'ldzasa wi'^wa, ylxs k !unq lEqasEwae yi'sa q!e'- 
nEme L'.e'^na qaxs tsla'qwae. Wa, he'^misexs a'^mae qEpEwu'l- 
ts'.Emes ha'mx*s§,^ye lax L!a'sana^yasa go'kwe. Wa, laE'm gwal 
la'xeq. 



BOAS] RECIPES 355 

Boiled Salmon-Guts. — After the woman has | cut open the silver- 1 
salmon caught by her husband by trolUng, | she squeezes out the food 
that is in the stomach, and the | slime that is on the giUs. She turns 
the stomach inside out; || and when she has cleaned many, she takes a 5 
kettle I and pours water into it. When the kettle is haK full of | water, 
she puts the stomachs of the silver-salmon into it. After | they are all 
in, she puts the kettle on the fire; and when | it is on the fire, she 
takes her tongs and stirs them. When || (the contents) begin to boil, 10 
she stops stirring. The reason for | stirring is to make the stomachs 
hard | before the water gets hot; for if they do not | stir them, they re- 
main soft and tough, and are not hard. Then the woman | always takes 
up one of (the stomachs) with the tongs; and || when she can hold 15 
it in the tongs, it is done; but when it is slippery, it is not | done. 
(When it is done,) she takes off the fire what she is cooking. | It is 
said that if, in cooking it, it stays on the fire too long, | it gets 
slippery. Then she will pour it away | outside of the house, for it 
is not good if it is that way. If || it should be eaten when it is boiled 20 
too long, (those who eat it) could keep it only a short time. | They 
would vomit. Therefore they watch it carefully. | When it is done, 
the woman takes her | dishes and her spoons, and she puts them 

Boiled Salmon-Guts (Me^stag-i^lak").— Wa, he'^maaxs la'e gwal l 
xwa'Leda tslEda'qax do'gwanEmases la'^wunEme dza^wu'na. Wa, 
la X i'x'^wults!6dEx gl'ts!axxlax ha^maa'ts!as po'xunsa LE^wa 
k'le'la lax q!o'sna^yas. Wa, la le'xsEmdxa ha^maa'tsle p5'xunsa. 
Wa, gl'Pmese q!e'nEme axa'^yas, la'e ax-'e'dxes ha'nxxanowe 5 
qa^s guxtslo'desa ^wap laq. Wa, la nEgo'yaleda ha'nxxanaxa 
^wa'paxs la'e axstE'ntsa po'xiinsasa dza^wQ'ne laq. Wa, g I'Pmese 
^wi'-'la^staxs la'e hauxLE'nts la'xa lEgwI'le. Wa, gi'Pmese hela- 
LE'laxs la'e ax^e'dxes klipLa'la qa^s xwe'tElga^yes laq. Wa, gi'l- 
^mese mEdE'lx^wIdExs la'e gwai xwe'tElgeq. Wa, he'Em la'g'ilas 10 
xwe'tElgeq qa ^na'xwa^mese la L!eL!a'x^ededa ha^maats!e poxOnsa, 
ylxs g-a'lae ts!Ex"tsa^na'kuleda ^wa'paga^ya, qaxs g'i'Pmae k'!es 
xwe'tElges5xs la'e lEt!a,'Ia la k'!es Lla'xa. Wa, le'da ts!Eda'qe 
he'mEnalaEm k!ip!e'tsa k'lipLa'la la'xa ^nE'mtsIaqe. Wa, gl'l- 
-'mese k' !lp !aLEla la'qexs la'e L!o'pa. Wa'xi tsax'^'wa la kle's^Em 15 
L!o'pa. Wa, he'x-ida^mese hanx'sE'ndxes ha'nx'LEntsE^we; wa, 
gipEm^la'wise ha'yaqawiltod lax ge'xxalalax ha'nx-Lalalaxs la'- 
laxe lE'ndslta' lax a'Emlax^wise la'lax qEp^wEldzE'mlax la'xa 
Lla'sana^ye, qaxs k'!e'sae e'k'Exs he'e gwe'x'^Ide, qaxs gl'Pmae 
ha^ma'xs la'e ha'yaqawiltod Llo'pa; wa, a'^mese ya'wasalis la'xEns 20 
tEk'la'xs la'e ho'x^widaya. Wa, he'^mis la'g-Itas XE'nLEla q!a'q!a- 
lalasE^wa. Wa, g'i'Pmese L!o'pExs la'e Sx^e'deda tslEda'qaxes lo'- 
Elqlwe LE^wis ka'k'EtslEnaqe qa^s ga'xe ax'a'lilas la'xes kiwae'lase 



356 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUXL [eth. ann. sb 

down at the place wliere she is seated; | but her husband invites 

25 whomever he wants to invite. || Wlien the guests come in, his wife 
takes a | large ladle and dips the liquid out of the kettle into the 
dishes. | When they are half full of the liquid of what she has 
been cooking, | she takes the tongs and takes out the boiled | stom- 

30 achs and puts them into the dishes. Wlien all the dishes are || full, 
she takes food-mats and | spreads them in front of the guests. 
Finally she takes the [ dishes and places them in front of the guests. 
There is one dish for | every four guests. Then she gives | a spoon to 

35 each guest. Water is never || given with this, and they never pour 
oil on it, I for oil does not agree with the boiled stomach; and | there- 
fore also they do not drink water before they eat it, for it makes those 
who I eat it thirsty. Then they eat with spoons; and | after they 

40 have eaten, the host takes the dishes and || puts them down at the 
place where his wife sits. Then he takes | water and gives it to them. 
Then they rinse their | mouths on account of the salty taste, for the 
boiled stomach is really salt. | After rinsing the mouth, they drink | 

45 some water; and after drinking, they go out of the house. || This 
finishes what I have to say about the cooking of various kinds of 
salmon. | They never sing when eating steamed salmon-heads | or 
boiled salmon-heads, or when they eat boiled stomachs, | for these 

Wa, la'La la'^wunEmas Le'^lalaxes gwE^yo' qa^s Le'^IalasE^wa. Wa, 

25 gi'Pmese gax ^wi'^laeLe Le'^lanEmasex la'e gEUE'mas ax^e'dxa ^wa- 
lase ka'tslEnaqa qa^s tsats!a'lis ^wa'paga^yas la'xa lo'Elq'.we. Wa, 
g-iPmese ^na'xwa ^naE'ngoyalaxa ^wa'paga^yasa ha^me'x'sIlasE^waxs 
la'e ax^e'dxes kMipLala qa^s kMikMEplEnl's la'xa ha'nx-Laa'kwe po- 
xiins qa^s k-!ipts!a'les la'xa lo'slqlwe. Wa, gl'l^mese ^wl'^la la 

30 qo'qut'.eda loElqlwaxs la'e ax-'e'dxa ha^madzowe' le^wa^ya qa^s 
le LEpdzamo^ilas la'xa Le'^lanEme. Wa, la'wisLa ax^e'dxa Io'eI- 
q!we qa^s le kaxdzamo^lllas la'xes LeHanEme. Wa, laE'm 
mae'male'da kiwe'taxa ^na'l^nEmexLa lo'q!wa. Wa, la tslEwana- 
esasa k'a'k'Ets!Enaqe la'xes Le'^lanEme. Wa, laE'm hewa'xa na'- 

35 qamats ^wa'pa laq. Wii, la'xaa hewa'xa klu'nqlEqas Lle'^na laq, 
qaxs ao'ts!agaeda me'stag-i^akwe LE^wa L!e'^na. Wa, he'^mis 
la'gilas k'!es na'naqalg^iwalax ^wa'paxs na'gsmaxa ^wa'pasa ha- 
^ma'pax gwe'x'sdEmas. Wa, la'x'da^xwe yo's^ldEq. Wa, gi'l- 
^mese gwal y5'saqexs la'eda Le'^lanEmaq k-a'gllllxa lo'ElqIwe qa^s 

40 le k-a'g-alilElas lax k Iwae'lasases gEUE'me. Wa, la Sx^e'dxa 
^wa'pe qa^s le tsa'x'^its laq. Wa, la'xda^xwe tslEwe'L'.Exod qa 
la'weses ds'mpIaeLlExawa^e; qa'Laxs k'l&e ds'mpleda me'stagrta- 
kwe. Wa, g-i'Pmese gwal ts!Ets!Ewe'L!EX5xs la'xda^xwae na'- 
x^id la'xa *wa'pe. Wa, g'l'l^mese gwal na'qaxs la'e ho'quwElsa. 

45 Wa, laE'm gwal la'xeq, yl'xEn gwa'gwex's^alase la'xa k!o'k!OtE- 
liixs ha^me'xsIlasE^wae. Wa, he'Em k'!es dE'nxElagila he'xtla- 
^yaxs nEgskwa'e loxs h&'nxxaakwae LE^wa me'stag'i^lakwaxs 



BOAS] RECIPES 357 

are eaten quickly when they first go trolling | silver-salmon. The 
stomach of the dog-salmon is not. eaten || when it is first caught at 50 
the mouth of the river, nor when it is caught on the upjaer part of the | 
rivers; but they boil the heads when it is caught | in the upper part 
of the river, also those of the humpback-salmon. At last it is 
finished. | 

Fresh Halibut-Heads and Backbone. — Sometimes' the | woman boils 1 
the heads (of halibut) and invites the | friends of her husband; and 
when the men are invited | by the fisherman, bis wife takes the || 
heads and puts them on a log on the floor. Then she takes an | ax 5 
and chops them in pieces. The pieces are not very small. | Then she 
puts them into a kettle. Then she takes the backbone | and breaks 
it to pieces. Then she also puts it into the kettle. | As soon as the 
kettle, is full, she takes || a bucket of water and empties it into it. Tl^e 10 
water hardly | shows among them when she puts it on the fire. | She 
does not touch it; but when it has been boiling a long time, | she 
takes it off. Then she takes her large ladle and | also dishes, and 
she dips it out into the dishes with her || large ladle. As soon as all 15 
the dishes are full, | she takes her spoons and gives one to each | 
guest, and she spreads a food-mat in front of them. | At last she 



ha^ma'^yae, qaxs §,'^mae hala'xwasoxs g'a'lae do'gwanEma dz&- 4S 
^wii'ne. Wii, la k!es ha^ma'^ye ha'^maatsle po'xunsasa gwa^xnisax 
gllo'LanEmae lax o'x"siwa^yasa wl'^wa Loxs la'e lax ^nE'ldzasa 50 
wl'^wa. Wa, la'La ha'nxLEntso^me he'xtla^yasexs la'e ga'yanEm 
lax ^nE'ldziisa wl'^wa LE^wa h&^no'ne. Wa, lawi'si.a gwal la'xeq. 

Fresh Halibut-Heads and Backbone. — Wii, la^na'l^nEmplEneda ts!E- 1 
da'qe ha'nxLEndxa ma'legEmanowe qa^s Le'^lalex ^ne^nEmo'- 
kwases la'^wunEme. Wa, he'^maaxs la'e Le'^lalasE^wa be'bEgwa- 
nEme, ylsa lo'qiwenoxwe, wa, la gEUE'mas ax^e'dxa ma'legEma- 
nowe axE'ndales la'xa ka'dJie lEqwa'. Wa, la Sx^e'dxa so'ba- 5 
yowe qa^s tsatsExsa'les laq. Wa, la k"!es xE'nLEla am^Eme'xsalaq, 
wa, la axts!o'ts la'xa hS,'nx'Lanowe. Wii, la ax^e'dxa hamo'mS 
qa^s k'ok'ExsE'ndeq. Wa, laE'mxaa'wise &xts!o'ts la'xa h3.'nxLa- 
nowe. Wa, gi'Pmese qo'tleda ha'nxxanaxs la'e S,x^e'dxes 
na'gats!e ^wabEts!ala qa^s guqiEqe's laq. Wa, h5.'lsEla^mese ne- 10 
lEyax'^Ideda ^wa'pe la'qexs la'e hS,'nxLEntsa Ifi'xes lEgwI'le. 
Wa, la kMes La'balaq. Wii, he't!iila ge'gflil maE'mdElqiilaxs 
la'e ha'nx'sEndEq. Wii, la a.x^e'dxes ^wii'lase ka'tslEnaqa; wa, 
he'^mese lo'ElqIwe. Wa, la tsets!o'dalas lil'xa lo'ElqIwe, ylsa 
^wa'lase ka'tslEnaqa. Wa, gi'Pmesc ^wl'^la q6'qut!eda Io'eI- 15 
qlwaxs la'e Sx^e'dxes k a'k'EtslEnaqe qa^s le ts!Ewanae'sas la'xes 
■Le'^lanEme. Wa, la'xaa LE'pdzamoliltsa ha^madzowe' le'^wa^ya. 

' Continued from p. 249, line 71. 



358 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth, ann. 35 

takes up the dish and puts it down in front of her | guests. Immedi- 

20 ately they all eat with || spoons; and after they have eaten with 
spoons, the wife of the host | takes other small dishes and puts them 
down I hetween the men and the food-dish. | This is called "recep- 
tacle for the bones." As soon as | the guests find a bone, they throw 

25 it into the small dish; || and they keep on doing this while they are 
eating. After | they have finished eating witli spoons, they put 
their spoons into the dish from which they have been | eating. 
Tlien they take the small dish in which | the bones are, and put it 
down where the large dish had been, | and they pick up the bones 

30 with their hands and put them into their mouths || and chew them. 
Therefore this is called "chewed;" namely, boiled | halibut-head. 
They chew it for a long time and suck | at it; and after they finish 
sucking out the fat, they blow out the | sucked bones; and they do 
not stop until all the bones have been sucked out. | Then the woman 

35 takes the small dishes and || washes them out, and she pours some 
water into tliem, and she puts them | down again before the guests. 
Then they wash their liands. | As soon as they liave done so, they 
drink; and after they have fuiished drinking, | they go out. Then 
they finish eating the halibut-heads. | Halibut-heads are not food for 

40 the morning, for they are too fat. || They only eat them at noon and in 

18 Wa, lawe'sLe ka'gililxa lo'qiwe qa^s le kaxdzamolilts la'xes 
Le'^lanEme. Wa, he'x^ida^mese ^na'xwa yoVida, ylse's ka'k'E- 

20 ts!Enaqe. Wa, g'l'Pmese yo's^idExs la'e gEUE'masa Le'^lanEmaq 
8,x^e'dxa 6'gu^la^me fim^Ema' lo'ElqIwa qa^s le'xat! k'a'x'^Its lax 
§,wa'gawa^yasa be'bEgwauEme LE^wa ha^maa'ts!as lo'qiwa. Wa, 
he'Em Le'gades he'lomagEm qae'da xa'qe. Wa, g'l'l^mese tsa'- 
tsek'ineda kiwe'laxa xa'qaxs la'e ts!Exts!6'ts lax Sma'^ye lo'qiwa. 

25 La he'x'saEm gwe'gilaxes wa'wEsElilase yo'sa. Wa, gi'l^mese 
gwal yo'saxs la'e gits!o'tses yo'yatsle k'a'k'EtslEnaq la'xes gi'lx'- 
deha^maa'tsla. Wa, la S,x^e'dxa ftma'^ye lo'qiwa, yix gi'tslE^wa- 
sasa xa'qe qa^s k"a'x'^ide lax &xa'sdasa ^wa'lase lo'ElqIwa. Wa, 
la^me'se xa'maxtslanaxs la'e S,x^e'dxa xa'qe qa^s tslo'qliises. Wa, 

30 la male'x^widEq, la'gilas la Le'gadEs male'kwa, yl'xa hfi'nxLa- 
akwe male'gEmano. Wa, la ge'gilil male'kwa qa^s le k'lEx^wi'- 
dEq. Wa, gi'Pmese gwal k" lExa'lax tsE'nxwa^yasexs la'e po'xodxa 
kiwa'x'mute xa'qa. Wa, a'i^mese gwa'lExs la'e ^wFla k-lEx^wI'dxa 
xaqe, wa, leda tslEda'qe Sx^e'dxa am^Ema'^ye lo'ElqIwa qa^s tslo'- 

35 xugindeq. Wa, la qEptsIo'tsa ^wa'pe laq. Wa, la xwe'laqa kax'- 
dzamo'lllas la'xa Le'^lanEme. Wa, la'x'da^xwe tslE'ntslEnx^wIda. 
Wa, g'l'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e na'x^ida. Wa, glPmese gwal na'qaxs 
la'e ho'qiiwElsa. Wii, laE'm gwa'la mEmEle'kwage la'xeq. Wa, 
laE'm k'les ha^ma'^ya mEle'kwaxa gaa'Ia qaxs xE'nLElae tsE'nxwa. 

40 Wa, a'l^Em ha^ma'xa la nEqa'la LE^wa dza'qwa, qaxs xE'nLElae 



BOAS] RECIPES 359 

the evening, because they are very | fat; that is the reason why they 41 
are afraid to eat them, — that it makes one | sleepy.'] 

Halibut-Tips. — (The woman) enters her house, and at once | she 1 
takes the kettle and puts the halibut-tips | into it. She pours a 
little water over them. The water does not quite | show on top of 
the meat of the halibut. Then she puts || the kettle on the fire. As 5 
soon as it begins to boil, she stirs | (what is in the kettle) and breaks 
it. After she has stirred it, she lets | it boil for a long time, and then 
takes tlie kettle off the fire. Then | she pours oil into it, when they 
are going to eat out of the kettle. | Wlien they dip it out into dishes, 
when there are many || guests, then she pours oil into it when it is 1" 
in the dish. | Then they drink water before they eat with spoons 
the I boiled meat of the halibut, and they also drink water | after they 
have eaten it with spoons. She puts down the food-mat when the | 
boiled meat of the halibut is given at a feast. It is || food for the IT) 
morning and noon, and for the evening, for | it is not fat. Therefoi-e 
they pour oil into it. The only | difference in the morning is, that 
they do not put much oil into it, for then only | a little is poured into 
it; but at | noon and in the evening it is covered with oil. No 
second course is served || after this has been eaten with spoons. ^ | 20 



tsE'nxwa. Wa, he'^mis la'g'ilas kllE'm ha^ma'^ye, qaxs kwa'la- 41 
dzEmae.' 

Halibut-Tips. — Wa, la lae'Las la'xes go'kwe. Wa, he'x'^ida- 1 
^mese ax^e'dxa ha'nxLanowe qa^s fixtslo'desa tlo'tlEsba^ye p!a'^ye 
laq. Wii, la guqiEqa'sa holale ^wap laq. Wa, laE'm k-!es a'laEm 
ne'l^Ideda^wa'pe lax 6'kuya^yasa q!E'mlalasa pla'^ye. Wa, lahanx"- 
LE'nts laxes lEgwi'le. Wa, g'i'Pmese mEdElx^wi'dExs la'e xwe'tEl- 5 
gEndEq qa q!we'q!u}ts!es. Wa, gi'l^mese xwe'taxs la'e gage'gili- 
IfilaEm maE'mdElqulaxs la'e h5.'nxsEndxa h§,'nxxanowe. Wa, la 
k!u'nq!Eqasa Lle'^^na laq, ylxs ha^me'Le ha^maa'ts leLeda ha'nxLa- 
nowe. Wii, gi'Pmese tse'dots la'xa lo'qiwe, yixs q!e'nEmaeda 
Le^lanEme. Wa, a'l^mese k!ii'nq!Eqasa L!e'^na la'qexs la'e Iex"- 10 
ts'.ala. Wa, la na'x-Id^Emxa ^wa'paxs kMe's^mae yo's^idxa hS,'nx'- 
Laakwe q!E'mlalesa pla'^ye. Wii, la'xaa na'x^idaEmxa ^wa'paxs la'e 
gwal yo'saq. Wa, laE'mLeda ha^madz5'we le'Hva^ya la'qexs k!we'- 
ladzEmaeda ha'nxLaakwe qls'mlalesa pla'^ye. Wa, he'^misexs 
ha^ma'^yaaxa gaa'la LE^wa ^nEqii'la; wa, he'^misa dza'qwa qaxs 15 
kle'sae tsE'nxwa, la'g'ilasa Lle'^na k!u'nq!EgEm liiq. Wa, le'x'a- 
^mesLal o'gu^qalayos qae'da gaa'liixs k'le'sae q!eqxa L!e'^na, a'^mae 
xaLlaqasoxs k!u'nqEqasE^wae. Wa, la'La tteplEgEli's^Emxa L!e'- 
^naxa nEqa'la LE^wa dza'qwa. Wa, laE'm k!es he'leglndExs 
yo'saax gwe'x'sdEmas.^ 20 

J Continued on p. 249, line 71, to p. 251, line 5. 2 Continued on p. 251, line 6, to p. 252, line 33. 



360 ETHNOLOGY OP THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

1 Dried Halibut. — As soon as there is no dried salmon for breakfast | 
in the morning, (the woman) takes dried halibut and breaks it into 
a dish. I When there are four guests, then there is one dish | into 
5 which two dried halibut are broken; and when there are six || guests, 
then there are two dishes, in which there are three dried halibut, | so 
that there is one and a half in each dish, and | there are three guests 
to each dish; but they also use the food-mat, | which is spread out in 
front of the guests, | and the woman also takes her oil-dish and 

10 pours II oil into it. As soon as she has done so, she places the dish | 
in front of her guests. Then she puts down the oil-dish | and puts 
it in the corner of the dish, on top of the broken dried halibut, | on 
the outer side of the dish. As soon as this is done, she dips up some | 
fresh water and gives it to them to rinse their mouths. After they 

15 have done so, |1 they drink; and after they have done this, the one 
highest in rank takes | some broken halibut and folds it over and 
chews it, I to make it soft. Then he dips it into the oil, and finally 
he I puts it into his mouth, when it is heaped up with oil; and aU the 
guests I do the same way when they are eating; and they never 

20 forget to fold over the || broken dried halibut and to chew it soft, 
and then to | dip it into the oil. The reason why they chew it is 
that it requires much | oil, for the dried halibut is very dry food; | 



1 Dried Halibut. — Wa, gl'Pmese k' lea's xa^masa gaa'xsta'laxa 

gaa'laxs la'e ax^e'dxa kla'wase qa^s k"!6pts!o'des la'xa lo'qiwe. 
Wa, gl'l^Em mo'kwa Le'^lanEmaxs la'e ^nEme'xLeda lo'qiwe 
k-!5'pts!otsosa ma'^EXsa k'!a'wasa. Wa, gl'Pmese qlFLlo'kwa 
5 k!we'laxs la'e ma'^lExi^eda lo'qiwe; wa la yu'duxuxseda kMa'wase 
qa nExsa'yunosElis la'xa ^na'l^nEmexLa lo'qiwa. Wa, laE'm yae'- 
yuduxuleda kiwe'laxa ^nEme'xLa lo'qiwa. Wa, laEmLe'da ha^ma- 
dzowe' le'^wa^'ya gi'lg'alelEm LEpdzamS'lilEm la'xa Le'^lanEma. 
Wa, laEmxaa'wiseda tslEda'qe ax^e'dxes tslEba'tsIe qa^s klunxtslo'- 

10 desa Lle'^na laq. Wa, gl'I^mese gwa'lExs la'e ka'x-^itsa lo'qiwe 
lax nExdzamo'lilases Le'^lanEme. Wa, la k'a'g'illlxa tslEba'tsIe 
qa^s le k^ane'qwas lax o'kuya^yasa klo'bEkwe k'la'wasa la'xa 
Lla'saneqwasa lo'qiwe. Wa, gl'Pmese gwa'l^alelExs la'e tse'x'^itsa 
a'lta ^wap laq qa tslEwe'LlExodes. Wa, gl'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e 

15 na'x^ida. Wa, g'i'Hmese gwa'lExs la'eda naxsa'laga^yas da'x'^id 
la'xa k'lo'bEkwe k'la'wasa qa^s k'lQ'xsEmdeq qa^s male'x"bEndeq 
qa tElx^wi'desexs la'e tslEpIe'ts la'xa Lle'^na. Wa, lawi'sLa tslo'- 
qlusasexs la'e qo'loxbalaxa Lle'^na. Wa, la ^na'xwa^ma kiwe'le he 
gwe'g'ilaxs la'e ha^ma'pa, ylxs kle'sae lIeIb'wb k'lo'xsEmdxa k'lo'- 

20 bEkwe k'la'wasa qa^s male'x"bEndeq qa tE'lx^wIdesexs la'e tslE- 
pll'ts la'xa Lle'^na. Wa, he'Em la'gilas male'kwaq qa hama'- 
sexa Lle'^na qaxs xE'nLElae lE'mxweda lEmo'kwe k'la'wasExs ha- 



BOAS] RECIPES 361 

for there is very little fat in this food. As soon as | the guests finish 
eatuig, fresh water is drawn, and they drink. || After they have 25 
finished drinking, the guests wait for | the second course. Thus 
they finish eating the dried lialibut. | 

Halibut- Skin and Meat. — Now I will talk | about the mixed half- 1 
dried halibut-skin and half-dried halibut. | Wlien the drying 
hahbut and the skin are half dry, the | woman takes the half-dried 
halibut and cuts it down in strips || one finger-width wide, in this | 5 
manner: /7nTY\ As soon as it is all cut up, she takes the skin and | 
cuts it /// 1\\ also straight down mto strips, in the manner in 
which she /// \\ made the narrow strips of | dried halibut. As 
soon as all // I \\ the narrow strips are done, she puts | one narrow 
strip of I I I I I II skin and one narrow strip of half -dried halibut 
one on the other, || and she roUs them up into a ball; and she 10 
just tucks the end | under the top of the tight strip of | skin and 
half-dried halibut. This is the size of an egg of a | sea-gull. As 
soon as all that she is doing is done, she takes the | kettle and 
pours water into it, and she only stops || pouring water into it when 15 
the kettle is half full. Then | she puts it on the fire; and when it 
begins to boil, j she takes the balls of skin and dried halibut, 
and puts them | into the boiling kettle on the fire. However, she 

^ma'^yae yixs ho'lalaeda L!e^naxs ha^ma'^yae. Wa gi'Pmese gwal 23 
ha^ma'pa klwe'laxs la'e tse'x'^itsosa a'lta ^wa'pa qa na'x^ides. Wa, 
g'i'Hmese gwal na'qaxs la'e fiwE'lgEmgalileda klwe'Ie qa^s he'- 25 
legintsE^we. Wa, laE'm gwa'la ha^ma'paxa lEmo'kwe k'la'wasa. 

Halibut-Skin and Meat. — Wa, la^me'sEn e't!edEl gwa'gwexs^alal 1 
la'xa mayima'kwasa kla'yaxwe Lies LE^wa k'!a'yaxwe k!a.'wasa. 
Wa, he'^maaxs la'e kMa'yax^wIdeda kla'wase LE^wa L!e'se, le'da 
tslEda'qe ax^e'dxa k!a'yaxwe kla'wasa qa^s nEqEma'xode k!6!pa- 
laxa ^na'l^nEmdEndzayaakwe la'xEns ts!Ema'lax"ts!ana^yexg-a gwa- 5 
lega (Jig.)- Wa, gl'Pmese ^wi^we'Ix^sexs la'e Sx^e'dxa L!e'se qa^s 
t!o't!Ets!E'ndexat! nEqEma'xodEq lax gwa'laasaseda tsleltslEqlo' 
k'la'wasa. Wa, gi'Pmese ^wMa ts!elts!Eq!axs la'e pa'pEqoda'leda 
tslEda'qaxa ts!e'lts!Eq!a Lies LE^wa tsIeltslEqIa k'la'wasa. Wii, 
la le^x"sE'mdEq qa les lo'ElsEma. Wa, a'^mese la g'lple'ts o'ba^yas 10 
lax S,wa'ba^yasa 6'ba^ye la'xa la lEkliita'la qExsEme g'a'yol la'xa 
Lle'se LE^wa kla'wase. Wa, la yu'Em la ^wa'lasa tsle'guna'sa 
tsie'klwe. Wa, gi'Pmese ^wrta gwa'le ^xsE^wa'sexs la'e ftx^e'dxa 
h&'nx'Lanowe qa^s giixtslo'desa ^wa'pe laq. Wa, a'l^mese gwal 
guqa'sa ^wa'pe la'qexs la'e nEgoya'leda ha'nxLanowe. Wa, la 15 
ha'nxLEnts la'xes lEgwi'le. Wa, g'l'l^mese mEdElx^wi'dexs la'e 
^x^e'dxa xwextile'xsEmakwe L'es LE^wa k'la'wase qa^s axsta'les 
la'xa maE'mdElqula h§,'nx'Lala la'xa lEgwi'Ie. Wii, k'le'stla a'laEm 



362 ETHNOLOGY OP THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ANN. 36 

20 does not | boil it long, when the kettle is taken off. || Then the woman 
takes her dish and puts it down at the | place wliere slie is sitting; 
and she also takes a large long-handled ladle, | and takes out the 
roUed-up skin and | dried halibut, and puts them into the dish. She 
does not take any gravy, | but only the round rolled-up skin and 

25 the dried halibut. || As soon as it is all out of the kettle and it is in 
the I dish, the woman takes a food-mat and | spreads it in front of 
her guests. Then she puts the dish on it. | As soon as the woman 
puts the dish before them, she | draws some fresh water for lier 

30 guests. Wlien it is in the morning, || the guests all rinse their mouths 
before thoy drink. | Wlien it is noon or evening, they do not rinse 
their mouths, | but they drink water before they eat. | As soon as 
they have rinsed their mouths, at breakfast they | drink; and after 

35 they have finished drinking, they take up with their hands || the 
rolled-up skin and the dried lialibut that they are eating. | They 
just bite off from their food. After | they have eaten, the woman 
takes the food-dish and | pours into tlie kettle what is left over. 
Then she pours | water into it, and she puts (the dish) again before 

40 their guests. || Then they wash tlieir hands. After they have fin- 
ished, I some fresh water is drawn. After they finish drinking, they 

ge'gilll la maE'mdElqulaxs la'e hS,'nx'sanoweda ha'nxxanowe. 

20 Wa, le'da tslEda'qe ftx^e'dxes lo'qiwe qa^s ha'ngaliles la'xes 
kiwae'lase. Wa, la'xaa ax^e'dxa ^wa'lase gi'ItlEXLala k-a'tslE- 
naqa qa^s xElostales la'xa xwe'xtile'xsEmakwe Lies LE^wa k"!a'- 
wase qa^s le XElts!a'las la'xa l6q!we. Wa, laE'm k'!es le ^wa'paliis. 
A'Em lex'a^tna lo'ElxsEme xwexule'x"sEmakweL!es LE^wa k' la'wasa. 

25 Wii, g'l'Pmese ^wl'losta la'xa ha'nxxanowe qaxs la'e g'e'tsia la'xa 
lo'q!waxs la'eda tslEda'qe Sx-e'dxa ha^madzowe' le^wa^ya qa^s le 
LEpdzamo'lilas la'xes Le'^lanEme. Wa, la k"a'dz5tsa lo'q!we laq. 
Wa, gt'Pmese la kaxdzamo'lilxa lo'qiwaxs la'eda tslEda'qe 
tse'x'^itsa a'lta ^wap la'xes Le'^lanEme. Wii, gl'Pmese gaa'Iaxs 

30 la'e ^wPla tslEwe'LlExodeda Le'^lanEmaxs k'le's^mae na'x-'Ida. Wa, 
gi'Pmese nEqa'la LE^wa dza'qwaxs la'e k"!es tslEwe'LlExoda. Wa, 
la'La na'naqalgiwa'laEmxa ^wa'paxs kMe's^mae ha^mx-^i'da. Wa, 
gi'Pmese gwal ts!Ewe'L!Ex6dExs gaa'xstalae, wa, la'xda^xwe 
na'x^ida. Wa, gl'Pmese gwat na'qaxs la'e xa'maxtslanaxs 

35 da'lts!alaaxes ha^ma^yeda xwexule'xsEmakwe L!es LE^wa kla'wase. 
Wa, laE'm a'Em q!Egi'nwexes ha^ma^ye. Wa, gl'Pmese gwal 
ha^ma'pEXs la'eda tslEda'qe ax^e'dxa ha^maa'tslexde lo'qiwa qa^s 
le qEpts!6'tsa ha^mx'sa'^ye la'xa hS'nx'Lanowe. Wa, la guxtslo'tsa 
^wa'pe laq. Wa, la xwe'laqa k'a'x'dzamolllas la'xes Le'^lanEme. 

40 Wa, la'x'da^xwe tslE'ntslEnx^wIda. Wa, gl'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e 
tse'x-^itsosa a'lta ^wa'pa. Wii, gl'Pmese gwal na'qaxs la'e ho'qu- 



BOAS] 



EECIPES 363 



go out, I for no second course is served after the rolled-up sldn and | "*" 
the dried halibut; and they also do not dip it into oil, for | the skin 
is very fat; and only the men highest || in rank of the various tribes 45 
eat this kind. That is all | about this. | 

Blistered Half-Dried Halibut. — As | soon as the drying haUbut is 1 
half -dried, when the halibut is first caught, [ then the men of high 
rank enter the house of the fisherman in the morning, and | sit down 
in the rear of the house; and at once || the woman takes her mat, and 5 
asks all the visitors to | rise from the place where they are sitting. 
As soon as they all stand up, | she spreads the mat on the floor; and 
after the mat has been spread, | she asks the visitors to sit down 
on it. As soon as all | are seated, the woman takes down the 
half-dried hahbut || and blisters it by the fire. After she has finished 10 
blistering it, | she takes a mouthful of water and blows it on the 
blistered | half-dried halibut; and after she has blown water | on it, 
she takes a food-mat and breaks the | blistered half-dried haUbut, 
and puts it on the food-mat. || As soon as she has done so, she takes 15 
her oil-dish and | pours oil into it. After she has finished doing so, 
she puts down | the mat on which the blistered half-dried halibut is, 
and I spreads it before those who are going to eat. She scatters the 
broken pieces | of blistered half-dried halibut over the food-mat. 

WElsa qaxs k'lesae helegintsE^wa xwexulexsEmax"g"e Lies LE^wa 42 
kMawase. Wa, he'^misexs k'le'sae tstepa'xa Lle'^na qaxs he'^mae 
lagilasa L!e'saXs tsE'nxwae. Wa, laE'mxaa'wise le'x'ameda nena'- 
xsalasa le'IqwalaLa^ye ha^ma'pxa he gwe'kwe. Wa, las'm gwal 45 
la'xeq. 

Blistered Half-Dried Halibut (PEukwe k!ayax" k'lawasa). — Wii, 1 
gi'pEm k' la'yax^wideda k' la'wasaxs ga'lae la'LanEma p!a'^ye, wii, 
le'da nena'xsala ho'gwilxa gaa'la lax g'o'kwasa l5'q!wenoxwe qa^s 
le klus^a'lIlEla lax 5'gwiwalllas go'kwas. Wa, he'x-^ida^mesa 
tslEda'qe iix^e'dxes ie'^wa^ye qa^s axkMa'lexa qa'tse^stala qa ^wi^les 5 
qlwa'g'ilil la'xes k!udze'lase. Wa, g'i'l^mese ^wFla qlwa'gilllExs 
la'e LEpIa'lllxa ie'^wa^ye. Wa, g'l'Pmese LEbela le'^wa^yaxs la'e 
axkMa'laxa qa'tse^stala qa k!udzEdz6'llles6q. Wa, gi'Pmese ^wFla 
klQs^a'lllExs la'eda tslsda'qe axa'xodxa la kMa'^yax^wItses kMa'- 
wase qa^s pEX'^ideq la'xes lEgwI'le. Wa, g'l'Pmese gwal pExa'qexs 10 
la'e ha'^msgEmdxa ^wa'pe qa^s sElbExQldzo'des la'xa pE'nkwe 
k'la'yax" k'!a'wasa. Wa, gi'Pmese gwal sslbExwa'sa ^wa'pe 
la'qexs la'e Sx^e'dxa ha^madzowe' le'^wa^ya qa^s k'!o'k!upsEndexa 
pE'nkwe kla'yaxwa k"!a'was qa^s §,xilz6'dale.s la'xa ha^madzowe' 
le'^wa^ya. Wa, gi'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e S,x^e'dxes tslEba'tsle qa^s 15 
k!unxts!6desa Lle'^na laq. Wa, gi'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e axElllxa la 
gidza'yaatsa pE'nkwe kMa'yaxwa k!a'wasa le'^wa^ya qa^s le LEp- 
dzamo'lllas la'xa ha^ma'pLaq. Wa, la gQldzo'tsa k. lo'k.'upsaa'kwe 
pEuk" kla'wase la'xa ha^madzowe' le'^wa^ya. Wa, la ^x^e'dxa 



364 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [bth. ANN. 35 

20 Tlien she takes the || oil-disli and puts it on what they are going to 
eat, and she also | takes water and draws it for them. When it is 
in the morning, | the guests all rinse their mouths. After they have 
finished | drinking, the}' take the blistered half-dried halibut and ( 

25 dip it into the oil. Then they put it mto their mouths. || They do 
not chew it first, for it is brittle, but they take much | oil on it. 
When they have finished eating, the woman folds up | the food-mat, 
and puts it down at the place where she is sitting, | together with 
the oil-dish. Then she draws water for them, and | they drink. 

30 After they have all finished drinking, they wait || for the second 
course. | 
1 Boiled Dried Halibut. — | When the dried halibut has been in the 
house along time, it turns red, | and it is also hard and tough. When 
5 it is this | way, the woman takes her kettle, and she takes || the 
dried halibut and folds it into a ball. Then she puts it into the 
kettle, I and she pours water over it, and she only stops | when the 
top of the dried halibut is covered with water. Then she takes a | 
flat sandstone and puts it on top of it, to keep the dried halibut under 
water. | Then she puts it over the fire. Then it boils for a long time. || 

10 Wlxen she tliinks that it is soaked through, | she takes it off, and she 
lets the kettle stay on the floor of the house. Then | the woman 

20 tslEba'tsIe qa^s le ha'nqas la'xa ha^ma'Le. Wa, laEmxaa'wise 
ax^e'dxa ^wa'pe qa^s le tsex'^i'ts laq. Wa, gl'l^mese gaa'laxs la'e 
he'x'^idasm ^na'xwa tslEwe'LlExodeda k!we'le. Wa, gi'Pmese gwal 
na'qaxs la'e da'x^^id la'xa pE'nkwe kla'yaxwa kla'wasa qa^s 
LlE'nxstEndes la'xa Lle'^na. Wa, la tslEqlu'sas la'xes sE'mse. Wa, 

25 laE'm k"!es ma'lex"bendEq qaxs ts5'sae. Wa, la'La q!e'q!Ebalaxa 
Lle'^na. Wa, gl'Pmese gwiil ha^ma'pExs la'eda ts!Eda'qe k'!o'xu- 
lllxa ha^madzowe' le'^wa^ya qa^s le 3.x^a'lllaq la'xes kiwae'lase 
LE^wa ts!Eba'ts!e. Wa, la'xaa tse'x-^itsa ^wa'pe Ifiq. Wa, la'x-- 
da^xwe na'x^ida. Wa, gi'Pmese ^wi^la na'x^idExs la'e awE'lgEm- 

30 galll qas he'legintsE^we. 
1 Boiled Dried Halibut (K!Ek!a'wasg"axa xamase hS'nxLaakwa). — 
Wa, he'^maaxs la'e gii'leda k'la'wase; wa, la Lla'LlEgudzo'x^wida. 
Wa, la'xaa ple'sa. Wa, la'xaa tslExa'. Wa, he'^maaxs la'e he 
gwe'x'^Ide, wa, le'da ts'.Eda'qe S,x^e'dxes ha'nx'Lanowe qa^s ax^e'de- 
5 xa k"!a'wase qa^s k!o'xsEmdeq. Wa, la axtslo'ts la'xa ha'nx'La- 
nowe. Wa, la guq!Eqa'sa ^wa'pe laq. Wa, a'l^mese gwal guqa'sa 
^wa'paxs la'e tiEpEya'leda k'la'wasaxa ^wa'pe. Wii, la ax^e'dxa 
pExsE'me dE^na' t!e'sEma qa^s paqEyl'ndes laq qa wii'nsalayosa 
k'la'wase. Wa, la ha'nxLEnts la'xes lEgwi'le. Wa, la^me'se ge'g-1- 

10 lIl^Em maE'mdElqiila. Wii, gt'Pmese ko'taq laE'm pEx^wI'da la'e 
ha'nxsEndEq. Wa, a'Emxaa'wise la ha^ne'la h&'nxLanowaxs la'e 
Jix^e'deda tsteda'qaxes ts!Eba'ts!e qa^s k!uxts!o'desa Lle'^na laq. 



BOAS] RECIPES 365 

takes her oil-dish and pours oil into it. | Then she takes a small dish 13 
and puts it down at the place where she sits. | At last she takes her 
tongs and takes out the flat piece of || sandstone, and she puts it 15 
down at the end of the fire. | Then she also takes out with the tongs 
what has been cooked, and she puts it into the | small dish. She 
puts down her tongs, and takes what | has been cooked by her and 
spreads it out. She breaks it into pieces | of the right size for our 
mouths. As soon as she has done so, || she takes her food-mat and 20 
spreads it out before those | who will eat with her, and she puts the 
small dish on it. Then she pours | oil into the oil-dish; and she also 
puts it at the outer corner | into the small dish. Then (those who 
are going to eat) drink fresh water; and after they finish | drinking, 
they begin to eat. After they finish eating, || they drink water. 25 
Then the woman takes the small dish and | empties into the kettle 
what is left over. Then she pours | water into (the dish) and washes 
it out. When it is clean, | she pours fresh water into it, and she puts 
it agam before those | who have eaten. Then they wash their 
hands; and || after they have finished, they wait for the second 30 
course. That is | all about this. | 

Scorched Halibut-Skin. — When | the skin has been dried, the i 
woman just takes it down from where it has been hanging, | in the 



Wa, la ax^e'dxes la'logiime qa^s le k'a'g^alllas la'xes kiwae'lase. 13 
Wa, la'wisLa §,x^e'dxes k'lipLa'la qa^s k'!lp!e'des la'xa pa'qsya^ye 
dE^na' t!e'sEma. Wa, la k'!Ip!a'lilas la'xa ona'lisases lEgwi'le. Wa 15 
la'xaa k'!lp!e'ts la'xes ha^me'xsilasE^we qa^s le k!ipts!6'ts la'xa 
la'logtime. Wa, la g'eg-alllxes kMipLa'la. Wa, la da'x'^Idxes 
ha^me'x'silasE^we qa^s da'l'Ideq. Wa, la kMo'kltipsE'ndeq qa 
§,'^mese ha^ya'ladzEqEla la'xEns sE'msex. Wa, gi'Pmese gwa'lExs 
la'e ax^e'dxes ha^madzowe' le'^wa^ya qa^s LEpdzamoliles la'xes 20 
hamo'tLe. Wa, la hS'ndzotsa la'logume laq. Wa, la k!it'nxts!5tsa 
Lle'^na la'xa tslEba'tsle. Wii, la'xaa k^atslo'ts lax Lla'saneqwasa 
la'logtime. Wa, la nax^idxa a'lta ^wa'pa. Wii, gi'l^mese gwal 
na'qaxs la'e hS,^mx-^i'da. Wa, gl'l^mese gwal ha^ma'pExs la'e 
na'x^idxa ^wa'pe. Wa, le'da tslEda'qe Sx^e'dxa la'logiime qa^s 25 
qEpstE'ndeses ha.^ms§,'^ye la'xa ha'nxxanowe. Wa, la guxts!o'tsa 
^wa'pe laq qa^s tslo'xugindeq. Wii, gl'l^mese e'gigaxs la'e 
guxtslo'tsa a'lta ^wap laq. Wa, la xwe'laqa kax'dzamolilas 
la'xa ha^ma'pde. Wii, la'xda^xwe tslE'ntslEnx^wIda. Wii, g't'l- 
^mese gwa'lExs la'e SwE'lgEmgalll qa^s he'legintsE^we. Wa, laE'm 30 
gwal la'xeq. 

Scorched Halibut-Skin (TslEnk" Lies). — Wa, gl'pEm lE'm^wEmx-^- 1 
ideda Llesaxs la'eda tslEda'qe fi,'Em &xa'x5d la'qexs ge'xwalae 



366 ETHNOLOGY OP THE KWAKIUTL [bth. ann. sb 

3 rear of the house. She takes her tongs, and takes up | the skin with 

them, by the middle, in this manner: ,:;— --_f|n Then she blis- 

5 ters II its edge on the flesh side; and VT^^" -<::v,^^ when all the 

fat on its side begins to cook, | then ~~:~;\ she blisters 

the inner side; j and when all its fat ^~~ \ — begins to 

cook, she turns it over and | scorches — M its back. As 

soon as it is covered with blisters, | it is done. Then the woman 

10 takes her food-mat, || and she takes the scorched skin and puts 
it on a (mat) ; and she rolls it up | and treads on it, to make 
it soft, and also that tlie j scorched parts may come off. After 
she has trodden on it for a long time, j it is done. Then she opens 
it out, and spreads out the mat that she has been using. | Then 

15 she strikes the scorched skin on the middle of the mat, || so that 
the scorched part comes off; then she stops, j Then she shakes the mat, 
so that the scorched part comes off. Then she breaks into pieces 
the I scorched skin and puts them down on the food-mat. | Immedi- 
ately they drink water, and eat it quickly, while | the scorched skin 

20 is still hot; for as soon as it gets cold, || it becomes hard. After they 
finish eating, | they drink fresh water. Scorched skin is not given 
at a feast. | Only the owner eats it when it is scorched. | They do not 
dip scorched skin into oil, because it is very j fat. That is all. || 

3 la'xa 6'gwIwalTlasa go'kwe qa^s 5,x^e'dexesk'!ipLa'laqa^s kMipIe'des 
lax nEgo'ya^yasa L!e'se ga gwa'leg-a {jig.). Wa, la pExa'x ewEn- 
5 xa^yas la'xa E'lsadza^ye. Wa, g'i'l^mese ^na'xwa la mEdE'lx^wIde 
tsE'ntsEuxunxa^yasexs la'e pEX-^i'dEx 6'ts!awas. Wa, gl'Pmese 
^wi^la la mEdE'Lx^wide tsE'nxwa^yasexs la'e le'x-^idEq qa^s tslEX'^i'- 
dex a,wl'g"a^yas. Wa, gl'Pmese la hamE'lgEdzodeda pE'nsaxs la'e 
Llo'pa. Wil, la Sx^e'deda tslEda'qaxes ha^madzowe' le'^wa^ya. Wa, 

10 la ax^e'dxa tslE'nkwe Lle'sa qa^s pEgEdzo'des la'qexs la'e le'x^undEq. 
Wa, la t!e'p!edEq qa pe'x^wldes. Wa, he'^mis la lawii'lisa 
tsla'x-mote axdzEwe'q. Wa, gl'Pmese ge'g'llil tie'paqexs la'e 
gwa'la. Wa, la da'Hdsq. Wa, la'xaa LEpla'lllaxaaxes fixEleda le'- 
^wa^ye. Wa, la xfisa'sa ts'.E'nkwe Lies lax nEgEdza'^yasa le'^wa^ye. 

15 Wa, gl'Pmese ^wi^laweda tsla'x-motaxs la'e gwa'la. Wa, la 
k'lll^edxa le^wa'ye qa lawayesa ts!a'x-mote. Wa, la k!o'k!upsEnd- 
xa ts!E'nkwe Lle'sa qa^s SxdzS'dales la'xa ha^madzowe' le'^wa^ya. 
Wa, he'x-^ida^mese na'x^Idxa ^wa'pe qa^s ha'labale ha^mx-^i'dqexs 
he'^mae a'les tslE'lkweda tslE'nkwe Lle'sa, qaxs gl'Pmae wOdEX'- 

20 ^I'da, wa, la ple's^ida. Wa, gl'Pmese gwal ha^ma'pExs la'e 
na'x^idxa a'lte ^wa'pa. Wa, la'xaa kMes kIwe'ladzEma tslE'nkwe 
Lle'sa; le'x-a^meda 5.xno'gwadas ha^ma'pqexs tslE'nkwae. Wa, 
la'xaa k'les tslEpa'sa tslE'nkwe Lies la'xa Lle'^na, qaxs S,'lae 
tsE'nxwa. Wa, laE'm gwa'la. 



BOAS] 



RECIPES 867 



Poked Halibut-Skin. — When the skin has been | kept for a long 1 
time, and its fat turns red, it is not | good to be scorched. Wlien the 
owner wants to eat it, | she takes her kettle and pours water || into 5 
it until it is half full. Then she puts it on the fire. | She takes down 
the skin from the place where she has hung it up, in the rear of the 
house. I Then she takes her fish-knife and cuts the skin into pieces, 
in I this manner: | «— - — p_^ 

As soon as she i; |^>-^ finishes cutting it, she waits for 

the water to boil || t~Z7--^^ in the kettle. As soon as it be- 10 

gins to boil, | she — puts the pieces of skin into it; 

and when (the skin) is all in (the kettle), she | takes her tongs and 
pokes down on top of the skin, so as to | keep it vmder the water in 
which it is being boiled. Therefore | it is called "poked skin." 
After it has been boiling for a long time, || when she thinks that it is 15 
soaked, she takes it off of the fire. | Then she takes her small dish 
and puts it down at the place where she is sitting. | Then she takes 
her tongs and takes the poked skin out of the water, and | puts it 
into the smaU dish. As soon as it is all out of the kettle, | she drinks 
fresh water, when it is not || in the morning; but when it is morning, 20 
she rinses her mouth. As soon as | she has finished drinking, she 
eats it I while it is still hot; for when it gets cold, they can not | bite 

Poked Halibut-Skin (QIo'dEx" Lies). — Wa, gl'Pmese la ga'la la 1 
axe'lakwa Lle'saxs la'e Lla'x^wide tsEnxwa^yas. Wa, la k!e's 
la ek', lax tslEx-a'sE^we. Wa, g-I'Pmese ha^mae'xsdeda fixno'- 
gwadasexs la'e ax^e'dxes h&'nxLanowe qa^s guxts!o'desa ^wa'pe 
laq qa nEgo'yalesexs la'e ha'nxLEnts Ja'xes lEgwi'le. Wa, la 5 
Sxa'xodxa Lle'se la'xes ge'xwalaa'se la'xa o'gwiwalilasa go'kwe. 
Wa, la ax^e'dxes xwaLa'yowe qa^s tlQ'tlEtslEndexa L!e'se g'a 
gwaleg-a {fig.). 

Wa, g'i'Pmese gwal tlo'saqexs la'e e'sEla qa mEdElx^wi'desa 
^wa'pe lage'tslaxa ha'nxLanowe. Wa, gi'Pmese mEdElx^wi'dExs 10 
la'e axstE'ntsa tiEwe'kwe Lies laq. Wa, g'i'Pmese ^wPla^staxs la'e 
fi,x^e'dxes klipLa'la qa^s qlo'dEnsales la'xa o'kiiya^ye Lle'sa qa 
lE'nses la'xa ^wa'paliises ha^me'xsilasE^we. Wa, he'^mis la'gilas 
Le'gadEs qlo'dEkwe Lle'sa. Wa, la^me'se ge'gilll^Em maE'mdEl- 
qilla. Wa, gi'Pmese k'o'taq las'm pe'x-'widaxs la'e hanx'sE'ndEq. 15 
Wa, la ax^e'dxes la'logume qa^s ha,'ngallles la'xes kiwae'lase. Wa, 
la ax^e'dxes kMlpLa'la qa^s k' lipusta'lexa qlo'dEkwe Lle'sa qa^s le 
k-!ipts!a'las la'xa la'logume. Wa, gl'Pmese ^wFlosta la'xa ha'nx"- 
Lanowaxs la'e he'x'^idaEm na'x^idxa a'lta ^wa'pa; ylxs k'le'sae 
gaa'la. Wa'x'e gaa'laxs la'e tslEwe'LlExoda. Wa, gi'l^mese 20 
gwa'iExs la'e na'x^Ida. Wa, lawi'sLa ha'yalomala ha^mx'^i'dqexs 
he'^mae a'les tslE'lqwe, qaxs gl'Pmae wudEx-^i'da, wa, la k!es 
q!e'q!ak!emaxs la'e ple's^ida. Wa, gl'l^mese gwal ha^ma'pa la'xes 



368 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIXJTL [eth. ann.38 

it, because it is hard. When she finishes eating, | taking it up with 

25 her hands as she eats, she puts down her || small food-dish and pours 

out (the contents) outside of the house; for they do | not often eat 

all the poked skin, | and also it is not good when it is boiled again 

after it has been cold. | Tlierefore it is only thrown away. Wlien | 

the woman comes in again into her house, she pours water into (her 

30 small dish) || and washes it out; and when it is clean, | she pours 

fresh water into it, and they all wash their hands; | and after they 

have finished, they do not eat a second course. Sometimes the old 

people I eat witli spoons the Uquid of the poked salmon, and tliey 

35 eat | dried halibut raw and dry with the poked skin. || After they 

have eaten, they drink fresh water. | This also is not given at a feast 

given by the chief to his tribe; | only tlie owner eats it; and they do 

not I dip it into oil, for it is reaUy fat. That is | aU about tliis. || 

1 Boiled Halibut-Edges. — When | the (halibut-) edges begin to be dry, 

and when there are many of them, | they are tied in the middle with 

narrow strips of cedar-bark, and they hang in the | rear of the fire of 

5 the house. Then the owner invites || the chiefs in. As soon as they 

are all in the house, the woman | takes a kettle and puts it down on 

the side of the 1 fire nearest the door. She takes down sometimes 



xa'maxtslanaena^yaxs ha^ma'pae, wa, la k'a'gllllxes ha^maa'ts !eda 

25 la'logiime qa^s le qEpEWE'lsaq la'xa Lla'sana^yases go'kwe qaxs 

kle'sae qluna'la ^wPla ha^mx'^I'dxa q!5'dEkwe Lle'sa. Wa, he'- 

^misexs kle'sae ek' lax e'tlede lia'nxxEnts5xs la'e wudEX'^i'da. 

Wa, he'^mis la'gilas a'Em tslEx^i'dayowe. Wa, gl'Pmese ga'x 

edeLeda ts!Eda'qe la'xes g'5'kwaxs la'e guxtslo'tsa ^wa'pe laq 

30 qa^s tslo'xQgindexes la'logtime. Wa, gi'Pmese e'gigaxs la'e 

guxtslo'tsa a'lta ^wap la'qexs la'e ^wPla tslE'ntslEnx^wIda. Wa, 

gi'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e kMes he'leglnda. Wa, le'da qlulsqu'l^yakwe 

^nal^nE'mp!Ena yo'sax ^wa'palasa q!o'dEkwe Lle'sa loxs masaasa 

kla'wase k'!Elx' a'Em lE'mxwa la'xa qlo'dEkwe Lle'sa. Wa, 

35 gl'1-mese gwal ha^ma'pExs la'e na'x^idxa a'lta ^wa'pa. Wa, 

kMe's^Emxaa h5.^mgilayo la'xa kiwe'laseda gi'gama^yaxes g'o'kii- 

lote. Le'xaEm ha^ma'pqeda axno'gwadas. Wa, la'xaa k'!es 

tslE'pEla la'xa Lle'^na qaxs a'lak'lalae tsE'nxwa. Wa, laE'mxaa 

gwal la'xeq. 

1 Boiled Halibut -Edges (Ha'nxxaak" xwa'xflsEnxe^) . — Wa, he'- 

^maaxs la'e lE'mx^wideda xwa'xusEnxa^yaxs la'e qle'nEma la'xes 

lae'na^ye ylLo'yolaxa ts!e'q!e dEna'sa. Wil, la te'kiilaLEla lax 

o'gwiwalilasa lEgwi'lasa go'kwe. Wa, le'da Axno'gwadas Le'^la- 

5 laxa g'a'xsa. Wa, gl'l^mese gax ^wFlaeLElaxs la'eda tslfida'qe 

Ax^e'dxa h8,'nx'Lanowe qa^s le hfi.'ngalilaq la'xa dbe'xxalahlasa 

lEgwi'le. Wa, la S,xa'x6dxa ^na'l^nEmplEna sEk* la'xidoyola xwa'- 



BOAS] RECIPES 369 

five bundles | of edges tied in tlie middle, and she puts the bundles 8 
into the kettle. | She does not untie the tying of narrow cedai'-bark in 
the middle. It || remains in the way it was tied into bundles. Then 10 
she pours water into the (kettle) ; | and when it is half full of water, 
she takes an | old mat and covers the top with it. As soon as she 
has done so, | she puts it on the fire. As soon as this is finished, | 
the chiefs begin to sing the songs of olden times; but the || woman 15 
takes her dishes and puts them down at the place where she is sit- 
ting, I and also the tongs. Everything is ready, and | (what is in 
the kettle) has been boiling on the fire for a long time. After four | 
songs have been sung, the guests stop singing. | Then the kettle is 
taken off of the fire; and the woman takes her tongs, || and takes off 20 
the old mat covering and puts it down at the | door-side of the fire. 
Then she takes up with the tongs the middle of one bundle of | edges 
and puts it into one dish. She | continues doing so witli the others, 
and puts each into one dish. | As soon as they are all out of the water, 
she unties the narrow |1 strip of cedar-bark with which they were tied 25 
in the middle, and finally she divides them into the several dishes. | 
As soon as she has done so, she takes a food-mat and | spreads it 
before the guests. Then she puts the dishes | on it, and she gives 
them water. After they finish drinking, | they begin to eat. They 



xflsEnxa^ya qa^s qu'lx'ts lodes la'xa ha'nxxanowe. Wa, laE'm 8 
k'!es gudEx-^i'dEX ylLo'yoyas ts!e'q!a dsna'sa. Wa, laE'm hex'- 
sa'Em gwii'laxs la'e qu'lxtsloya. Wa, le giiqlEqa'sa ^wa'pe laq. 10 
Wa, la^me'se ne'ik'Eyax'^Ida^meda ^wa'pe la'qexs la'e ax^e'dxa 
k"!a'k"!6bane qa^s ae'kMe na'sEyinta laq. Wa, gi'Pmese gwa'lExs 
la'e hS,'nxLEnts la'xes lEgwI'le. Wa, gi'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e 
dE'nx^ideda gig i'gama^yasa gi'ldzE^yala qlE'mdEma. Wa, la'Leda 
tslEda'qe ^x^e'dxes lo'slqlwe qa^s g'a'xe ax^a'lilas la'xes kiwae'lase; 15 
wa, he'-misa kUpLa'la. Wa, la^me'se ^na'xwa gwa'lllExs la'e 
ge'g'Ilil maE'mdElquleda ha'nxLala. Wa, gi'Pmese mo'sgEmeda 
qlE'mdEme dE'nx^edayosa k!we'laxs la'e gwal dE'nxEla. Wa, la 
h^nxsanoweda hanxLanowaxs laeda tslEdaqe ax^edxes kMlpLala 
qa^s k!ip!i'des la'xa k!a'k'!obane nayi'ma qa^s k' !lp !a'liles la'xa 20 
on^'llsases lEgwi'le. Wa, la kMibo'yodxa ^nE'mx'IdoyMa xwa'- 
xQsEnxa^ya qa^s k'!tpts!o'des la'xa 'uEme'xLa l6'q!wa. Wa, la 
ha^na'l he gwe'gilaxa wao'kwe S,xts!a'las la'xa -nEme'xLa lo'qiwa. 
Wa, g'l'l^mese ^wPlostaxs la'e giidEx-^i'dxa yae'Loyiiwex'das ts!e'q!a 
dEna'sa. Wa, lawi'sLe tsla'lasi^lalas la'xa wao'kwe lo'Elq!wa. 25 
Wa, gi'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e &x-e'dxa ha'madzowe' le'^wa^ya qa^s 
le LEpdzamo'lilas la'xa k!we'le. We, la k'a'dzodaslasa io'ElqIwe 
laq. Wa, la tse'x'^itsa ^wa'jje laq. Wa, gi'l^mese gwal na'qaxs 
la'e ha^mx'^I'da. Wa, laE'm xa'max'ts!ana da'x'^idxes ha^ma'^ye 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 1 24 



370 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ANN. 3D 

30 take up the food with their hands || and bite off tlie ends of the long 
edges. After they have fuiished | eating it, they drink water, and 
they carry home for their wives what is left. | Then they carry it 
home when they leave the | house; and they wash their hands in 
their own houses. | No second course is given witli this, for it is a 

35 valuable food for feasts, for || this kind is very costly; and they do 
not dip it into oil, for | it is very fat. That is all aljout this. | 
1 Roasted Halibut-Edges. — When | the (halibut-)skin is half dry, the 
edge is torn off. | Then it is tied in the middle with narrow strips of 
cedar-bark, and is hung up in the | rear of the house: Sometimes the 
5 woman and her || husband desire to eat of it. Then the woman 
requests her | husband to make roastmg-tongs. Immediately | he 
shaves down a piece of red pine, and splits it in the same way as | 
fire-tongs (are sj)lit) ; only this is different, that below it has a sharp 
point I where the top of the fire-tongs is. Tlien the woman takes 

1 narrow strips of || cedar-bark and ties them around it one span of 
our fingers | from the sharp lower end. Wlien this is | done, the 
woman takes the half-dried edges | and puts them in coils into the 
roasting - tongs, in this manner:' As | soon as they are all 

15 in the roasting- tongs, she ties a narrow strip of || cedar-bark 
around the top, so that the tongs may not spread when 



30 qa^sqlEX'ba'^yexa gi'lsgiltle xwa'xiisEnxa^ya. Wa, gl'Pmese gwal 
ha^ma'pqexs la'e na'x^idxa ^wa'pe. Wa, la mo'tledxes E'nx'sa^ye 
qae's gEgEnE'me. Wa, laE'm da'laqexs la'e ho'qiiwEls la'xa 
g'5'kwe. Wa, a't^mese tslE'ntslEnx-wId la'xes gigo'kwe. Wa, 
laE'ni k'!es he'legintsE^wa qaxs ^wa'lasae k'.we'ladzEma qaxs 

35 la'xuiae gwe'x'sdEmas. Wa, la kMes tste'pEla la'xa Lle'^na qaxs 
a'lae la tsE'nxwa. Wa, laE'm gwal la'xeq. 
1 Roasted Halibut-Edges (L!o'bEk" xwa'xQsEnxe^). — Wa, he'-maaxs 
la'e k" la'yax^wldeda Lle'saxs la'e xwaso'yuweda xwa'xusEnxa^ye. 
Wii, la yiLo'yotsosa ts!e'q!e dEna'sa qa^s tex^waLE'lodayowe lax 
6'gwiwalliasa g'Q'kwe. Wa, la ^na'i-nEmplEneda ts!Eda'qe le^wIs 
5 la'^wunEme ha^mae'xsd laq. Wit, le'da tslEda'qe axk'la'laxes 
la'^wiinEme qa Llo'psayogwilesex Llo'psaya. Wa, he'x'^ida^mese 
kla'x^widxa wiina'guie qa^s xo'x^wide qa yu'wes la gwe'xsoxda 
k'llpLa'lax. Wa, le'x'a^mes ogiiqalayosexs e'xbaeda bE'nba^yas, 
yix o'xtiVyasa k'lipLa'la. Wa, le'da ts!Eda'qe ax^e'dxa ts!e'q!e 

10 dEna'sa qa^s yll^i'des la'xa ^nE'mp!Enk'e la'xEns q!wa'q!wax'ts!a- 
na^yex, ga'g'iLEla la'xa e'x'ba la'x bE'nba^yas. Wii, gl'Pmese 
gwii'lExs la'eda tslsda'qe ilx^e'dxa k^Ia'yaxwe xwa'xQsEnxa^ya 
qa^s le q!E'lxts!odiilas lii'xa iJo'psayowe ga gwa'leg-a {fig.).^ Wii, 
g I'Pmese ^wl^la la axtsia' la'xa Llo'psayaxs la'e yil^e'tsa ts!e'q!e 

15 dEna's lax o'xta^yas qa k'le'ses dEXEto'x^wIdeda Llo'psayowaxs la'e 

' See figure on p. 344. 



BOAS] KECIPES 371 

they I get hot. Then she takes thin cedar-sticks and | puts them on 16 
lengthwise, one on each side of the end | of the edges, and she puts a 
stick crosswise, one at each end. | Tlien she puts it up by the side of 
the fire, and it is not long before she turns it around. || As soon as it 20 
is done, the woman takes her food- | mat and spreads it out at the 
place where she is sitting. Then she takes the | roasted edges and 
puts them on it and takes them out of the tongs. | Then they drink 
water. After they have finished drinking water, | they take long 
strips of the edges and bite them off from the end. || After tliey have 25 
finished eating them, tire woman takes her small dish | and pours 
some water into it, and they wash their hands. | After they have 
done so, the woman puts away what is left over, j'and they drink 
water. It is not put into a | dish when they eat it; and they do not 
dip it into oil, for it is || very fat; and also this is not given to the 30 
tribe at a feast. | That is all about this. | 

Dried Halibut-Head. — When it is winter | and they can not catch 1 
halibut, the wife of the | fisherman takes dried halibut-head and 
soaks it in bilge-water | of the fishing-canoe of her husband. After 
it has been soaking for four days || in the fishing-canoe, the woman 5 
takes, her kettle | and puts it down by the side of the fire. Tiien slie 



tslE'lx^wIda. Wii, la ax^e'dxa wi'swiiltowe xok" klwaxxa^wa qa^s 16 
k-!aat!e'des. Wii, laE'm wa'xsEnxa^'yeda ^na'PnEmts!aqe lax o'ba- 
^yasa xwil'xusEnxa^ye. Wii, la ge'gebEntsa ^na'l^nEmts!aqe. Wii, 
la^me'se Lano'lisaq la'xes lEgwI'le. WH, k" !e'st !a ga'laxs la'e le'x'^I- 
dEq. Wa, g'i'Pmese L!6'pExs la'e iix^e'deda tslEdii'qaxes ha^ma- 20 
dzowe' le'^wa^ya qa^s LEp!a'lIles la'xes k!wae'lase. Wii, la ax^e'dxa 
Llo'bEkwe xwa'xusEnxa^ya qa-s axdzo'des la'qexs la'e x'Ek' !EX"^idEq. 
Wa, la'xda^xwe na'x^'Idxa ^wiipe. Wii, gi'Pmese gwal niiqaxs 
la'e dax"^rdxa gi'lsg lit lEuiila xwaxusEuxe^ qa-'s q!EgIlba^yeq. Wii, 
g'l'l^mese gwal ha^ma'pqexs la'e ax^e'deda tslEda'qaxes lii'logume 25 
qa^s giixts!6'desa ^wa'pe laq. Wii, la'xda^xwe ts!E'nts!Enx^'wIda. 
Wa, gi'h'mesegwa'lExsla'eda ts!Eda'qeg-e'xaxesha'mx'sii^'ye. Wii, 
la'x'^da^xwe mi'x^idxa ^wii'pe. Wii, laE'm k'!es axts!o'yo la'xa 
lo'qiwiixs ha^ma'yae loxs k!e'sae ts'.E'pEla hl'xa Lle'^na qaxs 
xE'nLElae tsE'nxwa. Wii, lii'xaa k'.es kIwe'ladzEma laxa go'ku- 30 
lote. Wii, laE'm gwal la'xeq. 

Dried Halibut-Head (Mii'leqasde). — Wii, he'^maaxs la'e tslawtt'n- 1 
xa, la k!e5's la gwE^yo'Lasxa pla'^ye. Wa, le'da gEUE'masa lo'- 
q!wenoxwe ax^e'dxes ma'leqasde qa^s le tie'laq la'xa to'xsas lo'- 
gwatslases ia'^wuiiEme. Wii, he't!a la mo'p lEnxwa^se ^nii'liis 
tIe'lt.alExs la'xa lo'gwats!axs la'e ax^e'deda tslEdil'qaxes ha'nx^- 5 
Lanowe qa^s ha'ng'allle la'xa onS.'li3ases lEgwi'le. Wii, la ax^e'd- 



372 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

7 takes | her small basket by the handle and carries it out of the house, 
and she | puts it down by the side of the fishing-canoe. Then she 
takes out of the water the dried heads and | puts them into the small 

10 basket. After it is full, she || takes it up by the handle and carries 
it into the house. Then | she takes out the dried heads and puts 
them into the kettle. | As soon as it is full, she pours water into it; 
and when | it is filled with water, she puts the kettle on the fire. It 
is I left to boil for a long time, and then the kettle is taken off the 

15 fire. II Then the woman takes her dish and takes Irer | long-handled 
ladle, and she dips up the dried heads and | puts them into the dish. 
As soon as they are all out of the water, she drinks | water; and after 
she finishes drinking, she takes up with her hands | the boiled dried 

20 heads and puts them into her mouth. || Then she begins to eat. This 
is called "eating dried heads." Then | she throws into the fire the 
bones that remain. After she has finished, | she again pours into 
the kettle the food that has been left over. | She pours some fresh 
water into the food-dish that she had used. | Then she washes her 

25 hands. After she has finished, she puts away the || kettle. The 
remains of the dried heads | are in the kettle in the water. She is 
going to put them on the fire again | when she feels hungry, for heads 
do not get spoiled even if they are | put on the fire ten times. Then 
she drinks j fresh water. The dried halibut-head is not used for 

7 xes la'laxame qa^s le k' lo'qEWElsElaq la'xes go'kwe qa^s le hSno'- 
dzElsas la'xa lo'gwats!e. Wa, la ax^wustE'ndxa ma'leqasde qa^s 
ilxtslo'dales la'xa la'laxame. Wa, g-i'l^mese qo'tlaxs la'e kMo'- 

10 qfllsaq qa^s le k' !5'gwlLElaq la'xes g'o'kwe. Wa, la^me'se 
&xwults!a'laxa ma'leqasde qa-s le axtsla'las la'xa ha'nx'Lanowe. 
Wa, gl'Pmese qo'tlaxs la'e giigEqa'sa ^wape laq. Wa, gl'Pmese 
qo't !axa ^wa'paxs la'e ha'nxLEnts la'xes lEgwI'le. Wa, la'^me'se 
ge'g ilil maE'mdElqulaxs la'e h&'nx-sanoweda ha'nxxanowe. Wa, 

15 la^me'sa ts'.Eda'qe ax^e'dxes lo'qiwe qa^s ax^e'dexes ^wa'lase gl'l- 
tlEXLala ka'tslEnaqa qa^s xElostEndexa ma'leqasde qa^s le xe'1- 
ts!alas hi'xa lo'qiwe. Wa,. gi'Pmese ^wFlostaxs la'e na'x^idxa 
^wa'pe. Wa, gi'Pmese gwal na'qaxs la'e da'x'^itses e^eyasowe' 
la'xa ha'nx-Laak" ma'leqasde qa^s ts!o'q!uses la'xes sE'mse. Wa, 

20 laE'mha^mx'^I'da. Wa, he'Em Le'gadEs mEma'leqasde. Wa,laE'm 
tslEXLa'lases xa'xmSte la'xa lEgwI'le. Wa, gi'Pmese gwa'lExs 
la'e xwe'laqa guxts!o'tses ha^mxsa'^ye la'xa h&'nxxanowe. Wii, 
la giixtslo'tsa a'lta ^wap la'xes ha^maatsle'xde lo'qlwa. Wa, 
la tslE'ntslEnx-'wIda. Wa, gi'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e ge'xaxa 

25 ha'nxLanowe. Wa, laE'm ge^sta'leda ha^mxsa'^ye ma'leqasde 
la'xa hS,'nx-Lanowe. Wa, laE'm a'Em e'tledEl ha'nx'^LEndLEq 
qo po'sqlEX-'idLo, qaxs k'le'sae ^ya'x-sEmx-^klExs wa'x-^mae nEqa'- 
plEna ha'nxLEndayoweda ma'leqasde. Wa, lawi'sLa na'x'^idxa 
a'lta ^wa'pa. Wa, laE'm kMes Le'^lalayuweda ma'leqasde §,'Em 



BOAS] RECIPES 373 

inviting (to a feast). || Only the owners — that is, the woman, her 30 
husband, | and lier children — eat it; and this also is not dipped into 
oil. I That is all about this. | 

Dried Halibut-Stomach, boiled | and soaked. — (The dried haUbut- 1 
stomach) is soaked the same number of days | as the hahbut-head, 
which is soaked for four | days in the bilge-water of the fishing-canoe 
of the fisherman. || The dried stomach is also soaked in the fishing- 5 
canoe. | After it has been in the canoe for four days, it swells up. | 
Then the woman again takes her small basket by the handle and puts | 
it down by the side of the fishing-canoe. She takes the dried | 
stomach out of the bilge-water of the fishing-canoe and puts it into 
her small basket. || Wlien it is fuU, she takes it up by the handle and 10 
carries it | into her house. Then she puts it down in front of the 
fu-e. I Then slie takes her small kettle and washes it out. As soon 
as I it is clean, she takes out of the small basket the dried stomach 
and I puts it into the small kettle. Then she pours water into it 
until II it is full, and puts it on the fire. She does not let it | boil 15 
quickly. There is only little fire under the | kettle. The water gets 
hot slowly, I and it is on the fire from morning until noon. Then the 
woman | takes the kettle from tlie fire and puts it down at the place 
where she is sitting, jj Then she takes a smaU dish and puts it down 20 

le'x'a^meda axno'gwadas ha^ma'pEqxa tslEda'qe le^wIs la'^wiinEme 30 
LE^wIs sa'sEme. Wil, la'xaa kMes tslE'psla la'xa L!e'^na. Wa, 
laE'm gwal laxe'q. 

Dried Halibut-Stomach, boiled and soaked (Mo'qwasdaxs ha'nx"- 1 
Laakwae tiE'lkwa). — Wa, he'Emxaa wa'xse ^na'liis tiE'lkwe wa'- 
xaxsaasas ^na'liisa ma'leqasdaxs la'e t!e'lasE^wa, ylxs mo'plEn- 
xwa^sae ^na'las Sxsta'iExs la'xa to'xsasa lo'gwatslasa lo'q!weno- 
xwe. Wa, he'Emxaa'wise le'da mo'qwasdeda l6'gwats!e tle'la- 5 
sE^we. Wa, g'i'l^mese mo'xse ^nalasexs la'e wi"wo'x^wIda. Wa, 
laE'mxaa'wisa tslEda'qe k" loqEWElsxes la'laxame qa^s le ha,no'- 
dzElsas lax onodza^yasa lo'gwatsle. Wa, la S.x^wElsta'laxa mo'- 
qwasde lax to'xsasa lo'gwatsle qa^s le ftxtsla'las la'xes la'laxame. 
Wa, gi'l^mese qo'tlaxs la'e k!o'qulsaq qa^s le k" !6'gwlLElaq la'- 10 
xes g-6'kwe. Wa, la k' lo'x^walilaq la'xa obe'x'Lalases lEgwI'le. 
Wa, la ax^e'dxes ha^nE'me qa^s ts!o'xi5g1ndeq. Wa, gfPmese 
e'gigaxs la'e &xwults!o'dxa mo'qwasde la'xa la'laxame qa^s le 
axts!6'dalas la'xa ha^nE'me. Wa, la gtiqiEqa'sa ^wa'pe laq qa 
qo't!es. Wa, la hS-'nx'LEnts la'xes Isgwi'le. Wa, la k!es helqlalaq 15 
ha'labala mEdE'lx^wida. Wa, laE'm ha'lsElaEm xi'qiExsdaleda 
ha.'nxLanaxa gO'lta. Wa, e'x'^mese la ts lEgu^na'kule ^wa'palasexa 
g-a'glLEla la'xa gaa'Ia la'laa la'xa nEqil'la. Wa, le'da ts!Eda'qe 
ha'nx'sEndxa ha'nxxanowe qa^s ha'ng'alile la'xes klwae'lase. Wa, 
la ax^e'dxes la'logume qa^s ha^no'lTle la'xa ha'nx'Lanowg. Wa, 20 



374 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

21 by the side of the kettle. | Then she also takes her fish-knife and puts 
it into a small dish. | Then slie takes her tongs and picks up the 
boiled stomach | and puts it into the smaU dish. As soon as it is 

25 all out I of the kettle, she takes a thin cedar-board || four fingers wide 
and one span and four | fingers long. She puts it down crosswise 
liy I the side of the small dish. Then she takes the dried stomach 
and puts it down on it. | She takes her Esh-knife and cuts it into 
small ]iieces | of the right size to go into our mouths. After the 

30 woman has || cut up what she is cutting, she takes the kettle and | 
pours out the liquid of the dried stomach outside of the house, j 
Tlien she carries it back into the house by the handle and puts it 
down at the place where she is sitting. | Then she pours fresh water 
into it and washes it out | inside. As soon as it is clean, she pours 

35 it out again || outside of the house. As soon as this is done, she 
brings it back and puts it down | by the side of the fire. Then she 
pours fresh water on the | pieces of dried stomach, and she washes 
them well. As soon as | all the soot is washed off and they are white 
outside, she | puts them into the small kettle; and when they are 

40 all in, she pours fresh || water over them. Now the small kettle is 
full of water; and she makes a good | fire, so that it blazes up well. 
Then she puts the kettle on the | fire, and it does not take- long 



21 la'xaa ax^e'dxes xwa'Layowe qa^s le g-e'tslots la'xa la'logume. Wa, 
la ax^e'dxes klipLa'la qa^'s k'!ip!e'des la'xa ha'nxxaakwe mo'qwas- 
dii qa-s le k!ipts!a'las la'xa hl'logiime. Wii, g'i'1-mese ^wl^losta 
la'xa h5,'nx'Lanowaxs la'e ax-e'dxa pE'ldzowe k!wa'gEdza, la m5'- 

25 dsne ^wa'dzE^wasas la'xEns q!wa'q!waxts!ana'yex; wii, la mo'dEn- 
baleda ^nE'mp!Enk"e la'xEns ba'Laxs la'e gayo'sas la'xa o'gwaga- 
^yasa la'logume. Wa, la fix^e'dxa mo'qwasde qa^s pagEdzo'des laq. 
Wa, la ax-e'dxes xwa'Layowe qa-s am'Eme'x'sale t!o't!Ets!a'laq qa 
a'^mese he'ladzEqEla la'xEns sE'msex. Wii, le'da tslEda'qE ^wHa 

30 t!6't!Ets!Endxes t!6'sasE^waxs la'e ax-e'dxa ha'nxxanowe qa-s le 
qEpEWE'lsax ^wa'palaxdiisa mo'qwasde liix L!a'sana^yases go'kwe. 
Wii, g'ax xwe'laqa klo'guLElaq qa^s ha'ngallleq lii'xEs k!wae'- 
lase. Wii, la^mese guxts!6'tsa a'ita ^wiip laq qa^s ae'k'le tslo'xu- 
gindEq. Wii, gl'l^mese la e'g'ig'axs la'e e'tled la qEpEWE'lsaq 

35 la'xes Llix'sansVye. Wii, gl'l^mese gwii'lExs g'ii'xae ha'ng'alllas 
liix ona'lisases lEgwI'le. Wii, la guqlsqa'sa a'lta ^wap la'xa t!E- 
we'kwe mo'qwasda. Wa, la'xae ae'k-!a tsIo'x^wIdEq. Wa, gl'Hmese 
la ^wi-laweda q!walobEsaxs lae mElmadzox^wIda. Wa, la ftxts la- 
las la'xa ha-uE'me. Wa, gl'Pmese -wllts!axs la'e guq!Eqa'sa a'lta 

40 -wap liiq. Wii, la qo'tla^ma ha^nE'maxa ^wii'paxs la'e ae'k" llx'^id- 
xes lEgwi'le qa e'k'es x'l'x'tqEla. Wii, la ha'nxLEnts la'xes 1e- 
gwi'le. Wii, k'!e'st!a ga'laxs la'e mEdElx'wI'da. Wii, la^me'seda 



BOAS] RECIPES 375 

before it boils. Then | for a long time the woman watches it while 43 
it is boiling. | When the water is nearly dried up, she pours fresh 
water || into it. Wlien it is evening, tlie kettle is taken off, | and 45 
then it is done. Immediately the woman takes lier | spoon and dips 
the dried stomach out into a small dish. | She does not take the 
liquid. Only what is edible is dipped out | into the small dish. As 
soon as the small dish is full, she calls || her husband to come and sit 50 
down in tlie evening. Then they | drink water. After they finish 
drinking, the | woman takes pointed cedar-sticks and pricks | into 
tlie dried stomach. She (eats) the same way with the pouated cedar- 
stick ! as white people eat with forks: she || pricks with it into the 55 
dried stomach and puts it into her mouth. | Wlien she finishes eating 
the dried stomach, the woman takes up the | small food-dish and 
pours back what is left over | into the small kettle. Then she pours 
fresh water into it and | washes the inside. As soon as it is clean, 
she poure more water || into it, and they wash their hands; and 60 
after they finish, | they drink fresh water. Dried stomach is also 
not used at feasts; | and they do not dip it into oil, for it is really | 
fat. I 

Soaked Dried Halibut-Fins. — | Dried halibut-fins are also soaked 1 
in the bilge-water of the fishing-canoe; | only this is different, that 

tslEda'qe q!a'q!ala la'qexs la'e ge'gilll maE'mdElqula. Wa, 4.3 
gi'Pmese Ela'q lE'mx^wIde ^wa'pasexs la'e guqiEqa'sa a'lta ^wap 
laq. Wa, g i'Pmese dza'qwaxs la'e ha'nxsanaweda ha'nxxanowe. 45 
Wa, laF.'m Llo'pa. Wa, he'x'^ida^mesa tslEda'qe ax^e'dxes 
k'a'tslEnaqe qa^s tsEyo'sesa mo'qwasde la'xa la'Iogume. Wa, 
laE'mkMes le ^wa'palas; a'Em le'xa^ma ha^mae'sas la tsEyo'dzEm 
la'xa la'Iogume. Wa, gl'l^mese qo't!eda la'logiimaxs la'e Le'^la- 
laxes la'^wunEme qa ga'xes kiwa'galllxa la dza'qwa. Wa, la'x'- 50 
da^xwe na'x^Idxa ^wa'pe. Wti, gl'Pmese gwal na'qaxs la'eda 
tslEda'qe ax^e'dxa k'!a'k!Ex"baa'kwe klwa^xLa'wa qa^s LlE'nqes 
la'xa mo'qwasde. Wa, laE'm yo gwe'g'ilasa e'x'ba klwa^xLa'we 
gwe'gilasasa ma'malaxs ha^ma'paasa ha^mayowe'. Wa, laE'm 
LlE'nqas la'xa mo'qwasde qa^s ts!5'q!uses la'xes sE'mse. Wii, 55 
g'l'l^mese gwal mEma'leqasdEgixs la'eda tslEda'qe k'a'gilllxes 
ha^maa'tsle la'logiima qa^s xwe'laqe qEp^stE'ntses ha^mx'sa'^ye 
la'xa ha^uE'me. Wii, la guxts!o'tsa a'lta -wap laq qa^s ts!6'- 
xOg'indeq. Wa, g'i'l^mese e'glg'axs la'e e'tled guxtslo'tsa ^wa'pe 
laq. Wa, la'x'da-xwe tslE'ntslEnx^wIda. Wa, g I'Pmese gwa'lExs 60 
la'e na'x^ldxa a'lta ^wa'pa. Wa, laE'mxaa k!es k!we'ladzEmeda 
mo'qwasde. Wa, la'xaa k!es tslE'pEla la'xa L!e'^na, qaxs k'l&e 
tsE'nxwa. 

Soaked Dried Halibut-Fins (PElpa'lxa tiE'lkwe pa'Lasde). — Wa, 1 
he'Emxae tle'lasE^wa pa'Lasdeda to'xsasa lo'gwatsle. Wa, le'xa- 



376 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

they are soaked for six days | in the canoe, for they are thick. 
5 Therefore they are soaked for a long time. || As soon as they swell 
up, the woman takes her small basket | and carries it by the handle 
to the side of the place where the canoe is on the ground. | Then she 
takes one fin and washes off the soot that is on it. | As soon as it is 
all off, she puts it into the small basket. She only | stops when the 

10 small basket is full. Then she carries the small basket || into her 
house, and she puts it down by the side of the fire. | Tlien she takes 
tlie small kettle and washes it out inside. As soon as it is clean, | 
she takes spUt cedar-sticks. She breaks them into pieces, and | puts 
them crosswise in the bottom of the small kettle, (forming a grating) . 
As soon as this is done, | she takes the soaked fins and puts them on || 

1 5 the crossed split cedar-sticks in the small kettle. | She does not want 
what she is cooking to be burned: therefore | she puts the cedar- 
sticks under it. Wlien the small kettle is full of | dried fins, she 
pours water into it; and she only stops pouring | when it is fuU. 

20 Then she puts the kettle on the fire. It || stays on the fire for a long 
time. Sometimes it is put on the fire in the morning, | and it is not 
done until afternoon. As soon as it is done, | the woman takes her 
tongs and takes the | kettle off the fire. Then she takes her small 
dish and puts it down at the | place where she is sitting. Then she 



3 ^mes o^guqalayosexs k'le'sae a'sm q!EL!Ep!E'nxwa^se ^na'las 
t!e'lt!aiExs la'xa xwa'kluna, qaxs wo'kwae, la'g'llas ga'la tie'ia. 
5 Wit, gu'l^mese pe'x^wIdExs la'eda ts!Eda'qe ax^e'dxes la'Iaxame 
qa^s le kMo'x^wElsaq lax o'gwag"ay^asa xwa'klunaxs ha'nsae. Wii, 
le ax^e'dxa ^UE'me pELa' qa^s ts!oxa'lexa qlwalo'bEse a,xdzEwe'q. 
Wa, gi'Pmese ^wl'^laxs la'e axts!6'ts la'xa la'Iaxame. Wii, a'l^mese 
gwa'lExs la'e q6't!eda la'Iaxame. Wii, le klo'gwilxa la'Iaxame 

'10 la'xes go'kwe qa^s le k' lo'x'walilaq lax ono'lisases lEgwI'le. Wa, 
la ax^e'dxes ha^uE'me qa^s ts!o'xug'Endeq. Wa, gi'l^mese e'gig'axs 
la'e ax^e'dxa xo'kwe k!wa^xLa'we. Wa, la ko'k'E^x"sE'ndEq qa^s 
gayi^lii'lax-^ideq lax ots!a'wasa ha^uE'me. Wa, gl'Pmese gwa'lExs 
la'e axwults!odxa tfe'lkwe pa'Lasde qa^s le §,xdzodaia la'xa 

15 ga^yi^lii'^lakwe xok" k!wa-'xLa'wa lax o'ts!awasa ha^nE'me. Wa, 
laE'm gwa'qlslaq k!umElgilts!owe ha^me'x-sIlasE^was, la'gilas 
bEna'xLEntsa k!wa^'xLa'we laq. Wa, gl'Pmese q6't!eda ha^uE'maxa 
pa'Lasdilxs la'e gux^i'tsa ^wa'pe laq. Wii, ii'l^mese gwiil gu'qaxs 
la'e q6't!a. Wa, la ha'nxLEnts la'xes lEgwI'le. Wa, la^me'se 

20 ge'xxalaEm ha'nxxala; ^na'l^nEmp!Enaas ha'nx'LEntsoxa gaa'la. 
Wa, la a'l^Em Llo'pxa la gwiil ^nEqa'Ia. Wii, gi'Pmese Llo'pExs 
la'eda tslsda'qe ax^e'dxes kMlpLii'la qa^s kIwetsE'ndes la'xa 
ha'nx'Lanowe. Wii, la ax^e'dxes iii'logume qa^'s ha'ngallles La'xes 
k!wae'lase. Wa, la ax^e'dxa kMipLii'laqa^s k'!ip!i'des la'xa pa'Lasde 



BOAS] RECIPES 377 

takes her tongs and takes out the dried fins, || and she puts them into 25 
the small dish. Wlien the small dish is full, | she calls her children 
and her husband to come and sit down. | Then they drink fresh 
water; and after they finish drinking, | they take whole pieces of dried 
fins and eat them. They | hold them in their hands while they are 
eating. After they have finished | eating, the woman takes the small 30 
dish and pours back | into the kettle what is left over. She pours 
some water | into (the dish) and waslies it out inside; and when it is 
clean, she | poui"s more fresh water into it, and they wash their 
hands. | As soon as this is finished, they drink fresh water. That is 
all II about this. They do not dip it into oil, for it is fat; j and it is 35 
also not given at feasts to other people, for j only the owners eat it. 

The Indians always j drink water before they begin to eat and when 
they have finished; j for the people in olden times said tliat if tliey 
should not drink jj water when they were about to eat, those who 40 
should forget | to drink water before they eat or when they finish 
would rot inside, j Tlie reason why they rinse their mouths in the 
morning before they eat is to | get off the sleepiness of the throat. 
Therefore they do this way. | That is all about this. || 

Halibut-Spawn. — Halibut-spawn is not kept for a long time. | As 1 
soon as it is half dried, it is boiled j in a small kettle. Some water is 

qa^s le kMiptslo'des la'logume. Wa, gl'Pmese qo't!eda la'logiima- 25 
sexs la'e Le'^lalaxes sa'sEme le^wIs la'^wGnEme qa g-a'xes k!us^- 
a'llla. Wa, le na'x^Jdxa a'lta ^wa'pa. Wa, gi'1-mese gwal na'qaxs 
la'e da'x'^idxa sEna'la pa'Lasda qa^s ha^mx'^I'deq. Wa, laE'm 
a'Em deda'lalllqexs la'e ha^ma'pa. Wa, gi'pEmxaa'wise gwal 
ha^ma'pa la'eda tslEda'qe ka'gllllxa la'logume qa^s le qEpstE'nd- 30 
xes ha^nixsa'-'ye la'xa ha'nx'Lanowe. Wa, la guxts!6'tsa ^wa'pe 
laq. Wa, la ts!6'xugindEq. Wa, gl'l^mese e'glgaxs la'e xwe'laqa 
gQxtslo'tsa a'lta ^wap laq. Wa, la'xda^xwe ts!E'nts!Enx^wida. Wa, 
gi'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e na'x-idxa a'lta ^wa'pa. Wii, laE'm gwal 
la'xeq. Wa, laE'm kMes tslEpa'x L!e'^na qaxs tsE'nxwae. Wa, 35 
laE'mxaa kMes k!we'ladzEm la'xa o'gu^la bEgwa'nEnia, ylxs a'^mae 
le/xaEm ha^ma'qeda axno'gwadas. Wa, la he'mEnala^ma ba'k!ume 
na'naqalg-iwalaxa ^wa'paxs k!e's^niae ha^'mx-^i'da loxs la'e gwa'la, 
qaxs -ne'k'aeda ga'le bEgwa'nEmxs gi'Pmelaxe k!es na'x-idxa 
^wa'paxs ga'le ha'^maaxes ha^ma'Le, wa, la xaxe'x^Ideda l !Ele'wa^ye 40 
na'x-idxa ^wa'paxs k!e's^mae ha^mx'^i'da, loxs la'e gwa'la. Wa, 
he'^mis lii'gilas ts!Ewe'L!Exodxa gaa'laxs ga'lae ha'^maa qa 
lawa'yeses bEq!uJe'L!Exawa^ye. Wit, he'^mis la'gilas he gwe'gile. 
Wa, laE'm gwal la'xeq. 

Halibut-Spawn (Tsa'p!edza-'ye). — Wil, k'!e'sLa ga'la axe'Iakwa tsa- 1 
pledza^yasa p!9,'^3re. G'l'l'Em k' la'yax^widExs la'e ha'nxLEntsE^wa 



378 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [kth. ann. 36 

poured into the | small kettle, and it is put over the fire of the house. 
5 As soon II as the water begins to boil, the woman takes down the | 
spawn from where it is hanging, and puts it into the boUing | kettle 
on the fire. After it has been boiling for a long time, i it is taken off 
and is done. Then the woman takes a | small dish and a spoon, and 

10 she dips out the boiled || spawn and puts it into the small dish. As 
soon as | it is all out of the water, tliey drink water, and they just 
take it up with their hands | and bite off the end as they eat it; and 
they do not eat much j before they finish, for this is not very good 
food. I The men do not often eat the spawn. That is the only || 

15 reason why the woman boils it, that it brings bad luck if it is not | 
boiled; for the men of early times said, that, if it were not done, | 
her husband would not get a bite, — if for once | the woman should 
not boil what comes from the haUbut caught by her | husband. As 

20 soon as tbe woman finishes eating, || she pours out what is left over. 
Then she drinks water. | That is aU about this. | 

Middle Piece of Halibut. — I have forgotten | the piece in the mid- 
dle, — the fat that is under the skin between | the two flat sides of the 

25 halibut, the meat just on top of the jj backbone. As soon as the skin 
is taken off, the | woman cuts off the jnece in the middle, and there 

3 la'xaaxa ha-"nE'me. Wii, laE'm a'Em guxtslo'yuweda ^wa'pe la'xa 
ha^nE'me qa^s ha'nxxanowe lii'xa lEgwI'lasa go'kwe. Wa, gl'l- 
5 ^mese mEdE'lx-wIdeda ^wa'paxs la'eda ts!Eda'qe axa'xodxa tsa'ple- 
dza^ye la'xes ge'xwalaase qa^s ax^stE'ndes la'xa maE'mdElqiila 
ha'nxxanoxs ha'nxxalamae. Wit, la ge'g illl^Em maE'mdElqulaxs 
la'e ha'nxsana. Wa, laE'm Llo'pa. Wa, le'da tslEda'qe ax^e'dxes 
la'logiime LE-wa ka'tslEuaqe qa^s xElostEndexa ha'nxxaakwe 

10 tsa'p!edza-ya qa-'s le xElts!a'las la'xa la'logiime. Wa, gi'Pmese 
^wFlostaxs la'e na'x-ldxa ^wa'pe. Wa, a'^mese da'x-^itses e^eyasowe' 
laq qa's q!Egi'lba-'yexes ha'ma^ye. Wa, la k!es a'laEm q!e'k-!Es 
la'qexs la'e gwa'la, qaxs k' le'sae a'lasm ek' ha-'ma'-ya. Wii, la 
k-!es qluna'la ha^ma'pa bEgwa'nEmaxa tsa'p!edza^ye. Wa, le'x-a- 

15 ^mes la'g-ilas tslEda'qe ha'nxLEn lEq, qaxs ae'kllae k!es ha'nx'- 
LEndEq, qaxs ^ne'kaeda ga'le hEgwa'nEmqexs kMe'selaxe la'lax 
qlEka'so la'xe lo'guyos la'^wunEmas qo kMe'slax ^nE'mp!Enalaxeda 
tslEda'qe ha'nxxEudlaxa g'a'yole la'xa p!a'-ye, ya'nEmses la'- 
^wiinEnie. Wa, gl'Pmese gwal ha^ma'pa ts!Eda'qaxs la'e a'Em 

20 qEpEWE'lsxes ha^mx-si'^ye.' Wa, la'xae na'x^Idxa ^wa'pe. Wa, 
laE'm gwal la'xeq. ' 

Middle Piece of Halibut.— Wa, he'xoLEn LlEle'wesE^weda q!wa'q!u- 
sawa^ye, ylxa axa'ia tsE'nxwe la'xa awa'ba-yasa Lle'se la'xa ewl'ga- 
^ye Lo^ oklwaedza^yasa pla'^ye, yix kluta'layosa qlE'mlale lax nEXE- 

25 na'^yasa ha^mo'mS. Wii, gl'l^'me lawii'yeda L!e'saxs la'eda tslE- 
da'qe sapo'dxa qlwa'qWsa'wa^ye. Wa, la xu'lkwaleda axa'stlas. 



BOAS] RECIPES 379 

is a groove at the place where it was. | Then the woman puts her 27 
forefinger into this groove, | and she opens it out at the phice where 
the (sides of the) meat meet, along the | backbone. As soon as the 
piece in tlie middle is off, she || throws it into a basket which stands 30 
by the side of the woman when she is working on the | halibut. As 
soon as she has finished, she takes the basket by the handle and | 
carries it into the house. Then she splits a piece of red pine | and 
makes roasting-tongs just like the roasting-tongs for the edges, | and 
the piece in the middle is put in in the same way as the edges || wlien 35 
they are roasted; and it is eaten in the same manner. | What is left 
over is put away; and they eat of it again, | even when it is cold. 
That is all about this. | 

I have also forgotten the one name of the edges. It is called | by 
the Newettee "standing-on-the-edge."|| 

Fresh Codfish (1). — The' wife at once breaks | some dried halibut and 1 
puts it on a food-mat, and she | pours oil into an oil-dish ; and after 
she has done so, | she spreads out a food-mat in front of her husband, 
and she || puts the oil-dish on it. As soon as she lias done so, she 5 
takes her | small basket in which she keeps lier two fish-knives. 
She I is going to remove the guts of the codfish. She takes her 
fish-knives, I and takes a codfish so that the head turns towards 



Wa, ^'^mesa tsteda'qe la tslE'mg'iltslaxstalases ts!Ema'lax"ts!a'- 27 
na^ye laq, qa &q6'x^widesa awE'lgoda^yas qlE'mlaliis nEXEna^yaseda 
hamo'mowe. Wii, gl'Pmese lawa'yeda q!wa'q!usa'wa^ye, wii, la 
ts!Exts!a'las la'xa Isxa'^ye hi\n6'dzllisxa tslEda'qaxs la'e e'axalaxa 30 
p!a'^ye. Wa, g'i'l^mese gwa'lEXs la'e kMo'qiillsxa lExa'^ye qa^s le 
k" !o'gwi'LElaq la'xes go'kwe. Wa, la k!a'x-widxa wuna'gule 
qa^s L!6'psayogwlleq, he gwe'xse Llo'psayaxa xwa'xusEnxa^ye. Wii, 
he'Emxaa'wise gwa'leda q!wa'q!usawa^yegwa'laasasa xwa'xtisEnxa- 
^yaxs la'e Llo'pasE^wa. Wa, he'Emxaa'wise gwe'gilaxs la'e ha- 35 
^ma'^ya. Wa, la g'e'xasE^weda hS^msa'^ye qa^s e't!ede ha^mx'^I'tsoxs 
la'e wa'x'^Em la wiida'. Wii, lae'm gwal laxe'q. 

Wa, heEmxaawesEn LlElewesE^wa ^uEme LegEmsa xwaxusEnxa- 
^yeda q!waq!usEnxa^ye laxa LlaLlasiqwala. 

Fresh Codfish (1). — Wii,' §,'^mise gEnE'mas he'x'^idaEm k"!o'p!edxa 1 
k"!a'wase qa^s axdzo'des la'xa ha^madzowe' le'^wa^ya. Wii, la 
k!ii'nxts!otsa Lle'^na lii'xa ts!Eba'ts!e. Wa, gi'I^mese gwa'lExs 
la'e LEpdza'moliltsa ha^madzowe' le'^we^ hl'xes la''wunEme. Wii, la 
ka'dzotsa tsteba'tsle laq. Wii, g'i'Pmese gwa'lExs la'e ax^e'dxes 5 
lii'laxame, yix g^i'tslE-wasases ma^lEXLa gEltslE'ma. Wa, laE'm 
la'wiyodLEx ya'x"yEg'Ilasa ne'tsal^ye. Wii, la Sx^e'dxes gEltslE'me. 
Wa, la a,x^e'dxa ^nE'me la'xa ne'ts!a-ye qagwasta'les lax k!wae'ts!e- 

' Continued from Publications of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. V., p. 482. 



380 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

the place where slie is sitting. | Slie first cuts off the pectoral fins. || 

10 She cuts tliem out in one piece with the gills. Then she cuts across 
the bone in the neck, | and she pulls out the guts. She at once | 
cuts off the intestines and throws them away on the | beach. Then 
she turns the stomach inside out and puts it down on tlie | beach. 
As soon as all her work is finished, she goes up from the beacli || 

15 and takes her fish-basket. She carries it by the handle down | 
to tlie beach, and takes the stomachs of the codfish and puts them | 
into it. As soon as they are all in it, she carries the basket by the han- 
dle I into the house. Then slie puts it down in front of the fire of 

20 her | house. She takes her kettle, pours || water into it, and, when it 
is half full of water, she puts it [ on the fire. Then her husband 
invites in his friends. | As soon as all the guests are in, the woman | 
takes the stomaclis and puts them into the boiling water of the | 
kettle; and when they are all in the water, the woman takes her || 

25 tongs and stirs what is being cooked. Then | she lets it boil for a 
long time before she takes it off from the fire. | At last the woman 
takes her spoons and distributes them | among her guests. When 
tliey have one each, she takes the | kettle by the handle and puts it 

30 down in front of her guests. Then || she takes a bucket with water 
and puts it down in front of her | guests. They drink water from the 

na^yas. Wa, he'^mis gil xwa'l^itsose pEL !xa'wa^yas. Wa, la 

10 ^na'^nsmgoq LE^wis qlo'sna^ye. Wii, la ge'xsEndEx tlE'mqlExa'- 
wa^yas. Wii, a'^mese la ne'xiiltslodEX ya'xyig'Ilas. Wa, he'x-^i- 
da^mese tlo'salax tslfine'xas. Wa, la tslEqE'ntslesaq la'xa 
L!Ema^ise. Wa, la L!ep!ExsE'mdxa moqfdas qa^s ax^a'lisEles la'xa 
L!Ema=ise. Wa, gi'Pmese ^wFla la gwa'le ftxsE-wa'sexs la'e la'sdes 

15 qa^s le ax^e'dxes k!6'gwats!e lExa'^ya. Wa, la k!6'qunts!e'sElaq 
la'xa L lEma^ise. Wii, la ax^e'dxa mo'qulasa ne'ts !a^ye qa^s ^xts !a'les 
laq. Wa, gi'Pmese ^wi'ltslaxsla'e k" !o'xwusde'sElaq qa's k!o'gwe- 
LElaq la'xes go'kwe. Wii, la k" !o'x^walilas la'xa 5stS,'lilases 
go'kwe. Wii, la he'x'^idaEm ax^edxa ha'nxxanS, qa^s guxts!6'- 

20 desa ^wii'pe laq. Wii, la^mese ^nEgo'yolaxa ^wii'paxs la'e ha'nx'- 
LEnts la'xa lEgwi'le. Wii, la Le'^lale la'^wunEmasexes ^ne^nEmo'- 
kwe. Wa, gl'i^mese gax ^wFlaeLeda Le'^LanEmaxs la'eda tsteda'qe 
a,x^e'dxa mo'qula qa^s ax-sta'les la'xa la maE'mdElqula ^wiipsa 
ha'nx'Liila. Wa, gi'Pmese ^wi^la^staxs la'eda tslEda'qe ax^e'dxes 

25 k"!ipLa'la qa^s xwe'tElga^yexes ha^me'x'sIlasE^we. Wa, la^me'se 
ge'gilil qa^s maE'mdElquIaxs la'e ha'nxsana la'xa lEgwi'le. Wii, 
la^mese tslEdii'qe ax^e'dxes k'a'k'Ets!Enaqe qa^s le tslEwa'naesas 
la'xes Le'^iinEme. Wa, gl'Pmese ^wi^'lxtoxs la'e k' lo'qti'^lilxa 
ha'nxLanowe qa^s le ha'nxdzamo'Iilas la'xa Le'^IanEme. Wa, la 

30 ax^e'dxes ^wabEts'.a'la na'gatsla qa^s le ha'nxdzamo'Iilas la'xes 
Le'^lanEme. Wa, la'x'da^xwe xama'g'agexa na'gats'.axs la'e na'x^id 



BOAS] RECIPES 381 

corner of the bucket. | After they have finished drinking, the bucket 32 
is put away. | Then they eat with spoons out of the kettle. | The 
woman takes her small dishes and || puts them down behind the 35 
kettle from which tliey are eating; | and as soon as they find a 
stomach with their spoons, they put it into the small dish; | and 
when they finish eating the gills and the hquid with their spoons, 
they put down the spoons | with which they have been eating, and 
they take the stomachs with their hands | and bite them off; and 
after they have finished eating them, the || woman takes the small 40 
dish and pours back what is left over | into the kettle from which 
they have been eating. Then she pours some water | into (the dish) 
and washes it out; and when it is clean, she again | pours fresh water 
into it. Then she places it before her guests, | and they wash their 
hands; but the woman || takes by the handle the kettle from which 45 
they have been eating, and puts it down at the | outer end of the fire. 
After this has been done, she takes the bucket | with water and places 
it before her guests, and | they again drink from the corner of the 
bucket. I Then the woman takes the dish in which they washed their 
hands and || puts it dovm at the place where she is sitting. Then the 50 
guests go out. I This kind of food is also not a food for the morning, 
and no | oil is poured into it, and it is not used at feasts for many | 



la'xa ^wa'pe. Wa, la'x'da^xwe gwal na'qaxs la'e ge'xasE^weda 32 
na'gats!e. Wii, la'x'da^xwe yo's^wultsalaxes yo'sasE^we la'xa 
hS,'nxLanowe. Wa, le'da tslEda'qe Sx^e'dxa la'El5gume qa^s le 
ka'galilElas lax a'La^yasa ha'^maats !e-ye hS.'nxLana. Wa, gi'l- 35 
^mese yayo'sklnaxa mo'qulaxs la'e ge'ts!ots la'xa la'logttme. Wa, 
g I'Pmese gwat yo'saxa q lo'sna^ye LE^wa ^wa'paliixs la'e gi'g'allltses 
yey5'yats !exa k'a'kEts!Enaqaxs la'e xa'max'ts!ana da'x'^Idxa 
mS'qOla qa^s qlEgl'lbEyeq. Wa, g'i'Pmese gwal ha^ma'pqexs la'eda 
tslsda'qe S,x^e'dxa la'logume qa^s le xwe'iaqa guxtslo'tsa ha^mx-- 40 
sa'^ye la'xa ha^maa'tsle hS,'nx'Lana. Wa, la gtixtslo'tsa ^wa'pe 
laq. Wa, la tslo'xtiglndEq. Wa, gi'Pmese e'glgaxs la'e xwe'iaqa 
gflxts lo'tsa a'lta ^wap laq. Wii, la k'axxlzamo'lllas la'xes Le^lanEme. 
Wa, la'x'da^xwe tslE'ntslEnx^wida. Wa, la'Leda tsteda'qe k'!o'- 
qQlllaxa ha^maa'tsle hS'nxLana qa^s le ha'ngalilas la'xa o'bex'- 45 
Lalilasa lEgwI'le. Wa, gi'Pmesegwa'lExs la'e k'lo'qiilllxa na'gatsle 
^wa'bEtsIala qa^s le hS.'nx'dzam6'lilas la'xes Le'^lanEme. Wa, la'x'- 
da^xwe e't!ed xa'mag'iigexa n