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Full text of "Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution"




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BOSTON 

PUBLIC 

LIBRARY 







5-7TH Congress, ( HOUSE OF KKJ^l^ESENTATIVES. \ Document 

'2d Session.. \ . \ 1 No. 483. 



TWlL\TY-FIIiST ANNUAL REPORT 



J^^JIEAII Of AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TO THE 



^SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



18 99-1 VMJU 



DIRECTOK 




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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Smithsonian Institution, 
BuKEAu OF Amerioan Ethnology, 

Washington, D. C, July 1, 1900. 
hz7\.: I have the honor to submit my Twenty -first 
Annual Report as Director of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology. 

The preliminary portion comprises an account of the 
operations of the Bureau during the fiscal year; the 
remainder consists of two memoirs on anthroY)ologic sub- 
jects, prepared by assistants, whicdi illustrate the methods 
and results of the work of the Bureau. 

Allow me to express my appreciation of your constant 
aid and your support in the work under my charge. 
I am, with respect, your obedient servant, 




Director. 
Honorable S. P. L angle y, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



h 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 



CONTENTS 

EEPOKT OF THK DIRECTOR 

Page. 

Field research and exploration (plate i) x 

Office research xiii 

Work in esthetologv x iii 

Work in technology ' x vi 

Work in sociology ?. x x 

Work in philology xxiii 

Work in sophiology xx vii 

Work in descriptive ethnology xxxii 

Publication _ xxxii 

Library xxxii 

Collections ' xxxiii 

Property x xxiv 

Necrology xxx v 

Frank Hamilton Cusliing xxxv 

Elliott Coues - XXXVIII 

Walter J. Hoffman _ xxxviii 

Financial statement xxxix 

Accomi)anying papers _ XL 

ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 

Hopi katcina?, drawn by native artist.':, by Jesse Walter Fewkes (plates 

II-LXIIl) • 3 

Iroquoian cosmology, by J. N. B. Hewitt ( plates lxiv-lxix) 127 

V 



administrativp: report xi 

the less known pueblos of the plateau country and val- 
leys of New Mexico and Arizona and to obtain data 
relating' to social organization, naig'rations, and customs, 
as well as typical photographs of individuals, habitations, 
etc. All of the existing pueblos of New Mexico were 
visited and many of the niins. The trip yielded a large 
])()dy of data for incorporation in the reports, and espe- 
cially in the Cyclopedia of Native Tribes. 

About the middle of September Dr J. Walker Fewkes 
proceeded to New Mexico for the purpose of com])leting 
his investigation of the mythology and ceremonies of the 
Hopi Indians, his trip being so timed as to permit obser- 
vation of the autumn and winter ceremonies not pre- 
viously observed by ethnologic students. He remained 
in the pueblo throughout the winter, and his studies 
proved eminently fruitful. Toward the end of March he 
repaired to Arizona for the purpose of locating aboriginal 
ruins near Little Colorado river, concerning which vague 
rumors were afloat; and this work, also, was quite suc- 
cessful, as is noted in another paragraph. 

During the early autumn Dr Albert S. Gatschet visited 
several groups of siuwivors of Algonquian tribes on Cape 
Breton island for the purpose of extending the studies of 
the previous year in New Brunswick; he succeeded in 
obtaining considerable linguistic material, in addition to 
other data pertaining to the northeasternmost represent- 
atives of that great Algonquian -speaking people neigh- 
boring the Eskimo on their north and extending thence 
southward more than half way across the present territory 
of the United States. 

Early in the winter Mr J. N. B. Hewitt revisited the 
remnants of several Iroquoian tribes in New York and 
Ontario and continued the collection and comj^arison of 
the tribal traditions. Finding the conditions favorable 
for recording some of the more noteworthy traditions, he 
spent several weeks in an Indian village near Hamilton, 
Ontario, returning to the office in April, 



XII BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Toward the end of the calendar year Mr J. B. Hatcher, 
who had l)een operating in Patagonia and Terra del Fuego 
as a special agent of the Bureau, returned to the country 
with a considerable collection for the Museum, as well as 
a large number of photographs illustrating the physical 
characteristics, costumery, habitations, and occupations 
of the Tehuelche and Yahgan tribes. He also brought in 
an extended vocalnilary collected among the natives of 
the former tril^e and useful notes relating to the social 
organization and other characteristics of the two tribes. 

Toward the end of the fiscal year Miss Alice C. Fletcher 
was commissioned as a special agent to visit Indian Ter- 
ritory and Oklahoma for the pur]iose of obtaining certain 
esoteric rituals of the Pawnee tribe. Her woi'k was 
notably successful, as is indicated in other paragraphs. 

Dr Willis E. Everette remained in Alaska thi'oughout 
the fiscal year, pursuing his vocation as a mining engi- 
neer, l)ut incidentally collecting, for the use of the Bureau, 
linguistic and other data pertaining to the native tribes. 

About the beginning of the fiscal year Dr Robert Stein, 
formerly of the United States Geological Survey, accom- 
panied a Peary expedition northward as far as Elsmere- 
land, where he planned to spend the winter in geographic 
and related researches. He carried instructions from the 
Bureau for such archeologic and ethnologic o])servations 
as he might be able to make, together with photographic 
apparatus and materials needed in the work. Elsmereland 
is not known to be now inhalnted nor to have been 
inhabited in the past by the aborigines, but the situation 
of the island is such as to indicate that it was probably 
occupied at least temporarily by Eskimauan tribes in 
some of the migrations attested by their wide distribu- 
tion ; hence it is thoiight probable that archeologic work 
on the island may throw light on the early history of this 
widely dispersed orarian people. A brief report of prog- 
ress was received after the close of the fiscal year. 

During the autumn Mr Robert T. Hill, of the United 
States Geological Survey, visited Porto Rico in the inter- 
ests of that Bureau and of the Department of Agriculture ; 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF A:\LEK1CAN ETHNOLOGY 



By J. W. Powell, Director 



Ethnological researches have been conducted during 
the year ending June 30, 1900, in accoi'dance with the 
act of Congress making provision "for continuing 
researches relating to the American Indians, under the 
direction of the Smithsonian Institution," approved 
March 3, 1899. 

The work of the year was eai-ried forward in accoixl - 
ance with a formal plan of operations sulimitted on May 
13, 1899, and approved by the Secretary under date of 
June 16, 1899. 

The field operations of the regular corps extended into 
Arizona, California, Cuba, Indian Territory, Jamaica, 
Maine, Minnesota, New Mexico, New l^ork, Nova Scotia, 
Oklahoma, Ontario, and Wisconsin, and operations were 
conducted by special agents in Alaska, Argentina, and 
Porto Rico. The office work comprised the collection 
and preparation of material from most of the States and 
Territories, as well as from various other parts of the 
western hemisphere. 

As during previous years, the researches have been 
carried forward in accordance with a scientific system 
developed largely in this Bureau. This system is out- 
lined in the classification adopted in previous reports and 
continued in the present one. 



X BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

FIELD RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION 

The Director, aided Ijy Mr Frank Hamilton Cnshing, 
spent the earlier months of the fiscal year in an inves - 
tigation of the middens and tnmuli i-epresenting the 
work of the aborigines in northeastern United States, 
especially in Maine. A considerable number of l)oth 
classes of accumnlations were excavated, with instructive 
results. Among the relics brought to light were many of 
customary types, together with a smaller number of much 
significance, in that they represent early stages of accul- 
turation through contact with Caucasian pioneers; and 
in addition to the aboriginal and accultural artifacts, the 
explorers were rewarded by finding the remains of a 
metallic armor of European make in such associations as 
to throw light on the beginning of warfare between red 
men and white. 

Later in the year the Director, accompanied V)y Pro- 
fessor W. H. Holmes, of the United States National 
Museum, repaired to Cxiba and Jamaica for the purpose 
of tracing lines of cultural migration lietween the great 
continents of the Western Hemisphere. The researches 
of the last two decades have shown clearly that the cus- 
toms of the aborigines in what is now southeastern L^nited 
States were affected by extraneous motives and devices; 
the phenomena have suggested importation of objects and 
ideas belonging to what is commonly styled "Caribbean 
art" from South America by way of the Antilles, and it 
was thought desirable to seize the opportunity offered by 
recent political changes for special studies in the Antillean 
islands. Although the trip was a reconnaissance merely, 
it yielded iiseful data on which to base further researches, 
including a small collection for the Museum. 

A noteworthy trip was made early in the fiscal year by 
Mr F. W. Hodge, with a party of volunteer assistants 
comprising Dr Elliott Coues, of Washington, Dr George 
Parker Winship, of Providence, and Mr A. C. Vroman, 
of Pasadena. The journey Avas so planned as to touch 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTYFIRST ANNUAL REPORT PL 1 




I 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XTII 

and the opportunity was seized to arrange for olitaining 
through his cooperation such photographs and other data 
of ethnologic character as he might he able to discover in 
connection with his other duties. The arrangement 
yielded material of value. 

OFFICE RESEARCH 
Work in Esthetology 

In the course of a reconnaissance of the Greater Antilles, 
the Director and Professor Holmes enjoyed moderate 
opportunities for observing (chiefly in local collections) 
artifacts of the class commonly regarded as displaying 
traces of Caribbean influence; and while neither time 
nor opportunity permitted exhaustive study, a few inter- 
esting generalizations were made. One of these relates to 
the relative abundance of esthetic and industrial motives 
among those artifacts displaying traces of a southern 
influence. When the ol>jects and special features were 
compared with those from Florida and other portions of 
southern United States, it was noted that the presum- 
ably imported or accultural features are predominantly 
esthetic, and only subordinately of technical or indvistrial 
character — that is, it would ai:)pear from the collections 
that esthetic motives travel more freel}', or are inter- 
changed more readily, than purely utilitarian motives 
among primitive peoples. The relation is of course com- 
plicated by the relative abundance of fiducial or other 
sophic motives, which often blend with both esthetic and 
industrial motives in ])uzzling fashion; but even after 
these motives are weighed or eliminated, the general 
relation remains unchanged. The generalization promises 
to be of service as a guide in the study of that affiliation 
of tribes, or integration of ])eoi)les, which complicates 
every ethnologic problem. The Director's inquiries were 
greatly facilitated by Professor Holmes' artistic training 
and his extended familiarity with both the esthetic and 
the industrial motives of aboriginal artifacts ; nor could 



XrV BUREATT OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the generalization have l)een made without the aid of Mr 
Chishing and the opportnnity of examining his remarkahle 
collection of artifacts of wood and shell from the mnck 
beds of western Florida, of whicdi a considerable part is 
now in tlie National Museum. The details of the work 
are reserved for later reports. 

Throughout the fiscal year Mr W J McGree was occu- 
pied primarily with administrative duties as ethnologist 
in charge in the ofBce, but partly in the preparation of 
reports on field researches of previous years. One of his 
subjects of study was the esthetic status of the Seri 
Indians of Tiburon island and the adjacent territory. 
The tribe is notably primitive in several respects, as has 
been indicated in previous reports, and this primitive 
character is well displayed in their meager esthetic. One 
of the conspicuoi;s customs of the tribe is that of face- 
painting, the paint being applied uniformly in definite 
patterns, of which nearly a dozen were observed. The 
custom is practically limited to the women, though male 
children are sometimes painted with their mothers' 
devices. On inquiry into the uses and purposes of the 
designs it was found that each pertains to and denotes a 
matronymic group, or clan, and that the more prominent 
designs, at least, are symbols of zoic tutelaries — for exam- 
ple, Tiu'tle, Pelican. It thus appears that the painted 
devices are primarily syml)olic i-ather than decorative, 
though comparison of the devices used by different mem- 
bers of the same clan or by the same female at different 
times indicates that the sematic function does not stand 
in the way of minor modification or embellishment of the 
device through the exercise of a personal feeling for deco- 
ration. The investigation is of interest in that it estab- 
lishes the symbolic basis of esthetic concepts along a new 
line, and it is of even deeper interest in that it seems to 
reveal nascent notions of decoration, and thus aids to 
define the beginning of purely artistic activities. The 
symbolic devices themselves are of much significance as 
indices to the social organization on the one hand and to 
the prevailing belief of the tribe on the other hand. The 



ADMINISTKATXVE REPORT XV 

restriction of the painted symliols to the females and the 
especially conspicnons use of them by matrons betoken 
the strength and exclusiveness of that sense of maternal 
descent which is normal to the lowest stage of culture ; 
the devices are at once blood -signs definite as the faee- 
marks of gregarious animals, and clan -standards signifi- 
cant as tartan or pibroch ; and the confinement of their 
display to the recognized blood -carriers of the elan 
attests perhaps more clearly than any other phenomena 
thus far noted the strength of that semi -instinctive feel- 
ing expressed in maternal organization. In like manner, 
the representation of local tutelaries in the painted devices 
attests the intensity and dominance of that zootheistic 
faith which seems to be normal to the lowest stage of 
intellectual development. The details of the investiga- 
tion are incorporated in a memoir appended to an earlier 
report. 

In the course of his work among the Hopi Indians, Dv 
Fewkes succeeded in defining certain steps in the devel- 
opment of the drama. The ceremonies of the folk, like 
those of other ])rimitive peoples, are primarily fiducial, 
and involve representation, or even pei'sonation, of the 
deified potencies forming the tribal pantheon. The 
motive of one of the dramatic — or rather dramaturgic — 
pieces is the growth of corn ; and the setting comprises 
realistic representations of both the maleficent and the 
beneficent agencies connected with the making of the 
crop and the development of the plant in general. The 
performance is designed primarily to invoke the favor of 
the mysteries by appropriate symbols of l)oth being and 
action, but an ancillary, or perhajis coordinate, design of 
this ceremony is the edification (combining instruction 
and diversion) of the tribe at large. Accordingly a por- 
tion of the interior is set a]mrt as a stage, while the greater 
portion is reserved as an auditorium. Both the mystical 
and the human ]>()wers are represented or ])ersonated by 
actors, who, with their properties, occupy the stage; and 
since that part of the mechanism connected with the 
portrayal of the mysteries is esoteric, a screen is provided 



XVI BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

to conceal it and give an air of realism to the performance. 
The screen is painted with api)i'oi)riate symbols tending 
to heighten the illusion to the childlike minds of the 
audience, and it is perforated to permit the passage of 
masked effigies representing the mystical potencies, which 
are oj^erated by shamans hidden behind the screen, some- 
thing after the fashion of marionettes. The front of the 
stage is occupied by a symbolized field of corn ; it is the 
role of the symbolized potencies representing storm and 
drought to emerge from their respective apertures in the 
screen and destroy the syml)olic cornfield ; but they are 
opposed in part by musical and other incantations of a 
group of shamans occupying one side of the stage, and in 
part by human actors who wrestle with and finally over- 
come the evil marionettes. The entire dramatization 
stands on a higher plane than that prevalent among most 
of the tribes of the territory of the United States, though 
lower than that reached among the Nahuatlan and Mayan 
peoples, and reveals various connecting links between 
primitive dramaturgy and theatrical representation 
proper. A specially significant feature of the perform- 
ance is the r61e assigned to hiiman actors in boldly defying, 
and eventually overcoming, the powers of darkness and 
evil ; for this esthetic feature reflects a noteworthy aspect 
of industrial development. Dr Fewke's detailed descrip- 
tions, with the attendant photographs and drawings, are 
published in another part of this report. 

Work ix Technology 

As has been indicated in earlier reports, the researches 
of the last decade have shown that the esthetic motives 
of primitive peoples arise in symbolism; and, as was noted 
in one or two recent reports on the work, various indica- 
tions have been found that industrial motives similarly 
arise in symbolism connected with zootheistic faith. The 
suggestive phase of industrial development is that in which 
teeth, horns, claws, mandibles, and other animal organs 
are used as implements or weapons in a manner imitating 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XVII 

more or less closely the natural functions of the organ- 
isms. In completing his studies of Seri technic during 
the year, Mr W J McGee has discovered definite survivals 
of this stage of industrial development. The favorite 
Seri awl is the mandible of a bird, and even when the 
material is hard wood the implement is shaped in imita- 
tion of the natural organ ; the war shield is a turtle shell 
or pelican pelt ; similarly the arrows and turtle harpoons 
of the tribe are fitted with a foreshaft usually of hard 
wood, though there are linguistic and other indications 
that the use of wood is a vestige of a former use of teeth, 
probably of the local sea lion ; while many of the manual 
operations are evidently imitative of normal movements 
of local animals, most of which hold place in the Seri 
pantheon. These features of the Seri technic throw light 
on the use of zoic motives in the decoration of primitive 
weapons, and hence permit the solution of some of the 
most puzzling problems of American archeology ; at the 
same time they serve to define a stage in industrial devel- 
opment in a manner which ap]:»ears to be applicable to all 
primitive peoples. In general, the stage would seem to 
be antecedent to that defined by the chance -dominated 
use of stone, which has already been characterized as 
protolithic; it corresponds with the stage provisionally 
outlined by Gushing as prelithic ; but taking due account 
of the materials, processes, and motives characteristic of 
the stage, it may be distinguished as hylozoic, or perhaps 
better as zoomimic. Accordingly the earlier stages of 
industrial development may be defined as (1) zoomimic, 
in which the predominant implements are beast organs, 
used largely in mimicry of animal movements; (2) pro- 
tolithic, in which the prevailing implements are stones 
selected at random and used in ways determined by 
mechanical chance, and (8) technolithic, in which the 
prevailing implements are of stone shaped by precon- 
ceived designs and used in accordance with the teachings 
of mechanical experience. This classification of the 

21 ETH— 03 II 



XVIII BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

industries is elaborated in an earlier report, the material 
for which was revised during the year. 

In continuing the preparation of his memoir on the 
contents of the Florida shell mounds and muck beds, Mr 
Gushing brought out many new examples of that ideative 
association which forms the basis of zoomimic indus- 
try. Several of these examples were found in the muck- 
preserved implements and weapons of wood from Florida ; 
others were found in various museums in the form of 
artifacts of stone, and even of metal, shaped in imitation 
of animals, or furnished with symbols of animals and 
animal organs; still others were found in the hiero- 
glyphics and hieratic codices of Mexico and Yucatan. 
The assemblage of objects seems clearly to indicate 
that while the zoomimic motive was the primary one 
and stood nearly alone at and long after its inception, 
it was not completely displaced by the prbtolithie or even 
by the technolithic motives of higher stages, but per- 
sisted in connection with these quite up to the time of 
Caucasian invasion — indeed, it would appear that the 
zoomimic motive in handicraft was the correlative and 
concomitant of that zootheism out of which none of 
the tribes had completely risen up to the time of the 
Discovery. 

In the course of his reconnaissance of the inhabited 
and ruined pueblos in New Mexico and Arizona, Mr 
F. W. Hodge, with his companions, brought to light a 
number of notable examples of stone work. Two types 
are especially instructive. The first of these is repre- 
sented by the ruins in Cebollita valley. The stones used 
in the walls were cleft with great regularity and laid, 
after careful facing by battering, in such manner as 
to produce a practically smooth surface, with corners 
squared almost as neatly as those of a well -laid brick 
structure. The second type, also represented by ruins in 
the Cebollita valley, is similar, save that the corners 
were rounded apparently on a uniform radius, while the 
stones were dressed in such a manner as to conform to 



' ADMINISTEATIVE REPOET XIX 

the curve about as closely as does metal -wrought masonry. 
The perfection of the stone work of both types suggests 
Caucasian skill; l)ut the indications of great antiquity, 
coupled with the absence of binding mortar, and espe- 
cially the laying of the stones in such manner as to reveal 
ignorance of the principle of breaking joints, prove that 
the work was primitive. 

In his reconnaissance of the ruins of Little Colorado 
river, Dr Fewkes reexamined critically the ancient struc- 
ture discovered by Sitgreaves in 1851, which is of much 
interest as one of the earliest known ruins of the pueblo 
country. His observations on the subject are of interest, 
partly in that they afford a basis for estimating the dura- 
tion of such ruins when protected from vandalism either 
by inaccessibility, as in this case, or by such legislative or 
executive action, as is frequently contemiilated by gov- 
ernmental authorities. The detailed measurements and 
comparisons will be incorporated in a later report. Dur- 
ing the same trip Dr Fewkes discovered a number of 
additional ruins, including those of cavate dwellings 
located in the softer layers of heterogeneous volcanic 
deposit. Some of his observations throw useful light on 
the methods of excavating such deposits employed by the 
aborigines, as well as on their general modes of life. 

During the autumn it was ascertained that Dr A. E. 
Jenks. of the University of Wisconsin, was engaged in a 
study of the wild rice industry of the aborigines, and it 
was thought well to take advantage of the opportunity to 
systemize and place on permanent record the considerable 
body of material lirought together through his researches. 
Accordingly provision was made to have Dr Jenks visit 
various localities in "Wisconsin and Minnesota in which 
the wild rice industry is still carried forward l:)y the In- 
dians, and provision was also made for photographing 
the various operations connected with the harvesting, 
preserving, and cooking of the produce. The inquiry 
derives importance primarily from the large use of wild 
rice among the aboriginal tribes and incidentally from the 



XX BCTEEAXJ OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

possible utility of the product in enlightened agriculture. 
The world is indebted to the natives of the Western Hem- 
isphere for several important commodities. Among these 
corn (that is, maize) occupies the first place; others are 
the turkey, two or three varieties of beans, certain 
sqiiashes, besides the remarkable paratriptic tobacco, 
whose use has spread throughout the world since the 
time of Raleigh, and there are indications that the wild 
rice {Zizania) of the region of glacial lakes may consti- 
tute a notable addition to the list. Led to the subject by 
the work of the Bureau, the Department of Agriculture 
has instituted inquiries concerning the extent of the wild 
rice area and concerning the possibilities of utilization of 
the resource. Dr Jeuks' memoir is incorporated in the 
Nineteenth Annual Report. 

Work ix Sociology 

Except when occupied in field work, the Director con- 
tinued the synthetic study of demotic activities, and 
during the year he completed the preliminary oiitline of 
the activities expressed in institutions. The science 
of institutions is commonly designated sociology, after 
Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, and other European 
writers, and though the term is sometimes loosely used it 
fairly meets the requirements of scientific exposition. 
The branch of knowledge which it is used to designate is 
one of the five coordinate sciences (esthetologj^ tech- 
nology, sociology, philology, and sophiology) constituting 
demonomy, or the system of knowledge pertaining to the 
human activities. Viewed in its activital aspect, soci- 
ology combines several subordinate branches. The first 
of these is statistics (sometimes called demography) , 
which deals with the units of social organization ; the 
second is economics, which deals especially with the 
forces and values involved in or controlled by human 
organization. The third branch of sociology is civics, 
which may be defined as the science of methods in gov- 
ernmental action, or in the regulation of the conduct of 



ADMINISTBATIVK REPORT XXI 

associates — methods which have for their normal oljjects 
peace, equity, equality, liberty, and charity among the 
associates. The means of attaining these ends in primi-. 
tive society have been ascertained almost wholly through 
the researches in American ethnology; they have been 
indicated in a Ijrief outline of regimentation appended to 
an earlier report. The fourth branch of sociology may 
be noted as histories ; it deals with the methods adopted 
for the maintenance and perpetuation of social organiza- 
tion. Coordinate with these branches is the science of 
ethics, which deals with the ideal bases arid the practical 
objects of associate organization. The ethics of primi- 
tive life have been ascei'tained almost wholly through 
observation among the aborigines of America. The 
ethical relations existing among the tribesmen have been 
a revelation to students, and no line of ethnologic inquiry 
has yielded richer results than that pertaining to this 
subject. An outline of the definition of sociology was 
printed for the use of students and for the benefit of 
such suggestions as might be offered by other inquirers, 
and the discussion was expanded and incor])orated in the 
last report. 

The primary purpose of the trip by Mr Hodge and his 
companions was to ascertain and record the details of 
social organization as now maintained among the pueblo 
tribes . As indicated in various publications of the Bureau, 
the aborigines of America belong in approximately equal 
proportions to two of the culture -stages defined by social 
organizations — (1) savagery, in which the institutions are 
based on consanguinity reckoned in the female line, and 
(2) barbarism, in which the institutions are founded on 
consanguinity reckoned in the male line. In some cases 
a transitional condition has been found, as, for example, 
among the Muskwaki Indians, who give a patronymic to 
the first-born child, but in case of its death in infancy 
revert to the matronymic system; sometimes, again, the 
basis of the organization is so well concealed as to be 
obscured, as among the Kiowa Indians (noted in the last 



XXII BTTREAIf OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

report) ; or, again, the consanguinity may be practically 
concealed by the overplaceinent of some other factor, as 
among the California tribes, who regard language as the 
dominant factor of their institutions (also noted in the 
last report) ; but the fortuitous relations vaaj commonly 
be reduced without serious diflfieulty, and shown not 
to affect the general fact that the American aborigines 
belong to the culture -stages of savagery and barbarism 
in al)ont equal proportions, reckoned on the basis of pop- 
ulation — though it is to be remembered that the tribes 
belonging to the higher stage are much the larger and 
fewer. Now, a recent line of inquiry relates to the causes 
and conditions of the transition from the first great stage 
to the second. In the Old World the transition has been 
fairly correlated with the gradual passage from hunting 
to herding — there the initial phase of agriculture ; l)ut in 
the western hemisphere the characteristics of the native 
fauna were not such as to place herding in the van 
of agricultural development. Accordingly, it has been 
thought desirable to trace the influence of harvesting and 
planting, when pursued for generations, on social organi- 
zation ; and the most favorable opportunity for such 
research was that afforded by the Pueblos. Morever, it 
seemed desirable to inquire into the rate of the transition, 
as indicated by records covering a considerable j^eriod ; 
and for this purpose also the Pueblos seemed to be admu-- 
ably adapted, partly since the customs of the people have 
been subjects of record for three and a half centuries, and 
partly because their arid habitat is so uninviting as to 
have practically repelled the invasion of revolutionary 
methods. It was by reason of his intimate acquaintance 
with the early records, and also in the hope that he might 
be able to discover unpublished manuscripts among the 
ancient archives of the missions, that Dr Elliott Cones, 
compiler of the American Explorers Series, was attached 
to the party. Although no noteworthy discoveries of 
manuscripts were made, a considerable body of data 
essential to the discussion of social organization in the 
pueblo region was obtained. Portions of the material are 



ADMINISTRATIVE KEPORT XXIII 

in preparation for prospective reports, while Mr Hodge 
is incorporating the data relating to the clans and gentes 
of the Pueblo peoples in a Cyclopedia of Native Tribes. 

During his stay among the Hopi, Dr Fewkes' attention 
was directed to the interrelation between the tribesmen 
and certain feral creatures, notably eagles. The eagles 
are of much consequence to the folk, chiefly as a source 
of feathers, which ai'e extensively used in ceremonies for 
symbolic representation ; and it appears from the recent 
observations that particular clans claim and exercise a 
sort of collective ownership in certain families of eagles, 
perhaps homing in distant mountains ; and that this right 
is commonly recognized by other clans, and even by 
neighboring tribes. Thus the relation affords a striking 
example of that condition of toleration between animals 
and men which normally precedes domestication, and 
forms the first step in zooculture, as has been set forth in 
preceding reports. These relations, together with the 
methods of capture, have been described in a preliminary 
paper. 

WoKK IN Philology 

During the later months of the fiscal year the Director 
resumed the synthesis of the native American languages, 
and the comparison of these with other tongues, with the 
view of defining the principles of philology on a compre- 
hensive basis. The task was one of magnitude; the 
records in the Bureau archives comprise more or less 
complete vocabularies and grammars of several hundred 
dialects, representing the sixty or more linguistic stocks 
of North America; and the study necessarily extended 
not only over this material but over a considerable part of 
the published records of other languages, both primitive 
and advanced; it was, however, completed in time for 
publication in the last report. 

In connection with the general linguistic researches it 
was deemed necessary to extend the classification of 
stocks southward over Mexico and Central America ; and 
this extension was undertaken with the aid of Dr Cyrus 



XXIV BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Thomas, whose researches concerning the native codices 
of Mexico and Yucatan have familiarized him with the 
literature of these and neighboring regions, and to some 
extent with the aboriginal languages. Dr Thomas de- 
voted several months to the work; and about the close 
of the fiscal year he had completed a provisional classifi- 
cation and map of native linguistic stocks in Mexico and 
Central America, designed to supplement the classifica- 
tion and map of the American Indians north of Mexico 
published in the Seventh Annual Report. The material 
remains in the hands of the Director for use in general 
study and for revision for publication. 

As noted above, Dr Albert S. Gatschet visited Nova 
Scotia early in the fiscal year for the purpose of complet - 
ing his collections of the northeasternmost Algonquian 
tongues, and his collections will enable him to round out 
the comparative vocabulary of Algontpiian dialects so far 
as the tribes of northeastern United States and the 
contiguous territory are concerned. His work on Cape 
Breton Island was especially fruitful. On retiu'ning to 
the office he resumed the extraction of lexic and gi"am- 
matic material, and pushed forward the preparation of 
the comparative vocabulary; and in connection with this 
work he prepared synthetic characterizations of the prin- 
cipal elements of several typical dialects, including the 
Kataba of the Siouan stock. 

Mr J. N. B. Hewitt continued the preparation of his 
memoir on the comparative mythology of the Iroquoian 
tribes. On juxtaposing the principal cosmogonic myths 
of the several tribes, foiind various indications of incom- 
pleteness, and it was chiefly for the purpose of verifying 
certain of the versions that he revisited Ontario, as has 
already been noted. He succeeded in obtaining a con- 
siderable body of new data, and after his return from the 
field he made good progress in the preparation of his 
memoir, a part of which has been incorporated in another 
part of this report. Early in the fiscal year Mr Hewitt 
made a notable comparison between the Seri language, as 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXV 

recorded recently by Mr McGee (and as previously ob- 
tained from an expatriated Seri man at Hermosillo by 
M Pinart, Commissioner Bartlett, and Senor Tenochio) , 
with the Ynman, Piman, and other southwestern dialects 
recorded by varions explorers. For a time the language 
of the Seri was supposed to be related to the tongues of 
the Yuman stock; but Mr Hewitt's exhaustive study of 
the extensive body of material now preserved in the 
Bureau archives seems to demonstrate the absence of sucli 
relation, and to indicate that the language of the tribe 
represents a distinct stock. Accordingly the classifica- 
tion of Orozco y Berra and other Mexican scholars of the 
middle of the century is revived ; and in conformity with 
the principles of nomenclature and classification an- 
nounced in the Seventh Annual Report, the definition of 
the language, dialects, and tribes is as follows: 

Stock Dialects and tnhes 

Seri (extant). 



Serian. 



Tepoka (recently extinct). 
Guaj'ma (long extinct). 
Upanguayma (long extinct). 



In the course of his stay in the Hopi village, Dr Fewkes 
was so fortunate as to obtain copies of a series of paintings 
representing the tribal pantheon. The series comprises 
some four hundred represen,tations, mostly on separate 
sheets ; the pictures partake of the characteristics of the 
petroglyphs and calendric inscriptions such as those 
described by the late Colonel Mallery ; they also present 
suggestive similarities to the codices of more southerly 
regions. The entire series, reproduced in facsimile, is 
incorporated in another part of this report. 

One of the best known contributions to American abo- 
riginal linguistics is the Eliot Bible, published in the Natick 
language in 1663 and 1685. This contributioii was supple- 
mented in a highly notable way during the present century 
through the labors of the late James Hammond Trumljull, 
who compiled from the Bible, with the aid of other sources 
of information at his command, a vocabulary of the Natick 



XXVI BUKEAU OF AMEBICAN ETHNOLOGY 

tongiie. Unfortunately for students, this compilation 
was not published ; but on the death of Dr Tx-unil)iill, in 
1897, it passed into the custody of the American Anti- 
quarian Society, at Worcester, Massachusetts. Here it 
attracted the attention of scholars and publicists, includ- 
ing Dr Edward Everett Hale; and it was proposed Ijy 
Dr Hale, with others, to offer the manuscript to the 
Bureau for publication. Among the scholars interested 
in this and cognate publications relating to the aborigines 
was the Honorable Ernest W. Roberts, Representative of 
the Seventh Massachusetts district in the Congi-ess ; and 
at his instance authority was granted for i-esumiug the 
publication of bulletins by the Bureau. Accordingly, 
when Dr Hale, early in 1900, brought the valuable manu- 
script of the Trumbull Dictionary to Washington it was 
assigned for publication as the first of the new series of 
bulletins (number 25) . Before the close of the fiscal 
year the composition was well under way, while Dr Hale 
was engaged in the preparation of a historical introduction. 
Another contribution of the first importance to knowl- 
edge of the aboriginal American languages is the vocab- 
ulary of the Maya tongue, compiled during the earlier 
decades of Spanish occupation and well known to scholars 
(though never printed) as the Diccionario de Motul. 
Two or three copies of the work are extant in manu- 
sciipt ; one of these passed into the possession of the late 
Dr Carlos H. Berendt about the middle of the present 
century, and in the course of a lengthy stay in Yucatan 
he undertook to revise and complete the vocabulary and 
to bring it up to date by the introduction of all Maya 
terms in modern use. Dr Berendt's additions nearly 
doubled the volume of the original manuscript, and 
greatly enhanced its value ; unfortunately he died before 
his plan for- publication was carried out. Before his 
death, however, he turned the manuscript over to the 
late Dr Daniel G. Brinton, of Philadelphia, in order that 
it might be published in that ethnologist's Library of 
Aboriginal American Literature. Finding the work too 
extensive for his facilities, Dr Brinton made a provisional 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXVII 

arrangement, before his death, in July, 1899, to transfer 
the manuscript to the Bureau ; and after his decease the 
arrangement vpas carried out by his legatees and execu- 
tors, including the University of Pennsylvania, to which 
institution his valuable library was bequeathed. Both 
the original vocabulary and Dr Berendt's supplement are 
in Maya-Spanish and Spanish-Maya; and, as a necessary 
preliminary to publication l)y the Bureau, a transcription 
was begun by Miss Jessie E. Thomas, assistant librarian, 
and a student of the Maya language. Toward the close of 
the fiscal year Seiior Audomaro Molina, of Merida, Yuca- 
tan, an eminent student of the Maya language, visited this 
country, and, learning of the proposal to pul)lisli the 
Diccionario de Motul, came to Washington to proffer his 
services in any further revision of the material that might 
seem desirable. His offer was gladly accepted, and jn-o- 
vision was made for supplying him with copies of the 
transcript of the vocabulary. 

During the year Dr Franz Boas made additional con- 
tributions of importance to the linguistic collections >of 
the Bureau. He also completed a second volume of Chi- 
nook texts, which would have been sent to press before 
the close of the fiscal year except for his prospective 
absence in field work and the consequent delay in proof 
revision. The matter will be incorporated in an early 
report or bulletin. 

Work m Sophiology 

In pursuing his investigation of the time -concept of 
Papago Indians, as noted in the last report, Mr McGee 
was led to a study of the relations existing between this 
notably altruistic tribe and their hard physical environ- 
ment; and clear indications were found that with the 
degree of cultural development possessed by the Pajiago, 
the tendency of a severe environment is to develop altru- 
ism. At the same time it was noted that the neighboring 
Seri tribe, surrounded by an environment of similar 
characteristics in many respects, are notably egoistic and 



XXVIII BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

iniinical tf)war(I coiiteniporaries; and the striking' differ- 
ences led to further research concerning the interrela- 
tions between human groups and their physical sur- 
roundings — interrelations Avhich may conveniently be 
styled adaptions. Now, when the study was extended to 
other tribes, it became manifest that such adaptions may 
be arranged in serial order, and that when they are so 
arranged the Seri stand at the end of the series marking 
the most intimate interaction between mind and exter- 
nals, while the Papago stand in the front rank of aborig- 
inal tribes as graded by power of nature -conquest; and 
from this point it is easy to extend the scale into civiliza- 
tion and enlightenment, in which men control rather 
than submit to control by their physical surroundings. 
The serial arrangement of peoples in terms of relative 
capacity in nature -conquest can hardly be deemed new, 
though the special examples (particularly the notably 
primitive Seri) are peculiarly instructive; but the succes- 
sive adaptions thus defined were found unexpectedly sig- 
nificant in measuring various degrees of interdependence 
between environment and thought, for it became evident 
in the light of specific examples that the habitual thought, 
like the habitual action, of an isolated and primitive folk 
is a continuous and continuously integi'ated reflection of 
environment. On pursuing the relations it was found 
that the Seri, habitually submitting to a harsh envu-on- 
ment as they do, merely reflect its harshness in their 
conduct, and that the Papago, seeking habitually to con- 
trol environment in the interests of their kind as they do, 
are raised by their efforts to higher planes of humanity. 
The general relation between thought and surroundings 
was found to be of exceedingly broad application, extend- 
ing far ])eyond the local tribes. Indeed, it finds most 
definite expression in the current scientific teaching that 
knowledge arises in experience ; and it seemed desirable to 
formulate the relation as a principle of knowledge which 
may appropriately be styled the Responsivity of Mind. 
The principle promises to be especially useful to ethnolo- 
gists confronted with those suggestive similarities in arti- 



ADMINISTRATIVE KKPORT XXIX 

facts, habits, and even languages, which w^ere interpreted 
as evidences of former contact until their incongruity 
v^' ith geographic and other facts proved them to he coin - 
cidental merely, for the interdependence of thought and 
environment offers an adequate explanation of the coin- 
cidences, while the diminishing dependence of thought 
on environment with cultural advancement equally ex- 
plains the preponderence of such coincidences among 
lowly peoples. A preliminary announcement of the 
results of the study has been made, Init full puljlication 
is withheld pending further field work. 

Mr James Mooney spent the greater part of the fiscal 
year in elaborating for publication the extensive collection 
of material made by him among the Cheix)kee Indians 
several years ago. The collection comprises a nearly 
complete series of the myths and traditions of the tribe, 
cosmogonic, historical, interpretative, and trivial; for 
among the Cherokee, as among other primitive peoples, 
the traditions vary widely in character and purpose. Mr 
Mooney's collections are peculiarly valuable in that they 
are so complete as to indicate the genesis and develop - 
m.ent of the tribal traditions. It would appear that the 
parent myth usually begins as a trivial story or falde, 
perhaps carrying a moral and thus introducing and fixing 
some precept for the guidance of conduct; the great 
majority of these fables drop out of the current lore within 
the generation in which they are born, l)ut those chancing 
to touch the local life strongly or happening to glow with 
local genius survive and are handed down to later genera- 
tions. The transmitted fables form a part of the lore 
repeated liy the eldermen and elderwomen night after 
night to while away the long evenings by the camp fire, 
and in this way they become im})ressed on the memory 
and imagination of the younger associates ; for under the 
conditions of prescriptorial life they come to take the 
place of learning and literature in the growing mind of 
the youth. In the successive repetitions the weaker 
fables are eliminated, while the more vigorous are grad- 
ually combined and eventually strung together in an 



XXX BUBEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

order made definite by custom; at tlie same time tliey 
acquire sacredness with age, and some of them become 
so far esoteric that they may not be repeated by youths, 
or perhaps even l)y laymen, when they are the exchisive 
property of sages or shamans. Now, the fable in itself 
is seldom vigorous enough to pass unaided into the esoteric 
lore of the tribe ; but when it serves to inter])ret some 
interesting natviral phenomenon, either in its original 
form or in its subsequent association, it is thereby fer- 
tilized, and, with the combined vitality of fable and 
interpretation, enjoys greatly increased chance of survival. 
Sometimes the historical element is also added, when the 
composite intellectual structure is still further strength- 
ened, an<l may persist until history blends with fancy - 
painted prehistory, and the story becomes a full-fledged 
cosmogonic myth. Accordingly, the character and the 
age of myths are correlated in significant fashion. Mr 
Mooney's memoir is incorporated in the Nineteenth 
Annual Report, which was sent to the printei- on March 
28, and proofs were in hand before the close of the fiscal 
year. Since it is the first of a series of memoirs on the 
Cherokee by the same author, it was thought well to pref- 
ace the publication with an extended review of the his- 
tory of the Cherokee Indians from the time of their first 
contact with the whites, and in collecting material for 
this historical sketch Mr Mooney was able to throw new 
light not only on the movements of the tribesmen them- 
selves, l)ut on the routes of travel taken l)y various 
explorers, from De Soto down. 

Although handicapped by illness, Mrs M. C. Steven- 
son continued the preparation of the final chapters in 
her monograph on Zuhi mythology and ceremonies. The 
work was nearly completed at the end of the fiscal year. 

Dr Fewkes's observations on the winter ceremonies of 
the Hopi Indians yielded important data of the nature 
suggested in previous paragraphs, and on his return from 
the field he at once took up the preparation of a memoir 
designed for incor})oration in an early report. 

A notable acquisition of the year was the Pawnee 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXXI 

ritual known as the Hako, obtained by Miss Alice C. 
Fletcher. Its basis is one of those house ceremonies 
which hold so large a place in aboriginal thought ; and it 
is so exceptionally full at once as to reveal some of the 
most strictly characteristic phases of primitive thought 
and to illumine the simpler house rituals already recorded. 
It is cosmogonic in import, and thus reflects the faith of 
the tribe. At the same time its details indicate the tribal 
migrations for many generations. It reveals primitive 
notions concerning the origin of fire and the relations of 
this agency to deified animals. It comprises a partially 
archaic vocabulary, which promises to throw light on 
tribal affinities, and it includes rhythmic and funda- 
mental melodic featui-es ■which contrilnite in im])ortant 
degree to knowledge of aboriginal music. The entire 
ritual, including the musical accompaniment, is well 
advanced in preparation for the Twenty -second Report. 

Dr Cyrus Thomas continued the examination of Mayan 
and Mexican aboriginal number systems, with special ref- 
erence to the Mayan and Mexican calendar systems. 
Early in 1900 he completed a memoir on the subject, 
entitled "Mayan Calendar Systems," which was incor- 
porated in the Nineteenth Annual Report. Later in the 
fiscal year he continued in cognate work, making gratify- 
ing progress. One of the most interesting features of 
aboriginal culture to the scholars of the world is the series 
of highly developed ealendric systems extending from 
Mexico on the north to Peru on the south ; these systems 
reflect a knowledge of astronomy considerably less 
advanced than that prevailing in Chaldea and Egyi)t at 
the beginning of written history, yet sufficiently advanced 
to indicate the beginnings of astronomic observation and 
generalization, and thus to define a stage of scientific 
development of which the Old World record is practically 
lost. Accordingly Dr Thomas's researches are deemed 
especially valuable to scholars. 

As has been noted, Mr J. N. B. Hewitt has applied the 
comparative method to the study of aboriginal traditions 
with excellent results. During the closing months of the 



XXXII BdKEAlT OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

fiscal year he was occupied in revising his memoir on 
Iroqnoian mythology, and incorporating certain impor- 
tant data obtained during his winter trip. The material 
is nearly ready for the press. 

Work in Desckiptive Ethnology 

Except during the time spent in field work, Mr F. W. 
Hodge was occupied in arranging material for the Cyclo- 
pedia of Native Tribes and in editorial work. In the 
former task he was aided during a part of the year by Dr 
Cyrus Thomas, and in the latter by Col. F. F. Hilder, 
ethnologic translator, and Mr H. S. Wood, assistant 
editor. Dr Thomas finished the revision of the Cyclo- 
pedia cards pertaining to the Siouan stock early in the 
fiscal year; accordingly this portion of the work is ready 
for publication save for the requisite editorial scrutiny. 
The plan for the Cyclopedia has been set forth in some 
detail in earlier reports and need not be repeated. 

Publication 

Mr F. W. Hodge remained in charge of the editorial 
work, with the assistance of Colonel F. F. Hilder during 
the earlier part of the year and of Mr H. S. Wood during 
Colonel Hilder's absence in the Philippines. The second 
part of the Seventeenth Annu.al Report was received 
from the Cxovernment Printing Ofl&ce during the year, 
though the first part was unfortunately delayed. The 
printing of the Eighteenth Report was practically com- 
pleted. The Nineteenth Report was transmitted for pub - 
lication on March 28, and the composition of this report 
and also of the first bulletin of the new series was under 
way before the close of the fiscal year. 

Mr DeLancey Gill, the illustrator of the Bureau, 
remained in charge of the photographic work and of the 
preparation of copy for the frequently elaborate illustra- 
tions required in presenting adequately the results of the 
researches. 

Library 

The work in the library of the Bureau was maintained 
under the supervision of Mr Hodge. During the greater 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXXIII 

part of the fiscal year he had the assistance of Mrs Lucre - 
tia M. Waring, who made good progress in the cata- 
logning of the hooks and ])amphets in accordance with 
the classification of anthropic science developed in the 
Bureau. The number of hooks and pamphlets on hand 
at the close of the fiscal year is about 12,000 and 6,000, 
respectively. 

COLLECTIONS 

Collaborators engaged in field work made more or less 
extensive collections for use in their researches, and for 
subsequent transfer to the National Museum; and, in 
addition, a number of special collections were acquired. 
Conspicuous among these was the Hudson basketry col- 
lection, from California, for which negotiations were 
opened during the last fiscal year, though the material 
was received and installed during the current year ; it is 
regarded as one of the most instructive collections of 
American aboriginal basketry extant, and its possession, 
in connection with the very considerable collections of 
corresponding ware already in the Institution, places the 
National Museum in a foremost position among the 
museums of the world so far as opportunities for study 
of primitive basketry are concerned. Another notewor- 
thy collection was that of Mr J. B. Hatcher in Patagonia, 
of which the final portions were received during the fiscal 
year, together with a good series of photographs illustrat- 
ing the use of artifacts, the construction of habitations, 
etc. ; while various collections of objects required to com- 
plete series were acquired by ]>urchase. Among the minor 
collections was an excei)tiunally fine one of copper imple- 
ments from the Lake Superior region ; these implements 
were noteworthy in that they were, while of aboriginal 
design, wrought Avith metal tools in such wise as to show 
the infiuence of Caucasian contact ; so that the collection 
forms an instructive example of acculturation, and serves 
as a useful guide in the classification of other copper 
objects in the Museum. A particularly useful series of 

21 ETH— 03 III 



XXXIV BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

stone implements, known as the Steiner collection, was 
also among the acquisitions of the year. 

Although collateral to the work of the Bureau, it is 
proper to report that Colonel F. F. Hilder, ethnologic 
translator and acting chief clerk of the Bureau, was, on 
January IG, 1900, detailed to the Government Board of 
the Pan-American Exjiositiou, and that under a commis- 
sion from that Board he visited the Philippine islands and 
made extensive collections of ethnologic and archeologic 
material, with the understanding that, after use during 
the exposition, a consideralile i)ortion of it should he trans- 
ferred to the National Museum. Toward the close of the 
year Colonel Hilder reported the shipment of extensive 
collections, together with a good series of photographs and 
di'awings designed for use in the installation. Incident- 
ally he availed himself of opportunities to obtain certain 
useful ethnologic literature i-equired for the library of the 
Bureau. 

PROPERTY 

As has been explained in previous reports, the property 
of the Bureau is practically limited to (1) office furniture 
and other appurtenances to office work, (2) ethnologic 
manuscripts and other records of original work, (3) pho- 
tographs and drawings of Indian subjects, (4) a small 
working li])rary, (5) collections held temporarily by col- 
laborators for use in research, and (6) undistributed re- 
sidua of the editions of the Bureau publications. During 
the fiscal year there has been no noteworthy change in 
the amount or value of the office property ; a considerable 
number of manuscri})ts (including two of special value 
noted in earlier paragraphs) have been added to the arch- 
ives, either temporarily or permanently ; over a thousand 
photographic negatives and several hundred ])rints and 
drawings have been added to the collection of illustrative 
material, while the library has maintained normal growth, 
chiefly through exchanges. There was no considerable 
accumulation or transfer of objective material required 
for study during the year, while there was a consider- 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXXV 

able reduction in the number of back reports through 
the constantly increasing public demand for ethnologic 
literature. 

NECROLOGY 

Frank Hamilton Gushing 

It is with much sorrow that I have to report the death 
of Frank Hamilton Gushing, ethnologist in the Bureau, 
on April 10, 1900. 

Frank Hamilton Gushing was born in Northeast, Penn- 
sylvania, July 22, 1857. At first a physical weakling, he 
drew away from the customary associations of childhood 
and youth and fell into a remarkable companionship with 
nature; and as the groAvth of the frail body lagged, his 
mental powers grew in such wise as to separate him still 
further from more conventional associates. In childhood 
he found "sermons in stones and books in running 
brooks ' ' ; and in youth his school was the forest al)out his 
father's homestead in central New York. There his taste 
for nature was intensified, and the habit of interpreting 
things in accordance with natural principles, rather than 
conventional axioms, grew so strong as to control his later 
life. Meantime, relieved of the constant waste of men- 
tality through the friction of social relation, his mind 
gained in vigor and force; he became a genius. 

At 9 years of age Gushing's attention was attracted l)y 
Indian arrowpoints found in his neighborhood, and he 
began a collection which grew into a museum and labora- 
tory housed in a wigwam erected by him in a retired part 
of the family homestead ; and his interest and knowledge 
grew until at 18 he went to Gornell already an expert 
capable of instructing the teachers. Perhaps by reason 
of his close communion with nature, he early fell into a 
habit of thought not unlike that of the primitive arrow 
maker, and even before he knew the living Indian, grew 
into sympathy with Indian art, Indian methods, Indian 
motives. So, in his wigwam laboratory and later at Gor- 
nell and elsewhere, he began to reproduce chipped stone 
arrow points and other aboriginal artifacts l:>y processes 



XXXVI BUREAU OF AMETICAN ETHNOLOGY 

similar to those of the native artisans; in this art he 
attained skill to a unique degree, and through it he gained 
inii((ue iinderstanding of the processes of primitive men. 
In 1874, at the age of 17, he sent to Secretary Baird an 
account of the Antiquities of Orleans County, X. Y., 
which was published in the Smithsonian Report for that 
year; this was based on his wigwam collection, which 
later passed into the National Museum. In 1876 he had 
charge of a portion of the National Museum collectif)n at 
the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, where he edi- 
fied visiting archeologists by his interpretation and imita- 
tion of native handicraft; for his skill extended from 
stone chii^ping to pottery making, basket building, weav- 
ing, skin dressing, and all other native arts. In 1879 
Major Powell employed him in the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, at first in collecting artifacts from the pueblos ; 
l)ut the innate sympathy with simi)le life acquired in his 
isolated boyhood soon brought him into intimate relations 
with the living tribesmen, and the bond became so strong 
that he decided to remain at Zuhi, where for five years 
he was as one of the tribe. After mastering the language 
he acquainted himself with the Zufii arts and industries ; 
he was adopted into the ancient Macaw clan and the 
sacred name "• Medicine -flower," borne by only one per- 
son in a lifetime, was given him ; then he was initiated 
into tribal fraternities and gradually inducted into the 
religious ceremonies and mysteries; and long before he 
left the pueblo he was second chief of the tribe, the Head 
Priest of the Bow, and lived in the family of the gov- 
ernor, wearing native costume, eating native food, and 
participating in all native occupations and pastimes. 
Such was Cushing's college course in ethnology. 

When he left Zuhi Mr Cushing brought with him to 
Boston and other Eastern cities a party of Zufii headmen 
and priests, who attracted muidi attention and awakened 
deep interest in aboriginal life. One of the results was 
the organization of the Hemenway Archeological Expedi- 
tion, endowed ])y the late Mrs Mary Hemenway, of Bos- 
ton; in 1886-88 Mr Cushing had charge of the work. 



ADMINISTRATIVK REPORT XXXVII 

Subsequently he returned to the service of the Bureau, 
and began jireparing for publication the records of his 
researches in Zuhi ; a part of this material was published 
in the Thirteenth Report under the title "Outlines of 
Zuhi Creation Myths." His health failing to an extent 
requiring a change, he was assigned to duty in Florida, 
where he made an archeologic survey no less remarkable 
for the breadth of view with which it was conducted than 
for the wealth of material produced from shell mounds 
and peat -lined lagoons. He was actively engaged in pre- 
paring the results of this work for publication when a 
slight accident (the swallowing of a fish bone) proved too 
much for the vital thread, never strong and much enfee- 
bled by whole-hearted and absorbing devotion to duty 
under trying conditions in Zuhi and in Florida. So his 
professional career ended. He died April 10, 1900. 

Gushing was a man of genius. The history of the 
human world has been shaped by a few men ; the multi - 
tudes have lived and worked and ended their days under 
the leadership of these few. Most of the geniuses who 
have shaped the history of later times shone as intellectual 
luminaries alone. Gushing stood out not only as a man of 
intellect, but preeminently as a master of those manual 
concepts to which he gave name as well as meaning — 
indeed, he might fittingly be styled a manual genius. 
There are two sides to man, two correlative and reciprocal 
^ aspects — the hand side and the brain side. Human 
development begins in the child, and began in our earliest 
ancestry so far as we are able to think, chiefly in the per- 
fecting of the hand; for throughout the hu.man world 
men do before they know — indeed, the greater part of 
knowing is always preceded by generations of doing. So 
humanity's dawn was doubtless brightened through 
manual genius; then came those later millenniums in 
which the brain side of man rose into dominance and 
illumined progress — and this was the time of intellectual 
geniuses. Of late science has arisen, and men have 
turned to the contemplation of nature and have been led 
thence to the conquest of natural forces. In the strife 



XXXVIII BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

against dull nature the manual side of man has again come 
into ])rominen('e, and the pages of later history are em- 
blazoned with the names of inventors and experimentalists 
in whom the hand side and the brain side have attained 
perfect union. To this class of men Gushing belonged ; 
yet the application of his genius was peculiar, even unique, 
in that his efforts were expended in interpreting inven- 
tions by others rather than in making inventions of his 
own. This application of his powers rendered him suc- 
cessful beyond parallel in retracing the paths pursued by 
primal men in their slow advance toward manual and 
mechanical skill; and it was through this ))eculiar appli- 
cation that Gushing' s richest contributions to the science 
of man were made. 

By reason of his peculiar insight into primitive devices 
and motives Gushing was a teacher of his colaborers, 
even of those whose years were more than his own. His 
mind responded readily to the impact of new sights, new 
thoughts, new knowledge; hence he was fertile in hypo- 
thesis, fruitful in suggestion, an avant -courier in 
research, a leader in interpretation. All his associates 
profited by his originality and learned much of him. The 
debt of American ethnology to Gushing is large. 

Elliott Coues 

On December 25, 1899, Dr Elliott Goues died suddenly. 
While he was not an officer of the Bureau, he had fre- 
quently cooperated with the Director and the collabora- 
tors, especially during the earlier portion of the fiscal 
year, when he was attached to a party engaged in work 
in the pueblo region. An enthusiastic student of early 
American history, he was brought in frequent touch with 
ethnt)l(>gists and ethnologic problems, thereby acquiring 
extended and accvu-ate knowledge of the aborigines; 
hence his death was a serious loss to the science. 

Walter J. Hoffman 

Dr Walter J. Hoffman, for many years an attache of 
the Bureau, died November 8, 1899. He entered the 
Bureau in its earlier years as an assistant to the late 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXXIX 

Colonel Garrick Mallery, and spejit some years in the 
collection of petroglyplis and other ahoriginal records. 
Subseqnently he made independent stndies in different 
tribes, notably the Menomini of Wisconsin. His prin- 
cipal publications in the Bnreaii reports are "The Mide- 
wiwin, or Grand Medicine Society of the Ojibwa." in the 
Seventh Report, and "The Menomini Indians," in the 
Fourteenth Report. His connection with the Bureau was 
temporarily severed in 1895, when he undertook certain 
special work for the United States National Museum. In 
1897 he was appointed United States consul at Mannheim, 
Germany, where he availed himself of opportunities for 
study of aboriginal American collections and records. 
His health failing, he returned in the autumn of 1899 to 
his home near Reading, Pa., where his death occurred. 
Although he was but 53 years of age at the time of his 
death, he was one of the pioneers in American ethnology. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 

Appropriation by Congress for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1900, "for 
continuing ethnologic researches among the American Indians, under 
the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, including salaries or com- 
pensation of all necessary employees and the purchase of necessary 
books and periodicals, fifty thousand dollars, of which sum not exceed- 
ing one thousand dollars may be used for rent of building" (Sundry 
civil act, March 3, 1S99) " $50,000.00 

Salaries or compensation of employees $34, 737. 65 

Special services $1H2. 20 

Traveling expenses 2, 644. 91 

Ethnologic specimens 3, 820. 00 

Publications 20. 00 

Illustrations 498. 30 

Manuscripts 1, .391. 44 

Books and periodicals for library 1, 600. 42 

Oflice rental 916. 63 

Furniture 419. 05 

Lighting .54. 34 

Stationery and general supplies 1,218.76 

Freight 241. 55 

Postage and telegraph 57. 50 

Miscellaneous 69. 90 

13, 115. 00 



Total disbursements 47, 852. 65 



Balance July 1, 1900, to meet outstanding liabilities 2, 147. 35 



XL BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 

Two papers of very considerable ethnological impor- 
tance are appended to this report. The first is by Dr 
J. W. Fewkes, ethnologist, and relates to certain super- 
natural beings of the Hopi Indian pantheon known as 
katcinas. The work is profusely illustrated by a series 
of colored plates reproduced from the original drawings 
made by a native artist well versed in the symliolism of 
his people. The drawings and the data relating to them 
were collected by Doctor Fewkes in 1900. 

The tribes of the old province of Tusayan form a unique 
group among the American aborigines, their history and 
cultiire being of extreme interest to the ethnologist. 
They have been studied in part by a number of able eth- 
nologists, but our knowledge of their history and culture 
is yet far from satisfactory. Doctor Fewkes' s study of 
the Hopi katcinas covers new ground and throws fresh 
light on the religious customs and art of these people. 

The second paper is by Mr J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnolo- 
gist, and embodies three versions of the cosmologic myth 
of the Iroquoian tribes of New York and Canada. In 
order to convey a definite and full understanding of the 
native concepts embodied in these myths, Mr Hewitt has 
recorded them, in the most painstaking manner in the 
Iroquoian vernacular, adding interlinear and very literal 
translations, in which he recasts the barbaric thought as 
far as possible in English words ; these are accompanied 
by free translations into English, which are, however, 
permitted to retain still something of the idiomatic 
quaintness of the original tongue. It may be safely 
assumed that philologists as well as students of primitive 
philosophy and myth will find in these contributions to 
the history of the Iroquois much of interest and value, 
since Mr Hewitt is not only an accomplished linguist but 
is mastei- of the Tuscarora language and readily translates 
the other northern Iroquoian dialects. 



ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 



21 ETH— 03 1 



HOPI KATCHsTAS 

DRAWN BY NATIVE ARTISTS 



JKSSE \VAI^TEli FEWKES 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduetioii 13 

Hopi ferial calendar 18 

Peculiar features l 18 

Classification of festivals 19 

Elaborate festivals 20 

Abbreviated festivals 20 

Tabular view of festivals in a Hopi year ^ 21 

Priest fraternities in Hopi ceremonial festivals 23 

Description of Hopi festivals 24 

Wiiwiitcimti, New-tire ceremony 24 

Sojalufia 24 

Momtcita 25 

Paniiirti 26 

AVinter Flute paholawu 29 

Wahik winenia, Children's dance 30 

Mucaiasti, Buffalo dance 30 

Winter Tawa paholawu 31 

PowamCi . L 31 

Planting of beans 31 

Dances in the kivas 32 

Advent of sun god, Ahiil 33 

Preliminary visit of the monsters 35 

Flogging the children 36 

Return of other katcinas 36 

Advent of Masauu 36 

Appearance of Powamu katcinas 38 

Distribution of bean sprouts, dolls, anfl other objects 39 

Collection of food by monsters 39 

Winter Lak(ine paholawu 39 

Paliilukonti, or Ankwafiti 40 

Acts performed in 1900 40 

Additional acts sometimes performed 48 

Paraphernalia used, their construction and symbolism 50 

Resume of events in Paliiliikofiti in 1900 52 

Personations appearing in Paliilukonti 54 

Winter ]\larau paholawu 55 

Spring Sumaikoli 55 

Abbreviated Katcina dances 56 

Summer Tawa paholawu 56 

Summer Sumaikoli 57 

Niman 57 

5 



6 CONTENTS (KTii. ANN. 21 

Page 
Description of Hopi festivals — continued. 

Tcuatikibi, Snake dance 57 

Lelefiti, or Lefipaki, Flute dance 57 

Bulitikibi, Butterfly dance 58 

Lalakonti . . 58 

Owakiilti 58 

Mamzrauti 58 

Description of the pictures 59 

Pamiirti ceremony 59 

Pauti wa 59 

Cipikne 60 

Hakto 60 

Caiastacana 60 

Hututu 61 

Huik 61 

Tcolawitze 61 

Loilca 61 

Tcakwaina 62 

Tcakwaina ( male) 62 

Tcakwaina mana 63 

Tcakwaina )uadta 63 

Tcakwaina taamu 63 

Sio Humis 64 

Sio Humis taamu 64 

Sio Avatc hoya 64 

Wiiwiiyomo 65 

SioCalako 66 

Heliliilu 66 

Woe 66 

Woe and Tcutckutii 67 

Powamii festival 67 

Ahiil 67 

Hahai wiiqti 68 

Tumas 68 

Tufiwup - 69 

Tehabi and Tufiwup taamil 70 

Kerwan and Katcina mana 70 

Soyokos (monsters) 70 

Natacka naamu 71 

Kumbi Natacka 72 

Kutca Natacka 72 

Natacka wiiqti, or Soyok wiiqti 72 

Natacka mana 73 

Hehea 73 

Hehea mana 74 

H6h66 74 

A watobi Soyok taka 74 

A watobi Soyok wiiqti 75 

Tcabaiyo 75 

Atocle 75 

So wiiqti 76 

Masaiiii 76 

Eototo 76 



FEWKES] CONTENTS ' 

Page 
Description of the pictures — continued. 

Powamu festival — continued. 

Kwahu 77 

Palakwayo 77 

Keca "S 

Pawili 78 

Totca 78 

Monwu and Koyimsi 78 

Monwu wiujti 79 

Salab Jlonwu 79 

Hotslio 79 

Tiirpock wa 79 

Yaupa 79 

Hospoa 80 

Patszro SO 

Koyona SO 

Kowako SO 

Momo 81 

Tetafiaya 81 

Telavai ^ 81 

Owa 82 

Male 82 

Humis - 82 

Hopi Avatc hoya 83 

Huhuan 83 

Niivak s3 

Yohozro wiiqti S4 

Powamu 8-i 

Wukokoti 85 

Kohonino 85 

Tcosbuci and Soyan ep 85 

Nakiatcop 86 

Kokopelli 86 

Kokopelli mana 86 

Lapiikti 86 

Palidiikonti ( Ankwaiiti) festival 87 

Macibol S7 

Paliiliikon and Tatciikti 87 

* Figurines of Corn maidens 87 

Tacab Ailya and mana 88 

Owanozro/.ro 88 

Coto 89 

Hopak and mana 89 

Kokyan wiiqti 90 

Piiiikoii katcina 90 

Piiiikon hoya 90 

Paluiia hoya 90 

Tcukubot 91 

Tcanau 91 

Wupamau 91 

Mucaias taka 92 

Mucaias mana 92 

Afiya katcina nianas grinding eorji 93 



8 CONTENTS [ETH. ANN. 21 

Description ot tne pictures — continueil. I'age 

Paliiliikofiti (Ankwafiti) festival — continued. 

Hokyana 94 

Hokyafia maiia 95 

Cakwahonau 95 

Kokle 95 

Citoto 95 

Sumaikoli ceremony 96 

Sumaikoli and Yaya 96 

Kawikoli 96 

Ciwikoli - 96 

Navalio katcinas 97 

Tacab ( Naactadji ) 97 

Tacab (Tenebidji) 97 

Tacab ( Yebitcai) 98 

Tacab 98 

Soyohim katcinas 98 

Kae 98 

Aho'te 99 

A'hote 99 

Turtumsi 99 

Patcosk 99 

Hototo 99 

Kerne 100 

Siwap 100 

Hotcani 100 

Tawa 1 00 

Kau 101 

Muzril)i 101 

Leiiya 101 

Pafiwii 102 

Tiwenu 102 

Koroctu 102 

Kwewft 103 

Tciib 103 

Sowiiiwu 103 

Cipomelli 104 

Tumae 104 

Matia 104 

Piokot 105 

Tiirkwinu 105 

Tiirk winu mana 105 

Toho 105 

Kutca 106 

Kiitca mana 106 

Urcicimii 106 

Yehoho 106 

Zufii katcinas 107 

Sio 107 

Sio mana and three Koyimsi 107 

Citulilii 107 

Teiik 108 

Pakwabi 108 

Kwacus Alek taka and Alo mana 108 



FEWKESl CONTENTS 9 

Description of the jiietures — continued. Page 

Ancient clan masks 109 

Old mask (Katcina clan) 110 

Old mask (Tciiaclan) 110 

Old mask (Honau clan) Ill 

Pohaha (Te clan) Ill 

Hopinyu (Isauu clan) Ill 

Ke Towa Bisena 112 

Masks introduced by individuals 112 

Sic ( Soyowa) 112 

Yuna - 113 

Yuiia mana 113 

Wakac 113 

Makto 113 

Pakiokwik 113 

Personages appearing in races called Wawac 114 

Aya 114 

Letotobi 114 

Hemieo 115 

Tcukapelli .^, 115 

Palabikuna 115 

Kona 115 

Macmahola 116 

Tcilikomato 11(5 

Wiktcina 116 

Piptuka 116 

Patufi 1 16 

Tatacmii 116 

Pask i 117 

Nakopan personages 117 

Beings not called katcinas 118 

Lakone mana 118 

Mamzrau mana 118 

Palahiko mana 118 

Hopi Calako mana _ 119 

Bull mana 119 

Cotokinufiwu 120 

Kaisale 120 

Kaisale mana 120 

Alosaka 121 

Ahiilani 121 

Tanoan names for Hopi katcinas 122 

Origin of foreign katcinas 124 

Alphabet used in spelling names 126 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plate II. 
III. 

IV. 



VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 

XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVII. 

XXVIII. 

XXIX. 

XXX. 

XXXI. 

XXXII. 

XXXIII. 

XXXIV. 

XXXV. 

XXXVI. 

XXXVII. 

XXXVIII. 

XXXIX. 



Pautiwa, Cipikne, Ilakto, Caiastacana 60 

Hututu, Huik, Tcolawitze, Loiica 60 

Tcakwaina, Tcakwaina taamu, Tcakwaina mana, Tcakwaina 

yuadta 62 

Sio Humis, Sio Humis taamu (misprinted taamu), Sio Avatc 

hoya, Wiiwiiyomo 64 

Sio Calako, Woe, Heliliilii, Woe and Tcutckutu 66 

Aluil, Hahai wiiqti, Tumas, Tunwup ? 68 

Tehabi, Tun wup taamu, Kerwan and Katcina mana 70 

Natacka naamu, Kumbi Natacka, Kutca Natacka 72 

Xatacka wiiqti, or Soyok wiiqti 72 

Hehea, Hehea mana, H(5h66 74 

Awatol)i Soyok taka, Awatobi Soyok wiiqti 74 

Tcaliaiyo, Atocle 74 

Powamu, So wiiqti, IVIasauu, Eototo 76 

Kwahu, Palakwayo, Keca, Pawik 76 

Totca, JNIonwu and Koyimsi, Monwu wiiqti 78 

Salab Monwii, Hotsko, Tiirpockwa, Yaupa 78 

Hospoa, Patszro, Koyona, Kowako 80 

Momo, Tetaiiaya 80 

Telavai, O wa and mana 82 

Malo, Humis, Huhuan, Hopi Avatc hoya 82 

Xii vak, Yohozro wiiqti, Powam i\ 84 

Wukokoti, Kolionino 84 

Tcosbuci and Soyan ep, Nakiatcop 86 

Kokopelli, Kokopelli mana, Lapiikti 86 

Macibol, Paliiliikon and Tatciikti 86 

Figurinea of Corn maidens, Tacab Aiiya (misprinted Ana) and 

mana 88 

Owanozrozro, Coto ( Walpi ), Coto (OrailDi) 88 

Hopak and mana, Kokyan wiiqti, Piiiikon katcina 90 

Piiiikofl hoya, Paluiia lioya, Tcanai'i, Tcukubot (misprinted 

Tuckubot ) 90 

Wupamau, Mucaias taka, Mucaias mana 92 

Aiiya katcina manas grinding corn 92 

Hokyafia, Hokyana and mana 94 

Kokle, Citoto, Sumaikoli and Yaya 94 

Kawikoli, Ciwikoli, Tai'ab (Naactadji) 96 

Tacab (Tenebidji), Tacab (Yebitcai), Tacalj, Kae 98 

A'hote, Aho'te, Patcosk, Hototo (misprinted Hotote) 98 

Kenie, Hotcani, Siwap, Tawa 100 

Kau, Muzribi, Leflya 100 

11 



12 



ILLUSTBATION8 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



Page 

Plate XL. Pafiwu, Tiwenu, Kwewu 102 

XLI. Triib, Cipomelli, Sowifnvu 102 

XLII. Tumae, Matia 104 

XLIII. Piokot, Tiirkwini'i, Tiirkwinu mana 104 

XLI V. Kiitta, Kutca mana, Yehoho, Urciciimi 100 

XLV. Sio, Sio mana and three Koyimsi 106 

XLVL Citulilii, Teuk, Pakwabi 108 

XLVIL Kwacus Alek taka, Alo mana, Old mask (Katcina i-lan). Hid 

mask ( Tcua clan ) 108 

XLVIII. Old mask (llonau clan), Pohaha (Te clan), Hopinyu ( Isanu 

clan ) , Samo w(i<itaka 110 

XLIX. Yuiia, Ynna mana, Wakac, Makto 112 

L. A}a, Letiitobi, Racer, Hemico 114 

LI. Tciikapelli, Kona, Palabikufia, Tcilikomato, Macmahola 114 

LII. Wiktciua, Piptuka, Patun 116 

LIII. Tatacmu, Paski 116 

LIV. Xakopan personages 116 

LV. Lakone mana, ]\Iamzrau mana 118 

LVI. Hopi Calako mana, Palahikn mana 118 

LVII. Bull maua 120 

LVIII. Cotokinunwii, Kaisale, Paiakyamu, Kaisale mana 120 

LIX. Alosaka '. 120 

LX. Ahiilani 122 

LXI. Koroctii 122 

LXII. Pakiokvvik, Ke Towa Bisena, Tiirtumsi (misprinted Turtnmsi)-. 122 

LXIII. Owa, Cakwahonan, Toho 122 



HOPI KATCINAS 

DRAWN BY NATIVE ARTISTS 



By Jesse Walter Fewkes 



INTRODUCTION 

The Hopi Indians repi'esent their g-ods in several ways, one of 
which is b^' personation — by wearing masks or garments bearing 
8yml)ols that are regarded as characteristic of those beings. The sym- 
bols depicted on these masks and garments vary considerably, but 
are readily recognized and identified l)y the Indians. 

At each festival in which these supernatural beings are personated 
the symbols are repainted, and continued practice has led to a high 
development of this kind of artistic work, many of the Indians having 
become expert in painting the symbols characteristic of the gods. 

Belie\'ing that a series of pictures made l)y the cleverest artists 
among the Hopis would be a valuable means of studying the sym- 
bolism of the tribe, the author hired one of them to make him a 
series of drawings of all the personations of supernatural beings 
which appear in Hopi festivals. This method was suggested by an 
examination of Mexican codices, especially the celebrated manusci'ipt 
of Padre Sahagun, now in Madrid, the illustrations in which are said 
to have been made by Indians, and Chavero's Lienzo de Tlascala, 
lately (1892) published by the Mexican government. 

The author found several Hopi men competent to paint a collec- 
tion of pictures of the kind desired, and finally chose for that work 
Kutcahonauu," or White-bear, a man about 30 years old, who was 
beliexed to be the ablest of all who were considered. This Hopi had 
picked up a slight linowledge of English at the Keams Canyon school, 
and while his method of drawing may have been somewhat influenced 
by instruction there, this modifying influence is believed to be very 
slight, as the figures themselves show. 

" For the proniincintioii of proper iinmes. see the jilphuhet at the end of this paper. 



14 HOPI KATCINA8 [eth. ann. 21 

His uncle, Homovi, who has never been to school, and is unac- 
quainted with the English language, drew some of the best pictures, 
the technique of which is so like his nephew's that it is safe to con- 
clude that the drawings of the latter are aboriginal in character. A 
few of the pictures were drawn bj^ Winuta, whose work, like that of 
Homovi, is unmodified by white influence. A boj^ who had attended 
a Government school in Lawrence, Kansas, also made a few paint- 
ings, but as they show the influence of instruction in this school they 
are not valuable for the purpose had in mind in publishing this collec- 
tion, and they have not been reproduced here. 

While, then, their character has possibly been somewhat influenced 
by foreign art, the pictures here reproduced and described maj' be 
regarded as pure Hopi, and as works little affected by the white 
teachers with whom of late these people have come into more intimate 
contact than ever before. 

To facilitate the painting the author provided the artists with paper, 
pencils, brushes, and pigments; he left the execution of the work 
wholly to the Indians, no suggestion being made save the name of 
the god whose representation was desired. They carried the materials 
to the mesa, and in a few days returned with a half-dozen paintings, 
which were found to be so good that they were encouraged to continue 
the work. In some instances, the artists painted pictures of gods 
which the author had never seen personated. 

When the paintings were delivered, the author wrote under them 
the names of the beings represented, witli such information as could 
be gathered concerning the special symbolism upon them. Later 
other Hopis were asked to identif}' the pictures, which they readily 
did, the names they gave being nearly always the .same as those given 
by the artists. This independent identification was repeated many 
times with different persons, and the replies verified one another almost 
without exception. The talks al)out the paintings elicited new facts 
regarding the s3'mbolism and the nature of the beiugs represented 
which could not have been acquired in other ways. Several men made 
critical suggestions which were of great value regarding the fidelity 
of the work and embodied information which is incorporated in the 
exposition of the collection. At one time the reputation of these 
pictures was so noised about in the pueblos that visitors came from 
neighljoring villages to see them. At first the collection was freely 
offered to all comers for inspection, on account of the possibility that 
new information might be thus gathered, until some person circulated 
a report that it was sorcery to make these pictures, and this gossip 
sorely troubled the painters and seriously hampered them in their 
work, but the author was aVile to persuade the artists and the more 
intelligent visitors that no harm would come to them on account of 
the collection. 



FF.WKES] THE NATURE OF KATCINAS 15 

The pictures were made primarily to illu.strate symbols and sym- 
bolic paraphernalia u.sed in the personation of the gods, Imt inciden- 
tallj^ they show the ability of the Hopis in painting, a form of artistic 
expression which is very ancient among them. The painting of fig- 
ures on ancient pottery from Tusayan, illustrated in a collection from 
Sikyatki, leaves no question of the ability of the ancient Hopi women 
in this form of expression." As specimens of pictorial art the pictures 
here presented compare very well with some of the Mexican and 
Mayan codices. They represent men personating the gods, as they 
appear in religious festivals, and duplicate the symbols on certain 
images, called dolls, which represent the same beings. A consider ra- 
tion of some of the more characteristic dolls in semblance of gods is 
given elesewhere.* 

When a Hopi draws a picture or cuts an image of a god, either a 
doll or an idol, he gives the greatest care to the representation of the 
head. The sj'mbols on the head are chai-acteristic, and its size is 
generally out of proportion to that of the other partsi^. ^^'hen these 
same gods are personated by men the symbols are ordinarily painted 
on masks or helmets; consequently the heads of the tigures may be 
said to represent masks or helmets of personators. 

The personations which are here figured generally appear in winter 
festivals or ceremonies, a more detailed account of which will be given 
elsewhere, but it has seemed well to preface this description of the 
pictures with brief summai'ies of great festivals in which the figures 
represented are specially^ prominent, and to make such reference to 
others as may be necessar}^ The great festivals, called Pamiirti,'' 
Powamu, and Pali'iliikofiti or Aiikwanti, are celebrated in January, 
Februarv, and March. 

The personations are called katcinas; the nature of these merits a 
brief consideration. 

Primitive man regards everything as possessed of magic power 
allied to what we call life, capable of action for good or evil. This vital 
power, he believes, is directed bj' will; it was probablj' first identified 
with motion. To the savage whatever moves has a beneficent or 
malevolent power, sometimes called medicine, the action of which is 
always mysterious. Various symbols have been adopted by primitive 
man to represent this jiower, and many terms are used to define it. 
Among these symbols words for hreath in various languages are per- 
haps the most widely spread among diti'erent races. The power of 
motion directed bj' will to do harm or good thus comes in English to 
be known as spirit or soul. The doctrine of medicine power or of 
spirits is commonly called animism. 

" Soe Archeological Expedition to Arizona in 1895, in the Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology, part 2. 1899. 
''Internationales Archiv fiir Ethnographie, Band vii, 1X94. 
c For the pronunciation of proper names, see the alphabet at the end of tliis paper. 



16 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. asn. 21 

Eiiil y man rarely o-eueralized. Every object, organic and iuoryanic, 
had a spirit, but these spirits, like the objects themselves, were 
thought of as concrete. Tiie spirit of the tree had little in conimon 
with the spirit of the sun. To distinguish these ditferences symbolic 
personifications were called in, and the medicine power of objects was 
emljodied in objective comprehensible form; thus the medicine power 
of the sun presented itself as an eagle, that of the earth as a spider. 

It would appear, also, that in case of the magic or medicine power of 
man, there was a universal belief that it existed and was jKjtent after 
death. The breath-body or spirit of man was believed to have a con- 
tinued existence after the death of the body, retaining powers of good 
and bad action, a belief which led to worship. The katciniis are spirits 
of the ancients of the Hopis, and personations of them by men bear 
the symbols which are supposed to have characterized these ancients. 

While the term katcina was originally limited to the spirits, or per- 
sonified medicine power, of ancients, personifications of a similar 
power in other objects have likewise come to be called katcinas. Thus 
the magic power or medicine of the sun may be called katciua, or that 
of the earth may be known by the same general name, this use of the 
term being common among the Hopis. The term may also be applied 
to personations of these spirits or medicine potencies by men or their 
representation by pictures or graven objects, or by other means. 
As applied to a dance in which the personations appear, the term is 
secondary and derivative. 

The word "medicine" is here used in its ancient' meaning, not as in 
modern English. It is misleading to apply such terms as "spirit," 
"soul," and "medicine," with the modified meanings which they now 
have, to beliefs of primitive man. When these words originated they 
were applicable to such beliefs, ))ut in the evolution of culture their 
meanings have chaiiLred, and they are now symbols of beliefs that are 
very difi'erent from those which they originally represented. 

In the Hopi ritual there are dramatic celebrations of the arrival 
and departure of the katcinas. Certain clans have special festivals 
in which the}' dramatize the advent of their clan-ancients; thus the 
Katcina clan represents it in a festival cajled Powamu, the Asa clan 
in Pamiirti, the Patki clan in Soyaluna. Kindred clans unite with 
the more prominent in the dramatization of the advent of their clan- 
ancients. There is only one dramatization of the departure of clan- 
ancients, a festival which is called the Niman (departure), and which 
occurs in July. Personations of the same clan-ancients do not apj^ear 
every year at a stated time; in some years thej' are more numerous 
than in others, as quadrennially, when certain initiation ceremonies are 
performed. Particular personations are prescribed for great festivals 
like Pamiirti, Powamu, and Paliiliikonti, and these appear yearly, but 



FEWKEs] NUMBER OK KATCINAS 17 

there are others whose appearance depends on the inclination of the 
owner of the masks or on other causes, on which account the personnel 
of the actors in the festivals changes year by year without, however, 
there being any fundamental modifications. 

The author has repeatedly been informed b^' the Hopis that the 
number of katcinas is very great, much greater than the number 
figured, especially if all those mentioned in traditions are included. 
When we reflect upon the probable way these supernaturals have been 
added to the Hopi Olvmpus, we may gain some idea of their possible 
number, for each clan as it joined the Hopi population brought its own 
gods, and, as the clans came from distant pueblos, where environmental 
conditions differed, each had a mj'thologic system in some respects 
characteristic. Many Hopi clans have in course of time become extinct, 
and with their disappearance their old masks have passed into the 
keeping of kindred clans, to whom they are now known as "ancient," 
being never used. The distinctive names of such have been lost, but in 
some cases the mask still retains its symbols. Then there is a constant 
increase in the numbers of katcinas; not only are the Hopis acquainted 
with many katcinas that are no longer personated, but they are also 
continually introducing new ones. Thus the katcinas called Chicken, 
Cow, and many others which might be mentioned, have made their 
appearance in the last decade. It is not diflicult to see how this may 
have been brought about. A man goes on a visit to Zufii or some 
Rio Grande pueblo and witnesses a personation of a katcina which, on 
returning to his own home, he introduces into the Hopi ritual. This 
process of introduction has been going on for many years, so that we 
have katcinas called Navaho, Kawaika (Keresan), Pima, Apache, and 
others of foreign derivation. Thus not only have clans introduced 
new katcinas from time to time, but individuals have done the same, 
and in man}' instances this introduction has taken place so lately that 
the name of the man who brought them is known, as he is still living 
in the pueblo. 

Of the masked personations among the Hopis some, as Tunwup, 
Ahiil, and Natacka, always appear in certain great ceremonies at stated 
times of the year. Others are spoi-adic, having no direct relation to 
any particular ceremony, and may be represented in any of the winter 
or summer months. The}' give variet}' to the annual dances, but are 
not regarded as essential to them, and merelj^ to afl'ord such variety 
many are revived after long disuse. Each year many katcinas may be 
added to any ceremony from the great amount of reser\'e material 
with which the Hopis are familiar. Some have become extinct, and 
knowledge of them remains only in the memory of old men, or now 
and then one maj' be recalled to mind b}' an ancient mask hanging in a 
darkened room. Thus, it is seen that within certain limits a change 

21 ETH— 03 2 



18 HOPI KATCINAS [etji. ann. 21 

is continually going on in the character of the personations in masked 
dances. It is more especially to the ancient or almost forgotten varie- 
ties that we should look for aid in making a classification of katcinas. 

The pictures have been arranged primarily on a basis of tht^ sequence 
of appearance in the annual calendar. Possiblj^ a more comprehen- 
sive classification of the pictures might be made with reference to the 
clans which introduced them, and tables are given with that thought in 
mind, Init there is little possibility that a classification of this kind can 
be made complete, since the clan origin of many katcinas will alwaj'S 
remain unknown. 

The classification of katcinas by names leads to important results, 
but the nomenclature, for man}- reasons, is often deceptive. The 
same god may have several attributal or clan names which have sur- 
vived from the difl'erent languages spoken originally by component 
clans of the tribe. Certain peculiarities of song or step of the per- 
sonator, or a marked or striking symbol on his paraphernalia, maj' 
have given a name having no relation to the spirit personated. Keep- 
ing this fact in mind, and remembering the permanency of .symbols 
and the changeabilit}' of nomenclature, we are able to disco\er the 
identity of personations bearing widely ditt'ereut names. 

An important asjiect of the study of these pictures is the light their 
names often throw on their derivation. We find some of them called 
by Zuuian, others l)y Keresan, Tanoan, Piman, and Yuman names, 
according to their derivation. Others have names which are dis- 
tinctly Hopi. This composite nomenclature of their gods is but a 
refiection of the Hopi language, which is a mosaic of many different 
linguistic stocks. No race illustrates better than the Hopi the per- 
petual changes going on in languages which Payne so ably discusses 
in the second volume of his History of America. The successive clans 
which united with the original settlers at Walpi introduced manj- 
words of their peculiar idioms, and it is doubtful whether the present 
Walpiaus speak the same tongue that the Snake (Tcixa) clans spoke 
when they lived at Tokonabi, their ancient home in northern Arizona. 

HOPI FERIAL, CALENDAR 

Peculiar Features 

The author will first sketch the ferial calendar " of Walpi and give a 
brief account of the nature of the rites occurring each month, having 
especially in mind the personages here figured; but only so much of 
this calendar will be given as will help to explain the pictures and 
render the paraphernalia intelligible. 

oFor ferial calendar of the Hopis, see Internationalea .Vrchiv fiir Etlinographie, Band vin, 189.^, pp. 
21.5, 236; American Anthropologist, vol. ii, 1893; Fifteenth .Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnol- 
ogy, 1897, p. 260 et seq. 



FEWKEs] HOPI CEREMONIAL CALENDAR 19 

The ceremonial year of the Ilopis l>egins in November with a New- 
fire ceremony which a^isiiine.s two forms, elaborate and abljreviated. 
The elaborate form, given every fourth year, is very complicated, 
owing to the initiation of novices into the fraternities. Following 
this precedent, the rites of tlie winter solstice (So3'aluna), Powamu, 
and Paliilukoiiti are celebrated in extenso in those years. The elabo- 
ration or abbi'eviation of the New-tire ceremonj", which opens the 
calendar, thus profoundly affects all festivals of the remainder of the 
year. 

There are also several other variations in the calendar, due to 
the celebration of either the Snake or Flute festival, which alternate 
with each other. Thus in odd years there is in January an assemblage 
of the Snake fraternity, while in even years the Flute priests have a 
meeting in the same month. There are likewise certain minor modi- 
fications in other ceremonies in those years in which the Flute and 
Snake ceremonies, respectiv'ely, are celebrated. 

It must be borne in mind that the Hopis are, ignorant of the 
Roman names of months, January, Februar}', and the like, but these 
names are introduced in the following pages for convenience in reduc- 
ing their calendar to our own. Their months often take the names of 
the ceremonies which occur in them. 

The four seasons, spring, summer, autunui, and winter, have no 
equivalents among the Hopi so far as is known. The Hopi year has 
two divisions, which may be designated that of the named and that of 
the nameless moons; the former is the cold period, the latter is the 
warm — roughlj' speaking, they are winter and summer. These divi- 
sions ma^' be called the greater and lesser periods, as the former begins 
in August and ends in March. In the first occur the greater, in the 
other the lesser mysteries (see below. Classification of Festivals), 
although this practice is sometimes reversed. 

Classification of Festitals 

As has been noted, the ceremonies in the Hopi calendar vary in 
complexity as a result of the initiation of novices into the priesthoods, 
which occurs abovxt every four years. 

In addition to this quadrennial variation there is a lesser and 
greater celebration of the same festival each year, which are ordi- 
narily six months apart, the lesser being generally in winter. The 
adjective "elaborate" will be applied to those quadrennial festivals 
which are celebrated in extenso, "abbreviated" being applied to the 
smaller celebrations in intervening years; the two yearly presentations 
will be known as the greater and lesser mystei'ies. 



20 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann.21 

Elaborate Festivals 

Some of the elaborate festivals involve nine days' active work, 
others five. In years when the New-fire ceremony is brief, other nine- 
day ceremonies arc abbreviated to five, and five-day ceremonies are 
shortened to one. A list of the festivals of the latter class is given 
below, under Abbreviated Festivals. 

Among' elaborate festivals with a nine-day duration may be men- 
tioned the following: 

Naacnaiya. Lelenti (Lefipaki). 

Soyalufia. Lalakoilti. 

Powamu. Mamzrauti (Maraupaki). 

Niuian. Owakiilti. 

Tcuatikilii (Tciiapakia). 

With the exception of Powamu and Niman the above festivals have 
two additional ceremonial days called the smoke talk and the public 
announcement days. The ceremonial da^'s of these elaborate festivals 
are called: 

First day: Tcotcoyunya. Fourteenth day; Yufiya. 

Second day: Tiyuna. Fifteentli day: Cuskahimii. 

Tenth day: Yuiiya. Sixteenth day: Komoktotokya. 

Eleventh day: Custala. Seventeenth day: Totokya. 

Twelfth day: Luftala. F.ighteenth day: Tihiini. 
Thirteenth day: Naluctala. 

The days between the aimouncement (second day) and Yufiya (tenth 
day) are generally seven in number, but may be less. The nine active 
days begin on the first Yufiya and end on Tihiini. the public dance day, 
which is followed b}' three or four da^^s of purification. Practically 
each of these ceremonies takes twenty days from the smoke talk 
(Tcotcoyuiiya) to the final day of purification. 

Abbreviated Festival.s 

Among five-day ceremonies M'hich are believed to be contracted 
forms of the first group, may be mentioned: 

"Wiiwiitcimti. Paliiliikonti, or Aiikwanti. 

Pamiirti. 

The one-day ceremonies, which may be extended over five days in 
special years, are as follow: 

Winter Flute prayer-stick-inaking. Winter Marau prayer-stick-making. 

Winter Snake prayer-stick-making. Summer Sun prayer-stick-making. 

Winter Lakone prayer-stick-mak- Winter Sim j)rayer-stick-making. 

ing. Momtcita. 

c Literally, snake (tciia) going down (pakit), referring to entering the kiva. 



fewkes] hopi festivals by months '21 

Tabular View of Festivals in a Hopi Year 

The following oereinonios, celebrated annually at the East niewa of 
Tusayan, are mentioned with the months in which they occur, begin- 
ning with the New-tire or November festival. 

November^ Kelemuryawu {Novices' Moon) 

(Wihvutcimti (New-tire ceremony). 
(Naacnaiya (with initiation of novices). 

November i.s generally considered the opening month of the Ilopi 
year, and on the character of the New-tire ceremony, whether elab- 
orate (Naacnaiya) or abbTeviated (Wiiwiitcimti), depends that of the 
following festivals, for if the former is celebrated the winter ceremo- 
nies which follow are always more complicated. 

Di'ccmhei', Kijanv'dnjawil 

1. Soyaluiia (All-assembly, Winter-solstice). 

Synchronou.s meeting of all clans in their respective kivas with 
altars and pravers to Miiyinwu, the germ god. An elaborate sun 
drama occurs in certain kivas during the festival. 

2. Momtcita (war dance of the Kalektaka or warrior priesthood of the Pakab 
clans). 

Stone images of the Hano warrior gods, corresponding to the Ilopi 
Piuikoii hoya, Paluila hoya, and their grandmother Kokyan wiiqti 
(Spider woman), are displayed at the winter solstice ceremony (called 
Tantai by the Tewas). At Hano the rites of these gods are combined 
with those of the germ gods, l)ut at Walpi they are distinct, following 
Soj'alufia. 

In this festival there is an altar and prayer-stick-making. The 
Hano warrior altars are erected in the same rooms and at the same 
time as those of the Winter-solstice ceremony. 

January, Punmryawu 

1. Pamtirti. 

A dance celebrated at Sichumovi by the Asa and Honani clans, 
dramatizing the return of the sun, followed by their clan-ancients or 
katcinas, called by Zufii names. 

2. Lenya or Tciia jiaholawii (Flute or Snake prayer-stick-riiaking). 

Winter or lesser Flute or Snake prayer-stick-making. The Flute 
or Snake fraternity of the under world is supposed to meet at this 
time, and there is a sympathetic gathering of Flute priests in even 
years and Snake priests in odd years. In the odd years certain rites 
occur in the kivas during the Soyaluiia ceremony to harmonize with the 
preeminence of the Snake chief in those years. 

3. Mucaiasti (Buffalo dance). 

4. Tawa paholawii (Sun prayer-stick-making. ) 

Winter or lesser as.semblage of the Siui priests. 



22 HOTI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

Felirmiri/. /'(iiiiaiiLuryawH 

1. Powamu (Bean-planting). 

A feremonial puriticatuMi festival celebrating the return of the clan- 
ancients of the Kateina clan, in which scv(>ral other clan-ancients like- 
wise appear. 

2. Lakone paholawu (Lakune praycr-Htick-niaking). 

Winter or lesser sympathetic meeting of the Lakone priesthood, 
who make offerings and deposit them in distant shrines. 

Marcl), C'lcumuryavyA 

1. Paliilukonti, or Ankwanti. 

Theatrical performance or m_ystery play, illustrating the growth of 
corn; its purpose is the prodiiction of rain. 

2. ]\[arau paholawu (^larau prayer-stick-making). 

Spring meeting of the Marau fraternity, who make offerings and 
deposit th(>m in distant shrines. 

3. Suniaikoli. 

Spring meeting of the Sumaikoli and Yaya fraternities. A festival 
of short duration in which new tire is kindled l)y frictional methods. 

Jfi/i/, Kijitin iiri/iiiiHi 
A))breviateil Katrina danre.''. 

Masked personations of different clan-ancients or katcinas. in public 
dances of a single day's duration, soinetinn\s accompanied with secret 

rites. 

Jul I/. J'liiiiiiri/iiiii'i 

Niman Kateina (Departure of the Katcinas). 

Elaborate celeliration of the departure of the katcinas. 

^1 mjii.sf, I'oirii//) Hrt/<nin 
1. Snake dance (Tciiapaki). 

In odd j-ears at "Walpi, alternating with the Flute festival in even 
years. 

1. Flute dance (Lenpaki). 

2. Tawa paholawu (Sun prayer-stick-making). 
Prayer-stick-making l)y the Sun priests. 

3. Sumaikoli. 

Meeting of the Sumaikoli fraternity. 

Si'ptemhti' 

Lalakonti. 

Basket dance of the Patki (Rain-cloud) clans. Meeting of the 
Lakone fraternity, in which an elaborate altar is erected and a public 
basket dance is celebrated. 



FEWKE3] 



HOPI PRIEST KEATEENITIES 



23 



October 

1. Owakiilti. 

Basket dance of the Buli and Pakab clans. Meeting of the Owakultu 
society, when an elaliorate altar is erected and a basket dance is 
celebrated. 

2. Mamzrauti. 

Hand-tablet dance. Meeting of the Marau society, when an elal)- 
orate altar is erected and a hand-tablet dance is celebrated. 



PRIEST FRATERNITIES IN HOPI CEREMONIAL 
FESTIVALS '' 

Each of the above-mentioned ceremonial festivals is performed In' a 
society of priests and is simple or complex according to the I'clative 
strength and social influence of its priesthood. The following lists 
give the names of these societies and the festivals in which they are 
specially prominent: 



Fraternity 


Festival 


Aaltii 


Wiiwutcimti 


Wiiwiitcimtii 


Tataukvamii 


Naacnaiya 


Kwakwantu 






fPamiirti 


Kateina 


Powamvi 

Abbreviated Kateina dances 




Niman 


Tci'ia .... 


AVinter Snake ceremony 
ISnake datice 
r Winter Flute ceremony 
iFlute dance 


Tci'ib 


Lenva _ . . . . 




Lalakontu 


1 Winter Lakone prayer-stick-making 
iLalakonti 


Owakultu 


lOwakiilti 


Mamzrautu 


jWinter Marau prayer-stiek -making 
iMamzrauti 


Tawa 


J Winter Sun prayer-stick-making 
ISummer Sun prayer-stick-making 




Kalektaka 


Momtcita 


Yava 


rSummer Sumaikoli 
ISpring Sumaikoli 


Sumaikoli 



a For Hopi religious fraternities si-u Jnurnjil of American Ethnology and Archaeology, vol. Ji. 1892. 



24 HOPI KATCINAS [kth. a.n.n. .i) 

There are a few other priest fraternities which take part in the 
celebration of Hopi ceremonies, tlic most important of which are the 
Tcukuwimpkya, among which may be mentioned the Paiakyamil (mud- 
heads), Tatciikti (clowns), and Tcutckutu (gluttons). They are inti- 
mately associated with the masked katcina observances, in which they 
generally take part. 

DESCRU^TION OF HOPI FESTIVALS 
WiJwCTCiMTi, New-fire Ceremony 

The festival of the new tire is performed by four religious fra- 
ternities or societies called the Aaltu or Alosaka, the Kwakwantu, 
Tataukyamu, and Wliwiitcimtu. 

The dominating element in this great yearly festival, which open.s 
the Hopi year, is the worship of the germ god, Alosaka or Muyifiwu. 
Fire is a living being, a mystery, or spirit, and the creation of fire is 
.symbolic of the creation of life. The making of the new fire may be 
considered as a kind of sympathetic magic or symbolic pra\-er for the 
rejuvenescence of nature, and the various so-called phallic proceed- 
ings which accompany it have the .same significance. This festival is 
not regarded as a fire-woi-.ship ceremonial, but an aspect of the worship 
of the mystery or medicine which fire shares with every other living 
or moving thing, embracing both organic and inorganic objects. 

SOYALUNA 

The winter solstice ceremony, called Soyalufia, All-assembh% is an 
occasion of many rites in all kivas on the East mesa, the altars in which 
are described elsewhere. Its main feature is a pi'ayer to Muj-inwu, 
the germ god, and in one of the kivas certain clans from the south 
dramatize the advent of the sun god in the form of a bird. 

The public advent of this sun or sky god takes place on the follow- 
ing mo lining, when the bird personation is replaced by a masked man, 
called Ahiilani. This sun god is also called Soyal katcina, from the 
fact that he appears at Soyalufia. He is accompanied by two maids, 
called Soyal manas, wearing masks resembling those of Anya katcina 
manas, who distribute seed corn to the women of the pueblo. 

It will later appear that there is the same dramatization of the 
arrival of the gods in this festival as in Powamii and Pamiirti. There 
is a representation of the return of a sky or sun god, who appears 
first in the kiva and then on the following morning at sunrise in pub- 
lic, distributing gifts to the people and receiving their prayers." 

n For a description of the elaborate rites at the advent of the sun god in the kiva, see American 
Anthropologist, 1899 and 1900. The exercises in the Hano kivas, where there are two altars with 
serpent effigies (see American Anthropologist, new series, vol. i, 1899), are mainly for rain and crops. 



FEWKEs] MOMTCITA CEREMONY 25 

On one of the days of this festival men personating many kinds of 
birds danee together in the Naeab kiva; this dance is repeated in the 
Po\vann'i festival, when all the bird masks are repainted and the bodies ■ 
of the participants are decorated with feathers, the wings and tail 
being attached feathers. The following liirds are personated: 

Kwahu, Eagle. Tiirpoekwa. 

Keca, Hawk. Totca, Hummingbinl. 

Kowako, Chicken. Pawik, Duck. 

Pat.szrii, Suijje. Monwu, Owl. 

Hotsko, Owl. Kwayo, Hawk. 

MOMTCITA 

This special ceremony of the Kalektaka, or warrior societj-, intro- 
duced by the Pakab or Reed (arrow) clans, whose chief is Pautiwa, 
is observed directly after Soyaluna. The society has a special room 
for its meeting, which is under the old Pakab house and is entered 
from the roof. OrdinariU* this room, called the Piiiikonki or house 
of the god of war, is closed. The four walls are decorated with 
pictures of animals, as follows: On the north side thei-e is a picture 
of Toko, the Mountain Lion; on the west wall is Honauii, the Bear; 
on the south is Tokotci, the Wildcat, above which is a live-pointed 
star; and on the east is Kwewu, the Wolf, above which is a picture 
of the sun. From their positions on the walls these animals may be 
judged to be the distinctive beasts of these cardinal points. In one 
corner of this room there is a recess, ordinarily closed b}' a Hat slab 
of rock luted in place, in which the images of the war gods are kept. 
At the time of the ceremony these fetishes and a numbei- of old celts, 
ancient weapons, bows, arrows, and tiponis of the Kalektaka society 
are arranged in the form of an altar. 

Prayer-sticks of peculiar construction are made by the Kalektaka, 
and there is a dance at daybreak on the day after their manufacture, 
in which the participants carry guns, bows, arrows, and other war 
implements. 

The rude stone images representing the Hano war gods are arranged 
in the kivas during the celebration of the Soyaluna, in the manner 
described in an account of the rites of the winter solstice at the 
pueblo. Thej' i-epresent the two war gods, the Spider woman, their 
grandmother, and Wicoko, a giant l)ird. The warrior celebration at 
Hano is combined with the winter solstice rites, whereas in Walpi 
it is distinct, or rather the Reed or Pakab clans have a special warrior 
celebration. 

Tlie three principal images or idols are Piiiikofi hoya, Paluiia hoya, 
and Kokyan wi'iqti, tiie symbolism of which is shown in the pictures. 

There are other images of Piiiikon hoya in Walpi which are brought 
into the kivas at Soyaluiia; as one belonging to the Katcina clan, used 



26 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. axn.21 

in the Moil kiva, and one of the Kokop clan, used in the Nacab kiva. 
These are supposed to have been the property of the warriors of these 
two clans, but there are no special rites connected with them. At Hano 
the rites of the warriors occur at the winter solstice, when elaborate 
altars are erected. 

PAMtTRTI 

The Zuiii Indians are said " to claim Sichumovi as one of their towns, 
and the Hopis sometimes refer to it as the Zuni pueblo, for the reason 
that the clans which settled it, mainly the Asa. and possibly also the 
Honani, came from Zufli; })ut of that the author is not (juite sure. 
It is commonly said that the Asa belong to the Tanoan stock and that 
they migrated from the Rio Grande via Zufii, where they left repre- 
sentatives called the Aiwahokwi. 

The belief of the Zuiiis and Ilopis that Sichumovi is closeh' con- 
nected with the Zufii clans is supported )iy the existence in that pueljlo 
of a ceremony — Pamiirti — in ^vi^ch the majority of the personators 
are called by Zuni names, and are dressed to represent Zuni katcinas. 
In this festival there are neither secret ceremonials nor altars, save 
those pi'esently to be mentioned, and no tiponis nor society badg'es, 
although ancient masks are publicly displayed in certain houses. 

The Pamurti at Sichumovi in the year 1900 eclipsed all ceremonies 
ill January at the East mesa, but simultaneously with it dances were 
performed in the other pueblos. Pamurti celebrates the katcinas' 
return (ikini) to the pue))lo. the personations at Sichumovi mainly 
representing the ancients of the Honani and Asa clans.* In the same 
manner Powamu is supposed to represent the return of the ancients 
of the Katciiia clan. 

The Pamurti opened with a personation of Pautiwa, who in this 
festival at Sichumovi is the sun god of the Asa and Honani clans. On 
the opening day of the celeliration he went to every kiva on the East 
mesa announcing that in eight days the ancients would return and the 
Pamurti would be celebrated. He thi-ew meal at the homes of the 
chief clans of Sichumovi — the Honani, Asa, and Patki clans — as he 
passed through the pueblo, a symbolic act analogous to that of Ahiil, 
who in Powamu makes markings of meal on the doorways of all the 
houses of chiefs. 

Eight days after the sun god, Pautiwa, had made the circuit of the 
kivas as above mentioned, personators of the following beings marched 
from the Sun spring up the trail into Sichumovi: 

Pautiwa, Sun god. 

Tcolawitze, Fire god. 

Cakwa Cipikne, Green Cipikne. 

a Mrs Stevenson informed the author that the Zuni claim one of the towns on the Ea-st mesa, and 
later he learned that the town referred to is Sichumovi. 
''See Journal of American Ethnology and Archseology, vol. ii, 1892. 



FEWKES] PAilUKTI CEREMONY 27 

Sikya Cipikne, Yelluw Cipikne. 

Hakto. 

Huik. 

Hutiitu. 

Caiastacana, Long horn. 

Tho men who personated these beinos gathered about 4 p. m. at 
a house of the Badger chin on the Zuni trail, far out on the plain — 
and there dressed, putting on their niaslvs and other paraphernalia. 
They then raarch(Hl in procession to the Sun spring (Tawapa), where 
they were joined l>y Walpi men, who eame from the ]Mon and Xacab 
kivas. Those from the Mofi kiva represented Heliliilii, Kwahu 
(Eagle), Kwayo (Hawk), Maoikwayo (Drab Hawk), Pawik (Duek), and 
manj^ nuidheads or clowns; those from the Nacab kiva contributed 
several pei'sonatious of Tcakwainas. The procession, enlarged by 
these additions, re-formed and continued on up the mesa, under lead 
of the sun god personation, Pautiwa, past the Itabbit-ear shrine 
(Sowinakabii) to the Sun shrine, on the east edge of the mesa, mid- 
way between Walpi and Sichumovi. On their art-ival there they 
re-formed in platoons and continued on to the latter pueblo. 

The procession entered the pueblo about sunset, presenting a most 
barbaric appearance in the raJ^s of light from the western sky. The 
numerous masked men walked in platoons, wearing painted helmets, 
those representing birds prancing backward and forward, raising their 
arms, to which feathers were attached to imitate wings; there were 
also platoons of men with painted bodies, wearing horned knobbed 
helmets closely fitting their heads, singing songs and shaking rattles. 
Prominent among all was a naked boy, painted from head to foot 
with spots of different colors. He was called Tcolawitze and carried 
in his hand a cedar-bark torch, one end glowing with tire. The most 
startling figure was perhaps that representing the Humis katcina, 
or rather the Zuiii supernatural of this name. He was accompanied 
b}' a relative, called their uncle (taamu), and two others known as the 
Avatc hoya or Little Spotted Ones. These danced together with a full 
chorus on the following day in the plaza of the pueblo. 

There was also on this day a dance in which more than twenty men, 
personating the Duck or Pawik katcinas, appeared in line in the same 
plaza. The procession entered Sichumovi back of Anawita's house, 
continuing along the row of houses on the east side, toward Hano. 
Turning westward at the north end of the row it pas.sed into the plaza 
of the pueblo, where it divided into four groups, each of which sought 
one of the liouses of the four chief clans, soon to be mentioned, where 
receptions had been prepared. 

At intervals along the route of their march through the pueblo six 
temporary shrines had been erected, consisting of a few upi'ight stones 
inclosing a prayer-stick. Connecting these shrines a line of sacred meal 



28 HdPI KATCINAS [cth.asx.21 

wa.s drawn on the ground, along which line the procession passed. As 
the personators arrived at each of the six shrines they performed a 
dance near it. and the loader scattered pra_yer-meal on the prayer-stick. 
Each of the four divisions of the procession went to one or another 
of the following houses: Asa clan house (Homovi's), Honani clan house 
(Nuvasi's), Patki dan house (Tcoshoniwu's), and Kiiki'itc clan house 
(Sik)-ahonauu.s). 

These houses had Vjeen specially fitted up for the reception of the 
incoming guests, and as thej' "arrived they danced, passing in rotation 
to the other hou.ses, and .so continuing throughout the night. 

As each group entered a house, it tied a stick with attached feathered 
strings in the rafters, after which the katcinas doffed their masks, the 
men smoked and prayed, and a feast was served. At the close of the 
feast the women and children began to assemble, filling all available 
space in the rooms, each family seeking the clan with which it had 
social affiliation. 

There were no elaborate altars in these rooms, but at one end, on the 
floor, there were masks and other sacred objects })elonging to the clan. 
In the fioor of the room at that point there was a round liwle called the 
sipapu, corresponding with a similar opening in the floors of the kivas. 
The walls of the Asa room were decorated with whole new buckskins 
nailed in a row about them. The mural decoration of the Kiikiitc 
clan was a ceremonial kilt painted on the four walls. All floors were 
carefully swept and the wealth of the clan was prominently displayed, 
the clan fetishes being placed on the floor near the symbolic opening 
mentioned above. 

The most important of the latter in the home of the Honani clan 
were four masks of Wi'iwiiyomo and four masks of the Zuni C'alakos. 
These were arranged in two rows, one behind the other. Near this 
double row of masks the men representing C'ipikne. Hakto. and Hututu 
set their masks. The author supposes that the four masks called Wii- 
wiiyomo (see plate v), which are apparently very old, as their name 
indicates, represent sun masks, and as such are symbolically and mor- 
phologically the same as that of Ahiil, the sun god of the Katcina 
clan. They are exceptional in having the curved snout (which is homol- 
ogous to an eagle's beak) turned upward, for in masks of other sun 
gods which have this organ it is turned downward. 

The four Zuni Calako masks, which the author believes are also 
svmbolic sun masks, are of modern introduction into Tusayan, and do 
not difl'er in symbolism from those of the Calakos at Zuni. from which 
they were modeled." 

No ancient masks were displayed in the house of the Asa clan, but 

aThis is not the place to point out the resemblance between the symbolism of the Calako masks 
and those of the sun, but the author is lirmly convinced that the Calako giants represent giant 
sun birds. Not only the symbolism but also the acts of these beings support this theory. The Calako 
festival is practically a sun drama. 



FEWKES] WINTER FLUTE PRAYER-STICK-MAKING 29 

near a sinall opening in the floor representing the sac-rcd region of 
the room, the men per.sonating Cipikne, Hakto, C'aiastacana. and 
Tcolawitze deposited their masks. 

In the house of the Patki clan there was what might ho. t-alled a rude 
altar. At one end of the room, on a space a few feet s(juare, the 
floor had been carefully sanded, and on the sand five rings were 
drawn side bj' side with meal. Within each of these rings there was 
a conventional symbol of a rain cloud. Bird worship predominates in 
the cults of this clan, and in these rings of meal the masks of the bird 
gods, Kwahu (Eagle), Kwayo (Hawk), and Macikwayo (Drab Hawk), 
were placed. It may be remembered that the personators who wore 
these masks were Walpi men, and that the Patki is a Walpi clan, as 
distinguished from the Honani and Asa, which have Zuni afhliations. 

The house of the Kiikiitc clan, also distinctly Hopi, had, however, 
a row of twenty Tcakwaina masks hanging on the walls. These 
were not worn by personators in the procession from Tawapa to 
Sichumovi, but were prominent in the dances throughout the night. 

Thei'e were dances in AValpi and Hano kivas on the same night, at 
the same hour, participated in by unmasked ])ersonages — Mucaias taka 
(Bufl'alo youth), Tacab (Navaho), Woe," Malo, and others. A dance 
representing all kinds of birds was performed on the same night in the 
Walpi Nacab kiva. 

Winter Flute Paholawu* 

This is an abbreviated meeting of the Flute priests, occurring in 
even jiears and lasting one day. during which a simple altar is made, 
tiponis are put in position, and prayer-sticks are manufactured. There 
is no public dance and there are usually no masked personage's. The 
Hopi artist has given no drawing of the Flute priest, but in the col- 
lection there is a Lefij'a or Flute katcina, which sometimes appears. 

In the winter Flute ceremonv there is no altar, but the tiponis or 
sacred badges of the Flute chief, Tiirnoa, the Bear chief, Kotka, and 
the speaker chief, Honyi, ai'e placed in line in a ridge of sand back of 
the symbolic opening in the floor of the kiva called the sipapu. 

In i;t()0 the Flute chief made the following prayer-sticks: 

1. A double praj'er-stick or paho, flat on one side, an oft'ering to 
Cotokinunwu. 

2. Eight ordinary green flute pahos. 
Honyi made the following: 

1. A double paho, flat on one side, with corn-husk packages of meal. 

2. Ordinary green flute pahos. 

The other men present made each two double green pahos as long 
as the middle finger. 

«The chevron on the face of this being recalls the eagle and hawk symbolism. 
^The Snake chiefs meet in rufd. the Fhite in even, years. There are some variations in all the 
ceremonies of the calendar connected with the celebration of Flute or Snake dance. 



3U HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ank. 21 

Hani, the Piba-Tabo chief, acted tlie part of pipe lightei-. and, after 
all tlie priests had taken their positions around the three badges of 
the chiefs and the basket-tray containing the prayer-sticks mentioned 
above, lit two pipes, one of whicli he passed to Tiirnoa and the other 
to Hoiiyi. 

Eight songs were then sung, which Hani accompanied on a Hiite. 
During the first song Kwatcakwa arose, put some meal on a feather 
which he held horizontally, and made several passes over the sacred 
objects. 

In the second song several i-attles made of corn shells were used to 
beat time, and Kwatcakwa sprinkled the objects with sacred meal. 
During the thii-d song Kotka asperged these objects with medicine 
liquid. During the sixth and eighth songs Momi, of the Tciia clan, 
arose, and stood before the three sacred badges of the chiefs, twirling 
the whizzer or bull-roarer, after which he repeated the same act on 
the roof of the kiva. 

At the close of the sougs all prayed in sequence, ana the rites ended 
with a formal smoke. The prayer-sticks were given to Sikyabotima, 
of the Kiiktitc clan, who ran with them as a courier to the ditferent 
shrines of the gods for which they had been made. 

Wahikwinema, Childken's Dance 

Two days after the winter Flute ceremony just described. 15 little 
boys and as many girls, each about 10 years old, performed a simple 
dance in the Walpi plaza. Thej' were dressed and painted by their 
elders to represent katcinas, and men sang for them as the}' danced 
like their parents, beating time on a drum. At the close of this 
exhibition a small boy, one of their number, threw pinon nuts to the 
spectators from a bag he cai'ried, which gives the dance the name it 
beai's (we go throwing). 

Mucaiasti, Buffalo Dance 

On the night of Januai-y 15, I'.tOO. a Buflalo dance was performed in 
the Mon kiva by two men wearing Butfalo masks. Tacab and Woe 
katcinas were represented in the "Wikwaliobi kiva, Male katcina was 
represented in the Nacab kiva, and the l)ird per.sonations, Kwahu, 
Monwii, and Aiiwiici, appeared in the Tcivato kiva, accompanied by 
many mudheads. This was apparently unconnected with the Sichumovi 
Pamiirti or with the rites with which the Flute priests made prayer- 
sticks, which took place in Walpi on the same da}*. 

In the Mucaiasti or Buffalo dance no altar is erected, but the men 
who take the part of the Mucaias taka deposit offerings in the Butfalo 
shrine at its close. 

The participants in the Mucaiasti of 1900 were (1) the Buffalo youths, 
(2) the Buffalo maids, (3) the chorus. 



o s^BOn -i'f^Oi<^«i®)00 



FEWKEs] WINTER SUN PRAYEK-STICK-MAKINGt 31 

The pictures give a good idea of the paraphernalia of the first two 
groups, which dance together. The chorus accompanies them with z 
drum, singing a loud and effective song. During the dance it is cus- 
tomarj' to discharge firearms and to imitate in a way a hunt of the 
bison, and this jjart of the ceremony was formerly carried out in a 
much more realistic way than at present. 

The men of the chorus are gaudih' painted, bearing stii'ks or poles 
to which ribbons, calico, and feathers are attached. 

The Buffalo dance is a foreign addition to the Hopi calendar. It is 
said to be a Tewan ceremonial dance, and some of the Walpi women 
say they introduced it into Zufii. The Hano people claim that their 
Mucaiasti is the best on the East mesa; in former years it was cele- 
brated with much more eclat than at present. There is a tradition that 
a Buffalo maid was brought to Tusayan from the Eastern pueblos bj' 
the Sun, whosi' emblem she l)ears on her back in the dance. 

Winter Tawa Paholawu 

This meeting of the Sun priests or Tawawimpkiya is a comple- 
mental ceremony, at or near the winter solstice, of the summer meet- 
ing, which occurs in July." No altars are employed, but a luuuber 
of prayer-sticks are made and Liter are deposited in special shrines. 

The Winter Sun prayer-stick-making takes place in the same room 
as the Sunimer. in a house near the Moii kiva, under the entrance to 
the ancestral residence of the Patki clan. The only fetish employed 
is a rude stone frog, over which is stretched a string extended along a 
line of meal on the floor, symbolic of the pathway of blessings. The 
men who participate in this rite are all members of the Patki clan. 

PowAMf 

The Powamii festival, ordinarily called the Bean-planting, is one of 
the most elaborate of all katcina exhibitions, and at Walpi is controlled 
by Naka, chief of the Katcina clan. One object of this festival is a 
purification oi' renovation of the earth for future planting, but the 
main purpose is a celebration of the return of the katcinas. The 
festival differs considerably in the six Hopi pueblos and is apparently 
most complicated at Oraibi. 

PLANTINC4 OF BEANS 

In the early daj's of Powamu, beans are planted in all the kivas of 
the three villages, Walpi, Sichumovi, and Hano, and forced to grow 
in superheated rooms until the morning of the final day, when they 
are pulled, tied in small bundles, and distributed, with dolls, bows and 
arrows, turtle shells, rattles, etc., to the children, by ma.sked persons 
from each kiva. 

«See Journal of American Ethnology and Arcbseology, vol. n, 1892. 



32 HOP! KATCINAS [eth. asn. 21 

DANCES IX THE KIVAS 

On every night from the opening to the close of the festival there 
were dances, unmasked or masked, in all the kivas of the East mesa. 

There are personations in nine different kivas at the same time, and 
although the author has oljtained the names and pictures of the 
katcinas personated, it was (juite impossible for him to witness all 
these dances. 

The unmasked dances of katcinas in the kivas are called ])y the same 
name as when masks are worn. Some of them are in the nature of 
rehearsals. When the dance takes place in the public plaza, all the 
paraphernalia are ordinarily worn, but the dances without masks in the 
ki^'as are supposed to be equally efficacious. 

On account of the large number of masked men who appear in 
Powamu, it is one of the most important festivals in which to study 
katcinas. The whole ceremony is of from sixteen to twentj' days' 
duration, and will later be described in extenso, but for a proper 
understanding of the functions of the masked personators a summary 
is introduced of the events of each day in the celebration in 1900. 

On the night of February 1 thei-e occurred in all kivas a series of 
dances of strange character. They followed one after another in rapid 
succession, and while they took place in all the kivas, the author wit- 
nessed them in only one. 

F/'rsf Act 

The first dance was performed by men from the Nacab kiva. The 
men represented all the birds which the Hopis personate in their dances, 
and the personations were very good. They wore bird masks, their 
bodies were painted, and small feathers were stuck on their naked legs, 
arms, and ])odies with pitcli. They imitated to perfection the step, 
cry, and motions of Kwahu (Eagle), Palakwayo (Red Hawk), Totca 
(Humming-bird), Monwu (Owl), Koyona taka (Cock), Koyona mana 
(Hen), Yaupa (Mocking-bird) Patszro (Quail), Keca (Hawk), Hotsko 
(Owl?). Three bees (Momo) were also personated, and the men per- 
sonating them went about the kiva imitating bees stinging by shooting 
miniature arrows at the spectators. 

Second Act 

The Tewa kiva contributed a number of mudheads called Koyimsi 
(a Zuni name), who danced and sang, performing certain obscene acts 
which need not be described. 

Third Act 

A large delegation of Sio (Zuiii) katcinas performed the third dance, 
which occurred shortlv after that of the mudheads. Thev came from 



FEWKES] POWAMU CEREMONY 33 

one of the Sichumovi kivas, and their dance was pnietieally the same 
as that which has been elsewhere descrilx-d. " 

Fourth Art 

This act consisted of a dance by men rcjiresentin^"- Tcalcwaina 
katcinas. 

F[fth Act 

One of the Sichumovi Ivivas contributed to this series a dance by a 
numl)er of masked men representino- Tacab (Navaho) katcinas, who 
were accompanied by two mudheads or clowns. 

Sixth Act 

This dance was the most exciting of all the exhiliitions in this con- 
tinuous performance. The dramatis persona? were Tumas, Huhuiin. 
and ten personations of Tufiwup, the tiogger, all of whom came from 
the ]\Ion kiva of Walpi. 

The most exciting event in this dance was a flogging act by the last 
mentioned. During the dance a ring was drawn with meal on the 
floor, and one of their number .stepped within it, dancing all the 
while, and two of his comrades struck him as hard as they could with 
yucca boughs on naked back, arms, legs, and abdomen. Shortly after 
this many spectators, men and women, stepped forward and received 
similar floggings on bared legs and arms. 

ADVENT OF THE SUN GOD. AHUL 

The Powamii sun god ari-ives in the kiva, where he is said to rise* 
on the night of Feltruary 1. Certain rites attend that event, 1>ut his 
advent in public occurs on the following morning (February 2) at sun- 
rise. The man who is to personate the sun god dresses and masks 
himself at the shrine, Wala, on the trail to Hano, and just as the sun 
reddens the east he starts up the trail, guided ))y the Katcina chief. 
His dress and the symbolism of his mask can be known ])y consulting 
the flgure which the artist has drawn of him, l)ut a Ijrief reference to 
his acts may And a place in the general account of Powamii. 

The advent of the sun personator is described elsewhere as follows:'' 

Just as the sun rose the two [Ahiil and the chief] visited a kiva in Hano. 
Stooping down in front of it, Ahiil drew a vertical mark with meal on the inside of 
the front of the hatchway, on the side of the entrance opposite the ladder. He 
turned to the sun and made six silent inclinations, after which, standing erect, 
he bent his head backward and began a low rumbling growl, and as he bent his 
head forward raised his voice to a high falsetto. The sound he emitted was one 

a Journal of American Ethnology anci Archteology, vol. n, 1892. 

bThe use of the same word for his appearance and for sunrise is sif^nificant. Ahiil may be 
translated The Returning One. 
("Fifteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology. Washington, 1^97, p. 277. 

21 ETH— 03 3 



34 



HOPI KATCINAS 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



long expiration, and continued as long as he had breatli. This act lie repeated four 
times, and, turning toward the hatchway, made four silent inclinations, emitting 
the same four characteristic expiratory calls. The first two of these calls began with 
a low growl, the other two were in the same high falsetto from beginning to end. 

The kiva chief and two or three other principal members, each carrying a handful 
of meal, then advanced, bearing short nakwakwoci hotumni [stringed feathers tied 
to a twig], which they placed in his left hand while they uttered low, reverent 
prayers. They received in return a few stems of the corn and bean plants which 
Ahiil carried. 

Ahiil and Intiwa" next proceeded to the house of Tetapobi, who is the only repre- 
sentative of the Bear clan in Hano. Here at the right si<le of the door Ahiil pressed 
his hand full of meal against the wall at about the height of his chest and moved 
his hand upward. He then, as at the kiva, turned around and faced the sun, holding 
his staff vertically at arm's length with one end on the ground, and made six 
silent inclinations and four calls. Turning then to the doorway, he made four incli- 
nations and four calls. He then went to the hoa^ie of Nampio's mother, where the 
same ceremony was performed, and so on to the houses of each man or woman of 
the pueblo who owns a tiponi or other principal wimi (fetish) . He repeated the 
same ceremony in houses in Sichumovi and Walpi. 

During this circuit Ahiil visited the following kiva« ;ind clan liou.ses 
of the three pueblos of the East mesa: 







Houses visited in H.\no 




House 




Owner 


1. 


Tewa kiva 






2. 


Kolon clan house 




Nampio 


3. 


Ke clan house 




Pobi 


4. 


Sa clan house 




Anote 


5. 


Kisombi kiva 






6. 


Okuwan clan house 




7. 


Tafi clan house 




Kalacai 



Houses visiter in Sichumovi 



HorsE 

1. Anwuci kiva 

2. Tcoshoniwu's kiva 

3. Honani clan house 

4. Honani clan house 

5. Ala clan house 



Kokaamu 
Kele wiiqti 
Tiiba 



Houses visited in W.\lpi 



1. 


House 
Kokop clan house 


Owner 
Kutcnaiya 


Tiponi 


2. 


Patki clan house 






3. 

4. 


Kokop clan house 
Lenya clan house 


Saha 
Sakbensi 


Marau tiponi 
Leii tiponi 


5. 
6. 

t . 
8. 


Moil kiva 
Patki clan house 
Wikwaliobi kiva 

Asa clan house 


Vensi 
Wuko mana 


Lakone tiponi 

JWiiwiitcim tiponi 
iTataukyamu tiponi 


<i. 


Kokop clan house 


}sak\vawainima. 


( twakiil tiponi 



"Naka became Katcina chief at lutiwa's death. 



FEWKES] 



POWAMU CEKEMONY 



35 









Tcub tiponi 


10. 


Tciia clan houpe 


Saliko 


Tciia tiponi 
Marau tiponi 
Teak tiponi 


11. 


Nacab kiva 






12. 


Patki clan house 


Kotsj'umsi 


Lakone tiponi 


13. 


Honau clan house 


Kotka 


Aal tiponi 


14. 


Ala clan house 


Pontinia 




15. 


Pakab clan house 


Xnfisi 


Kalektaka tiponi 


16. 


Katcina clan house 


Komaletsi 


Katcina tiponi 


17. 


Al kiva 






18. 


Tcivato kiva 






19. 


Asa clan house 


Tuwasmi 


Aal tiponi 


20. 


Patki clan house 


Naciaininia 


Lakone tiponi 


21. 


Pakab clan house 


Poyaniumka 


Sumaikoli tiponi 


22. 


Patki clan house 


Nempka 


Lakone tiponi 



After the persoiiiitor of the sun had visi 
kivas he .sought a shrine dedicated to the 
ofl'ering.s and, retiring- to a seque.stered place, 
the kiva in the pueblo, carrying- his mask hi 
personation did not again appear in Powamil 



ted all these houses and 
sun, wliere he made his 
disrobed and returned to 
ddeu in a blanket. This 



PRELIMINARY VISIT OF THE MONSTERS 

On Februaiy l<i. in Powamu, a group of monsters (Soyokos) from 
each pueblo visited every house on the mesa. The object of these 
visits was to tell the people that in several days they would return 
for meat and bread. These monsters are called Natackas, and the 
group from each pueblo consists of Hahai wiiqti (their mother), 
Natacka mana (maid) and Natacka naamu (their father). The members 
of each group from the different towns are clothed in es.sentially the 
same co.stume, and have the same symbols on their masks. 

The acts of Natacka naamu, Hahai wiiqti, and Natacka mana on 
Februarj^ 10 were essentially the same, each group first visiting all 
the houses of its own pueblo and then those of families of the other 
pueblos on the East mesa the heads of which were men of its town 
who had married and had children. 

When it arrived at a house, the group, preceded Iw Hahai wiiqti, 
halted before the door, and its leader called out in falsetto voice, asking 
for the inmates. The mother of the monsters carried a collection of 
snares (small atiimal traps made of a stick and yucca til)er) and when a 
man or boy appeared she gave him one, telling him to hunt game, 
and in eight days she and her company would return for meat. She 
gave to the women and girls an ear of corn, telling them to grind it, 
and saying that in eight days the visitors would return for meal and 
bread. The Natacka father (naamu) said nothing, but hooted and 
hopped back and forth, assuming threatening postures. 

This visit was an announcement to the households that in course of 



36 HOl'I KATCINAS Ieth. ass. 21 

time the monsters would return for j;ifts. so the iiiah^s were directed to 
hunt for meat and the women to prepare jjaper-hreiid and meal to give 
them. 

FLOGGING THE CHILDREN > 

The most important act on February 14 was the child flogginjr at 
Walpi and Hano. This is done by two Tunwup katcinas, assisted 
by their mother, Tumas, in the presence of people of the town, and 
is briefly described under the heading Tunwup. 

RETURN OF OTIIEK KATCINAS 

On the same day appear also Hahai wi'iqti and a number of other 
katcinas. Many masked men, singly or in pairs, wander about the 
pueblos, especially l)y night, during the preceding days. The theoiy 
of Powamii is that all the katcinas return, and one comes upon 
them unexpectedly in all the pueblos. Of many noticed besides those 
already mentioned, there were several called Wukokoti (big masks; 
plate xxiii), Ahote (plate xxxvii). and Owanozrozro (plate xxviii). 
They wander from place to place, accosting pedestrians or calling out 
at the kiva entrances to the inmates below. 

ADVENT OF MASAUfr 

One of the most interesting ceremonials witnessed at Walpi in 
Powamii was performed on the evening of February 15. It was 
called the advent of Masauu. and is preliminary to one not seen l)y the 
writer, but desci'ibed l)v some of the Hopis, which was later performed 
at or near planting time at Mastcomo, a mound on the trail from 
Walpi to the JNIiddle mesa. As this rite is not of annual occurrence, 
and as it niaj- not be witnessed again, it may be described in detail. 

On entering the Tcivato kiva about S p. m. , the author found several 
chiefs seated in a ring by the fireplace, engaged in a ceremonial smoke. 
Among these men were Anawita, Sakwistiwa, Winuta, Kanu. ^lomi, 
Pautiwa, Haya, Honyi, and Ti'irnoa. All smoked for a long time, 
frequently exchanging terms of relationship. 

Thei'e were in the room at the same time about twenty other men who 
were decorating their bodies with white pigment, drawing lines with 
this material along their legs and arms. They placed daubs of white 
on their cheeks and tied small yucca fibers in their hair. No masks 
were seen, tnit it was gathered from the conversation that some of 
these men were to personate katcinas, and some were to represent maids. 
They were called the Maswik katcinas (the Masauii-l)ringing katcinas) 
and later accompanied the Masauus as they went from kiva to kiva. 

When these men had finished their bodily decorations, they formed 
a line near the walls of the room and sang a spirited song in cadence 
witii their dance. As thev sang Momi left the room, but soon 



FEWKES] POWAMU CEREMONY 37 

returned with a mask of Masauu, which he hiid Ijy the tireplaco within 
the ring of priests. It looked like a g-iant skull, but closer examina- 
tion showed it to be a great hollow gourd, with a large broken orifice 
and small holes for eyes and mouth. It was not decorated, and was 
destitute of feather adornment. In places around the broken part the 
edge appeared serrated. Through the broken opening the head of the 
man who wore the mask was thrust. At the same time that ]VIomi 
brought the mask he brought also two old, almost black blankets, two 
ancient planting sticks, and two basket plaques in which were frag- 
ments of piki (paper-bread) and other objects. 

Immediately after these objects had been laid on the floor, each of 
the chiefs puffed great whiffs of tobacco smoke on the mask, after 
which they prayed very fervently in sequence, beginning with 
Pautiwa. Songs then began, and as they sang Sakwistiwa took the 
mask in his hand and squirted over it from his mouth an unknown 
liquid which imparted a black color to the object. He then sprinkled 
on the face of the mask a quantit}' of micaceous iron tyayala) and laid 
it back on the floor. 

Each of the painted men then in turn approached the mask and 
laid a stringed feather, called a nakwakwoci, in one of the basket 
trays. They then formed in line and danced to songs, shaking cow 
bells and rattles, making a great noise. Meanwhile one of the chiefs, 
in a voice almost inaudible, talked to the mask. So low was his tone 
that it would have been impossible for one to have understood this 
address, even if he were well versed in the Hopi language. 

When the Maswiks had finished their songs, they filed out of the 
room and the two men who were to personate Masauu began their 
preparations. They tied agave (mo))i) fiber about their legs and 
arms, slung the black blanket under one arm and tied it ovei- the 
other shoulder; each took a planting stick and a basket tra,y. One of 
these men then slipped the gourd over his head, and thus costumed 
the\' left the room. 

Meanwhile the Maswiks, seating themselves on the top of the kiva, 
were awaiting the preparation of the two ]\Iasauus, and when the latter 
were ready they filed into the Mofi kiva, where many male spectators 
had gathered to see the performance presently to be described. 

These Masauu rites are performed in each kiva in rotation, begin- 
ning with the Mon kiva. In each of these rooms a considerable num- 
ber of male spectators had gathered to witness the rites, and the events 
which occurred in the different kivas were sul>stantially identical. 
Having seated himself among the spectatoi's in one of the kivas. the 
author witnessed the ceremony from beginning to end. 

As the line of Maswiks came in, a pinch of sacred meal was thrown 
upon each by the kiva chief. A song then began, accompanied l)y 
the bells which the katcinas carried, and soon the personator of 



38 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ans. 21 

Masauu came down a ladder as if a stairway, and, making his way back 
of the lino of dancers, came forward between two of them and squatted 
before the rirepUice. The second pei'sonator followed, unmasked, 
but with two black streaks painted on his cheeks. He took his seat 
by the side of Masauu, assumino- the posture of a man planting, 
holding one end of the planting stick to the floor as if it were soil. 
Thus these two personators remained until the songs ceased, not 
speaking. When the Maswiks filed out, each said "' Good night " but 
the last one, who carried a bundle slung over his shoulders, halted, 
with one foot on the lowest rung of the ladder, and announced to the 
occupants of the room that a few moons hence there would be a 
Masaiul ceremony at ]Mastcomo. 

At the departure of the dancers all occupants of the room crowded 
forward, each in turn placing his pra^-er symbol or feathered string in 
the basket tray, whispering a brief prayer to ]\Iasauu. This was an 
impressive cereraonj', and was accompanied with much reverence. 
There was no loud talking, and each man seemed to speak confiden- 
tially to the personation of the supernatural being he addressed. Hav- 
ing received all the prayers of the kiva inmates, the two personations 
passed out of the room, leaving their trays full of stringed feathers. 
The situation of the shrines where these offerings were later placed 
was not observed, but some of them were placed at the shrine of 
Masauu in the foothills west of the mesa. 

The foregoing rites and the nature of the prayers addressed to 
Masauu lead the author to regard him as a god of germination or a 
personation of fire as a symbol of life. Life, to a primitive mind, is 
power of will expressed in motion, and is the mystery which animates 
everything, organic and inorganic. Masauu has the mysterious power 
so developed that he can make crops grow if he wills, and he was 
appealed to for crops, as a germ god. There are other germ gods, as 
Muyifiwii or Alosaka, the germ god of Awatobi, Init Masauu, one of 
the most archaic in Tusayan, was derived from Sikyatki. In earlj' 
history, as legend declares, he owned all Hopi territory, but the chief 
of the Snake clan, by the use of his own mystei-ious power, overcame 
the mystery or medicine of Masauu, even though he had power of life 
and death, and compelled him to do good deeds. 

Thus it is that Masauu is regarded as the god of tire, which is life; 
as the god of death: l»ut above all as the god of germs. Eototo, whom 
the ancient Sikyatkians regarded as their special tutelary deity: once 
overcome by the Hopi, he now does their bidding. 

APPEARANCE OF POWAMU KATCINAS 

Certain beings called Powamu katcinas appear on the following 
morning in the kiva, where they dance and perform other rites. The 
artist has represented these, and also So wiiqti (Grandmother woman), 
who grasps the Powanul katcina I)y the hand (see plate xiv). 



FEWKEs] POWAMU CEREMONY , 39 

DISTRIBUTION OF BEAN .SPROUTS, DOLLS. AND OTHER OBJECTS 

At sunrise of the last day of Powarnu, two personations from each 
kiva distribute the sjjrouted beans, dolls, bows and arrows, moccasins, 
and other objects which have been made for that purpose. From their 
appearance at dawn they are called the Dawn (Telavai) katcinas, and 
in 1900 the following were observed performing- this duty: Owa 
katcina, INIalo katcina, Hehea katcina, Huhuan katcina, Sio Humis 
katcina, Tatciikti. 

Shortly after this distribution a man personating Soyok wiiqti went 
about Wulpi holding conversations at the kivas and private houses, 
frightening children until they cried. 

COLLECTION OF FOOD BY MONSTERS 

Later in the dav three groups of Soyoko or monsters, each group 
consisting of four Natackas, one Natacka mana, one Hahai wi'iqti, 
one Hehea katcina, and two Hehea katcina manas, went to every 
house of their pueblo demanding food from the inmates, as they had 
notified the people they would eight days previously. Hahai wiiqti 
acted as speaker, assuming a falsetto voice, the Natackas emjihasized 
the demands, and Hehea, armed with lassos, tried to rope those who 
refused. It is customary for the boj's to first ofl'er Hahai wiiqti a 
mole or rat on a stick. This is refused, and then a small piece of 
meat, generally mutton, is held out. The Natacka examines it and if 
not large enough hands it back as he did the. rat, shaking his hideous 
head. When the desired quantit}- of meat is presented, it is given to 
the Natacka mana, who transfers it to a basket she carries on her 
back. The girl or woman is then asked for meal, and she offers meal 
that she has ground from the ear of corn presented by the monsters 
on their previous visit. This is refused and more meal is demanded 
until enough is given to satisfy the monsters, who transfer it to the 
basket of Natacka mana, after which they retire." 

Winter Lakone Paholawi;- 

The Lalakontu have an assemblage in winter — a meeting of the 
chiefs, at which prayer sticks are made. This is held in Vensi's house 
near the Mon kiva — the old house of the Patki clans. Vensi, the 
owner, is the oldest woman of the clan who is now active. No altar 
is put in place during this rite, which simply consists of prayers and 
songs. 

« The monsters that visit the houses as described above are represented in a photograph taken at 
Walpi by Mr James Mooney and published with his permission in a paper in the Fifteenth Annual 
Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, as plate cv. The names of these, beginning at the right 
of the line, are: 1, Hahai wiiqti: 2, Natacka naami'i; 3, Soyok mana; 4, Soyok mana; 5, 6. 7, », 9, 
Natackas of different-colored masks; 10. 11, 12, Heheas. 



40 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

PalClukonti, ok Ankwanti 

This fe.stival, like the two preceding, is an excellent one in which 
to study Hopi symbolism, for many masked personuycs appear in the 
dramatizations in the kivas and on the plazas outside. As has ))een 
shown elsewhere, the proceedings in the kivas are theatrical ('xhit)i- 
tions which varj- from 3-ear to year accordingly as one chief or another 
controls the different acts. Throughout the performance at w'hich the 
author was present two old men, wdio may be called the kiva chiefs, 
sat by the tireplace in the middle of the room and continually fed the 
flames with small twigs of greasewood, the sole method of lighting the 
room on that night. The heat was very great and the ventilation was so 
poor that the atmosphere was stifling. The audience consisted mainly 
of women and children, who occupied one end of the room, the remain- 
der being empty except while performances were being enacted. 
Everyone was gladl}' welcomed to see the performance, and there were 
probably not a dozen persons on the mesa who did not attend. No one 
paid admission to this theater and no actor received a recompense. It 
was a festival for all to enjoy, as all contributed to its success. Except 
in one act, no woman took part as an actor, and there were few men 
in the audience. The spectators assembled about I> p. m., each clan 
seeking that kiva w'ith w^hich it had social affiliation. The.se acts are 
thus described in another paper:" 

ACTS PERFORMED IN 1900 

First Act 

A voice was heard at the hatchway, as if someone were hooting 
outside, and a moment later a ball of meal, thrown into the room from 
without, landed on the floor by the fireplace. This was a signal that the 
first group of actors had arrived, and to this announcement the fire 
tenders responded, " Yunya ai " ( "'Come in " ), an invitation which was 
repeated by several of the spectators. After considerable hesitation 
on the part of the visitors and renewed cries to enter from those in 
the room, there was a movement above and the hatchway was dark- 
ened by the form of a man descending. The fire tenders rose and 
held their blankets about the fire to darken the room. Immediatelj' 
there came down the ladder a procession of masked men bearing long 
poles, upon which was rolled a cloth screen, while under their blankets 
certain objects were concealed. Filing to the unoccupied end of the 
kiva, they rapidly set up the objects they bore. When they were 
ready a signal was given, and the fire tenders, dropping their blankets, 
resumed their seats bj^ the tireplace. On the floor before our aston- 
ished eyes we saw a miniature field of corn, made of small clay ped- 
estals out of which projected corn sprouts a few inches high. Behind 

« A theatrical performance at Walpi, in Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences, vol. 
II, Washington, 1900, pp. 607-626. 



™«KEs] PALULUKONTI, OR ANKWANTI 41 

this field of corn hung a decorated cloth screen reaching from one 
wall of the room to the other and from the floor almo.st to the rafters. 
On this screen were painted many strange devices, among which were 
pictures of human beings, male and female, and of bii-ds, symbols of 
rain clouds, lightning, and falling rain. Prominent among the sym- 
bols was a row of six circular disks, the borders of which were made 
of plaited corn husks, while the inclosed tield of each was decorated 
with a s\-mbolic picture of the sun. Men w^earing grotesque masks" 
and ceremonial kilts stood on each side of this screen, one dressed as 
a woman and bearing in one hand a basket tray of meal and in the 
other an ear of corn. He wore a helmet with a coil of hair suspended 
on each side of the face, a bunch of feathers on the top, and a l)ang 
made of red horsehair hanging before the face. The helmet was 
painted black, and small crescents indicated the eyes and the mouth. 

The act began with a song, to which the masked men, ext'ept the 
last-mentioned, danced. A hoarse roar made by a concealed actor 
blowing through an empty gourd'' resounded from behind the screen, 
and immediately the circular disks swung open upward, and were seen 
to be flaps hinged above, covering orifices through which sinmlta- 
neously protruded six artificial heads of serpents, realistically iiainted. 
Each head had protuberant goggle-eyes and bore a curved horn and a 
fan-like crest of hawk feathers. A mouth with teeth was cut in one 
end, and from this orifice there hung a strip of leather painted red, 
representing the tongue. 

Slowly at fii'st, but afterward more rapidly, these efiigies were thrust 
farther into view, each revealing a liody -t or 5 feet long, painted, 
like the head, black on the back and white on the bell3'. When they 
were fully extended, the song grew louder, and the effigies moved back 
and forth, raising and depressing their heads in time, wagging them 
to one side or the other in unison. They seemed to t)ite ferociously 
at each other, and viciously darted at men standing near the screen. 
This remarkable play contiiuied for some time, when suddenly the 
heads of the serpents bent down to the floor and swept across the 
imitation cornfield, knocking over the clay pedestals and the corn 
leaves which they supported. Then the effigies raised their heads 
and wagged them back and forth as before. It was observed that 
the largest efligy, that in the middle, had several udders on each 
side of the belh', and that she apparently suckled the others. Mean- 
while the roar emitted from behind the screen by a concealed man 
continued, and wild excitement seemed to prevail. Some of the 
spectators threw meal at the effigies, oft'ering prayers, amid shouts 
from others. The masked man representing a woman stepped for- 
ward and presented the contents of the basket tray to the serpent 

"Representing the Bear kateinas. 

bThia gourd was decorated with the symbolic masks of the Great Plumed Snake. 



42 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann.21 

effigies for food, after which he licld his breasts to them as if to 
suckle them." 

Shortly after this the song diminished in volume, the effigies were 
slowl}' drawn back through the openings, the flaps on which the sun 
.syniV)ols were painted fell back into place, and after one final roar, 
made l)y the man behind the screen, the room was again silent. The 
overturned pedestals, witli tiicir corn leaves, were distributed among 
the spectators, and the two men by the fireplace again held up their 
blankets ))efore the tire, while the screen was silenth' rolled up, and 
the actors with their paraphernalia departed. 

The accompanying plate'' repi'esents the cloth screen tied in position 
to the roof of the kiva and the miniature cornfield on the floor Ijefore 
it. The six openings in the screen, four of which are larger than 
the other two, are arranged in a I'ow. and out of five of these open- 
ings protrude serpent effigies. The flaps which ordinarily cover 
these orifices are raised, with the exception of that at the extreme 
right, which hangs in place to show the sun symbol on its face and 
the tip of a serpent's head near one margin. The central effigy 
(yuamu, their mother) is knocking over the rows of clay pedestals 
which form the miniature cornfield. The masked human figure 
standing at the left before the screen represents the mother of the 
clan gods, or Hahai wiiqti, who is holding forward a basket tray of 
meal, which she offers as food to the serpents. One of the performers 
ma}' be obscurely seen behind the screen, blowing the gourd trumpet 
by which the '" roars " of the great serpents are imitated. 

Prominent among the designs painted on this screen are three 
huniiin figures. That of a man has two horns on the head like an 
Alo.saka'' and, as so often occurs in pictures or images on altars, the 
maidens have their hair arranged in disks, one above each ear, as in 
the Ilopi maid's coiflure of the present daj'. These maidens w'ere 
called Tubeboli manas. The other design represents birds, lightning, 
rain clouds, and falling rain. The first act was performed by men of 
the kiva which is situated in the middle of the Hano plaza,'' and the 
screen and snake effigies are owned by men of that pueblo. The 
screen was repainted on the day of the dramatization by the men who 
took part in the act. No actor tasted food on that day liefore the 
decoration of the screen was finished, and at the close of their work 
all vomited over the cliffs. This Hano screen and the drama acted 
before it resemble those which are occasionally used in the chief kiva 
of VValpi. 

rtThis actor represented Hahai wiiqti, mother of katcinas or clan-ancients. 
'•Plate xxxil, Proc. Wash. Aoad. Sci.. vol. II, 1900. 
'"One of the prominent gods in Hopi worship, 
rf Called the Kisombi kiva, plaza kiva. 



FEWKEs] PALULUKONTI, t>R ANKWAKTI 43 

Seccmd Art 

The second act, a Inili'alo dance, was one of the best on this eventful 
night. Several men wearing hehiiets representing Initfalo heads, with 
lateral horns and shagg_y sheepskins, and wool painted black hanging 
down their backs, entered the room. They carried zigzag slats of 
wood, symbolic of lightning, arid performed a characteristic dance to 
the beat of a drum. These bulialo personations were accompanied 
by a masked man and 1)0}- representing eagles, who danced before 
them, uttering calls in imitation of liirds. 

The same butfalo dance, but more complicated, was cele))rated 
earlier in the winter iu the public plaza of Walpi, at which time the 
men were accompanied by girls dressed as Buffalo maids who did not 
appear in the second act in the kivas. No representation of the eagles 
was seen in this public dance. 

The Buffalo maids bore disks decorated with sun emblems on their 
backs, and carried notched sticks representing ''sun ladders"" in 
their hands. It is appropriate that this dance should be given bj- 
men from the Tanoan pueblo. Hano, as it was probably introduced 
by men of the same stock from the llio Grande region, by whom this 
village was settled. 

Third Act 

A new set of actors made their presence known at the entrance to 
the kiva soon after the departure of the Buffaloes, but these were 
found, on their entrance, to be very unlike those who had preceded them. 
They Ijrought no sun screens nor sei-pent effigies with them, but were 
clothed in ceremonial kilts, and wore masks shaped like helmets. 
Thej'were called Piiiikon katcinas, and were accompanied by two men 
dressed like women, one representing their grandmother and the 
other their mother. The former personated Kokyan wiiqti.* or Spider 
woman, and wore a closely lifting mask with white crescentic eyes 
painted on a blackened face, and white hair made of raw cotton. She 
danced before the fire in the middle of the room, gracefully posturing 
her body and arms, while the others sang and danced to the beat of a 
drum. As the actors tiled out of the room Spider woman distributed 
to the spectators seeds of corn, melon, and the like.' 

a Ancient Hopi ladders were notched logs, some of which are still extant on the East mesa. In 
the winter solstice ceremony at Hano there stand, back of the altars, notched slats of wood called 
"sun ladders," which are supposed to be efficacious in rites recalling the sun or aiding an enfeebled 
sun to rise out of his " home." The prayer-sticks carried by the Buffalo maids are imitations of these 
sun ladders. 

^This part was taken by Nanahe, a Hopi who has for many years made his home at Zuiii and 
returned to Walpi to be present at the dance. 

t'The mother and grandmother of Piiiikoii katcinas naturally appear as representatives of the 
ancients of some clan with which this special form of the katcina cult originated. Hahai wiiqti. 
who does not appear in this act, but in the tirst and fifth, is represented by Kokyan wiiqti, probably 
tlie same supernatural under a different name. 



44 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ass. 21 

Fourth Act 

After tlip audience had sat silent for al)out a quarter of an hour 
men were lieard walkhij;' on the rooi and stranoe eries came down the 
hatchway. Again the tire tenders called to the visitors to enter, and 
muffled responses, as of maslced persons outside, were heard in repl\'. 
First came down the ladder a man wearing- a shabby mask covered 
with vertical zigzag lines." bearing a heavy bundle on his Vjack. A.s 
he climbed down the ladder he pretended to slip on each rung, but 
ultimately liuided on the Hoor without accident, and opened his bundle, 
which was found to contain a metate and meal-grinding stone. He 
arranged these on the floor before the fireplace and took his place at 
one side. A second man with a lik(> ))undle followed, and deposited 
his burden by the side of tne other. Two masked girls,'' ela))orately 
dressed in white ceremonial l)lankets, followed, and knelt h\ the stones 
facing the tire, assuming tlie posture of girls when grinding corn. 

After them entered the chorus, a procession of masked men who 
filed around the room and halted in line behind the kneeling girls. 
At a signal these last arrivals began to sing, and as they sang moved 
in a solemn dance. The girls ru])bed the mealing stones back and 
forth over the metates, grinding the meal in time with the song, and 
the men clapped their hands, swaying their Ijodies in rhythm. 

The last-mentioned men held an animated conversation with the lire 
tenders, asserting that the girls were expert meal grinders, and from 
time to time crossed the i-oom. putting pinches of the meal into the 
mouths of the lire tenders and spectators. This continued for some 
time, after which the girls rose and danced in the middle of the room, 
posturing their bodies and extending alternately their hands, in which 
thej' carried corn ears. The chorus personated the Navaho Afiya kat- 
cinas, the girls were called the Navaho Any a maids and were supposed 
to be sisters of men in the chorus. 

In order better to understand this act, let us consider the nature of 
the cult from which the personages appearing in it were derived. 
These personages are called katcinas. of which there are many kinds 
among the Hopis, differing from each other in the sj'mbolism of their 
masks and other paraphernalia. Their distinctive names are totem- 
istic, the same as those of clans now living either at Walpi or at some 
other place from which the katcinas were derived. Katcinas are 
tutelary clan gods of the ancestral type, and when personated appear 
as })oth males and females. 

In many cases the katcina is represented by no clan of the same 
totemistic name now living in the pueblo. This has been brought 
about in several ways, of which there may be mentioned: (1) The 

« These men were called Hehea katcinas. 

'> These girls were called the Tacalj Afiya katcina manas. On the daj- following, two girls repre- 
senting the Anya katcina mauas performed the same act in the public plaza of Walpi, 



FEWKEs] PALULUKONTI, OR ANKWANTI 45 

claii has become extinet, while its ivutciiui has survived; {'!) a kateina 
has been purchased or borrowed from a neighboring- people; (3) a kat- 
eina mask has been invented by some imaginative person who has seen 
an object which he thinks fitting for a kateina totem. 

A study of a clan and the kateina which bears the same name will 
be instructive in the determination of their relation. 

There are several clans where this clan relation of the kateina still 
retains its primitive totemistic character, and at least one where the 
names of both clan and kateina are the same. For instance, the 
members of the Tcal<\vaina or Asa clans claim that the Tcakwaina 
katcinas are their clan-ancients, and when they ^^ersonate these clan- 
ancients they represent the following masked personages: 

1. Tcatcakwaina taamu, Tcakwainas, their uncle. 

2. Tcatcakwaina tatakti, Teakwainas, males (bi-others). 

3. Tcatcakwaina kokoianii'i, Tcakwainas, their elder sister. 

4. Tcatcakwaina nianiantu (=manaa), Tcakwaina-s, maids (sisters). 

5. Tcatcakwaina ynaniu, Tcakwainas, their mother. 

It will be noticed that all these ancestral personages belong to one 
and the same clan — the mother, brotlicrs (tatakti), sisters (mamanantu), 
and uncle — but that the father is unrepresented. 

The most important fact, however, is that the name of the katcinas 
is the same as that of the clan, viz., Tcakwaina, and that men of this 
clan personate in dramatic and ceremonial performances the super- 
naturals bearing their clan name. They do not introduce a persona- 
tion of the Tcakwaina father because he is not of their clan, and hence 
can not be a supernatural of their clan. 

An analysis of other katcinas shows that many of them are ancients 
of clans, or that each clan originally had distinctive divinized ancients 
in the kateina cult. These gods are personated as brothers, sisters, 
uncle, mother, or grandmother, the paraphernalia being determined 
by the particular clan totem. 

The relation of a kateina to its clan can be traced in many other 
instances, but in others, and perhaps the majority, it is obscured l)y 
changes in nomenclature and sociologic development. Katcinas often 
no longer bear their ancient names, but ai"e called from some peculiarit}' 
of dress, prominent symbol of the mask, or peculiar cry emitted by 
them, which has no connection with the totems of their respectiv'e 
clans. The Aiiya katcinas (brothers, men) and the Afiya kateina manas 
(sisters) belong to this group. They were originally introduced b}^ 
Patki (Rain-cloud clans) from settlements on the Little Colorado river, 
and their name has no relation to the clans which lirought them. In 
fact at Zufii the dance of these katcinas is called the Kokshi, Good 
dance, while the name of the same at Walpi is the Anj'a. or Long-hair. 
We have also at the latter pueblos other names for the Afiya manas, 
as Soyal manas, equally inapplicable so far as their clan relation is 
concerned. 



46 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. anx. 21 

The popular names of Hopi gud.s, among which are included 
katcinas or clan tutelary siipornaturals, are commonly of exoteric 
origin and are oftentimes very numerous. Unfortunately the archaic 
name is often lost, although in a few cases it is the same as the 
popular. 

Fifth Act 

As after former acts, we waited a few minutes only for the next, a 
fifth, which was somewhat similar in character to the first. A call at 
the hatchway and an invitation from within to enter led to the 
appearance of a procession of masked men who came down the ladder 
bearing paraphernalia for their exhibition hidden under their arms or 
concealed in blankets. Tlie fire tenders shielded tlie fire once more 
with blankets, so that the room was darkened, and in the ol)scure 
light the actors arranged their stage properties. When the blankets 
were dropped, the light revealed on the fioor before u.s an imitation 
field of corn, each hill of which was a claj' pedestal with projecting 
corn leaves, and behind it. as a background, a wooden framework 
decorated with peripheral turkey feathers" and hung with two disks 
painted with sun emblems. Pine boughs were so arranged in the 
framework that they filled all vacant spaces and shielded performers 
in the rear of the room. Several nuked men, called •"inudheads," 
wearing on their heads close-fitting cloth bags with attached knobs, 
stood befoi-e the framework, which was supported by two of their 
number. The exercises opened with •"roars" from behind the disks 
and vigorous dancing by the mudheads before the screen. 

Soon the flaps of the sun disks swung open and from under them 
emerged the hideous heads of two snake eifigies. larger than those of 
the first performance, but similarly constructed. These serpent heads 
were thrust forward until their serpentine Ijodies. extended several 
feet, came into view. Their heads darted back and forth, swaying 
first to one side and then to the other, biting viciously now at the 
audience and then at each other, while deep roars imitating the voice 
of the serpent emerged from the rear of the room. With one stroke 
of the head the fieldof corn was swept over and the serpents twisted 
their bodies about each other. 

One of the naked men, a mudhead, wearing the knobbed cloth 
bag, stepped forward and grasped one of the sei'pent effigies by the 
neck. He pretended to wrestle with the snake, and for a time was 
successful, but at last the man was overcome and sent sprawling 
on the floor. Then another advanced to the conflict, and he too 
was thrown down. A youthful mudhead made a like attempt and 
mounted the efligy, riding on its neck as if on horseback. The whole 
act wf^s a realistic representation of the struggle of man with the 
serpent. Ultimatel\- the serpents contracted their bodies, drew back 

(I Sun shields commonly have eagle feathers inserted about their borders. 



PEWKEs] PALULUKONTI, OR ANKWANTI 47 

their head^; behind the flap.s. and the performance ended with a 
prolonged roar from behind the screen. In the darkness which 
followed, made b\- hangino- blankets before the tire, the actors packed 
their paraphernalia, gathei'ed their ethgies, and quietly left the room. 
The accompanying plate" represents this lifth act. or the struggle 
of the mudhead with the serpent efligies. The framework, which 
is supported l)y two men, is decorated with zigzag symltols repre- 
senting lightning; the row of semicircular bodies on the crossbeam 
symbolizes the rain clouds, from which descend parallel marks, the 
falling rain. These six semicircular rain-cloud symbols are of dili'er- 
ent colors, j'ellow, green, red, and white, corresponding to the sup- 
posed colors of the cardinal points, and all have animal designs 
representing frogs and l)irds painted upon them. The manipulators 
of the serpent effigies are hidden from view by pine or cedar boughs 
inserted into a log on the Hoor. which is covered with figures of rings, 
symbolic of the earth. At the right of a median vertical line a ser- 
pent effigy is seen protruded through an opening, above which is a 
circular flap raised to a horizontal position. The serpent effigy on 
this side is searching for a youthful "mudhead." who has crawled 
below the disk. The left-hand serpent is represented in conflict 
with an adult mudhead. who has grasped it about the body and 
neck; the serpent appears to be biting at its opponent. We are look- 
ing at this strange contest from the raised spectators' floor of the 
kiva; the miniature cornfield, which one of the serpents knocked 
down a short time before, has been removed, and the clay pedestals 
which remained are distributed among the spectators. The weird 
effects of the light from the fireplace in the middle of the room have 
been brought out by the artist, Mrs Gill, who has successfully drawn 
these screens from the author's kodak photographs and sketches. 

Sixth Act 

There was j^et another exhibition of serpent effigies in this con- 
tinuous performance, and the actors were announced in much the same 
way as their predecessors. They appeared shortly after the depar- 
ture of the Spider woman and her associates, and arranged their 
paraphernalia in the darkened room, holding up an additional blanket 
to conceal their preparations, ^^'hen the blankets were dropped from 
before the fire, a miniature field of corn was seen on the kiva floor, 
and back of it were two vases surrounded, except on the side toward 
the fire, by a row of squatting mudheads. A song immediatel}' began, 
and suddenly the four lappets '' which covered the orifice of each 
vase were turned back automatically, when out of the vases slowly 

<i Plate XXXIII, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. ii, 1900. 

'>These four semicircular flaps, .symbols of rain clouds, -were painted in four colors, yellow, green, 
red, and white. On the necks of the vases were parallel lines, s.vmbols of falling rain, and on their 
fiides were stars and tadpole decoration. Each vase was placed on a bed of cedar or pine boughs to 
make it more stable. 



48 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. anx. 21 

emorgcd the heads; of two uititicial .-serpents drawiiiir their bodies 
behind them. These effects wei'e produced b^' hidden strings placed 
over the kiva rafters, and the images were made by this means to I'ise 
and fall, move ))ack\vard and forward, or to apjjroaeh each other. 
Their heads were drawn down to the floor and swept over the minia- 
ture cornfield, overturning it as in the fiist act, when a sun screen 
was also employed. They struggled with each other, winding their 
heads together, and performed various other g3'rations at the wish of 
the manipulators. The effects produced with these strings were 
efi'ecti\e, and the motions of the men who held the strings and manip- 
ulated the effigies were closelj' concealed. It is probable that some of 
the strings were attached to the rattles used by the chorus. 

The performance was a very realistic one, for in the dim light of 
the room the strings were invisible, and the serpents seemed to rise 
voluntarily from the vases. At its close the effigies sank into the cavi- 
ties of the vases and the song ceased. In the darkness the jjara- 
phernalia were wrapped in l)lankets, and the actors left the room, 
passing to another kiva, where the performance was repeated. The 
personators of this act were from the Tcivato kiva of Walpi. and their 
chief was Pautiwa. 

While we were witnessing these six exhit)itions in one room shows 
were simultaneously being enacted in the other eight kivas on the 
East mesa. The six sets of actors, each with their paraphernalia, 
passed in turn from one room to another, in all of which spectators 
awaited their coming. Each of the performances was given nine 
times that night, and it may safely be said that all were witnessed by 
the 500 people who comprise the population of the three pueblos in 
one kiva or another." It was midnight when this primitive theater 
closed, and the effigies were disjointed and carried to hidden cr3-pts in 
the houses, where they were luted in jars with clay, not to see the 
light again until ^Nlarch of the next year. 

ADDITIONAL ACTS SOMETIMES PERFORMED 

Although the sixth act closed the series of theatrical exhibitions in 
1900, it by no means exhausts the dramatic resources of the Hopis in 
the presentation of their Great Serpent exhiliition. This year (lltOo) 
was said by all to be one of abbreviation in all winter ceremonies and 
dramatic performances, but in more elaborate exhibitions, in other 
years, instead of six there are. we are told, as many as nine acts in this 
continuous show, employing one set of actors from each kiva on the 
mesa. Our account would be more comprehensive if it included short 
references to one or two of the important additional acts which occur 
in the more elaborate performance.* 

a On such occasions each clan assembles in a certain kiva, which is said to be the kiva of that clan. 

b The sun screen and serpent effigies used by men of the Niicab kiva have been described in a former 
article (Tlie PaliiIukonti..Ti.mrnal of American Folk-Lore, vol. ii. 1833 1. This performance has many 
points of likeness to that of actors from the pltiza kiva of Hano, described in the first act. 



FEWKES] PALI'LUKONTI, OR ANKWANTI 49 

Sometimes the screen performance is accompanied l)v an exhihition 
by a masked man or men. wlio pretend to struggle witli a snake effigy 
which they carry in their arms. This performance consists mainly in 
twisting these effigies about the body and neck of the performer, hold- 
ing them aloft, or even throwing them to the roof of the kiva, as else- 
where" described in an account of the celebration in 1893. 

In some years marionettes representing Corn maids are substituted 
for the two masked girl.s in the act of grinding corn, and these two 
figures ai-e very skillfully manipulated by concealed actors. Although 
this representation was not introduced in 1900. it has often been 
described to me, and one of the Hopi men has drawn me a picture of the 
marionettes, which is worth reproduction in a plate (see plate xxvii). 

The figurines are brought into a darkened room wrapped in 
blankets, and are set up near the middle of the kiva in much the same 
way as the screens. The kneeling images, suiTounded by a wooden 
framework, are manipulated by concealed men: when the song ))egin.s 
they are made to bend their bodies backward and forward in time, 
grinding the meal on miniature metates before them. The movements 
of girls in grinding meal are so cleverly imitated that the figurines, 
moved by hidden strings, at times raise their hands to their faces, 
which they rub with meal as the girls do when using the grinding 
stones in their rooms. 

During this marionette performance two ))ird effigies were made to 
walk back and forth along- the upper horizontal bar of the framework, 
while bird calls issued from the rear of the room. 

The substitution of marionettes for masked girls suggests an 
explanation of the use of idols among the Hopis. A supernatural 
lieing of the Hopi Olympus may be represented in ceremony or 
drama by a man wearing a mask, or bj^ a graven image or picture, a 
symliol of the same. Sometimes one, sometimes the other method of 
representing the god is emploj-ed, and often both. The image may be 
used on the altar, while the masked man appears in the public exhibi- 
tion in the pueblo plaza. Neither idol nor masked personators are 
worshipped, but both are regarded as .symbolic representations in which 
possibl}- the gods may tempoi'arilv reside. 

So with the u.se of marionettes to represent the Corn maidens in the 
theatrical exhibition or the personation of the beings by masked 
girls. They are symbolic representations of the mythic maidens 
whose beneficent gifts of corn and other seeds in ancient times is a 
constant theme in Hopi legends. 

The clan ancients or katcinas personated in the Great Serpent 
drama vary from year to year, implying the theatrical nature of the 
festival, but there are certain of these personations which invariably 

« Article cited. The maslied man who thus struggles with the serpent effigy represents Calako. a 
sun god, but figures of him drawn by a Hopi artist were called Macibol katcina. 

21 ETH— 03 i 



50 HOPI KATCIlSrAS [ETH. A.N.V, 21 

appear. In the exhibition of 1898, the onlj' one previous to I'.tOO on 
which we have relial)le note.s, there was one pert'orniaiife with a sun 
screen and serpent effigies which were manipulated by the men of the 
kiva under the Snake rock. The symbols depicted on this screen 
differed somewhat from those on the screen employed in IHOO, but the 
general character of the performance with it was the same. Briefly 
considered the acts given in 1893 were as follow: 

First (let. An exhibition with the sun screen and .serpent effigies by 
men of Nacab kiva similar to the first act of 1900, but in which the actors 
personated Pawik (Duck), Tacab (Navaho), Hahai wiiqti. and others. 
A masked man (Calako) stood before the screen holding in his arms 
an effigy of a Great Snake with which he appeared to struggle, and 
for that reason was called "The Struggling One." The serpent effigy 
carried was manipulated in such a waj^ that the man and snake 
appeared to be engaged in a combat, much as in the fifth act of 1900, 
except that the serpent effigj' was not thrown through an opening 
closed by a disk bearing sun symbols. The manipulator wore a false 
arm" hanging from one shoulder in place of his real arm. which was 
thrust within the body of the effigy, grasping a stick, the '•l)ackbone" 
of the monster. 

Second act. Dance of masked men representing Anya katcinas. 

Third (id. Dance of masked men representing Tacab katcinas. 

Fourth art. Dance of masked men representing clowns and two 
Huhuan katcinas. 

Fifth ad. Dance of men personating women of the Owakiiltu society, 
who threw their baskets to the spectators. 

Sixth (id. Dance of men representing old women bearing willow 
wands. 

Seventh ad. Dance of masked men representing Tanoan Aiiya 
katcinas. 

The god of death, Masauu,'' was personated in the 1893 exhibition 
and appeared in the plaza about 2 p. m., '"dancing through Walpi 
with a hobbling movement, singing snatches of a song. He was 
masked and wrapped in a i-abbit-skin rug, and went to all the kivas, 
beating the entrance with a bush" {BiijeJovia graveolenx). 

On the day following the night exhibition in 1SH3 there were public 
dances of the Tacab and Aiiya katcinas. 

VARAPHERNALIA USED. THEIR COKSTRUCTION AND SYMBOLISM 

The effigies of Paliililkon now used at the East inesa are not veiy 
ancient, although there are one or two which show considerable antiq- 
uity. One of these older specimens has a bodj' of buckskin, but the 
majority, and all the recent ones, are made of cotton cloth. The 

'1 For figures of the false arm see Jounial of American Folk-Lore, vol. vi, 1893, plate ii. 
'•Two boys took this part in 1900. 



FEWKES] PALULUKONTI, OK ANKWANTI 51 

present screens are of the latter material, but these are commonly 
said to have replaced others of skin or native cloth. The Walpi men 
made two new serpent efEgies in their kivas in 1900, and all the 
material of which they were manufactured was purchased from the 
neighboring trader at Keams Canyon. 

Each of the three pueblos, Hano, Sichumovi, and Walpi, has several 
of these serpent eiBgies, which are kept in the houses of the following 
clans: 

Hano, Sa (Tobacco) clan; Sichumovi, Patki (Rain-cloud) clan; Walpi, 
Tciia (Snake) clan, Pakab (Reed) clan. 

In ancient times they were kept in stone inclosures outside the 
pueblos, but these receptacles have been abandoned of late, on account 
of the inroads of nomads. It is said that the Oraibi and Middle mesa 
pueblos still have extramural receptacles for the Pali'ilukofi etligies. 
The house of the ancient Plumed Snake of Hano is a small cave in the 
side of the mesa near the ruin Tiirkinobi, where several broken serpent 
heads and eiEgy ribs, or wooden hoops, can now be seen, although the 
entrance is walled up and rarely opened. 

A knowledge of the mechanical construction of the serpent ethgies 
may aid in an understanding of their manipulation. Their heads are 
either cut out of cottonwood or made of gourds, and are painted, and 
the protuberant goggle-eyes are small buckskin bags tied to the tgp. 
Each head bears a medial horn curving forward, sometimes made with 
joints and at other times solid. A radiating crest of hawk feathers is 
tied vertically to the back of the head. The teeth are cut in the gourd 
or wood of which the head is made and are painted red. The tongue 
is a leather strap, also painted red, and protrudes from the mouth a 
considerable distance. The top of the head is black, the bottom white, 
and these same colors continue along the sides of the body. 

The body consists of a central stick, called a backbone, over which 
is extended a covering that is held in place by a series of hoops 
graduated in size from the neck to the end. The effigy is manipulated 
by means of a stick, held by a man l)ehind the screen. The "back- 
bone" has a ferule cut in it a few inches l)ack of the neck, and to this 
ferule are tied a quartz crystal called the heart and a package which 
contains corn seeds of all colors, melon, squash, cotton, and other 
seeds, and a black praj'er-stick. The cotton cloth stretched over the 
series of hoops, called ribs, which form the body, is painted l)lack above 
and white below, with a red streak at the dividing line, where there 
are also other markings and symiiols, like those on the kilts of the 
Snake priests. 

The backbones of the two efEgies which were made to rise out of 
the vases were short and stumpy, but they have a "• heart" similar to 
the longer ones, and an attached package of seeds. 



52 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

RKSUMlJ: OF EVENTS IN PAT-t'JLi'KONTr IN 1900 

Feliruary llf.. On this day (^orn was planted in tlircc kivas, the 
Moil kiva, Tcivato iviva of Walpi, and the plaza kiva of Hano. This 
corn was daily watered and the kivas were heated so that the seeds 
might sprout. The miniature cornfield was later made of these sprouts. 
Children are not allowed to know that the corn is thus planted before 
the exhibition. The planting of corn seeds has given the name "Corn 
plantint;-" to Palnliikofiti, just as the one of beans in a like way gave 
the name "Bean planting" to the Fowaniu, but these names char- 
acterize incidents not the true purpose of the festival. 

Fi-liriiarii "26. About two weeks after the corn seeds were planted 
the effigies of the Great Serpent were brought into the three kivas 
above mentioned at nightfall, when the rehearsals of the acts to be 
given later took place. 

F'lriuiri/ 37 ( Yunya). This day was devoted to the preparation 
of the paraphernalia, and at sundown there was a i-ehearsal of the 
Great Serpent acts, as also on the following daj'. 

Ma/'c/i 1 (Komoliotol'ya). In addition to the rehearsals in the kiva, 
masked men representing Wupamau, Honau, Hehea, Mucaias. "Wuyok. 
Soyan cp, and Samo wi'uitaka katcinas appeared in the plazas. The\- 
dressed and masked themselves at Wala (The Gap), and marched up 
the trail into Hano, where they gathered at the kiva hatches, and held 
an animated conversation with the chief of the kiva, who came to the 
hatchway for that purpose. 

March 3 {Totohya). Many masked men were seen throughout the 
day in the three East mesa pueblos. Early in the afternoon there 
were noticed in Hano three Woe katcinas, each with a chevi'on mark 
on th(^ face, and one Wupamau, or Big High Sky god, bearing the 
sun mask", and held by a nuidhead priest by a rope tied about his 
loins. In AValpi shortly afterward two small boys dressed and masked 
to represent Masauii went from one kiva to another, standing on the 
hatch and beating the ladder with bundles of sticks. 

Late in the afternoon the chief kiva of Hano sent to all the kivas 
on the East mesa a delegation of masked men representing Mucaias, 
Buffalo; Wupamau, Big High Sky (sun) god; Honau, Bear; Ahote; 
Citoto; Tcanau; Wukokoti; and many mudheads. They went from 
one kiva entrance to another, holding conversations with the kiva 
chiefs and in various waj's amusing the spectators. 

About sundown the men of the two Walpi kivas carried their snake 
effigies to the main spring of the pueblo, the home of Paliiliikoii, 
called Tawapa, Sun spring, where they performed ceremonies, while 
the men of Hano took their serpent effigies to a .spring called 

"The symbols of this mask resemble those of Tawa (sun) disks, and those of the masks of Ahiil, 
Ahulani, and Wuwviyomo, showing that the latter are probably the same sun gods under different 
clan names. 



FEWKES] PALULUKONTI, OR ANKWANTI 53 

Mofiwiva. sacred to their Ciroat Snake. The .six acts in the kivas were 
performed directly after the return of the men with the effigies from 
these springs. 

During the festival all actors abstain from salt and meat and do not 
sleep with their wives, a tabu which is rigidly observed, especially on 
the daj- preceding the exhibition in the kiva. 

On several of the days of this festival there are foot races along the 
water courses in the valley, during which the naked racers kick 
small stone nodules in a sinistral circuit around the mesa. This was 
a prayer for streams full of water. 

The events which occurred when the effigies were taken to the 
springs were wholly ceremonial, and not dramatic. During the day 
previous to this event, all men of prominence, especially chiefs of 
clans, brought feathered strings to the kivas, and tied them to the 
necks of the serpent effigies. One or more prayer-sticks were also 
made to be used at the springs. Six of these were made in the per- 
formance of 1893. One was tied to the Vnickbone of each effigy. Five 
others were deposited at the spring, some at the edge of the water, 
others beneath it. 

The exercises at the springs Tawapa and !Monwiva were not wit- 
nessed by the author in 1900, but they were probably the same as 
were described in the account of this episode in 1893." In that year, 
about 7.30 p. m., a procession went down to the spring carrying the 
effigies and the trumjaets by which the roars of the serpent are imitated. 
This procession was led by a man personating Hahai wiiqti and the kiva 
chief, "making a connecting trail from the south edge of the basin 
[Tawajja], along the east and north sides of the pool, and up as close 
to the west edge as the mud would permit. Those following with 
the serpent effigies, beginning at the east side of the pool, laid the 
effigies down close to the edge of the water, along the north side. 
The youths placed their gourd trumpets on the meal trail, upon which 
also were the serjaent effigies. All then sat on the north side facing 
the south. The leader, as he went down, deposited the five pahos 
. . . at the west side of the pool, setting them in a row fronting 
the east. 

''The leader of the jirocession bore the kopitcoki (cedar bark slow 
match). ... It had been lighted at the kiva tire before the 
procession started, and the fire was smouldering in the bark. ]\Iomi 
(kiva chief) lit a pipe by this torch and gave it to the leader, who 
made the usual response, smoked a few puffs and passed it to the next 
man on his right. Momi then lit another pipe and passed it also to 
the leader, and the two pipes passed down the two lines, in which 
they had arranged themselves when sitting, the elders in front, next 
the pool, the youths behind them. After all had smoked, the leader 

(• Journal of American Folk-Lore, vol. vi, 1893. 



54 HOP! KATCINAS [eth. asn. il 

prayed, and each of tlie nine elders followed in succession. The ten 
youths did not pra}-, hut each took his trumjjet [gourd] and, stepping 
one stride into the pool, stooped over, and. placing the bulbous end 
to his mouth with the small orifice on the sui'face of the water, 
trumpeted three or four times. Each of the youths then dipped up 
a little water in his trumpet and poured it into a vase. 

"The effigv bearers then dipped the tip of the serpents' heads and 
the ends of the hawk-tail plumes in the pool, and the leader said a 
short prayer and started back up the trail." 

Certainly the most remarkable of all the masked men who appeared 
that daj' wei'e the two personations of a being called Tcanau katcina. 
They wore circular masks with feathers projecting from the periphery 
and carried in their mouths realistic stuffed effigies of rattlesnakes, 
while over the e3'es of the masks were fastened carved wooden effigies 
of lizards. Although these masks suggest the custom of the well- 
known Snake dance, not the Snake clan but the Pakal) clan is said to 
have introduced this ceremonj' into the Walpi ferial calendar. 

March 3 {Tikilni). On the da}' after the acts in the kivas there 
was a i)ul)lic dance of the Aiiya katcinas in the Walpi plaza. During 
this dance grinding stones were placed in the middle of the open 
space by the Snake rock, behind which two girls i"epresenting Aiiya 
katcina manas took their position, and a line of Aiiya katcinas 
extended the whole length of the plaza. The latter served as chorus, 
while the girls ground meal, as in a kiva performance the night 
before. 

In this exhibition or dance there were also two men personating 
Hehea, whose actions were identical with those of the .same personations 
in the kiva performance. They sat on the ground as the girls ground 
the meal and the chorus sang. The personators in this dance were 
from the chief kiva of Walpi, and the exhibition has the .same 
meaning as that of the night before. 

There also appeared in this pulilic exhibition a masked pei'sonage 
called Hopak (Eastern) katcina, the signification of whose presence is 
unknown to the author. 

PEKSONATIONS APPEARING IN PALULi'KONTI 

The following personations appear in Paliiliikoiiti: 

Woe (Eagle). Appears in kiva drama. 

\Vupamau. Wanders through the pueblos, ai'i-oinpanied Ijy a luudhead, 

who lassoes whomever he meets. 
Houau (Bear). Appears in kiva drama. 
Ahote. Wanders through the pueblo. 
Citoto. Appears in public witli other masked men. 
Tcanau. Appears with preceding. 
Wukokoti. Appears with preceding. 
Kwahu (P'agle). Appears in kiva drama. 
Piiflkon (War god). Appears in kiva drama. 



FEWKEs] SPRING SUMAIKOLI 55 

Kokyan wiiqti. Appears in ki\a drama. 

Piiukon's sister. Appears in kiva drama. 

Tacab Anya. Appears in kiva drama. 

Tacab Anya mana. Appears in kiva drama. 

Hahai wiiqti. Ajjpears in kiva drama. 

Anya. Performs ceremonial dame in plaza. 

Aiiya mana. Grinds corn in ceremonial dance in plaza. 

Hehea. Appears in ceremonial dance in plaza. 

Hopak. Appears in ceremonial dance in plaza. 

Winter Marau Paholawu 

The winter prayer-stick-making of the Mamzrautu society was 
much more complicated in I'.too than that of the Lalakoiitu. The row 
of upright objects from the altar erected in October was put in place 
and before it were laid the tiponis of the chiefs of the society. On 
the tinal day there was a pu))lic dance in which there were personation.s 
of the Palahiko manas. The Hopi artist has made a fair picture of 
one of these Palahiko manas, which is here reproduced in plate L^i. 

Spring Sumaikom 

The Yaya priests and Sumaikoli hold a spring festival in Walpi, 
which in some particulars resembles the Sumaikoli celebration at 
Hano, elsewhere described." 

The six masks of Sumaikoli and one of Kawikoli are arranged on 
the floor of the kiva behind the tiponis. New tire is kindled with 
rotating fire drills, and this fire is later carried by means of cedar-bark 
torches to shrines of the Fire god, four shrines in the foothills, 
where bonfires are kindled in sequence, north, west, south, and east. 

The carriers who bear the.se torches, and who kindle the four fires, 
deposit in the contiguous shrines prayer-sticks which have been made 
in the kiva before their exit. 

One of the most interesting features in the songs which are sung 
before the altar are the calls down a hole in the floor called the sipapu 
to the goddess of the earth.'' This being is represented by a bundle 
of sticks placed on the floor, and over this bundle the priest kneels 
when he shouts to the earth goddess. 

The symbolism of the Sumaikoli masks at Walpi is similar to that 
of the Hano masks, which are elsewhei-e'' figured and described. They 
differ among themselves mainly in the colors of the different svmlwls. 
The picture of the Sumaikoli by the Hopi artist (see plate xxxiv) 
gives a fair idea of the paraphernalia. 

n Journal of American Ethnology and Arohpeology, vol. ii, 1892. 

''See The Lesser New-Fire Ceremony at Walpi, American .\nthropologist, new series, vol. in, 
July-September, 1901. 

(•Jonrnal of American Ethnology and ArchKolngy, vol. ii, Jsya. In this early description these 
objects were erroneously called shields. They are worn before the face in elaborate Sumaikoli cele- 
brations. 



56 HOPI KATOINAS Ceth. ann. 21 

AUBKEVIATKD KaTCINA DaXCES 

Throughout the summer months there occur in the Hopi pueblos a 
series of masked dances, generally of a day's duration, to which the 
author has given the name AbVjreviated Katcina dances. They are 
not accompanied by secret ceremonies, and the participants vary in 
number, the beings personated differing from year to year. 

These dances close with what is called the Niman, or Departure of 
the Katcinas, a ceremony of nine da3's' duration, in which there is an 
elaborate altar, and man}' secret ceremonies." There are, however, 
no altars in these abbreviated festivals, nor is there any public 
ainu)uncement of them ])y the town crier. The dances continue at 
intervals from morning to night, but are limited to one day, the three 
or foui' })receding days V)eing spent in the kivas practicing songs, 
prejaaring and painting dance paraphernalia, and making other j^rep- 
arations for the public exhibition. The katcinas in these festivals are 
accompanied by one or more unmasked priests, who shout to them, 
sprinkle the dancers with meal, and lead the line as it jjasses from one 
dance place to another, showing the trail b}' sprinkling meal on the 
ground. These are called the katcina fathers (naamu), and in a general 
way correspond to the ruin priests mentioned b\' students of Zufii 
ceremonies. 

Ordinarily all participants in one of these abbreviated dances M'ear 
masks with like symlxils. ))ut there are four or six dressed as women 
who accompanj' the dance ]>y rasping a sheep scapula on a notched 
stick. Occasionally, however, there is a dance, limited to one day, in 
which all participants wear different kinds of masks, and personate 
different katcinas. This dance, known as the Soyohim, has been else- 
where described.* From the variety of personations which appear, 
this dance is a particularly good one for a study of the Hopi symbolism. 

SuMMKR Tawa Fahoi.awu (Sun Prater-stick-jiakixg) 

The making of the sun pra^'er-sticks in midsummer is limited to a 
single day, but does not differ from that in winter. *■ The Sun priests 
assemble for this purpose in the room under a house near the Moii 
kiva, and the only fetish they use is a stone image of a frog, over 
which is stretched a string with attached feathers, and which lies on a 
line of meal draM'n diagonally on the floor. 

As the Sun priests have no distinctive masks or public dance, no 
pictures were made to illustrate this ceremony. 

n For a description of Ninitiii Katoina see Journal of Anit-rican Ethnology and Architology, vol. ir, 
1892, p. »i. 

^Same volume, p. 59. 

(•The summer sun prayer-stick-making al both \Valpi and Hauo is described in the volume just 
cited. 



fewkes] niman katcina 57 

Summer Sumaikoli 

The summer Sumaikoli at Walpi has never been seen by an ethnolo- 
gist, but the ceremony at Hano is elsewhere described." It is a single 
day ceremony in which the seven Sumaikoli masks, to which the priests 
pray, are set in a row on a l)uckskin at one end of the room. Feathers 
(nakwakwoci) are tied to the masks (shields), and prayei'-sticks are 
made and distributed to distant shrines. 

The Sumaikoli helmet masks of llano were captured in some Navaho 
foray and strewn about the base of the mesa. The}'' were gathered by 
Kalacai. and are now kept with pious care in the room near Kahikwai's 
new house in Hano. where the}' can be seen hanging to tli(> wall. 
With Kalacai's death the Sun clan (Tiifi towa) of Hano became extinct 
and the care of the Sumaikoli devolved on others. 

There was no pulilic exhiliition of tlie Sumaikoli in the summer of 
1891, but the author has been told that the festival has of late ))een 
revived in Hano. The Hopi artist has given a fairly good picture of 
Sumaikoli as he appears iu public'' (see plate xxxiv). 

XlJIAN 

This is an elaborate festival celebrating the departure of the 
katcinas from Walpi. and consists of elat)orate rites before a compli- 
cated altar and a public dance, which diHers in different Hopi pueblos. 
One of these is described in another place.'' This is the onl\- festival 
celebrating the departure of the katcinas, although there are several 
commemorating their advent. Thus, the Soyaluila dramatizes the 
advent of the Water-house or Rain-cloud clan's katcinas, the Pamiirti 
that of Zufii clans, especially Asa and Honani, and the Powamu the 
advent of the ancients of the Katciua clans. 

TciATiKiBi, Snake Dance 

The Snake dance has no masked performers, and the artist has not 
drawn pictures of any of the participants. 

Lei.enti. or Lexpaki, Flute Daxce 

The Flute dance also has no masked personators, and the artist has 
furnished no picture of participants. It might have l)een well to have 
obtained pictui'es of the Flute girls and youth, but photographs have 
been pul)lished'' which show their paraphernalia better than native 
pictures. The Snake girl is dressed almost identically as the Flute 
girl, as shown I)}- the tigures mentioned. 

a Journal of American Ethnology and Archseology, vol. ii, 1892, p. 33. 

* Dellenbaugh has published a few cuts from photographs representing Sumaikoli personations, 
but the symbolism of the masks is not clearly indicated in them. See The North .\mericans of 
Yesterday, New York, laoi. 

cJoiirnal of American Ethnology and Archteology, vol. it. 1k9*J, p. 79. 

dNiueteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, part ii, 1900. 



58 HOPI KATCINAS (eth. ann. 21 

BULITIKIIU. Ik'TTKUFLY DaNCE 

The Butterfly fe.sti\ ul. wliit-li is occasionully celebrated in Sichumovi, 
difl'er.s from the Lalakofiti, Mamzrauti. and Owakiilti l)y the at).senee 
of secret rites, altar, tiponi, or other fetishes. While these three fes- 
tivals are nine days' long, with many elaborate secret rites, Hulitikibi is 
a one-da\''s public dance, without secret rites. 

The artist has tigured two Bull nianas or Butterfly girls as the}- are 
dressed when taking part in this dance, and a leader bearing a pole 
with attached streamers (see plate l%ii). Many men and girls partici- 
pate in this dance, their dress and parai)hernalia corresponding veiy 
closely with that of the Tablita dancers of the Rio Grande pueblos. 

Lalakonti 

This festival is one of the most regular in the Hopi calendar, occur- 
ring each year in September. It is a woman's dance, with many 
secret rites, an elaborate altar, and a public exhibition, during which 
baskets and other objects are thrown to the assembled spectators. 
Most of the women who take part in this dance carry liaskets, which 
the\' move in cadence with their songs. There are two maids called 
the Lakone girls, who throw the baskets and other objects to the 
spectators. 

The Hopi artist has represented the latter dressed in their customary 
paraphernalia (plate i.v), but there is a slight difference in the dress of 
these girls in the Lalakonti at Walpi and at the other pueblos." 

OwAKfLTI 

This is likewise a woman's basket dance, which is occasionally cele- 
brated at Sichumovi, but is not an annual festival at that puetilo. Like 
the Lalakonti it has an elaborate altar which, however, differs very 
widely from that of other basket dances. 

The Lalakonti was introduced into Tusa3'an by the Patki or Rain- 
cloud clans; the Owakiilti was brought from Awatobi by the Pakab 
and Bull clans. 

Mamzrauti '' 

This festival is likewise a woman's dance, but the participants, 
instead of carrying baskets in their hands, as in the Lalakonti and 
Owakiilti. carry slats of wood bearing appropriate syml)ols. 

Two girls called the Mamzrau manas (Mamzrau maids) appear in this 
dance, and throw objects on the ground. The Hopi artist has made 
two pictures of these girls, which show the style of their dress and 
paraphernalia (see plate lv). 

oSee article on the Lalakonti, American Anthropologist, vol. v, 1892. p. 10-5. 

^For description of Mamzrauti see American Anthropologist, July. 1892. Many ceremonies are 
named from the .society which celebrates them and the termination pakit, to go down into the kiva; 
thus we have Maraupaki, Lenpaki, etc. 



FEWKEs] KATCINAS APPEARING IN PAMC'RTI 59 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PICTURES 

The symbolism of the different beings mentioned in the preceding 
pages may be sufficiently ^vell made out by an examination of the fol- 
lowing pictui-es and descriptions; but in order to facilitate references 
they are arranged, so far as possible, in the sequence in which the 
beings they represent appear in the Hopi ferial calendar. As the 
princij)al sym))ols are always delineated on the mask, special attention 
is given to the head in these descriptions. The words "head" and 
"mask" are used interchangeably. 

The collection does not contain representations of all katcinas with 
which the Hopis are acquainted, nor is it claimed that pictures made 
by anotlier man might not yary somewliat from those here figured. 
The chief symbolic designs charactei'istic of diflerent gods are, how- 
eyer. l)rought out with such distinctness tliat all would be innnediately 
recognized by any intelligent Hopi. 

PamCrti Ceremony 

PAUTIWA 

(Plate II) 

The picture of the Zuni" sun god. Pautiwa, has a horizontal 
dumb-bell-shiipcd design across a green face, and a long protuberant 
snout.* It lias terraced symbols, representing rain clouds, attached to 
each side of the head, and a pine-l)ougli collar tied ai'ound the neck. 
The head is crowned by a cluster of bright-colored feathers, and white 
cotton strings hang from the hair. 

The figure carries a skin meal pouch and a wooden slat (monkohii) 
in the left hand, and two crooked sticks in the right. The blankets, 
kilt, great cotton gii-dle, and other bodily paraphernalia are similar 
to those in other pictures. 

From his preeminence in the Pamiirti, Pautiwa'' is evidently a 
ver}' important god, and, although his olijective symbolism is unlike 
that of other Hopi sun gods, the part he plays is so similar to that 
played by Ahiil that he may be identified as a sun god. As the Hopi 
representation was derived from Zuni, we may look to students of 
the mythology of that pueblo for an exact determination of his 
identity. 

Pautiwa was a leader of the Pamiirti at Sichumovi in 1900, and the 
part was taken by Homovi. The ceremony opened by Pautiwa, fully 
masked and dressed, going from kiva to kiva informing the men that 
a meeting would be held at Homovi's house on a certain date not 

« The Zuni name also is Pautiwa. 

("For picture of llie doll see Internationales Archiv fiir Ethnograpliie, Band vii, pi. viii, fig. 23. 
cThe ending "tiwa" is common in Hopi personal names of men, as Intiwa, Masiumtiwa, and 
Wikyatiwa. 



60 HOP! KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

many days distant. At each kiva Pautiwa unmasked and smoked 
with tiie kiva chiefs. 

At the meeting it was decided what personations should appeal- in 
Pamiirti and who should take part. 

CIPIKNE 

(Plate II) 

Another Zuni katciiia who appears in the Pamiirti is called Cipiknc, 
a drawing of whom is here gi\en. In the picture the color of the 
mask is yellow, and there is a protuVjerant snout painted blue. Across 
the face the painter has drawn a dumb-bell-shaped symbol colored 
black, with a red border, resembling a like design in the Pautiwa 
figure. On the head there is depicted a bundle of feathers, and a col- 
lar made of the same objects is represented about the neck. 

The symbolism of Cipikne resembles that of Zuni beings called 
Salamopias," with which he would seem to be identical. In the festival 
mentioned the Hopis personated two Cipiknes. ditleriug only in color. 
The Zunis are said to be acquainted with several Salamopias of difl'er- 
ent colors. 

HAKTO 

(Plate II) 

The picture of Hakto.'^ also a Zuiii katcina, shows a being with 
rounded helmet, having a characteristic Zuiii collar on its lower 
border. The face is painted green, with yellow and red marks on 
eacli temple. A horizontal bar, to the ends of which hang worsted 
and red horsehair, is attached to the top of the head. 

Elk and deer horns are represented in both hands, and the kilt 
is made of buckskin. 

CA1.\.STACANA 

(Plate II) 

This picture represents a Zufii katcina of the same name,'^ which, like 
many others derived from this pueblo, has a collar on the lower rim of 
the helmet. On the right side of the head there is a horn, and on the 
left a projection the edges of which are terraced. A few yellow 
feathers appear in the hair. The artist has represented over a calico 
shirt a white cotton blanket with green and black border, the lower 
part of which partially conceals a ceremonial kilt. 

In the left hand the figure carries a pouch of sacred meal, a crook, 

nSee Mrs Stevenson's article in Fifth Annunl Report of the Bureau of .\merican Ethnology, 1S87, 
p. 533 et seq. 

liThis name is close, to the Zunian. and is probably derivative in Tusayau. For picture of doll 
see Internationales .\rchiv fur Ethnographic, Band vii, pi. v, fig. 3. 

(•The meaning of the Zufii name is " long horn." 



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HUTUTU 



HUIK 





TCOLAWITZE 



LOIICA 



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FEWKEs] KATCINAS APPEAKING IN PAMUKTI 61 

and a bow. It has a quiver full of arrows hung on the back, and a 
bundle of sheep scapula- in the right hand. The leggings are fringed 
and the heel bands ornamented. 

HUTUTU 

(Plate III) 

The figure of Hututu" differs from that of Caiastacana in wearing 
an antelope skin instead of a woman's white blanket. Its mask difters 
from that of the Zuiii being of the same name in having the terraced 
ornament on one side of the head replaced by a hoi-n. 

HUIK 

(Plate III) 

This katcina. which, like the preceding, appears in the Pamiirti, 
has some of the facial symbols of the Snow katcina. There are two 
terraced rectangular design.s on the face, one inclosing or surrounding 
each eye. Four large eagle feathers, two on each sidd. are attached 
longitudinally to the top of the head, and there are variegated feathers 
on the crown. The figure is bearded. The kilt is colored green, its 
lower margin being rimmed with a row of conical tinklers * resembling 
those on the kilts of the Snake priests. 

TCOLAWITZE 

(Plate III) 

The Hopi artist gives a fair representation of Tcolawitze as he was 
personated, but has failed to draw the cedar-bark torch which he ordi- 
narily carries. 

He bears a bullroarer in the right hand, a bow and arrows in the 
left. He also has a few rats in one hand and a jack rabbit on his back, 
so that he is here depicted as he is often personated in rabbit hunts.'' 

In the Pamiirti Tcolawitze was personated by a naked boy whose 
body was covered with round dots, painted with different colors, as 
shown in the picture. 

LOIICA 

(Plate III) 

Traditions refer this personage to the Asa clan, which is common!}' 
regarded of eastern origin. His picture is simple, with no charac- 
teristic sjmibolism. 

nThe name, which is the same in the Zuni language, is probably derived from "Hu-tu-tu!" the 
peculiar cry of the personator. 

'>Deer hoofs, tin cones, or shells called mosilili, wliich occur in great numbers in ancient Arizona 
ruins, are ordinarily used for tinklers. 

<• The same personage with the same name occurs at Zuni. See Journal of American Ethnology 
and Archieology, vol. i, 1891. 



62 HOW KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

TCAKV.'AINA" 

(Plate IV) 

The matriarchal clan system is well preserved in the personages 
represented in the Tcakwaina katcina dances. In them there are the 
Tcakwaina men, the elder sister, the mother, the uncle, his brothers 
and sisters — in fact, representatives of the whole clan. The following 
pictures occur in the collection: 

Tcakwaina (male) 
Tcakwaina niana 
Tcakwaina yuadta (his mother) 
Tcakwaina taamu (their nnole) 

These pictures afford interesting examples of katcinas introduced 
by a Tewan clan, the Asa, and when the personations or the drawings 
representing the Hopi personages are compared with those of Zufii, 
eastern Keresan. and Tanoan pueblos, where similar Tcakwaina dances 
are celebrated, it will probably be found that there is a close resem- 
blance between them. The Asa or Tcakwaina people also claim to 
have introduced into Tusayan Loiica and Kokopelli. pictures of which 
are given in plates iii and xxv. 

Tcakwaina (Male) 

The picture of the male Tcakwaina has a lilack, gloss}' * face, with 
white bearded chin and serrated teeth. The yellow eyeti are cres- 
centic in form, and there is a warrior emblem attached to the hair. 
The shoulders are painted 3'ellow, the body and upper arms black. 
As this being is regarded as a warrior, his picture shows a bow and 
arrows and a rattle. The kilt, probably buckskin, is undecorated, but 
is tied by a belt ornamented with the silver disks so common among 
Zunis and Navahos. 

A helmet of Tcakwaina which is said to be very ancient and to have 
been brought to Tusayan by the Asa people when they came from Zuni 
is exhibited in one of the kivas at the festival of the winter solstice. 
The eyes of this mask are round instead of crescentic. and its snout is 
very protuberant. Curved sticks like those used by girls in dressing 
their hair are attached to this mask. 

The introduction of a personation of Tcakwaina in the Pamiirti is 
litting. for this festival is the katcina return dance of the Tcakwaina 
or Asa clans. The Pamiirti is a Zufii dance, and the Asa are repre- 
sented in Zuiii by descendants of those Asa women who remained 
there while the rest went on to Tusayan. This explains why the Zufiis 
claim this settlement as one of their pueblos in Tusayan. 

dThe name Tcakwaina is said to occur in Zunian. Keresan, and Tanoan, as well as Hopi speech. 
("Made so by use of albumen of egg. For picture of doll, see Internationales Archiv fur Ethno- 
graphic, Band vii. pi. .x,flg. 34. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



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TCAKWAINA 



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KATCINAS APPEARING IN PAMCKTI 63 



TcAKWAiXA Max A 

A number of traditions are extant regarding a warrior maiden who 
was dressing her hair in wiiorls above her ears when the puelih) in 
which she lived was attacked by hostiles. The men, according to 
these stories, were away when the attack began, and the defense fell 
upon the women. The girls, with their coiflures half made, seized 
bows and arrows and rushed to defend the pueblo. The eldest sisters 
of the Tcakwaina. often called the Tcakwaina maids, are mentioned in 
this connection, and the artist has pictoriallv represented this legend. 

As shown, the hair on the right side of the head hangs loosely, tied 
in a bundle near the scalp, but on the left side it has been partly 
wound over the U-shaped stick" customarily used in making- the head- 
dress. To complete the coiffure this stick would have been drawn out, 
leaving the whorl, but, as the story goes, the enemy were upon them 
before this was jiossible, and the maids, with hair half dressed, seized 
the weapons of war. bows, and quivers of arrows, which the picture 
represents, and rushed to meet the foes. 

The remainder of the symbolism on the face of the girl, as the 
picture shows, resembles that of her brother, save that the eyes are 
round and not crescentic. Like that of another maid called Hehee, 
who appears in the Powamu festival, this picture has a small beard 
below a hideous mouth. 

Tcakwaina Ycadta 

The picture of the mother of Tcakwaina (yuadta. his mother) has a 
general resemblance to that of her son and daughter (Tcakwaina 
mana), as here shown. She wears a black mask, and has a wliite 
mouth and red beard. Her eyes are lozenge shaped. Her black 
blanket is decorated with white crosses. She bears, as a warrior 
sj'mbol, an eagle feather, stained red. tied to the crown of her head, 
and cai ries a rattle in her right hand. 

Tcakwaina Taamu 

The Tcakwaina uncle has little in common in symbolism with any 
of the other three; in fact, there is nothing which suggests the sister. 
The mask is painted green, with a border of r*ed and yellow; the eyes 
are black, the beak is curved and pointed. The picture has a repre- 
sentation of a squash blossom on each side of the head and variegated 
feathers on the crown. 

a As the mask exhibited in tlie Wiliwaliobi kiva at Soyaluna has a crooked stick (^nela) attached 
to It. it may represent the ancient warrior maid, for a similar article is now used by Hopi girls 
in making their coiffures. 



64 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. an.n. 21 

SIO HUMIS 

(Plate V) 

The picture" representinj^ a l)ein(f called the Sio Humis or the Zuiii 
Humi-i has on the head a representation of a tal)let with the upper 
border cut into three semicircles, symbols of rain clouds. The white 
figures painted on this tablet I'epresent sprouting squash seeds, and the 
j'ellow disks sunflowers. The curved bands over the forehead are 
symbols of the I'ainbow. The face is divided by vertical bands into 
two fields of different colors, in which are representations of eyes and 
symbolic figures of sprouting gourds. 

The figure has a rattle in the left hand and a sprig of pine in the 
right, and a turtle shell is tied to the right leg. 

The supernatural here depicted was, according to legends, intnxluced 
from Zuni during the present generation bj- a man now living in 
Hano, who has a large number of helmets bearing the above-described 
designs. 

The meaning of the name Humis is doubtful. It is sometimes 
deiived from Jemez. the name of an Eastern pueblo, and some- 
times from humita, corn. The former derivation would appear more 

reasonable. 

SIO Huans taamC' '' 

(Plate V) 

The picture gives a fair representation of the uncle of Sio Humis 
as personated in one of the dances of Pamiirti. The rounded helmet 
has a single apical gourd horn, painted black and white at its junction 
with the helmet. On each side of the head is a symbolic squash blossom, 
made of a wooden cylinder with radiating sticks connected by yarn. 
A broad black band extends horizontally across the eyes, below which 
is an elongated snout. The neck has a collar of pine twigs, and to the 
back of the head are tied black and variegated feathers. 

The figure has in its hands a yucca whip. The pei'sonator parades 
before the line of dancers with an ambling step, hooting as he goes. 

SIO AVATC HOYA 

(Plate V) 

Men personating Sio Avatc hova accomjiany those representing 
Sio Humis in the Pamiirti. They are dressed as women and per- 
form the same part as the katcina maids in some other dances; that 
is, they accompanied the songs with a rasping noise of sheep scapulse 
scraped over a notched stick. 

n For picture of the doll see Journal of American Ethnology and Archeology, vol. ii, 1S92. 
b Sio (Zuili), Humis (Jemez or humitat. taamii (their uncle). 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



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SIO HUMIS 




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KEWKES] KATCINAS APPEARING IN PAMrRTI 65 

In the piftui'es the mask.s arc painted black, upon which field is a 
zigzag vertical median band with red ))orders. Their eyes are stel- 
late, consisting of round spots from which radiate blue bands. The 
snout is prolonged, and attached to the left of the head there is an 
artificial squash-flower symbol, while on the right two eagle feathers, 
with a bundle of horsehair stained red, are tied vertically. Their 
kilts are decorated with triangular figures like those on women's 
blankets. They have sprigs of cedar in the belt and carry branches 
of the same tree in their hands. 

WtJWUYOMO 

(Plate V) 

The Honani clan at Sichumovi have in their keeping four disk- 
form masks, the symbolic markings of which resemble those of the 
sun mask of the Katcina clan. They were not worn in 1900, but in 
the festival of Pamiirti were arranged, with four Zuiii Calako masks, 
on the floor in the house of the oldest woman of tte Honani or 
Badger clan, in whose keeping they are, forming a kind of altar before 
which the men danced. 

The artist has given a lateral view of a man wearing one of these 
objects. 

The mask is flat and is divided l)y a median line into two parts, one 
green, the other 3'ellow. The chin is painted black; the middle of the 
face is occupied by a black triangular design from which protrudes a 
snout curved upward. There are zigzag lines on the«periphery of the 
mask, I'epresenting plaited corn husks, in which are inserted two kinds 
of feathers, three of which are longer than the remainder. There is 
a fox skin about the neck. 

The l)lanket is white, undecoratcd, and covers a cei'emonial kilt, the 
green Ijordcr of which appears in the figure. The figure shows 
knit cotton leggings and heel bands decorated with stars or crosses. 
In the left hand is represented the skin meal pouch, and in the right 
a staff, both of which the peiKonator is said to carr3\ 

The symbolism of the mask as well as that of the dress is so close to 
that of Ahiil that this being would seem to bear a relation to the 
Honani clan like that of Ahiil to the Katcina clan. 

Accompanying Wiiwin'omo was a figure (not here reproduced) of 
his warrior companion, Kalektaka, who wears the warrior feathers on 
the head and a bandoleer over his shoulder, and carries a whizzer, a 
bow, and arrows. It was pointed out by several of the old Hopi 
priests that this particular warrior weai-s the embroidered parts of 
the sash in front of his waist, as the artist has represented it in his 
picture, instead of at one side, as is usually the case. 
21 KTH — 03 5 



66 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. axn, 21 

SIO CALAKO 

(Plate VI) 

This picture represents one of the Zuiii giants pei-sonated in 
Sichumovi in July," whose masks were introduced froni Zuiii ](y Siiha, 
father of Supela, and are now in the keeping of the Honani chin, of 
which he was a member. 

In the personation of these giants, the mask is fastened to a sticlv, 
which is carried aloft by a man concealed by lilankets which are 
extended by hoops to form the bod3\ 

The head of the figure is surmounted by a crest of eagle feathers 
which are tipped with small breast feathers of the eagle. There are 
two lateral horns and a protruding snout; a symbol in the form of an 
arrowhead is painted on the forehead. The eyes are shown as 
globular, and are situated on a horizontal black band which crosses the 
upper part of the face, and around the neck is a collar of black feathers. 

The body is i-epresented as covered below with a bhmket upon 
which are vertical masks representing feathers, or with a garment of 
feathers, characteristic of these giants, and over this, on the upper 
part of the body, is a representation of a white ceremonial blanket 
with triangular designs, s3'mbols of rain clouds. 

The helmets or masks of the Zuiii Calakos were displayedat Pami'irti '' 
with those of AViiwiiyomo in the ancestral home of the Honani clan, 
to which they belong. 

HELILULtJ 

(Plate VI) 

The figure of this katcina as drawn b^^ the Hopi artist has two 
horizontal eagle feathers attached to the head and a duster of red 
feathers and hair hanging on each side, which is a very uncommon 
feature. 

The figure has a mountain lion skin around the neck, and is repre- 
sented with yucca wiiips in the hands. The rows of small tin cone or 
shell rattles (called heliliilii) along the lower rim of the kilt, shown in 
the picture, have probably led to the name bv which it is known. 

WOE 

(Plate VI) 

The symbolism of AVoe katcina is a chevron across the nose, a sym- 
bolical design identical witli that of the eagle, and figures of artificial 
flowers on the head. Two persons, a man and boy, represented the 
Woe katcina in a Bufl'alo dance in the winter of 1899-1900. 

" For description nf this dance, see Fifteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
1897, p. 30 et seii. 
^Thi^ was highly appropriate, as this is a Zuiii dance and these nutsks were derived from Zuni. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 




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7^ 




WOE 




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FEWKEs] KATCINAS APPEARING IN POWAMU 67 

The eagle is symbolic of the sun or sky god, unci its appearance in 
a Buffalo dance is appropriate, since the Buffalo girl wears a sun tiyui- 
bol on her back. 

WOE AND TCUTCKUTH 

(Plate VI) 

Another picture represents Woe and two gluttons as they appear in 
one of the dances. The gluttons" bodies are painted j'ellow and their 
faces have red parallel bands aci^oss the cheeks extending from the 
ej'es and the corners of the mouth to the ears." The}' have ear pend- 
ants''' and necklaces of rabbit's tails. Over the shoulder each has a ban- 
doleer, to which a roll of paper-bread or piki is attached. Two l)owls 
with bundles of food are drawn at the side of the main ffgure. AVoe 
has a chevron design painted red on the nose and cheeks, turquoise ear 
pentlants, and sheepskin wig. The legs, body, and arms are colored 
brown and white. The ffgure wears a bandoleer and white blanket, 

with red sash. 

PowAMu Festival 

The following personages appear in this festival: 

Ahiil. Heheg. 

Kat.cina uiana and Kerwan. Hehea. 

Eototo and Woe. Hehea mana. 

Tunias and Tufiwup. Telavai. 

Hahaiwu()ti and Natacka niana. Powamu. 

TehaVii and Tunwup taamii. Wiiwiiyonio. 

Natacka naamii. Atocle. 

Kumlji Natacka. Awatobi Soyok taka. 

Soyok wuqti. Awatotii 8(jyok wiiqti. 

AHUL 
(Plate VII) 

The figure of Ahiil has all the symbolism characteristic of this god 
when personated as leader of the katcinas in their annual return to 
Walpi in the Powamu festival. 

The disk-shaped mask is crossed by horizontal Ijands jtainted white 
and black, separating the face into a lower part, colored black, and an 
upper, which is divided into yellow and green zones, the former being 
turned to the observer. Black crosses cover these two upper zones. 
In the middle of the face is painted a triangular black figure, and to 
the middle of the horizontal bands which separate the chin from the two 
upper zones there is attached a curved representation of the b(^ak, 
painted green. 

The zigzag lines around the peripherj' of the disk represent plaited 
corn husks in which are inserted eagle or tui'key feathers, the tips of 

"The same markings that the Tataukyamft priests bear in the New-iire ceremony. 
b These decorations adorn the Tataukyamil priests. 



()8 HOP! KATCINAS [eth. ans. 21 

which are colored lihick. The red lines interspersed with these 
feathers represent horsehair stained red. 

The reddish-brown body about the neck represents a fox skin, the 
le<;s and bushy tail f)f which arc indicated. 

The picture shows a ceremonial blanket or kilt, colored fjreen, with 
embroidered edge, around the body, and a similar kilt on the loins. 
The ceremonial dance sash is represented on one side, hanging down 
to the right knee. 

The network leg-co\'ering represents the garment worn by the 
sun god. and the row of globular bodies down each leg are shell 
tinklers. The moccasins are painted green and the anklets are orna- 
mented with terrace designs in red, representing rain clouds. 

Tn the left hand there are a small meal pouch made of a fox skin 
with dependent tail, a bundle of bean sprouts painted green, and a 
slat of wood, dentate at each end, representing a chief's badge. In 
the right hand is a statf, on the top of which are drawn two eagle 
feathers and a few red horsehairs. Midway in its length is tied an 
ear of corn, a crook, and attached Ijreast feathers of the eagle. 

HAHAl Wi'QTI 
(Plate VII) 

The picture of Hahai wuqti. like that of Kokyan (spider) wiiqti 
(woman), has e}-es of crescentic form. The hair is done up in two 
elongated bodies which hang bj' the sides of her head, and she has a bang 
of red horsehair on the forehead. She wears a red fox skin around her 
neck, and to her waist are tied two sashes, the extremities of which, 
highly embroidered, ai"e shown in the picture. In her right hand she 
carries a gourd." 

Hahai wt'iqti appears in the kiva exhibition of Paliiliikonti, or 
Aukwanti, when she oilers sacred meal to the Snake effigies for food 
and presents her l)reasts to them to suckle. The best representation 
of Hahai wiiqti is at Powamii, when she accompanies her children, the 
monsters called Natackas. In both festivals she wears the parapher- 
nalia shown in the figure.'' 

TUMAS 
(Plate VII) 

Tumas is the mother of Tufiwup, who flogs the children in the 
Powamii festival. Her mask, as shown in the drawing," has fan-like 

«The mask of the Soyal katcina, Ahiilani. has similar marks in alternate celebrations of the 
Soyaluna. Pictures of the sun have been drawn for the author "with similar crescentic eyes, from 
which it is inferred that Ahiilani is a sun god who appears as a bird (eagle) man in Soyaluna and 
that Hahai wiiqti and Kokyan wiiqti are different names of the same supernatural. 

''For photograph of Hahai wiiqti. Xatacka naamu. and Soyok mana, see Fifteenth Annual Report 
Bureau of Ameri.,'an Ethnology. Its97, pi. cvi. For picture of doll, see Internationales Archiv fiir 
Ethnographic, Band vii, pi. ix, fig. '27. 

(■For picture of doll, see Internationales .\rchiv fiir Ethnogrpaphie, Band vii. pi. xi, fig. 41. Both 
Tumas and Tuiiwup have several aliases in different Hopi pueblos; at Oraibi the latter is known as 
Ho katcina. 



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FEWKEs] KATCINAS APPEARING IN POWAMU 69 

appendiiges made of crow tVather.s on eacli .side. On the top of the 
head are parrot feathers and breast feathers of the eagle. The 
edge of the mask is surrounded by woven yarn colored black and red. 
The face, which is painted l>hie, is almost covered by a triangular black 
figure rimmed with white occupying the position of the mouth. 

A fox skin is about her neck; she wears a woman's decorated 
blanket, and carries a meal phnpie in her hands. When the flogging 
of children takes place at Hano, Tumas stands at the foot of the kiva 
ladder while her two sons, called Tuiiwup, perform this act. 

TUNWUP 

(Plate VII) 

With the picture of Tumas the Hopi artist has also introduced figures 
of her two sons, Tufiwup, as the}' appear in the child-flogging in 
Powamu. Tufiwup has a white mask with black, prominent eyes. An 
arrow-shaped figure is painted on the forehead, and there is a horn 
on each side of the head." 

The mouth is large, of rectangular shape, and there is a fox skin 
about the neck. The bodj' is painted black with parallel vertical 
white markings. A belt made of ears of different-colored corn 
strung together girts the waist. The kilt is made of a fringe of red 
horsehair, and the heel bands are of the same material. There is a 
yucca whip in each hand. 

Details of the ceremonial Powanul child flogging at Walpi and 
Hano vary somewhat. In the Hano celebration an altar is made in 
the kiva at that time by the chiefs, Anote and Satele, both of whom 
place their official badges upon a rectangle of meal drawn on the kiva 
floor. Into this rectangle the children are led by their foster parents 
and flogged in the pi'esence of the inhal)itants of the pueblo. 

The two floggers, Tufiwup, stand one on each side of the figure 
made of meal, holding their whips of j'ucca. As they dance they 
strike the boys or girls before them as hard as they can. after which 
they pass the whips to a priest standing b}-. After each flogging 
the yucca whips are waved in the aij", which is called the puriflcation. 
After the children have been flogged many adults, both men and 
women, present their bared bodies, legs, and arms to the blows of the 
3'ucca whips. 

In a dance in the Walpi kivas, at the opening of the Powamu 
festival, in which fifteen or twenty Tunwups were personated, several 
of theii number, as well as spectators, were terribly flogged on bare 
l^acks and abdomens. 

As the figure of Tufiwup is a conspicuous one on the altar of the 

<i The.symbolism of Tufiwup resembles that of Calako, whom the author identifies as a sun god. 
Traditions declare that the first youths were flogged by Calako. 



70 HOPI KATCINAS [ETH. ANN. 21 

Niiiuin Kiitciuii ill sevenil llopi pm-hlos. it is probuljlo that this super- 
iiiitiu'iil being- was iutroduced from a ruin calicil Kicul)a, once inhabited 
bj'^ the Katcina clan. 

The following- being.s form the Tufiwup group, personations of the 
ancients of the Katcina clan: 

Tunwui) tecakti (men). 
Tumas (mother of Tufiwuij). 
Tufi'.vup taamii (their uncle). 

TKHABI AND Tl'NWUr TAAMC 
(Plate VllI) 

A drawing of a mudhead clown bearing- on his back a figure resem- 
bling Tuiiwup was identified as representing Tehabi. These two were 
accompanied bv a third figure called TuiT^^aip taamu (Tuiiwup, their 
uncle), the whole picture representing an episode in one of the 
ceremonies. 

Tuiiwup's uncle has a green mask, two horns, great goggle-eyes, and 
a black t)and with upright parallel white lines across the face. The 
figure is bearded and has a fox skin about the neck. The })ody is 
daubed black, but wears a white ceremonial kilt with red and black 
border, which is tied to the waist by a large white cotton kilt. Like 
his nephew, he i-arries yucca whips. 

KEKWAX AND KATCINA MANA 
(Plate VIII) 

These two figures illustrate one of the most l)pautifnl incidents in 
Powamu, when the beans which have been artificially sprouted in the 
kivas are brought out into the plazas and distributed. The two figures 
represent male and female persons, and between them is a flat basket 
in which are carried the bean sprouts which have been grown in the kiva. 

Kerwan has a green mask with eyes and mouth indicated by black 
crescents. On the top of the head there are two eagle tail feathers 
and a cluster of parrot and eagle breast feathers. The female figure 
has hair hanging down the back, a vellow masquette with red horse- 
hair before the face, and an eagle breast feather on the crown of the 
head. She wears a woman's blanket tied a])out the waist with a large 
cotton belt, the whole covered by a white blanket. 

SOYOKOS (MONSTEES) 

The name Soyoko is applied to certain monsters called Natackas, 
which appear in Powanu'i. There are three sets of Natacka masks on 
the East mesa — one in Hauo, in the keeping of the Tobacco clan, now 
hanging in a back room of Auote's house; another in Sichumovi: and 
a third set in ^^'alpi. 



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FEWKES] KATCINAS APPEARING IN POWAMU 71 

These Natackas are undoubtedly derived from eastern pueblos, for 
they are represented at Zuiii b\' the so-called Natacko. which they 
closely resemble in symbolism. They wei'e introduced into Tusayan 
by the Tanoan colonists, the Asa and the Hano clans, the Middle mesa 
Natackas being simply derived from the East mesa. They are not 
found at Oraibi, as these clans are not i-epresented there. 

Besides the Soyoko or monsters which regularly appear in the 
Walpi Powamil, there are other similar bogies which make occasional 
visits. Two of these, called Awatobi Soyok taka and Soyok wiiqti, 
were derived from Awatobi, one, Atocle, from Zuiii, and one, 
Tcabaiyo." is of utiknown derivation. All apparently have the same 
function, but there is only a remote similarity in their symbolism. 

The name Soyok or Soyuku, given b}' the Hopi to the Natackas, is 
linguistically a Keresan word, and as the mj'thologic conceptions 
and olijective symbolism are very similar in the two stocks, we maj- 
regard the Hopi being as a derivation from the Keresan. The fact 
that these personages are found in the Hopi pueblos where there are 
other evidences of incorporation from eastern pueblos tells in favor 
of the theorj' that they were brought to Tusayan from eastern 
pueblos. 

In the personation of Natacka we tind also a person called naamii, 
their father. The following list includes the varieties of these per- 
sonations: 

Nanatacka tatakti (males). 
Nanatacka civaamii (their sisters). 
Natacka wiiqti (mother). 
Natacka naamu (their father). 

Nat.^cka Naamu 
(Plate IX) 

The father as figured by the artist has on the head a crest of turkej' 
tail feathers and two eagle feathers, each tipped with a red breast 
feather. He has a goggle-eyed black mask with a trilid symbol on 
the forehead and a curved horn on each side of the head. 

The father of the Natackas appears at Powamu with their sisters 
and Hahai wiiqti. and the three visit all the houses of the pueblos.'' 

During these visits Hahai wiiqti carries on a conversation with 
imiiates of the houses in a falsetto voice, and gives to the men or l)oys 
a mouse trap made of yucca tibtM', and a stick, telling them that in 
eight days she will return with her children, the Natackas; that they 
must trap game and procure meat for these when they come. To the 
woman of the house Hahai wiiqti gives an ear of corn, telling her to 
grind it and have meal and bread for the Natackas when they return. 

t' The mask is owned by the Snake clan. Atocle at Zuiii is sometimes called Soyok. 
f> There are three groups, one for each pueblo on the East mesa. 



72 HOFI KATCIKAS [eth. a.nn. lil 

Kt.Ml!! XaTACKA 

(Plate IX) 

The black Natacka has a lilack mask with goggle eyes and with a green 
arrowhead on the forehead. It has two horns, one of which the artist 
has represented, and a crest of conventional eagle wing feathers ris- 
ing from a bunch of black feathers on the back of the head. A fox 
skin hangs about the neck. Kumbi Natacka wears a buckskin garment 
over a calico shirt, and carries a saw in one hand, a hatchet in the 
other. The lilack ol)jects hanging over the shoulder are locks of hair, 
from which depend eagle tail feathers. 

The small figure accompanying Kumbi Natacka represents a Hehea 
katcina, two or more of which go with the Natackas in their begging 
trip through the pueblos. The body is covered with phallic symbols, 
and a lasso is carried in the right hand. The leggings are of sheep- 
skin stained black. The face has the characteristic zigzag symbols of 
Hehea." 

KuTCA Natacka 

(Plate IX) 

The white Natacka resembles the black, save that the mask is white 
instead of l)lack. He also carries a saw in his right hand, and a yucca 
whip in his left. In the personations of this Natacka the men, as a 
rule, carry bows and arrows in their left hands. 

There are also Natackas of other colors which the artist has not 
figured. 

Natacka WcgTi, ok Soyok WfQxi 

(Plate X) 

Soj-ok wiiqti* has a large black mask with great yellow goggle eyes, 
and red beard and hair, in which is tied a red feather, symbol of 
death or war. She carries in one liand a crook to which several shell 
rattles (mosilili) are attached, and in the otlier a huge knife. She is 
much feared l)y the little children, who shudder as she passes through 
the pueblos and halts to threaten with death those she meets. She 
appears at Powami'i at aliout the same time as the Natackas, but does 
not accompany them. 

The episode illustrated by the figure shows an interview of the 
Soyok woman and a lad who is crying with fright. The woman has 
demanded food of the bov, and he offers a rat on the end of a stick. 
The l)ogy shakes her head, demanding a jack rabbit which the boy 
carries in his right hand. 



"For figure of the doll see Internationales Arcliiv fiir Ethnograpliie, Band VII, pi. IX, fig. 30. 
!>SoyoIi from slcoyo, a Keresan word meaning monster or bogy. 



FEWKEs] KATCINAS APPEARINC4 IN POWAMU 73 

Natacka Mana 

The sister of the Natackas, called also Natacka mana and Soyok 
mana," accompanies her brothers on their begging trip through the 
pueblos of the East mesa. Her picture represents a person -with black 
mask and white chin, and with hair arranged in two whorls over the 
ears, as is customary with maidens. She has round, green eyes, a 
square mouth with red teeth, and a lieard. On her back she carries a 
basket suspended bjr a band which passes across her forehead. In 
this l)asket she collects the meat and bread which the Natackas obtain 
from the different households. Her clothing is a woman's blanket, 
over which is thrown a buckskin, and she carries in one hand a large 
knife. 

HEHEA 

(Plate XI) 

Hehea katciua, like many others, may be personated without kilt 
or in complete dress. In the former case a sheepskin replacing an 
old-time Iniffalo skin is hung over the shoulder and phallic emblems 
are painted on arms, legs, and body. The mask is decorated with the 
zigzag marking on each cheek. In this form Hehea appears in 
certain kiva exercises at the ceremonial grinding of meal )>y the Ana 
katcina manas. We also find him associated with the Corn maids and 
with the Natackas. The phallic symbols are depicted on the bodies 
of the Wiiwiitcimtu and Tataukyamu in the New-lire ceremony, and 
there are other evidences which associate the former with Hehea. 

A picture of this form of Hehea was drawn, but has not been repro- 
duced. It represents a large and small Hehea, each with chai'acter- 
istic zigzag symbols on the face and with ol)lique eyes and mouth. 
Both have phallic symbols on body and limbs, and wear artificial 
flowers on their heads.'' 

The body has a sheepskin covering stained black and leggings of 
same" material, which have I'eplaced buffalo skins formerly used for 
the same purpose. Each carries a lariat, the use of which is 
explained in the account of the visits of the Natackas on their begging 
trips to different houses. 

Another picture of Hehea, which also represents a primiti\e con- 
ception of this personage, has a kilt and the elaborate dress in which he 
sometimes appears in ceremonial public dances. It is reproduced in 
plate XI. 

« This part is taljen by a lad. For picture of the doll see Internationales Archiv fiir Ethiiographie, 
Band VII, pi. IX. 

''Compare this artificial flower with that of the Wiiwiitcimtil society. The members of both 
this society and the Tataukyamu have similar jihallic symbols painted on bodyand limbs. Fora pic- 
ture of the doll, see Internationales Archly fiir Ethnographic, Band vii, pis. vii, viii, figs. 16, 18. 



74 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. asn. 21 

Hchua is evidently an ancient katcina," and from his appearance in 
many primitive ceremonies, pul)lic and secret, we may regard iiim as 
connected with a very old ritual. 

The "Wiiwiitcimtu priests in the New-tire celebration at Walpi often 
decorate their faces (masks are not used in this rit(>) with the sym])ols 
of Hehea, and he is intimately associated with Corn maids (Palahiko 
mana) '' of the Mamzrau festival. 

HEHEA JIANA 

(Plate XI) 

The Hehea mana, sister of Hehea, accompanies the Natacka group 
in Powamu. She is represented by the artist with the character- 
istic coiti'iu'e of a maiden, and has the same zigzag facial lines as her 
brother. On her arms are the same phallic symbols, and in her hand 
she carries a lariat. 

If any one refuses to grant the requests of the Natackas for meat 
or food, both she and her brother try to lasso the delinquent. 

HEHEE 

(nateXI) 

This figure represents a warrior maid who sometimes appears in 
Powamu. There is such a close resemblance between her and Tcak- 
waina mana (see page 63) that they would seem to be identical person- 
ages. The reason for her untinished coiffure is given in the account 
of the Tcakwaina maid. 

AWATOHI SOYOK TAKA 
(Plate XII) 

The massacre at Awatolii took place just two centuries ago, but 
there are several katcinas surviving in AValpi which are said to have 
been derived from that pueblo. Among these may be mentioned two 
bogies called Soyok taka and 8oyok mana, male and female monsters. 
These are occasionally personated at Walj^i, and, as their names implj-, 
originally came from Awatobi. Soyok taka corresponds with Natacka, 
and probably both originally came to Tusayan from eastern pueblos. 

Soyok taka wears a mask without distinct .symbolism, and has a 
protuberant snout, with teeth made of corn husks. He has goggle 
eyes and hair hanging down over his face. His garment is a rabbit- 
skin rug, and, like Natacka, he carries a .saw.'' On his back hangs a 
basket containing a child whom he has (-aptured. 

n Perhaps derived from Awatobi. 

6 The Corn uiaids have several different names, varying with elans. For picture of doll in which 
this assfH'iation appears, see Internationales .\rchiv fiir Ethnographie, Band VII, pi. x, fig. 31. 
'■ A modern innovation in both instances. 



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FEWKES] KATCINAS APPEARING IN POWAMU 75 

AWATOBI .SOYOK WUQTI 

(Plate XII) 

The figure of the Awatobi Soyok woman differs but little from 
that of the Walpi, but has prominent corn-husk teeth and two white 
parallel bars on each cheek. These two symbols were in fact said 
to distinguish the Awatobi from the Walpi Soyok wiiqti; several 
priests called attention to the differences when the pictures were 
shown them. 

TCABAIYO 

(Plate XIII) 

Tcabaiyo is still another of the bogy gods. The mask belongs to 
Hofiyi, of the Snake clan, who always personates this being. The 
picture represents him in the act of seizing a small boy who, from 
the zigzag marks on his face and the sheepskin blanket, ma\' be a 
Hehea child. 

Tcabaiyo is threatening to kill the bo}- with the great knife which 
he carries in his left hand. In the picture the black mask has a long 
swollen proboscis. The eyes are protulierant, and there is a broad- 
headed arrow in the middle of the forehead. A white crescent is 
painted on the cheek. Feathers of the eagle wing form a fan-shaped 
crest, and a bunch of feathers is tied to the back of the helmet. 
Tcal)aiyo wears a fox skin about the neck. Feathers of the eagle 
tail are attached to his upper arm. The red-colored garment repre- 
sents a buckskin; that part of the dress in the form of a white man's 
waistcoat is an innovation. Arms and legs are spotted with black 
dots and the breech clout is held in place l)y an embroidered sash. 

Tcabaiyo occasionally appears in Powamu and his symbolism has a 
close likeness to that of other Natackas or Soyokos. Though he is 
referred to the Soyoko or Natacka group, he is supposed to be derived 
from a different clan, and he bears a name characteristic of that clan. 

ATOCLE 
(Plate XIII) 

There is still another of these Soyokos (monsters) whose functions 
are nearly the same as those of the sister or mother of the Natackas. 
This personage has a Ziuli name, Atocle," which betraj'S her origin. 
Atocle is an old woman, personated by a man, who goes about 
the Zuiii pueblo frightening children in much the same way that Soyok 
wiiqti does at Walpi. 

"Thf actions of this person at Zuiii are described in the Journal of American Ethnology and 
Archeology, vol. ii. 1892, where she is called an old scold. 



76 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. asn. 21 

The Hopi variant, as shown in the picture, has a hlack helmet with 
projecting- flat snout, and a mass of hair to which is attached a red 
feather. In one hand is a bow and arrows, in the other a knife, 
suggesting weapons for her function. Slie is accompanied ))y a 
clown, who holds her back by a lasso tied about her waist. 

so WUQTI 

(Plate XIV) 

So wiiqti. Grandmother woman, is here represented by the Hopi 
artist as clasping hands with her child, a Powamu katcina. On each 
cheek there is a red spot, and in her hair is an artificial flower. She 
carries on her back Hehea, her grandchild, as the zigzag marks on 
his face clearly indicate, and has a pine bough in her hand. The 
fact that her grandchild has Hehea sym})oIs would seem to refer her 
to the group to which the latter and his sister belong. 

JIASAUU 
(Plate XIV) 

The picture of Masauii has a round helmet decorated with spots of 
different colors. At the top of this helmet there are many twigs, to 
which prayer feathers (nakwakwocis) are attached. Tiiere is a deco- 
rated kilt around the neck, and a rabbit-skin rug, shirt, and kilt about 
the body. The legs and arms are painted red and spotted black. The 
two rings on the breast are parts of a necklace made of human bones. 
The figure carries a yucca whip in each hand. 

EOTOTO 

(Plate XIV) 

This is one of the most important katcinas, and is very prominent 
in sev'eral celebrations. 

The artist's picture of Eototo has a white head covering, with small 
holes for eyes and mouth, and diminutive ear appendages. There is 
a fox skin about the neck. 

The blanket is white, and is worn over a white kilt tied with an 
embroidered sash, the ends of which are seen below. The figure also 
has knit hose and heel bands. In the left hand there is a skin pouch 
of sacred meal and a chief's badge" (monkohu). while the right hand 
carries a bundle of sheep scapula} and a gourd bottle with water from 
a sacred spring.* 

Eototo is one of the most prominent masked personages at Walpi 

<i See Journal of Amerioan Ethnology and Archtcology. vol. ii. 1892. For picture of doll, see Inter- 
nationales Ari'liiv fiir Etlinographie. Band vii, pi. ix, fig. 24. 

(■The use of this watiT and sacred meal is described in the Journal of .\meriean Ethnology and 
.\rcbseology, vol. ii, 1892. 



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FEWKEs] KATCINAS APPKARINa IN POWAMU i i 

ill the celebration of the Departure of the Katciiia.s. On the last 
morning of that festival he is accompanied by three other katcinas 
who march around the kiva (Mitrance, holding conversation witli tlie 
cliief below and receiving otierings, as has been described elsewhere." 

The god Eototo was introduced from the old pueblo, Sikyatki, and 
his old mask or helmet is in the keeping of the descendants of the 
Kokop family, which once inhabited that pueblo. The close similarity 
in symbolic designs to Masauu, also a Sikj-atki god, shows that the 
two names are virtually dual appellations of the same mythological 
conception, but that they originated in this pueblo is not yet proved. 

One of the most interesting personations of Masauu appeared in 
Powamu in 1900, when a man represented this god in the five Walpi 
kivas. He wore a helmet made of a large gourd, pierced with 
openings for eyes and mouth and painted black with micaceous hema- 
tite sprinkled over them. He and a companion carried old-fashioned 
planting sticks and imitated planting, while about twenty unmasked 
men, representing a chorus called Maswik* katcinas, some person- 
ating males, others females, danced and sang about them. 

At the close of the personation in each kiva, the representative 
of Masauu was loaded with prayer offerings. This archaic cere- 
mony was regarded with great reverence and was shunned by all save 
the initiated. 

KWAHU 

(Plate XV) 

Kwahu, the Eagle katcina, is figured in the drawing with an eagle's 
head above the helmet in a way that recalls an Aztec picture. The 
characteristic symbolic marks of certain birds of prey, as the eagle 
and hawk, are the chevron marks on the face, which are well shown in 
this picture. 

In personations of this and other l)irds the wings are represented by 
a string of feathers tied to the arms, as shown in the picture. 

PALAKWAYO 

(Plate XV) 

The symbolism of Palakwayo, the Red Hawk, is similar to that of 
Tiirpockwa, Init there is no bird's head above the helmet. The figure 
also has the moisture tablet on the back. In each of the outstretched 
hands is carried a bell. 

« See Journal of American Ethnology and Archeology, vol. ii, 1892. 
tMasauu, wik (bearers). 



78 HOPI KATCINAS [eth, ann.21 

KECA 

(Plate XV) 

The fiffure of Keca, the Kite, has two parallel black marks on each 
side of the face, not unlike the facial symbols of the war god, Piiiikon 
ho^-a. The body is white with black spots representing feathers, Ijut 
the forearms and legs are painted yellow. The wings arc imitated l)y 
a row of feathers tied to the arms, and the tail by fcathei-s attached 
to the breechclout. Keca holds in his left hand a hare and in his 
right a ral)bit. 

PAWIK " 

(Plate XV) 

Pawik, the Duck katcina, is represented in the accompanying pic- 
tures. The helmet is green with a long curved snout painted j'el- 
low, around the base of which is tied wool stained red. The eyes 
are rectangular, the left yellow, the right blue. Two upright eagle 
feathers are attached to the left side of the helmet, near which is a 
bunch (jf horsehair stained red. On the right side of the helmet is 
tied an ovoid symbol of an undeveloped squash with a breast feather 
of the eagle projecting from one pole and red horsehair about its base 
of attachment. The upper part of the helmet is girt by parallel 
bands of black, yellow, and red. The lower rim has a black band in 
which there are patches of white. The tree represented between the 
two figures is the pine. 

TOTCA 

(Plate XVI) 

Totca, the Humming Bird, has a globular head painted blue, with 
long pointed beak. The dorsal part of the body is colored green, the 
ventral yellow. The rows of feathers down the arms are wings, by a 
movement of which the flight of a bird is imitated. 



(Plate XVI) 

This personation of the Owl has a helmet with rows of parellel 
yellow, green, red, and black crescents, and a prominent hooked 
beak. He wears a rabbit-skin blanket tied by an embroidered sash, 
and holds a bow and arrows in one hand and a rattle in the other. The 
figure is accompanied by a clown who has a feather in each hand. 

" For description of Pawilc l;atfina see Tusayan Kateinas, Fifteentti Annual Report of tlie Bureau 
of Etliuology, 1897, pages 299-303. 



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FEWKEs] KATCINAS APPEABING IN POWAMU 79 

MONWU Wl'yTI 

(Plate XVI) 

The Owl woman and Inn- two youiiu" are tigured in this picture, 
and need no explanation additional to that given of the Owl katcina 
with whom she is associated. 

SALA15 JIONWU 

(Plate XVII) 

The head shown in this picture is I'eadily recognized as that of an 
Owl. He wears a kilt made of ))uckskin, and has a belt with silver 
disks. He carries a pine branch and ))ow in the left hand, a rattle in 
the right. 

HOTSKO 

(Plate XVII) 

The figure of Hotsko is owl-like, with Ijroad mouth, and wears a 
ral)bit-slvin rug tied on the liody by an embroidered sash. Tliis picture 
evidently represents a bird, but the author can not identify it. 

TtlRPOCKWA 

(Plate XVII) 

The picture of this bird has a helmet surmounted by a bird's head, 
like that of the eagle, and a black chevron on the face. The beak is 
long and slender. 

Tiirpockwa, like many other birds, has a moisture or sim tablet on 
the back, the horizontal plumes of which show on each side of the 
neck. The pei'sonator's arms, here extended, have attached feathers 
like wings. The dress and other pai-aphernalia shown in the figure 
can hardly be regarded as characteristic. 

YAUl'A 

(Plate XV] I) 

Yaupa, the Mocking Bird, has a helmet painted white, with a tri- 
angular design on the face, to the sides of which ring-like figures are 
attached. The beak is long and slender, and there are clusters of 
bright parrot feathers on the top of the head; indications of the wings 
are shown in the black lines along the arms. The spots on the body 
rej^resent feathers. 



80 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

HOSPOA 

(Plate XVIII) 

Hospoa, the Road Runner, as sh<j\vn in the picture, has a green 
helmet eovered with rows of Ijlaek and white crescents, a short beak, 
and stellate ej'es. 

On the back this ))ir(l has a paintcnl skin stretched over a framework, 
called a moisture tablet. To each upper corner are attached two feath- 
ers, which project horizontally, and along the edges is a string with 
attached horsehair stained red. 

There is a flute in one hand, a rattle in the other. The garments are 
a ceremonial kilt, girdle, and embroidered sash. 

PATSZRO 

(Plate XVIII) 

Patszro, the Snipe katcina, has a figure of the snipe painted on the 
forehead, a long, slender beak, and semicircular markings on each 
cheek. These markings consist of white, red, and yellow bands, the 
first furnished with a row of black wings. 

The body is naked, painted white on the ventral, green on the dorsal 
side. The tail feathers are tied to the belt in such a way that their 
extremities show behind. 

The spots on the liody represent small downy feathers attached by 
means of gum or some sticky substance. 

KOYONA 

(Plate XVIII) 

Kovona. the Turkey, has a green-colored helmet, with long extended 
beak and bright red Matties, which are made of flannel cloth. The 
wings and tail are made of feathers attached to the arms and belt. 
There are many small feathers attached to the body with giJ^Ui- , 

KOWAKO 

(Plate XVIII) 

The picture of Kowako, the Chicken katcina. has a red comb and 
wattles; the body is painted red on the dorsal, white on the ventral side. 

The personator wears a ceremonial white kilt with embroidered 
green border worked into rain-cloud symbols. The wattles and comb 
are made of red flannel, and feathers are tied to the arms for wings. 

The figures of both Koyona and Kowako (Chicken) which the Hopis 
made are more i-ealistic than the personations wliich were seen by the 
author, although the latter wear elaborate masks, with wattles, comb. 



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FEWKEs) K^TCINAS APPEARING IN POWAMU 81 

and beak, which are Hue imitations of the heads of these birds. The 
realism of these masks, as compared with the conventionalism of the 
masks of Patsz;vo. Kwayo, and others, would indicate the later intro- 
duction of Koyona and Kowako into the katcina cult. 

MOMO 

(Plate XIX) 

Momo. the Bee katcina, has a yellow head with black crescentic 
bands extending on eac'h side from the globular eyes. The back of 
the head is banded yellow and green, and on the crown there are 
pedunculated bodies arranged in a row, with two long, stiff, black 
projections I'epresenting antennic. There are also feathers on the 
back of the helmet. He carries a miniature liow and arrows. In 
the dance he imitates the hum of a l)ee, and goes from one spectator 
to another, shooting the ])lunt arrows at them. To still the cries of 
children, due to mere fnght, the Bee katcina squirts a little water on 
the supposed wound." 

TETANAYA 

(Plate XIX) 

The picture of the Wasp katcina has body, legs, arms, and mask 
painted with parallel lines of green, brown, red, yellow, and l)lack. 
There are two straight vertical horns on the head and a long slim 
proboscis, also lianded with black and white. This being is only 
occasiouallj" personated in the winter ceremonies. 

TELAVAI 

(Plate XX) 

On the morning of the last day of Powaniu, the beans which have 
sprouted in the kivas are plucked up and distributed by masked 
persons to all the people in the pueblos, who boil and eat them as a 
great relish. Each of the nine kivas delegates two or more men to 
distribute the sprouts grown in that kiva. From the fact that these 
men distribute the bean sprouts at early dawn, they are called Telavai 
(Dawn), although they represent Malo, Owa, Tacab, or others. 

There are in the collection a number of paintings to which this name 
was given which did not appear in the Powamil in llMio. 

The distinctive symbolism of Telavai is a rain-cloud design on each 
cheek, and ej^es that are each represented 1)_\' a Ijaud having one end 
curved. There are four horizontally arranged eagle feathers on top 
of the helmet, surmounted by a cluster of variegated feathers. 

a In 1900 a small syringe was used for this purpose. 
21 ETH— 03 6 



82 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

OWA 

(riatef XX, lA'III) 

The figure of Owa has a helmet mask colored green, with yellow, 
red. and black lines drawn diagonally across the cheeks. The snout 
is protuberant and the eyes are represented by black bands. The hair 
hangs clown the back. Parrot and eagle feathers are attached to the 
crown of the head. 

The body is painted red, and there are parallel j'ellow bands on 
body, arms, and legs. The ceremonial kilt about the loins is tied by 
a woman's belt and embroidered sack. A fox skin sometimes depends 
from the rear. Under the right knee is represented a turtle-shell 
rattle, and the figure has moccasins and heel bands. 

Owa carries a bow and arrows in the left hand, and a small gourd 
rattle in the right. These are the presents which this being commonly 
makes to children in the Powamu festival. 

3IALO 

(Plate XXI) 

In a drawing of Malo katcina the artist has represented the main 
syml)ols of this being as he is seen when personated in dances. 

The face is crossed by an obliciue medial l)and, in which are rows of 
si^ots. The face on one side of this band is painted yellow, on the 
other green. The figure has a representation of a sc|uash blossom on 
the right side of the head and two eagle feathers on the left, to which 
is attached a bundle of horsehair stained red.-' 

HU.MIS 

(Plate XXI) 

The figure of Humis katcina shows a helmet with a terraced tablet, 
symbolic of rain clouds. To the highest point are attached two eagle 
feathers, and to each of the angles of the lateral terrace a turkey tail 
feather and a sprig of grass. The whole tablet is rimmed with red 
and painted green, with designs upon it. Syml>ols of sprouting corn 
and terraced rain clouds appear on the fltit sides. 

The face of the helmet is divided medialh- by a black band, in which 
ai'e three white rings. On the right half of the face, which is lilue, 
there is on each side of the eye-slit a s3'mbol of the sprouting squash 
or gourd, replaced on the left side of the face by small symbols of rain 
clouds. Humis has a collar of pine boughs, sprigs of which are also 
inserted in the armlets, the l)elt and the kilt. The body is smeared 
with corn snrat. and there are two pairs of crescents, painted black, 

o For description of JIalo katcina, sec .Tonrnal of American Ethnology and Archjcology. vol. ll. 1892. 
For picture of the doll, .see Internationales Archiv Wn Ethnographie. Band vii, pi. viii, fig. 21, 



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FEWKES] KATCINAS APl'EARING IN POWAMU 83 

on the abdomen. Ilimiis carries a rattle in the right hand and a K\nig 
of pine in the left. A small l)lack stick i.s tied to hi.s left wi'ist. 

The two figures which accompany Huniis represent Hano clowns, 
who are accustomed to anmse the audience during- the celebration of 
the dances in which he appears. 

Each clown wears a cap with two straight horns made of leather, 
with corn husks tied to the tops. The horns are banded alternately 
black and white, as are also the body. arms, and legs. The figure to 
the left has a bowl filled with Hopi wafer bread lief ore him: the one 
at the rig-ht cari'ies a roll of the same in his right hand. 

The name Humis is supposed to have been derived from the pueblo 
Jemez in New Mexico and to be the same as the Zuiii Hemacikwi, 
a dance which is ordinarily celebrated in sununer. 

HOPI AVATC HOTA 

(Plate XXI) 

The Hopi Avatc hoj-a accompanies the Humis katcina, and. as may 
be seen by consulting the pictures, dift'ers widely from the Sio (Ztuli) 
Avatc hoy-A. The mask is painted black, with white rings; the l)ody, 
arms, and leg.s, are painted red, with white rings on the body and 
arms, and with black rings on the legs. The mouth and eyes are 
I'epresented by green rings. He wears cones made of corn husks in 
his ears and curved feathers on the head.'' 

IIUHUAN 

(Plate XXI) 

The pictures of Huhuan represent beings with a characteristic gait, 
who appear in Powamu, when they distribute gifts fi'om one of tiie 
kivas. 

They wear sheepskin caps and necklaces of mosaic ear pendants. 
They should not be confounded with the Barter katcinas. who trade 
dtills, etc., in certain festivals. Their symbolic markings are a checker 
baud of white and colored squares covering the helmet. 

(Plate XXII) 

There are three pictures of Niivak, the Snow katcina, two of which 
represent male personages and one a female. The latter is called the 
Cold-bringing woman, and is p(_)ssil)ly mother of the former. 

This personage* is regarded by all the Hopi as a Hano (Tanoan) 
katcina. and the dance in which he figures is said to have been derived 
from the far east. 



" For picture of doll, see Internationales Archiv fiir Ethnographle, Band vii, pi. ix. i1^. 29. 
I* For picture of doll, see same volume, pi. v, fig. 4. 



84 HOPI KATCINAS Ieth. ass. 21 

Near the settlement of Hano people at Isba, Coyote spriniif, not far 
from the Government House, but on the right of the road from 
Keams Canj^on, there is a large spring called Moiiwiva, which is sacred 
to the Plumed Snake of Hano. In the March f(>stival. effigies of this 
monster are carried to this spring, where certain ceremonies are per- 
formed similar to those which the "Walpians observe" at Tawapa. 

A year ago (1899) this spring, which had become partially tilled 
with sand, was dug out and walled, at which time an elaborate masked 
dance representing Niivak katcina was performed near it. This 
intimate association between Pali'ili'ikofi (Plumed Snake) and Niivak 
(Snow) appears on a mask of the latter, presently described and 
figured. 

The picture of one form of Snow katcina, shown in the accompany- 
ing figure, has rectangular terraced designs on the back of the head 
and zigzag sticks representing lightning snakes on the upper edge. 
The figure wears a white blanket reversed. The picture shows the 
•stitches of the embroider}- on the lower margin. 

A second figure of the Snow katcina, on which the predominant 
color is green instead of white, is readily distinguished from the 
former b}' figures of snakes' heads painted on each cheek. It has the 
same four lightning symbols on the head and two eagle tail feathers. 
This figure wears an ordinary dance kilt. em)>i'oidered with rain-cloud 
and falling-rain designs, and held in place by a girdle. It carries a 
flute in one hand. 

YOHOZRO Wt'-QTl'' 
(Plate XXII) 

The Cold-bringing woman, who is connected with the Niivak or 
Snow katcina. is claimed by the people of Hano as one of their 
supcrnaturals. She is depicted as wearing a white mask with a red 
spot on each cheek, a small l)eard, and a red tongue hanging from a 
mouth which has promineaf teeth. 

She has ear pendants, and a red feather is attached to the crown of 
her h(nid. There is a fox skin about her neck, and she is clothed in a 
white blanket, tied with a knotted girdle. 

POWAMU 

(Plates XIV and XXII) 

On the morning of the last day of the Powamil festival there are 
dances in the kivas in which participate unmasked men called Powamu 
katcinas, a figure of one of whom is given in the accompanying plate. 

nFor a description of these, see Journal of American Follj-Lore. vol. vr, 1893. 

ft The Hano name, Imbesaiya, which is applied to Yohozro wiiqti, means grandmother, possibly the 
Snow katcina's grandmother. 



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FEWKES] KATCINAS APPEARING IN POAVAMU 85 

These men wear in their hair a number of artiticial flowers, made 
of painted corn shuclcs. The bodies of these men are painted, but 
otherwise thej^ wear no distinctive dress or paraphernalia. 

WUKOKOTI 

(Plate XXIII) 

This figure of Wulvokoti (Big- Head) has a blaclv face with 
protruding snout, two lateral horns, and prominent globular eyes. 
The artist represents one of two beings who roam through the pueblos 
in the March festival, hooting wherever the.y go. It is one of many- 
beings of the same name who appear in the February and March fes- 
tivals. The pcrsonators carry bundles of sheep scapulte, which in late 
years have been substituted for those of deer. 

KOHONINO 

(Plate XXIII) 

This figure " represents a katcina derived from the Havasupai (or 
Kohonino) Indians engaged in animated conversation with a man of 
the same tribe. 

The mask has a headband, on each side of which is a horn wrapped 
with red and l)lack calico. The marks crossing the headband also 
represent variegated cloth. 

Two eagle feathers arise from the head, and to the top of the feath- 
ers are attached red balls representing fruit of the prickly pear. 

The chin is crossed by oblique bands, colored red and blue, and the 
mouth is triangular in shape. Two red spots, one on each cheek, 
complete the symbolism of the picture. 

The accompanying figure representing a Havasupai Indian is 
unmasked, and shows several characteristic marks. He has a head- 
band, from which rises a hoop, to which are attached two eagle 
feathers, with a fragment of red cloth in the rear. The coat and 
leggings, like Kohonino garments, are buckskin, and there is fringe 
on the latter. 

TCOSBUCr AND SOYAN EP 
(Plate XXIV) 

The main figure is said to have been derived from a Yuman tribe, as 
the Walapai, who formerly wore turquoise (tcosbuci) nose ornaments. 
The artist has represented Tcosbuci and Soyan ep fencing with arrows. 

The symbolic mark of the former is an hourglass design. The face 
is painted gi'een, the e^'es are of brown color with green border. The 
hair is tied Yuma fashion behind the head. The red ring in the middle 
of the face represents a turquoise. 

a For picture of the doll, see Internationales Arcliiv fur Ethnographie, Band vil, fig. 15. 



86' HOPI K^TCINAS (ETH. AX.N. lil 

Tcoshuci has bliuk bands painted on the left arm and right lejr. 
He wears a Ijlack kilt under a buckskin shirt, and has a quiver with 
aiTows. The bow is carried in one hand. 

Sevan ep has a black mask with feathers on his head, lozenge-shaped 
eyes, and small goatee. Both legs and arms are striped with black 
bands. His shirt is made of buckskin. 

KAKIATCOP 

(Plate XXIV) 

The figure of Nakiatcop has a crest of eagle feathers on the head, 
and in most respects resemliles the Dawn katcina. The mask used 
in jjtrsonating this being is said to belong to the Badger clal^ 

KOKOPELLI 

(Plate XXV) 

The Hopi call a certain dipterous insect kokopelli and apply the 
same name to a personation said to have been introduced by the Asa 
clan. 

The head is painted black and has a white median facial line. The 
snout is long, pointed, and striped in spiral black and white. On 
each side of the head is a white circle with diametrical lines drawn in 
black, and there is a warrior feather on top. 

The body is black, and girt by an embroidered sash. There are buck- 
skin leggings, stained yellow and green. A hump is always found on 
the back in pictures or dolls of Kokopelli. 

The author has been informed that in old times manj'of these beings 
appeared at the same time, but he has never seen the personation. 

KOKOPELLI MANA 
(Plate XXV) 

The Kokopelli girl has a slender, protuberant snout painted with 
spiral lines. She carries in her hand two packets" of food made of 
mush wrapped in corn husks. 

LAPt'KTI* 

(Plate XXV) 

The symbolic marks of Lapiikti are three parallel marks on each 
cheek, hair of cedar bark, long telescopic ej'es, and a protuberant 
snout. He carries a rattle in his right hand, a crook in the left, and 
wears shirt and pantaloons. The picture brings out all these charac- 
teristics. 



" Somijiiki, 

b For picture of doll, see Inlernationales Archiv lur Ethnopraphie. Band vii, pi. xi, fig. 40. 



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fewkes] katcinas appearing in pali'-lrkonti 87 

PalClukoisti (Ankwanti) Festinal 

MACIBOL 
(Plate XXVI) 

These two figures represent masked men who sometimes apjjear in 
the March festival (Aiikwafiti) carrying efBgies of the Great Serpent, 
with whith tliey appear to struggle, twisting them about their bodies 
and causing them to make various gj'rations in a startling manner. 

One of the arms represented in the picture is a false one, which is 
hung on the shoulder of the performer, the real arm being hidden in 
the body of the serpent effigy. The man holds the stick which is the 
backbone of the sei'pent with the hidden hand and with it imparts 
the wonderfully i-ealistic movements to the ser])ent. 

Each figure wears a buckskin l)lanket and a mask painted green, 
across which is a black zigzag band rimmed with white, which in form 
resembles the snake symbol on the kilt of the Snake priests. The 
helmet has two horns and a bunch of feathers on the top. 

The backs of the two serpent effigies differ in color, one being black 
and the other brown, but the bellies of both are white. The triangidar 
symbols on them represent bird tracks; the double parallel marks 
represent feathers. 

Their heads have a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a median horn curv- 
ing forward, and a necklace of feathered strings. The eyes are promi- 
nent, and the teeth and tongue are colored red. 

Macibol is another name for Calako, the sun god, and the episode 
here figured represents the sky god wielding the lightning. 

PALLTLIJKON AND TATCUKTI 
(Plate XXVI) 

There are many rites in the Aiikwafiti in which the effigies of Palii- 
liikon, the Great Snake, play an instructive role. This picture repre- 
sents the struggle of a clown with one of these effigies, as personated 
in the March mystery drama. 

The effigy is made to rise from a jar on the floor tt> the ceiling, and 
when it is thus extended a clown steps up to it and appeal's to struggle 
with it; he is finally overcome. There are modifications of this drama 
which call for special description." but none of these are represented 
in the collection of pictures. 

FIGURINES OF CORN MAIDENS 

(Plate XXVII) 

On certain years there is introduced in the Hopi mystery drama, 

Ankwanti, an interesting marionette performance which is illustrated 

by this picture. The Honani or Badger clan of Sichumovi have two 



"See A Theatrical Performance at Walpi, Proceedings Washington .\cadeuiy of Science, vol. ii, 
I'JUO, pages yu.5-629, and pages 4U-55 of this paper. 



58 HOPl KATCINAS [eth. ak.v. 21 

fijiuriiK's ref)rcsenting the Corn iiiiiidens, which were made by a man 
named Totci, who now lives at Zufii. These figurines and a framework 
or upright with which they are used are shown in this picture, which 
rei)rescnts the figures kneeling before a miniature grinding stone 
placed on the floor. 

As the symbolism has been explained in a description of Calako 
mana. it need not be redescril)ed, but it may be well to note that 
the dotted bodies appearing on these figurines below the kilt rep- 
resent the feathered garment which this maid and some other mythical 
personages are said to wear." 

The designs on the framework symbolize rain clouds and falling 
rain. Diu-ing the mysterj^ V^^Y the two bird effigies are made to move 
back and forth on the framework by a man concealed behind the screen, 
who also imitates bird cries. 

The two figurines are manipulated by means of strings and other 
mechanical api)liances. Their arms are jointed, and as a song is sung 
the marionettes are made to imitate meal grinding, raising their hands 
at intervals from the meal stones to their faces. 

TACAB ANYA AXD MAXA 
(Plate XXVII) 

This picture represents a being called Navaho Aiiya katcina. and his 
sister, who grinds corn ceremonially in the kivas on the final night of 
the Aiikwailti. The attitude of the girl is that assumed by her after 
the corn has been ground, when she and her sister dance and posture 
their bodies before a line of Aiiya katcina personators serving as a 
chorus. 

The masks of the Navaho Aiiyas are similar to those of the Hopi, 
except that the former have terraced figures or rain-cloud symbols in 
each lower corner, and a red instead of a black beard. The male wears 
a red kilt, tied by a belt of silver disks, which are common Navaho 
ornaments. 

The dress of the girl consists of a black velvet shirt and a red calico 
skirt, with a piece of calico over her shoulders. She wears a Navaho 
necklace. 

Her coitiure is a cue tied behind the head, like that of the Navahos. 
The projecting lip, illusti'ating a habit of gesticulating witli the lower 
jaw so common among Navahos, is common in Hopi pictures of these 
Indians. 

OWANOZROZRO 

(Plate XXVIII) 

This being appears in the Ankwafiti, going from kiva to kiva 
beating on the hatchways and calling down to the inmates. The 

a Fabrics obtained in cliff houses and other old Arizona ruins show that it is probable that cloth in 
which feathers were woven was worn by the ancient ancestors ol the Hopis. 



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picture repret;ents him beatino- a stono with a yucca whip. Tlic nuusk 
is colored white, and has a projecting mouth, goggle eyes, two horns, 
and a mass of hair. The part of stone heater is now taken ))y hoys, 
and the two personatoi's seen in 1900 stood at the kiva entrances 
striking the ladder and raised hatchway, calling down the kiva entrance 
as if angry. They wore loose blankets and no ceremonial kilts. 

COTO 

(Plate XXVIII) 

There are two pictures of Goto, the Star katcina, one represent-' 
ing the Walpi, the other the Orailn variant; the masks of both are 
readily distinguished fi'om all others by the arrangement of the star 
SA'mbols. 

The East mesa or AValpi Star katcina has three vertical stars 
attached to the top of the masks, a star painted on the right cheek, 
and a half -moon on the left. There are also star figures on the fore- 
arms and legs. Four feathers are represented on tojj of the mask 
and others hang fi'om the elbows. There are yucca whips in the 
hands. The kilt has a radiating turkey tail feather covering, which 
has a unique form. 

The whole face of the Oraibi Star katcina is covered bj- a single 
star. It has a string of feathers extending down the back and a collar 
of spruce twigs. The body is painted yellow and black and the arms 
and legs have longitudinal bands. 

The garments are painted red, and in the left hand is carried a 
yucca whip, in the right a bell. Red color appears to characterize 
all the ijaraphernalia. 

HOPAK AND MANA 
(Plate XXIX) 

One of the katcinas which appeared in the Ankwaiiti was called 
Hopak (hopoko, eastern), and evidentlj' derives its name from the 
fact that it came from eastern pueblos. Hopak was accompanied by 
a girl being, evidentlv his sister (civaadta). 

The distuiguishing s3'mbolism is the triangular mouth and the 
zigzag markings aroiuid the face, which is painted green. The hair 
of the girl is dressed in the same way as that of the Zunis and the 
Pueblo women of the Rio Grande. Small rectangles in two colors are 
painted on each cheek. The girl was called sister of the Putikoii kat- 
cina when he appeared in the Ankwaiiti. 



'JU HoPl KATCINAS [eth. axx. 21 

KOKYA.N WfyTI " 
(Plate XXIX) 

When the PiiiikofT katciiuis diuiced in the Ankwanti there accom- 
panied the dancer.s a personation culled So wiiqti. Grandmother woman, 
and as the grandmother of Puiikon is Kokyan wiiqti (Spider woman). 
So wiiqti is supposed to he another name for this being. 

The mask is perfectly black, with yellow crescentic eyes and white 
hair. .She wears a dark-liluo blanket, over which is a white cere- 
monial Ijlanket with rain-cloud and butterfly symbols. She carries a 
sprig of pine in each hand. 

PtJCKON KATCIXA 

(I'lateXXIX) 

The picture of Piiiikon katcina '' has a black mask .surmounted by 
a netted war bonnet, with two eagle tail feather.s attached to the apex. 
There is a small conical extension on top of this bonnet, the usual 
distinguishing feature of the lesser war god. 

The ligure has a white Ijlanket about the body which i.s painted 
black, and wears a white kilt with rain clouds embroidered on the 
margins. The hose ai-e made of an open-worked netted cotton faliric. 
In the left hand there is a bow and arrow, and in the right is the 
ancient war implement, a stone tied by a buckskin to the extremity 
of a stick.'' 

I'lfKON HOTA 

(Plate XXX) 

The face of Pi'iiikon hoya bears the customary parallel vertical marks, 
and on the head is a wai' l)onnet with apical extension and warrior 
feathers. He wears on his l)ack a (juiver of motuitain-lion skin, and 
carries a bow and arrow in his l(>ft hand, the symbolic lightning frame- 
work, with feathers attached at the angles, in the right. The white 
marks on bocU', legs, and arms shown in the picture are characteristic. 
The reader's attention is called to the similarity of the sj-mbols of this 
picture to those of Piiiikon katcina. 

PALUis'A HOYA 

(Plate XXX) 

Paluna hoya. the twin brother of Piiiikon hoya. has a mask with fi 
protuberant snout, but does not wear a war bonnet. He has, like 

oTlie part was taken by Nanahe. a Hopi wbo lives in Zuiii and who had returned to Walpi for that 
purpose. 
ii For picture of the doll, see Internationales Archiv fiir Ethnographie, Band vn. pi. v, tig. .59. 
c One of these implements can be seen on the altar of the Kalektaka iu the Momteita ceremony. 



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his tti'othei", two vertical mai'k.s on each cheek, which, however, are 
l)lack instead of white, and the warrior feather on his head. He 
carries a whizzer in the right hand and a bow and arrows in his 
left, and wears a bandoleer across his left shoulder. His body and 
extremities are painted brown and black. 

TCUKUBOT 

(Plate XXX) 

This is one of the numerous horned katcinas, distinguished by a 
black helmet, white goggle eyes, and two bands across the face. They 
roam al)Out through the pueblos in certain great festivals. 

TCANAf 

(Plate XXX) 

Tcanau is an instructive personage. The picture represents him 
as he appears in the AiTkwafiti. 

The mask is flat and has eagle feathers and two sticks similar to 
those of the AVuptunau mask radiating fi-om the margin. The brown 
bodies between these radiating eagle feathers are also feathers, a 
bunch of which covers the back of the helmet." 

The face is destitute of syml)olic markings, but a stuffed image of 
a snake hangs from the mouth. 

Tcanau carries a slat of wood and a meal bag resembling that of 
the Snake pi'iests in his left hand, and in his right a crooked stick. 
Four of these beings appeared in the Afikwailti. and the personation 
is said to have been originally introduced into Tusayan by the Pakab 
clan. 

WUPAMAU 
(Plate XXXI) 

This picture -' represents a Ijeing the mask of which has a sj^mbolism 
recalling that of the sun. The face is flat, and is divided into three 
regions by a horizontal and a vertical line. One of the lateral regions 
IS yellow, the other is green. The chin is black and there is a long 
snout slightlj^ curved downward, with an appended piece of leather, 
colored red, representing the tongue. 

Around the rim of this face, more especially the upper part, is a 
plaited corn-husk border, in which are inserted at intervals three 
prominent eagle feathers and numerous smaller feathers. The latter 
are but portions of a mass which cover the whole back of the helmet. 

When Wupamau appears in Powamu or Aiikwanti, he is accom- 

(I The masks seen in the Ankwanti liave carved wixulen lizards attached to their forelieads. 
b For picture of the doll, see Internationales Archlv I'Ur Ethuographie, Baud vii, pi. vi, tig. 6. 



92 HOPI KATCINAS [eiii. asn. 21 

panied by a clown carrying a lasso, which in the picture is fastened 
around the body of the katcina. 

There are masks of Wupamau in all three villages of the PLast 
mesa, and these are all worn in the Ankwanti ceremony. 

MUCAIAS TAKA , 

(Plate XXXI) 

The Butialo youth, as represented in the picture, has a face painted 
black, with white crescents indicating eyes and mouth. Over his 
head is a blackened wig made of a sheepskin, which also hangs down 
his back, replacing the buffalo skin, which was always used when this 
animal was abundant. To each hide of the head covering is attached 
a horn with appended eagle feathers. Across the forehead is an 
embroidered fabric like those used for katcina heel bands." 

The kilt of the Buffalo youth is white, with red and black stripes 
along the edges; it is tied bj" a string to which shells are attached. 
A large cotton belt is now generally used for a girdle. 

In his left hand the Buffalo youth carries a zigzag stick, represent- 
ing lightning, to each end of which feathers are attached. In his 
right hand he has a rattle decorated with stars.'' 

3IUCAIAS >IAXA 
(Plate XXXI) 

This picture represents the Buffalo maid, who appears in the 
Mucaiasti, or Buffalo dance, with the youth mentioned above. She 
is unmasked, but wears hanging down over her forehead befoi'e the 
eyes a fringe of black hair tied to a string about her forehead. On 
the orown of her head there is a bunch of parrot and eagle breast 
feathers. A wooden stick, to one end of which is attached a synil)olic 
scjuash blossom and to the other two eagle tail feathers, is placed 
horizontally over the crown of the head. This squash blossom is 
made of yarn stretched over radiating spines. Two black parallel 
lines are painted on each cheek, and she wears a profusion of necklaces 
and three white cotton blankets. About her body, tied under her left 
arm, is a ceremonial dance kilt, the embroidered decorations repre- 
senting rain clouds and falling rain. 

The two other blankets, one of which is tied over her right 
shoulder, the other about her loins, bear on the embroidered rim 
rain-cloud and butterfly decorations. She has white leggings, 
embroidered anklets, and white moccasins. The blanket is bound to 

a In old times these bands were made of porcupine quills, but these are now rare and are replaced 
by embroidered worsted of ditTerent colors. 

d A very good doll of Mucaias taka. made for the author in 1900, has patches of white ou the body, 
arms, and legs, and the kilt is tied by a miniature white girdle. 



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WUPAMAU 




MUCAIAS TAKA 



MUCAIAS MANA 



HELtOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 



j 



FEWKEsJ KATCINAS APPEARING IN PALLLfKONTI 93 

her loins by a great cotton ))elt, the ends of which are shown on the 
left side. 

In each hand she carries a notched prayer-stick, called a sun ladder. 
which is painted yellow on one side of the median line, green on the 
other." 

On her back the Bn.tfalo raaid wears a sun symbol, which, divested 
of the peripheral eagle feathers, the artist has shown to the right of 
the picture. The tips of these feathers are shown on each side of the 
arms; the accompanying lines represent stained horsehair. 

ANTA KATCINA WANAS CRINDIKG CORN 

(Plate XXXII) 

In several ceremonies, especially those in the kivas which drama- 
tize the growth of corn, there is a ceremonial corn grinding, which 
also sometimes occurs in the public plazas, as is illustrated by this 
picture. The ligures of the grouj) are as follows: 

1. Two Afiya katcina manaf s 

2. Two Hehea katcinaa 

3. Four Aii^-a katcinas 

4. One Paiakyamu 

All these figures have symbolic masks which have elsewhere been 
described as characteristic. 

It will be noticed that the two whorls of the girls" hair are different 
from those generally worn by Hopi maids. This particular foi'm is 
said to represent a very ancient coiffure, which is made by winding 
the hair over an hourglass-shaped piece of wood. Init this object is 
not removed, as are the curved sticks commonly used in making the 
whorls. 

The sequence of events in this ceremonial corn grinding is as 
follows: The two Heheas tirst enter the kiva or plaza, bearing on 
their i)acks two metates or grinding stones done up in sheepskins, 
which they place side by side. Narrow boards, decorated with rain 
clouds and bird figures, are set up about them, and a plaque of meal, 
with a lu'ush, is placed by their side. The Heheas. having arranged 
these objects, seat themselves on each side of the grinding stones in 
the attitude shown in the picture. The masked girls then enter and 
take their positions by the metates. 

A line of thirty or more Afiya katcinas, of which only four are 
shown in the picture, then file in and take their positions back of the 
maids; with them enters the Paiakyamu. or glutton, who seats himself 
facing the girls. 

After an interlocution between the Heheas and the kiva chief, 
who sits bj' the firej^lace facing them, the trend of their conversation 
being that the girls are clever meal grinders, the chorus begins a 

o The artist has mude a mistake in painting l:>oth sides green. 



94 H(>I*I KATCINAS [kth. ann. Jl 

sono-, acc(>mp;iniocl by :i dance, while the oirls o-rind the meal and the 
Hehea.s chip their liands. After a short tune the Heliea.s take some of 
the meal from the o-rinding stones and carry it to the kiva chief or to 
the clown, and put it in his mouth to show its excellence. They 
respond that it is good, and the Heheas resume their seats, shouting 
and clapping their hands as before. 

After a little while tlie Heheas take more of the meal and thrust it into 
the mouths of the other spectators for them to taste, all the time car- 
rying on a bantering conversation with the chief. After this proceeds 
for some time the girls rise, the inetates are brushed, done up in the 
sheepskins, and laid at one side. The girls then stand in front of the 
line of Anya katcinas and posture their bodies, holding ears of corn 
in the hands, which they extend one after another in the attitudes 
shown in the picture of Alo maiia. 

The being called Anya katcina, while apparently verj- old among the 
Hopis, resembles the Zuiii Kokokci in both symbolism and general 
character, which suggests that lioth may have been derived from a 
common source. It is not improbable that this source in both instances 
was the puelilos of the Patki clans, the ruins of which are situated 
on the Little Colorado river. 

It is interesting in this connection to note that the whorls of hair of 
the Anya manas more nearly resemble those of the Zuiii personations 
of girls than those of the Ilopi, which, so far as it goes, tells in favor 
of a common derivation. 

HOKVANA 
(Plate XXXI 11 I 

The figure of Hokvana katcina is accompanied Ijy that of a drummer. 
He wears a bearded maskette colored green and has hair cut in ter- 
races across the forehead and below the ears, but hanging down the 
back. This way of cutting the luiir in terraces is symbolic of rain 
clouds. 

There is a l)uncli of feathers on top of the head, and a string with 
attached feathers hangs down the back. The lower rim of the maskette 
has alternate blocks of red, green, white, and black colors, as in Afij'a 
katcina masks. One side of the body is painted red, the other blue. 

The drummer is dressed like a Navaho, with calico or silk headband, 
velvet ti-ousers, buckskin leggings with silver buttons, and belt of 
silver disks. 

Hokyafia is sai<l to be distinguished from Anya by his peculiar step in 
daneiuy. 



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HOKYANA 




HOKYANA AND MANA 



HELIOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



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CITOTO 



KOKLE 




SUMAIKOLI AND YAYA 



HELIOTYPE CO., &03T0N, 



i 

i 



FEWKEs] KATCINA3 APPEAUTNG IN PALULL'KONTI 95 

HORYAXA MANA 

(Plate XXXIII) 

The miiid or lister of the preceding, as tig-ured liy the Hopi artist, lias 
her hair dressed in Zuiii fashion and earries an ear of corn in each 

hand. 

CAKWAHONAfi 
(Plate LXIII) 

The collection of katcina pictures would have been increased several 
fold were we to include in it nnuiy which are duplicates in all respects 
save color. It ma}' be borne in mind that while almost all these beings 
have yellow, green, red, and white variants, as a rule only one color 
is drawn. This is true of the present picture representing the Green 
Bear: but we have also the yellow, red. and l)lack bear with the same 
general sj'mbolism. 

The distinguishing symbolism of the Bear katcina are bear paws, 
one on each cheel\. which are at times ditficultto distinguish from those 
of the Badger. It has a prominent snout, and a visor on the helmet, 
to which lightning symbols and feathers are attached. 

KOKLE 
(Plate XXXIV) 

The artist represents in this picture the symbolism of Kokle, and 
depicts an episode when this pei'son bears a deer on his back. 

The facial markings of the mask of Kokle represent a cornstalk 
mediallv placed, extending over the eyes. 

Kokle is a very common design on the intei'ior of modern bowls, 
where the head only is generally represented. 

CITOTO 
(Plate XXXIV) 

The mask of Citoto is conical or half ovoid, with semicircular alter- 
nating parallel bands of red, yellow, green, and bjack on each side. 
The mouth has the form of a curved beak, at the base of which is 
attached a fringe of red horsehair. A cluster of variegated parrot 
feathers is attached to the back and apex of the mask. Citoto carries 
a rattle in his right, a pine tree in his left hand. 

There are two Citoto helmets on the East mesa. One of these 
hangs in a back room of Anote's house (Sa clan, Hano), the other is 
in the special keeping of the Walpi Pakab clan, which also claims, in 
addition to Citoto. masks of Sabi (Tcanail), Tanik. and Tiirkwinu, 
male and female. The Tanik helmet closely resembles Wupamau, and 
Tiirkwinu (Mountaineer) is so called from the San Francisco ]\Ioun- 
tain people, which woidd indicate that it was derived from some of the 
people who once lived along the Little Colorado. 



96 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. a.n.n. J] 

SUMAIKOLI CeREMOXV 

SUMAIKOLI AM) YAVA 

(Plate XXXIV) 

This picture represents a Sumaikoli led b\- a Yaya priest, as thej' 
appear in two festivals each year, one in the spring, the other in 
summer. New tire is kindled by frictional methods in the former 
and is carried by means of a cedar-bark torch to shrines of the 
fire ood at the four cardinal points. In abbreviated presentations 
the masks are left in the kiva. where they are arranged in a row with 
that of Kawikoli. and the men who carry the fire are unmasked and 
not accompanied by a Yaya priest. The Sumaikoli are supposed to 
be blind, and eyes in the masks are mere pin holes, so that when 
the}' are worn a guide is necessary. 

There are six masks of Sumaikoli and one of Kawikoli in Walpi and 
Hano which difier slightly in colors and syml)olism. but the accom- 
panying figure gives a fair idea of one of the Sumaikolis. 

It will be noted that the figure wears the same eml)roidered sash 
on the head that is seen in the picture of Masanu. and that the 
appendages to the leggings are the same shell tinklers which are pre- 
scribed for sun gods. 

KAWIKOLI 
(Plate XXXV) 

The picture of Kawikoli represents a being with a globular mask 
painted black, having two white marks on each cheek. A bundle of 
feathered strings is tied to each side, and the skin of a mountain 
lion surrounds the neck. The chin has red and green curved bands 
inclosing a white area. The figure is represented as carrying fire in a 
cedar-bark torch from one shrine to another, accompanied by a Yaya 
priest, who has a rattle in his right hand and an unknown object in 
the left. The kilt is tied behind and has draperies of colored yarn. 

The mask of Kawikoli is displayed with those of Sui.iaikoli in the 
festivals of these personages. KaMikoli is also pei-souated at Zuui, 
from which pueblo the name was probably derived. 

cnviKOLi 

(Plate XXXV) 

The picture of Ciwikoli represents a being with mask painted 
brownish red, having two parallel white lines on each cheek. There 
are tadpole figures on the sides of the mask and a fan-shaped feather 
appendage to the top of the head. 



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KAWIKOLI 




.^* 



CIWIKOLI 



TACAB (NAACTADJI) 



HELIOTVPE CO., BOSTON. 



FEWKES] NAVAHO KATCINAS 97 

Ciwikoli wears a kilt made of red-stained horsehair, and a ban- 
doleer, lie carries a whizzer or bull roarer in his right hand. A fox 
skin is tied about his neck. 

Ciwikoli is a Zuiii personation. Words like Sumaikoli, Kawikoli, 
Ciwikoli, having- the termination -koli, are foreign to the Hopi lan- 
guage, although common in eastern pueblo tong-ues. 

Navaho Katcinas 

TACAB (NAACTADJI) 

(Plate XXXV) 

This Navaho god is incorporated in the East mesa ritual, and is 
known by the following characteristic symV)olism: 

The maslv has a projecting visor, to the rim of which is attached a 
row of eagle feathers inserted verticallj' in a wad of straw, the edge 
of which shows above the visor. A conical structure anade of sticks 
colored red, tipped with yarn, red horsehair, and eagle feathers 
arises from the top of the head. 

One side of the face is colored green, the other red, the two sides 
being separated b^y a white median band, across which are parallel 
black lines. The eyes are represented \)y horizontal bands painted 
black. The pointed marks above and below the eye slits, with which 
they are parallel, represent gourd sprouts. A symbolic squash blos- 
som is appended to each side of the helmet. This object is made of 
wood or a section of a goui'd, and is crossed on the concave face by 
diametrical lines, at the point of intersection of which there is an eagle 
feather. The right side of the body and corresponding arm are colored 
yellow, the left red. A network of red lines covers the body, as is 
indicated in the picture. 

The bandoleei' and necklace are pine boughs, which are also carried 
in the hands. Two eagle feathers are tied to each armlet. The belt 
is composed of silver disks, and the kilt is colored red and white; the 
latter has green diagonals, and tassels on the lower corners. Sleigh 
bells are attached to a garter of yarn tied below the knee. 

TACAB (tENEBIDJI) 

(Plate XXXVI) 

The artist has figured in this plate one of the most common Navaho 
katcinas personated bj' the Hopis. The eyes ax'e black, horizontal 
bands, curved at the outer ends; the snout is long. On that side of 
the head which is turned to the observer there is a symbol of a half- 
formed squash surrounded by red horsehair, and to the opposite side 
of the head are attached two vertical eagle feathers. On the crown 
21 ETH— 03 7 



98 HOPI KATCINAS (kth. ann. 21 

of the head are variegated parrot feathers. The red fringe on the 
forehead represents the hair. 

TACAB (yEBITCAi) 

(Plate XXXVI) 

The name of this Navaho supernatural is translated Grandfather 
katcina, and the Hopis say that the Navaho name has a like meaning. 
The artist has depicted on the mask a stalk of corn on a white face. 
The eyes and mouth are surrounded liy two half rectangles. A 
conventional ear of corn is painted on the left cheek. There is like- 
wise a crest of eagle feathers on the head. Yebitcai wears a blue 
calico shirt, black velvet pantaloons, and Navaho leggings. Both the 
pantaloons and the leggings have a row of white disks along the out- 
side which represent the well-known silver buttons, and he wears a 
belt of silver disks strung on a leather strap. A buckskin is repre- 
sented over his right shoulder, and in his left hand he carries a bow 
and two arrows, and a skin pouch for sacred meal. 

TACAB 

(Plate XXXVI) 

The artist has also represented another Navaho katcina with points 
of symbolism similar to that of Yebitcai. The face is painted white, 
with crescents under the e^'es and mouth. There is a representation 
of a stalk of growing corn on the median line of the mask, and an ear 
of maize on each side. 

The figure wears a red kilt and a })lack bandoleer, and carries yucca 
whips in his hands. 

SOYOHIM KaTCINAS 

Under this name the Hopis include many masked personages which 
appear in dances called by the same name (called here also Abbreviated 
Katcina dances). 

KAE 
(Plate XXXVI) 

Very few of the Hopis identified the picture of this katcina as Kae 
or Corn katcina, the name given to it 1)}' the artist. The validity of 
this identification is sup23orted bj' the predominance of the maize 
symbol, which covers the whole back of the mask. 

To the rear lower part of the head are attached feathers, two of 
which are vertically placed. The right side of the face is painted 
green, and on it are markings representing sprouting corn seeds. 
The visor has wooden slats, symbolic of lightning, tied to its rim. 

On one side of the picture the artist has represented the ordinary 
triple rain-cloud symbol above a corn plant, and some of the Hopis said 
that the rain-cloud design should have been painted on all the pictures 
in the collection. 



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TACAB (TENEBIDJI) 



<K.:iisM2::i?3^ 




TACAB 



TACAB (YEBITCAI) 







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A'HOTE 



PATCOSK 



AHO'TE 




HOTOTE 



HELIOTYPE CO.. BOSTON. 



FEWKEsj SOYOHIM KATCINAS 99 

aho'tk 
(Plate XXXVIl) 

Two pictures, both culled Ahote, from the cry uttered by the per- 
sonator, differ widely from each other in symbolism. The name of 
one has the accent on the penult, that of the other on the antepenult. 

Aho'te has a helmet painted yellow, with goggle ej'es, a prominent 
snout, and face covered with red and black four-pointed stars. The 
figure has two bandoleers, a white kilt with pendent fox skin, and 
an embroidered sash. A large string of eagle feathers hangs down 
the back. 

a'hote 

(Plate XXXVIl) 

A'hote has a black helmet with great goggle eyes and a single four- 
pointed star on the right cheek, a new moon on the left. Unlike 
Aho'te, he has two horns, one on each side of the head, and a triangle 
on the forehead painted j^ellow, in which are black and red rings. On 
the head there is a small f anli ke feather appendage. 

TURTUMSI 
(Plate LXII) 

The picture of Tiirtumsi represents a goggle-eyed katcina with yel- 
low mask, on which ai"e parallel rows of black lines extending longitu- 
dinally. The figure has a black beard, to which are fastened two 
cotton strings. A row of eagle feathers is attached to the head and 
hangs down the back, as shown in the picture, and there is a rattle 
in the right hand, a bow and arrows in the left. 

Several Hopis gave the name Komantci (Comanche) to this katcina. 
Possibly it was derived from this tribe, with which the ancient Hopis 
were familiar. 

PATCOSK 

(Plate XXXVIl) 

This characteristic being is readily distinguished by the cactus on 
the head and in the hand, lie also carries a bow and arrows. 

HOTOTO 

(Plate XXXVIl) 

Hototo katcina has crescentic marks painted green and red on the 
face, goggle-eyes, and a short snout. In his right hand he carries an 
oVjject on which appears the zigzag lightning symbol. 

The Hopis say that Hototo is so named from the cry "Hototo, 
hototo!" which the personator utters. 



100 . HOPI KATCINAS [eth. a.n.n, :il 

KEME 
(Plato XXXVIII) 

The drawing of Kerne katcina has slanting bands of yellow, green, 
and red across the middle of the face, which is painted green, with 
terraced figures in red and yellow in two diagonal corners. The top 
of the head, as represented, is fiat, and to it are appended bunches of 
paiTot and turkey feathers, two of which project on each side. 

The dress and other paraphernalia of Kerne katcina are in no 
resjject distinctive. 

SIWAP 

(Plate XXXVIII) 

Siwap katcina has a black helmet with a prominent globular snout, 
green eyes, and a triangular, green-coloi'ed figure on the forehead. 
The necklace is made of corn husks, a few of which are also tucked into 
the belt. The kilt is black, and thei'e is an antelope horn in each hand. 

HOTCANI 
(Plate XXXVIII) 

The symbolic markings of this being are clearly l)rougbt out by the 
Ilopi artist in his picture. 

Tlie face is painted green, crossed b_y a black band with red border. 
On the top of the head are radiating feathers and parrot plumes. 
Pine boughs are inserted in the armlets and belt, and there are l>ranches 
of the same tree a})Out the neck. The kilt is white, without decolla- 
tion, and the sashes are embroidered. 

From the linguistic similarity of the name Hotcani to Hotciiuni of 
the Sia, mentioned by Mrs Stevenson, they are regarded as identical. 
The Hopi variant is probablj^ derived from the Kei'esan. 

TAWA 
(Plate XXXVIII) 

The Sun katcina has a disk-shaped mask, which is divided bj' a 
horizontal black band into two regions, the upper being subdivided 
into two smaller portions by a median vertical line. The left lateral 
upper division is red, the right yellow, the former being surrounded 
by a yellow and black border, the latter bj' a red and black. In the 
lower half of the face, which is green, appear lines representing eyes, 
and a double triangle of hourglass shape representing the mouth. 

Around the border of the mask is represented a plaited corn husk, 
in which radiating eagle feathers are insei'ted. A string with attached 
red horsehair is tied around the rim or margin of the disk. 



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HOTCANI 




SIWAP 



TAWA 



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FEWKEs] SOYOHIM KATCINAS 101 

In his left hiind Tawa carries the tlute which is associated with him 
in certain Hopi solar myths." 

It will be found that this type of sun symbolism is to be easily 
detected in various katcinas of different names which have been men- 
tioned, and it is more than probable that manj^ of these, possessing the 
same, or nearly the same, symbolic markings, are sun gods under dif- 
ferent names. This multitude of sun gods is readily explained bj' the 
composite nature of the present Hoj^i people, for each clan formerly 
had its own sun god, which, when the clan joined Walpi, was added 
to the existing mythological system. The type of symbolism has per- 
sisted, thus revealing their identity. 

KAU 

(Plate XXXIX) 

This katcina is readily recognized by the two horns and dependent 
crest of feathers on the head, the characteristic mouth, and short 
beard. The two figures here given differ from each other in their 
colors — one being green, the other yellow. Both have characteristic 
triangular symbols on the forehead. 

MUZKIBI 
(Plate XXXIX) 

The picture of Muzribi, the Bean katcina, has on each side of the 
mouth, or snout, the sprouting seed of a bean. The face is bor- 
dered by yellow and red marginal lines which are continued into the 
curved markings, representing be:in sprouts, on the cheeks. 

There are four horizontally-placed feathers on the top of the head, 
and a Inmch of smaller feathers at tlieir attachment. 

LENYA 
(Plate XXXIX) 

Lefiya, the Flute katcina, as shown in the picture, has a green face 
with I'ectangular e3'es, the left colored yellow bordered with black, 
the right blue with the .same colored border. There are chevrons of 
black lines on the cheeks; the mouth is triangular in form. 

Attached to the crown of the head there is an annulet made of 
corn husk painted green, in which ar-e inserted artificial ffowers and 
feathers. 

Leiiya wears on the back a tablet made of skin stretched over a 
rectangular frame, the edge of which is shown on each side of the 

" There are many published pictures of the Hopi symbolic sun disk. See Fifteenth Annual Report 
of the Bureau of .American Ethnology, 1897, pi. civ: American Anthropologist, vol. x, 1897, pi. ii, figs. 
36, 37, 40, pi. IV, fig. 112; .lournal of American Folk-Lore, vol. vi, 1893, pi. I; Proceedings Washington 
Academy of Science, vol. ii, 1900, pi. .xxxii. 



102 HOPI KATCINA8 [eth. ann. 21 

neck and body. The dentate markings on the visible edge represent 
a plaited corn husk border, and the appended red marks represent 
horsehair. The two objects extended horizontalh' on the upper 
corners arc eagle feathers arising from a cluster of feathers at their 
attachment. 

Lenya carries a flute in his left, a rattle in his right hand. 

FANWO " 

(Plate XL) 

Paiiwu, the Mountain Sheep katcina, is represented by two figures, 
one of which wears a kilt tied with great cotton girdle, shirt, and 
leggings, while the other is naked. The heads of these two figures 
are practically identical, both having two imitations of sheep horns, 
along which are drawn zigzag lines in green color, representing light- 
ning. The mask has a protuberant visor, from which hang turkej' 
tail feathers. The snout is prominent, and there arc artificial squash 
blossoms on the sides of the head. The naked figure has the back 
and sides of the l)ody and outside of the limbs painted ])lue or green, 
with the abdominal region white. Attention is called to the peculiar 
unknown ))odies inserted into armlets and garters. 

The other picture of this katcina has the same symbols on the mask, 
but the figure wears a buckskin shirt and fringed leggings. A white 
kilt with red and black borders is tied about the loins by a great 
cotton girdle, and a semicircular framework with attached feathers 
is carried on the back. 

TIWENU 

(Plate XL) 

The picture representing Tiwenu has a tablet on the head, the 
upper I'im of which has a terrace form representing rain clouds. On 
the sides of the face are pictures of symbolic corn eai's of different col- 
ors, that on the left representing white corn, that on the right, green 
corn. The semicircle painted on the tablet represents a rainbow above 
a white field in which is a four-pointed star. 

The eye slits are painted l)lack, with a white margin. The lower 
part of the face is l)lack. the chin white. There is a projecting snout, 
with teeth and red lips. The figure carries a pine branch in each 
hand. 

kokoctO 

(Plate LXI) 

This is a Keresan katcina, as its name* signifies. The picture 
represents a plain mask with a white or black arrowhead figure for 

« For picture of the doll, see Internationales Archiv fiir Ethnographie, Band vii. pi. vii, tig. 14. 
b Akorosta. The words sung by Korocti"l are Keresan, as is the case with those sung by several 
other katcinas of eastern origin. 



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TIWENU 



KWEWU 



HELtOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 



I 



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TCUB 




CIPOMELI 




SOWINWU 



HELIOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 



FEWKE9] SOYOHIM KATCINAS 103 

mouth and two horizontal black marks with upturned ends for eyes. 
The face is green, with red, yellow, and black border; the ears have 
pendants of corn husks. The blanket is white, with embroidered 
border. 

Each figure carrier in one hand a skin pouch with sacred meal, and 
in the other a rattle or a number of deer scapula?. 

KWEWO " 
(Plate XL) 

The picture representing the Wolf katcina has a well-drawn wolfs 
head with projecting mouth, and a wolf's paw, painted black, on each 
cheek. To the tips of the ears are appended feathers, stained red, and 
there ai'e eagle feathers on the side of the head. 

The kilt is made of horsehair, stained red, hanging from a belt 
which supports the breechclout. The legs and forearms are spotted. 
Kwewu is generally personated with the Antelope and Deer katcinas 
running back and forth along the line of daucei'S, assuming the 
posture represented in the drawing. 

TCUB* 
(Plate XLI) 

The picture of Tciib, the Antelope katcina, represents a being 
with two antelope horns on top of the head, an hourglass design in 
black on the face, black spots on each cheek, and a bunch of feathers, 
from which arise two eagle tail feathers, on the back of the head. 
The mask has a long protuberant snout and an artificial squash blossom 
on each side. 

The bodily decoration and dress are in no respect characteristic. 
In the hand there is a staff, to the top of which feathers are attached. 
The symbolism of Tciib katcina is very close to that of Sowinwu. 

SOWINWG 
(Plate XLI) 

In the three pictures of Sowinwu the artist has represented two 
Deer katcinas ascribed to the old jJueblo Awatobi, and with them a 
deer hunter of that pueblo, the tradition of whom is still told atWalpi. 

The Deer katcinas have green helmets with projecting visors, from 
which hang rows of turkey feathers. Deer horns are attached to the 
to25 of the head and two eagle tail feathers project from the back. 
There is an hourglass design in black on the middle of the face and a 
black dot on each cheek. A circle with radial lines, denoting the six 
cardinal points, is painted on each side of the mask. 

(' Fur pictvire of the doll, see Internationales Archiv fur Ethnographie, Band vii, pi. v, Jig. 2. 
t> For picture of the doll, see same volume, pi. vii, fig. 13. 



104 HOPl KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

The hunter has the chevron symbolic of the eagle over the nose 
and wears a kilt of red horsehair. lie weai's a bandoleer and a netted 
shirt. In his right hand he carries a rattle, in his left a bow and 
arrows. 

The author has obtained the following legend regarding the deer 
hunter: An Awatobi maid gave birth to a child, which she hid in a 
cleft in the mesa side. Isauu (Coyote) found this babe and carried it 
in her mouth to Tciibio wiiqti, the Antelope woman, who lived in 
Awatobi. Tciibio wiiqti had milk and brought up the child, who 
became a celebrated hunter of antelopes. 

The Sowiiiwii katcina has not been pei'sonated of late years l)y the 
Walpi men, but there is good authority for the statement that it has 
been represented within a few years by the Mishongnovi people. At 
the period of the destruction of Awatobi msmy of the clans went to 
the Middle mesa and one or two of the Awatobi cults are still more 
vigorous there than elsewhere. 

CIPOMELLI 

(Plati- XLI) 

The figure represents an ancient katcina peculiar to the pueblo 
Hano, but now rax'ely personated. 

TUMAE 

(Plate XLI I) 

The picture of this katcina has a face divided into a yellow and 
green section by a vertical black line. The lower part of the face is 
.separated from V)oth by a horizontal black line, and is colon^d red. 
In the middle of this red zone there is a rectangular chin painted 
white, the pigment which gives the name to the figure. Both Hopis 
and Tewas call this katcina Tumae (white earth), referring to the white 
pigment on the chin. 

MATIA 

(Plate XLII) 

This figure has a human hand painted on the face, on which account 
it is called !Matia, or Hand katcina. Another designation, Talakin, 
refers to the girl who follows, stirring the contents of a cooking pot 
which Matia carries on his back. He is said to appear in the foot 
races, but the author has never seen him personated at "Walpi. 

A being with the figure of a hand on the face occurs also in Zufii 
dances. 



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PIOKOT 





TURKWINU 



TURKWINU MANA 



MELIOTVPE CO., BOSTON. 



FEWKEs] SOYOHIM KATCINAS 105 

PIOKOT 

(Plate XLIII) 

The pictures of this ivatcina have a eircle of various colors on the 
forehead and red club-shaped bodies on the cheeks. The figures wear 
embroidered sashes on their shoulders — an unusual position for these 
objects — and tight-titting lilaclv kilts, tied above with green belts. 
Evidently the distinguishing symbols of Piokot are the diagonal club- 
shaped marks on the cheeks, for two other pictures of Piokot. by a 
different artist, have neith( i' the variegated circle on the forehead nor 
the embroidered scarf about the neck. 

turkwikG 
(Plate XLIII) 

This figure has an undecorated mask with a row of parallel marks, 
symbolic of falling rain, on the upper edge, where there are likewise 
three semicircular figures representing rain clouds. Ai'ow of turkej' 
feathers is drawn before the face. The hair and beard are represented 
by pine boughs. It carries a ceremonial water gourd iti each hand 
and wears a simple white kilt with green border, decorated with red- 
colored rain-cloud sj'mbpls. 

The name (tiirkwi) indicates that this katcina was derived from 
some mountain pueblo. The Tewas give the same name (Pompin) to 
it that they give to the San Francisco mountains. One of the best 
traditionists has said that this katcina was derived from people who 
once lived in the foothills of these mountains. 

TURKWINU MANA 
(Plate XLIII) 

The maid or sister cf Tiirkwinii has a headdress in the form of 
a tei'raced tablet, upon which semicircular rain-cloud symbols are 
painted. She likewise has pine boughs representing hair. 

Her face is divided by a median band, with parallel horizontal black 
lines, into two parts, the left side being painted brown and the right 
painted white. There are semicircular lines about the mouth. She 
wears a white blanket bound by a great cotton belt, has turkey feathers 
tied to the blanket, and carries a cake in her hand. 

TOHO 

(Plate LXIII) 

Toho, the Puma, wears a mask of green color, with a projecting 
snout armed with teeth. Eagle feathers are attached to a string 
hanging down the back, and there are parrot feathers in the hair. 



106 HOPI KATCIKAS [eth. ann. 21 

The body has yellcw parallel bars on breast, arms, and legs. The kilt 
is of horsehair staiued red. and in each hand is a whip made of yucca 
wands. 

KUTCA 
(Plate XLIV) 

Kutca, White katcina, has a white mask with two parallel vertical 
black marks on each cheek and a mouth of triangular shape. 

There is a horn tipped with an eagle feather attached to the left 
side of his head; its proximal and distal extremities are connected 
by a string, to which is tied red horsehair. A sunflower symbol is 
depicted on his forehead, and there are eagle and parrot feathers on 
top of his head. He carries a bow in the left hand and a ])undle of 
sheep scapuhw in the right, and wears over a spotted (calico) shiit a 
white cotton blanket decorated with butterfl}' and rain-cloud s,ymbols. 
On his back is a mountain-lion's skin. 

KUTCA MANA 

(Plate XLIV) 

The sister (mana)" of the preceding has, like her brother, a white 
mask with two parallel black marks on each cheek. The hourglass 
bodies on each side of the head represent whorls of hair, but are made 
of corn husks. 

I'KCicrat; 

(Plate XLIV) 

This figure has a green mask, with projecting snout, arising from 
a fringe of sheepskin stained red. The eyes are ^protuberant and 
colored j-ellow. There are colored feathers on the crown of the head 
and two eagle feathers at the back. The paw of an animal is depicted 
on each cheek. The figure is clothed in a rabbit-skin rug, girt with a 
belt, has naked feet, and wears a pair of red horsehair anklets. The 
wands in the hands are of cactus, and to their ends roasted ears of corn 
are tied. 

TEHOHO 

(Plate XLIV) 

The left cheek of Yehoho is colored yellow, the right red; they are 
separated ])y a black band. The ej'es are curved at the corners, and 
on the head there are two horns. The necklace is made of pine 
boughs. 

This katcina wears a rabbit-shin rug and an embroidered belt, and 
across the bod}' thei'e are two bandoleers formed of ears of roasted 
corn tied in strings. He holds an ear of the same in each hand. 

The garment worn bv Yehoho is called tokotcpatcuba. and the corn 
on the bandoleers is called takpabu. 

a Mana literally means maid. 



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^^K ja 








KUTCA MANA 




YEHOHO 



URCICIMU 



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FEWKES] ZUNI KATCINAS 107 

ZuNi Katcinas 

SIO 

(Plate XLV) 

The Zuni katcina " has designs on the face which recall the solar 
symbols. The upper part is divided b}' a vertical line into two regions, 
one red and the other green (blue in the picture), the right-hand side 
being- bordered by j^ellow and green, the left-hand side by red and 
spotted bands. The remaining or lower part of the face is colored 
green; the left eye is painted yellow. There is a long, slim, yellow, 
protuberant snout. A symbolic squash is appended to the right side 
of the helmet, and two vertical eagle feathers are tied to the left side. 
There are likewise indications of a fan-like crest of eagle feathers 
on the top of the helmet and a cluster of highly colored feathers at 
the point of attachment of the two vertical eagle feathers. 

SIO MANA AND THREE KOYIMSI 
(Plate XLV) 

In this picture the Zuni maid and three nuidheads are represented 
as they appear in an East mesa ceremony. 

The maid wears a maskette like that of Afiya mana, and holds aloft 
in one hand a badge of office, which among the Zufiis is beautifully 
formed of parrot feathers. In her other hand she carries a clay 
basket or sacred meal receptacle. Her headdress is Zuiii rather than 
Hopi. 

The figures of the Koyimsi are characteristic, each wearing a 
helmet with cloth knobs full of seeds. Two of these beings, who 
wear small fawn skin bandoleers, hold aloft rattles, and one has a 
drum, which he is represented as beating with the characteristic Zuiii 
drumstick. 

ClTULILtJ 
(Plate XLVI) 

The significance of the Zuni name Citulilii * is shown at once 1 > y the 
rattlesnake on the forehead. 

The two pictures of Citulilii difler only in the color of the mask 
and of the snake on it. One "^as a yellow, the other a black face; 
the snake on the former is green, that on the latter is ])rown. 

The fan-shaped crest over the helmet is made of turkev tail feathers 
and the red mass represents painted wool. The snout is long and 
protuberant, with a red tongue made of leather. 

« For description of dance called by this name, see Journal of American Ethnology and Archfeology, 
vol. n, 1892. 
f> Cetola, a Zuni word for rattlesnake. 



108 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

The costuming of Citulilii is similar to tiiiit of tlic Ilopi Snake 
priests, altliough tlie body, save the forearms and legs, is not painted 
red, but black. He wears an armlet to which are fastened strips of 
buckskin, dyed red. The bandoleer is also stained red. The kilt, 
like that of Snake priests, is painted red, and upon it is drawn a 
zigzag design representing the Great Plumed Snake, with alternating 
white bars and angular designs. The green bands above and below 
represent rainbows. The sash is of })uckskin, stained red. The heel 
bands have the same color and are made of horsehair. Citulilii 
carries a yucca whip in each hand. 

There is said to be also a I'ed, white, and green Citulilii katcina. 

TEfK 

(Plate XL VI) 

The picture of this katcina was identified by most of the Hopis as 
that of a Sio or Zufii katcina. The symbolism of the mask is similar 
to that of Tacab katcina, with which it is sometimes confounded. 

PAKWABI 

(Plate XL VI) 

The picture of Pakwabi represents a warrior. He wears a war 
bonnet made of buckskin, with perforations and an apex tipped with 
a feather. Four archaic rain-cloud symbols are painted around the 
lower rim. 

The face is black, the eyes are white, the snout is long and project- 
ing, the hair is done up in a queue down the back. The blue covering 
of the bod}' is of calico, over which is thrown a l>uckskin. A bandoleer 
is worn over the left shoulder and the kilt has Navaho silver disks. 

The pantaloons and leggings are likewise Navaho, the former 
velvet, with rows of silver buttons. In his right hand Pakwabi 
carries a whizzer, ornamented with a zigzag lightning symbol, and in 
his left are a bow and arrows. 

The name is evidently from some place or pueblo from which the 
personage was derived. If so, the name of that pueblo may havebeen 
derived from pakwa (frog), obi (place). 

KWACUS ALEK TAKA AND ALO MANA 

(Plate XLVII) 

The picture of Kwacus Alek taka has a green mask with red back 
and two eagle tail feathers resembling horns, one on each side. 

Alo mana, the sister of Alek taka, has a white maskette with 
artiticial wig and feathers dependent from the lower rim. She is 
represented in the characteristic attitude assumed in her dance. 



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CITULILU 



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TEUK 



PAKWABI 



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OLD MASK (KATCINA CLAN) 



ALO MANA 




#1111^ 




^ ^ 



OLD MASK (TCUA CLAN) 



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FEWKEs] ANCIENT CLAN MASKS 109 

Both these beings are said to be of Zufii origin and the latter was 
formerly personated by a man from Hano. The characteristie atti- 
tude of Alo mana is also taken In' the girls after the ceremonial corn 
grinding elsewhere described. 

Ancient Clan Masks 

In the back rooms and darlc corners of most of the important clans 
of the pueblos of the East mesa masks will be found hanging to the 
roof l)eams, the use of which has almost wholly been abandoned. The 
distinctive names of these maslss are difficult to obtain, and they are 
generally known by such designations as Wiiwiikoti. ancient masks 
or heads. The chiefs of the clans ordinarily claim them as their par- 
ticular property, and other men of the pueblo who are familiar with 
their existence usually call them l)y the names ()f the chiefs. 

Some of these old masks are brought forth from time to time, 
renovated, and put to use; others are never worn, but are carefully- 
preserved with reverence befitting their antiquity, for the majority 
are reputed to be very ancient. 

It is probable that some of these masks, dingy with age and rarelj' 
or never repainted, have come into the possession of the present own- 
ers at the death of the last members of kindred clans. Others have 
been passed down directly from chief to chief, still remaining in 
keeping of the clan which brought them into the country, and maj' 
be regarded as among the more ancient of Hopi masks. Unfortu- 
nately the knowledge of their characteristic symbols has in some 
instances been lost. 

There are also individual masks which have not the special sanctitj- 
that pertains to the above. These were introduced from other pueblos 
by visitors or by those who had observed them elsewhere in their 
trading or other trips. These are not regularly used each year, but 
may be brought out on special occasions for variety or other reasons. 
They are associated with the man who introduced them, and often bear 
his name. 

There is a general similarity in these old clan helmets, both in form 
and in symbolism, which would seem to refer them to a group by 
themselves. Among the common features may be mentioned the 
two horns, the radiating eagle feathers, red horsehair, and the mark- 
ings on the face. Thus the clan mask of Kotka (Bear chief) is almost 
identical with that of Wiki (SnalvC chief), and Ijoth resemble that of 
Naka (Katcina chief). Evidently they are not totemic of the clan, or 
at least their symbols are not characteristic of the clan, Imt their simi- 
larity implies that they are symbolic of some common personations 
for which they were once used. 

Of all the masks now employed in personations the author regards 
the old clan masks as nearest in symbolic designs to those of Calako, 



110 HOPl KATCINAS [eth. an.n.21 

and it is possible that they were used in representing the same beings 
for which Calalco masks are still employed. The author believes that 
the Calako giants are personations of sun gods and that the aueient 
clan masks of the Hopi are survivals of those once used in sun per- 
sonations by extinct or neai-ly extinct clans! The former use of these 
masks in sun worship and their antiquity give them a particular 
sanctity; the chiefs rarely use them, but preserve them with great 
reverence. 

Objection might be made to this identification, for these clan masks 
have two horns, which are absent in Hopi sun masks, and the facial 
mai'kings are different. The author theoretically connects the horns 
with those of the ))ison, and believes that the clans which once had 
these forms of sun masks derived them from those tribes which prac- 
ticed a Buffalo sun ceremony. 

OLD MASK (kATCINA CI.AN) 
(Plate XLVII) 

This ancient mask is called Naka's katcina from the name of the 
chief in whose keeping it now is, and probably belonged to an old 
Kateina clan. The picture represents a disk-formed head, painted 
green, with goggle eyes. The upper half of the head is surrounded 
by a plaited corn-husk border, with inserted eagle feathers foj'ming a 
crest, in which are red lines, indicating horsehair. On each side of 
the head are represented horns, decorated with zigzag marks, which 
are repeated on the forehead. 

The mask which is here figured is not now used, but hangs in a 
back room of the house of the Katcina clan. It is said to have been 
brought from Kicyuba, the ancient pueblo of this clan. Probably 
the clan of which it was the sun mask is now extinct, and the mask 
remains in the keeping of the chief of the clan nearest related to that 
which once owned it. The sun mask of the Katcina clan, called 
Ahiil or Old Alan Sun, is elsewhere described. 

OLD MASK (tCPA CLAJJ) 

(Plate XLVII) 

The ancient mask of the Tciia or Snake clan, called Wiki's katcina, 
in whose keeping as clan chief it is, has a rounded top, with ])earded 
face surrounded by a plaited corn-husk border in which are inserted 
radiating eagle feathers and red horsehair. 

A horn is appended to each side of the head, and between the ej'es 
on the forehead appears an arrow symbol. The bod}' is painted red 
and the kilt is horsehair of the same color. 



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OLD MASK (HONAU CLAN) 




HOPINYU ilSAUU CLAN) 




POHAHA (TE CLAN) 




SAMO WUQTAKA 



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' 



1 



FEWKEs] ANCIENT CLAN MASKS 111 

OLD MASK (hOXAU CLAN) 

(Plate XLVIII) 

The ancient mask of tlio Honau or Bear clan is called Kotka's 
katcina, and is in the keeping of this chief. The Bear people were the 
first to arrive at Walpi, and their last village before thoy came there 
was situated at Ttirkinobi, on the mesa above Sikyatki, where the 
ruins of their old home are still pointed out. Kotka belongs to the 
Spider (Kokyan) clan of the Honau phratry, and is not only chief but 
also the sole remaining male member of this ancient Hopi family. 

The similarity of the mask to other old helmets is striking. The 
edge of the face is surrounded hy plaited corn husks in which are 
inserted eagle tail feathers forming the crest. The red marks 
represent red horsehair. The two horns are commonly found with 
Wiiwiikoti masks, and the ))eard is not an uncommon feature. The 
red object protruding from the mouth represents a tongue. 

POHAHA (tE clan) 
(Plate XLVIII I 

This picture represents a katcina called Pohaha by the Tewas, 
Nalucala by the Hopis, the mask of which is owned by Wehe, a mem- 
ber of the Te clan. The propriety of the name Nalucala (four horns) 
appears from the picture. The face is divided as in other sun masks, 
and there is a hideous mouth and beard. In the right hand the figure 
carries a whizzer or bull-roarer, and in the left a bow and arrows. It 
wears a bandoleer on the shoulder, over which is thrown a buckskin. 

The leggings remind one of those worn by the eastern or Plain.s 
Indians, with whom the Tewas were formerly connected. This is 
undoubtedly one of the katcinas which the l^ewa colonists brought to 
the East mesa in early times. 

HOPINYU (iSATlC' clan) 

(Plate XLVIII) 

This picture represents an ancient personage of the Isauu (Coyote) 
clan, and is commonly known as Lesu's katcina, from the fact that 
the mask used in personating it is in the keeping of this man, who is 
the clan chief. 

The face is divided by a median vertical line into two fields, one 
colored white, the other green. The lower part of the face, separated 
from the upper by a horizontal line, is colored red, and there is a 
long, pointed snout. Both sides of the face are covered with small 
crosses or stars. 



112 HOPI KATCINAS |eth. ann. 21 

A row of eagle feathers is continued from the head down the Ijucit, 
with red lines shown among the feathers, indicating li(;rsehair. 
There are highly colored parrot feathers on the top of the head. 

Accompan3'ing the figure of Hopinyu, the artist has drawn a pic- 
ture of Sanu) wi'Kitaku (Old Man Cactus), who carries a cactus fruit 
in one hand and a Ijaslcet of the same on his l)aclv. 

Hopinyu is sometimes called a Sikyatki katcina, as the clan b}' 
which the helmet is now ott'ned formerly lived in a pueblo near 
Sikyatki, called Kiikiitcomo, which is now a ruin. The author has 
seen a fragment of pottery from Sikj-atki, on wiiicli is drawn a face 
identical in syml)olism with that which is here depicted as charac- 
teristic of Hopinyu." 

KE TOWA lUSENA 
(Plate LXII) 

This ancient mask belongs to the Bear family of Hano. and has a 
general similarity to Kotka's* mask, or that of the Honau (Bear) 
family of Walpi. 

There are the same radiating eagle feathers about the head, the 
lozenge-shaped eyes, mouth, and long })eard. Ijut no horns are repre- 
sented in the picture. In place of the latter we have, on the right- 
hand side, a symbolic squash l)lossom, and on the left, feathers. 

The katcina, as represented, has a fox skin aV)Out the neck and a 
bear skin ovei- the shoulders. He carries a ceremonial water gourd in 
the right hand, a small pine tree in the left. The artist has also 
represented two ])ear paws on the feet. 

Masks Introduced by Individuals 

sio (soyowa) 

(Plate XLY) 

A Hopi named Wikj'atiwa'" introduced a few years ago into Walpi 
from Zuiii a katcina to which the name Soyowa has been given. 
The picture of this being shows a mask with two upright tablets, one 
on each side, terraced to symbolize rain clouds. On the front of the 
lower part of these tablets there are symbolic siuillower sj'mbols, and 
the visor of the mask has the form of a crest of eagle feathers. Two 
figures painted on the forehead are rain-cloud symbols. The face is 
green, with three oblique lines, colored yellow, red, and blue, on each 
cheek. The introduction of this katcina by a man still living at 
Walpi is an instructive example of the way in which additions have 
been made to the Hopi pantheon in modern times. 

« The etymology of this word is doubtful, but there can be detected in it a likeness to the word 
hopoko (eastern), referring, no doubt, to its origin from eastern pueblos, from which the Sikyatki 
clans are reputed to have come. 

& Kotka really belongs to the Spider clan, which all regard as one of the Bear group. 

c Wikyatiwa is a member of the Walpi Snake clan. 



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YUNA 




WAKAC 



YUNA MANA 




>#/!v" 



MAKTO 



HELIOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 



FEWKES] MASKS INTRODUCED BY INDIVIDUALS 113 

YUNA" 
(Plate XLIX) 

The Cactus katcina, introduced hy Homovi, has not been personated 
for many years. On the head are drawn branches of the so-called 
prickly-pear cactus, the red berries of which are realistically shown. 

Tlie symbols of the helmet ar(" the moon and stars on a white Held, 
and similar stars appear on the breast and forearms. Elaboi-ate arm- 
lets with suspended ffeathers are shown near the shoulders, and a bow 
and arrows are re])resented in the left hand. To the former, feathers 
of the eagle are attached. The collar is of pine branches, and sprigs 
from the same tree are inserted in the armlets and belt. 

TUNA MANA 

(Plate XLIX) 

The Cactus maid who accompanies the Cactus katcina carries a pair 
of cactus tongs, an implement made of wood by which the prickly pear 
is gathered, in her right hand, and in her left a basket or bowl con- 
taining the fruit. She wears a mask painted white with two vertical 
black marks on each cheek. She has likewise tunjuoise ear pendants, 
triangular mouth, and hair arranged in two whorls above the ears. 



(Plate XLIX) 

The Cow katcina mask, commonly named after Satele, a Hano man of 
the Bear clan who introduced it, has a cow's head, realistically drawn, 
but with no distinctive symbolic markings. 

MAKTO''. 

(Plate XLIX) 

The mask represented in this picture has the figure of a putckohu, 
or rabbit stick, across the face. It has likewise two parallel marks 
on each cheek, and carries rabbit sticks, one of which is raised as if 
in the act of being thrown. There are two rabbit sticks in the left 
hand. Pontima, chief of the Ala clan, owns the mask, and it is com- 
monly called his katcina. 

PAKIOKWIK 

(Plate LXII) 

Pakiokwik, the Fish katcina, was introduced into Hano by a man 
named Kanu. A design representing a fish is depicted on the face. 



"From the Spanish tuna, prickly pear. 

^Evidently from Spanish vaea. cow. The Hopi word wakac means cow. 

("This name IS derived irom the circle which rabbit hunters make when they hunt these animals, 
makto hunt. 

21 ETH —03 8 



114 HOPI KATCINAS [eth, ans. 21 

This is an excellent example, of which there are many, serving to show 
how a man who in recent years has seen an object which he lielieved 
to.be efEcacious in bringing rain, has made a picture of it on his mask. 

Personators Appearing in Races Called Wawac 

Several masked men are introduced by the Hopis in their foot races, 
which are elsewhere" described. A Hopi foot race is conducted as 
follows: A half dozen men representing clowns wearing masks take 
position in line at one end of the plaza behind a blanket placed on the 
ground, upon which are the prizes — corn, dried peaches, and paper- 
bread. They challenge the spectators to run for these prizes, and any- 
one who wishes to do so steps before the blanket, and immediately 
the race is on, the course being generally across the plaza. 

The clown or masked man carries a whip or sheep shears, and if he 
overtakes the contestant he strikes him vigorous^ with the whip, or 
in some cases cuts off his hair. If, however, the spectator who has 
accepted the challenge outruns the masked man, the prize which was 
announced before starting belongs to him. 

These races often occur in the midst of katcina dances, and clowns 
and other masked individuals participate in them to amuse the 
spectators. 

In pictures of Wawac the Hopi artist has as a rule represented the 
prizes, generallj' a string of paper-bread (piki), hanging above the 
picture. 

aya 

(Plate L) 

This katcina appears in pairs in the Wawac, or Racing Katcina, 
and is readily recognized bj' the rattle (aya), which has swastika deco- 
rations on both sides, forming the head. The snout is seen in the blue 
projection near the left hand. 

Aya wears the belt in a peculiar way, the ends hanging in front 
and behind, not on one side as is usually the case. 

The red objects above the pictures represent rolls of paper-bread, 
the prizes in the races. 

LETOTOBI 

(Plate L) 

The two figures represented in this picture have the characteristic 
attitude of runners; they appear in the Wawac, as the prizes hanging 
above them indicate. Their masks have characteristic red bands 
across the mouths and eyes, and are surmounted by crests of yellow 
fox skins. Their bodies are smeared black. 

" A Tusayan Foot Race, Bulletin Essex Institute, vol. xxiv, 1892, p. 113-136. 



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FEWKEs] KATCINAS APPKARING IN WAWAC 115 

HEMICO 

(Plate L) 

The picture represents an Indian pursued by the dreaded katcina 
called Hemico." The bundle of paper-bread and a few ears of roasted 
corn which hang- al)ove them are prizes. 

Heuiico has in his hand a pair of sheep shears, with which, if he 
overtakes his opponent in the race, he cuts off his hair. In his right 
hand he carries a yucca whip, with which he also flogs his opponent. 
Other characteristic sj^mbois of this being are parallel bands of color 
across the forehead, and ring figures of various colors dependent from 
a yellow band around the top. 

Hemico is said to have been derived from .Sikyatki, and it is 
recounted in legends still preserved that he cut a Walpi girPs throat 
with a stone knife, the deed which ultimately led to an attack on 
Sikyatki by the Walpians and the destruction of that pueblo. 

TCUKAPELLI 

(Plate LI) 

These two beings, one of whom wears a peculiar mask, represent 
episodes sometimes introduced dui'ing katcina dances as a byplay to 
amuse spectators. In this instance one of the Tcukapellis'' has under 
his left arm a bag full of da}' balls, one of which he holds in his right 
hand in the attitude of throwing it at his companion. The other has 
four tufts of hair fastened to the top of his head. The bodies are 
naked, save for a breechciout, and are smeared with mud. 

PALABIKUNA 

(Plate LI) 

This katcina appears in the Wawac, as is indicated by the rolls of 
paper-bread hanging above the figure. He wears a red kilt,' which 
gives him his name, and carries yucca wands in his hands with which 
he flogs the naked runners in the races if he overtakes them. The 
objects on the sides of the head are frameworks of sticks. 

KONA 

(Plate LI) 

Kona, the Chipmunk katcina, likewise appears in the Wawac, as 
the prizes of yellow and red paper-bread hanging above the figure 

oThe word liemico is applied to the queue lu which the Hopi men tie their hair behind their 
heads 
f'Mud Ijall (tculia) thrower. 
I" Pala, red. pitkone, kilt. 



116 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ans.21 

indicate and the yucca whips in his hands imply. The mask repre- 
sents the head of the chipmunlv, and the body is jwinted in parallel 
stripes to make the resemblance even more realistic. 

iMACMAHOLA 

(Plate LI) 

This being sometimes takes part in the foot races. The picture 
shows a globular mask, two sausage-like u|)pendages on the top of the 
head, and an old planting stick in one hand. 

TCILIKOMATO 
(Plate LI) 

This picture represents a hunting katcina, with rabbit sticks 
(putckohu) in Ijoth hands. There are two vertical black marks on 
each cheek and two horns on the head. Tcilikomato is i)ersonated 
in foot races. 

WIKTCINA 

(Plat.- LI I) 

This being assists the clowns, and auuises the spectators by throw- 
ing uuid during the dances and festivals. 

piptuka" 
(Plate LII) 

Piptuka appears in public dances and is a participant in the antics 
of the mudheads. or clowns. He carries a hoe over his shouldier and a 
planting stick in his left hand, indicating his connection with planting. 

PATUN 

(Plate LIIl 

Patufi, the Squash katcina, is represented as a man with l>ody 
painted green with black stripes, bearing squash blossoms in his 
hands. The mask is of the same green color, with black stripes, and 
is made of a large gourd bearing an imitation of a squash flower on the 
larger end. 

TATACMU 

(Plate LIII) 

These two figures are playing a game which is .sometimes intro- 
duced in katcina dances. This game consists mainly in striking a 
buckskin ball with a stick. Each person holds the end of a string 
attached to this ball, which flies back and forth as struck liv the 
players. 

n See Journal of American Ethnology and Archaeology, vol. II, 1892, p. 82, 155. 



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FEWKEs] NAKOPAN PERSONAGES 117 

They wear masks whicli have nose, eyebrows, and mouth repre- 
sented in relief. The eyes have black radiating lines, and there is a 
black zone on the lower edge of the mask. The hair is a fragment of 
sheepskin painted lilack. and there are several feathers on the head. 
Each player has eagle tail feathers tied to his shoulders. 

PASKI 

(Plate LIII) 

These pictures of Paski represent a planting katcina. An examina- 
tion of the masks shows one with red and green parallel lines on the 
cheeks, the other with a l)road red band. One hais the hair done up 
in a queue l)ehind; the other has it hanging down the back. Both 
wear black belts on their loins and have white kilts thrown over the 
shoulders in a peculiar way. They jire represented as using modern 

hoes." 

Nakopan Personages 

(Plate LIV) 

A short distance from the I'uin of Sikyatki there is a cave in the 
side of the mesa concerning which there is a well-known tradition 
preserved to our time. It seems that when Sikyatki was in its prime 
two children left their home and lived in this cave hidden from their 
mother. Their hiding place, at first unknown to their parent, was 
afterward discovered, and their mother daily brought them food and 
laid it on the rocks above the cave. The children used to go to this 
place to obtain the food, and a pictograph still visible there marks the 
place where they sat. 

The authoi' was anxious to get a picture of the Nakopan hoya, or 
the Nakopan children, as they are called, and this plate drawn by a 
Hopi named \\'inuta is the result. The following personages are 
depicted in the picture: 

(/, Telavai or Dawn katcina; h, Hahai wiiqti; r, Mana, maid; d, 
Paiak3'amu; <-. Hehea katcina; /', Aiiya katcina; r/, Tatciikti. 

On account of the illicit love of Hahai wiiqti and Paiakyanul, 
who are represented arm in arm, Telavai. her hus))and, sought the 
maid, whose arms he grasps. Hehea, Aii3'a, and possibly Tatciikti, 
the children, fled from Sikyatki and lived in a neighboring cave. 

This picture, so far as the evidence goes, supports the belief that 
the Sikyatki people were familiar with the katcina cult; and it is 
instructive to notice that it portrays some of the most ancient katcinas 
of the Hopis. 

a In old times a planting stick was employed. 



118 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

Beings not callkd Katcinas 

lakone mana 

(Plate I.V) 

The two maids represented in tliis pieture iippeiir in tiie bu.sliet 
dance called the Lalakoiiti. The bands on their head.s support rain- 
cloud symbols, and to these hands are attached horns and sijuash- 
blossom symbols. The objects rising vertically from the back of the 
heads and the clusters in the same place represent eagle tail feathers. 

The faces of the girls are painted yellow, with black l)ands across 
the tem]jles and from each corner of the mouth to the ears. In their 
hands they carry half corncobs with two appended eagle feathers, 
which ol)jects are thrown into figures of rain ck)uds made of meal on 
the ground by their male companion, called Lakone taka. 

The dress of Lakone mana, especially the appendages to the head- 
band, ditlers somewhat in the diflerent Hopi pueblos, as may be seen 
b}' consulting a description of the basket dances." 

MAMZRAU MANA 
I Plate LV ) 

These pictures represent the two girls who apjiear in the Maraupaki 
or Mamzrauti, an October festival, in which the women carry in their 
hands wooden tablets bearing figures of corn and rain clouds, and other 
designs. 

The thighs of the personators are painted with l)lack rectangles, and 
on the heads there are wooden frameworks with apical eagle feathers 
and red horsehair. They wear kilts reaching nearly to the knees, the 
only instance to the author's knowledge of the use of this garment bj' 
girls in ceremonial dances. Their hair is tied down the back. 

PALAHIKO MANA 

iPlateLVI) 

This figure represents Palahiko mana as she appears in the Mamz- 
rauti ceremony. The head tablet is tied by a string under the chin, 
and to this tablet is attached a band which passes over the forehead, 
as shown in the picture. The tablet is made of flat boards, and con- 
sists of six parts, two vertical, two lateral, and two diagonal, each 
representing rain-cloud symbols tipped by eagle feathers. 

The red objects, one on each side between the lateral and vertical 
components of the tablet, are symbolic squash blossoms, or the whorls in 
which Hopi maidens dress their hair. The cup-shaped, pedunculated 

a Journal of American Folk-Lore, vol. xii, 1899, p. 81-96. 



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FEWKES] BEINGS NOT CALLED KATCINAS 119 

objects in the hair represent corn flowers. The hand across the fore- 
head marked with bars represents an ear of corn, and the red bodies 
attached to each end are fragments of sheepskin, symbols of corn 
tassels. Two eagle tail feathers also are attaclied to each end of the 
sj'mbolic corn ear. The median object, colored green, hanging l)etween 
the eyes, represents a fragment of Haliotis shell. 

Red chevrons are painted on the face. The square, green pendants, 
one on each side of the head, represent turquoise ear pendants, wliich 
are highly prized by the Hopi maidens. 

Palahiko niana" wears three l)lankets — a kilt, thrown across the 
right slioulder and hanging under the left arm, with rain-cloud and 
falling-rain designs embroidered on it, and two wedding blankets, 
with triangular rain-cloud and butterfly symbols, tied about the body. 
The ends of the great white girdle ai'e shown under the upper of these 
blankets on the left side. Tlie necklace is of coral l)eads, and strings of 
turquoise pendants are shown about the neck. The figure carries a 
feathered stick in eac-h hand. 

HOPI CALAKO MANA 
(Plate LVI) 

On one of the two pictures of this })eing is seen a mask with a 
prominent tal)let almost identical with that of the preceding. The 
tablet I'epresents terraced rain clouds, of which there are two vertical 
and two horizontal, one of eacli on each side. The oliject with ))itid 
tips on each side of the tablet represents the squash blossom. syn)l)olic 
of maidens' hair dress. 

Across the forehead is a symbol of an ear of corn, with two feathers 
attached to each end. The ring hanging over tlie foi'ehead represents 
a fragment of Haliotis shell. There are imitation flowers made of 
wood represented in the hair. The left eye is yellow, the right blue. 
The chevrons on the cheek are similar to those found on the fa<'e of 
Palahiko mana.'' 

The artist has represented a garment of feathers, over which is 
thrown a white ceremonial ))lauket with embroidered border. The 
two adjacent trees are pines. 

BULI MANA 

(Plate LVII) 

Bull mana, the Butterfly maid, appears in a dance which was intro- 
duced from tiie Rio Grande pueblos, where it is called the " Tablita," 
from the tablets worn by the women on their heads. This dance is 

«For picture of doll, see Internationales Archiv fur Ethnographic, Band vii, pi. ix, x, fig. 28, 31; 
Fifteenth Annual Rt'p<jri ol the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1897, pl.cvii, cix, fig. 39. 
bThese beings, Palahiko mana and Calako mana, probably represent the same conception. 



120 HOPI KATCINAS [kth. ann.21 

occasionally performed at the East mesa, hut is unaccompanied }jy 
secret rites. 

Each fif;ur(> l)ears on the head a lioard talilet, the edge of which is 
cut into terraces representing rain clouds. Figures of ^^untlowers or 
the sun. or other symbols are painted on th*ie tal)lets. 

Although the personator of this maid is without a mask, her cheeks 
are painted with red spots. The blue or the 3'ellow garment, as the 
case may be. is made of calico, under which is a woman's blanket, 
bound to the waist by a red belt. 

The small figure between the two girls represents the standard 
bearer, who precedes a procession composed of men and women alter- 
nating with each other, the latter being dressed as in the pictures. 
The standard l^earer carries a long pole, to the top of which is 
attached a gourd, painted black, with red-stained horsehair and parrot 
and othei- feathers attached. In the few representations of the But- 
tertiy danc<^ which have been given in late j'eai's, this standard bearer 
has carried a banneret on which is painted a picture of a Hopi girl. 

COTOKINOi5w^T 

(Plate LVIII) 

This picture represents Cotokinunwii, the Heart-of-the-sk_v god. 
who is readily recognized by the single curved horn on the head 
and the rain-cloud symbols on the face and base of the horn. 

In his left hand he carries the framework of sticks which symbolizes 
the lightning. This framework has attached to each angle an eagle 
feather, which the painter has indicated in black lines. 

In the right hand he carries the whizzer or bull-roarer, a slat to 
which a string is attached, with lightning represented by a zigzag 
band in red. Two bandoleers are represented. The legs and forearms 
are painted black." 

KAISALE 

(Plate LVIII) 

This picture was identified by all as Kaisale, the name given it by 
the artist. 

KAISALE MANA 

(Plate LVIII) 

This picture represents a maid accompanied by a Hano glutton 
(Paiakyanu'i). The former holds an ear of corn aloft, as in the dance 
called Klahewe which is celebrated at Zuiii. 

" The symbul of the Sky god is sometimes an equal-armed cross. Other symbols are lightning 
designs or figures of plumed snakes. 



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FEWKES] AHULATSri, SOYAL KATCINA 121 

ALOSAKA 

(Plate LIX) 

Two pictures of Alosaka were drawn by the Hopi artist. One of 
these has a mask with two short, curved horns, such as novices wear 
in the Aaitu society. In the left hand this Alosak.-. carries a deer 
horn, and in the right a representation of a badge (nionkohu) made of 
a slat of wood." 

The second picture of Alosaka* is more elaborate tlmn the first. 
It has the two horns on the head, and the chin is painted black. The 
semicircular tigure above the head represents the rainbow on which 
gods are said to travel; it is appropriately introduced with Alosaka, 
who is sai<l to have walked on it from the San Francisco mountains to 
meet an Awatobi maid. 

A great part of the picture is taken up l)y a large rectangular 
figure of a moisture tablet (pavaoakaci). an object worn on the liack 
by many pei'sonators. This taljlet is. strictly speaking, a frame- 
work over which is stretched cloth or buckskin, painted as indicated 
in the figure.'' The zigzag lines about the border represent plaited 
corn husks, in which feathers are inserted. The red lines drawn 
between these feathers represent red horsehair, and the small circular 
objects, three in number on each side, are small disks made of gourds. 

AhOlani'' 

(Plate LX) 

This figure represents the Soyal katcina. Ahi'ilani. and the two 
Soyal manas as they appear on the morning of the last day (Totokva) 
of Soyaluna, as elsewhere described. The decoration of the Ahiilani 
mask ditlers in its svmbolism on alternate years, accordingly as the 
Snake or the Flute dance is celebrated. In the latter case the eyes 
and mouth are represented by crescentic marks, but in the former we 
find a horizontal black band across the face through the eyes. 

Ahiilani carries under his left arm several ears of corn, and spruce 
boughs or twigs. In his left hand he bears a chiefs badge and >kin 
pouch with sacred meal, while in his right he carries a staff. 

The two Soyal manas differ only in the color of the corn which 
they carry; one has yellow, the other blue corn. Each has a yellow 
maskette, befoi-e which falls a bang composed of horsehair stained 
red'. An eagle breast feather is fastened to the scalp. The lower 

a For figure of monkohus, see description of the New-fire ceremony, where personations of Alosaka 
appear, ,\merican Anthropologist, new series, vol. it. 1900, p. 90. 

''Tlie name Alosaka is the .\vvatobi name of the germ god. the Sikyatki equivalent being Masaiiu 
and Eototo. and the general name Muyuiwu. 

'• Morphnlogically a ^iin emblem or * back shield " representing the sun. 

c'The returning one. i. e., the suii god. 



122 HOP! KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

part of tlu> ma.sk is handed green, red, and black, and }>lack feathers 
are attached to its lower border. In their hands the maids carry basket 
plaques, on which are rings of corn ears set on end, with cedar boughs, 
here represented green. In the white inclosed space formed by this 
ring of corn ears is raw cotton. 

In the Walpi winter solstice festival, the three beings here rep- 
resented emerged from the kiva at dawn, and sang at ditterent points 
in the pueblo, .after which they retired to the kiva and distributed 
.seed corn to the women of the village." 

The similarity of the words Ahiilani and Ahiil is explained t)}' a 
derivation of both from the word ahiilti (return). The Ahiil katcina 
is the Return katcina, the first in Powamu to return to the pueblo. 
He is in fact the Tawa wiiqtaka (Old Ma 1 Sun), and the similarity of 
the symbolism of his mask to that of the sun is evident. So Ahiilani 
is the '"return katcina making," or the returning sun of the Patki, as 
Ahiil is the returning sun of the Katcina clan. Both these names are 
attributal names of the sun. 

Although Ahiilani, as his picture shows, has no sun .svmbolism in 
his mask, his ci'escent eyes are often seen in sun symbols. There is 
another indication that he may be in .some wny connected with the sun. 
A i>ersonation of Ahiil katcina is said to appear in some of the other 
pueblos in place of Ahiilani, which substitution indicates their identity. 
In the dance in the kiva the night before Ahiilani and the Soyal manas 
appear, there is a man repre.senting a bird which the author interprets 
as a personation of the sun;'' the Soyal manas are regarded as either 
germ goddesses or cultus heroines of the Water-house or Raincloud 
clan. In kiva exercises the personation of the sun takes an eagle form, 
which is not assumed in public, although the same god is personated 
in the plaza under the name Ahiilani. 

TANOAN NAMES FOR HOPI KATCINAS 

In the following list are given the Hano (Tanoan) names of about 
sixty of the personages figured in the preceding pages. Many of 
these are simply Tanoan translations of the Hopi names, a few names 
are identical with the Hopi, and a large number are entirely difierent. 

In the instances where the names are identical it is probable that 
the Hopi designation has been derived from the Hano rather than 
vice versa, and in those cases where the Hano people know a katcina 
bj' its Hopi name it is possible that their knowledge of it came from 
their neighbors rather than from their old home on the Rio Grande. 

The substitution of a Tanoan name for a Hopi katcina for its 
original name often sheds light on the character of the original. Thus 
Muyiii wiiqtaka is the Tanoan Naiioikusi. Earth Altar ]Man; Naiioiu- 

nSee The Winter Solstice Ceremony at Walpi, American Anthropologist, vol. xi, 189S. p. 65, 101. 
6 Called Kwatoku, Eagle-sky-one, High-sky-eagle: one of the sun birds. 



I 



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TANOAN NAMES FOR HOPI KATCINAS 



123 



kwia. Earth Altar Woman, is called in Hopi Tiiwapontum.si. The 
lists follow: 



Hopi name 


Hano (Tanoan) name 


Alosaka 


Ceni 


Afiya 


Ofikwefii 


Atocle 


Atocle 


Caiastacana 


Kateinetcen 


Calako 


Calako 


Cipikne 


Orlakepenue 


Citoto 


Porpinki 


Citulilii 


Citulilii 


C'oho 


Agaiyo 


Cotokimirnvu 


Kwentulaci 


Eototo 


Tfeimilo 


Hahai wiiqti 


Pokikwia 


Hakto 


Parsepenne 


Helilulu 


Heliliilii 


Hokyafia 


Koiitedje ^ 


Hototo 


Sempotanle 


Humis 


Tsewe 


Kaisale 


Tentaiye 


Kalektaka (Aku.s) 


Potaiye 


Kawikoli 


Papepekaime 


Kiwatoka 


Tcete 


Kokle 


Kokle 


Kokopelli 


Nipokwaiye 


Kokyaii wiiqti 


Yowanosaiye 


Koroctu 


Estoroka 


Kwacus Alektaka 


Zekwatisaiye 


Kwahu 


Tee 


Macniahola 


Peilemo 


Masauu 


Pene 


Monwu 


Mahone 


IMuyinwu mana 


Nanoiukwia 


Muyiiiwu taka 


Naiioikusi 


Xakiatcop 


Pelekayi 


Nataoka 


Natacka 


Niivak 


Pon 


Pakwabi 


Yiitce 


Paliilukdu 


Avaiyo 


Paluna hoya 


Towatokwena 


Patcosk 


Kwentcelepoe 


Pautiwa 


Pautiwa 



124 



HOIT KATCINAS 



[eth. aks. 21 



Hopi name 


Hano iTanoan; name 


Pawik 


Orpin 


Piiukoii hoya 


Ewaile 


Sio 


Tconi 


Sio Avatc lioya 


Potedji 


Sowiilwu 


Pen 


Soyohiiii 


Temedje 


Soyoko 


Soyoko 


Sumaikoli 


Sumaikoli 


Talatumsi 


(Viiikwia 


Tataukyamli 


Tcipiwaiye 


Tatciikti 


Ufitaniellipo 


Tcabaiye 


T<-abaiyo 


Tcakwaina 


Tiakwaina 


Tcilikomato 


Kwandepe 


Tcolawitze 


Tcolawitze 


Tciib 


Ton 


Tehabe 


Hoho-Pocililii 


Telavai 


Znfitele 


Tiwenu 


Tiwenu 


Tumae 


Ofitpen 


Tniiwup 


Ho 


Tiirkwinu 


Pompin 


Wakac 


Wakac 


Wukokdt 


Tekwede 


Wupamau 


Tceta 


Wiiwiiyoino 


Senna 


Yehohd 


Cliikokakyan 


Yoho7.ro wiiqti 


Imbesaiye 



ORIGIN OF FOREIGN KATCINAS 

A few facts have been gathered regarding the legendary derivation 
or origin of certain katcinas. The names of these katcinas are given 
below, with the clans which are reputed to have brought them to Walpi 
or other Hopi pueblos of the East mesa, and the pueblos from which 
they are supposed to have come. Scvei'al of these are now in ruins. 

Pahttrom/i (I'litl-i rJiiii) " 

LaKOne mana Soyal mana 

Cotokinufiwu Hopi Calako mana 

PaUiliikon 

Ahiilani (Soyal katcina) 



Tiirkwinu '' 
Tiirkwinu mana 



a Pakatcomo is the name oJ a ruin In the Walpi valley, where the Patki and related clans lived 
after they abandoned Homolobi and other pueblos farther south, as already stated. 

''The name refers to San Francisco mountains. It is therefore doubtful whether this katcina came 
from Pakatcomo. 



ORIGIN OF FOREIGN KATCINAS 



125 



Kii'ijnhd {Kiitc'niK chill)" 



Wiiwiikoti 
Ahiil 

Anvviu'iiacd taka 
Tufiwup 
Tufiwiip taadta 



Tfuelawu '' 
Hele 

Wujiaiiiau 
Ana 



Airiitohi {PnhiJi i-Iini) 



Tcanaii 
Piiiikdri 
Palufia huya 
Owakiil tiyo 
(Jwakiil inana 
Aloi^aka 



Mai^auii 
Eotot" 
Nakopaii huya 



Mamzrau niana 
Palahiko mana 
Sowinwu 
Soyok taka 
Soyok mana 
Kwewu 



Sil-yutl'i {Kiiloji cliiii) 



Hemico 
Hopinyu 



Tir/i'iinacahi (lIiiiKiiil rhiii)'' 
AViiwiiyunicj Bull mana 

Ziini 

By far the largest number of kiitcinus in Walpi and Sichumovi 
were derived from Ziifii. and these generally preserve their Ziiiii 
names : 



Sio Humis 

Sio Hum is taadta 

Sio Avatc hoya 

Hopak katcina 

Hopak mana 

Kaisale ami mana 

CituliUi 

Sio Calakd 

Pawik 

Soyowa 

Teiik 

Kawikoli 

Male 

Sio 

Helilulii 

Sio mana 

Hokyana 

Pautiwa 

Ciwikoli 



Tcolavvitze 

Atocle 

Kvvacus Alek taka 

Alo mana 

Caiastacana 

Hototo 

Powa 

Kaisale 

Sumaikoli 

Ttakwaina 

Tcakwaina mana 

Tc/akvvaina laadta 

Tcakwaina yuadta 

Loiica 

Kokopelli 

Kokopelli mana 

Tcosbiui 

Soyan ep 

Samo wiiqtaka 



« Kicyuba, a very sacred place to the Katcina clan, and the site ot their former home. Water from 
Kicyuba is regarded as very potent in ceremonies for rain. 

b A mountain not far from Kicyuba is called Tciielawfi's Chair. 

c Awatobi is a historic ruin destroyed the last year of the seventeenth century by warriors from the 
other Hopi pueblos. See Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 1898. 

rfA ruin not far from Oraibi, where it is said the katcinas emerged from the under world and gave 
the katcina mysteries to the Honani clan. 



126 



HOPI KATCINAS 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



Have 

The following katcinas are distinctively Tanoun, and were derived 
from tiie pueblo of Hano: 



VVakac 

Nalucala 

Ke Towa Bisena 

Niivak 



Yohozro wijqti 
Mucaias taka 
Macaias luana 



Several katcinas personated by the Hopis are called by Navaho 
names and are said to have been derived from the tribe, the name of 
which thev sometimes have: 



Tenebiilji 
Naactadji 
Yebiteai • 



Owa katfina taka 
Owa katcina mana 



ALPHABET USED IN SPELLING NAMES 

The vowels a, e, i, o, u have their continental values, as in father, 
they, picjue, go, true. E, i, and u are broadened when used with a 
breve (e, i, u) or before a doubled consonant, assuming their values in 
met. hit. and put. is pronounced as u in but. au as ow in cow, ai 
as in aisle; ii varies from German o to ii, French eu to u.. 

The consonants p, b, t, d, k. f , v, s, z, 1, m, n. w, y, h have approx- 
imately their English values, but p, 1>, f, and v, and t and d are ditti- 
cult to distinguish. C is pronounced as in ocean (as sh in shed), j as z 
in azure (French j), tc as ch in chew, dj as j in jaw, g as in get, 5 as ng 
in sing, q as German ch in ich; r is obscure, never rolled. 



"The Hopi translate this Xavaho uame Kateiua kwamu, GrauUfatber uf the katcinas. 



I R () ( j I ( ) I A X C ( ) S M ( ) L () (i Y 

FIRST PART 

BY 

J. N. B. HKAVITT 



127 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 133 

An Ononilaga version 141 

A Senera version 221 

A Mohawk version 255 

21 ETH— U3 9 129 



i 



! 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page 

Plate LXIV. William Henry Fishcarrier, a Cayuga chief (age 88), Canada.. 340 

LXV. Robert David (Gadjinonda'he' ), a Cayuga chief, Canada 340 

LXVI. William Sandy, William Henry Fishcarrier, Alexander Hill, 

Robert David 340 

LXYII. William Sandy (born Fishcarrier), Cayuga warrior, Canada.. 340 

LXVIIl. John Buck, Onondaga chief and fire-keeper, Canada 340 

LXIX. William AVedge, Cayuga head chief and fire-keeper, Canada.. 340 

131 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 

FIRST PART 



By J. N. B. Hewitt 



INTRODUCTION 

The term Iroquoian i.s derived from the name Iroquois, which, 
adapted from the Algonquian Indian language by the early French 
explorers, was applied originally to a group of five tribes then united 
in a permanent confederacy for ottense and defense, and inhabiting the 
central and eastern portions of the region now comprised within the 
ytate of New Yoi'k. Among other names they were called the Five 
Nations, and the League of the Iroquois, and, after their adoption of 
the Tuscaroras, in 1722, the Six Nations. These five tribes attained 
the zenith of their remarkable career during the latter part of the 
seventeenth century, when, by the exploitation of the fundamental 
principles of the constitution of their League, they douiinated by force 
of arms the greater part of the watershed of the Great lakes. Never 
very numerous, they reached this commanding position by an incisive 
and unexcelled diplomacy, by an effective political organization founded 
on maternal blood relationship, both real and fictitious, and by an apti- 
tude for coordinate political action, all due to a mentality superior to 
that of the surrounding tribes. 

The sophiology — that is, the body of opinions — of a people such as 
the Iroquois is necessarily interesting and very abundant. It would 
be an almost interminable work to collect these opinions exhaustively 
and to publish them in a body, so in the accompanying texts only 
narratives relating to the genesis of things are included. The follow- 
ing comments may serve to aid the scholar who would study these 
narratives at first hand, giving him what the author regards as the. 
most apparent viewpoints of their relators and originators: 

It must not be overlooked that these texts I'epresent largely the 
spoken language of to-day, conveying the modern thought of the 
people, although there are many survivals in both word and concept 
from older generations and past planes of thought. These archaisms 

133 



134 IROQ0OIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. anx. 21 

when encountei'od appear enigmatic and quaint, and are not under- 
stood by the uninformed. Tlie relators themselves often do not know 
the signification of the terms they employ. The author has attempted, 
where it appeared needful, to reduce cviilent metaphors to statements 
of eonerete things which gave rise originally to tiie figures of speech. 

The attempts of a primitive people to give in the form of a narrative 
the origins and to expound the causes of things, the sum of which 
constitutes their philosophy, assume in time the form of cosmologic 
legends or myths. In these legends are stored the combined wisdom 
and speculations of their wise men. their ancients, their prophets, and 
their soothsayers. 

By primitive man all motions and activities were interpreted as mani- 
festations of life and will. Things animate and things inanimate were 
com])rised in one heterogeneous class, sharing a common nature. All 
things, therefore, were thought to have life and to exercise will, 
whose behests were accomplished through orenda — that is, through 
magic power, reputed to be inherent in all things. Thus, all phe- 
nomena, all states, all changes, and all activity were interpreted as 
the results of the exercise of magic power directed by some control- 
ling mind. The various })eings and 1)odies and operations of environ- 
ing nature were interpreted strictl_y in tei'ms of the subjective self. 
Into the known world self was projected. The wind was the breath 
of some person. The lightning was the winking of some person's 
eyes. The genei'ative or reproductive power in nature was personi- 
fied, and life and growth were in the fostering care of this personage. 

Upon the concepts evolved from their impressions of things and 
from their experience with the bodies of their environment rest the 
authority for men's doctrines and the reasons for their rites and cere- 
monies. Hence arises the great importance of recording, translating, 
and interpreting from the vernacular the legends constituting the 
cosmology of peoples still largely dominated by the thoughts peculiar 
to the cultural stage of imputative and self-centered reasoning. The 
great difficulty of accuratelj^ defining and interpreting the ideas of 
primitive man without a deep and detailed stud}^ and a close transla- 
tion of the words embodying these ideas renders it imperative for 
their correct apprehension that they be carefully recorded in the 
vernacular, and that there be made not only a free but also a literal 
rendering of the record, in such wise that the highly subjective 
thought of barbaric man may be cast, so far as is possible, into the 
more objective phraseology of science and enlightenment. By this 
means it is possible to obtain a juster and more accurate comprehen- 
sion and interpretation of the thoughts and conceptions underlying 
and interwoven with the cosmologic and other legends of primitive 
man than that obtained by the ordinary method of recording only a 
free and popular version of them. 



HEWITT] INTEODCCTION 135 

A fact of great importance made evident in these texts is tiiat 
anthropic persons, called man-beings in the accompanying translations, 
were, in Iroquoian thought, the primal l)eings. They were the first to 
exercise the functions and to experience the lot of their several kinds. 
Sometimes these first beings have been called the prototypes of the 
things of like kind which are to-day. Some of these beings were mere 
fictions, figures of speech made concrete and objective. They were 
not beasts, but they belonged to a rathei- vague class, of which man 
was the characteristic type. To speak with the logicians, no other 
deduction from the intension and the extension of the term ongwe, 
man-being, appears sufficiently broad to set forth the true interpre- 
tation of the personages the narrative of whose lives and acts con- 
stitutes the subject matter of these texts. Among these primal beings 
ma}' be named Daylight, Earthquake, Winter, Medicine, Wind, or 
Air, Life (germination), and Flower. So it seems evident from this 
fact that beast powers, the so-called beast gods, were not the first 
beings or chief actors at the beginning of time. 

Beast gods appear later. In the development of Iroquoian thought, 
beasts and animals, plants and trees, rocks, and streams of water, hav- 
ing human or other efl'ecti\e attributes or properties in a paramount 
measure, were naturallv regarded as the controllers of those attributes 
or properties, which could be made available bj* orenda or magic power. 
And thus began the reign of the beast gods, plant gods, tree gods, and 
their kind. The signification of the Iroquoian term usually rendered 
into English by the term '"god" is "disposer," or "controller." This 
definition supplies the reason that the reputed controllers of the opera- 
tions of nature I'eceived worship and prayers. To the Iroquois god 
and controller are synonymous terms. 

From the ver}- nature of the subject-matter and the slow acquire- 
ment of new ideas and development of concepts, the content of a cos- 
mologic myth or legend must be the result of a gradual combination 
and readjustment of diverse materials, which, in the flux of time, are 
recast many times into new forms to satisfy the growing knowledge 
and wider experience and deeper research of the people among whom 
the myth is current. In different branches of a cognate group of peo- 
ples the old materials, the old ideas and concepts, moditied by accul- 
tural influences and by new and alien ideas, may be combined and 
arranged in quite unlike forms, and hence arise varying versions of a 
cosmogonic legend. These different versions modify the thought con- 
temporary with them, and are in turn still further changed by accul- 
tui-al influences and motives arising from the activities of the people. 
And in later times, when they no longer constitute the chief- body of 
the philosophy of the people, these legends and stories concerning the 
causes and ])eginnings of things are called myths. 



136 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

As has been suggested, the development of legend is not uhvavs 
internal, from the activities of the people dealing with the materials 
supplied by the legend itself, but often, and naturally, from alien 
material, from ideas and coneepts consciousl}' or unconsciously adopted 
from other peoples. And thus older forms and concepts, the ancient 
dogmas, are displaced or changed by accultural influences and t)y a 
more definite knowledge of nature acquired through a wider experi- 
ence, a closer observation, and a more discriminating interpretation 
and apprehension of environing phenomena. Cosmologies, therefore, 
are composite, representing the accumulated explanations of manj- 
things by many generations in diverse times. The correct and funda- 
mental analysis must therefore seek by a wide comparison of mate- 
rials to separate the accultural from the autochthonous product. This 
analysis, however, can bring to light oidy such material as still exhibits 
by some marked token of incongruity its alien origin; for it is obvious 
that accultural matter in time becomes so thoroughly assimilated and 
recast that a more or less complete congruity is established between it 
and the cosmologic material with which it is joined, but to which it is, 
in fact, alien. Furthermore, where reason demands it, metaphor and 
personification must be reduced to concrete statements of objective 
facts upon which the original figurative expressions were founded; in 
short, the process resulting in metaphor and personification must be 
carefully retraced, so far as it may be possible so to do from the 
materials in hand. 

It must not be overlooked that although these legends concerning 
the beginnings of things are usually called myths, creation stories, or 
cosmogonies, the terms myth and creation are, in fact, misnomers. 
In iill of these narratives, except such as are of modern date, creation 
in the modern acceptation of the word is never signified, nor is it even 
conceived; and when these legends or narratives are called myths, it 
is because a full comprehension and a correct interpretation of them 
have to a large extent been lost or liecause they have been supplanted 
by more accurate knowledge, and they are related without a clear con- 
ception of what they were designed to signify, and rather from custom 
than as the source of the major portion of the customs and ceremonies 
and opinions in vogue among the people relating them. 

Five difl'erent versions of the Iroquoian cosmology have been 
recorded by the author at difl'erent times from 1889 to 19(Xl. Of these 
only three appear in the fellowing pages, namelj', one Onondaga, one 
Mohawk, and one Seneca legend. 

The first text is an Onondaga version of the Iroquoian cosmolog}', 
obtained in 1889 on the Grand Kiver reservation, Canada, from the 
late chief and fire-keeper, John Buck, of the Onondaga tribe. After- 
ward, in 1897, it was revised and somewhat enlarged l\y the aid of Mr 
Joshua Buck, a son of the first relator. It is not as long as the Mohawk 



HEWITT] INTRODUCTION" 137 

text printed herewith becaii.se the relator .seemed averse to telling 
more than a brief outline of the legend. A ver.sion in the Onondaga, 
much longer and fuller than any herewith printed, has been recorded 
from the mouth of C'hief John Arthur (xib.son, and will be printed in 
a later report of the Bureau. 

The second text is a Seneca version of the cosmologic legend, obtained 
in 1896 on tiie Cattaraugus reservation, in the western part of the State 
of New York, from the late Mr John Armstrong, of Seneca-Delaware- 
English mixed blood, an intelligent and conscientious annalist. Later, 
at various times, it was revised in this ofBce with the assistance of 
Mr Andrew John. 

The last text in order is a Mohawk version, obtained in 1896 and 
1897 on the Grand River reservation in Canada from Mr Seth New- 
house, an intelligent and educated member of the Mohawk tribe. 

In general outlines the legend, as related here, is identical with that 
found among all of the northern tribes of the Iroquoian stock of 
languages. It is told parti}' in the language of tradition and ceremony, 
which is formal, sometimes quaint, sometimes archaic, frequently 
mystical, and largely metaphorical. But the figures of speech are 
made concrete bj' the elementary thought of the Iroquois, and the 
metaphor is regarded as a fact. 

Regarding the sul)ject-matter of the.se texts, it may be .said that it is 
in the main of aboriginal origin. The most marked post-Columbian 
modification is found in the portion relating to the formation of the 
physical bodies of man and of the animals and plants, in that relating 
to the idea of a hell, and in the adaptation of the rib story from the 
ancient Hebrew mythology in connection with the creation of woman. 
These alien elements are retained in the texts to show by concrete 
examples how such foreign material may be adopted and recast to 
conform to the requirements of its new setting. In the translation 
some of the quaintness of the original is retained, as well as some of 
its seeming tautology. No liberty, however, has been taken with the 
texts either in the way of emendation or addition or in rendering them 
into English. They are given exactly as related. It may po.ssibly 
be objected that the interlinear and the f i-ee translations are too literal; 
but the aboriginal thought, however commonplace, figurative, poet- 
ical, is set forth as simply and with as strict a rendering of the 
original as the matter and thought contained in it permit. It is no 
ready task to embody in the language of enlightenment the thought of 
barbarism. The viewpoint of the one plane of thought differs much 
from that of the other. 

The idea that the bodies of man and of the animals were created 
directly out of specific portions of the earth by Tharonhiawakon " is 
a comparativel}' modern and erroneous interpretation of the original 

a " He grasps the sky (by memory)." 



188 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

concept. The error is due largely to the influence of the declaration 
of like import in the Semitic mythology, found in the Hebrew Scrip- 
tures, the figurative character of which is usually not apprehended. 
The thought originally expressed by the ancient teachers of the Iro- 
quoian and other barbaric peoples was that the earth through the life, 
or life power, innate and immanent in its substance — the life person- 
ated by Tharonhiawakon " — by feeding itself to them produces plants 
and fruits and vegetables which serve as food for birds and animals, 
all which in their turn become food for men, a process whereby the 
life of the earth is transmuted into that of man and of all living things. 
Hence, the Iroquois consistently sa}', in addressing the earth, " Eithi- 
noha." "'our iMother." Thiis in 1896 the author's late friend, ilr 
David Stephens, a grave Seneca priest and philosopher, declai-ed to 
him that the earth or ground is living matter, and that the tender 
plantlet of the bean and the sprouting germ of the corn nestling 
therein receive through their delicate rootlets the life substance from 
the earth; that, thus, the earth indeed feeds itself to them; that, since 
what is supplied to them is living matter, life in them is produced and 
conserved, and tliat as food the ripened corn and bean and their kinds, 
thus, produced, create and develop the life of man and of all living- 
things. Hence it is seen that only in this metaphorical manner 
Tharonhiawakon, the personified life immanent in the matter of the 
earth, creates daily, and did in the beginning of time ci'eate man and 
all living things out of the earth. But the fiat creation of man and 
things from nothing or from definite portions of clay or earth, as the 
potter makes potterj', never is involved in the earliest known concep- 
tions of the beginning of things. In the quaint protology, or science 
of first things, of the Iroquois things are derived from things through 
transformation and evolution. The manner in which the earth or (Ut 
land itself was formed, as detailed in the Onondaga and the Mohawk 
texts, is an apt example of this statement. 

Another misapprehended figure of si^eech is expressed in the popu- 
lar dogma of the virgin, or parthenogenetic, conception, which in this, 
as in other cosmologies, affects one of the chief persons. This is, how- 
ever, a metaphor as old as the earliest philosophies of man. And 
some of the most beautiful and touching thoughts and activities of 
both barbaric and enlightened man rest on the too literal acceptation 
of the figurative statement of a great fact of life, attested b}' all 
human experience, namely, that breath (spirit, air, wind, atmos, 
atnian) is the principle of life and feeling, and that without it there 
can be no manifestation of life. This is the key to the riddle of the 
virgin, or parthenogenetic, conception. It is made very clear in the 

" He is also called Odendonnia, Sprout, or Sapling, and loskaha, having apparently the same 
meaning. 



HEWITT] INTRODUCTION 139 

Onondaga vorsion. Tlie fact and the idea ai'e matters of experience 
in ail times and in all lands. 

While in general outlines and in the sum of incidents comprised in 
them the several versions of the cosmologic story of the Iroquois sul)- 
stantialiy accord, there are nevertheless marked divergences in both 
structure and matter, which in time, by further development from 
accultural and other potent causes, would necessarih' cause them to be 
regarded as quite different legends in source and meaning; and this 
emphasizes the great and fundamental fact that all legends are the 
gradual result of combination from many sources by many minds in 
many generations. 

]Most of the characteristic incidents related in these legends are 
widely pi'evalentover the A merican continent, occurring among peoi)les 
speaking tongues of widely different linguistic stocks and dwelling in 
widely separated habitats. It should not be assumed that these coin- 
cidences are indubitably due to accultural influences, but rather that 
the}' indicate universality of the natural phenomena frdm which the 
incidents embodied are drawn. Among these coincidences may be 
mentioned that of the seclusion of the members of the animal world 
in a vast cavern by one of the chief characters of the legends, Winter, 
the man-being- of frosts and snow and ice. This episode evidentlj' 
portrays the annual hibernation of the animals and insects and the 
migi-ation of the birds caused by the winter power, which is called 
Tawiskaron by the Mohawks," Ohaii by the Onondagas, and Othii'k- 
wenda' by the Senecas. 

The author desires to acknowledge his many ol)ligations to the 
officers and staff of the Bureau of American P^thnologv for most 
kindly advice, wise counsel, and many valuable suggestions, cspeciallj' 
to the late Director, Major John Weslej' Powell; to Professor W J 
McGee, formerly P^thnologist in Charge; to Professor William Henry 
Holmes, the present Chief of the Bureau, and to Herbert Spencer 
Wood, editor, who has also kindly performed the irksome task of cor- 
recting the proofs of the texts and ti'anslations while they were passing 
through the press. 

Alphahet and ahhreviations 

a as in far, father: Gm. haben; Sp. ramo. 

ii the same sound prolonged. 

a as in what; Gm. man. 

ii as in hat, man. 

a, the same sound prolonged. 

«The Mohawk epithet is eommonly interpreted "flint," but its literal and original meaning ia 
"crystal-clad " or "ice-clad." the two significations being normal, as crystal, flint and ice have a sim- 
ilar aspect and fracture. The original denotation is singularly appropriate for Winter. The last two 
names do not connote ice, but simply denote flint. 



140 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

a as in law, all; Fr. o in or. 

ai as in aisle, as i in pine, find; Gni. Hain. 

au as on in out, as ow in how; Gm. haus; Sp. auto. 

c as sh in shall; dm. seh in schellen; Fr. ch in charmer. 

5 as th ill health. 

d pronounced with the tip of the tongue touching the upper teeth 

as in cniuu-iating the English th; this is the only sound of d 

in tliis language, 
e as in the}-; Gm. Dehnung; Fr. ne; f^p. (jue. 
e as in then, met; (tiu. denn: Fr. sieniie; Sp. comen. 
f as in waif. 

g as in gig; Gm. geben; Fr. gout; Sp. gozar. 
h as in has, he; Gm. hahen. 
i as in pique, machine. 
I the same sound prolonged, 
i as in pick, pit. 
k as in kit'k. 
n as in nun, run. 
fi as ng in sing, ring, 
o as in note, rote, 
q as ch in (im. icli. 
r slightly trilled; but in Mohawk it closely approximates an 1 

sound, 
s as in sop, see. 
t pronounced with the tip of the tongue touching the upper teeth 

as in enunciating the English tii; this is the only sound of t 

in this language, 
u as in rule; Gm. du; Fr. on in doux; Sp. uno. 
li as in rut, shut, 
w as in wit, witch, 
y as in j^es, yet. 
dj as j in judge, 
hw as wh ill what, 
to SIS ch in church. 

" marks nasalized vowels, thus, e", o", ai", e", a". 
' indicates an aspiration or soft emission of breath, which is initial 

or final, thus, 'h, e"', o'. 
' marks a sudden closure of the glottis, preceding or following a 

sound, thus, 'a, o', iV, ii"'. 
' marks the accented syllable of eveiT word, 
th in this combination t and h are alwa_vs pronounced separately. 

In the literal (interlinear) translation the following ablireviations 
denoting gender have been used: z. =zoic; anthr. =anthropic; m.= 
masculine; fem. = feminine; indef.= indefinite. 



AN ONONDAGA VERSION 



The Manner in Whuh it Established Itself, in Which it 
Formed Itself, in Which, in Ancient Time, it Came about 
that the Earth Became Extant 

He who was my grandfather was wont to relate that, veril}-, he liad 
heard the legend as it was eustomarily told !)}• five generations of 
grandsires, and this is what he himself was in the habit of telling. 
He CListomarilj' said: Man-beings dwell in the sky. on tiic farther .side 
of the visible sky [the ground separating this from the world above it]. 



Tca" Dediodiea'da"gwi' Tca" Deio'denda"i' Tca" Wa'wadon'nia' 

It itself formed 



The Therefrom it it employed The 
where therefor where 



It was 
established 



The 

WHERE 



Tca" Io*""hwendjia'de" wa'wa'do" 



The 

WHERE 



It earth EXTANT IS 



It oame 

TO BE 



NE" 
The 



oi'hwaga'io" 

It matter (is) 

ANCIENT. 



Ksoda'hiV-ge""hir, 



My ffrand- 
fathtr 



hwi'ks 

five 



tea' 



ge°"h!r 



ne 

the 



.so mrtny they matured 
in body 

hofithoiti'hii''gwa' ne" hi'ia 

the verily 



the 
where 



hodik.sten'a" 

they iiiicient 



ge"'s 



they it tell did 
habitually 

ne' 

the 



hao"''hwrr 

he himself 



custom- 
arily 



next HI 
order 



hothon'de' 

he it heard 



nil le 

were that 

litis) 

tea'' iu^hadii*ho"de"\ na'ie ne nao" 'nwii o" K( 

the sueh their relation that 

where Us) kind of. (it is) 

'ha"gwa\ Pha'do"k ge'^'s: Ena'gee' ne" on'gwe''^ gao'^ hi. goii'wa 

did. He it said enstom- They abide the man- it .^ky in 

habitually arily: being 



hathoia- 

lie it tell 



oThe classific conceptual term oiigwe". having no discernable grammatic affix, is what gramma- 
rians call a primitive word, and has both a singular and a collective denotation. It signifies "man- 
kind, man. human beings; a human being, a person." But its original meaning was "man-being" or 
"primal being," which signified collectively those beings who preceded man in existence and 
exceeded him in wisdom and effective power, the personified bodies and elements of nature, the gods 
and demigods of later myth and legend, who were endowed by an imputative mode of reasoning 
with anthropic form and attributes additi<nial to those normally characteristic of the particular 
bodies or elements that they represented. But, after the recognition of man as a species different from 
all others, consequent upon wider human experience and more exact knowledge, and after these had 
pushed back from the immediate fireside and community most of the reified fictions of savage men- 
tation, a time came when it became needful to distinguish between the man-being, a human being, 
and the man-being, a reified personification of a body or element of nature; in short, to distinguish 
between what human experience had found to be "real, genuine, native," and what was the con- 
verse. Hence, the limiting term oii we", signifying "native, real, genuine, original," was combined 
with ongwe', thus forming oiigwe'-ofiwe', which .^^ignifies "native, real, or genuine man-being," 
hence, "man, human being." But after the advent of trans-Atlantic peoples the antithesis was 
transferred unconsciously from the "primal being." or "man-being." the reified concepts of myth 
and legend, to "white human being," denotive of any trans-Atlantic person. So, in this legend, 
when applied to times previous to the advent of man the word oiigwe' usually denotes a man-being 
that is a personification, one of the gods of the myths, one of that vague class of primal beings of 
which man was regarded bv Iroqunian and Dther sages as a characteristic type. 

141 



142 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



TETH. ANN. 21 



The lodges they .severally possess are custoiiiarily long. Jii the end of 
the lodges there are spread out strijjs of rough hark whereon lie the 
several mats (beds). There it is that, verily, all pass the night. 

Early in the morning the warriors are in the habit of going to 
hunt and, as is their custom, they return every evening. 

In that place there lived two persons, both down-fended, and both 
persons of worth. Verily, one of these persons was a woman-being, 
a person of worth, and down-fended; besides her there was a man- 
being, a person of worth, and down-fended. 

In the end of the lodge then* was a doorway. On the one side of it the 
woman-being abode, and on the other side of it the man-being abode. 



SI" hiigwa'dr 

far side of it 

yonder 

hodino^'saiefi'do"', 

tliey lodge have 
plurally. 

tea" ne"tho' 

the there 

where 

honno"'h\vo'ytha-. 

they (m.) stay over 
night. 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 



tea" gae"''hia'de\ 



tlie 
where 

Tea"' 

The 
where 



it sky is 
extant. 

heiotno"'so"kda' 

there it lodge ends 



ganakdage"hefido" 

it mat lay i)lurally. 



Gano"'se'djrs ge"'s tea" 

It lodge long custom- the 

jihirally (are) arily where 

ne^'tho' ge"'sowaienda'die' 

there it rough bark is 

spread along 

Ne"tho' hi'hV ^^ao^we'jyi' 

There verily. it all 

(entire) 



Na'ie' ne" ' he"'ge"djik ho"'defidionVwas ne" hodi'sge"'age"da% 



the 



That 

(it is) 

hondowii'thiV 

they go to hunt 
habitually 

ne" 

the 



early in the 
morning 



hence they depart 
repeated 1 y 



the 



they (are) warriors 
(mat-hearers), 



Shadi'io"k 



'ho"k 



custom- 
arily. 



They returned 
home habitually 



Na'ie' 



That 

(it is) 

de'hiiiVdano'we"' 



ne"tho' 

there 



oga' 

evening after 
evening 

de>hni"den\ dehiia'dage 

they (m.) two they (m.) two 

abode, are persons, 



sre" 



custom- 
arilv. 



de^hninoa'do"\" 



they (m. I two are 
down-fended. 



he""deir, 

he abides, 



they (m.) two are per- 
sons of w'orth. 

e''defi\ 

she 
abides, 

hofi'gwe^ 

he man- 
being (is) 

Tea" 

The 
where 

hagwa'di' 

side of it 

ne"tho' 

there 



Na'ie' 

That 

(it is) 

eiiVdrmo'we"', 

she is a person of 
worth. 



ne 

the 



hi'ia' 

verily 



deienoji'do"'; 

she (is) 
down-fended; 



tcieiiV'dada' 

she is one 
person 

a^'so"' ne" 

still, the 



haia'dano'we"", de'hanoii'do"". 



he is a person of 
worth. 



he (is) 
down-fended. 



heiotno" 'so"kda' 

there it lodge ends 



ne"tho' 

there 



ga'nhoga'hen'diV, 

it is doorway. 



ne"tho' 

there 



e"den" 



ne 

the 
that 



na 

that one 



ne agon gwe , 

the she man- 

heing (is): 

ne" hoii'gwe' he""den\ 

he abides. 



she 
abides 



sgaga'di' 

one side 
on 



agon gwe 

she man- 
being (is) 

shaia"dadsl, 

he one person 

(is) 



Sgaga'di' 

One side 
on 

hagwa'di' 

side of it 



the 
that 



he man- 
being (is) 



"Down-fended. This compound approximately describes a feature characteristic of a primitive 
Iroquoian custom, which required that certain children should be strictly hidden from the sight of 
all persons save a trustee until they reached the age of puberty. The better to guard the ward 
from access the down of the cat-tail flag was carefully scattered about the place of concealment, so 
that no person could pass into the forbidden place without first disturbing the down and so indicat- 
ing invasion of the guarded precinct; hence, it is proposed to apply a literal rendering of the Iro- 
quoian term '■ down-fended " to a person so concealed. Persons so hidden were regarded as uncanny 
and as endowed with an tinusual measure of orenda, or magic potence. 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



148 



Sometime afterward, then, this came to pass. As soon as all the 
man-lieinus had severally departed tiiis woman-being came forth 
and went thither and, moreover, arrived at the place where the man- 
being abode, and she carried a conil) with her. She said: "Do thou 
arise; let me disentangle th\- hair." Now, verily, he arose, and then, 
moreover, she disentangled his hair, and straightened it out. It con- 
tinued in this manner day after day. 

Sometime afterward her kindred were surprised. It seems that the 
life of the maiden was now changed. Day after day it became more 
and more manifest that now she would give birth to a child. Now, 
moreover, her mother, the ancient one, became aware of it. Then, 
verily, she questioned her, saying to the maiden: '' Moi-eover, what 
manner of person is to be joint parent with thee?" The maiden said 



Gain'gwa' nwa'ofini'she'' o'ne"' tho'ne"' nwa'awe""ha'. Ganio" 

Some (time) so (long) it lasted now thus (here) so it earn e to pass. So soon as 

gagwe'gi' wa'hoii'dendion'gwa' o'ne"" dagiliage""nh!r neii'ge"' 

it all (entire) they departed plurally now thence she (z.) came this (it is) 



ne" agon'gwe' ne"tho" 

the she man- there 

being (is) 

tea" non'we' he"''defi 



thence she (z.) came 
forth 

nhwa"we', ne"tho' di" hwa'ga'io"' 

thither she (z.) there besides 

went 



there she iz.) 
arrived 

e'ha'wf ne" 



the the place 
where 



ne" heii'gwe'. na'ie' ne" 

he is the he man- that the she it bear- the 

(abides) being (is) (it is) ing is 

gana"da". Wage""hen": "Satge""ha'. Dagoiiio'dai"sia'." O'ne"' 

it comb (is). She (z.) said: " Do thou arise. Lut me dress thy hair.'' Nciw, 

hi'ia' da'hatge""ha\ tho'ge' o'ne"' di" hi'iiV wa'thoio'dai"sia\ 

she his hair did dress, 



of course, 



thence he did 
arise. 



at that 

(time) 

wa'tgaga^tcUr ne^' hoge^'if. 

she (z.) it untangled the his hair 



besides, of 

course, 



ni'io't. 

.^io it con- 
tinued to be. 

Gain'gwiV 

Some (time) 

ae"aoncrwe"diV 

her people 



(it is). 



nwa'ofini'she' 

SCI (long! t lasted 



Na'ie' 

That 
(it is) 



ne" o'he"",senk ne"tho" 

the day after day there 



tea" 

the 
where 



o la 



(it is) 
other 



o ne" 

now 

o'ne"' 

now 



wa*'hondien'*'hrL' gwa" ne'' 

they were surprised seemingly the 

ni'io't tea" ago'n'he' ne" 



sn it is 



the 
where 



she lives ihe 

(is alive) 



ek.sago'na". Tca^' o'he"''8enk heiotgonda^gwi' daiotge"'iiia'die' 

she maid The day after day it is unceasing thence it becomes man- 

(large child). where ifest more and more 

tea'' oien'det o'ne"" tea" e"iowiaienda-'nha'. O'ne"' di" 

the it is know- now the she (z.) child will have. Now, besides, 
where able where 

wa'ontdo'ka' ne" gok'sten'a''. Tho^'ge' o'ne"' hi'iiV wa'ondadei'- 

she it noticed the she elder one At that now, of she her 

(is). (lime) course, questioned 

hwaneii'do"' ne" eksiVgo'na^ wa'a'^hen': ''Son" di" noiiwa'- 

repeatedly the shemaid she it said: " Who besides kind of 
(large child j 

ho"de"' djiade'do""ne'r' Hiia" ste"" de'aga'we"' ne" eksa'go'na'. 

thing ye two are going to Not anything she it said the shemaid 

' have otTspring?" (it is) (large child). 



1 

2 
3 
i 
5 
6 
7 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



144 



IBOQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



nothing in, reply. So, now, at tliat tinif, the man-being noticed that 
he began to be ill. For sonic time it continued thus, when, verily, his 
mother came to the place where he lay. She said: "Where is the 
place wherein thou art ill?" Then the man-being said in reply: " Oh, 
my mother! I will now tell thee that I, alas, am about to die." And 
his mother replied, .saying: "What manner of thing is meant by thy 
saying 'I shall die?'" 

It is said that they who dwelt there did not know what it is 
for one to sa}- "I shall die." And the reason of it was that no 
one living there on the sky had ever theretofore died. At that 
time he said: "And, verily, this will come to pass when I die: M}- 
life will go forth. Moreover, my bodj' will become cold. Oh, my 



Da'. tho"ge' o'ne"' 

."o at that now 

(time) 

wa''hono'"'hwak'de"'. 

he became ill. 

o'ne"' hi'iiV ne" 

now, of course, the 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



of course, 
verily 

henda'gif. Wa'a"hen' 



ne" hen'gwe' wa'hatdo'ka' tea" o'ne"' 

the he man- he it noticed the now 

being (is) where 

Gain'gwa' nwa'oiini'.she' ne"tho' ni'io't 

Some (time) so (long) it lasted there so it is 

hono"ha' ne"tho' wa'e'io"' tea" non'we' 

his mother there she arrived the the place 



the 
where 



he lay. She it said: 

O'ne"' ne" hen'gwe 

Now the he man- 

being (is) 

ne" 

the 



tho'ie"' 



"Gain" noii'we' nisano""hwak'dani'?" 

"Where (is) the place .soit thee pain (illness) causes?" 

ni'ha'weiT: "Ageno"ha\ o'ne"' e"gonia- 

so he replied: " Oh. mv mother, now I thee it 

will tell 

na'ie' ne ' ni"a' gi'heio""se'." Na'ie* ne" ga'wen' 

that the I per- I am going to die." That the she it has 

(it is) sonall.v (it is) 

ne" hono"ha", wa'a"hen': " Ho't nonwa'ho"de" 

the his mother. she it said: " What kind of thing 

(is it) 

i-sa'do"k: 'E"gi-he'ia'?"' 

thou it art ' I will die?' " 

.^a.ving: 

Na'ie' ne". ia'ke"', tea" hadinil'gee" hiia" 

That the, it is said, the they (m,) dwell not 

(it is) where 

ne" son" nonwa'ho"de"" aia'"hen': "E"gi'he'ia' 

the what kind of thing one it should "I will die." 

(who) (it is) say: 

honnia"ha" ne" hiia" hweii'do"' de'agawe"'he'io"' tea" hadina'gee' 

it causes the not ever one has died the they (m.) dwell 

(makes matter) (it is) where 

ne" ne"tho' gao"'hia"ge'. O'ne"' hi'itV tho''ge' w;vhe""hen': 

the there it sky on. Now, of at that he it said: 

course, time, 



said 

gefi'da' tea" 

it signifies the 
where 



de'hadiieiide'i' 

they it know 

Na'ie' gai'- 

That it 

(it is) 



o'ne"' 

now 
( when ) 



e"gi'he'ia', 

I will die. 



"Na'ie' ne" tho'ne"' ne"iawe""ha ne" 

"That the here so it will come to the 

(it is) (this way) pa.ss 

Na'ie' ne" e°gaiage"''nha" ne" agadon'he''sa'. E"gana'no'sda' 

That the it will go out. the my life It will become cold 

(it is) (lifehood). 

di" ne" gia'df'ge'. Ageno"hri'. tho'ne"' ne"'siea" ne" kga'- 

be- the my body on. My mother, this way so thou it wilt the my 

sides do 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



145 



niotherl thus shiilt thuu do on my eyes: Thou must lay both thy 
hands on both sides. And, moreover, thou must keep thy eyes fixed 
thereon when thou thinkest that now he is [I am] nearly dead. So 
soon as thou seest that my breathing is being made to become less, 
then, and not till then, must thou think that now it is that he is about 
to die. And then, moreover, thou wilt place thy two hands on both 
my eyes. Now, I shall tell thee another thing. Ye must make a 
burial-case. When ye finish the task of making it, then, moreover, 
ye must place my body therein, and, moreover, ye must lay it up in a 
high place." 

Now, verily, she, the ancient one, had her eyes fixed on him. So 
soon as she i)elieved that now he was about to die. she placed both her 
hands on his eyes. Just so soon as she did this she began to weep. 
Moreover, all those who abode in the lodge were also affected in 
the same waj'; they all wept. Sometime after he had died they set 



hi"'ge". De"'se"'nia"hen" dedjao""gwi\ Ne^'tho' di"', ne"ska'ha"k 

on both sides. There besides there it thy ej'es 

will be on 

e"'se'!r o'ne"' tho'^ha' e"gi''he'ifV. Ganio" e"satgat'- 

thovi wilt now almost I will die. So soon as tlion it wilt 

decide 

hwa' tea'' gadon'ie"s de"diosthwa'di'ha'die' o'ne"' ha^'sfi' e"'se'a' 

see the I am breath- it will continue to grow less now 



eyes on. Thou thy two hands 

on (the'm) wilt lay 

ne"' o'nf"' " ' 

the nov 



the I am breath- 
where ing 



just then thou wilt 
decide 



o'ne"'-khe"" tho"ha' e"'he"'he'ia\ O'ne"' df kga'hi"ge' de"'- 



nearly 



he will die. 



Now 



besides my eyes on 



It IS 

other 



se"'nia"'h(MT dedjao""gwr. O'ne"' 

thy two hands on on both sides. Now 

(them) wilt lay 

ne'' e"swa'son'nia' ne" ga''ho'"'sii'. 

the will ye it make the it case 

(burial-case). 

ne"tho' df e""sowai!Vdofi'dak. he'tke"" di" e"swa"heii'. 



thou 

Na'ie' 



e"goniatho'ie"\ 

will I thee tell it. That 

(it is) 

Ne"' o'ne"' e"'swadienno"'kde"' 

The now will ye task finish 



be- 
sides 



ye mv bodv will incase, 



up high 



be- ye it will up-lay." 
sides 



O'ne"' ne" gok'steii'a' ne"tho' hi'ia' de'hoga"ha'. Ganio" 



Now 



she (1e- now, 

cided 

wiVdio^'niji'^ien' 

she laid her two hands 
on them 

nwtVeie'a' o'ne" 

so she it did now 



she elder 

one (is) 

hi'a' 

verily, 

ne"' 

the 



there, 

tho"ha' 

' nearly 

haga'hr'ge" 

his eyes on. 



verily. 



8he(z.) had her 
eyes on him. 



wa"dio"'shent'hwa" 

she wept. 



a'he"'he'isV, 

he would die, 

Agwa's 

Very 

Gagwe'gi' 

It nil 



tho"ge' 

at that 

(time) 

ganio'' 

so soon 



So soon 
as 

o'ne"' 

now 

ne"tho' 

thus 



dr' tea" niio°^' 



be- 
sides 



the so it (is) 

where many 



gano"sg'on'wa' e"den' ne^tho^ o"' nwa'awe'^'ha', wa'dio"'shenthw- 

it lodge in they (in- there too so it came to pass, they (indef.) plurally 



they (in- 
def.) abode 



a"ho"' 

wept 



gagwegi'. 

it all. 
21 ETH— Oo- 



Gaifi'gwfi' nwa'oiini'she' hawe"'he'io°' o'ne"' 

Some so it lasted he is dead now 

(time) 

—10 



1 

2 
3 
■i 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 



14(5 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[KTH. ANN. 21 



themselves to work, inakiii}>' a Ijuiial-casc ^lorccncr. so soon as they 
liad liiiished their task they plaeed his liody therein, and aix) hiid it 
lip in a iiiyh place. 

.Sometime after they had laid the hiirial-case in the hi^h place, 
the maiden, now a woman-being, gav^e birth to a child, which was 
a female, a woman-being. Then the ancient one [elder one, the 
mother of the maiden] said: ••!Moreo\er, what manner of person is 
the father of the child!'" The maiden said nothing in reply. 

The girl child grew rapidly in size. It was not long after this 
that the girl child was running about. Suddenh', it seems, the girl 
child began to weep. It was impossible to stop her. Five are the 
number of days, it is said, that the girl child continued to weep. 
Then the elder one [her grandmother] said: "'Do ye show her the 
biirial-case lying there in the high place." Now, verily, they carried 



wa'hodiio'de""ha', wa'hadi'.son'nia' 

they (ui. I worked, they (m. ) it made 

o'ne"' wa'hondiienno''kde"' o'ne"' 

now they (their) tasl^ finished now 



ne" ga'ho""sa'. Ganio" di" 



the 



it case 
(burial-oase) 

ne"tho 

there 



So soon be- 

as sides 

wiVhoiTwaitVdon'dak, 

they liis body incased, 



3 

■4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



he"'tke"" o"'nr wa'hadi"herr. 

up high also they (m.) it up-laid. 



Gaiii'gwa' 

Some 
(tiinei 

tho"ge" ne"' 

at that the 

(time) 

daienda''iiha\ 

of an iniaiit 



nwa'ofini'she' ne" he"tke" 

s»M long) it lasted tlie np high 



ek.sa'go'nrr, ne" agon'gwe 

she maiden, the 



ne ' 

the 



gok'sten'a' 

she elder one 



she man- 
being (is) 

e'^he"', agoiTgwe'' ne" eksa"a 

she (is) man- the 

being 

waTrhen": •'Son" 



slie lis) 
female 



liiey it had now 

up-laid 

o'ne"', wa'agoksiv- 

then, she became 

possessed 

Tho"ge o'ne"' 

she infant At that now 

(is). (time) 

di" nonwa'ho"de"' 



she it said: 



kind of person 



ne 

the 



it lasted (long) 



it is pos- 
sible 

hwsV'he's 

weeping 

gok'steil'a' : 

she elder one: 



now 



•■ Who be- 

(isit) sides 

eksa"a' ago"ni''hii'?" Hiia" ste"" de'aga'weiT ne" 

she infant her father (it Not any- she it has said the 

(is) is)?" (it is) thing 

Godi'sno'we' tea" gododi'ha'die" ne" 

she grew rap- the she continued to the 

idly where grow in size 

de'aofinishe"!' o'ne"' ne"'tho' eda'khe's ne" 

at that she ran the 

place alxait 

gwa" o'ne"' ne" eksa"a' wa"o"'sa'we"' wa'dio"'shent'hwa", 

it now the she child she began she wept. Xot 

seems (it is) 

de'a'wet aionni'qhe"". Hwi'ks niwefidage'', ia'ge"", deio"'shent- 

she it would Five so many it day it is she goes about 

stop. in number (is), said, 

ne' eksa"a'. Tho''ge' o'ne"" wa'a'heii" ne" 

the she child. At that now she it said the 

(is) (time) 

" Etchina"do"s tea" tga'ho"'sa"ha'." O'ne"' hi'ia' 

'* Do ye it show the there it case Now, oi course 

tu her where uj>-]ies." (.verily), 



elvsa ^o na . 

she maiden, 
(is) 

ek^sa'Ti'. Hiia'' 

she infant (isi. Not 

(it is) 

eksa"a'. Dien"ha' 

she infant. Suddenly 

Hiia" 



HKWITT] 



ONONDAGA A'SRSION 



147 



hpr person, and caused her to stand up high there. Then the girl 
child looked at it [the corpse], and then she ceased her weeping-, and 
also she was pleased. It was a long time before thej' withdrew her; 
and it was not a long time before she again began to weep. Now, 
verily, the}' again carried her person, and. moreover, they caused her 
to stand there again. So, it continued thus, that, day after day, tho}^ 
were in the habit of carrying her, and causing her to stand there on 
the high place. It was not long liefore she liy lier own efforts was 
able to climl) up to the place where lay the dead man-being. Thus it 
continued to be that she at all times went to view it. 

Some time afterward it thus came to pass that she came down again 
bringing with her what was called an armlet, that being the 
kind of thing that the dead man-being had clasped about his arms, 
and, being of the wampum variety, it was, it is said, fine-looking. 



wahodii!Vde""hawa' ne"tho' he"tke"' wa'diondatde"'sda'. 

they her person carried there np hiurh 



O'ne'" 

they (indef.) hercaused Now 

to stand. (it is) 

wa'ontgat'hwa' ne" eksiV'iV; tho"'ge" o'ne"' wa'onni'qhe"' tea" 

she it lookeil at the she child nt tlmt now she it ceased 

(is); (time) 

deio^'shefifhwas, wa'ontcennon'nisi' 

she is weeping. she was pleased 



the 
where 



o ni 

also. 



Aoiiiii'she'i" 

It lasted (long) 



o ne 

now 



saiondadiirdo""tka . Na'ie' ne" 

again they her person That the 
withdrew. (it is) 

he" donsriio""shent'hw:i\ O'ne' 

again she wei)t. Now, 



not 



do'iTonni'she'i' 

it lasted (long) 



hi'uV .srishao'odii:Vde""hriwti\ 



again 



01 course, 
verily, 



ne''tho" df 

there be- 

sides 



up liigh 



\va\shagodide"'sda'. 

they her caused to stand. 



again they her person 
carried, 

O'ne"' ne"tho' 

Now there 



so it is day after 

day 

de"'sthir. Hiia-' 

to Stand. Not 



they lier person carried 
customarily 

d<''aonni'she*'i' o'ne" 

it lasted (long) now 



lip hiyh 

o'a'o"dlw;V 

she herself 



non'we' tg'a''h:f 

the place 



wiVs wfreiji''fhe"' tea 

her- she climbed the the place there it 

.self up where np-lay 

Ne^'tho" ni'io't ekdo"''ne's diiot'gont. 

There so it is she it cnstoraarily at all times, 

went \i} see 

Gaiii'gwa' nwa'onni'she^ o'ne"' ne^'tho'' 



ne ' 

the 



also they her 

caused 

wiVofidadie'na- 

she herself helped 
to do it 

hawe"'ho'io"'. 

he is dead. 



Some (time) 

io"-kweMie'"''diV 

again she descended 

nonwa'ho"de"' 

kind of thing. 



so it lasted 



thus 



nwtVawe'" iia' dofida- 

so it came to pass thence 



tcie'ha'wf ie"'nentcha'nhas'tha" gaia'djr, na" 

she it brought one it uses for armlet it is called. that 

again one 

hi'ia" hotnef5tcha"nhu''ho"' ne" hawe"'he'io"', 

veri]\-, he hi.s arm has wrapped around the he is dead, 
plurally 

otko";r nonw:iiK)"d(''"\ oiii'ne', ia'ke"'. WaM'hefi" ne" 

itwampum kind of thing, it(is)fine, itissaid. Sheitsaid the 



ni'io't o'he""senk shagodiiri'de""hawas he"tke"' ()"nr shagodi- „ 



( 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



148 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY (eth. asn. 21 

The older one said: '* What nianner of thino- caused thee to remove it? " 
The girl child replied, saying: " My father said: 'Do thou remove it. 
It will belong to thee. I, verily, am thy parent.' " Tlie elder one said 
nothing more. It continued thu* that customarily, as soon as another 
day came, she would again climb to the place \vhere the burial-case 
lay. So, now, verily, all those who were in the lodge paid no more 
attention to her, merely watching her grow in size. Thus it contin- 
ued that day after day, at all times, she continued to go to see it [the 
corpse]. They heard them conversing, it is said, and they also heard, 
it is told, what the two said. After a while she again came down 
bringing with her a necklace which the dead man-l»eing had had around 
his neck, and which she had removed. She, it is reported, said: "Oh, 
my grandmother! My father gave this to me; that is the reason I 

« 

gok'sten'a': "Ho't nonwa'ho"de"' daioi'hwa"khe' tea" waska"- 

1 she elder one: "What kind of thing it is reason of it the thou 

(is it) where didst 

tcia'?" Diiiei'hwiVsa'gwa' ne" eksiVa' Wii'a'iien": "(i'ni'ha" 

2 remove Slie it replied the she child she itsaid: "Mv father 

it?" 

wa'he'-heiT', 'Sga"tcia'. I's er'sa'we"k. I"' hi'ia" gon'ha'wa'.'" 

3 he it said, ' Do thon Thon thou it wilt . I verily, I thy parent am.'" 

it remove. own. ' (it is), 

Hiia" ste"'' de'tciaga'we"" ne" gok'sten'a'. Ke"tho' ni'io't 

4 Not any- again she it said tlie she elder one. Thus so it is 
(it is) thing 

ge^'s ganio" wa'o'he""nha o'ne"' he" saieiv'the"" tea" non'we' 

5 custom- so soon it day became now again again she the the place 

ariiy as climbed up where 

tga'ho"'sa"ha'. Da". o'ue"' hi'ia" tea" ni'heii'nadi" ne" 

6 there it case up-lay. So, now, verily, the so they (m.) arc the 

where many in number 

gano'"sgon'wa' hr'nni"den" hiiu" de'shonnasdei'sdi". ne"'tho' 

7 it lodge in they (m. I abide not they (m.) again pay there 

attention to it, 

geiTgwii' de'hadiga"ha" tea" gododi'ha'die'. Ne"tho' ni'io't 

8 only they (m.) their eyes the she continued to There .so it is 

had on it where grow. 

diiot'gont heioiitgat'hwas o'he'"'senk. Honuathofi'de", ia'ke"', 

9 at all times thither she went to day after day. They (m.l it heard, it is said, 

see it 

de'hodi'tha', honnathoiTde" o"nr, ia'ke"", ne"' ste""' gwa" 

10 they(m.)con- thev (m.) it heard also, it is said, the any- seem- 

versed, thing ingly 

noiiwa'ho"de"' de'hia'do"k. DieiT'ha gwa"' o'ne"' he" 

11 kind of thing ■ they two (m.) Suddenly, seem- now again 

kept saying. ingly, 

dondaio"'kwe'ne""da' tcie'ha'wi' ne" ion'ni'dias'tha' ne" 

12 thence she again descended she it brought the one uses it as a the 

again necklace 

ho'dien"nii' ne" hawe"'he'io"', na'ie' o""ke"' goga'tcien'ha'die'. 

13 he had had it the he is dead, that this time, she came, having 
around his neck (it is) removed it. 

Wa'a'heii", ia'ke"": "Gso'da'ha', g"ni-ha"' waha'gwe"' nefi'ge"'; 

1* Sheit.said, itissaid: " My grandmother, my father he it gave to me this(itis); 

na'ie' gai'hoiinia"ha' wa'kga"tcia'." O'ne",' ia'ke"', tea" 

15 that it it causes I it removed," Now, itissaid, the 

(it is) where 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



149 



removed it." So, it is reported, until the time she was full-grown, 
she was in the habit of going to view the place where lay the burial- 
case. 

At that time, it is reported, her father said: "Now, my child, verily, 
thou hast o-rown to maturity. Moreover, I will decide upon the time 
when thou shalt marry." Some time afterward he said: "Thou must 
tell thy mother, saj-ing: 'My father said to me, "Now thou must 
marry."" Now, moreover, verily, thy mother must make loaves of 
bread, and it must till a large forehead-strap-borne basket. Now, 
moreover, thou must make the breafi, and thou nuist have it ready by 
the time it becomes night." 

Truly, it thus came to pass. It became night, and, verilv, the elder 
one had it all ready. She said: "I have now made it ready. The 
basket is even now full of bread." Now, the maiden affain climbed 



nwiVofini'she" 

sii (lonK) it Iflstt'd 



heiagodo'dr 

thither slie grew 
to full size 



ne"'tho' ekdo""ne's tea"' noiTwe' 

there she it went habit- -.the the place 

ually to >ee where 



tga'iiil" lie"' ga'ho""sa'. 

there it the it case (Vjurial- 

iip-lay oasej. 

Tho"ge', ia'ke"', o'ne' 

At that it is said, now 

itiniej, 

hi'iil" gon'ha'wil' 

verily, I thy i)arent am 



wa"he"'hen" lie"' ago''ni"ha': 

he it said the her father: 



wii'sadodia'ga'. 

thou hast grown up. 



niga'ha'wi' tea" 

there it bears it the 
(the time) ^vhere 

wahe"'hen"' 

he it said: 



e".sania'khe'." 

thou wilt marry." 



'O'ne"' 

"Now 

(it is) 

1" di"' e"tgenno""do"" gain" 

I it shall will where 

(decide it), 

nwaonni'she" o'ne"' 

so (long) it lasted now 



more- 
over 



I 

(it is) 

Gain'gwa' 

Some (time) 



•E"'sheiatho'ie"' ne" sano"ha' 

• Thou her wilt tell the thy mother 



goii'has g"ni'hri''. O'ne"' e"sania'khe".'" 

me, my father. Now wilt thou marry.' " 

saying, 

e"ie'h;l'gonnia'"hen' ne" sano''ha', 

she bread will make the thy mother, 
repeatedly 



e"'si'hen", ' Wa'ha 

\vilt thou it say, 

O'ne" 

Now, 



more- 
over. 



•Head- 
dressed 

hi'ia' 

verilv, 



na le 

that 
(it is) 



ne" 

the 



di" 

ore- 
.'er. 

e"g'aa"seik 

it will till a 
basket 



ontge'da'.sthiV grra*'sa\ O'ne"' di' e"8ha*'g*on'nia' e"saiennenda''ik 



it basket. 



one bears it by the 
forehead-strap 

tea'' nig'aiia'wr 

tliere it it bears 

(time) 

Do'o'e"s ne^tho 



Now, 



more- 
over, 



thou bread wilt 
make 



thou it wilt have 
ready 



the 
where 



ne' 

the 



e"m'gak/' 

iLwill be dark." 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 



It is true 

gagwe'gi' 

it all 



thus 

gaiennenda*"i* 

she it had ready 



wrfgadadeiennendiV'nhtV. 

I my preparations have finished. 



O'ne"' 


ne" 


na' 


ne" 


Now 


that 
one 


the 
that 


that 
one 



nwa"awe""ha". Wa'o"'gak o'ne"' hi'ia' 

so it came to pass. It became now, verily, 11 

night 

■" ne" gok'sten'a'. Wa'a'hen": "O'ne"' 

the Hhe elder She it said: "Now 1^ 

one (is), 

O'ne"' g«Ta"sei' ne" o'ha"gwrr.'' 

Now it liasket the it bread." lo 

(is) full 

eksa^go'na' saieii^the"' tea'' noii'we' 

she maiden again she up- the the place 14 



climbed 



where 



150 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



up to the place where lay the buiial-case. At that time thej- heard 
her say: "My mother has now matle everything ready." He then 
replied: "To-morrow thou must depart; early in tlie morning thou 
must depart. The distance from here to the place where lives the 
one whom thou wilt marry is such that thou wilt spend one night on 
thy way thither. And lie is a chief whom thou art to marry, and his 
name, hy repute, is He-holds-the-earth." 

Now the next day she dressed herself. As .soon as she was read}' 
she then again ran, going again to the place where lay the dead 
man-being. Then she told him, .saying: "The time for me to depart 
has arrived." Now, at that time he told her, saying: "Do thou 
have courage. Th}- pathway throughout its course is terrifying, and 
the reason that it is so is that many man-beings are traveling to 
and fro along this pathway. Do not, moreover, speak in reply if 





tga'ho"'sa"ha\ O'ne"' 


honnathon'de 


tea" wa'a'hf'ii": "O'ne"', 


1 


there it burial-ea.se Now 

up-lie.s. 


they (ni.) it heard 


the she it said: "Now 
where 




wrreieflneiidjVnhrr ne"' 


agno'iia ." 


Tho"g'e' o'ne"' ni'ha'wen': 


2 


she lier preparations the 
hus tinishert 


my mother." 


At that now thence he replied: 
(timet 




''K"io*he""nha o'ne"' 


e".sa'defi'dia. 


He"ge"djik o'ne"' e"sa'- 


3 


"It^will lieeome day now 

(tonitirrow) 


thou wilt depart. 


Early in tlie now thou 
morning wilt 




den'dia . vSga'da' e".sefino"'hwe'tci:V 


tea" niio'we" tganadfi'ie"' 


4 


(ieparl. One it is thou 


wilt stay over night 


the so it is dis- there it village 
where tant lies 




tea"' non'we' thana'g 


ee" ne" e" 


djinia'khe'. Ha'seiinowa'ne"' 


5 


the the place there he the ye two will marry. He is a chief 
where dwells 



na'ie' ne" e"djinia'khe\ Hao""hwendjiawa"gi' ni'ha'sen'no"de"'." 

that the ve two will uuirrv. He-it-carth-holds such his name (is) 

(it is) ' kind of." 

Wa'o'he""nha' tho"ge' o'ne"" wa'onde'seii'nia'. Ganio" wiVoii- 



It became day 

de".sa' 



herself 
feady 



o ne 

now 



noil we" 

9 the place 

tho'ie"^ 

10 him 



at that 
(time) 

tho"ge' 

at that 
(time) 

tga'ho"''sa''ha 

there it burial-case 
up-lies 

wtVa'hen"; 

she it said: 



she herself dressed. 



she 
made 

donsriiona"dat ne'^tho' nhoiisa'ie"' tea* 

there 



tliither again she 
ran 



thither again the 

she went where 



"O'ne" 

"Now 



ne" hawe""he'io"". Tho"ge' wahonwa- 

the he is dead. At that she told 

(time) 

hw£Vga'he'"g tea" o'ne"' e"ga'- 

it has arrived the now 1 shall 



the 
where 



deiTdiil'." Tho"ge' o'ne"' washagotho'ie"" wa'he""hen" 

11 depari.' .^t that now he her told she it said: 



.■\t that 
(time) 

Deiodeno"'hiani"di 

12 it is terrifying 



tea" 

the 
where 



lion we 

the place 



nheiotha'hi'uofi" 

has its 

tea" 



thither it path has it 
course 



na'ie gai'honnia hfi tea ne tho' ni lo't 

13 that it it causes the there so it is 

{it is) where 

wen'ie' tea" non'we' nheiotha'hi'noii' honnato-iVde' ne"' on'sfwe'. 



the 
where 



; "Djia'ke"'. 

"Di) thou have 
courage. 

na'ie' ne" 

that the 

(itis) 

deiagoiinada- 

they (anthr. ) travel 



11 



numbers 



the the place 
where 



thither it path has its 
course 



thev are numerous the 



man-being. 



HEWITT] ONONDAGA VERSION 151 

sonio porson. whoever he may be, iiddresses words to thee. And when 
thou hast o-one one half of thj- journey, thou wilt come to a river 
there, and, moreover, the iloating log whereon persons cross is maple. 
When thou dost arri\e there, th(Mi thou wilt l^now that thou art half- 
wav on thy journey. Then thou wilt cross the I'ivei-, and also pass on. 
Thou must continue to travel without interruption. And thou wilt 
have traveled some time before thou arrivest at the place whei-e 
thou wilt see a large field. Thou wilt see there, moreover, a lodge 
standing not far away. And there beside the lodge stands the tree 
that is called Tooth." Moreover, the blossoms this standing tree 
bears cause that world to be light, making it light for the man-beings 
dwellin"' there. 



'A''gwi' dV de"tcada'dia do'gat hi'ia' e"iesawenna"nha' ne" 

Di)itnot, more- thou wilt speak it it he so. verily, one thee words the 

over. in reply will address to 

son" gwiV noiiwa'ho"de"'. Na'ie' ne" tea" dewa'sen'no"' tea" 

who seem- kind of person. Thiit the the it half is the 

ingly (it is) where where 

niio'we" nhe""se' ne"tho" tge"'hio""hwada'die", nil'ie' di" ne" 

soilisdis- thither thou there there it river extends itself that more- the 

tant wilt be going along, (it is) over 

o'hwa'VliV ne" gaen'do' tea" noii'we' deieia'hia"ktha\ Ne" 

it maple the it log floats the the place one uses it stream The 

where to cross. 

o'ne'" ne"tho' he""sio"" o'ne"' e"'sea" o'ne"' tea" dewa'sefi'no"' 

now there there thou now thou wilt now the it middle is 

wilt arrive eonckule where 

nhwiV'ge'. Tho"ge' o'ne"' de"'siia"hia k, e"sadongo''da' o"nr. 

there I am At that now thou stream wilt thou wilt pass on also, 

going. (time) cross, 

HeiotgofidiVgwi' e"sa'deridion'ha'die\ Na'ie' ne" gain'gwa" 

Without interru[ition thou wilt continue to That the some (time) 

travel on. (it is) > 

ne"ionni'she' tea" lie"satha'hi'ne" o'ne"' ha"sa' ne"tho' he""sio"' 

so it will last the thither thou wilt be now just then there there thou 

where traveling wilt arrive 

tea" nofi'we' e"satgat'hwa', e"shendage""nha' na'ie' ne" tga- 

thc the place thou it \vilt see, thou a clearing (field) that the there 

\vlKTe wilt sec (it is) 

'hendaie''''gowa'ne"'. E"sge""nhfi" di" ne"tho' gwiV'tho" tgano"'- 

it field lies great. Thou it wilt see, more- there nearby there it 

over, 

sa'ie"". Na'ie' ne"' gano"'.sak'da' ne"tho' fira"he' na'ie' ne" 

lodge That the it lodge beside there it tree that the 

lies. (it is) stands (it is) 

Ono"dja'" gaendaia'dji'. Na'ie' ne" di"' tea" awe"'ha'ha'gi' 

It Tooth it tree (is) called. That the more- the it is full of flowers 

(it is) ftver where 

neii'ge"' ga"he' tea" ne"tho' diio"'hwendjiri'de' deio'hathe"di', 

this (it is) it tree the there there it world (earth) is it it causes to be 

stands where present light, 

na'ie' ne" na'ie' de'hodi'hathe"dani' tea" ne"tho' ena'gee' 

there thev dwell 



that 
(it is) 


the that 
(it is) 


it it them causes to be light 
for 


the 
where 


ne" 


ofi'gwe'. 






the 


man- 
being. 







4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

!> 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



' Probably the yellow dog-tooth violet, Erythronium americanum. 



152 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [f.th. anx. 21 

"Sufli, in kind, is the tree that stands beside the lodge. Just there 
is the lodge of the chief whom thou art to marry, and whom his people 
call He-holds-the-earth. When thou enterest the lodge, thou wilt 
look and see there in the middle of the lodge a mat spread, and there, 
on the mat, the chief lying down. Now, at that time, thou shalt lay 
thy basket down at his feet, and, moreover, thou shalt say: "Thou and 
I marr}'.' He will say nothing. When it becomes night, he who 
is lying down will spread for thee a skin robe at the foot of his mat. 
There thou wilt stay over night. As soon as it is day again, he 
will say: 'Do thou arise; do thou work. Customarily one who lives 
in the lodge of her spouse works.' Then, verily, thou must work. 
He will lay down a string of corn ears and, moreover, he will say: 
'Thou must soak the corn and thou nuist make mush." At that time 

"Ne"tho' nigaendo"de'" tea" gano"'sak'da' ga"he'. Ne"tho' 

Thus so It tree (is) the it lodge be- it tree There 

kind of where side stands, 

gWiV ni"hono'"sa'ie"' ne"' ha'seiinowa'ne"' ne'' e"djinia'khe', 

seem- there his lodge the he chief the ye two will 

ingly stands (is) marry. 

Hao'"hwefidjiawa"gr honwana'do'"'khwa' ne" haongwe"da'. Ne" 

He-it-oarth-holds they him designate ■ the his pefiple. The 

thereby 

o'ne"' ne"tho' he"''sio"' ne" gano"sgon'wii' e"satgat'hwir tea" 

now there there thou the it lodge in thou it wilt see the 

wilt arrive where 

ha'degano"s'he"' e"sge°"nha' ne"tho' ganak'do"', na'ie' ne" 

just it lodge in thou it wilt there it mat (bed) that the 

middle of see is spread, (it is; 

ne"tho'' ganakda"ge' heMa'gii" ne" ha'seiinowa'ne"'. Tho"ge' 

there it mat on he lies the he chief. At that 

time 

„ o'ne"' ne"tho' e"sat'a"sa'ieii' tea" nofi'we' ha'de'ha'si"dage"heiT', 

now there thou thy basket the the just (where) his two feet 

wilt lay where place are lying, 

e"'si'hen^' df: ^ Wa ongiuia'khe'/ Hiia" ste"" tha^he"'^hen". 

" thou it wilt more- * Thou I marry Not any- he it will say. 

say, over: now.' (it Is) thing 

Ne" o'ne"' e"io"gak na'ie' ne" tea" he"da'ga' ne"tho' e"'hie"*so'was 

The now it will be- that the the he lies there he will spread for 

come night (it is) where thee a mat i bark) 

tea" nofi'we' hiVde'ha'srdade'nio"'. Ne"tlio' df e°8enno'"*hwet. 

the (he just where his two feet There, more- thou wilt stay 

where place end. over, over night. 



Ganio" e"io'he""nh;V o'ne"" se" e"'he"'hen": ' Satge""ha'. 

So soon it will be day now it is a mat- he it will say: ' Do thou arise, 

as " ter of fact 

Saio'de""ha'. Goio"de' ge"'s tea" e'hne"'hwas'he""." Tho"ge' 

Do thou work. She works eus- the .she abides with her At that 

tomarily where husband's family.' (time) 

o'ne"' hi'ia' e"saio'de""ha-. 6ne""ha' e"'ha'ste°".sil'ien\ e"'he"'heii" 

now, verily thou wilt work. It corn he a string of it "will he it will say, 

lay down. 

di'': ' p]"sene"'hanawe""da', e^sdji.sgon'nia / Tho"'ge' odjisdiv'ge' 

■^"* more- ' Thou it corn wilt soak, thou mush wilt At that it tire on 

over: make.' (time) 



11 

12 
13 



HEWITT] ONONDAGA VERSION 153 

there will be a kettle of water set on the fire, As soon as it l)oils 
so that it is terrifying, thou must dissolve the meal therein. It must 
be lioiiing- when thou makest the musli. He himself will speak, 
saying: 'Do thou undress thyself.' Moreover, thou must there 
undress thyself. Thou must be in thy bare skin. Nowhere wilt thou 
have any garment on thy body. Now, the mush will be boiling, and 
the mush will be hot. Verily, on thj' body will fall in places the 
spatt<>ring mush. He will say: 'Thou must not shrink back from 
it;' moreover, he will have his eyes fixed on thee there. Do not 
shrink -back from it. So soon as it is cooked, thou shalt speak, 
sa^'ing: 'Now, verily, it is cooked; the mush is done.' He will arise, 
and, moreover, he will remove the kettle, and set it aside. Then, 
he will say: 'Do thou seat thyself on this side.' Now then, he 
will say: 'My slaves, ye dogs, do ye two come hither.' They two are 

o'hne'ganos e"gana"djio'dak. Ganio" e"diowiia'he""ha' ne"tho' 

it water it kettle will sit. So soon it will up-boil "" there 1 

(fresh) as 

tea'' deiodeno"'hiani"di' o'ne"' ne"tho' ne" othe"'tcha' 

the it is terrifying now there the it meal 2 

where (fiour) 

he""sok. De"diowii:i'he""sek ne" o'ne"' e^sdjisgoiTniji'. Ha'o"'- 

therethouit It will be up-boiling the now thou mush wilt He him- o 

wilt immerne. make. self 

hwti' e"thada'dia' &"'he"'hen": ' Sadadia'dawi'da"sia'.' Ne"tho' 

he will speak he it will say; 'Do thou thyself disrobe.' There i 

di" e"sadadiirdawi'dti"siii'. Sa'nesda'go''ks e"gen'k. Hiia" gat'ka' 

more- thou thyself wilt disrobe. Thou thy bare skin it will be. Not any- 5 

over, wilt be in where 

da'de"djisadia'dawi"dik. O'ne"' ne" odjis'gwa' eMiowiia'he""sek, 

thou wilt be robed. Now the it mush it will be up-boiling, 6 

o'dai"hen' e"ge"'ks ne" odjis'gwa. Sia'di"ge' hi'ia' he"gaa"- 

it is hot it will be the it mush. Thy body on of course it will be- * 

come at- 

sen' tea" e"watdjisgwadon'gwa'. E"'he"'hen": 'Hiia" thoiidslsa- 

taohed the it itself mush will splatter. He it will say: ■ Not thou ^ 

to it where " (it is) shouldst 

do""tka'.' Ne"tho' di" de"ie.saga"hii'k. 'A"gwi' thonda'sado""tka'. 

flinch from There, more- he his two eyes will Do not thou shouldst flinch ^ 

it.' over, have on thee. do it from it. 

Gank/' e"gri'ik o'ne"' de^tcada'diEV e'si^'hen": * O'ne"' hi'ia 

So soon it will be now thoxi wilt speak thou wilt 'Now, verily 

as cooked say: 

wa'giVik, wagadjis'gwaik.' De"thatge'"'ha', o'ne"' df e"'haniV- 

it is cooked, it mush is cooked.' Thence he will now more- he will H 

iip-ri.MC, over remove 

djiodfi'gwil', si" hagwii'di' c"'ha'ie"'. Tho"ge' o'ne"' e'"he'"- 

the set kettle, yonder side of it he it will set .\t that now he it will 1-^ 

far do\vn. (time) 

hen": " Sadien" ne"" hagwa'di'." Tho"ge' o'ne"' e""he"'hen": 

say: "Do thou sit here side of it." At that now he it will sav: io 

(time) 

' Agetchene""sho"', dji"ha', ga'e' dofide'sne'.' Agwa's degni- 

' My slaves .several, dogs, hither do ye two Very they (z.) 14 

come.' two 



10 



154 



IRliQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



(ETU. ANN. 21 



very largo. As soon as they two arrive he will say: 'Do ye two lick 
her body where the mush has fallen on it.' And their tonjjues are 
like rough bark. They will lick thee, going over thy whole body, 
all along thy body. Blood will drop from the places where they will 
lick. Do not allow thy l)ody to Hinch therefrom. As soon as they 
two finish this task he will say: 'Now, do thou again put on thy 
raiment.' Now. moreover, thou must again dn>ss th3'self completelv. 
At that time he will tak(> the basket and set it down, saj'lng, moi-e- 
over: ' Now, thou and I marry.' So now, so far as they are concerned, 
the dogs, his slaves, they two will eat." That is what the dead man- 
being told her. 

It became night. Now. at that time, they verily laid their bodies 
down, and they slept. It became day, and the sun was present yon- 
der when tiie maiden departed. She bore on her back by the forehead 
strap her basket of bread. Now, verilj', she traveled with a rapid 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



are large. 

na'ie' ne' 

that the 

(it isi 

gaeiTwa' 

it rough 
l>arl( (file) 

sia'da'2'e"s 



So soon 



they two 
will arrive 



e"'he°'hen": 

he it will sav: 



' Etchikii'nent 

'Do ye t\v(i lick 
lier 



ia^odjisgwri*hr'so"\'' 

it mush has fallen on her 
ill ['laei's,' 

ni'io't. E"saka'nent 

so it is. 



Na'ie' 

That 

(it is) 

e"s'ni"sii' 



ne 

the 



the 
where 



ho"' 

thy body on along. 



Thev thee will 
" lick 

De"tgatkwe"'sa'hi"nhri 

Thence it blood will drop 



they (z.] it two 
will tlni.sh 



ne 

the 



( their) tongues 

sia'dagwe'gi', 

thy body entire, 



tea" non'we' e"gnika'nfMlt. 



'A"gwr 

Tli> it not, 



di" de"tcadadia'do""tka' 



more- 
over, 



e"'he"'hen": 

he it will say: 

gagwe'gi'. 

it all. 

e'"ha'ie"\ 

he it will set, 



thou wilt flinch from it 
with thy body. 

' O'ne"' sasadiiVdawi^'da^' 



the 
where 

Ganio'' 

So soon 



the 
place 



they (z.) two 
will lick (it). 



' Now 

Tho"ge' 

At that 
(time) 

e"'he"'hen"' 

he it will sav 



again (\o thou drcs.s 
thvself.' 



e"gni''siV o'ne"' 

they (z.) two now 

as will finish it 

O'ne"' df e"tca'.sei"sa' 

thou thyself wilt 
re-dress 



di": 

more- 
over: 



over, 

de"'ha'a'sa"gwa' 

he it basket will yc 

take up 

O'ne"' wtVonginia'khe' 

'Now llinu I marry." 



SI" 

mder 
far 



hiigwa'di' 

side of it 

Da', o'ne"' 

So. now 



ne 



na 



the that one 
that 



ne 

the 



dji'"h!i' ne'' 

dogs the 



hotchene""sho" 

his slaves several 



de"giadekhon'nia\" 

they (z.) two will eat." 



Na" wa'he"'heir' ne'' hawe"'he'io"'. 

That he it said the he is dead. 

(it is) 

WaVgak. Tho"ge' o'ne"' hi'm' wiVhondiuVdiige'^heiV 

now verilv 



It became 

night, 

wrriioiiniVgak. 

they (m.) went to 
sleep. 

go'den'dion' ne" 

she departe<l the 



At that now 

(time) 

Wa'o'he"''nhri' 



o ne 

now 



It became day 

eksa'go'na' 

she maiden. 



ne 

the 



o'ha"gwa'. 

it bread. 



O'ne^ 

Now, 



hi'iii" 

verilv. 



they their bodies laid 
down. 

tgaa"gwtV tho^'ge'' o'ne"' 

there it orb at that now 

of light rested ( time ) 

WiVontge^'dat hi'la' ne" go'iV'sa' 

She bore it by the verily, the her basket 
ftirehead-strap, 

ontha'hi'ne' eianoii'die'. Hiia'' 



SI 



yon- 
der 



she traveled 
onward 



her gait was 
rapid. 



Not . 
(it is) 



HEWITT] ONONDAGA VERSION 155 

gait. It was not lony ))of()ro .she was surprised to find a river. There 
l)eside tlie river slie stood, thinking, verii_y, " I have lost 1113' way." At 
that time she started back. Not lonjf afterward those who abode in the 
home kidge were sui-prised tliat the maiden returned. She said: " I be- 
lieve 1 have lost my way." Now slic hiid her basket on the mat, and, 
moreover, she again ran thither and again climbed up to the place 
where lay the liurial-case. So soon as she reached it she said: "Oh, 
father! I believe that 1 lost my way." He said: "What is the 
character of the land where thou believest that thou lost thy way?" 
"Where peopk^ hiil>itually ci-oss the river, thence 1 returned," said the 
maiden. Sh<' told liim everything. She said: "A maple log floats at 
the place where they habitually cross the river." He said: ''Thou hast 
not lost thy way." She replied: "' I think the distance to the place 
where the river is seems too short, and that is the reason that 1 think 

de'aonni'she'i' o'ne"' wiVoiidieiT'ha' gwa" ne"tho' ge""hio"'hw:l- 

it lasted now she was surprised seem- there Mt river hart its 

(long) ingly course 

da'die'. O'ne"' iie"tho' g-e"'hio"'hwilk'da waMieda"nhii" ne" 

along Now there it river beside she stopped the 

(there). 

wa'en'a' o'ne"' hi'ia' wa'gadia'da"do"\ Tho"ge' o'ne"' saio"k'da. 

she did now. veril>', I my way I my jior- At that now she ttirned 

believe son) have lost. (time) hurk. 

Hiia" de"aonnis'he''i" o'ne"' ne"' tea" tgano'"sa'ie"' thenni"'defr , 

Not it lasted (long) now the the there it lodge there they (m.) 

(it is) " where lies abide 

wa'hondieiT'hsi'' gwiV saie'io"" ne" eksa'go'nsi'. Wa'a'hefi" 



they (m.) were seem- again she the slie She it said : 

surprised ingly returned maiden (i-s). 



3 



5 



''Ge''he^ wtVgadia'da"do"\" One"' o-anakdiV'ge' wa'ont-a'sa'ieiV, ^ 



'I it think I lost mv wav (niv person)." Now it mat on she her basket 

laid. 

ne^'tho' di'' tciedak'he\ .saiea^the"' tea' nofi'we' tga'ho'''sa''ha', ^ 

there more- again she ran, again she the the place there it case 

over climbed up where up-lios. 

Ganio'' ne"tlio' hwae'io"' o'ne"' waM'hen": ''G'ni'ha'', p'e^he' o 

So soon there there she now she it said : "My father, I it think 

as - arrived 

wa^gadiada^'do"'/' Wa'he^'heir'; ^'Ho't niio^^hwendjio^de"' tea" ^ 

I lost my way He it said : "What so it earth i.s kind of the 

(my person)." (it is) where 

non^we' tea" 8e"he\ Wu'o-adia da^'do"' ^ " '' Didieia^hiak'tha tea" 

the place the tlion it I lost my way " There where they use the 

where thinkest, (my per.-^on}?" it to cross river where 



10 



11 



tge"'hio"'hw:ida'die" ne"tho' dondagiik'da'," wiVii'heii" ne" elcsa'- 

tltere it river has its there thenee I turned she it said, the she 

course back again." 

go'na'. fxagwe'gi' waoiitho'ia. Wa'a'hefi": "0'h\va"da' ne" -.,-, 

maiden It all (is) she it told. She it said : "It maple the 

(is). 

gaen'do' tea" non'we" deieia'hiak'tha ." Wa'he"'hefi": "Hiia" ^o 

it log the the place one it uses to cross He it said : "Not 

floats where river." litis) 

de'saia'da"do"'." Wa'a'hefi": "Ge"he' swadji'k dosge""hiV nige"" ^^ 

thou hast lost thy She it said : " I it think too much near (it is) .m> it is 

way (thy person)." far 



156 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



tliat I lost my way." At that time he said: '• The place that I had indi- 
cated is far. But thy person is so endowed with magic potence, thou 
hast immanent in thee so much orenda that it causes thy pace to be 
swift. Verily, so soon as thou arrivest at the river, thou shalt cross 
it and also shalt ])ass on.'' At that time the maiden said: ""Oh, my 
father, now I depart." " So be it. Moreover, do thou take courage," 
said the dead man-being in I'eply. Now she again descended and 
again went into the lodge. 

There then she placed her basket of bread on her back by means of 
the forehead strap. It was eai-Iy in the morning when she departed. 
She had been ti'aveling some time when she was surprised to hear a 
man-being speak to her, saying: " Do thou stand, verily." She did 
not stop. Aurora Borealis it was who was talking. She had passed 



niio'we' tea"' tge""hio""hwada'die', na'ie" gai'hoiinia' 

so it is the there it river has its that it it eaiises 

distant wliere course, (it is) 

ge"he' wa'gadia'da"do"'.'' Tho"ge' wa'he"'hen" 

litthinlc I lost my WK.v At that he it said: 
(my person)." (time) 

nofi'we' hewagna"do"'. Ne"tho' gwa" tea" 

the place there I it There 



lltl 



tl'a" 

the 
ivhere 

tea" 



the 
where 

'• I'no" 

■■Far the 

(it is) where 

nisaia'dat'go"', 



so thy body (is) 
magically potent 



there I it There seem- tlie 

indicated. ingly where 

disaetinofi'de', na'ie' grii'honnia'"ha" ne" siano'we'. Ganio" hi'ia' 

so thon art magical that it it causes the thy gall is So soon verily 

(hast (irenda), (it is) rafiid. as 

_ he""sio"' tea' non'we' tge"'hio'"hwada'die' de"sia''hia'k e"sa- 

there thou the the place there it river has it course thou wilt cross thou 

arrivest where river 

dongo"da' o"ni'."' Tho"ge' ne" eksa'go'na' wa'a'heii": "G'ni'ha", 

wilt pass on also." At that the she she it said : ■'My father, 

(time) maiden 

„ o'ne"' wa'ga'den'dia'." "Nio". Djia'ke"' di"," ni'ha'weii' ne" 



1 


now I depart." 


"So be it. Do thou more- 
take courage, over," 


so he said the 
in reply 


8 


hawe'-he'io"" 





ne"' doiidaio"'kwe'ne""da', 


gano°.sgon'wa' 


he is dead. 


N 


ow thence she descended, 


it lodge in 


9 


nho"sa'ie"'. 








thither again 
she went. 










O'ne"' ne"tho' 


go'a"sii' ne"' o'ha"gwa" 


Wii'ontge"dat. 


10 


Now 


there 


her the it bread she bore it by the fore- 
basket head-strap on"her back. 




He°'ge"djlk 


o'ne"' 


go'defi'dion". Gaiii'gwa' nwa'onnis'he' ofitha'- 


11 


Early in the 
morning 


now 


she departed. Some so (long) 
(time) 


it lasted she is 




hi'ne' o'ne' 


' wa'ondien'"hii' gwa" on'gwe' gothoii'de' tea" 


12 


travel- now 
ing 




she was seemingly man- sh 
surprised being 


e it heard the 
where 




da'hada'dia', 


i'ha'do"k: "Desda"nh;V hi'iti'." Hiia" 


da'deiagoda"!'. 


13 


thence he spoke. 


he kept '"Do thou stand verily." Not 
saying: (It is) 


sIk' did stop. 




Hodonni''a', 


na'ie' 


thot'ha'. Gaifi'gwa" niio'we' 


godongo"di' 


14 


He Aurora 
Borealis 


that 
(it is) 


thence he is Somewhat so it Is 
talking. distant 


she passed on 



HKw.TT] ONONDAGA VERSION 157 

on somo di.stance when she heard another man-being talking to her, 
.saying: "• I am thankful that thou hast now again returned home, my 
child. I am hungry, desiring to eat food." She did not stop. It 
was Fire Dragon of the Storm who was speaking to her. Sometime 
after she was again at the place where people customarily crossed the 
I'ivcr. Now. at that place, he, the chief himself, stood, desiring to try 
her mind, .saj'ing: •' Verily, thou shouldst stop here; verily, thou 
shouldst rest thyself." She did not stop. She onl}' kept right ou, 
and, moreover, she at once crossed the river there. 

She traveled on for some time, and when the sun was at yonder 
height she was surprised that there was spread out there a large 
field. At that time, verily, she stopped beside the field. Now she 
looked, and there in tiie distance she saw a lodge — the lodge of the 

o'ne"' he"' o'ia' gothon'de'' ofi'gwe" tho'thiV, i'ha'do"k: 

uow a^ain it is she it lieard man- thence he is lie kept 

other one being talking saying: 

"Niiawe"'"hii' o'ne"' sa"sio"\ gon'ha'wa". Aksi's, ge"he' 

"I am thankful now again thou I am thy lam I itdesire 

(so let it come) hast returned, parent.' hungry, 

agadekhofi'nia"." Hiia" da'deiagoda 'i'. Hadawine'tha" ne" na" 

I should eat." Not (it is) she did stop. He Fire-Dragon the that 

of Storm that one 

tho'thfi". (iaiiTwa" nwa'oiTni'she'' o'ne"' ne/'tho' doiisaieda''nha' 

thence he is Somewhat so long it lasted now there there again she 

talking. stood 

tea'' non'we' deieia'hia'ktha . O'ne"' ne"tho' ne" ha'o"'hwir 



the the place one it uses to Now there the heliiniself 

where ford stream. 



3 

•i 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 
GaiiTgWiV nwa'ofinis'he* ontha'hi'ne' o'ne"' df si" gwa" 

Somewhat so long it lasted she travels on now more- yon- seem- 11 

itver der ingly 

hegail'gwiV'hii' o'ne"' wa"ondien"h;V gwa"' ne"'tho' gwa"' 

there it orb of light now she was surprised seem- there seem- 12 

(sun) rests ingly ingly 

ga'hr'ndiide"''diT" ga'hendowa'ne"'. Tho"ge' o'ne"' hi'isV ga'- 

it plain is spread out it plain large (is). At that now verily it 13 

(time) 

hendak'da" ne"'tho' wa'diedtV'nha'. O'ne"' ne"'tho' wa'ontgat' 

plain beside there she stood, Now there she looked 

hwa" si'' tgano"'sa'ie"" tea"' hono"'sa'ie"" ne" ha'sefinowa'ne"'. 

yon- there it lodge the his lodge lies the he chief (is). X5 

der lies where 



ne" ha'sefinowa'ne"' ne"tho' he'ha'da", he"he' da'shago"ni- 

the he chief (is) there there he he he trouble should 

stands, desires give 

go"'ha'en' ne"' ek.sa"go'na', i'ha'do"k: "Tho'ne"' hi'ia' da.sda"nha"; 

to her mind the she maiden he kept " Here (it is) verily, thou shouldst 

(is). saying: stand; 

a'sadonwi'shen' hi'ia'."' Hiia" da'deiagoda"!'. Nii'ie" gen'gwa' 

thou tliyself shouldst verily." Not she did stop. That only 

rest (it is) (it is) 

go'dendion'ha'die", iogonda'die" dl"' wa"dieia"hia'k tea" ne"tho' 

there 



she wialked right on, 

ge°'hio"'hweda'die\ 


without 
stopping 


more- 
over 


she river crossed 


the 
where 


there it river has its 
course. 






■• 





1-1 



158 



IKOC^rotAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN, 'Jl 



chief. Verily, she went thitlicr. When she arrived there, she looked, 
and saw ihat it was true that beside the lodge stood the tree Tooth, 
whose flowers were the source of the light of the earth there present, 
and also of the man-beings dwelling there. Verily, she then entered 
the lodge. Then she looked, and saw that in the middle of the lodge a 
mat was spread, and that thereon, moreover, lay the chief. Now, at 
that time, she removed her pack-strap burden, and then she also set the 
basket Vjefore him, and then, moreover, she said: "Thou and 1 marry," 
and then, moreover, she handed the l)asket to him. He said nothing. 
When it became night, he spread a mat for her at the foot of his mat, 
and then, moreover, he said: "Verily, here thou wilt stay overnight." 
Moreover, it thus came to pass. Now, verily, they laid their bodies 
down and the}' slept. 



Ne''tho' h'l'in heiagawe'noiT. Ne" 

There verilv thither she went. The 



9 

10 

11 
12 
13 
14 



ne"tho' 

there 



hwa"e'io" 

there she 
urrived 



o'ne"' wa'ontgat'hwil' ne''tho' do'ge"s ga"he' tea" gano"'sak'da' 

she looked there it is true it tree the it lodge beside 



it tree 
stands 



the 
where 



ne" Ono"djii" nwa'gaendo"de"", na'ie' ne" tea" deiawe"'ha'ha'gi' 

the It Tooth sueh it tree kind of is, that the the it fiill-blnwn flowers has 

i^it isj where 

na'ie" deio"hathe"da''gwr tea" ne"tho" diio"'hwendiia'de", iie"tho' 

that it uses it to cause it to be the there there it earth is present, there 

(it is) light where 

o" ne" ne"tho' ena'gee' ne'' 

the there they (indef,) the 



gwii" 



seem- too 



tlK^' (indef.) 
MwHI 



on crwe 

man- 
being. 

ne^'tho' 

tliere 



O'ne' 

Now 



hi'ia' 

VI Til y 



wa'ofitga'thwa' 

she it saw 



iie''tho 

tliere 



di"' henda'ga' 

nore- he lay 

over 

wiVoiitge 'da ''suV, o'ne"' 



hwa'e'io"' ne'' i>-ano"'.sg()fi'wa'. O'ne"" 

there she the it lodge in Now 

entered 

tea" degano""she"' ne^tho' g-anak'do"' 

the it lodge center of there it mat (bed) 

wliere is spread 

ne'' ba'sennowa'ne'". Tho"ge" o'ne"" 

the he chief (is). At that now 

(he great-named). (time) 

o''nr wa honwaa'saien'iias, o'ne"' df waa'hen": ''Wa'onginiak'- 

also ' she him set basket for, now more- she it said: "We two marry," 

over 

he\" o'ne"" df wa'hofnvaYi'.set'ha.s. Hiia"' ste""' de'ha'wefi". Ne" 

he him handed basket. Not any- he it said. The 

(it is) thing 

wrfshaiiO*.so''has tea'' non'we" ha'de^'ha''- 



more- 
over 



she removed her fore- 
head-band 



o'ne"' wrro''gak o'ne' 

now it became now 

nignt 

srdage'"heiT, o'ne"' 

feet lie, now 



he for her a mat spread the 
where 



the place just his 

(where) 



di" 



more- 
over 



wa'he"'hen": 

he it said: 



e"sefino"'iiwet. 



Ne"tho- 

Thus 



di" 



more- 
over, 



thou wilt stay over 
night." 

wa'hoiidia'dage' 'hen', wa hofina 'gak 

they their bodies laid down they went to sleep, 

(to sleep) , 



nwa'awe'^'ha'. 

so it came to pass. 



'Tho'ne"' 

' Here (it is) 

O'ne"- 

Xow 



hi'ia' 

verily 

hi'ia' 

verily 



HEWITT] ONONDAGA VERSION 159 

\\'hc'ii day oauie to tliciu. the chief then said: "Do tliou arise. Do 
thou worli, moreover. It is customary for one to work who is living 
in the family of her spouse. Thou must .soak corn. Thou must set a 
pot on the tire. And when it boils, then thou must put the corn 
therein. Moreover, when it boils, then thou must again I'emove the 
pot, and thou uuist wash the corn. As soon as thou finishest the 
task thou must then, moreover, pound it so that it will ))ecome meal. 
Now, moreover, thou must make mush. And during the time that it 
is boiling thou must continue to stir it; thou must do so without inter- 
ruption after thou hast begun it. Moreovei', do not allow thy 
bod>' to shriidc back when the nuish spatters. That, moreover, 
will come to pass. Thou must undress thyself wlien thou workest. 
I, as to the rest, will say: ' Now it is cooked." '" 

At that time he hiid down there a string of corn ears, and the corn 
was white. So now, verily, she began her work. She undressed her- 



Ne" o'nt 


\Vii"liodi'lic""nl 


i:V o'lu'"" wahe"'herr' . ne" ha'- 


The now 


it them became day 


for now he it said the he- 


seiinowa'ne"' 


: •■Satge""ha-. 


SaioVle'"ii;V df. 


Goio"de' ge"'s 


ehiel (is): 

ne" tea" 


" Do thou arise. 

e-hne"-hwa.s'he"". 


Do thou labor more- 
^ over. 

E''sne"iianawe"'''da 


she labors custom- 
_ arily 

E"sna"dja"hf>n' 


the the 
where 


.'^he family of lit- r .spouse 
abides with. 


Thou wilt soak corn. 


Thou wilt set a 
kettle 


od]'isda"ge'. 


Ne" o'ne"- 


e"diowiiiVhe""hjV 


o'ne"' ne"tho- 


it (ire on. 


The now 


it will u[t-boil 


then there 


he"sne""'hok. 


Ne"' o'ne"- di" 


e"dio\viia4ie""hiV o'ne"* e"tena'dja- 


there tliou corn 
wilt immerse. 


The now mort 
over 


It will up-boil 


now thou wilt again 


'hii'gwa", (-'' 


.sne"iio'ha'e\ Ganio" e"seiefineridiV'nha o'ne"* dV 


remove the 
l;ettle, 


hou corn wilt .So .'^ 
wa.sh. a 


ion thou task wilt tini 


'h now more- 
over 


e"sethe"da". 


othe"'tcha" e"wa 


do"". O'ne"- hi'ia 


c"sdjLsgon'ni:v. 


thou it wilt 
ponnd, 


it meal it will be- Now verily 
come. 


thou nilish wilt 
make. 


Na'ie' ne" 


tea'' niga'ha'wi' 


ne" e"diowiia-he 


"-'.sek diiot'gont 


That the 
(it is) . 


the there it bears 
where it (time) 


the It will be up-boiliug without stop- 
ping 


de"sawen'iek 

thou wilt lieep 


heiot^*orida"gwi 

henee it will be with- 


ne" na'ie' ne" 

the that the 


o'ne"' de"tca'- 

now there thou 


stirring it. 


out interruption 


(it is) 


it 



sa'we"\ W^'o-wi' df donda'sado""tk;i' ne" o'ne"' e^wasdjisowa- 

wilt begin Do it not more- thence thou shouldst the now itmu.shwill 

over flinch ^ 

don'owa'. Na'ie' di" tea" ne"iawe""htV. E"sa'sennia"sia' tea" 

spatter. That more- the so it will come to Thou thyself wilt the 

(iti.s) over where pass. undress where 

o'ne"- e"saio"de'"-ha. 1" ne" na"' e"gi'hen", 'O'ne"' waga'ik.""' 

time thou wilt work. I the mat 1 it will say, 'Now it is cooked.' " 

that one 

Tho''ge' o'ne"' ne"tho- wa'ha'ste""sa'ien' ne" one""ha" na'ie' 

At that now there lie laid corn-string the it corn that 1'^ 

(time) (it is) 

ne"' gane"'hagen'iLdri'. Da', o'ne"' hi'iii' wa'o"-sa'\ve"". WtVofidia"- 

the it corn white (is). So now verily she it began. blic undressed ^'^^ 

bcrsell. 



8 
9 

10 

11 

12 



160 



IROQTTOIAN COSMOLOGY 



|CTH. ANN. 21 



self, aud now, verily, she was uaked. She soaked the corn, and she 
also washed the corn, and also pounded it, and she also made meal of 
it, and, now, moreover, in the pot she had set on the fii'e slie made 
mush. She stirred it without interruption. But, nevertheless, it was 
so that she was .suffering, for, verily, now there was nothing anywhere 
on her body. And now, moreover, it was evident that it was hot, as 
the mush spattered repeatedly. Some time after she was surprised 
that the chief said: " Now, verily, the nmsh which thou art making is 
cooked.'' At that time ho arose to a standing position, and also 
removed the pot, and also set it on yonder side. At that time he 
said: " Do thou sit here." Now he went forward, and, taking up the 
basket, he took the bread therefrom, out of her basket. At that time 



(lawi'da"sia', o'ne"" hi'ia" go'nesda'go"'. 

now verilv she is full v naked. 



Wa"ene"'hanawe""dir, 

She the corn soaked. 



wiVene"'ho'ha'e' o"ni". 

she the corn washed also 



wa"ethe"diV o"nr, 

she it pounded also 



W!fethe'tchi"sa" o"nr, 

she meal finished also 



3 

4 
5 
6 

7 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
li 



o'ne"" 

now 

ni"di 



di"' tea"' gona'dja"ha' tea" odjisda"ge' deiodeno"'hia- 

she had set kettle the it tire on it is terrifying 

up where 

diiowiia"he"s, o'ne"' hi'la" ne''tho' wa'edjisgoii'nia'. 

it is up-boiling, now verily there she mush made. 



more- the 
over where 



Heiotgonda"gwi' deiagowefi'ie'. Ne"'tho" ne"' na'ie' ni'io't tea" 

Hence it is without she it stirred. There the that so it is 

interruption (it is) 

goe"'hia'ge"', o'ne"' hi'ia' hiia" gat'ka" da'detga'de' 

she is suffering, now verily not anywhere it it is shielding 

(it isj 

eia'di"ge'. O'ne"' di"' ue"'tho" ni'io't otge""'!" o'dai"he" 

her body on. Now more- thus so it is it is plain it is hot 



the 
where 

ne" 

the 

tea" 

the 
where 



wasdji.sgwadon'gwas. GaiiTgWiV nwa"onnis'he" o'ne"' wa'ondien"ha' 

it mush is spattering. Some (time) so it lasted now she was surprised 



gwa 

seem- 
ingly 



o'ne"' ne" ha'seiinowa'ne"* wa'he"'hen": 

now the he chief is he it said: 



"O'ne"' hi'iiV 

" Xow verily 



wtVoradji.s'gwaik tea" sadjisgon'ni'." Tho"oe' o'ne" 

it mush is Cooked the thou mush art At that now 

where making." (time) 

diVuhiV, wrrhanffdjiVhJi'g'WiV o"nr, si'' hfigwa'dr 

arose, lie kettle removed also, 



o"ni'. Tho"ge' 

al.so. At that 

(time) 

wa'ha'den'dia\ 

he departed, 



one" 

now 



wa'he"'hen": 

he it said: 



yon- 
der 

'Tho'ne" 

Here 



side of it 



doilda'ha- 

thence he 

wrrhii'ie"' 

he it set 



sadien"." O'ne"' 

Xow 



go'a'sagon'wa 



n'w" ' 

her basket in 



wii" thii'ti 'sii ' 'gwa" , 

he basket took up 

wada"gwa". Tho"ge' 



do thou seat 
thyself." 

waha'hii'gwada"gw;i' ne' 

he bread took out of it the 



it had been 
contained. 



.\t that 
(time) 



o ne 
now 



he it has 
said: 



"O'ne"' 

'• Now 



HEWITT] ONONDAGA VEKSION 161 

he said: ''Now, thou and I marry. Verily, so it seems, thou wert 
able to do it. Hitherto, no one from anywhere has been able to do it." 
Now, at tiiat time he shouted, saying: "My slaves, ye two dogs, do 
ye two come hither. It is necessary for me that ye two should lick 
this person abiding here clean of the mush that has fallen on her." 
Verily, she now looked and saw come forth two dogs, pure white in 
color and terrifying in size. So now, they two arrived at the place 
where she was. Now, verily, they two licked her entire body. 
The tongues of these two were like rough bark. So now, moreover, 
in whatsoever places thej' two licked over and along her })ody blood 
exuded therefrom. And the maiden did fortify her mind against it, 
and ,so she did not flinch from it. As soon as they two completed the 
task, then he himself took up sunflower oil, and with that, moreover, 

wa'oiiginia'khe'. Wa'sgwe'nia hi'ia' nige'-khe"". Hiia" gat'ka' 

tho\i and I marry. Thou wast able to verily forsooth is it. Not any- 

do it (it is) where 

de'agogwe'nion' tea'' nwa'oiinis'he'." 

one has been able to the so lon^ it has lasted." 

do it where 

Tho^'g-e' o'ne"' wjrtho'hene"da' wa'he"'hen": "A^etche- 

At that time now lie called aloud he it said: " My several 



ne"''sho"' dji"ha% ga'e' donde'sne'. Dewagado^'hwendjio'iiiks 

slaves, dogs, hither thence do ye It is necessary to me "x 

two come. 

aetchika'nent tho'ne"' e"deiT godji.sgwa'hr'so"'/' O'ne"' hi'ia' 

ye two her should here she it mush on her has fallen Now verily 5 

lick abides itoratively." 

wa^ontgat'hwiV dagniiage"''nha' owii'he'sdo'go"' th:Vtgnii{Vdo"de"' 

she it saw thence they (z.) two it white pure (is) such their (z.) two bod- 6 

came fortli ies are in kind 

dji'^ha' deiodeno"'hiani'''di' degnigowa'ne"'. Da', o'ne"' 

dogs it is terrifying they (z.) two (are) large. So now 7 

ne"tho' wa'tgni'io"' tea" noii'we' e^'defi'. O'ne"' hi'iiV 

there they two arrived the the place she abides. Now verily 8 

where 

wa'tgnika'nent gagwe'gi' eia'di'ge"sho"'. Na'ie' ne" gnrna'si"ge', 

they (z.) ittwo licked it all her body on along. That the their (z.) two ^ 

(it is) tongues on 

ne'^tho^ ni'io't tea" ga'en'wiV. Da', o'ne"* df dagatkwe"'so- 

there so it is the it rough bark So now more- thence it blood 10 

where (is). over oozed out 

doii'nion' tea" nofi'we' wa'tgnika'neiit eia'di'ge^'sho"\ Na'ie* 

plurally the the place they (z.) two licked her body on along. That 

where * (it is) 

ne" eksaVo'na^ £^odat'nis:o"'ha'ni"di', hiia" daMaiondo''"tka\ 

the she maiden (is) she has fortified her mind, not thence she should J--^ 

, (it is) flinch. 

Ganio" watgni"siV o'lie"" ne" ha'o"'hwa wtVtha^gwiV ne\ 

So soon as they (z.) two it now the he himself he it took up the 1'^ 

finished 

oaVe""sa' o"hniV na'ie' di" ne" wa'has'da' wa'shago'hno"ga'k. 

it sunflower it oil that more- the he it used he her skin smeared. 14: 

litis) over 

21 ETH— 03 11 



11 



162 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



(ETH. ANN. 21 



lie anointed her bod_y. A.s soon a.s he had tini.shed thi« task he said: 
"Now, verilj', do thou ag^ain dress th3'self." Now she redressed her- 
self entirely, and she was aj'^ain clothed with raiment. 

When it became night, he spread a mat for her at the foot of his 
mat. There the3^ two passed two more nights. And the third day that 
eame to them the ehief said to her: "Now thou must again depart. 
Thou must go again to the place whence thou didst start." Then he 
took up the basket of the maiden and went then to the place where 
he kept meat of all kinds hanging in ((uarters. Now, verily, he took 
up the dried meat of the spotted fawn and put it into her l)asket. 
All the various kinds of meat he placed therein. As soon as the 
basket was full, he shook the 1)asket to cause its contents to settle 
down. When ho did shake it, there was seemingly just a little room left 
in it. Seven times, it is said, he shook the basket before he completely 



Ganio" wa'haiennenda"nha' wa'he"'hen": "O'lie"' 

So soon as lie task completed he it said; "Now 



2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 

12 
13 
11 



verily 



sasadia'dawi"'da'." O'ne"' .saio''.sen'nia' gagwe'gi', saio"'sei"sa'. 

Now again she herself it all again she herself 



again do thou thyself 
dress." 

Ne" o'ne"' 

The time 

wa"shago's()''has. 

he for her a mat spread. 



three 



ne 

the 

tea" 

the 
wiierc 

go"a''sa' 

her basket 



it became 

ha'seflnowa'ne" 

he chief is:' 



dressed rearranged. 

W!Vo"gak tea" de'ha'si'dage'"hen" ne"tho' 

there 

Na'ie' ne" 

That the 

(it is) - 

wtrhe"'hen" 

he it said 



it became 
dark 

Ne"tho' 

There 



tea" 



the 
where 



the 

where 

de'gni* 

two 

(it is) 

wa"hodi'he"",nha' 

It dav became for them 



two his feet lie 

Wii'dienno''"hwe't. 

they two stayed over 
night. 

o'ne"' 

now 



"O'ne"- p"tca'den'dia". 

" Now 



Ne"tho- he"tche" 

There 



non we 

the place 



ne 

the 



again thou wilt There there again 

depart. thou wilt go 

nidisa'den'dion'." O'ne"' wa'tha'a'sa"gwa' ne" 

there whence thou hast Now he (the) basket took up the 

departed." 

nhwu'he" tea" non'we' 

the place 



eksa'go'na' ne"tho' 

she (is) maiden there 



thither he 
went 



the 
where 



ni'ha'wa'haiefidak'hwa' 

there he uses it to keep meat. 

gaVa'hiiniion'do"'. 

it meat hangs plurally. 



na le 

that 

(it is) 

O'ne"' hi'ia 

Now verilv 



ne 

the 



h:Vdiio"'\va''huofe'' ne'"tho' 

every it meat is in there 

- number (in kind) 

ne"tho' wa'tha^'gwjV ne" 

there he it took iiji the 



tci.sdiVthiefi"ha'' 

spotted fawn 



oVa'hathe"'', 

it meat dry (is), 



o in 

also 



her basket in 



wiVhon'dak. Gagwe'gi" hiVdiio'wiVhage" ne^tho^ Ava'hon'dak. 

he it placed. It all every it meat is in there he it placed in. 

number (in kind) 

Ganio" wa'giVa''seik o'ne"' wtVhowak'djV ne" gjVa"sa\ Tea" 

So soon as it basket was now he it shook the it basket. The 

tilled where 



niga^haVr wahowa'kdiV ne"'' gwiV 

there it bears he it shook this. seem- 

it (time) here ingly 



luVdetga'a'. 

just there it is 
contained. 



Teia'dak, 

Seven (it is), 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



163 



filled it. At that time ho said: "'Now thou must ajfaiii depart. Do 
not, moreover, stand anywhere in the course of thy path homeward. 
And, moreover, when thou dost arrive there, thou must tell the people 
dwelling; there that they, one and all, nuist r(Muove the roofs from 
their several lodges. B3' and by it will become night and 1 will send 
that which is called corn. In so far as that thing is concerned, that is 
what nian-l)eings will next in time live upon. This kind of thing 
will continue to be in existence for all time." At that time he took 
up the basket and also said: "Now, verily, thou shouldst bear it on 
thy back by means of the forehead strap." Now, at that time she 
departed. 

Now again, as she traveled, she heard a man-being talking, .saying: 
"Come, do thou stand." She did not stand. It was Aurora Boreali.s 
who was talking to her. She traveled on for some time, when she again 



ia'ke"', 

it is said. 



nwa'howtik'da*' 

so many he it shook 



wiVhe^'heii": 

he it said: 



O'ne"' 

" Now 



o'ne"* ha^'sa' wiVha'a"seik. Tho^'ge' 

now not before he basket filled. At that 

(time) 

'A^'gwi' di" do".sdiVnhiV 

tlion wilt .'^tand 



">"tea'den'diri\ 

again thou wilt 
depart. 



more- 
over 



tea" 

the 
where 

tea"' 

Ihe 
where 



gagwe'gi' 

itall 



nuo we 

there it is 
distant 

ne''tho' 

there 



heiotha'hi'non'. Na'ie" df 



thither it patli has 
course. 

thadina'gee' ne" 

there thev (m.i tlie 
rtwell 

e"iega'tci6ngWii"ho"" 

they will undo them 
severally 



That 

(it is) 

o'ne" 

now 



more- 
over 



ne 

the 



ne"tho' 

there 



e"sheiatho'ie"' 

thou them wilt tell 

he""sio"\ tea" 



there tlioii 
wilt arrive. 



e"'honsgwa''hen'gwa'ho"'' tea' 



they (m.) will remove the bark 
roofs severallv 



ne gano sa ge 

the it lodge on 

hodino"'sruen'do"' 

the they (m.) have lodges 

where severallv. 



the 
where 



ne ■ 

the 



na le 

that 
(it is) 

Ge"*dji'k 

By and by 



e''io"gak 

it will be- 
come night 

na^ ne" 

that the 

one that 



e"gaderHiie"'d:l 

1 it will send 



ne 

the 



one""ha' gaia'dji". 

it is ealled. 



N; 



a le 



it corn 



o""ke"" 

ue-\t iu 
time 



e"gaien'dak ne" 

it will remain the 

wa tha'a'sa^'gwiV wa'he"'hen" o''nr: 

he (the) basket took up he it said also: 

O'ne"' tho"ge' go'den'dion^ 

Now at that she departed, 

(time) 

O'ne"' he" tea" ontha'hi'ne' 

again 



ne 

That the 

(it is) that 

(^"iagon^he^'gwik ne" ofi'gwe'. E''ioi'hwada'die" 

they it will use to live the man-heing. It matter will be eon- 

tintiing 

neii'ge"' nonwa"ho"de"\' 

this one kind of thing." 



Tho"ge' 

.\t that (time) 



o ne 
now 



O'ne"' 

" Now 



hi'ifV 

■ verily 



a'.satge"dat." 

thou shouldst hear it 

on thy back by the 

forehead strap." 



Now 

iiia'do"k: 

he kept 
saying: 

Hodonni":!* 

He Aurora 
Boreal is 



the 
where 



she travels 
onward 



' Hau" 

"Come, 

na'ie' 

that 
(it is) 



thot'ha". 

I hence he i.s 
speaking. 



ne"tho* gothon'de' ofi'gwe', 

there she it heard a man- 

being 

desdrr'nha'." Hiia" da'deiagodtVT. 

do thou stand." Not she did stop. 

(It IS) 

Gain'gwa' nwiVonni'she' ontha''hi'ne' 

Some (time) 



so (long) it 
lasted 



she travels 
onward 



3 
•i 
5 

6 

7 

8 
9 

10 

11 

12 
13 
U 



164 



IROyUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[eth. ank. 21 



heard a man-lKMng talking, saying: '"Verily, do tliou .stand. Now, 
verily, thou hast returned home. I am hungry. M3- child. I desire to 
eat food." She did not stop. In so far as he is concerned, it was 
White Fire Dragon M'ho was talking to her. Now, she again arrived 
where she had crossed the river, and there again, heside the river, she 
stood. Now, moreover, she heard again a man -being saying: "Do 
thou stand. 1 desire that thou and 1 should converse together." She 
did not stop. It was the chief who was standing here seeking to 
tempt her mind. At once she ci'ossed the I'iver on the floating maple 
log. It was just midday when she again arrived at the place whence 
she departed, and she went directly into the lodge. As soon as she 
laid her burden down, .she said: "Oh, mj^ mother, now, hither 1 have 
returned.'" She, the elder one, spoke, saying: "I am thankful that 



o'ne"' he" gothoii'dc' 

now again she it heard 



14 



hi'ia. 

verilv. 



O'ne"' 

Now. 



i'ha'do"k; 

he kept 
saying: 

Ag.si's' ge'he"' 

I am hun- I it 

gry, desire 

daMeia^oda T. Ga^ha'sendie'tha owa'he^sda ni'haia'do" 



sa sio 



again thou 
hast returned 



iii'irr 

verily, 

Hiia-' 

Not 
(it is) 

de"' naie ne nu 

in that the that 

kind (it is) that one 

nofi'we' deiagoia^hiiVgi* 

theplace slie river crossed. 

ge'"hio"'hwak'diV. O'ne"" 

it river beside. Now. 



"Desda"nha' 

"Do thou stand, 

agadekhon'nia', 

I food should eat, 



goil'ha'wa'." 

I am thy parent." 



she did stand. 

na'ie' ne" 



Fire-Dragon 
(it easts nre) 

tho'thii'. O'ne"" 

thence he Now 

is talking. 

, ne^'tho' he"' 

thert- again 



it white (is) 

ne"tho' saie'io"' 

there again she 

arrived 

dofisfiieda 'nh;V 



V 



there again she 
.'itood 



thus his body 
(is) 

le'io"' tea* 

the 
where 

ne" 

the 



i'ha'do"k: 



Desda"nha' 

• Do thou stand. 



he" gothoii'de' ne" on'gwe', 

again she it heard the man-be- 

ing 

Dewagado"'hwendjiofi'niks daeditha'cfi'." 



di" 

more- 
over, 



he kept 
saying: 

Hiia*"' diVdeiagoda"!' 

Not she did stand, 

(it is) 



It me is necessnrv to 



Ha'sennowa'nr 

He chief is 



he'ha'da', 

9 theru he 
stands, 

dieia''hiji'k 

I^O river crossed 



ne o ne 

11 the now 



he"he' hi'ia 

he it verily, 
desires, 

tea" 

the 
where 

honsaie'io"' tea'' 

there again she the 



thou should con- 
verse." 

ne" mV ne"tho' 

the that there 

that one 

Gondadie'' wa'- 

At once she 



o*hwa"da 

it maple 



de"shago'nio'o"^ha'en' 

he her mind will 
give trouble to. 

gaen'do\ Agwa's gae""hia'4ie°' 

it log Just it sky center (is) 

floats. t noontide) 

nonVe^ diiago'deiTdio"', eia'da- 



arrived 



where 



the place 



thence she de- 
parted, 



her body 
went 



gonda'die' ne-' gano"8gon'wa' liofisaie'io"'. Ganio" wa'onthe'- 

12 right on the it lodge in there again she So soon she her 

reentered. as burden laid 

na'ie"' waa'heii": " Agno''ha\ o'ne"' ne" ne"^' sagio"'." Ne" 

13 down she it said: "My mother, now the this again I have The 

(is) relumed." 

gokstefi'Ti' o'ne"' daiewennitge"'''nha' wa'a'hefi-': '' NiiaTre"'*ha' 



she elder one 



thence she word spoke 



she it said: 



"I am thankful 



HEwiTTj ONONDAGA VERSION lfi5 

thou hiist arrived in peace." Then the maiden again spoke and said: 
"Yc severally must make preparations by severall}' removing the 
roofs from your lodges. There is an abundance of meat and corn 
also coming, as animals do come, when it becomes night, by and by." 
And at that time she at once went to the place where laj- the l)urial- 
case of her dead father, and now, moreover, she again climbed up 
there. As soon as she reached the place, she said: ''Oh, my father, I 
have now returned home." He said, in replying: "'How fared it? 
Was he willing to do it?" She said: " He was willing." Now, again, 
he spoke, saying: '"I am thankful that thou wast able to do it, as it 
seems. Thou art fortunate in this matter. And it seems, moreover, 
good, that thou shouldst, perhaps, at once return home, for the reason, 
verily, that the chief is immune to magic potence, that nothing can 
affect the orendaof Chief-who-has-the-standing-tree-called-Tooth, and 
whom some call He-holds-the-earth." 

tea" skeii'no"' wa'sio"'." O'ne"' tcieda'dia' ng" eksii'go'na' 

the WL'U (it is) thou hast Now again she . the she mnirlen 1 

where arrived." spoke lis) 

wa'a'heii"': " ' E"swadoge"s'da'' e"swasgwrrhen'gwa''ho"' tea'' 

she it said; " Ye it will prepare ye Vjark roof will take oiT the 

well * pliiraliy where 

swano"'saien'do"'. Odo'heii'do"" OVifhii', o'ne""ha" o"ni", o 

ye lodges have plurally. It is almndant it meat, it corn also, 

dagofi'ne' ne" o'ne"' ge"'dil'k e"io''gak." Tho"ge" o'ne"' gofida- 

thencethey the now by and by \vill it become At that now at once 

(E.)arecoming night." (time) 

die"' ne"tho' nhwa"e'" tea"' noii'we' tga''ho"'sa"ha' ne" go'ni'ha'- 

there thither she the the place there it case the her father 

went w hero up-lies 

ge"''ha", o'ne"' di" ne"'tho' honsaiea"'the''". Ganio"' hwii'e'io"' 

it was, now more- there thither again she So soon there she 

over climbed, as arrived 

o'ne"' WcUi'hen": " G'ni'ha" o'ne"' .sagio"".'" Ni'ha'wen' tea" 

now she it said: " My father, now again I have Thence he it the 

returned." said where 

da'hai'hwasa'gwa': " Hatc'gwi', wa"hokaie""ha -khe""?"" WaVi'hefi": 

he answered: " How is it, he was willing, was he?" She it said: 

" Wahokaie""ha."' O'ne"' he"' da'haweiinitge""nha' wa"he"'hefi"': 

" He was willing." Now again thence he word spoke he it .said: 

"Niiawe""ha' tea" wa'sgwe'nia' nige"khe"". We\swadaa"shwiios'- 

'* I am thankful the thou wast able itwouldseem. It prospers your (pi.) -*-'' 

where to do it does it not (forsooth). fortune. 

da'. Nii'ie" di" oia'ne" ofi" ne" goiidadie" hon.sa'sa'den'dia , 

That more- it is proba- the at once hence again thou 

(it is) over good bly shouldst depart, 

swa'djik' hi'ia" hiia" stc"" nonwa'ho"de"' de'hona'go'was ne" 

because verily, not any- kind of thing It affects him (he is the 13 

(too much) _^ ^^ (it is) thing immune to orenda) 

Hoda''he' na'ie" ne"' Ono"- 

Hehasa that the It 13 

standing tree (it is) 

o'dia'k Hao"'hwendiiawiT"'2'i" 

1 J. 

.some He-earth-holds J "* 

(is); (It is) 

honwana'do""khwa\" -.^ 

they it u.se to designate him." 



2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 

8 
9 
() 

11 



neiTge"' ne" Ha'seiinowa'ne"' 


ne" 


this one the He chief (is) 


the 


dja' nwagat^'ndo"de""; na'ie' 


ne" 


tooth such it tree kind of that 


the 



166 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETII. ANN. 21 



At that time all those who dwelt there undid their lodj^es by 
removing the roofs fi'om all severall}'. Then, \'erily, when it })ecame 
night, as soon as the darkness became settled, they heard the sounds 
made by the raining of corn, whieh fell in the lodges. Then they 
went to sleep. When it beeame day, they looked and saw that in the 
lodges corn lay piled up, quite tilling them. Now, moreover, their 
chief said: "Do ye severally repair your lodges. And, moreover, ye 
must care for it and greatly esteem it; the thing has visited our village 
which He-who-has-the-standing-tree-called-Tooth has given you to 
share with him."' 

In a short time they were surprised, seemingly, that the maiden 
was nowhere to be found. She had again departed. They knew that 
she had again gone to the place where stood the lodge of the chief 



Tho"ge' o'!ie"' iic" hadina'gee" gagwe'gi' wa'hadigii'tcia"ho"'' 

1 Atthat now ttit- they (m.)are Stall they (m. i them undid 

time dwelling plurally 

tea'' hodino"'saien'do"", wa'honsgwa'hengwiV'ho"" gagwe'gi'. 

^"2 the the\' I m. I plurally lodges they ' m. i hark roofs removed it all. 

where liave, plurally 

O'ne"' hi'iiv ne" o'ne"' wiro''gak, ganio" wadwa'sondruefida"nha' 



3 


Now 


verily the now it became .so soon 
night. as 


it night beeame settled 




o'ne" 


honnathoii'de' o'ne"' wao'ka'e'hit" 


tea" wp.'o'stain'di' 


•i 


now 


they im.) it heard now it noise made 


the it showered 
where 




ne" 


one""ha' ne" tea" gaiio"sgonwa"sho"' 


e"'se""nha\ O'ne"' 


5 


the 


it corn the the it lodge in along 
where 


it fell. Now 



wa^honniVgak. Ne" o'ne"' wa"o"he""nlia" wii'hontgat'hwa", wa'ha- 

6 they (m.) slept. The now it day beeame they (m.) it looked they 

at (m.) 

di'ge"' tea" gano"sgoriwa''sho"' dega"hen" gage"he"' ne" one""ha'. 

i saw it the it lodge in along it is full it is heaped the it corn, 

where 

O'ne"" di" lie" hoiiwa'sen'no"' wa'he"'hen": " O'ne"' sasni'soii- 

S Now more- tlie their fm. ) chief he it said: "Xow again do ye them 

over repair 

nia'"hen' (saswa'sonnia"hen') tea" swano"'saien'do"'. Na'ie' di" 

[} (again do ye them the ye (pi.) lodges have That more- 

plurally plurally repair) where plurally (it is) over 

ne" e"swadeiennon'ni:V, e"swano"sdek', hi'ia' tea" nonwa'ho"de°' 



10 the 



ye will fontiniieto 
esteem it greatly, 



verilv. 



the 
where 



kind uf thing 



ne 

the 



tea'' wa'etchinofi'da" ne" Ono^'dja' 



the 
where 



one it has shared 
with you 



the 



It tooth 



ye it g'ood care 
will give. 

wa''ongwanado\ve"''nhiV 

11 it has found (visited) our 
village 

Hoda"he\'" 

1-- He has stand- 
ing tree." 

Niioiiiwagwa'hir 

13 Just it is short matter 

(time) 

de''tcie"''s ne"' eksa'go'iuV. 

14 she goes the she (is) maiden. 

about 

ia'ke"', tea" ne^tho* hetciagawe'non' tea" nofrwe" thoiio"'sa'ie"' 

15 it is the there thither again she the the place there his lodge 
said. where has gone 



o ne" 

now 



wa'hondien'hiV gwa" 

they im.) were 
surpri.>;ed 



seem- 
ingly 



ga'tka' 

an vw he re 



Tciago'deil'dioil". 

Again she had 
departed. 



where 



hiia" 

not 

(it is) 

Honnermo""do"', 

They (m. ) it knew, 



lies 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VEK8I0N 



167 



who was her consort. Now, verily, in reference to him he himself in 
turn was surprised to see her return home. When it became day 
again, the cliief noticed that seemingl}' it appeared that the life of the 
maiden, his spouse, had clianged." Thus it was that, day after day and 
night after night, he still considered the matter. The conditions were 
such that he did not know what thing was the cause that it [his 
spouse's condition] was thus, so he merely marveled that it had thus 
come to pass. 

It is certain, it is said, that it formed itself there where they two 
conversed, where they two breathed together; that, verily, his breath 
is what the maiden caught, and it is that which was the cause of the 
change in the life of the maiden. And, moreover, that is the child 
to which she gave birth. And since then, from the time that he [her 



ne 

the 

ne" 

the 
that 

Ne" 

The 



ha'sennowa'ne"' ne"' gado'ge'" de'hia'di". O'ne"' hi'ia' 

he chief is the it is certain they (m.) two Now verily 

(place) are one. 

nil" lui'o"'hwsi' o""ke"' wa'hadien'"ha gwa" o^ne"' saie'io"'. 

he liimself next in lie was surprised seem- now 



that he liimself next in 

one turn 

o'ne"" wa'o'he""nha'' o'ne" 

now it day became now 



seem- 
ingly 



again she 
returned. 



wahatdo'giv ne" ha'sefino- 

lie it noticed the he 



wa ne 

chief is 



tea" ne"tho' 

the there 

where 



ni'io't tea" aieiTii' tea" 

so it is the one would the now it is 

where think where other 

ni'io't tea" ago'n'he" ne" ek.sa'go'na' ne" he'na\ Ne"tho' 

so it is the she is the she the his There 

where living maiden spouse. 

ni'io't tea" wendade'nio"' wtVsondade'nio"" o"ni' de'hoia'dowe"di'. 

so it is the day after day night after night also he it is considering, 

where 

Ne"tho' ni'io't hiia'' de'hono"''do"' ho't nonwa'ho"de"" daioi'- 

There so it is not he it knows what kind of thing thence it is 

(it is I 

hwiVkhe" tea" ne"tho' ni'io't, na'ie' geii'gwa' hoi'hwane'ha'gwa.s 

reason the there so it is. that only he matter marvels at 

where (it is) 

tea" nwa"awe"'"ha'. 



the 
where 



the they two (m.) 

where breathed 



tea 

the 
whe 

eksiVgo'na 

she 
maiden (is), 



(gave birth to it). 



it is definite 
matter, 

hiiadon'ie's ne" 

the 



it is 
said. 



aonwr sa 

it l^reath (is) 



waeiena ne 

she it caught the 



It came to 
pass. 

Ne"tho' gai'hwado'ge"', ia'ke"', wa wadon'nia' tea" de'hodi'tha' 

There it is definite it is it itself formed the they conversed 

where together 

na'ie' hi'ia' " 

that verily 

(it is) 

na'ie' hi'ia' dagai'hon'niri' tea'' o'ia' nwa'awe"''hii' 

that verily them'c it matter the it is so it came to 

(it is) caused where other one pass 

tea'' ago'n'he' ne'' ek.sii'go'na". Na'ie' ne'' na'' di" wa'ago- 

the she is living the she maiden. That the that more- she 

where (is) (it is) that one over became 

k.sa'daiei1da"nha'. Na'ie' ne" tea'' gii'e' dag-a'hawi''da' tea" 

possessed i)f a child That the the hither thence it it bore the 

(it is) where (the time) 



where 



10 

11 

12 
13 
11 



a The expression "life has changed " is employe d usually as a euphemism for "is pregnant." 



Ui8 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



spouse] let man-heings go lierc on the earth, the manner in which man- 
beings are paired has transformed itself. This is the manner in which 
it will continue to be; this will be its manner of being done, whereby 
it will be possible for the man-beings dwelling on the earth to pro- 
duce ohwachiras of posterity. Thus, too, it seems, it came to pass in 
regard to the beast-world, their bodies all shared in the change of the 
manner in which they would be able to produce ohwachiras of off- 
spring here on the earth. 

Thus it was that, without interruption, it became more and more 
evident that the maiden would give birth to a child. At that time the 
chief became convinced of it, and he said: "What is the matter that 
thy life has changed ? Verily, thou art about to have a child. Never, 
moreover, have thou and I shared the same mat. I believe that it is 
not 1 who is the cause that thy life has changed. Dost thou thyself 



niga'ha'wi' 

there it it bore 
(the time) 

deiotde'nioii' 

it itself changed 



6 



10 



11 



o"'hwendjia"ge' 

it earth on 



wa'shagot'ga'k 

he them let go 



tea" nigaienno"de'" tea"' 



the 
where 



on gwe 

man- 
being. 

na'ie' 

that 
(it is) 



Tho'ne"' 

Here 



there its kind of doing 
(itJ3 method of action) 

hi'ia' o""ke"- 

verilv 



next in 
time 



the 
where 



so it will con 
tinue to be. 



ne ' on'gwe* 

the man- 

being 

wa'shagoiine'ge"' 

he them places 
together 

dik, ne''gaienno"de"k, 

such its method of 
being done will be, 



o ne 

now 



ne 

the 



ne' 

the 



e gagwe nia 

it will be able 
to do it 



e"ionthwadjien'ni' 



they will produce 
ohwachiras (families) 



ne' 

the 



tea" 



o"'hwendjia"ge' 

it earth on 



enagee . 

they dwell. 



Ne^'tho- 

There 



gwa" 

seem- 
ingly 



O 

too 



the 
where 

ne" 

the 



goiidi'io', 

they (z.) 
animals, 



gagwe gi 

it all 



wa'odiia'dadiio'as tea" 



their bodies .shared 
its fate 



ne 

the 



tea" 

the 
where 

Ne"tho' 

There 



de"gonthwad]"i'ia'k ne" 

they (z. ) will produce the 

ohwachiras 

ni'io't heiotgonda"'gwi' 

so it is hence it is vineeasing 



on gwe 

man- 
being 

nwa'awe""ha" 

so it came to 
pa.ss 

nwa'gaien no"de'' 

such its manner of 
being dune became 

tho'ne"' o"'hwendjia'de'. 

here it earth is present. 



the 
where 



gowiaienda"nha' 

will have a child 



ne 

the 



hatdo'kii' 

it noticed 



ne 

the 



eksago'ntl". 

she maiden, 
(is) 

ha'seiinowa'ne"' 

he chief (is), 



daiotge"'i"ha'die' 

it became more and 
more manifest 

Tho"ge' o'ne"- 

At that now 

(time) 

wa'he"'hen" 

he it .said, 



tea" 

the 
where 

do'ge°s 

it is true 

di": 

more- 
over: 



e"ia- 

she 

wa'- 

he 

•Ho't 

"What 



nonwa'ho"de"' 

kind of thing 



Saksa'daieiida"se' 

12 Thou art about to have 
a child 

Ge'he" hiia" i 

I it think 



ni'io't 

so it is 

hi'ia' 

verily. 



tea" 

the 
where 



O Ul 

it is 
other 



ni'io't 

so it is 



the 
where 



13 



11 



not I 

(it is) (am) 

Senno""'do'"-khe"" 

Thou it knowest, dost 
thou 



de'gen" 

it is 



Hiisi" 

Not 
(it is) 

ne" 

the 



hweii'do"' 

ever 

tea" o'ia" 



di" 

morC' 
over 



who 
(it is), 



ne' 

the 



the 
where 



is; 

thou? 



It IS 

other 



ni'io't 

so it is 



Hiia"' ste' 



Not 

(it is) 



any- 
thing 



tea" so'n'he"? 

thou art 
living'? 

de'ongiaii'di'. 

thou I have lain 
together. 

tea" so'n'he'. 

thou art 
living. 

de'ago'nigo"'- 

she it under- 



the 
"where 



HEWITT} 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



169 



know who it is?" She did not understand the meaning of what he 
said. 

Now. at that time, the chief began to t)e ill. Suddenly, it seems, 
she herself now became aware that her life had changed. Then she 
said, addressing the chief: "1 believe that there is, perhaps, something 
the matter, as my life at the present time is not at all pleasant." He 
did not mike any I'eply. Not long thereafter she again said: "My 
thoughts are not at all pleasant." Again he said nothing. So it con- 
tinued thus that she did nothing but consider the matter, believing 
that something must be the matter, perhaps, that the condition of her 
body was such as it was. It became more and more evident that she 
was pregnant. Now it was evident that she was big with child. 

Sometime afterward she again resolved to ask him stilL once more. 
She said: "As a matter of fact, there must be something the matter, 



hiiiendiVi' 

stood 



ho't 

what 

(it is) 

wahada'diiV. 

he it spoke. 

Tho"ge' o'ne" 

At that now 

(time) 

sefinowa'ne" 

chief [is] . . 

tea" o'ia' ni'io't 

the it is so it is 

where other 

waliawe'"'has 

she him addressed 

nonwa'ho"de'" 

kind of thing 

go'n'he' ne'' 

I am living the 



nonwa''ho''de"" 

kind of thing 



wa wa sa we 

it began 



geii'da' 

it means 



tea"' 

the 
where 



nonwa'ho''de"' 

■ kind of thing 



wa'hono'"hwak'de"' 

he became ill 



ne 

the 



ha' 

he 



DieiT'ha sjwa 

a 

tea' 



After a 
while 



seem- 
ingly 



o ne" 

now 



wii'ontdo'ga' 

she it noticed 



ga'o^'hwa' 

she herself 



the 
where 



ne'' ha'sennowa'ne"': 

the he chief [is] : 



oil" ni'io't, 

perhaps so it is, 

o""ke"'?" 

Ht present?" 



tea"' 

the 
where 



WiVa'heii", 

she it said, 

gwa*' 

seem- 
ingly 



aonni'she'r 

lasted (long) 



o ne 

now 



he" 

again 



don'nio"k." Hiia" he' 

ing repeatedly." Not again any- 

(it is) thing 

ni'io't deiag*oirrdowe''di* geil'gwa, 

so it is she it i.'^ considering only, 



ago'n'he\ O'ne"' tho^'ge' 

she is living. Now at that 

(time) 

'Ge"he' ste"" 

"I it think some- 

thing 

hiia>' . de'aweiltga'de' tea*' 

not it is pleasant the 

where 

Hiia" ste"" de'ha'weiT. Hiia" de'- 

Not any- he it has said. Not it 

(it is) thing (it is) 

waa'hen": "Hiia" sken'no"' de'genno""- 

"Not peaceful I am think- 

(it is) (it is) 

de'ha'weiT. O'ne"-' ne"tho' 

he it has said. Now there 



she it said: 

,ste°" 



en"he' ste" 



jf 



-1/ 



nonwa 

kind of 



ho"de"' 

thing 



l)rob- 
ablv 



ni'io't, tea'' 

so it is, the 

where 



tho'ne" 

here, this 
way 



gwa 

she it thinks some- seem- 
thing ingly 

ni'io't tea" gia'di"ge" 

so it is the my body on.' 

where 



Daiotge''"i'ha'die" tea" 



sn^^yt 



sat 



It became more and 
more manifest 



the 
where 



ene'io"'. O'ne"' otge" T ego-wane' 

she is Now it is evi- she large 

pregnant. dent (is). 

Gain'gWiV nwii'onni'she" o'ne"' he" wa'efi'a' e''sheiii'hen"do"' 

Some .so long it lasted now again she it again 1 him will ask 

(time) thought 

'a"so"'. Wa'a'heii": "Ho't nonwa'ho"de"' on" se" ni'io't tea" 

once more. She it said: "What kind of thing prob- itismat- soitis the 

ably terof fact where 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



170 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN, '21 



perhaps, that my l)ody is in this condition. And the thoughts of 
my mind are not at all pleasant. One would think that there can be 
no doubt that, seemingly, something is al)out to happen, because my 
life is so exceedingly unpleasant." Again he said nothing. When it 
became night, then, verily, they laid their bodies down and they slept. 
So now, verily, he there repeatedly considered the matter. Now, in 
so far as the maiden was concerned, she still did not understand what 
•was iibout to take place from the changed condition of her body. Some- 
time afterward the chief spoke to her, saying: "As a matter of fact, 
a man-being (or rather woman-being) will arrive, and she is a man- 
beinsr child, and thou must care for her. She will grow in size 
raj^idh', and her name is Zephyi's."" The maiden said nothing, for 
the reason that she did not understand what her spouse told her. 



1 

2 
3 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 



tho'ne"" ni'io't iie"' gia"di''ge'. nfi'ie' ne" g"nigo"'ha"ge" hi'ia" 

here so it is the my body on. that the my mind on not 

(it is) (it is) 

sken'no"' de"genno""don'nio"k^ (iai'hwado'ge"' aieii'ii' ste""' 

peaceful I am thinking repeatedly'.' It matter certain (is) it seems some- 

(itis) thing 

niiawe""se', swa'djik' de"'gi" hiia" 

so it is going to because exceed- not 

hapi>en, ingly (it is) 

go'n'he'." Hiitl" he" .ste"" de'ha'wen". 

I am living." Not again any- he it has said, 

(it i.s) thing 

o'ne"" hi'ia' wa'hondia"dage'"hen". wri'honntV'gak. Da', o'ne° 

now verily they (m.) laid their several they (m.) went to So, now 



de'awentga'de' 

it is pleasant 



The 



o ne 

now 



gwa 

seem- 
ingly 

tca^' 

the 
wliere 

wa'o"j^ak 

it became 
night 



they (m.) laid their severnl they (m.) went to 

bodies down. sleep. 

hi'itf ne^'tho" henno""tlon'iiio"k. O'ne"' ne" na'' eksa'go'na* hiia" 

verilv there he is thinking repeatedly. Xow the that she maiden not 

that one (is) 

■a^'so"' dei\iago'nigo"*haiendfi"nluV ho't nonwa'ho''de"' niiawe"''se' 

still .she it comes to understand what kind of thing so it is about to 

(it is) happen 

tea"' o'ijV ni'io't eia'di"ge'. Gain'gwtV nwiVonni'she'' ne^'tho' 

the it is so it 18 her body on. Some so it lasted there 

where other (time) 

ni'io't o'ne"' ne'' lia'sennowa'ne"' da'hada'diiV. wrL'he"'heiY': 



so it is 



the 

on'gwe" 



he chief (is) 



thence he spoke. 



he it said: 



Hiia' 

Not 

(it i.s) 



eksa'a", nu'ie" ne" na'ie' de"she'- 

she child that the that wilt thou 

(is), (it is) (it is) 

di". Gaende"so"'k eia'dji\ 

more It-wind-goes-phirally she is 

over, (Gusts-of-wind) named." 

ne" eksa'go'na' na'ie' ne" daioi'hwa"khe' 

the she maiden that the thence it is 

(is) (it is) reason 

tea" hiiti" de'ago'nigo"'haienda"i" ne" nonwa'ho"de"'' gen'da' 

the not she it understood tlie kind of thing it means 

where (it is) 



"E"ie'io"' ,se" 

"She will it is mat- a man- 
arrive ter of fact being, 

snie"nha\ Gode'sno'we' 

care well for She grows rapidly 

her. 

ste"" de'aga'weii 

any- she it said 

thing 



a This name Zephyrs merely approximates the meaning of the original, which signifies the warm 

springtide zephyrs that sometimes take the form of small whirlwinds or eddies of warm air. 



HEWITTJ 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



171 



Not long afterward, then, verily, she gave birth to a child. She paid 
no attention to it. The only thing she did was to lay it on the place 
where the chief customarily passed the night. After ten days' time 
she again took it up therefrom. 

Sometime afterward the chief became aware that he began to ))e 
ill. His suffering became more and more severe. All the persons 
dwelling in the village came to visit him. There he lay, and sang, 
saying: "Ye must pull up this standing tree that is called Tooth. 
The earth will be torn open, and there beside the abyss ye must lay 
me down. And, moreover, there where my head lies, there must sit 
my spouse." That is what he, the Ancient One, sang. Then the man- 
beings dwelling there became aware that their chief was ill. 



tea" 

the 
where 

o'ne"' 

now 



wiVsha^otho'ie'^ 

he her told 



ne' 

the 



de'hia'di'. 

they (m.) two 
tire one. 



Ill i:i 

verilv 



wiVagoksadaiendfVnhti'. 

she became possessed of a child. 



gen gwa 

only 



Nil'ie 

That 
(it is) 

hwe.s'thiV ne" 

to sleep on the 

ni'.she' o'ne"' 

lasted now 

(lain'gwtV 

Soiuc (tinie ) 



ne"tho' hwiVe'-hen' tca^' 

there there she it laid the 

where 



Hiia" de'oiiiwishe"i' 

Not it loHK matter 

(it is) became 

Hiia'' de'ago.sde'isdr. 

Not she it paid attention 

(it is) Uk 

non'we'' niiienno"*- 

the place there he it uses 



ha'.-^ennowa'ne"' 

he chief (is). 

ha'donsaie"gwa'. 

thence again she it 
look. 

nwiVonni'she' o'n 

it lasted no 



do'ga 



the the 
that where 



(long I 

tea" o'ne" 

now 



Washe°" niwenduoe'' 

Ten so it day (is) in 

(it is) number 



ne^' haVsennowa'ne" 

the he chiel' (is) 



nwa on- 

so it 



wa'hat- 

he it noticed 



wuAva'sa wo 

it began 



Daiotge"'i'ha'die' tea'' ni'hoe"4iia'ge'" 

so he is suffering. 



It Ijecame more and 
more manifest (severe) 

da'ie"' ena'gee' 

lies they dwell 



the 
where 



hadik'do"k. 



Ne^'tho^ 

There 



o'no"' WiVh<)no"'h\vak'de"\ 

now he became ill. 

Gagwe'gi' tea" gana- 

Itall the itvil- 

where lage 

henda'gir, hodenno'da\ 

he lay, he is singing. 



they (m.) come 
to see (him). 

i'ha'do"k: '' E^swaendoda'gwiV neii'ge"" ga"he\ ono^dja' gaia'dji'. 

he kept " Ve standing tree this one it tree it tooth it is called, 

saying; will pull up (it is) stands. 

E'Hvado^'hwendjiadet'hiV, ne"tho' o'sadage'^hia'da' he"sgwen- 



Will it earth open. 



there 



it abyss edge of 



there will ve 



da'giirr. Na'ie' di'' 

me lav. That 

(it is) 

e"ietgo'dak ne' 

she will sit the 



more- 
over 



ne 

the 



tea"' noii'we' ha'degno"'ha'ie"' ne"tho' 

the place just my head (scalp) there 



the 
where 



just my head (scalp) 
where lies 



deiagni"'den\" Na'ie' 



one I abide 
together." 



hoksteii'Ti' 

he elder one. 



O'ne"- 

Now 



ne 

the 



on gwe 

man-beings 



wa'hoiltdo'gir tea"' 



the\' it noticed 



the 
where 



hono"'hw!ik'dani' 

lie is ill 



That 

(it is) 

ne" 

the 

ne"' 

the 



hodeiino'dtx' 

lie is singing 



ne' 

the 



ne"tho' hadina'gee' 

there they (m. ) d\veU 

ha'sennowa'ne"'. 

he chief (is). 



3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



172 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ASS. 21 



Now, veril}', all came to visit him. They questioned him repeat- 
edlj', seeking to divine his Word, what thing, seemingly, was needful 
foi' him, what kind of thing, seemingly, he expected through a dream. 
Thus, day after dav, it continued that they sought to tind his Word. 
After a time the female man-being child was of fair size. She was 
then able to run about from place to place. But it thus continued that 
they kept on seeking to divine his Word. After a while, seemingly, 
one of the persons succeeded in finding his Word, and he said: "Now, 
perhaps, I mvself have divined the Word of him, the ordure, our 
chief." He who is called Aurora Borealis said this. And when he 
told the chief what manner of thing his .soul craved, the chief was 
very plea.sed. And when he divined his Word, he said: "Is it not this 
that thy dream is saying, namely, that it is dii-eful, if it so be that no 
person should divine thy Word, find that it will become still more 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



O'ne"' 

Now 



hi'iiV 

verilv 



it all 



hadigwa'thwas. 

tht-y (m. I visit 
severallv. 



Hofiwa'hen'do"k 

They him question 



honwawenni"'aaks 

they his Word seek to 
divine 



ste""' 

any- 
thing 



gwa 

seem- 
ingly 



nonwa'ho^de"' de^hodo^'hwefld- 

kind of thing it is necessary 



jion'niks, ste"" 

for liini, any- 

thing 

ni'Io^t honwawenni"''saks 

so it is 



gwa 

seem- 
ingly 



nonwa'ho''d('*"' hotgaie""'di 

kind uf thing 



they seek his Word 
repeatedly 



o*he""senk. 

dav after dav. 



he desires througli 
a dream. 

Diefi''hir gwi 

After a while, 



eksaa". 



somewhat 

edak'he's. 

she runs 
about. 

Dien'^ha' 

After a while 



she child. 

(isi 



O'ne"' 

Now 



seem- 
ingly, 

ha'dem'iie'i' 



Ne"tho' 

There 

o'ne"' 

now 



just it is suf- 
ficient 



ne''tho' 

there 



niia ga ne 

so she is the 

large 

Ne^tho' ni'io't hegagofida^'gwi' honwawenni''saks. 

There so it is hence it is unceasing they his word seek 

to divine. 

wa'honwawennowe""nhiv, 

he his word divined. 



gwa" 

seem- 
ingly, 



o'ne"' shaia"dat 

now 



he person 
one is 



()' lie- 
now 



WiVhe^'hen": 

he it said: 



' O'ne"' 

" Now 



hofi" 

prob- 
ablv 



ni a" 

I person- 
ally 



wa'he"dawennowe""nha'' ne" 

the 



I his, ordure's. Word have found 

nil 



shedwa'sen'no"'." Hodoiini'Ti' honwanado""khwti' 

he our chief (is)." He Aurora Borealis 



hen". 

said. 

tea" 

the 

where 



ne' 

the 



they (m. ) designate him 
thereby 

o'ne"' wtVhoiiwatho'ie"' ne" 

now he him told the 



wa'he"'- 

heit 



that 
one 

ha'sennowa'ne"' 

he chief (is) 



Na'ie' 

That 

(it is) 

nonwa"ho"de"' wadadjis'tha" ne" hothwa'i" wsVhatcen- 

kind of thing it it craves the his soul he was 



non nia . 

pleased. 



wa"honwawennowe""nha" wa"he"'hen": 

he hi." Word divined he it said: 



Na'ie' ne" o'n 

That the no 

(it is) 

" Na'ie'-khe"" iwa'do"" ne" .sada'a'shwa' na'ie' gano'we"', na'ie' 

"That is it it it savs the thv dream (luck) that it direful (is), that 

it is, (it is) (it is) 

e°ganowe""klie'', na'ie' gi"she"' ne"' hiia" thaiesawennowe"''nha'. 

it direful will become that it may be the not they thy Word should divine 

it is) (that) (it is) 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



173 



direful? And ^-et, moreover, it is not certain tiiat this is wiiat tliy 
soul craves; that its eyes may have seen thv standing- tree, Tooth as 
to kind, pulled uj), in order that the earth ))e torn open, and that 
there be an ahyss that pierces the earth, and, moreover, that there 
beside the abyss one shall lay thee, and at thy head thy spouse shall 
be seated with her legs hanging down into the abyss." At that time 
the chief said: "Ku"." I am thankful! Now, verily, the whole matter 
has l)een fulfilled ))y thy divining my Word." 

During this time [the duration of the dream feast], a large body of 
man-beings,* paid a visit there. He, the Deer, paid a visit there. He, 
the Great-horned Deer [the Buck], paid a visit there. He, the Spotted 
Fawn, paid a visit, and was there .seeking to divine the Word of the 



Na'ie' di" ne" hiia" de'oi'hwado'ge"* na'ie' wadildjis'tha' ne" 

That more- the not it matter certain (is) that it it craves the 

(it is) over (it is) (iti.s) 

sathwa'i", na'ie' druoga'h;i''ik ne" tea" agaendoda'gwe"k ne" 

thys<iul. that its two eyes slioulti the the one should uproot the 

litis) liave fallen on it where standing tree 

.sadendo'du' ne" ono"dja' nwtrgaefido"de"', na'ie' diioi"hwa' 

thou thyself tree the it tooth such it tree (is) kind of, that thence it is 

hast set for (it is) reason 

awado"'hwendjiadet'ha' aio'sade""'hti' ha'druao"'hwendjiongo"da'. 

it itself earth should cause to gape it cave should just it earth should transpierce. 

come to be 

Na'ie' ne'' ne"tho' di'' o'sadage""hia'dii' he"iesenda'gan' ne"tho'' 

there more- it cave edge of there they thee will there 

over lay 

hesno"'ha'ie"" ne"tho' o'sadagoii'wa' ha'de"iago'si'de"'- 

there it cave in just her two feet will 



That the 

(it Is) 

di" tea" 

more- the 
over where 

don'nio"k 

severally 
hang 

wtVhe"'herr'; 

he it said: 



there thy scalp 
lies 



dedjia'di'.' 

one thou are 
one."' 



ha'sennowa'De"" 

he chief (is) 



liegagwe'gl' 

entirely (it all) 



Tho"ge^ ne'' 

At that the 

(time) 

" Ku". Niiawe"'^ha''. O'ue"' hi'iiV wiiVfii'hwaier'khe' 

" Ku''. I am thankful. Now verily it matter is fulfilled 

ne" tea'' wu\sg'wawennowe"''nIirr. " 

the the ye my Word have divined." 



the 
where 

Na'ie' ne'' gendio^gowa'ne"' hodigwat'hwi' tea"' nwa'onni'she'. 

That the it body of persons they (m. ) visited the so long it lasted, 

it is large (is) where 



Skeunofido"'' wa'hagwat'hwti'. Ona'gaendo"'go'na^ Skennoiido"" 



wiVhagwat'hwiv. 

he visited 

(there). 

honwawenni"8aks 

he sought to divine 
his Word 



he visited 
(there). 

Tcisda'thieiT'ha' 

Spotted Fawn 



It has great horns 



Deer 



ne 

the 



wa'hagwat'hwa', ne''tho' 

he visited there 

(there) 

ha'sennowa'ne"'. O'gwai" o"ni" wa'ha- 

He chief Bear also he 

(is). 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

10 
11 
12 
13 



aThis is an exclamation expressing gratification at having one's dream or vision divined and 
satisfied. 

&The relator of this version stated that there was a reputed connection between the visits of these 
different personages and the presence of their kinds in the new world beneath the sky land, but he 
had forgotten it. 



174 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



chief. He, the Bear, also paid a visit. Now, he also, the Beaver, paid 
a visit. And he, the Wiiid-who-moves-about-t'rom-place-to-place. paid 
a visit also. And now, also, he, the DaA'light, paid a visit. Now she 
also, the Night, the Thiek Night, paid a visit. Now also she, the 
Star, paid a visit. Now, also, he, the Light-orb [the sun] paid a 
visit. And, too, the Water-of-spriiigs, she paid a visit. Now, also, 
she, the Corn, paid a visit. Now, also, she, the Bean, paid a visit. 
Now, also, she, the Squash, paid a visit. Now, also, she, the Sun- 
flower, paid a visit. Now, also, the Fire Dragon with the body of 
pure white color, he paid a visit. Now. also, the Rattle paid a visit. 
Now, also, he, the Red Meteor, paid a visit. Now, also, he, the 
Spring AVind, paid a visit. Now, also, he, the GreatTurtle, paid a visit. 
Now, also, he, the Otter, paid a visit. Now, also, he, the Wolf, paid 



gwa'thwa' 

visited 
(there). 

GaeiTde's 



O'ne"' 

Xow 



o ni 

fllso 



Beaver 



wa''egwat'hwa'. 



O'ne"- 

Now 

tea" 

the 
wliere 



the 



al.so 



8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



o"ni' wa'hagwat'hwa". O'ne"" 

It Wind also he visited Now 

Goes About (there). 

hat'hek wa hagwat'hwiV. O'ne"" o''nr ne 

Light he visited Now also 

of Day (there) 

sonda'igi' 

Blaek she visited 

Darkness I therej. 

waVgwat'hwa'. O'ne"' o"ni" 

she visited Now also 

(there). 

Na'ie' o" tea" Ga'hne'go' 

That too the It Embedded 

(it is) where Water 

One°"hir wa'egwat'hwiV. O'ne"' o"ni 

It Corn she visited Now also 

( there) . 

hwa". O'ne"' o"nr ne" 0-hnio""sa 

Now also the It Squash 



Gaa"'gwa' 

It Orb of 
Light (Sun) 

WiVegwat'hwa' 



she visited 
(there). 



ne 

the 



wa'hagwat'hwa". Tea" 

he visited The 

(there). where 

o"ni" ne" Ha'deio'- 

also the It 

' A'soiT'he', Deioda'- 

It Night, It 

ne" Odjisdano"gwa' 

the It Star (spot) 

w:i"hagwat'hwa'. 

he visited 

(there). 

O'ne"' o"nr ne" 

Now also the 



O'-sa^he^'da' wiVegwat'- 

It Bean she visited 

(there i. 

O'ne"' 

Now 



o"ni' ne" OaVe""sEV wtVegwat'hwa . 

also the It Sunflower she visited 

(there). 

die'thiV owii'he'sdo'gt)"' ni"hairi"do"de"' wa'hagwat'hwtV 



waegwat'hwsi" 

She visited 
(there). 

O'ne"' o"nr Ga'ha'sefi- 

Now also It 



Fire-dragon it white pure sueh his body kind 

(is) of (is) 



he visited 
(there). 



o ni 

also 



ne' 

the 



Ga'stawe""sa' wa'hagwat'hwti". O'ne"' 



It Rattle 



Iladawine'tha' wrrhagwat'hwa'. 

He (Red) Meteor he vi.sited 

(there). 

ne"dEV wtVhagwat'hwa'. O'ne"' 

he visited Now 

(there). 

wa'hagwat'hwa'. O'ne"' o"ni' 

he visited Now also 

(there). 



he visited 
(there). 

O'ne"' 

Now 

also 



also 



O'ne"' 

Now 

ne" 

the 



o ni 

also 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 



Skwa'ie"' 

otter 



ne'' Daga'shwi- 

tlie It Spring 

Wind 

Hania'de"'go'na' 

He (ireat Turtle 

wa'hagwat'hwa'. 

he visited 
(there). 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



175 



a vi.sit. Now, also, he, the Duck, paid a visit. Now, al.so, he, the 
Fresh Water, paid a visit. Now, also, he, the Yellowhaninier. paid 
a visit. Now, also, he, the Medicine, paid a visit. Moreover, all 
things that are produced by themselves, that produce themselves, 
that is, the animals, and, next to them, the small animals, the Hying 
things, of every species, all paid a visit. Now, sometime afterward, 
he, the Aurora Borealis, paid a visit. And, verily, he it was who 
divined the AVord of the chief. Verily, he said: "The great standing- 
tree, the Tooth, .nuist be upi'ooted. And wherever it has a root 
there severally they must stand, and they must severally lay hold of 
each several root. And just then, and not before, shall they be able 
to uproot the standing tree. The earth will be torn open. Moreover, 
all persons must look thei'ein. And there, beside the abj'ss, they 



O'ne"' o-'nf 


ne" Tha'hioii' 


ni' wa 


'hagwat'hwa. O'ne"' o"ni' 




Now also 


the Wolf 




he visited Xriw also 
(there). 


1 


ne'' So'wek 


wa'hagwat'hwa" 


. O'ne 


"' o"nr ne" O'hne'ganos 




the Duek 


he visited 
(there). 


Now 


also the It Fresh Water 


2 


wa'hagwat'hwa' 


. O'ne"' o"nr 


ne" 


CTwe"''gwe"" wa'hagwat'hwa'. 




he visited 
(there) . 


Now also 


the 


Yellow- he visited 
hammer (there). 


3 


O'ne"' o"nf 

Now also 


ne" Ono'"gwa"tcha' 

the It Medicine 


wa'hagwat'hwa . Gagwe'gi' 

he visited It all 
(there). 


4 


df ne" ste"" 


gwa" noiiwa 


ho"de"' 


ne" odadoii'ni', wadon'ni- 




more- the any- 
over that thing 


seem- kind < 
ingly 


f thing 


the it has grown (it has it grows 
prodneed itself), (it pro- 






iV'hu', na'ie' ne'' gondi'io'. na'ie" 

duces that the the\' (7.. t are that 

itself), (it is) animals, (it is) 

ne'' gondi'de"*, nhwiVdiiodi'se'iige', 

the they (z.) tly every they (z.) are 

species in number, 



O'ne"' 

Now 



HodoiiniTi'. 

He Aurora 
Borealis. 

sennowa'ne' 

chief (is). 



gwe"k 



habitually, 

gain'gwa 

some 
(time) 

Na'ie" 

That 

(it is) 

Na'ie- 

That 
(it is) 



g\va''th()' ne"' gondiio'sho°"a* 

next in the they (z.) are small 

order animals (birds) 

gagwe'gi' Wil'gondigwat'hwa'. 

it all they (z.) visited 

(there). 

nwa'ofini'she' o'ne"' wa'hagwat'hwa' ne" 

•so (long) it lasted now he visited the 

(there) , 

hi'iii' wa'honwawennowe""nha' ne"' Ha'- 

verily he his word divined the he 



ne 

the 



ne"' ga'he'gowa'ne"' 

tlie it tree standing great 

(is) 



non we 

the 
place 

nau""ho"' 

lay hold of it 



niiokde'hiide'nio"' 



hiia' 

verily 

ne" 

the 

ne"tho' 

there 



wa'he"'hen'': 

he it said: 



OlH)"'dja' 
It Tooth. 



Na'ie' 

That 
(it is) 

de°'hadida"nha', 

they (m.) will stand, 



E"gaendoda'- 

be 

I 

tea"' 



'It tree will be 
uprooted 



ne 

the 



the 
where 



de"4iadiie- 



there it roots project there they (m.) will stand, thev im.i will 

plurally "plurully 

ne" djokde-hjit'sho"'. O'ne'" ha^'.stV e'^hadigwe'nia' 

the each it root is one. Now just then. they (m.) will be 

( not before ) able to do 5 1 

e"'hadiendoda'gwa'. , E"wado"''hwendjiadet'ha'. Gagwe'gi di'' 

they (m.) tree will It itself earth will open It all more- 

uproot, roughly. over 

ne"tho' he"iontgat'hwri\ 0\sadage"'hia'da' ne"tho' he"iesen- 

there hence will one look. It abyss edge of there hence one 

thee will 



10 

11 

12 
13 
14 
15 



176 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



must lay thee. Now, moreover, there at thy head .she with whom thou 
dost abide mu.st sit with her legs hanging down into the abyss." 
Then, verily, the chief replied, saying: '" Ku". I am thaniiful that 
ye have divined my word. Now all things have been fulfilled. " 

Verily, it did thus come to pass that they did uproot the .standing 
tree. Tooth, that grew beside the lodge of the chief. And all the 
inhabitants of that place came thither with the intention of looking 
into the abyss. It did thus come to pass that everyone that dwelt 
there did look therein. At that time the chief then said, addressing 
his spouse: "Now, too, let us two look into the abyss. Thou must 
bear her, Zephyrs, on thy back. Thou must wrap thyself with 
care." Now, moreover, he gave to her three ears of corn, and, next in 



da'garr. O'ne"" d\" tea" 

lay. Now more- the the 

over where place 

go'dak ne"" desni""den\ o'sadagofi'wii 

sit the ye two abide it abyss in 

together, 

'hek." O'ne"' hi'ia' ne" 

Xow verily the 



non'we' ni«no"^ha'ie"' ne'"tho*' e"iet- 

there 



there thy scalp 
lies 



ha\sennowane""' 

he chief (is) 



thankful 

ier'khe'." 

fulfilled." 



wivsgwennowe"''nha". O'ne"' 

thou my worti hast divined. Now 



she 
will 

hrtde"iago'8i'de"'donnio°'- 

jiist her two feet will 
severally hang." 

ni'ha'weii': "Ku^', uiia- 

thence he ' " Ku"', I am 

replied: 

gagwe'gi" wa'gai^iwa- 

it all it matter 

has been 



7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



Ne"tho' 

There 



hi'ia 

verily 



so it came 
to pass 



Ono"'dja" tea" ga"he' ne" 

it tooth the it tree the 



the 
where 



O'ne" 

Now 

ne"tho' 

there 



tea" 

the 
where 



it tree 
stands 

ena'gee'' 

thevdwell 



ne" tea" 

the the 

where 

hono"-sa'kda' 

his lodge be- 
side it 



gagwe gi" 

it all 



hodieiidoda'gwe"'" ne" 

they (m.) tree the 

uprooted 

ne" ha'sefinowa'ne"". 

the he chief (is). 

da'ie"' 



hesratsrat'hwa' tea" 



thither let me 
look 



the 
where 



ne"tho' da'ie"' gawei'ha'die' 

there hitherone (me came desiring it 

(they) came (for the purposeof it) 

o'sadagon'wfi'. Ne"tho'' nwa*- 

it abvss in. There so it 



awe""ha tea" hwa'hodi'he"g 

came to the it exhausted their 

pass where number 

hwa"hofitgat'hwa\ Tho*'ge' 



tea ui lo"' ena gee 

the soitismuch they(indef.) 



thither they (m. ; 
looked. 

.shagawe""'has 

her addressed 



ne' 

the 



he^diatgafhwa" tea' 



At that 
(time) 

he'na" 

his 
spouse 

o'sa'de\ 



where (manyi dwell 

o'ne"' ne" ha'sennowane"" 

now the 



wa'he°'hen": 

he it said: 



he chief (is 

•O'ne"' 

" Now 



ne"tho' 

there 

Wil"- 

he 



o ■ 

too 



the 
we 



thither we two will 
look 

'hawa' ne" 

the 



the 
where 



Thou wilt bear on 
thv back 



ne' 

the 



e"shei:Vde"'- 

thou her person 
wilt bear 



De"'sadaksa'de" 

it abyss is 
present. 

Gaende*'so"k. fr'sa^'gwas e"^satdoge"'sdtV/' O'ne"' 

GustSH:>f-wind. Thou thyself thou thyself wilt Now 

Zephyrs. wilt wrap make ready." 

di" dashaga'o"' ne" one"''ha\ \V'se"' niiono"'kwe""iage', na''ie 

more- he it to her the it corn, three so it ear is in num- that 

over, gave ber, (it is) 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



177 



order, the dried meat of the spotted fawn, and now, moreover, he said: 
"This ye two will have for provision." Now he also broke off three 
fagots of wood, which, moreover, he gave to her. She put them into 
her bosom, under her garments. Then, verily, they went thither to the 
place. They arrived at the spot where the earth was torn up, and then 
he said: " Do thou sit here." There, verily, she sat where the earth 
was broken oil'. There she hung both legs severally into the abyss. 
Now, in so far as he was concerned, he, the chief, was looking into the 
abyss, and there his spouse sat. Now, at that time he upraised him- 
self, and said: "Do thou look hence into the abyss." Then she did 
in this manner, holding with her teeth her robe with its burden. 
Moreover, there along the edge of the abyss she seized with her 
hands, and, now, moreover, she bent over to look. He said: " Do 



gwa"tho, tcisda'thien"a' o'wa'hat'he"', o'ne" 

spotted fawn it meat dry (is), now 



di" 



next in or- 
der, 



wa'he"'hen": 

he it said: 



"Na'ie' 

"That (it 
is) 



neii ge"' 

thia one 



more- 
over 

e"djadenna'da." O'ne"' o'nf W!Vthaia"kho"' 

ye two will take for Now also he iteratively 

provisions." broke thfm 

'a^'se"' niioko"'kho"nage' ne" oien'da', na'ie' di" shagoVi', Ena's- 

three so it wood sticks the it wood that more- he gave (them) 

many are in number (fuel), it is over to her. 

gwagon'wa* heiago\se"''di^ O'ne"' hi'ia' ne^'tho' nhe'honne'non^ 

Her bosom in thither she them Now, verily, there thither they (m.) 

slipped. * went. 

Wahni'io"' tea'' noii'we' iodo^'hwendjiadetha'en", o'ne"' wa'he""'- 

Theytwo(m.) the theplace it earth is roughly opened, now he it said: 

arrived where 

hen": '^Tho'ne"' sadien"." Ne"tho' hi'UV wa'oiVdieiT' tea" non'we' 

" Here do thou sit There, verilv, she sat down 



do thou sit 
down." 



the the place 
where 



odo"'hwendjiia"gi\ Ne"tho' wa'diondno'''de°'do"^'gwtV ne" o'sa- 

it earth is sundered. There she hung her legs thereby the it 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



dagon'wa', o'sadagon'wa' heiagono"'de""don'nio"k. O'ne"' ne'' 

abyss in, it abyss in thither her leg is hanging Now the 

severally. that 

na' o'sadagon'wa' ha de'haga"ha'' ne'' ha'sefinowa'ne"', ne"tho' 

that it abyss in hence he his eyes the he ehief (is), there 

one " has tixed on it 

ne" na" etgo'da' ne" he'niV. O'ne"' tho"ge' wa'hatgetc'gwa' 

the that she sat the his Now at that he himself raised 

that one wife. time up 

wa''he"'hen": " Hwii'satgafhwa' o'sadagon'wa'." O'ne"' dondaie'ii' 

he it said: " Henee di> thou look it abyss in." Now just she did 

it 

^nw „„v „„,-.-,.-,,«. wao"'tco"hik tea" deionda'kse'. Ne"tho' 



ne 

the 



ne" 

this the her robe she took it in the she bore it on 

way her mouth where her back. 

df o'sadage"'hiada"sho"' wa'eienauii'gwa'', o'ne"' di" wa'dioii- 

she it laid hold of now more- she bent 
severally, 

tca'k'diV hwiVontgafhwa'. WiVhe"'hen" 

forward hence she looked. He it said: "Itisplain it (is) 

much 



more- 
over 



it abyss edge of it 
along 



more- 
over 



There 



1 sowa 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
U 



21 KTH— 03- 



-12 



178 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



thou bend much and plainly over." So she did do thus. As soon 
as she bent forward very much he seized the nape of her neck and 
pushed her into the abyss. Verily, now at that time she fell down 
thence. Now, verily, the man-being child and the man-being mother 
of it became one again. When she arrived on earth, the child was 
again born. At that time the chief himself arose and said, moreover: 
"Now, verily, I have become myself again; I am well again. Now, 
moreover, do ye again set up the tree."' 

And the chief was jealous, and that was the cause that he became 
ill. He was jealous of Aurora Borealis, and, in the next place, of the 
Fire Dragon with the pure white body. This latter gave him much 
mental trouble during the time that he, the chief, whom some call 
He-holds-the-earth, was married. 



hwa'desattca'k'da'." O'ne"" ne"tho' 

hence do thou bend Now there 

forward." 

wa'dionttcrr'kdrf o'ne"' wa'hriie'na' 

she bent forward now he it took hold 

of 

o'sadagon'wa'. Tho'''ge'' 

it abyss in. At that 

(time) 

hi'ia' ha^donsagiadies'dtV 

verily just again they two (z.) 

became commingled 



thus she it 
did. 

the 



it (is) 
much 



tcia'e"' 

shoved 
her 

O'ne"' 

Now 

ono'^ha'. 

its mother. 



hi'ia' 

verily 

ne" 

the 



e'se'da"ge' hwa'shago'- 

her nape of the hence he 

neck on 

o'ne"' diiagoia'de"*'!'. 

now thence her body 

fell down. 

o"ni'' ne" 

also the 



eksa'a" 

she child 



Now 



ne' 

the 



the she 

where arrived 

saionna'gat ne'' eksa'a". Tho"ge* o'ne 

the she child. At that now 

(is) time 



o"*hw^ndjia'"ge' o'ne"' 

it earth on now 



again she is 
born 



ne' 

the 



ha'o"'hwa' 

he himself 



he" 

again 

ne" 

the 



ha'sefinowa'ne"' sa'hatge""ha' o'ne"' dl" wa'he"'hen": "O'ne"' 



he chief (is) 



again he arose 



more- 
over 



he it said: 



' ' Novr 



saga'do"' hi'ia'. O'ne"' di" sadjiiendo'de"'.'" 

?ain I am verily. Now more- do ye reset tree." 

well, over 

Nil'ie' ne" ha'sefinowa'ne"' ho'ga"he"s na'ie' gai'honnia"ha' 

That the he chief (is) he is jealous that it it causes 

(it is) (it is) 

tea" wa'hono"'hwak'de"'. Na'ie' ne" ho'ga'ha'sek' ne" Hodofi- 

J_Q the he became ill. That the he him is jealous the He Aurora 

where (it is) of 

ni"a', na'ie' gwa'tho' ne'' Ga'ha'seiidie'tha' owii'he"sdo'go"' 

11 Bore- that next in the It Fire-dragon it white pure (is) 

alls, (it is) order 

ni'haia'do"de"', na'ie' gwa"tho' ne" Hadawine'thil'. Na'ie' 

12 so his body (is) that next in the He Red Meteor. That 

kind of, (it is) order (it is) 

de'hti'nigo"'ha"ha' tea" nwa'onni'she' o'ne"' tea" wa'thadane'ge"' 

13 he gave trouble to the the so it lasted now the he was married 

mind where long where 

ne" ha'sefinowa'ne"'. Hao"'hwefidjiawa"gi' o'dia'k hofiwana'do""khwa'. 

14 the he chief (is). He-it-earth-holds some they him designate 

(persons) thereby. 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



179 



So now, verily, her bodj' continued to fall. Her bod}' was falling 
•some time before it emerged. Now, f<he was surprised, seemingly, 
that there was light below, of a blue color. She looked, and there 
seemed to be a lake at the spot toward which she was falling. There 
was nowhere any earth. There she saw many ducks on the lake [sea], 
whereon they, being waterfowl of all their kinds, floated severally 
about. Without interruption the body of the woman-being continued 
to fall. 

Now, at that time the waterfowl, called the Loon shouted, saying: 
"■ Do ye look, a woman-being is coming in the depths of the water, 
her body is floating up hither." They said: " Verily, it is even so." 
Now, verily, in a short time the waterfowl [duck] called Bittern 
[Whose eyes-are-ever-gazing-upward], said: "It is true that ye believe 
that her body is floating up from the depths of the water. Do ye, 



Da', 

So, 



hi'ia' hwaeia'doii'die' 

verily, 



nwa'onni'she' eia'don'die' 



so it long 
lasted 



her body was 
falling 



thither her body 
falls onward 



o ne 

now 



ne 

the 



agoii'gwe' 



she man- 
being. 

hwa'gaiage"''nha'. 

thence it emerged. 



Gain'gwa'' 

Somewhat 

O'ne"' 

Now 



wa'ondien'iia' gwii" deio^ha'thek ne" e'da"ge' oe""hia' ni'io^t. 

she was surprised seem- it is light the below it (sky) so it is. 

ingly blue (is) 

Wa'ontgat'hwa' na'ie' gwa" gania'dae' tea" hagwa'' nhwffaga- 

She it looked at that seem- it lake is the direction whither she 

(it is) ingly present where 

wenon'ha'die'. Hiia*'' gat'ka' de'o"''hwendjia'de'. Ne"tho' wa'^e'ge"' 

was continuing Not any- it earth is present. There she it saw 

to go. (it is) where 

onnatga"de" ne" so'wek ganiadae"ge' ne"tho' gondrsgo'ga'iiir 



they (z.) are 
numerous 



the 



duck(s) 



it lake is 
present on 

nhwa^tga'sowa"tehage'. Heiotgonda^'gwi 

every it duck kind in number Hence it continues 

is (waterfowl). 

agon'gwe'. 

she man- 
being (is). 

Tho'Ve 



there they (z.) float about 

tea" eiaMon'die' ne" 

the her body is the 

where falling 



At that 
time 



o'ne"' wa'tho'hene^drr ne" so'wek, 

now he shouted the duck, 



Ha'ho'we"' 

Loon 



ganon wagon wa 

it dejiths nf water in 



Wa'heiini'hen": 

They (m.) it said : 



"Do'ge"s 

"It is true 



on gwe 

man- 
being, 

hi'ia'.' 

verily." 



haia'dji', wtVhe"'hen": "Tciatgat'hwa" 

he is he it said : " Do ye look 

named, 

;da'io% daieia^doii'die'. " 

^hence she thence her body is 

s coming, flying." 

Niioi'hwagwa^ha" o'ne"' hi'ia' wa'tho''hene''da' ne" so'wek, 

Soit matter is short now, verily, he shouted the duik (? ). 

(in a short time) waterfowl, 

Go"'ga"hwa' haia'dji' (diiotgon't he'tge""'' hivde'haga''ha') 

Bittern he is (at all times up above thither his two eyes 

named are fixed) 

wa'he"'hen": " Swe"he' do'ge'^ ganonwagoii'wa' daieia don'die'. 

he it said : *' Ye it do think it is true it water depths in thence her body is 

~— approaLluHg. 



3 

i 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

K) 

11 

12 

13 

14 



180 



lEOQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



however, look upward." All looked upward, and all, moreover, said: 
" Verily, it is true." They next said: "What manner of thing shall 
we do?" One of the persons said: " It seems, then, that there nmst 
be land in the depths of the water." At that time the Loon said: 
"Moreover, let us first seek to find someone who will be able to bear, 
the earth on his back by means of the forehead pack strap." All said, 
seemingly: " I shall be able to bear the earth by means of the fore- 
head pack strap." He replied: "Let us just try; it seems best." 
Otter, it seems, was the first to make the attempt. As .soon, then, 
as a large bulk of them mounted on his back, verily, he sank. In 
so far as he was concerned, he was not able to do anything. And 
they said: "Thou canst do nothing." Now many of them made the 
attempt. All failed to do it. Then he, the Carapace, the Great Turtle, 



1 

a 

3 

4 
5 

6 

7 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



He'tge"" 

t'p high 



gagwe'gi' 



gwa"tho' : 

next in order: 



h wa'tciatgat'hwa'. " 

thither do ye look." 

di" wa'hefini'hen": 



more- 
over 



they (ni.) it said ; 



Gagwe'gi' hwiVhofitgafhwa' 

It all thither they (m.) 

looked, 

•'Do'ge"s hi'iiV." Wsi'henni'hen" 

" It is true verily." Thev it said 



Ho't nonwa'ho"de"' neMwaie'a' ? " Walie^'hefr' ne^' 

kind of thing so will we it do?" Heitjsaid the 



shaia^'dadu' 

he one person ; 



"What 

(is it) 

"' Diio"'hwendjia'de 

"There it earth is present 



nige"-khe"" ne" s^anonwa- 

so it is it 
must be. (not) 

gon'wa'?" Tho"ge' wiVhe"'hen" ne" Ha'ho'we"': 

water in?" At that he it said the Loon: 

(time) 

dwadiee"*'da' dwe".sak son" nonwa^ho"de"' e"'hagwe'nuV e"'ha- 

let us it first do, let us it seek, who kind of person he will be able he will 

do"''hwendjiage"dat." Gwa"" thigagwe'gi* wa'henni'hen": '' V 



•Na'ie' df 

"That more- 
it is over 



just it whole 
(is) 



bear earth on his back by Seem- 

means of the forehead strap." ingly 

e'^kgwe'nia' e^gado^'hwendjiage^dat." 

I will be able I will b^ar the earth on my back 

to do it (by means of the forehead strap)." 

gi'she"" dwade'niefi'de"'." Skwa'ie"' 

otter 



they it said : 

W^'he-'heii": 

He it said : 



"Gwa" 

•Must. 



perhaps. 
(I think) 



let ns it try." 

tea" wa hade'nien'de"". 

tile he it attempted to ilo. 

where 

hirnowa"ge' 



gi"she"' 

I think 



his back on 

de'hogwe'niofi' 

he it was able to do 

tliasgwe'niiV .'" 

thou it art able 
to do." 

wahodino'we"' 

they it failed to do. 



one" 

now 



ne 



the 
that 



Ganio" 

So soon 
as 

hi'ia 

verily 

na". 

that 
one. 



iawe'dowa'ne"' 

it bulk large is 

Wirhonowie"da' 

he sank into the 
water. 

Wa heiini'heii": 

Thev it said : 



da'hadiee""da' 

he first was 

hwa'hofidawe""hat 

thither they (m.) it got 
upon 

Hiiii" ste°" 

Not any- 

(it is) thing 

"Hiia" ste"" 



"Not any- 

(it is) thing 

O'ne"' ]ionnatga''de' wa'honde'nien'de"'. Gagwe'gi' 

Now they (m.) are they (m..) it attempted. It all 

numerous 

Tho"ge' o'ne"' ne" Hania'de"'go'na', Ha'no'wa', 

At that now the He Turtle Great, He Cara- 

time (is) pace (is) 



HEWITT] ONONDAGA VERSION 181 

said: " Next in turn, let me make the attempt." Then, verily, a large 
l)ulk of them muunted on his back. He was al)lc to bear them all on his 
back. Then they said: " He it is who will be able to bear the earth on 
his back." Now, at that time, they said: '"Do ye go to seek earth in 
the depths of the water." There were many of them who were not 
able to obtain earth. After a while it seems that he, the Muskrat, also 
made the attempt. He was a1)le to get the ground thence. Musk- 
rat is he who found earth. When he came up again, he rose dead, 
holding earth in his paws, and earth was also in his mouth. Tliey 
placed all of it upon the carapace of the Turtle. Now their chief said: 
'■ Do 3'e hurry, and hasten j'ourselves in your work." Now a large 
number of muskrats continued to dive into the depths of the water. 
As fast as they floated to the surface they placed the earth on the 



1 

2 
wa'hatge"dat. O'ne"' wa'heiini'hen": "Na'ie' ne" e"'hagwe'nia' 

he it bore on the back Now they (m.) it said: "That the he it will be able ^ 

by the forehead strap. (it is) to do 

e"'hado"'hwendiiage"dat." Tho"ge' o'ne"' wahenni'hen": "Sne'- 

he will bear earth on the back by the At that now they it said: "Do ye t 

forehead strap." time two it 

sak'hil'" (swesak'ha' ?) ne" ganonwagon'wa' ne" o'he"da'." 

go to seek (do ye it go to the it water depths in the it earth 

seek?) (ground)." 

OiinatgiVde' hiiii" de'hodigwe'nion' a'hadihe'da'gwa'. DieiT'hiV 

They (z.) are not they it were able to do could they earth get. After a O 

numerous (it is) while, 

gwa" o'ne"' ne" Hano'gie" o'ne"' o"ni' wa'hade'nien'de"'. 

seem- now the He Muskrat now also he it attempted to do. 

ingly, 

Na'ie' wa'hagwe'nia' hwa'ha'he'da'gwti'. Hano'gie" wa'ha'he'dsi- 

That he it was able thither he earth He Muskrat he found ground, 

(it is) to do (ground) fetched. 

tceii'ni". Sawendaga"gwa' hawe"'heio"'ha'die\ ho'tciagwe'nonni'- 

Again it floated he came up dead, he came with his 

paws closed 

ha'die' ne" o'he"da', ha'sagon'wa' o"ni'' wadak'he'. Gagwe'gi" 

(on it) the it ground, his mouth in also it came con- It all 

tained in it. 



wiVhe-'hefi": "I" 


o""ke"' agade'nien'de"'." O'ne"' hi'itV 


he it said: "I 


next in let me it attempt Now verily 
turn to do." 


hwa'hoiidawe" ' hat' 


iawe'dowa'ne"". Wa'hagwe'nia' gagwe'gi' 


thither they (m. ) got upon 
it (his back) 


it bulk large (is). ' He it was able it all 
to do 



ga'nowa-'ge' wtVhadi"hen'. O'ne"' ne" honwa'sen'no"' wa'he'^hen": 

it carapace OQ they (m.) laid it. Now the their chief he it said: 



10 

11 



"Tciasno'we"'*, deswa'nowaia'he""ha' ,swaioM6""ha'." O'ne"' 

"Do ye two make do ye hurry yourselves do ye work." Now ^'^ 

haste, 

ge"dio^go\va'ne"'' hano'gie" honna^done'^hwi' ganonwagon'wa'. 

it body of j^ersons muskrat they (m.) continued it depths of water in. 

large (is) to dive 

Ganio" swe°da'gaa"gwa' na'ie' niio'sno'we' ga'nowa"ge' hadi'he'- 

So soon as again it floated that so it is rapid it carapace on they mi.) are 

habitually (it is) laying the 

a This is a dual form employed in the place of a plural, which follows it in parentheses. 
bThis is a dual form used for a plural. 



13 
14 



182 



lEOQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



back of the Turtle. Sometime thereafter then, verily, the}^ tini.shed 
covering the carapace with earth. Now, at that time, the carapace 
began to grow, and the earth with which they had covered it became 
tlie P^artli. 

Now, also, they said: ''Now, moreover, do ye go to see and to 
meet this womiin-being whose body is falling hither." At once a 
great number of the large waterfowl flew hence, joining their bodies 
together, and there on their joined bodies her person impinged. Then 
.slowly the large waterfowl descended, and also they placed the 
woman-being there on the carapace. Moreover, the carapace had 
now grown much in size. Now, moreover, they said: ''Now, verily, 
we are pleased that we have attended to the female man-being who 
has appeared in the .same place with us." 



da'ha"hri'. Gain'gwa' nwa'onni'she' o'ne" 

J- eartli on it. .Some (time) so ( long i it lasted now 

ga'nowa"ge' wahadi'he"do"ga'. Tho"'ge' o'ne" 



9 
10 
11 
12 



it carapace on 



they (m.) it with earth 
coated. 



At that 
time 



hi'isi' wa'hadi".sa' 

verily they (ni.j it 

tini.shed 

wa'wadodia'ga' 

it grew in size 



ne 

3 the 



ga no wa 

it carapace 



hodi"he'do"hwi'. 

4 they (m.) it with earth 



na le 

that 

(it i.*) 



ne 

the 



o"'hwen'djia' wa'wa'do"' ne" 

it earth it it became the 



covered. 

O'ne"" df wii'henni'hen": 



more- 
over 



thev it said: 



tciia'daa'dri"na' ne'' neii'ge"' 

6 her body lo meet go the thi.H (it i.s) 



da'die' 



once 

onnato-iX''de 



o'ne"' 

now 



wa'tgondi'de"' 

they (z.) flew 



O'ne"' di" 


swakdo""na'. 


deie- 


' ' Now mort 


do ye tfo to see it, 


doye 


over 






igoii'gwd' 


daieia'doii'die'." 


Gon- 


she man- 


thence her bodv is 


At 


being 


falling." 




na'ie' 


ne" gondigo' 


wane°'s 


that 


the they (z.) large ones 



they (z.) are 
inanv 



thence they let them- 
selves down 



the 



ga nowa ge 

it turtle on 



(it is) 

nti'ie' ne'' w:VtgofididuVdaik'ho"\ iie"tho* hi'iiV 

that the they (z.) their bodies there verily 

(it is) conjoined severally, 

he"tge"' daieiirda'ha-'nha'. O'ne"' skenno°''a' dagoilda'se''"da' ne" 

up high there her body Now slowly 

alighted. 

so'wek gondigo' wane"^s, na'ie' df 

duekis} they (z.) large ones, that more- 

(itis) over 

wa'shagoni^'derr ne"' agofi'gwe\ O'ne"* 

tliey her placeil the she man- Now 

being. 

gowa'ne"' iodo'di'. O'ne"' df wa'henni'hen": 

it much it has Now more- they (m.) it said: 

grown. over 

we'dwatcennon'niiV ne'' tea" wa'dionkhi^snie*''nha 

lo we are glad ■ the the we her have cared for 

where 

na'ie' ne'' gado'ge"* w:Vongwago"'so"da\'' 

l-x that the in ii <'ertain we (and she) have appeared." 

(it is) place 



ne"tho^ 

there 

di" 

more- 
over 



ne 

the 



ga no wa 

it turtle 



'O'ne"' 

' ' Now 

ne" 

the 



hi'ia' 

verily, 

ofi'gwe' 

man-being 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



183 



The next day came, and she looked and saw lying there a deer, also 
fire and firebrands, and also a heap of wood, all of which had been 
brought thither. At that time she kindled a fire, using for this pur- 
pose the three fagots which she hud slipt into the bosom of her gar- 
ment, and of which he [the chief] had said: "Ye two will have this 
for a provision." At that time she laid hands on the body of the 
deer. She broke up its body, some of which she roasted for food. 
She passed three nights there, when she again gave birth, again becom- 
ing possessed of a child. The child was a female. That, verily, was 
the rebirth of Zephj-rs. Now the elder woman-beingerected a booth, 
thatching it with grasses. There the mother and daughter remained, 
one being the parent of the other. 

Now the earth was large and was continually increasing in size. It 
was now plain whei"e the river courses would be. There they two 
remained, the mother attending to the child, who increased in size 



Wa'o'he°"nha', wa'ontgat'hwa' ne"tho'' genda'ga' ne"' sken- 



It became day, 

noiido"" odjis'da' 

it Are 



she it saw 



it lay 



o"ni" ne''tho' gago°'hetchage"hen\ oien'da' 

also there it brands lay heaped, it fuel 



o^'ni" o'sotcio'da' 

also it heap stands 



ne"tho' ga'^ha. Tho"ge o'ne"' wa'ondega"da', 

there one it has At that now she kindled (a fire), 

brought. (time) 

na'ie' wa'ontc'da' ne" ena'sgwagon'wa' 'a^'se"' niioko°'kho"nage' 

that she it used the her bosom in three so many it fagot in 

(it is) number (is) 

heiago'se""di', na'ie' ne" ha'wen': "E"tciade"na"da\" Tho"ge 

there she them that the he it said: " Ye two will take At that 

had dropped, (it is) provision." (time) 

o'ne"' wa'dio"'nia"hen' gaia'di"ge' ne" skeiinondo"". WaVlieia'- 

uow she her two hands its body on the deer. She its body 

to it put 

da'hi''dir, na'ie' wa'onde'skoii'de"' ne" e"iondekhon'nia\ 'A"se'" 

broke up, that she it roasted tor herself the she it will eat. Three 

(it is) 

he" saionde"don', wa'agowiaienda"nha', 

again she 
was confined 

hi'iiV 

verily 



eksa'a". 

she child. 



again 

Na'ie' 



That 

(it is) 



ne 

the 



she infant became possessed of, 

saioiina'ffat 



again she is 
born 



ne' 

the 



niiagono"'hwe'di 

go many she remained 
over night 

e'iie"- ne" 

she female the 
(is) 

Ga^nde''so"*k. 0'ne°^ ne'' goksteiT'a' wa'euo'she°\ 

It-wind.<!-§^o-about Now the she ancient she set up a bower 

(Gusts-ol-wind ) one 

sthofidtl'do"'. Ne-'tho' degni^deii', ondat'hawa'. 

thatched it with There they (z.) abode, one parent of the 

grass. other (was). 

O'ne"' gowa'ne"' ododi'hiVdie' ne" o'^'hweii'djia'. 

Now it much it continues to the it earth. 

(is) grow 

oien'det tea" noiVwe' e"ge"'hio"'hwade'niofik. Ne^tho' degni"den" 

itiscogni- the the place it river will have its course There they (z.) two 

zablf where severally. abode. 

deiofidade^'snie" ne" eksa'a''. Agwa's ne" na'ie' godi'sno'we' 

she her cared for the she child. Exceed- the that she grew rapidly 

ingly (it is) 



wa'die' 

she 



O'ne"' 

Now 



1 

2 
3 
■4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
U 



184 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



very rapidly. Some time afterward she then became a iimideii. And 
they two continued to remain there. 

After a while, seemingly, the elder woman-being heard her oti'.spring 
talking with .someone. Now, verilj% the elder woman-heirig was 
thinking about this matter, wondering: "Whence may it be that a 
man-being could come to talk with her." She addressed her, saying: 
"Who is it, moreover, who visits thee?" The maiden said notliing 
in reply. As .soon as it became night and the darkness was complete, 
he, the man-being, again arrived. And just as the day dawned the 
elder woman-being heard him say: "I will not come again." Verily 
he then departed. 

Not long after this the life of the maiden was changed. Moreover, 
it became evident that .she was about to give birth to a child. After 



eksadase"a' 

she small 
maiden (is) 



gododi'ha'die'. Gaiii'gwa' nwa^onni'she' o'ne" 

she continues to Some (time) so it lasted now 

grow. long 

wa'wa'do"'. Ne"tho' ni'io't tea" degni"den'. 

it it became. There so it is the they (z.) two 

where abode. 

o'ne"" gwa" othon'de' ne"' gok'steii'a' ne" 



DieiT'ha' 

After a 
while, 

deiagot'ha- 

she is talking 
with one 

ne" 

the 



gwa" 



seem- 
ingly, 

ne" 

the 



seem- 
ingly 



she (z.) 
heard it 



the 



she ancient 
one 



the 



dat'hawa'. 

her offspring. 



gok'sten'a' wawe'ii' : 



ne' 

6 the 



7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



she ancient 
one 

oii'gwe' 

man- 
being 



she (z.) it 
thought: 



O'ne"' 

Now 

' Gain" 

" Where 



hi'ia 

verily 

hon" 

prob- 
ably 



waVenno"*don'nio"' 

she (z.) it thought about 
repeatedly 

non'we^ nonda'ie"' 

the place thence one 

should come 



"Goii'ha'wa', 

"I am thy parent, 

Hiia" ste"^' 



deiaefot'ha'. 

Iking 
►ne, 

di" 



she is talking 
with one, 



Wa'agowenna"nha', wa'ge""hefi": 

she (z.) it said: 



she addressed words to 
her, 



who 

(is it) 



more- 
over 



nonwa'ho"de'" 

kind of person 



hiianada'hen"sek? " 

he thy mat visits?" 



Not 
(it is) 

na'ie' 

that 

(it is) 

o'ne"' 

now 



de'aga'wen' ne" ek.sa'go'nti'. Ganio" wa*o"gak, 

she it said the she maiden. Sosoon it became 

as niglit, 

ne" .sa'ha'io"". Agwa's 

Just as 



any- 
thing 

ne" wa'dwa'sondaienda"nha' o'ne" 

now 



the it thick night became 

daio'he"'i'ha'die' 



there it is coming 
to be day 

wa'he"'hen": 

he it said: "Not 

(it is) 

sho'deii'dion'. 

again he departed. 



tea" 

the 
where 



one"" 

now 

"Hiia" he" 

again 



ne ' 

the 



the 

gok'sten'a 

she ancient 
one 



again he 
arrived. 



gothon'de' 

she it heard 



dadoiida'ge'." O'ne"' hi'ia' 

again I will Now verily 



Hiia" de'oi'hwishe"!' o'ne" 

it matter long (is) now 



o'ia' ni'io't tea" ago'n'he' ne" 

it other soitis the she living the 

(is) where (is) 

eksago'na'. O'ne"' di'' oieii'det tea"" e"iagoksa'daienda"nha'. 

she maiden. Now more- it is recog- the she will become pos- 

(is) over nizable where sessed of a child. 



Not 
(it is) 



HEWITT] ONONDAGA VERSION 185 

a time, when, seemingl}-, the maiden had only a few more daj's to go, 
she was surprised, seemingly, to hear two male man-beings talking 
in her body. One of the persons said: "There is no doubt that 
the time when man-l)eiugs will emei'ge to be born has now arrived/' 
The other person replied: "Where, moreover, does it seem that 
thou and I should emerged' He replied, saj'ing: "This way. more- 
over, thou and 1 will go/' Now, again, one of them spoke, saying: 
"It is too far. This way, right here, is near, and, seemingly, quite 
transparent." At that time he added, saying: "Do thou go then; 
so be it." Now, he started and was born. The child was a male. 
Then, so far as the other was concerned, he came out here through 
her armpit. And now, verily, he killed his mother. The grandmother 
saw that the child that was born first was unsurpassedly fine-looking. 

Dien"ha' gwa" o'ne"' gwa" doga"a' e"tciago''he''"'.sen' o'ne"' 

After a seem- now seem- a few in will it her days now -L 

wliile ingly, ingly, number dawn on 

ne" eksa'go'na' wa'ofidien"ha' gwa"' o'ne"' gothoii'de' de'hodi'- 

the she maiden she was surprised seem- now she it heard they (two) ■* 

ingly were con- 

tha' tea'' eia'dagon'wa". I'ha'do-k ne" shaia"dada': "O'ne"' 

vers- the her body in. He said re- the he one per- "Now 3 

ing^ where peatedly son is: 

giliMiwado'ge"' ne" tea" hwiVga'he^g tea" non'we' e"ieia- 

it is a matter of the the it (time) has the the place one will 4 

certainty where arrived where 

ge/'-'nha' ne" on'gwe' na'ie' ne" e"ionnagat'." Ni'ha'wen'^ 

emerge the man- that the will one be Thenee he it said ^ 

being (it is) born." 

ne" .shaia'dada': "Gain" gwa" di" non'we' he^'dene'?" Da'- 

the he one per- "Where, seem- more- the place hence we two He 6 

son is: ingly, over, will go?" 

hai'hwasa'gwa' wa'he°'hen": " Tho'ne"' di" he"'dene'." 0'ne° 

answered he it said: "Here(itis) more- hence we two Now 

over will go." 

he" ne" shauV'dada' wa'hawennitge""nha , wirhe"'hen": 

again the he one per- he spoke (uttered word), he it said: ^ 

son is 

"Swadjik' i'no"'. Tho'ne"' gwa"tho' dosge'"'ha', gwa" 

"Excessively tar This way just here (it is) near, seem- 9 

(it is) . ■ ingly. 

deio'hat'hek." Tho"ge- wri'he"'hen": " Wa'se", nio"." O'ne"' 

it is light (i.e., At that heitsaid: "Thitherdo so be Now 1^ 

transparent)." (time) thou go. it." 

wa'ha'deii'dia', wjVhennagat' ne" shaia"dada'. Hadji'na' ne" 

he started, he was born the heoneper- He male the H 

son is. (is) 

haksa'a^'. Tho"ge' na" ne" shaia'dada' tho'ne"' e'sio^'diV'ge' 

he child. At that that the lie one per- here her side at li 

(time) one that son is 

da^haiage""nha\ ©'ne"' hi'itv washago'iio' ne" hono'^ha'. 

thence he came Now verily he her killed the his mother. 1^ 

forth. 

Heiaweilgo^dr haksiVdi'io ne" tea" waVatgat'hwiV ne" ho\soda'ha" 

Unsurpassedly he fine the the she (z.) it looked the his grand- 14 

(thoroughly) child (is) where at mother 



7 



186 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN, 21 



At that time she asked, saying: " Who, moreover, killed VDur mother, 
now dead?" Now, he who did it replied, saying: "This one here." 
Verily, he told a falsehood. Now, the elder woman-being seized the 
other one by the arm and east his lK)dy far beyond, where he fell 
among grasses. Now, she there attended to the other one. It is said 
that they grew rapidly in size. After a while, seemingly, he was in 
the habit of going out, and there running about from place to place. 
In like manner they two grew very rapidlj'. 

Now the child who lived out of doors kept saying: "Do thou 
tell thj' grandmother, who, verily, is grandmother to us two, that 
she should make me a bow, and also an arrow." Now, verily, he 
told her what manner of thing the other person desired. The only 



ne" da'hadiee""da" wa'hennagat'. 

the there he did it he was bom. 

(first) 
was the 

nen'do"' wii'a'hen"': 

she it said: 



10 

11 

12 
13 
14 



Tho"ge' 

At that 
(time) 



o ne 

now 



wa*ei"hwa- 

she aslced ques- 
tions repeat- 
edly 



' Son" nonwa4io''de" 

"Who Itind of person, 



di"' wa'shago'io' ne" 

he her Icilled the 



more 
over, 



etchino"ha'-ge""ha' ? " Da'he-'hen" 

she yotir two mother — it Thence he it said 

was?" 



ne' 

the 



ne"tho' 

there 



••Nen'ge"'." 

"This (one) 
it is." 

da'honeiitcha 

thence she his 
arm seized 

gon'wa' 

among 

shaia"dada 

he one per- 
son is. 



Wa'hennoie°"da' hi'ia. 

He told a falsehood verily. 

ne"' shaia'dadil' si'' 

the he one per- yonder 

son is (far) 

hwirhendaga"nha\ O'ne"' 

there he fell on his Now 

back. 



ni'hoie'e"': 

so he it did: 

gok'steiiM' 

she ancient 
one, 

ia'hoia'dofi'dr, aweiinu'ga- 

hence she cast his it grass (weeds) 

body. 

de'ho'snie' 



O'ne"' 

Now 



ne' 

the 



ne^'tho 

there 



she him cared 
for 



Agwa's, ia'ke" 

Very, it is said, 



o'ne"' he^haia'ge°\s, ne^tho' 

now hence he goes there 

out of doors, 



de'hodisno'we'. Dieii'^ha' 

they two grew rap- After a 

idly. while, 

hadak'he's. Hiie"'noie""ha' 

They two played 
together " 



he ran about 
habitually. 



ne 

the 

gwa'' 

seem- 
ingly 

ne" 

the 



deiade"'hnon'da' 

they two are brothers. 



Shade'io't hoiinadisno'we'. 



O'ne"' 

Now 

hana'gee' 

he dwells: 



i'ha'do"k 

he it kept 
saying 

" Sheiatho'ie"' 



It two is 
alike 



ne 

the 



they (m.) grew 
rapidly. 



haksa'a" 

he child 



'Do tholi her 
tell 



ne 

the 



na le 

that 

(it is) 

.sa'soda'ha" 



ne ■ 

the 



asde" hagwii" 



out of 
doors 



shedi"soda'ha' 

she our two grand- 
mother is 

o"ni'." O'ne"' 

also." Now. 



ne 

the 

hi'ia' 

verily, 



thy grand- 
mother 

"• ne" 

the 



aiouge'sen'nie" 

she me should 
it make for 

wu'shagotho'ie"' tea" 

he her it told the 

where 



na le 

that 
(it is) 

a'en'na' 

it bow 



ne 

the 



toward, 
side of it 

hi'irr 

verily 



ga'hes'ga' 

it arrow 



nonwa'ho"de"' 

kind of thing 



ne' 

the 



de'hodo"'hwendjion'niks ne" shaiiVdadii". Na'ie' ne" 

it him is neces.snrv for the he one person is. That the 

(it is) 



daiona'- 



there 
she 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



187 



result was that she got angry, saying: "Never will I make him a 
bow and also an arrow. It is he, verily, who killed her who was the 
mother of yon two." 

It continued thus that the two brothers played together. They 
were in the habit of making a circuit of the island" floating there. 
And, as rapidly as they made a circuit of it, so rapidly did the eartli 
increase in size. When, it is said, the island had grown to a great 
size, then he who had been cast out of doors kept saying: ''Man- 
beings* are about to dwell here." The other person kept saying: 
"What manner of thing is the reason that thou dost keep saying, 
'Man-beings are about to dwell here?' " He said: "The reason that 
I say that is that it is a matter of fact that man-beings are about to 



khwe""hsi' gen'gwa, iion'do"k. "Hiia" hwen'do"' thakhe'sen'nie"' 



became only. she it kept 

angry saying : 

ne" a'eii'na' ga'hes'ga" o"nr, 

the it bow it arrow also. 



"Not ever I him it will 

^it is) make for 

Na'ie' hi'ia' shago'io' ne"' 

That verily, ,^ he her the 

(it is), " ~" killed 



she'snino'"ha'." 

she (is) your two 
mother." 

Ne"tho' ni'io't hiie"^ioie""hri' de'hiade-'hnon'da'. 

There so it is 



they (m.) two played 
together 



they (mj two are 
brothers. 



da'ses tea'' ga'hwe"no\ Na'ie^ ue" tea" 



circuit the 

of it where 



it island floats. 



That 

(it is) 



the 



the 
where 



De'hiiathwa- 

The (m. ) two iniide 
customarily a 



niio sno we ne 

so it is rapid the 



wti'hiathwada'se' ge'^'s he" niio'sno'we' waVadodia'gtV tea' 

10 so it is rapicl it grew in size 



thev two made a circuit 
of it 



custom- so 
arily 

o"^hweridjia'de\ 0'iie"\ ia'ke"\ 

it earth is present. Now, it is said 



the 
where 



wiX'ododi'ha'die' 



ne" 

the 



gowa ne 

it much hence it continued 

(is) to grow in size 

tea" ga'hwe"no' tho"ge' o'ne"' i'ha'do"k nen'ge"' a'wet asde" 

the it island at that now he it kept this one it can out 

where floats time saying (it is) be of doors 

hoiiVdofi'dio"': "On'gwe" oiinagilfhe' ne" tho'ne"'." I'ha'do"k 

she his body east: "Man-being they are about the here." He it kept 

to dwell saying 

ne" shaia"dada': " Ho't nonwa'ho"de"' diioi"hwa' tea" 

the he one person is: "What kind of thing there its matter (is) the 

(=is the reason) where 

i'sa'do"'k: " OiTgwe" onnagiit'hc" ne" tho'ne"'?" W^'he^'hen": 

thou art "Man-Vjeing they are about th*- hereV" Heitsaid: 

saying: to dwell 

" Na'ie- ne" diioi^hwa' ne'' na'ie' ioa'do"k ne'' do'ge"s se" 

" That the there its matter (is) the that I keep say- the it is true asaniat- 

(it is) (=is the reason) (it is) ing it 

on'gwe' e"ionnagat' ne" tho'ne"'. I' 

the here. I that I keep say- the It Sap- 

one ing it 



ter of fact 

na" iga'do"k ne" Odendoii- 



man-being they (indef.) 
will dwell 



3 

4 

.5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



a Hence arose the idea so prevalent among Amerindian peoples that the earth is an island, 
floating on the primal sea. 
'>Uere man-being means human l>eing. 



188 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



dwell here. And it i.s I, the Sapling, who say it."'' 80 then, tlii.s 
other person began to say: "I .shall be called Flint." 

When they two had nearly grown to maturity, it is said, then he, 
the Sapling, made him.self a lodge, erecting a booth. And when he 
had completed it, he departed. He went to hunt. He shot at a bird, 
V)ut he missed it, and his arrow fell into the water. Verily, he then 
resolved: "I will take it out of the water again." Now, there into the 
water he cast himself, plunging into the water. He was surprised 
that, seemingly, he fell there beside a dooi-way. Then, moreover, 
from the inside of the lodge a man-being .spoke to him, saying: "Do 
thou come in, my child; I am thankful that thou hast visited my lodge. 
I purposely caused thee to visit the place where my lodge stands. 
And the reason that it has thus come to pass is that my mind was .so 
ati'ected by what thy grandmother keeps saying. And, moreover, I 



ni"a' e"gia'djik." Da', o'ne"" nen'ge"' shaia"dada' Wii'ha'sa'we"' 

1 ling will I be named." .S<», now this one he one he it began 

(it is) person is 

tea" i'ha'do"k: "O'ha'ii' na' ne" i"' e"gia'djik." 

2 the he it kept "It Flint that the I will I be 

one that named." 

ia'ke", a'hiadodia'ga' o'ne"' hotno"'son'ni' 

itissaid, they two would now he himself made 

grow up a lodge 

Odendonni'Ti'. Nfi'ie' ne*' o'ne"' wa'hadieii- 

It Sapling. That the now he etim- 

(it is) pleted his 

ho'den'dion". Wa hadowat'hii'. Wa'ha'a'gwa' 

he departed. He went to hunt. He (it) shot 



9 
10 
11 
1-2 
13 
14 



where saying; 

O'ne"* tho'-ha'. 

Now nearly 

wtVhanos'he"' ne'' 

he made a the 

bower 

no"'kde"' 

task 



o ne 

now 



lie' 

ihe 



ne" gofidiio\sho""a' sa'hat'wfi^'da' awe"''ge' hwaVnha" 

the they [z. ) birds (are) he it missed it water in thither it was 

(=small animals) immersed 

ho'hes'ga'. O'ne"" hi'ia' wiVhe'a': "E-sgo'gwa'." O'ne"' ne''tho' 

his arrow. Now, verily, he it thought: " will I it take out Now there 



' will I it take out 
of the water." 



awe°"ge 



8 it water on 
(in) 



wa'hadiado"iak wa'hade's'gok. Wahadien"ha' gwa" 

he oast his body lie plunged himself He was surprised seem- 

in it. ingly, 

ne"tho' hwa'hendaga"nha' ganho'hwak'dsV. O'ne"' df gano"s- 

there there he fell on his back it doorway beside. Now more- it lodge 

over 

gon'wil' on'gwe' da'hada'dia' wa'he"'heii": '' Dadjio"", gon'ha'wa'. 

in man-being thenee he spoke he it said: "Do thou come I am thy 

in, parent. 

Niiawe""hti' wa'sgno"'sowe""nhii\ Tea"' ge'qda tea" wasgwat'hwa' 

The I it did the tliou dost pay 

where purposely where a visit 

Na'e' ne" diioi"hwa' tea"' ne"tho' 

That the there its reason the thus 

(it is) (is) where 

ne" ak''nigo""ha' ne" tea" nonwa'ho"de"" iiofi'- 

the my mind the the kind of thing she it kept 

where saying 



I am thankful 

tea' 



the 
where 



non we' 

the 
place 

nwaawe""ha' 

so it came to 
pass 



thou my lodge 
hast found. 

ageno"'sa'ie"'. 

I lodge have. 



do"k ne" etchi'so'da'ha'. Na'ie' df age'i" ne"' e°gon'ie" 



the 



your two grand- 
mother. 



That 

(it is) 



more- I it intend- 
over ed 



I thee it will 
give 



ne" 

the 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



189 



desired to give thee a bow and also an arrow which thou dost need, 
and which, by and b\-, thy brother will see, and then he will ask, 
saj'ing: ' Whence didst thou get this?' Thou must saj': 'Mj' father 
has given it to me.' '' Now, furthermore, he gave both to him. At 
this time he bestowed another thing; it was corn. At that time he 
said: ''This corn, as soon as thou arrivest at home, thou must at once 
I'oast for food for th3'self; and at that time thou must continue to 
say: 'In this manner will it continue to be that man-beings, who are 
about to dwell here on the earth, will be in the habit of eating it.' 
Thy brother will visit thy lodge, and at that time Flint will ask, say- 
ing: 'Whence didst thou get this kind of thing?' Thou must say, 
moreover: 'My father has given it to me.' " 

Moreover, it did thus come to pass when he arrived at his home. 
At that time he husked the ear of corn and also laid it beside the tire; 



a'en'na' ga'hes'ga' 

(it) bow it arrow 



ne" de'sado^'hwefidjio'niks. 

the it ttiee is neoessarj- for. 



o ni , na le 

also, that 

(it is) 

Na'ie' ne" ge""djik e"'hatgat'hwa' ne" detciade"'hnon'da' 

That the bv and bv he it will see the thou he are brothers 

(it is) 

e"'he"'heiT': " Gaifr' nofi'we' das'hawa'?" E""si'hen": "G'ni'ha" 

he will say: "Where the place thenee thou it Thou it wilt " My father 

didst bring?" say: 

haga'wi'." O'ne"' di" dashagao"" dedjia'o"'. O'ne"' di" he" 

he it gave to Now more- he it gave to both. Now, 



more- 
over 



him 

o'ia' doiida'hat'ga'k, na" ne" one""h!r. 

that one the it corn. 



more- 
over. 



again 



itisother thence again he be- that one the 
one stowed it that 

wa'he^'heii" : "Nen'ge"' o'ne""ha' ganio" 

he it said: "This one it corn so soon 

(it is) as 

e"sadade'skont'has e''sadekhon'niiV, o'ne"' 

thou wilt roast it for thou it wilt eat, now 

thyself 

'hek: "Tho'ne"' ne"io"dik e"iek'sek 

to say; "Here 



so it will con- 
tinue to be 



they (indef.) will 
continue to eat it 



tho'ne"' oiinagat'he' tea" o^'^hwendjia'de-. 

here they are about to the it earth is present." 



they are about to the 
dwell where 

ne" detciade°'hnon'da' O'ha'a' 

the thou he are brothers It Flint. 



do"': e"'he"'hen": "Gain" 

will he it sav: "Where 

(is) 

nonwa'ho"de"'?" E"'si'heir' di" 

kind of thing?" Thou it wilt 

say 

Ne"tho' di" niiawe""r 



more 
over: 



Tho"ge' o'ne"' 

At that now 

(time) 

he°'tcio°' gondadie" 

there thou wilt at once 

again arrive 

ne'tho^'ge' e"'sado"'- 

the at that thou wilt 

(time) continue 

ne" ofi'gwe' ge""djik 

the man- by and by 

being 

E"'hiano"*sowe°"nha' 

Will he thy lodge visit 

o'ne'^' e"'hai'hwanen'- 

now will he ask 

questions 

nofi'we', di" das'hawa' neii'ge"^ 

the more- thence thou didst this one 

place over bring it (it h) 

: "G'ni'ha^' thagawi''." 

" My thence he me 

fathtr it gave." 

ne" o'ne"' hesho'io"'. Tho"2-e' 



Tho"ge' 

At that 
(time) 



There 



more- 
over 



so it came to the now there again he At that 

pass had arrived. (time) 

o'ne"' wa"hanoio"sa' ne" one""ha', odjisdak'da' wa'ha'ie"' o"ni' 

now he it ear husked the it corn, it fire beside he it laid also 



3 

i 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

U 



190 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



he roasted the ear. So soon as it became hot, it emitted an odor 
which was exceedingly appetizing. They, hi.s grandmother's people, 
smelled it. She said: "Flint, do thou go to see what the Sapling is 
roasting for himself, moreover." He, the Flint, arose at once, and 
he ran thither. When he arrived there, he said: " Whence didst 
thou get that which thou art roasting for thyself?" He said in reply- 
ing: "It is a matter of fact that my father gave it to me. And it is 
this that the man-beings who are about to dwell here on the earth 
will be in the habit of eating." Then Flint said: "My grandmother 
has said that thou shouldst share some with her." The Sapling replied, 
saying: "I am not able to do it, and the reason is that she desires 
to spoil it all. I desire, as a matter of fact, that man-beings, who 
are about to dwell here on the earth shall continue to eat it, and that it 
shall continue to be good." Then, verilv, the lad returned home. When 



wa'hade'tcieiT'he"". Ganio" wa'o'dfii'he""ha' o'ne" 



he it roa^ited. 



ne 

the 



naie 

2 that 

(it is) 

ho'soda'ha" 

3 hiH grandmother. 



heiodongo"di' 

it is exceeding 



it became hot 



we"'saga"wi'. 



wawade'"sa'e'" 

it scent emitted 



Wa'ge"'hen": 

She {z.) it said: 



it odor is appeti- 
zing. 

'^O'ha'a, sekdo""na' 

'■It Flint. do thou it^olo 

St!t' 

nonwa'ho"de"' hode'skoii'da' ne" Odendoiinr'a'.' 

kind of thing he himself is roast- the It Sapling." 

ing for 

o'ne°' ne"tho' ia'thaa"dat ne" O'ha'ii'. Ne" 

now there hence he ran the It Flint. The 



Wa'odis'hwC ne" 

They (z. ) it smelled the 



di" ho't 

more- what 
over fitis) 

Da'hade"sda'tci'5 

He arose at once. 



now 



there 



iwa 



ha'io"' 

thither he ar- 
rived 



wa'he^^heiV: 

he it said: 



■ Where 



non we 

the place 



das'hawa' tea" 

the 
where 



thence thou it 
didst bring 



nonwa'ho^de"' sade'skon'da'?" Da'hai'hwa'sii'gwa' niiia'wen' 

kind of thing thou it art roasting Thence he replied 



thou it art roasting 
for thyself?" 



there he it has 
said: 



''G'ni'ha'' se*' thagawi". Na'ie' e'^ie'ksek ne" ofi'gwe' 



ft "Mv father as a mat- thence he gave That 

■ terof fact it to me. (it is) 



they (indef.)wil] the 
habitually eat it 



man- 
being{s) 



onnagat'he' ne" tho'ne"' o-'^iwendjia'de'." O'ne"' ne" O'ha'a' 

the here it earth is present." Now the It Flint 



9 they (indef.) are 
about to dwell 

wahe"'hefi": 

10 He it said: 



"Gawefi" ksoda'hii" a'shenoii'da' ? 

' She it has said 



mv grantl- 
father 



thou it shouldst 
share with her?" 



Da'hai'hwa'- 

Thence he 



sagwa 

H answered 

nil'ie' 

1 9 that 
^•^ (it is) 

gagwe'gP 

^3 i* entire. 



ne' 

the 



Odendoiini"a' wa'he°'hen": "Hiia" thakgwe'nia', 

It Sapling he it said: "Not I it am able to do, 



ne 

the 



diioi"hwa' 

so its reason is 



ne' 

the 



tea" 



"Not 
(it is) 

en"he' 



e"khetge'"'da' 

' I it shall spoil ' 



Ge'he" 



ne' 

■^j^ the 



ongwe 

man-being(s) 



the she it de- 

where sires 

se" ne" e"iek'sek e"ioia'nek onnagat'he' 

I It desire asamat- the thev (indef. 1 it it will continue the>- (indef.) are 
ter of fact will habitually eat to be good about to dwell 

ne" tho'ne"'' o"'hwendjia"ge'." O'ne"' hi'ia' 

the here it earth on." Now verily 

(it is) 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



191 



he arrived there, he told what he had learned, saving: "The Sapling 
did not consent to it." She arose at once and went thither to the 
place where the booth of the Sapling stood. Arriving there, she said: 
"What kind of thing is it that thou art roasting for thyself?" He 
replied, saying: "It is corn." She demanded: "Where is the place 
whence thou didst get it?" He said: "My father gave it to me. 
And it is this which the man-beings who are about to dwell here on 
this earth will continue to eat." She said: "Thou shouldst give a 
share, verily, to me." He answered and said: "I can not do it, and 
the reason is that thou desirest to spoil it." At that time she said: 
"It is but a small matter, and thou shouldst pluck ofl' a single grain 
of corn and give it to me." He said: "I can not do it." She said: 
"It is a small matter, if thou shouldst give me the nubbin end of the 
corn ear." He said: "lean not do it. I desire that it shall all be 



sho'den'dion' 

again he departed 



ne 

the 



wa • 

he 



haksa\i". Ne" o'ne°' honsa'ha'io"' 

he child. The now there again he 

(is) arrived 

hatho'ia' wa'he°'hen": "Hiia" thogaie''"r ne" Odendonni"a'. 

it told he it said: "Not there he was the It Sapling. 

(it ia) willing 

Dondagade°.s'diV ne" ho^soda'ha" ne-'tho^ nhwa"e"^ tea" nofi'we' 

Thence she (z.) sprang the bis grandmother there thither she the the 

up at once went where place 

ni'hode"nos'he/'' ne'' Odendonni"a'. HwaVio"' wa'a'hen": "Ho't 

there his thatched the It Sapling. There she ar- she it said: ' What 

bower (is) rived (it is) 

nonwa'ho"de"' sade'skon'da' ? " Da'hada'dia' wa'he"'hen": "One"'- 



kind of thing 



he it said: 



'It com." 



Na'ie' e"iek'sek ne'' on'gwe' onnagiifhe' 

there heitgave That they (indef.) the man-being(s) they (indef.) 

(it is) will continue are about to 

dwell 

'''A'*sgenon'da' 

"Thou shouldst 
share it with me 

thakgwe'niiV. 

I it am able to do. 



thou thyself art roast- He spoke in 

ingfor?" reply 

'ha'." Wa'ge-'hen": "Gain" noiTwe' diis'hawa'?" Wa'he-^'hen" : 

She (z.) it said: "Where the place thence thou it He it said: 

(it is) didst bring?" 

"G'ni'ha" thagawi' 

" My father 

will continue 
to eat it 

ne" tho'ue"" o"'hwendjia"ge'." Wa'ge"'hefi": 

the - here it earth on." She (z.) it said: 

(it is) 

hi'ia'." Da'hai'hwa'sii'gwa' wahe"'hen': "Hiiii" 

verily." Thence he answered he it said: "Not 

(it is) 

Na'ie' diioi"hwa tea" se'he" (5"khetge""da'." 

That there its rea- the thou it in- I it will spoil." 

(ills) son (is) where tendest 

wa'ge"'hen": "Nigai'hwa"sl' ne" tcione""hada' 

she (z.) it said: "Just it matter small the it grain of corn 

(is) single 

na'ie' doiidas'gwe"'." Wa'he'^hen": "Hiia" 

that thou it shouldst give He it said: "Not 

(it is) tome." 

Wa'ge"'hefi": "Nigai'hwa"si' ne" doiidas'gwe"" ne" oko"'- 

She (z.) it said: "Just it matter .small the thence thou it shouldst the it imraa- 

(is) give to me ture end 

see""'da'." Wa'he"'hen": -Hiiri-' thtikgwe'nia'. Ge'he" gagwe'gi' 

(ofthecorn- Heitsaid: "Not I it am able to do. litdesire. it whole 

ear)." (itie) 



Tho"ge' o'ne"- 

At that now 

(time) 

a'se'ttiodiVgwiV 

thou it shouldst 
pluck out 

tlifikgwe'nia"."' 

I it am able to do." 



9 
10 

11 
12 

13 
U 



192 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[KTH. ANN. 21 



good, so that the man-bcinj>s shall continue to eat it." At that time she 
became angiy and she came forward, and, taking up some ashes, cast 
them on what he was roasting, and that was now spoiled. She said: 
"Thou desirest that that which they will continue to eat shall con- 
tinue to be good. There, it will now be different." Thrice did she 
repeat the act that .spoiled it. Then the Sapling .said: "Why hast 
thou done that deed ''. " 

Now again, another thing: he had a pot wherein he heated water. 
Then from the ear of corn he plucked a single grain of corn, and he 
put it therein, saying: "Thus shall man-beings be in the habit of doing 
when they prepare food for eating." Then he placed the corn in a 
mortar, and also said: "In this mannei also shall man-beings, who 
are about to dwell here on the earth, continue to do." Then he took 
from its stand the pounder and brought it down once, and it became 



1 
2 

3 
4 

5 
6 

Y 

8 
it 

10 

11 

12 

13 
li 



("'"ioia'nek e''iek'sek ne" on'gwe'." Tho"ge' o'ne"' wa'ona'- 

the man-being(s)." At that n'^ she (z.) 



il will be good they (indef.) it 
will continue 
to eat 



(time) 



khwe""ha', dawa'defi'dia' wa'tga"gwa' ne" o'ge'"'ha' ne"tho' 

became angry, thence .she (z.) she (z.) it took up the it ashes there 

started forward 

wri"gaie""diV tea" hode'skon'da' o'ne"" ne" na" waga'hetge""da'. 

she (z.) it dashed the he it is roasting for now the that one she (z.) it spoiled, 
against where himself so that 

./„xnfc 



She (z.) it said: 



o'ia ne"io"dik." 

it is so it will con- 

other tinue to be." 



"Thou it 
intendest 

Three 



the they (indef. ) will There, 
where habitually eat it. 



now 



O'ne"- ne" 

Now the 

nwa sie'a' ? " 

so thou it didst 
do?" 



Odendofini'a' 

It Sapling 



it will be ever 
good 

■°' nwawadief'a' tea'' wa'ga'hetge""da' 

she (z.) it re- the she (z.) it spoiled, 

where 

"Ho't na" ne"tho' 

"What that one there 

(why) 



so 
many peated 

wa'he-'hen": 

he it said: 



O'ne"" he" 

Now again 



o'ia' hotna'dja'ie"' ne"tho' wa'ha'hnekadai'ha"da'. 

it is he has a kettle set there he water heated, 

other for himself 

Tho"ge' o'ne°' ono"'kwe"'ia"ge' tcione'"'hada' wa'ha'nioda'gwa'. 

At th&t now it ear of corn on it grain of corn one he plucked it off. 

(time) (is) 

ne"tho' hwiVhok', Wcahe"'hen": " Ne"tho' oii'gwe' ne''ieienno'- 

there thither he it he it said: "Thus man-being(s) such theirmethod 

immersed, of doing kind of will 

de"'k ne"ieie"hak ne" e"iekhon'nia' ne" e°iondekhon'nia'." 

continue so they it will the one food will the one food will eat." 

to be continue to do prepare 

Tho"ge' ga'niga'dagon'wa' wa'ha'e"' ne" one""ha', wahe"'hen" 

At that it mortar in he it put in the it corn, he it said 

(time) 

o"nf: "Tho'ne"' ne"ieie"hak ne" on'gwe" oiinagat'he' ne" 

also: "This way so one it will the man-belng(s) they (indef.) are the 

continue to do about to dwell 

tho'ne"' o"'hwendjiri'de\"' O'ne"' wa'ha'nioda'gwa ne" iofithe'- 

here it earth is present." Now he it took from standing the one it uses 

to pound 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



193 



tiiii.shed pei-fect meal. He said: "'Thus it shall continue to be; 
thus shall be the manner of pi-eparing meal among the man-beings 
who are about to dwell here on the earth." At that time she, his 
grandmother, came forward and heard what he was saying. She 
arrived thei'e, and said: "'Sapling, thou desirest that the man-beings 
shall be exceedingly liappy." She went forward, and, taking off the 
pot from the fire, put ashes into the hot water. Now, moreover, she 
took the ear of corn, shelled it, and put the corn into the hot water. 
She said: "This, moi'eover, shall be their manner of doing, the method^ 
of the man-beingS-." At that time the Sapling said: "Thou shouldst 
not do thus." His grandmother did not obey him. Thence, it is said, 
originated the evil that causes persons customarily to speak ill when 



da"gwa' 
wa'wa'do"'. 

it became. 



sga'da' da'ha'se""da' 

one it is he it brought down 

Wa'he""hen": 

He it said; 



gaienneilda"!' 

it is finished 



gathe'tchi\sa"i' 

one it meal has finished 



Ne"tho' 

"There 



ne°io"dik. 



e°iethe'tchon'nia' 

one it meal will make 



ao it will con- 
tinue to be, 

ne" 

the 



ne^'tho' 

thus 



oil gwe' 

man-being(s) 



ne 

the 



ne"gaienno"de°k ne''' 

so its method of doing the 

will continue to be 

tho'ne"' oiinagat'he' ©"'hwendjiiVge'/' Tho^'ge' o'ne"' dawa'den'- 

hero they (indef.) are it earth on." At that now thence she 

about to dwell (time) started 

dia , da' we' ne" ho'soda^ha'' gothoii'de' ne" na'ie' i'ha'do"k. 

forward, thence the his grandmother she it heard the that heitkeptsay- 

she(z.)came (it is) ing. 

Ne"tho' wa'ga'io"' wiVge"'hen": " Odendonni"a' se'he" 

There she (z.) arrived she (z.) it said: " It Sapling thou it 

intendes^ 

e"iagotcennon'nik ne" ofi'gwe' na'ie' ne" heiawengo"dr,'^ 

they (indef. ) will con- the man-being(8) that the it is exceeding." 

ti'nue to be happy (it is) 

Wa wa^der/dia' wa'gana'djioda'gwa' ne" odjisda"ge' gana"djiot 



She (z.) started 
forward 



she (z. ) it kettle took up 



the 



o'ge°"ha' wa"ok tea" io'hnegadai"hen^ 



it ashes 



she (z.) it im- the 
merged in where 



itAvater (is) hot. 



it fire on 

O'ne"" 

Now 



it kettle 
stands 



di" one"" ha' 



more- 
over 



it corn 



watga^gwa' wagane°^hogen'ia' ne"tho' 

she (z.) it took up she (z.) it corn shelled there 



o" hwa"ok tea" 

too thence she (z.) the 
it immersed where 



3 

4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 



non'we' o'hnegadai"hen'. Wa'ge""hen": "Tho'ne"' df ne"ieie'- 

the place it water is hot. She (z.) itsaid: "Thisway more- so they (in" 11 



ne 

the 



over, def. ) it wil; 

on'gwe'." Tho"ge' o'ne"' ne" 

man-being(s)." At that now the 12 

(time) 

"'A"gwi' ne"tho' na'sie'ii'." Hiia" 

"Do it not thus so thou it Not 13 

shouldst do." (it is) 

ne" ho^soda'ha". Tbo"ge', ia'ke"', nidio'nhi"!' 

the his grandmother. At that it is said, there it went 14 

(time), wrong 

na'ie' ne" wti'he'tge"' ge"'s de'hodi'tha' tea" niga'ha'wi' ne" 

that the it is evil custom- they are talking the there it bears the 15 

(it i.s) arily where it (the time) 

21 ETH— 03 13 



'hak ne"ieienno"de"k 

continue so their method of 
to do doing will be in kind 

Odendonni"a' wa'he'"hen": 

ItSapling he it said: 



de'agogaie""!' 

she it consented to 



194 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



they prepare food. And, it is .said, she stated her wish, thus: "This, 
as a matter of fact, shall be the manner of doing of the man -beings." 
It so continued to lie. The Sapling kept saying: "The way in which 
thou hast done this is not good, for I desire that the man-beings shall 
be exceedingly happy, who are about to dwell here on this earth." 

Now at that time the Sapling ti'aveled about over the earth. Now 
there was a large expanse of earth visible. There was a mountain 
range, visible river courses, and a high clay bank, near which he 
passed. Now, verily, he there pondered many times. Then he made 
the bodies of the small game, the bodies of birds. All were in twos, 
and were mated, in all the clans [kinds] of birds. The volume of the 
sound made by all the various kinds of bird voices as they talked 
together was terrifying. And the Sapling kept saying: "Thus this 
shall continue to be, whereby the man-beings shall habitually be made 



iekhonnia"ha'. 

1 they (indef.) pre- 
pare food. 

de"k 



Na'ie' ne" wa'a'hen": "Ne"tho' se" ne°ieienno" 

the she it said: 



ne 



"There as a mat- so their method 

ter of fact of doing 

Wa'dwatgon'de"' ne"tho' ni'io't. 

there 



That 

(it is) 

on'gwe'." 

2 will be the man-being(s)." It became fixed 
in kind (thus) 

ne" Odendonni"a': " Hiia" de'oia'ne' tea" nwa'sie'a' 

3 the It Sapling: "Not it is good 

(it is) 

heiotgonda"gwi' sken'no"' e"iagot<'ennon'nik ne 

^ it will be immeasurably well (it is) they (indef. ) will be the 



the 
where 



so It IS. 



so thou it 
didst do. 



they (indef.) will be 
happy 



l'ha'do"k 

He it kept 
saving 

Ge'he" 

I it de-sire 

oii'gwe' 

man-being{3) 



tho'ne"' o"'hwendjia'de' oiinagat'he'." 

5 here (it is) it earth is present 



Tho"ge' o'ne" 

5 At that now 



At that 
(time) 



they (indef.) are 
about to dwell." 

ne" Odendoilnr'a' 

the It Sapling 



wa'thadawen'ie' 

he traveled about 



tea" 

the 
where 



o"^hwendjia'de\ O'ne"' gowa'ne"' tea" o"'hwendjia'de\ Ononda'- 

7 it earth is present. Now it much (is) the it earth is present. It mountain 



the 
where 



hii'die', ge"'hio'"hwade'nio''\ de^a daetci'ha'die' ne"tho' wa'ha- 

8 rises extend- it stream stands- forth it clay tall extends there he it 

ing along, severally, 

dongo^da'. O'ne"' hi'ia' ne"tho' 

9 passed. Now verily there 



it clay tall extends 
along 

Wirhenno"'don'nio"\ 0'ne°' 

he thought repeatedly. Now 



vva'haiaMon'nia' ne" gondi'io' 

the 1 

odinia'gi*, 



10 he its (their) body 
made 



they (z.) 
animals 



they (z.)are 
married, 



gagwe gi 

it all 



degni'ha'die', 

11 two they two are 

each, 

gondi'io'. Deiodeno"''hiani"di" tea" 

12 they (z.) are It is terrifying the 

animals. where 

gondi'io'' nhwa'tgondiwennage" odit'ha' 

13 they (z.) are 

animals 

donni"a' 

14 Sapling 



nigofidiio'da's'a". 

v'z. 
bod 

tea 



so they <z.) are small 
' bodied. 



Gagwe'gi' 

It all 



the 
where 



niiodi'seii'ge' 

so it breed is in 
many number 

nigai'sdowa'ne"' 

so it noise large (is) 



ne 

the 



ne" 

the 



every their (z. ) language in 
number (is) 

hot'ha' i'ha'do"k: 

he is ne it is saying; 

talking 



they (z.) 
are talking. 

Na'ie 

•That 



(it is) 



Na'ie' 

That 

(itis) 

ne"io"dik 

so it will con- 
tinue to be 



ne' 

the 



ne 

the 



OdeiT- 

it 

on'gwe' 

man- 
being(s) 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



195 



happy." And now he made the tiodie.s of the large game aninial.s. 
He finished the bodies of two deer, and the two were mates. " There, 
that is sufEeient to till the whole earth," he said. He made all the 
various kinds of animal.s severally. All were in twos, and the}', each 
pair, were mates [male and female]. 

At that time he, the Sapling, again traveled. Now the earth had 
grown to a very great size, and continued to grow. So now Flint 
became aware that the animals were ranging about. After a while 
then Flint concealed all the bodies of the animals. There in the 
high mountain was a rock cavern whereinto he drove all the animals. 
And then he closed it with a stone. Then Sapling became aware that 
the animals no longer roamed from place to place. Now, at this 
time, he again traveled over the entire earth. He saw on thi.s side a 



e"iagawentgade'da"gwik." Na'ie' ne" na'ie' o""ke"' ne" gondi- 



it them will make happy thereby.' 



next in 
time 



go'wane"'s 

large in size 



ne' 

the 



That the that 

(it is) (it is) 

gondi'io' wa'haiii'donnia'"hen' 

they (z.) are he their several bodies 

animals formed. 

degiia'dage" odinia'gi' wa"thas"a', 

they two body in they (z.) are he them two 

number (are) married finished. 

de"ga'hen"nhiV tea" niio"'hwen'djia\" wiVhe°'hen". 

it will be filled the so it earth is large," he it said. 



"Ne"tho' 

'There (it is) 



the 
where 



they (z.) 
are 

Skennondo"" 

Deer 

ha'degaieT 

just it is suf- 
ficient 

Gagwe'gi, 

It all 



ha\leganio"dage' wa'haia'donniri"hen\ Gagwe'gi* degniia'dage"- 

just it animal in he its body formed severally. It all 

every number is 

ha'die' odiniak'se"'. 

number they (z. ) are 

severally married. 

Tho'^ge' o'ne"' 

At that now 

time 

O'ne"' 

Now 



o ne" 

now 



gowa'ne"' 

it much (is) 

wii'hatdo'ga' 

he it noticed 



he" 

again 

tea" 

the 
where 

ne" 

the 



dofisa' hadawe fi' ie' 

there again he traveled 

o"'hwendjiii'de' 

it earth is present 



ne' 

the 



they (z.) two body 
(is) each in 



Odendonni"a' 

It Saphng. 



O-ha'a 

It Flint 



tea" 



the 
where 



ododi'ha'die'. Da', 

it is growing in So, 
size. 

deionnadaweii'ie' ne" 

they (z.) are traveling the 



D'ha'a' wa'haia''da'se'''da' 

It Flint 



he their bodies 
concealed 



goiidi'io'. DieiT'ha' gwa" o'ne"' ne" 

they (z. ) are After a seem- now the 

animals (game). while ingly 

gagwe'gi'. Ne"tho' tea" ononda'ha'gowa'ne"" ne"tho' oste"'ha- 

it all. There the it mountain rises great there it rock 

where 

ga'hen'da' ne"tho' gagwe'gi' wa'haiaMinio""da' ne" goiidi'io'. 

cavern has there it all he their bodies the they (z.) are 

impounded animals. 

oste°"ha' da'hadji'heda"gwa'. O'ne"' wsi'hatdo'ga' 

it rock there he it used to close it. Now he it noticed 



ne" 

the 



ne 

the 



tea" hiia" de'sgon'ne's 



O'ne-" 

Now 

Odendonni"a 

It Sapling 

about habitual 

Tho'^ge* o'ne"^ wa'thadawen'ie' tea" niio"'hweri'djia' 

he traveled the so it earth is large. 



the 
where 



not 

(it is) 



again thev(z.)go 
■ ' ■■ ■ illv 



At that 
(time) 



the 
where 



ne" gondi'io'. 

the they (z. ) arc 

animal. 

Wti'ha- 

He looked 



3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 
14 
15 



196 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



(ETH. ANN. '21 



mountain range. He went thither, and he arrived where the opening 
of the cavern waw. And he then took up the great ^itone and 
opened it again. Now, he looked therein and saw that the animals 
abode in that place. "Do ye again go out of thi.s place," he .said. 
Then they came out again. And it wa.s done very quickly. And all 
those that fly took the lead in coming out. At that time they, hi.s 
grandmother and Flint, also noticed that the animals again became 
numerous. And then Flint ran, running to the place where the 
rock cavern was. He reached the place while they were still coming 
out. And he, by at once pulling down the stone again, stopped up the 
cavern. Verily, some of them failed, and they did not get out, and at 
the present time they are still there. And it came to pass that thej' 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



nhwa'he", 

thither he 
went, 



tgat'hwa' ne"" hagwa" diiononda"ha'. Ne"tho' 

about this toward there it mountain There 

way rises. 

hwii'ha"io"' ne''tho" gwa"' oga'heii'diV tea"' ne"tho' io'sa'de'. 

there lie arrived there seem- it has an the there it cavern 

ingly opening where present is. 

Wa'tha-'gwii' ne" gaste"'ha'gowa'ne"' wa'hadji'heda'gwa". O'ne"' 

He it took up the it roek large (is) he it unclosed. Now 

ne"tho' wa'hatgat'hwiX' wa'ha'ge"' ne"tho' gonni"den" ne" ga'io'. 

there he looked he it saw there they (z.i abide, the it game 

(animals). 

'' Saswaiage"''nha' ne" tho'ne*^','' wa'he"'hen''. Tho^ge' o'ne"' 

" Again do ye emerge the here," he it said. At that now 

(time) 

sagondiiage""nha\ Agwa's tea'' niio*sno'we\ Nfi'ie' dagondi'- 

Hgain they emerged. Just as much the so it is rapid. Tliat thence tliey 

as possible where (it is) (z.) came 

■"hent tea'' niiofi"' degondide""ha\ Gagwe'gr sagondiiage"*"nha\ 

ahead the so it is they (z.) fly. It all again they (z.) emerged. 

where much (many), 

Tho^'ge' o'ne"' wa'hiiatdo'ga' ne" ho'soda'ha''' ne" O'ha'a' 

At that now they two it noticed the his grandmother the It Flint 

(tiniel 

o"ni' ne" tea" saionnatgade"''ha ne" gondi'io'. O'ne"' tho^'ge' 

also the the again they (z.) became the they (z.) are Now at that 

where numerou.s 

wa'thaii-'dat ne" O'ha'it' ne"tho 

he ran the It Flint there 



animal. (time 

nhwa-hadak'he' tea" noil'we, 

the place 



thither he ran 



diioste"'haga'hen'dri\ 

there it rock opening has. 



Na'ie' ne" 

That the 

(it is) 

sa'hadji'he'de"'. 

again he it closed up. 

de'tciodiiage""!', 

again they (z.) emerged. 



Hwii'ha'io"" 

There he 
arrived 

hfiia'dagonda'die' 

his body kept right on 



tea" 



non we 

the place 



the 
where 

diiodiiage""i^ 

there they (z.) 
were coming forth 

ne" oste""'ha' 

the it rock 



Ne"tho- 

There 

ne"tho' 

there 



hi'ia 

verily 

ne" 

the 



the 
where 

donda'ha'se""da 

thence again he it 
dropped 

o'dia'k drdodino'wen\ hiia' 

they are tliere they failed not 

some (it is) 

o""ke"' tgonni"den\ Ne"tho 

at present there they (z.) There 

abide. 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



197 



were changed, becoming otgon [malefic], and the reason that it thus 
came to pass is that some customarily put forth their orenda for the 
purpose of ending the days of tlie man-beings; and, moreover, the}' 
still haunt the inside of the earth. 

At this time Sapling again traveled about. Then he was surprised 
that, seemingly, a man-being came toward him, and his name was 
Hadu'i'. They two met. The man-l)eing Hadu'i', said: '"Where is 
the place whence thou dost come? " The Sapling said: •' I am going 
about viewing the earth here present. Where is the place whence 
thou dost come?" Hadu'i' said: "From here do I come. I am 



tea" wa'dwatde'nf o'tgo"'" wa'wa'do", na'ie' daioi'- 

so it came to the it (they) changed otgon it (they) became, that it wiis 

pass where themselves (it is) 

hwa'k'he' tea" ne"tho' nwa'awe°"hii" na'ie" ne" o'disVk na'ie' 

reason the there so it came to pass that tlie they iz. ) that 

where (it is) are some (it is) 

deioiinadennonda"gwi'' ne"' aiagawe""ni'sei'kda"gwe"' jie" on'gwe', 

they (z.) are emitting orenda the they (z.) would cause days to the man- 

for it end for them being(s), 

na'ie' ne" di" ne" o'"hwendiiagon'wtl' tgon'ne's. 

that the more- the it earth in (side) there they (z.) 

(it is) over go about habitually. 

Ne"tho'' nige""' o'ne"' he" donsa'hadawen'ie' ne" Odcndoii- 

There so it is now again there again he trav- the It Sapling, 

distant eled about 

ni"ii'. Tho^'ge' o'ne"' wa'hadien"ha' gwa" da'^he' ne" heii'gwe', 

At that now he was surprised, seem- thence he the he man-being 

(time) inglv. iseoming (is). 

na'ie' ne" Hadu"i'* haia'dji'. Wa'thiadft"nha'. Wtt'he"'hen" ne" 

that the Hadu''i' he is called. Thevtwomet. He said the 

(it is) 

heii'gwe' ne" Hadu"i': "Gaiii" noii'we' nonda'se"?" Wa'he"- 

he man-being the Hadu"i': "Where the place thence thou He said 

didst come?" 

'hen" ne'' Odendoiini'Ti': " AgekdofinioiTdie's tea" io°'hwendji- 

the It Sapling: " I them am going about the it earth is pres- 

viewing where ent. 

a'de'. Gain" ni's non'we' nonda"se'F' Wa'he"'hef5" ne" 

Where the the place thence thou He it said the 



the 
thou 



thence thou 
did.st come?" 



Hadu"i': "Tho'ne"' nonda'ge' dewagadawenie'ha'die'. I" hi'ia' 

Hadu"i': "Here thence I did I am traveling al)nut. I verily 



thence I did 
come 



3 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 



ain English there is no approximately exact equivalent of the term otgon, which is an adjective 
form denotive of the deadly, malefic, or pernicious use of orenda or magic power reputed to be 
inherent in all beings and bodies. It usually signifies deadly in deed and monstrous in aspect. 

^The Onondagas call this personage Hadu'i'', the Senecas, Shagodiiowe'gowa, and the Mohawks, 
Akoiiwiir;!'. The Onondaga name is evidently connected with the expression hadu'ii", signifying "he 
is hunch-backed." in reference to the stooping or crouching posture assumed by the impersonator, to 
depict old agt*. The Seneca name means, "He, the Great One. who protects them ( = human beings)," 
and the Mohawk name, "The Mask," or "It, the Mask." All these names are clearly of late origin, 
for they refer evidently to the being as depicted ceremonially in the festival for the new year. The 
orenda or magic power of this being was believed to be efficacious in warding off and driving away 
disease and pestilence, as promised in this legend, and hence the Seneca name. The Mohawk epi- 
thet arose from the fact that the impersonator usually wears a mask of wood. But these etymologies 
do not give a definite suggestion as to what natural object gave rise to this personification, this con- 
cept. But from a careful synthesisof the chief characteristics of this personage, It seems very probable 
that the whirlwind lies at the foundation of the conception. 



198 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANK. 21 



going about traveling. Verily, it is I who am the master of the earth 
here present." At that time the Sapling said: "I it is who finished 
the earth here present. If it so be that thou art the master of the 
earth here present, art thou able to eause j'onder mountain to move 
itself hither?" Hadu'i' said: "I can do it." At that time he said: 
" Do thou, yonder mountain, come hither.'' Then the}' two faced 
about. Sometime afterward they two now faced back, and, moreover, 
saw that the mountain had not changed its position. At that time 
Sapling said: " Verily, thou art not the master of the earth here 
present. I, as matter of fact, am master of it. Now, next in time, I 
will speak." He said: "Do thou, yonder mountain, come hither." 
Now the}- two faced about. And as quicklj^ as the}' two faced 
about again the mountain stood at their backs, The Sapling said: 
"What sayst thou? Am I master of it?" Then Hadu'i' said: "It 



gia'dagwe'ni'io' tea" o"'hwendjia"ge'." Tho"ge' wa'he"'hen" 



U 



1 it am master of 



the 

where 



it earth on." 



At that 
time 



he it said 



ne" 

2 the 



Odendonni"a': 

It Sapling: 



I" 

"I 



aksa'i' tea" io"'hwendjia'de\ Tho" 

I it finished the it earth is present. Thus, 

where 



sia'dagwe'ni'io' tea" io"'hwef5djia'de', 

it earth is present, 



thou it art master 
of 



the 
where 



gwa" en'k do'ge"s i's 

3 seem- it may it is true thovi 
ingly, be 

sagweniofi'-khe"" ga'e' nonda'we' tea" sige"" 

4 thou it art able art hither thence it the yonder 

to do thou would come w^here it is 

W:Vhe"'hen" ne" Hadu"i': "£"kgwe'nia'." 

5 He it said the Hadu"i 



diionofida"ha'«" 

there it mountain 
rises V ' ' 

Tho"ge' o'ue" 



' I it will be able 
to do." 



wa'he"'hen": 

he it said: 



Ga'e' 

'Hither 



tliencedothou 
eome 



sige"" 

yonder 
'it is 



At that now 

time 

nonaa"'se' sigfe"" diiononda"ha\''' Tho^'ge' 

there it mountain At that 

rises up." (time) 

wahiatga'hade'nf. Gaiii'gwiV nwaonni'.she' o'ne"' donsa'hiatga'ha- 

i they two faced about. Some So (long) it now again they two faced 

(time) lasted back 

de'ni' o'ne"^ di" hoiisa'hiatgat'hwiV gadoge""' ni'dio't tea" onofi- 

8 now more- again hence they two it unchanged so there the it 

over looked * (is) it is where moun- 

da"ha'. Tho"ge" ne" Odendonni"fi' wa'he-'hen": " Hiia" hi'ia' 

■-' tain rises At that the It Sapling be it said: "Not verily, 

up. (time) (it is) 

de'sia'dagwe'ni'io" tea" o"'hwendjia'de'. I" se" gia'dagwe'ni'io'. 

10 thou it art master of the it earth is present. I itisamat- 1 it am master of. 

where ter of fact 

O'ne"' i" o""ke"' de"tgada'diti'." Wa'he"'hen": "Ga'e' 

11 Now I ne.xt in I will talk out." He it said: "Hither 



thence 
do 



da"se' 

lii thou 
come 

niio''sno'we 

13 so it is rapid 



non- 

ne.xt in ^ 

turn 

^ige"" disnonda"ha'." O'ne"' wa'hiatga'hade'ni'. Ne"tho' 

yonder there thou inouiuam Now they two faced about. There 

It is art rising up." 

deshonnatga'hade'nion' o'ne"' ni"sho"'ne' diionon- 

thev two again faced back now there their two there it 



backs at mountain 

da"hii'. Wa'he"'heri" ne" Odendonni'Ti': " Hatc'kwi'. i" gwen- 

risesup. He it said the It Sapling: " What .sayst I I it am 

thou, 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



199 



is true that thou art master of it. Thou hast finished the earth here 
present. Thou shouldst have pitj' on me that I may be suffered to 
live. 1 will aid thee, moreover. Verilv, thou dost keep saying: 
' Man -beings are aljout to dwell here on the earth here present.' In this 
matter, moreover, will it continue to be that 1 shall aid and assist 
theo. Moreover, I will aid the man-heings. Seeing that m\- body is 
full of orenda and even otgou, as a matter of fact, by and b}' the man- 
beings will be affected with mj-sterious ills. Moreover, it will be 
possible for them to recover if they will make an imitation of the 
form of mj' bod}'. I, who was the first to travel over the, earth here 
present, infected it with my orenda. And, verily, it will magically 
conform itself to [be marked by] the lineaments of my body. More- 
over, this will come to pass. If it so be that a man-being becomes 
ill by the contagion of this magic power, it is here that I will 
aid thee. And the man-beings will then live in contentment. And, 



ni'io'." Tho"ge' 

master At that 

of." time 

swenni'io\ I's 

thou it art mas- Thou 
terof. 

ago'n'hek. 

I shouUl cun- 
tiiuK' to live. 

hofinagiifhe' 



wa'he"'hen" 

he it said 



ne 

the 



Hadu'i': 

Hadu"i': 



'' Do'ge"s 

" It is true 



IS 

thou 



saiennenda"!' tea" 



thou it hast fin- 
ished 



the 
where 



io"'hwendjia'de'. 

it earth is present. 



E°gonia'dage"nha' 

I thee will aid 



df. 

more- 
over. 



they (z.)areabout 
to dwell 



ne 

the 



tho'ne"' 

here 



I-sa'do-k 

Thou it art 
saying 

io^'hwendjia'de'. 

it earth is present. 



'dik 



ne 10 

so it will con- 
tinue to be 

ne" 

the 



e gome nawa s 

I thee will assist- 



e''gofiia''dage'''nha'. 

I thee will aid. 



A'sgideii'ii' 

Thou shouldst 
have mercy on me 

hi'ia' on'gwe' 

verily man- 

beings 

Tho'ne-' di" 

Here more- 

over 

E"kheitrdag:e''nha' 

I them will aid 



df 

more- 
over 

ne" 

the 

di" 

more-, 
over 



ongwe 



Na'ie^ 



man- 
beings. 



That 
(it is) 



ne' 

the 



ioen'dae' o'tgo"' di" 



otgon 

(it is) 



more- 
over 



se 

as a mat- 
ter of fact 



it orenda 
is possessed of 

giadi"ge'. Ge^'dji'k e''iagodianen"nha' ne" oii'gwe'. E"wa'do°' 

my body on. By and by they will be affected the man- It will be 

by mystic ills beings. possible 

e-tciofi'do'" doga't-khe"' de''ionde'niende"s'da' tea" 



ne 

the 



again one will 
recover one's self 



if it so 
be, 



the 
where 



nigia'do"de"'. Agadientga"hwi' 



such my body (is) 
as in kind. 



tea' 

the 
where 



My body has affected 
it (with orenda) 



is it, one it will make in the 

pattern of it 

dwa^adiee^^'dr dewagadawenie" 

I traveled about 



I was the first 
one 



o"*h\vendjia'de\ 

it ear-th is present. 



Na'ie' 



ne ' 

the 



nigitVdo"de"'. 

such as my body 
is in kind. 

gai""nha' 

potence 



Tho'ne"' 

Here 



That 

(It is) 

di" ne"iawe""ba' 



hi'ia' 

verily 



e"iona''ge'e°' 

it it will pattern 
after 



tea" 

the 
where 



more- 
over 



ne 

the 



ongwe' na le 



Doga"t e"iagodie"se"' 

so it will come If it so be one will become 

to pass. lllfrom magic 

ne"tho'' non'we' 



man- 
being 



that 

litis) 



ne' 

the 



there 



the place 



e gome - 

I thee will 



Skefl'no"' e"ioiino"'dofmio"''hek ne" 

Well (it is) they will continue to think ttie 

repeatedly 



ofi'gwe'. Na'ie' di" 



man- 
beings. 



That 
(it is) 



more- 
over 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



200 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY (eth. ann. 21 

moreover, they must c'u.stomavih' greet me by a kinship term, sa\^- 
ing: 'my Grandfather.' And when, customarily, the man-lieings 
speak of me they must customarily say: 'our Grandfather"; thereby 
must thej' designate me. And I shall call the man-beings on my part 
by a kinship term, saying: 'my Gi'andchildien." And they must 
make customaril}' a thing of wood which shall be in my likeness, 
being wrought thus, that will enable them to go to the several 
lodges, and. moreover, they who thus personate me shall be 
hondu'i'." They must employ for this purpose tobacco [native 
tobacco]. It will be able to cause those who have become ill to 
recover. There, moreover, 1 shall take up my abode where the 
ground is wild and rough, and where, too, there are rock cliffs. More- 
over, nothing at all obstructs me [in seeing and hearing or power]. So 
long as the earth shall be extant so long shall I remain there. I shall 

de"iof5kno"'hen"khwak ne" e"ia'hen" ge°'s: 'Ksoda'ha".' 

■^ they (indef.) will greet me by the one it "will cus- ' My Grand- 

the relationship term . say tomarily: father.' 

Nfl'ie' ne" o'ne"' ge^'s i"' e"iongwatho'ia' e"ia'hen" ge"'s: 

•^ That the now cus- I one me will tell of one it will cus- 

{it is) tomarily say tomarily: 

'Shedwa'soda',' na'ie' e''iongna'do'"khwak ne"' oii'gwe'. O'ne"' 

tJ • Our Grandfather,' that they (indef.) me will use the man* Now 

(it is) ' it to designate beings. 

ne" i" ne" on'gwe': " Kheiade"sho"''a'," de"kheno°*hen"khw:ik. 

^ the I the man- ' My Grandchildren I them will greet by the re- 

betng; several,' lationship term. 

Na'ie" di"' ne" e^ie'sen'nia' ge"'s ne"' tea" nigia"do"de"' ne"' 

^ That more- the one it will make cus- the the such my body (is) the 

(it is) over tomarily where as in kind 

o'hwen"'gtl" de"gaienda"gwik. na'ie" e"gagwe'niii' na'ie' tea" gono"'- 

6 it wood it it will resemble, that it it will be able that the they 

(it is) to do (it is) where (indef.) 

saien'do"' ne"tho' nhe^'hen'ne', ne"tho' di'' ne"'hadiie'a' ne" 

i lodges have there thither they (m.^ there more- so they (m.) it the 

severally will go over will do 

hondu"i' ne'' i"' e"iongadia"donda"gwa' tea"' nigia"do"'de"'. Oie"'- 

° they(m.) the I they (indef. ) my person will the such my body is It 

are hadu"i' represent thereby where as in kind. 

gwa'on'we' ge"'s e"iondiea'da"gwa'. E"gagwe'nia' e"djon'do°' 

" tobacco na- cus- one it it will use to do. It it will be again one will be well 

tive tomarily abletodo (=becomeone'sself again) 

ne" gono"'hwak'danik. Ne"tho' df non'we' ne"gadien" ne" tea"' 

It) the they (indef. t ill are There more- the place I myself the the 

severally. over will place where 

noii'we' odo"'hwendjiat'gi's tea" o'' degaste"'he'nio"". Hiiti" 



11 



the place it earth is wild the too it rock rises severally. Not 

severally where litis) 



ste"" di'' deVagadawe^-'das. Na'ie" di" tea'' ne"ionni'she' 

1^ any- more- it me obstructs (my sight. That more- the so it will last 

thing over hearing, or power). (it is) over where long 

e"io"'hwendjia'dek ne"tho' e°gi'den'dak. E"kheia"dage"nhe"k di"' 

13 it earth will be present there I will continue I them will continue more 

to abide. to aid over 



aMasculine plural of hadu'i'. 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



201 



continue to aid the nian-being8 for that length of time." There, it is 
said, is the place wherein all kinds of deadh' ills begot themselves — 
fevers, consumptions, headaches — all were caused by Hadu'i'. 

Now, at that time the Sapling again traveled. He again arrived at 
his lodge, and he marveled that his grandmother was angry. She 
took from its fastening the head, which had been cut off, of his — the 
Sapling's — dead mother, and she carried it away also. She bore the 
head awaj" with her. When she had prepared the head, it became 
the sun, and the body of flesh became the nocturnal light orb. As 
soon as it became night, the elder woman-being and, next in order, 
Flint departed, going in an easterly direction. At the end of 
three days, then said Sapling: "I will go after the diurnal orb of 



so it matter is There 

long." (it is) 

nwa'tgano^'soda'tchage" ; 

every it disease is in number; 

eniagono'"wano°"'hwak, 

one pain in the head 
will have, 



it is said, the 

place 

e"iago'do" ' 'gwak, 

onfe fever will have. 



that 
(it is) 



ne^'tho' 

there 



ne" ofi'gwe' ne"tho' nigai"hwes." Ne"tho', ia'ke"', noii'we' 

the man- there 

beings 

diiodadonni" ne" 

there it formed the 

itself 

de"iago'hwa'e'isda', 

colic, the gripes (it will 
pierce one's body), 

ni'hoie'e"' ne" Hadu'T. 

SO he it has the Haciu''i'. 

done 

Tho"ge' o'ne"' he" 

At that now again 

(time) 

Honsa'ha'io"' tea" non'we' thono'"'sa'ie"'. 

the the place 

where 

ha'gwa' tea" o'ne"' gona'khwe°"i' ne" ho^soda'ha^'. Wa'e'ha'gwa' 

matter the now she is angry the his grand- She it took off 

where m.other. 

tea" ganiionda^gwii'' ne" ono""wa*' ne" tea" ondat'hnia'd]ia"gi' 

the it had been the it head the the one her head had cut off 

where fastened up where 

ne" hono"ha'-ge""ha' ne" Odendonni"a' hwa'e^hwiV o^nf. 



donsa'hadawen'ie' 

again he traveled 



There again he 
arrived 



there his lodge 
lies. 



ne' 

the 

O'ne'^' 

Now 



Odendonni"a". 

It Sapling. 

wa'hoi'hwane'- 

he marveled at the 



the 



Heiago'hau"" 

Hence she carried 
it away 



ne 

the 



ono wa , 

it head. 



gaa"gwa' wa'wa'do"', 

it head it snn it it became, 

(luminary) 

a'soiiek'ha' gaa"gwa 

nocturnal it moon 

(it is) (luminary) 

WiVhiia'deii'dia'' ne" gok'steii'a 

they two departed the she ancient 

one (is) 



It Sapling 

Tea" 

The 
where 

o'ne"' 

now 



hence she it also, 

carried away 

wa'eiennenda"nha' ne"' 

the 



she finished the wav 
of it 



ne" 

the 



it flesh 



ne ' 

the 
that 



na 

that 



wa'wa'do"' 

it it became. 



Ganio" daio"gak o'ne"' 

So soon thence it now 
as became night 

naie' gwsi"tho' ne" O'ha'a' 

that next in the It Flint 

(it is) place (is) 



tgaa'gwi'tge"\s nhwa"hniiea"da . Na'ie' ne" 'a"se'" niwendage" 

there it sun rises thither they two (m.) That the three so it day (is) in 

directed their course. (it is) inimber 

nwiVonni'she" o'ne"' ne" Odendonni"a' wa'he"'hen": "O'ne"' 

so long it lasted now the It Sapling he it said : "Now 



3 
4 
5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 

13 
15 



202 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. AN>. 21 



lig'ht. Verily, it is not good tliat ttie human beings who ai"e ahout 
to dwell here on the earth should continue to go about in dark- 
ness. Who, moreover, will accompany me ? " A man-being, named 
Fisher, spoke in reply, saying: "I will accompany thee." A man- 
l)eing, another person, said: "1, too, will accompany thee." It was 
the Kaccoon who said this. Another man-being, whose name is Fox, 
said: "I, too, will accompany thee." There were several others, 
.several man-beings, who, one and all, volunteered to aid 
Sapling. At that time Sapling said: "Moreover, who will work 
at the canoed' The Beaver .said: "Verily, I will make it." Another 
man-being, who.se name was Yellowhammer, .said: "I will make 
the hollow of it." At that time there were several others who 
also gave their attention to it. And then they worked at it, making 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 

14 



he"sgegwa"ha' ne" gaa"gwa' endek'ha'. Hiia", hi'ia' de'oia'ne' 

lience I it will go to tho it orb of diurnal Not verily, it is good 

bring light (it is). (it is), 

daio'gas'dik tea" noii'we' aio°"sek ne'' on'gwe" onnagathe" 

it should con- the the place they should con- the human they (indef. (iire 

tinue to be night where tiniie to go about being about to dwell 

ne" tho'ne"' o'"hweudjia"ge''. Son' di" nonwa'ho"de"' he"ia'gneT' 

it earth on. Who more- kind of person one and I will go 

(is it), over, together?" 

Sgaia'nis haia'dji', da'hada'dia' wa'he"'hen": "I" 

Fisher he is he talked in he it said: "I 

(Long-track) called, reply 

Hen'gwe', thi'haia'da'de' wa'he""hen": "1" o" 

He man- just his body is projecting he it said : "I too 

being (is) (he is another person) 

Tcokda'gi' ne" na" wahe^'heii". Hen'gwe' thi'ha- 

Raccoon the that one he it said. He man- just his 

that being (is) body is 

Sge'"hna'k.se"' haia'dji' wa'he-'hen": "1" o" e"dwe'." 

projecting (he is Fox he is heitsaid: "I too we will go 

another person), (It Has Bad Fur) called together." 

Thi'hadiiii'dade'nio"" hef5nongwe'sho°"o"" gagwe'gi' wahoiithoii- 

They (m.) other (are) they (m.) man-being it all they (m.) 

severally ' (are) severally made their 

ga'iiVk ne" tea" e"'houwaie'nawiVs ne" Odeiidoiini":!'. O'ne"' 

scores (vol- the the they (m.) him will assist the It Sapling. Now 

unteered ) where 

tho"ge' ne" Odeiidofini"a'' w:Vhe'"hefi": "Soii" di" nonwa'ho"- 

Rt that the It Sapling heitsaid: "Who more- kind of person 

(time) (is it) over 

de"' e'"hoio'de""ha ne" ga'hon'wa'?" Wahe""-heii" ne" 

he it will work at the it canoe?" Heitsaid the 



the here 

Hefi'gwe', 

He man- 
being, 

he"dne"." 

thou and I 
will go." 

e"dwe"." 

we will go." 

iii'da'de'', 



Nagaia"gi" : ' 

Beaver 
(Stick-cutter): 

Kwe""kwe"" 

Yellowhammer 

e"ksridofi'nia'.' 

I trough (hol- 
low)." will make 



"1" hi'iu" e"ge'.sen'niii'.' 

' I verily I it will make." 

ni'ha'seuno"de'"" 



such his name (is) 
in kind 



Hen'gwe" thi'haia'da'de', 

He man- he another 

being (is) person is, 

ne" wa'he°'hen": "1" 

the heitsaid: "I 



na le 

that 
(it is) 

Tho"ge' o'ne"' thigoiidiia'dade'uio"' o"nf wa'ha- 

At that now they (z.) other individuals also they (m.) 

(time) " severally (are) 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



203 



the t-anoe. There Saplini;' kept .sayiiio" ''Do ye niake haste in the 
work." In a short time, now, verily, they tiiiished it, makinjr a canoe. 
Quickly, now, they prepared themselves. At that time they launched 
the canoe into the water. Then Sapling said: "Moreover, who 
shall steer the canoe?" Beaver said: '"I will volunteer to do it." 
Otter also said: "I, too." Now they went aboard and departed. 
Then Sapling said: "In steering the canoe, thou must guide it 
eastward." Now, it ran swiftly as they paddled it onward. It was 
night; it was in thick darkness; in black night they propelled the 
canoe onward. After a while, seemingly, they then looked and saw 
that daylight was approaching. And when they arrived at the place 
whither they were going it was then daylight. They saw that there 



dii'hwasteis'da'. Tho"ge' o'ne°' wa'hodiio'de'"'ha' wa'hadi'hoii- 

now they (m.) it worked at they (m.) made 



the matter gave 
attention to. 



At that now 

(time) 

ioiTniti'. NV'tho' i'ha'do"k ne" Odendonni"a': "Hau", 

the canoe. There he it kept the It Sapling : "Come, 

paying 

deswa'nowaia'he""ha'." Niioi'hwagwa'ha" o'ne"' hi'ia' wa'hofidi- 

do ye make haste (make your So it is a short matter now verily they (m.) 

backs boil)." 

enno'k'de"' wa'hadi'hoiiion'niii'. WiVdwakda"a' o'ne"' wa'hofide".sa\ 

It in a short space now 



it ta.sk 
tinished 

Tho"ge' 

At tliat 
(time) 

Tho^'ge^ 

At that 
(time) 

nonwa'ho"de' 

kind of person 



they (m.) it canoe 
made. 



o ne 

now 



awe""ge' 



water on 
(in) 

wa'he"'hen" ne'' 

he it said the 



hwa'honna'df ne'' 

thither they (m. ) it the 

cast 

Odendofini"ii*: 

It Sapling: 



they made them- 
selves ready. 

ga'hofl'wa-. 

it canoe. 



"Son" 

"Who 



di" 



e"thennidenwa"da' ? " 

he the canoe will gnide?" 



Nagaisi"gi' 

Beaver 
(Stick-Cutter) 



more- 
over 

WiVhe^'hen": 

he it said : 



"I"' e"gathonga'ia'k." Skwa'ie"' wahe"'hen'": 



I will volunteer.' 



Otter 



I" 

•I 



o'ni 

also. 



5 )? 



1 

2 
3 

i 
5 
6 

7 



Tho"'ge" o'ne"' wa'hofidi'dak. 

At that now they im.) got 

(time) aboard, 

Odendonni"':!' wa''he"'hen'' 

It Sapling he it said : 



ne 

the 



o'ne"' wa'hon'den'dia' 

now they (m.) departed. 

' ' Tgaii'gwi'tge"'s 

"There it sun rises 



O'ne"' 

Now 
(itis) 

ne°siea"da' 

thither thou it 
wilt direct 



tea"' e"senniden'wa"da\" O'ne"' hi'ia' deioa"dadi' tea" hodiga- 

the thou wilt guide the Now verily it is running the they (m.) 

where canoe." where 

we'ha'die'. Deio"gas, deioda'sondai'go"', o'.soi5dagonwa'sho"'gowa'- 

go along row- It is night, two it darkness to dark- it blackness (night) in along great 

ing. ness (pitch-dark) is joined, 

ne' ne"'tho' hadi'honioii'die'. DieiT'ha'' gwa" o'ne"' wa'hoiitgat'hwa'' 

there they (m. ) go along Suddenly, seem- now they (m.) looked 



now day (day- 
light). 



non we 

the place 



they ( m. ) go along 
propelling the canoe. 

eiide"' daio'do"'ha'die\ Ne" 

thence so it is coming The 
along. 

hwii'hen'ne' eiide" o'ne" 

now. 



thither they (m.) daylight 
are going (it is) 



seem- 
ingly. 



wa'hadi'io"' ne" tea" 

they (m. ) arrived the 



the 
where 



Wa'hoiitgat'hwa' ne"tho' 

They (m.) looked there 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
U 
15 



204 



IROQDOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN, 21 



was there, seemingly, an island, and they saw that the trees standing 
there were very tall, and that some of them were bent over, inclining 
far over the sea, and there in the water where the tree tops ended 
the canoe stopped. Then Sapling said: "Moreover, who will go to 
unfasten the light orb [the sun] from its bonds yonder on the tree 
top?" Then Fisher said: "I will volunteer." Then Fox said: "I, too 
[will volunteer]." At that time Fisher climbed up high, and passed 
along above [the ground]. He crossed from tree to tree, going along 
on the branches, making his way to the place where the diurnal light 
orb was made fast; thither he was making his course. But. in regard 
to Fox, he ran along below on the ground. In a short time Fisher 
then arrived at the place where the diurnal light orb was made fast. 



gwa" 

seem- 
ingly, 



tga'hwe"no', 

there it island 
floats, 



agwas 

very 
(it is) 



ne"tho' ga'hi'do'" 

1 seem- there it island they (m.) it saw there it tree stands 

ingly, floats, plurally 

gaefi'he'djfs agwa's deioteha'kdoii'nio'", ha'deioden'hiVk'donnioii' 

^ it tree trunks (are) very (just) 
long, (tall), 

gwe"' ne' 



wa'hadi'ge"' 

they (m.) it saw 



they (z.) are bent severally. 



awe ge' 

■i it water on 

(in) 

ga'hon'wa". 

5 it canoe. 



gania'da'ge"sho°' 

it lake (sea) on along 

hegaen'hade'nio"' 

thercit treesendseverally 

Tho"ge' o'ne"' 

At that now 

(time) 



just it tree trunks are bent over 
toward it 

hagwa'di', ne"tho' tea" uoii'we' 

side of it, there the the place 



the 
where 



ne*'tho' 

there 

wa'he-'heii" 

he it said 



dondagada"'nhiV 

there it stopped 



ne" 

the 



ne' 

the 



Odendonni"a' 

It Sapling: 



"Son" di" 

"Who more- 
(isit) over 

ne" tea" 

the the 

where 

■wa'he"'heiT': 

he it said: 



nonwa'ho''de"' e"'haniiorulagwa''ha- si'' tganiion'da' 

kind of person he it will go to unfasten 



yon- 
der 



there it is fas- 
tened 



hegaeii'hage^'hia'da' ne'' gaa"gwa' i '' Sgaia'nis 

there it tree top ends the it sun Fisher 

(orb of light) ?" 

"1", e°gathongri'iirk." Sge"'hnak'se''" wahe""hen": 

"I, I will volunteer." Fox he it said: 



9 

10 
11 



r 

■■I 



also." 



Tho^ge' 

At that 
(time) 



one"' 

now 



wa'haifthe"' 

he it climbed 



ne 

the 



Sgaia'nis 

Fisher 



he'tge"" ni'hodongo''di"ha'die\ 

up high there he passed along. 

.sho"' ne"tho' ni'hat'ha'hi'ne' 

there there he traveled 

alon^^ 



Wahaen'hiia"kho"", o'sgo'ha'ge"- 

He tree tops crossed over, it bough on along 

severally 



ne"tho' 

there 



nhwa'he" tea" nofi'we' 



thither he 
was going 



the the place 

where 



tganiion'da' ne" endek'ha" gaa"gwa\ ne'tho' nhwa'hawenon'ha'- 



1 O there it is fa: 
tened up 



the 



13 



die'. 



The 
that 



that 
one 

o'ne"' 

now 



it sun (orb 
of light), 

Sge^'hna'kse" 

Fox 



ne 

the 



Sgaia'nis 

Fisher 



Wa'dwakda"a' 

14 In a short time 
(it is close apart) 

non'we' tganiion'da ne" ^^aa"o-wa 

■^*^ the place there it is fas 

tened up 



the 



there 



thither he was making 
his way. 



e'da^'ge' ni'hadak'he'. 

down (on the there he ran. 

ground) 

o'ne"' hwa'ha'io"' tea" 

now there he arrived the 

where 

Gondadie" -wa'hatcho'iii'- 

At onoe he it bit repeatedly 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



205 



At tnu'e lie repeatedly bit that ])y which it was secured, and, severing 
it, he removed the ,sun. Now, moreover, he cast it down to hi.s friend, 
Fox, who stood near beneath him. He caught it, and now, more- 
over, they two tied. When they two had run half the way across 
the island, then Flint's grandmother noticed what had taken place. 
She became angry and wept, saying: " What, moreover, is the 
reason, O Sapling, that thou hast done this in this manner?" 
Then she, the elder woman-being, arose at once, and began to run in 
pursuit of the two persons. Fox ran along on the ground and, 
in turn. Fisher crossed from tree to tree, running along the 
branches. Now, the elder woman-being was running close behind, 
and now she was about to sieze Fox, who now, moreover, being 
wearied, cast the sun up above. Then Fisher caught it. Now, next 



'ho'" 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 



ne'' tea" ganiionda"gwe"% wa'ha'ia'k wa'haniionda'gwa' 

the the it it fastened by it, he it severed he it unfastened 

where 

gaa"gwa'. O'ne"' di" e'da"ge' hwiX'ho'di' hwa'honwa'die'"s 

it sun. Now more- down below thither he it thither he it threw to 

over threw him 

ne^'tho' dosge-^'^ha' tha'da'. 



honna'tchi' ne" Sge"'hnak'se" 

they are friends the Fox 



there 



there he 
stand.»4. 



ne" 

the 



Na'ie' 

That 
(it is) 

dewa'sen'no"' 

it is the middle 
(half) 



more 
over 



da'hiiie'na' o'ne." 

there he it now 

caught 

tea" niga''hwe"na' ne"tho' 

the so it island (is) there 

where large 



di'' wa'hiade"gwa'. Tea" 

they two (m.) fled. The 

where 

ha'don'sa'hnidak'he' 

jnst there again they two 
(m.) are running 



o'ne°' wa'ontdo'ga' ne" ho'soda'ha" ne" O'ha'a'. Waagona"- 

now she it noticed the his grandmother the It Flint. She became 



khwe"'*ha, wsrdio'^shent'hwiV, waa'hen": 

angry, she wept, she it said: 



■ Ho't di" noiiwa'ho"- 

kind of thing 



de"' daioi'hwa'khe' 



■What 
(is it) 



more- 
over 



thence it was the 
reason 



ne 

the 



tho'ne" 

thus 



Odendofini"aT' 

It Sapling?" 



nwasiea 

so thou it 
didst do 

O'ne"' dondaiede"sda'dji' wa'diona"dat ne" gok'steii'a' wa'honwa- 

Now thence she leapt up she ran the she ancient she them 

one pursued. 

di"se'k. Na'ie' ne" Sge"'hna'kse"' e'diV'ge' ni'hadak'he' na'ie' 

there ho ran that 

(it is) 

e^haen'hiiiVkho"''ne' 

he tree tops is crossing- 
severally 

O'ne"' dosge""ha' daiedak'he' 

Now nearby there she came 

running 

tho'*'ha^ a''hofiwaie'na' o'De""^ ne" 

almost she him could seize now the 





That 
(it is) 


the 


Fox 


ground 
on 


^v 


o""ke"' 


ne" 


Sgiiia'nis 


he'tge"" 


e 


ne.Kt in 
time 


the 


Fisher 


up high 



o'sgo'ha"ge"sho"' ni'hadak'he\ 

it boughs on along there he is running. 



3 
i 

5 



ne 

the 



gok'steii'a', o'ne" 

she ancient now 

one, 

Sge"'hna'kse"' wa'hatche""da' 

Fox he became wearied 



O'ne" 

now 



di" 

more- 
over 



ae gaa gwa . 

the it sun. 



Sgaia'nis 

Fisher 



daiiaie'na\ 

there he it 
caught. 



he'tge"" 

up high 

Na'ie' 

That 

(it is) 



ne 

the 



hwa'ho'di' 

thither he it 
threw 

' o""ke"' 

next in 
time 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



206 IKOQUOIAW OOBMOLOGY [eth. a>n.21 

in turn, .she pursued him. And he, next in turn, when she cunie run- 
ning close behind him and was about to seize him, being in his 
turn wearied, cast the sun down, and then Fox in his turn caught 
it. Thus, verily, it continued. Fisher was in the lead, and he at 
once boarded the canoe. And close behind him was Fox, holding 
the sun in his mouth, and he, too, at once got aboard of the canoe. 
Now, moreover, the canoe withdrew, and, turning around, it .started 
awaj'. Now, moreover, it was ruiming far awaj' as the}' paddled it 
onward when the elder woman- being arrived at the shore of the sea; 
and she there shouted, saying: "O Sapling, what, moreover, is the 
reason that thou hast done this thing in this manner? Thou should.st 
pity me, verily, in that the sun should continue to pass thence, going 
thither [in its orbit, giving day and night]." He, Sapling, said noth- 



1 

2 

3 

4 

Sgaia'nis na'ie' haiiVdagofida'die' .sa'hadi'diik ga'hofiwagon'wa'. 

5 Fisher that his body did not stop again he got it canoe in. 

(it is) aboard 

O'ne"' ne^'tho^ gwa"tho' ne" Sge"'hnii'kse"' ho^nhonda'die' ne" 

^ Now there next in the Fox he came holding it the 

place in his mouth 

gaa^'gwa', na'ie' o" haia'dagonda'die' sa'hadi'dak ne" ga'hofiwa- 

7 it sun. That too his body did not stop again he got the it canoe in. 

{it is) aboard 

goii'wa'. O'ne"" di" ne" ga'hoii'wff dawado""tgiV wa'dwatga'ha- 

3 Now more- the it canoe thence it with- it turned around 

over drew itself 

de'nf sawathonwanenda^'siiV. O'ne"*" df i'no°* sagadak'he' ne" 

9 again it canoe disjoined itself Now more- far again it is run- the 

(.from the landing). over ning 

tea" hodigawe'ha'die' ne" o'ne"' diiie'io"' ganiadiik'djV ne" 

10 the they (m. I go paddling the now there she it sea (lake) the 
where " onward arrived beside 

gok'sten'a', o'ne"' di" ne"tho' wa diago'hene*'da\ wa'a'hen": 

11 she ancient now more- there she shouted, she it said: 

one, over 

" Odendonni"a', ho't di" nonwa'ho"de"' diioi"hwa' tea" 

12 " It Sapling, what more- kind of thing it is reason the 

(is it) over where 

tho'ne"' uwa'sie'a'? A'sgiden'a' hi'ia', ne" tea" dondawet'hak 

13 here so thou il hast Thou me shouldst verily, the the thence it should con- 

done? pity where tinue to pass thither 

ne" gaa"gwa'." Hiiii" ste"" de'ha'wen' ne" Odendonni"a'. 'A^'se"' 

14 the it sun." Not any- he it said the It Sapling. Three 

(it is) thing 



wa'honwa'.se"k. Na'ie' 


o""ke"' ne" o'ne"' dosge'"'ha' 


she him pursued. That 

(it is) 


ne.\t in tne now 
time 


near by 


dfiiedak'he', o'ne"' tho"ha' 


a'hoiiwaie'na' o'ne"' ne" 




o""ke"' 


there she came now almost 
running, 


she him could seize now the 

that 




next in 
time 


wahatche""da' e'da"ge' 


hwa'ho'di', Sge"'hna'kse"' 




o""ke°' 


he became wearied down 
below 


thither he it Fox 
cast. 




next in 
time 


da'hfiie'na'. Na'ie' hi'ia 


niio'di'ha'die'. Ha'heii 


de 


• ne" 


there he it That verily 
caught. (it is) 


so it continued to be. He is in the 
lead 


the 



HEWITT] ONONDAGA VEESION 207 

ing'. Slie said this three tiiiios in succession. Now she exclaimed: 
"O thou, J'ox, efl'use tliy orenda to cause the sun to pass habituall}' 
thence, going thither." Fox said nothing in reply. Thrice, too, did 
she repeat this speech. Now, again, she said: "O thou, P'isher, 
effuse thy orenda whereby thou canst make the sun to pass habitually 
thence, going thither." He said nothing. Thrice did she repeat this 
saying. And all the other persons, too, said nothing. She said: 
"O thou, Beaver, thou shouldst at this time have pity on me; dt) thou 
effuse thy orenda; moreover, thou hast the potence to cause the sun 
to pass thence habitually, going thither." He said nothing. Thrice, 
too, did she repeat this speech. All said nothing. Now, there was 
there a person, a man-being, whose orenda she overmatched. She 
said: "O thou. Otter, thou art a fine person, do thou effuse thy orenda 

nwa^ondiefa ne" na'ie' iion'do"k. O'ne"' wage"'hen": "Sge"'- 

so many she it the that she it kept Now she (z.) it said: "Fox 1 

repeated {it is) saying. 

hna'kse"' desadeiinon'de"'' tea" sa'shasde°'sa'ie"' e"'sgwe'nia,' 

do thou thyself in tliy tlie thou hast potency thou it art able ^ 

orenda array. where * to do 

dondawet'hak ne" gaa"gwa'." Hiia" ste"" de'ha'wefl' ne" 

thenoe it should eon- the it sun." Not any- he it said the ^ 

tinue to pass thither (it i.s) thing 

Sge'"hna'kse"'. 'A"se"' o" nwaondiet":V na'ie' iion'do"k. O'ne"" 



Fox. Three too so many she it that she it kept Now * 

repeated (it is) saying 

he" o'ut wa'ge"'hen": '' Sgfiia'ni.s desadennofi'de"' tea" sa'sha- 

again it other she (z.) it said: "Fisher do thou thyself in the thou *^ 

(is) thy orenda array where hast 

sde"'sa'ie"' ne" tea" e"wgwe'niiV dondawet'hak ne" gaii^'gwa'." 

potency the the thou it art able thence it should con- the it sun." ^ 

where to do tinue to pass thither 

Hiia" ste"" de'ha'wen\ \\''se"' o" nwtVondief'a na'ie' 

Not any- he it said. Three too so many she it that * 

(it is) thing repeated (it is) 

iion'do"k. Nfi'ie' o" ne" thi'hadiia'dade'nio"' irapfwe'sfi' hiia" 

she it kept That too the just they (m.) are different it all not o 

saying. (it is) ones (it is) 

Ste"" de'hon'nen'. Wa'ge"^hen": ''Nagaia"gi\ i's ne" o""ke"' 

any- they (m.) it said. She (z.) it said: "Beaver, thou the present 9 

thing time 

a'sgiden'ii'; desadennon'de"' di", sa'shasde^'sa'ie'"' tea" e"'sgwe'- 

thou me shouldst do thou thyself in thy more- thou potency hast the thou wilt 10 

pity; orenda array over, where be able 

nia' ne" tea" dondawet'hak ne" gaa"gwa\'' Hiia" ste"" 

to do the the thence it should con- the it sun." Not any- 11 

where tinue to pass thither (it is) thing 

de'ha'wen^ 'A^'se"' o" nwaofldiefa' na'ie' iion'do"k. Gagwe'gi' 

he it said. Three too so many she It that she it kept It all 12 

repeated (it is) saying. 

hiia" ste"" de'hon'nen'. O'ne"' ne"tho' ne" heil'gwe' shaiiV- 

not any- they (m.) it said. Now there the he man-being he is a 13. 

(it is) thing 

dada' wtVthonwaen'gen'nia'. Wa'ge"'hen": **Skwa'ie"', i's son- 
person she his orenda overmatched. She (z.) it said: "Otter, thou thou 14: 

art a 



208 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



fETH. ASN. 21 



wherein thou hast the potence to ordain [forethink] that the sun 
thence .shall come to pass, going thither." He said: "So be it." 
Instantly accompanj'ing it was her word, saying: "I am thankful." 
At that time Beaver said: "Now, verily, it is a direful thing, wherein 
thou hast done wrong." And now, moreover, he took the paddle out 
of the water and with it he struck poor Otter in the face, flattening 
his face thereby. 

As soon as they arrived home Sapling said: " I am pleased that now 
we have returned well and successful. Now, I will fasten it up high; 
on high shall the sun remain tixed hereafter." At that time he then 
said: "Now, the sun shall pass over the sky that is visible. It sjiall 
continue to give light to the earth." Thus, moreover, it too came to 
pass in regard to the nocturnal light orb [the moon]. 



ofwe'di'io', desadennoii'de"' tea" 

good person, do thou thyself in thy the 

orenda array where 

ne" e"tcenno""do"' tea" dofidawet'hak ne"' gaii"- 



8 



sa'shasde"'sa'ie"' 

thou hast potency 



ne' 

the 



tea" 



the 
where 



the 



e sgwe nia 

^ thou it wilt he 
able to do 

gwa'." WiVhe-'hen" 

o sun." He it said: 



thou thyself will 
will it 



the 
where 



"So let it be." 



thence it will con 
tinue to pass 

Ne"tho' 



the 



gaweiinaniionda'die' 



There 



wiVge^'hen": 

* she (z.) it said: 

wa'he"'hen": 

,5 he it said: 



as soon ns it was said 
{it word came fastened to it) 

' ne" Nagaia'gi' 

the Beaver 



•Niiawe""ha\" Tho"ge' o'ne' 

" I am thankful." At that now 

(time) 

O'ne"' hi'ia' gano'we"' tea" sa'sadei'hwat'wa"da\" 

"Now verily it is dire the again thou hast done wron^ 

where (mistaken a matter;," 

o'ne"' di" da'hagawe'sotcie°"da', hago"'si"ge' wa'haie""da', 

now more- instantly he took paddle out of his face^on 

over water. 

da'ha'hwae'gwa' ne" Skwaie""-gen"ha\ 

7 thence he battered it the Otter it was 

(Battened it) (pooritis). 

Ganiio" .sa'hadi'io"' o'ne"' ne" Odendonni"a' 

So soon as again they now the It Sapling 



again they 
(m.) returned 

''O'ne"' wa'gatceiinon'nia' tea 

9 ' ■ Now I am glad 



he it struck, 



wa'he'"hen": 

he it said : 



the 
where 



sken'no"' tea" sedwa'io"'. 

well (it is) 



the again we have 
where returned. 



O'ne"' di" he'tge"" e"gniion'de"\ he'tge"" he"iontgonda"gwe 

10 Now more- up high I it will fasten, up high it will be unchanging 



e"ganiion'dak tea" gaa"gwa\' 

11 it will be fast the it sim." 



the 
where 



Tho"ge' o'ne"' wa'he"'hen": 

At that now she (z.) it said: 

(time) 

"O'ne"' de"wet'hak ne" gaa"gwrr gae"'hia'de'. De"io'hathe"dik 

12 "Now thence it will con- the it suu it sky (i.s) It will cause it to 

tinue to pass thither present. be light 

tea" o"'hwendjia"ge'." Ne"tho' di" nwiVawe""ha' tea" a'sonek'hii' 

13 the it earth on." There more- so it came to the it night per- 
where over pass where taining to 

gaa"gwa'. 

14: it moon, 
(it luminary) 



HEWITT] ONONDAGA VKKSION 209 

Now, Sapling traveled over the visible earth. There was in one 
place a river course, and he stood beside the river. There he went to 
work and he formed the body of a human man-being." He completed 
his bod}' and then he blew into his mouth. Thereupon, the human 
man-being became alive. Sapling said: "Thou thj^self ownest all 
this that is made." So, now, verily, he repeatedly looked around, 
and there was there a grove whose fruit was large, and there, more- 
over, the sound of the birds talking together was great. So, now 
came another thing. Thus, in his condition he watched him, and 
he thought that, perhaps, he was lonesome. Now, verily, he again 
went to work, and he made anothei' human man-being. Next in time 
he made a human woman-being. He completed her body, and then he 
blew into her mouth, and then she, too, became alive. He said, 
addressing the male man-being: "Now, this woman-being and thou 

O'nc'" de'hodaweiiie" tea" o"'hwendjiii'de' ne" Odendonni"a'. 

Now he traveled the it earth is present the It Sapling. 1 

where ^ 

Ge"'hio"iiwada'die' ne^'tho' ge"'hio"'hwak'da' wa thada"nha'. Ne"tho* 

It river is present there it river beside he came to stand. There ^^ 

in a ecuirse 

wiVhoio'de""hrr wiVhoia'doii'nia' ne" ofi'gwe''.* Wa''hoiaVli''sa' 

he went tu work he his body made the human He his body '^ 

being. finished 

o'ne""" wrrhaen"dat ne" ha'sagofi'wa*. Tho^'ge' o'ne"'' wa'ha- 

now lie blew the his mouth in. At that now he "i 

(wind uttered) (time) 

do'n''het no" on'gwe'. Odendoilni"!!" wa'he"'hen": '■^Ts .sa'we"' 

became the htiman It Sapling- he it said: "Thou thou it *^ 

alive being. ownest 

nen'ge"' tea" niiodie'e"'/' Da', o'ne"' hi'iiV de'hotga'don'nio"^k 

this one the so it is done." So, now verily he is looking repeatedly *' 

where " about 

ne"tho* o'hon'dri'ie"' ne" swa'hio'na', ne"tho" di" p-ai\sdowa'ne"' 

there it brush (shrubs) the it fruit (are) there more- it sound (is) * 

are (lie) large. over large 

gondiio'sho""iV odit'ha\ Da', o'ne"' he" o'ia. N'e"tho' ni'io't 

they (z. ) animals they (z. ) So, now again it another There so it is o 

small (birds) are talking. (thing). 

tea" de'hoga'"hir wtVhe'ii' hagwa'da's hon". O'ne"' hi'iiV 

the he him had his he it thought he is becoming per- Now verily 

where eyes fixed on lonesome haps. 

sa'hoio'de""hjV o'ne"' he" o'ia' sa'ha'son'nuV ne" on'srwe'. 

again he went to now again it an- again he it made the human J- - 

work other being. 

Agon'ii-we' o""ke"\ ne" sa'ha'son'nhV. Wivsha2'oiaMi"sa' o'ne"' 

She human next in the again he it made. He her body com- now ^ a 

being time pleted 

wahaen"dat ne" e'sagon'wa', o'ne"* o" na" wa'ondo'n'het. 

he blew the her mouth in. now too that one she became alive. I "2 

Wahe"'hen", walionwe^'^has ne" hadji'na': ''Na'ie' ne" 

He it said, he it said to him the he (is; " That the 1'^ 

male 



male: (it is) 



n From this paragraph to the end of this version there is more or less admixture of trans-Atlantic ideas, 
ft Here oii'gwe' denotes a human being. See footnote on page 141. 

21 ETH— 03 14: 



210 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



many. Do thou not ever cause her mind to be grieved. Thou must 
at all times hold her dear." At that time he said, addre.ssing her who 
was there: "This human man-being and thou now marry. Thou 
must hold him dear. And ye two shall abide together for a time 
that will continue until death shall separate you two. Always ye two 
must hold one the other dear. Ye two must care for the grove bear- 
ing large fruit. For there are only a few trees that belong to j'ou 
two." He said: " Moreover, do ye two not touch those which do not 
l^elong to you two. Ye two will do evil if it so be that you two 
touch those which do not belong to you two." 

Thus, in this manner, they two remained together, the man-being 
paying no attention to the woman-being. The male human man-being 
cared not for the female human man-being. Customarily, they two 
laid themselves down and they two slept. Now sometime afterward, 
he who had completed their bodies was again passing that way, and, 



nen'ge'"'ha' ne" agon'gwe' wedjinia'khe'. 'A"gwi' hwefi'do"" 

1 this one the she human ye two marrj-. Do not ever 

being do it 

a'she'nigo'''hahetge""da'. £"shenoe'"khwak diiot'gont." Tho"ge' 



2 
3 

4: 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 



Thou her shalt hold 
dear ever 



always." 



thou her mind shouldst hurt 
(grieve her mind). 

wa'he°'hen", wa'shagowe'^'has ne" ne"tho' e-'den': 

he it said, he her addressed the there she 

abode : 



At that 
(time) 

' Wediini- 

" Ye two 



ak'he' 

marry 



E°shenoe"'khwiik. 



Ne"tho' 

There 

e"' ne" 

the 



nenge°"ha' hon'gwe'. 

this one he human Thou him shalt hold 

being. dejir ever. 

nigai'hwe's ne" gado'ge"' e"tcia'dien' tea" nige"" 

so it matter the it certain ye two will the so it is 

long (is) place (is) abide where far 

ge"'he'io'" deMjisnikhil"sia'. Diiot'goiit de"djiadadatnoe'"khwak. 

it death again It vou two will Always ye two shall hold one the 

separate. other dear ever. 

O'heiida'ie"' swa'hio'na' e''sni'nigo'"ha"k. Doga"a' niio'hondo'da' 

It grove lies it fruit large ye two it will care Few in so it shrubs 

(is) for. number many stand 

tea" is' tcia'we-"." Wa'he°'hen" di": '"a"-.^;' a,^- „„v „-„ 

ye ye two own He it said 



the 
where 



ye two own 
them." 



more- 
over: 



"'A"gwi' di" ne" na 

"Doit not, 



more- the 
over, that 



that 
one 



linkf 



ne"" nhe.Mjiie'a' tea" hiia" is' de'tcia'we"'. E°snii'hwaue'a'gwa' 

this thither ye two it the not ye ye two it own. 



thither ye two it the 
way willdo(touchit) where 

-" hiia'' 



gwa 



at all 
events 



(it is) 

is' de'tcia'we"' 

ye 



Ye two will make a 
mistake 



ne" tina" is' ae'tciawe- ne"" nheMjiie'a'." 

seem- the not ve ye two own this thither ye two will it 

ingly (it is) it way do (touch it)." 

Ne"tho' ni'io't de'hni"den' hiia" ste°" de'honwasteis'tha' ne" 

There so it is they two (m.) not any- he her paid any atten- the 

abode together (it is) thing tion to 

hoii'gwe' ne" agon'gwe'. Hiia" ne" hadji'ua" de'shagosteis'tha' 

1" he human the she human Not the he male he her paid any atten- 

being being (is) (it is) (is) tion to 

ne" e"he"". De'hnida'ga', de'hnida"wi' ge"'s. O'ne"' gain'gwa' 

13 the she fe- Theytwo(m.) lay they two (m.) sleep cus- Now some 

male (is)". doivn together, together tomarUy. (time) 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



211 



seeiiij;' the condition of things, thought of what he might do to arouse 
tlie minds of the two persons. Then he went forward to the place 
where la}' the male person sleeping, and having arrived there he 
removed a rib from the male person, and then, next in turn, he 
removed a small rib from the sleeping female man-being. And now, 
changing the ribs, he placed the rib of the woman-being in the male 
human man-being, and the rib of the male human man-being he set 
in the human woman-being. He changed both alike. At that time 
the woman-being awoke. As soon as she sat up she at once seized the 
place where was fixed the rib that had been hers. And, as soon as 
she did this, then the man-being, too, awoke. And now, verily, they 
both addressed words the one to the other. Then Sapling was highly 



nwiVonni'she' 

so long it lasted 



ne"tho' 

there 



is'he' 



again 
he passed 



the 



shagodiia'di'sa"!' 



nen ge 

this one 
litis) 

wiVbatgafhwa' tea"' niiodie'e"'" o'lie""' wa*'henno"^don'nio" 

low he it thought repeatedly 



he their two bodies 
formed 



he it looked at 

nonwa'ho^'de"' 

kind of thing 

wa'lia'den'diiV 

he started 



so it has done 



ho't 

what 
(it is) 



the 
where 

na'hilie'a' tea" da'hodi'nigo"'hawen'ie'. Tho"ge' 

so he it should the it their two minds should At that 

amuse. (time) 

non'we' heildii'ga' ne" 

the place he lay the 



do 

no"tho 

there 



hadji'na' hoda"wi'. 

he male he slept 

(is) (was asleep). 

.sga'dii' o'stie""da' 

one it is it bone 

tea" goda"wi' o'r 

the 
where 



where 

' nhwa'he" tea" 

thither he the 

went where 

Waha'io"' ne"tho' 

He arrived there 



o'de"ga', 

it rib. 



o ne 

now 



ne" 

the 



o'ne"' wa'ha'nioda'gwa' 

now he it untixed 

(it removed) 

o""ke"' ne" e"he'" 



next in 
time 



ne 

the she 

female 



ne 

the 
that 



the 
where 



m'' wa'ha'nioda'gwa' ago'de^'ga' 

she now the that he it untixed (it her rib 

asleep was that one removed) 

ne"tho' wa'thade/nf ne" o'de"ga'; 

so it is small Now there he them the it rib(s); 

in size. exchanged 

na'ie' ne" e"he"' ago'de"ga' ne" hadji'na' wa'ho'de'g-ae'de'", 

that the she her rib the he male he him set rib in, 

(it is) - female 

o'ne"' di" ne" hadji'nti' ho'de"ga' ne" e"he"' wa'shago'de'- 

now, more- the ho male his rib the she he her sot rib 

over, female 

ga'ede"\ Dedjia'a""' shtrtbaie'ii' wa'thade'nf. Tho"ge' o'ne°\ 

in. Both alike he it did he changed the At that now 

two. (time) 

ne" agon'gwe' wa'e'iek. Ganiio" wa'ontgetc'gwiv ne"tho' 

the she human she awoke. So soon she sat up (arose) there 

being as 

goiidfi'die' hwaeie'na' tea" non'we' heio'nio'da' ne" ago'de"ga'- 



thither she it 
seized 



the 
where 



the place 



there it stands 
lixed 



her rib 



ge""ha'. 

it was 
(had been) 

hon'gwe' 

he human 
being 



Ganiio" ne"tho" nwa'eie'a' o'ne"' wa'ha'iek 

So soon thus so she it did now he awoke 



O' 

too 



ne" 

the 



ne" hadji'na". O'ne"' 

the he male. Now 

(is) 



hi'ia' dedjia'o"' 

verily both 



skeii'no"' 

peaceful 
(it is) 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



212 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. a:!S. '21 



jr.pleased. He said: " Now I tell you both that, in peace, without 
ceasing ye both must hold one the other dear. Thou wilt do evil 
shouldst thou address unkind words to the one who abides with thee 
in tills particular place. And, iie.xt in turn, he addressed the male 
human man-beinu-, saying: "Do not thou ever come to dislike her 

. witii whom thou dost abide. The two human man-beings that I have 
made are sufficient. The ohwachira [blood-family, offspring of one 
motliei] which ye two will jiroduce will till the whole earth." Then 
he again sepai-ated from them. 

It thus came to jiass that he noticed that his brother, Flint, was at 
work far away. Then he ordered one, saying: "Go thou after him 
who is at work yonder; he is my brother, Flint." At that time a per- 
son went thither, and said: "'I have come for thee. Thy brother, 



de''hiadadwennaa"senk. Tlio"'g( 

they conversed together At that 

repeatedly. (time) 

ue" Odendonni"a'. 'VVsi'he'"herr' 

the It SapliiiK. He it said: 



8 

9 

10 

11 
12 
13 



o'ne'" agwa's wahatcefinou'nia' 

now very he was glad 



■■ O'ne'" 

"Now 



kefi'no"' 

peaceful 

(it is] 

giatho'ie"' tea"' heiotgonda"gwi" de''tciadadnoe°"khwak. E"sei'- 

you two tell the hence it is unending ye two will each other Thou 

where (unceasing) hold dear. 

hwane'a'gwa' doga"t ne"' gawenna'het'ge"' e'"he''sen'"has ne" 

wilt err if it .so the it word evil is 

he 

gado'ge"" desni"den\" Na'ie' o""ke"' ne"' 

itisacertain ve two abide." That next in the 

(place) ' (it£s) time 

we'"'has wa'he"iien": "'A"gwi' hwen'do"' 

addressed he it said; "Do it not ever 



thou her wilt sav to 



wa 

I 



the 



hadji'na' wa'ho- 

he male he him 

a'sheshwa,"he"'iia' 



thou shouldst hate 
her 



ne" de'sni^'deiT. Ne"'tho' ha'degaieT degni"' wa'tge'seii'nia' 

7 the ye two abide There jlistitissuf- two it 

together. licient is 

ne" ofi'gwe'. Ue"ga'hen"nha' tea" niio'"hwen'dji;v, 

so it earth is large, 



I them two 
have made 



nu le 



the human 

being(s). 



It will become 
filled 



the 
where 



that 
(it is) 



ne 

the 



i's e"tciathwadjien'niii"."' O'ne"' deshonnadekha"sion'. 



ye two \vi!l make 
ohwaehira." 



tea" 



There 

thoio"de' 

there he is 
W'Orking 

de"''nhii"nha 

commanded 



tlie 
where 



more- so It came 

over to pass 

ne" de'hiade"'hnon'dir 

the thev two are brothers 



again they (m.) have 
separated themselves. 

o'ne"' wii'hatdo'giV 

now he it noticed 



tia ' 

the 
where 



ne' 

the 



O'ha'il'. 

It Flint. 



WiVh6"'hen": 

he it said: 



"Hetchi'hno"'kse' ne" 

'"There go ye after hiiu the 



O'ne" 

Xow 

.si" 

yon- 
der 



deiagiade"'hnoiTda' ne" O'ha'a'." 

one I are brothers the It Flint." 



Tho"ge- 

At that 
time 



one" 

now 



SI" 

yon- 
der 

wa'ha- 

he one 

thoio"de' 

there he is 
working 

ne"tho' 

there 



iihwa'he" 

11 thitllerhe 
went 



ne ■ 

the 



shairr'dada' 

he is one person 



wahe"'heii": 

he it said; 



"Dagon'hno"'k.se' 

" Thenee I thi-e have 
come for. 



HEWITT] ONONDAGA VERSION 213 

Sapling, has .sent me to bring theo witli ww. Then Flint .said: "I 
am at work. By and by I shall complete it, and then, and not before, 
will 1 go thither." Ho again departed. He arrived home, and more- 
over, he I )ro light word that Flint had .said: "'lam at work. I shall 
complete it by and })y, and then, not before, will I go thither to that 
place." He .said: "Go thou thither again. I have a matter about 
which I wish to converse with him.'" Again he arrived there, and he 
said: " He would that thou and he -should talk together." He replied, 
saying: ""Yerily, I must first complete my work, and not until that 
time will I go thither." Then he again departed thence. Again he 
arrived home, and he said: " He yonder did not consent to come." At 
that time Sapling said: "He himself, forsooth, is a little more impor- 
tant than 1. Moreover, 1 verily shall go thither." Thereupon Sap- 
ling went to that place. Flint did not notice it. When he arrived 

Hage'nha'i'ha'die' ne'' dedjiade"'hnon'da' ne" Odeiidonni'Ti'." 

He me has ordered in the he thou are hrothers the It Sapling." 1 

coming 

O'ne"' ne" O'ha'a' wa'he"*hen": "Wagio"de". F"geiennendii"nhii' 

Now the It Flint he it said: " I am working. I task will finish i 

ge"'djik', o'ne"' ha"sa' iie"'tho' nheii'ge'." Sa'ha'defi'dia'. 

by and by, now just then there thither I Again he departed. 3 

(not before) will go." 

Sa'ha'io"", o'ne"' df .sa'hatho'ia tea" nonwa'ho"'de"" wa'he"'- 

Again he now more- again he it told the kind of thing he it 4 

returned, over where 

hefr', iifi'ie' ne": " Wagio"de'. P]"geiennenda"nha' ge"'djik' 

said, that the: "lamatwfirk. I task will finish by and by 5 

litis) that 

o'ne"' ha's!-' ne'tho' nheiTge'." Wahe"'hen": "Ne"tho', 

now just then, there thither I He it said: "There 6 

(not before) will go." 

hoiisa'se'. Agei'hwii'ie"" tea"' ge'he"' daiagitha'en''." Hon.sa'- 

there again I a matter have the I it desire he and I it should There 7 

do thou go. where converse about." again 

ha'io"', wa'he"'h6iT': "De'hodo"'hwendjion'niks daesnitha'en'."" 

he heitsaid: " It him is neces.sary for yetwoshould 8 

arrived, converse together." 

Da'hrii'hwa".sa'gwa' Wivhe"'hen"': " S;"gadienno"kde"' hi'ia' hia'e'. 

He replied heitsaid: " I my task will finish verily in the 9 

first place, 

o'ne"' ha".sa ne"'tho' nhe"'ge'." Donda'ha'den'dia". Sa'hii'io"' 

now just then, there thither I Thence again he departed. .igain he 10 

(not before) will go." returned 

wa"he"'hen"': "Hiia' de"thogaie""'i'."' Tho''ge' O'ne"' wa"he"'hen"' ne"' 

lie it said: "Not there he it consented At that now heitsaid the 11 

litis) to." (time) 

Odeildoniii"'a': " Ha'o"'hwa' si"hrigwa' hi'ia' ni'haia'dano'we"'. 

It Sapling: "He himself farther verily so his body is precious. 1^ 

I" di"' hi'ia" ne"tho' nhen'ge"."" O'ne"' ne"'tho' nhe'hawe'non'. 

I more- verily there thither I Now there thither he went. 13 

over will go." 

Hiia" de'hotdo'ge"' ne"' O'ha'a". Ne" o'ne"' hwa'ha'io"' wa'he"' 

Not he it noticed the It Flint. The now there he he it 1-4 

(it is) arrivec' 



214 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANS. 'll 



there, he said: "Thou art workino- for thyself , art thou, in thy workr' 
He replied, saying: "I am working. 1 desire to assist thee, for that 
it will take a long time for the man-beings to become numerous, since 
thou hast made only two." At tliut time Sapling said: "Verily, as 
a matter of fact, the two man-beings that I have completed are suffi- 
cient. And, in so far as thou art concerned, thou art not able to make 
a human man-being. Look! Verily, that which thou believest to 
be a man-being is not a true one." He saw standing there a long file 
of things which were not man-beings. There sat the beast with the 
face of a man-being, a monkey;" thei'e next to him sat the ape;" and 
there sat the great horned owl. And there were other things also 
seated there. Then they all changed, and the reason of it is that 
they were not man-beings. Sapling said, when he overmatched their 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



hen": 

said: 



' Sadadio'dc.""se'-khc"", tea" saio"de'?" 



"Thou art working for art thou, 
thyself, 



wa'he"'hen": 

he it said: 

e"ionni'.she' 

it will hist 
(long) 

ne" on'gwe'. 

the human 

heings." 

se" hi'ia' 

as mat- verily 
terof fact 

Hiia" hi'ia' 

Not verily 

(it is) 



"Wagio"de'. 

"I am working. 



the 
where 

Ge'he" 

I it desire 



thou art at 
work?" 



Da'hai'hwa-sji'gwa' 

He replied 



-,;r;„/„ «_. 



e 'gome nawa s. 

I thee will aid. 



gen gwa 

only 



a 



swa'djik' 

because 
(too much) 

wa'tc'i*''sa' 

thou two eom- 
pletedst them 

"Ne^'tho' 

"There 



e"4ionnatga'de'"'ha' tea" degni' 

they (m.) will become the two they 

numerous where (are) 

' Tho^'ge' wa'he'^hen" ne-' Odendonni 

At that he it said the It Sapling: 

(time) 

ha'degaie'f tea" degni" wa^tge^'sa' ne'' oii'gwe'. 

just it is suffi- the two they two I them the human 

eient where (are) finished beings. 

"" ne" i\s tha.sgwe'nia' ne-' on'gwe' a'se'sefi'nia'. 

the thou thou art able to the 



ne 

this 
here 



thou art able to 
do it 



human 
being 



Satgat'hwii^ hiia" hi'ia' de'tgaieT tea" se'he" on'gwe'/ 



Do thou look, 

hatgat'hwa' 

looked 



not 
(it is) 

tea" 

the 
where 



veril}' 



it is correct 



the 
where 



thou dost 
think 



deiodine'^'he's 

they (z.) are in 
rank 



human 
being." 

gonni''den'' 

they (z.) abide 



thou it shouldst 
make. 

Wa^ 

He 



on'g we ' de"gen ' . 



human 
being 



it IS 

(are). 



the 



ge no 

it ape 



it IS ani- 
mal 

""ha', 



human 
being 

Na'ie' 



ne"tho' goinii"'den' hiiii" 

there they fz.) abide not 

(it is) 

gadji'k'daks (na'ie' 

it eats lice (that 

(= monkey) (it Is) 

gago'"'sonda"gwi'), ne"tho' gwtv'tho' ne" 

there next in place the 



Ne"tho' hatgo'dil' ne" 

There he siU the 



That 
(it is) 

Thigondiia'dade'nio"' 

Just they (z.) are different 
others 



o"nl 

also 



o"ni . 

also. 



it has the face of), 



ne"tho' 

there 

Ne"tho' 

There 



hatgo'dil' 

he sits 



ne 

the 



daioi'hwa"khe 

it is reason of it 



naie 

that 
(it is) 

oii'gwe' de"gen' 

human it is, 

being 



tea" 

the 
where 

Wa'he-'heii" 

He it said 



ne"tho' 

there 



ne 

the 



wa'dwatde'nf 

they (indef. ) change^ 
in kind 

nwii'awe""ha' 

so it came 
to pass 

Odendonni'Ti' 

It Sapling 



degens'ge'. 

horned owl. 

gagwe'gi', 

it all, 

tea" hiia" 



the 
where 



ne 

the 



not 

(it is) 



a The monkey and the ape were probably quite unknown to the Iroquois. 



HEWITT] ONONDAGA VERSION 215 

oreiidu: "'Verily, it is good that thou, Flint, shouldst cease thy work. 
It is a direful thing, verily, that has come to pass." He did not consent 
to stop. Then Sapling- said: "It is a marvelously great matter wherein 
thou hast erred in not obeying me when I forbade th}- working." At 
that time Flint said: "I will not stop working, because 1 believe that 
it is necessary for me to work." Then Sapling said: "Moreover, I 
now forsake thee. Hence wilt thou go to the place where the earth is 
divided in two. Moreover, the place whither thou wilt go is a fine place." 
At that time he cast him down, and he fell liackward into the depths 
of the earth. There a fire was burning, and into the fire he fell supine; 
it was exceedingly hot. After a while Flint said: "Oh, Sapling! Thou 
wouldst consent, wouldst thou not, that thou and I should converse 

wri'thaen'geii'nia : "Oia'ne' hi'iii' ne" a'senni"he°', O'ha'a', 

he their orenrta "Itisgood verily the Ihou it shouldst It Flint, 

overmatched: cease, 

tea" saio"de'. Gauo'we"' hi'ia' tea"' nwa'awe^'ha"." Hiia" 

the thou art at It is direful verily the so it has come to pass." Not 

where work. where ^ (it is) 

de'hogfiie""'!'. O'ne"' ne"' Odendonni"a' wa'he""hen": "Oi'- 

he it consented to. Now the It Sapling he it said: "It is a 



3 



hwane'ha'gwat oi'howa'ne"' wa'sei'hwane'a'gwa' tea" hiia" 

marvelous matter it is an important thou hast done wrong the not "* 

matter where {it is) 

de'sathonda'di' tea" gonia'his'tha' tea" saio"de"." Tho"ge' 

thou it hast consented the I thee forbid doing the thou art at At that 

to where where work." time 

o'ne"' ne" O'ha'ii' w^'he^'hen": "Hiia" thagenni"he"' tea" 

now the It Flint he it said; "Not I it should cease the 

(it is) where 

wagio"'de' swa'djik' ge'he" deiodo'"hwendjio"hwi' tea" wagio"- 

I am at work because I am it is necessary the I am at 

(too much) thinking where work." 

de'." Tho"ge' o'ne°' ne" OdeiidonnP'a' wahe-'hefi" : "O'ne"" 

At that (time) now the It Sapling he it said: "Now " 



5 



7 



9 
10 



di" wa'goniadwende"da'. Tho'ne"' nhe^'se" tea" non'we' 

more- I thee forsake. Here thither thou the the place 

over Shalt go where 

dediib"'hwendjio'ge'". Ganakdi'io' di"' ne"'tho' nhe"'se"." 

there two it earth is divided in. It place fine (is) more- there thither thou 

over Shalt go." 

Tho"ge' o'ne"' ne"'tho' he'hoilwaia'de""di' ne" ©"'hweiidjia- 

Atthat now there there he his body the it earth in H 

(time) cast down 

gon'wa' ne"tho' he'hodaga"!'. Ne"tho' diiodek'ha' odjisdagoil'wa' 

there there he fell There there it is burn- it fire in 

supine. ing 

ne"tho' he'hodagii"!'. Heiawengo"di' o'dai"heu'. Gain'gwa' 

there there he fell There it surpass- it is hot. Some 

supine. ing is (time) 

nwa'onni'she' wa'he""hen" ne" O'ha'ii': " Odeiidonni'Ti', 

so it lasted he it said the It Flint: "It Sapling, 

long 

a'sathon'dat-khe'" 'a'so"" doiisednitha'en'?" Odendonni"a' wa'- 



thou wouldst wouldst still once agsiin thou and I It Sapling he 

consent thou should converse together? 



12 
13 
11 
]5 



216 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



TCTH. ANN. 21 



once more together?" Sapliiig replied, .saj'ing: "Truly, it .shall thus 
come to pass. Moreover, I will appoint the place of meeting to he the 
place where the earth is divided in two." And Flint was a}>le to come 
forth from the tire. At that time then Sapling went thither, going to 
the point designated by him. He arrived there, and, moreover, he 
stood there and looked around him. He looked and saw afar a cloud 
floating awav whereon Flint was standing. Sapling said; "What 
manner of thing has come to pa.ss that thou art departing hence away ? " 
Flint iinswered: "I myself did not will it." Sapling .said: "Do thou 
come thence, hitherward." At that time the cloud that was floating 
away returned, and again approached the place whei'e Sapling stood. 
Then this one .said: " How did it happen that it started away ? " Flint, 
replying, .said: "It is not possible that I personally should have willed 



1 
2 
3 

4- 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

U 



he"-hen": " Do'ge"s ne''tho' iie"iawe""ha . Ne"'tho' dV wa'gna'do"" 

it suiil: "It is true there si) it will come There more- I it appoint 

to pa.ss. over 

tea'' deio"'hwendjio'ge°' ne"tho' de"diada"nha'.'' Wa'hagwe'nia' 

the two it earth is divided in there thou and I will He was able to 

meet." do it 

O'ha'a' da'haiage''"'nhiV tea"' odjisdagon'wa'. Tho-'ge' 

It Flint thenee he "merged the it fire in. At that 

where time 

ne"tho' he'hawe'noiT ne" Odendofini'Ti" tea"' noii'we' 

there there he went the It Sapling the the place 



where 

ne" 

the 

o'ne^ 

now 



the 
where 

ni'honmr'do"'. WjVha'io"' ne"tho" df wa'thadri"'nha' wa'thatga'- 

theroheithas He arrived there more- he stood In* looked 

apiMiinted. over about 

don'nio"\ Wivha'ge''' i'no"^ wa o^defidioiTha'die' wa o'dji'git'die' 

repeatedly. He itsaw far thither it is going along thither it cloud is 

(it is) going on 

ne^'tho" hada'die' ne'' 0*ha'a\ Odeildonnr'a* wahe"'heiV': 

there he is riding the It Flint. It Saphng he it said: 

on it 

"" Ho't nonwa'ho"'de"' nwaawe""ha' tea'' we'sa^dendion'ha'die- ?" 

"What kind of thing so it came to the 

(it is) pass where 

Wahe"'heiv' ne"' O'ha'a': " Hiia" ne"' i"' 

He it said the It Flint; "Not the I 

(it is) 

Wa"he"'hen" ne" Odendonni"a': " Ga'e' na"' donda"se'." 

He it .said the It Sapling: "Hither that thence do 

one thou come." 

Tho"ge' o'ne"' sawak'da' tea" o"dji"ga'die", ne"'tho' saga'io" 

.^t that now again it the it cloud is float- there again it 

turned back where ing along, arrived 

ni'ha'da' ne"' Odendonni"'a''. O'ne"' nen'ge"' 

there he is the It Sapling. Xow this one 

standing 

Ho't nwa"awe°"ha' tea"' wawa'den'dia" ? " Wa'- 

What so it came to the it started?" He 

(is it) pass where onward 

he"''hen" ne" O'ha'ft' da'hadadia': "Hiia" de'a'wet 



thither thou art going 
along?" 

dagenno"' 'do"". "' 

I it willed." 



time 

tea" non'we" 

the the place 

where 

wa"he"*hen": ' 

he it said; 



reply; 



Ut IS) 



f)o 
e 



tie 



ni a 

the I 
personally 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



217 



it." Saplino- vejoiiipd: "How did it happen that thou didst not will 
it?" Then Flint .said: "I did not do that." Sapling said: "Itistrue 
that it is impossible for thee to do it. Moreover, thou and I, verily, 
are again talking together. What kind of thing desirest thou? What 
is it that thou needest, that thou and I should again converse 
together?" Flint then said: "It is this; I thought that, perhaps, 
thou wouldst consent that the place where I shall continue to be maj^ 
be less rigorous. And thou didst say: 'Thou art going to a very fine 
place.' And 1 desire that the place where thou wilt again put me be 
less rigorous than the former." Sapling said: "It shall thus come 
to pass. I had hoped that, it may be, thou wouldst sa^y, 'I now 
repent.' As a matter of fact it did not thus come to pass. Thy 
mind is unchanged. So, now, I shall again send thee hence. I shall 

dondagenno""do"'." Odendonni"a' wa'he"'hen": " Ho't nwa"- 

there I it could will." It Sapling he it said: "What ho it 1 

(is it) came 

awe""ha tea" hiia" de'a'wet i's donda'senno'"'do"'?" Tho"ge' 

to pass the not itispossi- thou there thou it couldst will?" At that 2 

where (it is) ble time 

wahe"iieiV ne" O'ha'ii': ^* Hiia" de'ne" tha'gie'a." Odeiidon- 

he it said the It Pint: " Not the thus I did It Sapling 3 

(it is) that doit." 

ni"a' wa'he"'hen": ''Do'ge"s hiia" de'awet a'sgwe'nia'. O'ne"' 

he it said- "It is true not itispossi- thon couldst be Now 4r 

(it is) ble able to do it. 

df hi'iiV detciongni'thrr o'ne"'. Ho't nonwa'ho"de"' se'he"? 

more- verily again thou and I are now. What kind of thing thou it de- 5 

over ' talking together (is it) sirest? 

Ho't nonwa*ho"de"' desado"'hwendjion'ni' tea"' donsednitha'en"'?" 

What kind of thing thou it needst the once again thou and I O 

(is it) where should converse together?" 

Wahe"'hen" ne" O'ha'ii': " Na'ie' ne" wa'ge'a' do'ga't 

He it said the It Flint: "That the I it thought if perhap.s 7 

litis) (it may be) 

a'sathoii'dat thage"k'M' tea" naganakdo"de"k tea" noii'we' 

thou it shouldst it should be the such it place be the the place o 

consent to less where in kind where 

e°gi"dion'dak. Na'ie' ne" tea" wa'si'heii": 'Ne"tho' nhe"".se" 

I willabide con- That the the thou it didst 'There thither thou " 

tinuously. (it is) where say: shalt go 

tea" non'we' tganakdi'io'.' Na'ie" ge'he" thage"k'Yi' tea" 

1 A 

the the place there it place That I it desire it should be the lU 

where (is) fine.' (it is) less (severe) where 

naganakdo"de°k tea" noii'we' honsa.sgi"den\" Odendonni"a' wa' 



such it place be in the the place there again thou me It Sapling he 

til - ...... 



11 



kind where shouldst place.' 

he."^heiV: '' Ne"tho^ ne"iawe""ha\ Na'ie' ne" ge'he"gwa dien"ha' 

it said: "There so it will come That the I it had thought after a 1-^ 

to pas.*. (it is) while, 

gwiv' e"'si4ien'': 'Sagadathewa^da' o'De""'.' Hiia" se" ne*"tho' 

seem- thou it wilt 'I myself repent now.' Not as a mat- there 13 

ingly, say: " (it is) ter of fact 

dwa*'awe""ha\ Tc'nigo"^hagon'da\ Da", o'ne"' df iie"sgonia- 

so it came to pass. Thence thy mind is So now, more- hence again I 14: 

unchanged. over, thee \vill 



218 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



send thee to the bottom of the place where it is hot." Now, at that 
time his body again fell downward. The place whei"e he fell was 
exceedingly hot. At that time Sapling said: "Not another time shalt 
thou come forth thence."' Then Sapling bound poor Flint with a 
hair. And he bound him with it that he should remain in the fire as 
long as the earth shall continue to be. Not until the time arrives 
when the earth shall come to an end will he then again break the 
bonds. Then Sapling departed thence. 

Moreover, it is said that this Sapling, in the manner in which he 
has life, has this to befall him recurrently, that he becomes old in 
body, and that when, in fact, his body becomes ancient normally, 
he then retransforms his body in such wise that he becomes a new 
man-being again and again recovers his j'outh, so that one would think 



dennie"da'. 

1 send 

tea" 



2 the 

where 



Ne^'tho' he"sgoniadonnie"da' ne'' ga'no'''dea 'ge' 

There hence again I thue will send the it bottom on 

nou'we' diioMai'"hen'." Tho"ge' o'ne"' he.shoia'de""!' 

the place 



there it is hot.' 



tea" 

the 
where 



now 

non"we' 

the place 



there again hi.st)ody 
fell down in it 

he'hodaga"!'. 

there he fell 
supine. 

" Hiia" ne" 

the 



At that 
(time) 

o'ne"'. Ogeni'sdi' o'dai"hen' 

3 now. It is exceed- it is hot 

ing 

Tho"ge' o'ne"' ne" Odef5donni"a' wa'he"'hen" 

4 At that now the It Sapling he it said; "Not 
(time) (it is) 

o'iii' donsasiag6""nha'." Tho"ge' Wil'honwashaifi'de"' ono'"khwe"a' 

5 it other again thou shalt At that he bound him it hair 

(is) come out." (time) 

wa'has'da' ne" Odendonni"a' ne" 0'ha'a'-ge""ha . Na'ie' ne" 

6 he used it the It Sapling the It Flint it was. That the 

(it is) 

na" wa'honwashainda"gwa' tea" ne"ionni'she' e"io'"hwefidiia'dek 

i the one he it used to bind him the so long it will it earth will continue 

that where last to be present 

ne"tho' he"'he"'den'dak odji.sdagon'wa'. Ne"tho' nige"" tea" 

8 there there he will con- it fire in. There so it is the 

tinue to be far where 

e''wado'"hwendjio"kde"' o'ne"' de"shadesha'ia'k. Tho"ge 



9 
10 

11 

12 



it earth itself will end. 



now 



he will break the 
tether. 



At that 
(time) 



O'ne"' 

now 



ne" Odendonni"a' sho'defi'dion'. 

the It Sapling 



again he de- 
parted. 

Na'ie' di" ne" na'ie' ne" 

that that the 



nenge""ha' ne" Odendonni"a' 

this (it is) the It Sapling 



That more- that that 

(it is) over (it is) 

ne"tho\ ia'ke"', ni'io't ne" tea" ho'n'he" ne"tho" niia'we°s 



ne 
13 tht 



thus, it is so it is 

said, 

tea" hok'sten'a' 



the where 

wado"'''hiX' 



he is alive 



thus 



so It comes 
to pass 



the 
where 



naie' se ne 

li that in fact the 

(it is) 



he old in age 

V 



O'ne" 

now 



it becomes it- 
erativelv 

ge"'s 



heiotgonda"gwr, na'ie' ne" 

it is unceasing. that the 

(it is) 

haia'dage""tci' wiiVa'do"' o'ne"' 

custom- his body ancient it has become now 
arily 

ge"'s donsa'hadia'dade'nf, na'ie' ne" ge"'s sa'hadoiigwe" ne" 

15 custom- again he changes his body that the custom- again he becomes the 
arily (transforms it), (it is) arily man-being 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



219 



that he had just then grown to the size which a man-being custom- 
arily has when he reaches the youth of man-beings, as manifested by 
the change of voice at the age of pubertj\ 

Moreovei', it is so that continuoush' the orenda immanent in his 
body — the orenda with which he sufl'uses his person, the orenda which 
he projects or exhibits, through which he is possessed of force and 
potency — is ever full, undiminished, and all-sufficient; and, in the next 
place, nothing that is otkon" or deadly, nor, in the next place, even the 
Great Destroyer, otkon in itself and faceless, has any effect on 
him, he being perfectly immune to its orenda; and, in the next place, 
there is nothing that can bar his way or veil his faculties. 

Moreover, it is verily thus with all the things that are contained in 
the earth here present, that they severally retransform or exchange 
their bodies. It is thus with all the things [zoic] that sprout and grow, 
and, in the next place, with all things [actively zoic] that produce 



tea" hongwe'da'se"a' sawa'do"', na'ie' ne" aien'ft" He"tho' ha"sa' 

where he man-being new again it is be- that the one M'ould thus just then 

come, (it is) think, 

nithodo'di' ne" tea" ni'io't ge°'s ne" ha"sa' 

the where so it is custom- the just then 



ge"s 

so there he has 

grown arily 

de'nio"' ne" hongwe'da'se";!' ne" on'gwe'. 

changed the he man-being new the man-being, 

small 



(there) 

de'hodwenna- 

his voice has 



Ne"tho' na'ie 

Thus that 

(it is) 

tea" ni'hoia'daeri'nae' ne' 

where so his body has orenda the 



di" ni'io't ne' 

SO it is the 



more- 
over 



tea" 

the 
where 



tea" tgaieT diiotgont 

where there it is full always 
and sufficient 

hadennoda"o'wa\ ne^'tho 

he his orenda exhibits, there 

bv which, 



ne ' 

the 

gwa"- 

next to 



tho' hadefinonda'''gwa' ne" tea" ha'qhwiV ne" ga''shasde"'sa', 

it he himself with orenda the the he it holds the it potency (power, 

embodies by which, where force) 

ne"tho'" gwa'tho' ne" hiia'' ste"' nonwa'ho"de"' ne" o'tgo"'/' 

there next to it the not any- kind of thing the otkon 

it is thing (monstrous), 

ne"tho' gwa"tho' ne" O'sondoirgo'na^ O'ni'dat'go"' Hiia" 



there 



the 



It Great Destrover 



Otkon in itself 



De'gago" "sonde', de'hona'go'was, ne"tho' gwa"tho' hiia*' 



It has a face, 



there 



(not) it affects (wears 
on) him, 

nonwa'ho"de"' de'hodawe"''das. Ne"tho' 

kind of thing it him bars (shuts) out. Thus, 



hi'ia' dr 

verily. 



not 

(it is) 

ni'io't 

so it is 



not 
it is 

•ste"" 

any- 
thing 



4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 



tea" 

where 10 



more- 
over 

niioil' ga'qhwa' ne" tea" o"^hwend]ia'de' dewadia'dade'nio"^s, 

soitismxich it it holds thu where it earth is present it changes its body 11 

(many) iteratively, 

gagwe'gi' ne"tho' ni'io't ne" wadonniiVha', ne"tbo' gwtV'tho' 

it all thus so it is the it (z.) produces there next to it 12 

itself, 



a See footnote on page 197. 



220 IKoyUOIAN COSMOLOGY [F.TH. ANN21 

themselves and prow, and, in the next place, all the man-beinys. All 
these are affected in the same manner, that they severally transform 
their bodies, and, in the next place, that thej' (a('tively zoic) reti-aiis- 
form their bodies, severally, without cessation. 

ne" gondonnia"ha , ne"'tho'' gwa"tho' ne" on'gwe'. Gagwe'gi' 

the they (act. z.) pro- there next to it the man- It all 

duee themselves. being(s). 

ne''tho' nigaie"hiX' deswadiadade'nio"'s, 

there so it acts it ehanges its body 

iteratively, 

gondia''dade'nio"'s heiotgonda"'gwi'. 

again change their it is unceasing. 

bodies iteratively 



na'ie' 


gwa"tho' 


des- 


that 
(it is) 


next to it 


they 
(act. z.) 



A SENECA VERSION 

There were, it seems, so it is said, niuii-licings dwelling on the other 
side of the sky. So, just in the center of their village the lodge of the 
chief stood, wherein lived his family, consisting of his spouse and one 
child, a girl, that they twt) had. 

He was surprised that then he began to become lonesome. Now, 
furthermore, he, the Ancient, was very lean, his bones having become 
dried; and the cause of this condition was that he was displeased that 
they two had the child, and one would think, judging from the cir- 
cumstances, that he was jealous. 

So now this condition of things continuetl until the time that he, 
the Ancient, indicated that they, the people, should seek to divine his 
Word; that is, that they should have a dream feast for the purpose of 
ascertaining the seci-et yearning of his soul [produced by its own 



Ne" gwa', gi"o"\ hadi'noiige' ne"' sgiion'iadi''' ne" hen'nofi'- 

That. it seems, it is said, they dwell the one other side the they (m). 

of the .Mky man-beings. 

ue"ho' ni'hono'^so't ne'' ha'sefi- 



gwe". Da', shri'degano'ndae"" 



So, 



just in the center of 
the village 



there 



just his lodge 
stands 



the 



nowa ne 

name). 



ne"ho' hawadjiii'ie"", ne" ne'io' ne'' 



there 



his ohwachiralies. 



the 



his 
spouse 



he Chief 

(great) 

kho" ne" 

and the 



sga't hodiksa'da'ie"', ie/o"' ne 

one it they child have, 



she child. 



she the 

female (is) 

Waadiengwa^shon' o'ne"' hoVifsawe"' 

He was surprised, now it began 



ne 

that 



hrigwendu".s. 



he became 
lonesomt'. 

ne" gai'ionni. 

He Ancient One; that it ]t causes 



O'ne"' di'q we'so' ho'nefi'iathen' ne" Hag^""tci; 

Now more- much his bones are dry t 

over (^ he is very lean) 

the^^'e"" deo'nigoiT'Iio' he^' odiksa'da'ie"', aieii'' ne" 

not (it is) his mind happy is i because) they child have, one would that 



one would 
think 



heniio^defi' 

su it is in 
state 

Da', o'ne"' 

So, now 

wa"onwande"'' 

he pointed it out 



ne 

that 



ne 

the 



liosheie'o"'. 

he is jealous. 



ne'ho"'shon niio'defi'andie" he" 

only thus so it continued where 



so it continued 
to be 



nno we 



so It IS 

distant 



ne- 

the 



Hage""tci ne" 

the 



ne" a"au"wa"wefini"sak. 

that 



they should seek to divine 
his word. 



non" 

perhaps. 



o nc 

now 

Da', 

Sn, 



3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
» 
10 



o'ne'" 
now 



gagwego" 

it all 



he Ancdent 
One 

ne" hennongwe'.shon"o"' ne'ho"shon' hodii- 

tlie they (m.) man-being only thus they (m.) Jj^ 



individully (are) 



habitually 
221 



222 



TROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



If.TH. ANN. 21 



motion]. So now all the people severally continued to do nothing 
else but to assemble there. Now they there continually sou<rht to 
divine his Word. Thej- severally designated all manner of things that 
they severally thought that he desired. After the lapse of some time, 
then, one of these persons said: "■ Now, perhaps, 1 mj'self have divined 
the Word of our chief, the excrement. And the thing that he desires 
is that the standing tree belonging to him should be uprooted, this 
tree that stands hard by his lodge." The chief said: "Gwa"" 
[expressing his thanks]. 

So now the man-beings said: "We must be in full number and we 
must aid one another when we uproot this standing tree; that is. there 
must be a few to grasp each several root." So now they uprooted it 
and set it up elsewhere. Now the place whence they had uprooted 
the tree fell through, forming an opening through the sky earth. 
So now, moreover, all the man-beings inspected it. It was curious; 



1 

2 

3 

4 
5 

6 

7 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 



e'is. Diiawe'"'o"' o'ne" 

Constantly now 



We. 



ne"ho' honwa"wenm"sas; ganio'shon" 

there 



they (m.) sought to divine 
his word 



it anything 
whatsoever 



he" na"ot hennonwafi'thii' 

where such kind they (m. i it point 
of thing ' out 

gwa' n!rionnishe"'t o'ne"' 

what so it lasted now 



nii"ot deodoendioii'ni'. Gain'- 

he it needs. Some- 



Now it is, perhaps, 
it 



ne 

that such kind of 
thing 

shaia"dat waen 

he (is) one heitsaid: " 

person 

ni"a' wae'dawanon'we°'t ne" sedwa'seii'no"". Ne" noii" ne* 

I per- I have divined excre- the he (is) our chief. That perhaps the 

sonally ment's word. it is, 

deodoendioii'nr nofi" ne" haganiodagweii'ong nen'gen' ne" 

he it needs, perhaps, the one it should uproot this is it the 

ni'hono"'so't." 



hoda'it, nen'gen' dosgen'o"' ga'it heon'we' 

he has for himself this is it it is near it tree where 

standing tree, stands 

"Gwa"," waen" ne" ha'sennowa'ne"'. 

"Thanks," heitsaid the he chief (is). 



so his lodge 
stands." 



Da', 

So, 

the time 



o ne 

now 



they it said: 



E^dwagwego'ong, deMwaie'nan' 



'We will be in full 
number, 



Ave will assist one 
another 



we it will uproot 



this it is 



it tree 
stands. 



Thnt 

it h 



ne 

the 



do"ga'a' 

few it is 



niiongwe'dagea'die' ne" e^adiie'nSn' ne" djokde'asho"-.^' Da', 

so they man-being in the they it will the eachit root several." So, 



number to each grasp 

o'ne"' waadinioda'go' oia'djp ne'"bo' saadinio'de°\ 



now 



they it uprooted 



di'q bo'wa"sef5't 



more- 
over, 



hence it fell 
down 



elsewhere 

he'ofiwe' 

where 



there 



again they (m.) 
it set up. 



0'ne°' 

Now, 



hodinioda'gwe"' , 

they it have uprooted. 



aundjaga'eiit 

it earth perforated 



o'wa'do"'. 

it became. 



Da', 

So, 



di'q na'e' gagwe'go"' ne" on'gwe' 

more- verily, it all the man- 

over, being(s) 



SENECA VERSION 



223 



below them the aspect was green and nothing else in color. As soon 
as the nianbeings had had their turns at inspecting it, then the chief 
said to his spouse: " Come now, let us two go to inspect it." Now she 
took her child astride of her hack. Thither now he made his way with 
difficulty. He moved slowly. They two arrived at the place where 
the cavern was. Now he, the Ancient, himself inspected it. When 
he wearied of it, he said to his spouse: "Now it is thy turn. Come." 
"Age'," she said, "myself, I fear it." "Come now, so be it," he said, 
"do thou inspect it." So now she took in her mouth the ends of the 
mantle which she wore, and she rested herself on her hand on the right 
side, and she rested herself on the other side also, closing her hand on 
either side and grasping the earth therebj'. So now she looked down 
below. Just as soon as she bent her neck, he seized her leg and 
pushed her body down thither. Now, moreover, there [i. e., in the 
hole] floated the body of the Fire-dragon with the white body, and, 



waeiinatchi'waen". Odianon't' gana'daikho°"shon' niio"den' ne" 

they (m.) looked at it. It curious it green only (is) so it is the 
(is), 

na°'gon". Ganio" o'tho'diil'ho' ne" hennontchi'wa"hsi', o'ne"' 

below So soon they had their the they it were looking at, then 
(inside). as turns to look 

ha'e'gwa' ne" ha'sennowa'ne"' waen": " Hau", o'ne"' gwa" 

also the he chief (is), heitsaid: "CJome, now, itseems. 



non 



per- w 
hapf), 

O'ne"' se"'ge" 

Now with dif- 

ficulty 

he'onwe' oia'de' 



diiatchi'wa'no"'.'' O'ne"' wa'ago'sa'de"' ne" goa'wak. 

Now she her took astride the her child, 

of own back 

^'^' Skeiino^^'on' i'e'. Wani'io"' 

Slowly 



let us two it go to look 
at.'" 



ne"ho' 

there 



where 



it abys.'' 
stands. 



O'ne"' 

Now 



wa e'. 

thither he 
went. 

waatchi'wa'eii' 

he it looked at 



he 
walked. 



They two ar- 
rived 



ne" 

the 



ha'onhwa"' ne' 



Hage""tci. Ganio' waogaii'de" 



He 
Ancient One. 

satchi'wa'eiT' 

do it thou k'ok 
at 



So soon 
as 

gwa' 

just." 



he it was weary 
of 



one"" 

now 



waen : 

he it said: 



he himself 

"I's 

' Thou 



"Age"!" wa'a'ge"': 

■'Age!'* she it said: 



" Ge'sha'nis 

'' I it fear 



"Hau", nen", nio"," 

" Come. now, .so let it 

be," 

wa'o^'sho'go' ne" i'ios 

the man- 

tle 

ne" ieieiisdoii'-gwa'. 

the her right side. 



waen", " satchi'wa'en'." 

heitsaid, "do thou it look at." 



the 



ne wa 



next m 
turn 



I per- 
sonally." 

o'ne"' 

now 



she it took in her 
mouth 



ne 

the 



goe . 

she it 
wore, 

o'ne"'-kho' 

now and 



ne 

the 



Da', 

So, 

o'dio°"tchi' 

she rested herself 
on her hand 

sgagii'di' ha'e'gwa' 



o'ne"'-kho' 

now and 



(the one side), 
the other side. 



also 



o\lio""'tchr, o'dio"'tchagwe'non'ni' dedji'ao"-gwa" he" ieiena*^- 

she herself rested she her hands closed both side where she it held 

on her hand, 



wa""kho"\ 

severally. 



Da'; 

So, 



now 



na" gon' wtl'oiitgat'ho'. Ganio'shoii" 

below she it looked at. Just so soon as 

(inside) 



3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



224 



IKOQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



veril}', he it was whom the Ancient regarded with jealousy. Now 
Fire-dragon took out an ear of corn, and verily he gave it to her. 
As soon as she I'eceived it she placed it in her bosom. Now, another 
thing, the next in order, a small mortar and also the upper mortar 
[pestle] he gave to her. So now, again, another thing he took out 
of his bosom, which was a small pot. Now, again, another thing, he 
gave her in the next place, a bone. Now, he said: "'This, verily, is 
what thou wilt continue to eat." 

Now it was so, that below [herj all manner of otgon [malefii;] male 
man-beings abode; of this number were the Fire-dragon, whose bodj' 
was pure white in color, the Wind, and the Thick Night. 



o'die'nonniiVk da'shago'si'na', o'ne'"-kho' ne"ho' ho'shagoia"den 

she bent litT head he her leg seized, now and there 

forward 



Da'. 

So. 

die' 

along 

nige" 

that 
it is 



9 

10 
11 

12 
13 
14 
15 

16 



o ue 

now 



ne 

the 



hence he her 
body cast down. 

ne"ho' ieia'don'die". O'ne"' di'o iie"'ho' haia'doii'- 

there her body \va.s Xuw 

falliijg. 

Gaha'cieiidie'tha' Onofiwa°'da"a"' Ni'haia'do"'de"' ne'' 



more- 
over 



iie"'ho' 

there 



liis body 
tloated 



It Fire Dragon 



kho" 

and 



na e 

verily, 



ne 

the 



it (is) white 

honwa"\sheu'se'iik ne* 

he was jealous of him the 



so his body is in that 

kind' 

Hage""tci. O'ne"' 

Now 



ne"'ho' waada"go' ne" o'ni'sda' ne" o 



o'shaga'on 

he her it gave. 

aun'ia't. 

placed 

ne"-kho' 

that and 



he it took 
out 



the 



Ganio'' wa'eie'na' 

So soon .she them took 



the 



o'ne" 

now 



He Ancient 
One. 

kho- 

and, 



o ne 

now 



O'ne"' 

Now 

ne" 

the 



it 
other 

hetgen'on' 

upper ( one ) 



next in 
order 



ne 

thai 



ne"ho' 

there 

ne* 

the 



ienias'dagofi" 

her bosom in 



nae 

verilv, 



she 
them 



ga'niga"da niwa'Ti', 

it mortar 



so it is small 
in size. 



ne" 

the 



gii'niga"dri', dedjia'o"" o'shaga'ofi'. 



both 



Da', 

So, 

ne" 

the 

ne" 

the 



o ne 

now 



a'e' 

again 



o la 

ii other 

(is) 



it pestle. 
{= it mortar) 

daada^'go' haniasdagon", 

he it took his bosom in, 



he her gave them 



gana°"dja' niwa"a^ 



it pot 



it bone (is) 



so it small 
in size is. 



out 

O'ne" 

Now 



o'ne" 

now 



o'shaga'on\ 

he it her gave tu 



ae 

again 

O'ne" 

Now 



o'ia'-kho' 

and 



it 
other 



ne 

that 



ne ' 

the 



he it said: 



' Ne" 

•That. 



ne wa 

next in 
order 

ne'wa" 

next in 
order 

na'e' 

verilj-, 



he" 

wliere 



ne" 

the 



e'da"ge' 

below 



e"'seg'seg." 

thou it wilt be in 
the habit of eating." 

Da', o'ne"' 

So, now 

lionnondia'dat'go""s 

they are otgon-bodied 
(are malefic) 

Ononwa"'da"a"' Ni'haia"do"de°', kho" ne" Ga"ha', ne" gwa"ho' 

it white (is) so his body is in kind, and the It Wind, that next to it 

ne" Deiodii'sondai'ko"'. 

the It Thick Night. 



niiodie'e"' 

so it is being 
done 

ho'dio"de"' 

of all kinds: 



ne 

that 



ne 

the 



hadi'na"ge' ne" 

they (m.) are the 

dwelling 

Ga'ha'ciendie'tha' 

It Fire Dragon 



SENECA VEKSION 



225 



Now, they, the male man-beings, counseled together, and they said: 
"Well, is it not probably possible for us to give aid to the woman- 
being whose body is falling thence toward us? " Now every one of the 
man-beings spoke, saying: "I, perhaps, would be able to aid her." 
Black Bass said: •"1, perhaps, could do it." They, the man-beings, 
said: ''Not the least, perhaps, art thou a))le to do it, seeing that thou 
hast no sense [reason].'' The Pickerel next in turn said: ''I, perhaps, 
could do it." Then the man-beings said: "And again we say, thou 
canst not do even a little, because thy throat is too long [thou art a 
glutton]. "" So now Turtle spoke, saying: ' ' Moreover, perhaps, I would 
be able to give aid to the person of the woman-being." Now ail the 
man-beings confirmed this proposal. Now, moreover. Turtle floated 
there at tiie point directly toward which the body of the woman-l)eing 
was falling thence. So now, on the Turtle's carapace she, the woman- 
being, alighted. And she, the woman-being, wept there. Some time 



Da', 



o ne 
now 



waadias'hen. Waen'nf: "Gwe", ^ gen' noii" 



they fm.) held a 
'council. 



They it said: 



• Well, 



can it perhaps 
be 



da'a'oii' aedwagwe'ni' aethiia'dage"ha' ni'ge"' ne" 

we her should aid such it is the 



not it pos- we should be abl 
sible (is) it to do 



lagon gwe 

she man- 
being (is) 

daieia'doii'die'?" O'ne"' ha'de'ioii hadi'snie's, hennofi'do"': "I", 

thence her body is Now every one of they (ni.)spoke, they (m.i it said: "I, 

falling?" them 

non" agegwe'nf akheiii'dage"ha'." Oga"gwa' waeii": "I", 

per- I it could do I her could aid." It Dlack Bass, he it said: "I, 

haps, 

Waeii'ni': "De'osthon" non" de'.sagwe'nion', 

per- i it could do." They it said: "Kotalittle, per- thou art able to do it, 

haps. haps 

so"dji' de'sa'ni'go"t." Ne" ne'wa' ne" Sgendjes' waen": 

because thou hast no That next in the It Pickerel he it said: 

(too utterly) sense." order ( = it tish long) 

"I," noii" agegwe'nf. '' Waeii'ni' kho" a'e': "De'osthon" 



I it could do." 



'I, 



per- 
haps, 



agegwe ni , 

I it could do.' 



They it said 



and 



again: 



"Not a little 



de'sagwe'nion', .so''djr .sania'do'wis." Da', o'ne"' ne" ne'wa' 

thou hast no sense, because thou art a glutton." So, now that next in 

(too utterly) order 

waa'sniet ne" ha'no'wa' waeii": "I" di'q noii" agegwe'nf 

he spoke the It turtle he it said: ,'I, more- per- I it could do 

over, haps, 

akheiii'dage"ha' ne" iagofi'gwe'." O'ne"' gagwe'go"' waadii'- 

I her could aid the she man-being Now it all they con- 

(is)." firmed 

wani'ild. O'ne"' di'q ne"ho' ha"sko' he'ofiwe' odoge""do"' ne" 

(the) Now, more- there he floated the where it is objective the 

matter. over, point 

daieia'doii'die' ne" iagoii'gwe". Da', o'ne"' ne"'ho' ga'nowiV'ge' 

thence her body is the she man- So, now there it turtle on 

falling being is. 

o'die'dioii'da't. O'ne"" di'q ne"'ho' wri'o"s'daeii' ne" iagofi'gwe'. 

she alighting Now, more- there she wept the she man-being 

stepped. over, is. 

21 ETH— 03 15 



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226 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



afterward she remembered that seemingl}' she still held [iu her hands] 
earth. Now she opened her hands, and, moreover, she scattered the 
earth over Turtle. As soon as she did this, then it seems that this 
earth grew in size. So now she did thus, scattering the earth very 
many tunes [much]. In a short time the earth had become of a con- 
siderable size. Now she herself became awai'e that it was she herself, 
alone seemingly, who was forming this earth here present. So now, 
verily, it was her custom to travel about from place to place contin- 
ually'. She knew, verily, that when she traveled to and fro the earth 
increased in size. So now it was not long, verilj', before the various 
kinds of shrubs grew up and also every kind of grass and reeds. In 
a short time she saw there entwined a vine of the wild potato. There 
out of doors the woman-being stood up and said: "Now, seemingly, 
will be present the orb of light [the sun], which shall be called the 



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3 
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8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 

14 



Gain'gwa' na'ion'nishe't o'ue"' wa'agoshaa"t ne" ie'a' gwa" 



Somewhat 



so long it lasted 



she it remembered 



she it 
held. 



seem- 
ingly 



ne" oe"da\ O'ne"' wa'o"'tcagwai"sr, o'ne"'-kho' di'q ne'^ho' 



the 



it earth. 



Now 



she her hand opened, 



more- 
over 



there 



o'diondo'gwsit ne" ga'no'wa'ge'. Ganio' ne"'ho' na'e'ie' agwa's 

she it scattered the it turtle on. So soon as thus 



so she it very 

did (just) 

na'e' o'wado'diaJi n6f5'gen' ne" oe"dii\ Da', o'ne" 

verily, it grew this it is the it earth. So, now 



gwa 

seem- 
ingly 

we'so' ne'"ho' nae'ie' o'diondo'gwat ne" oe"da\ DiVdjia"shon 

much thus so she it she it scattered the it earth. In a very short 

(it is) did time only 

o'ne"' gain'gwa' niioeii'dja'' o'wa'do"'. O'ne"' wa'enni'na"dog 

now somewhat so it earth is it became. Now she it noticed 

large 

he" gaon'hon" gwa"shofi ie'cion'ni's neii'gen' ne" ioen'dja'de' 

where she herself seemingly she it makes this it is the it earth is 

only present. 

Da', o'ne"' na'e' gen's deiagodawen'nie' diiawe°"o"'. Gono""do"' 

So, now, verily, cus- she is traveling about without ceasing. She it knew 

tomarily 

ne" na'e' o'wado'diak ganio" deiagodaweii'nie'. Da', o'ne"' 

that, verily, it grew so soon as she would travel about. So, now, 



di'q de'aonni'she'on' o'ne"' 

it did not last long now. 



o'skawa'shon^'o"' 



more- 
over, 

do'diak, ne"-kho' 

grew up, that and 

wti'e'ge"' owadase" 

she it saw it is entwined 



verily, 



o wenna 

they (z.) 



ne" 

the 



it bush of various 
kinds 

hadeio'eo"dage'. Da'djia"shoiT o'ne"' 

every gra.ss (plant ) in In a very short now 

number. timeonly 

ne" onen'no"'da''-of5'we' o'o""sa'. O'ne"', ne" 

the it wild potato (native) it vine. Now, the 

iagon'gwe' ne"'ho' a'sde' o'die'da't, o'ne"'-kho' wa'a'ge"': "O'ne"' 

there out of she stood up, Now and she it said: "Now, 



she man-being 

(is) 



out of 
doors 

gwJl'' tV'giia'gwa'iVk ne'' endek'ha"' e"gaiaso'ong." Doge^'s .sede'' 

seem- it luminary will the day pertain- it will be called." U is true early iu 



ingly, 



be present, 



ing to 



HEWITT] SENECA VERSION 227 

diurual one.'" Tnily now, early in the mornino;, the orb of light arose, 
and now, moreover, it started and went thither toward the place where 
the orb of light goes down [sets]. Verily, when the orb of light went 
down [set] it then became night, or dark. Now again, there out of 
doors she stood up, and she said, moreover: ''Now, seemingly, next 
in order, there will be a star [spot] present here and there in many 
places where the sky is present [i. e., on the surface of the sky]." 
Now, truly, it thus came to pass. So now, there out of doors where 
she stood she there pointed and told, moreover, what kind of thing 
those stars would be called. Toward the north there are certain 
etars, severally present there, of which she said: "They-are-pursuiug- 
the-bear they will be called." So now, next in order, she said another 
thing: "There will be a large star in existence, and it will rise cus- 
tomarily just before it becomes day, and it will be called, 'It-brings- 
the-day.'" Now, again she pointed, and again she said: "That cluster 
of stars yonder will be called 'the Group Visible.' And they, verily, 

djia' o'ne"' dagaa'gwit'ge"'t, o'ne"' di'cj ho'wa'den'dr he" ga'a'- 

morn- now thence it luminary came now more- it started where it 

ing forth, ' over luminary 

gwe"'s-gwa' ho"we'. Ne" no'ne"' ho'gft'a'gwe"'t o'ne"' wai" 

sets direction thither it That the time thitlier itorb of now of 

went. light set course 

wa'o"ga'. O'ne"' a'e' ne"'ho' a'sde' oMie'da't, wti'a'ge"' di'q: 

it became Now again there out of she stood up, she it said more 

night. doors over;- 

"O'ne"' gwa" ne'wa' e"gadji'8o""deonniong he" gao°'hia'de'." . 

"Now seem- next in it star will be present where it sky is present." 

ingly order plurally 

O'ne"' doge"'s ne"'ho' niiawe''"o"'. Da', o'ne"' as'de* he'onwe' i'iet 



Now it is true, thus so it came to pass. So, now out of the place she 

indeed, doors where stood 



ne'''ho' wao°"tcade"\ wa'a'ge"' di'q ne" na""ot e"gaiaso'ong hoi'- 

there she pointed with she it said more- that such kind it will be called those 

her finger, over of thing 

gen' gadji'so"'da 'sho"'. Otho'we'ge'-gwa' ne"'ho' gadogen'no"' ne" 

it star is severally. It is cold direction there it is certain one the 

severally 

gadji'so"'de'onnio"' ne" ne" " Nia'gwai' hadishe" e"gaiaso'ong," 

it star is present (fixed) that the "Bear they (m.) are it will be called," 

plurally pursuing it 

wa'a'ge"'. Da', o'ne"' o'ia' ne'wa' wa'a'ge"': "Ne" ne" 

she it said. So, now it other next in she it said: "That the 

(is) order it is 

e°gowaneii'ong gadji'so""da' e"ge"'k, e"tga'a'gwitge"'seg tho"ha' 

it will be large it star it will be it mil be in the habit of nearly 

rising 

gen's ne" e"io"hefi't ne" e"gaiaso'ong Tgeiiden'witha'.'' O'ne"' 

custom- the it will become that it will be called It day brings." Now 

arily day 

o'ia' wa'o""tcade"\ a'e'-kho' wtt'a'ge"': "Ne" hi'gen' wsi'go"sot 

itother she pointed her again and she it said: "That that one it group is 

(is) finger, it is present, 

odji'so"'da"sho"'' ne" e°gaiaso'ong, Gatgwa"da'. Ne" na'e, -.o 

it star (is) severally that it will be called. It cluster is present. That, verily 



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228 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[eth. ass. 21 



will know [will )k' tho sign ofj the time of the year [iit dl times]. 
And that [group] i.s called "They-are-dancing.""' So now. .still once 
more, she spoke of that [which is railed] "She-is-sitting." [She said]: 
"Verily, these will aecompaiiy them [i. e., those who form a group]. 
'Beaver its-skin-is-spn^ad-out,' is what these shall be called. As soon, 
customarily, as one journeys, traveling at night, one will watch this 
[group].." Some time after this, she, the Ancient-bodied, again spoke 
repeatedly, saying: "There will dwell in a place faraway man-beings. 
So now, also, another thing; beavers will dwell in that place where 
thei'e are streams of water." Indeed, it did thus come to pass, and 
the cause that brought it a})out is that she, the Ancient-bodied, is, as 
a matter of fact, a controller [a god]. 

So now, sometime aftei'ward, the girl maur being, the offspring of 
the Ancient-bodied, had grown large in size. And so now there was 
also much forest lying extant. Now near 1)}' there was lying an 



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12 
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14 



hi'gefi' 6°gaiende'iak he" niwadoshi'ne's ne" gaia'so"' hi'gen' 



that one it will know it (will be where just it year is in its 
it is the sign of it) eourse 

De'honnofit'gwe"'. Da'. ''a"so"' 

They are dancing. So. still 



that 



it is called 



sgat' 

one it is 



ne 

that 



Ieniu"ciot. 

She is sitting. 



Ne" 

That 



na e 

verily 



ne" 

the 



this one 
it is 

ne'wa' hi'gen' 

next in this one 

order it is 

hi'gen' An_As„^"o„„ ,.;„An" 

this one 
it is 

haditgwiv'div. Na"gania 'go"' Ga'sa'do"" ue" e°g*aiaso'ong hi'gen'. 

they (m.) are a Beaver (Rodcutteri It spread that it will be called this it is, 

cluster (fixed). skin is 

Ganio" gen's de"iontha'ak ne" e"iontga'io°' hi'gen' de"ionda- 

So soon as custom- one will start to that one will watch it this it is one will 

arily travel 

Gain'sfwa' niio'we' a'e' wire'snie^'cion' 



e wenne seg 

it will accompany 
them 



nige 

that is 
to say 



travel 



ne 

the 



night 
(it is)." 



Somewhat 



niio we 

so it is dis- 
tant 



ae 

again 



she spoke repeatedly 



ne'' Eiudage'"'tci', wa'a'ge"': "£"'hadina"geg' ne" on'gwe' 



we e" 

far 



She Ancient- 
bodied (is) , 

he'onwe'. Da', 

So, 



she it said: 



'They (m.) will dwell 
habitually 



the place 
where. 



honwe -gwa 

place direction 

we''"o"' ne^' 

came to pass that 

Eia'dage°"tci'. 

She Ancient- 
bodied (is). 

Da', o'ne"- 

So. now 



he'onwe' 

the place 
where 

ne" 

the 



o'ia' kho' e"gana"ge'g ne" 

it other and it (z.) will dwell the 
(is) habitually 

tge"'hande'nio"\" Doge"'s 

there it stream is It is true 

plurally present." 

giiion'nr he" leweilni'io' 

it it causes for that She Master (is) 
(where) 



the man-being (s) 

na"gania''go"' 

it beaver 



ne"'ho' 

thus 



it matter of 
fact (is) 



niia- 

so it 



ne" 

the 



gain'gwa' na'iofi'nishe't o'ne"' we'so' iegowa'ne"' 



nen'gen' 



ne 

this it is the 



kho' we'so' 

and much 

(it is) 



somewhat 

iagon'gwe\ 

she man- 
being, 

ga'ha'daie"', 

it forest lies. 



now much she large (is) 

(it is) 

EiaMage''"tci* goa'wak. Da', o'ne"' 

she Ancient- her So. now 
bodied offspring. 

o'ne"' do'sgen'o"'shon' ne^'ho, 

now near by only, there 



so it is (long) 
lasted 



Da', 

So. 



HEWITT] 



SENECA VERSION 



229 



uprooted tree, whereon it wa.s that .she, the child, was always at play. 
Ca.stonuirily she swung-, perhaps; and when she became wearied she 
would descend fi'om it. There on the grass she would kneel down. 
It was exceeding-ly delightful, customarily, it is said, when the Wind 
entered; when she became aware that the Wind continued to enter her 
body, it was delightful. 

Now .sometime afterward the Ancient- bodied watched her, musing: 
" Indeed, one would think that my [man-being] offspring's body is not 
sole [i. e., not itself onlj^]. " Ho," .she .said, "hast thou never custom- 
aril}' seen someone at times? " " No," .said the girl child. Then she, 
the Ancient-bodied, said: "I really believe that one would think that, 
thou art about to give birth to a child." So now, the girl child told it,, 
saying: "That [I .say] there [at the swing] when, customarily, I would 



gaieilga'sa'de' ne" ne" he'ofiwe' diiot'gont gotga'nie' ne" 



it upturned tree 



that 



the place 
where 



at all times 



she is playing 



the 



ieksa''a 

she child. 



Ne' 



ii;odofiw'rda''do"" 



she it was swinging 
on 



perhaps. 



O'ne"' 

Now 



gen s 

That custom 
{it is) arily 

gotce^^'do"' o'ne°' ne"ho' wa'endia 'de"t. Ogeo'dja"ge' ne'^'ho'' 



gen s 

custom- 
arily 



she was 
wearied 



On the grass 



she descended 
(lay down) 

o'diondosho'don\ Odo'kda*'gr, ia'ge°\ 

she got on her knees. It is at the it is said, 

extreme, 

no'ne"' daga'iint, ne'"ho' o'ne"' gen's 

the time it it en- there now custora- 

(now) tered, arily 

o'ne"' euV'dagon' hewe'tha' ne'' ga^'biV, ne'' ne 



custom- 
arily 



OS gas 

it gives 
pleasure 



she it noticed (felt) 



low her body in thither it is the 

entering 

O'ne"', gaiii'gwa' ntVionni'she't 

Now, somewhat so it lastetl 



that 



OS gas. 

it gives 
pleasure. 



o ne 

now 



wa ega en ion 

she it watched 



ne 

that 



ne 

the 



ne" 

the 



1 

2 
3. 
4 

5 

& 

T 



Iege"''tci*' wa'en'' agwa's uiefi" 

just 



She Ancient 
One 



she 
mused 



one would 
think 



ne" khe-a'wak. "Ho'," waVge"', 



the 



mv (anthropic) 
child. 



■Oh," 



she it said, 



the""e"" de'djiagoiirdo'sga'a' 

not it her body is sole 
is 

"He""'e" ge"" dewen'do'" 

"Not is it not ever 



gen's de'songa" de'she'ge" T' "The»"e"," wa'a'ge"' ne" eksa"a'. 

custom- someone thou seest one " Not it is," she it said the she child, 

arily cuntomarily?" 

O'ne"' waVge"' ue^' Iege"^'tci^ '^AieiT'shon' e"'sade"don\ gV 

Now sheitsaid the She Ancient "One would thou wilt give birth I 

One: think only to a child, think, 

an' noil"/' Da', o'ne"' vva onthiu'wr ne" eksa"a', waVge"': 

per- prob- So, now she it told the she child sheitsaid; 



aps, ably. 

"Ne" ne" 

"That the 



ne"'ho' gen's ne" 

there custom- the 



custom- 
arily 



o^gade^nio'so'de"' ne"'ho' 

I knelt down on my there 

knees 



o"aeni'na"dog 



gen's 

custom- 1 it felt 

arily 



he" o'wade'no""da' ne" ga"ha' ne" 

where it itself buried the It wind the 



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9 

10 

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12 

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230 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



kneel down, I became aware that the Wind inclosed itself in my l>ody." 
So now, she, the Ancient-bodied, said: " If it be so, I say as a matter 
of fact, it is not certain that thou and I shall have good fortune," 

Sometime afterward then, seemingly, [it became apparent] that two 
male children were contained in the body of the maiden. And now, 
verily, also they two debated t(jgcther, the two saying, it is said, cus- 
tomarily: "Thou shait be the elder one," "Thee just let it be," so 
it was thus that they two kept saying. Now, one of them, a male 
person who was very ugly, being covered with warts, said: '"Thou 
.shalt be the first to be born.'" Now the other person said: '• Just let 
it l)e thee." Now he, the Warty, said: "Just let it be thee to be the 
first to be born." "So let it be," said the other person, "thou wilt 
fulfil thy duty, perhaps, thou thyself." " So be it," verily said he, the 
Warty. Now, he who was the elder was born. And then in a short 
time she [the Ancient-bodiedJ noticed that, seemingly, there was still 



gia'da'gon'." Da', o'ne°' wa'a'ge"' ne^' Iege""tci': "Ne" ne"ho' 



12 



my body in.' 



So, 



she it said 



She Ancient 
One 



'That 



It matter 
of fact 



ne" diengwa"shon' aiongiadil!i'shwiio"he't de'oi'wado'gen'." 

2 the if that only be it us good fortune would give 



Gaifi'gwa' na'ionni'she't o'ne"' ne"' gwa" 



it is an uncertain 
matter." 



Somewhat 



that 



deiksa''a' 

they (m.) are 
two children 

dei"no"t ne" ne" eia'da'gon' ne" eia"dase'. Da', o'ne"'-kho' 

4 they (m.1 two that the her body in 



so it lasted 



seem- 
ingly 



the 



she maiden. 



ne 

the 



So, 



and 



are gestating 



5 verily 

6 



deodii"hwage'he°'. la' do"', gi"'o"', gen's: " I's e"sego- 



they (m.) two are con- 
tending in dispute. 



They (m.) 
two it .said, 



it is said. 



waneii'ong." 



gen'.'^ 



custom- 
arily: 

ia'do"'. 



thou wilt 



custom- 
arily 



O'ne"' 

Now 



ne 

the 



"I's gwa"," nige"' 

be the larger "Thou just," that is 

(elder) one." to say 

shaia"dat ne" agwa's haet'ge"", ne" ne" 

T one he is that very he is ugly, that the 

person 

"I's e"tcadie'e''t e"'seiina"'gat." O'ne"' ne" shaia'dat waefi": 

8 "Thou thou wilt take thpu wilt be bom." Now the one he is a he if said: 

person 

ne" Hono""hi"dae' waeii": "I's gwa" 

the He Warty he it said: "Thou just 



they (m.) 
two said. 

hono"'hi"dae' waen": 

he is covered with he it said : 
warts (pimples) 



^'I'S 
'Thou 



the lead 

gwa"." O'ne"" 

just." Now, 



e"tcadie'e"t e"'senna'"gat. 



10 



thou wilt be 
the first 



thou wilt be 
bom." 



"Nio"," 

"So be it," 



"e"'si'waie'i8 gwa". noil" 



11 "thou it wilt fulfill 



just, 



per- 
haps. 



na"' 

this 



1 sa . 

thou per- 
sonally." 



waen"' ne" shaia"'dat, 

he It said the one he is a 

person, 

"Nio"," na'e' waeii" 

" So be it," verily he it said 



ne" Hono"-hi"dae". O'ne"' waenna"'gat nige" 



He Warty. 



Now 



he is born 



this it is 



ne" hago'wane"'. 

the he large one. 



SENECA VERSIOK 



231 



another to bo born. The other luid l)een born only a short time when 
this one was also born. They had been born onlj' a \'ery short time 
when their mother died. There, verily, it is said that he, the Warty, 
came forth from the navel of his mother. So now, verily, she, the 
Ancient-bodied, wept there. Not long after this, verily, she gave 
attention to the twins. As soon as she finished this task she made a 
grave not far away, and so she there laid her dead offspring, laying 
her head toward the west. So now, moreover, she talked to her. She, 
the Ancient-bodied, said: "Now, verily, thou hast taken the lead on 
the path that will continue to be between the earth here and the upper 
side of the sk3\ As soon as thou arrivest there on the upper side of 
the sky thou must carefully prepare a place where thou wilt continue 
to abide, and where we shall arrive." Now, of course, she covered it. 



Da'djia" o'ne"' 



In a short 
time 

e'^na'^gat, 

he will be 
born. 



-kho' 

and 



wa'enni'naMog ne^' o'ia' gwa'' 'a''so°' 



she it noticed 



the 



waenna giit. 

he was born. 



Da'djia"shon' 

In a short time 
only 

Da'djia"shon' 

In a short time 



shagodino"e"'. Ne"'ho" 

she their mother is. There, 



hona^ga'do"' 

he is born 

nina°ga'do"" 

they (m.) two 
are born 

na'e', gi^'o"', 

verily, 



it is 
said. 



it 
other 



o ne 

now 



ne" 

the 



-seem- 
ingly 

ne" 

that 



she died 



n' 



still 

ne'wa 

next in 
order 

ne" 

the 



Hono"'hi"dae' 

He Warty 



daaia'ge°'t he" diiago"she"dot ne" hono"e"'. Da', o'ne"' na'e' 

he came forth where just she has her the his mother. .So, now verily 
navel 

wa'on'sdae"' ne" Eia'dage''"tci'. The°"e"' da'aonni'sheV o'ne"' 

she wept the She Ancient- Not it is it lasted now 



bodied. 

na'e' o'thofiwadi'snie' ne" dei'khe"'. Ganio" 

verily she them cared for the they (ni.) two So soon 



wa'ondienno"kde"' 

they (ni.) two 
are twins. as tast 

o'ne"' na'e' wa'eiadon'nf dosgen'o"'shon', da', ne"'ho' wa'ago- 

now verily she made a cave just near by, so, there she 



ia"shei5' ne" 

her laid the 



waagogoen . 

she her scalp (head) 
laid. 

Eiadage''"tci': 

She Ancient- 
bodied : 



he" gaa'gwe''"s-gwa' ne^^ho' 



where 



it sun sets direction 



(hole) 

goa'wak-geii'on' 

her was, 

offspring 

Da', o'ne'^' dfq wa'agotha'has. Wa'a'ge"' 

So, now, more- she her talked to. She it said 

over 

O'satha'hon'de"' nen'gen' 

thou verily thou it path hast taken this it is 



'Now, 



there 

ne" 

the 

he" 

where 



ioefi'djade' gaon^huVge' he"iothiVhinon'ong, 

it earth is sky on it path will have its 



present 

he''"cio"' 

thou wilt 
arrive 



ne'' gaon^hia"ge' e"'se'cionnia'non' 



the 



sky on 



Ganio'' 

So soon 
as 

he'cnwe*" 

the place 
where 



on'dak, T'-kho' he'oiiwe' 



continue 
to abide, 



we two 
(we and) 



the place 
where 



thou wilt make 
preparations 

he^iagwa'io'^'." 0'ne°' 

there we shall arrive." Now 



ne"'ho' 

there 

e'^'siMi- 

thou wilt 

wai'i' 

of 
course 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



232 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



So, now. only this waw left, that she customarily cared for the twins, 
the two children. 

Again, after some time, it is said, the two mule children wen^ of 
large size, and verily, too, they ran about there, customarily. After- 
ward, the elder one, being now a youth, questioning iiis grandmother, 
asked: "Oh, grandmother, where, verilj-, is my father? And who, 
moreover, verily, is the one who is my father? Where, moreover, is 
the place wherein he dwells ? '' She, the Ancient-bodied, said : " Verily, 
that one who is the Wind is thy father. W^hatever, moreover, is the 
direction from which the wind is customarily blowing, there, truly, 
is the place where the lodge of thy father stands." "■ So be it," replied 
the youth. So now, verily, the youth stood out of doors, and now he, 
moreover, observed the direction of the wind, whence it was blowing; 
and this too he said: " I desire to see my father, and the reason is that 



Da', o'ne"' ne-'shon' we'gen' de"wadi''snie' nige"" 

.So, now that only it is left she will attend to that it is 



she it covered. 



two persons 



ne 

the 



dei'khe"", 

they {m.} two 
are twins 



ne 

the 



'5' 



dei'ksa'a 

they (m.) two 
are children. 



Gaiii'gwa' 

Somewhat 

dei'ksa-a', 

they (m.) two 
are children, 

waada^on'clon' 

lie it a.-*kt.*d 



a'e' na'ionni'she-t o'ne"', gr'o"', deigowa'neii ne'' 

again so it lasted now, it is said, 



o ne 

now 



-kho' 

and, 



ne" 

the 



nae 

verily, 

hagowa'nefl', 

he (is I large, 



deidak'he's. 

they (m.) two 
run about. 



they (ra. ) two are the 
large 

Tha'geiT'o"' o'ne"' 

Afterward now 



O'ne" 

now. 



nu e 

verilv. 



haksri'dase*''a'. 

he (is) a youth. 



O'shaw^ou'doii' ne' 



He her asked 



he is my 
father? 



8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



ha'nl'? 

my 
er? 

di'q 

more 
over, 

Eiadaij-e'"'tci 

cient- 
ed: 

di'q 



ne 

the 

Gawe"' 

Where, 



the 

Soil" 

Who 



ho'sot' waen"': 

liis grand- he it said; 
mother 



di'q 



more- 
over 



kho" 

and 



na e 

verilv 



Aksot'. 

•My grand- 
mother, 

nige"'' 

that it is 



gam- 

where 



di'q 

more- 
over 



ni 

the I 



ne'' ha'ni'? 

the he is my 

father? 



more- 
over, 



She Ancient- 
bodied: 

Gain' 

Where more- 
over 

■""sot 

there his lodge 
stands 

o'ne"' 

now. 



perhaps, 

"Ne" 

"That 



gwa gwa 

in direction 



thana"'ge' i " 

there he dwells?" 



Wa'a'ge"' 

She it said 



ne"' 

the 



owa gwa 



in direc- 
tion 



wai'i 

of course 



custom- 
arily 



hi'gefi' 

this 
it is 



ne-' 

the 



la ni 

he is thy 
father' 



ne 

the 



Ga"ha'. 

It Wind. 



diioiigoiit' ne"' noh" ne"'"ho"-gwa' 

that perhaps there direction 



there it wind 
is fixed 



thono" 



ne-' 

the 



ia'ni." "Nio"," waen" 



he is thy 
father." 



'So be it,' 



he it said 



ne 

the 



haksa'dase"a'. 

he youth. 



Da', 

So, 



na e 

verily, 



as'de' o'tha'drrt ne'' 

he stood the 



haksa'dase'Tr, 

he yonth. 



di'q waatga'ion' 

more- he it watched 

over 

ha'do"' ne" ne" 

he it kept that the 

saying 



out of 
doors 

he'oilwe'-gwri' diioiigont'; ne'' kho" 

there it wind is tliat and 

coming: 

dewagadoendjon'ni* ae'ge"' ne" ha'nl' 

I it need I him should the 



the place where 
in direction 



o ne 

now 



ne" 

the 



I him should 
see 



he my 
father 'is, 



ne 

that 



HKWITT] 



SENECA VERSION 



233 



he M'ould give me aid." Now, he said: "Far j^onder stands the lodge 
of my father, the Wind; he will aid uie; he will make the bodies of all 
the kinds of animal [man-beings]; and Inall means still something else 
that will be an aid to me." So now he started. He had not gone far 
when in the distance he saw the place where stood the lodge of his 
father. He arrived there, and there a man-being abode who had four* 
children, two males and two females. The youth said: "I have now 
arrived. O father, it is necessary that thou shouldst aid me. And that 
which I need are the game [animals] and also some other things." 
They were all pleased that they saw him. So now he, the Ancient, 
their father, said: "So let it lie. Trul\' I will fulfil all of thy require- 



diioi"'wa^ ne" aagia'dagc"h!V." Cne"' waefi": 

therL'itis the he me should aid." Now he it said; 

reason 

th()no"'so't 

there hin lodge 
stands 



he it will make 



ne 

the 

ne^' 

the 



ha'nl' 

he is my 
father 



ne"' 

the 



Ga"ha', ne" 

It Wind, that 



hivdeganio"drige' ; 

every it animal kind (is) 
in number; 



tgagon" 

by all means 



"Honwe'-gwa' 

" where in directi<in 

e"'gie'na"wa's, 

he me will aid, 
still 



e"agia'dage"ha\ " 

he me will aid." 



ha'gwisde"*" gie'' ne" o'ia', ne"' gagwe'go" 

something some of the other that it all 
them it is, 

Da\ o'ne"^ waa^'dendf. The""e"^ deVe'e" deawe'non' o'ne"' 

So, now he started. Not it is far away he went now 



waa gt^ 
he it saw 



honwe'-gwa* tgano"'so't. 0'ne°' ne"'ho' waa'io"' ne"*ho'' 

where in direction there it lodge Now there he arrived there 



there it lodge 
standi. 

he"'dio"' ne" hon'gwe\ ge'i'" ni'oksa'da'ie"', deiias'he' deidji'- 

he abode the he man- four so many he has chil- they (m.) two they (m.) 

being is, dren, are persons two are 

male 

na", degiias'he" degnfo"'. Waefi" ne" haksa'dase"a' : " O'ue"' 

they (f.? two are they (f.) two He it said the he youth: "Now 

persons are female. 

o'gio"''; ha'ni', ne" ne" dewagadoendjon'ni' asgiadage''ha\ 

I have oh, my that the it me is necessary for thou me shouldst 

arrived; father, it is. aid. 

Ne" ■ ne" dewagadoendjon'nr ne" ganio\shon*''o"'' ne"kho* ne" 

That the it me is necessary for the it game (collective.) that and the 



ha"gwisde°' gie" ne" o'ia. 

anything some of the it other.' 



ne 

the 



some of 
them 

wa'onwage''". 

they him saw. 



Gagwe'go" 

It all 



Da', 

So, 



one" 

now 



he it said 



ne 

the 



waennadon'ha'en' 

they were pleased 

Hage""tci'' ne" 

He Ancient the 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

11 
12 



a The use of the number four here is remarkable. It seems that the two female children are intro- 
duced merely to retain the number four, since they do not take any part in the events of the legend. 
It appears to the writer that the visiting boy and his warty brother are here inadvertently displaced 
by the narrator by the substitution of the two girls for the reason given above, owing to his or a 
predecessor's failure to recall all the parts of the legend. This form has emphasized the importance of 
the twins to the practical exclusion of the other brothers. In the Algonquian Potawatomi genesis 
narrative, which, like those of its congeners, appears to be derived from a source common to both 
Iroquoian and Algonquian narrators, four male children are named as the offspring of the personage 
here called Wind. For the Potawatomi version consult De Smet, Oregon Missions, page 347. 



234 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann.21 

ments in coming here. In the first place, however, 1 will that these 
here, ye my children, severally shall amuse yourselves somewhat by 
running a race. 1 have a flute for which j'e shall contend one with 
another, whereby ye shall enjoy yourselves. And I say that ye shall 
make a circuit of this earth here present, and also that \'e shall take 
this flute." So now they stood at the line whence they should start. 
Now the visiting youth said: "I desire that here shall stand he, the 
Defender" [the False-face, He-defends-them], that he may aid me." 
Truly, it thus came to pass; the Defender came and stood there. 
And now, moreover, the youth said: "And I say that thou must put 
forth thy utmost speed for that 1 am going to trail thy tracks." So 
now truly it did thus come to pass that at all times they two [males] 
were in the lead throughout the entire distance covered in making the 
circuit [of the earth]. As soon as they started running he trailed him, 
and the pace was swift. In a short time now they made a circuit of 
it. Much did they two [males] outfoot the other two. Now he that 

honwa"nI: " Nio". Do'ge"s ne"'ho' e-gi'waie'is na"ot se'he'die'. 

l he their "So be it. Truly thus I will fulfill the such kind thou desirest 

father is: matter of thing in coming. 

Ne" gwa" ia'e' i" e"tgenno""do"' osthon' e"swatga'nie' 

•^ That seem- in the I I it will will it little ye will amuse 

ingly first place yourselves 

neii'gen' gwaawtVkshoii'o"' ne" ne" de"swene""dat. Agie°" 

3 this it is I am parent of you that the ye will run (a I it have 

children race). 

ne" ieo'dawas'tha' ne" ne" e"swasge"hsi' ne" ne" e"swaden- 

4 the one uses it for blow- that the ye it will contend that the ye will use 

ing (a flute), for it to 

don'nia't. Ne" ne" de"swathwada'se' neii'geii' he" ioeii'djade', 

5 amuse your- That the ye will make a circuit this it is where it earth is 

selves. ' of it present, 

iie"kho' ne" e"8wa'a' nen'geii' ne" ieo'dawaiB'tha'." Da', 

6 that and the ye will take this it is the one uses it for blow- So, 

with you ing (a flute)." 

o'ne"' ne"'ho' o'thadi'da't he'oiiwe' c"thenne"'"sga\ Da', o'ne"' 

7 now there they (m.) stood the place they (m. ) will start So, now 

up where from the line. 

waen" ne" haksa'dase";!' : " Ne" ne" dewagadoendjon'ni' 

" he it said the he youth: "That the it me is necessary for 

ne'kho' daa'divt ne" Shagodiowe'go'wa ne" ne" aagia'dagie'- 

9 here he should the He Them Defends that the he should aid 

stand (He Whirlwind) me." 

•ha'." Do'ge"s ne"'ho' na"awe"'; ne"'ho' o'tha'da't ne" 

1(.) Iiistnie thus so it came there he stood the 

to pass; up 

Shagodiowe'go'wa. O'ne"' di'q waen" ne" haksa'dase"a': 

11 He Them Defends Now more- he it said the he youth: 

(He Whirlwind) over 

" Ne" ne" e-tsadia'noitt ne" nige°" ne" e^gonia'nonda'." 

19 "That the thou must exert that so it is the I will trail thy 

it is thy best speed tracks." 

Da', o'ne"- do'ge"s ne""ho' na'a'we"' ne" diiawe""o"' hiien'de' 

1" So, now it is true thus .soitcame that continually they (m.) two 

to pass were in the lead 

nThis is the .Senei-n u.'imc for the Hadu"!' of the Onondaga-s. 



HEWITT] 



SENECA VERSION 



235 



carried the flute gave it to his father. Now he, the Ancient, took it 
and also .said: " Now, of course, truly thou hast won from me all the 
things that thou desirest that I should do for thee."' Now, moreover, 
he there laid down a bundle, a tilled bag that was very heavy. So now, 
verily, he gave to his son, to the one who came from the other place, 
this bundle and also this flute that he had won, and he also said: " I say 
that this shall belong to you both equally, to thee and thy younger 
brother." So now the youth took up the bundle and bore it on his 
back by means of the forehead burden strap. So now he traveled 
along to a place where he became tired and the sack began to be heavy. 
So now he exclaimed, '"It may be, perhaps, that I should take a rest." 
And so now he sat down and also examined it [the bag]. He thought, 
"Let me, indeed, view them; for indeed they belong to me anyway." 



ne" he" niio'we' waeEinonthwada'se'. Ganio' 

the where so it is they (m.) made a circuit So soon 



so It IS 

distant 



o'theiine""- 

they (m.) ran, 



they (m.) made a circuit So soon the time 
of it. as (now) 

dat, waodianondii"' osno'we'. Da'djiii" o'ne"' waeiinonthwada'se' 

it 13 swift. 



he doubled his 
tracks 



In a short now 

time 

We'so' waonwaiidiiatgeii'nr ne" sniia"dat. O'ne"' ne' 

Much he them overmatched the they (m.) two are Now the 

(it is) persons (other). 

ne" ieo'dawas'tha' da' on' ne" ho"ni. O'ne"' 

the one it uses for he it gave the he his Now 

blowing to him father (is). 

kho" ne" waeiT' ne" Hage""tci': "O'ne"' 

and the he it said the He Ancient "Now 



they (m.) made a circuit 
of it. 

haa'wi' 

he it bore 



waa'iena , 

he it took, 



ne" 

that 



di'q 



osge nia 

thou me hast 
won from 

O'ne' 

Now, more- 

over 

oi'nosde'. Da' 

it is a heavy So, 

pack. 

thawe^'do" 



he'' ni'ion desadoendjon'm' ne" 

where so it is in it thee is necessary the 



so it is in 
amount 

ne"'ho' 

thus 

o'ne"' 

now 



it thee is necessary 
for 

waathena"'ien' ne" 

he his bundle the 

laid down 



wai'i' do'ge"s 

of course it is true 

nagoniadie'a's." 

so I thee should do 
for." 



gaia 

it bag 



gana"'ho"', 

it is full, 



verily 



thence he 
came 



nige"" 

that it is 



ne" 

the 



da'oii' ne' 

le it gave the his oft- 

to him spring 

gane''nos"ha', ne" kho' 

it bundle, that and 



hoa'wiik ne" 

the 



ne" 

the 

"Ne" 

"That 

o'ne"' 

now 

he" 

where 

Da', 

So, 

1" w 

I 



ieo'dawas'tha' daofiwa'ie"' 



one it uses to 
blow 



he it gave to 
him, 



ne' 

that 



kho" 

and 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 



oia'djl' 

elsewhere 

neii'gefi' 

this it is 



he it said: 



neii'gen' desniawe""-gen'ong ne" he'se"gen'." Da', 

this it is ye two it will will the he thy younger So, 

own be brother is." 

o'thathe'nak, waatge"dat ne" haksa'dase"a'. Da', o'ne" 

he youth. So, 



he his bundle he bore it on his back the 

took up, by the forehead strap 

niatha'i'ne' o'ne" 

there he was on now 
his way 



now 



one" 

now 



he "I myself should 

decided: rest." 

wai'i' nige"" aga'we"'." O'ne"' 

of so it is I own it 

course (it is mine).' 



"' wa'os, ne" kho" ne" hosda'ne". 

he got that and the it him 

tired, weighed down. 

Agadoni.s"hef5' gi" eii' noii"." Da', 

I think it seems perhaps." So, 

na'e' ne"'ho' waawti'ha"si', 

verily there he it unwrapped. 



Now 



1 

2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



236 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



Now, verily, he there unwrapt it and uncovered it. Just a.s soon as 
he opened it there were repeated sliovings. Now, moreover, there all 
the various kinds of animals that his father had given him came forth. 
He was taken ))y surprise that all the animals so suddeidy came forth. 
Thus it came to pass as soon as he fully opened the sack. And there, 
moreover, they severally trampled upon him. 80 the last one to come 
forth was the spotted fawn. Now he there shot it. On the front leg, a 
little at)ove the place where the hoof joins the leg, there he hit it. It 
escaped from him, verily, moreover. So now he said: "Thus it will 
he with thee always. It will never ))e possible for thee to recover. 
And the wax [fat] that will at all times be contained therein will be 
a good medicine. And it will continue to be an efiective medicine. 
As soon as anyone customarily shall have sore ej'es, one must cus- 
tomarily anoint them with it, binding it thereon; then, customarily it 
will be possible for one to recover. 



waawe'sa'go'-kho'. Ganio"-shon wa'hodon'go' o'ne"' dawa'djaen"- 

lie uncovered it and. So soon just he it uncovered now it pushed up 

as repeatedly. 

cioii'. O'ne"" dl'q dawadiia'ge"'t ne'^ho' ne"' ha'deganio"dage' ne" 

X<iw more- thence they (z.) there the every it animal in that 

over came forth number (is) 

ne"' ho'wi" ne"' ho"'ni. \Vaadiengwa,''shoii", dawadiiage""'dak ne" 



the he it gave 
to him 



the he his 
father is. 



He was surprised just, 



they (z.) came out 
suddenly 



the 



hiVdeganio''dilge'. Ne"ho' na'a'we"' ganio'' we'so' o'tha'hagwen'dat. 

every it animal in There .so it hap- so soon much he it opened. 
number us). (thus) pened as 

Ne""ho' di'q o'ne"' o'thoia'daiqda'non\ Da', ne" agwa's ne" 

There, more- now it trampled on him .So, that very the 
over, severally. 

na"'gen*'shon oVaia'ge"'t ne*' djisda'thieii'o"'. O'ne"' ne"'ho' 



it came forth 



the 



spotted fawn. 



very last (hind- 
most) 

waa^'iak. Oefidon'-gwa'. ga'si'no"''ge% osthofr' he'tge"'' ne" 



he it shot. 



side, 



its leg nn, 



above 

lit is) 



the 



od3iene"'da'ge' he'oiiwe' ga^si'not ne*''ho' waa'.si':?. 

^ ito iitiL-Ili iin tliM nlunpi ifn Iptr i« theTG hC it hit. 



Wao*'uia- 



its ankle 



the place its leg is 

where tixed 



It escaped 
from. 



di'q 



Da'. 



o ne 

now 



10 

11 

12 
13 



ge-'s 

him more- verily 

over 

ne"io'den'ong diiotgont'. The""e"' 

Not (it is) 



so it will con- 
tinue to be 

ne" 

the 



always. 



Ne" 

That 

diiotgont' 



ono""gwa"sha"-gen'ong 

it medicine it will be 



he it .said: 

da"aon" wen'do" 

it is DOS- ever 

sibie 

hoi'geiT 

that it IS 



Ne"^ho' 

"There 



nis 

the 
thou 

onsa'sa'do"\ 

again thou thyself 
shouldst recover. 

ne" ne'^ho' 

the there 



u will be con- 
tained 



Ne^' 

That 



ne 

the 



e"wan'da'k 

ill be con- 
tained 

e"iagoganofi'\va"k ne" 



01 sa 

it fat 

(wax) 

e"iono"'gwa'tchi'ioag. Ganio" 

So soon 



It medicine will continue 

to be a good. as 

gen's ne^'ho' e"iago"ga', 



that 



cus- 
tomarily 



there 



cus- anyone U will sicken one s 

tomanly eyes 

e"iorKlie""sao"\ o'ne"' omen's e"wa'do"' ne"' eMjon'do"'." 

J-** ntiP villi hind ir on now cus- it shall be tbe again shall one 



one it will 
anoint, 



one will bind it on 
one's self, 



lomarily possible 



recover." 



SENECA VERSION 



237 



So then he departed again from that plaee. When he again arrived 
at the place where their lodge stood, he told his younger brother, 
saying: " Do thou look at what the father of us two has given us 
two." "When he again arrived where his grandmother was, he said: 
" Now I have been to the place of my father on a visit. He granted 
me a most important matter. So do ye again go out of doors. Ye 
will hear the great noise [made] by all the several kinds of animals." 
Now they went out, and thev listened to the loudness of the noise 
made by all the kinds of animals. Now there, their grandmother, 
the Ancient-bodied, she stood up, and she talked, saying: "Let it 
stand here; that is the elk, which this thing shall be called. Here 
also let another stand, one that is just a little smaller, which shall be 
called a deer. Now also another thing, let it stand here, and that 



Da'. 

So, 

no" 'sot' 

lodge 
stood 



ne"'ho' 

llnTf 



o ne" 

now 



ne"'ho- 

there 

di'q 

more- 
over 



saa'den'df. Smi'io"' he'onwc' 

again he Again he 

departed . arri ved 



thodi 



the place their (ni.) 

where 



WOO wi ne 

he him the he his younger the 

told brother is 



ho"gen' ne" Gthagwe""d;V 

It Flint. 



'^Satga^'tho' ne" shoiigia'wi' ne*"' shedi^'ni*"/' O'ne"' 



'•Do thou look 
at it 

.saa'io"' 



he it has given 
to us two 



he is the father Now 

of as two." 



again he 
arrived 



ne 

the 



ho'sot'ge' waen": '*'0'ne"'' ne^'ho' 

3ffra 
othe 



hoVa^get ne" ha'ni'ne". Oi'owa'nen' oHhagia'dowe"de"\ Da' 

I have been the at my It is a great he me granted to. So, 



It is a great 
matter 



waa'dien', 

he himself 
seated, 

saswaia'ge"'!. 

do ye go forth. 



at my 
father's. 

waak'don'-kho'. Wa'e': " Gekdonsa"-shoi5 

he it exam- and. He 

ined thought: 

E"swathon'deg he" 

Ye it will hear where 



" Let me go to sev- 
view them erally. 

nigai'^'sdowanen ' 

so it sound great is 



ha'de'ion' ne" ganio"shon'o"'." O'ne"' waadiia'ge"'t, o'ne"'-kho' 

the it animalisseverally." Now they(m.)went now and 



every one in 
number 



they (m.)went 
out, 



waiathon'dat he" niiotkai"ni ne" onondi's'da** ne" ha'deganio''- 

they (m.) where so it is Joud the they (z.) are the 

listened making noise 

dage'. O'ne"' ne"'ho' oVlie'dat ne" 

Now there she stood up the 



every it animal is 
in number. 



shagodi"sot, 

she their grand- 
mother is 



ne 

the 



Ei:i'dage""tci', wa'onthiu'wi', wa'a'ge"': " Ne'kho' de"ga'(lii't 



She Aticient- 
bodied, 



nige"" ne" djinaen"da', ne" na'e' nen'gen' 

so it is the eliv, that verily this it is 



•Here 



ne 

thai 



Ne'kho' 

Here 

niiagrr'a' 

so it is 
smaU(er), 



o'iti'-kho' ne"'ho' de"ga'dtVt, 



It other and 



there 



ne 

that 



verily 



nen gen 

this It is 



it will stand 
up, 

ne'oge" 

deer 



ne 

that 



ne 

ihe 



it will stand 
up 



it will he immeri. 



heio'sthofi' 

it IS just 
litlle 



e"gaias6'ong. O'ne" 

it will he Now 

named. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

i3 

14 



238 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



next in turn shall, verily, be called a Ijear. Now, also, another thing, 
next in order, let him stand here, and that next in order of time shall 
be called a buffalo. So that, verily, is just the number of [game 
animals] which are large in size. As soon, verily, as man-beings shall 
dwell hei-e, those, verily, shall be the names of the diffei-ent animals; 
when the man-beings dwell [here], then they shall give names to all 
the other animals."' 

So, verily, now, he, the youth, said: "I desire that there shall be a 
hollow here [in the ground], and that it shall be full of oil." Verily, 
it thus came to pass. Now, moreover, he said: '"Hither let him 
[anthropic], the buffalo, come." In just a short time it then stood 
there. Now he said: " Therein do thou plunge thyself." Thus, truly, 
did it come to pass. On the farther side it landed from the oil pool, 
having become as fat as it is possible for it to be. So now again he 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



o'ia'-kho 

it and 
otber 

nia'gwai' 

bear 

ne'kho' 

here 



next in 
order 



ne"' 

the 



oia 

it other 



Da', 

So, 



ne'wa' ne'kho' de"ga'da't, ne" 

here it will stand that 

up. 

e''gaiaso'ong ne" na'e'. O'ne"' 

it will be the verily. Now 

called 

ne" de^'hil'dat, ne" ne'wa de'giia'go' 

the he (m.) will that next in buffalo 

stand up, order 

ne" na'e' ne"ho' niwen'nandl' ne' 



ne'wa" ne" 

next in the 
order 

kho' ne'wa' 

and next in 

order 

e"gaiaso'ong. 

it will be 
named. 



that 



verily 



there 



.so many they 
are in number 



the 



ga nio 

it game 



ne" 

the 



da'. 



wadigo'wane"'s. Ganio"' na'e' c"iena''ge'g ne'kho' ne" on'gwe', 

they (z.) are large So soon verily they will here the man-being, 

ones. as dwell 

ne" na'e' e/'wadiiii'shon'; ne" no'ne"* 

that verily they (z.) will be that the 

named severally; time 

o'ne"' gagwe'go"' e"adi'sen'no"' ne" 

time it all they (m.) them the 

now names will give 

o'ne"' na'e'shon' ne"ho' o'ne"' waeii"' ne" haksa' 

now verily just there now he it said the he 



on gwe 

man- 
being 

Da,' 



e°adina"'geg ne" 

they (ra.i will the 

be dwelling 

ha'deganio"'dage '. " 

every it animal in 
number (is)," 



So, 

dase"a'' 

youth: 



"Dewagadoendjon'ni" ne'kho" daio"dada'gwei5'ong, ne" 

" It it causes me to desire here it hollow place should be, that 



ne" o'no"' •ne"'ho' e°gana''hon'g. " Ne"'ho' do'ge's na^'a'we"'. 

the it oil there it will be full of it." Thus it is true so it came 



O'ne"' di'q waeii": 

Now more- he it said ; 



shoii' 



more- 
over 

o'ne" 

now 



'Ga'o' it'het ne" deg^iiiVgo"'. 

"Hither let him the buffalo." 

(anthr.) come 

ne"'ho' o'tga'da't. O'ne"' waen": 

there it stood up. Now he it said : 



to pass. 

Dii"djia'- 

In a short 
time just 

"Ne"'ho' 

"There 



ho'sade"sgo"." 

thither do thou 
plunge thyself." 

sgo'go' he" 

landed where 



Ne'"ho' do'ge"s na"'a'we"'. 

Thus it is true so it came to 

pass. 

niiogwe'nioiT o'sen". Da', 

so it is possible it fat (is). So, 



Ho'gwa' ho"wade'- 

That side thither it 

o'ne"' a'e" waeii"': 

now again he it said: 



HEWITTJ 



SENECA VEKSION 



239 



said: " Hither let him [anthropic] come next in order of time, the bear." 
In a short time now the bear stood there. Moreover, he now said 
again: "Therein do thou, next in order, plunge thyself into that oil." 
Thus, truly, did it come to pass. On the farther side it landed from 
the oil pool, having- become as fat as it is possible for it to be. So 
now he said: "'What is it thou wilt do, and in what manner, to aid 
[human] man-beings ? " ' ' This, seemingly, is all ; I shall just flee from 
him," it said. So now he loaded it by inserting meat into its legs. 
And now, verily, its legs are very large. So now he said: "Let the 
deer next in oixler stand here." As soon as it stood there, he said: 
" Thei-e into that oil thou shalt plunge thyself." Now of course he 
[anthropic] cast his body therein, and landed from the oil pool on the 
other side, and it [zoic] was as fat as it was possible for it to be. So 
now he said: '* With whatand in what manner wilt thou aid the [human] 



"GaV 

" Hither 

o'ne"' 

now 



it'het 

let him 
come 



ne ■ 

that 



ne wa 

next in 
turn 



ne 

the 



niagwai . 

bear." 



ne"'ho' o'tga'da't ne" 

there it stood the 



be it said: 

Ne"'ho' 

Thus 



'Ne"'ho' 

"There 

do'ge°s 

it is true 



it stood 
itself 

i's 

thou 



niagwai 

bear. 



O'ne"' 

Now 



Da'djia'shon" 

In a short 
time just 

di'q a'e' 

more- again 
over 

ne'wa' ho'sade"sgo' hi'gefi' o'no^'ge'." 

next in thither do thou this it is it oil in." 

turn plunge thyself 

na"'a'we"''. Ho'gwa' ho'wade'sgo'go' he'' 

so it came to That side thither it landed where 



niiogwe'nioii' o'sen". Da', o'ne' 

so it is possible it fat (is). So. now 



ni s 

the 
thou 



gw 



a 



ne cie 

so wilt 
thou do it 
-.it 



ne" 

the 



waen": "A' na"'o"te'"en' 

he it said : ' ' What so it is kind 

of thing 

e"'sheia"dage"ha' ne" on'gweT' "Ne" 



thou them wilt aid 



ne 

seem- the 

ingiy 

)n^son''' ne" 

severally the 



i" e''gade"go\" o'ge"". 

I I will flee," it (z.) it said. 



the 

Da', 

So, 



human beings?" 



'That 



one" 

now 



large. 



Da', 

So, 



o wa 

it meat 



o ne 

now 



ne 

the 



ga'si'nagon' 



its leg in. 



Now 



verily 



he it said: 



" Neo'ge"' ne'wa' 



'Deer 



next in 
turn 



de-ga'da't." Ganio" ne"'ho' o'tga'da't o'ne"' waeii": 

he shall stand." So soon there it itself now heitsaid: 



he'^'sade's'go' 

thou wilt plunge 
thyself 

waadia'do"iak, 

he his body cast, 



hi'gen' 

this it is 



it itself 
stood 

o'no°'ge'." 



it oil in.' 



O'ne"' 

Now 



wail' 

of course 



waondiini- 

he it inserted 

dea^sino- 

his legs are 

ne'kho' 

here 

"Ne"'ho' 

"There 

ne"'ho' 

there 



ho'gwa '-kho' 

that side and 



waa'do'go', 

he came up, 



he" 

where 



niiogwe'nion' 

so it is possible 



it fat (is). 



Da'. 

So, 



waen : 

he it said: 



ne"-kho' 

that and 

': "A' 

'What 



ne 

the 



na"'o' 

such 
kind 



te""en" ne" i's 

of thing the thou 



so thou 
wilt do it 



cie' ne" e"'she'a'dage"ha' ne" on'gwe' ?" 

the thou em wilt aid the human beings?" 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
U 



240 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



man-lieing.s?" "As for me, I shall not flee from him," it said. He 
said: " With what, and in what manner, moi-eover, wilt tiiou just do 
itf" "I will just ))ite them repeatedly," it replied. So now he, the 
yoiitji, said: ''Thus, just so, and only so, shall it be with tliee." and 
now, moreover, he removed severally its upper teeth. Then he said: 
"N(nv the bodies of all those things which have horns, the Imfi'alo, 
and the elk, etc., inherit the efteet of this change." That is the reason 
that they [anthropic] have no upper teeth. All these several small 
things, the raccoon, woodchuck [or l)adgei']. porcupine, and also the 
skunk, all cast their bodies therein; tlierein they [zoicj plunged them- 
selves. So only that is the number of those wdio were received. So 
next in order ai-e those (z.) who were not accepted. I say that 
these, the Fisher, the Otter, and the Mink, and the Weasel [were 



10 
11 

12 

13 

U 



' Nc" 

• ThiU 



ne' 

the 



the'"'e"' thagade"go'," o'ge"". Waefi": 



gn»gnt 
not it is 



I should flee,* 



it said. 



He said: 



"A' 

' What 



na"'o'te""en' 

siu'h kind of 
thing 

Da', o'ne"' 

So, now 



di'q-shoTr 

more- only 
over 



ne""cie'r' "E"khegai"-shori\" o'gg"". 

"I them will bite only," it itsaid. 



so thou wilt 
doit?" 



ne" 

the 



ne" haksa'dase"a': "Neii'dii' gwa"-shon' 

the he youth: "This .seem- just 

ingly 

i's ne"io'den'ong,'' o'ne"' di'(j waono'djodagwa'ofi' ne" 



he it 
said 



he'tgeii'-gwa' 

upper side. 



so it shall continue 
to be," 

O'ne"- 

Now 



more- 
over 



wtVodiia'dadiio'wJis ne" 

the 



he itsaid: 

degiia'go"\ 

buffalo. 



'Ne" 

"The 

kho' 

and 



he its teeth removed 
plurally 



gagwego 

it all 



the 



o'ne" 

now 



ne" djonae""da', 

the elk. 



their (z.) bodies shared 
the change 

kho" ne" deiodino""geont.'' Ne"' gaii'on'ni" the"''e"' deadi- 

and the they (z.) have horns." That it causes the not it is they(m.) 

(ones) matter 

no'"'djot ne" he'tgef5"-gwa'. Gagwe'go"' nen'gen' ne" nienna'- 

have teeth the upper side. It all this it is the so they (z.) 

small are 

sa'-shon"o"', ne" ne"' djo'ii'ga', the"doo°\ 

severally, that the raccoon, w<wdchuok 

(badger?), 

ne" se'noii', ne" gagwe'go"' ne"'ho' 

the skunk, that it all thus 



ga'he"da". ne"kho' 

porcupine, that and 

o'wennadia"do"iak, 

they ( z. 1 cast their bodies' 



ne"'ho' o'wfifinade's'gok. Da', ne"'ho'-shon' ni'ioiT 



there 



they (z.) plunged. 



So, 



only 



hoiiwandi'gwe"'. 

they (m.) were 
accepted. 

Da', ne" ne'wa' 

So, that next in 

order 



.so they 
many (are) 



ne ■ 

that 



.sgaiana lie ge 

lifher, 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 

odawefi'do"'. kho' 

otter. and 



ne" 

the 



the'"'e"' deawandi'gwe"' : Ne" ne" 

not thev were accepted: That the 

(it is) 

ne" djio'dfi'ga', kho" 

the mink. and 



HEWITT] 



SENECA VERSION 



241 



the onesj. 80 that was the numbei' of those who were excluded, 
[being set] aside, and who assembled there near by. So the Mink 
now cast bis body into the oil. As soon as he came up out of it 
the youth seized him there, and he held him up, and he stripped 
his body through his hands, and that is the reason that his body did 
become somewiiat longer. Now, verily, again it thus came to pass. 
Their bodies shared the change [into the character they now have], 
namely, those of the Fisher, and the Otter, and the Mink, and the 
Weasel. And this is the number of those [zoic] whose bodies next 
shared this transformation there — the Wolf, and the Panther, and the 
Fox. All these were excluded, being set aside. 

So now the two male children were in the habit of going away. 
Day after day they two went to a great distance ; there far awaj' thej' two 
were in the habit of setting traps. So then day after day they two 



ne" hanon'got. 


Da'. ne"'ho' 


niwefinaiidi'' 


wak'a 


' wa'odiis. 


the 


weasel. 


So. thus 


so many they 
(are) in number 


aside 


they were 
excluded. 


ne"'ho- 


wakTi" 


waodiiiVdaiei". 


Da'. 


o'ne"' 


ne" 


djio'da'ga' 


there 


aside 


they (z.) assembled. 


So. 


now 


the 


mink 


ne"'ho' 


waadia 


Mo^'iak ne" o'no"Ve' 


Ganio 


'-shoii 


daa'do'go' 


there 


he cast his body the 


it oil in. 


So soon 


as just 


he landed 
therefrom 


o'ne-" 


ne" 


baksa'da8e"a' ne'"ho' 


wafiie'na"". 


kho" ne" 


now 


the 


ho youth 


there 


he it caught, 


and the 



he'tge"" waa'dat, kho" ne" waa'djiiu'ak, ne" ne" gaii'- 

uphigh he it held, unci the he stripped it that the it 

through his hands. makes 



ofi'ni' gain'gwa" na'gaiades'he't. O'ne"' na'e' a'e" ne"'ho' 



matter somewhat 

na"awe" 



Now 



verily 



a e 

again 



there 



,T-o"' 



so its body became 
long. 

Wa'odiia'dadiio'its nen'geiT 

Their bodies shared the this it is 

change 

odaweii'do"', kho" ne" djio'da'ga. kho" ne" hanon'got; da', 

otter, and tlu- mink. and the weasel; so, 



so It came to 
pa.ss. 



sgaianane ge , 

fisher (marten), 



kho" 

and 



ne 

the 



ne""ho' niweiinandi" 

there so many they (z. ) 

(thus) arc in number 

othaioii'ni". kho" 

wolf. and 

gagwe'go"' wak'a" 

it all a.sidc 



Da', 

So, 

cion'nio" 

day plurally 



ne- 

the 



he" wa'odiia'dadiio'as. 

where their (z.) bodies shared 
the change. 

ne" heii'es, ne" kho" 

the panther that and 

(longtail), 

wa'odi'is. 

they were 
excluded. 

deik.sa"a' 



Ne" 

That 



ne wa 

next in 
order 



ne" 

the 



ne" no^'gwafgwa". 

the fox. 



they (m.) two 
children 



one" 

now 



geii's ia'den'dio"s. 



cu.stom- 
arily 



O'he"'- 

Day after 



they (m.) two were 

in the habit of 

going away. 

hofiwe'-gwa> henet'ha ; we'e"' ne" ne" hfeo'dtVne's. 

direc- they (m.) two far that the 

tion go habitually; 



far 
21 ETH — 03 



they (m.) two go 
to set traps. 



1 

2 
3 

4 

5 

6 



10 
11 
12 

13 



-16 



242 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[F.TH. ANN. 21 



were in the habit of going away. So for some time now they [masc. 
anthropit:] who severally had otgon " natures, and they also whose 
bodies were otgon in nature, hated them [the two boys]. Now, of 
course, they two, verily, in going away, were in the habit of going 
together. So that [I sayj, moreover, one day the elder one said: 
"Thou alone, for the time being, go thither. Thou alone next in 
time shall view our several set traps." So moreover [I say], that 
truly it did thus come to pass. As soon now as he was far away they 
[masc. anthropic] whose bodies are otgon by nature killed him there. 
So now he, the elder one, became aware that they had killed his 
younger brother. So now he began to cry. And [I say] that when 
it made him weep the most, when he said in his crying, ''eiT, "efi", 
'eii", "efi''-, then there were noises made in several places in the 
sky that is present. So now they [masc. anthr.] who are severally 



1 

2 
3 

4 

.5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 



Da', 

So, 



one" 

now 



o''he"'cion'nio"' 

day after da.v 
plurally 

honwadi"swa'ai"s 

they (m. ) them hated 



ia'defi'dio"s. 



they (m.t two went 
away habitually. 



Da', 

So, 



gam gwa 

somewhat 



iiiX'ionni'she't o'ne" 

so long it lasted now 

ne" ne"' honnondia'dat'go"'s. O'ne"' 

that the their (m.) bodies are otgon Xow 



their (ro.) bodies are otgon 
plurally. 



we" o'" 

tinually 
now 

ho"set. 

thither do 
thou go. 

Da', 

So, 



't 



rne s. 



Da', 



verily 



ne 

that 



gen s 

custom- they(m. )two So, 
arily go together 
customarily. 

leii"' ne" hagowa'ne"' 

the he large one: 



ne 

that 



ne"' honnofitgo"'shorr'o"' 

the they (m. i are otgon" plurally 

he"' ia"den'dio"s diia- 

where they (m. igoaway con- 
habitually 

di'q ne"' swenni's'ha't 

more- the one it day is 

over 



la e 



he it 
said 



ni'"''ho' 

there 



ne 

that 



Son"hage'a' ne'wa' 

I just 
y thys 

di'q 



Thou just alone 
(by thyself) 



next in 
turn 



Thou only for the 
time being 

e"*sekdon'no"' ne'' ong*ni'eo't.lo"'." 

the 



thou wilt go to see 
them 



more- 
over 



do'ge"« ne'''ho' 

it is true thu.s 



far 



he is going 
about 



o'ne"- 

now 



ne'''ho' 

there 



so it will come 
to pass. 

waofiwa'nio' 

thev (m. I him 
'killed 



thou I have set 
traps." 

Ganio"' no'ne"' 

So soon as the time 



ne 

that 



ne"' hon- 

the thein m.) 



bodies are otgon 
plurally. 



ne"' 

the 



nondiadat'go"'s. Da', o'ne'" waanina"do'g 

i are otgon So, now he (m.) it 

urally. noticed 

hoiiwa'nio' ne"' ho'geii"'. Da', o'ne"" o'tha'sent'ho" 



liagowa' ne' 

he large one is 



n( 



ne 

the 



thev (m, ) him 
"killed 



the 



he his younger 
brother is. 



he wept. 



ne none 

the when 

(the now) 

hasda"ha\ ne 



do'ge"s waode''hasdon's, ne"' no'ne"' o"ge""' 

it is true it used great strength that when it it said 

on him, (the now) 

ne" '"efi", 'efi", 



Ne" 

That 

ne" 

the 



en 



he is weeping, that the "henh, henh, henh, henh," now 

wa'otgaiia".son' he" ga'on'hiade". Da', o'ne"' ne"' honnontgo"'- 

it began to give out where it sky is present. So, now the they (m.) are otgon 
sounds 



a otgon signifies malefic. It denotes specifically the evil or destructive use of orenda, or magic 

power. 



SENECA VERSION 



243 



otgoii. and also thej' [zoic] whose bodies are severally otgon, now, 
verily, liecame alarmed. Now, moreover, they said: "In just a short 
time only, we believe, the sky will fall, perhaps, as soon, we think, 
as he weeps much; it is preferable that he, his younger brother, shall 
return; nothing else [will stop it].'" So now of course the youth 
became ashamed because such a large numlter of persons severally 
became aware that he was weeping. So now verily he did close up 
his lodge, all places therein where there were openings [crevices]. 
So now just after he had completed his task of closing up the ojjen- 
ings, in just a short time, now thence, from the outside, Flint spoke, 
saj'ing: •"Oh, elder brother, now I have returned." So now he the 
elder one, who was .shut up indoors, .said: "It can not be that thou 
shouldst come in. Thou shalt just depart, thou thyself. Thou shalt 
take the lead on the yjath whereon went the mother of us two. There 



.shorr'o"'. ne"' kho' ne" 

plurally, that and the 

wao'no°'dio"'k. O'ne"' 

they (z.) began to fear. Now 



onancliu\latgo"'shorr'o"\ o'ne"' na'e' 

their (z.) ^-*f^"3ies are plurally otgon, "^ now verily 

df q waen'nf : " Ha'djigwas'-.shon' 

they it said: "Just soon only 



more- 
over 



I think it may perhaps, where 
be 



it will drop 
down, 

we'so- e°ons'dae"'; ne'' sa"gwa' ne' 

much he will weep: that it is better the 

(preferable) 

ho'gen''." Da', o'ne"' wai'i' ne'' 

he his younger .So, now of course that 

brother is." 

so^'dji' gendio^'gowanen' o'ne" 

because it body of people large is now 

(too much) 

hasda'^ha . Da', o'ne"' na'e' 

he is weeping. So, now verily 



he" ga'on'hiade'' ganio'' en' nofi" 

it sky is present so soon as it may per- 
be, haps, 

e".shadon'het'-shon' 



he will again 
come to life 



just 



ne" 

the 



ne" haksa'dase''a' waade'^he"'" 

the he is a youth he became 

ashamed 

waennenninandog'hon" ne" 

they became aware of it plurally the 



waa'ho'dofi' 

he it closed up 



he" hono"'so't. 



where 



his it lodge 

stands. 



gagwe go 

it all 



he'onwe' deio'hagwende'nio"\ Da', o'ne"' wae"- 

the place it has openings 80. now after- 

where jihirally. ward 

shon' waridienno''kde"' ne" waadjiodonniofr', o'ne"' dadjit'r'-.shon* 

just he his task finished the he shut up the several now soon after just 

openings, 

Oth:iVwe"'da' 



one" 



daa'snie"t ne' 



thence he spoke 



the 



It Flint 



"Ha-djf, o'ne"' sagio""." 

"My elder now again I have 

brother. returned." 

hiVnoiit: 



Da', 

So, 



o' ne" 

now 



ne" 

the 

waeii" 

he it said 



a'.sde', 

nut of doors. 



he it said: 



ne 

that 



ne 

the 



ongie 

indoors 



lie is con- 
tained: 



"Daa'oiT aonda"cio"\ E"',sa'deiidi''- 

" It can not he thou shouldst Thou shalt depart 
enter here. 



shoiT 

just 

ne" 

the 



ne 

the 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 



10 



ne" hagowa'ne"' ^^ 

the he is large 



12 



i's, Ne" ne" e'^satha'on'de"' he'onwe' ieiaerawe'non' 

thou. That the thou shalt take up the the place hence she has gone ^^ 
path where 

Ne"'ho' i's-kho' e"cianon'dak. Ne'' ne" 

sheourmother it was. There thou and thy track shall be That the 1^ 

present. 



244 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[KTM. ANN, 21 



thou too shiilt print thy ti'iicks. I say that thou shalt trail the tracks 
of hvv wlio was our iiiothi'r. Moreover, not far hence, there thou 
.shalt seat thyself. So there now thou shalt ob.serve the kind of life 
that customarily the human man-])eings will live who will dwell ou 
the earth. So now there, moreover, the path will divide itself where 
thou wilt abide. One of the waj'.s will lead thither to the place where 
is the abode of Ilis-word-is-ma.ster," and the other will lead to the place 
where abides He-dwells-in-caves.* And also thou wilt have servants, 
the3'-[masc.]-dwell-in-caves. So that, moreover [I say], thou shalt take 
this thing-to-blow, this flute, and that thou .shalt constantly continue 
to blow it. Just as soon, customarily, as one's breath ends, one shall 
hear customarily from what direction speaks the flute. 

Sometime afterward the youth now began to wonder, soliloquizing: 
'■ What is, perhaps, verily, in great measure, the reason that my 
grandmother does not eat wild potatoes?" Now, verily, he asked her, 



e""sheianen'on' ne" ethino"e"'-gen'on'. The""e"" di'q de'we'e"' 

1 tliou shalt follow tht- the sheourmother it was. Not it is more- far 

path over (it is) 

iie""ho' e"'sa'dien". Da', ne"'ho' o'ne"' e'"satga'ion' he" 

^ there thou shalt sit So, there now thou shalt watch where 
down. 

niio"den gen's ne"' ioendja"ge' e"iagon"'heg ne" on'gwe'. 

^ such it is in custom- the it earth on one shall be living the human 

kind arily heings. 



Da 



n gen s 


ne 


n custom - 


tht 


arily 




ne.-' di'q 




that more- 




over 





ne''"'ho' de"wathiVho'gerr he/on we' 



there 



it path will divide 
into two 



the place 
where 



dioii'dak. Ne*' ne" sga't Hawenniio"ge'-gwa' he"iotha^hino'ong, 

5 shaltcontinue That the oneitis He Master at direction thither it path shall lead, 

to abide. 

Sga't Hanisheono""ge'-gwa' he"iotha'hino'ong. 

oneitis He Cave-dweller at direction thither it path shall lead. 





kho" 


ne' 


ti 


and 


the 




kho" 


ne' 


'( 


and 


the 




di'q 


ne" 


8 


more- 
over 

kho' 


the 

ne 


y 


and 


th 



Ne"- 

That 



e"sa'ha'shaien'dak ne' 

thott shalt have servants the 



hadinishe'ono"". Da'. 

they (m.) are cave- So. 

dwellers. 



neiTgen' he"'sha' neii'gen' ne" ieo'dawas'thiV, 

this it is thou shalt this it is the one uses it to blow, 



ne 

that 



ne - 

that 



10 



thou shalt 
take it 

diiawe""©"' e"seno'dado'ong. Ganio^'-shon" 

continually thoushalt keepon blow- So soon as just 

ing it. 

e"iondoni'swe"de"' o'ne"' kho'' geii's e"iagothon'deg he'oilwe' 



gen s 

custom- 
aril V 



one's breath becomes 
exhausted(=die9) 



and 



custom- 
arily 



diio'tha' ne'' ieo'dawas'tha', 

11 there it is the one uses it to blow, 
speaking 

Gain'gwa' na'ionnis'he't 

l!2 Somewhat so long it lasted 



one it shall hear 



the place 
where 



waodianon'the's, 

he wondered at it, 



ne 



he' 'he': 

13 he it 
thinks: 



"A'. 

■ What, 



per- 
haps. 



verily 



go wa 

great 
it is 



de"'es 

not she it 



lie 

the 



that 

(it isl 

onenno""da" 

it wild potato 



ne 

the 



ne' 

the 



n This is the name of the God of the Christians. '■ This is the name of the devil of the Christians. 



HEWITT] 



SENECA VERSION 



245 



saj'ing: "Oh, orandmother. what is it, verily, ami whj- do.st thou not 
in great measure eat wild ijotatoes?" "*! cu.stoinarily, all alone, liy 
myself eat food," she said; "1 eat it [food], as a matter of fact." 
Now he mused, "Now, veril}', I will watch her in the night, iiow 
just soon to be." So now he made an opening in his robe. Now, 
verilj', he laid himself down, pretending to l)e asleep. Thence, never- 
theless, he was looking, out of the place where he had made a hole 
in his robe. Now, moreover, he was looking out of the place where 
he had made an opening in the robe, and he was watching the place 
where his grandmother abode customarily. So now, she, the Ancient- 
bodied, went out. Now, moreover, she looked in the direction of the 
sunrising. Now the Star, the Daj'-bringer, was risen. Now she, the 
Ancient-bodied, said: " Now of course, so it is, I will remove my 
2)ot sitting [over the lire]." So now truly she removed the pot 



aksot'. 

my grand- 
mother? 



per- 
haps, 



O'ne" 

Now 

'e- 

verily 



na e 

verily 



go wa 

great 
it is 



(»"shagu'ondon\ AVaen"': ''Aksot'. a' 

he litT fjiR'stioneri. He it sai< 



ne 

the 



IS 

thou 



QC ses 

not thou it 
eat est 



ne 

the 



" My grand- what, 
mother, 

onenno""d!r t '' 

it wild potato?" 



'^l"'-shon' g^n's, 

"I only custom- 

arily, 

' i'ges ne'^ho'." O'ih'"" 

Nf»w. 



(k \t 



I am wholly alone 

wa'e': 



o'gadekhon'ni"'," 

I mv food eat,'" 



she it t^aid, 



O'ne'" 

" Now, 



verilv, 



e"kheiatga'ion\ 

I her will watch. 



" I it eat as matter Nf»w. he re- 

habitually of fact." solved: 

ne" ne'' ha'djigwas' e"io"ga'." Da', o'ne"' waogaiien'de"' ne" 

that the just soon now it will be So, now he it hole in it made the 

it is night." 

ha'gwas'tha'. O'ne"* na'e' waadias'beff. i:Vge"'o"\ lioda 'o"*. 

he it to wrap Now verily he lays himself pretending. he is asleep, 

himself uses. down, 

Ne""ho', se""e"' ]iige"" dethaga'ne' he'onwe 

There, neverthe- so it is thence he is 

looking 

hriias'hefi' ne'"ho 

he lay supine there 



O'ne"' di'q na'e' 

Now more- verily 

over 

he'onwe' thaoy-ai'ient 



so It IS 

(however) 

ne" 

the 



the place 
where 



VA ge o •. 

pretending. 

ne" 

the 



thaogai'ient. 

there he it hole 
in it uuide. 



u ne 

niiw 



the place 
where 



lie has it hole 
in it made 



ne 

the 



1 lOS, 

robe. 



he'onwe' ie"dio"' ne" ho'sot'. Da', 

the his grand- So. 



the place slie was 

where seated 



his grand- 
mother. 



o ne 

now 



o ne 

now 



dethaga'ne' 

thence he was 
liioking 

ne'''ho^ deaga'ne' 

there 



his eyes were 
fixed on it 

wa-eiii'ge"'t ne" 

she went out the 



Iege""tci'. O'ne' di'q wfrontgat'ho'' ne" tgaii'gwitge"'s'-gwa' 



She 
Ancient One. 



more- 
over, 



O'ne"' diioa'gwitge"''o'" 

Now there it planet is risen 



she looked 



ne 

the 



the thence it luminary direc 

comes up tion 

Tgendenwit'hfi' (.Tadjrso""d:'r 

It star {\->\. 



O'ne"' ne' 

Now the 



Iege""tei' 

She, 
Ancient One 



wa age 

she it said: 



Thence it brings 
day 

"O'ne"' 

"Now, 



of course 



nige"' 



e"gna"'djoda'go'' ne" 

I pot will remove the 



agna""djot." Da', 

I have set up the So, 

pot (on the fire)." 



3 
4 
5 
6 



8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 

tn"v. 14 



246 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ASS. 21 



[from tlif tire] and ulso put the wild potatoes in a bowl of liark. and 
there was just one bowlful. So now, next in order, she rununaged 
among her belongings in a bag which she pulled out, and now. veril}-, 
she there took out corn. So now she parched it for herself. Now, 
moreover, it popped. There was quite a pile of the popped corn. 
Now, verily, she took out a mortar of small size. Moreover, .she 
struck repeated blows on the mortar, and the Juortar grew in size, 
and it grew to a .size that was just right. Now she took out the 
upper mortar" [pestle] from her bag. Now again she struck it 
repeated blows and it, too, increased in size. So now she pounded 
the corn, making meal. So now again she searched in her bag. She 
took thence again a small pot, and she, too, again did in like manner, 
striking repeated blows upon it, and it, too, increased in size. Now 



wa"ena"Vljoda'go' ne" kho" ne'' 

1 she pot removed thiit and llie 



g'adjie"''ge' wa'e'e"' ne"' oneii- 

it bowl ill she it placed the it 



no""da\ sgaksat'-shon' o'wa'do"'. Da', o'ne"' ga'oii'ho"' ne'wa' 



2 potatoes. 



rine it dish only 



o"diag-oda'no"''dai' 

3 she riimmaged her 

belongings 

na'e" ne""ho' 

4 verily there 



ne 

that 



ne 

the 



wa'eda"go' 

she it took out of 



gaia 

it )ni^ 



ne 

the 



low she herself 

wa'ondien'tho'. 

she it pulled forth. 



oneii o 

it corn. 



Da'. 

So. 



wa"'onde"'son". 

she parched it for 
herself. 



O'ne"' 

Now 



di'q 



more- 
over 



o'wa^laclofi'go'. 

it popped (burst). 



next m 
turn 



o ne"' 

now 

O'ne"' 

Now 



gaiii'gwa' niio'so'djes 

somewhat 



niwa a 

so it small 
in size is 



ne 

the 



so it pile is 
high. 

ga"'nio;a"du\ 

it morttir. 



O'ne"' 

Now 

O'ne" 

Now 



na e 

verily, 

di'q 

more- 
over 



a e 

ouee 
more 

ne"ho' 

there 



wa"eda''go' 

she it took out 



ne 

the 



wa'eie"'da'non", 

she it .struck 
repeatedly, 

ne" ne" ga"niga"da' o'wado'diak, ho'gowa"he"t, agwa's ne'ho"tci' 

that the it morlar it grew, it became larger, very just right 

in size " fe.xaclly) 

na""wa°"'he't. O'ne"' he'tgen'on' ne" ga"niga"da" 

Now upper (one) the it mortar 



so it became 
in size. 



ne 

10 the 



goia gon 

her bag in. 



wa"eie"'da'non\ o'ne"' 



11 
12 
13 



ho"gowa"he't. 

It became large 
in size. 

cion'ni'. Da', 

made. So, 



O'ne"' a'e 

Now once she it struck 

again repeatedly. 

Da', o'ne"' ne''ho' wa'e'the't, othe"'sha' wa'e 



wa'eda"go' 

she it took 
out 

ha'e'gwa' 

also 



So, 



one" 

now 



there she it pounded, 

-"" hv 



it meal 



once 
more 



ne" 

this 
vvav 



iwa eie 

she it did 



ne 

the 



she it 

goiii'gon'. 

her bag in. 



Ne"'ho' wiveda"go' 

There she it took out 



a'e' niwa"a' gana""'dja", 

it pot, 



once so it is small 
more in size 



ne"'-kho' 

that and 



ne"'ho^ aV 



14 there 



once 
more 



so she it 
did 



wiveie"'da'non\ 

she it struck 
repeatedly, 



ho'gowa''he't-kho' 

it became large and 



ne 

the 



once 
more. 



rtThis term goes back to the time when upper and lower grinder had the same name. 



HEWITT] SENECA VERSION 247 

she there set up the pot, and also made mush therein. So, as soon as 
it was cooked she again rummaged in her bag. So now she took 
fi'om it a bone, a beaver l)one. Now again, veril}', she scraped the 
bone, and she poured the bone-dust into the pot, and now, moreover, 
at once there floated oil on its surface. Now, of course, she took the 
pot from the lire. So now she ate the food. Verily, now, the youth 
went to sleep. Now early in the morning- again [as usual] she, the 
Ancient-bodied, went away to dig wild potatoes. As soon as she dis- 
appeared as she went, then he went to the place where his grandmother 
customarily abode. Now, moreover, he began to rummage [among 
her belongings]. He tooit out an ear of corn which had only a few 
grains left fixed to it, there being, perhaps, only three and a half rows 
of grains left. So now he began to shell the corn; he shelled it all. 

O'ne"' ne"'ho' wa'ena"'djaniion'de°', o'ne°' ne"'ho' wa'edjisgon'nf- 

Now there she it pot fastened up, now there she mush made 1 

kho". Da', ganio" ho'ga'i' o'ne"' a'e' wadieno""dai" nige"" 

and. So, so soon it was now once she it rummaged so it is 2 

as coolied more 

ne" goia'goi!'. Da', o'ne"' ne^'ho' wa'eda"go' o'nen'ia' 

the her bag in. So, now there she took it out it bone t> 

na"ga"nitVgo"' o'nen'iti'. O'ne"' a'e" na'e' wa'e'get. O'ne"' ne"'ho' 

Iteaver it bone. Now once verily she it scraped. Now there 4: 

more 

waii'ofitho'' ne'' o'donnie""sha\ o'ne"' di'q iogoiida'die' o'ga'nu'. 

she it poured the it scrapings, now more- it at once it caused 5 

over oil to float. 

O'ne"" wai'i' wa ena"'djoda'go' ne" gana"'djo't. Da', o'ne"' 

Now of she It pot removed the it pot sets up. So, now 6 

course 

wtVofidekhon'nf. O'ne"' na'e' wao'dsV ne" hak.sa'da'se"'a'. Ne" 

stie it food ate. Now, verily he went the he youth. That 7 

to sleep 

no'iK^"" sede"tcia' o'ne"' a'e' wa'o""dendr ne" Iege°"tci' 

the time early in Ihe now once she departed the She 8 

morning more Ancient One 

wrreunenno"'dogwat'h!r. Ganio" -shoiT ho"wa"do"' he" hwa"e"' 

.she uild potatoes went to dig. So soon as just thither it where she went 9 

disappeared onward 

o'ne"' ne""ho' wa'e' he'on'we' iondiendak'hwtV ne" ho'sot'. 

now Ihcre thither the place she it uses to remain the his grand- 10 

he went where mother. 

O'ne"' di'q waa"sawe"' ne" o'thano""dai'. O'ne"' 

Now more- he it began the he it rummaged. Now H 

over 

waada"go' ne" o'nis'dti' doga'ti"-shon nidjoneii'ot, 'tise"" 

he it took out the (It) ear of a lew only so many it corn- three 12 

corn grains remain on it, 

gi"she"' nidjoatVge' hfi'deswa'sen'no"'. Da', o'ne"' waa"sawe"' 

probably, so many it row is just it is one-half. So, now belt began 13 

in number 

wao'gefi' ne" onefi'o"", gagwe'go"' waas"a't. Da', o'ne"' 

he it shelled the it corn, it all he it So, now 14 

exhausted. 



248 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[KTII. ANN. 21 



So now he parched it for himself. Now, moreover, it popped, burst- 
ing- iteratively, there lieing quite a heap, (juite a hirge amount of it. 
Again he rummaged. Again he there toolv out a mortar of .small size 
and also an upper mortar [pestle]. So now he u.sed this to strike that, 
and now, moreover, both inci'eased in size. And now he poured the 
parched corn. So now he in the mortar pounded it, and now verily 
it became meal. Now again he searched in her bag, and he took there- 
from a small pot, and now u.sed something else to strike upon it blows; 
then it, too, increased in size. Now, verily, he there set up the pot 
[on the tire] and also put water in it. So now he therein poured 
all this meal. Now, of course, he made mush. So now again he 
searched in the bag of his grandmother, and therefrom he took 
a bone, and he put it therein, and the mash became abundant. 



waiide""son'. O'ne"' di'q oVa'dadofi'go', gaiii'gwa' niio"sodja', 

he it parched Now more- it popped by burst- somewhat so it pile is in 

for himself. over ing. size. 

ne"kho' ne" gaiii'gwa' luVioiT'he't. O'ne"' a'e' o"thano""dai'. 

that and the somewhat so it amount Xow once he it rummaged. 



so It amount 
became. 



once 
more 



O'ne"" a'e' ne"''ho" waada"go' ne" ga'niga"da' niwtV'a' iie"'kho' 

Now once there he it took the it mortar so it size that and 



once 
more 



he it took 
out 



so It size 
is small 



ne" he'tgeii'on' ne" ga'niga"d:V. Da', o'ne"' ne"' waaia"dak 

the upper (one) the it mortar So, now tluil he it used 

(pestle). 

waaie"'da'non\ o'ne"' di'q o'gowa"he't dedjfi'o"'. Da'. (I'ne"' 

he it struck re- now 

peatedly. 

ne""ho' waiaun'tho' 

there lie it poured 



more- 


it became large 


both 


■So. 


now 


over 










ne" 


oneii'so'"'gwa'. 


Da', 


o'ne"' 


ne"'ho 


the 


it parched corn. 


So, 


now 


there 



waat'he't, o'ne"* wai'i' othe".shir oVa'do"\ O'ne"' di'q a'e' 

I helt pounded, now of it meal il became. Now more- once 

course over more 

waak'don' ne" goia'gon', o'ne"' ne'""ho" waada"go' ne" niwa"a^ 

8 he it searched the her bag in. now there he it took the soitissmall 

lor out in size 

gana""dja\ o'ne"' hiVgwis'de"' a'e' o'ia' waaia"dak waaie"'da'non', 

9 it pot, now something once il- he it used he it struck re- 

more other peaiedly. 

o'ne"^ a'e'-kho' ho^gowa'^he't. O'ne"' na'e' ne'^ho' waana"'dja- 

it became large. Now verily there he it pot 



now once and 
more 



waa 



hne 



hung up, 



ega 

he placed water 
lu it 



'efi'-kho' 

and. 



Now 

Da', 

So, 



o ne 

now 



ne"'ho' 

there 



wiiaufi'tho' 

lie it poured 



10 

11 

12 

13 

waada"go' ne" o'nefi'iii', o'ne"' ne" ne"'ho' wa'o', odo""hoii'do°'- 

14: he took It out the il bone, now that there he put it abundant be- 



nen'geii' ne" othe's'hii' gagwe'go"'. O'ne"' wai'i' waiidjisgoii'ni'. 

this it is the il meal it all. now of he mush made. 

course 

Da', o'ne"' a'e' wae"sak ne" goia'goii' ne" ho"sot. Ne""ho' 

There 



once 
more 


he n looked 
for 


the 


bet bag in 


the 


Ills grand 
mother. 



SENECA VERSION 



249 



"Ho'ho"," he kept chuckling. ''It tastes good." Now soon there- 
after his grandmother rctunifd. She said: "Well, what manner of 
thing art thoudoingr' "l have made mush," the youth said, ""and 
it is pleasant, too. Do thou eat of it, so be it, oh, grandmother. 
There is an abundance of mush." So now she wept, saying: "Now, 
verily, thou hast killed me. As a matter of fact, that was all there was 
left for me." " It is not good," he said. ■" that thou dost begrudge it. 
I will get other corn and also bone." 

So now the next day he made his preparations. When he finished 
his task, he .said: " Now it is tiiat 1 am going to depart." So now, 
verily, he departed. He arrived at the place where dwell man-beings. 
As .soon as he arrived near the village he then made his preparations. 
I .say that he made a deer out of his bow, and, next in order, a wolf 



kho- o'wa'do"' ne"' odjls'gwa'. " Ho'ho"," "Oga'V" kho". ha'- 

and it became the it mush. "Aha!" "It tastes and. lie 

good"._^ 

do"'. O'ne"' dadjuV'-shon" suie'io"' ne'' ho^sot. WaVge"": "Gwr^'. 

kept Now soon alter just again she the hisgrand- Sheitsaid: "Well, 

saying. returned mother. 

A"na""ot ni*.sadie"-ha'?" " AgedjIsg-on'ni\" waefi", ne' 



What manner 
of thing 

dase^'iV: 

youth: 



so thou art 
doing?" 

'' Agwa's 

" Very 



" I mush am making," he it said, the 



haksa' 

he 



aksot'. 

my grand- 
mother. 



Odo"'hoii'do" 

It is abundant 



awendetgii'de'-kho'. 

it is pleasant and. 

ne" odjis'gwii'." Da', 

the it mush." So, 



Sadekhon'nr, 

Do thou eat, 



nio", 

so be 
It, 



o' ne • 

now 



ne 

that 



ne waage 

the she it said: 



" O'ne"' na'e' 

"Now verilv. 



proba- 
bly. 



thou hast 
killed me. 



wa'o"s'dae"', 

she wept, 

Ne"'ho'-shofi" 

So much just 



ne'"ho' 

as matter so it 1 have had 
of fiiet 

OiiV'-shoiT i" e"gie'gwa ne" onefi'o" 



It other just 

Da', 

So, 



niwagien'dak.*" ''Wa/ De'wi'io," waen", '' Sa'se^'^'se'. 

Oh. It is not lie it said, "Thou dost be- 

good," grudge it. 

kho" ne" o'nen'uV," 

I it will get the it corn and the it bone." 

wa'o'^hen't o'ne"' waadecionnia'non'. No'ne"' 

he his preparations made. The now 



1 



the time 



It day became 



3'ne"' 

now 



waadiefino'k'de"' 

hf his task finishecl 



Da', 

So, 



o ne 

now 



na e 

verilv 



waa'den'di'. 

he departed. 



"O'ne"- 

".Now 

Ne"iio- 

There 



nige"" 



e"ga"'dendr." 

1 will depart." 



waa lo 

he arrived 



he'onwe' 



the place 
where 



lenan ge 

thev lindef ) 
dwell 

ganondak"a' 

It village beside 



ne 

the 



on gwe .' 

raan-bciiig. 



Ganio" 

So soon as 



ue'"ho' 

there 



o ne 

now 



ne"'*ho' 

there 



waadecionnia'non'. 

he preparations made. 



waa lo 

he arrived 

Ne" 

That 



ho'en'nti'' waade'cion'ni' ne"' ne'ege"', o'ne"' ne"' 

his bow he It made for the deer, now that 

tmnseli 



ne wa 

next in 
order 



ne 

the 

ne" 

the 

ne" 

the 



3 

i 

5 

6 

7 
8 
9 

1(1 
11 
12 
13 
14 



oSee footnote ou page 141. 



250 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



■ [eth. axn. 21 



out of his arrow; he made tlie.se for himself. Now he said: "When- 
ever it be that ye two run through the village it will customarilj' 
be that one will be just on the point of overtaking the other." Next 
in order he himself made into an Ancient-bodied one. So now he went 
to the plaee where they [mase.], the man -beings, abode. So now, some- 
time after he had arrived there, then, verily, they gave him food, 
gave to the Ancient-bodied. During the time that he was eating 
they heard a wolf approach, barking. One would just think that it 
was pursuing something. So now they all went out of doors. They 
saw a wolf pursuing a deer which was approaching them, and saw 
that, moreover, it was about to seize it. So now all run thither. So 
now he was alone, and the Ancient-bodied ate. As soon as they had 
all gone, he now thrust his body into the place where, sevei'ally, the 



ho"'no"' 

1 liis jirrciw 

ne'"ho' 

2 th.TC 

gOiT'shon" 

3 in along 



ne ' 

that 



ne wa 

next' in 
order 



thaioil'ni' 

wolf 



ne'' ne"' waade'cion'ni', 



the 



he it made for 
himself. 



O'ne-' 

Now 



''Tho''lnV gen's e"gonwa'ant no'ne"^ ganonda- 

Iie it said: "Nearly custom- one it will over- the time it village 



custom- 
arily 



he"8niiliik'he\" 

thither ye two will 
run." 



Ne" 

That 



one it will over- 
take 

ne" 

the 



ne wa 

next in 
order 



ha'oiT'hwa"' 

he himself 



(ha'on'ho"') ne" hage""tci^ waadadon'nf. Da', ne'"ho' M'aa'io"' 

•i lu- himself the he ancient he himself made. So, there he arrived 



he ancient 
one 

he'onwe' gano"".sot ne" thenni"dio"' ne" hennon'gwe'. 

the there they (m.) the they fm.'i Care) 

severally abode m"an-being.s. 

na'iofi'uishe't ne'"ho' ho'io"' o'ne"^ 

so long it lasted there 



O the place 
where 

o'ne"- 

b now 



it lodge 
stood 

gain'gwa' 



he has 
arrived 



wuonwakhwa'nont 

i they { m.) him 

food gave 

naion'nishe't ne" 

8 so long it lasted the 



( ( waonkh\\ a'nont) 

they ( m. i him food gave 

hodekhon'ni* o'ne" 

he is eating now 



ne 

the 



now 

hap:e""tci' 



he ancient 
one. 

honnonthon'de" 

thev (m.) it heard 



Da', 

So, 



of 
course 

Ne" 

That 

dtlga- 

t hence 



ni ne 

9 it came 
barking 



ne" thaion'ni'. Aien^'-.'shorr ha^'gwisde"' dfiga^'he'. Da', 

the wolf. One would just something thence it it So, 



o ne gagwe go' 

1'' now it all 

dfigas'he' ne" 

11 thence it the 

it pursued 



think 

waadiia'ge"'t. 

they (m.) went 
out. 

o'ne" 

now 



ne oge 

deer, 



o ne" 

liy now 



gagwe go 

it nil 



ne"'ho' 

there 



]s pursuing. 

Waennontgat'ho' ne" thaiofi'ni' 

They (m.) saw the wolf 

di'q tho"hii' agaie'na"\ Da', 

nearlv 



more- 
over 



o-thennen'e"'dat. 

they (m.) ran. 



it it could So, 

seize. 

o'ne" 

now 



Da', 

So, 



haoiTho'"gea"-shon' 

13 he (was) all alone just 



hodekhon'ni 

he is eating 



ne 

the 



hage""tci'. 

he ancient one. 



Ganio" 

So soon 



wa'ons"a't o'ne'" ne"'ho' waadiado"iak he'ofiwe' 

^^ the>' themselves now there he his body cast the place 

exhausted where 



gasde"'sani- 

it corn string 
haugs 



HEWITT] 



SENKCA VERSION 



251 



strings of corn hung. Two strings of corn he took off, and now, 
moreover, he placed them on his shoulder and he went out at once. 
He was running far away when they noticed [what he had done], 
but, verily, they did not at all pursue him. Again he arrived at 
their lodge. So now he cast them down where his grandmother 
abode. "'Here,'' he said: "'Thou wilt do with this as seems good to 
thee. Thou mayest decide, perhaps, to plant some of it." When it 
was day, he said: "Well, 1 will go to kill a lieaver." Now, moreover, 
he went to the place that his grandmother had pointed out. saying 
that such things would dwell there. So he arrived there, and then, 
also, he saw the jilace where the beavers had a lodge. Then he saw- 
one standing there. He shot it there and killed it. So then he placed 
its body on his back by means of the forehead pack-strap and then, 
moreover, he departed for home. Some time afterward he arrived 



ion'do"'. Deiosde°"sage' waaniioilda'go', o'ne"' di'q hane°sha"ge', 

severally. Two it corn string he them removed. 



Two it corn string 
in number 



waaiage""dak. 

he went out at once. 



wao'da'. o'ne"' di't 

he them now more 

hung, over 

waennenni'na"dog, the""e"' na'e" kho" 

thev (m.) became aware not it is verily anrl 

of it, 

Honsaa'io"' he" thodino"'sot'. Da' 

where 



There he again 
arrived 



there their lodge 
stands. 



now more- -^ his shoulder on 
over 

We'u"- waadiik'he" o'ne". 

Far he was running now 

away 

de'csthofi" deonwu'oion\ 

it is a little they him i)ursued. 

o'ne"' ne''iio* wao'di' 

now there he it cast 



he'oiiwe' ie"dio"' ne" ho'.sot'. "Gwa"," waen", 

the his grand- "Here." Jie it said, 



'e"'senno"'don'' 

" thou thyself wilt 
please 

i's he" ne"'sadie'trt nefi'gen'. £"'se", gr'she"", ^gie" o-ientwa't"." 

this it is. Thou wilt it may be, some I it will plant." 



the jilaee she was 

where seated 



his grand- 
mother. 



thou where so thou it wilt 
use 

No'ne"" wa'o'^hefi't o'ne' 

The it became day now 

now 



Thou wilt 
decide, 



he it said: 



"Gwa". 

" Well. 



E"giiosha-' ne" 

I it will go the 

to kill 



na"ga"nia"go"\" O'ne"' di'q ne"'ho' hwa'e' he'onwe' tge""honde' 

beaver." Now more- there 



more- 
over 



1 hit her 
he went 



the place 
where 



there it river 
flows 



ne*' oaonwa'Tit' ne" ho'so't, ne" ne" tra'weii^ ne" ne"'ho% 

the she it pointed the his grand- that the she it has the there 



she it pointed 
out 



his grand- 
mother 



she it has 
said 



e"ganon'gek ne"' na''ot. Da', o'ne"' ne^'^ho^ waa'io°\ o'ne"''-kho\ 

that such kind So, now there he arrived, now -and 



it will be 
abundant 

waa'ge"' 

he it saw 

waa'ge"' 

he it saw 

wail'nio'. 

he it killed. 



such kind 
of thing. 

he'onwe' odino"'sot' ne" na"ga"nia"go" 

the place they (z.) have the beaver, 

where their lodge 

ne"'ho' ga'at. O'ne"^ ne"'ho' waiViak 

there it stood. Now there he it shot. 



Da', o'ne"' waadia'tge"dat, kho" ne" 

So, now he placed its body on his and the 

back l^y forehead band. 



kho" 

and 

o'ne'^' 

now 



O'ne"' 

Now 

ne" 

the 



di'q 

more- 
over 



saa"dendr. Gain'gwa' na ion'nishe't o'ne"' ne"'ho' saa'io"' 

again he Somewhat so long it lasted now there 

departed. 



again he 
arrived 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



252 



IRUyUUIAN COSMOLOGY 



[V.TU. ANN. 21 



at the place where their lodi^v stood. Thus, also, again did lie do; 
there where hi.s orandiiiother was sitting he cast it. ■'Here." he said. 
"So be it," she, the Ancient-bodied, said. 

So now out of doors they two skinned it. Thej- two held its bodj"^ 
in many places. So when they two were nearly through their task 
there was a pool of blood on the green hide. So then she. the 
Ancient-bodied, took up a handful of the blood and cast it on the loins 
of her grand.son. "Ha'ha"," she, the Ancient-bodied, said, "now, 
verily, my grandson, thou becomest catamenial.'' "Fie upon it," said 
the youth, "it is not for us males to be so affected as a habit; but ye, 
ye females, shall be affected thus habitually every month. " Now, again 
he took up a handful of clotted blood and cast it between the thighs 
of his grandmother, and now, he said: "Thou, of course, verily, hast 



he'ofiwe' thodino"'sot'. 



1 the placu 

whore 

he'ofiwe' 

2 the plaee 

where 



3 he it said. 

4 



there their lodge 
stands. 

ieniu'''ciot ne" 

she is sitting tlie 

■Niiawe""hfi'," 

"I am thankful," 



Ne""ho' 

There 

ho'sot' 

his grand- 
mot lier 



kho" 

and 



once 
more 



naa"'ie'; iie'''ho' 

so he it 
did: 



ne'"ho' wao'df. 

there he it threw. 



there 

"Gwa"," 

" Here," 



Da' 

So, 



o'ne"' as'de" 

now out of 

doors 

ne" gaia'div'ge. Da', 

5 the its body on. .So, 



wa a ge 

she it said 

ne'''ho" 

there 



ne" 

the 



Eia"dage"''tci' 

she Aneient-bodied 
One. 

wauiien"se*. Deniienawa"kho' 

they (m.) it sliin- 
ned. 



n) 



ne 

that 



no ne 

the now 



They two one the 
the other aided 

tho"ha' e"iadiefino"kde"' 



nearly 



they fm.) two it task 
will eomplete 



ga'hne'ga' ne'' gacio'^a'ge' ne" otgwe°"sa\ Da', o'ne"' ne" 

6 it liquid the it green hide on the it blood. So, now the 

Eiadage""tci' o"dio""tcagak' ne" otgwe""sa, kho" ne'' ne"'ho', 

he there 



" Alas," 

wa*sa"diawent, 

thou hast the menses 
(=dost abstain^ 

'. "The""e"', 

" Xot it is 

ni"ii' ne" agwadji'na" ne'^ho' naiaweiT'seg; i's de"'gwae'' ne" 

11 we per- the we males thus so it will be hap- ye though the 
sonally pening; 

.sweo^'-shoiT'o"' ne""ho' iie"iaweri"seg ne" swenniVla"-shon'." 

12 ye females thus so it will be hap- the each month just." 

pening 

O'ne"' onsaa'tcagiik' ne" o'tgwa' o'ne"' di'q ne"'ho- wao'di' 

13 Now again he it hand- the it elotted now more- there he it east 

(ul took up. blood over 

ne" deieo'gen' ne" ho'sot', o'ne"' di'q na'e' waen : "I's 

14 the helween her the hisgrand- now more- venly lie it sjiid: ■Thou 

thighs mother, over 



7 


She Ancient-bodied 
One 


she handful the 
t*jok up 


it blood, and 




waago'di' 


ne' 


hoa'.sii''ge' 


ne" honwan'de' 


8 


she it threw 


the 


his loins on 


the her grandson. 




wiVa'ge"" 


ne"' 


Iege""tci': 


"O'ne"' wai'i- 


9 


she it said 


the 


She Ancient 
One: 


•'Now, of 
course 




gwa'de'." 


"Tcisnen"," waeiT' 


ne'' haksa'dase'Ti 


10 


my grand- 
son." 


•■Fie 


ipon it," he it said 


the he youth. 



1 



HEWITT] SENECA VERSION 253 

now become catamenial." So now, she. the Ancient-bodied. Ijeyari to 
weep, and she said: "Moreover, customarily, for how long- a pei'iod 
will it be thus as an habitual thing ^ "^ Then the youth said: '' [As many 
days] as there are spots on the fawn. So long, verily, shall be the 
time that it will continue to be thus." Now again she began to weep, 
the Ancient-bodied. So now .she said: "It is not possible for me to 
consent that it shall be thus." "Plow many, moreover, then, shall 
the}' be '* "' he said. " I would accept the number of stripes on the back 
of a chipnumk," she said. " So be it," said the youth. So then he said: 
"Customarily, four days shall a woman-being remain out of doors. 
Then, customarily, as soon as she has washed all her garments, she 
shall reenter the place where they, her ohwachira". abide." 

wai'i" na'e' o'ne"' o'.sa"diawent." Da', o'ne"' o'dio"',se"t'ho' 

of verily now thou hast thy So. now she wept 

course menses." 

ne" Iege""tcr. o'ne"' di'q wa'a'ge"': "Gaiii" di'cj gen's 

the She Ancient- now more- she it said: "Where more- cus- 9 

bodied One, over over tomarily ^ 

he" ne"ion'nishe't ne" ne^'ho" ne"io'den'ong?" O'ne"' ne" 

where so long it will the thus so it will continue Now the 3 

last to be?" 

haksa'dase"a' waeiT': " Ne" ne"' he'' ni'ioiT ne" niiodia"gwa' 

he youth he it said: "That the where so many it the so many it spots ^ 

is has 

ne" djisda'thien'a'. Ne"'ho' na'e' ne"ion'nishe't ne"'ho' gen's 

the spotted fawn. There verily so long it will thus cus- 5 

last tomarily 

ne'Mo'deii'ong." O'ne"' a'e" o'dio"'se"t'ho' ne" Iege""tci'. Da', 

so it will continue Now once she wept the She Ancient- So, 6 

to be." more bodied One. 

ne"' ne" waVge"': " DaVo"' ne" agi'wani'iit ne" ne""ho' 

that the she it said: "Uisnotpos- the I it will assent the thus 7 

sible to 

"Do', di'q nofi"?" waeii". " Ne" di'q noiT' 

so it should come "How, more- perhaps?" he it said. "That more- per- S 

to pass." many, over over haps 

age'go' ne" djo'ho"gwais he" ni'ion' no'' oiano""do"' ne" 

litwould the chipmunk where somanyitis the it is lined the 9 

accept 

ga'swe"no""ge'," wa'a'ge"'. " Nio"," waeii" ne" haksa'dase"a'. 

its back on," she it said. "So be it," lie it said (he he youth. 10 

Da', ne" waefi": ''Ge'i' gen's ne^io'da" as'de" gen's ne"'ho' 

So, that heitsaid: "Four cus- somanyitwill out of cus- there H 

tomarily be days doors tomarily 

e"ie'diori'diik. O'ne"' ganio" gen's gagwe'go"' e"ieno""iie"'hon' 

one will continue Now so soon cus- it nil one will wash 12 

to tJC. as tomarily them plurally ^ 

ne" go'cionnias'hii" o'ne"' gen's de"die'io"' he'oiiwe' 

the one's raiment now cu.s- thenceone will the place 13 

tomarily cume indoors where 

henni"dio"" ne" ago'watci'iii'." 

they (m.) are the her ohwachira," 

abiding 

« See first note on page 255. 



254 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



So some time at'terward she, the Aiicient-V)odied, .said repeatedly: 
"And there shall be mountain.s, seemingly, over the .surfaee of the 
earth here present." And now. verily, it did thus come to pass. 
•'And, too, there sliall l)e rivers on the surfaee of the earth." again 
she said. Now, of course, truly it did thus come to pass. 

Now the youth said: '"Nuw ] think that thou and I should return 
home; that thou and 1 should go to that place which my mother has 
made ready for us; that there thou and I should remain forever." 
"So be it." she, the Ancient-bodied, said. 

So then it was true that his grandmother and he departed. So then, 
verily, they two went up on high. So this is the end of the legend. 



Da', o'ne"' gain'gwa' na'iofi'nishe't o'tte"" ne" Eia'dage""tci' 

1 So now somewhat .to long it lasted now the She Ancient-bodied 

One 

ion'do"': "E"ionondade'niong gwa" kho" he'' ior-ndjada'die'." 

2 she kept ''There will be mountains .seem- and where it earth is present." 
sayins: standing, ingly 

O'ne"- do'ge°s ne"'ho' na""a'we"'. "Xe^'-kho- 

3 Now it is a fact thus so it eame to "That and 

pass. 

de'niofig he" ioendjiVge'," waa'ge"'-kho" a'e". 

4: iiresent where it earth is present," she it said and another 

plnrally '™e. 

ne'"ho' do'ge"s ne"''ho" na""a'we"'. 

5 thus it is a fact thus so it came to 

pass. 

O'ne"' ne"' haksa"dase"'a' waeii"': "O'ne"" 

Now the he youth he it said: "Now 



ne" 


e°ge"'hon- 


the 


it 


river will be 


O' 


ne" 


• wai'i' 


N 


ow 


of 
course 



aesedia'den'df. Ne""ho" hae"ne' he'onw 

There 



thou and I should 
return home. 



no le"'. 

my 
mother. 



Ne'"ho- 

There 



thou and I 
should go 

dae'ni'dioiidak 

thou and I shouM be 



the place 
where 



I sup- 
po.se 

diiagode'sa"'o" 

there she is ready 



ne 

the 



1" 
we 



ne" 

the 



wa a ge 

9 she it said 



Da'. 



10 
11 
12 



ne" 

the 

o'ne"" 

now 



Eiadage""tcr. 

she Ancient-bodied 
One. 

do'ge"s w3iii"dendi' 

it is a fact 



they two 
departed 



na'e- he'tge"" 

verily up high 



wa ne . 

they two 
went. 



Da', ne'''ho" nigagai'is. 

[So, there so it legend 

is long.] 



iio'i'wadadie'. 

it should be a con- 
tinuing matter." 



ne 

the 



ho'sot'. 

his grand- 
mother. 



'■Nio"," 

"So be it," 



Da', 

So, 



o ne 

now 



A MOHAWK VERSION 

III the regions above there dwelt nian-beings who knew not what it 
is to see one weep, nor what it is for one to die; sorrow and death were 
thus unknown to them. And the lodges belonging- to them, to each of 
the ohwachiras" [families], were large, and very long, because each 
ohwachira usually abode in a single lodge. 

And so it was that within the circumference of the village there 
was one lodge which claimed two persons, a male man-being and a 
female man-being. Moreover, these two man-being.s were related to 
each other as brother and sister; and they two were dehnino'taton'' 
[down-fended]. 



Ratinak'ei'e' 

They (m.) ilwell 



aio"'shent'ho' 

one shouM weep, 
lament 

rofrino"'so'to"' 

their (m.) lodge .stand 
one bv one 



ne' 

the 

no'k" 

and 

ne' 

the 



e'neke" 

place above 
o'llf 



ne'ne' 

(the that) 
who 



ia" 

not 



de'hatiiente'ri" 

they Im.) it kn<»w 



ne 

the 



aiai''heie\ 

one should die. 



"s kano"'se' 



ka'hwadjirat'sho"", 

one it ohwachira each 

(is) 

ne' dji' 

the where 



Ne' 

The 

kano" 



o ni 

also 



it lodge lont,' 

(is) 



ta'hno""' 

besides cus- 

tomarily 

ie'hwadjirowa'ne"s akwe'ko" 

one's ohwachira large (it all) 

(are ) plurally whole, 

Ne' ka'tf ne' dji' nikana'ta' 

The so then tlie \\-here so it village 

large (is) 

no'k" iakon'kwe'. neiT 

and she a man- n«.iw 



sowa ne 

it lodge large 

(is) 

rati'tero"'. 



they (m.) 
abide, 



ne'ne' 

the 
that 

ne' dji' 

the whert* 

'\ nen' 

now 

a'se'ke"-' 

because 



cus- 
tomarily 



.skano"^sa"ne' 

one if lodge in 



Toii kwc' 

he 111 an - 
being (is) 

ta'hno"" 

besides 



she a man- 
being, 

te'hnino'tato"'. 

they fm.) two down- 
fended are. 



one it lodge 

lis) 

tii^hno" 

besides 



ie'tero"'. 

they (indef.) 
abide. 

iakaofikwe'taie"', 

they (indef.) have 
person(s) 

iate"no\se""ha' 



they two brother and 
sister are 



nen' 

now 



6 

7 



o An ohwachira in its broadest and original sense denotes the male and female offspring of a woman 
and their descendantsin the female line only. In its modern and narrowed meaning it is equivalent 
to family; that is. a fireside group, usually composed of a parent or parents and offspring. 

ftThe epithet (in the dual form) dehnino'taton is descriptive of the requirement of an ancient 
custom now almost, if not wholly, obsolete among the Iroquois. It consisted in the seclusion of a 
child from the age of birth to puberty from all persons except its chosen guardian. The occasion 
of this seclusion was some omen or prodigy accompanying the birtli of the child, which indicated 
that the child was uncanny, possessing powerful orenda, or magic power. It seems that children 
born with a caul were thus secluded, and the presence of the caul itself may have given rise to the 
custom. Persons thus secluded were usually covered with corn husks in some nook whence they 
came forth only at night in the care of their guardian. Moreover, the down of the spikes of the 
cat-tftil was carefully sprinkled about the place of seclusion, the disarrangement of which wcmld 
indicate an intrusive visit. Hence the epithet "down-fended," which is the signification of the 
Amerindic epithet. 

255 



256 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



lETH. ANN. 21 



III the inoriiiiiy, after eating their lir.st moa.1, it svas customary for 
the people to go forth to their several duties. 

All the lodges hcloiigiiig to tlie itihal)ituiits of this place faced the 
rising and extended toward the setting sun. ><o\v then, as to the 
place where these two down-fended persons abode, on the south side 
of the lodge there was an added room wherein dwelt the woman-1)eing; 
but the man-being lived in an added room on the north side of the 
lodge. 

Then in the morning, when all had gone forth, the woman-being 
habitually availed hei'self of this opportunit}' to pass through her 
doorway, then to cross the large room, and, on the opposite side of 
it. to enter the place wherein abode the man-being. There haV)itnally 
she dressed his hair, and when she had finished doing this, it was her 



Ne' 

The 



ka'ti' 

so then 



ne 

the 



nen 

now 



3 

4 
5 
6 
7 

8 

y 

10 

11 

V2 
13 
14 
15 



custom 
arily 

e*'tho'ne" neil' e"'s 

(it Ihnt time now custom- 
arily 

Ne' ke"'i'ke"' ratinak'ere' ne' 

The this is it they (m.) dwell the 



it morning in 



wa'hatikhwefl'tiVne' 

they (m.) (ceased from food) 
had eaten 



wa'eiaken'seron'. 

they (indef.) went out 
of doors individually. 



dji' tkara'kwi'neke"'s 

where there it sim rises 

nitioteno"'saieiuta'nio"'. 

thus there they (z.) self lodge 
severally faced. 

Ne' ka'tf ke"'i'ke" 

The so then this it is 



no'k' 

and 



dji' 

where 

ne' 

tht^ 



rotino"'so'to"' akwe'ko" 

their (m.) lodge it all 

stand one by one lis) 

dji' iiVtewatchot'ho's 

there it sets 
(immerses itself) 



where 



te'hnino'tato"" 

they two down- 
fended are 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



non we 

the place 



te'hni'tero"'. 

they two (m.) 
abode. 

niie'tero""' 



there she 
abode 

nonka'ti' ne' 

side of it the 

ne' ron'kwe'. 

the he man- 

lieing (is). 

Ne' ka'tr 

The so then 



leiono""sonte' e"tie"ke' na kano"''8atr e'' noii'we' 

at the south such it lodge there the place 

(midday at) side of (is) 

ne' laRon kwe'. no'k' ne' ron'kwe" othore'ke' 

the she man- and the 
being (is), 

dji' ieiono""sonte- e" ne' 



There it lodge 
possesses 

iakon'kwe*. 



where 



there it lodge 
possesses 



there the 



he man- 
beiug (is) 

nonka'ti" 

the side of it 



at the north 
(it cold at) 

ren'tero'" 

he abode 



orho"'ge'ne' 

it morning in 



custom- 
arily 

e'tho'ne' 



ne' 

the 



nen 

now 



akwe'ko" wjVeiaken'sero"' 



(it all) 
whole 



they (indef.) went out 
of doors severally 



at that 
time 



custom- 
arily 



no' iakon'kwe' ne' 

the she man- the 

being (is) 

tontakauho'hi'ia'ke\ kano"*sowanen'ne' e^' nonka'ti' 

thence she crossed the it lodge ( room ) -large into there the side of it 

threshold, 

ia'honta'weia^te' dji' non'we' theii'tero"" ne' roil'kwe'. 

thither she it entered where the place there he the he man- 

abides being (is). 

ia'hokerothi'ie' no' dji' niio're' e"'s waka''sa\ e^tho'ne' 

thither she his the where so it is far custom- she it finished, at that 

hair handled (is time) arily time 



ne' 

the 

nen' 

now 

e"'s 

custom" 
arilv 

E" 

There 

neiT 

now 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION" 



257 



custom to come forth and cross over to the other side of the lodj,''e 
where Mils her own abiding phice. So then, in this manner it was that 
she daily devoted her attention to him. dressing and arranging his hair. 

Then, after a time, it came to pass that she to whom this female 
person belonged perceived that, indeed, it would seem that she was in 
delicate health: that one would indeed think that she was about to 
give birth to a child. So then, after a time, they questioned her, 
saying: "'To whom of the man-beings living within the borders of 
the village art thou about to have a child?" But she, the girl child, 
did not answer a single word. Thus, then, it was at other times; 
thej' questioned her repeatedly. Imt she said nothing in answer to their 
queries. 

At last the day of her continement came, and she gave l)irth to a 
child, and the child was a girl; but she persisted in refusing to tell 
who was its father. 



te"tkaia'ke"'ne' til'hno"' e" iensewata'weia'te' 

besides there 



thence she (z.) mU 
come forth 

a'on'hiV tiio'nakte'. 

there her own 
mat (room) is. 

te'ho'snie' 



thither she it will 
reenter 



it (she) her- 
self 



Thus, 



ka'tr 

SO then 



ni'io't 

so it 
stands 



ne 

the 



dji' " nonka'ti' ne' 

\\'here the side of it the 

niia'tewe'ni"sera'ke' 

each it day in number (is) 



ne 

the 



she him 
attends to 



ne 

the 



rokerothi'ia's. 



she his liair 
handles. 



No'k' hfi'kare" ka'tf 

And niter a while so then 

ia"' ne"'-ke"" :l"nio"' 

not that is it indeed 



nen 

now 

skeiT 



ne 

the 



Aief 



One would 
think 



well in 
health 

e"iakoksa"triien'ta'ne\ No'k' 

she a child will have. And 



akaoiikwe'ta' 

her (indef. ) parent 

(is) 

te'iako'n'he' 

not she lives 



wa'ont'toke' ne' 

she (indef.) the 

noticed it 



ne' 

the 



akoien"a". 

her oiT-spring. 



wa"konwari'liwanon'to"'se' 

she her qiiestioned 



ratiuak'ere' 

they (m.) dwell 



ne' 

the 



not 



oia 



skawen na" 

one it word 

(is) 

skoiiwari'hwanofitoii'ni 



o'-'ksv 

who 
(it is) 

ratiterofi'to"' ne' 

they (m.) abide the 

severally 

' '■- ne' 

the 



ne 

the 



ha'kare' 

after a while 

dji' 

where 



ka'tr 

SO then 
(therefore! 

nikana'tri' 

so it village 
(is) in size 



thaontaioiita'tr 



rotiksa'taiefita'sere'. 
eksa'a' 



they (m.) are about to 
have child. 



she it answered 
back 



E" 

Thus 



ka'tr 

so then 



nen 

now 

ne' 

the 

No'k' 

But 

ni'io't 

so it 
stood 



it (is) she her questions repeatedly, 

other 



No'k- 

But 



after a 
time 



ha'kart 
taien'ta'ne", 

possessed of a 
child, 

dji' ni'io't 

where so it 
stood 



she 
child. 

'. Ifr' othe'no"" thakefi'ro"'. 

Not anything she (z. ) it would 

say. 

iiVakoteSiiserfhe'se" nefi' wiVakoksiV- 

her day arrived for her now she became 



ta'hno 

and 

ia'' 

not 



she a 
child. 



iakon'kwe' ne' eksa'a^' (eksa')" 

she a man- the 

being (is) 

thaionthro'iT o""krr ro'ni''hii'. 

she it would tell who he it is father 

(it is) to (her). 



O'k- 

Only 



now 

(it is) 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



«This is a contracted form of the preceding word and is very much used. 
21 ETH— 03 17 



258 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOG'X 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



But in the time preceding ttie birth of the girl child this selfsame 
man-being at times heard his kinsfolk in conversation say that his sister 
was about to give birth to a child. Now the maii-))cing spent his time 
in meditating on this event, and after awhile he began to be ill. And, 
moreover, when the moment of his death had arrived, his mother sat 
h>eside his bed, gazing at him in his illness. She knew not what it 
was; moreover, never before had she seen anyone ill, becau.se, in 
truth, no one had ever died in the place where these man-beings lived. 
So then, when his breathing had nearly ended, he then told his mother, 
saying to her: "Now, very soon shall I die." To that, also, his 
mother replied, saying: " What thing is that, the thing that thou 
saye.st? What is about to happen T' When he answered, he said: 
"Mj' breathing will cease; besides that, my flesh will become cold. 



9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 

15 



No'k' 

But 



o'hen'to" ne' 

the 



dji' niio're' 

where 



ne' nen' sha'eiiinak'erate' 

the now when she is born 



his people 
(relativesj 



before, in the where so it is 

front of it distant 

ne' eksa"'a" ke"'i'ke'" ron'kwe' rothoii'te" e"'s ne' raonkwe'ta' 

the she this it is he man- lie heard it custom- the 

child (is) being (is) arily 

ne' iakothro'ri' ne' dji' iakoksa tilieiita'sere' ne' iate"no'se""'ha'. 

the they (indef.) are the where she child is about the they two brother and 

telling it to have sister are. 

Neil' ne" renno"'ton'nio"". Ha'kare' neii' toiita'sawe"' nen' 

Xow that it he was thinking After a time now thence it began now 

(is) about it. 

wa'hono"''hwak'te"\ Ne' o'ni" ne' ciia'ka"hewe' ne' e"'re"'he'ie' 

it caused him to be ill. The also the there it brought it the will he die 

(it was time ff)r it) 

ne' ro"niste°"ha' raonak'takta' e" ie'tero"', teiekan'ere' ne' 

the his mother his mat beside there she abode, she it looked at the 



dji' rono°"hwiik'tani". 

where it causes him to be ill. 

teiakotka"tho" ne' 

she has looked at it the 



teieiefite'ri; 

she knows it; 



la" 

Not 

aiakono"'hwak'te"', 

it would cause one to be ill 



la"' 

not 



oni 

also 



nonweii'to" o""'ka' 

ever .someone 

ka'ti' ne' neii' 

so then the now 

wa'shakawe""ha'se' 

he her addressed 



teiakawe""he'io"" ne' 

one has died the 



a'se'ke"" 

because 

dji' ratinak'ere'. 

where they (m.) dwell. 



o"'hwa"djok ia'te^'hatoiiri'seratkon'te"' 

thither his breath will remain away 



very soon 



ne 

the 



ro'niste"'*ha% 

his mother, 



wu'ben'ro"': 

he it said: 



nonwefi'to" 

ever 

ia" se" 

not as a mat^ 
ter of fact 

Ne' 

The 

neii' 

now 

•■NeiV 

"Now 



o°'hwa''djok e'^ki'^heia .'' Ne' o'ni' ne' ro'niste"''ha' 



very soon 

"O" ne' 

"What the 
(is it) 

ne"ia'weiine ( 

so it will take place ? ' 



I shall die, 

na'ho'te"' 



The 



also 



the 



wa 1 ro : 

she it said: 



kind of thing 

(is it) 

«" Ne' 

The 



ne 

the 



o m 

also 



dji' na'ho'te"' sa'to"'? 

where kind of thing thou it art 
saying"? 

ne' toiita'hata'tr 

the thence he replied 



O" ne'' 

What that 

(is it) 

wa'heii'ro"': 

he it said: 



"£"wa"tkawe' ne' dji' katonrie"'se", tiPhno"" e°kawis'to'te' 

"It will cease, the where I breathe, am besides it will make it 

will leave it breathing cold 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



259 



and then, also, the joints of my bones will become stiff. And when I 
cease breathing thou must close my eyes, using thy hands. At that 
time thou wilt weep, even as it itself will move thee [that is, thou wilt 
instinctively weep]. Besides that, the others, severally, who are in 
the lodge and who have their eyes fixed on me when I die, all these. I 
saj', will be affected in the same manner. Ye will weep and your 
minds will be grieved." Notwithstanding this explanation, his mother 
did not understand anything he had said to her. And now, besides 
this, he told her still something more. He said: " When I am dead 3'e 
will make a burial-case. Ye will use 3'our best skill, and ye will dress 
and adorn mj- body. Then ye will place my body in the burial-case, 
and then ye will close it up, and in the added room toward the rising- 
sun, on the inside of the lodge, ye will prepare well a place for it and 
place it up high." 



ne 

the 



kieron'ke', 

mv flesh on, 



Ne/ 

The 



ta'hno"'' e"io'hnir"ha'ne' ne' dji' 

besides it will become hard the where 

e"wa"tkaVe' ne' 

the 



O 111 

also 



lie 

the 



inow) 
when 



it will cease, 
will leave it 



tewaksthonterofi'iiio"'. 

I am jointed severally, have 
jointi^. 

dji' katon'rie'se' te^'skerofiVeke' se'snon'ke" e"'sats'te\ E'tho'ne' 

where I breathe, must thou elose my thy hand with 

eyes 

nen' te°sa'she°'tho' o'k' the"tewenno°"to"' 

now must thou weep just 



it will come of its own 
accord. 

otiake"sho"' ne' kano""sako"'' e"ie'teron'take' 

others each of the it house in will they abide 



thou must 
use it. 

No'k' 

And 



At that 
time 



ho'ni' 

also 



ne' 

the 



ne' te"iekan'erake' 

the thev it will look at 



ne' nen' e"ki'"heie\ akwe'ko" sha'te"iawen'ne' te"sewa'shent'ho' 

will I die, it all likewise it will happen must (will i ye weep 



the (now) 
when 

til'hno""' 

besides 



likewise it will happen 
too 

e-sewa'niko'^'ra'kse'"." No'k' ia" 

will your minds be grieved." And not 



ki" 
I 

think 



othe'no'" 

anything 



ne' ro"niste""ha" thiieiako'niko"'raienta"'o" ne' 

the his mother thither it she understood the 



wil'hen'ro"'. Nefi' tii'hno"" se""ha' i'sf nofi'we' 

he it said. Now besides somewhat yon- the place 



na'lio'te"" 

kind of thing 
(it isi 

naiio'te"' 

the kind of 
thing 

e'Vaki'lie'lo"' e"sewaronto'tseron'ni', 

it will have caused will (must) ye make a case, 

me to die 

e'"'skwaia'ta'seron'ni", e'tho'ne' 



wa'shako'hro'rf. 

he it told her. 



somewhat yon- 
farther "der 

Wa'hen'ro"': "Ne' 

He it said: "The 



dji' 

where 

dji' 

where 

neiT 

no^v 



ne 

the 



will ye my body finely array, 



at that 
time 



ne' e"tisewateweien'to"" 

the will ye it do with care 

nen' oroiito'tsera'ko"' 

now it case in 



e"'skwaia'ti'ta", no'k' ho'ni" e'tho'ne' e"tisewanon'teke\ ta'hno""' 

and al.so at that will ye it cover, besides 



ye my liixly will 
place in (it). 

ne' dji' tkara'kwi'neke""s 

the where thence it sun comes 

fnit (east) 

kano"'sako"" nofika'ti' e"sewakwata'ko" e'nekc" 

it room in the side of it will ye it prepare well high up 



at that 
time 

noiika'tr 

side of it 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



ieiono''"sonte", 

there it pos.sesses a 
room ( lodg-f t 

e^sewa're"'/ 

will ye it place." 



3 

i 
5 

6 

7 



10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



260 



IROQUUlAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



So then, veril}', when he had aetuiilly ceased breathing, his mothei' 
closed his eyes, using her hands to do this. Just as soon as tiii.s was 
accomplished, she wept; and also those others, including ail those who 
were onlookers, were affected in just the same manner: they all wept, 
notwithstanding tliat never before this time had they linown anyone to 
die or to weep. 

Now then, indeed, they made him a ))urial-case: then there, high 
up in the added I'oom in the lodge, they prepared a place with care, 
and thereon they put the burial-case. 

And the girl child lived in the very best of health, and, besides 
that, she grew in size very rapidly. Moreover, she had now reached 
that size and age when she could run hither and thither, playing about 
habitually. Besides this she could now talk. 



To'ke"ske' ka'ti" 

In truth so then 



mniste""ha' 

his mother 



lie' nefi' dji' ifrthatonri'seratkon'te"' ne' 

the now where thither his breathing did the 

depart 

wa'thonwaron'weke' iesno"*"ke' wa'ofits'te'. Ne' 

slie his eyes closed her hands on she it used. The 



ka'tr he' kara'tie' w:Vtio'''.shent'ho' uo'k^ ho'nr ne' otia'ke^'sho"' 

she wept and also the other.^ each of 



so then thcrd it it aceiim- 
panie<l 

ne' teiekan'ere' o'k^ sha'tia'wenne'; akwe'ko" 

the they it looked at just equally it happened; it all 



ne 



dji' ni'ko"' 



the where so it is in 
number 

wa*tio"'shent'ho' ; ne'ne' 

they wept; the that 

o'hefi'to"' dji' niio're' 



la 

not 



before 



where so it is dis- 
tant 



ne 

the 



nonwen to' 

ever 

e'tho'ne" ne' 

the 



at that 
time 



te'hatiieiite'ri ne' 

they (m.) it know the 

o""ka o'k' riirii"heie' 

someone only one should 
die 



ne 

the 



te" 



10 
11 
12 
13 

U 
16 



ne'ne' aio"'sheut'ho'. 

the that one should weep. 



Nen' ka'ti" to'ke"ske' wiVhonwaronto'tseron'nio"', 



Now 



so then 



they I m. i ease made for him. 



nen 

now 



taionteweien'to"' 

they (indef.) It did 
with care 

oroiito'tsera'ko"' 

it burial case in 



ne' dji' wa'honwaisVta'seron'ni'. E'tho'ne" 

the where they (m.) his body finely arrayed. At that 



wa'honwaia ti'ta . 

they his body placed. 



E'tho'ne" 

At that 
time 



time 

ne' 

the 



o'ni' 

also 



dji' 

where 



ieioteno""sonte' kano°"sako"' nonka'ti" e'neke"' -wa'hati"re'". 

it house in side of it high up they it placed. 



there it has a room 
attached 

No'k' 

But 



ne 

the 



ta'hno""' 

besides 

if 



eksa"a' akwa" o'k' sken'no"\ nen' 

she a child very only well. now 

io'sno're' ue' dji' iakote*'hia'ron'tie\ No'k' ne' nen' e" 

it is rapid the where she is increasing in size. But the now there 

c'itiako'ie''^ ne' nen' e'rok teietak'he's, iakotka'ri'tseronni'ha'tie'se', 

the n 



thence she 
arrived 

nen' o'nf iontu'ti' 

now also she talks. 



every- 
where 



she runs about 
repeatedly. 



she goes about making amusements 
for herself. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSlOlSr 



2(n 



Suddenly those in the lodoe were gTeatly surprised that the child 
began to W(n>p. For never before had it so happened to those who 
had children that these would be in the habit of weeping. So then 
her mother petted her, endeavoring to divert her mind, doing many 
things for this purpose; nevertheless she failed to quiet her. Other 
persons tried to soothe her bj' petting her, but none of their eti'orts 
succeeded in quieting her. After a while the mother of the child 
said: "Ye might try to cjuiet her by showing her that burial-case 
that lies up high, yonder, wherein the bodj^ of the dead man-l)eing 
lies." So then they took the child up there and uncovered the burial- 
case. Now of course she looked upon the dead man-being, and she 
immediately ceased from weeping. After a long time they bi'ought 
her down therefrom, for she no longer lamented. And, besides this, 
her mind was again at ease. 



Wa'ontie're"' o'k' 


ne' 


kano"-'sako"' 


ie'tero"' (ieteron'to"*) 


They were sur- just 


the 


it house in 


one abides they abide 


prised 






one by one 


nen' wa'tio"'shent'ho' 


ne' 


eksa'a"'. Ne'ne' 


ia'' nonweii'to"' e'' 


now she wept 


the 


she a child. The that 


not the ever thus 



thontaio'to"'ha'tie' ne' 

hither so it has been the 

eoming 



iakoksa'taien'to"' ne' 

they liave children the 



taio"'shentho''.seke\ 

thev should cry a.s a habit. 



Nen' 

Now 



ka'tr 

SO then 



diverted. 



individually 

ne' o'ni'ste'^'ha' wa^tiakorho'ton'nio"', wiVtiako'niko"*- 

the its (z.) mother she her comforted, she her mind 

aiako^niko^'raweiTrie'. 

miffht t^he her mind diverted. 



o'k' 

just, 



la-' 

Kot 



ki" 

it 
seems 



O'ia 

other 

(it is) 

thaoii'to" 

it suihced 



natetioie're"' 



repeatedly so she it 
did" do 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 



taiofito'tate'. 

she it would cease 
from. 



O'ne"" 

Now 



tt'iontatarho'ton'ni% 

again one her comforts, 

hil'kare' nen' ne' 

after a time now the 

iaietchina'ton''ha'se' 

thither ye it should show- 
to her 



la 

not 



ki" 

it 
seems 

akoksten"'a'' 

she elder one 



tewa'to^'s 

it suffices 



o la 

other 
(it is I 

taionto'tate". 

she it would cease 
from. 



Ok' 

jU.st 

No'k' 

And 



she it said: 



■ Aietciiate'nieii'te"', 

"Ye her should trv there. 



ne 

the 



I'Sl 

(far) 
yonder 



e'neke"' 

hi^h up 

E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



tkaronto'tsera"here" ne' 

there it burial-ease lies the 



dji' raia'ti' ne' rawe^'he'io"" 

where hisbndv the he is dead." 

it fills" 

tarat"he"ste' tii'hno""' WiVkoiitinoiitek'si'. Nen' wiVhf wa'ontkat'ho" 



kati" 

so then 



ia'akotiia"- 

thither thev 



upbore her body besides 

ne' rawe'^'he'io". Ne' 

the he is dead. The 

dji' teio"'shent'h()Vs. 

where she wns crying, 

wuL'ping. 

tontriiakotiiiVtats'ne"'te\ 

thenee they her body 
down brought, 



they it uncovered. Now 

ka'tr ne' ok'sa' o'k' 

so then the at once just 



Akwa-' 

Very 

nen' ia" 

now not 



ka'ti- 

SO then 



ke"" 

this 



Tily she it looked at 

wa"o'"'tkiVwe" ne' 

she ceased from it the 

na'he"'. o'ne"' 

length of time now 



tha'tetcio'"shent'ho's. Ne' 

not she is weeping. The 



o ni 

also 



ne 

the 



ni'io't 



thus so it 
stood 



.sKen no 

(it is) well 



tcienno'"tori'nio"'. 

again she is in mind, 
{thinks iteratively) 



3 

4: 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 
14 
15 



262 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[eth. an.v. 21 



It was SO for a very lonjjc time. Then she V)egan to weep aj;'ain, 
and so, this time, her mother, as soon as possible, took her child up 
to where the dead man-being lay, and the child immediately ceased her 
lamenting. Again it was a long time hefore one took her down there- 
from. Now again she went tran(|uilly atiout from place to place 
playing joj^fully. 

So then they made a ladder, and they erected the ladder so that 
whenever she should desire to see the dead man-being, it would then 
be possible for her to climb up to him by herself. Then, when she 
again desired to see the dead person, she climbed up there, though she 
did so by herself. 

So then, in this way matters progressed while she was growing to 
maturity. Whenever she desired to see the one who had died, she 
would habitually climb up to him. 



4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



Akwa" Wii"kari"hwes nen' a're' toi'5saio"'shent'ho'. Neii ka'ti' 

Very it matter long now again once again she wept. Now so then 



it matter long 
beeanu' 

non'wiV ok'.sa" o'k" ne 

at this time at once just the 



o'niste'"*ha' 

its (her) mother 



ia'hontatia tarat'he"ste 

thither she upbore her body 



lier oITspring 

o'k- 

just 

ke"'' 

this. 



ne' dji' tka'^here' ne' rawe"'he'io"% ne' 

the where there it lay the he is dead. the 

on it 

wtVtionto'tate' ne' dji' teio"\shent'ho'.s. Akwa" 

she ceased from it the where she is weeping. Very 



na'he", neiT 



length of 
time. 



a re 

again 



tontaiontatia'tats'ne"'te', 



thence again they her body 
down brought. 

skeii'no"' thiteakotka''rrtserofini'ha'tie'se\ 



he"ste 


ne 


r body 


the 


o'nf 


ok'sa' 


also 


nt once 


ka'tr 


a 're' 


so then 


again 


NeiT 


a 're' 


Xow 


again 



well, con- 
tentedly 



again she herself goes about amusing. 



NeiT ka'ti" 

Now so then 

WiVhatinelcoto'te"'. 

they set up the ladder 
(onekota. ) 

ne' aiontka'tho' 

the she should look 
at it 

ie"ierat'he"'. Ne' 

thither she will The 
ascend. 

ne' a"honwa'lce"' 

the she should see him 



e'tho'ne' 

at that time 



nen 

now 



Ne' ka'tr 

The so then 



ne 

the 



wa'hatinekotoii'ni" ne' o'ni' 

they made a ladder the also 

(onekota) 

Ivat'ke' tc"iakoto"'hwen'tcio"se' 

whenever it will be needful for her 



ne 

the 



rawe-'he'io"" 

he is dead 



ne' akaon'ha''a' 

the she herself 



ka'tr 

so then 



ne' 

the 



nen 

now 



e^wa to , ki 

it will be I be 
possible, lieve, 

a!re' tonsaiakoto"'hwen'tcio"se' 

again again it was needful for her 



ne' 

the 



rawe"'he'io"' 

he is dead 



ia'erat'he"' ki" akao"'ha*'a' 

she herself. 



I be- 
lieve. 



thither she 
climbed, 

E" ka'tr niioHo"'ha'tie- ne' dji' iakote^'hia^roii'tie 

Thus so then .-^o it continued to the where 



.■^o it continued to 
be 



she continued to in- 
crea.-*e in size. 



Kat'ke' 

Whenever 



te^iakoto^'hweii'tcio'se' 

she will need it 

ia'erat'he"' ki" e'"s. 



ne' 

the 



aiontka"'tho' 

she should look 
at it 



ne 

the 



rawe'^he'lo"' 

he is dead 



thither she 
climbed, 



I 
think. 



custom- 
arilv. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSIOK 



263 



In addition to these tliin<^s, it was usual, when she sat on the place 
where the burial-ease lay, that those who abode in the lodge heard 
her conversing, just as though she were replying to all that he said; 
besides this, at times she would laugh. 

But, when the time of her maturity had come, when this child had 
grown up, and she had again come down, as was her habit, from the 
place where the dead man-being lay, she said: "Mother, my father 
said" — when she said '"my father," it then became certain who was 
her father — "'Now thou shait l>o married. Far away toward the 
sunrising there he lives, and he it is who is the chief of the people 
that dwell there, and he it is that th<'re, in that place, will be married 
to thee.' And now, besides this, he said: "Thou shalt tell thy mother 
that she shall fill one burden basket with bread of sodden corn, putting 



NeiT 

Now 



ta'hno" 

besides 



ne e .s ne 

the custom- the 
arilv 



tkaronto'tsera''here' iakothon'te' e" 

there it burial case lies up 



ne' iako^thare" ne' dji' 

the she is conversing the where 

rawe"'he'io"' no'k' o'nf 

he is dead but also 

ta'hno"" sewatie're" 

besides 



they it heard 

ni'io't 



neil' e*' ieietskwa'^here' 

now thus there she aits up high 

ne' kano""sako"' 

it house in 



custom- the 
arilv 



so it 
stands 



ne 

the 



ne' dji' 

the where 

ie'tero"" 

they (indef. ) 
'abide 

aoiita'ho'tha'rake' ne' 

the 



thence he would be 
talking 

aontaiakori"hwaserakwen''ha'tie', nen' 



ne' 

the 



No'k' 

Bnt 

eksa"a' 

she a 
child 

rawe"'he'io"' 

he is dead 



thence she continued to reply. 

nefi' taiakoie'sho"'. 

sometimes now thence she would 

laugh. 

nen' ciia'k!l"hewe' nen' sha'onte'hia'ro"' 

now there it arrived now there she matured 



ne' 

the 



a re 

again 



wa 1 ro : 

she it said: 



ke^'i'ke"' 

this (here) 
(it is) 

tontaionts'ne"'te' ne' dji' tka'^here' ne' 

thence she descended the where there it lies the 

upon it 

"Isten"hiV (isda"')," wa'hen'ro"" ne' 

"Oh, Mother, he it said the 



e'tho'ne' nen' 

at that now 

time 



rake'ni"ha'' (ne' dji niio're' wii'i'ro" 

he mv father (the where so it is far she it said 
(is) 

wa'kato'ke"'ne' o""ka" ronwa"ni"ha* ne' eksa"a): 'Neii' e""sania'ke\ 

it became known who he her father (is) the shea 'Now thou shalt 

(as true) litis) child (is) marry. 



rake'ni"ha' 

he mv father 

"(is) 



I'no"' 

Far (far 
away; 

ne'ne' 

the that 

Nen' 

Now 

ne'ne' 

the 
that 



ne' dji' tkara'kwi'neke""s nonka'ti' e" 

the where there it sun rises side of it there 



thonwakowa'ne"' ne' 

there he their chief (is) the 



thatinak'ere' ne' e" 

there thev dwell the there 



tii'hno"" 

and 

akwa" 

very 



wa^hen'ro"': 

he it said: 

e"tionteweien'to"\ 

she shall do it the best 
possible. 



■ E"'she'hro'ri' ne' 

■ Thoti her shalt tell the 

ka'hi'k te"ie'ieste' 

it fruit she it shall 

mix with it 



thanak'ere', 

there he dwells. 

e°seni'niake\' 

thou and he shall 
marry.' 

.sa"niste'""hrr 



thv mother 



ne' 

the 



kane"'ha- 

it corn 
softened 



1 

2 

3 
4 

5 

6 

7 
8 

9 

10 

11 

1-2 
13 

U 



a This is a shortened form of the next preceding word. 



264 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. AXX. 21 



foith her best skill in making- it, and that she shall mix berries with 
the bread, which thou wilt bear with the forehead strap on th}- baek, 
when thou goest to the place where he dwells to whom thou shalt he 
married.' " 

Then it was that her mother made bread of corn softened ])y 
boiling, and she mixed berries with the corn bread. So then, when it 
was cooked, she placed it in a burden basket, and it tilled .it very full. 

It was then, at this time, that the .young woman-being said: '' 1 
believe I will go and tell it to my father.'" It was then that she again 
climbed up to the place where the dead man-being lay. Then those 
who were in the lodge heard her say: '* Father, my mother has tinished 
the bread." But that he made any reply to this, no one heai-d. So 
then it was in this manner that she conversed there with her dead 
father. Sometimes she would say: "So be it; I will." At other times 



nawe"*'to"' 

by boiling 

e"kana'no"' 

it it ^hill till 

thefi'tero"" 

there he abides 

E'tho'ne" 

At tlmt time 

nawe""to"', 

by boiling, 

shtVka'ri' e" 



(?kane""sto''hare') e"iena'taron'ni', iontke^'tats a't'here' 



it corn washed 



she bread shall make. 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 



ie"'satke"tate' 

thither thou shaU bear 

it on thy bacli by the 

foreliead-.strap 

e"seni'niake\''' 

thou he shall marrv." " 



ne' 

the 



neii 

now 



»ne bears it on 
the bai^k by the 
forehead strap 

•'se' dji' 

where 



tbither 

thou 
shall go 



it basket 

nofi'we' 

the place 



nen 

now 



ne 

the 



o"niste""ha" 

its ( hen mother 



WiVena'taroii'ni' 

she it bread made 



ne 

the 



kane" 'ba- 
it corn 
softened 



akwa" 

very 



tewa'hiaies'to"*. 



one it has mi.xed 
witli fruit. 



Ne' 

The 



A\heii it was 
cooked 

wa'ka'na'ne', 

it tilled it. 

E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



there 



WiVake'ta 

sne it placed 



iontke'tats'tha" 



one uses it to bear it on 
the baek by the forehead strap 



ka'tr 

so then 

a"thera'ko"' 

it basket in, 



ne' 

the 



nen 

IlftW 

akwa" 

very 



nen 

now 



ne 

the 



ne' 
9 the 



rake"ni"ha".' 

he is my father." 



eia'tase"a'' 

she new-bodied 
one (is) 

F/tho'ne' 

At that time 



wa 1 ro 

she it said: 



•Ie"'shi'hro'ri' ki"' 

■•There I shall I think, 
tell him. 



nen 

now 



ionsaierat'he"' dji' ' noii'we" 

thither again she where place 

ascended 



tka"here' ne' 

JO there it lies the 

upon it 

ne' kano""sako'" 

W the it lodge in 



wa ena tari'sa 

22 she it bread has 



ne 



finished 

" o""ka' 

anyone 



ne 

the 



•awe"'he'io"" 

he is dead. 

ie'tero"" 

they abide 

i.steri"a'." 

my mother." 



Ne' 

The 



o ni 

also 



lie 

the 



iakothoii'te' 

they it heard 



13 that 
one 

sewatie're" 

JjJ. sometimes 



teiakothonte'"o"' 

one it has heard. 



dji' 

where 

No'k- 

And 

E" 

Thus 



wa r ro : 

she it said: 



'Rake"'ni" 



' He mv father 

(is) 

ne' aofita'hota'tike' ia" 

the he should ha\'e replied not 



neii 

now 



kati 

.so then 



wa 1 ro : 

she it said: 



lo"." 

" Yes," 



sewatie're"' 

sometimes 



so it is 
(stands) 

nen' 

now 



na' 

that 
thing 

tiiako''thare\ 

just she was 
talking. 

taiakoie'sho"\ 

there she would 
laugh. 



MOHAWK VERSION 



265 



she would laugh. So after a while .she oanie down and said: "'My 
father said: •To-morrow very early in the inorniny thou shalt start." " 

So then, when the next day came, and also when they had finished 
eating their morning' meal, the young woman-being at this time said: 
"Now I believe I will start; but 1 will also tell my father, I believe." 
At this time she now went thither where stood the ladder, and, 
climbing up to the place whereon lay the burial-case of the dead man- 
being, she said: ''Father, I shall now start on my journey." So tlieii 
again it was from what she herself said that it was learned that he was 
her fathei'. 

It was at this time that he told her all that would liefall her on her 
journey to her d(>stination, and, moreover, what would Jiappen after 
her arrival. So then, after she again came down, her mother took up 
for her the bui'den basket which was full of bread, and placed it on 



Ha'kare' 

After a while 



ka'ti 

SO then 



lien 

nnw 



tontiiioiitsne"''te' 



thence again she 
descended 



tii'hnq"" 

besides 



"WiVhen'ro"' 

" He it said 

orho"'ke"dji'." 

it morning early." 

Ne' ka'tr 

The so then 



ne' 

the 



ne 

the 



rake"ni''ha' 

he mv hither 

(is) 



e"io'r''he'''ne' 

it dav will dawn 



nen 

now 



w'a 1 ro : 

she it said: 

e"ka'ten'tr 

shall I start 



nen 

now 



sa^hatikhwen'ta ne' 



again they finished eating 
their food 

ne' eia'tase' wa'i 

the 



ne 

the 



' sha-or'he""ne' ne' o'nf 

when day dawned the also 

(daylight came) 

or^ho"'ke''ne'' wa'thontska''ho"' 



it morning in 



they fed themselves 



i>e nen 

the now 

e'tho'ne'' 

at that time 



she the 
new-bodied one, 



wa I'ro" : 

she it said: 



■ NeiT 

* Now. 



I 
Ihink, 



e"ka'ten'tr; 

I will start; 



no'k' 

but 



ie"'shi'hro'ri' ki"' ne' 

I the 
think, 

dji' nofi'we' 

Aviiere the place 



thither I him 
will tell, 



rake'ni''ha". 

he my father." 
'(is) 

tkaneko'tote' 



E'tho'ne* 

At that time 



o ni 

al.'.ip 



a re 

again 



nen 

now 

e" 

there 



just there again 
she went 



there it ladder 
stands 



dji'- 

where 



ta'hno"" 

besides 

rawe"'he'io"\ 

he is dead, 



wa iro" : 

she it said; 

ionthro'rr 

she it leiliJ 

E'tho'ue' 

At that time 



noii'we^ thai'onto'tsera"here' ne' 

place there he a burial-case the 

lies upon it 

'Rake"'ni' nen' e"ka:ten'tr." Ne' 

He my father now I will start." The 

ne' aka'o"'ha ne'ne* ro'ni'ha', 

the she herself the that he her father (is). 

wa'shako'hro'rf ne' dji' 



ia'erat'he'" 

thither she it 
ascended 

ta'hno""' 

besides 



ka'tr 

so then 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



auwe Ko 

it all 



he it told her 



ne' dji' niio'iv' 

the whert.' so it is far 



niie"'hen'ie"' no k 

«o thither she will go and 



the 

ho'ni' 



where 



so it will happen 

serially 



;.-t';„.-t^ 



ka'ti" ne' 


nt'-fi 


so then the 


no« 


o"niste""ha' 


nen' 


its (hen mother 


now 



ni' len lonwe . 

the there she will 
arrive. 

e'tho'ne' nen' 

at that time now 



Ne' 

The 



ne' 

the 



.slia'tontfuonts'ne^'te", 

when thenoe she descended, 

wa'tiontate''kwe"" ne' ioiitke'tats'tha" fi't'here" 

she it raised np for her the one uses it to hear it on it basket 

the back by the forehead strap 



9 
10 
11 

12 
13 
U 

15 



266 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



the back of the young woman-being, to be borne hy means of the fore- 
head strap, and then the j'oung woman-being went forth from the 
lodge and started on her journey, the path extending awaj* toward the 
sunrising; and thither did she wend her way. 

So it was surprising to her what a short distance the sun had raised 
itself when she arrived at the place where her father had told her 
there was a river, where a floating log served as a crossing, and at 
which place it was the custom for wayfarers to remain over night, as 
it was just one day's journey away. So the j'oung woman-being now 
concluded, therefore, that she had lost lier way. thinking that she had 
taken a wrong path. She then retraced her steps. Onh' a very short 
distance again had the sun gone when she returned to the place 
whence she had started, and she said: "I do not know but that I 
have lost my waj*. So I will question uy father about it again.'' She 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
S 
9 
1(» 

11 
V2 

13 



kana'tarana'no"" 

it full of bread (is) 



wa'ontat"therake"'tate' neiT 

now 



ne'ne' eiii tase 

the that she new- she her caused to bear it on her 

bodied (is) back by the forehead strap 

ta'hno"" ia'eia'ke"'ne' neiT wa'o"'ten'ti' dji' tkara'kwi'neke"'s 

and hetice she went now she started where there it sun habitually 

forth comes out 

iiiiotha'haierft'to"' e" niiii'hfi'e"'. 

so it itself rnad faces there 



just thither 
she went. 



Ne' ka'ti' 

The so then 



110 

the 



ione'hnVkwiVt 

it is wonderful 



iotera*kvvakai'ata'to"' 

it sun had raised itself 



n; 



niiore u 

so it is little 
distant 

iio'k' e" ia'htVofi'we' dji' noii'we" ne' ro'ni''ha" ne' rawe 

and there there she arrived where the place the he her fathur the he it has 

(is) said 

tka'hio"'hata'tie' \va"ta' karofi'to' ne' dji' teieiaiiiak'tha'. E^' 

there it river extends maple it tree floats the where they use it to cross There 

along • the stream. 

e"'s noii'we' iiVonnon'wete\ a'se'ke"'' sewe'hni''sera' dji' 

custom- the place there one would stay because one day where 

arily overnight. 

ni\vathiVhinon'tserese\ NeiT ka'ti' ne' eia'tase' wa'e""re^ 

so it journey is long. Now, so then the she new- she it thought 

bodied one (is) 

ori'hwi'io' wiVeia ta"to"'ne\" wae"*'re' to'ka noii'wa' wa'tekha'- 



it is true 
matter 



mistook. 



she her way has lost, she it thought perhaps this time 



I it path 



E'tho'ne' ka'ti' nen' 8aio""kete\ Nakwa" oii'wa' 

At that time so then now she started Tlie very this time 



she started 
back. 



ke"" 

here 

ne' 

the 



O K 

only 

dji' 

where 



so it is 
distant 



niiotenrkwa'ten'tio"' 

so it sun had moved 



tiiako'ten'tio"' tii'hno"" wa'i'ro"': 

thence she started and she it said: 



no'k* io"^sa'ionwe' 

but there again she 

arrived 

'*To'k:V noil'wiv 

" Perhaps, this time 



wa'kia'ta^'to"'ne'/' £"sheri'hwanon'to"'se"' ka'ti" ne' rake'ni'^lia'' 



I my way have 
niistaken. 



I him will again ask 



so then the 



he mv father 

(is). 



f'Literallv, she lost her body. 



^ Literally, 1 lost my body, 



HEWITT] MOHAWK VERSION 267 

theiviipon clinil)ed up again to the place where her father hiy in the 
burial-case. Those who were in the house heard her sa_v: *" Father, 1 
came hack thinking tliat, perliaps, I had lost my vva\% for the reason 
that I arrived so quickly at the point thou describedest to me as the 
place where 1 should have to ivmain over night; for the sun had moved 
scai'cely any distance before I arrived where thou liadst told me there 
would be a river which is crossed by means of a log. This, then, is 
the aspect of the place whence I returned." At this time, then, he 
made answer to this, and she alone heard the things that he said, and 
those other people wlio were in the lodge did not hear what things he 
said. It is told that he replied, saying: "Indeed, thou hadst not lost 
thy way." Now it is reported that he said: "What kind of a log is it 
that is used in crossing there T' She answered, it is said: "Maple is 

E'tho'ne' ka'tf neii' ion.saierat'he'" dji' noii'we' tharonto'- 

At that time so then now thither again she where the place there he lies 

ascended 

tsenV'here' ne' ro'tti'^ha". lakothonte'nio"' ne' kano""'.sako"' 

a burial-case the it her father Thev severally heard it the house in it 

(is). 

ieterofi'to"' ne' dji' wa'i'ro"': '•Rake"'ni'. tontaksV'kete'' so'dji" 

they one by one the where she it said: "He my father, thence I turned back for (too 
abide much) 

wa"kere' to'ka' non'wsi" wa'kia'ta"to"" ne' dji' so'djf io'sno're' 

I thought it perhaps this time I have strayed the where for (too it is rapid 

much) 

e" laiiil'kewe' dji' niwato""hwendji5'te"' ne' dji' tak'hro'ri" 

there there I arrived where such land kind (is) of the where thou didst 

tell it me 

dji' noii'we' ie"kennofi"hwete', a'se'ke"' iil" othe'no"' akwa*' 

where place there I will stay over because not anything very 

night. 

teiotera'kwa'teii'tio"" no'k' e'' iil'hfi'kewe' ne' dji' tak"hro'i1", ^ 

it sun had moved and there there I arrived the where thou didst * 

tell it me 

tkiliiio"'hata'tie' karoiita'ke' teieia'hiak'tha'. E'' ka'tf ni'io't 

there it river extends (the) log on one uses it to cross There so then so it is ^ 

along the stream. 

dji' noiTwe' tofitaka"kete'. E'tho'ne' ka'tf ta'hari'hwa'sera'ko' 

where place thence I turned back. .\t that time so then thence he made answer ' 

ne' akaoiT'ha o'k" iakothoii'te' dji' na'ho'te"' wa'hen'ro"'; ia" 

the she her.self only she heard it where such kind of he it said; nc»t 1'* 

thing 

ne'ne' otia'ke"sho"' ne' kano""s:tko"' ie'tero"' teiakothonte''o"' 

the that it other every one the house in they it (indef. ) they it did hear H 

abide 

ne' dji' na'ho'te"" wa'heii'ro"'. Wfrheii'ro"', ia'ke"': "Li"te"' se" 

the where such kind he it said. He it said, it is said: "Not at all in- 1^ 

of thing deed 

tesaia'ta'to""o"'." Nen' wa'hen'ro"', ia'ke"': "O" na'karonto'te"' 

thou hast strayed." Xow, he it said, it is said: "What such it tree kind of 



13 



ne'ne' karofi'to' ne' dji' teieia'hiuk'thaT' Wa'i'ro"\ ia'ke"': 

the that it tree floats the where one u.ses it to (tos.s the She it said, it is said: 1-i 

stream?" 

'*Wa"t:V nakaronto'te"' ne' dji' teieia'hiak'thiV, no'k" o'ho^'senV 

"Maple such it tree kind of the where one uses it to cross hut it bass wood 15 

the stream. 



268 



IROQDOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. '21 



the kind of log that is used at the crossing, and the log is supported 
b}'^ clumps of young saplings of basswood and ironwood, respectively, 
on cither side of the stream." He replied, it is said: "That appears 
to be accurate, indeed; in fact, thou didst not lose thy way." At this 
time, then, she descended and again started on her journey. 

And again, it seems, the sun had moved only just a little before 
she again arrived at the place whence she had returned. So she just 
kept on her journey and crossed the river. 

So, having gone only a short distance farther on her way, she heard 
a man-being in the shrubbery say therefrom : "Ahem!" She of course 
paid no attention to him, but kept on her way, since her father had 
told her what would happen to her on the journej'. Thus, in this 
manner, she did nothing except hasten as she traveled on to her des- 
tination. Besides this, at times, another man-l)eing would say from out 



tii'hno"" skarontakiis't 

and 



3 
4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

K) 

11 

12 

13 

U 



ironwood (durable 
it tree) 



u" iiivkaronto'te"- oterontoiini'Ti' 

such it tree kind of it sapling 



iotho"l\T 

it flump 



tkaie'iT .se"; 

indeed; 



ia-'te"' 

not at all 



ton'nio"' tedjia'ro"' noiika'ti' e" ka'ti' karontawe"thar'"ho""." 

.stands one 
by one 

Wa'hen'ro"", ia'ke"': "' Ne" e"'. Id"' 

He it said, itiseaid; "That there, I be- there it is 

lieve. correct 

se" tesaia'ta'ton-'o"'.-' E'tho'ne' ka'tf nen' 

in- thou hast strayed At that time then now 

deed (lost thy body)." 

no'k' a're' tviako'ten'tio"\ 

and also again she started away. 

Nakwfr' ki*' a' re' o'.sthon''ha" o'k' thiiotenVkwii'ten'tio"' no'k^ 



toiitaiefits'ne^'te' 

thence she descended 
again 



The very I again 

believe 



lo .saionwe' 

again there she 
arrived 



it small (is) only it sun has moved )»ut 

dji' noil' we' tetiakok'to"', o'k' ka'tf 

where place thence she had only, so then 

returned, 



na e 

that there 
one 

e're"' ci'ie"' wa tieia'^hiiVke'. 

beyond there she she crossed the stream, 
kept going 

Lr' ka'tr so'djf i'no"" thiieiakawe'no"" neiT ka'tf iakothon'te' 

Not so then so very far thither had she gone now m) then >'Iie 't hears 

(too much) 

rofi'kwe^ o'ska'wako"* taimta'tf ta'ben'ro"': " Hefi'ni." la", 

he a man- it shrubbery in thence he thence he it "Ahem." Not 

being (is) spoke said: 

ka'tr othe'no"' thiieiakotsteris'to". lako'tentioiT'ha'tie' neil' jie"', 

so then anything thither did she heed She kept on going now that. 

give. 

a'se'ke"*' ne' ro'ni"ha' te^shako'hro'ri" dji' e" ne'*iawen'ne'. 



he her 
lather 



lie her had told it 



where there so it will happen. 



E" ka'tr 

Thns so tlien 

ionthaiii'ne". 

slie her path movcci 
along. 



ni'io't 

so it 

slnoil 

Ne' 

The 



ne 

tlle 



<) 111 

also 



O K- 

only 



lie 

the 



iako'storoii'tie' 



ne 

the 



o la 

other 



O K 

onlv 



stie liasteiie<l 
nn\\alTl 

e"'s ne' 

<-nst<ini- the 



ne' dji' 

the where 



ron'kwe* ne' 

he a the 

man-being (is) 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



2<i9 



of the shrubbery: "'Ahem!"' But she kept on her course, only 
hastening her pace as nuich as possible as she continued her journey. 
But when she had arri\ed near the point where she should leave the 
forest, she was surprised to see a man-being- coming toward her on the 
path, and he, when coming, at a distance began to talk, saying: '" Stand 
thou, for a short time. Rest thyself, for now thou must be wearied." 
But she acted as though she had not heard what he said, for she onlj' 
kept on walking. He gave up hope, because she would not even stop, so 
all that he then did was to mock her, saying: " Art thou not ashamed, 
since the man thou comest to seek is so old?" But, nevertheless, she 
did not stop. She did not change her course nor cease from moving 
onward, because her father had told her all that would happen to her 
while she trudged on her journey: this, then, is the reason that she did 
not stand. So then, after a while, she reached a grass}^ clearing— a 



o'ska'wilko"' 

it shrublKTV in 



toiita'hefi'ro"': 

thence he it said : 



'Heii'm." 

"Ahem." 



No'k' 

But 



kato'ke" 

it unchanged 

(is). 

ni'io't nitiakoie're"' ne' o'k' ne' iakostoron'tie' ne' dji' 

the only the she hastened the where 



so it 
stood 



so she continued 
to do 



she hastened 
onwiird 



Ne' ka'tr 

The so then 



ne' 

the 



nen 

now 



ak'ta" ne' 

nearly the 



ki" 

I he- 
lieve, 

teia- 

she 

neiT 

now 



kot'ha'ha'kwe""hii'tie\ 

it path continues to travel 
onward. 

ia taier'ho'tka we' wa'ontie're"' o'k' ka'ti' ne' roil'kwe' o'ha'ha 

thither side she it forest she was surprised only so then the he a man- 

would leave being (is) 



ke-'sho"' tii're'. Ne' ka'ti' ne' she'ko" 

SO thi-n the still 



Ke a 

short 
way 



it path 

niio're' ta're' 



so it is thence he 
distant is coming 



on along thence he The 
is coming. 

no'k' taiio^thara'tie\ ra'to"': ^'Tes'ta'ne' na'he'Ti". Satonri.s'he"% 

and thence he came he it is "Stand thou, a short length Thou thyself rest, 



nen 

now 



ne' 

the 



thence he came 

talking, saying: 

"^'te' tesa'hwishe"'he'io"'." 



a short length 
of time. 



o""te' tesa"nwisiie""ne'io""." No'k' nakwa" dji' ni'io't 

probably thou art weary (thy And the very where so it 

strength is dead)." " stood 

ia"' teiakothon'te\ ne' o'k' ne' iako'tention*'ha'tie\ Wa'- 

not she it hears, the only the she keeps on going Ht 



he"'nikon'ria'ke' ia'' se'' 

failed in his purpose not indeed 
(he his mind broke) 

sashakote"hjVta'nio"\ ra'to"': 

he taunted her with shame he it said : 
repeatedly, 

ne' wa'tsenien"te\" No'k' 

the thou him goest to And, 
seek." 



she keeps on going 
onward. 

tha'taieta"ne\ No'k' ne' o'k' 

there she did stand. But the only 



ne 

the 



'la" tesate"lie"'se' e 

•Not 



I be- 
lieve, 



art thou of thyself thus, 
ashamed" 

ill ' ' tha'teiakotiV'o" 

not there she did stand. 



nitiakoie're"' iako'tentioii'ha'tie', a'se'ke"" ro'ni"hri' 

because 



90 she continues she keeps on going 

to do onward, 

se" wtV'hr te'shako'hro'ri' dji' 

indeed verily he it her told where 

e"iontha'hi'ne\ ne' ka'tf kari'hon'ni 

she will be travel- the so then it it causes 
ing. 



he her 
father 



nihoksten''a' 

so he old I, is) 

. Kato'ke"', 

One certain 
way 

akwe'ko" 

it all 



ne 

so it will happen the 

serially 

ia" tha'teiakota"o" 

not she did stand. 



dji' e" 

where there 

'■. No'k- 

Ami 



1 

2 
3 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

in 

11 

12 

13 

14 



270 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



clearing that was very large — in the center of which there lay a 
village, and the lodge of the chief of these people stood just in the 
middle of that village. Thither, then, to that place she went. And 
when she arrived at the place where stood his lodge, she kept right 
on and entered it. In the center of the lodge the tire burned, and on 
both sides of the fire were raised beds of mats. There the chief lay. 
She went on and placed beside him her basket of bread, and she said: 
"We two marry." So he spoke in reply saying: "Do thou sit on 
the other side of the fire.'' Thus, then, it came to pass, that they two 
had the fire between them, and besides this they uttered not a word 
together even until it became dark. Then, when the time came, after 
dark, that people retire to .sleep habitually, he made up his mat bed. 
After finishing it he made her a mat l)ed at the foot of his. He then 
said: "Thou shalt lie here." So thereupon she la}' down there, and he 



8 

9 

10 
11 

12 

13 
U 



Just it tieki in the 
middle of 



ha'kare' nen' iae'hfMlta'ra"ne" kii'hentowa'ne"'. Sha'teka"hent'he°' 

after a now tliither she it field it large field 

time reached (is) 

e" tkana'taie"' tii'hno"" ne' ronwakowa'ne"' nakwa' 

there there it besides the their chief the very 
village lies 

nat'he"' noii'we' ni'hono""sote'. E" ka'tf niia'ha'e"'. Ne' nefi' 

of place there his lodge There so then thither she The now 



sha'teka- 

just it village 
in the middle 



there his lodge 
stands. 



thither she 
went. 



ka'tf dji' ia'ha"onwe' ne' dji' rono''"sote' o'k' ci'ie"" tii'hno"" 

so then where there she the where his lodge stands only just she besides 

arrived kept going 

ia'hoiita'weia te\ Sha"tekano°s'he"' niiotek'ha" ta'hno"'' tedjia- 

thither she entered it. Just in the middle of there it burns and on both 

the lodge 

ro""kwe"- nakadjie°"hati' kanak'taie"'. E'tho" raiiVtioii'm', 

sides such it the fireside of it couch (or bed) There his body lay. 

lay. supine, 

wa'honwa''theraien"ha'se' ne' kana'taro"k tii'hno"" 

she set the basket for him the it bread and 

" Wa'ofikeni'niake'." 

Thou and I marry now." 



o'k' ci'ie"' 

just just she 
kept going 



she it said: 



ka'tr 

so then 



wa'hen'ro"': 

he it -said : 



Ta'hata'tr 

He replied 

" E're"' na kadjie"'^hati^ kasatie"^'." E-' ka'tf na'a'we"' wivtni 

"Yonder such it fire side of there do thou There so then 



djie"''honte' 

between them 



so it they it 

sit." happened fire had 

"♦^""' ta'hno"" ia" he"'ska- tha teshoti"thare' o'k' e" 

besides not one did they talk together only there 

(it is) " again 

hia'okara"hwe'. Ne' ka'ti' ne' dji' nen' ia'ka"hewe' ne' dji' 

it became evening. The so then the where now it was time the where 

nitio'kara"o°' ne' nefi' dji' niiako'ta's nen' wa'hatennitska- 

there it is far in the now where there they goto now 

the evening sleep customarily 

ra'.seron'ni'. Wa'ha".sa" e'tho'ne' neiT wa'shakotska'r'ha'se' dji' 

his mat. He it finished at that now he it mat her spread for where 

time 

ia'te^ha^sl'taie"'. Ne' ka'ti^ wa^hen'ro"- : ^' Ke"^' e"^sa'rate'." 

there his feet lie. The so then he it said : "Here thou shalt lie." 



he prepared for 
himself 



HEmTT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



271 



also la}' down. They did not lie together; they only placed their feet 
tog-ether [sole to sole]. 

And when morning dawned, the}' two then arose. And now he 
himself kindled a fire, and when he had finished making the fire he 
then ero.ssed the threshold into another room; he then came out bear- 
ing an onora [string of ears] of white corn. He said: '"Do thou 
work. It is customary that one who is living among the people of 
her spouse uiust work. Thou must make nuish of hulled corn." So she 
thereupon shelled the coi'n, and he himself went to bring water. He 
also got a pot, a pot that belonged to him, and that was very large. 
He poured the water into the pot and hung it over the fire. 

And when she had finished shelling the corn, she hulled it, parboiling 
the corn in the water. And when the corn was parboiled, she then 
poured the grains into a mortar. She then got the pestle from where 



E'tho'ne' 

At that 
time 

wii'ha'rate' 

he lav down. 



ka'tf nen' e" wa'on'rate' no'k' ho'nf ne' raori''ha" 

so then now there she lay down but also the he himself 



la" te'honnara'to"', ne' 

Not they did lie together, the 



o'k' 

only 



No'k' 

But 

ra'o"'ha' 

he himself 

e'tho'ne' 

at that time 

stake ii'ra* 

grain 

Iakoio"te' 

One labors 



ne' nen' ca'or'he"''ne" nen' 

the now it became day- now 

light 

wii'hate'ka'te'. Ne' ka'tf 

he it fire kindled. The so then 



ne' wa'tiara'sitari'ke'. 

the they joined their feet 

(sole to sole J. 

wa'hiatkets'ko'. Nen' ne' 

they two raised Now the 

themselves. 

ne' nen' ca'hadjie"'hi"sa' 

the now he it fire finished 



Now 



we""to"-." 

by parboiling." 



ia'tha'nho"hii:i'ke' 

thither lie it threshold 
crossed 

shanore°'ha'wi', 

he string of corn 
brought. 

e^'s ne' ie'hne"'hwa''she"' 

custom- the she lives in the family of 
arily (her) spouse. 

E'tho'ne' ka'ti' nen' 

At that time so then now 



oa'tonta'hiiia'ke"''no' : 

thence he came forth 
again 

Neil' wa'hen'ro"' 

he it said: 



;kano'ra'^ 

one string 
of com 



one - 

it white 



E-sdjiskon'ni' 

Thou must make 
mush 

wiVeue^staroii'ko', 

she it corn shelled, 



"Saio"te"'. 

"Do thou labor. 

kane"'hana- 

it corn softened 
(soaked ) 

no'k' ne' 

but the 



ra'o"'hiV wa"ha'hnekako''ha- tii'hno"'' ia'hanivdja'ko' ne' raon'ta'k 

he himelf he water went to fetch besides there belt kettlegot, the his pot 

kanadjowa'ne"', tirhno"'' wa'ha'hneki'ha're"'. 

it kettle large and he it liquid hung (over 

the fire). 

No'k' ne' nen' cae's'iV wa'ene"stai'on'ko' 

And the now 



wherein she 
finished it 



she it corn shelled 



ene"stana'we"'te' 

she it corn softened by 
parboiling 



o'ni' 

also 



it mortar in 

waet'he'te'. 

she it pounded. 



e'tho'ne' wa'- 

at that 
time 

no'k' ne' nen' ca kane"stana'we"' e'tho'ne' 

but the now wherein it corn became at that 

soft by parboiling time 

ia'ene^sta'wero"', nen' ia'ecica'tota'ko' neii' 

there she it corn now she it pestle took from now 

grains poured, an upright position 

E"'ska' o'k' taiecica"te"'te' no'k' wiVethe'se- 

One only, she it pestle and she finished 

just brought down 



3 

5 
6 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
li 



272 



IBOQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



it .stood, and pounded the corn to mesil. She In'ought the pestle down 
only once, and the meal was finished. The chief marveled at this, 
for he had never seen one make meal in so short a time. When she 
finished the meal, the water in the pot which he had hung over the 
fire was boiling. She, thereupon, of course, was about to put the 
meal into it, but he said: "Do thou remove thj- garments.'' So she 
then divested herself of her garments. She finished this work, and 
then put the meal into the water. Now she stirred it, using a pot 
stick for the purpose. But the man himself lay alongside on the mat 
bed. having his eyes fixed upon her as .she worked. So, of cour.se, as 
the mush continually spattered, drops of it fell continually in divers 
places on her, all along her naked body. But she acted just as 
though .she did not feel this. When the mush was sufficiently cooked, 
her whole naked })od\' was fully bespattered with mush. At this 
moment he him.self now removed the pot from the fire, and then, 
moreover, he opened a door not far away and said: "M}' .slaves, 

ri".sa'. Wa'rori'hwane'hra'ko' ne' dji' ia" nonwen'to"' 

it meal. He it matter marveled at the where not ever 



te'hotka"tho'" ne' 

ho it has looked at thu 



niio'sno're' :xiethe\seri''sa\ Ne' ka'tf ne' 

so it is rapid one it mea! could finish. The sothen the 



nen' ca'ethe'seri''sa" nen' teio'hnekon'tie\se' ne' rona'dji"hare\ 

now wherein it meal she now it boils (casts liquid to the he kettle has hungup, 

finished and fro) 

Neil' wa"hr nen' ie'^ethe'sero'^hwe'. wa''hen'ro"': '''Satseronnia'- 

Now verily now thither she it meal will he it said: "Do thou thy 

immerse. garments 

oion'ko'/' E'tho'ne' ka'tf nen' wa'ontseronnia''cion'ko\ Wa'e'sa' 

remove." At that time sothen lunv she her garments removed. She it 

finished 

e'tho'ne' nen' iiVethe'sero"hwe' nen' teionwen'rie' ka^'serawtMl'rie' 

low she it stirred it pot stick 



now 



thither she it meal 
immersed 



^ at that 
time 

^ ioiits'tha. No'k' ne' ra'o"'hrf kanakta'ke' ne' thaiation'nr 

' she it uses And the he himself it couch on the there his body lay 

supine 

te'shakokan'ere' nen' iakoio"te\ Ne' ka'tf ne' dji' watdjis- 

*- he her watched now sheisworking. The sothen the where it 

kwuton'kwas iako'stara'ra'sero"' ne' ie''haie"''sa'ke"sho"\ Nakwa" 

•' mu---h sputters it drop impinges the her naked body on along. The very 

on her serially 

dji' ni'io't ne' ia" teiakoterien'tare". la'tkaie'iT wa'kadjis'kwarr 

lU where so it is the not she it knew. It sufficient it mush was cooked 

fstands) (is) 

neiT ne' nakwa" o'k' dji' niiehaie^^sa' iodjis'kware'. E'tho'ne' 

11 now tlie the very just whrro so ht-r naked it mush is present. At that 

body large (is) time 

nen' ra'o"'ha' wa^haniVdji'hara'ko\ nen' ta'hno""' ke"" noii'we' 

12 now he himself he unhung the kettle, now and here the place 

(besides) 

ia'ha'n'hoton'ko' ta'huo"" wti'hen'ro"': "Aketsene""sho"' ka'seneS" 

18 there he moved the and he it said: "My slaves each one do ye two 

door-flap aside come." 



MOHAWK VERSION 



273 



do ye two como hithor." Thereupon thence emerged two animals; 
they were two large dogs. He .said: '• Do ye two wipe fi'om along 
her naked body the mush spots that have fallen on her." Thereupon 
his slaves, two individuals in number, and besides of equal size, 
went thither to the place where she was standing. Now, of course, 
they two licked her naked body many times in many places. But, it is 
said, their two tongues were so sharp that it was just as if one should 
draw a hot rod along over her naked l>ody. It is said that wherevm- 
they two licked the blood came at once. So it is said that when the}' 
two had finished this work, she stood there bathed in blood. He 
thereupon said: '"Now, do thou dress thj'self again." And she did 
redress herself. But, it is said, he said to his two slaves: "Come, 
my slaves, do ye two eat, for now the food that was made for you is 
cooked." So then the two beasts ate. And when the}' two had 



E" ka'tr takeniia'ke'^'ne' teknikowa'ne"' e'r'ha'r. Wa'hen'ro"': 

Theru sothen thence they two they two hirge are dog(s). ^ He it said: 

came fortli 

"• Sasenira'ke'f ( t ofisasenira'ke'w) " ie4iaiensa'ke'''.sho"' iodjiskware'- 

lier naked body on along 



'Do ye two wipe it 
away again 

i"\" E'tho'nc" 



sever- 
ally." 



At that 
time 



ne' raotsene^'o'konVi* 

the his slaves individually 



it mush is be 
spattered 

tekeniia".she 



they two individ- 
uals in number 



lien 

now 



ta'hno"" dji' na'tekenikowa'ne"' e" niia''ha'kene' ne' dji' 

and where so they two (are) large there just thither they the where 

two went 

i'tiete', iieu' se" o'k' wiVhi' wa'akoti'haie"'8akanent'ho"\ E" se" 



there she 
stood, 



deed 



verily 



they her naked body licked repeatedly. There in- 
deed, 



ia'ke"' niionen'iuV'sate't dji' ni'io't ne' iorofiwaratari'^he"' e*' 



it is said, so their tongues sharp where so it is 

(are) 

naoiltaie'sere' ie'haie"'sa'ke''.^ho"\ 

so it one would her naked body along on. 

draw along 

non'we' nakaka'nonte*' nakwa''' o'k 



ne' 

the 



custom- 
aril v, 



it rod hot (is) 

ia'ke"' 

it issaid, 



ne 

the 



tliu place 



kwe""sote'. 

forth. 

E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



I they licked 

"\ ne' 

id, the 

E^ho'ne^ 

At that 
time 



the very 



just there 



kanekwe"'sara'tie' 

it blood came along 
with it. 



there 

dji' 

where 

Ne' 

The 



nen 

now 



ca'keni"sa' 

they t«o it 
finished 



nakwti" o'k' thidjene- 

the very 



she blood 
stood 



nen' saiontseroii'nf. 

now she herself again 

dressed. 



he it said; 

No'k' 

And 



wa'ren"ha\se\ ia'ke"": "Aketsene"'okon"a", 

he it said to them, itissaid: "My slaves individually, 



onlv 
(just) 

"Neil' sa.satseron'ni'.'" 

"Now do thou thyself 

dress again." 

ne' raotsene"'okoii"!i' 

the his slaves individually 

hau", tedjitska"ho"". 

come, do ye two eat. 



Nen' wa"hr wa'ka'rl' ne' 

Now, verily itiseooked the 



ietchikhonnieii'ni' 

she you two food has 
prepared for." 



E'tho'ne' neiT 

At that time now 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



n This is the more correct form nf tlie preceding term. 

21 ETH— 03 ^18 



274 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



finished eating, he said to them: "Now do ye two reenter the other 
room." Thereupon they two reentered the other room, and moreover 
he shut them up therein. 

Then, it is reported, he said: "It is true, is it not, tliat thou desirest 
that thou and I should marry? So, now, thou and I do marry." 

So tlien the tilings that came to pass as they did during the time 
she was there were all known to her beforehand, because her father 
had indeed foretold all these things to her; hence she was able with 
fortitude to suffer the burns without flinching, when the nuish spat- 
tered on her while she was cooking. If she had flinched when the drops 
of hot mush fell on her, he would have said to her: "I do not believe 
that it is true that it is thy wish that thou and I should marrj-." 
Besides this she bore with fortitude the pain at the time when the two 



1 

2 
3 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



watkiatskfi'ho"'. No'k' ne' 

tliey two (anim.) ate. And the 



nen' ca'kenikhwen'trrne" wrrheii'ro"' 

now they two it food finished he it said: 



■Nen' ,ska'u'ho"hati' ion.sasadiiata'weia'te'." E'thone' 

"Now beyond it door- 

flap 

ska'n'ho"hati' ionsakiata'weia"te*, neii' til'hno"" ionsashako'n'ho'to"' 



ion.sasadjiata'weia'te'." 

thither again do ye two enter." 



At that 
time 



nen 

now 



nen' 

now 



beyond the door 
Bap 

E'tho'ne', ia'ke' 

At that time, it is 

said. 

niti.saniko"'hro'te"' ne' 

so thus thy mind (is) the 

kind of 

ni'niake'." 

marry." 

Ne' ka'tr ne' dji' 

The .so then the where 



thither they two entered, now 



waMien'ro"': 

he it said: 

;lionkeni'niake\ 

thou-I should marry. 



and thither again he tliem. 

shut up, 

"To'ke"ske' wa'^hf e' 



na awe sero" 

so it happened 
iteratively 



ne' 

the 



Nen' 

Now 



dji' 

where 



ka'tr 

SO then 



erily thus 

vra'onke- 

thou-I do 



uen 

now 



na'he"' e" 

length of there 
time 



tiiakoterien'tare-, a'se^'ke"'' ne' 

there she it knew of. because the 



leia'ko. Akwe'ko"' o'hen'to" 

there she Whole beforehand 

arrived. (all) (in front) 

ro'ni"ha" akwe'ko"' se'' te'shako'hro'ri' ne' kan'hon'ni' 

heherfather all, indeed, he her told the it it caused 



she herself nerved to 
endure it 



ne' nen' ciiakodjisko"ho"% a'se-ke"'' to'ka' aonta- 



she it mush boiled, 



because 



wa^ekwe'nf waontii'kats'tate' ne' dji' niio'tavi'iie"' caakodjis- 

she it was able she herself nerved to the where so it hot (is) it her mush 

to do 

kwaton'ko^ 

spattered on 

iakoto"''no"' 

sbninlv from 

a'hawen'ke', 

he would have 
said, 



ne 

the 



neiT caako'stara'ra'ne' ne' iodiiskwatari"he"' 

now it drop her adhered to the it mush (is) iiot 



I be- 
lieve: 



aioiikeni'niake'." 

thon-I should marry." 



"la" 

"Not 

No'k' 

And 



ne' 

the 



to'ke"ske' e" tetisa'niko"-hro'te' 

it is true thus such there thy mind is 

kind of 

o'nr ne' dji' wivonta'kats'tate' ne' 

also the where she herself nerved the 

to endure it 



HEWITT] MOHAWK VERSION 275 

dogs Ik-kcd the imish from her body. If she had flinched to the point 
of refusing- to tinish her undertaking, it is also certain that he would 
have said: "It is of course not true that thou desirest that thou and 1 
should marry." 

And when his two l)easts iuid finished eating, he then, it is said, 
showed her just where his food \a,y. Thei-eupon she prepared it, and' 
when she had completed the preparation thereof, they two then ate 
the morning meal. 

It is said that she passed three nights there, and thej' two did not 
once lie together. Only this was done, it is reported: When they two 
lay down to sleep, tiicy two placed their feet together, both placing 
theii- heads in opposite directions. 

Then, it is said, on the third morning, he said: "Now thou shalt. 
again go thither to the place whence thou hast come. One basket of 
dried venison thou shalt bear thither on thy back by means of the foi-e- 



nen' ne' shoiisaiakotidjiskokewa'nio"'. To'ka aontaiakoto""no"" 

now the again they (two) it mush in many places If she it hart shrunk troiii 1 

wiped off of her. 

ne' dji' ne' ;xiakokara'rerr'o"' ne' ki"' o'nf ne' a'ha'wenke": 

the where the she it would have been tlie, I be- also the he would have 2 

in fear of lieve, spid: 

" la"' wa'"hr to'ke"ske' te'se're' aioiikeni'niake'." 

"Not verily it is true thou it desirest thou-I sliould marry." '^ 

No'Iv' ne' nefi' ca'kenikhwen'tiVne' ne' raotsene"''okon''a" , 

4- 

And the now they two their food finished the his slaves individunllv 



e'tho'ne', ia'ke"', neiT wa'shakona'ton"ha'se' dji' non'we' ^ 

at that time, it is said. now he her it showed to where place 

nikake"ro"' ne' rao'khwa'. E'tho'ne', neiT wa'ekwata'ko" dji' 

so it is piled the his food. At that time now she it made ready where 

niio'i'e' wa'e'sa' neii' wa'tiatska'iio"' ne' o'r'ho"'ke'ne'. 

so it is dis- she it fin- now they two ate the it morning at. T 

tant ished 

'A"se"' ia'ke"' naoiinoii'wete' tii'hno"" ia"' e'"'ska' te'hofina- 

. Three, it is said, .so she stayed over the and not one they did lie '^ 

night (time) 

ra'to"". Ne' o'k" e'"s ia'ke"' ne' wa'tiarti'.sitari'ke' ne' dji' 

together. The only custom- it is said the they their feet joined the where !J 

arily 

wahoti'ta'we', tenidjia'ro"" e're"' nonka'ti' ia teniatkoiT'heii'. 

they slept, Ijoth they two yonder side of it there they two their 1'.' 

(elsewhere) heads rest. 

Ne' ka'tf ia'ke"' ne'ne' o'r'ho^'ke'ne' neiT wa'hen'ro"'; 

Tlie so then it is said, the that morning in now heitsaiil: H 

"Neii' e" ie""se"'se' ne' dji' non'we" ti.sa'teil'tio"". Sewa'the'rat 

"Now there there again the where the i>lace just thou didst depart. One it basket 12 
thou shalt go 

ne' iofitke'tats'tha' o'sken'nonto"' tekaia'taneta"kwe"' io'wa'riit'he"' 

the one uses it to carry it deer one its body has unlined it meat (is) dry 13 

by the forehead strap (from fat) 

ie"'se"satke"tate'. E"khe'wara'nonte' ne' soiikwe'ta'. No'k' ho'ni" 

thither thou it wilt bear I them meat will give the thy people. And also 14 

by the forehead strap. 



276 



IROQITOIAN COSMOLOGY 



(ETH. ANN. 21 



head strap. I will give some meat to thy people. Moreover, 
the entire \ilhioe of people with whom tliou dwellest in one place 
must all share alike in the di\ ision of the meat when thou arrivest 
thei-e." 

Thereupon, it is told, he dindied up aho\'e and drew down quarters 
of meat that had been di'ied. It is said that lie piled it \-erv liii>-h in 
the lodge Ix'fore he descended. He then put the meat into her 
burden tjasket until it was full. Then, it is told, he took up the 
basket, and he shook the basket to pack tiie meat close. It actuallj- 
did settle so uuich. it is told, that there was l)ut a small (juaiitity 
[apparently! in the basket. Now, lie again began to put meat into the 
basket. It was again hlled. And he again shook it to cause it to 
setth>, and again it settled until it occupied but a very small space in 
the basket. Thus he used all the meat tlirown down, and yet the 
basket was not full. Thrice, it is tokl. he drew down the ([uarters of 



ne' o'k' iekanatakwe'ko"' ne' skifne' ti.sewanak'ere' akwe'ko"' 



the 



only 



just it village whole 



the 



one in 
(place) 



just there ye dwiOl 



sha'te"ia'wC>nne' e"'hatiia'kho"' ne' o'wii'ro"' ne' neiT ii''""se"sewe'". 

equal it shall hapr''!! theylm.iit the it meal the now 



they (ni. I it 
will share 

E'tho'ne". ia'ke"". neiT 

At that time, it is said, now 



tliere thou wilt 
arrive." 



itXiiarat'he"' e'neke"" ta*ha"wa'rani".se- 

thither he elimla-d high(plaeet lie quarters 



re'^te' ne' io'wa'rat'he"'. A'e're"', ia'ke"'. naotofiwes'ha'ne" ne' 

it meat dry (is t. Far ycaider, it is said. it jiile Iieeame large the 



of meat the 
jrot down 

kano""'sako'" 

It lodge in 

ra'ko"' ne' 

basket in the 

wa'ka'na'ne". 

it it filled. 



ne 

the 



toiita"hats'nt:^"'te". E'tho'ne" neiT ako'the- 

thenee he descended. .Vt that time now he her 



iofitke'tats'tha' e" 

there 



one uses it to bear it by 
the forehead strap 

E'tho'ne' ne' 

At that time the. 



la'l 



wa'hii'wa'ra'ta' dji' niio're' 

he placed the meat where so it is 

in (it) distant 

, wa'tha'thera"kwe' tii'hno"" 



he it basket took up 



and 



wa'tha'therakareiT'ro"' 

he liasket rocked from 
side to side 



10 
11 

12 

13 



ifrha'djio'roke'. To'ke"ske" 

he it caused to settle It is true, 

down. 

onta'djio'roke'. nakwa" o'sthoiT'ha' o'k' te'tkiire'. 

it itself settled, the very it small is only there it is 

present 
(is left). 

tonta'hata".sawe"' sa'ha'wa'ni'ta' ne' a'thera'ko"'. 

there again he began again he it meat the it basket in. 

put into 

a're'. E'tho'ne' neiT a're' .sii'ha'djio'roke' ne' 

once At that time now again again he it caused to the 

more. settle 

o'sthon"ha' o'k" te'tkare". E" thiia'ha's'tl'te' ne' 

it small is only there it re- Thus. until he used it all the 

mains ^is 
left). 

teiona'non"o"\ 'A'".se"', ia'ke"" naiia'teratste" taiia"wa"riini'sere""te' 

It it filled. Three, itissai<l, ?o he repeated it he got down quarters of meat 



it is .said, 

Neil' a're' 

Now again 

Saka'na'ne" 

.^gain it liecame 

full 

a're" nakwsi" 

again the very 

o'wa'ro"' ia" 

it meat not 



MOHAWK VERSION 



277 



meat, and each time, it is said, did the moat nearly till the lodge. Not 
until then wa.s the ba.sket tilled. So then, when the l)a.sket wa.s full, 
it is told, he said: " When thou arrivest there, thou and the inhab- 
itants of the plaec must assem))le in eouneil, and the meat shall tie 
equally divided among you. Moreover, thou must tell them that they 
se\'erally must remo\-e the thatched roofs from their lodges when the 
evening darkness comes, and that they must severally go out of them. 
And they must store all the corn [hailj that will fall in the lodges, 
for, indeed, vei'ily, it will rain corn [hail] this very night when thou 
arrivest there. So now thou must bear on thy back l)v lueans of the 
forehead strap this basket of dried venison." Thereupon he took up 
the basket for her, and he said: "Thou nmst carefully adjust the 
burden strap in the proper place, because it will then not be possiljle for 
thee to move the burden sti-ap to a new place, no matter how tired soever 



Tho"ha' e"'s. 


ia'ke"', wa'ka'na'ne'' ne' dii' nikano""sa\ OiTwa' 


1 


Xearly usually, it is said. 


it it filled the where soit lodge Just now 






large (isi. 




wa ka'na'ne'. 


Ne' ka'ti' 


ne' nefi' ca'kfi'na'ne' e'tho'ne\ ia'k?"". 


2 


it it filled. 


The sn then 


the now just it was filled at that time. it is said. 




wa'heil'ro"": 


■'Ne' nefi 


ie"'se"sewe" e"ietchiiatkennis\i"te' ne' 


3 


he it said: 


"The now 


tliere thou wilt they you shall assemble in ttie 






arrive eouneil 




ienak'ere' 


tii'hno"" 


e''ietchiiak'hon'"ha'se' ne' oVri"ro"". 


i 


they dwell 


and 


they it shall divide among the it meat, 
you 




8ha'te''iawen'ne' akwe' 


ko"'. Ta'hno"" e"ietchi'hro'rr ne' 


5 


equal so it will 


all. 


And will one-you tell the 




happen 








e"io"skwa'ron 


ko' ne' dji 


iakono"'.so'to"' ne' nen' e"tio'kara'hwe' 


6 



will they removL' bark- the where their loriges stand the now again will it become 
roofs severally dark 

ne' o'ni' ne' e"ieiaken"sero"\ Ne' akwe'ko"^ e"ionteweien'to'" 

the also the they will go out of doors. The all they it will care for 

ne' o'ne"ste' ne' kano"''sako"' e"kake*ron'ta'ne\ a'se'ke"'' ne' 

the it lodge in it will pile up, becau-'^e the 



the (it corn) 
hail 

se"' wiVhr 

in- verily 
deed 

ne' nen' 

the now 



ke.""i'kt"' 

this it is 



ne' o'ne"ste' 

the I it cnrii) 

hail 

ie'^^se^'sewe'. 

there thou wilt 
arrive. 

o^skennon'to"' 

It deer 



e loKen nore 

will it rain 



ne'ne^ dji' wa'son'tate' 

where 



the 
that 



it night (is) 
extant 



Nen 

Now 



ka'tr 

SO then 



wtVte '.shako' thera"kwe"' no' 

he it basket for her took up the 



io'wa'rat'he"'."' 

it meat (is) dry." 

\vri'hr*n'io 

lie It said: 



ie"'se'sata'therake"'tate' 

thither again tlmii wilt bear lit i 

basket on thy back by tlie 

forehead strap 

E'tho'ne' nen' 

At that time now 



O ni 



weien'to'" dji' nofi'we' ne"watke^to"hetste\ 

with care where place it furehead strap will pass, 



''Akwjl'' kasate- 

" Very do thoii it do 

a'se'ke"" ia*' .se" 



in- 
deed 



in an- tnou it it forehead 

other straj) shalt move, 

place 



it matters not 



so thou wilt die in thy 

strength become 

wearied 



Id 

11 
1-2 
18 
14 



278 



lEOQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[eth. anx. 21 



thou iiiaycst become, until thou indeed arrivest there. Now, at tliat 
time thou must remove thy burden." So then, when she had com- 
pleted her preparations, she adjusted the burden strap so that it 
passed over her forehead at the fittest point. She then said: '' Now 
I believe I have completed my i)reparations, as well as chosen just 
whei-e the burden strap shall pass." Thereupon he released his hands 
from holding' up the basket for her. and noM*. moreover, she started 
on her journey homeward. 

Now, moreover, the basket she canii'd on her back was not at all 
heav}'. But when she had gone i)erhaps one-half of the way })ack on her 
journey, the liurden began to lie heavy in a small measure. Then, as 
she continued her journey, it gradually became heavier. The instant 
she reached the inside of the lodge, the burden strap became detached 
and the basket fell to the ground, and the dried meat fell out of it. 
The meat tilled the space within the lodge, for did she not bring much 



dji' 



niio re se 

where so it is indeed 

distant 

e"'se'satke'trr'sr." Ne' 

thou wilt tako it from The 

bearing it on tliy l^aek by 
the loreheiid strap." 

wiVekwatu'ko' dji'' 

wheru 



wa"hr 

verily 

ka'tr 

su then 



ie"'se"sewe", 



there thou wilt 
arrive. 



E'tho'ue' 

At that time 



nen 

now 



ue 

the 



dji' 

where 



nen 

now 



wil'eweiennen'ta'ne' 

she task completed 



nofi'we'' ne'^watke'to^hetste" 

the place 



she it adjusted will; 
care 

ki" wa'keweienneil'ta'ne' dji' 

I be- I it task have completed where 

lieve, 

wa"ha"tkaVe' ne' dji' 

he it let go the where 



there it foiehead strap 
will pass 



wa 1 ro : 

she it said; 



" Nen', 

" Now, 



E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



nofi'we' ne"watke'to''hetste\" 

the plaee there it forehead straj* will 

pass." 

ro'therakarii'tato"' ta'hno"'' 

he it basket held up and 



e'tho'ne' 

at that time 

Nen' 

Now 

To'ka' 

If 



nen 

now 



sale" ' ten' ti'. 

she started home- 
ward. 



tirhuo""' ia" 

and not 



othe'no"" 

anything 



o''"te'' shivtewa'sen'no"' dji' 

perhaps just it (is) middle where 



teiok'ste' saiorita'therake''tate'. 

it heavy is again shf it basket bears on iier 

back by the forehead-strap. 

niieiakawe'non 



niio re 



so It IS 

distant 



just there she had 
gone 



9 
10 
11 
12 



tonta"'sawe' 

there it began 

niiako'teiltioiTha'tie" 

just so slie traveled along 

iofisaiera'ta'ne" nen' 



wa'oksten"'ne'. 

it heavy became. 



there again slie 
stood 

raien'ta'ne" 

Ijasket fell 



o'sthon"h;i 

it (is) small 

taioksteiT'sere'. 

it beeame heavier 
increasingly. 

ton"tke'totari"si" 

it forehead-strap 
beeame unfastened 



Ne' 

The 



ka'tr ne' 

so tiien the 



nen 

now 

dji' 

where 



la'tkaie'ri" 

It KufRcient is 



kano'-'sako"' 

it lodge in 



tiv'hno""' 

and 



oiiwerofi'tiVne" 

it siiilled 



tii"hno 

and 



ne 

the 



e'tfi'ke' 

down, on 
the ground 

io'wtVrat'he"^ 

it meat dry (is). 



ia'ho"-the- 

there it 

Wa'ka^ 

It it tilled 



13 



\Va"ra na ne 

with meat 



lie 

the 



where 



niionak'ta" 

so its room 
large (is) 



ne 

the 



kano"".sako"' 

it lodge in. 



E'.so" se" 

Murh indeed 



HEWITT] MOHAWK VERSIOlSr 279 

meat on her back? For thrice, is it not true, he had pulled down 
meat in hi.s lodge when he was putting the meat into her basket at the 
time when he was making up her Ijurden ? It was then that she told 
them that they must remove the thatched roofs from their lodges 
when it became evening. 

Then she said: "He has sent you some meat. Now then, my kins- 
folk, take up this meat lying in the lodge." Then at that time her 
people took up the dried meat, and so the}' all carried it away. She 
then said: " Ye must remove the thatched roofs from the lodges that 
severally belong to you the first time ye go to sleep, because my 
spouse has sent word that he will give you some white corn [white 
grains] during the tinie that ye will again be asleep. It will rain 
white grains while ye again are asleep." So, when it became dark, 

wa"hf ne' djiakoVa'rake"te", a'se'ke"" 'a"se"' se" wa"hi' 

verily the she meat bore on her hack because three indeed verily 

by the forehead-strap, 

na'hakiir'hate'nf ne' raono"'.sako"''' ne' nen' ca'ba wa'ra'ta' ne' 

so many he turned the his lodge in the no\v since he meat placed the 

(or threw) it down in it 

ako'thera'ko''' ne' nen' sashakoTie'non'nie"'. E'tho'ne- ka'ti' 

her basket in the now he it her burden made for. At that time so then 



neiT wjvont'hro'rf ne' e"io"Sskwa'hron'ko' ne' dji' iako- 

Dow she it told the they will (must) take off the where their 

the bark-roof plurally 

no"''so'to"' ne' nen' e"io'karaSsne"ha'". 

lodges stand the now it will become some- O 

])iurally what dark. 

E'tho'ne' wai'ro"': ^'E'tehisewaVaranonte"'ha'tie\ Nen' ka'tf 



6 

7 



At that she it said : " He meat you has sent along to. Now so then 

time 

ne' kwano^'kwe'o'ko"' te'sne'kwe' ke^'i'ke"' ka'wa'rake"hro'" 

the ye my kindred do ye it takt* up this it (is) it meat lying in a 

severally pile 

kano""sako"\" Ta', e'tho'ne' neiT ne' akaonkwe'ta' nen' 

it lodge in." So. at that now the her kindred now o 

time 

wa'tie'kwe' ne' io'wa'rat'he"'. Ne' ka'tf ne' neii' akwe'ko""' 

they it took up the it meat dry (is). The so then the now all (it is) 9 

iae'"ha\ve\ e'tho'ne' nen' wai'ro"': ^'E"tcia'skwa'hron'ko' ne' 

thither they at that now she it said: "Ye will remove it bark- the LO 

it Ijorc away, time roof plurally 

dji' sewano"'so'to"' ne' e"twatie're"'te' nen' e"sewen'ta'we', 

where your houses stand the it will be the first now ye will sleep, tl 

one by one 

a^se'ke"" raweii'ha'tie' ne' teiakeni'tero"' one/^'staken'ra' e"ietchi- 

because he it said along, the one I with whom it corn white he you corn \.2 

sent wortl abide 

sewane'^^stanofi'te'. One"*staken'rrr e"ioken'iiore' dji' na'"he' 

will give. It corn white it will rain where it lasts 13 

(so long) 

e"tcisewenta'seke\ " 

again ye will sleep." 14 



280 



lEOyUuIAN COSMOLOGY 



(ETH. ANN. 21 



it showered corn [luiil| durinij' the entire night, and so hy this means 
they had much grain [hailj when diiy dawned. 

Then, in truth, they removed the roofs from their several lodges, 
and they retired to sleep. So, when they awakened, in truth, then 
there was very much corn [iiailj lying in the lodges. The white corn 
[grain] lay above one's knees in depth. Thus lay the white corn, for 
so long as they slept it showered white corn [grain]. The reason 
that he gave her i)eople corn was })ecause he had espoused one of 
their people. 

After a suitable time she started ))ack, going to the lodge of her 
spouse. Verily she again made the journey in the same time that it 
took her the first time she went thither. So then, when .she arrived 
there, she of course at that time related to him all that had happened 



Ne' ka'tr 

The ail then 



ne 

Uie 



tai()kara'"hwe" 



then it became 
dark 



wa oken nore 

it rained 



o'ne"-ste' 



a'sontakwe'ko"'. E" 

it night entire. There 



ka'tr 

so then 



it forn 
(hail) 

iiofitoiitie'nVte' wti'rotine"''stakri'te"'ne' 



it did it by this 
means 



their corn (hail)became 
abundant for them 



nen 

now 



it (became) 
morning. 

To'ke"ske' ka'ti" 

It is true 



trta'we'. 

fell asleep. 



Ne' 

The 



then 

ka'ti 



wtVoiTskwa'hroii'ko'' 

they removed bark- 
ruof jiUirally 

ihonsa'hati'ie' 



nen 

now 



ne 



iawe'towa'ne"" 

it is a quantity 
great 

e" ni'tio' 



there so it is 
deep 

e" na"he' 

there it lasted 



so the 

then 

kano"^'sako"' 

it lodge in 



nen 

now 

ka'ie"' 

it lay. 



again they awoke 

E'neke"' 

Above 



e'tho'ne' 

at that 
time 

to'ke-ske" 

it is true 



wiX'ho- 

they 

ka'ti' 

so then 



na'akok^\■ its' ■ hati' 

so one's knee side of 



ne 

the 



one"'staken'ra" 

it corn white 



a-se'ke"" 

because 



dji' 

where 



na"he' 



one"'staken'r!i' 

it corn white 



ioken'noro"' 

it has rained. 



it lasts (so 
long) 

Ne' tiiori"hwa' 

The it is reason 



roti'ta's 

they slept 

wa'sha- 

he it them 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



ka'o"" ne' o'ne"'ste' ne' akaonkwe'tir ne' dji' 

gave to the it corn the her kindred the where 

(hail) 

ne' raonnofikwe'ta', tii'lmo"" ne"'tho' ni'hatiri'ho'te" 

the his kindred, ami such .so their custom was. 



rotinia'ko"' 

they (are) 
married 



Akwii' 

Very 



e'tho- 

enough 



dji' 



na 



''he' nen' saio"'ten'tr, 



ne' dji' thono""sote' ne' ro'ne'. 

the where there his lodge the he her There, I 

stands spouse. believe, 

ontha"ha'kwe' dji' ni'io't ne' tiiotiei'e""to"' e" 



she went home 

E" ki" a're' 

again 



her journey took wliere 



so then the lun 

sa4ionwa'"hro'iT 

again she him told 



so it 
stands 



the 



ciionsa lonwe . 

there again she 
arrived. 



akwe'ko"' 

it all 



dji' 

where 



so it wastirst 



there 



e-' ,siTie""te' 

there again she 
went 

mi"he' toflsai- 

it lasts again she 
up 

Ne' 

The 



Ta', 

So, 



e'tho'ne' 

at that 
time 



naawe'" sero 

it happened serially 



ca"e"^'te" 

where she 
went. 

wa"hr 

verily 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



nen 

now 



saie- 

agaln 



heavitt] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



281 



to her during- her journey to iiiul from home. Of course they two 
now aliode together, for the reason, of eourse, that they two were 
espoused. 

After a time he then said: •• 1 am ill." .So then, his people marveled 
at what he said, for the reason that they did not know what it was for 
one to )>e ill. So, th(>refore, at the time when they comprehendinl 
what had occurred in regard to him, tliey, of coarse, individually, 
as was cu.stomarv, .studied the matter, and informed the man who was 
ill what to do. It would seem, one would imagine, that his illness 
did not abate thereby, even though many ditl'erent persons made the 
attempt, and his recovery was yet an unaccomplished task. So thus 
it stood ; they continued to seek to divine his Word. Then, there- 
fore, when they failed to cure his illness, they questioned him, saying: 
"How, then, jjerhaps, may we do that thou mayest recover from thy 



kwat'ho". Ta', nefi' ne"tho' ni'io't wiVhf ska"ne' 

sheitvisitc-a. Sn. now thus soil verily tpgether 

stands (at one) 

ro'ne' se"' wa'"h]'. 

hisspouse in- verily, 

(she is) deed 

A'kare' nen' wa'heu'ro"': 

he it said: 



nitero"'. 

they two 
abode. 



Wakeno"'hwak'tanr." Ta' 



After a now 

time 



nen ne 

no\v the 



raonkwe'ta' 

his people 



" I am ill." 

wa'hotine'hra'ko' 

thev marveled 



So, 



ra'to"', a'se'ke"" ia" 

he it said, because not 



te'hatiiente'ri' 

they it knew 



O 
what 



ne 

the 



ne' 

the 



e'tho'ne* 

at that 
time 

na'ho'te"' 

such kind 
of thing 

na'ho'te"' ne' 

such kind of the 

thing (it is) 



dji' 

where 



aiakone"'liwak'te" 

one should be ill. 



Ne' ka'tf ne' dji' nen' wa'hoti''niko"'hraien'- 

The so then the where now they it understood 



ta'ne' dji' niioteri'hwatie're"' ne' rao"'ha'ke'. Nen' wa"hf 

where so it matter was done the he himself at Now verily 

(himself to). 

shatiitftats'ho"' dji' e'"s ni'io't dji' te"-hai:rto're'te' Wii'ho"hro'ri" 

they every person where custom- so it (is) where he it will judge of he him told 

one by one arily 

e"'s ne' rono'^hwak'tani" ne' dji' lurhfi'iere". la"' ho""tc"-ke"' 

ens- the he is ill the where so he it should Not perhaps-is it 

tomarily do. 

ta'honsa'hrdeVen'ta'ne', wa"thonttenion'ko' ia"' ki" tewaa'to"'s 

again he recovered his health, they took turns plurally 



not, I 

believe. 



it it is able 
to do 



aoiisa'haie'wen'ta'ne'. Ta', e" ni'io't hote""niote' e'tho' honwa- 

should again he recover his So, thus so it (is) he it feast holds there they 
health. 

wenni"saks. Ne' ka'tf a'kare' ne' dji' neiT wa'honnil'ta'ko' 

.sought to divine his The so then after a the where now they it failed to do 

Word continually. time 

ne' aonsa'honwatcon'to"' e'tho'ne' nen' wa'honwari'hwanoii'to""se', 

the again they his health at that now they him asked questions. 



again they his health 
restore 



at that 

time 



WiVhoilni'ro"': 

thev it said; 



•O" 

■ What 



ka'tr 

so then 



o""te' naiakwa'iere' 



mav it 
be 



so we it should 
do 



ne 

the 



aon.sa'sie 

again thou 
shouldst 



3 

i 
5 

♦i 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 

U 



282 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY Teth. anx.21 

illness r Then he answered thoni. siiying: "1 am tliinkinu- that, per- 
haps, 1 should recover from my illness if ye would uproot the tree 
standing in my dooryard [on my shade], and if there beside the place 
from which ye uproot the tree I sliould lay myself in a position 
recumbent.'' 

So thereupon his people uprooted the tree that stood in ins door- 
yard. This tree belongf'd to tlu^ species wild cherry [dogwood: in Tus- 
carora, Isakwenne""ienthuc], and was constantly adorned with blossoms 
that gave light to the people dwelling there; for these flowers were 
white, and it was because of this that the blossoms gave light, and, 
therefore, the}' were the light orb [sun] of the people dwelling there. 

So when they had uprooted the tree, he said to his spouse: •'Do 
thou spread for me something there beside the place where stood tiie 
tree." Thereupon she. in fact, spread something for him there, and 



wen'tane'?" Ta', e'tho'ne', ia'ke"', thota'tf ne' o'nf wa'- 

recover thy So, at that time, it is said, he replied the also he 

health?" 

hen'ro"': " I'ke're" o""te' aoiisakie'wen'ta'ne' to'ka' aesewaroii- 

il said: " I it think it mav I would recover my if you it tree 

be health should 

tota'ko' ne' akwateiino'sera'ke' i'ke"' ke'r"hite', ta'hno"" e" 

uproot the my yard in it is it tree stands, and there 

ie"katia'tiofi'nite" ak'ta" dji' nofi'we' ne"sewaro3tota'ko'." 

there I my body supine near where the place ye it tree will uproot." 

will lay beside it 

Ta', e'tho'ne' ne' raoiikwe'tii' wa'hatirontota'ko" ne' ke'r"hite' 



So, at that the his people they it tree uprooted the it tree 

time ' stands 



ne' dji' raotefino'sera'ke', o'ra'to"'" na'karonto'te'" ne' ke'r''hite' 

(') the where his yard in, it wild such it kind of the it tree 

cherry tree (is) stands 

tiio'tko'" iotci'tconte' ne', ia'ke"', teio'swathe"ta"ko"" ne' dji' 

i always, it bears flower the. it is said, it causes it to be light the where 

continuously as part of itself thereby 

e" ratinak'ere': a'se'ke"" keiira'ke'" nikatcltco'te"' ne' 

^ there thev dwell: because it white (is^ such it flower the 

kind of (is) 

aori"hwa' teio'swat'he' ne' aotcI'tcEi' ne' dji' keiira'ke"' ni'io't. 

" its cause it (is1 light the its flowers the where it (is) white so it (is), 

stands. 

Ne' na" raotira"kwa' ne' e" nofi'we' ni'hatinak'ere'. 

•^ - The that their it sun (is ) the there place just there they 

it is dwell. 

Ne' ka'tr ne' neiT ci'hotirontota'kwe"' wa''shakawe""ha'se' 

■'■-'■ The so then the now they had uprooted the tree he her it said to 

ne' ro'ne': '"E" ia'takitskar"ha'se" ak'ta' ne' dji' ke'r''hlta'- 

^-^ the his "There thither do thou me near be- the where it tree 

spouse: spread a mat for .side it 

kwe'." E'tho'ne" to'ke"ske' e" ia'honwe"tskar"ha'se', tii'hno"" 

stood." At that time it is true there there she spread a mat for him, and 

a Several different kinds of trees and plants are named by various narrators as the tree or pl«nt thus 
uprooted. Here the narrator Intended the dogwood, although he gave the name for wild cherry. 



13 



HEWITT] MOHAWK A'EBSION 283 

he then lay down on what ^he had sjiread for him. And so. when 
he laj' there, he said to his spouse: "Here sit thou, beside my bodj'." 
Now at tliat time she did sit beside his body as he lay there. He then 
said to her: ''Do thou hang thy legs down into the abyss." For 
where they had uprooted the tree there came to be a deep hole, which 
extended through to the nether world, and the earth was uptui-ned 
about it. 

That, then, it is true, came to pass, that wliile lie lay there his 
suffering was mitigated. All his people were assembled there, and 
iiioreo\er, they had their eye-i fixed on him as he lay there ill, mar- 
veling at this thing that had liefalleii him himself; for the people 
dwelling here did not know what it is to be ill. So then, when he 
had, seemingly, recovered from his illness, he turned himself over, 

e'tho'ne" e" ifrha'rate" dji' iiofi'we' wa'horiwe"tskar"ha'se". 

at that time there there he lay \\here the place she him mat spread for. 

down 

Ne' ka'tf wa"hi" ne' dji' neiT e" raiii'tiorrnf wa'shakawe"'- 

The so then verily the where now tliere his Ijody was he her it said to 

extended 

'ha'se" ne' ro'ne': "Ke"" sa'tie'" kia tsik'tsi"." E'tho'ne" iien' 

the his "Here do thou beside my At that time now 

spouse: sit body." 

to'ke"ske' e'' wa-oil'tie'" ne/ dji' raia'tak'tiV ue' dji' _|. 

it is true there she set herself the where his body the where 

beside' 

rfiia tion'nf. Nefi' wiX'hen'ro"': " Lvtesatciii'no"'te' o'shon'wriko"',"" ^ 

his body was Now he it said: "Thither do thou Imiig it liole in," 

extended. thy legs 

a'se'ke'"'' io'shonwe''o"\ ioto'"hwendjiate'tha'ro'" ne' dji' nika'- n 

because it became a hole, it tore up the earth the where so it is 

tens ne' e" tiio"'hwendjia'te'. ^ 

thick the there thither it earth stands 
forth. 



Ne' ka'ti' wa^hf ne' dji' nefi' e*' raitVtion'ni' nen' ton- 

The so then verily the where now there his body was now thence it 

extended 

tok'te"' ne' dji' ni'horo"4iia'ke'". Akwe'ko""^ ne' raonkwe'ta' 

diminished the wheru so he is suffering. It all the his ]>eople 

e" iakotkenni"so"" ne' o'ni' te'bonwakan'ere^ ne' 

there they are assembled tlie also they walelied him 

dji' rono"'hwak'tani' rotiri^hwane'hrako"o"' 

where he is ill thev marveled at the matter 



' ne' dji' 


ni'io't 


the where .so it is 


ne' dji' 


iiiioteri- 


the where 


sneh it 




matter 


te'hatiiente 


ri' ne' 


they knew it 


the 



3 



8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 



'hwatie're'" ne' rao"'ha'ke'. a'se'ke"" ia' 

liad taken the liimsell" to. because not 

place 

e'tho' thatinak'ere' o" ne' na'ho'te"' ne' aiakono'"hwak'te"'. 

there there they dwell what the such kind the one should become ill. 

it is of thing 

Ne' ka'ti" iie' dji' nefi' anio" sa'haieVeii'ta'ne" ne' dji' ^ , 

The so then the where now seem- again he recovered the where 

ingly his health 

rono"'hwak'tani". e'tho'ne" nefi' wa'hatkar'hat'ho" tit'hno"" wii 

he is 111. .\t that time now he turned over and he 



15 



284 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[F.TH. ANN. 2) 



tuniiiii^' upon his side, iiiul then, ivstiiii;- iiiinse'lf on iiis dhows, he ut 
the same time looked into the hole. After a while he said; ■■ 1 )(> thou 
look thithor into the li()l(> to see what things arc oceurrino- tlici'e in 
yonder place."" He said this to his spouse. Thereupon she ))ent 
forward her body into tiie holi' and looked th<'rein. Whereujum he 
]ilaced liis tinii;ers against tlie nape; of her neck and pusiied her, and 
she fell into the hole. Then he arose to a standing posture, and said 
to his people: "Now do ye replace the tree that ye have upr(x)ted. 
Here, vei'ily. it lies."" They iiuniediateiy i-eset the tree, .so that it 
stood just as it did befori^ the time they uprooted it. 

But as to this woman-being, she of course fell into the hole, and kept 
falling- in the darkness tliereof. .Vfter a while she passed througli it. 
Now when siie had passed thi'ough tlie tliickness thereof to the other 



'hatiatokonron'tate' tii'hno""' e'tho'ne' nen' wa thathio'soton'nio" 



1 turiK'il liis Iifid.v on its sidu 



ami 



at tlmt 
time 

e" iiVte-hakan'ere" ne' o'shon'wako"" 

IlitTo tliither lie looked the it hole in. 



he rested un his elbows 



A'kan 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
U 



.\ ft era 
time 



nen 

now 



wa'hen'ro" 

he it said: 



' la satkat'ho' 



•Thither do thou 
look 



ne 

the 



o'.shon'wako"\ 

it hole in. 



O 

what 
is it 



na'ho'te"" nitiotie're". 



ne 

the 



1 SI . 

far 
yonder.' 



Ne' wa'shakoiT'ha'se' ne' 



such kind of 
thing 

E'tho'ne" nen' 



there so it is 
doing 



iiVtiofitsa'liete' 

thither she bent 
forward 

ienia'ka'ronte' 



The ho said to her 

o'shofi'wako" e" 

it hole in there 



ro ne . 

the his At that now 

spouse. time 

iii'teiekan'ere'. E'tho'ne" dji' 



thither she was -\t that where 

looking. time 

e"' ia'thennisno"'sa're"" no'k" iaNhako'reke' 

her nape of the there there he plaecd his and thither he her 

need; (is) ' lingers pushed 

tsl'hno""' o'shon'wako"" i;i"eia"'te"'. E'tho'ne" neiT sa'hatkets'ko' 

and it hole in Ihither her \t that now again he arose 

body fell. time 

tii'hno"" wa''shakawe""ha'.se* ne' raonkwe'ta": "Nen' 

and he said to them the his people: -Now 



saswaron- 

agaiii do ve 
.set 



kfi'ie"'." P:'tho'ne' 

it lies." 



At that 
time 



to'te'" ne' sewarontota'kwe"'. Ke""' wa''hi" 

up (the) the ve tree have uprooteil Here verily 

tree 

nen' .sfrhatironto'te"". Akwa'' o'k" he'' ni'tcio't ne' dji' niio'- 

now again thev it tree Verily just thus so it again the where soil 

set up. (is) 

ton'ne' are'kho' ci'hotirontota'kw6"'. 

was before they it tree had 

uprooted. 

Ne' wil"hi' ke"'i'ke"' iakoii'kwe' neiT wa'-hi' na" ne'' ia'eia'- 

The verilv this it is she a man- now verilv that the thither 

being one that her 

te""ne' o'shon'wako"' tiio'kara's wii'eia'ton'tie'. A'kare' neii' ia'tion- 

bodvfell it hole in there it is thither her body After a now thither 

dark floated. time she 

to''hetste' nen' wa''hi" i:i'eia'ke""ne' ne' dji' nika'teiis ne' e" 



passed 
out of it 



thither she 
emerged 



the w'here 



so It IS 

thick 



the there 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



285 



world, ahe of course looked about her in all directions, and saw on all 
sides of her that e\-ervthing was l)lue in color; that there was nothing; 
else for her to see. She knew nothing of what would, ]ierhaps, happen 
to her, for she did nt)t cease from falling. But after a time she 
looked and saw something; but she knew nothing of the thing she 
saw. But, verily, she now indeed was looking on a great expanse of 
water, albeit she herself did not know what it was. 

So this is what she saw: On the surface of the watei', floating 
about hither and thither, like veritable canoes, were all forms and 
kinds of ducks (waterfowl). Thereupon Loon noticed her, and he 
suddenly shouted, saying: '*A man-lieing. a female one is coming 
up from the depths of the water." Then Bittern spoke in turn, 
saying: "She is not indeed coming up out of the depths of the 
water." He said: "" She is indeed falling from above." Whei'eupon 



tiio"'hwendiia'te". Nen' wa"hi' wa'tiontka'thofinion"hwe' tii'hno""' 

Xo\v verily she did look about in all and 



there it earth ptanrlv 
fortli. 

wa'e'ke"' o'k' 

she it saw only 

lii" othe'no"" 

Not anything 



she did look about in all 
direetions 



ne' o'k' ne' oron'"hia" ni'io't. 

the only the it blue sky 



tha'tetcio'kwata'se 

just it it surrounds eoni- 
pletely 

o'ia' thaioiitkafho'. la" othe'no"" teiakoterien' 

other she it eould see. Not anything she knows it 



so it (is), 
stands. 



tare" 



ki" o'k' o'^'te' ne"iakoia'ta'wefine 



wliat, I be- 
lieve. 



O K 

i.ul 



perhaps 



a'se'ke""' o'k' tiio- 

because oiilv it 



tkonta'''kwe"" ieia'ton'tie". 

eontinnes her body is 

falling. 

ki"', o'k' nitiotie're"'. la' 

tiily so it is done (it Not 



so it her body will 
happen to, 

No'k' a'kare" neiT ia'ontkat'ho" 

And 



O 



after a 
time 



I be 
liev 



so it is done (it 
state of tilings isi 

ho'te"" ia'oiitkat'ho". 

kind of thither she it saw. 
thing 

ia"teiekan'ere" no'k 



ow thithershe looked what 

(to see) it is, 

othe'no"" teiakoteriefi'tare" dji' na'- 

anything she it knows ^vhere such 



No'k" neiT se"' wa'iif" 

And now indeed verily 



ne 

the 



thither she it saw 



and 



belieye 



ne 

the 



akao"''ha" 

she herself 



ka'hnekowa'ne"' 

it great (water) 
liquid 

ia" teieiefite'ri' 

not she knows it 



ne' na'ho'te"". 

the such kind of 
thing. 

Ne' ka'tf ne' 

The so then tht 

ka'sora'tsera'ke". 

kind of duck in number. 

wa'tho'hen're'te", 

he shouted. 



o'hneka'ke' 

it water on 



ioti'honwa'keronnionne"se" niifi'te- 

all it 



they boats drift about plurally 
from place to place 

El"tho'ne" ne' Tconniatareii'to"' ne' wa'hat'toke" 

the I.oon the he it noticed 



M that 
time 



wa'hefi'ro"": "On'kwe" ta'ie"" kanon'wako"*."" 



he it said : 



No'k' e'tho'ne" 

And at that 

time 

kanon'wako"" thontu'ie"" 



"A man- 
being 

Te'ka"ho"" ta'hata'ti". 

Bittern he replied. 



it water in the 
depths of 



thence does she 
come." 



Wa'hen'ro"': 

He It said : 



she is 
coming 

wri'hen'i'o" 

he it said : 

"E'neke"' 

"Above 



it water in the 
depths of." 



• la' 

'Not 



se" 



in- 
deed 



3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



se ' taieia - 

indeed thence her -L-i 
bodv 



286 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. il 



they held u council to decide what they .should do to pi-(i\idc for 
her welfare. They finally decided to invite the Great Turtle to come. 
Loon thereupon said to him: '"Thou shouldst float thy body above the 
place where thou art in the depths of the wat<>r." In the first place, 
they sent a large number of ducks of various kinds. These flew and 
elevated themselves in a very compact body and went up to meet her 
on high. And on their backs, thereupon did her l)ody alight. Then 
slowly they descended, bearing her body on their backs. 

Great Turtle had satisfacfoiily caused his carapace to float. There 
upon his back they placed her. Then Loon said: "Come, ye who are 
deep divers, which one of you is able to dive so as to fetch up earth?" 
Thereupon one by one they severally dived into the water. It was at 



toii'tie . 

is drifting." 



E'tho'ne' 

At that 
time 



neiT wri'hatitcie"'ha'ie"' ne' dji' 

now thev held a council the where 



iia'hati'iere' 

so thev should 
doit 



ne' dji' a'shakonateweiefi'to"'. 

the where tliey her should prepare for. 



Rania'te°'ko'wa' 

he Great Turtle 

Tcoiiniatarefi'to"' 

Loon 



ia'honwaro"'ie""hare', 

thence thev invited him, 



la thotiri'hwaien'tii'se' 

There they decided for them- 
selves 

e'tho'ne' ka'ti" 

so then 



at that 
time 



nen 

now 



wii'hefi'ro" 

he it said : 



•A'satia'takenV'kwe' ne' 

the 



ne 

the 

ne' 

the 

clji' 

win -re 



7 

8 

9 

10 

11 



ke"" sl'tero"' kanon'wako"'." 

here thnu art, it water 

(sittust) depths of." 

nie'te' iotitio'kowa'ne"' ne 

sent they are a large body tlie 

wa'korithrira'tute' tirhiio"*' 

they themselves eaused and 

to ascend 



*' Thou thy body shouldst 
cause to float 

No'k- tiiotiere""to- iiVshakotoiT- 

And it is the first thither they them 

thing 

sora'hokofv'a'. Wa tkonti'te"' ta'hno"" 

ducks plurally. They flew aud 



konate'i'ti'te' 

they her went 
to meet 

E'tho'ne' 



e'neke"- 

above. 



E 

There 



ionathwe'nonni'ha'tie' 


ta-hno""' ia'tia- 


tliey themselves caused 
to be in a close body 


and thither 


' tfueiii'ta'ra'ne' ne' 


konti'shofi'ne'. 


re her body alighted the 


their backs on. 



At that 
time 



nen 

now 



■;kefinon"'a' 

slowlV 



tontakontsne""te" 

thence they descended 



iakotiifi"te"''hawi", 

thev her body bore. 



konti'shofi'ne' ieiatara'tie 

their backs on 



her body rested 
coming. 

la'tkriie'rl" ne' Raniii"te''kowa' nen' roti'nowa"kera"'ko"'. E'tho' 

Very correctly the he Great Turtle now he his carapace causes There 



he his carapace causes 
to float. 



ra nowa ke 

1.2 his carapace on 



e 

there 



ia'akoti'tero"' 

there they her 
set down. 



E'tho'ne' 

At that 
time 



ne 

the 



Tcoiiniatarefi'to"' 

Loon 



13 



11 



15 



Wii'heii'ro"' 

he it said : 



ne' e"'ha'thon'ro' 

the he will dive 

(into the water) 

skat'sho"' tonte'ra'te' 

one by one thence it it did 
thereby 



■ Hau"', ne' sewsi'thonrio'kats'te's 

■ Come. the ye stout-breathed ones 

e'"ro"'hwendjis\ko''ha' ? " 

he earth will go to bring?" 



who 

( is if) 

Ta', 

So, 



he is able to 
doit 

e'tho'ne' 

at that 
time 



wa'ho"'thonroii'nio'". 

they dove into the water 
one by one. 



E'tho'ne* Djieiini'to' 

Beaver 



At that 
time 



MOHAWK VKKSION 



287 



this time that Beaver made the attempt and dived. The time was long 
and there was only silence. It was a long time before his back 
reappeared. He came up dead, his breathing having failed him. 
Thereupon thev examined his paws, but he had In-ought up no earth. 
Then Otter said: "Well, let it be my turn now; let nie make another 
attempt." Whereupon he dived. A longer time elapsed before he 
came to the surface. He also came up dead in his turn. They then 
examined his paws also. Neither did he, it is said, bring up any 
earth. It was then that Muskrat said: " 1 also will make the desperate 
attempt." So then he dove into the water. It was a still longer 
time that he, in turn, was under water. Then, after a while, he 
floated to the surface, coming up dead, having lost his breath. There- 
upon, again, they examined the inside of his paws also. They found 
mud. He brought up his paws and his mouth full of mud. 



wa'hate'nieii'te"' wa'ha'thon'ro'. Kari"hwese' o'k' tha'teioten'toiini". 

he it attempt made he dived into the It was a long only it is very still. 



he dived into the 
water. 



It was a long 
matter 



Wa'kari"hwese' nen' saio'iiowa"kenX'kwe' rao"'heio"'ha'tie' wa'ha- 



It was a long matter now 



again its back came to the 
surface 



he came up dead 



thoiiriok'te"'. 

breath gave out. 



E'tho'ue" 

At that 
time 



Ava'houne^'sake' 

they it searched for 



'ko" 



ra sno so 

his hand in 



la 

not 



ka'neka' tesro"'hwendjie"'ha'wr. E'tho'ne' 

anywhere 



'^To', i" 

"Well, I 

Se""hri' 

More 

o"'ha'tie' 

up dead 



(again) he earth brought. 

non'wa' skate'niefi'to"' 

this time again I try it." 

let me try it 

ntVkarl'iiwese' neii' 

so it (is) a long now 

matter 



Tawi'ne" wa^hen'ro"': 

otter he it said : 



At that 
time 

E'tho'ue' neiT wa'ha'thon'i-o\ 

At that now he dived into the 

time water. 

sii'hatiiVtfi'kera'kwe', rawe"'hei- 

again he his body floated, he came 



o ni 

also 



na' 

(the) 
that 



E'tho'ne' o'ni' na"' 



that 
one 



At that 
time 



also 



(the) 
that 



ne' 

that 



wa'hoiine"- 

they it sought 



sake' ra'sno^'so'ko"'. 

for his hand in. 

E'tho'ne' Ano'kie'- 

At that Muskrat 

time 

ka'ti' 

SO then 



LV ki" o" mv' ne'' te.sro"'hwend]ie''*ha'wi\ 

that he earth brought bat-k. 



Xnt. I 

think. 

Avfi'lien'ro" 

he it said : 



too (the'i 
that 



wa'ha'thoii'ro'. 

he dived into the 
water. 



Se""ha' 

More 



■ I'' o'ni' e"waka^ta'ko\" Neil' 

" I also I will attempt the Now 

hopeless." 

ne*' wa-kan"hwese' 

it matter was a long 



na' 

that 
one 



the 
that 



ro'thonro"ho"\ No'k" a'kare' nen' sa'haturta'kem'kwe' rawe"'he- 



he has dived in the And 

water. 

io"'ha'tie' o'nf na" 

up dead also that 

one 

a're' wa'honne"sake' 

again they it sought for 

ra'tca'ne'"'hawe\ no'k' 

he it handful brought, and 



after a 
time 

ne". 

the 
that. 



his body again floated he came 

E'tho'ne' neiT 

At that now 

time 



Wa'hathonrio'kte"' 

His breath gave out. 



ra'sno"''so'ko"'; wa'hatitsen'ri' onawa'tstii' 

his hand in ; they it found it mucl 

o'nf ronhoskwa'n'honte' ne' onawa'tstii". 

also he it mouthful had the it mud. 



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11 

12 

13 

14 



288 



IRcX^rolAN COSMOLOGY 



[eth. ass. '2\ 



It wa.s then that thi'v niaiK' use of tins iimd. They coated the edge 
of the carapace of the (Jreat Tiiitle with the mud. Now it was that 
otlier imiskrats. in their turns, dived into the water to fetch nmd. They 
lloated to the surface dead. In this way they worl<ed until they 
had made a cii'cuit of the (•araj)ace of liic (ireat Turth', placinji' uuid 
tliei-eon. until the two portions of the woilc came tooether. There- 
upon Loon said: " Now there is enouyh. Now it will sutlice."' 
Thereupon the muskrats ceased from dixiiijr to fetch up nuid. 

Now. verily, this raan-))einj^- sat on tlH> carapace of the (ireat Tui'tle. 
After the lapse of sufKcient tinH>, she went to sleep. Aftci- a while 
she awoke. Now then, the carapace of the Crreat Turtle was coNcred 
with nuid. Then, moreover, the earth whereon she sat had Ijecome 
enlarged in size. At that time she looked and saw that willows had 
g-rown up to Imshes along the edge of the water. Then also, when 



E'tho'ne' nen' ne"' wa'honts'te' thi'ke"" onawats'tsV. Wa'ha- 

At Hull lime now the they it used this it is it mud. They 

that 

tinawatsta'r"ho" ka'nowtlkta'tie" ne' Rania'te""kowa". Nen' c"'s 

the he c.ireHt Turtle. 



nud 7>liH'ed (sineured i it it L-araj)ace nlon^' 
over it edge of 



3 
.4 

5 
6 
7 

8 
1( 

10 
11 
1::! 
13 
14 
15 



o i;i o K 

otlier (iidy 



ne 

the 



Ano'kii"'"' 

Mu.skrat 



Sa "hat ia'ta' kera' k we' 

.\tjaiii tiis tjodv would float 



eustoui- 
arily 



strha'thon'ro" 

again he dove 
into the water 

rawe"'heio"'ha'tie' 

he eame up dead. 



Now cus- 

tomarily 

wa'haaawatstako"ha". 

he mud went to briny. 

E^' thi-hatriere' 

There so thoy it did 



iiiio're' wiVthonto'nowatM'se' ne' Rauia'te""kowri* w:\iia- 



wIktc wt it is 
distant 



they it carapace made 
a circuit of 



he Great Turtle 



tiiui\vat8tJi'r''ho\ ia ton.sakiate'nViio'. E'tho'ne' ne' Tconniatareii'to 

it muil daubed there again they two At that time the Loon 



nen' wa'hen'ro"': 

niiw he it said: 



there again they two 
joined. 

^'Men' e'tho". Nen' e"kakwe'm'." Nen' o'lif 

"Now enough. Now it will be able Now also 



it will be able 
to do it." 

ne' ano'kie""hokon''rr wa^hon"tktVwe' ne' dji' ron'thonron'nio'""s 

the muskrats plurally they stopped work the where 



ratinawiVtstako' *he's. 

they mud went to bring up. 

Neil' wii'^hr ke^'i'ke"' iakoil'kwe' e'' 

Now verily this it is 



they dove into the water 
plurally 



she man-being tliere 
(is) 

te"'kowa' ra nowa'ke'. Akwil'' he"tho" 

(Jreat Turtle liis carapace on. Very enough 



ietskwa'"here' Rania'- 

she sat he 



ka'ti' 

SO then 



wiVako'ta'we'. No'k" a'kare' 

she fell asleep. And after a 

time 



dji' uiVkari'^hwese' 

where so it was a long 

matter 

nen' ,saie'ie\ Nen' 

now again she Now 

awoke. 

ka'ti' o"'hwen'dji;V iote'r^ho'ro"' ne' ka'nowa'ke' ne' Rania'- 

so then it eartli it covered itself the it carapace on the He 

te°"kowa% nen' tiiiino"'' iote'hia'ro"' dji' niwato"'hwen'djirr ne' 

(ireat Turtle. now and it has grown where so it earth (is) large the 

E'tho'ne' nen' wivontka'tho' o'se' iotkwiroil'ni' 



dji' ie'tero" 

where she sits. 



At that time 



slie it looked at 



willow it shrubs grew to 



HEWITT] 



M(»HAWK VERSION 



289 



she iig-iiin iiTvoke, the caivass of ii deer, reeeiitly killed. lay there, and 
now besides this, a small tire burned there, and besides this, a sharp 
stone lay there. Now. of course, she dressed and quartered the 
carcass of the deer and roasted some pieces thereof, and she ate her 
till. So, when she had tinished her repast, she again looked about 
her. Now, assuredlj% the earth had increased much in size, for the 
earth grew very rapidly. She, moreover, saw another thing; she saw 
growing shrubs of the rose-willow along the edge of the water. 

Moreover, not long after, she saw a small rivulet take up its course. 
Thus, then, things came to pass in their turn. Rapidly was the earth 
increasing in size. She then looked and saw all species of herbs and 
grasses spring from the earth, and also saw that they began to grow 
toward maturitj'. 



dji' tewatca'kta'tie'. Nefi' ta'hno"*' ue' shonsaie'ie' o'skennonto"" 

where it water at Now and the again she awoke it deer 

the edge of. 

e" kaia'tioii'nf 



there 



its body lay 
extended " 



a se 

new 



kar'io". 

one it has 
killed. 



nen 

now 



ta'hno"" 



and 



there 



iotek'ha' 

it burns 



nikadjie'''ha'"a^ neh' ta^hno"" e" ka'ie"' 

so it fire (is) small, now and there it lies 



onen'ia' io'hio'thi'ie\ 

it stone it is sharp-edged. 

o'skeiinonto"''. Neil' 

it deer. Now 



o'nf wa'tiofitska"ho"\ 

also she ate. 



Neil' wiV'hr wa'tkouwaia'tari"te*' ne' 

Now verily she its body (broke) the 

quartered 

Wi^'hi' o'nf wiVonte'skontofi'nio"". Nen' 

verily also she roasted for herself Now 

several (.pieces). 

Ne' ka'ti' nen' ca'ekhwen'tiriie' torisiiiontka'thonnion''*hwe\ Neil' 

The so then now where she her food again she looked around repeatedly. Now 

tinished eating 

ka'ti' se""ha" iao"'hwendjiowa'nha"()"\ a*se-ke"" io'sno're' 

so then more, it earth had grown large, because it is rapid 



iote'hitVroii'tie' ne' o"'hweii'djirr. Neii' tii^hno"' 

it is increasing in size the it earth lisi. 



wa'e'ke"' 

she it saw 



such it kind of 
shrub 



iotkwiron'ni" 

it itself shrubs 
made 

nikakwiro'te"' iotoii'ni". 

it itself 
grew. 

■ ia-' 

not 



ne 

the 



Now and 

atca'kta'tie 

water along 
edge of 



ne' 

the 



thika'te' o'ia' 

it is dilTer- other 
ent it is 

onekwe"^'tara' 

it red color 



Ne' 

The 



o ni 

also 



ue 

the 



tekari''hwes 

it (is) a long 
matter 



WiVoiitkat'ho' 

she it saw 



wa'ka'hio"" 

it a stream 
caused 



hon'ko'te" nika'hio'"ha''a'. E" ka'tf ni'io't dji' wathawinoii'tie'. 

to pass on its so it stream (is t There so then so it is where at different times (it 

course small. bears itself along 

seyerally ). 

lo'sno're" ioto"'hwendjiate'hia'ron'tie". NeiT o'nf wa'ontkat'ho' 

It is rapid it earth is increasing in size. Now also she it saw 

niia'tekahon'take" wa'tkonno"'hwendjiot'ka"we" ne' o'nf toiitakoiit- 

all kinds it plants they left (it) earth the also they it 
in number 

'hofitate'hia'ro"". 

plants increased in size. 

21 ETH— 03 ly 



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12 

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15 



290 



IKOQl'OIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. '^1 



Now also, when the time had come for her to be delivered, .she 
gave birth to a female man-being, a girl child. Then, of cour.se, 
they two, mother and dau<,'-hter, remained there together. It was 
quite a,stoni!5hing how rapidl3- the girl child grew. So tiien, when .she 
had attained her growth, she of course was a maiden. They two were 
alone; no other man -being moved aljout there in any place. 

So then, of cour.se, when she had grown up and was a maiden, then, 
of course, her mother was in the habit of admonishing her child, saj^- 
ing, customarily: "Thou wilt tell me what manner of person it is 
who will visit thee, and who will say customarilj': 'I desire that 
thou and I should marry.' Do not thou give ear to this; but say, 
customarily: 'Not until I first ask my mother.'" 

Now then, in this manner, mutters pi'ogressed. First one, then 
another, came along, severally asking her to become his wife, and she 



Ne' o'ni' ne' nen' 

Tlie also the now 



ia'ka'"hewe' nen' wa'akoksa'taien'tJi'ne' 

it i.^ time tliere now she child brought forth 

it it brought 



ne' 

the 



Nen' 

Now 



eksa"'a*. 

she 
child (is). 

Akwii'' ione'hra'kwiVt 

Very it is marvelous 



Wi'l'"hi" 
verilv 



10 sno re 

it is rapid 



Ne' ka'ti" 

The so then 



ne 

the 



iakon'kwe' 

she man-being 

(is) ' 

akoieiT'a'. 

she has a 
small one. 

ron'tie' ne' eksa"a" 

in size the she 

child (is) 

nen' wa''hr eia'tase' on'to"'. 

now verily she (isi maid it became. 

kan'eka' te'ie""s ne' on'kwe'. 

anywhere one moved the man-being, 
about 

ka'tf wa"hi' ne' 

-so then verily the where now 



e"' keni'tero"' 

there 



they twi 
abode 



ne 

the 



dji' iakote'hia'- 

where she increased 



iir-fi' ciiakote'hirrron'tie' 

now where she increa.sert in size 



lono'"ha'tci'wa'; ia" o""ka' o'ia' 



They two (were) 
entirely alone; 



any- 
one 



other 

it is 



Ta'. 


ne' 


So, 


the s 


eia'tase' 


i'ke" 


she is maid 


it is, 



dji' nen' iakote'hia'ro"" 



nen' wa"hr ne' o'niste"'"ha" 

now verily the her mother 



9 
10 

11 

12 

13 
14 



ontatien"a' ioii'to"' e 

her otTspring 



she it says custom- 
arily: 



'E"sk"hro'ri' o" 

'•Thou me what 

Shalt tell 



she grew up 

ioiitafhro'ris 

she her tells 

ni'haia'to'te"" 

such he kind of 
body has 



ne' 

the 



ne 

the 



to'ka e"'hiti'kta"se' ne' e""hato""heke' i'ke'hre' aioiikeni'niiike'. 



he thee will visit the he will keep saying I it desire 



thou I should marry. 



To''sa' 

Do not 

'hro'ri' 

tell 



e"'sathon'tate'. E""sI'ro"' e"'s: -Nia're-kwe' 

thou it Shalt con- Thou it wilt custom- 'Until first, 

sent to. say arily; 

ne' isten"a'.'" 



ki" e"khe- 

I bf- I litT will 
lieve, 



the 



my mother.' 



Nen' ka'tf e'' niio"to""ha'tie'. O'itV o'k" e 

Now so then there 



so it continued 
to be. 



'hwanoiiton'nio"' ne' 

questiofts the 



a"hoti'niake 

tliey should 
liiiirrv. 



i.s're' wfi'sbakori 

Another only eustoui- again lie lie her 

it is arily eomes asks 

Ne' e" ki'' e""s wa'i'ro 

The there, I custom- she it said 
believe, arily 



n7. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



291 



custoniiirily replied: '"Not until 1 tir.st ask my mother." "When she 
would tell her mother what maimer of person had asked her to marry 
him, her mother would answer, saying customarily: "No; he is not 
the person." But after a while the maiden said: ''One who has a 
deep fringe along his legs and arms ])aid a visit." The elder w'oman 
said: '"That is the one, I think, that it will be proper for you to 
marry." Thereuj)on she returned to the place where the young- 
man stood. She said: "We should marry, she saJ^s.'■ The young 
man answered, saying: "When it is dark, I shall return." So 
then, when the appointed time arrived, he also came liack. Then 
it was that he paid court to her. But. I think, the}' two, he and 
the maid, did not lie together. When she lay down so that she 



"Nia're'kwe' e"khe'hro'ri' ne' isteiT'ti-." Ne' ka'tr e^'s 



SO then custnm- verily 
arily 



ne' neii' wa'ontatiiro'i-r ne' 

the now she her told the 



o'ni.sten'''a' ne' dji' ni'haiiV- 



her mother 



the 



where such he kind 
of budv 



to'te" 

has 

sera'ko' 



ne' wa'shakori'hwanonton'ni' ne' a"hoti'niake"; taieri'hwa'- 

the he her has askert questions the they should she 



e"'s ne' 



o'nisten"a" 

her mother 



wa 1 ro 



they should 
marrv; 

•5: "la" 



replied custom- the 
arily 

No'k' a'kare^ nen' wtVi'ro"" 

And after a now .she it said 

time 



she it said custom- 
arily: 

ne' eia'tase': ' 

the she maid 

(i.s): 

ra*8ina'ke* 



ne'' te'ke"\" 

'Not that it is." 

(one) 

Wa'hakwat'ho" ne' 

"He paid a visit the 



roh'kwe', teiotarotsl'tie" ne' 

he man- it fringe showed the his legs on. 

being (is), along 

tsa'ke'.'' Wa'i'ro"' ne' akoksteiT'a': 

arms on." She it said the she elder one 

(is); 



no'k' 

and 



O Ul 

also 



ne ranoii- 

tlle Ins 



' Ne"' ki"' e"kaie'rite' ne' 

the 



■That, I 

l;'elieTe 



it will be 
proper 



e"seni'niake"." E'tho'ne' nen' 



ye two will 
marrv." 



At that 
time 



e'' sa'ie"''te" dji' non'we' i'trate' 

there again she where 



ne' raneke"''tero"". 



Wtfi'io- 

She it .said 



ia'ke"' 

it is said. 

"NV 

"The 



he voung man. 

Ta'hari'hwa sera'ko* 

' He replied 



ne 

the 



again she 
went 

eitl'tase": 

she maid 
( new-budicd i: 



place there he 

stands 

' Aionkeni'nifike', 

■■ Thou-I should marry, 



ne' 

the 



wa'heil'ro"': 

he it said: 



raneke""tei'o"* 

he young man (is) 

neii' e"tio'kai'as e'tbo'ne' nen' te'"tke\" Ne' ka'ti' ci- 

now it will become at that now I will come." The so then there 



it will become 
dart 



at that 
time 



ia^ka'^hewe' dji' non'we' ni 'bona' to"' 

it arrived where the place just where he it 

iippointed 

Nen' ka'ti' wa*shakotehinato""hiV8e\ No'k* ia'' 



tho'ne' ka'ti' sa'rawe\ 



at that 

time 



so then he again 
arrived. 



u' te4ionna- 



Now 



so then 



he "courted" her 



And 



not. I 

believe, 



they two 
have 



ra'to"' ne' eia'tase\ 

lain to- the she maid 

gether (new-bodied) 

ta'we' e"s'ka' ne' 

sleep one (it is) the 



.sha'ontia'tion'nite' ne' e"iako'- 

The now she lay supine the she will 

raoien'kwire' ena'skwak'ta' e" wiVha'ie"' 

his arrow herbreast beside there he it laid. 



9 
10 

11 

12 
13 
U 
1.5 



292 IROQUOIAN COSMdLOOY [eth. ann. 21 

coukl sleep, he laid one of his arrows beside her body. Thereupon 
he departed. Then, at his return, he agjain took iiis ai'i'ow and 
departed again, carrving- the arrow away with liini. Jle never eame 
l)ack afterward. 

After a while the elder woman became aware that the maiden was 
growing- in size, caused bj'^ the fact that she was pregnant. 

So wlien the day of her delivery had come, she brought forth 
twins, two male infants. But during tln^ time that she was in ti'a\ail. 
the maiden heard the two talking within her bodj'. One of them said: 
'"This is the place through which we two shall emerge from here. It 
is a much shorter way, for, look thou, there are many ti-ausparent 
places." But the other person said: "Not at all. Assuredh% we 
should kill her l)y doing this thing. Howbeit, let us go out that other 
way, the way that one, having l)ecome a human being, will use as an 
exit. We will turn around and in a downward direction we two will 

E'tho'ne' nen' sa'ha'ten'tr. Ne' ka'tf ne' nen' shoiisa'rawe' 

1 At that now again he de- The so then the now again he re- 

time parted. turned 

tonsa'ra'kwe' ne' raoien'kwire" nen' ta'hno""' sii'ha'tefi'ti' ion-sa'- 

2 111' it took np the his arrow now and he again de- he it took 

again parted 

hiV'hawe' ne' raoien'kwire'. la'' nonwefi'to"" thil' tethawe'non'. 

3 away with the his arrow. Not ever did he return ( retrace 

h'im his steps i . 

A'kare" ka'ti" ne' akoksten'Ti" neii' wit'oiit'toke' nen' 

^ After a so tlien the she elder one now she it noticed now 

time (is) 

iakote'hia'ron'tie" ne' eia'tase' ne' kari'hon'ni' dji' iene'ro"'. 

5 she is increasing in size the she maid. the it it causes where she is preg- 

new-hodied is nant. 

Ne' ka'ti' ne' neiT ciia'akoteni'.seri"he'se' wa'akoksa'taieii'ta'ne' 

6 The so then the now where her day arrived to her she became possessed of 

offspring 

te'nik"he'". No'k' dji' na'iie" wa'^hf nf'fi' iakoreii'hia'ke"' 

7 they two are And where it lasts verily now she was in pain 

'twins. (while) 

iakothoii'te' ne' eia'tase' tet'hotl'thare' eiir'tako"'. Shaia"ta' 

3 she it heard the she new- there they conversed her body in. He one 

bodied(is) together. person 

ra'to"': " Ke"" non'we' te"teniiake'"'ta'kwe". Se'"'ha" ne' 

9 he it said; "Here (it is) the place thou I will use it to go out. More the 

niio're'a' a'se'ke""' satkat'ho" o'k' thiiii'teio'swathe'nio"'.''' No'k' 

10 so it is little because do thou look just it is transparent in places." And 

distant 

ne' shaia'ta' ra'to"': "■Ia"te'". £"iethi'rio", wa"hf na" ne". 

11 the he one he it said: "Not at all. Thou I will kill verily that the 

person her. one that. 

E" ki" nonka'ti- te'"teniiake°"ta'kwe'' dji' noiTka'tl" e"ieiake""ta'kwe' 

12 There, I be- side of it thou I will use it to go where side of it one will use it to go 

lieve, out out 

ne' oii'kwe' e"iakoto"'o"'ha'tie\ Te"tiatkar'hate'ni" e'ta'ke' nonka'ti' 

13 the man-being one having become it Thou 1 will turn our- down. side of it 

will come. selves around under 



MOHAWK VEKSION 



293 



go." So then the former one continued what this one had proposed, 
when this one said: "Thus it shall continue to be." 

But, however, he now contested another matter. He did not com- 
ply when the second one said: "Do thou take the lead." He said: 
"Not at all; do thou go ahead." So then it was in this manner that 
the\' two contended, and he who said: "Right in this very place let 
us two go straight out, for assuredly this way is as near as that," 
gained his point. Finally, the other agreed that he himself should 
take the lead. At that time, then, he turned about, and at once he 
was born. So at that time his grandmother took him up and cared 
for him. Then she laid him aside. At that time she again gave 
attention to her [the daughter], for now, indeed, another travail did 
she suffer. But that other one emerged in another place. He came 
out of her armpit. So, as to him, he killed his mother. Then, his 



niieii'heiit'ne'." 

er thou I 

ill ge- 
nii "ho'te"" 



thither thou I 
will go." 



dji 

where sut-h kind of 
thing 

No'k' o'ia 

And 



Nen' 

Now 

ra'to"': 

he it said : 



ka'tr 

.so then 



lie 

the 



shaia'tji' wa'hari'hwa'ni'rate' ne' 



he it matter confirmed 



the 



-Ne' 

■■The 



e 

thus 



Rl 



non wa 

this time 



other I be- 
(thing), lieve, 

te'hat'hon'tats ne' shaia'ta' 

he it consents to the he one 

person (is) 

shefi't." 



he one 
person 

naio'to"'*hake\" 

so it should continue 
to be." 

ton8iVhari'h^vake''uha' 

such kind of again he it matter debated for. 
thing 

'I'se', shefi't." Ra'to" 

'■Thou, do thou take He It says: 



na'ho'te"' 



dji' ra'to"': 

where he it says: 



Not 



do thou take 
the lead." 



"la-'te"'. 

■■Not at all. 

ken"he"-, 

debated 
(matter) 

non' we'' 

the place 



I'se', 

Thou, 

iio'k' 

and 



E" 

There 



ka'ti' 

so then 



do thou take 
the lead." 

wa'hateri'hwatkwe'nf 

he his point won 



ni'io't dji' 

so it is where 



te'hotiri'hwa- 

they two matter 



ne 

the 



ietiattakwari"'sia't ne' wa"hi" 

hence let us two go straight the verily 

out 



Ta'. 

So, 



e'tho'ne' 

at that time 



e"iia'iiente'. 

he will take the 
lead, 

wa'henna'kerate' 

he was born. 



nen 

now 

E'tho'ne" 

At that time 



ne' 

the 



nen 

now 



shaiii'tiV 

he one person 



ra'to"": 

he it says: 

niiore^'a* 

it is not far 

wtVhathoii'tate' 

he consented to it 



• O'k" 

■ Onlv 



here 
it is 



lie . 



that 
one 



the 
that." 

rao""ha' 

he himself 



Ta', 

So, 



wa'hoiiwakwata'ko'. 

she him cared well for. 

tonsaiontate" nia' ni" ne' 

again she her her hands set to 



e'tlio'ne" 

at that time 

E'tho'ne' 

At that time 

a'se'ke"" 

because 



wa'thatkar'hate'ni- ia''hakontatie"te' 

he turned himself around. he without 

stopping 

ne' ^o^sot'ha^ wa'thonwaia'ta'kwe* 

the his grand- she his body took up 



his grand- 
mother 



I'Sl 

far 
yonder 

nen' 

now 



there she it 
laid. 



se are 

indeed again 



E'tho'ne' a're' 

At that time again 

toiitiiie- 



ro"'hia'ke" 

travail. 



No'k- 

And 



ak'te" 

aside 



ne 

the 



E'nho"'ro'ko"' wa-haiake""ta,'kwe' 

Her armpit in he it emerged. 



non we 

the place 

Ta', wa'shako'rio' 

So, he her killed 



o la 

other she had 

it is 

wa'haiake""'til'kwc". 

he it emerged by. 



na 

that 
one 



ne 

the 
that 



1 

2 
3 
4 



8 
i) 
10 
11 
[•2 
13 

1-i 



294 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



orandmother took him up and attended to his needs also. She com- 
pleted tliis task and hiid hiin alongside of the one who had tirst come. 
So thereupon she devoted her attention to her child who was dead. 
Then, turning- herself about to face the place where she had laid the 
two infants, she said: "Which of 3'ou two destroyed my child T" One 
of them answered, saying: '"Verily, he himself it is, I believe.'* This 
one who had answered was a very marvelously strange person as to 
his form. His flesh was nothing but flint." Over the top of his head 
there was, indeed, a sharp comb of flint. It was therefore on this 
account that he emerged by way of hor armpit. 

But the flesh of the other was in all respects similar in kind to that 
of a man-being. He spoke, saying: "He himself, indeed, killed 
her." The other one replied, saying: " Not at all, indeed." He again 



ro nisteii ii". 

hia mother. 

o" na" ne 

too 



the 
that 



that 
one. 



E'tho'ne' wsVthonwaia'ta'kwe" wa'honwakwata'ko' 

At that time she his body took up she cared for him well 

Wa'es"a' nen' ska"nc" wa'hofiwatiia'tion'nite' ne' 

She it finished now one at (place) she lay their bodies extended the 



tho'hen'to"". Ta', 

thence he came So, 

first. 

iakaoii'he'io"' ne' 

she is dea<l the 

ne"saiontie'rivte' dji' 

again she herself turned where 
toward it 



e'tho'ne' 

at that time 

ontatien"ti". 

her offspring. 



neii' wa'tioiitate'nia'nVne' ne' 

now she her lier hands set to the 



E'tho'ne" 

.\t that time 



nen 

now 



e 

there 



non we' 

the place 



ni'hoiiwatiia'tion'nito"' 

she them laid extended 



uonka'ti' 

side of it 

ta'hno"" 

and 



9 

10 
11 
12 

13 
14 



wa'i'ro"": " 0"''ka' ne' 

she it paid; •■ Who is it the 

Shaia'ta" tfrhata'tr 

He one thence he 

person answered 

Ke"'i'ke"' trvhata'tf 

This it is tliencu hu 

replied 

ni*haia'to'te"\ Ao'sko*"' 

such his body It is wholly 

kind (is) 



teseniia'''she' 

ye two individ- 
uals 

wa^hen'ro"': 

he it said: 

ione'hni'kwfrt 

it is marvelous 

tawi'skara- 

flint (crystal) 
chert 



wa'shako'rio' ne' kheiefi"a'?" 

he her killed the my offspring:?" 



'■ He himself I he- 

(it is), lieve. 

rotonkwe'tatie'ro"' 

his person ugly (is) 



wa"hr." 

verily." 

ne' dji' 

the where 



ne 

the 



raoierofi'ke'. 

his flesh on. 



ta'tie' 
wa"hi' 

verily 

No'k' 

And 

Ta-hata'ti 

Thence he 
replied 

'hata'tf 

spoke 



raonondjisttiken'iate' io'hio"thi'ie' tawi'skara 

his head crest of it is sharp 



int (crystal) 
it is 



Teiotaro- 

It has a ridge 
(along it) 

se". Xe" 

indeed. That 



kari'hon'ni' 

it it causes 



ie'nhoro'ko"' wa'haiake''"t{Vkwe" 

her armpit in 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 



shaia'ta' 

he one 
person 

wa'heii'ro"" 

he it said : 

shaia'ta' 

he one 
person 



ne 

the 



tkaie'ri" 

it is 
correct 

Rao""ha' 



he it used to emerge. 

ne' on'kwe' ni'haierofito'te"'. 



the 



man-being 



such his flesh kind 
of is. 



"He himself 

(it is) 

wa'heii'ro"' 

he it said : 



se ' 

indeed 



wa'shako'rio"." 

he her killed." 



"Ia"te"" 

"Sot at all 



se'. 

indeed." 



Tofita- 

Thence he 
again 

Sa'hen'ro"': 

.Again he it said; 



alt is for this reason that he is called Tawiskaro"', which is the Mohawk name for flint or chert. 
Consult The Cosmogonic Gods of the Iroquois, Proc. Am. Ass. Adv. Sci., v. 44, pp. 241 and following. 1S95. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



295 



said: "Indeed, he himself Ivilled her." Thus then, in this manner, the 
two debated. But he who was guilty of killing her did not swerve from 
his denial, and so then he finally won bis point. Whereupon their 
grandmother seized the body of him whose flesh was verily that of a 
man-being and with all her might cast him far into the bushes. But the 
other, whose flesh was flint, was taken up and cared for by her. And 
it was also wonderful how much she loved him. 

Now, in its turn, she again laid her hands on the flesh l)ody of her 
girl child, who was A^erily now not alive. She cut ofl' her head 
and said: "Even though thou art now dead, yet, albeit, thou shalt 
continue to have a function to perform." And now she took up the 
flesh body and hung it on a tree standing hard by her lodge, and she 
said: "Thou shalt continue to give light to this earth here present. 
But the head also she hung in another place, and .she .said: ""Thou also 



•Se" 



'ha' 



rao 

' Indeed, he himself 
(it is), 



wa"shako'rio'." E"' ka'ti" ni'io't wa"thniri"hwil- 

he her killed." There so then so it is thev two it matter 



ke"nha'. Thori'hwakonta"ko"" dji' niton'hi"ha" no'k" ho'ni' ne' 



disputed. 

sh ilia 'til" 

he one 
person 

tkwe'ni'. 

point 
won. 

tkaie'ri' 

it is 
correct 



He continued to assert it 



where he it denied 



and 



also 



dji' 

where 



Iva'ie" 

it lies 



ne' 

the 



E'tho'ne' ne' 

At that the 

time 



he her killed 

roti'sot'ha' 

their grand- 
mother 



ne' 

the 



so then 



he his (matterl 



on'kwe' ni'haieiVto'te"' 

man-being- such he flesh has 

kind of 



o'hon'tako"' ia'honwauVton'tr. No'k 

it shrubbery in thither she his body And the 

threw. 

raiero"'tota''ko"' WiVthoiiwaia'taMvwe" ne' 

he is fleshed thereby. she his body took up the 

m/k' ho'nf akwa'' ione'hnVkwiV dji' ni'honwanoro''^'khwa\ 



wa-thonwaia'ta"kwe'' ne'ne' 

she his body took up the that 

ta'lmo"'' ia"'tionte\sben'niirte' 

and she employed her wliole 

strength 

ne' shiiia'ta' ne' tawi'skanV 

he one the flint (crystal) 

person 

"wa'honwateweieii'to"'^ 

she him cared for well. 



and 



also 



it is marvelous 



where 



Nefi' 

Now 



non wa 

this time 



ne 

the 



so she him holds dear. 

ke"'' niioiisaie'iere' ne' akoieron'ta' ne' 

the her flesh the 



so again she 
touched it 



ne' 

the 



ontatien-'a'-ken*'ha 

her offspring it was 

tenia'ria'ke' taimo"" 

her head cut off and 



here 

(it is) 

wa"hr nen' ia" tetciakon''he\ Wa'onta- 

verily now not still she lives. She 

wii'i'ro"': ''Iawero"'ha'tie"\ dji' nefi' 

she it said : " Even though where now 



"Even though 

(no matter) 

,so""he'io"". .se"'"ha" ki"' o'k' c""sateri"h6n'take'." 

thou art dead, more, I just thou it duty wilt have 

believe, to perform." 

watie"kwe^ ne' oieron'ta ne' akono"'sa'kta' 

she it took up the it flesh the her house beside 



Nen' 

No\v 



ta"hno"" 

and 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



ke"r'"hite' 

it tree 
stands 

ta"hno"" wa'i'ro"': "Te""sa"shwathe'to""hake" 

sheithnngup and she it said: "Thou it wilt continue to light 

ke"'' wato"'hwendjia'te', no'k" ho'ni" ne' onoiTdji" ak'te" 



e"' 

there 13 

ne' 

the U 

ne' 



here 



it earth is extant. 



Imt 



the 



it head 



elsewhere the 



15 



296 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

shalt continue to have a function. Tiiou shalt have less power 
to give light." Thus then she completed her arrangements for sup- 
plying herself with light. Now, assuredly, she had made fast the 
sun for herself, and also the moon. She imposed on them the 
duty of furnishing her with light for their part. Verily, indeed, it 
was the head of her girl child who was dead that she used to make 
the moon, but her body she made into the sun. The}' were to be 
fixed always in one place, and were not to be moving from place 
to place. Now, besides this, she restricted them to herself and her 
grandson, saying: "We two, entirely alone, shall ever be supplied b}- 
this light. No other person shall use it, only we two oui-selves." 

When she had now, indeed, finished all of her task, she was sur- 
prised by the moving of the grasses at the spot whither she had 
cast the other one of her grandchildren. He was alive; he had 

noii'we' nae'ha're"' ta'hno"" wai'ro"": "£"'sateri'hon'take" o" 

1 the place she it hung up anil she it said : " Ever thou it duty wilt have too 

to perform 

ni'se\ Ka'ro" ni'se' dji' ne"'se'shats'teke' ne' dji' te^'se'shwa- 

2 the Less the where thy power shall be the where thou it shalt cause 
thou. thou effective 

the"'te"'." Nen' wa'^hf wa eweiciinen'tti'ne' dji' ne"io"to'"'hake' 

3 to be Now verily she it manner finished where so it will continue 
light." " of it to he 

dji' te"iakot'shwathe"te"'. Neii' wa"hr iakotera'kwanentak'to"', 

4 where it her will cause it to be Now verily she has set up it sun for herself, 

light for. 

e"'hni'ta' o'ni', koiiwari'honta'ni' te°iako'shwathe'to'"'hake' na" 

5 it moon also. she her duties gave it will cause it to be light that 

one 

ne"'. Ne' se" wa"hi' ne' ontatiefi"':!' ne' iakao"'he'io"' 

6 the The indeed verily the her offspring the she is dead 
that. 

akonon'dji' ne' e'^hni'ta' wa'akoii'nia'te', no'k" ne' akoie'ronta' 

7 her head the it moon she used it to and the her fiesh 

make it, 

kara"kwa' na" ne". Tiiotko"" kato'ke"' e"ioranen'tako°". ia" 

8 it sun that the Always it is certain it will be attached. not 

one that. way 

te"kia*tentie'seke". NeiT tii'hno"" wiVoiitathwe'non'nie"' wa"i'ro°': 

9 they two will travel about Now and .she restricted them she it said: 

habitually. herself 

"Onkeno"'hiV'a' te°ionkiat'shwathe'to'"'hake". Ia" o"''ka" ne' 

10 "Thou I only thou I will give light for ns. Not anyone the 

o'ia" thaioiits'te', ne' o'k' ne' onkeno'"ha"a'."' 

11 other cme will use it, the only the thou I only." 

it is 

Nen' wa"hi' alvwe'ko"' waeweiennen'tii'ne' wa'ontie're"' o'k' 

12 Now verily it all she finished its manner she was surprised only 

of doing 

ka'tf tetio'honti'sho""khwa' dji' non'we" ie'honwaia'ton'tio"" 

13 so then there it grass moves to where the place there she his body threw 

and fro 

ne' shaia'ta' ne' ronwatere"a'. ron"he'. la" te'hawe^'he'io"', 

14 the he one the her grandson, he is Not he has died. 

person alive. 



HEWITT] MOHAWK VERSION 297 

not died; for she thought when she had cast him far away that he 
would, of course, die, but, howbeit. he had not died. He walked 
about there among the bushes. But after a while he came thence 
toward the lodge of his grandmother, but she ordered him away, 
saying: "'Go thou far off yonder. I have no desire whatever to look 
on thee, for thou it is, assuredly, who hast killed my girl child. So, 
then, therefore, go thou far off yonder.'' Verih^, he then went from 
there. But, albeit, he was moving about in a place not far from the 
place where the lodge stood. Besides this, the male child was in 
good health, and hi.s growth was rapid. 

After awhile he made for himself a bow and also an arrow. 
Of course he now went about shooting from place to place. He 
went, indeed, about from place to place, for now. of course, the 
earth was indeed of considerable size. The earth, indeed, verily 



a'se'ke"-' 


wa'efi" 


re' dii' i'si' ie'honwaia'toii'tio"" e"'re""'heie' 


because 


slie it desired where far. there she his bod 

v,,n,l,.r 


\- cast lie will die 


wa"hi', 


no'k" ill' 


' ki" te'hawe"'he'io'-. E" 


hi'tre'se' o'honta- 


verily, 


but not. 


I be- he has died. There 
lieve, 


there he 
moved about 


ko""sho"'. No'k' 


a'kare' e" na'tonta're" dji' 


iakono""sote' ne' 


it grass in. 
ulcing 


,\nd 


after a there thence he where 
time came 


her house stands the 


ro'sot'ha' 


', no'k' 


sa'honwane"nia'ni' wa'i'ro"' 


: "I'sf nofi'we" 


Ills grand- 
motlier, 


and 


she him drove away again she it said: 


'•Yonder ]ilace 



1 

2 
3 
4 



niiil'ha'se'. la" othe'no"' tha'tewakato"'hwendjion'ni' ne' takonkan'- 

thitherdo Not anything I am in need of it the Itheeshcmld "5 

thou go. 

Brake', a'se'ke"^" i'se' wa"hi' she'rio" ne' kheien"a'. Wa's', 

see. because thou verily thou her the mv offspring. (io. ^ 

did.st kill 

nio" ka'ti", i'si' non'we" niia'ha'se"." To'ke"ske" ka'tf i',si' 

so be so then, tar, place thither do thou ■ It is true so then far, ' 

it yonder go." yonder 

nonka'ti" ioiisa'i'e". No'k' e" ki"' i're'se' ia" i'no"' te'ke"' 

the side again he And thefe, I be- he went not far it is o 

of it went. lieve. about 

ne' dji' kano""sote' non'we'. tii"hno"" rota'kari'te' ne' 

the where it house place. and he was well the 9 

stands 

raksri"'a' io'sno're' dji' rote'hisi'ron'tie'. 

he child it is rapid where he is increasing 10 

in size. 

A'kare" neii' wa'hata'eiinofi'nf (? wu'hata'ennofi'nie"')," kaiefi'- 

.\fter a now he made a bow for it 11 

time himself 

kwire' o'ni" wa'roii'ni'. NeiT wa"hi" roie""e"'ha'tie'se". E'rok 

arrow also he it made. Now verily he went about Every- 12 

shooting it. where 

is're' se''. a'se'ke"" neii' se" wa"hi' akwa" ke"" niwato"- 

again indeed. because now indeed verily verv here so it earth 13 

he wen t 

'hweh'djia". lote'hia'ron'tie' se" wa"hi' ne' o"'hwen'djiii'. Ne' 

large (is). It continued to indeed verily the it earth. The 14 

increase in size 

a This is the usual form of the next preceding term. 



298 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. '21 



continued to grow in size. So at time.s he would return to tlie side of 
tlie lodge. Th(> other ))oy, his younger brother, looked and saw that 
he had a bow and also an arrow. Then he .spoke to her, his grand- 
mother, saying: '"Thou sliouldst make for me a bow and also an 
arrow, so that I also should have them." So, thereupon, she made 
him a bow and also an arrow; and, then, therefore, they both had bows 
and arrows. 

So now, verily, they two wandered about shooting. So then he 
whose body was exactly like that of a man-being went in his .shooting 
along a lake shore, even at the water's edge. There stood a elunip of 
bu.slies there, whereon rested a flock of l)irds. He shot at thorn and 
they flew over the lake, but the arrow fell into the water. Thereupon 
he went thither to the water's edge, and cast himself into the lake; 
he desired to go and recover his arrow. So when he leaped into the 



ka'tr 

^o then 



sewatie're" 

sometimes 



kano"''srik'tji" 

house beside 



shaia'ta' ne' ia'tate'kefi-'a' ro'en'naie" 

it bow has 



he one the 

person 

washakawe'"^ha^se' ne'ne 



they two are re- 
hited as brothers 



a're*te". WiVhatkiit'hf*" iie' 

again he He looked the 
wouUl go. 

kaien'kwire' o'ni". Neii' 

it arrow also. Xow 



ro'sot'hu" 



he her said to 



noil iiuv' 110 K 

for nif but 



() ni 

also 



the that his grand- 

mother 

ne' kfiierrkwire', 

the it arrow. 



wa'hefi'i'u" 

he it said : 

aofikieii'take' 

I it should have 



'■ A'skwjVeu- 

" Thou it bow 
shouldst make 

t ?5 



Ta', 

So. 



e'tho'ne' 

at tliiit 
lime 



nen 

now 



wa'honwa"ennon'nie"' no'k" 

she it hira bnw made and 



o ni 

also 



o ni 

also 



kaien'kwire'. Ta'. neiT Wii"hi' tenidjia'ro"' rona'en'naie"' 

it arrow. .So. now verily they both they bow had 

o'nf ne' kaien'kwire*. 

also the it arrow. 



ni' 

the I." 



ne 

the 



no K 

and 



9 

10 

11 
12 
13 

14 



Ta', 

So, 



nen 

now 



wa''hr te'honnatawen'rie'. rotiie"'e°''ha'tie'se". Ta', 

verily they traveled about, they went about So, 

shooting. 

ne' ka'tf ne' tkaie'rf oii'kwe' ni'haia'to'te"' dji' roie"'e'"ha'tie"se', 

the so then the it is cor- man- sueh his body where he goes about 

rect being kind of (is) shooting, 

kaniatariiktil'tie' i're' dji' teio'hnekak'te'. E"' io'hiano"'kote' 

it lake along side of he where it liquid (water) ends Tliere 



he 
walks 



it clump of bushes 
stood 



tii'hiio""' e"' 

and there 

kaniatara'ke' 

it lake on 

raoien'kwire". 

his arrow. 



it liquid (water) ends 
( = water's edge). 

ke"tho'kwa'"here' tci'teiT'a'. Wrrha'ia'ke'. ta'hno"' 

it bunch rested on bird. He shot, and 



niiti'ka'tie" tirhno"" awen'ke' 

thither it and it water in 

flew 

E'tho'ne" e" niifrha're" dji' 

there thither he where 



iil'hti'iio' ne' 

there it im- the 

mersed itself 

teio'hnekak'ta' 



it liquid (water) 
ends 



At that there thither he 

time went 

tii'hno"" o'k' ia'hatia'toii'tf kaniatara'ke'. wa're're' onsekko"ha' 

and onlv thither he his it lake on, he it intended I it will go after 

body cast again 



MOHAWK VERSION 



299 



water, he did not feel that he had phiiij>-ed into tlie water, because he 
fell supine on the ground. There was no water there. He arose 
and Mas surprised that a lodge stood there, and that he had arisen 
beside the doorway. He looked into the lodge and saw a man sitting 
therein. The man who was sitting in the lodge said: '"Enter thou 
here." So then he entered, and he who sat therein said: "Thou hast 
now arrived. I assuredly invited thee that thou shouldst come here. 
Here, then, lies the reason that I sent for thee. It is because I heai- 
customarily the kind of language thy grandmother uses toward tliee. 
She tells thee that she does not love thee, and the reason of it is that 
she believes that what Tawi'slvaro'" customarily says is true. He says, 
customarily, of course, that thou killedst her who was the mother of 



ne' raoien'kwire. Ne' ka'tf dji' nen' i!rthennitco""'kwa'kwe' 

the his arrow. The sothen where now thither he leaped 

o'hneka'ke' ia'' te'hotto'ke"' ne' ia'ho\sko''o"' ne' o'hneka'ke", 

it liquid on not he it noticed the thither he had the it liquid on, 

fallen into water 

a'se'ke"" o"'hwendjia'ke" ia'htlshfi'ta'ne'. Ia" kau'eka" teka'hne'ko'. 



because 



it earth on 



there he fell 
supine. 

Sa'hatkets'ko" nen' wifhatie're"' 

Again he arose now he was surprised 

ka'n'iioka'ronte" ak'ta' e" noii'we' 

it doorway is open nearby there place 

hatkat'ho 

he looked 



O'K 

oitlv 



anywhere it liquid con- 

tained. 

e" kano""sote" dji' 

there it house where 



it house 
stands 



onsa'hatkets'ko'. 

again he arose. 



NeiT ia'- 

Now there 



kano""'sako" 

it house in 



NeiT wa'hen'ro" 

Now he it said 

Ta', 

So, 

ne' 

the 



wsi'ho'ke"' ron'kwe' 

he him saw he man- 

being (is) 

ne' kano""sako"' thefi'tero"': 



the 



it house in 



there he 
rested : 



e'tho'ne' 

at that 
time 

theil'tero"': 



neii' ia'hatau'ei:X"te\ til'hno"'' 

now there he entered, and 



e" then'tero'", 

there there he 

rested. 

" Ka.satau'eia'te'." 

■Thence do thou 
enter," 

neii' wa'hen'ro" 

now he it said 



there he 
abides: 



•■ NeiT 

"Now, 

Ke"" 

Here 
it is 



thou liiist 
arrived. 



I"' w:i"hr ieko"-hnon'ko"- 

I verily hence I thee sent 

for 



ne' aonta"'se . 

the thou shouldst 

come. 

a'se'ke"" wakathofi'te' 

because I it hear 

iako"'thare' ne' ise'ke' 

she speaks 



ka'tr 

SO then 



kai'i'hon'ni* 

i.t it causes 



custom- 
arily 



the 



.sa'sot'hiV 

thy graml- 
mother 



dji' ieko"'hnoii'ko"' 

where hence I thee sent 
for 

dji' nikari'ho'te"' 

where such it matter 

kind of 



the thovi (thee) 
to. 



le.sa'hro'ri's dji' ia/' teiesanoro^^'khwiV. 

She thee tells where not she thee loves (esteems). 



ne' tiiori"hwa' dji' ne' tiiakawe'ta"ko"' ne' Tawi'skaro"' dji 

the just it it is cause where the so she it firmly believes the Flint (Crystal) where 



na'ho'te"' e"'s ra'to"'. 

he it savs. 



thou 

(it is) 



1 

2 
3 

5 
6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 



thou her tlie 14 

didst kill 



Ra'to"' e'"s wa"hr i'se" she'rio" ne' 

svich kind of custom- he it says. He it says custom- verily 
thing arily arily 

ietchi'nisten''a'-ke"'ha'. Ta', ia" to'ke"ske' te'ke'" dji' nu'ho'te"' 

she of yon two was. So, not it is true it is where such kind o, 2.5 

mother thing 



300 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



you two. Now, what ho cu.stoinaril}' says is not true, and the grand- 
mother of you two lirnil}^ believes the things that he says; so tiiat is 
the reason that I desire that thou shouldst come hither. For tlie fact 
is, she discriminates l)etween you two, loving him, l)ut not thee. 
Here, then, I ha\e made a bow and an arrow as well for thee. Here, 
then, take them.'' So thereupon he accepted them. They were 
marvelously fine in appearance. He said: "Thou must make use of 
these as thou goest about shooting, for sometimes thou hast asked 
thy grandmother to make thee a bow somewhat better than the one 
thou madest for thyself, yet she would, customarily, not give ear to 
it, and besides that she would ha))itually refuse, and then order thee 
awa}'. She would customarily say: 'Go thou from here. I have no 
desire to he looking at thee, for thou art the one assuredly who killed 
my girl child.' Now this, customarily, was the kind of discourse 
she spoke. So now, then, another thing. Here, of course, are two 



1 

2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 
14 



ietchi'sot'ha' 



j'our two grand- 
mother 



e"'s ra'to"'; no'k' ne' 

cus- lie it says; and the 
tomarily 

ua'bo'teir ra'to"'; ta', ne'' tiiori'*hwti' 

such kind of lie it says; so, that so it reason 

thing is 

Ne' dji' teiakoti'-he"- rao"'-ha' 

The ■\vhere 



ne' tiiakawe'ta^'ko"' ne' dji' 

the so she it firmly believes the where 



she one to the 
other prefers 



he him- 
self 



Avake'ro"- ke"" r'"te'se'te'. 

I it pur- here thou vri\t 

posed eome. 

ronwaiioro'^"khwa\ 

she him loves. 



ia"te' 

not at 
all. 



Ke"'' ka'ti' koniivennonnieii'ni", 

Here so then I thee it bow have made 

it is for, 

kaien'kwiro'. Ko"' ka'ti'." Ta', e'tho'ue' 

it arrow. Here so then." So, at that 

(it is) time 

Akwa'' ione*hni'kwa''t iora'se'. Wa'heii'ro"': " 

Very it is marvelous it is fine He it said: ' 

in appearance. 

dji' saie"'e"'ha'tie'se'. a'se'ke"" sewatie're"' 



no'k" 

and 



no'k' 

and 

o'ui" 

also 



nise' 

the 
thou 

ne' 

the 



ne 

the 



where 



to se 

question 



ne 

the 



thou goest about 
shooting, 

sa'sot'ha' 



thy grand- 
mother 



aioian'ereke' ne' 

it would be the . 

good 

thaioiithon'tate' 

.she it would consent 
to 



dji' 

where 



because 

ne' 

the 

ni'io't 

so it is 

tii'hno"""' 

and 



sometimes 



nen' vra'haie'na'. 

now he it took. 

Ne"' e^'sats'thiike' 

That thou it shalt use 
one habitually 

wa'sheri'hwanon'- 

thou her askedst 



non we 

the place 



^'I'si' 

"Far 
yonder 

takonkan'ereke'. 

I thee should see. 



ia'ha'se' 

there do 
thou go. 

I'se' wa"hi 

Thou verilv 



aiesa eniion men ne 

she it bow shduld the 

m.ake for thee 

ne' satatsaii'ni". i:V' 

the thou thyself didst not. 
make for, 

aiesate'kwa'te'. Wai'ro"' 

she thee would She it said 

order away. 

la*' tha'tewakato"''hwerKljion'nr 

Not I it desire, (it is needful for me i 



ki" e°'s 

I custom- 
believe, arilv 



se 

indeed 



no* 



e" e"'y niieri^ho'te"' dji' 

thus cus- such her tale is where 
tomarily 

Ke"'' wa"hi' tekano"'kwerr'iake' 

This verily two it ears of corn in number 



■she 

thou her 
didst kill 

iako"thare' 

she is talking. 



ne 

the 



Ta', 

So, 



kheierr'u" 

my off- 
spring. 

neiT a're' 

now again 



tekonterofi' weks 

white = (shriveling) 



o'ne''"ste 

it corn 



e" s: 

custom- 
arily: 

ne' 

the 

Ta', 

So, 

o'ia'. 

other 
it is. 

ne' 

the 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VEKSION 



301 



ears of sweet corn. These thou must take away with thee. One of 
the ears is not yet ripe; it is stiil in its milliy state, but, as to the 
other, it is mature. Thou must talce them with thee. As to the one 
in the milky state, thou must roast it for thyself; but as to the one 
that is mature, it shall be for seed corn." Thereupon, then, when he 
had finished speaking, telling him all things, he said: "Here they are, 
then." Whereupon he took them. 

It was at this time also that he told him. saying: "But, as to that. 1 
am thy parent." That was said by him whose lodge stood there and 
who is the Great Turtle. Then the young man departed. 

So then when he had returned home in traveling, he would habitu- 
ally run along the lake shore and would say, customarily: "Letthi.s 
earth keep on growing." He said: "People call me Maple Sprout 



if'se'shawe'. 

lionce it thou 
shalt takt-. 



Ne' skano"'kwen"iat ia'' teiotofini's'o'", se'ko"' 

The one it ear of com not it has ripened. .still 



oko'"serofi'ta- (?oka"sero'ta')" i'ke"\ no'k" ne' e""'sk;i' iotonni's'o"' 



it milky is 



and 



the 



na 

that 
one 

toii'te" 



ne , 

the 
thiit 



ne'ne' ie"'ses'hawe'. 



the 
that 



hence thou shalt 
take it. 



Ne' 

The 



oko"'sei'on'ta' 

it is milkv 



nu 

that 
one 



the 
that 



no'k' 

and 



ne' 

the 



e"ieientho"'thake" 

one will use it to plant 
{for planting)." 

wa'hari'ho'kte"" 

he it matter ended 



ne' 



that 
one 

akwe'ko" 

it all 



the 
that 



e""ska' 

one 

" E'tho'ne" 

At that 
time 

wa'ho"hro'ri" 

he him told 



^Ko-', 

" Here 

it is. 

NeiT 

Now 



ka'tr." 

so then.' 



o ni 

also 



E'tho'ne" nen' wa'haie'ntV 

now he them 

took. 

e'tho'ne" nen' wa'ho'hro'ri' 

now he him told 



At that 
time 



at that 
time 



the 
that 

ka'ti' 

so then 

nen' 

now 



he it said: 



it is ripe 

e"'satene">s- 

thou thyself shalt 
roast corn for 

iotonni's'o"' 

it is ripe 

dji' nen' 

where now 

wa'heii'ro"": 

he it said: 



'I" 

"I 
it Ib 



that 
one 



Ne^' 

That 



I am thy 
parent." 

Ha n ia ' te" " kowa 

He Turtle Great 

raneke"*'tero"". 

he young man. 

Ne' ka'ti' 

The so then 



na 

that 
one 

ke'-'i'ke" 

this it is. 



wa'hen'ro"' ne' e" 

he it said the there 



ui'hono'"'sote' ne'ne' 



just his lodge 
stands 



Ta', e'tho'ne" 



at that 
time 



nen 

now 



sa'ha'ten'tf 

he started 
again 



the 
that 



ne 

the 



wen rie 

travels. 



ne' nen' ciiehe'sro' 

the now there he reached 

home 

kaniatarakta'tie' e" 

it lake alongside of 



nen 

now 



wa"hi" 

verily 



custom- 
arilv 



niia'hatak'he". 

ust he \vould run, 



dji' te'hota- 

where he 

ra'to-' e"'s: 

lie it says custom- 
arily: 



'lote'liiu'ron'tie' ne' ke"'i'ke" 

"Let it increase in the this it is 

size 



ioto'"hwen'djiate\" nen' ta'hno"", 

it earth i is) present here," now and 



1 

2 
3 
■i 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 

12 
13 
11 



"This is the usual form of the next preceding term. 



302 



IROgUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[eth. anx. 21 



[Sapling]." Verily, as fur as he cu.stomarily run. so fur the earth grew 
anew, and. besides that, maple saplings customarily would produee them- 
selves. So then, it was his custom to do thus. On whatever side in 
turn he would run along the shore of the lake, just as far as he would 
run, just so far woidd this come to pass: new earth would form itself, 
and also maple sai^lings formed themselves into trees. He also .said, 
customarily, as he ran along: "Let the earth Increase in size" and: 
"Maple Sapling will people hal)itually call me." Thus it was, by 
means of this kind, that tlie earth became enlarged to the size it now 
has when we look at the size of this world. 

So then, at this time, in turn, he formed severally the various 
bodies of the animals. Therefore, Sapling customarily would take 
up a handful of earth, and would cast it upward. Customarily, many 
hundreds of living things, as man}' as the handfuls he threw up, 



6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



'Wa"ta' 

"Maple 



It Sitplint,' (it ilsflf 
madu .smiill true) 



ka'tr 

SO then 



Oterofitonni"a' ion'kiats." Ne' ka'tf ne' dji' 

the where eu8- 
t^imarily 

niio're' niiiVhatak'he' e*"' he'^'s niio're' a'se' onto"^hwefidjion'ni', 

it itself earth made. 



ion'kiats." Ne' 

they me name The 
habitually.'' 



so it is 
distant 



it uew 

(is^ 



so it is so thither he ran there custom- 

distant arily 

nen' ta'hno 

n^^\■ and maple it sapling ( it itself custom- it itself made into Thus 

ade s] 



wifta' oterontonni-'a^ 



onterontofi'nr. E'tho' 



mad 



mall tree) arily tree. 

kil'tf nrhaier'-ha' dji' o'k' nonka'ti* e"'s niia'luihik'he" kauia- 

so then so it he does where only the sidt* custom- so thither he ran it lake 



of it 



tarakta'tie' dji' niio're' niia^hatak'he' e'' 



O alongside of where 



so It IS 

distant 



so thither he ran 



there custom- 
arily 



so it 
happened, 



lie' 

the 



a'se' onto"''hwefidjiofi'iii\ uo'k' ho'ni' ne' wa"tiV onterontoiiui"a'. 



it new it itself earth found, 

(is) 

e^'s o'lif ratofi'iu>" 

eustom- also he went 

arily saying 

ne' o'^'hweii'djiu'," ne' 

the it earth." ihe 



and 



Ne' 

The 



ne 

the 



also 



neu 

now 



no 

the 



it made itself into 
small tree. 



ratak'he 

he ran : 



maple 

'• " lote'hiaroil'tie' 



■ Let it increase in 
size 



'" Oterontonni''a* ion'kiats." 



It SaplJny 



one me calls 
habitually." 



Ta', 

So, 



e'tho' 

thus 



nitioiera'to"' 

so it did by means 
of this 



ne' dji' io"'hwendjiiowa'n*ha"'o"* ne' 

the where it earth became large the 



dji' ni'io't ne' dji' tewakan'ere' ne' dji' niwato"'hwen'djia'. 



where so it is 



the where 



the where so it earth large (is). 



Ta', e'tho'ne' ne' 

So, at that the 

time 

a'nio"". Ne' kil'ti" 

made The so then 

plurally. 

wa'thti'tca'na'kwe' 

he it handful picked up 



non wa 

this time 



kofitirio'o'ko" 

they animals, 



wa'shakotiia'tonni- 

he their bodies 



ne 

the 



Oterontouni*'tx' 

It Sapling 



o"'hweii'djia" 



e'"s 

it earth custom- 

arily 



no K 

and 



e'neke"' 

high up 



iiVho'ti' 



custom- 
arily 



there he it 
threw. 



E'so' 

Many 



e"s la'no ti . ii. so e s 

custom- 
arily 

tekon'nia'we' a'e're"' e^'s wtvkontitienon'tie- dji' ni'ko"' ia'ho'- 

they hundreds in all custom- tliey went flying 

" (are) 



in all custom- 
directions arily 



where so it thither 

numbers 



HEWiTTj MOHAWK VERSION 303 

flew iiway in diti'ei-ent direction.s.^ He customarily «iid: "Tlaiis shall 
continue to be your condition. When 3'e wander from place to place, 
ye must go in flocks."' Thereupon a duty devolved upon this species 
of animals; for example, that they should habitually -make roosts. 
Now, of course, difl'erent animals were severally asked to \olunteer 
to aid man. Wiiichever of them would give ear to this, would say 
to it: "1, I think, will volunteer." Thereupon they would custom'- 
arily ask him, sa3'ing-: "Well then, pei'mit us to see in what way 
thou wilt act when thou protectest thy ofl'spring." The Bear, there- 
fore, volunteered. Now then he acted so rudely that it was very 
marvelously terrifying. The manner in which he would act ugly 
would, I think, kill people. Thus, indeed, he exhibited to them 
how he would defend his ofl'spring. They .said: "'Not at all, wo 
think, shouldst thou volunteer." Whereupon, of course, others 

tcanon'tf. Wa'hen'ro"' e"'s: "£•', ni'se' ne"io'to""hake' ne' 

lie liandfuls HtMt said custom- •'Thus. the so it will continue the 1 

threw. arily: thou to be 

dji' te"tciatawenrie"hake' e"tciennitio'kwaratie'seke'." E'tho'ne" 

where she ^\'ill continue to travel ye will go about in groups (bodies)." .\t that 2 

time 

nofi'we" wri"onnateri'hwaien"'ha'se' ne' kontirio'o'ko"' o'^'ka' 

place it them duty became for the they animals who (it is) 3 

e"ie'na'kwa"r'ho"seke'. Nen' wa"hr ne' kontirio'o'ko"' o'ia' o'k' 

one roosts will form. Now verily the they animals other only 

e^'s shoiiwari'hwanonton'ni' ne' a'hathoiikar'ia'ke'. On"ka' o'k' 

custom- he them duties assigns to the he should volunteer Who just :^ 

arily to do it. ' 

e"'s wa'hathon'tate' wa'hefi'ro"': '"l"' ki"' e''kathonka'ria ke"." 

custom- he wotild consent he it said : "I I I will volunteer to do it." (3 

arily to it {it is), believe, 

E'tho'ne" e"'s wa"honwari'hwanofi'to""se" wa'hoiini'ro"' e"'s: 

At that custom- they him asked they it said custom- 7 

time ■ arily arily: 

"To', kii'ti' iakwatkat'ho" to' ne"te''siere' ne' nen' e'".sate- 

"How so then let us see how so thou wilt the now thou wilt 8 

do it 

wirake"'nha\" O'kwa'ri'. ki"', wa'hathonkii'riiVke'. E"tho'ne" 

thy young defend." Bear, I he volunteered (scored At that 9 

believe, stick). time 

nen' wa"hateri"hwri'ksa"te'. Akwii"' ione'hra'kwti't, teioteuo"'hi- 

now he his matter acted ugly. Very it is marvelous, it is aston- 1() 

ani"to"% iotte''ro"". A'shako'rio" ki"' ne' on'kwe' dji' na'ha'iere" 

ishiug, it is frightful. It one would I the man- where .sohewoitld W^ 

kill, believe, being act 

dji' wii'hateri'hwak'sa'te'. Nen' wa"hi' wa'.shakona'ton''ha'se" 

where he his matter acted ugly. Xow verily they him showed 12 

dji' ne"tha'iere' ne' e""hatewirake"nha". Wa'hoiini'ro"': "la"' 

where so he will act the he his young will defend. They it said : "Not, 13 

ki"' i'.se" thil",sathofika'ria''ke"."" Ta', nen' wa"hi' o'ia' o'k' 

I be- thou thou shouldst volunteer So, now verily other only 1-j. 

lieve, to do it." it is 



4 



304 



IKoyUOlAN COSMOLOGY 



[KTH. ANN. 21 



offered themselves as volunteers. Nevertheless, none were accepta- 
ble, because their methods of defending their offspring were terrible. 
So one after another volunteered. After a while the Pigeon said: 
"It is time now, I think, that I should volunteer." Whereupon, 
assuredly, they said: "How then wilt thou do when thou protectest 
thy offspring? Let us see." Then Pigeon flew hither and thither, 
uttering cries as it went. Then sometimes it would again alight on a 
bough of a tree. In a short time it would again fly, winging its way 
from place to place, uttering cries. So then they said: "Now, this 
will ))e suitable." At the same time they had h'ing b}' them a dish 
containing bear's oil; they therein immersed Pigeon, and they said: 
"So fat shall thy offspring customarily be." It is for this reason that 
the young of the pigeon are as fat as a bear usually is. 



e"'s shothoiikariiVko'". la" ki"' thakaie'rite" so'dji' e"'s roti- 



custom- again lie volunteers 
arily 



^-, weiefinatsa'ni' 

*" manner of acting 
(is) frightful 

g ni'io't o'ia" 

so it is other 
it is 

, wa'hgfi'ro"': 

■i .... 

he It saia : 

r^ wa'hoiini'i'o"' 

they (m.) it said : 



9 



10 



13 



14 



Nf>t, I it would be 

believe, correct 

ne' \va'hatewirake"nha 

the he his young would 

defend. 

o'k" shothonkaria'ko"*. 

only again lie volunteers to 

do it. 



Ta\ 

So, 



because custom- Their 
arily 

kii'tf wa'^hf 



e 

thus so then 



verily 



No'k' ha'kare' nen' ori'te' 

And after a now it pigeon 



after a 
time 



"Neil' kr' i'' e^'kathonkar'ia'ke 

"Now, 



I I. 

believe, 



E'tho'no' wa''hf 

verilv 



At that 
time 



I will volunteer to do it 
(score stick)." 

''To', ka'tr iakwatkat'ho' dji' ne"te''siere' ne' 

"How, so then let us see it where so thou wilt the 

act 

nen' e"'satewirake"nha'?'' E'tho'ne" nefi' ne' ori'te' wa'katie''so°' 



now 



thou thy young wilt 
defend?" 



At that 
time 



the it pigeon 



r- io'tharatie"se\ 

it went about 
uttering cries. 

g kwa're"\ Na'he'Ti' 

would alight. In a short 

time 



Sewatie're"' 

Sometimes 

o'k- 

unlv 



sakatie"so"' io'thara'tie'se\ 



again it flew from 
place to place 



it went about 
uttering cries. 

ie"kaie'rite\" E'tho'ne' nen' 



custom- 
arily 

Nen' 

Now 



are 

again 

no'k" 

and 



it flew about from 
place to place 

okwira'ke' shennits- 

agaln it 



it shrub 
(branch) on 

ha're" 

again 



tonsaka'te"', 

again it would 



wa'honni'ro"': 

they (m.) it said: 



'Nen' 

'Now 



ne' 

that 



it \vi\\ be correct 



At that 
time 



ronnatek'saie"' 

they a vessel for 
themselves have set 



o'kwa'ri" 

it bear 



11 i'kare" e'' ka'tf ia'honwa"sko' ne' ori'te*. nen' 

it con- there so then there they him the it pigeon. now 

tains immersed 

ne"ionare\se""hake' 



ken'ie' 

it oil 

tii'hno"" 

and 



lij wa'hoilni'ro"": "E" e'^s ni'se 



they (m.) it said : 



Thus 



custom- 
arily 



the 
thou 



so thev will be fat 



ne' 

the 



en'okon"a''." (Ne' ka'tf kari'hon'ni" ne' ori'te" aotiwi'ru 

offspring." (The so then it reason is the it pigeon their off- 

spring 

niionare"se"' dji' ni'io't e"'s ne' o'kwa'ri' io're'se"'.) 



shei- 

thy 

e" 

thus 



80 they fat (are) where 



so it is -custom- tlie 
arily 



it bear 



it is fat.) 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



305 



During this time Tawi'.skaro"" was watching what Sapling was 
doing. Thereupon he t)egan to imitate him by also making animal 
bodies. But thi.s work was too difficult for him to allow his doing 
it correctly. He failed to make correctlj' the bodies of the animals 
just as they are. He formed the body of a bird as he knew it. So, 
when he had finished its form, he let it go, and now, I think, it flew. 
Forsooth, it succeeded in flying, but it flew without anj^ objective 
point. And. I believe, it did not become a bird. Now then he had 
completed the body of what we know as the bat. So then, when he, 
Sapling, had completed in their order the bodies of the marvelously 
various kinds of animals, they began to wander over the face of the 
earth here present. 

Then, as Sapling was traveling about over the face of the 
earth, he. after a while, marveled greatly that he could not in anj^ 



Ne' ka'ti" ne' 

The so then the 



Tawi'skaro"' e" te'hakan'ere' 



tie'r"hir 

is doing 

ke're"' 



ue 

the 



Flint there 
(Ice, Crystal) 

Oterontonni^'u^ NeiT 

It Sapling. Now 



Ava'ho 

he it failed to do 

Tci'ten"a' 

Bird 

dji' 

where 



nen' wa''haia*'tonnia'nio"'' 

now he their (z.) bodies plurally 

made 

aonta'hoieri'to"'hake' 

he it should have done 
correctly 

wa'haia'ton'nf ne' dji' 

he its body made the where 



he it watched 

tii^hno"'' 

and 

o'ni'. 

also. 



ne 

thew 

wa"hi' 

verily 



dji' 

here 



ni'ha- 

so he 



Na" 

The 
that 



ne' 

that one 



tii'hona'- 

he him imi- 
tated 

■ no'k' 

and 



ne 

the 



dji' 
where 



roterien'tare 

he it knows. 



nikon tiia' to'te^'se'. 

so their kinds of body 
plurally. 

'. Ne' ka'ti' ne' 

The so then the 



nen 

now 



To'ke"ske" 

It is true. 



he its body 
finished 

' oii'to"^ 

it was 
successful 



wa^ha''tka-we'j 

he it let go, 



nen 

now, 



ki" 



wa'tka'te" 

it flew. 



la 

not. 



I be- 
lieve, 



ki" 

I be- 
lieve, 

tci'ten"a' 

bird 



wa'tka'te"'. 

it flew. 

teiotoiT'o"'. 

it has become. 



O'k' 

Just 

Ne' 

The 



I be- 
lieve, 

ke"" thiia'ka'tie' no'k 

and 



here 

it is 



just thither it 
went flying 

wa"hr wa^haia'tis"iV 



nofi'wa' ne' tewaiente'ri' iakoho""tariks 

this time the we it know it bites f)ne's ears 

(bat) 

nen' ne' Oterontonni"a^ sa'has''iV 

now the It Sapling 



ne' 

the 



again he it 
tinished 



verily 

koilwa'iats. 

they it call. 

akwe'ko"' 

it all 



he its body 
finished 



Ne' 

The 



ka'tr 

so then 



wa^shakouV- 

he made 



toiinia'nio" ne' 

their body the 

plurally' 

niiono°'hwendjia'ke^ 

they lands (kinds) iix num- 
ber (are.) 

io"'hwendjia'te\ 

it earth present (is). 

Ne' ka'ti' ne' 

The so then the 



kontirio'o'ko"' 

they animal (are) 



ne' 

the 



ione'hra'kwa't 

i t is wonderful 



NeiT 

Now 



wa"hi' 

verily 



wa'tkontawen'tue' ne' 

they traveled about the 



Oterontonni'Ti^ 

It Sapling 



ne' 

the 



dji' 

where 



te'hotawen'rie' 

he traveled 



dji' io"'hwendjia'te' a'kare' 

where it earth present is 



:21 ETH— 03- 



--20 



after a 
time 



nen 

now 



wa'hori'hwane'hra'ko' 

he matter was astonished at 



e .SO 

many 

dji' 

where 



ne' 

the 

ia" 

not 



10 

11 

13 
13 
U 
15 



306 IBOQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann.21 

place still see the different kinds of animals. Thereupon he traveled 
about over the face of the earth seeking for them. He also thought, 
forsooth: "This is an astonishing matter; where, perhaps, have they 
gone — they, the animals whose bodies I have made^ '' So then, while 
he went from place to place, and while he was looking for the animals, 
he was .startled. Near him a leaf made a noise, and looking thither 
he was surprised to see a mouse peering up there among the leaves. 
The mouse that he saw is called the Deer-mouse, and, of course, he had 
intended to shoot it, l)ut the Doer-mouse .spoke to him, saying: "Do 
thou not kill me. I will tell thee then where have gone these things 
thou art seeking, the animals." So then in truth he resolved not to 
kill it, and then he spoke and .said: "Whither then have the animals 
gone?" Thereupon the Deer-mouse said: "In that direction there is 

kiin'eka thaonsa'ha'ke"' ne' kontirio'o'ko"'. Nen' wa"hi' 

1 anywhere again he them could the they (z.) animals Mow verily 

see (lire). 

wii'thatawen'rie' wa'shakoia'ti'sake\ Ne' o'nf i're're": "Ha'nio" 

2 he traveled he their bodies sought The also he "Forsooth, 

to find. thought: 

iori'hwane'hra'kwa't, ka" o""te' niieione'noii ne' kheia'ti.s'"o"' 

3 it it matter astonishing is, where perhaps just there they the I their (anthr. ) 

it is have gone bodies have formed 

ne' kontirio'o'ko"'?" Ne' ka'tf wa"hi' ne' dji' te'hotaweiirie- 

i the they (z.) animals The so then verily the where he went about 

(are)?" 

ha'tie'se' ne' dji' shaia'ti'.saks ne' koilti'rio" wa'hatie're"" o'k'. 

5 traveling the where again he their the they animals he was surprised just. 

bodies seeks to find (are) 

Ke"" non'we' e" wa'onera'tak'are' e" iiVhatkat'ho' wa'ha- 

6 Here the place there it leaf made a sound there there he looked he was 

it is 

tie're"' o'k' tciuo'we'" e" tontke'to'te"' onera"toko"'. Tso- 

' surprised just mouse there it peeped up it leaf among. Deer- 

lit leaves among) 

tshot'ho"' konwa'iats ne' tcino'we"' wa'ha'ke"'. No'k' wifhi' 

8 mouse they it call the mouse he it saw. Aud verily 



na" 



raweroii'ne" e"'ha'ia'ke' no'k" ki" tonta'tf ne' tcino'we"' 

9 that he had intended he it will shoot and. I be- thence it the mouse 

one lieve, spoke (to 

him) 

ne' o'nf wa'ken'ro"': "To".sa takeri'lo". E"ko"-hro'rr ka'tf 

10 the also it it said: "Do not thou me kill. I thee will tell so then 

do it 

kiV non'we' niieione'noii ne' tcia'ti'saks ne' kontirio'o'ko"'." 

11 where the place there they the thou their bodies the they animals (are)." 

have gone .seekest to find 

To'ke"ske' ka'tf wa're're' ia" thakri'io', neiT ta'hno"" ta'hata'ti' 

l-" It is true so then he it thought not I it should kill, now and bespoke 



13 
U 



wa'hen'ro"': "Ka" ka'tf niieione'non ne' konti'rio'?" E'tho'ne' 

he it said: "Where so then jnst there they the they animals .^t that 

it is have gone are?" lime 

nen' wa'ken'ro'" ne' Tsotshot'ho"' tcino'we"': "E" non'we' 

now it it said the Deer Mouse mouse: "There place 



1 



HEWITT] MOHAWK VERSION 307 

a raiijre of liToat mountains of rock. There in tiie rocks they abide, 
and are indeed sliut up. If, when thou arrivest there, thou lookest, 
thou wilt .see a large .stone placed over the cavern, which stone one 
has used for the purpose of closing it up. It is Tawi'skaro"' him- 
self and hi.s grandmother who have together done this; it is they 
who imprisoned the animals." So then, therefore, he went thither. 
It was true then that a stone lay o\'er the place where was the open- 
ing into the rock; it was closed therewith. So he then removed 
the stone from it, and he now said: "Do ye all come forth. For, 
a.ssuredly, when I caused you to be alive, did I intend that ye 
should be imprisoned here? Assuredly, I intended that ye .should 
continue to roam from place to place over this earth, which I have 
caused to be extant." Thereupon they did in fact come forth. 
There was a rumbling sound, as their feet gave forth sounds while 

tiionontata'tie' otsten'ra'' e"' iotstennlka'rofite'-kowa'ne"', e'tho' 

just thtTO it moun- ^ it rock (is) there it roi-k cavern great (is) there 

tain stands extended 

otsten'rako"' iekonti'tero"' koti'n"ho'to"' se". To'ka' nen' e" 

it rock in there they abide they are shut up indeed. If now there 2 

ie°"sewe' e"'satkat'ho' ke"tstenrowa'ne"' e'' ka"here' dji' 

there thou thou wilt look it rock large there it lies on it where 3 

wilt arrive 

iotstefiraka'roiite' ne'' ka"n'hoto""kwe"'. Rao""ha' no' Tawi'skaro"" 

it rock cavern (is) the one it used to close it. He himself the Flint * 

(Ice, Crystal) 

no'k" ne' ro'sot'ha" ne' e" ni'hotiie're"' nin'ho'to"' ne' 

and the his grand- the thus so they it did they two shut the 5 

mother them up 

koiiti'rio'." Ta', e'tho'ne' neiT e" wa're'te'. To'ke"ske' ka'tl' 

they animals So, at that time now there thither he It is true so then ^ 

(are)." went. 

e" ke"tstenra"here' dji' non'we^ dji' iotsteni-aka'ronte' 

there one it rock placed on it where place where it rock cavern (is) * 

kan'ho'to"'. Ta', e'tho'ne' nen' sa*he"tstenni'"hrH'ko' nen' 

one closed it. So, at that time now again he rock took off now 8 

ta'hno"" wa'hen'ro"': " Tonta.sewaia'ke."'ne'' akwe'ko"'. la" 

and he it said; " Hencedu ye com'e Eorth Stall. Not •^ 

se" wfi'^if tewake'ro"* ne' dji' kion^he'to"^ keiit'ho'-ke"" 

in- verily I it intended the where I thee caused to here, is it 10 

deed live 

e'"senin-hoto""hake" (e"sewan-hoto>""hiike').'' Wake'ro"' wa"hr 

ye will remain shut up. I it intended verily H 

te"tciatawenrie"hilke' ne' dji' wako"'hwendjia'tate'"." Ta', 

ye will continue to travel the where I it earth made to be present." So, !■* 

about 

e'tho'ne' neiT to'ke''ske' tontakontifa'ke'"ne'. Teio'to°'hare'nio"' 

at that time now it is true thence they came forth. It sound spread forth 13 

ne' dji' wa'tionofiniaka're're' ne' dji' nen' tcotiiake°'o"'ha'tie'. 

the where Iheir feet (hools) sounde<l the where now again they were coming 14 

forth. 

n This is the usual form o£ the next preceding term. 



308 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



they kept coming forth. So, at this time, the grandmother of 
Tawi'skaro"' said: "What thing, perhaps, is now happening? There 
is a rumbling sound." She thus addressed her grandson, Tawi'skai'o"'. 
Before Tawi'skaro"' could reply, sht> spoke again, saying: "It is true, 
undoubtedly, that Sapling has found them there where thou and I 
have the animals imprisoned. So then, let us two go at once to 
the place wherein we two immured them." Then at once they two 
went out, and without delay ran thither. So when they two arrived 
there, it was even so; the Sapling stood there, having opened the 
cavern in the rock, and verily a line of animals ever so long was 
running. The two rushed forward and took up the stone again, and 
again shut in those that had not come out, and these are animals great 
in size and now dwelling therein. 



Ta', e'tho'ne' non'we' Tawi'skaro"' ro'sot'ha' wai'ro"": "O' 

1 So. nt that time place Flint his grand- she it said: "What 



na'ho'te"' 



10 



Flint 
(Ice. Crystal) 

o""te' niioteri'hwatie're"' 



2 kind of thing perhaps 

3 



there it matter is being 
done 



his grand- 
mother 

ke-'i'ke"' 

this it is 



teio'to°"hare'," 

it sound is present.*' 



wa'honwe""ha'se' ne' 

She it him said to the 



again he 
talked 

non'wii' 

this time 



n'ho'to"' 

up 



Flint. 
(Ice, Crystal.) 

ne' Oteronton'ni''a 

the It Sapling 



ronwatere'Ti' Tawi'skaro"'. la"' ha're'kho' 

her grandson Flint. Not vet 

(Ice, Crystal.) 

'Ori'hwi'io' 

*■ It is certain 



Flint. 
(Ice, Crystal.) 

tethota'ti' ne' Tawi'skaro"'. Tontaioiita'ti' wa'i'ro" 

the Flint. Thence again she she said: 



Thence again she 
talked 

ia'hatsen'ri' dji' 

there he it found where 



ne' 

the 



konti'rio'. 

they (are) ani- 
mals. 



Ne' ka'ti' 

The so then 



nakwa" 

the very 



nofl'we' uiiethi- 

plaue 

lokofita'tie 



there we 

them have 

shut 



there 



E'tho'ne' nen' iokonta'tie' 

At that time now at once 



iet'ene* dji' non'we* niiethin'ho'to"'." 

T thither let where place there we them have 

us two go shut up." 

ia'niiake"'tiVtci', nakwa" o'k^ e" ia'tiara"tate\ Ne' ka'tr dji' 

c> thither they two went the very just there thither they two The so then where 

out. weut running. 

nen' ia^ha'newe' to'ke"ske' ka'tf e'' i'rate' ne' Oterontonni"iV. 

9 now there they two it is true so then there he stood the It Sapling. 



there they two 
arrived 



sho'n'hotofl'kwe"' ne' iotstenraka'ronte', ne'' nakwa'' o'k' he^ 



the 



it rock cavern (is), 



the very 



kofiti'iio'. 



he had opened closed 
place 

tha'tekanen'res kontitakhenon'tie' ne' 

11 there its line (is) long they were along running the 

ci-niia'takonta'tie' toiisa'nitsten'ra'kwe' 

12 they went without again they two stone took up 

stopping 

tha'tetiotiiake"''o"', nakwa*' i'ke°' kario'towa'ne"'se' 

13 then they had come out, the very it is it animal great (are) 

ne' o'k*" he*' niiesakon"hese'. 

I'T the just there just there again, they 

live. 



just 



they animals 
(are). 

sa'nin'ho'to"' 

again they two it 
closed 



Nakwa' 

The very 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 



yon- 
der. 

o'k' 

only 

ia" 

not 

ka'ti' 

so then 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



309 



Sapling kept saying: "Do ye two not again immure them." Never- 
theless, Tawi'skaro"' and his grandmother just placed thereon other 
stones. So then the kinds of animals that we know are only those 
that came out again. 

So then it came to pass that Sapling, as he trav^eled from place to 
place, went, after a while, along the shore of the lake. There, not far 
away, he saw Tawi'skaro"', making for himself a bridge of stone [ice] 
across the lake, which already extended far out on the water. There- 
upon Sapling went to the place where he went on working. So then, 
when he arrived there, he said: "Tawi'skaro"", what is this that thou 
art doing for thyself? '' He replied, .saying: " I am making a pathway 
for myself." And then, pointing in the direction toward which he was 
building the bridge, he added: " In that direction there is a land where 
dwell great animals of fierce dispositions. As soon as I complete my 



Ne'ne' 

The that 

Se""ha' 

More 



Oterontonni"a' 

It Sapling 



ra'to"': 

he it savs: 



"To"sa' 



■ Do not 
do it 



sasenin'ho'to"'." 

again you two it close." 



o'k' toiitanitsteiira're"' 

only they two rock laid on it 



ne 

the 



Tawi'skaro"' no'k' ne' 

and the 



ro'sot'ha'. 

his grand- 
mother. 

konti'rio" 



Flint 
(lee, Crystal) 

Ne' ka'tf ne' dji' non'wa' niiono"'hwendjia'ke' ne' 

The so then the where this time so they lands (kinds) in the 



ne' 

the 



tewaiente'ri' e" ni'ko"' 



we them know 



thus so tliey 
number 



so they lands (kinds) in 
number are 

ne' tciiotiiakeiT'o"'. 

the again they emerged. 



they animals 
■ (are) 

Ta', ne' ka'tf wa^hf ne' Oterontonni"if dji' te'hotawenrie'- 

So, the so then verily the It Sapling where he traveled 

ha'tie'se' ft'kare' nen' kaniatarak'ta' niia'ha're'. E" wa'hotka"" 

about after a now it lake beside thither he There he him saw 

time went. 

tho" ne' Tawi'skaro"' tha'onen'sV e're"' kaniatara'ke*'sho"' otsten'ra' 

the Flint already far it lake on along it rock 

(Ice, Crystal) (ice) 

wa'hotaskonniti'ta'kwe"'ha'tie'. " E'tho'ne' ne' Oterontonni"a' e" 

.\t that time the It Sapling thero 



thitlier he it bridge goes on making of it 
for himself. 



niia'ha're' 

tliilher lie 
went 



dji' 

where 



non we 

placo 



wa'hoio'ta'tie'. Ne' ka'tf ne' dji' 

he working went ahead. The so then the whero 



thero 



ia'ha'rawe' 

there he arrived 



wa'heii'ro"' 

he it said: 



'Tawi'skaro"'. o' 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 
7 



ne' 

"Flint, what tho 10 

(Ice, Crystal) (is it) 

ni'satie'r^hilT' Ta'hari'hwa'sera'ko' wa'heii'ro"': "Wakatha'honni- 

thon art doing?" Thence he replied heitaaid: " I road am making for U 

myself." 

•ha'tie'." la'ha'tca'te"' dji' noiTka'ti- na'hoiera'to"'ha'tie' wa- 

Thither he pointed where .side of it thither he his way was ho 12 

making 

"E" non'we' tiio"'hwendjia'te' kontirio'towa'ne"'se' 

'There the place there it earth (is) they animals large (are) 13 

present 



"hen'ro"': 

it said: 



"This incident shovps definitely that Flint, or rather lee-coated or Crystal, is the Winter power. 
There is here a substitution of rock for ice, just as there has been in the name of this important 
nature force. 



310 IROQTTOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

pathway to that other hind, tlicrcon will they hal)itually come over. 
Along this pathway will they be \n the ha))it of coming across the lake 
to eat habitually the flesh of human beings who are about to be [who are 
about to dwell here] on this cai'th." So then Sapling said to him: 
"Thou .shouldst cease the woik that thou art doing. Assuredly the 
intention of thy mind is not good." He replied, saying: "I will not 
cease from what I am doing, for, of course, it is good that these great 
animals shall be in the habit of coming hither to eat the flesh of human 
beings who will dwell here." 

So, of course, he did not obey and cease from ))uilding the l)ridge 
for himself. Thereupon Sapling turned back and reached dry land. 
So along the shore of the sea grew shrubs. He saw a bird sitting 
on a limb of one. The bird belonged to the class of birds that we 

konti'.sero''he"'.se' e" noiTwe" tkanak'ere'. Kawenni'io' neii' 

they fierce are there place there they So soon as now 

inhabit. 

e"katha'his"a' ne' neiT e" ien'wawe' thi'ke"' tiio"'hwendjia'te' 

^ I shall complete the now there there it will that it is there it earth stands 

my road reach 

e" te"tkonne'thake' o'ha"ha'ke''sho"" te"kontii(i'iak'seke' ne'ne' 



3 



4 



there thence they will con- it path on rtlons thence they will habitually the that 

tinue to come cross the stream 

e^tkonti'wa'hrakhe'seke' ne' ofi'kwe'^ ionnakerat'he' ne' ke"-' 

thence they meat will habitually thi- man-being they are about to the here 

come to eat inhabit it is 



f. io"^hwendjia'te\'' Ta', e'tho'ne' ne' OterontonniYi' 

it earth is present." So, at that timi- the It Sapling 



6 



9 
10 
11 



wa'hawe""ha'se' ne' Tawi'skaro"': ••A'sa"tka'we' dji' satie're"". 

he it said to him the Flint: "Thou it shouldst where thou art at 

(lee. Crystal i cease from work. 

/T la'' wa"hr teioian'ere'' dji' ui"sa"niko""hro'te"'." Ta'hari'hwa'se- 

Not verily it is good where so thy mind is shaped." He replied 

ra'ko' wa'hen'ro"': "la" thaka-'tkiiVe, dji' na'ho'te"' 

^ he ti said: "Not I it should cease where such kind of 

from thing 

uikatie'r"ha'. loian'ere' se" wa'^hi" thoi'ke"" koutirio'towa'ne"'se' 

such I am doing. It is good indeed verily this it is they animals large (are) 



? r 



e"tkonti'wa'rakhe'seke' ne' on'kwe" ne' ke"" e''ienak'ereke 

thence they will habitually come the man-being the here they will continue 

to eat meat (humant it is to dwell." 

O'ne"' wa"hi' ia" teiiothoiita'to"- ne' a'ha"tka'we' ne' dji' 

Now verily not he it consented to the he it would cease the where 

from 

rota'skonni'ha'tie'. E'tho'ne* ne' Oterontoiini"a' neiT sa'ha"kete' 

12 he it bridge is making for At that the It Sapling now again he turned 

himself. time back 

ao'"hwendjiathen"ke' ioiisa'rawe'. Ne' ka'ti" ne' kaniatarakta'tie' 

13 it earth is dry at there again The so then the it lake it side of along 

(to dry land) he arrived. 

iokwirarat'ie', tci'ten"a' wa'ha'ke"" e" kentskwa"here' okwira'ke'. 

^^ it brush grew bird he it saw there it it sat on it branch on. 

along, 

a This refers to human beings, which, it was understood, were about to inhabit the earth. 



MOHAWK VERSION 



311 



are accustomed to call the bluebirds. kSapling then said to the Blue- 
bird: '"Thou shalt kill a cricket. Thou shalt remove one hind legf 
from it, and thou shalt hold it in thy mouth, and thou shalt go thither 
to the very place M'here Tawi'skaro"' is working. Hai'd by the place 
where he is working thou shalt alight, and thou shalt cry out." The 
bird replied, saj'ing: "'Yo" [very well]." 

Tliereupon it verily did seek for a cricket. After a while it found 
one. and killed it, too. Then it pulled out one of its hind legs and put 
it into its mouth to hold, and then it flew, winging its way to the place 
where Tawi'skaro"' was at work making himself a bridge. There it 
alighted hard by him at his task. Of course it then shouted, saying: 
"Kwe', kwe', kwe', kwe", kwe'."" Thereupon Tawi'skaro"' upraised 



Ne' dji' na'ho'te"' konwa'iats 

The where such kind of one it calls 

thing 

Nen' ne' Oterontonni'Ti' 

Now the It Sapling 



ne 

the 



tci'teiT'a^ 

bird 



Swiwi'ko'wa'.* 

Great Bluebird. 



ko'wa': 

Bluebird: 

e''"ska- 

one 



" Tarak'tarak 

•■Cricliet 



wa're'"'ha'se' 

he it her said to 

tft'hno""' 

and 



ne' 

the 



Swiwi'- 

Grcat 



non we 

place 



e senio 

thou it wilt 
kill 

ne' e"'sate'nhon'ta' iio'k' he" 

the thou it shalt hold in and there 

thy mouth 

ne' Tawi'skaro"' wa'hoio'ta'tie' akta"a' 

the Flint lie goes on work- near by 



e"' 

there 



Flint 
(Ice, Crystal 

ie"'8efinitskwa're"\ 

there thou shalt sit, 



tci'ten'"a' wa'ken'ro"': 

bird it it said: 



no'k' 

and 

'lo"." 

'So be it." 



ing 

te"sa'hen're'te'." 

tliou Shalt shout." 



e"snitshota'ko' 

thou its thigh shalt 
take off 

ie"".se' dji' 

there thou where 
shalt go 

dji' roio"te' 

where he is 

working 

Tofita'ti' ne' 

It spoke in the 

reply 



E'tho'ne' 



nen 

now 



to'ke"ske' 

truly 



wa'oia'ti'sake'' 

it its body sought 



ne 

the 



.\t that 
time 

A'kare' nen' wa'oia'tatsen'ri' tii'hno"" wa'oie'na' ne' 

After a now it its body found and it it seized the 

while 



tarak'tarak. 

cricket. 



ne' 

the 



wao no . 

it it killed. 



e'tho'ne' nen 

at that now 

time 



E'tho'ne' 

e"te'nhon'ta'. 



.\t that 
time 



nen 

now 



wtVo'nitshota'ko' e"''ska', 

it its thigh took off 



it it put into its 
mouth. 



Nen' tft'hno"" 

Now and 



one, 

wa'tka'te"', 

it flew. 



ta'hno" 

and 



e' 

there 



niia'ka'tie' dji' nofi'we' ne' Tawi'skaro"' wa'hotaskonnio"ni'ha'tie'. 

there it went where the place tht 
flying 

E" ia'heiinitskwa're"' 

There there it alighted 



Flint 
(Ice, Crystal) 

ak'ta' dji' 

near by where 



wa'tiio'hen're'te' wa'ken'ro"': "" Kwe^'," 

it uttered a cry it (z.) it said: " K'vve", 



he it bridge kept on building 
for himself. 

roio^'te', uen' wiVhi' 

he was now verily 

working, 

kwe", kwe", kwe", 

kwe*', kwe", kwe". 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



«This is approximately the death cry or halloo of the Iroquois. 

^The bluebird is here mentioned a.s it is among the first of the migratory birds to return in the 
spring, which is a token that the spring of the year has come, and that the power of the Winter 
power is broken. 



312 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY (eth. a.nn. 21 

lii.s head and looked and saw a bird sitting there. He believed from 
what he saw that it held in it.s mouth the thigh of a man-being, and 
also that its mouth was wholly covered with blood. It was then that 
Tawi'skaro"' sprang up at once and fled. As fast as he ran the l)ridge 
which he was making was dissipated. " 

Now then, verily, the father of Sapling had given him sweet corn. aTid 
now he roasted this corn. A great odor, a sweet odor, was diffused. 
So when the grandmother of Tawi'skaro"' smelt it, she said: " AVhat 
other thing again is Sapling roasting for himself?" She addressed 
Tawi'skaro"' saying: "Well, let lis two go to see it, where he has 
his fire built." Now, of course, they two had at once uprisen, and they 

kwe"." E'tho'ne' neii' wa"henno"'kets'ko' ne' Tawi'skaro"' 

1 kwe"." At that now he his head raised the Flint 

time (Ice, Crystal) 

til'hno""' wa'hatkti"tho' wa'ha'ke"' tci'teiT'a' e'' ke"tskwa"here'. 

2 and he looJjed he it saw bird there it sat. 

Wa"re're' dji' ni'io't dji' wa"hatkat'ho" on'kwe"-ke""ha' 

3 Bethought where so it is where he it looked at man- i! had 

being been 

io'hnitsa'nhon'te" neii' ta'hno""' ne' dji' ka'saka'roiite' 

4. it thigh in its mouth now and the where its mouth 

held. 

onekwe"'sos'ko"\ E'tho'ne" ne' Tawi'skaro"* tonta'hate"sta'tci' 

5 it is wholly blood. At that the Flint thence he quickly 

time (Ice. Crystal t arose 

no'k' haia'takonta'tie' shote'kwe"'. Dji' niio'sno're' ne' dji' 

6 and his body did not again he fled. Where so it is rapid the where 

stop 

ratak'he" e"' nitcio'sno're' tcioteri'sioiTha'tie' ne' hotuskonni- 

7 he ran thus so again it is again it disappeared the lie it bridge had 

rapid (came to pieces) been making 

onni'hatie'ne'. 

8 for himself. 

Ne' ka'ti' wa'*hi' ne' Oterontofini'"a' ro'ni"ha" tho'wi" ne' 

9 The so then verily the It .Sapling his father he him the 

gave 

tekonteroii'weks o'ne"'ste' ne' ka'ti* wa'hatene"'ston'te"'. 

10 white (shriveled) corn the so then he corn roasted. 

Ka'serowa'ne"' ka'sera'ko"' o"te'se'rare°". Ne' ka'ti* ne' 

11 It odor (is) great it odor (is) pleasant it odor took on. The so then the 

Tawi'skaro"' ro'sot'ha' wa'akos'ho* ta'hno""' wa'i'ro"*: "O" ha're' 

12 Flint his grand- she it smelled and sheitsaid: "What again 
(Ice, Crystal) mother lis it) 

na'ho'te"' ne' Oteroiitoiini"a' rotes'koiite'?" Wa'honwe""ha'.se' 

13 such kind of the It Sapling he it roasts for She said it to him 

thing him.self?" 

ne' Tawi'skaro"' wtx'i'ro"': "To', tiatke"'se'ra' ne' dji' 

14 the Flint sheitsaid; "Well, let us two go to the where 

see it 

thoteka'to"'." Neii' se" o'k' wa"hi' toritatite".sta'tci" no'k' 

15 there he has Now so it is just verily they two quickly and 

fire." arose 

n That is, so fast as winter recedes, so rapidly the ice on rivers and lakes disappears. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



313 



two ran. They two ari'ived where he had kindled his tire, and they 
two saw that it was true that he was roasting for himself an ear of sweet 
corn. Verily, the fatness was issuing- from it in sti'eams on the grains, 
along the rows of grains until only the cob was left, so fat was the corn. 
The grandmother of Tawi'skaro"' said: "Whence didst thou ))ring 
this?" He replied: "My father gave it to me." She answered, say- 
ing: "Thou dost even intend that the kinds of men who are to dwell 
here shall live as pleasantly as this, here on this earth." And just then 
she took up a handful of ashes, and she cast them on the ear of corn 
that was roasting. At once the fat of the corn ceased from issuing 
from the roasting ear. But Sapling very severely rebuked his grand- 
mother for doing this. Whereupon he again took up the ear of corn 
and wiped off the ashes that had fallen upon it. Then lie again .set it to 



te'honnara'ta'to" 

they two ran, 

to'ke"ske' 

truly 



la'ha'newe' dji' thoteka'to"' 

There they two where there he has 

arrived tire 

ka'ti' rote'skonte' ska'hra"ta' 

so then he is roasting it oneitear(of corn) 

for himself 



wa'hiatkat'ho' 

they two looked 

tekonteron'weks 

white (.shriveled) 



o'ne"'ste'. Nakwa" ken'ie' io''hnawe"'ton'nio"'' tiiotiiake'"'o"' ne' 

it corn. The very it oil it streams flows down they come forth the 

one'"sta'ke' nakwa" nen' ne' ke"" niio'nhonwa'ta' ska'hra'til'ie"' 

itgrainon the very now the here so (many) it rows has justitearofconi 

lies ( ..s left) 

e" niione'"stare"se"'. Wa'i'ro"' ne' ro'sot'ha': "Ka" ni'sa"ha?" 

there so it corn fat (is) . She it said the 



his grand- 
mother; 



Where 

is it 

Tii'hen'ro"': " Rake'ni"ha' rakwa'wi'." Tontaionta'tf 

He replied: " He my father 

(is) 

^'Akwa" i^'se^re' e" ne^iakoto'nha'reke' ne' on'kwe' ne' 

"Juat thou it in- thus so well they will live the man-being(s) the 



he it gave to 
me." 



Again thence she 
spoke 



thence thou it 
didst bring-*" 

wai'ro"': 

she it said: 



thou it in- 
tendest 



e"ienakei*enion"'hake*' ne' 

they will dwell in places the 
(as tribes) 

wa^tewa'tcia'na^'kwe' o'se'''hai'a 

she handful took up it ashes there 

ono"'kwe""ake' ne' e" rotes'konte\ 



man-being(s) 
(= humans) 

dji' io"'hwen'djiate\ Neii' .so'k 

where it earth present (is). Now 



wa'tio'ia'ke' ne' 

the 



at 
once 

o^se^hara' 

it ashes 



1 

2 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 



it ear (of corn) on 



the there 



he it is roasting 
for himself. 



kefi'ie' ioiiiake"''o'''ha'tie' ne' e" 

it oil they (z.) oils keep com- the there 

ing forth 



Oterontonni^'a' 

It Sapling 



ro'sot'ha' 

his grand- 
mother 

o'ne"'ste' 

it corn 



dji' 

where 



akwa' 

very 

na'e' 

so she it did. 



ione'hra'kwa't 

it is remarkable 

E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



she it cast 
against 

Ia'honteri"sia'te' ne' dji' 

It ceased at once the where 10 

rotes'konte'. No'k' ne' 

he it is roasting and the 11 
for himself. 

wa'shakori'hwas'te"' ne' 

he her chided the l^ 

nen' tonsa'ra^kwe' ne' 

now again he it took uii the lo 



sa'hara'kewe' 

again he it wiped 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



io"se"ha'rare'. 

it it had ashes on. 



E'tho'ne' 

At that time 14 



314 



IBOQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



roast; but it was just possible for it to exude onl}' a small amount of 
fatness again, as it is now when one roasts ears for himself. It is 
barely visible, so little does the fatness exude. 

Now the grandmother of Sapling fetched ripened corn that Sap- 
ling liad planted, and she shelled it. Then she poured it into a 
mortar. And now she took the pestle and with it ])ounded the corn, 
and she made haste in her pounding, and she said: "Veril}%thou 
wouldst have mankind exceedingly well provided. Verily, they sliall 
customarily be much wearied in getting bread to eat. In this manner 
then shall they customarily do with the mortar and also the pestle." 
She herself had finished them. Whereupon Sapling rebuked her for 
what she had done. He, in regard to this matter, said: "That which 
thou hast done is not good." 

Then, \erily, while Sapling was traveling, he was surprised to find 



1 

2 

3 

•i 
5 

6 

■7 

8 

9 

10 

11 
12 
13 
14 



sa'hate'skon'te"' a're' akwa" e" ho'k' thoiisakakwe'nr osthon"ha' 

again very lhu8 juwt as much as it was it is small 



again he it roasted 
for himself 



as much as it was 
possible 

non'wa' dji' iii'io't 

this time where so it is 



lie' 

the 



o'k' thonsaweiiieno'te"' (ne' 

only again it oil put forth (the 

aionte'skon'te"' akwa" ne' o'k" Tie' wa'he'ne'ne' taweniano'te"') 

very the just the it is visible 



one would roast it 
for one's self 

E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



ne 

the 



co'sot'hrr 

his grand- 
mother 



thenoe it oil would 
exude). 

iotene"'stis"o"' ne' 

the 



it com has ma- 
tured 



Oterontonni-'a' roient'he"'. 

It Sapling he it has planted. 



ka"tako"' isi'oii'wero"". NeiT 

in thithersheitpoureil. Now 

wa'tiako'steri"he"" ne' dji' 

she made haste the where 



ia'e'ko' ne' 

thence she it the 
got 

wa'ene""staron'ko". E'tho'ne" kfi'ni- 

she it shelled. At that time it mortar 

wa"hr ia'e'sisa'tota'ko' wa'et'he'te' 

verily there she got the she it pounded 



wa'e'the'te' 

she it pounded 



there she got the 
pestle 

ta'hno""' 

and 



wa 1 ro 

she it said: 



"Akwa**' i^se're' to'-ke"" ne"tiakokwatsto'"'hake' ne' oii'kwe' 

" Very thou de- how is it so they will be living at ease the 



how is it 
much 



thou de- 
si rest 

Akwa-' e"'s aiero^'hia'kencr ne' dji' 

Very eustom- one should struggle the where 

arily utterly 

he"'s ne"ieier"hake' ne' kanika^bV no'k' 

so one it will habit- the 
ually do 

ne' iakos'^o"* 

the she them tin- So. 

ished. 

wa*'shakori'hwas'te"' ne' dji' 

he her matter it rebuked in the where 



custom- 
arily 

Akao""ha 

She herself 



man-beingg, 
(humans) 

e"iena'tarake\ E" 

one bread will eat. Thus 



it mortar and 

Ta'. e'tho'ne' 

So. at that 

time 

nae'iere', 

so she it did 



ho'nf 

also 

ne' 

the 



ne 

the 



a SI sa 

it pestle.' 



Oterofitonni''a' 

It Sapling 



wa'hen'ro"" 

he it said: 



la" 

■Not 



wa'^hf teioia'nere' ne' dji' na"siere\" 

verily it is good the where so thou it didst 

do." 

Ne' ka'tr wa"hi' ne' Oterontonni"a' dji' te'hotawen'rie' 

The so then verily the It Sapling where he travels 



MOHAWK VERSION 



315 



that it became dark. So then lie inutied, saying: ''Why, this .seems 
to be a marvelous matter, this thing that thus takes place." There- 
upon he returned homeward. Ari-ived there, he found the sun in no 
place whatsoever, nor did he tind Tuwi'skaro"' and his grandmother. It 
was then that he looked about him. So then he looked and saw a light 
whicli was like the dawn. Therefrom he understood that the siui was 
in that place. He therefore sought servants who would accompany 
him to fetch the sun. Spider volunteered; so also did Beavt^r; so also 
did Hare; so also did Otter. So at this time they made themselves a 
canoe. When they had completed the canoe, they all then placed them- 
selves in the canoe, and they then of course began to paddle, directing 
their course toward the place where the dawn shone forth, toward the 



wa'hatie're"" 

he was surprised 



Ac 



fhenee it becume 
dark. 



Ta'. e'tho'ne' 

Si.>. at that time 



iori'hwane'hrti'kwiVt 

it matter is wonderful 



la'sa'rawe' 

There he araved 



la 

ni>t 



"A'nio-' 

"Well, 

sa'ha'ten'ti". 

he went back 
(home). 

Tawi'skaro"' no'k' ho'ni" ne' 

Flint and al.-^o the 

(Ice = Crystal i 

E'tho'ne' ne' neiT 

At that time the now 



dji' na'a'we""." 

\vhere so it happened.' 



wa re're : 

he 
thought: 

E'tho'ne' neiT 

At that time now 



ka'tf 

su thf n 



kan'ektr 

unvwhero 



ne 

the 



ro'sot'lifr ia*' ho" ne"' 

his grand- nut too the 

niothtT 



ktii'jV'kwji\ 

it sun. 

kan'ekiV. 

HnvwIuTi.'. 



tetio'.shwat'he" dji' ni'io't 

there it is light where so it is 



w:Vthatka*'ton'nio"\ 

he looked about in dif- 
ferent ways. 

ne' tetiawen'tote'. 

the there it dav dawns. 



Wa'hatkat'ho' 

He looked. 

NeiT 

Now 



ka'ti' 

so then 

e'tho'ne' 

at that time 



wa*ho"niko"*raien'tiVne' e'' non'we' ieka'ie"' ne' kara"kwa\ 

he it understood there tlie j'hii-e there it lies the it sun. 



Ta', 

So, 



etho'ne" 

at that time 



nen 

now 



ne' wa'ha'nha'tseri'siike" 

the he assistants sought for 



a''honsa"hatiko'''ha' 

they should go after it 
again 

ria'ke", no'k" ha're' 

and 



ne 

the 



no'k" 

and 

Ne' 

The 



ha're' 

again 

ka'ti" dji' 

so then where 



again 

Tawi'ne' 

otter. 



ne' a'hon'ne' 

the they him should 
accompany 

kara''kwa'. Takwtt'a''.sa"r wa'hathoiika'- 

it sun. Spider he volunteered, 

no'k" ha're" Ta"ho"'tane'ke"', 

and again Hare, 



Tsoni'to', 

Beaver, 

Ta', 

So. 



e'tho'ne" neii' wa'*honthoiiion'ni\ 

at that time now they themselves it boat 

made for. 

wa''honthonwis"iV e'tho'ne' nen' akwe'ko"' 



thev their boat finished at that time 



it all 



kri'hon'wiiko"* WiVhonti'ta', nen' tii'hno"' 

it lioat in thev embarked, now and 



wa"hi' wa'hati'kawe' 

verily they paddled 



e*' na'hatiie'nVte' dji' noil' we' tiiaweii'tote'. Ne' ka'tf ne' 

there thither they them- where theplace there it daydawns. The sothen the 
selves direeted 



9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 



316 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



place where lay the sun. The trees stood together, and on their tops 
lav the sun. So then Sapling said: "Thou. Beaver, do thou cut down 
the tree; and thou. Spider, shalt climh the tree, and at the top of the 
tree thou shalt fasten thy cord. Then thou shalt descend, hanging by 
thy cord, until thou reachest the ground." And he said to Hare: -'As 
soon as the tree falls, thou must seize the sun. Thou art assuredly 
an adept at skulking through the underbrush. No matter how diffi- 
cult the ground be, thou art able of course to flee Vjy stealth, if at this 
time it so be that one pursue thee from place to place." He said: •"But 
thou. Otter, shalt care for the canoe. If it be so that we all get aboard 
the canoe, thou shalt turn back the canoe at once." 



neiT ciia'hati'ra'r"ho' ne' dji' tkawe'note' dji' non'we' ieka'ie"' 

J time there they arrived the where there it island where the place there it 

stands lies 

ne' kara"kwa'. £"ska"ne' ne' dji' ke'r"hi'to''' karen'haken'iate' 

2 the it sun. One(plaeeiin the where it tree stand it tree top of 



e" ieka"here' ne' 

3 there it it lies upon the 

wa'hefi'ro"": " I'se' 

4 he it said; "Thou 



kara"kw;V. 
it sun. 



it tree stand 
plurally 

E'tho'ne' ne' 

At that time the 



Oterontoiini'Ti' 

It Sapling 



ne' Tsoni'to' e'".seron'tia'ke\ no'k' ni'se' 

the Beaver thou it tree shalt cut but 



thou it tree shalt cut 
down, 



the 
thou 



Takwa'a"sa'r e'"'serat'he'" ne' kaionta'ke' karen'haken'iate' e" 

5 Spider thou shalt climb it the it tree on it tree top of there 

e"tesne'renke' ne' sa'se'riie'. E'tho'ne' te"tesats'ne°'te' e"tesatia'- 



6 



thou Shalt it tie 



the 



thy cord. 



At that time 



thence thou shalt 
descend 



thou thy body 
shalt fasten 



taniien'to"' 

T toil 



ne 

the 



sa'se'riie'ke' dji' niio're' o'"hwendjia'ke' 

thy cord on where so it is far it ground on 



e"'.se*sera'til"ne\" 

again thou it wilt reach" 



No'k" Wii'hawe'"'ha'se' ne' 

And he him said to the 



Ta'ho"'tane'ke"' 

Hare 



wa'hen'ro" 

^ he it said: 



Kaweiini'io' neiT e''karoritie'no"'ne' i'.se' te"'se'''kwe' 

"So soon as now it tree shall fall thou thou it shalt 

it is pick up 



ne 



kara"kwa". Seweien'te't wa"hi' ne' e"'satkwaton"hwe' ne' 



10 

o'skawakoiT'sho" 

11 it bushes among. 



Thou art skillful verily 

Iawero"'ha'tie"' 

It matters not 



nia'ni't sakwe'niofi ki" wa"hr 



12 



thou art able to 
doit, 



I be- 
lieve, 



verilv 



the thou shalt flee in zigzag lines the 

to' na"teiao"'hwendjianoii- 

how so it land forbidding (is) 

ne' e"'satkwaton"hwe' ne' 

the thoushaltfleein zigzaglines the 

No'k' ne' Tawi'ne'. ka'hon- 

And the Otter it boat 



to'ka' non'wa'-ke"" aiesa'sere"so"". 

13 if this time is it one thee would 

pursue about. 

we'iiV ni'se' e"'sate'niko"'ra'ro"'. To'ka wa"hr ueiT akwe'ko"^ 

1^4 the thou it wilt attend to. If verily now it all 

thou 

e."tciakwati'ta' iokonta'tie' e'"satta'kwa'te' ne' ka'hoiiwe'itv." 

15 again we shall at once (it thou it wilt turn the it boat." 



embark 



follows) 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



317 



All this, then, came to pass. Beaver, of coiii'se, worked there, 
biting out pieces from the tree; and Spider, for his part, climbed to 
the tree top, and having reached the top, he then, verily, fastened his 
cord about it. Thereupon he let himself down, and again alighted on 
the earth. So then, when there was, of course, little to cut, and the 
prospect was encouraging that it would be possible to fell the tree, then 
Spider pulled on the cord. Then, in fact, the ti'ee toppled over. 
Thereupon Hare rushed forward and seized the sun, for, indeed, 
Tawi'skaro"' and his grandmother both came running up. It was then that 
Hare fled, taking the sun away with him. Now, of course, they pur- 
sued him in many places; he fleetl>' scurried through the shrubbery. 
After a time he directed his course straight for the canoe; foi- then, 



E'tho' ka'tr to'ke"ske' na'a'we"'. Tsoni'to' wa"hi' nen' e" 

Thus so tbeu truly so it hap- Beaver verily now there 



wa'hoio"ta' 

he worked 

Takwa'a".sa'r 

Spider 



so it hap- 
pened. 

wii'hatekhwanioii'ko' ne' karonta'ke', no'k' ne' 

he it bit repeatedly the it tree on, and the 



ia'harat'he"' 

there he climbed 



na , 

that 
one 



ne 

the 
that 



ne 

the 



kareii'haken'iate' 

it tree top of 



ia'ha'rawe', nen' wa"hi" e" tA'ha'hwan'rake' 

there he arrived. Now verily there he it wrapped 



ne' 

the 



rao sen le 

his cord. 



E'tho'ne' nen' tonta'hatisi'ton'te', sa'hara'ta'ne' o"'hwendjia'ke'. 

At that time now thence he his body again he reached it earth on. 



Ne" ka'tr wa"hr 

That so then verily 

io'r^ha'ratste' neii' 

it is very hopeful now 



thence he his body 
suspended, 

ne' -'■ 

the 



again he reached 

it 



neiT e" ho'k' 

now there only 



na'tetcioia'sa' ne' nen' 

so it is narrow the now 



Takwa'tV'sa'r 

Spider 



nen 

now 



e"wa'to"'' e"karontieno""'ne' 

it will be it tree will fall 

possible 

ta'ha'.seriie'tati'ronto"\ 

he it cord pulled on. 



e'tho'ne' ne' 

the 



at that 
time 



To'ke"ske' 

Truly 



ka'tr 

so then 



wa'karontieno""ne'. E'tho'ne' ne' Ta'ho"'tane'ke"' ta'haia'takonta- 



it tree fell. 



tie"te' 



wa'trtVkwe' 

he it took up 



.\t that time the 

ne' kara"kwa'. 

the it sun. 



Hare 



thence his body fol- 
lowed instantly 



te'hnitak'he' ne' Tawi'skaro"' no'k' 

they two ran the Flint but 

lice, Crystal) 

wa"hr Ta'ho"'tane'ke"' wa'hate'ko'. 

Hare 



verily 

kwa'. 



Nen' 

Now 



wa"hr 

verily 



he fled, 

wa'honwa'sere"so" 



ho'm' ne' ro'sot'br. Neil' 

also the his grand- Now 

mother. 

ioii.sa'ha"hawe' ne' kara"- 

hence he it bore the sun. 



Rotkwaton'hwe'tie'se' 

He fled in devious courses 



ne' o'skawako""sho"'. 

the it bush(es) among. 

ka'ti' tka'hofiwa'ie"', 

of it there it boat lies, 



they him pursued from 
place to place. 

A'kare' neiT ia'hakontatie"te' dji' non- 
After a now thither he went directly where the 
time side 

nen' se" wa"hi' ne' ronnatia"ke' ne' 

now indeed verily the they others the 



Nen' se" wa"hr o'k' e" 

Now indeed verily just there 10 



11 

12 
13 
14 
15 



318 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



indeed, the others, his friends, were aboard the canoe. He ciinie 
thither on the hound, and got aboard the canoe. At the same time with 
this, Otter pushed oti' the canoe, and they again began to paddh^ 

So then, as they rowed back. Otter, it is said, did verily continue to 
tallt. They forbade him. but he did not obey. Then a person struck 
him a blow with a paddle on his mouth. (It is for this reason that 
now the mouth of the Otter is such that one would think that it had 
been broken off long ago. His lower jaw is shorter than the upper. 
It is plain where one struck him with a paddle.) 

So when the}' had arrived at home. Sapling said: "It shall not con- 
tinue to be thus, that a single person rules over the sun." Then 
it was that he cast the sun up to the center of the sky. saying: 
"There where the sky is present, thereto must thou keep thyself 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



ka'honwe'ia', 

it boat, 

ka'ti' 

SO then 



ka'hon'wako"'. O'k' cihatak'he" ionsa'- 

it boat in. Jnst there he ran along again he 



ronteii'ro' ieshatiia'ti" 

they his friends there again they 
are are embarked 

hati'ta'. E'tho'ne' iokonta'tie" ne' Tawi'ne' sa'hata'kwa'te' ne' 

embarlted. .-Vt that time at once (it the Otter he it turned bacli the 

follows) again 

nen' wa"hr sa'hati'kawe'. 

now verily again they paddled. 

ne' dji' nen' shoti'honwakera'ne" Tawi'ne', 

the where now again their boat floats along Otter, 



Ne' 

The 



ia'ke"', to'ke"ske' dji' ro'thara'tie'. Roiiwana'hri.s'tha", no'k' ia" 

it is said, truly where he kept on They him forbade, and not 

talking. 

teMiothonta'to"'. NeiT e'tho'ne' shfiia'tti' fi'kawe' waiio'le'^te' 



he obeyed. 



Now 



at that time 



it paddle 



he him struck 



(Ne' tiiori"hwa' 

(The it is reason 



ne' 

the 



ra'saka'ronte' 

his mouth 



he one 
person 

dji' ra'saka'roTite' wa'hano"'hwar'ia'ke\ 

where his mouth (is) he him it blow struck. 

non'wa' ne' Tawi'ne' e" ni'io't dji' 

present the Otter thus so it is where 

time 

o'k' tetkaia'ktci"ho"'. Ni'ha'qhiots'hes'a' ne' e'ta'ke" nonka'ti', 

just one it had broken. So his jaw (is) short the lower side of it, 

we'ne' dji' e" kaie""to'" a'kawe' wats'to"".) 

il IS plain where there one it struck it paddle one used it.) 

Ta', ne' kii'tr wa'^hf ne' nen' ciionsa'hoil'newe' ne' Oterontoii- 

So, the so then verily the now there again thty the It Sapling 

arrived 

"la" e", the"io'to"''hiike" ne' tcieia'ta' ho'k' 

"Not thus, thus it will con- the one person only 



one would 
think 



ni il 



wa'hefi'ro" 

he It said : 



aiewet'iniio"hake' 

one it should control 

sa'tewa'sen'no"' 

just its middle 



ne' 

the 



thus it will con 
tinue to be 

kara"kw:V." Ta', 

it sun." It so. 



E'tho'ne' 

at that 
lime 



ne' 

the 



dji' 



karoiT'hiate' 



e 

there 



ia'ho'tf 

he it threw 



nen 

now 



ne' 

the 



kara"kwa' ta'hno""' wa'hen'ron': "E'tho' dji' karon"hiate' e" 

it sun and he it said: "There where it sky is pres- there 



it sky is pres- 
ent 



MOHAWK VERSION 



319 



attached, and, besides this, thou shalt fontiiiuouslj' journey onward." 
He pointed thither, and said: " 'The phiee wiiere it plunges itself into 
the deep [that is, the west]' people will habitually call the place 
whither thou shalt habitually descend, the place wherein thou shalt 
habitually be immersed. At these times, verilj^ darkness will come 
upon the earth present here; and 'The place where the sun rises [that 
is, the cast]' people will habitually call the place whence thou wilt 
habitually peer out, and people will say, 'Now the Sun has come out.' 
Then shalt thou raise thyself upward therefrom. Thus thou shalt 
continue to have this function to perform. Thou shalt continue to 
give light to this earth." Besides this he said: "Whensoever man- 
kind mention thee, they will ever say customarilj': 'He is the Great 
Warrior who supplies us with light."" 80 then, in its turn, now 
came of course the luminary', the Moon, which was his mother's head. 



e"'satia"tanen'takto""hake' nen' ta'hno"" 

wilt thou thy body attach now and 

(as a fixture) 

e^'sa'teiitionha'tie'." Li'ha'tca'te' 

thou shalt move along." 



o'k e"tiotkonta"kwe' 

just 



wa'hen'ro"' 

he it said: 



Thither he 
pointed 

tchot'ho^s e"konwaiats'heke' dji' e"'s non'we 

(immerses will they call it where ciis- the place 

itself) habit«a]ly tomarily 



it shall be contin- 
uous 

"Dji' ia'tewat- 

" Where there it 

sets 

ie"'sats'no"'te' 

there thou shalt 
go down 



ie°'sanonwi're^te'. E'tho'ne' wa"hr nen' e"tioka'ra'hwe'' ne' dji' 

verily now it shall become the where 



there thou shalt be 
immersed. 



At that 
time 



it shall become 
dark 



io°'hwendjia'te'. 

it earth is present. 



Dji' 

Where 



tkara'kwi'neke"'s e"konwaia'tsheke'," 

there it sun comes shall it they call 

out habitually," 

(ia'ha"tcate"' dji' nofika'ti') " e" he"'s nonka'ti' te".sake'to'te' ne' 

(thither he where the side of "there cus- side of it there thou shalt the 

pointed it) tomarily peer over 

e^iai'ro"' ne' on'kwe' neii' takara'kwi'neke"'ne\ Ta', e'tho'ne' 

one it will the man-being now it sun has come up. So, at that 

say (human) time 

tontesathara'tate'. E^' ni'se' ni'io't dji' e"'sateri'hon'take\ te^ssh- 

thence thou shalt raise There the soitis where thou duty wilt have it, thou 

thyself. thou 

wathe"take' ne' dji' io"'hwendjia'te\" Nen' ta'hno"" wa'hen'ro"': 

it wilt make the where it earth is present." Now and heitsaid: 

light 

" Kat'ke' ne' oii'kwe' i'se' e"iesana'to"' e"ionto""heke' e"'s: 

" Whenever the man-being thou one thee shall one shall continue custom- 

(human) designate to say arily: 

' llo''ske"'rakeHe"kowa" ne' teshonkwa'shwathe"tenni'.s. " 

' He Great Warrior (is) the he us causes it lo be light tor.' " 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 

8 

{} 

10 

11 



Ta', e'tho'ne' nen' nofi'wa' ne'ne' e"'hni'ta' ne' wa"hi' 

So, at that now the present the it moon the verily 



at that 
time 



the present 
time 



the 
that 



rao""ha' ro'nisten''htl'-ke"'ha' akonofi'dji' ne' ro'sot'ha' 

he himself his mother it was her liead the his grand- 

mother 



ne 

the 

dji' 
where 



12 

13 



320 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann.21 

and which his grandmother had also placed on the top of a standing 
ti-ee. This, too, he threw up to the sky, saying: "The power of thy 
light at night shall be less." He added: "At times they will see thee 
in full. Every night thy size shall diminish until it is gone. Then 
again, thou shalt every night increase in size from a small beginning. 
Every night, then, thou shalt grow until the time comes when thou 
hast completed thj' growth. So now. thus it shall V)e as to thy mode 
of existence." Moreover he said: "Whenever mankind who shall 
dwell here on earth mention thee, the}' will keep saying customarily: 
'Our Grandmother, the luminai'v pertaining to the night.'" 

Then Sapling now formed the Ijod}- of a man" and also that of a 
woman [of the race of mankind]. His younger brother, Tawi'skaro"', 

ke'rhi'te' o'ni' na" ne" e" iako'ha're', e'tho' ho'nf na" 

1 it tree also the that there there she it fas- there also the 

stands that one tened at the top. that 

ne" ia'ho'tr ne' dji' karoiT'hiate', wa'hen'ro"': " £"tiioto'ktake' 

2i that there he it the where it sky is pres- he it said: " It will be lacking 

one threw ent, 

ne' ni'se' ne' dji' te"'se'shwathe'te"' ne' a'sofithen'ne'." 

8 the the the where thou shalt cause it to be the it night (time) in.' 

thou light 

Wa'hen'ro"': '' Sewatie're"' e"kanri'no"'"hake' ne' dji' te"iesa- 

** He it said; "Sometimes it shall be full the where one 

kan'ereke\ Niia'tewa'sonta'ke'' e"tiiostho*'o"''ha'tie' ne' dji' ni''sa' 

5 thee look atshall. Every night (every night it shall continue to grow the where thouart 

in number) smaller large 

dji' niio're" ie'^wa'ts'jVte'. E'tho'ne"' nen' a're" niwa*"a^ dji' 

a where so it is it shall all dis- At that now again so it is where 

far appear. time small 

in size 

te"tesate'hia'ro"' sewa'soiitats'ho"' o'nr na" ne'' ne' dji' 

^ thence thou shalt one it night apiece also the that the where 

grow larger that one 

te"tesate'hia'ro''' dji' niio're' te"tkriie'ri'ne' e"sesate'hia'ro"\ Ta', 

^ thence thou shalt where so it is dis- it shall be cor- again thou shalt grow So, 

grow larger tant rect to maturity. 

e" ni'se' ne"io'to""hake' ne' dji' e"sia'ta'teke'." Nefi' ta'hno"" 

y thus the so it shall continue the where thou shalt exist." Now and 

thou to be 

wa'heii'ro"': ''Ne' ka'tke' i'se' e"iesana'to^' ne' onkwe- 

10 he it said: "The whenever thou one thee shall the man- 

designate (human) 

'ho'ko"' ne' e"ienak'ereke' ne' dji' io"'hwendjia'te' e"ionto'*"- 

11 being the they will be the where it earth is pres- one shall ha- 
plurally dwelling ent bitually 

heke' e^'s lethi'sot'ha^ ne' a^sonthe"^'kha' kara"kwri\" 

say custom- she our grand- the nocturnal (it it luminary." 

arily mother night middleof the) 

Ne' ka'tr ne' Oterontonni'Ti' nen' wa'hoia'ton'nia' ne' 

The so then the It Sapling now he his body made the 



12 
13 



ron'kwe' no'k' ho'nf ne' ion'kwe'. E" te'hakan'ere' ne' 

jA he man-being but also the she man-being. There he it looked at the 

(a man) (a woman) 

a This incident is evidently taken from Genesis in the Christian Bible. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



321 



watched him there. So then, when he had. of course, caused them to 
Ihe, he placed them together. 

Then it was that Sapling started upon a journey to inspect the con- 
dition of the things he had finished on the earth then standing forth. 
Then, at that time, lie came again to review those things and to see 
what things man [of the human race] was .doing. 

Then he returned to the place in which he had given them liberty. 
So then he found the two doing nothing except sleeping habitually. 
He merely looked at them, and went away. But when he came 
again their condition was unchanged; they slept habitually. Thus 
then, in this manner matters stood the very few times he visited them; 
the condition was unchanged; they slept customarily. Thereupon he 
took a ril) from each, and substituted the one for the other, and 
replaced each one in the other body Then, of course, he watched them, 



iiVtate'keiT'n 

his yoTinger 
brother 

wa'shakao'n'liete" 

he them caused ti> live 



Tawi'skaro"'. Ne' kfi'ti' wa"hi' ne' dji' neiT 

Flint. The so then verilj- the where now 



ska"ne' wa'shako"tero"'. 



Neil' 

Now 

iio""ha" 

to view 
them 



wa'*hr 

verilv 



in one 

(place) 



he them placed. 



ne' Oteroiitonni'Ti** wa'ha'ten'tr 

the It Sapling 



he started 
awav 



sa'hatke'^se- 

again he went 



dji' ni'io't ne' dji' rosYi"ho"' 

where so it is the where lie things has 

finished 

Ne' kii'ti' ne' dji' nen' 

The so then the where now 



ejia'te\ 

present. 

'othe'no"'-ke"' ni*hatie'r"ha' ne' on'kwe". 

something is it so he is doing the man-being. 

(human) 

Ne' kii'tr dji' nen' .sa'Tawe** dji' noil'we' 

The so then where now again he where place 



ne' dji' wato"'hwen- 

the where it earth is 

tonta^shakontke"''se'ro"' 

again he them viewed in order 



again he 
arrived 

ka'tr othe'no"' teiatie'r'^liiV 



la^' 

not 

o'k- 

only 

Ne' 

The 

E" 

Thus 

ko'k'ta'se" 

them visited, 



anything 



they two were 
doing 



ne 

the 



O'k^ 

only 



ne 

the 



n i ' shakotka' we" ' 

jtist he them left 

roti'ta's. Ne' 

they slept. The 



he them looked at 



else- 
where 



ne' wfrshakotkat'ho' ak'te" nofi'we' 

the 

kii'ti" 

so thell 

ka'ti" 

so then 



ne 

the 



nen 

now 



the place 

sa'rawe 



nonka'ti' 

side of it 



just again he 
went. 



a're' sa'rawe' kato'ke"' ni'io't roti'ta's. 

again again he unchanged so it is they slept 

arrived habitually. 

ni'io"t akwa"' to'ka"a' nonterats'te' ne' wa'sha- 

80 it is very few it is repeated the he 

kato'ke"' ni'io't roti'ta's. Ta', e'tho'ne' neii' 



luichanged 



so it is 



they slept 
habi'tuallv. 



So, 



at that 
time 



skat'sho"" wa'shakote'karota'ko', neii' til'hno"" wa'thate'ni' dji' 

one each he them rib took out of, now and he them ex- where 

changed 

sa'shakote'karo'te"'. Neii' wa"hi' wa'shakote'niko"'i'a're"' wii're're': 

Now verily he them watched he it thought: 



again he it rib fixed 
into them. 

21 ETH— 03- 



9 
10 
11 

12 
13 
14 



-21 



822 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



thinking of what pcrhiiijs might now happen. It was therefore not 
long before the woman awoke. Then she sat up. At once she touched 
the ])reast of the man lying at her side, just where he had placed her 
rib, and, of course, that tickled him. Thereupon he awoke. Then, 
of course, that matter was started — that matter which concerns man- 
kind in their living; and they also started that matter for whicli in 
their kind their bodies are provided — that matter for which reason 
he is a male human being and she a female human being. 

Then Tawi'skaro"' also formed a human being, but he was not a)>le to 
imitate Sapling, as the form of the human being he poorly made showed. 
Tawi'skaro"' addressed Sapling, saying: " Do thou look, I also am able, 
myself, to form a human being. " So when Sapling looked at that which 



^O" ci' !■ 



ne la we 

so it will 
happen?" 



Ke" ne 

1 "What this is it the 

is it 

iakon'kwe' neiT wa'e'ii 

2 she inan-beiriK now she 

(woman) awoke 

ciieiiVtakonta'tie' ne' 

3 her body followed the 

along 

niisi^'eiere' dji' non'we' 

4: jnst she it where place 

toneiied 

wa'thonwanis'teka'te' wa"hr. 

5 she him tieklcd verily. 



x-'r 



At that 
time 



la" ka'tf tckari'^hwes ne' 

Not so then it is a long the 
matter 

Nakwa" o'k- 

Thf viTy just 



E'tho'ne' wivontkets'ko', 

she sat up. 



aia'tion'nf ne' roil'kwe' e" ke"'' 

the he man-being- there where 

(man) 

ni'hote'karota'kwe"' rana'a^ta'ke' 



his body lay 
extended 



there he rib has removed 



his flank on 



E'tho'ne' 

At that 
time 



wa'ha'ie'. 

he awoke. 



Nen' 

Now 



w:V4u' 

O verilv 



e"teri'hwa'ten'tr dji' niiakoteri"hwate' ne' on'kwe^ 



ne' iako'n'he' no'k" ho'ni' 

7 the they live and also 



neii' wa'hiateri*hwa''ten'tia'te' 

now they matter started 



man- 
beings 

dji' 

where 



nrrho'te"' 

8 such kind <if 



niia truenta"kwe"' dji' 

where 



na'ho'te"' kari'hon'ni' 

just their bodies it are where such kind of it it causes 

thing designed for thing 

ron'kwe' i'ke"^ no'k' ho'nf ne' dji' ion'kwe' i'ke"^ 

9 he man-being it is and also the where she man-being it is. 

(man) (woman) 

Tawi'skaro"*' ka'ti' o'ni' wa'Ton'nr ne' onkwe'; no'k' 

1^^ Flint St) then also he it made the man-being; but 
( Ice, Crystal i 



te'hokwe'nio"' 

J- -L he is able to do it 



the 



he him should 
imitate 



the 



It Sapling 



where 



ne 

the 



la*' 

not 



ne' a'honjVke'ranf ne' Oterontonni'Ti' dji' na"" 



the 
that 



ne" niionkweto'te"' 

1-^ that jnst kind of man- 

one being 

wa''hawe"'iia>se'' ne' 

lo he him spoke to the 



se^' 

^■^ indeed 



also 



ne' wa'ha's'a, a'se'ke"" ne' Tawi'skaro"" 

the he it finished. because the Flint 

(Ice, Crystal) 

■ Satkat'ho" wakkwe'nio"' 

I it am able to do 



Oterofitonni'Tr : 

It Sapling: 



m ■ 

the 
I 



ne 

the 



man-being 
(human) 



'Do thou look 
at it 



oii'kwe' e"koii'nr 



I it will 
make." 



Ne' 

The 



ka'ti" 

.so then 



ne 

the 



HEWITT] MOHAWK VERSION 323 

niad(> him say " I am able to form a human being," he saw that what 
he had formed were not human lieings at all. The things he formed 
were possessed of human faces and the bodies of otkon [monsters], 
subtly made otkon. Sapling spoke to him, saying: "That assuredlj^ is 
the reason that I forbade thee, for of course thou art not able to do as 
I myself am doing continually." Tawi'skaro"' answered, saying: "Thou 
wilt nevertheless see that I can after all do as thyself art doing con- 
tinuall}', because, indeed, 1 possess as much power as thou hast." 
Now, verily, at this time they two separated. And now, Sapling 
again traveled from place to place on the surface of the earth. He 
went to view things that he had completed. After a while, then. 
Sapling promenaded along the shore of the sea. There he saw Tawi's- 

Oterontofini"a' dji' neiT wa'hatkat'ho' ne' ra'to"' ne' 

It Sapling where now he it looked at the he it says the 1 

wakkwe'nio"" ne' ofi'kwe' e°kon'ni" iii'' hofi'kwe' te'ke"' ne' 

I it am able to do the man-being I it will not he man-being it is the 2 

(human) make (man) 

ro'sa"o°'. Ne'ne' o'k' ne' oiTkwe' kako"'sofita"ko"' ne.n' 

he them has The just the man-being he is faced therewith now 3 

finished. that 



ta'hno"" ot'ko"' kaia'tonta''ko", ka'rio', onftat'ko'" ka'rio\ ne' 

and otkon it is bodied animal, subtly otkon animal, tlie 4 

(malefic) therewith, (it is) " (it is) 

wifhi" wa'haia'ti's'a . Ta'hata'tf ne' Oterontonni"a' wa'hefl'ro"': 

verily he its body He spoke the It Sapling he it said: 5 

finished. 

"Ne' wa"hr kari'hoii'ni" ko"n"he',se' ne' dji' ia" se" wa"hf 

*'The verily it it causes 1 thee the where not indeed verily 6 

eaution 

tesakwe'nio"' ne'ne' nae"siere' ne' i"' dji' iiiwakiere"'ha'tie'." 

thou art able to the go thou it the I where so I it keep on doing." T 

doit that shouldst do 

Nefi' wa"hr tonta'hata'tf ne' Tawi'skaro"' wa'heii'ro"': "E"'sa- 

Now verily thence he the Flint he it said: "Thou 8 

iinswerod (Ice, Crystal) 

tkat'ho' ki" dji' e^kkwe'iif se'' e" ne°kie're' dji' 

it wilt see, I where I it shall be indeed thus so it I shall where 9 

think, able to do do 

ni'saiere/^'ha'tie' ne' i'se', a'se'ke"" e"' se'' niwake'sbatste"'''sera- 

so thou art carrying the thon, because thu.s indeed so my power is large 1'' 

on work 

dji' ni'io't ne' i'se'/' Nen' wa'iif e'tho'ne' tonsa'hiatekha"sr. 

where so it is the thou Now verily at that they two again 11 

time separated. 

Nen' u're' wa'^hr ne' Oterofitonni"a'' tonsa'hatawenrie"sa' ne' 

Now again verily the It Sapling he went traveling about the 12 

dji' io"'h\vendjia'te\ Sa*hatke'"senio""ha' ne' dji' ni'ho"sa'- 

where it earth is present. Again he went to see the the where he things 1^ 

things plurally has 

ii'n'bo"'. A'kare' ka'tr ne' Oterontonni'Ti* kaniatarakta'tie' e" 

made After a so then the It Sapling- it lake along there l"* 

severally. time 

i're\ E'tho' ka'tf wa^ho'ke"' ne' Tawi'skaro"' e" rata'tie\se\ 

he is There so then he him saw the Flint there he stood about 15 

walking. (Ice, Crystal) here and there. 



324 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[KTH. ANN. 21 



karo"' standing- about in different places. At the water's edge lay 
the body of a man-being who was as white as foam". When Sapling 
arrived there, he said: "What is this that thou art doing?" Tawi's- 
karo"' replied, saying: "Assuredly, I have made the body of a male 
man-being. This person whose body lies here is better-looking than is 
the one whom thou hast made.'' Assuredlj^, I have told thee that I have 
as much power as thou hast; yea, that my power is greater than i.s th3' 
power. Look thou, assuredlj' his body is as white as is the body of 
the one whom thou hast formed." Sapling answered, saying: "What 
thou sayest is assuredly true. So then, if it be so, let me be looking 
while he makes movements of his body and arises. Well, let him stand, 
and also let him walk." Whereupon Flint said: "Come! Do thou 



Ne' dji' teio'hnekak'te' ron'kwe' e" raia'tion'nf, e" ni'hara'ke"' 

1 The where it water's edge at he man- there his hody lay , there so he is white 

being extended, 

dji' ni'io't ne' o'hwats'ta'. Wa'hen'ro"' ne' Oterontonni"a' 

2 where so it is the it foam. He it said the It Sapling 



ne' 

3 the 



9 
10 
11 



dji' neiT 

where now 



e la rawe : 

there there lie 
arrived : 



O" ne' ni'satie'r"ha'?" Tii'hata'ti' 

SO thou art doing?" He answered 



* What the 
is it 



ne' Tawi'skaro"' wil'hen'ro"': '' Wa'hiia tofi'iif wa'^hf ne' 

4i the Flint he it said; "I his body made verily the 

(Ice, Crystal) 

ron'kwe'. Ke"'i'ke"^ raia'tion'm- se^'^ha' niiora'se' dji' ni^'ha- 

^ he man-being. This it is he an extended more so it is fine- where so he his 

body lies. looking 

iato'te"' dii' ni'se' ni'io't ne' sheia'tis"o"'. Ko"'hi'o'n" wa'^hf 

6** 

kind of where the so it is the thou his body I thee told verily 

body thou hast made. 

dji' e^' niwake^shatste""sera' dji' ni'se' ni'io't. Neil' ta^hno"'' 



7 where thus 

8 



so my power is large 



where 



the 
thou 



Now 



find 



le-'^hi 

more 



O ni 

also 



1 SI 

beyond 



ni'io't. 

SO it is. 

ni'se' 

the 
thou 



Satkat'ho' 

Do thou look 



non we 

place 

wa''hi' 

verily 



niwake'shatste""senv dji' ni'se' 

so my power is large where 



ni'io't sheia'tis"o"'." 

so it is thou his body, 

hast finished." 



kara'ke"' 

it (is) white 

Ta'hata'tr 

He replied 



the 
thou 

ne' ni'haia'to'te"' dji' 

the sueh his body kind where 

of ( is ) 

ne' Oterontofini*'a' 

the It Sapling 



wa'hen'ro"': "To'ke-ske', wa"hi' ne' dji' na'ho'te"' sfi'to"'. 

he it said : "Truly. verily the where such Vind of thou it 

thing sayest. 

To', ka'ti' tekkan'erak ratoria'neron'ko' nen' ta'hno"" a'hat- 

12 Well, so then let me look on let him make move- now and 

ments 

kets'ko'. To', a'ha'ta'ne no'k' ho'nf a'ha'ten'tr.' 



let 



13 



him arise. 



To', 

Well, 



and 



al.so 



let him walk." 



Ta', 

So. 



let him 
stand up 

e'tho'ne' ne' Tawi'skaro"' wa'hen'ro"': "Hau", satkets'ko'." 

1* at that the Flint he it .said : "Come, do thou arise." 

time (Ice, Crystal) 



a This man-being was Snow, Winter's handiwork. The life with which this man-being was endowed 
by Sapling is that which enables the snow to return every winter. Otherwise it could never have 
returned. 



MOHAWK VERSION 



325 



arise." But he that lav there did not make a single movement. 
Then, of course, Tawi'skaro"" put forth all his skill to cause this being 
to live and then to arise. He did everything possible to do it but he 
could not etfect his ])urpose and failed to cause him to come to life, for 
he did not come to life. Then Sapling said: "Isthis not what 1 have 
been saying, that thou art not able to do as I can do?" He added: 
"What purpose, in its turn, will lie served by having his body lying 
here, having no life? Is it only this, that he shall always lie here? 
That is the reason that I habitually for))id thee to make also the 
things that thou seest nie making: for, assuredly, thou art not able to 
do the things that 1 am doing.'" So then, of course, Tawi'skaro"" said: 
"Well, then, do thou cause that one there to live." So, in truth, 
Sapling consented to this. He drew near to the place where the man 



la" othe'no"' 

Not anything 



te'hotoria"nero'" ne' raia'tion'nf. 



he himself moved 



the 



his body lies 
extended. 



Nen' wa"hr 

Now verily 



ne 

the 



Tawi'skaro"" dji' o'k' na'tethoie're"' ne' a'hato'n'hete', 

Flint where just so he di(t everything the he should come to 

(Ice, Crystal) life, 

e'tho'ne' a'hatkets'ko'. Nakwii" dji' o'k' na'tethori'hwaiera'to"* 

at that he should arise. The very where just he did all manner of things 

lime 

no'k' wa''hono'ro"'se' ki" ne' a'hoton'he'to"'. E'tho'ne' ne' 

the 



and 



he it failed to do. 



I 
think. 



Oterofitonni"a' wa'heii'ro" 

It Sapling he it said : 



wa"hr 

verily 



e 

thus 



te.sakwe'nio"' 



" Ne" 

"That 
one 



thou art able 
to do it 



as 



"Na'ho'te"' 

"What kind of 
thing 

tero'n'he'. 

he lives. 



non wa 

thi.s time 



e-'wate's'te' 

it will be of 
use 



it would come to 
life for him. 

wa"hr cika'to"' 

verily 



ni 

the 
I 

ne' 

the 



At that 
time 



the 

la" se" 

where I keep Not, in- 
saying, deed, 

ni'io't." Wa'hen'ro"': 

SO it is." He it said : 



Ne' 

The 



wa'^hr 

verily 



wa'satkat'ho' 

thou didst see 



ke"" raia'tioii'nf iii" 

here he his body not 

it is lies extended 

Ne' o'k'-ke"' ne' tiiot'ko"' e" e"'haia tion'nike'? 

The only is it the always there his body will lie 

extended ever? 

ne' dji' na'ho'te"' 

the where what kind 
of thing 

i'se' wa^son'nf. la", 

thou thouitmadest. Not 



custom- 
arily 



se , 

indeed, 

Ta', 

So, 

i'.se' 

thou 



wa"hr 

verily 



kari'"hofi'ni' konia'ris'tha"' e"'s 

it it causes I thee chide 

wa^kon'ni' iio'k' 

I it made imd 

tesakwe'Dio"' ne' 

thou art able to the 
do it 



ha' re' 

again 



naa"sie're' dji' nikatie'r'ha'." 

.so thou it where so I do things." 

should st do 



e'tho'ne' wa"hi' ne' Tawi'skaro"' wa'hen'ro"': "To', ka'ti' 

verily the Flint he it said : "Well, so then 



at that 
time 

e" tco'n'het." 

there do thou cause 
it to live." 



Flint 
I Ice, Crystal ) 

To'ke"ske' ka'ti' 

Truly so then 



ne 

the 



Oterontonni^a' 

It Sapling 



wa'hathon'tate'. K^' ka'tf niiti'ha're- dji' raia'tion'nf tii^hno"" 

he it consented to. There so then so thither where his body lay and 



so thither 
he went 



his body lay 
extended 



1 

2 

3 

•i 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

la 

14 



326 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [kth. a.nn. 21 

lay, and bent over and breathed into his nostrils, and he at oiiee 
began to breathe, and lived. He said to him: '" Do thou arise and also 
do thou stand, also do thou keep travelinj^ about on this earth." The 
body of a woman had he also formed at that place. Saplinjr caused 
both of them to live. 

Tawi'skaro"' spoiled and undid some of the thing's that Sapling had pre- 
pared. The rivers to-day in their different courses have l)een changed, 
for, in forming the rivers. Sapling provided them with two currents, 
each running in a contrary course, currents made for floating objects 
in opposite directions; or it may be that it is a better explanation to 
say that in the middle of the river there was a division, each side going 
in a direction contrary to that of the opposite side, because Sapling 
had intended that mankind should not have, as a usual thing, any 
difficult labor while they should ))e traveling. If, for anj- rea.son, a 

iirthatsa'kete' ra''nio'"sa'ko"' e" ia'hatoii'ri' ne' o'nf ne' 

1 tluTc he lient hia nose in there thither he the also the 

forwiird. breathed 

iokoiitii'tie' tii'hatoii'ri' wa'hato'n'hete'. Wa'heii'ro"'': "Satkets'- 

2 at once (it thence he he came to life. He it said: "Do thou 

follows) breathed 

ko', ne' o'ni' tes'ta'ne' ne' o'nf ne' tesatawenrie"hake' 

3 arise, the also do thou the also the do thou keep traveling 

stand about 

dji' io'^hwendjia'te'." lofi'kwe' o'nf o'k' ska"ne' dji' shako- 

4 where it earth is present." She man- also just in one where he made 

being. place 

ia'ton'ni'. Ne' Oterontoiini"a' tetcia'ro"' shakaon'he'to"'. 

5 her body. the It Sapling both he them caused to 

live. 

Ne' Tawi'skaro"' o'tiake' shohetke""to"', shori"sio"' ne' dji' 

5 The Flint some he spoiled them he dis- the where 

(Ice, Crystal) (things) again. arranged 

na'ho'te"' rokwata'kwe"' ne/ Oterontonni"a'. Ne' non'wa'-ke"' 

7 such kind he has put in the It Sapling. The this time is it 

of things order 

ne' dji' kuqhio"4iate'nio"\ a'se'ke"" ne' Oterontonnr'a' dji' 

8 the where it river present in because the It Sapling where 

several places, 

roqhio"'honnia'nio"' teio^hneke°'to"''kwe"\ ne' te"".s ne' aete- 

9 he rivers made several it has two currents either flow- the or the we 

ing in an opposite direction 

wen'ro"' teio'hneke"'hawi"to"'. no'k ke"" ki"' ka'ie°' .se""ha' 

J_0 should either it has two currents bear- and here I be- it lies more 

say ing in an opposite direction, " it is, lieve, 

io'niko'''hraien'tii't ne' aetewen'ro"' sa'tekaqhio'''hi"he"' tekia- 

11 it is comprehensible the we should say it river middle of it they 

tek'he"', tetcia'ro"' e're"" teio'hneke"'hawi"to"', a'se'ke"" ne' 

12 two join, they two else- two it current flow, either because the 

both where in an opposite course, 

Oteroiitonni'Ti' rawe'ro"* iii" the"iakoro""hiaken"hiike' ne' 

13 It Sapling he it Intended not they will be greatly distressed the 

otTkwe' dji' te"iakotawenrie"hake'. To'ka' othe'no"' e"kari'- 

1-1 man-beings where they will keep on traveling If anything it it will 

(human) about. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



327 



person would wish to descend the current, it would indeed not be 
a difficult matter .simply to place himself in a canoe, and then, of 
course, to descend the current of the river; and then, if it should be 
necessary for him to return, he would, of course, paddle his canoe 
over to the other side of the river, and just as soon as he passed the 
division of the stream then, of course, his canoe would turn liack. and 
he would then again be descendinj)' the current. So that is what Sap- 
ling had intended; that mankind should be thus fortunate while they 
were traveling about on rivers, l)ut Tawi'skaro"' undid tliis. 

Now, moreover, Tawi'skaro"' himself formed these uplifted moun- 
tains; these mountains that are great, and also these divers rocky 
cliffs — he himself made them, so that mankind who would dwell here 
would have cause to fear in their continual travelings. 



hon'ni" e"ie"'hnawe""te' 

cause one stream will 

descend 

othe'no""' tewen'to're' ne' 

it anything it is diificult the 



ka'hofiweia'ke' 

i t boat on 



o'k' 

only 



aionti'ta' 

one himself 
should embark 



la 

not. 



ne' 

the 



wa'^hi' 

verily 



ki" 

I be- 
lieve, 

ka'hofi'wako 

it boat in 



neii' wa"hi' e"io"-hnawe""te'' No'k' to'ka' te"iakoto"'hweiTdjio"se* 

now verily one it current And if it one will be necessary for 

will descend. 

ne' aonsaio""kete' ne' ki"' o'k" wa"hr ne' e're"' na'kaqhio"'ha'ti 



the 



one should return 
again 

niie"ie'hoii'ioiitie' dji' 

thither one his boat where 
will steer 



the I 
think 



only 



only verily 

niio'sno're' 

so it is rapid 



other 
(side) 



ne 

the 



dji' tekia'hnekak'he"' nefi', ki". o'k' wiVhi' 

where they two waters join now, I only verily 

believe, 

ako^honwe'ia\ io'lmawe^'to^^ha'tie' a're\ Ta', 

one's boat. it is going down stream again. So. 



such it river side of 

i' taionto"hetste' 

one it will pass 

e'^sewa^'kete' ne' 

it will go back the 
again 

ne' rawe'ro"' 



ne 

the 



Oterontonni*"a' 

It Sapling 



e^' ne"Vatiese""hake' ne' 

thus some one will be con- the 

tented 



the 

oii'kwe 



man-being (s) the 
(— humans) 



kaqhio^'^hako"' dji' te"iakotawonrie'^hake\ No'k' ne' Tawi'.skaro"' 

it river in where one will be habitmilly And the 



sho'hetke""to"^ 

again he it spoiled, 



wa ne"se 

large (are) 



Flint 
(Ice. Crystals 



It moun- 
tain 



one will be habitually 
traveling 

shori"sio"'. 

again he it dis- 
arranged. 

Nen' ta'hno"" ne' Tawi'skaro"' ke"'i'ke"' iononte'nio"' iononto 

Now and the Flint this it is it mountain stands 

(Ice, Crystal) plurally 

teiotste"^'re/nio"' o'nf, rao""ha' e" ni'hoie're" 

also, he him- thus sohehasdoni 

self it. 

Ne' on'kwe' e''ienakerenion"hake^ 

The man-being(s) they will be dwelling In 

(human) diverse places 

te"iakota\venrie"hake\ 

they will be traveling 
about. 



it rock stands high 
plurally 



e°iakotswatani' 'heke' 

it them will keep 
troubling 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 
dji' 

where 13 



he it in- 
tended 



ne 



U 



328 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. anx.2I 

Now, moreover, Sapling and alHoTawi'^karo"" dwelt together in one 
lodge, each occupying one side of the fire opposite to that of the other. 
It wa.s then, verily, ujsual when they two had returned to abide in the lodge, 
that Tawi'skaro"" kept questioning Sapling, asking him what oliject he 
feared, and what would most quickly kill him. Sapling replied: "A 
weed that grows in the swampy places, a sedge called ' it-cuts-a-person,' 
is one thing. I think, when 1 do think of it, that that weed struck 
against my body by someone would cut it. 1 do believe that it would 
cut through my body." Then Tavvi'skaro"" replied, saying: " Is there 
no other ol)ject which gives thee fearT' Sapling, answering, said: "I 
usually think that the spike of a cattail flag would kill me if one sliould 
strike meonthe l)ody with it." (These twothingsthat Sapling spokeof, 
his father had told him to say, when he liad been at his father's lodge.) 

Nen' tilhno"" ne' Oterontofini"a' no'k ho'ni" ne' Tawi'skaro"' 

^ Now anrt the It Sapling and also the Flint 

lice, Crystal) 

skano""sa"ne' nl'tero"', te'hotitci6""hoi5te' (te'hotitcie"'harets'to"'). 

■^ one it house in there they they arc on opposite (they fire have between them.) 

two abide, sides of the tire 

Ne' ka'tr wa'-hi' e"'s ne' nen' ieshoti'ie"- kano^'sako"' 

«5 The so then verily custom- the now there again they it house in 

arily have entered 

sni'tero"' neiT e"'s wiV'hf ne' Tawi'skaro"" rori'hwanonton'ni' 

4r again they now custom- verily the Flint he him questions ask.'i 

two abide arily (Ice, Crystal) 

ne' Oterontonni"a', ra'to"': "O" he""s na'ho'te"" ne' rao'"'ha' 

5 the It Sapling, he it says: "What custom- kind of the he him- 

(Ls it) arily thing self 

ratsa'ni'se' ne'ne' io'sno're' a'ho'rio'." AVa'heu'ro"' ne' 

t) he it fears the that it is quick ithim would He it said the 

kill." 

_ Oterontonni"a': " O'sa'kenta'ke' iotoil'ni' o"hoi3te" iako'hre'na's 

' It Sapling: " It marsh land on it grows it weed it one cuts. 

(a sedge) 

i'ke're' konwa'iats e"'s. Thoi'ke"' o"honte' kiii'ta'ke- aie'ie-'te' 

" I believe, they it call custom- That it is it weed my body on one it should 

usually arily. strike 

aorik"hrene', ta'hno"" i'ke're' ia'taontiak'te' ne' kia'ta'ke'." 

9 it me would and I think it would break the mybodyon." 

cut, in two 

Tontii'hen'ro'" ne' Tawi'skaro"": " Ia"-ke"- othe'no"" ne' o'ia' 

-'■^ He spoke in reply the Flint: "Not is it anything the other 

(Ice, Crystal) it is 

te'shetsha'ni'se'?" Tonta'hata'ti" ne' Oteroiitonni"a' wa'hen'ro"': 

11 thou it dost fear?" He .spoke in the It Sapling heitsaid: 

reply 

"Ono'ta' otcawe°"sa' ne' e"'s i'ke're' aofikeri'io* ne'ne' 

"It flag its spike the custom- I think it me would the 

(cattail) arily kill that 

aionkie""te' kia'ta'ke'." (Ke^'i'lve"' teiori"hwake' ne' dji' 

1" one me would mybodyon." (This it is two matter(s) in the where 

strike number 

na'ho'te"' wa'hen'ro"' ne' Oterontonni'Ti' ro'ni"ha' ro'hro'ri' 

such kind of he it said the It Sapling his father he it him 

thing has told 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



329 



At that time Sapliriif said: " What thing then dost thou fear? " Tawi- 
skaro"' said: "Yellow flint, and also the horns of a deer. I suppose, 
when I do think of it, that I should perhaps die at once should one 
strike me with either." 

So after that when Sapling traveled, if he saw a stone of the yellow 
chert kind, he would customarily pick it up and place it high on some 
object, and also, if he saw a deer's horn, he would pick it up and 
would place it high on some object. 

Then, verily, it came to pass that they two had again returned home. 
The height of one side of their lodge was not great, but the height of 
the other side was greater. Sapling occupied the side which had the 
greater and Tawi'skaro"' the side which had the lesser height. Then it 



ne'ne' a'hen'ro" 

the he should 

that say 

ro'ni"ha' 

his father.) 



e" ciia'hakwat'ho" 

there he visited there 

E'tho'iie' ne' Oterontonni'"iX' 

the It Sapling 



dji' 

where 



there his house 
Htands 



ne 

the 



At that 
time 



wti^'hen'ro"*': 

he it said : 



ni'se' na'ho'te"' 

the kind of 

thou tiling 

" Okaraken'rii' 

" It white-grained 
(yellow chert) 

i'ke're' e"'s ne' 

I think custom- the 



setsha'ni'se'?'' 

thou it fearest?" 

)nen'ia'' no'k' 

it rock and 

aion'kie"^te' 



Wa^hen'ro"^ 

He it said 



ha're' 

again 



o'kseiinonto"'' 

it deer 



thono""sote'' 

"O" ka'tf 

"What so then 
is it 

Tawi'skaro"': 

Flint: 
(Ice. Crystal) 

ona'kara 

its horn 



ne 

the 



one mo 
would strike 



custom 
arily 

Ta', e'tho'ne' ne' dji' 

So, at that the where 



iaki'he'ia'te' o""te'.' 

j>erhaps." 



I would die at 
once 



at that 
time 

wa'hatkat/ho' 

he it saw 



te'hotawen'rie^ 

he traveled 



ne 

the 



Oteronni"a' to'ka' 

It Sapling if 



kanen'iaie"' 

it stone lies 



e'neke"' wa'ha're"' 

up high he it placed 

up 

ne' wtVhatkat'ho' 

the he it saw 



Ta', 

So. 



ne 

the 



ka'tf 

so then 



dji' rotino""sote' 

where their lodge 
stands 

ho""tes na' ne". 

the 
that. 



is tall that 

(high) one 

■' nofika'ti' 



e" 

there 



the side 
of it 



Tawi'skaro"' dji' 

Flint where 

(Ice, Crystal) 



no'k' 

and 



ne 

the 

ho'nf 

also 



okaraken'ra' 

it white-grained 
(flint) 



ne 

the 



wa"tra'kwe' e"'s 

he it picked cus- 

up tomarily 

o'skennonto"" ona'kara 

it deer its horn 



wa''tra'kwe' 



he it picked 
up 

wa''hi' 



e'neke"' 

up high 



ne'ne' 



the 
that 



a re 

again 



ia'ha're"'. 

he it placed 
up. 

iesho'tr. Ska'ti" 



na'teio'nho"'tes'a''' 

its side is low 



there again One side 
they are together. of it 

no'k' ne' ska'ti 



ne' 

the 



Dji' 

Where 



kii'ti 

so then 



ne 

the 



and 

nofika'ti' 

the side 
of it 



ne 

the 



one side 
of it 



teio'n- 

its side 



ne' 

the 



teio'nho""tes 

its side is tall 



ne 

the 



Oterontonni"a' 

It Sapling 



ne 

the 



nofika'ti' 

the side 
of it 



e"'s ren'tero"' 

custom- he ahides 
arily 

na'teio'nho"'tes'a" 

its side is low 



no'k' 

and 



na 

that 
one 



ne 

the 



ne'. 

the 
that. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



330 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[KTH. ANN. 21 



was that Sapling increased the intensity of the tire l)y putting hickory 
\nn-k on it. Then, assuredly, it became a hot fire, and then, assured)}', 
the legs of Tawi'skaro"' began to chip and flake off from the intense heat 
of the fire. Then, of course, Tawi'skaro"'' said: '"Thou hast made too 
great a fire. Do thou not put another piece of V)ark on the fire." But 
Sapling nevertheless put on the fire another piece of bark, and then, of 
course, the fire became greater. Now the fire was indeed hot, and now, 
too, Tawi'slvaro"'s whole l)ody was now flaking off in chei't I'hips. Now, 
too, he was angry, because Sapling kept putting more bark on the fire, 
and, besides that, his side of the lodge having only a slight height, he 
had only very little space in which to abide. Now he writhed in the 
heat; indeed, Tawi'skaro"' Ijecame so angrj^ that he ran out at once, and 



NeiT wa"hi' ne' Oterontonni"a' wa'hatcig^'howa'na'te'. Onenno"- 



1 Now verily 

Ivara' 



the 



It Siijiling 



Q 



hwa'tciste" 

it bark 



wa'otcie"'hatari"he"", 

o it hot fire became it, 



ne 

the 



neii 

now 



he caused the tire to 
be great. 

Nen 

Now 



Tawi'skaro"' 



ranienta'ke' 

his leg on 



•± Flint 

(Ice, Cr.v.stal) 

wa'otcie"'hatari"he"'. Neii' 

'^ it hot fire it became. Now 



wa'hrent'ho' 

he put it on the 
tire. 

ta-hno"" wa"hi' 

and verily 

wa " tato fi ' k wa *" s 

it flakes off iteratively 



It liic'kory 

wa'-hi" to'ke"ske' 

verily truly 



tonta"sawe"' ne' 

there it began the 



6 



wa"hi' 

verily 

To".sri" 

Do not 

do it 



lie' dji' so'tcf 

the where too 

much 

lie' Tawi'skaro"' ra'to"': 

the Flint he it says: 

(lee, Crystal) 

sa.se'hwatcistoiit'ho'. 



other 
it is 



again thou bark pnt on 
fire. 



So'tci' na*'satcie"''howa'ua'to"' 

" Too thovi it fire hast caused 

much to be great. 

No'k' ne' Oterontonni"a" .se"'4i!V o'k' e"'s sa^hahwa'td-stofi'tho'. 

i And the It Sapling more only ens- apiin he bark put on 

tomaril.v tire. 

Nen' e"'s wa'^hf .se"''ha' wa'katcie"iaowa*'nhri'. Nen' wa"hi' 

8 Now cus- verily more it fire became great. Now verily 

tomarily 

to'ke"ske' ioteie"'hata'ri'-he"' neii' tii'hno"" ne' Tawi'skaro"' nen' 

9 truly it hot fire is it now and the Flint now 

{Ice, Crystal) 

o'k^ dji' ni'haia'ta' wa'taton'kwa's ne' tawi'skara'. Neii' o'ni' 

W only where just his body itflakesoffin the chert (crystal). Now 

large (is) chips 

rona'khwen"o"*. Ne' ka'ti' ne' Oterontonni":V ne' dji' 



also 



11 



The so then 



the 



It Sapling 



the 



where 



ne' kari'hoii'ni' 

It) the it it causes 



niionakta"a' 

it room is small 



that 
one 



ne 

the 



ne ■ 

the 
that 



dji' 

where 

ne' 

the 



other 
it is 

na'teio'nho"^tes'a" 



its side is low 

Tawi'skaro"' 



he has become 
angry. 

o'k^ e"'s sa'hate'kiVte' nen' tii'hno 

1-^ just ens- again he it now and 

tomarily kindled 

dji' 

Flint where 

(Ice, Crystal) 

nonka'ti' ren'tero"'. NeiT ki"' te'hot'he"'taken'rie'. NeiT. ki", 

11 side of it he abides. Now, I he is rolling about in Now, X 

believe, the heat. think, 

wa"hi' e" na'hona'khwe"'ne' ne' Tawi'skaro"' ne' ia'haiake"'ta'tci' 

15 verily there so he became angry the Flint the he went out of doors 

(Ice, Crystal) at once 



MOHAWK VEKSION 



331 



running- into the marsh, he there broke stalk.s of the sedge called "it- 
cuts-a-person." Then he came thence on a run to the lodge, and then 
said: "Sapling, I now kill thee," and then struck him blows with the 
stalks ho had brought back. So then they two now began to fight, the 
one using the stalk striking the other blows. But after a while Tawis- 
karo"' became aware that his lilows against Sapling did not cut him. 
Whereupon he then darted out again, and then went to get this time the 
spike of the cattail flag. So then, as soon as he returned, he rushed 
at Sapling and struck him blows. Again his lilows failed to cut him. 
Then it was that Tawiskaro"' fled, and then Sapling pursued him. Now, 
of course, they two ran. In every direction over the entire earth they 
two ran. So whenever Sapling saw a yellow flint stone or a deer horn 
on a high place he would customarily seize it suddenly, and would hit 



o'sa'kenta'ke' 

it marsh on 



niia''hatak'he", e" ia'ha'ia'ke' ne' iako'hrc'na's 

so there he ran, there there he it the it one cuts 

cut off 



o''honte". E'tho'ne" neiT e'' toiita'hatak'he' dji' rotino""sote'. 



It here At that 

time 

Kawenni'io' e'tho" 

So soon as there 

nen' wiVkoii'rio'." 

now I thee kill." 



now there 



again hither 
he run 



where 



their lodge 
stands. 



sa'rawe' e'tho'ne" wil'lien'ro"': "Oteroiitonni":!' 

he it said: "It Sapling 



again he 
arrived 



at that 
time 

Ne' kfi'ti" wa4ioie"'ta'nio"' ne o"honte' ne' 

The so then he him struck the it herb the 



sha'ha'wi 

it 

t. 

ha'ha'wi 



again he it 
brought. 



Ta', 

So, 



he him struck 
repeatedly 

wa''hi' wa'hiateri'io', ne'ne' 

verily they two fought 



the 
that 



o''hofite' 

it herb 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 



again he it 
brought 

Tawi'skaro"' wa'hat'toke" 

Flint he noticed it 

(Ice, Crystal) 

roie""thrr. 

he strikes him 
repeatedly. 

ono'tri' otcawe""sa 

its spike 



wa'hoie."'ta'nio"'. 

he him struck re- 
peatedly. 

ia" ne'"-ke'' 

not 



No'k' 

And 



the is it 
that 



a'kare' 

after a 
time 

teka'hre'na's 

it it cuts 



E'tho'ne' neii' 

now 



At that 
time 



ne 

the 



ii"haiake""ta'tci' 

again he v 
sndde: 

sa'hako"ha' 



again he went out 
suddenly 



again he went 
after it. 



Ne' 

The 



ne' 

the 

ka'ti" 

.so then 



non wa 

this time 



it flag 
(reed), 

sa'rawe' o'k' ci'haiiVtakonta'tie' ne' wrrhoie"'ta'nio''' 

again he just there his body did not the he him struck re- 

returned stop peatedly. 

teiotoiT'o"' ne' a'ho'hrena'nio°'ke'. E'tho'ne' ne' 

it succeeded the he him could cut re- At that the 

peatedly. time 

Neil' ne' Oterontoniii'Ti' 

Now the It Sapling 



nen 

now 



ne 

the 

dji' 
where 

ne' 

the 

dji' 

where 



wa'hate'ko'. 

he fled. 



Ia" ha're' 

Not again 

Tawi'skaro"' 

Flint 
(Ice, Crystal) 

wa^ho^'sere'. Nefi' 

he him pursued. Now 



wa"hi' wa tiara^tate-. 0"4iwendjiakwe'ko"' na'tonta'hnitakhe^te'. 

verily they two ran. It earth (is) whole again thence they two it 

overran, 

wa^hatkat'ho" ne' 

he it saw the 



Ne' ka'tr ne' kat'ke^ 

The so then the when- 

ever 



ne' Oterontonni"a' 

the It Sapling 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



332 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



Tawi'skaro"' therewith. Customarily chert chips would fly when he hit 
him. Thus then he hit him as they went running. Whenever Sapling 
saw a horn or a yellow chert stone he would seize it suddenly and hit 
Tawi'skaro"' with it. Then after a while he killed him. Now, at this 
time, toward the west, where the earth e.\tends thitherward, there lies 
athwart the view a range of large mountains that cross the whole earth. 
There, so it is said, his bodj' lies extended. He fell there when he 
was killed. Now, besides, it is plain, when we consider in what condi- 
tion the earth is, that when we look about we see that the surface is 
uneven, some places being high, even range.s of mountain, while .some 
are for their part low. This was, of course, done by the two as they 
ran from place to place, fighting as they went. That is the reason 
that the surface of the earth is uneven. 



1 
2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



okaraken'ra' onen'ia' ne' te""s ne' 

it yellow chert it stone the or the 

tri'ha'hra'kwa''te" ne' wa'ho'ie°'te'. 

the he him hit 

(with it). 

WiVtho'kwsV'te". 

he hit him. 



the eus- he it took up nt 

tomarily once 

ne' tawi'skara' ne' 

the chert the 



o'skennonto"" ona'kara' 

it deer it horn 

Wii'tewato'ko' e"'.s 

It chipped off cus- 

tomarily 

E" ka'tr ni'io't 

There so then 



so It IS 

wa'hatka- 

he it saw 



roie"'tanio!i'ne' dji' te'hnitak'he'se\ Kat'ke' ne' 

he him went hitting where they two went run- When- the 

along ning about. ever 

t'ho' ne' ona'kara' ne' te""s ne' okaraken'ra* onen'ia tii'ha- 

the it horn the or the it yellow chert it stone he it took 

^hra'kwa'te' e"'s ne' waiio'ie"'te\ A'kare' ka'tf nefi' ia'ho'rio\ 

up at once cus- the he him hit. After a so then 



cus- the 
tomarilv 



After a so then now there he 

time him killed. 

Ne' ka'tf non'wa' ne' dji' iiVtewatchot'bo's noiika'ti' iao"'hwen 

The so then present the where there it sets, the side of it earth 



present 
time 



there it sets, 
at the we.st 



the side of 
it 



djiontie"to"' e'' tetionontri'ro"'hwe' ionontovva'ne"' teiao"^h wen- 
extends there there it mountain ex- it mountain it crosses 
lends athwart large (is) 

djiiak'to"' ne'ne* ia'ke"' rru;VtatEi'tie\ E" non'we' ni'hoia"'- 

world the it is his body extends There the place his body 



the 
that 



it is 
said 



tienen"o"' 

has fallen 



ne 

the 



his body extends 
along. 

shaiio'rio\ Nen' 

he killed him. Now 



ta'hno""' 

and 



we'ne' 

it is 
plain 



ne 

the 



te"twaiiVto're'te' 

we it shall consider 

g"tewatkat'ho' 

we it shall see 



ne 

the 



dji' 

■where 



ni'io't 

so it is 



ne 

the 



dji' io-'hwendjia'te' 



tekontti'ha'nio"" 



they differ among 
themselves. 



O'tialce" 

Some 



e'neke"" 

high 



it earth is pres- 
ent 

tiio"'hwen- 

it earth stands 



djia'te'. 

out, 



iononta'hro'nio"'. O'tia'ke' e'ta'ke' na" ne". Ne' 

it mountain is in Some low that the The 

ranges. one that. 

wa"hr ne' nen' sa'te'hnitak'he'se' roiinateriio'ha'tie'se' ne' e" 

verily the time they two ran about they two went about the there 

fighting 

ni'hotiie'ro"* ne' dji' tekiato"'h\vefidjiati^ha'nio"'. 

they two it did the where (wo earth dillrr from each 

other plurally. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



333 



Now then, as it was the custom of Sapling to travel, he met a male 
man-being. Sapling said: "What dost thou as thou goest?" He 
replied, saying: "I come inspecting the earth, to see whether it is just 
as I put it forth." Sapling replied, saj'ing: "Verily, indeed, this is 
a marvelous matter about which thou art now on thj' way, for the 
reason that assuredly it was I, myself, who completed this earth." 
The other person answered and said: "Not at all; for I myself have 
completed this earth." Whereupon Sapling replied, saying: "Well 
then, if it be so, let it be made plain verilj', that thou didst complete 
this earth. He added: "At our two backs, at a distance, there is a 
range of high mountains of rock which is in appearance like a wall, 
so perpendicular are the rocks. Hither must thou move them close 
to thy body. If, perhaps, thou art able to do this, it will be certain 



Ne' ka'tf ne' Oterontonni'Ti' 

The so tfieu the It Sapling 



dji' te'hotawen'rie. 

where he travelefl 



e s ne 

custom- the 
arily 

e" wa'ho'ke"', roii'kwe'. Wa'hen'ro"' ne' Oterontonni"a': "O" 

there he him saw he man-being He it said the It Sapling: "What 

(is). 

ni'satiere"'ha'tie'?" la'hari'hwiVsera'ko' ne' shaia'ta' wa'hefiro"': 

He answered the he one person he It said: 



so thou goest about 
doing it?" 

■ Sewakatke"'se'ha'tie\ 

" I it come again viewing. 



he one person 
(the other) 

Katoke"'-ke'" ni'io't ne' wako'"hwendji- 

Unchanged is it so it is the I it eartli have caused 

to be 



a'tato"'." Ta'hari'hwa'sera'ko' ne' 

extant." He answered the 



Oterontonni''a^ wa'hen'ro" 

It Sapling he it said: 



'' lori'hwane'hra'kwa't 

"It matter is marvelous 



a'se'ke"" 

because 



wa"hf 

verily 

waks"o"' 

I have fin- 
ished it 



ne' dji' ni'satiere"'ha'tie\ 

the where so thou it come-st doing, 



ke"'' io"'hwendjia'te\" 

it earth (is) present." 



here 
it is 



1 wa ni waRs o ne 

I verilv I have fin- the 

(it is) 

Toiita'hata'tr ne' shaia'ta' wa'hen'ro"': '' Ia"te"\ T' se" 

Thence .\gain he the he one person he it said: " Not at all. I in- 

replied (other person) (it is) deed 

wako"'hwendjis"o"'." E'tho'ne' ne' Oterontonni"a' toiitaiien'ro"': 

I it earth have finished." At that time the It Sapling again he said in 

reply: 

"Ni'he"'nio'. kiaa'sa', kato'ke"'ne' a'shi'ke"' to'ke-ske' i'se' 

" So there now. eome, let it be shown if it may be truly thou 

, It is 

e"sas'V' ne' ke"" io^'hweiidjia'te';' Wa'hen'ro'^': ^'Tson'ne' 

it earth is present." He it said: 



thou it mayst the 
have made 

nonka'tr e" 

the side of it there 



here 
it is 



tiionontata'tie' 

there it mountain 
extends along 



ni'io't ne' dji' tewa'-so'^'tote' 

so it is the where it is a standing 
wall 

teiotsten're'. Ka'ro' tcia'tak'ta' 

it rock is present. Hither thy body beside 



"Atour two 
back(s) 

otsten'nV e'neke"' tiiot'te' dji' 

It rock high there it where 

stands out 

e" niiottakwari^'sio"" ne' dji' 

thus so it IS vertical the where 



e''teskwi"te'. 

thou it Shalt move 
hither. 



To'kiV e"8kwe'nr 

If thou Shalt be 

able to doit 



1 

2 

3 

4 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



334 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOay 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



that thou didst indt^cd complete thi.s etirth; if thou wilt (jiily fipeiik. 
telling that mountain range to move itself hither." He added: 
"Now do it then."' Thereupon the other person said: "Thus 
it will, I think, conic to pass." Then he called out, .saying: "Come 
thou, yon mountain range, move thyself hither. Do thou stand 
))eside my body."' But the mountain range remained there; the 
mountain was still there unchanged. It did not move thence. Sap- 
ling spoke and said: "There, that is exactly what I have been say- 
ing, that thou hast not established this earth." The other person 
again replied, sa3'ing: "Well then, let it become evident, if it be 
true, that thou hast established the earth. Come then, do thou move 
that rock mountain hithei-." Sapling replied and said: "Thus then 
will I do." Thereupon he called out to the range of mountains. 
He said: "Come, move thyself hither." Then, verily, it moved itself 



to'ke°ske', ki", wa"hi' i'se' so"'hwendjis"o" 

truly, I verily thou Ilimi it ciirth hast 

think, " it is finished. 

ofite'sata'ti' ne' ka'ro' aontofit'kwi'te' ne' thoi'ke"' ionontiita'tie'." 



Ne' 

The 



o'k' 

just 



ne' 

the 



hou Shalt speak the hither it itself should move the 

Wa'hen'ro"': " NeiT ka'tf." E'tho'ne' 

He it said: "Now sothen." At that time 



that it is 
verilv 



ne 



it mountain ex- 
tends along." 

Hhiiiji'ta^ 



ne la we ne . 

so it will come to 



wa'hen'ro"': " E", ki", 

he it said: "Thus, I 

think, pass." 

ia'hata'tr wa'hen'ro'": " Hau", thoi'ke"' 

thither he ho it said: "Come, that it is 

spoke 

kilsat'kwi'te'. Kia'tak'tsV e" te'sta'ne'." 

there do thou stand." 



he other per- 
son (one he 
body.) 



E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



Tie 

the 



nen 

now 



nisenon'tate' ka'ro' 

there thou art a hither 

standing mountain 

No'k^ e" tiionon'tate' 



hither do thou 
thyself move. 



My body 
beside 



and there 



there it moun- 
tain stood 



kato'ke"' ne' ni'io't ne' e'' tiionon'tate'. la'' ka'ro' tetiotkwi'to"' 

7 unchanged the so it is the there there it moun- Not liither it itself has moved. 



Nen' wa"hr 

o Now verily 



the there there it moun 
tain stood. 

ne' Oterontonni'"a 

the It Sapling thence he 

spoke 



ta'hata'tr wa'hen'ro"": "Ta', 

he it said. "So. 



ne' WiV'hr eika'to"\ " Ia"te°' se" wa'^hf i'se' teso"'hwendiis'"o"\''' 



9 the verily 



where I have 
said. 



Ne' shaia'ta' tonta'hata'tr wa'heil'ro"' : 

10 The he other person again he replied he it said; 

(one he body) 

to'ke"ske'-ke"' ne 

11 truly is it the 



in- verily thou thou earth hast finished ." 
deed (it is) 

■ To', ka'tf kato'ke""ne' 

■Well. sothen let it be shown 



kas'kwi'te" thoi'ke"' 



i'se' so"'hwendjis''o"". I'se' kia"asa' ka'ro' 

thou thou earth hast finished. Thou come hither 

tetiiotstcn're'.*' Tofita'hata'tf ne' Oterontofi- 



13 



14 



hither <\o thou it that it is 
move 

ni"a' wa'hefi'ro"': 


there it has set 
rock(s) up." 

" E" ka'tr 


He spoke again 

ne"'kiere\" 


the It Sapling 

E'tho'ne' nen' 


he it said: 


"Thus sothen 


so I it shall do." 


At that time now 


ia'hata'tr ne' dji' 


tetiionontata'tie', 


wtVhen'ro"': 


" Hau", ka'ro' 


thither he the where 
spoke 


there it mountain 
extends along, 


he it said: 


"Come, hither 



HEWITT] MOHAWK VERSION 335 

thence. Close to his body, at hi.s back, did it come to a standstill. The 
cliff even lightly grazed his shoulder blades. Then Sapling said: 
"Now turn thyself around to the opposite side and look where 
the range of mountains is." Whereupon he turned aliout and the 
rock struck his nose and, as to him, his nose became awry. Then at 
that time he spoke, saying: '"Truly, indeed, thou hast estaldished this 
earth here present. It was not at all I who did it. If, then, thou wilt 
consent to it that 1 may live, I will then ever continue to aid thee. I 
will protect at all times thy j)eople who are to dwell on this earth." 
Sapling replying said: "Truly it shall thus come to pass. Mask 
shall mankind ever call thee, and also Grandfather." 
Then, verily, during the time that Sapling was again traveling to 

kasat'kwi'te'." E'tho'ne' ka'ro" toiit'kwi'te'. Raia'tak'ta' ra'sho'iT- 

hither do thou thyself At that time hither it itself moved. His body heside his 1 

move." 

ne' e" vvii'tka'ta'ne' ne' dji' ionontata'tie'. Wa'ho'so'nie"'to"- 

back there it stood the where it mountain ex- It his shoulder blades 2 

at tends along. grazed 

sere' ne' dji' teiotsten're'. E'tho'ne' ne' Oterontoiini'Ti' 

the where it rock has set At that time the It Sapling 3 

up. 

wa'heii'ro'": " NeiT te'satka'r'hate'ni'. la'satkat'ho' ne' dji' 

he it said: '"Now do thou thyself turn Thither do thou the where 4 

around. look 

niionontata'tie'." E'tho'ne' neil' wathatka'r'hate'ni' tii'hno"" 

there it mountain .stands At that time now he himself turned around and 5 

up along." 

wa'tiotstenro'ie'"te' ne' ra'nion'ke' ta'hno"" wa'ha'nionsakareii're' 

it him rock struck the his nose on and his nose became awry ^ 

na" ne". Ta'. e'tho'ne' tethota'ti' wa'hen'ro"', ia'ke"': 

that the So, at that time thence he spoke he it said, it is said: 7 

one tliat. 

"To'ke"ske' wa"hi' i'se' sa'so"' ne' dji' io""hwendjia'te'. la" 

"Truly verily thou thou it hast the where it earth is present. Not 8 

it is finished 

i" te'ke"'. To'ka't ka'tf e"'sathori'tate' ne' akon"heke' 

I it is. If so then thou shall con.sent the I should live 9 

e"konienawa'se"heke' ka'tf. E"tekhe'nhe'hatie'.seke' ne' sonkwe'ta' 

I thee will continue to aid .so then. I them will go about protecting the thy people 10 

ne' e"ienakere'nionke' ne' dji' io"'hweiidjia'te'." Ta'hata'ti' ne' 

the they shall dwell in groups the where it earth is present." He spoke the 11 



Oteroiltonni":! 


i' wa'hen'ro"': 


••To'ke"ske' ki" 


e' 


' ne"ia'we'"ne'. 




It Sapling 


he it said: 


"Trulv, I 

think. 


th 


as so it will come 
to pass. 


12 


Akoii'wara' 


ne' oil'kwe' 


e"iesana'to°"khwilke' 




nen' ta'hno"' 




It Mask 


the man-being 
(human) 


they thee it will use to indicate 




now and 


1.3 


oiikwa'sot'ha' 


ni ." 










our Grandfather 


also." 








14: 



Ne' ka'tf wa"hi' ne' Oterontonni'Ti' ne' dji' na"he' wa'thata- 

The so then verily the It Sapling the where it lasts he traveled 15 



1 



336 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann.21 

inspect anew the things that he iiad lini.shed on tiiis earth, then 
lie saw another male nian-Vjeing. He addressed him, saying: "What 
art thou doing on thy way?" The other said: "It seemed that it 
became necessary for me to see thee." Sapling replied: "That is 
undoubtedly true." The other person answered and said: " I desire 
that thou shouldst consent to peimit me still to live. If thou wilt 
then consent to what 1 sa}', I will give assistance to thee; I will watch 
over their bodies, and 1 will also give them life and support and, 
moreover, I will continue to defend mankind, whom thou wilt cause to 
dwell on this earth which thou hast completed." Replying, .Sapling 
said: "Let me see what kind of power thou hast." Thereupon the 
male man-being, whose name of old is Hi'no"' [Thunder], started 
upon a run and went up into the clouds. Now, veriij', rumblings were 

wefi'rie" ne'ne' shotke"'se'ha'tie' ne' dji' ne' ho'sa'an"ho"' ne' 

tlie that again he it went about the where the lie them made the 

viewing 

dji' io'"hwendjia'te' e" ka'ti' o'ia' ne' ron'kwe' wa'ho'ke"'. 

■^ where it earth is present there so then other the he man-being he him 

It is (is) saw. 

E'tho'ne' wa"hr ne' Oterontonni'Ti' wa'hen'ro"': "O" 

3 At that time verily the It Sapling he it said: "What 

is it 

nisatiere-'ha'tie'?" Wa'hen'ro"' ne' shaia'ta': "Wa'tewakato"- 

^ just thou art going about He it said the other person: "It me became necessary 

doing?" for, 

'hwendjio"se' ki" ne' ukon'ke"'/' Wa'hen'ro"' ne' Oterontonni"a': 

^ I the Itheeshould Heitsaid the ItSapling: 

think, see." 

"To'ke-ske' wa"hi'." Tonta'hata'ti' ne' shaia'ta' wa'hen'ro"': 

"Truly verily." He spoke in reply the other per- heitsaid: 

son 

'T'ke're' a'sathon'tate'-ke"' ne' ako'n'heke'. To'ka't ka'ti' 

7 "I it desire thou shouldst con- canst the I live should. If so then 

sent to it thou 

sathon'tato"' dji' na'ho'te"' ka'to"" e-koiiie'nawa'se'. E-kheia'- 

" thouitconsentest where that kind of I it say I thee will aid. I their bodies 

to thing 

ta'niko'"ra're"' ne' o'nf ne' e"tekhe"nhe" neiT tii'hno"" e^kheia'- 

9 will watch over the also the I them will protect now and I them will 

taken'he"''hake' ne' oii'kwe' ne' e"sheiennak'eratste' ne' dji' 

10 continue to aid the man-being the thou them wilt cause to the where 

(human) dwell 

io"'hwendjia'te' ne' dji' wa'so'"hwendjis"a'." Tonta'hata'ti' ne' 

-^-^ it earth is present the where thou earth hast completed." He spoke in reply the 

Oterontonni"a' wa'hen'ro"': "To'. ka'ti' katkat'ho' ne' dji' 

12 ItSapling heitsaid: "Well, so then let me see it the where 

nisa'shatste"'sero'te"' ?" E'tho'ne' ne' ron'kwe', Hi"no"' ni'ha'- 

thy kind of power?" ,\t that time the he man-being, The such (is) 

Thunder 

.sefino'te"' ori'hwakruon'ne''hfr, watha'ra'tate' e'neke"' niia'ha're' 

hiG name in the manner of the he ran high there he went 

ancients. 



13 

14 



MOHAWK VERSION 



337 



heard; it thundered in the clouds, and lightuinffs were also emitted, 
and moreover many flashes shot forth, seeming as though onlj^ one 
from their rapidity. So then the man-being descended again where 
Sapling was standing, and he said: "Now assuredly thou didst see 
what kind of power 1 have." Sapling, replying, said: "It is true 
indeed that thou art able to do just as thou didst tell me not long ago." 
Then he continued: "'Art thou al)le to cast water habitually' on this 
earth as the sunmiers come?" The other answered, saying: "lam 
able to do so." Sapling said in reply: "So then let me see how thou 
wilt do this." The other person replied: "Yo'; so be it." Now he 
again ascended on high where the clouds are present. Now then 
again it thundered, and besides, the lightning flashed, and the clouds 

otsa'hlko"". Neii" wa"hr wa'tio'to""ha'rere" ne' otsa'tako'". 

it cloud in. Now verily it rumblerl tlie it cloud in, 

wa'ka'we're" ne' o'ni" ne' tewennere'kara''hwa's, neiT til'hno""' 

it spoke the also the it lightened (it winked), now and 



wa''ote",serontie''sero"". nakwa" 

it shot strokes repeatedly, the very 



e'tho'ne' neiT tonta'hats'ne""te" 

at that time now he again came down 



o'k- 

only 

ne' 

the 



sha'ka" ifrhon'ni'. Ta'. 

one it is there it made it. So, 



non'we' ne' Oterontofini"':!' 

place .the It Sapling 



ni"rate" 

just he 
stands. 



ron'kwe". e" sa'rawe' dji' 

he man-being, there again he where 
arrived 

nefi' tii'hno""' wii'hen'ro"": 

now and he it said: 



Neil' wa'"hi" 

' Now verilv 



wa'satkat'ho' 

thou it didst sec 



dji' niwake'shatste"'sero'te"' 

where such my kind of power (is)." 



3 
4 

5 



Tofita'hata'ti" ne' Oteroritofini"':V wa'hen'ro" 

He spoke in reply the It Sapling he it .said: 



■To'ke°ske' wa'-hi" ^ 

"Truly verily 



sakwe'nio"" ne' e"' ne""siere' ne' dji' na'ho'te"' wa'sekhro'ri' 

the thus .so thou wilt tlic where that kind of tliou me didst tell 



No'k' 

And 



thou art able to 
doit 

ne' o"'w:Vtci'." 

tht' not lon^ ago." 

just IlKW 

e^'sa'hnekofitie'seke* 

thou shalt cast water 
habitually 

wake^'nhate'nio"*' i" 

it summer is present 
plurally?" 

"Wfikkwe'nio"-." 

" I it am able to do." 

ka'ti' katkat'ho- dji' 

SO then k-t me see ii whf re 



so thi>u wilt 
do it 



ionsiVhen'ro"' 

further hv it said: 



ne 

the 



W lUTL' 



Tofita'hatu'tr 

He spoke in reply 

Tonta'hen'ru"' 

He .said in reply 



tlijit kind of 
thiiiii 

'' Sakwe'nio" '-ke"" ne' 

"Thou art able is it the 

to do it 

io"'hwendjia'te' ne' dji' 

it earth is present the where 

ne' shaia'ta' wa'hen'ro"': 

the ulher person he it said: 

ne' Oterontonni'Ti' : ^ ' To', 

the It sapling: "• Well, 



wa^lien'ro"': 

he it said : 



lo-'.- 

■So be 



ne"* .siere . 

so thou it wilt 
do." 

E'tho'ne' nen 

now 



non'we' tiiot«a'tai*e\ 

the plaee there it cloud 

is present. 



At that 
time 

Nen' 

Now 



a re 

again 



Tofitaiiata'tr ne' shaia'ta' 

He spoke in reply the one he per- 
son (is) 

e'neke"' niionsa're' dji' 

high there again where 

he went 

wa''hi' saka'we''re' neii' 

verily again it spoke now 



9 

10 
11 
12 

13 
li 
15 



21 ETH — 03- 



-OO 



338 



lEOQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



(ETH, ANN. 21 



became thick, and besides tills tliey became black. Then it came 
forward, from the .sea did it come over the dry land, raining as it 
came. It was marvelous as it came along^. Then of course the rain 
passed. Then he again returned to the place where Sapling was 
moving about. So then Sapling spoke to him, saying: "What thou 
art able to do is .satisfactory. So it will indeed come to pass. It shall 
follow closely the co .rse pointed out in thy request. So now, indeed, 
it will be thy duty to travel contiiuially, for it was thou thyself that 
requested this. Do thou not then ever fail to do thy duty. Thou 
must, of course, ever be vigilant; if at whatever time it be there come 
dangers to the lives of men liecause great serpents move from place 
to place in the depths of this earth and also in the sea; if it come to 



ta'huo""' tewennere'kara"hwti's neii' tii'hno"" wii' ke"tsatate"s"hirne' 

1 and it lightened nnw iiml it eloud became thick 



nen 
o 

^ now 



it lightened nnw 

(it winlis) 

tii'hno"" wa'kaiion'tci'ne". 

and it black became. 



prtho'ne" 

At that 
time 



nen 

now 



tofrtefi'ti 

thence it 
started 



kaniatara'ke' takaie""ta"kwe" o"-hwefidjiatheiT'ke" nonta'we' iokeniio- 

3 it lake on it entered it drv land on thence it it moved 

thereby came 

ro"'ha'tie\ lone'hrakwa-to"-h!Vtie'. Ne' kfi'ti' wa"hr e"tkenno- 



raining 
iilong. 



It goes along nmrvelously. 



The 



so then 



verilv 





ra'sero''hetste'. 


E'thu'n 


iit'iT e" .sa'rawe" dji' 


noiT 


we' 


5 


rain passed. 




At that 
lime 


now there again he where the j 
arrived 


lace 




ni"re'se' ne 


' Oteront()nni"';V. Ta', e'tho'ne' ne' Ote 


I'ofitonn 


i"a' 


6 


he is going the 
about 




It sapling 


So, at that the 
time 


It sapling 






tethota'ti' 


hawen 


fc/. ,i 


Tkaie'ri' ne' dji' ni'io't 


lie' 


dji' 


7 


thence again 
he si)f)ke 

sakwe'nio'". 


he it said : 

E" ki"' 


It is proper the where so it is 

ne"ia'wt>"'ne' e"tioiane""hawe- 


the \ 

ne' 


Iicre 


8 


thou art able 
to do it. 


There, 


I 
think, 


so it will it manner will follow 
happen of it 


the \ 


here 




ni'io't ne' 


dji' 


wa'sei 


•i'hwanon'to"'. Nen' ka'tf 


wa"hi 


e" 


9 


so it is the 


where 


th 


m matter hast Now so then 


verily 


thus 



requested. 

ni'se' ne"io"to"' dji' te""sattiweririe"hake\ a^se'ke"'' i'se' wfi'^hf 

10 the so it will be- where ihon slmlt keep traveling beeause thou verily 

thou come abunl, 

e" ni'io'"t dji' wa^seri^hwanon'to"'. To".sa' ka'tr noiiweii'to", 



11 thus so it is where 

ka.sa\seivn'no"''te'. 

Iz thou be remiss. 



thou matter hast Do not so then 

requested. do it 

E"'se'niko""rar!ike' wa"hi' to'ka 

Thou It Shalt watch ever verily if 



teioterie"'tha'ra'ta'ne' ne' on'kwe' dji' 

13 it is mind-entangling the man-beings where 



iako'n'he". 



kat'ke' 

some- 
time 

a-se'ke'"' 

because 



man-beings where they are 

(human) living, 

teionataweii'rie" o'niare'ko'wa' ona'ko"" ne' dji' io^iiwendjia'te' 

14: they do travel it great serpent inside the where it earth is present 



it great serpent 

iio'k' ho'iii' ne' kaniatara'ko" 

-*-*^ and also the it seam. 



Ne' \viV"hr ne' to'kiVt kat'ke*, 

The verily the 



if some- 

time 



MOHAWK VERSION 



839 



pass that at some time these great serpents desire to seize people as 
they severally travel fi'om place to place, thou imist at once kill such 
serpents, and when thou killest them, they will be that on which 
thou shalt feed. Other animals also, equal in otkon orenda [maletic 
magic power]" to these, all such shall fare like them. Thou wilt 
ever have these to watch — have these as thy adversaries. Now then, 
of course, I have finished this matter. Now then such is the office 
thou hast assumed. Mankind will name thee "Our Grandfather- 
whose-voice-is-customarily-uttered-in -divers-places." Then, indeed, 
they two parted company-. There the legend ends. 



e"we"re'' e"iakoie'niv ne' on'kwe'ho'ko"' iie' 

the . people the 



ne o niare Ko wa 

the it serpent great 



it it will 
desire it 



it one will 
seize 



dji' te"iakotawenrie"hake' i'se' iokonta'tie' e"'seri'io', no'k' ne' 



where 



o ni 

also 

I'se' 

Thou 

Nen' 

Now 



they \vill keep traveling 
about 



thou 



thou it Shalt 
kill, 



and 



the 



it follows at 
once 

e"'seri'io' ne" i'se' e"son'he'kwe""hake'. Tekontiia'tate'nio"' 

thou Shalt continue to ]iv< 
thereby. 

ne'ne' sha'teionnat'ko"'se' * akwe'ko' 

equally they are otkon it all. 



thou it Shalt 
kill 



that 
our 



thou 
it is 



They (z.) bodies have sev- 
erally different 



Kl 



the 
that 



n;i 

the 
that 



lie 
that 



e"'sateri 'hwaiefin i' 'hake' 



>ne 

kfi'ti' wa"hi 

so then verily 



thou thy task shalt have it 
"habitually 

■ wii'keri'ho'kte"". 

I matter have ended. 



J 
think. 

ne' 

the 

Neil' 

Now 



sha'te"io'to""hake'. 

alike so it shall continue 
to be. 

te"'sewa'hnio'take'. 



ye shall be adversaries 
habitually. 

ka ti ni s( 



the 
thou 



e" 

thus 



ni'io't dji' w;Vsateri"hon'te"', Ne' on'kwe' 

go it is where thou it duty art charged The nnm-being 
with. (human) 

'Raksot'ha' ne' Raweiinota'tie'se'." 

the 



so then 

e"iesana'to"' ' kh wake 



they shall continue to 
name thee 



ne 

the 



"He my grand- 
father is 



His-voice-goes-about 
sounding. ' 

E'tho'ne' wa'^hf neiT tonsakiatekha'sr. 

verily now they t^\■o separated. 



.\t that 
time 

E'tho' iiika'kares. 

There so it legend i.s 

long. 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 



a See p. 224 and Orenda and a Definition of Religion, by J.N. B. Hewilt, Am. Anthropologisl (n.s.), 
vol. 4, p. 33, 1902. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT PL. LXIV 




WILLIAM HENRY FISHCARRIER, A CAYUGA CHIEF 'AGE 881, CANADA 



Bureau of American ethnology 



Twenty-first annual report pl. lXV 




ROBERT DAVID IGADJI-NONDA'H EM, A CAYUGA CHIEF, CANADA 



Bureau of American ethnology 



Twenty-first annual report pl. lxvi 




WILLIAM SANDY, 
WILLIAM HENRY FISHCARRIER, 



ALEXANDER HILL, 
ROBERT DAVID 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOG/ 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT PL. LXVll 




Wl 



LLIAM SANDY i.BORN FISHCARRIER), CAYUGA WARRIOR, CANADA 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT PL. LXVIIl 




JOHN BUCK, ONONDAGA CHIEF AND FIRE KLEl'ER, 
CANADA 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT PL. LXIX 




WILLIAM WEDGE, CAYUGA HEAD CHIEF AND FIRE- 
KEEPER, CANADA 



INDEX 



Page 

Aaltft fraternity, ceremonies celebrated by. 23 
Abbreviated katcina dances, description 

of oti 

fraternities taking part in 23 

Sec Soyohim katcinas. 

Ahote, appearance of. in Pallilukoiiti 52 

in Powami"! festival 36 

d eseription of 99 

Ahiil. advent of, in Powamil festival 33-35 

common derivation of Ahiilani and 122 

descriptinn of, in representations of 

liopi katcinas 67 

identity of, with Tawa wiiqtaka 28,122 

with Wiiwiiyomo 28 

participation in I'owami'i festival by... 67 

regular iippoaranoe of 17 

relation of, to the Katcina elan 65 

resemblance of, to Pautiwa 59 

similarity of acts of, to those of Pau- 
tiwa 26 

Ahiil katcina, substitution of, for Ahiilani. 122 
Ahill mask, resemblance of, to that of Wii- 

wiiyomo 65 

Ahiilani. appearance of, in Soyaluna 24 

common derivation of Ahiil and 122 

connection of, with sun worship 122 

description of 121, 122 

personation of sun god by 24 

Soyal katcina, derivation of 124 

substitution of, by Ahiil 122 

.\hiilti, derivation of Ahiil and Ahiilani 

from 122 

Aiwahokwi. identity of 26 

Alaska, field work in ix. xii 

Algonquian dialects of Nova Scf'tia and 

Cape Breton xi, xxiv 

.\lgonquian languages, comparative vocab- 
ulary of XI. XX IV 

Alo mana, derivation of 125 

description of 108, 109 

Alosaka, derivation of 125 

description of 121 

Hopi germ god 24 

S(c Muyinwu. 

Alphabet used in spelling Hopi names 126 

Altars, absence of, in buffalo dance 30 

in Pamiirti 26 

in Tawa Paholawu 31 

in winter Lakone Paholawu 39 

appearance of. in Hopi festivals 57 

in house of the Patki clan 29 

in Pamiirti festival 28 

in representations of Hopi katcinas. 28 

in Soyaluna 25 



Page 

Altars, use of, in Hopi festivals 55,56 

American aborigines equally divided in 

culture stages xxii 

Amulet, appearance of, in pictures of Hopi 

katcinas 101 

Aha, derivation of 125 

Ana katcina manas, ceremonial grinding 

of meal by 49 

Ancient-bodied, a female man-being in Iro- 

quoian cosmology 228 

Ancient clan masks, description of 109-112 

ownership of 109 

Ancients. Hopi, personation of 16 

Srr Katcinas. 

Animism, significance of 15 

Anklets, appearance of, in representations 

t'f Hopi katcinas 68 

Aukwanti, appearance of Hahai wuqti in.. 68 

appearance of Wupamau in 91.92 

See PaUiliikofiti. 
Announcement days of Hopi elaborati-- festi- 
vals 20 

Anote, ceremony led by 69 

Citoto helmet kept in house of 95 

East mesa Natacka masks of Tobacco 

clan kept by 70 

Antelope katcinas, association of, with 

Kwewfi 103 

Antennje in pictures of Hopi katcinas 81 

Aiiwuci, personation of, in Tcivato kiva... 30 

Auwiicnaco taka, derivation of 125 

Anya, dance of Anya katcinas at Walpi 

called 45 

Anya katcina manas, description of 93, 94 

Aiiya katcina masks, resemblance of. to 

Hokyaiia 94 

Anya katcinas, appearance of, in dramatiza- 
tion of growth of corn 93 

in picture of the Nakopan hoya 117 

dance uf, in PrtUiltikofiti 50 

introduction of. by Patki 45 

probable derivation of, from Patki clans 94 

public dance of, in Walpi plaza 54 

resemblance of. to Zuhi Kokokci 94 

Anya manas, similarity of masks of. to those 

of Soyal manas 24 

resemblance of masksof, tothose of Sio 

manas 107 

Apache katcinas among Hopis 17 

Ape in Iroquoian cosmology 214 

Argentina, held work in ix 

Arizona, field work in ix,xi,xviii 

Armor, find of European x 

Armstrong. .John, annalist 137 

341 



342 



INDEX 



Page 
Arrow, tLppL-uraiieo of, in pictures of Hopi 

kulciniis CI, 

66,69,72,75,76,78,81,82,90,91, 

98. 99, io:s lor., los. no, 111, 113 

use of, by Ilopi kateinas Sri, 86 

Arrow clan. Src I'akab elan. 

Artificial flowers, appearance of, in apparel 

of Hopi katcinas 85 

A^n clan 61, 62 

affiliation of, with Zufii 29 

celebration of advent of katcinas of, in 

Pamiirti 57 

dramatization of return of ancients of. 16 

house of, dis[)lay of masks in 28 

entrance of Pamiirti procession into. 27, 28 
introduction of East mesa Natackas into 

Tusayan by 71 

katcina return dance of the 62