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Given By 

Smithsonian Institution 




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J. ^V. PO^W^ELL 




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Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology, 

WasUngton, I). C, July 1, 1893. 
Sir: I have tlie honor to submit my Fourteenth Annual 
Report as Director of the Bureau of Ethnology. 

The preliminary portion comprises an exposition of tiie 
operations of the Bureau during the fiscal year; tlie remainder 
consists of a series of memoirs on anthropologic subjects, pre- 
j^ared by assistants, which illustrate the methods and results of 
the work of the Bureau. 

Allow me to express my appreciation of your constant aid 
and your wise counsel relating to the work under my charge. 
I am, with respect, your obedient servant, 

\\ Director 

Honorable S. P. Langley, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 




IntroductioD xxvii 

Operations in iield and office xxxi 

Work in pictograjihy and sign language xxxi 

Work in archeology xxxiv 

Work in sociology xxxvii 

Work in linguistics xxxix 

Work in bibliography ---- XLII 

Work in mythology ,. XLIV 

Work on the synonymy of Indian tribes XLV 

Work in psychology XLV 

Exploration XLVI 

Miscellaneous work xlvi 

Illustrations XLVii 

Publications xlviii 

financial statement XLix 

Characterization of accompanying papers L 

Subjects treated l 

The Menomini Indians L 

The Coronado expeilition, 1540-1542 Liv 

The Ghost-dance religion lviii 



Introduction 11 

History of the investigation 11 

Habitat of the tribe 12 

The tribal name 12 

Discovery and early history 14 

Treaties with the Federal Government 20 

Present location 31 

Population and characteristics 32 

Antiquities 36 

Tribal government, totems and chief 39 

The lines of chieftaincy 39 

Origin of totems 39 

The totems of the present 41 

Totemic organization 42 

Genealogy of chiefs 44 

Language employed in cult rituals 60 

Cult societies ' 66 

Mitii'wit, or Grand Medicine society 66 

Organization of the society 66 

Ceremonies of 1890 69 


Cult societies — Continued fage 
Mitii'wit, or Grand Medicine Society — Continued 

Notes on the ceremonies 104 

Ceremonies of 1891 113 

Notes on the ceremonies 116 

Ceremonies of 1892 125 

Notes on the ceremonies 127 

Ceremonies of 1893 136 

Supplementary note on the ceremonies 137 

Tshi'saqka, or j ugglers 138 

The W.Vbeno 151 

The Dreamers 157 

Mythology 161 

Former condition of the myths 161 

The travels of Mil'niibush 162 

The origin of maple sugar and of menstruation 173 

Mil'niibush and the Bear anil'maqki'u 175 

How the young Hunter caught the Sun 181 

The Hunter and the Elk people, and how the Moose were defeated 182 

The young man and the Bears 196 

The Rabbit and the Saw- whet 200 

Mil'niibush and the Birds 203 

Kaku'ene, the Jumper, and the origin of tobacco 205 

The search for Mii'niibQsh 206 

Folktales 209 

The Moou 209 

The Aurora borealis 210 

Meteors 210 

The Porcupine 210 

The Raccoon - 211 

The Raccoon and the blind men 211 

Shika'ko, the Skunk 213 

The Catfish 214 

The first meeting of the Menomini and the whites 214 

How the Hunter destroyed the Snow 216 

The Bear and the Eagle 217 

Miqkii'no, the Turtle 218 

The Rabbit and the Panther 221 

The Beaver Hunter and his sister 222 

Na^ni Naioq'tii, the Ball Carrier 223 

Origin of the word Chicago 238 

Mortuary customs 239 

Games and dances 241 

The aka'qsi wok game 241 

Moccasin or bullet game 242 

Lacrosse 244 

Ball game 244 

The snow-snake 244 

Races 245 

Tobacco and Shawano dances 247 

Pipes and tobacco 247 

Architecture 253 

Dwellings and lodges 253 

Other structures 255 



Furniture and implements 256 

Beds 256 

Stoves 256 

Utensils 256 

Mortars and pestles 257 

Troughs 257 

Cradles and hammocks 258 

Products of manufacture 258 

Mats 258 

Baskets 259 

Twine and rope 260 

Tanning 261 

Medicine bags 261 

Sno wshoes 263 

Dress, ornaments, bead work, and drilling 264 

Hunting and fishing 272 

Game of the Meuomini region 272 

Fish and fisheries 273 

Traps 273 

Bows and arrows 274 

Arrow-making 275 

Release 280 

Penetration 280 

Bows and bowstrings 280 

Quivers 281 

Modern stone arrowpolnts 281 

Poisoned arrows 284 

Food 286 

Food in general 286 

Gormandisni 287 

Oft'ensive food 287 

Maple sugar 287 

Wild rice 290 

Berries and snakeroot 291 

Canoes 292 

Vocabulary 294 

Introductory 294 

Menomini-Englisli 295 

English-Menomini 295 


Introductory note 339 

Itinerary of the Coronado expeditions, 1527-1547 341 

Historical introduction 345 

The causes of the Coronado expedition, 1528-1539 345 

Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca 345 

The governors of New Spain, 1530-1537 350 

The reconnoissanco of Friar Marcos de Niza i 353 

The effect of Friar Marcos' report 362 

The expedition to New Mexico and the great plains 373 

The organization of the expedition 373 

The departure of the expedition 382 

The expedition by sea under Alarcon 385 

The journey from Culiacan to Cibola 386 


Historical introduction — Continued Page 
The expedition to New Mexico and tlie great plains — Continued 

Tlie capture of the Seven Cities 388 

The exploration of the country 389 

The Spaniards at Zuui 389 

The discovery of Tusay an and tlie Grand canyon 390 

The Rio Grande and the great plains 390 

The inarch of the army from Culiacau to Tiguex 391 

The winter of 1510-1541 along the Rio Grande 392 

The Indian revolt 392 

The stories about Quivira 393 

The journey across the buft'alo plains 395 

The winter of 1541-1542 399 

The friars remain in the country 400 

The return to New Spain 401 

The end of Coronado 402 

Some results of tlie expedition 403 

The discovery of Colorado river 403 

The voyage of Alarcon 403 

The journey of Melchior Diaz 406 

The Indian uprising in New Spain, 1540-1542 408 

Further attempts at discovery 411 

The voyage of Cabrillo 411 

A^illalobos sails across the Pacific 412 

The narrative of Castaneda 413 

Bibliographic note 413 

The Spanish text 414 

Proemio 414 

Primera parte 416 

Capitulo primero donde se trata como se supo la primefa pobla- 
cioii de las siete f iudades y como Nuno de guzmau hiro armada 

para descubrirlla 416 

Capitulo segundo como bino a ser gouernador fran^isco uasques 

coronado y la segundo relation nue dio cabefa de uaca 417 

Capitulo terf ero como mataron los de cibola a el negro esteuan y 

fray marcos bolbio huyeudo 418 

Capitulo quarto como el buen don Antonio de mendoi,a hifo Jor- 
nada para el descubrimiento de Cibola 419 

Capitulo quiuto que trata quienes fueron por capitanes a cibola.. 420 
Capitulo sexto como se juntaron en conpostela todas las capitanias 

y salieron eu orden para la Jornada 421 

Capitulo septimo como el campo llego a chiametla y mataron a el 

niaestre de canpo y lo que mas acae^io hasta llegar a culiacau.. 422 
Capitulo otauo como el campo entro en la uilla de culiacau y el 

recebimiento que so hifo y lo que masacaefio hasta la partida.. 423 
Capitulo luieve como el caupo salio de culiacau y llego el general 

a fibola y el campo a senora y lo que mas acaefio 424 

Capitulo defimo como el campo salio de la uilla de senora que- 
daudo la uilla poblada y como llego a (.'ibola y lo que le a uiiio 
en el camino a el capitan melchior dias yendo en demaiidade los 

nabios y como descubrio el rio del tison 425 

Capitulo on^e como don pedro de touar descubrio a tusayan o 
tutahaco y don garci lopes de cardenas bio el rio del tison y lo 

que mas acaecion 428 

Capitulo doge como binierou a vibola gentes de ciciiye a ber los 

christiauos y como fue her'" de aluarado a ber las uacas 430 


The narrative of Castafieda — Continued Page 

The Spanish text — Continued 
Primera parte — Continued 

Capitulo trece eomo el general llego con poca gente la niade tuta- 

haco y dexo cainpo a don triatan que lo llebo a tiguex 432 

Capitulo catorre eomo el campo salio de sibola para tiguex y lo 

que les aeaevio en el caniiuo cou nieiie 4S2 

Capitulo quiui/e eomo se alyo tiguex y el castigo que eu ellos ubo 

sin que lo ubiese en el causador 433 

Capitulo desiseis conio se puso verco a tiguex y se gaiio y lo i|ue 

mas acoutencio uiediaute el cereo 435 

Capitulo desisiete eomo binieron a el campo mensajeros del ualle 

de senora y eomo uiurio el capitan nielchior dias en la Jornada 

de tizou 438 

Capitulo desiochocomoel general procurodexar aseutada la tierra 

para ir en demanda de quisuira donde deyiael turco aula el prin- 

(.ipio de la riqiieva 439 

Capitulo desinueve eomo salierou eu deuianda de quiuira y lo que 

■acoutecio eu el camino 440 

Capitulo ueinte eomo cayeron graudes piedras en el campo y lomo 

se descubrio otra barranca donde se dibidio el campo en dos 

partes 442 

Capitulo ueiute y uno eomo el campo bolbio a tiguex y el general 

llego a quiuira 443 

Capitulo ueiute y dos eomo el general bolbio de quiuira y se hi^-ie- 

ron otras eutradas debajo del uorte 445 

Segunda parte eu que se trata de los pueblos y prouincias de altos y de 
sus ritos y costumbres recopilada por pedro de castaueda uecino de 

la viudad de Naxara 446 

Ca])itulo primero de la prouiucia de C'uliacau y de sus ritos y cos- 
tumbres 447 

Capitulo segundo de la jirouincia de petlatlau y todo lo poblado 

hasta chichilticale 448 

Capitulo tercero de lo ques chichilticale y el despoblado de f ibola 

sus costumbres y ritos y de otras cosas 450 

Capitulo quarto eomo se tratan los de tiguex y de la prouincia de 

tiguex y sus comarcas 451 

Capitulo quinto de cicuyc y los j)ueblos de su contorno y de eomo 

Unas gentes binieron a couquistar aquella tierra 452 

Capitulo sexto en que se declara quantos fueron los pueblos que se 

uierou en los jioblados de terrados y lo poblado de ello 454 

Capitulo septimo (jue trata de los llanos que se atrabesaron de 

bacas y de las gentes que los babitau 455 

Capitulo ochode quiuira y en querumbo esta y la notigiaque dan. 456 
Tercera parte eomo y eu que se trata aquello (jue acontef io a francisco 
uasques coronado estando iubernando y eomo dexo la. Jornada y se 

bolbio a la nueba espaua 458 

Capitulo jirimero couio bino de Senora dou pedro de touar con 

gente y se partio para la nueba espaua dou garci lopes de car- 

denas 458 

Capitulo segundo eomo cayo el general y se hordeno la huelta para 

la nueba espaua 459 

Capitulo tervero eomo se alfo Suya y las causas que para ello die- 

ron los pobladores 460 

Capitulo quarto eomo se quedo fray juau de padilla y fray luis en 

la tierra y el campo se apervibio la buelta de mexico 461 


Tho narrative of C'ast.-ineda — Continued Page 

Tlio Spaiiisli tuxt — Continued 
Tercera parte — Continued 

Capitulo quinto como cl canpo 8;ilio del pohlado y eaiiiino a culia- 

ean y lo que aconti'vio en cl caiuiuo 4G2 

Capitulo sexto couio cl general saliii de culiacan para dai' quenta a 

el uisoiey del eauipo (|uc le enearf;o 4G3 

(Jai)itulo septinio de las I'osaM ([uc le acoiito(.icron al capitan Juan 

fjallej^o por la tieira alfada llciiaudo el socorro 464 

Capitulo otauo en <|ue se (|iicntan al<ruuaH eosas adniirables que se 

bieron en los llanos con la favion do los toros 466 

Capitulo nono (|Uo trata el rnnilio que llelio el cauijio y como se 
l)odria yr a huscar otra uia (|ue mas derecha iuese abieudn de 

lioluer aquella tierra 468 

Translation of the narrative of Castaneda 470 

Preface 470 

First Tart 472 

Chapter 1, which treats of the way we first came to know about 
the Seven Cities, and of how Nufio de Guzman made an expedi- 
tion to discover them 472 

Chapter 2, of how Francisco \az<inez Corouado came to be gov- 
ernor, and the second account which Cabeza de Vaca gave 474 

Cha)>tcr 3, of how they killed the negro Stephen at Cibola, and 

Friar Marcos returned in Might 475 

Chapter 4, of how the noble Don Antonio de Mendoza made an 

expedition to discover Cibola 476 

Chapter 5, concerning the captains who went to Cibola 477 

Chapter 6, of how all the comjianies collected in Coiupostela and 
set off on the Journey in good order 478 

Chapter 7, of how the army reached Chiametla, and the killing 
of the army master, and the other things that happened up to 
the arrival at Culiacan 479 

Chapter 8, of how the army entered the town of Culiacan and the 
reception it received, and other things which happened before 
the departure 481 

Chapter!), of how the army started from Culiacan and the arrival 
of the general at Cibola and of the army at Seuora and of other 
things that happened 482 

Chapter 10, of how the army started from the town of Senora, 
leaving it inhabited, and how it reached Ciliola, and of what 
happened to Captain Melchior Diaz on his expedition in search 
of the ships and how he discovered the Tison (Firebrand) 
Hi ver 484 

Clia])ter 11, of how Don Pedro de Tovar discovered Tnsayan or 
Tutahaco and Don Garcia Lopez de Cardenas saw the Firebrand 
river, and the other things that had happened 487 

Chapter 12, of how people eame from Cicuye to Cibola to see the 
Christians, anil how Hernando de Alvarado went to see the 
cows 490 

Chajiter 13, of how the general went toward Tntahaco with a few 

men and left the army with Don Tristan, who took it to Tiguex. . 492 

Chapter 14, of how the army went from Cibola to Tiguex and what 

hii|>i)ened to them on the way, on account of the snow 493 

Chapter 15, of why Tiguex revolted, and how they were pun- 
ished, without being to blame for it 494 


The narrative of Castaneila — Continued Page 

Translation of the narrative of Castaneda — Continued 
First Part — Continued 

Chapter If), of how they besieged Tiguex and took it, and of what 

happened during the siege >- '*•'' 

Chapter 17, of how messengers reached the army from the valley 
of Senora, and how Captain Melchior Diaz died on the expe- 
dition to the Firebrand river 501 

Chapter 18, of how the general managed to leave the country in 
peace so as to go in search of Quivira, where the Turk said 

there was the most wealth 502 

Chapter 19, of how they started in search of Quivira and of what 

happened on the way 504 

Chapter 20, of how great stones fell in the camp, and how they 
discovered another ravine, where the army was divided into 

two parts 506 

Chapter 21, of how the army returned to Tiguex and the general 

reached Quivira ''"^ 

Chapter 22, of how the gi^neral returned from Quivira and of 

other expeditions toward the north ''lO 

Second Part, wliich treats of the high villages and provinces and of 
their habits and customs, as collected by Pedro de Castaneda, native 

of the city of Najara - '^^^ 

Chapter 1, of the province of Culiacan and of its habits and 

customs ^^^ 

Chapter 2, of the province of Petlatlan and all the inhabited 

country as far as Chichilticalli 514 

Chapter 3, of Chichilticalli and the desert, of Cibola, its customs 

and habits, and of other things ''If"' 

Chapter 4, of how they live at Tiguex, and the province of Tigmx 

and its neighborhood ••^•' 

Chapter 5, of Cicuye and the villages in its neighborhood, and of 

how some people came to conquer this country o2.J 

Chapter 6, which gives the numl)er of villages which were seen in 

the country of the terraced houses, and their population 524 

Chapter 7, which treats of the jilains that were crossed, of the cows, 

and of the people who inhabit them o-6 

Chapter 8, of Quivira, of where it is and some information about 

it ^28 

Third Part, which describes what happened to Francisco Vazquez 
Coronado during the winter, and of how he gave up the expedition 

and returned to New Spain ^^" 

Chapter 1, of how Don Pedro de Tovar came from Senora with 
some men, and Don Garcia Lopez de Cardenas started back to 
NewSpain. ^'^ 

Chapter 2, of the general's fall and how the return to New Spain 
was ordered 

Chapter 3, of the rebellion at Suya and the reasons the settlers 
gave for it ^^^ 

Chapter 4, of how Friar Juan de Padilla and Friar Luis remained 

in the country and the army prepared to return to Mexico 534 

Chapter 5, of how the army left the settlements and marched to 

Culiacan, and of what happened on the way o37 

Chapter 6, of how the general started from Culiacan to give the 
viceroy an account of the army with which he had been in- 
trusted - ^^ 


The narrative of Castaneda — Contiuiied Page 
Trauslatiou of the narrative of Castaneda — Contiuued 
Third Part — Continued 

Chapter 7, of the adventures of Captain Juan Gallego while he 

■was bringing reeuforcements through the revolted country 540 

Chapter 8, which describes some remarkable things that were seen 

on the plains, with a description of the bulla 541 

Chapter 9, which treats of the direction which the army took, and 
of how another more direct way might be found if anyone was 

going to return to that country 544 

Translation of the letter from Jlendoza to the King, April 17, 1540 547 

Translation of the letter from Coronado to Mendoza, August 3, 1540 552 

Translation of the Traslado de las Nuevas 564 

Relaciiui postrera de Sivola 566 

Spanish text 566 

Translation 568 

Translation of the Relaciun del Suceso 572 

Translation of a letter from Coronado to the King, October 20, 1541 580 

Translation of the narrative of .laramillo 584 

Translation of the report of Hernando de Alvarado 594 

Testimony concerning those who went on the expedition with Francisco 

Vazquez C'oronado 596 

A list of works useful to the student of the Coronado expedition 599 

Index to Parti 615 


Introduction 653 

The narrative 657 

Chapter I — Paradise lost 657 

II — The Delaware prophet and Pontiac 662 

III — Tenskwatawa the Shawano prophet 670 

IV — Tecumtha and Tippecanoe 681 

V — Kiinaki'ik and minor prophets 692 

Kanakuk .". 692 

Pa'thcskc 700 

Ta'vibo 701 

Nakai-dokli'ni 704 

The Potawatomi prophet 705 

Cheez-tah-paezh the Sword-bearer 706 

VI — The Smohalla religion of tlie Columbia region 708 

Sraohalla 708 

Joseph and the Nez Perci^ war 711 

VII — Sraohalla and his doctrine 716 

VIII— The Shakers of Puget sound 746 

IX — Wovoka the messiah 764 

X — The doctrine of the Ghost dance 777 


The Mormons and the Indians 792 

Porcupine's account of the messiah 793 

The Ghost dance among the Sioux 796 

Selwyn's interview with Kuwapi 798 

XI — The Ghost dauce west of the Rockies 802 

XII — The Ghost dance east of the Rockies — among the Sioux 816 

Appendix : Causes of tlie outlireak 829 

Commissioner Morgan's statement 829 

Ex-Agent McG illy cuddy's statement 831 


The narrative — Continued Fags 
Chapter XII — The Ghost dance east of the Rockies — Continued 

Statement of General Miles 833 

Report of Captain Hurst 836 

Statement of American Horse 839 

Statement of Bishop Hare 840 

XIII — The Sioux outbreak— Sitting Bull and Wounded Knee 843 

Appendix: The Indian story of "Wounded Knee 884 

XIV — Close of the outbreak — The Ghost dance in the south 887 

XV — The ceremony of the Ghost dance 915 

Among the northern Cheyenne 915 

Among the Sioux 915 

Song rehearsals 918 

Preparations for the dance 918 

Giving the feather 919 

The painting of the dancers 919 

The ceremony 920 

The crow dance 921 

The hypnotic process 923 

The area covered by tlie dance ■ 926 

Present condition of the dance 927 

XVI — Parallels in other systems 928 

The Biblical period 928 

Mohammedanism 930 

Joan of Arc 932 

Dance of Saint John 935 

The Flagellants 935 

Ranters, Quakers, and Fifth-Monarchy men 936 

French prophets 938 

Jumpers 939 

Methodists 939 

Shakers 941 

Kentucky revival 942 

Adventists 944 

Other parallels 915 

Beekmanites 945 

Patterson and Brown's mission 946 

Wilderness worshipers 946 

Heavenly recruits 947 

Appendix: Hypnotism and the dance among the Der- 
vishes 948 

The songs 953 

In troductory 953 

The Arapaho 953 

Tribal synonymy 953 

Tribal signs 954 

Sketch of the tribe 954 

Songs of the Arapaho 958 

1. Opening song: Eijelic' ! nii'nisa'na — O, my cliildrenl 958 

2. Se'icha heita'uuini'na — The sacred pipe tells me 959 

3. Ate'be tidwu'ntinu' — When at first I liked the whites 961 

4. A'bU'ni'hi' — My partner 961 

5. Anisiina'aliu — My father 962 

6. E'yehe' frii'naiiii'uhu' — E'yehe'.' They are new 963 

7. Hi'siihihi — Myiiartner! Jlypartuer! 964 


The songs — Contiuued I'Bge 
The Araiiaho — Continueil 

Songs of the Arapaho — Contiuued 

8. .I'-nani' ni'bi'nd' 8i walii' na — The wind malies t lie head-feathers 

slug 965 

9. He'.' Kiine'ihhishiqa'wa — When I met him approaching 965 

10. Ilana'ua'iciinihtu — I take pity on those 9(J6 

11. .l-ni'ijii ti'a'icunii nibfi'tla' — F.'ithiT, now 1 am singing it 906 

12. Hu'ijana'-usiija' — How Ijriglit is the moonlight 1 966 

13. Ha'ti ni'hiit — The Cottonwood song 967 

14. Eijehe ! A'nii-'sa'na' — The young Thuudcrbirds 968 

15. A' he ai'ina iiiiii inhja quii'hi — Our father, the Whirlwind 970 

16. A he'Ki'ina'iiini nuija'quli' — Our father, the Whirlwind 970 

17. XinaW niahu'na — I circle around 970 

18. Ha'uahawu nvn hini'ni'na — The lianahauu nin gave it to me .. 971 

19. Ale' he' (ana'-isf'(i — When first our father came 971 

20. A-ni'uncthuhinani'tia — My father did not recognize me 972 

21. Xi'-athu'-a-u' a'haka'nith'ii — The whites are crazy 972 

22. Na'ha'ia bitaa'tvu — The earth is about to move 973 

23. Ahe'athia iiiiii acliiqa'htVwa-ii' — I am looking at my father 973 

24. Ha 'unukc'i — The rock 973 

25. ll'a' ica na' danii diiV — I am about to hum 975 

26. A-ie'hc dii'nclita'nifg- — At the beginning of existence 976 

27. Tahu'iiaunii nUihuna — It is I wlio make the thunder 976 

28. Ani'qu ne'chawii'iiaiii' — Father, have pity on nie 977 

29. A-ni'iiihu'iiiahu'na — I lly around yellow 977 

30. Xl'ha'nata'yeche'ti — The yellow hiile 978 

31. A-haii'lhinahu— The cedar tree 978 

32. U'a'wa nu'nanii'naku'ti — Now I am waving an eagle feather.. . 979 

33. A-ni'qana'ga — There is a solitary bull 980 

34. A-ned'thibiwu'hana — The place where crying begins 981 

35. Thi'ibja' he'nau'atfd — AVhen I see the thi'iiya 981 

36. A-hu'hu ha'geni'sti'ti — The crow is making a road 982 

37. Bl'taa'wit hu'hu' — The crow brought the earth 983 

38. yi'nini'tiibi'na hii'kit' (I) — The crow has called me 983 

39. NiVnanu'naa'tdni'nahn'hu' (I) — The crow is circling above me. 984 

40. ///« hii Ihcibt'nawa' — Here it is, I hand it to you 984 

41. Hanai'hi ya'fla'uhi'na — Little boy, the coyote gun 984 

42. He'suna' iia'nahatlia'hi — The father showed me 985 

43. Xdnisa'tdqu'ihi ('hinavhV chihd iha' — The seven venerable priests. 986 

44. Xd niaa'tuqi Chi'ndchi' chibd' iha' — The seven venerable priests,. 990 

45. Xunanu'naa'taiii'na hu'hu' (II) 990 

46. Xa'tdnu'ya chf'bi'nh — The pemmiean that I am using 991 

47. Hdi'naiva' hd'ni'ta'quna'ni — I know, in the pitfall 991 

48. lid'hind'nina'td ni'tabdna — I hear everything 993 

49. A-bd'qati hd'nichd'bi'hind'na — With the wheel I am gambling. 994 

50. Ani'daa'kua na — I am watching 995 

51. Xi'chi'd i'lheti'hi — (There) is a good river 995 

52. Xi'nini'tubi'na hu'hu' (11) 996 

53. Anihd'iia atam liiuunawa' — I usi' the ycdlow (paint) 997 

54. Xi'nad'uiahu'laira bi'laa'wn — I am Hying about the earth 997 

55. J'nila'ia'-usu na — Stand ready 998 

56. ll'a'ii'dllid bi — I have given you magpie feathers 998 

57. Ani'qa hv'lahinuhu ni'na — My father, I am poor 999 

58. Xd'niaa'taqu'thi hu'na — The seven crows 999 


The songs — Coutimied Pase 
The ArapaUo — Continiii'd 

Songs of the ArapaUo — Continued 

59. Jhii'iiii Jii''.iiiiia'niii — There is our father 1000 

60. (Infiiinhu — The ball, th.> ball 1000 

61. Jhii' ni'higd'liii — The Crow is running 1000 

62. Tii'tlia-yti'iia — He ])Ut nie in five plaees 1001 

63. Xinuiiqa-u-a cliiha ti — I am going around the sweat-house 1001 

64. Else' hi— My comrade 1002 

65. Xa'tH'waiii'iia — My top, my top 1005 

66. He'na'ya'iKiwa'iien — When we dance until daylight 1006 

07. Xina'iiiiiati'naku'ni'na — I wear the morning star 1006 

68. A-ne'va' tahi'ni'na — My mother gave it to me 1007 

69. Ti'ha'ii'a'hiliV — Gambling song (Paiute gambling songs) 1008 

70. iV'iV/o'/iH'/iH' — My father, my father 1010 

71. A'hu'nawii'liii — With red i)aiut 1010 

72.. Ani i{a nag qn — Father, the Jlorning .Star 1010 

73. Ahii'i/H liiillii iia — Closing song 1011 

Arapaho glossary 1012 

The Cheyenne 1023 

Tribal synonymy 1023 

Tribal sign 1024 

Sketch of the tribe 1024 

Songs of the Cheyenne 1028 

1. O'td nU'nisi'nasis(s — Well, my chihlren 1028 

2. Ehci'n esho'ini' — Our father has come 1028 

3. Nil' niifo' nasi' stuilii' — ^My children 1029 

4. Xii'see'nehe' elu'iiowo'mi — I waded into the yellow river 1030 

5. TJ'osi'f(i-u'('i' — The mountain is circling 1030 

6. Ni'lia-i'hi'hi' — My father, I come 1031 

7. Hi'awu'hi — We have put the devil aside 1031 

8. Ki'ha e'l/eh,-'! — My father, my father 1031 

9. A'mini'i'qi — My comrade 10.32 

10. Hr'xtiitii'ai — 'nie buHalohead 1032 

11. yH'mio'ta — I am coming iu sight 1034 

12. A'ljachi'hi — The crow is circling 1034 

13. Na'nise'iiUsi'stse — My children, I am humming 1034 

14. Ogn'ch e/ie'ci/c'.' — The crow, the crow 1035 

15. Tshn'soi/o'tsito'ho — While I was going about 1035 

16. Ni'ha e'yehe'e'yeye'! — My father, my father 1036 

17. A'yacli /■he.'f'i/e'.' — The crow, the crow 1037 

18. Xa'niso'iiasi'stsi he'i-'ije'! — My children, my children 1037 

19. Agu'gii'-ilii — The crow woman 1038 

Cheyenne glossary 1039 

The Comanche 1043 

Tribal synonymy 1043 

Trilialsign 1043 

Sketch of the tribe 1043 

Songs of the Comanche 1046 

1. Heiio'luitia hde'ifo 1046 

2. i'a'lii'yu'uiia'hu 1047 

3. Yani' Isini'haioa'iia 1047 

4. Ni'nini'tiiwi'iia 1047 

The Paiute, Washo, and Pit River tribes 1048 

Paiute tribal synonymy 1048 


The songs — Continued Page 
The Paiutf, Washo, anil Pit River tril)es — Continued 

Sketch of the Painte . 1048 

Characteiistics 1048 

Genesis mj'th 1050 

The Washo 1051 

The Pit River Indians 1052 

Songs of the Painte 1052 

1. Xiifrl ka ro'runi' — The snow lies there 1052 

2. Delta' gai/o'n — A slender antelope 1053 

3. Do ti'mbi — The black rock 1053 

4. PasW wi'noyhiin — The wind stirs the willows 1053 

5. Paffii'navii' — Fog 1 Fog ! 1054 

6. Wumbi'iidoma'n — The whirlwind 1054 

7. Eosi' ivumbi'ndomii — There is dust from the whirlwind 1054 

8. Doinbina so'whia' — The rocks are ringing 1055 

9. Sit'ud-ii ro iionji' — The cotton woods are growing tall 1055 

Painte glossary 1056 

The Sioux 1057 

Tribal synonymy 1057 

Tribal sign 1057 

Sketch of the tribe 1058 

Songs of the Sioux 1061 

1. Opening song: Ate he'yi' ei/ayo — The father says so 1061 

2. Michi'nkshi iiafipe — My son, let me grasp your hand 1061 

3. He tim-e'cha he — Who think you comes there ? 1064 

4. Wana' i/aii ma' niye — Now he is walking 1064 

5. Leeliel miyo'qan-kie — This is to be my work 1065 

6. ilichhilcshi'yi teiia'qiJa che — I love my children 1065 

7. Mila kin hiyii'michi'rliiyana — Give me my knife 1065 

8. Le he'yahe' — This one says 1068 

9. Xiya'te'ye' he'u'we — It is your father coming 1068 

10. Miyo'qaii kin n-anla'ki — You see what I can do 1068 

11. Michi'nkslti mitairaye — It is my own child 1069 

12. A' te he' u' we — There is the father coming 1069 

13. TTa'sna wa'tin-kia^-I shall eat pemmicau 1069 

14. A'ie lena ma'qii-ive — The father gave us these 10(i9 

15. Ina' he'kuu'o' — Mother, come home 1070 

16. IVa'na wanasa' pi-kin — Now they are abouttochase the buffalo. 1070 

17. He! Kii'yanka a'gali'ye — He! They have comeback racing. .. 1071 

18. Mi'ye wanma' yafika-yo! — Look at me ! 1071 

19. Maka' sHo'tnanii/nn — The whole world is coming 1072 

20. Le'na u-a'kan — These sacred things 1072 

21. Miyo'tiafi kin chichii'cht — I have given you my strength 1073 

22. Michi'nkshi tahi-'na — My child, come this way 1073 

23. VTana ivichf shka — Now set uj) thetipi...." 1073 

24. A'le mi'chnye— Father, '^ive them to mc 1074 

25. Hanpa uecha ghe — I made moccasins for him 1074 

26 Waka' nyan inya' iikiii-kte — The holy (hoop) shall run 1075 

Sioux ulossary 1075 

The Kiowa and Kiowa Apache 1078 

Kiowa tribal synonymy 1078 

Kiowa tribal sign 1078 

Sketch of the Kiowa 1078 

The Kiowa Apache 1081 


The Biiugs — Continiieil ^age 
Tho Kiowa anil Kiowa Apache — Continued 

Songs of tli6 Kiowa 1081 

1. Da'ta-i so'da'te — The father will desienil 1081 

2. Da'k'ifiago (im) zW nteiihe' dal—lhe sjiirit avmy is approaching. 1082 

3. Gii'ato Ma'ga — I scream because I am a bird 1082 

4. Da'ta-i nyU'houngamo — The father shows mc the road 1083 

5. Dak'iiVa bate'i/ii — The spirit (God) is approaching 1083 

6. Na'da'g iika'na — Because I am poor 1084 

7. Ze'hiit-gn'ffa igii'ihipa'-ima' — He makes me dance with arrows. 1084 

8. Be'ta! To Hjy/i-f/H'arfiH — Red Tail has been sent"; 1085 

9. Da'ta-i anla'iigo im — My father has much pity for us 1085 

10. Datai inkantlihe'dal — My father has bad pity on me 1085 

11. Dak' in' ago alio' She rfai — The spirit host is advancing 1086 

12. E'hyuii'i degia ia — 1 am mashing the berries 1087 

13. Go'mgijii-da'ga — That wind shakes my tipi 1087 

14. Dak'in'a dakan'tahe dal — God has had pity on us 1087 

15. Ansa' gydtalo — I shall cut off his feet 1088 

Kiowa glossary 1088 

The Caddo and associated tribes 1092 

Caddo tribal synonymy 1092 

Caddo tribal sign 1092 

Sketch of the Caddo 1092 

The Wichita, Kichai, and Delaware 1095 

Songs of the Caddo 1096 

1. Ha'yo iaia' a'ii' — Oiir father dwells above 1096 

2. WiVnti ha'yatio' di'u'iii'a — All our people are going up 1096 

3. JViJna i'tsiya' — I have come 1097 

4. Na'taiwaya — I am coming - . 1097 

5. Na'-iye' ino' ga'nio'sit — My sister above 1097 

6. Na'a ha'yo ha'icaiio — Our father above (has) paint 1098 

7. Wii'nii ha'yano ka'ka'na' — All the people cried 1098 

8. jVa'u'J i'lia — We have our mother below 1098 

9. Mi' ika' na'a — Our grandmother and our father above 1099 

10. Hi'na Ita'natobl'na — The eagle feather headdress 1099 

11. Na' aa' o'lH'ta' — The father comes from above. 1099 

12. X'a' iwi' o'wi'la' — See! the eagle comes 1100 

13. A'naria' hana'nito' — Tlie feather has comeback 1101 

14. Xa' iwi' ha'naa' — Tliere is an eagle above 1101 

15. TVi'tu' Ha'sini' — Come on, Caddo 1101 

Caddo glossary 1 102 

Authorities cited - 1104 

Index to Part 2 1111 

14 ETH II 



Platk 1. Part of Wisconsin showing location of Menomiiii reservation 33 

II. Group of mounds near Keshena 37 

III. Certificate of Tsliekatshake'mau 46 

IV. Portrait of A'kwine'nii Osli'kosh 48 

V. Building of medicine lodge 71 

VI. Interior of ceremonial structure of 1S90 73 

VII. Shaman's trick with snake bag 96 

VIII. Candidate after being shot 101 

IX. Candidate receiving medicine bag 102 

X. Splitting bark 113 

XI. Sudatory with blanket removed from front 117 

XII. Mitii' wiko'mik of 1892 12.5 

XIII. Ball players 129 

XIV. Game of bowl 241 

XV. Indians playing moccasin or bullet game 243 

XVI. Log house of native construction 253 

XVII. Wigwam covered with mats 255 

XVIII. Winter habitation of bark 257 

XIX. Infant ou cradleboard 259 

XX. Mat making 261 

XXI. Rush mat 262 

XXII. Bark mat 264 

XXIII. Section of liark mat 266 

XXIV. Tanning 269 

XXV. Beaded garters showing art figures 270 

XXVI. Beaded garters showing art figures 272 

XXVII. Beaded garters showing art figures 274 

XX VIII. Beaded necklaces 277 

XXIX. Dancer's beaded medicine bag 278 

XXX. Trap for small game 281 

XXXI. Varieties of arrowheads 283 

XXXIl. Birchbark sap buckets and yoke 285 

XXXIII. Camp of sugar makers 287 

XXXIV. Camp of berry jiickeis 289 

XXXV. Wooden canoe or dugout 291 

XXXVI. Cutting timbers for bark canoe 293 

XXXVII. Setting up bark canoe 295 

XXXVIII. The New Spain ami New Mexico country 345 

XXXIX. The Ulpius globe of 1542 349 

XL. Sebastian Cabot's map of 1544 353 

XLI. Map of the world by Ptolemy, 1548 357 

XLII. Battista Agnese's New Spain, sixteenth century 361 

XLIIl. The City of Jlexico about 1550, by Alonzo de Santa Cruz 365 

XLIV. Zaltieri's karte, 1566 369 




XLV. Meroator's northwestern part of \e w Spain, 15ti9 373 

XL VI. Mercator's interior of New Spain, 1569 377 

XLVIL Abr. Ortelius' Theatrum Orbis Terraium, 1570 381 

XLVIII. Dourailo's Terra Autipodv Regis Castele Inveta, 1580 385 

XLIX. Western hemisphere of Mercator, 1587 389 

L. Northern half of De Bry's America Sive Novvs Orbis, 159G 393 

LL Wytiliet's Vtriv8(ive Hemispherii Delineatio, 1597 397 

LII. Wytiliet's New Grauaila and California, 1597 401 

LIII. Wytiliet's liingdoms of Quivira, xVnian, and Tolm, 1597 405 

LIV. Matthias Quadus' Fasciculus Geographlcus, 1608 409 

LV. The buffali> of Gomara, 1554 512 

LVI. The buffalo of Thevet, 1558 516 

LVII. The l)uffalo of De Bry, 1595 520 

LVI 11. On the terraces at Zufii 52d 

LIX. Middle court at Zuoi 527 

LX. Znni court, showing " balcony" 529 

LXI. Zuni interior 531 

LXII. Zunis in typical modern costume 534 

LXIII. Hopi maidens, showinn primitive Pueblo hairdressing 536 

LXIV. Hopi grinding and paper-bread malving 539 

LXV. Hopi baslvet maimer 543 

LX VI. Pueblo pottery nialiing .547 

LXVII. Pueblo spinning and weaving 551 

LXVIII. The Tewa pueblo of P'o-who-gi or San Ildel'onsii 555 

LXIX. Pueblo of Jemez 559 

LXX. Rains of Spanish church above .leuiez 562 

LXXI. The Keres pueblo of Sia 569 

LXX II. The Keres pueblo of Cochiti 571 

LXXIII. The Tewa pueblo of Nambe 573 

LXXIV. A Nambe Indian in war costume 576 

LXXV. A Nambe water carrier 578 

LXX VI. The Keres pueblo of Katishtya or San Felipe .583 

LXXVII. The south town of the Tiwa pueblo of Taos 585 

LXXVIII. The Tewa pueblo of K'hapiio or Santa Clara 587 

LXXIX. The Tewa pueblo of Ohke or San .luan 589 

LXXX. A native of San Juan 592 

LXXXI. A native of Pecos .596 

LXXX II. Facsimile of pages of Castaneda's relacitm 4.56 

LXXXIII. Facsimile of pages of Castaneda's relacion 442 

LXXXI V. Facsimile of pages of Castaneda's relacion 466 

LXXXV. Map of the Indian reservations of the United States showing thi' 

appoximate area of the Clhost dance 653 

LXXXVI. The prayer-stick 698 

LXXXVII. ChiefJoseph 712 

LXXXVIII. Map showing the distribution of the tribes of the upper Colum- 
bia 716 

LXXXIX. Smohallaand his priests 721 

XC. Smohalla church on Yakima reservation 723 

XC'I. Interior of Smohalla church 727 

XCII. Winter view in Mason valley showing snow-covered sagebrush.. 769 

XCIII. Sioux ghost shirts from Wounded Knee battlelield 789 

XCIV. Sioux sweat-house and sacritice pole 823 

XCV. Map of the country embraced in the campaign against the Sioux. 850 

XCVI. ilap of Standing Rock agency and vicinity 8.55 

XCVII. Map of Wounded Knee battlefield 869 



XCVIII. Alter the battle ><''3 

XCIX. Battlefield of Wounded Knee 87.') 

C. Burying the dead ^Ti 

CI. Grave of tlie dead iit Wounded Knee i^Tlt 

CII. Battlelield after the blizzard 881 

cm. Arapuho ghost shirt, showing coloring 895 

CIV. Arapaho ghost shirt — reverse 897 

CV. Black Coyote 898 

CVI. Biiiiiki, the Kiowa dreamer 908 

CVII. Biiinki's vii^ion 910 

CVIII. Kiowa summer shelter 913 

CIX. The Ghost dance (buckskin painting) 91.5 

ex. Sacred olyects from the Sioux Ghost dance 91(i 

CXI. Sacred objects from the Sioux Ghost dance 918 

CXII. The Ghost dance — small circle 921 

CXIII. The Ghost dance — larger circle 923 

CXIV. The Ghost dance— large circle 925 

CXV. The Ghost dance— praying 927 

CXVI. The (ihost dance — inspiration 929 

CX VII. The Ghost dance — rigid 931 

CXVIII. The Ghost dance — unconscious 933 

CXIX. The crow dance 935 

CXX. Arapaho bed 962 

CXXI. The sweat -lodge : Kiowa camp on the Wnshita 981 

CXXII. Dog-soldier insignia 988 

Figure 1. Copper spearpoint 37 

2. Portrait of Nio'pet 49 

3. Portrait of Ni'aqtaw;i'pouii 50 

4. Portrait of Shu'nien 59 

5. Ceremonial structure of 1890 71 

6. Ceremonial baton 73 

7. Grave post 74 

8. Graves where feast was held 75 

9. Diagram of medicine lodge of 1890 75 

10. Medicine drum and stick 77 

11. Gourd rattle 78 

12. Presents suspended from pole 80 

13. Otter-skin medicine bag 83 

14. Inside construction of snake-liag 97 

15. Dance of wooden efflgies 98 

16. Kime'iln's trick with claw and mirror 100 

17. Konii'pamik or emblem of the society 101 

18. Diagram showing movement of mitli'wok 103 

18a. Mnemonic songs 100 

19. Ball stick 128 

20. Tshi'saqkan or j ugglery 147 

21. Juggler's rattle 148 

22. Thimble charm containing love powder 155 

23. Dancing place of the Dreamers 158 

24. Diagram of the Dreamers' dancing place 1.59 

25. Place of the drum 160 

26. Ancient form of protecting graves 239 

27. Modern gra\e-box 240 

28. Graves of Osh'kosh and his wife 240 



Figure 2'J. Wooileu bowl for gambling -11 

30. TainboiirinB drum - -43 

31. Holtliug suow-snake preparatory to throwing 245 

32. Tecumtha's pipe 218 

33. Inlaid stone pipe 249 

34. Bark domicile for summer use 254 

35. Bedstead of saplings 236 

36. Wooden mortar and pestle 257 

37. Elm log for making splints 260 

38. Mallet 260 

39. Knife of native workmanship 260 

40. Coil of basket strips 261 

41. Finished basket 261 

42. Suowshoe for men — Menomini type 264 

43. Ojibwa and Menomini children's snowshoe 265 

44. Snowshoe for women — Ojibwa type 265 

45. Frame holding unfinished headwork 269 

46. Design of first variety of working in beads 270 

47. Design of second variety of working in beads 271 

48. Third form of working in beads 272 

49. Groundplan of trap for small game 273 

50. Apacho iron point 277 

51. Arrowshaft showing mode of feathering 277 

52. Ute stone knife 282 

53. Ute stone knife 283 

54. Apache stone point 284 

55. Birchbark vessel for mapl". sap 289 

56. Tenskwatawa the Shawano prophet, 1808 and 1831 670 

57. Greenville treaty medal 671 

58. Tecumtha 682 

59. Harrison treaty pipe 688 

60. Kiinakiik the Kickapoo prophet - 693 

61. Kiinakiik's heaven 694 

62. Onsawkie 698 

63. Nakai-dokli'ni's dance- wheel 704 

64. Siiiohalla's flag - 726 

65. Charles Ike, Smohalla interpreter 728 

66. Diagram showing arrangement of worshipers at Smohalla service. . 729 

67. John Slocum and Louis Yo waluch 746 

68. Shaker church at Mud bay 758 

69. Wovoka 764 

70. Navaho Indians 810 

71. Vista in the Hopi pueblo of Walpi ? 812 

72. A Sioux warrior — Weasel Bear 844 

73. Red Cloud 846 

74. Short Bull 851 

75. Kicking Bear 853 

76. Red Tomahawk 856 

77. Sitting Bull the Sioux medicine-man 858 

78. Sketch of the country of the Sitting Bull fight. December 15, 1890.. 859 

79. Survivors of Wounded Knee — Blue Whirlwind and children 877 

80. Survivors of Wounded Knee — Marguerite Zitkala-noni 878 

81. Survivors of Wounded Knee — .Jennie Sword 879 

82. Survivors of Wouude<l Knee — Herbert Zitkalazi 880 

83. Sitting Bull the Arapaho apostle 896 



FiGURK 84. Two Kiuwii propliecios ^froIU a. Kiowa caleudar) 907 

85. Poor Hurtalo 90S 

86. Sitting Bull comes (lowu (from a Kiowa, ealendar) 909 

87. A'platail 912 

88. Arapaho tipi and windbreak 957 

89. Bed of tlie prairie tribes 963 

90. Shinny sticli and ball 964 

91. Wakuna or head-feathers 964 

92. The Thunderbiru 969 

93. Hummer and bullroarer 974 

94. Dog-soldier insignia — rattle and (|uirt 987 

95. Diagram of awl game 1002 

96. Sticks used in awl game 1003 

97. Trump sticks used in awl game 1003 

9S. Baskets used in dice game 1004 

99. Dice used in dice game 1005 

100. Cheyenne camping circle 1026 

101. Paiute wikiup 1049 

102. Native drawings of Ghost dance — A, Comanche; B, Sioux 1060 

103. .Jerking beef 1066 

104. Kiowa camping circle 1080 




By J. W. Powell, Uirector 


Researches among the American Indians were contini;ed 
during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1893, in accordance 
with law. 

The immediate purpose in instituting these researches and 
in organizing the Bureau in 1879 was the discovery of the 
relations among the native American tribes, to the end that 
amicable groujis might be gathered on reservations. This 
practical demand for the early researches conducted by the 
Bureau led direct!}' and unavoidably to an innovation in ethnic 
classification. In earlier classific systems mankind, like the 
lower animals, were classed by somatologic or physical char- 
acters — I'aces were defined by color of skin and by structure 
and form of hair, while subdivisions of the primary races were 
defined by stature, conformation of skull, form of nose, atti- 
tude and color of eyes, etc. Anterior to the institution of the 
Bureau this method of classifving peoples came into vogue on 
the American continent, and a not inconsiderable part of the 
literature of the aborigines related to the somatologic features 
of their tribes and to su})posed affinities indicated thereby; 
though it is just to say that the greater part of such literature 
originated abroad or in American centers far removed from the 
habitats of the aboriginal tribes. Even before the institution 
of the Bureau, yet still more during ensuing years, it was 
ascertained by observation among the American Indians that 


wliatever may be the meaning of somatologic diaracters they 
do not indicate affinity in arts and motives, ideas and senti- 
ments, and other essentially human charactenstics. Accord- 
ingly it was found futile even to begin grouping the Indians 
on reservations by somatologic characteristics; and tlie fii-st 
result of the researches, even before the organization of the 
Bureau was complete, was to show that somatologic classifi- 
cation is utterly useless in practical ethnic work. 

Failing completely in the attempt to classify the tribes 
somatologically — i. e., on a biotic basis, — efforts were at once 
directed toward devising a practical classification of the tribes 
resting on some other basis; and after examination of repre- 
sentative tribes in different parts of the country and study of 
the literature based on actual observation among the Indians, 
it was found feasible and indeed necessary for every puipose 
to define the tribes, clans, families, and other groups of the 
aborigines by purely human or demotic characters. Thus, 
while it Avas early ascertained that the human genus may be 
separated from the lower animals on strictly biotic grounds 
(and that the utility of this mode of classification for ethnic 
purposes goes no further), it was ascertained also that even 
this primary distinction is made stronger when human or 
demotic characters are considered; and it was ascertained at 
the same tiine that demotic characters form a satisfactory basis 
for subdivision of the genus Homo into families, clans or 
gentes, tribes, and confederacies. Among the demotic charac- 
ters those connected with language are of prime importance, 
while governmental institutions, religion, industries, and arts 
are usually of almost equal importance. 

On considering and testing the applicability of the demotic 
characters of the Indians, it was soon found that tribes speak- 
ing the same or similar languages are at peace more frequently 
than are tribes of diverse tongues; that similarit}^ in lan- 
guage generally accompanies similarity in tribal organization 
and law, while similarity in language and law is cominoidy 
connected with similarity in beliefs and arts; and that peoples 
similar in these characteristics can be combined on reserva- 
tions without engendering strife. Pursuing the system, it was 


found that, in general, language alone served as a satisfactory 
basis for a practical classification of tlie Indians for use in 
grouping them on reservations, since clans of remote habitats 
speaking the same tongue soon find themselves dominated by 
a common or at least related law and religion constituting a 
self-evident bond of sympathy and ultimate union. Accord- 
ingly it was proposed to classify the American Indians for 
practical purposes on a linguistic basis, and on this basis they 
were grouped and from time to time assembled on reserva- 

So the initial work of the Bureau was the development of 
a practical systeni of classifying primitive peoples, and the 
conditions were such as to permit an actual test of the classi- 
fication and to compel the rejection of unnatural, illog-ical, or 
incongTuous systems. Thus it was found absolutely necessary 
to abandon current systems of ethnic classification, and to 
devise and adopt a system based on purely human charac- 
teristics springing from intellectual activities. 

Manifold results flowed from the adoption of the linguistic 
classification. In the first place, the enforced recognition of the 
importance of human characters tended to raise ethnic research 
to a higher plane, a plane on which intellectual attributes 
prevail, and on whicli motives and sentiments become nor- 
mal and legitimate subjects of research — i. e., the tendency 
was to demark mankind from lower animals and define an 
essentially distinct science, the Science of Man. Again, the 
linguistic classification stimulated the study of language, and 
both directly and indirectly conduced to a better acquaintance 
with the tribesmen and thus to pacific relations between the 
red men and white. Moreover, the observed association of 
social organization and law with language promoted inquiry 
concerning the institutions of the Indians, and, as inquiry 
showed that most of the tribes are bound by highly elaborate 
systems of organization, research went on apace, both within 
and without the Bureau. Furthermore, the observed associa- 
tion between language and law on the one hand and belief on 
the other gave a new significance to the curious ceremonials 
of the Indians and gradually led to the discovery of higldy 


elaborate, albeit crude, religious systems among' all the tribes. 
As time passed tliese tendencies interacted and each investiga- 
tion stimulated cognate research, and the Science of Man 
expanded and grew definite and proved to have increasing 
interest and importance. 

A o-eneral result flowing- from the use of the ling-uistic clas- 
sification was a method of reseai'ch maturing in administrative 
policy; energv was withdrawn largely from the somatologic 
researches which had been found of no avail for practical 
ethnic purposes, and attention was giA^en chiefly to stu(h' of 
those qualities of the aborigines which were found to be at the 
same time of the greatest practical use and of the deepest 
scientific significance. So the special lines of research taken 
up as tlie work progressed were those relating to linguistics 
or the arts of expression; to social organization and law; to 
myths and ceremonials, and to arts of both welfare and pleas- 
ure. These considerations were adjusted to practical condi- 
tions, including the means at the disposal of the Bureau, the 
qualifications of collaborators, etc ; and in this way the course 
of the investigation and the history of the Bureau have been 
shaped. Since the institution of the work, etforts have con- 
stantly been made to increase and diftuse interest in ethno- 
logic matters, not only through the publication of reports, but 
through correspondence and personal conference; and it is a 
source of great satisfaction to note the ever-increasing atten- 
tion given to the Science of Man throughout the world and 
especially in this country. This is the youngest of the 
sciences ; it can not e^-en yet be said to lie fully organized and 
recognized; but the organization is well advanced. 

It is a pleasure to acknowledge the cooperation of many 
investigators in difterent parts of the continent during the 
last year. Through the scientific zeal and kindly courtesy of 
these correspondents, valuable additions have been made to 
the rich collection of aboriginal records in the archives of the 
Bureau almost every month; and through these contributions 
researches have been facilitated, and special records have been 
enriched, and science has been promoted. It is earnestly 
hoped that this collaboration may continue; and students of 


the American Indians are cordially invited to contribute to the 
Bureau archives. The edition of the reports published for 
distribution by the Bureau is used chiefly for exchange with 
correspondents sending- material for the archives and library. 



Tile chief arts of expression are speech and writing. These 
arts are Intimately related and interact constantly so that each 
is in large measure dependent on the other for its utility in 
conveying human thought. Spoken language is evanescent and 
of limited range unless crystallized and garnered in graphic 
symbols, while an unspoken language is never in harmony 
with the spirit of the times and can be perpetuated and inter- 
preted only by dint of great and ever increasing labor; and the 
successful languages are those in which phonetic and graphic 
symbols are so adjusted one to another that they can be spoken 
and written with ecpial facility. Viewed in sequence, each 
modern language is the product of constant effort to improve 
and extend expression, modified by the elimination of extrava- 
gant, redundant, or incongruous symbols, both phonetic and 
graphic; viewed in sequence, each primitive language is the pro- 
duct of efli"ort to express thought in ])honetic symbols, slightly 
modified by crude and incomplete elimination of the unsuit- 
able and extravagant; and viewed in sequence, language in 
general may be considered the product of unceasing efiPort 
to express ever-growing human thought, modified by the elim- 
ination of incongruous and unnecessary features. All obser- 
vation indicates that the early efforts to express thought, either 
in general or in special cases or along particular lines, are 
vague and indefinite, or chaotic, and that the art grows into 
system through small increments of the good, but especially 
through constant elimination of the bad; thus the early stages 
of any phase of the art of expression are of exceptional inter- 
est in that they indicate the laws of linguistic evolution. The 
beginning of spoken language is lost in antiquitA" and can never 
be recovered; but t]w- beginning of written language may be 


studied among many peoples now jiassinti' from the primitive 
condition toward civilization. 

Numerous aborijrinal trilx's were at the tliresliold of writing 
when the xVmerican continent was discovered; a few were fairly 
entered on the domain of graphic expression, but most were 
still groping blindly and widely for definite methods; and their 
spontaneous and unguided essays toward the crystallization 
and perpetxiation of thought in graphic s^'mljols were remark- 
ably cui-ious and instructive. A common mode of recording 
thought among the Indians inhabiting the territor\' now form- 
ing the United States was that of crude inscription forming 
pictographs; accordingly these primitive essays toward graphic 
expression were subjected to study, and the research was found 
fruitful. Earlier than the attempt to annihilate time tlu'ough 
a ])ermanent record was the effort to Ijridge the chasm of space 
by thought symbols extending beyond the reach of sound; and 
thus nearly all primitive })eo])les, including most of the x\nierican 
tribes, deyised systems of signaling by means of gestures, the 
waving of weapons and garments, fires and smokes, etc. In 
conjunction with signaling, many ill-organized groujjs of people, 
consisting of clans and tribes temporarily or permanenth' at 
peace yet speaking- distinct dialects or tongues, devised systems 
of gestures or signs for conveying ideas; among some Ameri- 
can tribes this mode of expression became highly developed. 
Together, signaling and gesture sjaeaking constitute a distinct 
art of expression coordinate with speech and writing, though a 
nearly iiseless one after the invention and utilization of graphic 
symbolism; and the study of the art is especially significant 
since its stages of rise, culmination, and decadence were exem- 
plified among different American tribes. It is for these reasons 
that the work of pictography and sign language was taken up 
in the Bureau, and the reasons have appeared only stronger 
and more definite as the study progressed. 

Researches concerning the pictogi'aphs and gesture speech 
of the native American tribes were continued by Colonel Gar- 
rick ]\Iallery, who spent a jjart of the A'ear in the field in 
northern New England and contiguous territory in special 
work among the survivors of the Abnaki, Micmac, and other 


Algonquian tribes. The W(»rk resulted in substantial additions 
to knowledge of the picture writing and gesture speech among 
these people. During the greater part of the year Colonel 
Mallery was occupied in the office first in preparing and after- 
ward in revising- and correcting the proof sheets of his extended 
report entitled "Picture writing of the American Indians," 
which fonus the greater })art of the tenth animal report of the 
Bureau. This elaborate treatise is a practically exhaustive 
monograph on the subject to which it relates. The plates 
and text illustrations, which together comprise nearly fourteen 
hundred figures, were collected with care and represent with 
fidelitv the aboriginal picture writing of all portions of the 
country, while the significance and relations of the glyphs are 
discussed in detail in the text. 

During the later portion of the year, in intervals of the 
work of proof revising. Colonel I\[allery continued the collec- 
tion and arrangement of material relating to the sign language 
of the American aborigines. A preliminary treatise on this 
subject was published in one of the early reports of the Bureau; 
but since that time, partly through the stimulus to study of the 
habits and customs of our native tribes afforded by that jjubli- 
cation, a large amount of additional material has been ol)tained. 
It is the purpose to collate and discuss this material in a final 
monograph, which will be, it is believed, even more compre- 
hensive than that on pictography, and Colonel Mallery has 
made satisfactory progress in this work. 

Dr W. J. Hoffman, who has for some years been associated 
with the work on pictography and sign language, was occu- 
pied during the greater part of the year in collateral researches 
relatino- to the ceremonies of a secret societv (the "Grand 
Medicine Society") of the Menomini Indians of Wisconsin. 
Beginning with the study of the pictographs and gestures of 
these Indians he gradually extended his investigations to other 
characteristics of the tribe, and for three years in succession 
attended the initiation of candidates into their most important 
secret societv, and was thus enabled to obtain the archaic 
linguistic forms used only in the langviage employed in the 
esoteric ritual. The data collected were subsequently col- 



lated and iiicorjjorated in a meinoir on the Menoniini Indians 
api)ended to this report. Some attention was given alsf) to 
hng-uistic matter, including- gesture speech, collected among 
the Absaroka or Crow Indians in j\Iontana and the Leech Lake 
band of Ojibwa Indians in jMinnesota. 


An early result of" contact between the aborigines and the 
white discoverers and pioneers was the Ijeginning of a jji'ocess 
of acculturation, or interchange of culture, in which the intel- 
lectually weaker race Ixirrowed the more. Thus the Indians 
graduiillv acquireil portions of the language of the white men, 
as well as some of the classitic concepts expressed by the terms. 
Through the influence of missionaries they soon acquired more 
or less definite fiducial concepts by which their own beliefs were 
sometimes modified or replaced, though more frequently glossed 
over without material change: and through contact in peace 
and war, barter and industries, and in other ways, the Indians 
gradually learned something of the social organization and law 
of the white men and came haltingly under legal domination. 
In these directions the acculturation of the Indian was slow, 
but in the directions of the arts of welfare and pleasure the 
change was rapid; metallic cutlery was sought with avidity 
after the first test of its excellence; the horse was taken, bred, 
and trained by the plains tribes; firearms were quickh- ai)])re- 
ciated and obtained, and in various other ways the arts of 
peace and war among the aborigines were transformed A\^ithin 
a remarkably short period — indeed, a wave of European cul- 
ture spread over the continent from the Atlantic and Gulf coasts 
long before the pioneer settlers j^ushed their way westward, 
so that manv tribes were already riding horses and some were 
using metal when first seen by the white men. So rapid and 
complete was this industrial acculturation that it has always 
been difficult to obtain trustworthy information concerning the 
strictly aboriginal arts of the Indians. The earliest records of 
explorers and other observers have been studiously examined 
only to find in many cases that acculturation was under way 


before observation began, so that it became necessary, as knowl- 
edge gTaduallv increased, to sift the statements and winnow 
the chaff of the acqnired from the harvest of the aboriginal ; and 
to this end it was soon found advantageous to check even 
the earliest observations on the industries of the Indians by 
comparing the im])lements and weapons foinid in use with those 
obtainable from demonstrablv j)rehistoric accunuilations. 

Partly to check observation in this wav, and thus to obtain 
accurate information concerning the aboriginal arts of welfare 
and pleasure, partly because of the inherent interest of the 
subject, archeologic researches have been carried forward in 
different parts of the country. In each district special atten- 
tion has been g'iven to the characteristic relics constituting 
records of the prehistoric past; in eastern United States scat- 
tered implements and utensils have been studied, aboriginal 
quarries have been examined, house remains have been inves- 
tigated, and Aallage sites have been surveyed; in the interior 
the characteristic mounds and earthworks have received special 
attention, and in Avestern United States ancient pueblos, cliff 
houses, cavate lodges, and other relics of the al)original inhab- 
itants have been surveyed, and their features reproduced in 
description and illustration. 

During the last year archeologic researches were actiA'ely 
continued by Professor W. H. Holmes, with several collabora- 
tors and assistants, in different eastern states and in the interior. 
The work in eastern United States has been notably rich in 
results of scientitic value. Professor Holmes examined in 
detail the novaculite quarries of Arkansas, the pipestone quar- 
ries of Minnesota, and the ancient copper mines of Isle Royale, 
Michigan. He also made inq)ortant studies at various points 
in the valleys of Potomac, Genesee, and Ohio rivers, and his 
surveys and examinations in Delaware valley, pai-ticularly 
about Trenton, were especially extended. At the last-named 
locality advantage was taken of the excavation ( if a broad and 
deep trench parallel with the river front at Trenton to study 
carefully the late glacial gravels commonly sujijjosed to yield 
Imman relics. For a period of six weeks the excellent expos- 
ures made in this trench, 25 to 35 feet deep, were constantly 


watelied by Professor Holmes and Mr William Diuwiddie, 
without, however, the finding of a single artificial object in 
the previously undisturbed gravels. This negative result is 
believed to he of great importance to American archeology. 
Special examinations, frequently requiring excavations, were 
made of the ancient soapstone quarries of the District of 
Columbia and in Virginia, Mr Dinwiddle and Mr Gerard 
Fowke aiding in the work; and toward the close of the year 
Mr De Lancey W. Gill, of the United States Geological 
Survey, was detailed to make an examination of the ancient 
mica mines of North Carolina. Valuable collections of mate- 
rial re})resenting aboriginal arts and industries grew out of 
this work. 

In December Professor Holmes was placed in charge of the 
exhibit of the Bureau of Ethnology for the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition at Chicago, and several months wei'e occupied 
main!}' in preparing, classifying, labeling, and an-anging the 
exhibit, which includes (1) a series of collections illustrating 
aboriginal quarrying, mining, and implement-making indus- 
tries; (2) various collections of ethnologic material made chiefly 
by collaborators of the Bureau; and (3) a series of life-size 
figures illustrating the domestic life, arts, and industries of the 
aborigines. It is a pleasure to observe that this exhibit attracted 
great attention among visitors to the Exposition. Messrs Henry 
W., James Mooney, F. H. Cushing, and Gerard 
Fowke aided in the preparation of this exhibit. 

At intervals throughout the year Professor Holmes continued 
researches concerning the development of the shaping art.s. 
Hitherto, American archeologists have in general been content 
to accept the classification of prehistoric peoples into culture 
stages based on the products of art work in stone, the classifica- 
tion being derived from European studies. During the last 
decade difierent archeologists have devoted much attention to 
the development of pristine culture as indicated by the artificial 
stone implements, weapons, and other objects found in many 
parts of this country, and have come to question the applica- 
bility of the Euroi)ean classification. While the investigation 
can not be regarded as complete, it is worthy of note that a 


large body of data lias been brought together which seem to 
afford a basis for an indigenous classiiication of primitive Ameri- 
can art products. This chissifieation will, it is believed, eventu- 
alh- gi^•e character to that liranch of American archeology 
whicli deals with art in stone. 

The researches concerning tlie ancient Indian mounds dis- 
tributed over many portions of the country, particulnrlv the 
Mississippi valley, have been continued by Dr Cyrus Thomas. 
The chief work during tlie year has been the preparation of 
matter for publication and the revision of proofs of text and 
illustrations. The principal results of Dr Thomas' researches 
are incorporated in a monograph of over 700 pages in the 
twelfth annual report. Several minor ])apers relating to differ- 
ent classes of articles collected from mounds are also in vari- 
ous stages of preparation, two being ready for puljlication. 

In addition to his special work on the Indian mounds, Dr 
Thomas was able to devote some time to the study of Mexican 
codices of exceptional archeologic interest. Considerable prog- 
ress has been made in analyzing the characters of the Maya 
codices, and it is believed that these highl}- significant inscrip- 
tions may ultimately be deciphered by means of the methods 
devised and pursued by him. 

Jlr Cosmos Mindeleft' continued his study of the Pueljlo 
relics and prepared an elaborate treatise on the subject for the 
press. This work, under the title "Aboriginal Remains in 
Verde Valley, Arizona," is now completed, and forms part of 
the thirteenth annual rejjort. It illustrates in detail the archi- 
tecture and various industrial arts recorded in the ruined cities 
of pre-Columbian tribes in the southwest. 

In addition to the surveys and researches already noted, Mr 
Gerard Fowke was employed for several months in archeologic 
explorations in Ohio. He was able to obtain much valuable 


As indicated on earlier pages, the demotic relations of tthe 
Indian tribes are of great significance; for not only was it 
found necessary to classify the Indians on a demotic basis, but 


it was ascertained that the institutions of several tribes are 
wonderfully elaborate and reveal the germ of higher svstenis 
of social organization. Albeit unwritten, primitive law is 
hardly less definite than that of civili/x-d nations governed by 
statutes, iuid is frequently better understood bv the people. 
The institutions are often highly complex, yet they are main- 
tained and rendered definite b}' a variety of ingenious devices, 
while custom and etiquette, which appear meaningless to the 
casual observer, often express the experience of generations 
and carr\^ the force of la^v. The researches concerniuir the 
social organization and institutions of the Indians have been 
eminently productive. 

During the last year the Avork on the sociology of the Amer- 
ican Indians was continued by Mr H. W. Henshaw. Through- 
out the earlier months he was occupied in collecting soeiologic 
and linguistic materials among the Indians of Butte, Mendo- 
cino, and San Diego counties, California, the records of his 
work being duly transmitted to the office at Washington. 

It is greatlv to be reo-retted that early in 1S93 ^Ir Henshaw 
was compelled by ill health to ask for indefinite leave of 
absence. For several years he had been engaged in researches 
relating to the social customs and organizations of the Indian 
tribes, and had accumulated in the Bureau archives a large 
body of valuable information Avhich he was engaged in pre- 
paring' for the press when his healtli Ijegan to fail, and he 
was transferred to field work. In addition to his scientific 
researches he had also aided constantly in the administrative 
work of the office. While the material accumulated by his 
years of labor remains in the office, it is wot in form for imme- 
diate publication; and both author and Bureau suffer disap- 
pointment and loss in the interruption of the work at this 
important stag-e. Ethnologic students everywhere will doulit- 
less share the hope that Mr's recovery and resumption 
of scientific work ma}" not long be delayed. 

About the middle of June Mr W J McGee entered the 
Bureau as Ethnologist in charge, and commenced researches 
conceniing the relation of jjriniitiNe art." and in.stitutions to 


Mr James Mooney spent the greater part of the year in the 
field collecting information concerning the ghost dance of the 
Sioux, and regarding the habits, customs, and social relations 
of the Kiowa and other tril)es, visiting the Sioux Indians at 
Pine Ridge, South Dakota, the Shoshoni and northern Arapaho 
in Wyoming, and the Cheyenne, southern Arapaho, Kiowa, 
Comanche, and associated tribes in Oklahoma. The ghost 
dance study was pushed to completion, and a memoir on the 
subject was prepared to accompany this report. In addition 
to valuable literary material, he made important collections of 
objects representing aboriginal life, including- a series of Kiowa 
shield models with illustrative pictography affording data for 
a study of primitive heraldry, and three important calendars. 

In December Mr ]\Iooney was commissioned to make col- 
lections among the Navaho and Hopi of New Mexico and 
Arizona for exhibition at the World's Columbian Exposition. 
This work resulted in a remarkable collection of unique mate- 
rial from two of our most interestino- native tribes, includinof 
the products of industrial arts, costumery, etc, as well as the 
photographs and materials needed for preparing and exhibiting 
a series of groups of life-size figures illustrating domestic life, 
industries, and ceremonies. In addition an unprecedentedly 
extensive collection of Indian food products was obtained for 
the National Museum. 


With a view to rendering the classification of the Indian 
tribes so nearly exhaustive as practicable, it is the policy of 
the Bureau to utilize every opportunity for the collection of 
linguistic material among the aborigines. A part of the collab- 
orators are expert linguists Avho are employed in collecting, 
comparing, classifying, and arranging vocabularies and gram- 
mars; in addition, much valuable material is olitained through 
correspondence with travelers and local students, and espe- 
cially from teachers and missionaries employed among tlie 
Indians. All such material is suitably arranged in fireproof 
vaults and kept constantly accessil)le for study. It is not con- 
sidered desirable to publish minor linguistic collections, partly 


because they are commonly fragmentary, partly because it 
is found that the arrangement of the mateiial i.s iiiipi-oved and 
its significance made clearer with eacli new addition; it is the 
polic}' to publisli extended and well arranged linguistic collec- 
tions from time to time, and one such monograph, on the Dakota 
language, was sent to press during the year as volume ix of 
the Contributions to North American Ethnology. With the 
increase in linguistic data new relations are found ainono- dia- 
lects, and the definition of the linguistic stocks is found to grow 
more trenchant; at the same time it becomes possible to trace 
more clearly the history and laws of tlie development of the 
dialects and stocks and the comparisons and the principles 
discovered thereby thi-ow much light on the general subject 
of linguistic development. Tims the linguistic researches have 
been found remarkably fruitful. 

During the year linguistic researches were continued by the 
Director, with the collaboration of Messrs J. Owen Dorsey, 
Albert S. Gatschet, and J. N. B. Hewitt. 

Mr Dorsey was occupied in part with the preparation of the 
work on Indian synonymy, in connection with which he made 
a thorough study of the Catawba tribes and their habitats. 
He also resumed work on the Biloxi language, at first using- the 
material collected during the previous year, arranging the 
Biloxi verbs in fourteen conjugations, making a list of Biloxi 
onomatopes, and compiling a Biloxi-English vocabulary of 
about two thousand entries together with a catalog of Biloxi 
roots. For the ])urpose of carrving this investigation to com- 
l)letion, he visited Lecompte, Louisiana, during the Avinter and 
s])ent two months with the survivors of this interesting tribe. 
In addition, he practically finished the work of editing the 
manuscript of Riggs' "Dakota Grammar, Texts and Ethnog- 
raphv," which constitutes volume ix of the series of Contribu- 
tit)ns to North American Ethnology. Proofs of this work 
were revised during the later portion of the year. 

The earlier ])art of the year was spent by Dr Gatschet in 
the study of the Wichita language at the Educational Home for 
Indian Boys in Philadelphia. Special attention was given to 
the Wichita verb, which, like the verb of all the Caddoan 


languages, is highly complex in its inflections and in the per- 
mutability of its consonants. From October 1 to the end of 
Ajwil Dr Gratschet was occupied in the study of the Peoria, 
Shawano, Arapaho, and Cheyenne languages in Indian Terri- 
torA". Eiglit weeks were devoted to the Peoria language, 
during which period over three thousand terms and a corre- 
sponding niunljer of phrases and sentences were collected and 
revised This study is deemed of exceptional interest, since no 
texts of the Pe(iria language are known to have appeared in 

The Shawano. language was next taken up. Assisted in the 
field by good interpreters, Dr Gratschet obtained copies and 
relialjle material in texts of the phraseology and terms of the 
Sliawano language, a number of A'erbal and nominal paradigms, 
and a choice selection of instances showing the multiplicity of 

Subsequently Dr Gatschet took iip the Arapaho and Chey- 
enne languages. Both are nasalized and are spoken in several 
dialects differing but little from one another. Ample collections 
were made of lexic and phraseologic material, with texts and 
some poetic specimens. The ethnographic study of these gen- 
uine prairie Indians is liigld}- interx^sting, since tliey have had 
but a few years of intercourse with the white man and his civ- 
ilizing influences. 

Mr Hewitt continued liis work on the Iroquoian languages, 
with which he is thoroughly familiar. He was able to ascer- 
tain and fonnulate the principles or canons governing the num- 
ber, kind, and position of notional stems in symphrases or 
word-sentences. Six rules are formulated which establish 
and govern the morphologic groundplan of words and word- 
sentences. These are as follows: 

First. The simple or the compound stem of a notional Avord 
of a word-sentence mav not be employed as an element of dis- 
course without a pi-efixed simple or complex personal pronoun, 
or sign or flexion denotive of gender, the prefixion of the lat- 
ter taking place with nouns only. 

Second. Only two notional stems may be combined in the 
same word-sentence, and they must belong respectively to dif- 
ferent parts of speech. 


Third. An adjective-stem may not combine with a verb-stem, 
but it niay unite with the formative th(i\ to make or cause, or 
with the inchoative (;. 

Fourth. The stem of a verb or adjective may combine with 
the stem of a noun, and such stem (»f a verb or adjective must 
be placed after and never before the noun-stem. 

Fifth. A qualificative or other word or element must not be 
interposed between the two combined stems of compound 
notional words, nor between the simple or compound notional 
stem and its simple or complex pronominal prefix. 

Sixth. Derivative and formative change may be effected only 
by the prefixion or suffixion of suitable flexions to the morpholo- 
gies fixed by the foregoing rules or canons. 

Mr Hewitt continued also his general study of the Iroquoian 
languages described in previous reports, and collected addi- 
tional material relating to the manners, customs, and history 
of the Iroquois Indians, chiefly by translation and abstraction 
from the Jesuit Relations and accounts of the early French 
explorers. Work on the Tuskarora-English dictionary and 
grammar also was continued. 


The work in bibliography of native American languages was 
continued by Mr James C Pilling. Two numbers of the series 
of bibliographies were issued as bulletins of the Bureau 
during the year, another was sent to press, and a fourth was 
nearly completed in manuscript. The later proofs of the sixth 
of the series, which relates to the Athapascan languages, were 
revised early in the year. The work was subsequently issued 
as a bulletin of 138 pages, embracing .544 titular entries with 
4 facsimile reproductions. Although the publication was not 
distributed until the spring of the present calendar year, it 
has already been favorably noticed in scientific journals in this 
and other countries; and the critical reviews show that the 
students of our native languages place this work by Mr Pilling 
on the same high plane accorded the previous volumes of the 


The bibliograpliy ut" the Chiuookan hmguages (inchiding- 
the Chinook jargon) was sent to press in October and proof 
revision was finished in April. In the compilation of this bib- 
liography much attention was given to the origin and growth 
of the Chinook jargon, or "trade language," of the northwestern 
coast, which has come to be an international dialect, affording 
the established means of communication between the whites 
and the several native tribes occupying- the region between the 
state of Washington and Alaska, whose languages are many 
and' diverse. While this bibliography (the seventh of the 
series) comprises but 94 pages and includes only 270 titular 
entries, it is believed that it will jn-ove no less valuable to 
linguistic students tlian the earlier numbers, since it is sub- 
stantially a record of a dead language, there being- but one 
man now living who full}' understands the tongue on which 
the linguistic relations of the family rest. The edition of this 
bulletin was delivered by the Public Printer in May. 

The manuscript of the bibliography of the Salishan 
languages was sent to press in March, and proof re^^sion is 
in progress. This work exceeds in volume the Chinookan liib- 
liography, and, like that, deals with the records of one of the 
highly interesting group of native tongues of our Pacific 
region, which, though doomed to early extinction, are among- 
the most important sources of information concerning the 
development of language. 

Toward the close of the year Mr Pilling was occupied in 
preparing for the press the bibliography of the Wakashau 
languages, the ninth nnmber of the series, which is now well 

The value of the several bibliographies has been greatly 
enhanced, and their preparation has been materially facilitated 
through the cooperation of linguistic students in different 
parts of the country. Special acknowledgments are due Dr 
Horatio Hale, the well-known philologist, and Mr J. K. Gill, 
author of a dictionary of the Chinook jargon, for aid in the 
preparation of the Chinookan bibliography; and Mr Pilling 
acknowledges equal obligations to the Reverend Myron Eells 
and Dr Franz Boas for information concerning the Chinookan 
and Salishan lanffuaffes. 



As indicated in earlier reports, many of the pioneer observ- 
ers of the Indians fell into not nnnatural errors concerninsr 
the religious beliefs and ceremonials of the Indians, some of 
the observers considering- foi-mal ceremonies as nothinir more 
than sportive extravagancies, and others finding therein sup- 
posed evidences of definite spiritual and theistic concepts. As 
investigation progressed it was ascertained that the various 
tribes possess more or less definite religious systems comprising 
belief and ceremonial; and that the beliefs are interwoven with 
the social organization and institutions, their influence even 
extending far into everyda}' occupations and pastimes. The 
researches in this direction have been richlv repaid by intei'- 
esting and important results. 

Tlie researches in mythology, by Mr Frank Hamilton Gush- 
ing and i\Irs Matilda Coxe Stevenson, were continued through- 
out the year. iMr Gushing was occupied chiefly in arranging 
and collating material previously collected, with a view to 
pul)lication. An important result of his work is the demon- 
stration of the fact that the mythic concepts, which form so 
large a part of the intellectual life of primitive peoples, are 
greatlv modified by the liodilv organs and functions exercised 
in their expression. In some cases this relation between organ 
or function on the one hand and concept on the other is so 
intimate as t(i justify the ascription of the modern concept to 
dual causes, of which the first is intellectual, while the hardly 
less essential second cause is phvsiologic; for example, it may 
be shown conclusively that the decimal system forming the 
basis of the arithmetic of certain southwestern tribes is essen- 
tially indigenous and has grown up through successive gen- 
erations from counting on the fingers in certain definite ways. 
"^I'liis relation between concepts and physiologic structure is 
especially significant in its bearing on the development of 
primitive mythology. 

Mrs Stevenson was occupied during a part of the year in 
revising for the press her report entitled "The Sia," which 
forms one of the accompanying })apers in the eleventh annual 
rej^ort of the Bureau, now in the hands of the printer. She 


was also engaged for several months in the preparation of a 
memoir on the secret societies and ceremonials of the Znni 
Indians. Mrs Stevenson's researches among the southwestern 
tribes have not only resulted in important contributions to 
knowledge of the primitive beliefs by which the daily life of 
these peoples was governed, but have thrown light on the migra- 
tions and ethnic relations of their ancestors. The monograph 
on this subject, which is illustrated by numerous graphic repre- 
sentations, is approaching com):)letion. 


The preparation of this work, which has engaged the atten- 
tion of nearly all the collaborators of the Bureau at various 
times, is well advanced. During the year Messrs H. W. Hen- 
shaw, F. W. Hodge, James Mooney, and J. Owen Dorsey have 
contributed to the work. The portions of the synonymy relat- 
ing to the tribes of the following stocks are ready for publica- 

Attacapan, Beothukftn, Kalapooian, Karankawan, Kusan, 
Lutuamian, Muskhogean, Natcliesan, Skittagetan, Timuquanan, 
Tonikan, Uchean, Yakonan, and Yuman. 

In addition, the Algonquiaii and Iroquoian families — two of 
the largest and most important — require comparatively little 
elaboration by Mr ]\Iooney (to whom these stocks wei"e origin- 
ally assigned) to make them ready for press. 

When his other duties permitted, Mr Hodge devoted attention 
to the elaboration of material pertaining to the Piman family, 
as well as that of the Pueblo stocks (Zuiiian, Keresan, Tanoan, 
and the Tusayan division of the Shoshonean). Very little work 
is now required to complete for publication the material relat- 
ing to these tribes. In addition, Mr Hodge introduced into 
the descriptions formerly made of some twenty stocks (princi- 
pally in California) a large body of new material made known 
by recent investigations. 


Within recent years it has come to be recognized by many 
ethnologists that the mythic concepts, and through these the 


social institutions, of primitive peoples are dependent on a lim- 
ited number of factors, including- (1) individual and tribal 
environment, and (2) individual and collective modes and 
habits of thought. Now, the first of these factors has received 
the attention of nearly all investigators, while the second has 
received much less consideration and is frequently ignored. 
Accordingly, it has been thought desirable to undertake the 
investigation of intellectual method for the puqwse of devel- 
oping the principles of psychology, and thus atfording a more 
definite basis for the researches in mythology and sociology. 
To this subject the Director has devoted a considerable part 
of the year, and a tentative system of psychology, which prom- 
ises to guide further researches, has been formulated. 


The Director spent several weeks in ethnologic exploration 
on the Northern Pacific slope. The territory lying between 
the Sien-a Nevada and the Pacific is of exceptional interest to 
ethnologists by reason of the remarkable number of independ- 
ent linguistic stocks crowded into a relatively small area; 
three-fourths of the distinct groups of peoples in this country, 
and fully half of all known on the western hemisphere, are 
found in this territory. The northern part of the tract has never 
been explored by students; and in the hope of discovering 
additional stocks among the i-emaining tribes, as well as in the 
hope of gaining additional knowledge concerning the origin 
of this remarkable diversity of languages, an exploratory trip 
was planned. The results of the observations are incorporated 
in reports now in course of preparation for the press. Mr Hen- 
shaw, in southern California, and Mr Mooney, in the northern 
Rock}' Mountain reg-ion, also penetrated areas and encountered 
Indians not previously seen by scientific students. 


As incidentally noted in preceding paragraphs, some time 
and thougrht have been given to the installation of an ethno- 
logic exhibit in the World's Colunibian Exposition at Chicago. 


This exhibit occupies the southern portion of tlie government 
•building. It comprises a Lirge amount of material of jjojjular 
as well as scientific interest, derived from various sections of 
the country, a considerable part of this material having been 
collected or prepared especially for the exposition. Most of 
the collaborators of the Bureau ha^'e contributed directly or 
indirectly to this exhibit. 

The work of the modeling deiiartment has been continued. 
The chief work has lain in the restoration and repair of models 
previously constructed and exhibited at the expositions in New 
Orleans and Madrid. A numljer of new models and several 
replicas of models already constructed have, however, been 
prepared, chiefly for use in the Columbian Exposition. 

During the year an exceptional number of api)lications for 
definite information concerning our native tribes have been 
received from the publishers of encyclopedias, dictionaries, 
phvsical geographies, and other standard works, and in view 
of the educational value of these publications and the manifest 
public advantage to be gained from the diff'usion of the results of 
the latest scientific researches, it has been deemed important to 
respond to such applications so fully as possible. Much infor- 
mation has been disseminated in this way during the year, and 
several encyclopedia articles have been prepared by the Director 
and different collaborators of the Bureau. 


The work connected with the illustration of reports has 
been continued under the supervision of Mr De Lancey W. 
Gill, chief of the division of illustrations of the Geological Sur- 
vey, the actual labor of executing drawings being performed 
in large joart b}' iliss Mar}- Irvin Wright and Miss I\Iary M. 
]\Iitchell. Most of the work done by the former artist is 
highly elaborate, comprising drawings of Pueblo life and cere- 
monials and representations of scenes in the ceremonials of the 
ghost dance. The chiet work of the latter has been the prep- 
aration of drawings of Indian implements, principally objects 
of stone. Two hundred and fifty-seven original drawings 



designed tor reproduction by various processes were executed 
during- the year. 

One thousand three hundred and forty -four engraved proofs 
have been received from the Public Printer durino- tlie fiscal 
year and have been examined, revised or ajjproved, and re- 
turned. The printed editions of all chromolithographs used in 
the publications of the Bureau have also been examined and the 
imperfect sheets rejected. 

The photographic work of the Bureau has been ably directed, 
as in previous years, by Mr J. K. Hillers. The following state- 
ment includes the work done in the photographic laboratory 
during the year: 


28 by 34 inches . 
22 by 28 inches . 
20 by 24 inches . 
14 by 17 inches . 
11 by 14 inclics . 
8 by 10 inches .. 
5 by 8 iuches . . . 
4 by 5 inches . .. 







1, 153 


The following publications were issued during the year: 

(1) Eighth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to 
the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1886-87, by 
J. W. Powell, Director. This document is a royal octavo vol- 
ume of xxxvi4-298 pages, illustrated by 123 plates and 118 
iigures. In addition to the administrative report, it contains 
two special monographs, viz : A Study of Pueblo Architecture: 
Tusayan and Cibola, by Victor Mindeletf, and Ceremonial of 
Hasjelti Dailjis and Mythical Sand Painting of the Navajo 
Indians, by James Stevenson (revised and elaborated by 
Matilda Coxe Stevenson). 

(2) Bulletin of the Bureau of Ethnology, Bil;)liographv of the 
Athapascan Languages, by James Constautine Pilling. This 


document comprises xiii + 125 pages (including 4 pages of 

(3) Bulletin of the Bureau of Ethnology, Bibliography of 
the Chinookan Languages (including the Chinook Jargon), 
by James Constantine Pilling. This is an exhaustive volume 
comprising xiii + 81 pages (including 3 pages of facsimiles). 


Appropriation by Congress for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1893, "For continuing ethnological researches among the 
American Indians under the direction of the Smithsonian 
Institution, including salaries or compensation of all neces- 
sary employees" (sundry civil act, approved August 5, 1892) $40, 000. 00 

Balance July 1, 1892, as per last annual report 15, 008. 06 

$5.5, 008. 06 

Salaries or compensation 36, 985. 01 

Traveling expenses $3, 281 36 

Field expenses 311. 50 

Drawings 970. 25 

Stationery 159. 05 

Freight 229. 53 

Field material 137. 73 

Supplies 1,711.14 

Publications 399. 36 

Specimens 3. 00 

Miscellaneous 310. 84 

7, 513. 76 

44, 498. 77 

Balance July 1, 1893 10, 509. 29 

14 ETH IV 



Three special papers illustrating the methods and resialts of 
operations in the Bureau are appended to this report. The first 
of these is a monograph on the Menomini Indians, prepared by 
Dr W. J. Hoffman; it represents the results of studies of this 
tribe carried forward in connection with other duties during the 
years 1890, 1891, and 1892. Tlie second paper is a literal 
reproduction of the only authentic copy known of Castaneda's 
account of the Coronado expedition through the temtory now 
included in northern Mexico and southwestern United States, 
together with an English translation by Mr George Parker 
Winship, of Harvard University. These two papers are incor- 
porated in this volume. The third paper, which forms jjart 2 
of this report, is an extended account of the so-called "ghost- 
dance religion" which prevailed widely among- the Indians of 
the United States, particularly during the winter of 1891-92; 
it was prepared by Mr James Mooney, after visiting most of 
the tribes affected by this remarkable mental epidemic. 

The range in subject-matter of the accompanying papers is 
broad. One renders accessible for the first time the earliest trust- 
worthy observations of the Indians of the southwest; another 
presents a clear picture of an interesting interior tribe, and con- 
nects the living persons, customs, institutions, and beliefs with 
their natural ancestry back to the first coming of white men 
and the beginning of history in their region ; the third depicts 
in strong colors certain characteristics of the primitive beliefs 
persisting among the Indians down to the present. 


This interesting tribe, a branch of the great Algonquian 
stock, has been known by white men since the middle of the 
seventeenth century. From the beginning they were the "rice- 


men" of the Grreen bay region, for tliey Avere known as gather- 
ers and consumers of the wild rice growing abundantly about 
the lakelets and marshes left by the retreating ice sheets of the 
Pleistocene, and their custom gave origin to the name by which 
they were known among other Indian tribes and subsequently 
among their white neighbors. Partly no doubt by reason of 
this custom, the Menomini Indians were notably sedentary, and 
they were also peaceful ; for pacific disposition normally accom- 
panies sedentary habit. Accordingly the tribesmen withstood 
the shock of Caucasian conquest better than the roving war- 
riors of neighboring tribes, so that their descendants still occupy 
the ancient hunting grounds and rice fields, now inclosed in 
an important resei'vation. The various stages in the civilizing 
(exoterically, at least) of the Menomini Indians, the treaties 
with the Federal Government, etc, are indicated with consid- 
erable fidlness in the memoir. 

Dr Hoffman's account of the tribal government, totemic insti- 
tutions, and genealog)" of the chiefs illustrates some of the char- 
acteristic features of primitive social organization, as exemplified 
among the American Indians. The chieftaincy is hereditary, 
within vaguely defined limits of fitness; yet di\'ination or sor- 
cery plays an important role in shaping standards of fitness, 
and the civic institutions, howsoever definite, tangible, and well 
adapted to current needs, are assumed and generally believed 
to be "mysterious" or supernatural in origin, and the penumbra 
of "mystery" approaches very near unto, and even partially 
eclipses, rational mentation on the part of everyday actors in the 
political drama. Thus the arts and institutions of tribal gov- 
ernment are confusingly entangled with mysticism and esote- 
ric ceremonial, in which sorcery holds conspicuous place. If 
the Menomini alone were considered, it might be impossible to 
separate the tangible from the mysterious, the real from the 
unreal, but through comparison of the ideas prevailing in many 
tribes it is possible not only to segregate the mysticism but to 
analyze its components and discover the stages and principles 
of its development. 

Dr Hoffman's description of the cult societies and ceremo- 
nials, and Mr Mooney's description of the temporary ghost cult 


illustrate the strong hold of mysticism on the primitive imag- 
ination. The human mind is preeminently characterized by 
a desire for knowledge; so the novel and unusual are ever 
attractive to normal eyes, and as knowledge progresses the 
normal observer strives to learn more and more of the attract- 
ive object, and when the limit of observation is reached, tlie 
observer is impelled to enter the fields of generalization and 
inference in order that he may conceive that which he can not 
directly perceive. In these respects all men, savage or civil- 
ized, illiterate or cultured, are alike in kind, though there is a 
difference in degree, for among civilized and cultured peoples 
the thirst for knowledge is the more acute, while the powers 
of observing and reasoning are trained toward accuracy and 
trustworthiness. When the civilized observer encounters an 
unfamiliar fact, his first impulse is to explain it, and an expla- 
nation is sought in terms of exjjerience, and he is able to draw 
not only on his own stock of individual experience but on the 
experience of others as crystallized in custom, craft, and liter- 
atui'e ; and the test of the explanation is found in its conformity 
to experience, individual and general. When a })rimitive 
observer encounters an unfamiliar fact, he normally seeks to 
explain it in like manner in terms of experience, but he is 
handicapped by feeble intellectual grasp, by poverty in that 
general experience which is stored up and made available only 
by means of letters, and by the slovenly fashion of appeal to 
the mystical ; and if the fact lies beyond the borders of every- 
day experience there is no test for the explanation other than 
comparison with a body of explanations of which all may 
be equally incomj^etent. Herein lies the essential difference 
between the scientific hypothesis and the primitive hypothesis; 
the one is formidated and expressed in terms of experience, 
the other rests on appeal to the unknown; and it is to be 
remembered that partly for this reason the ratio of hypothesis 
to observation is much larger among the primitive and illiterate 
than among the cultured So the typical Indian explanation 
of things involves appeal to the unknown, and through habit 
the unknown itself has come to be formulated in terms of the 
mysterious. The explanation of the color bands of the raccoon, 


by saying- that he painted his face and body with bands of 
black and white in resj)onse to an injunction received in a ■sision, 
is a typical Indian hypotliesis, and tlie hypothesis that the head 
of the catfish was flattened by the trampling of a mythical 
moose is also typical. It is by the invention of such liypoth- 
eses, by perpetuating them in tradition and arranging them in 
myths, that pi-imitive philosophy is developed. 

One of the conseqviences of primitive reasoning is abnormal 
credulity; for where there is no experiential test of probability 
the improbable is accepted no less readily than the probable. 
This weakness in primitive mental operation gives origin to 
sorcery; for ever is credulity the soil whence deception springs 
and feeds. There is a certain symmetry in the crude philoso- 
phy of the Menomini Indians. By reason of limited experience 
their hypotheses appeal to the unknown; through habitual 
appeal to the unknown they have organized a system of mys- 
teries which is in a measure a counterpart of the actual objects, 
forces, and sequences of the real world. By reason of the 
absence of tests for truth, in conjunction witli the habit of 
appealing to the unknown, they are credulous as children, and 
by reason of their credulity, in conjunction with their m^-stical 
philosophy, they have come to be ridden by sorcery- and priest- 
craft. Thus the dominant intellectual characteristics of the 
people are due to the interaction and cumulative development 
of certain intellectual tendencies which are measurably com- 
mon to all primitive peoples. 

On considering the sorcery and related customs of the 
Indians, it is not to be supposed that the tribes consist of 
dupes and knaves, or that there is any wide intellectual and 
moral difterence between the active sorcerers and their jiassive 
coadjutors; nor is it to be supposed that any considerable part 
of the thaumaturgic ceremonial represents intentional or even 
self-conscious deception. It should be remembered that the 
whole intellectual fabric of the primitive thinker is affected by 
his habitual modes of thought, that the real and the unreal 
are constantly and invariably confused, and that mystical 
influences are believed to dominate every action of self and 
others, particularly in the ceremonial where such influences 


are specially sought. It is to this mental attitude that many 
featui-es of the ])riniitive eereuiouial are to be ascribed; indeed 
it is to this wide-prevailing attitude among primitive peoples 
that the remarkable development of jugglery, so refined as to 
deceive the eyes and judgment even of trained observers, must 
be attributed. 

Some of the games observed among the Menomini Indians, 
like most of those played by primitive peoples, are in part divin- 
atory ; and it is probable that all of those now played for diver- 
sion alone have been modified through accviltiiration. Much 
of the interest attaching to the games of the Indians springs 
from their divinatory function. Dominated by habitual as- 
sumption of mysterious infiuence, the tribesman is imal)le to 
systemize action, whether for welfare or amusement, without 
constant reference to occult powers; so the hazard of cliance 
is interpreted as expressing the favor or disfavor of capricious 
potencies, and the habitually ])layed game of chance soon 
becomes an invocation. Primarily, primitive games, like those 
of more advanced culture, involve quickness of perception, 
strength, and skill, and the unorganized gambols of children 
and spontaneous antics of adults are mainly or wholly diver-' 
sional; but the divinatory tendency is ever present and com- 
monly prevalent, and to this tendency the multiplication and 
persistence of set games among the Indian tribes may be 

The double vocabulary appended to the memoir aftbrds a 
typical example of the simpler aboriginal tongues. It is pub- 
lished as an illustration of primitive ideation and expression, 
and is a feature in the general description of the tribe rather 
than a finished linguistic study. 


Scientific researches concerning the aborigines were not 
undertaken until most of the tribes were afi"ected in gi-eater or 
less degree by acculturation. Especially was this true of the 
industrial arts, as already set forth. Again, the movements of 
nomadic and migratory tribes were aft'ected by the advent of 
the white men so that some of their relations among one another 


and to their environment were obscured to scientific observa- 
tion. For this and other reasons it has been found pecuharly 
advantageous to scrutinize the accounts of the discoverers and 
earliest explorers of different portions of the continent. Some 
of the explorers were illiterate or indifferent and left no record; 
others recorded the events in their journeys, usually giving 
much space to the strange and striking race found in posses- 
sion of the soil. Most of these early records have been lost; 
a few have fallen into the hands of scholars and have been 
published in this country and abroad; it is probable that others 
lie buried in state and mission archives scattered throughout 
this country, Canada, and Mexico. 

There were no keener observers of the Indian than the 
early Spanish explorers and missionaries who penetrated the 
unknown land stretching far north of Mexico in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. The narratives of De Soto, Ayllon, 
Ponce de Leon, Cabeza de Vaca, Coronado, and many others 
who with cross and sword explored the wilds now composing 
the southern half of the United States, are stories of marvelous 
intrepidit}' and suffering; yet they seemed never to lack cour- 
age, and only rarely were they too closely pursued by hunger 
or by the Indian to record witli surprising fidelity whatsoever 
came under their observation. 

It is to one of these expeditions that the memoir by Mr 
George Parker Winship is devoted. Mainly to the narrative 
of Pedro de Castaneda, a subordinate follower of Coronado's 
expedition, are we indebted for an account of the natives 
through whose country the army passed during- its two years' 
journey from Culiacan in western Mexico to the buffalo plains 
of Kansas, and back to the lakes of Tezcuco. 

The original manuscript of Castaneda's relacion, prepared 
at Culiacan about twenty years after the events which it nar- 
rates, is not known to exist, the Spanish archives at Simancas, 
Seville, and Madi'id having been searched for it in vain. The 
copy from which was prepared the Spanish text, now for the 
first time published, was made at Seville in 1596, and is in 
possession of the Lenox Library, New York City, through the 
courtesy of whose trustees and librarian the present publication 


has been permitted. A French translation from the 1596 copy 
was pubhslied at Paris in 1838 by Hein-i Teruaux-Compaus; 
it contains a number of errors which have misled students of 
the expedition and of the Indian tribes encountered b}' it, and 
Avliich are now broug-ht to light. No English translation of the 
narrative has hitherto been published. 

In his historical introduction Mr Winship presents an elab- 
orate account of the reasons for the Coronado expedition, 
reviewing' the results of the ill-fated expedition of Panfilo de 
Narvaez and the wanderings of Cabeza de Vaca and his tlu'ee 
com])anions, its sole survivors, for nearly eight years among 
the tribes west of the Mississippi and in northern Mexico, and 
their final arrival at the Mexican capital. A detailed account is 
given also of the condition of affairs in Mexico between 1536, 
the date of Cabeza de Vaea's return, and the journey of Friar 
Marcos, of Nice, to the cities of Cibola in 1539. It is to this 
remarkable fi'iar that the discovery of Arizona and New Mexico 
is to be attributed, and to his narrative, the truth of which has 
been attested by Bandelier, that some of our knowledge of the 
early character of the natives of the extreme southwest has 
been gained. 

It is singular that so little has popularly been known of the 
Coronado expedition, for it is doubtful if such an array of 
splendor has since been beheld by savage eyes. Two hundred 
and sixty horsemen, 70 footmen, and more than 1,000 friendly 
Indians and Indian servants, according to one authoritv, com- 
posed the army, accompanying- which, as a part of its food 
supply, were 5,000 sheep and 150 cattle, from which the live- 
stock of the southwest has sprung. "The young cavaliers 
curbed the picked horses from the large stock farms of the 
viceroy, each resplendent in long blankets flowing to the 
ground. Each rider held his lance erect, while his sword and 
other wea^wns hung in their jiroper })laces at his side. Some 
Avere arrayed in coats of mail, polished to shine like that of 
their general, Avhose gilded armor Avith its brilliant trappings 
was to bring him many hard blows a few months later. Others 
wore iron helmets or visored headpieces of the tough bullhide 
for which the country has ever been famous. The footmen 


carried crossbows and liarqiiebiises, while some of them wei'e 
armed Avith sword and shield." 

Thus equipped did Coronado, on April 22, 1540, start forth 
on his two years' journey from Culiacau, taking as an advance 
guard about 75 horsemen and a few footmen. Passing the 
Indian settlements of Sonora and Arizpe, he reached the massive 
ruin of Chichilticalli within the limits of Arizona, and on July 
7 reached Hawikuh, the hrst of the cities of Cibola or Zuni, 
which he named Granada. As the natives had fortified them- 
selves, the \-illage was assaulted and at once captured, the in- 
habitants retiring to Thunder mountain. Coronado remained at 
Zuni about two months, in the meantime sending out small par- 
ties for the exploration of the adjacent country. One of these, 
under Pedro de Tovar, proceeded to Tusayan, or the seven 
Hopi pueblos, in northeastern Arizona, where they learned of 
the Grand Canyon of (Jolorado river, which Lopez de Cardenas 
was afterward sent to explore. Hernando de Alvarado was 
dispatched eastward to the Tiwa villages of the Rio Grande 
and to the buffalo plains. In September Coronado and his 
immediate followers pressed on to the Rio Grande, vi.siting 
en -route the pueblo of Acoma, which stands today on the 
famous peilol it then occupied. Meanwhile the main army 
arrived at Cibola and proceeded to Tiguex, on the Rio Grande, 
where winter quarters were established. 

It was during this winter that Castaneda gained most of his 
information regarding the pueblos of the Rio Grande. For at 
least seven months he was in constant touch with the ancestors 
of the Tiwa of the present villages of Isleta and Sandia on 
the Rio Grande, and, as will be seen by the narrative, his oppor- 
tunities were not neglected. 

In April of 1541 the entire force under Coronado left Tiguex 
for Pecos, proceeding thence across the gi'eat plains through 
herds of buffalo extending as far as the eye could reach, guided 
by an Indian of the mysterious Quivira, whom the Spaniards 
had named Turk. The description of the route of Coronado 
being quite vague, students of southwestern ethnology have, 
up to this time, been at a loss to trace with exactness the line of 
travel of the Spanish force, or satisfactorily to identify the tribes 


of Indians encountered on the way. With the pubUcatiou of 
the Spanisli text, however, it is beHeved that more Hght ou these 
questions will now be cast. 

So far as results beneficial to Coronado, to his hiyal follow- 
ers, or to New Spain were concerned, this celebrated expedition 
was, in the words of Mr Winship, "a total, dismal, ruinous fail- 
ure." But to the ethnologist and the historian it foi*ms the 
beginning- of known events in the vast southwest, and furnishes 
information of the aborigines of that section as they existed 
over three and a half centuries ago that otherwise could never 
have been known. 

In addition to the Castaneda narrative, ]\Ir Winship presents 
translations of other accounts of the Coronado expedition and 
its achievements. These include the letters of the vicero}" Men- 
doza and of Coronado to the King, one of those of the latter 
being written from Zuni; the Traslado de las Niievas, the Reki- 
cion del Suceso, the Relaciou Postrera de Si'rola, the narrative of 
Jaramillo, one of Coronado's captains; the report by Alva- 
rado of his journey from Cibola to Tiguex and the buffalo 
plains, and the testimony concerning those who went on the 

The memoir is made more intelligible by a series of ancient 
maps reproduced from their originals, showing the geographic 
knowledge of the times, particularly after the important addi- 
tions growing out of Coronado's work ; it is also eni-iched by 
a number of illustrations of the new country, strange people, 
and novel structures which greeted the eves of Coronado and 
his men and shaped their concejitions. These illustrations, 
and a number of the ethnologic notes by which the scientific 
value of the document is enhanced, were contributed by Mr 
F. W. Hodge. 


The remarkable religious fantasy which overspread western 
United States during the years 1889-92, and the lamentable 
Sioux outbreak connected with it, were so recent and so widely 
heralded by the press as to require no introduction to the read- 
ing public. Fortunately a collaborator of the Bureau of Eth- 


nology, Mr James Mooney, was already engaged in researches 
concerning some of the tribes affected by the fantasy, and he 
was commissioned to make detailed inquiries concerning its 
rise, spread, and decadence. The accompanying memoir com- 
prises the results of these inquiries. 

Perhaps the most striking feature of the ghost religion is the 
rapidity with which it extended from tribe to tribe and from 
stock to stock over an area including nearly one-third of the 
United States; and this feature appears the more striking 
when it is considered that the cult was propagated through 
personal contact ainong representatives of a primitive race 
traveling in primitive ways and little more rapidly than they 
mig-ht have traveled before the advent of white men. Another 
striking feature of the cult was its potent influence on character 
and conduct of its devotees; individuals were seized with 
ecstasy so complete as to suspend normal mental processes and 
dominate bodily functions for hours and days; docile and con- 
tented Indians became morose, suspicious, bloodthirsty; peace- 
ful tribes plunged into conspiracy and open rebellion against 
the guardian nation — indeed the influence of partially acquired 
culture, of partially recognized and habitually obeyed law, of 
hereditary association with the superior race was swept away 
and temporarily forgotten, and thousands of tribesmen revei-ted 
to a primitive condition save that it was made worse and lower 
by reason of the increased capacity of its victims. The record 
of this curious evanescent cult, which seems rather a travesty 
on religion than an exj^ression of the most exalted concepts 
within human grasp, is a dark chapter in the history of the 

The rapid spread and potent influence of the ghost cult 
indicate a remarkable receptivity on the part of the Indians 
who became its devotees; the reason for this receptivity is to 
be found in the peculiar mode of thought characteristic of the 
Indian mind, as already set forth. Habitual appeal to the 
unknown for the explanation of simple facts; habitual assump- 
tion of ill-defined mysterious doubles of all real things ; habit- 
ual materialization of natural forces in strained imagination; 
habitual peopling of the air, the earth, and the waters with 


shadowy images; habitual indulgence in visionary revery, 
coupled with occasional, vision-producing fasts — in short, habit- 
ual war})ing of imagination and A^'eakening of judgment in a 
varietv of ways tended to produce liability to mental infection 
of the kind displayed in connection with the ghost dance. 
This memorable fantasy is a striking illustration of one of the 
dangers attending mental development under primitive condi- 
tions, and its testimony is in harmony with innumerable less 
striking examples. 

One of Mr Mooney's chapters is devoted to <ither fantasies 
and more definite religious movements of historical note. His 
aim in preparing this chapter was to place before students the 
data for detailed comparison; and so far as practicable the 
original accounts are given verbatim, Avithout comment. It 
may be observed that caution should be exercised in comparing 
or contrasting- religious movements among civilized peoples 
with such -fantasies as that described in the memoir; for while 
interesting and suggestive analogies may be found, the essential 
features of the movements are not homologous. Most of the 
primitive peoples of the earth, including the greater part of 
the American Indians, represent the prescriptorial stage of cul- 
ture (some of the characteristics of which were set forth in the 
last report), while white men represent the scri2:»torial stage. 
Now, the passage from the earlier of these stages to the later, 
albeit partially accomplished among different peoples, proba- 
bly marks the most important transition in the development 
of human culture or the history of the race; so that in mode 
of thought and in coordination between thought and action, red 
men and white men are separated by a chasm so broad and 
deep that few representatives of either race are ever able clearly 
to see its further side Again, there are several stages in 
the development of religious belief which have been set forth 
elsewhere; the earliest of these is hecastotheism, in which 
powers are imputed to animals, vegetals, and minerals; the 
second is physitheism, in which the natural forces and agen- 
cies are deified, and the third is psychotheism, in which the 
spiritual concept is for the first time formulated; and the primi- 
tive peoples of the earth, including the American Indians, are 


in the first or the second of these stages, and nothing more 
than a feeble germ of the third stage is fonnd among them. 
Now, stndies of mythologic and religious systems indicate that 
the earlier two stages overlap among different peoples, and also 
that the psychotheism of the more advanced among the primi- 
tive peoples is closely akin to enlightened religious concepts, 
but that the second and third stages are more Avidely distinct. 
Accordingly, red men and white are separated by the broadest 
known chasm in the development of belief, a chasm so broad 
that few representatives of either race are able definitely to 
bridge it in thought. Thus, many of the movements described 
in this cha^jter were among- peo2:)le separated from the ghost 
dance enthusiasts by the widest known cultural break as well 
as by the widest known break in fiducial development; and 
whatever the superficial resemblance in the movements, there 
is a strong presumption against their essential homology. 

In its extent and intensity the ghost-dance tantasy of 1889- 
1892 is a unique illustration of one of the characteristics of 
the aborigines which has long been under investigation in the 
Bureaii of Ethnology, and the accompanying memoir is a con- 
tribution toward the final results of these researches. 


14 ETH 1 






Introduction 11 

History of the iuvestigatiou 11 

Haljitat of tlie tribe ' 12 

The tribal name 12 

Discovery and early history 14 

Treaties with the Federal Government 20 

Present location 31 

Population and characteristics 32 

Antiquities 36 

Tribal government, totems and chiefs 39 

The lines of chieftaincy 39 

Origin of totems 39 

The totems of the present 41 

Totemic organization 42 

Genealogy of chiefs 41 

Language employed in cult rituals 60 

Cult societies 66 

Jlitii' wit, or Grand Medicine society 66 

Organization of the society 66 

Ceremonies of 1890 69 

Notes on the ceremonies 104 

Ceremonies of 1891 113 

Notes on the ceremonies 116 

Ceremonies of 1892 125 

Notes on the ceremonies 127 

Ceremonies of 1893 136 

Supplementary note on the ceremonies 137 

Tshi'saqka, or j ugglers 138 

The Wii beno 151 

The Dreamers 157 

Mythology 161 

Former condition of the myths 161 

The travels of Mii'niibfish 162 

The origin of maple sugar and of menstruation 173 

Manabush and the Bear aua'maqki fi 175 

How the young Hunter caught the Sun 181 

The Hunter and the Elk people, and how the Moose were defeated 182 

The young man and the Bears 196 

TheRabbitand the Saw-whet 200 

Manabush and the Birds 203 

Kaku'ene, the Jumper, and the origin of tobacco 205 

The search for Miiniibush 206 

Folk tales 209 

The Moon 209 

The Aurora borealis 210 



Folk tales — C'ontiuued. Page 

Meteors 210 

The Porcupine 210 

TheRaccoou 211 

The Raccoon and the blind men 211 

Shiku'ko, the Skunk 213 

The Catfish 2U 

The first meeting of the Menomini and the whites 214 

How the Hunter destroyed the Snow 216 

The Bear and the Eagle 217 

Mii|kii'no, the Turtle 218 

TheRabbitnnd the Panther 221 

The Be;n er Hunter and his sister 222 

Na"ni Naioq'tii, the Hall Carrier 223 

Origin of the word Chicago 238 

Mortuary customs 239 

Games and dances 241 

The ilka'qsiwok game 241 

Moccasin or bullet game 242 

Lacrosse 244 

Kail game 244 

The snow-snake 244 

Races 245 

Tobacco and Shawano dances 247 

Pipes and tobacco 247 

Architecture 253 

Dwellings and lodges 253 

Other structures 255 

Furniture and implements 256 

Beds 256 

Stoves 256 

Utensils 256 

Mortars and ]>estles 257 

Troughs 257 

Cradles and hammocks 258 

Products of uumufacture 258 

Mats 258 

Baskets 259 

Twine and rope - 260 

Tanning 261 

Medicine-bags 261 

Sno wshoes 263 

Dress, ornaments, bead work and drilling 264 

Hunting and fishing 272 

Game of the Menomini region 272 

Fish and fisheries 273 

Traps 273 

Bows and arrows 274 

Arrow-making 275 

Release 280 

Penetration 280 

Bows and bowstrings 280 

Quivers 281 

Modern stone arrowjioints 281 

Poisoned arrows 284 



Food 286 

Food in general 286 

Gormandism 287 

Offensive food 287 

Maple sugar 287 

Wild rice 290 

Berries and snakeroot 291 

Canoes 292 

Vocabulary 294 

Introductory 294 

Menomiui-Euglish 295 

Euglish-Menomini 315 

I L L U S T R A T I N S 


Plate I. Part of Wisconsin showing locatiou of Menomini reservation 33 

II. tiroup of mounds near Kesheua 37 

III. Certiticate of Tslielcatshake'maii 46 

IV. Portrait of A'kwine'ini Osh'kosh 48 

v. Building of medicine lodge 71 

VI. Interior of ceremonial .structure of 1890 73 

All. Shaman's trick with snake bag 96 

VIII. Candidate after being sliot 101 

IX. Candidate receiving medicine bag 102 

X. Splitting bark 113 

XI. Sudatory with blanket removed from front 117 

XII, Mitii'wikomik of 1892 125 

XIII. Ball players 129 

XIV. Game of bowl _ 241 

XV. Indians playing moccasin or bullet game 243 

XVI. Log house of native construction 253 

XVII. Wigwam covered with mats 255 

XVIII. Winter habitation of bark 257 

XIX. Infant on cradleboard 259 

XX. Mat making 261 

XXI. Push mat 262 

XXII. Bark mat . 264 

XXIII. Section of bark mat 266 

XXIV. Tanning 269 

XXV. Beaded garters showing art figures 270 

XXVI. Beaded garters showing art figures 272 

XXVII. Beaded garters showing art figures 274 

XXVIII. Beaded necklaces 277 

XXIX. Dancer's beaded medicine bag 278 

XXX. Trap for small game 281 

XXXI. Varieties of arrowheads 283 

XXXII. Birclibark sap buckets and yoke 285 

XXXIII. Camp of sugar makers 287 

XXXIV. Camp of berry pickers 289 

XXXV. Wooden canoe or dngout 291 

XXXVI. Cutting timbers for bark caiioe 293 

X.XXVII. Setting up bark canoe 295 

Fig. 1. Copper spearpoint 37 

2. Portrait of Nio'pet 49 

3. Portrait of Ni'acjtawa'pomi 50 

4. Portrait of Sliu'nien 59 

5. Ceremonial structure of 1890 71 

6. Ceremonial baton 73 

7. (ira ve post 74 



Fig. 8. Graves where feast was held 75 

'J. Diafjiani of iiieilicino lodge of 1890 75 

10. Medicine drum and stick 77 

11. Gourd rattle 7g 

12. Presents suspended from pole 80 

13. Otter-skin medicine bag 83 

14. Iusid<' construction of snake-bag 97 

15. Dance of wooden eflif;ies 98 

16. Kirai-'an's trick with claw and mirror 100 

17. Konii'paniik or emblem of the society 101 

18. Diagram showing movement of niitii'wok 103 

18a. Mnemonic songs 106 

19. Ball stick 128 

20. Tshi'saiikan or jugglery 147 

21 . .1 uggler's rattle 148 

22. Thimble charm containing love powder 1,55 

23. Dancing place of the Dreamers 158 

24. Diagram of the Dreamers' dancing place 159 

25. Place of the drum 160 

26. Ancient form of protecting graves 239 

27. Modern grave-box 240 

28. Graves of Osh'kosh and his wife 240 

29. Wooden bowl for gambling 241 

^0. Tambourine drum 243 

31. Holding snow-snake iireparatory to throwing 245 

32. Tecumtha's pipe 248 

33. Inlaid stone pipe 249 

34. Bark domicile for summer use 254 

35. Bedstead of saplings 256 

36. Woo<len mortar and pestle 2.57 

37. Elm log for making splints 260 

38. Mallet 260 

39. Knife of native workmanship 260 

40. Coil of basket strips 261 

41. Finished basket 261 

42. i^nowshoe for men — Menomini type 264 

43. OJibwa and Menomini children's snow.shoe 265 

44. Suowshoe for women — Ojiliw.a type 265 

45. Frame holding imfiuished beadwork 269 

46. Design of first variety of working in beads 270 

47. Design of second variety of working in beads 271 

48. Third form of working in beads 272 

49. Gronndplan of trap for small game 273 

.50. Apache iron point 277 

51. Arrowshaft showing mode of feathering 277 

52. Ute stone knife 282 

53. Ute stone knife 28;! 

54. Apache stone point 284 

55. Birchbark vessel for maple sap 289 


By Walter James Hoffman, M. D. 

history of the investigation 

The circumstances under which the materials for the accompanying 
memoir were procured are as follows : 

Having succeeded, in the years 1887-1890, in obtaining from the 
Ojibwa Indians of northern Minnesota instruction in the ritual and 
ceremonials of initiation into the Mide'wiwin or "Grand Medicine Soci- 
ety" of that tribe, together with copies of hitherto unknown mnemonic 
charts and songs, on birch bark, relating to their genesis and cosmog- 
ony, the results were published in the Seventh Annual Report of the 
Bureau of Ethnology. 

In consequence of this exposition of what was to them a secret of 
vital importance, the attention of some Menoniini shamans, who visited 
Washington during the tirst three months of 1890, was gained, and, 
after protracted conferences, the proposition was made by the chief, 
Kio'pet, that a visit to tiieir reservation, at Keshena, Wisconsin, be 
made; that, after proper instruction by some shamans to be appointed, 
due initiation into their society, termed the Mitii'wit, would be con- 
ferred, in order that their version of the traditions and dramatized 
forms of initiation could be studied and preserved "for the information 
of future generations of the Menomini," these arrangements being made 
in anticipation of the consent of the chiefs of the society. 

The first visit was therefore made to Keshena in 1890, followed by 
four subsequent visits, to attend to the necessary instruction and cere- 
monials of the society. It was during these visits that other new and 
interesting facts were obtained — material relating to their mythology, 
social organization and government, customs, industries, and gentile 
system and division into gentes and phratries, together with linguistic 
data germane to the subject in general. 

Tiiese facts were believed to be entirely new to ethnology, as the 
Menomini had not hitherto received careful attention by students, the 


12 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ass. u 

fugitive papers relating to this tribe beiug exceedingly brief, aud often 
difiBcult of access to the general reader. 


The Menomini Indians are located on a reservation in the north- 
eastern part of Wisconsin, and occupy almost the same territory in 
■which they were found by Xicollet in 1634. Their history is intimately 
connected with that of the Winnebago, as they have lived with or beside 
that tribe from very early times, although their language shows them 
to belong to the Algonquian stock, and more nearly related to the 
Ojibwa than to any other. 


The word Menomini is from Omii'nomine'ii' (mano'me, rice, and 
inii'neu'' or ina'ni, man). Shea' says the "name is the Algonquin term 
for the grain Zizania aquatica — in English, Wild Rice. The French 
called both the grain and tribe Fol Avoin — Wild Oats." 

The tribe has been designated in literature under a variety of syn- 
onyms, of which the following are a list, together with the authorities 
therefor, aud such additional notes of the respective authors as may be 
deemed of interest. Some of the changes in orthography are due to 
misprints, but still have a certain value in identification. The people 
of the tribe designate themselves "Menomini," or "Menomoni" giving 
preference to the latter, in which the sound of o is heard, although 
the letter i of the former term is more in harmony with the etymology 
of tlie word. 


Addle-Heads. — Jeffreys, Natural and Civil History of the French Dominions in North 

anil South America, pt. 1, Loudon, 1761, p. 48. 
Fahavoins. — (Johnson, London Doc. xxxvi, 1763) Docs. Col. Hist. New York, vol.vii, 

Albany, 1856, p. 583. (Probably that portion of the tribe living near Green bay; 

enumerates 110 as belonging to Ottawa confederacy.) 
Falsovoins. — (Harrison, 1814) Drake, Life of Tecumseh, and of liis Brother, the 

Prophet, etc, Cincinnati, 1852, p. 162. 
Fellea avoins. — (State of British Plantations in America, in 1721) Docs. Col. Hist. 

New York, vol. v, Albany, 1855, p. 622. 
Folle Avoine. — Relations des .Tcsuites (1671), tome iii, Quebec, 1858, p. 25. 
FoUe Avoines. — (Mem. of 1718) Docs. Col. Hist. New Y'ork, vol. ix, Albany, 185.5, p. 889. 
FoUes, Les. — Featherstonhaugh, A Canoe Voyage up the Minnay Sotor, etc, vol. i, 

London, 1847, p. 174. 
Follesavoine. — (Vaudreuil, 1720) Margry, Decouvertes, tome vi, Paris, 1866, p. 511. 
FoUes Avoines. — (Cadillac, 1695) Margry, Decouvertes, tome v, Paris, 1883, p. 121. 
FolSjLes. — (Baden, 1830) la Prop, de la Foi . . . , tome iv, Lyons, 1853, p. 537. 
FoU Aroin. — Pike, An Account of Expeditions to the .Sources of the Mississippi, etc, 

Philadelphia, 1810, j). 13. 
Fols Avoines. — Brown, Western Gazetteer, Auburn, 1817, p. 265. 
Folsavoina. — (Johnson, 176.S) Docs. Col. Hist. New York, vol. vii, Albany, 1856, p. 583. 

1 Coll. Hist. Soc. Wisconsin, vol. iii, for 18.i6, iladison, 1857, p. 134. 


J^ois-ai'oisc— (ScherQierliorn, 1812) Col. Massachusetts Soc.vol. ii, 2cl ser., Boston, 

1814, p. 10. 
Fulawi II. —{Dalton, 1783) Col. Massachusetts Hist. Soc., vol. x, 1st ser., Boston, 1809, 

p. 123. 
MacomiU. — (La Chesnaye) Margry, Deoouvertes, tome vi, Paris, 1886, p. 6. 
J/a/i«omoHie.— James in Tanner's Narrative of the Captivity and Adventures, etc. 

New York, 1830, p. 326. 
Malhomines. — Charlevoix (1721), vol. ii, London, 1761, p. 61. 
Jfa/ftomiHff.— Bacquovllle de la Fotherie, Histoire de I'Amerique Septentrionale, tome 

ii, Paris, 1753, p. 90. 
Malhoininis. — Iliid., p. 70. 

MaUiomhis. — La Potherie, op. cit., tome i, p. 206. 
ilAai/ioniini/.— (Cadillac, 1695) Margry, D^couvertes, tome v, Paris, 1883, p. 121; 

La Potherie, op. cit., tome ii, p. 49. 
Malhommes. —JeSreys' Natural and Civil History, op. cit., p. 48. 
Malhommis. — (Perrot, 1720) Mc-moire sur les Mu?urs, coustumes et relligion des Sau- 

vages de I'Am^^riqne Septentrionale, Leipzig and Paris, 1864, p. 127. 
jl/aio»if«is.— (Frontenac, 1682) Docs. Col. Hist. New York, Albany, 1855, p. 182. 
Malomimis. — La I Ionian, New Voyages to North America, vol. i, London, 1708, \>. 231. 
Malomines. — Garcilaso, La Florida de! luca, etc, Madrid, 1723, vol. ii, p. 290. 

(Quotes — erroneously — from La Hontau.) 
MaloiiiiHene. — Blue Jacket (1807) in Drake, Life of Tecumseh, etc, op. cit., p. 94. 
Malominis. — La Hontau, op. cit., p. 104. 

Maloiiin. — Sagard (1615), Histoire du Canada, etc, tome ii, Paris, 1866, p. 424. 
Maloumiiielc. — Relations des Jesuites (1658), op. cit., p. 21. 
Maloiiinines.—WarTen (18.52), Col. Minnesota Hist. Soc., vol. v, St. Paul, 1855, p. 33. 

(So designated by the French.) 
Maniivuiiiee. — Kane, Wanderings of an Artist, etc, London, 1859, p. 29. 
Maiiomines. — Henry, Travels and Adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories, 

etc, New York, 1809, p. 107. 
Maroumine. — Relations des Jesuites (1640), tome i, Quebec, 1858, p. 35. 
Muiliomeiiis. — La Potherie, op. cit., tome ii, 1753, p. 70. 
ilathoiniiiis. — Ibid., p. 81. 
jUelliombiys. — (Croghorn, 1759) Proud, History of Pennsylvania, in North America, 

etc, vol. ii, Philadelphia, 1797-98, p. 296. 
Melominees. — Perkins and Peck, Ann. of the West, St. Louis, 1850, p. 713. 
Memoiioiiiier. — Vater, Mithridates oder allgemeiue Spruclieukunde, pt. iii, sec. 3, 

Berlin, 1806-17, p. 406. 
Meniiomiiiies. — (Goldthwait, 1766) Col. ilassachusetts Hist. Soc, 1st ser., vol. x, 

Boston, 1809, p. 121. 
Menomenes. — (Pike, 1806) Schoolcraft, Inf. Respecting Ind. Tribes, vol. iii, Philadel- 
phia, 1853, p. 262. 
Meiiomenies. — Brown, Western Gazetteer, Auburn, 1817, p. 265. 
Menominees.— {Treaty of 1825) U. S. Ind. Treaties, Washington, D. C, 1837, p. 376. 
J/cnomi/ae.— (Treaty of 1826) U. S. Ind. Treaties, Washington, D. C, 1837, p. 155. 
Menominiiy. — Featherstonhaugh, A Canoe Voyage, etc, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 25. 
Menomoec. — GiUe, Map of the Upper Mississippi, 1867. 
ileiioiiioiiees. — (Edwards, 1788) Col. Massachusetts Hist. Soc, 2d ser., vol. x, Boston, 

1823, p. 86. 
Meiiomonei. — McKenney, Rep. Comm. Ind. Aff., Washington, D. C, 1825, p. 90. 
Menomones.— Long's Narrative of an Expedition to Source of St. Peter's River, vol. ii, 

London, 1825, p. 171. 
Meiiomonies. — Boudinot, Star in the West, Trenton, 1816. p. 100. 
Meiiomonys. — Lapham. Indians of Wisconsin, uuip, 1870. 
Menonomees. — (La Poiute Treaty, 1842) Col. Minnesota Hist. Soc, vol. v, St. Paul, 

1855, p. 494. 


Menonomies. — Howe, Historical Collections of Virginia, Charleston, 1852, p. 436. 
Meynomenjis. — (Johnson, Loudon Doc. xxxvi, 1763) Doc. Col. Hist. New York, vol. vii, 

Alliany, 1856, p. .583. (Mentions 110 as belonging to the Ottawa confederacy.) 
Meuiiomiiu'iis. — (Johnson, 1764) Ibid., ]p. 648. 
^iiieaiiiiex. — (.lames Madison, MS., 1778) Schoolcraft, Inf. respectinfj Ind. Tribes, vol. 

iii, rhiladelphia, 1853, p. 560. 
Aliniamin. — Keane, in Stanford's Conipendiuni, London. 1878, \t. 522. 
Miiiominee8. — Jones. History of the Ojibway Indians, London, 1861, p. 39. 
Minomonces. — (Edwards, 1788) Coll. Massachusetts Hist. Soc, Istser., vol. is, Boston, 

1804, p. 92. 
Minonimies. — (Warren, 1852) Coll. Minnesota Hist. Soc, voL v, St. Paul, 1885, p. 33. 
MinonioneH. — Boudinot, Star in the West, Trenton, 1816, p. 107. 
Utinoovience.^ J ones, History of the Ojibway Indians, London, 1861, p. 178. 
Monomins. — Henry, Travels and Adventures in Canada, etc. New York, 1809, p. 107. 
Moiiniiinnrrs. — Schoolcraft, Inf. respecting Ind. Tribes, vol. v, Philadelphia, 1855, 

p. 145. 
Monoiiuinij. — Long, Voyages and Travels of au Indian Interpreter, Lon<lon, 1791, map. 
Moiiumiinies. — (Limlesay, 1749) Dor. Col. Hist. New York, vol. vi, All)any, 1855, p. .538. 
Moon-calvfs. — .Jeffreys, Natural and Civil History, op. cit., ]i. 48. 
Mynomnmies. — Imlay, A Topograph. Descrip. of the Western Territory of North 

America, Limdon, 1797, p. 292. 
Mynomunies. — (Hutchins. 1778) Schoolcraft, Inf. Respecting Ind. Tribes,, Phila- 
delphia. 1857, p. 714. 
Omunomineu. — Father Zephyrin, Prayer Book in Menomoni, St. Louis, 1882. 
Omaiiomini. — Kelton, Annals of Fort Mackinac, Chicago, 1882, p. 149. (So called by 

the Ojibwa.) 
0-miin-o-min-ecy. — (Warren, 18-521 Coll. .Minnesota Hist. Soc, vol. v, St. Paul, 1885, p. 33. 
Oumalominis. — (Prise de Possession, 1671) Margry, Decouvertes, tome i, Paris, 1875, 

p. 97. 
Oumiilniiiiiiiiek. — Relations <tes Jesuites (1670), iii. Quebec 1858, p. 94. 
Oumaluitiiiiiie.i. — Relations des Jesuites (1671), iii, Quebec, 1858, p. 25. 
Oumaloumimt:. — Relations des Ji^suites (1670^, iii, Quebec, 1858, p, 100. 
Oumaomiiiiecs. — (Du Chesnean, 1681) Doc Col. Hist. New York. vol. is. Albiiny, 1855, 

p. 161. 
OuiiaboUiis. — (Prise de Possession, 1671) Doc. Col. Hist. New York, op. cit., p. 803, 
Walhominlea. — McKenney and ILall, History «f the Indian Tribes of North America, 

etc, vol. iii, Philadelphia, 1854, p. 79. 
White Indians. — Long, Narrative of an Expedition to the .Source of St. Peter's River, 

etc, vol. ii, Philadelphia, 1824, p. 175. 
JVild Oats {Xation of the). — Of various authors. 

Wild i?»ce.— (Doc. of 1701) Doc. Col. Hist. New York, vol. ix, Albany. 1855, p. 722. 
Wild Rice Eaters. — Lapham, A Paper on the number ... of the Indians of 

Wisconsin, Jlilwaukee, 1870, p. 3. 


Although the Jesuits had early penetrated the country west of Lake 
^Michigan, and although La Salle had, in 1682, taken formal possession 
of the valley of the Mississippi in the name of Louis the Great, King of 
France and Navarre, it was not until 1699 that Lemoine d'Iberville 
planted the germ whence sprang the colony of Louisiana.' Thencefor- 
ward various posts were established at remote points, to facilitate 
intercourse between the outlying missions and settlements and to guard 

' Parkmjiii, Conspiracy of Pontiac, vol. i, Bostou. 1886, p. 61. 


against invasion along the several waterways. Detroit guarded the 
approach from Lake Erie; Michilimackinac protected the entrance to 
Lake Michigan ; while the forts at St. Joseph and at the head of Green 
bay (called La bay) commanded the routes between the lakes and the 

Sieur Jean Nicollet arrived on the "Bale des Piiants," or Green bay/ 
abont the year 1634, although the account of his voyage thither was 
not recorded by Pere Barthelemy Vimont until 1643. 

Nicollet's arrival in the land of the Menomini was heralded by some 
young Winnebago Indians, who h;ul been sent ahead; so that when lie 
landed "this marvelous man" must necessarily have made a profound 
impression, appearing as he did in a robe of China damask profusely 
decked with flowers and birds of various colors, and " carrying thunder 
in his hands." This gaudy display, together with the firing of pistols, 
caused the terror-stricken women and children to fiee. Between 4,000 
and 5,000 people partook of the feasts, at one of which, it is recorded, 
120 beavers were consumed.^ 

In the notice of the discovery of the Menomini by Nicollet, no accu- 
rate information is given as to their geographic position. Pere Gabriel 
Drcuillcttes, who enumerated the several tribes located on Green bay, 
says that the first "nation," or the nearest to the village or town of St. 
Michel, was called in Algonqnian, <J)upouteouatimik (Potawatomi), and 
comprised about 700 ineu or 3,000 souls, including 100 men of the 
"Nation of the Petun," or Tobacco nation. The second nation was 
that of the Noukek, the Ouinipegouek (Winnebago), and the Malou- 
minek (Menomini). These people, located a short distance only froin 
the Potawatomi, gathered a certain reed which grew naturally on their 
prairies and which was deemed equal to Indian corn. There were 
also 200 Algonkiii, who formerly resided on the rivers and along the 
northern coast of Lake Huron, but who had here sought refuge.^ 

The enumeration of tribes by Pere Dreuillettes continues, i)laciug 
the Maskotin out on the prairie, distant three days' journey by water; 
and various southward tribes are enumerated, with estt-avagant popu- 
lation — for instance, the Alinionek (Illinois), living in 60 villages, were 
said to number 20,000 men, or in the vicinity of 100,000 souls. 

The Noukek of this record were no doubt identical with the Nouquet, 
or Noquette, who lived on the northern extremity of Green bay on what 
today is designated the Bay of Noquet. Under this name, also, were 
the Menomini referred to in some old accounts; but no tribe at present 

•From the French designation, "la grande baie." 

' . . . On depescha jilusieurs ieunea gens pour .lUer au deuant du Manitouiriniou, c'est i\ dire de 
riiomme merueiUeux ; on y vient, on le conduit, on porte tout son bagage. II estoit reuestu d'vne 
grande robe de damas de la Chine, toute parsemee de fleura et d'oyseaux de diuersea couleurs. Si tost 
qu'on I'apperceut, toutes b's femmes et les enfans s'enfuirent, voyant vn homuie porter le tonnerre en 
ses deus mains (c'est ainsi qu'ila uommieut deux pistoleta qu'il tenoit). La nouuelle de aa venue 
s'espandit incontinent aus lieus circonuoisins : il se fit vne asaembl^e de quatre ou cin<i mille hommes ; 
chacun deaprlncipaux tit sou festin, en r\'n desquels on seruit au moins six-vingts Caatora.— Rela- 
tiona des J6auitea, 1643. x»P- ■!, 4. 

3 Relation des J^suites, 1658, p. 21. 


existing preserves this deslguation, the absorption of the group into 
some other body being probably the cause of the disappearance of the 

Tlie Fox Indians occupied the valley of Fox river in 1714, when a 
French ex])edition under de Louvigny invaded their ten-itory, without 
result; but their final expulsion from that country occurred in 1740, 
wlien their allies, the Sauk tribe, with whom they appear to have had 
a common origin, were also forced to leave. 

The Meuomiui finally appear to have concentrated about the head 
of Green bay and along Menomini and Fox rivers, but nothing of 
iriterest concerning them is found for some years, though they and 
other tribes appear to have distinguislied themselves at intervals in 
war expeditions. The jNIenomini, together with the Ottawa, Winne- 
bago, Potawatomi, and other northwestern tribes, rendered conspic- 
uous service in the defeat of Braddock, in 1755, at Fort du Quesue, 
wheie they were led and commanded by Sieur Charles de Langlade. 
They also participated in the battle before Quebec on the Plains of 
Abraham. Glode (son of Old Carron), Osauwishkeno (the Yellow Bird), 
Kachakawasheka (the Notch-maker), and the elder Carron, were pres- 
ent at the fall of Montcalm.' 

On June 7, 1726, peace was effected between M. de Ligney and the 
chief of the Fox, Sauk, and Winnebago tribes ("Pauus a la Bale"); 
and to make this peace " certain and stable" it was th(mght proper to 
grant to the chief of the first-named tribe his request that a French 
officer be stationed in that country, to aid him in " restraining his 
young men from bad thoughts and actions." • In consequence of this 
amicable arrangement a detachment of French troops was sent to gar- 
rison La Bay (afterward called Fort Edward Augustus), which post 
was thenceforward occupied by the French until 1701. This, like many 
other i)()sts throughout the French possessions, was not strictly of a 
military character, from the fact that numbers of French settlers had 
congregated near there for protection; not on account of iigricultural 
pursuits — for such were greatly neglected — but chiefly to establish and 
maintain traffic with the natives, furs being the chief product desired. 
These settlers were generally under the government of the comman- 
dant. The relations between these French settlers and the natives were 
undoubtedly of an amiable character, as the general attitude and con- 
duct of the French were rather of a conciliatory nature, whereby their 
representatives gained unusual confidence and good will among the 
natives — an attachment which was furthermore strengthened through 
the frequent selection by the French of Menomini wives. 

After the British and colonial forces had attained the conquest of 
Canada and the Marquis de Vaudreuil, the governor-general, had sur- 

' Coll. Hist. Soc. of Wisconsin for 1856, vol, iii, 1857, pp. 212-214. 

*Frora translation of M. de Ligney s memoir of June 7, \T26, in Coll. Hist. Soo. of Wisconsin for 
1854, vol. i, 1855, p. 21. 



rendered, the victoi's begau to take possession of the westeiu posts. 
Thus, in 1761, Green bay was governed by a small force of 17 men of 
the Sixtieth (or Royal American) regiment, in command of Lieutenant 
Gorrell. This party arrived at Greeu bay on Uctober 12, at a time of 
the year when it was customary for the Indians to be oft" on their 
annual hunting expedition; so that there was but one family remain- 
ing at the post.' Lieutenant Gorrell states that he had found in his 
orders very little regarding the Indians, so that when leaving he 
applied to Captain Donald Campbell, at Detroit, for further instruc- 
tions; the latter referred him to Sir William Johnson, then present, 
who told him orally that unless he did his best to please the Indians 
he had better not go there. 

Oil account of the absence of the Indians, no council was held with 
the tribes until May 2.3, 1702; at this time the chiefs of the Menomini 
and Winnebago were present and received strings of wampum in return 
for prisoners. According to Gorrell's journal, the number of Indian 
waiTiors dependent on the post was 39,100. The number of Menomini 
warriors specified is only 150, which would indicate a total population 
of about 800. 

After the peace of 17(33, when the French troops were withdrawn and 
their places filled by the English, discontent among the Indians became 
apparent, and gradually became more and more hostile and in time 
developed into a conspiracy for the extermination of the English 
throughout the eutire western frontier. This hostility was due to a 
variety of circumstances. The French had been the fast friends of the 
Indians, had been judicious and lavish in the distribution of gifts, and 
had liberally sui>plied all who desired arms, ammunitiou, and clothiug, 
until the tribesmen had almost forgotten their aboriginal modes of 
liviugand had become dependent on the garrisons and trading establish- 
ments; but with the advent of the English all this was changed, and 
the penuriousness with which these now necessary articles were dealt 
out— when they were not entirely withheld — caused great distress 
and consequent dissatisfaction.^ Another source of trouble was the 
immigration of settlers and the occujjancy of Indian lands by white men, 
while suspicion and anger were engendered by false reports carried 
from place to place by the " couriers de bois" or bushrangers — degraded 
itinerants who traversed the forest in search of furs and peltries 
which they carried to the trading posts, reaping profits which they felt 
would becou)e greatly reduced should the traders themselves penetrate 
the wilds. The Indians, becoming alarmed at the rumored advent of 
the traders, who were said to be exacting and of murderous disposi- 
tion, made preparations to defend themselves, and finally concluded to 
take the initiative and, if possible, prevent iutrusion by a people who 

> GorreU's, Coll. Hist. Son. of WiBOonsin for 1854, vol. i, 1855, p. 25 et. aeq. 
2 Parkman, Conspiracy of Pontiac, Boston, vol. i, 1886, pp. 172 et aeq. 

14 ETH 2 


were enemies of the Fieuch. A short time later, Pontiae miule felt hia 
power in the northwest; and although the destruction of many jwsts 
and settlements resulted, the French inhabitants were usually spared. 
In 1073, when the attack on Michilimackinac was planned, some 
Menomini joined the exijedition; and they were present at, although 
they were not participants in, the massacre. 

It had been the plan of Poutiac to capture also the fort at Green 
Bay, and a band of Indians at Milwaukee, consisting cliiefly of 
Ottawa, Ojibwa, and Potawatomi, was detailed for the work. But 
the Menomini Indians were friendly to the English and i)revented the 
attack, and when instructions were received by Lieutenant (lorrell to 
abandon the post, Carron and his ]\Ienomiiii tribesmeh conducted the 
party to Mackinaw. "For his faithful adherence to the English and 
rejection of the councils of Pontiae, Carron was subseijuently presented 
with a large silver medal by the British authorities, with a certificate 
of his chieftainship and good services." ' 

When, in 1764, Sir William Johnson sent messengers to the various 
tribes of the Great Lakes, calling them to a council to be held at 
I^iagara for the purpose of urging them to remain friendly to the 
English, a delegation of 499 Menomini went from Green bay,^ confident 
of deserving recognition for their services to Gorrell and his band of 
soldiers. They were received with cordiality and greeted as brothers, 
and on the adjournment of the council they departed well pleased with 
their experience.^ 

The English did not again occupy the post on Green bay, and the 
Menomini did not render service to them until at the outbreak of 
the Revolution, when a party under Charles de Langlade, in company 
with another large Indian force, went to Montreal and there held a 
council. About 1780, Captain Dalton, Superintendent of Indian Affairs 
for the United States, in an estimate of the Indian tribes employed 
by the British in the Eevolutionary war, estimated that the Fulawin 
(Menomini) had furnished about 150 warriors.* 

Grignon, in his Itecollections of Wisconsin,^ states that "The Green 
bay settlement, from its inception in 1745 to 1785, a period of forty 
years, had made but little progress." Carver, who visited the locality 
in 17GC, found that there had been no garrison since its abandonment 
in 1763, and that the fort had not been kept in repair. There were but 
two trading establishments in 1785, the only stores at Green Bay prior 
to 1812. 

In 1810 messengers arrived from Tecumseh and the Prophet, inviting 
the Menomini to join the Indian confederacy against the Americans; 

' Grignon, in Coll. Hist. Soc. of W iaconsin for 1856, vol. iii, 1867, pp. 226-227. 
' (JoU. M;isa. Hist, Soc, vol. x, Boston, 1809, ji. 122. 
3 Parliman, Conspiracy of Pontiae, p. 165 et seq. 

' Coll. SIa.<!sachusett8 Hist. Soc, vol. x, Boston, 1809, p. 123 (from an account published in Pliila/ 
delpliia, Augusts, 1783). 
' Coll. Hist. Soc. of Wisconsin for 1856, vol. iii, 1857, p. 241. 


but tliey responded in the negative and joined tlie Bi-itisb in the war 
of 1812-14. They served under Colonel Eobert Dickson, who had 
arrived at Green Bay with a party of Sioux Indians; for although 
there was a traditional feeling of hatred by the Sioux against the 
Menomini and Ojibwa, still, when circumstances demanded union 
against a common enemy under one standard for attack or defense, 
all tribal differences were for the time set aside. The party under 
Dickson participated in the attack on the Americans at Mackinaw, 
but they were not actively engaged in the battle. 

The Winnebago, who may properly be termed the head of the Siouau 
family, were from the earliest historical times near neighbors of the 
Menomini and on friendly terms with them and also with the Ojibwa, 
who until 1795 or later occupied the country as far east as Lake 
Shawano. The Winnebago warriors occasionally came to Green Bay 
on a spree, passing through the Menomini and Ojibwa territory on 
their way. It was becauseof this constantcommingliugthat representa- 
tives of all of these tribes were generally found together in their war 

The expulsion of the Fox and Sauk Indians from the country on Fox 
river and the head of Green bay (already referred to) is specially men- 
tioned by Jedidiah Morse' in his report to the Secretary of War in 
1822, in the following words: 

Major Irwin informed me, on the authority of Colonel Bowyerand an old Ottawa 
chief, living at ila-uitoii-icauli, the river of had spirits, that more than a century ago, 
the Fos and Sac Indians, who then inhabited the country on Green bay and Fox 
river, were conquered and driven away by the Menominees, aided by the Ottawas 
and Chippewas; that the Menominees hold this country by conquest, and that their 
title is admitted to be good by the Sacs, Foxes, Chippawas, and Ottawas. 

This statement no doubt originated from Charlevoix's remarks (1) that 
the Fox Indians were the original possessors of the land adjoining Fox 
river, and (2) that their principal settlement was about 60 miles up that 
river. They had made some depredations on French traders and 
exacted tribute of them, whereon the French commandant of the post 
took a party of his men in covered boats and, while distracting the 
attention of the Indians, opened fire on them at the same time that his 
Menomini allies attacked the v^illage from the rear. Those who sur- 
vived the slaughter removed to Mississippi river. 

Carver- reached Green bay in 1766, and on his map of that date two 
Menomini settlements are located; the northern one on the western 
shore of the bay, near the present site of Oconto, while the southern 
camp or "castle" is on the western bank of Fox river, a short distance 
south of "Fort la Bay." South of these towns the country is marked 
as occupied by the Winnebago, while that immediately westward is 
designated as "Saukies Land." 

' Report to Secretary of War, New Haven. 1822, p. 57. 

'Travels throuj;!! the luterior Parts of Kurtb America, ia the years 1766, 1767, and 1768, Loudon, 
1778, luap. 


The traditions relating to the origin of the totems of the Menomini 
refer to Menomini river (near the mouth) as the place where the Bear 
emerged from the ground, and also to Wisconsin river as the place of 
the subsequent meeting of this anthropomorphic being witli tin; Wolf. 
These streams appear to bound the earliest traditional locality claimed 
by the Menomini; so, too, other mythic transactions connected with 
the origin of other totems relate to the same regioi}. Further infor- 
mation on this subject will be found in connection with the description, 
of the Menomini totems. 


The Menomini had been in the service of the British in past years, 
and as the war of 1812-14 found them still true to their old allies, it 
became necessary to establish a treaty of peace between the United 
States and the tribe. So commissioners were duly appointed on behalf 
of the Federal Government, and after conference with the headmen of 
the tribe the following was adopted March 30, 1817.' 

A treaty of peace and friendship made and concluded by and between William Clark, 
Ninian Edwards, and Juguste Chontean, commissioners on the j)art and behalf of the 
United States of America, of the one part, and the undersigned chiefs and warriors, 
deputed bij the Monomenec tribe or nation of Indians, on the part and behalf of their 
said tribe or nation, of the other part. 

The parties, being desirous of re-establishiug peace and frieudsliip between the 
United States and the said tribe or nation, and of being placed in all things, and 
in every respect, on the same footing upon which they stood before the late war, 
have agreed to the following articles: 

Art. 1. Every injury, or act of hostility, by one or either of the contracting parties, 
against the other, shall be mutually forgiven and forgot. 

Art. 2. There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between all the citizens of 
the United States and all the iudividuals composing the said Jlenomenee tribe or 

Art. 3. The undersigned chiefs and warriors, on the part and behalf of their said 
tribe or nation, do, by these presents, confirm to the United States all and every 
cession of land heretofore made by their tribe or nation to the British, French, or 
Spanish government, within the limits of the United States, or their territories; 
and also, all and every treaty, contract, and agreement, heretofore concluded between 
the said United States and the said tribe or nation. 

Art. 4. The contracting parties do hereby agree, promise and oblige themselves, 
reciprocally, to deliver up all prisoners now in their hands, (by what means soever 
the same may have come into their possession,) to the officer commanding at Prairie 
du Chien, to be by him restored to the respective parties hereto, as soon as it may be 

Art. 5. The undersigned chiefs and warriors as aforesaid, for themselves and those 
they represent, do hereby acknowledge themselves to be under the protection of the 
United States, and of no other nation, power, or sovereign, whatsoever. 

In witness whereof, the commissioners aforesaid, and the undersigned chiefs and 
warriors, as aforesaid, have hereunto subscribed their names and affixed their 
seals, this thirtieth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 

' Treaties between the Uniteil States of America and tlie several In< Tribes, from 1778 to 1837, 
Washington, D. C, 1837, pp. 205, 206. 



liiindied and seventeen, and of tlie independence of the United States the 

William Clark, L. s. 

Ninian Edwards, L. S. 

Augnste Chonteaii, L. s. 

Towanapee, Roaring Thunder, his x mark, l. s. 

Weekay, the Calumet Eagle, his x mark, L. s. 

Muequomota, the Fat of the Bear, his x mark, L. s. 

Wacaquon, or Shomin, his x mark, L. 8. 

Warbano, the Dawn, his x mark, L. s. 

Inemikee, Thunderer, his x mark, L. s. 

Lebarnaeo, the Bear, his x mark, L. s. 

Karkundego, his x mark, L. s. 

Shashamanee, the Elk, his x mark, L. ,s. 

Penouame, the Running Wolf, his x mark, i.. s. 

Done at St. Louis, in the jtreaence of 

R. Wash, Secretdi-y to the Commis- S. Gantt, Lieut. U. S. Armij, 

siouers, C. M. Price, 

R. Graham, U. S. I. A. for Illinois Richard T. McKenney, 

Territory, Amos Kibbe, 

T. Harrison, Nathaniel Mills, 

Nimrod H. Moore, Samuel Solomon. 

Dr Morse, who made au official visit to Green bay iu 1820, says : 

The Menominees claim the whole of the waters of Green-Bay, with its islands. On 
its north-west shores, and on Fox river, they claim from the entrance of Menoniiue 
river, iu length, one hundred and twenty miles, south-west and north-east; and iu 
breadth sixty miles. On the south-east shore of the Bay, and on Fox river, from 
the river Rouge, on Red river, to the Grand Cockalaw, a distance of forty-five miles, 
and twenty-four in breadth.' 

Eoug'lily estimated, tbis area would embrace over 8,000 square miles. 

Tlie true e.xteut of the territory claimed by tbe Menomini, or recog- 
Dized as theirs by tbe surrounding- tribes, is not positively known; 
though the assertion has been made that the westeru boundary was 
Mississippi river. The Winnebago, who hail always been friendly with 
the Menomini, were no doubt coclaimauts to at least a portion of the 
lands in the eastern or Green bay section, as may be inferred from the 
fact of their being a party to the treaties of relinquishment. 

To make intelligible the reason for the sale by these Indians of some 
of their lands, it is necessary to present a short sketch of the Holland 
Laud Company of New York, which had for many j^ears held a preemj)- 
tive right of purchase from the Indians, covering most of the lands of 
western New York, this right having originated through the common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, and having been confirmed subsequently by 
the state of New York. A large purchase was made from the Indians 
by Phelps and Gorman, embracing nearly all the lands east of Genesee 
river. Of the remaining portion, lying west of the river, a large 
cession was made to the Holland Land Company at a council of the 
Seneca Indians held in Geneseo in September, 1797, certain large 
reservations of choice laud being excepted. 

1 Oj). cit., pp. 51, 52. 

22 THE mp:nomini Indians iethann.u 

General Albert G. Ellis,' iu his "Account of tbe advent of the New- 
York Indians into Wisconsin," says : 

In 1810, the Ilollaud Laud Company sold all tlieir pre-emptive right to the Indian 
reservations to David A. Ogden, for fifty cents per acre. Mr. Ogden and his asso- 
ciates in this purchase were afterward known as the "Ogden Company." Up to 
1817, they had succeeded in extinguishing hut a part of the Indian title; the large 
reservations of Cattaraugus, Alleghany, Tonnewanda, Tuscarora, and Buffalo, still 
remaining. Tlio anxiety of the company to elfcct the extinguishment of the Indian 
title to these reservations, and the removal of the Indians, had exhibited itself in 
various forms, and sundry unsuccessful efforts, for years. In this year, a new plan 
was conceived, and its acciuuplishment set on foot, to wit: — to secure in the West, 
by consent and aid of the General Government, an extensive grant of lauds from the 
western tribes, as a home or hunting ground for the several tribes holding the 
reservations iu Western New York. This plan was pondered with great care, 
thoroughly matured, decided and acted upon by the Ogden company, with equal 
skill and vigor. One of the first steps, was to secure the consent and co-operation of 
the War Department, which was obtained. 

A hand of Indians, known as the Stockbridges— more properly the Mo-he-kun- 
nucks — had moved from Massachusetts at an early day, having obtained a cession of 
some five by seven miles square from the Oneidas, on the southern border of t heir reser- 
vation, in the county of Oneida, N. Y. The Mo-he-kun-nucks sold off a small tract 
on their southern border, to a few associated Indians from the remnants of various 
bands of New England tribes, now known as the Brotliertoiftis. These two tribes 
had resided for several years on their new possessions near the Oneidas. 

About the year 1817, a young leader, eliief of the Mo-he-kun-nucks, Solomon U. 
Hendrick, a man of much more than ordinary energy and talent among the Indians, 
succeeded to the head of affairs. He regarded the languishing condition of his 
people as a reproach to the former name and glory of the old Mo-he-kun-nucks, and 
used all his eloquence to persuade the young men to arouse, and make at least one 
effort to retrieve their name and character. He argued, witli equal force and sound 
reason, that their then paralyzed condition was owing to their confinement to a 
small space of ground, and being surrounded and preyed upon, by the white inhab- 
itants, from whose pernicious contact and example, especially with regard to drunk- 
enness, they were sustaining a loss of all moral and physical energy and action; 
and urged, that their only hope for the future lay in emigration westward, and the 
securing of such an extent of country, as would enable them to form new settlements, 
at such distance from the whites, as to escape from grog-shops and whiskey. 

Their resident missionary. Rev. John Sergeant, fell in with and seconded the views 
of the young chief. In a short time the whole tribe was indoctrinated with the new 
scheme, and anxious for its consummation. Tbe American Board of Missious gave 
their infiuenco and aid ; through whose suggestions the late Dr. .Jedediali [sic] Morse, 
of New Haven, became deeply interested in the plan. This gentleman counselled the 
Indians and their friends to talce immediate measures to have a visit paid, by some 
discreet agents, to the Western tribes, to select a proper point for location, and open 
negotiations for a cession of lands. Dr. Morse himself was thought to bo the very 
person to undertake such a mission. Application being made to the Secretary of 
War, Dr. Morse was commissioned to make a general tour among the North-Western 
Indians, with a view to forming a better understanding betweeu those tribes and 
the Government. Under this appointment, this gentleman spent the summer of 
1820 in visiting several of the North-Western tribes. Whatever other purposes may 
have occuxjied the attention of this commissioner, it is certain that of securing a 
western retreat for the Stockbridges and other New York Indian tribes was a leading 
one; tliougli the writer has no evidence of any collusion in the matter, at tliis date, 
with the Ogden Land Company. Green Bay was a poiut specially visited by Dr. 

* Rep. and Coll. Hist. Soo. of ■Wisconsin, vol. ii, Madison, ]85tf, pp. 415-417. 


Morse, wbere lie sjient nearly three weeks, and preached the first protestant sermon 
ever delivered at that place. 

Duriug the year 1816-17 a remarkable personage appeai-ed among the 
Oneida Indians; this was no other than Eleazer Williams, a descendant 
of Reverend John Williams, of Deerfleld memoiy, but who claimed to 
be the Dauphin of France — Louis XVII. General Ellis ' says of him: 

In the summer of 1816, he made a tour iu the State of New York, among the several 
tribes of the Six Nations. The Oueidas received him with kindness and attention. 
They were more inclined to civilization, and a party of them to Christianity, than 
any other tribe of the Six Nations. 

Wliether Mr. Williams borrowed the idea from Dr. Morse, the Mo-he-kun-uucks, 
or the Ogden Laud Company, or whether it was, as he stoutly maintained, origiual 
in his own mind, certain it is, that some time iu 1818, he began to broach cautiously 
among his Indian people a proposition of removing all the Indians of that State, as 
well as many of those of Canada, and the Senecas at Sandusky, to the neighborhood 
of Green Bay, and there Tinite them iu one grand confederacy of cantons, but all 
under one federal head; the government to be a mixture of civil, military, and 
ecclesiastic, the latter to be pre eminent. . . . 

Having secured this point among the Oneidaa, he visited the other tribes of the 
Six Nations, and by holding out dazzling promises of future glory and aggrandize- 
ment, he enticed a few young men of eaidi tribe to enter into his scheme. He next 
addre.ssed the War Department, in imitation of the Stockbridges, soliciting its 
count(;nance and assistance to enable a delegation of twenty from the several tribes 
of the Six Nations to visit the Western tribes, for the purpose of obtaining a cession 
of country for a new home. The response of the Department was favorable, having 
doubtless been in'.luenced by other parties moving for the same objects. 

Thus, it is to be observed, that whether singular or not, there was a combination 
of inlluences, dissimilar iu motive but perfectly consonant iu purpose, all operating 
at the same moment iu urging a removal of the New York Indians to Green Bay. 
Each one of the parties claimed the eclat of originating the scheme: we incline to 
the belief, however, that they all, the Land Company, the Mo-he-kun-uucks and Mr. 
Williams, might, an<l jjroliably did conceive, at pretty near the same period of time, 
the idea of a new home for these Indians in the West. 

The late Honorable Lyman C. Draper,' formerly secretary of the 
Wisconsin Historical Society, referring to this subject, says: 

Rev. Eleazer Williams, with a deputation of the Oueidas, first visited the Green 
Bay region with a view of finding a new home, in the summer of 1820. Reporting 
favorably, in August, 1821, Williams again repaired to Green Bay, himself as the 
deputy of the St. Regis Indians, accompanied by a delegation of Oueidas, Stock- 
bridges, Ouondagoes, Senecas, and Miinsees, who made a treaty with the Meuomonees 
and Winneb.agoes, and purchased a considerable territory from them. In September 
1822, this territory was largely increased by an additional purchase. The New Y'ork 
Indians emigrated from time to time iu hands, and settled on their purchase. 

There has recently been called to my attention an editorial notice of 
Eleazar Williams, in The Nation (N. Y.) for May 31, 1891, which elicited 
a connnuiiicatioii to tlie same iieriodical for June 14, 1894. After a 
few preliminary remarks, the letter continues: 

As early as 1810, Eleazar Williams called himself "Count de Lorraine" and 
wore a large tinsel star. My grandfather was acquainted with the man and fully 

1 Op. cit., vol. ii, pp. 418, 419. 

2 Coll. Hist. Soc. Wisconsin for 1854, vol. i, 1855, p. C8, footnote. 


impressed witli his ignorance and pretence. The 8Uli8ei|uent develo]>nieiit9 of his 
iiction broMfjht him to the notice of the family, and it was with this knowledge that 
my father, Dr. Williams of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, happened to be in 
C'aughnawaga when those of the trihe who knew of the childhood of Eleazar were 
questioned regarding his origin. Dr. Williams was then locating and laying the 
railroad throiign the Indian reservation, and was not only intimately acquainted 
with Oronhiatckha (De Loriinier), the head chief, with Taiaike (Jean Baptiste 
Kice, better known as "Grand Baptiste"), the pilot of the Lachine rapids, and other 
subordinate cliiefs, but was adopted by the tribe, and is still remembered by the 
older members as " Raristesercs." 

In the fall of 1S.51 two gentlemen came to Caughnawaga to investigate the story 
of Eleazar Williams. It was on a Sunday afternoon that Ue Lorimier summoned 
the mother of Eleazar, Mary Ann Rice (Kanoutewanteta), and an old man and 
woman who were with the parents at the time of his birth, as well as others who 
could tell of his youth. It may be well to say here that Eleazar was in bad odor 
with the tribe. This fact has been made much of by the upholders of the French 
origin, and has been stated by them as due to the lapse of the man from the Romish 
faith, and an attempt to avenge on him the slighted creed. The real facts are that 
the Romish Church, if it had any feeling in the matter, rejoiced in getting rid of 
a black sheep, as Eleazar had made his tribe the victims of a favorite habit of his — 
the collection of money for a specific purpose, and its immediate conversion to his 
own use. 

All the persons gathered on that Sunday afternoon knew of the character of the 
man, and that was all. They were then entirely ignorant of his pretensions, and 
spoke only Iroquois and a French ijaiois. They were taken singly into the room where 
they were to be questioned, and a Scotchman named McNab, who was a notary and 
greatly trusted by the Indians, acted as interrogator and interpreter. The old woman 
first told how she was present at the birth of Eleazar, and that he was the son of 
Mary Ann (Rice) Williams, and that the birth took place at Lake George, New York, 
where the party had gojie on a fishing excursion. It was immediately after the 
Revolution. The old man followed and said that the birth took place as stated, and 
he further told how Eleazar had fallen from high rocks when a boy and received 
injuries to his legs and knees that had left scars. The mothertheu told her story in 
corroboration of what had been told. After all the testimony had been taken, there 
was no one present but felt that Eleazar Williams was an Indian. Mr. McNab then 
translated to them the printed account of the pretended French origin of the man. 
It made the mother cry, and she said that she knew that Eleazar had done many bad 
things, but she did not think he would deny his own mother. The matter was 
talked over by the tribe, and they did not hesitate to call him a liar. The peculiar ( ?) 
Bourbon features of Eleazar were x>ossessed by De Lorimier, Francis Mount — by all, 
in fact, who were descended from white captives. 

Father Marcoux stated to my father that the early mission records were very 
incomplete, and, m general, those children born outside of the mission had no place 
on the record. This seems to cover the whole case. — Edward E. TI"illi<ims,jr.,Went- 
worih, June 4, 1894. 

Eeturuing to a period before the cousummation of the treaty of 1821, 
auotlier phase of the subject may be uotecl. General Ellis continues: 

The Menomonees and Winnebagoes having been apprised of the intended visit 
of their pcnwrf/rtWio-s, the Not-ta-ways, but a few days delay occurred before they 
appeared on the bank of Fox river, to meet their eastern brethren. The reception of 
the delegates was cordial by the Menomonees and Winnel)agoes, and had there not 
been a third party to interfere, the New York Indians would probably very soon 
have accomplished their object. The French inhabitants and half breeds settled at 
Green Bay, numbered about five hundred souls; their alliance with the Indians, par- 
ticularly the Menomonees, was very close, and their influence with them very strong, 


almost potential. Sonio of the more sUrewil amoug them very soon penetrated the 
amhitious design of 'Williams, wliicli was no less than a total subjugation of the 
whole country, and the establishment of an Indian government, of which he was to 
he the sole dictator. The French and traders immediately organized into an oppo- 
sition to the whole programme of the delegates. They were familiar with the 
Menomonees and Winuebagoes, present at their debates, counselled and advised with 
them in their deliberations, and when the answer of the Menomonees and Winneba- 
goes was given, it was a deliberate and decided refusal to cede them an inch of soil 
west of Lalie Michigan. It was jilain to all, that the French and half breeds had 
answered, and not the Indians. The delegates expressed as much in their reply and 
aft'ectionately requested their brothers to re-consider the matter, and answer for 
themselves, independent of the French and half breeds. 

Several days were spent by both jiarties in out-door discussions. The French and 
half breed interest, finding their jiosition not safely tenable, counselled a kind of 
compromise, which being adopted, resulted in proposing a cession to their eastern 
brethren, the Not-ta-ways, of a strip of land five miles in width, running across the 
Fox river at Little Chute as a centre, and thence to the north-west and south-east, 
eqni-distant with their claims or possessions. In ofl'ering this cession to the dele- 
gates as their ultimatum, these tribes urged their limited possessions, the poverty 
of their hunting grounds, and their inability in consequence to subsist their people! 
The iiossessions of the Menomonees then reached from the mouth of Green liay to the 
Milwaukee River, North and South, and from Lake Michigan to the Mississippi, South- 
east and North-west. Those of the Winnebagoes included all the remainder of what 
is now known as southern Wisconsin, except the inconsiderable tract west of Sugar 
Elver, claimed by the Sauks and Foxes. They were very much crowded, of course! 
The delegates saw that the object was, by placing them on a great thoroughfare, the 
Fox River, between these two tribes, to establish such a surveillance over them as 
eftectually to prevent any design or movement the New York Indians might ever 
attempt, contrary to the wishes or interests of the grantees, or the French inhabi- 
tants. After much deliberation, and a good deal of hesitation, it was concluded on 
the advice chiefly of Hendrick, the Mo-he-kun-nuck chief, to accept the grant. A 
treaty was accordingly drawn up by Mr. Trowbridge, and signed by the parties 
on the 18th of August, and witnessed by the citizens and U. S. officers at the post. 
Five hundred dollars were paid the Menomonees and Winnebagoes at the time, and 
fifteen hundred dollars stipulated to be paid in goods the following year, in full for 

the cession. 

* jf ^ * I' # *, 

In about ten days the Menomonees and Winnebagoes assembled to greet their new 
friends the Xot-ia-umys, as they called the New Y'ork Indians, and to receive the 
$1,500 payment, in goods, on the cession of 1821. Such an assemblage of wild 
Indians, young and old, women and pajiooses, was seldom seen. Of the two tribes, 
there could not have been less thnu five thousand souls, besides the New Yorkers, 
the French, half bree<ls, and Americans. The best specimen of Indian character, 
and especially of a war dance, ever seen by the writer, was there given for several 
days. The Winnebagoes, of that day at least, exhibited the largest, most perfectly 
formed set of both men and women, almost ever seen anywhere. The great display of 
action and muscle in these dances, struck the beholder with admiration and terror. 
The ring round the dancers contained several thousand, all singing in chorus to 
the lead of the chief drummer; the voices of the Winnebago women prevailing in 
clarion tones above the whole. 

The payment of the fifteen hundred dollars worth of goods, was made with as 
much ceremony as possible Viy the delegates, accompanied by a set speech setting 
forth the great advantages that would be derived to their western brethren by 
their settling among them. After the payment and the proper receipts of acknowl- 
edgment on the treaties, followed feasting, dancing, and a general hilarity for two 
days. The delegates then invited the Menomonees and Winnebagoes to a formal 
council, and renewed the eft'ort for a further extension of territory. Every argument 


and :i most liberal offer in the shiine of iinnnities for ten years, were i)ropo8e(l in vain. 
The Wiunehagoos gave the answer, stoutly refusing further negotiations. That tribe 
soon left in a body to repair to their hunts. The Menonionees lingered, and were ag;iin 
got into council with the delegates, which conference continued for several days, aud 
tiually resulted in the great transaction which gave the New York Indians the foot- 
hold on Fox River, which they have in part maintained to this day. The Menomoneis, 
for a trifling consideration, ceded to the Now York Indians a right in common to the 
whole of their lands. Although some two of the principal chiefs were not present to 
.join in this important cession, this treaty, as well as the one of the ]>revion8 year, 
were approved by the President, and the New York Indians thereby recognized as 
joint owners with the Menomonees of all their immense territories comprising nearly 
half of the State af Wisconsin.' 

The several tribes of the New York Imliaus now hoped to be able to occujiy, 
without further hindrance or trouble, their new homes, jointly with the Menomo- 
nees; but subse(iuent events proved their wishes but half attained. The whites 
and traders at Green Bay saw that the Menomonees had been grossly over-reached 
by their new friends, the New York Indians, in a bargain. They very soon showed 
that tribe, that in making the Xoi-ta-wayH etiual owners with them in their country, 
they could no longer control their own aftairs, e.specially in the great business of 
treating with their great Father; that the New York Indians, if their treaties were 
to stand, would, iu a short time, out-general them in tactics, and probably in num- 
bers, and put them completely in the back ground in all pul)lic matters. The 
arguments had their eifect, and in a short time the Menomonees repented of the 
bargain, and sought means to invalidate the treaties. The same ingenuity which 
had helped them to a dislike found a ready pretext for denying and repudiating the 
treaties, especially the last one. It was said, that at the treaty of 1822, several of 
the chiefs highest in authority were not present, which, being true, gave the tribe a 
good reason for denying and with-holding sanction to the arrangement. As usual in 
such cases, the Menomonees separated into two parties, the one adhering to the 
treaties and the interest of the New York Indians, the other denying them and 
resisting their rights to any part of the country. The adverse party had the support 
of all the trading interest, together with most of the half breetls, and soon became 
the strongest, both in point of influence and numbers. 

'This treaty or purchase iTit-liuled all the country, begiuiiinff at the Grand Kalialin, on Fox River, 
theneo east on the lower line of the purchase of the New York Indians of the preceding year, to or 
equi-disfantwith theMan-a-wah-ki-ah (Milwaukee) river: thence di>wn said river to its mouth; thence 
northerly, ou the borders of Lake Miehifiau, to atul acros.s the mouth of Green Bay. so as to include all 
the j.sland.s of the Grand Traverse: thence fnnu the mouth of Green Bay northerly, to the Bay de 
Noquc, on Ljike Michiiran : thence a westerly course, on the Ixeight of land separating the waters of 
Lake Superior and Tiliehigan, to the head of the Menoninnee river; thence continuing nearly the same 
course until it strikes the north-eastern boundary line of the land purchased by the Xew York Indians 
the year preceding, and thence south-easterly to the place of Iiegiuning. This appears to have been a 
completecessionof" all the right, title, interest, and claim" of the Menomonees, to the country ilescrlbed, 
reserving, however, ''the free permission and jtrivilege of occupying and residing upon the lands 
herein ceded, in common with them — the Stockbridge, (hieida, Tuscarora, St. Regis and Miinsee 
nations: Provided nt'vertlielcss. That they, the Menoinonee nation, shall not in any manner infringe 
upon any settlements or improvements whatever, which may be in any manner made by the said 
Stockbridge, tiueida, Tuscarora, St. Regis, or Munsee nations." The consideration wa.s one thousand 
dollars in goods to be paid in hand, aud one thousaiul dollars more in goods the nest year, and a similar 
amount the year following. This treaty was concluded September 'IM, 1822. But President Monroe 
did not approve, to its full extent, this purchase : his a}tproval. bearing date March 13th, 1823, is thus 
qualitied: "The aforegoing instrument is approved so far as it conveys to the Stockbridge, Oneida, 
Tuscarora, St. Regis, and Munsee tribes or nations of Indians, (hat portion of the country therein 
described, which lies between Sturgeon Bay, Green Bay. Fox River, iliat part of the former purchase 
made by said tribes or nations of Indians of the Menomonee and Winnebago Indians, on tlie 8th of 
August. 1821, which lies soutli of Fox River, and ;i line dr:iwn trom the .south-eastern extremity of said 
purchase to the head of Sturgeon Bay, and no further; tluit <iuaiitity being deemed sutlicient for the 
use of thi^ first before-mentioned tribes or nations of Iiuliiins." This treaty, and that of the preceding 
year, may he found in full, appended to the address of Hon. Morgan L. Martin before the "Wisconsin 
State Historical Society, January 21, 1851. 


The dissatisfaction among some of the Mcnomiui respecting these 
treaties increased with time, and things were extremely discouraging for 
the success of Williams' plans and the views of the Ogdeu Company, 
until the year 1827, when the following treaty was made, viz: 

J7'licles of a treaty iiiaili- and concluded at the Butte dm Marts, on Fox rirer, in the 
Territory of ilichigan. helween Lewis Cass and Tliomas L. McKenney, commissioners 
on the part of the United States, and the Chippetvay, Menomonie, and Winneliaijo tribes 
of Indians. 

Art. 1. Whereas, the southern boundary of the Chippeway country, from the 
Plover Portage of the Ouisconsin easterly, was left umlefineil by the treaty con- 
cluded at Prairie du Chien, August 19, 1825, in consequeuoe of the non-attendance 
of some of the principal Menomonie chiefs; and, whereas, it was provided by the 
said treaty, that, whenever the President of the United States might think proper, 
such of the tribes, parties to the said treaty, as might be iuterested in any particu- 
lar line, should be convened, in order to agree upon its establishment: 

Therefore, in pursuance of the said provision, it is agreed between the Chippe- 
ways, Menomonies, and Winnebagoes, that the southern boundary of the Chippeway 
country shall run as follows, namely : From the Plover Portage of the Ouisconsin, 
on a northeasterly course, to a point on Wolf river, eiiuidistant from the Ashawano 
and Post lakes of saiil river; thence, to the falls of the Pashaytig river of Green 
Bay; thence, to the junction of the Neesau Kootag or Burnt- wood river, with the 
Menomonie; thence, to the big island of the Shoskiuaubic or .Smooth Kock river; 
thence, followiug the channel of the said river to Greeu Bay, which it strikes 
between the little and the great Bay de Noquet. 

Art. 2. Much difficulty having arisen from the negotiations between the Menom(mie 
and Winnebago tribes and the various tribes and portions of tribes of Indians of 
the State of New York, and the claims of the respective parties being much con- 
tested, as well with relation to the tenure and boundaries of the two tracts, claimed 
by the said New York Indians, west of lake Michigan, as to the authority of the 
persons who signed the agreement on the part of the Menomonies, and the whole 
subject having been full3- examined at the council this day concluded, and the alle- 
gations, proofs, and statements, of the respective parties having been entered upon 
the journal of the commissioners, so that the same can be decided by the President 
of the United States; it is agreed by the Menomonies and Winneb.agoes, that' so far 
as respects their interest in the premises, tlie whole matter shall be referred to the 
President of the United States, whose decision shall be final. And the President is 
authorized, on their parts, to cst.ablish such boundaries between them and the New 
York Indians as he may consider equitable and just. 

Art. 3. It being important to the settlement of Green Bay, that definite boundaries 
should be established between the tract claimed by the former French and British 
governments, and the lauds of tlie Indians, as well to avoid future disputes as to 
settle the question of jurisdiction. It is therefore agreed between the Menomonie 
tribe and the United States, that the boundaries of the said tracts, the jurisdiction 
and title of which are hereby acknowledged to be in the United States, shall be as 
follows, namely: — Beginning on the shore of Green Bay, six miles due north from 
the parallel of the mouth of Fox river, and running thence in a straight line, but 
with the general course of the said river, and six miles therefrom to the intersection 
of the continuation of the westerly boundary of the tract at the Grand Kaukaulin, 
claimed by Augustin Griguion ; thence, on a line with the said boundary to the 
same; thence, with the same to Fox river; thence, on the same course, six miles; 
thence, in a direct line to the southwestern boundary of the tract, marked on the 
plan of the claims at Greeu Bay, as the settlement at the bottom of the bay ; thence, 
with the southerly boundary of the said tract to the southeasterly corner thereof; 
and thence with the easterly boundary of the said tract to Green Bay. Provided, 
that if the President of the United States should be of opinion that the boundaries 



[ETH. ANN. 14 

tliiis estiiblishcd iutcrl'ere with any just claims ol'tho New York Iiuliaua, tliePicsiileut 
luay tlieii change the said liouudaries in any niauuer ho may think ]>ii)])er, so that 
the quantit}' of land contained in the said tract be not greater than liy the boundaries 
herein delined. And iirovided also, That nothing herein contained shall bo construed 
to have any effect iijion the land claims at Green bay; but the same shall remain as 
though this treaty had not been formed. 

Art. 4. In cdusiderntion of the liberal establishment of the bounibirics us herein 
provided for, the commissioners of the United States have this day caused to be dis- 
tributed among the Indians, goods to the amount of fifteen thousand six hundred 
and eighty-two dollars, payment for which shall be made by the United States. 

Art. 5. The sum of one thousand dollars shall be annually :ii)])roi)riated for the 
term of Ihree years; and the sum of fifteen hundred dollars shall be annually there- 
after appropriated as long as Congress think proper, for the education of the children 
of the tribes, jurties hereto, and of the New York Indians, to be expended under the 
direction of the Prcsiilent of the United States. 

Art. 6. The United States shall be at liberty, notwithstanding the Winnebagoes 
are parties to this treaty, to pursue such measures as they may think proper for the 
punishment of the perpetrators of the recent outrages at Prairiodu Chien, and upon 
the Mississippi, and for the prevention of such acts hereafter. 

Art. 7. This treaty shall be obligatory after its ratification by the President and 
the Senate of the United States. 

Done at the Butte des Mortes, on Fox river, in the Territory of Michigan, this 
eleventh day of August, 1827. 

Lewis Cass, 

Thomas L. McKenney. 

Cli ijijiewaiis. 
Shinguaba Wossin, his x mark, 
Wayishkee, his x mark, 
Sheewanbeketoau, his x mark, 
Mozobodo, his x mark, 
Gltshee Waubezhaas, his x mark, 
Moazouinee, his x mark, 
Mishaukewett, his x mark, 
Mououiince Cashee, his x mark, 
Attikumaag, his x mark, 
Umbwaygeezhig, his x mark, 
Moneeto Penaysee, his x mark, 
Akkeewaysee, his x mark, 
Sheegad, his x mark, 
Wauwaunishkau, his x mark, 
Anamikee Waba, his x mark, 
Ockewazee, his x mark. 

Aleiw monies, 
Oskashc, his X mark, 
Josette Caron, bis x mark, 
Kominikey, jiin. his x mark, 
Kiiuiown, his x mark, 
Kiimiiiikey, sen. his x mark, 
Keshiminey, his x mark, 
Woiniss-atte, his x mark, 

Powoiysnoit, his x mark, 
Maubasseaux, his x mark, 
Myanmechetnabewat, his x mark, 
Pemabeme, his x mark, 
Kegisse, his x mark, 
L'Espagnol, his x mark, 
Kichiaemtort, his x mark, 
Hoo Tshoop, (or four legs,) his x mark, 
Tshayro-tshoan Kaw, his x mark, 
Karry-Man-uee, (walking turtle,) his x 

Sau-say-man-nee, his x mark, 
Maunk-hay-raith, (tattood breast,) his x 

Shoauk Skaw, (white dog,) his x mark, 
Shoank-tshunksiap, (black wolf,) his x 

Kaw-Kaw-say-kaw, his x mark, 
Wheank-Kaw, (big duck,) his x mark, 
Shoauk-ay-paw-kaw, (dog head.) his x 

Sar-ray-num-nee, (walking mat,) his x 

Waunk-tshay-hee-sootsh, (red devil,) his 

X mark, 
Wau-kaun-hoa-noa-nick, (little snake,) 

his X mark, 
Kaw-uee-sbaw, (white crow,) his x mark. 

Philip B. Key, Swretanj, 
E. Boardman, Captain ;?d 

S. 1,1- 

Henry R. Schoolcraft, U. States In- 
dian Agent, 
Henry B. Brevoort, U. S. J. Agt., 


Thomas Kuwliiud, Jii. lijit. Kcois Fuuvrl, Cleryi/man, 

I). G. Jones, Jesse Miner, 

R. A. Forsyth, Henry Conner, Interpreter. 

S. Conant, John Kinzie, Jun.' 

E. A. Brush, 

NoTK. — The above treaty was ratilie'l with the proviso, " That the said treaty 
shall not impair or affect any right or claim which the New York Indians, or any of 
them, have to the lands, or any of the lands, mentioned in the said treaty '' 

The action of the United States Senate, in its ratification of this 
treaty, known as the "Treaty of Butte des Morts," failed to bring 
about a satisfactory condition of affairs, and new commissioners were 
appointed in 1830 to endeavor to bring about a satisfactory conclusion 
of the matter. The leading Menomini were inflexible, stating that 
their chief men had not been consulteil in the jirevions treaties, unau- 
thorized or uninriuential Indians assuming such authority without any 
right thereto. The expression of opposition was that the New York 
Indians were simply regarded as tenants at will and in no sense con- 
sidered as owners or controllers of the soil. 

The commission failed to effect anything, and it was not until 1831 
that the treaty, since familiarly known as the Stambaugh treaty, was 
definitely concluded, and signed by the parties. Mr Ellis' remarks: 

The Xew York Indians were not parties to the treaty. In order to a proper under- 
standing of the subject, it is necessary to make copious extracts. The treaty sets 
forth the boundaries as claimed by the Menomonees, taking all the lands east of 
Fox River, Green Bay, and Lake Winneb.ago, and from Fond du L.ic south easterly to 
the sources of the Jlilwaukee River, and down the same to its mouth — this tract was 
ceded to the United States. They claimed westerly and norch-westerly, everything 
west of Green Bay from the .Shoskonabie (Es-co-na-ba) River to the upper forks of 
the Menomonee, thence to Plover Portage of the Wisconsin, and thence up that 
river to Soft Maple River; west to Plume River of the Chippewa, thence down the 
Chippewa .30 miles; thence easterly to the fork of the Monoy or Lemoiiweir River, 
and down that river to its mouth; thence to the Wisconsin Portage, thence down 
the Fox to Lake Winnebago. 

The first article of the treaty relates exclusively to the New York Indians, and is in 
the following words : The Menomonee tribe of Indians declare themselves the friends 
and allies of the Tuited States, under whose p; rental care and protection they desire 
to continue; and though always protesting that they are under no obligation to rec- 
ognize any claim of the New York Indians to any portion of their country; that they 
neither sold, nor received any value, for the land claimed by these tribes ; yet, at the 
solicitation of their Great Father, the President of the United States, and as an evi- 
dence of their love and veneration for him, they agree that such part of the land 
described, being within the following boundaries, as he may direct, may be set ajiart 
as a home to the several tribes of the New York Indians, who may remove to, anil set- 
tle upon the same, within three years from the date of this agreement, viz. : Begin- 
ning on the west side of Fox River, near the " Little Kackalin,' at a point known as 
the "Old Mill Dam.'thenco north-west forty miles; thence north-east to the Oconto 
creek, falling into Green Bay; thence down said Oconto creek to Green Bay; thence 
up and along Greeu Bay and Fox River to the place of beginning; excluding there- 

* Treaties between the tXnitecl States of America and the several Indian tribes, from 1778 to 1837, 
■Washington. 1837. pp. 412-415. 
:0p. cit., vol. ii, pp. 435, 436. 

30 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth ann. u 

from all private claims confirmed, and also the follovring reservation for military 
purposes: Beginning on the Fox River, at the mouth of the first creek above Fort 
Howard, thence north sixty-four degrees west to Duck Creek; thence down said 
Duck Creek to its mouth ; thence up and along Green Bay and Fox River to the 
place of beginning. The Menomoneo Indians also reserve, for the use of the V. 
States, from the country herein designated for the New York Indians, timber and 
firewood for the United States garrison, and as much land as may be deemed 
necessary for public highways to bo located by the direction and at the discretion 
of the President of the United States. The country hereby ceded to the United 
States, for the benefit of the New York Indians, contains by estimation, about five 
hundred thousand acres, and includes all their improvements on the west side of 
Fox River. 

In consequence of tbi.s treaty the liopes of Eleazer William.s were 
cruslied, and those of the Ogden Land Com]>aiiy were not encouraged. 
The hind set ajjart for the New York Indians was evidently too limited 
for agricultural purposes. Colonel Stambaugh feared that his treaty 
would not be adopted by the Senate, and also that his appointment as 
Indian agent — which had not yet been acted upon — would not be con- 
firmed; so he again had the Menomini called before the commissioners 
and some supplements made to the treaty, by which two of the most 
objectionable features were remedied. The Senate refused to take up 
the treaty at the ensuing session, and it was not till 1832 that it was iu 
shape for promulgation. Even then the Menomini opposed the plan of 
the New York Indians to put a fort on the laud south of the Little 
Kakalin, and their assent was necessary, so that an amicable settle- 
ment was not reached till 1832. 

In 1838 another treaty was made between the Oneida Indians 
and the United States regarding some money which they wanted, as 
sole representatives of the large cession of the treaty of 1831, by the 
Menomini on the western side of Fox river. The following extracts 
will serv(^ to indicate the chief points upon which the Oneida were ad- 
vised, by their missionarj', to base their claim, viz: 

Art. 1. The First Christian and Orchard parties of Indians, cede to the United 
States all their title and interest in the land set apart for them in the first article of 
the treaty with the Menomouees, of February Sth, 1831, and the second article of the 
treaty with the same tribe, October 27th, 1832. 

Art. 2. From the foregoing cession there shall be reserved to the said Indians, to 
be held as other Indian lands are held, a tract of land containing one hundred acres, 
for each individual, and the Hues shall be so run as to include all their settleme^its 
and improvements in the viciuity of Green Bay. 

Art. 3. In consideration of the cession coutained in the first article of this treaty, 
the United States agree to pay to the Orchard party of the Oneida Indians three 
thousand dollars, and to the First Christian party of Oneida Indians thirty thou- 
sand and five hundred dollars, of which last sum three thousand dollars may be 
expended, under the supervision of the Rev. Solomon Davis, in the erection of a 
church and parsonage house, and the residue apportioned, under the direction of 
the President, among the persons having just claims thereto; it being understood 
that said aggregate sum of thirty thousand .and five hundred dollars is designed to 
be in reimbur.senicut of monies expended by said Indians, and in remuneration of 
the services of their chiefs and agents, in purchasing and securing a title to the 



land ceded iu the Ist article. The United .States further agree, to raiise the tracts 
reserved m the 2nd article, to ho surveyed as soon as jiraoticable. 

There are several other ai tides to this treaty, but they are uuiiii- 
portant and are therefore omitted. The treaty was ratified by the 
Senate and promulgated on May 17, 1838, and by it the possessions of 
the Six Nations in Wisconsin were reduced to the present reservation 
of the Oneida on Duck creek, near Green bay, containing about 01,000 

By a treaty, made October 18, 1848, between the United States and 
the Menomiui Indians, tlie latter agreed to cede, sell, and reliinpiish to 
the United States "all their lands in the State of Wisconsin, wherever 
situated." For this they were to receive certain lands ceded to the 
United States by the Ojibwa Indians of the Mississijipi and Lake 
Superior in the treaty of August 2, 18i7, as well as some other lands 
ceded (and not yet assigned) to the Winnebago, land which was guar- 
anteed to comprise not less than 000,000 acres. There was also a money 
consideration. This treaty was ratified January 2.3, 1840. Another 
treaty supplemental to this was made May 12, 1854, because of the 
desire of the Menomini to remain in the state of Wisconsin, and their 
special unwillingness to remove to the Ojibwa country west of Missis- 
sippi river which had been assigned them. Consequently, all lands 
which had been granted to them by the treaty of 1848 were relin- 
quished, and iu consideration thereof the United States gave them 
"for a home, to be held as Indian lands are held, that tract of country 
lying upon the Wolf river in the State of Wisconsin, commencing at 
the southwest corner of township 28 north, of range 16 east, of the 
fourth principal meridian, ruiuiiiig west twenty-four miles, thence north 
eighteen miles, thence east twenty-four miles, thence south eighteen 
miles, to the place of beginning, the same being townships 28, 29, and 
30, of ranges 13, 14, 15, and 10, according to the public .surveys." This 
treaty was assented to by Osh'kosh and Keshena, and was proclaimed 
August 2, 1S54. 

On February 11, 1856, another treaty was made by which the 
Menomini ceded to the United States a tract of land, not exceeding- 
two townships iu extent, and selected from the western part of their 
reservation, for the purpose of giving a reservation to the Stockbridge 
and Munseo Indians. This treaty was proclaimed April 24, 1856. 


Under the treaties with the United States, the Oneida, the Stock- 
bridge and Munsee, and the Menomini have each their respective 
reservations. The Oneida, numbering over 1,200, have a reservation of 
60,800 acres near Green bay; the Stockbridge and Munsee Indians, num- 
bering about 250, occupy a reservation southwest of the Menoinini, 
containing 60,800 acres, while the Menomini are located on a reserva- 
tion of ten townships, equal in round numbers to 360 square miles or 

' Coll. Hist. Soc. Wisconsin for 1855, vol. ii, 1856, p. 447. 

32 THE MENOMINI INDIANS (eth. ann. u 

230,4()(» acres.' Tlie reservatioii is located iu the noitlieasteni interior 
ot tlie state of Wisconsin. The tract embraced within its limits is well 
wooded and is filled with lakes and rivers, affording an abundance of 
game and tish (see plate i). 

The Indians removed to their present home in October, 1852, most of 
them ascending Wolf river in canoes; yet today a canoe is looked 
upon by them with as much interest and curiosity as it would be in an 
eastern city, so rarely is one found. 

By an act of Congress of Februarj' 13, 1871, provision was made for 
the sale of a portion of the Menomini reservation, but as the consent 
of the Indians was not obtained, no portion of their lands have yet 
been disposed of.* 


Accoiding to the rei)ort of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 
1892, the "whole number of ^lenomiui reported on the reservation is 
1,335, with 313 children of school age." To this should be added about 
300 representatives of the tribe scattered throughout the country east 
of the reservation, at Oconto, JNIenomonee, and several other places. 
This would raise the aggregate population to 1,(>35, which corresponds 
with the number estimated during the summer of 1803. 

But little is known of the early population of the Menomini tribe, 
inasmuch as in most instances reference is made to villages, or simply to 
the warriors. If an estimate is to be based on the number of fighting 
men, various processes may be adopted to determine the ajiproximate 
population of the entire tribe. 

In the Paris documents of 1718, number vii,^ the statement is made 
that "The Puans and the Folle Avoines are not numerous; each nation 
may number 80 or 100 men. . . . All these tribes are very indus- 
trious, and the women are four times more numerous than the men." 
Here we have a specific comparison of numbers between the males and 
females, but when Charlevoix arrived at the mouth of jNIenonionee river, 
in 1721, he found a village of this tribe, and says: "The whole nation 
consists of this village, and that not very numerous."* 

Lieutenant Correll, commandant of La Bay ((Treen Bay) in 1761, 
states that "There are, by both French and Indian accounts, 30,100 
Indian warriors, besides wcmien and children, depending on this post 
for supplies."^ Among the tribes enumerated he mentions 150 warriors 
of the Folles Avoines, occupying two towns at La Bay. According to 
numerous comparisons made, as pertain to other tribes, this would 
place the entire population at about 750 souls, thus allowing five to 

' Arcorrting to the land surveys, about 10,000 acres additional are emliraced in lakes and mi'andered 
2 Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1R72. Washington, 1872, p. 20. 
'Docs. Coll. Hist. New York. vol. ix, Alliany, 18 J5. p. 889. 
•* Journal of a Voyage to North America, vol. ii, London, 1781, p. Gl. 
6 Gorrell's Journal, Coll. Hist. Soc. of Wisconsin, vol. i. 1854. p. 32. 




















each warrior. In Purcell's euumeration of "warriors, gun-men,"' etc, 
the Creeli and Seminole Indians had about one warrior in throe of the 
population; the Chickasaw one in four, the Choctaw, Cherokee, and 
Catawba one in three. If the same latio should be applied in the 
enumeration of the Menomini, the poimlation of that tribe would be 
nearer 600. 

There appears to have been a rai)id increase in the population sub- 
sequentlj' if we may credit Dr Morse,^ who visited Green bay in 1820, 
with reference to the subject of removing to that country the New 
York Indians. He says, "The Menominees, or Folles Avoiues, have 
600 warriors, 900 women, 2,400 children, total 3,900; they live in ten 
villages, north-west of Green Bay, on Menomine river, which is their 
north-east boundary, but chiefly on Fox river, on and near Winnebago 
lake." A few are mentioned, also, as scattered at other places. In 
this enumeration the proportion of warriors to the whole number 
would be about one to six and a half. 

According to an enumeration made in September, 1842, the popula- 
tion was found to be 2,464,^ but in 1850 they were estimated at only 
500 souls.* In 1856 the number reported was 1,930, w hile in 1857 the 
total number was given as 1,697, comprising 358 men, 425 women, and 
914 children; the discrepancy being doubtless due to inaccuracy in 
counting and not to death. Great difliculty has been experienced at 
various times in endeavoring to obtain an accurate census, as Indians 
are frequently governed in their statements and conduct by the motive 
which they conceive to prompt the agents or other authorities in 
procuring such enumeration. When, for instance, they believe that it 
is to their advantage to exaggerate their population, women have 
been known to report themselves with their family, and to increase 
the latter by borrowing an infant to swell the number; when, a few 
moments later, the same infant, wrapped in another blanket, would 
be brought forward by another woman to add to her household. On 
the contrary, if the question of population be such that it would l)e 
advantageous for the Indians to report as small a number as possible, 
scarcely any infants could be readily found. 

The report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1863 places the 
Menomini population at 1,724 souls, while some years later (in 1872) 
the population on the reservation was 1,362. The report of the same 
offlcer for the year 1882 places the population at 1,500; for the year 
1884 at 1,400; for 1890 at 1,311, and for the year 1892, as above stated, 
the total is given as 1,335, not including those residing at and in the 
vicinity of Oconto, who number about 300. 

The Menomini Indians are rapidly adopting the pursuits of civilized 
peoijle, considering the comparatively short period of time since they 

1 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc, vol. iv, 1795 pp 99-100. 

2 Report to tbc Sec. of War, New Haven, 182'J, p, 51. 

3 Report Coniniis.siouor Ind. Alf.. W^ashiiigtoD, 1843. p 440 

■* History ot'tho Catholic Missions, John Oilmarv Shea, New York (1854?). 
14 ETH 3 


wore blankets and subsisted almost exclusively by tlie chase. But 
little hunting is done at this day, although deer, bear, and smaller 
animals are abundant. This tribe has always been friendly to the 
whites, and their reception of strangers is hospitable. Major Zebulon 
Montgomery Pike, in his "Expeditious," mentions a meeting in Min- 
nesota with Shawano and his band, who had gone hunting, and after 
recounting the statements concerning the personal appearance of the 
peoi)le, says : 

From my own observation, I had sufficient reason to confirm their information as 
resjiected the males; for they were all straight and well made, about the middle size; 
their complexions generally fair for savages, their teeth good, their eyes large and 
rather languishing; they have a mild but independent expression of countenance, 
that charms at first sight; in short, they would be considered any where, as hand- 
some men.' 

Charlevoix, after referring to the single village which he found, and 
j'emarking that the nation was not numerous, says: "'Tis reallj' great 
pity, they being the finest and handsomest men in all Canada."^ It is 
to be regretted that this statement can not now be substantiated. 

Colonel Charles Whittlesey, in his Recollections of a Tour through 
Wisconsin in 1832, says of the Menomini : 

In person they are a thick-set frame, less tall, and in better condition than most 
Indians, and at least equally indolent. The thief is not so common a character with 
them as with numy other tribes. Their attachment to the United States has not 
been exceeded by any Indian people.^ 

Mr Grignon,^ whose authority regarding the Menomini is beyond 
question, since he was himself connected with this tribe by blood and 
was a life-long resident among them, remarks: 

The Menomonees were less warlike than the Sauks and Foxes; they, at least, did 
not get embroiled in wars with other Indian natious as much as the other tribes 

. . . My grandfather remarked, that he regarded the Menomonees as the most 
peaceful, brave, and faithful of all the tribes who ever served under him. This was 
a high compliment, but in my opinion richly merited. They have ever proved, as a 
nation, friendly to the whites; and in the geueral Indian plot of Pontiac, in 1763, 
the Menomonees alone kept aloof, and rendered signal services to Lieut. Gorrell and 
party at Green bay. 

Of the aggregate population of 1,635, 1,000 are reported as members 
of the church, services being conducted by the Franciscan fathers; 
while the two schools accommodate over 300 pupils, who are making 
satisfactory progress in education. Drunkenness is the most serious 
evil from which the Indians suflfer, though the number of iustances of 
intoxication is not so great as on many reservations more favorably 
situated for obtaining liquor. Crime is rare among the Menomini; 
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1892, only six criminals were con- 
victed by the Indian court. This court, which is a model of its kind, 

' Acct. of Expeds. to the Sources of the Mississippi, Phil'a, 1810. p. 83. 

' Op. cit., vol. ii, p. 61. 

' Recol. of a Tour ThroagU Wis. in 1832 ; iu Coll. Hist. Soc. of Wisconsion for 1854, vol. i, 1855, p. 09. 

» Augustin GrigDon, Coll. Hist. Soo. of Wis. for 1856, vol. iii, 1857, p. 265. 


is composed of Nio'pet, Chickeuy (Mii'tsliikinCHi^), and Ni'aqtawa'pomi, 
three worthy representatives of the Meiiomiui, the former being at the 
same time civil chief of the tribe, while the last named is second chief. 
Dnring the early part of the present century Indian captives were 
held as slaves. Augustin Gngnon ' is responsible for the following 
statement : 

During the coustant wars of the Indians, several of the Wisconsin tribes were in 
the habit of making captives of the Pawnees, Osages, Missouries, and even of the 
distant Mandans, and these were consigned to servitude. I know that the Ottawas 
and Sanks made such captives; hut am not certain about the Menomonees, Chippe- 
was, Pottawottamies, Foxes and Winnebagoes. The Menomonees, with a few indi- 
vidual exceptions, did not engage in these distant forays. The Menomonees, and 
probably other tribes, had Pawnee slaves, which they obtained by purchase of the 
Ottawas, Sanks and others who captured them ; but I never knew the Menomonees to 
have any by capture, and but a few by purchase. For convenience sake, I suppose, 
they were all denominated Pawnees, when some of them were certainly of other 
Missouri tribes, as I have already mentioned, for I have known three Osages, two 
Missouries, and one Mandan among these Indian slaves. Of the fourteen whom I 
have personally known, six were males and eight females, and the most of them 
■were captured while young. I have no recollection as to the pe<'uniary value of 
these slaves or servants, but I have known two females sold, at different times, each 
for one hundred dollars. 

Speaking of the treatment of slaves by their owners, Mr Grignon 
continues: - 

When these Pawnee slaves bad Indian masters, they were generally treated with 
great severity. ... A female slave owned by a Menomonee woman, while sick, 
was directed by her unfeeling mistress to take off her over-dress, and she then delib- 
erately stabbed and killed her; and this without a cause or provocation, and not in 
the least attributable to liquor. It should also be mentioned, on the other hand; 
that Mas-caw, a Pawnee among the Menomonees, was not treated or regarded as a 
slave, and married .a chief's daughter, and lived with them till his death, and has 
now a gray-headed son living at Lake Shawanaw. 

It has already been stated that Osh'kosh, fifty years ago, publicly 
asserted that his family was without doubt the only one of pure Men- 
omiui blood. From an examination of the genealogies of many of the 
old men, this statement does not seem at all inci'edible, and it may be 
questioned if at this day there remains a .single individual free from 
the taint of foreign blood, either white or Indian. Concerning this 
Dr makes the following statement: 

Judge Reaume, an Indian Trader, who has resided at Green Bay thirty years, said 
to me — "The Menomonees, in great piirt, .are of mixed blood, Ottawas, Chippewas, 
Pottawattamies, Sacs, and Foxes, with whom they intermarry. There is an inti- 
mate intercourse between all these tribes, who have a comuiim language, (the Chip- 
pewa), which they all understand, and many of them hunt together in the interior 
of the N. W. territory, on the headwaters of the Fox and Ouisconsin rivers. "^ 

The better informed men of the tribe at the present time are aware 
of the intermixture of blood, and marriages are frequently formed with 

' Seventy two years' Kecol. of Wis. ; in Coll. Hist. Soc. of Wis. for 1856, vol. iii, 1857, p. 256. 

'Ibid., p. 258. 

3 Report to Secretary of War, New Haven, 1822, pp. 57, 58. 


Ojibwa, Potawatonii, and other Indian tribes, as well as with whites. 
This may be one of the reasons for the imperfect f;rammatic structure 
of the language as well as for its rather limited vocabulary. 

Reverend Alfred Brnnson," in liis account of the early history of 
"Wisconsin, refers to this tribe as follows: 

The Meuomouees were the uext tribe, in point uf imiiurtance, though nf i)ri()r date 
to some others, among the first Aboriginal oceupants of what is now the State of 
Wisconsin. They were of the Algonquin race, Imt appear to have quarreled with, 
or rchelled against the national authorities of the Chippewas, and were probably 
driven from Canada on account of it, and took shelter with other straggling and 
adventurous bauds on the common battle-field lietweeu the Algic and Dahkota races, 
in the vicinity of (ireen Bay. 

Charlevoix visited Green bay in 17131, and after relating his experi- 
ence in navigating down the western shore, says: 

We found ourselves abreast of a little island, which lies near the western side of 
the bay, and which concealed from our view, the month of a river, on which stands 
the village of the Malhoniines Indians, called by our French Folles Jvoinet or Wild 
Oat Indians, probably from their living chiefly on this sort of grain. The whole 
nation consists only of this village, and that too not very numerous. 'Tis really 
great pity, they being the finest and handsomest men in all Canada. They are even 
of a larger stature than the Poutewatamies. I have been assured that they had the 
same original and nearly the same languages with the Noquets, and the Indians at 
the Falls. But they add that they have likewise a language peculiar to themselves, 
which they never communicate. I have also been told several stories of them, as of 
a serpent which visits their village every year and is received with much ceremony, 
which makes me believe them a little addicted to witchcraft. - 

The Noquets are also mentioned by Charlevoix as not a numerous 
nation, living on a bay or gulf of the Noquets. They originally "came 
from the coasts of Lake Superior, and of which there remain only a 
few scattered families, who have no fixed residence." 


Mounds are reported as very numerous throughout the area embraced 
within the boundaries of the Meuomini reservation, but tlius far no 
special examination of them has been made. The mounds are most 
numerous along the lake shores, especially north and northeast of 
Keshena, though but few relics have as yet been unearthed. Major 
Thomas IT. Savage, the present Indian agent, informed me that he had 
opened several mounds, about S miles east of the agency, and had 
found human remains, as well as a few copper spearheads, one of which 
is illustrated in figure 1. The specimen is quite neatly made, and 
appears originally to have been sharpened along the edges, as the cut- 
.ting edge is still in very good condition. 

The greater number of these mounds appear to be entirely barren- 
One group, situated between 7 and 8 miles north-northeast of Keshena, 
is represented in plate ir. They are situated about 400 yards west of 

' Coll. Hist. Soc. of Wisconsin, vol. jv. 1859. pp. 242. 243. 

'Journal of a Voyage to North America. London, 1781, vol. ii, p. 61. 

Bureau of ethnology 




Wift " 

» 1' 







»( lip 





the shores of a small lake, and perhaps 50 feet above tlie water lev«l. 
Pine, oak, aud other trees grow plentifully all over the area. In nearly 
every instance there is present about the base of the mound a slight 
dejiressiou, perhaps scarcely percejitible, 1 to 6 inches in depth, and 
one-third ov one-half as broad as the width of the mound itself. This 
appears to have resulted from the removal of the earth for the construc- 
tion of the mound. The height of these mounds varies from 1^ to 3 
feet, and they are of varying dimensions, as noted below. They are 
nearly all so constructed that the longitudinal axis is north-and-soutb. 
In the following measurements only approximate dimensions are given, 
as frequently the outlines can not be determined accurately. A num- 
ber of excavations were made, but no implements or other 
objects were found. The soil forming the mounds is 
usually light aud saudy. 

The mound <( (platen) is slightly (-urved longitudinally 
toward the east of north; it measures 42 feet long and 14 
feet broad. The surrounding depression is well marked, 
while the greatest height of the mound is 2i feet. 

The mound marked h measures 58 feet in length by 10 in 
width, and shows a shalhjw ditch around its base. It 
is about the same height as the preceding. 

The mound c is of rather curious form, aud although 
nearly 3 feet high along its central ridge, the sides are 
considerably worn down. There are two projections, one 
at each end, the one at the northeast measuring about 
20 feet across its entire width and the southwestern one 
28 feet, the length of the mound from southwest to 
northeast being 48 feet. The depression around the out- 
line of this mound is pronounced. 

The fourth mound, d, is placed almost at right angles 
to the axis of the preceding and measures 30 feet in length 
and 24 in width. On the center of this mound stands a pine tree over 
2 feet in diameter. 

Mound e measures 20 feet in length by 18 feet in width; both this 
aud the preceding are less than 2 feet in height. 

Mound /measures 32 feet in length by 15 in width. 

Mound g is slightly curved toward the west of north, and measures 
70 feet in length by 30 feet in average width. 

The mound at h is slightly narrower along the middle than at the 
extremities, and measures about 50 feet in length by 20 in width. A 
large pine tree occupies the middle of the northern extremity. (Several 
trenches were cut transversely through this mound.) 

The mound at i measures 22 feet l)y 12 feet in area, showing a slight 
indentation in the western side. 

Mound .;■ measures G5 feet in length, 20 feet across at the southern 
extremity, and only 10 at the opi)Osite end. This extremity is somewhat 

i'lG. 1— Copper 


straightened across and indented, as if it might have been an attempt 
at forming iin animal mound. 

The next mound, A-, toward tlie south, extends 80 feet from southwest 
to northeast, and is only 12 feet across. The surrounding depression 
is at .several places about a foot in depth. It is much overgrown with 
saplings and brush, a circumstance not occurring in connection with 
any of the other mounds. 

A short distance east of mound k are two other mounds, / and wi, the 
former measuring 50 feet in length by 18 in width, the latter 50 feet in 
length by 15 or 16 in width. 

East of this area, as well as north and south of it, at varying dis- 
tances, mounds were visible, and many others were reported. 

In the immediate vicinity of Keshena there are many remains of 
this character. North of the village is a high ridge covered with 
immense pines and oaks, which elevation separates the valley of Wolf 
river from some marshy lakes on the south. The top of this ridge is 
just wide enough to use as a roadway, and is about 75 feet above the 
river, which is distant some 200 yards. The ridge extends from south- 
west to northeast, and appears to have been fornied by glacial action; 
its total length between the two areas i!i which it merges into the nat- 
ural prairie level is about one-third of a mile, and at various places 
along the upper surface there are the remains of mounds averaging 12 
to 15 feet in diameter and from 2i to 4 feet in height. Some of these 
have been oj^ened at some time during the past, and it is reported that 
one or two of them contained human bones. 

Ten miles north of Keshena, near Wolf river, there are several large 
circular mounds, but no examination of them has been made. 

This country was, previous to the api>earauce of the Menomini in 
1852, claimed by the Ojibwa, bands of this tribe having lived east of 
Keshena, about Shawano lake. The Ojibwa of Wisconsin, as well as 
of Minnesota, allege, however, that they do not know who built these 
mounds; but they generally attribute them to the Dakota, who, they 
claim, were the first occupants of the country. 

Fragments of pottery are occasionally found in the vicinity of mounds, 
and these, likewise, are attributed by the Menomini to their predeces- 
sors. Occasional arrowheads of quartzite, jasper, and liornstone occur, 
which also are believed to have been made by the Dakota or some other 
Siouan tribe now residing westward from this locality. 

About 3 miles northwest of Keshena, near Wolf river, there is a 
large conical bowlder of pink granite, measuring about 6 feet in height 
and -i feet in diameter at the base. This rock is in a state of disinte- 
gration, and is regarded by the Menomini as a manido. In a myth 
given elsewhere it is related that a party of Indians once called on 
Mii'nabush to ask for favors, and that all of them were accommodated 
save one, who had the temerity to ask for everlasting life. Ma'niibush, 
it is related, took this man by the shoulders and thrust him upon the 



earth, saying, "You shall have everlasting life,'' whereupon he instantly 
became a rock. This rock, on account of its fleshlike tint, is believed 
to be the remains of the unfortunate Indian, who has now become a 
manido. It is the custom for all passing Indians to deposit at the base 
of the rock a small quantity of tobacco. 


Since the time of the conspiracy of Poutiac, the Menomini Indians 
have figured in history to greater or less extent, and it is from such 
sources, as well as from tradition, that some knowledge is derived 
pertaining to the chiefs of the tribe. There appear to be two lines, 
from both of which there have arisen, from time to time, claimants to 
the civil chieftainship of this tribe; although the Indians generally 
admit that the Owa'sse, or Bear, totem is traditionally the oldest, as 
well as the gens from which the civil chief should be selected. To 
make intelligible the reasoning on which the Menomini base their 
sociologic organization, and the order of precedence and civil govern- 
ment, the following explanation of the mythic origin of their totems 
and totemic organization is presented somewhat fully. The myth was 
obtained from a number of the older and influential chiefs, subchiefs, 
and mita'wok, prominent among whom were Nio'pet, Nia'qtowii'pomi, 
and Ma'tshi Kin6'u^. 


It is admitted that originally there were a greater number of totems 
among the Menomini than at the present time, but that they gradually 
became extinct. The tradition relating to some of them is here given, 
the translation being literal so nearly as possible: 

When the Great Mystery ' made the earth, he created also numerous 
beings termed nianidos or spirits, giving them the forms of animals 
and birds. Most of the former were malevolent ana'maqki'a (" under- 
ground beings"); the hitter consisted of eagles and hawks, known as 
the Thunderers, chief of which was the Invisible Thunder, though rep- 
resented by Kine'u", the Golden Eagle. 

When Masha' Ma'nido — the Good Mystery — saw that the bear was 
still an animal, he determined to allow him to change his form. The 
Bear, still known as Nanoqke, was pleased at what the Good Mystery 
was going to grant him, and he was made an Indian, though with a 
light skin. This took place at Mi'nika'ni se'pe (Menomini river), near 
the S]Jot where its waters empty into Green bay, and at this place also 
the Bear first came out of the ground. He found himself alone, and 

1 Masbii' Ma'Dido, or Great Unknown. This term is not to be understood as implying a belief in one 
supreme being; there are several manidos, each supreme iu his own realm, as well aa many lesser 
mysteries, or deities, or spirits. Neither is it to he regarded as implying a definite recognition of spir- 
ituality corresponding to that of civilized jieoples, for the American Indians have not fully risen to 
the plane of psychotheism ; compare the Siouan concept as defined by Dorsey, Eleventh Annual 
■Report, 1894, p. 895 et se^. 

40 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.axn.14 

decided to call to bimself Kiiic'u'', the Eagle, and .said, " Eagle, come 
to me and be my brother." Thereupon the eagle descended, and also 
took the form of a human being. While they were considering whom 
to call upon to join them, they perceived a beaver approaching. The 
Beaver requested to be taken into the totem of the Thunderers, but, 
being a woman, was called Nama'knkiu' (Beaver woman), and was 
adopted as a younger brother of the Thunderer. (The term younger 
brother is here employed in a generic sense, and not specifically.) The 
totem of the Beaver is at present termed the Powa'tiuot'. Soon after- 
ward, as the Bear and the Eagle stood on the banks of a river, they saw 
a stranger, the Sturgeon (Noma'eu), who was adopted by the Bear as a 
younger brother and servant. In like manner Omas'kos, the Elk, was 
accepted by the Thunderer as a younger brother and water-carrier. 

At another time the Bear was going up Wisconsin river, and becom- 
ing fatigued sat down to rest. Near by was a waterfall, from beneath 
which emerged Moqwai'o, the Wolf, who approached and asked the 
Bear why he had wandered to that place. The Bear said that he was 
on his way to the source of the river, but being fatigued and unable to 
travel farther, he had come there to rest. At that moment Otii'tshia 
(the crane), was flying by, when tlie Bear called to him and said: 
" Crane, carry me to my people at the head of the river, and I will 
take you for my younger brother." As the Crane was taking the Bear 
on his back, the Wolf called out to the Bear, saying, "Bear, take me 
also as a younger brother, for I am alone." The Bear answered, '' Come 
M'ith me Wolf, and I will accept you also as my younger brother." This 
Is how the Crane and the Wolf became younger brothers of the Bear; 
but as Moqwai'o, the Wolf, afterward permitted Aniim', the Dog, and 
Aba'shush, the Deer, to join him, these three are now recognized as a 
phratry, the Wolf still being entitled to a seat in council on the north 
side and with the Bear phratry. 

Inii'maqkiTr (the Big Thunder) lived at Winnebago lake, near Fond 
du Lac. The Good Mystery made the Thunderers the laborers, and to 
be of benefit to the whole world. When they return from the south- 
west in the spring, they bring the rains which make the earth green and 
cause the plauts and trees to grow. I"" it were not for the Thunderers, 
the earth would become parched and the grass would wither and die. 
The Good Mystery also gave to the Thunderers corn, the kind commonly 
known as squaw corn, which grows on small stalks and has ears of 
various colors. 

The Thunderers were also the makers of fire, having first received it 
from Ma'niibrish, who had stolen it from an old man dwelling on an 
island in the middle of a great lake. 

The Thunderers decided to visit the Bear village, at Mi'nika'ui, and 
when they arrived at that place they asked the Bear to join them, 
promising to give corn and fire in return for rice, which was the prop- 
erty of the Bear and Sturgeon, and which abounded along the waters of 
Mi'nika'ni. The Bear family agreed to this, and since that time the 



two families have, therefore lived together. The Bear family occupies the 
eastern side of the council, while the Thunderers siton the western side. 
The latter are the war chiefs and have charge of the lighting of the fire. 

The Wolf came from Moqwai'o O'sepe'ome (" Wolf, his creek"). The 
Dog (Aniim') was born at Nomawi'qkito (Sturgeon bay); the Abii'shiish 
(deer) came from Sha'wano Nipe'se (Shawano or Southern lake) and, 
together with the Dog, joined the Wolf at Menomini river. 

After this union, the Bear built a long wigwam, extending north- 
and-south, and a fire was kindled by the Thunderers in the middle. 
From this all the families receive fire, which is carried to them by one 
of the Thunderers, and when the people travel the Thunderers go on 
ahead to a camping place and start the fire to be used by all. 


The Menomini totems or gentes as they exist at this day are as fol- 
lows, arranged in their respective phratries and iu order of imijortauce: 

I. Owa'sse wi'dishi'anuu, or Bear phratry: 

O wa'sse Bear 

Kita'mi Porcupine 

Miqka'no Turtle 

Otii'tshia Crane 

Moqwai'o Wolf 

Mikek' Otter 

Noma'eu Sturgeon 

Naku'ti Sunflsh. 

Although the Wolf is recognized as a member of the Bear phratry, 
his true position is at the head of the third phratry. 

II. Ina'miiqki'u^' wi'dishi'anuu. or Big Thunder phratiy: 

Kine'u^ Golden Eagle 

Shawa'nani' Fork-tail Hawk 

Piuiish'iu Bald Eagle 

Opash'koshi .... Turkey-buzzard 

Pakash'tsheke'u' - . . . Swift-flying Hawk 

Pe'kike'kune Winter Hawk (remains all 

winter in Wisconsin) 

Ke'shewa'toshe Sparrow Hawk 

Maq'kwoka'ni Red-tail Hawk 

Kaka'ke Crow 

Inaq'tPk Eaven 

Piwat'inot' Beaver (former name Noma'i) 

Omas'kos Elk 

Una'wanink' Pine Squirrel. 

III. Moqwai'o wi'dishi'anun, or Wolf phratry: 

Moqwai'o Wolf 

Aniim' Dog 

Abii'shiish Deer. 


According to Shu'nien and Wios'kasit the arrangement of totems into 
phratries and subphratnes was as follows: 

I. The Owa'sse wi'dishi'anun, or Bear phratry, consisting of the follow- 

ing totems and subphratries : 

Owa'sse Bear \ 

Miqka'no Mud-turtle v-Totems 

Kitii'ini Porcupine J 

Nama'nu Beaver \ Subphratries (these 

0"sass Muskrat ) two being brothers). 

II. The King'u' wi'dishi'anun, or Eagle phratry, consisting of the fol- 

lowing totems: 

Piiiiish'in Bald Eagle 

Kaka'ke Crow 

Ina'qtek ... Raven 

Ma'qkuana'ni Red-tail Hawk 

"Hinana'shiu'" Golden Eagle 

Pe'niki'konau Fish Hawk 

III. The Otii'tshia wi'dishi'anun, or Crane phratry, consisting of the 

following totems: 

Otii'tshia Crane 

Shakshak'eu Great Heron 

Os'se "Old Squaw" Duck 

O'kawa'siku Coot 

IV. The Mociwai'o wi'dishi'anun, or Wolf phratry, consisting of the 

following totems : 

Moqwai'o Wolf 

"Hana" [iinii'm] Dog 

Apaq'ssos Deer 

V. The Mo»s wi'dishi'anun, or Moose phratry, with the following totems: 

Mo°s Moose 

Oma'skos Elk 

Wabii'shiu Marten 

Wu'tshik Fisher 


After the several totems congregated and united into an organized 
body for mutual benefit, according to the myth, they still were without 
the means of providing themselves with food, medicinal plants, and 
the power to ward off disease and death. 

When the Good Mystery beheld the people on the new earth, and 
found them afflicted with hardship and disease, and exposed to constant 
annoyance from the malevolent underground beings (the anil'maqki'u), 
he concluded to provide them with the means of bettering their condi- 
tion, and accomplished it by sending down to the earth one of his 


companion mysteries named Ma'niibusli. This is explained in the 
tradition called The Story of Ma/niibush; or, " Ma'niibush A'tano'- 
qen," and forms one of the lectures delivered by the Mitii'wok, in the 
mitii'wiko'niik, at the initiation into that order of a new candidate. 

From the foregoing it will be observed that the claims to authority 
by the family of which Nio'pet, the present chief, is the head are well 
founded. Furthermore, mother-right, the older form of descent in the 
female line, is not now recognized by the Menomini, who have advanced 
to the next stage, that of father-right, or descent in the male line. 

Mr Sutherland, in his remarks on early Wisconsin explorations and 
settlements, makes note of the existence of totems or gentes, the heads 
of each of which were entitled to a certain degree of authority through 
which they were designated as chiefs or sachems. The existence of 
such various grades of rank often gives rise to confusion, unless the 
exact grade of such rank be ascertained. Regarding the descent of 
chiefs this author remarks: ' 

There were, in some instances, several clans existing among the same general tribe 
or nation, whose principal or leader was also denominated a sachem or chief. Hence 
we account for the fact, that several persons in the same tribe bear the title of 
"chief." These minor chiefs, however, held only subordinate positions. Indeed, 
the leading chief, in time of peace, was not invested with any extraordinary powers. 
All matters of importance had to be settled by the tribe, in general council. When 
a chief died, his position was claimed, as a general rule, by his son, or some kinsman, 
as a hereditary right; but oftener, perhaps, the succession was in the fem.ale line. 
In some instances, when this right fell to one who was judged unworthy to possess 
it, the tribe chose their own chiefs. As instances of this kind, Brant of the 
Mohawks, and Tomah of the Menomonees, were placed in that position, for their 
superior wisdom and valor. 

Some of the ancient customs respecting the disposition of property 
and children, in the event of the death of either parent, are still spoken 
of, though now seldom, if ever, practiced. As descent was in the 
mother's line, at her death both children and personal eftects were 
transmitted to the nearest of the mother's totemic kin, while at the 
death of the father his personal property was divided among his 
relatives or the people of his totem. 

Another interesting condition was the general belief in the common 
relationship of not only the individuals of a certain totem within the 
tribe, but of all persons of a similarly named totem of another tribe 
belonging to the same linguistic family; and in the belief of the 
Menomini (and Ojibwa of Red lake, Minnesota) this extended also to 
tribes other than those of the same linguistic family. An instance of 
this may be referred to in the remarks of several mitii'wok of the Bear 
totem, who stated that the individuals of the Bear totem of the Sioux 
must be of the same kinship with themselves, as they had the same 
common ancestor. This peculiarity of belief obtains also among some 
of the Australian peoples. 

' Col. Hist. Soc. of Wisconsin, vol. x, pp. 280, 281, 1888. 


[ETU. ANN. 14 

Eefereiice is made elsewhere to the killing of auimals which are the 
same as the totem of the hiiuter. Although a Bear man may kill a 
bear, he must first address himself to it and apologize for depriving it 
of life; and there are certain i)ortions only of which he may eat, the 
head and paws being tabu, and no member of his totem may partake 
of these portions, although the individuals of all other totems may 
do so. 

It may be of interest in this connection to state that one of the nearest 
linguistic allies of the Menomini, the Ottawa, claim to be originally of 
the Mo"s, or Moose, totem. This is stated by Mr A. J. Blackbird, oue 
of the most intelligent of the tribe, as well as one of the headmen, to 
be the designation of the "true" or full-blood Ottawa, and that other 
totems were added through the intermarriage of Ottawa women with 
men of other tribes because children inherit the mother's totem. He 
stated also that his father had been of the Pi'pigwe"', or " Little Hawk," 
totem of another tribe, and in this wise the totem became added to the 
Ottawa. In like manner was the Wabus', or "Eabbit," totem added, 
this tribe coming from the vicinity of Hudson bay or Lake of the 
Woods, where they are said to have occupied "caves and holes in the 
ground." Intemuarriage with the Potawatomi was common, but this 
tribe designated the Ottawa as Nisai"'e" and Nisa'sa, "big brother" or 
" elder brother." 


The Menomini claim always to have had a first or grand chief, and a 
second or war chief, beside many subehiefs who were heads of bands 
or of families. In the event of the death of the grand chief, the eldest 
sou succeeded, unless a more popular j^reteuder could enroll in his own 
behalf the greater influence in the tribe. Since the election of Nio'pet, 
the second chief has been Ni'aqtawa'pomi, a man of steady habits and 
influence, and oue in whom the tribe has confidence. Ni'aqtawa'pomi, 
however, is not related to Nio'pet's family or gens, but was designated 
to fill this ofiice because the legal claimants adopted the mauueis and 
pursuits of civilization, and will probably never permit their names to 
be proposed as successors to their lather's ijosition. When the chief 
of the tribe dies and leaves a minor son, the second or war chief acts 
as regent until the heir attains an age at which he is deemed com- 
petent to govern. 

The i)resent divisions or bands of the Menomini are named after the 
heads of each baud, and number eleven, viz: (1) Osh'kosh; (2) Aia'- 
miqta; (3) Sha'kitok, at present under Ni'antawa'pomi; (4) Ma/nabu'- 
sho; (5) Le Motte; (6) Piwii/qtinet; (7) Pesh'tiko; (8) O'hope'sha; 
(9) Kc'shok, or Ke'so; (10) Aqka'mot, now under charge of Mii'tshiki- 
ne/rr; (11) Shu'nu'ni'u^, or Shu'nien. 

In addition to the several chiefs, there was formerly more need of 
the services of a spokesman or orator, upon whom devolved the duties 
of promulgating the wishes of the supreme chief; or, in the event of a 


council or treaty with aiiotlier tribe or with a civilized iiation, his ser- 
vices as orator and dii)lomat were demanded in behalf of the tribe. 
The incumbent of such an office was not eligible for, nor in line of, pro- 
motion to the office of either war chief or grand chief, although such an 
accession could be accomplished at the desire of the tribal council, or 
by the tribe itself, in the event of the legitimate heir being a minor or 
an idiot, or in case there was no direct heir, or perhaps even when the 
incumbent had gained a following in the tribe suflSciently influential 
and ])Owerful to insure him safety in his promotion. 

From the following genealogies of the two lines of chiefs, the so-called 
Oarron family and tlie Osh'kosh family, it will be observed that the 
former gained their hold on the affairs of the tribe during the last cen- 
tury, although the ancestors of the present chief, Nio'pet, are the legit- 
imate heirs, from both traditional and historical evidence, to the ofBce 
of grand chief, an office which has always been one of the prerogatives 
of the Owii'sse dodii'mi, or Bear totem. 

Tsheka'tshake'mau— or Sheka'tshokwe'mau " Old Chief," or " The 
Old King," as he is generally designated in literature — was chief in 1763, 
when Carrou, a French half-blood trader, was his spokesman, and subse- 
quently became his successor (see Carron's genealogy). A number of the 
headmen of the tribe, as well as descendants of Carron, affirm that he 
was the offspring of a French Canadian father and an Abnaki woman. 
Be this as it may, they all acknowledge that Tsheka'tshake'mau was 
chief when Carron appeared at Green bay. 

The late Mr Drajter, in his compilation of historical data relative to 
the settlements at Green bay, says : 

Cha-kau-cho-ka-ma sickened and died, while temporarily at Prairie du Cbien 
with some of his family, about 1821; he was then nearly blind, and I think he was 
at least one hundred years old. He was a man of good sense, but no public speaker, 
and was highly esteemed by his nation. His certificate as Grand Chief of the 
Menomonees, given him by Gov. Haldimand, of Canada, August 17, 1778, which 
has been preserved by his family, is now in the Cabinet of the Historical Society.' 

It is believed that Tsheka'tshake'mau was about a hundred years of 
age at the time of his death, but for this impression no reliable data 
are at hand. The name of " Old Chief" was without doubt applied to 
this man late in life, and as the above-mentioned diploma bears the 
name of Chawanoa (Sha'wano), " Southerner," it is probable that he 
may have been so named in his earlier life, or that, perhaps, the Cana- 
dian authorities may have so designated him at the time of naming him 
chief of the Menomini, because he came from a more southerly tribe. 
A facsimile of his certificate as grand chief of the Menomini is pre- 
sented herewith as plate iii. 

The genealogy of the Oshkosh family is as follows: 
1. Tsheka'tshake'mau, " Old Chief," head of the Owa'sse doda'nii, 
married (name of wife unknown) and had issue. 
(2) I. A'kwine'mi. 

' Coll. Hi8t. Soc. of Wisconsin, vol. iii. p. 226, note. 


2. A'kwine'mi (TsbekiVtsbake'inau) of the Owa'sse doda'uii, married 

(name of wife unknown) and had issue. 

(3) I. Osh' 

(4) II. Oshkiq'hinii'niu'. 

3. OsH'KOSH (A'kwine'mi) "Bear's Claw;" of the Owa'sse dodii'mi, 

born 1795, died August 21, 1858. Osh'kosh was a celebrated 
character; Mr Grignou, who knew him personally, says: ' 

Osh-kosh, and his brother Osh-ka-he-uah-niew, or The Toung Mati, are 
grandsons of Cha-kau-cho-ka-ma, or The Old King, so long the grand chief 
of the nation, and whose place Osh-kosh, by inheritance, has possessed 
since 1827. As we have seen, Osh-kosh was upon the war-path in 1812-14, 
under the special superintendence of Tomah, and under Stambaugh in 
1832. The word Osh-kosh siij;nifies brave, and such this chief has .always 
proved himself. He is now sixty-two years of age, while his brother, The 
Toitiig Man, whose name begins to be a misuomer, is now fifty-one. Osh- 
kosh i.s only of medium size, possessing much good sense and ability, but 
is a great slave to strong drink, and two of his three sons surpass their 
father in this beastly vice. 

Referring to the treaty of Butte des Morts, in 1827, General 
Albert G. Ellis- .says: 

It was at this treaty, that Oshkosh, the present head Chief of the Menomo- 
nees, was first recognized. After the CouuciF was open, Gov. Cass said: 
" We have observed for scmie time the Menomouees to be in a bad situa- 
tion as to their chiefs. There is no one wo can talk to as the head of the 
nation. If anything should happen, we -want some man, who has author- 
ity in the nation, that we can look to. You appear like a flock of geese, 
without a leader, some fly one way and some another. Tomorrow, at the 
opening of the Council, we shall appoint a principal chief of the Menomo- 
uees. We shall make enquiry this afternoon, and try to select the proper 
man. We shall give him the medal, and expect the Menomouees to respect 

The following note respecting Osh'kosh, is quoted at second 
hand from Lyman 0. Draper,^ and relates to the time of the 
same treaty: 

Ou August 7th, two young men were called in frcmt of the conimiosion- 
ers {one named Oiscoss, alias Claw, the other was called Carron). Col. 
McKiniiey then addressed them, and put medals around thefr necks. Oiscoss 
or Oskoshe, . . . was made head chief, and the future organ of com- 
munication with the Commissioners. A short story, will show who Oiscoss 
was, and what a "proper person" was found in him. One morning, at 
dawn of day, about a year previous to the treaty of Butte des Morts, a 
young half breed Indian, who was a distant relative of Mrs. Jourdan, was 
paddling in Ins canoe down Hell Creek, a branch of the Fox River. It was 
still dark, so that objects could not be distinctly discerned. As he glided 
by the tall rushes growing near the bank, he observed them move, as if 
some animal among them. Supposing it to be a deer, he fired at the 
spot wliere he saw the motion, and then paddled through an opening in 
the reeds to see the effect of his shot. To his inexpressible horror, he 

» Seventy-two years' Recollections of Wisconsin, in Rep. and Col. Hist. Soc. of Wisconsin, vol. iii, 
1857, p. 285. 
» Coll. Hist. Soc. of Wis. for 1855, vol. ii, 1856, p. 430, note. 
*Ibid.,pp. 430, 431; quoted from Hanson's Lost Prince, or Life of Rev, Eleazer Williams, 






ft^)K:^!e:(5«0K¥=)K:* >:O:0*: ^^ 


Province of^uehec^ > 
Provincey and Frontiers y 

HAL^IMAND^ Captain-General ai 
fc.^c &f A General and Commander in Chief of^ 
c. ^c.^c. 

-t' -, 

Gover^r'm '(^ieffif the .-^.j 
■Majejl£"s Forc^ ^Jaid 

In confiderationofthe kdeHty,zeaUnd attachment, teftlfiediSuR les bons temolgnages qui 

\yyS/a^a.^7^r^^^'ZT7^ ^ci^ <=f ^ c^4^ /^.^z^i^iA^ , ^Mi^Ly ^^ zslc & I'attachement ( 

,,.. to the Kings GovernmentV and by virtue of the power and amho- <«^ A^^ ^Zc-c^^f^e^ au Gouvernei 
^f; rity in me jefed, I do hereby confirm the faid C^a^a^^^ fra>?7/^: du pouvoir a nous donne , nous I'avd 
k'^> dii^/i^Se^r^ (^<^^<^ aforefaid having beftowed upon > ^^ -^^^-^ <^^.^^.^ fufdit ,j 

lous ont ete ttndus de k '^^ 
du Roi ; & en vertu *• 

I- UU XVUJ , V*, fell VCILU -^ 

IS confirme Y^'^'^^(^^ %. 
[ui ayant donne la - J- -^ 


^£ :*;'^ 

dingly. GIVEN under i^'hand and Seal at Arms, at Montreal 
this ^i^-t^^^^^^M Day of ^i^^^-/ One thoufand feven hun- 
dred and feventy dto/it Jn the ^.i^^e^A? Year of the 
Reign of our Sovereign liord George tne Third, by the Grace 
of God of Great Britain^! France and Ireland King, Defender 
of the Faith and fo Forth] ,^ 

qualite de ^r^/^^^^^^ ^'^^^ Medaille : en foi de quoi j'?-^ 
nous avons figne la Prefente , a ic^e fait appofer le Cachet 
de nos Armes , & contre-figne par Kun de nos Secretaires , a 
Montreal , ce /2^ %^^A^^rrje^ jour^ c2^f^^o^rz-^ I'annee mil 
fept cent foixante & a^-^£cJ/ 






MAN] osh'kosh 47 

found au Indiau iu bis cauue, which was half drawn on shore, drooping 
lifelessly over the side of his hark, with a shot through his head. As the 
deed was accidental, he had no wish to conceal it, and putting the body 
in his canoe, paddled down to Green Bay, to the encampment of Oiscoss, 
as the Indian killed belonged to his party. On landing, he went straight 
to Oiscoss, and informed him of what had happened, when Oiscoss, who 
was drunk at the time, drew his knife, and plunging it repeatedly into 
his body, continued stabbing him till ho was dead. He was arrested for 
murder, but as he was a man of great influence among the Indians, was 
acquitted. But though he had escaped the law, there was another tri- 
bunal, of a different kind, to which he was still exposed. There is a tra- 
ditional institution among the Indians, very similar to the avenger of 
blood. Mrs. Jourdan, as the relative of the slain, and a medicine woman, 
had only, according to the custom of the nation, to take a pipe and a war- 
club, and lay them down at the feet of any of the chiefs of the Menomonees, 
and pronounce the name"' Oiscoss," in order to insure a just and immediate 
retribution. When the day appointed for the council at Butte des Morts 
drew near, fearing that imless he was reconciled with her, his life might 
be taken, he proceeded to her house, acknowledged the murder, threw 
himself on her mercy, and implored pardon. It was granted, and the only 
punishment he received was the fierce invective which the eloquent tongue 
of an indignant woman can bestow. 

Conceriiiug tbe death of Osh'kosh, the following is from A. D. 
Bonesteel, United States Indiau agent at Green Bay agency, 
Wisconsin, who iu his report to the Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs, 1858 (page 31), says: 

The Menomonees have recently met with a severe loss in the death of 
Oshkosh, their principal chief [which occurred on August 31]. . . The 31st 
day of August was a day the like of which will never be seen again by the 
Menomonee nation — a day on which not only the red man but the white 
man mourned the loss of a brave and noble hearted man, whose place will 
never be filled with another as much respected and honored; as an orator 
his ecjual has never been known in the Menomonee nation, and he would 
rank with many of his white brethren. 

Nio'pet, SOU of Osh'kosh, and at present head chief of the 
tribe, says that Ma'qkata'bit acted as regent during Osh'kosh's 
minority. Several years since a scheme was proposed to 
removt the remains of the chief to the city of Osh'kosh, and 
there to erect a monument; but at present the matter is in 
abeyance. Osh'kosh died, and was buried near Keshena, the 
village on the present reservation. 

Osh'kosh was married several times, his first wife being 
Bamba'nl ("Flyingabout-the-sky") of the Ina'maqki'u'', or 
Thunder doda'mi, by whom there were three children — 

(5) I. A'kwine'mi, 

(6) II. Nio'pet, 

(7) III. Koshka'noqne^'. 

On the death of Bamba'ni, Osh'kosh married Shaka'noni'u^ 
("Decorated-withplumes"), by whom there was no offspring. 

48 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann.14 

On the death of this wom:iii, Osli'ko.sli married Tomo'lio'uiu, 
by whom he had a daughter — 

(8) IV. KiuO'ke. 

4. OsHKiy'iiiNANiu'' (A'kwiui'-mi — "Young man"') of the Owii'sse 

dodil'mi, was born in 180(5. He was speaker for the tribe at 
Green Bay in IS'JO, when Morse visited the Menomini. He was 
married and has offspring — 
I. Joseph. 

5. A'KWiNii'Mi (Osh'kosh — " In-the niouth-of everybody ") is of the 

Owii'sse doda'nii. He was born in 18213, and in 1859 succeeded 
his fother as chief. In 1871, while under the influence of liquor, 
he stabbed a man, in consequence of which he was convicted 
and sentenced to imprisonment, and for this reason was deposed, 
Nio'pet succeeding. On his release, A'kwine'mi endeavored 
to the utmost to recover his chieftaincy, but without avail. He 
is still a well preserved man, but without intluence (his por- 
trait forms plate IV). He was married to Midii'shamo'qki 
("Something coming"), also of the Owa'sse dodii'mi, and had 
eight or nine children, all deceased. 

6. Nio'PET (Osh'kosh — "Four-in-a den"), a member of the Owii'sse 

dodii'mi, was born sixty-one years ago, and, as above stated, 
was elected chief in 1875 after the conviction and imprison- 
ment of his brother A'kwine'mi. Nio'pet and his brothers are 
perhaps the only full blood Menomini Indians alive today. 
Osh'kosh himself claimed this distinction for himself nearly 
flfty years ago. Nio'pet is about 5 feet 9 inches in height, of 
light brown color, high cheek bones, and in general expression 
of countenance very decidedly like a Japanese. He has been 
appointed judge of the Indian court, and is a man of honor 
and veracity, and universally respected (figure 2). M'aqta- 
wa'pomi is second chief and an able assistant, though not a 
member of the same family and gens (figure 3). 

Nio'pet is one of the chiefs of the Mitii'wit, and is enthusi- 
astic in his devotion to the traditions and rites of the order. 
Notwithstanding the fact that he is a so-called pagan, Nio'pet 
has readily yielded to and in fact urged the adoption of the 
Christian religion by his children, and nothing affords him 
greater satisfaction and contentment of mind than the fact 
that his late favorite daughter had been a devout and active 
member of the church. His wife, a sister of Shu'uien, named 
Wa'benomita'mu ( " Wabeno woman " ), of the Pii'kiiii'qkiu 
dodii'mi, is a quite good looking but rather stout woman, by 
whom he has had fourteen children, the two survivors being 
the sons — 

(9) I. Reginald, 
(10) II. Ernest. 







7. KoSHKA'NOQNfV (Osh'kosli), known also as John Oshkosh; was 
married (name of wile unknown) and had a son — 
I. A'paini'sia (married his cousin Kino'ke after the death of her 

S. Kino'ke (Osh'kosh); was married flrst to Charles McOall, second 
to her cousin A'paini'sia. 

Fig. 2 — Portrait of Nio'pet. 

9. Reginald (Nio'pet, Osh'kosh) ; a young man twenty-flve years of 
age, a student in the Normal school at Lawrence, Kansas; 
his education is quite good, indeed it is considerably beyond 
the standard usually attained by Indian youth. He is direct 
heir to the ofiSce of chief. He was married to Miss Roey Wil- 
bur (who has some Menomini blood), and has one son, born 
February 22, 1893. 

14 ETH 4 



[ETH. ANN. 14 

10. Ernkst, (Nio'pet. Osli'kosh); lives at Kesheiia, the liea(l(|uaiters 

of tlie tribe. He is tweuty-one years of age, a steady young 

man, and promises to inalic a good citizen. 

The preceding list of descendants of Sheiva'tshokwe'maii is presented 

graphically in the diagram ou page 52, while the diagram on page 53 

l)resents in a similar manner the genealogy of Thomas Garron, the 

French Canadian mixed blood, who, with some of Lis descendants, 


Fig. 3 — ^Portrait of Ni'aqtawA'pomi. 

lias figured so extensively and indeed creditably in the history of the 
Menomini tribe. 

The Garron genealogy is as follows : 
1. Garron (Thomas Garron, or Old Garron, called by the Indians 
Kii'ron, Ko'ro) was born about the year 1700, probably iu the 
vicinity of Montreal, as he is mentioned as having come from 
that locality to join the settlement at Green Bay, Wisconsin, 
shortly after its founding by the Sieur de Langlade and his 
few companions. Garron was a French trader. He mariied 


Waupesesiu ("The Wild Potato"), a sister of a promiuent 
Meuomini, was inveigled iuto taking part with tlie Indians in 
Pontiac's scheme for the capture of all the British frontier 
posts, and was also persuaded to carry among his adopted peo- 
ple a red wampum belt and to invite their assistance. Con- 
cerning Carron, Augustin Grignon,' says: 

At my father, Pierre Grignoii's, theu residing at Green Bay. Wau-pe-se- 
pin was met by Old Carron, who, addressing him, said: "I know the 
object of your visit, and tlie purport of Pontiac's message; I want no such 
message as that, as I mean to do no wrong to my British friends. Is it 
possible that you, too, are leagued with the Milwaukee band? Go back, 
then, to your home among them, and let me see your face no more!" 
Failing to influence his brother- in-law Carron, Wau-pe-se-pin gave up his 
mission as hopeless, and retired to his cabin, instead of retracing his steps 
to Milwaukee. While Carron and his faithful Menomouees were on the 
alert, strictly watching lest the Milwaukee band might attempt some 
mischief, which, however, they did not dare attempt, at length Lieut. 
Gorrell, the commandant of the fort, receiving instructions to abandon 
the post, left Green Bay, guarded to Mackinaw by Carron and a party of 
Menomouees; and for his faithful adherence to the English, and rejection 
of the counsels of Pontiac, Carron was snbseciuently presented with a 
large silver medal by the British authorities, with a certificate of his 
chieftainshiji and good services. 

Carron was well liked by the French, and his marriage with 
a Menomiui woman gave him considertible influence with that 
tribe, so that in 17C3 (at the time of Pontiac's preparations for 
attacking the British posts) he had become s])eaker for the 
head chief of the Menomini, Sheka'tshokwe'niau, "Old Chief," 
or, as he is termed in history, "The Old King." It appears 
from Grignon's statement, above cited, that Old Carron, beside 
having offspring by his Menomini wife, "liiul two children 
each by two other women, one of them ti Sauk with whom he 
became acquainted while on a wtir expedition against either the 
Osage or Pawnee. He was regarded as the handsomest man 
among the Menomini." Carron died in 17.S0, at the age of eighty 
years. He had the following children, by his Menomini wife — 

(2) I. Konot', 

(3) II. Tomau', 

(4) III. Ka'ron, or Shekwa'nPne', 

(5) IV. Aia'mita, 

V, VI, VII, daughters, one of whom was named Katish'. 
2. KoNilT' (Carron); tills word is the Meuomini pronunciation for 
Claude, generally referred to in history as Glode. He was 
born about 1716, and at the death of his father in 1780 suc- 
ceeded him as chief. 

About the fall of 1803 Glode went on a winter's hunt, taking his two 
wives and five or six children with him, and somewhere on or near the 

' Coll. Hist. Soc. of Wiscousiii, vol. iii, 1S57, pp. 226. 227. 



[EIU. AXN. 1* 



















I— P 














































Meiioniouee River, of Chippewa, the chief and all his family, save two 
children by another marriage, sickened and died dniing the ensuing winter. 
Glode was then not very fur from sixty-four years of age. He was a 
tall and well-proportioned man, of great personal prowess; sometimes at 
a ball-play, when two or thri>e would pitch on to him to keep him back, he 
would dash ahead, not seeming in tlie least to mind them. As the orator 
of his nation, he was a fine sjieaker, and his speeches were sensible and 
to the purpose. He was a very successful hunter and trapper — accom- 
plishments quite as popular with the Indians, as to be able to speak well 
on public occasions.' 

Kouot' was married, but the name of his wife is not known. 
He died in 1804, and liad chiklren — 

(6) I. Konot', 

(7) II. Kii'ron, 

(8) III. Dzho'seqkwai'o, 

(9) IV. Sha'not, 

(10) V. Margaret, 

(11) VI. A'shawa'kiinaii. 

3. ToMAU' (Carron); known also as Tomnii, and Toniah. He was born 
at Old Garron's villay:e, opposite Green Bay, on the western 
bank of Fox riv^er, about tlie year 1752.^ Mr Biddle^ says he 
was a British Indian, while Shu'inen (a grandson) informed 
the present writer that lie came from Montreal, his mother in 
all probability having belonged to the Abnaki tribe. Con- 
rerning Toman' Mr Grignon says: 

Tomah was in early life regarded as a chief, and from my earliest recol- 
lection, he seemed to be as much respected, and as influential, as Glode, 
though the latter as his father's successor as chief speaker or orator of 
the nation, really held the highest rank ; and upon Glode's death, in 1804, 
he became practically tlie head of the Menomonees, though Cha-kau-cho- 
ka-uia, or The Old King, was nominally the head chief, and out-lived 

Captain Zebuloii M. Pike' met Tomau' in the spring of 1806, 
above Clearwater river, on the upper Mississippi, where Tomau 
and a large band of Fols Avoin (Menomini) were engaged in 
their winter hunt. He says of him: ''This Thomas is a fine 
fellow, of a very masculine figure, noble and animated delivery, 
and appears to be very much attached to the Americans." He 
remarks furthermore: '-This chief was an extraordinary 
hunter; to instance his power, he killed forty elk and a bear 
in one day; chasing the former from dawn to eve." 

Mr James W. Biddle, in his Eecolleetions of Green Bay in 
1816-17, remarks: 

Tecumseh in 1810 or 1811, when forming his great combination for driv- 
ing the Americans back, who like the waves of the sea, were encroaching 

' GrignoD, in Rep. and Col. Hist. Soc. of Wisconsin, vol. iii, 18.'>7, pji. 26G, 267. 

"Ibid., p. 207. 

'Ibid., vol. i, pp. 40-63. 

■•Ibid., vol. iii, p. 267. 

* An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of tlie Mi8sissii>pi, etc., Pbiladelplii<i, 1810, pp. 77, 78. 


iipou tbeir liiiiitiiig grounds, visited Green Bar, obtained a council and 
hearing from Tomali and his people, whom he addressed in a manner he 
best knew how to do; and in the course of which, in true Indian spirit, he 
pictured the glory, as well as certainty of success, and as omens of this, 
recapitulated to them his own hitherto jirosperous career — the number of 
battles he had fought, the victories he had won, the enemies he had slain, 
and the scalps he had taken from the heads of warrior-foes. Tomah 
appeared sensible of the influence of such an address upon his people, and ■ 
feai-ed its consequence, for he was opposed to leading them into war. 
His reply was in a tone to allay tb.'s feeling, and he closed with the remark 
to them, that they had heard the words of Tecnmseh— heard of the battles 
he had fought, the enemies he had slain, and the scalps he had taken. He 
then paused; and while the deepest silence reigned throughout the audi- 
ence, he slowly raised his hands, with his eyes fixed on them, and in a 
lower, but not less prouder tone, continued "But it is mi/ hoaat that these 
hands are niistaiiied with human blood!" The effect is dei3cribed as tremen- 
dous — nature obeyed her own imijulse, and admiration was forced even 
from those who could not, or did not, approve of the moral to be implied, 
and the gravity of the council was disturbed, for an instant, by a murmur 
of approbation — a tribute to genius, overpowering, at the moment, the 
force of education aud of habit. He concluded with remarking, that he 
had ever supported the policy of peace, .is his nation was small and conse- 
quently weak; that he was fully aware of the injustice of the Americans 
in their encroachments upon the lands of the Indians, and for them feared 
its consequences, but that he saw no relief for it in going to war, and 
therefore, as a national thing, he would not do so, but that if any of his 
young men were desirous of leaving their hunting grounds, and follow- 
ing Teeumseh, they had lus permission to do so. His prudent counsels 

Tomau' aud probably a hundred of liis warriors accompanied 
Colonel Ivobert Dickson, in 1812, in the capture froui the 
Americans of Fort Mackinaw, though they did not have any 
fighting. Dirring this e.xpedition'kosh, sub.sequently head 
cliief of the tribe, was placed under Tomau"s special care. He 
and a number of chiefs also accompanied Proctor and Dickson 
in the attack on the fort at Sandusky. In 1814, with about 
eighty of his Menomini, he again accompanied Colonel Dick- 
sou to Mackinaw. They took an efticient part in tiie battle in 
which the American commander. Major Holmes, fell. 

Mr Biddle affirms that Toman' had no hereditary claim to 
the chieftaincy : 

This was held, at the time, by a man nearly as old as liimself, who 
an idiot, but who they always took with them in their excursions. Tomau 
merely ruled as the acknowledged strongest man of the nation, and this 
he had continued to do for a great many years. - 

There is a slight difference of opinion as to the date of the 
death of Tomau', Jedidiah Morse ^ giving the date of this event 
as July 8, 1818, Biddle^ also observing that the tombstone on 

' Col. Hist. Soc. of Wisconain for 1854, vol. i, 1855, pp. 53, 54. 

'Ibid., p. 53. 

^Keport to Secretary of, Xew Haven. 1S22. p. 53. 

' Op. fit., i, ]i 5S. 

56 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.anx. u 

Mackinaw island bears tliis date, whereas Mr. Grignon" 

It was in the summer of 1817, the next year after the arrival of the 
Americans, that Tomah died at Mackinaw, at the age of about sixty-five 
years. I fully agree with Mr. Kiddie, that it was in 1817 that he died. He 
was about six feet in height, spare, with a dark-colored eye, and hand- 
some features, and very prepossessing; he was, in truth, the tiuest looking 
chief I have ever knowu of the Meuomonees or any other tribe. His 
speeches were not lengthy, but ])ointed and expressive. He was tirm, 
prudeut, peaceable and conciliatory. He was sincerely beloved alike by 
whites and Indians. 

Biddle says that Toman' died of excessive drinking under 
disappointment and mortification over a change in the pohcy 
of tlie Jjritish authorities in their treatment of the Indians. 
He adds : - 

1 was present at his funeral. ... I never saw so distressed and 
broken-hearted a people. They said they were no longer a nation — no 
longer anything. Tomah could alone command and keep them together, 
but now they would be scattered and .ost. 

Tomau' was of the Pa'kaii'qkiu,or Prairie-cliicken dodii'mi, 
and was married, first, to Kiwii'komu'qkiil' (''Wandering 
around''), a Menomini woman l)y whom he had two son;; — 

(12) I. Josette. 

(13) II. Ma'qkata'bi. 

Separating from this wife he formed, according to Grignon, 
a second marriage, with two sisters, with both of wliom lie 
lived at the same time and until they died. By one of these 
he had four children, the son being — 

(14) III. Glode. 

4. Ka'RON (Carron); known also by his Menomini name as She'kwa- 

ne'ne, concerning whom neither traditional nor historical infor 
matiou of interest is obtainable. 

5. Aia'mita (CaiTon). Grignon, speaking of this chief in 1854,^ says 

I-om-o-tah was born about 1772. . . . He was u])iin the wai'-patl 
during the war of 1812-"15. He has been a very good hunter in his day. 
He is among a very few Meuomonees who coutract debts, and 
)>ay them as they promise. He is the oldest chief of his nation, being now 
about eighty-five; his hunting days are past, his sight is growing dim, 
and his manly form and benignant countenance we shall soon see no more. 

Aia'mita was still alive in 1857, and only one of three chil 
dren remains — 

(15) 1. Shapoi'tok (was married to Ta'sawau, and has children). 

6. KoNoT' (KonOf); known also as Glode, a corrui)tiou of Claudt 

Was married to an OJibwa woman and moved away. 

I Col. Hist. Soc. of Wisoousin for 1857, vol. iii, p. 283. 
'Ibid., vol. i, 1855, pp. 56,57. 
' Uiiil., vol. iii, ]!. L'S4. 

HOFFMAN] carron's genealogic record 57 

7. Ka'ron (Koiiof). Was iiaiiu'd after liis grand fa tlier. old Carron, 

and bom in 1707. He mairii-d and had cliildren — 

(16) I. Na'matau. 

(17) 11. O'wiino'qnio (daiigliter). 

8. DzHo'SEQKAVAi'o (Konot/); curinj)tion of tbe word Josephine. 

Married a Mr Gauthier, and had one son — 

(18) I. Joseph. 

9. ShanO't (Konof). Female, died unmarried. 

10. Margaret (Konof). Female, died unmarried. 

11. A'SHAWA'KANAU (Konof). Female; married Kiikwai'tosh, a 

mixed-blood Ottawa, and had children — 
I. Nika'iiawoha'ni, 
II. David, 

III. Sa'batis (Jean Baptiste), 

IV. Sha'nik, 
V. Margaret. 

VI. Susau. 

12. JosETTE (Tomau'); known also as Sosette, and as Joseph Carron; 

was born in 1800. lie is of the Pa'kaii'qkiii, or Prairie-chickeu 
dodii'mi; married Wa'bao'qkiu ("White- wing"), and suc- 
ceeded his father to the chieftaincy. He died in 1831, leaving 
children — 

(19) I. Tomau', 

(20) II. A'qkiwii'si, 

(21) III. Shu'nien, 

(22) IV. Kesh'i'ene, 

(23) V. Wa'beno niita'mu, 

(24) VI. O'kemawa/bon, 

(25) VII. Kosev'. 

13. Ma'qkata'bi (Tomau', Carron). Grignon, in his Seventy-two 

Years' Recollection of Green Bay says that Tomau' had two 
sons by his first wife, both of whom became chiefs, "Mau-kau- 
tau-pee" and Josette Carron; and that "Maukau-tau-pee," 
who served on McKay's Prairie du Chlen expedition, died in, or 
shortly after, 1820. In repeated conferences with both Shu'- 
nien, an exceedingly intelligent man, a brother of Ma'qkata'bi 
and Josette Carron, and in councils of leading men of the tribe, 
I am informed that Ma'qkata'bi never held the office of chief, 
as successor to Tomau', but that he had acted as legent for 
Osh'kosh. He died about 1820, without offspring. 

14. Glode (Tomau', Carron), a corruption of the word Claude. He 

was of the Pa'kiiii'qkiu dodii'mi, and a son of Tomau' by the 
second wife. He died in 1848 without offspring. 
16. Na'matam (Ka'ron, Konof, Carron): a daughter who married 
Kone'koshc'u, and has one daughter — 
I. Rose (unmarried). 


17. Owa'NOQNi'o (Kii'roii, Konot', Carron); a danghtcr. iiianied to 
A'potawa'iioqkwft. and lias t-hildren — 
I. Aiitoiiie, 
II. Angeliiie, 

III. Su-saii, 

IV. Si'ino (iiianiod Pa'tawa'sapaii) and lias (;liildreii — 

a. Autoiue, 
1). Susan, 
c. Joseph. 
IS. Joseph (Dzliu'se(|k\vai'o, Konot', Carron); was born about 1S18. 
lie was married, and had one son, who died. His wife was 
the widow of a white trader, named ('own, with whom she had 
fhildren who took the name of Gauthier — 
I. Joseph, married to Julia Giignon, and has offspring — 

a. Frank (married Mary Driseoll, a native of Ireland, and 

has one son, Joseph Aloysius, aged one year). 

b. ^lary Ann, 

c. John, 
(/. Lewis, 

e. Christine, died at age of 8 or 10 years. 

19. TOMAU' (Josette); corruption of the word Thomas. He is of the 

Pii'k;i;i'(ikiu dodii'mi; married Osii'win ("Yellow") and had 
one daughter — 
T. Taiiii's (Theresa— married Doniinick Morgan and had six chil- 

20. A'qkiwa'SI (Josette); knownasCharlesCarron; alsoof thePa'kiia'- 

(|kiu dodii'mi; married Ka'paia'qsam. Ileleft for the Ojibwa 
country, and lias not since been heard of He left one child — 
I. I^i'sepet (Elizabeth Maria), who was married to "Jim" Phalien, 
(deceased), and left no issue. 

21. Shu'>ien (Josette). Shu'nien ("Silver"') was born in 1827, and is 

today one of the finest figures, pliysically, among the Menoniini 
(figure -4). He is of the Pii'kiia'f]kiu dodii'mi; has been recog- 
nized as a chief of his band, and has made several trips to 
Washington on missions relating to the tribe. He was married 
twice; his first wife was Ki'waqko'wa ("Wanderiug-in-the- 
clouds"), who had one child — 
I. Owano'qiu ( a daughter, who married Kapsko'il: (deceased) and 
had nine children of whom six survive). 

Shu'nien's second wife was Ka'kika'tshiwan, of the Ota'- 
tshia (Crane) dodii'mi, and had issue — 
II. Jane (married to Sliepe'(|lcau; no children). 
III. Sose't (Sosette= Joseph) (commonly known as "Jim'' Sku'- 
nien, a man of fine build and an enthusiastic mitii"' dancer; 
he married A'paqtau Ki'siiilai'qkiu, and has two sous and 
two daughters). 




22. Keshi"£ne (Josette); Avas boru about 1830, and succeeded Lis 
father as chief, though during his minority Osh'kosli acted as 
regent. The word Keslii'ue, signifying "The-swift-tlying," orig- 
inated in the foHowing manner, as related by Shu'nion, his 
brother: Their father, Josette, was at one time fasting, and in 
a vision he thought he saw the air filled with eagles and hawks, 
the representatives of the Thunder phratry, flying swiftly by. 
This circumstance caused him to give the name "The swift- 
flying," to his next male child, born shortly afterward. Kesh- 

Iiti. 4 I'nrtrait of Shii'iiit-n. 

i"(5ne was twice married, the first wife, Oshe'pe'ii ("Eiver") 
having offspring — 
I. O'kwemu'qkiu (=Jane, nuxrried to Joseph Law; no children). 
Keshi 'ene's second wife was Tilkl'shiku'q ("Broken-clouds"), 
and her childien were — 
II. Kati's (married Bakome, and has tive children). 

III. Ma'ni (^Mary, marrie<l to Bama'ijsika'u", and has four chil- 


IV. A^oma'qkuqki'u^ (Female, deceased after marriage to David 
Wabus, leaving one female child). 


23. Wa'beno Mita'mu (Josette) "Wa'beno- woman." Was born about 

1840, and is an active, well preserved, and quite good looking 
woman. She is married to Nio'pet, the present chief of the 
Menomini,' and is the mother of fourteen children of whom 
but two survive — 
1. Reginald Osh'kosh. 
II. Ernest Osh'kosh. 

24. O'kemawa'ijon (Josette — daughter, married Ope'taq, has two 


25. Kose'v (Josette — a young man). 

As already stated, the Osh'kosh family at present, and evidently 
legitimately, furnishes the executive chief of the tribe, which personage 
is at the same time the presiding judge of the Indian court at Keshena. 
The members of the Carron family have no further authority in the 
affairs of the tribe than any other heads of families, though the recol- 
lection of the deeds of their ancestors appears to add to their name a 
glamor of romance, shared in even by their political opponents. 


I am informed by the Franciscan fathers at Keshena thiit they have 
frequent need of words to express clearly the terminology of the cat- 
echism and ritual and to present intelligently the exposition of the 
scriptures, words which do not occur in IMenomini, but for which they 
seek convenient and expressive terms iu Ojibwa, a language noted at 
once for its close linguistic relationship to the Menomiui, as well as 
for its rich vocabulary and the reuiarkable flexibility of its grammatic 

Ill his notes on the Indian tribes of Wisconsin,^ John Gilmary Shea, 
speaking of the Menomini, states that "their language is a very 
corrupt form of the Algonquin. " This may not be surprising when the 
Menomini language is compared with the Algonkin proper, but still the 
fact remains that the Menomini appeared to him defective in some 
manner or other. 

Through long-continued practice of this character, the Indians have 
become sufiflciently familiar with some Ojibwa words to comprehend 
the teachings of the fathers, but apart from this an Ojibwa conver- 
sation is almost entirely unintelligible to tiie Menomini, unless the 
language of the former liad been specially acquired by intimate com- 

It has been observed at the ceremonials of the Menomini that Ijoth 
Ojibwa and Potawatomi mitii'^ visitors ]tarticipate(l,aii(l although their 
knowledge of Menomini was so slight as to deter them from enjoying 
more than casual interchange of greetings, yet they were sufficiently" 

• See the Osh'kosh genealogy, p. 48. 

' Col. Hist. Soi-. of Wisi-oii.fiii for 1856. vol. iii. WST. p. 134. 


apt iu acquiring the words of a cUaiit, uever before heard by them, to 
join after two or three repetitions and assist as if they had known it 
always. Thus these strangers uueonsciously ac(iuire a vocabulary at 
lirst of unknown meaning to them, but by lepetition and association 
with actions and familiar gestures they ultimately become sufficiently 
advanced to comprehend the new language limited to this ceremonial. 

From the foregoing remarks it will be observed that the ceremonials 
of the cult societies may be tinctured, to greater or less degree, by the 
intrusion of extra-tribal ritualistic traditions and beliefs, the ceremo- 
nial forms of the Ojibwa, however, being considerably in excess of those 
of any other tribe. 

For many years theie has been constant intercourse between the 
Menomini and the Ojibwa of Lac Court Oreille and Lac Flambeau, on 
account of occasional intermarriage between these tribes and the 
mutual attendance at the cult ceremonies. It appears probable, also, 
that on account of this intercourse the Menomini ritual of the Mitii' wit, 
or Grand Medicine society, has been very perceptibly molded after the 
Ojibwa, but that during this process of adaptation much of the ancient 
ritual has been lost. 

A great portion of the phraseology of the Ojibwa ritual is in au 
archaic form of language, and is thus unintelligible to the ordinary- 
Indian, and frequently to many members of the society. This archaic 
phraseology naturally appears impressive and important to the general 
populace, and the shamans delight to dwell on such phrases, during 
ceremonials, not only to impress their hearers but to elevate themselvts 
as well. 

Honorable W. W. Warren, in his History of the Ojibwa Indians, says : 

In the Me-da-we rite is incorporated most that is ancient amongst them — songs 
and traditions that have descended, not orally, but in hieroglyphics, for at least a 
long line of generations. In this rite is also perpetuated the purest and most ancient 
idioms of their language, which differs somewhat from that of the counuou every- 
day iise.i 

The Menomini ceremonies of the same society are, as above stated, 
very much curtailed, and api)areutly worn down by careless transmis- 
sion from generation to generation. The chants are, in general, in 
Menomini, though that portion of the ritual pertaining to the Indian 
cosmogony and genesis of mankind is to a great extent mixed with 
Ojibwa words, and is therefore unintelligible to almost every one save 
those familiar with this language. 

It has already been shown with what persistency the Menomini and 
the Winnebago Indians have dwelt side by side from the earliest his- 
torical times, and it is a subject of interest to know with what surpris 
ing similarity these two tribes have, up to a recent period, conducted 
their medicine ceremonials. The entire ritual and its dramatization 
appear to be of Algonquian elaboration; and the adaptation thereof 

1 Coll. Miuuesota Hist. Soc, vol. v, 1885, ]>. 67. 

62 THli MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.axn. U 

by tbe Wiiiuebugo, si tribe beloiifiiii}; to aiiothir liuguistic stock, 
would be so readily aocoiiiplisbed only when the tribes are in constant 
and intimate communication.' 

The Ojibwa embellishments in the Winnebaso ritual appear to have 
been acquired through the intermediary of the Menomiui rather than 
from the Ojibwa direct, as the Siouini tril)es in general have at all times 
been more or less antagonistic to the Algomjiiian tribes, and vice versa, 
excepting the Menomiui, who appear always to have been of a peaceful 

There is another class of mystery men, or shamans, difleiing from 
the mitii'^, of which representatives are found among nearly all the 
Algonquian tribes even at this day. Such persons are termed 
tshi'sa(ilia, or jugglers, and are referred to in the Jesuit Kelations as 
jovfiletim and sorciers. The Nepissing Indians of Canada were even 
designated the Nation of Sorceiers as early as 1G32, and the tales 
recited regarding them and their powers are of the most marvelous 
character. This subject will be more definitely referred to in connec- 
tion with the subject the of tslii'saqka. There is no special organization 
amgug those performers, eacli preferring to act independently of the 
other, and it is only during the i)erformanc'e of the invocation of guard- 
ians or ma'nidos that pretended conversation with the latter takes 
place, such pretended conversation consisting in reality of a soliloquy, 
the questions of the juggler being answered apparently in another tone 
of voice and indeed sometimes in uuimbled words wholly unintelligible 
in character. 

The language employed by a juggler is the language of the tribe of 
which he is a member; and to acquire the power of prophecy and to 
become able to cause manifestations of variinis kinds, it is ntscessary 
to receive instruction from some one of reputed skill. His power is fur- 
thermore dependent upon the reputed power of his personal ma'nido, 
or tutelary daimon, which was selected by him in accordance with 
dreams, consequent upon fasting, which ordeal was experienced during 
his youth. 

There is still another class of shamans, known as the wa'beno, i. e., 
"daylight men," or "men of the dawn,'' who pretend to cure disease 
by the administration of charmed remedies. The number of wa'benOak 
as compared with the mitii'wok is small, the whole uumber in the 
Menomiui tribe not exceeding ten or twelve. Singular as it may 
seem, there are more women wa'benoak than men, though it appears 
tliat in former times the reverse was the case. The performances con- 
sisted in handling burning brands and live coals with apparent immu- 
nity from harm, thus gaining the attention and confidence of the 
credulous, after which their charms, amulets, or fetishes were sold, as 

' Since writiug: the above, Mr Frank La Flesclio, of Wnsliiii;;t(tn. sdii of tlie late Joseph La Flesche, 
one (if the chiefs of tlie Omaha Imliiius, informs me iliat hia trilie aeiinired the ritual of the Grand 
Mctlieine society from the Winnebago. 


required by tlie uiisucces.sful hunter, the disconsolate lover, or the 
iinlucky gambler. 

Xo orgauizatiou exists between the diti'erent pers ins of this class, 
each practicing his art, or pretensions, as best he may. A tambourine 
drum is necessary as an accompaniment to the chant, us the personal 
manido is thus invoked for aid in the accomidishment of whatever task 
may have been assigned to the i)erformer. More specific mention of 
the method of practice of these shamans will be presented under the cap 
tion of "The Wa'beno." 

Since the advent of the Paiute messiah, " Jack Wilson," a new 
society has been organized, designated the "Dreamers' society,"!, e., 
a society for indulgence in drumming, dancing, and exhortation by cer- 
tain designated persons, to form the order of exercises. Some of the 
mitii'wok, who, for various reasons, have left the Medicine society, claim 
that the Dreamers' society is founded on a ritual specially granted by 
Kishii' Mii'nido as a substitute for the former, that being alleged to 
have become degraded and debased by the introduction of innovations. 
Inquiry into the history of the society seems to indicate, however, that 
the performances by the Dreamers' society are a remote imitation of 
the Ghost dance, which originated several years since when the Paiute 
messiah made his apjiearance, and when many discontented and bellig- 
erent young men of various tribes took advantage of the craze to 
further their own designs. 

Some Mcnomini Indians more communicative than others have inti- 
mated that a time would surely come when the whole country would be 
restored to the Indian as it once was, when the heads of all the whites 
would be seveied from their bodies as a scythe cuts the wheat. This 
belief has always had a greater or less number of believers who were in 
a state of expectancy, so that when a delegation of Sioux and other 
Menomini river Indians arrived among the Menomiui to preach the 
doctrine of the messiah and to give instruction in the dance, the expect- 
ant ones were ready to accept almost anything that apjjcaled to their 
indefinite and unformed tradition. The ceremony conducted at these 
dances is not of the same character as that of the (ihost dance of the 
prairie Indians, sufficient change having been wrought since its intro- 
duction to prevent any apparent analogy between the two. 

To further illustrate the quickness with which such advantages for 
deception may be embraced by designing and deceitful Indians, I shall 
only recur to Sitting Bull of the Sioux nation, a medicine man of no 
mean order — as viewed by his peoi)le — but not a chief in the full sense 
of the word, as generally supposed from the newsj)aper notoriety given 
him. During my residence among these Indians in 1872-73, I had 
ample opportunity to become well acquainted with him, particularly 
after acquiring the language and an ultimate adoption into the " Buffalo 
society," by which means a "brotherhood" was formed with Running 
Antelo]ic, then orator of the northern Sioux aud chief of the Uucpapa 
branch of that tribe. 

64 THE MENOMIXI INDIANS [eih. ann. 14 

Sitting IJulI was general director of tlie discontented element of the 
Sioux nation, and acquired bis influence by bis audacious pretensious 
aud by tbe coincident occurrence of events of minor importance, as 
well as by tbe occurrence of certain atmospberic cbanges wbicb be had, 
in part, prophesied. Attaining some distinction in this manner, he 
cautiously pushed his claim to greater powers, stating that he was 
enabled to foretell events affecting himself aud his adherents. lie pre- 
tended that his deceased half-brother alwaysappeared to him in theguise 
of a gray wolf to warn him of any imi)ending personal danger. In fact, 
this man is said to have once gone so far as to allow himself to be discov- 
ered by some officers talking to a wolf which had, in utter astonishment, 
stopped to learn tbe source and nature of the peculiar uoise which so 
suddenly broke the silence of the locality! 

When the attack was made upon our cavalry escort in 1873, in Yel- 
lowstone valley, Sitting Bull was foremost in tbe approaching line, 
chanting and "making medicine," but wheu one of his chief assistants 
was shot down the line wavered and broke the moment the troops 
charged. Later on, as the Ghost dance became a better means of 
having his aids act the part of prophets. Sitting Bull's words were 
promulgated through the mouths of the chief dancers who had appai'- 
ently fainted and reached an ecstatic state. In this wise the hostility 
of a certain portion of the tribe was maintained and controlled, chiefly 
for personal gain, until the death of Sitting Bull, when the spell was 

Until quite recently it was customary for each Indian youth to pass 
through a certain process of '• fasting aud dreaming," whereby he 
might receive a manifestation from the Great Unknown as to what par- 
ticular animate form he might adopt as his own tutelary daimon, as 
termed by the Greeks, or, as more familiarly designated, his guardian 
mystery. The course of procedure necessary ibr the young aspirant 
for houors to pursue was to leave the camp and go into the forest, there 
to remain in meditation, abstaining from all food, until gradual exhaus- 
tion produced that condition of ecstasy during which various forms of 
animals, or birds, appeared to him. The first of these forms to clearljr 
impress itself on his miud was adopted as the special gift of tbe Great 
Mystery, aud was thereafter supi)osed to act as an adviser in times of 
indecision; a monitor when the Indian was in danger, or an interces- 
sor with the superior ma'uidos wlien special power or influence was 
desired. During the period of probation the lad's friends or parents 
would keep watch that jio danger overtook him while in the forest, and 
furthermore, that his fasting was not carried to the point of danger to 
life and health. 

Among some of the AlgoiKjuian tribes the animal or bird forms that 
may thus be adopted by an Indian are sometimes the same as the totem 
of which he is a member. Under such circumstances the animal repre- 
senting the totem, and the "familiar" or ma'nido, is seldom hunted or 


shot; but should he be j^eruiitted to huut such an auiuuil the hunter 
■will first address the animal and ask forgiveness for killing him, telling 
him that certain portions, which are tabu, shall be set up in the place 
of honor iu the wikn'niik. For instance, should an Indian of the Bear 
totem, or one whose adopted guardian is represented by the bear, desire 
to go hunting and meet with that animal, due apology would be paid to 
it before destroying it. The carcass would then be dressed and served, 
but no member of the Bear totem would partake of the meat, though 
the members of all other totems could freely do so. The hunter could, 
however, eat of the paws and head, the bones of the latter being sub- 
seijuently placed upon a shelf, itrobably over the door, or in some other 
cousi)icuous place.' Due reverence is paid to such a relic of the totem, 
and so strictly observed is this custom that no greater insult could be 
offered to the host than for anyone to"take down such bones and to cast 
them carelessly aside. 

Due reverence must be had by the Indian for his so-called guardian 
or ma'nido, neglect in this direction sometimes being considered as the 
direct cause of misfortune or sickness. A feast then becomes necessary 
as an offering to induce the ma'nido to return and to again manifest its 
favor to the Indian. Without going further into this special subject, as 
it obtains among the tribe under discussion, it may be interesting to 
present iu this connection an account of the striking similarity of belief 
in the ma'nido, or nagual, of the Mexicans, as given by Herrera, who, 
in speaking of the religion and supei'stitions of the inhabitaiits of Cer- 
quin, in Honduras, siiys: 

Among the many Idols worshipji'd, there was one call'd, The great Father, and 
another, The great Mother, of whom they hegg'd Health; to other Gods they pray'd 
for Wealth, Relief in Distress, to supply them witli Provisions, breed up their Chil- 
dren, preserve their Harvest, and assist them iu their Improvements, which Super- 
stitious contiuu'd loug among the old Men ; and the Devil deluded them, apjiearing 
in the Shape of a T.ion, or a Tmer, or a Coyte, a Beast like a Wolf, or in the Shape 
of an Alligator, a Snake, or a Bird, that Province aboun<liug iu Creatures of Prey, 
whicli they call'd Xagualea, siguifyiug. Keepers, or Guardians, and when the Bird 
dy'd the Indian that was in League with him dy'd also, which often hapned, and was 
looked upon as infallible. The manner of contracting this Alliance was thus, the 
Indian repair'd to the River, Wood, Hill, or most obscure Place, where he call'd upon 
the Devils by such Names as he thought fit, talk'd to the Rivers, Rocks, or Woods, said, 
he went to weep, that ho might have the same his Predecessors had, carrying a Cock, 
or a Dog to sacrifice. In that melancholy fit he fell a sleep, and either in a Dream, 
or Waking, saw some one of the aforesaid Birds, or other Creatures, whom he iutreated 
to grant him Profit iu Salt, Cacao, or any other Commodity, drawing Blood from his 
own Tongue, Kars, and other Parts of his Body, making his Contract at the same 
Time with the said Creature, the which, either in a Dream, or Waking, told him, 

'The Abb6 J. A. Maurauit snys of the totemic marks of the Abnaki: "Chaque tribuavait sesarmoi- 
riea. que consistaient en la tigure d'un animal, ou cl'uu oiseau, ou d'un iioisson. Chaque giierrier peig- 
nait ordinairenient aur sea braa, ses jambea et sa poitrine les arnies <le sa tribu. Quaiit lea saiivages 
allaient en voyage ou en excursion, ils pcignaient leura amies sur des arbres k chaque campement, 
surtout hiraqu'ils avaient reussi dans quelque campagne. lis faiaaieiit ausai connaitre, par ce moyen, 
lenombre de leura prisonniera et celui des chevelurea qu'ila avaient levi-es."— Hist. des Abeuakis, 
Quebec, 1860, p. 23. 

14 ETH O 

66 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.anx. u 

sucli a Day you shall go abroad a sporting, and I will be the first Bird, or other Ani- 
mal you shall meet, aud will be your Xagiial, aud Companion at all Times, whereupon 
such Friendsliip was contracted between them, that when one of they dy'd the other 
did not survive, aud they fancy'd that he wlio had uo Nagual could not he rich.' 

The Abbe Miimault^ says of this belief amoiis' tlie Abuaki Indians 
of Canada, a tribe allied liuguistically to the Menomini : 

Comme toutes les autres nations sauvages, ils avaient une idee de la Divinitd. 
Dieu, suivant eux, (5tait un Grand-Esprit, qu'ils appelaient " Ketsi NiSask"." Ce 
Grand-Esprit ri^sidait sur une ile du grand lac (I'Oceau Atlantique). lis avaient une 
grande couliauce en sa protection. Ils oroyaient que le meilleur moyen pour attirer 
seur eux cette protection 6tait de s'efforcer a devenir de braves guerriers et de bona 
chasseurs, etant persuades que plus ils se rendaient remarquahles en ces deux choses, 
plus ils devenaient agroables aux yeux du Grand-Esprit. 

lis croyaient aussi a I'Esprit du, qu'ils appelaient "Matsi NiSask"." Get 
Esprit otait tri'S-puissant dans le monde. lis peusaient que les maladies, les acci- 
dents, les malheurs et tons les aiitres maux de ce genre venaient de Ini. Comme ils 
craiguaient beaucoup ces maux, I'Esprit du Mai etait le principal objet de leur 
devotion, et ils s'adressaient sans cesse iV lui, le priantde ne leur I'aire aucuu nial. 

lis croyaieut, en outre, ([u'il y avait d'autres Esprits, d'un ordre superieiir a I'homme ; 
que ces Esprits (?taiunt toujours portes au bien, et qu'ils protegeaient I'homme centre 
I'Esprit ilu Mai; c'est pourquoi, ils leur demandaient protection. 


To j)resent more intelligibly the ritualistic observances and preten- 
sions of the several classes of shamans, the subject will be arranged 
under the following captions: 

I. Mitii'wit, or Grand ^Medicine society; 
II. Tshi'saqka, or Juggler; 

III. Wa'beno, or Men of the Dawn, and 

IV. Dreamers' society. 


Organization of thk Society 

In order to present clearly to the reader the status of the Mitii'wit, 
or so-called "Grand Medicine society,"^ of the Menomini Indians of 
Wisconsin, it becomes necessary to refer briefly to the corresponding 
society and ritualistic ceremonies of the Ojibwa Indians of Minnesota. 
Among the latter are found four classes of mystery men, viz, (1) mide', 
or " medicine man," whose profession is incantation, exorcism of demons, 
aud the administration of shamauic or magic remedies; (2) theje'ssak- 
kid, or juggler, who professes prophecy and antagonizes the evil 
charms of rivals; (3) the wa'beno, literally " easterner," or " da.ylight 
man," whose orgies are continued throughout the night only to cease 

*The General History of that Vast CoDtinent and Islands of America, translated by Capt. John 
Stevens. London, 1726, vol. iv, pp. 138, 13!). 

^Histoiro des Abeuakis, Qutbec, 18Gfi, pp. 18-19. It will be observed that the abb6 falls luto the pre- 
vailing misapprehension as to the conception of spirituality among the Indians. 

^Tliis term originates in the designation " la grande mtdecine," applied to this society by the Caua 
dians and early French esjilorers. 


at the approach of day, aud who also professes ability to prepare lacky 
charms for the hunter and potent love powders for the disappointed 
lover; and (4) the mashkikikewinini, or herbalist, who professes knowl- 
edge of the proi)erties of plants, aud admiuisters, as the name iuiplies, 
"medicine broths" or decoctions and infusions. All of these, save the 
mido', practice their respective professions singly and alone, and there- 
fore do not aftiliate with others of like pretensions so as to constitute a 
regularly organized society, at the meetings of which the members hold 
ceremonial services for the instruction and initiation of candidates for 

The mide', on the contrary, are organized into a society termed the 
Mide'wiwiu, which consists of an indefinite number of persons of both 
sexes, and is graded into four separate and distinct degrees. Admis- 
sion to membership in the degrees of this society is a matter of great 
importance, and consequently of great difficulty. The male candidates 
are selected usually from among those who iu their youth were desig- 
nated for this distinction, which occurred at the period of "giving a 
name" by a selected mide' priest, who thus assumed the office of god- 
father. From that date until the age of puberty of the boy, his parents 
gather presents with which to defray the expenses of preliminary 
instruction by hired mide' priests, and the feasts to be giveu to all 
those who might attend the ceremonies of initiation, as well as to 
defray the personal services of the various medicine men directly assist- 
ing in the initiation. Frequently the collecting of skins and peltries 
and other goods that have to be purchased involves a candidate hope- 
lessly iu debt; but so great is the desire on the part of some Indians 
to become acknowledged medicine men that they will assume obligations 
that may require years of labor or hunting to liquidate; or, should they 
fail, then their relatives are expected to assume the responsibility thus 

In this society, as maintained by the Ojibwa, are preserved the tradi 
tions relating to cosmogony and genesis of mankind, to the appearance 
on the earth of an anthropomorphic deity whose primarj^ services con- 
sisted of interceding between Ki'tshi ]Ma'nido and the Indians, that 
the latter might be taught the means wherewith tliey might provide 
themselves with the good things of the earth and with the power of 
warding off disease and death, and who gave to the Indian also the 
various plants and instructed them how to prepare the objects neces- 
sary to be used for special pur])oses in specified ways. The being who 
thus originally instructed the Indians is called Mi'nabo'zho, and the 
method jRirsued by him is dramatically rehearsed at the initiation of a 
candidate into the society of the Mide'. By the Ojibwa this entire 
proceeding is firmly believed to be of a sacred or religious character. 

There is another body among the Ojibwa termed the Ghost society, 
to which reference is necessary. When a child who has been set apart 
to be dedicated to the society of the Mide' dies before reaching the 

68 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [f.tii. ann. 14 

pro])ei- age to receive initiation, the fatber (or under certain circum- 
stances the mother) announces the fact to the chief i)riests, when a 
meetinj; of the members is called and a feast prepared at the wigwam 
of the mourner. Dishes of food for the dead are set apart in a separate 
structure, after which the chief mourner is initiated into the society as 
a substitute for the deceased. Thus we tind among the Ojibwa two 
distinct services, one for the initiation of members into the society of 
the Mide', tlu^ other a feast of the dead, designed to release his 
"shadow" and to permit it to depart to the land of mysteries, or the 
place of the setting- sun. 

It will be observed, then, that the membership of the Mide' society 
is not limited to any imrticular number of persons; and that the cere- 
monies of the Ghost society are held at irregular intervals and never 
at the death of a member of the Mide' society. 

With this brief notice of the Ojibwa Mide'wiwin, or Grand Medicine 
society, a description of the ceremonies as practiced by the Menomini 
Indians will be presented for the pnrpose of comparing with the pre- 
ceding their version and dramatic rendering of a belief and practice 
which no doubt survives to a certain degree among the greater number 
of tribes embraced within the western group of the Algon(iuian lin- 
guistic family. 

The Mita'wit, or society of shamans, commonly termed the Grand 
Medicine society of the Mcomini Indians, consists of men, women, 
and a few young boys and girls, who have been initiated into the mys- 
teiies of that organization, either directly or by proxy. Initiation of 
the person himself may be accomplished (1) by his being adopted by a 
member to fill a vacancy caused by death; or (2) when proof of eligi- 
bility has been furnished and the necessary presents and fees are deliv- 
ered to the chief of the society to defray the expenses incurred iu 
holding the ceremonies. 

Although initiation by proxy is rare, yet it may occur when a very 
sick young person is brought to the ceremonial structure for restoration 
to health. This is done only as a last resort, and after the usual attend- 
ance of shamans with their incantations and exorcisms has proved 
futile. The aid of Mashii' Ma'nido is thus sought, and as the sick child 
may be carried in the arms of one already a mitii"', it is soon deposited 
in the arms of one of the family, while the person who carried it con- 
tinues to take the part of a new candidate, notwithstanding the fact 
that he already possesses the setTets. Should the patient recover 
health, he or she is thenceforth regarded as a regularly initiated mem- 
ber, although subsequent instruction is necessary to a better under- 
' standing of the pretensions of the society. It is customary on the 
death of a member of the society for the head of the family of the 
deceased, if he be a mita"', or the nearest mitii'" relation or friend, to 
approach the corpse at burial and to address it. The chief mourner, 
looking down upon the coarse box containing the remains, says: "Go, 


my brother [or substituting' tlie term of relationship], follow tlie sun to 
the place prepared for the shades of the dead, wheie you will see the fire 
built by ifa'qpote; that will light your course beyond the sun's path. 
Abide there until the proper time [a certain jieriod of a summer month 
is usually named], when I shall give a feast and bring a substitute to 
occui)y your i)lace ; then shall Na'qpote permit you to return to observe 
the fnlflllment of my promise. Go!" The grave box is then placed 
over the coliin, the medicine stick erected before it, and a piece of cloth 
or a board is also idaced before the grave box, on which is deposited 
from time to time small quantities of tobacco. 

At the return of summer the person who has made the promise of 
procuring a substitute pre]iares himself by bringing together the pres- 
ents necessary to be delivered as fees, and collecting food for the attend- 
ants and visitors. A favorite member of the family, a relation, or even 
a dear friend, may receive the honor of an invitation to became the 
candidate. In the meantime the furnisher of the feast, i. e., the person 
who is to procure the candidate, makes known to the chief ofiBciating 
members of the society his choice, with the desire that a meeting time for 
initiatory purposes be decided upon, to be held at some time in the near 
future. The chiefs receive this communication and deliberate, meditat- 
ing on the course to follow and selecting several groups of assistants 
to aid in the ceremonies. The candidate, in the ineantime, is instructed 
in the mysteries of the remedies known to his instructor. Each remedy 
must be paid for separately, as no two preparations, or roots, or other 
substances are classed together as one; furthermore, the knowledge 
relating to different remedies is possessed by different me<licine men, 
each of whom will dispose of the properties and uses thereof for a con- 
sideration only. 

Although four annual ceremonies of the Grand Medicine society 
■were held near Keshena, AVisconsin, in the years 1890, 1891, 189U, and 
1893, the first will be described oidy insofar as it pertains to the mode 
of adopting a member to fill a vacancy caused by death; and to make 
the description more intelligible it may be of importance to state 
under what circumstances the writer's admission into the Mitii'wit was 

Ceremonies of 1890 

Having obtained during the years 1887-1890, from the Ojibwa In- 
dians at Eed Lake and White Earth, Minnesota, complete instruction 
in the secrets and ceremonies of the Mide'wiwin, or Grand Medicine 
society, the information of this unique occurrence had spread south- 
ward into Wisconsin, as far as the Menomini reservation. In the 
winter of 1889-90, a number of these Ojibwa shamans went to Wash- 
ington in the interest of their tribe, and it happened that a small dele- 
gation of Menomini Indians from Keshena, Wisconsin, also visited the 
capital on a like errand. These two delegations were furthermore quar- 
tered at the same house, so that the object of my constant visits to, 


and ('oi)snltatioiis with, the Ojihwa soon became known to tlie IMenom- 
ini, who at once manifested great interest, as they themselves were 
members of the society of sliamans. The Ojibwa then informed the 
MeiiOMiini of what had been done with leference to the preservation of 
the traditions and ritual of tlie Ojibwa society, and suggested to the 
former the propriety of having the Government publish the Menomini 
version of the Grand Medicine ceremonies, thus preserving for future 
generations their ancient beliefs and i>ractices concerning the origin of 
the Indians, the history of the services of Ma'niibfish, and the institu- 
tion and initiatory ceremonies of the Mitii'wit, or Grand ISfedicine 

Three members of the Menomini delegation were chiefs of the society, 
and as such were competent to decide whether it would be appropriate 
and in accordance with their ancient custom to permit the admission 
into the society of a white man and stranger. After protracted delib- 
eration, I was informed that in so far as they were personally concerned 
they very much desired that a visit be made to Keshena, where a coun- 
cil of the chief shamans would be called for the purpose of presenting 
for their approbation the subject of making public the so-called secret 
or mystic ceremonies. The visit to the reservation was made during 
the spring of ISOO, when a meeting of the council was called by Nio'pet 
and Xi'aqtawa'pomi, at which the chief representatives of the society 
unanimously agreed that I should be received at the next regular meet- 
ing. Then, when once within the sacred structure, I might without 
fear of misfortune ask any questions that I might desire, and receive 
explanation so far as lay in the power of the chief mitii'wok. 

When a meeting of the society is desired, either for the benefit of 
the sick or for regular initiation, the proceedings are as follows : A con- 
sultation is held as to the designation of the four chief medicine men, 
the selection of a second set of foui-. and also a third set, each of which 
groups have special duties to perform during the ceremonies. Two 
general assistants or ushers are also chosen, whose duties consist in 
the proper arrangement of the interior of the structure and accesso- 
ries, the proper location on a ridge pole of the presents, especially the 
blankets, pieces of calico, mats, etc., which form part of the gifts made 
by or for the candidate as the price of his admission. A location 
for the erection of the mitii'wiko'mik' is also decided upon, and the 
women members of the society — usually the wives of the chief officiat- 
ing medicine men — who are to erect the structure and to prepare the 
feasts, are also designated. 

These preliminary arrangements being comiileted, the "giver of the 
feast" presents to the chief medicine man several gifts of tobacco, 
which are divided into small heaps, and then immediately sent by a 

>From "mita'"," a member of the society or friiteruity of tin* Mitawit; and " wiko'mik,'' a rorriip- 
tion of tlie word wig' wain — from " witjwas'," bark — a struftui'e or lodge of bark. Though now built 
of poles, mats, r-tc, the original covering was no doubt of bark, thus giving rise to this designation, 
"wigwam," forall bark habitations. 




courier to members of the society, one lieap to each member. The run- 
uer, on his arrival, ])hices the tobacco before the person for whom it is 
intended; he, being aware of tlie purpose of the visitor, merely says, 
"When and where?" The courier then informs tlie mitii" as to tlie day 
and iilace of the ceremony, and after a short rest departs to fulftll his 
mission. In the meantime the medicine men have adjourned, ea(;h to 
attend to his own duties in so far as his individual services will be 
demanded, and to consult with the second and third sets or groups of 
medicine men designated to assist at the initiation. 

It is customary, when aTi Indian is to be initiated to till a vacancy 
caused by death, for the medicine wiko'mik 1,o be erected a short dis- 
tance east of the grave of the deceased member, so that the members 
of the society may be enabled to march westward when visiting the 

Fig. 5 — Ceretnouial structure of 1800. 

grave, thus following the direction n;ime(l in the ritual as followed 
by Na'qpote when his shade went in the direction of the setting .-un, 
■where the world is cut off. 

The medicine lodge (ceremonial structure) termed mitii'wiko'mik, or 
mitii'wi'kiop, is erected by the medicine women detailed for the pur- 
pose, and is constructed on the following plan : A piece of level ground 
is sought at a convenient location east of the grave, when long poles, 
from 2 to 3 inches thick at the base, are planted at irregular intervals 
along the sides of an oblong. The length of the structure is usually 
CO or 70 feet, and its width about 20 feet. The poles are then brought 
together at the top so as to form an aichway, and secured by strands of 
basswood bark. Plate V represents the skeleton framework of the end 
of the structure. Mats made of rushes are then placed ahuig tlie 
sides, the lower row touching the earth, and a second row placed above 


them, bat projecting' slightly over tlie tops of the lower ones so asj to 
shed rain. Other mats, pieces of bir<-h bark, and even i)ieces of canvas, 
are then placed across the top to sliade the interior or to keep ont the 
rain. The mats, a detailed description of whi(;h will be given later, 
are usually a yard wide, and vary from (i to 12 feet iu length. 

The exterior of the medicine wiku'niik erected in 1890 is represented 
in figure 5. At this ceremony Shu'nien was recognized as chief oftici- 
ating shaman, the application for membership having been first made 
to him, and he iu turn having selected his three chief assistants, all of 
whom, after due deliberation, decided on the order of ceremony. After 
the wikrt'mik was erected, branches of cedar were placed on the ground 
around the interior, though near the wall, and on these were jdaced 
mats of rush leaves to serve as seats for the attendants. The gifts 
preseutetl by the candidate, or his sponsor, were suspended from the 
long ])oles placed lengthwise a short distance beneath the top center of 
the arched iuclosure. At various places lanterns also were suspended 
to furnish light during the night service. The large mat on which 
the candidate was finally obliged to kneel was spread on the ground 
about 20 feet from the western exit and along the middle line of the 
interior, while the space along each side, immediately before the seat 
mats around the interior, formed the pathwaj- invariably followed by 
the officiating medicine men and the attending members of the society 
(see plate vi). 

It is customary to hold meetings on Saturday afternoon, beginning 
at the approach of sunset and continuing uninterrui)tedly until the next 
day at sunset. Formerly no special day was selected, but since many 
of the Indians have become farmers, Sunday is thus employed so that 
as little time as possible may be lost from their labor. 

By Saturday afternoon, on the occasion desc-ribed, the vicinity of the 
mitii'wiko'mik became a scene of great animation. Wagons bearing 
the families, tents, and cooking utensils of members of the society began 
to arrive from various directions. The young men and boys came on 
horseback, clad in their best and gaudiest attire; children ran hither 
and thither while chasing one another iu play; and the scene was occa- 
sionally enlivened by a rush toward a particular spot to witness or to 
stop a dog fight, as numerous and various sjiecimens of gaunt, snarling 
curs had congregated from all parts of the reservation. 

The members of the society were yet in their hastily erected lodges 
preparing themselves for public exhibition; but as the sun began to 
sink, eight of the most pr.omiueut members of the society, together with 
the chief mourner or giver of the feast and his family and relations, 
proceeded westward to the grave, distant about 200 yards, around 
which they formed a circle, while Shu'nien stepped nearer toward the 
head of the grave box, and produced the niii'tshida'cjtokwan, or cere- 
monial baton. This is a round piece of jnne or other soft wood, an 
inch thick and 30 inches long, with one end slightly pointed so as to 







admit of being- easily tlirust in t-lie ground. The baton is ornamented 
by having cuts made around it near the top, the shavings being allowed 
to remain attaclied at one end but iirqjectiug slightly from the stick so 
as to resemble miniature plumes. About 6 inches below the top cluster 
is another, as iilso farther down the baton, until three or four clusters 
have been made. At the base of each cluster of cuts 
a baud of vermilion an inch wide, encircles the stick. 
Figure (i represents the general ftn-m of the baton. 

Shu'nien, after taking the baton at the sharpened 
end, struck the grave box with the other end, and spoke 
as follows: 

''There were two brothers, IMii'niibnsh and Na'qpote, 
the Wolf. Mii/niibush lived to mourn for Na'qpote, 
who was destroyed by the evil underground beings, 
but who now abides in Tshi']iaia'(iki, the final resting 
place, where he awaits the arrival of the shades of the 
dead. The dance to be held at the bottom of the hill is 
held for Na'qpote, that he may return and transport the 
shade of this dead one to the mitii'wiko'mik, where 
we shall have our ceremonies this night. All the aged 
whiteheads are invited to it. While Mii'nabush was 
still on this earth he said that he should build a fire in 
the northwest, at which the Indians would always be 
enabled to obtain warmth for themselves, their children, 
and their successors. He said that afterward he should 
go to the place of the rising sun, there to abide always 
and to watch over the welfare of the Indians. He said 
if the Indians desired to hold a meeting of the Mitii'wit, 
that they must first have a feast at the head of the grave. 
We will now sit and eat." 

The mitii"' women, assisted by relatives of the deceased, 
then si)read a tablecloth upon the ground, and deposited 
thereon various kinds of meats, vegetables, bread, and 
pastry — quite a contrast to the primitive method puv- 
sued before the adoption of linen tablecloths, china, 
and silver-plated knives, forks, and spoons. All the 
invited guests partook of the food placed before them, 
but nothing was so eagerly sought after as the green 
cucumbers, which were peeled and eaten raw. ^^°- 

After the feast, Shu'nien, the chief ])riest and master 
of ceremonies, again took the ceremonial baton, and handin 
of his assistants, requested him to make an address. The speaker 
first struck the grave box, and during the time of his remarks frequently 
struck the box, as if to em])hasize his words. The addresses made by 
bim and his three successors related to exploits performed by them at 
various times, particularly during the civil war, when most of them had 

6— Cert'monial 

<: it to one 



[ETII. ANN. 14 

served as soldiers in tlie Union army. This di<;i-essioii was prompted 
because the deceased liad been one of their comrades. 

Shu'nien, in the meantime, had taken the grave post — which had been 
previously erected before the grave box — and painted a l)and of vermil- 
ion around the top, a band as broad as a finger, and five crosses on one 
of the flat sides to denote the luimber of addresses made at the grave; 
while on the reverse were four transverse bars and three crosses, de- 
noting that the deceased had performed eight noteworthy exploits 
during his life. On the grave post were incised 
the outlines of animals, totemic in character;, 
over each of these some of the animals were 
again drawn in vermilion, though with another 
l>and, as the dotted and shaded lines in the ac- 
companying illustration (figure 7) show. The 
general ai)pearauce of the grave box, with the 
baton, (he grave post, the board with the offer- 
ing of tobacco, a!id the stick ornamented with a 
white cloth, is shown in figure 8. The adjoining 
grave boxes are those of relations of the deceased, 
for whose benefit the feast was here given. 

P>y the lime tlie si)eaking had concluded the 
sun had gone below the horizon, and Shu'nien 
suggested returning toward the medicine wiko'- 
mik, tlie persons present falling into line two by 
two. The procession marched slowly down the 

ailjIJ- lull toward the east, and passing toward the 
\^^lS south side of the structure to the main or east- 
ern entrance, where only Shu'nien and his three 
chief assistants, the four highest ofiBciating 
mitii'''' for this ceremony, entered the inclosure 
and took seats on the northern side, though uear 
the eastern entrance. Figure 9, representing 
the ground plan of the medicine wiko'mik, will 
serve to illustrate the respective positions of 
the several persons officiating, as well as those 
of the candidate, visitors, etc. 

At sucli gatherings it is customary for each 
individual to dress as elaborately as his cir. 
cumstances will permit. The head is adorned with a turban made of a 
silken handkerchief, a hat, feathers, or even a turban consisting of a 
native -made woolen waist scarf. Bead bags, measuring from 10 to f 2 
in(-hes in length and from 12 to Ki inches in width, with a slioulder 
strap or baldric across the opposite shoulder, are worn on the hiji or 
side: fre(iuently two or three are worn by the same mitii'"', and even 
as many as a dozen have been seen on a single individual. There 
are also amulets, worn above the elbows, which consist of strands of 
beaded work, metal bands or skunk skins, while bracelets of shells. 


Flo_ 7 — Crave post 




buckskin, or metal also are worn. About the waist is a long varicolored 
scarf of native manufacture, aud in addition some persons wear beaded 
belts, or belts of saddler's leather adorned with brass tacks. The legs 
are decorated with garters, varying from 2 to .S inches in width and 

Fig. 8 — Graves where feast "was held. 

from 12 to 15 inches in length, the ends terminating in woolen strings 
of various colors. The moccasins are sometimes neatly embroidered. 

The chief article of value, however, is the medicine sack, in which are 
carried several small sacred articles, and particularly the konii'iiamik, 

qOOOOOOOOOOO d d d d ooooooooooo 

19 IS 17 tt> 

/5 iJ I 2 3 4 9 10 II 


ooooo #••• oo 

Fig. 9 — Diagram of medicine lodge of 1890, 

a, The eastern or main entrance; 6, the western exit; 1. Nio'pet, fourth or lowest of the first four; 
2, Ak'wine'mi Mo'shihiit, second or nest lowest; 3, Sho'min, third or next to chief; 4, Shu'nien, chief 
and leader of ceremonifs; 5, candidate, Na'tshiu'iqko {'"He who bullies"); 6, T, 8, medicine women, 
relations of the candidate; 9, seat occupied by the writer; 10, seat occupied by the interpreter; 11, 
usher and general assistant; 12, 13, 14, 15, second group of assistant medicine men ; 16, 17, 18, 19, third 
group of medicine men, detailed to assist in initiation ; 20, mat nu which candidate kneels when he is 
to be "shot" with the kona'pamik or magic shell; 21, the place of the fire; 22, jdace of presents sus- 
pended from a pole. The remaining spaces around the interior of the inclosure, indicated hy small 
circles, are occupied by the members of the society and visiting medicine men who may bu known and 
entitled to admission. 

or shell, used in shooting* at the candidate and in conveying sacred or 
mystic influence to a patient. Tlje medicine sack or bag, together with 
the several articles of dress above named, are fully described and illus- 
trated in connection with art work and ornamentation. 

In addition to adornment of the body by means of various kinds 
of api^arel, beaded and ornamented with metal, feathers, etc, facial 


decoration is iudnlsed in liberally. At present there is no special rule 
goveruing the ariaiigemeiit of color designs employed, though formerly, 
when the society still conferred four degrees, there were distinctive 
arrangements of color to designate the several degiees by which the 
rank of the various members could readily be identified. The colors 
employed were earthy pigments, generally obtained at trading estab- 
lishments. The initii"' who had received but one initiation into the 
society was allowed, as well as expected, to adorn his face by making 
a white stripe horizontally across the forehead, a band of white clay of 
a finger's width, and extending outward as far as the outer angle of 
each eye. In addition, a spot of green about an inch in diameter was 
placed upon the middle of the breast. 

Those having received two degrees were usually honored by their 
preceptor by being permitted to adopt the facial decoration of the latter; 
this consisted of a fanciful api)lication to the face of red ocher, or ver- 
milion, and one spot of green beneath each eye. 

The third degree mitii'^ placed a stripe of green so as to extend hori- 
zontally outward from the corners of the mouth. 

To distinguish a mitii'' of the highest rank, one of the fourth ilegree, 
the chin was colored with green paint. 

These arrangements were the generic and specific features in color 
decoration, but slight additions thereto were made, to such an extent 
only, however, as not to intrude upon or to obscure the typical decora- 
tions characteristic of the several grades. 

No regularity of color arrangement, in so far as it relates to rank, is 
now found. No two faces presented any similarity at tlie meeting, 
under consideration, the greater number of the members having simply 
besmeared their cheeks, the chin, or other parts of the face, with ver- 
milion, with here and there a stripe of blue, red, or green. One would 
have his face colored yellow with ocher or chrome yellow, with a 
stripe of red running outward from each side of the mouth. Another 
would have three lines of red passing down over the chin, a central 
line with one nearer the outer corners of the mouth, between which 
lines were others of dark blue. Another had black spots the size of a 
dime on a red forehead ; while still another, who had recently lost a near 
relation, had his cheeks and forehead blackened with ashes. 

One young man displayed rather more than ordinary taste in the 
decoration of his face; there being a stripe across each cheek from the 
nose to near the ears, curving slightly upward, consisting of alternate 
squares of vermilion and white, the squares being about three- foui'ths 
of an inch across and bordered with black. A row of spots also 
extended from the upper lip outward toward the ears, each spot being 
as large as a dime ; those nearest the mouth were red, the next two white 
with a bar sinister in blue, and the last ones red. While scarcely beau- 
tiful, these facial i)aintings of the men were very striking. 

The facial decorations of the women members of the society were not 
so elaborate, their chief form consisting mainly of reddened cheeks, 



with a spot <pf liliie on the foi'ebead, or a vertical stripe or two across 
the chiu. 

When the four medicine men had talcen their inoiier stations and 
were seated on tlie mats, the usher brought the goods that liad been 
furnished by tlie candidate and phiced tlieni l)efore Nio'pet, tlie east- 
ernmost of the four. The medicine drum was then also placed before 
Xio'pet, who removed the drum head, wet it, and after putting some 
water into the drum — to the depth of perhaps 13 inches — he replaced 
the drum head and 
tightened it down by 
means of a cloth-cov- 
ered iron hoop. Figure 
10 represents the drum 
and drumstick. 

The mitii'*' drum dif- 
fers from that ordi- 
narily used in dances; 
it consists of a cylin- 
drical piece of wood 
carefully hollowed out, 
about 1<) inches high 
by 12 inches in diam- 
eter at the base, gently 
narrowing toward the 
top. A piece of raw- 
hide is permanently 
attached across the 
botton). while the top 
piece is secured only 
by means of the iron 
hoop fitting over it 
and around the drum. 
About a quart of water 
is poured into the drum , 
and after the drumhead 
has been thoroughly 
softened by soaking, it is tightly stretched across the top and secured 
by the hoop. 

The drumstick used with the drum consists of a piece of wood curved 
downward and forward at the front end, so that tlie point of iiercussion 
is but little larger than the tip of the finger. On account of the water 
in the bottom of the drum, the sound, when one is near by, is merely 
a series of dull thuds; but on a still lught it is audible for the distance 
of a mile or more. 

While the mita''' was using the drum, the two seated next accom- 
panied him with rattles, one consisting of a round tin box, the other 
of a hollow gourd, each with a stick passing through it 

Fig. 10 — Medicine drnm mid stick. 


to serve as a handle. were partly tilled witli grains of corn to pro- 
duce arattling sound. (Figure 11 rei)resents one of tlie two specimens 
procured and now in the United States National Museum.) Other 
members are admitted at this stage of the ceremony, but as my visit 
to the meeting was made at the reiiuest of some of the mitii" and by 
virtue of my affiliation with the Ojibwa society, I was invited to sit at 
the right of the chief priest. 

The service, which continued from the time of the meeting at the 

grave until daylight of the following morning, was for the benefit of the 

shade of the dead, which had been j)ermitted by Na'qpote to return and 

to be present within the mita'wiko'niik. At daybreak, however, the 

shade is free to return to its last abode, but it is 

believed to make a last visit to the same spot four 

years later. 

After the procession arrived at the medicine 
wiko'mik, only the four highest ofiBciating medicine 
men reverentially entered, and, after taking the 
seats reserved for them, produced their pipes and 
tobacco. A ceremonial smoke was then indulged in 
by blowing a mouthful of smoke toward the east, 
another toward the south, one toward the west, one 
toward the north, and another toward the sky, the 
abode of Mashii' Ma'nido, or the Great Mystery. 
Smoking continued, then, until the pipes went out, 
when Nio'pet, sitting at the eastern extremity of the 
row of four, and recognized, during these ceremonies 
only, as the fourth in rank, began the ceremonies. 
Looking about him to see that his associates were 
ready to proceed, he remarked to each of the three, 
in succession, " Mka'ni, nika'ni, iiika'ni, kaue " (my 
colleagues, my colleagues, my colleagues) ; to which 
the others responded in like manner. Then he took 
the drumstick, and gmng the drum several soft 
though rapid taps, to call attention, the two sitting to his right assist- 
ing in gently shaking the rattle, the medicine man softly chanted the 
following words: 

"My grandson will now be placed on the correct jjath. It gives me 
pleasure to see the goods before me, which have been brought here as 
an evidence of the good will of my grandson, and his desire to become 
instructed in the way to go through life. I can hear beneath the ground 
the approacli of our enemies, the ana'maqki'u, who destroyed the brother 
of Ma'n;ibush,and who now would wish to oppose our proceedings, but 
Ma'uabush said: 'Whenever you are in trouble, place some tobacco 
aside for me, and when the odor of your smoke ascends I .shall help 
you.' Therefore, we have before us some tobacco to be ottered to 
Mii'nabush, that he may be present at the meeting and till us with con- 


When this recitation was ended, all uttered rapidly the words, "Ho, 
ho, ho, ho, ho," while the drum was pushed toward the right, to the next 
medicine man, A'kwiue'mi Mo'sihat, the rattles being now used by 
Sho'niin and Sliu'nien. The attendant usher also came forward from 
his station, down toward the middle of the northern side of theinclosure, 
and placed the goods and presents before tlie drummer, who, after say- 
ing to eacli of his companions, "Nika'ni, nika'ni, nika'ni, kane','' began 
gently to tap the drum, and gradually reciting his words they blended 
into a chant and finally into rapid utterances, as follows: 

"The shades are looking toward us and are watching our procedure, 
as we are looking toward them lor their approbation. Tliej^ fiivor our 
work and will not oppose us. Our fathers have always done thus before 
us, and they did well, because they had been instructed by Mii'niibush 
to do so. Therefore we too follow our fathers in obeying the injunc- 
tions of Ma'nabfish, that all nuiy be well with us." As this recitative 
chant was concluded, the other medicine men uttered the same interjec- 
tional words, "Ho, ho, ho, ho, ho." 

The chant ajjpears brief; but the peculiar manner of its delivery, by 
duplicating the phrases, and by some interjected meaningless notes, 
to give emphasis and to fill up the measure of drum beats, caused it 
to be more pi-olonged than one would supj)Ose possible. As usual, 
everything was done with api)arent premeditation and studied delay, to 
make it as impressive as possible to those not members of the society. 

The drum and goods were then pushed along to a spot before the third 
singer, Sho'min, who in turn handed his rattle to Nio'pet, Sliu'nien still 
retaining his, while A'kwiue'mi, who had just completed his chant, 
rested. Shu'nien also saluted his confreres with the words, "Nika'ni, 
nika'ni, nika'ni, kane'," then began to drum very gently, and soon to 
chant the following : 

"In teaching the one who desires to become a mitil" to follow the 
right path, we are ourselves following the directions given to us by the 
Great Mystery. He caused the Mystery [Mii'niibush] to come and to 
erect a mitii'wiko'mik, where we should receive instructions, and where, 
also, others might receive it from us. The old whiteheads received 
instruction in this manner, and we, as their children, received our infor- 
mation from them. Therefore, we now teach the true way of life. We 
do that even today." As before, the three other medicine men uttered 
the words, "Ho, ho, ho, ho, ho," as an intimation of approbation and 
concurrence with the thoughts expressed, while the drum and goods 
were placed before Shu'nien, who, though the last of the four, was the 
chief officiating medicine man for the time. Gently tapping the drum, 
he began uttering and continuing more and more rapidly, in a spas- 
modic or disconnected manner, the following words, the phrases grad- 
ually assuming the nature of a chant: 

"Long ago the grand medicine was observed Avith jnore caie and 
reverence than it is now. The sun was bright wlieu the whiteheads 



[eth. axx. 14 

asseinLlecI, but now it is d;irk, aud I t-ni not see the reason. Children 
were better taught to respe<'t the truth aud to be honest. Ouce a man 
came to me in search of hi.s cliildren. They had become lost to him, 
and lie was unable to lind llieni. But 1 could see the children, far, far 
away, aud I told the father that I could see his children, but that there 
■was a great fire raging between them and me, aud that they were beyoud 
reach. He could not recover them. Therefore, teach your children that 
they may not stray beyond your control and find themselves separated 
from you by the barrier of fire from which it is impossible to rescue 
them. Teach them also to be honest; do not permit them fo learn to 
lie aud to steal." 

At the conclusion of this recitation the companions of Shu'uien gave 
exclamations of api)robation by rapidly uttering, "Ho, hO, ho, ho, ho." 
The uslier then came forwaid, gathered up the goods, and carried them 

t?iil3 snaprudid i'lum jioit' 

toward the middle of the eastern half of the inclosure, where, with the 
assistance of some friends of the candiilate, ho suspended the blanketst 
cloth, calico, mats, etc., from the longitudinal ridge pole, placed a short 
distance below the roof arch for this purpose (figure 12). 

In the meantime the singers had again produced their pipes to take 
a snioke. Other members of the society who were to take active part 
in the ceremonies now entered the inclosure at the eastern door. All 
who were permitted to enter at this stage of the ceremonies had dressed 
themselves as became their station, and in entering passed along the 
right side of the inclosure nearest the mats occupied by the four medi- 
cine men, and as they passed by them each held his right hand toward 
the seated figures, the back of the hand toward the person addressed, 
and saluted him by designating him by the proper term of relation- 
ship; or, if no such connection existed, then by "my elder brother," 
"my younger brother," as the relative ages of the speaker and the i>er- 
son addressed may have been. The person thus addressed bowed his 
head and responded by saying, " Uau'kii" fit is well), and when each of 


tlie four had responded those who had passed went to their places and 
before seating themselves looked around the inclosure, as if address- 
ing a number of invisible persons present, and said, "Nika'ni, nika'ni, 
uika'ni, kanu'," to which the others again responded, "Hau'ka." Each 
visitor then seated himself and took a ceremonial smoke. He took his 
seat, as did all subsequent visitors, either on one or the other side of 
the structure, according to the phratry of which he was a member. 

It has already been stated that a second group of four medicine men 
had been selected to assist in the ceremonies of initiation; and these, 
having by this time di'essed themselves in their ornamented head- 
dresses, with beaded medicine bags suspended at their sides, and with 
beaded garters and other ornaments adorning their persons, now ap- 
peared at the eastern euti'ance, entering in single file, keeping step to 
a forward dancing movement, which consisted of quick hops on the right 
and left foot alternately. These medicine men were Ni'aqtawa'iJomi, 
Mai'akinf'U^, l^a'qpatii, and Kime'an. All of them had gourd or tin 
rattles, with which to accompany the singer. The four j)assed along 
before the others, who were already seated, holding their hands toward 
the latter, and saluting them by expressing such terms of relationship 
as existed, or by terming one an elder brother or a younger brother, as 
their relative ages demanded. They then continued their dancing step 
down on the right side to the west, where they gradually turned to their 
left side so as to return on the opposite (southern) side of the inclosure 
to the inside of the eastern entrance, where they halted and faced west- 
ward. The leader, Ni'aqtawa'pomi, then began to keep time with his 
rattle, addressing those present by saying, "Nika'ni, nika'ni-, nika'ni, 
kane';" whereupon all present responded bysaying, "Hau'ka," when he 
began to chant the words : 

"I am glad you are all working at that, of which the old medicine 
men taught me. It puts back my thoughts to bygone years, when I 
was young and Just about to be made a member of this society. This 
is the way all of you feel at realizing how the many winters have 
whitened our hair.'' 

Then the singer, accompanied by his three assistants, renewed his 
dancing along the path to the western end of the mita'wiko'mik, where 
they halted and, facing eastward, Ni'aqtawa'pomi continued his chant: 

'"Take pity on your poor,' is what the old people always told me to 
do; that I now say to those within the hearing of my voice; my son, 
you will be happy when you dance with the dead today." 

At the conclusion of this chant the four medicine men again started 
on their dancing step to make the circuit of the interior of the inclos- 
ure, but as they approached the east, the one who first chanted quietly 
stepped to the rear of the line, leaving the second one, Mai'akine'u"', to 
become the leader, and as they took their former position at the eastern 
entrance, facing westward, he also addressed those present with the 
14 ETH 6 


terms of kinship or fiieudsliip to which each was entitled, after which 
he also saluted his colleagues by saying, "Nika'ni, uika'ni, nika'ni, 
kane'," to which they responded, "Eau'kii." Mai'akine'u" then began 
to chant in a recitative manner tlu! following words: 

"It is good for you and for us to follow the injunctions of Mii'nabush, 
and to gather about within the mitii'wiko'mik. The old iieople before 
lis have spoken about the benefits to be gained by gathering here, and 
I also call to your attention the good that is to be derived by our meet- 
ing here. I have now spoken about Avhat the whiteheads have told 
me. I have thanked them for their words to me." 

Then the procession of the four medicine men again started off on its 
dancing arou' d the iuclosure, as before, to the west, where they stopped 
and faced e itward. Mai'akinc'u'' again sang the foregoing words,after 
which th' four started along the southern path eastward, during which 
movemeut the last singer dropped to the rear, thus leaving Na'qpata 
as the leader, and the one to chant next. By this time they had reached 
the eastern part of the iuclosure and, facing westward, Na'qpatii saluted 
those present with the appropriate terms of relationship, and then 
addressing his colleagues, as his i)redecessors had done, began his 
chant, as follows: 

"Our old customs appear well; the words that are spoken sound 
well. This is the Great Mystery's home. The ])ractices which our old 
parents taught are beautiful in my eyes. The sky used to be bright, 
but now it is dark." Then the singer, followed by the three beside him, 
again danced toward the west, where they stopped, and, facing west- 
ward, Na'qpatii continued: 

"Mii'niibusli told our parents to do as we are now doing. Hereafter 
the Indians will continue to follow our footsteps and teachings, as we 
are following the way of those before us. The sky has four openings, for 
which we must look. The openings are the places we much look for and 
ask the Great Mystery to close, for this rain interferes with our work." 

The frequent references to "dark sky" and "openings" in the sky, 
were because of the rain which had begun to fall shortly after the 
beginning of the ceremonies. 

At the conclusion of the above chant, the medicine men again made the 
entire circuitof the iuclosure, dancing all the way, but as thej' approached 
the east again, the singer fell to the rear, thus causing Kime'an, the 
fourth and last, to become the leader and to chant the next song. 
Saluting those present with appropriate kinship terms, he also addressed 
Ms colleagues, as the others had done, then chanted these words : 

"We have now arrived at that part of the dance when all the medi- 
cine men may enter the mitii'wiko'mik. Let them be notified that we 
shall be pleased to see them seated with us, and partake of the cere- 
mony which Mii'niibiish enjoined upon us to continue. We shall be 
able to induce the Great Mystery to help us, so that the sun may not 
remain obscured." 




Immediately on the completion of this recitatiou, the. four medicine 
men again made the tour of the iuclosurc along the northern side, and 
when at the westei-n extremity they stopped, 
faced eastward, and Kime'au rei)eated his 
song. Then tlie party went to the eastern 
part and, facing westward, listened to the word 
"Hau'kii" nttered by the chief medicine men 
who were seated at the northeastern corner. 
Then the second groui) of medicine men, those 
who had lately ceased chanting, walked along 
the northern path toward the west to the scats 
reserved for them (marked li', 13, 14, and 15, in 
figure 9). 

Ceremonial smoking was now indulged in for 
a considerable time, during Avhich the mem- 
bers of the society and visiting medicine men 
entered the inclosure and took seats according 
to the phratry to which they belonged, or ac- 
cording to the offlce to be filled during the cere- 
monies. Each one saluted those already seated, 
in succession, as he went along the right side 
liath to a seat. The candidate also came into 
the structure, accompanied by his nearest rela- 
tion, or friends as well, also the member of the 
society who made the jiromise of giving a feast 
at the grave of the deceased. The candidate 
took a seat next to 2fio'pet, on the left, while 
the candidate's friend sat at the left side of the 
latter. A third groui) of four medicine men, 
who also had been selected to assist in the cere- 
monies, now entered, and, after jjassing around 
and saluting each one in succession, went to the 
western side of the inclosure, where they took 
seats midway between the center and the east- 
ern door (at the places marked 16,17,18, and 19, 
figure 9). These men were Shawaq'ka, W'ish- 
a'noqkwot', Waba'shiii'ir, and Kowapamiu^ 
The medicine women who also had beeu selected 
to assist, both in the erection or superintend- 
ence of the ceremonial structure, in the prepa- 
ration of the feast, and in the ceremony of 
initiation, were located thus: Sa'suss at the 
southeastern angle of the inclosure and Pii'- 
shiinani'uqkui" at the northwestern angle. 

Each member had his medicine bag, usually consisting of the skin of 
an animal, such as the mink, beaver, otter, or weasel, though a bear's 

Fig. 13 — Otter-akin medicine 



[ETH. ANN. 14 

paw may be used for the same purpose; or, perhaps, a panther paw 
l)ouch, a snake skiu, or any other material which may have been pre- 
sented as a gift at an initiation, or dreamed of by the medicine man sub- 
sequently to his being admitted to membership. (See figure 13. This 
subject is described more fully in connection with beadwork and orna- 
mentation.) The audience became large and interesting, not only 
because of the large number of members, but on account of the crowd 
of peoi)le gathered about the medicine M'ikO^mik, who peeped through 
every available crevice and opening in the mats covering the frame- 
work of the lodge. 

The following list comprises the names of the male and female mem- 
bers of the Mita'wit, with the signification of nearly all of them, as 
furnished by the chiefs of the society at the annual meetings held in 
July, 1890, August, 1891, August, 1892, and August, 1893, as well as at 
a conference with the chief mitilVok held during the mouths of Feb- 
ruary and March, 1892, at Washington: 


A'kwiiie'mi Mo'sihAt ' .. Within-the-month. 

Ana'maqlvi'sa Littlt- Thunder. 

A'patAku'zhik Half-the-sky. 

Aqk i'nakO'she ' Terrible-looking. 

Baia'wi5qshi' That-which-rattles. 

HObo'peshg' Little-whoops. 

Isb'kwaa'ban 2 Breaking Day. 

Ka'dabaqshlTi" Oue-who-broils.* 

Kaia'nam^k' K6q"sa . ..(Unknown). 

Kaia'nomek^ (Unknown). 

Ka'shekoqka'i'i* Oue-wbo-carriea-light. 

Kawi'kit' • Kougli-face. 

Kene'shii Eaglet. 

Ke"sh6 Moon. 

Ke"shOka'we8hdt The Moou ? 

Kirae'dn Rain. 

Kisbe'wado'sba Swift-little-hawk. 

Kowa'pami'ii'6 (Unknown). 

Mala'kinG'iV True Eagle. [goes. 

Matwaab'kiit Making- a- sound -as- be- 

Mici'kinu'ni Partisan. 

Misbi'nawe ^ A Waiter. 

Naiaq'to Certain-one. 

Ni'a'qtawd'pomi Tbtvmost-conspicuous. 

NA'motam' Tells-tbe-truth. 

Naq'pd'tji' Marksman. 

Na'shikil'pawe' Stands-in-lbedark. 

Natshi'wlqkS" He-wbo-bulliea. 

Nawaq'kwesbkum' llalf-a-montb. 

Ni'kdnisb' Foremost -man. 

Is'io'pet Four-ina-den. 

Noraiish' Fish. 

O'kimdsh' Younger-chief. 

O'kwC-mawa'peshl'u' Chief-of-the-swans. 

O'kwitshiwa'no On-tbo-summit. 

Piime'net' Flying-by. 

Plpo'nant^'u' Winter Hawk. 

Pi'ti wa'kesbid Coming-noisily. 

Pitwiish'kiim Coming- with-a-souud. 

Sbaka'naqkwod' Peeping-cloud. 

Shaboi'tOk Pcnelrating-souud. 

Sba'batis' (Baptiste, Fr.) . 

Sba' wanake'zblk Southem-sky . 

ShAwaq'ka Yellow-wings. 

Sbo'mln ilaisin. 

Shosbat' {Unknown^. 

Shu'DJen Money (Silver). 

TAmas Kokosh' Thomas Hog [dor. 

Tsbi-Kwii'set The - sound- of- the -thun- 

Wa'bakinG'u' White-Eagle. 

WA'bano Easterner. 

Wa'bashii'iu' White-dre.'ised-skin. 

Wa'batsbikI White Fisher. 

Waima"tekit With-bow-aud-arrow. 

Wai'shikwoniit' Tail-of-tbe great-fish. 

Wa'naqko' 'sh6 Little-apex . 

Wd'nis Kam (Unknown). 

Weq-Ka'-sha Little-calamus. 

Wi^s'kusb6d' Good-one. 

Wisba'noqkwot' Dense-cloud. 

Wisho'^ (Unknown). 

Witsbi'waii'' Going- for- somebody. 


Angf'lik (Angelica). 

A'patJi Ke'zblkukI'ii'...Half-a-day. 
Awa'uuqni'^a Fog. 

Dii'tewiata'mo (gixl) ....Kumbling Xoise. 

Kakikatahiwan Everlasting-falla. 

Ka'tshemiqta'u One-who-dances. 

> Died during the winter of 1894-95. 

'An Ojibwa word. 

'Word adopted from some other tribe ; unknown. 

4 The Moon. 

^ Potawatomi words. 

^ Corruption of a French name. 




FemaJcfi — Continued. 

Ke'niaqki'sau Little Ea^le. 

Ke'niaqki'sau ^ Little Eagle. 

Ke'waiatshi wan The-eddy. 

Ke'sbiuqkji'u^ Moon- woman. 

Ke'sliikoq'ki'u^ iloon-woraan. 

Ki'niaqlii'u Eagle woman. 

Ki'niaqkl'sa Little-she-eagle. 

K!no'ka The-long-one. 

Ki'sha'no'wiu Oue-who-sbedH-teara. 

Ki'sbiwii'tshiwan Roaring-rapids. 

KiwaqkwC'amuqk' Flying-clouds. 

Kusbe'aqkl'u Frencli- woman. 

Kushe'aqki'u Erencli woman. 

Eualie'aqki'u ^ French 

Misbkwo'panoq Ked-dawn. 

Mnsbaq'kwiituq'kiu Sky-woman. [tree. 

Naq'kaba"amu Picks • blossom - off- the - 

Kaseq'kai'ik TraTcls-alone. 

Na'wata'wine'u Slie-wbo picks-berries. 

Ni'kaniq'sak wa'ii' Sbe-who-leada. 

Ki'set (girl) "Elizabeth." 

O'shona'muniq'kifl Vermilion-woman. 

Pa'raikl'shikok' Scattering-clouds. 

Pasa'niiqkwatuq'klu . . .The-touching-clouds, 

Pasbana'ni'uqki'ii'' Tbe-bird's-tail-toucbing. 

Pe"tairmida'mo Bird-woman. 

Pi'shjiqku'uqki'u Cattle- woman 

Pi'ta'nowe Approacbingligbt. 

Pi'taqka'mikuq'klu Tbat-which-grows 

Sa'suss (Unknown) 

Shi'awaqklu" Bend-in-the-river. 

Ta'k ki'zbikoqk' Day- woman. 

Tamo'" Gray- squirrel. 

Tabe biitsh' * (French.) 

Wd'bano raita'mo "Wabano-woman . 

WA'bano mitji'iao ^ Wabano-woman. 

Wa'batauuoq'kwetok (Unknown), 

Darkness liavin*^ come on, tlie usher and the medicine \roman put 
more wood on the fires, built near each end of the inclosure, and also 
lit the lanterns suspended from the archvray of the wiko'mik at vari- 
ous places. In a short time the candidate was called forward, to stand 
before the left-hand medicine man of the first group. The candidate's 
friends and fomily, to the number of eight, stood in a semicircle around 
the candidate and kept time to the chant and drumming by dancing 
in a shuffling manner, in the spot first taken by them. 

Nio'pet now chanted to tlie candidate, and tlie women in a few 
moments caught the monotonous air, if such it may be designated, and 
sang in a peculiar high-pitched voice, reminding one of the sound made 
by a bagpipe. The translation of Nio'pet's chant is iis follows: 

^^Wheii Mii'nabush erected the mita'wiko'mik he placed tobacco 
before the Great Mystery as au offering. Therefore it is always used as 
an offering when one seeks to become a member of the jMitiiVit.-' 

These words were repeatedj as before stated, and reiterated so that 
their delivery consumed from ten to fifteen minutes. The candidate at 
the conclusion of the song returned to his seat, as did also his friends. 

A ceremoniid smoke liaving been taken by most of those present, the 
drum was xHished along westward to the medicine man next to Kio'pet, 
who was now accomi>anied by the rattle and by the other two perform- 
ers to his right. When the drumming began the candidate and his 
friends again came forward and stood reverentiall}^ before the drum- 
mer, when the latter began to chant the following: 

"You see how the mitiiwiko'mik is built; it is the same as that 
directed by the Great Mystery to be built by Ma'nabush for the Indians. 

' Not related to preceding of samn name. 

*Tho slight ditference iu the spelling is due in tln« and in .similar cases to individual peculiarity 
in pronunciation. 

3 The women bearing these three similar names are not related. 

^ Corruption of the French je passe. 

^ Not related to the preceding of similar name. 

86 THE MENOMINI INDIANS (eth.ann. u 

It is strong, and gives life to those who meet within it. This is the 
northern side, and it was made by Mashii' Ma'nido. When you require 
strength you must meet within the walls of the structure." 

Agaiu the caudidate and his friends retired to their seats, and another 
delay occui-red, during which smoking and conversation in a low tone 
went on. In the meantime the drum was passed once more toward the 
right for the third of the chief medicine men to use with his (ihant, and 
when he began to tap the drum the candidate and his friends again 
came forward and formed a semicircle before the singer. His words 
(translated) were as follows: 

"I am speaking of the southern side; it is not so strong as the other 
side. The strong side must always aid the weaker one. The goods 
and the tobacco that have been given for the feast will induce the 
mysteries to aid us to keep our strength while we continue to perform 
the ceremonies instituted by Ma'niibush at the desire of Mashii' Ma'- 

The candidate and his friends again retired to their seats as the chant 
ended, while the drum was passed on to Shu'nien, whose turn came 
next. The character of the recitation was now changed, as reference 
to the presents and the benefits to be obtained by frequently gathering 
together were omitted, while the myth relating to the birth of Ma'niibush 
and his subsequent deeds in procuring for the Indian all the benefits 
which they enjoy was begun. 

Shu'nien and the rest of his chief assistants now sat with heads 
bowed down, as if in deep meditation on the sacredness of the mitii" 
ritual, the most important part of which is the recitation by the 
singer of the myth as it had been handed down from the past. 

After some water had again been jwured into the drum and the head 
moistened, replaced, and tightly stretched, Shu'nien began gently to 
tap it, his eyes directed forward or upward, and at the moment of sup- 
posed inspiration began the chant, keeping time with the drumstick, 
and acconij)anied by the rattling of the three companion mitii'wok. 
The candidate pi'eseuted himself before Shu'nien, standing there rev- 
erentially to listen to the recitation, while his friends and other medi- 
cine men and women, to the number of twelve, gathered about him. 
As before, these recitations were uttered at first in an earnest manner, 
gradually becoming more vehement and rapid, until the singer reached 
an apparently ecstatic condition. His eyes had a vacant, far-away look, 
the persi>ii'ation began to roll from his face and body, and the muscles 
of his neck and arm swelled out clear and distinct with excitement 
and muscular exertion, so that at the end of the chant the performer 
appeared thoroughly exhausted. 

The most remarkable feature of all the chants was the repetition of 
phrases, each set of from four to six words being rapidly repeated all 
through that portion of the ritual recited by the first class of four 
mitii'wok. The original phraseology requires a much longer time than 



is indicated by the translatious, and as tiiis duplication doubled the 
time, the several chants covered a period varying from twenty minutes 
to three-quarters of an hour. In the following translation the original 
phraseology has been followed as closely as possible, so as to maintain 
intelligible sequence without additional explanation. 

After Shu'nien had tapped the drum sufliciently to attain the proper 
time to suit his chant, he began with the following traditional history 
of Menomini genesis: 

"The daughter of Noko'mis, the Earth, is the mother of Ma'niibush, 
who is also the Fire. The Flint' grew up out of Noko'mis, and was 
alone. Then the Flint made a bowl and dipped it into the earth ; slowly 
the bowlful of earth became blood, and it began to change its form. 
So the blood was changed into Wabus, the Rabbit. The liabbit grew 
into human form, and in time became a man, and thus was Mii'nabush^ 
formed. Ma'niibiish was angry because he was alone on the earth; and 
betiause his enemies, tlie ana'maqki'u, who dwelt beneath the earth, 
were constantly annoying him and trying to destroy him. 

"Then Ma'nabush shaped a piece of flint to make an ax, and while he 
was rubbing it on a rock he heard the rock make peculiar sounds, 
'Ke kti', ke ka', ke kii', ke kii', gOss, goss, goss, gfiss.' He soon under- 
stood what this signified, that he was alone on the earth and that he 
had neither father, mother, brother, nor sister. This is what the Flint 
said while Ma'nabush was rubbing it upon the rock. 

"While he was meditating on this, he heard the sound of something- 
approaching, and when he looked i\p he beheld Moqwai'o, the Wolf, who 
said to Mii'nabush, 'Now you have a brother, for I too am alone; we 
shall live together and I shall hunt for you.' Ma'niibush replied, 'I am 
glad to see you, my brother. I shall change your form and make you 
like myself;' and in a short time Moqwai'o became as a man. Ma'na- 
bQsh and his brother then moved away to the shore of a lake, where 
they built a wigwam. Ma'niibush told his brother that the ana'maqki'u 
dwelt beneath the water of the lake, and that he should never go into 
the water nor cross the ice. 

"One day the brother of Mii'niibush was out hunting, and it was late 
in the day when he started to return to his wigwam. He found him- 
self on the shore of the lake, just opposite to where the wigwam stood, 
and could easily see it; and as he did not want to make a long journey 
around by the lake shore, he hesitated awhile, but at last decided to 
cross over on the ice. When he reached the middle of the lake the ice 
broke, and the ana'maqki'u pulled him under, and he was drowned. 

> The Abuaki Indians of Canada, a tribe linguistically allied to the Menomini, also believe the iirst 
man and the iirst woman to have been created of a stone. The Abb6 Maurault remarks: "lis cro- 
yaient quo le premier homme et la premi6re femme sauvages avaieut 6te crees d'line pierre; que le 
Grand-Esprit, nou Batisfait de ce premier coup-d'essaj. avait detriiit te premier couple, et en avait 
CT^v un autre d"un ar^jre; que ce second couple etait. presqu'aussi parfait que le Grand-Esi»rit, et quo 
les sauvages en descendaient." — Histoire des Abenakis depuis 16U5 jusqu'ii nos jours, Quebec. 1866, 
pp. 19, 20. 

^FromMasha', great; and wabtis', rabbit. 

88 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.aiw, u 

"Mfi'iiiibfisli knew tbat his brother had been killed, and mourned for 
him for four days. On tlie fifth day, while ^lii'niibush was out looking 
for the trail of game, he chanced to look up from the ground and beheld 
his brother approaching. Then the brother of Ma'nabush said: 'My 
fate will be the fate of all our friends and descendants; they will die, 
but after four days they will return again.' Then ]\I;i'nabusli found that 
what he thouglit was the bodj' of his brother was only the shade, so he 
said : ' My brother, return to the place of the setting sun ; you are now 
called Na'(ipote, and will have .the care of the dead.' The mystery 
replied: 'If I go there and our friends follow me we shall not be able 
to return again when we leave this place.' Ma'nabush again spoke to 
the shade of his brother, saying: 'Go, Na'qpote, and prepare a wig- 
wam for our friends: build a large fli'e, that they may be guided to it — 
that on their arrival they may lind an abode.' 

"Then Na'qpote left, to abide in the land of shades, in the direction 
of the setting sun, where the world is cut ofl'." 

Shu'nien ceased chanting at this point, and the candidate and liis 
friends returned to their seats. The usher came forward and placed 
the drum before Nio'pet, at the left side, while the rattles were appro- 
iniated by the other medicine men. A ceremonial smoke having again 
been taken, Nio'pet began to tap the drum gently, and as the rattles 
were heard the candidate and his companions presented themselves 
before Nio'pet. The following is a translati(ni of the words chanted: 

"When Ma'nabush found himself deprived of his brother, he looked 
about him and found that he was not now alone on the earth, but that 
there were other ijeople, his uncles and aunts, also children of Xoko'mis. 
He found that they were greatly harassed by the ana'maqki'u, and 
became very angry with Masha' Ma'nido for allowing them so much 
power. He therefore determined to destroy the ana'maqki'ii, and cried 
out for the waters of the lake to disappear. Four times he cried out, 
when the waters began to disappear in the earth, leaving on the mud 
and sand of the bottom many of the ana'maqkT'ti, while stranded near 
the shore lay the chief of them all, Mi'sikinf-'bTk, the Great Fish. 
Then Ma'nabtish said to him, ' I want to destroy you because you will 
not permit my people to approach the water that they may drink;' but 
just as he was about to carry out his threat the smaller ana'maqki'u 
again caused the waters to return to the lake, thus depriving JNlii'nii- 
biish of the satisfaetiou of killing their chief. Thus they escaped. 

"Then Ma'niibush went to seek some birch trees, and getting bark 
suflicient to make a canoe, he prepared one and decided to destroy 
Mi'sikine'bik by attacking him in the water. As he left the shore to go 
out upon the lake, he sang 'Mi'sikine'bik bina' ni'na koq'sina' [Great 
Fish, come and swallow me]. Mi'sikine'bik jiaid no attention to this, 
as he thought his young could easily destroy Ma/niibilsh. They came 
toward the canoe, but Ma'niibush said to them, 'I do not want you; it 


is your chief and parent whom I want to come and swallow me;' and 
pushing them forcibly away from him, the old Mi'sikine'bik became so 
enraged that he darted forward and swallowed Mii'nabush. 

''When Mii'nabush found himself inside the belly of Mi'sikine'bik, he 
began to look about and found many of his people — some who had but 
recently been swallowed, some who had become sick and weak from 
long confinement, and tlie remains of many others who had perished 
there. Then Mii'niibush asked the Buffalo, 'My uncle, how did you get 
here"? I never saw you near the water, but always on the jirairie.' The 
Buffalo replied, saying, 'I was near the lake to get some green, fresh 
grass, when Mi'sikine'bik caught me.' He asked many of the others 
how they hai^pened to be so unfortunate as to be in that place. 
Then Ma'nabusli said to them all, 'We will now have to go to my 
grandmother's shore, but you will have to help me.' Then they all 
began to dance around in tlie interior of Mi'sikine'bik, which made 
him very sick and caused him to swim toward the shore. Then Ma'nii- 
busli, who had a short knife with hiin, began to cut into that part of 
tlie body over his head, while the dancers sang, 'Ke'sikina'min; ke'si- 
kma'min' [I see the sky; I see the sky]. Ma'uiibiish kept cutting the 
body of Mi'sikine'bik so much that he was heard to say, ' I have too many 
of them within me; I am getting very sick; I shall swim to the shore 
where Noko'mis lives'; and going forward rapidly he was soon stranded 
on the beach, when Ma/niibush finished by cutting a hole in the body of 
Mi'sikine'bik large enough for them to emerge and again be free. 

"They were all pleased because Mii'iiiibush had helped them to return 
to the earth. Mii'nabush then left his uncles aad went toward the rising 
sun, when one day as he was approaching a high mountain he saw on it, 
basking in the sun, a large white bear, Owa'sse, who was one of the 
most powerful of the iJna'macikiTi. Mii'niibush approached very cau- 
tiously, and drawing an arrow from his quiver, he fixed it to his bow- 
string and shot it through the body of Owa'sse, killing him. The blood 
ran down the mountain side and stained it so that it is visible even 
at this day. There we get some of the medicine which is used by the 

At the termination of the above chant, the candidate and his attend- 
ants returned to their seats, while the performer i^assed the drum and 
drumstick to the mitii"' on his right, who appeared to continue the 
ritualistic chant. The nature of the recitation was again changed, 
for instead of continuing the traditional exploits of Mii'niibush, the 
explanation of how the mitii'wiko'mik came to be constructed and 
the privileges which Mii'niibush received from the Great Mystery were 
recounted. It was also stated how and why the mitii'wok do certain 
things connected with the ceremony. 

The second of the mitii'wok who now prepared to chant was the third 
in raiilj. The candidate and his followers returned and stood before the 


singer, when, after a short preliminary druniniing, tbe beats slowly and 
gradually swelling in intensity, tbe medicine man began a chant, of which 
the following words are a translation : 

"The mita'wiko'mik must always be built so as to extend from the 
direction of the rising of the sun to the direction of the setting theruof. 
Mashii' Ma'nido gave to Mii'nabiish charge of the entrance toward the 
setting sun. Masha' Ma'nido also informed Mii'nabiish of what should 
be done and encountered by him, as well as by those who should here- 
after become members of the Mita'wit. A path leads from the wigwam 
toward tlie place of the rising sun, and at a short distance sit two aged, 
gray-haired men facing each other. When Ma'uabfish reached this place 
the elder of them said, 'My son, as you follow this path you will come to 
a ridge; ascend it until you reach a tree growing on one side of the path. 
The roots of this tree reach to the four worlds beneath, while its branches 
ascend to the entrance of the sky, where four ma'nidos guard it and watch 
all those who approach. Some enter, while others are obliged to continue 
on the path. The four ma'nidos are Kine'u", the Bald-eagle; Piniish'iu, 
tbe Golden-eagle; Mamii'tshe'au, the Indian; and Wapis'hketa-pa'u,the 
White-hair. The last is the chief of those who have charge of the 
entrance to tbe sky. 

'"The mita'wok get their sacred staffs from the branches of the tree 
which rises to the sky. From the place of the tree forward we are 
told to continue on tbe path toward tbe rising sun, but on the way you 
shall find a large poplar log lying across it, over which you must not 
pass, but will have to go around it at the top end of the tree. The 
small branches typify theft, and if you hav^e sinned you will be drawn 
to them and bite them with your teeth. Should you have committed 
such an offense you will be punished. 

'"A little farther on you will find another tree, a thorn apple, against 
which you nmst not put your fingers, nor lean against it, nor take any 
fruit therefroai. You must pass it on the left side. After a short 
journey you will come to a stream of water which crosses the path, 
where, as you stoop to drink, you will perceive the reflection of your 
image and that your head is turning gray. Then, as you meditate how 
many days you have lived you will become nervous at the sight and 
thoughtful of what you may have done. When you continue on your 
path, you will in time come to a country covered with green plants of 
many kinds; there are medicines, roots and leaves. Tou will dig some 
and pluck others, which you will prepare to give to those who need 
them. Then as you look to the sky, for this is the end of the path, you 
will find that you can go no farther. 

'"Many ])oints have you passed ere this which may have temjited 
you to tarry, but had you done so you would not have reached the end 
of the entire path of life, but would have perished.'" 

On the completion of this chant the candidate again retired, as did 
those who accompanied him, while the members generally indulged in 
a smoke. The medicine women retired to get more food for those 

boffKan] SHo'mIN's chant 91 

offlciatiuji', wliicli consiniicd considerable time, and during this digres- 
sion there was considerable going and coming and visiting of old 
friends, who may have chanced to have met only once a year and under 
similar circumstances. When all had again become ([uiet, the third 
medicine man, 8ho'min, received the drum, and while he was tapping- 
it preparatory to chanting, the candidate and his friends came forward 
and stood in front of him, remaining throughout the chant, which was 
supposed to recount the manner in which Mii'niibush received the 
assistance of various ma'nidos, who were instructed by the Great Mys- 
tery to place at the disposal of Mii'uiibush their several powers. The 
translation of his recitation is as follows: 

"When Mii'nabush sat in the nuta'wikO'mik, which he had erected as 
Masha' Ma'nido had Instructed him to do, he sat thinking as to how he 
should further be enabled to obtain necessary powers to aid his uncles 
and their descendants. 

"Then from the east came Owa'sse, the Bear, who entered the mitii'- 
wiko'mik and said to Mii'uiibush, 'My brother, I come to you to offer to 
you my strength, that you may be able to withstand the power of the 
ana'maqkl'u.' Mii'nabush was pleased to receive from the Bear the 
power. Then Wabon, the Daylight, also came in from the east, follow- 
ing the Bear, saying, 'Jly brother, I come to otter myself to yon, that 
you may be able to hold your mitii'" meeting.' Again Mii'niibush was 
gratified at this gift, and thanked the Daylighf . Then another ma'nido 
came flying from the place of the rising sun — he whose bones can 
be heard to rattle, and he of whom those who dream become faint 
with fear; this is Pa'ka. Pa'ka told the Bear and the Daylight that 
he too would inspii'e Mii'niibiish, so as to fill with terror those who 
were antagonistic to the mitii". Again Mii'niibush thanked his 
brothers for their aid. Then came another from the east, who was 
brighter than the Daylight, he who is called Misiq'kwan, followed by 
Masse'nii, the Turkey. To Man'iibush the Turkey gave the red color 
from his neck, that the mitii" might paint themselves, and from his tail 
the bars, which signify days, that there might be a division of time 
when the mitii'^ might dance. 'These,' said the Turkey to Mii'iiii- 
biish, 'I give to you.' Ma'niibush was greatly pleased at this assist- 
ance, and thanked the Turkey, as he had the other ma'nidos. Then 
came Kukii'kuu', the Great Owl, who said to Mii'niibush, 'I shall 
come and sit by the burial place of the dead, to see that their resting 
place is not disturbed.' Then Wa'kfi, the Fox, came also to Mii'na- 
bush, saying, 'My brother, 1 also will make you a gift — my voice; 
then those who have lost their friend may always be able to cry in 
lamentation.' Mii'niibush then spoke to the ma'nidos who had come 
from the east, and again thanked them for their aid in giving strength 
to the Mitii'wit. 

"From the south then came Mikek', the Otter, who said to Mii'nii- 
bush, ' My brother, I come to give you the konii'pamik ; you will 
find it on a rock in the waters of the lake; there you will find it and 


give it to your mita'^ brothers.' Then Ke'so, the Sun, came from the 
south and said, ' I too, my brother, will appear above you when you all 
gather in the mita'wiko'mik, and as I go westward you will see my 
path, which you will, in time, follow.' 

"From the west came the Inii'miiqki'u^, the Thunderers; A'sa'- 
iiikaq'ki, the Small Eagle; Ki'tsh(> waqdose, the Eagle; Wabaq'ke and 
Piniish'iu, the Bald-eagle; Miiqkwa'nani'u", the Hawk, and Pgpo'nene', 
another Eagle. Tliey all approached Mii'niibush, and as they came the 
isky became dark with clouds. 'This, Mii'niibush, we give to you 
to make a covering to one side of your mitii'wiko'mik.' Mii'niibush 
thanked the Inii'miiqki'fr" for their help, and we have today the shelter 
granted to our uncle for the mitii'wiko'mik. 

"Then from the sky was heard the sound of Voices. Two old men 
were heard to speak about the gifts of Mii'niibush, and one said to 
Lim, 'Mii'niibush, we will put some stones near your mitii'wiko'mik 
■which shall be heated in the fire; we also give you water to pour on 
the stones when they are heated. This you will do before you dance 
in the mitii'wiko'mik. Carry this news to your people that they may 
all hear of it and know how to prepare themselves when they wish to 
<iance.' We all use the hot stones and ])our water upon them when we 
have the ceremony of the Mitii'wit. 

"The North Wind then came to the mitii'wiko'mik and said, 'Mii'nii- 
bush, and all of you ma'nidos have contributed for the welfare of the 
people the gifts which you possess, but I will grant you one which 
-will surpass them all; I will give them the North Wind so that sickness 
■will not afiect them.' Then Mii'niibush said, 'I thank you all for these 
gifts with which you have endowed me and my brother. I am grateful 
to the ma'nidos from the east, the south, the west, and the north.' 

"The ma'nidos then returned to the respective directions whence 
they had come." 

Again there came a tedious pause in the proceedings when Sho'miu 
Lad ended his chant, and while the candidate and his companions 
returned to their respective seats the medicine men smoked and medi- 
tated. In time the drum was pushed along to Shu'nien at the right 
hand, whose turn now came to chant; and while he began to tap the 
drum, his companions began to shake their rattles as the candidate 
and his followers again presented themselves for further instruction. 
The translation of Shu'nien's chant is as follows: 

"When Mii'niibush had built the mitii'wiko'mik as Mashii' Ma'nido 
directed, he found his brothers without the plants and medicines neces- 
sary for their comfort and health. 

"Then Mii'niibush said to his grandinotlier, 'Grandmother, make me 
a large bag;' to which she replied by asking, 'What do you want with 
a bag, Mii'niibushf He then said, 'I want to call together the Inii'- 
uiiiqkl'u' and ask them for their assistance in providing us and my 
uncles with hunting medicines, and medicines with which they may 


be able to cure the diseases with which they are afflicted.' She then 
made the bag as Mil'uiibush had requested, aud handed it to him^ 
saying, 'Here, Ma'niibush, is your bag,' whereupon he took it, aud 
laying it on the ground so that he coukl open the top, he spoke to 
the Ina'maqki'fr, through the bag, 'My friends, come to me and 
give me your aid; let plants and roots grow beneath the surface, 
and also upon it, that I may be able to prepare medicines. The 
lua'miiqki'u'' came together from all directions, some from beneath the 
earth, and others from various parts of the sky. They granted the 
reciuest made by Ma'niibiish, and then he called out to the four good 
mysteries in the sky above him to aid him by granting him their favor. 
The good mysteries gave him instructions how to fast that he migiit 
dream of his ma'nido, who would always be his servant and guardian, 
and also told him to take the black ashes from the tire wherewith he 
could blacken his face when he fasted. 

"Then he also received from the good mysteries two large drums, 
one of them to be used in making medicine for good purposes, the other 
to be employed when he wanted to possess himself of the power for 
doing harm to his enemies. 

"Then the good mysteries gave him the tshi'saqkan, the wigwam 
built with four posts and wrapped with bark, in which he could fast 
and dream, so as to enable him to see at any distance where game was 
to be found, and where his enemies were in hiding. 

"Then the good mysteries gave him the small flat rattle, that he 
might invoke the good ma'nidos when he required their assistance, or 
when he was fasting and dreaming. 

"The good mysteries then instructed him how to make the hunting 
medicines and also those used to heal the sick. There were to be many 
varieties of medicines. The sturgeon scale and red medicine were to 
be used for hunting bear; another substance was good to carry when 
hunting deer, while another kind was to be used to catch beaver. Ma'nii- 
bush was told that, when using the beaver medicine, he was to cut two 
short sticks, each as long as a finger, aud to lay one over the other like 
a cross, putting the medicine on the sticks where they crossed. This 
was then to be put in the trap, so that beavers would smell it and come 
to the place where the trap was set. A beaver would then hunt for the 
medicine and put his paw into the trap to take it out, when his paw 
would be caught. 

"When Ma'nabush had been instructed in the preparation of these 
medicines and the manner in which they were to be used, he gathered 
together the gifts to keep for his uncles and their descendants upon the 

By the time the above chant had been completed it was approaching^ 
midnight aud the greater number of the members of the society retired 
to their own tents, which had been erected near by. Those, however^ 
who had been selected to assist remained until later in the night. 


Smoking iiroceeded for quite a while, and those of the medicine men 
wlio had thus far officiated hiy down in their places and slept. The 
usher carried the drum toward the western end of the inclosure and 
placed it in front of the tirst of the second group of four medicine men, 
whose companion also received the rattles to accomjiany the singer. 
Tlie drumming began very gently, but as the singer continued he began 
to show more and more emotion and vehemence in his actions. His 
song related to his own personal knowledge of remedies, which knowl- 
edge had l)een obtained by fasting and dreaming, and tlie purpose of 
it was that he might thus induce some of his hearers to buy the secrets. 
Each medicine man claims to be the owner of certain remedies, each of 
which must be paid for if instruction relating thereto be wanted. In 
like manner the second medicine man in due time chanted tlie proper- 
ties of his specialty, and so also did the third and fourth. During 
some of the chants the candidate would be called forward, especially 
at such passages as related to any participation in originally procuring 
remedies by or through the mediation of Mii'niibush. 

The second group of medicine men thus continued to chant, in an 
interrupted manner, tliroughout the greater iwrtion of the night. Just 
before dawn everyone present seemed tired out, not from bodily exer- 
tion merely, but from the effect of the dull thuds of the drum beats, 
which seemed to give one's ears and head a most distressing sensation. 
Although most of the medicine men had lain down and were now appar- 
ently only shapeless masses of color and beads, y,et, on account of keeping 
up appearances, some one would, at odd intervals, begin an intermittent 
soliloquy relating to Ma'niibush and his good services to the Indian, or 
more frequeutlj' to some special charmed remedy owned by the speaker, 
or some conspicuous service or exploit performed by him. 

As approaching daylight was beginning to show by the roseate tints 
along the eastern horizon, the entire camp of visitors were wrapped in 
slumber. A general suspension of work was aiJparent, and nothing 
farther was done within the inclosure until after breakfast, although 
some of the medicine men were always present and appeared to be jnst 
sufficiently occupied to cause the impression that there was constant 

Shortly after sunrise the greater number of the medicine men left the 
inclosure to get something to eat, but the women brought food to those 
left on duty. There was no haste manifested, and by about 8 oclock 
the usher and an assistant returned to put things in order for the cere- 
monies of the new day. Mats were rearranged and the floor cleared 
of charred wood and ashes of the preceding night's tires, and the lower 
ends of the upper row of mats covering the structure were propped 
up with short sticks for the purpose of affording ventilation, and also 
to give tlie friends of the members and visitors to the ceremony an 
opportunity of watching the proceedings. When breakfast was over 
the officiating priests returned and took their former seats. The can- 


didate also returned aud was again placed ou the left of the first group 
of ofiflciatiug medicine men, and almost every one of the male members 
joined in a ceremonial smoke. lu a short time the left-hand member of 
the first group of four, Nio'pet, began to tap the drum, while the other 
accompanied him with rattles, and as the candidate ajiproached, sur- 
rounded by about a dozen men aud women, Nio'pet began to chant: 

"My grandson will now be placed on the right path; he shall learn 
to feel the strength of the Mitii'wit and to be able to survive all danger. 
He shall be taught how to obtain life from Mashii' Ma'nido. It is a 
pleasure to see the goods and other presents before us; it shows good 
will toward the Mitii'wit and reverence for the teachings of our fore- 
fathers — the whiteheads. Always live up to what you are taught." 

During this recitative chant the candidate moved his body slightly 
up and down by gently flexing and extending the limbs, while those 
surrounding him indulged in more active movement, dancing slowly a 
little toward the right and back again to the left by hopping ou both 
feet just sufficiently to clear the ground. The movement of the figures 
and the sound of footfalls Avas in unison with the drumming. At the 
conclusion of the dance all returned to their seats, while the drum was 
pushed to the next singer, Ni'aqtawa'pomi. 

After a pause the drumming continued, the candidate again presented 
himself with his friends, and the chant was renewed. The recitations 
continued in this manner, differing from the preceding night's program 
only in individual variations in the songs relating to the Mitii'wit, its 
origin, benefits, and success. At intervals also one or another of the 
chief singers would again allude to the death of Xa'qpote, the brother 
of Mii'niibush, and his abode where he awaits the arrival of the shades 
of those who die. In this manner the mortuary services, occupying the 
interval of time from the beginning of the ceremonies until about 1 
oclock, were conducted. The belief was expressed that Na'qpote had 
permitted the shade of the dead medicine man to return to the medicine 
lodge, there to abide from the commencement of the ceremony until its 
conclusion, and thus to behold the fulfillment of the promise made at his 
own grave. 

At midday the medicine women brought foo<l to the singers and 
their assistants iu the ceremouy, while many of the other medicine 
men left the iuclosure aud took dinner with their families, who were 
encamped near by. An hour or more was consumed in this way, and 
when all returned to their seats within the inctlosure, ceremonial 
smoking was indulged in for a short time. During this interval the 
usher called upon someone to assist him in removing the blankets and 
mats from the horizontal pole from which they were suspended, and to 
carry them to the western end of the inclosed area, where the candi- 
date was to kneel. Here they were spread out, one overlapi)ing the 
other toward the center of the inclosure, so as to form a covered space 
of a yard in width and 3 or 4 yards iu length. 

96 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann. 14 

When tbe ceremouy of smoking was cou^'luded, the lowest in rank of 
the first group of four mediciue men, Kio'pet, began to tap the drum, 
whereupon his tliree comiianions took up the rattles; all four now 
arose, and as they began to drum and chant the candidate fell iu 
behind the medicine men. The procession then moved slowly along 
the right or northern side of the inclosure, followed by the second 
group of four medicine men, and finally, also, by the thii-d set, who 
had been seated on the southern side. The singer chanted a song, of 
which the following is a translation: 

"The time has now come for us to teach our brother how to secure 
life. Ho has been waiting a long time. He has been liberal in giving 
^presents to the Mitii'wit, as Ma'niibush taught us to do." 

These words were repeated in short sentences, which prolonged the 
song considerably. At each end of a phrase were added a few pro- 
longed musical tones, meaningless but effective, which also added to the 
apparent waste of time. This, however, is purposely done to empha- 
size the importance of the ceremonial. 

By the time the song was ended the procession had gone round the 
inclosure four times. All then took seats, when tbe drum was passed 
to the second group of four medicine men, one of whom, remaining 
seated, then drummed and chanted, being accompanied by rattles in 
the hands of his associates. The candidate then approached the 
singer and was surrounded by his friends to the number of twelve or 
fifteen. The words of the song related to the duty of a medicine man 
in always following the proper course in life, not to diverge from what 
is right, and never under any circumstance to discard the teachings of 
the Mitii'wit. 

Again the eandidate and his friends returned to their seats, while 
the drum was carried by the usher to the third group of mediciue men, 
seated on the opposite or southern side of the inclosure. They, iu 
regular order, used the drum and chanted, reciting personal exploits in 
shamauistic practices and boasting of their powers in exorcism, and 
tbe value and etticacy of ijlants employed by them in certain specified 
affections. At each chant the candidate approached the singer and 
stood reverentially before him until the song was ended, when be 
returned to bis seat. Finally, the drum was returned to the chief group 
of mediciue men, the chief officiating one theu announcing that the 
coming portion of the ceremonies would be of an especially important 
and sacred character, and at the same time reminded his associates 
that care and deliberation should be exercised in the performance of 
their duties and services. As other announcements of interest to the 
members may be made at this stage of the ceremonies, Shu'uien 
informed the late arrivals of the purpose of my admission into the 
society. He also stated that several well-known members who were 
jugglers, or tshi'saqka, would ])erform tricks to impress the audience 
with tbe powers possessed by these men. 





During a short interval of smoking, in which most of the medicine 
men participated, one man retired to arrange for the exhibition of his 
trick. In a few moments he returned to the western entrance of the 
inclosure, and stood there for au instant until a confederate could 
approach him to assist. The performer held before him a red flannel 
bag which measured about 20 inches in width by 30 in depth. Along 
the top of the opening of the bag were attached fluffy white feathers. 
The upper corners were held by the hands so as to spread out the bag 
like a single piece of goods. Then taking the bag between his hands, 
he rolled it into a ball to show the beholders that there was nothing 
within. Again taking one of the upper corners in each hand, the per- 
former held the bag once more before the face like a banner, and as 
he began to dance slowly forward along the southern side of the inclo- 
sure, his confederate preceded him, dancing backward, chanting with 
the performer, and making various gestures before the bag. Presently 
two snake heads began to emerge from the top of the bag, and gradually 
became more and more exposed to view, until their bodies protruded 
perhaps 6 inches (see plate vii). 
Slowly the beads retreated into the ; j f) 

bag, until the performers had turned : j 

at the eastern end of the inclosure if i 

and were approaching the group of i ^ " -- ' 

chief medicine men, when the singing ... .'.;;■.:;■. 

increased in tone and time, and the j 

snakes again emerged, only to disap- , i 

pear in the bag by the time the perform- A 

ers arrived at the point of starting. 'YJm 

The principal performer then doubled t^ ,, t i * . <■ > i 

A A 1 Fia. 14— Inside cou8triictiou of snnke-liag. 

up the bag, jint it in the l>reast of his 

coat and left the wiko'mik, while the assistant returned to his seat. 

That the trick had made a pi'ofound impression on the audience was 
apparent, and silence reigned everywhere. Although seemingly complex, 
the whole construction of the interior of the bag became apparent as 
the performer reached a position between myself and the sunlight. The 
bag was not fully stretched out, and between the corners held by the 
thumb and forefinger of each hand was visible a strip of cloth or tape, 
to the middle of Avhich were attached the ends of the stuffed snakes. 
These ends were only about S inches long, and as the tension upon the 
tape was lessened, the weight of the snakes' bodies forced them down 
into the bag. The heads and necks emerged through loops, made of 
pieces of calico, just large enough for those members to slide through 
easily (figure 14). 

Another medicine man then came forward to exhibit his skill in 

jugglery. His trick consisted in making some small wooden figures of 

human beings to dance. Sitting flat on the ground in the middle of 

the inclosure, he stretched out his legs, when an assistant threw across 

14 ETH 7 

98 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [et.i. a.vs. u 

them a woolen blauket. Two small wooden effif^ies, about 4 inches in 
height, were then placed tiist in a standing posture, but snbsequently 
extended on their backs, at the side of the blauket opposite the per- 
former (figure I.")). After a little manipulation, as if adjusting the 
blauket and figures, tlie assistant seated himself on the side opposite 
to and facing tlie operator. Both then began to chant, very softly at 
first, but soon reaching higher and shriller notes, wlieu, in accordance 
with the rhythm, the figures began to move, very slightly at first, but 
gradually apparently rising higher and higher until they were almost 
vertical, thus seeuiing to dance ti> the song of the juggler and his con- 
federate. It was pretended that the operator had suihcient power to 
cause the figures to dance, the motion being caused by tlie operator's 

Fig. 1."— Dance uf -wiKulen etli'rics. 

ma'nido, or tutelary daiiuon, whose aid could be invoked after proper 
fasting and chanting. This performance lasted but a very short time, 
and as the soug was concluded, the assistant quickly arose, grasped the 
figures, and put them into a small tiaiinel bag, while the operator care- 
fully folded up his blanket and I'eturned to his seat. 

It was observed that the movement of the figures was produced by 
threads connecting them with the operator's great toe. During the 
adjustment of the blauket and figures by the assistant the jiriucipal 
reached beneath the blanket and removed his moccasins so as to be 
able to utilize the threads already attached to them. Tlie other end 
■was secured to the wooden figures bj- means of a small ball of spruce 

The chief event of tlie afternoon's performances, however, was yet to 
come. Kime'an, a juggler of renown, was to do a very wonderful 


trick; in fact, lie pretended to make a bear's claw stand upright on the 
polished surface of a small iniivor, and then to cause the claw to hang 
to the same surface while the mirror was turned toward the earth. 
Perfect silence pievailcd in tlie medicine wiko'niik as KimC'';'iu arose 
aud approached the eastern middle of the inclosure. Taking from his 
medicine bag a small, lound, old fashioned ]iocket mirror, he held it up 
so as to give everyone an oi)portunity of satisfying himself that there 
was nothing mysterious apparent; turning around in every direction, 
he then produced the claw of a black bear, which he grasped about the 
middle and held up toward the audience. Then, while slowly and 
softly chanting, he gradually brought the mirror, which was in his left 
hand, to a level before bim, then slowly brought the claw down to the 
surface of tlie mirror, stood it up on end and left it there, while he 
continued to turn in every direction, so as to exhibit the trick, at the 
same time pretending to take great care lest the claw fall over. In a 
few moments he stooped a little lower, and with a quick movement of 
the left hand turned the glass so as to place the claw in the position 
of being sus[>ended from the glass, without any visible means of sup- 
port or attachmentto the mirror (tigure 1(5). Turninground aud round, 
carefully watching the magic claw, he quickly swung his hand over ou 
its back so as again to bring the mirror surface upi)ermost. The claw 
was then removed and the glass put back into the medicine bag, but not 
quickly enough to deceive at least one of the spectators, for the sjwt of 
resin which had held the claw was observed. The resin had previously 
been jilaced on the end of the claw, where its presence was visible ouly 
uuder careful inspection. 

This trick had great eftect on the audience, and gave additional 
notoriety of the powers of the old juggler. 

After the various medicine men had participated again in a cere- 
monial smoke (partly to allow sirfiicient time to regain oider within the 
wikd'mik), the three sets of shamans, twelve in number, arose, and. as 
the senior quartette began to move westward, along the northern side, 
the three lower iu rank took the drum aud rattles and began to chant. 
As these shamans reached the place occupied by the second group of 
shamans, they too arose and followed the leaders, as did also the tliird 
set of fourou the south, until the entire set of shamans were slowly and 
impressively marching around the interior of the inclosure, chanting in 
unison a song of but few notes, though often repeated so as to prolong 
it as much as possible. 

The musicians continued to march triitil they had made the circuit of 
the inclosure four times, when they retired to their seats, as did also 
the medicine men from the southern side, leaving only the second grouj) 
of four medicine men to continue the performance, which now assumed 
a serious character, and whicli was most important of all to the candi- 
date, as he was about to receive the new life. The four medicine men 
now began to move more rai)idly toward the candidate, dancing along 



[ETH. ANN. 14 

by hopping twice on one foot and tben on tlie otlier, ea<-li at the same 
time grasping liis mi'dicine bag as if liolding a gun and maldng a charge 
ui)on au enemy. At tlie same time and in i-hythiii witli tlie movement 
they repeated the word "Ho, hij, ho, ho," as they came along from the 
eastern end toward the candidate until jtist before his body, when each 
breathed on and thrust forward his medicine bag, with the loud excla- 

- ■*• 







^M wJitm 


^tm [ ^uJm 


■Iw y ^^^m 



Ml W- 



Fig. IG — Kime'jin'a triclv with i-lnw and mirror. 

mation "Ho!" This utterance is made with a strong, quick sound, as 
in inntation of the cry of a startled animal, and is intended to typify 
the approach of the shade of the bear, as it is said to have approaclied 
the candidate when Mii'ntibush himself conducted the first ceremonies 
at the command of Kisha' Ma'nido. 

As the first medicine man thrust his bag toward the candidate and 
passed by, he gradually fell to the rear of the file, allowing the second 


to become the first, wlien he also in similar manner pretended to shoot 
at the candidate's breast. At this gesture of shooting, the candidate's 
body quivered, tlie motion being, in part, transmitted by Shu'nieu, 
■who sat beliiud and prompted him. The four came around for the 
third time, making the same curious noise, and when the third medicine 
man came to the front, breathed on his bag, and pretended to shoot 
the candidate, the hitter's body quivered still more violently than 
before. As the medicine men passed around for the fourth time, the 
one to lead the last time, in like manner, fell to the rear, permitting the 
fourth of the party to become the leader. Thus the dancers advanced, 
uttering their curious cry of "Ho, ho, ho, ho," louder and louder until, 
■when a short distance before the candidate, the medicine man breathed 
on his bag and thrust it forward, and as he did so the candidate fell 
forward on his face, apparently lifeless. The magic 
influence contained in the medicine bag had been shot 
into the candidate's heart, and, being too powerfnl 
for him to bear, he became unconscious. It is the 
belief that if the small shell, called the kona'pamik 
(Cyprw moneta), the sacred emblem of the Mitii'wit, be 
swallowed by the medicine man, all he is obliged to 
do to transfer his j>ower to the medicine bag is to 
breathe on it, the mysterious power and influence 
being then transmitted by merely thrusting the bag 
toward the desired object or person. Figure 17 rep- 
resents the shell used as the koua'i)amik. 

As the candidate fell forward en the ground, Shu'- 
nien arose and joined his associates, and all gathered yig. n— Kouii'pamit 
around the prostrate body. The other assisting med- "'' emtiem of the 
icine men also came forward, and the whole number "'"='6 y- 
then formed two files, one on each side of the candidate, and laid on 
his l)ack their medicine bags (plate viii). Shu'nieu then chanted a 
few phrases, but repeated them a number of times to heighten the 
efitect on the feelings of the audience. The following is a translation 
of the original phraseology : 

"Thus is shown to you the strength of the Mitii'wit; the kona'pamik 
was given to Mii'niibush by Mii'iitshawai'edok (the Great Mystery), and 
we have it from Ma'nabush. Our children will feel its influence, and 
they shall receive life. Our brother, lying before us, shall have life 
put into his heart. We will now restore him, and instruct him how to 
use his strength." 

Then, as the chant ended, the drum which had been used by Shu'nien 
was removed by the usher, and eacli of the medicine men stooped to 
get his sack. Shu'nien then placed his hand under the candidate's 
forehead and raised it slightly from the ground, when a konii'pamik 
dropped from the candidate's mouth. After this lie slowly recovered 
consciousness, arose, and taking the shell in his own hand he jilaced it 


ill the palm of bis right hand, aud while in a stooping posture, with his 
hand extende<l, he danced around in various directions toward the 
right and toward the left, exhibiting the newly found object. He 
danced very gently, hox)piug twice ou one foot and then on the other; 
grunting the sound "Ho, ho, ho, hij," in imitation of the mystery Bear. 
While the candidate was thus performing in the western end of the 
iuclosure, the other ofticiatiug medicine men spat ou their own palms 
containing their individual konii'pamik, while dancing and grunting 
in a manner similar to the candidate; they, however, went entirely 
around the interior, showing to tlie audience their shells. As they 
again congregated in tlie western end, at the place of the mat, each 
quickly put his hand up to his mouth and pretended to swallow the 
konii'pamik. The eftect seemed instantaneous, as each of the medicine 
men appeared to be taken with partial, and in some instances com- 
plete, unconsciousness, while the new member fell to the ground again 
apparently dead. The medicine men ineteuded to i-ecover in a few 
moments, whereas it seemed several minutes ere the candidate resumed 
consciousness without the assistance of his elders. 

As each of the medicine men had now apparently swallowed his 
shell, he would only have to breathe on the sack and thrust it toward 
anyone to make its power felt. They believe that should a thrust be 
madetowanl one not a mitii'^ the result would, without doubt, be fatal, 
as the shell thixs shot into a human body might not be easily removed, 
and if removed the person thus making a careless shot would, in turn, 
have to be shot by the chief officiating medicine man iiresent. 

The otter skin medicine bag was now presented to the candidate, 
and for this purpose he placed himself before the priests, who chanted 
to him respecting his new state (see plate ix), and as he was expected 
to try his newly acquired jiower, he began to make the circuit of the 
interior of the inclosure, and as he passed along on each side he would 
occasionally thrust his medicine bag toward someone, who would moan 
and sink to the ground, but would soon recover. As this was con- 
tinued, each person shot at was then comjielled to arise, follow the can- 
didate, and in like manner shoot one or more persons present. The 
consequence was that one-half of the entire number of persons present 
were constantly moving in a sort of hypocyclid, though a diagram- 
matic scheme would show both inner and outer figures to be oblong, as 
in figure 18. The hollow squares in this diagram represent persons 
standing with their backs toward the wall, while .the black spots 
signify the moving ones going forward in the direction of the arrows; 
and as each comes to his respective standing jilace he remains, and 
the procession thus progressing constantly leaves the standing ones at 
the rear to ftill in and continue to march until their turn comes again 
to stand while the remaining shamans pass by. 

The medicine women were especially interested during this part of 
the ceremony, as it afforded them the only opjiortunity at which they 




could appear as active i^articipants. This peculiar movement of walk- 
ing around the interior, shooting at oue another with the medicine bag, 
and ijreteuding in turn to have been wounded by the konii'pamik, con- 
tinued for over an hour; suddenly there was an audible wailing sound, 
as of some one mortally wounded, which caused all but the chief oifici- 
atiug mitii''', Shu'nien, and a companion to retire quickly to their seats. 
It was then discov^ered that a little girl, who had accompanied her 
mother to the ceremony, had been accidentally liit by a stray konii'- 
pamik, shot from a medicine bag by a careless member. The difliculty 
that now presented itself was to discover the culprit, and as this could 
be learned only through an apparently difficult procedure by one whose 
"medicine" was stronger than that of anyone else, it was Shu'nien's 
duty, as chief medicine man pro tempore, to make the discovery. He 
called to his side his three chief assistants, with whom he seemed in 
animated, though serious, consultation. Presently one of them left the 
structure by the eastern doorway, the others becoming seated. There 
was a period of ijrofound silence until the messenger returned with a 
finely embroidered medicine sack, which he delivered to Shu'nien, who 

D D D D D D D n~~^». 


Fra. 18 — Diaijram showing movement of mitji'wok. 

now approached the eastern door, followed by his three assistants, 
where he began a curious movement, consisting in i>assing the top, or 
head, end of the sack up and down and back and forth along each ])ole 
and mat of the wigwam, at the same time rapidly uttering the syllables, 
ho, ho, ho. In this he was joined by his companions, who, together 
with Shu'nien, crouched forward and kept up a rapid dancing step of 
hopping alternately on each foot; all of them, furthermore, appeared to 
watch intently the proceedings, as if to discover the hidden konii'pamik 
and restore it to its proper place. 

This curious, rapid search, accompanied by the grunting sounds, as 
the medicine bag was made to pass along every possible portion of the 
structure, continued all along the northern side, around the western 
entrance, and on the return along the southern side, when suddenly 
Shu'nien stopped his movement, gazed at his medicine sack, which 
appeared to be attracted toward a woman who was seated a little apart 
from the rest, and who was closely enveloped in a shawl. As Shu'nien 
approached her she threw back the siiawl and exposed to view her little 
girl, who had been wounded. In the child's lap lay the koniL'painik, 
which the chief seemed eager to secure. Taking it upon the palm of 

104 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth. an-n. u 

his rigiit hand, extended forward and about two feet from the ground, 
he danced rapidly forward and around the interior, closely followed by 
his companions, all of whom uttered, in rapid succession, the word h6, 
calling attention to the discovery. When the party again reached the 
phice where the shell was found, Shu'nien placed his hand qnickly to 
his mouth, apparently swallowing the shell, when he fell to the ground. 
He recovered in a moment, blew his breath upon the medicine sack so 
as to charge it with the mysterious influence and power contained in 
the shell now within liis body, when he started forward aiming at each 
member present to ascertain who it was that had caused so much 
trouble and anxiety. The victim w^as a woman, her ])resence being 
discovered by the medicine sack being forcibly repelled within the 
hands of the experimenter. Thereupon he stopped before her, took 
deliberate aim and pretended to shoot her when she fell to one side 
apparently dead. The four medicine men then returned to their proper 
stations, while the usher carried the medicine bag used in the search 
to its owner. 

The time had now arrived to distribute the presents, and the usher 
and an assistant removed the blankets, pieces of calico, mats, kettles, 
and other articles from the pole from which they had been suspended, 
and carried them before the second group of officiating medicine men. 
The leader of these gave one blanket each to the chief officiating mem- 
bers, and to his own associates the pieces of calico, but instead of retain- 
ing them they presented these goods to the medicine women who had 
been engaged in the erection of the mita'wiko'mik, the preparation of 
the feast, and in attendance on the candidate during the intervals at 
which he stood before the chiefs to listen to the chants. The kettles, 
mats, and a few other unimportant articles were divided among the sec- 
ond and third groups of medicine men. 

By this time the day was almost spent, when the chief, Shu'nien, and 
the candidate — as mourner — started for the eastern door followed by 
two mitii'wok carrying the drum and chanting, who in turn were fol- 
lowed by all present, taking up a line of march to the grave, where they 
formed a circle. After considerable drumming, accompanied by a slight 
attempt at dancing, the procession returned and entered the inclosure 
at the western door. After all had taken their former positions, the 
drumming ceased, the chief announced the ceremonies ended, and all 
started for their respective homes. 

Notes on the Ceremonies 

Many others of the members present attheMitii'wit ceremonies were 
credited with the power of performing tricks of various kinds, but only 
three, already referred to, could be induced to exhibit their skill. The 
Indians invariably claim that such tricks can be performed only through 
the intervention of ma'nidos, who must first be invoked by fasting and 
the making of gifts. The sweat bath must also be taken by these 


prestigiators previous to such attempts at iu vocation. Tlie ability of a 
mediciue uiau to excel another in jugglii^g is believed to be due to tlie 
fact that his "medicine" is the stronger. By the expression "medicine" 
is usually meant the power reputed to be possessed by a man's fetish or 
charmed object adopted after liis tirst fast to typify his tutelary daimon, 
or so-called guardian mystery. 

The Menomini Indians relate some curious tales of wonderful feats 
performed by medicine men and medicine women in the olden time, 
when greater faith was placed in the ma'nidos, and when people had 
the power to obtain "stronger medicine." One exploit referred to by 
the Menomini was later on also described by an Ottawa chief, as the 
incident occurred at a meeting of the Ottawa medicine society in Michi- 
gan, at which a number of medicine men from other tribes were present, 
because the Honorable Lewis Cass had also intimated his desire to wit- 
ness the dance. The ceremonial had progressed with unflagging interest 
until toward the close of the day, and as Mr Cass is said to have 
observed an old Ojibwa medicine woman, who had come up at each 
dance to actively particii)ate in the exercises, he asked someone near 
by why this old woman took such an active part, as she appeared rather 
uninteresting and had nothing to say, and apparently nothing to do 
except to shake her snake-skin mediciue bag. The woman heard the 
remark and became offended, because she was known among her own 
people as a very powerful mita'kwe. In an instant she threw the dry 
snake-skin bag toward the offender, when the skin became a live serpent 
which rushed at Mr Cass and ran him out of the crowd. The snake 
then returned to the mediciue woman, who picked it up, when it ap- 
peared again as a dry skin bag. 

In the chants rendered by the four chief niitii'wok, relating to the 
Indian genesis of mankind, the words are intoned iu a recitative style, 
though rapidly and duplicated, as before mentioned. In addition to 
this there are but two tones employed, the initial two or three syllables 
being irttered in the first note, while the remainder of the phrase ends 
in a tone a third lower. This method is followed by each one through- 
out his chant. When the service is changed from the mortuary ob- 
servance of the first evening and the following night to tlie prepara- 
tory course on the next morning, the music of the chants is entirely 
changed. The scope of the tones employed is limited, embracing as a 
rule but five, while the final syllable of each phrase is prolonged into a 
vowel sound, usually "ho" or "he," (which is merely interjectional and 
without definite meaning); though, unlike the songs of the Ojibwa, 
there is a pronounced quaver resulting from joining to the note a half- 
note lower, thus giving one the impression that the note was chanted 
in a tremulous manner. 

It has been observed, too, at some of the meetings of the society, that 
certain mita'wok, to prolong the ceremony, will invent a j)hrase to suit 
a circumstance that may occur, and as the musical notation is so simple 



[ETH. ANN. 14 

he will be joined, after two or three repetitions, by his assistants as 
readily as if they had for a long time been familiar with it. This 

Fig. 18a — ■Mnemonic songs. 

would scarcely be possible in the Ojibwa ceremonies as practiced in 
northern Minnesota. 

The Meuomini songs of the Ojibwa shamans have been carefully 
presented in my before-mentioned exposition of the cult society of 


that tribe. The pictogTaphic system was there explained, and luiiuerous 
examples given to show in what manner the shaman is enabled to 
chant his medicine songs, the ritualistic language of the order of cere- 
monies, or to recount his exploits and deeds of valor. The Menomini 
admit that in former years they were more familiar with the recording 
upon birch bark of mnemonic characters, but that now but few such 
scrolls exist among them. After a careful search among the Menomini 
tribe, I met with but few examples of birch bark bearing rude outlines 
of human and geometric tigurcs, which indicated clearly that they had 
no allusion to any portion of the medicine society. The only note- 
worthy instance met with is an illustration of a birch-bark record pub- 
lished by Mr J. G. Kohl.' This record was copied by him in the lodge 
of an Indian who had arrived from northern Wisconsin. Ui)on inquiry, 
the Indian informed him that the record had been received by him 
from his brother-in-law, ''an Indien dela folic avoine," or a "Menomee- 
nee," who had given it to him only on his deathbed. The Indian fur- 
thermore told Mr Kohl that his brother-in-law had spent much time to 
learn it all, and that he had studied and practiced it for months. 

The record, of which tigure 18ffi is a reproduction, although said to 
have been the property of a Menomini, has every indication of Ojibwa 
art, and if not made by that tribe, the influence of Ojibwa art as illus- 
trated in the Mide' rites was strongly impressed upon the possible 
Menomini, he apparently having obtained his instruction and 
initiation among the Ojibwa at Lac Court Oreille, or Lac Flambeau, 
between all of which regions much intercourse between these two tribes 
is conducted. Kohl says : 

^^^len I asked him [the Menomini informant] if lie eoiild teach me some of his 
knowledge, and explain the leading featiu'es, he replied that " it was very difHcult 
to learn." I assured him that I should be satisfied if I could only reach so far with 
my weak understanding as to see how difficult it was, and why it was so; and he 
then condescended to give me a few explanations. I will repeat them exactly as I 
received them from him, and only interrupt them here and there with a parenthesis 
and marks of interrogation: 

"The crooked sign at a is the sign that the song commences here. 

"The bear (at h) begins the dance: ' II marche la pour signe de la vie.' 

"At c stand a boy and his teacher (father, uncle, or grandfather), who instructs 
him. You see the heart of the good teacher, and the stream of discourse which 
flows in a serpentine line from his heart through his mouth to the head of the boy, 
as well as the boy's answers, which flow back from his mouth to the heart of his 

" d is the circle of the earth, with the sacred shells in it. ( ?) 

" e, repetition of the couple, the teacher and boy." (The scholar appears to have 
made considerable progress for his head is inclosed in the '■ circle of heaven," as if 
in a nimbus of sanctity.) 

While pointing to the bear and his traces (at/), my Indian gave me the advice: 
"On doit suivre Tours par ses pistes." I can not say whether this was a material 
part of the song, or merely the insertion of a good and useful Indian proverb. 

" i; is a sign to pause. Up to that the song goes slowly. Afterwards a quicker 
time begins. 

1 Kitclii-Gami, Wanderings round Lake Superior, London, 1860, p. 292. 

108 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth. ann. U 

"At h a boy stands, watching a flying bird. 

"i, two men, who expel shells from their mouths, as they are in the habit of doing 
at their ceremonies. 

" k, the Mide priest, with his medicine-bag on his arm. 

" I is not, as might be supposed, a flying eagle, but the medicine-bag of the 
man k." . . . 

" m, pause, or concluding bar of a division of the song. At this bar dancing and 
beating the drum commence. 

"At n a new division couimences." (It represents a couple eserting themselves to 
expel a shell.) 

"At o a man is walkiug, not, as might be supposed, on a many-bramhed tree (p), 
but on the path of the life and the law." . . . (This path, it will be seen, has 
many side paths. But over his he:id a bird (</) hovers, surrounded by a ring of small 
birds, like a cluster of stars. The man (o) appears to be looking up to this cluster 
as a reward or crown of victory.) 

"Tibekana," the Indian said, "meant, in his language, 'the path of life.'" A 
portion of the word simply means, in the Ojibbeway, 'trail' or 'path.' And the 
whole means 'the way of the dead,' ' the path leading into paradise,' or 'the path 
of life.' 

"s, the ring of heaven. 

"The bear ((). who, by the way, is no bear, but a man in the form of a bear, is 
marching toward this ring. He is trying to reach the opening to it, ' le centre du 
monde,' or ' le trou de boulieur.' 

"«, the priest of the temple, or medicine wigwam (r), who makes an oration at the 
end of this division. Tlie speech is depicted by the undulating line, which goes 
down from his mouth to the roof of tlie temple. 

"As a perfect conclusion of this part, there is a turn at eating and smoking, indi- 
cated by the pipe (ic) and the dish (x). 

1. "Great bar — grand pause. The main att'air, the great ceremony of the recep- 
tion of a new member into the order of the Mides, really terminates here. 

"The man (at 2) is the new member just received. He emerges from the temple 
into the open air, with his powerful medicine-bag (3) in his hand. He tries its 
strength and con.secration, aud the animals, both bears and birds, appear to fly 
before him." (While blowing on them with his medicine-bag, he also seems to be 
snow-balling tbeni with the sacred shell.) 

Thus strengthened by magic arts, and initiated into the Midi? order, he at length 
shoots (at 4) an arrow, and, like Max in the Freischiitz, brings down a bird from the 
air. It falls at his feet (at 4). The Indian told me it was a kiuiou (warrior-eagle). 

"For this he is obliged to otter a dog. as a sacrifice to tlie Great Spirit (5). 

6. " Pause, or concluding bar of this division." (The pictures that now follow are 
so fantastic, and my Indian's explanations were so fragmentary, that I must give up 
all attempt at any continuous description.) 

At 7, instructions about the constantly recurring vomiting of shells seems to be 
again represented. 

"At 8," I was told, "a song is represented between the sun (9) and the earth (10). 
The song," my Indian said, " must be sung exactly at raid-day, because the sun is 
then floating perpendicularly over the earth." 

The quadrangle (at 11) is meant for a piece of cloth, such as the priests receive as 
a reward and payment after tlieir exertions. I cannot say, though, why this piece 
of cloth again haugs between the sun and earth. 

The priest (at 12) sings "Le voila ! le sacrifice, qui a 6te donne au grand-pretre ! " ' 

There are a number of statement.s in the preceding remarks that are 
not exactly in accordance with the teachings of the society, and the true 

■ Kobl, KitcLi-Gami, op. cit., pp. 292-296. 


interpretation can be obtained only from the priests of the order, after 
one is reguhirly entitled to receive such infonnatiou by initiation and 
the paj'ment of fees, presents, and food. 

The figures marked c are in the attitude of conversation, as above 
mentioned and as is indicated by the voice lines extending between the 
two persons indicated. Two similar characters at i are, according to 
the general system of pictographic interpretation of the Indians, con- 
versing about the migis or konii'pamik, both voice lines centering on 
the same object. 

The figure at o is at the beginiiiug of the patli of life, the first step of 
which is made in the mitii'wiko'mik, and the interpretation of which is 
explained with more or less clearness in the mitii"' recitative chant ren- 
dered by Shu'nien (see page 79). 

Reference to the pipe (10) and dish (.r) indicates the observance of 
ceremonial smoking, for upon the ring are noticed four spots at the 
cardinal points, the four directions in which smoke is pufl'ed by those 

The new member, at 2, is said to be trying his powers as a niitii'''. The 
konii'paraik is shown between his face and his medicine bag, while the 
three oblong characters beneath the bear denote the footprints of that 
animal as he departs. 

It is probable that the slight dissimilarities and inconsistencies which 
appear from year to year in the dramatic and ritualistic order of cere- 
monies of the Mita'wit are attributable largely to the fact that no 
pictographic records or mnemonic songs are now employed. In conse- 
quence of this carelessness and disregard of an old custom, the newly 
elected member is enabled to familiarize himself with the traditional 
order of procedure only by close observation and by regular attendance 
at the recurring annual meetings. He lias no mnemonic guide by 
means of which he can refresh his memory by instant reference to a 
bark record ; neither are the members of the society in perfect accord 
in the general conduct of the ceremonies, since among the tribe under 
consideration no cosmogonic charts, such as exist among the northern 
Ojibwa, and of which three variants have been presented in connection 
with the subject of the cult society of the latter tribe,' are now known. 
It is quite apparent, therefore, that under such circumstances a gradual 
degeneration and abbreviation of the dramatic rendering of the ritual 
as well as of the original phraseology pertaining thereto is practically 
unavoidable and accounts to a greater or less extent for the changes 
observed and above referred to. 

As before stated, the Menomini and Winnebago lived side by side 
for an indefinite period, and through constant intercourse, which thus 
became possible, the mitii" ceremonies, as performed by these tribes, 
without doubt became very similar in detail. The analogous medicine 
ceremonial of the Winnebago Indians is described somewhat fully in a 

'Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, for 1885-86, 1801, pp. 143-300. 

110 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann.i4 

rc])oi'tt() Henry R. Sclioolcralt by -I. E. Fletclier, riiited States Indian 
subagent for that tribe in 184)S, in tlie toUowing words: 

This feast is au ancient custom or ceremony; it is accompanied with tlanciug and 
18 sometimes called the medicine dance. The members or conimunicaiits ot this feast 
constitute a society havini; secrets known only to the initiated. . . . ' 

They have no rejjular or stated times for holding this fe<ast; and all the members 
do not attend at the same time, but only such as are invited by the master of the 
feast. Persons desirous of joining this society will, in some cases, use the most rigid 
economy for years, to enable them to lay up goods to pay the initiating fee. This 
fee is not lixed at any stipulated amount; those who join pay according to their 
ability. Sometimes goods to the amount of .$200 and .$300 are given by an indi- 
vidual. Goods given for this purpose generally consist of blankets, broadcloths, 
calicoes, wampum, and trinkets, and are given to the medicine men, who perform 
the ceremony of initiating the member. When one or more persons make applica- 
tion to join the society, preparations are made for a feast and dance, which is held 
in au arched lodge, or bower, constructed of poles, and covered with tent-cloth and 
other materials. The size of the bower is made to conform to the number of persons 
to be invited, and this number depends much on the ability of the person Avho makes 
the feast. The width of a bower is about 16 feet, the length varying from 10 to 75 
yards. The members of the society sit on each side of the bower, the center being 
reserved for dancing. Candidates for admission into this society are required to fast 
three days previous to being initiated. At some period during this fast they are 
taken l>y the old medicine men to some secluded secret spot, and instructed in the 
doctrines and mysteries of the society; and it is said that the candidates are, during 
this fast, subjected to a severe sweating process, by covering them with blankets 
and steaming them witli herbs. The truth of this saying is not here vouched for, 
but the, appearance of the eauilidate, when brought forward to be initiated in pub- 
lic, corroborates it. 

The public ceremony of initiation usually takes place about 11 o'clock a. ui. The 
public exercises of dancing, singing, praying, and exhorting, which precede the 
initiations, commence the previovis morning. Before the candidates are brought 
forward, the ground through the center of the bower is carpeted with blankets 
and broadcloth laid over the blankets. The candidates are then led forward and 
placed ou their knees upon the carpet, near one end of the bower, and facing the 
opposite end. Some eight or ten medicine men then march in single tile round the 
bower with their medical bags in their hands. Each time they perform the circuit 
they halt, and one of them makes a short address; this is repeated until all have 
spoken. They then form a circle and lay their medicine bags ou the carpet before 
them; then they commeuce retching and making eft'orts to vomit, bending over until 
their licads come nearly in contact with their medicine b.igs. on which they vomit, 
or deposit from their mouth a small white sea shell .about the size of a bean; this 
they call the medicine stone and claim that it is carried in the stomach and vomited 
up on these occasions. These stones they put in the mouth of their medicine bags, 
and take their position at the end of the bower opposite to and facing the candidates. 
They then a<lvance in line, as many abreast as there are candidates; holding their 
medicine bags before them with both hands, they dauce forward, slowly at first, and 
uttering low, gutteral sounds as they approach the candidates, their step and voice 
increasing in energy, until with a violent " Ough ! " they thrust their medicine b.ags 
at their breasts. Instantly, as if struck with an electric shock, the candidates fall 
prostrate ou their faces, their limbs extended, their muscles rigid, and quivering in 
every fiber. Blankets are now tlirown over them, and they are suffered to lie thus a 
few moments. As soon as they show signs of recovering from the shock, they are 
assisted to their feet and led forward. Medicine bags are then put in their hands 
and medicine stoiu_'S in their mouths; they are now medicine men or women, as the 


case may be, in full conimuuioii aiul fellowsbip. The new members, in company with 
the old. now y;o round the bower in single tile, knocking members down promiscu- 
ously by thrnstini; their medicine bags at them (i)late xxxi). After continuing 
this exercise for some time, reCreshments are brought in, of which they all partake. 
Dog's flesh is always a component |>!irt of the <lisb served on these occasions. After 
partaking of the feast they generally continue the dance and other exercises for 
several hours. The drum and rattle are the musical instruments used at this feast. 
The most perfect order and decorum are observed throughout the entire ceremony. 
The members of this society are remarkably strict in their attendance at this feast. 
Nothing but sickness is admitted as an excuse for not complying with an invitation 
to attend. Members sometimes travel .50 miles, and even farther, to be present at a 
feast when invited. 

The secret of the society is kept sacred. It is remarkable that neither want nor 
a thirst for whisky will tempt the meml)ers of this society to part with their medi- 
cine bags. 

Whether these medicine men possess the secret ol' mesmerism or magnetic influ- 
ence, or whether the whole system is a humbug and imposition, is difficult to deter- 
mine. A careful observation of the ceremonies of this order for six years has been 
unable to d(^tect the imposition, if there be one; and it is unreasonable to suppose 
that an imposition of this character could be practiced for centuries witliout detec- 
tion. There is no doubt that the tribe generally believe that their medicine men 
possess great power.' 

This ceremonial, which appears from all available evidence to have 
been originally an Algonquian production, seems to have made its 
impress npon the cult ceremonies of, or perhaps even to have been 
adopted by, other tribes. When Carver ^ met with the Naudowessies 
(Sioux), he " found that the nations to the westward of the Mississippi, 
and on the borders of Lake Superior" still continued the "use of the 
Pawwaw or Black dance," which partook of the character of the jug- 
glers' performances, as he speaks of "the devil being raised in this 
dance by the Indians." He next refers to the society of the " Wakon- 
Kitchewah," or "Friendly Society of the Spirit," which is composed 
of persons of both sexes, but such only as are of exceptional character, 
and who receive the approbation of the whole body. His description 
is sufficiently intelligible to show that the ceremonial was that of the 
Algonquian medicine society, though it has been greatly perverted, 
as practiced even in former times by the Ojibwa and Menomini Indians. 
The assemblage occurred at about 12 oclock, when the sun was near 
the zenith, which they consider a good omen. The chiefs were dressed 
in their best apparel, in long robes, and painted. In the words of this 
author — 

When the assembly was seated and silence proclaimed, one of the principal chiefs 
arose, and in a short but masterly speech informed his audience of the occasion of 
their meeting. He ac(iuainted them that one of their young men wished to be 
admitted into tlreir society, and taking him by the hand presented him to their 
view, asking them at the same time whether they had any objection to his becom- 
ing one of their community. 

No objection being made, the young candidate was placed in the center and four 
of the chiefs took their stations close to him. Alter exhorting him by turns not to 

' Schoolcraft, Inform. Ind. Tribes, pt. iii, I'hiladelpljia. 1853, pp. 286-288, pi. xxxi. 
2 Travels through the Interior Parts of North-Auj erica, London, 1778, p. 270 et seq. 

112 THE MEXOMINI INDIANS [eth. ann. u 

fiiiut nnder the ojieration lu) was aboiit to gn through, but to behave like an Indian 
and a man, two of them took hold of his arms and caused him to kneel; another 
placed himself behind him so as to receive him when he fell, and the last of the 
four retired to th(i distance of about 12 feet from him, exactly in front. 

This disposition beini; completed, the chief that stood before the kneeling candi- 
date liegau to spealc to liim with an audible voice. He told him tliat he himself was 
now agitated by the same spirit which he should in a few moments communicate to 
hira; that it would strike him dead, but that he would instantly be restored again 
to life; to this he added that the communication, however terrifying, was a neces- 
sary introduction to the advantages enjoyed by the community into which he was 
on the point of being admitted. 

As he spoke this he a])peared to be greatly agitated, till at last his emotions 
became so violent that his countenance was distorted and his whole frame con- 
vulsed. At this juncture he threw something that a))peared both in shape and 
color like a small bean at the young man, which seemed to enter his mouth, and he 
instantly fell as motionless as if he had been shot. The chii'f that was placed 
behind him received him in his arms, and by the as8i.stance of the other two laid 
him on the ground to all appearance bereft of life. 

Having done this, tliey immediately began to rub his limbs and to strike him on 
the back, giving him such blows as seemed more calculated to still tlie quick than 
to raise the dead. During these extraordinary applications the speaker continued 
his harangue, desiring the spectators not to be surprised, or to despair of the young 
man's recovery, as his present inanimate situation proceeded only from the forcible 
opeiation of the spirit on faculties that had hitherto been unused to insjiirations of 
this kind. 

Tlie candidate lay several minutes without sense or moti(ra. but at length, after 
receiving many violent blows, he began to discover some symptoms of returning 
life. These, however, were attended with strong convulsions and an apparent 
obstruction in his throat. But they were soon at an end, for having discharged 
from his month the liean, or whatever it was that the chief had thrown at him, but 
which on the closest inspection I had not perceived to enter it, he soon after 
appeiircd to bo tolerably recovered. . . . He then also charged the newly 
elected brother to receive with humility and to follow with punctuality the advice 
of his elder brethren. 

All those who had been admitted within the rails now formed a circle around their 
new brother, and, the music striking up, the great chief sung a song, celebrating as 
usual their martial exploits. 

The only music they make use of is a drum, which is composed of a piece of a 
hollow tree curiou.sly wrought, and over one end of which is str.ained a skin. This 
they beat with a single stick, and it gives a sound that is far from harmonious, but 
it just serves to beat time with. To this they sometimes add the chicliicoe, and in 
their war dances they likewise use a kind of fife, formed of a reed, which makes a 
shrill harsh noise. 

The whole assembly were by this time united, and the dance began. Several 
singers assisted the music with their voices, and the women joining in the chorus at 
certain intervals, they produce together a not unpleasing but savage harmony. 
This was one of the most agreeable entertainments I saw whilst I was among 

1 could not help langliiugat a singular childish custom I observed they introduced 
into this dance, and which was the only one that had the least appearance of con- 
juration. Most of the members carried in their hands an otter or marten's skin, 
which, being taken whole from the body and filled with wind, on being compressed 
made a squeaking noise through a small piece of wood organically formed and fixed 
in its month. When this instrument was presented to the face of any of the com- 
pany, and the sound emitted, the person receiving it instantly fell down to .appear- 


ance ileail. Sometimes twi) or three, both meu and women, were on the ground 
together; but imini'diatel.y reeoveriug, they rose up and joined aguiii in the dance. 
This seemed to afford even the ehiefs themselves infinite diversion.' 

Ceremonies ok 1891 

Duriug tlie suiiiiner of ISOl, wlieii the time arrived for holding a meet- 
ing of the Mitii' wit, I again visited Kesbeua. The promoter of the cere- 
mony was Akwiue'mi Mo'sihat, who desired to present as a candidate 
his nephew, son of his hitely deceased sister. The nsual arrangements 
respecting the sending of invitations and the designation of assistant 
mita'wok were made; and two or three days before the holding of the 
ceremony Mo'sihat, accompanied by his wife and a few friends, went to 
the ground selected and prepared to erect the mitii'wiko'mik. The poles 
were cut and planted along the outline of the oblong structure pro- 
jected, and both the vertical ones, which were arched across and 
secured to those on the opposite side, as well as the horizontal rods, 
were all tied securely together by means of strips of basswood bark. 
The interior bark only is used ; it is made soft and pliable by soaking 
in boiling water, after which it is split into strands of a finger's width. 
This process of bark stripping is illustrated in plate x. 

The mitii'wiko'mik was placed so as to extend northand-sonth instead 
of eastand-west as directed according to the ritual. The reason given 
for this departure was that the place selected for the ceremony was the 
most favorable that could be found convenient to the grave; and as 
the grave of the deceased (in whose memory the feast as usual was 
given) was south of this spot it was necessary to have the traditional 
" western end" of the structure directed toward the grave. Thus the 
actual south was the ceremonial west, and was so treated and consid- 
ered throughout the performance. 

The chief mita'wok at this ceremony were, for the first four, as fol- 
lows: (1) Akwiue'mi Mo'sihat; (2) Nlo'pet; (3) Ni'aqtawa'pomi; and 
(4) Naq'pote. The second set consisted of (1) Mai'akine'u''; (2) Kowa'- 
peiui'u; (3) Shu'iiien; and (4) Kime'an. All of the preceding were 
Menomini excepting Kowa'pemi'u, who was a Potawatomi. Another 
set of four had been designated, but, as they were unavoidably pre- 
vented from reporting in time, substitutes were appointed for the first 
night's service. The recitations relating to the gifts, the tobacco, and 
the food prejiared for the visitors, began as before, all in accordance 
with the injunctions of Mii'nabush. The tradition relating to the birth 
of Mii'nabush was somewhat different from that of the preceding year, 
as it was giveu by Shu'nien. Xio'pet chanted the following version of 
the genesis : 

"There was an O-d woman, named Noko'ui's, who had an unmarried 
daughter. The daughter gave birth to twin boys, one of whom died, as 
did also the mother. 

' Op. cit., pp. 273-278. 
14 ETH 8 

114 THE MENOMINI INDIANS (etm.anx. u 

"Xoko'inis then wrapped tlie living child in soft, dry grass, laid it 
on the ground at the extreme end of her wigwam, and placed over it a 
wooden l)owl to protect it. She then took the body of her daughter 
and the other grandchild and buried them at some distance from her 
habitation. VA'hen she returned to the wigwam, she sat down and 
mourned for four days; but at the exi)iration of the fourth day she 
heard a slight noise within the wigwam, which she soon found to come 
from the wooden bowl. The bowl moved, when she suddenly remem- 
bered that her living grandchild had been ])ut under it. Upon removing 
the bowl she beheld a little white rabbit, with quivering ears, and on 
taking it up said : ' O, my dear little Itabbit, my Ma'niibush ! ' She cher- 
ished it, and it grew. One day the Kabbit sat up on its haunches and 
hopped slowly across the floor of the wigwam, which caused the earth 
to tremble. Then the ana'maqki'u, or evil uiulergrouud beings, said to 
one another : ' Whathas happened ? A great ma'nido is born somewhere,' 
and they immediately began to devise means whereby Ma'niibush might 
be destroyed. 

"When Ma'niibush grew to be a young man he thought it time to 
prepare himself to assist his uncles (the people) to better their condi- 
tion. He then said to Noko'mis, 'Grandmother, make me four sticks, 
that I may be able to sing.' She made for him four sticks, the pii'kii- 
hg'kiiniik', with which he could beat time when singing. When he 
received these sticks he went away to an open flat place, where he built 
alouA- house or wigwam. He then began to sing: 'Ne'niki'anka, he he; 
E"'toshe'hawok,he, he; mo'natoak', hii, he; m'nahapi'o nit esh'kodem 
sasaq'kodek. Ne'pon ni'kati'nanan wike'iu na aoake me tshe, sho aiet- 
shaqketokek." [TrcDishition: I am born to create animals (for my 
uncles). I can create my fire that the sparks may reach the sky. My 
arrow I am going to take out, so that wliile the earth stands there will 
be enough to eat.] ' 

"While thus singing and calling together his uncles he told them 
that he would give them the Mitii'wit, so that they could cure disease. 
He gave them plants for food so that they should no longer want for 
anything. He gave them medicine bags, made of the skins of the mink, 
the weasel, the black rattlesnake, the massasauga rattlesnake, and the 
panther. Into each of these he put samples of all the medicines, and 
taught their use. Mii'niibush lived for many years after this, and taught 
Lis uncles how to do many useful things."^ 

When this portion of the recitative chant had been completed by 
Nio'pet, there was a lull in the proceedings while the drum was passed 
on to the next mitii'"', to be used as an accompaniment to his chant; and 
after the others in succession completed their portions of the ritual, the 

' The Bpoken words are different from those as pronouuced in chanting. The chanted words, though 
not exactly archaic, are yet different from llie modern Menoniini, which may he attrihutable, perhaps, 
to their (supposed) Ojibwa ritualiatio origin. 

2 The word Mii'uabash is derived from ma-sha', "great," and wahfla', "rabbit," and signities, "Great 
Eabbit," because he was to perform groat deeds. Tlie Ojibwa etymology is almost identical — miaha'. 
and wAbua. 



drum again came to Nio'pet in turn, when lie concluded tlie story of 
Mii'uiibush, as follows: 

"WLeu Mii'uiibush had accomplished the works for which Kishii' 
Ma'nido sent him dowu to the earth, lie went far away and built his 
wigwam on the northeastern shore of a large lake, where he took up 
his abode. As he was alone, the good ma'uidos concluded to give him 
for a companion his twin brother, whom they brought to life and called 
Naq'pote [which signifies an exi)ert marksman]. He was formed like 
a human being, but, being a ma'nido, could assume the shape of a wolf, 
in which form he hunted for food. Mii'uiibush was aware of the auger 
of the bad ma'uidos who dwelt beneath the earth, the iina'niaqki'vi, 
and warned his brother, the Wolf, never to return home by crossing the 
lake, but always to go around along the shore. Once after the Wolf 
had been hunting all day long he found himself directly opjiosite his 
wigwam, and being tired, concluded to cross the lake. He had not 
gone halfway across when the ice broke, so the Wolf was seized by the 
bad ma'uidos, and destroyed. 

"Mii'niibush at once knew what had befallen his brother, and in his 
distress mourned for four days. Every time that Mii'nilbtish sighed 
the earth trembled, which caused the hills and ridges to form over 
its surface. Then the shade of Moqwai'o, the Wolf, aiipeared before 
Mil'niibush, and knowing that his brother could not be restored Mii'uii- 
bush told him to follow the path of the setting sun and become the 
chief of the shades in the Hereafter where all would meet. iNIii'niibush 
then secreted himself in a large rock near ^lackinaw. Here his uncles, 
the people, for many years visited Mii'niibiish, and always built a long 
lodge, the mitii'wiko'mik, where they sang; so when Mii'niibush did not 
wish to see them in his human form he appeared to them in the form of 
a little white rabbit, with trembling ears, just as he had first appeared 
to Noko'mis."' 

Following is the notation of the song given by the mitii"^. The pro- 
longed syllables employed were "he, he," with the lower note on '-yo, 

On the completion of the chant, Nio'pet passed the drum to the uext 
singer on his right. The subsequent portions of the ceremonies did not 
vary greatly from those of 1890. 

The ceremony of shooting the konii'pamik was completed earlj' in the 
afternoon, after which the new member tried his powers on those pres- 


ent. As the yrave of the dead was several miles away, tlie in'ocessioii 
could not cany out the u>ual routine of ceremonies usually performed 
at the place of interment, but in lieu thereof they marched around the 
structure four times, the leading mitii" carrying the drum and chanting 
a very monotonous soug of few words, repeated an indefinite nninber 
of times. 

Norics o.v THE Ckukmdxiks 

Another version of the death of the brother of Mii'niibush is giveu 
in the following Menomini niytli, whicli accounts also for the white 
crescent on the breast of tlie kingtisher, Ceryk alcijon : it is called Okii'- 
skima'ni' hiis Hii'tanukii'sit, the Story of the Kingfisher: 

"One time the Wolves saw that Ma'nabush was alone and without 
companions, so they decided to give him a Wolf, Moqwai'o, one of their 
own number, as a brother. These two, Mifuiibush and Moqwai'o, 
encamped on the eastern shore of a large lake, and while Mii'niibush 
remained near camp to attend to his duties Moqwai'o went ofl' each day 
in search of food. Mii'niibush told his brother, Moqwai'o, that when he 
returned to come back to their wigwam he should never cross the lake, 
but always come around by the shore line. 

"One day, toward night, when 3Ioqwai'o was returning, he came to 
the sliore directly opposite the wigwam, and on looking across the ice 
he realized that if he were to go by the shore it would require a long 
time to get to the wigwam, whereas if he crossed the ice he could 
accomplish the remainder in a short time. Moqwai'o thought, 'N^ow, 
why should I not cross the ice; whj^ should Mil/uiibiish not wish me to 
do it ; am I not one of the fleetest of all the runners in the world ? ' Then 
Moqwai'o decided to risk crossing the ice, and soon he was making 
long and rapid leaps over the surface. He had not gone more than 
half way before the ice began to break up, the pieces of ice separating 
so that each leap was greater than the one before, when suddenly 
Moqwai'o found that he had but one more leap to make to reach the 
shore, but upon attempting to make it he fell short of the distance, and 
was pulled beneath the water by Mi'shikine'nik, who killed him. 

"When Mo(iwai'o failed to return to the wigwam, Mii'niibush was 
much troubled and immediately began to search far and wide for his 
brother Moqwai'o. One time during this search Mii'nabush was 
walking beneath some large trees, when lie beheld, high up among the 
branches, Okii'skima'ui', the Kingfisher. Mii'niibush then asked Okii'- 
skima'ni', ' What are you doing up there?' Then Okii'skima'ni' said, 
'They have killed Moqwai'o, and in a short time they are going to 
throw out the carcass, so that as soon as I see it I am going to eat it.' 
This angered Mii'niibush, and he decided to punish Okii'skima'ni', so 
he called to him, 'Come down, and I will give you this collar to hang 
about your neck.' Okii'skima'ni' then suspected that the speaker was 
Mii'niibush, the brother of Moqwai'o, and was afraid to descend, but 
Mii'niibiish again spoke to Okii'skima'ni', 'Come down, and have no 


fear; I merely wish to place about your ueck this necklace which I 
wear, ami from which is suspended the white shell.' Then Oka'skima'ul' 
came down, hut suspecting Mii'niibush he kept a sharp watch over 
his movements. Mii'niibush placed the necklace about the neck of 
Oka'skima'ul- so that the white shell ornament was suspended over the 
breast, and while pretending to tie the ends of the cord back of the 
neck of Okii'skima'in', Ma'nabusli had made one turn and was going 
to strangle his victim when he .slipi)ed away and escaped. The white 
spot may be seen on the breast of Okii'skima'ni' even to this day." 

The sweat lodge, already mentioned, is resorted to by the tshi'saqka, 
and frequently, also, by the mitii'^, before attempting any sei-ious or 
dangerous undertaking. The structure is made by placing in the 
ground in a circular form, having a diameter of 4 or 5 feet, Some sap- 
lings li to 2 inches in thickness, then bending the tops over the middle 
of the inclosure thus formed and tying them to the poles, so 
that each jmir forms a iierfect hoop (plate xi). This dome-shape struc- 
ture is then covered with bark, canvas, or blankets, to make it as close 
and tight as possible. When the person desiring the bath enters the 
structure, an assistant is engaged near by in heating four large stones, 
each weighing from 8 to 15 pounds. While they are being prepared, 
the raitii"' within continues to chant, and as soon as the stones are suffi- 
cientljr hot they are rolled in, when the mita"'' blows upon them a spray, 
which he produces by filling his mouth from a bowl of water. Presently 
the small structure becomes filled with hot vapor, which causes his body 
to perspire profusely. When the bather emerges he sometimes plunges 
into a stream if one be near at hand. 

In the account of the customs of the savages of Canada, obtained 
from the French archives and now designated as the " Cass manu- 
scripts," dated 1723, there is a reference to the alleged abiding place of 
Ma'nabush, as follows: 

Near Mackinaw there is a rock which, from a distance, has the outline of a sitting 
rabbit, by them called " Michapaus," which they affirm to have been a Great Spirit 
or JIauitou that once presided over their ancestors, not allowing them to want for 
anything. Then they succeeded in every undertaking. Butby some misfortune, the 
Spirit hiis withdrawn into Michapaux. When they pass there, they always leave 
something to render him more favorable.' 

Alloiiez mentioned the same myth in his letter of 16G0, referring to 
the Indians of Michilimackinac. He states that " Leurs fables sur cette 
Isle sont agr^ables," and adds: 

lis disent que cette Isle est le Pays natal d'lm de leurs Dieus nomm^ Mlchal)ous, 
c'est a dire le grand Lieurc, Ovisaketchak, qui est celuy ()ui a cree la Terre, et que ce 
fut dans ces Isles qu'il inventa les rets pour prendre du jioisson, aiircs avoir consider^ 
attentivenient I'araignce dans le temps qu'elle travailloit a sa toile pour y prendre 
des mouches.- 

Suhsequent to the ceremony, Nio'pet gave an account of the experi- 
ence of some men who wanted to see Mii'niibrish and to request of him 

• Coll. Hist. Soc. Wisconsin for 1866, vol. iii., 1857, p. 145. 
■' Reliif ions des Jt-anites. 1670, p. 93. 

118 THE MENOMINI INDIANS 1etu.ann.14 

particular favors. The followiug- is a translation of the story, without 
the roi)etiti()n of words and phrases: 

"A long time after Mii'niibfish liad left his people, a party of ten 
men was made up to go in search of him. They set out and after a 
long day's Journey went into camp for the night. On the next day 
they traveled far, and at night again slept on the ground. On the 
third day they started early, but after a long journey they still failed 
to find any trace of the whereabouts of Mii'nabush. As they were 
sitting around the camp fire in the evening they heard someone drum- 
ming and singing. The sound did not appear to be very far away ; 
still they retired, as they had had a long day's walk. 

"On the following morning they still heard the sound of drumming 
and singing, so they started in the direction of it, but at night they 
appeared to be no nearer than when they started in the morning. In 
this way they went along each day until the tenth day after their 
departure from their camp, when they suddenly came to a large wig- 
wam. The ground around on the outside was bare and smooth, and 
the party went forward to the entrance and looked in, where they saw 
Mii'niibfish seated at liis drum, singing. When he saw the party he 
said, ' My uncles, come in and sit down. Tell me what it is that 
brought you so far to see me, for 1 am sure it must be something very 

"The first one to speak said to Mii'niibfish, ' Ma/nabush, I came to 
you because I want to become a great warrior.' ' Hair ;' said Mii'niibush, 
'you shall be a great warrior, as yoti desire, and you shall be engaged 
in four great battles, in which you and all of your warriors shall escape 

"Then Mii'niibush turned to the second one of the party and said, 
' My uncle, what do you wish of me, that you have come so far to seek?' 

" 'Mii'niibush,' replied the one spoken to, ' I can not get anj^ girl to 
marry me, because there is nothing attractive about me. Beside that, 
I am a poor hunter and can not get any deer ; and I also want to become 
a great warrior.' 

" ' My uncle,' said Ma'nabiish, ' your desire is granted; you shall have 
plenty of girls to admire you; you also shall become a great hunter and 
a brave and successful warrior.' 

" Then Mii'niibush looked toward the third of the visitors and said, 
'My uncle, what is it that you desire ?' 

"The man then looked at Mii'niibush and said, 'Mii'niibush, I want 
a pe'qtshiku'na (medicine bag), that I may be able to cure the sick and 
to heal wounds.' 

"Mii'niibush replied to this request, saying, 'My uncle, you shall 
have a pe'qtshiku'na, antl it shall be as you desire.' 

"The fourth of the visitors, whose turn liad now come to announce 
his request, sat with his head hanging down, and when Mii'niibush 
looked at him he could not help laughing, because he knew what the 


man wanted; but lie said, nevertheless, 'My uncle, what is it that you 
want?' The man then raised his head, looked at Mii'nabilsh and said, 
'Mii'niibush, I want to live always; give me everlasting life.' Mii'nii- 
bfish -walked over to where the man sat, picked him up and carried him 
a short distance, and while placing him firmly upon tbe ground said, 
'You shall have your wish; here you shall always remain for future 
generations to look upon.' Then the others, who had come with this 
man, saw that he had been transformed into a stone, where he could 
remain for all time, as he had desired. 

"Ma'nabush then returned to his seat, and, looking toward the next 
of his visitors to speak, who, perceiving that he could now make his 
request, said, ' Ma'nabush, I am like my friend; I want to get married, 
but no one will have me. Give me some love medicine, so that all the 
girls will like me.' 

"Ma'nabush replied, 'My uncle, your request is granted, and you 
will find plenty of girls who will want to marry you.' 

''Then the seventh of tlie visitors turned toward Ma'nabush and said, 
'Ma'niibush, I would like to be a great warrior, and to be the first of 
each war party to kill an enemy.' 

''Ma'niibush smiled, and replying to the man, said, 'You shall have 
your wish, my uncle; you shall be the first to kill an enemy.' 

"The eighth of tlie visitors then turned his face toward Mii'niibush, 
and said, ' Mii'niibush, I want to be a good hunter, so that I may always 
be able to kill plenty of game.' 

"^lii'niibush said, 'My uncle, you shall be a good and successful hun- 
ter as you wish; you shall always find plenty of game for your use.' 

"The next of the visitors now to make known his desire, said, 
'Mii'niibush, I want to get some powerful medicine to cure the sick, and 
especially to help those who are child-bearing.' 

" Mii'niibush seemed pleased that such a request should be made, and 
replied, 'My uncle, your wish is granted; you shall have the medicine 
you desire.' 

"The last of the party still remained to ask for favor, so Mii'niibush 
presently turned to him and said, 'My uncle, what is it that you want 
me to grant you"?' 'Mii'niibush,' said the man addressed, 'I want a 
pe'qtshiku'na (medicine bag) like that used by the Inii'maqkwuk' ("tlie 
birds of the air") and the Kineu'^'wOk ("the eagles"), that will give me 
power over my enemies; and I want a misse'wds ("wound medicine") 
with which I may cure arrow wounds.' 

"'My uncle,' said Mii'niibush, 'your wish is granted; here is the 

"Mii'niibush then gave the warrior a medicine bag in which were all 
kinds of medicine (charms and amulets) ; an eagle feather, which was 
the eagle medicine; a raven skin to tie about the right arm above tlie 
elbow; a skunk skin to tie about the left arm above the elbow; and 
many other medicines witli which he could arm his warriors to make 
them powerful in battle. 


"Then, when all had received a response to their wishes, they made 
preparations to depart, but Mii'niibfish said, 'JNfy uncles, you have come 
a long journey to see me, but it will not be so far for you to return to 
your village.' Then, taking a piece of buckskin, Mii'niibush held it up 
so that all could see it. It was half an arm's length in size each way, 
and Mii'niibush said, 'This represents the journey you have made;' 
then putting the buckskin against the tire it shrunk into a much smaller 
piece, when Mii'niibush again took it up and said, 'My uncles, this 
piece of buckskin now represents the journey you have before you; you 
see it is not so long.' 

"The warriors were much pleased with this, and took their departure. 
They traveled all day, but before going into camp the Ijunter hail sup- 
l)lied tlie party with plenty of venison for supper. When they en- 
camped, tliey soon made themselves comfortable, and while sitting in 
a circle smoking they saw two strange men approach, when one of 
the warriors grasped his warclub and attacked them, striking one of 
them a terrific blow on the side of the head. The club rebounded, it 
having caused the man's head only to sway a little; the warrior struck 
him a second time, with a similar result, when the man began to laugh, 
saying, 'What are you doing? you can not hurt me.' The friends of 
the warrior at once perceived that the two strangers were ana'maqki'ti 
(underground nia'nidos), and that he could not injure them, so they 
called out, 'Let them alone, you can not hurt either of them, for they 
are ma'nidos.' The warrior then desisted from his attack on the stran- 
gers and returned to the camp, whereupon the ma'nidos vanished. 

"On the following morning the warriors continued their journey 
toward home, where they arrived on the fourth day after leav^ing the 
wigwam of Mii'niibush. 

"The people of the village were glad to see the return of the party 
and to learn of their success in finding Mii'niibush, and the girls at 
once began to follow the warrior who had obtained the love medicine, 
even Lis own sister wishing to marry him. 

" One night, four days after returning from his visit to Ma'nabush, the 
warrior who had received the pe'qtshiku'na, dreamed that a war party 
of strange Indians was to pass at a certain point. In his dream he saw, 
at a distance of four days' journey, a hill beyond which was a stream 
of water, and again beyond which was another ])iece of rising ground, 
just over the crest of which he saw the trail where the war party 
was to appear. On awakening next morning, the warrior went out 
among his friends, and soon had a party of fifty men collected to join 
him. They then started in the direction shown to the warrior in his 
dream, and before the fourth day was spent they had crossed the first 
ridge and had reached the stream. 

" Then the leader of the party halted and told his companions, ' My 
friends, we have arrived at the place where we must halt and prepare 
ourselves for battle, because just beyond the crest of that ridge ahead 
of us is the trail by which the war party will pass.' Then taking out 


Lis iiG'qtsbiku'ua, lie selected the reed whistle to be used iu comniaiid- 
iug the warriors, telling the latter to select their medicine for the fight. 
One who had been with the leader to visit Mii'iiiihush, and who desired 
always to be the first to strike an enemy, selected the eagle feather; 
another took the raven skin and tied it about bis right arm just above 
the elbow ; another took the skunk skin and secured it about his left arm 
just above the elbow. So each, in turn, selected liis favorite medicine 
until all were provided. Then the leader told the two warriors who had 
the raven skin and the skunk skin medicines to go along the crest of 
the hill to watch for the war party; the remainder advanced, passed the 
crest and then awaited the return of the scouts. While the warriors 
were preparing to advance toward the trail, which was visible to the 
leader only, the scouts returned with the report that away to the right 
could be seen the approaching war ])arty. 

"Not long after the enemy was sighted the file of the strange Indians 
was observed coming on from the right, and so soon as they were oppo- 
site the waiting party the leader of the latter blew his reed whistle 
and the line advanced on a run. The warrior who had received from 
Ma'niibfish the medicine that made him a great fighter, and who 
desired always to be the first to strike the enemy, ran ahead of the 
column, as he was very fieet, struck down one of the enemy, secured 
his scalp and hastily retui-ned and placed it iu the hands of the leadei-, 
who remained on the crest of the hill to govern and direct the fight. 
The next to return to his leader with a scalp was the man who wore 
upon his right arm the raven-skin medicine. The conflict was short 
and decisive, only one or two of the enemy escaping during the fight. 
The warriors then returned to their village. 

"The people lived for some time in peace and contentment, when 
they all decided to goon a hunt; so everybody prepared to move to 
the hunting ground which had been selected by the chief. Game was 
plentiful, and during the evening the hunters and warriors would sit 
. around the camp fires smoking and talking about the success of the 

"One evening a party of young men said to one another, 'Let us go 
over to the wigwam of the old man and have him tell us some stories.' 
So they all went over to where the old man lived. He was a very old 
man, and being regarded as well versed in the tales of bygone times, 
the young men were glad to sit around him and listen to his words. 

"When the young men arrived at the wigwam the old man welcomed 
them, and bade them be seated. One of the young men was the war- 
rior who always was the first to strike an enemy, and who had received 
the fighting medicine from Ma'nabush. He went up to the right side 
of the old man and laid himself on the ground so that he could 
look up into his face. After the party had been seated and had passed 
the pipe, the spokesman said to the old man, 'Grandfather, tell us 
some stories of the olden times.' The old man sat quietly looking 
into space before him, his eyes partially closed, when he began to 


relate thiiifjs of his younger days and of tlic times of those who had 
gone before liisn. 

''Tlie young wairioi- lying on the ground tnrned toward tlie old niau 
and said, 'Old uian. l(Mid me your knife that I may ('ut some tobaeeo; 
I M'ant to take a smoke.' The old man paid no attention to this inter- 
rni)tion, but continued his Tiarrative. Presently the young warrior 
again s])ok<' to the old man, in a more peremptory manner than before, 
'Old man, lend me youi' knile that I may eutsome tobacco; 1 want to take 
a smoke.' Again the old man ajjpeared to take no notice of tlu^ inter- 
rui)tion, but continued his mirrativc rresently, the young warrior 
grasped the arm of the old man and, shaking it lather forcibly, said 
in a louder and more commanding tone than before, 'Old man, lend me 
your knife that I may cut some tobacco; I want to take a smoke.' 

"Then the old man turned toward the young warrior and rebuked 
him, saying, ' My son, what are you, that you should ask me to lend 
you my knife? Is it not the duty of every warrior always to have bis 
knife? What would you do if we weie now snrrouniled by the enemy?' 
The young warrior held his clinched tist toward the old man and 
said, * I have this, and with it could slay any man.' At that instant 
considerable commoti(tn was heard outside, and one of the hunters 
came hastily into the wigwam saying that the village was surrounded 
by the enemy. Instantly every one rushed out to secure his weapons 
and to go into the light, all excepting the old inan, who retained his 
seat, and the young warrior who had been asking for a knife. 

"The young warrior arose and looked about to see what weapons 
were at hand, but at that moment he perceived one of the enemy push- 
ing aside the door, which consisted of a curtain made of skins, and 
entering the wigwam, (ifuick as a Hash the yonng warrior threw his 
left hand against the intruder's forehead, thus forcing back liis head, 
and with his tist struck him on the throat, breaking the cartilage 
(l)omum Adami), when he fell down senseless. The victor then threw 
the body toward the old man, saying, 'Here, old man, you dispose of* 
this one.' The old man then took his knife from its sheath and thrust 
it into the enemy's heart. By this time another of the enemy had 
entered the wigwam, whom the young warrior treated in a similar man- 
ner, and throwing the boily toward the old man, told him to dispose also 
of him, whereupon the old man likewise stabbed this warrior as he had 
th(^ first. Presently another of the enemy put his head in at the door, 
whom the young warrior also gras]ied with his left hand, planting a 
terrific blow upon the throat with the left hand, laying low the victim. 
Then, graspiiig the bodj' and throwing it over to the old man, he said, 
'Here, old man, dispose of this one also,' when the old man thrust 
his knife into the enemy's heart. A fourth one of the attacking party 
now entered the door of the wigwam, and he also was grasped by the 
young warrior who struck him ni)on the throat, knocking him senseless. 
This body was likewise thrown over to the old man, who thrust his 
knife into the victim's lieart. 


"Those without, uot bearing tlie voices of tlieir companions, liesitated 
to cuter, and piefciied to talce po.ssessiou of tlie wigwam by stratagem. 
The young warrior, finding no others courageous enough to couk^ in, 
decided to go out and assume the aggressive. Talving a pole wliich he 
found iu the wigwam, he approached tlie door, but, instead of putting 
out his head to have it crushed by (hose lying in wait outside, he took 
the pole and pushed out the curtain which covered the entrance, so as to 
make it appear like a human form about to go out, when in au instant 
all of the watchers discharged their arrows into it; then, rushing mit 
before they could recover from their surprise, he began striking right 
and left, so that in the darkness no one could tell which was the 
aggressor. In the meantime the others of the encampment had driven 
back the attacking war party, so that now it required but a few moments 
for the young warrior to put to flight the small party who had sur- 
rounded the old man's wigwam. When it was learned that the enemy 
bad withdrawn, everything resumed its usual tranquility. 

"A few days later the same party of young warriors who had pre- 
viously called at the wigwam of the old man to listen to the stories 
of bygone times, again decided to go there for an evening's entertain- 
ment. All of the vi-sitors were asked to be seated, but the young 
warrior again lay down near the old man. Then the late attack became 
the subject of conversation, and one of the visitors, who sat away 
back in the wigwam, spoke, saying, 'Old man, how is it? We bear 
that the boaster at your feet killed four of the enemy with his tist; 
we want to hear about that exploit.' 'My .son,' responded the old 
man, 'it is just as yon say. He was with nie when my wigwam was 
attacked, and struck down four men with his tist and threw them to 
me, for I killed them myself by stabbing them.' 

"The young man who had asked this question felt abashed and kept 
silent. They all felt that the young warrior had greatly distinguished 
him.self, and as he had received from Ma'nabush the 'fighting medi- 
cine' (for he was one of the ten who had visited Ma'nabush), they 
feared him. 8oon they all returned to their wigwams, and a few days 
later the camp broke up and the hunters went home to their settlement. 

"The young warrior was still living with his aged parents, and pro- 
vided well for them; and it was for this reason chiefly that he had not 
yet taken a wife. 

"One of the neighbors of this old couple had three daughters, so when 
the young warrior one day returned to bis wigwam he found seated 
there a beautiful girl, who had been given to the old couple by their 
neighbor that she might look to their personal wants. The young war- 
rior was pleased with the girl and at her apparent modesty — as she 
bad not yet spoken a word — so be adopted the advice of his parents, 
by taking her to be his wife. 

"In due course of time a child was born to them, but he soon found 
that his wife received the attentions of other warriors when he was 

124 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann.14 

away from home liuiitiiig. Xow, tlie fame of theyounj; warrior became 
so well known tliat all who knew bim feared him; but one man, the 
lover of the young wife, openly said that he was not afraid of the hus- 
band, and dared him. So the lover and the young wife, awaiting an 
opportunity to run away during the young warrior's absence, left the 
wigwam and went to a high clitt', in the face of which was a small 
opening. There they secreted themselves. 

"When the young warrior returned to his wigwam he found that his 
child had cried so much at the loss of its mother that it was supposed 
to be dying. The father of the faithless wife then commanded his sec- 
ond daughter to go and care for the (;liild, while the young warrior 
started away to overtake the runaway couple. He began to make a 
circuit about tlie camp, widening the circle at each turn so that no place 
would escape his attention, and that he might find their trail. When 
he had traveled long and far, he found himself in a valley opposite a 
high cliff, <and looking up he saw his wife's red leggings projecting from 
a small cavern. He recognized these, because his wife wore red gar- 
ments entirely, even down to her leggings. He saw, also, the project- 
ing legs and feet of his false friend. Then going in the nearest possible 
direction to the stimmit of the cliff, where he could look down, he could 
scarcely understand how the couple had succeeded in gaining access 
to so inaccessible a spot, but called out, ' Wife, come up here to the top 
of the rock ; I want you.' The wife, seeing that they were discovered, 
replied, 'Husband, is that you ? I am coming up;' and with that she 
climbed up the narrow ledge to where her hiasband stood. He took 
her by the arm and led her a short distance away from the edge of the 
clifl', where he told her to remain and wait for him. Then the young 
warrior cut a forked stick, and sharpening the two prongs with his ax, 
went to the cliff and called to the lover to come up. As soon as the 
man responded by coming out of the cavern, the young warrior thrust 
down the forked stick so that one point passed on each side of his 
neck, and, giving him a hard thrust, threw the man down over the cliff, 
where his body was dashed to pieces on the rocks below. 

"Then, returning to where his wife stood, the young warrior brought 
her to the edge of the cliff, and while she shrieked with fear he grasped 
her by both arms and, raising her above his head, he cast her out over 
the cliff, where her body went flying down among the rocks beneath. 
The woman fell on her head with such violence that she was forced into 
a rounded mass. 

"Having accomplished his revenge, he returned to his wigwam and 
told the parents of the two dead ones to get the bodies and bury 
them. He said that he was determined to punish such faithlessness, 
and everybody, even the parents of the woman and her lover, said that 
the young warrior had done what was right. 

"The second daughter of the neighbor, who had been sent to the 
young warrior's wigwam to care for tlie deserted child, took such good 


care of tlie little oue that it recovered. Then, to uiake amends for the 
past, the neighbor gave to the young warrior the second daughter as a 
wife to take the \)]iwe of her faithless sister." 

Cehejioxies oe 1892 

The annual meeting of the Mitii'wit in lS9li was held in June, and was 
called for the purpose of initiating a little girl named Dii'tOwiata'mo 
("Rumbling Noise"), 8 years of age. She had been selected by her 
father, Wa'uaqkO"she (Tlie Little Apex), usually designated '-.Tohn 
Smith." The meeting was held in a smaller structure than usual, 2 
miles west of the village. The attendance numbered about GO male 
and female shamans. At the northwestern corner of the mitii'wiko'- 
mik a canvas tent was built against it so as to afford ready entrance to 
the interior, where the ceremonies were held. Plate xii represents 
a view of this structure, which differed in some respects from those 
already described. During au interval in the ceremonies, some myths 
were obtained from the otticiating priests, including Sliu'nien, Nio'pet, 
Shawaq'ka, and Ni'aqtawa'pomi. 

The following version of the encounter between IMa'nabusli and the 
Water Monster, JIa'sheiio'mak (also given as Mii'shekine'bik), was 
related by Nio'pet. It is more complete than that given by Shu'uieu, 
although that recited by the latter is claimed to be exactly as he hart 
been taught it when he was prepared for the degree of the ^Mitii'wit. 

2K'Khc)i<~)'iiiak^ the Great Fish 

"The people were much distressed about a water monster, or giant 
flsh, which frequently caught tishermen, dragging them into the lake 
and there devouring them. So Mii'niibush asked his grandmother to 
hand to him his singing stn-ks, and told her he was going to allow 
himself to be swallowed that he might be enabled to destroy the mon- 
ster. Ma'niibush then built a small raft and floated out on the lake, 
singing all the while, 'Mii'sheno'mak, come and eat me; you will feel 
good.' Then the monster, Jla'sheno'mak, saw that it was Ma'niibush, 
and told his childreu to swallow him. When oue of the young Mji'she- 
no'mak darted forward to swallow Mii'niibush, the latter said, 'I want 
Mii'shenCi'mak to swallow me.' This made the monster so angry that 
he swallowed Ma'niibush, who thereupon became unconscious. When 
he recovered, he found himself in comi)any with his brothers; he saw 
the Bear, the Deer, the Porcupine, the Eaven, the Pine-squirrel, and 
many others. He inquired of them how they came to meet with such 
misfortune, and was very sad to find that other kinsmen also were 
lying dead. 

"Then Mii'nabush prepared to sing the war song, during which it is 
customary to state the object of making the attack and the manner in 
which it is to be attempted. He told his brothers to dance with him. 

126 THE MENOMINI INDIANS |eth. an.n. 14 

aud all joiiu'd in singing. The rine-squirrel alone had a eniious voice 
and lioi)ped around rapidly, singing, ' Sek-sek s6k-sek,' which amused 
the rest, even in their distress. As the dancers iiasscd around the 
interior of the monster it made him reel, aud when .Mii'niibiish danced 
past his heart he thrust his knife toward it, which caused the monster 
to have a convulsion. Then Mii'niibush thrust his knife three times 
toward the monster's heart, after which he said, 'Mii'sheno'mak, swim 
toward my wigwam,' and immediately afterward he thrust his knife 
into the heart, which caused the monster's body to quake and roll so 
violently that everyone became unconsi-ious. How long they remained 
in this condition they knew not, but on returning to consciousness 
Mii'niibush found everything motionless and silent. He knew then 
that the monster was dead, and that his body was lying either on the 
shore or on the bottom of the lake; to make sure, he crawled over the 
bodies of his brothers to a point where he could cut an opening through 
the monster's body. When he had cut a small ojiening, he saw bright 
daylight, and immediately closed the hole, took Lis singing sticks, and 
began to sing: 

' Kf'-sik-in-na'-min, kt''-sik-in-n;V-niin.' 
' I see the sky ! I see the sky ! ' 

"As Mii'nabtish continued to sing his brothers recovered. The Squir- 
rel alone was the one who hopped around singing the words ' Sek-sek, 
sek-sek, si?k-sck, sek-sek.' When the dance was concluded, Ma'nabush 
cut a large opening in the monster's belly through which they emerged. 
As the survivors were about to sejiarate to go to their respective wig- 
wams, they all complimented the Pine-squirrel on his tine voice, and 
Ma'niibfish said to him, ' My younger brother, you also will be Lappy, 
as you have a good voice.' Thus Mii'niibfish destroyed ]\Ia'sheno'mak." 

The following myth is sometimes chanted by the mitii'wok as part of 
the ritual, especially that i:)ortion which relates to the origin aud source 
of the things needed by mankind. At no meeting of the Mitii'wit had 
it been rendered; so on my special desire Nio'iiet chanted it for my 
Instruction. This was done, however, during a short recess and when 
but a few contidential mita'wok were present. The myth is called " The 
Origin of Fire and the Canoe," of which the following words are a 

"Ma'niibfish, when he was still a youth, once said to his grandmother 
Noko'mis, 'Grandmother, it is cold here and we have no tire; let me go 
to get some.' Noko'mis endeavored to dissuade him from such a per- 
ilous undertaking, but he insisted; so he made a canoe of bark, and, 
once more assuming the form of a rabbit, started eastward across a 
large body of water, where dwelt an old man who had fire. As the 
Rabbit approached the island it was still night; so he went on shore 
and traveled along until he came in sight of the sacred wigwam of the 
old man. This old man had two daughters, who, when they emerged 
from the sacred wigwam, saw a little Kabbit, wet and cold, and care- 


fully taking it up they carried it into the sacred wigwam, where they 
set it down near the tire to warm. 

"The Rabbit was permitted to remain near the fire while the girls 
went about the sacred wigwam to attend to their duties. The Kabbit 
then liopped a little nearer the fire to endeavor to grasp a coal, but as 
he moved the earth shook and disturbed the old man, who was slumber- 
ing. The old man said, ' My daughters, what causes this disturbance?' 
The daughters said it was nothing; that they were only trying to dry 
and warm a poor little rabbit which they had found. When the two 
girls were again occupied, the llabbit grasped a stick of burning wood 
and ran with all speed toward the place where he had left his canoe, 
closely pursued by the girls and the old man. The Rabbit reached his 
canoe in safety and pushed off, hastening with all speed toward his 
grandmother's home. The velocity of the canoe caused such a current 
of air that the firebrand began to burn fiercely, so by the time he 
reached shore Noko'mis, who had been awaiting the Rabbit's return, 
saw that sparks of fire had burned his skin in various places. She 
immediately took the fire from him and then dressed his wounds, after 
which they soon healed. The Thunderers received the tire from Noko'- 
mis, and have had the care of it ever since." 

Notes on thk Cehemonies 

The preceding meeting of the Mitii'wit added little to the ritual 
obtained during the preceding years; but some information was gained 
relating to the method sometimes followed in ])reparing for a future 

When a mitii"' feels that he has been unmindful of the injunctions 
and precepts taught through the ritual of the Mitii'wit by Mii'nabush, 
he must show regret and pledge future sincerity by giving a ball game. 
A game is also sometimes given as an offering to Ki'sha/ Ma'nido 
when a member of the family is sick; this oftering being equivalent to 
giving to tlie poor. A feast is later on provided for the nu^eting of the 
Mitii'wit, and this every giver of a ball game is obliged to furnish. The 
following is a translation of remarks on this subject by Waio'skasit: 

"When anyone prepares to have a game of ball, he selects the cap- 
tains or leaders of the two sides who are to compete. Each leader then 
appoints his own player, and the ball sticks to be used are deposited at 
the ball ground on the day before the game is to occur. Then each of 
the leaders selects a powerful and influential niitii"', whose services are 
solicited for taking charge of the safety of the ball sticks, and to pre- 
vent their being cliarmed or conjured by the opposing mitii". The 
mitii"' is not expected to be present at the ground during the night, 
because he is supposed to have the power to influence the sticks at any 

"Should one mitii"" succeed in obtaining such necromantic power over 
the sticks as to carry them away from the ground — that is, to carry 



[ETH. ANN. 14 

awiiy the power of the sticks — then it is the duty of the oi)i)()siiig- niitii" 
to follow him aud bring them back. In case the pursuing mitii'"" does 
not succeed iu catching the rival, on account of being outwitted or 
because of having iusuflicient power in overcoming him, then the pur- 
suing mitii" is killed by his rival's sorcery. It usually happens that 
the pursuer compels the rival to restore the virtue or 
power of the sticks before the day approaches." 

Four innings are ])laj'ed, and usually the presents, 
consisting of pieces of cloth, are divided into four parts, 
one part being given to the victor of each inning. Some- 
times, however, The presents are renewed until the end 
of the game. 

The frames from which the presents are suspended are 
near the middle of the ground, but off toward the eastern 
side, the tobacco- tray and other accessories being placed 
on the ground between them and toward the center of 
the ball ground. The two horizontal parallel ])oles 
lorming the upper part of the framework are used for 
the calico and blankets; before them, on the ground, 
a cloth is spread, and on this are placed tobacco, pipes, 
and matches, to wliicli all the participants are at lib- 
erty to help themselves. 

The accompanying plate xiii represents the players 
during a run for the ball. The latter is made of thongs 
of buckskin tightly wrapped and covered with buckskin 
or leather, and measures about 2J inches in diameter. 
The sticks are made of hickory or ash, about 3 feet 
long, the wood being shaved thinner and bent into a 
hoop or ring at least 4 inches in diameter. Four or five 
thongs pass through holes in the hoop and cross in the 
center, forming a netted pocket in which the ball may 
rest half hidden (figure 19). 

When the ball is caught, the runner carries the stick 
almost horizontally before him, moving it rapidly from 
side to side and at the same time turning the stick so 
as to keep the ball always iu front and retained by 
the pocket. This constant swinging and twisting 
movement tends to prevent players of the opposing 
side from knocking the ball out or dislodging it by hitting the stick. 

The manner of preparing for and playing the game is like that of the 
Ojibwa of northern Minnesota, which 1 have already described, and of 
which an abstract may be presented: 

After selecting a level piece of ground, if a regular ball ground does not already 
exist, the "oals are erected about one- third of a mile apart. These consist of two 
upright poles or saplings about 20 feet high. The best players of either side 
gather at the center of the ground. The poorer players arrange themselves around 

Fig. 19— Ball stick. 


their respective goals, while the heaviest iu weight scatter across the field between 
the starting point and the goals. 

The ball is tossed into the air iu the center of the field. As soon as it descends it 
is caught with the ball stick by one of the players, when he immediately sets out at 
full speed toward the opposite goal. If too closely pursued, or if intercepted by an 
opponent, he throws the ball in the direction of one of his own side, who takes up 
the race. 

The usual method of depriving a player of the ball is to strike the handle of the 
ball stick so as to dislodge the ball; but this is frequently a difficult matter on 
account of a peculiar horizontal motion of the ball stick maintained by the runner. 
Frequently the ball carrier is disabled by being struck across the arm or leg, thus 
«:ompel]ing hi.s retirement. Severe injuries occur only when playing for high stakes 
or when ill-feeliug exists between some of the players. 

Should the ball carrier of one side reach the opposite goal, it is necessary for him 
to throw the ball so that it touches the post. This is always a difficult matter, 
because, even if the ball be well directed, one of the numerous players surrounding 
the post as guards may intercept it and throw it back into the field. In this manner 
a single inning may be continued for an hour or more. The game may come to a close 
at the end of any inning by mutual agreement of the players, that side winning the 
greater number of scores being declared the victor. 

During the intervals of rest the players apj)roach the place of the 
presents and smoke. The giver of the game also awards to the suc- 
cessful players a part of the presents, the whole quantity being divided 
into four portions, so that equal portions are distributed at each of the 

The players frequently hang to the belt the tail of a deer, an antelope, 
or some other fleet animal, or the wings of swift-flying birds, with the 
idea that through these they are endowed with Mie swiftness of the 
aniiual. There are, however, no special preparations preceding a game, 
as feasting or fasting, dancing, etc. — additional evidence that the game 
is not so highly regarded among the Ojibwa tribe. To continue the 
quotation — 

The game played by the Dakota Indians of the upper Missouri was probably 
learned from the Ojibwa, as these two tribes have been upon amicable terms for 
many years; the ball sticks are identical in construction, and the game is played in 
the same manner. Sometimes, however, the goals at either end of the ground con- 
sist of two heaps of blankets about 20 feet apart, between which the ball is 

When the Dakota play a game the village is equally divided into sides. A player 
offers as a wager some article of clothing, a robe, or a blanket, when an opponent 
lays down an object of equal value. This parcel is laid aside, and the next two 
deposit their stakes, and so on until all have concluded. The game then begins, two 
of the three innings deciding the issue. 

When the women play against the men, five of the women are matched .against one 
of the latter. A mixed game of this kind is very amusing. The fact that among 
the Dakota women are allowed to participate in the game is considered excellent 
evidence that the game is a borrowed one. Among most other tribes women are not 
even allowed to touch a ball stick. 

The Chactas, Chickasaws, and allied tribes of Indian territory frequently perform 
acts of conjuring in the ball field to invoke the assistance of their tutelary daimons. 
The games of these Indians are much more brutal than those of the northern tribes. 

14 ETII 9 


The game sticks are longer, aud madp nf liickory. ami blows are frer|iieDtly directed 
so as to disable a riinuer.' 

The game of lacrosse origiiiati'd without doubt among some one of 
the eastern Algonquian tribes, possibly in the valley of Saint Lawrence 
river, and from there was carried down among the Huron-Iroquois, and 
later on into the country of the more southern members of the Iroquoiau 
linguistic stock, as the Cherokee, etc. Westward the game was takeu 
by the various tribes of the Algon(iuuin stock, and afterward adopted 
by other tribes, until at this day there is evidence of its influence 
among many tribes of diverse stocks. The French name of the game has 
been preserved in the geography of Wisconsin, both in the Prairie de la 
Crosse and in the city of that name; and in the history of that state 
by the ball-])lay conspiracy, made use of by Pontiac for the j)urpose 
of gaining admission to the fort at Michilimackinac to massacre the 

When Mackinaw passed into the possession of the British in 17C3, 
the Menomini, who had gone to aid the French, returned to their homes 
at Green bay, with the exception, possibly, of a few who, for the purpose 
of trading, may have accompanied the French settlers in their journey 
to Mackinaw to take the oath of allegiance. Some of the Ottawa and 
OJibwa had espoused the cause of Pontiac, who was endeavoring to 
sur]irise the garrison and thus embroil the Indian tribes in diflicidties 
with the English. De Langlade, who had located near the garrison, 
aud who had been informed by his Indian allies of the plan, several 
times warned CaptMU Etheringtou, the commandant, of the plot, in 
which a game of ball was to figure, the throwing of the ball over the 
picketing being the signal to strike. Etherington doubted the truthful- 
ness of the report, believing it to be nothing but idle rumor, and 
persisted in his belief that no precautious were necessary. 

Francis Parkman - gives the following graphic account of this cele- 
brated game and its results : 

Captain Etheriugton aud Lieuteuaut Leslie stood near the gate, the former indulg- 
ing his inveterate English propensity ; for, as Henry informs us, he had promised the 
Ojibwas that he would bet oii their side ag.ainst the Sacs. Indian chiefs and war- 
riors were also among the spectators, intent appareutly on watching the game, but 
with thoughts, in fact, far otherwise employed. 

The plain in front was covered by ball players. The g.arae in which they were 
engaged, called haggattawaij by the Ojibwas, is still, as it always has been, a favorite 
with m.auy ludian tribes. At either extremity of the ground a tall jiost was planted, 
marking the stations of the rival parties. The object of each was to defend its own 
post and drive the ball to that of its adversary. Hundreds of lithe and agile figures 
were leaping and bounding upon the plain. Each was nearly naked, his loose, black 
hair flying in the wind, and each bore in his baud a bat of a form peculiar to this 
game. At one moment the whole were crowded together, a dense throng of combat- 
ants, all struggling for the b.all; at the next they were scattered again and running 
over the ground like hounds in full cry. Each iu his excitement yelled and 

' American Anthropologist, Washington, D. C, April, 1890, vol. iii, pp. 134-135. 

2 Cou8iiiriu-.v of Pontiac, Boston, 1868, vol. i, pp. 297-298. 


shoutod ;i,t the height of his voice. Rushing and striking, tripping their adversaries 
or hurling them to the ground, they pursued the animating contest amid the laugliter 
and apphmse of the spectators. Suddenly, from the midst of the multitude, the 
ball soared into the air and, descending in a wide curve, fell near the pickets of the 
fort. This was no chance stroke. It was part of a preconcerted stratagem to insure 
the surprise and destruction of the garrison. As if in pursuit of the ball, the play- 
ers turned and came rushing, a lu.addened and tumultuous throng, toward the gate. 
In a moment they had reached it. The amazed English had no time to think or act. 
The shrill cries of the ball jilayers were changed to the ferocious war-whoop. The 
warriors snatched from the squaws the hatchets, which the latter, with this design, 
had concealed beneath their blankets. Some of the Indians assailed the spectators 
without, while others rushed into the fort, and all was carnage and confusion. At 
the outset several strong hands had fastened their grip upon Etherington and Leslie 
and led them away from the scene of massacre towards the woods. Within tlie area 
of the fort the men were slaughtered without merc'y. 

Henry ' escaped and rau to the house of Langlade, secreting himself 
in the garret. Quoting Henry, Parkinan continues: 

This shelter obtained, if shelter I could hope to find it, I was naturally anxious to 
know what miglit still be passing without. Through an aperture, which afforded 
me a view of the area of the fort, I beheld, in shapes the foulest and most terrible, 
the ferocious triuujphs of barbarian conquerors. The dead were scaljied and man- 
gled; the dying were writhing and shrieking under the unsatiated knife and toma- 
hawk; and from the bodies of some, ripped open, their butchers were drinking the 
blood, scooped up in the hollow of Joined hands, and quaffed amid shouts of rage and 
victory. I was shaken not only with horror, but with fear. The sufierings which 
I witnessed I seemed on the point of experiencing. No long time elapsed befoi'e, 
every one being destroyed who could be fouud, there was a general cry of "All is 

According to Shu'nien and other prominent mitii'wok, the traditional 
origin of the ball game is as follows : 

Ma'nabiish wanted to discover and destroy those of the ana'maqki'ii 
or underground evil ma'nidos, who were instrumental in the death of 
his brother, the Wolf. He therefore instituted the ball game, and asked 
the Thunderers to come and play against the ana'maqki'ii as their 
opponents, after which the game should be the property of the Thun- 
derers. The Kine'u'', Golden-eagle, came in response to this invitation, 
and brought with him the ball. He was accompanied by all the other 
Thunderers, his brothers and younger brothers. Then the ana'maqki'ii 
began to come out of the ground, the first two to appear being the head 
chiefs in the guise of bears — one a powerful silvery white bear, the 
other having a gray coat. These were followed by their brothers and 
younger brothers. 

The place selected by Mii'niibush for a ball ground was near a large 
sand bar on a great lake not far from where Mackinaw is now located. 
Adjoining the sand bar was a large grove of trees, in the midst of 
which was a glade, smooth and covered with grass. At one end of this 
clearing was a knoll, which was taken possession of by the bear chiefs, 
from which point they could watch the progress of the game. Then the 

' riiikman, oji. cit., pp. 300-301. 

132 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann. u 

amVmaqki'ii i^laced themselves ou one side of the ball ground, while 
the Thunderers took the other, each of the latter selecting a player 
from among their opponents, as the players always go by pairs. 

After the game was started, Ma'uabilsh approached the grove of 
trees, and, while cautiously following a stream which led near to the 
knoll, he discovered an Indian painting himself. While watching the 
process, IMa'niibiish saw the Indian take clay, spread it on his hands, 
and then scratching off some with the linger nails, so that the remainder 
appeared like parallel stripes, the hands were then slapped upon the 
shoulders, the arms, and the sides of the body. Then Mii'niibush said 
to the Indian, " Who are you and what are you doing?" Tlie Indian 
replied in the Ottawa tongue, " I am Keta'kibihot', and I am dressing 
myself to play ball. Do you not see they are going to have a great 
time out there on tlie ball ground '? Come and join the game." " No," 
said Mii'nabiish, "I will not play; I will look on." (Keta'kibihot' iu 
the Menomini language is Ketii'kibihit', and signifies "the striped one." 
His modern name is Xaku'ti, the Sunfish.) 

Mii'niibush watched Nakii'ti as he went on the ball field, and saw 
that he paired himself with Una'waniuk, the Pine-squirrel of the 
Thunderers. Miin'iibush' then continued toward the knoll to see who 
were his chief enemies. When he had gone as near as possible without 
being seen, he climbed a large tree, from which he had a good view of 
the progress of the game, and on looking at the knoll he saw the two 
Bear chiefs lying there quietly, also watching the ball game. The 
game lasted all day without either side gaining any advantage, and 
■when the sun was setting the players returned to their wigwams. 

When night came Mii'niibush descended the tree iu which he had been 
sitting, approached the knoll, and stood on a spot between the places 
which had been occupied by the Bear chiefs. He then said, "I want 
to be a pine tree, cut off half way between the ground and the top, 
with two strong branches reaching over the places on which the Bear 
chiefs lie down." Being a ma'nido, he immediately became a tree. When 
the players returned next morning to resume the ball game, the Bear 
chiefs and the other ana'maqki'u said, " This tree was not standing here 
yesterday;" but the Thunderers all replied that it had been there. Then 
a discussion followed, during which the two sets of players retired to 
their respective sides, and the game was postponed for awhile. The 
Bear chiefs concluded that the tree must be Mii'niibush, and they at 
once decided to destroy him. So they sent for the Grizzly Bear to come 
to their assistance, and asked him to climb the tree, tear the bark from 
the trunk, and scratch its throat and face. When the Grizzly Bear 
had torn the bark from the trunk and bitten the branches, and had 
scratched the top of the trunk at a point where the head and neck of 
a human being should be, he gave it up and descended. The Bear 
chiefs then called up a monster Serpent, which was lying iu the brush 
close by, and asked it to bite and strangle the tree. The Serpent 


wrapped itself around the trunk aud tightened its coils until Mii'niibusli 
was almost strangled, although he was able to endure the bites which 
the Serpent inflicted on his head, neck, and arms. Before Mii'mibush 
became entirely unconscious the Serpent uncoiled and glided down. 
The Bear chiefs then believed that the tree was not Mii'mibush, so they 
lay down near the trunk and caused the game to begin. After a long 
and furious struggle the ball was carried so far from the starting point 
that the Bear chiefs were left entirelj^ alone, when in an instant Mii'na- 
bush drew an arrow from the quiver hanging at his side, shot one into 
the body of the silvery-white Bear chief, and another into the body of 
the gray Bear chief. Then Ma'niibush resumed his human form and ran 
for the sand bar. He had not proceeded far, however, when the defeated 
ana'maqki'u returned, saw what had happened, and set out in pursuit 
of Ma'nabush. The waters poured oat of the ground aud followed 
with such speed that Mii'niibush was about being overtaken, when he 
saw Ma'nakwO, the Badger, whom he begged to help secrete him in the 
earth. The Badger took Mii'niibush down into the earth, aud as he 
burrowed threw the loose dirt behind him, which retarded the waters. 

The ana'maqki'u could nowhere find Mii'nabush, so they gave up the 
pursuit, and just as the waters were sinking into the depths of the bar- 
row, Ma'niibush and the Badger returned to the surface. 

When the ana'maqki'ii returned to the ball ground, they took up their 
wounded chiefs and carried them home, erecting at a short distance 
from camp a sick lodge, in which the wounded were attended by a 
mitii'^' or shaman. Fearing that Mii'nabush might return to complete 
bis work of destroying the two Bear chiefs, the ana'maqki'u began the 
erection of a network of strands of basswood, which was to inclose 
the entire sick lodge. When Mii'nabush came near the camj) of the 
ana'maqki'ii, he met an old woman carrying a bundle of basswood bark 
upon her back aud asked her, "Grandmother, what have you on your 
backf " The old woman replied, "You are Mii'niibush, aud wish to kill 
me." "j^o," he replied, "I am not Mii'niibush, for if I were Mii'niibush 
I should have killed you at once, without asking you a question." So, 
the old woman's fears being quieted, she began to relate to Mii'niibush 
all of the troubles which had befallen the ana'maqki'ii, adding, "We 
have built a network of strands of basswood bark around the wigwam 
in which the Bear chiefs are lying sick, so that if Mii'niibush should 
come to kill them he would have to cut his way through it, which would 
cause it to shake, when the ana'maqki'ii would discover and kill him. 
We have only a little more of the network to make, when it will be 
complete." The old woman also told Jlit'niibush that she herself was 
the meta who attended to the two chiefs, and that no other x:)ersou was 
l>ermitted to enter the wigwam. 

When Mii'niibush heard all this, he struck the old woman and killed 
her, after which he removed her skiu and got into it himself, took the 
bundle of basswood bark on his back, and in this disguise passed unde- 
tected into the sick lodge. Here he found the two Bear chiefs with the 


arrowsliafts still protruding from their bodies. Mii'iiiibusli then took 
hold of the shaft of the arrow protruding from the body of the silvery- 
white Bear chief and, thrusting it deeper into the wound, killed him. 
Then he killed the gray Bear chief in the same way, after which he 
skinned both bodies, dressed the skins, and rolled them into a bundle. 
When Ma'niibush was ready to depart, he went out of the wigwam 
through the opening left by the old woman, and when he reached the 
extreme outside end of the network he shook it violently to let the 
Ana'niaqki'u know that he had been there and had accomplished the 
destruction of his chief enemies. The ana'ma(ikl'ii at once pursued 
Mii'niibush, as did also the waters, which flowed out of the earth at 
many places. Ma'niibush, fearing to be overtaken, at once ascended 
the highest mountain in view, the waters closely pursuing him. On the 
summit he found a gigantic pine tree, to the vei'y top of which he climbed. 
But the waters soon reached him, so he called out to the tree to grow 
twice its height, which it did; but soon the waters were again at his 
feet, when he again caused the tree to grow twice its original height. 
Yet in time the waters rose to where Ma'nabush was perched, and he 
again caused the tree to grow twice its original height, to which the 
waters gradually made their way. A fourth time Ma'niibush caused 
the tree to grow, and for the fourth time the water rose until it reached 
his armpits. Then Mii'nabush called to Kishii' Ma'nido for help, saying 
that as he had been sent to the earth he begged for help against the 
anger of the anamaqki'u. The Good Mystery caused the waters to sub- 
side, and then Mii'niibush looked around and saw only small animals 
struggling in the water, seeking a foothokl which was nowhere visible. 

Presently Mii'uiibush observed the Otter, so he called to him saying, 
"Otter, come to me and be my brother; dive down into the water 
and bring up some earth, that I may make a new world." The Otter 
dived down into the water, where he i-emained for a long time; but 
when he returned to the surface Ma'uabilsh saw him floating with his 
belly uppermost and knew that the Otter was dead. Then Ma'niibush 
looked around and saw the Beaver swimming iii)ou the surface of the 
water, so he said, "Beaver, come to me and be my brother; dive down 
into the water and bring up some earth, that I may make a new world." 
The Beaver dived down into the water and tried to reach the bottom. 
After a long interval Mii'niibush saw him floating upon the surface 
belly uppermost, and then knew that he too had failed to reach the bot- 
tom. Again Ma'niibush looked about to see who could accomplish the 
feat, when he observed the Mink, so he said, " Mink, come to me and be 
my brother; dive down into the water and bring up some earth, that I 
may make a new world." Then the Mink disappeared beneath the 
water, where he remained for a long time, and when he reappeared he 
was floating with his belly uppermost, and Mii'ntibiish knew that the 
Mink also had perished. 

Mii'niibush looked about once more and saw only the ^luskrat, when 
he called out and said, "Muskrat, come to me and be my brother; dive 


down into the water and bring up some earth, that I may make a new 
world." The Muslvrat immediately complied with the wish of Mii'nii- 
bnsh, and dived down into the water. He remained so long beneath the 
svirface that Ma'niibi'ish thought he could not return alive; and wlieu he 
did come to the surface it was with the belly uppermost. Then MiL'nii- 
bush took the Muskrat in his hands and found adhering to tlie fore- 
paws a minute quantity of earth. Then Mii'niibush held the Muskrat 
up, blew on him, and restored him to life; he then rubbed between his 
palms the particle of earth and scattered it broadcast, when the new 
earth was formed and trees appeared. Then Mli'nabush thanked the 
Muskrat and told him his people should always be numerous and have 
enough to eat wherever he should choose to live. 

Then Ma'uabiish found the Badger, to whom he gave the skin of the 
gray Bear chief, which he wears to this day; but he retaiued the skin 
of the silvery-white Bear chief for his own use. 

Then it became necessaiy for Miin'ilbtish to institute the ball game, 
so that his uncles could play it. He therefore called them all together, 
and when he had announced to them his intention, he named Kiue'u^, 
the Golden-eagle, the chief of the Oqpe'tawok or Flyers, as leader of one 
side, and Owa'sse, the Bear, as leader of the ana'maqki'u hawa'itokok, 
the underground beings. Kine'u" is in the west, and when he advances 
with the ball the sky darkens and the wind blows. Then Owa'sse tries 
to prevent Kine'u'' from approaching to win the game, and the wind and 
rain may for awhile be held back, but KinC'u'' always wins in the end. 
That is why the Thunderers always win the game even at this day, 
whether it be played for ])leasure or to lieli) a sick man. 

The Mitii'wok furthermore related various matters concerning the 
ball game, of which the following is a translation: 

When a young man fasts and dreams of his ma'nido, he .ilways wears 
that ma'nido in the shape of a small effigy or as an amulet. His ma'nido 
helps him to succeed in his undertakings. But if he forgets his 
ma'nido and does not make offerings to him, then he will lose his 
power, and his ma'nido will not assist him. Then the man must give a 
ball garae and offer presents to his ma'nido, and thus again receive his 
favor. The man thus giving the feast selects the leaders of the two 
sides, which consists respectively of players of the wi'dishi'auun (or 
phratry) of which the leaders are members. The leaders are persons 
conspicuous for their endurance and skill, and for the possession of 
special powers conferred by their ma'nidos. 

When one becomes sick through neglecting his ma'nido, and is unable 
to prepare a ball game, some relation or friend of his wi'dishi'auun 
assumes the responsibility of getting up the game, by which the anger 
of the sick man's ma'nido will be appeased and the sufferer again be 
taken under his protection. 

Should a man dream of the Wa'banunil'qsiwok, the Eastern people, 
he will have to prepare a ball game to avert evil or danger. The 
Wa'banunii'qsiwok are dressed in red, both the men and the women; 

136 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann.u 

therefore the phiyers coustitutiiig the side named to assist the organ- 
izer wear somethiug red about the person — a piece of red ribbon, a red 
feather, or sometliiug- else of tliat color. The ball must be colored red 
on the "eastern" half and yellow ou the "western" half in order to 
conform with these symbolic requirements. 

If a woman dreams that she sees the Wa'bauuna'qslwok, she also is 
obliged to prepare a game as an offering to appease the evil ma'nidos 
that are favorable to those people. The woman must dress in red, and 
perhaps all those on her side will do the same; perhaps they will wear 
only some red ribbons or pieces of cloth to denote their side. But in 
any game, those who are members of the wi'dishi'anun of which the 
Kinc'u^ is leader, the ana'maqki'u will always win, because the ma'nidos 
first won when Mii'niibiish instituted the game. 

When the ball game is played for amusement, or as a simple test of 
physical endurance and skill, some of the players are sometimes enabled 
to j)rocure from the mitii''' a medicine called psha'kiwis, which is made 
by boiling certain plants and roots. The decoction is then rubbed 
all over the legs up to the knees, and sometimes even to the thighs. 
The i^layers also rub charcoal or charred wood on their legs to 
strengthen them. A player who does this is considered certain to win 
in such games, because when an opponent approaches, the medicine 
will take away his strength and he may fall down. If a player, not 
prepared by having used suitable medicine, gets the ball and runs 
toward the goal, then an adversary whose legs have been rubbed with 
medicine has only to run after him and step on one of his footprints 
when the ball carrier will become weak and may be overtaken. 

The leader of a party of players generally goes to the ball ground 
just before the game begins and prays to his ma'nido for aid. Then 
he often finds success and assistance; for example, when throwing the 
ball straight up in the air, he says to his ma'nido, as it is Hying upward, 
" Take the ball toward my side ; " and as the ball turns to descend it 
goes in the direction desired. 

Cekemonies of 1893 

The last annual meeting of the Mitii'wit was held in August, 1893. 
It was called at that time in compliance with my request, the shamans 
having pi'eviously informed me that I had authority to ask for a meet- 
ing" by virtue of my previous admission. The candidate was a little 
girl, 4 years of age. She was admitted to membership for two reasons, 
as will hereafter be set forth. 

The promoter of the ceremonies was A'kwine'mi Mo'sihat, and the 
mitii'wiko'mik was erected 3 miles southwest of Keshena, amidst the 
pines and oaks of an open grove, near an Indian farm. The structure 
was smaller than usual, measuring only about 65 feet in length, with 
the usual width of 20 feet and an interior height of 7 or 7i feet. 

The chief mitii'wok of the first or leading quartette, consisted of 
Shu'nien, Nio'pet, Mo'sihat, and Ni'aqtawa'pomi, although the last 


mentioned did not, arrive in time for the beginning, his place being filled 
ad interim by another man. 

The ceremonies were in nowise different from those of the preceding 
years, with the exception that some of the chants heard during the 
afternoon of the last day consisted of but a few words, although the 
music was repeated again and again, until the monotony of the utter- 
ances and drumming became absolutely painful. This was caused by 
the desire to prolong the ceremonies so far as possible, in the hope of 
impressing some of the visiting Indians who were known to be opposed 
to the Mitii'wit, being members of the Dreamers' society, hereafter to be 
more fully described. One of the attending mita'wok was a girl but 1 
years of age, almost loaded down with elaborate beadwork, consisting of 
necklaces, medicine bags, and other ornaments. A singular fact con- 
nected with this little mita/kwe, or female mita"", was that the mother, a 
mixed blood, was a staunch church member, and yet sat outside the 
mita'wiko'mik, eagerly watching her child as the latter went through 
her part of the walks and dances. 

It has been stated that, apart from admitting into the society a 
candidate to fill a vacancy caused by death, some obtain membership 
by virtue of having been brought into the mita'wiko'mik for treatment, 
after all other means ajjpear to have failed. A sick person may not be 
able to nndergo any part of the ceremony himself, but for that purpose 
a mitii"' friend is delegated to act for the patient, the latter receiving 
the benefit of new life by proxy, as it were. The candidate or patient, 
should he recover, will subsequently be deemed a full-fledged member, 
and may, if he so desire, be regularly initiated at some future time. 

It has been mentioned in connection with the ball game that when a 
mitii"^ feels that he has neglected his duties to his ma'uido, or tutelary 
deity, his "heart feels sick;" and for the purpose of treating his lieart 
as another patient, he brings forward as a candidate for initiation some 
one whom he may wish to honor by admission into the society, as well 
as to fulfill his obligations to his ma'nido and to Ma'uiibush. In this 
wise the candidate enacts, for the giver of the ceremony, the part of a 
delegated mitfi'^, as in the case of a sick person. In this manner the 
little girl candidate produced by Mo'sihat acted for him, as he himself 
had a "sick heart," and was unable personally to go through the neces- 
sary procedure demanded by the ritual. The little girl was i^reseuted 
for initiation, first, to enact the part of a mitti'^', as Mo'sihat beJieved 
himself to be not in a proper mood or condition to do so, and second, he 
thus gave a favored relation the advantage of receiving the coveted 
honor of membership in the Mitii'wit. 


The Mitii'wit of the Menomini appears to receive less attention each 
year, the reasons being attributable to a variety of causes, chief among 
which are (1) the fact that many of the Indians are adopting the Chris- 
tian religion, as they begin to perceive the improved condition of those 

138 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann.14 

who have done so; (2) because many of the younger men are attemliug 
school, and begin to observe the futility and uselessness of the various 
dances; and (3) the old men and woitien niifii'wok are slowly dying off, 
■which makes it difficult to find candidates to fill their places. It is 
evident, therefore, that the life of the society is a question of only a 
few years more, and that the ceremonials of the Mitii'wit, as well as 
the exhibition of alleged jjowers, and the dances of the several classes 
of shamans, will ere long be a matter of tradition only. 


The greatest powers were always believed to be possessed by the 
tshi'saqka, though, on account of their greater number, the mita'wok 
have been treated first. 

The tshi'saqka, or juggler, class of shamans is limited, in the Meno- 
mini tribe, to very few individuals, probably not more than half a dozen 
professing the powers usually attributed to them. The jugglers were 
early mentioned by the Jesuits as being their greatest opponents in 
Christianizing the Indians; and as early as 1632 the Nipissing Indians 
of Canada had been designated as the nation of sorcerers. The Span- 
iards met with similar opposition when attempting to Christianize the 
Mexicans; and Father Jos(5 de Acosta's description of one class of 
their sorcerers corresponds very closely to the accounts of pretensions 
of some of the Algonquian jugglers. He says: 

There were an iiitinite number of these witches, divines, enchanters, and other 
false prophets. There remaines yet at this day of this infection, althogh they be 
secret, not daring piiblilcely to exercise their sacrileges, divelish ceremonies, and 
superstitious, but their abuses and wickednes are discovered more at hirge and 
particularly in the confessions made by the Prelates of Peru. 

There is a kinde of sorcerers amongst the Indians allowed by the Kings Vncas, 
which are, as it were, sooth-saiers, they take vpon them what forme and figure they 
please, flying farre through the aire in a short time, beholding all that was done. 
They talke with the_Divell, who auswereth them in certaine stones or other things 
which they reverence much. They serve as coniurers, to tell what hath passed in 
the farthest partes, before any newes can come. As it hath chanced since the 
Spaniardes arrived there, that in the distance of two or three hundred leagues, they 
have knowne the mutinies, battailes, rebellions, and deaths, both of tyrants, and 
those of the King's partie, and of private men, the which have beene knowne the 
same day they chanced, or the day after, a thing impossible by the course of nature. 
To worke this divination, they shut themselves into a house, and liecame drunk 
vutil tliey lost their seuces, a day after they answered to that which was demanded. 
Some affirme they vse certaine vnctions. The Indians say that the old women do 
commonly vse this office of witchcraft, and specially those of one Province, which 
they call Coaillo, and of another towiie called Manchay, and of the Province of 
Huarochiri. They likewise shew what is become of things stolne and lost. There 
are of these kindes of Sorcerers in all partes, to whom commonly doe come the 
Anaconas, and Chinas, which serve the Spaniardes, and when they have lost any 
thing of their masters, or when they desire to know the successe of things past or 
to come, as when they goe to the Spaniardes citties for their private aifaires, or for 
the publike, they demaund if their voyage shall be prosperous, if they shall be 
sicke, if they shall <lie, or return safe, if they shall obtaine that which they jiretend : 


and the witches or coniarers answer, yea, or no, having first spoken with the Divoll, 
in an obscnro place; so as these Anacouas do well heare the sonnd ot the voyce, hut 
they see not to whom tliese coniurers speake, neither do they vuderstand what they 

Jugglers were common in i)erbaps all of the Algonquiau tribes, 
and indeed we have evidence of jugglery also among the Iroquois, for 
Charlevoix^ says of the Hui'ons, whom he visited in 1635, that the jug- 
glers had informed the Indians that the religion of the French was not 
applicable to them, and that they, furthermcu-e, had a religion of their 
own. On account of this antagonism the missionary fathers Avere fre- 
quently compelled to perform their priestly offices in secret. 

The Indians of Acadia are said to have had their jugglers, termed 
autmoins, and Charlevoix^ says of them — 

A sick person often takes it into his head that his disease is owing to witchcra,ft, 
in ■which case their whole attentiou is employed in discovering it, which is the jug- 
gler's province. This person.age begins with causing himself to lie sweated, and 
after he has quite fatigued himself with shouting. Ideating himself, and invoking his 
genius, the first out-of-the-way thing that comes into his head, is that to which he 
attributes the cause of the disease. There are some who, before thej' outer the stove, 
take a draft of a composition very proper, they say, for disposing them to receive 
the divine impulse, and they pretend that the advent of the spirit is made manifest 
by a rushing wind, which suddenly rises ; or by a bellowing heard under the ground ; 
or by the agitation and shaking of the stove. Then, full of his preteuded divinity, 
and more like a person possessed ty the devil than one inspired of Heaven, he pro- 
nounces in a positive tone of voice on the state of the patient, and sometimes guesses 
tolerably just. 

The "stove" mentioned in the above quotation is the conical structure 
usually designated as the jugglery, a description of which will hereafter 
be given. "These autmoins," continues Charlevoix, "had much more' 
authority than the other jugglers, althougL they were not possessed of 
greater ability, nor were they less impostors." 

It appears from this remark that the class of shamans, known among 
the western Algonquiau tribes as the mitii'", or mide', was also repre- 
sented among the eastern Indians of that stock, although the several 
classes are usually described under the designation of juggler or 

• Baron Lahontan, who was lord -lieutenant of the French colony at 
Placentia, in Newfoundland, and who visited the Algonquiau tribes of 

lAcoata, Natural and Moral History of the Indies ; in Haklnyt Society publications, vol. (il, pjt.367- 
368, London, 1880 (from the English translation, edition of Ed. Grimstoii, 1604). 

■Hiatoire et description g^n^rale de l.a Nouvelle France, touie i, p. 295 et seq., Paris, 1744. " Ces 
Charlatans, qui craignoient de perdre la consideration, o(i les mettoit I'exercice de leur art, si lea Mis- 
sionnaires s'accreditoientdausle Pays, entrpprirent de les reudre odieux & m6pri.sables, &. ila n'eurent 
pas dans ccscommencemens beancoup de peine .^ y K-ussir; non-seulenient parcequ'ils avoient it faire 
'X une Nation escessivement supenBtitieuee & orabrageuse, niais encore [larce que plusionra s'etoient 
d^ja mis dans la teto, que la Religion des Fran90i3 ne leur convenoit point, & qu'elle leur seroit m6me 
funeste, si elle s'etablissoit parmi eux, 

"Les Jongleurs vinrent done aistment A bout de rendre suspectea toutes les d^-marches dea P6rea, 
& surtout leura Pri^res, qu'il.^ faisoient regarder comme dea mal^fices; en sorte que ces Eeligieux 
6toient obliges de se cachor pour reciter leur Office, & pour a'acquitter des autres Exercicea de devo- 

'Journal of a Voyage to North America, vol. ii, p. 177, London, 1761. 

140 THE MENOMINI INDIANS (eth.ann.h 

the northwest in the hitter part of the seventeenth century, speaks of 
the treatment of the sick by the natives, and with reference to the 
shaman says: 

A Jongleur is a sort of Phiisician, or rather a Quack, wlio being once eur'd of some 
dangerous Distemper, has the Presumption and Folly to fancy that he is immortal, 
and possessed of the Power of curing all Diseases, hy speakiug to the Good and Evil 
Spirits. Now though every Body rallies iipon these Fellows wheu they are absent, 
and looks upon 'em as Fools that have lost their Senses by some violent Distemper, 
yet they allow 'em to visit the Sick; whether it be to divert 'em with their Idle 
Stories, or to have an Ojiportuuity of seeing them rave, skip about, cry, houl, and 
make (irimaces and Wry Faces, as if they were possess'd. When all the Bustle is 
over, they demand a Feast of a Stag and some large Trouts for the Company, who 
are thus regal'd at once with Diversion and Good Cheer. 

When the Quack comes to visit the Patient, he examines him very carefully ; If 
the Evil Spirit be here, says he, we shall quickly dislodge him. This said, he withdraws 
"by himself to a little Tent made on purpose, where he dances and sings houling 
like an Owl: (which gives the Jesuits Occasion to say, That the Devil converses tvith 
'em.) After he has made an end of this Quack Jargon, he comes and rubs the Patient 
in aomep.artof his Body, and pulling some little Bones out of his Mouth, acquaints 
"the Patient, That these very Bones came out of his Body ; that he ought to pluck up a 
(jood heart, in regard thai his Dixtemper is hut a Trifle; and in fine, that in order to Uccel- 
erute the Cure, 'twill he eonrenient to send his own and his Relations Slaves to shoot Elks, 
Deer, i)''c., to the end they may all eat of that sort of Meat, upon which his Cure does abso- 
lulehj depend. 

Commonly these Quacks bring 'em some .Juices of Plants, which are a sort of 
Purges, and are called Maskikik. But the Patients choose to keep them by 'em 
rather than to drink them ; for think all Purgatives inflame the Mass of the Blood, 
and weaken the Veins and Arteries by their violent Shocks.' 

In his reference to the Indians (Ojibwa!) in the vicinity of Fort Nel- 
son, on Hudson bay, M. de Bacqiieville de hi Potherie^ remarks: 

lis reconnoisseut comme ces anciens heretiques un bon & un mauvais esprit. lis 
appellent le premier le Quichemanitou. C'est le Dieu de prosperite. C'est celni dont 
ils imaginent recevoir tons les secours de la vie, (jui preside dans tons les efl'ets 
leureux de la nature, he Malchimanitou au coutrairoest le Dieu fatal. lis I'adoreut 
plus par erainte (jue par amour. 

"Faire fumer le Soleil ue se jiratique guere que daus des occasions de grande con- 
sequence, &, pour ce qui regarde leuv culte ordinaire ils s'adressent s'l leur Manitou, 
qui est proprement leur Dieu tutelaire. Ce Manitou est quelquefois un ongle de 
castor, le bout de la corne d'un pied de Caribou, uue petite peau d'hermine. J'en vis 
nne attachee derriere le dos d'un Esquimau lorsque nous etious dans le detroit qu'il 
Tie voulut jamais me douuer, quoiqu'il me traita generalement tous les habits dont il 
<Stoit vetu, uu morceau de dents de vache marine, de nageoite de loup marin, & la 
plrtpart recoivent des Jongleurs ce Manitou qu'ils portent toujonrs avec eux. 

Le di^mon paroit s'li-tre empare de I'esprit de ces infortuuez qui voulant s^avoir 
I'evenement de qnelques affaires, s'adressent a leurs .Jongleurs, qui sont, si je peux me 
servir de ce terme, des Sorciers, La Jouglerie se fait difl'eremment. Elle se fait de 
cette maniere parmi iilupart des Sauvages qui viennent faire le traite. Le Jongleur 
fait uue eabane en roud, I'aite de perches oxtrcmement enforcees d.ans la terre, eu- 
tour<5e de peaux de Caribou ou d'autres auimaux, avec une ouverture en haut assez 
large pour passer im homme. Le Jongleur qui s'y renferme tout seul, chante, pleure, 

' New Voyag;es to North- America, vol. ii, pp. 47, 48, London, 1703. 
^Hintoire de TAm^rique Septentrionale, vol. i., p. 121 et seq., Paris, 1753. 


B'agite, 86 lourmente, fait des invocations & des imprecations, :'i pen pros comme la> 
Sibille ilont parle Virj^ile, qui poussee de I'esprit d'Apollon rcndoit scs Oracles avec 
cette mcme furenr, 

At Plitnbi nonduni patiena, immanis in antro. 

Eacchaturvates, magnum si pectoro possit, 

Excussisso Deum : tanto maj;'is illo fatigat, 

Os rabidum? fera corda domans, lingit que promendo. — Tir. 7, f7, v. 77. 

II fait an Matchimaniioit les demandes qu'il souhaite. Celnl-ci voulant donner 
r^ponse, I'ou en tend tout a coup nn bruit sonrd comme une roclie qui tombe, & toutes 
ces percbes sont agitees avec uue violence si surprenante, qui I'on croiroit que tout 
estrenversi?. Le Jongleur revoitainsH'oracle: & cette confiauce<|n'il8 ont anx veritez 
qu'il prononce sonvent, eont autant d'obstacles a tout ce que Ton pent leur reprocber 
8ur la fansse errenr oil ils sont : anssi ee dounent ils de garde, qn'aucnn Francois 
n'entre dans I'endroit oil se fait la Jonglerie. 

Henuei)in ' speaks of the religion and sorcerers of the tribes of the 
Saint Lawrence and those living about the great lakes, as follows : 

We bave been all too sadly convinced, tbat almost all the Salvages in general bave 
no notion of a God, and tbat tbey are not able to comprehend the most ordinary 
Arguments on tbat Subject ; others will have a Sjiirit that commands, say they, in the 
Air. Some among 'em look upon the Skie as a kind of Divinity ; others as an Oilton 
or Manitou, either Good or Evil. 

These People admit of some sort of Genius in all things; they all believe there is 
a Master of Life, as tbey call him, but hereof tbey made various applications; some 
of them bave a lean Kaven, which they carry always along with them, and which 
tbey say is the Master of their Life; others have an Owl, and some again a Bone, a. 
Sea-Shell, or some such thing. 

There is no Nation among 'em which has not a sort of Juglers or Conjnerers. which 
some look upon to be Wizards, but in my Opinion there is no Great reason to believe 
'era such, or to think that their Practice favours any thing of a Communication with 
the Devil. 

These Impostors cause themselves to be reverenced as Prophets which fore-tell 
Futurity. They will needs belook'd upon to have an unlimited Power. They boast 
of being able to make it Wet or Dry; to cause a Calm or a Storm; to render Land 
Fruitful or Barren ; and, in a Word, to make Hunters Fortunate or Unfortunate. 
Tbey also jjretend to Physick, and to apply Medicines, but which are such, for the 
most part as liaviug little Virtue at all in 'em, especially to Cure that Distemper 
which they pretend to. 

It is impossible to imagine, the horrible Howlings and strange Contortions that 
those .Jugglers make of their Bodies, when they are disposing themselves to Conjure, 
or raise their Enchantments. 

Carver gives a description of a Killistino. or Cree, juggler's perform- 
ance, which will further illustrate the method of procedure as followed 
by this division of the Algouquian peoples. The narrator had been 
expecting the arrival of the traders, as provisions were getting very 
low, and, while in a state of anxiety, the "chief priest" of the tribe 
said he would endeavor to obtain a conference with the Great Spirit, 
and thus ascertain when the traders would come. Carver^ says: 

I paid little attention to this declaration, supposing that it would be productive 
of some juggling trick, just sufficiently covered to deceive the ignorant Indians. 

'A continuation of the New Discovery, etc., p. 59 et seq., London, 1680. 

'Travels through the interior of North America in the years 1766, 1767, and 1768, p. 123 et seq., 
London, 1778. 


But the kiug of that tribe, telling me that this was chiefly imJertaken by the priest 
to alleviate my anxiety, and at the same time to convince me how much interest he 
had with the Great Spirit, I thought it necessary to restrain my animadversions on 
his design. , 

The following evening was fixed upon for this spiritual conference. When every- 
thing had been properly jirepared, the king came to me and led me to a capacious 
tent, the covering of which was drawn up, so as to render what was transacting 
within visible to those who stood without. We found the tent surrounded by a 
great number of the Indians, but we readily gained admission, and seated ourselves 
on skins laid on the ground for that jiurpose. 

In the centre I observed that there was a place of an oblong shape, which was 
composed of stakes stuck in the ground, with intervals between, so as to form a 
kind of chest or coffin, large enough to contain the body of a man. These were of 
, a middle .size, and placed at such a distance from each other that whatever lay 
within them was readily to be discerned. . . . In a few minutes the priest entered, 
when, an amazingly large elk's skin being spread on the ground. just at my feet, he 
laid himself down upon it, after having stripped himself of every garment except that 
which he wore close about his middle. Being now j)rostrate on his back, he lirst 
laid hold of one side of the skiu and folded it over him, and then the other, leaving 
only his head uncovered. This was no sooner ilone than two of the young men who 
stood by took about 40 yards of strong cord, made also of an elk's hide, and rolled it 
tight round his body, so that he was completely swathed within the skin. Being 
thus bound up like an Egyptian mummy, one took him by the heels and the other by 
the head and lifted him over the pales into the inclosure. I could now also discern 
him as plain as I had hitherto done, and I took care not to turn my eyes a moment 
from the object before me, that I might the more readily detect the artifice, for 
such I doubted not but that it would turn out to be. 

The priest had not lain in this situation more than a few seconds when he began 
to mutter. This he continued to do for some time, and then by degrees grew louder 
and louder till at length he spoke articulately ; however, what he uttered was in such 
a mixed jargon of the Chippeway, Ottawa w, and Killistinoe languages that I could 
understand but very little of it. Having continued in this tone for a considerable 
while, he at last exerted his voice to its utmost pitch, sometimes raving and some- 
times praying, till he had worked himself into such an agitation that he foamed 
at his mouth. 

After having remained near three-quarters of an hour in the place, and continued 
his vociferation with imabated vigor, he seemed quite exhausted, and remained 
speechless. But in an instant he sprung upon his feet, notwithstanding at the time 
he was put in, it appeared impossible for him to move either his legs or arms, and 
shaking oft' his covering, as quick as if the bands with which it had been bound were 
burned asvinder, he began to address those who stood around in a tirm and audible 
voice. "My brothers,'' said he, " the Great Spirit has deigned to hold a talk with 
his servant at my earnest request. He has not, indeed, told me when the persons we 
expect will be here, but to-morrow, soon after the sun has reached his highest point 
in the heavens, a canoe will arrive, and the people in that will inform us when the 
traders will come." Having said this, he stepped out of the inclosure, and after he 
had put on his robes, dismissed the assembly. I own I was greatly astonished at 
what I had seen, but, as I observed that every eye in the company was fixed on me 
with a view to discover my sentiments, I carefully concealed every emotion. 

The next day the sun shone bright, and long before noon all the Indians were 
gathered together on the eminence that overlooked the lake. The old kiug came to 
me and asked me whether I had so much confidence in what the priest had foretold 
as to join his people on the hill and wait for the completion of it. I told him that 
I was at a loss what opinion to form of the prediction, butthat I would readily attend 
him. On this, we walked together to the place where the others were assembled. 


Every eye was again lixeil liy turns on me and ou the lake; when, just as the sun 
had reached his zenith, agreeable to Trhai the priest had foretold, a canoe came 
round a point of land abont a league distant. The Indians no sooner beheld it than 
they sent up an universal shont, and by their looks seemed to triumph in the interest 
their priest thus evidently had with the Great Siiiril. 

In less than an hour the canoe reached the shore, when I attended the king and 
chiefs to receive those who were on board. . . . The king iuijuired of them 
whether they had seen anything of the traders! The men replied that they had 
parted from them a few days before, and that they proposed being here the sec- 
ond day from the present. They accordingly arrived at that time, greatly to our 
satisfaction. . . . 

This story I acknowledge appears to carry with it marks of great credulity in 
the relator. Hut no one is less tinctured with that weakness than myself. The cir- 
cumstances of it I own are of a very extraordinary nature; however, as I can vouch 
for their biing free from either exaggeration or misrepresentation, being myself a 
cool and dispassionate observer of them all, I thought it necessary to give them to 
the public, . . . but leaving them to draw fi-om it what conclusions they please. 

Tbibs it will be observed that tbe juggler, alter having been carefully 
wrapped aud tied, was placed witliin his tshi'saqkau or jugglery, which 
iu Carver's description is lilieued to a chest or a cofifln. The juggler, at 
this day, enters his jugglery alone and unassisted, although it is 
reported that some of the Ojibwa performers will permit themselves to 
be securely tied, placed within the jugglery, and a moment later be at 
liberty and the cords at some other locality. Further information in 
regard to this subject, as relating to the Ojibwa, has already been pre- 
sented in a paper entitled "The Mide'wiwin or Grand Medicine society 
of the Ojibwa," published iu the seventh annual report of the Bureau 
of Ethnology. 

The power of prophecy and prevision is claimed by the juggler, and 
the citation of an instance of this, from the work of Peter Jones,' may 
not be without interest. The author mentioued was a Protestant Epis- 
copal clergyman aud a member of the Misasauga tribe of the Ojibwa 
nation, of Canada. He thus remarks: 

1 have sometimes been inclined to think that, if witchcraft still exists in the world, 
it is to be found among the aborigines of America. They seem to possess a power 
which, it would apjjear, may be fairly imputed to the agency of an evil spirit. 

The conjurers not only pretend to have the powers already specified, but they pro- 
fess also to have the gift of foretelling future events. The following curious account 
on this subject I received from a respectable gentleman who had spent most of his 
life in the Indian country, and who is therefore well ac(juaiuted with their character 
and pretensiims. He is now one of the Government Indian agents in Upper Canada. 

The following account is then given by this author: 

In the year 1^!04, wintering with the Winnebagoes on the Eock river, I had occasion 
to send three of my men to another wintering house for some flour which I left 
there in the fall, on my way up the river. The distance being about one aud a half 
days' journey from where I lived, they were expected to return iu about three days. 
On the sixth day after their absence, I was about sending in quest of them, when 
some Indians, arriving from the spot, said that they had seen nothing of them. I 
could now use no means to ascertain where they were. The plains were extensive, 

' Hiat. of the Ojebway Indians, p. 147 et seq., London, [1843 ?] . 

144 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann.u 

the paths numerous, and the tracks thuy Iiail made were the next moment covered 
by the drift snow. Patience was my only resource, and at 'eugth I gave them up 
for lost. 

On the fourteenth night after their departure, as several Indians were smoking 
their pipes, and telling stories of their war parties, hunting, etc, an ohl fellow, who 
was a daily visitor, came in. My interjireter, a Canadian named Felix, pressed me, 
as he had frequently done before, to emploj' this conjurer, as he could inform me 
about the men in question. The dread of being langhed at had hitherto prevented 
my acceding to his importunities; but now, excited by curiosity, I gave the old man 
a qnarter-ponnd of tobacco and two yards of ribbon, telling him that if he gave me 
a true account of them, I would, when I ascertained the fact, give him a bottle of 
rum. . . . The old follow withdrew, and the other Indians retired to their lodges. 

A few minutes after, I heard Wahwun (an egg) begin a lamentable song, his voice 
increasing to such a degree that I really thought he would have injured himself. 
The whole forest appeared to be in agitation, as if the trees were knocking against 
each other, then all would be silent for a few seconds; again the old fellow would 
scream and yell as if he were in great distress. A chill seized me and my hair stood 
on end ; the interpreter and I stared at each other without power to express our 

The narrative states that finally everything became quiet, and the 
next morning the Indian was sent for, for an explanation. 

"I went," said he, "to smoke the pipe with your men last night, and found them 
cooking some elk meat which they got from an Ottawa Indian. On leaving this place 
they took the wrong road on the top of the hill ; they traveled hard on and did not 
know for two days that they were lost. When they discovered their situation they 
were much alarmed, and, having nothing more to eat, were afraid they would starve 
to death. They walked on without knowing which way they were going until the 
seventh day, when they were met near the Illinois river by the Ottawa before 
named, who was out hunting. He took them to his lodge, fed them well, and wanted 
to detain them some days until they had recovered their strength; but they would 
not stay. He then gave them some elk meat for tlieir journey home, and sent his son 
to put them into the right road. They will go to Lagothenes for the flour you sent 
them, and will be at home in three d.ays." I then asked him what kind of place they 
were encamped in when he was there. He said "they had made a shelter by the 
side of a large oak tree that had been torn iip by the roots, and which had fallen 
with the head towards the rising sun.'' 

All this I noted down, and from the circumstantial manner in which he related 
every particular — though he could not possibly have had any personal communica- 
tion with or from them by any other Indians — I began to hope my men were safe and 
that I should again see them. 

Suffice it to say that on the appointed day the men returned, and, 
upon being asked to give an account of their experience, they told 
exactly what the Indian had before stated, not omitting the tree or any 
other circumstance. 

In an account of the life and customs of the Indians of Cp^nada in 
1723, found in the archives of France by the Honorable Lewis Cass,* 
while minister to that country, the narrator says: 

They perform a thousand tricks of magic, pretending they can bring back dead 
animals to life, cause an otter to run across the lodge, or a bear to walk in there. 

'Cass !MS.. tr:in8l.ate<l by Charles Whittlesey, in Coll. Hist. Soc. of Wisconsin for 1856, vol. ill, pp. 
145, 146, 1857. 


They do this by means of young girls and noises that are apparently nnder ground. 
With an arrow they pretend to stab the naked body of a man. To show the blood 
flowing, they lay upon the supposed wound, very adroitly, the juice of a red root. 
The arrow has its stem so made that when i t strikes the body, instead of euterinj; it, 
it slides within itself. The pretended wound is rubbed with a salve composed of 
roots, and by this means the injured man is cured upon the spot. This is done to 
prove the virtue of their medicines. They cure gun-shot wounds in the same way, 
before the whole tribe. But, in truth, the ball is made of earth, rubbed over with 
lead, which they break in pieces in the barrel of the piece as it is driven down. 

The locality referred to appear.s to be near Mackinaw, and may refer 
either to the Ojibwa or to the Ottawa Indians. 
The Abb6 J. A. Maurault,' says regarding the subject: 

La jonglerie 6tait en grande veneration chez ces sauvages, et les jongleurs jouis- 
saient dune tres-graude lutlnence anpres d'eux. Ces pauvres gens, extremement 
superstitieux, avaient une telle confiance aux sortileges de ces imposteurs qn'ils se 
soumettaient aveuglement k toutes lenrsordonnances, les considerant comnie venant 
de I'autre monde. Les jongleurs, snivant enx, ^voquaient les Esprits du Mai, qu'ils 
appelaient " Madaddos," avaient le pouvoir de les vaincre, pr<5disaient le beau temps 
et le mauvais temps, I'heureuse ou la mauvaise fortune dans la chasse, les accidents 
qui devaient arriver dans un voyage, le r^sultat d'une expedition contre I'ennemi, et 
mille autres choses. Les sauvages avait une telle confiance aux sentences des jon- 
gleurs qu'ils n'entreprenaient jamais une chose de quelqu'importance sans les 

Chaque sauvage recevait d'eux certains objets, qui etaient appel(^s "Madaodos." 
Ces objets etaient des petites pierres, on des os, ou des morceaux de certains bois, ou 
autres choses semblables. Les sauvages conservaient ces objets dans des sacs, et les 
consid^raient comme un grand pr^^servatif contre les attaques des Esprits du Mai. 
Plusieurs conservaient un grand nombre de ces " Madaftdos." 

La jonglerie solennelle etait une chose qui inspirait de I'horreur. Elle se faisait 
dans les circonstances importantes comme a la veille d'une guerre, pour en connaltre 
d'avance le resultat. Voici comment se faisait cette jonglerie. Le jongleur s'enfer- 
mait senl dans une petite cabane, faite ordinairement d'^corces de bouleau. Alors, 
il^voquait hautement I'Esprit du Mai. II passait quelque foie plusieurs heures dans 
cette cabane il se d^battre et a crier comine un demon. Les sauvages se tenaientA. 
line certaine distance de la loge aux sortilf^ges, attendant avec une grande anxiete 
la prophi'tie favorable ou d^favorable. Lorsque le jongleur en ^tait rendu a un tel 
^tat d'<^puisement qu'il ne pouvait plus crier, il sortait de sa loge, le corps tout ruis- 
selant de sueurs, et annonvait le resultat de son sortilege. 8a parole ^tait alors revue 
comme venant du ciel. 

Les jongleurs soignaient les malades, predisaient leur gu^rison ou leur mort, 6vo- 
quaient et chassaient les "Madafidos," qui les tourmentaientet les faisaient souft'rir. 

Lorsqu'un jongleur etait appel(5 aupres d'un malade, il declarait ordinairement de 
suite qu'un "MadaSdo" voulaitfaire mourir ce malade. II sortait alors du wiguam, 
faisantmine d'aller h la recherche de cet Esprit; puis revenait bientftt, et annonvait 
qu'il ^tait cacln5 sous terre, a un endroit qu'il indiquait, mais qu'il saurait bien Ten 
arracher et le d^tuire. Voici ce qu'il faisait alors. II enfonvait profondt^meut dans 
le sol un poteau, auquel 11 attachait une longue corde, par le moyen de laquelle les 
sauvages devaient rcuuir leurs efforts pour I'arracher. Ordinairement les premiers 
ert'orts des sauvages etaient inutiles. Alors le jongleur, faisant mine d'aller menacer 
le "MadaC)do'" obstlne, remuait la terre au pied du jioteau, qui, apres plusieurs 
essais, t^tait entin arrach^. Le jongleur, tout rayonnant de joie, montrait alors aux 
sauvages (5tonu^8 des aretes de poisson, des os ou autres objets, fix^s a I'extr^mit^ 

1 Histoire des Abeuakis, Qufebec, 1860, pp. 29-32. 
14 ETH 10 


dii poteau qui sortait de terre, tlieant quo ces objets etaieut les restes <lu " Madaodo" 
qu'il veuait ile dotruire. Les sauvages, ignoraut que le jongleur avait lui-meme 
prcalablcmeut iixo ces oljjet.s au poteau, admiraient ce grand prodige. 

Si la maladie iie diuiiunait pas a la suite de ce sortilege, lejougleur auuoufait que 
le malado inourrait dans trois ou quatie jours. Alors, le pauvre malade, eSVay<; 
par eetto pr<'<li<'ti(>u, et convaiucu desoriiiais (ju'il allait niourir, refusaitde prendre 
nourriture, et mourait d'inanition, a pou pros au temjjs tix6 par le jongleur. 

Mr Hiram Calkins' mentions the performance of an OJibwa who lived 
on Wisconsin river, near the Menomini country, which apijarently 
embraced the pretensions of both the tshi'saqka and the wa'beno: 

The chief medicine man or conjurer is Mali-ca-jla-o-gung, or The Black Nail, who 
performed the feat of descending the Long Falls in his canoe, and is ri'prcsented by 
the other Indians as being a great medicine man. He is always called upon, and 
near, in cases of sickness, or in the absence of relatives, to foretell whether the sick- 
ness will prove fatal or whether the friends will return in safety, and at what time. 
He is also consulted by the Indians when they go out to hunt the bear, to foretell 
whether success will crown their efforts. Before performing these services, he is 
always paid by the Indians with such articles as they have, which generally consist 
of tobacco, steel-traps, kettles, broadcloth, calico, and a variety of other commod- 
ities. He usually performs after dark, in a wigwam just large enough to admit of 
his standing erect. Thislodge or wigwam is tightly covered with mats, so as entirely 
to exclude all light and thepryingcuriosity of all outsiders. Having no light within 
the lodge, the acts and utterances of the medicine man or conjurer are regarded as 
mysterious, and credulously received by the wondering crowd surrounding the tent. 
He first prepares himself in his family wigwam by stripping off all his clothing, 
when he emerges singing, and the Indians outside join him in the song with their 
drums, and accompany him to the lodge, which he enters alone. Upon entering, the 
lodge commences shaking violently, which is sujiposed by the Indians outside to be 
caused by the spirits. The shaking of the lodge produces a great noise by the rat- 
tling of bells and deers' hoofs fastened to the poles of the lodge at the top, and at 
the same time three voices are distinctly heard intermingled with this noise. One is 
a very heavy hoarse voice, which the Indians are made to believe is that of the Great 
Spirit; another is a very fine voice, represented to be that of a Small Spirit, while 
the third is that of the medicine man himself. He pretends that the Great Spirit 
converses in the heavy voice to the lesser spirit, unintelligibly to the conjurer, and 
the lesser spirit interprets it to him, and he communicates the intelligence to his 
brethren without. The ceremony lasts about three hours, when he comes out in a 
high state of perspiration, supposed by the superstitions Indians to be produced by 
mental excitement. 

The structure described by the Reverend Peter Jones,^ which he saw 
occupied by a juggler while the latter was engaged in consulting the 
ma'uidos, was "made by putting seven poles in the ground to the depth 
of about a cubit, in a circle of about 3 or 4 feet in diameter, and about 
6 feet high, with one or more hoops tied fast to the poles to keep them 
in a circle. The sides were covered with birch bark, but the top was 
left open. Into this the powwow had entered, and was chanting a song 
to the spirit with whom he wished to converse. The jeesuhkon began 
to shake as if filled with wind." 

The Menomini structure is about the same size as that above named, 
but not so large as the jugglery usually erected by the Ojibwa of uorth- 

' Coll, Hist. Soo. of Wisconsin lor 185t, vol, i, pp, 123, 121, 1855, » Op. cit„ p. 115. 




eni Minnesota. The Menomini tshi'saqkaii is composed of fonr upright 
poles from G to S feet high, securely planted in the ground at the east, 
south, west, and north sides of a circle measuring 3 to 4 feet in diameter. 
These poles are from 4 to 6 inches thick. Around them is wrapped 
bark, and sometimes even pieces of cloth, to make the interior invisible 
from without (figure 20). 

The tshi'saqka sometimes enters this place when he wants to consult 
the ma'nidos about the future. The latter come here and tell him what 


Fig. 20— Tahi'saqkan or jugglery. 

he wishes to know. To invoke their presence, he first enters the inclos- 
ure, then facing the east, addresses the ma'nidos who are supposed to 
abide in that direction, that they come to him; then he faces the south, 
and invokes the presence of the ma'nidos from that direction ; then he 
talks to the ma'nidos who live in the west; and finally he turns to the 
north, and appeals to the ma'nidos of that region. 

The following data are obtained from Menomini Indians who are mem- 
bers of the Mita'wit, as well as from others who have laid aside their 
aboriginal beliefs and embraced Christianity. Although the structures 
exist at the i^resent day, no prophecies have been made in this manner 

148 THE MENOMINI INDIANS (eth.ann.u 

for some years, but the iiia'iiidos have been consulted for remedies 
wherewith to combat violent symptoms of disease supposed to have 
been caused by angry or jealous rivals. 

Then the tshi'sacika lies on the ground and begins to chant, during 
which time the ma'nidos begin to arrive. Their arrival is made known 
to those outside by the air swaying the top of the structure, and the 
wind also can be felt and heard. 

The ma'nidos are next heard droi)piiig upon the ground within, and 
their voices can be distinguished. Presently the assistant, or perhaps 
the one who desires information, goes to the tshi'saqkan and taps — 
with a stick or other object — upon the four upright poles in regular 
order, beginning at the east, then passing to the south, the west, and 
the north, and asks if all the ma'nidos have arrived. The tshi'- 
saqka replies that all have arrived save one — his own personal ma'nido. 
Then the tshi'saqka sings and drums again, and presently a voice is 
heard above the tshi'saqkan, resembling the 
voice of the tshi'saqka. Their voices are simi- 
lar, and the conversation between them is heard 
by all those seated or standing near by. 

Tlie rattle employed by the juggler, both in 
the jugglery and when exorcising demons, is 
shown in figure 21. 

The MiqkJi'no — the turtle — is the most power- 
ful of all the ma'nidos, and he, as the speaker 
for the others, is consulted for information ; but 
should the tshi'saqka ask too many, or any inju- 
dicious ([uestions, the personal ma'nido will be 
I. „, T ^ .., heard above the tshi'saqkan, in the same tone of 

Fig. 21— Juggler 8 rattle. ' ' 

voice as the interrogation, advising the latter to 
be careful, or not to be incautious in his demands. 

When such a service has been performed in the interest of a sick 
person, the friends and family of the sick believe that the illness has 
been caused by the anger of an enemy through the influence of another 
tshi'saqka. The one consulted by the friends of the sick man is 
expected to reveal the name of the injuring conjurer, and to bring his 
shade into the tshi'saqkan. This is done, and the Miqka'uo is then 
the ma'nido who kicks the shade of the conjurer almost to death; if he 
is too much hurt and loses consciousness, the other ma'nidos bring his 
shade back to life, so that he is able to respond to the questions of the 
tshi'saqka, who asks him how and why he caused the illness of the 
person. The shade of the conjurer then relates how he did this wrong, 
and the i-easou therefor, and he is then told to restore him to health. 
If the conjurer promises to do this, all is well, and the patient is 
expected to recover in a short time. 

If the conjurer refuses to comply with the demands of the tshi'saqka, 
the latter asks for a cedar knife, which the assistant throws into the 


structure, when the Miqkii'iio takes it and stabs the conjurer's shade 
to death. The bloody knife is then thrown out into the crowd, but it 
falls on the ground without touching any one, no matter how large the 
crowd may be. As the knife falls near one of the friends or relations 
of the sick, the person is by this token called on to kill the conjurer. 
In a short time, perhaps after a lapse of several weeks, the conjurer is 
found in his own wigwam stabbed to death. 

When the tutelary daimon of the conjurer reveals the nature of the 
remedies used by him in having caused the illness of any one, he often 
reveals the remedy necessary to cure him; then the tshi'saqka may. 
prepare it and give it himself. People always pay the tshi'saqka in 
presents of cloth, robes, furs, or any other objects which they may pos- 
sess and which may be regarded by the tshi'saqka as a satisfactory 
return for his services. 

The method of removing disease by sucking the cause thereof 
through bone tubes has been fully described in my paper on the 
Ojibwa Mide'wiwin, before mentioned. The juggler, after taking a 
vapor bath, returns to his everyday wigwam, seats himself upon a 
blanket, and awaits the arrival of the patient, if the latter is in condi- 
tion to be brought. 

When the patient is laid down near the juggler, the latter has also 
before him a basin or bowl containing some water, and several bone 
tubes varying in length from 2 to 5 inches, and from one-third to one- 
half an inch in diameter. An assistant drums upon the tambourine 
drum, as the juggler uses the rattle with one hand, while with the other 
he grasps a tube which he places over the part of the patient's body 
affected by the presence of a demon, or by some substance put there by 
another sorcerer, juggler, or wa'beno. After chanting for a short time, 
the operator places his mouth to the tube and sucks violently; then 
assitming his former position he strikes the bone, which projects from 
his mouth, with the palm of his hand and apparently drives it downi 
his throat. Then he goes through a similar performance until the dis- 
appearance of the second, the third, and every other tube that he 
may have. After considerable contortion and retching, he pretends to 
vomit into the basin the poison which had been extracted from the 
patient, the bones also making their appearance. 

Alexander Henry, who was among the Ojibwa Indians at Mackinaw, 
and also through the surrounding country, over one hundred years ago, 

I was ouce present at a performance of this kind, in which the patient was a 
female child of about 12 years of age. Several of the elder chiefs were invited to 
the scene, and the same compliment was paid to myself on account of the medical 
Hkill for which it was pleased to give me credit. 

The physician (so to call him) seated himself on the ground, and before him, on a 
new Stroud blanket, was placed a basin of water, in which were three bones, the 
larger ones, as it appeared to me, of a swan's wing. In his hand he had his shishi- 
quoi, or rattle, with which he beat time to his medicine-song. The sick child lay 


on a blanket near the physician. She appeared to have niucli fever and a severe 
oppression of the lungs, breathing with difficulty, and betraying symptoms of the 
last stage of consumption. 

After singing for some time, the physician took one of the bones out of the basin. 
The bone was hollow, and one end being applied to the breast of the patient, he jiut 
the other into his mouth, in order to remove the disorder liy suction. Having perse- 
vered in this as long as he thought proper, he suddenly seemed to force the bone 
into his mouth and s%vn]low it. He now acted the part of one sufl'ering severe 
pain, but presently (inding relief he made a long speech, and after this returned to 
singing and to the accompaniment of his rattle. With the latter, during his song, 
he struck his head, breast, sides, and back, at the same time straining as if to vomit 
forth the bone. 

Relinquishing this attempt, he applied himself to suction a second time, and with 
the second of the three bones; and this also he soon seemed to swallow. 

Upon its disappearance he began to distort himself in the most frightful manner, 
using every gesture which could convey the idea of pain. At length he succeeded, 
or pretended to succeed, in throwing up one of the bones. This was handed about 
to the spectators and strictly examined, but nothing remarkable could be discovered. 
Upon this, he went back to his song and rattle, and after some time threw up the 
second of the two bones. In tlie groove of this the physician, upon examination, 
found and displayed to all present a small white substance resembling a piece of the 
quill of a feather. It was passed round the company, from one to the other, and 
declared by the physician to be the thing causing the disorder of his patient. 

The multitude believe that these physicians, whom the French call jongleurs, or 
jugglers, can inflict as well as remove disorders. They believe that by drawing the 
figure of any person in sand or ashes, or on clay, or by considering any object as the 
figure of a person, and then pricking it with a sharp stick or other substance, or 
doing in any other manner that which done to a living body would cause pain or 
injury, the individual represented, or supposed to be re;iresented, will suffer accord- 
ingly. On the other hand, the mischief being done, ; nother physician, of equal 
pretensions, can by suction remove it. Unfortunately, however, the operations 
which I have described were not successful iu the instance referred to, for on the day 
after they had taken place the girl died.' 

The ofl&ce of "rainmaker" is also lield by a conspicuous juggler, 
when one of sufficient ability is supposed to abide with the tribe. 
When in times of great drought the chief demands rain for the beneiit 
of the crops and disappearing streams, the juggler is commanded to 
cause the necessary rainfall; or, when too much rain has fallen, his 
powers are likewise called into re(iuisition to stay the storm. The 
rainmaker is found in various tribes in which but little evidence of the 
existence of other pretenders is met with, though reference is made by 
Father Juan Baiitista, in a work published at Mexico, as early as the 
year IfiOO,- that— 

There are magicians who call themselves teciuhtlazque, and also by the term nana- 
hualtin, who conjure the clouds when there is danger of hail, so that the crops may 
not be injured. They can also make a stick look like a serpent, a mat like a centi- 
pede, a piece of stone like a scorpion, and similar deceptions. Others of these 
nanahualtin will transform themselves to all appearances (segun la apareucia), into 
a tiger, a dog, or a weasel. Others again will take the form of an owl, a cock, or a 

'Travels and Adventures (1760-1776), pp. 119-121, New York, 1809. 

^Quoted from Brinton's Nagualism, A Study in Native American Folk-Lore and History, in Proc. 
Am. Philosoph. Soc, vol. xxxiii, p. 14, Pbiladelpliia, 1894. 


■weasel; auil when one is preparing to seize tliem, tliey will appear now as a. cock, 
now as an owl, and. again as a weasel. These call themselves nanahualtiu. 

In this connection it ma.ybo said that the powers of both the juggler 
and the wa'beno of the Algoiiquian tribes appear to be combined. It 
it is quite probable, however, that more specific distinctions might have 
been observed to exist between the two professions had more thorough 
investigation and careful discrimination been made, though this is 
always a difficult proceeding with shamans when attempted by eccle- 
siastics, the so-called agents of the Kishii' Ma'nido of a common enemy. 

THE wa'beno 

The term wa'beho has been explained by various intelligent Indians 
as signifying ''men of the dawn," " eastern men," etc. The profession 
of the wa'beno has not been thoroughly understood and little mention 
of it has been made by authors, but from personal investigation it 
has been ascertained that a wa'beno does not affiliate with others of 
his class so as to constitute a society, but indulges in his pretensions 
individually. A wa'beno is i^rimarily prompted by dreams or visions 
which may occur .during his youth, for which purpose he leaves his 
village to fast for an indefinite number of days. It is positively 
affirmed that evil ma'nidos favor his desires, and apart from his gen- 
eral routine of furnishing "hunting medicine," "love powders," etc, 
he pretends also to practice medical magic. When a hunter has been 
successful through the supposed aid of the wa'beno, he supplies the 
latter with part of the game; then, in giving a feast to his tutelary 
daimon, the wa'beno will invite a number of i'riends, but all who 
desire to come are welcome. This feast is given at night; singing and 
dancing are boisterously indulged in, and the wa'beno, to sustain his 
reputation, entertains his visitors with a further exhibition of his skill. 
Through the use of plants he is alleged to be enabled to take up and 
handle witli impunity red-hot stones and burning brands, and without 
evincing the slightest discomfort it is said that he will bathe his hands 
in boiling water, or even in boiling sirup. On account of such per- 
formances, the general impression prevails among the Indians that the 
wa'beno is a " dealer in fire," or a " fire handler." Such exhibitions 
always terminate at the approach of day. 

The wa'beno is believed to appear at times in the guise of various 
animals, in which form he may inflict injuries on an individual for 
whose destruction he has received a fee. At night he may be seen 
trying rapidly along in the shape of a ball of fire, or of a ])air of fiery 
sparks, like the eyes of some monstrous beast. 

The nabual or sorcerer of Mexico of the pi-esent day is accredited 
by the lower classes with similar powers. Orozco y Berra' says: 

The uahual is generally an old Indian with red eyes, who knows how to turn him- 
self into a dog, woolly, black, and ugly. The female which can convert herself into 

^Historia Antigua de Mexico, vol. ii, 25. (Quoted from Briutou'a Nagualiam, op. cit. p. 18.) 

152 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann.m 

a ball of lire; she has the power of llight, and at night will enter the windows and 
Buck the blood of little ehildren. These sorcerers will make little images of rags or 
of clay ; then stick into them the thorn of the maguey and place them in some secret 
place. You can be sure that the jierson against whom the conjuration is practiced 
will feel paiu in the part where the thorn is inserted. 

The number of these pretenders who are not members of the Mide'- 
wiwiu is very limited. For instance, there are at present but two or 
three at White Earth reservation and none at Leech hike. As a general 
rule, however, the wa'beno will seek entrance into the Mide'wiwiu when 
he becomes more of a specialist in the practice of medical magic, incan- 
tations, and the exorcism of malevolent ma'nidos. 

Concerning the wa'beno, Reverend Peter Jones' says: 

Witches and wizards are persons supposed to possess the agency of familiar spirits, 
from whom they receive power to iullict diseases on their enemies, prevent the good 
luck of the hunter, and the success of the warrior. They are believed to fly invis- 
ibly at pleasure from place to place ; to turn themselves into bears, wolves, foxes, 
owls, bats, and snakes. Such metamorphoses they pretend to accomplish by putting 
on the skins of these animals, at the same time crying and howling in imitation of 
the creature they wish to represent. Several of our people have informed me that 
they have seen and heard witches in the shape of these animals, especially the bear 
and the fox. They say that when a witch in the shape of a bear is being chased, all 
at once she will run round a tree or a hill, so as to be lost sight of for a time by her 
pursuers; and theu, instead of seeing a bear, they behold an old woman walking 
quietly along, or digging up roots, and looking as innocent as a lamb. The fox 
witches are known by the flame of fire which i)roceeds out of their mouths every 
time they bark. 

This belief in the transformation of the wa'beno into some animate 
form, under which disguise he may intlict injury on his victim and 
immediately thereafter resume his natural form, is still very prevalent 
among the primitive Menomini. and frequently I have had considerable 
difficulty in persuading some of the younger men to accompany me 
through a forest, after nightfall, either in going to, or returning from, 
ceremonies at which 1 was to be in attendance. 

The tricks accredited to the wa'beno are numerous, and often exceed, 
ingly romantic. The following performance is said to have occurred 
at White Earth, Minnesota, in the ijresence of a large gathering of 
Indians and mixed bloods. Two small wigwams were erected, about 
50 paces from each other, and after the wa'beno had crawled into one 
of them his disijaragers built around each of the structures a contin- 
uous heap of brush and firewood, which was then kindled. When the 
blaze was at its height all became hushed for a moment. Presently 
the wa'beno called to the crowd that he had transferred himself to the 
other wigwam, and immediately, to their jjrofound astonishment, 
crawled forth therefrom unharmed. 

Charlevoix alludes to certain magic of the Indians which be refers 
to the juggling: but as all shamans were, at the time of the descrip- 
tion, designated jugglers, and as no specific name was suggested for 

' History of the Ojebway Indians, p. 145. 



tbe wa'beiio, I am rather inclined to tlie opinion tliat, as the practice 
mentioned below was witli fire, the performers alluded to were the 
wfi'beno. The above-named writer says: 

It is pretended that all the Algonqnius and Abenaquis formerly practiced a kind 
of pyromancy, the whole mystery of which is as follows: They reduced to a very 
fine powder some charcoal, made of cedar; they disposed this powder in their own 
manner, and afterwards set fire to it, and by the form which the fire took whilst it 
ran along this powder, they pretended to discover what they wanted to know. 

The wu'beno'ak were also formerly believed to be familiar with the 
properties of plants and other substances, which, if properly combined, 
would prove eflBcacious in causing the most inditt'erent man or woman 
to fall in love with the person wearing it about his person. Such 
preparations are termed love powders, and have been fre(|uently 
alluded to by various writers, the statement of only one being here 
quoted. The Eeverend Peter Jones remarks on this preparation : 

This is a particular kind of charm which they use when they wish to obtain the 
object of their afiections. It is made of roots and red ochre. With this they paint 
their faces, believing it to possess a power so irresistible as to cause the object of 
their desire to l»ve them. But the moment this medicine is taken away, and the 
charm withdrawn, the person who before was almost frantic with love, hates with 
a perfect hatred.' 

It is doubtful whether the reverend gentleman, although himself an 
Indian, had any suspicion of the actual composition of the preparation 
of which he speaks as having been employed by the Misasauga 
Ojibwa. The Ojibwa of Minnesota are very expert in this lino of 
prei^aring so-called charm remedies — so much so, in fact, that the less- 
cultured whites are firm believers in the reputed properties of the 
substance named, while many of the more intelligent seriously ask if 
there is truth in the stories related. 

While treating of this of shamans and their alleged powers in 
the exposition of the ritual and ceremonies of the Mide'wiwin of the 
Ojibwa Indians,- 1 had occasion to explain, in the following words, the 
composition and method of preparation of some remedies wliich had 
been, until that time, unknown: 

It consists of the following ingredients: Vermilion; powdered snakeroot (Polygala 
senega, L.) ; exiguam jiarticulam sanguinis a puella effusi, quum in primis menstruis 
esset : and a piece of ginseng cut from the bifurcation of the root, and jiowdered. These 
are mixed and put into a small buckskin bag. The preparation is undertaken only 
after an ofteriug to Ki'tshi Ma'uido of tobacco and a Mide' soug with rattle accom- 

This preparation is not emjiloyed as that previously mentioned by 
Eeverend Peter Jones, nor even as that used by the Meuomini, as will 
now be explained. 

During a recent visit to one of the reservations in Minnesota, I had 
occasion to confer with a Catholic missionary regarding some of the 

' History of the O.jebw-ay Iiubans. London [1861], p. 155. 

2 Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, p. 258. 

154 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.axn.14 

peculiar medical j)ractices of tbe Indians, and the implements and other 
accessories employed in connection with their profession. He related 
the following incident as having, but a short time previously, come 
under his personal observation : 

One of the members of his church, a iforwegian, 62 years of age, and 
a widower, had for the last preceding year been considered by most of 
the residents as demented. The missionary himself had observed his 
erratic and frequently irrational conduct, and was impressed with the 
probable truth of the prevailing rumor. One morning, however, as the 
missionary was seated in his study, hewas surprised at receiving a very 
early call, and upon invitation his visitor took a seat and explained the 
object of his visit. He said that for a year he had been .so disturbed 
in his peace of mind that he now came to seek advice. He was fully 
aware of the common report respecting his conduct, but was utterly 
unable to control himself, and attributed the cause of his unfortunate 
condition to an occurrence of the year before. On waking one morn- 
ing his thoughts were unwillingly concentrated on an Indian woman 
with whom he had no personal acquaintance whatever, and, notwith- 
standing the absurdity of the impression, he was unable to cast it aside. 
After breakfast he was, by some inexplicable influence, compelled to 
call upon her, and to introduce himself, and although heex])ected to be 
able to avoid repeating the visit, he never had sufficient control over 
himself to resist lurking in the vicinity of her habitation. 

On his return home, after the first visit, he discovered lying upon 
the floor uiuler his bed a midc' sack, which contained some small par- 
cels with which he was unfamiliar, but was afterward told that one of 
them consisted of "love powder." He stated that he had grown chil- 
dren, and the idea of marrying again was out of the question, not only 
on their account but because he was now too old. The missionary rea- 
soned with him and suggested a course of procedure, the result of 
which had not lieen learned when the incident was related. 

The Menoinini love powder, termed takosa'wos, "the powder that 
causes people to love one another," is composed of vermilion and mica 
lamina;, ground very fine and put into a thimble which is carried sus- 
pended from the neck or from some part of the wearing apparel. It is 
necessary, however, to secure from the one whose aftection is desired 
a hair, a finger paring, or some small scrap of clothing, which must 
also be put into the thimble. The thimble has a small orifice at the 
top through which i)asses a cord for attaching it to the neck, while the 
bottom is securely closed by means of a block of wood, some pine resin, 
or some other substance. Figure 22 represents a charm of this char- 
acter. It is also decorated with a few hairs of some animal and a small 
hawk feather. In former times, it is affirmed, the composition of the 
powder was similar to that made by the Ojibwa of Minnesota, the most 
desirable ingredient having always to be obtained through the inter- 
mediary of some old medicine woman. 



TLe wfi'beno'ak sometimes profess the ability to furnish luediciiie to 
aid the hunter in finding and securing: game, though such pretensions 
are made equally by the tshi'sacika. To be able to furnish the desired 
information, for which a fee as well as part of the game secured are 
necessary, the wa'beno familiarizes himself with the topography and 
characteristics of a wide area, in order to ascertain the best feeding 
grounds of the various animals and their haunts at various seasons. 
He keeps himself informed 
also by careful inquiry of 
returning hunters, and thus 
becomes possessed of a body 
of valuable information re- 
specting the natural lus- 
tory of the surrounding 
country, by which means he 
can with a tolerable amount 
of certainty direct a hunter 
to the best localities for such 
varieties of game as may be 
particularly desired by him. 

It is claimed that in 
former times the wa'beno 
was much more highly re- 
garded than at present, but 
that now the number of 
these individuals has been 
reduced to two or three 
within the entire tribe, in 
consequence of whii-h grad- 
ual reduction, faith in their 
pretensions has become 
weakened, and with apparent good reason. The tshi'saqka is more 
respected, and consequently more feared, than the wa'beno, although 
the mita'wok greatly outrank in numbers these classes of shamans. 

The reason that the wa'beuo'ak in former times were admitted to 
be more powerful than the mita'wok is explained in the following 
myth, related to me by Shu'nien, and entitled "The contest between the 
mitii"" and the wa'beno": 

There was a mita'^ who considered himself the chief of all the mit- 
a'wok, and was therefore the most powerful man on earth. But the 
leader of the wa'beno'ak claimed that he himself was the more pow- 
erful of the two; so, after aa angry altercation, the mita'" challenged 
the wa'beno — morning or daylight — to meet him, in order to see which 
could destroy the other. So the two agreed to meet in the sjiring, and 
during the whole winter each was engaged in x^reparing for the coming 




.: V- 



" ■■;;■,.,: 

.... "--.i,.,- 

Fm. 22— Thiinbl«3 cliann containing^ love po\v<lyr. 


Finally, the day was set when this contest of strength and power 
should be decided, and the mita" built a long medicine wigwam, or 
mitii'wiko'mik, extending eastand-west. The mitii'^ and his friends 
were the lirst to arrive, and, entering the wigwam, the chief niita" 
marched in the eastern door and seated his companions at the northern 

The wa'beno was the last to arrive, but he was accompanied by his 
prophet, followed by the Akui'kika'' — "he who draws out arrows" — and 
following the latter came the rest of the wa'beno'ak, friends of the 
wa'beno contestant. The mitii'wok were all painted with red jiaint 
from the chin up to the top of the forehead, whereas the wa'beno'ak 
had their faces covered with red paint from the line of the nostrils 
downward to the breast. 

When the wa'beno entered the eastern door, at the head of the pro- 
cession of his friends, he held before him a wa'beno drum, tapping it 
and singing, and each time he struck it there issued tiny, magic arrows, 
which were directed toward the mitii'wok. To ward otf these fatal 
missiles the mitii'wok held out the palms of their hands. The wa'beno 
walked around the interior of the mita'wikdmik several times, going 
westward on the northern side and returning on the side opposite. 
Finally, the wa'beno'ak seated themselves, when the mitii" began to 
drum, saying to the wa'beno, "You challenged me to a contest of skill 
and power; now go to work and do your best." To this the wa'beno 
replied, "No, you challenged me; you began the trouble; now begin 
your work." The mitii'^ then arose and said to the people on the out- 
side, who were at each end of the wigwam, "My friends, go away 
from the opening of the wigwam, and stand at the sides; you might 
become the victims of evil ma'nidos by standing in the way." So the 
people hurried away from the openings at the eastern and western 
ends of the wigwam, and took places on the northern and southern 
sides, where they could watch the contest. 

The wa'beno, who took his place at the western end of the wigwam, 
placed his drum before his breast, and said to the mitii"": "Now, come 
and try your power; I shall not resist your attempts, but will show 
you that any power you may possess and direct at me will fail when it 
reaches my drum, for nothing can penetrate it." The mitii" then went 
to the eastern end of the wigwam, and grasping his medicine sack held 
it as if holding a gun when charging; then he slowly danced forward 
toward the wa'beno, with the bag directed at his breast, and sang the 
words ho', ho', ho', ho', in imitation of the sound made by the Bear 
ma'nido. He next advanced to within a short distance of the wa'beno, 
when the mita" thrust the bag forward, shooting from it his magic 
kona'pamik, consisting of a bear's claw, which crushed through the 
drum and into the wa'beno's breast, striking him senseless. 

The wa'beno lay outstretched on the ground. The prophet, the first 
of the wa'beno's companions, came forward, and, placing his finger 

BOFFMANi wa'beno incantations 157 

ou the wound, located the koua/pamik. Calliug to the second friend 
of the wa'beno, the first companion said, "Akui'kika^, come, draw out 
the magic bullet; it will kill the wa'beno if you do not hasten." Then 
the arrow drawer approached the body of the wa'beno, and, stooping 
over it, reached toward the wound. With a vigorous gesture he pulled 
out the bear's claw, whereupon the wa'beno jumped up well as before. 

The wa'beno now said to the mita'^, " You see, I made no attempt 
to destroy you, but allowed you to try to kill me. Now, take care, for 
I am going to exercise my powers." The mita"" went to the eastern 
end of the wigwam, and the wa'beno began slowly to approach him, 
drumming upon the little wa'beno drum until he got very close to the 
mita". The wa'beno had turned his drum upside down and was 
drumming upon the bottom, during which time the spirit arrows could 
be seen to fly from the drum at each stroke. Presently the wa'beno 
gave the drum a hard stroke, and a magic arrow darted forward strik- 
ing and entering the mitii'^'s forehead, when he fell to the ground 
apparently dead. 

The mitii'wok were alarmed, but the wa'beno called his chief assist- 
ant, the prophet, and said, "Place your finger on the wound that he 
may not die; I want merely to show him that I am more powerful than 
he." The prophet came and put his finger on the wound in the fore- 
head of the mita". The wa'beno then told Akui'kika^ to come and 
extract the mystery arrow. So soon as the arrow was pulled from the 
wound, the mitii"' arose, when the wa'beno said to him, "You see now 
that I am more powerful than you ; and had I so desired I could have 
left you lying here dead. 1 am more powerful, for I am the chief of 
those who receive their power from Wa'benona'sie — Mystery of the 

The mitii"' then admitted that he had been in error, saying, "I had 
always been led to think that the mitii'wok were the more powerful, 
but now I know that the wa'beno'ak are more powerful." 

The niitii" then went out to his own wigwam, gathered up all his 
goods and killed a little dog which he had prized very much, and, 
returning to the wigwam occupied by the mitii'wok and the wa'beno'ak, 
laid upon the ground before the wa'beno the goods and the carcass of 
the dog, saying, "Here are gifts for restoring me to life. I wish to 
retain your friendship, so accept them." The wa'beno received the 
gifts, and soon both the mitti'^ and the wa'beno left, each going to his 
respective wigwam. 


The fourth class of shamans are termed the Ne'moak, literally "the 
dance," commonly designated "The Dreamers." This society became 
known to the Menomini in the autumn of 1S80, through the Potawa- 
tomi of the Prairie, or those living in Indian territory and Ivansas. 

It is asserted by the Menomini that Kishii' Ma'nido became angered 
at the Indians because the old customs and ceremonials of the Mita'wit 

158 THE MENOMINI INDIANS (kth.ann.u 

became corrupted, and that, desiring to give to the Indians a purer 
ritual and religious observance, Kishil' Ma'nido gave to them the 

There are three localities in the neighborhood of Keshena wliere meet- 
ings are held for the exercises and the promulgation of the doctrines 

The accompanying illustration (figure 23) represents the form of the 
inclosure in which the meetings are held. The structure consists of a 
low fence of boards, not more than 2i feet high, around the interior of 
which are arranged other boards placed against the wall to serve as 
benches. At the eastern and western sides are spaces for entrance 
and exit. The diameter of the circle averages about 50 feet, the size 
depending on the number of members any given community may 

|4 ,^¥^-^i -^ ^Mt^ 

Fig. 23— Daucing place of the Dreamers. 

When a meeting is to be held, the chief, or okwe'niau, informs the 
four uii'nauwg'qtawok, or braves, of the fact, who then carry the intel- 
ligence to all the members. 

When entering the inclosure for a meeting, they all march in at the 
western door, pass around on the left hand, and continue until their 
proper stations are reached, when they become seated (figure 24). The 
pipe is lighted and passed four times, after which the chief of the braves 
stations himself at one side of the western door, and an appointed, 
old man at the other side, after which no one is i)ermitted to leave, 
unless by permission of the okwe'mau, or otherwise, as hereafter men- 
tioned. The os'kabai'wis, or messenger, seated to the left of the braves, 
may leave at any time, as he is obliged to keep the gathering supplied 
with food, water, or anything else that may be required. The utj'pu- 
okan'ina'niu^', or "pipe man," the attendant to the musicians, also has 
power to leave whenever necessary, but he can not extend this privilege 
to any other. 

After the four ceremonial smokes have been indulged in, no one can 
leave the inclosure, as two members guard the western entrance, unless 

HOFFMAN] dreamers' ceremony 159 

permission to depart be given by the chief of the musicians (14). Should 
the latter go out first, however, a person previously requesting permis- 
sion to leave the inclosurc may follow liim. 

When the first song is finished, the orator is called on by the four 
braves to preach. In case he should decline, he must make known his 
reason for so doing to one of the fonr braves, one of whom then delivers 
an address. If a particularly forceful address is demanded or required, 
the chief (1) himself speaks. 

If an objectionable person enters, the chief drummer carries the drum 
out at the eastern entrance. This is a signal that the meeting is dis- 
solved. After the completion of the service, all depart from the west- 
ern door . 

Fig. 24 — Diagram ol" tbe Dreamers' dancing place. 

1. Okwe'maii, chief of Ne'moak and keeper of the drum. 2. Ke'kitoina'niQ. orator or "apeaking 
man." 3. Boys who are nierabera or candidates for membership. 4. Oaki'nauwa'uokwe'maii, ■'young- 
boy-chief," leader of boys. 5. Na'nauw6'qtawok, four "braves." 6. O'skabai'wis, " messenger" to 
braves; the brave seated next to the messenger is called Missn'akan. "Wounded leg." 7. TheDrum 
society owns two sets, one (3 pieces) called okwe'maa tawaq'ikanok', *' chiefs' drums," and na'nau- 
wS'qtawok tawaq'ikan^tfi, "braves' drums" (2 pieces). 8, 9, 10. 11, nnisfcians; (No. 8 is called miau'- 
nika'mo ina'nlii', "principal singer"). 12. Okwe'maii opi'kishi'ka', one who dried tbe drum; the 
drum cover is wet, and he is supposed to dry it b.v drumming. 13. Uq'puokan' ina'nlii^, '"pipe man;" 
attendan t to singers who keeps the musicians supplied ; the assistants sit between the chief musicians, 
8-11, aud around, behind them, is a circle of women singers (l-t-17). 14, 15, 16, 17, chiefs of women 
musicians; the last (17) is called Miesu'akan, "Wounded drum leg;" also termed Mussu'akanoq 
kAtape"la, "Wounded (drum) leg," who sits by it; as the drum is supposed to rest on four legs the 
name is only an illusion. 

The keeper of the drum resided near the Dreamers' dancing inclo- 
sure, and had suspended the Inclosed drum in the northeast corner of 
the only room in the house, as shown in figure 25. 

Beneath the drum was placed a large rush mat, while behind it, near 
the corner, was a box containing the drumstick, medicine pouch — as 
the owner was also a mita'^ — aud other mysterious or sacred objects. 
Upon the mat was deposited a silk handkerchief, on the rear portion 
of which was placed the ceremonial pipe of catlinite with an ash-wood 
stem. Before the i^ipe was a saucer containing tobacco and a box with 
a quantity of matches stuck into it. The place of the drum and pipe 
was never approached unless for the purpose of making a smoke offer- 



[ETH. ANN. 14 

lumbia, delivered a lecture before the Tokyo 

ing in company with a visiting member of the society or when the 

sacred articles were removed to the dancing- arena. 

The Reverend Clay MacCauley, late of Washington, District of Co- 
Japan) conference on 
the 9th of March, 
1893,' in which he 
related his experi- 
ence of a visit to the 
Menomini Indians 
at Keshenii, Wiscon- 
sin, about twelve 
years previously, for 
the purpose of gath- 
ering information 
in connection with 
the federal census of 
1880. Mr MacCau- 
ley gives a descrip- 
tion of the meeting 
place of the Dream- 
ers, the same danc- 
ing ground as above 
described, and a 
subsequent conver- 
sation with Mat'si- 
kine'u''(Bad Eagle) 
as to the doctrine of 
the advocates. This 
Indian long since 
left the society and 
is now a convert to 
Christianity. The 

explanation generally is in accord with what the members now believe, 

though some portions bear strong suggestions of the personal feeling 

of the interpreter rather than of the opinion of the rest of the common 

members of the society. 
After relating superticially what he witnessed during a brief visit to 

the ceremonies, Mr MacCauley says : 

I have told you of the Dreamers just as I saw them. The members of the league 
•were evidently thoroughly, even fanatically, in earnest. That was clear. But what 
did they believe; what did they teach; what was their aim? I could not tell, and 
many had assured me they meant ill. The day following, I therefore sent for Metchi- 
kenl to interpret for me what I had seen. . . . Here is the interpretation of the 
Dreamers' ceremonies and statement of their doctrines, as Metchikeui gave them to 
me. . . . " If [ thought tliat our dance was a step backward, I would have noth- 
ing to do with it; neither would Niopet. . . . We are dressed in the old dress of 
our fathers, and we sing and dance; but I have been in the theater in Washington 
and have seen the white men do about the same things, with no one to blame them. 
' Published in the Japan Daily Mail of March 21, 1893. 

Fig. 25— Place of the drum. 


TUeso things are not necessary, I know, and by and by we may drop them. We do 
not take the yonng men from their work. We dance the dance only six times in the 
year. You ask me who we are. I will tell you the truth. Not many years ago, in 
the West, when some Indians were at war, while they were lighting, a woman fled 
from them to save her life. As she ran she lost her way and fell into the water of a 
river. But she did not die. .She lay ii\ the water asleep many days — eight days and 
nights. All this time she dreamed and saw wonderful sights of beauty and peace. 
At the end of eight days she heard a voice calling to her to rise up ; then some power 
lifted her out of the water and made her well and strong. She knew that the Great 
Spirit had brought her back to the world. And this the Great Spirit told her: 'Go 
at once to your people and tell them to stop their war and to become friends with 
one another and with the white man. Thej' will hear you and will believe you, and 
you and they must spread my words among all Indians. Do you see the sky, how it 
is round*' continued the divine voice. ' Go, then, and tell your people to make a 
circle on the ground just like the round sky. Call that holy ground. Go there, and 
■with a big drum in the center, sing and dance and pray to me, and speak my words. 
And when you speak, say always these things: " You are all children of one Father, 
and are brothers. Y'ou must live in peace with one another. You must not drink 
intoxicating drink. Y'ou must always speak the truth. If you are struck, you must 
count the blow as nothing and not strike back again." Do these things and all 
Indians and white men will soon be prosperous and at jieace and happy. Y'ou will 
all have one heart.' Now, that is what our dance is for. We teach these words of the 
Great Spirit. You saw a sick girl carried into our holy place. She was carried there 
that there we might pray to the Great Spirit to make her well. We have no medi- 
cine dance. We hope with our dance to break up by and by the old medicine dance, 
and all such thiugs. So we teach. You saw the flag above us. That is to show that 
we are friends of the Great Father. Y'ou saw some men dancing and acting as though 
they were firing off guns, hunting, and running hard. They show that some of us 
helped the Great Father in the big war, and are ready to helji him again, . . . 
We lifted our hands to the sky ; that was for prayer. We held out our hands, palms 
upward ; that was to receive the answers to our prayers. We scattered from our 
hands to the ground; that was to show that we give what we receive. You saw us 
all give presents to one another; that was to show that we are brothers, and that 
brothers must help brothers. . . . But that ground is holy while we are there 
with the Great Spirit, and the dog is not clean. He may not live if he comes onto 
the ground. We have three watchmen to keep all away, but sometimes they will 
get in, and then there is no help for them. If our friend could only have understood 
our speeches he would know that we are trying to do well. We do not take the 
young men from their work. We try to help them to work better. If I had a flag 
of my own I shoirld want to have painted on it a picture of a plow and over that 
my totem, the eagle. This flag I should like to see always waving over our dance. 
I want all my children to go to school to learn just what white men know. . . . 
We are doing the best we can. I am sorry that there are some here who wish to do 
UB harm and would make trouble for us if they could." 

. . My general conclusion, however, is that the Dreamers, if the Menomiui 
branch of the league may be ai-cepted as representative, are religious enthusiasts, 
somewhat fanatic in their enthusiasm, devoted to a strange admixture of pagan 
ritual, monolatory, or degenerate Christian theology and Christian ethics. 



The following myths were obtained from Shu'nien and Nio'pet, two of 
the better informed men of the tribe. The subjects pertain to the 
exploits and adventures of Mii'niibush, but do not come within the 
14 ETH 11 

162 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann.u 

scope of the ritual of the Mitii'wit, although some of the older iiiitii'wok 
believe that at some time iu the past they were part of the iiistruetiou 
given to the candidate. There appears to have been a time, according 
to both the OJibwa and Meuoiuini Indians, when Mii'niibush b<'caine 
degraded on account of his foolish actions. In the Ottawa dialect 
Mii'niibush signifies a "foolish fellow," because of the ridiculous per- 
formances of this demigod previous to his final departure from the 
Indian country.' 

Some of these myths will be recoguizedas having, at some time in the 
past, formed part of the cosmogonic ritual of the Menomini, but when 
and how they became separated and so altered as to have lost their 
reverential character it is impossible even to surmise. 


When Mii'niibush had completed the erection of the mitii'wiko'mik, 
and had made the presentation to his uncles of the mysteries of the 
Mitii'wit, he decided to go on a journey to visit his brothers (some of 
the mitii'wok who had been so (constituted by him), because there were 
many evil ma'nidos, the ana'maqki'u, who were constantly endeavoring 
to destroy them. 

The following is a translation of the myth given by Shu'nien: 

One time after a long journey Mii'niibush thought he heard some 
singing, and thinking there were some people having a dance, he went 
forward and soon beheld a multitude of dancers, greatly interested in 
their ceremony. He saw the headfeatiiers moving about in every direc- 
tion, but as it was late iu the evening he could not distinguish those 
about him. lieceiving no friendly greeting from anyone, he said, "My 
brothers, I have come to join you in the dance,"' but he had scarcely 
uttered these words when he heard some one derisively laughing at him. 
The same voice then spoke, " We have fooled Mii'niibush," whereupon 
he knew that some of the ana'maiiki'fi were the authors of the decep- 
tion and that he had mistaken the tall reeds with feathery plumes for 
well-clad warriors with eagle-feather headdresses. 

When Mii'niibush looked about and saw how he had been deceived, 
he was very angry; so he said to the auii'maqki'u, "That is all well for 
you, but I shall remember this occurrence." He left the place and 
continued to walk for a long time, when he again heard the sounds 
of music and dancing. Approaching near enough to see that he was 
not deceived a second time, he observed a large number of birds, of 
many kinds, dancing round in a circle. Mii'nabiish said to them, "My 
brothers, I have brought some songs with nie, and will sing for you 
while you dance, but you must all keep your eyes closed as you dance, 
for otherwise it will not be so enjoyable." The birds began to dance, 
and as one would come within easy reach of Mii'nabiish he would 

'According to verbal information received from Mr A. J. Blackbird, an educated Ottawa chief and 
interpreter of Michigan. 

HOFFMAN) ma'nabush and the duck 163 

grasp it by the neck, so as to prevent its crying out, and twist ofi' its 
head. In this way he secured four birds; but one, not hearing the 
voices of his friends, opened liis eyes, notwithstanding the advice of 
Ma'nabush, and beheld the bodies of four of the dancers lying on the 
ground at the feet of Ma'nabush. When the bird saw this, he iiew up 
and cried out, "My brothers, Ma'nabush is killing our friends; fly, or 
we shall all be destroyed!" This bird was a Duck, and his wings made 
a great noise as he rose into the air, which instantly startled the rest, 
so that they escaped. Ma'nabush called to the Duck, and said, "For 
your disobedience you shall always have red eyes." And to this day 
the rings around the eyes of this bird are red. 

After the long journey which Mii'niibush had made, and the exertion 
which he had undergone while singing for the dancers, he had become 
very hungry; so he immediately gathered together enough wood to 
make a large fire to cook his birds. He buried the bodies in a sandy 
spot on the bank of the stream near by, leaving the legs exposed so 
that he could find the birds when baked. Over these he built the fire, 
and to rest himself he laid down near the fire, placing his buttocks 
toward it. He said to his own buttocks, "You must not go to sleep 
while I do so, but must watch that no one comes to rob me of my feast." 
Then Mii'nabiish fell asleep, confident that, when he had rested, he 
would awaken to find the birds ready to eat. 

Now, it chanced that two Winnebago, who had been out hunting, 
came by the place where Ma'niibfish was sleeping, and, seeing smoke, 
approached, under cover of the bushes, to see what caused the fire. 
They soon beheld some one asleep near by, and, going still closer, saw 
that it was Ma'nabhsh jireparing a feast. Then one of the Winne- 
bago said to the other, "It is Ma'nabush, and he has prepared a 
feast; let iis go and eat it while he is asleep." The other agreed, so, 
going to the fire and beholding the feet of the birds protruding from the 
sand, they pulled them out. The birds were eaten, and when the Win- 
nebago were ready to leave, they placed the legs back into the ground, 
in order to make it appear that they had not been disturbed. 

After a long sleep Ma'niibfish awoke, and thinking the birds had by 
this time become cooked, he ijulled up the first pair of legs, but found 
nothing attached to them. Not knowing what to make of this, unless 
the bird had become overcooked, he dug into the sand, but the body liad 
gone. Then he pulled out the second pair of legs, but, finding that the 
body to which they belonged had also disappeared, he became very 
much alarmed. He pulled out the third pair of legs with the same result 
as before, so he hurried to the fourth i)air, only to discover that all his 
birds had been devoured by some one. Then Mii'niibush threw up his 
hands in distress and cried, " Ah ! I have been robbed of my feast; who 
could have done this"?" Looking about in every direction he failed to 
learn anything of the thieves who had plundered him during his sleep. 
Then Mii'niibush slapped his buttocks and asked, " Who robbed me of 


my feast ? Did I not tell you to watch while I slept ? Some one lias rob- 
bed me of my birds and I am now unable to appease my hunger," Then, 
to punish his buttocks for their carelessness, he sat down against the 
fiie to scorch them; but finding that the heat reached his legs and 
back, he went away from the fire, though not before burning himself so 
severely that he had to travel by means of two sticks. He limped along 
as well as he could from the place where he had slept, and after awhile 
saw a Mink crossing the path which he was following. The Mink 
had a long tail, to which were attached niaiiy small bells of shell which 
jingled at every step. Mil'nabush said to the Mink, ■' My brother, you 
have a long tail with many ornaments on it; would you object to tell- 
ing me where you got those beautiful shells, and if I might get .some!" "No, Ma'niibfish," said the Mink, "I do not object to tell- 
ing you where I got my bells, and I will show you how you may obtain 
some. I cut these from my body, from the back of my buttocks." 

Ma'niibush then asked the Mink to take a knife and cut some from 
his body that he also might ornament a tail and hang it to his back. 
The Mink, in compliance with the request of Mii'niibush, cut away a 
number of slices of flesh from his buttocks and, handing the pieces to 
Mit'niibusli, the latter tied them to a tail of buckskin and fastened them 
to his back; but every time ^Ma'uabiish attempted to walk it hurt him, 
because the exertion caused the cut flesh to move. Ma'nabush went 
along slowly for a short distance, when, hapi)ening to look back at his 
trailing tail, he saw that the Mink had cut away so much flesh that 
his entrails were dragging along the ground. Gathering his entrails 
together, he threw them up into the air so that they fell upon a tree; 
then he said, "Now, you remain there and become food for the people." 
The vines are still found clinging to the trees, and people even now cut 
them in pieces and boil them to eat, for they are very good. 

The rough skin which had been caused by the scorching of Man'a- 
biish's buttocks gave him much inconvenience. He went forward until 
he reached a rocky hilltop, where he crawled and slid around among 
the rocks in order to slip the roughened cuticle from his body, just as a 
snake casts its skin. Then he said to the old skin, "There, you remain 
here and become' food for the people." Pieces of the skin of Mii'nii- 
bttsh are found hanging to the rocks even to this day. 

Mii'niibush, resuming his journey, came to a river, down the bank of 
which he went to get a drink. While stooping over he saw fruit in the 
water, and being very fond of it, for it was wild cherries, he dived into 
the water, but it being shallow he struck the bottom, hurting himself 
very much. Disai^pointed and bruised, he went to the top of the bank, 
where he laid down upon his back. While in this position he looked 
toward the sky and saw among the branches of the trees the wild cher- 
ries which he had before thought were down in the water. So soon as 
he had rested from his journey and his body became less painful, he 
crawled up into the tree and ate all the cherries he desired. 

HOFFMAN! iMa'nABUSH and the BUZZARD 165 

Ma'nabush continued his journey. Looking about bim be perceived 
Pii'skose — tbe Buzzard — Hying liigli in tbe air. Tlien said Ma'nabusb to 
hinisell', "If I could only tiy like Pii'skose, bow I sbould enjoy lookiug 
down to behold tbe earth." While thus meditating be moved his arms 
as if flying, and Pii'skose, seeing him, soared down. Mii'uiibusb then 
said to Pii'skose, "1 should like to be able to fly as you do; to soar 
away through tbe sky and look down upon the earth to see what every- 
body is doing there.'' 

Pii'skose laughed and replied, "You can not fly, Mii'nabush, even 
by moving your arms like that. What wouhl you do if you could tiy ?" 

Mii'uiibfish responded, saying, "I would theii transport myself much 
quicker than I do in the way I am obliged to travel. Take me up, my 
brother, and let me see bow the earth appears fiom up in the sky." 

Pii'skose then told Mii'niibush to get upon his back, which he did, 
and, securely holding on to Pa'skose, the latter tiew far into the air. 
He flew to the top of a very high mountain ])eak with precipitous 
sides, where Mii'niibush alighted to look about. Then Pii'skose flew 
away, leaving Mii'niibush in a very dangerous place. Mii'niibush 
looked for some way to descend from the peak, but, landing none, he 
decided to leap down; so, taking a jumji forward to clear the rock, he 
descended toward the earth like an arrow. 

It happened that Mii'niibush reached the earth near a camp of his 
people, but fell into a hollow ti-ee, from which be was unable to extri- 
cate himself. Here he was held a j)risoner for four days, when some 
women, coming from the camp in search of wood, found the large 
dead tree in which Mii'niibush happened to be a prisoner. One of the 
women, on seeing the tree, said, "Here is some dry timber; let us 
cut it down." Then Mii'niibush, hearing that helj) was at hand, and 
desiring to avoid alarming the women by speaking to them, imitated a 
porcui)ine by crying, yii he', yii he', yii he', yii he! The women, think- 
ing they had disc-overed a porcupine, immediately set to work to fell 
the tree; but as Mii'niibush, after the tree had fallen, was afraid they 
might ci;t into it again and wound him, he said to the one with the 
ax, "Cut a small opening into the trunk, and let me show you how 
many beautiful colored quills I shall give you." The woman did so, 
being careful not to cut too large an opening; then Mii'niibush again 
spoke to the woman and told her to take oft' her skirt and cover the 
opening in the tree until he could put out the quills where she could 
get them. She took oft' her skirt and placed it over the opening, when 
Mii'niibush hastily crawled out and ran away laughing. 

Mii'niibush was glad to escape from these women, so he hurried away 
to\>ard the north where eight other women lived. The first was called 
Mii'tsbiwiqkwa'wis ("she who governs"); the second Ki'skapauuq'kiu 
("early dawn"); the third Pa'shapanoq'kiu ("the yellow streak of 
cloudy vapor of the dawn"); the fourth Kashki'qkapan ("the dark 
haze at the horizon"); and the eighth was called Osa'wapano'qkiu^ 


("the green tint seen at early dawn"). They were sisters, but Ma'tshi- 
wiqkwa'wis and Pa'shapano(i'kiu were women of evil disposition, while 
Ki'.skiiaiiuq'liiu and Ivashki'qkai)an were well disposed and friendly 
to everybody. Osa'waiiano'qkui'' was the wife of Pii'skine'u'. 

Mii'niibush reached a wigwam oecupied bj- a woman, who was the 
sister of Pii'skine'u', and, as he was very hungry, he asked her to give 
him something to eat. She prepared him food, and, being welcomed 
by the woman, Mii'nabush decided to remain there for some time. 

rii'skinC'n^ also returned to his sister's wigwam, and one morning he 
flew away to get some food. He went far to the north and found a 
large bare place where some people were running and playing ball. 
PiL'skiue'u'' knew that he was a good runner; so he went to the edge of 
a lake, put down a martin which he had caught, and said to the ball 
players: "My brothers, you see the sun is shining upon the forehead 
of this martin — upon this spot, exactly between the eyes. By the time 
I run around this lake the sun will not have had time to travel from 
that spot to the corner of the eye.'' 

"Hau," said all the players, because they were anxious to see an 
apparently impossible feat a('coin])]islied. 

Pii'skine'u'' started to run, and by tlic time he had made the circuit of 
the lake and returned to the martin the sun had scarcely moved from 
the spot indicated upon the martin's forehead. Mfi'tshiwiqkwa'wis 
approached to see who the runner really was, and as she came close to 
him she suspected some trickery, so she raised the leggins of Pil'skine'a'^ 
and exposed his shin bone. 

"O, it is Pii'skine'u''," cried she; "1 know who you are now!" 

"The ball players wanted him to join them, but he said, "No, I will 
come again to play with you," and with that he grasped up his martin 
and flew away to his sister's wigwam. 

Now, the sister of Pii'skine'u'' was the one who governed all the birds, 
and she knew the treacherous character of the people of the canii) ruled 
by Mii'tshiwiqkwa'wis; so she said, "My brother, do not go to that 
camp any more; the peojile of Mii'tshiwiqkwa'wis eat people who are 
not of their kind, and they will surely devour you." Pa'skiue'u'^, how- 
ever, made no reply, but next morning started to fly back to the place 
where the ball game was to be played, but this time he did not take the 
martin with him. When he arrived at the camp of Mii'tshiwiqkwa'wis it 
was nearly night, and no ball players were in sight. Mii'tshiwiqkwa'wis 
came forward, and, grasping P;l'skine'u'',held him fast, saying, "Pemain 
with us tonight, brother, and in the morning I will give you a feast." 
Then Mii'tshiwiqkwa'wis went out and caught the Kine'u" (golden 
eagle), the Buzzard, and the Piniish'i>i (bald eagle). These with Pii's- 
kine'u'' she took to her wigwam, where they found four old men lying 
upon a mat made of rushes. 

Early next morning Mii'tshiwiijkwa'wis started out to seek food for 
her guests, as she said, but the four men, the birds, suspecting some- 

HOFFMAN] pa'skine'u'' and ma'tshiwiqkwa'wis 167 

thing wrong' in iier curious behavior, followed her. She ran so fast that 
her pursuers were soon left far in tlie rear. Then Pii'skiue'ii'' flew into 
the air and saw Ma'tshiwiqkwa'wis far in advance, and still running 
rapidly. Pii'skine'u"' flew forward, passing the woman, and finding a 
log lying across the path by which she was to pass, be laid himself 
down behind it and awaited her arrival. When she approached the log 
and attempted to leap across it, Pii'skinO'u'' caught her and, with his 
bow, struck her across the legs until she cried out frantically for him 
not to beat her, as she was only going to get him and his friends some- 
thing to eat. 

Pii'skinc'u' looked back for his friends and the other people who 
were following (for the sisters of Ma'tshiwiqkwa'wis were also in the 
throng), but they were so far behind that he compelled Ma'tshiwiqkwa'- 
wis to open a bag which she had with her, take out a piece of buck- 
skin, and place four little sticks at the corners. Then Pii'skine'u^ took 
out of his quiver an arrow, which he cut into short pieces, and which 
in turn were transformed into tobacco. He lighted each stick by means 
of these, when the buckskin began to shrink from the heat, thus sfhort- 
ening the distance between the spot where Mii'tshiwiqkwa'wis and 
Pa'skine'u"' were and the place where their followers were still running 
along. The latter soon came up, and Ma'tshiwiqkwa'wis gave them a 

When Pa'skine'u'' and his friends awoke next morning they found that 
Mii'tshiwiqkwa'wis had again run away from them. They started in 
jnirsuit, but could not overtake licr, so Pii'skine'u^' again flew into the 
air to see where the woman was. He espied her far ahead of them — so 
far that she seemed like a mere speck. Then Pa'skine'u'' flew forward 
and ahead of her to a hillside, where he lay in wait. When Ma'tshiwiq- 
kwa'wis came up to where Pii'skine'u'' was awaiting her arrival, he 
grasped her by the arm and with his bow beat her severely about the 
legs. Again she screamed, and said, " I am only going ahead to get 
something for you to eat. You see that mountain stretching away to 
the east and west; that is where my father abides; it is his wigwam. 
We will now go on and visit him, and his daughter will get some food 

Pii'skine'u^ seemed satisfied with this explanation, but awaited the 
arrival of his friends and her sisters, all of whom were still far behind, 
but were running as rapidly as ever. When they came up to the hill- 
side where Pii'skine'u'' was awaiting them, they prepared beds of 
boughs and leaves, and lay down to sleep. 

Early the next morning the party went forward together, and as 
they approached the mountain in which the father of Ma'tshiwiqkwa'- 
wis lived, the side opened and they entered. Pii'skiiie'ir saw the old 
man seated opposite the entrance of the wigwam, and observed that 
his breechcloth consisted of the skin of a wildcat. The old man dofted 
this garment and threw it at Pa'sking'u^, and as it flew through the 


air like a knife it assumed life. Pii'skine'ii'' struck tlie flying' animal 
upon the head, bringing it to the ground; then, i)icking it up and throw- 
ing it back to the old man, he said, "Here, old man, is your breech- 
cloth; do you expect that you can harm me with a piece of wildcat 
skiu?" The old man became infuriated and threw the cloth a second 
time, hoping by this means to cleave the skull of Pa'sking'u'', but 
Pa'skine'u' again struck it to the ground, after which he picked it up 
and threw it across the room to the old man, this time saying, "Here, 
old man, keep your breechcloth ; you can do me no harm." 

The old man was one of the fina'maqki'u, who dwell under the ground, 
and who are the enemy of mankind. But he found that Pii'skinc'u'' 
was a very powerful being and was afraid to attempt openly to destroy 

Finally the old man said, "My daughter has prepared a feast for you; 
so take seats and the food will be brought out." 

Pii'skine'u^ and the Buzzard were requested to eat before the old man, 
and, while each of the guests received a bowl of food. Pa'skine'u'' found 
that his disli held nothing but a mass of eyeballs taken from the vic- 
tims which the old man had destroyed. Pa'skine'u'' then pushed the 
dish toward the old man, saying, "Here, old man, I do not care for this 
dish; I am not accustomed to eating human flesh, especially eyeballs, 
so you take them." The old man received the dish, but left it by his 
side untasted. 

Pii'skine'u' then remarked upon the good looks of the old man's 
daughter — the youngest one, who remained at home and who attended 
to his wants. To this the old man replied, "Whoever is able to jump 
across my wigwam may have her for his wife." 

Pii'skine'u' then said, "I am able to jump across your wigwam, so 
we will go outside." 

They all went to the outside of the mountain, when Pii'skiue'u'' leaped 
into the air and jumped across the mountain without any difficulty; 
whereupon the old man said to Pii'skine'u^, "You have won the girl; 
take her." 

The old man did this so that he might gain more power over Pii'ski- 
ne'u'^in order to destroy him, but his first wife, who was also a daughter 
of the old man, remained with Pii'sking'u'', so as to guard him against 

The new young wife then said to Pa'skine'u", " Let us visit my 
mother; she lives on the toj) of a steep rock, and will be glad to see 
my husband." So they all left the abode of the old man and started off 
to visit his wife, the mother of Pii'skine'u^'s wives. After a long jour- 
ney they saw in the distance a high rock, upon which was perched a 
solitary wigwam covered with rush mats. When they arrived at the 
base of the rock, the young wife called out to her mother, " Mother, let 
down your ladder, so that we may come up to visit you." The old 
woman then let down a ladder and told them to ascend, after which 


tlie ladder was agaiu pulled iij), so that they might not be taken by 

The wigwam was well provided with everything that was necessary 
for comfort, and food seemed abundant. The visitors had not been 
many days at the old woman's wigwam before the latter began to com- 
plain of feeling ill. This was feigned, however, for her plan was to 
devise some means of bringing about the destruction of Pii'skine'u^ 
and his friends, the Buzzard, Kine'u^, and Piniish'iu. The younger wife 
of Pii'skine'u^ then said to the old woman, "Mother, what can we do 
for you to make you well again T' — to which the old woman replied, 
"If I had the paw of a white bear to eat I would recover, but 1 fear 
that such can not be procured for me." To this Pii'skine'u'' responded, 
saying, "The paw of a white bear is easily procured, and I will get 
one ;" whereupon he left the wigwam and flew away to search for a 
white bear. 

Now, the old woman had no idea that Pa'skine'u'' would be successful 
in procuring the paw of a white bear, because such was to be found 
only upon some of her kindred, the ana'maqki'u, the evil ma'nidos of 
the underworld, and she was also aware that anyone who might attack 
a white bear would be killed unless he was more powerful than the 
bear ma'uido. For this reason she had demanded something which she 
considered impossible to obtain, and if Pii'skine'u^ attempted to comply 
with her request she might cause his destruction very easily. 

Pa'skine'u"^, soaring through the air at great height, ])erceived the 
object of his search. Pulling an arrow out of his quiver, he fixed it to 
the string of his bow, and shot it down into the body of the white bear, 
killing him. He then descended, cut ofl' the paw of the animal, and 
returned with it to the old woman's wigwam. When he entered, she 
said to Pii'skine'u^, in a very faint voice. " Did you get me the paw of 
the white bear, son-in-law!" — to which he replied, "Yes; I got it," and, 
throwing it across to where she was lying upon a mat, said, "Here it is; 
I hope you will get well, now." 

The younger daughter prepared the paw for the old woman and gave 
it to her to eat, but the mother did not appear to derive any benefit 
from the food. Then, seeing her mother continue ill as before, she said, 
"Mother, is there anything else that you wish to eat to make you well?" 
To this the old woman replied, " Yes ; I should get well if I had the paw 
of a yellow bear to eat." Pii'skine'u", hearing the words of the old 
woman, now said, "If that be all, I can soon bring you the paw of a 
yellow bear;" whereupon he left the wigwam and flew away in search 
of that animal. 

The old woman thought that this demand would certainly bring about 
the destruction of Pii'skine'u", as the yellow bear also was one of the 
anii'maqki'ii, and even a more powerful ma'uido than the white bear. 

Pii'skine'u'^ soon descried a yellow bear. Drawing an arrow from 
his quiver and placing it to the string of his bow, he shot it down 


into the body of the yellow bear, killing him instantly, lie then 
severed one of the paws and carried it back to the old woman's wig- 
wam, on entering which he threw the paw toward the old woman, 
saying, " Here is the paw of the yellow bear which you desired in 
order that you might recover; now use it." Tlie old woman made no 
response to this, but bade the younger wife of Pii'skine'u^ prepare the 
paw for her that she might eat it. She was aware by this time that 
Pa'skine'u' was more ])owerful than she was, and while devising some 
plan by which she could yet bring about his destruction, Pii'skine'u" 
complained that he himself was sick. This was only a ruse on his 
part which had been suggested by his elder wife, who did not wish 
Pa'skine'u'' harmed. 

After the old woman had eateu the paw of the yellow bear, she 
asked her daughters where Pii'skine'u^ was, and was told that he was 
lying down and complained of being very ill. The old woman was 
alarmed lest her victim might escape her plans of destruction, and, 
desiring to preserve him for her own vengeance, asked him what he 
required to help his recovery. 

Pa'skine'ii^'s elder wife whispered to him to make a request of the old 
woman for something difUcult of fulfillment; so he responded, "I have 
at my sister's wigwam some birds, and there are among them some 
maqkwa'nine'uk (red birds) which, if I could get to eat, would bring- 
about my recovery." The old woman had a headband and breechcloth 
made of fox skins, which enabled her to travel with great speed, so 
when she heard the wish of Pa'skinc'u'' and realized the great distance 
she had to travel to get the birds, she was not dismayed, but said, 
"Grandson, I shall go for the birds which you require," and hastened 
to prepare for the journey. She called to her daughters and said, 
"Put down the ladder that I may descend, and so soon as you see me 
touch the earth below, draw it up that no one may molest you during 
my absence." They then put down the ladder and the old woman 
descended, and as soon as they could see her running away over the 
earth below, they pulled up the ladder, as they had been directed, and 
returned to the wigwam. 

The old woman had a long journey before her, but her speed was 
great, and she traveled along day after day until she approached the 
wigwam in which dwelt the sister of Pa'skine'u". When the old woman 
approached near enough to the wigwam to observe the nature of the 
surroundings, she saw on one side of the wigwam a tall i)ost upon 
which was perched a nest containing the red birds. On the other side 
of the wigwam she saw the sister of Pii'skiue'u'' combing her hair. 
Desiring not to be discovered, she quietly approached the pole upon 
which the nest was built and began slowly to climb it. The move- 
ment of the tree disturbed the birds, when they began to cry out in 
alarm. The sister of Pii'skine'u", hearing something unusual going on, 
went around the wigwam where she could see the nest, and discov- 



ered the old woman about to rol) licr of lier brotlier's birds. She 
thereupon ran into the wigwam, and, grasping a firebrand, went out 
to the ])ost, and said, "What are you doing up there, robbing me 
of birds which I am charged for to care?" The old woman began to 
remonstrate and to render an explanation, but the sister of Pa'sliine'u^ 
thrust the burning brand against the hips and legs of the old woman, 
burning her so badly that she was glad to slip down and escape, 
returning homeward as rapidly as possible. 

When she reached the base of the cliff upon which her wigwam was 
situated, she called out, ■' My daughters, let down the ladder that I 
may get wp to the wigwam." The girls, hearing their mother calling, 
approached the cliif and, looking down, saw her beneath, when they 
immediately lowered the ladder to allow her to ascend. 

When she reached the top of the rock she was very tired from the 
journey and the diflBculty under which she had traveled by reason of 
the burns, so she entered the wigwam and immediately sat down with- 
out uttering a word. The elder wife of Pii'skine'u' smiled when she 
perceived that her wicked mother had failed in her quest, and Pii'ski- 
ne'u''said, " Have you brought me the red birds which I wanted?" — to 
which the old woman replied saying, " No; I did not succeed in getting 
them for you." The old wonum felt that she had been defeated m her 
schemes and no longer attempted to detain her visitors, for she knew 
she was powerless to harm Pii'skine'u', so she did not oppose their 
leaving after Pii'skine'u' recovery, which followed soon after the old 
woman had delivered her message. 

When Pa'skine'n^ started to return to his own wigwam, where his 
sister dwelt, he was accompanied by his elder wife, the younger going 
back to her father in the mountain, while the three companions went 
each his own way to their home in the air. 

The sisters of tlie wife of Pii'skine'u'' returned to their encampment 
where the ball players lived, and Pa'skine'u'' and his wife went tlieir 
own way, arriving at the end of the first day's journey at a forest. 
Here they gathered branches and leaves, iipon which they lay down 
and slept. 

Early on the following day they arose to resume their jcurney, but 
were surprised to fiud that quite a clearing had been made during the 
night, by some unaccountable means, and an abundance of food was 
observed. After partaking of the food they set out on their journey. 
The next night they encamped amongst the trees, as before, and on 
the following morning again found the trees cleared away and food 
sup])lied for their wants. They ate heartily, but, taking none with 
them, they resumed their travels tor the third day, in tlie evening of 
which they again made beds of branches and leaves, upon which they 
lay down and slept. 

On the morning of the fourth day they again found that some unknown 
one had provideil fur tlieir wants. After eating sufficiently, they 

172 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann.14 

traveled onward until night. Then said Pa'skine'u'' to liis wife, "Here 
we will remain, for we are near to mj^ sister's wigwam." 

Pil'skine'u'' then gathered materials for the erection of a wigwam, in 
which work his wife assisted. On the following morning Pil'skine'u" 
went to visit his sister, who, on seeing him, said, "Brother, where have 
you been so long? I have been faring very badly during your absence, 
for I have had scarcely anything to eat. I am therefore very glad you 
have returned." 

Pa'sking'u'' then told his sister where he had been, and said to her, 
"We live over there in the grove where you see the smoke ascending. 
Come over to see us." 

She accompanied her brother to his wigwam and saw that he had an 
abundance of food, some of which he gave her. Thereafter she liad 
sufficient to enable her to live comfortably, as Pii'skine'u'' remained 
living near by. 

Ma'niibush left the wigwam occupied by the sister of Pa'skinc'u'', 
as he had thus far aided in the success of one of the Ana'mar|kru, who 
were his friends. He went to the place where his grandmother, Oqko- 
mii'si, dwelt. Her wigwam was near a stream which passed by a huge 
rock called O'qkone'me ("the place of the liver"), over wliich the water 
fell, forming a dam, beyond which the beavers could neither ascend nor 
descend. One day Mii'niibush wanted some beaver meat to eat; so he 
went to the water and dug a deep trench to entrap a beaver. In tiiis 
he was successful, and the next day he dug another deep ditch, from 
which he secured another beaver. On the third day, while digging out 
another beaver, he heard the voices of many animals and birds. These 
proved to be ma'nidos, who were discussing how they would stop him 
from getting out any more beavers. But Ma'nabfish succeeded in 
obtaining a third beaver, which, with the others, he ate, throwing the 
bones on the ground for his grandmother. 

The animals, among which were the Wolf, the Fox, the Mink, and 
many others, were still excitedly discussing how they would attack 
Mii'nabush. Yet he heeded them not, but told his grandmother to put 
a kettle over the lire and boil some water, as he wanted to make some 
soup for her. While she was doing this, Mii'niibush gathered together 
the bones and cracked them so that the marrow would readily come out 
into the water. Mii'niibush then said to the old woman, " Grandmother, 
now I will sing while you dance around the kettle." 

" No," replied the grandmother, " [ can not dance, for I am too old." 

" Yes, you can, and you must dance, because that is the only way the 
soup will become strong and more palatable," returned Ma'niibush. 

The old woman still hesitated, but when Mii'niibush began to sing 
she could not resist dancing around the kettle. When she had gone 
but halfway around, Mii'nabush said, " Grandmother, to make the 
dance more effective, and to strengthen the soup, you must remove the 
skirts from your body." She gradually removed her clothing while 


she was dancing, and continued around toward the side where Mii'nii- 
bftsh sat singing. 

"Now, grandmother," said he, "come close to the kettle so that the 
soup will be good." 

While Ma'nabush was occupied in singing, and his grandmother in 
dancing, the ma'nidos became very much excited and made prepara- 
tions to drive both of them awaj*. On the opposite side of the stream, 
Ma'nabush saw the Owl and the Wildcat talking to each other. 
Suddenly the Owl said, " Hu-hu-hfi-liu, liu-hn-hu-lifi; see how I shall 
strike him; I shall drive him oft' easily enough." Then Ma'niibfish 
became alarmed, and said to his grandmother, " Grandmother, they 
are going to attack us; let us fly!" 

" But I can not run; lam too old and feeble to run fast," replied she. 
" Take me on your back and carry me with you." " Well," said Mii/nii- 
biish, " catch hold of my back and I will bear you off, for they are 
coming at us now." 

So the grandmother of Mii'niibush grasped him by the shoulders, he 
helping her to get upon his back, when he ran away just in time to 
escape the attack of the ma'nidos, who were aua'maqkl'ii. 

When Ma'niibfish had gone far enough for safety, he thi'ew his 
grandmother from his back upon the gi'ound and hurt her consider- 
ably. She was then told to gather together some birchbark and other 
materials to make a wigwam, which they soon erected and made 

One day Ma'nabush went off into the woods to hunt, and when he 
returned he found that his grandmother was awaiting him to prepare 
their meal, but he had not succeeded in procuring any game. 


The decrepit condition of Noko'mis is lost sight of in the following 
myth, which pretends to account for the origin of maple sugar. When 
Ma'nabush returned empty-handed from his hunting trip, as related 
above, he and his grandmother, Noko'mis, gathei-ed together all their 
effects, moved away from the place where they had dwelt, and built a 
new wigwam among the trees in the new locality. 

These trees were maples, and the grandmother of Ma'nabush said to 
him, "Now, my grandson, you go into the woods and gather for me 
some pieces of birchbark; 1 am going to make sugar." So Ma'nabush 
went into the woods and gathered some strips of birchbark, which he 
took back to the wigwam, where his grandmother had cut some pieces 
of bark to make thread for sewing together pieces of birchbark to 
make vessels to contain the sugar. 

The grandmother of Ma'nabush then went from tree to tree, cutting 
a small hole into the bark of each and inserting into each cut a small 
piece of wood over which the sap ran into the vessels placed beneath. 
Ma'nabush followed his grandmother from tree to tree, watching her 

174 THE MENOMINI INDIANS (eth.ann.u 

and looking for the sap to drop into the vessels, but none was to be 
seen. When she had gone around among the trees, and eut holes for 
as many vessels as she had made, Ma'niibfish went back and looking 
into the vessels saw that all of them had suddenly become half full of 
thick siru]i. 

Ma'niibush di]>ped his linger into tlie sirup and tasted it. Finding 
it sweet, he said, " My grandmother, this is all very good, but it will 
not do to have these trees produce sirup in this manner. The people 
will not have any work if tliey make sugar so easily; tliey must cut 
wood to boil the sirup for several nights, and to keep them occupied 
that they may not get into bad habits; I will change all this." 

So Mii'niibush climbed to the very top of one of the trees, when he 
took his hand and scattered water all over the maples, like rain, so that 
the sugar should dissolve and flow from the trees in the form of sap. 
This is why the uncles of Ma'nabush and their descendants always 
have to work hard when they want to make sugar. Wood must be cut, 
vessels must be made, and the sap that is collected must be boiled for 
a long time, otherwise the people would spend too much time in idleness. 

Having brought about this benefit to the Indians, Ma'niibush finally 
became Jealous of the attentions of the Bear, who always called at his 
grandmother's wigwam when he went away. Killing this intruder, 
Mii'niibtish finally left the land of the Indians and sought a resting 
jilace where tlie hunters, already referred to in the ritual of the Mitii'wit, 
went to seek him and to ask for favors. 

The myth then continues as follows : 

One day Ma'nabush went away into the woods to hunt for something 
to eat, but being unsuccessful he returned to his wigwam. When he 
entered he saw his grandmother seated upon a mat with her hair nicely 
combed, as he had never seen it before. So he said to her : 

"Grandmother, I see you have combed your hair very nicely and put 
on clean clothes; have you bad a visitor, or why have you done so?" 

His grandmother made no satisfactory reply, and he asked nothing 
further regarding the circumstance; but he suspected that some one 
had been there and that she did not want him to know it. 

On the following day ^lii'niibush again went away into the woods to 
hunt, and when he returned he again found his grandmother seated 
upon a mat, her hair nicely arranged, and her best skirt and leggings 
on. He Said nothing, but his suspicions became stronger that someone 
had been to the wigwam during his absence. 

On the following morning Ma'niibush again went away into the woods 
to hunt, and when he returned to the wigwam he found his grand- 
mother just as he had found her twice before. 

The next morning Ma'nabush pretended to go into the woods to hunt 
as before, but he soon came back near to his wigwam to discover who 
visited his grandmother. He suspected that it was the Bear, but he 
wanted to be certain. He had not long to wait before he heard the Bear 


coming along a trail leading to the wigwam, snorting and grnnting, so 
he kept very quiet. Presently the Bear came into view, waddling from 
side to side and making directly for the wigwam, which he entered. 
Then Ma'nabnsh got a piece of dry birchbark and lit one end of it, 
making a fierce blaze ; he then went quietly up to the doorway of the wig- 
wam, and, pulling aside the cover, saw the Bear with his grandmother. 
He threw the buruiug bark at the Bear, striking him on the back just 
above the loin. The Bear, frantic with paiu, rushed out of the opposite 
door of the wigwam, and sped away through the woods and down the 
hill toward a stream. Before reaching the water, however, the flames 
had burnt the hair from the Bear's back, because the bark was still 
adhering to his body, and he fell dead. 

After Mii'nabush had thrown the blazing bark at the Bear, he ran 
away from the wigwam to hide in the brush, but when he saw the Bear 
running away through the woods, he followed him, and ere he came up 
to where the Bear was, the latter was already dead. Taking up the 
carcass, Mii'nabush carried it back to his wigwam, which he entered 
and threw the body down on the Hoor before his grandmother, saying, 
"There, grandmother, I have killed a bear; now we shall have some- 
thing to eat." 

" How did you kill him, my grandson"?" said the grandmother. 

"I killed him," replied Mii'niibush, not wishing to admit that he had 
burnt him to death. 

Ma'nabfish cut uji the Bear and offered a piece to his grandmother; 
but she cried out excitedly, "No, my grandson, that was my husband; 
I can not eat it." 

Ma'nabnsh then took up a clot of the Bear's blood and threw it at 
his grandmother, hitting her upon the abdomen, saying, "There, take 
that!" Then she replied, "For that act your aunts will always have 
trouble every moon, and will give birth to just such clots as this." 

Ma'nabfish then ate all he wanted of the meat and put the rest aside 
for another time. 


A few days after the above occurrence Ma'nabfish decided to go on a 
journey to see how his uncles were faring, and to learn if he could 
be of assistance to them. He traveled far, and at the close of one day 
he saw a wigwam and approached it, finding therein a family consist- 
ing of six persons — the father, mother, three sons, and a daughter. 

On entering the wigwam Ma'nabush said, "My friends, I am glad 
I have found you, for I want to see how all the peojile are getting along. 
So it will always be; some will live here and others will live else- 
where; all will be scattered, but it is better so that each will have 
enough game to hunt for food." 

Ma'nabfish, being asked to enter and partake of the little they had, 
did so, and remained there. 


Food being scarce with this family, tbe three sons decided to go 
bunting tbe uext day, and early iu tbe morning they started away to 
the woods. They followed a trail for a great distance until they came 
to a point where it branched. Here tbe brothers sei)arated — one taking 
tbe left-hand trail, tbe other two the trail to tbe right. Each of tbe 
brothers bad a dog, and as the snow was on tbe ground they wore their 
snowshoes. Tbe eldest brother was one of the two on tbe right-hand 
trail, who had not gone far before tbe dogs scented a bear, which 
started out of tbe brush and ran. Tbe dogs pursued the animal, and 
tbe brothers followed the dogs. They bad not gone far before tbe elder 
succeeded in shooting au arrow through tbe body of tbe bear, killing 

The two young men then took up the bear and returned to tbe fork 
of the trail, where tbey were met by their brother, when they all 
returned to their father's wigwam. They threw down the bear, saying, 
" Father, here is a bear which we killed ; now we shall have something 
to eat." 

To this the father replied, " When I was a young man I used to get 
two bears in one day; hunters nowadays don't do so well." 

The sons said nothing, but early the next morning they set out on the 
trail they had gone the day before. When tbey got a short distance 
beyond the fork of the trail the dogs scented a bear which was bid- 
den in the brush, and began to bark. Tbe bear started off" in tbe direc- 
tion of the right-hand trail, tbe dogs chasing him, and two of the boys 
following the dogs. After running a great distance the second sou iu age 
drew bis arrow and shot the bear through the body, killing him. Then 
tbe two took up the bear and started back to the fork of the trail, where 
they met the youngest son, who also had shot a bear which he found in 
tbe left-band trail. Tbe boys then returned to the wigwam, and throw- 
ing down the two bears, said to their father — 

"Father, here are two bears which we have brought you; now you 
shall have something to eat." 

Their father replied by saying, "When I was a young man I used to 
get three bears iu one day; but hunters nowadays don't do so well." 

The boys felt rather disappointed at this response, but said nothing. 

On the next morning they again started away early, taking tbe same 
trail on which tbey had before found bears. When tbey came to the 
fork of the trail, tbey saw the same brush which they had previously 
observed, and in which the dugs liad scented the bears. Presently tbe 
dogs began to bark and a bear started out to run away, but the young- 
est of the three ran after him and shot him with an arrow. Another 
bear was found by tbe dogs, which began to bark, and the brothers, 
starting out anew, soon overtook and killed him. They had not recov- 
ered their breath before a third bear was aroused from its hiding place 
and started away, but tbe brothers pursued this one also, soon over- 
taking it and killing it with arrows. 


They now got the bears together and took them home to the wigwam. 
Throwing them down before their lather, they said, "Father, here are 
three bears; now you shall have something to eat." 

Their father replied, saying, "When I was a young man I used to 
get four bears in oue day; but hunters nowadays don't do so well." 

The boys did not know what to make of this remark, but kept quiet, as 
they intended to see what success they would have on the following day. 

The father then dressed the meat and a feast was prepared, of which 
they all ate heartily. 

Now, these bears which had been killed were the servants of the 
Bear chief of the ana'maqki'u, who dwelt iu a lofty, long mountain in 
the direction iu which the young men hunted, but much fiirther away; 
and every time a bear was killed, although the body remained, the 
shade of the bear returned to the home of the Bear chief, where his 
wounds were visible to all the others. 

The Bear chief became very angry at the destruction of his servants, 
so decided to capture and destroy the hunters. He called oue of his 
servants and said to him, "You go to the brush at the fork of the trail 
where the boys killed your brothers, and the moment they come back 
and the dogs discover you, you must return with all speed to this 
place. The mountain will open to let you in, and the hunters will 
follow; then I shall take them and punish them. 

The servant of tlic Bear chief started off to the brush at the fork of 
the trail and awaited the coming of the three huntsmen. 

Next morning, after the father of the boys had prepared the feast, 
the two elder sons started off to hunt, leaviug the youngest brother at 
home. The snow was soft and slushy, and the air was so damp that 
the bowstring of the elder brother became unfastened, while that on 
the bow of the younger brother became broken. Just as this mishaj) 
was discovered the dogs began to bark, and to chase a bear, the servant 
of the Bear chief, out of the brush where he had secreted himself. The 
bear ran rapidly along the right-hand trail, the dogs and the brothers 
following. In this way they traveled a great distance, but finally saw 
a large mountain before them, stretching to the right and left of the 
trail upon which they were. The servant of the Bear chief was 
expected at the home of the ana'maqki'u, and the mountain opened 
to admit him, the dogs following, and the elder of the brothers follow- 
ing the dogs into the very middle of the mountain. The other brother 
had become so exhausted that he was still far behind. When the 
elder had reached the middle of the Bear chief's wigwam, he realized 
where he was; he saw bears on every side of him, sitting around as if 
they were holding a council, which indeed they were doing at that 
very time. The bear which the elder brother had been chasing was 
lying panting on the ground near his feet, but when he saw where he 
was he made no attempt to shoot the animal. The chief of the bears 
then said to the young man, "Why are you trying to kill all of my 

li ETH 12 


people? Don't you see that around you there are a number with 
arrows sticking into their bodies? That is tlie work done by you 
and your brothers. I will put a stop to this by transforming you into 
a bear." 

By this time the second brother came up breathlessly to where the 
eldest one stood, and cried out, '-Don't you see that bear lying there; 
why don't you shoot him!" — and grasping his arrow he attemjited to 
thrust it into the bear; but his brother held back his arm and said, 
"Don't you see where you are? '' 

The one addressed was not aware that he was in the presence of the 
chief of the bear ana'maqki'u, but continued to struggle forward to 
kill the bear. Again the elder brother remonstrated with him, and 
then he looked up and beheld the angry bears about him. On one side 
were the servants of the Bear chief, while on the other side, but farther 
away, were the servants of the chief's sister, who also was there. The 
chief's sister had compassion on the two young men and begged her 
brother, the Bear chief, not to kill them. He told them that he would 
not take their lives, but that he would transform the brothers in such a 
way that they would be half bear and half human — the arms and legs 
being like the fore and hind legs of a bear, while the head and body of 
each should remain as they were. There were two springs of water in the 
ground near where the bi'others were standing. When the Bear chief 
advanced to them, he took from the water a bunch of moss and rubbed 
it over the boys' legs and arms, when these members immediately became 
likened to the corresponding limbs of a bear. 

In the meantime, the father of the boys, having awaited in vain their 
return, started out to find them. The Bear chief knew that search 
would be made for the young men, so he told one of his servants to go 
to the brush at the fork of the trail, and there await the boys' father. 
The father, on reaching the fork of the trail, did not know which 
direction his sons had taken, but after a few moments' search he dis- 
covered fresh tracks of snowshoes leading forward toward the brush from 
which the bears had appeared. In following this trail the father went 
forward so fast that he stumbled, and falling slid headlong into a cavity 
in which the bear servant of the Bear chief had secreted himself. The 
bear thereupon broke the man's neck, and awaited the coming of any- 
one else who might search for the young men or their father. 

When the father did not return to the wigwam, his wife knew that 
some disaster had befallen him, so she decided to follow his trail and to 
learn, if possible, what had become of him and her two sons. She 
started upon the course taken by the now missing men until she arrived 
at the fork of the trail. Here she discovered the tracks of snowshoes 
leading forward on the two branches of the trail, but she was undecided 
which she should follow. She espied the brush, a short distance ahead, 
where the bears had before secreted themselves, and while contemplat- 
ing the situation her eyes fell upon the snowshoe tracks made by her 


husbaud. She luisteued forward to learn where they led, but ere she 
reached the bushes, ui)ou which her eyes were momeutarily directed, 
she came to the cavity where the bear was hidden and where her hus- 
band lay dead. Slipping into the hole, feet foremost, the bear grasijed 
her and broke her neck. The bear then returned to the wigwam of the 
Bear chief and reported what he had done, in revenge for the attack 
made on his brothers by the young hunters. 

As their mother and father did not return home the youngest son 
and his sister became alarmed, and instantly felt that some great mis- 
fortune had befallen them. They felt confident that their parents were 
no more, but could not imagine how they had perished, nor through 
what manner they had brought upon themselves the anger of someone 
unknown to them. 

Near the wigwam occupied by the two orphans stood a large tree 
with strong, wide-spreading branches, upon which the boy often amused 
himself and from which he could see a great distance. He kept watch- 
ing for the return of his brothers, then for his father, and now he 
strained his eyes in trying to see some sign of life, as, since his mother 
also was among the missing, he felt very lonely and sad. The resi)on- 
sibility of providing for his little sister now devolved on him, and as 
he was compelled to hunt for something to eat he decided to prepare 
himself also for making search for the missing ones. 

The little boy told his sister that he would go away to hunt some 
game, and also to see if he could ascertain anything regarding the fate 
of his brothers and his parents, but the girl cried and begged him to 
abandon such a dangerous undertaking. The boy was not to be 
influenced, but began to prepare himself for the journey. He made 
four arrows, one having a shaft of osii'skimino'na,' another of pewo'- 
naskin (reed), another of mo'nipio'nowe (tamarack), and the fourth of 
okapuowe (kwapu'ow6=hazel). He also made a small bow, and went 
out to the large tree near the wigwam and got down his snowshoes, 
which had been hanging there. The right snowshoe was called dodo'pa 
(small saw- whet owl) and the left snowshoe was called the kukvi'kuu 
(horned owl). 

Early next morning he went to a small bark box, under which he 
kept his little dog, called Waisau'witii' (Eed-mouth), and let it out 
so that he might accompany him. Then the little hunter started out 
on the trail on which his brothers and his parents had departed, and 
traveled along for a great distance until he came to an immense tree. 
Here he rested, but his little dog began barking at the tree, and this 
led the boj^ to think that perhaps his parents might have been killed 
there; so he stepped back, and taking one of his arrows out of his 
quiver he attached it to the string of his bow, and shot it into the root 
of the tree, whereupon the latter took fire, with a noise like the rum- 
bling of thunder, and was consumed by the flames. 

^ A common weed growing about gardens and in the woods. 


When this liad been accomplished the boy continued his jonrney 
until lie came to the fork of the trail. Here he stopped for a moment 
to decide which oue of the two branches he should follow. Seeing the 
snowshoe tracks on the right, he took the trail in that direction, and 
presently espied the bushes where the bears used to secrete them.selvcs, 

Now it happened that the Bear chief knew what was transpiring, 
and when he found that the boy was going in jiursuit of his lost broth- 
ers he sent a veiy small bear servant to the bushes to iiwait the boj'"s 
coming and to endeavor to cause him to traverse the trail to the moun- 
tain where the aua'maqki'u dwelt. 

As the boy reached the brush his little dog ran toward it and begau 
barking, whereupon the little bear ran out and away lor his home as 
fast as he could. 

The dog followed the bear, and the boy followed his dog onward 
and onward until the large mountain, the wigwam of the Bear chief, 
appeared in sight. The snow was wet and heavy, and the thong of 
the boy's right snowshoe became so loose that it finally broke, com- 
pelling the boy to stop to repair it. By the time this was done the 
little bear and the dog got so far ahead of him that he could hear the 
barking but faintly. While the boy ran he said to his snowshoes, " Now 
we will have to hurry or we shall lose both the bear and the dog." The 
snowshoes continued to sing like the dodO'pa and the kuku'kuu, one 
saying "te-e-e-e-e-e', te-e-e-e-e-e'," and the other "hii-u-u-il-u-fi', hu-uu- 

The sister of the Bear chief, who had had compassion o« the elder 
brothers of the boy, now smiled at the curious sight when she saw him 
coming toward her brother's wigwam with singing snowshoes, for she 
could see and hear all this although she dwelt in the mountain. 

The little boy continued to run after his dog, but the mountain had 
opened to receive the little bear, when the dog also entered in pursuit. 
When the little boy reached the base of the mountain he heard the 
barking ahead of him, but thought the dog had crossed over to the 
other side, so he continued until he reached the opposite base of 
the mountain. Then, stopping to listen, he heard the barking behind 
him, so he ran back to the other side searching for his dog. 

But the sound proceeded again from the direction whence he had just 
come ; therefore he started to return, bat becoming tired he halted an 
instant after he had reached the summit of the mountain, when he heard 
the voice of the dog beneath him. He knew then where he was, and 
calling out to the Bear chief, said, "Let my dog out; I want him!" 
Hearing no response, he again called out to the ana'maqki'vi, "Let my 
dog out; I want him! If you do not, I shall destroy your wigwam!" 
As the Bear chief did not respond to this demand, the boy descended 
the mountain, and drawing one of his arrows pointed it at the base of 
the height and shot through it. This set the mountain afire and 
destroyed it, as well as the Bear chief aiul his servants. But the sister 


of tlie Bear chief and her servants were spared, because she had tried 
to prevent her brother from punishing the two elder brothers of the boy. 

When the young liuntsman entered tlie wigwam of the bears he saw 
the condition of his brotliers, and while gazing at them, utterly unable 
to devise some means of relieving them of the bear's paws and legs 
into whioli their lumds, arms, and legs had been changed, the sister of 
the Bear chief came to him and said, " Little boy, taiie some moss out 
of that spring and let your brothers smell of it; then they will be 
restored to their former condition." The little boy thanked the sister 
of the Bear chief for this iuformatiou, and going to the spring near the 
feet of his elder brother took from it a handful of wet moss and held it 
to their nostrils, whereui)on the bear skin became detached and drop])ed 
from their arms and legs. 

The three brothers then left the wigwam of the ana'niaqki'u and 
returned to their sister, who now required their help and jirotection. 

The myth then continues, but Mii'niibfish appears to have retired 
from the field, remaining at the wigwam of the hunter while the young 
men went out. 


Because the youngest brother had restored to his sister her elder 
brothers, she made for him a fine robe of beaver skins trimmed with 
colored porcupine quills. He was very proud of this garment, and wore 
it almost constantly. 

One day while the two elder brothers were out hunting in the forest, 
the youngest went away to hide himself and to mourn because he was 
not permitted to join them. He had with him his bow and arrows and 
his beaver-skin robe; but when the Sun rose high in the sky he became 
tired and laid himself down to weep, covering himself entirely with his 
robe to keep out the Sun. When the Sun was directly overhead and 
saw the boy, it sent down a ray which burned spots upon the robe and 
made it shrink until it exposed the boy. Then the Sun smiled, while 
the boy wept more violently tlian before. He felt that he had been 
cruelly treated both by his brothers and now by the Sun. He said to 
the Sun, "You have treated me cruelly and burned my robe, when 1 did 
not deserve it. Why do you punish me like this'?" The Sun merely 
continued to smile, but said notliing. 

The boy then gathered up his bow and arrows, and taking his burnt 
robe, returned to the wigwam, where he laid down in a dark corner and 
again wept. His sister was outside of the wigwam when he returned, 
so she was not aware of his presence when she reentered to attend to 
lier work. Presently she heard someone crying, and going over to the 
j)lace whence the sound came she found that it was her youngest 
brother who was in distress. 

She said to him, "My brother, why are you weeping'?" — to which he 
replied, " Look at me ; I am sad because the Sun burned my beaver-skin 

182 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth. ann. 1* 

robe; I have been cruelly treated this day." Then he turned his face 
away and continued to weep. Even in his sleep he sobbed, because of 
his distress. 

When he awoke, he said to his sister, " My sister, give me a thread; I 
■wish to use it." 

She handed him a sinew thread, but he said to her, " No, that is not 
what I want; I want a hair thread." She said to him, " Take this; this 
is strong." " No," he replied, " that is not the kind of a thread I want; 
I want a hair thread." 

She then understood his meaning, and i^lucking a single hair from 
her ijerson handed it to him, when he said, " That is what I want," and 
taking it at both ends he began to pull it gently, smoothing it out as it 
continued to lengthen until it reached from the tips of the fingers of 
one hand to the ends of the fingers of the other. 

Then he started out to where the Sun's path touched the earth. 
When he reached the place where the Sun was when it burned his robe, 
the little boy made a noose and stretched it across the path, and when 
the Sun came to that point the noose caught him around the neck and 
began to choke him until he almost lost his breath. It became dark, 
and the Sun called out to the ma'nidos, "Help me, my brothers, and 
cut this string before it kills me." The ma'nidos came, but the thread 
had so cut into the flesh of the Sun's neck that they could not sever it. 
When iill but one had given up, the Sun called to the Koq'kipikuq'ki 
(the mouse) to try to cut the string. The Mouse came up and gnawed 
at the string, but it was difficult work, because the string was hot and 
deeply embedded in the Sun's neck. After working at the string a 
good while, however, the Mouse succeeded in cutting it, when the Sun 
breathed again and the darkness disappeared. If the Mouse had not 
succeeded, the Sun would have died. Then the boy said to the Sun, 
"For your cruelty I have punished you; now you may go." 

The boy then returned to his sister, satisfied with what he had done. 



In this myth the hunter proves to have been Ma'nabiish, he having 
in some unexplained manner assumed the dress and manner of a hunter, 
and in that guise experienced some curious adventures, as follows: 

The three brothers now lived with and provided for their sister, until 
one day the eldest felt inclined to go away hunting in a region which 
he had not before visited. While away, at a great distance from his 
own kindred, he came upon a wigwam inhabited by a family of thi-ee 
persons — a man and his wife and their only child, who was a girl. The 
young hunter became fond of the girl and married her, but soon moved 
away and built a wigwam of his own. In due course of time the hunt- 
er's wife bore a child, and then the hunter was obliged to hunt for 
more game and furs to provide for his little family. His wife was not 


of agreeable dispositiou, so they did not get along so pleasantly as might 
have been hoped. 

The hunter went into the woods one day, but, although he traveled 
until nightfall, he failed to get any game, and returned home disap- 
pointed. The next day he again went out to procure some food for his 
wife and child, yet, notwithstanding he was a good hunter, he again 
failed to obtain any. 

The wife then said to the hunter, "Why is it that you can not get me 
enough food to eat? — you were more successful in former days." The 
hunter told her that he could not account for his ill luck, and that he 
would try his fortune again on the following day. 

On the morning of the morrow it snowed heavily and he went through 
the woods looking in every direction for game, but the only thing he 
got was a partridge. It stormed so severely and the snow drifted so 
much that he became lost; so he endeavored to find some familiar local- 
ity that he might return to his wigwam, but without success. Night 
approached, and, not knowing his whereabouts, the hunter gathered 
together some brush and wood to build a fire and to make a shelter to 
camp during the night. Having done this he laid down and went to 
sleep. How long he slept he knew not, but when he first awoke it was 
still dark. While yet awake he suddenly thought he heard something 
approaching. He closed his eyes and pretended to be asleep, but the 
sound came so close to him that he opened his eyes slightly and to his 
amazement saw a Wolf standing near by, which said to him, "My 
brother, you are going to starve; you have not killed anything today; 
I came to you because I pity you. Your wigwam is close by and you 
will see it when daylight approaches; then you must go home and cook 
and eat your partridge." 

When the sun rose, the hunter went home to cook the partridge for 
his wife and child, but found that the child had starved. After he had 
completed his work he returned to the woods again to hunt some game, 
and, arriving at the place whei'e he had camped the night before, he 
found the Wolf there awaiting him. The Wolf said, "You must now 
kill some deer which I will drive close to you, but you must keep the 
liver and the fat for me ; the remainder you may carry to your wigwam." 

The hunter was pleased to hear this from the Wolf, and agreed to 
give the liver and fat of the deer to him. The Wolf started away, and 
presently a deer came running by the place where the hunter stood, 
closely followed by the Wolf. As the deer came near the hunter he let 
fly an arrow, wounding it, which enabled the Wolf to catch it and kill 
it by tearing open its throat. The hunter then dressed the deer, giving 
the liver and the fat to the Wolf for his assistance, and taking to his 
wigwam the remainder of the deer, including the paunch filled with 
blood. As the hunter approached, his wife was cutting wood, and 
when she looked up and saw her husband coming back with the deer 
she appeared very much pleased. She took the deer and was engaged 

184 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth. ann.u 

in cutting it up to broil, but not finding tbe liver she said to her bus- 
band, "What have you done with tbe liver; you know I am very fond 
of it!" 

He replied, saying, "I did not bring tbe liver with me;" whereat she 
seemed satisfied. He did iiot want to tell her be bad given it to tbe 
Wolf, because he did not want her to know that lie bad kUled tbe deer 
only through bis assistance, and thought the Wolf was entitled to at 
least so small a portion. 

Tbe next day the hunter again went into tbe woods, where be met tbe 
Wolf awaiting bim as before. Upon their meeting the Wolf said to 
the hunter, "]S^ow I will drive another deer past this place where yon 
stand, and you must shoot it; all I want in return is tbe liver and tbe 

The liuuter jirepared himself, while tbe Wolf started away to find 
another deer. In this be soon succeeded, and, driving it by tbe place 
where the hunter stood, the latter shot an arrow into its body which 
disabled it, when the Wolf soon overtook it and killed it by tearing 
open its throat as before. Tbe hunter dressed the body of tbe deer, 
as usual, giving the liver and the fat to the Wolf, after which be started 
to return to his wigwam. As be was going away, the Wolf said to tbe 
hunter, "Tomorrow morning you will return agam, when we shall get 
still another deer." 

"All right," replied the hunter, " I will return, as you ask me." 

After tbe hunter bad reached bis wigwam bis wife again prepared 
to broil tbe meat, but not finding the liver she asked her husband. In an 
angry tone, "What have you done with tbe liver; you know I am fond 
of it and wanted you to bring it to me?" Tbe hunter made an evasive 
response, not wishing to tell her what be had done with tbe liver, after 
which they both ate their meal in silence. 

On the following morning he again went away to bunt, finding tbe 
Wolf where they bad parted on the preceding evening. Tbe Wolf 
seemed glad to see tbe hunter and said, " Now, my brother, you get 
ready your bow and arrows while I go out to find a deer, and when I 
drive it i)ast this j)lace you must shoot it." Tbe hunter made the nec- 
essary preparations while the Wolf started off in search of a deer, which 
be soon found and drove by tbe place where the hunter stood. He 
shot an arrow into its body which disabled it, when tbe Wolf soon 
overtook tbe deer and killed it in the same manner in which he had 
dispatched tbe others. 

Tbe hunter dressed tbe deer, throwing tbe liver and fat to tbe Wolf, 
when tbe latter said, "Now, my brother, go home with your deer, but 
come back again tomorrow." The hunter agreed to do so and started 
home. His wife met bim at the wigwam as usual. When she cut up 
tbe carcass she looked for tbe liver, but not finding it she turned 
angrily toward her husband and said, "Where is the liver; you know 
I am very fond of it and that I asked you for it before?" He replied, 


"I have left it in tlie woods, and think you ought to be well satisfied 
with the meat." 

She was jealous of his apparent carelessness, but nothing further 
was said during the meal, soon after which they both went to sleep, for 
night had come. 

On the following morning he again went away to hunt, and returning 
to the spot where he had left the Wolf the preceding evening he found 
that ma'nido awaiting him. The Wolf said to the hunter, "Now, my 
brother, you get ready your bow and arrows, while I go out to find a 
deer, and when it runs by this place you must shoot it with an arrow." 
The hunter prepared himself as before, while the Wolf disappeared 
among the trees. Soon the hunter heard the crackling of twigs, and a 
deer came running past, closely pursued by the Wolf. Then the hunter 
let fly an arrow, disabling tlie deer, when the Wolf soon overtook it 
and killed it by tearing open its throat as before. Then the hunter 
dressed the carcass, but gave tlie Wolf only some fat and a piece of 
meat, telling the Wolf that he wanted this time to give the liver to his 
wife. The Wolf said nothing in response to this, but appeared to be 
disappointed. The hunter went home as before, threw down the car- 
cass of the deer, when his wife immediately began to look for the liver, 
which she found. 

She seemed gratified that she had compelled her husband to do as 
she had wished. He said to her, " Eat the liver, but be careful that you 
eat all of it, and do not leave any part of it lying about anywhere." 
She was only too glad to follow her husband's advice, but little knew 
what it would cost her. 

On the following day he again went to the place in the woods where 
he had i)arted with the Wolf on the preceding evening, but the Wolf 
was not there. The hunter looked in every direction, but there were 
no signs of him. During the day there came in sight only one deer, at 
which the hunter shot, but missed, and the deer ran away. The hunter 
traveled all day in quest of it, but his search was of no avail. iSTight 
coming on he built a fire and prepared a shelter where he could sleep. 
He had not long settled himself for the night when the Wolf came up 
to the fire and laid down by it, panting and wearied. The hunter said 
to the Wolf, " My brother, where have you been that you look so tired ?" 
To this the Wolf rei^Iied, "I have been hunting, but because you gave 
your wife the liver, I have not been successful; you should not have 
given it to her. She is a wicked woman, and you should leave her and 
find a wife among other people." 

These words made the hunter think of how he had been treated by 
his wife, and he finally said to the Wolf, " My brother, your words are 
good, and I shall do as you advise me." Then the Wolf took from his 
foreleg the "dew claw," and gave it to the hunter, saying, "Take this, 
my brother, and wear it about your wrist always; when you have it you 
will be strong and nothing can escape you, and you will be successful 

186 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann.14 

in everytliing you undertake; but if you remove it from your wri.-^t you 
will be defeated." 

The hunter took the claw which the Wolf gave him, aud attached it 
to his left wrist, wheu the Wolf said, "My brother, your name will 
henceforth be Nano'kupii'qkweni'sitii'^.' When you leave this place, go 
in any direction but toward your wigwam ; you will find people who are 
great gamblers, and he who is the losing one of this people you will 
know as the father of the girl whom you will take to be your wife. The 
family consists of seven persons, the father, the mother, four sons, and 
one daughter. Now I shall leave you." Then the hunter and the Wolf 
parted — the Wolf disappearing in the forest while the hunter took his 
bow and arrows and set out in the opposite direction. 

The hunter now traveled through a country which he had not before 
seen nor heard of. There was game in every direction, but he had not 
yet come to a place where there were signs of human beings. Late 
in the afternoon, when he was tii'ed and cold, and did not know what 
course to take to find a settlement, he heard a sound like that made 
by cutting wood. He proceeded very cautiously in the direction of 
the noise, peering from side to side, and discovered not far away two 
camps. But near to where he was he saw a large dead tree which was 
smouldering aud which he approached to warm himself. While here 
seated and contemplating what might be his next adventiire he heard 
some one approaching in the direction of the nearest camp. On looking 
up he saw coming toward him an old woman who seemed preoccupied, 
for her eyes were directed toward the ground. She came almost up to 
the hunter before she saw him, aud becoming alarmed at the sight of a 
stranger she hastened back to her wigwam. 

The old woman's husband was asleep, so wheu she entered the wig- 
wam she shook him by the shoulder aud said, "Wake up; T have just 
come from the burning tree and there saw Nano'kupii'qkweni'sita''." 

The old man, ou hearing these words, immediately raised himself 
from the robes, and calling to his youngest son said, " Come here, my 
son." The young man approached his father, who then said, " Tour 
mother says she has just returned from the burning tree where she saw 
Nano'kupa'qkweui'sitii''; go to him and bring him to me, for I think he 
must be your brother-in-law." The young man grasped his warclub 
and went out to find the hunter and to bring him to the wigwam. 

This old man and his family were the chief of the Omas'kos (Elk 
people), who occuiiied the first village which the hunter saw, while the 
second village was inhabited by the Mo°s (Moose people). The inhabi- 
tants of these two settlements were great gamblers and were antago- 
nistic to each other, because the Moose people were usually successful 
in any games undertaken, whereas the Elk people believed their lack 
of success due to some trickery. 

> This signifies a foot shaped like the ohlong rawhide traveling hag used by the Indians for stow- 
ing away small articles. Xano'kicpii'qkwe, carrying bag : ni'sitd*', foot. 


Wheu the son of the old man weut out to liud the buuter, be 
approached him iu a very tbreateuing manner and made gestures as if 
he were going to club the hunter to death. The hunter, however, only 
smiled at the young man's actions, whereupon the latter dropped bis 
club, and approaching the hunter said to him, " Come to my father, 
my brother, as he wishes to see you ; be says you must be Nano'kupii'q- 
kweni'sitii", who is to become my brotberin-law." The hunter arose, 
pleased at the invitation, and followed the young man to the wigwam, 
where be was met by the old man, who bade him enter and be seated. 

The old man then said to him, " My son, you must be Nano'kupa'q- 
kweni'sitii'', of whose coming I have been aware; you are to become 
my sonin-law." 

The hunter replied, "Yes, I am known by that name, and by what 
the Wolf told me, you are no doubt the chief of this village." 

"Yes," replied the old man, " I am the chief of this village, which is 
occupied by the Elk people; but the other village, which you see yonder, 
belongs to the Moose people, with whom we have not fared very well 
of late." 

Then, calling forward his daughter, the old man continued, "This, 
my son, is my only daughter, who is to become your wife. Take her if 
you desire." Then bidding the girl to advance where the hunter could 
behold her comeliness, she weut toward the stranger a few paces, where 
she stood abashed and with downcast eyes. The hunter admired her, 
and stepping forward took her by the hand and led her toward the seat 
he had occupied, saying to the old man, "I will take her, my father, 
and remain with you until we have conquered the Moose people." 

To signify that he was well pleased with liis choice, and to honor his 
fatherinlaw, the young buuter pulled forth from his pouch a short 
piece of tobacco, which be broke in two, retaining one portion for him- 
self, and handing the other to bis wife, saying, "Give this to your 
father that we may have a smoke." She took it and handed it to her 
father, who rubbed it between the palms of his hands, whereupon 
tobacco kept dropping to the ground in such quantities that there was 
a great heap, suflScieut to last for many days. Portions of it were sent 
to every person in the village, and yet there did not appear to be any 
diminution in the quantity of tobacco. The act of sending out tobacco 
to all the people was intended to inform them that the old man had 
now a souinlaw, by which they also learned that the stranger was 
Nano'kupa'qkweni'sita^, of whom they had heard through the old man. 

The Moose people hearing of the events which were transpiring in 
the village of the Elk people, came on a visit to the Elk people a few 
days later, saying to the new wife of Nano'kupii'qkweni'sita', " Our 
-women have come to play a game with your husband, to see whether 
he is better at playing with plum-stones than we are." The girl 
informed her husband what the Moose people said, and told him, " Be 
careful, my husband, because they are good players, and if you lose 


they will beat all of us with sticks and clubs, as they always do when 
we are defeated." 

The hunter cauie out of the wigwam, and advancing to the Moose 
women, said, " I hear you want to play a game of i)lumstoues with 
me; I am willing to play." They all became seated, when the hunter's 
wife said to him, " Do not i)lay with these women, for they have human 
eyeballs instead of plum-stones, and they will win every throw." 

"I am not afraid of them," rejoined the hunter; " wait and see who 
wins." Then the chief of the women began to argue and dispute with 
the hunter about who should commence, when the woman brought forth 
a dish, which she began to shake, but the hunter pushed it aside, say- 
ing, "That will not do; those things in the dish are not plum-stones, 
but human eyeballs. I will begin with my set." Whereupon he brought 
forth his own set, shook the bowl, and when the eight plum-stones had 
ceased rolling about he had won every point. This he did a second 
time, when the Elk people began to say to one another, " Now get 
ready jour sticks to whip the Moose folk, for we shall surely be the 
winners today;" but the Moose people, who had gathered about to 
watch the result of the game, also whispered to one another, " Prepare 
yourselves to whip the Elks, for they can not succeed." 

By this time the hunter had thrown the plum-.stones a third time, and 
the Elks were beginning to crowd onwai'd toward the Moose. When 
the fourth throw was made, which decided the game in favor of the 
Elks, the latter ran at the ]\Ioose, thoroughly thrashing them all the 
way back to their village. 

The Moose were at first dumfounded at their unexpected defeat, and 
next day considered what they might devise to defeat the Elk peoj)le 
in the plum-stone game. 

Between the Moose village and the Elk village stood two high posts, 
near together, and across the two from top to top was a piece of wood 
fi'om which was suspended a metal ball. On the ground lay a very 
large, heavy ball, which but few could lift. The Moose lolk, thinking 
this would be a test for the hunter, sent word to the Elks to meet them 
in order to see who of their number could lift and throw the heavy ball 
so as to strike the one sus[)ended fi'om the crossjuece. 

The Elks responded by going out to the place where the Moose were 
awaiting them. Then the best man of the Moose went to the ball, and 
with great exertion lifted and threw it up, barely touching the sus- 
pended smaller one. The Moose people then began to exult and to 
whisper to one another, saying, "Now get ready to return tlie whip- 
ping we got yesterday." 

The young brother-in law of the hunter now approached the large 
ball, and pretended that he could not move it. Then the Moose began 
to i:)ush forward so as to rush upon the Elks, for they supposed the 
young man could not succeed. When the hunter heard their remarks 
he rushed forward, and grasping the ball sent it far over the poles, as 


the ball had never before been thrown. Then the Elks attacked the 
Moose and thrashed them severely, chasing them all the way back to 
their village. 

The young Moose people were mortified and amazed at their ill luck, 
but began immediately to devise a plan whereby they could yet humil- 
iate their rivals. The women again met, and, after deliberating what 
to propose to the Elk people, one of them said, "Let us have a contest 
at diving in the lake, and see if our young men can not remain under 
the water longer than the best of the Elk people. It is cold and the 
lake is covered with ice, which is better for us, and we can soon cut a 
hole where the trial umy take place." To this the Moose people all 
agreed, whereupon the party went over to the Elk village and called 
out to the chief, " We have come over to have another contest with you, 
which we are sure we cau win." The chief spoke to his people to 
ascertain if they would agree to the proposal, whereon they all advanced 
much pleased at the prospect of again defeating tiieir rivals. 

The entire party, comprising the inhabitants of both villages, pro- 
ceeded to the lake, where a large hole was made in the ice, and the 
champion of the Moose people prei)ai-ed to get down into the watei'. 
As the hunter came forward from the Elk people his young brother-in- 
law said to him, "You must let me compete this time, as our bodies 
are covered with hair, while yours, having only a bare skin, will freeze." 

"No, nay buother," said the hunter, "I am fully able to withstand the 
cold, notwithstanding my bare skin; I am going to dive, and we will 
see if I can not defeat that Moose." 

The hunter tore away from his brother-in-law, and divesting himself 
of most of his clothing, got into the water to await the signal for diving. 

As the hunter sat at the edge of the ice, Miqkii'uo (Mud-turtle) came 
up from the bottom of the lake and said to the hunter, "My Ijnither, I 
have come to take care of you; I will cover your body with mine and 
you shall not feel the cold water at all. Trust yourself to my care." 
The hunter was greatly pleased to know that the Wolf had not forgot- 
ten him, by sending to him at this critical time a friend, in the form of 
the Mud-turtle, so he said "My brother, I shall do as you tell me, and 
am glad that you have come to my assistance." 

The signal being given, the divers plunged into the icy water and 
disaiipeared. Then the Moose people began to hope they should suc- 
ceed, and said to one another, "Now get your sticks, so as to be ready 
to whip the Elks, for the hunter will certainly come up first." 

"No, wait," said some of the more prudent; "the contest is not yet 

The Elks also began to encourage one another, and prepared to pounce 
upon the Moose, as they, too, had great hope of winning. 

In the meantime the Moose, who was under the water, spoke to his 
antagonist, saying, "Elk, are you cold?" to which the Mud-turtle 
replied for the hunter, "No, Moose; are you cold?" This was dis- 
tinctly heard by those on shore, and considerable agitation was caused 

190 THE MENOMINt INDIANS [eth. anx.u 

wlien the Mud-turtle, wbo assumed the voice of the hunter, asked, 
"Moose, are you cokl?" and no response was made. The Moose peo- 
ple became somewhat alarmed when their diver did not respond, for 
they believed, and very truly, that he was so benumbed with cold that 
he could not speak. Then slowly, and with great etiort, the Moose rose 
to the surface, thinking that surely by this time his rival had been van- 
quished, but was met with tlie blows of the Elk people, who began 
vigorously to ply their sticks and clubs upon every one of their oppo- 
nents. The Elks' champion, the hunter, was then brought to the sur- 
face by the Mud-turtle, just in time to see the last of the iieeing Moose 
people disappearing into their wigwams. 

The hunter then returned to his wife, who met him with joy, saying, 
"My husband, I am pleased with your success, for before you came 
among us the Moose people were always successful and punished us." 

Even this defeat of the Moose did not seem to dishearten them, for 
they immediately began to devise a scheme for a more difficult task 
with which to challenge the Elk people. It was decided to challenge the 
latter to a contest on the ice, to see which of the champions could slide 
most rapidly. The Moose claimed that they were the most expert on 
smooth ice, and all of them having agreed on this game, they went to 
the village of the Elks saying they should like another contest. 

The Elk people, ha\nng gained confidence since they had three times 
succeeded in defeating the Moose, were quick in accepting the chal- 
lenge, and all started out to the lake. 

The hike was very long, and two paths were soon cleared of snow, 
exposing a perfectly smooth surface. The Moose people arranged them- 
selves along the right shore of the lake, while the Elk folk occupied 
the left shore. The hunter was one of those who desired to compete 
against the Moose, but his wife's young brother came to him and said, 
"Brother-in-law, you can not slide on this smooth surface, as your feet 
are not fitted for it. My feet are hard and I can easily defeat them." 

The hunter hesitated a moment, but before he could make a reply, 
Mikek', the Otter, who was invisible to everybody else, came to him and 
said, "My brother, you come out on the ice, and when you prepare to 
slide you must place your feet upon me. My fur is thick and smooth 
and will skim over the ice without any trouble; but I must tell you 
that when we reach the goal at the end of the lake, I shall continue 
through the snowbank which you see there, to insure the defeat of 
the Moose." 

The hunter expressed his gratitude to the Otter, and said to his 
brother-in-law, "Brother-in-law, I shaU compete in this game, as Otter 
is going to place himself iiat upon the ice, and I shall succeed." 

The contestants then ai>proached the starting point, and each was 
eager to begin. No one could perceive the Otter beneath the feet of 
the hunter, because he was a raa'nido, and had been sent by the Wolf. 

The Moose believed that because the hunter's feet were not hard he 
would be unable to continue far ; and already, before the start was 


made, they began to whisper about the whipping they would at last be 
enabled to inflict upon the Elk people. 

The Elk people, on the other side, were equally confident of success, 
and had their sticks and clubs ready to attack their rivals the moment 
the race was decided in their favor. Presently the signal was given, 
and away went the Moose and the hunter together; but the Ifitter, 
going faster and faster, soon outstripped the Moose, who stopped at 
the end of the course, while the hunter went completely through the 
snowbank, so great was his speed. 

Then the Elk people exulted and chased the Moose back to their vil- 
lage, beating them all the way, in retaliation for the many whippings 
they had themselves once received at their hands. 

The Moose people were very much angered at this repeated defeat, 
and began to murmur among themselves. They thought that they 
could certainly devise some contest by which they would win, and one 
of the old Moose women said, "We have a swift runner here in our 
camp; why not try a footrace?" 

To this all appeared to agree, and immediately they went to the wig- 
wam of the hunter to challenge him or one of the Elks to a race. The 
hunter heard them coming, but remained lying on his mat. On appear- 
ing at the door, one of the Moose said, "We do not yet feel satisfied 
with our defeat, and wish to learn if you and your brother-in-law will 
run against two of our young men." The hunter replied that he was 
perfectly willing to run, and asked his eldest brother-in-law, who was 
the swiftest of the Elk people, to join him. The two soon prepared 
themselves and joined their friends, when both parties went out to the 
lake to prepare a track. This time the course was to extend all around 
the lake, near the shore, so that the goal should be at the starting 
point. It took both parties all day to clear the snow from the ice, and 
next morning the people gathered in crowds to see the sight — the Moose 
on the right bank and the Elk on the left. 

The Moose felt certain of victory, for they claimed that the hunter 
had but two legs, whereas their favorites had four each. While the 
hunter was preparing himself, the Wolf suddenly approached him and 
said, "My brother, I will assist you in this race. As nobody but you 
cau see me, 1 shall await you half-way on the course, when you will get 
astride of me and move your legs as if you were running, while I shall 
carry you along at greater speed; then you will meet the Fox, nearer 
the goal, who will carry you to the end of the course." The hunter was 
much elated at meeting his old friend, and at receiving such a timely 
offer of assistance. 

The chief of the Moose people came toward the contestants as they 
were preparing to start, and said to them, " You will find a mist settling 
over the course about half-way around, but do not let that annoy you." 
This was said to discourage the champions of the Elks, and to inform 
the Moose runners that they might take advantage of any opportunities 
that might present themselves while they were passing through the mist. 

192 THE MEXOMIM INDIANS [eth. ann.14 

The ruDiiers were now ready to start — two Moose to represent the 
Moose people, and tbc hunter and his eldest brother-in-law the choice 
of the Elk people. At a given signal they started away over the ice, the 
Moose soon widening the distance between themselves and their rivals. 
The brother-in-law of the hunter came next after the Moose, and last 
of all, and gradually losing, the hunter himself, who was last not because 
he could not run, but because he wanted the Moose people to think 
that he would lose the race, and finally cause them more chagrin at 
being deceived. When the runners approached the spreading mist, 
the I']lk threw some snow back at the hunter to intimate that the Wolf 
was there awaiting him. So soon as the latter reached the point where 
the Wolf was he jnmjjed astride the Wolf, and with his brother-in-law 
was soon far in advance of the Moose runners. 

With every muscle strained the runners turned the half-point of the 
course and were speeding toward the goal. The Moose runners wei'e 
again gaining on their competitors, but this did not last long, for the 
latter soon reached the Fox, when the hunter felt the Wolf slide from 
beneath him and the Fox take his place. 

While the Elks' runners were apparently losing the race, the Moose 
peoi)le became greatly excited, and urged one another to start forward 
to attack the Elk people and whip them. The more thoughtful, how- 
ever, hesitated, saying, "Wait; we will have plenty of time to punish 
them after the race." The Elk people, also, said to one another, "Now 
get your sticks and clubs ready to beat the Moose, for we shall surely 
win." So each side was watching the other, ready to make an attack 
so soon as the race was iinished. 

When the hunter felt the Fox beneath him, both the Elk runners were 
far behind the Moose, but now they started ahead, and with a tremen- 
dous rush they passed the Moose, reaching the goal first. Now there 
was a scamper of the Moose to their village, while the FAk ]ieople came 
on after them, whipping them all the way back. 

The iloose were now thoroughly aroused at the frequent defeats 
with which they had met, and called together all of their people to hold 
council to decide on what they might next devise to bring destruction 
to the hunter and defeat to the Elk people. 

One of the old Moose suggested that they all pass the hunter's wig- 
wam so as to get him to shoot at them and exhaust himself, when he 
might be killed. The speaker said, "We will all pass his house tomor- 
row when he is taking his vapor bath, at which time he will have laid 
ixside the wolf-claw bracelet, upon which his strength depends. After 
he has exhausted his arrows he will use his club, and that will soou 
tire him so much that our men can easily desti'oy him." 

The Moose, being ma'nidos, knew what the hunter would do, espe- 
cially after his success of that day; so all agreed to follow the plau 
which had been suggested. 

When, after the race, the hunter returned to his wigwam he laid him- 
self down to think of what he should do the next time the Moose came 




to propose a contest. He fell asleep and reuiained so until the next 
morning, when he removed his clothing and his wolf-claw bracelet pre- 
paratory to taking a vapor bath. He entered the little wigwam for this 
purpose while some of his family were heating stones to hand to him. 
After he had ftnished taking his vapor bath he returned to his wigwam, 
and while he was standing at the door he saw some moose approach- 
ing, which, as they passed the door, he shot with arrows. He did not 
know that they were the Moose people from the next village, and kept 
killing them as rapidly as he could until his last arrow was gone. 

These Moose were not dead, however, for, being ma'nidos, they could 
resume their living form whenever they desired. 

When the hunter had exhausted his arrows he went into the wigwam 
to get his club, when he again began to kill Moose as rapidly as they 
passed his door. The young Moose, the children, came by, when he 
began to strike them down, but became so exhausted that he felt as if 
he had to give up, but before doing so he spied a very old Moose coming 
along whom he hit uiion the head, breaking his club. Then he cried, 
"I have lost my wolf-claw bracelet; where is it?" His wife and her 
brothers searched for it, but could nowhere find it. They were not 
aware that he had removed it in the vapor bath, a fact that he himself 
had forgotten. 

At this moment his friend, the Wolf, came to his rescue, and began 
to tear the throats of the Moose; but soon becoming exhausted he cried 
to the hunter, "We are defeated; we might as well give up." Then the 
remaining Moose said, "Now, brothers, our time has come; let us kill 
him," and with that they attacked the hunter and cut him all to i^ieces. 

The Moose then restored their people to life, and returned to their 
own village, highly elated that they had at last become rid of their 
rival and defeated their neighbors. Then the chief of the Moose said, 
"We have won, my friends; now let us gather together and celebrate 
the event ; " whereupon they all got as near as possible to hear the song 
of the chief Moose, which was as follows: 

Na'nakop akVasita, he, 

14 ETH 13 

jy. C, ad lib. 

194 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth an.v. U 

The signification of the words is, that, " We have defeated him who 
always won." 

While the Moose people were thus exulting in the destruction of the 
hunter, his young wife sat mourning and weeping in her wigwam with 
her head and body shrouded in a large robe. While she was thus 
weeping for her husband, the various ma'nidos heard her, and said to 
one another, " Let us visit the widow of Nano'kupa'qkweni'sita'^,and get 
her to take one of us as husband." They agreed, and the Wolf led 
them to her wigwam; but while they were deliberating over this plan 
she heai'd their words; so when the Fox came to where the young 
widow sat and said to her, " I have returned; I am your husband; take 
me," she replied, saying, " Xo, leave me; you are not my husband." 
Then the Fox pulled away the robe that covered her and threw some 
water in her face. 

The woman then wept again at receiving such harsh treatment, but 
after a while she became pacified and went to sleep. On the next night 
the Rabbit came to her and said, "I have returned; I am your hus- 
band; take me." She paid no attention to this, but said, "No, leave; 
you are not my husband," whereupon the rabbit suddenly pulled the 
robe aside, exposing her face, and threw water on it. 

Then she wept anew, lamenting her fate and the treatment she was 
receiving at the hands of the ma'nidos. 

On the following night tlie Dog came to the young woman and said, 
"I have returned; I am your husband; take me." She would not look 
up to see who spoke, but replied, "No, leave me; you are not my 
husband." Then the Dog pulled aside the robe from her face and threw 
some water on it. Again she began her lamentations and continued 
to dwell upon her distress, until at last she fell asleep. 

These three ma'nidos remained in the vicinity of the wigwam to see 
who would be so fortunate as to get the woman for his wife. 

The hunter's mother-in-law was a very small old woman, who had a 
very small dog. The crone visited the spot where the hunter had been 
cut to i^ieces, and where there was still some blood on the ground; this 
the little dog licked up, but it made him eager to find more. While 
this was happening the old woman heard laughter in a wigwam a short 
distance away, on the side toward the Moose settlement. She ap- 
proached very cautiously, and on peeping in the wigwam to see what 
was causing such merriment, she observed that the Moose women had 
congregated to talk and to eat the little pieces of the huuter's flesh 
which had been gathered. One old woman was eating the heel just as 
the little dog entered the wigwam, when one of her companions said to 
her, "Do you see that little dog? He looks so angrj' that 1 believe 
he will bite you;" and before she could reply the little dog had sprung 
upon her and bitten her, and in the excitement the canine snatched up 
the heel-bone with his jaws and escaped to where the hunter had been 
cut to pieces. The dog had congregated a great number of the 


InJi'maqki'ii'^, the Good Thuutler ma'nidos, and as he brought the heel- 
bone of the right foot, Kaka'ke (the crow) took it and said, "I will 
throw this upon the ground four times, and at the fourth time the 
hunter will rise from the dead." Then the Crow took tlie bone, and 
raising it m the air as high as he could, threw it forcibly down before 
him upon the ground, saying. "Nano'kupa'qkweni'sitii'', arise from the 
dead." As the bone struck the ground, the Wolf was heard to howl. 

Again the Crow took up the bone and threw it upon the ground, say- 
ing, "Nano'kupa'qkweni'sita'', arise from the dead." The Wolf howled 
again. The Crow took up the bone the third time and threw it upon 
the ground, saying, " Nauo'kupii'qkweni'sita'', arise from the dead." 
The Wolf howled louder and nearer than before, while the Crow took 
up the bone a fourth time, and thi'owing it upon the ground said, as 
before, "Nano'kupii'qkweni'sita'", arise from the dead!" As the bone 
struck the ground, the form of the hunter appeared to them just as he 
had been before. Then the ma'nidos flew away, glad that they had 
restored their brother to life. 

The hunter heard the Moose women who had congregated to eat his 
flesh, so he went near to where they were seated, and said, "Now you 
may prepare yourselves, for in a very little while I shall destroy every 
one of you and your people," after which he went toward hisown wigwam 
where his wife sat weeping. As he approached her, he said, " I have 
come now ; I have risen from the dead ; " but his wife replied by saying, 
"No, you are not my husband; I have been deceived before, and 1 will 
not look at you." To this the hunter answered, "Yes, it is I; I am 
your husband," when, hearing the familiar voice, she looked to see 
whether it was true that her husband had really risen from the dead, 
and seeing him before her she was overcome with joy. 

After the young wife had told her husband how the Moose folk had 
treated her people, he became greatly angered and threatened to 
punish them in such a manner that the Elk people would henceforth 
be able to live in peace. He thereupon went into the woods to select 
willow twigs with which to make arrowshafts, and wood for a bow, 
and another piece to furnish him with a strong warclub. He spent 
two days in this work, and when he had finished he had four very pow- 
erful arrows which were to render him good service. 

One day while the hunter was occupied near his wigwam he heard 
some one coming through the brush. Looking in the direction whence 
came the sound of cracking twigs, he saw a young Moose who had 
come to take his wife. When the Moose saw that the hunter was there 
and ijrepared to protect his wife, he ran away as fast as he could, but 
the hunter was enraged and immediately ran into the wigwam, grasped 
his weaiTOns and followed the Moose to punish him. 

The Moose people heard that something unusual was occurring, and 
when they saw the young Moose returning at full speed toward their 
settlement, followed by the hunter, they realized the danger they were 

196 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.anx.u 

ill. The elder ones thereuijoii said to one anotlier, "Here comes the 
liuuter, and be will now surely kill us all; let us leave this place and 
take up our abode elsewhere." Then tlie Moose people started in a 
body to escape, but the hunter attacked them, dealing death in every 
direction, and following them until but two of them remained alive. 
These he captured, the hunter saying to them, "Now, you fiud your- 
selves in this cedar swamj), where you must hereafter live aud feed 
upon the mosimiu (willows); this will be your food for all time." 
While saying this to the Moose he placed some willow twigs to their 
mouths to let them know how they tasted aud what they thereafter 
would have to subsist on. 

Then the hunter returned to his wigwam, aud his adopted people 
were thenceforth left in peace. 


The youngest of the three brothers at whose home Ma'nabush bad 
been staying, aud who bad accomplished the exploits of destroying- 
most of the auii'maqki'ii and of restoring bis two elder brothers to lib- 
erty, now decided to go away, because both be and bis sister feared 
that the surviving bears of the ana'maqki'u would visit them and do 
them injury in revenge for what the boy hunter had done to their 
people. The sister urged her brother to go, and gave him ber sbaki- 
pan (a stone ornament which she wore in her hair) aud a large handful 
of blueberries. These things he was to use as she instructed him, at 
a time which would come when every other means of self-preservation 

The boy bunter still bad ber four arrows — the one with which he bad 
set afire a large tree, another with which he had broken oj)en the stone 
wigwam of the bear ana'maqki'u, and two others which were to become 
of great use to bim. Then he started away in a direction new to him, 
to find a place where he might live in safety. 

While he was leisurely going aloug one day, he heard behind him a 
peculiar sound, as of mauy footsteps. Looking back, be beheld some 
bears followiug bim, aud he at once realized that the ana'maqki'u had 
discovered his trail, and that they were now in j)ursuit of bim. He 
began to run, crying out, "What shall I do"? The ana'maqki'u have 
found my tracks, and are after me ! " The country in which he was now 
passing was an apparently endless prairie, with nothing growing upon 
it but short grass; but as he flew onward he heard a voice, which 
said, " So soon as the bears catch you they will kill you; now you must 
use your arrows." Immediately the boy hunter remembered that he 
bad his weapons and the articles which bis sister had given Mm. Tak- 
ing an arrow from his quiver, be fixed it to his bowstring, and as he 
was about to shoot it into the air before bim he said to the arrow, 
"When you come down, there shall be about you a copse covering an 
area as wide as the range of an arrow. There I shall hide myself." 


Away fle'w the arrow, and the inomeiit it struck and entered the earth 
there was a small hole in the o round, around which sprung up a dense 
growth of brush. The little boy ran to the hole, crawled into it, and 
then went to the edge of the brush, where he came up and hid by the 
side of a tree which also had sprung out of the ground. As the bears 
came to the spot where they had seen the boy disappear, they began to 
tear up the brush until not a piece remained standing. Not finding 
the hunter, the bears began to search for his last footprints, and finding 
that they terminated at the hole made by the arrow they at once fol- 
lowed him. As the bears were now in close pursuit of the boy, he 
again disappeared in the ground and started away until he had got 
quite a distance from the tree, when he again emerged and started to 
run away along the prairie. 

By the time the bears reached the tree where the boy had rested f©r 
a moment, they were again delayed in trailing him, but they finally 
succeeded in tracking him out to the ijrairie, where they espied him 
running in the distance. They immediately set out in pursuit, but it 
was a long time before they neared him. When the bears approached, 
the hunter took his second arrow, and shooting it into the air before 
him, said to it, "When you come down there shall be about you a copse 
as wide as the range of an arrow. There I shall hide myself." 

When the arrow descended and entered the earth there appeared a 
dense undergrowth which completely hid the boy, who then went to 
the hole, crawled into it, and traveled along in the ground until he had 
passed beyond the end of the copse, where he emerged and hid by a 
tree which also had si^rung up. 

As before, the bears were infuriated at the escajte of the boy, and 
tore up the brush in every direction in their search for him. Finally 
they discovered the arrow hole, which they entered. Following the foot- 
steps of the boy they soon found the place where he had taken refuge, 
but before they reached him he found himself pursued, and, again div- 
ing under the surface, he started away for some distance, when he 
emerged from beneath the ground and started away over the prairie as 
before. A second time were the bears baffled, and by the time they 
found the footprints of the boy he was far off. They at once started in 
pursuit, and as the boy began to tire a little the bears gained rapidly 
on him, until he found that the only way to escape was to use his third 
arrow. Taking the shaft from his quiver and fitting it to his bow- 
string, he aimed upward into the air before him and said, "When you 
come down there shall be about you a copse as wide as the range of an 
arrow. There I shall hide myself." 

The arrow descended, making a hole in the ground as before, and a 
copse appeared all around it, hiding it from view. The boy at once 
went down into the hole and away to the edge of the copse, where he 
ascended to the surface and hid near one of the trees which had sprung 
up at his command. 

198 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth. an.vh 

When the bears reached the spot wliere the boy had disappeared 
they were more angry than before, and soon tore up every bit of the 
growing brush. They then discovered wliere his footprints ended, and 
at once entered the arrow hole and followed him. When the boy heard 
the bears following his tracks, he again disappeared beneath the sur- 
face and did not emerge until he had traveled some distance along 
under the prairie, when he once more came to the surface and ran with 
all his might. 

The bears were again delayed when they reached the tree where the 
boy had rested, but after finding the course he had taken they started 
in pursuit, ascending to the surface of the prairie, where they saw the 
boy far in the distance. 

The chase was a long one, and in time the boy began to tire and the 
bpars to gain on him, so that he was compelled to take his last arrow, 
which he fixed to the string of his bow and shot into the air, saying, 
"When you come down there shall be about you a marsh filled with 
pe'onas'kinuk (cat-tails), from the middle of which there shall be a 
trail; by that shall I escape." 

When the arrow descended the boy found himself in the midst of a 
large marsh, and from his feet forward a trail of firm ground, which 
enabled him to continue running whilst the bears struggled in the mud 
and amongst the cat-tails. After a while the bears also found the trail, 
and renewed their pursuit of the boy, giving him no opportunity for a 
moment's rest. As they neared him, the bears shouted, "We are now 
close upon you, and in a short time we will catch you and kill you!" 
Then the boy remembered the stone which his sister had given him, and 
taking it out of his pouch he put it in a strip of buckskin and slung it 
round several times above his head, then threw it forward on the prairie, 
saying, "As I sling this it will cause a long high rock to ajipear, upon 
which I shall take refuge." The little stone bounded and rolled along 
over the ground and suddenly became transformed into a steep, high 
cliff with a flat top and with many loose stones lying about the edge. 
As the boy reached the cliff he clambered to the summit and looked 
over the edge to watch the bears. The bears ran around the base, look- 
ing for the boy everywhere, and when they appeared beneath the boy, 
he began to roll over the large loose stones upon them, killing a great 
many and breaking the bones and otherwise disabling others. While 
the unharmed bears, who were even more astonished at what had trans- 
pired, went to look at their killed and wounded companions, the boy 
hastily descended on the opposite side of the cliff and started out in a 
new direction to escape. 

After gazing awhile at their dead and wounded companions the 
unmaimed bears began to look for the boy, but neither hearing nor 
seeing him they suspected that he had escaped, and at once began to 
search for footprints leading away from the rock. When these were 
found, the bears followed in pursuit until they were almost certain of 
capturing their enemy. 


Now tlie bears had not eaten anything for a long time, and they 
began to feel very hungry; but there was nothing in sight that they 
could devour save the boy, so they tried their utmost to catch him, 
and were slowly gaining on hira when he remembered the blueberries 
which his sister had given liim. These he took from his jioucli, and 
threw them into the air, scattering them far and wide, and said, " When 
you fall to the ground there shall be blueberries growing every wh re; 
these will deliver me." When the berries fell, surely enough there 
instantly appeared blueberry bushes ladeu with fruit, which caused the 
bears to stop. They were so eager to eat that they entirely forgot 
the boy until they could eat no more; they then remembered what 
they had contemplated doing when they first set out. One old bear, 
observing dissatisfaction among his friends, said, "My brothers, we had 
better give up the chase; the boy is merely a mystery. Let us stop 
and live here, for here we shall have sufticient food without digging 
for it." To this the rest of the bears assented ; so here they made their 

Shu'nien subsequently added the following relative to the exploits 
of the boy hunter : 

Thus ended the troubles of the boy hunter. After escaping from the 
ana'maqki'ti he continued to travel leisurely toward Wapaka, where he 
made a large flat-top black rock, upon which is a large three-leg bowlder, 
called, on account of this, Asanashoqkadet. At the base of this large 
rock is a river, called Wapii'kase'pe (Wapaka river). Another thing 
the boy hunter made near this jilace. He made a long high ridge, 
which he covered with kenushi shikepui (dwarf willows). On this 
ridge the boy hunter also placed a large three-leg rock. 

At the mouth of the "Wapii'kase'pe — that is, where it empties into 
Wolf river — are six tall i)ines, which were once people. They are called 
Wapii'kaini'u'' (Wapaka men). 

Mii'nabush had remained at the wigwam with the young girl and her 
two elder brothers for a long time, and he it was who had aided the 
young hunter in successfully defeating the ana'maqki'u — both at the 
mountain when releasing his brothers, and afterward in himself escap- 
ing them after he left his sister. 

Mii'nabush now departed, and when he reached Mii'kinak he made 
a high narrow rock, which he placed leaning against the cliff. This 
rock is as high as an arrow can be shot from a bow. At this place 
Mii'niibiish was seen by his people for the last time. Before taking 
leave of them he said, "My friends, I am going to leave you now; I 
have been badly treated — not by you, but by other people who live in 
the laud about you. I shall go toward the rising sun, across a great 
water, where there is a land of rocks. There shall I take up my abode. 
Whenever you build a mitii'wiko'mik and are there gathered together 
you will think of me. When you mention my name I shall hear you. 

200 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth. ann.u 

Whatever you may attempt in my name shall come to pass; and 
whatever you may ask, that will I do.'" 

When Mii'nabush had thus spokeu to his frieuds, he ,";ot into a canoe 
and disappeared over the great water toward the rising sun. 


In the following myth the origin of day and night is accounted for, 
as well as the selection, by various animals and birds, of the i>articular 
kinds of food whigh they now eat. The cause of the bare neck and 
head of the buzzard is also related, as this bird had an adventui-e with 
Mii'nabush which was never forgotten. 

One time as Wabus' (the rabbit) was traveling along through the 
forest, he came to a clearing on the bank of a river, where lie saw, 
perched on a twig, Totoba, the Saw-whet owl. The light was obscure, 
and the Eabbit could not see very well, so he said to the Saw-whet, 
" Why do you want it so dark? I do not like it, so I will cause it to be 
daylight." Then the Saw-whet said, " If you are powerful enough, do 
so. Let us try our powers, and whoever succeeds may decide as he 

Then the Eabbit and the Owl called together all the birds and the 
beasts to witness the contest, and when they had assembled the two 
informed them what was to occur. Some of the birds and beasts 
wanted the Eabbit to succeed, that it might be light; others wished the 
Saw-whet to win the contest, that it might remain dark. 

Then both the Eabbit and the Saw whet began, the former repeating 
rapidly the words "wa'bon, wa'bon" (light, light), while the Owl kept 
repeating " uni'tipa'qkot, uni'tipa'qkot " (night, night). Should one of 
them make a mistake and repeat his opponent's word, the erring one 
would lose. So the Eabbit kept on saying, "wa'bon, wa'bon," and the 
Saw-whet " uni'tipa'qkot, uni'tipa'qkot," each being watched and urged 
by his followers; but finally the Owl accidentally repeated after the 
Eabbit the word " wabon," when he lost and surrendered the contest. 

Tlie Eabbit then decided that it should be light; but he granted that 
night should have a chance for the benefit of the vanquished. This 
proving satisfactory, they decided that the various birds and beasts 
should select the kind of food on which they would thereafter subsist. 

The Eabbit saw Owa'sse (the bear), and asked him what food he 
would select. The Bear replied, "I will select acorns and fruit as 
my food." Then the Eabbit asked the Fish-hawk, "Fish-hawk, what 
will you select as your food !" The Fish-hawk responded, "I will take 
that fellow lying in the water, the Sucker." Then the Sucker said, 
"You may eat me if you are stronger tl:an I, but that we must 
decide." Then the Sucker swam out into the deepest part of the river 
and lay on the bottom, where the Fish-hawk could not reach him by 
diving. The Fish-hawk then rose into the air and took such a position 


that bis shadow fell on the spot where the Sucker had taken refuge. 
While hoveriug thus the Fish-hawk saw the Sucker becoming restless, 
and the latter, seeing the shadow of a large bird on the bed of the 
stream, became alarmed at it, for he thought it might be some evil 
ma'nido, and slowly rose toward the surface. This was just what the 
Fish-hawk desired to accomplish, and so soon as the Sucker had come 
within a short distance of the surface the Fish-hawk pounced on him, 
caught him in his claws, and took him away to devour him. 

The Eabbit then looked around him and espied Moqwai'o (the wolf), 
and, calling him to come nearer, asked him, " Moqwai'o, what will you 
select as your food ! " The Wolf replied, " I will select the Deer." But 
the Deer replied, "You can not eat me, because I am too tleet for you." 
The Wolf said they would decide that, and both made preparations for 
a race. The Deer sped away, followed by the Wolf. The latter still 
wore his fur robe, hence the Deer gradually increased the space between 
them after they had run for a great distance. The Wolf soon found 
that he could not catch the Deer the way in which he was running, so 
he threw off his robe, discharged a quantity of excrement, and bolted 
ahead, soon capturing the Deer, which he ate. 

Then another Deer — one of the same totem — was asked by the Rab- 
bit: "Deer, what will you select as food?" 

The Deer replied, "I will eat people; there are many Indians in the 
country, and I will subsist on them." 

"But," exclaimed the other birds ind animals present, "the Indian 
is too powerful; you will never be able to eat people." 

" Well," returned the Deer, " I will select them anyhow." and started 

It happened that at one time when an Indian was out hunting in the 
forest he discovered the tracks of a deer, which made a large circuit 
to the right. He followed these tracks, and on returning to the place 
at which he had first seen them he observed that they took a course 
toward the left and made another large circuit. He followed the tracks 
in this dii'ection, and when he returned to the place where he had first 
seen them he observed that a deer was following him; so he posted 
himself at a place where he might get a good view of the animal. 

The Deer was fully determined to catch the Indian and eat him, and 
to accomplish this he pulled a rib from each of his sides and stuck 
them into his lower jaw to represent tusks. The Deer came along 
looking for the Indian, and when the latter saw the quadruped coming 
toward him he raised his bow, and, pulling a strong arrow let it fly 
with such force and precision as to pass entirely through its body. 

The hunter then took the Deer and cut oft" the meat, which he carried 
to his wigwam. Then the shade of the Deer went back to the gather- 
ing of birds and animals, and told them what had happened. " You 
see," said the Eabbit, "you are not strong enough to kill i>eople for 
food, so you will have to resort to grass and twigs." 

202 THE MENOMINI INDIANS rETii. ans. 14 

Then the birds and animals asked the Rabbit what he had selected 
to eat, and the Rabbit replied, " I will subsist on poplar sprouts." 

The Rabbit then asked the Sturgeon. "Sturgeon, what are you going 
to select for your sustenance?" 

" I will liv'e on the clay which you see here in the river," responded 
the Sturgeon. This may be why the Sturgeon is so yellow. 

jS^ext the Rabbit said to the Buzzard, " Buzzard, what will you choose 
for food f The Buzzard replied, " I will live on fish and animals that 
have died and become soft; they will be my food." 

Thus tiie birds and beasts selected the various kinds of food on 
which they were to live, and when the council was over each went his 
own way. 

While the Buzzard was soaring away through the air he saw Mii'nii- 
bush walking along. He flew a little toward the ground, with his 
wings outspread, and heard Mii'niibush say to him, " Buzzard, you 
must be very happy up there where you can soar through the air and 
see what is transpiring in the world beneath. Take me on your back 
so that I may ascend with you and see how it aiipears down here from 
where you live." The Buzzard came down, and said, " Ma'niibush, get 
on my back and I will take you up into the sky to let you see how the 
world appears from my abode." Ma'niibush approached the Buzzard, 
but seeing how smooth his back appeared said, "Buzzard, I am afraid 
you will let me slide from your back, so you must be careful not to 
sweei) around too rapidly, that I may retain my place upon your back." 
The Buzzard told Ma'niibush that he would .be careful, although the 
bird was determined to play a trick on him if possible. Ma'niibush 
mounted the Buzzard and held on to his feathers as well as he could. 
The Buzzard took a short run, leajied from the ground, spread his 
wings and rose into the air. Mii'niibush felt rather timid as the Buz- 
zard swept through the air, and as he circled around his body leaned 
so much that Mii'nabush could scarcely retain his position, and he was 
afraid of slipping off. Presently, as Ma'niibush was looking down 
upon the broad earth below, the Buzzard made a sharp curve to one 
side so that his body leaned more than ever. Mii'niibush, losing his 
grasp, slipped oft' and dropped to earth like an an'ow. He struck the 
ground with such force as to knock him senseless. The Buzzard 
returned to his place in the sky, but hovered .iround to see what would 
become of Mii'niibush. 

Mii'niibush lay a long time like one dead. When he recovered he saw 
something close to and apparently staring him in the face. He could 
not at first recognize it, but when he put his hands against the object 
he found that it was his own buttocks, because he had been all doubled 
up. He arose and prepared to go on his way, when he espied the 
Buzzard above him, laughing at his own trickery. 

Mii'niibush then said, "Buzzard, you have played a trick on me by 
letting me fall, but as I am more powerful than you I shall revenge 


myself." The Buzzard then replied, "'No, Ma'niibush, you will not do 
anything of the kind, because you can not deceive me. I shall watch 

Ma'niibfish kept on, and the Buzzard, not noticing anything peculiar 
in the movements of Ma'niibush, flew on his way through the air. 
Mii'nabush then decided to transform himself into a dead deer, because 
he knew the Buzzard had chosen to subsist on dead animals and fish. 
Mii'nabush then went to a place visible from a great distance and from 
many directions, where he laid himself down and changed himself into 
the carcass of a deer. Soon the various birds and beasts and crawl- 
ing things that subsist on such food began to congregate about the 
dead deer. The Buzzard saw the birds flying toward the place where 
the body lay, and joined them. He flew around several times to see if 
it was Mii'niibiish trying to deceive him, then thought to himself, "Xo, 
that is not Ma'nabush ; it is truly a dead deer." He then aijproached 
the body and began to pick a hole into the fleshy part of the thigh. 
Deeper and deeper into the flesh the Buzzard picked until his head and 
neck were buried each time he reached in to pluck the fat from the 
intestines. Without warning, while the Buzzard had his head com- 
pletely hidden in the carcass of the deer, the deer jumped up and 
pinched together his flesh, thus firmly grasping the head and neck of 
the Buzzard. Then Mii'niibush said, "Aha! Buzzard, I did catch you 
after all, as 1 told you I would. Now pull out your head." The Buz- 
zard with great difliculty withdrew his head from the cavity in which 
it had been inclosed, but the feathers were all j)ulled off, leaving his 
scalp and neck covered with nothing but red skin. Then Mii'niibush 
said to the bird, " Thus do I jranish you for your deceitfiihiess; hence- 
forth you will go through the world without feathers on your head and 
neck, and you shall always stink because of the food you will be obliged 
to eat." That is why the buzzard is such a bad-smelling fellow, and 
why his head and neck are featherless. 


The following is a translation of a myth given by Nio'pet, and is a 
variant of that furnished above by Shu'nien. The present narrative 
also pretends to account for the origin of the word Winnebago. 

While Mii'niibush was once walking along a lake shore, tired and 
huugry, he observed a long, narrow sandbar, which extended far out 
into the water, around which were myriads of waterfowl, so Mii'nabush 
decided to have a feast. He had with him only his medicine bag; 
so he entered the brush and hung it upon a tree, now called "Mii'nii- 
bush tree," and procured a quantity of bark, which he rolled into a 
bundle and i^lacing it upon his back, returned to the shore, where he 
pretended to pass slowly by in siglit of the birds. Some of the Swans 
and Ducks, however, recognizing Mii'nabush and becoming frightened, 
moved away from the shoi-e. 


One of the Swans called out, " Ho ! Ma'niibusb, wbei'e are you going?" 
To this Mii'nabush replied, "I am going to have a song. As you may 
see, I have all ray songs with me." Jlii'niibrish then called out to the 
birds, "Come to me, my brothers, and let us sing and dance." The 
birds assented and returned to the shore, when all retreated a short dis- 
tance away from the lake to an open space where they might dance. 
JMa'nJibush removed the bundle of bark from his back and placed it on 
the ground, got out his singing-sticks, and said to the birds, "Xow, all 
of you dance around me as I drum; sing as loudly as you can, and keep 
your eyes closed. The first one to open his ej'es will forever have them 
red and sore." Ma'nabfish began to beat time upon his bundle of bark, 
while the birds, with eyes closed, circled around him singing as loudly 
as they could. Keeping time with one hand, Ma'nabush suddenly 
grasped the neck of a Swan, which he broke; but before he had killed 
the bird it screamed out, whereupon Ma'niibush said, "That's right, 
brothers, sing as loudly as you can." Soon another Swan fell a victim; 
then a Goose, and so on until the number of birds was greatly reduced, 
Then the "Hell-diver," opening his eyes to see why there was less sing- 
ing than at first, and beholding Ma'nabush and the heap of victims, 
•cried out, "Mii'nabush is killing us! Ma'niibush is killing us!" and 
immediately ran to the water, followed by the remainder of the birds. 

As tlie "Hell-diver" was a poor runner, Mii'niibush soon overtook 
liim, and said, "I won't kill you, but you shall always have red eyes 
and be the laughing-stock of all the birds." With this he gave the 
bird a kick, sending him far out into the lake and knocking off his 
tail, so that the "Hell-diver" is red-eyed and tailless to this day. 

Ma'niibush then gathered up his birds, and taking them out upon the 
sandbar buried them— some with their heads protruding, others with 
the feet sticking out of the sand. He then built a fire to cook the 
game, but as this would require some time, and as Mii'niibush was tired 
after his exertion, he stretched himself on the ground to sleep. In order 
to be informed if anyone approached, he slapped his thigh and said to 
it, "You watch the birds, and awaken me if anyone should come near 
them." Then, with his back to the fire, he fell asleep. 

After awhile a party of Indians came along in their canoes, and see- 
ing the feast in store, went to the sandbar and pulled out every bird 
which Mii'nabush had so carefully placed there, but put back the heads 
and feet in such a way that there was no indication that the bodies had 
been disturbed. When the Indians had finished eating they departed, 
taking with them all the food that remained from the feast. 

Some time afterward, Mii'niibush awoke, and, being very hungry, 
bethought himself to enjoy the fruits of his stratagem. In attempting 
to pull a baked swan from the sand he found nothing but the head and 
neck, which he held in his hand. Then he tried another, and found 
the body of that bird also gone. So he tried another, and then another, 
but each time met with disapjjointment. Who could have robbed him? 


he thought. He struck his thigh and asked, '' Who has beeu here to 
rob me of my feast; did I uot command you to watch while I slept?" 
His thigh responded, "I also fell asleep, as I was very tiied; but I see 
some people moving rai)idly away iu their canoes; perhaps they were 
the thieves. I see also they are very dirty and poorly dressed." Then 
Ma'nabush ran out to the point of the sandbar, and beheld the people 
in their canoes, just disappearing around a point of laud. Then he 
called to them and reviled them, calling them "Winnibe'go! Winni- 
be'go!" And by this term the Meuomiui have ever since designated 
their thievish neighbors. 

A similar story concerning the exploits of Ma'nabush was related to 
me by the Ojibwa of both White Earth and Red Lake, Minnesota. In 
this story the short tail of the "hell-diver" [Podiceps) is accounted for. 
A similar myth, obtained from tlie Selish, of Idaho, nominates the 
coyote as the one to carry on his back the music, or rather " songs," 
with which he subsequently induces the birds to dance, succeeds in 
pulling out the tail of the "hell-diver," and in giving the latter red eyes 
in punishment for his curiosity. 


The following myth was related by Mo'pet, and explains how the 
Indians first obtained tobacco. 

One day Ma'nabush was passing by a high mountain, when he detected 
a delightful odor which seemed to come from a crevice in the cliffs. 
On going closer he found the mountain inhabited by a giant who was 
known to be the keeper of the tobacco. Mii'iiabush then went to the 
mouth of a cavern, which he entered, and following the passage which 
led down into the very center of the mountain he found a large chamber 
occupied by the giant, who asked him in a very stern manner what he 
wanted. Mii'niibush replied that he had come for some tobacco, but the 
giant replied that he would have to come again in one year from that 
time, as the ma'nidos had just been there for their smoke, and that the 
ceremony occurred but once a year. Ma'niibush, on looking around 
the chamber, observed a great number of bags filled with tobacco. One 
of these he snatched and with it darted out of the mountain, closely 
pursued by the giant. Ma'nabush ascended to the mountain tops and 
leaped from peak to peak, but the giant followed so rapidly that when 
Mii'niibush reached a certain prominent peak, the opposite side of which 
was a high vertical cliff, he suddenly laid flat on the rocks while the 
giant leaped over him and down into the chasm beyond. The giant 
was much bruised, but he managed to climb up the face of the cliff 
until he almost reached the summit, where he hung, as all his finger- 
nails had beeu worn oft'. Then Ma'niibusli grasped the giant by the 
back, and, drawing him upward, threw him violently to the ground and 

206 THE MENOMINI INDIANS (eth. ann. 14 

said, "For your iiieaiiness you shall become Kaku'eue (-the jumper' — 
grasshopper), and you shall be known by your stained mouth. You 
shall become the pest of those who raise tobacco." 

Then Mii'nabush took the tobacco and divided it amongst his brothers 
and younger brothers, giving to each some of the seed, that they might 
never be without this plant for their use and enjoyment. 


The following is the concluding myth relating to Ma'niibush, and it 
purports to account for the place of his abode. It is based on the 
myth related in connection with the ritual of the Mita'wit, where the 
.seven hunters made a visit to Ma'nabush to ask favors. The follow- 
ing tale was told by Shu'nieu : 

One time, long after Ma'nabush had gone away from his people, an 
Indian dreamed that Ma'niibush spoke to him. Then the Indian awoke, 
and when daylight came he sought seven of his mita" friends, the 
chief ones of the Mitii'wit. Then they held a council among them- 
selves, at which it was decided that they go in search of Ma'nabush 
and make him a visit. The Indian who had dreamed of 3I;i'uiibush 
then blackened his face, and they all started away to the shore of the 
great water, where they entered canoes and went toward the rocky 
land, in the direction of the rising sun. After a long time they reached 
the shore of the land where Mii/uiibush dwelt. Getting out of their 
canoes, which they pulled up on shore, they started to find his wig- 
wam. They soon reached it, and, aiiproaching the entrance, they 
beheld Mii'nabush, who bade them enter. The door of the wigwam 
moved up and down, and each time one of the Indians entered the 
wigwam "the door came down and closed the entrance, when it again 
lifted to allow the next one to enter. When all had thus entered and 
seated themselves about Mii'niibush, he said to them, "My friends, why 
is it you have come so long a journey to see me; what is it you wish?" 
Then all save one responded, "Mii'niibush, we are very desirous of 
procuring some hunting medicine, that we may be enabled to supply 
our people with plenty of food." 

"That you shall have," replied Ma'niibush; and, turning to the one 
who had not joined in the request, said to him, "What is it that you 
desire f 

To this the Indian replied, " I do not desire hunting medicine, but I 
wish you to give me everlasting life." Then Mii'niibush went to where 
the Indian sat, and taking him up by the shoulders carried him to 
where he usually slept, where he put him down, saying, "You shall be 
a stone; thus you will be everlasting." The others, seeing what had 
occurred, took leave of Mii'niibush and went down to the shore, where 
they got into their canoes and returned home. 

From the seven who returned we have this story of the abode of 


The following' statement was given to the late Eeverend Father 
De Smet', by Potogojees, a Potawatouii chief of reputed intelligence, 

" Many of us believe that there are two Great Spirits wlio govern 
the universe, but who are constantly at war with each other. One is 
called the Kchemnito, that is, the Great Spirit; the other Mchemnito, 
or the Wicked Spirit. The first is goodness itself, and his beneficent 
influence is felt everywhere; but the second is wickedness personified, 
and does uotliing but evil. Some believe that they are eiiually ])0wer- 
ful, and through fear of the Wicked Spirit, offer to him their homage 
and adoration. Others, again, are doubtful which of them should be 
considered the more powerful, and accordingly endeavor to proijitiate 
both by offering to each an appropriate worship. 

"A great manitou came on earth and chose a wife from among the 
children of men. He had four sons at a birth ; the first born was called 
Nauaboojoo, the friend of the human race, the mediator between man 
and the Great Spirit; the second was named Chipiapoos, the man of the 
dead, who presides over the country of the souls; the third, AVabosso, 
as soon as lie saw the light, fled towards the north, where he was 
changed into a white rabbit, and under that name is considered there 
as a great manitou; the fourth was Chakekeuapok, the man of flint or 
firestone. In coming into the world he caused the death of his mother. 

"Nanaboojoo, having arrived at the age of manhood, resolved to 
avenge the death of his mother (for among us revenge is considered 
honorable) ; he pursued Chakekenapok all over the globe. Whenever 
he could come within reach of his brother he fractured some member 
of his body, and after several rencounters finally destroyed him by tear- 
ing out his entrails. All fragments broken from the body of this man 
of stone then grew up into large rocks; his enti'ails were changed into 
vines of every species and took deep root in all the forests; the flint- 
stones scattered around the earth indicate where the different combats 
took place. Before fire was introduced among us, Nanaboojoo taught 
our ancestors how to form hatchets, lances, and the points of arrows, in 
order to assist us in killing our enemies in war and animals for our food. 
Nanaboojoo and his brother Chipiapoos lived together retired from the 
rest of mankind and were distinguished from all other beings by their 
superior qualities of body and mind. The mauitous that dwell in the 
air, as well as those who inhabit the earth and the waters, envied the 
power of these brothers and conspired to destroy them. Nanaboojoo 
discovered and eluded their snares and warned Chipiapoos not to sepa- 
rate himself from him a single moment. Notwithstanding this admoni- 
tion, Chipiapoos ventured alone one day upon Lake Michigan; the 
mauitous broke the ice and he sank to the bottom, where they hid the 
body. Nanaboojoo became inconsolable when he missed his brother 
from his lodge; he sought him everywhere in vain; he waged war 

' Oregon Missions and Travels over the Rocky ilountaius, in 1845-16, New York, 1817, pp. 344, 345. 


against all the mauitous and precipitated au infinite number of theui 
into the deepest abyss. He then wept, disfigured his person, and cov- 
ered his head as a sign of his grief during six years, pronouncing from 
time to time in sad and mournful tones, the name of the unhappy 

" While this truce continued, the manitous consulted upon the means 
best calculated to appease the anger of iSTanaboojoo, without, however, 
coming to any conclusion ; when four of the oldest and wisest, who had 
had no hand in the death of Chipiapoos, ottered to accomplish the diffi- 
cult task. They built a lodge close to that of Nanaboojoo, prepared an 
excellent repast, and filled a calumet with the most exquisite tobacco. 
They journeyed in silence towards their redouL)ted enemy, each carrying 
under his arm a bag, formed of the entire skin of some animal — an otter, 
a lynx, or a beaver — well jirovided with the most precious medicines (to 
which, in their superstitious pract.'ces, they attach a supernatural 
power). With many kind expressions they begged that he would con- 
descend to accompany them. He arose immediately, uncovered his 
head, washed himself, and followed them. When arrived at their lodge, 
they ottered him a cup containing a dose of their medicine, preparatory 
to his initiation. Xanaboojoo swallowed the contents at a single draft, 
and found himself completely restored. They then commenced their 
dances and their songs; they also api)lied their medicine bags, which, 
after gently blowing them at him, the}' would then cast on the ground. 
At each fall of the medicine bag, Nanaboojoo perceived that his melan- 
choly, sadness, hatred, and anger disappeare(\, and afl'ections of an 
opposite nature took possessiou of his soul. They all joined in the 
dance and song — they ate and smoked together. Nanaboojoo thanked 
them for having initiated him into the mysteries of their grand medicine. 

" The manitous brought back the lost Chipiapoos, but it was forbid- 
den him to enter the lodge. He received, through a chink, a burning 
coal, and was ordered to go and preside over the region of souls, and 
there, for the happiness of his uncles and aunts — that is, for all men and 
women who should repair thither — kindle with this coal a fire which 
should never be extinguished. 

"Nanaboojoo then redescended upon earth, and, by order of the 
Great Spirit, initiated all his family in the mysteries of the grand 
medicine. He procured for each of them a bag well furnished with 
medicines, giving them strict orders to perpetuate these ceremonies 
among their descendants, adding at the same time, that these practices, 
religiously observed, would cure their maladies, procure them abun- 
dance in the chase, and give them complete victory over their enemies. 
(All their religion consists in these superstitious practices, dances, and 
songs; they have the most implicit faith in these strange reveries.) 

"Nanaboojoo is our principal intercessor with the Great Spirit. He 
it was that obtained for us the creation of animals for our food and 
raiment. He has caused to grow those roots and herbs which are 


endowed with tbe virtue of curing our maladies, and of enabling us iu 
the time of famine to kill the wild animals. He has left the care of them 
to Mesakkumiuikokwi, the great- grandmother of the human race; and 
in order that we should never invoke her in vain, it has been strictly 
enjoined on the old woman never to quit the dwelling. Hence, when 
an Indian makes a collection of roots and herbs which are to serve 
him as medicines, he deposits at the same time on the earth a small 
offering to Mesakkunimikokwi. During his ditierent excursions over 
the surface of the earth, Nanaboojoo killed all such animals as were 
hurtful to us, as the mastodon, the manunoth, etc. He has placed four 
beneficial spirits at the four cardinal points of the earth for the pur- 
pose of contributing to the happiness of the human race. That of the 
north procures for us ice and snow, in order to aid us in discovering 
and following the wild animals. That of the south gives us that which 
occasions the growth of our pumpkins, melons, maize, and tobacco. 
The spirit placed at the west gives us rain, and that of the east gives 
us light and commands the sun to make his daily walks around the 
globe. The thunder we hear is the voice of spirits, having the form 
of large birds, which Nauaboojoo has placed in the clouds. When 
they cry very loud, we burn some tobacco in our cabins to make them 
a smoke-offering and appease them. 

"Nanaboojoo yet lives, resting himself after his labors upon an 
Immense flake of ice in the Great Lake (the North Sea). We fear that 
the whites will one day discover his retreat and drive him oft'. Then 
the end of the world is at hand, for as soon as he puts foot ou the 
earth the whole universe will take fire, and every living creature will 
perish in the flames!" 

This narrative, though brief, appears to touch a number of myths 
related in the present memoir as pertaining directly to the Menomini, 
which will be recognized by the reader. 


The following myths do not relate to Mii'nabtish, but are the folk- 
tales recited by the old Indians during the long winter evenings to 
account for various phenomena, instances of prowess, and combats with 
the evil beings of the irnderworld or the ana'maqki'u. The accompany- 
ing three myths were related by Shu'nien. The first one accounts for 
the moon's phases; the second for the cause of the aurora borealis, 
and the third relates to meteors. 


Once on a time Ke'so, the Sun, and his sister, Tipa'ke'so, the Moon 
("last-night sun") lived together in a wigwam in the east. The Sun 
dressed himself to go hunting, took his bow and arrows and left. He 
was absent such a long time tliat when his sister came out into the 
sky to look for her brother she became alarmed. She traveled twenty 
14 ETH 14 

210 THE MENOSIINI INDIANS [eth.ann. u 

days looking foi' the Suu; but flually he returued, bringing with liiui a 
bear which he had shot. 

The Sun's sister still comes up into the sky and travels for twenty 
days; then she dies, and for four days nothing is seen of her. At the 
end of that time, however, she returns to life and travels twenty days 

The Sun is a being like ourselves. Whenever an Indian dreams of 
him he plucks out his hair and wears an otter skin about his head, over 
the forehead. This the Indian does because the Sun wears an otter skin 
about his head.' 


In the direction of the north wind live the manabai'wok (giants), of 
whom we have heard our old peojile tell. The manabai'wok are our 
friends, but we do not see them any more. They are great hunters and 
fishermen, and whenever they are out with their torches to spear we 
know it, because then the sky is bright over the place where they are. 


When a star falls from the sky, it leaves a fiery trail; it does not die, 
but its shade goes back to the place whence it dropped to shine again. 
The Indians sometimes find tlie small stars in the prairie where they 
have fallen. They are of stone, and are round, with a spot in the cen- 
ter, and four or five small points projecting from the surface. I have 
myself found some of these fallen stars. 

The following myths are self-explanatory and require no comment 
except in instances where comparison with parallel myths of the Ojibwa 
or other closely allied tribes may be of special value or interest. They 
were obtained chiefly from Shu'nien, Xio'pet, Wai'os'kasit, and other 
prominent Menomini, and to the ethnologist present some curious flights 
of fancy. 

The first is called Kitii'mi, the Porcupine, or the punishment for dis- 
respect and cruelty. 


There was once a village in which dwelt two sisters who were con- 
sidered the swiftest runners in the Menomini tribe. Toward the setting 
sun was another village, though so far away that an ordinary walker 
would have to travel two days to reach it. Once these two sisters 
decided to visit the distant village ; so, starting out, they ran at great 
speed until nearly noon, when they came to a hollow tree lying across 
the trail. 

Snow was on the ground, and the sisters saw the track of a Porcu- 
pine leading to the hollow of the trunk. One of them broke off a 
stick and began to poke it into the cavity to make the Porcupine come 

' Shu'nien stated that in his youth he had seen eight such dreamers who had plucked the hair from 
tlie scalp aud wore otter-sldn bands about the bead. The custom is now obsolete. 


out, saying, "Let us have some fun with him." "No, my sister," said 
the otlier, "he is a ma'uido, and we had better let him alone." The for- 
mer, however, continued to drive the Porcupine farther and farther 
through the trunk until at last he came out, when she caught him and 
pulled all the long quills out of his body, throwing them in the snow. 
The other remonstrated against such cruelty, for she thought it was 
too cold to deprive the Porcupine of his robe. Then the girls, who had 
wasted some time and still had a great distance to travel, continued 
their running toward the village for which they were bound. 

When they left the hollow log, the Porcupine crawled up a tall pine 
tree until he reached the very top, where he faced the north and began 
to shake before his breast his small tshi'saqka rattle, singing in time to 
its sound. Soon the sky began to darken and the snow to fall, while 
the progress of the girls, who were still running along, became more 
and more impeded by the constantly increasing depth of snow. 

One of the sisters looked back and saw the Porcupine on the treetop, 
iisiug his rattle. Then she said to her sister who had plucked out his 
quills, "My sister, let us go back to our own village, for I fear some 
harm will befall us." 

"No; let us go on," replied her companion, "we need not fear the 
Porcupine." As the depth of the snow impeded their progress, they 
rolled up their blankets and continued the journey. 

The day was drawing to a close and the sisters had not yet reached 
a point from which they could see the village they were striving to 
reach. Traveling on, they came to a stream which they recognized as 
being near the village, but night had come on, and the snow was now 
so deep that they were compelled by exhaustion to stop. They could 
hear the voices of the people in the village, but could not call loud 
enoiigh to be heard ; so they perished in the snow which the Porcirpine 
bad caused to fall. One should never harm the Porcupine, because he 
is a tshi'saqka and a ma'nido. 


One time the Raccoon went into the woods to fast and to dream. He 
dreamed that some one said to him, " When you awaken, you must 
paint your face and body with bands of black and white; that will be 
your own." 

When the Raccoon awoke, he went and painted himself as he had 
been told to do, and so we see him even at this day. 


The following tale represents the raccoon as the mischief maker, as 
the animal of like propensities among other tribes is the coyote. 

There was a large settlement on the shore of a lake, and among its 
people were two very old blind men. It was decided to remove these 


men to the opposite side of the lake, where they luiglit live in safety, 
as the settlement was exposed to the attack of enemies, when they 
might easily be captnred and killed. So the relations of the old men 
got a canoe, some food, a kettle, and a bowl and started across the 
lake, where they built for them a wigwam in a grove some distance 
from the water. A line was stretched from the door of the wigwam to 
a post in the water, so that they would have no diflBcuIty in helping 
themselves. The food and vessels were put into the wigwam, and 
after the relations of the old men promised them that they would call 
often and keep them provided with everything that was needful, they 
returned to their settlement. 

The two old blind men now began to take care of themselves. On 
one day one of them would do the cooking while the other went for 
water, and on the next day they would change about in their work, so 
that their labors were evenly divided. As they knew just how much 
food they required for each meal, the quantity prepared was equally 
divided, but was eaten out of the one bowl which they had. 

Here they lived in contentment for several years; but one day a 
Raccoon, which was following the water's edge looking for crawfish, 
came to the line which had been stretched from the lake to the wigwam. 
The Kaccoou thought it rather curious to find a cord where he had not 
before observed one, and wondered to himself, "What is this? I think 
I shall follow this cord to see where it leads." So he followed the 
path along which the cord was stretched until he came to the wigwam. 
Approaching very cautiously, he went up to the entrance, where he 
saw the two old men asleep on the ground, their heads at the door and 
their feet directed toward the heap of hot coals within. The Eaccoon 
sniffed about and soon found there was something good to eat within 
the wigwam; but he decided not to enter at once for fear of waking the 
old men ; so he retired a short distance to hide himself and to see what 
they would do. 

Presently the old men awoke, and one said to the other, "My friend, 
I am getting hungry; let us prepare some food." "Very well," replied 
his companion, "you go down to the lake and letch some water while 
I get the fire started." 

The Raccoon heard this conversation, and, wishing to deceive the 
old man, immediately ran t.o the water, untied the cord from the post, 
and carried it to a clump of bushes, where he tied it. When the old 
man came along with his kettle to get water, he stumbled around the 
brush until he found the end of the cord, when he began to dip his 
kettle down upon the ground for water. Not finding any, he slowly 
returned and said to his companion, "We shall surely die, because the 
lake is dried up and the brush is grown where we used to get water. 
What shall we do?" 

"That can not be," responded his comjianion, "for we have not been 
asleep long enough for the brush to grow upon the lake bed. Let me 


go out to try if I can uot get some water." So taking the kettle from 
liis friend be started off. 

So soon as the first old man bad returned to the wigwam, the Rac- 
coon took the cord back and tied it where be had fonnd it, then waited 
to see the result. 

The second old man now came along, entered the lake, and getting 
his kettle full of water returned to the wigwam, saying as he entered, 
"My friend, you told me what was uot true. There is water enough; 
for here, you see, I have our kettle full." ■ The other could uot under- 
stand this at all, and wondered what had caused the deception. 

The Raccoon approached the wigwam and entered to await the cook- 
ing of the food. When it was ready, the pieces of meat, for there were 
eight of them, were put into the bowl and the old men sat down on 
the ground facing each other, with the bowl between them. Each took 
a piece of the meat, and they began to talk of various things and were 
enjoying themselves. 

The Raccoon now quietly removed four pieces of meat from the bowl 
and began to eat them, enjoying the feast even more than the old blind 
men. Presently one of them reached into the bowl to get another piece 
of meat, and finding that only two pieces remained, said, "My friend, 
yon must be very hungry to eat so rapidly; I have had but one piece, 
and there are but two pieces left." 

The other replied, " I have uot taken them, but suspect you have 
eaten them yourself;" whereupon the other replied more .angrily than 
before. Thus they argued, and the Raccoon, desiring to have moi'e 
sport, tapped each of them on the face. The old men, each believing 
the other bad struck him, began to fight, rolling over the floor of the 
wigwam, upsetting the bowl and the kettle, and causing the fire to be 
scattered. The Raccoon then took the two remaining pieces of meat 
and made bis exit from the wigwam, laughing ha, ba, ha, ha; whereupon 
the old men instantly ceased their strife, for they now knew they bad 
been deceived. The Raccoon then remarked to them, " I have played a 
nice trick on you; you should uot find fault with each other so easily." 
Then the Raccoon continued his crawfish-hunting along the lake shore. 

shika'ko, the skunk 

The following is an account of how the skunk is alleged to have made 
some hr'itiiig medicine, the elfect of the vegetal ingredients being as 
overpowering as the offensive liquid with which this animal is said 
to have killed the oak. 

The Skunk was once a larger animal than he now is. He was as 
large as a hill, but he gradually became smaller and smaller; and as 
his size kept diminishing, be determined to make a strong hunting 
medicine — one that would give him skill in killing great game and 
plenty of it. He hunted around to find the plants he required for his 


medieiue, and succeeded in obtaininf>- four. These were mosh'kikwas,' 
pinii'sse-osbet,^ as'kaii'cjpukn, ' and islia'wasket/ 

When he had gathered a small bundle of each of these plants — they 
altogether being as much ao he could grasp in his hand — he pounded 
them very fine. Then, when the medicine was prepared, he put it in a 
little pouch which he always carried with him wherever he went. 

One day, when he found himself near a large oak, he thought he 
would test the medicine which he had made. So he took a pinch of 
the powder out of the i)Ouch, put it in some water, and drank it. Then, 
to make the medicine still more effective, he sang, "Who is goiug out 
hunting, for I go out to hunt ?" 

Then the Skunk faced the oak, and shot at the roots — not with an 
arrow, but with a foul smelling liquid, which, when it struck the tree, 
caused it to be consumed to ashes. 

The hunting luedicine that was made by the Skunk is the same that 
we jnake to this day. 


Once when the Catfish were assembled in the water an old chief said 
to them, " I have often seen a Moose come to the edge of the water to 
eat grass; let us watch for him, and kill and eat him. He always comes 
when the sun is a little way up in the sky." 

The Catfish who heard this agreed to go and attack the Moose; so 
they went to watch. They were scattered everywhere among the grass 
and rushes, when the Moose came slowly alftiig picking grass. He 
waded down into the water, where he began to feast. The Catfish all 
watched to see what the old chief would do, and presently one of them 
worked his way slowly through the grass to where the Moose's leg was, 
when he thrust his spear into it. Then the Moose said, " What is it 
that has thrust a spear into my leg?" and looking down he saw the 
Catfish, when he immediately began to trample upon them with his 
hoofs, killing a great number of them, while those that escai>ed swam 
down the river as fast as they could. The Catfish still carry spears, but ■ 
their heads have never recovered from the flattening they received when 
they were trampled by the Moose into the mud. 


The first meeting between the Indians and whites is accounted for 
in the following story, told by Waios'kasit, and in this instance, as in 
like tales of other tribes, liquor is referred to as having been given to 
the Indian to make him temporarily demented. 

When the Menomini lived on the shore of the sea,^ they one day were 
looking out across the water and observed some large vessels, which 

• Au aquatic plant found in cedar swamps. 

'^ The word signifies eagle-leg, and refers to a prairie plant bearing yellow flowers. 

3 An aqu.atic jdant. growing to the height of about 4 feet, the roots of which are used. 

* Also an aquatic plant. 

s Probably Lake Michigan is here referred to. 


were uear to them and wonderful to behold. Suddenly there was a 
terrific explosion, as of thunder, which startled the people greatly. 

When the vessels api)roached the shore, men with light-colored skin 
lauded. 3Iost of them had hair on their faces, and they carried on 
their shoulders heavy sticks ornamented with shining metal. As the 
strangers came toward the Indians the latter believed the leader to be 
a great ma'nido, with his companions. 

It is customary, when offering tobacco to a ma'nido, to throw it into 
the Are, that the fumes may ascend to him and that he may be inclined 
to grant their request; but as this light-skin ma'nido came in person 
the chief took some tobacco and rubbed it on his forehead. The 
strangers appeared desirous of making friends with the Indians, and 
all sat on the ground and smoked. Then some of the strangers brought 
from the vessel some parcels which contained a liquid, of which they 
drank, linally ofiering some to the Menomiui. The Indians, however, 
were afraid to drink such a pungent liquor indiscriminately, fearing it 
would kill them; therefore four useless old men were selected to drink 
the liquor, and thus to be experimented on, that it might be found 
whether the liquid would kill them or not. 

The men drank the liquid, and, although they had previously been 
very silent and gloomy, they now began to talk and to grow amused. 
Their speech flowed more and more freely, while the remainder of the 
Indians said, "See, now it is beginning to take effect!" Presently the 
four old men arose, and while walking about seemed very dizzy, when the 
Indians said, " 8ee, now they are surely dying!" Presently the men 
dropped down and became unconscious; then the Indians said to one 
another, '• ISTow they are dead; see what we escaped by not drinking 
the liquid!" There were sullen looks directed toward the strangers, 
and murmurings of destroying them for the supposed treachery were 

Before things came to a dangerous pass, however, the four old men 
got up, rubbed their eyes, and approached their kindred, saying, "The 
liquor is good, and we have felt very happy; you must try it too." 
Notwithstanding the rest of the tribe were afraid to drink it then, they 
recalled the strangers, who were about to return to their boats. 

The chief of the strangers next gave the Indians some flour, but they 
did not know what to do with it. The white chief then showed the 
Indians some l)iscuits, and told them how they were baked. When that 
was over, one of the white men presented to an Indian a gun, after fir- 
ing it to show how far away anything could be killed. The Indian was 
afraid to shoot it, fearing the gun would knock him over, but the stran- 
ger showed the Indian how to hold it and to point it at a mark; then 
pulling the trigger it made a terrific noise, but did not harm the Indian 
at all, as he had expected. Some of the Indians then accepted guns 
from the white strangers. 

Next the white chief brought out some kettles and showed the Indi- 
ans how to boil water in them. But the kettles were too large and too 


heavy to cany about, so the Indians asked that they be given small 
ones — cups as large as a clinched list, for they believed they would 
grow to be large ones by and by. 

The Indians received some small cups, as they desired, when the 
strangers took their departure. But the cups never grew to be kettles. 


There was a family of four persons — a hunter, his wife, and two 
children — who dwelt in one wigwam. The hunter each day went out 
for game, aud he usually returned with all that he could carry. He con- 
tinued these successful hunting excursions throughout the autumn and 
until the middle of winter ; but one daj-, while in the woods, far from his 
wigwam, Kou (the snow) froze the hunter's feet so badly that he could 
scarcely get along. He felt very sad that he was so injured by the Cold, 
and to punish him he made a large wooden bowl, which he filled with 
Snow, and buried it in a deep hole where the midday sun could shiue 
down on it and where the Snow could not run away. He then covered 
the hole with sticks and leaves to hold the Snow a prisoner until summer. 

When midsummer came, the hunter went out to the place where he 
had buried the Snow, aud, removing the covering, permitted the sun to 
shine down on it and cause it to melt. Thus he punished the Snow; 
but when autumn came again and he was one day in the forest, he 
heard someone say to him, " You jjunished me last summer, but when 
winter comes I will show you how strong I am." 

The hunter well knew that it was Kon who had thus addressed him, 
aud, taking care to provide himself against cold weather, he at once built 
another wigwam, near to the one he occupied, and filled it with fire- 
wood. The season changed and the winter came again. One day when 
the hunter was out in the woods, he heard some one speaking, aud, lis- 
tening, heard the words, "Now I am coming to visit you, as I told you 
I should do; I shall be at your wigwam iu four days.'" 

AYheu the hunter returned to his wigwam, he got more wood ready, 
and built a fire at each end of his wigwam. After four days had passed 
by, it began to get very cold, and everything became frozen. The hunter 
replenished the fires with the wood he had gatliered, aud got out more 
robes to cover his wife and children. On the morning of the fifth day 
the cold became more and more intense, in consequence of wliich the 
hunter and his family coukl scarcely keep from perishing. Toward 
night the hunter, on looking out the door of the wigwam, saw approach- 
ing a stranger who seemed to look like any ordinary being, save that he 
had a very large head and an immense beard. When he came to the 
wigwam, the hunter asked him to enter, which he did, but strangely 
enough he would not go near either of the fires. This puzzled the hunter, 
and he began to watch the stranger. As the cold became even greater 
after the stranger entered the wigwam, the hunter went to his fires and 
added more wood until they loared. As the hunter was thus engaged, 


be kept watching the stranger, who appeared to be getting rather warm. 
The perspiration began to break out upon his forehead and trickle down 
through his beard. Tlie stranger appeared to get warmer and warmer, 
and in a short time the hunter saw his head and body dniiinisliing in 
size, because lie was thawing. The hunter was pleased at this, and 
kept up his fires until he had entirely melted the Snow, for it was he 
who had come to destroy the hunter and his family. But man is 
more powerful thau Cold, and thus Kon perished. 


In the following it would appear that the mythic circumstance 
alluded to transpired shortly after the creation of the several totems, 
but special reference is made to an instance in which Kine'i'r', the 
Golden-eagle, became angered at the Owa'sse (bear) chief and called 
him A'kwine'mi, his former name liaviiig been Sheka'tshokwe'mau. 
The latter is the "Old Chief" or "Old King," whose name first appears 
at the time of the conspiracy of Pontiac, and the tale appears, therefore, 
to be of later creation. 

One time the King'u'' and his people lived on the southern shore of 
the Mi'nika'nise'pe, ' while the Owa'sse and his people lived ou the 
northern shore of that stream. Although the Kine'u^' and the Owa'sse 
lived on opposite shores, they were some distance apart. 

Above the camp of the KinS'u'' was a waterfall where fish were 
caught. The Bear, who lived neaier the mouth of the river, becoming 
jealous, built a dam across the river to prevent the fish from farther 
ascending the stream. When the fish did not ascend the river at the 
proper time, the KiucTi^' began to suffer from want of food, and many, 
indeed, died of starvation. The Kine'ii'' then asked his son to go down 
to the camp of the Owa'sse and ask him to remove the dam, that the 
fish might be permitted to ascend the river and his people no longer be 
compelled to suffer. 

The sou of Kine'u'' went to the Owa'sse, as he had been requested, 
and asked that the dam be removed, that the fish might ascend the 
river and relieve his starving people. The Owa'sse appeared to acqui- 
esce in this request, and told the son of Kiue'ti'' that all would be done 
as he had asked. But next morning Owa'sse heated a piece of metal 
in the fire; then, calling to the sou of Kine'fi'', he said, "You may 
return to your camp now; the fish will follow," and as the boy came 
toward Owa'sse lie was grasped by him, who thrust the hot metal rod 
through the skin of the boy's forehead, leaving a great wound there. 
The boy went home with his robe over his head and shoulders in order 
to hide the wound, and immediately entered his wigwam, where he sat 
down, sileut and meditating. Kine'fr soon entered the wigwam, and, 
on observing his son, said to him, "My son, were you successful in your 

1 Now knowu aa Menomini river. 


" Yes, my father," responded tbe boy, " the fish are coming up; but 
see what I got from the Owa'sse." The sou then threw back his robe, 
exposing the wound he had received. The Kiue'fr became terribly 
angry, and called the chief of the Owa'sse, A'kwine'mi, his former 
name having been Sheka'tshokwe'mau. Henceforth the chief of the 
KinCTr* assumed the name of W(''"skine'u''. 

Then WC'skiue'il"'' sent word to A'kwine'mi that he would destroy 
him and his people for the insult and injury inflicted ou his son. The 
two parties soon met in battle, when We"skine'u'' jumped upon the 
back of A'kwine'mi and bound him with cords, the victors assisting. 
He was tied in such manner that should he struggle he would choke 
himself; therefore A'kwine'mi remained motionless. After the defeat 
of the people of Wf'"skine'u^ by those of A'kwine'mi, the boy's father 
approached the captive chief again and said, " We wanted to eat fish, 
but you filled my son with fire; now I shall fill you with fish"— where- 
upon he called together the nomii'sok (fish) and filled the body of 
A'kwine'mi with them. 

The people of A'kwine'mi, knowing that they could no longer reside 
in peace with the Kiufi'u', left the place of their abode and traveled 
westward, their victors pursuing them for a long distance and killing 
many of the people. 

At the time that A'kwine'mi and his people reached the Mii'sikse'pg 
(the Mississippi), there was warfare between many other nations who 
dwelt in that country. The bones of the slain are even at this day 
found when the Indians dig for roots and other substances from which 
they make medicines. 

Some of the Owa'sse people who escaped from the Kine'u' afterward 
went toward the south, and are still living somewhere in that direction.' 

■Wc"skine'u'' and his people then took possession of all the country 
around the course of the Mii'sikse'pe, and long lived in peace. 

One time the chief A'kwine'mi visited the camp of the Kine'ii'' to 
otter a pipe, that they might smoke and make peace. He camped on the 
opposite side of the river, but called across to We"skine'u'', saying, 
"You defeated us, and now the country is yours. Let us return here 
sometimes, and let us be friends henceforth." 

Then WC'skine'ii" replied, " Let it be as you wish, my brother'in-law." 
So peace was declared, and both camps remained near together. 

From these two camps — the Kine'fi'' and the Owa'sse — the Menomini 
people are descended. 

miqka'no, the turtle 

There was a large camp in which Miqkii'no, the Turtle, took up his 
abode. He built a wigwam, but had no one to take care of his property 
and to work for him, so he thought he would look around among the 

*Shu'nien says he has heard Osages aay that there are supposed Menomini near tiie country occu- 
pied by them iu Indian territory. The people referred to are doubtless some closely allied tribe of 
the same stock, possibly Ottawa. 


young womeu and select a wife. Finding' a woman wliom he thouglit 
he wuuhl like, he asked her to be his wife, but she replied, " How are you 
going to provide for a family ? — you can not keep uj) with the rest of the 
people when they move." 

To this the Turtle replied, ''I can keeji up with the best of your 

The woman, to delay the marriage as long as possible, then agreed to 
marry the Turtle in the spring. At this he was vexed, so, in order to 
get away for some time to meditate, he told her, "I shall go to war and 
take some captives, and when I return in the spring, I shall expect you 
to marry me." 

The Turtle then made preparations to depart. Galling together all 
his friends, the Turtles, he left the camp followed by a curious throng. 
The woman who had promised to marry the Turtle, but who really had 
no intention of doing so, watched the Turtles as they went away, and 
laughed heartily because they moved so slowly. When the Turtle saw 
this expression of merriment, he said to his promised spouse, "In four 
days from now you will surely mourn for me, because I shall be a great 
distance from you." 

"Why," responded the girl, "in four days from this time you will 
scarcely be out of sight!" 

Thereupon the Turtle corrected hiuiself by saying, "I did not mean 
four days, but four years ; then I shall return." 

The Turtles, continuing to travel, came one day to the trunk of a large 
tree lying across their path. Then the Turtle said to his coinpanious, 
"This we can not pass unless we go arouud it, and that will take too 
long; what shall we do?" 

Some of the others then said, "Let us burn a hole through the 
trunk;" but in this they did not succeed. They therefore were com- 
pelled to turn homeward, but it took them a long time ere they neared 
the village whence they had set out. To give their return the appear- 
ance of a successful excursion, they set up a war song. The villagers 
heard them and went out to see what spoils were to be bad, but wheu 
they got near, the Turtles each grasped someone by the wrist, saying, 
"We take you prisoners; you are our spoils." The people who were 
thus captured were angry and determined to avenge the insult. The 
chief of the Turtles happened to capture his betrothed, and he said 
to her, "Now that I have you I shall keep you." 

It was necessary to organize a dance to celebrate the victory over the 
villagers, and when the time arrived everybody had donned his best 
clothing. While the Turtle sang, the participants kept going around, 
dancing, until the Turtle repeated the words, "Whoever comes here to 
see me will die; will die; will die." 

At this the dancers became alarmed, and gathering up their clothes 
and other things returned to the village. They were frightened, for 
they did not know what to expect next. The Turtle remained for some 

220 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann.14 

time before retmuiiig to the village, anivinj;- there iiuieh later, because 
he could not travel so fast. Then, when everybody had goue from his 
camp, some one approached him and said, " That Turtle- woman who 
was to become your wife is n)arried to another man." 

•'Is that true?" said the Turtle; "let me see him." 

The Turtle was already on his way to the village, where he arrived 
at night, and immediately began to search for his promised wife. He 
was gaily dressed, and his fringe and ornaments rattled as he walked 
along. The woman for whom he was searching recognized the noise as 
being made by the one she had deceived. As he approached her wig- 
wam he saw evidence of the presence of a man, so he called loud enough 
for those within to hear, " Now, my friend, I am coming for the woman 
who promised to be my wife." 

The man whom the woman had married during the Turtle's absence 
then said to his wife, "Here comes the Turtle; now what is to be 

" I shall take care of that," replied his wife. 

The Turtle grasped the woman by the side and said, "Gome along 
■with me; you belong to me," but she resisted, saying, "You broke your 
l)romise." The husband also spoke, saying to the Turtle, "You 
promised to go to war and bring back some prisoners, which you failed 
to do." 

"I did go, and returned with a number of them," angrily retorted 
the Turtle, who drew his knife from its sheath and then said, "I will 
cut her in two ; you take one-half of her while 1 take the other. Both 
of us shall then be satisfied." The husband, rather than have his wife 
harmed, delivered her, when she was forcibly taken away by the 
Turtle, followed by a long line of his peoi)le. 

When the Turtle arrived at his own wigwam, the woman began to 
meditate and to devise a plan by which she ctmld get rid of the Turtle, 
liemembering that one of her friends had a large kettle, she went to 
borrow it, and when she had brought it back, she filled it with water to 
boil. When the Turtle saw this, he became mistrustful, and asked her, 
"What are you doing there!" 

She answered, saying, "I am warming some water; do you know how 
to swim?" 

The Turtle replied that he knew how to swim, whereupon his wife 
said : 

"I thought you might want to wash; I can get at your back and 
wash the mud from it." 

The Turtle then said, "I have been in the mud and water so much 
that I should like to have my back washed." 

Then the woman grasped the Turtle by the shell and carrying him to 
the kettle of boiling water dropped him in. He died almost instantly 
and sank to the bottom, with his belly npi)ermost. The other Turtles, 
his people, seeing their leader go into the kettle, followed him, and 


also were killed. This was the last of the Turtle ami his curious baud 
of followers. 

Then the woman returned to her husband from whom the Turtle had 
stolen her. 


The Rabbit was a great boaster, aud as he wanted to have a mita'- 
wiko'mik of his own, aud pretend to be a mita"", which he was not, be 
accomplished his own destruction. 

One day Wabus', the Rabbit, and his wife, in their travels, came to a 
low hill covered with poplar sprouts, and, as they were greeu and 
tender, the Rabbit decided to remain and make the place his abode. 
So be went to the top of the hill, and making trails diverging in every 
direction, that he might see anyone who approached, he built a wig- 
wam where all the trails came together. This was a mitii'wiko'mik, aud 
the Rabbit wanted to have a dance. When the wigwam was finished, 
the Rabbit told his wife he was going to dance; but be first ran all 
around the hill to see if anyone had been about to watch for him, but 
findiug no trail he returned aud began his song. As the Rabbit 
returned to the wigwam, Pishe'u, the Panther, happened to come 
along at the base of the hill where the Rabbit had Just paused. Find- 
ing here the Rabbit's trail, the Panther followed it until he reached the 
place where the Rabbit and his wife were dancing by themselves 
in their initii'wiko'uiik. Here the Panther remained to watch for the 
Rabbit to come out again. 

The Rabbit told bis wife to sit at one end of the mitii'wiko'mik, while 
he himself went to the other. Taking his medicine bag, he approached 
bis wife four times, chanting y6' ha-a aa, ye' ha-a a-a, ye' ha-a-a-a, yH' 
ha-a-a-a; then he shot at bis wife, just as a mita''' does when he shoots 
a new member. Then she got up and shot at her husband, and thus 
they had a joyous time all by themselves. Then the Rabbit sang — 

Pi"8liiawe' wiqkwe'yaqslk' end&'sC tshiq'tslilkwoqkwan'dean, 
Nenia'hanta nakama', 
Nem^'hanta nakama'. 

Which means: "If the Panther comes across my track while I am 
biting the bark from the poplars, he will not be able to catch me, for I 
am a good runner." 

When he had finished his song, the Rabbit told his wife he would go 
out hunting. The Pauther saw the Rabbit depart, and awaited his 

When the Rabbit started on his return, he felt very happy, but as he 
reached the place where the Pauther lay concealed the latter got out 
into the trail, where the Rabbit saw him and started back on the trail 
as fiist as he could run. The Panther started in pursuit, and overtak- 
ing the Rabbit said, "You are the one who said I could not catch you; 

222 THE MENOMINI INDIANS |eth.ann.14 

who is now the better runner f" Before the Rabbit could reply, the 
Panther caught him by the neck, crushing it witli his teeth, and kill- 
ing him. 

Thus ended the career of the boastful llabbit. 


There were two orplians, brother and sister, who lived alone; but 
they got along pretty well, as the young man was a good hunter. He 
caught many beaver, on whose meat they subsisted, while the girl 
dressed the skins, from which slie prepared clotliing and robes. 

One time the young man went away from the wigwam to hunt, while 
his sister sat within combing her hair and niakii)g herself appear neat 
and pleasing for her brother's return. While thus engaged she heard 
footsteps, and looking toward the entrance of the wigwam she observed 
a man approacliing. When he came near, he asked of her, "Where is 
your husband; are you not married f" 

As the girl appeared to pay no attention to this, the stranger spoke 
again, saying, " Do you hear what I say? — are you married? — where is 
your husband? I came across a man's trail near this wigwam, and 
thought it might have been made by your husband." But the girl 
maintained silence, and after a short time the stranger went away 

In the evening her brother returned, bringing home some beaver as 
usual, and on the following morning he agaiu went away to hunt. His 
sister did not say anything to liim about the stranger's visit, thinking 
it might have been some one who had come there accidentally. 

The young man had not gone very far from home when the stranger 
again appeared at the door of the wigwam. His sister was dressing 
the .beaver skins when he approached, and she continued at her work 
as if unaware of his presence. Soon the stranger said, "You are mar- 
ried, are you not? Where is your husband? I saw footprints about 
this wigwam and thought they might have been made by him." 

As the girl paid no attention to these words, the man got angry and 
blew out her fire, scattering the coals and ashes over everything. Then 
he left her as abruptly as he had appeared, laughing until he was out 
of sight of the wigwam. After the man had departed, the girl took her 
robe, and putting it over her head, sat in the corner of the wigwam to 
ponder over the indignity to which she had been subjected. 

Thus was the girl found by her brother when he returned from the 
hunt. As he entered the wigwam and saw his sister sitting silently 
and everything about her dusty and disarranged, he said to her, "My 
sister, what has hajipeued to you?" 

To this she replied, "A stranger came to the wigwam yesterday and 
asked me if I was married and where ray husband was. Today he 
came again and asked me the same questions, but I did not answer 
him ; so he became angry and blew out my tire, scattering the coals and 
ashes over everything, as you see." 


The hunter theu said to his sister, "Tomorrow morning I shall go 
hunting as usual, but will return early in order to protect you." 

In accordance with his promise, the hunter started out the next 
morning in quest of game. He had gone but a short while when the 
stranger for the third time came to the wigwam and looked in at the 
door. The girl was engaged in combing her hair and dressing herself, 
as before, and although she heard him slie did not appear to notice 
him. As on the two previous occasions the stranger asked her, " Where 
is your husband! Have you no one to protect you and to provide for 
you?" To this she paid no attention, which angered the man, and he 
blew out the Are, scattering ashes over everything, as on the preceding 
day. At this the girl cried, but the stranger went away laughing. 

The young man, returning at midday, found his sister seated at the 
end of the wigwam in tears, as before. He approached and said to her, 
"When did the stranger come?" to which she answered, "Just after 
you left the wigwam." Then the brother got some water and washed 
his sister's fixce and took the ashes out of her eyes. 

The young man then went out a short distance and began to gather 
firewood and pile it up near the wigwam. He cut one piece as long as 
his arm from the finger tip to the elbow, which he shaped like a shovel. 

On the next day, early in the morning, the young man built as large 
a fire as he could without burning up the wigwam. Then he said to 
his sister, "My sister, you attend to the fire now, as I shall hide myself 
until the stranger comes, and when you see him approaching, tell me." 
This she promised to do, while her brother secreted himself to await 
the coming of the stranger. 

It was not long ere the girl heard the stranger approaching, as he 
had done before; so when he was near enough to hear her, she began 
to talk to herself, saying, "O, I wish my brother were here!" This she 
repeated several times in order to mislead the stranger and to get him to 
come close to her, that her brother might catch liim. The stranger came 
closer and closer, and finally stopped at the door, when in an instant the 
girl's brother appeared. Hastily getting a shovelful of hot coals from 
the tire, the young man ran at the stranger and hit him upon the but- 
tock, burning him severely. The man ran, but the girl's brother i)ur- 
sued him, hitting him with the hot coals and saying, " Why don't you 
blow out the tire now?" and then mockingly laughing as the stranger 
had laughed at his sister. The man ran some distance, after the girl's 
brother had stopped following him, but tinally he dropjied dead. 

The stranger was found to be not an Indian after all, but one of the 
aua'maqki'u, who try to destroy the people on the earth. 


One time the people of two wigwams were away hunting, and, being 
successful in their quest for game, were contented. The occupants of 
each wigwam consisted of a hunter, his wife, and his children. In the 


forest in which these, wigwams were lived au old woman who was said 
to be a witch, and who had a ball by means of which she was enabled 
to steal children. She would throw the ball toward a wigwam, how- 
ever far away she might be, and when a child attempted to pick up the 
ball, it would slowly roll away from the pursuer toward the hut of the 
old woman, and in this way entice them to her home. 

One day the old woman threw the ball toward the wigwams of the 
hunters. One of the little boys saw it, but in attempting to pick it up 
the ball rolled away ; so the boy followed it from place to place, until at 
length he came to the old woman's hut, into which the ball rolled. The 
old woman then said to the boy, "(Jome in, my grandson, and sit down, 
for you must be tired." The boy sat down as the old woman had asked 
him, when she fed him. She then asked the boy if he had ever fasted, 
when he replied that he had not. The old woman then said, "To obtain 
power and assistance from the ma'nidos, you must fast." The boy agreed 
to do this, and laid himself down on some robes at the end of the hut. 
Here he lay for ten days, fasting and gaining the good will of the dif- 
ferent animals and birds, the ana'maqki'ii, which came to him from day 
to day. 

At the expiration of the ten days the old woman said to the boy, "My 
grandson, you have fasted ten days; now it is time that you eat some- 
thing." The boy then arose and ate of the food which the old woman 
placed before him. Then she said, " My grandson, you have now fasted 
ten days, and the ma'nidos must have favored you for this ordeal. Did 
you receive their favor!" 

" No," replied the boy, " I have not received the favor and influence 
of all; there are still some ma'nidos who have kept at a distance and 
would not grant my desire." 

"Then," said the old woman, " you must fast ten days more." 

The boy again laid himself down and fasted for ten days more, at the 
end of which time he turned over, with his face to the wall. He con- 
tinued this fast for twenty days, after which the old woman spoke to 
him, saying, "My grandson, come and eat something." 

The boy arose and partook of the food which the old woman had 
prepared for him. Then she said to him, " My grandson, you have now 
fasted for many days, and the ma'nidos must have granted you power; 
have you received the favor of all of them?" 

The boy replied, " No, grandmother, there are still some ma'nidos 
who keep away from me, and hesitate to grant the power I want, 
because I have not fasted long enough." 

"Then, my grandson," said the old woman, "fast again, and you will 
receive the favor of all the ma'nidos." 

The boy again went to the couch of robes and laid down, where he 
fasted for fifty days more. He was so weak that the old woman thought 
him dead, but she approached the spot where he lay and gave him 
some food. The boy soon began to revive and to gam strength, when 


the old woman said to bim, "My grandson, you have fasted a long time, 
and must have received much power from the ma'nidos; did you receive 
the favor of all of them!" 

''Yes, my graiidmotlier, " responded the boy, "I have now accom- 
plished my desire, and possess the favor of all the ma'nidos." 

The old woman, much gratified at what had happened, now addressed 
the boy in these words : 

" My grandson, there is much gold in possession of Ma'tshehawai'- 
tflk, the 'Bad One.' He also has a bridge iu his possession, and I want 
to get both the gold and the bridge. I have taught many boys how to 
fast, and how to obtain the favor of the ma'nidos, but none of them ever 
returned with the things that I desire. Now I want you to procure for 
me a little of the gold as well as the bridge. You will iind the Bad One 
in his hut, beyond a rapid river. When you reach the stream, tie this 
ball to one of your feet and you will be enabled to cross. In no other 
way can you accomplish this, because when the Bad One wants to cross 
the river, he takes the small bridge, and, by sim])ly waving his hand 
forward, it lengthens and touches whatever spot he desires. Therefore, 
you can not expect to cross the river by means of the bridge. Trust to 
the ball, and it and the ma'nidos will see you safely across." 

The boy took the ball from the old woman. He then made for him- 
self a warclub, a bow, and some arrows. These were very powerful, 
for the ma'nidos endowed them witli wonderful strength. The boy also 
had the power to change his form, and his sight and hearing became 
so acute that nothing could escape his eyes or ears. By the aid of 
the ma'nidos he was now enabled to go on his journey in search of the 
Evil One, and to procure some of the gold and the wonderful little bridge 
which were guarded by him. 

Thus' equipped the boy set out. After a long time he came to the 
rapid river, and beheld upon a hill beyond it the house occupied I)y the 
Bad One. The water was so ra])id that it seemed impassable. The boy 
broke a branch from a tree and threw it in the stream, but so swift was 
the current that he could scarcely see it carried away. He then tied 
the ball to his right foot, and, approaching the bank of the river, ven- 
tured out ui)on the water, as one does iu testing the strength of ice. 
Putting both feet upon the waves, the boy found himself supported; 
but, still fearful of being carried away, he rushed back to the shore. 
He made a second venture, this time going fartlicr out upon the water, 
but again turned back. Gaining courage and conlidence in the ball, and 
remembering that the ma'nidos had all favored his desire for power, he 
started a third time, and gained the opposite shore in safety. He now 
removed the ball from his foot and put it in a bag which he carried on 
his back, then began to look about. He saw the house of the Bad One, 
and observed the bags of gold hanging from the raftei'S, as well as the 
little bridge. He saw too that this Evil Being sat in the room in which 
the treasures were, and that in order to guard them constantly he always 
14 ETH 15 

22 fi THE MENOMINI INDIANS ieth.ann.u 

took his ineal8 tliere. All these things the boy could see l)ecause of 
his wonderful sight. Then he heard the Bad Being speak to his serv- 
ant, Hoqpan'niu(i'ki (Lung Woman). After wondering how he could 
induce this Evil One to leave the ro(jni in whicli the gold and the 
bridge were, he called out to the nia'nidos to make tiie being hungry. 
Instantly the Bad One demanded of his servant, " Go and prepare for 
me some food, for I am very luingry." The Lung Woman went to the 
room where the food was kept, the Bad One again calling to her, " Hurry 
with the food, for I am becoming famished," at the same time starting 
for the room in which the servant was, for he could not wait for the 
victuals to be brought to him. The servant met him, to lead him out, 
for he was very large and now almost heli)less from hunger. 

The moment the Evil One left the room in which the gold and the 
bridge were, the boy went forward and entered the house, lie looked 
about and discovered hanging from the rafters a number of pouches 
containing gold, (me of which he grasped and tucked under his left 
arm. Then he took the wonderful little bridge, which he tucked under 
his right arm. The boy now endeavored to secrete liiniself until search 
for him should be abandoned ; for he well knew that lie could not esca|)e, 
because of the footprints which he would leave to guide his j)ursuers. 
liOokiug about, therefore, for a i)lace in which to hide, he espied the 
bedding in the corner of the room, so making a small opening in one of 
the folds of a robe he crawled in. 

So soon as he had hidden himself, the servant returned to the room, 
where she was startled at seeing the remaining pouches of gold fall- 
ing to the floor, for this they began to do the moment the boy took 
down the first bag. The servant then called to her master, asking him 
to come, as some one had taken one of the pouches and the bridge. 
The Bad One rushed in as quickly as he was able, and began to search 
for the one who had stolen his treasures. He sent the servant out to 
look for footprints leading from the hut, but as none were discovered 
she returned and began searching the room. She removed everything 
from its place, but nobody could be found. The robes and bedding were 
thrown aside, piece by piece, but no living being was discovered, until 
finally, in returning the robes to the corner of the room, she discovered 
the cut in the robe. (Jailing to her master the Lung Woman said, "See, 
here is a fresh cut; here is where the thief has hidden himself." Then 
reaching into the opening she pulled out Na"ni' Naioq'tii ("Ball 
Carrier"), the boy, but he had made himself very lean and small. 

The Evil One then confronted Ball Carrier and asked him, "Have 
you taken my gold and bridge?" 

"Yes," said Ball Carrier, "I took them." 

The servant then took a knife, and on asking him where he had 
secreted the treasures. Ball Carrier lifted his left arm, and in the arm- 
pit was the gold. The servant then scrapetl oft' the gold, which had so 
adhered to the skin as to give it a golden color. Then she asked Ball 



Carrier where he had secreted the bridge, when he raised his right arm, 
and in the armpit was the bridge, which she also detached witli the 
knife. Wheu the treasures had been recovered, the Bad One said to 
his servant, "Take the boy out and clean him, after which you must 
cook him for our feast. I will go to invite our friends the Me'sibine'bi- 
kiik" (water demons). 

The servant then took Ball Carrier out to the room where the food 
was kept, when he turned toward her and said, "Why don't you keep 
me for two days and feed me? I am now very lean, but shall be very 
fat by that time." The servant then turned to hei- master and offered 
him the suggestion which Ball Carrier had maile. The Bad One re])lied, 
"Well, let the boy have his way; perhaps in two days he will be fatter, 
as he says." Lung Woman then returned to Ball Carrier and led him 
out to a pen, where he was securely fastened and food given to him. As 
he ate constantly he began immediately to grow and to fatten so that 
he could scarcely move his head from one side to the other. 

The second day having arrived, the Bad One told his servant toi)re- 
pare the boy for the feast now to be held, as he was going to invite all 
his friends, the Water Demons. Before leaving he told Lung Woman 
not to eat any of the broth, for it would then be defiled. 

Tlie servant brought out from the hut a large kettle, filled it with 
■water, and built a fire beneath it. She then took Ball Carrier by the 
arm and led him up to the kettle, so that when the water boiled she 
could lift him into it. In the meantime Ball Carrier asked the ma'nidos 
to keep the water at its ordinary temperature, although it might appear 
to be boiling, and he also asked the ma'nidos to restore his body to its 
usual size the moment he was j»ut into the water. 

When the water began to boil, tlie servant put Ball Carrier into the 
kettle, and the fat, which the ma'nidos had supplied, soon came float- 
ing upon the surface. As the water caused him to move about within 
the kettle. Ball Carrier told the servant to taste the broth to see if it 
was palatable. The odor was so appetizing that she could not resist 
the temptation of tasting the broth, so getting a ladle from the hut she 
reached over the kettle and took up some of the broth, which she found 
very agreeable. Ball Carrier now induced her to come closer, that she 
could the better reach the broth. As Lung Woman went near to the 
kettle Ball Carrier grasped her, and upset the boiling water upon her, 
scalding her to death. Ball Carrier then gathered together his war- 
club, bow, arrows, and ball, as well as the pouch of gold and the won- 
derful little bridge, set fire to the hut of the Evil One, and started for 
the river, where he took out the bridge, caused it to i>roject across to 
the opposite shore, when he passed over and restored it to its hiding 
place in his right armi>it. 

The hut was soon completely consumed, no trace being left where it 
had stood. When the Bad One returned with the large crowd of Water 
Demons, who had come to partake of the feast, he could not find his hut 


nor any trace of it even after searching in every direction. Finally he 
went down to the river, from the bank of which he saw Ball Carrier 
sitting (juietly on the opposite side. Then the Bad One knew who had 
destroyed his hut, so he went back and told his friends, the Water 
Demons, that there would not be a feast, as Ball Carrier had destroyed 
his hut and had escaped. 

As the Water Demons started to return to their camp, the Bad One 
realized that he was undone. He therefore returned to the river and 
called across to Ball Carrier, saying, "Ball Carrier, I know who you are, 
and, as you have ruined me, I now offer you my services and will be 
your servant, if you will have me." 

Ball Carrier replied, "I will accept your services, although you tried 
to destroy me." Then Ball Carrier took the little bridge from his right 
armpit, and caused it to extend itself across the roaring torrent, when 
the Evil One started across. He had proceeded but about halfway, 
■when Ball Carrier caused the bridge to become small again, thus upset- 
ting the Bad One, who fell into the water and was carried beneath the 
surface and drowned. 

When Ball Carrier had accomplished all this, he continued his jour- 
ney, but as he was in a strange country he did not know which way to 
go, for he forgot to ask aid of the ma'nidos. At length he laid down 
near a cluster of trees and fell asleep, and, as he was very weak from 
lack of food, he thus remained a long time. 

An old man came to the place where Ball Carrier was lying, and 
walked around him so as to inclose a large piece of ground for raising 
roots and plants. While thus engaged the old man espied the Ball 
Carrier, and, seeing him so helpless, he cut n block of wood from the 
trunk of a poplar and fashioned it in semblance of a woman. When 
he had finished his task, the woman became alive; then the old man 
said to her, ".Go over to that cluster of trees ; there you will find a man ; 
bring him here and feed him; he is nearly starved, and he will become 
your husband." 

The woman went to the cluster of trees, picked up Ball Carrier, and 
carried him to where the old man had been, but who was no longer to be 
seen. After Ball Carrier had recovered from his weakness, he built a 
wigwam and lived there with his wife. 

One day Ball Carrier told his wife that, as he was a traveler, he would 
have to leave and continue his journey. On hearing this the woman 
fell dead, and nothing remained of her but a piece of old wood. He 
then resumed his journey, and, after a long time reached a mountain, 
where, toward sunset, he saw at a short distance before him a hut with 
its door ajar. As he approached he saw within a woman, who, without 
turning her head, said, "Come in. Ball Carrier, and sit down." He 
entered and seated himself as he was asked, when the woman said, "It 
is fortunate you came to my wigwam tonight, as my sister is now absent; 
she wants to kill you. When she returns tomorrow, she will ask you 


to amuse her, and while she is in a good humor she will scratch your 
head to look for veriiiiu. You must pay no attention to this, but watch 
her motions, that you may not be taken unaware." 

The next day the woman's sister entered the wigwam and exclaimed, 
"I am glad to see you, my brother-in-law ; come and amuse me; we can 
have some games to play." 

Ball Carrier observed that she wore a skirt reaching only to her knees, 
and that her hair was bright red. Not liking her appearance. Ball 
Carrier said, " I am still tired from my long journey; and if I am to play 
with you, you nuist wear a longer skirt." It was then agreed that they 
were to have some games at noon on the following day ; so the woman's 
sister, who was a cannibal, left and went back to her own wigwam. 

Early on the following morning Ball Carrier went out to see where 
the woman's sister lived, and as he approached her wigwam he found 
two children eating the flesh from human bones. The children did not 
see Ball Carrier, but he now knew that the woman's sister was a can- 
nibal. The children ran away, and Ball Carrier saw that there were a 
great many birds and beasts all about him. They told him to go 
away, as the woman's sister had planned to kill him. Ball Carrier then 
told the birds and beasts that if they would not inform the woman's 
sister of his i^resence, he would give them all they wanted to eat, as 
she was now coming back to prepare a feast. To this the birds and 
beasts assented, but the Chipmunk was not present when this prom- 
ise was made by Ball Carrier; so as soon as the woman's sister had 
deposited her kettle, and had gone off a short distance to gather fire- 
wood, the Chipmunk ran out and called to the woman's sister that Ball 
Carrier was near. Then Ball Carrier said to the Chipmunk, "Hush! 
If you don't cry out, I will give you plenty — not scraps of acorns and 
bones, but a lot of good food." 

As the Chipmunk called out, the woman's sister, without turning her 
head, said, "What is the matter with you. Chipmunk; did I not tell 
you to call only if that man came near?" The Chipmunk then said, "I 
am speaking only to the Bluejay, who stole my acorn." 

Ball Carrier next wondered how he could kill the woman's sister, for 
she had brought sevei-al children to cook for the feast. While thus 
pondering, the black-head Woodpecker said to him, "If you promise to 
give me a i)iece of her scalp, I will kill her for you. She does not carry 
her heart in her breast, but under her flowing red hair.'' 

Ball Carrier thereupon promised the Woodi)ecker that he should have 
the scalp if he killed her — whereupon the bird prepared to dart forward 
to the sjKit where the woman's heart was hidden. Lowering his head 
and pointing his sharp beak straight forward, the Woodpecker suddenly 
shot away like an arrow, striking the heart iu the very middle. When 
the woman's sister felt this death wound, she lowered her body and 
began to run very rapidly arouiul in a circle, and endeavored to kill 
Ball Carrier with a knife, but he took his warclub, and, after repeated 


Strokes, succeeded in beating out her brains. Hall Carrier then (■iit off 
her s(;alp, and taking a piece from the top of the head gave it to the 
Woodpecker, who put it on his own head, where he has worn it ever 
since. This is why the black woodpecker has a black body and a red 
spot on his head. After Ball Carrier had divided tlie food among the 
birds and animals, as he had promised, he departed for his victim's 
wigwam, that he might destroy her children, for they were bad as the 
mother had been. 

In the meantime, however, the children had lied and hid themselves 
in a pla(!e where their mother had been wont to secrete herself; but 
Ball Carrier, by reason of the penetrating eyesight given him by the 
ma'nidos, saw that the children had secreted themselves in a cavern in 
the mountain. Ball Carrier went to the mountain and began to strike 
the ground with his warclub. The earth trembled, then opened, expos- 
ing the nest of children, whom he beat to death. 

Ball Carrier, being a traveler, now resumed his journey in search of 
other evil beings from whom the human race had much to fear, and 
whom he might destroy by reason of his great powers. 

lie came to a wood that crossed his path at right angles, when sud- 
denly he heard a woman's voice crying aloud for assistance. Knowing 
that something terrible must be happening, he started along the road 
to the left, soon reaching a high, rocky cliff, at the base of which was a 
stone door, and at the top an opening like a window. 

This seemed more like the abode of a giant, but as Ball Carrier still 
heard the woman's voice in the direction whence he had come, he rap- 
idly retraced his steps and soon met a young woman flying toward him, 
in great distress. When she came nearer, she asked him to aid and 
preserve her from the giant, who was in ])arsuit. 

Said the young woman to Ball Carrier, "The giant has come to my 
father's village and has already eaten up half of the jieople, and now he 
is after me." 

Ball Carrier saw that she was the daughter of a chief, and a very 
beautiful woman, so he determined to save her. He therefore replied, 
"You must now go back along the path by which you have come, and 
meet the giant; tell him Ball Carrier is here waiting for him, and that 
he must come with you. Then when I engage him in conversation you 
must return to your father and tell him and his waniors to arm them- 
selves with their clubs, spears, and bows and arrows, and return here 
with you that they may destroy the giant." 

The chief's daughter complied with this injunction by hastening back 
to meet the giant. So soon as she met him she told him that she had 
come to guide him to Ball Carrier. The giant, tiiinking he had another 
victim in view, started along very willingly with the chief's daughter to 
the place where Ball Carrier had parted with the girl. 

In the meantime, Ball Carrier went back to the house in the rock, 
entered, securely closed the door, and then went above to look out of 


the square opening at the top, where he might see all that wus transpir- 
ing, and defend himself against the giant. 

Presently he saw the chief's daughter returning, closely behind her 
following the giant, from whose belt were susi)ended several children 
whom he had captured to devour. As the giant approached the rock 
and saw Ball Carrier's head protruding from the window, he called out, 
"Ball Carrier, come down and let me enter my house, that we may 
have a feast." Ball Carrier replied, "I can not open the door for you, 
as I am so far above it; but if you will reach upward where I can grasp 
your hand, I will pull you tlirough the window." 

When the chief's daughter saw the giant engage in conversation with 
Ball Carrier, she escaped, and running back to her father told him 
what Ball Carrier had instructed her to say. The chief immediately 
called together his warriors, bidding them get their warclubs, spears, 
and bows and arrows, that they might proceed to the giant's house, where 
Ball Carrier would need their assistance. The warriors were soon 
armed, and, led by the chief and his daughter, they hastened to the 
giant's abode. 

In the meantime, the giant had come to the base of the clift' and 
reached up to grasp Ball Carrier's hand, that he might enter at the 
window. Ball Carrier saw that the giant's abode contained many 
weapons. Grasping the sharpest knife, he went to the window, seized 
the giant's hand, and drew him upward. When the giant had climbed 
into the opening far enough for Ball Carrier to take hold of his head 
he struck him on the back of the neck, severing the head, which fell 
upon the floor and bounded about like a ball, biting and snapping at 
Ball Carrier. Throwing aside the knife. Ball Carrier took his warclub 
and struck the head until he had crushed the life out of it. 

Just as the head was thus severed the body of the giant fell down to 
the base of the cliff; but instead of lying where it fell the body arose, 
and rushing blindly about wildly beat and struck out in every direc- 
tion with its immense club. At this moment the chief and his warriors 
arrived, and seeing that Ball Carrier had beheaded the giant, but that 
the body was still active, they rushed up, shot into the body numerous 
arrows, pierced it with spears, and beat it with their warclubs, until the 
great form was motionless. Ball Carrier now came down to where the 
chief, his daughter, and the warriors were assembled, and bade some of 
them gather wood, that he might burn and utterly destroy the giant. 

Eound about, everywhere, were heaps of human bones, the remains 
of those whom the giant had killed and eaten. Some of these were the 
bones of recently killed people, others were of those who had been 
killed and devoured a longer time, and still others were almost crumliled 
into dust by age. When the wood-gatherers returned, a large heap of 
the fuel was made, and upon it the body of the giant was placed; then 
the wood was set afire and the body burned to ashes. When this had 
been done, Ball Carrier apj)roached and blew on the ashes, making 


them rise like a cloud. The little particles that arose became birds. 
Ball Carrier took one of his arrows, shot it up into the sky, and as it 
was returningf cried out to the human remaius, "People, people, arise; 
the sky is falling down upon you!" Instantly the skeletons of those 
last killed became living beings, who sat up and looked about in aston- 
ishment. Ball Carrier again shot an arrow toward the sky and called 
out a second time, " People, people, arise; the sky is falling down upon 
you !" — whereupon more bodies returned to life, as the others had done. 
Six times did Ball Carrier thus shoot into the sky, and it was only after 
this last shot that all had been restored to life — even those who had 
been killed many years before. 

These strange things having been accomplished, the whole party 
returned to the village of the chief. When they arrived, the chief 
turned to Ball Carrier and said, "Ball Carrier, you are a powerful man, 
for you have saved my daughter and my people from being destroyed 
by the giant. 1 know of no one better fitted to become the husband 
of my daughter, as well as my successor, than you ; therefore, take her 
and become chief of my people." Ball Carrier believed the chief's 
daughter to be the most beautiful woman he had ever seen, and was 
very glad to accept her. Then they became husband and wife. 

Living in peace and quiet among these people of his adoi)tion was 
not suitable to Ball Carrier, the traveler; so he decided to resume his 
journey of adventure and to free other people of their enemies, lie 
therefore took leave of his wife and departed. 

After going a long distance. Ball Carrier saw a wigwam, and witliin 
it a woman, who, on seeing him, said, "Bull Carrier, you are wel- 
come; but it is fortunate for you that you came this morning, for daring 
the day my sister, who wishes to kill you, remains here." 

Ball Carrier entered the wigwam and remained, the woman becoming 
his wife. 

On the following morning he observed approaching the wigwam two 
children, each of them eating the shreds of meat from human bones. 
When the children finally came near enough to the wigwam to see 
that a stranger was within, they ran away in great fright. Then Ball 
Carrier said to his wife, "Whose children are those who are rnnniug 
awayf — to which she replied, "They are the children of my sister; 
she who desires to kill you." 

Presently the woman's sister, his newly made sister-in-law, was seen 
approaching the wigwam, and so soon as she espied Ball Carrier, she 
said to him, "I am glad to see you, my brotheriu-law; I have long 
expected you. I hear you are very powerful, but 1 am desirous of try- 
ing my power against yours." 

Ball Carrier knew that his sister-in-law desired to destroy him, and 
he was very careful not to allow her to gain any advantage, but he was 
compelled to appear pleased to see her; so he answered, " My sister-in- 
law, I am desirous of trying my power with you, but will first run 
with you to learn which of us is the fleetest." 


Now, this woman was a witch, and as Ball Carrier proposed to ruu, 
she felt so sure of success that she immediately agreed to race, and 
said, " Whoever wins will have the privilege of killing the other." 

Ball Carrier was now obliged to run, and went out to find a place for 
the contest. Seeing that the prairie extended far away without a visi- 
ble obstruction, Ball Carrier said, " My sister-in law, we will run to the 
end of the i)rairie — to a point as far as you can see from here — and then 
I'eturu ; the first one to reach this goal will turn and kill the loser." 

The witch agreeing, both prepared to start. Ball Carrier invoked the 
ma'uidos to assist him, and when the witch started to run. Ball Carrier 
transformed himself into Moqwai'o (the wolf) and ran ahead of the witch. 
He continued in advance for a long distance. The witch slowly gained 
in speed and finally passed him. When Ball Carrier found that he 
could no longer hope to succeed, he changed himself into Ominic (the 
pigeon) and once more shot ahead of the witch; but, after a long dis- 
tance, the witch again gained on him, and gradually passed him, so that 
he felt he could not win iu his present form. Ball Carrier next changed 
himself into Kaka'kfi (the crow) and again shot ahead of the witch, 
remaining in advance for a long time. He finally began to tire, however, 
and, seeing the witch once more pass him, he found that he could not 
succeed in winning the race unless he assumed another form, so he 
changed himself into Meshiuikake (the Cooper's hawk f), and again 
passed the witch. As a hawk he flew along for a great while, but he 
eventually began to tire, and the witch again gradually lessened the 
distance between them and finally passed him. Now Ball Carrier 
assumed the form of Pakiish'tsheke'u, the Hitter (duck hawk), and again 
flew ahead, as this hawk is the swiftest of all save Meshiuikake. But 
even again the witch gained on and at last overtook her opponent, when 
Ball Carrier found that he would have to assume still other form if he 
wished to win the race; so, changing himself into Liponane (the sharp- 
shin hawk), he once more gained on and passed the witch. But as a 
sharp-shin hawk he began to tire after awhile, and felt that he must 
assume another form, so he became transformed into Ke'shewa'toshe 
(sparrow-hawk), when he once more passed the witch. 

The contestants were now on their homeward flight, and Ball Carrier 
realized that he must maintain the lead if he wished to escape death. 
Soon, however, he saw the witch pass him and remain ahead, apparently 
sure of reaching the goal first. Ball Carrier felt that he must make a final 
and desperate elfort to pass the witch, for they had now almost reached 
the goal. He therefore assumed the form of Na-na-tska (the humming- 
bird) and shot ahead like an arrow, reaching the goal far in advance of 
the witch. He now threw oft" his disguise and grasped his warclub to 
await the arrival of his opponent. She soon came up, furiously angry at 
losing the race, which she had been certain of winning, when Ball Car- 
rier struck her ou the head and killed her. 

Ball Carrier's wife now came to him and said, " If you want to exter- 
minate that wicked family, you must go and destroy the dead witch's 

234 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.akn.u 

litter ofchildreu, who live in a cavern in the mountain." Turn injj;- around, 
Ball Carrier saw a mountain, and, because he was possessed of won- 
derful power of sight, he could observe tlie offspring of tlie witch hud- 
dled together. He tlien went toward the mountain, and when he had 
reached it, he struck the ground with his warclub, causing great fissures 
to appear ; and when the cavern was exposed, he slew the whole litter 
of the witch's children. 

Ball Carrier did not live long at this x>lace ere he felt the need of con- 
tinuing his journey; so he said to his wife, "Wife, you know I am a 
traveler, and J must proceed on my journey to berid the people of their 

The wife knew that remonstrance would be futile, so she allowed Ball 
Carrier to use his own judgment. Gathering together his weapons, he 
left, and after wandering through the forests for a long time, lie reached 
a piece of elevated ground upon which he saw a wigwam. Seeing no 
one about, he approached it, and on peeping in at the doorway, he 
espied a woman sitting witliin, making preparations for her evening 
meal. The woman looiced ui), and seeing P>all Carrier at the door appear- 
ing hungry and tired, said, " Come in. Ball Carrier, I am preparing food 
for you; I have long been expecting you." 

Ball Carrier entered and seated himself on the robes on the ground. 
He partook of the food the woman prepared, and seeing that she was 
comely he asked her to be his wife. The woman accepted the proposal, 
and Ball Carrier felt satisfied to remain there and tra\el no farther. 

As Ball Carrier was out hunting one day, he came to a deep valley, 
in the bottom of which was a lake. In the middle of this lake was an 
island, partly covered by trees, but on the open grassy portion he saw 
a large White Bear, the chief of the ana'maqkiTi, the bad underworld 
ma'nidos. Now, Ball Carrier was desirous of destroying this greatest 
of all enemies; but not being able to approach within arrowshot, he 
blew his breath upon the water, which immediately began to freeze. 
He continued thus to blow until the ice was so thick that the White 
Bear could not break it, although he repeatedly ran down and butted 
his head against the ice. Bafded bj^ this failure, the White Bear called 
on an immense rock at the hill top, asking it to roll down and break 
the ice, that he might get into the water. The rock rolled down the 
hillside and struck the ice with terrific force; but, instead of crushing 
it, rolled off like a ball. At this the White Bear became very much 
alarmed, and called upon the Suba'isiukkuk (wood ducks) to oome to 
his aid. Instantly the Wood Ducks came from the south and flew 
around in one spot over the ice, when it instantly began to tliaw. 
They circled this spot four times, when the ice became so thin that the 
White Bear ran down, thrust his head upon the weakened spot, broke 
it, and disappeared beneath the surface. 

Then the Wood Ducks also disappeared, and Ball Carrier turned to 
go toward his wigwam. He had not gone far wijen he saw a large water 


monster on the hillside. He ran and grasped it by the tail to prevent 
its escape, in order that he might club it to death, but the being dis- 
charged a poisonous li(iuid from its body, some of which struck Ball 
Carrier on the teeth, and a portion passed down his throat. Instantly 
Ball Carrier released the water monster and hastened to return to his 
Avigwam, for he well knew that he would die from the effects of this 

When he arrived at the wigwam, he told his wife what had happened, 
and said to her, "When I am dead, do not bury me, but lay me over 
there in the grove of trees." 

The wife of Ball Carrier had borne to him, since their marriage, two 
sons and a daughter, so she called to her children to help her take care 
of their father; but when they found him dead, they carried him to the 
grove and laid the body on a scaftbld. 

When Ball Carrier died, the ball which he had received from the old 
woman immediately started to roll back to its original owner. The 
warclub, spear, and bow and arrows were placed together and xjre- 
served in the wigwam. 

Not long after this occurrence a party of strange Indians chanced to 
come along, and finding a family without a protector they became 
rather tree with what they saw and found. The widow of Ball Carrier 
I)rotested to the chief, but lie replied that unless he was permitted to 
marry her daughter he w^ould have her house torn down and destroyed. 
Kather than have such a calamity befall her children, she agreed to let 
the chief marry her daughter. So the chief remained and provided for 
Ball Carrier's family, while the remainder of the party continued on 
their way. 

Before the chief came along and married Ball Carrier's daughter, the 
family had become so poor that they were almost starved. One morn- 
ing the daughter was hunting for berries; she saw for the first time a 
large wigwam near their own. Approaching the structure, she saw 
within it large (juan titles of food which the shade of her father had put 
there, and also, perched high in the dome of the wigwam, on a thin 
cross-piece of wood, a Ked-bird. As Ball Carrier's daughter saw this 
quantity of food she was amazed. After she had gained sufficient 
courage to enter and look about her, she perceived the Ked-bird. who 
made friendly gestures, making her feel at once that it was the spirit of 
her father. Going up to him she greeted the bird by reaching out her 
hand and lightly grasjnng his foot. 

When she returned to her mother and brothers, she told them of what 
she had discovered. Thereafter every time they wanted food they would 
all enter the wigwam, and after greeting the Ked bird would partake of 
the food which was so abundantly supplied by him. 

These mysteiious departures from the wigwam and the small quantity 
of food consumed by Ball Carrier's family led the daughter's husband 
to wonder where they all spent so much of their time. Determined to 

236 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann.u 

learn the cause, tlie chief followed the i)arty very cautiously one morning 
to observe their movements, and seeiug them all enter the large wig- 
wam, he followed. Seeing them advance to the Red-bird, and, one by 
one, shake it by the foot, he approached and did the same. They then 
all partook of the food and returned to their own wigwam, where the 
chief began to exhibit symptoms of sickness. 

But this illness of the chief was in reality merely aft'ected, as he 
wanted an excuse for obtaining the bird to eat. Ball Carrier's family 
was very much distressed at tlie cliief 's illness and asked him what they 
could do to aid his recovery. He told his wife that he would not recover 
unless she killed the lled-bird and cooked it for him to eat. This dis- 
tressed the family very much, and Ball Carrier's two boys became very 
angry at such a request. The women were in doubt, not knowing what 
was best to be done; meanwhile the chief pretended to be getting worse, 
■which alarmed them very much, but the boys remained firm, not wanting 
to see the Kedbird sacrificed to gratify the chief. 

One morning after the boys went to hunt, the wife of Ball Carrier 
went to the large wigwam, caught the Kedbird, and killed him. She 
theu brought the body back to be cooked, when the boys appeared. 
One of them cut off the bird's head and ate it, while the other cut out 
and ate the heart. The boys, in anger, then left the wigwam and went 
away never to return. 

The first night out they reached a hut, which they approached very 
cautiously, and seeing no one about but an old woman, they entered. 
She asked them to remain over night, and showed them where they 
might sleep. Being tired from their long day's journey, they soon fell 
asleep. In the morning, before the old woman was awake, they arose 
(juietly and left, so that she did not learn who they were or whither 
they were going. On going to the place where the elder of the two 
young men had slept, she observed that the ground was covered by a 
thin coating of dust resembling gold, then turning to where the younger 
one had slept, she there saw the ground similarly covered with stains 
of gold; but when the old woman attempted to gather the yellow sub- 
stance it vanished. This gold came from the two sons of Ball Carrier, 
because they had eaten the head and heart of the Red-bird, which was 
the shade of him who had secured the treasures of the Bad One and 
■who still carried them in his armpits when he was killed by the Water 

Meanwhile the wife of Ball Carrier took the remainder of the bird, 
from which her two sons had cut and eaten the head and heart, and 
put it into the kettle to prepare for the chief. When it was cooked 
and given to him, he seemed to recover from his illness, because he had 
gained his wish; but, perceiving that the head was gone, he angrily 
said to his wife, "Who has cut oft' the head of the bird?" To this she 
replied that her elder son had eaten it. Then picking up the body he 
said, '-I see that the heart also is gone — wlio has taken that!" The 


wife then told him that her younger sou had eaten it. The chief saw 
that he had been thwarted in his desire, and violently threw the body 
of the bii'd away. He then arose from his bed and seemed as well as 
when he first came to the wigwam. 

When the body of Ball Carrier was deposited on the scaffold iu the 
grove of trees, the ball which the old woman, his grandmother, had 
given him returned to her. When it bounded into her hut, she knew 
that her grandson had met with some misfortune, and she immediately 
prepared to go to his rescue. She took a fox-skin and tied it about her 
head and around her forehead, and another which she fastened to her- 
self as a breeehcloth. Then biddiug the ball to return to where the 
body of her grandson was lying, it started to roll and bouiid back upon 
its journey, the old woman following. At last the ball reached the 
grove of trees, where it stopped; then the old woman placed her hand 
on the body of Ball Carrier, crying out aloud, " My grandson, arise, 
arise, and come home with me!" Ball Carrier's life returned, and he 
sat up as if he had been only asleep. Then the old woman said to him, 
" Come, my grandson, it is time to return home." So Ball Carrier went 
to the wigwam, gathered up his weapons, and followed the old woman 
back whence she had come. 

When they had reached her wigwam, the old woman said to Ball 
Carrier, "My grandson, did you get the gold which you went to procure 
from the Bad One?" 

Ball Carrier replied, " Yes, grandmother, I got it." 

" Where is it?" she asked. 

" Here, in my left armpit," responded Ball Carrier, raising his arm. 

Then the old woman took a knife and carefully scraped away from 
the skin every particle of gold which Ball Carrier had procured. Then 
she said, " My grandson, did you get the bridge which the Bad One 
also possessed ? " 

"Yes, grandmother, I got that too," replied Ball Carrier. 

"Where is it!" asked the old woman. Then Ball Carrier lifted up 
his right arm, and pointing to his armpit,'said, " Here is the bridge, 

The old woman took the gold, and placing it in the palm of her 
hand, said, " My grandson, this gold must now be hidden iu the earth, 
because if it remains where everybody can get it, the people will 
become too indolent; but if it is buried i»eople must work for it, and 
they will get only what they require." Then pulling up one of the 
poles that supported the wigwam, she put the gold into the hole and 
rammed it down into the earth, where it has become scattered, and 
where those who seek it must dig and work hard to get it. 

Then she took the bridge, and turning toward Ball Carrier, said, 
" This bridge also must be buried, because if everybody can get 
hold of it they can transport themselves across any river or chasm, 
and people will become too lazy to work or to learn how to build such 


tliiugs for their use." So tlie old woman caused the biudjje to assume 
a very suall sliape, when she buried it in the earth, where it remains 
hidden from n'.ankiiid. 

Then the ohl woman told Ball Carrier to follow her to the door of 
the wigwam. When they had reached the o])ening, she pointed out 
toward two distant wigwams and said, "There are the wigwams of 
your peoi)]e, from whom you have been separated for a long time. Your 
father is now an old man and needs your care and protection; go, 
tberefore, to your iieojde and provide for them while they live." Ball 
Carrier then remembered his people, and returned to them. 


The Menoniini have a tradition to the effect that some Potawatomi 
Indians used to live at the marshes where the city of Chicago is now 
situated. These Indians reported good hunting, so that when some 
Menoniini went there for game, their dogs would bark during the night; 
but every time the hunters arrived at the spot they found that only 
skunks had caused the alarm. 

The Ojibwa relate a story of an Ottawa hunter and his wife who lived 
with that tribe farther north, on the shore of Lake Michigan. Taking 
his wife with him this hunter went southward to hunt on a lake some- 
where between the present cities of Chicago and Milwaukee. When 
he reached the lake, where he had the previous year caught beaver, it 
was still covered with ice, but on sounding it with a i)iece of wood 
be soon discovered the thinner places where the animals had congre- 
gated. He therefore broke holes at these weak points in the ice for 
the beaver to emerge and then went to his wigwam to get his traps in 
readiness. The hunter's wife chanced to pass one of these holes, and 
discovering a beaver on the ice, quickly caught it by the tail before it 
could escape into the water, and called to her husband to come and kill 
it. The husband replied that he would not come, saying that if he 
killed that beaver the others might become frightened and escape from 
the lake by some other openings in the ice. At this the woman became 
angry and a quarrel resulted. 

Later in the day the hunter went out to examine the holes which he 
had made and to make others where necessaiy. This task completed, 
he returned to the wigwam, but found his wife gone. Thinking that 
she might have gone only to visit a friend and that she would return 
before the night was over, he went to sleep. On the following morning 
his wife was still absent, so the hunter searched for her footprints and 
found from them that she had gone toward the south. Knowing that no 
Ottawa lived in that direction, he started in pursuit and traveled all 
day. As he progressed, he observed that her footprints gradually 
changed in outline, becoming more and more like those of a skunk. 
He followed the trail until it ended in a marsh, where Chicago now 


stands. Here lie found tlie beads of skunks protruding from the grass 
in every direction, but lie retrained from killing any of tlieni lest he 
might take the life of his own wife. On the following day he continued 
the search, making it his object to find a large skunk, thinking that 
probably his wife might have been transformed into a skunk of much 
greater size than the ordinary animal. 

I'^iiling to find any trace of his wife, the hunter returned to liis peo- 
ple, and for the reason that this woman was changed into a skunk for 
her undutiful conduct the locality was called "Place of the Skunk." 


The Menomini formerly disposed of their dead by inclosing the bodies 
in long pieces of birchbark or in slats of wood, and burying them in a 
shallow hole. When not in tlie neighborhood of birch or other trees, 
from which broad pieces of bark could be obtained, some of the men 
would search for the nearest dugout, from which they would cut a piece 
long enough to contain tlie body. In some instances sections of hollow 

Fig. 26 — Ancient form of protecting graves. 

trees were used as coffins. In order to aft'ord protection against wild 
beasts, there were placed over the grave three logs — two directly on the 
ground and the third on the others. They wei e prevented from rolling 
away by stakes driven into the earth. Figure 26 represents the old 
method of protecting graves. 

More modern customs now prevail with the greater body of the tribe, 
and those who have been Christianized adopt the following course : A 
wooden cofifln is made and the body laid out in the ordinary manner. 
The l)urial takes place usually the day on which death occurs. The 
graves are about 4 feet deep. Over the mound is erected a small board 
structure resembling a house, as shown in figure 27. This structure 
measures about 5 feet in length and 3 feet high. In the front and near 
the top is an opennig through which the relations and friends of the 
deceased put cakes of maple sugar, rice, and other food — the first 
fruits of the season. In some grave-boxes, immediately beneath the 



[ETH. AXN. 14 

opening, there is placed a small drawer, which is used for the same pur- 
pose as the opening. Sometimes even oti the grave-boxes of Christian- 
ized Indians, the totem of the clan to which the deceased belonged is 

Fig. 27— Modem grave-bnx. 

drawn in color or carved from a piece of wood and securely nailed. 
These totemic characters are generally drawn or attached in an inverted 

Fio. 28 — Graves of Osh'kosh and hia wife. 

position, which is denotive of death among the Menomini as among other 
tribes. Around the grave-boxes clapboard fences are usually erected 
to keep stray animals from coming near, and to prevent wayfarers and 


sacrilegious persons from desecrating the graves. An ordinary '' worm" 
fence is also sometimes built for the same ijurpose. 

Among the uou-Ghristianized Menomini the grave covering is of a 
slightly dift'erent character. These grave-boxes are more like an 
inverted trough, as shown in figure 1.'7, which illustrates the graves of 
the late chief Osli'kosh and his wife. The openings in the head end of 
the box are used for the introduction of ordinary food, as well as maple 
sugar and other tributes of the first fruits of the year, on which the 
shade of the departed may feast before it finally sets out for the land 
of the dead. 

Formerly, also, bodies were scaffolded, or i)laced in trees, according 
to the wish of the deceased. In some instances it was customary to 
dress and paint the body as during life, seat it on the ground facing 
the west — in the direction of the path of the dead toward the land of 
Naq'pote — when a log inclosure, resembling a small pen, was built 
around it. In this manner the corpse was left. 

When a niitii'^ is about to be buried, his nearest mitii"' relation 
approaches the grave before earth is thrown into it and addresses the 
shade of the body, as mentioned at length in connection with the pre- 
liminaries of the introduction of a candidate into the medicine society. 

Mourners blacken their faces with charcoal or ashes. Formerly it 
was sometimes customary to add pine resin to the a.shes, that the 
materials might remain longer on tlie skin, and a widow was not pre- 
sumed to marry again until this substance had entirely worn off. In 
some instances of great grief, the bair above the forehead was cropped 


The game of aka'qsiwOk was frequently played in former times, but 
of late it is rarely seen. It corresponds to the Ojibwa game of ''plum- 
stones," or '"bowl," and is played for of gambling, either by 
two individuals or by two sets of _ 

players, as below described. 

A hemispheric bowl, made of the 
large round nodules of a maple root, 
is cut and hollowed out. Figure 20 
represents a vessel of this character, 
which was^ fashioned solely with the 
aid of an ax and a knife of the char- ^i 

acter represented in figure 37, called -^^.i .^^- ,.»-• 

wagaq'koman. The bowl is symmet no. 29_woo<ien bowl for gambling, 

ric, and is very nicely finished. It 

measures 13 inches in diameter at the rim and is G inches in depth. The 
bowl is five-eighths of an incli in thickness at the rim, but gradually 
increases in thickness toward the bottom, whicli is about an inch thick. 
14: ETH 10 

242 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ank.14 

The knife-blade was made by an Indian blacksmitli, and is of tbe 
type used for abuost all kinds of wood-liiiishing, and especially in basket- 
making, as will later be described. The bandle is of basswood; the 
rear end of the blade, which is hammered to a point, is inserted into a 
socket in the handle and secured by thongs wrapped about both. There 
are forty counters, called ma'atik, made of twigs or trimmed sticks of 
pine or other wood, each about 12 inches long ajid from one-fourth 
to one-third of an inch thick. Half of these are colored red, the other 
half black, or perhaps are left their natural whitish color. 

The dice, or aka'sianok, consist of eight pieces of deer-horn, about 
three fourths of an inch in diameter and one-tliird of an inch thick, but 
thinner toward the edges. Sometimes plum-stones or even pieces of 
wood are taken, one side of them being colored red, the other side 
remaining white or uncolored. 

When tbe players sit down to play, the bowl containing the dice is 
placed on the ground between them. The counters are placed ou the 
ground between the opponents; bets are made; the first player begins a 
song, in which the other players as well as the spectators always join. 
At a certain propitious moment the one to play first strikes the bowl a 
smart tap, which causes the dice to fly upward from the bottom of tbe 
bowl, and as they fall and settle, the result is watched with very keen 
interest. The value indicated by the position of the dice represents 
the number of counters which the player is permitted to take from the 
ground. The value of the throws is as follows, viz : 

First throw, 4 red dice and i white — a draw. 

Second throw, 5 red dice and 3 white, counts 1. 

Third throw, 6 red dice and 3 white, counts 4. 

Fourth throw, 7 red dice and 1 white, counts 20. 

Fifth throw, 8 red dice and white, counts 40. 
The players strike the bowl alternately until one person wins all the 
counters — both those ou the ground and those which the opponent uuiy 
have won. See plate xiv. 


Another game that was formerly nuich idayed by the Mcnomini was 
the moccasin, or bullet, game, which was probably learned from their 
Ojibwa neighbors. Five persons participate in this game, four being 
active players, while the fifth acts as nuisician, by using the tambourine- 
drum and singing, the players usually joining in the latter. The 
tambourine-drum is shown in figure 30. 

The articles necessary to play this game consist of four bullets, or 
balls of any hard substance, one of which is coloi-ed, or indented, to 
readily distinguish it from its fellows; four moccasins also are required, 
as well as thirty or forty stick counters, similar to those used in the ])re- 
ceding game, though uncolored. A blanket also is used, and in addition 
a stick, about 3 feet long, with which to strike the moccasin under which 



tlie bullet is believed to be hidden. "Wlieii the game is commeiieed, the 
idayers are paired oft' by two's, who take their places on each of the four 
sides of the outspread blauket (plate xv). The ■wiuuer of the toss 
takes the uioccasins before him and lays them upside down and about 
G inches apart with the toes pointing forward. The object now is for the 
player to lift, with his left hand, each moccasin, in succession, and put a 
bullet under it, making many pretenses of hiding and removing the 
bullets, in order to confuse the opponents, who are eagerly watching for 
some slip of the performer whereby they may obtain a clue of the moc- 
casin under which the marked bullet may be placed. While this is going 
on, the drummer is doiug his duty by singing and drumming, to which 
the others'are noisily keeping time. When the bullets are all hidden. 

Fig. 30 — Tambourine drum. 

the player will suddenly call out, "Ho!" in a high note, wheu the sing- 
ing drojjs to a mere murmur, and the striker of the opposing side raises 
the stick threateuingly over the several moccasins, as if to strike them, 
but each time withdraws as if in doubt. Finally, he will place the 
end of a long stick uuder a moccasiu and turn it over. Should the 
marked bullet be di.sclosed, he is regarded as successful; if he fails the 
first time he has another trial, but if the bullet is found only at the 
second trial, the counters to which he is entitled will be fewer than if 
he finds the bullet the first time. 

In event of the opponent making a successful guess of the moccasiu 
under which the marked bullet has been placed, the former player 

244 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.axn.u 

relinquishes the moccasins and bullets and takes his turn at guessing. 
The game is decided when all tlie sticks ou the blanket are won, those 
winning the majority taking the bets previously made. The scoring 
depends on the agreement i)reviously formed. 


The game of lacrosse has already been described in connection with 
the cult society of tlio Mita'wit, as one of the preliminaries thereto, 
under certain circumstances. The game api)ears, at the present time, 
to be played merely for amusement, personal wagers being made on 
the result. 


The women formerly played a game of ball in which two sides, com- 
posed of unlimited numbers, would oppose each other. At each end of 
the ball ground, which was several hundred yards in length, a pole was 
erected, to serve as a goal. Many of the players would surround their 
respective goals, while the strongest and most active women, playing 
about the middle of the ground, would endeavor to obtain the ball and 
throw it toward their opponents' goal. The ball was made of deer hair 
tightly wrapped with thongs of buckskin, and covered with the same 
material. It measured about 3 inches in diameter. The women used 
sticks with a slight curve at the striking end instead of a hoop, as on 
the sticks used by the men. 

The game was more like the well-known game of "shinny" than any- 
thing else, with the addition of having to cause the ball to strike the 
goal instead of being merely knocked across a certain score line. The 
guardians of the goals were expected to prevent the ball from touching 
the post, and a good strike might send it away over the active players' 
heads, far toward their opponents' goal. 


Another game, for both amusement and gambling, was termed the 
"siiow-snake," and was undoubtedly derived from the Ojibwa. It was 
played during the winter, either in the snow or on the ice, and the only 
article necessary consisted of a piece of hardwood, from 5 to feet long 
and from one-half to three-fourths of an inch thick. The head was 
bulb-like and shaped like a snake, with eyes, and a crosscut to denote 
the mouth. This rounded end permitted it to pass over slight irreg- 
ularities in its forward movements. The player would grasp the end, 
or tail, of the snake by putting the index linger against the end and 
the thumb on one side, opposite to which would be the remaining three 
lingers; then stooping toward the ground the snake was held horizon- 
tally from right to left and forced forward in the direction of the head, 
skimming along rapidly for a considerable distance. (See tigure 31.) 

The Ojibwa play the game in a similar manner, but they sometimes 
place a ridge of snow slightly inclined away from the player in order 



to s'ive tlie snake an upward curve as it leaves the luinds, thus pro- 
pelling it a considerable distance before touching- the snow or ice. 

A short time since a similar game was observed among the Grow 
boys at Crow agency, Montana. By them, however, it was played 
during the summer, and instead of a wooden snake they emi)loyed au 
arrow with a blunt wooden head. Each player had a bundle of from 
ten to twenty arrows, and would propel all of them before giving place 

prt'luiiatury tii lllro\^iug 

to his opponent. Furthermore, to aid in giving the arrow au upward 
curve and to make it fly farther, a short board was placed ou the ground, 
the farther end of which was raised about i inches. The arrow was 
grasped in the same way as the Meuomiui held the wooden snake. 


A mutually satisfactory manner of starting a footrace is often adopted 
by two participants, as follows : After the course in which the race is 

246 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann.u 

to be run has been decided on, the starting point is indicated by mak- 
ing a transverse scratch in tlic ground over tlie line of the course, or 
by laying down at either side some leaves, a blanket, or some other 
conspicuous mark. The runners then recede from this mark in order 
to get a good and fair start. Both being ready, a twig or stick from 
12 to 15 inches in length is held between them, each grasping an end 
so as to readily indicate when one or the other is gaining undue advan- 
tage in speed from the standing point to the scratch where the race is 
actually to begin. 

In starting, both racers step off briskly, at once beginning a gentle 
trot which increases in speed as they approach the scratch, though 
both enilcavor to keep abreast and glance at the stick held by the 
two. When the true starting point is reached, the stick is drojjped 
and both start forward, each endeavoring to impede the progress of 
the other by every conceivable trick. 

Ordinary footraces cover only a few hundred yards, though long- 
distance races have sometimes occurred. When runners are sent out 
to carry invitations to the Mitii'wit ceremonials, or when the agent 
desires information transmitted, the courier assumes an easy running 
gait, which may be kept up for hours at a time. This dog-trot is the 
least fatiguing, and instances of the endurance of Indians have been 
well shown in recent years by the Apache renegades in their endeavor 
to escape the troops in the mountainous country of eastern and south- 
eastern Arizona, who would frequently desert their ponies and take to 
the trails on foot. 

A Mohave courier, well known to the writer, has been known to make 
the Journey between Camp Mohave and a temporary camp 90 miles 
southward between sunrise and sunset. He would eat but little during 
the day preceding the journey, and on the morning of his departure, 
shortly before the summer's early sunrise, would tuck the dispatches 
or letters in his huge coil of hair, and being clad only in breechcloth 
and moccasins was unimpeded in his progress. The trail lay along tlie 
hard, sandy banks of the river terrace, and as the temperature rose 
during the day he would go down into the water to wet his body and 
then resume his steady, easy, jogging gait, with both arms brought up 
beside the chest, the iists being clenched and held almost in front of the 

With reference to the speed obtained by the Menomini Indians, 
nothing remarkable has been accomplished, so far as is known. An 
instance of excellent time made by an Ojibwa mixed blood, at White 
Earth, Minnesota, has been placed on record.' The Indian referred to 
was sent for to enter a race against professional runners. He left the 
plow at noon, and after dinner walked about 23 miles to the place where 
the race was to be run, and next morning made 100 yards in ten and 
three-quarters seconds. 

'American Antbropologist, Waabington, vol. iii, 1890, p. 133. 


Mr F. TV. Hodge,' who has conducted re.searcUe.s among the several 
Pueblo tribes of New ^Mexico and Arizona, lias given an account of a 
Zuni footrace. "The great races of the ZuQi," says the author, "and 
those in which the chief interest is centered, occur after the planting, the 
time when nearly all the men are at leisure. In selecting the i)artici- 
pants in these races, the swiftest-footed of the young men of the north- 
ern half of the pueblo are matched against those of the southern, or 
the western half against the eastern. The number of racers on a side 
varies from three to six, and the degree of interest taken in the contest 
depends on the reputation of those engaged in it, and particularly on 
the extent to which betting has been indulged in." 

In this Zuni race many little preliminaries are arranged, and cer- 
tain precautions taken so as to insure a satisfactory conditiou of the 
participants, both hygienically and also from a religious point of view. 

The chief feature of the race is the kicking of sticks, which the 
leader of each side places across his foot at the base of the toes. 
These sticks are rounded and of the size of the middle finger; they 
are picked np with the toes and kicked forward, when one of the set, 
or partners, of the one kicking, renews the feat, keeping up rapid 
speed. Mr Hodge says the distance covered by one race was 25 miles, 
and the time consumed only two hours. 

It is well known that the Tarahumara Indians of Mexico are so 
named from their custom of racing while driving before them a wooden 
ball by means of the feet alone. It is said that frequently 70 or 80 
miles are thus covered in a single race. 

Canoe races frequently occurred among the jMenomini; but of late, it 
must be said, little interest is manifested in athletic sports of any kind. 


Apart from the dances indulged in by certain individuals in con- 
nection with cult ceremonials, tliere are two dances which are much 
esteemed as affording great pleasure and excitement. One of these 
is termed the Tobacco dance, the other the Shawano dance, for the 
latter is believed to have been introduced by the Shawnee, with which 
tribal designation tlie word is synonymous, signifying "southern" or 
" southerner," that tribe having lived to the south of tlie Menomiui. 


Nearly every Indian is a smoker, and smoking is engaged in when- 
ever he has nothing better to do. Pipes used at this day consist of 
various kinds procured from trading establishments ; but, if obtainable, 
the native pipes, made of stone, are greatly preferred, because they 
were the pipes of their ancestors and because the bore is deeper and 
narrower than is found in the modern briar and clay pipe bowls. The 
native pipe bowl is usually double the height of the modern article, 

I American Authropologist, July, 1890, pp. 227-231. 



[ETH. AXX. 14 

being from 1* to 4 incbes from top to bottom ; the main stem, from near 
the middle of which the bowl rises, is from 4 to 8 inches in lenj-th, 
becoming narrower, laterally, toward the front. The stem is bored 
from the rear to the center of the bowl, through which a similar bole 
is drilled from the top, to intersect or unite with the former. This per- 
foration averages one-tiiird of an inch in diameter, while the bowl ori- 
fice becomes slightly larger toward the top. 

Catlinite or red pipestone pipes were formerly obtained by the Me- 
nomiui through barter from their western neighbors, this substance 
being found oidy near the town of Pii)estone, Minnesota. A small 
bowl of this material is represented in figure 31i. The specimen illus- 
trated was formerly the property of Tecumtha, by whom it was pre- 
sented to a member of the family of Mr Gauthier, interpreter at 
Keshena, Wisconsin. It is now in the Xational Museum. Another va- 
riety of pipe found especially among the southern bands of Menom- 
ini — those living nearer the Ojibwa at Lac Court Oreille and Lac Flam- 
beau — are made of a dark, greenish-black mineral 
obtained in northeastern Minnesota. An example is 
illustrated in figure 33. 

Frequently the upper portion of the pipe is carved, 
the depressions afterward being filled with block 
tin or lead. Quite a degree of taste and skill is 
shown in some of these pipes, the 
stems, which are made of ash or 
other wood, being frequently orna- 
mented by carvings, decorations 
in color, and beads. Some of the 
.stems are broad, measuring from 
li to 2 J inches across, and are 
only half an inch thick. At each of the ends is a cylindrical projection, 
half an inch in diameter, the lower to be inserted into the pi^ie bowl, 
while the other forms the mouthpiece. 

The pith is removed from these stems by passing through them a 
piece of wire, usually made red hot so as to burn and harden the aper- 
ture. Some Indians, more expert than others, occasionally produce 
curious effects and cause astonishment by cutting away certain por- 
tions of the stem along the middle broad part, the openings extending 
almost across from side to side, and thus naturally renewing the conti- 
nuity of the orifice. As no marks upon the exterior are visible to the 
casual observer, it seems quite a puzzle to understand bow the smoke 
passes from the bowl to the smoker's mouth, for between these two 
points circles, squares, or perhaps other figures, are cut out, as above 
described. On careful examination it may be observed, and jjcrhaps it 
may also require the assistance of the carver to learn, that holes are 
drilled or burned from the side or edge of the stem to intersect the 
main orifice, all superfluous openings being carefully plugged with wood 
of the same species. 

FiQ. 32— Tecumtha'3 pipe. 


The orifice along the edge of the stem, from end to end, is made by 
splitting off a piece lialf an inch or so in width, then cntting a crease 
or groove along the main pai't to connect the two short transverse 
burned lioles which run into the main or original orifice, when the 
detached piece is again carefully secured to the stem by gluing. After 
the stem is completed and polished, or decor.ated by discoloration or by 
burning, the union of the two pieces is extremely ditticult to detect, if 
it can be detected at all. Thus the smoke passes around the interior 
through an orifice having four angles or turns. 

This is an example of only an ordinarily decorated stem. Sometimes 
the manufacture of the stem is even more complicated by a greater 
number of designs in carving, or the removal of certain portions, thus 
increasing the turns and angles of the orifice through wliich the smoke 

Fig. 33— Inlaid stone pipe. 

Having had occasion to speak of pixies and the importance of cere- 
monial smoking, it may not be inappropriate to treat more fully of the 
subject of tobacco, as well as of the substitutes for tobacco aud the 
peculiar manner of using them. 

Since the introduction of manufactured tobacco, most Indians pur- 
chase inferior grades of granular mixtures, they being the more readily 
obtained. Plug tobacco is preferred when it can be procured, but this 
is generally mixed by them with the native product. In former times 
the leaves of the sumach (Rhus f/lahra Wood, and B. aromatica Ait) 
were gathered and dried, being subsequently ground between the left 
palm and the ball of the right thumb, the latter projecting beyond the 
clinched fist. Frequently, when the leaves were very dry, both palms 
were employed to give a handful of leaves the primary crushing, the 
hands being used as in the act of washing. This mixture contains a 
large quantity of tannic acid, and its use generally produces bronchial 

The substance generally employed by theMenomini for smoking, and 
cue found abundantly in many i)arts of the northern temperate por- 


tioiisof Nortii America, is tlie red osier ( Gornus stoloni/era Michx.), com- 
monly designated Ijy lioiitiersnieu as kil'liliinik', or Icin'nikiniic'. Tlie 
word is from the language of tlie Dakota, by which nation it is more 
properly designated tslia"'shasha, "red- wood." The name adopted by 
the jMenomini is the former one, the word perhaps having been obtained 
by them directly from whites and ( 'anadian Indians who frequented the 
territory west of the Mississippi, where it was used very extensively, 
especially in mixture with plug tobac(-o. The shoots of a year's growth, 
and the older branches if still retaining the red epidermis, were pre- 
ferred. This thin, semitraiisparent epidermis was scraped oft' by 
passing the edge of a sharp knife-blade longitudinally over the stem; 
then the back of the blade was em])loyed in scraping from the ligneous 
jiortiou of the branch the cellular integument — the rather soft, brittle 
green portion of the bark. This was dried generally for future use, for, 
althougli smoked at nearly all times, it was deemed better for use in 
winter, as the Indians believed it to be ''heating,'' meaning by the 
phrase that it sometimes was more liable to cause slight dizziness or 
fullness of the head — an ett'ect attributable more to the adulteration of 
the tobacco furnished tliem than to the astringency of the bark. 

The third variety of native tobacco consisted of the leaves oi Arcto- 
staphylos mm-ursi Si^reng., commonly known in medicine as nva-ursi, 
and as an excellent diuretic; but by the Dakota Indians, from whom 
it was formerly obtained, it is designated as waqpe' tsha"shasha — liter- 
ally " leaf red-wood.'' This is a low-growing evergreen shrub, which 
bears oblong leaves not over an inch in length. Its habitat is chietiy 
along Yellowstone river in Montana, and southeastward in the bad- 
lands along the boundary between Montana and South Dakota. Dur- 
ing the writer's residence among the Dakota Indians in 1872-73, a small 
cigarboxful of the leaves was regarded as worth an Indian pony, prac- 
tically equal to $20, and, for obvious reasons, but few Indians could 
indulge in this luxury. 

This substance was prepared for smoking during the summer months, 
as it was then less liable to produce a sense of fullness in the head. The 
Menomini sometimes obtain these leaves at apothecary shops, but as 
the cost is greater than for an equal amount of tobacco, the latter is 
more generally used. 

Red-osier bark is prepared for smoking by laying a small handful of 
it on apiece of board, and whilst holding the curly shavings down with 
the left hand, the ends projecting toward the right are cut off" with a 
large knife by jiassing the handle up and down without lifting the point 
of the blade from the board. The motion of cutting is thus similar to 
that in using a small fodder-cutter; each time the blade is raised from 
the board the mass of bark is pushed under it as it descends, the bark 
being therefore really minced. Two parts of the bark are carefully 
mixed with one part of granular or similarly hashed plug tobacco, 
when it is ready for the tobacco pouch. Enough for only one day's 
use is prepared at a time. 


When an Indian desires to smoke, a pipeful of the tobacco mixture is 
phiced on the left palm, and worked with the ball of the thumb, or per- 
haps with the tips of the united fingers and thumb, after wliich it is 
put in the bowl and gently packed down by means of a pipe-stick. This 
implement is made of ash, cedar, or some other choice wood, and is from 8 
to 10 inches in length, one-third of an inch thick at the top, gracefully 
narrowing to within an inch from the lower end, where it curves to a 
blunt tip. The leaves of the uva-ursi also are broken or cut, and 
mixed with either of the above-named varieties of tobacco in the pro- 
portion of one of the former to three or four of the latter. 

When several Menomiui are sitting together for social purposes, 
smoking is individual, and no offer of a pipe by one to another is made, 
unless the latter desires a whift', or may perhaps be without his own 
pipe. When sitting in council and having in hand the consideration of 
tribiil affairs or deliberations relative to im])ortant social secrets, or 
when participating in ritualistic ceremonials, the smoker who fills the 
pipe hands it to his right-hand neighbor to light. The latter individual 
takes a few whiffs at intervals, inhaling each mouthful, after which the 
pijie is passed back to the owner at the left, who then takes several 
whiffs, when he passes it to the next person to his left. In this manner 
the pipe continues on its way around the circle, always to the left, until 
the bowl of tobacco is exhausted. He who concludes the smoking 
knocks out the ashes and hands the pipe to its owner. 

During the passage of the pipe silence is maintained, and if any con- 
versation becomes necessary, it is conducted only in a whisper. 

At various intervals of ceremonial smokes, especially during the 
smoking preliminary to prayers or chants, puffs of smoke are directed 
toward the four cardinal points as well as toward the abode of the wind 
gods, or the zenith — the abode of Kishii' Ma'nido — and toward the earth, 
the abode of the material parts of their deceased friends and relations. 

The true Indian pipestem usually terminates in a cylindrical mouth- 
piece an inch or more in length and from one-fourth to one third of an 
inch in diameter. When smoking, an Indian does not put this part into 
his mouth, as we are accustomed to doing, thus moistening it with 
saliva, but he will press it between the lips, and as the stem enters the 
mouth the outer and dry portion of the lips follow, so that the stem does 
not become moist. In sucking the stem and gaining a mouthful of 
smoke, the lips are slightly parted — at either side or toward the corner 
of the mouth — and air inhaled so as to mix with and pass down the 
throat into and filling the lungs. The slight sound of rushing air which 
is heard forms an essential part of Indian etiquette, for it is indicative 
of satisfaction and enjoyment. After a moment's suspense the contents 
of the lungs and air passages are exhaled, the smoke issuing from the 
mouth as well as in two distinct volumes from the nostrils. 

The question may be asked as to the reasou of the inhalation. This 
may be answered, because, first, the supply of tobacco is usually very 

252 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann.u 

limited, and, desiring it to go as far as possible, the enjoyment is tbus 
prolonged; and second, the ett'eet of tobacco smoke, when one is once 
accustomed to inhalation and is not susceptible to the irritating effect, 
is very agreeable, as the writer can testify from a personal experience 
of a quarter of a century — a habit since discontinued. It may be 
remarked, too, that the Indians, at a time when native plants of nar- 
cotic properties were used, inhaled the smoke for the purpose of induc- 
ing narcotism, and under certain conditions, an ecstatic state. Several 
plants of the genus Xicotiana were (Mu]tl()yed by various Indians, the 
southern and southwestern tribes especially, since they inhabited a 
region in which several sjjecies are indigenous. 

The tribes inhabiting the high plateau of Arizona, when first met 
with by the writer in 1871, were in the habit of rolling all of their 
tobacco into cigarettes as they were required, using therefor corn-husk 
or brown paper, if the latter could be obtained. An instance of the 
manner and the degree of enjoyment exi)ericnced by a Shivwits Indian 
may be cited. This native had come into camp with his wife and three 
young children, the youngest being perhaps three or four years of age. 
The first inquiry was for tobacco, and a piece of plug being handed to 
him, lie looked about for some heavy yellow straw-paper which had 
been wra))ped about some groceries in the mess-chest. The resem- 
blance of the latter to corn-husk made it very acceptable to him, and 
he immediately cut up the tobacco into snmll particles and rolled it 
into a cigarette, lighting it at the camp fire and noisily inhaling the 
smoke by great mouthfuls. After a few whifts, he turned the moistened 
end of the cigarette to his wife, who also drew a few putts, then passed it 
to his eldest child, a girl, then to the next in age. and finally to the infant, 
all of them seeming to relish the flavor and each casting wistful looks 
after the stump as the old chief finished it. I was informed by him that 
his children had never before had an opportunity of smoking. As in 
this instance there was but the merest taste and not sufficient to iuduce 
dislike, and possibly nausea, so it may have been in many others that 
the gradual ac(iuirenient may ultimately end in professional smoking 
without once having experienced the distressing effects of overindul- 
gence at a sitting. Most whites are supposed to pass through certain 
stages of tobacco sickness, induced by nausea, but this is believed to 
be exceedingly rare amongst Indians, doubtless for the reason above 

Tobacco is fiecjuently used by the Menomini as an offering. It is 
placed belOTe grave-boxes, sprinkled on stones or rocks of abnormal 
shape, their form being attributed to the Great Deity, or to ila'niibush. 
It is also sent as peace offerings to other persons or tribes; it is given to 
one from whom a favor is expected, or when an answer is looked for to 
questions to be sirbmitted or proi)ounded; and likewise it is sent out, 
together with an invitation, to members of the Medicine society when 
a meeting is contemplated. Nothing of a serious character is under- 

,, =1.^ Uv^ ^^-'' 




taken, or eveu attempted, before indulging in smoking and contempla- 
tion, and perhaps by preliminary fasting, accompanied by prayers and 

The origin of tobacco is regarded by the Menomini as mystic. An 
account of its .function in this regard has previously been given in this 


The greater number of tlie Menomini now live in comfortable log 
houses built by themselves and tolerably well furnished with modern 
conveniences. The only floor covering, if any is used at all, consists of 
rush mats, frequently of neat design, placed directly on the board floor- 
ing. Illustrations of these mats are given elsewhere in this paper, while 
the appearance of a typical modern Menomini log house is shown in 
plate XVI. 

The roof of such a dwelling consists of boards, though in a number 
of the older buildings homemade shingles may be seen. These are 
fastened with wooden pegs instead of with iron nails; they measure 
from 3 to 4 feet in length and from 8 to 10 inches in width, and are 
pegged to the crosspieces restiug on the rafters in the usual manner. 
The houses are rather poorly lighted, usually two windows and some- 
times only one window being regarded as suflicient for lighting and 
ventilating a house of moderate size. In nearly all instances the build- 
ing logs are squared to fit closely, and consequently require less chinking 
than when left naturally round. Whenever necessary to the comfort of 
the occupants of the dwelling, chinking is done with clay and sod, but 
on some occasions mortar is employed. 

Some houses are supplied with a ceiling, indei)endent of the roof, and 
a hatchway is also furnished for ingress by means of a ladder. The 
attic thus formed is used for the storage of various household articles, 
including utensils not in immediate use, and of harness and traps; 
sometimes it is used even for sleeping quarters for the children or for 
visitors. The walls are sometimes decorated with mats of rush or 
bark, the latter variety frequently being of elaborate design. 

As a rule no chimneys are built, the outlet for smoke being an ordinary 
stovepipe, which passes through an opening in the roof and projects 
several feet above. 

Near the modern houses is frequently observed a summer residence 
made of saplings and covered with mats or bark to protect the occu- 
pants from the sun and rain. This primitive form of Menomini wigwam 
is made in the following manner: 

Saplings of oak or other tough wood, not more than '2 inches thick 
at the base, are cut and planted about 3 feet apart so as to form an 
elliptical outline, with two openings for ingress and egress opposite each 
other, in the line of the greater diameter. Plate xvii represents the 


framework of a wigwam of this character. Tlie top and sides of tliis 
skeleton structure are covered witli large sheets of birchbark and mats; 
sometimes pieces of canvas or an old blanket are added. The materials 
used for covering will be described later. After the poles have been 
planted or driven into the ground until they stand like the vertical 
sticks of a basket-maker's frame, they are drawn inward across the 
interior and securely tied with strips of basswood bark. The width of 
the wigwam is usually about 10 feet, and tlie length 14 or IG feet. Hori- 
zontal poles are next lashed to the arched ribs, each from a foot and a 
half to 2 feet apart, excepting at the open or doorway ends of the struc- 
ture, where the vertical poles are about o feet apart. Mats are then fas- 
tened to the framework on the outside, first in a continuous row at the 
bottom, the next row overlaj)ping the first row, and so on until the top 
is reached. Over the dome are thrown pieces of bark — excepting at 
the center of the roof, where a smoke-hole is left. 

FlQ. 34 — Burk duiujcile for summer use. 

To complete the covering of the wigwam, mats are used as door flaps, 
the to]) of a mat being fastened to the top of each oi>ening, while the 
other end is ])ermitted to fall to the ground. To enter the structure, 
a person has merely to lift one side of the mat, allowing it to fall in 
place after entering. 

The sides of the wigwam are covered with pieces of pine bark cut in 
sectioiiii long enough to extend from the ground to the roof These 
pieces are fastened in jdace usually by strips of bark, but sometimes 
they are nailed. 

Another variety of temporary structure of the Menomini, used gen- 
erally during the summer when the natives go from home to pick ber- 
ries, gather wild rice, or to dig snakeroot, is quickly made by planting 
five or six saplings on each side of a parallelogram; the ends are 



left open, and the to]) of each sapling ou a given side is tlieu bound 
down over its opposite fellow to form a roof somewhat resembling a 
wagon-top, as in tigiire;U. Horizontal saplings are then bound around 
the framework to make the structure secure, and over all are laid, longi- 
tudinally, a series of long strips of pine bark, the upper pieces over- 
lapping those below, while a large piece is placed over the highest part 
of the roof, which thus sheds the rain or melting snow. This part com- 
lileted, the end of the wigwam is protected by other pieces of bark 
placed slantingly against the side. To keep out mosquitoes, smudges 
are built atone or both ends of these lodges, that the smoke may be car- 
ried through the structure. The bedding is spread on the ground, and 
usually covers the entire floor. 

Sometimes a so-called lean-to is built for short occupancy, or even for 
a single night's shelter from rain or dew. This variety of structure is 
made generally by laying short poles against a fallen tree trunk, the 
extreme pieces being about 6 or 7 feet apart; other poles or branches 
are then placed transversely upon tliese, and this rude framework is 
finall}' covered with brush and leaves. 

Occasionally winter habitations of bark are constructed like those 
shown in plate xviii. 

Another form of Menomini shelter which may again be referred to is 
the sweat-lodge, resorted to by those who may feel indisposed, or by 
the shamans previously to undertaking any serious or difficult task. 
This variety of structure resembles a huge beehive, but may be a 
little less conical in shape. An illustration (plate xi) of the sweat- 
lodge has already been given in connection with the ceremonies of the 

The tshi'saqkan or jugglery also has been described and illustrated 
(figure 30) in connection with the subject of that class of shamans. It 
is simply a large funnel-shape lodge, constructed of vertical poles with 
horizontal branches lashed on to serve as hoops, so to say. Over this 
frame t)irchbark, matting, or cloth is wrapped to hide the actions of the 
operator within. A ceremonial wigwam closely related to this is the 
previously mentioned mita'wiku'mik or medicine-lodge, represented in 
several forms in plates VI and xii and figures 5 and 9, which illustrate 
the different structures used during the annual performances. 


Some of the more thrifty Indians erect, for use as stables, small log 
buildings with flat roofs of saplings covered with branches, straw, and 
earth. To the stable a small corral, consisting of vertical saplings, is 
attached to prevent the escape of the animals. 

Poultry houses measuring from to 8 feet square, built of logs with 
board roofs, are also common among the Menomini. 

In recent years fences have been erected. These are usually either 
of jiosts or of clapboards, though many of the fields are inclosed by 


"worm" fences. Sometimes verti('al stakes are planted, sitplinj;s and 
branches being then entwined until the fence forms a veritable hedge. 


The recesses on each side of the longitudinal i)assageway of the 
Menominl wigwam are utilized for beds and bedding. Sometimes the 
ground is covered with pine boughs, over which the blankets and other 
bedding are thrown; but when the structure is to be occupied for a 
longer period than that covered by the sugar-making, or if the wig- 
wam is intended to remain for more than one season, then a i^ermauent 
platform, resembling a trundle bed, is erected, as shown in figure '55. 
Whenever possible, boards are laid across the head and foot poles of 

this primitive bedstead, thus making 
a comfortable platform on which to 
deposit and arrange the bedding and 
These beds consist of four short 
iaa—,j^^--_-^ ■tm^m^^- crotched poles, which form the legs, 

' and on these are laid other poles to 

Fio. 35— Bedstead of saplings. • -^ ^i t • • i xi i 

give it the ordinary size in length and 
breadth, though this frame is only from a foot to a foot and a half from 
the floor. Over the bed frame are placed boards or slats, upon which 
straw bags and a mattress are laid. 

In some houses may be found an abuiulance of mosquito netting, for 
mosquitoes in the Menomini country are very annoying, especially in wet 
seasons. The material is placed over the bedstead as well as over the 
floor bedding, where children or the men sleep, and the windows and 
doors also are sometimes covered with it. 


Modern stoves are now used by nearly all the Menomini; but if these 
get out of order or beyond their control, the women resort to the cus- 
tom in vogue before the whites came, of building a fire outdoors and 
suspending over it the kettle. 


Most of the dishes which they now useare made by the whites, though 
a few wooden spoons and ladles of native make are occasionally used 
by them. Musselshells also were formerly used as spoons, and their 
knives and axes were of stone. The Indians agree in the statement 
that the making of stone weapons' was discontinued by them four 
generations ago. Shu'uien remembers hearing the old people speak 

'Daring a tour of Nevada and Arizona in 1871, tlie writer saw atone arrowpoints and liuives still in 
use by tlie Cliemebuevi and Walapai and by tbe Apache at Camp Apaelie. Tbe arrowpoints used by 
the Apache at tliat time were made by themselves, and a number of specimens tlien obtained consisted 
of chert, obsidian, and bottk'-glass, and a single specimen was of gold quartz. Arrowpoints fashioned 
from hoop-iron were also in use at that time. See pages 281-284. 


about the iiuiuuer of using these stone objects. The knives were 
made of flint (hornstone), and were about 8 inches long, an inch and 
a lialf broad, and sharply pointed ; some indeed were sharp I'uough to 
cut moose skin with ease. These implements were used for cutting 
meat, for scraping arrowshafts, and in making bows. 

Some of the Meuomini say that musselshells are used even today, 
when necessity demands, botli for spoons and for cutting. They are 
also sometimes used for scrai)ing deerskin in tanning. The survival 
of the practice of thus using shells is not at all astonishing, for they 
serve the purpose as well as almost anything else, and thick strong 
shells of several species are abundant in the rivers of Wisconsin. 

Earthenware is no longer made by the Menomini, though some of the 
oldest women remember when pottery making was engaged in. 


In one corner of the living room, or perhaps outside the door, will 
occasionally be found troughs fashioned from solid trunks for containing 
water for fowls and other domestic animals, and sometimes a wooden 
mortar (figure 30) for crushing medicinal roots and plants is observed. 

Fia. 36 — Wooden mortar aud pt'stle. 

These mortars are fashioned from a section of the trunk of an oak; 
they measure 11 inches in height, 10 inches ia width, and 10 inches in 
length over the handles. The cavity, which is made by means of an ax, 
measures 9 inches in length and 7 inches in width at the top; it is 10 
inches deep and terminates in a wedge-shape bottom, rounded so as to 
receive the end of a double-head pestle. The latter is about 37 inches 
in length, the ends being from 2 to 2J inches in diameter, while the 
middle third, which serves as a handle, is somewhat thinner. The 
si)ecimen above figured, which was used for "medicine pounding" only, 
shows evidence of considerable age and much use. 


The troughs above mentioned are made in a manner similar to that iu 
which the mortars are fashioned, and they are from 3 to 1 feet in length. 
14 ETH 17 


They appear to have been formerly used in sugar-making, but now are 
employed only for watering fowl, etc. 


Cradleboards are used for the protection and convenient transpor- 
tation of infants. These boards are made of any light wood, and meas- 
ure about 30 inches in length aud 16 inches in width. Across the top 
and front, and projecting forward therefrom, is a wooden band, Avhich 
serves to hold the face cover, or mosquito bar, in summer time. The 
board is i)added with a piece of (|uilt or blanket, over the upper end of 
which is sometimes placed a piece of buckskin on which the child's 
head may rest. To the lower portion of the board — that is, from the 
point where the arms emerge, downward — pieces of cloth or skin are 
tied across to fasten the child to the board. A space is always left 
about the middle of the body, in order that the child may receive 
attention when necessary. 

Plate XIX represents an infant on a cradleboard, placed against the 
inner wall of a medicine lodge during the ceremonies at which the 
mother was an attendant. 

Infants who have become too large for the cradleboard are put to 
sleep in hammocks. The Menomini hammock consists of a woolen 
shawl held together at each end by a cord ; one of these cords is attached 
to a tree trunk, the other to a sapling placed slantingly against the tree. 
Near the head end of the shawl a piece of wood is inserted to keep 
the sides from pressing the child's face. The tendency of the ham- 
mock is to close tightly, and thus to hold the occupant quite securely. 
The simplicity of this form of hammock makes it very convenient for 
mothers, especially while domiciled in a temporary camp, since it may 
be suspended in a few moments. 


Several varieties of m^ts are made by Menomini women from leaves 
of rushes, from the flag or cat-o'-nine- tails, aud from cedar bark. The 
leaf-made mats are used chiefly for roofing temporary structures, such 
as the covered medicine lodge shown in plate xii. These mats are from 
6 to 12 feet in length and are usually a yard in width. They consist 
of two layers of leaves, each layer being secured by cords made of 
basswood fiber ijassed through transversely from one end of the mat 
to the other, to keep the edges of the leaves together. To each layer 
cords extend from end to end, at intervals of about 10 inches, thus 
leaving three or four cords to each layer, the ends of the leaves at the 
lateral edges of the mat being woven together to make a secure aud 
durable seam. Each layer or sheet of leaves is therefore free from its 
fellow, so that when the rain falls on the mat, the water usually follows 


the leaves on tbe inside of the mat. The extreme ends are secured 
by tying to two strips of wood, one above and one below, and 
wrapped with basswood cords. Tbe rush-leaf mats are compactly 
woven, and are used upon the floors and in the medicine structure for 

Leaves for mat-making are prepared by first cutting them when 
green, then steeping them iii boiling water, and laying them in the sun 
to bleach. Some leaves are then dyed, to produce in tlie final work 
various designs in colored stripes. These colors are chiefly dull green, 
red, and brown. The frame employed in making mats consists of two 
upright poles about 10 feet high and to 8 feet apart (plate xx). 
Another pole is then tied traiisversely as high as the face of the worker. 
Along the crosspiece is then stretched a stout cord of basswood liber, 
to which the leaves are attached by plaiting, thus making the latter 
pendent, one against the other, for as great a length as it is desired to 
make the mat. A long thread, also of basswood fiber, with a diameter 
of nearly three-sixteenths of an inch, is then attached to the left side of 
the row of leaves and run across toward the right by passing it in and 
oat; alternately over and beneath the leaves in succession. At intervals 
of every 4 or (5 inches a loop is made, to prevent the woof from slipping 
down, the loop being jiulled out when another space of 4 or inches is 
woven and stretched taut. The worker is occasionally obliged to spray 
water on the leaves, to make them jjliable and to prevent breaking. 
When the right side is reached, the woof is secured to a heavier warj) 
cord, which had been previously attached to the vertical pole. The col- 
ored leaves have already been placed at proper points, in the first 
instance, to give the desired stripes when finally woven. The lower 
edge is finished by cutting the leaves of equal length and plaiting them 
fioni left to right, when the last leaves are turned under and tied. 
A typical specimen of rush mat is illustrated in plate xxi. 

Bark mats are now rare among the Menomini; j)late xxii represents 
an entire specimen, while in plate xxiii a section only is shown. They 
are made of the inner bark of the cedar, cut in strips averaging half 
an inch in width. Some of the mats are nearly white, others are 
colored dark red and sometimes black with native vegetal dyes. The 
decoration is eft'ectively produced in diamond and lozenge patterns, 
as well as in zigzag lines, both by color and by the weaving of the 
weft strips, the latter being accomplished by taking up and dropping 
certain numbers of the warp strips. 


Baskets are made much on the same principle of plaiting as 
is employed for bark mats. The strips or osiers are made from 
black elm, the necessary limbs being from 3 to 4 inches in diameter 
(figure 37) ; these are thoroughly hammered with a wooden mallet (figure 
38) until the individual layers of the branch are detached from the 



[ETH. ANN. 14 

layers immediately beneath. These layers are then cut into tliin nar- 
row strips by means of the knife universally used (figure 39). The 

Fig. 37 — Elm log for making spbnts. 

strips are kept in coils (figure 40) until ready for use, when they are 
soaked in water. Figure 4:1 illustrates a finished basket. 
Cutting is always done away from the hand holding the material to 
be cut, and toward the body. 

The club or mallet employed in hammer- 
ing the elm wood is about 20 inches long 
and has one end thinner, so as to form a 


Fio. 38— Mallet. 

Thread, cord, twine, and rope are made 
il'liffil ^^ vegetal fiber, the chief material being 

n^l derived fiom the inner bark of the young 
'-'"'^^ sprouts of basswood. The bark is re- 
moved in sheets and boiled in water to 
which a large quantity of lye from wood 
ashes has been added. This softens the 
fiber and permits the worker to manijiu- 
late it without breaking. The shoulder- 
blade of a deer or other large animal is 
then nailed or otherwise fastened to an 
upright post, and through it a hole about 
an inch in diameter is drilled; through 
this hole bunches of the boiled bark are 
pulled backward and forward, from right 
to left, to remove from it all splinters or 
other hard fragments. After the fiber has 
become soft and pliable, bunches of it are 
bung up in hanks, to be twisted as desired. 

The manner of making cord or twine, such as is used 
in weaving mats and for almost all other household 
purposes, is by holding in the left hand the fiber as it is 
pulled from a hank, and separating it into two parts, 
which are laid across the thigh. The palm of the right 
hand is then rolled forward over both, so as to tightly 
twist the pair of strands, when they are permitted to unite 
and twist into a cord. The twisted end being pushed a little to the right, 

Fig. SQ— Knife of 
uati\ L- workman- 



Fig. 40— Coil of basket strips. 

the next continuous portion of tlie united strands also are twisted to 
form a single cord. The same process is followed in all fiber twist- 
ing, even to the finest nettle 


Deerskins are tanned by 

the Menomiui, as among the 

other tribes of the region of 

the great lakes. The inner 

surface of the skin is first 

cleaned of all shreds of fiber 

and meat, after which it is 

soaked in water, rubbed and 

kneaded, and then passed 

around an upright pole or 

saijling, and twisted to ex- 
pel the water. Eubbing and 

kneading are now again 

necessary, to soften the skin 

and to prevent stiffening. 

Sometimes the brains of a 

deer are rubbed into the skin, which is then stretched and pulled and 

rubbed until dry. This is supposed to prevent the subsequent stiften- 

ing of buckskin garments when subjected 
to water or rain. The hair is removed 
by laying the skin on a large smooth 
piece of wood, or by stretching it on a 
frame or on the ground. This process is 
represented in plate xxiv, in connection 
with which another stage of tanning also 
is illustrated. This is almost the final pro- 
cess — that of hanging the skin like an in- 
verted bag or funnel over a small fire, 
in order that the smoke may penetrate 
the skin and cure it. 


The members of the Mita'wit employ 
for medicine bags the skins of small ani- 
mals, birds, and snakes, also panther and 
bear paws, and similar objects of animal 
origin ; but at no time have bags been seen 
or even heard of, made of anj' part of a 

r<G.41-Finished basket. ^^^ ^^^ ^.^,^^^^ ^^^, ^^.^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

ascertained from the Indians themselves, but an explanation of the 
tabu will perhaps be found in the mythology relating to the totems. 

262 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.anx.14 

Wben an animal is to be skinn»'d for the i)urpose of making a medi- 
cine bag, an incision is made in the breast, and through this the car- 
cass is removed, leaving the skin of the head, feet, and tail entire. The 
skin is then turned inside out and tanned, after which the fur side is 
turned out and the eyeholes ornamented with beadwork. The bags are 
wrapped with colored cords or with strings of beads, and the under side 
of the tail is sometimes lined with a strip of red flannel, on which is 
worked a design in beads (plates viii and ix, and figure 13). Sometimes 
the flannel is decorated with small brass bells, with claws, or with the 
rattle of a rattlesnake. One bag of this character, made of an otter 
skin, was provided with a clever contrivance: By pressing on a small 
rubber ball within the body, the air was forced through the tube into the 
mouth, where a small whistle had been attached. The sound resembled 
closely the voice of the otter, and the credulous flrmly believed that the 
sound was the voice of the shade of that animal. 

The writer's own medicine bag, given to him by his shamanistic pre- 
ce])tor, is made of a mink skiTi, neatly ornamented about the eyes with 
beads, and with two small round steel bells attached to the nose. 
These bags are used for holding various parcels of mystic remedies and 
charmed objects employed by the shamans in the i^rofession of incanta- 
tion or exorcism. The bags are reputed as very dangerous to the 
uninitiated, and, for the purpose of preventing trouble or danger, medi- 
cine men frequently keep their sacks hidden outside of their domiciles, 
so that no one not entitled to do so should have an opportunity of 
touching them. 

The kind of medicine bag used by the mitii'^ depends on the dream 
which the individual may have had in his youth. Fasting is practiced 
by the young man, or boy, to find favor with the ma'nidos. During the 
fast he retires from the camp and abstains from all food until he 
become so debilitated as to attain a delirious or ecstatic condition, in 
which appear visions of various ma'nidos, either in human or in other 
animate form. Dreams of birds or animals lead the faster to believe 
that he will be invested with the same power of self-defense as is pos- 
sessed by the animal of which he has dreamed. If it is possible, there- 
fore, for the faster to procure a bag made of the skin or other part of 
the animal which appeared to him in the vision, he will do his utmost 
to possess it, even at the risk of great danger or the parting with any 
of his possessions. 

An instance of the belief in the power of the peq'tshiku'na, or medi- 
cine bag, is related as occurring among the neighboring Ojibwa.' It is 
as follows: 

A canoe manned with w.arriors was once pursued by a number of others, all filled 
with their enemies. They endeavoiired to escape, paddling with all their might, 
but the enemy still gaiued upon them ; then the old warriors began to call for the 

'Jones, History of the Ojebway Indians, London (1861), pp. 89-90. 



O-^-^^-f r 

^5gitS5ii3^'^«^ *^ 




assistauce of those things they had dreamt of during their fast-days. One man's 
muuedoo was a sturgeon, wliich being invoked, their speed was soon equal to that 
of this fish, leaving the eueniy far behind; hut the sturgeon being short-winded, 
was soon tired, and the enemy again advanced rapidly upon them. The rest of the 
warriors, with the excejition of one young man who, from his mean and ragged 
appearance, was considered a fool, called the assistance of their gods, which for a 
time enabled them to keep in advance. At length, having exhausted the strength 
of all their munedoos, they were beginning to give themselves up for lost, the other 
canoes being now so near as to turn to head them, when just at this critical moment 
the foolisli young man thought of bis medicine bag, which in their flight he had 
taken off from liis side and laid in the canoe. He called out, " Where is my medicine 
bag :■ " The warriors told him to be (juiet ; what did he want with his medicine bag 
at this perilous time? Ho still shouted, "Where is my medicine bag?" They again 
told him to paddle and not troulile them about his medicine bag. As he persisted 
in his cry, "Where is my medicine bag?' one of the warriors seeing it by bis side 
took it up and threw it to him. He, putting his hand into it, pulled out an old 
pouch made of the skin of a Saw-bill, a species of diick. This he held by the neck 
to the water. Immediately the canoe began to glide swiftly at the usual speed of a 
Saw-bill; and after being propelled for a short time by this wonderful power, they 
looked back and found they were far beyond the reach of the enemy, who had now 
given up the chase. Surely this Indian deserved a patent for bis wonderful propell- 
ing power, which would have superseded the use of the .jarring and thumping steam- 
boats, now the wonder and admiration of the American Indian. The young man 
then took up bis pouch, wrung the waterout of it, and replaced it in his bag; telling 
the Indian that he had not worn his medicine bag about his person for nothing, — 
that in his fast he had dreamt of this foAvl, and was told that in all dangers it would 
deliver him, and that he should possess the speed and untiring nature of the Saw- 
bill duck. The old warriors were astonished at the power of the young man whom 
they had looked upon as almost an idiot, and were taught by him a lesson, never to 
form a mean opinion of any persons from their outward appearance. 

A similar exhibition of the alleged power of the medicine bag has been 
referred to in connection with mitii"' ceremonies, in which an Ojibwa 
woman is said to have caused her snake-skin bag to become a living 
reptile, and to have chased for a considerable distance one of the doubt- 
ing Indian commissioners present. 


The Menomini snowshoe varies in form etkI size according to the indi- 
vidual as well as to the sex of the i)erson who is to use it. Figure 42 
represents a type, which it will be observed differs from that of the 
neighboring Ojibwa shown in ligure 44. 

The toe of the Menomini snowshoe is transverse, and has a thinning of 
the frame to admit of a short turn without breaking. The frame is made 
of ash ; it is 38 inches in length and is somewhat of boat shape, with a 
thick heel. The inside or upper part is divided, as usual, into three 
sections by two crossbars, and the intervening spaces of the anterior 
and posterior are filled in by a fine network of thin fibers made either of 
sinew or of buckskin. The middle space is Hi inches broad, and is filled 
in with closely plaited tliongs of rawhide or bu(!kskin — usually the 
former — at the anterior portion of which is au opening for the move- 



[ETH. ANN. 14 

ment of the toes after the foot has been secured by the loose loop of 
cords which passes over the heel. 

The specimen illustrated (figure 42) is the type usually worn by men, 
the style used by women being longer and narrower, while that for 
children is shorter and proportionally broader, as shown in figure 43. 


In referring to the practices of Ojibwa sha- 
mans,' I had occasion to remark that while 
it was customary among many tribes to use 
as little clothing as iwssible when engaged 
in dancing, either of a social or ceremonial 
nature, the Menomini, on the contrary, vie 
with one another in appearing in the most 
costly and gaudy costume obtainable. Like 
the Ojibwa, the Menomini mitti'wok take 
particular pride in their appearance when 
attending the ceremonies of theMita'wit,aud 
seklom fail to impress this fact on visitors ; 
as some of the Siouan tribes, who have 
adopted similar medicine ceremonies after 
tlie custom of their Algonquian neighbors, 
are frequently without any clothing other 
than breechcloth, moccasins, and armlets 
and other attractive ornaments. This dis- 
regard of di'ess is regarded by the Menomini 
as a sacrilegious digression from the ancient 
usages, and it frequently excites severe com- 

Apart from facial ornamentation of such 
design as may take the actor's fancy, or in 
accordance with the degree in the society to 
which the subject may have attained, a mita'" 
jiriest wears shirt, trousers, and moccasins, 
the first two of which may consist of flannel 
or cloth and be either plain or ornamented 
with beads, while the moccasins are always 
of buckskin, or, what is more highly prized, 
moose skin, beaded or worked with colored 
porcupine quills. 

Immediately below each knee is tied a garter — a necessary accom- 
paniment of a Menomini's dress. This garter consists of a band of 
beads varying in diSerent specimens from 2 to 4 inches in width aud 


-Siiowslioe for 
nomiiii ti'pi*. 

men — Me- 

' Seventh annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology, p. 298. 





from 18 to 20 iuelies in length, to each end of which strands of colored 
yarn, 2 feet long, are attached, so as to admit of being passed around 
the leg and tied in a bowknot in front (plates xxv, xxvi, xxvii). 

Bands of flannel or buckskin, handsomely beaded, are sometimes 
attached to the sides of the pantaloons, 
in imitation of an officer's stripes, as well 
as around the bottom. Colors also are 
used, in addition to necklaces of claws, 
shells, or other objects. 

Armlets and bracelets also are some- 
times worn; these are made of bands of 
beadwork, though brass wire or other 
pieces of metal are preferred. Three 

of such necklaces are 

showTi in plate xxviii. 
Bags made of cloth, 

and entirely covered 

with beads or other- 
wise ornamented, are 

worn at the side, being 

supported by means of 

a broad band or baldric 

passing over the opjio- 

posite shoulder (plate 

XXIX). The head is 

decorated with disks 

of metal and tufts of 

dyed horse hair, or 

moose hair, and with 

eagle feathers, to des- 
ignate the particular 

exploits performed by 

the wearer. 
Previous to the advent of white traders, 
or before they were able to procure by 
purchase or barter beads of European 
manufacture, the Menomini claim to have 
made large beads from shells found in 
the rivers of Wisconsin and on the shores 
of Green bay. Quite a variety of large and 
exceedingly beautiful freshwater shells 
occur in the rivers of Wisconsin, and it 
would be strange indeed if tlie natives did 
not utilize the iridescent pearl for ornamentation when at the same time 
they iised them as knives. Among some of the old mitii" women large 
beads, together with the elongated shell beads purchased at traders' 

Fig. «— OJiliwa h ii rt 
Menomini cliililren's 

Fig. 44— Snowahoe for ■women— O.jibwa 


266 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.axn.u 

stores, are worn — beads of sufQciently primitive appearance to induce 
one to believe the assertion that their ])e<)ple had made tliein. 

These beads were evidently made from the thick portions, or iierhaps 
joints, of freshwater mussels; they are of the size of buckshot, with 
a perforation drilled from each side toward the middle. The perfora- 
tions being somewhat of funnel shape, and showing marked stria-, would 
indicate that the drilling had been made with other than a metal instru- 
ment. On subsequent investigation respecting the manufacture of 
articles recjuiring perforation, I was informed that the Mencmiini used 
sharp-pointed pieces of quartz and jasper, rotating these rude drills 
with the hand and fingers. As regards the use of the bow-drill, either 
for making fire or for drilling stone or shells, no definite iuformation 
could be ascertained, as none of the more intelligent or aged natives 
remembered having seen them in use. 

Although fire-sticks were used for making fire and for di'illing harder 
substances, like bone and shell, the aperture drilled was i)robably not 
of greater depth than could conveniently be accomplished by rotating 
by hand the drill point of silicious material used. 

As a matter of interest and comparison, it may be appropriate to 
state in this connection that the Chumash, an extinct tribe who for- 
merly inhabited Santa Cruz island, opposite Santa Barbara, California, 
formerly made globular shell beads similar to those found in Wiscon- 
sin. The tribe referred to were also the manufacturers of the beautiful 
stone and shell weapons found on the Pacific coast, where the subject 
of shell and bone drilling may be studied in every variety of ornament. 
The most interesting shell beads found in this locality are made from the 
tivola, abeloue, etc. The cylindrical shell beads, the smallest of which 
are three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter and an inch and a quarter 
in length, have "perforations but little more than a millimeter (or less 
than one-sixteenth of an inch) in diameter, and the diflicnlty in making 
them must have been very great.'" Large quantities of these beads 
have been discovered, and some specimens procured by the writer are 
4 or 5 inches in length, with a bore just large enough to i^ermit the 
passage of a broom straw. Even smaller perforations are noted in the 
work just cited. 

In the recent excavation of graves, bundles of thin triangular pieces 
or spicules of hornstone have been found. Each of these bundles con- 
tains several hundred specimens, the individual drills being carefully 
flaked from a core so as to be almost perfectly triangular longitudinally, 
gradually tai)ering to a sharp point. These specimens have an average 
length of an inch and three-fourths, and a diameter at the thicker end 
not exceeding one-eighth of an inch. 

These delicate drills had no doubt been employed in making the inden- 
tations at the ends of the cylindrical beads, which subsequently served 

'Wheeler'B report U. S. Gt'og. Survey West of the 100th ^leridiau, Washington, xtd. vii, p. 266, 
p]. xiii. 



HI ! V 


E^^ f a^ 

rrt-:i4^^ I Mnl l¥^i l^ 



— T "^"T, < - ' — I a ' 

T^V . _A-__ , 1..^ — '3fc4 -'*' ?*•- V • : 



as a starting point for the bristle drill used in perforating the entire 
length of the bead. 

In several graves opened during the summer of 1884, there were 
found, among other articles, bundles of the whiskers or bristles of the 
sea liou {Zaloplius cnli/ornieKs), which animal, together with one or two 
species of seals, formerly abounded along the southern coast of Cali- 
fornia and the islands of Santa Cruz, Santa Eosa, and others. The 
bristles of this animal are now highly prized by the Chinese of the 
Pacific coast, who tip them with gold and use them as toothpicks on 
account of their elasticity and strength. 

In investigating a large collection of long beads from the Pacific 
coast, curved as cut from the shells themselves, the author found that 
several of the specimens had been split longitudinally, exposing t(j view 
an interesting interior, and suggesting a solution of the method em- 
ployed in making the delicate perforations. The bead having received 
a preliminary drilling at each end, as before mentioned, by using the 
triangular fragment of horn.stone— the ends of nearly all perforations 
being rather flaring or of funnel shape — the bristle was next applied, 
and twirled or rotated between the thumb and fingers, while, at the 
point of contact with the shell, silicious silt or fine sand was applied to 
aid in cutting away the calcareous matter of the shell. The soft stratum 
between two layers of the harder enamel was naturally followed by the 
drill, thus without the slightest difficulty causing the perforation to be 
curved, from end to end, to conform to the convexity of the shell from 
which the bead was made. 

In some of the shorter beads which have split longitudinally, exposing 
the bore, it is shown that the drilling was accomplished from both ends, 
the axis of the perforation from each end being in a perfectly straight 
line, the two perforations meeting at or near the middle of the specimen. 
In some examples the two perforations were shown to pass each other; 
in these instances the bead was thrown aside, and subsequent splitting 
exposed to view the condition described. 

In shells of abnormal convexity and having a length of more than 3 
or J: inches, perforations in a straight line from either end would not 
always reach the middle along the line of least resistance, as offered 
by the softer calcareous stratum, but would sometimes emerge from 
the sides, leaving a portion of the middle i)art of the bead solid. That 
the bore followed the course of the curve of the bead, the bristle drill 
continuing between the superior and inferior strata of harder enamel, 
is shown in many examples.^ 

Substances having the texture of bristles, human skin, etc, are less 
liable to destruction by erosion from the application of silt, or fine sand, 
than harder mineralogic materials. This is demonstrated by the use 
of the sand blast, and also by practical experiments in drilling with 
bone, wood, and porcupine quills, and the whiskers or bristles of mam- 

1 Wheeler's report, etc, op. cit. 


mals. The tough, bony, or .semisilicious surface of such materials offers 
just sufficient softness to grip the particles of sand and to dii-ect more 
force on the mineral substance or shell. 

A common method of drilling by using the palms of the hands to 
rotate the drill necessitates the placing of the object to be drilled on 
the ground in tlie hands of another, or between the feet of the oper- 
ator. When so slender and delicate au object as a cylindrical shell 
bead was to be worked, it was held in one hand whilst the bristle was 
twirled with the other. The silt could readily be applied as required 
by simply dipping the bristle into it, as it may have been kept wet in 
a steatite bowl or a .shell vessel. 

The condition of the transverse strite jireseut in the perforations, as 
exposed iu split beads, lends additional testimony to tlie process of 
drilling by the use of silicious matter, as above suggested. The rapidity 
of the rotary motion of the bristle, or pressure upon it while in rotation, 
is also indicated in long beads by the gradual expansion at regular 
points in the bore as would result from the lateral vibration of the 
bristle, one side of such a bore following an undulating line, as a 
musical cord in vibration, or in the graphic illustration of a sound 

When drilling was done in hard shells, in which no soft stratum 
existed, the drill holes would frequently not meet at the middle, and in 
such beads a semicylindrical cut was made in the side of the bead at 
the middle, so as to pass half-way through the lateral diameter of the 
bead, exposing the drill holes and allowing the ends of the cord to 
emerge at that lioint to admit of tying. Such beads were evidently 
used iu necklaces, whereas the long, thin, curved beads were used for 
earrings and hair ornaments, this use being suggested by the relative 
position to the skeleton as they were found in graves. 

Emblems of personal valor or of exploits are seldom seen. No war- 
faro between the Menomini and neighboring tribes has occurred for 
many years, and the custom of wearing specially marked feathers, to 
indicate some particular action or achievement, has long since fallen into 
•desuetude. Head ornaments, such as the tail of a buck, are sometimes 
■worn, to denote that the wearer is a fleet-footed runner, especially in the 
ball game; or he may wear hawk feathers as indicating the phratry of 
vchicli his clan is a member. 

Menomini moccasins are made of buckskin, with soles of par-fleche or 
rawhide. The front is sometimes ornamented with beads, the tongue 
having a rectangular pattern in beads stitched on it. The sole of the 
moccasin is cut from the rawhide, and is outlined from the bare foot. 
The upper is made of a single piece of buckskin, with the seam at the 
beel. The flap remaining after the cuts are made to admit the foot is 
thrown forward so as to lie down toward the front over the instep, and 
then has the bead ornamentation on what was previously the inside. 




The moccasin is fastened to the ankle by a bnckskin thong passed 
around tlie top through a number of lioles, whicli permit it to slide 
easily while being fastened. 

The garters above referred to are made by the women in such pat- 
terns as they may be able to design or elaborate. There is a general 
type of diamond and lozenge shape outlines, sometimes of solid colors, 
though more frequently filled in by sharply contrasting tints. Frets, 
vines, and meanders also are common. The accompanying illustrations 
(plates xxv-xxix) will better convey an idea of the variety of patterns 
in use by Menomini beadworkers. 

Many if not all of these designs used in beadworking have been intro- 
duced among the Menomini by intercourse with the Ojibwa, with whom 
they have been friendly neigh- 
bors from the earliest historic 
times. This is shown not only 
by the identical patterns exist- 
ing among both tribes, but is 
evident also from the frequent 
intertribal traftic, existing even 
at this day. So late as 18!)1 a 
specially appointed delegation 
left Red Lake, Minnesota, to visit 
all the Ojibwa and Menomini set- 
tlements in southern Minnesota 
and in Wisconsin, to gather 
every available large specimen 
of beadwork for trafiic with the 
Arikara and Hidatsa of North 
Dakota, from whom the northern 
Ojibwa obtain horses. Annual 
visits were made by the Ojibwa 
to these tribes, and the latter 
would, in time, procure more 
horses, in exchange for the bead- 
work from the Crows of Montana. 
In this manner the Ojibwa and Menomini beadwork gradually found 
its way as far west as the Selish Indians, in northwestern Idaho, from 
whom examples have been recovered. 

Recently some enterprising individuals have introduced machine- 
made beadwork and disposed of it through the traders. The original 
methods of making it, as pursued by the Indian women, is slow and 
difficult, and in no instance do they appear to receive a fair compen- 
sation for their labor. The work is usually done without the aid of 
patterns or diagrams. There are three processes of embroidering 
with beads, and as all the work, excepting that in which the beads 
are sewed directly on cloth or buckskin, is made by a definite system, a 

ubi lahed beadwork 



[ETH. ANN. 14 

description of the process may be of interest, especially as this subject 
has hitherto been untouched. 

After deciding- on the article to be worked — a garter, for example — 
a frame of wood is made sufficiently large to extend from 4 to 6 inches 
beyond the finished piece. Figure 45 represents a frame of this char- 
acter. The pieces of wood are usually of pine, 2 inches broad and from 
a half to three-fourths of an inch thick, made rigid by screw.s or thongs, 
where the pieces intersect. Thi'eads of linen are then wrapped verti- 
cally over the top and bottom, each thread being a bead's width from 
the nest. In some instances, as will be referred to later, the threads 
are wrapped so as to run by pairs. These form the warp. The number 
of threads depends on the width of the proposed design. 

The pattern is begun at the lower end, several inches fi'om the frame. 
A fine needle is threaded, the other end of the fiber bein'g secured to 
one of the lateral threads of the warp; then the needle is passed 
through a bead of the desired tint of the ground color of the garter, 
and the thread passed under one vertical or warp cord; another bead is 
then taken up, after which the needle is pushed along over the next 

cord; and then another bead being 
threaded, the needle is again passed 
along under the next following cord, 
and so on alternately above and 
beneath the warp cords until the 
other side is reached, when the outer 
cord is merely inclosed by one turn. 
Tlie same jirocess is followed in the 
return to the side from which the 
beginning was made, except that the 
threads alternate, the woof being 
now above instead of below the warp 
cords. Figure 4(> represents the pro- 
cess described. 

The chief difficulty which one encounters is in remembering the 
exact point at which a new pattern should appear, as the color of the 
bead required for this must be inserted at the proper time and the 
number of spaces carefully counted and reserved for use as the pattern 
is developed. Eeference to the illustrations will aid fui-ther in the elu- 
cidation of this difficulty. When the design is completed, the warp- 
cords are gathered by bunches of two's or three's and tied in knots, so 
as to prevent the dislodgmeut of the woof fibers and the consequent 
destruction of the entire fabric. To these ends are afterward attached 
strands of woolen yarn to lengthen the garter, so as to reach around 
the leg and admit of tying in a bowknot (plate xxv). 

The above illustrates the simplest method of working beads. The 
type of beadworking shown in figure 47 is a little more complicated. 
In this there are two vertical warp cords or threads between each two 

Fig. 46— Design of first variety of vi 

[■kiug iu 






This variety of 

beads, there being an alternate movement of the pair of warp cords 
backward and forward, thus making it similar iu appearance to the 
preceding pattern, excluding the beads, when the latter are placed 

The woof thread is run to the side of the garter, and a bead is then 
passed through and returned in the next upper space, where another row 
of beads is taken up to continue the design. When the opposite border 
of the garter is reached, a single bead is again threaded and permitted 
to extend as a projection to guard the external warp threads against 

A third variety of beadwork is effected by using the vertical warp 
cords as before, but instead of passing the threaded needle through 
one bead at a time, whenever a vertical thread is passed, the necessary 
number of beads required to reach across the pattern, as well as the 
proper arrangement of colors to carry out the design, are threaded and 
laid down on the warp so that each bead falls within its proper space; 
then, as the lateral thread is inclosed by the weft thread, the ueedle is 
passed back through the same row of beads, but this time beneath the 
warp instead of above, thus entirely inclosing the weft. This requires 
a delicate needle and a fine though strong thread, 
beadwork is usually found only in gar- 
ters, whereas the other two forms oc- 
cur in almost all other kinds of bead 
objects, such as the sheets used in 
making medicine bags, in collars, 
baldrics, belts, and narrow strips, the 
two ends being fastened together by 
tying or otherwise. The cord itself 
is then decorated with beads by sim- 
ply threading on a single fiber and 
wrapping this about the primary jjiece from one end to the other. By 
a little care in the proper selection and arrangement of colors, very 
pretty effects are ijroduced. 

Beads are stitched on clothing, moccasins, etc, by simply threading 
one or more beads on the needle and sewing them down along the out- 
lines marked on tiie outside and afterward the inside of the article 
which it is designed to ornament. 

As a rule, the ends of the pieces of beadwork are at right angles to 
the direction of the warp, but in many small examples, such as collars 
or neiiklaces, the ends terminate diagonally, an effect produced by the 
successive rows containing one or two beads less than the preceding 
row, the diagonal side being on one side of the article only, and not 
divided so as to turn toward a central apex by simultaneously leaving 
off one or more beads on both sides. 

In the third variety of bead-weaving there are only single vertical 
threads between each two beads as in the first named, but the cross- 

FiG. 47 — Design of second variety of working 
iu beads. 

272 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann,14 

threads forming the woof are double instead of single, and as the 
threads pass through the bead they diverge so as to inclose the warp, 
after which they again unite to pass through the next bead. An exam- 
l^le of this is shown in figure 48. The lateral edges of the garter may 
be smooth or beaded — that is, the threads may either simply inclose 
the outside vertical thread and return to take up the next upper row of 
beads, or they may pass through one bead and then return on the next 
line. The object of the lateral beads, which project edgewise, is for the 
same purpose as that mentioned in connection with the second class of 

Dance bags — so called because they are ornamental and worn chiefly 
by well-to-do Indians at dances — are made of a piece of cloth or buck- 
skin about 15 inches square, from the two upi)er corners of which a 
continuous baud or baldric, 4 or 5 inches broad, extends upward so 
as to pass over the shoulder opposite the side on which the bag is 
worn. The entire piece of material is covered by a 
sheet of beadwork, bearing designs similar to those 
on the garters, though frequently more elaborately 
combined or grouped. The flat part of the bag contains 
a very narrow slit for a pouch, the latter being often 
no larger than a vest pocket (plate xxix). 
^'If" ■'^rr^''!'^'', ^°™ A uiedicine-man considers himself fortunate if he 

01 worKing in beada. 

owns one of these bags. The ordinary number worn 
by the mita'wok is three or four, part of them being worn at the left 
side, the others at the right. Sometimes a dozen such bags are worn 
by a single individual, beside other bead ornaments consisting of 
necklaces, breast-pieces, gartei-s, armlets, etc, until the weight of the 
decorations causes him considerable inconvenience in these prolonged 

Beaded belts also are worn, but originally all belts were made of fiber. 
"Woolen yarn is now emi)loyed in weaving strips, about 6 inches wide 
and 3 feet long, from each end of which a fringe extends a foot and a 
half or more beyond. The texture is close, and the warp consists of 
strands of almost every obtainable color, twisted together in an appar- 
ent tangle, though on close inspection the color designs appear to con- 
sist of lozenge-shape stripes, and sometimes diagonal lines returning to 
the side from which the first deviation was made, thus often resembling 
an elongated zigzag i^attern. 


Hunting is still engaged in by the Menomini, though not to such an 
extent as formerly. The mammals most abundant in their country are 
the black bear, deer, hare, porcupine, wildcat, and lynx. Occasionally 






a panther, wolf, beaver, or au otter is reported as having been seen, 
but gronso and ptarmigan are somewhat scarce. 


Stnrgeon and tront were caught in great quantities in the early days, 
the former chietly by means of the spear. Previous to the erection of 
dams in Wolf river, great numbers of sturgeon migrated upward each 
spring to spawn, and Indians were then stationed along the river at 
favorable places ready to cast the spear when the fish appeared. Many 
of these fish are from 4 to 5 feet in length. The excitement during their 
ca])ture was intense, and even now frequently forms the topic of ani- 
mated conversation relating to bygone days. 

While the tribe still occupied the shores of Green bay, great numbers 
of lake fish were caught, chiefly among which, on account of the excel- 
lence of its food, was the white fish. At that time, as well as subse- 
quently, gill-nets were used for placing along favorable places near the 
shore. These nets were made of cords of native libers, the process of 
twisting which is elsewhere described. From the wild hemp and the 
nettle fine strings were twisted for use as fishing lines, the hooks being 
made of two pieces of bone joined together at the lower extremity so 
as to resemble a V in shape. One arm of the hook was longer than the 
other, and to this longer arm the line was attached. 


Two forms of game traps are used by the Meuomini ; the larger is the 
dead fall, made of logs and used in catching bear. The other is made 
somewhat on a similar principle, though much smaller, and is used only 
for small mammals. This trap, represented in plate xxx, is made as 
follows : 

Four stakes, each about 2 inches in diameter and from 18 to 20 inches 
high, are driven into the ground, so that they form the corners of a 
parallelogram, as shown by 1, 2, 3, and 4 of figure 49. The two pairs 
of stakes are about 20 inches apart, with just 
snfticient space between those of each pair to •' 

permit a sapling to slide between them. A •' 

short piece of sapling, 4 inches in diameter, 

is then placed on the ground, the ends being •* 

made to project beyond each pair of upright ° O' " 

posts. The sapling, 4 inches in diameter and ° o " 

10 to 12 feet long, is taken as the movable ° ° 

or falling piece, which rests on the short stick no- «-Groimdi>ian of trap for 
just mentioned. A short distance to the side *""" ^''™''' 

(at 5, figure 40) is a short, stout peg, with a notch on one side, to which is 
attached a cord, while on the opposite side (at 6) is another short peg, to 
which is attached a salted string. In plate xxx the trap is represented 
14 ETH IS 


as set. On tlie post markecl in the above diagram is a short stick, to 
the inner end of which is attached a cord strong enough to hokl up the 
fallen log, while at the other or outer end is another cord extending to 
the peg marked 5. This cord has previously been soaked in brine, as has 
also the string extending from the middle of the vertical cord across the 
inside of the trap to the opposite peg (at 6). The latter string, being 
salted, is a sufficient bait to tempt a hare or other rodent to gnaw the 
string along its course to the upright cord, which latter, if gnawed in 
twain, permits the fallen log to drop on the animal's back and thus 
secureitwithoutiiijury to thepelt. To prevent the animal from approach- 
ing the trap from the side (at 5), stakes are driven into the ground, 
as indicated by the small circles in the figure. 

Bear traps are composed of a sort of pen or corral, of upright posts, 
leaving but one entrance, through which the bear is compelled to pass 
in order to reach the tempting morsel of meat with which the trap is 
baited. The meat is attached to a cord, which is so arranged that the 
slightest disarrangement of the meat will cause the dead-fall to drop. 
This dead-fall consists of the trunk of a tree, weighted with stones 
or timber suflicient to crush the animal. 

Women seldom participate in hunting, although both Ojibwa and 
Menomini women devote special attention to ensnaring the lynx and 
the wildcat. These animals are regarded by the Indians as very stupid, 
because they are so easily taken. 

When a trail is discovered in the snow, indicating the course taken 
by a lynx or a wildcat in leaving and returning to its lair, the woman 
finding it will search for a spot where the trail passes near by a tree or 
through a copse. She will then take a strong cord or a string of sinew 
and, after tying an end to one side of the trail, will make a simple loo^j 
8 or 10 inches in diameter, and tie the other end to a tree or post on the 
other side of the trail. The loop is then set up by means of thin sticks 
placed transversely across the trail, so as to be brought just high 
enough for the head of the animal to i>ass through it. When the ani- 
mal thus finds itself entangled in the noose, instead of backing away it 
will push forward, causing the noose to tighten more and more until 
death by strangulation results. 

Beaver traps are sometimes baited with certain vegetal substances 
of which these animals are very fond, but to make the bait, or "medi- 
cine," effectual, the substance is colored with vermilion, or other sacred 
paint. This is then placed between two sticks, each about 2 inches 
in length, laid crosswise, and then attached to a steel trap. 


The weapons employed in former times consisted of axes, arrows, and 
knives of stone, though knives of shell also were used. The manu- 
facture of stone relics, says Shu'nien, was discontinued about four gen- 
erations ago. In those times hickory and ash were generally selected 





for the maiuifacture of bows. The limb was cut to the required length 
by ijoiiudiug and cuttiug with a stone ax; then the wood was heated 
on both sides, near the fire, thus softening it sufficiently to admit of 
being scraped down to the desired breadth and thickness. Bow-mak- 
ing was tedious work. The sinew was generally made from the liga- 
ments obtained from each side of the vertebrae of the moose. The 
ligament was split, scraped, and twisted into a cord by rolling the 
fibers between the palm of the right hand aud the thigh, and with the 
left hand drawing it away as completed. 

Bows and arrows are now used only by the j-ounger members of the 
tribe, who emjiloy them in killing birds and in target shooting, when a 
trifling wager is sometimes staked by the participants. Bows are some- 
times made of ash, and cedar and ash combined, but hickory is gener- 
ally used for this purpose, as the bows are not so elaborately and 
carefully made as formerly. A typical bow, made by an old expert, 
measures -10 inches in leugth, three-fourths of an inch in thickness at 
the center, and an inch aud a quarter in width, narrowing down toward 
each end to five-eighths of an inch. The ends of the bow are some- 
what thinner than the middle. The notches for the bowstring are cut 
about an inch from the end. Frequently one edge of the bow is orna- 
mented by allowing projections of the original surface of the wood to 
remain to the height of nearly half an inch, these projections being as 
broad lengthwise as they are high, and serrated at the top. These ser- 
rations are subsequently colored red, blue, or some other tint, accord- 
ing to the fiincy of the owner. The projections noted are scattered 
along the left edge at intervals of 4 inches, the iutei'veuing surface of 
thajt edge of the bow being of a difl'ereut color to that selected for the 
tops of the projections, a pleasing contrast thus being presented. 

The bowstring was made of sinew, as among all the tribes of the 
great lakes. One end of the string was secured by knotting; the other 
end was looped, iu order that the bow might be quickly strung. 


Having studied the process of arrow-making among quite a number 
of tribes, including the Chemehuevi and Coyotero Apache, at a time 
when jasper, obsidian, and bottle-glass arrowheads were still manu- 
factured, I shall describe somewhat iu detail the process employed 
by the Menomini. Among these people the stone weapon, as before 
remarked, is now almost a thing of tradition, and there are at this day 
but two classes of arrows found, and one of these only at rare intervals. 
The first class is the game arrow with the iron point; the second is that 
designated as monoxylic,' i. e., made of a single piece of wood and used 
chiefly by boys in shooting birds aud for practice or play. 

The wood intended for shafts is gathered late in the autumn, cut in 
lengths exceeding 2 feet, tied in bundles of several dozen shafts each 

' Prof. 0. T. Mason in Smithsonian Report for 1893, Washington, 1894, p. 654. 

276 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann.14 

and suspended from the rafters of the house, where they become thor- 
oughly dry during' the winter. Tlie sticks are of liglit wood, as free as 
possible from knots or irregularities in growth, and vary from a third 
to a half of an inch in thickness. 

These being disposed of for the time being, iron arrowheads are 
procured from the trader, as these points are now manufactured in the 
East and packed in boxes of a thousand or more and offered for sale 
at agency stores. In many instances the Indians made their own 
points, securing for the purpose pieces of hoop-iron from various pack- 
ing cases sent to the reservations. Such arrowpoints are usually 
made somewhat shorter than those manufactured for the trade, owing 
to a desire to economize in material. The arrowpoints made for the 
trade measure from 3 to 4i inches in length, scarcely ever more than 
seven-eighths of an inch across at the widest part, and about one- 
sixteenth of an inch thick. The edges are sharpened. The tang of 
the arrow — the basal ijrqjection which fits into the shaft — is usually 
from one-half to three-fourths of an inch long and about one-fourth of 
an inch wide. In hunting-arrows the tang was formerly serrated, so 
that sinew seizing would firmly secirre it, and the shaft, on withdrawal 
from the animal, would bring with it the arrowhead. In war arrows, 
however, the sides of the tang being smooth, the arrowhead would 
readily become loosened after the sinew wrappings became moistened 
in the wound, so that, on attempting to withdraw the arrow, the head 
would remain and do its deadly work. 

The next step in arrow manufacture was to procure feathers for the 
shaftment, and for this purpose the flight and tail feathers of accipi- 
trine birds are prepared. The webs are split from the midrib, the soft 
medullary cells scraped from the strips of horny substance bearing the 
web and cut into lengths of from C to 7 inches. About an inch of the 
web is removed at each end to permit secure wrapping to the shaft- 
ment. The width of the projecting web is only about a quarter of an 
inch, and three feathers are attached to each shaftment. The sinew 
fibers are obtained from the deer, the ligaments extending along each 
side of the spinal process, from the head backward, generally being 
preferred to those of the legs. These sinews are dried, and when 
required for use, may readily be shredded by wetting and sometimes 
by gentle hammering. 

Glue is obtained by boiling the hoofs of the deer. Glue-sticks are 
found in possession of almost all warriors; they are made by cutting a 
stick 6 incUes in length and as thick as the little linger, then dipping 
one end into the melted glue and allowing to harden, the process being 
repeated until there is a considerable bulb at the end. When it is 
desired for use, the stick is dipped in hot water and then rubbed on the 
part which it is desired to fasten. 

When arrowshafts were to be made, only thoroughly seasoned sticks 
were taken, and for immediate use the straight ones only were selected. 




By means of a kuife the bark was scraped off, and sometimes sufficient 
of the wood to reduce tbe diameter to the required size — ordinarily 
three-eighths of an inch. If no pieces of glass were at hand, a piece 
of sandstone was sometimes taken to further reduce the roughness of 
the shaft, and then fine sand was placed in a piece of blanket or buck- 
skin and employed as sandpaper is used. 

In some instances flat pieces of bone with rounded notches on the 
edge, or even holes of the diameter required for tbe shaftment, were 
used for further smoothing and rounding. The stick was then cut to 
the required length, varying from ;i2 to -3 inches. 

A cut was then made with a small saw, or a knife blade filed into a 
saw, at one end of the shaft to receive the tang of the arrowhead, the 

I'lG. 50 — Apacbe irou iioint. 

incision being from one-half to three-fourths of an inch in depth. Then 
the other end of the shaftment was gradually tapered for about 3 inches, 
to within one-fourth of an inch of the end, which bulb or nock was left 
expanding, with a square parallel sided, or probably sometimes an 
angular notch at the end. 

The arrow tang was inserted and carefully wrapped with a thin, flat 
band of sinew (figure 50), which was then smoothed down with glue to 
insure adhesion. When dry, the creases, of which there were three, were 
made to extend from the sinew straight down the shaftment for 10 or 11 
inches (plate xxxi, b). These creases were made with a sharp-pointed 
piece of iron — the end of a broken blade — or a piece of glass, and is 
believed to permit the discharge of blood from the wound. The feathers 


Fia. 51 — Arrowsbaft showing mode of feathering, 

having been prepared are next attached lengthwise, beginning where 
the creases cease and extending back to the nock. Only the top and 
bottom of the feathers are touched with glue, the intervening portion 
of the length of each being free and detached. Sinew fibers are then 
wrapped around the shaftment to hold down the ends of the feathers — 
each end being about an inch long, from which the web has been 
removed — and the glue-stick applied to fasten them. The feathers 
are equidistant around the shaftment (figure 51). 

Tliere is another step in arrow-making, which is seldom taken in the 
manufacture of arrows in North America. To prevent the detached 
portions of the feathers from being forcibly or accidentally torn from 

278 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.ann.u 

the shaftment, a siuew thread, not thicker than a strand of silk, is tied 
horizontally around the feathers and shaftment midway between the 
glued ends. 

As a finishing touch, the creases are tinted with color bought of the 
trader, while additional marks are placed on that portion of the shaft- 
ment exposed between the feathers. The specimens of arrows before 
me, made by the Menomini, have each five spots of dark blue placed 
at intervals of an inch or so along each of the three sides. A blue band 
also is painted around the shaftment at the forward end of the 
feathered tips, while sometimes an additional band is found around 
the end which touches the nock. 

The various northwestern tribes of the Algonquian stock were care- 
ful in specifically decorating with colors their own individual arrows, 
by which means they were recognizable by others of the band of 
which the owner was a member. Duplications were common, but it is 
claimed that even then each person could readily recognize his own 
property. These property marks, being generally known, were some- 
times the cause of serious trouble; for instance, when one Indian 
would steal the arrows of another for the purpose of destroying an 
enemy, the friends of the latter ultimately ascertained the identity of 
the owner of the arrows and avenged the death, the true criminal 
remaining unknown. 

Intertribal warfare is known to have occurred through such means 
between the Arapaho and Sioux, and between the Sioux and the con- 
federated tribes at Fort Berthold, North Dakota; and the Apache and 
other tribes of the far southwest are reported to have obtained the 
arrows of neighboring Indians to use in attacks on outlying settle- 
ments of the whites, thus causing the raid to be attributed to another 
and possibly peaceable tribe. 

In his report on "North American bows, arrows, and quivers," Pro- 
fessor Otis T. Mason refers to the statement frequently made by fron- 
tiersmen that the plains Indians had two ways of mounting an arrowhead 
with relation to the notch at the nock. "If the plane of the arrowhead 
be horizontal when the arrow is in position for shooting — that is, at 
right angles to the notch — the missile is a war arrow, to go between the 
ribs of men. But if the plane of the head be vertical when the bow is 
drawn, the missile is a hunting-arrow for passing between the ribs of 
buffalo and other mammals.' 

Colonel Kichard I. Dodge,^ in speaking of the Comanche, has fallen 
into the same error. Captain John G. Bourke, of the United States 
Army, whose active experience in the southwest, especially among the 
Apache tribes of Arizona, entitles his opinion to high consideration, 
believes this to be a mistake, and remarks that he has seen all kinds 
of arrows in the same quiver.' 

1 Smithsonian Report for 1893, Washington, 1894. p. 661. 

'Wild Indians, Hartford, 1890, p. 419. 

3 Quoted by Professor Maaon, op. cit., p. 661. 





■ But tins statement would not be true of the remainder of the numer- 
ous tribes of Indians located between Mississippi river and Pacific 
ocean, as an almost uninterrupted experience of twenty-four years has 
tauglit the present writer. I have before me a collection of arrows made 
by the Coyotero Apache at Camp Apache, Arizona, tipped with arrow- 
heads of iron, jasper, and bottle-glass, in which 65 per cent have the 
notch for the arrowhead in the same plane as the notch for the string; 
4 per cent in which the two notches are at right angles, while in the ■ 
remaining 31 per cent the plane of the notch for the arrowhead appears 
alike in no two instances, and presents various degrees between the 
vertical and horizontal planes, as mentioned in the preceding class. In 
other examples which I have before me, and which embrace a number 
of iron-tip arrows made by the Ci'ow Indians, no attempt at any sys- 
tem is perceptible, the planes of the arrow notches occurring at almost 
every angle from the plane of the string notch. 

With reference to the hunting-arrows of the Meuomini, 15 per cent 
present the plane of the arrowhead at right angles to the plane of the 
string notch, while the remaining 85 per cent are made without regard 
to any care whatever in so far as the plane of the arrowhead notch cor- 
responds with that of the string notch. 

The second class of arrows already referred to embraces such as have 
the head or point formed from the same piece from which the shaft 
itself is fashioned — a thick piece of pine, cedar, or ash — having beeu 
shaved down from the thickness desired for the head to that required for 
the shaft. The head of a common form of bird-arrow is shown in plate 
XXXI, «. Specimens of this type usually measure from seven-eighths 
of an inch to an inch and an eighth in diameter, the head being from 2J 
to 3 inches long. The arrows are 28 inches in length, though the 
feathers — of which there are three, as usual — are only 2^ in length. 
The latter are glued to the shaft without the usual sinew wrapping at 
either end. The anterior i>art of the web of the feathers is nearly an 
inch wide, but it slopes abrniitly to the level of the shaft at the nock. 
The nock expands slightly, while the notch is shallow and circular. 
The shafts are painted red or blue from the nock to the anterior part of 
the feathers, at which point four bands of color — alternately blue and 
red — encircle the shaft. The posterior portion of the head is longitud- 
inally painted with alternate stripes of red and blue, terminating in a 
transverse band of red at the base. The anterior part of the liead is 
un colored. 

Another variety of arrowhead is fashioned of the same piece of wood 
which forms the shaft, and is represented in plate xxxi, d. The projec- 
tions on the sides of the head are merely the stubs of branches or roots. 
A third variety bf bird-arrow is simply a continuation of the ordinary 
thickness of the shaft, rounded at the apex, or perhaps even slightly 
sharpened to a point, as shown by jdate xxxi, c. 

Still another interesting variety is shown in plate xxxi, e, in which 
thorns of large size have been attached to the head of the shaft by 


means of sinew thongs. The points of the thorns have been broken 
off, but still serve admirably for bird shooting. 


It may be appropriate to remark that in arrow release the thumb 
and forefinger are used in grasping the arrow, the forefinger being bent 
so that the second joint is pressed toward and opposite to the ball of 
' the thumb, a method aftbrding a maximum of strength. The bow is 
firmly grasped, the arrow lying across the top of the hand and on the 
left side of the bow. In rapid shooting, the arrows are taken one by 
one from the quiver as wanted, thrown quickly across the left hand 
and the notch fitted to the string as the right hand is pulled back for 
release. The quiver at such times is thrown upward toward the 
shoulder that the arrows may easily be taken therefrom. 


With reference to the penetration of the arrow, much depends on 
the bow. I have examined a bow belonging to Long Soldier, a Sioux 
hunter of magnificent physique, who formerly dwelt at the now aban- 
doned agency of Grand liiver. North Dakota. The string of this bow 
I could scarcely pull at full arrow length, even when standing on the 
bow and pulling the string with main strength. This was perhaps the 
strongest bow used in the Sioux camp, and the report was current, and 
doubted by none, that Long Soldier had often shot arrows entirely 
through the body of the buffalo. lu this case it is of course to be under- 
stood that the arrow encountered no large bones. Bows and arrows 
were used long after the introduction of firearms, as the former could 
successfully be used in hunting game and shooting down sentinels with- 
out revealing the presence of an enemy. 

It is well known to those familiar with the subject, that as late as ten 
or fifteen years ago, when hostile Indians were still thoroughly in prac- 
tice with the bow and arrow, that it were safer to stand before an 
Indian's rifle at 80 yards than at the same distance when he was armed 
with bow and arrow. Since these more primitive weapons have been 
discarded, however, the Indians have become much more expert with 
the rifle, as has many times been shown. 

Bows AND Bowstrings 

The bows of the Menomini are made of a single piece of wood, gener- 
ally without sine^ backing. Ash is commonly selected, unless hickory 
can readily be obtained. To prevent the wood from becoming brittle, 
the bow is frequently sized with deer brains. 

It may be of moi'e than ordinary interest in this connection to note 
that some of the older men of the Menomini claim to have seen bows, 
made by members of their tribe, consisting of two pieces of wood, glued 
together lengthwise, and wrapped at intervals with buckskin or sinew. 


Professor Masou's remarks' pertaiiiiug to compound bows do not 
refer to a certain form which, so far as I am aware, is now found only 
in Arizona and Nevada, among the Chemehuevi, and in the Orient 
among, I believe, the Japanese. This bow consists of two distinct 
pieces of wood, of almost equal size, glued together longitudinally'. 
The most beautiful specimens of workmanship noticed anywhere 
amongst the Paiute and Chemehuevi were observed at the mouth of 
several small tributaries to Colorado river, in southeastern Nevada. 
These bows were graceful in form, being curved in the shape of the 
traditional " Cupid's bow.'' They are less than 3 feet in length, and are 
about three-fourths of an inch thick at the grip, but thinner and broader 
at the curve of the limbs, gradually narrowing down toward the nocks. 
Two species of wood of equal size were used in their manufacture, the 
flat surfaces being glued together lengthwise from end to end, then 
scrajjed down to the required dimensions and polished. Ash formed 
the front, or, more properly, the back, of the bow, while the inner side 
of the curve was of cedar. Having been glued, the entire back was 
covered with sinew, the edges of which extended around the lateral 
edges toward the cedar portion. This backing added to the strength 
and elasticity of the bow, which was furthermore increased by seizings 
of sinew strands tied about the bow at the grip, at the nock ends, and 
at one and sometimes two equidistant points between these places, each 
wrapping being perhaps as broad as the palm of the hand. 

These bows, like those of the Menomini, were occasionally anointed 
with deer brains to prevent brittleness and consequent fracture, the 
extremely high temperature and dry atmosphere during the greater 
portion of the year being very severe on the elastic properties of the 
few kinds of wood available for bow-making in the arid southwest. 

The bowstrings used by the Menomini are of sinew, obtained in the 
way previously described. 


The quivers of these Indians were formerly made of skins with the 
fur remaining thereon, as well as of dressed buckskin, but they are now 
fashioned from coarse cloth or flannel, decorated with brightly colored 
patches, small bells, and other pendants. 

MoDEKN Stone Arrowpoints 

As before stated, the Menomini Indians admit having manufactured 
stone weapons until " several generations ago." But they actually used 
stone arrows within a comparatively recent period, and these, on account 
of their rarity and the superstition connected therewith, have been 
retained to this day and used as amulets by the mitii'wok. 

The discontinuance of the manufacture of stone weapons is attribu- 
table to the introduction of improved firearms, axes, and knives, and to 

' Smitlisomau Ive])ort I'or 1893, i>p- G31-679, plates xxxvi-xeiv. 




tbe procuring, from packing cases, of bands and strips of sbeetiron, 
from wLicli convenient and effective arrowpoints were made for use 
both in liunting and in warfare. Among the tribes of the great lakes, 
as elsewliere, arrows were sometimes preferred to firearms, since they 
could be tired noiselessly in their hunting as well as in attacks on 
the sentinels or -scouts of an enemy. During my investigations in 
the southwest in 1871, stone arrowheads were found in use among 
quite a number of small bands of Indians scattered over the untrav- 

eled portions of southern Nevada, 
southeastern California, and Tiorth- 
ern and middle Arizona. Although 
a few old guns were found in posses- 
sion of most of these bands, the bow 
and arrow had ])reference for the rea- 
sons above stated, and because of the 
scarcity or difficulty in procuring 
ammunition and of their familiarity 
with aboriginal weapons. 

Although stone arrowheads and 
knives were found in use — to a very 
limited extent in some instances — 
only a few tribes still manufactured 
them, while others may have pro- 
cured tliein by barter with neighbor- 
ing l7idians, or utilized such as they 
found abundantlyin certain localities, 
such as at old camp sites or on the 
ruins of ancient pueblos. In some 
instances arrowpoints were made of 
bottle-glass, of several varieties of 
silicious mineral, and especially of 
obsidian, Large quantities of pebbles, 
bowlders, and finely fractured pieces 
of which occur in various localities 
in northern Nevada and southeast- 
ern California, as well as in other sec- 
tions. The Indians amongst whom 
stone-point arrows were observed 
were the Tiva'tika Shoshoni, at Bel- 
mont, at Hot Springs canyon, south 
of Mount MacGruder, and at Green mountain in Xevada; the Paiute, 
at Benton, at McBride ranch, at Big Pine, and at Camj) Independ- 
ence in Owen valley; and the Panamint Indians, on the eastern 
slope of Inyo mountains, and 10 miles southeast of Owen lake, all in 
southeastern California; the several Paiute bands at the headquarters, 
Armagosa river, in the Armagosa desert, west of Sju-ing mountain; 
at Paiute Charlie's camp, 30 miles south of the latter ijoint, on the 

Fig. 52— TJte stone knife. 


«^ u. 





so-called old Spanisli trail; at Cottonwood creek, the headwaters of 
Coru creek, and at Las Vegas — both streams draining into Colorado 
river — in southern Xevada. Also, the Chemehuevi Indians on Cotton- 
wood island, in Colorado river, abovit 30 miles north of the Mohave, 
and on the north bank of Colorado river near the mouth of Rio Yirgen, 
where were also some Paiute from Moapa reservation, in southern 
Nevada. Among- both of these tribes knives of stone, with short 
wooden handles, were observed. Similar specimens were collected by 
Major J. W. Powell, at Kaibab, southern Utah, illustrations of which 
are presented in figures 52 and 53. On the great 
plateau in Arizona we noted the same to occur to a 
limited extent among the Shivwits, a Shoshoneau 
tribe, and also among the Walapai, of Yuman stock. 
But more abundantly were stone arrows found in 
use among the Apache, at Camp Apache on the 
uijper waters of Salt river. 

The manufacture of arrowiioints was observed 
only near the mouth of the Rio "Yirgen, among the 
Chemehuevi, by whom stone knives also were made. 
In the latter implement a triangular piece of stone — 
resembling a large arrowhead without notches — con- 
stituted the blade, being secured to the end of a 
wooden handle by means of a vegetal gum and care- 
ful wrapping with i^ieces of sinew. 

A large part of southern ISTevada is exceedingly 
arid, the Hat range deserts being- devoid of vegeta- 
tion and literally strewn with a great variety of sili- 
cious minerals fractured in flakes, conchoidal pieces, 
and splinters of every conceivable form. These 
afford an inexhaustible and convenient supply of 
material for the primitive arrow-maker, requiring 
little labor for final shaping. The shaping of the 
points and the chipping of the cutting edges were 
eflected by first taking a piece of buckskin with 
which to grasp the Hake, the latter being securely 
held between the tips of the fingers and the edge or 
base of the thumb, the narrow edge of the flake protruding, then flaking 
by pressure with a piece of bone or a bear's claw mounted on a short 
wooden handle. The flaking instrument, while being held against the 
edge of the flake so as to get a grip and prevent slipping, was steadily, 
but forcibly, directed upward at right angles to the axis of the edge, and 
slightly backward and toward the left — that is, in the direction of the 
base of the arrowhead when working along the one side, and toward 
the intended point when flaking along the other. The triangular pieces 
of chert, chalcedony, and jasper used were somewhat larger than the 
average arrowpoiut and were set into a notch cut in the anterior 



\^ i 

Fig. 53— Ut« stone knife. 

284 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.anx.u 

portion of a piece of wood about an inch in diameter and from o to G 
inches in lenjjth. 

The gum or resin of the Larrea mexicuna was utilized to set the stone 
blade, which required no additional strengthening because of the adhe- 
sive power of the gum; but when glue was made of beaver- tail or deer- 
hoof, sinew was sometimes wrapped over the glued base or tangs of the 
stone point to lend additional strength. 

The processes employed in the manufacture of stone arrowheads have 
been repeatedly referred to and illustrated in recent years, so that fur- 
ther description is now unnecessary. 

Notwithstanding that from 25 to 30 per cent of the arrows found 
among the Apache at Camp Apache, Arizona, were made from stone 
and glass, the manufacture of glass points only was observed by the 
present writer. In addition to specimens made of bottle glass, chalced- 
ony, gray jasper, and obsidian, one specimen made of gold quartz was 
obtained, but the locality from which the mineral was procured could 
not be learned, the owner of the arrows refusing to disclose the place. 
All of these points were rather small, the average size corresponding 
to that given in the accompanying illustration (figure 54), though iu 


l'"Ii;:. j4— Apache stone point. 

some instances they were long and narrow. Furthermore, the notches 
for the reception of the sinew strands were at each side, a short dis- 
tance from the base. The sinew, being thus in a depression, was pro- 
tected from injury by violent friction with the edges of the arrow. Iron 
arrowpoints, on the contrary, were fastened to the shaft by inserting 
the tang into the fore end of the shaft, and then tying it with sinew 
(plate XXI, h). In both instances, mesquite gum or other resinoiis sub- 
stance was generally used to secure the arrowi)oints. Immediately 
behind the point, and along the foreshaft for a distance of jjerhaps 5 or 
C inches, a dark reddish substance resembling dried blood mixed with 
clay had been applied. The arrows were said to have been poisoned, 
and were carefully handled by their owners. As some of the Apache 
poisoned their arrows by dipping them into decomposed liver, to which 
had been added crushed tarantulas, scorpions, andfrequently the venom 
of the rattlesnake, it is only reasonable to suppose that their assertions 
may have been correct. 

PoisoNEi> Arrows 

The Menomini admit that their ancestors poisoned arrows by besmear- 
ing the points with rattlesuake venom and it may be asserted that 
many of the tribes whose territory bordered on the Menomini country 


practiced various ceremonies and methods of preparation of supposed 
or actually poisonous compounds, wliicli were believed to aid in tlie 
destruction of the life of the animal or person struck or wounded by 
an arrow, or toward whom the missile was directed, regardless of the 
distance between the intended victim and the person using the weapon. 
In many instances the venom or decomposed organic matter employed 
no doubt caused septicaemia and finally death; but the motive prompt- 
ing the preparation of snch arrows, and the power possessed by them, 
is to be found in their niythologic beliefs. 

According to Mr J. N. B. Hewitt, both the Tuskarora and the Cayuga 
Indians of the Iroquoian stock used poison similar to that above men- 
tioned for anointing their arrows, and the Dakota, Blackfeet, and other 
tribes to the westward of the Menomini practiced a like custom, so that 
it is only reasonable to assume that in former times this tribe was 
acquainted with a method of poisoning arrows, even if the practice 
was not generally followed.' 

An instance in illustration of this was the use by the Ojibwa and 
Dakota — neighboring tribes of the Menomini — of the delicate spines 
of the leaves of the common cactus {Opuntht missoitriense), found in 
the valleys of the Mississippi and Missouri. Although exceedingly 
minute, these spines cause much pain if they puncture the skin. 
They were formerly gathered and mixed with grease in the form of an 
ointment, which was applied to arrowshafts, as well as to small depres- 
sions bored in leaden bullets. The extreme pain caused by the preS' 
ence in the flesh of these delicate spines has suggested the belief that 
when a missile so anointed is shot into a human being or a beast, the 
spines travel forward in pursuit of the life, or more literally the shade, 
of the creature and compel its abandonment of the body in which it 
had its abode. The mita", however, if he be very powerful, may suc- 
ceed in calling back the life of such a victim, provided the gifts are 
sufticiently valuable to appease the ma'nidos, whose aid must be 

In the expulsion of demons from a person possessed by them — the 
efi'ects being known by bodily suliering, etc — the shaman may have 
recourse to more than the simple performance of exorcism. Remedies 
believed to be obnoxious to the life of the demon, or mystery, possess- 

'I have already hail occasion to present in detail tlie several methods of poisonin*; arrows, as prac- 
ticed by several wellkuowu tribes of Indians, and present herewith the bibliojiraphic references, viz: 

Poisoned Arrows. Pacific Rural Press, San Francisco, Cnliforuia, vol. xv, 1H78, p. 82. (Read before 
the Philosophical Society of Wasbin^jton, District of Columbia, January 5, 1878.) 

The Use of Poisoned Arrows. Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, California, vol. xxsvi, 
1878, p. 163. 

Ueber die Zubereitung des Pfeilgiftes durch die Pai-Uta Tndianer von Xevada. Verhandl. Berliner 
Gesellschaft fiir Anthropologie und Urgescbichte (April 17), 188U, pp. 91, 92. 

Note sur les fleches empoisonn6es des Indiens de T Anicrique du Nord. Uull. Soc. d'Anthropologie 
de Paris, tome sixieme, iii*" serie, i*^ fascicule, 1883, pp. 205-208. 

Das Pfeilvergiften der Indiancr aus Pnget Sund. Das Ausland, No. 13 (March 26), 1888, p. 260. 

Poisoned Arrows. The American Anthropologist, a-oI. iv, IS'o. 1, Washington, 1891, pp. 67-71. 

Klallam arrows were tipped with licads of native copper and caused to corrode by wetting with sea- 
water; Lipans employed the yucca juice, and the Sissetonsthespines of asmaU cactus, O.missouriense. 


ing the patient are administered. Sucli "remedies" may also be forced 
into the victim whom it is desirable to remove from one's presence, and 
are then erroneously termed poisoned. On this theory many decoc- 
tions have been reputed to be poisonous. 

The hair of the tail of the blacktail deer has been used in a manner 
similar to that in which cactus spines are used, for producing abortion. 
The hair is chopped fine, theii mixed with the fat of a bear's paw, and 
administered. Gastric irritation follows, leading, possibly, to uterine 
contraction, and the ultimate expulsion of the fcetus. The Indian's 
explanation is, however, that the flue spicules of hair act like magic 
arrows, dart forward in the body in pursuit of the life of that which it 
is desirable to overcome, with the result indicated. 

It also has been stated that the blowgun was used in former times 
by Indians of North America, but its darts were not poisoned, as by the 
tribes of northern South America. The weapon was evidently of little 
value save for target shooting, on the results of which wagers were 



The food of the Menomini Indians consists of such scant supplies of 
vegetables as they may raise, pork obtained from the Government and 
by purchase at the stores, meats and tish obtained by hunting, berries 
and wild fruits in season, and siach dishes as the women have been 
taught or have learned to make by contact with civilization. At the 
burial feast of 1890, 1 was astonished to see served to the attendants, 
and of which I also partook to a limited extent, roast beef, poundcake, 
raspberry pie, and coffee with cream and sugar, apparently as clean 
and almost as good as that usually served at a second-rate hotel. At 
the same time it was also observed that several of the visiting medicine 
men and women came provided with large bagfuls of green cucumbers, 
which their favored guests or friends ate raw with keen relish after 
merely paring off the rind. 

Salt is not used by the Menomini during meals, neither does it 
appear to have a place in the kitchen for cooking or baking. Maple 
sirup is used instead, and it is singular how soon one may acquire the 
taste for this substitute for salt, even on meats. At the ceremonies of 
1893 lard and soda biscuits alone formed the meal of the attending 
medicine men and others aiding in the ceremonies, each half biscuit 
being dipped into the bucket to scooj) up a quantity of lard equal in 
size to a small English walnut. One of the mitii'wok, a Potawatomi, 
who had eaten nothing during the day until about 2 oclock in the 
afternoon, began to eat this nauseating mess with the first set of four 
medicine men, continued with the second set after the first had fin- 
ished, and leaned back to all appearances gratified only when the third 
set of assistant medicine men had eaten to repletion. Notwithstanding 


this unusual gastronomic feat no evil results were noticeable two days 


The quantity and variety of food which some Indians are capable of 
consuming is beyond the couipreheusion of a white man. This is so well 
known that it is unnecessary to enter into lengthy discussion of the 
subject, but for illustration two instances which came under my obser- 
vation may be alluded to: 

The first occurrence was in 1871, while the author was ascending Col- 
orado river. The expedition of which he was a member had secured the 
services of sixteen Mohave Indians to assist in getting the small boats 
over the numerous rapids and to do possible duty in event of an attack 
from hostile tribes. On the first day out, sixteen rations were issued to 
the chief, to serve his men for one day. A ration, at that time, was suf- 
ficient to serve one man for two days; but when eleven of the Indians 
reached camp that day, they demanded that food be served, being 
unwilling to wait for the arrival of the other five, who were farther down 
the river and who could not reach camp in time for the regular supper. 
Tiie consequence was that the sixteen rations were eaten at that meal 
by eleven Indians, who even then threatened to desert unless the quan- 
tity of food was increased. 

The second instance is that of an Apache woman at one of the mil- 
itary posts in eastern Arizona, who, on receiving her rations for the 
week, consumed all of the food at a sitting, trusting to her ability to 
find suflicieut tunas to sustain her until the next issue day. 


The Menomini Indians are not addicted to eating all kinds of reptiles, 
insects, and other loathsome food, as was common to many of the tribes 
of the Great Basin and of California. This form of diet may result from 
having always lived in a country where game, fish, and small fruits 
were found in greater or lesser abundance, and the evident relish with 
which the so called Diggers, the Walapai, and others, devour grass- 
hoppers, dried lizards, beef entrails, and bread made of grass-seed meal 
mixed with crushed larviB of flies, would appear as disgusting to the 
Menomini as to a Caucasian. 


Formerly large quantities of maple sugar were made annually, but 
the ease with which cane sugar came to be obtained by barter from 
traders' stores has gradually caused this industry to become almost 
obsolete. Dr Jedidiah Morse, in speaking of the French settlers at 
Green Bay, Wisconsin, says: 

These people and tbe Menominees, with whom, by the ties of relationship, they 
are connected, make from the maple tree about one hundred thousand pounds of 
sugar annually, and from three to four hundred gallons of molasses. These, with 

288 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [ethan.n.u 

their skins, etc., are nearly all sold for whisky, at an immense, sacrifice. It is a 
commou practice with these C:inadiaas to sow their };ardeu seeds late in the fall, 
which, from experience, has been found preferable to the usual method elsewhere of 
sowing them in the spring.' 

According to tlie report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 
1859, there were made in that year over 200,000 pounds of maple 
sugar, and in 18(i3 40 tons were made by these people. While at Leech 
lake, Minnesota, iu July, 1S!)3, 1 was informed that the Ojibwa of that 
locality, who number less than 1,500, had during the preceding spring 
made almost 90 tons of sugar. When it is taken in consideration that 
nearly all of this sugar was con.sumed by the Indians themselves, it 
shows an almost abnormal fondness for sweets. It virtually forms a 
substitute for salt; nuich of it is used with coffee and tea, while the 
greater portion is eaten either iu the granular form, in cakes, or as 
"sugar wax," which is merely a plastic form of sugar, made by throw- 
ing the boiling sirup on the snow to cool. Maple sirup also is made to 
some extent, but the Indians prefer to dissolve the sugar in water when 
sirup is desired, instead of retaining it iu vessels, which, among them, 
are always scarce, or else perhaps not to be had at all. 

The season for sugar-making came when the first crow appeared. 
This happened about the beginning or middle of March, while there 
was yet snow ou the ground. This period of the season was looked 
forward to with great interest, and, as among the Minnesota Ojibwa 
today, became a holiday for everjbody. Each feuuile head of a house- 
hold had her own sugar hut, built iu a locality abounding in maple 
trees — the Acer saccharinum — which might or might not have been con- 
venient to her camp, but which was the place always resorted to by her, 
and claimed by right of descent through her mother's family and totem. 

During the early spring, when the birchbark is in prime condition 
for peeling, pieces were cut and folded into sap dishes or pans, each 
measuring from 7 to 10 inches in width, about 20 inches in length 
and 8 inches in depth. The ends were carefully folded and stitched 
along the edge with thin fibers of basswood bark or spruce root, in order 
that it might retain the shape as represented iu figure 55. A woman 
in good circumstances would possess as many as from 1,200 to 1,500 
birchbark vessels, all of which would be in constant use during the 
season of sugar-making. 

The next articles to be made were sap buckets, which also were 
fashioned from birchbark, cut and folded at the corners so as to avoid 
breaking and consequent leakage. The folds were also seamed with 
pine resin. The buckets were of various sizes, though usually they 
held from 1 to 2 gallons. 

The example of sirup bucket represented in plate xxxii, b, c, measures 
G inches across the top, which is round, and 7 by 8 inches across the 
bottom, which is rectangular; the depth is 8 inches. 

' Report to the Secretary of War, New Haven, 1822, p. 50. 



The folds at the top of the rim are hekl in phice by means of a thiu 
strip of wood neatly stitched with strands of basswood bark, and 
an additional cord is made to extend across the top to serve as a 
handle. Two buckets are attached to the wooden hooks suspended 
from a shoulder-yoke, an illustration of the latter being presented in 
plate XXXII a. 

The yoke is made of light though durable wood. The specimen ob- 
tained from the Menomini, and now in the National Museum, measures 
.34 inches in length by Gi inches across the indent part, the depth of 
this thick concavity being 2 inches, while the piece itself is but half 
an inch. The cords are apparently of buckskin, while the hooks are 
evidently of oak. The Indians claim to have invented this form of 
yoke, though this is a ditticult question to decide, since they have been 
in contact with the whites more than two centuries. 

As maple-sugar making appears to have originated with the Indi- 
ans, it is reasonable to 
presume that their re- 
quirements would in 
time have suggested 
the construction of 
such a contrivance as 
a yoke to facilitate 
the transportation of 
buckets of sap, partic- 
ularly as by this mean s 
the. weight would be 
transferred to the 
shoulders, making the 
burden less fatiguing to the arms. Wooden sap-troughs also were made 
during the summer season, when opportunity or inclination offered. 

The season of sugar-making, as before mentioned, began in March, 
when the crows migrated from the south. At this time everyone was 
on the lookout, and so soon as the necessary camp equipage and sugar- 
making utensils could be brought together each family removed to its 
customary sugar grove. On arriving at the grounds, tents or temporary 
wigwams were erected for sleeping quarters, and a frame structure, 
with a roof of bark or mats, before described, was constructed for 
sheltering the sugar-makers. A sugar-making camp is illustrated in 
plate XXXIII. 

When these preparations had been completed, and the kettles sus- 
pended from the ridgepole, the trees were selected; then, with an ax, a 
transverse cut, anywhere from a foot to 2J feet above the ground, was 
made in the trunk. Into this cut a chip of wood was wedged, to direct 
the flow of sap away from the tree and into the bark vessel iilaced 
on the ground beneath. All available pans were thus placed at trees 
conveniently situated, and the sap was collected and brought to the 
14 ETH 19 

Fio. 55— BircUljark vessel for maple sap. 


boilers, wlio poured it iuto the kettles. So soou as one liettleful was 
converted into sugar, a new lot of sap was bung over the lire. Care 
was taken by the women detailed to superintend the boiling to note 
the period at which tlie sirup began to granulate. It was then poured 
into wooden troughs, where it was worked and the granulating process 

When maple sirup is thrown on the snow to cool rapidly, it becomes 
waxy in consistence and is then termed sugar wax, and is highly 
esteemed as confectionery. Small dishes, from 2 to 4 inches in diame- 
ter, also are filled with sirup, which is allowed to cool and harden, 
forming sugar cakes. These are given to friends and visitors, and 
pieces are always put into the grave-boxes of deceased relations, as an 
offering to the shade of the dead. 

As the sugar is cooled and ready to be removed from tlie trough, it 
is put in makaks, or boxes, for transportation and future use. These 
niakaks, which are made of birchbark, resemble sap-buckets in shape, 
though they are larger at the base than at the rim, and each has a lid 
with a slightly conical center. These boxes vary in capacity from 2 
to 50 pounds, those of average size holding about 25 pounds of sugar. 
The cover projects slightly over the rim of the bottom vessel, and is 
finally fastened by stircliing with strands of basswood bark. 

Another, though more modern, form of sugar receptacle is made of 
saplings arranged on the same principle as the timber of a log house, 
but inclosing a space of only about 10 by 15 feet. The front and back 
poles are erected to the height of G or 7 feet, tlien turned off toward the 
central ridgepole, as in a modern roof. The vertical poles are from 2i 
to 3 inches tliick, and are placed about 2 feet ai^art. The horizontal 
saplings also are about 2 feet apart, and are secured to the former by 
lashing with basswood bark. The roofs are afterward further strength- 
ened by fastening with withes and brush, over which are placed the 
long, crude rush mats made solely for this purpose. Sometimes the 
bark or rush mats are fastened to the roof without the underlying 


Ai^artfrom the vegetables which the Menomini now cultivate, wild 
rice is still gathered in large quantities for use as food. As before stated 
with reference to the tribal designation, the term Menomini is derived 
from two words signifying "rice men," or "rice people," the French, at 
the time of first meeting them, having designated them Folles-avoines 
or False Oats, as wild rice was called by them. 

Dr Morse,' who visited this tribe at Green Bay, in 1820, says of their 

In the spring they subsist on sugar and fish ; in the Bumm^, on fish and game ; in 
the fall, on wild rice and com, and in the winter on fish and game. Those who are 

' Report to the Secretary of War, New Haven, 1822, p. 48. 


provident have some rice during the winter. The fish, consisting principally of 
sturgeon and salmon-trout, are in the greatest abundance in the bay. 

The Meuomiui method of gathering ami cleaning wild rice is as fol- 
lows : At the proper season the women, and frequently the men as 
well, paddle through the dense growth of wild rice along the shores 
of the lakes and river.s, and while one atteud.s to the canoe, the others, 
grasp with one hand a bunch of rice stalks, bend it over the gunwale 
into the boat, aiid there beat out the ears of rice. After collecting a 
load in this manner, the next process is to dig a hole about C inches 
deep and 2 feet across; this hole is then lined with a dressed buck- 
skin and filled with the rice, which is beaten with a stick, heavier and 
somewhat curved at one end. In this manner the husk is sejiarated 
ftom the grain, and by winnowing on a windy day by means of a birch- 
bark tray, the rice is cleaned. Sometimes the rice and hulls are sep- 
arated by spreading on a mat and fanning with a bark tray. It is then 
ready to dry in a metallic vessel, after which it is stored for use when 

Some of the Meuomiui women make a special form of bag iu which 
to beat out the rice. This bag is 2 feet wide by from 18 to 20 inches 
deep, and is woven of bark strands. It resembles very much an old- 
fashioned carpet-bag. After the rice is put into this, the bag is laid 
into a depression in the ground and beaten to separate the hulls. 

Sometimes a hole is dug in the ground, a large mat placed into it, 
and the rice laid on the mat. To pi-event the scattering of the seed 
while beating it, other mats are suspended from racks on three sides of 
the dei)ressioii, so as to keep the rice from flying out too far. The 
fourth side is left open for the thresher. 

The rice is subsequently kept in bags. To prepare it for use, it is 
boiled and eaten plain with maple sugar; or it may be boiled with meat 
or vegetables, or with both, and served as soup.' 


During springtime it was customary among the more northern bands 
of the Meuomiui to gather large quantities of raspberries, some of 
which were eaten fresh, but the larger portion was dried and used dur- 
ing autumn and winter, when'other food became somewhat scarce. In 
summer, when blueberries ripened, many of the Indians encamped in 
localities which aflbrded abundant quantities. These also wei'e drieil 
though their freshness could be preserved by putting them into barrels 
of water, which was changed every day or two. By this means the 
Indians were enabled to carry the berries from time to time to sell. 
During the berry season the woods frequently reechoed with shouts ot 
hilarity and merry-making of the younger folk, after the completion of 
the day's labor. Plate xxxiv illustrates a camp of berry hunters in 

iSee Indian Use of Wild Kice, by Gr. P. Stickne; ; Am. Anthropologist, Wasliington, April, 1896. 


middle Wisconsin. Formerly, temporary shelter-tents of bark were 
erected, but now the simpler and less troublesome canvas tent is used. 
Large quantities of siiakeroot {Senega polyijala) also were collected 
and afterward pressed, for transportation to the larger towns. Now, 
however, this plant has become rather scarce, and search therefor has 
been practically abandoned. Most of the snakeroot now comes from 
northern Wisconsin and Minnesota, both localities being within the 
territorv of the Ojibwa. 


The Menomini have almost entirely discontinued the making of both 
the simple dugout and the birchbark cauoe, and even among the old 
men but few are now recognized as having, in their day, been experts 
in this industrial art. 

The simpler form of boat was the dugout, made of the single trunk — 
preferably that of a butternut tree. This wood is much heavier than 
most others available, but the Indians believe it to resist better than 
any other variety the effects of long contact with water, as well as the 
erosion to which the bottom is subjected by frequent rowing in shallow 
streams with beds of gravel or bowlders. 

The specimen represented in plate xxxv is of pine. It was made by 
Mii'tshi-kine'u'^ — Bad-eagle — shortly after the removal of the Menomini 
to their present reservation. The canoe is therefore about fifty years old, 
but it is a typical example. The total length is 20 feet, the diameter 
across the gunwale at the point of the first inside rib is 21^ inches, and 
at the second rib 20J inches. The total height is 11 inches. It will be 
observed that on the inside of the bottom of the canoe, near each end, 
stands a ridge of wood resembling a rude rib — for which it is really 
intended to serve — to give strength to the sides and to preserve the 
form of the vessel. 

As the dugout is only from an inch to an inch and a half in thickness, 
it becomes apparent that such a permanent support is necessary to 
prevent the breaking of the bottom, such damage easily resulting from 
exposure to the air after having been in the water for a long time. In 
the example above illustrated, a longitudinal crack, at some points over 
half an inch wide and extending nearly the entire length of the boat, 
resulted from drying. 

The paddles employed are the same as for the birchbark canoe, the 
blade and handle each being about 2 feet in length. 

When a single oarsman uses a canoe, he always kneels at the stern 
or narrower end of the canoe, the difterence in the width of this part 
corresponding to the smallest diameter of the trunk from which it was 
made. When the tree does not have any perceptible variation in diam- 
eter, the outside is chipped down with an ax and a draw-knife, in order 
to make the stern narrower, and thus to give the canoe almost the shape 
of a cigar. The oarsman places a small bunch of grass in the bottom. 
On this he kneels and paddles only at one side, readily keeping the canoe 




in a straight course by following each stroke with a slight outi<^ard turn, 
thus compensating for the divergence of the bow from a true course. 

When a second oarsman is present, he occupies the bow and uses his 
paddle at the opposite side to that of the oarsman at the stern. Fre- 
quently these canoes are laden with people from stern to bow until the 
gunwale touches the water's edge; yet the occupants appear entirely 
unconscious of any danger, on account of the skill with which tlie oars- 
men manipulate their paddles and control every movement of the canoe. 

The birchbark canoe is by far the most graceful piece of mechanism 
produced by the Menomini. But few are now either made or owned by 
these people, since their more advanced mode of life does not demand 
extensive travel by such means. 

It is believed that the birchbark canoe is the invention of the Indian. 
The earliest reports concerning the discoveries of the French mention 
this vessel, and Indians arrived by canoe at French settlements from 
parts which no explorers had then penetrated. 

The general form of the canoe differs to some extent among the 
various northern tribes. The type of canoe made by the Menomini 
resembles that of the Ojibwa of Wisconsin, who are their nearest 
northern neighbors, and with whom they have for many years main- 
tained friendly relations, and to some extent intermarried. For their 
manufacture large birch trees that appear to furnish the best bark are 
selected, and the pieces are cut as large as possible. These sections 
are sewed together with threads made of the long, thin roots of a 
species of spruce, a material both durable and well adapted, notwith- 
standing constant wetting. 

The framework of the bark canoe is made of white cedar, which is 
durable, light, and elastic. The ribs are thinned with a drawing knife 
(plate XXXVI), and when the required number have been made, they are 
curved according to the part of the canoe which they are intended to 
brace — the middle, of course, being much more distended laterallj^, 
while the ends gradually narrow to a point. 

The tops of the ribs are held in place by being tied to a crosspiece, 
the rib and crosspiece thus resembling a bow and its string. Then 
the entire series of ribs is fastened by tying to the longitudinal strips 
corresponding to the gunwale, thus setting up the skeleton, as it were. 
These strips also are cut to the required thickness by means of a 

When the framework has reached this stage, the bark, which in the 
meantime has been stitched together, is laid on the ground, the frame- 
work placed upon it, and then the bark is turned up over the sides, 
when short posts are driven into the ground, all around the canoe, to 
hold the outside strips, to reinforce the edge or gunwale, and to prevent 
the breaking of the bark at that edge. The appearance of the work at 
this stage is presented in jilate xxxvil. All the necessary stitching is 
then done to hold in place the tightly secured bark. The bow and the 

294 THE MENOMINI INDIANS [eth.axn.h 

stern, though apparently similar, are still sufficiently unlike for the 
Indian to note which is the bow, for that end of the canoe, as in the dug- 
out, is usually a little broader across the shoulders. The bottom of 
the canoe is lined with thin slats or shiiigles to protect the delicate 
bark from being broken. The seams, small punctures, and knot holes 
are then sealed with pine resin. 

Although the women have many duties to perform in connection 
with the building of a canoe — such as cord-spinning, the stitching 
together of the pieces of bark, and the final lashing of the long pieces 
forming the gunwale — the men are generally the ones to use the paddle 
when traveling. 

The paddle is made of cedar or some other light wood. * It measures 
about 4 feet in length, of which nearly one-half is devoted to the blade, 
which varies from -4 to 6 inciies in width. Generally the top of the 
handle has two projecting pieces resembling the letter T, giving the 
oarsman an easy and effective means of holding and using the paddle. 

When not in use the canoe is always pulled ashore and turned over 
in order to allow the bottom to dry. 


In reviewing the subject of Menomini linguistics, it may be stated 
that two i^rinted works, a vocabulary of about four hirndred words 
(which has supplied the material for nearly all comparative purposes to 
which reference is made in bibliographies) and the Lord's prayer (which 
has been reprinted in a number of works), comprise all the published 
material in the Menomini language. 

The two works mentioned are a Catholic prayer-book and a catechism, 
both by Father Zephyriu, O. S. F., formerly missionary at Keshena, 
Wisconsin, the editions of which are exhausted. A few hj'mns also 
were printed by Father Zephyrin, on a small hand-press, the entire num- 
ber covering only twelve unpaged, unstitched leaves, some of them 
being printed on the backs of picture cards. 

Pere Flavien J. Bonduel' published the Lord's prayer in Menomini, 
which has been reprinted by Bergholtz, Shea, Trumbull, and other 
students of Indian linguistics. 

The Menomini vocabulary referred to is that compiled by W. H. Bruce 
and published by Henry E. Schoolcraft.^ The copy in the library of 
the Bureau of Ethnology bears many corrections by some unknown 
person, indicating, appai-ently, that numerous errors in phonetics 
existed. This vocabulary has been used by many writers from which 
to select numerals and other words for comparison with various Indian 

' Souvenir religieux d'line miaaion Indienue, Tournai, iuiprimerie de Malo et Levasseur, 1855. 
2 Indian Tribes, vol. ii, Philadelphia, 1852, pj). 470-481. 


Fathers Blase and Oderic, of the order of Saint Francis, at Keslieua, 
Wisconsin, have prepared jointly a manuscript grammar and dictionary 
of the Menomini language for their own use, the arrangement of Bara- 
ga's Ojibwa Grammar — one of the most complete and satisfactory at 
hand — being followed. This manuscript was kindly given to the 
present writer, who is now editing the work for publication. In its 
Ijreparation the German alphabet was employed, but the entire work 
is being rewritten so as to accord with the phonetic system now almost 
universally adopted. 

In the accompanying Menomini vocabulary, which includes also a 
number of geographic terms and comparisons witli Ottawa and Ojibwa 
synonyms, I have endeavored to avoid unnecessary diacritical marks 
and letters having sounds not their own, so as to aid in the ready com- 
prehension by the general reader of the phonetics used. On the whole, 
the alphabet of the Bureau of Ethnology has been employed, the vowels 
having the so-called continental sounds; but instead of using the letters 
tc for tsh, I have adopted the latter to represent the sound of ch, as iu 
chat. The following list of phonetics will serve to elucidate the system 
employed : 


a, as hi far q, as the ch (German) in nicht 
ii, as in liat r, as in rod 

&, as in law s, as in saw 

b, as in bed ; interchangeable with p ss, as the Shoshoni ssu'snoni, the hissing 

d, as in date; interchangeable with t sound of s merging into that of sh 
6, as e iu tet t, as in tap ; also interchangeable with d 

e, as a in late tsh, as ch in chat 
g, a,s in gimlet ; interchangeable with k a, as in ]>ull 

h, as in hot u, as in rule 

I, as in it ", is found at the end of many words as 

i, as e in eat a faintly sounded letter, and occurs 

k, as in Mn ; generally used instead of g in words in which tlie plural becomes 

1, as in lip wnk, partaking apparently of the 

m, as in met sound of w 

n, as in not ", nasalizes the prece<liug mwel 

0, as n in but z, as iu :one 

o, as o in boat ai, as in aisle 

p, as iu pill ai, as oy in boy 


a"as6n, stone. abii'shush sho'kum, abilg'so 
abiiq'so, deer. so'kum, deerskin, buckskin (sho'- 

abiiq'so so'kum, aba/shush sho'- kum,so'kum,=skin). 

kum, buckskin; from abiiq'so, abi'sik, black; the general term, 
deer, and so'kum, skin. however, is ape'scn. 

aba'shfish, the deer; a gens of aiii'ni, to laugh. 

the Menomini. a i ii ' n i n , laugh. 



[ETH. ANN. 14 

aiii'niwok, they are laugbiu^. 

aiii'uu^, tlic opossum, "laugher." 
So called because when one is 
touched or teased, he grius as if 

ai'awis, ai'awish, first. 

A i o n e s h ' i, "good-looking spotted 
animal;" personal name of a 

aka'mia, across, or on the other 
side of, the river. 

akaq'siwuk, agame played with 
a wooden bowl and eight pieces 
of deer horn, resembling the Ojib- 
wa game of plum stones. 

ak a s ' s i A n 6 k , pieces of deer horn 
(some of which are colored), used 
ill a gan\e similar to the Ojibwa 
plum-stone game. The jjieces 
are put into a wooden bowl and 
violently shaken ; after settling, 
the counting depends on how the 
pieces lie, the red and white sides 
uppermost. Used in the game of 

a'kemaq'tlk, black elm; from 
a'kamok, siiowshoe, and aq'tik, 
tree or wood, i. e., the wood used 
for making showshoes. The wood 
splints are used also in basket 

aki'ko, those. 

akini', them; they. 

akui'kika'', "he who draws out 
arrows ; " a shaman who professes 
ability to withdraw an-ows shot 
into people bj- other bad sha- 

akum', these (animate pronoun). 

iimak', a bee; pL, ilmo'ak. 

amo'peme, wax. 

a'moso'ponia, honey. 

ana', some. 

a'uii'maqki hawai'tokok, un- 
derground beings or gods, of 
whom the silvery white bear was 

ana'maqki'oq, beneath the 

A n ii ' m a (1 k i ' s ii , " little-thun- 
der," a personal name. 

ana'ma(ikiu' , cellar; anything 

a u a ' m a q k 1 ' fi , underground. 

Also denotes the evil beings who 
dwell in the earth, and who con- 

stantly antagonize the inii'maq- 
ki'wok — thunderers — and the hu- 
man race. These beings de- 
.stroyed Na'qpote, the brother of 
Mii'niibnsh; and they also gave 
the latter much annoyance at 
the time of his growing to man- 
hood, and at the establishment 
of the Mitii'wit, or Grand Medi- 
cine society. 

anji'maqkiu'', ina'maqki'u, 1. 
the thunder; the thunderbird; 
deities of the air, who cause the 
spring rains to come to produce 
vegetation. 2. One of the phra- 
tries of the Meuomini Indians, 
embracing the kiiic'u'', shawa'- 
nani', pina'shiu, opash'koshi, pa- 
kiish'tsheke'u', pekike'kuue, ke'- 
shewa'toshe, maq'kwoka'ni, ka- 
ka'ke, iuiiq'tek, piwat'inot', 
omas'kos, and una'wanink'. 

anaq', star; pL, anaij'kok. 

anaq'kian, anaq'kion, mat. 

a'naqkwot, cloud; pL, a'naqkwS 

Ane'mau, a German; />/., Ane'- 

a'nemau paqki'sikau, rye; i.e., 
German bi'ead, from Ane'mau, 
German, and paqki'sikau, bread, 

ane'pakaku'aq tf k, black oak; 
the bark is crushed and boiled, 
and the decoction employed for 
sore eyes. 

ani'no, those. 

anipi'oqkan, leaf; 2>I., anipi'oq- 

ancj'peqkan, notch in the end 
of an arrow for the bowstring. 

a'pata, half. 

A ' pii ta k e ' zh 1 k , " half-the-sky," 
a personal name; from a'pata, 
half, and ke'zhik or ke'sik, sky. 

ape'sen, black. Also iipi'sik. 

Ajie'sen wii'maqtiko'siii'', negro; 
i. e., black Frenchman, from 
iipe'sen, black, and Wii'maqti- 
ko'siil^. Frenchman. 

aq'gots', third. 

aqkii', kettle. 

Aqki'iiakoshc', " terrible-look- 
ing," a personal name. 

a q k u ' a p a q t a ' m ii , the hori- 



a(ipu'akaii, a ]>i\>e bowl made of 

a(] pii'akan iiaq'tik, wooden pipe- 
stem; from aqpu'akan, stone 
pipe bowl, and naq'tik stem, i. e., 

aq'tik, stick; piece of wood. 

ii s, placed before the cardinal num- 
bers it forms ordinals, as its nisli', 
the second ; iis mita'ta, tlie tenth. 

a'sabema'ti situ'a, to live. 

ii siini'ir, angel. 

a'sawiq'kana, on the other side 
of the i-oad. 

a'seiita'a, to do a thing; to act; 
to work. 

a ' s e p a n , raccoon . 

ase'piiq, rock, stone. 

ases'ki, mud. 

asha'kau, mortar for crushing 
herbs and nuts. 

asha'kanaq'tik, pestle; lit., a 
mortar stick, from iisha/kan, a 
mortar, and iiq'tik, a stick or 
piece of wood. 

a s h a ' w 1 k, there ; at that place. 

ashke'paki'"', green. 

iiskii ', pine. 

a ' s k a a ' q p u k u , an aquatic plant, 
growing to the height of 4 feet; 
roots used for medicine. 

a'skikeshkipoto', to saw. 

a'skikesh'kisama', to cut. 

a s k 1 ' p a q 1 1 ' , to strike. 

a s m u q ' k a h a , east. 

as'nik, west. 

A ss'kass, the Menomini word for 
Oslikosh, a city in eastern Wis- 
consin. The word signifies bear's 
claw. See Oshkosh. 

a'tano'q^n, a story; a narra- 

a t s h i' k e ' s 1 u ^, north. 

atshi'ke'siwii'euan, the north 

^ wind. 

Aw ai'etokwii' ben o', "big-shade- 
coming-day;" a name applied to 
one of the mystic personages. 

awai'tok, little. 

awai'tok pa'niq, dwarf; from 
awai'tok, litfle, and pa'niq, boy. 

A w a ' n o q n T o ^' , " th e ■ a i r - w e - 
breathe;'' personal name of a' 

awa'nuqni"'a, fog; also a per- 
sonal name. 

awisi'an, when are you going? 

Biiboq'kewctl, woodcock ; the 
old man who carved an old 
woman out of a poplar tree ; 

Baiii'weqshi', " that-which-rat- 
tles;'' a personal name. 

baku'oqtii', belt of skin. 

bakwa'tene'kan, cake sugar; 
maple sugar miide in the form of 
small cakes, which is served to 
visitors and children, and placed 
before the grave-boxes of the 
dead as an ofi'eriug of "first 

bama'desitu'a, life; living peo- 
ple; bama'desitua pasa' noqki- 
wok, living people must work. 

bama'teshituog, the people; all 

bJiqki', ashes. 

bcbo'na, a year; j)!., bebo'nan. 

e", yes. 

ehaiyom', this, referring to ani- 
mate things. 

ena'baqtilm, his dream. 

ena'baqtan, a dream. 

ene'q])e, then. 

ene', enoq, that. 

e n o', this suffix to the cardinal num- 
bers forms the multi])lyiug num- 
bers, as, su'asik, eight; suasik'- 
eno', eight times. 

es, shell; e'sak', shells. 

e'shika'nashi'kan, one side of 
his or her hips. 

esh'ko'da, fire; pi., esh'koden'. 

e'sikan'ikiu', half moon. 

esko'tii, fire; also esh'kotii', the 
same as the Ojibwa form. 

e " ' t o s h e a w o k , to create ; to cause 
to be born. 

g a n i k ' u i ' p e ' s C , long lake, a long 
narrow body of water. 

geo"netshr, to be surprised. 

ge'sfi, sun; usually pronounced 
k e ' s o . 

haiii'paqtau tipa(i'ka, mid- 

hanaq'kin, a mat, made of rushes 
or bark; general term for mats 
of any description. 

hanaq'paj)i'q tsi, meteor, lit., 
falling star. 

ha 'lie, some. 

ha"ni', a ball for playing games; 




usually made of buckskin stutted 
with liair; also, bullet. 

liani'tiyon, iisli spears. 

ha'uoke'siau, wliere are you 

h a u u " ' e , rattlesnake ; larger and 
longer than the common CrotaJiix 
liorrMuKi possibly the prairie rat- 
tlesnake of the prairie-dog towns 
of North Dakota. 

ha"q', star;^;/., hanaq'kuk. 

hau'ka, afHrmation; yes; that is 
right; it is well. The word is 
employed in the Medicine society 
by members when one salutes 
another by his proper title of re- 
lationship or as a friend; then 
the one so addressed responds by 
the above term. 

hawii'ne, who? 

Hawii'tok, God. 

hawe^',itis; that is. 

he°', yes. 

hini', and. 

hiqka'te, low, as low water. 

hishe'ekc'u' , like; similar. 

Hoho'peshe', "little-whoops," 
a personal name, from hoho', a 
call or whoop (ouomatopoetic), 
and peshe', little. 

Hoqi^an'iuq'ki, "lung-woman;" 
a mythical female. 

hos'kie^, to do; to be able toiier- 
form an act. 

ik , signifies color, and forms an in- 
separable suffix in all words per- 
taining to color. 

ina'maqki'ri''', ana'maqki'n, thun- 
der; also refers to the thunder 
god; pi., iua'miiqki'wok. 

iniin', natural. 

inana'bii, an ax. 

inii'netshi'pai, "dressing the 
dead;'' mitii" ceremony for the 
dead when a new candidate is 
brought forward to till A^acancy. 

inii'ni, inii'niu', man — specific 
and generic designation; miq'- 
kinii/ni, medicine man; shaman. 

inan'oqpan', plant growing wild, 
having a tuberous root resem- 
bling potato, and boiled and eaten 
as such; the word signifies "nat- 
ural potato," from iniin', natural, 
and oqpan', potato. 

iuiiu'sho'poma, maple sugar; 
from iniin', natural, and sho'- 
poma, sugar. 

iniiq'tck, raven; also a gens of 
the Big Thunder phratry. 

ina'wet"', rattlesnake skin, for 
medicine bag. 

ine", in, at, then. 

ino'otin, itis his! — used as an af- 
firmation, and not as an answer 
to a question. 

iom, this. 

io's, here; at this place. 

ishi)e'kan, it is high. 

Ka'dabaqshifr, "one-who- 
broils;" a personal name. 

kaiii'uomek ko'sa, "fishes," in 
general; proper names. 

kaie'sani ne'a wiiq'kik, after- 
noon ; from kaie'sani, after, later, 
and ne'awaq'kik, noon. 

kaiis'nebiik, corpse — of man. 

k a i y e s ' , as soon ; or, as soon 

kaka'ke, crow; also a gens of the 
Big Thunder ]ihratry. 

K a ' k i k ii t s h i w a n , " everlasting 
falls;" a personal name. 

kaku'gne, grasshopper; literally 
the juniper, the one who first 
possessed tobacco. 

k ak u ' en e u'^, kaku'ene, the grass- 
hopper, //<., the "jumper," the one 
whom Mii'nabilsh commanded to 
always remain a jumper, and an 
annoyance to tobacco growers. 

k a n , no. 

kiln. Sec kon. 

k ii n a ' m a q t s i ii s n a w a q ' k i k , 
mid forenoon. 

kanau'meqtshiu', before, as, 
before some other event occurs; 
previous to. 

kana'wehe'a, take care of irs; 
protect us. 

k a n ' n i w 1 q ' t i q t o n a n , I can 

kaq'kop, string. 

k a ([ ' p a p e ' s h i , thread ; made of 
the nettle mashan', or shii'nap, 
wild hemp. Also aj^plied to com- 
mon thread of foreign manufac- 

k a q ' t s e ' i d a n , run, rapid move- 




Ka' shekoqkau , "oiiewlio-car- 
riesligbt"; also applied to the 
moon. A personal name. 

K a s h k 1 q ' k a !> a n , " tliedark haze 
at the horizon.'' The name of a 
mythic female who dwells in the 
north, and who was visited by 
Ma'niibnsh while the latter was 
still among the Indians. 

Kii'tshemlqtii 'li, "one - who- 
dances;" a personal name. 

kawii'tokan, shades; mysteries. 
(See footnote, p. 30.) 

Ka'wi'kit,"rongh-face;" a per- 
sonal name. 

ke'au, thy body. 

ke'bama'tisim, you live, or are 

kebit, your tooth. 

kek, thy house. 

ke'nach, thine; yours. 

kene'puwe'mu'', you are stand- 
ing (2)1.). 

Kene'sha, "eaglet;" a personal 

Ke'niaqki'san, "little-eagle;" 
a personal name; from king'u^, 
eagle, and ki'sa, little. 

keno'kau, your hip. 

k e ' u u n a ' h a , to ascend ; to go up- 

k e n u ' s li i s li 1 k e ' p ii ' i , dwarf wil- 

k e o " n e t s h 1 ^ , to be surprised. 

keqpa'kan, it is thick. 

kes, after, employed to indicate 
sometliing that has occurred; 
forms a ])ast tense prefixed to a 
verbal phrase; thy head. 

k e ' s ("■ k o q , heaven. 

kesh, past; after; keshni'po, he is 
dead ; kesh ma'tshr , "he is gone ;" 
kesh ma'tshiwok, they havegone. 

ke'shawa'toshe, k'eshewa'tsbe, 
sparrow-hawk, Falco sparverins; 
also a gens of the Big Thunder 

ke'shik, blue. 

keshi"nf', swift flying, as birds of 
the genus Falcon idw dart 
through the air. j\Ienomini form 
of Keshena, a village in Wiscon- 
sin. Sec Keshena. 

K e ' s h 1 u q k ii 11 , " moon-woman ; " 
a personal name. 

k e s h m a ' t s h i w 6 k , they are gone. 

keshni'po, he is dead. 

Kesi"ene, Keshena, "swift-fly- 
ing ; '' the name of a former chief 
of the tribe, and also the nsinie 
of the village on the reservation. 
See keslii"ne. 

ke'sik, the sky. 

ke'sik liasi'nakiio, "blue col- 
or," from ke'sik, sky, and hasi'- 
nakuo, color. 

k e ' s i k i n ii m i n, I see the blue sky. 

k e ' s i k o t , d ay ; ke'sikotun, days ; 
nis ke'sikot, two days, from uis 
two, and ke'sikot. 

ke'skanau, cut with au ax. 

kesma'tshiado', after they have 

ke'so, ke"so, the sun. 

k e ' s p a p a ' k a m a n ' , clubbed — 
with a stick, or j)ommeled with 
the fist. 

k e s p i ' ii t o , after they have come. 

ke'sposhi'pahau, he, or she, 
was stabbed. 

kes we'qtamowau, hehas told. 

Keta'kibihot, the striped one; 
the sunfish; also a mythic per- 
sonage who participated in the 
game of ball between the peo- 
ple of Mii'niibush and the auil'- 
maqki'u. The modern name is 

k6"tshinii'ni u', old man, from 
ke"tshi or ketshi, old, aged ; 
inii'nifr man. 

keu', thy wife. 

K e ' w a i a t s h i ' w a n , " the-eddy ; " 
a personal name. 

Kewiish'kuni, "to -cause -some- 
thing-to-turn ; " a personal name. 

kewe'nimon, thy heads. 

k i , it, he. 

k i k ii s e ' n a n , veins. 

kikis', thy son. 

kikiso'wawok', your sous. 

ki'kituau', council of Indians. 

ki'kitu' wiko'mik.conncilliome; 
from ki'kituau', council, gather- 
ing of braves and chiefs; and 
wiko'mlk, a habitation. The lat- 
ter word is a variant of wig'iwam, 
and is rarely heard; also, as 

ki' kit won, to talk, to speak. 



[Exn. AXN. 14 

kime'wan, kiuie'an, rain; also 
a i)ersoiial name. 

kin a', you; omitted from verbal 

ki'naq, yours. 

kina"tshisliiii, tickle him or 
lier; imper. 

kiiia"tshis()', he or she i.s tick- 

kiiia"ueq'katayom', "that you 
may feel good." 

kine', you. 

k i ' u e , giant. 

k 1 n e ' k i t i n , it is yours. 

kine'puam, thou art standing. 

Kine'she, "young-eagle;" per- 
sonal name. 

k i n ("■ ' u^, goklen eagle ; a gens of the 
Big Thunder or Eagle phratry. 

k i n e ' u ' •vr a i ' d e n ii t, " coming- to- 
the-eagle;" the Menomiui name 
applied to the beaver when lie 
came to the Eagle ])hratry as the 
head of a gens. He is now sec- 
ond chief of the phratry. He 
came with an Ojibwa name, which 
meant " white hands," Wa/pinii'- 
kiit, on account of the lighter 
color of the soles of liis paws. 

K 1 ' n 1 a q k i ' s a, " little-sheeagle ;" 
a personal name. 

Ki'niaqki'ii, "eagle- woman;'' a 
personal name. 

kinis', a long while. 

k i n i ' s h i p i ' m i n a q ' k i y a ' , we 
two twist. 

kinok', skin. 

kino'ka, "the-long-one;" a per- 
sonal name. 

kino'pik, snake. 

ki'uua, you; we. 

k i n u " ii , ye, yourselves. 

kinu''akiti'nuii, it is yours. 

ki'o^, mother; ni'kio', my 
mother; o'kiun, his mother. 

kipi'niinaq'ki, we twist. 

kiqkaq'kwun, shin. 

kiqse'se, girl. 

kis, son. 

kiseteq'se, little toe: pJ., kise- 

k i s e ' w a t o ' s s e , sharp-shin hawk. 

k i s h ;i ' , good, great ; all powerful ; 
Kishii' Ma'uido, great mystery, 
the chief ma'nido of the many 
recognized by the Menouiini. 

Ki ' sh an o ' w i u , " oue-who-sheds- 
tears;" a personal name. 

K i s h e ' w a d o ' s h ti , " swift - little- 
hawk ; " a personal name. 

K i ' s h i w ii ' t s h i w a n , " roaring- 
rapids;" a personal name. 

the name of a mythic female who 
dwelt in the north. She was 
visited by Mii'niibfish, while the 
latter was still among the In- 

k i s ' k a s h , toenail. 

kis'pin, if. 

kita'bakus, Ivnx. {L. cmiaden- 
six L.) 

k i t ii ' m i , k i t ii ' ni u , t he porcupine ; 
also a gens of the Bear phratry. 

kititan, your sinews. 

k'itosha'shishine', we slipped, 

kitshki'ip-, old. 

ki'fi', they. 

Kiwaqkwo"amuqk', " flying- 
clouds;'' a personal name. 

kiyu', that place; that spot. 

ko'atan, afraid. 

koke'an, to dive. 

kokosh', hog; pork. 

kon, snow. 

konii'pamik, "sacred thing," the 
shell, Cypriva monetd, employed 
by the medicine men in their 
ceremonies of initiation. The 
shell is apparently swallowed, 
the breath blown on the medi- 
cine bag, and then the bag thrust 
toward the candidate, by which 
action the shell is suj)posed to be 
shot intothelatter'sbreast. The 
Ojibwa and Ottawa term for this 
shell is mi'gis; Potawatomi, 

konwo'iak, nobody; lit., not 

k < ) q k e ' w ii b a ' , k o (j k e ' w a b o q ', 
day after tomorrow. 

koqke'waui'i'ko' , day before yes- 

koq'ki])ikuq'ki, the mouse; a 
mythic animal that cut the sinew 
cord with which the sun had been 

k t> q n ii's o k , thy fathers. 

lioq'ne, tliy father. 

kukfi'kuu', owl; the liorned owl. 
{Bubo (• irgiii ian ttx . ) 



kiiiiiri'katan', frost. 

Kuslie'aqki'ii. "Preuch-womau;" 
a personal uaiue. 

kwapu'owe, o'kapu'owe, the 

k w i ' t s h i \v a ' n o , ' • cunent- from- 
above;" a personal name. 

k wop o', juice; sap, as of a tree. 

ma"iise, many. 

ma'iitik, stick counters, used in 

ma'atikonagan, wooden bowl; 
employed usually in playing the 
game of aka'qsiwok. 

m ii ' a t i k w o p , bow, m ade of wood. 

maiitsh'awai'f'dok, great mys- 
tery; from miiiitsh' — great, and 
wai'edok, unknown being. The 
latter word is seldom employed 
except to indicate the God of 
civilized peoples, the ordinary 
designation of a mystery or shade 
being ma'nido. 

m a i o q ' k a q a , sunrise. 

ma'kese'sapakwa'tii, bead 
belt, used by shamans during 
ceremonials of the cult societies. 

mania'ka^, slave. 

mama'tselta', Indian; some- 
times abbreviated in conversa- 
tion to mama'tshini. 

m am a' t she 'tan, Indian; liter- 
all y, " moving he is." 

ma'niatshe"taw()k, the Indi- 

mamii'tshoqki, to gag, as when 

ma'nabai, giant; ma'nabai (vok, 

M a ' n ab ai w o k , giant people who 
dwell in the extreme pole, who 
fish by the light of torches ; the 
light is seen against the sky as 
the aurora. 

M a ' n ii b u s h , the Menomini hero- 
god ; the grandson of Noko'mis, 
and intermediary in the found- 
ing of the JVIitii'wit or Medicine 
society, between the Great Un- 
known aud the Indians; from 
miisha', great, and wabfis', rab- 
bit ; great rabbit, because of his 
ability to perform great deeds. 

ma"nakua, badger. In Menom- 
ini myth he received from Mii'nJi- 
bush the skin of the silvery white 

bear, one of the defeated under- 
ground beings. 

ma'niit, plenty; suflflcient. 

mil'nato' wok, much game; name 
of Manitowoc, a Wisconsin town. 

m ii ' n a w a t s , few. 

M ii n ii ' w o t, Menomini for the word 
Milwaukee; Miinii'waqkiik, the 
Potawatomi form. 

maq'kak', sugar box; made to 
hold granulated maple sugar. 
Made of birchbark, oblong, and 
a little narrower at the top than 
at the bottom. It has a conical 
cover, which is stitched down 
until the sugar is needed. 

m a q ' k ii sin, moccasin ; pL, maq'- 

m ii q k i ' , blood. 

m ;i q ' k i k , m ii q ' k i k , m a q ' k 1 u '^ , 

miiqkii'om, maqku'um, ice. 

ma(iku'iim babe'qtsin, hail; 
from maqku'um, ice, and babeq'- 
tsin, falling. 

maqkwa'nineuk', mythical red 
birds, who were in reality Indi- 
ans so transformed, through the 
aid of magic powers. These birds 
were found by Mii'niibiish, in his 
triivels while yet among the first 
Indians who existed. 

m ii q ' k w a ' n o p , wool belt, used by 
men as a sash. 

m a q ' k w o k a ' n i , m a ' q u a n a ' n i ; 
red-tail hawk, Buteo boreaUs. 
Also a gens of the Big Thunder 

miiq'sewan, wood. 

mii(i'tikpaqaq'tshikan, wood- 
en mallet used by women to beat 
elm logs for the purjiose of loosen- 
ing thesplints for making baskets. 

mii'se, mase", many. 

mase'naqnatek, printed. 

miishii', me'sha, great, all-pow- 

mashiin', nettle; a plant of the 
genus Uiiica, the fiber of which 
is made into thread for sewing. 

ma's h e n a ' q e k a n , book, pa])er. 

Mii'shenomiik, great fish; a 
mythic water monster which de- 
voured many of the first people, 
but who was in turn destroyed 
by Mii'niibiish. 



[ETH. ANN. 14 

in a s b k i q ' k i u '^ , medicine. 

in 11 s k o ' t i a , prairie. 

masko'tia pisaq'kifi', buffalo; 
from masko'tia, jirairie, aud pis- 
iiq'kiu', cattle. 

m a s s e ' n ii , turkey. 

mii'tehosli', wooden canoe, or 

mii'teko'miu, acorn; j*?., uiii'te- 

mii'tik, tree; ^)L, ma'tikok. 

m ii ' 1 1 k w o p, wooden bowl ; ma'tik, 
tree, wood, aud wop, bowl. 

miits, great. 

M a t s e w a i ' e d o k , the devi 1 ; bad 
being. Literally signifies bad 
god, as the word Wai'edok is em- 
ployed to designate the God of 
the whites, ma'nido being the 
proper word to signify mystery 
or shade. 

Ma'tshe hawai'tok, "bad be- 
ing or mystery; " the devil. 

in a t s h e q ' k e wis, eldest brother. 

ma'tshi, great, celebrated, large. 

ma'tshi, mii'tsi, bad. 

M ii t s h i k i n c ' fr , M ii t 's i k i n c iV, 
''bad-eagle;" a personal name. 

M ii ' t s h i w i (J k w a ' w 1 s, "she- who- 
governs;" the name of a mythic 
woman who dwelt in the north, 
and who was visited by Mii'nii- 
bfish during his wanderings. 

m a t s k i s e t ' , big toe. 

as-he-goes;" a personal name. 

mawau', all. 

meiibit, me'bit, me'pit, tooth; 
ke'bit, your tooth; ui'bit, my 
tooth ; we'bit, his or her tooth ; 
2)1., me'pitau, me'bitan. 

me'io", body. 

me'kem, to give. 

me'minem, to vomit; ni me'nii- 
nem, I vomit. 

m e ' 111 o t, afriend ; ne"at, my friend. 

men, berry; pi., me°'uiin. 

me'na, me'ne', hair; me'ne'nun, 

meniin', to give to someone else. 

me'nok, glans penis. 

meno'mii, rice; the seed of the 
wild rice, Zhania (Kpiatica, used 
to great extent by the Indians. 
The Menomini Indian sare named 
after this seed. (See p. 12.) 

mep, an arrow. 

m e p ii q ' k i (1 k w a n a ' g a n , ankle. 

meqku'oni, the ice. 

mes,head; mesun, heads; wes, his 
head; iuii'niii'^ wes, man's head. 

me'slia, miishii', great, all pow- 

m e ' s h i n i k a ' k e , chicken-hawk 
(believed to be the swiftest). 

me'sibine'blk, water demons; 
2>l., me'sibine'bikok. 

me"simin, apple; pi., me"simi- 

m e ' s o k u a ' s a n , to sew. 

me'tik, a stick, twig, or piece of 

me'tiko'ne, canoe. 

me'tshesho', he or she is eating. 

metshe'showok', they are eat- 

metshim', food. 

M i a ' k i n e ft "■, " true-eagle ;" a per- 
sonal name. 

mi an', straight. 

Mia'nise, "little-owl," the nick- 
name of a tshi'saqka, named 
Na'waqkwiis'kum, "hewhose- 
feet-do-not touch-the-ground." 

mi dan', mouth. 

migii(i'sikwon, knuckle. 

mi'hikan, a road. 

mi'hikii 'sii, a trail. 

mi kii 'at shine, thumb. 

mi ka' sail, vulva. 

mikii'tik, knee. 

mikek', otter. 

mikoq'tiigau, mikoq'takan, 

m i m ii " a n o t , stomach. 

m i mil' nitii, brain. 

mimii'tikwok, bowstring; the 
word is sometimes pronounced 

mimot', belly; omo'te, his belly. 

niinii', right hand. 

mi'naba'kau, right arm below 

minii'maqtshian',left arm. 

m i 11 a ' p i u m , husband. 

minaq'ki, armpit. 

mi'ne'ueuii'tshin, finger. 

mi'nikan', village; city, i. e., 
large village. 

mino'gaii, hip. 

m i ' n o 11 a g a n , breast, of a woman. 

mi'uoq kwu'on, scali^. 



m i'liudi'sen, bag, used to bold 

or carry rice, 
mip, iiiorniiig. 
uii 'q eg Mil, a patli. 
mi '([i kail, a road. 
iiii'(lika'sa, a trail. 
mi q'kii, forehead, 
miqka'aii, heel, 
miqkii'iio, the turtle; also a gens 

of the l>ear phratry. 
m i q k at', leg. 
miqke'sik, eye; miqke'sikun, 

miqki'kan, neck. 
Ill iq k i ' m u II , shell necklace, used 

by women and men at ceremo- 
nial dances, 
m i q ' k i n ,'i ii i , "medicineman." A 

member of the Mita'wit or Grand 

Medicine society. 
M i q k i n ii ' n 1 \V , lucky man ; aper- 

sonal name, 
m i q ' k i 11 c ' n 1 , a partisan, a leader ; 

also a personal name, 
miq'kiqkwu'on, eyebrow, 
micikon', gall, 
m i q ]) a ' n u n , Inn g. 
niiq'pepa'kun, rib. 
iniqtaq'pcgan, chin, 
miq'tawok, miq'tawok, ear; 

miq'tawokun, miqta'wokan, ears, 
miq'tigan, neck, 
m iqtshe'wiiwok, right arm 

above elbow, 
miqtshi'ikwon, thigh, 
misa'ba, lead, 
mi'siigiui'wi, bladder, 
m i s a q ' p a , footprint, 
mise'kaqnau, hail, 
m ise'kaqnan, tine hail with first 

snow of the season, 
miset', foot, 
miset'esan, toes; literally, littlie 

m ise'waiaq'tik, body or trunk 

of tree, 
mishaci'kiminag'oshe'u' , 

wheat; the grains of the cereal, 
m i ' sh i k i n e ' bi k, themystic water 

monster that destroyed Na"q- 

pote, the brother of Miin'Sbiish. 
mishke'sik, eye; face, 
mishke'sik, eye; mishke'sikan, 

Mishkwo'panoq, "red-dawn;" 

a personal name. 

misik', again. 

mi'sikaia' wit, second. 

niiskas', fingernail; toenail. 

misse'wos, "wound medicine;" 
a remedy employed in the curing 
of arrow or bullet wounds. 

mita', heart; medicine. 

mita", navel; otii', his navel. 

mitii", a member of the Grand 
Medicine society of the Meuom- 
ini Indians; 7>?.,iuita'wok. Ojib- 
wa, midf''; j>/., mide'wok; Otta- 
wa, mite'wini'ni, i. e., medicine 
man. Delaware, meteu, doctor, 
derived fioin meteohet, to drum 
on a hollow body ; a turkey cock 
is sometimes called meteu, from 
the drumming sound of his wings. 
(Brinton and Anthony, Lena- 
pe-English dictionary.) 

mita'gos, a warclub. 

Ill i t a ' m u , woman. 

mitan', daughter; ota'nan, her 

mi'tiiui'nicn, right arm. 

mita'nikuin, nostril. 

m i t a ' 11 i fi 1 1 , wa r-sjiear. 

m i t, a ' n 111 a q ' k a 11 , shoulder. 

mi'tanoq'ikan, first finger. 

m i t ii ' n u