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Full text of "Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution"



BOSTON 

PUBLIC 

LIBRARY 




THIRTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



1913-1914 



IN TWO PARTS— PART 2 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1921 



9ec{i:>:?t:-TAL goulege library 



1SFT 



96037 



■■^■. 



ACCOMPANYING PAPER 

(Continued) 



ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL 

BASED ON DATA COLLECTED BY GEORGE HUNT 

By FRANZ BOAS 



CONTENTS 

VII. The Social Divisions of the Kwagui, 

Page. 

Divisions and names of chiefs 795 

Ancestors and places of origin of the numayms 802 

Paintings and house dishes of the social divisions of the Kwag'ul 805 

Names of the Kwag'ul eagles and numayms 820 

VIII. Family Histories 

Wail of LlaLlEqwasila, a Gwa^sela woman 836 

Wail of L!aL!aq61, a Naklwax'da^x" woman 885 

History of the MaSmtag'ila 891 

The Maamtagila 938 

Marriage with the Gomox 951 

Marriage with the Naklwax'da^x" : 1003 

History of the DzEndzEnx'q!ayo lOSO 

The Laxsa 1093 

The Elgunwe^ 1104 

Story of the LfiLEgede, Q!6mk!ut!Es, Kwagui 1117 

Waxaplalaso^ 1121 

Legend of the GexsEm, Naklwax'da-x" 1179 

KwExagiLa 1221 

Bax"bakwalanux"siwEf 1222 

Legend of the Naxnaxu^la, QwEq"s6t!Enox'' 1249 

Story of the NaEnsxa of the Koskimo 1256 

Origin of the abalone names of the AwiklEnox" 1261 

Origin of the abalone names of the Gwa^sEla 1269 

IX. Songs 

Song of a speaker 1279 

La'qotas' song 1282 

Song of Ewanux^dze 1285 

Song of TsEx^wid 1286 

Song of Qlumxod 1287 

Song of L lasoti^walis 1288 

Song of L!aqwadze 1239 

Song of Qwaxila 1290 

Feast song of NEgadzE 1291 

Mourning song for Moda^na 1292 

Feast song 1293 

Shaman's songs 1294 

Shaman's songs 1296 

Love song 1298 

Retort to the preceding love song 1299 

Love-song of TsaksdEk" 1301 

Song of MEnniEnlEqElas 1303 

Song of the same after his return 1304 

VII 



VIU CONTENTS 

Pagi. 

Love-song of the dead 1306 

Parting song 1307 

Parting song 1309 

Workingman's song 1310 

Song of the Warrior KilEm 1311 

Song of the son of Chief Hglamas of the Naklwax'da^x" 1312 

Song of the daughter of a workingman 1313 

Song of cMef 's daughter 1314 

Song of parents who want to wake up their son ■. 1315 

Song of parents who want to wake up their daughter 1315 

X. Addenda 

Dog hair 1317 

Prayer of the salmon-fisher 1318 

Prayer of the halibut-fisher 1318 

Prayer of a man who has been bewitch' d 1327 

Prayer to the lark 1328 

Disposal of property of a deceased person 1329 

The spirits of the fire 1331 

Tribute to the chief 1333 

Marriage laws 1344 

Property rights 1345 

Inheritance 1348 

Domestic quarrels 1358 

Blood revenge 1359 

War against the Sanetch 1363 

Neqap!enk'em's war song against the Sanetch 1380 

Murder after the death of a Gwats !enox" child 1381 

The Kwakiutl settle at Qalogwis 1386 

XI. Vocabulary 

Abbreviations 1389 

Kwakiutl-English 1390 

English-KwakiutI 1439 

XII. Critical Remarks 

Critical remarks 1467 

Index 1475 



ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL 



By Franz Boas 



VII.— THE SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAGUL 
Divisions and Names of Chiefs 



Name for — 

Child: 

Youth: 

Prince or princess : 

Chief or chief tainess : 

Feast : 

Warrior: 

Gwegtitsa 

Ceremonial : 

(Society) : 

House : 

Dog: 

Canoe: 

Place of origin : 



Child: 

Youth: 

Prince or princess: 

Chief or chief tainess : 

Feast : 

Warrior: 

Gwegiitsa: 

Ceremonial: 

(Society) : 

House: 

Dog: 

Canoe : 

Place of origin: 



I. GWETELA (KWEXAMOT) 

1. Ma&mtag'ila 

Male. 

Wawalk'ine 
L lesdaq 
YaqSLas 
^maxiiyalidze 



Female. 

Wawalk'inega 

XusEla 

k- ledele^lak" 

LlaLlaquli^lak" 



K' lanamaxsta K" Isnga 

H&msbe^ H&masEwide 

(H&msh&mts !es) (H&mshamts!Es) 

^uEmsgEmsalaLElas 

WawadeLla 

LlaqwasgEm 

K' lodagala 



2. Loyalalawa 

WalaganEm 
K' lEnwis 
LlaqusdesElas 
TslEx^ed 



Hanag-atsle 

^nawis 

(HamshSmtslEs) 



WalaganEmga 
G"Elexwits!a 
LapElasog'i^lak" 
LElelElas 



K* lanawega 

Togumalis 

(T5x^wid) 



^mEmx'asgEm 
L lagEgwats !e 
LlaqwasgEm 
K' lodagala 



10 



lo 



20 



25 



795 



796 



ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL 



[ETH. ANN. 35 



1 



ChUd: 
Youth: 

Prince or princess: 
5 Chief or chief tainess : 
Feast : 
Warrior : 
Gwegixtsa : 
C'cremonial: 
10 (Society): 
House: 
Dog: 
Canoe : 
Place of origin : 

15 

ChUd: 

Youth: 

Prince or princess : 

Chief or chief tainess : 
20 Feast: 

Warrior: 

Gwegfilsa : 

Ceremonial : 

(Society) : 
25 House: 

Dog: 

Canoe: 

Place of origin: 



30 Child: 

Youth: 

Prince or princess: 

Chief or chief tainess: 

Feast: 
35 Warrior: 

Gwegiitsa : 

Ceremonial: 

(Society) : 

House : 
40 Dog: 

Canoe : 

Place of origin: 



3. GexsEm 

Male. 

Wagedayo 
Q!omas 
GaySLElas 
Kimk'EqEwId 



Female. 

Wagedayugwa 
Ts!Ex-ts!ek" 
^maxulayugwa 
TslEtslalal' 



K'llEmalag'ilis 

X'awaatsle Qweqflloyo 

Ages ^nawis 

(HSmshamts !es) (Hftmsh&mts !es) 

X'its!ax"i^lats!e 

GegExsta 

Alewats !e 

K-!aq!a 

4. Kiikwaklum 



G'lyaqa 

Wabido^ 

TsEx^'wld 

NEqap!Enk'Em 

Kwax'ilanokume^ 

T !et !ESEmx'ts !ana 
Llax'Elagilis 
(Hamats k) 



Giyaqaga 

K'ELla 

K- !6x"se^stilrtak" 

X'ix'Emg'ilayugwa 

MElede 

QEwegEm 

Helik'imeg'ilis 

(KinqalaLEla) 



Hamanekwila Dzonoq !wa 
T!Ext!aq!6d 
EdEmkwaq 
Waqlanak" 



5. SenL!Em 

Wadzid 

lIeweIs 

WalEwid 

^nEmogwis 

Kwax'ilanokume^ 



Wadzidalaga 
Q!Exmen 
Hamalak^alEmega 
L laqwag'ilayugwa 
MEnledzas 



Tsliiqa 

LlemElxk' lalagilis 
(HamhamtslEs) 



LlEma^is 

Hayahk'lede 

(Hayalik-ilal) 

T!ot!osgEm 

SeaLle 

MEmxosEla 

Ylq Ifimen 



BOAS] 



SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAG-UL 



797 



Name for— 

ChUd: 

Youth: 

Prince or princess: 

Chief or chieftainess: 

Feast : 

Warrior : 

Gwegutsa: 

Ceremonial: 

(Society) : 

House : 

Dog: 

Canoe : 

Place of origin: 

ChUd: 

Youth: 

Prince or princess: 

Chief or chieftainess: 

Feast : 

Warrior : 

Gwegutsa : 

Ceremonial : 

(Society) : 

House : 

Dog: 

Canoe : 

Place of origin: 



Child: 

Youth: 

Prince or princess: 

Chief or chieftainess 

Feast : 

Warrior : 

GwegGtsa : 

Ceremonial : 

(Society) : 

House : 

Dog: 

Canoe : 

Place of origin: 



6. La&lax"s^Endayo 

Male. 

Adaxalis 
Hamdzalats !e 
Q!iimx'od 
L!aqwalal 
Kwax'se^stala 

HoLelid 
^walas nane 
(Bear) 



1 

Female. 

Adaxalisga 

TseIx" 

KwakwadEkwilayugwa 

Wayats !6}Flak" 5 

PopELElas 



XuxwanElq !Ela 
^wIlEnkiilag'ilis 
(Tox^wid wiiqles) 

Q!6mogwats!e 

Qliimx'Elayo 

LawEuulxala 

TayagoL 



7. Elgiinwe^ 

G'i^yaxalis 
^nEmgwanal 
Lalax's^Endayo 
G"exk"inis 



G"i-yaxalisga 
Ts !ats layEm 
Alak'ilayugwa 



Alag'imil 



Damis DalEmak" 

NoHid LlEinElxElagihs 

(Nuimal) (H&mshamts !es) 

K Iwaats !e 

Kwanesawe^ 

(no canoe name) 

TayagSL 

II. q!5moya^ye (kwexa) 
1. Kukwa^klum 
Adag-i^ak" 
Wabido^ 
Hilwllkulal 
YaqoLadze 
MEnledzadze 

KllEm 

LaxLalil DEX'ala 

Sayak' !a Gigtimeq !6lEla 

(Nuimal) (Chief Nfdmal) 

^nEmsgEmsi^lak" 

QosEye^ 

XEweqwedEk" 

Waq lanak" 



10 



15 



20 



25 



30 



Adaga 

Wina 

Llaqwaxsa 

K' !ek' ! Elag'idzEmga 



35 



40 



798 



ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL 



[ETH. ANN. 35 



Name (or— 

Child: 
Youth : 

Prince or princess: 
5 Cliief or chief tainess : 
Feast: 
Warrior: 
GwegQtsa: 
Ceremonial: 
10 (Society): 
House: 
Dog: 
Canoe: 
Place of origin: 

15 

Child: 

Youth: 

Prince or princess: 

Chief or chief tainess: 
20 Feast: 

Warrior: 

GwegQtsa: 

Ceremonial: 

(Society): , 

25 House: 

Dog: 

Canoe : 

Place of origin : 



30 Child: 

Youth: 

Prince or princess: 

Chief or chief tainess: 

Feast: 
35 Warrior: 

Gwegiitsa: 

Ceremonial: 



2. HaanaLenS, 

Male. 



Adag'llis 
X"imayo 
TsEx^wId 
Yrtx'LEn 



Female. 

Adag'ilisga 
X'lmayugwa 
LElk" !Elyugwa 
LelElk* !ala 



Nux"nemis HelekMalaga 

^nfix'nEwIsElag'llis Nawalakume 

(HilmshamtslEs) (Tox^wid) 

Q laats !e 
HanLEmbe^ 
SisEyuLEmala 



HanaLenEwaas 



3. Yaex'agEme^ 

Tsolaso^ 

Xwat!a 

YaqoLasEme^ 

LlaqoLas 

Kwakux'^las 



Tsolasoga 
Tsak'us 
Qlex'Lalaga 
M5k lOxwi^lak" 
PSLide 



QaqEsbEndala TslEx'axtosElas 

^nax'q lESElagilis Helik'imegilis 

(HftmshamtslEs) (Hayalik'tlal) 

AmxsEm g"ok" 

G'ogundzes, Q!E'ltsEm 

Winaatsle 

XQdzEdzalis 



4. Ha&yalik'awe 

Wisadze 
Klenax" 
L !aL '.alawis 
HaxiiyosEme^ 

GwaxiiLayagilis 

YalEla 

^na^nogwis ' 



Gfinaga 

MEnga 

K' liisogwi^lak" 

Hayalik"awega 



PlElxEla 
NEnx'nEng'ilis 



boas] 



SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAG-UL. 



799 



Name for — 


Male. 


Female. 




(Society) : 


(HamshSmts !es) 


(Bear) 




House: 


Heleg' 


ats!e 




Dog: 


Heleg 


ano 


40 


Canoe: 


Gwex'sEmala 




Place of origin: 


LE^ad 






5. Laxsa* 






Child: 


Witalai 


GEnagalal 




Youth: 


Bagwane^ 


Ek- !axLa 


45 


Prince or princess: 


Lalak'ots!a 


LEx'lEg'ldzEmga 




Chief or chieftainess: 


^maxiiyalisEme^ 


^nax'nag'Em 




Feast : 


Kwax'se^stala 


LlEnk'Elas 




Yvarrior: 


^ya^g-edEnol 






Gwegutsa: 


X'lx'EqEla 


DadoxsEme 


50 


Ceremonial : 


NEnologEine^ 


NolEme^stalidzEmga 




(Society) : 


(Nulmai) 


(NolEm) 




House : 


Hoqillaelas 






Dog: 


QlEltsEm 






Canoe : 


(No canoe-name) 


55 


Place of origin: 


LE^ad 
6. G"igilgam 






Child: 


Nole-'lak" 


Winaga 




Youth: 


MEmtsalal 


Mamana 




Prince or princess: 


L!aHd 


^walasLala 


60 


Chief or chieftainess : 


K !wak IwabalasEme^ 


Le^lenox" 




Feast : 


PoLede^stala 


MEnledaas 




Warrior : 


Wfileba^ye 
WabEtols 






Gwegutsa: 


^nEmxsaxLals 




Ceremonial : 


NEnk-as-'o 


^na^naqwayed 


65 


(Society) : 


(Bear) 


(Paxalalal) 




House : 


G-okustaiis 






Dog: 


Yaselana 






Canoe: 


Alewatsle 






Place of origm: 


K!aq!a 




70 



III. ^WALAS KWAG'UL (LAQWI^LALA) 

1. DzEndzEnx'q !ayo 

Child: Deyadeas g'iyadze G'iyaga 

Youth: Sexiilas Wabido- 

Prince or princess: Hayatk'EngEme' ^maxfllayugwa 

I All the names of the Laxsii are newly invented. 



800 



ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL 



lETH. ANN. 35 



Name for — 

6 Chief or chief tainess : 
Feast: 
Warrior : 
Gwegiitsa: 
10 Ceremonial: 

(Society) : 
House : 
Dog: 
15 Canoe: 

Place of origin: 



Male. 

Yax'LEn 

MElnedzadze 

K-llEm 

Hanag'id 

Gwa^yokulag'ilis 

Gewas 
(Hamats !a) 



Female. 

Hawepaiayugwa 
HogweqElas 

Lalk- !u 
LlaqosElag'ilis 

(Hamshfimts !es) 



^nawalagwats !e 
Ylxumlats !e 
Kwekumala 
LlaLlEqluxLa 



2. Wawalibfi,^ye (and Hemaxsdo) 



Child: 

Youth: 
20 Prince or princess : 

Chief or chieftainess: 

Feast : 

Warrior: 

Gwegiitsa: 
25 Ceremonial: 

(Society) : 

House : 

Dog: 

Canoe: 
30 Place of origin: 



Child: 

Youth: 

Prince or princess: 
35 Chief or chieftainess: 

Feast : 

Warrior : 

Gwegutsa: 

Ceremonial : 
40 (Society): 

House : 

Dog: 

Canoe : 

Place of origin: 



Aadol 

'mEk"ala 

Aomak'En 

Yaqal^Enala 

MElnedzas 

HemotElaso^ 

XodzEnod 

Hox^wetaso^ 

(HM,mshamts !es) 



Adagalol 

YasEk" 

Lla'qwal 

Llaqwael 

MamEnlot 



PepEx3,la 

X'its !anede 
(Tox^wid) 



G'ox"g'okuleg'e 
K"alakwa 
Wine^sta^lats !e 
^nalaxLala 



3. G'exsEm 

G'i^yaqa 

Klwete^ 

YaqoLas 

LaLeliLla 

Kwax'se^staladze 

K'ekalElayo 

LlEmsetaso^ 

^nax"danadze 

(Hamshamts!Es) 



G'i^yaqaga 

Wagalos 
'maxulayugwa 
TElts !aas 
ELlEnk'Elas 

K*ek-ExElaga 
G'Igameq !olEla 
(NulEmal) 



BEX"se''stalek" 
Tisokaye 
Alewatsle 
K-!aq!a 



BOASj 



SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAG-UIj 



801 



IV. q!6mkMut!es (lo^elq Iwenox") 





1. LeqlEm 






Name for— 


Male. 


Female. 




Chnd: 


Ade^stala 


Ade^stalaga 




Youth: 


MEtsa 


Masmenga 




Prince or princess : 


G'ayosdedzasEme^ 


L!aqwaga 


5 


Chief or chief tainess : 


HaeLEkume^ 


QasElas 




Feast : 


MEnled 


PoLElas 




Warrior : 


QEnkulag'ilidzEm 
QasElas 






Gwegutsa: 


XEweq" 




Ceremonial : 


NolEme^stalis 
or Helek'adzel 


NolEme^stalidzEmga 


10 


(Society) : 


(NolEm) 


(NoiEm, or PSxElalal) 




House : 


LegEmats!( 


3 g'okwa 




Dog: 


Laqax'sala 






Canoe 


SisEyuLEmala 


15 


Place of origin: 


OsEq" 
2. LeLEged 






ChHd: 


O^magilis 


O^mag'Ilisga 




Youth: 


Max^enox" 


Llalaga 




Prince or princess: 


Ek- !aweg-i-'lak" 


LelElayugwa 


20 


Chief or chief tainess : 


Lalep !alas 


YEmgwas 




Feast: 


PoLid 


Hoq lulElas 




Warrior: 


GwaxttLEyag-ilis 
L !Em^yala 






Gwegutsa: 


LlEmtsIanak" 




Ceremonial: 


L!aqusElag-ilis 


Wine^stalis 


25 


(Society) : 


(Hamshamts !es) 


(Hawi^nalal) 




House : 


G'5kustaLe 






Dog: 


P'.a'LElag'il 


a 




Canoe : 








Place of origin: 


OsEq" 


30 


75052—21—35 eth- 


-PT 2 2 







802 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [Era. ann. n 

Ancestors and Places of Origin of the Numayms 

r. GWETELA 

1 Lo^yalal, the younger brother of Llaqwag'ila. His father was 
^niaxuyalidze, | that is Matag'ila. He first built his house at 
K'lodagala. | Agwilayugwa was a girl among the children of 
Matag'ila, that is | -maxiiyalidze, at K" lodagala. LEnslEndzEm 
5 was the youngest one among the || children of Matag'ila, that 

is ^maxuyalidze, who had three | sons and one daughter. | 
Kukwaklum, the first one came down at the place called | Waq!a- 
nak". I 
10 SenLlEm, the first one came down at a place called || Ylq!amen. | 
Laalax's-Eudayo came down at Tayagol in the bay of Tsaxis. | 
Elgun^we^ also came down at Tayagol, for he was the younger 
brother of | Lalaxs^Eudayo. | 

II. q'.omoya^yS; 

15 Kiikwaklum, the first one came down at the place called || Waq!a- 
nak", for the Kukwak!um first scattered when | ^maxwa, 
chief of the Maamtag'ila of the Kwag'ul, was | killed. | 
HaanaLen^, the first one came down at the place called ] Hana- 
LenEwaas.|| 

I. GWETELA 

1 Lo^yalal, yix ts!a^yaas L'.aqwag'ila. Wa, la heEin ompse ^maxiiya- 
lidze, yix Matag'ila. Wa, laEm he g'U g'ox-walise K' lodagala. 
Agwilayugwa; wa, -heEin ts!Edaq!Eges sasEma Matag'ila, yix 
^maxQyalidse, lax K' !odagala. LEnslEndzEin ; hcEm aina^yhixes 
5 sasEinas Matag'ila, yix ^maxuyalidze, yudukwe bEgwansm 

sasEins LE^wa ^uEmokwe tslEdaqa. 
Kukwak!uin, yixs hae g'ayaxalise g'alasexa awlnagwise LegadEs 

Waqlanak". 
SenLlEm, ylxs hiie g'ayaxalise g'alasexa awlnagwise LegadEs Ylqla- 
10 men. 

Laillax's^Endayo, yixs hae g'ayaxalise Tayagol lax oxLalisas Tsaxis. 
Elgiin^we^, yixs he^maaxat! g'ayaxalise Tayagol, yixs ts!a«yaas 
Lalax's^Endayo. 

II. qIomoya^ye 

Kukwaklum, yixs hae g'ayaxalise g'alasexa awlnagwise LegadEs 
15 Wiiq'.anak", yixs he^mae g'il gwel^idaatsa Kukwaklum, yixs lae 

k' lelax'^itsE^we ^maxwa, yix g'iga,ma^yasa Maftmtag'ilasa Kwa- 

g'ul. 
Ha&naLena, yixs hae g'ayaxalise g'alasexa awlnagwise LegadEs 

HanaLeiiEwaas. 



BOAS] SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAG-UL 803 

Yaex'agEme. He came down at XQdzEdzalis at the lower side of 20 
the river of | LEx'siwe^. | 

Ha^yahk'awe, the first one came down at a phxce called | LE^lad. | 

Lfixsii. These also came down at LE^lad, for || Laxsii was the 25 
younger brother of Helik'awe^. | 

G'lgilgam, the fu'st one came down at the place called | KMaqla, 
for this is the real numaym of the ^walas Kwag-ul, | and they 
scattered when ^maxwa was killed, and they went to the | 
Q!6moya^ye, though some of the G'lgilg&m came from the 
Q!omoya^ye.|| And therefore MaemalplEngEm was sent away 30 
by his I numaym the G'igilgam of the ^walas Kwag'ul to the | 
Q!omoy§,^ye. | 

III. ^WALAS KWAG'Ut 

DzEnx'qlayo, the first one came down at a place called | rJaLlE- 

q!tixLa, inside the bay of Tsaxis.|| 
WalibsVye, the first one came down at the place called | ^nalax- 35 

Lala; half way up Kjiight Inlet. | 
Hemaxsdo, the first one also came down at ^nalaxLala, for he was | 

the younger brother of waliba^ye. | 
G'lgilgam, the first to come down was ^walas Kwaxilanokume, 

the father of || Omaxt lalaLe^ at ^the place named KMaqla. | 40 

Yaex'agEme, ylxs hae g-ayaxalise XiidzEdzal's lax gwak- lotas ^was 20 
LEX'sIwa^ye. 

Ha^yalik'awe, ylxs hae g'ayaxalise g'alasexa awinagwise LegadEs 
LE^lade. 

L§,xsa, yixs he-"maaxat! g-ayaxalise LE^lade, ylxs tsla^yanukwae 
Helik'awa-'yas Laxsa. 25 

G'lgilgam, yLxs hae g'ayaxalise g'alasexa awinagwise LegadEs 
K'!aq!a, yixs hiie ft,la ^nE^memaatsexa ^walas Kwag'ul. Wa, 
he^mis la gwet'idaatsex lae k'!elax'^itsE-we ^maxwa qa^s la laxa 
Qlomoya^ye, qaxs laxElaexa g'ayule laxa G'lg'llgamaxa Qlomo- 
ya^ye. Wa, he^mis lag'ilas k'ayolEme MaemalplEngEmdases 30 
^nE^memota G'lgilgamasa ^'walas Kwiig'ul qa^s la laxa Q!omo- 
yS,^ye. 

HI. ^WALAS KWAG'UL 

DzEnx'q!ayo, yixs hiie g-ayaxalise g'alasexa Awinagwise LegadEs 

L!aL!Eq!uxLa lax oxLalisas Tsaxis. 
WalibiVye, yixs hae g-ayaxalise g-aliisexa siwinagwise LegadEs 35 

^nalaxLala laxa uEgoya^yasa wunaldEmsas Dzawade. 
Hemaxsdo, yixs he^maaxat! g-ayaxalise g-alase ^nalaxLala, qaxs 

ts'.a^yaas Waliba^ye. 
G-Ig'ilgS,m, yixs hiie giiyaxalise -'willas Kwiix-ilanokume, yix ompas 

O^maxt lalaLeyexa awmagwise LegadEs K'!aq!a. 4q 



804 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ask. 35 

41 G"ex3Em. ^walas ^nEmogwis also came down at K"!aq!a, ] for he 
was the younger brother of OmaxtlalaLe^. And Omaxt lalaLe^ | 
gave the name G'exsEm to his younger brother. When ^maxwa 
was killed, | some of the G'exsEm went to the GwetEla of 

45 the II Kwag'ul. Therefore the GwetEla have G'exsEm, and they 

also went to the | Gosg'imux". The G'exsEmx's^anal are 
G'exsEm, and there are also | G'exsEm of the NaqEmg'ilisala, 
and G'exsEm of the LlaL'.asiqwala, and | G'exsEm of the Na- 
k!wax'c!a^>'\ and G'exsEm of the DEuax'da^x", and j G'exsEm 
of the Haxwamis, and G'exsEm of the Wiwaqe. And all 

50 these are || referred to by the G'exsEm of the ^walas Kwa- 

g'ul, as born of these G'exsEm, j all those whom I have 
named among the different tribes. | 

This is referred to by the old people of the Kwag'ul as 
"blown away by the | past chief ^maxwa," when he was killed. 
And also | the same happened to the numaym of the G'Ig'll- 

55 gam, for they jj all come from the numaym of Omaxt'.alaLe^. | 

They scattered to all the tribes beginning j at the time when 
^maxwa was killed, for there was only one numaym j G'ig'il- 
gam of ^walas Kwax'llanokume, the father of | OmaxtlalaLe^.jj 

IV. q!6mk"!ut!es 

60 Leq'.Em, the fu-st one came down at the place called OsEq". j 
LeLEged, they also staid at OsEq", for Leq!Em was his elder 
brother. | 

41 G'exsEm, yixs he^maaxat ! g'ayaxalise K" !aq !a, yix ^walas ^nEmogwis, 
yJxs tsliVyaas O^maxt !alaLa^ye. Wa, he^mise O^maxt lalaLa^ye 
Lex^edEs G'exsEm laxes tsla^ya. Wa, g'tPmese k' !elax'^itsE^we 
^maxwa lae maxt!eda waokwe G'exsEm laxa GwetElasa 

45 Kwag'ule, lag'ilas G'exsEmnukwa GwetEla. He-'misa la laxa 

G6sg'imux"xa G'exsEmx's^anal, he^misa G'exsEm; he^misa 
G'exsEmasa NaqEmg'Uisiila lo^ G'exsEmasa L!aL!asiqwala l6- 
G'exsEmasa Naklwax'da^x" l5^ G'exsEmasa DEnax'da^x" lo= 
G'exsEmasa Haxwamis Lo^ G'exsEmasa Wiwaqe. Wa, yu- 

50 wistaEm g\vE^yasa G'exsEmasa ^walas Kwag'ule maEmyuLEma 

G'ig'exsEmaxsa laqEn LCLEqElaso^ ogiixsEmak" lelqwalaLa^ya. 

HeEm gwE^yasa q !ulsq Iiilyaxdasa Kwag'ule yame^stanosa g*i- 

gfimayulae ^maxwa, yJxs lae kMelax'^ItsE^wa. Wa, heEmxaa- 

wise gwex'^ideda ^nE^memotasa G'lg'ilg&m, ylxs hemaaxat! 

55 ^naxwa g'ayule ^nE^memotas ( Hmaxt lalaLa^ya G'Ig'llg&mxwa 

lax G'lg'llgam gweHd laxwa 'naxwax lelqwSlaLa^ya g'ag'I- 
LElalax ^maxwa, ylxs lae k" !elax'^itsE^wa, ylxs ^nEm^emae g'll 
G'ig'ilga,me ^nE^memotas ^walas Kwax'llanokume, yix ompas 
O^maxt lalaLa^ye. 

IV. q!omk'!ut!e3 

60 Leq!Em, ylxs hae g'ayaxalisa &winagwise LegadEs OsEq". 
LBLegede, heEmxaa la OsEq", ylxs nolanokwaas LeqlEm. 



boas] social divisions of the kwag-u1> 805 

Paintings and House Dishes op the Social Divisions of the 

KWAGUL 

I. GWETELA 

1. MaSmtag'ila. The front board of the house is painted with 1 
coppers, I one on each side of the door of the house. The posts | 
on each side of the rear are grizzly bears, below on the floor, 
and eagles are sitting on the | heads of the grizzly bears, and 
there is a copper on the chest of each eagle. || 

And on the grizzly bear also stands a man, | and red cedar bark 5 
is around the heads of the men. | Ttey are speaking-posts and 
therefore | the two posts on each side of the door of the houss are 
named "speaking-posts." | These were obtained as supernatural 
treasures by L'.aqwag'ila at the river of KModagala. This is the 
great|| house named ^uEmsgEmsalaLElas. There are four | house 10 
dishes in the large house, two eagle dishes, | and one grizzly-bear 
dish, and one | wolf dish. They just stay in the house, and the 
peojile I talk about them. I do not know why the chief of the|| 
numaym Maamtag'ila, ^maxiiyalidze, never gave a feast. That is 15 
all I about this. This is called qlElsEm (that is "rotten face," one 
who gives no feast). | 

2. Loyalalawa. On the outside of the front boards of the house 
of I TslExed, their chief, is the doublheaded serpent lying across 



Paintings and House Dishes of the Social Divisions of the 

KWAG'UL 
I. GWETELA 

1. Madmtag'ila, yixs k'latEmalae tsagEmases g"okwaxa L!aqwa 1 
lax ^wax'sanex"sttVyasa tiEX'Ilasa g'okwe. Wa, la LeLamasa *wax'- 
s5tewalilas naneda banEiixalile. Wit, la k !tidzEt§,^ya kwekwe lax 
oxLa^yasa nane. Wa, la pepaq!upEleda kwekwekwaxa LlaLlEqwa. 

Wa, laxae nane banEnxalilasa bEgwaiiEme la LaxutEwex oxLa- 5 
^yasa nane. Wa, laEm L!5gEx"b6le qeqEX'ama^yasa bebEgwanE- 
me. Wa, la^mese yaqlEntlEqa. Wa, he^mis lag'ilas Legadeda ma- 
^le LeLamsa ^wax'sotstalilasa t!EX"ilasa g"okwas yaqlEntlEqe Lama. 
Wa, heEm Logwes L!aqwag'ila lax was K'!odagala, ylxa ^walase 
g-okwaxa Legadiis ^UEmsgEinsalaLElas. Wa, la mEwexLeda IoeI- 10 
qwalile ha^nel laxa ^walase g'okwaxa ma^EXLa kwekwa loqwalila. 
Wa, he^misa ^iiEmexLa nane loqwalila. Wii, he-misa ^nEmexLa 
aLauEm loqwalila. Wa, S,^mise hegwael laxa g'okwe. Wa, la aEm 
gwagwex's^alasa. Wii, la^mEn k'les ql^LElax k'leselas k!welats!e- 
noxwe g'lgama^yasa ^nE^memotasa MaS,mtag"ile ^maxQyalidze. Wa, 15 
laEm laba laxeq. — HeEm LegadEs q!ElsEm. 

2. Loyalalawa, yix gwalaasas Llasana^yas tsagEmas g'okwas 
TslEX^ede, ylx ' gigSma^yas, yixs sIsEyuLaes xwalewa^yas ogwaxta- 



806 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth.ann.ss 

the top I of the front boards of the house, and the thunder-bird 

20 sits on the || head of the man in the middle of the double headed 
serpent. There is no painting on the | front boards of the house- 
This house was given in marriage by Hoxawid to his princess | 
LElelalas, for Hoxawid was chief of the nuniaym | G"Ig"Elgam of 
the Haxwamis. There are four house dishes in the | house, one a 

25 grizzly-bear dish, one a || beaver dish, one a Dzonoqiwa dish, | and 
one a wolf dish. And the name given in marriage is | Kwakwa- 
x-alas, a feast name of Chief Ts!Ex^ed. 1 That is all about this. | 

30 3. G'exsEm. The way the front of the house of || Chief K-Emk'E- 
qEwed is painted is a grizzly-bear painting on each side of the | 
front of the house. It is not known where he got it, | or whether 
he obtained it in war. That is all that is said about this.| 

4. Kukwak!um. They have no painting on the front of | then- 
house, but they have posts. They are Dzonoq'.was standing on|| 

35 grizzly bears, one on each side of the door, inside house, and | 
in the rear of the house there are hox"hok" sitting on grizzly 
bears. | This house was given in marriage by Yaqal-Enlidze, a 
chief who lived long ago and was chief of the numaym | Mema- 
gins of the Qweq"sot!enox", for | NEqaplEnk'Em took for his wife 

40 Yaqah'Enlidze's princess, whose name was L'.alelllayugwa, || and 
therefore the house was given to him in marriage. In the house 

^yasa tsagEmasa g-okwe. Wa, la klwaleda kunkunxiilig-e lax 
20 oxLa^yas x'omsasa bak-awa^yasa sIsEyuLe. Wa, laEm kMeas kMatE- 
mes tsagEmasa g'okwe. Wii, hcEm g'okiilxLes Hoxawide qaes k" !e- 
dele, yix LElelalase; yixs g'lgama^j'ae Hoxawidiisa ^uE^memotasa 
Gugilgamasa H:xxwamis. Wa, la^me ha^nela niEwexLa loElqwallla 
ha^nel laxa g-okwexa -UEmexLa nane loqwallla. Wa, he-misa ^ue- 
25 mexLa ts!awa loqwalfla; wii, he^misa ^UEmexLa dzonoq!wa loqwalila; 
wa, he'misa ^UEmexLa aLa^uEm loqwalila. Wa, he^mis LegEmg'Elx- 
La^ye Kwakwax'alas qa klweladzEXLiiyosa g'lgama^ye Ts!EX''ede. 
Wa, laEm gwal laxeq. 

3. G"exsEm, yix gwalaasas k'lata^yas tsagEma^j' as g'okwas g'ig&- 
30 ma^yase K'Emk'EqEwede, yixs ^wax'sotstalasaeda nane k-!fitEmes 

tsagEma^yasa g'okwe. . Wa, la^me k' !es q laLEle g'ayoLasaseq lo^ 
wFnanEmaq. Wa, laEm wale waldEme qae. 

4. Kukwakliim, yixs k'leasa kMatEmes tsagEmas Llasana^yas 
g'okwas, ogu^la laxes LeLame, yixs EeLaxwatayaeda dz6noq!waxa 

35 nenane lax ^wax'sotstalilasa awlLEliisa g-okwe. Wii, lii klwadzEta- 
^ya hox"hokwexa nenane laxa ^wax-sotewalllas ogwiwallhisa g-okwe. 
Wa, heEm g-6kidxLes Yaqal^Eulidze yix g-igamayolasa ^uE^memotasa 
Memag-insasa Qweq"sot!enoxwe yixs gEg-adaeda g-Igamayoiae 
NEqiip lEnk-Emolas k-!edeJas Yaqal^EnUdzeolaxa Legadiis Llixlelila- 

40 yugwa. Wii, he^mis g-axelas g-okialxLa^ya g-okwe. Wii, he^mis 



BOAS] SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAG-UI> 807 

are | four house dishes, one of the great house dishes is a Dzo- 41 
noq!\va, | one of them a grizzly bear, and one a | whale, and one 
a I killerwhalo. These are the four house dishes given in marriage 
by Chief || Yaqal^Enlidze for his princess Llalelilayugvva when she 45 
married | NEqaplEiik'Em. That is all I know about the numaym | 
Kukwaklum of the GwetEla, for nothmg was obtained as super- 
natural treasure by their ancestors. | 

5. wSenLlEm. They have painted on the front of their house 
two I suns, one on each side of the front of the outside || of the 50 
house. The house has no carved jiosts, and there are two | 
house dishes inside, both doublelieaded serjients. | These were also 
obtamed in marriage by Chief TsEx^'wed from the chief | of the nu- 
maym NSnEmasEqahs of the Lawetsles, LElak'Enes, | for TsEx^wed 
had for his wife the princess of LElak"Enes, || L!ax'L!EledzEmga. 55 
However, they never talk about the house given in marriage by | 
IjElak'Enes, for the sun painting of the house belongs to the Sen- 
L!Em. I That is all about this.| 

6. Lasilax-s^Endayu. Their chief Llaqwalai has no painting on 
the house, | but seven birds are sitting on || top on the edge of the 60 
outside of the house front. This was obtained as supernatural 
treasure by | LfileliLla, who was known as a great sea-hunter. 



mExeL laqeda mEwexLa loElqwalllaxa ^nEmexLeda ^walase loqwalil 41 
dzonoqiwa; wii, he^mesa ^iiEmexLa loqwalile nane; wa, he^inesa 
^UEinexLa loqwalil gwE^yEma; wa, he^mesa ^iiEmexLa loqwalil 
max^enoxwa. Wa, mEwexLeda loElqwallle loqwaxLasa g^igamayole 
Yaqal^Eiilidzeyola qaes kMedelwule L!alelilayngw5laxs lae h¥wadEs 45 
NEqap lEnk'Einole. Wa, heEm waxEii q !ale laxa ^nE^memotasa Kti- 
kwaklumasa GwetEla, yixs k'leasae Logwalas g"ilg"alesas. 

5. SenL!Em, yixs k"!atEmalae tsagEmas g'okwasexa ma^ltsEine 
L'.esEla, yixs ^nal^iiEmae laxa ^wax'sanoLEma^yas tsagEmas Llasana- 
^yasa g'okwe. Wa, la kMeask'Ias LeLamas g'okwas. Wa, la malEx- 50 
LJida loElq !wa ha^nel laqxa ^naxwa^me sIsesEyuLaeda malExLa IoeI- 

q !wa. LaEinxae loqwaxLe hixa g'igamayolae TsEx^wedola yis g'lga- 
mayolasa ^nE^memotasa NonEraasEqalisasa Lawetslese, yix LElak'- 
Eneswiila, yixs gEg'adae TsEx^wIdolas k'ledelas LElak'Eneswiilas 
L'.ax'LlEledzEinga. Wa, laEmLe k-'.es gwagwex's-alase g-okiilxxa- 55 
^yas LElak'Eneswflle qaxs has^maaxa SenLlEme l lesEla k" latEmeses 
g'okwe. Wa, laEmxae gwal laxeq. 

6. Laalax's-'Eudayo, yixs kMeasae k'latEmes g'okwas g-Ig^ma- 
^yase Llaqwalai, yixs k!wasaxtS,^yeda aLEbosgEme tsleklwa lax 
ogwaxta^yas tsagEmas Llasana^yas g'okwas. He.Em Logwes Lale- 60 
liLlaxa tslelwilla -'walas ale^winoxwa, yixs tsIiVyae LaleliLlas Lla- 



808 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

62 Laleliila was the younger brother of L!aqwalal. | iJ.aqwahxl sent 
his younger brother LaleliL!a to | hunt seals at Salots'.a, which is 
called Nomas. | He started from | LEx'sIwe^, for it is said that the 

65 ancestors of the numaym Laalax"s^Endayu lived there. || The name 
of the steersman of LaleliL!a is not given. It was | evening when 
they started for the island Salotsla. The tide ] began to run out, 
and the canoe was being turned around Then | Laleliila 
warned his steersman, and told him not to be afraid, because | 
sea-hunters are not afraid of anything. Then they saw many 

70 birds || gathering at the place where they were being gathered ahead of 
the bow of the | small hunting canoe. Then LaleliLla and his steers- 
man paddled quickly. | Then they nearly arrived at (the place) 
where there were ] many birds gathered. Then the top of the front | 
of a large house appeared from out of the sea. It was not there 

75 for a long time. The house came || out of the sea like an island. 
This was the house of Q!omogwa | which was seen by LaleliLla. 
Then he ran into the sea into the | door of the great house com- 
ing out of the sea. Then LaleliLla told | his steersman that they 
would go into the great house that came out of the sea. | The 

SO steersman said, "Go on. Just paddle." Thus he said. || Then they 
paddled, going with the tide, which ran into the door of the great 
house that had come up from the sea. | Then ho went in with 
his small hunting canoe. 1 And it stood at the right-hand side of the 

62 qwalal. Wa, la^lae ^yalaqe Llaqwalalaxes tsla^ye LaleliLla qa liis 
alexwax megwata lax Salots!axa gwE^yowe Nomas g'ilg'Elis lax 
LEX'sIwe^ qaxs haaEl g'okule g'alasa ^nE^memotasa La&lax'S'Eu- 

65 dayo. Wa, la^me k'les LeqalasE^we klwaxLa^yas LaleliLla. Wii, la- 
Em^lawise dzaqwaxs lae LEx^ide LasgEmex Salotsla. Wii, la^lae 
ts lax'^ideda dEmsx'e. Wii, laEm^lae qEciosa. Wa, gwalElaEm^lawise 
LaleliLla q !aq lagEmlaxes klwaxLa^ye qakMeses k'iMas qaxsk'lea- 
sae kilEm es^alewinoxwe. Wa, laEm'^lae doqwalaxa q!enEme ts!el- 

70 tslsklwa laEl pEkwaxes jjEkwasE^wa lax uEqag'iwa^yas agiwa^yas 
ale^wasELEla xwaxwaguma. Wa, aEm^lawise ^nEmala yaya^na sexwe 
LaleliLla LE^wes k!waxLa^ye. Wii, laEm^lawise Elaq lag'aa laxa 
qleuEme pEkwa ts!elts!Ek!wa g^axaalase nel^ide ogwiixta^yas tsagE- 
masa ^wiilase g'okustaLa^ya. Wii, kMedzalae giilaxs g'axae he^la 

75 gwex^s ^mEk'alaxa g-okustaLa^ye. Wii, lieEm g-ox"sa Qlomogwa^ye 
la dogiilts LiiloliLla. Wii, laEm^lae tsEwcLEleda dEmsx-e ^wiip lax 
tiEX'iliisa ^wiilase g'okustaLa^ya. Wii, laEm^lae LiileliiJa axk'lii- 
lax5s k!waxLa^ye qa^s Lalag"! laex laxa ^walase g-okustA,La^ya. Wa, 
aEm-iawise klwaxLa^yas ^nek'a: "Wiig'a, aEm sex^wIdEx," ^nex-^lae. 

80 Wii,lax"da^x"-'lae se^weg'Endxa ts!aeLEla lax tlEX'iliisa^walase g'okus- 
taLa^ya. Wii, la^me laeL leHvcs aiewasELEla xwiixwagtima. Wii, 
laMae hftng-alll laxa helk' !6tewaliiasa ^walase g'okustaLa^ya. Wa, 



BOAsl SOCIAL DIVISIOKS OF THE KWAGUt 809 

great house that had come up from the sea. | Then LalehLla saw 83 
four house dishes standing in the rear | of the great house that 
had come up from the soa, one a whale dish, || and one killer- 85 
whale dish, and one sealion | dish, and one seal dish. Then | La- 
loliLla heard what they said. "Now you have obtained as super- 
natural treasxrre this house that has come up from the sea, | 
and these four house dishes. Now go on, and club these sea-otters 
as yom- | supernatural treasure." Thus said what was heard by 
him. Immediately La]eliL!a stepped out || of his little canoe. He 90 
clubbed the many sea-otters that were crawling about on the 
floor I of the house. As soon as his small canoe was full, he went 
aboard. | Then the sea began to flood the house, and the | little 
canoe of LaleliLla floated. Then the great house that had come 
up disappeared, | and the canoe just floated on the open sea. || La- 95 
leliLla went home to his village at LEx'sIwe^, his canoe full of 
sea-otters. | Then he reported to his elder brother Llaqwalal that a 
large house commg up from the sea had been seen; | that they 
had gone in, and that he had heard them | saymg. "Now you 
have obtained as supernatural treasure this house that has come 
up, and these four | house dishes. Now club some of these sea- 
otters here, for you obtained them as supernatural treasxu-es. 
Thus said what I || heard," said LalehLla to his elder brother L!a- 100 
qwalal as he reported to him. | Now he gave what he had ob- 
tained by good luck, the sear-otters and the four house dishes, I 



laEm^lae doqule LaleliLlaxa loElqwalile mEwexLa ha^nel laxa ogwi- 83 
walilasa ^willase gokustaLa^yaxa ^nEmexLa gwE^yEm loqwalila, 
he^mesa ^iiEmexLa max^enox" loqwalila, LE^wa ^nEmexLa Llex^En 85 
loqwalila; wa, he^misa ^UEmexLa megwat loqwalila. Wa, la^lae 
LaleliLla wuLalaxa ^nek'a: "LaEms Logwalaxwa g"okustaLa^yex 
LE^wa niEwexLax loqwalila. Wii, weg'a kwex^ed laxwa q!asax qa^s 
Logwaos," ^nex-iae wuLElas. Wii, hex-'idaEm^lawise LaleliLla lalta 
laxes xwaxwagume qa^s kwex^ede laxa qlasa qlenEm g'ilEmgllilEla 90 
laxa g'okwe. Wii, g'lpEnr'liiwise qotla xwiixwagumaxs lae laxs laq. 
Wii, la^me paolElileda dEmsx'e ^wiipa. Wii, g'il^Em^ltlwise pEx^wallle 
xwaxwagumas LiileliLla laalase x'is-ededa ^walase g'okustaLa^ya. 
Wa, la^me a,Em la hSnwiilax'da^x" laxa aowak'e. Wii, la^me g'ax 
nii-'nakwe LaleliLla hixes g'okwalase lex slwe^ qot laxa qlasa. Wa, 95 
la^lae tslEk'liilElases dox^waLEla -walase g-6kustaLe laxes ^nole Lla- 
qwalale. Wii, he^mesex lE^mae laeL laq. Wii, he^mis la wuLEla- 
tsexa ^nek-a: "LaEms Logwalaxwa g'okustaLa^yex LE^wa mEwexLax 
loqwalila. Wa, weg'a kwex^ed liixwa q liisax qa^s Logwaos, ^nek'En 
wuLEle," 4iex'^lae LiileliL liixes ^nole Llaqwalale, lae tslEk'lalElaq. 100 
Wa, la^me liik'lEg-a^ltses Logwa^ya qliisa LE^wa niEwexLa loElqwali- 



810 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 35 

2 to his elder brother Llaqwalal, that the house that came up from 
the sea should be imitated by him with | all the birds sitting on 
the upper edge of the outer | front of the house that came up. 

5 LaleliL'.a did not wish || to put to shame his elder brother Llaqwa- 
lal. Therefore lie did this with his house that had come up. | 
Now LaleliL!a built a house like that house in | Qalogwis, and he 
imitated all, the whale dish, | the killerwhale dish, the sea lion dish, 
and the seal dish. Therefore the | numaym Laalax's^Endayu own 
10 the birds || sittmg on the upper edge of the front outside of their house 
in this manner: ♦ They stand in this way: | 

on the outside . ltJ^**^>^^^ °^ ^^^ house commg up 



from the sea, 
ting on two 
of the place- 



£L 



namely, four cranes | sit- 
crosspieces and | on t o p 
where the two cross- 




pieces are nailed on an eagle is seated. | That was the style 

of the house coming uj) from the sea which was first seen by 

15 LalehL!a. || There is nothing (carved) on the posts. There is 
only one thick beam. | Now Qlumx'od married the | princess of 
HaeLEkum. He was the chief of the numaym LeqiEm. | The 
name of his princess was O^magasEmeS and | HaeLEkum gave 

20 his house in marriage to his son-in-law Q'.iimx-od. The || posts of 
the house are flat. There are two in front of the house | and 
two flat posts in the rear of the house. The paintings on the | 



2 le laxes ^nole L!aqwalal lo^ qa nanaxtslEwesexa g'okustaLa^ye lax 
^naxwa^mae ts!ek!weda klusilxta^yax ek" lEiLxa^yasa tsagEmas L!a- 
san^Vyasa g-okustaLa-'ye. Wa, la^me LilleliLla k'les ^nek" qa^s 
5 max-ts!amasexes^n6le Llaqwalal lag-ilas he gwex'^itsa g'okustaLa^ye 
laq. Wa, la^mese Llaqwalale g-5kwelaxa he gwex-s g-ok" lax 
Qalogwis. Wa, laxae ^wFlaEm nanaxtslE^waxa gwE^yEme LE^wa 
max'gnox" LE^wa Llex^Ene LE^wa megwate loElqwalila. Wa, heEm 
lagilas axnogwadeda ^ne^memotasa Laalax's^Eudayasa ts!ek!was 

10 klwasaxta^yax tsagEmas Llasana^yases g'okwexa g'a gwaleg-a (iig.). 
Wa, la Lasa g'a gwaleg-a (fg.) lax Llasana'yasa g-okustaLa^ye yixs 
mosgEmae adEmgiileyeda k!wasEna^yaxa malts !aqe gayala. Wa, la 
klwaxta^yeda kwekwaxa UEgEtala Lap!Ena^yatsa ma4ts!aqe gEyala. 
Wii, heEm^Jae gwaleda g'okustaLa^yaxs g-alae, dox^waLEle LaleliLlaq. 

15 Wa, laEmkMeas gwalaats LeLamas ogu^la laqexs LEkwaes k-atewa^ye 
^nEmtsIaqa. Wa, la gEg'ade LEWElgama^yas Llaqwalal yix Q!um- 
x-ode yls kMedelas HaeLEkum ytxs g-Igama^yaasa -'nE^memotasa 
LeqlEm. Wa, la LegadEs kMedelases O'^magasEma-'ye. Wa, la g'o- 
kiilxLae HaeLEkuma^'yaxa g-okwe laxes nEgiimpe Q!umx-ode. Wa, 

20 la^me awadzo pepEgEdzowe LeLamasa g'okwexa nialExsa laxa o'sta- 
lilasa gokwe. Wa, he^mesa malExsa laxa ogwiwallle. Wa, la k- !a- 



ECAs] SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAG-UI. 811 

posts in the rear are large wolves looking upward, and | grizzly 23 
bears are the paintings of the posts on each side of the door. | 
I think that is all.|| 

7. Elgiinwe^. These just kejit together from the beginning | with 25 
the numayni Laalax's^Endayo. And therefore they have no | dif- 
ferent house, but Wanuk", who believes that he is now a chief, | 
built a house for himself, but there is nothing in the house. | 

II. QlOMOYA^YJi;, THE KWEXA 

1. Kfdvwakum. They sprung from one source with the Kukwa- 1 
k!iim of the | GwetEla. Tlioy also have no painting on the front 
boards outside of | the house. Their chief YaqoLadze took for 
his wife 0^masqwapElag"ilis, | the princess of Amawa^yus, chief of 
the numaym II NaEiisx'a. He gave m marriage the house with the 5 
painting | of the whale on the outside front, and inside there are 
four I house dishes, one of them a sea-otter house dish, and one | 
a killei'whale house dish, and one beaver house dish, and j one 
a whale house dish. Then YaqoLadze married again the princess 
of II Gwex'sesElasEme^, TslEtsltilal, and | GwexsesElasEine^ gave to 10 
his son-in-law in marriage his house. And the paintmg | on the 
outside of the front of the house is a grizzly bear of the sea split 



dEdzS,leda LeLamasa ogwiwalilaxa ek" lEgEmala awS, aLauEma. Wii, 22 
la nenane k'ladEdza^yaxa LeLamasa ^wax'sotstalllasa t!Exila. Wa, 
lax'staax"^me ^wila. 

7. Elgflnwe, yixs §,^mae q!ap!aeltsa g'agiLEla laxes a,wamVye 25 
LE^wa ^uE^memotasa Laaiax"s^Eiidayo. He^mis lag'ilas k' !eas g'okwa 
ogMa lax Wauukwe yixs lae 6q Iiis^Em la g"Igama^ya. Wa, la^me 
g'okwela qa^s g"okwa. Wa, lit k'leas gwex'sdEms g^okwas." 

II. QIoMOYA^YEXA KWEXA 

1. Kukwaklum, yixs ^nEm-mae g"ayEwasas LE^wa Kukwak liimasa 1 
GwetEla. Wa, laEmxae k'!eas k'latEmes tsagEmas L!asana^yas 
gokwas. Wa, la g'igama^yase YacjoLadze gEg-adEx"'idEs O^mas- 
qwapElagilis, ylx kMedelas Amawa^yos, ylx g'lgama^yasa ^nE^me- 
motasa NaEnsx'a. Wa, la^me g'okulxLalaxa g'5kwe kMatamale 5 
ls!agEmas Llasana^yasexa gwE^yEme. Wa, la ha^nela niEwexLa 
loElqwalll laq, yixs ^iiEmexLaeda q!asa loqwalila LE^wa ^nEmexLa 
max^enox" loqwalila LE^wa ^uEmexLa ts'.a^we loqwalila; wa, he^misa 
gwE^yEme loqwalila. Wa, lit et'.ed gEg'ade YaqoLadzas k'ledelas 
Gwex'se^sElasEma^ye ylx TslEtsIalale. Wa, laEmxae g'okulxLalaxa 10 
g-okwe Gwex'se^sElasEma^ya laxes uEgiimpe. Wa, la^me k'latEmale 
tsiigEmas Llasana^yas g'okwasexa kwaxsaakwe nanes. La^me he 



812 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

13 in two. I One-half of the grizzly bear of the sea is on the right 
hand side of the door, and the other half | on the left hand side 

15 of the door, and their heads touch at the || door, and the vomiter 
is on top of the house. That is a carved man, 1 for when YaqoLadze 
gives an oil feast, the oil box | is put on the roof. And when 
they sing the host song of | YaqoLadze, a man goes up to the 
roof of the feast house. | There is a gutter on the back of the 

20 long square cedar beam. The carved vomiting || man is at the 
other end of it in this manner.' Then they put the | oil box on 
the other end of it, and the man who | takes care of it pours the 
oil into the gutter on the back of the | vomiting beam, and the oil 
runs along the gutter on the back to the hole | behind the head 

25 and it runs out, being vomited by the vomiter, and it || runs into the 
fire in the middle of the feast house. This is called | by the Indians 
"vomiter-at-smokehole-of-the-f east-house." There are also two | 
dishes, one a grizzly-bear house dish, and one a wolf | house dish. 
That is all. | 

2. HaanaLena. The crosspiece on top of the front board out- 

30 side of the house is the double headed serpent. || They did not get 
it from anyone. Not one man | claims to know from whom the 

13 leda JlpsotlEua^ye nanesa helk' lotsta^yasa tlEx'lla. Wa, la he leda 
&psox"saseda gErax5tstalasasa tlEx'ila laxes k"Emk"Eqogamalae laxa 

15 tiEX'Ila. Wa, laEm hoqwastaleda g'okwcxa k"!ekwe bEgwanEma, 
ylxs g-ib'mae klwelase YaqoLadzasa Lle^na lae hang'iisasa Lle^natslala 
k'lEmyaxLa. Wa, g ib'mese dEiix^edayowe klwela^yalayowe qlEm- 
dEms YaqoLadze leda bEgwanEme laxa ogwiisasa k!wela^yats!e 
g-okwa. Wii, la xwag'eg-eda g'lltla k'lEWElk" k!waxLawa. Wa, 

20 heEm hoqwa kMek" bEgwanEme apsba^yaxa g"a g'waleg'a.' Wa, la 
hanaieda Lle^natslala kMimyaxLa lax apsba^yas. Wa, a^meseda bE- 
gwanEmexa aaxsllaq guxts!alasa Lle^na lax xug'eg'a^yas oxLa^yasa 
hoqwa. Wa, lii wag'ilts !aleda Lle^naxa xug'eg'a^yas qa^s le he^nakula 
lax kwawapla'yas qa^s g'axe hox^widayosa hoqwa. Wa, la^me 

25 hoxLalas laxa laqawalilasa k!weladzats!e g-okwa. Wa, he.Em gwE- 
^yasa baklume hoqwastala k!weladzats!e g'okwe. Wa, la malEXLa 
loElq Iwasxa ^uEmexLa nane loqwalila; wa, he^misa ^nEmexLa aLanEm 
loqwalila. Wa, laEmxae gwala. 

2. HaanaLen^,, yixs sisEyuLae geg'axta^yax tsagEmas L!asan§,^yas 

30 g-6kwas. Wa, la kMeas gwayoLaq. KMeas ^nEmokwa bEgwanEm 
q!eq!alak'!alax g'ayoLasasa ^nE^memotasa HaanaLenaq. Wa, laxae 

1 A sketch accompanied this description which is not repeated here, because the passage is quite 
clear. See publications ot the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. V., plate 45, fig. 3. 



BOASJ SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAG-UL 813 

mimaym HaS,naLena got it, and 1 the painting on their canoe is the 32 
double headed serpent. Therefore it is called the double headed 
serpent | canoe. I shall not give up to tr/ to learn why | they 
have the double headed serpent. That is the end.|| 

3. Yaex'agEme. The paintings on the front board outside of 35 
the house | are killerwhales facing each other, for this is the house 
given in marriage by the chief | of the numaym Kwek"aaenox", 
whose name is LEk'Emaxod, which came from | the history of 
^nalanokiimgn^lak''. It is said that LlaqoLas | married LlalEmaxo- 
dalayugwa, the princess of LEk'Emax5d. Therefore || he gave in 40 
marriage the house pamted with the killerwhales facing each 
other I to his son-in-law iJaqoLas, chief of the numaym | Yaex'a- 
gEme^, and he obtained at the same time four house dishes with 
the I house which was given in marriage, one of them is a whale | 
feasting dish, one a killerwhale feasting dish, one || a bidlhead 45 
feasting dish, and one a Dzonoqlwa feastmg dish. | That is all 
about this. | 

4. Ha^yalik'awe^. The painting on the front outside of the 
house is a | whale. The house was given in marriage by Wag'i- 
des, I chief of the numaym WiwomasgEm of the Mamaleleqala, 
whose name was || Wag'ides. The princess of Wag^ides was Gwe- 50 
k"i^lak", who | was now the wife of Chief HaxwayosEme^, who 



heEm kMatsEmes xwak!<lnaseda sIsEyuLe lag'ilas LegadEs sIsEyultsE- 32 
mala xwaklQnas. Wa, laLaLEn kMes yax'^idEl q !aq le^staaLEq lag'i- 
las axnogwatsa sisEyuLe. Wa, laEm laba. 

3. Yaex'agEme^, ylxs k'latEmalae tsagEmas Llasana^yas g'okwas 35 
ylsa k"Emk"Eqogamala max^enoxwa, yixs g'okulxxayaas g'igama- 
^yasa ^nE^memotasa Kwek'aaenox"xa LegadEs LEk'Emaxodexa g'ayji, 
lax ^nalanoktimg'i^lax"xa nuyime. Wa, la^lae gEg'ade L'.aqoLatsas 

L !alEmaxodalayugwa ylx k'ledelas LEk"Emax6de. Wa, he^mis lagu- 
las g'ax g'okulxLalaxa g'okwe k'latEmalaxa k'Emk'Eqogamala 40. 
max^enox" laxes nEgumpe LiaqoLas, yix gig&ma^yasa ^nE^memo- 
tasa Yaex'agEma^ye. Wa, laEmxae mEwexLa loElqwallla ^nEma- 
^nakula LE^wa g'okulxLa^ye g"6kwa. Wa, he^ma ^UEmexLa gwE^yEm 
loqwalila LE^wa ^uEmexLa max^enox" loqwalila; wa, he^mesa ^ue- 
mexxa k!oma ioqwalila; wa, he^mesa ^uEmexLa Dzonoqlwa loqwa- 45 
lila. Wa, laEmxae ^wFla laxeq. 

4. Haayalik'awe^, ylxs kMatEmalae tsagEmas Llasana^yas g'okwas 
ylsa gwE^yEm. Wa, laEm'lae g'okulxxa^ya g'okwas Wag'idesxa 
g'lgama^yasa ^UE^memotasa WiwomasgEmasa Mamaleleq^laxa Lega- 
dEs Wag-ides. Wa, he^mes k' ledelts Wagidese Gwek'i^lak", yix la 50 
gEUEmsa g'lgSma^ye HaxwayosEma^ye, qaxs he^mae g'lgamesa 



814 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL ieth. ann. as 

52 was chief of the | numaym Haayalik-awe^ of the Kwexa. There 
are | four house dishes in the house which was gi^en in marriage, 
one is a Dzonoqlwa f house dish, and a whale, an eagle, and 

55 beaver house dish. || That's all again. | 

5. LS,xsa. They just staid with the numaym Haayalik-awe«, | for 
they have no noble ancestor, and, | therefore the numaym Laxsa 
live in a house with the | Haayalik'awe^, 

60 and even at the present || day the Laxsa continue to stay with 
them. That is all about them. | 

6. G"igilg§.m. They have no painting in front of the house, 
neither ] at the jiresent day nor in olden times. Their cliief only 
has around the floor of the | house — KIwak'.wabalasEme^ is their 
cliief — carved men | on the boards of the height of the chest 

65 when we are || standing up, and the distance between the carved 
men is one fathom. | The carved men begin at the | end of a pole 
placed to the right inside of the | door of the house, and going 
on to the right towards the rear of the house, and around to the | 

70 left hand side of the door, and their || distance from the wall 
boards is one fathom. The carved | men are inside of the boards 
all around the house, as it is marked here.' | OmaxtlalaLe^ did 
this, placing men all around, ] because this was the way in which 

52 ^nE^memotasa Haayalik'awa^yasa Kwexa. Wa, la ha^neleda mE- 
wexxa loElqwalil laxa g'okulxLa^ye. Wa, he^maeda dzonoqlwa 
loqwalila LE^wa aLauEm LE^wa kwekwe LEHva tsla^we loElqwalila. 

55 Wa, laEmxae gwala. 

5. Laxsa, yixs a,^mae k'ludEnodze laxa ^nE^memotasa Haayali- 
k'awe, qaxs gwalEla^mae k"!es nenaxsales g'alsmg'alise. Wa, he'mis 
lao-ilas aEm ^nEmael^wadadeda ^uE^memotasa Laxsa LE^wa g'lgS.- 
ma^yasa 'nE^memotasa Haayalik'awa-ye. Wa, wax'^mesexwa lax 

60 ^nala la hex^saEm q!ap!exsEyotsa Laxsa. Wa, laEm gwal laxex. 

6. G'ig'ilgam, yixs k' leasae k" !atEma^ye tsagEmases gokwe laxwa 
alex ^nala, LEwes g'alEmg'alise. Wa, lex'a^mes gwiilaats aweLElas 
g-okwas K!wak!wabalasEma^ye yix gigama^yas, yixs bEx"se^stalll- 
kwaasa la k" !ek' ladza^yaxa saokewxa yo awasgEmEns dzamaxg'Ens 

65 Lax^walek'. Wa, la ^nal^nEmp!Enk" laxEns baLaqe awttlagalaasasa 
bebEgwauEme k'!ekwa. Wa, he^mise g'ag-Elila k!ek'!akwe bebE- 
crwanEme sEg'Edza^ye LapdEmas dzoxum lax helk' lotstalilasa tlEX'i- 
lasa g'okwe la ha^stalilElaxa SweLElasa g'okwe qa^s g'axe laxa 
gEmx5tstali^lasa tlExila. Wa, la ^nEmp!Enk' laxEns bai.ax yix 

70 walalaasa lax tsaxse^sta Swe^stElsasa g'okwe. Wa, hcEm k"!edza- 
yaatsa bebEgwauEma 6ts!awasa tsagEma awe^stasa g'okwexa xEldE- 
kwe.' Wa, lieEm lag'ilas he gwex'^ide O'maxt !alaLa*ye qa bEX"se- 
-stalilkwa yixs haaEl gwaeles Le^lanEma g'lg'Egama^yasa lelqwala- 

1 A sketch accompanied this description which is not repeated here, because the passage is quite 
clear. 



BOAS] SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAG-UIv 815 

he invited the chiefs of the tribes | to eat seal at K' !aqa. When || 
all the men had gone out, he carved the men at the | places where 75 
his guests had been sitting. It is as though he had made hm of | 
the chiefs on account of what he had done when he made carv- 
ings of them. I Therefore it is done this way around the house. 
There are two | house dishes, one a seal house dish, and || the SO 
other one a killerwhale house dish. It also | occurred to Omax- 
tlalaLP^ to imitate the seal which he had killed | in making a 
house dish, and it occurred to him that he would go to the kil- 
lorwhales after his death, | and therefore he imitated the form of 
a killerwhale for his house dish | when he gave a feast of many 
seals at KMaq!a. That's again all about them. || 

III. ^WALAS KWAG'UL 

1. DzEndzEnx'q!ayu. The painting on the front | outside of the 1 
house is the Qolos, for the Qolos is the ancestor of the DzEndzEux'- 
q!ayo. | There are four house dishes of their ancestor YaxLEn. | One 
of the house dishes is the Qolos ; and also the elder brother of Qolos, 
Thunderbird. || That is another feasting-dish. And the | Thunder- ,5 
bird, the house dish, is made in the same way as the Q5los house dish 
is made, and there is a | whale house dish and a beaver. That is 
aU again. | 

La^ye qa las qlEsaxa megwate lax K'!aq!a. Wii, gipEm^lawise 
hoquwElseda ^naxwa bEgwanEmxs lae k"!edzotsa bEgwauEme lax 75 
k!wadzelasdases Le^lanEme. Wii, laEm ^uEmaxis lo^ aEmlaiasa 
g'lg'Egama^ye laxes gwex"^idaase yixs he^mae la k'!edzoyowe. Wa, 
he/mis lag'ilas he gwale awe^stalilasa g'okwe. Wa, la malEXLa^ma 
toqwalilas. Wa, he^ma ^nEmexLa megwat toqwallla. Wa, he^misa 
^uEmexLa max^enox" loqwallla. Wa, laEmxae O^maxtlalaLa^ye SO 
aEm ^nenk'Iex^ed qa^s nanaxts!Ewexa megwatexes yaiiEme qa^s 
loqwallla. Wa, la g"ig"aex^IdExs lei laxa max^enoxwe qo Ie^Ilo. 
Wa, he^mis lag'ilas nanaxtslEwaxa max^enoxwe qa^s loElqwalilExs 
lae klwe^latsa q.'enEme megwata lax K'!aq!a. Wa, laEmxae laba. 

Ill' ^WALAS KWAG'UL 

1. DzEiidzEnx'q !ayu, ylxs qolosae kMatEma^yas tsagEmas L!asa- 1 
na^yas gokwas, qaxs he^mae gilg'alitsa DzEndzEnx'q!ayoxa qolose. 
Wa, la mEwexLa loElqwalilas g'igama^yase YaxLEn, yixs he^mae 
^nEmexLa loqwaliltseda qolose. Wii, he^mese ^nolas qolosa kflnktin- 
xtilig'e. HeEm ^iiEmexLa loqwalilts yixs he^maaxat! gwale yixa kun- 5 
kunxiilig'a^ye loqwalile gwalaasasa qolose loqwallla; wa, he^mesa 
gwE^yEine loqwallla; wii, he^mesa tsIsVwe. Wii, laEmxae laba. 



816 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

8 2. Wawa.lib&.^ye. The painting on the front outside of the house 
is I the whale, for the ancestor of their chief was a whale. There- 

10 fore II his name is Yaqal^Enala. And he painted his origin on the 
outside I front of his house. There are four house dishes; one is a | 
whale house dish, another one a kiUer-whale house dish, and | one 
a bullhead house dish, and one a Dzonoq !wa-of-the-sea house dish. | 

15 The numaym Hemasxdo keeps together with the || numaym Wawall- 
bS.^ye, for the Hemasxdo have no noble ancestor | hke the Elgiinwe 
and the numaym Laxsa, | and they are ashamed to talk about it. 
That is again all about this. | 

3. G'exsEm. The painting on tie outside front | of the house 

20 of their chief LaLehbla, is the same as that of the painting || on the 
outside front of the house of K'Emk'EqEwed, who is the chief of the | 
mimaym G'exsEm of the GwetEla. The only difference is that the | 
G' exsEm of the ^walas Kwag' ul have four house dishes — two | grizzly- 
bear dishes, one wolf house dish, and | one beaver house dish. It is 

25 said, that Chief LaLeliL !a || obtained these in marriage from the chief 
of the numaym K' !Ek" !aenox" of the AwaiLEla at Hanwad from the 
chief who had the name K'Emged. | His princess had the name MeIb- 
dzas, as she was the wife of LfiLeliL !a. | Then he obtamed in marriage 
the house with the crosspiece on top of the front outside | (represent- 
ing the) double headed serpent, and sitting between the eyes ( of the 

30 double headed serpent) the thunderbird || on the head of the man 

8 2. Wawalib^^ye, ylxs k' latamalae tsagEmas Llasana^yas g'okwa- 
sexa gwE^yEm, yixs gwE^yEmae g'ilg'alisasa g'lgS-ma^yas lag'ilas 

10 LegadEs Yaqal^Enala. Wa, la k'latEmtses g-ayEwase lax tsagEmas 
L lasana^yases g'okwe. Wa, la mEwexLa loElqwalilasxa ^uEmexLa 
gwE^yEm loqwalila LE^wa ^nEmexLa max^enoxwa loqwalTla LE^wa 
^uEmexLa k!6ma loqwalila LE^wa ^nEmexLa Dzonogwes lociwalila. 
Wa, la^me §,^ma ^nE^memotasa Hemaxsdo la k ludEnodzexa ^uE^me- 

15 motasa Wawaliba^ye qaxs kMesae naxsale g'agELElasasa ^uE^memo- 
tasa Hemaxsdo he gwex'sa Elgunwa^ye LE^wa ^nE^memotasa Laxsii 
yixs max'tsIolEmae gwagwex's^alasa. Wa, laEmxae laba. 

3. G'exsEm, he^maaxat! ^Em gwitle k'latEmas tsagEma^yes Llasa- 
na^yas g'okwas gig&ma^yase LaLeliL !a, ylx gwitlaasas kMatEma^yas 

20 tsagEma^yas L'.asana^yas g-okwas K'Emk-EqEwede, yix g-IgSma^yasa 
^UE^memotasa G'exsEmasa GwetEla. Wa, lex-a^mes ogwaqala^yos 
G-exsEmasa ^walas Kwag-ul yixs mEwexLaes loqwalllexa malEXLa 
nenane loElqwalila LE^wa ^nEmexLa aLanEm loqwalila. Wa, he^mesa 
^UEmexLa ts!a^we loqwalila. Wa, laEm^laeda g-igama^ye LaLeliL !a 

25 gEg'adanEmaq lax g'lg&ma^yasa ^nE^memotasa K'!Ek'!aenoxxwasa 
AwaiLEla lax Hanwade, ylxa g-ig^ma^ye LegadES K-Emgede. Wa, 
la LegadES MEledzase k- ledelas. Wa, he^mls la gEnEms LaLeliL !a. 
Wa, he^mis g-okilLxLalaxa g-6kwe geg-iwales tsagEma^yas Llasana- 
*yasa g-okwaxa sisEyuLe. Wa, la klwaklwagusta^yeda kiinkunxiiU- 



BOAS] SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAGtTL 817 

in tlio middle of tlie double-headed serpent; and the four | f easting- 
dishes which 1 have just named were also obtained there. Tliat's 
the end. | 

IV. Q !oMK' !uT !es 

1. LeqlEm. The painting on the front outside of the house is 1 
the I killer-whale, wliich was obtained as supernatural treasure b}^ 
the first chief, HaeLEkume^, who was | a sea-hunter. He went hunt- 
ing seal at night at OsEq". | There he saw a large house at the upper 
side of II OsEq", and he saw sparks coming out of the roof. Then | 5 
HaeLEkume^ wished to go ashore to look at it. He | arrived at the 
beach, and he went up the beach. Tlien he | saw that killer whales 
were the painting on the outside front of the | house. He arrived at 
the door and looked through a || hole. Then he heard many men 10 
talking | about liim, that he was always trying to head off the people 
when the}- were out sea-hunting. | He heard one man say, "I wish | 
our friend HaeLEkume^ would come so that we might advise him not | 
to head us off when we are hunting; for he will get more || game if he 15 
keeps behind us." Thus he said. At that | time HaeLEkume^ jumped 
through the door of the house, and | stood at the fire in the middle 
of the house. He spoke, | and said, "I am HaeLEkume^ whom you 



g'a^ye lax x'omsas bak'awa^yas. Wa, he^mesEn lax'de LeLEqalasE- 30 
^weda niEwexLaloElqwallla. Wa, heEm g'ayanEmatsex. LaEin laba 

IV. q!omk'!ut!es 

1. LecilEin, yixs k'latEmalae tsagEmas Llasanft^yas g'okwasesa l 
max-enoxwexa Logwa^yasa g'ilgalisasagigama^j^ase HaeLEkume,yixs 
aie^winoxwae. Wa, lalae alexwaxa megwataxa ganoLe lax OsEq". 
Wii, Ifi^lae dox^waLElaxa ^uEmsgEmese ^walas g'ok" lax aps5tas 
OsEq". Wa, la^lae dofjulaqexs anobexsalae salils. Wa, laEm^la- 5 
wise HaeLEkume^ ^nek" qa^s la aLe^sta dox^wIdEq. Wa, laEm^lawise 
lag^alis lax LlEma^isas laEm^lawise lasdes hlxa LlEina^is, laa^lase dox- 
^waLElaqexs max^enoxwae kMatama'yas tsagsma^yas LlasantVyasa 
g'okwe. Wa, la^lae lag'aa lax tlEx^llas. Wa, la^lae hanxsa laxa 
kwax"saqaxswuLaaxaq!enEmabebEgwanEmyaeq!Ent!a]agwagwex"- 10 
s'fila laqexs heniEnala'^mae g'ag'alagEmaxa lelqwalaLa^yaxs ale- 
xwae. Wa, la^lae wiiLalaxa ^nEraokwe bEgwanEm ^nek'a: " WanesLe 
g'axEiis, ^iiEmokwai' HaeLEkuma^ya qEns Lexs^aleqe, qa k'Icses 
g'agalagEma g'fixEns, yixg'lns alexwek" qaxs haLe q!Ey5Latsexa 
seyaklwemase qo alxLeLe ^naxwal g'axEns," ^nex'^e. Wa, heEm- 15 
^lawis la dEwei.ats HaeLEkiima^ye lax tlEX'llasa g'okwe qa^s la 
Lax-ulil lax obexxalilsa laqawalllasa g'okwe. Wa, la^lae yaq !Eg'a4a. 
Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "NogwaEm HaeLEkiima^yaxes walagElos qa 

75052—21—35 eih— pt 2- — :! 



818 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL |eth. ann. 35 

wished to | come to be given instructions, friends." Thus he said. 

20 Then |1 all the men just hung their heads. Then they lifted their 
heads, | and an old man spoke, and | said, "Wliat you say is true, 
friend. We have all been wishing | for you to come into this house 
of our chief | Hele^stallsEla here. Now you have obtained it as 

25 supernatural treasure, and this harpoon that is in it, || and the four 
house dishes — one a sea-otter house dish, | one a bullhead house 
dish, one a stomach-of-the-sea-lion | house disli, and one whale house 
dish." Thus he said. "Now | your name will be Llaqwag'ila, for 
that is the name of the owner of this | house that you obtained by 

30 good luck. Thus it is said by our friends here. || They wish to advise 
you not to head them off | when we are sea-hunting, but just keep 
close behind us, then you will obtain much | game. Now you shall 
sit for four days in the house that you obtained as | supei'natural 
treasure." Thus said the killer-whale man. Then | all the men 

35 went out of the house, and went into the water II at the beach, and 
killer-whales were spouting. | HaeLEkume^ just sat in the rear of the 
house wliich he had obtained as supernatural treasure, | and his 
steersman went back to his house at OsEq". | In vain the steersman 
of HaeLEkiime^ was cpiestioned. He just | said, "Don't talk about 

40 him." Thus he said, for he had seen || the many men coming out of 



g'axe qa^s Lexs^alasE^wos, ^ne^nEmok","^nex-^lae. Wa, laEm^lae aEm 

20 ^naxwa kwekumdileda ^naxwa bsgwanEma. Wa, hVlae xitlededa 
^naxwa. Wa, la^lae yaqlEg'a^leda qliilyakwe bEgwilnEma. Wa, 
liVlae ^nek'a: "Ala^mes waldEmos, qasta, qaxg'anu'x" ala^mek- wfda- 
qela qa-s g^axaos g'axcL laxox gokwasg'anu'x" gigtimek' laxga 
Hele^'stallsElax-xos LogweLaqos le^wox g-ex'g'aelex laq"xwa mastox 

25 LE^wa mEwexLax loElqwalllaxwa ^uEmexLax q !asa loqwalila, LE-'wa 
^nEmexLax kloma l5qwallla, LE^wa ^nEmexLa poxGntsa Llex^Eue lo- 
qwalila LE^wa ^nEmexLax gwE^yEm loqwalila," ^nex'^lae. "Wa, 
la/mets LegadElts Llaqwag'ila qaxs he^mae LegEms g'ogwadasa 
g'okwaqos Logwa^ya. Wa, g-a^meseg'a waldEmg'asg'Ens ^ne^uEmo- 

30 kwak- yixs ^nek-gk" qa^s Lexs^ale laL qa^s k-!esaos la gagalagEma- 
XEnu^x" alexwalg'iwa^ye qa^s a^meos helaxLe gaxEnu^x" qa^s qlEyo- 
Laosaxa seyaklwema. Wa, lasmLas moplEuxwa^s lo= kiwael laxos 
Logwa^yaqos g-okwa," ^nex'^laeda max^enoxwe bebEgwauEma. Wa, 
la^lae ^wFla hoquwElseda bebEgwauEme laxa gokwe qa^s la he^stala 

35 laxa LlEma-'ise. Wa, la'me Llal-ededa mtlx^enox". Wii, aEm-lawise 
la klwaele HaeLEkumae laxa ogwiwalllases Logwa^ye g-okwa. Wa, 
aEm-lawise la nii^nakwe k!waxLa^yas laxes g-okwe lax OsEq". Wa, 
wax-^Em^]awise wuLasE^we klwaxLa^yas HaeLEkume. Wa, aEm^la- 
wise ^nek-a: "Gwaldzas gwagwex-s-'alaqe," ^^nex'^lae, qaxs d5qwa- 

40 la^maeda qleuEme bebEgwanEmxs g-axae hoqiiwEls qa^s la h^yEn- 



noAs] SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAG-UL 819 

the house, going down | the beach, and going into the sea; and | 41 
they all spouted, and the men turned into killer-whales; | and he 
also had heard what was said by the killer-whale | men to HaeLEkii- 
me'. Therefoi-e he did not wish them || to talk about him. Wlien four 45 
days had passed, | the steersman of HaeLEkume^ arose and went | to 
the hunting-canoe of HaeLEkiime^. Then he paddled | and went to the 
large house. Before he got near, | he saw the great house; and 
painted on the outer || front was a killer-whale. And he saw HaeLE- 50 
kume' I walking outside. Then he went ashore, and HaeLEkiune^ | 
went to meet him. Then HaeLEkume^ spoke, and | said, "Come, 
master, and go into this my house which I obtained as supernatural 
treasure." | Thus he said to him, and immediately the steersman 
followed him, || and they went in. Then HaeLEkume^ saw that | all 55 
the four posts were carved in the form of sea-lions, | and there were 
sea-lions at the ends of the two beams of the house. | The heads of the 
sea-lions showed outside at the front boards of the house. | Wlien he 
had done this, HaeLEkume^ went out of the house; and || his steers- 60 
man spoke, and said, | "O Master HaeLEkume^! stay here and let me 
ask I our tribe to come and move here." Thus he said. | Then he 
was just told by HaeLEkume^ to go. Inmiediately | the man went 

tslesEla laxa LlEma^se qa^s la hox"sta Jaxa dEmsx'e ^wapa. Wa, lii 41 
^naxwa L'.al^eda; la^me la ^niixwa lamax^enox^wededa bebEgwanEme. 
Wa, he^misexs ^naxwa^mae wuLElax waklEmi-lalasa max^enoxwe 
bebEgwauEm lax HaeLEkfima^ye. Wa, he^me lagilts kMes ^nek' 
qa^s gwagwex's^ale laq. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise moplEiixwa^sa lae 45 
gag"ustaweda bEgwaiiEme, yix k!waxLa^yas HaeLEkuma^ye qa^s lit 
laxes ya^yats !eda ale^wasELEliis HaeLEkiima^ye. Wa, la^lae sex^wida 
qa^s la laxa ^walase g'okwa. Wii, k' les^Em^lawise ex'agaaLEla 
laqexs lae dox^waLElaxa ^walase g'okwa k'latamalae tsagEmas 
Llasana^yasexa max^enoxwe. Wit, la doqillax HaeLEkuma^yaxs 50 
g-igElsElae. Wii, lil^lae lilg'ahs laq. Wa, laEm^lawise HaeLEkQ- 
ma^ye lalalaq. Wii, lil^lae yiiqlEg^a^la, yix HaeLEkuma^ye. Wii, 
lii^lae ^nek^a: "Gelag'a adii, qa^s laos laeL liixg'En Logweg'En 
g'okwa," ^nex'^laeq. Wit, hex'^idaEm^lawise klwaxLa^yas la liisgE- 
meq qa's le hogwiLa. Wii, la^me dox-'waLEle HaeLEkuma^yaqexs 55 
lae la ^niixwaEm la k"!ek'!iik" L!eL!ex^Enes motslaqe LeLama. Wa, 
laxae la L!eL!exbalaxa malts !aqe k'ek'atewesa g"6kwe. G^iix x'i- 
x'Exsala x'ix'omsasa L!eL!exEne liix tsiigEmas Lliisana^yasa g'okwe. 
Wii, laEm al^Em he gwex-^klExs lae liiWElse HaeLEkiima^ye. Wit, 
lii^lae yiiq!Eg'a4eda bEgwiinEme, yix klwaxLa^yas. Wit, lii^lae=nek'a: 50 
"^ya, q!agwidii, HaeLEkOma^yit', yfilag'aEma lax qEn lalagi axkMii- 
laxEns g-6kQl6ta qa g-iixlagese mE^wa laq"," ^nex-^lae. Wa, 
iiEm-liiwise ^nex'sos HaeLEkuma-'ye qa-'s lalag'e. Wa, hex-'idaEm- 
^liiwise la liiwElseda bEgwiinEme qa^s lii laxs liixes ya^y.atsle xwa- 



820 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL |eth. ann. 35 

05 out and went jiboard his small canoe || and paddled. Then he arrived | 
on the beach of the village at OsEq". Then he was met by his 
tribe; | and immediately he reported about HaeLEkiime^, that he had 
obtained a | large house at Adsayagiim as supernatural treasure; 
and before he ended his | report, the tribe pushed their canoes into 

70 the water |1 and loaded them. They took down their houses and 
took them | to Aosayagiim, and they built the houses of the tribe 
on each side of the | large house. Now the large house was in the 
middle at | Aosayagum. Now HaeLEkiime^ was a real chief among 
his tribe, | the ancestors of the numaym Leq!Em. That is the end.|i 

75 2. LeLEged. They have no painting on the outer front of the | 
house of Cliief Lalep !alas. A double headed serpent is across | the 
top of the house front, and a wolf stands on the | man in the middle 
of the double headed serpent. A raven stands at the door of the | 

80 house, and the raven stands with spread legs; and || those who go 
into the house walk under them, for that is the door of the house 
between the | feet of the raven. | 

Names of the Kwag'ui- Eagles and Numayms 

1 These are the names of the Eagles of the Kwag-ul : | 

1 and 2. L!aqwag'ila (Copper-Maker) is the first of the Eagles. | 
Next to him is Doqwayes, who is of the numaym DzEndzEnx'qIayo | 

65 xwaguma. Wa, laEm^lawise sex^wida. Wa, g-iPEm^lawise lag-alis 
lax L!Ema^isases g-okiilase OsEq" laa^lase lalalasoses g-6kul6te. Wa, 
laEm^lae hex^idaEm tslEkMal-ets HaeLEkuma^yaxs Logwalaaxa ^wa- 
lase g-okwa lax Aosayagum. Wa, k'les^Em^iawise q!ulba tslEkMa- 
lElaena^yas laa^lase wi'x"staleda lelqwalaLa^yaxes xwaxwakluna 

70 qa^s moxsEleq. Wii, la^me ^wilg'Elsa L!eX-axes g-igokwe qa^s las 
lax Aosayogum. Wa, a^mise ^wax'sag-ElsEle gig-okwas g'okiilotasexa 
^walase g-okwa. Wii, la^me uEqetsEmalasa ^'walase g'okwa lax 
Aosoyagum. Wa, la^me ala la g-igama^ye HaeLEkiima^yases g'okii- 
lota g'aiasa ^uE^memotasa LeqlEme. Wa, laEm laba. 

75 2. LCLEgede, yixs k-'.easae k-.'atEmes tsagEmas Llasami-'yas 
g-okwas g-Igama^'yase Lalep !alas. Wa, la sisEyuLe geg'iwa^yas 
tsagEmas Llasana^yas g'okwas. Wa, la^lae aLauEme g-ilala lax 
bak'awa^yasa sisEj^uLe. Wii, la^lae Lawileda gwtVwina lax at !Ex11iisa 
g-okwe. Wii, la^lae gaxalaxa gwsVwina. Wii, he-'mis la qayabodii- 

80 lasosa laeLe liixa g'okwe qaxs he^mae tlExilasa g-6kwe awagawa^yas 
g'og'Egii^yasa gwiVwina. 

Names of the Kwag'ul Eagles and Numayms 

1 G"aEm LeLEgEmsa kwekwekwasa Kwiikiig'ule: 

1 and 2. Llsiqwag-ila heEni xamaelbesa kwekwekwe. (Wa, he^mis 



BOAS] SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAG-Ut, 821 

of the ^walas Kwag'ut, but Llaqwag'ila is of the numaj-m Maamta- 
g"ila II of the GwetEhi. | 5 

3. Next to hun is K'irak-EqEwid of the numaym G'exsEm | of the 
GwetEla. I 

4. Next to him is ^inax"mEwisagEme^, next to K'lmk'EqEwid, | 
when property is giveu to the tribes, M'hen he invites all the II four 10 
Kwakiutl tribes at Tsaxis. ^inax^mEwisagEme^ is of the | numaym 
Wawalibaye^ of the ^walas Kwag'ul. | 

5. Next to ^max"mEwisagEme^ is ^walas. | ^walas is Eagle of the 
numaym G'ig'ilgam of the Q !omoya^ye, who were named by the | 
first people Kwexa. || 

6. Next to him is AgwilagEme^ to ^valas, for | Ag-wilagEme^ is 15 
Eagle of the numaym Kukwaklum of the Q!omoyS,^ye. | 

7. Next to him is G"exse-stalisEme, to AgwilagEme^, | forG'exse- 
-stahsEme is Eagle of the numaym Yaex'agEme^ | of the Q!omo- 
ya^ye. || 

8. Next to him is NEg'adze (Great-Mountain), to G'exse^sta- 20 
lisEme^ for | NEg'adzc is Eagle of the numajan G'exsEin of the 
^walas Kwag'ul. | 

These are all the Eagles of the three tribes of the GwetEla, | and 
Qlomoya^ye, and ^walas Kwag'ul; and there is no Eagle | among the 
Q !6mk' !ut !es. These are the Eagles of the Kwakiutl tribes who 

mak'ilaqe Doqwayes, yixs ^nE^memotasa DzEndzEnx'qlayosa ^walas 3 
Kwag'ula,) yixs Maamtag'ilae ^nE^rnemotas Llaqwagila ylsa Gwe- 
tEla. 5 

3. Wa, he^mis mak"ile K"tmk'EqEwide, yixs ^nE^memotasa G'exsE- 
mesa GwetEla. 

4. Wii, he^mis mak'ilaqe ^max"mEwisag^Ema^ye lax K'imk'EqE- 
wlde, yixs yaqwasE^wae lax lelqwalai.a^yaxs p lekwae ^wFlaxa Kwa- 
kiig'ulaxs mosgEmakwae laxg'a TsiixisEk", yixs Wawfilibaya^e ^nE- 10 
^meraotas ^max"mEwisagEma'yasa ^walase Kwag'ula. 

5. Wa, he^mis mak'ilax ^max''mEwisagEma^ye 'walas, yixs kwe- 
kwae ^wahisasa ^nE^memotasa Gig'ilgamasa Q!6nioya=yexa gwE^yasa 
g'ale bEgwauEm Kwexa. 

6. Wa, he^mis mak'ila AgwilagEma^ye lax ^walase, yixs kwekwae 15 
AgwilagEma^yasa ^UE^memotasa Kukwaklumasa Qlomoya^ye. 

7. Wa, he^mis makila G'exse^stalisEma^ye lax AgwilagEma^ye, 
yixs kwekwae G"exse^stalisEma^yasa ^nE^memotasa Yaex'agEma- 
^yesa Q!omoycVye. 

8. Wa, he-mis mak'ila NEg'iidze lax G'exse^stalisEma^ye, yixs 20 
kwekwae NEg'adzilsa ^nE^memotasa G'exsEmasa ^walase Kwag'ula. 

Wii, laEm ^wi^laxa kwekwekwasa yudux^sEmakwexa GwetEla 
LE^wa Qlomoya^ye LE^wa ^walas Kwag'ula. Wa, la k' !eas kwex"sa 
Q!omk'!ut!Ese. G'aEm kwekwex"sa Kwakuk'Ewakwexa g'okiila 



822 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

25 live II atTsaxis; theGwetEla, Qlomoya^ye, and^walasKwag'iil; | and 
the Q !omk' !ut !es have no Eagle. | 

The order of the Eagles of the Kwakiutl is not changed when 
property is given to the tribes | when they are invited ; for when the 
name-keepers | make a mistake, and place one Eagle over another 
30 one, || the Eagle at once cjuarrels with the one who had been named 
before him, and | often he breaks his copper, and often he gives 
the I broken piece of copper to the name-keeper, who keeps the 
order of seats of all the | men; for there is one man who is the 
name-keeper of the Gwetsla, | of the Q lomoy^^ye, and of the ^walas 
35 Kwag'ul, and also of the || Q!omk" !iit!Es. | 

And these are never changed ; for when a name-keeper gets weak | 
because he is old, he gives the office of name-keeper to his | eldest 
son, for the | name-keeper is not a nobleman. |1 
40 The name-keeper of the GwetEla is called Wiltse^stala, and his 
seat is | in the numa\Tn Laftlax's^Endayo. | 

And the name-keeper of the Q!6moyfi.ye^ is Sewid, and his seat is 
in the | mimajon HaanaLena. | 

And the name-keeper of the ^walas Kwag'ul is Walalas, and his || 
45 seat is in the numavm G'Ig'ilgam. | 

And the name-keeper of the Qlomk" !ut!ES is called Laleplalas, and 
his seat | is in the numaym LeLEged. | 

25 lax Tsaxisexa GwetEla LE^wa Qlomoya^ye LE^wa ^walase Kwag-ula. 
Wa, la k-'.eas kwex"sa Q!6mk'!ut!Kse. 

Wii, heEm k"!es layaplalaxs yaqwasE^waasa lelqwalaLa^yaxs 
LelElasE-'waexa kwekwekwasa Kw:"ikuk"Ewakwe, yixs g'il^mae Lex- 
Lequllla cjlaqlasto lagotsa ^nEmokwe kwek" laxa ^uEniokwe lae 
30 hex'^idaEm xomal-Ideda kwekwe LE^wa la nalagodEq. Wa, liet!a 
qliinalatse q !Eltap lEX'^'idaxes L!aqwa.. Wii, la qlunala yax-witsa 
qlEldEkwe L!aqwa laxa q !ac[ !astowaxa LaLExwa^yasa ^naxwa be- 
bEgwiUiEma, yixs ^nal^nEmokwae bEgwanEme ci!aq!astowasa Gwe- 
tEla LE^wa Q!omoya^3'e LE^va ^walase Kwagada; wa, he^misa Q!ora- 
35 kMutlEse. 

Wa, heEm kMes LlaLlayokide yixs g'il^mae la wayats!ala qaxs 
lae qlulyakwa qlacjlastowaxs lae lasases q !aq lastoena^ye lax ^no- 
last '.Egsma^yases bEgwanEme xQnokwa, yixs k'lesae naxsala bE- 
gwauEma q!aq!astowe. 
40 Wa, heEm q!aq!ast6sa GwetEle Wiltse^stala, yixs hiie i;agwa^ya 
^UE^mematasa Laalax's^Endayo. 

Wii, he^mis q liicj !astosa Qlomoya^ye Sewide, yixs hiie Lagwa^ya 
^nE^memotasa HaanaLena. 

Wii, he^mis q!iiq!ast6sa ^wiiUis Kwag'ule Walalase, yixs hiie L.11- 
45 gwa^ya ^nE'memotasa G'lg'ilgame^. 

Wii, he^mis cj !iiq !astosa Q!6mkMut!Ese Laleplalase, yixs hiie La- 
gwa^ya ^nE^memotasa LeLEgede. 



BOAS] SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAG-UL 823 

And that is the way in which property is given to the Eagles when | 48 
property is given to the Kwakiutl tribes who are invited, for they 
never || allow any change of the order of their seats. | 50 

The Eagle gives his seat to his eldest son; and when | the eldest 
child of any Eagle is a girl, then | the girl takes the seat of her 
father the Eagle, although she has a younger brother, | for they 
can not give the place of the Eagle to the younger brother || of the 55 
eldest one of the children. | 

The only time when an Eagle gives his seat to the younger brother 
of the eldest child | is when that child dies. Then there is no objec- 
tion on the part of all the people, | when they give property to the 
Eagles. I 

For that they do not change their names starts from (the time) 
when long ago i| O^maxt IrdaLe^, the ancestor of the numaym GO 
G"ig'ilgam of the | Qlomoya^ye, made the seats of the Eagles; and 
those went down to the | nuniajans. And the name-keeper Wlitse- 
^stala says, | " Now our chiefs have been given everything, and I will 
go right down (according to the order of rank)." | Thus he says, when 
he gives out the property ; for I will just name the names || of one of 65 
the head chiefs of the numayms of the | Kwakiutl tribes. They 
never change their names from the beginning, | when the first human 
beings existed in the world; for names can not go out | of the family 
of the head chiefs of the numajmis, only to the eldest one | of the 
children of the head chief. || 

Wil, hcEm gwtilaats yaq Iwina^yaxa kwekwckwaxs yaqwasE^wa- 45 
asa lelqwahxLa^yax LelElasE^waexa Kwakuk'Ewakwe, yixs k" !esae 
helq!ala layap!ala. 5q 

Wa, lii lex'aEm ladzatsa kwekwa ^nolast lEgEma^ye xiinokwa, ylxs 
g'iPmae tslfidaqe ^n6last!EgEma^ya sasEmasa ^ntlxwa kwekwekwa 
la'mesa ts!Edaqe Laxstodxes kwekwe ompa, yixs wax'^mae tsla^ya- 
nux"sa bEgwanEme qaxs k' !easae gwex^-idaas layo laxa ts !a^yasa 
^nolast lEgEma^yasa sasEmasa kwekwe. 55 

Wa, lex"a^mes lax'dEmsa kwekwe hlx ts!a^yasa ^nolast lEgEma- 
^yaxs lE^lae. Wa, laEm k"!eas waklEmsa ^naxwa bEgwanEm laxeq. 
Wa, g"Il^mese -wl-la yax^wItsE^weda kwekwekwe. 

Ylxs k-!esae LlaLlayokiile LeLEgEmas g-ag-iLEla lax g-alaole 
O^maxt !alaLa^ye, yix g'alasa ^uE^memotasa CMg'ilgamasa Q.'omo- 60 
ya^ye, Laxweg'ila qa LaLEXwesa kwekwekwe LE^wa nEqaxa laxa 
^nal^nE^memase. Wa, la ^nekeda q!aq!astowe, yix Wiltse-stala : 
"La^me wilxtowEns gugigama^ye. Wa, la^mesEn uEqaxodEl," 
^nek'Exs lae Lex^edEx laxEn lex'aeneEmLe LeqEhis5^La LCLEgE- 
masa ^urd-nEmokwe lax LeLaxuma^yasa ^nal^uE^memasasa Kwakii- 65 
k'Ewakwexa kMese LlaLlayoxLJihibEndalaxes LexEgEme g'agiLEla 
lax g-alaole bEkumg'alisa bebEgwanEmex, yixs k'!esae laltslae- 
noxwe LCLEgEmasa Laxuma^yasa ^naPuE^'memase laxa ^nolastlEgE- 
ma^yas sasEmasa LCLaxuma^ye. 



824 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 35 

70 And the names can not be given to the husband of the | daughter, 
none of the whole number of the names, beginning with | the ten- 
months child's name until he takes the name of his father, the name 
of the I head chief. Tliese are called the "myth names." | 

75 The only names of the head chief of the numayms || that can be 
given in marriage are the names which he obtains in marriage from 
his fathers-in-law, and | also the privileges, for he can not give his 
own privileges to his son-in-law. | 

And when the head chief of a numa3Tn has no | son, and his child 
is a girl, she takes the place | of her father as head chief; and when 

80 the head chief has no child, 1| and the younger brother of the head 
chief (among the brothers | of the man) has a child, even if she is a 
girl, then the head chief among the | brothers takes the eldest one of 
the children of his younger brother, and | places him or her in his 
seat as head chief of the numaym. | 

85 Now that finishes our talk about the Eagles, and the || head chiefs 

of the numayms of the GwetEla, for they never change | their order. | 

Now I shall talk about the number of numayms | of the Gwetela 

and about the number of names of the head chiefs, beginning | from 

the time when they are born luitll they become head chiefs of the || 

90 numaym. | 



70 Wa, laxae kMeas gwex"^idaas lases LCLEgEme lax la^wunEmases 

tslEdaqe xunokwa lax ^waxaasases LeLEgEme g'ag'iLEla laqex g"a- 

lae helogwila lag'aa laqexs lae laLEx LegEinases ompexa Laxu- 

mexLayo LegEma. Wa, hcEm LegadEs nuyanibalis LeLEgEme. 

Wa, lex'a^me LcLEgEmg'ilxLesa Laxuma^yasa ^naPnE^memases 

75 gEg^adanEme LeLEgEm laxes naEngumpe LE^wa k' !ek- !Es^owe qaxs 
k' !easae gwex'^idaas lases k" !ek' !es-6 laxes uEgumpe. 

Wa, g-fPmese k'leas xunokwa Laxuma^yasa ^uE^memotexa bE- 
gwanEme xun6x"s, wa, g^il^mese tslEdaqe xflnokwas lae he L!a- 
yoxes ompe laxa Laxuma^ye. Wa, g'iPmese k'leas xunox"sa lS- 

80 xuraa^ye, wa, g'tl^mese xungwade tsla^yasa Laxuma^yasa ^nE^me- 
masa bEgwanEme loxs wax'^mae tslEdaqa, wa leda Laxuma^yasa 
^UE^mema ax^edEx ^nolast'.EgEma^yas sasEmases ts!a^ya qa^s la 
Lax"st6ts laxes Laxwalaasa Laxuma^yases ^nE^memote. 

Wa, laEm gwala gwagwex's^ala laxa kwekwekwe LE^wa LCLaxu- 

85 ma^yasa ^nrd-'uE^memasasa GwetEla, yixs k'!esae lalagodala laxes 
gwegwalaLElase. 

Wa, la-'mesEn gwagwex-s-'alal lax ^waxax'^idadzasas ^nai-'uE^me- 
masasa Gwetsla l6^ ^waxaasas LeLEgEmas LgLaxuma^yas g'ag-iLEla 
laqexs galae mayoLEmses abEmpe lag-aa laqexs lae Laxumdxes 

90 ^UE^memote. 



BOAS] SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAG-Ul. 825 

I. NUMAYMS OF THE GAVETELA | 91 

This is the head of the numayms of the GwetEla: | 

1. Maamtag"ihi. Their head chief is ^maxiSyaUdze. This is liis 
name | when he is head chief of his numaym, the Maamtag'ila, and 
this II is the name when he invites all the tribes. | 95 

And his man's name is YaqoLas (Phice-of-Obtaining-Property) 
before he | becomes head chief of the Maamtag'iha, for then he gives 
property to his | tribe the GwetEla. | 

And his young man's name is Llesdaq (White-Goose). And 
Llesdaq gives away property to the young men || — that is, when the 100 
young men give to one another paddles and mats, in the way | the 
first men used to do, for the sake of the greatness of the young man's 
name, | butinourrecent days it is different; for shirts and kercliiefs | 
are given away by the young men for the sake of the greatness of the 
young man's name, | and nothing is given to old men when the 
yoimg men || give to one another. | 5 

And his child's name, when he is ten months old, is Wawalk'ine^ | 
(Found-by-Good-Luck) ; that is, when thej' singe off the (hair of the) 
head, and | after they are painted with ocher, and when the thunder- 
bird straps of I dressed deer-skin are put on. The ocher is for the 
greatness of the name Wawalk'ine^ || when the whole tribe come to 10 
paint themselves. | 

I. ^NAL^NE^MEMASA GWETELA 91 

Wa, g'a^mes ^niEkumiihits ^nfd^nE^memasasa GwetEla g'ada: — 

1. Maamtag'ila, yixs Laxumalaax ^maxiiyalidze. HeEm LegEm- 
sexs lae Laxuma^yases ^nE^memota Maamtag'ila. Wa, hcEm 
LegEmsexs lae LelElaxa ^naxwa lelqwahiLa^ya. 95 

Wa, he^mis q!waxEXLayo LegEmse YaqoLas, yixs k'!es-mae La- 
xiimdxes ^nE^memota Maamtag'ila, qaxs lae tiEnsela plEsaxes g'okii- 
lota GwetEla. 

Wa, la hel-axLiilax Llesdaq. Wa, laEm gumyadzEXLiilax L!esda- 
qexa ha^yal^axs gumyasaplaasa se^wayowe LE^wa ieEl^wa^yexa gwe- 100 
g'ilasa g-ale bEgwanEma qa o^mayoses helaxLayowe LegEma. Wii, 
lox ogux^idxwa alex ^nala, yixs q!ESEna^j^ae LE^wa laElaxwewa-ye 
la gumyadzayosa ha^yaPa qa o^mayoses gilmyadzEXLayo LegEma, 
yixs kleasae lasa q !ulsq !ulyakwe bebEgwanEm laxa ha^yah'agala 
giimyasap !a. 5 

Wa, he-mis g'inlEXLayo LegEmsexs lae helogwila ylx Wa- 
walk'ina^ye, yixs lae gwal tslEX'EltsEmtsE^we x'omsas Loxs lae 
gwal gumsaso'sa gugumyime loxs lae ^wl^la qEX'^aLEle kiinxwe- 
dfimas eElag'imdza. Wii, he-'mis o^mayos LegEmase Wawalk'ina^ya 
gugumyimaxs lae ^naxwa gwagiimsenaso^ses g'okulote. lo 



826 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 35 

11 And his first name is that of the place where he was borne by his 

mother. | Wlaen the mother gives birth to her son at Tsaxis, | then 

his name is Tsaxisadze; and when | she gives birth to a girl at 

Tsaxis, then her name is Tsaxisga. || 
15 And his sparrow name during the winter dance is K' !anamaxsta. \ 
And he is hamshamts !es, and his name is Hamsbe^; for there are 

seven | names for the head chiefs of the numaym Maamtag"ila. | 
And all these names do not change. They come from the | family 

myth; and these are the names of the head chief of the numaym || 
20 Maamtag'ila. | 

2. Loyalala^wa. Their head chief is TslEx^ed. That is his name 

when I he becomes head chief of the numaym Loyalala^wa, and that 

is his name when | he invites all the tribes. | 
25 And his man's name is iJaqusdesElas. That is before || he becomes 

head chief of the Loyalala^wa, for then he gives away property to 

his I tribe the GwetEla. | 

And his young man's name is K'lEnwes (spider crab), when | 

K'!Enwes gives away to the young men, when they give to one 

another paddles and mats, | in the way the people used to do of 
30 old for the sake of the greatness of the young man's || name. He 

has that name when he gives to the young men, | namely KMEnwes. | 

1 1 Wit, he^mis gil LegEmse awlnagwltslena^yas mayoLasases abEmpas, 
yixs g'il^mae he mayoLaxa tslEdaqases bEgwauEme xunokwe Tsa- 
xise. Wa, la, hex'-idaEm Lex^etso^s Tsaxisadze. Wii, gil^mese 
tslEdaqe mayoLEmasa ts!Edaqe lax Tsaxise, lae LegadEs Tsaxisga. 
15 Wii, lit gwedzEXLala K'lanamaxsta laxa ts!ets!eqa. 

Wii, la hamshamts !Esa, wa, la LegadEs Hamsba^ye, yixs aLEbo- 
sgEmgaEx LeLEgEmxs Laxuma^yasa ^nE^memotasa Maamtag'ila. 

Wa, yuwe'stasm k'!es LlaLlayokilla LeLEgEmox g'ag'iLEla lax 
nuyame. Asm hex'sa LegEmsa Laxuma^yasa ^nE^memotasa Ma- 
20 amtag'ila. 

2. Loyalala^wa, yixs Laxumalaax Ts!Ex^ede. HeEm LegEmsexs 
lae Laxuma^yases ^nE^memota Loyalala^wa. Wa, heEm LegEmsexs 
lae Lelfilaxa ^naxwa lelqwalaLa^ya. 

Wii, he^mis q!waxEXLayo LegEmse LlaqusdesElase, yixs k'les^mae 
25 Laxumdxes '^iiE^memota Loyalala^wa, qaxs lae tiEnsela plEsaxes 
g'okulota GwetEla. 

Wii, lil helaxLalax KMEnwis. Wii, laEm giimyadzEXLalax 

K'!Enwisexa ha^yal^iixs gumyasap !aasa seaway we LE^wa leEl^wa- 

^yexa gweg'ilasasa g^ale bEgwauEma qa o^mayoses he^laxLayowe 

30 LegEma. Wii, he^Em Legadeda LegEmas gQmyadzEXLiiyosa hel^a, 

ylx K'lEiiwise. 



BOAS] SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAG-UL 827 

Aiid his chiltrs name when he is ten months old is WalaganEni; | 32 
that is, after they singe off (the hair of) the head, and after he is 
painted with | ocher, and when the thimderbird straps of dressed 
deei"-sl<in are put on. || That is for the sake of the greatness of the 35 
name WahxganEm when he is painted, and | when his tribe pain 
themselves. | 

And his first name when he is borne by his mother is ^yilis | if 
that is where he is born. Tlien his name is ^yills until the time | 
when he shall be ten months old. || 

And his sparrow name is Hanag'atsle (Advice-Keceptacle), for 40 
Hanag'atsle was song-leader in the begimiing | in the winter cere- 
monial, beginning from the time when the myth people first became 
human lieings; | and it is only given to the eldest-burn | children of 
the fii'st TslEx^ed. Therefore he has | the name, Hanag'atsle. || 

And in the hamshamts !es his name is ^nawis ; | and the name of the 45 
head chief of the numaym | i.oyalala^wa never changes, for he 
changes his name for a short time only | when he gets a name in 
marriage. | 

3. G'exsEm. Tlieir head chief is K'imkEqEwId; that is the name 
when II he is head chief of the numaym G' exsEm, and that is his 50 
name when j he invites all the tribes. | 



Wa, he^mis g'inlEXLayo LegEmsexs lae heiogwiia yix WahxganEm, 32 
yixs lae gwal ts!EX'EltsEmtsE''we x'omsas loxs lae gwal giimsaso^sa 
giigumyirae loxs lae ^wFla cjEX'^aLEle kiinxwedEmas eElag'inidza. 
Wa, he-Em o^mayos LegEmase WalaganEm giigumyimaxs lae 35 
^naxwa gwagumsenaso'ses g'okulote. 

Wii, he^mis g"il LegEmsexs g'alae mayoLEmses abEmpe ^yilise 
qaxs hiie mayol-idayoses abEmpe, wa, la^me LegadEs ^ylllse lalaa 
laxes helogwilax'dEniLa. 

Wit, la gwedzEXLiilax Hanag'atsle qaes gwasx'alae nagade Hana- 40 
g'ats!e laxa ts!ets!eqa g'iig'iLEla laxs g"alae gax bEkumg'alisa g'ala 
ntix"nemisa kMes layo laxa ogu^la bEgwanEma ogii^la laxa ^nolast!E- 
gEma^yas sasEm^'nakulasa g"ala TslEx^eda. Wa, he^mis lag'ilas Le- 
gadEs Hanag'atsle. 

Wii, la LegadEs ^nawis laxes hilmshamtslEs. 45 

Wii he^Emxat! k'les L!iiL!ayokula LegEmsa Laxuma^yasa ^ue- 
^memotasa Loyalala^wa yixs lex'a^mae yiiwas^id LlayEwats LegEma- 
sexs LegEmg'ilxLalasae, yises gEg'adaase. 

3. Gexsem, yixs Ltixumalaax Kimk'EqEwide. HiiEm LegEmsexs 
lae Laxuma^yases ^iiE-memota G'exsEme. Wii lieEm LegEmsexs lae 50 
LelElaxa ^niixwa lelqwahiLa^ya. 



828 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

52 And his man's name is GayoLElas, before he becomes | head chief 
of his numaym G'exsEin, for then he gives property to his tribe | 
the Gwetsla. || 
55 And his young man's name is Q !5mas (crab) ; and he is named 
Q!omas | when the young men give away to one another shirts and 
kerchiefs for the sake of the | greatness of the name Q !omas. | 

And his child's name is Wagedayo when he is ten months old, and 
when the | thunderbird straps of dressed skin are put on, and after 
60 he is painted with || ochre, and after the hair has been singed off. | 
And when he is born in Ts lamas (Victoria), then his name is 
Tslamas. | 

His sparrow name is X'awaatsle. | 
His name as hamshamts !es is Ages. | 

And his warrior name is K ilEmalag ilis, for he has been a warrior ll 
65 ever since the myth people became human beings. | 

4. Kukwaklum. Their head chief is NsqaplEnk' Em. This is liis 
name | as head chief of the numaym Kiikwaklum; that is | when he 
invites all the tribes, and he takes the place of his father. | 
70 And his man's name is TsEx^wid before he becomes |1 head chief 
of the nimia\nn Kukwaklum; for then he gives away property to 
his I tribe the GwetEla. I 



52 Wa, he^mis qlwaxExLayo LegEmse GayoLElas, yLxs kMes^mae La- 
xumdxes ^nE^memota G"exsEme, qaxs lae tlEiisela p!Esaxes goku- 
lota GwetEla. 
55 Wa, la helaxLiilax Qlomase. Wa, laEm gumyadzExLalax Q!oma- 
sexa ha^yal^axs giimyasaplaasa qlESEna^ye LE^wa lalaxwiwa^ye qa 
o^mayoses LegEme Q'.omase. 

Wa, la glnlEXLiihTX Wagedayo yixs helogwila, yixs lae ^wHa la 
qEX'^aLEle kiinxwedEmas eElagimdza loxs lae gwal giimsaso^sa 
60 gugumyime, yixs lae gwal tslEx^EltsEmtsE^wa. 

Wit, lii mayoLEm laxa Ts!amase, wa, he^mis LegEmse Ts.'amase. 
Wa, la gwedzEXLalax X'awaatsle. 
Wii, la LegadEs Agese laxes hamshamts !Ets!ena^ye. 
Wa, la babaklwaxLalax KIlEmalagihs qaxs gwasx'alae baba- 
65 k!waxs g'iigiLElaxs g-alae bEkug'alisa nux"nemise. 

4. Kukwaklum, yLxs Laxumalaax NEqap!Enk-Eme heEm LegEm- 

sexs lae Laxuma^yases ^uE^memota Kukwaklum. Wa, heEm LegEm- 

sexs lae LelElaxa ^naxwa lelqwaiaLa^ya yixs lae L!ayostodxes ompe. 

Wii, he-'mis q!waxExLiiyo LegEmse TsEx^wide, yixs k'les^mae La- 

70 xumdxes ^uE^memota Kukwiiklum, qaxs lae tiEnsela plEsaxes 

g'okulota GwetEla. 



BOAS] SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAG-UL 829 

And his young man's name is Wabido^; that is, when the young 72 
men give to one another paddles | and mats, in the way the people 
used to do of olden times, for the sake of the greatness of the | young 
man's name. || 

And his warrior name is | Yag'is. And he only talves the name 75 
Yag'is when he has killed a man, and when he keeps the | scalp of 
the one whom he has killed in the way it was done by his ancestors, 
for I there is not one of the generations of chiefs NEqap!Enk'Em who 
has not | killed a man; therefore their boxes were filled with || 
scalps of the men they killed, and | therefore he is called Yag'is. | 80 

And his feast name is Kwilx'ilanokume. | 

And his child's name is G'lyaqa when he is ten months old. | 

And his sparrow name in the winter ceremonial is T'.etlESEmx'- 
ts!ana. || 

Wlien he is hamatsla he has the name Lliix'Elag'ilis. | 85 

And when he was borne by his mother in Xulk", at the mouth of 
the river | Gwane^, then his name is taken from the place wliere he 
was borne by his mother untd he is ten months old. | Then he has 
the name Xtilk". | 

5. SenLlsm. Their head chief is ^uEmogwis. That is his name 
when II he invites all the tribes, and when he is head chief of his | 90 
numaym SenL tem. | 

Wit hi hel-axLala Wabido^xa h5.^yah"axs gumyasaplaasa se^wayowe 72 
LE^wa leElwa^yexa geg"ilasasa g-ale bEgwanEma qa o^mayoses hei^ax- 
Liiyowe LegEma. 

Wa, la babak!waxLala ^yag-ise. Wa, laEmxae al^Em Lex^edEs 75 
-yagise yixs lae k'lelak'axa bEgwanEme qa^s g'axe axelax Llesas 
x'omsases kMelagikwe lax gweg'ilasas g-tlg'alisa wiwomps, yixs 
kMeisae ^nEmox^sa L!aL!ayots!alag-Igame^NEqap!Enk'Emk"!es kMe- 
lax'^idxa bEgwanEme, lag-ilas hemEnalaEm qotles g'ildasaxa 
sabEkwe L!ets6x x^omsases k"!elagikwe bEgwanEma. Wii, he^mis 80 
lag-ilas LegadEs ^yag'ise. 

Wa, la kIweladzEXLala Kwax'llanokuma^ye. 

Wa, la ginlEXLala G'iyac[a, yixs lae helogwila. 

Wa, la gwedzEXLala T!et!ESEmx'ts!ana laxa ts!ets!eqa. 

Wa, la LegadEs Llax'Elag'ilis laxes hamats!aena^ye. 85 

Wa, la mayoLEmses abEmpe lax Xiilkwe lax 6x"siwa^yas was 
Gwane% wa, he^me LegEmsexa' g'ag iLEla laqexs g'alae mayoLEmses 
abEmpe lalaa laqexs, lae helosgEmg'ila. Wa, laEm LegadEs Xulkwe. 

5. SeuLlEm, yixs Laxumalaax ^uEmogwise, heEm LegEmsexs lae 
Lelfilaxa ^naxwa lelqwalaLa^ya qaes laena^ye Laxuma^yases ^nE^me- 90 
mota SenLlEme. 

' Or he^mis LegEmse. 



830 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL . [etu. ann. as 

He is hamshamtslEs and has the name LleniElxk' lalag'ilis. | 
95 (Infant's name, if born in Tsaxis, Tsaxisadze.) | 

6. Laalax's^Endayo. The head chief is Llaqwalal. That is his 
name when | he is head chief of the numaym Laalax's^Endayo. 
That is his | name when he invites all the tribes, and when he tells 
100 the chiefs || of all the tribes that he takes the place of his father 
Llaqwalal, for | that is the head chief; and his father L!aqwalal just 
changes his name, | and he takes the name P lasElal. And his seat 
is at the end, the last one in the | numaym Laalax's^Endayo. ] 

And liis dance is the grizzly bear, and his name is ^walas nan. | 
And when he is borne by his mother in Qalogwis, then | his name 
is Qalogwidze. | 

15 These are the seven numayms of the Gwetsla who || had the name 
Kwexamot among the men of olden times; but the new tribal name | 
of the Kwexamot is Gwetsla, since the time of ^maxwa, when he | 
was killed by the Qlomoya^ye. | 



92 



(Man's name, WalEwid; young man's name lIeweJs (elk); feast 
name Kwax-llanokume^ ; child's name, Wadzid; sparrow name, 
Tslaqa.) 
95 Wa, la ha,mshamts!Esa la LegadEs LlemElxkMalag-lhs. 
(Infant's name, if born in Tsaxis, Tsaxisadze.) 
6. Laalaxs-'Endayo, ylxs Laxumalaax L!aqwalal; heEm i-egEm- 
sexs lae Laxuma^yases ^nE^memota La^lax's-Eudayo. Wii, heEm 
LegEmsexs lae LeiElaxa ^naxwa lelqwalaLa^ya.qa^s nelexa glg'Egama- 
100 ^yasa ^naxwa lelqwalaLexs lE^mae L'.ayoxes ompe L!aqwalal yixs lae 
hela Laxuma^ya. Wa, a^mise ompas Llaqwalale la LlayoxLa. Wa, 
laEm LegadEs PlasElale qa^s lii LaxsdEud lax mak' lExsda^yases 
^nE^memota Laalaxs^Endayo. 

(Man's name, Q!umx-od; young man's name, Hamdzalatsle; feast 
5 name, Kwax'se^stala; child's name, Adaxalis; sparrow name, HoLe- 

lid.) 

Wa, la nane ladas; wa, la LegadEs ^walas nane. 

Wa, holatia mayoLEmses abEmpe Qalogwise, wa, he^mis LegEmse 
Qalogwidze. 
10 7. Elgiinwe^ (chief's name, G'exk-inis; man's name, Lalax's^En- 
dayo; young man's name, ^UEmgwanal; child's name, Q-iyaxalis; 
sparrow name, Damis; nulmai name, Nob'id; infant's name, if born 
at Wadz5lis Wadzolidze). 

Wa, laEm ^wi^laxa aLEbosgEmak!i1se ^nal^nE^mematsa GwetElaxa 
15 Le<'ada Kwexiimote laxa g'ala bEgwanEma. Wii, lax a]5mas lEgO- 
xLiiyosa Kwexamotox GwetElax, g-aglLEla lax ^maxwa yLxs lae 
k- !elax-^its6sa Q lomoya^ye. 



jriA^'7- ^^"^^^ /p3'/9/^ f^'^ 



■4^. JS" 



1.04S] SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAG-UIj 831 

Now, the names of the head cliiefs of the various immayins do not 
change; | for the head chief can not give his || names to the husband 20 
of his princess, | — beginning witli the head chief's and man's name, 
down to I the young man's name, child's name, sparrow name, and | 
liamshaints !es name, fool-dancer's name, and grizzly-bear dancer's 
name, — to his | sons-in-Liw; for it was instituted in olden times tliat 
the liead chiefs ll had to keep their names, and tliat they could give 25 
them to no other than tlie eldest among their | children. | 

Now that finishes our talk about the seven numayms | of the 
Kwexamot who have the new name GwetEla, and the names | 
beginning with the time when the child is just born until he becomes || 
head chief of the numaym. That is all. | 30 

II. NUMAYMS OF THE Q lOMOYA^YE | 1 

I shall first talk about the name of the tribe Q lomoya^ye, for | this 
is the first name of the tribe QlomoysVye. Then a warrior | kiUed 
^niaxwa at Eg'isbahs, and ^maxwa was the || head cliief of the great 5 
head numaj-m of the GwetEla, the Maamtag'ila. | When ^maxwa 
was dead, the Qlomoya^ye changed their name; and | now the 
name of the tribe was Kwexa, beginning from the time when they 
killed the past ^maxwa. | And then the Kwag'ul who have now the 

Wa, hastaEm k"!es LlaLlayokiile LCLEgEmasa LeLaxuma^yasa 18 
alogiiqlEse ^nal^iiE^memota, yixs k'lEasae gwex^^idaasa Laxuma^ye 
la LegEmg'ElxLalases Laxuma^ye LexEgEm lax la^wiiiiEmases k'!ede- 20 
lexa g'iigiLEla hlx LegEmas laxes Lilxuma^yae LE^wis qlwaxEXLiiyo 
LE^wis helaxLayo LE^wis g-inlEXLayo LE^wis gwedzEXLayo LE^wis 
h.^mshamts!Es LeLEgEma, LE^wa nolEmala LE^wa nane lada laxes 
naEugiimpe, yixs gwalfilamoyolaEl Elg'aaLElodayo laxa LeLaxuma- 
^yexa LeLEgEmas qa k" !eses lasas laxa ogMa lax ^nolast lEgEma^yases 25 
sasEine. 

Wa, laEm gwala gwagwex"s^ala laxa aLEbosgEmakluse ^nal-uE- 
^mematsa Kwexamotexa alEXLalax GwetEla LE^wis LeLEgEme g"a- 
g"lLEla laqexs g'alae mayoLEinscs &bEmpe lag'aa laqexs lae Laxumd- 
xes ^iiE^memote. Wa laEm laba. 30 

II. ^NAL^NE^MEMASA qIoMOYA^YE 1 

HetlaLEU gil gwagwex's^alasLa lEguxLayasa Qlomoy&^ye, ylxs 
he^mae g"Il lEgiixLayose Qlomaya^ye. Wa, la k'lelax'^ide baba- 
k!wasex ^maxwa lax Eglsbalise, ylxs gugama^yae ^maxwa yisa 
^mEkuma^yasa ^walase ^iiE^memotsa GwetElaxa Maamtag"ila. Wa, 5 
giPmese lE^le ^maxwa laa'lase LlayoxLaxa Q!omoya^ye. Wii, laEm- 
^lae lEgiixLalax Kwexa, g'iig'lLElaxs lae kwex^edEx ^maxwol. Wa, 
laEm^laxaawisa Kwagulexa la lEgiixLalax GwetEla L!ayoxLa. Wa, 



QfgPI*^ (SaetOSNTAL e®LLc6E LieKSRV 



832 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ietu. ann. 35 



9 name GwetEla also changed their name. | They had no longer the 
tribal name Kwag'ul, for that was the first tribal name of the || 

10 Kwag'ul; but their tribal name was Kwexamot, because | their 
chief ^maxwa had been killed. And thus you know how it began | 
that the Qlomoya^ye have the tribal name Kwexa; for the name | 
kwexa means that they strike with their walking-sticks whatever is 
struck by them, and that they | strike with the sword, for it is called 

15 kwexa to strike with a pole, || as ^maxwa was struck with when he was 
kUled. That is aU. | 

Now I shall talk about the various numayms of the | Q !6moyS,^ye. 
The head numaym is : | 

1. Kukwak!um. 

******* 

These are the myth names of the head chief of the | numaym 

22 Kttkwaklum of the Qlomoya^ye. | 

Now I shall begin with the names of the head chief next to this 

one. II 

******* 

Now these are aU the names of the head chief of the numaym | 

Yaex'agEme^. | 

laEm^lae gwal lEguxLalax Kwag-ule qaxs he^mae g'il lEgiixLayosa 
10 Kwag-ule. Wii, laEm JEgu.xLalax Kwexamote, qaxs lae kwex-'e- 
tsE^wes glgamex'de ^maxwa. Wii, yu^mok" qa^s q lalaosax g-ag'lLE- 
lasas lagilas lEguxLalaxa Q!6moya^yax Kwexa, yixs he'mae kwexa- 
x'Lexa kwex^idaxes sekMaganowe laxes kwexasE'we loxs kwex^I- 
daases kwexayowe. Wa, heEm LegadEs kwexa yixs dzomeg-alae 
15 kwexEliisa kwex^idiix ^maxwa lae lE^amatsE^wa. Wii, yu^moq". 

Wii, la^mesEn gwiigwex's-'illal laxa alogiiqlEse -'nal-'nE^mematsa 
Qlomoya^ye. Wii, heEm ^mskumalatsexa 

1. Kukwaklum (chief's name, YiiqoLadze; man^s name, Hawil- 
kulal; young man's name, Wabido^; child's name, Adag-i^lak"; feast 
20 name, MEnledzadze; sparrow name, LaxLalll; niilmal name, Sa- 
yak-'.a; warrior's name, KilEm). 

Wii, heEm nuyambalis LCLEgEms Liixuma^yasa ^mEkuma^ye *^nE- 
^memasa Kiikwaklumasa Q!omoya^ye. 

Wii, la^mesEn lasL lax Le.LEgEmas Laxuma^yas makiliiq. 
25 2. HaiinaLena (chief's name, YilxLEn; man's name, TsEx^wid; 
young man's name, X-Imayo; child's name, Adagilis; sparrow name, 
Nux"nemis; hamshamtslEs name, -'nax'nEwIsElag'Ilis). 

3. Yaex-agEme- (chief's name, LliiqoLas; man's name, YaqoLa- 
sEme^; young man's name, Xwatla; child's name, Tsolaso^; feast 
30 name, Kwiikvix-alas ; sparrow name, QaqEsbEndala; hamshamtslEs 
name, ^nax'q lESElag'ilis) . 

Wa, laEmxae ^wFla LeLEgEmasa Laxuma^yasa ^nE^memasa Yae- 
x-agEma^ye. 



BOAS] SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAG-U£. 833 

These are all the names of the head chief of the niimaym | 40 
G'Ig'ilgam, for there are seven numayms of the Q!omoy§,^ye. | That 
is all about the Q lomoya^j'^e. | 

III. NUMAYMS OF THE ^WALA's KWAG"U£ | I 

Now I shall talk about the numayms of the ^walas Kwag'ul | and 
the names of their head chiefs. This is the first, the head | numaym : | 
1. DzEndzEux'qlayo. 5 

These are all the myth names of the head chief of the 11 numaym. | 15 



4. Haayalik'awe^ (chief s name, HaxuyosEme^; man's name, L!aL!a- 
lawis; young man's name, KMEnax"; child's name, Wisadze; spar- 35 
row name, YalEla; hamshamts!Es name, ^na^nogwis; warrior's name, 
GwaxuLayag'ilis) . 

5. Laxsa (chief's name, ^maxuyalisEme^; man's name, Lalak'otsia; 
young man's name, Bagwane^; child's name, Witalal; sparrow name, 
X^ixEqEla; nulmal name, NEnologEme^; feast name, Kwaxse^stala; 40 
warrior's name, ^yag'edEnol). 

6. G'igilgam (chief's name, K!wak!wabalasEme^; man's name, 
L'.al-id; 3^oung man's name, MEmtsalal; child's name, Nole^lak"; 
sparrow name, WabEtols; grizzly-bear dance name, NEnk"as-o; feast 
name, PoLede''stala ; warrior's name, Wiileba^ye). 45 

Wa, laEm ^wFla LeLEgEmasa Laxuma'yasa ^nE^memaxa G'igil- 
gam, ylxs aLEbosgEmak!usae ^iial^nE^memasasa Q!6moya^ye. Wa, 
laEm ^wi'laxa Q!6moya-ye. 

III. ^NAL^NE^MEMASA ^WALAS KWAGUi 1 

Wa, la^mesEn gwagwex's^alal laxa ^nal^nE^memasasa ^walas Kwa- 
g'ul Lo^ LeLEgEmas LeLaxuma^yas. Wa, g'a^mes xa^mabe ^niEku- 
meseg'a 

1. DzEndzEnx'q!ayo (chief's name, Yax'LEn; man's name, Hayal- 5 
k'EiigEme';' young man's name, Sexidas; child's name, Deyadeas 
g'iyadze; sparrow name, Hanagid; hamshamtslEs name, Gwayokii- 
lag'ilis; deer-dance (gegexiilal) name, Gewas; feast name, MElne- 
dzadze; warrior's name, K'llEm). 

2. Wawiiliba'ye (chief's name, Yaqal^Enala; man's name, Aoma- 10 
k'En; young man's name, ^mEk'ala; child's name, Aadol; sjsarrow 
name, XodzEnod; hamshamts!Es name, Hox^wetaso^; feast name, 
MElnedzas; warrior's name, HemotElaso^). 

Wa, laEmxae ^wFla nuyambalise LCLEgEms Laxuma^yasa ^nE^me- 
ma. 15 

3. GexsEm (chief's name, LaLellLla; man's name, YaqoLas; young 
man's name, KIwet'.e-; child's name, G'Fyaqa; sparrow name, LlEm 
setaso-; hamshamtslEs name, ^nax"danadze; feast name, Kwax'se- 
^staladze; warrior's name, K'ek'alElayo). 

75052—21—35 eth— pt 2 4 



834 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

20 IV. NUMAYMS OF THE Q !oMK" !UT !eS | 

Now I shall begin with the Q lomk' !ut !es, for they are a tribe dif- 
ferent I from the ^walas Kwag'ul, and this is the first | numaym: | — 
1. LeqiEm. 
******* 

And he is NolEm dancer, and lias the name NolEme^staUs if it is a 
man; | but if it is a woman, she has the name NolEme^stalldzEmga; | 
liis feast name is MEiiled; he is a warrior, and has the name || 

30 QEnkiHagihdzEm; and his name is thus because the | head chief of 
the numaym Leq !Em never laughs. These are all the | names of the 
head chief. | * * * 

These are the different numayms of the four | Kwakiutl tribes, 
The Kwag'ul, who are called Kwexamot, | of the Q!5moya^ye, who 

40 are called Kwexa; and || of the ^walas Kwag'ul, who are called 
Laqwi-'liila, because they burn everywhere the houses | of all the 
tribes when they make war upon them, for the ancestors of the | 
^walas Kwag'ul always made war, and therefore their war name is 

20 IV. ^NAL^NE^MEMASA q!oMK"!ut!ES 

Wii, la^mesEn lasLa laxa Q!omk'!ut!Ese, yixs 6gu'"la^mae lelqwft- 
laLe^ laxa ^walas Kwag-ula. Wa, g-a^mes ^mEkumalas ^nal-'uE^me- 
masaseg^a 

1. LeqiEm (chief's name, HaeLEkume^; man's name, G'ayosdedza- 
25 SEme^; young man's name, MEtsa; child's name, Ade'stala; sparrow 

name, QasElas). 

Wa, la nolEme lailiis. Wa, lii LegadEs NolEme^stalis, yixs bsgwa- 
nEmae, wiix'e tslEdaqa la LegadEs NolEme-stalldzEmga. Wa, la 
kIweladzEXLalax MEulede. Wa, la babaklwa; wa la LegadEs Qeu- 
30 kiilagilidzEm, yixs hee lag'ilas he gwex'sg'imala LegEmases k'!esae 
da^lenoxwa Laxuma^yasa ^nE^memasa Leqlsme. Wa, laEm ^wi^le 
LeLEgEmasa Lfixuma^yas. 

2. LeLEged (chief's name, Lalep!alas; man's name, Ek'laweg'i- 
^lak" ; young man's name, Max^enox" ; child's name, O-magilis ; spar- 

35 row name, LlEmyala; hamshamtslEs name, LlaqusElag'ilis; feast 

name, PoLid; warrior's name, GwaxuLEyag'ilis). 

Wa, laEm ^wFla laxeq yix aloguq!Es ^nal^ns^mematsa mosgEma- 

kwe Kwakuk'Ewakwaxa Kwag'ulexa LeqElasE^was Kwexamote. 

W&, he'misa Q!6moya~"yexa LeqElasE^was Kwexa. Wa, he^misa 
40 ''walas Kwag'ulxa i.eqElasE^was Laqwi^lala qaxs laqwi^lalaax g'ig'5- 

kvvasa ^naxwa lelqwitlpLa^ya, yixs winaaq qaxs winabEsaexa g'alasa 

•walas Kwagul. Wa, hemis wlnaxLiiyose Ltiqwi^lala. Wa, he-misa 



BOAS] SOCIAL DIVISIONS OF THE KWAG-UL 835 

Laqwi^lala; and also | the Q'.omk' lutlEs who are called LoeI- 43 
qlwenox" Qialibut-fishers) . And so that is all | about this. || 

These names never change. | 45 

I thhik this is all, lor these are the names of the | head chiefs of the 
numayms of the tribes, and the houses and the | dogs aU have names. 
The reasons why the chiefs of the people of former times | kept dogs 
was to keep watch against attacks of enemies and against attempts 
of witchcraft. || 

Q!omk'!ut!Esexa LEqElasE^was LoElq Iwenoxwe. Wa, lawesLa ^wFla 43 
laxeq.' 

Wa, heEm k'!es Llayoenox" LeLEgEme. 45 

Wa, lax'st!aak"'Em -'wl^la, 3'Lxs ^naxwa^mae he gwala LeLEgEmas 
LeLaxuma^yas ^nal-nE^memasa lelqwahiLa^ye LE^wa g'okwe LE^wa 
waots!e; ^naxwaEm LeLEgada, ylxs he^mae lagilasa g'ig'EgEma^yasa 
g"ale axelaxa ^wats!e qa^s q !aq lalalaxa wina LE^wa dadaala eqa. 



iHere follows a list of the names of houses and dogs of the chiefs which I have omitted. See tabular 
statement, pp. 795 et seq. See also Addenda, p. 1386, 



VIII. FAMILY HISTORIES 

Wail of l!al!eqwasila/ a Gwa^sela Woman ^ 

1 Haha haiiane! Now I come to think of my forefathers | and of 
my great-grandfathers. Now I will tell the story of my house | 
when we were chiefs in the beginning of this our world. | 
5 Hahahanane! YaqalE^nala (II 1) went about spouting. |1 He was 
my chief in the beginning of the world. He traveled about in his 
canoe, | a whale; for he was a whale, the ancestor of my people the 
Gwa^sEla; | andhe went into NEgeL. He saw that there was a good 
beach, | and he went ashore there; and YaqalE^nala (II 1) built a 

10 house, I and came out of his whale-body. Now, || the whale-canoe 
of YaqalE^nala (II 1) lay crosswise on the beach. | Then YaqalE^nlis 
(II 1) gave a name to the village, and called it GweqElis. | 

Haha hanane! Then YaqalEnlis (II 1) said that he would go and | 
see the country southward. He went aboard his | traveling-canoe, 

15 "Wliale," and came to Padzo. There |1 YaqalE^nala (II 1) saw a 
good beach, and | the whale landed in the middle of the beach of 
Padzo. I YaqalEnlis (II 1) went ashore out of his traveling-canoe. 

Wail of l'.al'.eqwasila,' a Gwa^sela Woman 

1 Haha hanane; lakas^maegin g-Ig-aex-^idxEn wiwompk-aswula 
LokwasEn gagasElak-asa liik-as-mesEn nswelasgin gwal-alldzEniek' 
g'iqostales laxo ^na^lax. 

Haha hanane; wii hek-as'maexs lak'asae Llaltse^stallsEle YaqalE- 
5 ^nalaesxEn glqag'Iwa'ye gwalesa ^ya^yasElaxes gwE^yime ^yinasEla 
qak'asExs gwE^yimaEn awan^yax Gwa^sElek'. Wa, g-axk^ase g'a- 
xel'Id lak-asEx NEgeLe. Wa,lak-ase doxHvaLElaxe ex-e a^winagwisa. 
Wa, lakase lagalis laq. Wa, lak'ase g'okwila YaqalE^nala laqexs 
lak'asae l&qa laxe gwE^ylme. Wa, akwas^mese la geg"ilisElak-asa 
10 gwE^yime ^ya^yats!es YaqalE^nala laxe LlEnia^yaese. Wa, lak'as^'me 
YaqalEnlise Lex^'ets GweqElise laxes la g-okwelasa. 

Haha hanane; hekas^mes la neg'ats YaqalEnlise qa^s g-axk-ase 
doxdEgwesElaxo ^nalenak-alax. Wa, lak-as'me laxs laxes ^ya^yasi- 
^liilayowa gwE-'yime. Wa, g'axk'ase laxo Padzawa. Wa, lak-ase 
15 YaqalE-nala dox^waLElaqoxs ek-aex awinagwisa. Wa, lak'as^me 
tsEx^wallseda gwE^ylme lak'asEx ^iiEgoyalisas Padzawa. Wa, lak'as- 
^laxae la YaqalEnlise lalta laxes ^ya^yasi-'liilayuwa gwE^yime qa^s la 

1 L!aL!Eqwasila. 

! In the following family traditions the individuals are designated by Eoman numerals for each gen- 
eration; by Arabic numerals for eacb ipdividual. Tliis seemed necessary on account of the constant 
changes of names. 

83() 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 837 

"Whale," and went j to look at it. He saw that it was a good place 18 
to build a house. | And now Chief YaqalErtlis (II 1), my ancestor, 
built a house ten || steps deep. He closed the mouth of the river 20 
at I EmxsdElis, and therefore tlie river is called EiiixsdElis (closed- 
bottom). I Tlion YaqalEnlis's (II 1) name was changed from Yaqa- 
lEnlis I to TsExtsExulis (strandod-whale) ; for that is what the whale 
did when | it went ashore at Padzo. Now, TsExtsExulis (II 1) 
finished || his house. It was ten steps deep. Then a canoe | came 25 
paddling along, and TsExtsExulis (II 1) went to meet (the travelers), 
and he | invited them in. A man and his wife | and a pretty young 
woman came ashore. They sat down. | Then TsExtsExulis gave 
them to eat. And after they had eaten, || TsExtsExulis questioned 30 
his guests: "O brother! | who are you?" Then the man said, "I | 
am SenLe^ (I 1). My village is in the world above, | and tliis is my 
princess, SenLlegas (II 2) ; and this | is my wife, O brother!" Then 
SenL!e^ (I 1) questioned him also: || "And who are 3'ou, O brother!" 35 
Then | TsExtsExulis (II 1) replied, and said, "I am | TsExtsExulis. 
I come from North-End-of-our-World. | I wish to marry your prin- 
cess, O brother ! so | that our names may be really together." Then || 
SenL!e^ (I 1) asked his princess to sit down by the side of | Tsex- 40 



dox^wIdEq. Wa, lak'as'me dox^waLEhiqexs ek'ae lax g'okwelase. 18 
Wa, lak'as^me YaqalEnhsexEn glqag'iwa^ye g'okwelaxe ^uEqax'^i- 
daxallle dz5yagEk" g'okwa. Wa, lak'as^ma Emx'Emk'amasax was 20 
EmxsdElise. Wa, hek'as^mes lag'ilas Legats EinxsdElisa wa. Wa, 
lakas^me Lia^yoxLa^ye YacjalEnlise; wa, lak'as^me Legade YaqalEuli- 
sasas TsExtsExulise, qak'ase gwex'^idaasasa gwE^ylmaxs lak'asae 
tsExwalisa gwE^yime lak'asEx Padzawe. Wii, lak-as-me g-walk'ase 
g'okwila^yas TsExtsExiilisexa nEqax'^idaxallle dzoyagEk" g^Skwa 25 
g'axk'asaase sexwa. Wa, lak'ase TsExtsExuhse lalalaq qak'ats 
LiVli^laleq. Wa, g-axk'as6 hox^wusdeseda bEgwaiiEme Lokwases gE- 
nEme Lokwasa ex'sokwe alcstagas ts!Edaqa. Wa, lak'ase k!us-alila. 
Wa, lak'ase TsExtsExulise LlExwelaq. Wa, gilk'as^mese gwal l!e- 
xwaxs lak'asaeTsExtsExiilise wuLak'asxes L!Exwelag'ile: "Wa, ^nEm- 30 
wEyot; so^maa Eugwas." Wa, lak'ase -'nek'aseda bEgwauEme: 
"Nogwak'as SenL!a^ya g'okula lax ek' !a,dzel!sasEns ^nalak'asex. Wa, 
yokwas-mesEn k'!edelk'asa, yik'asxox SenL!egasex; Lokwasg'in gE- 
nEmk'asEk', ^uEmwEj^st." Wii. lak'ase SenL!a^ye ogwaqakas 
wuLak'asEq: "Wa, sokwas^maa Engwas. ^nEinwEySt." Wa, lak'ase 35 
TsExtsExulise na^naxmek'asEq. Wa, lak'ase ^nek'asa: "Nogwak'as 
TsExtsExiihsa, g'ax''id lakasxox gwabalisasEiis ^nalax. Wii, hlkas- 
^mesEn ^nex'k'as qEn gagak'!exs k'!edelk'asaq6s, ^nsmwEyot, qa- 
k'asaEns a'ma ^nEmg'tlqElaxEns LeLEgEmk'asex." Wii, okwas'mese 
SeuLla'ye ^yalaxsigwilaxes k'!edelk'ase qa lixk'ases k!wiinodzElIla 40 



838 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

42 tsExulis, and they were married. Then | SenLle^ (1 1) gave as a 
marriage present the names Sesaxalas and Sewid to | TsExtsExulis 
(II 1), and this was the first name obtained in marriage by my 
ancestor the chief. | 

45 Haha hanane! When SenL!egas (11 2) had a child, || a boy, 
SeniJe^ (I 1) called his grandson Anx^wld (III 1), | and Sesaxalas 
called his child YaqalEnlis (III 1), | and Sesax&las gave his house 
of ten steps to liis | son YaqalEnlis. Therefore I am on one side 
Kwakiutl on account of | the chief, my ancestor. || 

50 Haha hanane ! Now, Sesaxalas (II 1) said that he would go to | 
see the regions to the south. SeniJe^ (1 1) and | his wife, andSeuLle- 
gas (II 2) and her son, Anx^wid (III 1), stayed at home. | Now we 
shall call him by this name, for the child YaqalEnlis (III 1) | had 

55 this name on the side of his father Sesaxalas (II 1). || Sesaxalas left 
the whale as food for his father-in-law SenLle^ (I 1) ; | and SenLle* 
(I 1) gave his flat-bowed canoe to his son-in-law Sesaxalas (II 1) | to 
travel in, for he was going to see the southern regions. | As soon as 
Sesaxalas (II 1) started, | SeuLle^ (1 1) cut off the blubber of the 

60 whale. Now, SenL !e^ obtained a new name || from tliis, and his 
princess was named K' liimaxalas (II 2). | And after this she was 
not named SeuLlegas (II 2); and SenLle^ (I 1) obtained | this new 

41 TsExtsExulise. Wa, lak-as^me hayasElfalax'^ide. Wa, lak'as^me Sen- 
L!a^ye LegEmg'ElxLalax Sesaxalase Lokwase Sewide lak'asEx TsExtsE- 
xiilise. Wit, hek'as'Em gll gEg-adauEm LCLEgEmsEn glqagiwa-ye. 
Haha hanane; wa hek'as-Em la xiingwadaats SeuLlegasasa ba- 

45 bagume. Wa, lak-ase SenL!a^ye Lex-'ets Aux-\vide lak-asxes ts!o.x"- 
LEma. Wa,h"ik-ase Sesaxalase Lex^etsYaqalEnlise hik'asxes xunokwe. 
Wa, lak'as-'me Sesaxalase tslases nEqax'^idaxalile dzoyagEk" g-6k" 
lakasxes xunokwe YaqalEnlise. Wii, hek'as-Em la kwax"k' !5t !e- 
nesEu giqagiwa^ye. 

50 Haha hanane; wa, lak-as-mese Sesaxalase ^nexk-as qa's lak'ase 
doqwaxwa ^nale-nak-alax. Wii, lak'ase amle.xwe SenLa^ye Lokwa- 
ses gEUEme Lokwase SenL!egase Lokwases xunokwe Aux^wide. 
Wa, lak-as^mEns LeqElaLEs lak'asqexs lak'asaaxt Legadk'ats Yaqa- 
lEnlisa ginauEmk'ase liik'asx^s ompk'ose Sesaxa,lase. Wii, lak'as^me 

55 g"olisa Sesaxalasasa gWE^yime hlk-asxes UEgumpe SenLla^ye. Wii, 
liik'as^mese SenLla^ye lak'atses t!Egune lak'asxes nEgump Sesaxalase 
qak'as ^yii^yatsles Lak'asxes laencLe doxdEgwesElak'asxe ^nille^na- 
k'ala. Wii, gilk'as-mese illex-'wide Sesaxalasaxs liik'asae kMii- 
maxEle SenLla^yaxe gwE^yhne. Wii, liik'as^me LegEmoLe Sen- 

60 Lla^ye lak'asxeq. Wii, liik'as-me Legade k'!edelasa KMiimaxalase. 
Wa, liik-as-'me gwal LegadEs wSenL!egase. Yv^ii, liik'as-Emxae g"aya- 
HEme SenLla^yaxa LegEmk'ase liik-asxes kliimaxElak'atsIena^yaxa 



I'OAsI FAMILY HISTORIES 839 

name from the cutting of the blubber of the | whale. Now, Sesaxalas 63 
(II 1) arrived at Odzalas, | for that is where the houses of the ances- 
tors of the Nimkish stood, of || Hex'hak'm (I 2). Then my ancestor 65 
Chief Sesaxalas (II 1) was invited in. | — | 

Haha hanane ! My great-grandfather was taken care of by the | 
ancestors of the tribes. | 

Haha hanane ! Therefore I feel proud in my heart. || 
Haha hanane! Then Sesaxalas (II 1) followed Hexhak'ln (I 2), | 70 
and they went into the house with the carved posts. Then | Sesa- 
xalas (II 1) was told to sit down on the bear-skin spread on the floor. 
Then they | broke roasted sockeye-salmon, and Sesaxalas (II 1) 
ate. I Sesaxalas saw the princess of || Hex'hak'in (12) sitting by the 75 
side of her mother; and | after Sesaxalas (II 1) had eaten, he was 
questioned by | Hex'hak'm (I 2): "Let me ask you, O brother! 
who are you?" | Then Sesaxalas said, "I | am Sesaxalas (II 1). I 
come from the northern part of our world." Thus he said || to him. SO 
"And who are you?" asked Sesaxalas of Hex'hak'in. | Then he said, 
"I am Hex'hak'in (12). I have always | lived in the village of 
Odzalas; and this is my princess | Gaaxstalas (II 3), and this is her 
mother Hek'inedzEmga (I 3), | and these are my slaves, and the 
speaking-posts of my || house." Thus said Hex'hak'in (I 2) to Sesa- 85 

gwE^ylme. Wa, lak-as^'Em lag-ae Sesaxalase lak'asEX Odzalase 63 
qak'asExs hek'asae g'okiile g'igama^yasa g^alasa ^nEmgese, yik-asEx 
Hexiiakunc. Wii, lak'ase Lfile'lalaso-kwasa 3'ik'asxEn g'lqag'iwa'ye 65 
Sesaxalase. 

Haha, hanane; xa gwalElakas^mola mayax'ilaso^kwasEn gaga- 
sEliisa gala bEgwanEmsa lekjwaUiLa^ye. 

Haha hanane ; hek'as^mes 6kwas-Em LEmgEmsg'in naqek'asg'in. 

Haha hanane ; wa, lak'as-me Sesaxakise liig'ex Hcx'hakine qa- 70 
k'ats la hogwoL lak-asxe g'okwe kMex-kiadzEkwa. Wit, lakas'me 
k!wadzolelEme Sesaxalase lak'asxe LEbele Lla^ya. Wil, hlkase 
LEnx^wits5-kwasa L!6bEkwe mElek'a. Wii, lak'as-me LlExwakase 
Sesaxalase. Wii, liik'as-me Sesaxalase doqulakasEx kMedelas 
Hex'hak'lnaxs k!waelk"asae liik'asEx apsalilases abEmpk-ase. Wii, 75 
g'ilk'as^mese gwalk'as iJExwe Sts xalasaxs lak'asae wfiLiale Hex'- 
hak'hiax Sesaxalase: "Wiig'ax'En wuLiikasoL, ^nEinwEyot, sokwas- 
^maa angwak'ats?" Wa, lak'ase Sesaxalase 'nex'k'asEq: "Nogwa- 
k'as Sesaxalasa g'iix'^idElak'asEx gwiibal:sasEns ^nalax," ^nex'k'as 
laxaeq. "Wii, angwak'astliis?" ^nex'kas'laxae Sesaxiilasax Hex'ha- 80 
k'lne. Wii, lak'ase ^nek'a: "Nogwak'as Hex'hak'ina. He='mEnes 
g'okidak'as laxox Odzalasex. Wii, yokwas^mesEn k'!edel6x Gaiix- 
stiilask'iisex Lokwasox abEmpk'asaxs yik'asxox Hek'inedzEmgax, 
yokwas^mesEn q!iiq!Ek'ox, LokwnsEn yaeq!Ent!iilax LeLiimsEn 
g'5kwasex," ^nek'ase Hex'hak'lnax Sesaxalase. Wil, Lak'ase Sesa- 85 



840 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [ktii an.\. 3,-, 

86 x&las (II 1). Now, Sesaxalas | tried to discover the thoughts of 
Hex'hak'in (I 2), and he wooed | his princess. Then Hex'hak'in 
told Sesaxahxs, | the cliief, my ancestor, to go ahead (and to marry 
her), as he had said. | Then Sesaxalas (II 1) married her by giving 

90 him his travehng-canoc II After they were married, Hex'hak'in (I 2) 
spoke, I and said, "Now, listen to me, son-in-law | Sesaxalas! You 
have come to me so that I might be your father-in-law. | Now, these 
speaking-posts of my house shall go to you, | and this house has a 

95 name. It is named Q!aats!e, and || this is the name Now, your 
name shaU be ^walas ^nEmogwis (II 1); and | also the seal house- 
dish, and the wolf, and the | dzonoq!wa, and the beaver, and also 
two slaves, | to take care of your house-dishes, son-in-law ! They 
belong to this | house; and all this goes to you, son-in-law, ^walas 
100 ^nEmogwis; and || also ten soa-ottcr blankets and twenty-five | mar- 
ten blankets and twentj' black-bear | blankets, which will be the blan- 
kets of your wife, I son-in-law, ^walas^nEmogwis (II 1)." ThenHex'- 
5 hak'in (I 2) | sent out some of his slaves to hunt || seals at Dag'ulk". 
As soon as they left, | Hex'hak'm (I 2) and ^walas ^nEmogwis (II 1) 
also started, | for now he no longer had the name Sesaxalas. They 
were going | to invite the ^nenelk' !enox", for they were living up the 
river | at the upper end of the lake of Gwane^. They had not been 

86 xalase gwanax naqek^asas Hex'hakine. Wa, lak'as^me g-ayoklwa- 
lax k'ledelk^asas. Wa, lak'ase okwas'Em wilxe Hex^haklnax Sesa- 
xalasexEn g'lqag'Iwa^ye qa okwas-mes wag'i lak'asxes waldEme. 
Wii, lak'as-me cjadzel^Ide Sesaxalasases tlsgune ^ya^yatsle lak'asEq. 

90 Wii, g'ilk-ase^mese gwal qadzcLaxs lak'asae yaqlEg^a^le Ilex'ha- 
k-lne. Wa, lak'ase ^nek'asa: "Wa, hoLelak'asL g'axEn, uEgump 
Sesaxalas; g'axk'as-Em g'ax^aLEla g'axEn qak'asEn nEgwayadaos. 
Wa, lakas-mesEk' lalgin yaeq!Ent!alag"as LeLam g'ok" lak'asoL- 
xg'ada Legadk'asEk' g'okwa. HeEm LegEmk'atsg'e Q!aats!e, wa, 

95 hek'as-mese LegEme lakas-Enis LegadLEs ^walas ^uEmogwise; wa, 
hek'as-mesa loqullle megwat; wii, hek'sis-mesa iiLanEme L5kwasa 
dzonoqiwa Lokwasa tsla^we. Wii, hek^as^mesa ma^lokwe q!aq!Ek'a 
qak^as aaxsliaxs loElqiilllaqos, UEgiimp. Wa, yokwas^Em ^nami- 
^liilotsos g'okwak'asaqns, uEgiimp ^wiilas ^nEmogwis. Wa, hek'as- 
100 ^mesa lastok" q!asasgEm ^naEnx^una^ya Lokwasg'ada sEkMagalak' 
LeLEgEx"sEm ^naEnx^una^ya Lokwasg'ada maltsokflk' LlEnLlEutsEui 
^naEux^una^ya; wii, hek^as-Em ^naEnx^unextsg'as gEnEmk^asg'os, 
uEgump ^willas ^nEmSgwis." Wii, lak'as-me ^nex'k'ase Hex'hakine 
qak'ats ^yiilaqak'aseses waokwe q!iiq!Ek'o qa las miimegwat!axa 
5 megwate lak'asex Dag'ulkwe. Wii, g"ilk"as-mese alex^wIdExs lak'a- 
sae ogwaqa alex^wide Hex'hakine Lokwases ^wiilase ^uEmogwis 
qak'asExs lak'as'mae gwal LegadEs Sesaxalase. Wii, liik'as-me 
liikasL LelElalxe ^nenelk'!enoxwe, yikasExs hiie g'okiile ^nenelg'iise 
lak'asEx ^nEldziis dzE^lalas Gwane^ Wa, k'!esk'ast!e galaxs g'ax- 



BOAS) FAMIL'i HISTORIES 841 

away long, || when ^valas ^nEmogwis arrived at the village of the 10 
^nenelk' !enox", whose chief was | Ma^nakiHa. As soon as they 
arrived at Odza,las, | the slaves also came home hringing fifty | 
seals. Then Ilex'hak'in (I 2) gave these as a wedding-feast to his 
son-in-law |/walas ^nEmogwis (II 1), to give them as food to his 
guests, the ^nenelk" !enox". || Then Hex'hak'in (I 2) gave him as a 15 
marriage present the name Kwax"ilanokiime^ (II 1) | as the feast 
name of ^walas ^nEmogwis, for | ^walas ^iiEmogwis (II 1) was to 
be his potlatch (inviting) name. Then the fifty | seals were placed 
in the four house-dishes, and [ they were placed before the ^nem'lk' !e- 
nox". Wlien || they had finished, they gave away the ten sea- 20 
otter blankets, | twenty-five marten blankets, twenty | black-bear • 
blankets, to their guests. Tliis was the first | time that property 
was given away with a feast of seals in house-dishes, and this was the 
first time that the [ Gwa^sEla made a potlatch at the time of a 
feast. II 

Haha hanane ! Therefore I feel like laughing at what | the lower 25 
chiefs say when they try to claim liigher rank than what I have — | 
I, who had in the beginning an ancestor who was a chief who gave 
away property at a feast. | 

Haha hanane! Now, Gaaxstalas (II 3) had a clfild, | a girl. 
When the child was four days old, || Hexhak'in (I 2) asked his wife 30 



k'asae sEyogwa^ye ^walas ^uEmogwisaxa ^nenelkMenoxwexa g"igadas 10 
Ma^nakida. Wa, gllk^as^mese g'fix^aLEla lax Odzalase gaxk^asaase 
ogwaqa g'ax^alisa q!ac|!Ek"owe malaxa sEk" lasgEmg'ustawe me- 
gwata. Wa, lak'as^me Hex'hak'lne wawalqalas lak'asxes nEgiimp 
^walas ^nEmogwis qa hSmgilllts lak^asxes LelElacna^5'axa ^nenfilkMe- 
noxwe. Wii, lak'as^me LegEmg'ElxL&la Hexhakinax Kwax"ilan6- 15 
kuma^ye qa k!weladzEXLay6s ^walnse ^uEmogwisa qak'asExs LelEla- 
yoxLiiyae ^walase ^nEmogwisa. Wa, lak'as-me lEx"ts!oyowa sEk' las- 
gEmg'ustawe megwat lak'asxe niEwexLa loElquIila. Wa, hex'^i- 
dak'as^mcse lak"as k'agEmlFlEmxe ^nenelk'lenoxwe. Wit, g'llk'as- 
^mese gwalExs lak'asae yax^wltsa lastowe q!eq!asasgEm ^naEnx^Tine 20 
Lokwasa sek'!agg,la LeLEgEx"sEm ^naEnx^iine Lokwasa maltsokwe 
L!eL!EntsEm ^naEnx^une lak'asxes LelElakwe. Wa, hek'as^Em g'il 
yaqwagElTlaxes l6x"ts!Ewakwe megwata. Wa, hek'as-Em g'alabEntsa 
Gwa^sEla ^'max^wid yaqwagElilak'asxes kiwelekwe. 

Haha hanane; xEn hlg'ila okwas^Em dedaleqElas waldEmasEn 25 
g'igaba^yaxs lak'asae wax'k'as g'ag'eqaqlaxg hi g\valets!e^meg'ln 
g'iqagi^wala ^maxwag'iwala kiwelasag'iwala. 

Haha hanane; wji, lak'as^me xungwadix'^lde Gaaxstalasase ts!a- 
ts!adagEme. Wa, g'ilk'as^mese m6p!Enela g'inanEmk'asaxs lak'a- 
sae Hex'hak'ine axk'Ialaxes gEnEme Ilek inedzEmga qa's waiqes-i- 30 



842 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ANN. 36 

31 Hek'iuedzEmga (I 3) to give a marriage gift | of ten sea-otter 
blankets, thirty ! marten blankets, and ten black-bear \ blankets, 
and that ^walas ^nEmogwis (II 1) | should invite again the ^nenelk' !e- 
nox" on account of the high rank of ^maxulayugw\a (Til 2) . Then || 

35 Hex'hak'in (I 2) gave this name as a marriage gift to Hvjilas ^nEmog- 
wis (II 1) for I the name of his daughter. As soon as he had finished 
his speech, | Hex'hak'in (I 2) told (this to) Hvalas^ nEmogwis | ^walas 
^uEmogwis (II 1) was very glad. | He started at once to invite the 

40 ^nenelk" !enox". || He did not stay away long, before he came back, 

paddling in his canoe, with | his guests, the ^nenelk' !enox"; and 

^walas ^nEmogwis (II 1) gave away | ten sea-otter blankets and 

■ thirty | marten blankets and ten black-bear blankets | to the 

45 ^nenelk' !cnox"; and then he told about giving a high rank i| to his 
daughter, who was given two names | — ^maxiilayugwa (III 2), 
"this name is given by my father-in-law; and | I will give her a 
name from my side, she shaU | be called GundelEmga (III 2)." 
Thus said ^walas ^nEmogwis (II 1). | Therefore I am Nimkish on one 

50 side, on account of my ancestor the chief || who had married among 
the Kwakiutl. | 

Haha hanane ! Therefore I am known by all the tribes | all over this 
world, and only the chief | my ancestor gave away property in a 

31 desa lastowe qIasasgEme ^naEnx^tina^ya ; Lokwasa yudux"s6kwe 
LeLEgEx"sEm ^naEnx^iina^ya; hek'as^mese lastowe L!EnL!EntsEme 
^naEiix^una^ya qak'ases et!ed LelElax'^ide ^wfdase ^nEmogwisxe 
^nenelk' lenoxwe qakas o^mayos ^maxiilayugwa. Wii, lak'as^me 

35 Hex'hak'hie LegEmg'ElxLalaq lak'asEx -walase -'nEmogwis qakas 
LegEms xilnokwas. Wii, g'ilk'as-mese gwaik^ase waldEmk'asas 
lak'asae uele Hex'hak'inax ^walase ^uEmogwisa. Wa, lak'ase ala 
ek'e naqa^yas ^walase ^uEmogwisa. Wa, hex-Idk-as^mese lak'as 
aiex^widk'asa Leltsayokwasas ^walase ^nEmogwisaxe ^neuelk^ !eno- 

40 xwe. Wii, k'!esk'ase galaxs g'iixk'asae aedaaqa sEyogwa^ya Leltsa- 
yaxa ^nenelk'Ienoxwe. Wii, liik'ase yiix^wide Hvalase ^uEmogwitsa 
lastowe q!eq!asasgEm ^naEnx'iine^ Lo^kwasa yQdux"sokwe lcle- 
gEx^sEm ^naEnx^une^ Lokwasa lastowe l !EnL lEntsEiii ^naEnx^iine^ 
liik'asxa ^nenelk'!enoxwe. Wii, hekas-mes la ^neg'atses o-mayo- 

45 gwilae qa maltsEme LeXEgEmses tslEdilqlEdza'ye xiinokwa lakasEx 
^m&xulayugwa, "yix LegEmg'ElxLil^yasg'in nEgumpEk'. Wa, liik'as- 
^mesEn ogwaqak'asL Lex^edElts LegEma g'iig'illl g^iixEn. Lak'as^Em- 
xfiak" LegadEhs GiindelEmga," ^nek'ase ^willas ^uEmogwise. Wa, 
hekas-mEn liigilk'asa ^nEmxk'!otEm qasEn g'eqag'iwa=yaxs gag'a- 

oO di^liilae liik'asxaaxo Kwiig'ulk'ase. 

Haha hanane; hek'as-niEn lag-ilkasa k'!eas k'les malt'.elk'as 
laxox a^wi^staxsEns ^nalax. Wii, hek'as^mesexs lexakas^mae g'llg'i- 



noAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 843 

great feast, and therefore | they only try to imitate me. They try 
to imitate the chief, my grandfather, || who is the root of my family. | 55 

Haha hanane! And it was not long before ^walas ^nEmSgwis | 
(11 1) had a son. Then Hex'hak'in (I 2) gave | as a marriage gift 
four sea-otter blankets, ten | marten blankets, and seven black- 
bear II blankets, thirty-five mink blankets, | and fifty deer-skin 60 
blankets. Then | ^walas ^nEmdgwis (II 1) thanked his father-in-law. 
He also | gave him a name. Now ^walas ^nEmogwis (II 1) was 
going to change his name, for | he was already a real chief, therefore 
Hex'hak'in (I 2) wishedhim || tochangehis name; and now Hex'hak'in 65 
(I 2) gave to his | son-in-law as a marriage gift the name LaleliL!adze 
(II 1), and a name for | the boy. The name ^maxidag'ilis (III 3) 
was for the | boy. After this was done, LaleliiJadze (II 1) called | 
the ^nenelk' !enox". Wien they all came, the chief, || the root of my 70 
family, gave away propertj' to the ancestors of the ^nenelk' !enox". 
Therefore none | of the lower chiefs has done as my ancestor did. | 

Haha hanane! Then LfileliLladze (II 1), oniiis part, gave to | his 
son the name L!alisk'as^5 (III 3); and LlaleiiLladze (II 1) gave him 
the name i l !ahsk' as^o (III 3) because he wanted his children || to 75 
have names from both sides. Therefore he | also gave a name of 

lax'^IdEn g'lqag'iwa^ye yEx^sEmek'asExs LelElae. Wa, yokwas^mos 53 
okwas^Ein la hayig'esokwatsa. Wax"k'asex la ha^yig'exEii g'igaa- 
nayexEn gagasEla. 55 

Haha hanane; wa, k'!esk'ase galaxs lak'asae ^walase ^uEmogwise 
et!edk'asxungwadEX'^Itsa babagume. Wa, hex'Idk"as^mese Hex'ha- 
k'lne et!ed walqes'itse mowe qIasasgEm ^naEnx^iine^Lokwasa lastowe 
LeLEgEX"sEm ^naEnx-une^ Lokwasa aLEbowe LlEuLlEntsEm ^naEn- 
x^iine^ Lokwasa mam6x"sokulasa sEk' !a matsasgEm ^naEnx-'une^ lo- 60 
kwasa sEk"ax'sokwe tetEkMotsEm ^naEnx^una^ye. Wa, lak'as^me 
mole ^walas ^iiEmogwisas waldEmases nEgump. Wa, hek'as^mesa 
LegEme qak'asExs lak'as-mae LlayoxLaLe ^walase -nEmogwise qak'a- 
sExs lak'as-'mae alakifda g-Igama^ya, lag-Jlk-asas ^'neke Hex'hak'hie 
qa Llayoxxii^yes. Wii, lak'as^me Hex'hak'ine LegEmg'ElxLalax La- 65 
leliLladze lak'as.xes uEgiimpe. Wii, hek'as^mesa LegEme qakase 
babagume. Wa, lak'as^mese LegEme ^maxulagilise qak'asa baba- 
gume. Wii, g1lk-as-mese gwalExs liik-asae LiileliLladze et!ed lcIe- 
laxa ^nenelk' lenoxwe. Wii, giixk'as-'Emxae ^wFla p!ekwa g'iilasa 
^nenclk-!enoxwe lak^asxEn g'igaana^ye, k!easg"ilk'asas ^uEmiixi- 70 
sales LokwasEn g'lqag'iwa^ye liik'asxEn g'igaba^yex. 

Haha hanane; wa, liik-as^mese LaleliL!adze ogwaqa lak-atse Le- 
gEme liik'asxes xiinokwe Llalisk'as-6. Wa, liik-as^me Lex^edEs 
Lliilisk'as^o liik'asEq qak'asExs ^nek'ae LaleliLladze qa gwiilElak'as- 
Mnese ^nEmx'^ides LeLEgEmk-ase Lokwases gag-adi^lalase; liig'ilk-a- 75 



844 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 33 

77 his own to his children. Therefore | I am the only one who has 
many names, because the chief, | the root of my family, married in 
different tribes. | 

80 Haha hanane! Now he gave away the four sea-otter |1 blankets, 
ten marten blankets, | seven black-bear blankets, thirty-five | mink 
blankets, and fifty deer-skin | blankets to the ^nenelk' !enox". As 
soon as he had finished | his potlatch, he told the ^nenelk' lenox" 

85 that he, || ^walas ^nEmogwis (II 1), had changed his name. "You 
will call me LaleliLladze (II 1). | Now you will call my prince 
^maxulag'ilis (III 3), | that will be his name from his mother's side; | 
and his name will be L!alisk"as^o (III 3) from his father's side." 
Thus said | LaleliLladze (II 1) to his guests. || 

90 Haha hanane ! Therefore I am fuU of names and of privileges. | 
And therefore I have many chiefs as ancestors | aU over the world ; 
and therefore I feel like laughing at what is said by | the lower 
chiefs, when they claim to belong to the chief, my ancestor. | 

Haha hanane! Now, LaleliL !adze (II 1) had four daughters || 

95 and two sons. The | eldest girl was called ^maxulayugwa (III 2) | 
on her mother's side, and GundelEmga (III 2) on her | father's side. 
The second one was a boy, who was called ^maxfllag'ilis (III 3) | on 

76 sas ogwaqa Lex^edEses hEsaq LegEm lak'asxes sasEme. Wa, hek'as- 
^mesEn lag'ila lex'ak'as-Em LCLEgEmtsIa lo^ gag'adi^lalasasEn 
g'igaana^ye. 

Haha hanane; wa, lak"as^me yax^widayokwase m5we qIasasgEm 

80 ^naEnx^une^ Lokwasa lastowe LeLEgEx"sEm ^naEiix^une^ Lokwasa 
aLEbowe LlEULlEntsEm ^naEnx^iine^ Lokwasa mamox"sokulasa 
SEk'!a matsasgEm ^naEnx'iine^ Lokwasa sEkMax'sokwe tetEk'Io- 
tsEm ^naEnx^une^ lak'asxe ^nenelk" lenoxwe. Wa, g'ilk-as^mese gwal 
k'as yaqwaxs lak'asae nelaxa ^nenelk' lenoxwaxs lak'as^mae L!ayoxLa 

85 ^walase ^uEmogwise. " Wii, lak^as^Emxaas LeqElak'asLEs Laleli- 
Lladze g'axEn. Wa, lak'asLEs LeqElaLEs ^maxulag"ilise lak'asxEn 
LEWElgama^yex gwek'!ot!Endale LegEme laxes abaskMote. Wa, 
lak^ase Legadk^ats Llalisk'as^o lak'asgin ask'!6telc"," ^nek'ase Lrdeli- 
Lladzaxes LelE^akwe. 

90 Haha hanane; hek-as^niEu lag-ilk'asa LeLEgEmtsIawe, k-!ek'!Es- 
^6ts!fi,. Wa, hek'as^mEU hig'illfasas q!enEmk'asEn g'ig'iqag^iwa^ye 
laxox a^wi^staxsEns ^nalax, okwas^megin dedaleqElas waldEmasEn 
g'lgaba^yaxs lak'asae goLlalaxEu g'lqag'iwa^ye. 

Haha hanane; wa, lak'ase mokwe ts!edaq!Edza^ye sasEms Laleli- 

95 Lladze. Wa, lali'ase ma^lokwa bebEkliidza^ye sasEms. Hek'as- 
^Emxat! ^nohistlEgEma^ya tslEclaqe ^maxulayugwa lak'as LegadEs 
lak'asxes abaskMote. Wa, lak'ase Legadk'ats GundelEmga lak'asxes 
^sk"!6te. Wa, hek'as^mes makilaqe bEgwauEme LegadEs ^maxfila- 
g-Uise lak-asxes abaskMote. Wa, lak-ase Legadk'ats L!ahsk'as-6 



iiOAs] FAMILY HISTORIES 845 

liis mother's side, and Llalisk'as^o (III 3) || ou his father's side; and 200 
the next girl's name was ^max"mEwidzEmga (III 4) | on her mother's 
side, and iJax'LlEledzEmga (III 4) on | lier father's side. And when 
he had another daugliter, | lier name was Laqulayugwa (III 5) on 
her mother's side, | and l lalilelayoigwa (III 5) on her father's side. 
And when they had another || son, his name was ^maxiiyalidze 5 
(III 6) I on his mother's side, and Llsldzahs (III 6) on his | father's 
side. Then they had another daughter; and | her name was 
Lax"lEgwedzEmga (III 7} on lier mother's side, and | l !alL !alElesila- 
yugwa (III 7) (on her father's side.) Six were the children of Lale- 
liLladze (II 1) || by his wife Gaaxtstalas (II 3), the princess of Hex'- 10 
hak'in (12). | Therefore I have many different names. | 

Haha hanane ! Now I shall tell my house history from the 
Kwakiutl. | It is known by all the world that LalehL !adze (II 1) was 
reaUy | a great chief, and that he had || children. Now the chief of 15 
the numaym | Loyalala^wa of the Kwakiutl, L!aqwag'ilagEme^ 
(III 8), I asked to marry ^maxulayugwa (III 2), the princess of 
LalehLladze. | Now ^maxiilayugwa was married to L!aqwag'ilagEme^ 
(III S) ; I and fu'st he gave as a marriage gift one hundred and fifty 
cedar-bark blankets, || fifty-four dressed elk-skins, and two | canoes 20 
to LaleliLladze (II 1); aiid Hex' hak'in (I 2) received as a marriage 



lak'asxes ^skMote. Wa, lak"ase tstedaqa Legadas ^max"mEwidzEm- 200 
ga laxes abaskMote. Wa, lak'ase Legats L'.axxlEledzEmga lak'as- 
xes ask'!6te. Wa, lak'ase et!ed xiingwadEx'^idk-atse tslEdaqe. 
Wa, lak'ase LegadEs Laqulayugwa lak'asxes abask'lote; wa, 
lak'ase Legats L!alilelayugwa lak'asxes ask'!ote. Wa, lak'ase et!ed 
xiingwadk'atse bEgwauEme. Wa, lak'ase LegadEs ^maxuyalidze 5 
lak'asxes abask'lote; wa, lak'ase Legats L!Eldzalise lak'asxes 
^sk'!ote. Wa, lak'ase et!ed xungwadk'atse tslEdaqe. Wa, lak'ase 
LegadEs Lax"lEgwedzEmga lak'asxes abask' !ote. Wa, lak'ase Legats 
LlalLlalElesilajrugwa. Wa, q!EL!okwox sasEmk'asaxs LaleliLladze 
lak'asxes gEiiEme Gaaxstalase, ylk'asex k'ledelas Hexhakine. 10 
Wa, yokwas^niEn ogu^qala LCLEgEmk'asox. 

Haha hanane; wa, lak'as^mesEn nEwIl'Idk'atsEn lag'ilk'asa Kwa- 
g'ula. Wii, lak'as-me qIalEn g'iqag'lwa^ye LaleliLladzaxs alak'Ialae 
lak'as g'lgtima^ya; yik'atsox a^wPstaxsEns 'nalax. Wa, hek'as^me- 
sexs sasEiunokwaasa ts!edaqe. Wa, lak'asa g'igama^yasa ^uE^me- 15 
mStasa Loyalala^wasa Kwag'ule, ylk'asEX L!aqwag'ilagEma^ye 
lak'as g'iiy&lax ^maxulayugwa, yik'asEx k'!edelas LaleliLladze. Wa, 
lak'as lawadEX'^Ide ^maxulayugwas Llaqwag'ilagEma^ye. Wa, 
hek'as^Em g'il qadzexasa kMobawase SEk'Iax'sogiig'Eyowa Lokwasa 
q!aq!aL!EX's6kulak'atsa mowe alag'ima; wa, hek'as'mese malts laqe 20 
g'ig'ala lak'asEx LaleliLladze. Wa, hek'as^'me qadzeLEm lak'asEx 



846 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 35 

22 gift I for his grand daughter (III 2) fifty cedar-bark blanlcets and | 
fifty elk-skins; and LalehLladze (II 1), and his | father-in-law 

25 Hex'hak'in (I 2), added eight sea-otter blankets, || fifty mink blan- 
kets, and seventy | deer-skin blankets, which were given by LalehL !- 
adze (II 1) to | Llaqwag'ilagEme^ (III 8). Then he gave back 
every tiling | that was given as marriage price by Llaqwag'ilagEme^ 
(III 8). And then | LalehLladze (II 1) also gave as marriage 
present the name ^walas ^nEmogwis to be the name of Llaqwag'i- 

30 lagEme^ (III 8); || and Hex'hak'in (I 2) also gave as a marriage 
gift ten I sea-otter blankets, one hundred deer-skin | blankets, fifty 
marten blankets, and | ten bear blankets, and the name | G'ayos- 
dedzas (III 8) , which was to be the name of l laqwag" ilagEme^ (III 8) . 

35 Now, II Llaqwag'ilagEme^ (III 8) no longer bore that name that he 
had been using before. They | gave him as a marriage gift the name 
G'ayosdedzas (III 8), which he obtained | from the grandfather (12) 
of his wife ^maxiilaj'ugwa (III 2) ; and | LalehLladze (II 1) had given 
as a marriage gift the name ^walas ^nEinogwis | to Lltlqwag'ilagEme^. 

40 Now, after this I shall call him G'ayosdedzas (III 8). || As soon as 
they had finished, the ancestors of the | numaym Ldyalala^wa went 
aboard their four canoes, and | also ^maxulayugwa (III 2) and her 
marriage gifts, and they went back to | their home at Qalogwis. 

22 Hex'hak'ine qak-ases ts !ox"LEmagasa sEk- lax'sokwe k' !obawas Lokwa- 
sa sEk'Iax'sokwe alag'ima. Wa, okwas^mese LalehLladze Lokwase 
nEgfimp Hex'hak'ine g'inwak'atse malgunale qIasasgEme ^naEnx^une^ 

25 Lokwasa sEk' lax'sokwe matsasgEm ^naEnx^iine^ Lokwasa aLEbox"so- 
kwe tetEkMotsEm ^naEnx-une^ layas LaleliL!adze lak'asEx Llaqwa- 
g'ilagEma^ye. Wa, lak'as-Emxae okwas^Em ^wrta aedaaqak'asa 
qadzcLEmk'asas Llaqwag'ilagEme. Wa, lak'as^Emxae LegEmg'ilxLa- 
^yas LaleliL !adzax ^wfdase ^nEmogwisa, qa LegEm Llaqwag'ilagE- 

30 ma^ye. Wii, lak'ase Hex'hak'ine Qgwaqa wawatqalasa lastowe 
q!eq!asasgEm 'naEiix^une^ Lokwasa lak'lEnde tetEkMotsEm ^naEn- 
x-une^ Lokwasa sEkMax'sok" LeLEgEX"sEm ^naEnx^une^ Lokwasa 
lastowe LlEiiLlEntsEm ^naEnx^iine^. Wa, hek'as^mesa LegEme 
G'ayosdedzase qak'as LegEms Llaqwag'ilagEma^ye; wa, lak'as^me 

35 gwalk'as Legadk'ase Llaqwag'ilagEma^yases LegEmk'asde, qak'asExs 
lak-as^mae LegEmg'ElxLa^ye G'ayosdedzase lak'asExs g'ayanEmk'ats 
lak'asEx gagEmpases gEuEme ^maxulayugwa. Wit, lak'ase LegEm- 
g'ElxLalak'ase LaleliL!adzax ^walase ^uEmogwise lak'asEx Llaqwa- 
g'ilagEma^ye. Wa, lak'as^'mesEn LeqElak"asLEs G'ayosdedzase lak'a- 

40 sEq. Wa, g'llk'as^mese gwalk'asa qadzeLiixs lak'asae hoguxseda 
g'iila ^uE^memotk'atsa Loyalala^wa lak'asxes motslaqe ^yae^yatsle 
Lokwase ^maxfdayugwa Lokwaseda wawalqalayo qak'ats lak'ase 



noAs] FAMfLY HISTORIES 847 

And then ^walas ^nEmogwis (III 8) gave away | what he had received 44 
as a marriage gift from LalehLladze (II 1). Il 

Now, LalehLladze (II 1) knew that there was a tribe hving at 45 
Siigumbahi — | a tribe that was named Naklwax'da^x" — who had for 
their chief, Ts!Ex^ed (II 4); | and he had a princess, TslExtslE- 
gedzEmga (III 9); and LalehLladze (II 1) | wished to go to get her 
in marriage for his prince ^maxuhxg ilis (III 3). | Then LalehLladze 
(II 1) hired his numaym, || the ancestors of the G'exsEm of the 50 
Nimkish; and my ancestor, the chief , | LalehLladze (II 1), loaded his 
canoe with five sea-otter blankets, ten | black-bear blankets, forty 
marten | blankets, eighty deer-skin blankets; | and, when they were 
aU aboard, he started. Then || he arrived at Sagumbala, and at 55 
once he was | iiivited bj' Chief TslEx^ed (II 4). They ate seal; | and 
after they had eaten seal, | TslEx^ed questioned his visitor, and said, 
"Now, tell me, | where do you come from? Who are j'ou, brother?" 
And II LalehLladze (II 1) replictl at once, andsaid,''I am | LalehLla- 60 
dze (II 1), who marries aU around our world, brother." | And then 
LalehLladze (II 1) questioned Ts!Ex^ed (II 4); and he | said, "Now, 
let me also ask you, O brother! | who are you, brother?" And 
TslEx^ed (II 4) II replied, and said, "It is great what you ask me. | 65 



na^nak" lak'asxes g^okiilase Qalogwise. Wa, Iak"as^me ^max^wld- 43 
k'ase ^walase ^nEmogwisas wawalqiilayos LaleliL!adzaq. 

Wa, lak'ase ;.aleliL!adze qltllaxa g'okQla lelqwalaLe^ lak'asEx 45 
Sagumbalaxa lEguxLiilax Nak!wax'da^xwexa g'lgadas TslEx^ede. 
Wa, lak'ase kMedadEs TslExts'.EgedzEmga. Wa, lak'as^mese Laleh- 
Lladze ^nex'k'as qa^s le gagak'Iaci qak^ases LEwElgEma^ye ^maxiila- 
g"ilise. Wii, lak'as^me helak'ase LaleliLladziixes g'okillotexa g"ala 
^uE^memotsa G'exsEmasa ^uEmgese. Wa, lak-as-niEu giqag'iwa^ye 50 
LalehLladze moxsak"atsa sEk'Ia q!asasgEme ^naEnx^une^ Lokwasa 
lastowe L!EnL!EntsEm ^naEnx^une- Lokwasa mox"s6kwe LCLEgEx"- 
SEm ^naEnx^une^ hek'as-mesa malgiinaitsokwe tetEkMotsEm ^natn- 
x^One^. Wa, g'ilk'as^mese ^wilxsaxs lak'asae LEx^ida. Wii, lak'a- 
se lag'aa lak'asEx Sagumbala. Wa, hex'^idk'as^mese Lale^lalaso- 55 
kwatsa glgama^ye TslEx^ede. Wa, lak'as-me LlExwaxe megwate. 
Wii, g'llk'as^mese gwiilk'as q!Esaxe megwataxs hik'asae wuLe 
Ts!Ex^edaxes bagunse. Wii, lak'ase ^nek'a: "Wa, wiig'ik'asla gwtls- 
^IdEx. Wa, sokwas'maa angwas ^nEmwEyot?" Wa, hex'^idk'as- 
^mese LalehLladze na^naxmek'asEq. Wa, lak'ase ^nek'a: "Nogwak'as 60 
LaleliLladza gag'adi^liila laxox a^wFstaxsEns ^nalax, ^uEmwEyot." 
Wa, lak'ase ogwaqa wiiLe LiileliLladziix TslEx^ede. Wa, liik'as- 
^Emxae ^nek'a; "Wa, weg'ax'in ogwaqa wuLol, ^nEmwEyot. Wa, 
sokwas^maa angwas, ^uEmwEyot?" Wa, hex^Idk'as-mese TslEx^ede 
na-nax^mekasEq. Wa, lak'ase ^nek'a. "Alak'as'mas wuLa g'iixEn. 65 



848 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. as 

66 Don't you know that I think I am the only | one famous in the world, 
I and my | princess, Ts!Exts!EgedzEmga (III 9)? I am TslEx^ed (II 
4), head | chief of the Naklwax'da-'x"." Thus said the chief . Then | 

70 LaleliLladze (II 1) said, "O brother! 1 am || YaqalEnlis, I am 
Anx^wid, I am Sesaxalas, | and also Sewid; I am ^walas ^nEmogwis, 
and I I am Kwax'ilanokume, and I am LaleliLladze. | These are my 
names wliich- 1 obtained as marriage gifts | when I married the 

75 daughters of the chiefs of the tribes wherever I || went. Now I come 
to get your name, chief. | I wish to get your princess, Ts lExts !e- 
gedzEmga (III 9), brother, | for my prince ^maxidag ilis (III 3)." | 
TslEx^ed (II 4) at once agreed to Avhat LaleliLladze (II 1) said; | and 

SO LaleliLladze (II 1) gave as marriage gift five sea-otter || blankets, 
ten black-bear skin blankets, | forty marten blankets, and eighty | 
deer-skin blankets to Ts!Ex^ed (II 4) for his princess TslExts'.E- 
gedzEmga (III 9). | As soon as he had finished, TslEx^ed (II 4) said, \ 
"Now your wife shall go to you, son-in-law, ^maxulag ills (III 3). II 

85 Now your name shall be XosEmdaas (III 3), and my | great dance 
shall go to you. You shall be cannibal-dancer, and your name shall 
be I ^nax"danadze; and the rich-woman dance shall go to you, and 
her name shall be | G ilgEmaxes; and the fire dance, and his | name 
shall be KMilxEla; and the attendant of the cannibal-dancer, his 1| 

66 K'lesk'asas qialaxg'in Iex'ax'st!aax"^meg'in ts!elwalag'ilis LokwasEn 
k"!edelk'asox TslExtslEgedzEmgax. Wa, nogwak'as TslEx^eda Laxu- 
mesEn g'okulota Naklwax'da^xwe," ^nek'asa g'lgama^ye. Wa, hex'- 
-'idk'as^mese LaleULladze ^nek'a: "^yak'asoL ^uEmwEyot; nogwa- 

70 k'as^Em Yac[alEnlisa, uogwak-as^Em Anx^wida, nogwak'as'Em Sesaxa- 
lasa Lokwase Sewide. Nogwak'as-Em ^walas ^nemogwisa; wii, no- 
gwak^as^'Em Kwaxilanokuma^ya. Wit, nogwak-as^Em LaleliLladza. 
Wa, y5kwas-mEn LeLEgEmk'asox. Wa, yokwas^sm LeLEgEmg'ElxLe- 
sEn gag'adi^lalase lak"asxox g-Jg'igflmak*asaxsa lelqwalaLa^yin lala- 

75 lask-asa. Wii, g-axk-as-'mesEn laloL!axs LegEmaqos, g-Igame^. 
Lak'as'meg'in gagak'laxs k'!edelaqds, -nEmwEyot lak'asxox Ts!ex- 
ts!EgedzEnigax, qak'asg'ln LEWElgEmek- ylk'asg'a ^maxidaglhsEk'." 
Wa, hex-^Idk'as-mese dae.LEme waldEmk'asas LaleliLladzas Ts!ex- 
''ede. Wii, lak-as-me qadzel'idk-ase LiileHL!adziisa sEk'Ia qliisasgEm 

80 naEnx^une^ Lokwasa lastowe LlEnLlEntsEm ^naEnx'iine^ Lokwasa 
m6x"sokwe LeLEgEx^sEm ^naEnx^iine^ Lokwasa malgunaitsokwe 
tetEkMotsEm ^naEnx'une^ lak'asEx TslEx^ede qaes kMedele Ts!ex- 
ts lEgedzEmga. Wii, g'll^mese gwalExs lak'asaase -TslEx^ede ^nek'a: 
"Lilk'as-Emk' liik-asLg'Es gEiiEmk'asg'os, nEgiimp ^maxQlagilis. 

85 Wii, lak-as'Em LegadLEs XosEmdaase. Wa lak-as^mesEk' liilg-in 
^walasEk" liid laL. LaEms hamatslak-asLol. Wa, laLEs LegadLEs 
^nax^danadze. Wii, liek'as^mesa qiaminagase lak'asLe Legadk'asLEs 
G"ilgEmaxese. Wii, iiek-as-mesa nonltse^stiihile, wa, hek'as^Em 
LegEmse K" lilxEla. Wa, hek'as^mesa kinqalaLEla, wa, hek'as^Em 



uoAsl FAMILY HISTORIES 849 

name shall be Helik'imeg'ilis; and also this carved box, | which 90 
contains all the red cedar-bark that belongs to the great dances; 
and I one hundred mountain-goat blankets, nine | grizzly-bear blan- 
kets, twenty-four lynx blankets, | and fifty dressed elk-skin blankets^ 
and II sixty mats. That is all, son-in-law, XosEmdaas (III 3). 95 
Now, I you shall see this night, how I show the | cannibal-dancer 
that you obtained and the others, that you may not make a mis- 
take when you I show them." Thus said Chief Ts!Ex-ed (II 4) to 
XosEmdaas. "And | also this house, which is named K'!awats!e, 
it shall be yours, ll son-in-law; and these house-dishes, | — the 300 
grizzly-bear dish, | the wolf dish, and the eagle dish, and the 
double-headed serpent dish, — | and also the great feast name. 
Now you shall be named | Kwax'se^stala, and LaleliLladze (II 1) 
shall have the name | Yaqok !walag'ilis to add to the chief's names." 
Thus said ll Ts lEx^ed (II 4) . Then he finished with this. | 5 

Haha hanane! These are the names that come from the other 
end I of my ancestor the chief; and therefore I feel like laughing at 
what the | lower chiefs say, for they try in vain to down me by 
talking against my | name. || 

Haha hanane! Therefore there is nothing to make me ashamed; 10 
for I I only feel proud of what has been done by the chiefs, my 



LegEmse Helikimeg'llise. Wa, hek'as^mesa k"!awats!e gildasaxg'a 90 
giytmts!Ewasg"asg'a L!aL!EgEkwalasoxs ^walasex lelada. Wa, he- 
^k"as*mesa lakMEnde ^me^'mElxLosgEm ^naEnx^une^ i.okwasa fiia^nEma 
g'Ig'IlasgEm ^naEnx^iine^ Lokwasa liEinogala ^walasx'asgEm ^naEnx- 
^line^. Wa, hek'as sEkMax^sokwe alagimsgEm ^naEnx-une^ Lokwas- 
g-ada qlELlEx'sokuk' leEl^wa^ya. Wa, nEgump XosEmdaas. Lak'as- 95 
^Ems doqwalalxwa ganoLex qEn ^mEn^elesoxs lak'asaqos laLanEma 
hamatsla Lokwasos waokwex qak'ats kMeseLos melmeLElIla qak'atso 
nel-idamasLEq"," ^nek"asa g'lgama^yeTslE.x'edaxXosEmdaase. "Wii, 
yokwas-mesa g'okwexwa Legadiixs K" !awats !e. Lak"as^mox qosL, 
UEgiimp. Wa, yokwas^mcsa loElqulIlexwa gilax loqulila Lokwasa 300 
aLanEme locjiilila Lokwasa kwekwe loqflliia Lokwasa sIsEyfiLe loqulila. 
Wa, hek'as'mesa klweladzEXLa^yo LegEma. Wa, lak"as^Ems Legad- 
LEs Kwax'se'stala. Wa, lak'as^mesox Legadk"asLox LaleliLladzax. 
Yaqok !walag1lise qa g'inwesox LeLEgEinaxsa g'lgama^yex," ^nek^ase 
TslEx^ede. Wa, lak'as^me gwal lak'asxeq. 5 

Haha hanane; hek'as^Em LCLEgEniEn g'ag^LEla lak'asxEn qwesba- 
lisaxEn g'lcjag'iwa^ye; ag'llk'as^mEn dedaleqElas waldEmasEii g'lga- 
ba^yaxs wulk"as^mae aekMagEwa qatses bebEk Iwena^ye lak'asxEn 
LegEm. 

Haha hanane; k"!easg'ilEnxEnL!egEm wawosilqElayokwasaokwas- 10 
^meg-in LEmlEmq!eqElas gwegwalag-illdzasasEn g'lqag'iwa^yaxs gwa- 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 2 5 



850 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. s5 

12 ancestors, | for in the beginning they were taken care of by the 
chiefs of the tribes. | Therefore my heart feels proud. | 

Haha hanane! When night came, XosEmdaas (III 3) disap- 

15 peared, || for now I shall no longer call him ^maxulag'ilis; | and his 
sister ^max'mEwidzEmga (III 4), and Laqulayugwa (III 5), | and 
also ^maxuyalidze (III 6), disappeared. They stayed in the woods 
for four I months. Then the cannibal-dancer was captured by the 
ancestors of the | Nak!wax'da-x", and also the rich -woman-dancer, 

20 the fire-dancer, || and the attendant of the cannibal-dancer. Now, 
TslEx^ed (II 4) gave as a marriage gift | two slaves as food for the 
cannibal-dancer and the rich-woman-dancer. | And the two slaves 
were killed to be eaten. | And as soon as the cannibal-dancer and the | 
rich-woman-dancer had finished eating their food, then they put a 

25 black-bear blanket |1 on the cannibal-dancer. And they dressed in 
the same way the | rich-woman-dancer; and they put around their 
necks tliick cedar-bark rings; and they put on a thick | head- 
ring, which is called Winter-Dance-Bringing-Cedar-Bark. | The red 
cedar-bark of the rich-woman-dancer was not so thick as the thick- 
ness of the I red cedar-bark of the cannibal-dancer. He had a 

30 double-headed mask: || in front it was the crooked-nose mask, and 
in the back a raven-mask. | And the treasure of the rich-woman- 
dancer was a large rattle. | The red cedar-bark of the other two, the 
fire-dancer and the I attendant of the cannibal-dancer, was thin. 



12 lElak'as'mae mamayax"sih"sokwatsa g'alag"Ig"Egamek"atsa lelqwala- 
La^ye. Yokwas^Em aEm LEmgEnisg in naqek'. 

Haha hanane; wii, lak"as'mes ganoHda lak'asaase x^is^ede 

15 XosEmdaas, qak'asg'ins la^mek- gwalk'as LeqElas ^maxiilagilise. 
Wa, lak^ase x'is^ede wiiqlwase ^max'niEwidzEmga Lokwase Laqula- 
yugwa Lokwase ^maxuyalidze. Wa, okwas^mese mosgEmg'ilaxa 
^niEkfda g'Tyak^Elaxs lak'asae kimyasokwasa hamats!asa g'alasa 
Naklwax^da^xwe Lokwasa q '.aminagase Lokwasa nonltse'stalale. Wa, 

20 hek'as^mesa klnqalaLEla. Wa, lak'as^me Ts!Ex^ede wawalqalasa 
ma^lokwe q!aq!Ek'o qa ha^masa hamatsia Lokwase qiaminagase. 
Wa, lak-as-me k'lelax-^ItsE^weda ma^lokwe q!aq!Ek'owa qa^'s le ham- 
g'i^Iayo. Wa, g'ilk'as^mese gwalk'as ha^mapa hamatsia Lokwasa 
q !&minS,gaxes ha^ma^ye lak"asae ^uEx^undayoweda Llaye ^nEx^une^ 

25 lak'asxa hamatsia. Wa, hek-as^Emxaawise gwex'sa ^uEx^undayaxa 
qiaminagase. Wa, lak'ase qEnxoyowa LEkwe LlagEk" LE^wa LEkwe 
qEX'Ime L'.agEkwa. Wa, hek'as^Em LegadEs k'losEnxawe LlagEkwe. 
Wa, halsElak'as-mese wawilale L!agEkwasa q!aminagase lak'asEx 
LlagEkwasa hamatsia. Wa, lak'ase ^wax-sgEme hamslwa^yas. Wa, 

30 hek-asMua gEloqwiwa^ye apsgEms. Wa, lak'ase gwaxwiwa^ya apsgE- 
mas. Wa, lak'ase ^walas yadEne Logwek'asase qiaminagase. Wii, 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 851 

And they had now the names given as a marriage gift by Ts lEx^ed 33 
(114). I 

Haha hanane ! This was the fu*st winter dance of my tribe || the 35 
Gwa^sEla, on account of my ancestor, the cliief, who married the 
daughters of the | chiefs all over the world. Now, TslEx^ed (114) 
became sick; | and before he died he | asked his son-in-law, XosEm- 
daas (III 3), to | take his place; and when he stopped speaking, he 
died, il Now, XosEmdaas (III 3) took his place; and he remained 40 
among the | Nak !wax' da^x". Now his name was Ts lEx^ed (III 3) , and 
he was I considered .as a chief by the ancestors of the Naklwax'da^x". 
Now, I Yaqoklwalag'iUs (II 1), — for I stop calling him LalehLladze 
now — because he received as a marriage gift the name Yaqok !wala- 
g'iUs, — wished || to go and see the regions to the north, and he lef 45 
behind | his prince, TslEx^ed (III 3). | 

Now, he arrived at GweqElis at his own place, | and he built a 
house there; and with him were his | other children, — ^max'mE- 
AvidzEmga (III 4) ; Laqulayugwa (III 5) ; ll and also his youngest 50 
prince, ^maxiiyalidze (III 6); and also Lax"lEgwedzEmga (III 7), | 
the youngest one of his children; and also his wife | Gaaxstalas 
(II 3), the princess of Hexhak'in (I 2). That was their number. | 
Now Yaqoklwalag'iUs (II 1) staid at GweqEhs. | 



b 



lak'ase wiswule LleLlagEkwasa ma^lokwexa nonltse^stalale Lokwasa 32 
k'inqalaLEla. Wa,lak'as^me LeLEgadESLeLegEmg'ElxLa^ya TslEx^ede. 

Haha, hanane; yokwas'Em g'ilk'as ts!ets!ex^IdaatsEn g'okiilota 
Gwa^sEla qak'asEn g'lqag'iwa^yaxs lak'asae gag"adi^lala lak'asxox 35 
g'lgigama^yaxsox §.we-staxsEns ^nalax. Wa, lak'ase tslEX'qlEX'- 
^ideda g'lgama^ye Ts!Ex^ede. Wii, kMesk'as^mese wuylms^alilExs 
lak'asae ^nex'k'asxes nEgumpe lak'asEx XosEmdaase qa hek'as^mes 
Lax"st6dEq. Wa, g'llk'as^mese qlweHdExs lak^asae ^wuyims^allla. 
Wa, lak'as'me XosEmdaase Lax"stodEq. Wa, lak'as^me xEkMa laxe 40 
Naklwax'da^xwe. Wii, lak^ase LegadEs TslEx^ede. Wa, lak'as^me 
g'ag'exsllasokwatsa g'ala Nak!wax"da'xwa. Wa, lak"as-me Yiiqo- 
klwalag'tlise, qaxgin la^mek' gwal LeqElaLEs LaleliLladze lak'asqexs 
lE^mae LegEmg'ElxLa^ye Yaqok !walag"ilise laq. Wa lak'as^me ^nex' 
qas lak'ase dodEguLexwa gwa^nak'alax. Wa, lakas'me lowaLak'asEx 45 
TslEx^edexes LawElgEma^ye. 

Wa, lak'as^me lag'aa lak'asEx GweqElise lak'asxes awmagwise. 
Wa, lak'as^me g'okwela qak'ats g'ok" lak'asEq qaxs hek'as^mae 
waokwes sasEme yik'asEX ^maxmEwidzEmga L5kwase Laqulayugwa 
Lokwases ama^ye LawElgEnia^ye ^maxiiyalidze Eokwase Lax"lEgw6- 50 
dzEmgaxa ama^yinxa^yas sasEmas. Wa, hek'as^mesLes gEUEme 
Gaaxstalase ylk"asEx kMedelas Hex'hak'ine. Wii, hek'as'Em ^wiixa- 
atse. Wa, liik"as^me xEk'!e Yaqok !walag"ilise liik'asEx GweqElise. 



852 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 35 

Yaqoklwalag'ilis (II 1) had not lived there long, before he died; II 

55 and then his youngest prince, ^maxuyalidze (III 6) , | took the place 
of his father, the past chief. ^maxiiyaHdze (III 6) had not Uved 
long I in the village at GweqElis, before a canoe came paddling, | and 
stopped at the beach of the house of ^maxiiyalidze (III 6) ; and then | 
^maxuyahdze (III 6) went to meet his visitors, and called them. 

CO And II the many children of the man went into the house of ^maxti- 
yalidze (III 6). | Then he gave them roasted sockeye-salmon, | to- 
gether with seal-blubber. After they had eaten, | the visitor spoke, 
and said, "Let me | ask you, O brother! who are you?" Yaqoklwa- 

65 lag'ilis (III 6) replied at once, || and said, "I am Yaqoklwalag'ilis, | 
prince of the great chief Yaqoklwalag'ilis | (for from now on 
^maxQyalidze had the name Yaqoklwalag'ilis), | O brother! My 
mother is Gaaxstalas (II 3), the princess of | Chief Hex'hak'in (I 2) 

70 of the Nimkish." Thus he said. "The || first name of my father 
was YaqalEnlis, when he first came to | live at GweqElis." Thus 
said Yaqoklwalag'ilis (III 6) to the | man. | 

And now Yaqoklwalag'ilis also questioned the man, | and said, 

75 "And who are you, brother?" Immediately 11 the man replied, and 
said, "1 am | Anx^wid (III 1) on the side of my mother, SenLlegas 



Wii, k"!esk'ase gala g'okiile Yaqoklwalag'llisaxs Ifik'asae wuylms- 

.55 ^Ida. Wa, lak'ase ama^ye L&wElgEmese ^maxiiyalidze hek'as^Em 
Lax"stodxes g'lgamex'de ompa. Wa, kMesk'ase alaEm giilak'as g'o- 
kiilak^ase ^maxiiyalidze lak'asEx GweqElisax g'axk'asaasa seyo^na- 
kfila qa^s g"axk'ase hangEmlisax g'okwas ^maxuyalidze. Wa, lak^ase 
lalale ^maxuyalidzaxes bagunse qakats Lale^aleq. Wit, gaxk'ase 

60 liogweLElak'asa q!enEmassasEm bEgwanEm lak'asEx gSkwas ^maxu- 
yalidze. Wa,lak'ase Llsx^wilag'ilaxa L!6bEkwe mElek'a masak'atse 
xudziise megwata. Wa, g'ilk'as-mese gwalk'as L!Exwaxs lak'asae 
yaq!Eg'^aleda bagunse bEgwauEma. Wa, lakase ^nek'a: "Weg'axin 
wuLol ^uEmwEyot. angwas?" Wa, hex'^idk'as^mese na^naxma^ye 

65 Yaqok!walag'ilisaq. Wa, lak^ase ^nek'a: "Nogwak'as Yaqok!wala- 
g'llisa LSwulgEmesa ^walasda g'igama^ye Yaqok!walagilisda 
(qaxs lak'as^mae gwalk'as Legade Yaqok!walag'ilisas ^maxuyalidze), 
-nEmwEyot. Wa, lakasEn &bayatsox (jaaxstalasex kMedelaxsa 
g'lgama^'yae Hex'hakinasa ^nEmgese," ^nek'aseq. "Wii, lak'asLal 

70 he g'il LegEmsEn Smplcasdiie YaqalEnlise liik'asExs g^alae gaxk'as 
g'okula liik-asxox GweqElIs^ex," ^nek'ase Yaqok!walag'Ilisaxa bE- 
gwiinEme. 

Wii, lak'ase ogwaqa Yaqok!wiilag'Ilisa wilLaxa bEgwanEme. Wa, 
lak'ase ^nek'a: "Wii, angwak'astias, ^nEmwEyot!" Wa, hex'^Id- 

75 k'as^mesa bEgwanEme na^naxmeq. Wii, liik^ase ^nek'a: "Nogwak'as 
Anx^wlda gwek'!6t!Endala lak'asxEn &bask'!6te SEnL!egase. Wa, 



BOA.sl_ FAMILY HISTORIES 853 

(II 2) ; I and my name is Sesaxalas on the side of my fatlier, Yaqa- 
iEnlis, I in my village Padzo. YaqalEnlis (II 1) left me his 
name | Yru[alEiilis when he wont away from us, and went to a place 
where he knew 1| people lived at Odzalas; and I know that he mar- SO 
ried | the princess of Hex'hak'm (I 2), Gaaxstalas (II 3)." Thus 
said Anx^wid (III 1) to | Yiiqok Iwalag ilis (III 6). Gaaxstalas 
(II 3) spoke at once, and said, | "Welcome, O child! Now you have 
seen your brother, | for he talked about your father, child Anx^wid 
(TII 1), who has also || the name Sesaxalas. This is ^maxiiyalidze 85 
(III 6); he is next to the youngest." | Then Anx^vld (III 1) said, 
"These are my | children — three girls, and the eldest one | a boy. 
His name is HiixiiyosEme/ (IV 1), a name given in marriage by | 
Hawilkiilal (II 5), chief of the numaym GexsEm of the Qlomoya- 
^ye!" II And Anx^wid (III 1) had been given in marriage the name 90 
Amaxulal (III 1), | and he had no longer the name Anx^wid, and we 
have to call him after this | Amaxiilal. Then Yaqok Iwalag ilis 
(III 6) said that he | would go with his elder brother Amaxulal 
(III 1) when he should go home to | Padzo. But Amaxulal (III 1) 
said, "No, it is good, for || we are now head chiefs of the tribes. | I 95 
shall be head chief of the SeniJEm of the Kwag'ul; | and my prince 
HaxuyosEme^ (IV 1), of the | numaym G'exsEm of the Q!omoya^ye. 
And ^maxiilayugwa (III 2) has for lier husband | Llaqwag'ilagEine^ 

lak'asEn SesaxalasLa laxEn ask'!ote yik'asxEii ompe YaqalEnlise 77 
lak'asxEn g'okiilase Padzawa. Wii, okwas-mese Leqosases LegEme 
YiiqalEnlise g'axk'asEnLaxs lak'asae banox" qa^'s lakas laxcs c[!ala 
g'okiilakas lax Odzalase. Wii, lak'asEn q!alaqexs lak'asae gEg'a- 80 
dEs k'ledelas Hex'hak'ine, lak'asEx Gaaxstalase," ^nek'ase Anx^wl- 
dax Yaqok Iwalagilise. Wii, hex-'idk'as-mese Gaaxstalase ^nek'asa: 
"Wii, gelak'as-la xunok" hik'as-Ems dox-'waLElaxox ^iiEmwEyot, 
gwiigwex's^alak'as^me iisdii laL, xiinok" Anx^wid Lokwases ^uEmox" 
LegEme Sesaxalase. Wii, yokwas-Em miik'Ilaxwa ama^yinxa-yox 85 
^maxuyalidzex." Wii, liik'ase ^nek'e Anx-widiiq: "Yokwas-meginsa- 
sEmk'asox yudukwex tslEdilxsii Lokwasa ^nEmokwex ^nohistlEgEme 
bEgwauEma hik'asox LegadEs PliixuyosEma^ye i.egEmg'ElxLes Ha- 
wilkulal, ylk'asEx g'ig;1ma^yasa ^ne^memotasa G'exsEmasa Qlomo- 
ya^ye. Wii, liik'asox LegEmgElxLiilasox Anx^wldiixs Amiixulale. 90 
Wa, lak'as-mesox gwal Legadk'ats Anx^wide lak'as-mesEns LeqEla- 
LEs Amiixvilalo lilq. Wii, lak'ase Yiiqoklwiilag'ilise ^nek'as qa^s 
liiiag-i lasgEmexes ^nole Amiixulale q5 liik'asL nii^nak" lak-assx 
Padzawe. Wii, liik'ase k"!es ^nek'e Amiixulale: "Exk'as-maases 
laenek'asEns ^niixwak'as^Em la Liixumeg'Ig'Egiimek-atsa leElqwiilaLa- 95 
^yex. Wii, nogwakas-maa liik'as'mEn Laxumesa SenLlEmasa Kwag'u- 
le. Wii, hik'asox Laxuma-yhi LawElgiima^yexox HaxiiyosEma'yaxsa 
-iiE^memotasa G'exsEmasa QlomoyiVye. Wa, lak'ase fii^wade ^miixu- 



854 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 35 

(III 8), the head chief ol the Loyalala^wa, the numaym of the |1 
400 Kwag'ul; and ^maxiUag' ilis (III 3) has for his wife the princess of 
Chief I TslEx^ed (11 4) of the Naklwaxda^x". And our | father 
(II 1) had for his wife the princess of Hex'hak'in (I 2), the head chief 
of the numaym | G'exsEm of the Nimkish, cur stepmother, Gaax- 
stalas (II 3). I I say this because you stand at the head of the 
5 Gwa^sEla. || Now look for a wife, O brother ! from the region to the | 
north of us; and if you do so, we shall be the only | chiefs of the 
tribes." Thus said Amaxulat (III 1) to his younger brother | 
Yaqok Iwalag ilis (III 6). Immediately the mother of Yaqoklwa- 
lag"i]is (III 6), that | is, Gaaxstalas (II 3), said "Let us try to get a 

10 wife, Hawilkulai (III 1 ?) || and also your prince, for Yaqok Iwalag" ilis 
(III 6). I What you say is good, child Hawilkulai, that all of you may 
be renowned | chiefs of the first people among the following gene- 
rations, I O children!" Thus said Chief tainess Gaaxstalas (II 3) to 
Hawilkulai (III 1?). I 

15 Hahahanane! Therefore 1 am now at the head || of aU these 
tribes, and therefore I feel proud of my | names which came from the 
other side of the chief, my ancestor, | when he married all over the 
world. I 

Haha hanane! Now Hawilkulai (III 1?) asked Yaqok Iwalag' ilis 
(III 6) I to get ready to go and marry the princess (III 10) of l laqwa- 

layugwas L!aqwag"ilagEma^ye Laxuma^yasa Loyalala^wa ^nE^memotsa 
400 Kwag'ute. Wa, lak-ase gEg-ade -maxulag'ilisas k'ledelasa g"iga- 
ma^ye TslEx^edaxa Naklwax'da^xwe. Wa, lak'ase gEg-adEus 
ompdasox k'ledelaxs Hex'hakinexa i.axuma^yasa ^nE^memotasa 
G'exsEmasa ^uEmgese lak'asxox abadzawaqEnux" Gaaxstalasex. 
Wa, hek'as-mesEn lag-ila ^nek-e lak'as^maaqos Laxumeltsa Gwa^sElax. 
5 Wag^a aEm doqwala qa^s gEUEmos, ^nEmwEyot lak'asxo gwa- 
nak'alax; wii, qaso hel gwex'^idELe lak'as-mesEns lex'aEm gig'E- 
gameltsa leElqwalaLa^yax," ^nek'ase AmaxQlalaxes tsla^ye Yaqo- 
klwalag'ilise. Wa, hex'^idk'as^mese ftbEmpsa Yaqok Iwalag'Ilise 
yik-asEx Gaaxstalase, ^nek-a: "Weg-axlns gagak'Ia Hawilkulai 

^0 Lokwases LawElgama^yex qak'asox Yaqok Iwalagilisex. Ex'k'as^maa- 
ses waldEmaqos xiinok" Hawilkulai qa^s ^naxwa^meLos tslelwalal 
g"ig'Egamesa g^ala bEgwauEm lak'asxa alk'asLa bebEgwabolisaLol 
sasEm," ^nek'ase o^ma Gaaxstalasax Hawilkulale. 

Haha hanane; wa yokwasEm lag'ilk-asaEn k'leas k'lesLaxuma- 

J5 ^yaas laxwa ^naxwax leElqwalaLa^yaxEn akwasgilmEn yalaq leqElasEn 
LBLEgEmdzex g"ag"iLEla lak'asxEn qwesbalise g-ig'iqag'iwexs helaxae 
lak'asxes gag-adi^lalae^na^ye. 

Haha hanane; wa, lak'as^me Hawilkulale axkMalax Yaqok" Iwalag'i- 
lise qa xwanaHdes qa^s lalag"i gagak"Iax k"Iedelas Llaqwag"ila yi- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 855 

g-ila (II 6), II chief of the NoxiintslIdEx", of Rivers Inlet. Now, | 20 
they learned that the name of the princess of L!aqwag'ila (II 6) was 
Ahig' imil (III 10). I At once they made ready, and started | to go to 
Rivers Inlet; and when they arrived there, they were invited | in 
by Chief Llaqwag'ila (II 6). Now, Amaxiilal (III 1) saw || the 25 
sacred room of the cannibal-dancer at the right-hand side, | inside 
the door of the large house; and when they were seated, | Amaxulal 
(III 1) and his cluldren, and his younger brother Yaqok!walag'ilis 
(III 6), I were given crabapples to eat; but, before they began to 
eat, I they took one spoonful of crabapples which || were the first to 30 
be given to the cannibal-dancer, who was seated in his sacred room. | 
As soon as those came back who had gone to give to eat to him first, | 
they said, "Now KIwak'iyils has eaten. Let | the visitors whc 
came to you, Llaqwag'ila (II 6), begin to eat!" Then Amaxulal 
(III 1), I and his younger brother Yaqok Iwalag" ilis (III 6), and his 
crew, li ate. After they had eaten, Amaxulal (III 1) spoke, | and he 35 
asked for the princess of Llaqwag'ila (II 6), j Alak' ilayugwa (III 10), 
in marriage. Llaqwag'ila (II 6) told him at once to go ahead, | and 
do quickly what he said. Now he gave as a marriage gift ten | 
black-bear blankets, four marten blankets, || twenty-five dressed 40 
elk-skin blankets, foiu- lynx blankets, | and eleven marmot blankets. | 
That is the number that was given in marriage by Yaqok Iwalag'ilis 

k'asEx g'lgama^yasa NoxtintslidExwasa Awik"!enoxwe. Wa, lak-as- 20 
^me q!alak'as([exs Legadae k'!edelas L!aqwag'ilas Alag'imlle. Wa, 
hex'^Idk'as-mese xwanaPlda. Wa, lak'as^me Slex^wida qak'ats 
lak'ase lax Wanukwe. Wa, g'ilk'as^mese lag'aaxs lak'asae Lale^la- 
lasokwatsa g'lgama^ye Llaqwag'ila. Wa, lak'as^'me Amaxulal dox- 
'waLElaxa mawllasox hamats!a axel liik'asEx helk'Iotstalilasa awl- 25 
LElas tiExilasa ^wfdase g"5kwa. Wii, g'ilk'as^mese ^wFla klus^allle 
Amaxulal Lokwases sasEme Lokwases ts!a'ye Yaqok Iwalag'ilise 
lak^asae LlEXwIlayowa tsElxwe. Wil, k'!esk'as-mese hamx'=ldqexs 
lak'asae tseyakilelEma -nEmexLa k"ats!Enaq tsElxwa. Wii, lak'as^me 
g'ilq!Esamatsowa hamatsia k!wats!alil lak'asxa lEmelats!e. Wii, 30 
g'ilk'as^mese g'iixk'as aedaaqak'asa g'agilq lEtsIla bEgwiinEmxs lak'a- 
sae ^nek'asa: "Lak'as^mox hamx'^Idox KIwiik'iyilsex. Weg"ax"6x 
ha^mx'^Idos bagiinsaqos, L!aqwag'il." Wa, hex'^idk'as^mese Ama- 
xidale Lokwases tsla-yak'ase Yiiqok Iwiilag'ilise Lokwases leElote 
ha^rax'^Ida. Wii, g"ilk-as-mese gwalk'asExs Ifdv'asae yaq .'Eg"a4e 35 
Amaxulal. Wii, lak'as^Em giigakMax k'ledelas Llaqwag'ila liik'asEx 
Aliik'ilayugwa. Wii, hex'^idk"as^mese Lliiqwag'ihx wiixaq qa weg'is 
aEm hali^liilaxes wiildEme. Wa, lak'as'me qadzil'itsa lastowe lIeii- 
L'.EntsEme ^naEnx^une^ Lokwasa mowe LeLEgEx"sEme^ ^naEnx^une^ 
Lokwasa sEk' !agala eElag'hne ^naEnx^'tine- Lokwasa mowe ^widasx^iis- 40 
gEme ^naEux^iine^ Lokwasa ^nEmagiyowe kwekux"dEsgEme ^naEn- 
x^iine^. Wii, hek'as^Em ^wiixaats qadze.LEmr.s Yaqok !walag'llise 



856 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 35 

(III 6) I to Chief L !aqwag-ila (II 6) for his princess Alag-imil (III 10). | 

45 As soon as he finished, Chief l laqwag'ila (II 6) also spoke, || and said, 
"O son-in-law, Yaqoklwalagilis (III 6), come | to your wife. Now 
your name shall be l laqwag' ila (III 6) . And | I shall also give you 
this copper, which has the name Moon; and these two | slaves, a man 

50 and a | woman; and this great winter dance, || the cannibal-dance, 
and the name of the dancer Klwa^staak", and | his red cedar-bark; 
and also the dance of the attendant of the cannibal, and his name | 
Wiiwiyakila; and also the dance of the grizzly bear of the door of 
the I house of Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World, with whistles, and 
his name | K'ilEmalag'ilis; and also the begging-dance, and its 

55 name ll Q!weq!wasElal; and the carved pole with cedar-bark on top 
of it I and with cedar-bark around the neck. | That is Cannibal-at- 
North-End-of-World sitting on top of it, | and under it is the raven. 
That is Raven-at-the-north-end-of-the-world, | and under it the 

60 grizzly bear. That is || Grizzly-bear-at-the-door-of-the-house-of-Can- 
nibal-at-North-Eiid-of-World, and | under it the wolf. He is the 
scent-taker at the door of the | house of Cannibal-at-North-End-of- 
World. And | on the head of the man on top of the pole sits the 
eagle. | He is the watchman of Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World, 



43 lak-asxa g'lgama^ye Llaqwag'ila qak^ases kMedele Alaglmlle. Wa, 
g'Jlk'as^mese gwalExs lak'asae ogwaqa yaq lEg^a^leda g'lgama^ye L!a- 

45 qwag^ila. Wa, lak'ase ^nek'a: "Gelag^a nEgiimp, Yaqoklwalagilis 
lak-asxgMs gEUEmg'os. Lsik^as-Ems Legadslts L!aqwag"ila lak-as- 
'Emxaak" lalg'ada Llaqwak- LegadEs Nosa^ye Lokwasg'ada ma^lo- 
kiik- q!aq!Ek-owa bEgwauEmk'asg'a ^nEmokiik; wii, lak-asEk- 
ts!Edaxk'asg'a ^nEmokuk". Wii, hek'as^mesgada ^walasEk" liidax- 

50 g'ada hamatsla. Hek"as^Em LegEmse Klwa^staakwe Lokwase 
L!aL!EgEkula. Wa, hek'as^mesa k'inqalaLEla. Hek'as^Em LegEmse 
Wawiyak'ila. Wii, hek'as^mesa ^nawalagwade nEnstalilas t!EX'iliis 
g'okwas Bax"bakwalanux''siwa^ye. Wa, hek'as^Em LegEmse KilEma- 
lag'ilise. Wii, hek'as^mesa q !weq IwasElale. Hek'as^Em LegEmse 

55 Q!weq!wasElale. Wii, hek'as'mesa ts!ax"sa^ye kiwaxtalaxa L!a- 
gEkumilliixa LliigEkwe. Wa, lak'ase LlagEkluxalaxa LEkwe 
LliigEkwa. Hek'as^Em Bax"bakwalanux"slwa^ya klwaxta^ye. Wa, 
hek'as-mesa mak'iliiq gwa^wina. Wii, hek'as^Em Gwax"gwaxwala- 
nux"siwa^ye. Wa, lak'ase nane ba^neLEliis. Wii, hek'as^Emxat ! 

60 uEnstalllts tlExiliis g'okwas Bax"bakwalanux''siwa^ye. Wii, hek'as- 
^mcse aLanEme ba^neLElas. Wii, hek'as^Em memts!Esta,lIlts g'o- 
kwas Bax"bakwalanux"slwa^ye. Wii, hek'as-mesa kwekwe k!wax- 
tEwex x'omsasa bEgwauEme liixa oxta^yasa ts!ax"sa^ye. Wii, 
hek'as^Em dadoq IwalElg'its Bax"bakwiilanux"slwa^yax seyak !we- 



lioAsl FAMILY HISTORIES 857 

who looks out for meat || for his food. That is the cannibal-pole. | 05 
You shall show it whenever you give a winter danec, O son-in-law 
(III 6) ! I That is all that I have to say about this," said iJaqwag-ila 
(II 6) to him. I Llaqwag'ila (III 6) (for now his name is no longer | 
Yaqok Iwalag'ilis) staid only one night, and, together with his brother 
Amaxfdal (III 1), || he went home with his wife Alag'imli (III 10) to 70 
GweqElis; | and Amaxulal (III 1) staid there with his prince only 
four days. | Then he went home to Padzo, together with his mother | 
K' !amaxalas (II 2), who before had liad the name SeniJegas. | 

Haha hanane ! I am not at all ashamed of the chiefs my ancestors, 
who married || among the chiefs all around our world. This was | 75 
not done by the ancestors of the lower chiefs, but my ancestors the 
chiefs did. | And who approaches what was done by the chiefs my | 
ancestors? | 

Haha hanane ! Now I shall talk about the eldest son || of the 
cliildren of my ancestor my chief HaxuyosEme^ (IV 1), | the eldest 80 
one of the children of Amaxidal (III 1) and of his wife | K' lex'k' !e- 
lag'ldzEmga (III 11), the princess of HawilkQlal (II 5), head chief of 
the I great tribe Q!omoya^ye, of the numajon G'exsEm. Now, | 
HaxuyosEme^ (IV 1) married the princess of Wanuk" (III 12), || 
LelElayugwa (IV 2), chief of the numaym G'ig'ilg&m of the ^walas 85 
Kwixg'ul, I who lived at Q!abe% and they had a son (V 1). | Then 

mase qak'ats ha^ma^ya. Wa, hek'as^Em hamsplecj ts!ax"sa^ye. Wa, 55 
lak'as^Ems nePedamasLEq qak'atso yawixilaLO, nEgiimp. Wa, 
Ifd-cas^Em ^wi^lEn waldEmk'ase laxeq," ^nek^ase L!aqwagulamot!aq. 
Wa, okwas^mese xa^niase Llaqwag'ila, qaxs lak'as^mae gwfil Lega- 
dES Yaqok !walag'ilise, Lokwases ^jiEinwEyote Amaxulalaxs g'ax- 
k'asae nii^nak" Lokwases gEUEme Alagimlle lak'asEx GweqElise. 70 
Wa, okwas^mese ni6p!Enxwats!Ese Aniaxulale Lokwases LawEl- 
gEma^yaxs g'axk'asae na'nakwa lak^asEx Padzawe Lokwases abEmpe 
KMiimaxalasexa Legadolas SenL!egasc. 

Haha hanane; kMeask'asae odzaxaatsEn giqagiwa^yaxs gag^adi- 
^ialae laxox gig'Egama^yaxsox awFstiixsEns -'nalax. Yokwas-'sm 75 
wuyoLanEmsEn g'lgaba^yex qa^s guqagiwa^yEn nosk'asex g'iqag'i- 
wa^ya, qa angwak'ases ex'alalaxa qa^s laLex gwegwalagilldzasasEn 
guqag'iwa^ya. 

Haha hanane ; wa, lak-as^meg'In g-ig-agEmdalak'asLEx ^ne^noiast !e- 
gEmalllas sasEm^nakuliisEn g'Iqag"iwa^ye HaxiiyosEma^ye. Wa, la- gg 
k^as^Em ^nolastlEgEnies sasEmas Amaxulale LE^wis gEnEme KMex- 
k" lElag'idzEmga, yik^asEX k" !edelas Hawllkulale xamagEmek'ase g'l- 
gamesa ^walatsEmaxa Q!6moya^yexa ^nE^memotasa GexsEine. Wa, 
lak'as^me gEg'adEx'^ide HaxuyosEma^yas kMedelas Wanukwc, yik'a- 
SEx LelElayugwa, g'Igama'yasa ^nE^memotasa G'lg'ilgamasa ^walase 85 
Kwagulaxs g'okiilae lak^asEx Qlaba^ye. Wa, lak-ase xungwadE- 



858 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. Ann. 35 

88 Chief Waniik" (III 12) gave him a name, | and he gave to his grand- 
son the name LelLelEleg' e^ (V 1). | Now, he grew up; and that 

90 LetLeMeg'e^ || married the princess of ^maxwa (IV 3) of thenumaym | 
G'ig'ilgam of the Naklwax'da^x", Hamdzid (V 2). They were not 
married a long time, | when they had a son; and ^maxwa (IV 3) | 
gave him a name, and lie named him ^maxiilag ilis (VI 1). | Now, 

95 ^maxulag'ihs (VI 1) married the princess of K" !ade (V 3), ll Hamisk'i- 
nis (VI 2), the daughter of the chief of the numaym | G'exsEm of the 
L !aL lasiqwala ; and before long they | had a son (VII 1), and Chief 
K' !ade (V 3) gave him a name, | and he named him Qlomk'inis 
(VII 1). And I then Qlomk'inis (VII 1) married the princess of 
500 ^maxwa (VI 3) , MEled (VII 2) . 1| He was the head chief of the numaym 
TEmltEmtels | of the Mamaleleqala. They had not been married 
long before | they had a son; and Cliief ^maxwa (VI 3) named him, | 
he named his grandson MEnledzas (VIII 1 ) ; | and MEnledzas grew 
5 up. He II married the princess of the chief of the numaym LelEwag' i- 
la of the I DzawadEenox", Yak'ayugwa (VIII 2), the princess of 
K' !ade (VII 3). And they had not been | married a long time 
before, they had a son; | and K' !ade (VII 3) gave a name to his 
grandson, | and named him Qlomx'ilag'ilis (IX 1); and when || 

87 x'^itsabEgwanEme. Wa, lak'ase hek'asa g'lgama^ye Wanukwe Leqela 
qak-as LegEms. Wa, lak'ase Lex^edEs LelLelEleg'a^ye lak'asxes 
ts!ox"LEma. Wa, lak'ase q!wax^ida. Wa, lak'ase LelLelEleg'ay^e 

90 gEg'adEX'^its kMedelas -maxwasa Nak!wax'da^x"asa ^nE^memotasa 
G'ig'ilgam, yik-asEx Hamdzide. Wii, k'lesk'ase gala hayasEk'alaxs 
lak'asae xungwadEx-^Itsa bEgwauEme. Wa, hek-as^Emxae ^maxwa 
Leqela qak'as LegEms. Wit, lak'as^me Lex^ets ^maxulag'llise kik'a- 
SEq. Wa, lak'ase gEg-adEX'^ide ^maxiilag'ilisas k'!edelas KMade, 

95 yik'asEX Hamisk^inisexa xiinokwas g^igama^yasa ^nE^memotasa 
G'exsEmasa L!aL!asiqwala. Wa, k'!esk'ase galaxs lak'asae xungwa- 
dEx'^itsa bEgwauEme. Wa, lak'asa g'lgama^ye K'lade Leqela 
qak'as LegEms. Wa, lak'ase Lex^ets Q!6mk'inise lak'asEq. Wa, 
lak'ase Qfomk'inise gEg'adEX'^Its k'!edelas ^maxwa lak'asEX MElede. 
500 Wa, hEk-as-Em xamagEme g'lgame-'sa ^uE^memotasa TEmltEmlEl- 
sasa Mamaleleqala. Wa, k'lesk'ase gala hayasEk'alaxs lak'asae 
xungwadEx-'^itsa bEgwanEme. Wii, hek-as^mesa g-igama^ye «^maxwa 
Leqela qak'as LegEms. Wii, liik-as-me Lex^ets MEnledzase liik'as- 
xes ts!6x"LEma. Wa, lak'ase q!wax^Ide MEnledzase lak'asae 
5 gagak-Iax kMedelas g-igama^yasa ^uE^memotasa LelEwag'iliisa Dzii- 
wadEenoxwe, yik'asEx Yiikayugwa, k'!edelas K'!ade. Wa, kMes- 
k'ase giila hayasEk'alaxs lak'asae xungwadEX'-'itsa bEgwanEme. 
Wa, lak'ase K'!ade hek'as-'Em Leqelak'as qa LegEmses ts!6x"LEma. 
Wa, lak'as^me Lex^ets Q!6mx'llag'ilise lak'asEq. Wii, g'ilk'as- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 859 

Qlomx'llag'ilis grew up, he married the princess of | Klwamaxalas 10 
(VIII 3). Now, her name was ^nEmogwilrtak" (IX 2). And they 
had not been married a long time, | when they had a son (X 1) ; and | 
then the chief of the numaym G' exsEm of the Ilaxwamis — .that is, | 
Klwamaxalas (VIII 3) — said that he would give a name to his ll 
grandson (X 1), and he called him K IwamaxElasogwi^lak". | Now, 15 
K !wamaxElasogwi^lak" (X 1) married the princess of | Qlomoqa 
(IX 3), Qlex'Lalaga (X 2). And they had not been married long, | 
before they had a son (XI 1); and then the | chief of the ancestors 
of the numaym G'Igaana of the Gwawaenox" — that is || Qlomoqa 20 
(IX 3) — said that he would give a name to his grandson, | and he 
named him Q!6m6x"s^ala (XI 1). And then Q!om6x"s^ala | mar- 
ried Le^lenox" (XI 2), the princess of K' !ogwik"eladze (X 3), the 
head chief | of the numaym SIseul !e^ of the Lawets !es, and they had | 
a son (XII 1). Now, Chief K" logwlk' eladze (X 3) was known to be || 
savage. And he gave him a name, | and he named his grandson 25 
K' logwIk' elagEme^ (XII 1). | They were living in the village of the 
ancestors of the Lawets !es, AL&gEmala. Now, | K' logwik' elagEmee 
married the princess of Yax'LEn (XI 3), | Ts !alalllanaga (XII 2). 
He was the head chief of the numaym || of the TEmltEmlEls of the 30 
Nak Iwax'da^x". They had not | been married long, when they had a 



^mese qlwax^ede Qlomx'Ilag'llise lak'asae gEg'adEX'^Its k'ledelas 10 
KIwamaxalase lak'asEx ^nEmogwilPlakwe. Wa, k'!esk"ase gala 
hayasEk^alaxs lak-asae xungwadEx-^Idk'atse bfigwanEme. Wa, la- 
k'ase g'lgama^yasa ^nE^memotasa G'exsEmasa Haxwamise, ylk'asEx 
KIwamaxalase ^nek" qa^s hek"as-me Leqela qak"as LegEmses tslox"- 
LEma. Wa, lak^as^me Lex^ets K IwamaxElasogwi^lakwe lak'asEq. 15 
Wa, lak'ase gEg'adEX'^Ide KIwamaxElasogwi^hxkwasa kMedelas Q!o- 
moql., yik'asEX Qlexxalaga. Wa, k"es^Emxaawise gala hayasEk'a- 
laxs lak'asae xungwadEX'^Itsa bEgwauEme. Wa, lak'asa g'iga- 
ma^yasa g'ala ^uE^memotsa G'lgaana^yasa Gwawaenoxwe, yik'asEx 
Qlomoqa, ^nek" qak'as he'me Leqela qak'as LegEmses ts!ox"LEma. 20 
Wii, lak'as'me Lex^ets Qlomoxs^ala. Wa, lak'ase Q!6m6x"s^ala 
gEg'adEX"^its Le^lenoxwe k'ledelas KMogwIk 'eladze xamagEma^ye 
g'Ig&mesa ^nE^memotasa SisEULla^yasa Lawets !ese. Wa, lak'ase 
xtingwadEX'^Itsa bEgwanEme. Wa, lak'ase hek'as^ma tslelwalola 
lawis g'igama^ye K'logwik'eladze. Hek'as^Em Leqela qa LegEms. 25 
Wa, lak'as^me Lex^ets K' logwik'elagEma^ye lak'asxes ts!6x"LEma, 
yik'asExs hek'asae g'okule g'alasa Lawets!ese ALagEniala. Wa, 
lak'ase gEg'adEx'^ide K' logwik'elagEma^yas k'ledelas Yax'LEne, 
ylk'asEx Tslalalilanaga, yik'asxa xamagEma^ye g'lgamesa ^uE^me- 
motasa TEmltEmlElsasa Nak Iwax'da^xwe. Wa, k'!es^Emxaawise 30 
gala hayasEk'alaxs lak'asae xiingwadEX'^itsa bEgwanEme. Wa, 



860 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth.ann. ^5 

32 son (XIII 1). I Then Yax'LEn gave a name to hisgrandson, | and he 
called him Hehimas. Then | Hehimas (XTII 1) grew up, and he 

35 married the princess (XIII 2) of the chief of the || ancestors of the 
Wik lunx'da^x", Wigwilba Wak'as (XII 3), who had as his princess | 
LEyalag ilayiigwa (XIII 2) . They had not boon married long, ])oforc | 
they had a soil (XIV 1) ; and then Cliief Wigwilba | Wakas (XII 3) 
said that he would give a name to his grandson, and he gave | the 
name Q!aed (XIV 1) to his grandson. || 

40 Hahahanaue! AH those whom I named invited the tribes; | and 
all gave great feasts; and almost | all of them gave winter dances, 
which were given to them in marriage by the fathers of their | 
wives, my ancestors, the chiefs. | Haha hanane ! 
Now 1 shall stop wailing. || 



1 Now' I have finished about Helamas (XIII 1), who married 
LEyalag' ilayug\va (XIII 2), | the princess of Wigwilba Wak'as 
(XII 3). Now I shall talk about his | prince Q!aed (XIV 1). Pleia- 
mas (XIII 1) brought in his canoe | one hundred dressed skin 

5 -blankets, four slaves, || also four large canoes, and a copper | named 
Sea-Lion. All this was given as a marriage gift by Cliief | Wigwilba 
Wak'as (XII 3) to Helamas (XIII 1), and also the cannibal-dance, j 

32 iak-ase hiik'as^me YaxLEue Leqela qak-as LegEmses ts!ox"LEma. 
Wa, lak-as^'nie Lex-ets Helamase lak-asxes ts!o.x"LEnia. Wii, Iak-ase 
q!wax-ede Helamase, lak'asae gEg^adEX'^its k'!edelasa g'igama^yasa 

35 g'alasa Wik!ilnx'da^xwe lak-asEx Wigwilba Wak-as, yikasExs k'!e- 
dadaas LEyalag'ilayugwa. Wii, kMesk^ase giila hayasEk'alaxs lak'a- 
sae xungwadEx-'itsa bEgwauEme. Wii, hik-asa g-igama'ye Wigwilba 
Wak'ase ^nek' qa^s hek'ase Leqela qa LegEmses ts!ox"LEma. Wii, 
lak'as^'me Lex-'ets Q!aede lak'asxes ts!5x"LEma. 

40 Haha hanane; ^naxwak'as'mox LelElax'-'IdEii LeLEqElasokwasex. 
Wa, lak'asox ^naxwaEmxat! klwelas^eda. Wii, lialsElaEmxaawisox 
k"!es ^naxwaEui yiiwlx'°ida yika'ts wiiwalcjiilayils wiwompas gEgE- 
UEmasEii g'ig'i([ag'iwa^ye. Haha hanane. 
Wa, la^nie q!wel-id q!wasa. 



1 Wii,' laEmLEn gwid hix Helamase lae gEg^adEs LEyillag'ihiyugwa, 
3'ix kMedelas Wigwilba Wak'ase. Wii,het!aLEn gwagwex's^iilasLe 
LawiilgEnia^'yase Q!aede. Wii, g'iix^me miilaLa^ye Flekmasaxa hi- 
k'lEnde eEliig'imsgEm ^naEnx^une^ LE^wa mokwe q!aci!Ek'owa; wii 

5 he^mesa niots!aqe awa xwiixwrikliina; wa, hcEm^liiwisa Lliiqwa Le- 
gadEs mawak'Ia. Wa, hcEm'El wfiwalqiilayosa g'lgama^ye Wigwil- 
ba Wiik'asax Helamase. Wii, he^Em^lawisa hamatsla Lo^laeda 

1 The following part of the family history was not told as a wail, but in ordinary language. 



iiuASi FAMILY HISTOETIOS 861 

the rich-womau dame, the attendant of the cannibal, and the frog 
war-dance, | and also the names of the four dancers. The || name of 10 
the cannibal-dancer was XoqumeLKlag ilisk' as^o Bax"bakwalamix"- 
slwe^, I and the name of the rich-woman-dancer was G'ilqlESElagi- 
lis, I and the name of the attendant of the caimibal-dancer was 
Helik'ilakas^o, and | the name of the frog-war-dancer was Togfmialis. 
Now, Helamas (XIII 1) | had a son; and Wigwilba Wak-as"(XII 3) 
named || his grandson, and he gave him the name Q!aed (XIV 1). 15 
As soon I as Wigwilba Wak'as (XII 3), chief of the ancestors of the | 
Wlklunx'^da^x" of the Bellabella, had spoken, Helamas (XIII 1) 
started in his canoe, | LEyalag' ilayiigwa (XIII 2) being placed in the 
canoe by his father-in-law. Then he went to Qalogwis, for | that is 
the place where the Kwag'ul lived. As soon as he arrived, || his prince 20 
Q !aed (XIV 1), and his uncle Ma^nakula, and his | two aunts H;ima- 
lak'ilalEmega and X■IxEmg■ila}■ug^\'a, disappeared. | Now, Helannxs 
gave a winter dance to his tribe, the ancestors of the Kwag'ul. | For 
four months Q!aed (XI VI) staid away. Then he was caught. | Then 
he was given to eat one of the slaves || as he entered the winter-dance 25 
house; and Helamas (XIII 1) gave away | one hundi'ed dressed elk- 
skin blankets, three slaves, | and four large canoes, to his tribe, the 
ancestors of the | Kwag'ul; and he broke his copper Sea-Lion for 

qiaminagas Lo^laeda kinq8,laLEla; wa, he^mesa wuqiase olaia; g 
wa, he^mesa LeLEgEmasa m5xwidala leleda. Vfa, hcEm^El Le- 
gEmsa hamatsle XoqumoLElagilisk'as^o Bax"bakwalanux"siwe^'. 10 
Wii, heEm^awis LegEmsa qlaminagase G'ilqlESElag'ilise. Wii, 
heEm^lawis LegEmsa klnqalaLEle Helik'llak'as^a; wa, hEEm^lawis 
LegEmsa wuq !ase olale Togiimalise. Wa, hcEm^lawise Helamasaxs 
lamaa^l xungwatse babagiime. Wii, la^lae Wigwilba Wak'ase Leqela 
qa LegEmses ts!ox"LEma. Wii, lii^lae Lex'ets QIaede. Wii, gil^Em- 15 
^lawise gwiile waldEmas Vv^igwilba Vv^iik^asexa g'igama^yasa g'fdiisa 
Wiklunx'da'xwasa Ileldzaqwe gaxa'^lase Lex^ede Helamase k!wax- 
salaso'^ses uEgiimpe LEyalag'ilayugwa. Wii, la^lae lax Qiilogwise 
qaxs hemaa^l g'okiilatsa Kwiig'ule. Wii, hVlae lag-aaxs hie hex'^i- 
daEm xis^'ede LawElgEma^yase. QIaede lo qlule^ye Ma^nakiila le^wcs 20 
ma^lokwe eanese Hamalak'llalEmega Lo^lae X'lXEmg'ilayugwa 
Wa laEm^lae yiiwix'Ele Helamase qaes g^okulota g'iiliisa Kwiig'ula. 
Wii, hi^lae mosgEmg'ilaxa ^niEkiila giyak'iie QIaediixs lae kim^ya- 
sE^wa. Wa, laEm^lae hSmg'ilayuweda ^nEmokweq lak'o laqexs g'axae 
laeL liix yiiwlxllatsle g"okwa. Wii, laEin^lae yiix^wide Heiamasasa 25 
lakMtnde eElag'EmsgF.me ^naEnx'ilne^ Lo^laeda yiidukwe q!aq!Ek'6; 
wa, heEm-liiwisa motslaqe awS, xwaxwak !una laxes g'okulota g"alasa 
Kwiig'ule. Wii, lil^lae qlEltaxa L!iiciwa yi^lax Mawak'Ia qa g'iga- 



862 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKITJTL [eth. ann. 35 

30 the I chief of the uumaym Maamtag'ila, Odze^stalis. Now, |1 he was 
made ashamed by the report of what Helamas (XIII 1) had done in 
the winter dance; and | Odze^staUs bewitched Helamas, who died. | 
Then Q!aed (XIV 1), the prince of Helamas (XIII l),said that he 
was I going to put the cannibal-dance of the chief, his father, into 
his burial-box. | Therefore they stopped using the cannibal-dance, || 

Qc and the rich-woman dance, and the attendant of the cannibal. He 
kept the frog war-dance. | After this they did not dance the camiibal- 
dance. | 

Then Q !aed (XIV 1) said that he wanted to marry the princess of | 
Llaqwag'ila (XIII 3), chief of the numaym G'ig'ilgam of the 
Gwa^sEla, | HameLas (XIV 2), the princess of Llaqwag'ila (XIII 3). 

40 Then Q!aed (XIV 1) asked the ancestors of the li Kwag'ul to go and 
woo Hamexas (XIV 2). They got ready at once, | and they went in 
four large wooing-canoes. | After one day they arrived at GweqElis, 
the I village in which the Gwa^sEla lived. Immediately Q!aed 
(XIV 1) was married to | HameLas (XIV 2), the princess of l lacjwa- 

45 g-ila (XIII 3). After they were || married, L!aqwag'ila (XIII 3) gave 
as a marriage gift one hundred mountain-goat skin | blankets, fifty 
dressed elk-skin blankets, | twenty-four black-bear blankets, six 
lynx I blankets, and his name Llaqwag'ila. | He gave it to QIaed 

50 (XIV 1), and now QIaed had the name l laqwag'ila (XIV 1). ll There- 
fore I shall not call him after this QIaed, I shall only | name him 

ma^yasa ^nE^memotasa Maamtag'ile Odze^stalise. Wa, laEm^lae 

30 odzEgEmyowe gwex-^Idaasas Helamasaxs yawix'ilae. Wa, laEm^ae 
dadaalats Odze^stalise qas ex^etsE^we. Wii, laEm^lae lE^la. 

Wa, la^lae ^nek'e QIaede, yix LawElgEmex'das Helamasde qa 
la^mes latslawes hamatslaenex'de laxes g'igamex'de ompa. Wa, 
hcEm^lawis lag'ilasox x'Eyoyolisaatsa hamatsia Lo^lae qiaminagase 

35 Lo^lae k'inqalaLEla. Wa, la^lae axelaxa wtiqiase olala. Wii, laEm- 
^lae k'leas la hamatsia laxeq. 

Wa, la^lae ^neke QIaede qa^s gEg-adag'exes qiala kMedelts Lla- 
qwag'ila g'lgama^yasa ^nE^memotasa G'ig'ilgamasa Gwa^sEla. Hii- 
meLasLa^lae k'ledehis Llaqwag'ila. Wa, la^lae QIaede helaxa galasa 

40 Kwag'ule qa les qadzeLa lax HameLase. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise xwa- 
ual'ida. Wa, la^lae motslaqe qadzcLatslas awa xwaxwakluna. 
Wa, he.lalaEm^lawisexs lae lag'aa lax GweqElise qaxs hex'sJi^mae 
g-okule g-alasa Gwa^sEla. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise qadzel^ida lax 
HameLase yixa k'ledelas Llaqwag'ila. Wa, gil^Em'lawise gwala 

45 qadzeLaxs laaEl wawalqale Llaqwag'dasa lak'lEnde ^mElxLosgEme 
^naEnx^una^ya Lo-iae sEk'Iax'sokwe eElag'lmsgEm ^naEnx^una^ya 
Lo^lae hamogala LleLlasgEm ^naEnx^una^ya Lo^lae qlELla ^walasx'as- 
gEm ^naEnx^Qna^ya. Wii, heEm^lawises LegEme Llaciwag'ila. Wa, 
laEm-lae las lax QIaede. Wa, laEmLegade QIaedas Llaqwag'ila. 

50 Wii, lag-ilEns lasm gwal LeqElas QIaede laq; lex'aEml^wisEns lal 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTOEIES 863 

Llaqwag'ila (XIV 1). Then the former Llaqwag'ila (XIII 3) gave | 51 
his seat to his son-in-law, for he had no son | to take his place: his 
only daughter was his princess HameLas (XIV 2). | Then l laqwag'ila 
(XIV 1) remembered what had been done by the chief of the || 
Maamtag'ila, Odze^stalis, when he killed his father Helamas (XIII 1) . | 55 
Therefore he told his crew, the ancestors of the Kwag'ul, that he | 
would give away the marriage gift of his father-in-law, — the one hun- 
dred mountain-goat | blankets, fifty dressed elk-skin | and twenty- 
four black-bear blankets, and the six lynx || blankets. As soon as 60 
he had given them away, | he said, "O Kwag'ul! now I have given 
away this marriage gift, (given by) the | chief my father-in-law for 
you, to my own tribe, the Gwa^sEla, | among whom my own fore- 
fathers began with the first chief in the beginning, | YaqalEnlis 
(II 1), who gave to this country the name || GweqElis; and now I go 65 
home, O Kwag'ul! for am I not | ashamed of what has been done to 
the chief, my father, Helamas (XIII 1), | by the chief who is named 
Odze^stahs? Now, go home! and | I shall stay here with my wife, 
HiimeLas (XIV 2)." Thus said | L!aqwag-ila (XIV 1) to his tribe 
the Kwag'ul; and the Kwagul started at once ll and went home, and 70 
left L !aqwag'ila behind. | 



LeqElayolqe L!aqwag"ila. Wa, la%e L!aqwag"ilamot!a laxaases 51 
k!wa^ye laxes nEgiimpe qaxs kMe&sae bEgwanEm xunox"s qa 
Lax"stodeci, qaxs lex'a^mae ximox^witses k' ledele HameLase. Wa, 
la^lae Llaqwag'ila g'lg'aex^edEx gwex'idaasas g'igama^yasa Maamta- 
g'ila, ylx Odze^stalise ytxs lae Is^lamasEx ompdiise Helamase. Wa, 55 
heEm^awis lag'ilas ^nek'a laxes k!wemexa g'alasa Kwag'ula lae 
yax^wltsa wawalqalayuwases nEgumpa lakMEnde ^niElxLosgEme 
^naEnx^iina^ya LE^wa sEk' !ax's6kwe eElagimsgEm ^naEnx^una^ya 
LE^wa hamogala L!eL!asgEm' ^naEnx^una^ya LE^wa q!EL!a ^walas- 
x'asgEm ^naEnx^una^ya. Wa, gil^Em^lawise gwal yaqwaxs laalas 60 
^nek'a: " ^ya, Kwag'ul, wa, la^niEn yax^witsox wawalqalayoxsg'in 
g'Igamek' nEgump laL g'ayoqa laxg'inlak' g'okulota laxg'a Gwa^sE- 
lak" yixg'a qElxolnox"g'asEn wiwompwulaxEn g'Jlg'allsa g'iqagi- 
wa^ye YaqalEnliswida, yixa Leqelola qa LegEmsa awinagwisex 
laxox GweqElisex. Wa, g'ax^mEn na^nakwa, Kwag'ul, es^'maeLEn t55 
hamax'ts!ax'saa qa gwex'^idaasaxEn g'Igamex'da ompe Helamasda, 
ylsa Legwada g'igama^ye Odze^stalisa. Wa, hag'a nii^nakux. La^mes- 
LEn yox"saEml l5x Logiin gEUEmk' yixg'a HameLasEk'," ^nex'^lae 
L!aqwag'ilaxa Kwag'ule. Wa, la^lae hex'^ida^ma Kwag'ule alex^wida 
qa^s g'axe na^nakwa. Wa, laEm lowaLax L!aqwag'ila. 70 

I At all other places LlEiiLlENtSEm. 



864 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etii. ann. sr. 

71 Then iJfiqwagila (XIV 1) had a son (XV 1); and then the | 
father-in-law of l laqwag'ila A^max' ag' ila (XIII 3) — for that was the 
other name of the | former Llaqwag'ila — said that he would give a 
name to his grandson, | and he named his grandson Q!eq!Ex'Lala 

75 (XV 1); and then |1 A^max'ag'ila (XIII 3) gave as a marriage gift 
forty mountain-goat blankets, | twenty-five mink blankets, thirty | 
marmot blankets, four grizzly-bear blankets, | four lynx blankets, 

80 and four | marten blankets, and one hundred deer-skin || blankets. 
And immediately Llaqwag'ila (XIV 1) gave them away to the | 
ancestors of the Gwa^sEla, on account of the highness of the name of 
his prince QleqiEx'Lala (XV 1). | 

And as soon as Q'.eqiEx'Lala (XV 1) grew up, he married | the 
princess of l laqwalal (XIV 3), chief of the numaym LalawIlElaof the | 
L !aL lasiqwala, for Llaqwalal's princess was named K' ledelEme^ 

85 (XV 2). And it was not |1 long before Q!eq!Ex'Lala (XV 1) had a 
son; I and Llaqwalal (XIV 3) said that he would give a name to his 
grandson, | and he gave him the name YaqEwid (XVI 1); | and he 
gave as his marriage gift fifty mink blankets, | one hundred yellow 

no cedar-bark blankets, twenty sewed sea-otter || blankets, fifty seals, 
and the whale | house-dish, the killer-whale house-dish, and the woK 
house-dish, and | also the grizzly-bear house-dish, and also the feast 



7] Wa, la^lae xungwadEx^^ide L!aqwag"ilase babagiime. Wa, la^lae 
uEgumpas Llaqwag'ila, yix A^max'ag'ila, (lieEm ^uEm LegEms 
L!aqwag'ihim6t!a), ^nex' qa^s he^me Leqela qa LegEmses ts!ox"LEma. 
Wii, laHae Lex^'ets Q!eq!Ex'Lala laxes ts!ox"LEma. Wa, laEm^lae 

75 A^max'^g'ila wawalqalasa mox"sokwe ^me^mElxLosgEm ^naEnx^ii- 
na^ya LE^wa sek' lagala matsasgEm ^naEnx^una^ya LE^wa yiidux"s6kwe 
kwekux"dEsgEm ^naEnx^una^ya, LE^wa mowe g'Ig'ilasgEm ^naEnx^u- 
na^ya LEwa mowe ^walasx'iisgEm ^naEnx^ima^ya LE^wa mowe lble- 
gExsEme ^naEnx^una^ya; wa, lieEm^awisa lakMEnde tetEk' lotsEme 

80 ^naEnx-'iina^ya. Wa, hex'^ida^mese Llaqwag'ila yax^wits laxa g'il- 
asa Gwa^sEla qa oma^yos LegEmases LawElgama^ye Qleq'.Ex-Lala. 

Wa, g-il^Em^lawise qlulyax^wide Q!eq!EX'Lalaxs lae gEg'adEx'^its 
k'!edelas Llaqwalale, yix g^igama^yasa ^nE^memotasa LalawilElasa 
L!aLasiqwala yPlaxs kledadae Llaqwalalas K' ledeiEma^ye. Wa, k- !es- 

85 4at!a galaxs laa^l xungwadEX'^ide Q!eq!Ex'Lalasa babagume. 
Wa, la4ae Llaqwalale ^nek' qa^s he^me Leqela qa LegEmses ts!ox"- 
LEma. Wa, laEm^lae Lex^edEs YiiqEwIde laxes ts!ox"LEma. Wa, 
hVlae wawalqalasa sEk'Iax'sokwe matsasgEm ^naEnx^iina^ya LE'wa 
lakMEnde k-!obawasa LE^wa maltsokwe q!aq!Enol q!eq!asasgEm 

90 'naEnx^iina^'ya LE^wa sEk'IasgEmg'usta megwata LE-wa gwE^yime 
lucplllJa LE^va max-cnoxwe loqulila LE'^wa fiLanEme loqulila; wii, 
he^mesa nilne loqillila. Wa, he^misa kIweladzEXLayowe LegEme 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 865 

name | Kwax'se^staJa; and the name of QleqiEx'Lala (XV 1) was 93 
changed, and he | now had the name X'ilx^ed (XV 1), when the 
ancestors of the L!aL!asiqwala hved at Newette, N for now I shall 05 
stop calling hhn Q!eq!Ex"Lala (XV 1). Immediately | Xilx-'ed 
(XV 1) got ready to go home with his wife K' ledelEme^ (XV 2) | and 
their child YjiqEwid (XVI 1 ) . Now he was going to his own country, | 
GweqElis. As soon as they arrived tliere, he gave away | the fifty 
mink blankets, one hundred ll yellow cedar-bark blankets, twenty 100 
sewed sea-otter | blankets, and the food obtained in the marriage 
feast, fifty seals. | They put the seals in the four house-dishes; and 
as soon | as these were put before the ancestors of the Gwa^sEla, he 
gave all the | skin blankets to his guests. That is what is called |1 
"giving away during a feast." Now, X ilx'ed (XV 1) was really a 5 
chief I among the Gwa^sEla on account of what he had done. Wlien 
YaqEwid (XVI 1) grew up, | his father X'iLx^'ed (XV 1) wanted him 
to marry the | princess (XVI 2) of Llaqwadze (XV 3), chief of the 
numaym G'exsEm of the | Gwa^sEla. He married her at once; and 
after II the marriage, Llaqwadze (XV 3) gave to his son-in-law lo 
YaqEwid (XVI 1) | as a marriage gift two slaves, four large canoes, | 
forty dressed elk-skin blankets, one hundred | deer-skin blankets, 
forty lynx blankets, | seven marten blankets, and twenty || mink 15 

Kwax'se^stala. Wii, laxae L!ayoxLa^ye QleqlExxala. Wa, laEm ij3 
LegadEs X'ilx-'ede lalaxs g-okulae g'aliisa LlaLlasiqwala lax NE-'wede 
qaxg'in la^mek' gwal LeqElas QleqlEx^Lala laq. Wa. liex-^idaEm^la- 95 
wise Xilx^ede xwanaHd qa^s la na^nakwa le'wis gEUEme K" ledelE- 
ma^ye LE^wis xunokwe YiiqEwide; wa, la^me lal laxes awlnagwise 
GweqElise. Wa, gih'Em'liiwise lag-aaxs laa-i hex-^ida^Em yaqwagE- 
lllasa SEk" !ax"sokwe matsasgEm ^naEnx'una^ya LE^wa lak" lEnde do- 
dEX"sEm k"!ek!6bawasa LE-wa maltsokwe q!aq!Enol q!eq!asasgEm lOO 
^naEnx^una^ya LE-'wa ha-'mayaaxsa-'ye sEkMasgEmg'ustawe megwata. 
Wa, heEm la axtslaxa niEwexLa loElqiililxa megwate. Wa, g"!l- 
'mese k^agEmlFlEmxa g'alasa Gwa^sElaxs lae yax'widayoweda ^naxwa 
^naEiix-una heyap !6masgEm laxa kiwele. Wa, heEm LegadEs 
yaxsEme^ya yaqwagllllaxa k!wele. Wii, laEm alakMala^l g-igama'ye 5 
X-ilx-'ediisa Gwa^sEla qaes gwex-'idaase. Wa, hVlae q!wax-ide 
YaqEwide. Wa, la^lae ompase Xilx^ede ^nek- qa wag'is gEgadcs 
k'ledelas L!aqwadzexa g'igama^yasa ^nE^memotasa G'exsEmasaGwa- 
^SEla. Wa, hex-^'idaEm-'lawise qadzel-idEq. Wii, gil-'Em^lawise gwiiia 
qadzeLEXs laa'l wiiwalqille^'lae l liiqwadzitxes uEgumpe YikjEwI- 10 
dasa ma^lokwe q!aq!Ek'}i. Wa, heEm^awisa motslaqe iiwa xwiixwa- 
k!una LE^wa m6x"sokweeElag'inisgEm-naEnx^una^ya LE^wa lakMEude 
tetEk'IotsEm ^naEnxHlna^ya LE'wa m6x"s5kwe -'wiilasx iisgEm ^nasn- 
x^una^ya LE^wa aLEbowe LeLEgEX"sEm ^naEux^flna'ya LE^wa maltso- 

75052—21—35 eth— pt 2 6 



866 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

16 blankets, and also a name which was to be the name of | YiiqEwid 
(XVI 1). He gave him the name LlaqwasgEm (XVI 1), | and also, 
as a name for his granddaughter, | Kunxulasogwi^Iak" (XVII 1). 
As soon as this had been done, LlaqwasgEm (XV 3) | made ready to 
give away his marriage presents to the ancestors of the Gwa^sEla, 1| 

20 on account of the highness of his princess Kunxtilasogwi^lak" 
(XVII 1). Now, I finish | caUing him YaqEwid (XVI 1), for his 
name was now LlaqwasgEm (XVI 1). Now, | LlaqwasgEm was 
unfortunate, because his child was a girl. It was | not long before 
he had another child, a boy (XVII 2). Then | he was really glad 
•25 on account of the boy. When it was first known || by his grand- 
father, Llaqwadze (XV 3), that the child was a boy, he made a great 
effort I when he gave the next marriage gift; namely, four slaves, 
four I large canoes, fifty dressed elk-skin blankets, | fifty lynx 

30 blankets, twenty-five | mink blankets, thirty marmot || blankets, ten 
marten blankets, | one hundred deer-skin blankets, one hundred 
mountain-goat | blankets, and also the name Sewid (XVII 2) as 
the I name of his grandson, and also his house. And when he had | 
done so, LlaqwasgEm (XVI 1) said that he would invite the ancestors 

35 of the II Naklwax'da^x" and of the Awlk" !enox". Then he sent his | 
tribe to invite them. One of the I canoes of the Gwa^sEla went 



15 kwe matsasgEm ^naEux^una^ya. Wa, he^misa LegEme qa LegEms 
YaqEwlde. Wa, laEm^lae LegEmg"ElxLa^ye LlaqwasgEm qa Le- 
gEms. Wa, he^misa LegEme qa LegEnises ts!ox"LEmagase Kiinxula- 
sogwi^lakwe. Wa,g'il'^Em-lawise gwfdsxs lae hex'^ida^me LlaqwasgE- 
me xwanal^ida qa^s yax^wideses gEg'adauEme laxa g'alasa Gwa-'sEla 

20 qa o^mayoses kMedele Kunxiilasogwi^lakwe. Wa, lasniLEn gwal 
LeqElas YaqEwIde laq qaxs lE^mae LegadEs LlaqwasgEme. Wii, la^me 
odzaxagEmde l !aqwasgEmaxs tslEdilqaes xiinokwe. Wii, hVlae 
k'!es galaxs laaEl etied xungwadEX'^itsa bilbagume. Wii, la^wesLa- 
^lae §,lak'!ala mololEma babagumaxs g'iilae mUltleg-aaLElExs bEgwa- 

25 UEmaases gagEmpe L!iiqwadze, wii, heEm^liiwis lag'ilas wiilEmx'^I- 
dExs laaEl et!ed wawak[iilasa mokwe qliiqlEk^owa LE^wa mots!aqe 
awa xwaxw^kluna LE^wa sEk" lax'sokwe eElag'imsgEm naEnx^una^ya 
LE^wa sEkMax'sokwe ^wiilasx'asgEm ^naEnx^una^ya LE^wa sek'!agala 
miltsasgEni ^naEnx^iina^ya LE^wa yudux"sokwe kweku.x"dEsgEm 

30 ^naEnx'^una^ya LE^wa liistowe LeLEgEX"sEme ^naEnx^una^ya LE^wa 
liik'lEnde tetEk- !otsEme ^naEnx^una^ya LE^wa lakMEnde ^me^'mElx- 
LosgEme ^naEux^una^ya. Wa, lieEm^lilwisa LegEme Sewide qa 
LegEmses ts!6x"LEma. Wa, heEm^liiwises g'okwe. Wii, g'il^Em^la- 
wise gwalExs laaEl ^nek'e LlaqwasgEme qa^s weg'e Lelslaxa g'iiliisa 

35 Naklwax'da^xwe LE^wa Awlk'lenoxwe. Wii, laEm^lae ^yilhiqases 
g'okulote qa la^s Leltsaya. Wii, g'iix^Em^lae ^uEmtsIaqElaxa xwa- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 867 

southward to the village TegQxste^ of the Nak !wax' da^x" ; | another 
canoe went northward to the village | of the Awik !enox" at K' !etet. 
After four days I| they came hack, and the Awik' !enox" | and Na- 40 
kiwax'da'x" came paddUng with tliem. Then the LEWElaxa song| 
was sung by the Awik" !enox" ; and the ancestors of the Gwa^sEla did 
not understand | the kind of song sung by the Awik' lenox", the 
song of the LEWEhxxa, | when they arrived in front of the village. 
The Awik' !enox" landed, || and also the Nak !wax' da^x" landed. 45 
They | did not sing when they came. Immediately they were 
invited in to eat | in the house of LlaciwasgEui (XVI 1) ; and as soon 
as they were all inside, | the Awik' lenox!" began to sing the LEWE- 
laxa song; I and the chief of the Awik' !enox", Llaqwag'ila (XV 4), 
danced. || After he had danced, he took off his red-cedar neck-ring 50 
and I his head-mask set with ermine-skins, and he called l !aqwasgEm 
(XVI 1), I and said to him, "Come to me, child l !aqwasgEm (XVl 1) ! 
Let these | new dancing-things go to you, whicli I obtained in 
marriage from the | chief of the OyalaidEx", Hamdzid (XIV 4). He 
has for his princess Llaqwal (XV 5). || Now, your name shall be 55 
Hamdzid (XVI 1), for we are descended from the same | ancestors." 
Thus said l liiriwag' ila (XV 4) to his grandfather. | Immediately 
LlaqwasgEm (XVI 1) arose and went to the place where Llaqwag'ila 
(XV 4) was standing ; | and l laqwasgEm (XVI 1 ) stood by the side 

kliina Gwa^sEla ^na^nalaaqa laxa Naklwax'da^xwaxs g'okiilae Tegfixs- 37 
ta^ye. Wa, la^'lae gwagwaac[axa ^uEmtsIacje xwak!una lux gokti- 
lasasa g'alasa Awlk'lenoxwe lax K'!etete. Wa, aEm^lawise m6p!En- 
xwa^se ^nalasexs g'axae aedaaqa. Wa, laEm^lae sEyogwexa Awi- 40 
k'lenoxwe LE^wa Naklwax'da^xwe. Wa, hxEm^lae LEWElaxak' !ala 
dEUXElayasa Awlk'lenoxwe. Wa, laEm^lae k'les ayosEla^Iae g'alasa 
Gwa^sEJax gwek' !alasas dEuxalayasa Awik' !enoxwa LEWElaxak" !alae 
g'axae aLEX'^ala lax Llasakwas. Wa, g'ax'lae g'ax^aliseda Awlk'le- 
noxwe. Wa,g'ax^lae ogwaqag'ax^aliseda Naklwax'da^xwe. LaEm-'lae 45 
k'leas gwek'Ialats. Wii, hex'^idaEm'lawise Le^lalaso^ cja^s lii l!e- 
xwa lax g'okwas LlaciwasgEma^ye. Wii, g'ipEm'lawise ^wI-IaeLExs 
laaEl liex'^idaEm et !eda dEiix^ideda Awik' lenoxwasa LEWElaxa. Wa, 
laEm^lilwise yixwe g'lg&ma^yasa AwlkMenoxwe Llaqwag'ila. Wa, rn 
g'il^Em^lawise gwal yLxwaxs lae axodxes LlagEkluxawa^ye LE-'wes 
g'lg'ilEmakwe yixwewa^ya. Wa, la^lae Le^lalax L!aqwasgEme. Wa, 
laEm%e ^nek'a: "Wa, gelag'a xiinok" LlaqwasgEm qa Irdag-isEk. 
ax^aLElag'ada alo-'masEk' yax"LEn laL, yixg'in gEg'adanEmk- hlxa rr 
g'lg&ma^yasa OyalaidExwe lax H&mdzide, ylxs k'!edadaas Llaqwale. 
Wa, la'mets LegadElts Hamdzide qaxs ^nEm'mafisEns g'ayowasEns 
wiwompwulaEns," ^nex'^lae Llaqwag'ilaxes gagEmpe. Wii, hex-'i- 
daEm^lawise L!aqwasgEme Lax-ulll qa^s la lax La^wi^lasas Llaqwag'ila. 
Wa, g'U^Em^lawise La^wEnodzElIle LlaqwasgEmax L!aqwag'ilaxs lae 



868 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 26 

of Llaqwag'ila (XV 4); and | Llaqwag'ila touk off his grizzly-bear 

60 blanket and put it on || LlaqwasgEm; and he took off his dancing- 
apron and put it on | LlaqwasgEm; and he put around his neck the 
red cedar-bark ring mixed with white | for the LEWElaxa dance, 
which was to be the red cedar-bark ring of L!aqwasgEm (XVI 1), 
and he put on his head the head-mask. | And as soon as he liad done 
it all, L laqwag'ila (XV 4) | told how he had obtained them. He said, 

65 "I married ||L!aqwal (XV 5), the princess of Hamdzid (XIV 4), 
chief of the OyalaidEx of the | Bellabella; and this is what I obtained 
by marrying her — the LEWElaxa and the name | Hamdzid. Now, 
Hamdzid sliall be your name when you give the LEWElaxa. | And the 
name LlaqwasgEm shall be j'our name during the secular season." 
Thus said Llaqwag'ila (XV 4) | to LlaqwasgEm (XVI 1). Then the 

70 Awlk' !enox" sang || four LEWElaxa songs, and LlaqwasgEm (XVI 1) 
danced. | And Llaqwag'ila (XV 4) just stood by his side. | Lla- 
qwasgEm (XVI 1) was sliaking the rattle with his one hand as he 
danced, going around the fire in the middle of the | dancing-house of 
LlaqwasgEm (XVI 1). This was the time when the Gwa^sEla saw | 
the LEWElaxa for the first time. And the LEWElaxa came from 

75 there. || And the reason why Llaqwag'ila (XV 4) gave it to Lla- 
qwasgEm (XVI 1) is because he knew that they had the | same 
descent. As soon as LlaqwasgEm (XVI 1) had finished dancing, | he 
spoke, and said, " O l laqwag' ila (XV 4) 1 | thank you for what you 



axode Llaqwag'ilaxes g'ilasgEme ^nEx^una^ya qa^s ^nEx^undes lax 

60 LlaqwasgEme. Wit, la^lae axodxes tsape qa^s tsapledes lax 
LlaqwasgEme. Wa, la qEnxotsa ^niElmaqEJa qEnxawe LEWElaxa- 
xawe LlagEk" lax LlaqwasgEme. Wa, la^ae yixwiyotsa ylxwl- 
wa^ye laq. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise ^wilg'aaLElaxs lae Llaqwag'ila 
tslEk'lal'Itses g'ayoLasaq. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a; "Leu gEg'adEs Lla- 

G5 qwale, yix k' ledelas Hamdzide g'igama^yasa OyalaidExwasa Heklza- 
^qwe. Wa, yo^mesEn gEg'adauEm laqexwa LEWElaxa LE^wa LegEme 
Hamdzide. Wa, hx^mets LegadElts Hamdzide laxwa LEWElaxax. 
Wii, hexsa^'mets LegEme LlaqwasgEme laxa baxiise," 'nex'^lae Lla- 
qwag'ilax LlaqwasgEme. Wa, laEm^lae dEnx^ededa Awik' lenoxwasa 

70 mosgEme LeLEWElaxak' lala q lEmq lEmdEma. Wa, laEm^lawise ylxwe 
LlaqwasgEme. Wa, a^mes la Laxwemele Llaqwag'ila. Wa, la^me 
kliixEtkloltslane LlaqwasgEmaxs lae yIx"se^stalilElaxa laqawalilasa 
LEWElaxaatsle g'ox"s LlaqwasgEme. Wii, heEm g'alabe dox^waLElatsa 
Gwa^sEliixa LEWElaxa. Wit, he^mis la gwt'l=idaatsa LEWElaxax laxeq. 

75 Wii, he^mis lag'ilas Lliiqwag'ila las lax LlaqwasgEmaxs qlaLEJa^maaxs 
^nEm6x"^maes g'ayowasa LE^we. Wii, g'JPEm-lawise gwal ylxwe 
LlaqwasgEmaxs lae yaqlEg'a^a. Wii, lii^lae ^nek'a: "^ya, Llaqwa- 
g'ila, gelak'aslax'Ig'as g'axyog'os g'axEn; he^dEn ^ne^nak'ile ylxs 



noAsl FAMILY HISTORIES 869 

have brought me. This is the reason why I spoke. | I shall not use 
this great dance. It shall go to my || prince Sewid (XVII 2). He SO 
shall have the name Hamdzid." | Thus spoke LlaqwasgEm (XVI 1) 
to his tribe, the Gwa-sEla, and to the Nak!wax"da^x", [ and also to the 
Awik' !enox", and they all agreed to | what he said. As soon as he 
had spoken, he gave away the | four slaves to the chiefs of the 
Naklwaxda^x" and || Awlk' !enox", and four large canoes | went to 85 
the chiefs of the two tribes, ] and he gave away the one hundred 
deer-skin blankets to the [ two tribes. After this the two tribes | 
went out. They unloaded their canoes, || and night came. Then 90 
Llaqwagila (XV 4) spoke | to his tribe, and told them to sing four 
times the ] LEWElaxa songs for Sewid (XVII 2), the prince of 
LlaqwasgEm (XVI 1), who | was to be a helik'ilal in the LEwElaxa 
dance. Then Llaqwagila (XV 4) taught the | song of the hehk'llal 
to Sewid (XVII 1) late at night. And || Lliiqwag'ila (XV 4) asked 95 
his painters to put up the | sacred room with the moon on it and a toad 
inside the moon. | At once two painters took four | roof-boards, 
rubbed them with old cedar-bark mats to remove | the soot, and, 
when all the soot was off, 1| they put them down in the rear of the 100 
house of LlaqwasgEm in the night. | Before daylight they finished. 

k'lesel nogwa aaxsilalxwa ^walasex lada, yixs lE^maex lal laxEn 
LEWElgama^yox Sewidex. Wa, la^mesox LegadElts Hiimdzitle," 80 
^nex-^lae l laqwasgEmaxes g-oktilota Gwa^sEla LE^wa Naklwaxda- 
^xwe, wii, he^misa Awik- lenoxwe. Wa, la^lae ^naxwaEm ex'^ao-aye 
waldEnias. Wa, gil^Em^lawise gwill yaqlEntlillaxs laaEl yax-'wltsa 
mokwe qlaqlEk-owa lax g-ig'igama^yasa Naklwax-da^xwe LE^wa 
Awik-lenoxwe. Wa, heEm^lawisa motslaqe awa xwaxwakliina. 85 
HeEmxaa lii laxa g-Ig"Egama^yasa ma^ltsEiiiakwe lelqwalaLa^ya. 
Wa, la^lae yax^wltsa lak-lEnde tetEklotsEm ^naEnx^una^ya laxa 
ma^ltsEmakwe lelqwalaLa^ya. Wii, laEm^lae gwala laa^lase hoqu- 
wElseda ma^ttsEniakwe lelqwahiLa^ya. Wii, laEm^lae moltiilaxes 
niEmwala. Wa, la^lae ganuPida. Wii, hvlae Lliiqwag-ila yaqlE- 90 
g'a^lxes g'okiilote. LaEm^lae nelaqexs moplEiieLe kwexEla qaeda 
LKWElaxa qa Sewide, yl^lax LEWElgama^'yas LlaqwasgEmaxs lE^maaEl 
hehk-IialL laxa LEWElaxa. Wa, la^me Llaqwag-ila q liiq 'ol lamatsa 
yiilaxLEnases helikilale Lax Sewidaxa la giila ganoLa. Wa, laxae 
Llaqwagila iixklalaxes kliikMEt lenoxwe qa k-lox-'walllesexa 95 
^niEkuladzala mawila. Wa, hVlae wfiqliisa otslawasa ^mskula. 
Wii, hex'idaEiii^liiwisa ma^lokwe k'liik- lEtlenox" ax=edxa moxsa 
saokwa qa^s yiltsEldzayesa klak'lobane laxa sesaokwe cpx liiwiiyesa 
qlwiilobEse laq. Wii, g-Il^Em^lawise -wHawa qlwalobEsaxs laaEl 
ax-'aliias laxa naqoLEwalllasa gokwa LlaqwasgEmexa ganoLe. 100 
Wa, k' les^Em^ltiwise ^niix'-idExs lae gwiila. Wii, laEm^lae tslsl- 



870 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL ietii.ann. 36 

2 At once it was a cause of surprise, | when it was seen by the unhiiti- 
atecl of the Naklwax'da^x" | and Gwa^sEla, and also by the other 
Awik' !enox". As soon as it was | daylight, in the morning, l laqwag'i- 
5 la (XV 4) asked L'.aqwasgEm (XVI 1) |1 to call in the Naklwaxda^x" 
and Awik' !enox" and all the | Gwa^ssla to eat breakfast in the 
dancing-house for the | LEWElaxa. Then the chief of the Awik" !e- 
nox", Llac^wag'ila (XV 4), said | that he woidd show to Sewid 
(XVII 2) how to dance the LEWElaxa and the great | dance helikllal. 

10 Wlien the || three tribes came in, L!ac[wag'ila (XV 4) arose, and | 
said, "I have already told that the LEWElaxa was a marriage gift | 
from Chief Hamdzid (XIV 4) of the OyalaidEx", and that | Q !omogwa 
is the supernatural property of the helik'ilal, and that the name of the 
helik'ilal is | Yemask'as^o Qlomogwa. And now we shaU sing for 

15 four days for || the helik'ilal. We shall begin now, so that j'ou may 
see the | way of dancing of the hehk'ilal. This is the sacred room of 
the hehk'ilal, j what you see standing there, which I obtained in 
marriage from the cliief of the | OyalaidEx" of the BeUabella. I am 
speaking about it emphatically, | because it is always asked of the 

20 chiefs of the tribes || to say where they obtained the LEWElaxa by 
those who do not know | what is in the box of real chiefs. This is 
the I reason for my saying so — that you, Naklwax'da^x" and Gwa- 
^sEla, I shall not speak against Yemask'as^o Qlomogwa (XVII 2), 
which is the name of the helik'ilal, Sewid (XVII 2), for | now in the 

2 gimxs lae dox^waLEltsa g'lgexseg'a^yexa N5k!wax"da^xwe 
LE^wa Gwa^sEla Lo^ma waokwe laxa Awik' !enoxwe c|axs g'il^ma- 
aEl ^nax'^idxa gaaliixs laa^lae L!aqwag'ila axklalax LlaqwasgEme 
5 qa Lelalesexa Naklwax'da^xwe LE^wa Awik-!enoxwe l6^ ^wi^leda 
Gwa^sEla qa g'axese gaaxstahx laxa la lobfikwa g'okwe qaeda 
LEWElaxa. Wa, la^me ^nek-e g'lgama^yasa Awik- lenoxwe L!aqwag-ila 
qa^s alak'lale nelasexs lE^mae alak-!ala lasa LEwElaxa LE^wa ^walase 
liideda helik-ilale lax Sewide. Wa, g'iPEm^lawise ^wi^laeLeda yu- 

10 dux"sEmakwe leslqwalaLexs laa^Iase La^xulile Llaqwag'ila qa^s 
uEgElttVyexEn laEmx'de waldEma ytxs alak-lalae gEg'adanEmaxa 
LEWElaxa lax g'lgama^yasa OyalaidExweHamdzide. Wa, he-'misexs 
Q!omogwayae Logwa^yasa helik'ilale, wit, he="mis LegEmsa helik'ilale 
Yemask-as^o Qlomogwa. "Wa, la^mesEns moplEnxwa^sL kwexalal- 

15 xwa helikilalex. Wa, la^mesEns g'iilabEndElxwa ganoLex qEus 
doqwaiexox yixwalaene^Laxsa helik'ilalex. Wa, yuEm mawiltsa he- 
lik-ilalos laqos dogul kMogwilaxEn gEg'adauEmex lax g'igama^yasa 
0.> alaidExwasa Heldza-qwe. HedEn lag'ilaEn EpElk-!rda gwagwex'- 
s'ala laq" qaxs he'mEnala-'mae waLap!eda 'naxwa g-Jg-Egamasa lel- 

20 qw3laLa^ye, xa nek'e widzEsdzEwilaoxda LEWElaxaxa k- !ese q !eq lalax 
g-iyimts!awax gllg-ildasasa alak'Iala g'ig'Egama'ya. Wa, he^mcsEn 
=ne'nak'iJe, laEms k'!easL lal waldEmLos, Nak!wax-da^x" los Gwa^sEl, 
qaox Yemask'as^o Q!5mogwax6x helik'ilalEXLayoxs Sewide, yixs 



BOAS) FAMILY HISTORIES 871 

LEWElaxa his mime shall no longer be Sewid. Now his name shall 
l)e II Ilamdzid (XVII 1). As soon as he finishes the LEWElaxa, in 25 
four I days, then his name shall again he Sewid (XVII 2). Now he 
himself will | dance to invite yon. And therefore his name is | 
Yemask'as^o Qlomogwa as a helilcilai; and his name is | Hamdzid 
because he takes care of the LEWElaxa. That is it." i| Thus said 30 
Llaqwag'ila (XV 4). | 

As soon as they had finished breakfast, they went out, and | two 
painters worked to make the mask of Q!6mogwa. | And as soon as 
night came, Llacjwag'ila (XV 4), chief of the | Awik' !enox", asked 
two of his speakers and two of the || speakers of Llaqwag'ilagEme^ 35 
(XVI 1) to listen to what the people were saying when they | went 
to call their tribe and the guests to go into the | dancing-house. As 
soon as the four | speakers had assembled, Llaqwag'ila instructed 
them what to say outside | of the dooi's of all the houses. "This is 
what you will say, || 

"'O LEWElaxa dancers! I call you to restore to his senses Yemas- 40 
k'as^o Qlomogwa, | the helik'ilal, Qlomogwa. You shall sing for 
our Yemask'as^o | Qlomogwa.'" | 

As soon as they stopped speaking at the doors of the houses, | the 
men, women, || and their children arose, and went into the LEWElaxa 45 
house, for | all wished to see the new thing that is called LEWElaxa, 



lE^maex gwat LegadEs Sewide laxwa LEWElaxax. Wa, la^mox Lega- 
dEs Hamdzide. Wa, g'll^EmlwIsox gwalLa LEWElaxax lax moxsaLa 25 
^naLil laLoxet!edEl LegadEl Sewide laxeq. Wa, laEniLoxqlulex's^Em 
yixwa^masxos bEklwena^yaxs LelEJaex. Wa, he^mis lagilasox Lega- 
dEs Yemask'as-'o Qlomogwa laxes helik'Ila^le^na^ye. Wa, lax- Lega- 
dEs Hamdzide qaes aaxsilaena^yaxa LEWElaxax. Wa, yu^moq"," 
^nex'^lae Llaqwag'ila. 3q 

Wa, g'ipEm^awise gwal gaaxstalaxs lae hoqilwElsa. Wa, hex'- 
^idaEm^lawisa ma^lokwe k'lak'.Eltenox" eax^edxa Qlomokumle. 
Wa, g'il^Em^lawise ganoPiclExs laa^lase Llaqwag'ilaxa g'lgama^yasa 
Awik'Ienoxwe ^xkMalaxa ma^lokwe laxes a^yllkwe LE^wa ma^lokwe 
lax a^yllkwas Llaqwag'ilagEma^ye qa las hoLelax gwek' lalasasexs lae 35 
qasaxes g'okulote LE^wa LelalanEme qa las ^wFla liogwiLa laxa 
LEWElaxaats!e g'okwa. Wa, g'ipEm^lawise q!ap!ex'^Ideda mokwe 
a^yilkwa, laa^lase Llaqwag'ila Lexs'alaq qa gwek'Ialets hix LlasanS,- 
^yas t!EX'ilasa ^naxwa g'ig'Okwa. " Wa, g'aEms waldEmlg'a: 

' LelElanogoLa ts!ets!eqao nan^qamaLEnsax Yemask'as^o Qlomo- 4Q 
gwa helikihilk'as^o Q!6niogwa; LaselaLosxEnsax Yemask'as^o Qlo- 
mogwa.' " 

Wa, g'llnaxwa^maalase qlwel'Id lax t!et!EX'ilasa g'ig'okwaxs laaEl 
hex'^idaEm ^wFla q!wag'ilileda bebEgwanEme LE^wis gEgEuEme 
Lo^mes sasEme, qa^s liiEl hogweL laxa LEWElaxaats!e g'okwa, qaxs 45 
^naxwa^mae x'ax'etslanaxa alomase LEgemsa LEWElaxa. Wa, la^lae 



872 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. Ann. 35 

47 and | all the three tribes came in. Tlien l laqwag' ila arose | and 
called L laqwasgEm. And as soon as l !aqwasgEm stood by the side | 
liO of L laqwag' ila, then L laqwag' ila said to all the || tribes, | 

" Now this chief shall be assistant in the | future LEWElaxa dances 
of future generations." Thus he said. | 

And as soon as he stopped speaking, there was a sacred song sung | 
in the sacred room, and this is it: || 
55 " What, oh, what has become of my supernatural power ? 
Hoa I hoa ! Wliat has become of it ? | 

It has escaped from me, it has escaped from me, my supernatural 
power. I Hoa hoa! It has escaped from me, my supernatural power. 
Hoa hoa!" | 

There was another sacred song: || 
60 "Come and fly over me, you who flew away from me to the light of 
the world. | Come and fly over me, ho waya waya ha haa!" | 

As soon as l laqwag' ila stopped singing, he called LlaqwasgEm: | 

"Let us look at the sacred singing behind the front of the | sacred 

65 room!" And they went in. They had not stood long, || before 

LlaqwasgEm came back alone. He said, "Take care, | tribes! 

That is the voice of the hehk'ilal. Now begin to | sing, and I shall 

47 ^wFlaeLeda yudux"sEmakwe lelqwalaLexs laaEl Lax^iillle Llaqwag'ila 
qa^s Le^lalex LlaqwasgEme. Wa, gil^Em'lawise la LawEnodzElile 
LlaqwasgEmax Llaqwasg'ilaxs lae ^nek'e Llaqwag'ilaxa ^naxwa 
50 lelqwalaLa^ya: 

"LaEmk" Laxwemilnaxwalg'ada g'lgamek' laxa EPnakulaLa le- 
WElaxaLasa El^nakiilaLa bEgwanEml," ^nex'^lae. 

Wa. giPEm^lawise qlwePidExs laaPasa yalaq Iwala lax aLadza^yasa 
mawile ylsg'ada: 

55 Wex'^ideg'a ha wex'^ihedeg'a wex'^ides qae ^nawalahakwasda 

hoa hoa wex'^idesk'a. 
Madoso o^nogwa, madoso o^nogwa madosds qae ^nawalahakwas- 
da hoa hoa madosoqae ^nawalahakwasdii hoa hoa. 

Wa, la l^s laxa ^nEmsgEme yalaxLEna: 

60 Gena qlanaauLa k'ae qlaneg'ilis lax ^naqiilayaxea ha aha gena 

q lanaauLa ho waya waya ha haa. 
Wa, g^lPEm^lawise qlwePedExs lae Llaqwag'ila axkMalax Llaqwas- 
gEme: "^ya, wex'ins ddqwaxa sayolaqiila laxg'a aLadzeg'asg'a 
mawilek'." Wa, lax-da^x"-'lae hiyaklilla. Wa, k'les^latla galaxs 
65 i^'axae uEnx^ale LlaqwasgEme. Wa, la^iae ^nek'a: "Weg'a jraLla- 
LEX o-olg"Ekulot; yuEm qlwasElagilila helik'llalex. Wa, weg'a dEn- 
x^edEx qEU lalag'i guux-^ld hil6L!aqo ' le^wox Llaqwag'ilax qa 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTOKIES 873 

try to secure him, together with Llaqwag'ila, so that he may | come 68 
and dance." Immediately the Awik" !enox" sang, | and LlaqwasgEm 
went back into the room. Before long || the helik ilal came, wearing 70 
the grizzly-bear skin blanket, and around his neck a | thick cedar- 
bark ring. He wore on his head the head-mask with ermines, | and 
he wore a dancing-apron around his waist. He was | shaking his 
rattle with one hand as he was dancing. | He danced around the fire 
in the middle of the house. Then Llaqwag'ila || and LlaqwasgEm 75 
were his attendants. Four songs | were sung by the Awik' lenox". 
Then they finished. As soon | as they had finished, the helik' ilal 
went back to his sacred room; and | LlaqwasgEm gave away one 
hundred mountain-goat blankets to the | Nak!wax'da^x" and to the 
Awik' lenox"; and as soon as he finished || giving away the mountain- 80 
goat blankets, the chief of the | Awlklenox", Llaqwag'ila said to the 
Naklwax'da^x" and Gwa^ssla | that they should come back into the 
LEWElaxa house the next | evening. Thus he said. | 

As soon as he stopped speaking, the Naklwax'da^x" Hand the 85 
Awik' !enox" and the Gwa^sEla went out. And when it was evening | 
on the following day, the four speakers went again to call them, | 
and they said the same as they had said when they called them the 
first time to the dance. | Now they were dancing, and they did the 
same that night | as they had done before. And as soon as the 



g'axeso ylx^wlda." Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawiseda AwikMenoxwe dEu- 68 
x^eda. Wa, liVlae L!aqwasgEme layaktllla. Wa, k^es^latla galaxs 
g'axaasa helik'ilale ^nEx^unalaxa g'UasgEme ^nEx^iina^ya qEuxalaxa 70 
LEkwe LlagEkwa. Wa, laEm^lae yLxwiwalaxa g-ig-ilE^makwe yixwl- 
wa^ya. Wii, laEm^lae tsabEx"sa yixuxsdeg'a^ye tsapa. Wa, la^la- 
xae k!uxEtk-!olts!anaxa kluxEdEuaxs lae yixwa. Wa, laEm^lae 
yixse^stalilElaxa laqawalilasa g'okwe. Wa, laEm^lae Llaqwag'ila 
Lo^lae L!aqwasgEme LaxwemelEq. Yfh, mosgEm=lat!a q!Emq!Em- 75 
dEme dEnx-edayuwasa Awik- !enoxwaxs lae gwala. Wii, g'iPEm^la- 
wise gwalExs lae layak'llileda helik'ilale laxes mawile. Wii, la^lae 
LlaqwasgEme yax^witsa lak'lEude 'me^mElxLcsgEm ^naEnx^une laxa 
Naklwax-da^xwe LE^wa Awik'Ienoxwe. Wii, g'lPEm-'lawise gwala 
yaqwasa ^me^mElxLosgEme ^naEnx^unexs lae nele g'lg^ma^yasa 80 
Awik'Ienoxwe Llaqwag'ilaxa Niiklwax'da^xwe LE^wa Gwa^sEliixs 
etiedel g'axL ^wilal hogweL laxa LEWElaxaats!e g'ox"xa etIedELa 
ganol^idEl, ^nex'^lae. 

Wa, g'il^Em^lawiseqlwePedExs lae ^wi'la hoquwElsedaNaklwax'da- 
^xwe LE^wa Awik- !enoxwe Lo'ma Gwa-sela. Wa, g'il^Em^liiwise dza- 85 
qwaxa lEnsaxs laaEl et!ed qas^ideda mokwe a-yilkwa. Wa, laEmxae 
aEm UEgEltEwexes g'iile waklEmaxs g-alae cjasa qaeda g-ale kwe- 
XEla. Wa, laEmxae kwexEla. Wii, heEULxaawise gweg-ilaxa gano- 
Les g-ale gweg-ilasa. Wii, g-il^mese gwal ytx^wieda helik-ilalasa mos- 



874 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

90 helik'ilal finished dancing with the || four songs, lie went into the 
sacred room. Then | LlaqwasgEin gave away twenty-five mink 
blankets and | fifty lynx blankets to the Naklwax'da^x" | and 
Awik' !enox"; and when tliis was done, they all went out. | 

In the evening of the following day the four speakers went to 

95 call them again, || and said, "This will really be the taming of the 
hehkilal." | They would say tliis after they had said the words which 
they used before, | when they -were calling them. After they had 
gone tlu'oughout the whole village, | the three tribes went in. Then | 
Llaqwagila and L!aqwasgEm went behind the front of the sacred 
300 room, || and the helik'ilal sang his two sacred songs. | When he 
stopped, the Awik' !enox" sang, | the helik'ilal came out dancing, 
and when they were nearly at the. end | of the last of the four songs, 
the helik'ilal ran out | of the door of the dancing-house, and 
5 L!aqwag'ila and || LlaqwasgEm ran after him. It was not long 
before they came back. | Llaqwagila was carrying the head- 
mask and the grizzly-bear blanket, | and LlaqwasgEm carried 
the cedar-bark neck-ring and the | dancing-apron and the 
rattle. Then L!ac[wag'ila said | that he and his friend Lla- 

10 qwasgEm had found them, and they were || talking happily 
about what thej^ pretended to have found. Then a whistle 
sounded on the beach | in front of the dancing-house. Llaqwag'ila 

90 gEme q lEmq lEmdEmxs lae aLadzElTlaxa mawile. Wa, laxae Lla- 

qwasgEme' j'ax-witsa sEk'Iagala matsasgEm ^naEnx^una^ya LE^wa 

sEk" !ax'sokwe Hvalasx'i'isgEm ^naEnx^iina^ya laxa Nak!wax'da^xwe 

LE^wa Awik" !enoxwe. Wa, g'iPmese gwaiExs lae ^wi^la hoquwElsa. 

Wii, laxae dzaqwaxs lae lEnsa, lae etieda qas^ideda mokwe S^yil- 

95 kwa. Wa, laEm^lae ^nek'Exs lE^mae alag'allL nanaqamalxa helik"i- 
lale; alnaxwaEm^lae ^nek'Exs lae ^wi^lawe wiildEmas laxes g'ag'ilae 
waldEmxs qasae. Wa, glPEm^lawise labElsaxa g'okulaxs g'axae 
^wI^laeLeda j'1idux"sEmakwe le.ElqwalaLa^ya. Wii, hex^^idaEm^lawise 
layak'illle Llaqwag'iia Lo' LlaqwasgEme lax aLadza'yasa mawile. 
300 Wa, la^lae yalaqweda helik'ilalasa maltsEme yalaxLEna. Wa, 
g'il^Em^lawise qlwel^edExs lae dEiix^ededa Awik' !enoxwe. Wa, 
g'ax^lae yixiiitsIalelEleda helik'Ilale. Wa, g'iPmcse Elaq qlulbeda 
ElxLa^yasa mosgEme q lEmq !EmdEmsa helik'llalaxs laaEl dzElx^wEls 
lax tlEx'ililsa LEWElaxaats!e g'okwa. Wii, lii=lae Lliicjwag'ila lo^ 
5 LliiqwasgEme dzElx"sEmeq. Wa, kMestIa giilaxs g'axae aedaaqa 
dale Llaqwag'Uaxa ylxwiwa^ye LE^wa g'llasgEme ^nEx^ilna^ya. Wa, 
la^lae ogwaqa dale LliiqwasgEmaxa LlagEkluxawa^ye LE^wa ylxitxs- 
deg'a^ye tsiipa LE^wa kluxEdEne. Wa, la^me ^nex'^'Iae Lliiqwag'i- 
laxs qlaacj LE^wes ^uEmokwe LliiqwasgEme. Wa, heEm^lawis ales 

10 eek-!eq!illax'da^x''ses qiaboliixs laa^lasa ts!ek!uk'!alii laxa LlEma^i- 
sasa LEWElaxaats!e g'okwa. Wii, la^lae Llaqwag'iia heEl g'il wiiLa- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 875 

was the fu-st to hear it, | and he said to LlaqwasgEm they would go 12 
at once | to look at it. They just put into the sacred room what they 
had found, | and went out. Before long iJaqwag'ila came back ll 
and stood in the doorway of the | house, and said, "O dancers! now 15 
I have discovered | our dancer, and he has been transformed. He 
has become | Q !6mogwa, and he is going to he well now. Now I will 
bring him in." | Thus he said, and he went out again. Before long || 
he came back, walking backward, with LlaqwasgEm walking in front 20 
of him. I He was wearing the mask of Q lomogwa. Then l laqwag'ila 
told the Awik' !enox" | to go ahead and sing; and as soon as they 
began to sing, | the mask of Q !6mogwa began to dance. And as soon 
as. they came to the rear of the house, he went in | behind the front 
of the sacred room. This is ended. || 

Then LlaqwasgEm gave away fifty lynx | blankets, ten marten 25 
blankets, | thirty marmot blankets, to the Naklwaxda^x" | and 
Awlk' !enox". That is all about this. This was | the fu'st LEWElaxa 
in the southern country. || Therefore I am the only one who is fu-st 30 
called to be the attendant of the LEWElaxa, for | mj ancestors were 
the fii'st to obtaiia the dance. Now I have finished talkmg | about 
Llaqwag'ila (XV 4), who brought the LEWElaxa to LlaqwasgEm 
(XVI 1). I 



x^aLElaq. Wa, la^lae axkMalax LlaqwasgEme qa^s lax'da^xwe 12 
dox^wklEq. Wa, aEin^lfiwise la axts!^lilases q!eq!a laxa mawlle. 
Wii, la^lae hoqiiwElsa. Wil, k'!es-lat!a galaxs g^axae aedaaqe 
Llaqwag'ila. Wii, heEnrlawise Lax^'iilile awiLEliisa tiEx-Ilasa 15 
g'okwe. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "^ya ts!ets!eqo; lanogwa maltleg'aa- 
LElaxgins yixwagins lag'asg"a la Sgiix^Idaehi. Wa, laeg'as la q!6- 
mogwe^stalila. Wa, lag'a hel'nakida. Wii, lanogwa g iixeLamasLE- 
g'aq"," ^nex'^laexs lae xwelaqa lilwElsa. Wa, kMeS''lat!a g'alaxs 
g'axae g'axeLEla k'liineLEla lo^ LlilqwasgEme k'amesgEmexa yixu- 20 
miilaxa qlomokumle. Wii, la^lao L!iiqwag'ila wiixaxa Awik"!enoxwe 
qa dEnx^edes. Wii, g'll^Em^liiwise denx^edExs lae ylx^wldeda qlo- 
mokumle. Wii, gll'Em-lawise liig'aa hixa ogwiwalllaxs lae latsltxlll 
liixa iiLadza'yasa mawile. Wa, la^me gwiil liixeq. 

Wii, la^lae LlaqwasgEme et!ed yax^witsa sEk' lax'sokwe ^walasx'iis- 25 
gEm ^naEiix^ttna^ya LE^wa lastowe LeLEgEx"sEme ^naEnx^una^ya 
LE^wa yudux"sokwe kwekiix"dEsgEm ^naEux^una^ya laxa Niiklwax- 
da^xwe LE^wa Awik' lenoxwe. Wa, laEm gwal laxeq. Wa, heEm 
g'il g'ax LEWElaxa liixwa ^nalenak'alax awinak'ala. Wii, he-misEii 
liig'ila lex'aEm g'il Le^liilaso' cj^a la Laxwemel lax LEWElaxa qaxs 30 
he^maEn g'ale g'axatsa LEWElaxa. Wa, laEm gwalEns gwiigwex's^a- 
laena^ye lax L!iiqwag'iliixs g'iixaasa LEwElaxa lax LlaqwasgEme. 



876 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 35 

33 Now I shall talk about him when he was looking for a wife for his 
prince | Sewid (XVII 2); for he was no longer named Yemask'as^o 

35 Qlomogwa (XVII 1), || for he had the name Yemask'as^o Qlomogwa 
only during the LEWElaxa, | and his summer name was Sewid. Then 
he learned about | ^nax'nag'Em (XVII 3) of the l !aL !asiqwS,la, the 
princess of Amax'ag'ila (XVI 3), | another one of the chiefs of the 
G'exsEm. Then | he married ^nax'nag'sm. They lived in the 

40 village of the ancestors of the l !aL lasiqwala, || GewasEm. After 
thej' were married, Amax'ag'ila (XVI 3) | gave as a marriage gift 
sixty sea-otter blankets, | four slaves, one hundred and twenty 
cedar-bark blankets, | six canoes, and forty mink blankets. | And 
Amax'ag'ila (XVI 3) wanted Sewid (XVII 2) to give a winter dance. 

45 And II Amax' ag' ila (XVI 3) gave in marriage as privilege the mama- 
q !a and its name | Q !ulad ; and the bird-dance, and its name ^iiawala- 
kumeg'ilis; and | the hamshamtslEs, and its name ^nax"q!ESElag'ilis; 
and the healing-dance, | and its name Eg'aq!wala; and also a secular 
name as the name for | Sewid (XVII 2), namely, A^maxulal; and we 

50 shall call Sewid A^maxulal (XVII 2) from now on. || After he had 
given the marriage gift, A^maxiilal (XVII 2) | invited the l !aL !asi- 
qwala to go to GweqEhs, the village of | A^maxulal (XVII 2) and his 
tribe the ancestors of the Gwa^sEla; for A^maxulal (XVII 2) wished | 
that the ancestors of the l !aL lasiqwala should take care of the winter 
dance that they were going to give. Then | A-maxulal (XVII 2) and 



33 Wa, la^mesEn gwagwex's^alal laqexs lae ala qa gEuEmses leweI- 
gama^ye Sewide, qaxs lE^mae gwal LegadEs Yemask-as-6 Q!omo- 

35 gwa qaxs lex'a^mae Legadaats Yemask-as^'o Q!6mogwaxs LEwElaxae. 
Wa, he^mis LegEmsexa lieEnxe Sewide. Wa, he^latla q!aatseda 
L!aL lasiqwala lax ^naxnag'Eme, yix kMedelas Amax'ag-ila, yix ^nE- 
mokwe lax g'ig'Egama'yasa ^uE^memotasa G'exsEme. Wa, la^lae 
qadzeb'idEX ^nax'nag-Eme, ytxs hae g-okiile g-alasa LlaiJasiqwale 

40 GewasE^ma. Wa, gil^Em-lawise gwala qadzeLiixs laa^lae Amax-a- 
g-ila wawalqiilasa qlELlExsokwe q!eq!asasgEm ^naEux^una^ya LE^wa 
mokwe qlaqlEk^a LE^wa ma^ltsogug-oyowe k'!ek-!obawasa LE^wa 
q !el lEts !aqe xwaxwak liina LE^wa m6x"sokwe matsasgEm ^naEnx^fl- 
na^ya. Wa, la^lae Amax-ag'ila ^nex' qa yawixlles Sewide. Wa, 

45 liVlae Amax-agila k' !es^ogiilxLalalaxa mamaqla LE^wis LegEme 
QIQliide LE^wa ts!ek!wese le^wcs LEgEme ^nawalakumeg'ilise LE^wa 
hamshamts!Ese LE^wis LegEme ^jiax"q lESElaglhse LE^wa hayaUk'Hale 
LEWIS LegEme Eg-aq!wala; wa, he^misa baxiise LegEma qa LegEms 
Sewide yi^lax A-'maxiilale. Wa, la^mesEns LcqElaLEs A^maxulale lax 

50 Sewide. Wa, g-il^Em^lawise gwala wawalqiilaxs laa^lae A^maxiilale 
LelElaxa L!aL!asiqwala qa las lax GweqElise lax g-okulasa A^maxu- 
lale LE^wis g-okulota g-alasa Gwa^sEla, qaxs ^nek'ae A^maxfllale qa 
he^misa g-alasa L!aL lasiqwala aaxsilax yawix'ilaeneLas. Wa, la-lae 
^wi^la alex^wide A^maxulale LE^wis LeMakwaxa gaala. Wa, k'les- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 877 

his guests started in the muriimg. Before || eveuhig they arrived at 55 
GweqElis. Then | the l !aL lasiqwala wished the four dancers | to 
disappear at once that evening, for the l !aL lasiqwala were in a 
iun-ry. | Tliey wanted to make a short stay at GweqEhs. | Tlie four 
dancers staid away only four nights. Then they were caught. || 
They danced for them four evenings. Then everything was given 60 
away | that was given as a marriage gift by Amax'agila (XVI 3) — 
the sixty sea-otter | blankets; four slaves; six | canoes; forty mink 
blankets; | one hundred and twenty cedar-bark blankets; and the 
name of the mamaq !a, || Q lulad ; and the bird-dance, which liad the 65 
name ^nawalakumeg"ilis; | and the hamsliamts !es, which had the 
name ^nax"q!ESElag'ilis; | and the healing-dance, which had the 
name Eg"aq!wala. At that time | A^maxiilal (XVII 2) obtained 
first the winter dance of the l !aL lasiqwala. As soon as | A^maxulal 
finished giving away, the l !aL lasiqwala went home. || A^maxiilal 70 
(XVII 2) and his wife | ^nax'nag'Ein (XVII 3) had not been married 
a long time, when they had a son (XVIII 1). Then | A^maxulal sent 
his four speakers — Q !ek' lEnala, Hankwasogwi^lak", | Hayaq lEntElal, 
and Yaq!EntEyeg'i^lak" — to | tell the chief of the l !aL lasiqwala, 
Amax'ag'ila (XVI 3), || that ^nax'nag'Em (XVII 3) had a son. 75 
They | arrived at the village of Amax"ag"ila (XVI 3), and at once | 



^Em^lawise dzaqwaxs laaEl lag'aa lax GweqElise. Wa, hex'^i- 55 
daEm^lawise ^nek'eda LlaLasiqw&la qa x"is^edesa mokwe sesE- 
natLEsxa la ganoi-'ida qaxs alakMalae halabaleda LlaL lasi- 
qwala ^nex'^El qa^s ^nEinal^ide lax GweqElise. Wa, aEm^lawise 
moplEnxwa^s xisaleda mokwaxs laaEl kimyasE^wa. Wa, la^lae 
moplEiia kwexElaso-xa dzedzaqwa. Wii, la^lae -wi^la yax^wida- 60 
yowa Wixwalqalayas Amax'ag'ilaxa qlELlEX'sokwe qleqlasasgEin 
^naEnx^una^ya LE^wa mokwe qlaqlEk'owa LE^wa qlELlEtslaqe 
xwaxwakluna LE^wa m6x"sokwe matsasgEme ^naEnx^iina^ya LE^wa 
ma^ltsogug'Eyowe klobawasa. Wii, la^lae Legadeda mamaq las 
Qluliide. Wa, heEm^lawisa tsleklwese LegadEs ^nawalakumeg-ihse. 65 
Wii, hcEm^lawisa hamshamtslEse LegadEs ^niix"q lESElag-ilise. Wii, 
he^'misLeda hayalekilale LegadEs Eg-aqlwala. Wii, laEm^lae g'aloLe 
A^maxulalaxa tsletslexLEuasa LlaLlasiqwiila laxeq. Wii, g'iPmese 
gwiil yaqwe A^miixiilalaxs lae na^nakweda LlaL lasiqwala. 

Wii, IcVlae k'lesgiila hayasEk'ale A-'maxulale LE^wisgEUEine ^nax'- 70 
nag'Emaxs laaEl xungwadEx--itsa babagiime. Wa, hex-^idaEm-'kxwise 
^yalaqe A^miixulalases mokwe a^yilkwe Qlek'lEnala l6^ HS.nkwa- 
sogwi-'lakwe l5^ Hayaq lEutElal lo^ YiiqlEntEyeg-i^lakwe. Wii, laEm- 
^lae lal nelalxa g-igama^yasa LlaLlasiqwiile Amax-ag-iliixs 1e- 
^mae xiingwadEx'^ide ^nax-nag'Emasa babagiime. Wii, lax'da^x"- 75 
lae lag-aa laxa g-6kulasas Amax'ag-ila. Wa, hex-^IdaEnr'lawise 



878 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

77 Qlek'lEnala reported to Amax'ag'ila that ^nax'nag'Em (XVII 3) | 
had a son. After he had told the news, | Chief Amax'ag'ila (XVI 3) 

80 invited his tribe, || the ancestors of the L!aL!asiqwfila, to come into 
his house. And as soon | as they were all in, Amax'ag'ila arose, 
and I reported the news that had been brought by the Gwa^sEla 
visitors, that Ids | princess ^nax'nag'Em (XVII 3) had a son. "And 
therefore I have invited you in, | O tribe! that you may treat me as 

85 your chief. Give me your property, || people, that I may give a 
marriage gift to my son-in-law A^maxuJal (XVII 2)." | Thus said 
Amax'ag'ila (XVI 3) to his tribe. As soon as he | stopped speaking, 
they spread a mat in the rear of tlie | house of Amax'ag'ila (XVI 3), 
and the sea-hunters of the | ancestors of the l !aL !asiqwala went out. 

90 It was not long before they came back, 1| some bringing four sea- 
otter skins, others three, others | two. They spread them on the 
mat on the floor. | There were forty-two sea-otter skins on the 
floor. I After they had done so, the chiefs of the | ancestors of the 
L !aL lasiqwiila went out. They were not out long, before they came 

95 back, || bringing in four slaves and four | large canoes. After they 
had done so, the common people went out; | and they did not stay 
away long, before they came back, | bringing one hundred and 
twenty cedar-bark blankets; and when | they finished, Amax'ag'ila 

77 ts!Ek'!al^ide Q!ek'!Enalax Amax'ag'ilas ^nax'nag'Emaxs lE^mae 
xungwadasa babagume. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise gwal ts!Ek"!alElaxs 
laaEl hex'^ida^nia g'lgama^ye Amax'ag'ila Lelts!od laxes g'olg'ikii- 

SO lota g'alasa LlaLlasiqwala qa g'axes ^wFlaeL lax g'okwas. Wa, g'U- 
^Em-lawise g'ax ^wFlaexExs laaEl Lax^iihle Amax'ag'ila qa^s ts!Ek'!a- 
Pides ts!Ek'!alEmasa biigunse Gwa^sEla, yixs lE^mae xungwadEs 
k' !edele -'nax'nag'Emasa babagume. "Wa, he^mesEn lag'ihi Leltslodol 
g'okulot qa^s wiig'iLos g'ag'exsehil g'axEn. Wa, laEms plsdzeLal 

85 g'axEn, g'okulot, qEu wawalqiilayoxEn uEgumpae A^maxulala," 

^nex'^lae Amax'ag'ilaxcs g'olg'Ekulote. Wa, g'il^Em^liiwise q!we- 

■ 1-ed yaq!Ent!alaxs laaEl LEpIaliJEma le^wa^ye laxa naqoLewalilas 

g'okwas Amax'ag'ila. Wa, he^latla g'll hoquwElse cs^alewinoxwasa 

g'alasa L!aL!asiqwala. Wii, k'!es-lat!a galaxs g'axae aedaaqa daleda 

90 waokwaxa mowe q!eq!asa loxs yQdiixwae daakwasa waokwe loxs 
ma'lae daakwasa waokwe. Wii, laEm^lae LEbEdzodiilas laxa LEbele 
le^wa^ya. Wa, lae sayak' lax'sokulasa ma^la q !eq !asa la axela. Wii, 
g'll^Em^lawise gwiilExs laaEl ogwaqa hoqiiwElse g'lg'igama^yasa 
g'iiliisa LlaLlasiqwala. Wii, k' !es-Em^laxaawise giilaxs g'iixae aeda- 

95 aqa mox^^laeda q!iiq!Ek'owe g'axeLEms. Wii, heEm^liiwisa motslaqe 
&wa xwiixwak!una. Wii, g'll^Em^lawise gwiilExs laasl ^wi^la hoqu- 
wElseda bebEguleda^ye. Wii, k'!es-Em^laxaiiwisegiihixs g'axae aedaa- 
qa. Wii, la^lae ma^ltsogiig'iyowa k' !ek' lobawase g'axeLEms. W£t,g'il- 
^Em^lawise gwal^alilExs lae ^nek'e Amax'ag'ila qa^s la^me LE^wis 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 879 

(XVI 3) said he would go with his || trihe to take this to liis son-in-law 40U 
A^maxulal (XVII 2) , and also | a name to be the name of his grand- 
child. His name was to be PEngwid (XVIII 1). | After he had 
finished spealving, the tribe went out. Tlicy were ready to | start 
the next morning at daylight. As soon as | daylight came, they 
loaded tlie marriage gifts on four large || canoes. | 5 

Wlien they were aU aboard, tliey started from the beach with tlie | 
four speakers of A^maxQlal (XVII 2) ; and the ancestors of the 
L !aL !asiqwala aU went. | Towards evening they arrived at the | 
village of the ancestors of the Gwa^sEla, GweqElis; and immediately || 
Amax'ag'ila (XVI 3) gave as a marriage gift to his son-in-law lo 
A^maxulal (XVII 2) what was given to him by his tribe | before they 
stepped out of their canoes. As soon as | Amax' ag' ila (XVI 3) stopped 
speaking, A^maxiilal (XVII 2) invited | his father-in-law and his 
tribe to come ashore to eat in his house. | And when the l !aL lasiqwala 
were in, they were given 11 roasted sockeye-salmon ; and after that 15 
they were given dried mountain-goat meat. | After they had eaten, 
A^maxiilal (XVII 2) gave away | twenty sea-otter skins to the chiefs 
of the L !aL lasiqwala, and | two large canoes, and sixty cedar-bark 
blankets | to the common people, and also two slaves || to the chiefs. 20 
As soon as he finished giving away to the | l !aL Isiqw^la, he also gave 

g'okulote taots laxes nEgiimpe A^maxQlale. Wa, haEm^lawisa LegEme 400 
qa LegEmscs ts!ox"LEma. Wii, laEm^lae LegadLEs Psngwide. Wa, 
gll^Em^lawise gwalExs hiaEl hoquwElse g-okul6tas qa^s xwanai-ide 
qa^s wag'il gax'^IdElxa gaalaLax laLa ^nax'^IdEl. Wa, gil'Em-'lawise 
^na^nakiilaxs lae moxsalasa wawalqalayoLe laxa motslaqe Swa 
xwaxwak!iina. 5 

Wa, g'il^Em-lawise ^wFlxsExs lae ^nEmax'^idaEm LEx^ed LE^wa 
mokwe a^yllx"s A^maxtilale. Wa, laEm^lae ^wFlxsa g'filasa LlaL la- 
siqwala. Wii, k' !es-Em^lawise Lala c^a^s dzaqwaxs lae lag'aa lax 
g'ox"dEmsasa g'ala Gwa^sEla lax GweqElise. Wii, hex'^idaEm^Iawise 
wawalqiile Amiix'agiliis p!EdzeLEmases gokulote liixes nEgiimpe 10 
A^maxulalaxs kMes^'mae hox^wiilta laxes yae^yatsle. Wii, g'iPEm- 
^lawise gwal yaqlEntlale Amiix'ag'ilaxs laa^lae A^maxiilale Lelwiiltod- 
xes nEgiimpe LE^wis g'okuJote qa las LlExwa liix g'okwas. Wii, 
g'll-Em^lilwise g'ax ^wi^laei.eda L!aL!asiqwaliixs lae LlExwIlayuwasa 
LlobEkwe niElek'. WJi,la^laehelegindayowedaxilkwe^mEPmElq!Ege 15 
liiq. Wii, gil^Em^liiwise gwal LlExwaxs lae A^maxulale yax^witsa 
ma^tsokwe q!eq!i5sa laxa g'lg'Egama^yasa LlaL lasiqwala LE^wa ma^l- 
ts laqe Swa xwaxwik liina. Wii, heEm^liiwisa q Iel lEx^sokwe k' lek" !o- 
bawasa hlxa bebEgulida^ye. Wii, he^Em^liiwisa ma^lokwe qIaqlEk'o 
laxaaxa gig'Egiima^ye. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise gwiil yaqwaxa LlaLlasi- 20 
qwSliixs lilaEl ogwaqa yax^witsa ma^ltsokwe q !eq liisa la-laxa g'Ig'E- 



880 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

22 away twenty sea-otter skins to the | chiefs of the Gwa^sEla, and sixty 
cedar-bark bh^nkets to the | common people, and two large canoes to 
the chiefs, | and two slaves, since A^maxQlal (XVII 2) had planned |1 

25 that he wanted to give one-half of what he had received as a marriage 
gift to the L !aL !asiqwala, and one-half to the Gwa^sEla- — | forty sea- 
otter skins and one hundred and twenty | cedar-bark blankets, four 
large canoes, and four | slaves, on accoimt of the highness of the 
name of his prince Psngwid (XVIII 1). | Now night came, and he had 

30 finished giving away. 1| At dajdightin the morning the l !aL lasiqwala 
went home. | 

When PEngwid (XVIII 1) grew up, he married | Lax' sElelsmga 
(XVIII 2), the princess of the chief (XVII 4) of the numaym Tslets!- 
EmeleqEla of the | Nak !wax'da^x", who lived in the village Tegtixste^. | 
PEngi\'id (XVIII 1) and Lax'sElelEmga (XVIII 2) had not been 

35 married long, when || they had a son. And as soon as HiiqElal 
(XVII 4) learned that | his princess had a son, he called his tribe, 
and he | told them that he would give a marriage gift to his son-in- 
law. He did not tell his | tribe the amount that he wanted to give 
as a marriage gift, HaqElal (XVII 4) said only | that he wanted his 

40 tribe to go with Mm. As soon as || he finished his speech, they went 
out of the house. They got ready, | and esirly in the morning they 
loaded their | canoes. Wlien they were loaded, they left, and | in 

22 g&ma^yasa Gwa^sEla LE^wa qlELlEX'sokwe k" !ek- lobawasa laxa bebE- 
guleda^ye LE=wa ma4ts!aqe 2,wS, xwaxwa,k!una laxa gug'Egama^ye 
LE^wa ma^lokwe q!aq!Ek'owa la^lax gwalaasas naqa^yas A^maxflla- 

25 laxs ^nek'ae qa^s a^mes naxsaapleda iJaL lasiqwala LE^wa Gwa^sElaxa 
wawalqalayuwa m6x"sokwe q!eq!asa LE^wa ma^ltsogug'Eyowe k'!e- 
k'lobawasa LE-wa motslaqe awa xwaxwfikluna LE^wa mokwe q!a- 
qlEk^owa qa o^mayos LegEmases LawElgama^ye PEiigwide. Wa, 
laEm^lawise ganol^ida laa^las gwal yaqwa. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise ^nax"- 

30 -idxa gaaliixs lae na^nakweda L!aL!asiqwala. 

Wii, g'il^Em^lawise q!wax^ede PEngwidiixs laaEl gEg'adEx'^IdEs 
Lax'SElelEmga kMedelas g'lgama^yasa -nE^memotasaTs!ets!EmeleqE- 
lasa Naklwax'da^xwe, yixs haaEl g'okiile Teguxsta^ya Nak!wax"da- 
^xwe. Wii, k' !es^lat !a giila hayasEk'alaxs PEngwide l6^ Lax-sElelEm- 

35 gaxs lae xungwadEX'^itsa babagume. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise q !ale HaqE- 
lalaxes k' ledelaxs lE^mae xungwada, laaEl Le^lalaxes g'okiilote. Wa, 
la^lae nelaxs wawalqaliLaxes nEgumpe. Wa, laEm^lae k'lesnelaxes 
g'okulotas ^waxaasases wawalqiilayoLe, yixs lex'a^mae waldEms Ha- 
qElales ^nek-!ena^yeqa liis^wPles g'okulotelaxsEq. Wa,gil^Em^lawise 

40 gwale waklEmasexs lae ^wPla hoqtiwEls lax g"6kwas qa^s xwanaHde. 
Wii, gil^Em-'lawise ^nax'^idxa gaaliixs laaEl moxsaxes yaeyatslcLe 
xwaxwakWna. Wa, g'iPEm^lawise ^wllxsa laaEl LEx^eda. Wii, laEm- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 881 

the evening they arrived at GweqEhs. Immediately | the marriage 44 
gift for his son-in-law PEngwid (XVIII 1) was unloaded. Ho did 
not II give away the marriage gift in the evening, but he gave it away 45 
in the morning — | six slaves, four canoes, | twenty black-bear 
blankets, forty mink blankets, | two hundred cedar-bark blankets, 
and I a name for his son-in-law PEngwid (XVIII 1). Now his || 
name was T!at!Endzid (XVIII 1); and he also gave as a marriage 50 
gift the name K'imged (XIX 1), | to the child of PEngwid (XVIII 1) 
and of his wife Lax'SElelEmga (XVIII 2). | After they had given the 
marriage gift, T!at!Endzid (XVIII 1) | gave away three slaves and 
two canoes | and ten black-bear blankets to the chiefs of the ll 
Nak !wax' da^x" ; and he gave twenty mink blankets | and one hun- 55 
dred cedar-bark blankets to the common people of the Naklwax'- 
da^x"; I and he gave three slaves and two | canoes and ten black- 
bear blankets to the | cliiefs of the Gwa^Ela; and he gave twenty 
mink-skin blankets || and one hundred cedar-bark blankets to the 60 
common people. | Now the name of the son of T!at!Endzid (XVIII 1) 
was K'imged (XIX 1). | As soon as he had given away the property, 
the Naklwax'da^x" went home. | 

When Kimged (XIX 1) was grown up, he married Llaqwai 
(XIX 2), I the princess of Hayogwis (XVIII 3), who was chief of 



^lawise dzaqwaxs laaEl lag'aa lax (jweqElise. Wii, hex'^idaEm-iawise 43 
moltala ^wHases wawalqalayuLaxcs nEgilmpe PEngwide. W:i,k-!es- 
^lat!a wawalqiilaxa dzaqwa, al^Em^lae wawalqalaxa la ^nax"^idxa 45 
gaalasa q!EL!akwe q!aq!Ek"owa LE^wa m6ts!aqe xwaxwaklunaLE^wa 
ma^ltsokwe LlEULlEntsEme ^naEnx^ima-yaLE^wa m6x"s6kwe matsas- 
gEm ^naEnx^una^ya LE^wa ma^IplEiiyag'e k'lekMobawasa. Wa, heEm- 
^lawisa LegEme qa LegEmses nEgumpe PEngwide. Wii, laEnrfae 
LegadEs T!at!Endzide. Wii, lii^laxae LegEmg^ElxLillax Kimgede qa 50 
LegEms xtinokwas PEngwide LE^wis gEUEme Lax'sElelEinga. Wii, 
g'll'Em^lawise gwala wawalqiilaxs lae hex'-idaEm'lae T!ilt!Endzide 
yax^witsa yudukwe qliiqiEk'o LE^wa ma'4ts!aqe xwiixwakliina 
LE-wa lastowe LlEnLlEntsEme ^naEiix-unii liix g'lg'Egama^yasa Na- 
k !wax"da^xwe. Wii, lii^lae yiix^witsa ma'ltsokwe miitsasgEm -naEnx^- 55 
une LE^wa laklEnde kMekMobawas laxa bEgulida^yasa Ni\k!wax-da- 
•xwe. Wii, la^lae yax^witsa yudukwe cjIaqlEk'o LE^wa ma^ltslaqe 
xwaxwak!una LE-'wa lastowe LlEULlEntsEm ^aEnx^una^ya liixa 
g'Ig'Egama-yasa Gwa^sEla. Wii, la^lae yiix^witsa ma^ltsokwe miitsas- 
gEm ^naEnx^iina^ya LE^wa hik- !Ende k' !ek- !obawas laxa bEgiilida^ye. 60 
Wii, laEm^Iae Legade babagume xun6x"s T !iit !Endzidiis K'lmgede 
laxeq. Wii, giPmese gwiil yiiqwaxslae nii^nakweda Naklwax'da^xwe. 
Wa, giPmese qlwax^Ide K'imgediixs lae gEg'adEx--its Llaqwiile 
yix k' ledelas Hayogwise yixs g'Tgilma^yae Hayogwisasa ^uE^memo- 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 2 7 



882 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. a.nn. 35 

65 the uumaym II SisEnL !e^ of the Naklwax'da^x". Now, the white 
men had come to live | at Fort Rupert. That is the reason why ten 
woolen blankets and | one hundred cedar-bark blankets were given 
as a marriage gift, j K'imged (XIX 1) and his wife iJaqwal (XIX 2) 
had not been married long, when my mother gave birth to twms. | 

70 One was a boy, the other a girl. || As soon as Hayogwis (XVIII 3) 
knew that his princess had given birth to twins, he | and his numaym, 
the SisEUL !eS made ready to give a marriage gift to his | son-in-law 
K'imged (XIX 1) at Geg'aqe, for now the Gwa^sEla had left Gwe- 
qElis. I They launched eight canoes, and | loaded them with twenty 

75 woolen blankets, and forty mountain-goat || blankets, two hundred 
cedar-bark blankets, and | four slaves; and after they had loaded 
them, they left | Sagumbala — for that is where the SisEnL'.e^of the 
Naklwax'da^x" lived | — and it was not yet quite evening when they 
arrived at | Geg'aqe. Immediately Chief Hayogwis (XVIII 3) gave 

80 as a marriage gift || twenty woolen blankets, forty mountain-goat | 
blankets, and two hundred cedar-bark blankets, and the four slaves, | 
and also the eight canoes, and | a name for K'imged (XIX 1). Now 
his name was Yax'LEn (XIX 1), | and also K' ladalag'ilis (XX 1) for 

85 the name of his son, and ll l !aL lEqwasila (XX 2) for the name of his 
daughter, the twin-children. | After HayogM'is (XVIII 3) had 

65 tasa SisEiVL la-'j' asa Nak!wax"da*xwe. Wit, g'ax^ma mamala g'ox- 
^wales lax Tsaxise. Wa, he-mis lagilas histowa p lElxElasgEme LE^wa 
lak'!Ende k'!ek-!obawas qadzeLEma. Wii, k'!est!a giiia hayasEk-ale 
K'imgede LE-wis gEUEnie L!aqwalaxs lae yikwelEn abEmpwula. Wa, 
la^me babagtime ^uEmokwe. Wii, lii ts!rits!adagEma ^uEmokwe. 

70 Wii, g'il^mese q!ale Hayogwisaxes k- !edelaxs yIkwilae,laehex'^idaEm 
xwanal^ida LE-'wis ^nE-'memotaxa SlsEULla^ye qa^s la wawalqalaxes 
nEgumpe K'imgede liix Geg-iiqe qaxs lE-'mae biiweda Gwa-'sEliis Gwe- 
qEhse. Wii, lii wi-x"stEndxa ma'lgunalts!aqe xwaxwakluna qa^s 
moxsesa ma-ltsokwe p!ElxElasgEme LE'wa mox"sokwe ^mElxLSsgEm 

75 -naEnx^una^ya LE-'wa malp!Enyag'e k-!ek'!obawasa. Wii, he-misa 
mokwe q!aq!Ek'owa. Wii, g'il^mese gwiil moxsElaxs lae ale.x-wida 
yixs hiie Siigumbala g'okulatsa ^nEnnemotasa SisEULla'yasa Na- 
klwax'da^xwe. Wii, kMes-mese Liihi qa^'s dzaqwexs lae lag'aa lax 
Geg'iiqe. Wa, hex'ida'mesa g'igama=ye Hayogwise wawalqiilasa 

80 ma-ltsokwe p lELxEhisgEm LE^wa mox"sokwe ^mEbcLosgEm ^naEnx- 
^Qna^ya LE^wa ma-'lp!Enyag'e k!ek'!obawasa LE^wa mokwe q!aq!E- 
k'owa; wii, he'misLeda ma-%unahs!aqe xwiixwakluna; wa, he^misa 
LegEnie qa LegEms Kimgede. Wa, laEni LegadEs YaxLEne. Wa, 
he-'mis K' !adalag'tlise qa LegEms bEgwauEme xunox"s. Wa, he^mis 

85 LlaL lEqwasila qa LegEms tsJEdiiqe xun6x''sxa yikwi^lEme. Wii, g'll- 
^mese gwal yaq!Ent!iile Hayogwisaxs lae K'imgede Lelwtiltodxes 



o 



BOAS] FAMIhY HISTORIES 883 

spoken, K'lmged (XIX 1) invited his | father-in-law Hayogwis 87 
(XVIII 3), and his crew, into his house; and wlien they came in 
with the I marriage gift, they were given to eat dried mountain-goat 
meat; | and after they had eaten, they gave away four canoes, || two 90 
slaves, and ten woolen blankets, to the | chiefs of the Naklwax'da^x", 
and the same number to the | chiefs of the Gwa^sEla; and he gave 
one hundred cedar-bark blankets and forty | mountain-goat skin 
blankets to the comnion people of the | Nak '.wax' da-'x" and Gwa^sEla. 
When daylight came in the morning, || Hayogwis (XVIII 3) and his 95 
crew went home. | 

As soon as K' ladalag'ihs (XX 1), the prince | of Yax'LEn (XIX 1), 
;Tew up to be a man, he married K !wak Iwabalas (XX 3), the princess 
of I YaqalEnUs (XIX 3), the chief of the numaym Nasnsx'a of the 
NaqEmg'ihsEla. | They had a son; and Chief || YaqalEidis (XIX 3) 500 
gave the expensive copper Long-Top to his son-in-law | K' !adalag'i- 
lis (XX 1) ; and he gave him in marriage the name P !adzEse ^maxwa 
(XXI 1) as the name | for his grandson. Then P'.adzEse ^niaxwa 
(XXI 1) sold Long-Top, | which was bought by Anx^ved of the 
Lawetsles for nine | thousand woolen blankets; and these were 
given away by P!adzEse ^maxwa (XXI 1) |1 to all the tribes. And 5 
M'hen I PladzEse ^maxwa (XXI 1) was a middle-aged man, he mar- 
ried MElned (XXI 2), the princess | of Sewid (XX 4), chief of the 

nEgumpe Hayogwise LE^wis kiweme. Wa, gll^mese ^wllolta LE^wa gy 
wawalqalayo, lae L'.Exwilayoweda x'llkwe ^niEl^mElqEge laq. Wa, 
gil^mese gwal LlExwaxs lae yax^widayoweda motslaqe xwaxwaklQna 
LE^wa ma^lokwe q!aq!Ek'6 LE^wa lastowe p!ElxElasgEm laxa g"ig'E- rjo 
gama^yasa Naklwax'da-'xwe. Wii, heEmxaawise ^waxa lax g'ig-Ega- 
ma^yasa Gwa'sEla. Wa, la lak' JEnde k' !ek' lobawas LE^wa mox"sokwe 
^me^niElxLosgEm ^naEnx^une^ yax^widayos laxa bebEgiillda^yasa 
Nak!wax'da-'xwe LE^wa Gwa'sEla. YVix, giPmese ^nax'^idxa g'aaliixs 
lae na^nakwe Hayogwise LE^wis kiweme. 95 

Wii, g"iPmese uEXLaax'-id bEgwanEme KMadalagilisaxs yix La- 
wElgama^yas YaxLEne lae gEg'adEX'^its KIwaklwabalas lax kledelas 
Yaqalsnlis g'Igama'yasa ^nE^memotasa NaEnsx'asa NaqEmg'lli- 
s&la. Wii, lii xungwadEx'^Itsa bilbagume. Wii, he^misa g'lgama^ye 
YaqalEnlise sEp!ets G'ilg"atowexa qlEyoxwe Llaqwa liixes nEgiimpe jqq 
K' ladalag'ilise. Wa, la LegEmg'ElxLalax PladzEse ^maxwa qa LegEm- 
ses ts!ox"LEma. Wii, la-me PlildzEse ^maxwa laxodEx G^ilg'atowe. 
Wii, lii k'ilxwaso-s Anx^wedasa Lawets!esasa ^na^nEmap lEx'^Id lox- 
SEmx'^iQ plElxElasgEma. Wa, he^mis la ^max^widayos PladzEse 
^maxwa laxwa hamalEliix lelqwalaLa^ya. Wii, gil^mese nEXLaax'^id r 
la bEgwauErae PladzEse '"maxwa lae gEg'adEx^-its MElnede kMedelas 
Sewide, g'igama-yasa ^nE^memote G'ig'Ilgamasa Gwa^sEla. Wii, 



884 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth.ann. 35 

8 numaym Gig'ilgS,m of the Gwa^sEla. | PladzEse^maxwa (XXI 1) 
and his wife MElned (XXI 2) were not married long, | when they had 

10 a daiighter. Then Sewid (XX 4) gave as a marriage gift || the valu- 
able copper Sea-Lion, and the name Llaqwaga (XXII 1) to be the | 
name of the daughter of his princess MElned (XXI 2) . And l laqwaga 
(XXII 1), I although she was a woman, gave away what was paid 
by the chief of the numaym | Ts !ets !Emeleqala of the Naklwax'- 
da^x" — seven thousand | woolen blankets — for HaqElal had bought 

15 the copper Sea-Lion. Now, ll l laqwaga (XXII 1) gave away seven 
thousand woolen blankets | to the tribes. | 

When L laqwaga (XXII 1) was old enough, she married | Hewak'E- 
lis (XXII 2), chief of the numaym Ts lets lEmeleqala of the | Na- 

20 kiwax'da'x", and l laqwaga (XXII 1) had a son. Then II Hewak"Elis 
(XXII 2) gave a name to the child, and he named him | GwEyos- 
dedzas (XXIII 1). The reason why P ladzEse ^maxwa (XXI 1) did 
not I give a name to his grandson was because he was angry with his 
princess | because she married Hewak'Elis (XXII 2), for he was not 
really a chief from his ancestors. | Therefore Hewak'Elis (XXII 2) 

25 himself gave a name to the || son of l laqwaga (XXII 1). GwEyos- 
dedzas (XXIII 1) is now three years | old. | 

Now, I really began at the very | end of our ancestors with the 
whale, YaqalEnlis (II" 1), and came down to (jWEyosdedzas | — the 

8 k'letla gala hayasEk'ale P ladzEse ^maxwa LE^wis gEUEme MElnedaxs 
lae xiingwadEx-^itsa ts!ats!adagEme. Wa, la Sewide sEplets Mawa- 

10 k"!axa q'.Eyoxwe Llaqwa. Wii, la LegEmg'Elxxalax Llaqwaga qa Le- 
gEms tslEdaqe xtinox"ses kMedele MEhiede. Wa, laEmxae Llaqwaga 
wax-mae ts lEdaqa ^max^wits kiPwayasa g'igama-'yasa ^uE^memotasa 
TsletslEmeleqalilsa Nak!wax'da-'xwa aLEboijlEnx'^id loxsEmx'^id 
p lElxElasgEma yixs hae HaqElale k'ilxwax Mawak' !a. Wa, la^me 

15 Llslqwaga ^max^witsa aLEboplEux'^ide loxsEmx'^id plElxElasgEm 
laxwa hamalElax lelqwalaLa^ya. 

Wa, g'iPmese helak' !6x-'wide Llaqwagaxs lae lawadEX'^Its He- 
wak'Ehse, g'iga,ma^yasa ^uE^memotasa TsletslEmelEqalasa Naklwax'- 
da^xwe. Wii, la xungwadEX'ide Lliiqwagasa babagume. Wa, he- 

20 ^mise Hewak'Elise Leqela qa LegEmses xiinokwe. Wa, la^me Lex^e- 
dEs GwEyosdedzase laxes xunokwe. He lagilas P !adzEs ^maxwa k' !es 
he Leqela qa LegEmses ts!6x"LEmaxs waneqaases k'!edelaxs lae la^wa- 
dEs Hewak'Elisaxs k'lesae 41aEm g'lg&ma^yes wiwompwula. Wa, 
he^mis lag'ilas he^me Hewak'Elise Leqela qa LegEmses babagume 

25 xQnok" lax Llaqwaga, yixs he-'mae ales yuduxunxek'Ele GwEyosde- 
dzase. 

Wa, la^mEn alak' lala g'abEndxEn qwesbalisa g'alasEnu^x" &wa- 
n^^ya gwE^yime, yix YaqalEulise g'axaLEla lax GwEyosdedzase 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES • 885 

son of Llaqwaga and there are twenty-three men, beginning with || 30 
YaqalEnUs, coming down to GwEyosdedzas (XXIII 1). I did not | 
mention that aU of them had two or three | wives, and some had four 
wives, and a great many children, and | the younger brothers and 
sisters of those whom I have named. Now, this great matter is at 
an end. | 

Wail of l!al!aqol, a NakIwaxda^x" Woman 

Hana hana he! Now I think of my master | l !aL !aqoli%k", my 1 
dear one, the chief at the beginning of the world. | 

Hana hana he ! Now I'll tell the history of my house, beginning, 
with the fu-st | chief of my niimaym, ^walas, who had for their chief 
my ancestor, who || came from the first L!aqwagila. | 5 

Hana hana he ! Hele^stes went spouting around | our world, and 
he went into Blunden Harbor; and he went ashore | from his travel- 
ing-canoe, Killer-Wiale-Mask ; and he hked the place because it had 
a good sandy | beach. And now my ancestors had for their chief 
Hele^stes. || He bviilt a house with four platforms; and when he had | 10 
fmished his house, a canoe came in sight with four persons | aboard. 
Hele^stes went to meet them, and he | called the visitors ashore. 
Then my ancestor Hele^stes | gave his visitors seal to eat. When 
they had || eaten, Hele^stes sjjoke, and asked for the name of his | 15 

xGnokwas Llakwaga lax ha^yudEX'alax'^idaes bEgwanEma g'iig'ELEla 
lax YaqalEnlise g'axaLEla lax GwEyosdedzase. Wa, laxaEn k'les 30 
gwagwex's^ala lax ^naxwaene^mas maema^lel loxs yudukwae Loxs 
maemokwae gEgEiiEmasEn g'lgaana^ye Lodzek'ases sasEine yix ts!a- 
tsla^yasEn la LeLEqElasE^wa. Wii, ladzek'as'mSx laba. 

Lagwalemas l!al!aqolxa' NakIwaaxseme 

Hana hana he; lak"asq!amaeg"in g"axg"Ig'aex^edxEn q!agwido}ae 1 
L!aL!aqoli^lakwa adaxEn g"ik'axaledzEma laxo ^nalax. 

Hana hana he; lak^as^mesEn nEwelaltsEg'in g"alEmg'alisEk" g'lqa- 
g"Iwa^yasEn ^uE^memotaxa ^walase, ylk'asExs g'lgadaasEn 5mpexa 
g'ayae laxa g'ala iJacjwag'ila. 5 

Hana hana he; g'axk'asae l laitse^stallsEle Hele^stes laxo a^wlstax- 
SEns ^nalax. Wii, lak'ase latsla lak"asEx Baase qak'ats laltawe 
lak'asxes ya^yats!es maxEnile. Wii, lak'ase iiwElx=edqexs ek'aes 
awinagwise. Wii, kik^as^niEn g'ilg'alise g'lqag'iwa^j-e Hele^stes 
g'okwelaxa moxwidaxalile dzoyagEk" g"okwa. Wa, g'ilk"as^mese 10 
gwala g'okwe g'ilxk-asae tex^wide sexwa xwlixwagiima mokwe 
kludzExse liik'asEq. Wii, liik'ase Hele^stese lalalaq. Wa, lak'ase 
Lelwfiltodxe bagilnse. Wa, lak'as^mEii g'lqag'iwa^ye Hele^stese 
LlExwelase megwate lak'asxes bagunse. Wii, g'ilk'as'mese gwala 
LlExwa lak'asae yaqlEg'a^le Hele^steseqak'ats wuLek'asex LegEmases 15 

> LlaLlaqoL. 



886 ■ ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

16 visitor; and the visitor replied, and said, | "I am ^yak'Ewas, and my 
tribe are the G'Ig'ilgam, and I live | in the village Xoqwaes with my 
tribe; | and this woman Tslalalllanaga, the princess of Yax'LEn, is 

20 my wife. || Yax"LEn is the chief of the Ts lets lEmeleqala. And this | 
is my prince Tsialag'ilis, and my princess is | TsIalalilHak"." Thus 
said ^yak'Ewas. And then ^yak"Ewas asked | the man where he 
came down from. And then the | man said, "I am Hele^stes. I 

2.5 go spouting around |1 our world. I am Llaqwag'ila, the prince of the 
chief I of the Killer- Wliales, HSlxsiwalis, Now, I wish to become a | 
real man in this place, and I built my house at Blunden Harbor." 
Thus said Hele^stes. | And Llaqwag'ila is my ancestral chief, | the 
root of the chiefs of the numaym ^walas, and he is my ancestral || 

30 chief, i ■ ' 

Hana hana he, ahana hana ! O Great-One ! the great one who 
came down is | my lord Llaqwag'ila, who took for his wife the prin- 
cess of I Lord ^yak'Ewas, Tslalallll^lak". And the lord had a child, | 

.35 YaqEwe^las, the prince of Lord Llaqwag'ila. 1| And now Lord 
^yak'Ewas gave as a marriage gift six canoes; | for, indeed. Lord 
^yak'Ewas had obtained as a supernatural treasure the Grouse, the 
canoe-maker; | and therefore he, the only first one to give away 

16 bagiinse. Wa, lak'ase na^naxma^yeda bagtinsaq, wa lak"ase ^nek'a: 
"Nogwak'as^Em ^yak'Ewasa. Wa, lak'ase G'Ig"ilgamx'LEn g'Qkulote, 
yik'asg'in hek'asek' g'okule Xoqwaese LokwasEn g'okfllote. Wil, 
yokwas^mes k' ledeikats Yax'LEnox Ts lalahlanagaxxEn gEUEmk'asex, 

20 yik'asExs g'igama^yae YaxxEnasa Tsets lEmeleqala. Wa, yokwas- 
^raese LEWElgamayox Tslalag'ilisex. Wa, lak'asEnk'IedadEsoxTsIa- 
lalilFlakwex," ^nek'ase ^yakEwase. Wa, lak'ase ogwaqa wtiLe ^yti- 
k'Ewasaxa bEgwanEme lak'asEx g'ayEmaxaask'asas. Wa, lak'asa 
bEgwanEme ^nek'asa: "Nogwak'as Hele-stesa Llaltse^stalisElaxwa 

25 awi^staxsEns -nalax. NogwaEm Llaqwag'ila LEWElg&mes g'Tgima- 
^yasa max^enoxwe HaLxsiwalisa. Wa, lak'asEn ^nek'as qEn g'axk'ase 
baxiis^id lak'asxEn lakasex g'okuiasaxox Baasex," ^nekase Hele'stes. 
Wa, okwas-mesEn glqagiwa'ye L!aqwag"ila yik'asxEn g'igaana- 
^yaxg'ln ^nE^memoteg'asa -walase, wa, yokwas^mEn g'ig'Eqag'i- 

30 wa^yox. 

Hana hana he, ahana hana adzehesa ^walasaxaledzex'deya; wale 
ada^ya L!aqwag'iladzey5laxs layola gEgadEx'^IdEs k' ledelwiilas 
iida^ya ^yak'Ewase Tslalalili^lakwa ada. Wa, lakase xungwadE- 
x'^ide ada^yas YaqEwe-'lasexa LEwiilgama^yas ada^ye Llaqwag'ila. 

3,5 Wa, lak'as^me ada^ya ^yak'Ewase qotex'^its qlELlEtsIaqe xwaxwa- 
klima qtiLaxs L5gwalae ada^j^a ^yak'Ewasaxe mag'ag'u Leqaxe xwa- 
xwak!una. Wii, yokwas^mes lag'ilas lex'aEm g'llk'as sak'axodEu 
g'lqag'iwa^ye L!aqwag"ilaxa xwaxwakluna. Wa, k'lesk'ase ^laEm 



BOAsJ FAMILY HISTORIES 887 

canoes, | was my ancestral chief. And it was not | long before Lord 
YiiqEwe-las was grown up. Then he married || Msnledaas, the 40 
princess of Lord MElnasEtne^ chief of the | numaym Q!6rnk' !ut!ES 
of the Gwa^sEla. And the lord did not live | long with his wife, 
when Lord YiiqEwe^las had a son; | and Lord MElnasEme^ gave as a 
marriage gift four | large canoes, and four slaves, and six || grizzly- 45 
bear blankets, and twenty raountain-goat | blankets, and one hun- 
dred cedar-bark blankets. And he gave to | my pride the name 
MElnedzas. And he gave in marriage this name | to the prince of 
Lord YiiqEwe^las. And now | Lord YaqEwe^las gave away the 
marriage gift of Lord MElnasEme^ || to the ancestors of the Na- 50 
klwax'da^x" and Ciwa=sEla, | who lived in a village inside of NEgeL. | 

Hana hana he! This is my pride, the names of | the root of my 
family, for all mj- ancestral chiefs gave away property. | 

Hana hana he, ahana hana! Great-One who came down, || my 55 
lord YiiqEwe^las! my lord MElnedzas | gave away property to the 
Nak!wax'da^x" and to the Gwa^sEJa. And my lord | MElnedzas 
gave away the four canoes, and | four slaves, six grizzly-bear blan- 
kets, I twenty mountain-goat blankets, and || one hundred cedar- 60 
bark blankets, which my lord MElnedzas | obtained from his father-in- 

galaxs lak'asae nEXLaax"^ide ada^ya YiiqEwe^lase, lak"asae gEg'adE- 40 
x'^idEs MEuledaase kMedelas ada'ya MElnasEma^ye g'lgama'yasa 
^uE^memotasa Q!6mk"!ut!Esasa Gwa^sEla. Wa, k'!esk'ase ada^ya 
gala hayasEk'alaxs lak'asae ada^ya YaqEwe^lase xungwadEx'^itse 
babagume. Wii, lak'ase ada^ya MElnasEma^ye qotex'^Itsa mots!aqe 
awa xwaxwakluna Lokwasa mokwe cj!aq!Ek'owa Lokwasa q!EL!a 45 
g'Ig'ilasgEm ^naEux^una^ya Lokwasa ma^ltsokwe ^me^mElxLosgEm 
^naEnx^una^ya Lokwasa lak'lEnde k"!ek'!obawasa. Wii, yokwas^me- 
sEu ^yalaqalayox LegEmox MElnedzas. Wa, lak'as^me LegEmg'ElxLe 
qak'as LegEmsa LEWElgama^yas ada^ya YaqEwe^lase. Wa, lak^as- 
^me ada^ya YaqEwe^lase ^max^widk'atse qotena^yas ada^ya MElna- 50 
sEma^ye lak'asEx g'aliisa Nak!wax'da^xwe Lokwasa Gwa^sElaxs 
hek'asae g'okule oxLalesk'asas NEgeLe. 

Hana hana he, yokwas-meg'in ^yalaqala yuw5x LeLEgEmaxsEn 
Jiwana^yexa ^naxwak"as^m5la ^"max^widaxEn g'lg'Eqag'iwa^ya. 

Hana hana he, ahana hana adzehesa ^walasaxaledzex'deya wale 55 
ada^ya YaqEwe^ladzeyola wale ada^ya MElnedzadzeyolaxes layola 
^memax-wideaxa Nak!wax'da^x"La^ya Lo-Gwa^sEla layole ada^ya MeI- 
nedzadzeyola ^max^wideasa motslaxdzeyola sesagilme Lokwase 
m6x"dzeyola q!aq!Ek'o L5kwase q!EL!a nEnsgEm ^naEnx^una^ya Lo- 
kwasa ma^ltsokwe ^me^niElxLosgEm ^naEnx-una^ya Lokwasa la- 60 
k' !Ende k' !ek' lobawasa. Wit, yokwas^Em g"ayanEms ada^ya MElne- 
dzadzeyola lak'asxes nEgtimpdzeydlae ada^ya MElnasEmadzeyolaxs 



888 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. iNN..i5 

62 law MElnasEme^. | And my great lord MElnedzas grew | quickly to 
be called chief. Thea my lord Mslnedzas grew up | and married 

65 ^nalasgEm, the princess of Q !omox"sala, || chief of the numaym 
G'exsEm of the ancestors of the l !aL lasiqwala. | And then my lord 
Mslnedzas, and his wife ^nalasgEm, | had a son. And my lord 
Q!omox"sala | gave as a marriage gift twenty sea-otter blankets, | 

70 ten black-bear skin blankets, six || slaves, four canoes, and one hun- 
dred and twentj' | cedar-bark blankets; and he also gave as a mar- 
riage gift forty I seals as food to go with it, and the sea-otter-house- 
dish, I the killer house-dish, and the wolf house-dish, and also the | 

75 seal house-dish, aiid the name QIumx'Elag'ilis to be || the name of the 
child of MElnedzas, for the potlatch to be given at the time of the 
marriage; | and he also gave him the name Kwakux'alas for a feast 
name, | when he was to give a feast with the forty seals which were 
given as a marriage gift | to him by his father-in-law Q lomox^sala. 
And then my lord | Qliunx'Elag'ilis gave away the marriage gift to 
he ancestors of the || L !aL lasiqwSla, and also the ancestors of my 
.ribe, the Nak !wax' da^x" ; | and my lord Kwakfix' alas gave with the 
property | forty seals in the house-dishes. Now, there were two | 
names given in marriage — QIumx'Elag'ilis, and the feast name | 
Kwakiix' alas." || 



62 layola ada^ya MElnedzadzeyola q!waq!waxEyak"as lak'asEq qak'ats 
haloLlexe g'igamexLii. Wa, lak'ase ada^ya MElnedzase nEXLaax'^ida 
lak'asae gEg'adEX'^idk'ats ^nalasgEme k' !edelas Q!omox"sala yik'asEx 

65 g'igama-yasa ^nE^memotasa G'exsEmasa g'alk'asasa LlaL lasiqwala. 
Wa, lak'ase ada^ya MElnedzas Lokwases gEnEme ada^ya ^nalasgEme 
ximgwadEx''idk'atse babagiimk'ase. Wii, lak'ase ada^ya Qlomox"- 
sala wawalqalase ma^ltsokwe q!eq!asasgEm ^naEnx^una^ya Lokwase 
la^stowe LlEuLlEntsEm ^iiaEnx^una^ya Lokwase qlELlokwe qlaqlE- 

70 k'owa Lokwase mots!aqe xwaxwakliina Lokwase ma^ltsogug'Eyowe 
kMek'.'obawasa. Wa, hek'as^mes wawadzolEmse mosgEmg'ustowe 
megwata ha^mayaaxsa^ya. Wa, hek'as^mesa q!asa loqtilila Lokwasa 
max^enoxwe loqulila Lokwasa fiLanEme loqulila; wit, hek'as-mesa 
megwate loqulila. Wii, hek'as-mesa LegEme QIumx'Elag'Ilise qa 

75 LegEmse xunokwas MElnedzase qak'ases p !Ets leneLasa wawalqiilayo. 
Wii, lak'ase LegEmg'ELxLiilax Kwakiix'alase qak'as LegEms qak'aso 
kiwelas-idk'atse mosgEmg'ustawe megwataxa wawalqiilayuwe lii- 
k'asEq, 3'ik'atses nEgumpe Q!omox"sala. Wa, lak'as^mese ada^ya 
QIumx'Elag'ilidzeyola ^miix^widk'atse wiiwalqalayo liik'asxe g'alase 

SO LlaLlasiqwala Lokwase g'alk'asasEu g'okillota Niiklwax'da^xwe. Wa, 
liik'as^me yaqwag'ilila liik'asae ada^ya Kwakux'alase ada^ya loxts !5d- 
k'atse mosgEmg'ustawe megwata. Wa, liik'as^me ma^ltsEmg'aaLE- 
le LegEmg'ElxLa^ye yik'asEx Q!umx'Elag'ilise Lokwase klweladzEx- 
Layok'ase Kwakiix'alase. 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 889 

Hana liana he ; ahana haiia ! O Great-One who came down ! my | 85 
lord Llaqwagila, my lord YaqEwe%s, | my lord MElnedzas, and my 
lord Qlumx'Elag'ilis, they | all gave away much property, and all 
gave feasts, | and my ancestral chiefs gave dances. || 

Ha ha hana hana he; ahana hana! Therefore I feel like laughing 90 
at the I words of the people under me, on account of my ancestral 
chiefs, for they stole | the names of my ancestral chiefs, the roots of 
my numaym. Ha a ! for who dares to use | my names, the names 
left by my ancestors ? | 

Hana hana he; ahana hana! O Great-One who came down! my || 
lord, whose own name was Qlumx'Elag'ilis, he | married L!a- 95 
qwag' ilayugwa, princess of | Q !Ey6kwetElasogwi^lak", my lord the 
head chief of the great | numaym QaqEwadiliqala of the DzawadE- 
enox". I Q!Ey6kwetElas6gwi^lak", my lord, lived at Gwa^ye. || And 100 
Qlumx'Elag'ilis and his | wife had not been married long, when they 
had a son. And immediately | Q!EyokwetElas6gwi^lak", my lord, 
got ready to | give liis marriage gift to his son-in-law Q !umx'Elag'ihs, 
my lord. And | he bought the great copper Cause-of-Quarrel for 
the II mast of his canoe ; and for the place of his princess l !aqwa- 5 
g'ilayug^va to sit in, | six shovel-nosed canoes, and four slaves | for 
bailing out the canoes; and the blankets to be worn by his | princess 

Hana hana he; ahana hana, adzehesa ^walasaxaledzex'deya wale 85 
ada^ya Liaqwag'iladzeyola wale ada^ya YaqEwe^ladzeyola wale 
ada^ya MElnedzadzeyola wale ada^ya Q!umx'Elag'ilidzey6laxes 
^naxwa^mayola ^walasila ^max^wideaxes ^na.xwa^mayola k!welasede- 
axe ylyixsEma^yaenoxEu g'lg'iqag'iwa^ya. 

Ha ha hana hana he ; ahana hana agwil^maEn la dedaleqElas wS,l- 90 
dEmasEn bebEgwabaletsEn g'iqag'iwa^yaxs wax'k'asae goLa^yax 
LeLEgEinasEn a^wantVye g'ig'Eqag'iwa^j^a haa qa angwak'ases nala- 
k'asaxg^in LeLEgEmk^asg'lnxg'a LeLEgEmesawesEn wiwompdzeyola. 

Hana hana he; ahana hana adzehesa ^walasaxaledzeya wale 
ada^yaxa q !ulexLe^yadzey6la Q!umx'Elag'ilisa ada^yaxes ladzeyola 95 
gEg'adEX'=ide^yas L!aqwag'ilayugwa lak'asEx k'iedelek'asas Q!Eyo- 
kwetElasogwi^lakwe ada^ya ylk'asEx xamagEma-ye g'Igamek'atse ^wa- 
lask'ase ^nE^memotsa QaqEwadiliqalasa DzawadEenoxwe ylk'asExs 
hek'asae g'okule ada^ya QlEyokwetElasogwi^lakwe ada^ye Gwa^ye. 
Wa, k'!esk'!ase gala ha^yasEk^ale Q!umx'Elag'ilise ada^ya Lokwases 100 
gEUEmk'asaxs lak'asae ximgwadEX'^idk^atse babagume. Wa, hex'- 
^idk'as^mese Q!Ey6kwetElasogwi'lakwe ada^ya xwanal^ideya qak'ats 
la qotex'axes uEgiimpk'ase Q!umx'Elag'ilise ada^ya. Wa, lak'as^me 
k'ilx^widk'asxe ^walase L!aqwa lak'asEx T!Ent!alayo qak'ats Lak-E- 
ya^ya. Wa, hek'as^mes k!waxsalats!es k'!edelase L!aqwag"ilayu- 5 
gwaye q!EL!Ets!aqe t!et!Eguna. Wii, hek'as^mesa mokwe q!aq!Ek'o- 
wa qak'as tsalElg'Esxe t!et!EgOne. yV&, hek'as^mes ^uEx^Qna^yaaxses 



890 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 35 

Llaqwag'ilayugwa were one hundred mountain-goat blankets, | 

10 twenty lynx blankets, Hand forty black-bear blankets; and| two 
hundred mountain-goat horn spoons were the anchor-line for the 
six I canoes in which Llaqwag'ilayugwa was seated; and the | name 
given in marriage, K' ladalag'ilis, was to be the name of the prince 
of my lord | Qlumx'Elag'ilis. Then the marriage gift was given 

15 away to the ancestors of the II QaqEwaddiqala, and to the ancestors 
of the Naklwax'da^x", by | my lord K' ladalag'ilis. Now, my lord 
K' Itidalag'ilis grew up to be a man; | and he married Gwex'sesElas, 
princess of the | head chief of tlie great numaym HaEyalik'awe of 

20 the I Haxwamis, who lived in APalxa. || K' ladalag'ilis and his wife 
had not been married long, when they had a son. | And then the great 
chief I Klwamaxalas got ready and bought the great | copper Crane 
for the mast of his canoe; and he was going to give the marriage gift 
to his son-in-law | Lord K' ladalag'ilis, and eight shovel-nosed 

25 canoes || for his princess Gwex'sesElas to sit in, and | forty lynx 
blankets to be worn by his princess | Gwex'sesElas, and twenty 
grizzly-bear blankets, | and twenty black-bear blankets, and two 
hundred | mountain-goat blankets; and also this cause of my 

30 pride, II seven slaves, to bail out the water from the canoes | of 

8 k'ledclase Llaqwag'ilayugwe lak'lEnde 'me=mElxL6sgEm ^naEnx^una- 
^ya Lokwase ma-ltsokwe ^wahisxasgEm ^naEux-'una^ya. Wa.hek'as- 

10 ^mesa m6x"sokwe LlEnLlEutsEm ^naEnx^una^ya. Wii, hek'as^mes 
ma^lplEnyag-etsletslololaq k-ak'Ets!Enaq,mogwanEwesaq!ELlEtslaq6 
tIetlEgun k Iwaxsalats les Llaqwag-ilayugwa. Wii, hek-as-'mes LegEm- 
g-ElxLa^ye K- ladalag-ilise qak'as LegEmsa LEWElgEma^yas Qlumx-Ela- 
g-ilise ada^ya. Wii, liilcas-nie =max-'widayowa qotenayuwe laxa g'iiliisa 

15 QaqEwadiiiqala Lokwase g'iiliise Niikiwax-da^xwe ylk'ats K- ladala- 
g-ilise ada^ya. Wa, lak'ase nEXLaax'^id bsgwanEme K' ladalaglHse 
ada^ya liik'ase gEgiidEX'^idk'ats Gwex'sesElase kMedelk'asas xiima- 
gEma^ye g-igamek"atse ^walase -'nE^memot HaEyalik-awesa Haxwa- 
mise, yik-asExs hekasae g-okflle Al^aixa. Wii, k-lesk-ase giila ha^ya- 

20 SEk-ale K-!adalag-ihs ada^ya Lokwase gEnEme liik-asae xungwadEX'- 
^Idk-atse babagume. Wii, hex'^Idk-as-mesa -'walase glgiima^ya 
Klwamaxalas xwanal-ldk-asa, wii, lak-as-me k ilx^widk'asxa ^walase 
Lhxqwa AdEmgflle qak'ats Lak'Eya^ya liixes qote^neLaxes nEgumpe 
K- ladalag-ilise iida^ya. Wii, hek-asnnesa ma^lgunalts laqe g'ig'ala 

25 qak-as k Iwaxsalats lek-atses k-ledele Gwex'sesElase. Wii, hek-as- 
^mesa mox"sokwe ^walasx-JisgEm ^naEux^iina^yaaxses k-ledelase 
Gwex-sesElase Lokwasa ma-ltsokwe g-ig-ilasgEm ^naEnx'una^ya lo- 
kwasa mal-tsokwe l Ieul lEntsEm ^laEnx-'una^ya Lokwasa ma^lplEn- 
yag-e ^me^mElxLosgEm ^naEnx-'una^ya. Wii, hek-as^mesg'in -yala- 

30 qalayok" yik'asxg-a iiLEbokuk- qlaqlEk'owa qak-as tsliilElg-Esga 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 891 

Gwex'sesElas, the princess of KIwamaxalas, and | two hundred and 32 
fifty goat-horn spoons as an anchor-hnc for the | eight canoes, and 
the marriage name | GwE^yimdze for the name of the prince of 
K' ladalag'ihs. || 

This is what my ancestral chiefs in the story of my origin | were 35 
doing when they grew up to be great chiefs. Therefore I do not feel 
bad, I but I am getting tired telling from beginning to end what was 
done by those | of whom I liave just spoken. | 

Hana hana he hae hae! |1 

That was the end of the wailing of LlaLlaqoL, the female Na- 40 
klwax'da^x". (This is the same | as to say Nak !wax' da^x" woman.) 

History of the Maamtag'ila' 

The ancestors of the Kwakiutl were living at Qalogwis, and the | 1 
chief of the Maamtag'ila, whose name was Q!6mogwe^ (III 11) = 
called I his numaym to come into his house. When | they were 
all in, his speaker, Da'lEwek'Eme^, spoke; || and he told why 5 
he had been called by the chief Q!6'mogwe^ (III 11), because | 
he wished to go and marry Qwaesogiit (III 12), the princess of 
Chief I Down-Dancer (II 6) of the Comox. His numaym told him 
at once | to go ahead, and they got ready | to start on the following 



k!waxsalats!eg"as Gwex'sesElas kMedelasa g^Igama-ye KIwamaxalase 3 J 
Lokwasa sesax'sok'ala ts!ets!ololaq k"ak-Ets!Enaq mogwanEwesa 
ma%unalts!aqe g'ig'ala. Wa, hek'as^mesa LegEmg'ElxLa^ye Gwe- 
'ylmdze qak^as LegEms LEWElgama^yas K"!adalagilise. 

Wii, yokwas^Em gwegwalag ilidzatsEn gig'igaana^yaxg'En nuySm- 35 
balisek" gwasx'ala g'igama-ya^nakfila. KMeasg'ilEii xEULlegEma 
okwas'meg in la qElx'^Id lalabaax gwegwalag'ilidzasas gwagOsago- 
daxgEn lax gwal waldEma. 

Hana hana he hae hae. 

Wa, laEm labe lagwalEmas LlaLlaqoixa NaklwaxsEme (^nEma- 40 
x"ls l6^ ^nek-a Nak!wax-da^x" tslEdaqa). 

History of the Maamtag'ila' 

G'okula^lae g'iilasa Kwag-ule lax Qalogwise. Wii, la^lae g"iga- 1 
deda ^uE^memasa Maamtag'iliisa Legadas Q!6mogwa^'yexa Leltslo- 
daxes ^nE^memote qa g'axes ^wi^laeL lax g'okwas. Wa, g"Il^Em^la- 
wise g"ax ^wIlaeLExs laaEl yaqlEg'a^e Elkwase DalEwek'Ema^ye. 
Wa, laEm^lae nelas Le^lalllases g'igama^ye Q!omogwa^ye yixs 5 
'nek'ae qa^s la gagak'lax Qwaesogiite lax kMedelasa g'igama^ye 
Qamxulale, yisa Q!6mox"se. Wa, la^lae hex-^ida'^me ^uE^memotas 
^naxwa waxaq qa weg'es. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise xwanal^ida 
qa's lalxa laLe ^nax'^idslxa gaala laxa Q!omox"se. Wa, la^lae 



' This genealogy follows out the descendants of one of the women (in 2), mentioned in the genealogy 
of the DzEndzenxqlayO' See p. 1085. 



892 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

10 morning to go to the Comox. In the || mornmg, when daylight came, 
many of the numaym Maamtag'ila | started, and they arrived at 
the beach of the village of the ancestors of the | Comox at Puntlatch. 
Immediately they made the marriage payment out of | the two 
canoes before going on shore; and after | they had done so, the 

15 Maamtag'ila were told to wait in the canoe, for || Qwaesogut was 
getting ready to carry her things | into the canoe of her husband, 
Qlomogwe^. It was not | long before the ancestors of the Comox 
began to beat on the front boards of the house of Down-Dancer, | and 
there was a thundering noise in the house of Down-Dancer; and aU | 

20 the men of the Comox said, "Hum!" and the sound of || shell rattles 
was heard when Qwaesogut (III 12) was led by four men | wearing 
xwexwe masks. The woman was singing her sacred song. | She went 
straight down the beach into the canoe of Qlomogwe^ (III 11) | the 
xwexwe went down to the | shore and went back up the beach into 

25 the house of || Down-Dancer (II 6). Qwaesogut (III 12) stayed and 
sat down by the side of | Qlomogwe^ (III 11). When all the xwexwe 
were inside, Down-Dancer (II 6) | came out of his house and invited 
his son-in-law to | eat in liis house with his crew. Then | Q lomogwe^ 
(III 11) and his wife Qwaesogiit (III 12) went ashore first. They 

30 were followed || by their crew. The shell rattles of the xwexwe did 



10 ^nax-^idxa gaalaxs lae alex^wideda qlenEmoleda Maamtag-ila 
^uE^mema. Wa, la^lae lag'alis lax LlEma^isasa g'okiilasasa g"alasa 
Q!6mox"se lax PEnL!atsa, wa, hex-'idaEm4awise qadzeHdExs k'les- 
^mae hox^wulta laxes motslaqe yae^'yatsla. Wa, g-il^Em^lawise 
gwalExs lae axsE^weda Maamtag'ila, qa^s wag'e esala hanala, qaxs 

15 lE^mae xwanalEle Qwaesogtitaxes mEmwalaLe, qa^s g-axlag-Il laxs- 
lS, lax ya^yatslases la^wunEme Q!omogwa^ye. Wa, k'!es^lat!a ga- 
laxs lae lEmxExseglndeda g-ala Q!6mox"sxa g-okwas Qamxulale. 
Wa, h¥lae kunwatlaleda g'okwas Qamxulale. Wa, la^lae ^na.xwa 
hEmxaleda bebEgwanEmasa Q!omox"se. Wa laEmxae hek'lala 

20 xEmsEmekluasexs g-axae g'alaba^ye Qwaesogutasa mokwe yaexu- 
malaxa xwaxwegEmle. Wa, laEm^lae yalaqiileda tslsdaqaxs lae 
hayintslesEla laxa LlEma^e qa^s la hexsEla lax ya^yatslas Q!6mo- 
gwa^ye. Wa, laEm^lawisa mokwe xwaxwe lag'aa lax awaxstalisasa 
dEmsx'axs g-axae xwelaxusdesa, qa^s la xwelaqa laeL lax g'okwas 

25 Qamxtllale. Wa, laEmEe xakMe Qwaesogiite la klwanodelExsEx 
Qlomogwa^ye. Wa, g'iPmese ^wI^laeLeda xwexwaxs g'axae Qamxu- 
lale lawEls laxes g-okwe. Wii, la^me Lelwultodxes nEgumpe, qa 
las LlExwa lax g'okwas LE^wes leElote. Wa, he^mis g'aloltawe 
Qlomogwa^ye LE^wis gEUEme Qwaesogute. Wii, laHae lasgEmeso- 

30 ses IcElote. Wa, la^me hewaxa qlweHde xEmsEmek-inasa xwexwe 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 893 

not stop I sounding behind the curtain in the rear end of the house. | 31 
Then Q lomogwe^ (III 11) and his wife sat down in the rear end of the | 
house, outside of the curtain in front of the xwexwe. They | ate 
steamed camas. This was the first time that the || ancestors of the 35 
Kwakiutl tasted camas. After they had eaten, | Down-Dancer 
spoke to his tribe, the ancestors of the Comox. | He wanted them to 
pacify the xwexwe. Tlie | ancestors of the Comox assembled at once. 
Then | Down-Dancer (II 6) told his son-in-law to watch the move- 
ments of the xwexwe dancers while they were smging for them, || for 40 
he was going to give it as a marriage gift to Ms son-in-law. After | 
he had spoken, the song-leader of the ancestors of the Comox, whose 
name was | NEmuEmEm, arose and shouted, "Wooo!" Then the 
ancestors of the Comox shouted "Wooo!" | while they were beating 
on boxes which were turned upside down. | Then four naked dancei's 
came out, |1 their bodies painted with ochre, and wearing the xwexwe 45 
masks on their faces. Four | songs were sung for them; and when 
the last song | was ended, then the four dancers walked with quick | 
steps and all the men of the Comox beat time quickly. Then | 
the speaker of Dowai-Dancer, named LEnolalal, arose and || spoke; 50 
and he said, "Look at this, Chief Down-Dancer! | and bring some- 
thing to drive the supernatural ones into their room." Thus he 
said. I Then they cut goat-skins into strips | and put them down; 

XEm^yala lax aLadzelllasa yawapEmllle lax ogwiwalilasa g'okwe. 31 
Wa, la k!iis^alile Q!omogwa^ye LE^wis gEUEme lax ogwiwalilasa 
g'okwe lax L!asadzelilasa yawapEmalllasa xwexwe. Wa, la^me l!e- 
xwelag'iLxa mot!Exsde UEgikwa. Wii, hcEm gil p !Ex^'aLElatsa g'a- 
lasa Kwag'ulaxa m6t!Exsde laxeq. Wit, g il^mese gwai L!Exwa, wa, 35 
la^lae yaq!Eg"a^ie Qamxiilalaxes g-olg'Ekiilotaxa g'alasa Q!omox''sa. 
Wii, laEm^lae ^nex' qa y<ilas6lag"esa xwexwe. Wa, hex'^idaEm^la- 
wise q!ap!eg'illleda galasa Q!omox"se. Wa, laEnrlae ^nek'e Qamxu- 
lale qa doqwaleses nEgumpax gwayi^lalasasexs lae q!Emtaxa xwe- 
xwe, "qaxsla^meg'as lallaLUEgump," ^nex'^laeq. Wa, g'il=Em^lawise 40 
q!wel^IdExs laaEl Lax-iillla nagadasa g'ala Q!omox"sxa Legadalas 
NEmuEmEm. Wa, la'lae woooxa. Wa, la'lae ^uEmadzaqwa wooo- 
xeda g'illa Q!omox"s, lalaxes t !EmtsEmayaena^yaxa q6xcj[Egwlle 
xexEtsEma. Wa, hcEm^lawis g"ax^wult!alilElatsa mokwe xaxEnala 
gwegums^idEkwe yaexumala xwexwaxs laaEl q!Emtasosa mosgEme 45 
q!Emq!EmdEma. Wa, gil-Emlawise q!ulbeda alElxsda^ye q!Em- 
dEmexs laaEl tsEx"sesededa xwexwe laxes m6k!wena^ye. Wa, 
la^ae t!Emsaleda ^naxwa bEgwauEmsa Qlomox^se. Wa, la^lae 
Lax-'iilile Elkwas Qamxiilalexa LegadEs LEnolalale, qa^s yaq!E- 
g'a^eEl. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "Weg-a doqwalax, glgame^ QSmxii- 50 
lal, g'ax lag'ax'e kimex'sag'anoLaosaxg'as ^nawalax"g'6s," ^nex"- 
-lae. Wa, hex'-idasm^lawise la ax^etsE^weda xwexut!a^ye ^melx- 



894 ETHKOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Teth. ann. 35 

and after they all had been put down, | LEnotalal shouted, " Wooo !" 

55 and aU the Comox shouted at the same time, "Wooo!" || while they 
were healing time fast. Tliey shouted "Wooo!" four times, | and 
then the four xwexwe dancers went back behind the curtain. | Now 
they were pacified. Then LEnoiaial said, | "Now the xwexwe has 
been given as a mari'iage present to Qlomogwe^, and the name | 

60 HeklutEn. Now this will be the name of Qlomogwe^ || and also 
another name, TeseLla, and Hag' as, and LlEmElxei, | and also 
twenty boxes of camas-roots. | That was all he said. Then he finished 
with this. I Q !5mogwe^ stayed for four days before going home | to 

65 Crooked-Beach with his Comox wife. Immediately || he gave a feast 
with the twenty boxes of camas-roots to the | ancestors of the 
Kwakiutl. They did not know what the steamed camas-roots were, | 
for that was the first time they had seen them. It was not long 
before | Q!omogwe^ (III 11) and his wife (III 12) had a son. | Then 
his name was TeseL !a (IV 13) and Q !5mogwe^ gave away blankets on 

70 behalf of Ifis || chdd. Then he had another son, and | his name was 
Hag' as (IV 14) ; and he had another child, a girl, | and he gave her a 
name belonging to the Maamtag'ila, | because she was a girl. She 
was called Calhng- Woman (IV 1 5) . | Then Q !omogwe^ (HI 1 1 ) changed 

75 his name, and he named himself || Hek !utEU (III 11). When liis three 

53 Lowa, qa's g-axe gEmxalelEma. Wa, g-ll^Em^lawise ^wilg-alllExs 
lae woooxe LEnoialale. Wa, la^lae ^nEmadzaqwa woooxweda 

55 Q!omox"se laxes t lEmsalaena^ye. Wa, he^latla la moplEndzaqwa 
woooxaxs lae ^wFla la aLadzEndeda mokwe xwexwexa yawabile. 
Wa, la^me y^l-Ida. Wa, la^ae yaqlEg-a'le LEnoMale. Wa, la^me 
lak- !Eg-a^ltsa xwexwe lax Q!omogwa^ye. Wa, he^misa LegEme, 
yix Hek!iitEne. Wit, laEm^lae LegEmLEs Qlomogwa^ye. Wa, 

60 hcEm^lawise ^uEmsgEme LegEma TeseLla lo^ Hag'as lo^ LlsmEl- 
xeie. Wii, heEm^lawisa ma^ltsEmag'Eyowe xEtsEm motlExsda. 
Wa, hesm^lae waxax-^idale waldEmas. Wa, laEnr'lae gwiil laxeq. 
Wa, moplEnxwa^s lae ^nala hele Qlomogwa^yaxs g-axae na^uak" 
lax Qalogwise LE^wis Q!6mox"saaxsEme gEnEma. Wa, hex-^ida- 

65 Em^lawisg klwelas'Ttsa ma^ltsEmag-Eyowe xEtsEm motlExsd laxa 
g-ala Kwag'ula. Wa, laEm^'lae andqlEsxa uEgikwe m6t!Exsda, 
qaxs he^mae ales ^nEmp!Ena dox-waLElaq. Wa, k'les^latla galaxs 
lae xiingwadEx'^ide Qlomogwa^yasa babagiime laxes la gEUEma. 
Wa, la^me LegadEs TeseLla, ylxs laaEl plEs'Ide Qlomogwa^ye qaes 

70 xQnokwe. Wa, laxae etled^El xungwadEX'^Itsa babagume. Wa, 
la^me LegadEs Hiig-as. Wa, la-'lae et!ed xiingwatsa ts!ats!ada- 
gEme. Wa, laEm^lae Lex^etses Lex-LEgEmllaxs Maamtag-ilae 
laqexs ts !ats ladagEmae. Wa, laEm^lae Legadss Laqulayugwa laq. 
Wa, laEm^laxae L!ayuxLe Q!omogwa^ye. Wa, laEm^Iae Legad las 

75 HeklutEne. Wa, g-lPEm'lawise q liilsq lulyax-'wide yudukwe sasEm- 



»oAs) FAMILY HISTOKIES 895 

children were grown up, | HekliilEn (III 11) showed the xwexwe 76 
dance. In winter he gave a winter dance, | and he also had the 
salmon-dance. | TeseLla (IV 13), the eldest one of his children, was 
cannibal-dancer, | and Hag' as (IV 14) was dog-dancer, and CaUing- 
Woman (IV 15) was salmon-dancer, || and one of the relatives of 80 
HeklutEn, Haradzid, was grizzly-bear dancer. | The name of the 
cannibal-dancer was LlaxElag'llis, and the | name of Hag" as was 
Head-Dog, and the name of the girl | was Head-Dancer, and the 
name of the grizzly bear was Pretty -Grizzly-Bear. | Then HekliitEn 
had another son, and his name was || PEugwed (IV 16). This is also 85 
a Kwakiutl name. | HekltltEn (III 11) and his wife, Qwaesogut 
(III 12), separated. | She went home to the Comox with Hag' as (IV 14) 
and PEng^ved (IV 16), the | youngest one. She took with her to Punt- 
latch the four dances which she had seen given | by their father He- 
k !utEn when he gave a winter dance. || Now she gave a winter dance 90 
for the cannibal-dancer, the sahnon-dancer, | dog-dancer, and grizzly- 
bear-dancer, and she | used the same songs and the same names that 
had been used by the | dancers at Qalogwis. At that time the 
names | of the Kwakiutl went for the first time to Comox on account 
of the two children of || Hek liitEn who went home with their mother. 95 
It was not very long before | HeklutEn (III 11) married K'anelk' as 

sexs lae nePedamase HekliitEnaxa xwexwe. Wa, la^me yawix'i- 76 
laxa laEl ts!awilnxa; hcEm^lawisa hameyalale. Wa, la^lae hama- 
ts!e ^nolast !EgEnia^yas sasEmase TeseLla. Wii, la^lae wawasElale 
Hag'ase, yixs laa^laLal hameyalala ts!ats!adagEme Laqiilayugwa. 
Wa, la^lae nana g'ayole lax LCLELalase Hamdzide, yis HekliitEne. 80 
Wa, yu^mis^laEl LegEmsa hiimatslox L!ax"Elagilise. Wa, la'lae 
Legade Hag'asas WawasElig'a^ye. Wa, l;¥lae Legadeda ts!ats!ada- 
gEmas Yayaxiiya'ye. Wii, IsVlae LegadEs NEnk'as^oxa nane. Wii, 
la^lae et!ed xungwade Hek!utEuasa biibagiime. Wii, la^lae Lega- 
dEs PEUgwede. Wii, laEm^'laxae Kwiig'uldzEs LegEma. Wa, laEm 85 
k'lasowe Hek!utEne leHvIs gEUEme Qwaesogiite. Wa, laEm^lae 
na^nakwa liilaa laxa Q!omox"se Lo^lae Hiig'iise Lo^lae PEngwedexa 
Smil^ylnxa^ye. Wii, laEm^lae haylnkulaxes dogule mox^widala yiiwe- 
UEmses ompe HeklutEuaxs lae yawix'ilalaxa la tslawiinxa lax 
PEULlatsa. Wii, hxEm'lae ^wFla yiiwixllasa hiimatsia, LE^wa hftme- 90 
yalale, LE^wa wawasElale. Wii, hcEm^lawisa niine. Wii, hcEm- 
^laxaiiwis q lEmq lEmdEseda q !Emq IsmdEmas LE^wa LeLEgEmasa 
leledes LeLEgEme lax Qalogwise. Wii, heEm^El g'll liis LeLEgE- 
masa Kwiig'ule laxa Q!6mox"se qaeda ma^lokwe sasEms HeklvitE- 
naxs laa^l na^nak" LE^wes abEmpe. Wa, g'iPmese gagalaxs lae 95 
gEg'ade HeklutEnas K'anelk'ase, yix k' ledelas ^max'mEwesagE- 



896 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 35 

97 (III 2)the princess of ^max-mEwesegEme^ (II 1), | chief of the numaym 
DzEndzEnx'q !ayo. | She was half Bellabella, and first she had for her 
husband for a while the chief of the | Q !5moya^ye, Yaqoklwalag'ilis 
100 (III 6). Yaqoklwalagtlis (III 6) || was kiUed by the Haida G'idExan. 
Therefore | K" an elk' as (III 2) married Hek!utEn(III 11). They had 
not been married a long time before | they had a daughter, and | he 
called her Calling-Woman (IV 17) when he gave away property for the 
child; I and HeklutEn (III 11) changed his name, for he had received 
5 inman'iagefrom^max'mEwesagEme^(II 1) || the name Yax'LEn (III 11) 
for Hekluten. Now | his name was Yax'LEn (III 11), forCaUing- 
Woman (IV 17) descended | from ^max'mEwesagEme^ (II 1), chief of 
the DzEndzEnx' q !ayo, | the numaym of the Walas Kwakiutl — he 
who had been married among the BeUabella. | It was not very long 

10 before K*anelk"as (III 2) had another || daughter (IV 18). Then at 
once Yax'LEn (III 11) gave away property to the ancestors of the | 
Kwakiutl; and he took a name belonging to his numaym, the | 
Maamtag'ila, and he named his child LElelElg' awe^ (IV 18). | Now, 
when his two daughters were grown up, | then Calling-Woman (IV 17) 

15 took for her husband Copper-Dancer (IV 19), head chief || of the 
numaym Laalax's^Endayo, and the dance xwexwe | was given to 
him by Yax'LEn (III 11), and the name HeklutEn (IV 19). Then she 
also I had a daughter (V 4) and Copper-Dancer (IV 19) called her | 



97 ma^ye, yix g'IgS,ma^yasa ^uE^memeda DzEndzEnx'qIayowe, yixa 
Heldzaq"k' lotErne, y!xs liixde yawas^ld la^wadEs g'Iga,ma^yasa 
Qlomoya^ye lax Yaqoklwalag'ilise. Wa, la^lae kwexEkwe Yaqo- 
100 klwalagllisasa Haida, yis G'EdExane. Wa, heEm^lawis lag'ila la 
la^wadEX'Mde Kanelkasas HeklutEue. Wii, la-lae k'les gala la 
ha^yasEk-alaxs lae xungwadEX'^itsa ts!ats!adagEme. Wa, la^lae 
Lex^edEs Laqulayugwa laqexs lae p!Es^Id qaes xtinokwe. Wa, 
laEmHaxae L!ayoxLeye HeklutEne qa^laxs LegEmg'ElxLalae ^max'mE- 
5 wesagEma^yas Yax'LEne la lax HeklutEne. Wa, laEm^lawise 
LegadEs Yax'LEne. Wa, heEm-lawise Laqulayugwa g-aya^nakiila 
lax ^max'mEwesagEma^yexa g'lgama^j'asa DzEndzpnx'q layowe 
^UE^memasa ^walasg Kwag'ulaxa laxde gEg'ad laxa Heldza^qwe. 
Wa, k' les^Em-laxaawise galaxs lae et!ed mayol'ide K'anelk'asasa 

10 ts!ats!adagEme. Wa, la '4ae hijx'^ida'me Yax'LEne plEs'edxa g'ala 
Kwag'ula. Wa, laEm^lae a,x^ed lax LexLEgEmelases ^nE^memotaxa 
Ma^mtagila. Wa, laEm^lae LElelElg'awex'Le xunokwas. Wa, 
laEm^lae ma^lox"me sasEmas. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise eexEntaxs lae 
la^wadEX'-ide Laqulayugwiis L!aqwalale, ylx xamagEma^ye g'lga,- 

15 mesa ^uE^memeda Laaiax'sEndayowe. Wa, laEm-'lae layoweda xwe- 
xwe laq yis Yax'LEne, le'wIs LegEme Hek!utEne. Wa, la^lae et!ed 
xungwadEx'^itsa ts!ats!adagEme. Wa, la^lae Lex^ede Llaqwalalas 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 897 

Qlex'sesElas (V 4); ami then sho had a son (V 5); | and Yax"LEn(III 19 
1 1) gave the name Nap !ElEme^, wliich he had given in marriage 
to Copper-Dancer, || and this name he gave to his youngest child. | 20 
When the children of Copper-Dancer (IV 19) were grown up, he 
married | ^nax'nag'Em(IV20), the eldest daughter of Gwex'sesElasEme^ 
(III 13), the head | of the numaym NonEmasEqalis of the Lawetsles. 
Now I Copper-Dancer (IV 19) had two wives — the Lawets!es woman 
^nax'nag'Em (IV 20), || and the DzEndzEiix" q !ayo woman K'anelk'as 25 
(IV 17). Now, I ^nax'nag"Em(IV 20) had not been the wife of Copper- 
Dancer (IV 19) for a long time when she had a son; | and when he was 
ten months old, the name | Potlatch-Dancer was given as a marriage 
present by Gwex'sesElasEme^ (III 13). Now Copper-Dancer (IV 19) 
changed | his name after this, and took the name Potlatch-Dancer 
(IV 19), and || he had another name for his son. | This name was given 30 
as a marriage present by Gwex'sesElasEme^ (III 13) to his son-in-law, | 
and his name was to be Overhanging-Mountain (V 6), and he also gave 
his winter-dance | names, for Gwex'sesElasEine^ (III 13) had given his 
privileges, the | four dances, to his son-in-law Potlatch-Dancer(IV 19) — 
namely, the great frog war-danco || and tlic name of the great frog 35 
war-dancer was to be | ^wilEiikulag' iUs, and also the ghost-dancer, and 
the name of the | ghost-dancer was to be Chief Ghost, and also the 
war-dance, and the | name of the war-dancer was to be Winax"- 

Qlex'sesEhise laq. Wa, la^ae et!ed xungwadEx'^itsa babagume. 18 
Wa, la^lae Yax'LEne LegEing'ElxLala lax NaplElEma^ye lax L!aqwa- 
lale. Wa, heEm^lawis laEl LegEms amaylnxa^yas sasEmas. Wii, 20 
g'ipEm^lawise q !ulsq lulyax^wide sasEmas L!aqwalalaxs lae gEg'a- 
dEX'^its ^nax'^nagEme, yix k' ledelas Gwex'sesElasEma^yexa Laxu- 
ma^yasa ^nE^memotasa NouEmasEqalisasa Lawetslese. Wa, la^me 
ma^lTle Llaqwalalaxes gEgEnEme laxa lawets lets laxsEme ^nax'^na- 
g'Eme LE^wa DzEndzEnq laxsEme K'anelk'ase. Wa, laEm^lae gagiila 25 
gEg'ade Llaqwalalas ^nax'^nag"Emaxs lae xungwadEx'^itsa baba- 
gume. Wa, g^Il^Em^lawise helogwileda babagumaxs laasl LegEm- 
g-ElxLale CJwex'sesElasEma^3rax PiasElale. Wa, laEm^lae LJayo- 
XLaLe LJaqwalate, qaxs lE^mae LegadElts PlasElale. Wa, heEm^la- 
wisa ^uEmsgEme LegEm qaeda babagume xunox"s. Wa laEm- 30 
^laxae LegEmg'ElxLes Gwex'sesElasEma^ye laxes nEgiimpe. Wa, 
laEm^lae LegadElts KMesoyak^ilise. HeEm^lawisa tsletsleqiala 
LeLEgEme, qaxs lE^maa^lae Gwex"sesElasEma^ye k" ies^ogiilxLalaxa 
mox^widala lelade laxes nEgtimp PiasElale ^walase wuqles tox- 
^wida. Wil, heEm^El LegEmltsa ^walase wuqles tox-wide ^wi- 35 
lEnkulag-Uise; wa, heEmHawise lElolalale; wii, heEm4 LegEmltsa 
lElolalale L5lEyalise. Wa, heEm^lawisa hawlnalale; wa, heEm^lawis 
LegEmltsa hawlnalale Winax'wInagEme. Wit, hcEm^lawisa haya- 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 2 8 



898 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth.ann. 35 

winagEme^, and the | speaker-dance, and the name of the speaker- 

40 dancer was to be Made-to-be-Speaker; || and this is the number of 
privileges given in marriage by | Gwex'sesElasEme^ (III 13) to liis son- 
iivlaw Pothxtch-Dancer (IV 19); and also | tlie name Potlatch-Dancer 
(IV 19) was given by his father-in-law | Gwex'sesElasEme^(III 13), and 
his winter name was ^wldzeq Iwalaso^. | Gwex'sesElasEme^ (III 13) 

45 and liis tribe the Lawetsles lived at ALEgEmala; || and Potlatch- 
Dancer (IV 19) and his tribe, the Kwakiutl, lived at | Qillogwis; and 
that is where Gwex'sesElasEme^ (III 13) and | his tribe came from, 
going to Qalogwis, when he took his privileges to his son-in-law, and 
also I much food. And after they had stayed for four days, | the 

50 Lawetsles went home to ALEgEmala. Immediately || Potlatch- 
Dancer (IV 19) invited his numaym the Laalax's^Endayo and | two of 
the head men of all the numayms — the | Maamtag'ila, G'exsEm, 
Kiikwaklilm, andSeuLlEm, | — and the Laalax's^Endayo were also 
called in, and | their fellow-numaym, the Elgunwe^. When they 

55 were all in, |1 Potlatch-Dancer (IV 19) spoke, and he told them that 
he was going to give a winter dance | with the food given to him 
by his father-in-law, and that he would | show the four kinds of 
winter dances given to him by his father-in-law. | Then all the chiefs 
of the numayms told him | to go on, and at once his children dis- 

40 qlEntElale; wa, heEm^lawis LegEmltsa hayaq lEutElale YaqlEntE- 
yeg'i^lakwe. Wa, heEm^lae ^waxax'^Idale k' !es^6gulxLa^yas Gwex"- 
sesElasEma^ye laxes nEgumpe PlasElale. Wa, he^misLaLe la 
LegEms PlasElale yi^lax LegEmg'ElxLa^yases nEgumpe Gwex'sesE- 
lasEma'ye. Wa, laEm^lae LegadEs ^widzeq!walasE^we,' yixs haaEl 

45 g'okuleGwex'sesElasEma'ye Lo^laes g'okulota Lawetslese ALEgEmala. 
Wa, la^lae heEm^l g'okule P!asElale LE^wis g'okulota Kwag'ule 
Qalogwise. Wa, hcEm^lawis g'ax'^Ide Gwex'sesElasEma^ye LE^wes 
g'okulotaxs g'axaaEl lax Qalogwise k' les^oodxes nEgtimpe LE^wa 
qlenEme he^maomasa. Wa, g'll^Em^lawise moplEnxwa^sa ^nala 

50 laaEl na^nakweda Lawets !ese lax ALEgEmala. Wa, hex'^idaEm-lawise 
PlasElale Lelts!odxes ^nE^memotaxa LaSlax's^Endayowe LE^wa mae- 
ma^lokwe lax LeLaxuma^yasa ^nal^nEmsgEmak!use ^nal^nF.memasaxa 
Ma&mtag'ila LE^wa G'exsEme LE^wa Kukwak!ume LE^wa SenLlE- 
me. Wa, heEm^lawisa La&lax's^Endayaxs ^wFlaeLEla^maa^l LE^wis 

55 ^uEmsgEmak liisa Elgiin^wa^ye. Wa, g'iPEm^lawise ^wFlaeLExs laalas 
yaqlEg'a^le P!asElale. Wa, laEm^lae nelaxs lE^maasl yiiwix'^ilaltsa 
g'axe wawadz5lEmq ylses nEgOmpe. Wa, heEm^lawis, qa^s wag'Il 
yawenErmiox"ltsa mox^wedala k' !ek' !es-o k" !es^ogulxLeses nEgtimpe 
laq. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawisa ^naxwa g'Ig'Egamesa ^nal^nE^memase 
wiixalaq, qa wag'ilas. Hex-^idaEm ^naxwa x'is^ede sasEmasexa 

1 Winter dance name. 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 899 

appeared that || night. Then many winter-dance whistles sounded; GO 
and I as soon as those who had been seated liad gone out, | Pothitch- 
Dancer cleared out his house. After they liad cleared it out, | they 
built a fire in the middle; and when the fire in the middle began to 
burn, I the four speakers of Potlatch-Dancer — who were named || 65 
BawQle in the secular season, and in winter Wawanagadzo^; | and 
another one, ^nEmogwesEme^ in the secular season, | and Wren in 
winter; and one who was called l !esp legaak" | in the secular season, 
and Goose in winter; and | also G'exk'Enis in the secular season, 
and TsIiiqlExsdo in || winter — had red cedar-bark on their heads 70 
and I red cedar-bark around their necks. They took taUow of 
mountain-goat | and rubbed it on their faces; and after doing so, | 
they took charcoal and blackened their faces. | After doing so, they 
took eagle-down and || put it on their heads; and when this was done, 75 
they I took cedar-bark rope and cut off part for a belt. | Then they 
took their Sparrow Society canes | and when they had done so, they 
started. They went to call aU the | men, and the women and chil- 
dren, to come quickly || into the house of ^widzeq Iwalaso^ (IV 19), for 80 
now 1 Potlatch-Dancer had already his winter-dance name ^widze- 
q!walas6^. One of the speakers, said while | they were going and 

ganuLe. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise hek' !Ek' laleda q lenEme LeLEX'ExsEXs 60 
g'alae ^wrta la hoqtiwElseda kiwalax'de. Wa, la^lae hex"4daEm 
ex^wItsE^wa g'okwas PlasElale. Wii, gil^Em^lawise gwalE^l ekiilTla- 
s5xs laa^l laqolIlasE^Wa. Wii, gipEnr'lawise x'iqositawa laqawall- 
laxs laa^l q !walax"^ideda mokwe &yElx"s PlasElalexa Legadas 
Bawiile laxa baxuse; wa, l!¥lae Wawanagadzawexxa laxa ts!e- 65 
ts!eqa. Wii, heEm^awise ^nEmogwesEina^ye la^laxa biixuse; wii, 
la^lae Xwatlaxxa laxa ts!ets!eqa. Wii, heEm-lawise l !esp !egaakwe 
laxa baxiise; wa, la^lae NExaxLa lii^laxa ts!ets!eqa. Wii, heEm^lii- 
wise G'exk'Enise laxa biixuse; wii, hVlae Ts!iiq!Exsdox"La hixa 
ts!ets!eqa. Wa, laEm^lae qeq^Ex'imiilaxa LlagEkwe. Wa, lii^laxaa 70 
qeqEiixiila LlagEkwe. Wii, la^lae ilx^edxa yiisEkwasa 'mElxLowe 
qa^s yilsEkwodes laxes gegoguma^ye. Wii, g'ipEm^awise gwiilExs 
laaEl ax^edxa tslolna, qa^s ts!6ts!ElEmdes laxes gegoguma^ye. 
Wii, g'iPEm^lawise gwalExs laaEl ax^edxa qEnaxwiisa kwekwe, qa^s 
qEmx^wides laxes x'ix'omse. Wii, g'il'Em^liiwise gwiilExs laa^l 75 
§,x*edxa dEnsEne dEUEma, qa^s t!6s6de liiq qa^las wlwuseg'anowe. 
Wii, g"iPmese gwiilExs lae ax^edxes gwegwespleqe. Wii, g'ipEni- 
^iiwise gwalExs laa^I qiis^ida. Wii, laEm^lae lal Le^lalalxa ^naxwa 
bebEgwanEm LE^wa tsledaqe Lo^ma g'inginanEm qa gaxes halacL 
lax g'okwas ^wIdzeq!wiilasF/we, qaxs lE^mae ts!iigEXLiile P!iisEla- SO 
lax ^wldzeq IwalasE^we. Wii, g'aEm^l wiiltsa ^UEmokwe liixa ayEl- 
kwaxs lae qiiseg'a la^laxs laa-1 laeL liix t!et!EX"llasa ^naxwa 



900 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

83 stepping into the doors of all the | houses (for that is as far as they 
went), I "We call you, members of the Sparrow Society, and the Spar- 

85 row Society women, and the Sparrow Society children, || to go into the 
house of ^wldzeqlwalaso^." | This was said by Wawanagadzo^; and 
after he had stopped | speaking. Wren spoke and said, | "The super- 
natural power will come into the house of our chief ^wldzeq Iwalaso^ 

90 (IV 19) ;" I and after Wren had spoken, | Goose also spoke, and said, | 
"Now let us go, shamans, to see what the supernatural power | will 
do with the children of our chief ^widzeq Iwalaso^ (IV 19), | for they 
have been taken by the supernatural power." Thus he said; and 
after he had ended his words, |- then Ts !aq lExsdo also spoke and 

95 said: || "Be quick, shamans, go on, and be quick, and come quickly 
into the house ! " | and after he had ended Ms words, | they went out; 
and they went into the other houses, stood in | the doorway, and 
they said as they had done before when | they were calling. When 
200 they came to the end of the village Qalogwis, || they went back into 
all the houses; and | the four speakers did not go out of the house 
until the men, | their wives and children, all came out. Then they 
all I went into the house with the four speakers. This | is called by 
5 the ancestors of the Kwakiutl "single call," for in this way || the first 
appearance of the supernatural power of the winter dance is treated 

83 g'ig'okwa, yi^laxs he^mae qlwastallla awlLElasa t!et!Exila: "G'ax- 
^mEnu^x" qasoLai', gwegudzai' los gwegiitslaxsEmai' lo^s gwagugwe- 

85 dzEmai', qa^s laos ^wi^tsla lax g'okwas ^wIdzeq!walasowai'." Wa, 
heEm^l waldEms Wawanagadzawa'ye. Wa, giPmese qlulba waldE- 
masexs lae ogwaqa yaq!Eg'a4e Xwatla. Wa, la^lae *neka: 
"G'axeLeda ^nawalakwex laxox g'okwaxsEns g'igama^yex, laxa 
^widzeqlwalasE^wex," ^nex'^lae Xwatla. Wa, g^U-Em^lawise qliilbe 

90 waldEmasexs laa^l ogwaqa yaqlEg'a^le NExaqe. Wa, lae ^neka: 
"La^mEns lal, pepExalai', nanaxbaal lax waldEmas ^nawalakwa, qa 
gwex"^idaasas sasEmasEns g-IgSma^yai' ^widzeq!walasE^waxs ^wrto- 
LanEmaasa^nawalakwa,'' 'nex"4ae. Wa, giPEm^lawise qliilbe waldE- 
masexs lae ogwaqa yaqlEg'a'le TsIaqlExsdo. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: 

95 "Halag'IliLEsai' pepExalai'. Wa, wa, wa Lax-wit, qa^s laos hala- 
eLa," ^nex'^lae. Wa, giPEni^lawise qlulbe waldEmasexs lae 
hoqiiwElsa, qa^s lii^laxat! laxa apsalase g'okwa, qa^s laxat! q!wa- 
stolilax t'.Ex'tlas. Wa, aEm^laxaiiwise uEg-Eltodxes g'ilx'de gwe- 
k'lalasa. Wa, g'ipEm'lawise labElsaxa g-6x"dEmse lax Qalogwisaxs 
200 gaxaa'l aedaaqa lalaeLla laxa ^naxwa g'Ig'okwa. Wa, laEm^lae 
al^Em hoqtiwElseda mokwe ayilkwaxs laa^l ^wl^lg^tllla bebEgwauEme 
LE^wis gEgEnEme LE^wis sasEme. Wa, g^iPEm^laxaawise ^wTlxtol- 
saxa g'ig'okwaxs laa^l hogwlLeda mokwe S,^yilkwa. Wa, heEm^l 
gwE^yosa g'ale Kwagail ^nEmp!Engilts!axste, yixs haa^l gweg-ila- 
5 gila ^nawalakwaxs g-alae laeL lax g'okwasa g-ale yawix'ilasa g'ala 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 901 

when it enters the house of the winter-dance giver among the ances- 5 
tors I of the Kwakiutl. Now, the winter-dance whistle was still 
sounding behind | the curtain in the rear of the house. Then all | 
the men, the women, and the children went in; | and they followed 
tlic rules that you already know about the begirming of the || winter 10 
dance, about which I have talked. | 

One year after Potlatch-Uancer (IV 19) had given his winter dance | 
(for his name is -'widzeq Iwalaso^ only during the winter dance) | he 
died; and at once his prince | Qlomx'od (V6) took the place of his 
past father. He gave a potlatch to all || the tribes; and now 15 
Qlomx'od (V6) had the name Copper-Dancer (V 6). | He wished to 
marry the princess of Cliief K" !ade (IV 21) of the l !aL lasiqwala. | 
K" !ade (IV 21) was head chief of the numaym | LaalawIlEla. Then 
the numaym of Copper-Dancer (V 6) told him to go | ahead and to 
marry her quickly; and all the || numayms of the Kwakiutl launched 20 
their canoes at Qalogwis; | and they all paddled, going to PIeleuis, | 
forthatwaswherethevillageoftheLlaLlasiqwalawaslocated. When | 
they arrived at P lELEms, they made the marriage payment for Head- 
Princess (V 7), I the princess of K' !ade (IV 21); and after they had 
made the marriage payment, || K' I^de (IV 21) came out, carrying a 25 
box which was not very large. It was | called "winter-dance box." 



Kwag'ula. Wa, laEm^laLe hek' !alax"sa^ma LCLEX'Exse lax aLadza- 6 
^yasa yawapEmlile lax ogwi^walilasag'okwe. Wa, laEm^lae ^wFlaeLgda 
^naxwa bebEgwauEm LE^wa tsledaqe LE^wa ging-inanEme. Wa, 
laEm^lae aEm la nEgEltowexes ^naxwamos la q !al qa gwayi^Ialatsa 
ts!ets!eqa gag'lLEla lax la walalaatsEn waldEme. 10 

Wa, g^iPEm^lawise ^nEmxEnxe tslawiinxas gwal yiiwixile P!asE- 
lale, qaxs lex'a^mae Legadaatses ^wldzeq !waIasE^wa ts!ets!eqa; wa, 
laEm^lae wik'lEx^eda. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise LawElgSma^yase 
Q!6mx-ode Lax"stodxes ompde. Wa, laEm^lawise plEs^edxa ^naxwa 
lelqwalaLa^ya. Wa, laEm^lae Q!6mx'6de la LegadEs Llaqwalale. 15 
Wa, la^lae ^nex', qa^s gEg'ades kMedelas g'Jgama^yasa l !aL lasiqwS,- 
la-ye K"!ade, yixs xamagEmayae g'lgama^ye K'!adasa ^nE^memeda 
LaalawIlEla. Wii, hex'^ida^m^Iawise ^uE^memas Llaqwalale waxaq, 
qa wag'es hali^lala gagak^EX'^idEq. Wa, ^wi^lastaEm^lawisa ^naxwa 
^nai-nE^mematsa Kwag'ule LElstEndxes yiyEnasEla lax Qalogwise. 20 
Wa, g'ax^lae ^wFla sex^wida. Wii, laEm^lae lal lax PlELEmse, 
qaxs he^maaEl g"6kule g'alasa LlaLlasiqwalaye. Wa, gipEm^lawise 
lag'aa lax P.'ELEmsaxs laa^l hex'-idaEm qadzel'edEx K' ledelsma^ye 
lax k"!edelas K'!ade. Wii, g il'Em^liiwise gwiila qadzeLiixs gaxaa- 
^las g'iixawulse K'lade laxes dalaxa g'ildase kMes ^walasa. HeEm 25 
LegadEs k'!iiwats!exa gildase, qaxs he^mae gTtslEwatsa ^naxwa 



902 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 36 

27 In it were all the | privileges for the winter dance. Then he stood 
outside 1 of his house. He turned his face toward his house, and he 
called I his princess Head-Princess. He called her to come and || 

30 stand also outside of the house, where he stood. As soon as he 
stopped speaking, | Head-Princess (V 7) came, carrying the copper 
named iJEsaxElayo, | and she stood by the side of her father; and 
K" !ade (IV 21) ] turned his face toward the canoes of the Kwakiutl on 
the water, and | he called Copper-Dancer (V 6) to come out of his 

35 traveling-canoe || and get the winter-dance box and his wife | 
Head-Princess (V 7). Copper-Dancer (V 6) at once took off his | 
blanket, stepped out of his canoe, and shouted, "Haha, haha!" | 
Then he ran up the beach and took the wuater-dance box. | Then he 
was told by K' I^de (IV 21) that there were four kinds of dances in 

40 the II box — the war-dance with a bird in its belly, which had the name 
Togumalis; | and the thro wing-dance, with the name Qweltses; j 
and the hamshamts !es, with the name Nawis; | and also the ghost- 
dance, with the name Supernatural-Power-coming-up. | And after 

45 K' !ade (IV 21) had finished whispering to his son-m-law, he sent || his 
princess, Head-Princess (V 7) to go with her husband. She was j 
still carrying the copper. Then Copper-Dancer (V 6) | and his wife 
(V 7) walked side by side, going down the beach, and went aboard 
the I traveling-canoe; and when Head-Princess (V 7) sat down in the 

27 kMek'lEs^o laxa ts lets lexLEne. Wa, la^lae Laxiiyolsax Llasana^ya- 
ses g'okwaxs laa^ gwegEmx-^Id laxes gokwe. Wa, la'lae laq!u- 
laxes k" ledele lax KMedelEma^ye. Wa, laEm^lae Le^lalaq, qa g'axes 

30 ogwaqa Laxuyolsa lax Ladzasas. Wa, gi^Em^lawise qlweHdExs 
g'axaalas g'axEWElse K' ledelsma^ye dalaxa Llaqwa i,«gadEs LlEsa- 
xElayo, qa^s g'axe LawEnSdzElsaxes ompe. Wii, hVlae K'!ade 
gwegEmx'^Id lax mEx&lasas yae^yatslasa Kwag'ule. Wa, la^lae 
Le^hllax L!aqwalale, qa las xamax'^idaEm lalta laxes ya^yatsle, 

85 qa^s la ax^edxa k-!awats!e g'ildasa. Wa, hcEm^lawise gEnEmase 
K- !edelEma^ye. Wii, hex'^ldaEm^lawise L!aqwalal xEng'aalExsaxes 
uEx^iina^ye, qa^s la lalta laxes ya^yatslaxs laa^l xaxalolaqwa, qa^s 
liiEl dzElxQsdesa, qa^s laEl dax'^idxa k'!awats!e glldasa. Wii, 
laEm^lae nele K' !adasa k-!ek'!Es^6we mox-'widala g'Its!axak-!awats!e 

40 gildasaxa olala, ylxs ts!ek!wesae; wa, he^mis LegEmse Togiimalise. 
Wii, he^Em^liiwisa mamaqla; wa, he^mis LegEmse Qweltsese. Wii, 
heEm^hlwisa hc1mshamts!Ese; wii, he^mis LegEmse Nawise. Wii, 
heEm^liiwisa lElolslale; wii, he^mis LegEmse ^awalak-iistalise. Wii, 
g'll^Em^liiwise gwiil opa K' !iidiixes UEgumpaxs liia^l ^yalaqaxes k' !e- 

45 dele K' !cdelEma^ye, qa liis lasgEmexes la^wunEme. Wii, laEm^lae 
hex'siiEm dalaxa Llaqwa. Wa, laEm^lae ^uEmagoLEmale Llaqwalal 
LE^wis gEUEmaxs g'axae hoqunts!esEla, qa^s lii hox^walExs liixes 
ya^yats !e. Wii, giPEm^iiwise k Iwag'aalExse K- !edelEma^yaxs laa^ase 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 903 

canoe, | K' !ade (IV21) spoke again, and said, "Son-in-law, || let me 50 
change your name. Your name shall be YaqEyallsEm (V 6), | and 
your secular name Hamisk'Enis (V6)." Thus he said. Wlicu | ho 
stopped speaking, Copper-Dancer (V 6) spoke, and | took the copper 
that his wife was carrying and thanked | his father-in-law (IV 21) for 
his word, and after he had thanked him, he || promised to give a 55 
potlatch with the copper to the Kwakiutl. Then he changed his 
name; | and now he was no more Copper-Dancer (V 6), but his name 
was YaqEyallsEm (V 6) ; | and when he had stopped speaking, they 
turned back | and went home to Qalogwis. When they arrived at | 
Qalogwis, YaqEyallsEm (V 6) cleared the floor of his house, for it was 
nearly winter || when he went to marry. When | his house was 60 
cleared out, he sent his four speakers to | call the Kwakiutl. He 
asked all the men to come into his house. | When it was towards 
evening, they came in, and at once | YaqEyallsEm (V 6) made a pot- 
latch to them. It was still the secular season || when he gave a pot- 65 
latch to his tribe. Then his name was really | YaqEyalisEm (V 6); 
and he named his younger brother | Nap lElEme^ (V 5) Hamisk'Enis. 
These were their secular names. He did | not make a potlatch to his 
tribe, the Kwakiutl, until late in the evening. | Now YaqEyallsEm 
(V6) barred the door against his tribe || so that they could not go out 70 

K'!adeet!ed yaq!Eg'a^la. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "^ya, nEgumpii, we- 
g'ax'in Llayoxs LegEmaqos. LaEms lal LegadEl YaqEyallsEma; 50 
wa, he^mise HamiskEnise laxa baxQse," ^nex'^lae. Wit, g'lpEm- 
^lawise qlwel^IdExs laa^l yaq lEg'a^le L!aqwalal. Wii, laEm^ae 
dax'^idxa Llaqwa, ylx daakwases gEUEme. Wa, laEin^lae molas 
waldEmases nEgumpe. Wa, g"ll^Em4awise gwal molaxs laa^l dzo- 
xwasa Llaqwa qaeda Kwag'ule. Wa, laEm^lae LlayoxLas. Wa, 55 
laEm^lae gwal Llaqwalala; wa, laEm^lae LegadEs YaqEyallsEma 
laxeq. Wa, g'll^Em^lawise qlwel^IdExs g'axae xwelaqEles LEx^eda, 
qa^s lii nii^nakwa lax Qalogwise. Wii, gil^Em^lawise lag"aa lax 
Qalogwise laa4 hex'-idaEm ex^wldxes g'okwe, qaxs tslawtinxba- 
^nakulae lax'dEmas gEg'ade YaqEyallsEma. Wa, g'iPEm^lawise la 60 
eg'ikwe g'okwasexs laa^l ^yalaqases mokwe a^yilkvva, qa liis Le^la- 
laxa Kwakfig'ule, qa g'axes ^wPleda bebEgwUnsme lax g'okwas. 
Wa, g'il^Em^lawise dzaqwaxs g'axaa^l ^wFlaeLa. Wa, hex'^i- 
daEm^lawise YaqEyallsEma yax^wklEq. Wa, laEm^lae baxiistale 
p lEts lena^yasexes gokillote. Wa, laEm^lae alax'^id la Legadss 65 
YaqEyallsEma. Wii, la^lae Lex^edEs Hamisk'Enise laxes tsa^ye 
Nilp !ElEma^ye. Wii, laEm^lae bebiixudzEXLalaq. Wii, ill^Em^liiwise 
gwiil yaqwaxes g'olg'ukuloteda Kwakiag-ulaxs liia^l giila giinuLa. 
Wii, laEm^ae YaqEyallsEma Lanek'oxes g'olg'flkiilote. LaEm^lae 
k'!es helqlalaq hoqiiwElsa. Wa, g'iPEm^lawise gwal yaqwaqexs 70 



904 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL (eth. ann. 35 

71 of the house; and after he had finished givmg his potlatch, | the 
house trembled as in an earthquake, | and there was a rumbling 
sound while the house was shaking. | It did not shake long, then 
everything was quiet. | Four times the house shook. Then it 

75 stopped. II The Kwakiutl did not know what they had heard, for no 
one I knew what caused the sound. After | the rumbling around the 
house had been heard four times, it sounded as though many | men 
shouted, "Hamamamama!" and they shouted four times, | 
" Hamamamama ! " (the ghost-cry); and after the cry had been heard 

80 four times, || Q!ex"sesElas (V 4) came out of the rear of the house, 
went around the fire | in the middle of the house, and when she came 
to the door, | YaqEyallsEm (V 6) opened the door of the house. 
Then | Q lex'sesElas (V4) ran out; and when she was out of the door, | 
it sounded as though many men were shouting, "Hamamamama!" || 

85 outside of the house; and when they stopped crying "Hamama- 
mama!" I YaqEyallsEm (V 6) stood up and spoke. He said, | "O 
tribe! this is the supernatural power which came from where | I got 
my wife. Now my princess has been taken away by a supernatural 
power of the | l !aL !asiqwala. These are the ghosts that have come 

90 and have taken my princess || Q!ex"sesElas (V 4). Now wash your- 
selves with hemlock-branches, tribes, and let us | try to catch 
Q!ex'sesElas (V 4) in the morning. You | aD shall wash yourselves. 

71 laa4 dEmlex^wIde awPstas g'okwas. La^lae he gwex'sa uenena, 
Wa, laEm hek' !ala nEqElg'a^miisaqexs laa^l dEmlexiile awi^stElsas 
g-okwas. Wa, k'!esnaxwa^lat!a gegilsExs lanaxwae sElt!eda. Wii, 
liVlae m6p!Endzaqwa dEmlex^wIde awI'stElsas g^okwasexs lae gwala. 

75 Wii, aEm^lawise Kwakug-ule q !aq !EyaxstolIltses wuleIS, qaxs k' !ea- 
sae ^uEmok" q!alax hegilas gwek'!ig'a^le. Wii, g^iPEm^lawise mo- 
p!Endzaqwa dEmlex^wIde awFstiisa g'okwaxs liia^lase q!ek"!illabebE- 
gwiinEma ^nEmadzaqwii hamamamamaxii, lii^laxae mop!Endzaqwa 
hamamamamamama. Wii, giPEm^lawise m6p!Endzaq'waxs g'ilxa- 

80 a^lase peLEle Q!ex'sesElase g"ax^wult!alll, qa^s lii lii^stalllElax liiqa- 
walilasa gokwe. Wa, giPEm^lawise lii^stallExs laa^l axstode YaqE- 
yalisEmiixa t!EX'Ilases g'okwe. Wii, heEm^hlwis la dzElx^wfddzats 
Q!ex'sesElase. Wii, g^ipEm^lawise lilwEls liixa t!Ex-llaxs liia^ase 
^nEmiidzaqwa hamamamamaxeda q!ek"!ala bebEgwanEm laxa L!a- 

85 sana^yasa g'5kwe. Wii, gipEm^liiwise q!wel^ideda hamamamaxiixs 
laa^l Lax^iillle YaqEyalisEma, qa^s yaq!Eg'a^le. Wii, hVlae ^nek-a: 
"Wa, g'olg-iikillot! Wii, yuEm ^nawalak" g'iiya^nakOla liixEn 
gEg"adaas6x. Wii, la^me laLanEmEn k'!edelasa ^nawalakwasa L!a- 
L!asiqwala. Wii, hcEm leslalenoxweda g'axa ax^edxEn kMedelae 

90 Q!ex'sesElasa. Wii, wegilla q !eqElax'^ldLEx ^niix" g'olg-tikiilot, qEns 
^wii^wildzE^wa^meLEnslaloL!iiLExQ!ex'sesElasaxgaiilaLa. Wii,laEms 
^niixwaEm g'Igiltalalxwa giinuLex, LE^wis gEgEUEmaos, LE^wis siisE- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 905 

this night, and your | wives and your children shall wash too." 93 
Thus he said. "Now I will ask you, ^wun^wunlx"ES, to help me." | 
(He meant the cannibal dancers.) "You shall go first when you try 
to catch our || friend Qlex'sesElas (V 4); and also you, ghost-dancers, 95 
you shall go next to | the ^wiin^wunlx'Es; and you also, war-dancers; 
and you, | Sparrow Society, shall follow the war-dancers; you shall 
go behind our | friends, for indeed we are now trying to imitate what 
my wife told me; | for she was told by her father, and she must give 
us instruction and show us || what to do when the supernatural power 300 
shows itself; and this is the beginning of the winter dance | of the 
L !aL lasiqwala. My princess Qlex'sesElas (V 4) | has now been taken 
by the ghosts. Now our names will be changed | in the morning. I 
sliall call you | in the morning, and your wives and your children. 
That II is all," he said; and when his speech was ended | ^maxwa, 5 
chief of the numaym MaSmtag'ila, arose | and spoke. He said, 
"You have heard the speech | of our chief YilqEyallsEm (V 6). Now 
you have | another kind of supernatural power which you did not 
know before. You are great. You || will act so that no wrong will 10 
result, for we | are to use it later on. It is different from our super- 
natural power, I what you received in war-marriage from your 
father-in-law. Shall we not do, | my tribe, according to what you 
say to us? | That is aU." Thus he said, and then he sat down. || 

maos," ^nex'^lae. "Wa, la^mesEn helaLOL ^wun^wflnlx'Esa" (xa 93 
haamats!a gwE^yos), "^laEms lal g'alabll, qEuso kimyalxEns ^nEmo- 
kwae Q!ex-sesElasa. Wa, so^mts lelElolElala ; laEms mag^abilxa 95 
^wun^wunlx'Ese. Wa, so^mts tetox^wld, laEms lal ElxLCLEsa tetox^- 
wide. Wii, so^mcLas gwats!Em; la^Ems lal ElxLalesLEsEns ^ne^nEmo- 
kwe, qiiLaxg'ins la^megins nauEnklwax waldEmasgin gEnEmk', 
yixs ^nex'^maalae ompasEq qa iVmesek' Lexs^ala g'axEns, qEns gweg'i- 
las, qo gTixogwTln e^l^edox ^nawalakwaxse. Wii, yiiEmg'il ts!ets!ex- 300 
edaatsa LlaLlasiqwalox, yix laena^yase laLauEmEn kMedelae Q!ex"- 
sesElasasa leslanenoxwe. Wii, laEm^lawisEns ^niixwal LliiyoxLa- 
xEns LCLEgEmax gaiilaLa laxEn ek'!eneEmLa Le^liilax'da^x"LOLax 
gaillaLa LE^wis tsledaqaos, LE^wa ginginfuiEmax gaillaL. Wii, 
yu^moq," ^nex'^lae. Wa, gil^Em^liiwise q !ulbe wiildEmasexs hla^l 5 
Liix^ulileda ^maxwaLa g'lgamesa ^nE^memeda Maamtagila. Wa, 
la^lae jj^aq lEg'a^a. Wii, la^lae ^nek'a: "Lammas wuLElaxg^a waldEm- 
g'asg'Ens g'igamek' laxg'a YaqEyalisEmak'. LaEms lalxwa ogii- 
qiiliix ^nawalakwaxwa k'!esdaqEns cjlala. Hawiidzekatsox. Weg^a 
helalaq" qa k" leases amelasLEsox laxos g'axene^Lex g^iixEns, qEns 10 
gaxel aiixsilaLEq". Wii, la^mSx Sguqala laxEns nosex ^nawalakwa 
wI^nanEmaqos lax uEgumpa. Wii, es^maeLaLEns aEm wegil Loguns 
g'olg'ukiilotEk'. AEml heEm gwayi^liilaLes waldEmLaos g'axEnu^x". 
Wa,,yu^m6q," ^nex^^laexs lae k!wiig"allla. 



906 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth.ann. 35 

15 Then YaqEyalisEm ''V 6) arose and thanked him for his speech; | 
and when he stopped speaking, the men went out. | When they were 
outside, YaqEyalisEm (V 6) | and his wife (V 7) dug a hole in the 
middle of the rear of their house one fathom | in length, in the direc- 

20 tion toward the door of the house, and || half a fathom wide. Then 
Head-Princess (V 7) told them | to put aU the soil which she dug out 
of it into boxes, | so that it might not be seen, as is done by the | 
L !aL !asiqwala when they dig this hole, when they are going to have 
a ghost-dance. | Generally they put the soil mto boxes, and they || 

25 put them down in a corner of the dancing-house, where nobody 
walks, I and they cover them over with mats, and sometimes they 
lay roof-boards | over them. Thus was done by YaqEyalisEm (V 6) 
with the soil that he dug out. | When it was deep enough for a taU 
man | to stand in the hole and to be visible for one-half of his body, 

30 they stopped diggmg; || and Head-Princess (V 7) asked YaqEyahsEm 
(V 6) to get a pole | not too thick, four finger-widths in diameter. | 
Then YaqEyahsEm went to get it | out of the woods, and he brought 
a stick two fathoms long. | He cut it in two, and put sharp points || 

35 at the pnds. After doing so, his wife | took up one of the poles and 
put it down into the hole that had been dug | at the end toward the 

15 Wa, la^lae Lax^ulile YaqEyalisEma qa^las moles waldEmas. Wfii 
gil^Em^lawise qlwel^edExs lae ^wi^la hoqiiwElseda bebEgwanEme. 
Wil, g'll^Em^lawise ^wI^IeweIsexs laa^l 'laplide YaqEyalisEma 
LE^wis gEUEmaxa naqoLiwalilases g'okwaxa ^nEmp!Enk'as ^wasgE- 
mase laxEns baLax, gweballl laxa tlExilasa g^okwe. Wa, la4ae 

20 uEqlEbod laxEns baLaqe ^wadzEgEg'aasa. Wa, laEm^Iae ^nek'e 

K' ledelEma^ye, qa^s kMatsIalesa dzEqwa ^l&lpmotas laxa k'lek'lEm- 

• yaxLa, qa k'leses dogule gwastaasases lax gweg"ilasasa La!L!a- 

siqwalaxs ^lapaaxa he gwexse yixs laloltsellLe, yixs heniEna- 

la^mae k'!ats!alasa dzEqwa laxa k" !ek' lEmyaxLa, qa^s la ha^nEm- 

25 g'alilas laxa onegwilasa lobEkwe laxa k"!ese qayatsa bebEgwa- 
nEme, qa^s naxliylndesa le^wa^ye laq; loxs paqEyalilaasa saokwe 
laq. Wa, heEm^awise gwex"4de YaqEyallsEmaxes ^lalpmote dzE- 
qwa. Wa, aEm^lawise gwanala qa nEgoyowesa g'lldExsde bEgwa- 
uEmxs Laatslae lax ^walabEtalllalasas ^lapa^yasexs lae gwal ^lilpaq. 

30 Wa, la^lae S.xk'!ale K" ledelEma^yax YaqEyalisEma, qa ax^edesex 
k' !esa LEk" dzoxiimaxa modEnx'sawa wag'idas laxEns q !waq !wax'- 
ts!ana^yex. Wa, hex'idaEm-lawise YaqEyalisEma la ax^edEq laxa 
aL!e. Wa, g'ax^lae wlk'Elaxa malplEnk'as ^wasgEmase laxEns baLax. 
Wa, la^lae tsEX"s^EndEq qa nExses. Wa, la^lae dzodzox"bEndEX 

35 epsba^yas, qa ex'bes. Wa, gil^Em^lawise gwalExs laa^ae gEUEmas 
ax'edxa ^nEmtsIaqa laxa dzoxume, qa^s la Lats!5ts laxes ^lapa^ye. 
Wa, laEm^lae gwebeltsia laxa tiEx'llasa g'okwe. Wa, la^lae Lane- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 907 

38 



door of the house. She put it m slanting, | in this way: i 

Then Head-Princess told her husband | to drive it in with ^^'^^s^ 
his stone hammer. Wlien it was one || span below the 40 

floor, he | stopped driving it in. Then she took the other ' 

polo I and put it down into the hole so that it was in 

and YaqEyallsEm (V 6) | drove it in with his 
and when the top was even with the | first one, he 
Then his wife took an || empty oil-bottle and 45 



A 



A 



this w a y 

h a m m e r 

s t o p p e d 

split one side the whole length; | and when the kelp 

bottle had been split along one side, | she tied it to the two poles 

that were tied together in | the hole that had been dug out. She 

put the inner side of the kelp outward, because | it was greasy 

and slip2")ery. She tied it on its || fuU length, and there was only 50 

one way of tying it. | She tied it up and down in this way; 

There was no cross-tying. After | this was done, Head- 

Prmcess (V 7) took something that she had kept secretly in 

a I basket and put it down. Not even her husband knew 

what was in it. Then Head-Princess spoke, || and said, " O, mas- 55 

ter! now call the chiefs | of your numayms, one head chief of 

each of thera, that | they come and watch how we work the hole 

that we dug. Don't | let any one of those who call them show 

liimself to their wives, that they may not guess what you want, | 

xata, g'a gwaleg'a (fig.). Wa, la^lae K' ledelsma^ye axk'lalaxes la-wii- 38 
uKme, qa degutodeq yises pElpElqe. Wa, g'iPEm^lawis ^uEmplEnk- 
laxEns q!waq!wax-ts!ana^yex la banalagawesa Swlnagwllaxs laa^l 40 
gwal deqwe YaqEyalisEmaq. Wa, la^laxae et!ed ax^edxa^uEmtsIaqe, 
qa^s axbEtallles, qa g-fis gwaleg-a (fig.). Wii, hVlaxae YaqsyallsEma 
degutodsq ylses pslpElqe laq. Wa, g1l-Em^lawise ^nEmaxtala LE^wa 
gilx'de deqwasos laa^l gwala. Wii, L¥lae gEUEmas ax^edxa lolap- 
motasox Lle'nax ^WiVwada, qa^s LEpsEndeq laxes ^wasgEmase. Wa, 45 
g'il^Em^hiwise labEndEx ^wasgEmasasa LEpsaakwe ^wa^wadexs laa^l 
yll^aLElots lax dzengEqa^yasa oxttVyasa dzedzoxiim lax otslawas 
4apa^ya. Wa, laEm^lae he ek'IadzE^ya otslax^dasa ^wa^wade, qaxs 
LleLle^nalae, qa tsax'es. Wa, glPmese ^wIlg-aai.Ela la ytLala laxes 
^wasgEniase laxes ^uE^'meneme yiL!asaseqexs aek' laaqElaaxs laa^l 50 
ylLaq, ga gwaleg'a (fig.). K' !es gagayaaqEles yiLa^ye. Wa, gil^Em- 
^lawise gwJilExs laa^lae K" !edelEma^ye ax^ed laxes q!walaltsEyakwe 
Llabata. Wa, g-ax^lae hang'alllas. Wa, laEm^lae k!es qlaLEle 
ta^wunEmasex g'Its!awaq. Wa, hVlae yaqlEg'a^le K- ledelEma^ye. 
Wa, la^lae ^nek-a: "^ya, q!agwida. Hag-ilia Le^lfdalxox g-ig-Egama- 55 
^yaxsos ^nal^nE'memats !e^na^yaq !6sx6x ^nah'uEmokuma^yaq !es, qa 
g-axlag'Ilts5 doqwalalxox gweg-llasLas laxwa ^lapa^yaqEns. Gwala 
awiilx-Es axk-!alaq, qa gEgEUEmas aLa k-otalaxes axehaosaq. Wa, 
wax'^mesEn q!aLElaq6xs lE^maax ^naxwa mexoxda ^naxwax bebE- 



908 KTHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann.36 

60 although I know that all the men || and their wives have gone to 
sleep. This is the winter dance that I am now | speaking about. 
And let Q!ex'sesElas (V 4) also come and try what she is to do." | 
Thus she said. Even her husband did not know what was in | the 
basket, and YaqEyallsEm (V 6) did not wish to ask | his wife about it. 

65 He just went out of liis house and 1| went to wake up those to whom 
she referred, the head cliiefs of each numaym of his | tribe. Then he went 
to the head chief of the numaym | Maamtag'ila, Q !omogwe^ Now he 
had caUed one of them. | Then he also went to the head chief of the 
G'exsEm, Yaqwid; and also | the head chief of the Kukwaklum, 

70 TsEx^wid; and also the head || chief of the SenLJEm, ^uEniSgwis; 
and also the head chief of the | Layalala^we, TslEx^ed; and the 
Lay alala^we are mixed with the | Maamtag'ila and the G"exsEm; and 
also the head chief of the Elgunwe^ | Amax'ag'ila, and these are 
mixed with the Laalax's^Endayo. | And when YaqEyahsEm (V 6) had 

75 hardly gone into the house, the chiefs |1 entered after him. Now 
Head-Princess ] led all of them to their seats at the right-hand side 
of the rear | of the house, so that they could see plainly the hole that 
had been dug; and when | they were all in, Qlex'sesElas (V 4) came 
in, and Head-Princess (V 7) | led her and made her sit down in the 

80 rear of the house, at the |1 end of the hole that had been dug, so that 
she could see distinctly what was to be done by | Head-Princess, who 



60 gwauEma LE^was gEgEUEmax. Wa, yu^mes ts!ats!exsTlax"LEns lax 
wfddEma. Wa, he^mise Q!ex"sesElasa, qa g-axlag'iltse niEnelal," 
^nex'^ae. Wa, laEm^lae hewiixa^me la^wuuEmas q !aPaLElax g'its !a- 
waxa L '.abate. Wa, etslEm^lawise YaqEyalisEma ^nex', qa^s g"it!ale 
wuLaxes gEUEme. Wa, laEm^lae asm lawEls laxes g'olcwe, qa^s la 

65 gwaxes gwE^yo, qa g^axes ^nal^uEmokuma^yas ^nal^uE^memats !ena- 
^yases g-olg'ukiilote. Wa, giPEm^lawise ^wllxtodxa oguma^yasa ^nE- 
^memeda Maamtag'ile Q!omogwa^ye; wa, laEm^ae ^uEmokoLEq. 
Wa, heEm^lawise oguma^yasa G'exsEme Yiiqwlde; wa, heEnv'lawise 
oguma^yasa KQkwaklume TsEx^wIde; wa, hcEm^lawise oguma- 

70 ^yasa SeuLlEme ^uEmogwise; wa, heEm^lawise oguma^yasa La- 
yalalawe Ts!Ex^ede, yixs hiie lEng'Ilga^ya Layalalawaxa Maam- 
tag'ila LE^wa G'exsEme. Wii, lie-Em^lawise oguma^yasa Elgun- 
wa^ye Amaxag'ila, yixs lEng"llga^yae laxa Laalax's^Endayowe. 
Wa, halsElaEm^lawise galagewa^ye YaqEyalisEmasa glg'Ega- 

75 ma^yaxs g'axaa^l hogwiLa. Wa, laEm^lae K' !edelEma^ye 
q'.ax'sldzeq, qa lax'da^xwes k!iis^alil lax helk" !otewali- 
lasa g'okwe, qa help !altalisexa la 4abEgwelkwa. Wa, g'ipEm^lawise 
^wI^laeLEXs g'axaa^lase Qlex'sesElase gaxcLa. Wa, la^lae K'ledelE- 
ma^ye q'.ax'sldzeq, qa las kiwagalil laxa naqoLewalilasa g'okwe lax 

80 oba^yasa ^labEgwelkwe, qa help!altales doqiilaxa ^naxwa gwayi^liilats 
K. ledelEma^ye, qo lal niE^nelal qae. Wa, g'lpEm^lawise 'wFla sElt!all- 



BOASj FAMILY HISTORIES 909 

was going to show them. When they were all sittmg still, | Head- 82 
Princess arose. She carried her basket, | and she spoke. She said, 
"Thank you, fathers, | for having come quickly. Indeed, I am a 
wise womaii, for my father H wishes me alone to do what we are here 85 
for; and this is | the way of working the winter dance for wliich we 
are assembled here. Now you have come, | fathers, to see the lasso 
which we use for catching the ghost-dancer | Qlex'sesElas (V 4). 
This is the lasso of my ancestors for the ghost-dancer, | and you came 
for this reason. Now let us go and catch || Q!ex'sesElas (V 4). You 90 
wLU aU be invited by YaqEyalisEm (V 7), | and you shall all sit 
together. The cannibal-dancer shall sit down | in the rear of the 
house when this hole will be covered over, | that nobody may come 
near to it who is not a cannibal-dancer. | And you, ghost-dancers, 
win sit down outside of the || cannibal-dancers, on the board covering 95 
of the hole: | and some will sit on one side of the cannibal-dancers 
and some on the other side; | and the Sparrow Society, and the 
Sparrow Society women, | will sit on each side of the house." Thus 
said Head-Princess; and as she said so, she took the | rope out of the 
basket, coiled it up in her left hand, || and then she spoke agam, and 400 
said, "Let me | ask you, chiefs, to do the same as we | l !aL !asiqwS,la 
do when you catch the ghost-dancer; for when the | l !aL !asiqw&la 



Iexs laa^las Lax^tilile K- ledelEma^ye. Wa, laEin^lae dalaxes Llabate. 82 
Wa, la^lae yaqlEg'a^a. Wa, la^lae ^nek^a: "Gelaskas^la wlwomp- 
qExs ^lElelaex. QiiLaxgln nt\gadek" tslEdaqa lag'ilasEn ompa aEm 
^nex' qEn nogwa^me aEm aaxsIlaxEns g'axex gwaelasa. Wa, yuEm 85 
ts!ats!exsilax'LEns g'axex klwalaena^ya. Wa, ga^mes g-axele 
wlwomp, qa^s doqwalaosaxg'a x'imayolg'insagada lEl6lalaleg-a 
Q!ex"sesElasEk-, ylxgada ximayok" dEUEmsEn qwesballse laxes lelE- 
lolElale. Wa, helmets g'axelos. Wa, he^maa, qEnso lal kimyalExg'a 
Qlex'sesElasEk'; wa, laEms g'ax^mawesLal Le^lanEmltsox YaqEya- 90 
llsEmax. Wa, laEm gwalElaEml q!ap!egalilElaLa haamatsla k'.us^a- 
lIlElal laxa nEqewalilaxsa gokwex, qago lal paxstalllx"LEg'ada 
^labEgwelkuk", qa kMeases uExwabalasa k'!ese hamatsia laqEk". 
Wii, he^misos, qosaq!os lelElolElala, yixs he^mae LlasEX'dzamweltsa 
haamatsla. Wa, laEm kIwadzEwelxox paxsta^yasa ^labEgwelkwex. 95 
Wa, laLeda eolala k!wak!wan6LEmalilLE lax wax'sballlasa haama- 
tsla. Wa, he^mis lal k!udzelasltsa gwegudza LE^wa gwegutslaxsEma 
^wax'sanegwilasag'okwex," ^nex'^laeKMedelEma^yaxs laa^l daltslodxa 
dEUEme laxa L!abate, qa^s q lElx^waLElodes laxes gEmxolts !ana^ye. 
Wii, la^laxae edzaqwa yaqlEg'a^la. Wii, h¥lae ^neka: "Wiig'a^mas- 400 
LEn wiiLaL g'Ig'Egame. He^mas gwegulanu^x" gweg'ilasag"anu^x" 
L!a!Lasiqwalek", yixs lElolalalaes k'imyasoLos, yixs gIFmae k'lmyaLa 



910 KTHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL, [eth. ann. 35 

3 catch the ghost-dancer, the one who gives the whiter dance to the 
tribe calls the people; | and four rattles are taken and are given to the 
5 one who 1| takes care of the cedar-bark. There are four of them. 
Then he takes them, | and he begins to shake one of them, and sings 
his four I secret songs. He stands still while he is singing three of his 
secret songs; | and when he sings his fourth secret song, he walks | 
and goes around the fire in the middle of the house. He pretends to 

10 look for the war-dancers; 1| and when he finds one, he gives the rattle 
that he was using to her; and he | gives the other three rattles to 
three war-dancers. | When they all have them, the four war-dancers 
stand up together. | They shake their rattles and sing each her 

15 secret song, | for they are war-dancers; and when they finish || their 
secret songs, the man who takes care of the rattles takes the four | 
rattles and carries them again, walking around the fire in the middle 
of the house, | and he gives one rattle each to the four frog-war- 
dancers. I Then they stand up, shake then" rattles, and | each sings 

20 her secret song about the frogs in their bodies. Then || they take 
their rattles and put them away. | They take red cedar-bark and 
give it to the cannibal-dancer; | and when each cannibal-dancer has 
a piece of it, they all get excited. Then they all | run out, and the 
people who trj' to catch the ghost-dancer run after them. | Then the 
war-dancers and the frog-dancers are next to the cannibal-dancers, || 

3 !LaL!asiqwS,laxa lElol&lalaxs lae ex'Em Lelaleda yawixilaxes goku- 
lote. Wii, lii ax^etsE^weda mosgEme yiyat!ala, qa^s la ts!Ewes laxa 
5 aaxsilaxwa L!agEkwexlfixes mosgE^mena^ye. Wa, la dax'^idEq. Wa, 
he^mis la yat Ildaatsesa ^uEmsgEme, qa^s yalaqwesa mosgEme laxes 
yIyalax"LEne. Wa, laEm ax'saEm La^wilExs lae yalaqulasa yudux"- 
sEme. Wii, g-ib'mese q liilbaxs lae yalaqwasa mosgEmote, qa^s qasilile. 
Wa, laEm lii^stalllElaxa laqwawalile, qa^s aliibolexa eolala. Wa, 

10 gil^mese qiaqexs lae ts!ases yatElax'de yatlala laq. Wa, la etiede 
ts!EwanaqElasa yudu.x"sEme yeyatlala laxa yudukwe ogii^la eolala. 
Wa, g'iPmese ^wilxtoxs lae -nEmag'IlIi Lax^ulileda mokwe eolala, qa^s 
^UEmax'^ide yat!etses yeyatlala, qa^s -nEuiadzaqwe yeyalaqwases 
yeyalax"LEne laxes eolalaena^ye. Wa, glPmese ^naxwaqliilbe yeya- 

15 laqulaena^yas, laeda a.axsilaxa yeyat!ala dax'^Idxa mosgEme yeya- 
tlala, qa^s la dalaqexs laaxat! la^stalllEles laxa laqwawalile. Wa, 
laxae ts!&sa ^nal^uEmsgEme yat!ala laxa mokwe wIwEq !es eolala. 
Wa, hex'^IdEX'da^x^^mese Lax-'ullla, qa^s yatledeseses yeyatlala, qa^s 
yiyalaqweses yiyalax"LEne laxes wIWEq'.etsIena^ye. Wit, g'iPmese 

20 gwalExs lae slx^etsE^weda yeyat!ala, qa^s yawas-lde g'exasE^wa. Wa, 
lii ax^etsE^weda LliigEkwe, qa^s yiix^wldayowe hixa haamats!a. Wa, 
g"iPmese ^wilxtoxs lae ^uEmilg illl xwaxusa. Wii, he^mis la dzElx- 
^wiildzatse. Wa, ^-'mese la q !omx-sEmes6sa ^naxwa k'imyalxa IeIo- 
lalale. Wii, laEm^laLeda eolala LE^wa wiwEqlesemakilalxa haama- 



BOAS] FAMLLY HISTORIES 911 

and the other ghost-dancers are the hist; and last | of all foUow the 25 
Sparrow Society and the Sparrow women. They go right | to the 
place where they hear the cry " Hamamamama ! " of the ghosts. | 
Then they pretend to bring back Q!ex'sesElas; and when the | can- 
nibal-dancers approach her, they will faU down like dead; and the || 
war-dancers and the frog-dancers wiU go to see why they do so; | there- 30 
fore they go to look; and when they come up to them, | there will be 
again the cry, "Hamamamama!" of the ghosts. They | all drop 
down like dead, and also the | Sparrow Society men and women drop 
down. Only the ghost-dancers do not drop down. || Then they go to 35 
get urine, and sprmkle it | over the cannibal-dancers and the war- and 
frog-dancers, and finally they | sprmkle the urme over the Sparrow 
men and women and | also the Sparrow Society children. When 
they have all been sprmkled with urine, | they come to life again, 
and they all foUow the || cannibal-dancers and go back into the 40 
winter-dance house; for, as soon as | they drop down like dead, when 
the cannibal-dancei's, | the war-dancers, the frog-dancers, and all the 
others, are struck by the ghost, then the ghost-dancers | catch 
Q!ex"sesElas and bring her in before any of the others get back | 
into the winter-dance house, who were lying there like dead. || She 45 
is put into her secret room in the rear of the middle of the house. | 
Then the cannibal-dancers come in, sounding their whistles, and go 

ts!a. Wa, laLos lelEl5lalalaq!os eIxleles. Wa, he^mis la] ElxLaya- 25 
asltsa gwegwatslEma LE^wa gwegiitsIaxsEme. Wa, la^me he^naku- 
laEml laxes wiiLElasLaxa hamamamaxaasLasa leslanenoxwa, qo 
g'axbotal taodg'ostodElxox Qlex^sesElasex. Wa, gilEmhvise ex'a- 
g'aaLElaLa haamatsia laqexs leLa yaqumg^aElsLE. Wa, lal ^naxwa. 
EmLa eolala LE^wa wiwEq!ese awetelqElax heg'ilas gwex'^ide. 30 
Wa, he^mis lag'ilas la ^wFla dox^wldEq. Wa, g'il^mese lag'aa laqexs 
laa^l edzaqwa hamamamaxeda leslalenoxwe. Wa, hex'^idaEnilwise 
'uaxwa yaqumg'aElsa. Wa, la^me ^naxwa yaqiimg'aElseda gwegwa- 
tslEmLE^wa gwegutslaxsEme. Wa, la^me ^naxwa k'!es yaqumg'a- 
Elseda lelElolalale. Wa, he^me lal ax^edElxa kwatsle, qa^s la xosElg'es 35 
laxa haSmats !a LE^wa eolala LE^wa wiwEq !ese. Wa,la alxLalaxs laLe 
xosElgEntsa kwats!e laxa gwegwatslEme LE^wa gwegiits laxsEme LOLa 
gwagugwedzEme. Wa, g'lPEmlwise ^wIlxtodEl xEwex"sa kwats!e, 
qo lal ^naxwaEml q lOlax'^TdEl, wa, a^mis la ^wFla la ElxLesa haama- 
tslaxs lae aedaaqa, qa^s la hogwiL laxa lobEkwe, qaxs giPmex'de 40 
^naxwa yaqiimg'aEls lae lelEwalkwa -naxwa haamats!a LE^wa eolala 
LE^wa wiwEq!ese lo^ ^naxwes waokwe, laLasa waokwe lelElolalal 
k'imyalxox Q!ex'sesElasex, qa^s g^axel g'ag'alagEmal g^axeltsox 
laxwa lobEkwaxs k"!eS.s'meLe qliilax'^IdEltsa la yaxyEq!usa. Wa, 
g'iPmese laeL laxes lEme^latsle laxwa naqoLewalilexg^axaas xwexwa- 45 
gweLEleda haSmatsIa, qa^s leLal haeLEla laxes lEme^lats !e laxg'ada 



912 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL (eth. ann. 35 

47 straight into their secret room at the | left-hand corner of the house; 
and when they are all inside, the Sparrow Society men, | women, and 
children come in. Then | YacjEyalisEm (V 6) wiU give away property 
for the one who has been caught, and he will change his name. |1 

50 Then his name will be HoLelid (V 6), for this is the name of my 
father; | and after he has given away property, HoLelid (V 6) will ask 
help from | your uninitiated children, chiefs, for he must take hold 
of the lasso | for the ghost-dancer to-morrow night, when she comes 
down to the floor of the house. | HoLelid (V 6) will put the rope 

55 around her waist. — Now, come and || take this lasso, HoLelid, for 
what I told you is all that is to be done | about the ghost-dancer." 
Thus she said. | 

Immediately HoLelid (V 6) went and took the lasso, which was made 
of long I cedar rope, and thanked his wife for her speech. Wlien | he 

60 had thanked his wife, he turned to the || chiefs who were sitting down, 
and he said, "Indeed, we shall | be chiefs. Now you have heard the 
speech of my father-in-law. It is not my | wife here who speaks of 
these instructions which she gave us for my winter dance, which I 
give with the | marriage gift, that was given to us, chiefs of the 
Kwakiutl; | it is he who comes and speaks in my house here. Now, 

65 take good care, || so that we shall not miss any of the instructions 
given to us, for | it is the fu-st time that this will be shown by you, 
chiefs of the Kwakiutl !" | Thus he said. | 

47 gEmxoliwalilEk\ Wa, g'll^mese ^wi^laeLeda ^naxwa gwegwatslEme 
LE^wa gwegiitslaxsEme Lo^ma gwagiigwedzEme liiLaxs yax^widLox 
YaqEyallsEmasa kim^yanEniLex. Wa, la^mox LlayoxLiil laxeq. 

50 La^mox LegadElts HoLelide laxeq, ytxs LegEmaaxsEn ompe. Wa, 
giPEml^wIsox gwal yaqwal liiLasox HoLelidex helalxox bebaxiitslE- 
dzayaqlos g'Ig'Egame, qa g'axe dak' !indElgada x'imayok" dEUEma 
Jaxa lEloiElalax ganoLas lEnsLa, qo lal lalabEtalllasLa lElolalalex. 
Wa, yuEmlwIsox HoLelidex qEnoyodEltsg'a dEUEm laq. Wii, gelaga 

55 ax^edExg'ada qEnayok" dEnEma, HoLelid, qaxs lE^mae ^wHla gwayi- 
^liilasaxa lElolalale," ^nex'^lae. 

Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise HoLelide la ax^edxa qEnayowe g11t!a 
dEnsEn dEUEma, qa^s moles waldEmases gEnEme. Wa, giPEm^la- 
wise gwal molas waldEmases gEUEmaxs laa^l gwayaxstax'^ld laxa 

60 g'lg'Egama^ye g'ax kludzela. Wa, la4ae ^nek'a: " QaLaLEns g'lg'E- 
g&me. LaEms wuLElax waldEmasEn UEgumpa, g'ael ^nexgin 
gEUEmk', ylses la Lexs^a^layo qEns gwayi^lalasa qaeda yiiwixllae- 
na^yEn yis k'les^ogulxLa^yase g'axEns g'Tg"Egames Kwakug'ol, qaxs 
he^maa g'ax ^nek'Elagilil laxEn g'okwex. Wa, wag'il la yatlox^wld- 

65 LEX, qEns kMeasel ogugElEntsol lax Lexsala^yo g'axEns laxwa 
he^mex alel ^uEmplEnal gax nel^idEl laL g'ig"Egames Kwakug'ol," 
^nex'^ae. 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 913 

As soon as he ended his speech, then | the chief of the Maamtag'ila, 
Qlomogwe^, spoke, and said, "Take || care, friends, for wo have 70 
never done in this manner in our | ghost-dance. It is done differ- 
ently by the l !aL lasiqwahi. Now we | obtained in marriage these 
privileges. Therefore | I am glad of your speech, Head-Princess 
(V 7). It is reaUy different from | our way of doing it. 1 have been 
trymg to understand the different privileges || which I have now, 75 
although I am a Kwakiutl, for I never made a mistake in it. | 
Now, do not let us just sleep, chiefs, for my heart is | happy on 
account of the treasure which we obtained from the great chief 
K- !ade (IV 21). | That is what I say, HoLelid (V 6)." Thus he said, 
and ended his speech. | 

Now it was daylight, and at once Q!5mogwe^ — || oh, I forgot, 80 
his name is now changed, for he used his winter name, and | his 
name was Yoxuyagwas, — stood up and asked his friends, | the chiefs 
ut the numayms. He said to them, "Don't | sit there idty! Let us 
arise and dress ourselves and | let us ourselves wake up our tribe to 
go into II this winter-dance house of our friend HSLelid (V 6), for | 85 
Head-Princess (V 7) knows that we shall really try to hanille rightly I 
the privileges given in marriage to our friend HoLelid (V 6). Now 
take I red cedar-bark to put around our heads and for our neck- 



Wa, g"il^Em^lawise qlulbe waldEmasexs laa^l yaqlEg'a^le g'Igama- 68 
^yasa Maamtag'ila, yix Qlomogwa^ye. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "Wiig'a 
aEml ^naxwa yaLlaLEx ^ne'iiEmok" heenoxwawesEiis gweg'ila qaEns 70 
lelElolalalex, yixox gwayi^lalasaxsaxsa LiLalasiqwala. Wa, la^mEns 
gEg'adaiiEmaq^xwa ^wtilasex k"!ek"!Es^a. Wa, he^mesEn lag'iia mo- 
lasox waldEmaqos, KMedelEme. Wii, la^mox alak'!ala ogiiqiila 
laxEn nose dalaeneq". Wii, yu^mEns aliisowa oguqalax k!ek-!Es'a, 
qEn laloL !asoxgttn Kwag^ule, yixg'ln kMeasek" lEutsIasE'wa. Wa 75 
gwalElasEns wul-Em mex^eda, gig'Egame. LaEm Loma la ex'q!E- 
sElag'in naqek', qaEns Logwa'ye laxa ^walasa g"Igama^ye K"!ade. 
Wa, qEn ^neke, HoLelida," ^nex'^aexs lae q!wePlda. 

Wa, laEm-iae ^nax'Hda. Wii, liex-'idaEm^hiwise Qlomogwa^ye, — 
wiiq !unex"La, laEm LlayoxLa qaxs lE^mae ts!etsagEXLiila. Wii, 80 
laEm Legadfilas Yox"yagwase, — Lax-iillla, qa^s axkMalexes ^ne^nEmo- 
kwa g'lg'Egama^yasa ^niil^nE^memase. Wii, lii^ae ^uek'Eq: "Gwallas 
klwiilax'^da^xoL. Weg'a Liix^wIdEx qEns wiig'e q!walax'^ida, qEns 
xami^liilame la gwiixEns g'olg-ukiilotax, qa g'iixlag-iltso ^'wI^laeL 
laxox lobEkwaxsEns -uEmokwox HoLelidex, qa q !al-aLEles6x K!ede- 85 
lEma^yaxgins alak' lallLEk' aek ilalxEns g'iixeneLe aiixsilalxox k' !e- 
k' !Es^ogulxLa^yaxs laxEn ^nEmokwox HoLelidex. Wii, weg'a ax^edsx 
LlagEkwa, qEnu^x" qeqEX'Ema^ya, lo^ qEiiu^x" qeqEnxawa^ya, 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 2 9 



914 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

rings, I and tallow to put on our faces, and rope to be used for belts, H 
90 and also our Sparrow Society canes!" Thus he said. | 

Immediately all those things that he named were brought, | and 
they were put down next to Head-Prmcess (V 7). Now she also 
changed her name, and she | used her winter-dance name which she 
used among the LlaLlasiqwala. Now she | told her wmter-dance 
95 name to the chiefs. It was Chiton (V 7). || She said, "That is my 
name which I obtained from my father." Thus she said. Then | 
all the chiefs dressed up; and after they had done so, Chiton (V 7) was 
asked | by Yox"yagwas, "What shall we say when we | go about to 
call the people*" Thus he said. Then Chiton (V 7) said, | "Your 
word is good, for we must use the way of speaking of the LlaiJasi- 
500 qwala in this winter-dance of HoLelid. || These wiH be your words: 
'Now we walk to invite you, shamans, to | wash your eyes in the 
house of our friend HoLeUd (V 6),'" she said. | "And after him, the 
others will also say, 'Now, arise, | and wash your eyes, so that the 
secular season may come off from your eyes, for | our season has 
5 changed, and you will see the whiter-dance |1 season.'" Thus said 
Chiton (V 7), giving instructions to them. "And that is | all that 
you will say," said she to them. Then she called | Yox"yagwas, and 
whispered to him, saying, "Please ask | the song-leaders not to come 
into the house, for I will | go and teach them the songs of the ghost- 
10 dancers at the || supernatural place when all the tribes are in the 

l5^ yiisEkwa, qEmi^x" yasEkumde, l6^ dEUEma, qEnu^x" wuseg-a- 
90 nowa; wa, he^mesEnu^x" gwegwesp!eqLa," ^nex-^lae. 

Wa, hex-^idaEm^lawise ^wFla ax^etsE^we LCLEqElasE^was qa-s g-axe 

gigalllEma yis K-!edelEma^ye. LaEm^xae LlayoxLa. Wa, laEm^lae 

hexLalaxes tsIagEXLiiyo laxes L!aL!aseq!wena^ye. Wa, laEm^lae 

^nelases tsIagEXLayo LegEm laxa g-Ig-Egaraa^ye Q!anase. "Wa, 

95 he^mEn LegEme laxEn ompa," -nex'^lae. Wa, laEm^lae qlwalax'^Id 

^naxweda g-Ig-EgSma^ye. Wii, g-iPEm^lawise gwalExs laa^l wuLa- 

sE^we Q!anase yls Y5x"yagwase: " Wek' !alaLEnu^x" laxEnu^x" 

qats!axstalaeneLa?" ^nex'^lae. Wa, la^lae ^nek'e QIanase: "La^mox 

ek'os waklEmaqos, qaxs LlaLlEseqlwalaox ts!aq!ena^yaxs HoLelide. 

500 Wa, g'aEms waldEmlg'a: 'La-'mEnu^x" qasaai' pepExalai', qa^s laos 

tsloxstod lax g-okwasEns -'uEmokwe HoLelide'," ^nex-^lae. "Wa, 

la^lae ^leg'apla^ya waokwaseq. Wa, la^lae ^nek-a: 'Wa, Lax^wid, 

qa^s laos ^wi'la tslox^stoda qa lawayesos babaxiist&^yaq !6s, qaxs 

lE^maex ogilx^IdEns ^nalax, qa^s dox^waLElaosaxa tslagsdzox 

5 ^nala,'" ^nex'^lae Q!anasaxs laa4 Lexs^alaq. "Wa, heEm waxax-^I- 

dataiJs waldEniLaos," ^nex'^laeq. Wa, heEm^awis la Le^lalilatsex 

Y5x"yagwase, qa-s opaleq. Wa, la^lae ^nek-Eq: "Wax las axk'la- 

laxa nenagada qa kMesese g-ax ogwaqa hogweLa, qEn laLEn 

q laqloLlamatsa qlEmqiEmdEmaxsa lElolalala lax-da-'xuqwe laxa 

10 ^nawalak'.udzasa, ylxs g-axeLase ^wi^laeLos g-olg-iikijl6taq!6s,"^nex-- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 915 

house." Thus she said | to him. Then the chiefs went out of the 11 
house I who were going to call for HoLelid (V 6) ; and they followed 
the I instructions given by Chiton (V 7), and they spoke at the doors 
of all the houses. | Then Yox"yagwas whispered to the song-leaders, 
telling them what || Cliiton ( V 7) had said to hun. As soon as the 15 
chiefs had gone four times | inviting, all the members of the Sparrow 
Society — men, women, | and children — came in, but none of the 
song-leaders came. | Then Chiton (V 7) went out of the rear door of 
her I house to the Supernatural Place, for there all the song-leaders 
were || sitting down. Then Chiton (V 7) spoke | and said, ''Thank 20 
you, friends, for it is just now given | to you to keep these songs. I 
mean I will divulge | the songs of m.y father which I was given when 
I was his ghost-dancer. | Now, listen! for I will sing them now." 
Thus she said, and || took a cedar-stick, which she used as a baton. 25 
First she sang | with fast beating of time the following song of the 
ghost-dancer; | 

1. Yamamaa xamama yamamaha xamamamamame yamamaha | 

xamahamae hamamama! I was carried down by the ghost- 
woman, I yamamaha xamama yamamaha xamamamamame !|| 

2. Yamamaa xamama yamamaha xamamamamame yamamaha 30 

xamahamae hamamama ! I was made to walk down by the ghost- 
woman, yamamaha xamama yamamaha xamamamamamae ! | 

'laeq. Wa, hex"^Ida^Em^lawise lax'da^x" hoquwElseda g'lg'igama- n 
^yexa qasElgisas HoLelide. Wa, ax"da^x"^Em^lawise la nEgEltEwex 
Lexs^alayas Q!anase, cjagwekMalats lax tlExililsa ^naxwa g^ig'okwa. 
Wa, laEm laLa Yo.\"yagwase aolEnoLEmaxa nenagade nelas wfddE- 
mas QIanase laq. Wa, g'iPEm^lawise mop lEne^steda g'Tg^Egama^ye ^c 
qatse^staxsg'axae ^wFlaeLa '"naxwa gwegwats Isma LE^wa gweguts !ax- 
sEme LE^wa gwagugwedzEme. Wa, laEin^ae k' !eas g'axsa nena- 
gade. Wa, he^Em^lawis la aLEX'SE^wats Q!anasa tlEnxLa^yasa 
g'okwe, qa^s lii laxa ^nawalakludzase, cjaxs he-mae la ^vvria k!ijts!E- 
dzatsa nenagade. Wit, hex-idaEm'lawise yaq!Ega4e Q!anase. Wit, oq 
la^lae ^nek'a: " Gelak'as la ^ne^iiEmok" aPmaweso tslEwe lax'da- 
^xoLxwa daliixwa rj lEmcj lEindEme ; ^ne^nak'ile qaxg'In a^mcLEk' 
etultlEudElg'm qlEmcjlEmdEmk" laxEu ompaxg^in laolEk' lElolalal 
laq. Wa, la^mets hoLelalqEk', qEn dEnx^idesEk','' ^nex'^laexs lae 
ax^edxa kIwa-xLawe, qa=s t!Emyaya. Wii, heEin-lawis gil dEnx^Ida- 95 
yoseda tsaxala qlEmclEmsa lElolalate. Wii, g'a^meseg'a: 

1. Yamamaa xamama yamamaha xamamamamame yamamaha 
xamahamae hamamama lelaxaasEla3'ox"doxs lelswalanao-a- 
x'de, yamamaha xamama yamamaha xamamamamame. 

2.' t5waxaesElayox"d6xs lelEwalanagaxxle 



30 



I The burden of the first line is repeated in the second and third lines. 



916 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etu. ann. 35 

31 3. Yamamaa xamama yamamaha xamamamamame yamamaha 
xamahamae hamamama! The supernatural watcher walked 
with me underground, yamamaha j xamama yamamaha 
xamamamamame ! [ 
Chiton (V 7) sang only three verses of the song with fast time beat, 
ing I for the song-leaders. Immediately the song-leaders had 
35 learned the || ghost-dancer's song with fast time beating. Then they 
told Chiton (V 7) to | go ahead and sing the next song of the ghost- 
dancer, for they thoiight | that there must be another song with 
slow beating of time. Immediately | Chiton (V 7) began beating 
slowly. This is her song — | 

1. Yamama xaxamama yamama xaxamama yamama xaxamama || 
40 yamamaha xaxamama he he he he ! I was carried down | by 

the ghost-woman, yamama xaxamama yamama | xaxamama 
yamama xaxamama yamamaha xaxamama he he | he he ! | 

2. Yamama xaxamama yamama xaxamama yamama xaxamama 

yamamaha xaxamama he he he he I was taken into the house 
45 by the |1 supernatural watcher, yamama xaxamama yamama 

xaxamama yamama xaxamama yamamaha xaxamama he he 
he he ! | 

3. Yamama xaxamama yamama xaxamama yamama xaxamama 

yamamaha xaxamama he he he he ! The forehead dress of the 
ghost-woman has been put on my forehead, | yamama 
xaxamama yamama xaxamama yamama xaxamama yamamaha 
xaxamama he he he he ! I 



31 3. toyowapElayox"doxsq!omesilax*de^nawalak" yamamaha 

xamama yamamaha xamamamamame. 
Wii, yudux"sEmk-!EnalaEm^laeda tsaxahi gJldzagums Q!anase 
qaeda nenagade. Wa, hex'^idaEnr'hiwise q!al^ededa nenagadaxa 
35 tsaxala qlEmdEmsa lElolalale. Wa, lax'^da^xwe waxax Q!anase, qa 
etiedes dEnx^Its waokwasa qlEmdEmasa lElolalale qaxs kotax'da- 
^x"^maaqe uEqaxEla tlEm^yasas waokwas. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise 
edzaqwa dEnx'ide Q!anasasa uEqaxElas t!Emyase. Wa, g'a^meseg'a: 

1 . Yamama xaxamama yamama xaxamama yamama xaxamama 
40 yamamaha xaxamama he he he he. Lax"dEn lelaxaasEla- 

yux"dEs lelEwalanagax'de yamama xaxamama yamama xa- 
xamama yamama xaxamama yamamaha xaxamama he he 
he he. 

2. *ya lax^dEu laeLEmae lax g"5kwasQ!6mesilax'de ^nawa- 

45 lakwe 



lax'dEn esak'Eyotsos esak"ewex'des lelEwalanagax'de 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTOBIES 917 

4. Yamama xaxamama yamama xaxauiama yamama xaxamama 48 
yamamaha xaxamama he he he he ! The neck-ring of the ghost- 
woman has been put around my neck, | yamama xaxamama 
yamama xaxamama yamama xaxamama yamamaha xaxamama 
he he he he! || 
It is said that the number of the songs of the ghost-dancer is only 50 
two; I and when all the song-leaders could sing the two songs, | they 
came out of the woods and entered tlirough the rear door of the 
dancing-house. | Now, HSLelid (V 6) and the other chiefs | of the , 
numajmis did according to the instructions given by Chiton (V 7) 
the II preceding night. Tliey had nearly done everything that had to 55 
be done | before they went to catch the ghost-dancer. Then Chiton 
and the | song-leaders came in through the rear door of the dancing- 
house. They had not been in a long time before | all the different 
ways were finished. Then the cannibal-dancers were made excited, j 
and they first went out, being excited; and || next to them followed 60 
those who had been told to go by Chiton(V 7) | following the cannibal- 
dancers; and finally the Sparrow Society men, women, and children, 
went out. I When the cannibal-dancers came near to the point of 
land, I the cry, "Hamamamama!" was heard on the other side of the 
point; and | all the cannibal-dancers tumbled about and fell down 
on the rocks. |1 Then the war-dancers went to them to see wh}- they 65 
were j falling down on the rocks; and when they came up to them, | 

4. Lax'dEn qax'osa^yasos eyaxiilax'des lelEwalanagax'de 48 



Wa, heEm ^waxaats q lEmq lEmdEmasa lEloialale ma^sEm^Em^lae. 50 
Wii, g'il-Em^lawise ^na.xwa q !aleda nenagadaxa ma^ltsEnie q !Emq Ieui- 
dExs laa^l hox^wult!a, qa^s lii g'a3TEmx'sa lax t !EnxLa^yasa lobE- 
kwe. Wii, hxEm^lae q lulyalagilil^me HoLelide LE^wa glg-Egama- 
^yasa ^naPuE^memase aEm nEgEltEwex Lexs^alayas Q!anasaqexa 
ganuLe. Wii, laEm^hiwise Elaq labEndEx ^waxax'^idalaasas gwayi- 55 
^lalase cjaeda k'imyaLaxa lElolalalaxs laa^l hoxsowe QIanase LE^wa 
nenagade Ifihixa tlEuxLa^yasa lobEkwe. Wa, k'!es^lat!a gaelExs lae 
gwalallte gwegwalag'ililasas. Wa, laEm^lae ^naxwa xwaxusoweda liaa- 
mats!a. Wa, he^mis gil lawElsExs lae xwexwilkwa. Wa, he^mis la 
mak'ilaqe gwE^yas Q!anase, qa mak'ilaxa haamatsla. Wa, la^mesLa 60 
ElxLa^ya gwegwiitslEme LE^wa gwegiits laxsEnie LE^wa gwagugwe- 
dzEme. Wa, gil-'mese Elaq laelbEndeda haamatsla laxa awilba^yaxs 
laa^lase hamamamaxe apsadza^yasa iiwilba^ye. Wa, hex'^idaEm^la- 
wise ^naxwa he gwex's wiwunal^ededa haamats!a, qa^s yaqiimg'aale. 
Wa, la^lae gwasteda tetox^wide, qa^s la dox^widEx senatlaliis lag'iias 65 
yaqiimg"aale. Wa, giPEm^lawise lag'aax'da^x" laqexs laalase edza- 



918 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth.ann.s5 

67 the cry " Hamamamama ! " was uttered again on the other side of the 
point, and | they all staggered about and fell down on the rocks. 

70 Then the Sparrow Society men, | women, and children ran up || to 
tliem to see what caused them to fall down; and when | they came 
up to them, the cry "Hamamamama!" was uttered again on the 
other side | of the point from the place where they were walking, and 
all of them staggered about | and fell down on the rocks. Now only 
the many ghost-dancers were alive. | Then some ghost-dancers took 

75 Qlex'sesElas (V 4) || and led her into the winter-dancing house and 
put her into the sacred i-oom in the | rear of the dancing-house, at 
the place where they had dug the hole. Then | other ghost-dancers 
sprinkled with urine those who were lying on the rocks, struck by the 
ghosts; I and after they had spiinlded the people struck by the 
ghosts, I they uttered the cannibal cry, became excited, and ran 

gQ away from the rocks. They w'ent into their || dancing-house, into 
their sacred room at the left-hand side in the rear of the dancing- 
house. I Wlien they were in, the men, | women, and children of the 
Sparrow Society also went in and sat down | at both sides of the 
ghost-dancers who were sitting in the center of the rear of the | 
dancing-house, because they did not want any of the Sparrow Society 

35 people to come near the hole that they had dug, || for they did not 
want anyone to see it. | When they were all inside, HoLelid (V 6) 
asked the song-leaders to | sing the song of the ghost-dancer. Im- 

qwa hamamamaxe apsadzE^yasa awllba'ye. Wa, liex'^idaEm^laxaa- 

67 wise pepei.Ela, qa^s yfiqumg'aale. Wii, laEm^iawisa gwegwatslEme 
LE^wa gweguts laxsEme LE^wa gwagiigwedzEme ^naxwa dzElx^wIda, 
qa^s lii dox^wIdEx lag'ilas ^naxwa aEm la yaxyEq !we. Wa, g'il^Em^la- 

yQ wise lag'aa laqexs laa^laxaase edzaqwa hamamamamaxeda apsadza- 
^yasa awllba^yas giyEmg'ilrUasas. Wil, la^ae ^naxwaEm pepeLEla 
qa^s yaqtimg'aale. Wa, lex'aEm^lawise la q!weq!uleda q!enEme 
lelElolalahi. Wa, laEnr'laeda waokwe lelElohilal ax^edEx Qlex'sesE- 
lase, cia'"s lii laeLas laxa lobskwe, qa^s lii laexas hlxa lEme^latsIe lax 

75 naqoLewalllasa lobskwe laq!alaEmxa ^labEgwelkwe. Wa, la^lae 
xos^Ideda waokwe lelElolalaltsa kwats!e laxa lelEWElkwe la yaxyE- 
q!wa, qaxs gilnaxwa^maa4 xos^itsE-'weda lEWElkwaxs lanaxwae 
liex'^idaEm hamts!Eg"a^la, qa^s la xwak" dzElxtila, qa^s lii laeL laxa 
lobEkwe, qa^s lii laeL Ifixa lEme^lats !e liix gEmxotewalllasa lobEkwe. 

go Wii, gil-Em=liiwise ^wi'laeLExs laa-1 ogwaqa hogwiLa gwegwatslEme 
LE^wa gwegi3ts!axsEme LE^wa gwagiigwedzEme, qa^s litKl kliis^ali 
hixa ^wax'sbalilasa lelElohHalaxs he-"maaLal kliidzela niiqoLewalilasa- 
lobEkwe, qaxs k'lesae heiq!rdaq nExwabalasa ^liibEgwelkwasa gwe- 
gwatslEme, qaxs k'!esae ^nex' qa dox^waLEleses ^nEmokwa liiq. 

85 ^''^' g'tl^mese ^wPlaeLExs liia^lase HoLelide iixkMiilaxa nenagade, qa 
dEnx^edeses c{!EmdEmasa lElolillale. Wa, hex''idaEnr'liLwise sEk'6- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 919 

mediately they sang | the song with fast beating; and after they 88 
had finislied, they | sang the song with slow beating; and after they 
had sung it, |1 the head song-leader, whose name was Hanag'atsle, 90 
arose and | spoke. He said, "O friends! difficult are | these songs 
whicl: we have now. | These are the songs of the supernatural power. 
These two | songs which we have sung were obtained by our friend 
Qlex'sesElas (V 4) when she || went to the house of the supernatural 95 
power. After he had said so, he sat down. | Q!ex'sesElas (V 4) did 
not come and dance. Now | HoLelid (V 6) asked aU those chiefs of 
the numayms whose children had never danced | to come in the 
evening and to work the lasso; | and he also asked the members of 
the Sparrow Society — men, women, and 1| children — to come and 600 
pacify the ghost-dancer. After he had spoken, | Chiton (V 7) brought 
out the copper bracelets to the place where HoLelid (V 6) | was stand- 
ing. He gave them away at once to all the | members of the Spar- 
row Society; and when each had been given one, the}- went out of 
the I dancing-house. When it was ahnost evening || Y6x"yagwas, 5 
and his friends, the chiefs of the numayms, | and the song-leaders, came 
in. Then Chiton (V 7) thanked them for coming, | because it was 
really not the wish of HoLelid, because he did not | kiiow the ways 
of the winter dance of the L !aL lasiqwala, | nor his tribe, because they 

dayowa tsaxala qlEmdEma. Wa, g'lpEm^lawise qltilbaxs laa^l edza- §8 
qwasa nEqaxElas tlEm^yase. Wa, gil^Em^lawise qlQlbaxs laa^lase 
Lax-'fdlla Laxuma^yasa nenagadexa Legadas Hanag^atsle. Wii, la^lae 90 
yaqlEg-a^la. Wa, L¥lae ^nek-a: " ^ya, ^ne^uEmSk". PasEmalagi^la- 
kwawesEuu^x" laxg'anu^x" dalasok" yixg-adaq!Emq!EmdEmk-. Wa, 
yuEm waldEms hayatilagasa5xda laqEuu^x" sEqoyaxwa ma-'ltsEmex 
q!Emq!EmdEma yauEmaxsEus ^uEmokwae Qlex'sesElasa laxes 
laasdae g'okwasa hayalilagase." ^nex'^laexs laa^l klwag-alila. Wa, 95 
laEm-'lae hewaxa g'ax ylx^wld^ae Q!ex-sesElase. Wa, aEm-'hlwise 
HoLelide la helaxa ^naxwa bebaxiitslEdzesa gig-Egama^yasa ^naPuE- 
^memase, qa g'axeltsexa ganuLe dadEnx"sllalxa x-imayowe dsnEma 
l6^ ^naxwe-'ma gwegwatslEme LE^wa gweguts!axsEme Lo^ma gwagu- 
gwedzEme, qa-'s'tEmElqwelxa lElShllale. Wa, giPEm^awise q!wei-e- gOO- 
dExs g-axae Q!anase ax^alllElasa LlaLlEqwakMine kMokula lax Lii-'wi- 
lasas HoLeUde. Wii, hex-^idaEm'lawise yax-'wits laxa ^naxwa gwe- 
gflgiidza. Wa, glPEin^lawise ^wFlxtoxs laa^l ^wi^la hoqiiwElsa laxa 
lobEkwe. Wii, g'tl^Em^lawise Ehiq dzaqwaxs g'axaa^ hogwiLe 
Y6x"yagwase LE^wis ^ne^nEmokwa g-IgEgama-'yasa'^nal'nE-memase, 5 
LE^wa nenagade. Wii, hex--idaEm-'lawise Q'.anase molas g-JixeLle- 
na^yas, qaxs ala^maa^l kMeas naqa^ye HoLelide, qaxs k- !esae 
q!aLElax gwayi^'liilasasa L!aL!asiqw&liixs ts!ats!exsilaaxa ts!ets!eqa. 
Wii, he^mises golg'ukulote, ylxs k' !esae doqiilaenoxux gwayi^alasas. 



920 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. asn. 35 

10 had never seen its ways; || and therefore she thanked the chiefs for 
coming with the | song-leaders; and Chiton (V 7) also said to them, 
"Now go I and call our tribe when it gets dark. | You, Yox"yagwas, 
shall say, when you go and stand in the | doorways of the houses of 

15 the tribesmen, 'Now, || shamans, let us try to pacify our friend 
Supernatural-Power-coming-up (V 4), the | ghost-dancer!' [for now 
her name was changed] and after that your | friends shall say: ' Now, I 
beg you to pacify our friend | Supernatural-Power-coming-up (V4), 
this great one obtained by magic;' and | your friends shall say after 

20 you, 'Now, Y6x"yagwas, I engage your || secular child here, 
to try to capture our friend | Supematural-Power-coming-up, so 
that she may turn her mind toward us and become secular.' Thus 
they will, say; and | then your other friends will say after this, 
together with you: | ' Go ahead, go ahead, go ahead ! Hurry up ! We 
shall call only once.' " | Thus said Chiton (V 7) as she gave instruc- 

25 tions to them. ' ' Now || you will only speak the way I told you ; and | 
do not forget that one must ask the uninitiated children of the 
chiefs, I because thej' are the ones who will restore the ghost-dancer, | 
Supernatural-Power-coming-up (V 7)." Thus she said. | 

30 As soon as it grew dark, the chiefs dressed || themselves and called 
in the Wliale Society; and when | they had dressed themselves, they 



10 Wa, he^mis lagilas molasa g'lg'Egama^yaxs g'axae hogwiLEla LE^wa 
nenagade. Wa, la^laxae ^nek'e Qlanasaq: laEms lal qatsla- 
xstalalxEns g-olg'ukiilotax, ylxs laLe plEdExllsLa. Wit, g'a- 
^mets waldEniLoseg'a Yox"yagwas, qaso lal q!wastalll laxox 
t!et!EX'llaxsox g'ig'okwaxsEu g'olg-flkulotax: ' La^mEns nanaqa- 

15 maLai' pepaxalai' laxEns -nEmokwe ^nawalak'ustalisai"" (laxa 1e15- 
lalale gwE^yos, qaxs lE-"mae LlSyoxLa.) "Wa, laLox ^iieg'abE'weLos 
-nEmokwaqos: 'LaEms lal wax^IdEl nan&qamalxEns ^uEmokwai' 
^nawalak'ustalisa ^ne^uEmokwa laxwa ^walasex Logwala.' Wa, la- 
Lox ^negabEweLos ^nEmokwaqos: 'La^mEn heloLai' baxutstedza- 

20 yaq'.osai' Y6x"yagwasai', qa^s laLos laloLlalxEns ^UEmokwai' 
^nawalak-ustalisa, qa gwas5s^ides baxvis^Ida, ^nexxe.' Wa, he^mis 
lal ^negaba'yaasltsos waokwaqos ^ne^uEmokwa laxos ^nEmadzakii- 
laeneEmLex: 'Wa, wa, wa, halag'Illltsai' ^nEmp!Engilts!axstalaEm- 
LEnu^x" ' " ^nex'^lae Q!anasaxs laa^'l Lexs^alax'da^xwEq: "Wii, laEms 

25 ^uEniEml gwek' !alasLEn la waldEnix'da-'xoL. Wii, he^mis qa^s 
k'leasaos LlEleweso, qa-s helasE^wos lax bebaxutslEdzE^yasa g'Ig"E- 
gama^ye, qaxs he^'mae naqEmx'^Idamaslxwa lEloiaialex hlxox ^nawa- 
lak'ustallsex," ^nex-lae. 

Wa, giPEm^lawise p'.EdEx'^idExs laa^las ^naxwa q!walax'^Ideda 

30 gig'lgama^ye, ylxs he-'mae lEgiixLalax gweguylme. Wa, glpEm- 
^awise gwal q!walax'axs laa4 hoqiiwEls laxalobEkwe. Wa, gwabEl- 



BOAS) FAMILY HISTORIES 921 

went out of the dancing-house to the north end | of the viHage; and 32 
when they came to the north end of the | houses, they went m, stood 
in the doorway, and | Yox"yagwas followed the instructions of 
Chiton (V 7) as to what he was to say, || and also the others; and when 35 
all had said their words, | they went out, and they went to the houses 
of the south side and | went into those too; and they did the same 
as before when they spoke. | They went into all the houses, and then 
they I went into the winter-dancing house. There they took a rest. 
They did not stay there long, || then they went back. Some of the 40 
Sparrow Society people were coming in already; | for those who went 
inviting said, whenever they went into the | houses, "Now we come 
back to call you," and they spoke together. | Thus they went into all 
the houses of the village. Then they entered the dancing-house | 
and took a short rest there; but before they had || been sitting there 45 
a long time, they went out again to call; and what they said | when 
they went the third time was when they first entered the | doors of 
the houses of the village, "Now we come back again | to call. Get 
up, get up!" they said. And when | they reached the end of the 
houses of the village, they went back into the dancing-house and || 
took a rest; but they did not sit down there long before they arose 50 
and I went out again a fourth time. Now they really | tried to get 
all those who were sitting in their houses. Starting at the | north end 

sa^lat!exa g'6x"dEmse. Wa, g'ipEm^lawise labElsa laxa gilnxa^ye 32 
g'Qkiixs laa^l hogweLa, qa^s lii q!wast5lllax t!ExIlas. Wa, la^lae 
Y6x"yagwase aEm UEgEltodEx Lexs^T,layas QIanase, qa gwek'Ialats 
LE^wis waokwe. Wa, g'iPEm^lawise ^wilgallle waklEmx'da^xwas 35 
laa^l hoquwElsa, qa^s laxat! laxa ^nalalase g-okwa, qa^s litxat! 
hogwiL laq. Wa, ax"da^x"^Em-laxaawise nEgEltodxes gilx'de 
gwek'Ialasa. Wa, gil^Em^awise ^wllxtolsaxa g'igoktilaxs laa^l 
hogwiL laxa lobEkwe, qa^s lii x'os'id laq. Wa, k"!es'lat!a gaelExs 
laa^ qatse^sta. Wii, gax^Em^lawiseda waokwe gwegiidza hog'wi- 40 
LEla, ylxs he^mae waldEmsa qasElg'isaxs lanaxwae hogwiL laxa 
g'okula: "La^mEuu'x" qatse^stai' laxes ^iiEmadzaqwaena^ye." 
Wa, glPEinxaawise ^wllxtolsaxa g'okiilaxs lae h5gwlL laxa lobE- 
kwe, qa^s laxat! yawas^Id x'osalll laq. Wa, k' les^Em^laxaawise 
gael kitidzil laqexs laa^l edElts!axsta qatse^sta. Wa, heEm waldEm- 45 
sexs lae yu(!ux"p!Eiie^sta, ylxs ^nekaaxs g'alae hogwiLa lax t!et!E- 
xilasa g'okiila g'a'^mes waldEmseg'a: "La^mEnu^x" edEltslaxsta 
qatse'stai'. Wii, wii, wii, LaLai.ax^'wid," ^nex'^lae. Wii, giPmese 
labElsaxa g'6x"dEmsaxs lae et!ed hogwiL la,xa lobEkwe, qa^s liixat! 
x'os^id liiq. Wa, k'!es4at!a gael kJfidzelExs laa^l qlwag'Slll, qa^s 50 
lii hoquwElsa. Wii, laEm-lae moplEne^sta. Wii, laEm^lae tilax'^idEl 
wa-wigElilalxa klildzela Itixes gigokwe. Wii, hcEm^laxailwise 



922 ETHXOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL (eth.axn. 35 

of the village, and going into the | houses, they said at the same time, 

55 "We are looking for a face, now we are || really looking for a face. 
Now, get up, get up!" | Thus they said, and they did not leave the 
house until the | house-owner went out. Then those who were 
looking for faces followed him, and they | barred the door behind. 
They continued doing this in | aU the houses. After they had been 

60 to all the houses, they themselves || went in and barred the door of 
the I dancing-house. Then aU the Whale Society men were seated. | 
Now HoLelid (V 6) arose and spoke. | He said, "Indeed, all my 
friends, indeed, let us | carry out our plan. I thank you for 

65 coming into the dancing-house, || because it belongs to us. Therefore 
I ask you to take good care, friends; | to take care that we make no, 
mistake, | friends. Let us aU be careful! That is what I say. | 
Now get ready, you who hold possession of the breath (songs) I ' ' He 
meant | the song-leaders. Then he sent all the members of the 

70 Wliale Society to sit next || to the ghost-dancer Supernatural- 
Power-coming-up (V 4). Then | aU the members of the Whale 
Society went behind the sacred room of the ghost-dancer. | They did 
not stay there long, then they uttered the sound of healing, and | the 
song-leaders began the song of the ghost-dancer with fast beating; | 
the ghost-dancer Supernatural-Power-coming-up (V 4) did not come 

53 g'abEteda gwabalasasa g'ox"dEmse. Wii, g'll^Em^lawise laeL laxa 
gokwaxs lax"da^xwae ^nEmadzaqwa ^nek'a: "Dadoqumai', la^mE- 

55 nu^x" alax-^id dadoqttmai'. Wa, wa, wa, LaLaLaLax^wId," 
^nex'laexs laa^l k'les la lowaLas. Wa, giPEm^lawise ^wFla lawElse 
g-ogwadasexs laa^l ElxLa^ya dadoqtmiElgise, qa^s he^me la LEnex^^i- 
dEx tlEx'ilasa g-6kwe. Wa, hex-saf:m^lawise gweg'ilaxs laxtoda- 
laaxa gig'okwe. Wa, gil^mese ^wllxtolsaxa g'ig'okwaxs laa^l 

60 hogweLExs hae. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise LEnex'^idEx tiEx'ilasa 
lobEkwe. Wa, giPEm^lawise gwalExs laa^l ^naxwa kliis^allleda gwe- 
guyime. Wa, hcEm^lawis la Lax^ulilats HoLelide, qa^s yaqlEg^a^le. 
Wa, Wl&e ^nek'a: "QaLaLEns ^nax" ^ne^nEmok"; qilLaLEns laxEns 
senat!alilex. Wa, gelak-as^laxs g-axaex ^wPlaeLa laxEus lobEkwex 

65 EnyaeLEns axnogwatsox. Wii, he^mesEn lag'ila h{tyaL!6lIl ^ne^nE- 
mok", qa^s yaL!ox"da^xwaos laxa yaLlox'La, aLEns amelalax, 
^ne^uEniokwai', qsns alag-a^mel ha^yaLogollL, qEn ^nek-e. Wa, 
wag'illa q!agEmeLEx yoLaxs dalaaqosaxwa hasa^yex." HeEm gwE- 
^yoseda nen^gade. Wa, laEm^lae ^yalaqasa gwegiiylme, qa las ^nE- 

70 xwalaLElaxa lElolalale lax ^nawalak-ustalise. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise 
laxda^x" Hvi-leda gwegiiylme aLadzEudxa lEme^lats!asa lElolalale. 
Wa, k- !es4at!a galaxs laa^ase helek" !Eg-a^leda gweguyime. Wa,hex-- 
^idaEm^awise dEnx^ideda nenagadasa tsaxala q!EmdEmsa lElolalale. 
Wa, hewaxa4at!a g-ax^wultlalileda lElolalale, yLx -'nawalak-ustalise, 



BOAsl FAMILY HISTORIES 923 

out, II although they sang the whole song with fast beating. When | 75 
the song-leaders stopped singing with fast beating of time, Y5x"- 
yagwas came out | of the sacred room, and spoke. He said, "O | 
shamans! listen to what I am going to say! I am very | uneasy on 
account of the way the ghost-dancer, our friend Supepnatural-Power- 
coming-up, is acting. || She does not pay attention to us, although we 80 
are suigiug for her. | It seems that she wants to go down into the 
ground. It seems that she is held by something | invisible. Try to 
sing again, friends!" | He meant the song-leaders. At once they 
began and | sang the song of the ghost-dancer with slow tune beat- 
ing, II but she did not come out to dance while they were singing. 85 
When I the song-leaders ended the song, Yox^yagwas spoke with a 
loud voice. | He said, "The ghost-ilancer is already going down into 
the ground." Then | the front of the sacred room went down, and 
Supernatural-Power-coming-up (V 4) was seen by the Sparrow 
Society. | Her legs as far as her loins were in the ground. || Then 90 
Yox"yagwas and his friends | talked aloud and told" HoLelid to get a 
long rope to | put a noose aroiuid the waist of Supernatural-Power- 
coming-up before she had gone too deep intotheground. [ Immediately 
HoLeUd took the lasso and | put one end around the waist of Super- 
natural-Power-coming-up (V 4). They passed jj one end of it under 95 
the two poles in the hole that had been dug, in which j Supernatural- 



ylxs wax'^mae la labEndes q!EmdEme tsaxala. Wa, gipEm-lawise 75 
gwal dEnxEleda nenagadiisa tsaxalaxs g"axaa^l gax^ijlt!allie Yox"- 
yagwase laxa }Eme^lats!e, qa^syaq !Eg'a^le. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "^ya, 
pepExalai', waEntsos hoLelaxg'ln waldEmLEk", qaxgin Ldma^mek" 
nolasox gwaelasaxsoxda lElolalalex laxEns ^UEmokwox ^nslwalak'us- 
talisex, yixs k'etslEmaex q!asElaxEns wanena^ye qlEmtaq", yixs 80 
&,x'st !aax"'maex lalabEtallla yixs haex gwex's nexElallltsowa ylsE- 
nu^x" kMesa dogula. Wii, weg'a giinx'^Id edzaqwax ^ne-'uEmok" 
dEnx^klEx." HeEm gwE^yoseda nenagade. Wii, hex'°idaEm^lawise 
sEk"5d qa^s denx^idesa nEqaxEla q lEmdEmsa lElolalale. Wa, laEm- 
-laxae hewaxa g'ax^iilt!alllax wawasdEmas dsuxEla. Wii, gil='Em^lii- 85 
wise q!ulbe dEnxena^j^asa nenagadilxs laa^lase htldzExstale Yox"ya- 
gwase, ^nex" laqexs lE^mae labEtalllEleda lElolalale. Wii, he^mis la 
tsaqaxaatsa lEme^atsie. Wii, he^niis la^l dox^waLElatsa gwegiidziix 
-nawalak'ustalisaxs lE^maa^l -wIlbEtilllles g'ogigiiyowe liig'aa liixes 
ewanolg'a^ye. Wii, laEm^lae Yox"yagwase LE^wis ^ne^UEmokwe 90 
hadzExstala axk"!iilax HoLelide, qa ax^edesex gi!t!ii dEUEina, qa^s 
x'imoyodes lax ^nawalak'ustalisaxs kMes^mae wungEg'ila. Wii, 
hex'idaEm^lawise HoLelide la axe'dxa x"ima5'owe dEUEma, qa^s lii 
qEuSyots apsba^yas liix ^nawalak'ustalise. Wii, laEm^lae ts!ox"s6- 
yEwe oba^yas laxa dzengele liix 6ts!awasa ^lilbEgwelkwe lax la 95 



924 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. as 

96 Power-coming-up (V 4) was standing, so that it was this way.' When 
everything had been | done, the head of Supernatural-Power- 
coming-up (V 4) remained outside the hole. Then | the members of 
the Whale Society took hold of the lasso as it was going | down into 
700 the ground; but they were not strong enough to hold it, and || the 
end of the rope nearly went down, for a | strong man was sitting at 
the end of the hole, just behind the | cross-poles and the upright in 
the hole, one of the | strongest men of the ghost-dancers of the 
Kwakiutl. There | are two of them in the hole — he and Super- 
5 natural-Power-coming-up (V 4) — and they pull the || lasso over the 
crosspiece inside the hole, where it is tied with the oily split | kelp. 
When the end of the lasso had nearly gone into the hole, | HoLelid 
(V 6) spoke, and said, "Tie down the | end of the magical rope, that 
I may engage some one!" Thus he said. Then he | asked an un- 

10 initiated poor man to come and || take hold of the lasso. Immediately 
the I son of one man of theLaalax's^Endayo nuniaym took | hold of 
the lasso and pulled at it, and he pulled part of it out of the floor. | 
When the rope stopped coming, the boy stood still, | and then his 

15 father gave cedar-bark blankets to the Maamtag'ila. || He gave one to 
each. After he had given them away, | he called his son to sit 
down. Then HoLelid (V 6) named | another uninitiated poor man 

96 L§,x"ts!Ewats ^nawalak'ustalisexa g'a gwaleg-a.' Wii, g'ih'EmMawise 
gwalExs laa^lase tlEbEtoAve ^nawalak'ustalise. Wa, laEm^lae ^na- 
xwaEm^l la dak'lEna^ya gwegiiyimaxa x'imayowe dEUEmaxs laa^l 
ts!Enx"bEtalilEla. Wa, laEm^lae waLeda gwegtiylme nanexalaq, qaxs 
700 lE^maa^l Elaq qliilbeda dEUEme, qaxs a^mae la k!wats!fiweda laklwe- 
mase bEgwauEm laxa aLEbelts Iixwasa ^labEgwelkwe lax awap !a^yasa 
dzenqa^yasa dzoxiime lax ots!awasa ^labEgwelkwe. Wa, hcEm g'a- 
yola laklwemase bEgwauEm laxa lElolalalasa Kwag'ule. Wa, laEm 
ma^lox"ts!a eo^ ^nawalak^ustalise. Wa, hex'^ida^x"mes nexs&laxa 
5 x-Imayowe dEUEm laxa dzengelexa la ylLEx"sa qlEledzala LEbEk" 
^wa^wada. Wa, giPmese Elaq q!ulbeda x'imayowe dEnEmxs laa^lase 
HoLelide yaqlEg'a^la. Wii, hVlae ^nek'a: "Weg'a yll^alilaxox oba- 
^yaxsa nawalakwex dEUEma, qsn helx'^idag'e," *^nex"^Iaexs lae g'a- 
yaxsdEndalax baxutslEdza^yasa wiwosilagabEgwanEm,qa liis gil da- 

10 k"!Endxa xlmayowe dEUEma. Wit, liex'-idaEm^lawise la^lae xu- 
nokwasa g'ayole laxa ^UE^memasa Laalax'sE^ndayowe, qa^s la^l da- 
k' !hidxa x'imayowe dEnEma, qa^s nex^edeq. Wa, k!wayolk'as^lat!a 
laq. Wii, g'iPmese wala tslEnkwe dEUEmas hla^l Lilx^ulileda g'lnii- 
nEme. Wii, he^mis la yiix^widaats ompasexa Maamtag'iliisa k' !oba- 

15 wase. Wii, laEm^lae ^wIlxtodEq. Wii, g'ipEm^lawise gwiil yiiqwaxs 
liia^l Le^lrdaxes xiinokwe, qa liis k!wagalila. Wii, hVlaxae LeqE- 
llle HoLelidax baxtitslEdza^yasawiwosElagasa ^UE'memiisaSenLlEme. 

■See third figure on p. 907. 



BOAS] 



FAMILY HISTORIES 925 



of the uumaym SeuL lem, | and his father did the same. He also gave 
away to the Layalala^ve. | Then HoLehd (V6) spoke again, andcalled 1| 
an nninitiated poor man of the Kukwak !um to take hold of the lasso, | 20 
and his father also gave away property to the | G'exsEm; and when 
that was done, the chief | of the Maamtag'ila, Yox"yagwas, stood up 
and spoke, and | said, "0 friends! it does not seem to be good that 
only II HoLelid takes charge of the magical lasso. Come | and sit 25 
down ! Let me go and take charge of the magical lasso, j for I truly 
passed through the magical power of the ghost-dance." Thus he 
said I as he went and took hold of the rope. Now HoLelid (V 6) sat 
down, I and Yox"yagwas called the prince of the chief of the numaym 
Layalala-'we, || whose name was Ts!Ex^ed in the secular season, while 30 
liis I winter name was Hanag"ats!e. He was called by Yox"- 
yagwas, j the prince of Lalep !alas — for he had never been initiated, — | 
to go and take hold of the lasso. Lalep !alas at once went j to take 
hold of the lasso, and || pulled at it. The rope nearly came out; and 35 
when it j stopped coming towards him, he stopped pulling. Then j 
Lalep !alas stood up, holding the lasso; and | his father, Hanag'a- 
ts !e, gave away many cedar-bark blankets to the numaym SeiiL !Em; j 
and after he had given them away, he called his son || Lalep !alas to ^q 
come and sit down; and when he had sat down, j Y6x"yagwas spoke- 

Wa, heEm^laxaawise gwex'^ide ompas, yax^widaEm^laxaexa lS. 18 
yalalawa. Wa, la^ae edzaqwe HoLelide. Wa, laEm^lae LeqElIlax 
baxiitslEdza^yas wJwosElagasa Kukwak Iiime, cja las dak'lEndxa x'i- 20 
mayowe dEUEma. Wa, laEm^lawise 5gwaqa j^ax^wide ompasexa 
G'exsEme. Wa, g'iPEm^laxaawise gwalExs laa^lase Lax^iillle g'lgama- 
-yasa MaSmtag'ile Y6x"yagwase. Wii, la^lae yaq!Ega^la. Wa, la^lae 
^nek'a: "^ya, ^ne^iiEinok" k'!est!aakwae ek-e xEiiLElaena^yas lex'ame 
HoLelide aaxsilaxwa ^nawalakwex ximayo dEUEma. Wa, gelag'a 25 
k!wagalilEx, qEn lalag"amawTsLe aaxsilaxwa ^nawalakwex ximayo 
dEiiEma, qaxgin alegin lax'sa ^nawr.lak" laxwa lElolalalex," ^nex- 
^laexslaa^l dax'^idxa dEUEme. Wa, laEmlaLa k!wagalile HoLelide. 
Wa, la'lae LelElltax LEWElgama^yas g'lgama^yasa ^nE^memaxa Laya- 
lalawaxa Legadeda g'lgama^yas TslEx'ede laxa baxiise. Wa, la 3U 
tsIagEXLalax Hanagats Wii, heEm^lawis la LeqElelEms Y6x"ya- 
gwase LawElgama^yase Lalep !alase, yixs he.-mae biixudzEXLayos, qa 
las dak' Kndxa ximayowe dEiiEma. Wa, hex'^daEm^lawise la^lae 
Lalep lalase Lax^ulila, qa^s la^l dak' lEndxa x'Imayowe dEUEma, qa^s 
nex^ede. Wa, k!wayolqas^lat!a laxa dEUEme. Wa, gipEm^lawise 35 
wala tslEukweda dEUEmaxs laa^l gwal nexaq. Wa, a'mese la Lawlle 
Lalep lalase dak' linalilxa x'lniayowe dEUEma. Wii, la^me yax^wide 
ompase Hanagatslasa q!enEme k' lobawase laxa ^nE-memeda SbulIe- 
me. Wa, gil^Em^lawise gwal yaqwaxs laa4 Le^lalaxes xunokwe 
Lalep lalase, qa g'axes k!wagalila. Wa, g'iPEm^lawise kIwag'alllExs 40 



926 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 35 

42 again, and said, | "Now let the prince of our chief Yaqwid come. I 
mean | Sewid. He shall come and take hold of the magical lasso. | 

45 That is the son of the chief of the great numaym G'exsEm." || Thus 
he said. Immediately the one who had been named arose and | took 
hold of the rope and pulled at it, and he almost \ got it out when he 
was puUing at it. Then he stopped. He held it in his hands | and 
stood stiU. Now the father of Sewid | took many cedar-bark Vjlankets 

50 and gave them to the numaym Kukwak !um, || and hegave one to each. 
When he had finished | giving them away,fi; Yaqwid called his 
prince to come and sit down; | and after lis-^^ sat down, Yox"- 
yagwas spoke again, | and said, "Have you seap^] shamans, our son, I 

55 mcantheprince || of Yaqwid, almost gotitout? Thatmakesmeglad, | 
for I began to feel imeasy, because this | magic lasso was going down 
into the ground. That is what I say, friends. Now I | will call my 
prince TsIagEyos to come and | take hold of the magic lasso." 

60 Then he called || his son Ts!agEyos to go and take hold of the rope 
for Yox"yagwas was still holding | the rope; and when TslagEyos 
took hold of the | lasso, Yox"yagwas told him to pull strongly; | 
"for," he said, "there is nothing that you can not do, my son." 

41 laa^l edzaqwa yaqlEg'a^le Yox"yagwase. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "Wa, 
gelag'axox LawElgama^yaxsEns g"Igama^yaq !ox Yaqwldiix laxox 
Sewidax, qa gaxesox dak' lindExg'ada ^nawalakiik' x'Imayo dEnEma 
laxox LawElgama^yaso g'Igama^yaq!5s ^walas ^uE^mem G'exsEm," 

45 ^nex'^lae. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise Lax^iilile LeqElIlasE^was, qa^s la 
daklindxa dfinEme, qa^s nex^edeq. Wa, halsElaEm^lawise kMes 
^wFloLExs lae nexaqexs laa-1 wala. Wa, §,Em^lawise hlxat! dak!i- 
iiexa dEUEmaxs laa-1 aEm la La^wlla. Wii, la^axae ompase Sewide 
ax^edxa q !enEme k' !6bawasa, qa^s yax^wides laxa ^ne'"memeda Kii- 

50 kwaklume. Wa, laEm^axae ^wIlxtodEq. Wa, glpEm^lawise gwat 
yaqwaxs laaH Le^lale Yiiqwldaxes LawElgama^ye, qa g'axes k!wa- 
gallla. Wa, gil^Em^liiwise k!wagalIlExs laa-lase edzaqwa yaqlE- 
g'a^e Yox"3^agwase. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a:. "Lammas doqulaa ^nax" 
pepaxal? la^me halsElaEm kMes I^leus xunox"da^xwe hlxox l&weI- 

55 gamayaq!os YtiqwidaxEn ^nenak'ile, yixs lE^mae ex'^idEn naqa^ye, 
qaEn nola, qaxs &^maex liemEnaiaEm ts!Ex"bEtalllEloxda ^nawala- 
kwex x'lmayo dEnEma, qEn ^nek'e ^nax" ^ne^nEmok". Wii, la^me- 
sEn LelElIlalxEu LawElgftma^yaq !ox Ts!agEyosax, qa gaxlagiltso 
dak' !indElxgada ^nawalakttk" x'imayo dEnEma." Wa, la^lae Le^la- 

60 laxes xunokwe TsIagEyose qa liis laqexs he^mae dak' !inaye Yox"ya- 
gwasaxa dEUEme. Wa, g'iPEin^lawise TslagEyose dak'Kndxa x'Jma- 
yowe dEUEmxs laa^lae Yox"yagwase waxaq, qa alax'^ides nex^edEq, 
"qaxs k'leasaaqos waLEma xunok"," ^nex'^laeq. Wa, la^lae hex'^i- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 927 

Thus he said to him. Then | Ts lagEyos pulled at the rope strongly^ 
and II the rope ran out towards him. The ghost-dancer | Super- 65 
natural-Power-coming-up stood on the floor in the rear of the house. 
She was brought out | by the prince of the chief of the numaym 
Maamtag'ila | Yox"yagwas, for he is the head man of thenumayms 
of the Kwag'uL | When the ghost-dancer came out, TsIagEyos stood 
still, II and Yoxuyagwas gave away many cedar-bark blankets | to 70 
the Laalax's^Endayo; and after he had | given them away, H5Lelid 
arose again and thanked him because | the ghost-dancer had been 
brought up by the chief of the Maamtag'ila. Then | he told the 
members of the Whale Society to carry back Supernatural-Power- 
coming-up (V 4) || into her sacred room, which had been put up again. 75 
When I the members of the Whale Society came out of the sacred 
room after carrying Supernatural-Power-commg-up (V 4) into it, | 
they sat down, and HoLelid gave away j many copper bracelets. 
After he had done so, | all the members of the Sparrow Society went 
out; and when || they had gone out. Chiton told HoLelid (V6) to bar 80 
the door j of the dancing-house. After HoLelid (V6)had barred the 
door, I Chiton (V 7) took off the board covering of the boxes | con- 
tainmg the soil, which they had put into the corner of the dancmg- 
house; and when they had been removed, | she asked HoLelid (V 6) 

da^me TsIagEyose alax'^Id nex^edxa dEUEme. Wa, ^Em^lawise 
h§,y6lisadEnEmets!Enxuq&lIlEla. Wa, g'ax^aeLaxuqallledalElolalale 65 
^nawalak'ustalise lax ogwiwalilasa gokwe. Wii, la^me laqalllama- 
tsosa LawElgama^yas g^Igama-yasa ^uE^memeda Maamtagila, yix 
Yox^yagwase, qaxs mEkuma^yaasa ^naxwa ^nai^nE^inematsa Kwakii- 
g'iile. Wa, lieEm^lawise laqalTleda lElolalalaxs h"ia-"l aEm la La^wlle 
Ts!agEyose. Wa, la^lae yax^wide Yox"yagwasa qleuEme k'!ekMo-70 
bawas laxa ^iiE^memasa Laalax's^Endayowe. Wa, giPEm^lawise 
gwal yaqwaxs liia-l Lax^ullle HoLelide, qa'^s moles laena^yas laqali- 
iamasa g'lgfima^yasa Maamtag'ilaxa lElolalale. Wa, lieEm^lawis la 
axk' lalatsexa gwegiiylme qa dayak'IlHEmex ^nawalakust&lise, qa^s la 
laeLEm laxes lEme^latsIaxs lE^maa^l helkwa. Wa, g'iPEm^lawisegax 75 
hox^wiiltslaliiedagweguyimelaxeslaenax'de dayak'ElIlax^nawalakus- 
talise. Wa, hVlae kliis^allia. Wa, la^lae yax^wide HoLelidasa 
q!enEme LlaLlaqwakMEn k' !okula laq. Wa, gll^mese gwalalllExs 
laa^l ^naxwa hoquwElsa gwegugudza. Wii, gil^Em^liiwise la ^wilwul- 
sExs laa^l axk'lala^lae QJanasax HoLelide qa LEnex'^idesexa tiExi- 80 
lases lobEkwe. Wa, gil-'Em^lawise gwal LEiiek'e HoLelidiixa tlExi- 
laxs laa^l axode Q!anasax pepaqEya'yasa dzedzEqwatslala kMek' !Em- 
yaxLa mExel laxa onegwilasa lobEkwe. Wa, gil^Em^lawise ^wFl&xs 
laa^l axk' !ala lax HoLelide, qa las dadanodEq, qa^s la xwelaqa la 



928 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 35 

85 to help carry it and || put it back into tlio hole. Wlien all | the boxes 
had been emptied out, they put them back into the corner. | Then the 
hole was filled up again. Now the ghost-dance was finished. | The 
dancer was wearmg cedar-bark, mixed white and red, as her head 

90 and | neck ring, and on the head-ring a tad-feather || of the eagle was 
standing up. That is all about the ghost-dancer. | 

Now it was one month since the three chddren (VI) of HoLelid (V6) 
had disappeared. | Then Chiton (V 7) told her husband HoLehd (V6) | 
to call the Whale Society in the evening; namely, the chiefs of the 
numayms | and the song-leaders, and to ask them to come into the 

95 dancing-house. When || they were all in. Chiton (V 7) spoke, and 
said, I "Thank you, chiefs, for having come in to listen to what I am 
going to tell you. | Indeed, our winter dance belongs to the LlaLla- 
siqwala, and | therefore I want you to come and listen how the 
dance for the thi'ee who have disappeared is handled by my tribe 1 the 
800 L !aL lasiqwala. I want || us to go to-morrow to catch them, for we 
never dance the whole night before catching them, | as is done by the 
Kwag'ul. We will just follow tlie way | the ghost-dancer was 
caught. HoLelid (V6) will call our | tribe in the morning; and there 
will be again four war-dancers and | four frog-dancers and four 
5 throwing-dancers. They will have their sacred songs || and four 

85 guxtslotsa dzEqwa laxa ^labEgwelkwe. Wa, gil^Em^lawise ^wHa la 

lopEmtsIaweda k' !ik' !imyaxLaxs IfiaH mEx^'alilas hixa onegwile, ylxs 

laalaLal qot!eda 4abEgwelkwe. Wa, laEni'lae gwala lElolalale 

,laxeq. Wa, laEm^ae mslmaqEle qExima^ye L!agEX"s LE^wis 

qEuxawa'ye. Wa, la^lae Laaplale qExima^ye L!agEX"sexa ts!El- 

90 k'lExsda^ye ^uEmtsIaxsox kwekwex. Wa, laEm gwal laxa lElolalale. 

Wit, he-lat!ala ^nEmsgEmg'ila xlsaleda yudukwe sasEms HoLeli- 

daxs la^lae Q!anase axk-!alaxes la^wuuEme lax HoLelidaxa dzaqwa 

qa Lelts !odesexa gweguyime, ytx g-IgEgama^yasa ^nab'nE^memase 

LE^wa nenagade, qa gaxes ^wPlaeLEla laxa lobEkwe. Wa, g-iPEm-la- 

95 wise g'ax -'wI^aeLExs laa^'lase Q'.anase yaq lEg'a^la. Wit, la-lae ^nek'a: 
'' Wa, gax^Ems g'ig'Egame. Gelak'as^la, qa's hoLelaosaxg'In waldEm- 
LEk, qiiLaxs L!aL!asiqwaladzEsaEns ts !aq !ena^yex. Wa, yii^me- 
sEn lag-ila ^nex' qa^s g-axaos hoLelaxg'a gwayi-'litlasgasEn gokulo- 
taeda L!aL lasiqwala qaeda yudukwa x'ixisala, qaEn laene^me ^nex', 
800 qEns wagil kimyaLEx lEnsLa, qa^nu'x" k' lets '.ena-ye kikilnala 
laxes gwegilasos Kwagul. AEmlxaEus uEgEltEwelxEns gwegilase- 
daxs laex kimyaxa lElolalale, ylxs Lelts lodaox HoLelidiixEnsgolg-ij- 
kulotaxgaalaLa. Wii, heEmlxaawise ^waxox"La eolale mokwe, LE^wa 
mox"La wiwEqlesa LE^wa mox"La mamEmaq!al qa^s yalaqwel yiya- 
5 taltsa mosgEme yiyatlala. Wa, gil^Emlwise ^wl'lal yalaqwal. Wa, 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 929 

rattles; and when each has sung his sacred song, | then the cannibal- 6 
dancer will get excited. Tliey will go ahead of the twelve | dancers 
who are suigLng theu' sacred songs; and we, members of the Sparrow 
Society, shall run after them | to the place where those whom we are 
going to catch wUl utter their songs. That is all, " | said she. "Now I 
shall sing the songs this || night with our friends the song-leaders." 10 
Thus she said. Then | Y6x"yagwas thanked her for what she had 
said. "Indeed, I have obtained this by marriage | from the great 
supernatural tribe l !aL lasiqwala. | Therefore your speech. Chiton 
(V 7), is good. Why should I not try | to do everything as it is done 
by the l !aL lasiqwala ? Shall I not |1 follow the words of Chiton 15 
(V 7) V Thus he said. When they finished their speeches, | it was 
late in the evening. Then Chiton (V 7) took the batons | and gave 
one to each of the song-leaders. | Then Yox"yagwas spoke, and said, 
"O Chiton (V 7) ! | do not let us smg m this house, else we shall be 
heard by the tribe. Let us || go to Supernatural Place this night!" 20 
Thus he said. Then | Chiton (V 7) was glad. "Only I did not tell 
you quickly, | for that is the way it is done by my tribe the l !aL la- 
siqwala." Thus she said. | Then they aU arose and went out of the 
dancing-house, and felt their way | going into the woods to Super- 
natural Place. There 1| they aU sat down. Now, Chiton (V 7) | sat 25 



he^mis lal xwaxusEwasltsa haS,mats!a qa^s lal g'alablltsa ma^logfig^i- 6 
yowe yiyalaq '.wenoxwa. Wa, aEmlwIsEns lal q !umx'sEmIlgin gwe- 
gwatslEmek' lal lax hek" lalasLasa k'im^yasoLaEns. Wa, yu-'moq," 
^nex'^lae. "Wa, la^mesEn et!edEl dEnxElaltsa q lEmq lEmdEmaxwa 
ganuLex LE^wiins ^ne^nEmokwa nenagadex," ^nex'^lae. Wa, aEm- 10 
^lawise mola^lae Yox^yagwasas waldEmas: "QaLaxg'ins gEg'adanE- 
meg'aq" laxa ^walase ^nawalak" lelqwalaLa^ya L!aL lasiqwala. Wa, 
he^mis lag'iltsox ek^os waldEmaqos Qlanas. MasEn laLa wawax- 
tslEwal lax gwayi^lalasas LlaLlasiqwalaq". Es^maeLEns asm wag'll 
laxox waldEmi^alaxs Qlanas," ^nex'lae. Wa, giPmese gwale wal- 15 
dEmasexa la gala ganuLa. Wa, laEm^awise Qlanase ax^edxa tlEm- 
yayowe, qa^s la tslEwanaqasa ^naFuEmtslaqe laxa nenagade. Wa, 
la^ae yaqlEg-a4e Yox^yagwase. Wa, hVlae ^nek-a: "^ya, Qlanas, 
gwalax'ins yo dEnxEloxda g'okwex, aLEiis wiiLEitsa g'okillax, qEns 
la^me laxa ^nawalakliidzasaxwa ganuLex," ^nex'^lae. Wa, ala-latla 20 
nEqa lax naqayalas Qlanase: "EsaeLEn S,Em halala ^nex'^da^xoL, 
qaxs he^mae gwiiyayaelatsEn g^okidota LlaL lasiqwala,"^ nex'^laexs 
laa'l ^wPla q Iwagillla, qa^s la hoqilwElsa laxa lobEkwe, qa^s la p laya- 
k"Elaxs laa^l hoxsak'ila qa^s la laxa ^nawalakliidzasa. Wa, lax'da- 
^x"^lae ^wi^la klus^Elsa. Wa, hiEm^lae uEqlEgelase klwadzasas Qlana- 25 

75052—21—35 eth— pt 2 10 



930 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL I urn. anx. 35 

27 in the middle of the song-leaders. Chiton spoke. She | said, "I 
shall sing the songs of my father when he was | cannibal-dancer, for 
he has four cannibal songs." | Thus she said, and she sang the song 
30 with fast beating. || This is it: — | 

1. No one is now looking for food all around the world, mae hamae 
hama | hamae! | 
No one is now looking for human flesh all around the world; mae 
hamae hama | hamae ! || 
35 2. Hamamhamam hahamh&ma mae hamham^hamhamamae hamae | 
hamae he he ! | 
No one is now looking for skulls all aroiuid the world ; mae hamae 
hama | hamae hama hamae ! | 
3. Hamamhamam hahamhama mae hamhamaham hamamae hamae || 
40 hamae he he! | 

No one is now looking for corpses all around the world; mae 

hamae hama | hamae hama hamae ! | 
Hamamhamam hahamhama mae hamae hamae ! | 

45 When the song-leaders were able to sing it, || then she sang with 
slow beating, and this is the song: — | 

1. Where are you going to try to find food for the one who gave you 
supernatural power ? Hama hamae hama | hama ! | 



26 sasa nenagade. Wa, laEm^lawise yaqlEg'a^le Q!anase. Wa, la^lae 

^nek'a: "HeEmLEn dEnx"4dayuLe q!Emq!EmdEmasEn ompaxs layule 

hamat!sa laxes ompwula, ylxs mosgEmaeda q !Emq !EmdEmas laxes 

hamts!ena^ye," ^nex^^lae. Wa, la^lae dEnx^itsa tsaxala qlEmdEma. 

30 Wii, g-a~'meseg'a: 

1. KMeas la hamasahayalas owe^stahahas ^nala mae hamae hama 
hamae. 
K' !eas la babakwahayalahas owe^stahas ^nala mae hamae hama 
hamae. 
35 2. Hamamhamam hahamhama mae hamhamaham hamamae hamae 
hamae he he. 
K' !eas la xaxoqwahayalahas owe^stahahas ^nala mae hamae hama 
hamae hama hamae. 
3. Hamamhamam hahamhama mae hamlutmaham hamamae hamae 
40 hamae he he. 

K'!eas la lalolahayalahas owe^stahahas ^nala mae hamae hama 

hamae hama hamae. 
Hamamhflmam hahamhama mae hamae hamae. 
Wa, g'iPEm^lawise q!ada nenagadaq laa^l edzaqwa dEnx^itsa t!Em- 
45 sawilta^yas t!Em^yase. Wa, g'a^meseg'a: 

1 . Wlhes qa hamasayalag'ilos Logwalag'ila. Hama hamae hama 
hama. 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 931 

I went there to find food for Cannihal-at-North-End-of- | World. || 
riamae harna hamae ainhama hamae amhamama hamae | 50 
haraa hamae hamae hamae hamahamae ! | 

2. I have ahnost been brought into trouble by Cannibal-at-North- 

End-of- I World. Hamae hama hamae ! | 
I almost was kept by Cannibal-at-North-End-of- World. || Hamae 55 

hama hamae ! | 
I was taken into the sacred room of Cannibal-at-North-End- | of- 

World. I 
Hamae hama hamae amhama hamae amhamama hamae hama | 

hamae hamae hamae hamhamae ! || 

3. Where are you going to try to find a skull for the one who gave you 60' 

supernatural power? Hamahahama | hamae! | 

I went there to get skulls for Cannibal-at-Nortii-End-of- | World. 
Hamae hama hamae ! | 

I went there, and red cedar-bark was put on me by Cannibal-at- 
North-End- II of- World. Hamae hama hamae ! | 65 

I went there and was given the hox"hok"-cry by Cannibal-at- 
North-End-of- I World. Hamae hama hamae ! | 

I' went there and was given the cannibal-cry by Cannibal-at- 
North-End-of- I World. Hamae hama hamae amhama hama 
hamae! || 

He hex'dos lanogwa hamasayalag'ilts Bax"bakwalanux"siwae^- 48 

kasdeya. 
Hamae hama hamae amhama hamae amhamama hamae hama 50 

hamae hamae hamae hamahamae. 

2. Elahaxk'asdEwisEn ayamilamatsos Bax"bakwalanux"siwae^k'as- 

deya. Hamae hama hamae. 
ElahaxkasdEwIsEii hak !waanEmx"des Bax"bakwanux"siwae^k'as- 

deya. Hamae hama hamae. 55 

He hex'dos lanogwa laeLEmai lax lEmx'laelasdes Bax"bakwala- 

nux"slwae^k'asdeya. 
Hamae hama hamae amhama hamae amhamama hamae hama 

hamae hamae hamae hamhamae. 

3. Wlhes qae xaxokwayalag'ilaos LSgwalag'ila. Hamahahama ha- 60 

mae. 
He hex'dos lan5gwa xaxokwayalagilts Bax"bakwalauux"slwae^- 

k'asdeya. Hamae hama hamae. 
He hex'dos lanogwa qax'osayasos L!aL!aqiilax'des Bax"bakwala- 

nuxsiwae^k'asdeya. Hamae hama hamae. 65 

He hex'dos lanogwa h5x"h6k!wala lax Bax"bakwalanux"slwae^- 

k'asdeya. Hamae hama hamae. 
He hex'dos lanogwa hamxhamxayag'ilts Bax"bakwalanux"sl- 

wae^k'asdeya. Hamae hama hamae amhama hama hamae. 



O&^.u^..-,^^ s-wLLiiot LidRARY 



932 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 35 

70 And when the song-leaders were able to sing this song, | Chiton 
(V 7) sang another song with slow beating. This is it: — | 

1. Amae a hame hama hamae hamahame | 

For food searched for me the real supernatural Cannibal-at-North- 

End-of- World. | Hamae hamae hama ! || 
75 Oh for food searched for me the real Cannibal-at-North-End- | -of 

World! I 
Hama hamae he he he amae a hame hama hamae hama hame ! | 

2. Am hama hame hama hame amae a hame hama hamae hama | 

hame ! || 
80 For human flesh searched for me the real supernatural Cannibal- 
at-North-End-of-World. | Hamae hamae hama! | 
Oh, for human flesh searched for me the real Cannibal-at-North- 
End-of-World ! | Hama hamae he he he amae hama hamae 
hamahame ! | 

3. Am hama hame hama hame amae a hame hama hamae hama |1 
85 hame ! | 

He camo carrying a body in his arms, the real supernatural 
Cannibal-at-North-End-of- World. | Hamae hamae hama ! | 

Oh, for me carried a body in his arms the real Cannibal-at-North- 
90 End-of-World. | Hama hamae he he he amae a hame || hama 

hamae hamahame ! 1 



70 Wa, g'ipEmxaawise q!ada nenagadaxs lae edzaqwa dEnx^ide Q!a- 
nasasa tsag"asilalas tlEm^yase. G"a^meseg'a: 
l.'Amae ahame hama hamae hamahame. 

HamasayalagildEnogw alias Bax"bakwalaniix"siwae^k'asdeLogwa- 
lak'as-owa. Hamae hamae hama. 
75 ^ya lax'dEnogwa hamasayalag'ilts Bax"bak\valanux"siwae^k'as- 
deya. 
Hama hamae he he he amae a hame hama hamae hama hame. 
2. Am hama hame hama hame amae a hame hama hamae hama 
hame. 
80 BabakwayalagildEnogwas Bax"bakwalanux"slwae^k"asdeya lo- 
gwalak'as^owa. Hamae hamae hama. 
^ya lax'dEnSgwa babakwayalag^llts Bax^bakwalanux^siwae^k'as- 
deya. Hama hama6 he he he amae hama hamae hamahame. 
.3. Am hama hame hama hame amae a hame hama hamae hama 
85 hame. 

G'ax^Emx'dEwise q !aq ialElak^asaha Bax"bakwalanux"siwae^k'as- 

deya Logwahik'as^owa. Hamae hamae hama. 
^ya, g-axdEnogwa q!aq!alElagiIts Bax"bakwalanux"siwae^k'as- 
deya Logwalak-as^owa. Hama hamae he he he amae a hame 
90 hama hamae hama hame. 



BOAsl FAMILY HISTORIES 933 

4. Am hama hame liania hame amae a hame hama hamae liama | 91 

hame ! | 
He came carrying a body in each arm, the real supernatural 

Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World. | Hamae hamae hama ! || 
Oh, he carried a body in each arm, the real supernatural Cannibal- 95 

at-North-End-of-World. | Hama hamae he he he amae a hame 

hama | hamae hama hame ! | 

5. Am hama hame hama hame amae a hame hama hamae hama | 

hame ! || 
Oh, I was made to eat corpses from both sides of my mouth 900 

by the real supernatural Caimibal-at-North-End-of-World. | 

Hamae hamae hama ! | 
Oh, I was made to eat corpses from both sides of my mouth 

by the real supernatural Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World. | 

Hamae hamae he he he | amae a hame hama hamae hama 

hame ! || 

And when the song-leaders could sing this also, Chiton (V 7) | sang 5 
also this one: | 

1. Oh, I try to eat the food left by the real supernatural | Cannibal- 
at-North-End-of-Workl. | 
Maeye hamamaye hamamaye hamamaye hamamamae hama- 
mahae 11 hamae hamamae hamame ! I 10 



4. Am hama hame hama hame amae a hame hama hamae hama 91 

hame. 
G'ax^Emx'dEWIse ^wax"SEnkulak*as^a lolnEkttlak'as^a Bax"bakwa- 

lanux"slwae-k'asdeya Logwalakas^owa. Hamae hamae hama. 
^ya,^wax'SEnkula loluEkulakas-a Bax"bakwalanux"slwiie^kasdeya 95 

Logwalak'as^'owa. Hama hamae he he he amae a hame hama 

hamae hama hame. 

5. Am hama hame hama hame amae a hame hama hamae hama 

hame. 
^ya, lax'dEn ^wax'sEmeLamatso lolameLamatsos Bax"bakwala- 900 

nux"siwae^k"asdeya Ldgwalak'as^owa. Hamae hamae hama. 
^ya lax'dEn ^wax'sEmeLamatso lolameLamatsos Bax"bakwala- 

nux"siwae%"asdeya Logwahik'as^owa. Hamae hama he he he 

amae a hame hama hamae hama hame. 

Wa, g'il^Em^laxaawise ^naxwa q!ada nenagadaq, laa^laxaase Q!a- 5 
nase edzaqwa dEnx^Ida yisg'a: 

1. Ha, lahax'dosxa nogwa hamasayalag'ilaha lax hamagawax'des 
Bax"bakwalanux"siwae^k"asdeyaol Logwalak'as^owa. 
Maeye hamamaye hamamaye hamamaye hamamamae hamamahae 
hamae hamamae hamame. 10 



934 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ietu. ann. 35 

12 2. Oh, I try to eat the property left by the real supernatural | Canni- 
bal-at-North-End-of-World. | 
Maeye hamamaye hamamaye hamamajre hamamamae ha- 
15 mamahae ]hamae hamamae hamame! H 

3. Oh, I try to eat the copper left by the real supernatural | Cannibal- 

at-North-End-of-World. | 
Maeye hamamaye hamamaye hamamaye hamamamae hama- 
mahae | hamae hamamae hamame ! | 

20 Now the song-leaders could sing the four songs of || the cannibal- 
dancer, and Chiton (V7) wanted them to sing all | the songs of the 
frog-dancer and of the throwing-dancer; and | Yox"yagwas told her 
to go ahead and sing them. | "Indeed, we shall try to catch all three 
at one time." | Thus he said, and immediately Chiton (V7) sang the 

25 song of the 1| throwing-dancer. This it is: — | 

1. Oh, look around for your magic power! | Look for it! Aha he 

ya aha ! | 

2. Oh, get your magic power! Ya aha he ya aha! | 

30 3. Oh, look for your magic power that made you like tliis! || Look 
for it ! I Aha he ya aha ! 

4. Oh, catch your magic power that throws down every one! Yii 

aha I he ya aha ! | 

112. Ha, lahax'dosxa n5gwa yaqameLa^yag'Ilaha lax yahaeqawex'des 
Bax"bakwalanixx"siwae%"asdeya6l Logwalak'as^owa. 
Maeye hamamaye hamamaye hamamaye hamamamae hamama- 
hae hamae hamamae hamame. 
15 3. Ha, lahax^dosxa n5gwaL!aqwameLa^yagilaha laxLJaqwagawax'des 
Bax"bakwalanux"sIwae"'k'as(leyaol Logwalak'as^owa. 
Maeye hamamaye hamamaye hamamaye hamamamae hamama- 
hae hamae hamamae hamame. 

Wii, la^me ^wi^la la q !aleda nenagadaxa mosgEme q !Emq !EmdEm- 
20 sa hamats!a. Wa, la'lae Qlanase ^nex' qa^s ^wPla^me dEux^ets 
q !Emq lErndsmasa wEq!ese LE^wa mamaq!a. Wa, hex'^idaEm^la- 
wise aEm waxe Yox''yagwasaq, qa wagis asm edzaqwa dEnx^Ida. 
"QiiLaxgins ^na^UEmp !Engila^meLEk- k'imyalxwa yudukwex," 
^nex'^ae. Wa, hex"^idaEm4awise dEnx^ide Q!anasas qlEmdEmasa 
25 mamaq!a. Wa, g'a^meseg-a: 

1. Wa, hag'adaha d6x"sEme helxoxs ^nawahalakwahe yaahii. Wa, 

heg'a dohohoqwalii. Ahii he ya ahil. 

2. Wa, haxoxs ^nawahalax"dzeyaqos ya aha he ya ahii. 

3. Wa, heg'adaha dox"sEme helxoxs ^nawahalagumahaqosa he ya 
30 aha. Wa, heg'a dohohoqwalfi. Ahii he ya aha. 

4. Wa, heg'axs gEmx'gEmk'ag'Ilax ^uawahalax"dzeyahaq6s yii ahii 

he yii ahii. 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 935 

5. Oh, take out your magic power from those who ho there dead ! | 33 
Oh, take it out! Ahii he ya aha! || 

As soon as all the song-leaders could sing it, | she sang the song 35 
of the frog-dancer. This it is: — ] 

1. Put to rest your great magic power, that the | magic power of 

your winter dance may keep quiet, eya | eya eye eye aheya ! || 

2. Gather up your great magic power that they wish to take from 40 

you, I else your great magic power will be scattered every- 
where, I ya eya eya eya eya eya eye aheya! | 

As soon as all the song-leaders could sing these songs. Chiton (V 7) 
stopped singing, and she gave instructions to the || Whale Society 45 
and to the song-leaders to do the same | as they had done when they 
caught the ghost-dancer, when they were going to catch the cannibal- 
dancer, ] the throwing-dancer, and the frog-dancer. Thus she said. 
And after she finished speaking, | they felt their way back, when they 
came out of the woods before daylight. | The whole number of them 
did not go to sleep. When daylight came, || Yox"yagwas and his 50 
friends, the Whale Society, dressed up; | and while they were still 
dressing, the sound of the sacred songs of the | throwing-dancer and of 
the frog-war-dancer were heard at the place where those who had 
disappeared and the cannibal-dancers showed themselves. | It was 

5. Wa, heg-a dahamodalahalxos gflnx-giink-ag-ilahaqos ^nawahala- 33 
kwa hii yaaha. Wa, heg'a dahamodala. Aha he ya aha. 

Wa, g'ipEm^laxaawise ^naxwa q!asosa nenagadaxs. Laa^l edza- 35 
qwa dEnx^Tts q!EmdEmasa wEqlese. Wa, g"a^meseg"a: 

1. Omatala lag'axs ^nawalax"dze)'ahaqos yeha, qu ex'^meltso dma- 

tiaLElaaheLos ^nawahalax"dzeyahaqos ts!ahaets!agalldeeya eya 
eya eye eye aheya. 

2. Wii, c[!ap!eg-lllsaxs ^nawahalax"dzeyahaha dahamaxElag'Ilis lax 40 

aLox gwelElis lax gets!ohowaxElag-tllsaxoxs -'nawahalax"dze- 
yahaqos ya eya eya eya eya eya eye aheya. 

Wa, gil-Enrlawise ^wPla la q!aleda nenagadiixa q!Emq!EmdEmaxs 
laa^l gwai dEuxEle Qlanase. Wii, aEm'lawise la Lcxs-fdaxa gwegu- 
yime LE^wa nenagade qa a^me heEmlxat! gwegwiilag-iilLes gwegvva- 45 
lagilllasaxs lae kimyaxa lElohllale, cjo lal kimyalxa haniatsia LE'wa 
maniaq !a LE^wa wEq !ese, ^nex'^lae. Wii, giFEm-lfiwise q iwel'ulExs g'a- 
xae p!alt!alaxs g'axae hox^wult!axak'!es^Em^nax'^ida. Wa, laEm^lae 
hewaxa mex-eda laxes ^waxaase. Wii, giPEm^hxwise^niix'^IdExsliia- 
'lae YOx"yagwase hex'^ida q !wiilax''id LE^wis ^ne^uEmokwa gwegu- 50 
yime. Wa, hiiEm^awis ales q.'wiilax'axs g'axaa'^lase yalaq !vvaleda rna- 
maq!a LE'^wa wEqIese olala liixa ne^lasasa x'Tx^Esida LE^wa hamatsla. 
Wii, g'il^Em-lawise wuLax^aLEleda niEinokvve bEgwanEm gwegudzaq 



936 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIXJTL Ieth.ann.3o 

heard by one of the men of the Sparrow Society. ] Then he ran and 

55 told HoLeUd. Immediately || Yox"yagwas sent for him to go with 
his friends to call aU | the Sparrow people to come quickly into the 
dancing-house. Then they | only went once to call. When all had 
come in, | they followed the instructions of Chiton (V 7) as to what 
they were to do. | After the singers of the secret songs had sung their 

60 songs, all the || cannibal-dancers became excited and ran out, and | 
the Sparrow people followed them. Now the cannibal-dancers tried 
to catch the cannibal-dancer, | and the thrower-dancers caught the 
thrower-dancer, and the | frog-war-dancers caught the frog-war- 
dancer. Then the song-leaders | and the Whale Society sang the 

65 songs, and the whole number || drove back the many members of the 
Sparrow Society. They drove them | into the dancing-house. Then 
they put the dancers into the sacred room in the left-hand corner of 
the I dancing-house. Then they sang for those whom they had 
caught; and | when all had danced with the songs, they were put 
back into the sacred room | from which they had come one at a time. 

70 After this had been done, || the Sparrow people went out, and then 
the I Whale people slept for a while imtil the evening. When | 
evening came, the Whale people and the song-leaders were called, 
and I they came and sat down in the dancing-house. When it got 
dark, | the Whale people dressed themselves; and after they had || 

laa^l dzElx^wIda, qa^s la'l nelax HoLelide. Wa, hex'^id gliomas ^yala- 

55 qas Yox"yagwase qa las qas^Id LE^wis ^ne-nEm5kwe Le^lalaxa ^naxwa 
gwegugudza, qa g-axes ^wl-la halaeL laxa lobEkwe. Wit, laEm^Iae 
^UEmp !Eng ildzaxstalaxs laa4 qas^ida. WjI, gipEm^lawise ^wFlaeLExs 
laa4 aEm uEgEltEwex Lexs^alayox"das QIanase qa gweg'ilats. Wa, 
gipEmHawise gwal yiyalaquleda 3dyalaq !wenoxwaxs laa^l ^naxwa 

60 xwaxusoweda haamats!a, qa^s la hoquwElsa. Wa, lasm^lae slxLaleda 
^naxwa gwegugudza. Wa, laEm^lae kimylda haamats!axa hamatsla. 
Wa, la^ae kimylda mamamaq !axa mamaq !a. Wa, la^lae kimyalaeda 
waoqiwese eolalaxa wEqIese olala. Wii, la^IaLeda nenagade LEVa 
gweguyime dEnxElas q!Emq!EmdEmas. Wa, &dzek'as^Em^lawisEk" 

65 la k imyaxsdeg-ada q!enEmk- gwegugudza. Wa, la^me k'imyaeLEm 
laxa lobfikwe, qa^s lii laeLEm laxa }Eme=lats!e lax gEmxotewalilasa 
lobEkwe. Wii, laEm^lae q!Emt!etsE^weda kikimyauEme. Wa, g-Jl- 
^Em^lawise ^wl^la q !Emt !etsoxs laa^l aLe^stale^lEm laxes Isme'latsle 
laxes ^naPnEmok!umkaena^ye. Wa, gipEm'^lawise gwalExs laa^l 

70 ^vFla hoquwElseda ^naxwa gwegugudza. Wa, la^me yawas^Id mex^e- 
d6da gweguyime laxeq lala^I laxa laLa ganul^idEl. Wii, giPEm-Ia- 
wise dzaqwaxs laa^l gwex'^ItsE^veda gweguyime LE^va nenagade, qa^s 
g-axda^xwe k!us^alil laxa lobEkwe. Wii, giPEnr'lawise pIsdEx-^I- 
dExs laa^l qlwalax'^ldeda gweguyime. Wa, g-il=Em^Iawise gwal 



BOAsJ FAMILY HISTORIES 937 

dressed, Chiton (V 7) instructed them what to say. | She told them to 75 
say as follows: "Now, shamans, we will pacify Nawis. (She | meant 
the cannibal-dancer). Now we will try to restore to his senses 
Qweitses! (She | meant the thrower-dancer). Now we will soften 
the rough winter dancers of | VFlEnkiilag'flis." || 

This came from the marriage of Copper-Dancer (IV 19) to the daugh- 80 
ter (IV 20) of the chief of the | Lawets'.es of Chief Gwex'sesElasEme 
(III 13) ; and when | all the members of the Sparrow Society had gone 
in, they first sang for the cannibal-dancer | his four songs. Next 
came the frog-dancer, | and finally the thrower-dancer; and after all 
the songs had been sung, || HoLelid (V 6) gave away many copper 85 
bracelets | and many dishes to the members of the Sparrow Society. 
After he had done so, | they went out. For four days they kept in 
their | sacred room. Then they were purified in the morning. Then 
the I wash-basins of the new dancers were given to the people, and 
also the || many mats on which they had washed. When this was 90 
done, it was daylight. | Then HoLelid (V 6) gave away many cedar- 
bark blankets. Now | that was done. It is said that the Kwag'ul 
used this | winter dance of the LlaLlasiqwala only once. | . 

After HoLelid (V 6) had finished hispotlatch, it was || reported that 95 
Gwex'sesElasEme^ (III 13) was dead. Then they | sent forNaplEte- 
me^ (V 5), the younger brother of HoLelid (V 6), to take his scat, | for 

qlwalax'axs laa^lae QIanase Lexs^alaq qa gwek' lalats. Wa, laEm^lae 75 
^nex' qa ^nek-es: "La^mEns y&laLai'.pepExalai'lax Nawisai' ." (Laxa 
hamatslagwE^yos.) "La-mEns nanaqamaLai! lax Qweltsesai' .'' (Laxa 
mamaq!a gwE^yos.) "La^mEns tEmslqwaLai' pepExalai' lax ^wIIeu- 
kulagllisai'." 

Wa, laEm g'ayol laxa gEg'adauEmas Llaqwalale lax glgama^yasa 80 
Lawetslese lax gigama^ye Gwex'sesElasEma^ye. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise 
^wI^laeLeda ^naxwa gwegugiidzaxs laa^l he gil q!Emt!etsE^weda ha- 
mats !ases mosgEme q lEmq !EmdEma. Wil, la^lae mak^ileda WEq !esaq. 
Wa, L¥lae ElxLa^ya mamaq !a. Wa, g il^Em^lawise ^wHa gwal q !Emta- 
soxs laa^l yax^wide HoLelidasa qleuEme LlaLlEqwakMin k- lokiila 85 
LE^wa qlenEme leEpwa^ya laxa gwegugudza. Wa, gil^Em^lawise 
gwalExs laa^l^naxwa hoquwElsa. Wa,he^lat!ala moplEnxwa^se ^nala 
la lEmela. Laa^lase kwasasE^waxa gaala. Wa, laEm^lae yax^wida- 
yoweda kwadzats!axa dzedzElEla^ya loElq!we q!exLa LE^'wa kwadzE- 
dzoweda q!enEm leEpwa^ya. Wa, g-U^Em^awise gwalxa la qliilx'^id 90 
la ^nalaxs laa^l yax^wide IIoi>elidasa qleuEme kMeklobawasa. Wa, 
laEm gwal laxeq. Wa, ^nEmp lEnaEm^lae ts!aq!enenokwa Kwag'ulas 
ts !aq !ena^yasa l !aL lasiqwala. 

Wa, guPEm^lawise gwal yawix'ile HoLelidaxs g'axaasa ts!Ek!al'i- 
das Gwex'sesElasEma^yaxs lE^mae wlk- lEx^Ida. Wa, la^me nEn- 95 
kwasE^we Nap lElEma^ye, ylx tsla^yas HoLelide, qa^s la Lax"stodEq, 



938 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ANN. 35 

97 Gwex'sesElasEine^ (III 13) had no other child besides ^nax'^nagEm 
• (IV20) . I The father of HoLehd (V6) had a younger brother called Wa- 
yatslEWid (IV 22). | Wayats IewuI (IV 22) had a son, Overhanging- 
1000 Mountain (V 8). Not long || after HoLehd (V 6) had given the winter 
dance, he was taken ill, and also his relative | WayatslEwid (IV 22). 
He had not been sick a long time when both died. | Now Gwex'- 
sesElasEme^ — that is, | NaplElEme^ (V 5) — also died, for he had 
immediately taken the name of ] Gwex'sesElasEme* when he arrived. 
5 Now only one was hving, Overhanging-Mountain (V8). || He immedi- 
ately took the seat of HoLelid (V 6), and he took the name | HoLelid 
(V 6) for the winter dance, and his secular name in the | numaym La- 
alax's^Endayo. Ho also had a seat among the Maamtag'ila, | because 
he had a wife from Copper-Dancer from them; and he had a scat in 
the I Kukwak !um from his mother's side, because the mother of Over- 
10 hanging-Mountain was a Kukwak !um woman. 11 That is all that I 
was told. 1 This is the end. Overhanging-Mountain (V 8) had three 
seats. I 

The Maamtag'ila 

1 I shall first talk about Matag'ila, the ] Grey Seagull. It is said 
that he was flying along inside of Gwadze-. | Then he took a rest at 
K" lodagala. Then he desired to have what was j a pretty licach, 



97 qaxsk' !easae Sgii^la xiinox"s G"wex'sesElasEma^ye lax ^nax'^nagEme. 
Wii, la ts!a-yanokwe ompas HoLclidas WayatslEwede. Wit, la 
xungwadEs K' !es6yakilise, yix Wayats lEwede. Wii, k' les^lat !a gala 
1000 gwal yiiwixtle HoLelidaxs laa'l qslx^wida LE^wis ^nEmwote Waya- 
ts Iswede. Wii, k' !es^lae gexgaelExs liia^l wlk' lEx^edax'da^xwa. 
Wa, laEm^laxae ogwaqa wlk' lEx^ede GwexsesElasEma^ye, ytx 
Nap lElEma^ye, qaxs hex'^ida-'maa^l Lex-edEs Gwex'sesElasEma- 
^yaxs laa'l liig'aa. Wii, la^me -]\Emox"'Em la q !iilc K' lesoyakilise. 
5 Wa, la hex"^idaEm La^x"stodEX HoLelide. Wii, la^me LegadEs 
HoLelide liixa ts!ets!eqa. Wii, la LltiqwalalLa liixa baxuse laxes 
^uE^memota Laiilax's^Endayowe. Wii, hixae Lagwexa Maamtag'ila 
qa gEgadaena^yas Lliiqwalale laq. Wa, laxae Lagwexa Ku- 
kwiik!ume qaes iibask"!6te, yixs Kukwi>k!umaxsEmae abEmpas 
10 K-!esoyakElise. Wii, heEm ^waxax'^Idala waldEni gaxEu. Wii, 
laEm laba. Wii, laEm yudux"sale klwayas K" !esoyakilise. 

The Maamtag'ila 

1 HeEmLEn g'il gwagwex's^alase Matag'ila ; yixs yaoxda q !wagwe- 
nax ts!ek!wa. Wii, lii^lae plELE^nakida liix otsIiiLaH'as Gwadza^ye. 
Wii, la^lae x'os-'ld lax K'!odagilla. Wii, hVliie iiwulx^Idqexs ek'ae 
awlnagwisa. Wii, la^lae lawuyodxes ts!ek!wagEmle. Wii, laEm^'lae 



BOAS] FAMIl^Y HISTORIES 939 

and he took off his l)ird mask and ll hecame a man. Then he built a 5 
house, not large. \ And after he had built his house, it occurred to 
him that he | would walk across to Tsaxis. As soon as he came 
through, j he saw smoke at Malmano. Immediately | Matag'ila 
(for some story-tcUers say that his name was Matag'ila, |1 and others 10 
say that it was MatmatEla, I but the numaym of the Maamtag'ila say 
that those are right who call him | Matag'ila) went there. As soon 
as he came | to the house, he saw a man lying on his back outside j of 
the house. As soon as the man saw || Matag'ila coming towards the 15 
house, he sat up on the ground. | And as soon as Matag'ila arrived, 
the man spoke, | and said, "Tell me, friend, where do you I come from?" 
Thus he said. Immediately Matag'ila replied, j and said, "I am 
Matag'ila. I come from my house at || K' lodagala, brother. Now I 20 
shaU also ask yon, lirotlier, j who are you ? '' Thus he said. Immedi- 
ately the man j replied, and said, "I am Maleleqala, and I now my 
name is Odze^stahs, brother." Thus he said. Then ; Odze^stahs 
arose, and he called Matag'ila into his house. || Then they sat downa ^^ 
in the reaj" of the house; and | Matag'ila saw the wife of Odze^stalis 
Llaqwag'ilayugwa, I and a young girl vVomoI, who was seated at the | 
right-hand side in the rear of the house. Then they gave to eat to 

bEgwanEmx'^ida. Wa, laEm^lae g'okwelaxa g'okwe k'les ^walasa. 5 
Wa, g-il-'Emlawise gwale g^okwela-'yas lae ^nenkMex^ed cja^'s 
g'axe tsleqwa g'ag'axa laxg'a Tsaxis. Wa, g'tl^Em^lawise g^axsaxs 
lae dSxHvaLElaxa kwax'tla lax Malmano. Wit, hex-idaEm^la- 
wise Matag'ila, — yixs ^nek"aeda waokwe nenEwe/lenoxcjexs Mata- 
g'ilaxxae, wa, la ^nek-eda waokwaqexs MatmatElaxxae. Wa, lii 10 
^nek"eda ^nE^memotasa Maamtag'ilaqexs he^mae nEqaxa Leqicliis 
Matag'ila laq, — la qas-ida qa^s lit laq. Wa, g'll^Em'lawise lag'aa 
laxa g'5kwe laaEl dox'waLEJaxa l)EgwanEme t!ek"!Es lax Llasana- 
-yases g"okwe. Wa, gtl^Eui'lawiseda bEgwiinEm dox-waLElax Mata- 
g'ila g'ax gwasolEla lax g^okwas, lae k!wag'aElseda bEgwanEme. 15 
Wa, g'tl^Em-lawise lag"ae Matag'ila laqexs lae yaqlEg'a'leda bEgwa- 
nEme. Wa, la'lae -'nek'a: "Weg"a gwas'idEx ^nEmwEyot ^was 
g-ax-^'ide," ^nex'^lae. Wii, hex^-'idaEm^lawise Matag'ila na-'naxmeq, 
wii, la^lae ^nek-a: " NogwaEm Matag'ila, g'ax'^id laxEii g'okidase 
K'!5dagala, ^nEmwEyot. Wa, la'mesEn ogwaqal wuLaLol, ^uEmwEyot. 20 
Wa, so'maa angwas," ^nex'^lae. Wa, hex'-'idaEmlawiseda bEgwa- 
nEin na^naxmerj. Wa, la'lae ^nek'a: " NogwaEm Maleleqala. Wii, 
lEn la LegadEs Odze'stalise, ^nEmwEyot," ^nex'^laexs lae Lax^wElse 
Odze'stalise. Wa, la^lae Le-'leLax Matag'ila laxes g'okwe. Wa, 
la-iae k!us-alll lax ogwiwa-lllasa g'okwe. Wa, heEm-Mawis la dox^wa- 25 
LE^lats Matag'ilax gEUEinas Odze^stalise, yix Llaqwag'ilayugwa 
EE^wis ts!Edaq!Edza^ye xiinokwe Aomol, yixs klfidzelae laxa 
helk' !ote^walilasa g'okwe. Wa, l.Vlae L!ExwilasE^we Matag'ila. 



940 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL (eth. ann. 35 

30 Matug'ila; | and after he had eaten, Matag'ila spoke, || and said, "O 
brother: let me tell yoii why 1 come to your ! house. 1 came to marry 
your princess." | Thus he said. Then Odze^stalis replied, and | 
said, "O brother! [go on, brother!] I take you in." Thus he said. 
Then I Matag'ila married Aom5l, the princess of Odzc^stalis, the 

35 first II chief of the numaymMamaleleciirim of the Mamalelcqala. | Then 
Odze^stalis gave in marriage the name ^maxiiyalidzc to his son-in- 
law I Matag'ila; and now Matag'ila had the name ^maxiiyalidze 
after this. I ^maxuyalidze staid four daj^s with his wife ! Aomol at 

40 Malmano. Then he got ready in the morning and |l walked across, 
going home to his house at K' !odagala. | ^maxfij'alidze and his wife 
Aomol had not been living as luisband and wife for a long time | 
before they had a son. Immediately ^miixuyahdze | said that he 
would walk across until he came to Mahnano, the tillage of his | 
father-in-law Odze^stalis. As soon as ^maxuyalidze entered the || 

45 liousc, he reported tliat ho had a son. | And immediate!}^ Odze^talis 
said to his wife Llaqwag'ilayugwa, | "Let my grandson have the 
name L'acjwag'ila." Thus he said. | Then Odze^stalis .gave this 
name L!aqwag'ila in marriage to his | son-in-law ^ma.xuyalidze as a 

50 name for his child. Then ^maxuyalidze went home !| to his house in 



Wii, g'il^Em^Iawise gwal LlExwa laa^lase yaqlEg'a^le Matag'ila. Wa, 

30 la'lae ^nek'a: "-ya, ^nEmwEyot, weg'ax'in neiasg'in g'a^xenek' laxos 
g'okiilasex. Wa, he-mEn g'a^xenexg'in gagakMek" laxs k'!ede- 
laqos," ^nex'^lae. Wa, la-lae Odze'stalise na^naxmeq. Wii, la^ae 
^nek'a: " Weg'a ^uEmwEyot, la'mEU daeLOL" ^nex'^lae. Wa, la^me 
Matag'ila gEg^adES Aomole, yix k'!edelas Odze^stalis, ytx g'llg'alise 

35 g'lgame^sa ^nE-memotasa Mamaleleq!amasa Mamaleleqala. Wa, 
la-me Odze-stalise LegEmg'llxLalax ^maxuyalidze laxes nEgumpe 
Matag'ila. Wii, laEm Legade Miitag'ilas ^mixxuyalidze laxeq. 
Wii, m6p!Enxwa^s lae ^nalas helii ^miixi'iyalidze leHvIs gEUEme 
Aomole lax Mfdmano. Wii, lax'da^x"^lae xwiinal^idaxa gaala qa^s 

40 lii tsieqwa. La^lae na^nakwa liixes g'okwe lax K'iodagala. Wa, 
kMes^hatla giila ha^yasEk^ale ^miixuyalidze LE^wis gEnEmc Aomolaxs 
lae xungwadEx'itsa biibagume. Wii, liex'^idaEm^lawise ^miixuya- 
lidze g'ax ts!eqwa qa-s g'axe liix Miilmano liix g'okulasases nE- 
gumpe Odze^stiilise. Wii, g^IPEm^liiwise laeLe ^maxuyalidze laxa 

45 g'okwe lae hex'^idaEm tslEk'ifd'idExs lE^mae xQngwadEsa babagume. 
Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise Odze^stalise ^nek'a laxes gEUEme L!aqwag'i- 
hiyugwa: " Weg'illax'I LegadLEu ts!6.x"LEmiis L!iiqwag"ila," ^nex'-lae. 
Wii, laEm^liiwise Odze^stiilise LegEmg-ilxLiilaxox Liaqwag'ilax liixes 
nEgiimpe ^maxtiyalidze qa LegEms xiinokwas. Wii, laEm^lae nii^na- 

50 kwe ^maxuyalidze liixes g'okwe lax K'iodagala. Wa, laEm^lae 



■ BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES • 941 

K' lodagala. Then lie | named his child i-Iaqwag'ila; and i, laqwag'ila 51 
grew up quickly. | As soon as he was strong enough, he • asked liis 
father ^maxuyaUdze to make a ])ow for him and | four arrows. 
Immediatel}' ^maxiiyalidze ll made a bow of yew wood as a bow for 55 
his son Llaqwag'ila. | Wlien the bow and the four arrows were 
finished, ! ^maxiiyalidze gave them to his son Llaqwag'ila. Then | 
Llaqwag'ila took the bow and the four arrows and | put them down 
at the head part of his bed, in the evening. Then || he lay dowii and 60 
slept. Now ^maxu3'alidze never \ questioned his son why he lay 
do\\^l early | in his bed. ^maxQyalidze arose earlj- in the morning, | 
and went straight to the bed of his son l !aqwag'ila | to look at him. 
Now he was not lying down with his bow, 11 and ^maxtiyahdze did 65 
not know which way his son L!a(;wag'ila had gone. { Then h-e told 
his wife Aomol, and | Aoniol forbade her husband to talk about it. 
Thus she said to him. | Wlien evening came, ^maxiiyalidze felt 
uneasy on account of his | son. In the night, when it was dark, || 
^maxiiyalidze sat down in vain outside of his house, ] waiting in 70 
vain for his son to come home. He never came. ] Then he just went 
into his house. \ 

Now I shall stop talking about ^maxuyalidze and his wife | Aomol 

Lex^edEs Llaqwag'ila laxes xunokwe. Wa, IMae halag'ost^ q!wa- 51 
^xena^yas Llilciwag'ila. Wii, g'iPEm'lawise hel^ak' lox^wTdExs lae 
axk'lalaxes ompe ^maxuyalidze qa lEkwilesex lEk'lwisa qae lo^ 
motslaqa haanaLlEma. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise ^maxuyalidze 
lEkwilaxa Llsmqle qa lEklwitses xiinokwe Llaqwag'ila. Wfi; 55 
g'il^Em^lawise gwala lEklwise LE=wa motslaqe haanaLlEma laa-lase 
tsl^we ^maxuyalidzas laxes xunokwe Llaqwag'ila. Wa, la^lae 
Llaqwag'ila dax'-'icbca lEklwise LE^wa motslaqe haanaLlEma qa^s la 
ax^alilas lax ogwaxtalllases kwa^lesasaxa lasm dzaqwa. Wii, la^Iae 
kulg'a^lila qa^s mex^ede. Wii, laEm^lae ^maxijyalidze hewaxa 60 
wuLaxes xunokwe lax lag'ilas xEULEla gax'stael la kulx'^lda 
laxes ku^lelase. Wa, laEm-'lawise gjlg'ustawe ^maxiiyahdzaxa gaala. 
Wa, la^lae he^nakula^Em lax kii^lelasases xunokwe Llaqwag'ila 
qa^s dox-wldeq. Wa, la^lae k'leas kii^lila LE^wis lEklwise. Wa, 
la^me ^maxiiyalidze k'les qlaLElax gwagwaag'asases xunokwe 65 
L laqwag'ila. Wa, la^lae nelaxes gEnsme Aomole. Wa, aEm^lawise 
Aomole bElaxes la^wunEme qa k'leses gwagwex's^ala laq, ^nex'^Iaeq. 
Wa, laEm^lawise dzaqwaxs laa^las nauox^wide ^maxuyalidzases 
xiinokwe. Wa, laEm^lawise plEdEx'^Idaxa ganoLe. Wa, wul^Em- 
^lawise ^maxuyalidze la kiwas lax Llasana^yases g'okwe wul-'Em 70 
esEla qa g'axeses xunokwe na^nakwa. We, hewaxaEm^lawise g'axa. 
Wa, aEm^lawise la laeL laxes g'okwe. 

Wa, la^mesEn gwal gwagwex's^ala lax ^maxuyalidze LE^wis gEUEme 
Aomole qEn wag'i gwagwex's'ala lax Llaqwag'ila, ytx nax^flstae 



942 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

75 and I shall talk about L!aqwag'ila who M'alked straight || up the 
river K' lodagala when day was not near yet in the ] morning. He 
went up the small river, and his body became warm | when it was 
day. Then he sat down on the side of the bank | of the small river. 
Then he took off his blanket, and | he sat down in the water. And 

80 he sprinlded his body with water. || Four times he sprinkled himself 
with water on each side of the neck. | Then he heard in the distance 
(the cry), "Wip, wip, wip!" Thus said what was heard by him. | 
Then Llaqwag'ila guessed what it was — j a bird or a quadruped — 
that was heard by him crying. Llaqwag'ila just j sat in the water. 

S5 Then it was as though he was dreaming 1| of the cry, " Wip, wip, 
wip!" that he had heard at the upper end of the little river. | Then 
he was like waking up from his sleep: and he walked out of | the 
water and sat down where he had left his bear blanket. | Then he 
was a little afraid of what he had heard. He had not been | sitting 

90 for a long time, before he made up his mind to go || home. Then he 
arose, and suddenly he heard something saying, | not aloud, 
"Llaqwag'ila go up the river. You wiU | obtain a supernatural 
treasure. It would be well for you to bathe again in this river | that 
aU the human smell may come ofl' your body." Thus said what 

95 was heard bj^ | him. Immediately he took off his bear-skin || blanket 

75 qayamalax was K'lodagalaxa kMes'Em ex'ala c[a^s ^nax'^idexa 
gaala. Wa, k' !es-Em^lawise ^nElg'ila laxa ^wabida^we lae tslE^lx- 
^wlde oklwina-yasexa la^me ^nala. Wa, la^lae klwag^aElsa lax ogwii- 
ga^yasa ^wabida^we. Wa, la^lae xEnx'^idxes ^uEx^iina'ye qa^s la 
klwa^sta laxa ^wape qa-'s xosIt!edesa ^wape laxes ok!wina^ye. Wa, 

80 hcEni'lawis ales moplEna xos^itsa ^wape laxes ^wax'sanolxawa-ye 
laa^lase wuLElaxa qwesaxsdala wip wip wip, ^nex'^lae wuLElas. 
Wa, laEnvhiwise Llaqwag'ila sEu^yastotsa lax gwex'sdEmase l6^ 
tsleklwe lo^ g'ilg'aemasa wuLElas hek'!ala. Wii, laEm aEm la 
kIwastElse Llaqwag'ila laxa ^wape. LaEm'lae he gwex's aEm mexE- 

85 lases wuLa^laena'yaxa wip wip wipxEla lax ^uEldzasa ^wabida^we. 
W^a, la^lae he gwex's ts!ak'!EgE^nakulasox mexax. Wa, la^lae hVsta 
laxa ^wiipe qa^s la k!wag'aEls lax x'ilq lEdzasases ^nEX'una^ya LlsVya. 
Wa, laEm-'lae k-ali^liila naqa^yases la wuLEla. Wii, he-"lat!a la ge-'s 
klwasa. Wii, laEm^lae iile-sta naqa^yas qa-'s g-axlag'i aEm nii^nak" 

90 laxes g^okwe. Wa, laEm'hlwise Lax^ulsa lila^lase wilLiix-'aLEiaxa 
k'lesa hasEla -'nek'a, " HayostaEma Llaqwag'ila liixwa ^wax laxg'as 
Logwelg'os. Wa, hetlas eg'ase xwelaciaEm lii^stEx'^Id liixwa ^wax 
qa ^wilawesa bEX"p!alax Laxs 6k!wina^yaq6s," ^nex'^lae wuLElas 
Llaqwag'ila. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lilwise xwelacja x'ElxElsaxes lIeu- 

95 tsEme ^nEx^una^ya qa-'s la k!wa=sta hlxa -'wa. Wa, hiEm^lawise 



BOAS] FAMrLY HISTOEIES 943 

and sat down in the river. Then he \ syiv'mldcd himself with water 90 
on each side of the neck; and | when he had sprinkled himself four 
times, he heard again the voice: "Wip, wip, wip!" | it said. Then 
he desired to go to try to see it. | Pie came out of the water, and put 
on his hear-skin || blanket. Then he walked up the river. And he 100 
did I not go there before he became warm. He sat down | and put 
do\\ai his bear-skin blanket. Then he arose and went | to sit down 
in the water, and he sprinided both sides of his neck with water. | 
As soon as he had sprinided himself four times, he heard again the 
voice, II "Wip, wip, wip!" at a place near where he was. Now it 5 
was evening. Then I he really rubbed his body with his hands, and 
threw water upon himself. | As soon as he bad finished, he came out 
of the water, and | sat down on the ground where he had left his 
bear-skin blanket. He had not | been sitting there long before he 
started, and he had not been going there long along the river || when 10 
he took off again his bear-skin blanket, and put it do'wai. | Then he 
sat in the water, and threw water on both sides of his neck. | As soon 
as he had sprinkled himself four times, the sound, " Wip, wip, wip ! " 
was j heard by him, while he turned his back to the upper end of the 
river. Then Llaqwag'ila | turned around to look for (the sound). 
What should he see! There was a great house with painted || front 15 
with a copper on each side of the door. | Then a hamshamtslEs ran 

xosasa ^wape laxes ^wax-san5lxawa^ye. Wa, g'tl^Em^laxaawise 96 
moplEna xos^idExs laa^lase edzaqwa wuLElas wip wip wip, 
^nex'^El. Wa, laem^lae awulx^IdEq qa^s lalag"i dadox^waLElaaq. 
Wii, la^lae la^sta laxa ^wape qa^s ^nEx^undeses LlEntssme 
^nEx^una^ya. Wa, la^lae qas^wusta laxa ^wa. Wa, la^lae 100 
kMes qwesg'ilaxs lae ts!Elx^wida. Wa, la^lae klwag'aElsa 
qa^s x'ElxElsexes LlEntsEme ^nExiina^ya. Wii, la^lae Lax^iils cja^s la 
klwa^sta laxa -wa. Wa, la xos-etsa ^wape laxes ^wax"san6lxawa^ye. 
Wa, g'ipEm^lawise moplEna xos^edExs laa edzaqwa wiiLEtnaxwiis 
wip wip wip laxa '"nExwala lax axasasxa laEui dzixqwa. Wa, laEm- 5 
^lae alax^^id gusases e^eyasowe laxes ok!wina^ye laxes xosaena^yasa 
^wape. Wa, gilEm^lawise gwala lae la^sta laxa ^wape qa^s la klwa- 
g'aEJs lax xikjlEclzasases LlsntsEme ^nEx^una^ya. Wa, k'!es^lat!a 
ge^s k!wasa lae qas^ida. Wii, kMesHat!a qwesg'ila qayamiilaxa ^waxs 
lae et!ed xEnx'^Idxes LiEntsEme ^uEX-'una^ya qa^s x'ElxElseq. Wii, 10 
la^lae k!wa^sta laxa 'wape qa-'s xo-'sidexes ^wiix^sanolxawa^ye. Wii, 
g'll^Em^liiwise mop lEna xos'IdExs laaEl edzaqwa wip wip wipxe wii- 
LElas lilx gwek'iilaasas lax -'uEldziisa ^wa. Wii, la^lae ^mEls^ide L!a- 
qwag'ila qa^s dox^wideq. ^nnlsLeliiwis, ^wiilasa g'ok" kMatEmales tsii- 
qEma^yaxa L!aqwa ^niil'nEmsgEm liix^wiix"s6tsta-yasa tiExila. Wii, 15 
heEm^hlwis ^yiilag'ildzatsa hamshiimtsiEse l !iisana'yas. Wii, la^lae 



944 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

17 about outside of the house. | Then the hamshamtslEs went hack 
behind the house, starting from the \ right side of the house. As 
soon as he had gone back, L!aqwag"ila | went out of the water, and 

20 sat down where he had left his || bear-skin blanket. And it was not 
long since he had sat down, when four | men came wearing red 
cedar-bark around their necks, and red cedar-bark around their 
heads; | and all carried round poles as ! sparrow-canes. They came 
to the place where Llaqwag'ila was seated: and j one of them spoke, 

25 and said, "We are sent by II our friend TsiEk' lExsde to come and 
caU you to j watch us taming Hamsbe^." Thus they said. Immedi- 
ately I L!aqwag'ila arose, put on his bear-skin blanket, | and foUowed 
the four Sparrows. They went into the house, | and Llaqwag'ila sat 

30 down at the left hand side inside of the II door of the house. And as 
soon as he had sat down, a man, | who was standing in the rear of the 
house, spoke, and | said, "Now, take care, shamans! when we tame 
our ! friend Hamsbe^, for our friend Llaqwag'ila has | come, and he 
sits down by our side in order to see the gift that he is going to get." 

35 Thus he said, jl Then the liarashamts !es came in, and cried, "Wip, 
wip, wip I" I And then immediately the song-leaders beat fast time, 
and I they sang a song of the hamshSmts !es with fast beating. And 
when it was ' at an end, they sang a song with slow time beating. 

17 aLe^steda hamshamts!Ese lax aLana^yasa g"5kwe, g'ayag'E lax hel- 
k'lodEnwa^yasa g'okwe. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise la^yag'Exs lae Llaqwa- 
g'ila la^sta laxa ^wape qa^s la klwag'aEls lax x'llq lEdzasases Llsn- 

20 tsEme ^uEx^iina^ya. Wa, k'!es%t!a ge^s kiwasa g'axaasa mokwe 
bebEgwanEm qEqEnxalaxa L!agEkwe. Wa, laxae qeqEx'Emalaxa 
LlagEk". Wa, la ^naxwaEm sesek'Iak'Elaxa leElx'Ene dzomeg'alaxa 
gwesp!eqe. G'axda^x" lax k!wadzasas Llaqwag'ila. Wii, la^lae 
yaq lEg'a^leda ^nEmokwe laq. Wii, la^lae ^nek'a: " ^yalag'Emnu^x" 

25 yisEns ^uEmokwe TslEk'lExsde qEnu^x" g'axe Le^lalol qa^s layos 
x'ltslax'ilaxa yalaLax Hamsba-ye," ^nex'^lae. Wii, hex'^idaEm^la- 
wise Llaqwagila Lax'ulsa qa-s ^nEx^undeses LlEntsEme ^uEx^una^ya 
qa^s la lag'ixa mokwe gwe^gudza. Wa, la^lae hogwiL laxa g'okwe. 
Wa, he^latla k!wag'alile Llaqwag'ila laxa gEmxotstalllas awlLElasa 

30 tiEx'ilasa g'okwe. Wa, g'lpEm^lawise klwag'alila laa^lase yaqlEg'a- 
^leda La-wlle bEgwanEm laxa ogwiwa^lllasa g'okwe. Wa, la^lae 
'nek'a: "Wagil la ^yaLlaLEx pepaxal laxEns yalaeneLaxEns 
^nEmSkwae Hamsba^ya qaEns ^nEmdkwex Llaqwag'ilax, yixs 
g'axaex kiwanalil g'axEns qa^s doqwalexos LogwiLex, ^nex'^laexs 

35 g'axaase g'axeLeda hamshamtslEse wip wip wipxElaxs g'axae g'axe- 
La. Wa, hex'^ida^Em^lawise ^nEmax'^Id LexdzSdeda nenagade qa^s 
dEnx^edesa tsaxala qlEmdEmsa liamshamtslEse. Wit, g'il^Em^lawise 
qlulba lae dEnx^etsa nEqaxElas tiEmyas qlEmdEma. Wii, la^lae 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 945 

There were [ three songs with slow time beating, besides the one with 
fast time beating. !| There were four songs in all for the hamshamts !es 40 
Hamsbe^. | (I forgot that as soon as the hamshamts !es came in, he | 
bit four Sparrows.) As soon as he had finished dancing, j he went 
into his sacred room. The one who told me the story did not know | 
what was painted on the sacred room. As soon as he had finished, || 
an old man arose. He spoke, and | said, "We have tamed him, 45 
shamans. Now I shall turn | to our great friend Llaqwag'ila. Now 
you I have seen the treasure that you obtained, friend L!aqwag'ila, 
the great dance hamshamts !es, | Hamsbe^. Now you will have the 
name Hamsbe^, || and also this great winter-dance house which has 50 
the name | ^UEmsgEmsElaLElas." Eagles were sitting on top of 
grizzly-bear posts en \ each side of the rear of the house; and men 
who had red cedar-bark on their heads j stood on the heads of the 
grizzly-bear posts on each side of the | door of the house. Those 
men had red cedar-bai-k rings who stood on || the grizzly bears on 55 
each side of the door, lor the}' were speaking-posts, | and the name 
of the post on the right-hand side was Wawaxemil, and the name of 
the post on the left-hand side was I G'ag'eqcmil. "Now your name 
will be ! AwaxElag'ilis in summer; and it will be your chief's name; 
and I your name will be DzElk" lExsde as a member of the Sparrow 
Society, when your father gives a winter dance." Thus |1 said the 60 



yudux"sEma nEqaxEla q!Emq!EmdEms ogMa laxa ts!axala. 
H amosgEmgo^lae qlEm-'j !EmdEmas Hamsba^yexa hamshamts !Ese. 40 
(Wa, hexoLEn LlElewesoxs g"iPmae g'axcLeda hamshamtslEse lae 
qlEX'^Idxa mokwe gwegudza.) Wa, gll^Em^lawise gwai yExwaxs 
lae latslalll laxes mawile. Wa, laEm kMes q!eq!aL!aleda nosa qaEn- 
Lax k"!adEdz^^yaxa mawile. Wa, g'll^Em^Iawise gwala laa^Iase 
Lax^idlleda qlulyakwe bEgwauEma. Wa, la^lae yaq!Eg"a^la. Wa, 45 
la^lae ^nek'a: La^mEns yalamasaq, pepaxal. Wa, la^mesEn gwe- 
gEmx'^idEl laxEns ^nEm6x"dzex lax ox Llaqwag'ilax; laEms dox- 
^waLElaxes L5gwayos, qast Llaqwagiliixa ^walase lildaxa hamsham- 
tslEse yix Hamsba^ye. Wii, laEms LegadElts Hamsba^ye. Wa, 
yu^mesa ^wiilasex ts!agats!e g"6kwaxwa LegadEx g'okwa yis ^nEms- 50 
gEmsElaLElas," xwa kwekwekwaxs k!udzEta^yaaxwa nenanex Le- 
Eamsa ^wax'sotiwalllasa g'okwex. Wa, lax L!eL!agEkumalox bebE- 
gwanEmSx LeLaxutS,^yaxwa nenanex LeLamasa ^wax"sotstalllasa 
t'.Exilasa g'okwex; yExoxda L!eL!agEkiimalax bebEgwanEm LeLaxu- 
tawexwa nenanex laxwa ^wax'sotstalilaxsa t!EX'ilax yixs yeya- 55 
q!Ent!Eqaex l^x LegadEs Wawaxemila helk"!otstS,lile Lama; wa lix 
LegadEs G'ag'eqemilxwa gEmxotstalilex Lama. "Wa, la^mets Lega- 
dElts AwaxElag'ilis laxa baxuse, laEms g'lgExLiilaLEq. Wa, laLe 
LegadEs DzElk'lExsde laxa gwegudza, ylx ^a qo ts!ets'ex^.edLo,' 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 2 11 



946 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth.ann.S6 

61 speaker of the house. Then Llaqwag'ila | looked at everything in 
the house; and after he had seen everything, | the house disap- 
peared. I 
t Then Llaqwag'ila was alone sitting on the ground. ] Now it was 

65 morning, and Llaqwag'ila only wished to || remain sitting on the 
ground for four days. And, when ! he had fuiished what he was plan- 
ning during thesefourdays, while he was sitting there, he arose, | took 
off his bear-skin blanket, put it down, and | went into the water. Then 
he sprinkled water on each side of his neck, | as he had done before- 

70 And after he had done so, he came out of the water, || and went to 
where he had put down his bear-skin blanket; | and he put it on. 
Then he lay down, and immediately he | went to sleep. At once he 
dreamed of the old man, | the speaker of the large winter-dance house. 
Then I Llaqwag'ila dreamed that he was sitting down by his side, 

75 and || the old man spoke, and said, "You have done well, friend, | 
that 5'ou did not go home at once, | for they only wished to try you. 
Therefore your supernatural treasure disappeared, the great | 
winter-dance house, for you will see it again this evening; | for four 

SO nights we shall tame Hamsbe^, your ll supernatural treasure friend! 
And when he is tamed, we shall go and take the \ house to 
the village of 3"our father." Thus he said and disappeared. Now | 

60 'nex'^laeda yayaqlEntEmelasa g'okwe. Wa, laEm^lawise Llaqwag'ila 
doqwalaxa ^naxwa gwalaatsa g'okwe. Wa, g'll^Em^lawise gwal 
doqwaqexs lae x'lsElseda g'okwe. 

Wii, laEm^lae Llaqwag'ila aEm la ^nEmoklus'Em la kiwasa. Wa, 
laEm ^nax'^idaxa gaala. Wa, a^mese Llaqwag'ila ^nex' qa^s hex'- 

65 sa^me klwase lalaa lax mop lEnxwa^se ^nala. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise 
gwale klwexa^yas lax moplEnxwa^se helas klwadzase laa^lase Lax^ulsa 
qa^s xEnx'^idexes LlEutsEme ^uEx^flna^ya qa^s x'llxElseq. Wa, la^lae 
la^sta laxa ^wape. Wa, laEm^lae xosasa ^wape laxes ^wax'sanolxa- 
wa^ye laxes g'ilx'de gweg'ilasa. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise gwala Jae la^sta 

70 laxa ^wape qa^s la lax x'ElqlEdzasases LJEntsEme ^nEx^una^ya. Wa, 
la^lae ^nEx^undEs. Wa, la^lae kOlg'aElsa. Wa, la^lae hex'^idaEm 
mex'eda. Wii, la^lae hex'^daEm mexElasa qlulyakwe bEgwauEmxa 
yayaq lEntEmelasa ^walase g'ok", yixa tslagatsle. Wii, laEm^Iae Lla- 
qwag'ila mexElas g'ax klwanuLEmElsaq. Wii, lii^lae yaqleg'a4eda 

75 qlulyakwe bEgwiiuEma. Wii, la^lae ^nek'a: "LaEms helaxa, qast, 

laxes gwex'^idaasos, yixs k'lesaaqos aEm hex'^idaEm la nii^nakwa 

qaxs i^maaqos waLesaso^ lax lag'ilas x'is^ides Logwa^yaosxa ^walasa 

tsliigatsle g'okwa, qaxs dox^waLEla^meLaqosasaqexwa dzaqwaLex 

' yixg'lns mop lEnxwasilg'axa gaganoLe yalaLEx Hamsba^yaxes lo- 

80 gwa^yos, qast. Wa, g'll^Emiwise yal^idEl la^mesEnu^x" lal taotsa 
g'okwe lax g'okiilasas &sa," ^nex'^laexs lae x'is-Ida. Wa, laEm^lae 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 947 

Llaqwag'ila awoke and he went again ] into the water for he wished 83 
to get what tiie old n^au had talked about. \ And for a long time lie 
remained sitting in the water; and || after he had sprinkled himself 85 
with water, he sat down again on the | ground where he had left his 
bear-skin blanket. And as soon as evening ] came, he arose again 
and sat down in the water, and sprinkled his body. | And as soon as 
he had done so, he went to where he had left his bear-skin | blanket, 
and sat down on the ground. Ai\d he had just put on his || bear- 90 
skin blanket when he saw the great \ winter-dance house standing 
on the ground. Then he saw all the old | men and the other men 
walking about in it. Then | the speaker of the house, the old man of 
whom he had dreamed, spoke, I and said, "Now, take care, sha- 
mans! |1 let us tame our irieud Hamsbe^." Thus he said, and 95 
turned | to Llaqwag'ila, and he said, "You have done well, friend | 
Llaqwag'ila, that you did not just go home to your house when | 
the great winter-dance house disappeared, when we first came to 
tame our | great friend Hamsbe^. Now wait until the end of four || 
nights. When these are fuiished, your supernatural treasure will go 20O 
to the village of | your father." Thus he said.- As soon as he 
finished his speech, there was the sound of "Wip, wip, | wip!" 
inside of the sacred room. Immediately the song-leaders | began to 
sing the song with fast time beating; and as soon as the fast time 

ts!EX'^lde L!aqwag'ila. Wa, hex"^idaEm^lawise la et!ede L!aqwag'ila 82 
la^sta laxa ^wape qaxs lE^mae awiilx^IdEx waldEmasa q!ulyakwe 
bEgwauEmq. Wa, laEm^lae galaxs lae klwa^stEls laxa ^wape. Wa, 
g'il^Em^lawise gwal xositasa ^wapaxs lae xwelaqa la k!wag"aEls lax 85 
x"Elq '.Edzasases L lEntsEme ^iiEx^una^ya. Wa, giPEm^lawise dzaxsto- 
^nakulaxs lae et!ed Lax^uls qa^s la klwa^sta laxa ^wape qa^s xosetle- 
des. Wii, g'll'Em^lawise gwalsxs lae lax x'Elq!Edzasases L!EntsEme 
^nEx^una^ya qa^s k Iwag'aEJse. Wti, hcEm^lawis ales gwal ^uEx^untses 
LlEntsEme ^nEx^iina^ya laa^lase dox^waLElaxs k!waelae laxa ^walase 90 
tslagats'.e g'okwa. Wa, laEm^lae ^naxwaEm docitilaxa q.'idyakwe bE- 
gwanEm LE^wa al^ogu^la bebEgwauEm g'iyimg'illlEla 1aq. Wa, la^lae 
, yaqlEg'a^leda yayaqlEntemele qlulyak" bEgwanEma, yix mexax"das 
Llaqwag'ila. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "Wa, weg-il la yaLlaLEx pepExal 
cjEns weg'i yaialxEn ^uEmokwae Hamsba^ya," ^nex'^laexs lae gwe- 95 
gEmx'^id lax Llaqwag'ila. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "LaEms helaxa, qast 
Llaqwag'il, yixs kMesaaqos aEm la na^nakwa laxes g'okwaos, ylxs 
laex x'isElseda ^walasex ts!agats!e g^SkwaxEns gilx'dEme yalaxEns 
^nEm6x"dze, yox Hamsba^yex. Wa, laEms lalabaalxwa moxsax 
gagEnoLa. Wa, gwal la^mesox laLa Logwa^yaqos lax g'okulasas 200 
asa," ^nex'^lae. Wa, g'U^Em^lawise cjlulbe waldEmas laasa wip wip 
wipxa lax otslalilasa iEme^lats!e. Wa, hex'^idam^lawiseda nenagade 
dEnx^edasa tsaxala qlEmdEins. Wii, gil^Em^lawise q!ulbeda tsaxala 



948 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

beating was ended, | the}' sang three songs with slow time beating. 
5 And II when they had finished singing the four songs of Hamsbe^, | he 
went into the sacred room. Then the house never disappeared. | 
And now Llaqwag'ila was invited in to go and see the inside \ of the 
sacred room. Then he was asked to he down | inside of the sacred 

10 room that night. For four || nights they tamed the hamshamtslEs. 
Then | Hamsbe^ was reaUy tamed after this. Then the old man, 
the I speaker of the house, said to his tribe the Spiiits (for | the 
hamshamts!Es was Bax"bakwalanuk", as he was called | by the 
Kwag'ul; and he is called by the Rivers Inlet people Bax"bakwa- 

15 laniix"slwe^) II that Llaqwag'ila would go home when day came, | 
with his supernatural treasure, the house named ^nEmsgEmsElai.Elas, 
and the | great dance hamshamts !es. "Now you will go home, 
Llaqwag'ila, | when it is nearly dayhght, for j'our house is not far 
away." | Thus he said. Immediately Llaqwag'ila arose from the 

20 place where he was sitting, 1! and went out of the door of the large 
house, and he walked down the | river. And he had not been walk- 
ing long when he came j to the house of his father. Wlien he tried 
to go into the house of his | father, he saw a large house coming to 
the ground j by the side of the house of his father ^maxuyalidze. 

25 Llaqwag'ila |1 immediately went in to his supernatural treasure, the 



laa^lase dEnx^etsa nEqaxEla qlEmdEmaxa yudux"sEme. Wa, 
5 g'll'mese gwal dEnxElasa mosgEme qlEmqiEmdEms Hamsba^ye lae 
, lats!alil laxes lEme^latsIe. Wa, laEm^lae hewaxa x'ls^Ideda g'okwe 
qaxs lE^mae Llaqwag'ila Le'lalaso^ qa^s la Lleklwaqa dSqwax 6ts!a- 
lilasa lEme^lats!e. Wa, laEm^lae axk'lalaso^ qa^s he^me kulg'alila 
ots!awasa lEme-'lats!axa ganoLe. Wa, laEm^lawise moplEnxwa^sa 

10 ganoLas yalaxa hamshamts !Ese. Wa, laEm ^lakMala la yaPida, yix 
Hamsba^ye laxeq. Wa, laEm^lawiseda qlulyakwe bEgwauEmxa 
yayaq lEntEmelasa g'okwe nelaxes g'okiilota haayalilagase (yixs 
he^mae Bax"bakwalanuk", yixa hamshamts IesS, yexs he^mae LeqE- 
layosa g'alasa Kwag'ulaq, yix gwE^yasa Awik" lenoxwe Bax"bakwa- 

15 lanux"slwe^), yixs lE^mae lal na^nax"Le Llaqwag'ilaxa laLa ^na^na- 
kulal LE-wis Logwa^ya g'5kwe LegadEs ^uEmsgEmsElaLElase LE^wa ' 
^walase ladaxa hamshamts lEse. "Wa, hagil la na^nax"L6l, Llaqwa- 
g'ilaxwa lax Elaq ^nax^ida qaxs kMesaex qwesalos g'okwaqos," 
^nex'^lae. Wa, hex'^ida^Em^lawise Llaqwag'ila LaxHIlil laxes k!wae- 

20 ^lase qa^s la lawEls lax tiEX'ilasa ^wfdase g'okwa. Wa, la^lae qasato- 
SEla laxa ^wa. Wa, ^wila^x''dze^lae geg'ils qasaxs g^axae g'ax^aLEla 
lax g'okwases ompe. Wa, laEm^lawise wax" lalaeLla lax g'5kwases 
ompaxs lae d5x^waLElaxa ^walase g'okwaxs g-ax^mae g'ox^uls lax 
apsalasas g'okwas ompase ^maxuyalidze. Wa, aEm^lawise Llaqwa- 

25 g'ila hex-^idaEm la qas^ida qa^s la laeL laxes Logwa^ya ^walase 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 949 



b 



great | house, and sat down in the rear. Then | Llaqwag'ila just sat 26 
down, and he heard his father ^maxuyahdze | speaking outside of the 
great house, for he was surprised, | for the large house had come and 
was sitting on the ground. || 

Now (^raaxuyalidze) had forgotten about his prince L!aqwag"ila, 30 
that he had felt uneasy about him. | Then l laqwag'ila arose and went 
to the door of the house; | and he caUed his father, and told him 
that the great winter-dance | house was his supernatural treasure 
and also the great dance hamsharats !es, which has the name 
Hamsbe^, \ and also the name for ^maxiiyalidze during the winter 
dance, || Ts!El!<;"!Exsde. "Now you will have it for your Span-ow 35 
name." Thus he said to his father. | "And your chief name will be 
AwaxElag'ilis." Thus he said. "And j the name of the house is 
^nEmsgEmsElai.Elas. Now you know why | I walked away." Thus 
said Llaqwag'ila to his father ^maxiiyalidze. | L'.aqwagiia did not 
show at once his hamshamtslEs || and his name Hamsbe^, but he 40 
gave at once the name AwaxElag'ilis | to his father, ^maxuyalidzc. 
From this came the great | house of the numaymMaamtag'ila that 
has the name ^nEmsgF.msElaLElas. i 

Then ^maxuyalidze had another son, and he named him | Lo^yalat. 
Therefore the numaym Lo^yalala^wa || are next to the numaym 45 
Maamtag'ila, who are descended from the elder brother. Then 
^maxuyalidze had a | daughter, and he named her Agwila3'ugwa. | 



g'okwa qa^s la kiwag'alll laxa ogwiwalile. Wa, hesm^lawis ales 26 
klwag'allle Llaqwag'ilaxs lae wuLElaxes ompe ^maxuyalidzaxs 
yaqlEntlalae lax LlasamVyasa ^walase g^okwa, ylxs cjlayaxaas 
gaxdEmas g'dx^iilsa ^walase g^okwa. 

Wa, la^me LlEle^wexes LEWElgama^ye L!iiqwag'ilaxs nanokwaas. 30 
Wa, la^lae Llaqwag'ila Lax^iilil qa^s la lax tiExulases g'okwe. Wa, 
laEm^lae Le^liLaxes ompe qa^s neleses Logwa^yaxa ^walase ts!agats!e 
g'okwa LE^wa -'walase lada hamshamtslEsexa Legadas Hamsbe^. 
Wa, he^misa LegEme qa LegEms ^maxiiyalidze laxa ts!ets!eqa, ylx 
Ts!Elk-!Exsde. " Wa, laEm las gwedzExLalaq," ^nex'^laexes ompe. 35 
" Wa, lal las g'lgEXLalax AwaxElagilise," ^ex^^lae. " Wa, lox 
Legadoxda g^okwaxs ^uEmsgEinsElaLElas. Wa, laEms q lal^aLElaxEn 
lag'ila qas-'ida," -nex'-lae Llaqwag'ililxes ompe ^maxuyalidze. Wa, 
laEm^lae Llaqwag'ila k'les hex'=Id nel^edamasxa hamshamts !Ese 
LE^wis LegEme Hamsba^ye. Wa, laLa hex'^idaEm Lex^edEs AwaxE- 40 
lag'ilise laxes ompe ^maxuyalidze. Wa, hcEm g^ayolatsa ^walase 
g"6x"sa ^nE^memotasa Maamtag'ilaxa Legadas ^uEmsgEmsElaLElas. 

Wa, la et!ed xiingwade ^maxiiyalidzasa babagume. Wa, la Lex^e- 
dEs Lo^yalal laq. Wa, he^mis lag'ilas mak^ila ^nE^memotasa Lo^ya- 
lalawa lax ^iiE^memotasa ^nSlawallla Maamtag'ila. Wa, la et!ed 45 
xiingwade ^maxuyalidzasa ts!Edaqe. Wa, la Lex^edEs Agwilayugwa, 



950 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth.ann.35 

47 This name was given in marriage by liis father-in-law Odze^stalis, I'or 

the name of his | daughter. Then he had a son, and ^maxuyalidze | 

50 named his son ?jEnslEndzEm. Now || ^maxuyahdze and his wife 



Aomol had four children, — three boys I and one girl. 



Wlien the four children of ^maxQyalidze were all grown up, I 
TjEnslEndzEm was made angry by his | eldest brother Llaqwag'ila. 

55 Then LEnslendzEm just went and lay down || in his bed; and he was 
considering whether it would be best for him to leave his | elder 
brothers, because they always made him angry. Wlien it was 
nearly j daylight, he arose from his bed and went out of the door. | 
He walked and went down to the beach where a ! small canoe of his 

60 father was. Then he went aboard and paddled, and || he came out 
of Gwadze^, and he passed Tsaxis when | daylight came, iind he 
went right on that day. And | in the evening he arrived at a good 
beach in a bay. There | he saw many kiUer-whales ; and when | 

65 LEnslEndzEm landed, he stepped out of his canoe; and the || killer- 
whales went out of the bay. Then LEnslEndzEm | named the bay 
Maxas. He built a house there, | just like the house of his elder 
brother Llaqwag'ila at K' lodagala. | Then LEnslEndzEm said that 
his ancestor was MatmatEla. ] (LEnslEndzEm) is the ancestor of the 

47 laEm LegEmg'llxEes nEgflmpase Odze^stalise qa LegEms tslEdaqe 
xiinox"s. Wa, la et'.ed xiingwadEsa bEgwauEme. Wa, la ^milxu- 
yalidze i.ex^edEs LEnslEndzEm laq. Wa, laEm^lae mokwe sasEmas 

50 ^maxuyalidze EE^wis gEUEme Aomole. Wa, laEm yudukwa bebE- 
gwanEme, he'misa ^uEmokwe ts'.Edaqa. 

Wa, he^lat'.a la ^naxwa q !iilsq liilyax^wlde mokwe sasEms ^maxu- 
yalidze, wa, laEm^lawise L'.olElayowe LEnslEndzEmases ^nolast!EgE- 
ma^ye Llaqwag'ila. Wa, la^lae aEm la kiilg'alile LEnslEndzEme 

55 laxes ku^lelase. Wa, laEmMae doqwala qa^s he eg'ase lalag'l bases 
^no^nEla qaxs hemEnala^maeLlolalaso^s. Wa, hiEm^hiwise gweme lax 
^nax'^ide laa^lase Lax^ulil laxes kii^lelase qa-'s la lawEls laxa tiEX'lla. 
Wa, g'ax^lae qas-ida qa^s la lEntsles laxa Llsma^ise lax ha^nedzasasa 
ama^ye tiEgunses ompe. Wii, la^lae laxs laqexs lae sex^wida. Wii, 

60 laEm^lae g-ax^wults!ala lax Gwadze^ Wa, lii^lae hSyaqax Tsaxise 
laa^las ^nax'^Ida. Wa, he^nakfllaEm^lawisexa ^nala. Wii, IsVlae 
dzaqwaxs lae lag^aa laxa ek'e Swinagwisa otslaHsa. Wa, heEm^la- 
wis doqulatsexa qleuEme max^enoxwa. Wii, gil^Em^liiwise LEns- 
lEndzEme lag'alis qa^s laltawe laxes yii^yatsle laa^las ^wl^la lalts!a- 

gr weda miix^enoxwe hixa ots'.alise. Wa, laEm^lae LEnslEndzEme 
Lex^edEs Miixas laxa ots'.alise. Wa, laEm g-okwelaxa g-okwe laqxa 
he^me gwex'se g'okwas ^nolase Llilqwag'ila liix K'!6dagala. Wa, 
heEm ^nek-e LEnslEndzEmaqexs MixtmatElax'Laes g'ilg'alise bEgwa- 
uEma. Wii, heEni g-ilg-alitsa Madilbe. Wa, lox ^nek'a alex 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 951 

Madilbe; and therefore nowadays || the Maamtag'ila say (so) to the 70 
Madilbe; and therefore ] all the privileges of the Maamtag'ila 
numaym of the Kwakiutl | and of the Ma&mtag'ila of the Madilbe are 
the same. The | privileges were obtained by LEnslEndzEm by theft 
from his master Llaqwag'ila. Therefore | this is a disgrace for the 
Madilbe [from the Maamtag'ila of the Kwakiutl], on account of ll Leus- 75 
lEndzEm, the youngest of the children of ^maxuyalidze. 1 have 
never | learned from what tribe the wife of LEiislEndzEm came, nor 
the name of | his wife, by whom he had four children. | Therefore 
there are four numayms among the Maciiibe. | I shall tr}'- to find 
this out. That is the end. || 

Marriage with the Comox 

The ancestors of the Comox lived at PEntlatch, and they had for i 
their chief | Hek liitEn (II 1 ) . He married TeseL !a (II 2) , the princess 
of Ts!ananamex"(Il). | They had not been married long when TeseL !a 
(II 2) was with child, | and gave birth to a boy. Hek !utEn (II 1) at 
once II gave away blankets to his tribe, and he named his child 5 
NEmnEniEin (III 1). | Then HeklutEn and his father-in-law Ts!a- 
naniimex" (I 1) | wished the child to get married early. They did | 
not know where to get a wife for NEmnEmEm (III 1) among his tribe, 



bEgwanEma Maamtag'ila laxa Madilbe; wa, he^mis lag'ilas ^uEma- 70 
x'ise ^naxwa k'!ekMEso^sa ^nE^memotasa Maamtag'ilasa Kwag'ule 
Lo^ ^uE^memotasa Maamtag'ilasa Madilbe. Wii, lasm g iloLanEme 
LEnslEndzEmax k' !ek- les^ases g'l^ye Llaqwag'ila. Wa, he^mis 
qlEmasa Madilba^ye laxa Ma&mtag'ilasa Kwag'ule, qaxs amayinxa- 
^yae LEnslEndzEmas sasEinas ^maxuyalidze. Wa, Ieu hewaxaEm 75 
q'.al^aLElax gwaenoxwasas gEUEmas LEnslEndzEme lo^ LegEmas 
gEHEmas, ylx la g'a^yauEmatsexes mokwe sasEm bEgwauEinx'sa, 
yix lag'ilas mosgEmakliise ^nal^uE^memasasa Madilba^ye. Wa, 
la^mesEn q!aq!e^staaLEq. Wa, laEm laba. 

Marriage with the Comox 

G'okiila^lae g'alasa Q!omox"se lax PEULlatsa. Wa, la g'lgadEs 1 
Hek!utEne. Wa, la gEg'adEX'^idEs TeseL !a yix k' ledelas Ts lanana- 
mexwe. Wa, k'!est!a gala hayasEk'^laxs lae bEwex^wlde TeseL !a. 
Wa, la mayul^itsa babagiime. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise HeklutEne 
plEs^Idxes g'okulote. Wa, laEm Lex^ets NEmuEmEme laxes xu- 5 
nokwe. Wa, la^lae HeklutEne LE^wis nEgumpe Ts !ananamexwe 
walaqela, qa wax'^mes gax'^id gEg'adeda g'lnauEme. Wa, la^lae 
k' !eas dogwauEms qa gEUEms NEiniiEmEme laxes gokulota g'a- 
lasa Q!omox"se. Wa, la^lae yaqlEg'a^e HeklutEnax Tslanana- 



952 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

the I ancestors of the Comox; and HekldtEn spoke to Tslanana- 

10 mex" II He said to him, "Let us go to the village TslEqfilotEn | of 
the Legwilda^x", for it is said that Yaq5LElas (II 3) has | Calling- 
Woman (III 2) as his princess, and YaqoLElas is cliief of tlie Wi- 
wiiqe^, | of the numaym G'ig'ilg3,m. HeklutEn and his | father-in- 

15 law Ts lananamex" got ready at once, and five of them went || with 
their wives, and NEmnEmEm (III 1) also went. When they | arrived, 
they went into the house of YaqoLElas (II 3) . | There they stayed over 
night. Then Hek!utEn paid the marriage money for his son j NE- 
mnEmEm (III 1) for the princess of YitqoLElas, Calling- Woman (III 2). 
Immediately | YaqoLElas (II 3) gave the name Yaqatenala (III 1) 

20 to his son-in-law. || Then his name was no more NEmnEmEm; and he 
also gave him the seat | of his deceased father, whose name had been 
YaqalEnala (I 2) , which was the third seat from the | head seat among 
theGig-ilgam. Then YaqalEnala (HI 1) gave a potlatch with the | 
marriage mat of his wife, which consisted of many mountain-goatskins 
and dressed skins, to the ancestors of the | Wiwaqe^ Now YaqalEnala 

25 (III 1) stayed with the Wiwaqe^, || and the double-headed serpent was 
also given to him in marriage by YaqSLElas (II 3) for the | winter dance, 
and also thenameof the double-headed serpent dancer; and | the name 
for the Sparrow Society of the double-headed serpent winter dancer 
is Ts '.iiq !wa. Then | Hek !utEn (II 1) said at once that his son would 

30 give a winter dance in | winter, for HeklutEn and his || father-in-law 



10 raexwe. Wa, la^lae ^nek'Eq: "Wldz^x-ins laxa g-6ktila lax Ts!Eqii- 
lotEne lax Legwllda^xwe, qaxs ^nex'sowaa kMedade YaqoLElasas 
Laqwayugwa," yixs glgama^yae YaqoLElasasa Wlwaqa^ye laxa ^ue- 
^memotasa Glgilgame. Wa, hex-'idaEm^liiwise xwanal^ide Hek!u 
tEne LE^wis nEgumpe Ts!ananamexwe. Wa, lax-da^x"^lae sEkMiila 

15 LE^wis gEgEUEme. Wa, heEm^lawisLa NEmnEmEme. Wa, lax'da- 
^x"^lae lag'aa. Wa, heEm-lawise g-aeLEle g^okwas YaqoLElase. Wa, 
g il-Em^lawise xamaelExs lila^l qadzeleda Hek!iitEne qaes xunokwe 
NEmnEmEme lax k- !edelas YaqoLElase Laqwayugwa. Wa, hex'^ida- 
Em-lawise YaqoLElase LegEmg'ElxLalax YaqalEnala laxes nEgumpe. 

20 Wa, laEm^lae gwal LegadEs NEmnEmEme. Wa, heEm^lawisa Laxwa- 
^yases ompwidSxa Legadolas YaqaiEuala, yixs mama^lokwalgoyoe lax 
Laxuma^yasa G-igilgame. Wa, laEm^ae p!Es^Jde YaqalEualasa 
le^waxsa^yases gEUEme q lenEm ^mEbcLo LE^wa Elagime laxa g'alasa 
Wiwaqa^ye. Wa, hiEm^hie xEk'le YaqalEnala laxa Wlwiiqa-'ye. 

25 Wa, heEm^laxaawis k" !es'ogulxLes YaqoLElasa sisEyuLaUile laxa 
tsletsleqa. Wa, he^mis LegEmsa sisEyuL&lale SisEyuLalale. Wa, 
he^mis gwedzEXLayos sisEyuLalale Tslaq'.wa. Wa, hex'^idaEm^la- 
wise ^nek^e Hek!utEne, qa wag'es yiiwixiles xunokwaxa laLe 
tsIawQnx^Ida, qaxs k'lesae doqulaenoxwe Hek!utEne LE^wis ue- 

30 gumpe Ts lananamexwaxa tsletsleqa. Wa he^mis lag'ilas hex-^i- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 953 

Ts lananiimex" (I 1) had never seen a winter dance, and therefore he | 32 
told him to go ahead. Then YaqoLEhis (II 3) asked his carver | to go 
into the woods to make a double-headed serpent, in this way when it is 
spread | open\ and in this way when it is folded. Immediately | 
the carver went into the woods and carved the mask of the double- 
headed serpent; II but Hek liitEn (II 1) and his son did not know that he 35 
was working at the double-headed serpent mask for him. When | 
winter came, YaqalEnala (III 1) disappeared, and he | stayed away for 
a long time. Then the ancestors of the Wiwiiqe^ caught YaqalEnala, 
and I he was told what to do. They took him into the dancing- 
iiouse; II and when night came, they pacified the double-headed 40 
serpent dancer, j for that was his name now. Now he wore on his 
head the | mask of the double-headed serpent wliile he was dancing. 
After he had danced, | Hek !utEn (II 1), his father, stood up and spoke, 
and said, j "O Wlwiiqe^! now my prince will always stay here; but 
1 shall go home || with the double-headed serpent mask to my 45 
country, that it may be seen | by my tribe the Comox." Thus he said. 
Immediately | YaqoLElas (II 3) sent him to go home with the double- 
headed serpent mask, j This was the first winter dance of the Comox, 
which came from the | Wiwaqe* of the numaym G"Ig'ilgam of the 
Legwilda^K". Then || Hek !utEn (II 1) left his prince YaqalEnala(III 1). 50 
Now, his son hatl not j been left there a long time when liis wife, Calling- 

daEm waxa. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise Yaq5LElase axk'Ialaxa g'it!e- 31 
noxwe, qa las laxa aL!e, qa^s sisEyuLEmlllexa ga gwalega' ylxs dala- 
lae; wa, giPmese k' !oxwalaxs lae g'a gwaleg'a.^ Wa, hex"^idaEm- 
^lawise la aLe^steda gitlenoxwe, qa^s git!edexa sisEyuLEmle. Wii, 
hiEm hewaxa g'ayanale HekliitEne le^wIs xunokwe YaqalEnalaxa 35 
lii eaxElaso^ laxa aL!axa sisEyuLEmle qae. Wa, gil^Em'lawise 
ts lawiinx^edExs laa^las xis^ide YaqalEnala. Wa, galaEm^lawise 
x'lsalaxslaa^lasa g"alasa Wlwaqe kimyax YaqalEnala. Wii, laEm^lae 
aEm Lexs^alaso^, qa^s gweg'ilasa. Wii, laEm^Iae laeLEm liixa lobE- 
kwe. Wa, giPEm^lawise giinul^idExs liia^l nanak^amasE^we SisEyu- 40 
Ltilale, qaxs he'mae la LegEmse. Wii, laEm^lae axEmiilaxes sIsEyii- 
LEintaxsl ae yixwa. Wii, g'th'Em^liiwise gwal yixwaxs, laa^as Liix^iilile 
ompase HeklfltEne, qa^s yaqlEg'a^le. Wii, lii^lae ^nek'a: "^ya, Wl- 
wiiqe^ la^mox yux"siiEm Ieu Lawulgiima^ye, qEn lalag'iLal nii^nak" 
LE^woxda sisEyuLalalex liixEn iiwlnagwisa, qa Irdaglltsox xlts!ax"-i- 45 
tso^ltsEn g'okulotaeda Q!omox"sii," ^nex'^lae. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lfi- 
wise YiiqoLElase ^yiilaqas, qa liilag-es nii^nakwa LE^wa sisEyuLEmle. 
Wii., heEm^l g'il la ts!ets!exLEn liixa Q!omox"se gax'^Id laxa Wi- 
wijqa^ye lax ^uE-memasa G'IgilgEmasa Legwllda^xwe. Wii, laEm- 
^lae lowaLe HeklutEuaxes Lawiilgama^ye YaqalEnala. Wii, k"!es^- 50 
Em^lawise gala lowaLases xunokvvaxs liia^ bEwex-wide gEiiEmase La- 

1 See figures in Publications of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition. Vol. V, Plate 49; fig. 4; and Report 
oftheU. S. National Museum, 1895, p. 514, 515. 



954 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

52 Woman, (III 2) was with child. | She gave birth to a girl. Then | Yaqo- 
LElas (II 3) gave a name to his grandchild, and he named her | G'ag'ao- 
lElaga (IV 1) ; and it was not a long time before she gave birth to 

55 another child, || a boy, and YaqoLElas (II 3) gave him a name. | He 
named him TslEx^ed (IV 2). Then YaqalEnala (III 1) had two 
children | with his wife. When G'ag'aolElaga (IV 1) grew up, | Yiiqo- 
LElas (II 3) gave his house to his son-in-law as a marriage gift. | The 

60 house was built with four steps all around, in the middle || of the 
village of the Wlwiiqe^, at Ts !Equl6tEn. Now the house belonged to | 
YaqalEnala (III 1), because now he had a son. This is according to 
the I laws of the Legwilda^x". | 

Then YaqalEnala (III 1) announced that his princess might be mar- 
ried by one of the sons of the chiefs | of the tribes, that they sliould 

65 come and marry her. This was || reported to the Kwakiutl, who 
lived at Qalogwis. | 

Immediately G' ayosdas (IV 3) , chief of the numaym | SenL !Eme 
called his numaym the SenL !Em to come into | his house. Then he 
told his numaym that he would go now to marry — the princess of 

70 YaqalEnala (III 1) for he had taken the seat || of his father-in-law Ya- 
qoLElas (II 3) . Then his numaym were glad | on account of what he 
had said. They all prepared that | day and went out of the meeting. 
In I the morning, when day came, the ancestors of the numaym 

52 qwayugwa. Wa, la-lae mayol^itsa ts!ats!adagEme. Wa, hcEm^lawise 
YaqoLElas Leqela qa LegEmses tslSx^LEma. Wa, laEm^lae LegadES 
G'ag'aolElaga. Wa, k' !es^Iat !a gaiaxs lax'da^xwae et !ed xungwadEX'^I- 

55 tsa babagume. Wii, heEm^laxaawise YaqoLElas Leqela qa LegEms. 
Wa, laEm^lae Lex^ets Ts!Ex-ede laq. Wa, ma'lox"^lae sasEmas 
YaqalEnala LE^wis gEUEme. Wa, laEm^lawise exEnt !ede G'ag'aolE- 
laga, yixs laa^l g'okulxLale YaqoLElasaxes gox"de laxes nEgumpe, 
ylxs haa^ g'okliisa g'okwe mop !enaxaliles dzoyaqa^yasa nEqetsEma- 

60 lasas g'ox"dEmsasa Wiwaqa^ye lax TslEqiilotEne. Wa, laEm^Iae has 
lax YaqalEnala la g'okwa, qaxs lae xQngwatsa babagQme lax gwa- 
yayaelasasa Legwilda^xwe. 

Wa, la^lae g'alaqlale YaqalEnalases k'ledele lax sasEmas g'lg'EgS,- 
ma^yasa ^naxwa lelqwalaLa^ya, qa las qadzeLasE^wa. Wa, g'ax4ae 

65 tslEk'Ial^edayo laxa Kwag'ulaxs hae g'okule Qalogwise. 

Wii, hex'^idaEm^lawise G'ayosdase yix gigama^yasa ^uE^memeda 
SenL!Eme Lelts!odxes ^nE^memota SenLlEme, qa g'axes ^wFlaeL lax 
g'okwas. Wa, TaEm^ae nelaxes ^nE^memotaxs lE^mae lal gagak'Ia- 
LEx k'ledelas YaqalEnala, qaxs lE^mae Llayox g'lgenex'diises nE- 

70 gumpe lax YaqoLElase. Wii, liex'^idaEin^lawise ^naxwa mo^le -ue- 
^memotases wiildEmas. Wa, laEm^liiwise ^naxwa xwanaHdaxa ^na- 
laxs lae hoqiiwElsa liixes Lelts!Ewak!wenex'de. Wa, g'ipEm^liiwise 
^nax'^idxa gaiilaxs llia^l alex^wide g'Sliisa ^nE^memasa SenLlEme. 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 955 

SenLlEm started. | They went on for two clays southward. Then 
they arrived at |1 Gwanesbe^, a cove next to TslEqulotEn. They | 7!^ 
went in, and the five canoes of the SeiiL Ieih which were going to get 
a wife stayed there. They | sent one canoe ahead; and in it four 
speakers were seated | to tell YaqalEuala (III 1) that they were sent 
by their chief G" ayosdiis (IV 3) , | who wanted to marry the princess 
G'ag'&olElaga (IV 1), and also || that he wanted to pay the marriage go 
price when the messengers had gone back. Then | the speakers pad- 
dled away, and it was not long before the speakers came back. | Then 
one of the speakers was standing in the canoe, singing his sacred 
song, I while they were approaching the place where the four canoes 
were staying that went out to get the princess in marriage. | When they 
were approaching, he stopped singing his sacred song. || Then he spoke, 85 
and said, "Now, listen to me, G' ayosdiis (IV 3) ! \ Let us go quickly 
to pay the marriage price, for you have been accepted by the | chief 
YaqalEnala (III 1) to come and marry his princess. And, also, | 
Chief G'ayosdas, and you, numaym SenLlEm! Let us step into | 
the winter dance, for the prince of YaqalEnala (III 1), TslExed 
(IV 2), II has disappeared!" As soon as he stopped speaking, 90 
Chief G'ayosdas (LV 3) spoke, | and thanked him for what he 
had said; and when he | stopped speaking, they placed the canoes 
in a row and paddled on. | When they arrived, they stopped in front 
of the I house of YaqalEmila (III 1), and immediately they paid the 

Wa, laEm^lawis ma^laxse ^nalas ^nal5lElaxs laa^l lag'aa lax Gwa- 75 
nesba^yexa ots!&lise mak"ala lax TslEqiilotEne. Wa, hcEm^lawise 
la niExaPida sEk'!ats!aqe gagak'!aats!esa SenLlEme. Wii, la^lae 
^yalagEma ^nEmts!aqe xwak!ima la k !udzExdzatsa mokwe ayilkwa, 
qa^s la neiax YaqalEnalaxs ^yalagEmaases g'lgSma^ye G'ayosdasaxs 
lE^mae gagak'IaLEx k!edelase G'ag'aolElaga; he^misexs hex'^ida- SO 
^meLe qadzeLal, qo gaxL halaLa 'yalagEme. Wa, hex'^ida^Em^lawise 
la sex^wideda a^yilkwe. Wa, k!es^lat!a galaxs g'axae aedaaqeda 
a^yilkwe. Wa, laEm^lae Lax-iixseda ^nEmokwe Elkwa, qa^s yalaqulexs 
g'axae gwasolEla lax niExalasasa m6ts!aqe gagak' !aats!a. Wa, 
g'il^Em^lawise g'ax ex"a^nakiilaxs laa^l q !weHd yalaqulaxs laa^l 85 
yaqlEg'a^la. Wii, la^lae ^neka: "Weg'a hoLelal g'axEn G'ayosdiisa. 
Weg"ilaEns aEm hali^lala qadzel-eda, qaxs somaa^l gwayobEdzesa gT- 
gama^ye YaqalEnala, qa^s g'axaosgagakMax k' !edelas. Wii, he^mesa 
g'Igame G' ayosdiis lo^s ^iiE^memot SenLlEm, ytxgtns totslEwek- 
liixwa ts!ets!ecjax, yi.xs xisalae LEwiilgama^yas YiiqaiEnala, ytx Ts!e- 90 
x^ede." Wa. g'll^Em^lilwise q Iwel^ida, lila^las yaq !Eg"a^leda gTgama^ye 
G'ayosdase. Wii, laEm^lae. mo^las willdEmas. Wii, giPEm^lawise 
qlweHdExs laa'l ^uEmiigiwales ssk' !iits!aqe giigak" !aats!iixs hla^l sex- 
^wlda. Wa, giPEm^lawise liig'aaxs laa4 mExaLe lax iiEqamalisas 
g'okwas YiiqalEniila. Wii, liex'^idaEm^lilwise qadzel-eda. Wa, g'll^. 



956 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

95 marriage price. || When tliis was done, YaqalEnala (III 1) invited the 
crew of G'ayosdiis (IV 3) and him too into his liouse. | When all had 
entered the house of YaqalEnala, | YaqalEnala spoke. He called | his 
princess, G'ag'aolElaga (IV 1), to come and sit down next to her hus- 
band, I G'ayosdas (iV 3). Then G'ag'aolElaga came out of her room 
1 00 at once || and sat down by the side of her husband, G' ayosdas. | Then 
YaqalEnala (III I) spoke again, and said: "O | son-in-law! now you 
have my princess, and this house will also go to you, | and the name 
which I obtained from my father-in-law YaqoLElas (II 3). | Now your 
5 name will be Yaqok Iwalag' ills (IV 3), and also || the winter dance 
which I obtained from my father-in-law. Now you | will be a great 
ghost-dancer, and its name is Supernatural-Power-coming-up." 
Thus he said. | "O tribe! that is what I tried to say to my son-in- 
law." Thus he said, | and sat down. Immediately the four | speakers 
of G'ayosdas (IV 3) stood up and thanked him for what he had 

10 said. II The speakers of G'ayosdas were just thanking him. Then 
YaqalEnala (III 1) arose again, | and he gave four xwexwe to 
his son-in-law. | Now this was done; and finally the speakers of 
G'ayosdas thanked YaqalEnala for what he had given to his son- 
in-law. I Now the SenLlEm continued to stay at Ts!EqulotEn, for 

15 they had stepped into the winter dance. || Immediately G'ag'aolEl- 
aga (IV 1) was with child. | Therefore G'ayosdas (IV 3) said to 

95 Em^lawise gwalExs laa^lae YaqalEnala Lel^wultodxa k!wemas Gayos- 
diise Lo^mexs hae. Wa, giPEm^awise ^wi^laeL lax g'okwas Yaqa- 
lEnalaxs laa^las yaq!Eg'a4e YaqalEnala. Wa, laEm^lae Lelwiilt!all- 
laxes kMedele G'agilolElaga, qa gaxes k!wak!ugolIl LE^wis la^wu- 
uEme G'ayosdase. Wa, hex^^idaEm^lawise g'ax^wijltlalile G'ag'^o- 
100 lElaga, qa^s la k!wan6dzElIlaxes la^wunEme G'ayosdiise. Wa, 
la^laxaa edzaqwa yriq!Ega^le YaqalEnala. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "Wa, 
UEgiimp, laEms lalxEn kMedelex. Wa, la^mesox lai>a gokwexlaL; 
he-mesa LegEmexEn g'ayauEme laxEn UEgiimpox YaqoLElasex. 
Wa, laEms LegadEl Yaqok!walag-ilise. Wa, he^mesa lade laxa 
5 ts!ets!eqa. HeEmxaEn g'ayanEmaqegin UEgiimpEk'. Wa, laEms 
^walas lEl5lalalL0L. Wa, he^nais LegEmse ^nawalakustalise," ^nex'- 
^lae. " Wa, g'okulot, heEm waxEU waldEmaxEn nEgumpex," ^nex'- 
^laexs lae k!wag-allla. Wii, hex'^idaEnr'lawise Lax^ullleda mokwe 
a^yi]x"s G'ayosdase qa^s monies waldEmas. Wa, heEm^lawis ales 

10 nExsEmalil mo^eda a^yllkwas G'ayosdasaxs laa^lase Lax^ulll et!ede 
YaqalEnala. Wa, l!¥lae lakMEgaltsa mokwe xwexwe laxes ue- 
gumpe. Wa, laEm gwal laxeq. Wa, lawisLa^lae mo^la^ae a^yilkwas 
G'ayosdasas ^naxwi^iala g'axyos YaqalEnala laxes nEgumpe. Wa, 
laEm^lae hex'saEm^eda SenL!Eme Ts!EqulotEne, qaxs t6ts!ae laxa 

15 ts!ets!eqa. Wa, la^ae hex'HdaEm bEwex^wIde G'ag'aolElaga. Wii, 
heEm^awis lag'ilas G'ayosdase gwatelaEm ^nex' qa^s wis^Emayilxes 



UOAS] 



FAMILY HISTORIES 957 



his numaym that ho would not go home with them | when they 17 
returned after the winter dance; and | YaqalEnaLa (III 1) gave the 
name Skull to his son-in-law G' ayosdas (IV 3). | When he had finished, 
they caught the one who had disappeared, || TslEx^ed (IV 2), the 20 
other child of YaqalEnala (III 1). Then he was a | cannibal-dancer. 
Now the SenLlEm took care of him; and | after the winter dance 
was finished, the SenLlEm went home; | but G' ayosdas (IV 3) and 
his wife did not go home. Then | G'ag"aolElaga (IV 1) gave birth to 
a boy; and the child was called || by its father G' ayosdas, Smoke- 25 
AU-E,o\md (V 1). | This name belongs to the SenLlEm. Now the 
numaym | of G' ayosdas (IV 3) had gone home to Qalogwis. It was 
not very long before | G' ag' SolElaga (IV 1) had another son, and 
YaqalEnala | gave him a name. He had the name YaqoLleqElas 
(V 2). II This was a name of the Wiwaqe^ | 30 

I have forgotten that G' ayosdas (IV 3) had changed his name, | 
for the flame was given in marriage to him by his father-in-law 
YaqalEnala (III 1). | Now his name was Yaqoklwalag'ilis (IV 3.) | 

Now she had another son, and|| Yiiqok Iwalag'ilis (IV 3) gave him a 35 
name, and called him | HamesElal (V3). This name belonged to the 
SenL !Em. | And she gave birth to a girl, and j Yaqok Iwalag'ilis (IV 3) 
gave her a name, and called her j H&malaqalEmega (V 4) . This name 

^nE^memote, qo g'axL na^nax"L0, qo gwalslsLa ts!ets!eqa lax laene- 17 
mas LegEmg'ElxLale YaqalEnalax XEweqwe laxes nEgiimpe Gayos- 
dase. Wa, laEm^awise galaxs laa^l kimyasE^weda giyak"tla, ytx 
TslEx^ede, ylx ^nsmokwe xun5x"s YaqalEnala. Wii, laEm^lae 20 
hamatsla. Wa, laEm^lae hededa SenLlEme aaxsilaq. Wa, giPEm- 
-lawise gwala ts!ets!eqaxs g'axaa^l nii^nakweda SenLlEme. Wa, laEm- 
4ae k'les g'axe G'ayosdase LE^wis gEUEme laxsEq. Wa, laEm^awise 
mayuPide G'agaolElagasa babagtime. Wa, hex^idaEm^lawise Lex^e- 
dayuwe Kwax"se^stala laxa ginanEmases ompe G'ayosdase. Wa, 25 
laEm hasxa SenLlEme LegEma. Wii, gEyok-a g'ax na^nakwe ^nE^me- 
motas G;ayosdase lax Qalogwise. Wa, k^les^latla galaxs laa4 etied 
mayuPide G'ag'aolElagasa babagtime. Wa, he^latla YaqalEnala 
Leqela qa LegEms. Wa, laEm^lae LegadEs YaqoLleqElas. Wii, laEm 
LegEmsa Wiwiiqayeq. 30 

HexoLEn LlslewesE^we G"ayosdiisaxs lE^mae LlayoxLiixes LegEme, 
ylxs lE^mae LegadEs LegEmg'ElxLa^yases nEgiimpe YaqalEniiLa, ylxs 
lE^mae LegadEs Yiiqok '.walag'llise. 

Wa, la^laxae etied xungwadEx'^itsa babagume. Wii, he^lat!a 
et!ede Yiiqok !walag"Ilise Leqela qa LegEms. Wii, laEm^lae LegadEs 35 
HamesElale laq. Wii, laEm^laxae g'ayola LegEme laxa SenLlEme. 
Wa, la^lae etIed mayuPltsa tsiitslEdagEme. Wii, hcEm^laxaawis 
Leqele Yaqok Iwalag'Ilise qae. Wii, laEm Legad las HamalaqalE- 
mega. Wa, laEm^laxae gayola LegEme laxa SenLlEme. Mox"4ae 



958 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [imi. ann. 35 

40 came from the numaym SeiiLlEm. They had four || children, — 
three boys and one | girl. | 

Now Yaqoklwalag'lUs (IV 3) told his father-in-law that | he wished 
to go home, and his father-in-law | prepared food for his princess, 

45 G' ag' aolElaga (IV 1); and || when everything was ready, they started 
early in the 1 morning. He went with his four children, and ] also 
with his wife Gag' SoiElaga, and also the Dzonoq !wa house-dish. | 
They started, and went northward for three days. Then they | arrived 

50 at Qalogwis. After they had stayed there one night, he || called his 
numaym, the SenL !Em, into his house. He told them that | he had 
changed his name, because he had obtained a name from his f ather-in- 
law. I "My name now is Yaqoklwalag'ilis." Thus he said. "Now|I 
will invite thelvwakiutl, the numaym Maamtag'ila, the G'exssm, | the 

55 Kukwaklum, and also the LaS.laxs^Endayo, to come and || eat out of 
the Dzonoq !wa house-dish." Thus he said, and then he stopped. | 
Then Ms four speakers arose and thanked him for what he hiid said ; | 
and immediately they cleared out the house of Yaqok Iwalag' ills, (IV 3), 
and I his four speakers went out to invite the Kwakiutl in. | Immedi- 

60 ately those who had been invited came in. || They put dried mountain- 
goat meat into the Dzonoq !wa house-dish; | and after the guests 
had finished, they went out. Then | winter came, and Yaqok !wa 

40 sasEmas, yudux"^laeda babagtime; wa, la^lae ^uEmokwa ts!ats!Eda- 
gEme. 

Wii, laEm^lawise Yaqok Iwalag'ilise nelaxes nEgumpaxs lE^mae 
'nex' qa^s gaxlag'I na^nakwa. Wii, hex'^idaEm^lawise nEgiimpas 
xwanal^ida, qa mEniwalases k'ledele G"ag'aolElagaxa hema^ye. 

45 Wa, gil^Em^lawise ^wFla gwalalaxs laa^l alex^widxa la ^nax'^Idxa 
gaala. Wii, laEm^lae ^wi^la g'iix LE^wis sasEmaxs mokwae. Wii, 
he^misLaLes gEUEme G"ag'S,6lElaga; wii, he^misa loqullle dzonoq !wa. 
Wa, g'ax^lae Lex^eda. Wa, yudux"p lEUXwa^s^lae gwalElaxs g^axaa^l 
g'ilx^aLEla Jiix Qalogwise. Wa, g^Il^Em^awise xamaes laqexs liia^l 

50 i.elts lodElaxes ^nE^memota SeuLlEme. Wii, laEm^lae nelases lae- 
ne^me L'.ayuxLaxes LegEme, qaxs LegEmg'Elxxalasae yises nEgump. 
Wii, he^mEU la LegEme Yaqok Iwalagilise ^nex'^lae: "Wa, la^mesEn 
Le^alalxwa Kwagulaxwa ^nE^memex Maamtag'ila, LE^wa G'exsEme, 
LE^wa Kukwaklume; wa, yii^mesa Laalax's^Endayo, qa g'axlag'ilts5x 

55 hamaats !enux"ltsa loqiilllex dzonoq !wa," ^nex'^axs lae q!wel'Ida. 
Wa, lii^lae Lax^Olila mokwe a^yllx"s, qa^s monies waldEmas. Wii, 
hex'^daEm^lawise ex^widetsE^we g-6kwas Yaqok !wiilag'llise, ylxs 
la^maalaLalhoqiiwElseda mokwe a^yilkwa, qa^s lii^l Le-liilaxaKwiigule. 
Wii, hex'^daEm^lawise g'ax^El ^wl^la hox"ts!awa Le^lanEme. Wii, 

60 laEm^lae lEx"ts!odxa xilkwe ^mEpmElqlage laxa loqulile dzonoq !wa. 
Wii, giPEni^lawise gwala k !welaxs laa^l hoquwElsa. Wii, la^lae ts'.a- 
wunx^IdExs laa^l yiiwix-ile Yiiqoklwfdagilise. Wii, laEm^lae xls^ed- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 959 

lag' ills (IV 3) gave a winter dance. Then | his eldest son, Smoke- All- 63 
Round (V 1), disappeared, but the Kwakiutl were not yet | near (the 
time of) their winter dance. However, when the || winter dance be- 65 
gan, YaqoL leqElas (V 2) disappeared, and also his younger brother 
HamesElal (V 3), | and also the girl among them, HamalaqalEmega 
(V 4). They | stayed away for a long time. Then they were caught. 
Now Smoke-All-Round (V 1) was a cannibal-dancer. | YaqoL leqElas 
(V 2) was a war-dancer, a frog war-dancer, | and HamesElal (V 3) 
was a double-headed serpent dancer, and | HamalaqalEmega (V 4) 
was a ghost-dancer; || and when they pacified them, | Yaqok !walagllis 70 
(IV 3) told his tribe what dances he had obtained from his father-in- 
law I YaqalEnala (III 1) . First he spoke about his prince, | Smoke-All- 
Round (VI), and his cannibal dance, for the cannibal belongs to 
the SeuLlEm; | for the past chief of the SeuLlEm, whose name was 
TsEx^wed (III 4) in the || secular season, had been a cannibal- 75 
dancer, and his name was Nax'nEwis as a cannibal-dancer. | " And 
this will be the name of my cannibal-dancer, Smoke-All-Round 
(V 1.)" Thus he said. | "And this frog war-dancer is also mine, 
SenLlEm, | that frog war-dancer of my mother, HonosEnaga (III 3), 
which she obtained from her father, Mo^nakula (II 4) , | and therefore 
he is named ^wI^Enkiilag' ilis (V 2) ; and that is the name of my frog || 
war-dancer, ^wI^Enkulag'ilis. In the secular season he is called Ya- 80 
qoL leqElas (V 2) ; and the | double-headed serpent dancer, who is called 
HamesElal (V 3) in the secular season, I also obtained from my | father- 
pin-law, YaqalEnala (III 1), and his name is Double-Headed-Serent- 

^lae ^nolast lEgEmalilas sasEmase Kwax'se^stala, yixs kMes^mae 63 
ex"ala, qa^s ts !ets !ex^edaeda g'alii Kwag'ula. Wa, he^latla la ts le- 
ts lex^edExs laa'l x'is^ede YaqoL leqElase, LE^wis ts!a^ye HamesElale; 65 
wa, heEm^lawise ts !Edaq lEga^yase HamalaqalEmega. Wa, galaEm- 
-lawise x'isalaxs laa^l kimyasE^wa. Wa, laEm^lae hamats la^lae Kwax'- 
se^stala. Wa, la^lae tox^wid-lae YaqoLleqElasexa wuq !ese tox^wlda. 
Wa, la^lae sIsEytiLaiaHae HamesElale. Wa, la^lae lElolalaWae Hama- 
laqalEmega. Wa, g-iPEm^awise nanakamasoxs laa^ae Yaqok!wa- 70 
lag"ilise neiaxes g'okulotases g'ayauEme lelad laxes nEgump YaqalE- 
nala. Wa, heEm^lawis gil waldEm^lases LEwiilgama^ye, ylx Kwax'- 
se^stala laxes hamats !aena^ye, yixs has^maaxa SenLlEme hamats !a, 
yixs hamats !aeda glgamayulasa SenLlEmexa Legada TsEx^wide laxa 
baxiise. Wa, la LegadEs Nax'UEwise laxes hamats !ena^ye. "Wa 75 
yu^mis g^axL LegEmltsEn hamats laqox Kwax'se^stalax," ^nex'^lae. 
" Wa, yu^mesa wuq !esex tox^wida. Wa, laEmxaox nosa SenLlEm 
yixs wuq'.esae tox^wIdEn abEmpeHonosEnaga laxes ompe Ma-nakflla. 
Wa, he^mis LegEmse, ^wilEnkiilagilise : wa, he^misLegEmg-in vvtiq lesEk" 
tox^wida ^wIlEnkulag'tlise, yix YaqoL leqElase laxa baxuse. Wa, he- 80 
emisa sIsEyuLalale, yix HamesElale laxa baxuse. Wa, laEm g'ayol 
laxEn QEgQmpe YaqalEnala, wa he^mis Le^Emse SisEyuLalale, qaxs 1e- 



960 ETHNOLOGiT OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

83 Dancer;" for | Skull (that is, Yaqok!walag'llis[IV3])wasshowiDg the 
double-headed serpent dance | in the way of the double-headed ser- 

85 pent mask of YaqalEnala (III 1), which was also shown by || Ts lEx^ed 
(IV 2) the younger brother of Calling- Woman (IV 1), to theComox; | 
and HamalaqalEmega (V 4) (that is her | secular name) was a ghost- 
dancer. This Yaqoklwalag'llis (IV 3) had also obtained from his | 
father-in-law, YaqaiEnala, and the name of the ghost-dancer was 
Supernatural-Power-coming-up. | "And this I obtained from my 

90 father-in-law, YaqalEnala (III 1), and also the || house with four steps. 
That is all," said he, and sat down. | Then his four speakers arose 
and I thanked him for what the chief had said. It was not very long, 
then I Yaqok!walag"ilis (IV 3) andhis wife Gag'aolElaga (IV 1) sepa- 
rated. I She went home with her second son, YaqoLleqElas (V 2), || 

95 and HamesElal (V 3); but Yaqoklwalag'llis (IV 3) did not allow | 
Prince Smoke- Ail-Round (V 1), the eldest one of his | children, and 
the youngest one, the girl, HamalaqalEmega (V4), to go along. | 
Then G' ag' aolElaga (IV 1) went home to her place, | TslEqtilotEn, 
200 and there she imitated what she had seen them doing || in the winter 
dance of the Kwakiutl at Qalogwis. It was not very | long after 
G' ag' aotelaga had gone home when Yiiqoklwalag'ilis (IV 3) | 
wished to marry again. His nvmiaym, the SeuLlEm, | wished that 

83 ^mae neHdamase XEweqwa yix Yaqoklwalag'llisaxa sisEyuLEmle 
lax gwalaasas sisEyuLEmlas YaqalEnala, yixa laxat! nel^edamatsos 

85 Ts!Ex^ede, yix ts!a^yas Laqwayugwa laxa Q!6mox"se. Wii, he- 

■ ^misa lElolalaie, ytx HamalaqalEmega, yixs he^mae LegEms laxa 

baxiise. Wa, laEm^axae g'ayanEme Yaqoklwalagilise laxes nE- 

gumpe YaqalEnala. Wa, he^mis LegEmsa lEloialale ^nawalak'usta- 

lise. Wa, yu^men g'ayanEm laxEn nEgumpe YaqalEnala LE^wa 

90 mop lenaxalllas dzoyaqaye g'okwa. Wa," ^nex'^laexs laa^l k!wa- 
g'allla. Wii, hex"^idaEm4ilwise Lax^ullle mokwe a^yilx"s qa^s mo- 
^le las waldEmi^lalases g'igama^ye. Wa, k'!est!a alaEm^l galaxs 
laa^l k'lasowe Yaqok!walag'Ilise LE^wis gEUEme G'ag' aolElaga. Wa, 
laEm^lae na^nakwa LE^wis q!S.ya^ye xunokwe YaqoLleqElase, 

95 wa, he^misLa HamesElale. Wa, laEm^lawiso kMes ex'stose Yaqo- 
klwalag'tlisases LEWulgama^ye Kwax'se^stalaxa ^noIastlEgEma^yas 
sasEmas, LE^wa ama^lnxa^ye tslEdaq xunox^se HamalaqalEmega. 
Wii, lax'da^x"^Em^lae nii^nakwa, yix G'ag'aolElaga laxes awinagwise 
TslEqulotEne. Wii, heEm^lawis la nanaxtslE^waxes ^n.axwa dodEgul 
200 laxa ts!iiq!ena^yasa KwSg'ule lax Qalogwise. Wii, k'!es^lat!a alaEm 
giila la na^nakwe G'ag'aolElagaxs liia^ 'nex'^lae Yiiqoklwiilag'I- 
lise, qa^s gEg'adEX'^ide. Wa, la^lae ^nek"e ^UE^memotaseda SbulIe- 
me, qa hes gEg'iidEX'^Ideda Lawetslese lax L!emElxk'!alag"tIise, yix 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTOKIES 961 

he should marry Ringing-Copper (IV 4), the | princess of Odze^stalis 
(III 5). Yaqoli'.wahxg'ilis || at once obeyed their wishes. All the 5 
SenL lEin got ready ] and went to ALEgEmala, because there the | village 
of the ancestors of the Lawets !es was located. In the morning, when 
day came, | the numerous numaym of the SenLlEm started; and 
when I they arrived, they paid the marriage price at once; || and 10 
after they had paid the marriage price, they were sitting still in their 
wooing-canoes. | Then Odze^stalis (III 5) , the head chief of the | Lawe- 
ts !es, came out. He belonged to the numaym SesEUL !e^, the first one | 
of the numayms; and he said, they said, this: | "Welcome, numaym, 
SenLlEm, welcome! Come out of your wooing-canoes || and take 15 
the wife of your chief Yaqoklwalag'ilis (IV 3) aboard your canoe!" | 
Thus he said. Then the crew went ashore out of the canoe, | those 
who paid the marriage money for Yaqoklwalag'ilis, and also himself; 
and when | they had gone in, Odze^stalis told them to sit down | on a 
mat that had been spread in the house. When || aU the men of the 2U 
crew were inside, Yaqok Iwalag' His (IV 3) went in and | sat down in the 
rear of the house. There he was given food by | liis father-in-law, 
Odze^stalis (III 5) ; and after they had eaten, | Chief Odze^stalis spoke. 
He said, | ''Now, listen to my speech, son-in-law! She will be 
your II wife; and her mat are forty dressed skins | and twenty boxes 25 

k'ledelas Odze-stalise. Wa, hex'^idaEm^awise nanageg"a^ye Ya- 5 
qok!walag"ilisax waldEmas. Wa, hex"^idaEm^lawise xwanaHda 
^wi^leda SenL!Eme. Wa, laEm^lae lal lax ALEgEmillaxs haa^l g'o- 
kiile g'alasa Lawets !ese. Wa, g'il^Em^awise ^nax'^idxa gaalaxs 
laa^l alex^wideda ^uE^memola q !enEma SenL lEme. Wa, g'll^Em^lawise 
lag'aaxs laa4 hex'^idaEm qadzei^eda. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise gwal qa- 10 
dzeLaxs hex'sa^maa^l k liidzExsalaLayes gagak'laatsle xwaxwa- 
kliina, g'axaalase Odze-stalise, yixa xamagEma^ye g'lgamesa 
Lawets lese, wJi, la he ^nE^memota SesEnL!a^ye, ylx mEkuma^yas 
laxes ^nal^nEmemats !ena^ye. Wa, hcEm^lawise g-U waldEmse: 
"Wa, gelag'a ^nE^memot SenLlEm, gelag'a lalta laxs gagak'laa- 15 
tslaqos, qa^s gaxlag"aos dag'aalExsaxg'as gEnEmg'os, g'Igame 
Yaqok!walag'ilis," ^nex'^lae. Wa, he^x'^idaEm^lawise la wiloltawe 
klwemasa qadzeLe Yaqok Iwalag'Ilise Lo^mexs hae. Wii, g'il^Em- 
^lawise hogwiLEXs laa^lae Odze-stalise axk'lalaq, qa las kliis- 
^alil laxa la LEpse^stalilkwe g'okwasesa le^wa^ye. Wa, g'il^Em- 20 
^lawise ^wI^laeLeda k!wemaxs laa^las laeLe Yaqoklwalag'ilis, qa^s 
la^l klwag'alil lax naqoLewalllasa g'okwe. Wa,- la^lae LlExwilasE- 
^wa yises nEgiimpe Odze-stalise. Wa, g'll^Em^lawise gwal LlExwaxs 
laa^lase yaqlEga^eda g'lgama^ye Odze-stalise. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: 
"Weg"a, hoLelaLExg'ui wiildEmLEk' laL, nEgump. LaEmLox laLos 25 
gEUEmaqos, g'Igame^. Wa, lox le^wadEsa mox"sokwex aiagima. 
75052—21—35 eth- pt 2 32 



962 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

27 of oil. Now, I your name will be Aodzagalas (IV 3), O son-in-law! Now 
your I prince Smoke-All-Ilouucl,(V l)will be called Awilgalas (VI); and 
your princess ] HamalaqalEmega (V 4) , will be named Mamx' ayugwa in 

30 the secular season. || You will be named Head-Wintor-Danccr (IV 3) ; 
and your I prince Smoke-All-Round will be named K' '.Enga (Vl); and- 
your I princess HamalaqalEmega will be named Talts !aas (V 1 ) in wii - 
ter ; I and you shall have those house-dishes, the grizzly-bear house-dish, 
and the wolf and | beaver and killer-whale house-dishes. Now take 

35 the four || house-dishes aboard your canoe, so that your tribe may 
eat out of them, son-in-law | Yiiqok Iwalag' ills (IV 3)." Thus he said. 
Immediately Yaqok Iwalag' ills arose. | He called his four speakers, 
and they sang at the same time theii' | sacred songs, and Yaqo- 
k Iwalag' His also sang his | sacred song; and after he had sung, he 

40 thanked! Odze^stalis for what he had said. Then they carried down to 
the beach the dressed skins and the boxes with ] oU, and also the four 
house-dishes; and when| they had put them aboard the wooing-canoe, 
Yaqok Iwalag' His (IV 3) | came out of the house of his father-in-law, 
walking by the side of his wife, Ringing-Copper (IV 4}, | and they 

45 went aboard the canoe of Yiiqok Iwalag' ills. || Now they went home to 
Qalogwis; and when they arrived, \ the four speakers stood up in the 
canoe, and they reported to the Kwakiutl ] that Yiiqok Iwillag'ihs (IV3) 
had married Ringing-C jpper (IV 4) , | the princess of Odze^stalis (III 5). 

26 Wa, yu^mesa ma^ltsEmg'ustax dEngwatsIe Lle^na. Wa, laEms la} 
LegadElts Aodzagalase, yul nEgump. Wii, la^mese lal LegadLES 
Lawiilgama^yaose Kwax'se^stalas Awilgalase. Wii, lilLEs k' ledelaose 
HamalaqalEmega LegadElts Mamx'ayugwa laxwa baxiisex wal- 

30 dEma. Wa, laLEs LegadElts TsIiiqEma^ye. Wii, laLe LegadLEs 
LtiwulgS.ma^ya6se Kwax'se^stalas K'lEnga. Wa, laLe LegadLEs 
k'ledeiaose HamillaqalEmegiis Talts laase liixa tsletsleqa wiildEma. 
Wa, ga^meseg'a loElqiilllexa nane loqiilll LE-wa iiLanEme LE^wa 
tsla^we LE^wa miix^enoxwe loqiilila. Wii, laEms liil daxsalxa mc- 

35 wexLa loElqulil, qa hamaatsleses g-6kiilota5s, nEgump Yiiqok Iwii- 
lagilis," ^nex'^lae. Wa, hex''idaEm^lawise Lax^fllil^lae Yaqok Iwfi- 
lag'Uise, qa^s Le^lalexes mokwe 8,^yilkwa. Wii, la^lae ^UEmiidzaqwa 
yalaqweda mokwe a^yilkvva Lo'me Yaqok Iwalagilise yiilaqiilases 
yalax"LEne. Wii, gll-Em^lawise qlwel^eda liia^las mo^las wfildEmi- 

40 ^liilas Odze-strdise. Wii, lii^lae moxsasa alilg'ime LE^wa dedEngwatsIe 
Lle^na. Wa, heEm^lawisa mowexLa loElqiillla. Wii, g'il^Em^liiwise 
^wllxsa laxa gagak' laats laxs g'axaalase Yiiqok Iwalag'Ilise g-axa- 
weIs liix g'okwases nEgumpe hEmalala le^wIs gEnEme LlEmElxk'Iii- 
lawilis, qa^s lii^l hox^walExs lax yil-yatsliis Yiiqok Iwrdag'llise. Wa, 

45 laEm^lae nii^nakwa lax Qiilogwise. Wii, g'H^EmHilwise lag-aaxs laa^l 
Lax^wiilExsa mokwe il^yilkwas. Wii, laEm^lae tslEk'IiilElaxa Kwa- 
o-ulaxs lE^mae gEg'ade Yiiqok Iwiilag'ilisas LlemElxk' liilag'Oise, yix 
k'ledelas Odze^stalise. Wii, laEm^lawise dzoxwasa mox"sokwe aia- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 963 

Then they promised to give away forty | dressed skills to the Maanita- 
g'ila and the G'exsEiu, and to theKukwaklilm, || and also to theLaa- 50 
lax's-Endayo; and they promised twenty | boxes of oil to the four 
numayms. The | forty dressed skins were on aceonnt of Smoke-All- 
Round (V 1) ; and now | he changed his name, and his name, Awilgalas 
(V 1 ) was obtained in marriage f I'om Odze^stalis (III 5) ; | and the twenty 
boxes of oil were on account of HamalaqaiEmega (V 4), || and she had 55 
also changed her name for | the name obtained in marriage from Odze- 
^stalis; and she was called Mamx'ayugwa (V 4) ; | and as soon as the 
speakers stopped speakmg, | the crew and their chief Yaqoklwalag't. 
lis (IV 3), with his wife, went ashore ] mto the house. Immediately 
the four speakers || went to invite the four numayms to come to a feast 60 
to be given with the | forty boxes of oil by Mamx'ayogwa (V 4), the 
princess of | Aodzagalas (IV 3), for now Yaqok '.walag' ilis had changed 
his name. | As soon as the four speakers had gone to invite them, 
the young men | cleared out the house of Aodzagalas (IV 3) . They 
took ashore the dressed skins || and the boxes of oil, and also the 65 
four house-dishes; and | when the guests were in, they poured 
the I oil into the four house-dishes, and they put the | grizzly- 
bear dish before the Maamtag'ila, and the wolf dish before 1 
theG"exsEm, and the beaver dish before the 11 Kukwaklum, and the 70 



g'ima qaeda Mailmtag'ila i-E^wa G'exsEme LE^wa Kiikwakliime; wa, 
he^misa Laalaxs^Endayuwe. Wa, la^laxae qasosa ma-ltsEmgustawe 50 
dsndak" Lle^na qaxaeda m6sgEmak!use ^nal^iiE^mema. Wa, lasm- 
^lae UEXEiiale Kwax'se^stala mox"sokwe alag'ima. Wa, laEm^Iae 
LlayoxLaxes LegEme. Wa, laEm^ae LegadEs LegEmg'ElxLa^yas 
Odze^stalise Awilgalase. Wa, la^lae nExEnale HamalaqalEmegaxa 
ma^ltsEmg'ust^ dedEngwats!e Lle^na. Wa, laEm^laxae LlayoxLax 55 
LegEmgElxLa^yas Odze^stalise. Wa, laEm^lae LegadEs Mamx'ayu- 
gwa. Wa, g'il-Em^lawise qlwel^ededa a^yilkwaxs laa^l hox^wulta- 
weda k!weme LE-wa g'lgama^ye Yiiqoklwalag'ilise LE^wes gEiiEme, 
qa^s lii liogwiL laxes gokwe. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise mokwe a'yllx"s 
la Le^lalaxa m5sgEmak!use ^nal^nE-memasa qa^s g'axe kiweixa 60 
mosgEmg'ust^we dedEngwats!e L!e^na lax MEinx'ayugwa kMedelas 
Aodzagalase, qaxs lE^maaxat! L!ayowe LegEmas Yaqok '.walagilise. 
Wa, g'll^Em^lae la Le^lalaxa mokwe a^yilkwa laa^asa ha^yal^a 
ex^widxa g'okwas Aodzagalase, yixs Iaa-1 moltalayuweda alagime, 
LE^wa dedEngwats!e Lle^na, wa, he^misa niEwexLa loElqulila. Wit, 05 
g'ax^lae ^wFlaeLeda Le'hinEme. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise lEx"ts !oyowe- 
da L!e^na laxa mEwexLa loElqulIla. Wal laEm^lae kax'dzamolPlEmeda 
nane laxa Maamtag'ila. Wii, la^lae k'ax'dzamolFlEmeda aLauEme 
laxa G'exsEme. Wa, la^lae k'ax'dzamulI-lEmeda tslawe laxa Kii- 
kwakliime. Wa,la-lae k'ax'dzamolPlEmeda max^enoxwe laxaLaalax'- 70 



964 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

71 killer-whale dish before the | Laa^lax's^Endayo. As soon as they 
had finished, one of the 1 speakers spoke, and said, "This is the 
weight of the name of ] IlanialaqalEmega (V 4), whose name is now 
Mamx^ayugwa (V 4) obtained in marriage from | Odze^stalis (III 5) ;'' 

75 and when he stopped speaking, another speaker spoke, || and said 
"Now let us give away the dressed skins!" | and then he gave 
them away. When they had all been given out, then | another 
speaker spoke, and said, " This is the weight of the name of | 
Smoke-All-Round (V 1). He has changed his name, and now his 
name is Awllgalas (V 1), | for that was received in marriage from 

80 Odze^stalis (III 5) by my chief || Aodzagalas (IV 3), for Yaqoklwa- 
lag'ilis (IV 3) has changed his name now, | and this is also obtained 
in marriage from Odze^stalis (III 5) by my chief here." Thus he 
said. I As soon as he stopped speaking, the guests went out; and 
when I winter came, the Lawets'.es came paddling with their | chief 
Odze^'stalis (III 3). He came to pay the marriage debt to his son- 

85 in-law Aodzagalas (IV 3) . || After they had taken ashore dressed 
skins and many cedar-bark blankets, | and many baskets of clover-roots 
and boxes of | oil and boxes of chicd clams and boxes of | dried 
salmon, — when all these had been taken ashore out of the | ten 

90 canoes, he also gave the copper named || Leta to his son-hi-law, 
and also the ton canoes in which were seated the princess of 
Odze^stalis (III 5) . | That was the first great return of marriage 



71 s^Endayowe. Wa, g'll^Em^lawise gwalExs laa^l yaq lEg'a^ieda ^nEmok" 
Elkwa. Wa, laEm^ae nelasexs he^mae o^mayos la LegEms H^ma- 
laqalEmega, yixs lae LegadEs Mamx'ayugwa, LegEmg-ElxLes Odze- 
^stalise. Wii, giHEm^lawise q!wel'IdExs laa^l yaqlEg'a^eda ^uEmo- 

75 kwe Elkwa. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a. "Weg'axins yax^witsa alag'l- 
mex," ^nex'^aexs laa^l yax^wlts. Wii, g'il^Eni-lawise ^wl^laxs laa^l ya- 
q!Eg'a4eda ogMamaxat! Elkwa. Wa, la^lae ^neka: "YuEm omayas 
Kwax'se^stalaxs lae LlayuxLa. Wii, laEms LeqElalts Awllgc^lase laq, 
qaxs he^mae LegEmg'ElxLcs Odze^stalise laxgin g'lgamek", ylxg'a 

80 Aodzagalase, qaxs la^mek' L!ayuxLiig"a Yiiqoklwiilag-llisEk'. Wii, 
heEmxat! LegEmg'ElxLes Odze/stalise haxgln g-Igftmek',"^ nex'^lae. 
Wii, gipEm^Lawise q Iwel^ldExs laa-'l hoquwElseda klwele. Wii, glPEin- 
^liiwise ts!awunx^idExs g'axaalasa LawetsIese^wi^lamoLa^ya sexwaxes 
g'lg&ma^ye Odze^stalise. Wii, g'ax^Em^laeqotex'axes nEgOmpe Aodza- 

85 gsxlase. Wii, hVlae gwal moltalasa alagime LE^wa q lensme k" lobawasa 
LE^wa qlenEme LlaLlEbat t'.EgwatsIii LE^wa qlensme dedEngwatsle 
Lle^na. Wii, he^misa qleuEine xatsEm k!6mats!a L5^1aeda q!enEme 
XEmyats !e xexEtsEma. Wii, g'U^Em^hlwise ^wFlolta lax qotenatslas 
nEqiits'.aq tIetlEgiina, wa, laEm^awise sEplItsa Llaqwa LegadEs 

90 Leta liixes uEgiimpe; wa, he^misa k!waxsiilats!iis k'!edelas Odze^s- 
talisa nEqats!aqe t!et!Eguna. Wii, heEm'l gil -walas qotex'e Odze's- 



HOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 965 

money by Odze^stalis (III 5) | to his son-in-law Aodzagalas (IV 3) 02 
on account of his princess Ringing-Copper (IV 4). | Then Odzc- 
^stalis (III 5) took a carved box and | carried it ashore himself out 
of his canoe into the || house of his son-in-law Aodzagalas (IV 3), 95 
and he put it down in the rear | of the house. It was not long 
before he came out again and went | into his canoe. Then he 
spoke to his tribe, and | said "O tribe, Now our supernatural 
power has gone into the house | of my son-in-law;" and when he 
said so, he tin-ned towards the Kwag"ul, and || said, "Now, take 300 
care, son-in-law! This is the box containing the winter dance | 
which I have taken into your house. Now purify for its sake!" 
Thus he said. | Then he was invited by his son-in-law (IV 3) to 
eat. I Wlien they had all gone ashore out of their canoes, they 
were given food. | It was evening when they finished eating. They 
all II went to eat with the Kwag'ul. Then the chief of the j Ma- 5 
&mtag'ila called L!aqwadze spoke, and said, "Go on, j Chief Aodza- 
galas (IV 3) go on, and see what is in the crest- j box, that you 
may give a winter dance!" Thus he said. | Immediately the chief 
of the Lawets!es, Odze^stalis, (III 5), arose || and said, "Go on, lo 
Kwag'ul, and begin your winter dance this evening! | In this box 
is the hamats!a, and his name will be | Ts!axuxstala; and also 
the thrower-dance, and his name will be | ^nawalax"dze ; and also 

talise laxes nEgumpe Aodzagalase qaes kMedele L!emElxk'!alagilise. 92 
Wa, la^lae ^x^ede Odze^stalisaxa kMesgsmala ame gildasa. Wii, 
la^lae .q!ulex'sEm la laltos laxes ya^yats!e, qa^s la^l hacLElas lax 
g'okwases nEgiimp Aodzagalase, qa^s lael h&ng'alllas lax ogwiwall- 95 
lasa g'okwe. Wa, k'!es^lat!a giilaxs g\axae xwelaqSwElsa, qa^s 
la^l laxs laxes ya^yats !e. Wii, hVlae yaq !Eg'a^la laxes g okuloto. Wa, 
la^lae ^nek"a : "Wa, g'okulot. La^me laeLEns ^nawalakwa lax g'okwa- 
sEn nEgumpa," ^nex'^laexs lae gwegEmx^^Id laxa Kwagule. Wa, la- 
^lae ^nek'a: "Weg'a, yaL!oLEx nEgtimp. YfiEm k' !es^owats!c g-'ildasa 300 
lax laeL laxs g-okwaqos. Weg'il la q!eqElax-^IdL6i qao^," ^nex'^lae. 
Wa, laEm^lae aEm la Leiwiiltotscyses UEgiimpe, qa^s lii L!EXwalaq. 
Wa, gil^Em^lawise ^wl^lolta laxes yae^yats!axs laa^l L!ExwelasE^wa. 
Wii, laEm^lae dzaqwaxslaa^l gwiila L!EXwa. Wii, lii^lae ^niixwaEm-El 
g-ax k!wameleda Kwakugule. Wii, hVlae yaq!Fg-a^ie g-igama^yasa 5 
Maamtag-ila, ylxa LegadEs iJiiqwadze. Wii, la^Iae ^nek'a: "Weg'a 
g'lgame^ Aodzagalas. Weg'a dox^widxwa g'T(s!awaxwa k' !esgEmfUax 
g'ildasa, qa wiig'e liixsox yawix'ilsa g'okwex," ^nex'^lae. Wii, hex'^- 
idaEm^lawise g'lgama^yasa Lawets!ese Liix^ullla, ylx Odze^stalise. 
Wii, lii^lae ^neka: "Weg'a, Kwiig'ul, wega ts!ets!ex^IdELxwa giinoLex. 10 
Wa, yiJEm g'its!axwa g'lldasexxwa lmmats!ex. Wii, hij^mis LegEmltse 
Ts!axuxstiila. Wii, yiVmesa mamaq!ax. Wii, he^mis LegEmltse «na- 
walax"dze yu^misa^g'Igameq!6lElax. Wii, he^mis LegEmltse Oma- 



966 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

the chief fool-dance, and his name will be | OmaqlolEla; and also 

15 the grizzly-bear dance, and his name will be NanenaskMe^. || Now 
there are four winter dances for my son-in-law, and therefore | 
I wish you to begin a winter dance this night." Thus he said. ! 
Immediately they began the winter dance. Then Awllgalas (V 1) 
disappeared, for now I | shall not call him Smoke-All-Round (V I) ; 
and Mamx'ayugwa (V 4) | disappeared, for her name was no more 

20 HamalaqalEmega (V 4); and || also the child of the younger brother 
(IV 2) of Aodzagalas, LlaLlElEwis (V 14), the boy | and his younger 
brother YayaqoLlalas (V 15). Now the ancestors of the Kwag'ul 
had a winter dance. | After they had disappeared for a long time, 
they were caught again. | Now Awilgalas was a cannibal-dancer, 
and his name was Tslaxuxstala, | and the nephew of Aodzagalas 

25 was thrower-dancer. His name was LlaL'.ElEwis (V 14), || and now 
he was named ^nawalax"dze ; and Mamx- ayugwa (V 4) was chief 
fool-dancer, | and her name was Omaq lolsla (V 4) ; and YayaqoL !alas 
(V 15) was grizzly-bear dancer, | and his name was Nanenask' !e^. 
Now they finished the winter dance. | 

Now Rmging-Copper (IV 4) was with child, and she gave birth | 
to a boy. Then Odze^stalis (III 5) came to make another pay- 

30 ment to his || son-in-law Aodzagalas (IV 3), bringmg forty 
dressed skins and also a | name; and the name given to the child 
borne by Ringing-Copper (IV 4) was | TsEx^wId (V 5) ; and 
Addzagalas (IV 3) gave away the forty | dressed skins to the four 

q!olEla. Yu^mesa nanex. Wil, he-mis LegEmltse Nanenask' !e. 

15 Wa, mox^wldalos k' !es^6LanEmaqos, uEgump. Wa, he^mesEn lag'ila 
walaqela, qa^swageosts!ets!ex^edxwaganoLex," ^nex'^lae. Wii, hex'- 
^idaEm^lawise ts letsex^eda. Wa, laEm^lae xis^ede Awilgalase qaxgin 
la^mek' gwal LeqElas Kwaxse^stala laq. Wa, heEm^lawise Mamx'a- 
yugwa; wii, laEmxaa gwal LegadEs HftmalaqalEmega. Wa, heEm- 

20 ^lawise xiinokwas tsla^yas Aodzagalase, yix LlaLJElEwise babagflma 

LE^wis ts!a^ye YayaqoL!alase. Wii, laEm^lae ts !ets lex^Ideda galii 

Kwiigula. Wii, giilaEm^awise x'isiilaxs liia-1 kimyasE^wa. Wa, la- 

Em^lae hamatsle Awilgalase. Wa, la LegadEs Tslaxuxstala. Wii, 

■ la^lae mamaq!a Lole^yas Aodzagalase, ylx LlaLlElEwise. Wii, hl^lae 

25 LegadEs ^nawalax"dze. Wa, la^lae g-Igiimeq'.olEle Mamx'ayugwa. 
Wa, la-laeLegadEs OmaqlolEla. Wii, la^enane YilyaqoLlalase. Wa, 
la^lae LegadEs Nanenask' !a^ye. Wa, laEm^lae gwiila ts!ets!eqa. 

Wii, laEm^lae bEwex^wide L!emElxk'!iilag'ilise. Wii, la^lae miiyul- 
^Ida, yisa babagume. Wa, g'ax^lae Odze^stalise wiiwalqalaxes ue- 

30 giimpe Aodzagsilasasa mox"sokwe aliig'ima. Wii, hcEm^lilwisa 
LegEme. Wii, laEm^lae LegadLa mayoLEmas LlemElxk' liilag'ilisas 
TsEx^wIde. Wa, laEm^lawise Aodzagalag'Uise plEs^etsa mox"sokwe 
alagim hixa mosgEmak!use ^niil^nE^mema, qa laes xiinokwe Tsex- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 967 

nuinayms on behalf of his chihl TsEx^vId (V 5). | Then she had an- 
other boy, and || Odze^staUs (III 5) gave another name for the child, 35 
and his name was | Qlslapa (V 6). Then she had another boy, and | 
Odze^stalis (III 5) gave presents of food to his son-in-law, and | he 
gave a name to the boy. And when | Aodzagalas (IV 3) gave a feast, 
with the cinquef oil-roots given by his father-in-law, || to the Kwag'ul 40 
tribes, then he named this new child LaLeliila (V 7). | As soon as 
Odze^stalis (III 5) went home he faulted and ] died. Now he had 
no son, for his only | child was Ringing-Copper (IV 4), the prin- 
cess of Odze^stalis (III 5) . | When it was reported to Ringing-Copper 
(IV 4) that her father had died, || she immediately went home with 45 
her tliree children, and | she gave away property to her tribe. Then 
TsEx^wId (V 5) took the seat | of Odze^stalis (III 5), and now his 
name was Odze^stalis (V 5). | Then he had the first seat in the 
numaym SlsEnLle^ of the Lawetsles. ] Then Aodzagalas (IV 3) was 
sad on account of what his wife Ringing-Copper (IV 4) had 
done ; || and he did not want his chikken to come back, | namely, 50 
Q!Elapa (V 6) and his yoimger brother LaLclLL'.a (V 7). | Now 
Ringing-Copper (IV 4) made them give a potlatch and take 
seats I of their relatives who had died before. | The two children 
obtained the seats of those who were dead. And for some time 



^wlde. Wa, la^lae et!ed xttngwatsa babagume. Wa, heEm^laxaawise 
Odze^stalise ts!a qa LegEmsa g'inauEme. Wa, laEm^lae LegadEs 35 
Qlfilapa. Wii, la^laxaa etied xtingwatsa babagiime. Wa, hex"- 
4daEm^lawise Odze-stalise la wawalqiilaxes UEgumpe. Wa, laEm- 
^lawise et!ed LegEmgElxi.ala ga LegEmsa babagume. Wii, giPEm^la- 
wise k Iwelas^ide Aodzagalasasa wawalqalayuwe t!Ex"sosa yises ns- 
gump laxa Kwagulaxs laa^l i.ex^ets Lai.eliL !a laxes ale xiinokwa. Wii, 40 
gil'Em^liiwise la nii^nakwe Odze^stiilisaxs laa^l heoda. Wa, laEm^lae 
lE^la. Wii, laEm^lae k' !eas bEgwauEm xunox"s, qaxs ^nEmox"-ma^l 
xunox"se L!emElxk'!iilag'ilise, ylx k'ledeldiis Odze^stalisde. Wii, 
gipEm^liiwise gax tslEkMal'itsE^'we L!emElxk!iilagilisases ompde, 
liia4 hex^^idaEm la nii^nakwa LE^wis yudukwe sasEma. Wii, hex'M- 45 
daEm^Lawise p!Es^ldxes goktilote. Wii, laEm^lae Lax"stode Tsex- 
^widiix Odze^stalisde. Wii, laEm^lae TsEx^wIde LegadES Odze-stalise. 
Wa, laEm^lae L&xumesa ^iiE^memotexa SisEULlesa Lawets!ese. Wii, 
laEm^lae ts!ix'ile naqa^yas Aodzagalase qa gwex'^idaasases gEiiEme 
LlemElxklalag ilise. Wii, laEm^lae ^nex', qa k'leslagus gax^eno- 50 
xwes waokwe siisEma, yix QlElapa le^wIs tslil^ye LiiLelLL!a. Wii, 
a^mis la he^me LleniElxk' !iilag"Ilise la p!Es^edamasEq, qa Laxumsto- 
desexes waokwe LeLELalaxa gEyolwiila lelE^la. Wii, laEm^lae k!wii- 
nokwa ma^lokwe g'inginauEms k!wek!wayolas. Wa, lae Aodzagalase 



968 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKITJTL [eth. ann. 35 

55 Aodzagilas (IV 3) did not || wish to marry. Then he asked in mar- 
riage the I princess of Chief ^maxiiyahdze (IV 5) , chief of the numaym, 
WiwomasgEm of the Mamaleleqahi, and there were two seats before 
that of I chief ^maxilyalidze. He had a princess MEled (V 8). 
Now I Aodzagalas (IV 3) wooed her for his prince AwIlgS,las (VI), 

60 that is j| Smoke-All-Round (VI). Then the numayms | the Maam- 
tagila and G'exsEm and Kukwaklum and Seni.!Em | went to pay 
the marriage money, — and also the Laalax's^Endayo. | All the 
Kwag"ii} went to pay the marriage money, because their strength 

65 is the same | as that of the Mamaleleqala; for the || Qlomoya^ye 
and ^walas Kwag'ul are the first of the Kwag"ul tribes; and also 
the Q!omk'!ut!Es; | and the Mamaleleqala stand at the head of the 
Nimkish, Qweq"sot!enox" | and Lawets!es; and the Mamaleleqala do 
this I when one of their chiefs goes to marry a princess of the | 
chiefs of the Kwag^ul. They go and ask the help of the Nimkish 

70 and || Qweq"sot!enox" and Lawets'.es; and Aodzagalas did the same , 
with the Kwag'ul. Then all went to pay the marriage money, — 
the five | numayms of the GwetEJa, and also the Qlomoya^ye, and 
the I ^walas Kwag'ul, and the QlomkMutlEs. Now, the village of 
the I Mamaleleqala was Memkumlis, and in the center of the village 

75 was the house of || Chief ^maxiiyalidze (IV 5). As soon as the | 
Kwagul arrived in Memkumlis, there was a sham -fight with 

55k"!es ^nex" qa^s gEyole gEg'ada. Wa, la^lae g'ayox^wIdEx k'!e- 
delasa glgama^ye ^maxiiyalidze, yix g^IgS-ma^yasa ^nE^memaxa Wi- 
womasgEmasa Mamaleleqala, ylxs mama^lokwalg'iwalaes klwa^ye, 
ylxa glgama^ye ^maxilyalidze, yixs k' !edadaas Mfilede. Wa, laEm- 
^lae Aodzagalase gayalaq qaes LEwtilgama^ye Awllgalase, yix 

60 Kwax'se^stala. Wa, la^laxae ^wHa la qadzeLeda ^nal^uE^memaxa 
Maamtagila LE^wa G'exsEme LE^wa Kukwak!iime LE^wa Sen- 
LlEme; wa, hcEm^lawisa Laalax's^Endayowe, yixs he^mae lagitas 
^wFla la qadzeLeda Kwag'ulaxs ^nEmalasae ioq Iwena^yasa Kwa- 
g'ule LE^wa Mamaleleqala, yixs mEkiima^yaeda Kwag^ulasa Q!6- 

65 nioya^ye LE^wa ^walase Kwag'ula; wii, he^misa Qlomk' !ut!Ese. 
Wii, la mEkiima^yeda Mamaleleqalasa ^nEmgese LE^wa Qweq"- 
sotlenoxwe LE^wa Lawets!ese. Wa, heEm^laxaawise gwex"^idaxa 
Mamaleleqala, qo qadzeLanux"laxe glgama^yas lax k' !esk' !Edelas 
glg'Egama^yasa Kwag'ule, yixs la laxe helaxa ^nEmgese LE^wa 

70 Qweq"sot!enoxwe LE^wa Lawetslese. Wii, he^mis gwex'^Ide Aodza- 
galasaxa Kwag^ule. LaEm-lae ^wFla la qadzeLeda sEk'!asgEmak!use 
^nal^uE^mema, yisa GwetEla. Wii, he-misa QlomoyjVye LE^wa ^wii- 
lase Kwagula LE^wa Q!omk'!ut!Ese. Wii, laEm^ae heEm gokii- 
laxa Mamaleleqale Memkumlise. Wa, la^lae UEqetsEma^ye go- 

75 kwasa glgilma^ye ^maxuyalidziisa g'okiila. Wa, glpEm^lawise 
lagaeda Kwiikug'ule li¥lax Memkumlisaxs laa^l amaqasosa q!enE 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 969 

the many | people of the Mamalelcqala; and many of the Kwa- 77 
g"ul were hurt, | and also many of the Mamaleleqala were hurt, | 
for indeed they tlu-ew stones at one another because they gave a 
name for the child that || Awllgalas (V 1) and his wife MEled 80 
(V 8) might have. His name was to be El^Elkusas (Blood) | or 
Yayilkiilas when it was born, until it was | ten months old (I just 
want to talk about this) ; and | after the sham-fight, Awllgalas 
paid the marriage money. | Now, the Kwag'ul did not wish to 
go ashore, II for the princess of Chief j toiaxuyalidze (IV 5), Msled So 
(V 8) was to come down out of the house of her father to | go 
into the canoe of her husband Awllgalas (V 1). She came j out of 
the house of her father with foiu* slaves | and many dressed skins 
as a marriage mat, and also the copper || SEwa, on which she was 90 
to walk as she was taken down by | ^maxiiyalidze (IV 5) to the 
canoe of his son-in-law Awllgalas (V 1); and when j MEled (V 8) 
went aboard the canoe of her husband, ^maxilyalidze (IV 5) went 
up again, j He just told his son-m-law to wait, and j also all the 
Kwagiil. He went up the beach in front of the village || and spoke. 95 
' He said, "Now, listen, son-in-law Awllgalas (V 1). j I let go now 
this name to you, son-in-law. Now your name shall be | ^maxwa 
(V 1), and yovi father's name shall be ^maxulag'ilis (IV 3)." Thus 
he said. | And immediately he sent his son-in-law to start off 

mola lelqwalaLa-ya Mamaleleqalola. Wa, laEm-lae q lenEme yllkwasa 77 
Kwag'ule. Wii, la^laxae q!enEme ogwaqa yilkwiisa Mamaleleqala, 
qaLaxs napap'.aasa tIesEme, qaxs Leqelae qa LegEms, qo xiingwadix'- 
^Ide Awllgalase LE^wis gEUEmLe MElede; wa, laEm Legadlaxs ePeI- SO 
kulase wilx'e YlyllkulasLalaxs g"alae mayuLEma lalaa laxes he- 
iogwilaena^ye. (Wa, a^mEn ^nex" qEn gwagwex'sEx'^Ide laq.) Wa, 
g'iHEm^lawise gwala amaqaxs laa^l qadzel^ida, yix Awllgalase. Wa, 
laEm^lae gwalEla ^nekeda Kwakiig'ule, qa^s k" !ese hox^wulta laxes 
yae^yats!e, qa^s gwagwaloLlamex k'ledelasa gigama'ye ^ma- 85 
xiiyalidze^ye MElede, qa g'axese lawEls lax g-olcwases ompe, qa^s 
g'axe hexsEla lax ya^yats!ases la^wunEme Awllgalase. Wa, g'ilx^- 
Em^awise -uEmawEls lax g'okwases ompe LE^wa mokwe q!ak'^. 
Wa, he^mise qlenEme alag'im le^waxses; wa, he^misa Llaqwa, yix 
Siiwa, qa qadzEwesos MEledaxs g'fixae taodaxdzEms ^maxiiyali- go 
dzaxs lax ya^yats!ases nEgumpe Awllgalase. Wa, g'iPEm^lawise 
laxse MElede lax ya^yatslases la^wijnEmaxs laa^l xwelax^Qsdese 
^maxuyalidze. AEm^lae axk'!alaxes nEgiimpe qa esales LE^wa ^na- 
xwa Kwag'ula. Wa, hVlae lax iyolsax oxwiwa^yasa g"ox"dEmse. Wa, 
la^lae yaqlEg-a^la. Wa, lae ^nek^a: "Weg'a, hoLelax, nEgump Awll- 95 
galas, qa Ifdag'Isg'ada LegEmk' laL, nEgiimp. Wa, laEms LegadElts 
-maxwa. Wa, la asax LegadElts ^maxulagllise," ^nex'^lae. Wii, liex'- 
^idaEm^lawise ^yalaqases uEgtimpe qa lalag'Is LEX^eda. Wa, hex'^ida- 



970 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

400 Then | the Kwag'iil went away; and when they arrived || at Qalogwis, 
they went ashore, and the Kwag'ul | took ashore the many dressed 
skms. When all had been taken out of the canoe, | ^maxulagilis 
(IV 3) for that was now the name of Aodzagalas (IV 3) | called his 
speakers to clear his house; and as soon | as they finished clearing 
5 his house, he told his speakers to stand outside || of the house and to 
invite all the Kwag'ul on behalf of | ^miixwa (V 1) ; for now ho was 
no longer named Awilgalas (V 1). , The ancestors of the Kwagnil 
went at once into the house | of ^maxulagilis (IV 3) to the potlatch. 
Then he told his | numaym the SenLlEm that the name of Awilgalas 

10 (V 1) was changed to ^maxwa (V 1) || and also that this property was 
given away for his son ^maxwa (V 1), for now Aodzagalas (IV 3), 
who had changed his name | to ^maxiilagilis (IV 3), said this when 
he gave away the ch-essed skins, | the marriage mat of MEled (V 8) to 
all the Kwag'ut. And he gave | one slave to the head man of 
each of the four numayms, — | to Chief Llaqwadze, chief of 

15 the Maamtag'ila; and || to Chief YaqEwId, chief of the G"exsEm; 
and I to Chief K"!ade, chief of the Kiikwiiklum; and also to | Chief 
PlasElal, — to each of these he gave | one slave, and he sold the' 
copper SEwa. | The chief of the numaym Maamtagila, Llaqwa- 

20 dze, bought it for || forty elk-skins and a hundred and twenty 

EmHawise g'ax LEx^ededa Kwakiig'ule. Wa, giPEmflawise lag'aa 
400 lax Qalogwise, wa, g'il^Em^lawise ^wlPolt9,weda Kwakugulaxs laa^l 
moltodayuweda q leneme alagima. Wa, giPEm^lawise ^wFloltaxs 
laa^l hex-^idaEm^lae ^maxulag-Ilise,qaxs lE^mae gwaJLegadEs Aodzaga- 
lase, axk" lalaxes a^yilkwe, qa ex^widesex g'okwas. Wa, g'lPEm^lawise 
gwala ekwaxa g'okwaxs laa^l a^xk' lalaxes a^yilkwe, qa las Lax^wuls 
5 lax L lasana^yases g'okwe, qa LelElasexa ^naxwa Kwakug'ula, qa 
^maxwa qaxs lE^mae gwal LegadEs Awilgalase. Wa, hex'^idaEra- 
^lawise g^ax^sl ^wi^laeLeda plekwe qlenEm lelqwahxLa^ya, g'ala Kwa- 
kug"ul lax g-okwas ^maxulagilise. Wii, laEm'lae nelaxes *nE^me- 
mota SenL lEmaxs lE^mae LlayuxLe Awilg&lasas ^maxwa. Wa, he- 

10 ^misexs he^mae senatses xunokvve ^maxwa qaxs lE^mae LlayoxLa 
Aodzagalasas ^maxulagilise, ^nex^^laexs laa^l yax^wltsa alagimexa 
le^waxsa^yas MElede laxa ^naxwa Kwakug-ula. Wa, la^lae g'ex-etsa 
-nal-nEmokwe lax Lei.axuma^yasa mosgEmakwe ^nal^nE^memasaxa 
gigamaj'ulae i.!aqwadze, yix glgama^yasa Maa,mtag'ila; wii, he- 

15 ^misa g'lgamayulae YaqEwlde, g'Tg^ma^yasaO'exsEme; wa, he^misa 
g'ig&mayulae KMadota, g'Tg^ma^j^asa Kiikwakliime; wa, he^misa 
g'Igamayulae PIf.sElalwula. Wa, heEm^El gex^edaatsa ^nal^nEmo- 
kwe q!ak"&. Wa, la^lae laxodEx SEwaxa iJaqwa. Wa, he^lat!a 
g'lgama^yasa -UE^memaxa Maamtag'ila, ylx Llaqwadze k'llx^witsa m5- 

20 x"sokwe alag'im hlq. Wii, hcEm^awisa ma^ltsogugiyowe k'!obawas 



BOAS] FAMUA' HISTORIES 971 

cedar-bark blankets. | Then ^maxwa (V 1) gave it away for the 21 
weight of his father's name, | ^maxulag iUs (IV 3), for he was no 
longer named Aodzagalas (IV 3). | He gave away forty dressed 
skins to the chiefs of the Qlomoya^ye | and the ^walas Kwag'ul, 
and also to the Q'.omkMutlEs, || and he gave away a hundred 25 
and twenty blankets to the common people; | and immediately 
all those who had been called to the potlatch went out when 
they had received theu- presents. | Now ^maxwa (V 1) and his 
wife MEled (V 8) were a happy couple; | and they had not 
been married a long time when she was with child ; | and she gave 
birth to a boy, and his name was || EpElkulas (VI 1) until he 30 
was ten months old; and then ^maxiiyalidze (IV 5) | gave as a 
marriage present forty dressed skins and many cedar-bark blan- 
kets to his I son-in-law ^maxwa (V 1), and also a name for his 
child. I Now the name of the child was ^max^mEwis (VI 1); and 
now he gave away forty | dressed skins and many cedar-bark 
blankets to the ancestors of the || Kwag'ul. Then she had again 35 
a boy ; and | ^maxuyalidze (IV 5) brought in his canoe a num- 
ber of dressed skins and | cedar-bark blankets, and he gave mar- 
riage presents to his son-in-law ^maxwa (V 1), and | also a name 
for the child. Then it was to be named | ^maxwaq !olEla (VI 2). 
Thus he said. When ^maxuyalidze (IV 5) stopped speaking, || the 40 
father of ^maxwa (V 1), ^maxulag-ilis (IV 3), thanked him for what 
he had said. | He sent out his speaker to stand outside | of the house 



Iflq. Wa, laEm^lae -maxwa omayogwilas lax LegEmases ompe 21 
^ma.xulag ilise, qaxs lE^mae gwat LegadEs Aodzagalase. Wa, laEm- 
^lae yax-wltsa mox"sokwe filag'im laxa glgigama^yasa Q!omo- 
ya^ye LE^wa ^walase Kwagula. Wa, hcEm^lawisa QIomkMutEse. 
Wa, la^Iae yax^witsa ma^ltsogiig iyowe k' lobawas laxa bebEkwaxa. 25 
Wa, la^lae hex'^da hoquwElseda p!ekwaxs laa^l gwal yaqwasE-'wa. 
Wa, laEm^lawise ek'e hayasEk'alaena^yas ^maxwa LE^wis gEUEme 
Mslede. Wa, k' les^Em^lawise giila hayasEk^alaxs laa^l bEwex^wide. 
Wa, la^lae mayul'ida yisa babagume. Wa, laEm^lae LegadEs ePeI- 
kulase lala laqexs laa^l helogwila. Wa, laEm^lae ^maxQyalidze 30 
walqesasa m5x"sokwe alagim LE^wa qlenEme k'!obawas laxes UE- 
gilmpe ^maxwa. HeEm^lawisa i.egEme qa LegEmsa g'lnanEme. 
Wa, lasm Legadeda g'InanEmas ^max"mEwisa, yixs laa^l plEseda- 
yuweda mox^sokwe alagim LE^wa qleuEme k' lobawas laxa g-ala 
Kwag'ula. Wa, Ifv^lae et!ed xungwatsa babagume. Wa, hex^^i- 35 
daEm^awise ^maxiiyalidze la malaxa he^maxat! waxa alagim le- 
^wa k'lobawase, qa^s la walqesas laxes iiEgumpe ^maxwa. Wa, 
he^mesa LegEine qa LegEmsa ginansme. Wa, laEm^lae LegadElts 
^maxwaq !oiEla, ^nex'^lae. Wa, giPEm^lawise q!wel^ede ^maxtiya- 
lidziixs laa^l Lax^iillle ompas ^maxwe, ylx ^maxulag'ilise, qa-'s monies 40 
waldEmas. Wa, hex"ndaEm^lawise ^yalaqases Elkwe qa las Lax^wQls 



972 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIXJTL [eth. Ai<N. 3d 

43 and to invite the four numayms | on account of ^maxwaqlolEla 
(VI 2), the son of ^maxwa (V 1). He said to his speaker, 
"You will say so." | Immediately the speaker went out of the|| 

45 house of Chief ^maxiilag-ilis (IV 3), and he shouted, | inviting 
them; and when he stopped, he came again | into the house to 
clear it out; and after that had been done, | the four numayms 
came in. Now | ^maxulagilis (IV 3) told them that the name of 

50 his grandson would be || ^maxwaqlolEla (VI 2), which was given 
in marriage by ^maxuyalidze (IV 5) to his son-in-law ^maxwa 
(V 1) I Thus he said; and then he gave away dressed skins and 
many | cedar-bark blankets; and then they had another son, and | 
the same was done by ^maxuyalidze (IV 5) ; and he gave him the 
name | Mamx'a (VI 3) for the child borne by MEled (V 8). Then || 

55 Mfiled (V 8) gave birth to anotlier boy, and ^maxuyalidze (IV 5) 
gave him another name, | MEledzas, (VI 4) for the name of the 
new-born child; and she | gave birth to a daughter, and ^maxu- 
yalidze (IV 5) gave her the name | ^max"mEwIdzEmga (VI 5) as 
a name for the new-born child; and when | Msled (V 8) was 
again with child, her father, ^maxuyalidze, (IV 5) was taken ill.|| 

60 Then ^maxwa (V 1) told his father, ^maxulag'llis (IV 3), | to go 
quickly and see him at Memkumlis, and also MEled (V 8) went 
from I Qalogwis. When they arrived, the people went to meet 

42 lax Llasana^yases g'okwe qa Letelasexa mosgEmakwe ^nal-nE^me- 
ma, qa ^maxwaqlolElaxa xunukwas ^maxwa. "^nexxEs," ^nex'- 
^laexes Elkwa. Wii, hex'^idaEm'lawise la lawElseda Elkwa lax 

45 g-okwases g^Igama^ye ^maxulagilise. Wa, laEm^lawise hasElaxs 
lae LelEla. Wa, g'il'Em^lawise q!wel-edExs g'axaasl xwelagcLa 
laxa g'okwe, qa^s ex^wldeq. Wa, giPEm^lawise gwala g'fixa- 
a^las hogwiLeda mosgEmakwe ^nal'nE^mema. Wii, laEm'lawise 
^maxulag"Ilise nelaqexs lE^mae LegadES ts!ox"LEmas ^maxwaq !6- 

50 lEla, yixs LegEiug'slxLa-yaas ^maxuyalidze laxes nEgumpe ^maxwa, 
^nex'^laexs laa4 yax^witsa alagime Lo^aeda qleuEme k'!6- 
bawasa. Wa, la^lae et!ed xungwada ylsa babagiime. Wil, heEm- 
^laxaawise gwex'^'Id^lae ^maxuyalidze. Wii, laEm^lae LegEmg^ElxLala 
lax MSmx'a qa LegEms ale mayoLEms MElede. Wa, la^lae etiede 

55 MElede mayoHtsa babagiime la^laxae ^maxiiyalidze LegEmg'Elx-' 
Lalax MEledzase qa LegEmsa ale mayoLEma. Wa, la-lae et!ed ma- 
yol-itsats!ats!adagEme. Wa, la^axae ^maxuyalidze LegEmgElxLalax 
^max"mEwIdzEmga qa LegEmsa ale mayoLEma. Wa, lieEm^lawis ales 
bEwex^wld etiede MEledax laa^l ts!Ex'q!Ex"^ides ompe ^maxiiyalidze- 

50 yola. Wii, hex'^idaEm^liiwise ^miixwa axk' liilaxes ompe ^maxiilagilise, 
qa^s la altsEme doqwaq lax Memkumlise, Lo^me MElede g'iix-^Id liix 
Qiilogwise. Wii, lii^ae Ifig^aaxs liia^l liilalasE^wa. Wii, laEm^lae 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 973 

hem, and they told | Meled (V 8) that her father, ^maxuyaUdze 63 
(IV 5), had died tlie night before. | Then the father of ^maxwa 
(V 1), ^maxidagihs (IV 3), when he heard || the report, fainted 6') 
and he also died. | Then ^maxwa (V 1) spoke to his wifeMEled (V 8), 
and I said, "Oh, my dear! let my father be biu-ied | together with 
your father. | Now I will stay with the Mamaleleqala." | Thus he 
said. His wife MEled (V 8) agreed with him, || for ^maxwa (V 1) 70 
was ashamed of what had happened to his father, and therefore 
left his numaym| the SenLlEm. The Mamaleleqala came home | after 
bm-ying ^maxulag'ilis (IV3). | Then | Mfiled (V S) mvited the Ma- 
maleleqala and told her tribe what she thought, | and that she 
wished her husband, ^maxwa (V 1), || to take the place of his 75 
father-in-law, ^maxuyalidze (IV 5). Then the | Mamaleleqala agreed 
to what she said, for he had been a good chief. | Now ^maxwa 
(V 1) gave a potlatch to the ancestors of the Mamaleleqala, | and 
his name was still ^maxwa (V 1). | 

At this time the white people came to build a house at Tsaxis 

(Fort Rupert) in 1849. Then || ^maxwa (V 1) was really treated 80 
as a chief by the ancestors of the Mamaleleqala, for they | 
wanted to keep him, that he should not go back to the Kwa- 
g"ul; and he never | went back again, because he was a chief of 
the numaym WiwomasgEm. | Now Msled (V 8) gave as a marriage 

Mslede ts Isk" lalEtsoxs lE^maa nex"sElses ompe ^maxttyalidzex'de. 63 
Wa, gih'Em^'hiwise ompas ^maxwa, ylx ^maxulagilise helatox waldE- 
masa ts!Ek'!alElaxs laa^ heoda. Wa, laEm^Iaxae lE^la. Wa, he- 65 
x'^idaEm^awise yaqlEg^a^le ^maxwaxes gEUEme MElede. Wa, la^lae 
^neka: "'ya, ada, yidagaEmax"ox wunEmtEn ompdex qa q!ap!a- 
laLEla^mesox lo asda. Wa, la^mesEn yux"saEml laxda Mamaleleqa- 
lax," ^nex'^lae. Wa, ^la^latla lielaLEla lax naqa-yas gEnEmase 
MElede qaxs lE^mae ^maxwa hamax'tslaxsa bases ^nE^memota 70 
SenLlEme, qa gwex'^idaasases ompde. Wa, la^lae g'ax na^nakweda 
Mamaleleqaliixs wunEmtaax ^maxiilag'ilisde. Wa, la-lae Leltslode 
MElediixa Mamaleleqala. Wa, laEm^lae nelas gwalaasases nac[a^ye 
Ifixes g"okulote, yixs lE^mae ^nex', qa he^mises hVwunEme 'maxwa 
Llaj'ostodxes nEgumpde ^maxuyalidzex"de. Wit, la^Iae ^naxwa 75 
ex'aqa Mamaleleqalax waldEmas, qaxs alaa^l ex^wiil g'lgama^ya. 
Wa, laEm'lae plEs^ide ^maxwaxa g'ala Mamaleleqala. Wa, he- 
x'saEm-'lawis LegEmse ^maxwa. 

Wa, gax^me goxwalldzases Tsaxise laxeq 1849. Wa, laEm^lae 
ala aekilasE^we ^maxwa, g'iig-exsilaso^sag'alasa Mamaleleqala, qaxs 80 
dzadzanaaq, qa k" !esesg'ax aedaaqalaxaKwag'ule. Wa, ala^mesek' !es 
la gax aedaacja, qaxs lE-mae gigamesa ^nE^memaxa WlwomasgEme. 
Wa, laEm^lae MElede Laxwig'ElxLalax Laxwa^yases ompde laxes 



974 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

present the seat of her father to her | husband ^maxwa (V 1), 
and she gave as a marriage present the house called Q!aats!e || 

85 to ^maxwa (V 1). Then MEled (V 8) gave bh-th to another child 
(VI 6), 1 and this youngest child was named Lebas (VI 6). | 
Now there were five boys and one girl. | Two winters after ^ma- 
xQyalidze (IV 5) had died, | ^maxwa (V 1) said that he wanted 

90 to invite his tribe, the Kwag'ul, || to come to a potlatch at 
Memkumlis, and he called in his | numaym the Wiwoma&gEm to 
come into his house | Q!aats!e. When they were all in, | ^maxwa 
(V 1) at once stood up and spoke. | He said, "O numaym Wi- 

95 womasgEm ! I call you || that you may know what my desire is. 
I wish you to | go and invite the Kwag'ul for me." Thus he 
said; and when | he stopped speaking, one of his speakers arose, | 
and said that they would go at once and launch the inviting- | 
500 canoe; and his numaym said that he should go ahead || quickly. 
Then they arose at once and | went out of the house of their 
chief. They prepared themselves; and when | the food was ready 
that they were going t) take, they launched the inviting- | canoe 
and went aboard. They started off. | ^maxwa (V 1) and his wife 
5 MEled (V 8) did not go. The messengers arrived || and invited 



la^wunEme ^maxwa. Wa, la^lae g'okulxLiilaxa g'okwe LegadEs Q!ar- 

85 ts!e laxaax ^maxwa. Wa, laEm^laxae xungwada ylx MElede. Wa, 

laEm^lae Lex^edElas Lebase laxes ale xQnokwa. Wa, laEm^lae sEk" !o- 

kwa bebEgwauEme sasEms. Wa, la^lae ^UEmokwa ts !ats ladagE- 

ma. Wa, he^lat!a la ma^lEnxe ts!S,^wunxas la lE^le ^maxuyalidze- 

x"daxs laa-1 ^nek'e ^maxwa, qa^s LelElexes gokulotaxa Kwakug'ule, 

90 qa g"axes plekus lax Memkumlise. Wa, hVlae Lelts!6dxes la 

^uE^memotaxa WiwomasgEme, qa gaxes ^wFlaeLEla lax g'okwase 

Qlailtsle. Wa, g'ax^Em4awise ^wFla hogwiLa. Wa, g'ipEm^lawise 

g-ax ^wFlaeLExs laa^lhex'^ida^me ^maxwa Lax^iillla qa^las yaqlEg'a^e. 

Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "HedEn Le^laliloL, ^uE-'memot WiwomasgEm, 

95 qa^s qialaosaxg'a gwalaasg'asgin naqek', qaxg'ln ^nekik', qa^s 

lax'da^xwaos LelElaxa Kwakugula qaEn," ^nex'Iae. Wa, gipEm- 

^lawise qlweHdExs laa^l Lax^ulila g^ayule lax a^yilkwas. Wa, 

la^lae ^nex" qa^s hex'^ida^me la LElstEndxes LeltsayuwatsleLe xwa- 

k!una. Wa, la^lae ^naxwaEm ^neke ^nE^memotas, qa wages asm 

500 hali^lala. Wii, aEm^lawise hex'^idaEm q!wag illla, qa^s la^l hoqv- 

wElsa lax gokwases g"IgS,ma^ye, qa^s la xwanal^lda. Wa, g^il^Em^la- 

wise gwax'giillle g^iwiilkwasexs laa4 LEpstEndxes Leltsayowats !eLe 

xwakluna, qa^s hox^walExse. Wa, laxda^x"^Em^lae alex-wida. Wa, 

laEm^ae k^ !es lii ^maxwa LE^wis gEnEme Mslede. Wa, la^lae lag'aeda 

5 Leltsayo, qa^s Lelalak" !Eg"a^lexa Kwag-ule. Wii, hex'^idaEm^lawise 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 975 

the Kwag'iil, and | all of the Kwag'ul got ready. In the morn- 6 
ing, when day came, | the invited Kwag-iil staHed. | The canoe 
of the messengers kept ahead of them. Then the | Kwag'ul 
arrived in front of the house of ^maxwa (V 1), m the center || 
of the village of Memkumlis. Then ^maxwa (V 1) liimself | 10 
spoke, and invited his guests to eat. When [ he stopped speak- 
ing the Kwag'ul went ashore out of their canoes and | went into 
the house of ^maxwa (V 1) who gave them to eat. | After they 
had eaten, ^maxwa (V 1) wished to give away || many cedar- 15 
bark blankets and dressed skins for his potlatch. | 

He was told to go on. Then he sent out his speakers | and 
called the Kwag-ul and the Mamaleleqala. | Then those who were 
sent went, and it was not long before they all | came in. When 
they were all m the house, || Msled (V 8), the wife of ^maxwa 20 
(V 1) arose and spoke. She said: | "O chiefs of the Mamalele- 
qala! I will tell you what I have | in my mind. Hereafter my 
husband, j ^maxwa (V 1), will take the place of my father. He 
will take his seat, and | his name will be ^maxuyalidze (V 1). 
Now, do not name him ^maxwa (VI), for || he will never leave us 25 
Mamaleleqala, any more." Thus she said. | After she had spoken 
all the chiefs of the Mamaleleqala agreed | to what Meled (V 8) 



^naxwa xwanaKdeda Kwakiig'ule. Wa, g'ipEm^lawise ^nax^Hdxa. 6 
gaalaxs g'axaa^l ^wPla alex^wideda Lelalakwa Kwakugule. Wa, 
^Em4ae g'alag'iwa^ye ya^yatslasa Leltsayowe. Wa, la^lae lag'aeda 
plekwe Kwakugul lax uEqEinalesa g'okwas ^maxwa lax UEqetsEma- 
^yasa g"okula lax Memkumlise, wa, xamadzaqwaEm^lawise ^maxwa 10 
yaq!Eg"a4a, yixs laa^l Lel'wiittodxes Le^lauEme. Wa, gipEm^lawise 
q IwePidExs laa^l hox^wultaweda Kwakug^ule laxesy ae^yats!e. Wa, 
laEm^lawise hacLEla lax g'okwas ^maxwa, qa^s la^l LlExwa laq. 
Wa, g'll^Ein^lawise gwal L!Exwaxs laa^ae ^maxwa ^nex' qa^s yax- 
^widesa qleuEme klobawasa LE^wa alagime laxa plekwe. 15 

Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise waxasE^wa. Wa, la^lae ^yalaqases a^yilkwe 
qa las ^wa-wi^laeL !a Le^lalaxa Kwakiig^ule LE^wa Mamaleleqala. 
Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise lada ^yalagEme. Wii, k"!es^lat!a galaxs 
g^axaa^l ^wi^laeLa. Wii, gipEm^awise ^wi^laeLExs laa^as Lax^ullle 
MElede, ylx gEUEmas -maxwa, qa^s yaqlEg'a^ie. Wa, la^ae ^neka: 20 
"^ya, g'IgEgames Mamaleleqal. HedEn nelEmxda^xoLcg'a gwata- 
asg'asgin n^qek', yixs lE^maex' LlayostodLEn la'wunEmex ylxox 
^maxwax laxEn ompdaEn. La^mox lallax k!wa^yas. Wa, la'mesox 
Legadfil ^maxiiyalidze. Wa, laEms gwal LeqElas ^maxwa laq", qaxs 
lE^maex kMesLE lal b^LEns Mamaleleqal," ^nex^^lae. Wa, gll^Em- 25 
^lawise qlwel'Idfixs, laa^las ^nEmfda^mEl ex'^ak'e g'Igigama'yasa 
Mamaleleqalax waldEmas MElede. Wii, heEm^lawis la Lilx^ulilatsa 



976 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. a.nn. 35 

28 had said. Then | one of the chiefs of the Kwag'ul arose and 
spoke. I He said,' "O chiefs of the Mamaleleqala ! do not carry too 

30 far II what you are talking ahout in regard to our chief ^maxwa (V 1), 
for I you are not willing to let him come back to us. Let us | Kwa- 
g"ul say to them that he shall let some of the children of our 
chief I ^maxwa (V 1) be treated by us as chiefs." Thus he said. 
Immediately j ^maxuyalidze (V 1) (for we no longer call him ^maxwa 

35 [V 1]) II spoke, and said, " What you say is good, chiefs of the | 
Kwag'ul. Now ^maxwaq '.olEla (VI 2) and his younger brother | 
Mamxa (VI 3) shall go. ^maxwaqlulEla (VI 2) shall have the name 
G'ayosdas (VI 2) of the | SenL !Em, and Mamx"a (VI 3) shall also 
change his name. His | name shall be Smoke-all- Aroimd (VI 3). You 

40 know the seats which I had when I was || with you, SenL '.Em. They 
shall go, because I shall truly stay j with the Mamaleleqala." Thus 
he said. Now all the | SenL!Em were sorry on account of what he 
had said. Then he gave away dressed skins j and cedar-bark blank- 
ets to the invited Kwag'ul. As soon as | he had finished his pot- 

45 latch, the chief of the numaym Maamtag'ila,|| Llaqwadze, arose and 
spoke. He said, "O | Mamaleleqala! — and you, Kwagul! how do 
you feel about the | white people who have come and built a house 
at Tsaxis? Let us go and see them! " Thus he said. | Immediately 
all agreed to what he said, j Then all the Kwag^ui and Mamalele- 

28 g'ayole lax g'lg-igama^yasa Kwakug-ule, qa^s yaq!Eg'a^le. Wa, 
la^lae -nek'a: "^ya, g'IgEgames Mamaleleqal; a^ma k'!es xEnLEla 

30 sabEnd laxos waldEmaqos qa^mr'x" glgama^3'6x ^maxwax, yixs 
lE^maaqos yax'stotsox g'ax et!Eqa gaxEnu^'x". Wa, lietlaLEns 
waidEniLe Kwakug'ul, qa g'axnokwesa sasEmasEns g'lgama^ye 
'maxwa qEns gagexsIlasE^wa," ^nex'^lae. Wa, liex'^idaEm^lawise 
^maxuyalidze, qaxgins la^mek' gwal LeqElas ^maxwa laq; wa, la^ae 

35 yaq!Ega^la. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "Ex'^maes waldEmos g'ig'Egames 
Kwagul. La^mesox lat laLox ^maxwaq !5lElax le'wos ts!a^3'aq!6x 
Mamxax, qa lalag'Iltsox ^maxwaq !6lElax LegadElts Gayosdase laL 
SenLJEm. Wa, laEmxaawiso L!ayoxLaLox MEmx'ax. Wa, laEm- 
xaawiso LegadElts Kwaxse^stala. Wii, las q!alaEmxEn LaLEXwa- 

40 ^yaq!En laL SeuLiEm, qa he^meitsox la qaEn laene^me ala xEk!a 
laxg'a Mamaleleqalak"," ^nex'^ae. Wa, laEm^lawise ^naxwa^ma 
SenL!Eme mayatas waldEmas. Wa, laEm^lawise yax^wltsa alagime 
LE^wa k' loba^wase laxes Lela^lakwa Kwakug^ule. Wa, gU'Em^lawise 
gwal yaqwaxs laa^lase Lax^tiliie g^igama^yasa ^nE^memasa Maamta- 

45 g'ila, ytx L!aqwadze, qa^s yaq!Ega4e. Wa, Wlae ^neka: "^ya, 
Mamaleleqala lo^s Kwagul. Walos nenaqa^yaq !os qaeda gwE^ya 
mamat^a g'ax gokwila Inx Tsaxise, qEns la doqwaq ?" ^nex'^lae. 
Wa, hex'^idaEui^lawise ^naxwa ex'ak'Ex waldEmas. Wa, hex'-i- 
daEm^awis g"ax ^wFleda Kwag'ule LE^wa Mamaleleqala LE^wa 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 977 

qala and || QlomoyfVye, and the ^walas Kwag-ul, went to | Tsaxis. 50 
Now they behoved what was reported to them at | Qalogwis. The 
Kwag-ul and the | Mamaleleqala went back at once to bring their houses 
and ah their property, | and they came to build houses at Fort Ru- 
pert. Now the Kwag-ul really left || their village sites at Qalogwis, 55 
and the Q!omoyiVye their village site at Ts!ade, and the | ^walas 
Kwtig-ul their village site at Adap!e, | and they stayed at Fort Ru- 
pert; but the Mamaleleqala did not stay long, | then they went back 
to Memkumlis; and the Kwag-ul | and Q!6moya^ye and ^walas 
Kwag-ul, and also the || Qlomk-'.ut'.Es, kept together, and they built 60 
houses at Fort Rupert; and when | the Kwag-ul had built their 
houses, G-ayosdas (VI 2) was a young man. | He had taken the 
place ot his father (VI), who was now chief ot the Mamaleleqala, | 
that is, of ^ma.xuyalidze (V 1), who had been chief of the numaym 
SenLlEm. | Now G-iiyosdas (VI 2) was chief of the SeuLlEm. Now|| 
his numaym wished him to marry a princess of | some chief of the 05 
Kwtlg'ul, for they did not want him to marry outside ; | and also his 
younger brother, Smoke-All-Round (VI 3), for they disliked what 
had been done by | their father, whose wife would not let him come 
back again. As soon as | the houses which the four Kwag-ul tribes 
had built were fuiished, Q-ayosdas (VI 2) spoke || to his brother ^q 
Smoke- Ail-Round (VI 3). He | said to him that he had seen a woman 

Qlomoya^ye LE^wa ^walase Kwag'ula. Wa, g-ax^lae g-ax^aLEla lax 59 
Tsaxise. Wii, laEm'lae oqlus^IdEx waldEmasa ts !Ek- lalElas lax 
Qalogwise. Wa, hex-^idaEm^lawise la aedaaqeda Kwakiigule LE^wa 
Mamaleleqala, qa^s lii mawaxes g'okwe le^wIs ^naxwa gwelgwiila, 
qa^s g-axe g'ox^walis lax Tsaxise. Wa, laEm^lae alak-!aia bEweda 
Kwakiigulases g-ox"dEmse Qalogwise l6* Tslade, yix g-ox"dEmsasa 55 
QlomoytVye, lo^ Adap!e, yix g-6x"dEmsasa ^walase Kwagula. Wa, 
heEm xEk- !a lax Tsaxise. Wa, lit k- !es giila'laeda Mamaleleqalaxs 
laa^l na^nax" lax Memkumlise. Wa, laEm^lae q!ap!ex-^sada Kwa- 
g'ule, LE^wa Q!6moya^ye LE^wa ^walase Kwag-ula; wii, he^misa 
Qtemk-'.utlEse, ylxs lilaH g'okwela hix Tsaxise. Wa, g-ll^'Em^liiwise gg 
gwale g-ig-6kwela^yasa Kwakug-ulaxs liia^'l heiak- !6x-wide G-ayos- 
diise, yixs lE^mae L!ayustodxes ompexa la g-igamesa Mamalele. 
qala, yix ^miixuyalidze, yixs g'lgilmayaolasa ^iiE^mema SenLlEme- 
Wa, he^mis la g-Igama^ye G-ayosdase yisa SenL'.Eme. Wii, laEm^las 
wise -'nek-e ^uE^memotas, qa wiig-Js gEg-ada lax k- !esk- !edela- 55 
g-ig-Egama^yasa Kwiikiig-ule, qaxs k- !esae la helqlolEni la gEg-a- 
dExtla LE'wis tsla^ye Kwax-se^stala, qaxs anag-Emae gwex-'idaa- 
sas ompda^xwasexs lae xEk- !aas6ses gEiiEme. Wii, g-ii-'Em^hiwise 
gwal^Emg-aElseda g'igokwela^ya mosgEmakwe Kwakug-ula, laa^Iase 
yaq!Eg-a4e Giiyosdase laxes ^uEmwote Kwax-se^stala. Wii, laEm 70 
nelaxs lE^mae dox-'waLElaxaek-e liix naqa^yas tslEdaqa, yix k- !edelas 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 2 13 



978 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

that pleased him, the princess of | A^walaskinis (V 9), KMamaxalas 
(VI 7) , for he was the head chief of the numaym Haayalik-awe^ "that 
I may | obtain privileges on account of what was done by our father." 

75 Thus he said. || Then Smoke-All-Round (VI 3) also spoke. He | told 
him to go ahead and to call a meeting of their numaym the | Sen- 
L'.iim, to tell them of what he had in mind. | Immediately G'ayos- 
das (VI 2) wished his yomiger brother Smoke-All-Round (VI 3) to | call 
his numaym the SenL !Em, and Smoke-All-Round (VI 3) went at once 

80 to II mvite them. It was not long before the numaym SenLJEm 
came in. | Then G'ayosdas (VI 2) spoke, and told them that | he 
wished to marry the princess of A^walask'inis (V 9), K' lamaxalas 
(VI 7), I the princess of the chief of the numaym Haayalik'awe^. 

85 Thus he said, j The numaym agreed at once to his words, and jj he 
made the marriage payment at once. After they had been married, | 
chief A^walask"mis (V 9) stood up and spoke. He | said, "Now, listen, 
son-in-law G'ayosdas (VI 2)! — Come, j chiefs of the SeuLlEm, and 
lift yo\ir wife, and carry her to the | house of my son-in-law; for 

90 she is sitting on her marriage mat, on these || ten blankets. Your 
name will be Yaqostod (VI 2), son-in-law; | and when you wish to 
give a winter dance, your dancer will be | Hayalikila, and his name 
will be Tslaqame^." Thus he said; j and when he stopped speaking, 

72 A^walaskinise, ylx K" lamaxalase, qaxs he^mae xamagEme g'lgii- 
ma^ye A^walask"inisasa -OE^memotasa HaS,yalik'awa^ye, "qEnwag'e 
k"!ak'!es^0L!a laq, qa gwex'^idaasasEns ompa g'axEns," ^nex"^lae. 

75 Wa, hex'^idaEm'lawise ogwaqa yaqlEg'a^e Kwax'se^stala. Wa, 
laEm^lawise ^Em waxaq qa wag"is &,Em Lelts!6dxes ^UE^memotaxa 
SeuLlEme, qa^s neieseq yls gwalaasases naqa^ye laq. Wii, hex'^i- 
daEm^lawise Gayosdase ^nex' qa he^mises tsla^ye Kwax'se^stala la 
Le^lalaxes ^nE^memotaxa SeuLlEme. Wa, liex'^idaEm^lawiseKwax'se- 

80 ^stalala Le^lala. Wa, k" !es^lat !a gaiaxs gaxaa^l ^wFlaeLes ^uE^memota 
SenLlEme. Wa, la^lae yaqlEga^le G'ayosdase, qa^s nelexs lE^mae 
^nex' qa^s gEg'ades k'ledelas A^walaskinise, lax K' lamaxalase lax 
gigama^yasa ^uE^memaxa Haayalik"awa^ye, ^nex'^lae. Wa, hex"^i- 
daEm^lawise 'naxwa ex'ak'e ^nE^memotasex waldEmas. Wa, hex'^i- 

85 daEm^lawise qadzeHdEq. Wa, g il^Em^lawise gwala qadzcLaxs laa^l 
Lax^ulileda gig^ma^ye A^walask'lnise, qa^s yaqlEga^le. Wa, la^lae 
-neka: "Weg'a hoLelal gaxEn, uEgump, Gayosdas. Gelag'a 
g'Ig'Egames SenLlEm dag'illlaxg'as gEUEmg'os qa lalag'isEk' laxes 
g'okwaos, nEgump, qaxs la^meg'as k!vvadzalilg"as le^waxsex'xg'a 

90 lastok" p lElxElasgEma. Wa, helmets LegEmLose Yaqostode, nE- 
gump. Wa, g"ll^EmlwIts ^nex'LE qa^s ts!ets!eqa6s laLe Hayalik'l- 
laLes senatLaos; wa, he^niis LegEmltse Tsliiqama^ye," ^nex^ae. Wa, 
gipEm^lawise qlweHdExs laa^l ^naxwa q!wag ilileda ^uE^mema, yixa 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 979 

the iiumaym | SenLlEm arose and went into a room in which 
K-!amaxalas (VI 7), || the princess of Chief A^walaskinis (V 9), was 95 
seated; and when | they had gone into the room, K'!amaxaLas 
(VI 7) arose and tokl them where | the pile of ten blankets, her 
marriage mat, was. . Then | these were taken by some of the num- 
aym of the SenLlEm. They | came out of the room, and among 
them walked KMiimaxalas (VI 7), and they || went back to the house 600 
of G"ayosdas (VI 2). Immediately | G'ayosdas (VI 2) sent his 
speakers to call the Maamtag'ila | and the numaym G'exsEm' and 
the Kukwak!um and also the | Laalax's^Endayo, — the four num- 
aynis. Immediately | they went and stood outside of the house of 
G'ayosdas (VI 2). || Then they invited, and this is what they said 5 
when I they were inviting: "Now, Maamtag'ila, G'exsEm, | Kiikwa- 
k'.um, Laalax's-Endayo, you will see the dance of YayaqoL'.alas 
(VI 3), the daughter' of | Yiiqostod (VI 2)," — for his name was no 
longer G'ayosdas, — and hereafter | his name was Yaqostod (VI 2), 
which he obtained in marriage. |] 

I have forgotten the name given in marriage by A^walask'inis (V 9) 10 
to be ! the name of Smoke-All-Round (VI 3). It Ls YiiyaqoiJalas 
(VI 3), for the potlatch was given by Yaqostod (VI 2) for his I 
younger brother Smoke- AU-Round (VI 3). Nowhisname wasno longer 
Smoke-All-Round (VI 3), | and I shall name him YayaqoL lalas (VI 3) . ( 

SenLlsme, qa^s liv'l h5x"ts!alll lax kiwaelasas K- !amaxalase, 
ylx k" ledelasa g'lgama^ye | A^walask'inise. Wa, g'lpEm^lawise 95 
^wFlts lalllExs laa^l Eax^iillle K' lamaxalase, qa-s neles k'lego- 
lasasa lastowe p!ElxElasgEmaxes le^waxseLe. Wii, g'ipEm^lawise 
ax^alelEmsa g'ayule lilxa ^nE^memotasa SenLlEmaxs g'axaa^l hox- 
^wultslalila. Wii, hiEni^lae qiiga^ye K' !amaxalasaqexs lax'da^xwae 
nii^nakweda qadzeLaxde lax g'okwas G'ayosdiise. Wa, hex'^idasm- 600 
4awise G'ayosdase ^yfdaqasa a^yilkwe, qa las Le^lalaxa Maamtag'ila 
LE^wa ^nE^memote G'exsEma LE^wa Kiikwakliim; wa, he^misa Laa- 
lax's^Endayowexa mosgEmak!use-^nal-nE-memasa. Wa, hex'^idasm- 
^lawise lax'da^xwa qa's Lax^ulse lax Llasana^yas g'okwas G'ayos- 
dase. Wii, L¥lae Le'lElak' !ala. Wii, g'a^mes waldEmseg'axs Laa^l 5 
Leldzaqwa: "LaEms x'Its!ax'llaLai' Maamtag'ilai', G'exsEmai', 
Kukwakliimai', Laalax's^Endayowai' lax YayaqoLlalasai' xunokwas 
Yaqostodai'," qaxs lE^mae gwal LegadEs G'ayosdase, yixs lE^mae 
LegadElts LegEmg'ElxLa^yase Yaqostode. 

Wa, he-mEn LlElewesE^we LegEmg'ElxLa^yas A^walask'inise qa 10 
LegEms Kwax'se^stale YayaqoLlalase, qaxs he^mae senats Yiiqostodes 
tsla^ye Kwax'se^stala. Wii, laEm^lae gwiil Kwax'se^stalax'La. La- 
^mesEn LeqElaLEs YayaqoL lalase laq. 

1 In reality, the younger brother. 



980 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

15 Then the luur iuima3'ms came m, 1| and Yaqostod (YI 2) spoke, 
and told | his numa}Tn what he thought, that he would take the [ 
seat of his father, ^maxiiyalidze (V 1), of his numaym SenLlF.m, 
which I was the head seat, and he wanted his younger brother | 

20 YayaqoL'.alas (VI 3) to stand next to him. Thus he said, and || the 
numaym agreed to what he said. When he finished s])eaking, | Ya- 
qostod (VI 2) gave away the ten blankets to the Chiefs of the | four 
mmiayms, and he gave the cedar-bark blankets to the | common 
people. When everything had been given away, they went out. | 
Yaqostod (VI 2) and his wife K' '.iimaxalas (VI 7) had not been 

25 married long || when she was with child, and she gave birth to a 
daughter; | and A-'walaskinis (V 9) at once gave a marriage present 
of ten 1 blankets to his son-in-law Yaqostod (VI 2), and he gave him 
as marriage gift the | name for the new-born princess of K" lamaxalas 
(VI 7). I He gave away the name Le^lenox" (VII 1) for the name 

30 of the II child of Yaqostod (VI 2) ; and when he had finished his 
speech he | gave away ten blankets to the chiefs of the four j num- 
avms. After he had given the blankets, the four tribes went out. | 
When the child of Yaqostod (VI 2) was ten months old, ] Yaqostod 

35 (VI 2) wished to have two jj wives, but he did not tell | his wife 
K" lamaxalas (VI 7) what he was thinking about. He did as every- 



Wa, liex'^idaEm'lawise g-ax ^wi-la hogwiLeda mosgEmak!use ^nal- 

15 ^uE^memasa. Wa, hVlae yaq!Eg-a^le Yaqostode. Wa, lasm^lae nela- 
xes ^nE-memotas gwalaasases naqa'ye, ylxs he^mcLe LaxwalaLe La- 
xwa^yases ompae ^maxiiyalidze laxes ^uE^memotaxa SeuLlEme, yixs 
Laxuma^yae. Wa, hVlae ^nex- qa Lawap la^yeses tsla-'ye YiiyaqoLla- 
lase laqexs bile, ^nex'lae. Wii, aEm^laxaawise ^uEmaga exake -'ue- 

20 ^memotasex waldEmas. Wii, g'il^Em-'lawise ^wi^'la gwiile waldsmasexs 
laa^l yax-'wide Yaqostodasa lastowe plElxElasgEm lax gTgEgtxma^yasa 
moso'Emakwe ^nal-uE^memasa. Wii, lii^lae yiix^wltsa k' !obawase liixa 
bebEkwaxa. Wa, g-ll-'Em^lawise ^wllxtoxs laa4 'wi-'la hoqiiwElsa. 
Wii, k'!es-"lat!a giila hayasEk'ale Yiiqostode LE^wis gEUEmeK'Ui- 

25 maxalasaxs liia^l bEwex-'wida. Wii, lii-lae milyuFitsa ts!ats!adagEme. 
Wii, la^lae hex"^ida^me A^wiilaskinise la wawalqiilasa lastowe plEl- 
xElasgEme laxes uEgiimpe Yaqostode. Wii, hVlae LegEmg-ElxLiilaxa 
Le^Erne qaLegEmsa ts!iits!adagEme mayoLEmses k' !edele K' liimaxa- 
lase. Wii, laEm^lae LegEmgElxLiilax Le^lenoxwe qa LegEmsa xflno- 

30 kwas Yiiqostode. Wii, gil-Em-liiwise gwaMae wakJEmasexs laa4 
yax'wld^lasa lastowe pIslxElasgEm liix glgEgama'yasa mosgEmakwe 
-nal-'uE^memasa. Wa, g-ipEni4awise gwal yiiqwaxs liia^l hoqiiwElsa 
^wl^leda mosgEmakwe. Wa, g-lpEm4awise la helogwila'lae xiino- 
kwas Yiiqostode hla-'lase sEnx-'ide Yaqostode, qa=s wiig-e ma^lila 

35 laxes gEgEUEme. Wa, k'lets'.Enr'lawise nelases sEnyastoliltsE^wa 
laxes gEnEme K' liimaxalase. Wii, lasm-'lae liix gwexsdEmas qleuE- 



I'O'^sJ FAMILY HISTORIES 981 

body does who is doubtful. | He was down-hearted. Then his wife 37 
K- lamaxalas (VI 7) asked him | why he was down-hearted, and he 
told her. | He said, "I am troubled; I wish to have two || wives; 40 
and you shall be the chief wife, and the other one shall be second 
wife, I and it troubles me to think that you may | not let me have 
two wives." Then | his wife K- lamaxalas (VI 7) replied (and said), 
"Would it not make me | feel badly if you should take a common 
wife ? What would || please me would be if you shordd marry the 45 
prmcess of YiiqoLElasEme^ (V 10), | Alak'ilayugwa (VI 8), because 
the numaym | Yaex-agEme^ has many privileges. Go ahead!" she 
said. Then | Yaqostod (VI 2) was happy; and he sent out his | 
younger brother YiiyaqoLlalas (VI 3) to call his numaym the 
SenLlEm. || 

He called them immediately, and it was not long before 50 
they I all came in. Then he told them that he wanted to 
have two wives, | for he said that he was gomg to marry 
Alak'ilayugwa (VI 8), the princess of YaqoLElasEme^ (V 10). | Tluis 
he said; and immediately his whole numaym | the SeuLlEm said, 
"Indeed, you are a chief! Go on!" Thus he was told. || Then he 55 
married her; and after they were married, | the chief YaqoLElasEme^ 
(V 10) arose, and called | his princess Alak'ilayugwa (VI 8) out of 
her room with her woman slaves. She | wont to her father with her 

mas n^qa^yaxs xiilsae. Wa, heEm^lawis la wilLas^las gEuEmase 37 
K' !amaxalasaq hlx xiilyimas. Wii, heEm^lawis la nelas^laseq. Wa, 
la^lae ^nek'Exs haa4 q !ey6s naqa^yasexs nenk' !eqElae qa^s ma^lllexes 
gEnEme, "qa^s so^maos gEk'inialila. Wa, lauxLe gEnEmq!alaEmLa 40 
aleLaEn gEUEmL," ^nex'^lae. "Wa, he^mesEn g"Ig'aega^ye qaso 
k' !eslax helq lalalaxEn ma-iPlEmnokwos, " ^nex'^ae. Wa, hex'^idaEm- 
^lawise nanax^ma^ye gEnEmase KMiimaxalase: "Wii, esael lex'aEm 
ts !Exilalax laxEii naqa^ye, qaso gEg'adEX'salaxo, yixs lex'a^mae hel^a- 
LElalax laxEn naqa^ye, qaso gEgadEX'^Idlaxsox kMedelaxs YiiqoLE- 45 
lasEma^ye laxox Alak'ilayugwax, qaxs kMek-!Es^6ts!a^x"da ^uE^me- 
motasxa YaexagEma-'ye. Wegaq," ^nex-^lae. Wa, liex'^idaEin^la- 
wise ex'^ide naqa^yas Yaqostode. Wii, laEm^lae et!ede ^yalaqases 
ts !a^ya, yix YayaqoL !alase, qa las Le^lalaxes ^uE^memotaxa SenL !Enie. 

Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise la Le^lala. Wii, k'!es-'lat!a giilaxs g'axaa^l 50 
^wFlaeLa. Wii, liex'^idaEm^lilwise nelases ma^lencLaxes gEgEHEme, 
ylxs ^nek-ae qa^s gEg-ades Alakilayugwa, ytx k'ledelas YilqoLElasE- 
ma^ye, ^nex'^lae. Wii, hex'^idaEm-lawise ^nek'eda ^naxwa ^nE^me- 
motsexa SeuLlEine: "QiiLasg-igama^yaex, weg'a aEmx," ^nex'so^lae. 
Wii, lii'lae hex'^idaEm la qadzeLaq. Wa, g'iPEm^lawise gwiila qiidze- 55 
Laxs laa^l Liix^filileda g'igama^ye YaqoLElasEma^ye, qa^s Lel-wult!all 
lexes k' ledele Alak'ilaj-ugwa LE^wis q!iik'owe ts!Ediiqa. Wii, g"ax- 
da^x"^lae Hviix'sanodzElile Alak'ilayugwiixes ompe le^wis q!ak'owe. 



982 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

slaves walking on each side. | Then they put down twenty-five 

60 hlankets in front of them; || and then YaqoLElasEme^ (V 10) spoke, 
and I said, "Let yoin niimajan come, son-in-law, to take your wife, | 
and let your wife go with her slaves to | work under your wife; and 
this is her marriage mat, these twenty-five | blankets." Thus he 

65 said. "O son-in-law! the name of my || grandfather (IV 6) will go 
to you, and yom- name shall be Kwaxilanokume^ (VI 2), and | the 
name of your dancer will be Aomol. That is the name of my mother 
(IV 6) ; and when | you wish to give a winter dance, your dancer will 
be a cannibal-dancer, and | his name will be AmyaxElaso^, and (your 
dancer will be a) war-dancer, and | her name will be Amyaxed." 

70 Thus he said. As soon as he stopped speaking, || the numaym 
SenLlEm arose, took | twenty-five blankets and went out of the 
house; and Alak'ilayugwa (VI S) | was walking among them with 
her slaves. | 

I forgot the other marriage gift for the name of | Le^lenox" (VII 1). 
Her name was to be ^maxiilayugwa. || 

75 Now they walked together, and they took her to the house of 
YaqostSd (VI 2) | his wife and her slaves. Immediately Yaqostod 
(VI 2) I sent out his speakers to stand up outside of his house and | 
to invite the foiu" numayms — the Maamtag'ila, | G'exsEm, Kukwa- 

80 k!um, and the Laalax'sEndayo, — on account of his || daughter ^ma- 



Wa, g'ax^lae k'laxalelEma sak"!ag§,la plElxElasgEma lax Llasalilas. 

60 Wa, heEm^lawis la yaq!Eg"a^lats YaqoLElasEma^ye. Wa, la^lae 
^nek'a: "Wa, gelag'ax'os ^ne^memotaqos, UEgiimp, ax-edg^as gEUEm- 
g-6s, qa lalag'TsEk' laxes g'okwaos. LaEmlg^a qlak^ogwas, qa helo- 
balts!anesos gEUEmqlos. Wa, g'a^mes le^waxsegeg'ada sEk' !ag^lak' 
p'.ElxElasgEma," ^nex'^lae, "Wa, uEgiimp, laEm^'laLa LegEraasEu 

65 gagEmpe Iol. Wa, laEms LegadElts Kwaxllanokuma^ye. Wa, late 
LegadLes senatLaosas Aomole, ylx LegEmasEn JlbEmpe. Wa, qaso 
^nex'lax qa^s ts!ets!eqaos, wa, laLe hamats!aLes senatLaos. Wa, 
he^mis LegEmltse AmyaxElasE^we. Wa, he^misa tox^wide. Wa, late 
LegadElts Amyaxede," ^nex'^ke. Wa, g^il^Em^awise q!wel^IdExs 

70 laa^l ^wFla c[ !wagilile. ^uE^memotasa SeLlEma qa^s la ax^edxa se- 
k' !agala p !ElxElasgEma qa^s g'axe hoquwElsa qaqElax Alak'ilayugwa 
LE^wis ([lakowe. 

HexoLEn LlElewesE^weda ^nEmsgEme LegEmg"ElxLa^ya qa LegEms 
Le^lenoxwe. Wa, laEm^lae LegadElts ^maxulayugwa. 

75 Wa, W\ae q!ap!emalaxs laa^l taodacLas lax gokwas Yaqostode, 
yix gEiiEmas LE^wa q!ak'owe. Wa, liex'^idaEm^lawise Yaqostode 
^yalaqases a^yllkwe, qa las Lax^uls lax L!asana^yasa gokwe qa^s 
Le^lalexa mosgEmakliise ^niiPuE^memasa, yixa Maamtag'ila LE^wa 
GexsEme LE^wa Kukwaklume LE^wa Laalax's-Endayowe qaes 

80 xtinokwe ^maxulayugwa. Wa, hex-^idaEm^lawise laxda^'x" hoqilwEl- 



BOAS} FAMILY HISTORIES 983 

xulayugwa. Immcdiatoly the four speakers went out, | and they 81 
stood outside of the house of the | chief Kwaxilanokume^ (VI 2) ; 
for now he was no longer named | Yaqostod (VI 2) ; and one of the 
speakers invited them in. | He said, "Now, Maamtag'ila, G"exsEm,!| 
Kukwfiklimi, and Laalax's^Endayo, come to see the dance of 85 
^maxiilayugwa (VII 1) the child of | Kwax'ilanokume* (VI 2)," for he 
was no longer named Yaqostod (VI 2). \ And after the messenger 
had called, another one of the speakers said, | "Be quick!" and when 
he stopped speaking, | they came into the house of Chief Kwax'ila- 
nokume^ (VI 2) jj and cleared it out. After they had cleared it out 90 
the I four numayms came in. When they were all | in, Kwax^ilano- 
kume^ (VI 2) arose, and told where | the twenty-five blankets came 
from, that they came from | YaqoLElasEme^ (V 10). Thus he said; 
and he told them about his princess LalelFlak"' (VII 1), || that she 95 
had changed her name, and that her name was ^maxiilayugwa 
(VII 1). I Then he stopped speaking, and he gave away the 
twenty-five | blankets, and the guests went out. It was not 
long before | the second wife of Kwax'llanokume^ (VI 2) | 
Alak'ilayugwa (VI 8), gave birth to a ghl; and immedi- 
ately II YaqoLElasEme^ (V 10) invited his numaym the Yae- 700 
x'agEme^ to | come into his house. When they were all in, 
the I chief YaqoLElasEme* (V 10) arose and spoke, j He told his 

seda mokwe a^yllkwa, qa^s la^l qlwag'aEls lax Llasana^yas g'okwases 81 
gugama^ye Kwaxilanokiima^ye, qaxs lE^mae gwal LegadEs Yaqo- 
stode. Wa, la^lae LelElak" !alaxa ^iiEmokwe laxa a^yllkwe. Wa, 
la^lae ^nek'a: "LaEms x'ltsIaxilaLai', Maamtagulai', G'exsEmai', 
Kukwaklumai', Laalax's^Endayowai' lax -maxiilayugwai' xiinokwas 85 
Kwaxilanokumaye," qaxs lE^mae gwal LegadEs Yaqostode. Wa, 
gipEm^lawise qlwel^ededa LelElgise, laa^lase ^nek'eda ^nEmokwe 
Elkwa: "HalaxsLEsai'," ^nex'^lae. Wa, g'JpEra^lawise q!weh"IdExs 
g-axaa^l hogwiLa lax g'okwases g'lgama^'ye Kwax'ilanokuma^ye, 
qa^s ex^wideq. Wa, g'iPEm^lawise gwal ekwaqexs g'axaa^lase ho- 90 
gwiLeda mosgEmakluse -nal^nE^memasa. Wii, g'lpEm^lawise ^wl- 
^laeLExs lae Lax^ulile Kwax ilanokuma^ya, qa's neles gaya^nakula- 
sasa p !ElxElasgEmaxs sEkMagalae, yixs hae g'aya^nakulae, lax 
YaqoLElasEma'ye, ^nex^ae. Wa, la^lae nelaxaases k'ledele L!aleli- 
^lakwaxs' lE-mae LlayoxLa yixs lE^mae LegadEs ^maxulayugwa. 95 
Wa, giHEm^lawise q!web'edExs laa^l yax^wida, yisa sekMagala 
plElxElasgEinxs laa^l hoquwElseda LelE^lakwe. Wa, k'!es^lat!a 
^alaxs laa^l mayuPlde a^lile gEUEms Kwax-ilanokuma-ye, yix 
Alakilayugwa ylsa ts!ats!adagEme. Wii, hex'^idaEm^lawise Ya- 
qoLElasEma^ye la Le^lalaxes ^uE^memotaxa Yaex'agEma^ye qa las 700 
£wFlaeLEla lax g'okwas. Wa, gU-'Em^awise ^vi^laSLExs laa^laeda 
glgania^ye YaqoLElasEma^ye Lax^ullla, qa^s yaqlEga^le: "Wa, 

'Named Le'lenox" on p. 980. line 29. 



984 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ANN. 35 

numaym the Yaex'agEme^ that he would give as a marriage gift | 
5 thirty-five blankets to his son-in-law || Kwax'Ilanokunie^ (VI 2), and 
also the house and his other seat; that is, | the seat of his deceased 
younger brother, L!aL!ElanEm (V 11); "and also a name for | my 
granddaughter who was born by my princess Alak'ilayugwa (VI 8). | 
Her name shall be the name of my dead sister ^nEmnasalayugwa 
(V 12). I Now, her name will be ^nEmnasalayugwa (VII 2). Now,|| 

10 my numaym Yaex'agEme^, let us see the child borne | by Alak'ila- 
yugwa." Thus he said, and they put the | thirty-five blankets on 
the shoulders of young men, and | they went out of the house, and 
they went into the house j of his son-in-law Kwax'Ilanokume^ (VI 2). 

15 They sat down inside of the || door of the house, and Chief | YaqoLE- 
lasEme^ (V 10) arose and spoke. He said, "Sit up, | son-m-law, and 
listen to me, what brought here me and my numaym, the | Yaex'a- 
gEme^. We came to see our granddaughter. Now | I give j'ou as a 

20 marriage gift these thiity-five || blankets to wipe ofl' the blood of my 
granddaughter; | and this name of my deceased sister (V 12) ^uEm- 
nasalayugwa shall bo hers. | Her name shall be ^nEmnasalayugwa 
(VII 2). Now, son-in-law, you will be the owner | of my house, and 
you shall own the seat | of my deceased younger brother L'.aLlEla- 
nEm (V 11). There are three seats ahead of him below the eagle;" || 



3 laEm^lae nelaxes ^uE^memotaxa Yaex'agEma^yaxs wawalqaliLasa 
mamox"sokidasa sEk"!a plElxElasgEm laxes nEgiimpe Kwaxila- 
5 nokuma-ye: wii, he^mises g^okwe LE^wis Laxwa^ye ^uEma, yMax 
Laxwa^yases tsla^yolae LlaLlElanEme. "Wii, he^'misa LegEme qa 
LegEmsEn ts!ox"LEmagasa yix mayoLEmasEn k^Iedelae Alak'ilayu- 
gwa. Wa, la^mese LegadElts LegEmasEn wuq!w6lae ^uEmnasalayu- 
gola. Wa, la^mese LegadElts ^nEmnasalayugwa, " ^nex'^lae. "Wa, 

10 weg'axuns ^nE^memot Yaex'agEme^, qEns la dox^wIdEx mayoLE- 
mas Alakilayugwa," ^nex^'laexs lae k'lExsayaplEndiilasa sEk'las 
mamox"s6kulayo plElxElasgEma laxa hiVyal^a. Wii, giHEm^lawise 
^wl^laxs g axae hoqilwEls lax g'okwas, qa^s lii hogwiL lilx g'okwa- 
ses nEgiimpe Kwaxllanokuma^ye, qa^s lii k!us^iilll liix awlLEliisa 

15 tiExiliisa g'okwe.' Wa, xiimax"^ida^mesa g'lgitma^ye YiiqoLElasE- 
ma^ye Lax^iilll, qa^s yiiq!Eg"a^le. Wii, lii ^nek^a: "KwiigEmlllla ue- 
giimp, qa^s hoLelaosagin g'axenek' LO'giin ^nE'memotEk', yixg'a 
Yaex'agEmek". G'axEnu^x" doqwaxEnu^x" ts !6x"LEmagasax. La- 
^mesEn wawalqiilasg'ada sEk'Iag'as mamox"sokulayu p!e1xe- 

20 hisgEma, qa^s degudanosaxox Elx^iina^yaxsEn ts!ox"LEmagasax. 
Wii, g'a^mese g'ada LegEmg'asEn wiiqlwolae ^uEnmasillayugola. 
La^meso LegadElts ^nEmnasalayugwa. Wii, la^mets laLOL UEgump 
gogwadEltsEn g'6x"de. Wa, la'mets lill Laxwe^nox"LEs Laxwa- 
^yasEn tsa^yolae LlaLlElauEmola, yixs yayudukwalg'iwalae laxa 

^ From hereon the history is personally Icnown to the narrator; hence the quotative — ^la — is omitted. 



liOAsI FAMILY HISTORIES 985 

thus he said, for now YaqoLEhisEme^ (V 10) tried to rival | A^wa- 25 
lask-inls (V 9). Therefore he did so, for | YaqoLEhisEine^ (V 10) 
knew what- Kwax-ihxnokume^ (VI 2) had said to his wife | KMiimaxa- 
las (VI 7) when he first wished to marry Ahik'ilayugwa (VI 8) and 
when she was | tokl that KMamaxalas (VI 7) woukl be the head 
wife, and that|| Alak'iJayugwa (VI 8) woukl be the second wife, at 30 
the time when Kwaxilanokume^ (VI 2) spoke to | KMiimaxalas 
(VI 7), therefore YitqoLElasEme^ (V 10) had resolved that his | 
princess Alakulayugwa (VI 8) should be head wife. Therefore he 
did this. I Then Kwaxilanokume-' (VI 2) thanked YaqoLElasEme^ 
(V 10) for what he had said, and then | Ivwax'ilanokume^ (VI 2) 
invited his father-in-law to go to the rear || of the house; and now 35 
Kwaxilanokume^ (VI 2) wished | YilqoLElasEme^ (V 10) to speak 
for him when he was going to give away property | to the niunayni 
Yaex'agEme^ of YiiqoLElasEme^ (V 10)'. Then he | promised to 
give away thirty-five blankets to the GwetEla, ^walas | Kwag'ul, 
Q!6mk-!ut!Es, on behalf of ^nEmnasalayugwa (VII 2), the child of || 
YiiqoLElas (VI 2) for now Kwaxilanokume^ (VI 2) | received a 40 
name from his new nimiaym the Yaex'agEme^ Now he had | two 
seats, for he still stayed on the side of the numaym, SeuLlEm, | and 
he also had a seat with the numaym YaexagEme^ of the Q!6mo- 
yS,^ye. As soon as he stopped speakmg, the speakers of YaqoLEla- 

kwekwe," ^ne.x^ae, qaxs lE^mae doqwalap!e YaqoLEhisEma^ye l6^ 95 
A^walaskinise. He^mis lagilas he gwex-'ide, qaxs qialamae Yaqo- 
LElasEma^yax waldEmas Kwax'llanokuma^yaxes gEUEme K' liima- 
xalase, yixs g'alae ^nex" qa^s gEg'ades Alak'ilayugwa, yixs lae 
^nek-a: "SoEm gEk^amaliLEs K-!amaxalas. Wii, laLe gEUEmqlala- 
EmLe Alak-ilayugwa," yixs lae ^nek'e Kwax-llanokuma^yax KMa-so 
maxalase. Wa, he^mis lag'ilas aia ts!asale YaqoLElasEma^ye, qa 
hes gEk'amallies kMedele Alak'ilayugwa, lag'ilas he gwex'^ide. Wii, 
la mo^le Kwax'ilanokuma^yas waldEmas YaqoLElasEma^yaq. Wii, 
la Kwax'ilanokuma^ye Le^lalaxes iiEgiimpe, qa las laxa ogwiwalT, 
lases g'okwe. Wii, la^me ^nek'e Kwax'ilanokuma^ye qa^s helaxsta- 35 
lex YaqoLElasEma^ye, qaxs lE^mae g'ayoqaLe Kwax'ilanokuma^ye 
laxa ^nE^memotas YaqoLElasEma^yaxa Yaex'agEma^ye. Wii, la^me 
dzoxwasa sEk' liis inamox"sokulayo laxa GwetEla LE^wa ^walase 
Kwag'ula LE^wa Q!6mk"!ut!Ese qa -nEmnasalayugwax xflnokwas 
YaqoLElase, qaxs la-me LegEmg'ElxLilla qa LegEms Kwax'llano- 49 
kuma^ye liixa ale ^iiE^memotsexa Yaex'agEma^ye. Wii, la^me ma- 
loxsala, qaxs hex'sa^mae las apsot lEna^yaseda ^nEmemasa SbulIe- 
me. Wii, la Lagexa ^nE^memotasa Yaex'agEma^yasa Qlomoya^ye. 
Wa, g'il-mese q!wel^edExs lae hoquwElse a^yilkwas YiiqoLElasE- 

' He belonged to this numaym now. 



986 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [bth. ann. 3b 

45 sEme^ || went out and stood outside of the house of YiiqoLElasEme^ | 
and they called the GwetEla, ^walas Kwagul, and Q !omk' !ut !es on 
behalf of | ^nEmnasalayugwa (VII 2), the daughter of YaqoLElas 
(VI 2). Then they went back into the | house of YaqoLElas (VI 2), 
and cleared it out ; and after they had cleared it out, | they invited 

50 the numaym of the Yaex"agEme to the house of || YaqoLElas (VI 2) 
[to go hito the house of YaqoLElas] for that had been the house of | 
YaqoLElasEme^ (V 10). Then YaqoLElas (VI 2) walked among his 
new numaym | towards his house; and when they | were inside, the 
GwetEla came in and sat on the right-hand side | of the house. 

55 Then came the ^walas Kwag'ul and sat down || on the upper left- 
hand side of the house. Then came the | Q!omk'!ut!Es and sat 
down near the door on the left-hand side. | Then YaqoLElasEme^ 
(V 10) spoke to his son-in-law | YaqoLElas (VI 2), and gave away 
the thirty-five blankets: | and after he had done so, they all went 

60 out. 11 Immediately A^walaskinis (V 9) took away his princess 
K'lamaxalas (VI 7), the j wife of YaqoLElas (VI 2) because he could 
not do what had been done by | YaqoLElasEme^ (V 10) for his son- 
in-law. (I forgot that the | slaves went with their mistress Alak'i- 
layugwa [VI 8]). | Now YaqoLElas (VI 2) had only one wife, the 

65 princess of YaqoLElasEme^ (V 10), || Alak'ilayugwa (VI 8). Now 
YaqoLElas (VI 2) became proud and | always beat his wife, and 



45 ma^ye, qa^s la qlwag-aElse lax Llasana^yas g'okwas YaqoLElasE- 
ma^ye, qa^s LelEliixa GwetEla, ^walas Kwag^ul, Qomk!ut!Ese qa 
^UEranasalayugwa xiinokwas YilqoLElase, ^nek'Exs lae hogwiLa lax 
g'okwe las YaqoLElase, qa^s ex^wide. Wa, g'il^mese gwat ekwa- 
qexs lae Le'lalaxa ^nE^memotasa Yaex'agEma^ye lax gokwas Ya- 

50 qoLElase, qa g:axlagis lax g'okwas YaqoLElase, yix g-ox"das Ya- 
qoLElasEma^ye. Wa, gax^me qagaye YaqoLElasaxes ale ^ne^me- 
motaxs lae gwE^yolEla laxes g-okwas. Wa, gil'mese ^wFla hogwl- 
LExs g'axae hogwlLeda GwetEla, qa'^s lit klus-fdil laxa helk'Iodo- 
ya.lilasa g'okwe. Wa, g'axeda ^walase Kwag'ula, qa^s la k!us^alil 

55 laxa ^uElk' lodoyolilasa gEmxanegwilasa g-okwe. Wa, g'axeda 
Q!onik'!ut!Ese, qa^s la klus'iilil lax maxstalilasa gEmxotsalilasa 
tiExila. Wa, la^me nele YaqoLElasEma^yases waidsmaxes ue- 
giimpe YiiqoLElase. Wa, la yaxHvida, ylsa sEk" !as mamox"sokula- 
^ye plElxElasgEma. Wa, giPmese gwalExs lae hoqiiwElsa. Wii, 

60 hex-^ida^mese A^walask-inise wataxodxes k" ledele K- !amaxalase, yix 
gEUEmx'das YaqoLElase. Wa, la^nie k- leas gwex'^idaas laLEx gwe- 
x'Hdaasas YaqoLElasEma^ye laxes uEgumpe. (HexoLEu LlElewesE- 
^weda qlak'o, yixs lE^mae lasgEmexes qlagwide Alak'ilayugwa.) 
Wa, la^me ^nEmox"^Em la gEnEms YiiqoLElase k' ledelas YaqoLElasE- 

65 ma^ye Alak'ilayugwa. Wa, lasm LEmx^ede naqa^yas YaqoLElase, 
qaxs hemEnala^mae la k'lelak'axes gEnEme. Wa, he^mis lag'ilas 



BOAS) FAMILY HISTORIES 987 

therefore | YaqoLElasEme^ (V 10) took away his princess Ahik'i- 67 
layugwa (VI S); and aUhougli | Alak'ilayiigwa (YI S) was no longer 
his wife, YaqoLElas (VI 2) still owned the house j and the seat, for they 
had ^nEmnasalayugwa (VII 2) for their child. || YiiqoLElas (VI 2) was 70 
not very long without a wife. Then he asked | in naarriagethe prmcess 
of Ewanux"dze (V 13), chief of the niimaym | Laalax's^Endayo. 
The name of the princess of Ewanux"dze (V 13), was Qlexxala 
(VI 9); I and YiiqoLElas (VI 2) called his numaym the SenLlEm into 
his house and told them | that he wished to marry again. They just 
told him to go ahead || and to do quickly as he wanted. Then | 75 
he told them that he referred to the princess of | Ewanux"dze (V 13) 
Q!ex"Lala (VI 9), whom he wanted to marry. Thus he said when 
he was speaking. | One of his speakers replied, and said, "Go on, 
and I do so quickly, and let us pay the marriage money to-day." 
Thus he said. Immediately || YaqoLElas (VI 2) took fifty blankets 80 
out of his room to | give as marriage payment. After he had taken 
them out, the | numaym SeiiLlEm went, carrying the blankets on 
their shoulders, and went into | the house of Ewanux"dze (V 13). 
They sat down inside of the door of | the house of Chief Ewanux"dze 
(V 13), and at once they paid the marriage money, the || fifty 85 
blankets. After they had done so, | the speaker of Chief Ewanux^dze 
(V 13) arose and spoke. He said, | "Remain sitting there. Sen- 

YaqoLElasEma^yewataxodxesk"!edeleyixAlak"ilayugwa. Wa, wax'- 67 
^mise la k' !es gEg'adEses gEUEme Alakilayugwa, la liEtsaEmxa g'okwe 
Le^wa Laxwa^ye YaqoLElase, qaxs lE^mae xungwadEs ^uEmnasala- 
yugwa. Wii, k"!est!a gala k"!eas gEUEme YiicjoLElase lae g'ayox- 70 
^widEx k" '.edelas Ewanux"dze, yix g'igS,ma^yasa ^uE^memotasa Laa- 
laxs^Eudayowe Q!ex"Lalax"La, ylx LegEuias k'!edelas Ewanux"dze. 
Wa, la Lelts!6de YacjoLElasaxes ^nE^memota SenLlEiue, qa^s nelexs 
lE-mae ^nex" qa^s gEg'ade et!eda. Wa, a^mise ^naxwa waxaso^ses 
-'uE'memote, qa alag'a^mes hall^lala lax gwalaasases naqa^ye. Wa, 75 
he^'mis la ^negatsexs hae gwE^yos, qa^s gEUEme k'ledelas Ewa- 
nux"dze^ye Q!exLala, ^nek'Exs lae yiicj!Eut!ala. Wa, hex'ida^mese 
yaq!Ega'ieda ^uEmokwe lax a^yilkwas. Wa, la^nek'a: "Weg'a aEm 
hali'lalax, qEns weg"i qadzeMdxwa ^nalax," ^neke. Wa, hex'^'ida- 
^mese YaqoLElase ax^wultlalllaxa sEkMaxsokwep!ElxElasgEma, qa^s 80 
qadzeLEma. Wii, g'iPmese ^wPl6lt!alllExs lae ^wl-lamaleda ^uE^me- 
motasa SenL!Eme k' !ek' lExsEyap !alaxa plElxElasgEme, qa^s la ho- 
gwiL lax gokwas Ewanux"dze, qa^s la k!us^alll lax awlLElas tlEX'Has 
g'okwasa glgama^ye Ewanux^dze. Wa, hex'ida'mese cpidzeLasa 
sEk' laxsokwe pIslxElasgEma. Wa, giPmese gwtllExs lae Lax^ullle 85 
Elkwasa g"igama^ye Ewanux"dze qa^s yaqlEga-le. Wa, la -nek'a: 
"Weg"a k!wak!walax SenLlEm, qa^s esElaosaxg'as gEiiEmgaos, qaxs 



988 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

88 lIeiii, and wait for your wife. She | is getting ready with her mai-- 
riage mat, so that she may not sit on the floor without a mat in | 
yoiir house, son-in-hxw." Thus he said, and went back into the 

90 room where || Ewanux"dze's (V 13) princess, Q'.ex'Lala (VI 9) was 
seated. He did not stay long, then he came back and | stood up. 
He spoke again, and said, "Now, come, great | numaym SenL!Em, and 
carry the princess of | my chief Ewanux"dze (V 13) away, for she 
is heavy." Thus he said, | and went back. Then the numaym 

95 SenL!Em arose || and followed him into the room; and soon they 
came | back carrying on their shoulders one himdred blankets | and 
among them walked Qlex'Lala (VI 9), the princess of | Ewanux"dze 
(V 13), among the SenL!Em as they were coming out of the 
room. When they reached | the door of the house, Ewanux"dze 
800 (V 13) stood up and spoke. || He said, " Wait a while, great num- 
aym SenL'.Em, | for the name that will go to my son-in-law 
YiiqoLElas (VI 2). | His name will be GwE^yimdze (VI 2), and 
the name of his dancer will be | MElned, and these hundred 
blankets are the marriage mat of | your wife. Now, son-in-law, go 
5 to your house!" Then he || stopped speaking, and immediately 
those who had paid the marriage money went out, | among them 
Qlex'Lala (VI 9) and they went into the house of YaqoLElas 
(VI 2). I YitqoLElas (VI 2) told his speakers to clear out | his 
house; and after they had cleared it, they went out | and stood 

88 la^mek' xwanatelaxg'as le^waxseLEk", aLak" wultallL klwastallL laxes 
gokwaos, uEgiimp," ^nek'Exs lae layakilll lax k!wats!alilasas k!ede- 

90 las Ewamix^dze Q!ex'Lala. Wa, k'!est!e galaxs g'axae aedaaqa, qa^s 
Lax^ullle, qa^s edzaqwe yfiqlEgaHa. Wa, lii ^nek'a: "Gelaga, -walas 
'nE^mem, SeuLlEm, qa^s lalag'aos q lEl^wults lalllax k'ledelasEn gl- 
gama^yox Ewanux"dzex, qaxs gwaguntseliLaqos laqga," ^nek'Exs 
lae edzak'ilila. Wa, la^me ^wFla cilwagillle ^uE^memotasa SenLlE- 

95 me, qa^s la lasgEmeq laxa otslallle. Wa, k" !est!a galaxs g'axae ^wHla 
k'!ek'!exsEyap!alaxa plElxElasgEme, lak'lEndeda plElxElasgEme 
he^yagowa. Wa, g'slx^me qiigaye Q!ex'Lalaq ylx k'edelas Ewanux"- 
dzaxa SenLlEmaxs g'axae hox^wiiltslallla. Wii, g'lPmese lag'aa 
laxa ostalllasa g'okwaxs lae Ewanux"dze LaxHllila, qa^s yaq!Eg'a^le, 
800 ^l^^s ^nek'e: "Weg'aEmsL LRLoxbalax ^walas ^nE^mem, yuL Sen- 
LlEm, qa la^mesg'ada LegEmk', qa^s LegEmos, uEgump YaqoLElas. 
LaEms LegadElts GwE^ylmdze. Wa, he^mis LegEmltses senatLaose 
MElnede. Wa, yii^misa lak'lEudex p !ElxElasgEma le^waxsesos gE- 
uEmaqos. Wa, hag'a, uEgump, laxes g'okwaos." Wa, laEm q!we- 
5 Hd yaqlEutlala liixeq. Wa, hex'-ida^mese gax hoqiiwElseda qa- 
dzeLax'de qiiqElax Q!ex'Lala, qa^s la hogwiL lax g'okwas YaqoLE- 
lase. Wa, hex'^ida^mese YiiqoLElas axk' !alaxes a-yilkwe, qa ex^wi- 
desexa g'okwe. Wa, g'll^mese gwal ekwaqexs lae hoquwEls laxa 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 989 

u)) outside of the house and called the || Qlomoya^ye, ^walas 10 
Kwag-ul, Q!onik-!ut!Es, on behalf of MElned (VII 1), the | child 
of GwE^yimdze (VI 2). After they had said so, they went in, 
and it was not long before | the three Kwag'ui tribes came in. 
Then | Chief GwE-^ylmdze (VI 2) arose and spoke. He said, | 
"You have heard my new name. I obtained this in marriage 
from my father-in-law || Ewanux"dze (V 13), who gave me the 15 
name GwE^yimdze (VI 2). Now you shall name me GwE^yimdze, | 
and \-ou shall name my princess ^maxiilayugwa MElned (VII 1)." | 
Then he stopped speaking, and he gave away the | huncb-ed blan- 
kets; and first he gave to the Q'.omoy^^ye, | and then to the ^walas 
Kwag"ul, II and finally he gave blankets to the Q!6mk'!ut!Es. j 20 
Wlien he had given away all, then they went out of the house 
of I GwE^yimdze (VI 2). GwE^ylmdze and his wife Q!ex'Lala 
(VI 9) had not been living together for a long time | when they 
had a son. He was | named Tsaxis because he was born there. || 
Four days after he had been born, when the navel-string came 25 
off, I Ewanux"dze (VII 3) gave four boxes of oil and | ten baskets 
of clover-roots to his son-in-law GwEyimdze (VI 2) as a marriage 
present, | and also the name Wawalk^ine (VII 3) foi the new-born 
child of his princess | Qlex'Lala (VI 9). Then Chief GwE^ylmdze 



gokwe qa^s la qlwag'aEls lax Llasana^yasa g'okwe, qa^s LelElexa 
Qlomoya^ye, ^walase Kwag'ul, Q!omkMut!Ese qa MElnede xflno- 10 
kwas GwE^yimdze, ^nekExs gaxae hogwiLa. Wii, k'!est!a galaxs 
g'axae ^wFlaeLeda yudu.\"sEmakwe Kwakiig ula. Wa, hex'^ida^mese 
Lax^ulileda g'lgama^ye GwE^yimdze, qa^s yaqlEga^le. Wa, la ^nek-a: 
"LaEms wuLElaxEn ale LegEma, ylx LegEmgElxLa^yasEn uEgumpe 
Ewanux"dze g'axEne GwE^yhndze. Wii, la^mets LeqElaLEs Gwe- 15 
^yimdze g'axEn. Wa, la^mets LeqElaLEs MElnede laxEn k^ ledele 
^maxulayugwa," ^nek'Exs lae cjlwel^eda. Wii, Iji yax^wida, yisa 
lak' lEnde p lElxElasgEma, ylxs hae gil yax^wItsE^weda Qlomoy^- 
^yasa p!ElxElasgEm. Wa, lii makilaso^sa ^walase Kwagula yax^wi- 
tso^sa p lElxElasgEme. Wa, la alElxsda^ya Q !omk' !ut IesS yax^witso-sa 20 
23 lElxElasgEme. Wa, giPmese ^wllxtoxs lae hoqiiwElsa lax g'okwas 
GwE^ylmdze. Wa, k'!est!a gala hayasEkale GwE^yimdze LE^wis 
gEUEme Qlex'Lalaxs lae xungwadEX'^Itsa babagflme. Wa, la^me 
hex'^idaEm LegadEs Tsaxise, qaxs hiie mayoLEme. Wa, hetla la 
moplEnxwa^s mayoLaagEmxs lae lawayes tslEyoxLa^ye laase 25 
Ewanux"dze wawalqalasa mosgEme dedEngwatsle Lle^na LE^wa 
uEqasgEme L!aL!Ebat t!Egwats!e laxes uEgumpe GwE^yimdze; wa, 
he^misa i.egEme Wawalkina^ye qa LegEmsa ale mayoLEmsk' ledelase 
Qlexxalaxa babagQme. Wa, hex'^ida^mesa g'lgama^ye GwE^yimdze 



990 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

30 (VI 2) II sent his speakers to go into all the houses and invite on 
behalf of | Wawalk-ine (VII 3), the son of GwE^yimdze (VI 2). 
"Thus you will say," said GwE^yimdze (VI 2) j to his speakers. 
At once they went out of the house and j stood in the doorways 
of all the houses, inviting all the | men of the Qlomoya^ye, ^walas 

35 Kwag'ul, and Q!omk'!ut!Es; || and this is what the speakers said 
as they entered the j doors of the houses of the Qlomoya^ye: "I 
invite you, Q'.omoya^ye, on behalf of | Wawalkune (VII 3), the 
child of GwE^ylmdze (VI 2.)" And when they stopped speaking, | 
the others said, "Let us go quickly, j "The fire is now burning 
low." Thus said another one. And when they had been to all the|| 

40 houses of the Qlomoya^ye, they went to the houses of the ^walas 
Kwag"ul, I and said, "Now I call you, ^walas Kwag'ul, on behalf 
of I Wawalk-ine (VII 3), the child of GwE^yimdze (VI 2)!" and 
they I said as they had done before. Thus they went into all | 
the houses of the Hvalas Kwag'ul; and then they went into the 

45 houses of the QIomk'Iut'.Es, || and they said again, "Now I 
call you, Qlomk-'.utlEs, on behaH of | Wawalk'ine (VII 3), the 
child of GwE^yimdze (VI 2)." Thus they | went into all the 
houses, and then they went back into the future feast | house. 
When the guests came, the Qlomoya^ye sat down | in the rear of 

50 the house, and the ^walas Kwag'ul sat down || at the right-hand 



30 ^yalaqases a^yilkwe, qa las laLlEsEla laxa g'okiila qa las Le^lala qa 
Wawalkina^ye xiinokwasGwE^yimdze. "^nex'LEs," ^nek'eGwE^yim- 
dziixes a^yilkwe. Wa, hex'^ida^mese la hoquwEls laxa gokwe, qa^s 
la LaLax"stolts!ax t!et!Ex'tlasa ^naxwa gigokwa Le^lalaxa ^naxwa 
bebEgwanEmsa Qlomoya^ye LE^wa ^walase Kwag'ula, LE^wa Q!6m- 

35 k' !ut!Ese. Wa, g'aEm waldEmsa tVyllkweg'a, yixs lae laeLlax tlExi- 
liisa g'okwasa Q!6moytVye: "La^mEn Le^laloLai', Qlomoya^yai' qa 
Wawalkinayai' xiinokwas GwE^ylmdzeyai'." Wa, g-il-mese q!we- 
I'idExslae^nekeda^uEraokwe: "HalagiliLEsai'." — "LaEm qliilx'^id- 
nux" lEgwilai'" ^nekeda ^uEmokwe. Wa, giPmese ^wllxtolsaxa 

40 g'ig'okwasa Qlomoya^yaxs lae lax g'okiilasasa ^walase Kwag'ula. 
Wa, laxae ^nek'a: "La^mEn Le^laloLai', ^walas Kwag'ulai' qa Wa- 
walkinayai' xunokwas GwE^yinidzeyai'." Wa, aEmxaawise na- 
qEmgiltaya ^nEmokwaxes g'ilx"de waldEma. Wa, gil^mese ^wllxtol- 
saxa g'ig'okwasa ^walase Kwagulaxs lae lax g'ig'okwasa Q!5mk'!u- 

45 tiEse. Wa, laxae ^neka: "La^niEn Le'laloLai', Q!6mk'!ut!Esai' qa 
Wawalk'inayai' xunokwas GwE^ylmdzeyai'," ^nek'e. Wii, g'il^mese 
^wilxtolsaxa g'ig'okwe lae aedaaqa, qa^s liilaeL laxa k!wela^yats!eLe 
g'okwa. Wa, g'ax hogwiLEleda Le^lanEme. Wa, laEm la klus^ali- 
leda Qlomoya^ye lax ogwiwalilasa g'okwe. Wa, la klus^alileda 

50 ^walase Kwag'ul lax hek' lotsegwilasa k!weladzats!e g'okwa. Wii, 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 991 

side of the feasting-liouse, | and the Q!oink-!iit!Es on the left-hand 51 
side of the feasting-honse. Tliey | sat down there because they 
had been invited for a feast. When all were in, | the numaym 
Laalax's^Endayo came m and sat down | at the right-hand side of 
the door. Then Ewanux"dze (V 13) arose || and spoke. He said. 55 
"Look this way, son-in-law | GwE^yimdze (VI 2), and listen to me! 
Send out your numaym | to get the four house-dishes of my 
house, so that ] my guests may eat out of them! They are the 
killer-whale, | whale, seal, and double-headed serpent." Thus he 
said as he sat down. || Immediately GwE^yimdze (VI 2) arose and 60 
thanked his father-in-law for what he had said. | Then he turned 
his face to his numaym, the SeiiLlEm, and | said, "O numaym 
SenLiEm, take the four house-dishes | and bring them! Let us try 
to have them emptied by oiu- guests!" Thus he said. Then | the 
young men of the numaym SenLlEm went out and carried in|| 
two ladles which are always given with the four house-dishes. 65 
It was not I long before the young men came back carrying the 
foiu: house-dishes | and the two ladles. They came and put them 
down inside | the door of the feasting-house. Then they took the | 
cinquef oil-root baskets and placed them by the side of the house- 
dishes. II They took the roots out of the baskets and put the 70 
raw I cinquef oil-roots into the house-dishes; and when the house- 



het!a k!us^allleda Q!omk!ut!Esa lax gEmxtsegwIle, ylx heg'Ilas 51 
klusale, qaxs k' !we^lasae Le^lanEmiiq. Wii, glHmese ^wPlaeLExs 
g'axae hogwiLeda ^uE^memotasa Laalax's^Endayowe. Wa, la k!us'alll 
laxa helk' !otsiVyasa t!Ex'ila. Wa, he^mis la Lax-'ulFlats Ewanux"- 
dze, qa^s yaq!Eg"a^le. Wa, lii ^nek'a: "GwasgEmalala, nEgiimp 55 
GwE^yimdze, qa^s hoLelaos g axEn. Weg'a ^yalaqaxs ^uE^memota- 
qos, qa lasox ax^edxa niEwexLii loElqulil laxEn gokwa, qa ha^'ma- 
atslesos Le^lanEmaqos. He^meda max^'enoxwa LE^wa gwE^ytma, 
LE^wa megwata, LE^wa sIsEyuLa," ^nek'Exs lae k!wagallla. Wa, 
hex'^ida-mese Lax^ullle GwE-yimdze, qa^s monies waldEmases he- 60 
giimpe. Wa, la gwegEmx"^Id laxes ^uE^memotaxa SeuLlEme. Wa, lil 
^nek'a: "Hag'a ^nE^memot SenL!Em, ax'edxa niEwexLa loElqulIla, 
qa g'axlag'Ises gunx'^ItsosEus Le^lauEmex," ^netExs lae hoquwEl- 
se ha-yal^asa ^uE^memotasa SenLlEme, cpi^s la ax^edEq LE^wa 
ma^EXLa tsexLa, yix ^nami^alotasa loElqiilile niEwexLa. Wii, k' !est !a (35 
galaxs g'axae aedaaqeda ha^ya^la dagilqElaxa mEwexLa loElqiillla 
LE^wa ma^lEXLa tsetsexLa, qa^s gaxe mEx^alllas lax awlLElasa t!Exi- 
lasa k!wela^yats!e g'okwa. Wii, hex'^ida^mese ax^etsE^weda t!et!E- 
gwats!e L!aL!Ebata, qa^s la hehEnodzEli'lEm laxa loElqiillle. Wa, la 
lEx=ults!alayo laxa L!aL!Ebata t!Ex"sose qa-s la lExts!alaya kMIlxe 70 
t!Ex"sos laxa loElqiillle. Wa, giPmese ^wFla q6qut!eda loElqulilaxs 



992 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieih. ann. 36 

72 dishes were full, | they put the double-headed serpent dish in 
front of the Q'.omoya^ye. Then | the speaker of GwE^yinadze (VI 2) 
said, "This double-headed serpent dish is for you, Q!6moya^ye!" 
and they | put the killer-whale dish in front of the ^walas 

75 Kwag'ul, and || the speaker said, "This killer-whale dish is for 
you, ^walas Kwag'ul!" | and they put the seal-dish in front of 
the Q!6mk'!ut!Es, and | the speaker said, "This seal-dish is for 
you, QIomkMut'.Es!" Then they put | the whale-dish in front of 
the Maamtag'ila and G'exsEm and Kukwaklum, | and the 
sjjeaker said, "This dish is for you, Maamtag'ila, G'exsEm, || 

80 Kukwaklum! You will eat out of it, you who sit there to help us, — 
and you, Laalax's^Eudayo !" | Thus he said. Then he took the large 
ladles and gave one to the | other speaker of GwE^yimdze (VI 2). 
Then he told the guests to begin | eating; and he spoke, turning his 
face towards the numaym SenLlEm, | and said, " Now bring out the 

85 oil, so that I may give the second course to my || guests." Then he 
took the boxes with oil and | put them down in front of the fire. 
The I two speakers dipped the ladles into the oil, and gavfe | one of 
them to the chief of the Maamtag'ila. Then the speaker said, | 

90 "Now, sip this, AwaxElag'llis!" Then || the other speaker said 
to the chief of theG'exsEm, "Now you | sip this. Chief YaqEwId!" 
Immediately the chiefs | arose, took the ladles, and drank the oil; 

72 lae k'ax'dzamoli^lEmeda sIsEyuLe laxa Qlomoya^ye. Wa, lii ^neke^ 
Elkwiis GwE^yimdze: "Loqulas, Q!om6ya^ye sIsEyuL." Wa, la 
kaxdzamoli^lEmeda max^enoxwe laxa ^walase Kwag'ula. Wa, laxae 

75 ^nek'eda Elkwe: "LoqQlas ^walas Kwag'ul max^enox"." Wa, la 
kax'dzamolilEmeda megwate laxa Qlomk" lutlEse. Wa, la ^nek'eda 
Elkwe: "Loqulas Q!6mk' lutlEse megwat." Wa, lak'ax'dzam5li^lE- 
meda gwE^yhne laxa Maamtag'ila LE^wa G'exsEme LE^wa Kukwa- 
k!ume. Wa, la ^nek'eda Elkwe: "Loqulas Maixmtag'ila, G'exsEm, 

80 Kukwaklum, ^wPlastaEniLEsex klwamelaex lo^s Laalax's^Endayo," 
^nek'Exs lae ax^edxa ma-lEXLa tsexLa, qa^s tslEwesa ^nEmexLa laxa 
^UEmox" Elkwas GwE^yimdze. Wa, la waxaxa kiwele, qa wag'es 
hamx'^ida, 'nek'Exs lae gwegEmx'^id laxes ^uE^memotaxa SeuLlEme. 
Wa, ^nek'a: "Weg'a, hanoltlalilaxwa Lle^nax, qEn heleg'indexEns 

85 Le^lauEme," ^nek'Exs lae ax^etsE^weda dedEugwatsIe L!e^na, qa^s 
g'axe mEx^ali^lEm laxa obex'Lala^lilasa lEgwIle. Wa, hex'^ida^mesa 
ma^okwe a^yilk" tse^stasa tsetsexLa laxa L!e^na, qa^s la tieqwasa 
^nEmexLa lax g'lgama^yasa MaSmtag'ila. Wa, la ^nekeda Elkwa: 
"LaEms xiimtledLai' g'lgama^yai' AwaxElag'ilisai'." Wa, la 

90 ^nek'eda ^uEmokwe Elkwa lax g'lgama^yasa G'exsEme: "LaEms 
xumt!edLai'g'Igama^yai', YaqEwIdai'." Wii, hex'^ida^mesa g'lg'Ega- 
ma^ye Lax'ullla, qa^s dadalexa tsexLa, qa^s uax^idexa L!e^na, la 



BtiAsi FAMILY HISTORIES 993 

and I all the head men of the numayms did so, — of the Q!6mo- 
ya^ye | and of the numayms of the ^walas Kwag'ul: and after || the 95 
head men had di'unk, they gave to ch"mk to the men of lower rank. [ 
When they all had drmak oil, they took with their hands the cmque- 
foil-roots out of the | house-dishes, carried them in their blankets, and 
went out. Now this was ended; | and the name of the child of 
GwE^yimdze (VI 2) was Wawalk'ine (VII 3) unt il he should be | 
ten months old. || 

When he was ten months old, his father, GwE^yimdze (VI 2), in- 900 
vited all | the young men of the Kwag'ul tribes to go into his 
house; and when | they came in, they singed off the hair of Wa- 
walk'ine (VII 3) ; and ] after they had singed it off, they put straps 
aroimd his legs and arms; and when | they had done so, they put 
red ochre on his head and face; || and when the paint bail been put 5 
on, the yomig men | also painted their faces ; and when their faces 
were painted, | GwE^yimdze (VI 2) took many handkerchiefs and 
shirts I and gave one to each of the yomig men. When | each had 
one, GwE^yimdze (VI 2) spoke, and said, "Now stop || calling my 10 
child Wawalk-ine (VII 3). You shall call hun | AxanEm (Wolf) 
(VII 3)." Thus he said to the yomig men; and after he had done 
so, I they went out. It was not very long before AxanEm (VII 3) 
began to walk, | for that was his name while he was a young man — 
for AianEm (VII 3) had the ochre-name | when the young men had 

hex"sa gwegilax LeLaxOma^yasa ^nal^nE^memase LE^wa Q!omoya^ye 93 
LE^wa ^nal^nE^memasasa ^walase Kwag'ula. Wa, giPmese ^wilxto- 
weda LBLaxuma^yaxs lae tsex'^ldxa bebEgulIda^ye. Wa, g'iPmese 95 
nvFla la ^nax-'idxa Lle^naxs lae ^wi^la aEm iEx^wQlts lalaxa t!Ex"sose 
laxa loElqullle, qa^s lianqEleqexs lae hoqiiwElsa. Wa, laEm gwala. 
Wa, laEm Legade xiinokwas GwE^yimdzas Wawalkina^ye lalaal qo 
lal helogwilaLO. 

Wa, gil^mese helogwilaxs lae ompase GwE^yimdze Le^lalaxa ^naxwa 900 
ha^yal^asa Kwakiig'ule, qa las ^wFlaeL lax g"okwas. Wa, giPmese 
g'ax ^wrtaeLa lae tslEX'EltsEmtsE^we sE^yas Wawalk'ina^ye. Wa, 
g'il^mese gwala ts!Ex'EltsEma^yaq lae kunx^wit letsE^wa. Wa, gil- 
^mese gwala kunxwitaxs lae qobEltsEmtsowe x"6msas, ylsa 
gumse. Wa, giPmese gwala qobEltsEmdaq lae ^naxwa^ma ha^yaPa 5 
ogwaqa gums^Idxes gogiima^ye. Wa, g'il^mese ^wFla la gumekwa lae 
GwE^yimdze ax^edxa qlensme laalaxwlwa^ya LE^wa q !eq lESEna^ye, 
qa^s yaxHvidesa ^naPnEme laxa ^naxwa ha^yaPa. Wa, g'lPmese 
^wllxtixs lae yaq!Ega^le GwE^yimdze, qa^s ^neke: "LaEms gwal 
LeqElas Wawalk"ina^ye laxEn xunokwex, Wa, la^mets LeqElaLEs 10 
ALanEme laq";" ^nek'exa ha^yaPa. Wa, giPmese gwalExs lae 
hocjuwElsa. Wii, k' !est !a &,laEm galax, laEmxEnt qaqayimaxs ylx 
ALanEme, qaxs lex"a^mae Legadaatses helaena^ye, yixs gflmyadzEx- 
Layoe ALanEme, yixs lex'ag&laeda ha^yal% yaqwaplasa laalaxwl- 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 2 ^14 



994 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [bth. ANN. SB 

15 their own customary small potlatch, in which handkerchiefs, || shirts, 
paddles, and mats were given away. This | is called by the people 
of olden times "ochi'e giving," and they have no | names of high 
rank for it. — AxanEm was the name which he had obtained from his 
father GwE^yimdze (VI 2), because he had not yet | given away 
blankets for a name of high rank for his son ALanEm (VII 3). 
Now, I Ewanux"dze (V 13) felt sorry on account of his grandson, 

20 because he had no || name of high rank. Therefore Ewanux"dze 
(V 13) uivited his numaym | the LaS,lax"s^Endayo, and told his 
numaym that he would give as a marriage gift to his ] son-m-law 
sixty blankets and the name ] Lalep !alas (VII 3) to be the name of 
ALanEm (VII 3). Then his numaym agreed | to what he had said; 

25 and thei'efore he immediately counted off || sixty blankets, and put 
them on the shoulders of the young men | of his numaym, who then 
went out of the house | and into the house of his son-in-law Gwe- 
^yimdze (VI 2). They | sat down near the door, and Ewanux"dze 
himself spoke, | and said, "Look up, son-in-law, GwE^ylmdze 

30 (VI 2), II and listen to what I have to say to you! I feel sorry | 
for my grandson (VII 3), because he has no name of high rank yet. 
Now 1 I will give him this name, and you shall call him | Lalep '.alas, 
and I also give these sixty blankets. | Come and take them!" Thus 

35 he said to his son-in-law; and || GwE^yimdze (VI 2) at once arose 

15 wa^ye LE'wa q !eq !ESEna^ye LE^wa se^wayuwe LE^wa te^wa^ye. HeEm 
gwE^yosa g'ale bEgwauEm gumyase. Wa, la k' !eas^Em alaxLayo 
LegEma, ylx LegEmas laxes ompe GwE^ylmdze, qaxs k"!es^mae 
p!Es^eda, qa^s LeqEle qa LegEmses xunokwe ALanEme. Wa, la 
tslEX'ile naqa^yas Ewanux"dze qaes ts!ox"LEmaxs k"!e§,sae alax- 

20 Liiyo LegEma. Wii, lag'ilas Leltsiode Ewanux"dzaxes ^uE^memo- 
taxaLaalax's^Endayowe. Wa, nelaxes ^nE^memotaxswawalqiillLaxes 
nEgump yisa q!EL!Ex'sokwe p!ElxElasgEma. Wa, he^misa LegEme 
Lalep !alase qa LegEms ALanEme. Wa, a^mise ^naxwa exake ^ue- 
^memotasex waldEmas. Agil^mas hex-^idaEm hos^wultalilaxa q!E- 

25 LlEx'sokwe plElxElasgEma, qa^s k" !ExsEyap lEndales laxa ha^yal^ii- 
ses ^ne^memote. Wa, gIPmese ^wFlaxs lae hSquwEls laxes g'okwe, 
qa^s la hogwiLEla lax g'okwases uEgumpe GwE^yimdze, qa^s k!us- 
^alile lax max'st§,^yasa t!Exila. Wa, xamadzaqwa^mis yaqJEg-a^e 
Ewanux"dze. Wa, la ^nek'a: "K!wagEmlil la, nEgump, GwE^yim- 

30 dze, qa^s hoLelaosaxg'in waldEniLEk' laL, yixs ts!Ex'ilaEn naqa^ye 
qaEn ts !ox"LEmax, yixs k" !easdax^maex ^laxLayo LegEma. La^me- 
sEk" lalg"ada LegEmk' qa LegEmsox. Wa, laEms LeqElaLEs Lale- 
p!alase laq5 g'a^meseg'ada q!EL!EX"sokuk' plElxElasgEma. Wa, 
gelag'a fix^edqEk"," ^nek'exes uEgiinipe. Wa, hex"^ida^mese Gwe- 

35 ^ylmdze Lax^ulila, qa^s yaq!Eg'a^le. Wa, la^nek'a: " ^madzexaos wal- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 995 

and spoke. He said, "Wliat do you say, | father-in-law (V 13) ? 36 
Do you come again and give me a marriage gift of sixty | blankets 
and also this name? Thank you, father-in-law (V 13) !" | Thus he 
said, and sent out his wife (Vl9) to call his numayra, the | SeuLlEm, to 
come into his house. Indeed, there were only three || seated in the 40 
house, — himself (VI 2), his wife, and his child (VII 3), — because 
Ewanux"dze (V 13), tried to | surprise his son-in-law GwF/yimdze 
(VI 2), and GwE^yhndze (VI 2) did not | know beforehand what his 
father-in-law (V 13) was gomg to say to him. Then the | SenLlEm 
came in, and immediately GwE^yimdze (VI 2) | sent out his speak- 
ers to stand in front of his house and || to invite the Maamtag"ila, 45 
G"exsEm, Kiikwakliun, | La^lax's^Endayo, on behalf of Lalep!alas 
(VII 3), the son of GwE^yimdze (VI 2). | "That is what you will 
say," said GwE^ylmdze (VI 2) to his speakers; and when he stopped 
speaking, | the speakers went out. They stood in front of | the 
house of GwE^yimdze (VI 2) and said, "Now, || Maamtag'ila, G'ex- 50 
sEm, Kukwak!um, Laalax's^Endayo, now you may witness the 
dance of | Laleplalas (VII 3), the child of GwE^ylmdze (VI 2) ." 
The other speaker said, | "Let us be quick!" NowthenumaymLaala- 
x's^Endayo was sitting still ; | and when they stopped speaking they 
went into the house of | GwE^yimdze (VI 2), and it was not long 
before the four numayms came in. || Now GwE^yimdze (VI 2) told 55 
them that his plan was for AxanEm | to have a name of high rank ; 

dEmaqlos, nEgiimp? La^masexat! wawalqalaa yisa qlELlEx'sokwax 36 
p lElxElasgEmaa ; yu^misa LegEmaqla? Wa, gelak'as^la, nEgump," 
nek'Exs lae ^yalaqases gEUEme, qa la^s Le^lalasE^we ^nE^memotasxa 
SenLlEme, qa gaxes ^wFlaeLEla lax gokwas. QaLaxs yudux"^mae 
kWdzel laxes g'okwe LE^wis gEnEme LE^wis xGnokwe, qaxs ts!a- 40 
ts!alkiwae Ewauu.x"dzaxes nEgiimp, GwE^yimdze, qaxs klesae 
q'.iiqlalaig'iyuwe GwE^yimdzax waldEmLases UEgumpaq. Wii, g'axe 
^wi^la hogwiLeda SenLlEme. Wa, hex'^ida^mese GwE^yimdze *ya- 
laqases a^yilkwe, qa las qlwag'aEls lax l !asana^yases g'okwe, cja 
LelElasexa Maamtagila, LE^wa GexsEme, LE^wa Kukwak!ume, 4.5 
LE^wa LaSlax's^Eudayowe qa Laleplalase xiinokwas GwE^yimdze. 
"^nex'LEs," ^nek'e GwE^ylmdzaxes a^yUkwe. Wa, g"il^mese q!wel- 
^IdExs lae hoquwElseda a^yilkwe, qa^s la qlwag^aEls lax Llasana^yas 
g'okwas GwE^yimdze. Wa, ^nek'a: "LaEms x'ltsIax'ilaLai' Maam- 
tagilai', GexsEinai', Kukwaklumai', La&lax's^Endayowai', qa La- 50 
lep !alas xunokwas GwE^ytmdze." — "HalasLEnsaai'," ^nekeda ^uEmo- 
kwe Elkwa. Wa, lasmLa kliidzeltsa^ma ^nE^memotasa Laalax"s^- 
Endayowe. Wa, gil^mese q!wel^l4Exs lae hogwiLa lax g'okwas Gwe- 
^yimdze. Wa, k"!est!a galaxs g'axae ^wFlaeLeda mosgEmakliise ^nal- 
^uEmemasa. Wa, la^me nele GwE^yimdzaxs hae senate ALanEmaxs 55 
lE^mae alaxLala LegadLEs Laleplalase. Wa, gll'mese qiweHdExs 



996 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL, [eth. ann. 35 

57 namely, Laleplalas (VII 3). As soon as he stopped speaking, | he 
gave away the sixty blankets to the f om* ] numayms ; and after he had 
done so, they went out. | Now his name was Laleplalas (VII 3), 

60 although he was only a young child of his father || GwE^yimdze 
(VI 2). Now Laleplalas (VII 3) had four names, beginning | with 
the first when he was born by his mother Q'.ex'Lala (VI 9). Now | 
Laleplalas was grown up. Then GwE^ylmdze (VI 2) said to his | 
father-in-law Ewanux"dze (V 13) that he wanted to give a winter 
dance; and immediately | Ewanux"dze (V 13) that he would pay 

65 the marriage debt to his son-in-law GwE^ylmdze (VI 2). || When 
it was nearly winter Ewanux"dze (V 13) paid the marriage debt, — | 
two hundred and fifty blankets, ten boxes of oil, | twelve boxes 
of dried salmon, and twenty baskets with cinquef oil-root. | After 
he had paid the marriage debt, | Laleplalas (VII3) disappeared, and 

70 GwE^yimdze (VI 2) gave a winter dance. He had || disappeared 
for a long time, then he was caught. Then Laleplalas (VII 3) was 
hamshamtslEs. | Now his name was AmyaxElaso^ (VII 3). Now he 
had five | names. Then they gave away two hundred and fifty 
blankets | to the Qlomoya^ye, ^walas Kwagnil, and QlorakMutlEs. | 

75 Now, he did not give any to the GwetEla. After one || winter he 
stopped being hamshamtslEs; and when | winter came again, he be- 
came a member of the Sparrow Society. Now he had also a 
name from his | grandfather Ewanux"dze for the secular season; 



57 lae yax^witsa q !el !Ex"sokwe p JElxElasgEm laxa mosgEmakwe ^nal- 
^nE^memasa. Wa, g'il^mese gwalExs lae ^wFla hoqiiwElsa. Wa, 
la^me LegEms Laleplalase laxes aene^me g'tnanEm xiinox"ses ompe 

60 GwE^yhndze. Wa, laEm mosgEme LeLEgEmas Laleplalase g"ag'I- 
LEla laxes gFlena^ye mayoLEmses abEmpe Qlex'Lala. Wa, la^me 
uEXLEax'^id la bEgwanEme Laleplalase; laase nele GwE^yimdziixes 
nEgumpe Ewanux"dzaxs yawixilaexsdae. Wa, hex'^ida^mese Ewa- 
nux"dze ^nek'Exs lE^mae qotex'alxes nEgumpe, yix GwE^yimdze. Wa, 

65 giFmese Elaq tsla^wunx^ldExs lae qotex'^ide Ewanux^dziisa sEkla- 
x'sok^ala p lElxElasgEni, he-misa UEqasgEme dedEugwatsle Lle^na; 
g^agiwalatleda xEm^yatsle xEtsEma, he^misa gigagala tletlEgwa- 
tsle LlaLlEbata. HeEm waxe. Wa, g'll^mese g\vala qotexaxs lae 
x'is^ide Laleplalase. Wa, la-'me yawixile GwE^ylmdze. Wa, gala- 

70 ^mese xisalaxs lae kimyasE^wa. HamshamtslEse ylx Laleplalase. 
Wa, la^me LegadEs AmyaxElasE-we. Wa, laEm sEk' lasgEme LeLE- 
gEmas. Wa, laEm yax^wldayoweda sEk' la.xsok'ala plElxElasgEm 
laxa Qlomoya^ye, LE^wa ^walase Kwag'ula, LE^wa Qlomk'lutlEse. 
Wa, laEm k'les lag'lnaxa GwetEla: Wa, ^UEmxEnxela-mesexa tsla- 

75 ^wunxaxs lae gwal harashamtslEsa. Wii, giPmese etled tsla- 
'wunx^IdExs lae gwetse-sta. Wa, laEmxae g-ag'ilile LegEmas laxes 
gagEmpe Ewanux"dze laxa baxiise. Wa, la Llasaxdzeg'i^ak" laxa 



i^oAs] FAMILY HISTORIES 997 

and his name was Llasaxdzegi^lak; | as member of the Whale 78 
Society in the winter dance; and the name of | AmyaxElaso (VII 3) | 
was QEwegEme^ (VII 3) as a member of the Sparrow Society. Now 
he had || six names from the beginning, when he was born by his SO 
mother, Qlexxala (VI 9). | 

Now Laleplalas (VI 3) was a full-grown man. Now I will | talk 
about him after he finished the winter dance. That is why I men- 
tioned his I secular name. Now GwE^yimdze (VI 2) wished his | 
son Laleplalas (VII 3) to give a potlatch to the Kwag"ul, to get 
for his name the name of the || past chief, HamesElal (V 3) for 85 
the name HamesElal also belongs to the nmnaym SenLlEra, | 
because it is the name given by G"ayosdas (IV 3) ! to his and 
G'Sg^SolElaga's (IV 1) son (V 3), who was the younger brother of 
Smoke- All-Round (V 1). | G'ag'aolElaga (IV 1), and YiiqoL'.eqElas 
(V 2), and his younger brother | HamesElal (V 3) had gone home 
to TslEqttlotEn. Therefore the Legwilda-'x" || have the names 90 
HamesElal and Smoke-All-Round and the name GilgaolElaga, | 
for they know all the names of the SenLlEm. Now I will 
speak again about Laleplalas (VII 3), who made a potlatch 
to the Kwagul. | He was helped by his father GwE^ylmdze 
(VI 2) and his | grandfather Ewanux"dze (V 13); two hun- 
dred and twenty blankets went || from his father (VI 2) to 95 
Laleplalas (VII 3), and one hundred and eighty blankets from | 

tsletsieqa LegEma ylxs gweguylmae. Wa, la^me Legade AmyaxEla- 78 
sE^was QEwegEme laxes laena^ye gwetse^sta. Wa, la^me qlELlEs- 
gEme LCLEgEmas g'agiLElaxs g'alae mayoLEmses abEmpe Qlex'Lfda. 80 

Wa, laEm alak- lala la bEgwanEma yix Lalep lalase, qaxgin la^mek. 
etlaLElal laqexs lae gwat tsletsieqa. Lag'ilaEn he Lex^edayowe 
baxudzaxLiiyas. Wa, la^me ^nek"e GwE^yimdze, qa plEs^edag'eses 
xiinokwe Lalep lalasaxa Kwakug'ule, qa wag"es LegadEs LegEmrsa 
g^Igamayolae HamesElale, yixs has^maaxa ^nE^memotasa SeuLlEme 85 
LexLEgEmlle HamesElale, qaxs he^mae Lex^eday5s G'ayosdaswu- 
laxes xunok"L6^ G'agaolElaga, ylxs tsla^yanokwae Kwax'se^stalas. 
Wa, la na^nakwe Gag'aolElaga l6^ YaqoLleqElase lewis tsl<¥ye 
HamesElale liix TslEcpllotEne. Wii, he^mis lagilasa Legwilda^xwe 
LegadEs HamesElale LE-wa Kwax'se^stala LegEma qa GagaolEla- 90 
gaxs ^naxwa^mae qleqlalax LeLEgEmasa SeiiLlEme. Wii, la^mesEns 
edzaqwal gwagwex"SEX"^IdEl lii Lalep lalasaxs lae plEsaxa Kwaku- 
g'ule. Wa, laEm ^naxwa g'ivvaltses ompe GwE^yimdze LE^wis 
gagEmpe Ewanux"dze, yixs hamaltsok'alaeda p lElxElasgEme g"a- 
g'ilil lax ompas Lalep lalase. Wa, la ma^lgilnaltsogiig'lyowa g'iig illle 95 
lax gagEmpase Ewanux;"dze hamoplEnyag'igawa p lElxElasgEme 



998 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

97 his grandfather Ewanux"dze (V 13). | Laleplalas (VII 3) was 
helped by the two men with four hundred blankets ; and after he 
had been helped | with the blankets, GwE^ylmdze (VI 2) sent out 
Lalep!alas (VII 3) to | call the speakers who were to be their 
1000 guests to come quickly. |1 Laleplalas (VII 3) went at once to call 
them, and they all came immediately. | Then GwE^yimdze (VI 2) 
instructed them what to say outside of the | house; and after he 
had instructed them, they went out of the house | and stood there. 
They said, "Now, | Q'.omoya^ye, ^walas Kwag'ul, Q!omk'!ut!Es, you 
5 will see (the dance of) Qlexxala (VI 9), the chikP of || Hameselal 
(VII 3)," for H^mesElal (VII 3) had his mother QlExxala (VI 9) 
for his dancer. | It was not long before the three tribes of the 
Kwag-ul came in. ] When they were all inside, GwE^yhndze (VI 2), 
arose [ and spoke. He said, "Now you will stop naming my prince 
Laleplalas (VII 3) ] for his name is changed, and he will now be || 

10 named HamesElal (VII 3). Now he will take the seat of the past 
HamesElal (V 3), | who held the second seat in my numaym Sen- 
L'.Em." I Thus he said to all the Kwag'ul. Then they all agreed to 
what he said. ] After he had finished his speech, he gave away the 

15 four hundred | blankets; and when he had done so, || they went out. 
Now he had seven names, beginning with the first | name obtained 
at the time of his birth from his mother, Q lex'Lala (VI 9) . It was not 
long before his | grandfather Ewanux"dze died (V 13), and at once 

97 g'iwalayosa ma^okwax Laleplalase. Wa, g'iPmese gwalallla g'iwa- 
layowe plElxElasgEmaxs lae ^yalaqe GwE^yimdzils Laleplalase, qa 
las Le^lalaxa a^yilkwaxs Le^lauEmac, qa g'axes halabala. Wa, hex'^i- 
1000 da^mese la Laleplalase Le^lalaq. Wa, hex-^ida^mese g-axda^xwa. 
Wa, laEmxae Lexs^ale GwE^yimdze qa waldEms lax l lasana^yases 
g-okwe. Wa, giPmese gwal Lexs^alaqexs lae hoquwEls laxa g'okwe, 
qa^s qlwag'aElse. Wa, la ^nek'a: "LaEms xltslaxilaLOLai' Qlomo- 
ya^yai', ^walas Kwag-ulai', Qlomk-lutlEsai' lax Qlexxala xiinokwas 
5 HamesElale, qaxs he^mae senates abEmpe QlexLala, ylx HamesE- 
lale." Wa, k' lestla galaxs g'axae ^wFlaeLeda yudux"sEmakwe Kwa- 
kug'ula. Wa, g'U^mese ^wHaeLExs lae he^me GwE^yimdze Lax^ulila, 
qa^s yaqlEg-a^le. Wa, la ^nek-a: "LaEms gwal LeqElalts Lalepla- 
lase laxgin LEwttlgamek', qaxs la^mek" LlayoxLa, qaxs la^mek" 

10 LegadElts HamesElale. Wa, la^mesEk' lal lax Laxwa^ya HamesE- 
lalwula, yixs ^na^nEmokwalgiwalae laxEn ^nE^memota SeuLlEme," 
^nekexa ^naxwa Kwakugula. Wa, aEmxaawise ^naxwa ex'ak-ax wal- 
dEmas. Wa, gil^mese gwale waldEmasexs lae yax^wltsa h&moplEn- 
yag'lgawe p lElxElasgEma. Wa, g'il^mese gwal yaqwaxs lae ^wFla 

15 hoquwElsa. Wa, laEm aLEbosgEme LeLEgEmas gagiLEla laxes g'He- 
na^ye mayoLEmses abEmpe Qlexxala. Wa, k' lest la galaxs lae lE^le 
gagEmpase Ewanux"dzex'de. Wa, hex'^ida^meseQ lex'Lala ^nex", qa 

1 The dancer is here called the child of the host. 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 999 

QlexLiila (VI 9) wished that | HamesElal (VII 3) should take the 18 
seat of his grandfather Ewamix"dze (V 13). | Then Qlex'Lala (VI 9) 
told her son HamesElal (VII 3), and || her husband GwE^yimdze 20 
(VI 2), to call in the numaym of his grandfather (V 13), | the 
Laalax's^Endaj^o, to come into the house of Ewanux"dze (V 13). | 
Immediately HamesElal (VII 3) himself went to call them, | and 
they came in. Wlien they were inside, | Q !ex' Lala (VI 9) arose and 
called her son HamesElal (VII 3) || to come and stand by her side; 25 
and she spoke, and said, | "See how I stand here with my son (VII 3), 
who is the | grandson of my past father Ewanux"dze (V 13). His 
name is HamesElal (VII 3). | Now I wish him to -take the seat of 
Ewanux"dze (V 13), | Laalax's^Endaj^o." Thus said Qlex'Lala 
(VI 9). Immediately all || the men of the numaym La^lax's^Endayo 30 
agreed to | what Qlex'Lala (VI 9) had said. Now she gave away 
blankets | to the numaym Laalax's^Eiidayo, and his name was | 
Ewanux"dze in the numaym Laalax's^Endayo. Now Ewanux"dze 
(VII 3) was the head man | of his new numaym, the Laalax's^Endayo, 
and he (VII 3) also || held the seat of HamesElal in lais numaym 35 
SenL lEm. Now he had the | two seats of HamesElal andEwanux"dze. 
Now he married | NEg'aga (VII 4), and the chief HamedEg'Eme^ 
(VI 10) of the I numaym G'exsEm gave to HS,mesElai the name Tsex- 

he^mise HamesElale Lax"stodExk!wax"dases gagEmpde Ewanux"dze. 18 
Wa, hex'^ida^mese Qlex'Lala axk'lalaxes xiinokwe HamesElale LE^wis 
la^wiinEme GwE^yimdze, qa Lelts lodesexa ^nE^memotases gagEmp- 20 
dexa Laftlax's^Endayowe, ya las ^wPlaeLEla lax g'ox"das Ewanux"- 
dzex'de. Wa, hex'^ida^mese xamax'^ida^me HamesElale la Le^lala 
qa g'axes ^wi^laeLa. Wa, k'lestla galaxs g'axae ^wFlaeLa. Wa, 
hex'^ida^mese Qlex'Lala Lax^ulila, qa^s Le^lalexes xiinokwe HamesE- 
lale, qa las LawEnodzelilEq. Wa, la yaqlEga^la. Wa, la ^nek'a: 25 
"Weg'a doqwalaxg'ln La^wi^lenek' Lo^gun xiinokwEk', yixg'ada ts!ox"- 
LEmag'asEn ompdae Ewanux"dzex'da, ylxga HamesElalEk'. La- 
^mesEn ^nex' qag'a^mes Lax"st6dEx klwa^yas Ewanux"dzex'da, La§,- 
lax's^Endayo, " ^nek'e Qlex'Lala. Wa, hex'^ida^mese ^naxwa ex'a- 
k'eda ^naxwa bebEgwanEmsa ^nE^memotasa Laalaxs^Endayax 30 
waldEmas Qlex'Lala. Wa, la^me yax^wltsa p lElxElasgEme g'ayalts!& 
lax ^nE^memotasa Laalax's^Endayowe. Wa, laEm LegadEs Ewanux"- 
dze laxa ^nE^memotasa Laalaxs^Endayowe. Wa, laEm Laxumeses 
ale la ^nE^memota La^Iaxs^Endayowe Ewanux"dze. Wa, laxae la 
Laxwalax'sa laxes ^nE^memota SenLlEme HamesElale. Wa, la^me 35 
ma^lox"sala yix HamesElal lo^ Ewanux"dze. Wa, la gEg'adEX'^idEs 
NEg'aga. Wa, la-me LegEmg'ElxLale g'igftma^ye ^nEm6x"sa ^uE^me- 
motasa G'exsEme HamedEg'Ema^yax TsEx^wide lax HamesElale 
laxes heena^ye g'ayoltsia gEg'ades ^nErae ^nE^memota SenLlEme. 



1000 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ANN.Sf 

40 ^wld I when he married out of his numaym SenL Ieiii. || He did not keep 
his wife NEg'aga for a long time when he sent lier away, and | Lale- 
p .'alas married the princess of the chief of the numaym LeLEged, | 
Le.lElayugwa (VII 5) ; and he obtained the name for the secular 
season T !at lEnts !id (VII 3) | and four winter names — for the beggar- 

45 dance | the name Q!weq!wasElai, and for the war-dance || the name 
Mayanid, and for the hamshamtslEs the | name LlaqosElag'iHs, and 
for the fool-dance the name | NdlEme^sta when (his dancer) was a man, 
and if she was a woman, | the name NolEme^stalidzEmga; and 
HamesElal (VII 3) also did not keep LgiElayugwa (VII 5) as a wife for 

50 a long time | before she died. Now he married || Xwane (VII 6) , the 
princess of Gundox" (VI 11), chief of the numaym | NaEnsx'a of the 
Koskimo; and HamesElal (VII 3) obtained in marriage | the name 
Giindox", and also the rattle-dance for the winter dance, | with its 
name, DotEyig'i%x". Now HamesElal (VII 3) and Xwane (VII 6) 
had no cliildren, | although they had been married for three years. || 

55 Then H&mesElal (VII 3) sent Xwane (VII 6) away, and he | married 
Hek'inedzEmga (VII 7), the sister of Kwax' ilanokume^ (VII 8), | 
chief of the numaym Ts!ets!Emeleqala; and they gave the cannibal- 
dance as a marriage gift, | and the cannibal-mask called " tooth- 
mask," and the hox"hok" head-mask, | and the crooked-beak head- 

60 mask, and the name of the cannibal dancer was || SEyemq lESElag' ihs, 
and also the thrower-dance with the name ^nawalax"dze, | and the 

40 Wa, k'!est!a gala gEg'adEs NEg'agaxs lae k'ayaq. Wa, la gEg"adEs 
k' ledeias g'Igama-yasa ^uE^memotasa LeLEgede Laleplalase, ylx lc- 
lElayugwa. Wa, laEmxae LegEmoLEx T!at!Ents!lde laxa baxiise. 
Wa, he^misa ts!ets!eqa leleda, yixs moxwedalae yJxa q !weq !wasElale ; 
wa, he^mis LegEmse Q !weq IwasElale ; wa, he^misa tox^wide; wa, 

45 he^mis LegEmse Mayanide ; wa, he^misa hamshamts lEse ; wii, he^mis 
LegEmse LlaqosElag'tlise; wa, he^misa nolEme; wa, he^'mis LegEmse 
NolEme^sta yixs bEgwauEmae. Wa, g'IPmese tslsdaqa nolsme, lae 
LegadES NolEme^stalidzEmga. Wa, k" les^Emxae gala gEg^adEs Lela- 
layngwa ylx HamesElalaxs lae lE^le LelElayugwax'de. Wii, la gEg'a- 

50 dEX'^idEs Xwane k" ledela Gttndox", g'igama^yas ^nE-memotasa 
NaEnsx'asa Gosg'Imux". Wa, la^mese LegEmg'ElxLa^ye Gundoxwe 
qa LegEms HamesElale; he^misa hftyatElale laxa ts!ets!eqa; wii, he- 
^mis LegEmse DotEyig'i^laxwe. Wa, laEmxae hewaxa xiingwadEx'- 
^Ide HaraesElale lax Xwanii, ylxs wax'^mae yudux^'wiinxes tsla^wiinxe 

55 hayasEk'ala. Wii, laEmxae k'aye HamesElalax Xwanii. Wa, lii 
gEg"adEs Hek'inedzEmga, ylx wiiqlwas Kwax'ilanokuma^ye, ylx 
g'Igama-yasa ^nE^memotasa Ts !ets lEmeleqala. Wa, lii hamsElxLiilaxa 
hamatsia, he^misa hamslwa^ye g'ik'anagEmhi, he^misa h6x"hokwi- 
wa^ye LE^wa gEloqwiwa^ye. Wii, he^mis LegEmsa hamats !eye SEyEm- 

00 q'.ESElagilise. Wii, he^misa mamaqla. Wii, lii LegadEs ^nawalax"- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1001 

rich-woman dance with the name Q !omina,gESElaJ, | and the war- 62 
dance with the name Topleq; and when the | Naklwax'da^x" paid 
the marriage debt, then the four men disappeared, | and he 
showed the four dances. Now, || these were obtained by the nuraaym 65 
Laalax's^Endayo, because he wanted very much | to retain the name 
of his grandfather Llasaxdzeg'i^lak" (V 13), for that was the winter 
dance name of | Ewanux"dze (V 13). HamesElai (VII 3) never had a 
child, 1 although he had many wives; and the only one who could | take 
the place of his grandson was the grandson of ||Le^lenox" (VII 1), the 70 
child of K' lamaxalas (VI 7), the princess of A^walask'inis (V 9), | 
chief of the numaym Haayahk'awe of the Qlomoj^a^ye. |Then 
Le^lenox" (VII 1) had a daughter (VIII 1); and when | the daughter 
of (i.e^l6nox" and) WalEwid (VII 9), chief of the numaym | Haana- 
Leno, was grown up, her name was l !aleli^lak" (VIII 1) , the daughter 
of Le^lenox" (VII 1) || and of her husband WalEwid (VII 9). Then 75 
Llaleli^lak" (VIII 1) married | ^maxiilag"ihs' (VIII 2); and to him 
went the name ^maxulag'ihs and also | the cannibal dance and the 
name Yagwis and the fire-dance from the brother of | Llaleh^lak" 
(VIII 1), who was Nux"nemis (VIII 3) in the winter dance, and 
Omx'^idinthe | secular season. Now l laleli^lak" (VIII 1) had (four 
sons) a son named ^nEmogwis (IX 1), and his || 3^ounger brother 80 
OgwilagEme^ (IX 2), and his younger brother K !wak IwabalasEme' 

dze. Wa, he'misa qiammagase LegadEs QIaminagESElale. Wa, 61 
he^misa tox^wide LegadEs Topleqe. Wa, gil^mese gwala Nak!wax'- 
da^xwe qotex'axs lae xis^ed ^wFleda mokwe bebEgwanEmx'sa. 
Wa, la^me ^wPla neHdamasxa moxwidala leleda. Wa, laEm he 
g'ayoqawa ^nE-memotasa Laalax's^Endayowe, yixs hae laxule LegE- 65 
mases gagEmp^wule L!asaxdzeg'i4akwe laxa ts!ets!eqa, yix LegEmas 
Ewanux"dzeyule. Wa, laEm hewaxa sasEmnox^wIda, yix HamesE- 
lale wax'^mae q!enEmes gEgEUErnx'^ide. Wa, lex'a^mes la gwalalas, 
qa^s LlayoLeses ts!6x"LEme ^nEmogwis, yix ts!6x"LEmas Le^le- 
noxwexa xunokwas K' !amaxalase, yix k' ledelas A^walask'inisexa 70 
glgama^yasa ^nE^memotasa Haayalik'awa^yasa Q!omoya^ye. Wa, 
la xungwadEx'^ide Le^'lenoxwasa ts!ats!adagEme. Wa, gil-mese 
nEXLaax'^id la tslEdaqe xunokwas WulEwide, g'lgama^yasa ^nE'me- 
motasa HaanaLen^ lae LegadEs L!aleli^lakwa xunokwas Le^lenoxwe 
LE^wis la^wunEme WalEwide. Wa, lii lawadEx'^ide l laleli^lakwas 75 
^maxiilagilise.' Wa, la lay5weda LegEme ^maxtllag'ilise, he^misa 
hamatsla lo^ LegEmase Yagwise LE^wa ndnltse^stalale ylswuqlwas 
Llaleli^lakwe Nux"nemise laxa ts lets !eqa. Wii, la Omx'^idEXLa laxa 
baxuse. Wa, la xungwadlx'-Ide Llaleli^lakwas ^nEmogwise LE^wis 
tsla^ye OgwilagEma^ye LE^wis ts'.a^ye K !wak IwabalasEma^ye LE^wis 80 

< The narrator, who by descent is not a member of the tribe; the son ot a white father and a Tlingit 
mother. 



1002 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. Ann. 35 

81 (IX 3), and his | younger brother LelElg'imlilas (IX 4). And 
^nEmogwis (IX 1) was taken by HamesElal (VII 3) | to take his 
place in the numaym SenLlEm; and he | took on the other side 
K !wak IwabalasEme^ (IX 3) to take his place in the | numaym 

85 Laalax's^Endayo; and now the name of ^nEmogwis (IX 1), || the son 
of ^maxfilag-ihs (VIII 2) and Llaleh^lak" (VIII 1), was HamesElal 
(IX 1) ; I and the name of K !wak IwabalasEme^ (IX 3) was Ewanux"- 
dze (IX 3) in the numaym | Laalax's^Endayo; and K!wak!wa- 
balasEme^ (IX 3) also had | two seats, as he took the seat of the 
father (VI 2) of his | mother', Le^lenox" (VII 1), among the 

90 Haayalikawe^, and ^nEmogwis (IX 1) || also had two seats — the head 
seat in the numaym SenLlEm, which | was the marriage-gift of 
HamesElal (VII 3) to ^maxillag'ihs (VIII 2); and he also had | the 
seat of H§,mesEla}, which is the fourth in the numaym | SenL .'Em. 
And when HamesElal dies, | all his property and his names among 

95 the SenLlEm wiU go to him (^nEmogwis IX 1) ; || and the property of 
Ewanux"dze will go to | Qlomx'ilag'ihs (IX 3) (that is K!wa- 
kJwabalasEmeO with his names and all the | dances, for Q !omx'ilag'ilis 
is the name of K !wak IwabalasEme^ | in the numaym Laalax' - 
s'Endayo; and he will be | Ewanux"dze after the death of Ewanux"- 
100 dze; but the name || K !wak !wabalasEme^ belongs to him in the 
numaym HaanaLeno of the. Q lomoya^ye) . ] That is all about this. | 

81 tsla^ye LelElgimlilase; wa, he^mis la Sx^etsos H^mesElale ^nsmo- 
gwise qa Lax"stodLeq laxa ^nE^memotasa SenLlEme. Wa, laxae 
ax^edEx apsotlEna^yas K!wak!wabalasEma^ye qa Lax"stodLeq laxa 
^nE-memotasa Laalax"s^Endayowe, qaxs lE^mae Legade ^nEmogwisas 

85 HamesElale, ylx xunokwas ^maxulag'ilise l6^ Llaleli^lakwe. Wa, 
laEmxaawise Legade K!wak!wabalasEma^yas l^wanux^dze laxa ^ue- 
^memotasa La&lax's^Endayowe. Wa, laEmxae K!wak!wabalasEma- 
^ye ma^lox"sala LE^wis laena^ye Lax"stowex Laxwa^yas omp^wulases 
abEmpe Le^lenoxwe laxa Haayalikawa^ye. Wa, laxae ^uEmogwise 

90 ma^lox"sala ylxs Laxuma^yaasa ^nE^memotasa SenLlEme, ylx La- 
xwTg'ElxLa^yas HamesElale lax ^maxiilag ilise. Wa, laxae Laxwala 
lax Laxwa^yas HamesElala yayudukwalgiwala laxa ^nE^memotasa 
SenLlEme. Wa, gil'Emlwise Ie^IlS HamesElale qo laLe -nEmogwise 
^wrtg'aaLElasLEs dadEk'asas LE^wis ^naxwa LCLEgEmas laxes SSulIe- 

95 ^mena^ye. Wa, la ^wIlg'aaLEle dadEk-asas Ewanux"dze lax Qlum- 
x'ilagilise, ylx KlwaklwabalasEma^ye LE^wis LeLEgEme, LE^va 
^naxwa leleda, qaxs he^mae LegEms KlwaklwabalasEma^ye Qlum- 
x'ilag'ilise laxes ^uE^memota Laalax^s^Endayowe. Wa, la alEml 
Ewanux^dzexxal qo Ie^Ilb Ewanux"dzeye. Wa, hetla Legadaats 
100 KlwaklwabalasEma^yes ^nE^memota HaanaLenasa Qlomaya^ye. 
Wa, lawisLa laba laxeq. 

I Heally his mother's mother. 



boas] family histories 1003 

Marriage with the NakIwax da^x" 

Now I will talk about the Naklwax'da^x", whj' they have many | 1 
names derived from the Awlk' !enox" and Bellacoola and | also the 
Gwa^sEla and DzawadEenox", and Haxwamis; for | the chief of the 
numaym ^walas, whose || name was ^maxwa, got wives among these 5 
tribes; and he also married among the numaym | TEmltEmlEls of the 
Mamaleleqala, and the numaym Laalax's^Endayo | of the Kwag'ul, 
and also the numaym G' exsEuix' s^nala of the | Koskimo. That is 
where ^maxwa, and his children after him, took wives, and also 
among the | Gwawaenox" from the numaym Kwekwaenox". Wlien 
emaxwa (II 1) was a || young man, the father of ^maxwa, Amaxiilal 10 
(1 1), called his | numaym the ^walas, and | told his numaym that 
he wished to get a wife for his prince | ^maxwa (II 1) among the 
princesses of the chiefs of the tribes, to get crests | from tliem; and 
he told them that he wished him to marry |1 l laqwag'ilayugwa (II 2), 15 
the princess of L!aqwag-ila (I 2). Thus he said. | Immediately 
his numaym thanked him for his speech. The | Nak .'wax' da^x" 
lived in the viUage Teguxste^. They started at once | early in the 
morning, and they went to Wanuk", | where the village of the 
Awiklenox" is located when they catch olachen. || When they arrived 20 
the speaker of ^maxwa (II 1), whose j name was Gwemalas, stood up 

Marriage with the Nak!wax"da^x" 

HeLEn gwagwex's^alasLa Naklwax'da^xwe lax lag'ilas q!enEme l 
LeLegEmas g'aya^nakula laxa AwikMenoxwe LE^wa Bslxula; wa, 
he^misLeda Gwa^sEla LE^wa DzawadEenoxwe LE^wa H&xwamise, 
ytxs he^mae gag'adi^lalats g'lgama^yasa ^iiE^memotasa ^walasexa 
Legadas ^maxwa, yixs he^maaxat! la gEg^adaatseda ^nE^memotasa 5 
TEmltEmlElsasa Mamaleleqala LE^wa ^nE^memotasa Laalax's^Enda- 
yowasa Kwag'ule; wa, he^misLeda ^nE^memotasa G'exsEmx's^analasa 
Gosg'imoxwe, ylx gag'adi^liilasas ^maxwa LE^wis sasEm^nakulas laxa- 
axa Gwawaenoxwe lax ^nE^memotasa Kwekwaenoxwe. Wa, hesm 
ales alostawe ^maxwa. Wa, laEm^awise Leltslode omp^wulas ^ma- IQ 
xwaxes ^uE^memota ^walase (xa Legadiis Amaxulale). Wa, la^Iae 
nelaxes ^uE^memotaxs ^nek'ae qa gagak' !e^stalisEleses LEWulgama^ye 
^maxwa lax k" !esk" ledelas g'lgEgama^yasa lelqwalaLa^ye, qa^s k'!a- 
kMes^oLle laq. " Wa, laEm^lawise nelaxs lE^mae ^nex' qa^s la gaga- 
kMax L laqwag'ilayugwa lax kMedelas L!aqwag'ila, ^nex-^lae. Wa, 15 
hex'^iadEm^lawise ^naxwa mo^le ^nE^memotases waldEmas, ytxs hae 
g-okule^laeda Nak!wax'da^xwe TegQxsta^ye. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise 
Slex^wld^laxa la ^nax'^idxa gaala. Wa, laEm^lae lal lax Wanukwe, 
ylxs haa^l g'okula ^naxwalama Eawik" !enoxwe dzaxwilaxa dzaxune. 
Wa, g'il^Em^lawise lag-aaxs laa^l Lax^GlExse Elkwas ^maxwaxa Le- 20 
^adas Gwemalase. Wa, la^lae yaq!Eg"a%. Wa, la^lae ^nek-a: 



1004 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 36 

22 and spoke. He said, | "I came to you, great numaym WiokwitEiii, 
Awlk' !enox"! | My chief, ^maxwa (II 1) here, came to marry your 
princess, | Llaqwag'ila (I 2), Llaqwag'ilayugwa (II 2). Thus he 

25 said. Then they paid the marriage money || of sewed blankets: and 
after they had paid the marriage money, | they lieard the whistles of 
the cannibal-dancer in the house of Llaqwag'ila (12), | and also the 
whistles of the fire-dancer and of the rich-woman dancer, and the | 
sacred song of the shaman-dancer. Wlien each of these had sounded 

30 four times, | Llaqwag'ila (I 2) came out of his house || carrying a 
handful of eagle-down. He sang | his sacred song, and he used the 
eagle-down hke a rattle. He j stood in front of liis house wearing 
around his neck a large neck-ring of | red cedar-bark. Wlien he 
stopped singing, he spoke, and said, | "Come, son-in-law ^maxwa 

35 (II 1), come into this house, || which will be your house! The winter 
dances have already been started for you, | because you have come 
to marry my princess, Llaqwag'ilayugwa (II 2)." Thus he said. | 
Then ^maxwa arose in his marriage | canoe. There were four of 
these; and he told his crew to | obey the words of his father-in-law; 

40 and when he said this, || he jumped into the water with his crew; and 
they went up the beach, | following his father-in-law l laqwag' ila (I 2) , 
who was waiting for them. Then | Llaqwag'ila (I 2) entered the 
house first, and ^maxwa (II 1) followed him, | and his whole crew went 



22 "G"ax^mEn g'ax^aLEla, ^walas ^nE^mera WlokwItEm, yul Awlk'le- 
nox", g'axg'ln g'lgameg'eg'a ^miixwak' gagak!ax6x k"!edelaq!6s, 
Llaqwagil, laxox Llaqwagilayugwax, " 'nex'^laexs laa^l qadzePida 

25 yisa q !aq !Enote ^naEnx^una^ya. Wa, g'ipEm^lawise gwal qadzeLaxs 
laa^ase hek'!Ek'!ale niEdzesasa hamats'.a lax g'okwas Llaqwag'ila 
Lo^laeda msdzesasa nonltse^'stalale LE^wa qiaminagase. Wii, la^lae 
yalaq'.wala^lae paxalalalas. Wa, gipEm^lawise moplEndzaqweda 
^naxwa laxes ^nal^nEmx'^idalaena^yaxs g^axaa^l lawElse Llaqwag'ila 

30 la^laxes g'okwe, q IwetsEmexa qEnixwasa kwekwe. Wa, la^lae ya- 
lagtitEwe^lases yalax"LEne laxes yatElaena^yasa qEmxwa. Wa, la^lae 
Lax^uls lax l lasan&^yases g'okwe. Wii, laEm^lae qEnxalaxa LEkwe 
LlagEkwa. Wii, g'ipEm'liiwise qlwePidExs laa^'l yiiqlEg'a^a. Wa, 
laHae ^nek'a: "Gelag'a, nEgimip ^maxwii, qa^s g'iixlag'aos g'axeL 

35 lilxg'as g"ox"lg'os. LaEmk'^niixwa qliiyatElilg'a ^niix'^nEwalagwIl- 
g'as qaes g'a^xena^yos gagak' laxEnk' ledele Lliicjwag'ilayugwa," ^nex'- 
'lae. Wii, hex'^daEm^Iawise ^maxwa Lax^wiilExs laxes gagak' laatsle- 
ye xwiixwak lixnaxa motslaqe. Wit, la^lae axkMiilaxes kiweme, qa^s 
nanageg'e^mex willdEmases nEgiimpe. AEm^ae ^nek'Exs lae 

40 dEx"sta Laxa ^wape LE^wis kiwemaxs laa^ hox^wusdesa, qa^s 
lii liig'ixes nEgiimpe Llaqwag'iliixs esEla^maaq. Wii, heEm^lawise 
Lliiqwag'ila g'iilaeL laxes g'okwe. Wii, lii^lae miik'ile ^miixwiiq. 
Wii, g'ax^lae ^wI^aeLe kiwemaseq. Wii, la^lae Llaqwag'ila axk'lalax 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1005 

in. Then Llaqwag'ila (I 2) asked | ^maxwa (II 1) to go to his 
wife L laqwag' iIayug^va (II 2), who was || sitting on a board high up 45 
in the rear of the liouse. He | went to her and sat down by her side. 
His I crew sat down in the rear of tlie house. When they were | all 
seated, then the whistles of the cannibal-dancer sounded again | 
behind the mat-curtain in the left-hand corner || inside the house; 50 
and the whistles of the fire-dancer | and the rich-woman dancer 
sounded, and the shaman-dancer sang his sacred song. | Then 
Llaqwag'ila (I 2) arose and stepped to the place in front of the | fire 
in the middle of the house. There he stood stiU. His tribe also | 
did not move from the places where they were seated at the sides of 
the house. || When the sound of the whistles stopped. Llaqwag'ila 55 
(I 2) spoke, I and said, "Now, hsten to the supernatural power of 
your wife, | son-in-law ^maxwa (II 1) ! Now you have obtained in 
marriage the cannibal-dancer whom you have | heard, and his name, 
H3,mtse^stasElag'ilis, and the | hoxhok" cannibal head-mask, and 
the raven head-mask, and the || crooked-beak head-mask, and the 60 
gElogudzalis head-mask — there are | four different kinds of head- 
masks for the cannibal-dancer and also the neck-ring of | red cedar- 
bark woven and mixed with wliite bark. The | name of the cedar- 
bark neck-ring is k'losEnxawa; and the head-ring has three | rings, 
one on top of the other; and the wrist-ring goes || four times around 65 

^maxwa qa las he^nakula laxes gEUEme L!aqwag"ilayugwaxs k!wa- 
dzalilaaxa Laele saokwa lax naqoLewalilasa g'okwe. Wa, la^lae 45 
he^nakiila laq, qa^s la klwanodzElilaq. Wii, heEm^lawis ^wPla 
kliis^alile kiwemase ogwiwalllasa g'okwe. Wii, g'ipEm^lawise 
^wFla klus^alllExs laa^lase edzaqwa hek' liga^le mEdzesasa hama- 
ts!a, lax aLatsIelilasa yawapEmlilaxa leHva^ye lax gEmxotsalllas 
awlLElasa g'okwe. Wa, hcEm^laxaawise hek' !ale niEdzesasa nonl- 50 
tse^stalale LE^wa qlamin^gase. Wii, la^lae hiJEmxat! yiilaqlwa- 
latsa paxalalale. Wii, aEm^lilwise La^wile L!iiciwag'ila lax obexxala- 
lllasa laqawalTlasa g'okwe sEldela. Wii, heEm^laxaiiwise gwaele g'o- 
kulotas k"!e^s la yawl^nala lilxes k!udzelase ^wax'sanegwilasa g'okwe. 
Wa, he^lat!a la q!wel^ideda mEdzets'.alaxs Jaa^l yiiq!Eg-a^le L!a- 55 
qwag'ila. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "Weg'a hoLelax ^nawalakwasos gEnE- 
macios, UEgiimp, ^max". LaEms gEg'adanEmaxes laos wuLax^aLE- 
laxa hamatsia LE^wis LegEme Hamtse-stiisElag'llis, he^mises hox"- 
hokwlwa^ye hamslwa^ya LE^wa gwaxwiwa^ye hamsiwa^ya LE^wa 
gElokwIwa^ye hamsiwa^ya LE^wa gElogudzalise hamsiwa^ya. Wa, 60 
mox^widala hehamslwa^yasa hiimatslax. Wii, he^mis qEnxawe 
L!iigEX"sada k'!it!aakwe '^mElmaqEla LlagEkwa. Wa, he^mis Le- 
gEmsa qEnxawa^ye LlagEkwe k'!osEnxawa. Wii, liixae yudux"- 
ts!aq leElx'En k!wasaxEle qEx'lma^yas L'.agEkwa. Wii, liite 
maemop lene^staLe qeqEx'ts laneLas x'ilplEnak" LlagEkwa. Wii, 65 




1006 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ANN. 35 

66 the arm, and is made of twisted red cedar-bark; | and the anklets go 
four times around the leg, and are made of twisted red cedar-bark. | 
That will be the way of your dancer, son-in-law ^maxwa (II 1). | 
And this wiU be the cedar-bark of the fii'e-dancer. The neck-ring is 

70 mixed with white, | and the head-ring is not thick. The || arm-rings 
go around the wrist twice, and also tlie anklets. | The name of the fu"e- 
dancer will be Gwadzes. | And tliis will be the cedar-bark of tlie shaman- 
dancer. His neck-ring | and head-ring will be medium-sized, and he 
will have a small ring of twisted cedar-bark | around tlie wrist and 

75 around the legs, and they will go around four times. || The name of the 
shaman-dancer wiU be Hayalak'ilaLEla. And this | is the way of the 
cedar-bark of the rich-woman dancer. She has a big neck-ring mixed 
with white, | and at three places there are strips hanging down 
of cedar-bark mixed wliite and red, in this way: | 
Her head-ring will also be red and wliite — two rings, 
one on top of the other. | The one below will be 

80 smaller than the upper one. The || wrist-rings and 
leg-rings of red cedar-bark will be white in the 
middle, and they will pass around four times; | and 
her name will r\^^^^^ /-n t>e Q.'ominowa- 
gasElal ; and I the ^^^^^^^ sacred room of the cannibal-dancer 
will be painted m pFrl J with a moon painting; and | the box 
containing the ^ u=SJ • winter-dance objects will be painted 
in this way: ,^^^^^C\ The sacred room will stand at the | 
left - hand side, ^^^ inside the door of your house, son-in- 

66 laLe maemop !Ene^staLe qeqEX'sIdzeLas x'tlplEnak" LlagEkwa. 
Wa, heEm gwalaasLEsa hamatslaLaos, uEgunip, ^maxwa. Wa, 
g'a^mes gwalaats L!agEkwasa nonltse^stalale, yixs ^niElmaqElaes 
qEnxawa^ye LE^wis qEx'Ema^ye k'!es lex" LlagEkwa. Wa, la mae- 

70 malp!ene^sta^ma xilplsnakwe LlagEk" qeqEX'tsIanes LE^wis qeqEX"- 
sidza^ye. Wa, he^mis LegEmsa nonltse^stalale Gwadzes. Wa, 
g'a^mes gwalaats L!agEkwasa paxalalale, yixs helag'itae qEnxawa^yas 
LE^vis qEX'Ema^ye LlagEkwa. Wa, la wllEn x'ilplEnakwa LlagEkwe 
qeqEX"ts!anesLE^wis qeqEX'sidza^ye. Wit, lii maemop!ene^sta. Wii, 

75 g'a^mes LegEmltseg'axa paxalalale HayalakilaLEla. Wa, g'a^mesgwa- 
laasLEs L!agEx"ltsa q!aminagase, yixs LEkwae ^mElmaqEles qEnxa- 
wa^ye. Wa, la yuduxwidale qiilEna^yas ^mElmoyag"a gwalega. (fig:) 
Wa, laxae ma^tslaqe qExima^yas LlagEkwa ^mElmoya. Wa, laLe 
wilagawa^ya banaLElases ek'laye. Wa, laLe ^niElmoyawe qeqEX"- 

80 ts!ana^ye LE^wis qeqEx'sidzeLa LlagEkwaxa maemopIene^staLa 
LEsLEkwa. Wa, he^mis LegEmltse Q!ominowa»asElale. Wa, g'a- 
^mes mawilLEsa hamats!eg-ada ^mEkuladzalak'. Wa, la handzawa 
k"!awats!e gildaslaq, g'agwaleg-a (fig.). Wa, laLe hel k" logweLa ma- 
wila gEmxotstalilas awlLElas t!EX"ilases g"okwos, nEgiimp, ^maxwa. 



BOAS] FAMn,Y HISTORIES 1007 

law ^maxwa;||and your name will be K'anEweso in the winter dance, 85 
son-in-law." Thus he said. | Then he turned liis face toward lais tribe, 
the Awik" !enox", spoke, | and said, "Now give food to my son-in- 
law I and to his crew!" Immediately they gave food to them; | and 
after thej' had eaten, the cannibal-dancer uttered his cry || behind the 90 
front of the sacred room at the left-hand side, inside the door | of the 
house. Then they took their batons and | narrow roof-boards to beat 
time on, put them down flat outside of the sacred room, | and the 
song-leaders sat down close to the sacred room. | When the batons 
had been distributed, || Llaqwag'ila stood up. He spoke, and said, 95 
"Now I watch us, son-in-law — and you, tribe — to see our ways, | 
for I wish 3^ou to learn the way to handle these | four winter dances 
that I have given to you." Thus he said; | and after he had spoken, 
the cannibal-dancer uttered his sound. || Immediately the song- 100 
leaders beat time and began to sing. | Then the cannibal-dancer 
came out of his sacred room. He was | scjuatting as he was dancing 
about inside the house. When the first song was ended j which was 
sung by the song-leaders, the cannibal-dancer ran about with his | 
attendants. .They ran around the fire in the middle of the house; 
and after he had run ll around four times, he went back into his 5 
sacred room. When he was | going in, the snapping of the mouths of 
the four head-masks was heard. | 

Wa, la^mets LegadEl K^anEweso, yuL UEgump laxa ts!ets!eqa," ^nex'- 85 
^lae. Wa, la^lae gwegEmx-^Id laxes g'okiilota E&wik- lenoxwe qa^s ya- 
qlEg'a^leq. Wa, la^lae^nek'Eq: "Weg'aEmasL LlExwilaxEn nEgiimpex 
LE^wos kiwemex," ^nex'^lae. Wa, hex'^idaEm^awise LlExwIIag'ila. 
Wa, g'ipEm^lawise gwala LlExwaxs laa^lase hamadzElaqweda ha- 
matsla lax aLadzelilasa mawile lax gEmxotstae^as SwlLElasa tiExl- 90 
lasag'okwe. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise ax^etsE^weda tiEmyayowe LE^wa 
ts'.eqiadzowe saok" tiEmedzo, qa^s la pax^alelEm lax Llasalilasa ma- 
wile. Wa, la^lae kludzExseg'allleda nenagadax mag'idza^yasa ma- 
wile. Wa, g'ipEm^lawise ^wFla la yiix^witsosa t !et lEmyayowaxs laa^l 
Lax^wiilile Llacjwagila, qa-s yaq!Eg-a4e. Wa, la^lae ^nek-a: "Wegilla 95 
doqwalaLEx nEgump le^wos g^okillotaqos laxEn ^naxwaLa gwayi^a- 
lasL, qaxg'In la^mek" ^nex' qa^s gwalElamaos q!aq!6L!axes gweg'i- 
lasLaosaxg'ada moxwidalak' leled layowEn laL," ^nex'^Iae. Wa, 
gipEm^lawise qlweHdExs laa'lase hamadzElaqweda hamatsla. Wa, 
hex'^idaEm^lawise LexEdzodeda nenagade, qa^s dEnx^ide. Wa, g'ax- 100 
^Em^lae lalts lalileda hamatsla laxes mawile. Wa, laEuiMae k!wa.- 
gililElaxs yixwae la^stalilEla laxa gokwe. Wa, gipEm^lawise labe 
g-ale dEnx^dayasa nen&gadaxs laa^l alt lEqEllleda hamatsla LE^wis 
helika, dzElx^se^stalllElaxa laqawalilasa g'okwe. Wa, he^latla la 
mop lEne^stalilExs lag latslalll laxes lEme^latsle. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise 5 
latslalilExs lae qEmk!ug"a^leda mowe hehamslwa^ya. 



1008 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [bth. ann. :ir> 

7 First the h6x"h5k" head-mask came out, | next came the crookeil- 
beak head-mask, and next | the raven head-mask came out and 

10 finally the II gElogudzEwis head-mask. Each one went back into the 
sacred room after having gone | around the fire once. | Then the 
cannibal-dancer came out naked and ran out of the house; | and it 
was not long before became back carrying in his arms | a corpse; and 

15 when | he came into the door of the house, the shaman-dancer || and 
the rich-woman dancer sang their sacred songs and came out of the | 
sacred room — first the woman-shaman dancer came out, and | last 
the rich-woman dancer. The rich-woman dancer went straight up | 
to the cannibal-dancer and took the corpse out of his arms. Then | 

20 she went once around the fire in the middle, and sat down || outside 
of the sacred room with painted front. She | pinched pieces of flesh 
off the corpse and tasted them. The cannibal-daucer was still | 
sitting near the door, and the woman shaman was still | standing in 
the same place at the door of the sacred room. After | the rich- 
woman dancer had four times swallowed pieces of the corpse, the 

25 cannibal-dancer arose || and went around the right-hand side of the 
fire and went up | to the rich-woman dancer. He took; the corpse 
on his arms and sat down | at the left-hand side of the fire in the 
middle of the house. Then he began to eat it. | He had not been 
eating long when the rich-woman dancer arose and | sat down in 

7 Wa, hcEm^lawis g'al6lt!allleda hox"hokwlwa^ye hamsiwa^ya. Wa, 
g'ax^lae makileda gElokwIwa^ye hamslweq. Wa, g"ax-lae et- 
^wiilt lalileda gwaxwiwa^ye hamslweq. Wa, g'ax^lae ElxLa^yeda 

10 gElogudzEwese hamslweq. Wa, g'll^Em^lawise ^UEmp lEne^stalil 
laxa laqawalllaxs laa^ ^wPla latslalll laxa lEme^latsle. Wa, g'ax- 
^lae lalts lallleda hamats !a laxes xanalaena^ye, qa^s la dzElx'EWElsa. 
Wa, k'!es^lat!a giilaxs g'axae q'.EllLElaxa lalenoxwe. Wa, g'iPEm- 
^lawise g-axeL laxa t lExilasa g^okwaxs laa^ ^yalaqwa^laeda paxalalale 

15 LE^wa bEgwanEme q!^minagasa, qa^s g'axe g'ax^wults!alll laxa 
lEme^lats !e, yixs he^maaH g-aloltslallleda tslsdaqe paxalalala. Wa, 
la^lae ElxLa^ya qiaminagase. Wa, he^nakulaEm^lawiseda qlamina- 
gase laxa hamats!a, qa^s q!ElEXLEyexa lalenoxwe laq. Wii, he^'lat!a 
la ^uEmp lEne^stalll la-stalilElaxa laqawalllaxs laa^l k!wag'allleda 

20 q!4minagase lax Llasalilasa lEme^lats!e, ytxa mawile. Wa, la^lae 
epod laxa lalenoxwe, qa^s plEx^ede laq. Wa, laEmHaLa hexsaEm 
k!waela hamatsleda nExwala laxa tiExila. Wii, la hex'siiEm 
La^wileda paxalalale tslEdaqe t lEX'ilasa mawile. Wii, g'll^Em^lawise 
m6p!Enq!Eseda qiaminagase laxa lalenoxwaxs laa^l Lax^ulileda 

25 hiimatsla, qa^s la helk' lEwetstalilElaxa laqawalllaxs lae he-nakiila 
laxa qiaminagase, qa^s qlElEXLEyexa lalenoxwe, qa^s le kiwag'alll 
lax gEmxanalilasa laqawalile. Wa, laEm^lae hamx"-IdEq. Wii, 
k" les^Em^lawise geg'IlIlExs laa^ase qiaminagase Lax^fllll, qa^s lii^l 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTOBIBS 1009 

front of the cannibal-dancer, who was eating of the corpse, and helped 
him eat it. || At that tinae the woman-shaman dancer stood behind 30 
the I camiibal-dancer singing her sacred song, and she did not stop 
singing until | the corpse had been eaten by the cannibal-dancer and 
the rich-woman dancer. When | it had been eaten entirely, the 
shaman-dancer took a basket and gathered up | the bones that had 
not been eaten and put them into a basket, || and gave them to one 35 
of the attendants of the cannibal-dancer. | The attendant at once 
went out of the house with the basket containing the bones. Then | 
the one who had taken out the bones came back and went | up to the 
cannibal-dancer. He took hold of his hair over the forehead, | 
dragged him out, and dragged him down to the bank of the river || 
Wanuk". Then they walked into the water; and when they were in 40 
waist deep, | the attendant of the cannibal-dancer, who held him 
by the hair, ducked the head of the cannibal-dancer | and turned 
round toward the right; and when he arose, | he faced the same way 
as he had been standing before he ducked him, toward the east. 
Then he hfted | the head of the cannibal-dancer; and when his 
mouth appeared out of the water, || the cannibal-dancer uttered the 45 
cannibal cry. Then | ^maxwa was asked to go out of the house to 
see how | the cannibal-dancer was being purified after eating the 
corpse. I They ducked him four times in the river; and after he had 
been ducked | four times, they came back into the dancing-house, || 

kIwagEmlllaxa hamatsia loilala, qa^s ha^mek'Ialeq. Wa, heEm^la- 
wis la laatsa, paxSlalale tslEdaqa, qa^s la Lawil lax S,wlg"alilasa 30 
hamatsia, qa^s yalaqule. Wa, ah'mese gwal yalaqillaxs lae ^wPla- 
SE=weda lalenoxwasa hamatsia LE^wa qiaminagase. Wa, giPEm- 
-lawise ^wFlaxs laa^l ax^ededa paxalalalaxa lExa^ye, qa^s qlaple- 
g'illlexa xaqe haamota, qa^s axtslales laxa lExa^ye, qa^s 
tslEwes laxa g'ayole laxa helik'asa hamatsia. Wa, hex'^idaEm- 35 
^lawise la laweldzEmeda xaqesawayaatsle lExa^ya. Wa, gipEm^la- 
wise g'ax aedaaqeda lax"de lawElsasa xaqesawayaatsle lExaxs laa^l 
he^nakiila laxa hamats la, qa^s nesEyodex sE^yas ogwiwa^yas x'omsas, 
qa^s la nesEWElsaq, qa-s la nesEnts lesElaq laxa awaxstalisasa was 
Wanukwe. Wa, la taxtia laxa wa. Wa, g'lPmese tiEboyoweda 40 
helik'asa hamatslaxa nesewayaq laa^l habEnsas x'omsasa hamatsia, 
qa^s x'ilplede helk' lEwe'stala. Wa, gil'Em^lawise lag'aa laxes gwe- 
gEmalaase g^ale tex^widaatsa LlesElaxa gaalaxs lae xutost&masEx 
X'omsasa hamatsia. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise qlax^wuxstax'^ldeda ha- 
matslaxs laa4 hex'^idaEm hamtslEg'a^la. Wa, laEm^lae Sxsowe 45 
^maxwa, qa^s la lawEls laxa g^okwe, qa^s la doqwalax gwegila- 
saxa hapasE^weda hamatslaxs lae gwal loilalxa lalenoxwe. Wa, 
moplEna^Iae habEndzEme x^omsas laxa wa. Wa, gll^Em^Iawise mo- 
plEna habEndzEme x'omsasexs g-axae xwelageLa laxa lobEkwe. 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 2 15 



1010 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

50 and he went into his sacred room. The | rich-woman dancer and 
the shaman-dancer also went back into the sacred room. They had 
not I stayed there a long time before the cannibal-dancer uttered the 
cannibal cry. Immediately | the song-leaders began to sing, and 
the cannibal-dancer came out of his | sacred room wearing a bear- 

55 skin. He had around his neck a i| thick ring of red cedar-bark 
called k' losEnxawe; and | after the song-leaders finished singing 
four songs, he went | into his sacred room, and the shaman-dancer 
always kept near him. | When they had gone into the sacred room, 
the rich-woman dancer uttered her cry. | She cried in this way: 

60 "Hahi hai, hai, hai; hahi, hai!" || Thus she cried while the song- 
leaders were singing her song. She | wore around the neck a ring of 
cedar-bark mixed white and red, and she | danced, accompanying 
the four songs. After the last | song, she went into her sacred room; 
and the fire-dancer cried, "We, we, we!" | Then the song-leaders 

65 sang his H song, and he came and danced for a little while. | He 
danced and put out the fire in the middle of the house, | and the 
song-leaders just sang two of his songs | in the dark. After his 
songs I he went back into the sacred room. Then the fire was built 

70 up again; || and when it blazed up, Llaqwag'ila (I 2) spoke, | and 
said, " Have you seen the privileges which I have given to you, | son-in- 

50 Wa, la^lae 'hets I&lilEla laxa mawile. Wa, laEm^lae ogwaqa latsli- 
lileda q!&,minagase LE^wa p&x&lalale laxa mawile. Wa, k'!es^lat!a 
galaxs laa^l hamtslEg'a^leda hamatsla. Wa, hex"^idaEm^lawise 
dEnx^ededa nenagade. Wa, g'ax^lae lalts lillleda hamatsla laxes 1e- 
me4ats!exa mawile, ^nEX^iinalaxa Lla^ye. Wa, laEm^lae qEnxalaxa 

55 LEkwe LlagEx^xa Legadask'!6sEnxawaL!agEkwa. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise 
gwal dEUXEleda nenagadasa mosgEme q lEmq lEmdEmsexs lae lats !alil 
laxes lEme^lats!e LE^wa pslxalalale, qaxs q!ap!ex*sa^mae LE^we. Wa, 
g"il^Em^lawise lats!alil laxes lEme^lats !axs laa^lase hek'lEg'a^leda 
ql^minagase laxes gwek" lalasaxs hahi hai, hai, hai; hahi hai, 

60 ^nex-^laexs laa^lase dEnx^ededa nen&,gadas qlEmdEmas. Wa, laEm- 
«laxae qEnx5,laxa ^mElmaqEla LlagEkwa. Wa, g'ax^Em^lae ylxwasa 
mosgEme qlEmqlEmdEms. Wa, g'll^Em^lawise qlulbeda ElxLa^ye 
qlEmdEmsexs laa^l latslalil laxa lEme4ats!e. Wa, la^lae wewewe- 
xeda nonltse^stalale. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise dEnx^ededa nenaga- 

65 das qlEmdEmas. Wa, g'ax^Em^lae yawas^id yix^wida. Wa, he- 
^latla la yi^wenesexs laa^l k'lElx^edxa laqawalilasa g"okwe. Wa, 
§,Em^lawise wul^Em la dEnxEleda nenagadasa ma^tsEme q !Emq !Em- 
dEms laxa plEdEklla. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise qlulbe qlEmdEmasexs 
laa^l lats!S.lll laxa lEme^latsIe. Wa, la^Iae x'ax'iq!Ex"-itsE^weda 1e- 

70 gwile. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise x'lqostaxs laa^l yaqlEg'a'le Llaqwag'ila. 
Wa, la^ae ^nek'a: "Lammas ^wPla doqulaxEn k" les^ogulxLa^ye laL, 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1011 

law ^maxwa (III)? Now carry home the box containing the privileges 72 
and I in it take the four dances that you have seen to-night." Thus 
spoke Llaqwag'ila (I 2) | to ^maxwa (II 1). Immediately ^maxwa 
(II 1) thanked him for what he had said; || for this is the first cannibal- 75 
dancer with whistles that came to the Nak !wax' da^x", | and also the 
fire-dance and the rich-woman dance and the | shaman-dance and 
the four head-masks, for they had none | before that; and therefore 
'maxwa (II 1) was really grateful for what Llaqwag'Ua (I 2), his | 
father-in-law, had said. Early the following morning 1| ^maxwa 80 
(II 1) and his wife, l laqwag' ilayugwa (II 2), and | his crew were 
ready. They loaded the four canoes; and when | they were loaded, 
they went aboard. | When they had gone aboard, Llaqwag'Ua (I 2) 
came out of his | house and spoke. He said, "Wait a while, || son- 85 
in-law; for I will carry down this box containing the privileges, | 
and these eight baskets of smoked mountain-goat meat and | these 
twenty black-bear skin blankets and | forty lynx-skin blankets and 
forty dressed skins, | so that my princess l laqwag ilayugwa (II 2) 
may not be cold." 11 Thus he said. When he stopped speaking, he 90 
went into his house; and | it was not long before his numaym came 
out carrjnng the before-mentioned | twenty black-bear skin blankets, 
the forty | lynx-skin blankets, the forty dressed skins, ] and the 

nEgiimp, ^max". LaEms lal m§,lalxa k"!awats!e gildasa, ylx g'itslE- 72 
wasasa mox^widalaos la doxwaLElxwa ganoLex," ^nex'^lae Llaqwa- 
g-ilax ^maxwa. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise ^maxwa mo^las waldEmas, 
qaxs he^mae g'alEnxe hamatsla mEdzedzad g'ax laxa Naklwax'- 75 
da^xwe LE^wa nonltse^stalale ; wa, he^misa ql^min^gase LE^wa pa- 
xS,lalale; Wa, he^misLeda mowe hehamsiwa^ya, yixs k'e§,sae g'ala- 
gawa^ya. Wa, he^mis lag"ilas ilak' !ala mo^le ^maxwas waldEmases 
nEgumpe Llaqwag'ila. Wa, g'll^Em^lawise ^nax'^idxa gaalaxs lae 
xwanal-ida yix ^maxwa LE^wis gEUEme Llaqwag'ilayugwa LE^wis 80 
klweme, qa^s moxsexes m5ts!aqe xwaxwak!flna. Wa, gil^Em^la- 
wise ^wl^lxse ^mEmwalasexs laa^l ^wFla hSx^walExs laxes yae^yatsle. 
Wa, g'il^Em^lawise ^wHxsExs g'axaa^lase Llaqwag'ila g'ax&wEls laxes 
g'5kwe. Wa, la^Iae yaqlEg'a^la. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "EsElalag'a- 
^masL, nEgump, qEnu^x" lalag'Il taodaxsasg'ada k'!awats!ek' g'lldasa 85 
Logwada x'lx'ilgwatslek' ^mElxLowa ma%QnaItsEmk' LlaLlabata 
g'a^mes g'ada ma^tsokuk' LleLlEntsEm ^naEnx^iina^ya Logwada 
mox''sokwe ^walasx'asgEm ^naEnx^una^ya Logwada m5x"sokwe ala- 
g'lma; aL5x k' linaesalaxox k' ledelaq Ieu, yixox Llaqwag'ilayugwax," 
^nex'^lae. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise qlwePidExs laa4 laeL laxes g'okwe. Wa, 90 
k*!es^lat!a gaeLElaxs g'axaalaes ^nE^memote mowElsElaxa la lSle- 
qElasosxa ma^ltsokwe LleLJEntsEm ^naEnx^una^ya LE^wa m6x"so- 
kwe 'walasx'asgEm ^naEnx^Qna^ya LE^wa mox"sokwe &lag'ima. Wa, 



1012 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

eight baskets of smoked mountain-goat meat which he had men- 

95 tioned, and || two baskets containing mountain-goat tallow, and | also 

the box containing the privileges. They brought them and put them 

into ^maxwa's canoe. | As soon as they were all in, ^maxwa arose | 

in his canoe and thanked his father-in-law Llaqwag'ila (I 2) for what 

he had done. | As soon as he stopped speaking, they started, and he 

200 came || home with his wife to Teguxste. As soon as he arrived, | 

^maxwa (II 1) asked his father, Amaxiilal, to | call in the five num- 

ayms of the Naklwax'da^x" in the | evening. Then Amaxiilal (I 1) 

went to call them. He did | not call them loud, but he whispered, as 

5 he II went and sat down by the side of each man. It was not | long 

before they came in; and when all were inside, | ^maxwa asked his 

father to bar the door of the house. | Immediately ^maxwa arose 

and reported what he had obtained | for his tribe; namely, the four 

10 dances which were in the privilege-box, || and also the other things. 

"Now, I want you to | consider whether I should not give a winter 

dance." Thus he said. | Immediately all of them agreed to what he 

said, and he gave a winter dance. | Then he showed the four dances 

which he had obtained in marriage | from the Awlk' !enox". Now the 

15 name of ^maxwa (II 1) was Llaqwag'ila. || He gave a feast with the 

dried goat-meat and the tallow of the | goats. | 

he^misa ma%unaltsEme x"Ix'ilgwats!e ^mElxLa LlaLiabata LE^wa 
95 ma^ltsEme ytx"sEmayaats!eso ^mElxLax L!aL!abata. Wa, he^me- 
Leda k-!awats!e gildase. Wa, g-ax^Eui^lae moxdzEm lax ya^yats^as 
^maxwa. Wa, g^iPEm^lawise ^wi^lxsExs laa^lae ^maxwa Lax^ulExs 
laxes ya^yatsle, qa^s mSHes gwex'^idaasases nEgumpe Llaqwag'ila. 
Wa, giPEm^lawis qlweHdExs g'axae LEx^eda. Wa, g-ax^Em^lae 
200 na^nakwa LE^wis gEnEme lax Tegiixste. Wa, g-iPEm^lawise lag-a- 
axs laa^ae ^maxwa axk'Ialaxes ompe Amaxfilale, qa hex^ida^mese 
Leltslodxa sEk'lasgEmakluse ^nal^nE^mematsa Nak!wax'da^xwe la 
dzaqwa. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise Amaxiilale la Le^lala. Wa, laEm- 
^lae k" !es hadzExstalaxs laa^l Le^lala, qaxs S,^maa^l opalaxs lana- 
5 xwae k' IwanoLEmlTlaxa ^naxwa bebEgwauEma. Wa, k'!es^lat!a ga- 
laxs gaxae ^wFlaeLa. Wa, g-IpEm^lawise g-ax ^wFlaeLExs laa^lae 
^maxwa axk-'.alaxes ompe, qaLEnex-^idesexatlEx-Ilases g-okwe. Wa, 
hex'^idaEm^lawise ^maxwa Lax^ullla, qa^s ts !Ek- lal^ideses gwauEme 
laxes g'okiilotexa moxwidala leledaxa gutslawaxa k'lawatsle gil- 

10 dasa, he^misLa ^naxwa ogMa laq. "Wa, la^'mesEn ^nex" qa^s weg-aos 
doqwalaxes nenaqa^yos, qEn weg-iyawix-lla," ^nex-^Iae. Wa, hex-n- 
daEm^lawise ^naxwa ex'^ak-Ex waklEmas. Wa, la^me yawix-ila. 
Wa, he^mis la nel^idaatsa moxwidala leleda, yix gEg-adauEmas 
laxa AwikMenoxwe. Wa, laEm^lae Legade ^maxwas Llaqwagula. 

15 Wa, laEm k Iwelas-ltsa xilkwe ^mElxLowa LE^wa yLx"sEmesa 
^melxLowe. 



BOAS] FAMJL\ HISTORIES 1013 

He also gave away the bear-skin blankets, | the lynx-skin blankets, 17 
and the dressed skins, at the winter dance | that he was giving to his 
tribe the Naklwax'da^x". It was not long before || they had a son. 20 
Immediately the | father-in-law (I 2) of Llaqwag'ila — for I call him 
no longer ^maxwa (II 1), | because he had already the name Llaq- 
wag'ila (II 1) — the I former Llaqwag'ila (I 2) (that is, the father-in- 
law of the former ^maxwa (II 1)), gave as a marriage gift the name | 
Nanagwas (III 1) for the child. Now his name was Nanagwas 
(III 1), II and it was not long before they had a daughter. | Then her 25 
name was l laqwag' Uajiigwa (III 2). Now | Llaqwag'ila (II 1) had 
two children. | Nanagwas (III 1) and his sister, l laqwag' Oayugwa 
(III 2), were not yet grown up | when Llaqwag'ila (II 1) wished to 
marry the princess of Goxolane, (I 3) BElxanaga (II 3) (Hahotis- 
Woman,) |i because he was the head chief of the Nuxak'Em (I mean the 30 
Bellacoola). | Now Llaqwag'ila (II 1) wished to marry the princess of 
Goxolane, BElxanaga (II 3), only for her property,' | because he 
wanted to get in marriage many names | and various winter dances; 
and therefore he told his numaym | the ^walas, and he was told by 
them to go ahead and do it quickly. || Then Llaqwag'Ua (II 1) got 35 
ready to start | on the following morning with his numaym the 
^walas. I Early in the day they started by canoe. His wife remained 

Wa, laEmxaawise ^wMa yax^wltsa LlEnLlEntsEme ^naEnx^flna^ya 17 
LE^wa ^walasx'asgEme ^naEnx^una^ya LE^wa alagime laxes yawixi- 
laena^ye qaes g'okiilota Naklwax'da-'xwe. Wa, k'les^latla gaiaxs 
lae xflngwadEx'^ida, yisa babagtime. Wa, la hex'^idaEm^lae nE- 20 
giimpas Llaqwag'ila, — qaxg'in la^mek' gwal LeqElas -maxwa laq, 
qa^s lE^mae LegadEs Llaqwag'ila, yix ^maxwa. — Wa, laEm^lae 
Llaqwag'Uamotla, yix nEgumps ^maxwamotla LegEmg'ElxLalax Na- 
nagwase, qaLegEmsa g'tnauEme. Wa, laEm-'lae LegadEs Nanagwase. 
Wa, k' les^Em^laxaawise gaiaxs laa^l etled xQngwadEx'^itsa tslatsla- 25 
dagErae. Wa, laEm^lae LegadEs Llaqwag'ilayugwa. Wa, laEm^'lae 
ma^lokwe sasEmas Llaqwag'ila. Wa, k' les^Em^lawise q lulsq lulyax- 
^ wide Nanagwase LE^wis wflqlwe Llaqwag'ilayugwaxs laa^l ^nex'^ae 
Llaqwag'ila, qa^s la gagak'lax k'ledelas Goxolane lax BElxanaga, 
ylxs he^mae xamagEme g-Igamesa Nuxak'Emxa gwE^yowe BElxula. 30 
Wa, laEm^lae ^nek'e Llaqwag'ila, qa'^s a^me 'xwesax' k'ledelas 
Goxolane lax BElxanaga, qaxs ^nek-ae, qa^s LaLegEmoLlex LegEma 
Lo^ oguqala leled laq. Wa, he^mis la ne^lEmsexes ^nE-meinota 
^walase. Wa, laEm'lae ^Em waxaso^, qa^s weg'i ^Em hali^ala. Wa, 
la^ae hex'^ida^me Llaqwag'ila xwanal'Ida, qa'^s wag'Il aiex^vidEl 35 
qo ^nax'^ldElxa gaalaLa LE-'wis ^uE'^memota Hvalase. Wa, gipEin- 
^lawise ^nax'^idEx laa^l alex-'wida. Wa, laEm^ae Emlexwe gEUEmas 



1 Xwesa means a mock marriage performed in order to obtain certain prerogatives. 



1014 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. sf 

38 at home | with her two children. Then they arrived at the place of 
the Bellacoola, | and at once he paid the marriage money for the 

40 princess of Goxolane (I 3) ; and || after he had paid the marriage 
money, the chief, Goxolane (I 3), came out | of his house with his 
princess, BElxanaga (II 3), each wearing two | marten-blankets. 
Four old I men carried each five lynx-skin blankets — twenty | in all. 

45 Then Goxolane (I 3) spoke, and || gave the four marten-skin blankets 
and the twenty lynx-skin | blankets to Llaqwag'ila (II 1), and also 
the name Q lEmsdExfllElxsde (II 1), | which was to be the name of 
Llaqwag'ila (II 1); and also the name of his princess, BElxanaga 
(II 3), 1 was given to Llaqwag'ila (II 1) to be the name of his 
princess l laqwag' ilajiigwa (III 2). | That is all that he obtained 

50 there. Then they put the || sewed blankets into the canoe of 
Llaqwag'ila (II 1); and | Goxolane (I 3) and his princess BElxanaga 
(II 3) went into the house. | Llaqwag ila (II 1) was never invited in 
with his crew. | Therefore Llaqwag'ila (II 1) became angry, and said 

55 to his crew, | "Let us push off and leave this silly person!" || Thus he 
said. They left, and in the evenmg | a warrior of the Nak !wax' da^x" 
whose name was K'ilEm, | said, "Listen to me, NEn5l6 | and 
Nandze!" naming his fellow-warriors, "I am | ashamed because we 

60 were not even invited in by the BeUacoola. I || wish you would make 

38 LE^wis ma^lokwe sasEma. Wa, laEni^awise lag'aa laxa BElxula. Wa, 
hex'^idaEm'lawise qadzil^eda lax k'ledelas Goxolane. Wa, g'il^Em- 

40 ^lawise gwal qadzeLaxs g-axaa4asa g'iglima^ye Goxolane g-axawiils 
laxes g'okwe LE^wis k" ledele BElxanaga ^naEnx^unalaxa maema^le Le- 
LEgExsEm ^naEnx^Qna^ya. Wa, la^lae daleda mokwe q iulsq lulyak" 
bebEgwauEmxa sesEk' !a ^walasx'asgEm "naEnx^una^ya ma4tsox"^lae 
haga. Wa, heEm^awis yaqlEg-a^le Goxolane. Wa, laEm^Iae g'ax'- 

45 k' lEk' laltsa mowe LeLEgExsEm LE^wa ma^ltsokwe ^wi^walasx^a^sgEm 
^naEux^tine^ lax Llaqwag'ila; wa, he^misa LegEme Q lEmsdExulElxsde, 
qa LegEms Llaqwag'ila. Wa, he-'mise LegEmases k" ledele BElxanaga 
g'axySs lax Llaqwag'ila qa LEgEms k'ledelase Llaqwag-ilayugwa. 
Wa, heEm waxe gwauEmas laq. Wa, g'ax^Em^lae ax^alExdzEma 

50 qlaqlEnole ^naEnx^iina^ya lax ya^yatslas Llaqwag'ila. Wa, la^lae 
a.Em^la hogwiLe Goxolana LE^wis k" ledele BElxanaga laxes g'okwe. 
Wa, laEmHae hewaxa LelwOltotsE^we Llaqwag'ila LE^wis klweme. 
Wa, heEm^lawis tslEugums Llaqwag'ila, lag'ilas hiek'a laxes klweme: 
"Weg'a §,Em qlotElIsax, qEns lalag'i asm b&sa esex nenaxsila," 

55 ^nex'^lae. Wa, g'ax^Em^lae &Em b^s. Wa, he-'latla la dzaqwaxs 
laa4 yaqlEg'a^le babEbaklolasa Naklwax'da^xwa Legadas K'llEme. 
Wa, la^lae 'nek'a: "WaEnts5s hoLela g'axEn, ^ne^uEmok" NeuoIo, 
Lo^s Nandze," ^nex'^lae Leqi^lalaxes babEbaklwote, "ylxg'ln max'- 
tsleg'lnLasa k'lese ^Latla LelwQltod g-axEnsxa BElxiila. La-messn 

60 ^nex' qa^s wag'aos gwanalaxs nenaqayaq los, qsns niEmxtslEsile la 



BOAsl FAMILY HISTORIES 1015 

up your minds to cover our shame, and to | attack on our way home 61 
the DalwiidEx"." Thus he said. Immediately | Llaqwag'ila (II 1) 
agreed to what he said, for the canoes were anchored | near the 
entrance to the village of the DalwiidEx". When | it got dark, the 
six canoes paddled along, || intending to fight against the DalwiidEx" 65 
that night. They (people) were not | yet asleep when they arrived, 
and I the warriors anchored at the other side of the point, near the | 
village site. When everything was quiet, K'ilEm | and his friends, 
Nandze and NeuoIS, started, and || Llaqwag'ila (II 1), with his crew, 70 
followed them. It was not long before the village | was on fire, and 
then the warriors began to kill the men. | l laqwag'ila (II 1) went into 
the house of the chief of the | DalwildEx" and took a large carved box 
and carried it | to his canoe and put it aboard. It was not long 
before Nandze came, || carrying three heads which he had cut off; 75 
and K"ilEm came, carrying four | heads; and NeuoIo came, carrying 
two I heads and also a woman-slave ; and all the warriors took much | 
food, which they carried on their shoulders | into the canoes. Then 
NehoIo gave the woman- 11 slave to Llaqwag'ila (II 1) ; and when all 80 
had gone aboard, they | went away before dayUght. They | went 
along, paddhng aU night, and they had gone a long way | before 
day came. They did not rest before evening. Then | they arrived 



kwakwexbalaxwa DalwildExwa," ^nex'^lae. Wa, hex'^idasm^lawise g| 
Llaqwag'ila ex'^ak'Ex waldEmas, qaxs lE^ma^l ^uEXwale mExalaasas 
yae^yatslas lax awaxsta^yas g'okiilasasa DalwiidExwe. Wa, g'il'Em- 
^lawise plEdEx'^IdExsIaa'l ^wilg'tLe sex^wideda qlELlEtsIaqe xwaxwS,- 
klQna. Wa, laEm^ae lal wlnalxa DalwildExwaxa ganuLe. Wa, 65 
k" les^Em^lawise ^naxwa mex^edExs laa^l lag'aa. Wa, ^Em^lawise 
mExaLa^ya wina lax apsadza^yasa awilba^ye laxa nExwaia laxa 
g'ox"dEmse. Wa, he^latle la ^wi^a sElt'.edExs laa^l qas^ide K'llEme 
LE^wis ^ne^nEmokwe Nandze lo^ NEnolowe. Wa, la^lae alxLa^ye 
Llaqwag'ila LE^wis wax"ts!&la. Wa, k'!es^lat!a galaxs laa^l xumt!i- 70 
deda g'okiila. Wa, hcEm^lawis la kMelag-atsa babEbaklwaxa bebE- 
gwanEme. Wa, laEm'lae Llaqwag'ila laeL lax g'okwas g'Tg^ma^yasa 
DalwildExwe, qa^s lenEmexa k' lesgEmala ^walas g'lldasa, qa^s las 
laxes ya^yatsle, qa^s la hang'aalExsas. Wa,k'!es^lat!a galaxs g'axae 
Nandze dalaxa yudux"sEme qag'lkwa. Wa, g'ax^lae K'ilEme mos- 75 
gEm^lae daakwas qag'lkwa. Wa, g'ax^lae NEnolowe dalaxa ma^ltsE- 
me qag'lkwa, heEm^lawisa tslEdaqe qlak'owa. Wa, la^lae qlEyoLa 
^naxwa winaxa hemaomase, ylx g'axe t let !enx"sexs g'axae hox^wa- 
lExsEla laxes yae^yatsle. Wa, laEm^Iae NEnolowe ts!§,ses tslsdaqe 
qiak'o lax Llaqwag'Ua. Wa, g'tl^Em^lawise ^wPla hox^walExs laxes 80 
yae^yatslaxs g'axae sEpIedaxa k'les^ma^l LS,la qa^s ^nax'^ide. Wa, 
g'ax^Em^lawise uEkGlaxa ganuLe. Wa, klwag'ilaEm^lawise qwesg'i- 
laxs laa4 ^nax'^ida. Wa, hewaxa^latla x'os^idaxs lae dzaqwa. Wa, 



1016 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

85 at the mouth of Bellacoola Inlet that evening. || There they took a 
rest; and when it was nearly | midnight, they started again. At 
daybreak they came to a place near the | mouth of Rivers Inlet. 
They went on, | and took a rest at the mouth of the Gwa^sEla Inlet. | 
Then they felt safe, and thought that they were not being pursued bj' 

90 the DalwiidEx". Then || the warriors scalped the heads which they 
had cut off; and after they had done so, | Llaqwagila (II 1) spoke, 
and said, | "Thank you for what you have done. Now we are not 
ashamed, although we were not | invited in by Goxolane (13). I 
mean that I have also cut off a head." | While he was saying so, he 

95 lifted up by the hair a head. Then || they asked the woman-slave for 
the name of the man whose head had been cut off by Llaqwag'ila 
(II 1); I and the slave said, "That is the head of the chief of the | 
DalwiidEx", and his name was Qamatsa." Then | he opened the 
large carved box; and first he | saw a neck-ring of red cedar-bark, 
300 and a head-rmg. He did || not take them out, but he just felt among 
the red cedar-bark, | and there he felt the whistles of the cannibal- 
dancer. I He took one and blew it. Then he | uttered the cannibal- 
cry, because he had obtained it in war. Then | his numaym were 
glad, because Llaqwag'ila (II 1) himself had cut off the head of the || 

5 owner of the large carved box. Then | he put back the whistles into 

g'ax^Em^lae lax awaxsta^yas wunaldEmsasa BElxulaxs lae ganuHda. 

85 Wa, heEm^lawis la x'osaLa^ye yawas^ida. Wa, g'il^Em^awise Elaq 
nEgeg-exs laa^l et!ed sEp!eda. Wa, g'ax^ae ^nayo laxa uExwala lax 
awaxsta^yas wiinaldEmsasa Awik" lenoxwe. Wa, he^nakuPEm^lawise, 
qa^s g'axe x'os^id lax awaxsta^yas wunaldEmsasa Gwa^sEla. Wa, 
laEm^lae helex^d k"!es sasE^wasosa DalwildExwe. Wa, laEm^lae 

90 sabEltsEmdeda babEbaklwaxes qeqag-ikwe. Wa, giPEm^awise 
gwata laa^ase yaqlEg'a^le Llaqwag'ila. Wa, la'lae ^nek'a: " Gela- 
k"as^lax"ins gwex"^idaase qaxg'ins k^Iesek" la max'tslaxg'lns k'lesek' 
Lel'wult5tsos Goxolane, qaxgin ^ne^nak'ilEk' ogwaqa^mEn qax'^- 
ida," ^nex'^laexs lae dzoxostod nedzEXLexa qag-ikwe. Wa, la^lae 

95 wuLasE^weda tslEdaqe qiak'owa lax LegEmas qag-ikwas Llaqwagila. 
Wa, la^lae ^nek^eda q lak'owaqexs he'mac xamagEme g-Igamex'desa 
DalwildExwe. Wa, heEm^lawis LegEmse Qamatsa. Wa, la^lae 
x'&x^wldxa ^walase kMesgEmala gildasa. Wa, heEm^awis gil d5- 
x^waLEltseda qEnxawa^ye LlagEkwa LE-wa qEx'Ema^ye. Wa, la^lae 
300 k'les ax^willtslodEq. AEm^lae plex^widEx awaba^yasa LlagEkwe. 
Wa, heEm^lawis la p lex^waLElatsexa mEdzesasa hamatsla. Wa, 
g'ipEm^lawise ax^edqexs lae pox^wIdEq qa hek" lEg'a^les. Wa, la^lae 
hamtslEg'a^la qaxs lE^mae alakMala winanEmaq. Wa, laEm^lae 
mo^le ^nE^memotasexs heq lanox"^mae Llaqwag'ila qax'^IdEx axno- 

6 gwadasa ^walase k' lesgEmala gildasa. Wa, laEm^lae xwelaqa 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1017 

the large box, and they started away. | In the evening they arrived 7 
at Tegiixste^, their | viUage, and immediately Llaqwag'ila (II 1) 
disappeared in winter. | Then he gave a winter dance, and now 
Llaqwag'ila (II 1) was a cannibal-dancer; || and the woman-slave 10 
advised Llaqwag'ila (II 1) what to do, | and told him that the name 
of the cannibal-dancer was Qamatsa; and | the songs were also sung 
by the slave to the song-leaders of the Nakhvax'da^x". | Indeed, 
why should they not learn the songs of the | cannibal-dancer? 
because they obtained it by killing in war, for it is more valuable 
when II obtained in war than when obtained in marriage. When 15 
Llaqwag'ila (II 1) had learned | the ways in which the cannibal- 
dance was danced by the DalwiidEx", and the songs, | he got excited 
in his cannibal-dance. Then | they killed the woman-slave, and he 
ate her, and | Llaqwag'ila (II 1) himself ate the whole slave. Then 
he changed || his name, because he had swallowed the whole woman- 20 
slave; | and after that Llaqwag'ila's (II 1) cannibal name was 
Lawiok" (II 1). I 

After Llaqwag'ila (II 1) had been cannibal-dancer for four winters | 
(I shall hereafter call him Qamatsa (II 1), the | name which he 
obtained in war from the chief of the DalwiidEx", whom he had 
killed) , II Qamatsa (II 1) stiU had for his wife l laqwag' ilayugwa (II 2) , 25 
the Awik' lenox" | woman. | 

axtslotsa mEdzese laxa ^walase g'ildasa. Wa, g'ax^lae LEx^eda. 6 
Wa, laEm^lawise dzaqwaxs g'axae g'ax^aLEla lax TegOxsta^ye laxes 
g-okiilase. Wa, la^lae hex'^idasm x'ls^ide L!aqwag'ilaxa la tsIS'wiin- 
xa. Wa, laEm^lae yawix'ila. Wa, laEm hamats!a ylx Llaqwag'ila. 
Wa, heEm^awisa ts!Edaqe qlak'o Lexs^iilax Llaqwag'ila, qagweg-ilats 10 
LE^wa LegEmas Qamatsax'de laxes hamatslaenex^de. Wa, he^mise 
q lEmq '.EmdEmas g'ax dEiixodzEmsa q!ak'6 lax nenagadasa Na- 
klwax'da^xwe, qaL qa kMeses %Pla q!aq!oL!axa q lEmq lEmdEmasa 
hamatslaxs lE^mae k" lelag'anEmaq laxa wina, ylxs laqaeda wina- 
uEmaxa gEg'adanEme. Wa, g'iPEm^lawise ^wPla la q!ale Llaqwag'i- 15 
lax gwayi^lalasasa DalwiidExwaxes hamatslax'de LE^wa q !Emq !Em- 
dEmaxs laa^l xwase Llaqwag'ila laxes hamatslena^ye. Wa, laEm- 
^lawise k' lelax'^ItsE^weda tslEdaqe qlak'a, qa ha^mas. Wa, laEm^lae 
Llaqwag'ila ^naxiilaxa qlak'ox'de ha^mapEq. Wa, laEm^'lae Llayo- 
SE^we LegEmas laxeq qaes Laweklwena^yasa tslEdaxde qlak'owa. 20 
Wa, laEm^lae LJaqwaguIa hamdzEXLalas Lawiokwe laxeq. 

Wa, g'lPEm^lawise mox^iinxe tsa^wGnxas la hamatsla, yix Llaqwa- 
g'ila. La^mesEn hel lal LEqElayoqe Qamatsa ylx winaiiEmas, yix 
LegEmx'dasa k' lelax'^itsE^wase g'igamex'dasa DalwildExwe. Wa, 
laEm^lae hex'saEm gEUEms Qamatse LJaqwag'ilayugwaxa Awik'lax- 25 
SEme. 



1018 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. S5 

27 Then L!aqwag"ilayugwa (II 2) told her husband, Qamatsa (II 1), | 
to go and marry the princess of Sewid (I 4), chief of the numaym | 
G'ig'ilgam of the Gwa^sEla; and the name of the princess of Sewid 

30 was «max"mEwidzEmga (II 4). || Immediately Qamatsa (II 1), and 
his numaym the | ^walas, went to pay the marriage money. The 
Gwa^sEla Hved in Gwek'Elis. | They arrived there after one day, and 
he paid the marriage money at once; and | after the numaym ^walas 
had paid the marriage money, the chief | gave to Qamatsa (II 1) as a 

35 marriage present the name Sesaxalas (II 1) ; || and he gave to Qamatsa 
(II 1) for his daughter | the name ^mEmx^yugwa (III 2), and also a 
privilege-box | in which were the cannibal-dance, shaman-dance, and 
the olala, | and also the mouse-dance and red cedar-bark, and their 
names. | They stayed one night, and then Qamatsa (II 1) went back 

40 with his wife to ll Teguxste^. Now Qamatsa (II 1) had two wives — 
his I Awik' !enox" wife, L laqwag' ilayugwa (II 2) , as head wife ; and 
his second wife, | the Gwa^ssla woman, ^max"mEwidzEmga (II 4). 
Now I Nanagwas (III 1) and his sister l laqwag' ilajaigwa (III 2), 
were growing up. | 

45 Then K" !ade (III 3), the prmce of Hawllktilal (II 5), || chief of the 
numaym QawadiliqS,la of the DzawadEenox", married | l laqwag' i- 
layugwa (III 2), the princess of Qamatsa (II 1); but now he was no 
longer called | Qamatsa (II 2), but Sesax§,las (II 1), and I shall no 

27 Wa, la^lae L!aqwag"ilayugwa ^nex* qa lases la^wQnEme Qamatsa 
gagak' lax k' ledelas Sewide, yix g'igama^yasa ^nE^memota G'lg'ilgE- 
masa Gwa^ssla, yixs Legadae k" ledelas Sewidas ^max"mEwidzEmga. 

30 Wa, hex'^daEm^lawise la qadzeLe Qamatsa LE^wis ^nE^memota 
^walase, yixs haa^l g'oktilatsa Gwa^sEle Gwek'Elise. Wa, helalaEm- 
^lawisexs lae lag-aa. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise qadzll^eda. Wa, g'il- 
^Em^lawise gwala ^uE^memotasa ^walase qadzeLaxs laa^Iasa g'igS- 
ma^ye LegEmg'Elsxalax Sesax&lase, qa LegEms Qamatsa. Wa, 

35 he^mis qa LegEms tslEdaqe xiin5x"s Qamatsa. Wa, laEm^lae 
LegadElts ^mEmx'ayugwa. Wa, heEm^lawisa k'lawatsle g'lldasa^ 
ylx g-itslE^wasasa hamatsia LE^wa pSxaialale LE^wa 5lala; wa, 
he^misa k'lapElale LE^wa LleLlagEkwas LE^wa LeLEgEmas. Wa, 
la'lae xa^mala laqexs g"axae na^nakwe Qamatsa LE^wis gEnEme lax 

40 Tegiixsta^ye. Wa, laEm^lae ma^llle Qamatsaxes gEgEUEme LE^wa 
Awik"laxsEme tlaqwag'ilayugwaxa gEkimalile; wa, la^ae a^lila 
Gwa^sElaxsEme gEnEmse ^ma?;"mEwidzEmga. Wa, laEm^lae q liilyax- 
^wide Nanagwase Lo^laes wiiqlwe Llaqwag'ilayugwa. 

Wa, gax^lae K'lade, yix LEwiilgama^yas Hawilkulale, ytx g'Ig&- 

46 ma^yasa ^nE^memotasa Qaqawadiliq&lasa DzawadEenoxwe qadzetax 
Llaqwag'ilayugwa, lax k' ledelas Qamatsa, ylxs lE^maa^l gwal Lega- 
dEs Qamatsa. Wa, laEm^lae Sesax41asLe Qamatsa. La^mesEn gwat 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1019 

longer | call him Qamatsa (II 1); and his princess, | Llaqwag'i- 48 
layugwa (III 2), had also chaiaged her name, and she was called 
'mEmx"fi,yugwa (III 2), which || he had obtained in marriage from the 50 
chief of thie Gwa^sEla, | Sewid (I 4). As soon as ^mEmx"§.ytigwa 
(III 2) was married, Sesax§,las (II 1) took the large | carved box 
which he had obtained in marriage from the chief of the | Awik !enox", 
Llaqwag'ila (I 2). He gave it to his son-in-law K" I^de (III 3) ; and | 
in the box was the cannibal-dance, and its name was Hftmtse^sta- 
sElag'ilis, II and the h5x"hok" head-mask, and the crooked-beak 55 
head-mask, | and the raven head-mask, and the gElogQdz§,lis head- 
mask, I and also the cedar-bark ring k' losEnxawe and the other | 
head-rings, and also the rich-woman dancer and her name and her 
cedar-bark, | and the fire-dancer and his name and cedar-bark, || 
and the shaman-dancer and his name and cedar-bark. All of | these 60 
were in the large carved box. These were | given in marriage by 
Sesax&las (II 1) to his son-in-law, K' !ade (III 3), and also the | 
secular name ^maxwa (III 3). That was the first winter dance from 
the I Awik' !enox" that went to the DzawadEenox". Then K' !S,de 
(III 3) went home ll with his wife ^mEmx'avugwa (III 2). Then 65 
K' !ade (III 3) at once | gave a winter dance when winter came. 
Then he opened his large | carved box and gave a winter dance, and 
showed the four dances in it. | After the winter dance he parted from 

LeqElas Qamatsa laq. Wa, laEm^laxaawis L!ayoxLa^ye kMedelase 43 
Llaqwag'ilayugwa, qaxs lE^maa^l LegadEs ^mEmx'ayugwa, ylx LeLe- 
gEmg'ElxLa^yas g'lgama^yasa Gwa^sEle Sewide. Wa, glPEm^lawise 50 
gwala qadzeLax ^niEmx'ayugwa laa^lase Sesax§,lase ax^alilaxa ^walase 
k'lesgEmala g"ildasaxes gEg'adanEme lax gugSma^yasa Awik'Ie- 
noxwe, ylx L!aqwag"ila, qa^s las laxes nEgumpe K'lade. Wa, heEm 
g"its!axa g'lldasa hamatsia LE^wa LegEmase H&mtse^stasElag'ilise 
he^mesa h6x"hokwiwa^ye hamsiwa^ya LE^wa gEloqwiwa^ye hamsi- 55 
wa^ya LE^wa gwaxwiwa^ye hamsiwa^ya, LE^wa gElogudzalise hamsi- 
wa^ya; wa, he^misa kMosEnxawa LlagEkwa LE^wa waokwasxa 
qEx'ima^ye. Wa, he^misa Q!&minagas LE^wis LegEme LE^wis L!eL!a- 
gEkwe, LE^wa nSnltse^stalale LE^wis LegEme LE^wis LleLlagEkwe, 
LE^wa paxftlalale LE^wis LegEme LE^wis LleLlagEkwe. Wa, he^sta- 60 
^mEl g"Its !axa ^walase k' lesgEmala gildasa. Wa, he^mis la k" !es^o- 
gfllxLes Sesaxalase laxes nEgiimpe KMade. Wa, he^misa baxtt- 
dzEXLayowe LegEme ^maxwa. Wa, hcEm^l g"il ts !ets lexLEnsa 
Awik' lenoxwe la laxa DzawadEenoxwe. Wa, la^lae na^nakwe K" !ade 
LE^wis gEnEme ^mEmx"ayugwa. Wa, laEni^ae hex'^ida^me KM^de 65 
yawix"ilaxa la tsia^wQnxa. Wa, laEm^lae Sxstodxes ^walase k'lesgE- 
mala g'lldase, qa^she^me ya^wenEma moxwidala lelede g'itslaq. Wa, 
g'll^Em^lawise gwal yawix'llaxs laa4 k'laso LE^wis gEnEme ^mEm- 



1020 ETHKOLOGY of the KWAKIUTL [bth. ann.35 

70 his wife | ^mEmxayugwaC III 2), and she went home to ll Teguxste. 
Now K' !4de (III 3) had made a mistake in the way in which he 
handled the | cannibal-dance of the Awik' !enox", and therefore 
^niEmx S,yugwa (III 2) became angry | with her husband, K" !fi,de 
(III 3). Therefore she went home. It was | not long before she 
married K IwamaxElasogwi^lak" (III 4), | prince of the chief of the 

75 Haxwamis, KlwamaxElas (II 6). II Now Sesaxalas (II 1) gave the 
name L laqwag' ila to his son-in-law | KlwamaxElasogwi^lak", (III 4), 
and the name l laqwag' ilayugwa to | his sister Hax'liaklwaedzEmga 
(III 5). Now, he did not speak about the | winter dance to his son- 
in-law; and after | they had paid the marriage money, Sesaxalas (II 1) 

80 invited his son-in-law K !wamaxElas5gwi^lak" (III 4) || and his crew. 
They stayed for four days at Teguxste. | Then K IwamaxElasogwi^lak" 
(III 4) returned home with his crew | and his wife ^mEmx'ayugwa 
(III 2) (went) to Alalx^, for that was the village of | the ancestors of 
the Haxwamis; and they were not married long when | ^niEmx'a- 

85 jngwa (III 2) had a son. Then ll Sesaxalas (II 1) gave as a marriage 
gift many cinquefoil-roots and many seals, | and also a seal house- 
dish, a kiUer-whale house-dish, | and a sea-hon house-dish — tliree 
house-dishes to his | son-in-law K !wamaxElasogwi4ak" (III 4), 
and also the name MEnl^idaas (IV 1) | for the name of the new-born 

90 child of ^niEmx' ayugwa (III 2) . Then || K !wamaxElas6gwi4ak" 
(III 4) changed his name when he gave a feast of cinquefoil-roots and 

x-fi,yugwa. Wa, g'ax^Em^lae na^nakwa yix ^mEmx'ayugwa lax 

70 Teguxsta^ye. Wa, laEm^lae Leguitode K"!ada gwayi^lalasasa Awl- 
k"!enoxwe qaeda hamatsla. Wa, heEm^lawis tslEngums ^mEmx^a- 
yugwa laxes la^wunEme K'!§,de, lag-ilas g'ax na^nakwe. Wa, 
kMes^lat!a galaxs laa^l et'.ed lawadEs K!wamaxElas6gwi^lakwe, yix 
Lawulgama^yas g'lgama^yasa Haxwamise lax KIwamaxElase. Wa, 

75 laEm^lae Sesaxalase LegEmg'ElxLalax L!aqwag-ila laxes nEgQmpe 
KlwamaxElasogwi^lakwe. Wa, heEm^lawise Llaqwag^ilayugwa qa 
LegEms wuq!wase Hax"hak!waedzEmga. Wa, laEm^lae k' !es las 
tslaxstala waldEm laxes nEgiimpe. Wa, gil^Em^lawise gwala 
qadzeLaxs laa^l Lelwiiltode Sesaxalasaxes nEgiimpe K IwamaxElaso- 

80 gwi4akwe LE^wis kiweme. Wa, mop lEnxwa-s^lae ^nala hele Tegtix- 
sta^ye. Wa, lae na^nakwe K !wamaxElas6gwi^lakwe LE^wis k!weme 
Lo^mes gEnEme ^mEmx'ayugwa lax Alalx&, qaxs he^maa^l g'okulatsa 
g'alasa Haxwamise. Wa, k'!es4at!a gala hayasEk'alaxs laa^l xxin- 
gwadEx'^Ide ^mEmx"S.yugwasa babagume. Wa, hex"^idaEm^lawise 

85 Sesax&lase la wawalqalasa qlensme t!Ex"s6s LE^wa q!enEme me- 
gwata; he^misa ^nEme megwat loqulila LE^wa max^enoxwe loqiillla, 
LE^wa LlexEne loqulila. YuduxuxLa^laeda loElqfllile layos laxes 
nEgumpe KIwamaxElasogwi^lakwe, he^misa LegEme MEnl^idaase 
qa LegEms mayoLEmas 'mEmx"S.yugwa. Wa, laEm^lae LlayoxLaye 

90 KlwamaxElasogwi^lakwaxs lae kiwelatsa t!Ex"sose LE^wa megwate, 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1021 

seals, I for he put the food into the three house-dishes. Now his | 91 
name was Llaqwag'ila; and his sister HSxhaklwaedzEmga (III 5) | 
changed her name, and her name was l laqwag' ilaj^ugwa ; and | the 
name of the child of ^niEmxayugwa (III 2) was MEiil^idaas (IV 1), on 
account of || the feast given by Llaqwag'ila (II 1) of the many hair- 95 
seals and | cinquefoil-roots. Now she had another son. | Now, the 
father of l laqwag' ila (III 4) , K IwamaxElas (II 6) , wished to give a 
name | to the new child of ^mEmx'ayugwa (III 2). He gave a pot- 
latch to the I ancestors of the Haxwamis, for the mrmaym of 
K IwamaxElas (II 6) were the G' exsEm of the || Haxwamis. Then 400 
KIwamaxElas (II 6) gave a potlatch to the G'ig'ilgSm | and Ha5,ya- 
Uk'awe^, as there are three numayms | among the Haxwamis. Then 
K IwamaxElas (II 6) gave the name K !wak Iwabalas (IV 2) | to his 
grandson, for the child was to take the seat of | K IwamaxElas (II 6) 
after his death. Therefore he gave him a name. Now || ^mEmx'a- 5 
yugwa (III 2) had two children by her husband Llaqwag'ila (III 4) ; | 
and when MEnl^idaas (IV 1) was grown up, he took the head seat in 
the I numaym G'exsEm, and his younger brother, K Iwak Iwabalas 
(IV 2) had the | third seat in the numaym of his elder brother, | the 
G'exsEm. That is the seat of K IwamaxElas (II 6), his grandfather. 
Now II K IwamaxElas (II 6) had the seat at the end of the numaym IQ 
G'exsEm. | It was as though K IwamaxElas (II 6) had died already. | 

ybcs laa^l lEx"ts lE^wak" laxa yuduxfixLa loElqulila. Wa, laEm Lega- 91 
dEs Llaqwag'ila. Wa, laEm^lae wuqiwase Hax'haklwaedzEmga 
LlayuxLa. Wii, laEm^lae LegadEs Llaqwag-ilayugwa. Wa, he^misa 
xflnokwas ^mEmx'ayugwa, laEm^lae Legadss MEnl^daase, qaxs he- 
^mae senatsa kIweladzEmas Llaqwag'ilaxa qlenEme megwata LE^wa 95 
t!Ex"s6se. Wa, la^laxae etied xiingwadEX'^itsa babagume. Wa, 
laEm^ae ^nek'e 5mpas Llaqwag'ila, ylx KIwamaxElase, qa^s le Leqela 
qa LegEmsa ale xiinoxs ^mEmx'ayugwa. Wa, laEm^lae plEs^edxa 
g-alasa Haxwamise, yixs hae ^nE^memote K IwamaxElasa G'exsEmasa 
Haxwamise. Wa, hcEm^awis plEsasos K IwamaxElasa G'ig'ilgame 400 
LE^wa Haayalik'awa^ye lax yudux"sEmak!utsIena^yasa ^nal^ni:-me- 
masasa Haxwamise. Wa, laEm^lae KIwamaxElase lbx^'kIes Klwa- 
klwabalase laxes tsIox"LEma, qaxs lE^mae LlayostodLa g'lnanEmax 
K IwamaxElase qo Ie^Ilo, lag-ilas he Leqela qa LegEms. Wa, laEm 
ma^lokwe sasEmas '^mEmx'ayugwa laxes la^wunEme Llaqwag'ila. 5 
Wa, g'iPEm^lawise q lulsq Iiilyax^wide MEnHdaasaxs lae Laxiimesa 
^nE^memotasa G'exsEme. Wa, la^lae tsla^yase KIwaklwabalase 
mama^lokwalg'iwala lax =nE^memotases ^nola, yix klwa^yas laxa 
G'exsEme, yix klwax'diis KIwamaxElase, yix gagEmpas. Wa, 
S,^mise la KIwamaxElase yaqwaso^ lax mak'lExsda^yases ^nE^memota 10 
G'exsEme. Wa, laEm gwalElaEm ^nEmax'is lo laEm lE-le KIwama- 



1022 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

12 Now he was glad, because his seat was taken by his grandson | 
K !wak Iwabalas (IV 2) . Now I shall stop talking about | l laqwag' ila 
an 4) and his wife (III 2). || 

15 Now I shall go back and talk about the son of | Sesax^las (II 1), 
Nanagwas (III 1). Now Sesax&las (II 1) wished his prince, Nanagwas 
(III 1) to I marry the daughter of Kwax"ilan6kume^ (II 7), | head 
chief of the numaym TEmltEmlEls of the | Mamaleleq&la. The 

20 Nak !wax' da^x" said at once that they would go |1 to get in marriage 
WawalaxElag"i4ak" (III 6), for that was the name of the princess of | 
Kwax'ilan5kflme^ (II 7). The Nak !wax' da^x" started to pay the 
marriage money [ on behalf of the chief of the numaym ^walas, 
Nanagwas; for | Sesax&las (II 1) was not chief any more, because he 
was weak and old. | Then Nanagwas (III 1) took his seat, and 

25 SesaxWas (II 1) was given || the last seat in the numaym ^walas. 
Now they gave to | Nanagwas (III 1) the seat of Sesaxilas (II 1), 
which was the first seat. | Now they arrived at ^memkumUs, the 
village of the Mamaleleqala; | and when they arrived there, the 
Nak !wax' da^x" were met in sham-battle by the Mamaleleqala. | The 

30 Nak !wax' da^x" were not frightened. || They all went ashore and | 
threw stones up the beach at the Mamaleleqala, and the | Mamale- 
leq&la threw stones down the beach; and many of the Nak Iwax'da^x" 
were hurt, | and also many of the Ma,maleleq&la were hurt; | for there 

12 xElase. Wa, late ek'e n&,qa^yas, qaxs lE^mae L!ayonox"ses ts!ox"- 
LEme KIwak'.wabalase. Wa, la^mesEn gwal gwagwex's^alal lax 
L!aqwag"ila LE^wis gEUEme. 

1 5 Wa, la^mesEn aedaaqal gwagwex'sx'^IdEl lax bEgwanEme xtinox"s 
SesaxS.lase, ylx Nanagwase. Wa, laEm^lae Sesaxalase ^nex" qa las 
gEg'ades Lftwiilgama^ye Nanagwase yls kledelas Kwax'ilanokuma^ye, 
yix xamagEma^ye g'lgSmesa ^nE^memotasa TEmltEmlElsasa Mama- 
leleqSIa. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawis Nak!wax'da^xwe ^nex" qa^s la ^wFla 

20 qadzeLax Wawalaxalag'i^lakwe, qaxs he^mae LegEms k' ledelas Kwa- 
x'ilanokuma^ye. Wa, la^lae Slex^wideda qadzeLaLa Naklwax'da- 
^xwe, qa g'lgama^yasa ^nEmemotasa ^walase, yix Nanagwase, qaxs 
lE^mae gwal g-igama^ye Sesax&lasaxs lE^mae wayats!ox^wida. Wa, 
la^mese L!ayonux"s Nanagwase, yixs laa^l yaqwasE^we Sesaxalase 

25 lax mak' !Exsda^yas ^nE^memotasa ^walase. Wa, laEm^lawise yaqwa- 
SE^we Nanagwase lax Laxwa^yas Sesaxalase laxa Laxuma^ye. Wa, 
laEm^awise lag'aa lax ^memkumlise la^lax g'okOlasasa Mamalele- 
qala. Wa, g'lpEm^lawise lag'aaxs laa^l amaqasE^weda Nak!wax*da- 
^xwasa Mamaleleqala. Wa, k' !ets lEm^lawise k-ll^Ideda Nak!wax-da- 

30 ^xwe. AEm^lae ^wi^la hox^wulta laxes yae^yatsle, qa^s ogwaqe 
nEp^wQsdesElasa tIesEme laxa Mamaleleq&la. Wa, la^Iae uEpEntsle- 
sElaso^sa t!esEmasa Mamaleleq&la. Wa, la^lae qleuEme ytlkwasa 
Naklwax'da^xwe. Wa, la'laxae qleuEme yllkwasa Mamaleleq&la, 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1023 

was nearly a real fight between the warriors of the || Mamaleleq&la 35 
and those of the Naklwax'da'x", because many | were hurt on each 
side; and therefore it is said that there was nearty a real fight | 
between K'ilKm, the warrior of the Naklwax'da^x", and the | warrior 
of the Mamaleleqala, named K'llEmalag'ihs; and | K'ilEm was hurt 
by K'llEmalag'ihs. Then ll Chief Kwax' ilanoktime^ (II 7) put on as 
medicine for the hurt of K ilEm a large canoe, | and therefore it did 40 
not become a real fight. | Another warrior of the MamaleleqSla 
named NoUd challenged Nandze, a | warrior of the Naklwax'da^x", 
and neither won. | After they finished fighting, they paid the mar- 
riage money; and after || the marriage money had been paid, Nana- '^5 
gwas (III 1) and his crew were invited in by his father-in-law. | Wlien 
they were aU in the house, they were given to eat; and | after eating, 
Kwax" ilanokflme (II 7) arose and | spoke. He said, "Now, hsten to 
me, son-in-law | Nanagwas (III 1)! Your wife, WawalaxElag' i4ak" 
(III 6), II will now go to you; and she will carry on her back the 50 
copper Causing-Quarrels, and | twenty boxes of oil and ten | boxes 
of choke-cherries as travehng-provisions for your wife, Nanagwas 
(III 1) ; I and these four house-dishes will go, | so that your guests 
may eat out of them. Chief Nanagwas (III 1) — this double-headed 
serpent || house-dish, and this woK house-dish, this seal house-dish, 55 

ylxs h&lsEla^maa^l kMes ^x'^agUis dadEgawe babEbaklwasa Mama- 
leleq&la l6^ babEbaklwasa Nak!wax"da^xwe, qaxs q!enEmaa^lae 35 
yllkwas laxes ^wa^wax'sawae, ylxs he-maa'l lag'ilas Elaq ax'alag"Ilise 
qa K'ilEme ylx babaklwasa Naklwax'da^xwaxs dadEgae l6^ baba- 
klwasa Mamaleleqalaxa Legadas KilEmalagilise. Wa, la^ae yllkwe 
K'llEme lax K"IlEmalag'Ilise. Wa, he^misa gugSma^ye Kwax'ilano- 
kuma^ye pEtstotsa ^walase xwakluna lax yllkwa^yas Kilsme. Wa, 40 
he^mis k'leselas la Sx'alag'ihs xdmaHde. Wa, la^laxae Lelode baba- 
k!wa ^nEmox"sa Mamaleleqalaxa Legadas Nolide lax Nandze baba- 
klwasa Naklwax-da^xwe. Wa, laEl kMeas yak'as. Wa, glpEm^la- 
wise gwagulixs laa^l qadzel^ida. Wa, gil^Em^lawise gwal qadze- 
Laxs laa^l Lel^wultotsE^we Nanagwasases nEgumpe LE^wis kiweme. 45 
Wa, g"iPEm*lawise la ^wPlaeLExs laa^ l lExwilag'ila. Wa, g'll^Em- 
^lawise gwal LlExwaxs laa^l Lax^fllile Kwax'ilanokflma^ye, qa^s 
yaqlEg'a-le. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "Wega hoLelal gaxEn nEgump 
Nanagwas. LaEmLax' lalg-as gEnEmg"6s ytsg'a WawalaxElag'i^la- 
kuk". Wa, g'a^mes oxLaax"LEseg'a DEnt!alayuk" Llaqwa, LSgwada 50 
ma^tsEmg'ustok" dsngwatsle Lle^na, Logwada uEqasgEm tletlsl- 
yats'.e k'limyaxLa qa g'Ewulx"sg'as gEnEmg'os, g'Tgame Nanagwas. 
Wa, la^mesEk- lalg-ada mowexLak' loElqulIla qa ha^maatslel- 
tses k !welex"Laos, gug&me Nanagwas, xg'ada sisEyuLEk" 16- 
qullla, Logwada aLauEmk', Logwada megwatEk" loqulila, Logwada 55 



1024 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL (eth. ann. 38 

56 and this | Dzonoq !wa house-dish — and also the Dzonoq !wa hidle | 
and the grizzly-bear ladle; and the name of your dancer wiU be | 
MElnas; and your own name, son-in-law Nanagwas (III 1), will be | 
^maxOyalidze (III 1)." Thus said Kwax'ilanokume^ (117). Imme- 

60 diately II the father of Nanagwas (III 1), Sesaxalas (II 1), arose and 
thanked him for | what he had said; and when he stopped speaking, 
Kwax'ilanokfune^ (II 7) | asked his son-in-law Nanagwas (III 1) to 
stay in his house for four days, | until the twenty boxes of oil, | and 

65 the ten boxes of viburnum berries, and the ioiir house-dishes, || and 
the two ladles, and the great copper | Causing-Quarrels, should be 

' ready, for he had to buy the copper from its owner, ^nEmokttlag'i- 
Udze, I chief of the numaym Mamaleleq !am. Immediately | the 
Nak !wax' da^x" took the load out of their canoes | in order to wait 

70 until Kwax'ilanokume^ (II 7) had bought the copper. || After they 
had stayed there for three days at ^memkumUs, | the copper Causing- 
Quarrels was bought from ^nEmokfilag'ihdze. | Two slaves, and 
forty I sewed blankets, one hundred and twenty | new cedar-bark 

75 blankets, and two canoes, were paid. || These were the price of the 
copper Causing-Quarrels among the people of olden times. | The next 
day, when day came, the Nak !wax' da^x" loaded their canoes | with 
oil, viburnum-berries, and house-dishes, | and ladles; and when 

56 dzonoq !wak' loqulila; wa, he^misa dzonoq luxLala tsexLa; wa 
he^misa uEnxLala tsexLa; wa, he^mis LegEmltses senatLaose 
MElnase. Wa, he-misLas LegEmLos nEgflmp, Nanagwase, ^ma- 
xuyalidze," ^nex'^lae Kwax'ilanokiima^ye. Wa, hex'^idaEm^a- 

60 wise ompas Nanagwase, yix Sesax^lase LaxHtlll qa^s monies 
waldEmas. Wa, g'il^Em'lawise qlwel'IdExs laa^lae Kwax'ilanoku- 
ma^ye axk" lalaxes nEgump Nanagwas qa mop lEnxwa^ses -'nalas hele 
g'okwas, qa ^wrtes gwax'gullle ma^ltsEmg'usta dedEngwatsle Lle^na 
LE^wa nEqasgEme t!et!Elyats!e k' !ik" lEmyaxLa, LE^wa loElqulile 

65 mEwexLa, LE^wa ma-lEXLa tsetsexLa; wa, he^misa ^walase L!aqwa, 
yix DEnt!alayuwe, yixs k'ilxweLaq lax Llagwadase ^UEmokiilagilidze 
ylx gigama^yasa ^nE^memotasa Mamaleleq lEme. Wa, hex-'idaEm- 
^lawisa Nak!wax'da^xwe moitodxes mEmwalalaxes yae^yatsle. Wa, 
laEm^lae esEla qa kilx^wldes Kwax'ilanokuma^yaxa L!aqwa. Wit, 

70 he^lat!a la yudux"p!Enxwase ^nalas la g'is la^lax ^memkumhsa Na- 
klwax'da^xwaxs laa4 k'llx'wItsE^we DEnt!alayuwe lax ^nEmokillagi- 
lidza. HeEm kiloma ma^lokwe q!aq!Ek'owa; heEm-lawisa m6x"s6- 
kwe qlaqlEnola ^naEnx^una^ya. HeEm^awisa ma^ltsogtig'Iyowe 
ts!ets!Ex"as k' !ek' lobawasa. HeEm^awisa ma^lts'.aqe xwaxw&klQna. 

75 Wa, h6Em ^waxa^xwatsa L!aqwe DEnt!alayo laxa g'ale bEgwanEma. 
Wa, g'il^Em^lilwise ^nax'^idxa la lEnsa laaH mdxsElax'^ideda Na- 
k!wax"da^xwaxa Lle^na LE^wa tiElse laxes yae^yatsle LE^wa loElqii- 
llle LE^wa tsetsexLa. Wa, g'iPEm^lawise ^wilxsa laxa xwaxwaklunaxs 



BOASl FAMILY HISTORIES 1025 

everything was aboard the canoes, | Niinagwas (III 1) and liis wife 
WawalaxElag'Wak" (III 6) came. || She was canyingon her back the 80 
copper Causing-Quarrels. And behind them came the father (II 1 ) of | 
Niinagwas (III 1), Sesaxalas (II 1), singing his sacred song of the 
secular season. | And they came down to the beach of ^memkumhs. 
Then they | went aboard the canoe of Nanagwas (III 1); and when 
aU were aboard, | the canoe started, going || home to the viUage 85 
Tegfixste of the Nak!wax"da^x". | Then Nanagwas (III 1) said that 
he would give a feast with the oil and | the viburnum-beiTies to his 
tribe the Naklwax'da^x". After they had stayed there for one night, | 
the numaym of Nanagwas (III 1) went out to get fire-wood for the 
f easting-tune; | aiid after they had gathered fire-wood, in the morn- 
ing, when day came, ll they invited the four numayms — the G' exsEin, | 90 
SlsinLle^, and the TsetsEmeleqala and the TEmltEmlEls; for | 
Nanagwas (III 1), chief of the numaym ^villas, was host. | As soon as 
the four numayms were in the | house of Nanagwas (III 1), — the name 
of the house was WadoltsEm, — || they poured the viburnum-berries 95 
into the house-dishes, two | boxes into each house-dish. And two 
of them I were not used. Then one | box of oil was taken and 
poured on the dishes of viburnum-berries; | and after this was done, 
they gave the double-headed serpent house-dish to the numajon 1| 
G'exsEm, and they gave the wolf house-dish to the | numaym 500 

g-axaa^lase Nanagwase LE^wis gEnEme WawalaxElag-i^lakwe oxLa- 80 
laxa Llaqwa, yix DEntlalayuwe. Wa, la^lae ElxLa^ye ompas Nana- 
gwase yix Sesaxalase, yillaqiilases ba.xiiyalayuwe yalax"LEnaxs 
g'axae hoqiintslesEla hxxa LlEma^isas ^memkumlise. Wa, la^lae 
hox^walExs lax ya^yatslas Nanagwase. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise ^wllxs 
liixes ya^yats!axs g^axae -wl'la sEpIede yae'yatsliis. Wa, la^me 85 
nii^nakweda Naklwax^da-xwe laxes g'okiilase Teguxsta^ye. Wii, 
hex'^idaEm^lawise Nanagwase ^nex' qa^s k Iwelas^Idesa Lle^na LE^wa 
tiElse laxes g'okulota Niiklwax'da^xwe. Wa, g il-Em^lawise xa'ma- 
sExs laa^l anex^ide 'nE^memotas Nanagwasaxa lEqwa qa klwelasdE- 
mas. Wa, la^lae gwfda iineqaxa lEqwaxs laa^l ^nax'^Idxa gaalaxs 90 
laa^l Le^lalasE^weda mosgEmakliise ^iial^nE^memasaxa G'exsEine, 
LE^wa SisinL'.ae, LE^wa TsetsEmeleqala LE'wa TEinltEmlElse, qaxs 
he^mae Le^lale g'lgama^yasa ^nE^memotasa ^walase, yix Nanagwase. 
Wii, glpEm^lawise g'ax ^wFlaeLeda mosgEmakluse ^nal^uE^mema lax 
g'okwas Nanagwase, yixs Legadae g'okwases ^wadoltsEine laa^lase 95 
guxts!Ma5niweda tlElse laxa mEwexLa loElqiilila maema^lExLa^lae 
k"!imyaxLa giixtsloyo laxa ^nfd'nEmexLa loElqtillla. Wii, ma^ltsEHi- 
^laeda kMese iJabala. Wii, hVlae ax^etsE^weda ^uEmsgEine dEn- 
gwatsle Lle^na, qa's lii klunqEyhidalayo liix lEx"ts!ala tiElsa. Wii, 
g-il-'Em^liiwise gwiiiExs laa^l k-ax'^'Itsa sIsEyuLe loqulil laxa ^iiE^me- 500 
motasa G'exsEme. Wii, la^Iae k'iix'^itsa iiLaiiEme loqulil hixa ^ue- 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 2 16 



1026 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

1 SisinL !e^, and they gave the seal house-dish to the | TsetsEiiieleqahi, 
and they gave the Dz5noq !wa house-dish to the | numayinTEmltEm- 
IeIs; and after the house-dishes had been put down, | they took 
tlie small dishes, put into them viburnum-berries from the remaining || 
5 two boxes of viburnum-berries, and they placed these in front of the | 
people of low rank. Wlien everything was distributed, they took 
the I boxes of oil and put them down next to the door. | Then they 
gave one box of oil to the holder of the first seat | of each numaym; 

10 and when this had been given out, they || divided the rest of the oil 
among the people of low rank. After | everything had been distrib- 
uted, the numaym of Nanagwas (III 1) sang, | and the sister of 
Nanagwas (III 1), l laqwag'ilayugwa (III 2), danced. Now | the 
name of her who had been l !aqwag' ilayugwa (III 2) was MElnas 
(III 2) ; I and Nanagwas (III 1) also changed his name, and his name 

16 was II ^maxuyalidze (III 1). After he had given his feast, he | 
showed the copper Causing-Quarrels, and he asked some of the | 
chiefs of the four numayms to buy it. Then LElak' Enx ^Id, | chief of 
the numaym TsetsEmeleqala, bought the copper | Causing-Quarrels 

20 for four slaves, eighty || skin blankets, two hundred and forty cedar- 
bark blankets, | and four large canoes. It was | double what had 
been paid by Kwax ilanSkiime^ (II 7) when he bought the copper for 

1 ^memotasa SistnLlae. Wa, la^lae k'ax'^itsa megwate loqiilil laxa 
TsetsEmeleqala. Wa, la^lae k'ax'^itsa dzonoqlwa loqOlIl laxa ^nE- 
^memotasa TEmltEmlEls. Wa, giPEm^lawise ^wllg'allleda loElqiill- 
iaxs laa^l ax-etsE^weda l6q!wa, qa^s tsetsIalasE^wesa t!Else g'ayol 
5 laxa ma^ltsEme k"!imyaxLa tiElsa, qa^s la k'ax'dzamolilEm laxa bE- 
gulida^ye. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise ^wllxtoxs laa^l ax^etsE^weda dedEn- 
gwatsle Lle^na, qa^s g"axe ^mEx^alilEm lax max'stalilasa tiEX'ila. 
Wa, la k'ax'^dayoweda ^naHnEmsgEme dsngwats !e l !e^na lax LeLaxii- 
^ma^yasa ^nal^nE^memase. Wa, g'ipEm^lawise ^wilxtoxs laa^l tsetsE- 

10 x's^alasE^weda waokwe qa loqulasa bEgulida^ye. Wa, g'll^Em^'lawise 
^wilxtoxs laa^l dEnx^ide ^nE^memotas Nanagwase. Wa, heEm^lawis 
la ylx^widaats wuqlwas Nanagwase Llaqwag'ilayugwa. Wii, laEm 
LlayoxLaxes LegEme Llaqwag'ilayugwa. LaEm^lae LegadEs MElnase. 
Wa, laEm^laxaawise LlayoxLaye Nanagwase. Wa, laEm^ae LegadEs 

15 ^maxiiyalidze. Wa, laEm^lae gwal laxes k !welats lena^yaxs laa^l 
nelElllasa Llaqwa, yix DEntlalayo. Wii, laEm^lae q !osas lax glg'E- 
gilma^yasa mosgEmakluse ^nal^nE^memasa. Wa, he^lat!a LElak'En- 
x"-Ide g'lgama^yasa ^nE^memotasa TsetsEmeleqala kilx^wldxa Llaqwa 
DEnt lalayuwasa mokwe q!aq!Ek"owa; he^misa ma^lgunaltsokwe 

20 qIaqlEnol ^naEnx^Gna^ya ; he^misa ham6x"sok'ala ts!ets!EX"as k'loba- 
wasa; wii, he^misa motslaqe awa xwaxwS,k!iina. Wii, laEm ^wFlala 
pilk'Ile k'llwayas Kwax'ilanoktima^yaxa Llaqwa qaes nEgumpe 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1027 

his son-in-law | Niinagwas (III 1 ), whose name was now ^mAxiiyahdze 23 
(III 1). He gave | all the four slaves to the holders of the first seat 
in each of the numayms. || He gave one slave to the | holder of the 25 
first seat of the G'exsEm, another one | to the holder of the first seat 
of the SisinL!e^, one slave | to the holder of the first seat of the 
TsetsEmeleqala, and another | slave to the holder of the first seat of 
the TEniltEmlEls; and || he gave in addition to the slave a large canoe 30 
to each, for | he gave the canoe to the same men to whom he had 
given the slaves. | After he had given away the slaves and canoes | 
to the holders of the first seats, ^maxiiyaUdze (III 1) took the eighty | 
sewed blankets and gave them away to the chiefs of second rank and 
their children; II and after doing so, he took the | two hundred and 35 
forty cedar-bark blankets and gave them away to the people of lower 
rank. | After these had been given away, the guests went out of the 
house. I This is another kind of great feast, which is called "giving 
away | at the time of the great feast." This was done by ^maxuyali- 
dze (HI 1). Very few give this kind || of feast, although they may 40 
be head chiefs of all the tribes. | 

It was not long before WawalaxElag' i4ak" (HI 6) had a | daughter 
(IV 3) ; and immediately Kwax'danokume^ (II 7) went to | give as a 
marriage gift fifty blankets and a hundred cedar-bark blankets to | 
^maxiiyahdze (III 1), and also the name Llalsyig'ihs (IV 3) for the 

Nanagwase yixa la LegadEs ^maxiiyalidze. Wa, laEm^lae yax^wid 23 
^wl'lasa mokwe q!aq!Ek'6 lax LCLaxuma^yasa mosgEmak !use ^nal^uE- 
^memasa. Wa, laEm^lae ^nal^uEmokwa qiak'o la yaq!wemasa 25 
^nal^uEmokwe Laxtimesa G'exsEme. Wa, la^lae ^nEmox" q!ak'owe 
yaq!wemas Laxuma^yasa SishiLla^ye. Wa, la-lae ^nEmox" qliik'owe 
yaqlwemas LaxOma^yasa TsetsEmeleqala. Wa, la^lae ^nEmox" 
q'.ak'owe yaqiwemasa Laxuma^yasa TEmltEmlElse. Wa, la^lae 
yaq Iweg'indayuweda ^uEmtsIaqe awa xwakliina laxa q!iik"owe, qaxs 30 
he^maa^axat! yaq!watsa xwaxw^klune yagwadEsa qlaqlEk'owe. 
Wa, g'iPEm^lawise gwal yaqwasa qlaqlsk'owe LE-wa xwaxwakluniixs 
laxa LeLaxuma^yaxs laa^l fix^edxae ^maxtiyalidziixa ma^lgunaltsokwe 
qlaqlEnol ^naEnx^una^ya, qa^s yax^wides laxa g'ig'igEle LE^vis sasE- 
me. Wa, g'll^Em^lawise gwal yaqwasexs laa^l ax^edxa hS,mox"so- 35 
k'ala k'!ek'!6bawasa, qa^s yax^wides laxa bEgulIda^ye. Wa, g'il- 
^Em^lawise gwal yaqwaxs laa^l ^wi^la hoquwElseda kiwelde. Wa, 
heEm oguqala ^walas kiwelase, yixs he^mae LegadEs yaqwag'illla 
^walas kiwelase, gwex'^idaasas ^maxQyalidze. Wa, la holale he gwe- 
x'-itsa wax'^me wulgEme glgamesa ^naxwiix lelqwalaLa^ya. 40 

Wa, k!est!a giilaxs laa^l xungwadEX'^Ide WawalaxElag'i^lakwasa 
ts!ats!adagEme. Wa, hex'^daEm^lawise Kwax'ilanokiima^ya la 
wawalqalasa lastowe plslxElasgEm LE^wa lak"!Ende k'lobawas lax 
^maxQyalidze; wii, he^misa LegEme i.lalEyig'ilise; qa LegEmsa ts!a- 



1028 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL luxii. anx. ss 

45 name of ll the daughter of WawakxEkxg Wtik" (III 6). Then | 
^maxiiyaUdze (III 1) gave away the bhiukets to the four numayms of 
the Nak!wax'da^x", | and he named his daughter iJalEyig'ihs (IV 3). | 
It was not long before WawaUixElagi^lak" (III 6) gave birth to a boy 
(IV 4), I and Kwax'ilanokume^ (II 7) again gave a marriage gift of 

50 fifty II ])hinkets to liis son-inJaw ^maxiiyahdze (III 1), and also | 
fifty cedar-bark blankets; and he gave as a marriage gift the name | 
Wawalk'ine for the boy, but his true name was LelElgEmlilas 
(IV 4). I Two names were given in marriage by Kwaxilanokiime^ 
(II 7) — I the child's name Wawaikine, and the true name || 

55 LelElgEmlilas [ = Place of dead faces in house] (IV 4).) | 

I forgot that Kwaxilanokiime^ (II 7) | did the same for the first 
child of WawalaxElagi^lak", LlalEyig'ilis (IV 3); for he | gave two 
names as a marriage gift — the child's name | Wadsmalaga (IV 3), 
and the true name LlalEyig'ilis (IV 3). || 

60 Now ^maxiiyalidze (III 1) gave away the fifty blankets | and the 
fifty cedar-bark blankets to the G' exsEm, SisinL !e^, | TsetsEUieleqala, 
and TEmltEmlEls; and he let his | son, Wawalk'ine (IV 3) accord- 
ing to his child name, and whose true name was | LelElgEmlilas 

65 (IV 3), dance. Now WawalaxElag"i«lak" (III 6) || and her husband 
^maxiiyahdze (III 1) had two children. Then WawalaxElag' i^lak" 
(III 6) I told her husband ^maxiiyalidze (III 1) to go and many the 

45 tsladagEme, xunox"s WawalaxElag'i^Iakwe. Wa, laEm^lae ^maxuya- 
lidze p!Es^ets hixa mosgEmakluse ^nal^uE^mematsa Nak!wax'da^xwe. 
Wa, laEm Leqe^lajTinux"s laxes ts!Edaq!Edza^ye LlalEyig'ilise. Wa, 
k"!est!a giilaxs laa^l et!ed mayoMde WawalaxElag'i^lakwasa babagQ- 
me. Wii, laEm^laxaawise Kwaxilanokiima-ye wawalqitlasa sEk'la- 

50 x"sokwe p!ElxElasgEm laxes nEgiimpe ^maxiiyalidze; wii, he^misa 
sEk" !ax'sokwe k" !6bawasa. Wii, la^laxae LegEmg'ElxLalaxa LegEme 
Wawalk'ina^ye, qa LegEmsa babagume. Wa, la^lae alaxLiilax Le- 
lElgEmlilase. Wii, ma^ltsEme LegEmg'ElxLa^yas Kwax'ilanokii- 
ma^ye LE^wa g'inlEXLiiyowe Wawalkina^ye LE^wa alaxLiiyowe 

55 LelElgEmlilase. 

HexoLEu LlE.lewcsoxs he^maaxat! gwex-^ide Kwax'ilanokiima^ye, 
qa g'ale xiinox^s WiiwalaxElag'i-iakwe, yix L!iilEyigilise, yixs 
ma-ltsEmaaxae LegEmg'EJxLa'yas qa LegEms, ylxs g'inlEXLiilaax 
WiidzEmiilaga, wa, lit alaxLillax LliilEyigihse. 

60 Wii, hiEm^laxae p !Es-ide ^miixuyalidzas sEk' laxsokwe p lElxElasgEm 
LE-wa sEk^Iax^sokwe k'lobawas liixa G'exsEme LE-wa SisiuLla^ye, 
LE^wa TsetsEmeleqala, LE^wa TEmltEmlElse. Wii, laEm^lae sena- 
dEmnox"s Wiiwalk'ina^yexa ginlEXLaye. Wa, la alaxLiilax LelEl- 
gEmlilase. Wa, laEm^lae ma^lokwe sasEmas WiiwalaxElag'i^lakwe 

65 LE^wis l.VwunEme ^maxuyalidze. Wa, laEni^lawise WawalaxElag'i- 
^lakwe waxElaxes Ifi^wiJUEme ^miixuyalidze, qa las giigak' !ax k' ledelas 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1029 

princess of | Q !Qmx'od(II 8), the holder of the head seat of the numaym 67 
Laalax's^Eiidayo of the | Kwag'iil. The name of the princess of 
Qliimx'od was Q!ex'sesEhis (III 7). | ImmeiUatcly ^raaxuyaHdze 
(III 1) told his numaym the ^walas || that he wanted to have two 70 
wives, and "they agreed to what | their chief said. In the morning, 
when day came, they | launched four large canoes to pay the mar- 
riage money, and | the whole numaym of the ^walas went aboard. 
They arrived at Fort Rupert. | It was the time when the first white 
men had come there and were living in tents. || Now they paid the 75 
marriage money for Q!ex'sesElas (III 7), the princess of Qliimx'od 
(II 8). As soon as | they had paid the marriage money, Q!umx'5d 
(II 8) gave a marriage mat of | one hundred blankets, which were to 
be the mat of his princess, because he did not want her | to sit 
without a mat in the house of 'maxiiyalidze (III 1) when she was 
going to sit down there; | and he gave as a marriage gift the name for 
his dancer, Qwaxilal, i| and Qliimx'od, to be the name of ^maxti- ^" 
yahdze (III 1). In the | morning, when day came, ^maxuyalidze 
(III 1) and his crew loaded their canoes, | and they went home with 
his second wife, | Q!ex'sesElas (III 7); and when they arrived at 
Teguxste, he | gave away a hundred blankets to the four numayms. || 
Then ^maxiiyalidze (III 1) clianged the name of his princess | 85 
L lalEyig ilis (IV 3), and now her name was Qwax'ilal (IV 3); and | 



Qlumx'ode Laxiima^yasa ^nE^memotasa Laalax's^Endayowasa Kwa- 67 
g'ule, yix Legadaa^lae k'ledelas Q!umx'odas Qlex'sesElase. Wa, 
hex^^ida^Em^'lawise ^maxuyalidze nelaxes ^nE^memota ^walasaxs 
ma^lelexsdaaxes gEgEUEme. Wa, la^Iae ^naxwa ex'^ak'Ex waldE- 70 
mases g'lgama^ye. Wa, g'lpEm^lawise ^nax-^idxa gaalaxs laa^l wi- 
^xstEndxa mots!aqe awa xwiixwak!una, qa^s qadzeLats!a. Wa, lii- 
^lae ^wFla hoguxse ^uE^memotasa ^walase. Wa, g'flx^lae lax Tsaxise, 
yixs he^'mae ales yaewapsEmslsa g'alol gax mamaPa. Wa, laEm^lae 
qadzel-lda lax Qlex'sesEJase lax kledelas Qlumx'ode. Wa, gil- 75. 
^EUiMawise gwala qadzcLaxs laa^lae Qlumx'ode le-waxsElamatsa 
lak'lEnde plElxElasgEm, qa le^weses k'ledele, qaxs gwaqlElaaq 
wultalll lax g'okwas -raaxuyalidze, qo lal k!wagaliLes kMedele laq. 
Wii, he^'mesa LegEiug-ElxLa^yas qa Legsms senatLase Qwax'ilale; 
wa, he^mise Qlumx'ode qa LegEms ^maxuyalidze. Wa, g'il^Eni^awise 80 
^nSx'^ldxa gafdaxs laa^l moxse ^maxiiyalidzaxes j'ae^yatsle le^wIs 
klwenie. Wa, laEm^lae nii'nakwa LE-wis a^llle gEUEma, yix Qlex'- 
sesElase. Wa, g'll^Em^lawise lag'aa lax Teguxsta^yaxs laa^l etled 
plEs^itsa lak'lEnde plElxElasgEm laxa mosgEmakluse ^uaHnE^me- 
masa. Wa, laEm^lae LlayoxLa^lae k'ledelas ^maxuj'alidze, yix 85 
LlalEylg'ilise. Wa, laEm LegadEs Qwa,x'ilale. Wa, laEm^laxaawise 



1030 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

87 ^jnaxiiyalidze (III 1) also changed his name. Now his name was 
Qliimxod (III 1). | It was not long before QlexsesElas (III 7) had a 
child, a boy. | They went at once, and it was reported to Q!umx i- 

90 lag ilis (II 8) that his || princess Qlex'sesElas (III 1) had a boy. | 
Then Q!umxilag'ilis (II 8) gave a marriage gift of fifty | "blankets to 
his son-in-law Q !umx' od (III 1 ) , and also the name | for his grand- 
son (IV 5), the child of Q!ex"sesElas (III 7). Now, | he gave as a 
marriage gift the name Amax'ag'ila (IV 5) for the name of the boy. || 

95 Qlumxod (III 1) at once gave away the fifty blankets to the | four 
numayms, and now his dancer was his child | Amax'ag'ila (IV 5). 
It was not long before | Qlex'sesElas had another son (IV 6). Then | 
Qlumx ilag'ilis (II 8) gave as a marriage-gift thirty-five blankets 
600 to his II son-in-law Q !umx' od (III 1 ) , and also a name for his grand- 
son, I and he gave as a marriage-gift the name Omag' ilis (IV 6) . | 
Qlumx' od (III 1) gave away the thirty-five blankets | to his numaym 
the ^walas, and his yoimgcst child, | Omag' ilis (IV 6), danced. Then 
5 Q !umx ilag' ilis (II 8) was annoyed by || what had been done by his 
son-in-law Q!umx'od (III 1), because he had given away the 
blankets to his own | numaym the -walas, for that implied that | 
Qlumx'od (III 1) thought the thirty-five blankets given as a mar- 
riage present to his son-in-law | had not been enough. Therefore 



87 LlayoxLaye ^maxuyalidze. Wa, laEm^lae LegadEs Q!umx"ode. Wa, 
k'!es^lat!a galaxs laa^l xungwadEx"^ide Q!ex'sesElasasa babagume. 
Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise la q lalag'ilasE^we Q!umx'ilag-ilisases k'!e- 

90 dele Q!ex'sesElasaxs lE^mae xungwatsa babagilme. Wa, hex^^i- 
daEm^lawise Q!uraxilagilise la wawalqalasa sEk' !ax'sokwe plElxE- 
lasgEm laxes uEgiimpe Q!umx'ode; wa, he^misa LegEme qa LegEm- 
ses ts!ox"LEma, yix xunokwas Qlex'sesElase. Wa, laEm^lae 
LegEmg'ElxLalax Amax'ag-ila qa LegEmsa babagume. Wa, hex-'ida- 

95 Eni^lawise Q!umx"ode p'.Es'^etsa sek' lax'sokwe plElxElasgEm laxa 
moso'Emak'.use ^naPuE^memasa. Wa, laEm^lae hcEm senate Ama- 
x'atf'ilaxes xunokwe. Wa, k'!es^lat!a galaxs laa-l et!ed xungwade 
Qlex'sesElasasa babagume. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise Qlumxilag'ilise 
hVl wawalqalasa mamox"sokulasa sEkMa plElxElasgEm laxes ue- 
600 gumpe Q'.iunx'ode; wa, he^misa LegEme qa LegEuises ts!ox"LEma. 
Wa, laEm^lae LegEmg'ElxLalax Omag-ilise. Wa, hex'^idaEm^laxaa- 
wise Qliimx'ode plEs^itsa mamox"sokulasa sEk'Ia plElxElasgEm 
laxes ^uE^memota ^walase. Wa, laEm hcEm senatses ale xiinokwe 
dmao-'ilise. Wa, laEm^lae ^yax'SEme naqa^yas Q!umxulagilise qa 
5 o-wex'^idaasases nEgtimpe Qliimx'ode, qaxs lae he plEsasE^wes 
^uE^memota Hvalase, yixs ^uEmaxisae Q!umx-ode l6^ kMotaxa 
^mamox"s6kiilasa sEk" !a p lElxElasgEm wawalqillayds laxes nEgQmpe. 
Wa he^mis max'ts!5lEms Q!i5mx'ilag111se lagilas wataxodxes 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1031 

Q!umx*ilag'ilis (II 8) was ashamed, and took away | his princess 
Qlex'sesElas (III 7), and she went home with her two || children, 10 
Amaxag"ila (IV 5) and his younger brother Omagihs (IV 6). 
Q!umxod (III 1) did not | say anything about the doings of his wife. 
Then | his head wife, WawalaxEhxg' i^lak" (III 6), spoke first, and | 
said, "Don't let your father-in-law Q !umx ilag ilis (II 8) make you 
ridiculous by what | he has done with your former wife. Go and 
marry the princess of tiie || chief of the great numaym G'exsEmx- 15 
sanal of the Koskimo, | T lagwisilayugwa (III 8), the princess of 
Qwax'ila (II 9), for he has many privileges | and names." Thus she 
said. Qlumx'od (III 1) | agreed at once to what his wife WawalaxE- 
lag'i^lak" (III 6) had said. | Then he said they would call his 
numa3Tn Hvalas. || His wife told him to go ahead, and Q!umx'6d 20 
(III 1) himself | called his numaym the ^walas. At once they aU [ 
came into his house; and when they were in, | Q!ilmx'5d (III 1) told 
them what his wife had said, that she wished him to go and | marry 
T lagwisilajoigwa (III 8), the princess of Qwax'ila (II 9), the chief of 
the II great numaym G' exsEmx sanal of the Koskimo. Thus he 25 
said. I Immediately the whole numaym agreed to what he said. | 
Then one of his numaym said, "Let us | treat our chief Q!umx'od 
(III 1) like a chief, and let us | help him, and give him property to pay 
the marriage money!" After he had said so, || he went out of the 30 

k'!edele Qlex'sesElase. Wa, g'ax^Em^lae na^nak" LE^wis ma^lokwe 
sasEma, ytx Amax'ag"ila LE^wis tsla^ye Omag'Ilise. Wa, k'leas^El 10 
waldEms Qlumx'ode qa gwex'^idaasases gEUEmx'de. Wa, hVlaxae 
heEm gil yaq!Eg-a4e gEkimalilase WawalaxElag-i'lakwe. Wa, la- 
Hae ^nek"a: "Gwala aEmlalayos nEgiimpae Q.'umx'ilagilisa qaes 
gwex'^idaasaxes gEUEmx'daos qa^s lalag'aos gagak"!ax k'!edelas 
g'igama^yasa ^walase ^uE^memotaxa G'exsEmx'sanalasa Gosg'imoxwe 15 
lax T lagwisilayugwa k'ledelas Qwax'ila, qaxs oguqalaes k"!ek"!E- 
s^owe LE^wis LCLEgEme," ^nex'^lae. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise Q!um- 
x'ode ex'^ak-Ex waldEmases gEUEme Wawalaxalag'i^lakwe. Wa, 
laEm^lae ^nex' qa^s Leltslodexes ^nE^memota ^walase. Wa, hex^i- 
daEm^lawise gEUEmas waxaq. Wa, xamagilll^Em^lawise Qlumx'ode 20 
la Le^lalaxes ^nE^memota ^walase. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise g-ax ^wFla 
hogwiLa lax g'okwas. Wa, g'iPEm^Iawise g'ax ^wFlacLExs laa4 
nele Qliimx'odas waldEmases gEUEme laxes ^nek^ lena^ye, qa las 
gagak'Iax T lagwisilayugwa lax k"!edelas Qwax'ila, g'igama^yasa 
^walase ^nE^memotasa G'exsEmx'sanalasa Gosg'imoxwe, ^nex'^lae. 25 
Wa, liex'^daEm-'lawise ^naxwa ex'^ak'e ^UE^memotasex waklEmas. 
Wa, la^lae yaqlEg'a^e g'ayole lalax ^uEmemotas: " Weg'adzax'lns 
g'ag'exsilaxEns g'lgama^yex laxox Qlumxodex, qEns wag'i g'ox*- 
widEq" qEns p'.EdzeLalag'iq", qa qadzeLayosox," ^nex'^laexs laa^l 
lawElsa lax g'okwas Qlumx'ode. Wila'x^dze^lae galaxs g'axae ae- 30 



1032 ETIIXOLOGV OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. anx. So 

30 house of Q Iiimx' od (III 1) ; and he did not stay away long before he I 
came in again, carrying a pair of blankets, which he gave out of 
kindness to his | chief Q!umxod (III 1). Then all the | men did 
the same as had been done by him, for they wanted the | father-in- 
law of Qliimxod (III 1), Q Iiimx' ilagilis (II 8), to know about it and 

35 to feel sore because || he had taken away his princess Q !ex' sesElas 
(1117). Then Q Iiimx ilag'ilis (II S) was really | ashamed when he 
knew that his | son-m-law Qlumxod (III 1) had said that he did not 
want to see his children. | After they had finished speaking, thej'went 
out; and | at dayhght, in the morning, those who were to pay the mar- 

40 riage money for T lagwisilayugwa (III 8), II the princess of Qwax'ila 
(II 9), started, for the village of the Koskimo | was at NatslEnxdEm. 
The Nak !wax' da^x" went around Cape Scott, | using four large 
traveling-canoes. | It took them two days. Then they arrived at 
the village of the Koskimo, | NatslEnxdEm. Immediately when 

4.5 they arrived, they paid the marriage money; and || after they had 
paid the marriage money, Qwa.x'ila (II 9) stood up | outside of his 
long house, carr3ang ten sea-otter skins. | He turned his face 
toward the house, and called his princess | T lagwisilayugwa (III 8) 
to come and stand by his side; and when she was | standing by his 

50 side, he put down the ten sea-otter skins in || front of his princess 
T .fagwisilaj^ugwa (III 8). Tiien he turned | toward the Na- 
k !wax' da^x", who had paid the marriage price, and who were sitting | 

31 daaqa lElcjElaxa ^nEmxsa plElxElasgEma, qa's eaxk'lEg'a^les laxes 
g"Igama^ye Qliimx'ode. Wii, la^lae ^naxwaEm^El hayeg'aya ^naxwa 
bebEgwanEmx gwex'^idaasas, qaxs ts !ats lelwaae, qa las qialc nE- 
giimpdas Q'.iimx'ode, yix Qlumx'ilag'ilise, qa tslixiles naqa^yasqaes 

35 laena^ye vvataxod.xes k'!edele Qlex^sesElase. Wa, alaEm^awise 
max^tsle Qlumx'ilag'ilise, qaxs laa4 q'.alax waldEmases nEgiimpde 
Qliimx'odaxs, -nek'aaxs k'lesae la etied la ax^exsdxes sasEme- 
Wii, g'il-Em^lawise gwale waldEmas, laa4 hoqiiwElsa. Wa, g'il^Em. 
^lawise ^nax'^Id.xa gaalaxs laa-'l alex'vvideda qadzeLaLa.x Tlagwisila- 

40 yugvva lax k- ledelas Qwax'ila yixs haaEl g'okiilatsa (josg'imoxwe 
NatslEnxdEme. Wii, laEm-lae ewaxsdex Ts!ec[oma^ya Naklwax'- 
da^xwe yayasElaxa mots!aqe awa xwaxwakluna. Wii, aEm^lii- 
wise xa^moyoxs laa^l liig'aa lax g'okulasasa Gosg'imoxwe liix 
NiitslEnxdEme. Wa, he.x'^idaEm^lawise qadzel^ida, yixs laa=l lag-aa, 

45 wa, g iPEm^lawise gwiila qiidzcLaxs g'iixaalas Qwax'ila Lax-\vEls 
hlx Llasana^yases g'ildel g'okwa diilaxa lastowe qlasa. Wa, 
la^lae gwegEm.x'^Id laxes g'okwe, qa^s Le^lalexes k'!edele T lagwi- 
silayugwa, qa g'iixes La^wEnotslelasEq. Wa, g'iPEm^Iawise g'iixe 
k'ledeias LiiwEnotslElsaqexs laa^l mogwaElsaxa lastowe qliisa lax 

50 uEqEmiilasases k'ledele T lagwisilayugwa. Wii, la^lae gwegEmx'^id 
lilxa qadzeLELElaxa Naklwaxda^xwaxs lie^mae ales kludzExsala 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1033 

in their canoes. Then he spoke, and said, | "Now, Chief Qliimx'od 53 
(III 1), look at your wife! | Now she wiO go to you, son-in-Law 
Qlumx'od (III 1), and these ten [canoe-mat] || sea-otter skins, and the 55 
sea-lion house-dish, and the | sea-otter house-dish to eat out of, 
and tlie whale house-dish to eat out of, and the | sea-monster house- 
dish to eat out of in your house, | son-in-law Q!umx'od (III 1); and 
your princess ' name | shall be Doxulkwi^lak" (IV 3) ; and your name 
shall be || Walalag" i^ak" (III 1), son-in-law Qliimxod (III 1). That 60 
is all," I he said. Then he spoke again, and said, | "Now, come and 
warm 5'-ourselves in my house, son-in-law, and your tril)e!" | Thus 
he said. At once the Nak !wax' da^x" went ashore out of | their 
canoes, and they went into the house of Qwaxila (II 9). |i Imniedi- 65 
ately he gave them to eat; and after they had finished, | Qwaxila 
(II 9) spoke, and said, "0 son-in-law Qlumx'od (III 1), | hsten to 
me! Your wife wants this | house to go to you. Its name is 
LlexLJexagEm (Aurora-Face). And also what is in it, the | nonlEm 
and the mosquito-dance will go to you, son-in-law; and || its name, 70 
G ixg' aqslag' ihs, and the land-otter dance and | its name IlawalE- 
lalEme^, and the scattering-dance and | its name X its!ax ilasogwi- 
^lax", and the grizzly bear | and its name Nandze; and that is all, 
son-m-law | Q.'umxod (III 1)." Then Q.'umxod (III 1) really 

laxes yae^yats!e. Wa, la^lae yaq!Eg"a^}a. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "We- 52 
g'a, doqwalax g'lgame^ Qiumx'oda laxg'as gEnEmg'os. Wa, laEm- 
xaak- lal lol, iiEgump Q!umx"6da, Logwa lastok" le^waxsesEk" 
q!asa, Logwa ha^maats!ak' L!exEnk' loqiilila, Logwa q!asak" ha- 55 
^maatsiak' loqtillla, Logwa gwE^yimk" ha^maats!ak' locjulila, LogAva 
hauac{!Ets!ak" ha^maats!ak" loqulila, qa ha^maats!El laxes g'oxwaos, 
nEgump Q!umx"oda. Wa, he^naisa LegEnie qa LegEmltses kMede- 
laos. La^me LegadElts Doxiilkwi^lakwe. Wa, la^mets LegadElts 
Walalagi^lakwe, nEgump Qiumx'oda. Wa, laEm HvFla laxeq," 60 
^nex'^lae. Wa, la^lae edzaqwa yaq!Eg'a^la. Wii, la^lae ^nek'a:' 
"Wu, gelag'a tElts!a laxg^in g'oxwlk% nEgump, le^wos g'okwaota- 
qos," ^nex'-lae. Wa, hex'^idaEin^lawise -wFla hox^wiiltaweda Na- 
k!wax"da^xwe laxes yae^yats!e, qa^sla hogwiL lax g'okwas Qwax'ila. 
Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise ymesasE^wa. Wa, g'ipEm^lawisegwalalaa^lase 65 
Qwax-ila yaq!Eg-a^la. Wa, la^lae-nek^a: "^ya, nEgump Q!umx'oda, 
wiiEntsos hoLela g'axEn. Ax^exsdaox gEUEmaqos, qa laeso g'6- 
xwex laol.xwo Legadiixs L!exL!exagEm. Wa, he^mlso g'aelex laci"xo 
nonlEinex, la^mosox lal laol, uEgumpxo q!Eq!elEla]ex; wa, he^mos 
LegEmltsoxwe G'lxg'aqElag-ilise; he-mes6 hawalslale; wa, he^mos 70 
LegEinltsoxwe HawalElalEma^ye; he^meso gwelgwelawate ; wa, 
he^mosa LegEmltsoxwe X'ltsiaxilasogwi^laxwe; he^meso nanx; wa, 
he^mos LegEmltsoxwe Nandze. Wa, lawisLa ^wHla, nEgiimp 
Qiumx'oda." Wa, laEm^lae alak"!ala mo^le Q!umx"odas, qaxs 

' The following speeches are in the Koskinio dialect. 



1034 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL, [eth. ANN. 35 

75 thanked him. || This was the first nonlEm. It is different from the 
dances of the | Nak !wax' da^x", and came from the Koskimo. It was 
obtained through marriage | by Qlumx'od (III 1) from Qwax'ila (II 9). 
Then they spoke secretly to the | Naklwax da^x" about the nonlEm 
and the other dances, for none of them knew | how they were used by 

80 theKosldmo. Then QlQmx'od (III 1) told ll his wife T lagwisilayugwa 
(III 8) what his tribe said, | and immediately T lagwisilayugwa (1118) 
told her father Qwax'ila (II 9). Therefore | Qwaxila (II 9) called 
the Koskimo into his house; and | when they were all inside, 
Qwaxila (II 9) arose and | spoke. He said, "Now look, son-in-law 

85 Qliimx'od (III 1) ! II Now aU the Koskimo have come in to take care 
of the I supernatural power of the nSnlEm. Now look at it, 
Nak !wax' da^x" ! " | Thus he said. Then the sound of whistling 
appeared on the roof of the house. He had not | spoken a long time 
before he stopped. Then | the nephew of Q!umxod (III 1) and 

90 three others disappeared. The name of the nephew of || Q!umxod 
wasK' lesoyak' ilis ' (IV 10); and when they had all | disappeared, the 
Koskimo sang the four songs | of the nonlEm. They stayed away for 
four days. | Then they caught K' lesoyak'ihs (IV 10) and the other 
three. | K' lesoyak'ilis (IV 10) was now Mosquito-Dancer, and II 

95 G' ixg' aqElag' ilis was his name now. Another one was Land-Otter- 
Dancer, and I his name was HawalElalEme^. He was a substitute 

75 he^mae ales gil laLa nonlEme, LE^we ogtiqala lelaedEs laxa 
,Nak!wax"da^xwe, g'iix'^id laxa Gosg'imoxwe. Wa, laEm gEg'ada- 
nEme Qltimx'odaq lax Qwax'ila. Wa, la-lae wiinwunosa qleqiEyoda 
Nak!wax'da^xwasa nonlEme LE^wis lelaaide, qaxs kMesae qlaLElax 
gwayi^lalasasa Gosg'imoxwaxs aaxsilaaq. Wa, la^lae nele Qliimx'o- 

80 dilxes gEnEme T lagwisilayugwas waldEmases g'okulote. Wa, 
hex'4daEm4awise neia T lagwisilayugwiixes ompe Qwax'ila, lag'ilalas 
Lelts!ode Qwax'ilaxa Gosg'imoxwe qa g'axes ^wplaeLEla lax g'okwas. 
Wa, g'il^Em^lawise g'ax ^wilaeLExs laa4 LfixHIlile Qwaxila, qa^s 
yaqlEg'a^e, qa^s ^nek'e: " Walag'a doqwalaLEX, nEgiimp Qlumx'oda, 

85 g'ax^Emxaax' ^wi^aeLalg'a Gosg'imoxwuk' nanawax"slla}xwo ^na- 
walaxwaxs nonlEmii. Walag'iLa doqwahiLEx Nak!wax'da-xwa," 
^nex'^laexs g'axaase ts5kwasa dzetslala lax ogwiisasa g'okwe. K'!es- 
4at!e alaEm gedzaqwaxs laa^l qlwel^eda. Wii, laEm^lae x'is^ede 
Lole^yas Q!umx'6de, he^misa yudukwe ogu^la laq. HcEn^El Lole^s 

90 Qlumx'odeda Legadas K' lesoyak'Ihse. Wa, g'll^Em^lawise ^naxwa 
x'is^edExs laa^l dEnx^idayuweda mosgEme nonlEmk' !ala q lEmq lEm- 
dEma, yisa Gosg'imoxwe. Wa, la^lae moplEnxwa^se ^nalasa x'lsalaxs 
laa4 k'imyasE^wa yix K'lesoyak'ilise LE^wa 6gu-la laq, xa yudukwe. 
Wa, laEm^lae q!Eq!elElale K'lesoyak'ilise. Wa, laEm^lae LegadEs 

95 G'lxg'aqElag'Ilise. Wa, la^lae hawalElala ^nEmokwe. Wa, la^lae 
LegadEs HSwalElalEma^ye. Wa, laEm^lae mEx"stale LelElgEmlllasa- 

1 See p. 1075. 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1035 

for LelElgEmlllas (IV 4), | who was to be Land-Otter-Dancer, for 97 
this is a great dance. Tlie land-otter dance is the same in the nonlEm 
as the I hamatsia is in the winter dance, and | therefore Qliimxod 
(III 1) wished his son LelElgEinlllas (IV 4) || to be Land-Otter- 700 
Dancer, because he had stayed at home with his mo ther WawalaxElag' i- 
^lak" (III 6). I Therefore he liad to have a substitute; and a substi- 
tute also danced the scattering-dance for the | daughter of Q!umxod,- 
Qwaxilal (IV 3). The name of the dancer was Xltslax'ilasogwi- 
4ax". I The scattering-dancer is the same in the nonlEm | as the 
mamaq !a is in the winter dance, for it is taken care of by chiefs of 
high rank. Therefore || Q!umx'6d (III 1) wished his princess to 5 
have this dance. Another one was grizzly-bear dancer, | and his 
name was Nandze ; and the name given by | Qwax" ila (II 9) in mar- 
riage to QWmx'od (III 1) was LlalEWElsEla (III 1) for the nonlEm. | 
Qwax' ila (II 9) also gave a second name to Qlumx'od (III 1) | for the 
secular season, Walalag' i^lak" (III 1), and also the nonlEm name|| 
LlalEWElsEla (III 1). The shredded cedar-bark of the head-ring | 10 
and neck-ring of the dancers and of all the Koskimo is white, when | 
they are initiated hj the supernatural power of the nonlEm. For 
four I daj^s they wore cedar-bark on their heads; and after | four 
days they put it off. || Qwax' ila (II 9) also gave as a marriage gift 15 
many dentalia and cedar-bark blankets to his | son-in-law Qlumx'od 
(III 1). LlalEWElsEla (III 1) gave these away to the | Koskimo. | 

xa la hawalElala, qaxs ^willasae lada, yixs ^nEmax'isae LE^wa 97 
hamatsia laxa ts!ets!eqaxa hawalElale laxa nonlsme. Wa, he^mis 
lag'ilas Qliimx'ode ^nex" qa heses bEgwanEme ximokwe LelElgEmlllase 
hawalElala, qaxs amlexwae LE%is SbEmpe WawalaxEJag'i^lakwe, 700 
lag"i^las mEx"stale. Wa, laxae mEx"sta^ya gwelgwelawatas ts!Edaqe 
xunox"s Q!innx"6de, ylx Qwax-ilale, yixs Legadaas X'ltslaxilaso- 
gwi^lakwe. Wa, laEmxae ^uEmaxisa gwelgwelawate laxa nonlEme 
LE^wa mamaq !a laxa ts!ets!eqa, yixs awilax'silakwae, lagilas Qliim- 
x'ode ^nex" qa heses k'ledele Qwax'ilale ladEnux". Wa, la nana 5 
^nEmokwe; wa, laEm^lae LegadEs Nandze. Wii, h¥lae LegEmg'ElxLa- 
laxae Qwax'ilax L!alEwElsEla qa LegEms Qlumx'ode laxa nonlEme, 
yixs laa4 ma^ltsEme LegEmg'Elxxa^yas Qwax'ila lo^ Walalagi^lakwe 
qa LegEms Qlumx'ode laxa baxilse. Wa, he^mises nonlErnxLJiyowe, 
LlalEWElsEla. Wa, laEm^lae qwax"sa ylxa k'adzEkwe, yix qEx'I- 10 
ma^yas LF/wis qEnxawa^ya yaexwa, LE^wa ^naxwa Gosg'imoxwaxs 
g-fdae lasgEmsa ^nawaJakwasa nonlEme. Wa, la^ae mop!Enxwa^se 
^nalas qeqEX'imalaxa k"adzEkwe. Wa, hex'^ida^mese gwal qeqExi- 
malaxa k'adzEkwaxs laa4 m5p!Enxwa^se ^nalas, wii, laEm a^me 
Qwax'ila wawalqalasa qlenEme aLEla LE^wa k' !ek" lobawase laxes 15 
nEgiimpe Qltimx'ode. Wii, he^mis la p!Esedayowe l lalEWElsElaxa 
Gosg'imoxwe. 



1036 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KAVAKIUTL [eth. an.n. 35 

Now for a while we shall stop calling him Qliimx'od (III 1), 

20 because | he is using the noniEin name LlalEWElsEla (111 1). || After 
the nonlEm was over, Q.'umx'od (III 1) for a time stopped having the 
name L!alEWElsEla (111 1); | for only when one of his people showed 
the nonlEm was ho called i- lalEWElsEla (111 1), | in the same way as is 
done in the winter dance; for they change their | names when the 
winter dance begins, and they do the same with the nonlEm. | Then 

25 they change their names, and take the nonlEm names; and || the 
names of the men who gave the nonlEm were L lalEWElsEla, Q !exe- 
taso^, I Gwa^yolElas, and NEg'a, because, that you may know that the 
names | of the winter dance, of the nonlEm, and of the secular season 
are quite different. I just wanted | to talk about this. | 

Now, in the morning, daylight came; and Qliimx'od (III 1), and 

30 his II wife T lagwisilayugwa (III S), and the Nak Iwax'da^x", made 
ready to go home. | When they arrived at Teguxste in the evening, | 
Qlumx'od (111 1) asked his wife T lagwisLlayugwa (III 8) for | what 
ho was thinking of. He wished his princess | Qwaxilal (IV 3) and 

35 his prince LelElgEmlllas (IV 4) to disappear, because || he wanted to 
give a nonlEm; and his wife T !agwisilayugwa (III S) told him to go 
ahead. | After they had finished talking, they left their canoe | and 
went into the house of Qliimxod (111 1). Immediately | his head 
wife, WawalaxElag" i4ak" (III 6), gave to eat to her husband 

18 Wa, la^mEns yawas-id gwal LeciElas Qlumx'ode hiq, qaxs lE^mae 
nSnlEmxLiilax L'.rdEwElsEla. Wii, laEm gwfda nonlEm laxeti. Wa, 

20 laEmxaawise gwal yawas^ld Legade Qliimx'odas LljilEWElsEla, qaxs 
giPmae nonlEniLe g^ayole lax g'okulotas. Wii, la LeqElasos lIsIe- 
wElsEla he gwex'sa ts!ets!eqaxs hex'^ida^mae LlfxyoxLJixes LCLEgE- 
maxs g'alae ts!ets!ex^eda. Wa, hcEmxaawise gweg'ilagila nonlEme, 
hex'^ida^mae L!ayoxLaxe.s nQnlEmxLiiyowe LeLEgEma, yixs he^mae 

25 LCLEgEmsa yiiwix'ilasa nonlEme L!alEWElsEla, lo^ Q!exetasE^we, l6^ 
GwayolElas, l6^ NEg'a, qa^s qialaosaqexs k'lesae Lawagale LeLEgE- 
masa ts!ets!eqa LE^wa nonlEme LE^wa baxiise. A^mEn ^nex" qEn 
gwagwex'sEx'^ide laq. 

Wii, laEm^lae ^niix'^idxa gaiiliixs laa^l xwanaHde Qlumxode LE^wis 

30 gEnEme T!agwisilayugwa LE^wa Niik!wax'da-xwe, qa^s g'iixe na^na- 
kwa. Wii, g'iix^lae liig'aa liix Tegiixsta^yaxa la dziiqwa. Wa, hex'^i- 
daEm^lawise Q!umx'6de axk'lalaxes gEnEme Tlagwisilayugwa qa 
gwiilaasases naqa^ye, ^yixs ^nek'ae qa hex'^idag'a^mes xis'Icle k'!e- 
delase Qwiix'ilale LE^wis Lawidgama^ye LeiElgEmlllase, qaxs lE^mae 

35 ^nex" qa^s nonlEme. Wii, la^ae aEmwiixegEUEmase Tlagwisilayugwa. 
Wii, g il'Em^hiwise gwiile waldEmasexs Itia^l hox-'wiilta liixes ya^ya- 
ts!e, qa^s lii liogwiL liix g'okwas Qlumxode. Wii, hex'^idaEm^lawise 
gEk'imalilase WiiwalaxElag'i^lakwe LlExwIla qaes la^wunEme Q!um- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1037 

Q Ifiinxod (III 1) I and to his new wife T lagwisilayiigwa (III 8) ; and- 
as soon as || they had eaten, Qlumx'od (III 1) told WawakxElag i- 40 
^lak" (III 6) his | wish that the supernatural power of the nonlEin 
should come into his house, and that | their two children, Qwax'ilal 
(IV 3) and her brother LelElgEmlllas (IV 4), | and also two of his 
nephews, should disappear. | WawalaxElag' i^lak" (III 6) told him to 
go ahead, and || Qlumxod (III 1) called his numaym, the ^walas, to 45 
come into | his house; and when they were in, Qlumxod (III 1) 
spoke, I and said, "This is why I called you, numajon | ^walas, that 
the supernatural power of the nonlEin should come, and that | 
Qwaxilal (IV 3) and LelElgEmlilas (IV 4), and my nephew 
K" lesoyak iUs || (IV 10) here, should disappear, and also his younger 50 
brother Hanidzid (IV 11)." Four were | named by him. Wlien he 
stopped speaking, the numaym told hun to go ahead. | Then the 
supernatural power of the nonlEm sounded on the | roof of the house ; 
and the four disappeared, | and they did what they had seen done by 
the Koskimo. Then || he gave away the ten sea-otter skins to the 55 
Nalc !wax da^x", and his | four dancers used the nonlEm names. 
When he had done, | Qwax'ila (II 9) gave as a marriage gift many 
seals, and then Qlumxod (III 1) | put them into the four house- 
dishes for the Nakiwax'da^x". Then | he changed the name of 
Qwax'ilal (IV 3), and her name was D6xttlkwi"4ak" (IV 3); and || 



x'ode LE^wis a^hle gEnEme Tlagwisilayugwa. Wa, glpEm^lawise 
gwal LlExwaxs laa^ae Qlumx"6de nelax WawalaxElag^i^lakwases 40 
^nek' lena^ye, qa^s g'fixeLasaes g^okwas ^nawalakwasa nonlEme, qa 
x'ls^ldeses ma^lokwe sasEma ylx Qwax^Ilale LE^wis wuq Iwe LelElgEm- 
lilase. Wa, he^mis ma^lox"La g'ayol hix LOLale^yas. Wa, a^mise 
hex"^idam^El wiixasos WawalaxElag'i^lakwe. Wa, liex'^idaEm^lawise 
Qlumx'ode Leltslodxes ^nE^memota ^walase, qa g'axes ^wFlaeLEla lax 45 
g"okwas. Wa, giPEm^awise g'ax ^wi^laeLExs laa^l yaq Isga^le Qlum- 
x'ode. Wa, la^ae ^nek'a: "HedEn Le^laliloL, ^nE^memot, yoL 
^walas, qa weg'es g'axeLa ^nawftlakwasa nonlEme, qa x'is^edeg'a 
QwaxilalEk" Logwa LelElgEmlllasEk' Logwa Eoleg'inLega K'lesoya- 
k'UisEk'. Wa, he^mise tsla^yase Hamdzide." Wa, mokwe Eex^e- 50 
tsE^wa. Wa, g'ipEm^lawise qlwel^IdExs laa^l aEm ^nax" waxe 
^nE^memotas, qa wag'Is. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise hek'lEg'a^le ogwa- 
sasa g'okwe, yix ^nawalakwasa nonlEine. Wa, la^me xis^ideda mokwe. 
Wa, a^mese naqEmgiltEwex gweg'ilasasa Gosg'imoxwe. Wii, laEm 
p lEs^Itsa lastowe q lasa laxa Nak Iwax'da^xwe. Wa, laEm^lae Lex^edEs 55 
nenonlEmxLayasa mokwe sesEnats. Wa, g'il'mese gwalExs laa^l wa- 
walqale Qwax'ilasa q lenEme megwata. Wa, laEm^lae Q lumxode Iex"- 
ts lots laxa mEwexLa loElqullla qaxaeda Nakiwax'da^xwe. Wa, he^mis 
la L'ayoLaats Qwax'ilale. Wa, laEm LegadEs Doxulkwi^'lakwe. Wa, 



1038 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

60 Qlumx'od (III 1) changed his own name, and his name was Walalag' i- 
^lak" (111 1). I Now we shall stop calling him Qkunxod (III 1), 
for his name was now | Walalag' i^lak" (III 1). T lagwisilayugwa 
(III 8) had no children, | for she did not remain long having Walala- 
g'i^lak" (III 1) for her husband. Then she went home. | 

65 Evidently on account of this Walalag i^lak" (III 1) felt badly, |1 
because his wife had gone home. He became ill; | and he had not 
been iU a long time before he died. Immediately | LelElgEmlilas 
(IV 4), the son of Walalag' i^lak", | took the seat of his father, and he 
gave away property to the Nak.'wax'da^x". | He took the name 
Qlumx'od (IV 4) for his name, because his mind was sick on account 

70 of II what Qwax'ila (II 9) had done when he took away quickly his 
princess T lagwisilayugwa (III 8). | He thought they had killed his 
father. Therefore | the Nak .'wax' da^x" did not want the marriage 
names that | Qwax'ila (II 9) had given to the late Qlianx'od (HI 1) 
to be used. Only | the four house-dishes and the nonlEm were kept 

75 by the Naklwax'da^x". 11 And now they scattered among the Na- 
klwax'da^x", and the | relatives of QWmx'od (HI 1) now all use the 
nonlEm. Now, | the numaym ^walas wished Qlumx'od (IV 4) to 
marry, and to forget | his grief on account of the death of his father. 
They | wanted Qlumx'od (IV 4) to marry Omaeli^ak" (IV 7), the 

80 princess of the chief of the II numaym Kwekwaenox", LEk' Emaxod 

60 laEmxaawise LlayoxLa Qlumx'ode. Wa, laEm LegadEs Walalagi^la- 
kwe. Wii, la^'mEns gwal LeqElas Qlumx'ode laq, qaxs lE^mae LegadEs 
Walalag' i^lakwe. Wa, laEm^lae hewaxa xungwadEx'^Ide T lagwisila- 
yugwa, qaxs k'lesae galala-wadEs Walalag^^lakwaxs laa^l na^nakwa. 
Wa, hex'st!aak"^Em^lawis la ^yakogfilidzEms naqa^yas Waialag'i- 

65 ^lakwe qaes gEuEmaxs lae nii^nakwa. Wa, la^me yawas^Id qElxwa- 
lila. Wa, k'les^latla gael qElgwllExs laa^l wlk'lEx^eda. Wa, hex'^i- 
da^mese LelElgEmlllase, yix bEgwauEme xun6x"dEs Walalagi^lax"de 
Lax"st6dxes ompde. Wa, laEm plEs^idxa Naklwaxxla^xwe. Wii, 
hetia 3,x^etsose Qlumx'ode qa^s LegEma, qaxs tsllx'ilaes naqa^ye qa 

70 gwex'^idaasas Qwax'iliixs lae gEyol wataxodxes k'ledele T lagwisila- 
yugwa. Wii, he^mis k'odel g'a^yalatses ompde. Wii, he-'mis la- 
g'ilasa Naklwax'da^xwe ^nex* qa a^mes ^wFla k'leyax^wide LeLEgEm- 
g'ElxLa^yasa g'lgftma^ye Qwax'ila liix Qlumx'odEx'de. Wa, lex'a- 
^mes axelax"sa Naklwax'da^xwa mowexLa loElqfilila LE^wa nonlE- 

75 mexa la gwel^id laxa Naklwax'da^xwe, qaxs lae ^naxwaEm la axno- 
gwade LeLELaliis QIQmx'odEx'dasa nonlEme. Wa, la^mese -nek'S 
^nE^memotasa ^walase, qa gEg'ades Qliimx'5de, qa^s laylngEma- 
yoqexs alae qiak'ax gwex'^idaasases ompde. Wii, hetIa gwE^yos 
qa gEUEms Qlumx'ode Omaeli^lakwe, yix k'ledelas g'igiima^yasa 

80 'nE^memotasa Kwekwaenoxwe lax LEk'Emaxode, yixs alak' lalae 



BOi&j FAMILY HISTORIES ' 1039 

(III 9), for he was the | head chief of the Gwawaenox". Then | 81 
QIQmx'od (IV 4) and his mother WawalaxElag' i^lak" (III 6), and 
her I daughter Qwax ilal (IV 3) — for they did not let her be named | 
DoxulkwiMak" (IV 3) — were told by his numaym ^walas to || go 85 
ahead and do quickly what they were wishing. Then he was given 
property by aU | the Nak !wax"da^x", for there were five numaym in 
all. I Each gave one pair of blankets to the | chief Qliimx'od (IV 4), 
every man of the numayms, | as though he would wipe off his tears 
with the pair of blankets, because he was still crying || for his past 90 
father. After they had finished giving blankets, the | five numayms 
of the Nak !wax' da^x" got ready | to pay the marriage money for the 
princess of Lsk' Emaxod (III 9) , who was living in the village of the 
Gwawaenox" | at HegEms. When they arrived at HegEms, | they 
paid the marriage money at once, while the Nak !wax' da^x" remained . 
sitting II in their canoes. They had twenty-two large travehng- 95 
canoes. | After they had paid the marriage money, LEk' Emaxod 
(III 9) I and his younger brother PEnqiilas (III 10) came, holding in 
each hand slaves, | each holding two by their hands as they came and 
stood outside of the | house; and with them came their princess 
Omaeli^lak" (IV 7), with || two female slaves. Omaeli^lak" (IV 7) stood 800 
between her father, | LEk' Emaxod (III 9) and her uncle PEnqulas 

xamagEme g'lgama^ye LEk"Emax6dasa Gwawaenoxwe. Wa, aEmse 81 
Q!umx"6de LE^we &bEmpe WawalaxElag^i^lakwe LE^wis tslEdaqe 
xunokwe Qwaxilale, qaxs lE^mae k"!es la hetq!olEm LegadEs Do- 
xulkwi^lakwe. Wa, a^mese waxaxes ^nE^memota ^walase, qa wa- 
g^es aEm hali-lalaxes waldEme. Wa, la^me p lEdzeLaso^sa ^naxwa 85 
Naklwax'da^xwa laxes sEk' lasgEmak !(its lena^ye laxes ^nal-nE^me- 
matslena^ye. Wa, laEm plEdzeLasa ^naPnEmxs plElxElasgEm laxa 
g"ig§,ma^ye Q!umx"ode laxes ^nal^nEmok Iwena^ye bEgwauEma, yixs 
^aEmax"isae lo^ destotsa ^naPnEmxsa p lElxElasgEm laqexs q Iwasae 
qaes ompde. Wa, giPmese gwala plEdzeLaxs lae hex'^ida^Em xwa- 90 
nal^ida ^wFleda sEk" lasgEmak Iflse ^nal^nE^mematsa Naklwax'da^xwe, 
qa^s la qadzeLax k'ledehxs LEk'Emaxodaxs hae g'okulaxa Gwa- 
waenoxwe axas HegEmse. Wa, g'iPmese lag'aa lax HegEmsaxs lae 
hex'^idaEm qadzeHda, yixs he^mae ales k IfldzExsaleLa^ya Naklwax'- 
da^xwe laxes yae^yatslexa hSma^lts laqala al fiwS, xwaxwaklflna 95 
yae^yats!es. Wa, g'il^mese gwala qadzeLaxs g'axae LEk'Emaxode 
LE^wis ts !a^ye PEnqtilase ^wi^wax'soltslanalaxa q!aq!Ek"o moema^lo- 
kwes nenexbalts!anesE^waxs g'axae qlwag'aEls lax l lasana^yases 
g'okwe; wa, he^mise kMedelase Omaeh^lakwe g'ax qasEmts5sa ma- 
^lokwe ts!edaq q!aq!Ek"§,. Wa, la LtiLExulse (Jmaeli^lakwaxes ompe 800 
LEk'Emaxode LE^wis qliile^ye PEnqiilase. Wa, a^misLa la Sxse- 



1040 ■ ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ietii. ann. 35 

2 (III 10). They | told the six slaves to stand in a row, facing sea- 
ward; and I when they all had turned seaward, PEnqiilas (III 10), 
the I younger brother of LEk'Emaxod (III 9), spoke, and asked 
5 Qlumx'od (IV 4) to || take care, "because our princess (mine and my 
brother's) | has a heavy weight. Now, come, son-in-law Qlumxod 
(IV 4), to your wife!" | Thus he said, and stopped speaking. Then 
Qlumxod (IV 4) arose | in his canoe. PEnqulas (III 10) had told 
him to stand up | and listen to his words. Then PEnqiilas (III 10) 

10 asked Omaeli^lak" (IV 7) || to go to her husband with the six slaves. | 
Immediately three slaves went, one after another. | Omaeli^lak" 
(IV 7) followed close behind the three | slaves, and three other 
slaves followed Omaeli^lak" (IV 7). | They went down the beach into 

15 the canoe of Qlumxod (IV 4). || There they sat down, and QIQmxod 

.(IV 4) sat next | to his wife Omaeli^ak" (IV 7). Then PEnqulas 

(III 10) spoke again, | and said, "These six slaves are the marriage 

mat of our princess, | that the princess of Qlumxod (IV 4) may not 

sit on the floor of your | house, son-in-law, when she goes in. Now, 

20 this Dzonocj !wa || house-dish, the wolf house-dish, the grizzly-bear 

house-disli, and the beaver | house-dish shall go. These are tlie 

house-dishes for Omaeli4ak"'s (IV 7) food, for aU the tribes, | which 

are given by her father. Chief LEk'Emaxod (III 9) ; and | you shall 

. have this name, son-in-law. Your name shall be Qlomoqa (IV 4), 

2 ^weda qlEiJakwe fi!aq!Ek'o, qa dEnxulse L!aL!asgEmala. Wa, g'il- 
^mese ^naxwa la LlaiJasgEnialaxs lae yaq!Eg'a^le PEnqiilase, yix 
tsla^yas LEk'Emaxode. Wa, la^me hayilLlolax Q!umx"ode qa ya- 
5 Llawes, "qaxs gwagiintsellLaqos laxg'a k' !edelg'anu'x" Logiin ^nsm- 
wEyotEk". Wa, gelag"a, nEgiimp, Qlumxoda laxg'as gEnEmg'os," 
^nek'Exs lae q!wel^ida. Wa, hex'^ida^mese Q'.umx'ode Lax^ulExsa 
laxes ya^yats!e. Wa, la axso qa's Lax'wiixsale yls PEnqulase, 
cja^s hoLelex waldEmas. Wa, la^me axk"!ale PEnqillasax Uaiaeli- 

10 ^lakwe, qa lalag"is laxes la^wunEme LE^wa qlELlakwe qIaqlEk'a. 
Wa, hex'^ida^mese qas^ideda yudukwe q Ifiq lEk'owa dEnoxLalaxs 
lae qas'ida. Wa, la qas^ide Omaeli^lakwe UExwaxLaxa yudukwe 
qlaqlEk'owa. Wa, la ElxLa^ya yudukwe q!aq!Ek'5x Omaeli^lakwaxs 
lae hoqunts!esEla, qa-s la hox^walExs lax yiVyatsIas Qliimx'ode, 

15 qa^s klus^alExse laq. Wa, g'iPmese la k!wfik!ug'alExse Q!umxode 
LE-wis gEUEme Omaeli^lakwaxs lae edzaqwa yaq lEg-a^le PEnqulase. 
Wa, la ^nek'a: "YuEm le^waxsesa k'ledelaqEnuxwa q!EL!akwex 
q!aci!Eka, aLox wultalllLox k' !edelaxsg'a LEk'EmaxodEk' laxes 
g'okwaos, uEgiimp, qaxo laeLO. Wa, la^mesek' lalg-a dzonoqlwak" 

20 loqiilila, LE^wa aLauEme loqiilll LE^wa nane loqulil, LE^wa ts!awe 
loqilllla. HeEm ha^maats!eso ( )maeli-lakwe qag'a ^naxwag'a lelc^wa- 
laLa^ya laxg'as g"igS.mek" ompeg'a LEk"Emax6dEk\ Wa, he^misa 
LegEme qa^s Le^Emos, nEgump, laEms LegadElts Qlomoqa. Wa, 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1041 

and I Qwax ilal (IV 3) shall be TslEndEgEmg'Hak" (IV 3), and also 
this II house of my chief, which has a name. Now you shall have 25 
the I house Wlwax"sEm. The ends of the beams are wolves, | and 
the four posts are wolves, and | your dance shall be the great dance 
from above, son-in-law; and in the winter dance your name shall be 
G ilgEmalis (IV 4)." | Thus he said. "That is aU, son-in-law. 
Now, come II warm j^ourself in the house of LEk' Emaxod (III 9) , you 30 
and your crew, son-in-law!" | Thus he said. Then he stopped 
speaking. Immediately the Nak !wax' da^x" went ashore | out of 
their canoes; and when all were in the house, | Qliimx'od (IV 4) and 
his wife went ashore and went in. | Then LEk'EUiaxod told Q!umx'6d 
(IV 4) and his wife Omaeli^lak" (IV 7) to sit down in the rear of the 
house. II Q !urax' od (IV 4) and his wife went | right on and sat 35 
down. The | six slaves were still sitting in the canoe of | Qlumx'od 
(IV 4), watching it. Now LEk' Emaxod (III 9) gave dried salmon to 
his son-in-law | and his crew, and as a second course he gave them 
ciiiquefoil-roots; II and after he had given them to eat, LEk'Emaxod 40 
(III 9) spoke, I and said, " Listen to me, chiefs of theNak !wax' da^x" ! | 
I shall ask you to stay here for four days at HegEms, | that I may get 
ready the cargo for Omaeli^lak" (IV 7)." Thus he said, and stopped 
speaking. I The Nak !wax' da^x" agreed to what he said. || Then 45 
LEk'Emaxod (III 9) sent his hunters to go hunting | many seals. 

la^mese LegadLe Qwaxilalas TslEndEgEmg'iHakwe. Wa, he^misa 
g'okwe, yixg'a LegadEk' g'6x"sEn glga,mek-. Wa, laEms lal g-Q- 25 
gwadfiltsg'a Wiwax"sEmk' g'okwa ^naxwaEmk" aLauEmg^a obag'asg'a 
k"ek"ateweg'a LE^wa mots!aqe LeLama ^naxwaEm eaLanEina. Wa, 
laEms ^walas^axaax"L6l, nEgump. He'mets LegEmLose G"ilgEmalise 
laxa ts!ets!eqa," ^nek'e. "Wa, yu^moq, uEgiimp. Wa, gelag'a 
tEltsIa laxg'a g"ox"g'asLEk"Emax6de le^wos k!wemaqos, nEgump," 30 
^nek'Exs lae q!wel^ida. Wa, hex'^da^mese ^naxvva la hox^wultaweda 
Naklwax^da^xwe laxes yae^yatsle. Wit, g'il^mese ^wFlaeLExs lae 
Qliimx'ode LE^we gEUEme hox^wiilta laxes ya^yats!e, qa^s la ho- 
gwiLa. Wa, la^me ^nek'e LEk'Emaxode, qa las k!wak!ugoLewaliie 
Qlumx'ode LE^wis gEiiEnie OmaeMakwe. Wa, he^nakula^mese 35 
Q!umx'6de LE-wis gEUEme OmaeMakwe, qa^s la klus^alil laq. Wa, 
laEmLe k!QdzExsalaLayeda qlELlokwe qIaqlEk'o lax ya^yats!as 
Q !umx"ode q !aq lalalaq. Wa, la^me ylnese LEk'Emaxodaxes nEgump 
LE^wis k!weme ylsa xa^mase. Wa, la helOgintsa t!Ex''sose laq. 
Wa, g'll^mese gwala ylnesasE^waxs lae yaq!Eg'a^le LEk'Emax5de. 40 
Wa, la ^nek'a: " WaEntsos h5Lela g'axEn g^Igigames Naklwax'da^x". 
HedEn waldEniLa qa^s mop !Enxwa^seses ^nalaos yo lox HegEmsex, 
qEii xwanalsle qa niEmwalasox Omaeli^lakwex, " ^nek'Exslae q!wel- 
^ida. Wa, a^mese 'naxwa ex'^ak'eda Naklwax'da^xwax watdEmas. 
Wa, la^me LEk'Emaxode ^yalaqasa hanhfinL lenoxwe, qa las mame- 45 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 2 17 



1042 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

46 The huntei's went out | in the evening in eight canoes. | Tliey stayed 
away for three days. Then they came back home. | They had one 

50 hundred and ten seals in their || eight canoes. The hair of the seals 
was already singed off, | and they were cut open. Then LEk'Emaxod 
(III 9) I gave them as a marriage gift to his son-in-law QWmx'od 
(IV 4), and also the feast name | MEnlesid (IV 4). "That is all 
now," said LEk'Emaxod (III 9) | to Qlumx'od (IV 4). "Now, get 

55 ready to go home, || son-in-law, with your wife." Thus said Chief 
LEk'Emaxod (III 9). | Then the Naklwax'da^x" got ready in the | 
evening; and in the morning, when day came, they loaded their | 
canoes, and put aboard the four house-dishes and the hundred | and 

60 ten seals; and the Nak !wax" da^x" went aboard ll their canoes. 
Wlien they were all aboard, | Qlumx'od (IV 4) and his wife, Omaeli- 
^lak" (IV 7), and the six slaves walked down | the beach and went 
aboard Qlumxod's canoe; | and as soon as they had sat down, the 
NakKvax'da^x" started paddling. | In the evening they arrived at 

65 their village. || There they unloaded the four house-dishes and the | 
hundred and ten seals, and earned them into the house of Q!ilmx'od 
(IV 4). I As soon as everything was out of the canoe, Q!umx"od 
(IV 4) I called his numaym, the ^walas, into his house | to discuss 

46 gwatlax q lenEma megwata. Wa, hex'^ida^meselax'da^xwedahanhan- 
Llenoxwaxa la dzaqwaxa ma^giinaits lacjas yae^yatsla hanhauLle- 
noxwe. Wa, yudux"p!Enxwa^se ^nalasexs g'axae na^nakweda han- 
hanLlenoxwe -nEmx's6gug-iyot!a yauEmas haga megwata laxes 

50 ma^gunalts !aq !ena^yes yae^yatsle laxes gwatelae ts!Enkwa me- 
gwate. Wa, laxae gwalElaEm yimElkwa. Wa, la^me Lek^Emaxode 
wawalqalas liixes nEgumpe Q!umxode. Wa, hi'-^misa niEnlEXLii- 
y5 LegEma, yix MEnlesidaas. "Wa, laEm ^wi^la laxeq," ^nek'e Lsk'E- 
maxodax Q!umx"ode. "Wag"a xwanaHdEx qa^s lalag'aos na-'na- 

55 kwa, uEgump, le^wos gEUEmaqos;" ^nek'eda g^Igama^ye LEk'Ema- 
xode. Wa, hex'^ida^mese ^naxwa xwanaPideda Nak!wax"da^xwaxa 
dzaqwa. Wa, g'iPmese ^nax'^idxa gaalaxs lae ^naxwa moxsaxes 
yae^yatsle. Wa, g'ax^ma mEwexLa ioelqidlla LE^wa mEmx'sogu- 
g'lyuwe megwata. Wa, la^me ^naxwa hox^walExseda Naklwax'- 

60 da^xwe laxes yae^yats!e. Wa, giPmese ^wllxsaxs g'axae Q!um- 
x'ode LE^wis gEUEme Omaeii^lakwe LE-'wa qlELlokwe q!aq!Eko ho- 
qiints'.esala qa^s lax'da^xwe h6x%alExs lax ya^yats!as Q!umx"ode. 
Wa, g'iPmese k'.us^alExsExs lae ^uEmax'^id sex^wideda Naklwax'- 
da^xwe. Wa, la^mese dzaqwaxs lae lag'aa laxes g'okQlase. Wa, 

65 hiix'^ida^mese moltoyoweda mEwexLa loElqullla LE^wa ^uEmx'so- 
gug'lyowe megwata, qa^s la mEweLElayo lax g'okwas Q!umx'6de. 
Wa, g-Il^mese ^wl^olta lax ya''yats!as lae hex'^ida^me Q!umx-6de 
Le^lalaxes ^nE^memota ^walase, qa g'axes ^wiUaeLEla- lax g'okwas, 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1043 

what they would do with the seals and when the feast was to be 
given. II Wlien all were inside, Q!umx'od (IV 4) spoke, and | said, 70 
"0 numaj-m ^walas! I called you to tliink | about it, when I shall 
give a feast with these hair-seals." Thus he said to his | nuniaj-m 
^walas. After he had spoken, | one of the men of the numaym said, 
"Go on! II Just send them to get fire-wood to cook the seals, so that | 75 
our tribe the Nak!wax"da^x" may eat." Then | four young men of 
the numaym ^walas were sent out | to get much fire-wood. The four 
3'oung men | launched the large canoe to get fu'e-wood, and il started. 80 
They went to a place where there was much driftwood; and when 
they had gone, | Q!umx"od (IV 4) asked the harpooneers of his 
numaym ^walas | to cut up ten large seals, to take off the blubber, | 
and to cut the blubber off spirally, thus : | for he was going to 

give one of these strips to the chief /^^^^S of each one of the 
four numayms; that is, of the || other \^^y numayms, not the 85 
^walas; and he had | ten seals cut into short strips, in 

this way:' | These were to be given to the people of low rank. 
They give the limbs | to the chiefs next to the head chiefs, 
for the I head chiefs receive the brisket of the seal. This is 
done in || lesser seal-feasts. That is not the custom in a 90 
great | feast of more than a hundred seals, for generally a 

qa^s hawaLilagale qaeda megwate lax klwelasdEmLases. Wa, 70 
giPmese g'ax ^wFlaeLExs lae yaqlEg'a^le Qlumx'ode. Wa, la 
^nek'a: "HodEn Le^laleloL, 'nE^memot ^vvalas, cja^s aaxsilaosaxs 
nenaqa^yaqos laxEn kIwelasdEmLasoxda megwatex," ^nek'exes 
^uE^memota ^walase. Wa, g"JFmese qlwePldExs lae yaqlEg'a- 
^leda ^nEmokwe lax ^nE^memotas. Wa, la ^nek'a: "W('g"a, 75 
asm ^yalaqa c[a liis aneqax lEqwa, qa •Llopesa megwatex qa ala- 
sox q!EsEns g'okiilota Nak!wax'da^xwex," ^nek'e. Wa, hex^'ida- 
^mese ^yalagEma mokwe ha^yal-a g'ayol lax ^nE^memotasa ^walase, 
qa las aneqax qlenEma lEqwa. Wa, hex""ida=mesa mokwe ha^yal^a 
wFx"stEndxa ^walasexwakliina, qa^s anegatslex lEqwa. Wa, la^me 80 
Lex^eda, qa^s la laxa q!eq!adaxa q!exale. Wa, g'iPmese Lex^edExs 
lae Q'.umx'ode axk'lalaxa esElewinoxwases ?nE^memota ^walase; 
qa sEsax^sEndesexa uEqasgEme awa megwata qa sapodesex xiIse- 
na^yas, qa^s t!otse^staleq, qa g'Usgiltlesa xuse^akwe, g'a gwaleg'a 
(Jig.) qaxs doqiillLaxa gigigama^yasa mosgEmak!use ^nal-'uE^memas 85 
ogil^la lax ^nE^memotas Q'.umx'odexa ^walase. Wa, liixae uEqas- 
gEma megwate am^amayastowe sakwa^ye g'a gwaleg'a (_^'^.). HC'Em 
lal k'alalxa bEgflllda^ye. Wa, laLe yaqide LasLalas laxa memaki- 
laxa xexamagEraa^ye g'iglga.ma^ya, yixs k'aak'omalaeda xamagE- 
ma^ye g'ig'Igamesa ^nal^uE^memasaxa haqiwayowasa megwate laxa 90 
gwasa'ye k!welatsa megwate. Wa, laLe k"!es he gwala laxa ^wa- 
lase kiwelatsa g'lx'sogug'iyowe megwata, yixs qlunalae sEnala me- 

1 That is, by long parallel cuts crossing at right angles. 



1044 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

93 whole I seal is given to the head chief of each numaym, for | they 
only cut off the head; that is, when many seals are given at a feast. | 

95 I just wanted to talk about this. || Now, the twenty seals that they 
had cut up were being cooked, | and ninety seals were left raw. It 
was almost evening when they | finished cuttuig up the twenty seals, 
and in the evening also those | who had gone after fire-wood came 
home. Wlien they arrived on the beach, | the young men of the 
900 numaym ^walas went down || and carried up the fire-wood mto the 
house of I Qliimx'od (IV 4); and when the fire-wood was all inside, 
they took baskets, | went down to the beach, and picked up stones, 
and I they carried up the baskets with stones into the house of 
Qliimx'od (IV 4). | Wlien they thought they had enough, they made 
5 a cross-pile of fire-wood in the || middle of the host's house; and when 
it was high enough, | they piled stones on it, so that they were ready 
when they wanted to put fire to it. | In the morning, when day came, 
another man of the | numaym ^walas took boxes and | placed them 

10 between the door and the fire. II After doing so, he drew water and 
poured it | into the boxes. When (the boxes) were half full, there 
was enough water in them. | After this they took red-pine wood | 
and made tongs, as many as there were | boxes. Then they asked 

92 gwate k'ax"^idayaxa xamagEma^ye g'igamesa ^nE^mema, ylxs lex'a- 
^mae lawoylwe xEweqwas laqexs q!enEmae k!weladzEmasa g'igS,- 
ma^ye megwata. A^mEn ^nex* qEn gwagwex'sEX'^Ide laq. Wa, 

95 hoEm L!opLa ma^ltsEmg'ustawe megwat la sakwasE^wa. Wa, la 
k"!ilx'La na^nEmsok !wa megwata. Wa, la^mese Elaq dzaqwaxs lae 
gwala sakwaxa ma^ltsEmg'ustawe megwata. Wa, laEmxaawise 
dzaqwaxs g^axae na^nakwa aneqaxa lEqwa. Wa, g'iPEni g'ax^alisa 
aneqiixa lEqwaxs lae ^wFlEnts !eseda ha^yal^asa ^nE^memotasa ^walase, 
900 qa^s la wawig'alaxa qlexale lEqwa, qa^s la haeLElas lax g'okwas 
Q !umx"ode. Wa, g'il-mese ^wPlaeLeda lEqwaxs lae Sx^edxa laElxa^ye, 
qa^s la hoquntsles laxa LlEma^ise, qa^s la xEqwaxa t!esEme, qa^s 
laxat! k'logwiLElaxa t!etsE!ala laElxe lax g'okwas Q!umx'5de. Wa, 
g'iPmese k'otaq laEm helalaxs lae hawanaqostalaxa lEqwa lax 
5 awagawalilasa k!weladzats!eLe g'okwa. Wa, g"il^mese helalaxs lae 
xEquylndalasa tlesEme laq, qa gwafiles qo tsenabotsoLEx g'aleLas 
^nax'^idLEx gaalaLa. Wa, laxae ogQ^laEm bEgwanEm g'ayol 
laxa ^nE^memotasa ^walasa Sx^edxa k' !ik' !imyaxLa qa^s g'axe 
mEx^alilalas lax &wagawa^yasa tlEX'ila LE^wa lEgwile. Wa, 

10 g'll^mese gwalExs lae tsex'^itsE^weda ^wape, qa^s la giixtslalayo 
laxa k' !ik' !imyaxLa. Wa, gIPmese bEiikMoltslExs lae hela- 
ts'.Eweda ^wape. Wa, g'lPmese gwalExs lae Sx^etsE^weda wiinagiile, 
qa^s k" lipL&lag'ilasE^we, ytxs he^mae waxa k' IIpLalae ^waxasgEma- 
sasa k' !lk' !lmyaxLa. Wa, g-iPmese gwalExs lae helasE^weda n^- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1045 

the song-leaders II to sing the feasting-song, and | the numaym 15 
^walas learned to sing the song that night. Wlien | they all knew 
the feastmg-song, they went out of | the host's house. In the morn- 
ing, when day came, they | lighted the fire in the middle of the house; 
and when it began to blaze up, they || cleared out the house. After 20 
they had done so, the stones were red-hot. ( Then all the young men 
of the I numaym ^walas were asked to help put red-hot | stones into 
the boxes to cook the seal. They came and took | each a pair of 
tongs, picked out the red-hot || stones, and placed them in the boxes 25 
for cooking the | seals; and when the water boiled, they put in the | 
butchered seal. When (the boxes) were nearly full, they stopped 
putting in more | butchered seal. They took the tongs and | put 
more stones on top of the || butchered seal. When the water was 30 
boiling, they | took mats and spread them over them; and when 
they were all | covered with mats, the young men | took their tongs 
and went to invite the four | numayms of the Nak !wax" da^x" on 
behalf of MEnlesid (IV 4) , for || Q !umx' od (IV 4) was already using 35 
this name, as he was giving a feast. The young men went into | the 
houses and called every one by name, | standing inside of the door- 
way of the house of whomever they were inviting; and when | they 

gade, qa^s dEnx^edesa kiwelayalayowe qlsmdEma. Wa, laEm 15 
qlEmdelaxa la ganuLaxa ^UE^memotasa ^walase. Wii, g'lPmese 
^naxwa la q!alaxa kiwelayalayo qlEmdEmxs lae hoquwEls laxa 
k!weladzats!eLe g'okwa. Wa, g'iPmese ^nax'^idxa gaalaxs lae tse- 
nabotsE^wa la gwallla laqawallle. Wa, g'IPmese x'lqostaxs lae ex- 
^wltsE^weda g'okwe. Wa, g'll^mese gwalExs lae memEnltsEmx'^i- 20 
deda tIesEme. Wa, hex"4da^mese la axsE^weda ^naxwa ha^yal^asa 
^UE^memotasa ^walase, qa g'axes g'iwala kMipstalasa x'lX'ExsEmala 
tlesEm laxa k' !ik' !tmyaxLa q!olats!elxa megwate. Wa, g'axda^xwe 
^wPla a^mise ^nal^uEmx'^idxa k'lipLalaa qa^s kMtpledexa x'ix'exse- 
mala t'.esEm, qa^s la k"!ipstalas laxa k" !lk' lEmj^axLa q!olats!eIxa 25 
megwate. Wa, g'U^mese mEdElx^wideda ^wapaxs lae axstalayuweda 
sag'Ikwe megwat laq. Wa, g'll^mese Elaq qotlaxs lae gwal axstalasa 
sag'Ikwe megwat laqexs lae et!ed ax^edxa k'lipLalaa, qa^s et!ede 
k'!ip!ed laxa xux'ExsEmala t!esEma, qa^s laxat! et!ed k' !ipEyindalas 
laxa sag'Ekwe megwata. Wa, g'il^mese alax'^Id maEmdElqiilaxs lae 30 
ax^edxa le^wa^ye qa^s LEpEylndes laq. Wa, g'iPmese ^naxwa la 
LEpEyaax"sa le^wa^yaxs lae hex'^idaEm la ^wFlamaleda ha^yaHa 
dalaxes k' !ikEpLalaa. Wa, laEm lal Le^lalalxa m6sgEmak!use ^nal- 
^UE^mematsa Naklwax^da^xwe qa MEnlesidaase, qa^s lE^mae yawa- 
s^lde Q!umx-ode LegadEsexs kiwelasae. Wa, la^me laLlEsalaxa 35 
g'okijlaxa ha^yal^a LeLEqElax LeLEgEmases Le^lalasE^we laxes q !wa- 
stalats lena^ye lax tiEX'llasa g'ig'okwases Le^lalasE^we. Wa, g'tl- 



1046 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

38 had called out the names of all those who lived in the one house, | one 
of the young men said, "On behalf of MEnlesid (IV 4)." They || 

40 continued saying this until they had gone into all the houses of the 
four I numayms. The guests did not come quickly, | because they 
were afraid of the many seals that were to be given in the feast, for | 
often those who are not accustomed to eat seal-blubber vomit. | It 

45 took the men a long time to call again and to get the || four numayms 
to go in. I First of all came the head numaym, the G' exsEm. I They 
went in and sat down in the rear of the house; and when all were 
inside, | the second numaym, the SisEnL !e^, came in, and they sat 
down I at the right-hand side of the house; and after they were all 

50 in, the || TsetsEmeleqaia came in and sat down | towards the rear, 
on the left-hand side of the house ; and finally the | numaym TeuiI- 
tEmlfils came and sat down next to the | numaym TsetsEmeleqaia. 
Wlien the four | numayms of the Naklwax'da^x" were inside, they 

55 were told to sing their feasting-songs. || Then the first to sing their 
song were the head ] numaym G' exsEm ; and after they were through, | 
the numaym SIseue !e^ sang their song; and when they were through, | 
the numaym TsetsEmeleqaia sang their song; and | when they had 

60 ended their song, || the numaym TEmltEinlEls sang their song; | and 

38 ^mese ^wFla LCLEcjElax LCLEgEmasa g"5kula laxa ^uEmsgEmse g'okwa 
lae ^nek'eda ^uEmokwe laxa h.¥yal^a "qa MEnlesidaasai'." Wa, he- 

40 x'sa^mese gwekMilla ^wa^wllxtots laxa g'ig'okwasa mosgEmakltise 
^naPnE^memasa. Wa, la kMes gEyol g'iix hogwiLeda Le^lanEme 
qaxs alae lak'lEna^ya cjlenEme megwata, yixs k!weladzEmae, qaxs 
qliinalae hoxsiwaya yag'ilwate lax qlEsaxa xtldzasa megwate. Wa, 
hetla la ala geg'ilseda ha^yal^a etse'^staxs g'axae lal loxmaleda ^nal- 

45 ^nE^memaxs g'axae mox^widasExs g'iixae liogwiLEla. Wa, laEm 
g'alaeLe ^mEkiima^yas -naPnE^memats !ena^yasxa G'exsEme, qa^s 
la k!us^rdll laxa ogwiwalllasa g'okwe. Wa, g'iPmese ^wFlaeLExs 
g'axae hogwiLeda makila -uE^memotasa SlsinLla^ye, qa^s la kliis^alil 
laxa helk' loclEnegwilasa g'okwe. Wa, g'lPmese ^wFlaexExs g'axaas 

50 hogwiLe ^nE^memotasa TsetsEmeleqaia, qa^s la klils^alll laxa ^ueI- 
k' lodoyalllasa gEmxanegwilasa g'okwe. Wa, g'axe ElxLa-ya ^nE- 
^memotasa TEmltEmlElse, qa^s la kiwabalilax kludzelasasa ^nE^me- 
motasa TsetsEmeleqaia. Wa, g'lPmese ^wi^IaeLeda mosgEmak!use 
^nal^nE^mematsa Nak!wax'da^xwaxs lae waxaso-' qa^s kiwelale dEn- 

55 xEla. Wa, heEmxaawis g'il k!welg'a^l dEnx^ededa ^mEkuma^ye 
^nE^memotasa G'exsEme. Wa, g'lPmese. q !ulbe dEnxalayas lae 
klwelg'a'l dEux'ededa ^uE^memotasa SisinLla^ye. Wa, g'lPmese 
qlulbe dEnxalayas lae klwelg'a^l dEnx^ededa ^nE^memotasa Tse- 
tsEmeleqaia. Wii, g'il^mese qlulbe dEnxalayas lae klwelg'a-'l dEn- 

60 x^ededa ^nEnnemotasa TEmltEmlElse. Wa, g'ih'mese q'.ulbe dEn- 



uuisj FAMILY HISTORIES . 1047 

when all had sung, they took the drum and put it down | next to the 62 
door. Then they took the | four house-dishes, the marriage gift given 
to the father (III 1) of Qlumxod (IV 4) by the chief | of the Kos- 
kimo (II 9) — ^the sea-otter house-dish, the sea-lion house-dish, the || 
whale house-dish, and the sea-monster house-dish — and they put them 65 
down I at the left-hand side of the house. Then they took four 
other I house-dishes, the marriage gift to Q!umx'5d (IV 4), given by 
the chief of the | Gwawaenox, LEk'Einaxod (III 9) — theDzonoqIwa 
house-dish, the wolf | house-dish, the beaver house-dish, and the 
grizzly-bear house-dish — and they ll put them down at the right- 70 
hand side, inside the house. The | eight house-dishes had their 
heads towards the rear of the house ; | and when they put them down, 
the speaker of Q!umx"6d (IV 4), | whose name was Ha^mid, told the 
chiefs of the | four numayms about the four house-dishes — the sea- 
otter, II sea-lion, whale and | sea-monster house-dishes — which were 75 
obtained as a marriage gift by the dead father (III 1) j of Qliimxop 
(IV 4) from Qwaxila (II 9), the chief of the Koskimo. "And | these 
were obtained in marriage by my chief Qlumx'od (IV 4) | — the 
Dzonoq !wa, wolf, beaver, || and grizzly-bear house-dishes — from Chief 80 
LEk'EUiaxod (III 9) | — Now take care, G'esxsEin, SisEULle^, and 
TsetsEmeleqala — | and you, TEinltEinlEls — and really eat, for you | 
see what you will have to eat; for these | dishes have been selected 

xElayasexs lae ax^etsE^weda mEnats!e, qa^s g'axe hang'alilEm 61 
laxa max'stahlasa t'.Exlla. Wa, hex'^ida^mese ax^etsE-weda inE- 
wexLa loElqiililaxa gEg'adanEmas ompdas Q!umx-ode lax g'lgama- 
*yasa G5sg'imoxwa, q!asa loqullla, LE^wa LlexEne loqtillla, LE^wa 
gwE^yime loqullla, LE^wa hanagatsia l5qullia, qa^s la mEx^ale^lsm 65 
laxa gEmxotst5,liiasa g'okwe. Wa, la ax=etsE^weda mEwexLa IoeI- 
qullla, yix gEg"adanEmas Q!Gmx*5daxs hae lax g'lgama^yasa Gwa- 
waenoxwe LEk'Emaxodexa Dzonoq !wa loqiilila, LE^wa aLansme 
loqullla, LE^wa ts!awe loqfdlla, LE^wa nane loqullla, qa^s la 
mEx^ale^lEm lax helk lotstalilas awlLElasa g'okwe; ^naxwa^ma 70 
ma^iinalEXLa loElqulil gwegwegEmala laxa ogwiwalilasa g^okwe. 
Wa, giPmese ^wllgalilExs lae yaqlEg'a^le Elkwas Qliimx'odexa 
LEgadas Ha^mlde. Wa, laEm nelaxa gigig&ina^yasa mosgE- 
makliise ^nal^nE^memasa, ylsa niEwexLa loElqiilllxa q!asa 
loqQllla, LE^wa LlexEne loqiilila, LEVa gwE^ylme loquhla, LE^wa 75 
hanagats!a loqiilila, yixs he^mae gEg'adauEms omp^wulasa 
la Q!umx'oda lax g^Igama^yasa Gosg'imoxwe Qwax'ila. "Wa, 
g'a^mes gEg^adanEmsg'in g'Igameg'eg'a QIumxodEk", ylxg'ada 
Dz5noq!wak' loqiilila, Logwada aLaiiEmk' loqullla, Logwada ts'.awek' 
loqullla, Logwada nanek' loqiilila, laxa g'lgama^ye LEk'Einaxode. 80 
Wa, la^mesEu hayaL!olaLol G'exsEm, los SisenLle, los TsetsEmele- 
qala; wa, so^mets TEmltEmlEls, qa^s ^lax'^ideLos hamx'^idEl, qaxs 
doqula^maaqos laxg'as hemaats!elg'5s, yixs alek' sEnyaax"g-a gwe- 



1048 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

85 from the animals of the woods, and also from the ll cliiefs of the 
animals of the ocean, so that you may eat from them. | Try to eat 
everytliing that is in your dishes." Thus said Ha^mid. | Then they 
took the boiled seal and put them into the | eight house-dishes; and 
when everything was in, Q!urax'6d (IV 4) | arose and gave the 

90 Dzonoq !wa dish and the sea-monster dish || to the head numaym, the 
G'exsEm. The | young men of the numaym ^walas took up the two 
house-dishes with ] blubber and put them in front of the numaym 
G'exsEm; | and after they had done so, Q'.umx'od spoke again, and 
said, I "SlsEULle^, the whale dish and the wolf dish are for _you," and 

95 the II young men put the whale dish and the wolf dish | in front of 
the numaym SisEuLle^ After this was done, | Q!umx'od (IV 4) 
spoke again, and said, "This sea-lion dish and grizzly-bear dish are 
for you, TsetsEmeleqala;" | and the young men went and put the 
1000 two I house-dishes in front of the numaym TsetsEmeleqala. || And after 
this had been done, Q!umx'5d (IV 4) spoke again, and said, | "This 
beaver dish and sea-otter dish are for you, TEmltEmlEls." Then | 
the young men went and put the two house-dishes in front of the | 
numaym TsmltEmMs. And when the eight | house-dishes with 
5 blubber had been put down, Q!umx'6d (IV 4) sat down. || Then his 
speaker, Ha^mid, arose, and spoke. He said, | "Now, go ahead, you 

gux"sdEmg'as g'lgigamesa aLlex g'llg'aomasa. Wa, laxaak" ala 
85 g'igigamesa aowak'exg'as leioqfllalg"os, qa^s aleLos ha^mapL, qa^s 
^wa^wilgiltslEweLo laxg'as leloqulalg'os," -neke Ha^mlde. Wii, 
la^me ax^etsE^wa Llope sakwelax" megwata, qa^s lit axtslalayo laxa 
ma^lgunalEXLa IdElqiillia. Wa, g'ii^mese ^wiltslaxs lae Qlumx'ode 
Lfix^ullla, qa^s k'ak'lEg'alesa Dzonoq !wa LEHva hanagats!e loElqulil 
90 laxa ^mEkumalase ^nE^memotsa G"exsEme. Wa, lit hex'^ida^me 
ha^yal^iisa ^nE^memotasa ^walase ax^.^llllaxa ma^lEXLa loElqulll xwe- 
xuts!ala, qa^s la k'ax'dzamoliias laxa ^uE^memotasa G'exsEme. 
Wit, g'll^mese gwalExs lae edzaqwe Qlumx'ode ^nek'a: " Loqulas 
SlsInL!a^ye gwE^yim LE^wa aLauEme loqulila." Wa, hex'^idaEmxaii- 
95 wise ha^yal^a la k'ax'dzamolllasa gwE^yime LE^wa iiLanEme loqulll 
lilxa ^nE^memotasa SlsinLla^ye. Wii, g'iPmese gwillExs lae edzaqwe 
Q!umx"ode: ^nek'a: "Loqiilas TsetsEmeleqala L!exEn LE^wa nane 
loqulila." Wii, hex^^idaEmxaiiwiseda hsVyal^a la ax'tilllaxa ma^lExLa 
loElqulila, qa^s lii k'ax'dzamoliias laxa ^nE^memotasa TsetsEmeleqala. 
1000 Wii, g'lPEmxaawise gwatexs lae edzaqwe Q!Omx'ode ^nek'a: "Loqu- 
las TEmltEmlElse tsliinve EE^wa q!asa loqulila." Wii,hex"ida''meseda 
ha^yal^a la ax^alllaxa ma^lExLa loElqfdila, qa^s la k'axdzamolilas laxa 
^nE^memotasa TEmltEmlElse. Wii, g'il^mese ^wllg'alileda ma^lgiina- 
lEXLa xwexuts!ala loElqiillla laase k!wag'alile Q!umx'6de. Wa, lii 
5 Liix'uliie Elkwase Ha^mide. Wa, la yaq lEg'a^a. Wii, lii ^nek'a: "Wii, 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1049 

four great niimayms! Now it is well done. | Now eat as well as you 7 
can, and eat it all." Thus he said | and stopped speaking. Then 
Helamas, the head chief of the | numaym G' exsEm, arose and spoke. 
He said, "Don't || sit in this way, Chief Yaqok!walag'ilis (he meant 10 
the chief of the | numaym SisEULle^); and also HiiqElal (the head 
chief I of the TsetsEmeleqala) ; | and you, Ts !Ex^ed (he meant the 
chief of the | numaym TEmltEmlEls) ! Stand up, and let us | show 
that we have sweet food to eat!" Thus he said; and when H he 15 
stopped speaking, the four chiefs arose. | They were naked, and they 
took hold of a | long strip of blubber and ate it. Then the men of 
low rank | also arose and took the blubber of the seal | and ate it. 
They all stood while they were eating it. They do not || eat the skin 20 
of the seal-blubber at a great | seal-feast. After they had eaten 
enough, | they sat down. Then the young men of the numaym | 
^walas took the house-dishes and carried them out of the house and | 
put them down outside. Afterwards they gave the || whole raw seals 25 
to the chiefs, and they cut in two pieces | the seals which they gave 
to the people of low rank. When they had | finished, the numaym 
^walas assembled in one place in the house, and they sang the new | 
feasting-songs of Qlumx'od (IV 4), and then | his sister, Qwax'iial 

wag"illa mosgEmak" ^walas ^nE^mem. La^mo aek'aakwa, qa^s wag"i- 6 
LOS hamx'^IdElqo, aek'!aLEs ha^mapLEqo, qa^s ^wFleLOsaq"," ^nek'Exs 
lae q IweHda. Wa, la Lax^ullle Helamasaxa xamagEma^ye g'Igiimesa 
^nE^memotasa G'exsEme, qa^s yaqlEg'a^le. Wa, la ^nek"a: "Gwallas 
he gwaele, g'Igame Yaqok!walagilis," yix glgSma^yasa ^nE^memo- 10 
tasa SisinLla^j'e gwE^yos; he^mise HaqElal, yix xamagsma^ye g'lga- 
mesa TsetsEmeleqala, "los g'Igame TslEx^ed," yix g'lgama^yasa 
^nE^memotasa TEmltEmlElse gwE-yos; "qa^s Lax^iilllaos ^wi^la qEns 
S,wiilx'Eyamexg'ins ex"p!asEweLEk' laxEns ha^maeneLex," ^nek'Exs 
lae qlwel^ida. Wa, hex"^ida^mese ^naxwa q Iwag'illleda mokwe g'Ig'i- 15 
gama^ya laxes xaxEnalaena^ye. Wa, lii ^naxwa dax'^klEx oba^yasa 
g ilsg'iltla xudza, qa^s qlEs^ede. Wa, lil ^naxwa^meda bebEgtilida^ye 
ogwaqa Lax^iililala, qa^s ogwaqe la dolts !ala laxa xudzasa megwate, 
qa^s q!Eseq laxes ^naxwa^mae LaxxE^wIlExs q!Esae. Wa, la k'!es 
oqwaqaEm q!Esaxa k!udzeg'a^yasa xudzasa megwate laxa ^walase 20 
klwe^latsa megwate. Wa, g'iFmese ^naxwa hel^ak"!Es laqexs lae 
klOs^allla. Wa, hex'^Jda^mesa g'ayole laxa ha^yal^iisa ^nE^memotasa 
^walase la ax^alilaxa loElqQlile, qa^s lii lawElsas laxa g'okwe, qa^s la 
mEx^Elsas lax Llasana^yas. Wa, g'll^mese gwalExs lae k'ax'^idayo- 
weda sesEnala k' !ilx' megwat laxa g'Ig"lgama^ye. Wa, la mema^l- 25 
ts!aakwa megwate k'ax'^idayoxa bebEgtilida^ye. Wa, giPmese gwa- 
Iexs lae q!ap!eg'lllle ^uE^memotasa ^walase, qa^s dEnx^edesa altsEme 
klwe^laya^layo qlEmdEms Q!umx"6de. Wa, he^mis la ylx^widaats 



1050 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. aj^n. 3b 

30 (IV 3), danced. When the song of the || numaym was at an end, 
Ha^mid said that Qwax'ilal (IV 3) had changed her name, for now | 
her name was Ts lEndEgEmg' i^lak" (IV 3); and Qlumx'od (IV 4) | 
also had changed his name, and his name was now MEiilesid (IV 4). 
Thus he said, and | he stopped speaking. Then all the guests 
went out. 

Now I I shall talk about the sister of Q!iimx'od (IV4), Ts!EndE- 

35 gEmg'i^lak" (IV 3). II Now, the princes of the chiefs of the | various 
tribes wanted to marry her, for they had seen the eight house- 
dishes. I The chief of the numaym Q !omk" !ut !es of the | Gwa^sEla, 
Llasotiwahs (III 11), asked her in marriage for his prince Sesax^las 

40 (IV 8) ; I and the Gwa^sEla came to woo her at Baas, for |1 all the 
Nak !wax' da^x" had gone there with their houses, and' did not go 
back to Tegiixste. | It was evening when they arrived outside of 
Baas. I Then Llasotiwalis (III 11) spoke to his tribe, and said, | 
"Listen to me, tribes! I do not wish to | pay the marriage monej' in 

45 the evening. Let us sleep here, and go in the morning || to pay the 
marriage money, when the Nak !wax' da^x" wake up !" | Thus he said. 
Immediately the speaker PEngwid arose, | and also spoke. He said, 
"What you say is good, | chief, for you are going to make reallj^ war 
against Ts lEndEgEmg' i^lak" (IV 3), the | princess of Q'.iimx'od 

wQq !wase Qwax'llale. Wa, g'il^mese la q Iiilbe dEnxalayfi.sa ^nE^me- 

30 maxs lae nele Ha^midiis Qwax'ilalaxs lE^mae L!ayoxLa yixs lE^mae 
LegadEs Ts !EndEgEmgi^lakwe. Wsx, he^mise Q!umx'odaxs lE^mae 
ogwaqa LlayoxLii, ylxs lE^mae LegadEs MEnlesidaase, ^nek'Exs lae 
qlweHda. Wa, la^me hoqtiwElseda kiwele laxeq. Wa, la^mesEn 
gwagwex'sEx'^klEl lax wuq!was Q!umx'6de lax TslEndEgEmg'i^a- 

35 kwe. Wa, la^me awulqaplEsosa LOLaElgama^yas gugigama^yasa 
aloguxsEmakwe lelqwalaLa-ya, qaxs lae dogula ma%unalEXLa loElqii- 
lila. Wa, het!a g'lgama^yasa ^nE^memotasa Q!5mk'!ut!Esasa Gwa- 
^sEla ylx L!as6tiwalise gagakMaq qaes La,wulgama^ye Sesaxalase. 
Wa, g'ax^me gagak" lasosa Gwa^sEla lax Baase, qaxs g'axae mawa 

40 ^naxweda Nak!wax'da^xwe laq. KMes la aedaaqa lax Teguxsta^ye. 
Wa, he^maasexs g'axae g'ax^aLEla lax awlg'a^yas Baasaxa la dza- 
qwa. Wa, la yaqlEg'a^le L'.asotiwalisaxes g'okulote. La ^nek'a: 
"WixEntsos hoLelax g'olg'iikulot, qaxgin k'lesek" ^nex" qEns 
qadzeLexwa dzaqwax, qEns yu^me mex^edox, qEns laLEnsax gaalaLa, 

45 qEns ha qadzeldEmLe qo lal ^naxwax'st!aax"LE tslEX'^idia Naklwax"- 
da^xwax," ^uek"e. Wa, hex'^ida^mese Lax^ulilExse Elkwase Peu- 
gwide, qa^s ogwaqe yaqlEg'a^la. Wa, la ^nek'a: " Ex'^mis waldEmos, 
g'Igame, qaxs fi,leLaqos winal laxox TslEndEgEmg'i^lakwax k'lede- 
laqlEs Q!umx-ode. Wa, he^mis ek'eltses waldEmos g'igame, qEns 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1051 

(IV 4'), and therefore your word is good, chief. Let us || meet in the 50 
daytime and talk with the Nak !wax' da^x" about the marriage, for 
I I think there will be a sham-fight for the princess of Chief 
Q!iSmx'5d (IV 4)." | Thus he said and stopped speaking. His 
tribe agreed to | what he had said. | 

Now they slept; and in the morning, when day came, II the 55 
men of the Gwas^Ela dressed themselves. When they had | finished, 
they started in four large canoes; | and when they arrived at the 
island in front of Baas, | the four canoes stopped. Then Llasoti- 
walis (III 11) arose and spoke. | He said, "Now, Chief Sewid, you, 
chief of the || numaym G'Ig'ilgam, now go and ask Chief | Q!fimx'6d 60 
(IV 4) for liis daughter in marriage; — and you. Chief GwayolE- 
lasEme^ — you, chief of tliis numaym j Siseul !e^, — go and ask in mar- 
riage the daughter of Chief Q !umx'od (IV 4) ; — | and you, PEngwid, 
of my numaym Q !omk' !ut !es, | go and listen behind our cliiefs. — 
Now, you, my || young men, paddle for these chiefs." Then he 65 
stopped speaking ; and they went | into one canoe, the fastest trav- 
eling canoe; and | the young men paddled very fast, and arrived at 
the beach of the ] house of Q!umx-6d (IV 4). Then the two cliiefs, | 
Sewid and GwayolElasEme^, and the speaker of Q!umx'6d, || Psngwid, "0 
went ashore, and went into the house of Chief Q!umx'od (IV 4). | 

nEng&.lll laxEns w§,ldEmLa LE^wa Naklwax'da^xwax, qaxg'ln k-ota- 50 
^megins amaqasol qaoxda k' !edelaq lEsa g^gama^yae Qliimx'ode," 
^nek'Exs lae q IweHda. Wa, S,^mise ^naxwa ex'^ak'e g'oktilotasex 
waklEmas. 

Wa, he^mise la mex^ede. Wii, gil^mese ^nax'^idxa gaalaxs lae 
^naxwa qlwalax^^ideda bebEgwauEmasa Gwa^sEla. Wii, g^IPmese 55 
gwalExs lae ^naxwa sEp!ededa mots!aqe awa xwaxwak!iina ya^ya- 
ts!es. Wa, g'iPmese lag'aa lax ^mEkuma^yas Baasaxs lae niExaLa^ye- 
da motslaqe ya^yats!es. Wii, lii Liix^iilExse Lliisotiwalise, qa^s yiiqlE- 
g"a4e. Wii, lii ^nek'a: "Wiigil la g'Tgame Sewidii, gMgama^yaqos 
^nE^mem G'ig'ilgEm. LaEms lal wai.aqag-illlElal liixa g'lgamii^yae 60 
Q!umx"oda, so^mets g'Igiime GwayolElasEme, g'lgiima^yaqos ^nE^mem 
SisinLle' laEms lal waLaqag'IlllElal laxa g'Jgiima^yae QIunDfodii. 
Wa, so^mets PEiigwida, g'ayolaex laxEn ^nE^memota Q!omk'!ut!Ese, 
laEms lal hoLeleg'ilxEns g'lgigiima^yex. Wii, la^mets laL5l nos 
ha^yaFa sexwalxwa g'lgigama^yex," ^nek'Exs lae qlweHda. Wii, la 65 
hogtixs laxa ^nEmts!aqe xwiiklunaxa ymga^yas yae^yats!iis, qa^s 
sex^widaeda ha^yiih'a yayana. Wii, giPmese lag-aa liix LlEma^isas 
g'okwas Q!umx"odaxs lae hox^wiiltaweda miVlokwe g'lgama^ya, yix 
Sewide Lo^ GwayolElasEma^ye, LE^wa Elkwas Q!iimxode, yix PEn- 
gwide, qa^s la hogwiLEla lax g'okwasa _g-Igama^ye Qliimx'ode, qa^s la 70 

1 She is really his sister. 



1052 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

71 They went and sat down inside of the door of the house. Then | the 
cliief of the numaym Gig'ilgam, Sewid, spoke, and said, | "Now turn 
your face this way, Chief Qlumx'od (IV 4), and | listen to what 
brought us here!" (That is the way they talk in great orations.) || 

75 "Now we have come to ask in marriage your | princess TslEndE- 
gEmg'i^lak" (IV 3), Chief Q lumx'od (IV 4), for the prince of our chief | 
L!asotiwalis(III 1 1 ) , Sesax§,las (IV 8)." Thus he said, and he stopped 
speaking. Then | Qlumx'od (IV 4) repHed, and said, "Tell | Cliief 

80 Llasotiwahs (III 11) that I accept his prince 1| Sesaxalas (IV 8), 
because he is of the same rank as my princess." Thus he said, and 
he stopped speaking. | Then the chief GwayolElasEme^ arose and | 
spoke. He said, " Indeed, I never fail to get | what I want and what I 
try to get. Thank you. Chief Qliimx'od (IV 4), | that you do not 

85 refuse what we offered. Now |! I shall turn back and take your good 
word, great chief, | to my chief Llasotiwalis (III 11). Now, come. 
Chief Sewid, — and | you, PEngwid, — and let us go now!" Thus he 
said. When they had | stopped speakmg, Chief Q!umx'6d (IV 4) 

90 spoke again, and | said, "Please wait a while, chiefs, and II carry 
along my princess Ts!EndEgEmg'i4ak" (IV 3) !" Thus he said, and 
took I three pairs of blankets, and he gave each | of them one pair. 

71 k!iis^alll lax awlLElas tlEX'ilasa g'okwe. Wa, he^mis yaq!Eg'a^le 
g'lg&ma^yasa ^nE^memotasa G'igilgame, ylx Sewide. Wa, lii ^nek'a : 
"Wag'il la helgEmlilLE gwasgEmliLol gigame Q!umx'od, qa^s hoLela- 
osaxg'anu^x" g'axenek'." Laxox gwegwasaxsa ^wa^walatsilax waklE- 

75 ma. "Wa, g'ax^mEnu^x" waLaqag'ililEla laL, g'igame Q!umx'od, qaos 
k'!edelax laxox Ts!EndEgEmg"i^lakwax, qa LS,wiilg'S,ma^yasa g'iga- 
ma^ye L!asotiwalise, yix SesaxS.lase, " ^nek'Exs lae q!wel^ida. Wa, 
la Q!umx'ode na^naxmeq. Wa, la ^nek"a: " Waga, §,Em axa g'Tga- 
ma^yae L!as5tlwalisaxgin daeLa^meg'ax Lawulg5,ma^yase, lax Se- 

80 saxalasa, yixs ^namalas5^maa Logun kMedelEk'," ^nek'Exs lae q!wel- 
^ida. Wa, he^mis la Lax^ulilatsa g'lgama-ye GwayolElasEma^ye, qa^s 
yaq!Eg'a^le. Wa, la ^nek^a: "QEn wale, qaxgin kMesek* wiyoLle- 
nox"xEn gwE^ya qEn laloLiasE^wa. Wa, gelak'as^a, g'lgame Q!iim- 
x'od, qaxs kMesaex aEm Lalagwalaxg'in waldEmk'. Wa, la- 

85 'mesEn lal qwesgEmalalsg'as ex'g'os waldEmag'os ^walas g"igame 
l&xEn nosa g-igSma^ye l !asotiwalisa. Wa, gelag'a g'Ig§,me Sewid 
Lo^s PEngwid qEns lalag'I," nek'Exs lae q !wag'Llila. Wa, g'il^mese 
q!wel^IdExs lae edzaqwa yaq!Eg"a^le g"Igama^ye Q!iimx'6de. Wa, 
la ^iiek'a: " Weg"aEmsL esElax, g"ig'igame, qa^s lE^ma5s q!ElElqE- 

90 laxg'in kMedelfik', laxg'a Ts!EndEgEmg'i^lakuk'," ^nek'Exs lae ax^ed- 
xa yuduxiixsa p !ELxElasgEma, qa^s la ts lEwanaqElasa ^nal-nEmxsa 
laqexs yudukwae. Wa, g'iPmese gwalExs lae hoquwElseda yudu- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTOKIKS 1053 

After this the tliree | chiefs went out, singing their sacred songs as 93 
they went along. They went aboard | the travehng-canoe. Tlie 
young men were sittmg in tlie canoe, || waiting for them. Then they 95 
paddled back to where the other | canoes were left. The three chiefs 
were still standing, | carrying in their arms the blankets, and singing 
their sacred songs. When | they arrived, the speaker of Q!umx'6d, 
PEngwid, spoke and | said, "O Chief Llasotiwalis (III 11) ! It you will 100 
now see these chiefs coming, carrj-ing in their arms the wife of 
Sesax^las (IV 8). | They are so great, that they obtain what they 
want, on account of their greatness. | Now, get ready, and let us pay 
the marriage-money!" Thus he said, and | he stopped speaking, 
Then Llasotiwalis (III 11) thanked him for what he had said, and | 
aU the strong young men were put into two canoes || to be ready for a 5 
sham-fight. After this had been done, | the bows of the canoes were 
put in line, and they started. Now on each side of the | canoes (2 and 
3) with the young men, were the canoes used by the 

weaker men and by the | chiefs (1 and 4). ' '^^^CZI^ When they 

had nearly arrived at the beach of the house 2 <r ^ *^^ I Q !umx'6d 

(IV 4) , they did not see a single man || walk- ing about, for 10 

they had ah gone into the house of their chief | ^ <^L__Ii> Q !umx' 6d (I V 

4), and they saw a long roof-board stand- ing on end | 

at the bank in front of Baas, in front of the house of 



kwe g-Igig&ma^ya yiyalagutaweses yiyalax"LEne, qa^s la hexsEla 93 
laxes ya^yats!a xwak!una, qaxs k!udzExsalax'sa^maeda ha^yal^a 
esElaq. Wa, la sex^wida, qa's la aedaaqa lax mExalasases waox"- 95 
tsIaqEla xwaxwakluna lax LaxLExiixsalax'sa^maeda yudukwe 
gegEnalalExsxa ^nab'uEmxsa p lElxElasgEma yiyalaqula. Wa, g'U- 
^mese lag-aaxs lae yaqlEg'a^le Elkwas Qliimx'ode, ylx PEngwide. 
Wa, la ^nek'a: "Weg'a doqwalax g-igS,me Llasotiwalis g'a- 
xEmg'a gigigamek' gEnalalExsg"as gEUEmlg'as Sesaxalas. Helo- 100 
laxaeg'a wiyol laxgins glg^EgSmek' qaos awawaasex. Wa, 
weg'il la xwanaHdEx, qEns lalag'i qadzil'eda," ^nekExs lae 
qlweKda. Wa, la-'me mo^le Llasotiwalisas waldEmas. Wa, la^me 
q!ap!eg-aalExdzEma lelakwe ha^yai^a laxa ma^ltslaqe xwaxwakluna, 
qa^s gwalale qo amaqasolaxo. Wa, g'il^mese gwalExs lae ^nEmag'iwa- 5 
les xwaxwaklunaxs lae sEp!eda. Wa, laEm ^wax'sagawa^ye xwaxwa- 
klunasa ha^yal^a lax ya^yatsla waoyatslala bebEgwauEma LE^wis 
g-Ig'tg^ma-ye (jig.). Wa, g-iPmese Elaq lag-aa lax LlEma^isas g-okwas 
Q!umx"6daxs lae dox^waLElaqexs k'leasae ^uEmok" bEgwanEm 
g"ig"llsEla, qaxs lE^maaxoL ^wFlaeLEla lax g'okwases g'igama^ye 10 
Q!timx'ode. Wa,laxae dox^waLElaxa ek' lEbalise g'llt!a wadzo saokwa 
lax osgEmdza^yasBaase lax uEqEmalisas g"6kwas Q'.urax'ode, g'a gwa- 




1054 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL |kth. ann. 35 

12 Qliimx'od (IV 4), in this manner: | 
Its name is Climbing-Board. 
Not all the Gwa^sela knew | what 
it meant, why the roof-board was 

15 put up. Only one among the II old 
men knew what it meant, and then ~ 
all the Gwa^sEla were forbidden | 
b}^ that one old man to paddle. 

As soon as | they all stopped paddling, the old man, whose 
name was Hayalk'in, spoke, and said, "Now, take care, | young 
men, of the roof-board that I see standing on end! It is 

20 called || Climbing-Board, for it means a mountain as it is stand- 
ing on the beach. | Ts!EndEgEmg'i«lak" (IV 3) will come and sit 
on top of what represents a mountain, and you, | young men, will 
be called upon to go up towards her whom we want to get in 
marriage; | and if one of you young men succeed in going up to 
the seat of | TslEndEgEmg'i^ak" (IV 3), you must stand by her 

25 side || and just stand stiU, and let our chief speak, for | then we shall 
claim TslEndEgEmg'i^lak" (IV 3). If you j do not reach the seat of 
the princess (IV 3) of Chief Q'.umx'od (IV 4), | then we can no-t get 
her whom we came to get in marriage. I mean that | all of you 
men must take care." Thus he said, and he stopped speaking. 

30 Immediately II they all paddled, and came to the beach in front of the 
house of I Q'.umx'od (IV 4). Now, the bows of the four canoes | 

13 leg-a [fig.). HeEm LegadEs NaxEdzowe. Wa, la^me k' !es ^naxwa q !aLE- 
leda Gwa^sElax heg'ilas gwaesa saokwe. Wa, het!a cj !alanokweda 

15 q !ulsq '.ulyakwaq. Wa, la bElasE^weda ^naxwa Gwa^sEla, qa^s gwal 
mawisLe sexwa, yisa ^nEmokwe qliilyak" bEgwanEma. Wa, g-il- 
^mese gwal ^naxwa sexwaxs lae yac[!Eg'a4eda q!ulyakwe bEgwanE- 
ma LegadEs Hayalk-me. Wa, la ^nek-a: "Weg'a yaLlaLEx ha- 
^yal^ qaEn dogula Laesex g'lldEdzo saokwa. YiiEm LegadEs Na- 

20 xEdzowox, yixs uEk-Flakwaex laxos gwaedzasex. Wa, g-axLe TsIeu- 
dEgEmg'i^lakwa k !waxtEwilxwa nEk'Flakwex. Wa, la^mets Le^la- 
lasoLol ^naxwa ha^yal^a, qa^s laos naxa laloL lalxEiis qadzeLasoLax. 
Wa, he^maasexs lag-ustawei,e ^nEm6x"La laL ha^yal'a lax kiwalaasas 
Ts!EndEgEmg"i^lakwe, qa^s laos Lax^waLEla lax SpsaLElas. Wa, 

25 a^mets skltlaLEla qa g-asg'ins g-iglgamek' yaeq!Ent!ala, qaxg-Ins la- 
'mek' laLEx TslEndEgsmgi^lakwe laxeq. Wa, he^maaqaso wig'u- 
stalaxo lax kiwalaasas kMedelasa g'igama^ye Qlumx'ode: wa, la- 
^mesEns wiyollaxxEns gagak" lasE^wexEn nenakile, qa^s a^maos ^na- 
xwa yaLiax-da^xwa yuL ha^yat-'a," ^nek-Exs lae q!weWda. Wa, hex'^i- 

30 da^mese ^naxwa sex^wida, qa^s la lag-ahs lax LlEma^isas g-6kwas 
Qlumx'ode. Wa, la^me ^nEmag'iwalaxa motslaqe xwaxwak'.iina 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1055 

were in line on the beach; and first Chief Sewid spoke, j anci told the 32 
Naklwax'da^x" to go and get in marriage the princess of | Q!umx'6d 
(IV 4), TslEndEgEmg'i^lak" (IV 3). As soon as he stopped speak- 
ing, II the other chief, GwayolElasErae^, \ spoke also, and said the 35 
same as the other one had said to the | Nak!wax'da^x" about their 
coming to get in marriage the princess of Q !umx' od (IV 4) , | Ts lEiidE- 
gEmg"i^lak" (IV 3). Thus he said, and took up a blanket. Then 
he called | one of his young men to go and stand by his side in the 
canoe. Then he ll counted five pairs of blankets, which he put on 40 
his shoulders; and after | he had put on the five pairs of blankets, he 
said, "Now I shall marry you with these five pairs of blankets." | 
The young man went up the beach and carried them | into the house 
of Qliimx'od (IV 4), and put them down in the rear of the house of | 
Q!umxod (IV 4). | The Naklwax'da^x" remained in the houses, and 
not II one of them showed himself outside. Then he counted five 45 
more pairs of | blankets on the shoulders of another young man, and 
GwayolElasEme^ | said, "Carry these five blankets." They con- 
tinued doing this, and did not stop until | two hundred and twenty 
blankets had been given out of the canoe. | After tliis had been done 
he said, "That is all." Then he turned || towards the Gwa^sEla^ 50 
spoke, and said, "Now, Gwa^sEla, | we have finished. Now let us 
see what is coming, how they will turn | my word into war." Thus 

k'Egesxa LlEma^ise. Wa, he^mis g'il yaqlEg'a^le gugama^ye Sewide. 32 
Wa, laEm nelaxa Nak Jwax'da^xwases gagak' laena^yax k' ledelas 
Q!umx"6de lax Ts'.EndEgEmg'i^akwe. Wa, g'iPmese qlweHdExs lae 
Lax^wulExseda ^uEmokwe g'igama^ye GwayolElasEina^ye. Wa, la^me 35 
yaq!Eg"a^l ogwaqa. HeEmxat! asm waldEmses nelena^yaxaaxa 
Nak!wax"da^xwases gagak" laena^yax k" !edelas Q!umx"6de laxTslEn- 
dEgEmg'i^lakwe, ^nek'Exs lae dax'^idxa p!ElxElasgEme qa^s Le^alexa 
g'ayole laxa InVyal^a qa las laxwaxdzexa xwaklfina. Wa, la ho- 
ts !Eyap lEndalasa sEk' !axsa p !ElxElasgEm laq. Wa, g'il^mese sEk" !ax- 40 
saxs lae ^nek'a: "La^mEn qadzeLaseq sEk'laxsa plElxElasgE- 
mai'." Wa, hex'^ida^meseda hel^a la lS,sdesas qa^s la gEmxcLas 
lax g'okwas Qlumx'ode, qa^s la gEmxalllas lax ogwiwalilas g'okwas 
Q!timx"5de, yixs hex'sa^mae ^wFlaexEleda Naklwax^da^xwe; k'!eS.s 
^nEmox" nelEmalag'ilsa. Wa, la et!ed hots!Eyap!Entsa seIc !axsa 45 
plElxElasgEm laxa ogu'la^maxat ! hel^a. Wa, ^nek^e GwayolElasE- 
ma^ye dalaxeq sEk'Iaxsa. Wa, hex"sa^mes la gwek"!ale. Wa, al- 
^mese gwalExs lae ^wPloltaweda hama^tsok'ala p lElxElasgEma. Wa, 
gil-mese gwala lae ^nek'a: "Wa, laEm ^wi4a." La gwegEmx'^id 
laxa Gwa^sEla, qa^s yaqlEg-a'leq. Wa, la ^nek'a: "Wa, (jrwa^sEl, 50 
la^mEns gwala. La^mesEns olastogwaalExsL, qa gwebax'^IdaasLas 
waldEmLasEn wFnede," ^uek'Exs lae klwag'aalExsa. Wa, giPmese 



1056 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ieth. ann. 35 

53 he said, and sat down; and when | he sat down in the canoe, the 
uncle of TslEndEgEmg'i-lak" (IV 3), | Qasnomalas (III 14), came out 

55 and stood in front of the house of Qlumx'od (IV 4). || He spoke, and 
said, "Is that you, Gwa^sEla ? | Have you come to get in marriage the 
princess of my chief | Q !urax'6d (IV 4) ? Now, take care, Gwa^sEla !" 
Thus he said, and | turned towards the door of the house of Q lumx'od 
(IV 4), and said, | "Sham-fight!" As soon as he had said "Sham- 

60 fight!" the || chiefs of the Nak !wax' da^x" came out, bent forward and 
carrying short | poles representing spears, and went against the 
Gwa^sEla, who were still sitting in their | marriage canoes; and when 
the chiefs had come out | of tlie house, then the young men came. 
They did not carry anything. | They went right down to the beach; 

65 and when they had gone down, || the chief of the Gwa^sEla, Liasotl- 
wahs (III 11), arose, and spoke | to his tribe. He said, "Don't sit in 
this way, Gwa^sEla ! | Go and meet the great tribe ! " and he said, | 
"Waya'!" and when he said "Waya'!, " all the young men | stood 

70 up in their canoes, || jumped into the water, and went to meet 
the young men of the Nak!wax'da^x". Then | they took hold of 
one another; and wlule they were fighting, | Ts!EndEgEmg'i4ak" 
(IV 3) went up to the top of the climbing-board, and | sat down on a 
platform at the top of the board. They | had not seen when she 

53 kIwag-aalExsExs g'axaas g-axEWElse q!iileyas Ts !EndEgEmg'i^lakwe 
ylx Qasnomalase, qa^s Lax^wElse lax LJasana^yasa g"6kwas Q!um- 

55 x'ode. Wa, la yaq!Eg'a^la. Wa, la ^nek'a: "So^maa Gwa^sE- 
lasa gagak'Iaswa laxg'a k' !edelg'asgin g'igamek" laxg'a k'!edelg"as 

• Q!ilmx'6dewa? Wa, weg'illax'os yaL!aLEx, Gwa^sEl," a^me ^nekExs 
lae gwegEmx'^ld lax t!ex'ilas g'okwas Q!umx"6daxs lae ^nek'a: 
"Amaqaye'." Wa, g'lPmese q!ulbe amaqaxaena-yasexs g'axae 

60 sesaxesale g'lg'igama^yasa Nak!wax'da^xwe dedalaxa ts!Elts!ox"stowe 
dzomeg'ala sEsayak' lalas laxa Gwa^sElaxs k!udzExsalae laxes gaga- 
k!aats!e xwaxwakiuna. Wa, g'iPmese ^wi^EWElseda g'Tgigftma^ye 
laxa g'okwaxs g'axae g'axawElseda ^naxwa ha^yal% kMeasLal da- 
ax"s, qa^s la haymts !esEla laxa L!Ema^ise. Wa, g'll^mese ^wPlEntsle- 

65 sExs lae Lax^wulExse g'lgama^yasa Gwa^sEle Llasotiwalise, qa^syaq!E- 
g"a4exes g'okulote. Wa, la ^nek'a: "Gwallas he gwale, Gwa^sEl, 
weg'adza tata^walaxwa ^walasex lelqw&laLa^ye," ^nek'Exs lae ^ne- 
k'a: "Waya!" Wa, g'lPmese wayaxaxs lae ^nEmag'IlExseda ha- 
^yal^a q!wagitExs laxes yae^yats!e xwaxwak !unaxs lae ^naxwaEm 

70 dExumsta, qa^s tata^walex ha^yal^asa Nak !wax'da^xwe. Wa, la^me 
dadEgox^wida. Wa, he^mis ales yala dadEgalas lae Ts!EndEgEmg-i- 
^lakwe ekMe^sta lax ek"!Eba^yasa Laese naxEdzo saokwa, qa^s la 
k!wadzodxa LalaLEla lax aLotba^yasxa g'a gwaleg-a. ^ Wa, la^me 
hewaxa gayanole lax'dEmas lag-osta laq, qaxs lE^mae alax'^id la 

1 See figure on p. 1054. 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1057 

went up there, for the II Gwa^sEla and the Nak !wax' da^x" were really 75 
fighting. When she | was seated, Qasnomalas (III 14) stopped his 
tribe the Naklwax'da^x", | saying that there had been enough sham- 
fighting. Immediately he was | obeyed by his tribe the Naklwax'- 
da^x", who went back | to the top of the bank of the village Baas, and 
they all stood behind || the top of the cUmbing-board. The Gwa^sEla, 80 
on their part, | went into their canoes. Then Qasnomalas (III 14) 
spoke I and said, " O Gwa^sEla ! we have finished the sham-fight, for 
we have made a name | for the future child of Ts !EndEgEmg"i^lak" (IV 
3), and our chief | Sesax&las (IV 8). His name shall be El^ElkGlas and 
XomalElas, || if by good luck they obtain a child. Now, take care, 85 
Gwa^sEla, | on account of Ts lEndEgEmg" i^lak" (IV 3) ! She is sitting 
now on top of a mountain. | — Now you, young men, try to get her! 
Go ashore from | your canoes, and try one at a time to run up | to the 
seat of this princess of Chief Qlfimx'od (IV 4) !" || Thus he said, and 90 
stopped speaking. Then Chief Qlumx'od (IV 4) | put down forty 
blankets on one side of the climbing-board, | and Chief Sewid of the 
Gwa^sEla stood up and spoke. | He said, "Don't stay in this way, 
young men of the Gwa^sEla ! Try to | get the wife for our chief 
Sesax&las (IV 8) !" II Thus he said, and he stopped speaking. Imme- 95 
diately the young men of the Gwa^sEla | went ashore out of their 

xomal^ideda Gwa^sEla LE^wa Nak Iwax'da^xwe. Wa, g'il^mese gwa- 75 
l^aLElaxs lae Qasnomalase bfilk" lig'a^lxes g"6kulotaxa Naklwax'da- 
^xwe, qa helax"Ides laxa amaqaena^ye. Wa, hex'^ida^mese nanage- 
g-esoses g-6kfllota Nak Iwax'da^xwe. Wa, la^me k' !Ek'a, qa^s la ^wTlg"u- 
sta lax oxwiwalasas g"ox"dEmsas Baase, qa^s la ^wPla q Iwag'aEls lax 
aLotba^yasa naxEdzowe saokwa. Wa, g'iPmese ^naxwa laxat ! hox^wa- §0 
lExseda Gwa^sEla laxesxwaxwaklflnaxs lae yaqlEg'a^le Qasnomalase. 
Wa, la ^nek-a : " Wa, Gwa^sEl, la^mEns gwalalaxa amaqa, qaxg'ins Leqe- 
lek' qaLegEms xun5x^widElaxas Ts lEndEgEmg'i^lakwe LE^wa g'lgama- 
^yox Sesaxalasax. Wa, la^me LegadElaxs EpElkulase l6^ XomalElase, 
qaxo wawalkinala lax xiingwadEx'Mdo. Wa,weg'illayai,!&.LEx, Gwa- 85 
^seI, qag"a TslEndEgEmg'i^lakwak" g^axEmk" k!waxtEwexg"ada nE- 
g"ak-. La^meso g'axLos ha^yal^aq !6s laloL lalqEk". Wa, gelag-a hox^- 
wflltS- laxos yae^yats laqos, qa^s giinx'^Idaos ^nal^nEm6k!umk'a naxa 
laloL!axg"a klwaxtE^wesogwasg'a k'edelg"asEn g^igSma^ye Q!umx'- 
ode, " ^nek'Exs lae q IweWda. Wa, g-axeda g'igS,ma^yeQ !umx-ode gEm- 90 
XElsElaxa mSx^sokwe p lElxElasgEme lax apsEnxa^yasa naxEdzowe. 
Wa, la Lax^wulExse g'lg&ma^yasa Gwa^ssle Sewide, qa^s yaq !Eg'a^le. 
Wa, la ^nek'a: "Gwallas he gwex'se hS.^yal^as Gwa^sEl, qa^s lalag'aos 
wawEldzEwa laloLlax gEnEmLasEns g'ig3,ma^yox Sesaxalasex," ^ne- 
k'Exs lae qwel-ida. Wa, hex'^ida^meseda hS^yal^asa Gwa^sEla la hox- 95 
^wGita laxes yae^yats !e, qa^s la q Iwag'alls lax ox"sidzalisasa naxE- 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 2 18 



1058 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. anx. 33 

97 traveling-canoes, and stood at the lower end of the | climbing-board ; 
and the chiefs of the Gwa^sEla stood | seaward from the young men. 
Then one young man tried to run up, | but he did not reach the top. 
200 Then they gave him one pair of blankets. |1 They continued doing 
tliis. Now, there was one really skillful | young man, who was told 
by the cliiefs to go last, when aU the others had given it up. | He was 
the only one left to run. Then Chief | Llasotiwalis (III 11) spoke to 
him, and said, "Now go, child! You are the one who has | never 
given up. Now go and get the name for obtaining the princess of 
5 Cliief ||Q!umx'6d (IV 4)!" Thus he said, and stopped speaking. 
Immediately | the young man went. He stepped into the water to 
wet his feet, and then he | came back and ran up the climbing-board ; 
and there he stood by the | side of Ts lEndEgEmg' i^lak" (IV 3) ; and 
while he was standing there, | the chiefs of the Gwa^sEla sang their 

10 sacred songs. || Now Chief Q!umx"6d (IV 4) gave five pairs of blan- 
kets I to the young man. The name of this young man was Gwayos- 
dedzas. | Gwayosdedzas did not stand there long when he came down 
with Ts'.EndEgEmg'i^lak" (IV 3), | and they went into the house of 
-Q'.iimx'od (IV 4). Now Qasnomalas (III 14) told the | Gwa^sEla to 

15 go back into their traveling-canoe for a little while, "for || you have 
obtained the princess Ts'.EudEgEmg'i^lak" (IV 3) of my chief. | 
Now listen to what I shall say to you, Chief Sesaxalas (IV 8), to 
your I prince, Chief Llasotiwalis (III 11) ! Now you will receive the 

97 dzowe saokwa. Wa, la^mesa g"Igama^yasa Gwa^sEla q!waes lax 
L!asalisasa ha^yal^a. Wa, la wax" dzElx"ust;iweda ^nEmdkwe heFa. 
Wa la^mese wlg'ust^xs lae ts!asosa ^nEmxsa p !ElxElasgEma. Wa, 
200 la hex'sa^mese gweg'ila. Wa, la ^nEmokwa alak"!ala ex'sdEk'Ila 
hel^a ^nex'soses g"ig"Igania^ye, qa al^meLEs lal, qo lal ^wFlal yax'^idLes 
ha^yal'a. Wa, gil^mese ^nEmox^iim laxs lae yaqlEg'a^eda g'igama^ye 
L!as5tlwalise. Wa,la ^nek'a: "Weg'illa xunok", so^maas k" leas wiyo- 
LanEma. Ha'g'al la, qa^s Legadaosas5 laLEs lax k"!edelasa g'lgS- 
5 ma^yae Q!umx"oda," ^nek'Exs lae qlweWda. Wa, hex'^ida^mesa 
hel^a la taxt!a lax dEmsx'e ^wapa, qa^s k!unk!unxsesElexs g"axae 
aedaaqa. Wa, la dzElx'Qsta laxa naxEdzowe, qa^s la Lax^waLEla lax 
apsaLElits TslEndEgEmg'i^'lakwe. Wa, g'il^mese la Laxwala laqexs 
laase ^naxwa yalaqwe g'lgigama^yasa Gwa^sElases yeyalax"LEne. Wa, 
10 la^meda g'lgama^ye Q!umx"ode yax^witsa sEkMaxse plElxElasgEm 
laxa hei^a. HeEm LegEmsa hel^e Gwayosdedzase. Wa, k'lestla gala 
Laxwale Gwayosdedzasaxs g'axae laxaLo^ TslEndEgEmg'i^lakwe, qa^s 
le laeL lax g'okwas Qlumx'ode. Wa, la^me Qasnomalase axkMalaxa 
Gwa^sEla, qa las hox^walExs laxes yae^yats!e yawas^ida, "qaxs 1e- 
15 ^maaxLaqos I^lex k" ledelasgin glgamek* lax TslEndEgEmg'i^akwe, 
qa^s hoLelaosaxg'in waldEmLEk', Iol g'igSme, Sesaxalas, laxos La- 
wulgama^yaqos g'IgS,me Llasotiwalis. Wa, laEm laLa mEwexLa 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1059 

four I house-dishes — the sea-otter house-dish, the sea-lion house 18 
dish, the whale | house-dish, and the sea-monster house-dish. These 
were given in marriage to the || dead father (III 1) of my chief here 20 
Qlumx'od (IV 4), by Chief Qwaxila (II 9) of the | Koskimo. Now, 
Chief Sesaxalas's (IV 8) name will be | Kwax' ilanokume^ (IV 8), 
and the marriage mat of TslEndEgEmg'i^lak" (IV 3) | will be a hun- 
dred and twenty blankets, — else your wife, | Chief Sesaxfi,las (IV 8) , 
would sit down on the bare floor of your house, — and also these ten || 
boxes of crabapples and five boxes of | oil to be poured on the 25 
crabapples, and also the house | which I obtained in marriage, 
Aurora-Face, from Chief | Qwax'ila (II 9) of the Koskimo, and the 
name for your dancer when you | give a feast. His name shall be 
MElned. That is all || now. Now, come, Gwa^sEla, and warm your- 30 
selves in the house of | Qlumx'od (IV 4)! The fire is burning." 
Thus he said, and he stopped speaking. | Immediately the Gwa^sEla 
went ashore out of their canoes and | went into the house of Q lumx'od 
(IV 4). When they had all gone in, | they were given di'ied salmon 
to eat; and after eating, || Qlumx'od (IV 4) told his brother-in-law 35 
Sesaxalas (IV 8) to stop over night at Baas, so that | TslEndE- 
gEmg'i^ak" (IV 3) might get ready what she was going to take along. 
Then | Sesaxalas (IV 8) obeyed what his brother-in-law Qlumx'od 
(IV 4) had said. | In the morning, when day came, the Gwa^sEla 



loElqulIiaxa q!asa loqtilila LE'wa LlexEne loqulila LE^wa gwE^yime 18 
loqullla LE^wa hanagatsle loqulila. Wii, lieEm gEg'adauEms omp- 
^wulasgin g'lgamek-, ylxg'a QIumx'QdEk' laxa g-igama^ye Qwax'ilas 20 
Gosg'imoxwe. Wa, la^mesa g'igamayox Sesaxalasex LegadElts 
Kwax"ilanokuma^ye. Wa, lak' le-waxsElag'a TslEndEgEmg^i^la- 
kwaxa ma^ltsogflg^lyowe p IfilxElasgEma aLak" wultallLEg'a gEnEm- 
g'os, g'lgSme Sesaxalas laxes g'okwaos; g'a^meseg'a nEcjasgEmk' 
lEnxstaatsle k' !ik' limyaxLa. Wa, he^misa sEk'lasgEme dedsngwa- 25 
ts!e Lle^na, qa k lungEmaxsesa lEnxe. Wa, he^misa g'okwe. 
HeEmxaEn gEg'adanEma l !exL lexagEme g-ok" lax g'lgama^yasa 
Gosg'imoxwe Qwax'ila. Wa, he^misa LegEme qaes senatLaos qaso 
k'.we^las^idLO. Wa, la^me LegadElts MElnede. Wa, laEm ^wPla 
laxeq. Wii, gelag-a Gwa^sEl, qa^s g'axaos tEltsIa laxg-a g-6k"gwas 30 
Qldmx-ode. LaEmk- lEqwelakwa," ^nek'Exs lae qlweHda. Wa, 
hex-^da^meseda Gwa^sEla ^naxwa holwiilta laxes yae^yatsle qa^s la 
hogweL lax g-6kwas Q!umx-ode. Wa, gll^mese ^wFlaeLExs lae 
hamgilasosa tslEnkwe xamasa. Wii, gIPmese gwal ha^mapExs lae 
&xk-!ale Qlfimx-odaxes qlulese Sesaxalase qa xa^mase lax Baase, qa 35 
k-lEswiiLes TslEndEgEmgi^akwaxes mEmwiilaLe. Wa, la^me nana- 
geg'a^ye Sesaxalasax wiildEmases qlulese Q!iimx-6de. Wa, g-iPmese 
^nax'idxa gaalaxs lae moxsElaxes yae^yatslexa Gwa^sElasa lelEnxsta- 



1060 ETHNOLOGy^ OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. su 

loaded their canoes with the crab apple-boxes | and the boxes of oil 

40 and the four house-dishes; || and when all were aboard, TslEndE- 
gEmg'i^lak" (IV 3) came out | of the house of her brother Qliinix'od 
(IV 4) with her husband Sesaxilas (IV 8), and | she went aboard the 
canoe of her husband SesaxMas (IV 8). When | they were seated, 
the Gwa^sEla paddled away, | going home to their village Gwek'ilis. 

45 As soon as they arrived ll there, the father of Sesaxalas (IV 8), 
Llasotiwalis (III 11), told the | young men of his numajon to clear 
out the house, because he wished | a feast to be given at once by his 
prince Sesax§,las (IV 8) , for he was proud of | the four house-dishes 
which he had obtained in marriage. When the young men had | 

50 cleared out the house, they went to invite the numaym || G'ig'ilg8,m 
and the SisEnL !e^ and the young men of the | numaym Q !5mk' !ut !es. 
When they were all inside, they took ashore the | ten boxes of crab- 
apples and the five boxes | with oil, and also the four house-dishes. 
They | put them down inside the door of the house; and after they 

55 had || been put down. Chief Llasotlwahs (III 11) arose and | spoke. 
He said, "Now, look at these, you two | numayms, G'Ig'ilgam and 
SisEnL !e^ ! I went to marry Ts lEndEgEmg' i^lak" (IV 3) , | the princess 
of Chief Qliimx'od (IV 4); and ] by good luck I obtained these ten 

60 boxes of crabapples |1 and these five boxes of oil to be poured | over 

ats!e LE^wa dedEngwatsle Lle^na. Wa, he^miseda mEwexLa loElqii- 

40 llla. Wa,g'lPmese ^wilxsExs g'axae Ts !EndEgEmg"i^lakwe hoquwEls 
lax g'okwases wttqlwe Q!Gmx"ode LE^wis la^wiinEme Sesaxalase, qa^s 
la hox^walExs lax xwakltinases la^wunEme Sesaxalase. Wa, g'll- 
^mese klus^alExsExs lae ^uEmag'iLe sex^wideda Gwa^sEla. Wa, 
la^me lal na^nax"L laxes g'okillase Gwek'ilise. Wa, g'iPmese lag"aa 

45 laqexs lae hex'^ida^mese ompas Sesaxalase, ylx L lasotiwalise helaxa 
ha^yal'ases ^nE^memote, qa ex^wldesex g'okwas, qaxs ^nek'ae, qa 
hali^lales klwe^lases Lftwulgama^ye Sesaxalase, qaxs yalaqalaases 
gEg'adauEma mEwexJLa loElqullla. Wii, g'll^mese gwaleda h&^yal^a 
ekwaxa g'okwaxs lae hex'^idaEm la Le^lalasE^weda ^uE^memotasa 

50 G'Igilgame LE^wa ^nE^memotasaSisEULla^ye, yisa ha^yaHasa ^nE^me- 
motasa Q!omk'!ut!Ese. Wa, g'iPmese g'ax ^wFlaeLExs lae moltoyo- 
weda uEqasgEme lelEnxstaats !e k' !ik' llmyaxLa LE^wa sEkMasgEme 
dedEngwatsle L!e^na. Wii, he^misLeda mEwexLa loElqOlila, qa^s 
g"axe niEx^alllElas lax awiLElasa tiEx'Ilasa g'okwe. Wa, giPmese 

55 g'ax ^wFla mEx^alllExs lae LaxHllIleda g'lgama^ye l !asotiwalise, qa^s 
yaq!Eg*a^le. Wii, la ^nek'a: " Weg-a doqwalax ma%sEmax" ^ue- 
-mem, yiiL G'Igilgam LosSlsEULle. Lax'dEn gagak' !axTs!EndEgEm- 
g'i-lakiik' laxg'a kMedelg'asa gugS,ma"^yae Q!umx'5de. Wii, g'a^me- 
sEn wawalk'ineg"as lag"os d6giilaxg"ada uEqasgEmk" lelEnxstaats !e 

60 k' !rk' !lmyaxLa L5gwa sEk' lasgEmk' dedEngwats !e l !e^na k IflngEma- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1061 

the crabapples. Now sing your feasting-songs, G"ig'ilgS.m, and you, 61 
SisEuLle^!" I Thus he said, and stopped speaking; and immediately 
the G'lg'ilgSm sang their feasting-songs. | They sang two feasting- 
songs, and two | feasting-songs were also sung by the SisEnLle^. 
After they had sung their || feasting-songs, they poured the crab- 65 
apples into the four house-dishes; | and when they had poured one 
box into each one | of the house-dishes, they took one box of oil and | 
poured it into the four house-dishes. Then they | took many small 
dishes and put crabapples into them; || and when the crabapples had 70 
been put in, they poured oil over them. | Then all were wet with oil. 
Then Llasotiwahs (III 11) stood up | and spoke. He said, "Now I 
will distribute the dishes, | my numaym Qlomk' !ut!Es." He said, 
"This I sea-otter dish and sea-monster dish are for you, G'lg'ilg&m." 
Immediately the young men || put the sea-otter dish in front of 75 
the chief of the | G'lg'ilgam, Sewid; and they put the sea-monster 
house-dish | in front of the prince of Sewid, K'imged. After | this 
had been done, Llasotiwahs (III 11) spoke again, and said, "This | 
whale dish and sea-hon dish are for you, SisEnLle^!" and immedi- 
ately II the young men took up the whale house-dish and put it in 80 
front of I the chief of the numaym SIseul !e^, Gwayol^ElasEme^ ; and | 
they took the sea-Mon dish and put it in front of his prince | X'ilx^ed. 



xsa^ya. Wa, la^mets weg'il k!we^lalaLol G-Ig-llg^m los SisEULle^," 61 
^nek"Exs lae qlweHda. Wa, hex'^ida^mese klwelg'a^leda G'ig'llgame. 
Wa, ma^ltsEme klwe^lalay^s qlEmqiEmdEma. Wa, laxae ma^ltsEme 
klwe^lalay&s q'.EmqiEmdEmas SlsEULla^ye. Wa, g'il^mese gwala k!we- 
^lalaxs lae giixtslalayoweda lEnxsta laxa mEwexLa loElqiilila. Wa, 65 
g"il^mese gQxts loyoweda ^nal^nEmsgEme k" !ik' limyaxLa laxa ^nal^nE- 
mexLa loElqiillla, lae ax^etsE^weda ^uEmsgEme dEngwats!e Lle^na, 
qa^s k!Qnq!Eqes laxa mEwexLa loElqtihla. Wa, g'iPmese gwalExs 
lae Sx^etsE^weda q!enEme loElqlwa, qa^s &xts!^layaeda lEnxsta laq. 
Wa, g'iPmese ^wMts!aweda lEnxsta laqexs lae k!unq!Eqasosa Lle^na. 70 
Wa, g-ll^mese ^wPla k!unq!EgEkuxs lae Lax^iilileda gigama^ye L'.aso- 
tlwalise. Wa, la yaqlEg'a^ia. Wa, la ^nek'a: "La^mEn k'ax'^IdEl 
nos^nE^memot Qlomk- !ut!Es," ^nek'EXs lae ^nek'a: "Loqiilas, G'lgil- 
g8.m qiasa LE^wa hanagfttsle." Wa, hex'-ida^mesa ha^yal^a la 
k'ax"dzamolilasa q!asa loqulil laxa g'lgSma^yasa ^nE^memotasa 75 
G'IgilgS,me Sewide. Wii, la k'ax'dzamolFlEma hanagatsle loqiilil 
lax nExdzamolilas Lfiwulgama^yas Sewide Kimgede. Wa, giPmese 
gwalExs lae edzaqwa ^nek'e L!as6tlwalise: "Loqiilas, SlsEULla^ye 
gwE^yim LE^wa LlexEne loqillila." Wa, hex'^idaEmxaawiseda 
ha^yal^a ax^alilaxa gwE^yime loqulila, qa^s la k'ax'dzamolila lax 80 
g'lgama^yasa ^nE^memotasaSisEnLla^ye Gw&yolElasEma^ye. Wa, la 
Sx^etsE^weda L!exEne loqtilila, qa^s la k"ax'dzamolFlEm lax L&wGlg5- 



1062 KTHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

After tliis had been done, they put | small dishes, one in front of each 
85 four men (they call it || " La^staak" " when there is one dish for every | 
man, and one dish for every chief and for | every prince). When 
they all had been put down, | L!as5tiwalis (III 11) told them to go 
ahead and eat, and they all | began to eat; and after they were 
90 through, || Llasotiwahs (III 11) told them that now he had changed 
the name of his prince Sesaxalas (IV 8), and that | his name would 
be Kwax'ilanokume^ (IV 8), and that the name of his dancer would 
be I MElned. Thus he said, and turned to his numaym the | 
Qlomk' !ut!ES, and said, "Don't sit in this way, numaym Qlomk' !u- 
tlES, I but go and get the marriage mat of TslEndEgEmg'i^lak" 
95 (IV 3), the || hundred and twenty blankets, so that we may wipe off 
the mouths of our chiefs; | otherwise their mouths will be oily." 
Thus he said, and stopped speaking. | Immediately the young men 
went and took the blankets ashore out of | the canoe. They brought 
them in, and put them down inside of the door of the house. | Then 
300 Llasotiwahs (III 11) spoke again, and said to his l| numaym Q !6mk' !u- 
tlES, "Now let us wipe off the mouths of our chiefs | with these 
hundred and twenty blankets, the marriage mat of the princess of | 
QlQmx'od (IV 4)." Thus he said, and turned his face to the guests, 
and I said, holding one pair of blankets, "Now 1 will wipe off your 
mouth, I Chief Sewid." Then a young man belonging to the || 

83 ma^yase X"ilx^ede. Wa, g'iFmese gwalExs lae k'ax"dzamolFlEma 
ioElqIwa laxa ^nal^uEmokwe bebEgwauEma. HeEm LegadEs 

85 La^staakwe, yixs ^nal^uExiilasE-waeda toElqlwasa ^nal^nEmokwe 
bebEgwauEma, LE^wa g'lg'igama^yaxs ^nal^nExulaaxa toElqulile 
LE^wis LOLaElgama^ye. Wa, giFmese ^wilg'alilaxs lae waxasos 
Llasotiwalise, qa hamx^^ides. Wa, hex'^ida^mese ^naxwa hSm- 
x'^ida. Wa, g"lFmese gwalExs lae neie l !as6tiwalisaxs 

90 lE^mae L!ayoxLes Lawulga,ma^ye Sesaxalase, qaxs lE^mae Lega- 
dES Kwax'ilanokuma^ye. Wa, he^mis LegEmas senatase, yix MElne- 
de, ^nek'Exs lae gwegEmx'^id laxes ^nE^memota Q!6mk"!ut!Ese. 
Wa, la ^nek"a: "Gwallas he gwaele, ^uE^memot, Qlomk" !ut!Es, 
qa^s laos ax^edEx le^waxsa^yas TslEndEgEmg'i^lakiik'xa ma^ltsogu- 

95 g'iyowa p !ElxElasgEma, qEns dayaxstEndayoxEns g'lg'igama^ye, 
aLa xEULElalax q!eq!EldzExstalalax," ^nek'Exs lae q!wel^ida. Wa, 
hex'^ida^meseda ha-yal^a la ax^wultodxa p lElxElasgEme laxa 
xwak!una, qa^s g'axe ax^aliias lax awlLElasa tiExilasa g'okwe. 
Wa, la Llasotiwahse edzaqwa yaqlEg'a^la. Wa, la ^nek'a laxes 
300 nE^memota Qlomk' !ut!Ese: "La^mEns dayaxstEndElxEns g'ig'EgS- 
ma^ye yisg'a ma^ltsogug'iyok" plEbcElasgEm le^waxsesa k'ledelaxs 
Q'.iimx'oda," ^nek'Exs lae gwegEmx'^ld laxa klwele. Wa, la ^ne- 
k"a: "LaEm dalaxa 'uEmxsa pIslxElasgEma. Lawmen dayaxstEnd- 
Lol g'Ig&mayai Sewide." Wa, la Lax^ulileda hel-a g'ayol lax ^ue- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1063 

numaym of Kwax' ilanokume^ (IV 8) took the one pair of blankets | 5 
and gave it to Chief Sewid; and | Llasotiwalis (III 11) took up 
another pair of blankets, and said, | "Now 1 will wipe off your 
mouth, Chief K'imged" (he meant the prince of | Sewid); and this 
also was given by a young man to K'imged; || and LlasotiwaUs (III 10 
11) continued doing this with the blankets; | and when all had been 
given out to the numaym G'Ig"ilg2.m, then he also | wiped off the oil 
from the mouth of the SisEmJe^; and after this had been done, | the 
guests went out. TslEiidEgEmg'i^lak" (IV 3) did not have a cliild | 
by her husband Kwax'se-stala (IV 8), for she did not stay long || 
with her husband. Then they parted. Ts!EndEgEmg"i«lak" (IV 3) 15 
went home | to Baas. For two winters | TslEndEgEnig'i^lak" (IV 3) 
had no husband. Then she was asked in marriage by ^maxulag'ilis 
(IV 9) I of the numaym Seni.lEm of the Kwag'ul; but her | name 
was no longer TslEndEgEmg'i^lak" (IV 3), because her uncle || 
Qasnomalas (III 14) made her dance, and her name was LaLlElE- 20 
wedzEmga (IV 3), and | I shall call her so after this. When her 
brother Q Iiimx'od (IV 4 | (but now the name of Q lumx'od (IV 4) was 
no longer Q!umx'6d (IV 4), for his name was | K' ladalag'ilis (IV 4), 
the name of his dead uncle K' ladalag'ilis' (III 12), and | 1 shall now 
name him thus, by this his new name) ... I! When ^maxulag'ilis 25 
(IV 9) finished speaking with K' ladalag'iUs (IV 4), then ^maxulag'i- 
lis I called the Kwag" ul tribes into the house of his son | ^nEmogwis. 

^memotas Kwax'ilanokiima^ye, qa^s dax'^idexa ^uEmxsa plElxElasgE- 5 
ma qa^s la ts!as laxa g'lgama^ye Sewide. Wa, laxae etiede Lla- 
sotlwalise dax'^idxa ^nEmxsa p lElxElasgEma. Wa, laxae ^nek'a: 
"La^mEn dayaxstEndLol g'Igamayai' K'imgede," lax LawvilgJlma^yas 
Sewide gwE^yos. Wa, laxae tslEwesa hel^a lax K'imgede. Wa, la 
hex'sa gwek'Ialaxs yaqwae L!as6tiwalisasa p lElxElasgEme. Wa, 10 
g'll^mese ^wilxtowe ^nE^memotasa G'Jg'Ilgamaxs lae ogwaqa da- 
yaxstEndxa ^uE^memotasa SisEnL!aH'e. Wa, g'tPmese gwalExs lae 
^wi^la hoqiiwElseda kiwelde. Wa, k'lestla xflngwadEx'^Ide TslEndE- 
gEmg'i^lakwe laxes la^wunEme Kwax'se^stala, qa^s k" lesae alaEm gala 
la^wadEsexs lae k'!as&. Wa, g'ax^Em na-'nakwe Ts lEndEgEmg'i^la- 1.5 
kwe lax Baase. Wa, hetia la ma'lEnxe ts!awunxas k'!e4s la la- 
^wunEme TslEndEgEmg'i^lakwaxs lae g'ayox^witsos ^maxulag'llise 
g'ayole laxa ^uE^memotas SenLlEmasa Kwag'ule, ylxs lE^mae gwal 
LegadEs Ts lEndEgEmg'i^lakwe, qaxs lax'de senatses qlule^ye Qas- 
nomalase. Wa, laEm Lex^edEs LlaLlElEwedzEmga laq. He^me- 20 
sEn lal LeqElayoLEq. Wa, g'il^mese wiiq!wase Qliimx'ode, yixs 
lE^maaxat! gwal Legade Q!umx'odas Qlumx'ode; yixs lae LegadEs 
K' ladalag'ilise LegEmases q !uley6lae K" ladalag'ilis^wula. Wa, hcEm- 
xaawisEn lal LeqEloyolqes ale LegEma. Wa, g'lFmese gwale wal- 
dEmas ^maxulag'ilise Lo^ K' !adalag'ilisaxs lae Le^lale ^maxiilag't- 25 
lisaxa 'naxwa KwakQg'ula, qa las ^wFlaeLEla lax g'okwases xuno- 

1 See p. 1079. 



1064 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

27 (V 1), and then ^maxQlagilis (IV 9) told the chiefs that he had | 
asked in marriage l !aL lElEwedzEmga (IV 3), the princess of K" !fi,da- 
Jag'ilis (IV 4), the chief | of the numaym ^walas, and also that 

30 K' ladalag'ilis (IV 4) had || told him to marry his sister quickly. 
Thus said ^maxQlag'ihs (IV 9). | After he had told this to his chiefs, 
the Kwag"ul agreed, | and told him to marry quickly. Immediately 
^maxQlag'llis (IV 9) counted | twelve hundred blankets with the 
young men of his numaym, | theSenLlEm; and when they had all been 

35 put down, the || chiefs told them to start, if the next day should be 
fine. After | they had finished talking, they went out and got 
ready. At | dayhght in the morning he put the twelve hundred 
blankets | into four large canoes; and when they were all aboard, | 

40 they started. At noon they arrived on the island in front of || Baas; 
and when the four canoes came together, | the chief of the numaym 
SeuLlEm, I HamisElal, arose and spoke. He said to the chiefs of 
the I Kwag'ul, "Now, let us follow the words of our past old men | in 
regard to what we have to say when we go paddhng to get a wife — 

45 Now, II Chief P'.asElal, — and you, Chief Nolis, — and you, Chie 
Kwax'se^staladze, | — go and speak about the marriage to Chief 
K' !a,dalag'ilis (IV 4). Now | let the young men take you there, for 
you always succeed in what you want, | chiefs." Then he stopped 

27 kwe ^nEmogwise. Wa, la ^maxiilagilise nelaxa g'lg'Egama^yaxs g'a- 
y&laax L!aL!ElEwedzEmga lax kMedelas K" ladalag'ihse lax g'lgama- 
^yasa ^nE^memotasa ^walase. Wa, he^mise K' !adalag'iUsaxs lE^mae 

30 ^Em hanaklula, qa^s la qadzeLasE^wes wiiqlwa, ^nek'e ^maxQlag-Ilisaxs 
lae et&laxes g"igE"gama^ye. Wa, la ^naxwaEm ex'^ak'eda KwakO- 
g'ulax hah^lala gagak' !a. Wa, hex'^ida^mese ^maxulagilise hos^wul- 
t lalllaxa ma'ltsogunwala p lElxElasgEma lo^ ha^yal^ases ^nE^memota 
SenLlEme. Wa, g'llmese ^wilg'alilExs laase ^naxwa ^nek'eda g"Ig"E- 

35 gama^ye, qa^s &lex^wida^mel qo exxa ^nalax lEnsLa. Wa, g'il^mese 
gwale waldEmasexs lae hoquwElsa, qa^s xwanaHde. Wa, g'il- 
^mese ^nax'^Idxa gaalaxs lae moxsasa ma^ltsog&nwala p IslxElasgEm 
laxa motslaqe awa xwaxwakluna. Wa, g"ll^mese ^wIlxsExs lae 
sEpIeda. Wa, k'les^mese nEqalaxs lae lag'aa lax ^mEkuma^yas 

40 Baase. Wa, g'il^mese ^wi4a la q!ap!ewaleda mots!aqe xwaxwfi- 
klunaxs lae Lax^wulExse g'igama^yasa ^nE^memotasa SenLlEme 
HamisElale. Wa,la yaq!Eg"a^la. Wa,la ^nek"alaxag'ig'Egama^yasa 
Kwakiig'ule: "La^mEn dax'^IdLEx waldEmasEns q Ifilsq !ulyax"da 
laxwa g'axaqEns se^wena^ya gagak' !ax waldEma, g"ig'Egame. LaEms 

45 laLol, g'Igame, PlasElal Los g'lgame Nolis l6s g'igame Kwax"se- 
^staladze waLaqag'tlilElalxa g'lgEma^yae K' ladalag'ilisa. Wa, 
la^mets lal sexwasoltsa ha'yal^ax, qaxs so^mae k"!eas wtyoLanEms 
grg'Eg&me," ^nek'Exs lae qlwel'ida. Wa, la lase g-Igama^yasa 



BOAS) FAMILY HISTORIES 1065 

speaking. And the chief of the [ numaym Lafilax's^Endayo, P lasElal, 
and the chief of the II numaym Kiikwakltim of the Qlomoya^ye, 50 
Nohs; and the chief of .the | numaym DzEndzEnx" q !ayo, Kwax'- 
se^staladze, went in one | canoe; and the young men paddled, 
going to the beach in front of | the house of K' ladalag'ihs (IV 4). 
As soon as they arrived, the i three chiefs went ashore and into the 
house of II K' !S,dalag'ihs (IV 4). There they sat down next to the 55 
door; and | first Chief P lasElal arose and spoke, | and said, " Now sit 
up. Chief K" ladalag'ihs (IV 4), and | listen to what I have to say. 
I come, sent by my chief | ^maxulag'ilis (IV 9), to speak about the 
marriage, for I want to pay the marriage money for || your princess 60 
L !aL lElEwedzEmga (IV 3)." Thus he said, and stopped speaking. | 
Then he sat down again; and Chief Nohs arose, and he also | spoke, 
and said, "Now you have heard it, Chief | K' !&dalag'ihs (IV 4). I 
come to speak about the marriage, sent by my chief | ^maxulag'ihs 
(IV 9), who wants to marry your princess. Chief K" ladalag'ihs (IV 4), |i 
L !aL lElEwedzEmga (IV 3)." Thus he said, and stopped speaking. | 65 
Then he sat down, and | Kwax'se^staladze arose and spoke. He 
said, I "Indeed, it is necessary to speak in this way when we try to 
get the princess of a chief. | Listen to me, child, K' ladalag'ihs (IV 4), 
for I I came here on account of a great thing. It is really from you 
that I try to get in marriage your princess. Chief || K' ladalag'ihs 70 
(IV 4). I come, sent by my friend ^maxiilag'ihs (IV 9), | to talk 

^nE^memotasa Laalax's^Endayowe PlasElale, l6^ g^Igftma^yasa ^ue- 
^memotasa Kukwaklumasa QlomoytVye Nolise, l6^ g'igama^yasa 50 
^nE^memotasa DzEndzEnx'qIayowe Kwax'se^staladze laxa ^nemtslaqe 
xwakluna LE^wa ha^yal^a. La sex^wida, qa^s la lax LJEma^isas 
g'okwas K" ladalagilise. Wa, g'lPmese lag'aaxs lae hex'^idaEm 
hox^wQltaweda yudukwe g'ig'Egama^ya, qa^s la hogwiL lax g'okwas 
K' ladalag'ilise, qa^s klus^allle lax SwiLElasa tiEX'ila. Wa, he^mis 55 
g-il Lax^filileda g'igSma^ye PlasElale, qa^s yaqlEg'a^ie. Wa, la 
^nek'a: "Weg'a, klwagEmg'alilEx g'ig5me K' iadalagllis, qa^s h5- 
Lelaosaxg'in waldEmLEk". G'ax^mEn ^yalagEmsEn g'igama^yae ^ma- 
xfllagllisa, qEn g-axe waLaqag'ililEla. G'ax^mEn qadzeLaxs k'le- 
delaqios laxox LlaLlElEwedzEmgax," ^nek'Exs lae qlweWda. Wa, 60 
la kiwag-alllaxs lae Lax^ulileda g'lgama^ye Nolise. Wa, laxae 
yaqlEg'a^a. Wa, la ^nek'a: "LaEms hoLela g'igame, yoL K'la- 
dalag'ilis. G"ax^mEn waLaqag'ililEla ^yalagEmsEn g'lgama^yae ^ma- 
xulag"ilisa laxos k" ledelaq !os, g'igame K' ladalag'ihs, laxox LlaLlElE- 
wedzEmgax," ^nek'Exs lae qlweHda. Wa, laxae kiwag'alllaxs lae 65 
Lax-iilile Kwax'se^staladze, qa^s yaqlEg'a^le. Wa, la ^nek'a: 
"QaLaxs heqiamaaxs gwek' lalag'ilexwa laloLlax k'ledeiasa g'igS- 
ma^ye. Weg'a, hoLela g'axEn, xQnok" K' ladalag'ihs, yLxs ^walase- 
g'ln se^wenek'. Alax'^IdEn gagak' !a laxs k' ledelaq los, g'igame K' \k- 
dalag'ilis. G'ax^mEn ^yalagEmsEn ^nEmokwae ^maxtilag'ilisa, qEn 70 



1066 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [bth. ANN. 3j 

71 about the marriage. I come to pay the marriage-money for your 
princess, | Chief K" ladalag'ilis (IV 4), for l !aL lElEwedzEmga (IV 3)." 
After he had said so, he stopped | and sat down. At once Qasnom- 
alas (III 14), the | uncle of K' ladalag'ilis (IV 4), arose. He took one 

75 pair of blankets, |I spoke, and said, "Now you have her, chief. \ Now 
your wife will go with you, cluefs. Now come and pay the marriage- 
money, I chiefs. Now your wife will go with you; namely, what I 
carry here." | Thus he said, and gave two pairs of blankets to each 
of the I three chiefs. Then Qasnomalas (III 14) gave two pairs of || 

80 blankets to the chiefs, and said, " This is your wife, | these blankets." 
Thus he said, and went out. Then | the three chiefs went out, 
aboard their | canoe, and they paddled back. When they ap- 
proached I the place where they had left the three canoes, they stood 

85 up, II holding the blankets in their arms and singing their sacred songs. 
Wlien I they arrived, PlasElal spoke. He said, "Now look at me, 
Chief I ^maxiilag'ihs (IV 9) ! Now we come, carrying on our arms 
yoiu" wife, | l !aL '.ElEwedzEmga (IV 3). Now we have her, Kwag"ul. 
We were told to go ahead and pay the marriage money | by Chief 
K' ladalag'ilis (IV 4)." Thus he said, and stopped speaking. Il 

90 Immediately strong young men went aboard one of the canoes, | 
for it was known that the Nak !wax' da^x" always had a sham-fight 



71 g-axe waLaqag'ihla. G'ax^mEn qadzeLa laxos k'!edelaq!6s, g'iga- 
me K" ladalag'ilis laxox LlaLlElEwedzEmgax," ^nek'Exs lae qlwel- 
'ida, qa^s kiwag'allle. Wa, hex'^ida^mese Qasnomalase, yix qlii- 
le^yas K' ladalag'IUse Lax^uhla, dalaxa ^nEmxsa p lElxElasgEma. 

75 Wa, la yaqlEg'a^la. Wii, la ^nek'a: "LaEms laLa, g'ig'Egame. 
La^mesEk' lalg'as gEuEmg'os laxs Lol, g-ig'Egame. Gelag'a qadzel^i- 
dEx, g'ig'Egame. Wa, la^mesEk' lalg'as gEUEmg'os yixg'in daa- 
kflk'," ^nek'Exs lae yax^witsa maemalExs plElxElasgEm laxa yudu- 
kwe g'ig'Eg&ma^ya. He^mise Qasnomalase la tslasa maemalExsa 

80 pJElxElasgEm laxa g'lg'Egama^ye. Wa, la ^nek'a: "YuEms gEUE- 
moxxwa plElxElasgEmex," ^nek'Exs lae aedaaqa. Wa, hex'^ida- 
^mese la hoqGwElseda yudukwe g'lg'Egama^ya, qa^s la hox^walExs 
laxa xwakWna. Wa, g'iix^me sex^wida. Wa, g'il^mese Elaq lag'aa 
lax mExalasasa yudux"ts!aqe xwaxwSk liinaxs lae Laxumg'aalExsa 

85 gegEnalaxa p JElxElasgEme yiyalaqulases yiyalax"LEne. Wa, g"il- 
^mese lag'aaxs lae yaqlEg'a^le PlasElale: "Weg'a doqwalax g'ig&me 
^maxiilag'ilise. G'ax^mEnu^x" gEnaiaxg'as gEUEmg'os laxg'a LlaLlE- 
lEwedzEmgak'. La^mEns laLEq, Kwaktig'ul. Wag'ilaEns aEm qadzel- 
^ida," ^nek'edag'igama^yeKMadalag'llise, ^nek'ExslaeqlweHda. Wa, 

90 hex'^ida^mese la hoguxseda lelakwe ha^yal^a laxa ^uEmts laqe xwaklfl- 
na, qaxs qlala^maeda Naklwax'da^xwaxs hemEnala^mae amaqaxs lae 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1067 

when I any one of another tribe married their princess. After this 92 
had been done, | they put the bows of the marriage canoes in line | 
and paddled. When they came to the point of the || island in front 95 
of Baas, they saw the climbing-board standing up | in front of the 
house of K' ladalag'ilis (IV 4), and there was nobody | walking about 
outside of the houses. Then the | four canoes arrived in front of the 
house of K' ladalag'ilis (IV 4). | Then PlasElal arose, and spoke to 
the Kwag'ul. || He said, "Now I will speak. Chief Nolis, and Kwax- 400 
se^stala, | the way out ancestors used to speak when they went 
wooing." I Thus he said, and turned his face towards the village of the 
Nak Iwax'da^x" ; | and he spoke aloud, and said, " I come, great tribe, | 
Naklwax'da^x", I come to woo l !aL lElEwedzEmga (IV 3), your || 
princess. Chief K' ladalag'ilis (IV 4)." Thus he spoke, and took a 5 
blanket, | and he said, "I get married with this one pair, two pairs, 
three pairs, | foiu- pairs, ten blankets." Thus he said when there 
were five pairs of blankets. | And now the son of ^maxulag'ilis (IV 9), 
^nEmogwis (V 1), carried the | blankets up the beach and put them 
into the house of K" !adalag'ihs (IV 4); || and then P!asElal counted 10 
another five pairs of blankets and | put them on the shoulder of 
^nEmogwis, and he carried them into the house of | K" !adalag'ilis 
(IV 4) ; and when there were five hundred blankets, | he spoke again 
while he was carrying the blankets. "Now I | carry these." Thus 

gagak" lasE^wes k" ledetasa ogiixsEmakwe lelqwalaLa^ya. Wa, g'il^mese 92 
gwalExs lae ^nEmag'iwale ag'iwa^yas qadzeLats!as xwaxwS,k !una. 
Wa, la sex^wida. Wa, g'iPmese tex^wid lax ftwllba^yasa «mEkiima- 
^yas Baasaxs lae dox^waLElaxa naxEdzowaxs lE-mae ek' lEbalis lax 95 
Llasana^yas g'okwas KMadalagilise. Wa, la k"!e^s ^UEmok" 
bEgwauEm g'ig'ilsEla lax Llasana^yasa g'okula. Wa, la lag'aliseda 
motslaqe xwaxwaklflna lax nEqEntsIesas g'okwas K' !adalagilise. 
Wa, la Lax^ulExse P lasElale, qa^s yaq lEg'a^le laxa Kwakug'ule. Wa, 
la -nek'a: "La^mEn yaq!Ent!alal gigame Nolis, Kwaxse^staladze 400 
lax gwek' lalasasEns q !ulsq !ulyax"da laxwa gagak' !ax waldEma," 
^nekExs lae gwegEmx'^id lax g'o.x"dEmsasa Nak!wax'da-xwe. Wa, 
la yaqlEg'a^a hasEla. Wa, la ^nek'a: "G'ax^mEn ^walas lelqwalaLe, 
Naklwax'da^x", g'ax^mEn gagak" !ax6x LlaLlElEwedzEmgax laxos 
k'!edelaq!6s, g'Igame K'ladalag'ihs," ^nek'Exs lae dax'^Idxa p!e1xe- 5 
lasgEme. Wa, la ^nek'a: "QadzcLaseq nEmxsa, ma^lExs, yuduxuxs, 
moxsa lastaai'," ^nek'Exs lae sEkMaxseda p lElxElasgEme. La^me- 
se xunokwas ^maxulag-thse, yix ^nEmSgwise, gEmxusdesaxa plsl- 
xElasgEme, qa^s la gEmxcLax lax g'okwas K' ladalagilise. Wa, 
laxae etiede PlasElale hos^idxa sEk'Iaxsa p !ElxElasgEma, qa^s gEm- 10 
xsEyaplEudes lax ^uEmogwise. Wa, laxae gEmxetas lax g'okwas 
K' ladalag'Ilise. Wa, g'll^mese sEkMaplEnyag'Exa p lElxElasgEmaxs 
lae edzaqwa ^nek'a, laEmxaa dalaxa p !ElxElasgEme : "La^mEn 



1068 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann.sb 

15 he said while he was counting another five pairs of blankets; |1 and 
when there were another five hundred blankets, then he said, " There | 
are one thousand blankets!" and he said again, | "Now I carry these 
blankets. I call her with these blankets." Then he counted | one 
hundred blankets and put them on the shoulders of ten | young men; 

20 and when they went up the beach, PlasElal said, || "Now there are 
eleven hundred blankets." When the | young men came back, 
PlasElal said again, holding up a blanket, | "Now with these hun- 
dred blankets I lift your | princess, Chief K" ladalag'ilas (IV 4). I 
wish that | your princess come now into my canoe." Thus he said, || 

25 and put five pairs of blankets on the shoulders of each of the ten | 
young men. They took them into the house of K' I&dalag'ilis (IV 4) ; | 
and when the young men came back, they went aboard their canoes. | 
Then Qasnomalas (III 14), the uncle of K' ladalag'ihs (IV 4), came 
and stood | in front of the house. He turned towards the door of the 

30 house of 11 K' ladalag'ihs (IV 4), and called out aloud, and said, 
"Come, now, Chief | K' ladalag'ihs (IV 4), come out with your tribe 
and I take your princess to her husband, | ^maxiilag'ilis (IV 9)!" 
Thus he said, and stopped speaking. Then the | Nak !wax' da^x" went 

35 out of the house of K' ladalag'ilis (IV 4) and stood in a row || in front 
of the house. Then K' ladalag'ilis (IV 4) foUowed them with his 

dalaxeq," ^nek'Exs lae hos^idxa sEkMaxsa p lElxElasgEme. Wa, 

15 g-lPmese sEk"!ap!Enyag"Exa p lELxElasgEmaxs lae ^nek'a: "LaEm 
loxsEmx'^ida heyag'owa plElxElasgEme." Wa, la edzaqwa; la 
^nek'a dalaxa p lElxElasgEme : "La^mEn Le^lalaseq," laxae hos^idxa 
lak'lEnde p lElxElasgEma, qa^s k'lExsEyaplEndales laxa nEqakwe 
hS,^yal^a. Wa, g'iPmese la hSx^wiisdeseda ha^yal^axs lae ^nek'e 

20 PlasElale: "La ^nEmx'sogQnwalai'." Wii, g'll^mese g-axeda hS,- 
^yal^a aedaaqaxs lae edzaqwe PlasElale dalaxa plElxElasgEme. Wa, 
la ^nek'a: " La^msn Lagilllasa lak'lEnde plElxElasgEme laxs k'lede- 
laq!os, g'igS,me^ K' ladalag'ilis, qaxg'in ^nek'Ek", qa g'ax^meso 
g'ax^alExsos k'ledelaqlos, g'Ig&me, laxg'ln ya^yatslek'," ^nek'Exs 

25 lae gEmxsEyap Isndalasa sesEk'Iaxsa plElxElasgEm laxa nEqakwe 
h&^yal^a. Wa, laxae gEmxeLas lax g'okwas K' !S,dalag'Ilise. Wa, 
g'll^mese g'ax aedaaqeda ha^yal^axs lae hox^walExs laxa xwakluna. 
Wa, g'axe Qasnomalase, yix qliile^yas K' ladalag'ilise lSx^weIs lax 
Llasan&^yasa g'okwe. Wa, la gwegEmala lax tiEx'Ilas g'okwas 

30 K'ladalag'ilise, qa^s lEloxsa hasEla. Wa, ^nek'a: "(jiela, g'lgame 
K'ladalag'Ilisai'. (Jlela hoquwEls LE^was g'okulotaqlosai', qa^s 
laLos taodaxsasos k'ledelaqlos laxg'a la^wunEmg'asox laxg'a ^maxil- 
lag-Ilisa," ^nek'Exs lae qlweHda. Wa, g'axe ^wi4a hoqiiwElseda 
Nak!wax'da^xwe laxa g'okwas K' ladalag'ilise, qa^s ylpEmg'aElse 

35 lax Llasana^yasa g'okwe. Wa, g'axe K" ladalag'ilise Elxxalaxes k"!e- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1069 

princess | l !aL lElEwedzEmga (IV 3). L !aL lElEwedzEmga (IV 3) 36 
wore on her head a | hat covered with abalone shells, and she wore a 
blue blanket covered with abalone shell, | and she carried a copper 
named Looking-Sideways. They stood | in the middle of the line 
of their tribe. Then Qasnomalas spoke, || and said, "Look at this, 40 
chiefs of the Kwag'ul, at this | wife of ^maxfllag'Uis (IV 9) ! This is 
the dress of my grandfather, | the way l !aL !ElEwedzEniga (IV 3) is 
dressed. Now come, chiefs, to this | wife of your chief, and let her go 
with her marriage mat, | the copper Looking-Sideways, which is 
worth fourteen hundred blankets; || and her dress has sixty | abalone 45 
shells, and your name will be Q!exetaso (IV 9), | son-in-law, and the 
name of your dancer will be | Hemask'as^o Qlomogwa and Hele^stes 
and PlesplEdzedzEmga and | Ex'ts!EmalalTli%k" and Hamasi^lak";" 
for the chief had many children, and || therefore he received many 50 
names as a marriage gift. "Now come, and take | your wife, 
chiefs!" Thus he said, and he stopped speaking. Inmiediately | 
the three chiefs — PlasElal and Nolis and Kwax'se^staladze — | went 
ashore. They went to the place where l !aL !ElEwedzEmga (IV 3) was 
standing; and when | they reached there, K' ladalag'ilis (IV 4) gave 
two pairs of blankets to || each of the three chiefs, and l !aL IeIewb- 55 
dzEmga (IV 3) | walked back with them. Then she sat down by the 

dele LlaLlElEwedzEmga. LaEm LEtEmale LlaLlElEwedzEmgaxa ex"- 35 
tslEmsgEmala LEtEmla. Wa, laxae ^uEX^ilnalaxa ex'tsEmala qo- 
tsEma. Wa, la dalaxa L!aqwa Legadns L!EsaxElayuwe. Wa, la 
qlwag'aEls lax uEq lEgelasases g'okfllote. Wa, la yaqlEg'a^le Qasno- 
malase. Wa,la^nek"a: " Weg'a doqwalax g"ig'Egames Kwagul laxg'a 49 
gEnEmg'asox ^maxulagilisex. HeEm gwiilaatslEn gagEmpe laxg'a 
lax" gwalaatsg'a l !aL !ElEwedzEmgak'. Wa, gelag'a g'ig'Egfime laxg'a 
gEUEmg'asa g'lgftma^yex, qa lalag'IsEk' ^nEmaxsEla Logwas le^waxsek" 
laxg'a L'.EsaxElayok", ylxs moplEnyag'analaxwek' ylsa plElxE- 
lasgEme, Logwas q!waq!ulax'LEnk', yixg'a q!EL!EsgEmg'ustak!we- 45 
mak' ex'ts lEma. Wa, he^misa LegEme laEms LegadElts Q !exetasE^we, 
nEgump. Wa, he^misa LegEmLases senatLaos, la^me LegadElts He- 
mask'as^o Q!omogwa lo^ Hele^stes l6^ PlEsplEdzedzEmga lo^ Ex'ts !e- 
malalili^lak" Lo^ Hamasi^lakwe," qaxs q!enEmae sasEmasa g'lgSma- 
^yex, lag'ilas q!enEma LegEmg'ElxLa^ye. "Wa, gelag'a daxsaxg'as 5Q 
gEUEmg'os g'lg'Egame^," ^nek'Exs lae q!wel^ida. Wa, la hex'^ida^me- 
da yudukwe g'lg'Egama^ye PlasElale, lo^ Nolise, l6^ Kwax"se*staladze 
la hox^wulta, qa^s la lax Ladzasas LlaL'.ElEwedzEmga. Wa, g'IPmese 
lag'aaxs lae K'!adalag'ilise tslEwanaqasa maemalExsa p!ElxElasgEm 
laxa yudukwe g'lg'Egama^ya. Wa, g'axe qaqslax l !aL lEwedzEmgaxs 55 
g'axae aedaaqa, qa^s g'fixe k !wak '.ugogwaalExsas LE^wis la^wQnEme 



1070 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

57 side of her husband | ^maxulag'ilis. They did not run up the climb- 
ing-board, which was | just standing there. When l !aL lEiEwedzEmga 
(IV 3) was seated, | Qasnomalas spoke, and said, "Now wait a 

60 while, II Kwagul, for the privilege-box of your wife, | ^maxulag'i- 
lis (IV 9) !" Thus he said, and ran into the house of K' ladalag'ihs 
(IV 4). I And when he went in, the cannibal whistle and the | 
q!ilminag&s whistle sounded, and the frog wliistle of the frog war- 
dancer and the whistle of the i fu-e-dancer, and it was not long before 

65 they stopped sounding. || Then Qasnomalas came out of the house, 
swinging the | rattle of the assistant of the cannibal; and he told his 
tribe | the Naklwax'da^x" to beat time fast; and when they were 
beating time, he caught in his hand the | supernatural power of the 
winter dance and threw it upon the Kwag'ul. | Immediately l !aL !e1e- 

70 wedzEmga (IV 3) told her husband's son, il Yagwis (V 1), to get 
excited, and then Yagwjs (V 1) uttered the cannibal cry. | He was 
excited, went ashore, and ran into the house. | Then Qasnomalas 
(III 14) spoke, and said, "Now I | invite you in, friends, on behalf of 
my son-in-law ^maxulag'ilis (IV 9), that we | may pacify Yagwis 

75 (V 1)." Then he stopped speaking, and the II Kwag'ul went ashore 
and went into the house of K' ladalag'ihs (IV 4). | When they were aU 
in the house, ^maxulag'ihs (IV 9) and his wife | l !aL lElswedzEmga 
(IV 3) went in and sat down in the rear of the house; | and when 
they were seated, Qasnomalas (III 14) spoke, and said, | "Now, 

57 ^maxiilag'iUse. Wa, la^me hewaxa la nax^idaasa naxEdzowe. Wul- 
^Em la Laesa. Wa, g'iPmese k!wag"aalExse L'.aLlElawedzEmgaxs 
lae Qasnomalase yfiqlEg'a^ii. Wa, la ^nek"a: " Weg'aEmasL esslax, 

60 Kwakug'ul, qa lasg'a kMes^Ewatslek' g'ildatsos gEUEmaqos, ^maxu- 
lag'ihs," ^nek'Exs lae dzElwiLa lax g'okwas K' ladalaglhse. Wa, 
gil^mese laexExs laase hek'!Eg"a^le niEdzesasa hamats!a LE^wa 
qiaminagase, LE^wa xwak'.walasa tox^wide wuqiesa, LE^wa uonltse- 
■stalale mEdzesas hek' !ala. Wa, k" lest !a gala hek' lalaxs lae q !wet- 

65 ^ida. Wa, g'axe Qasnomalase g'axawEls laxa g'okwe yatElaxa 
yadEnasox helik'asa hamatsla. Wa, la waxaxes g^okidota Na- 
klwax'da^xwe qa t'.Emsales. Wa, g'iPmese tlEms^idfixs lae dasgEmd- 
xa ^nawalakwasa ts!ets!eqa, qa^s mEqEntsIeses laxa Kwag'ule. Wa, 
hex'^ida^mese L!aL!ElEwedzEmga axk'Ialax xunokwases lil^wQnEme 

70 Yagwise, qa xwases. Wa, hex'^ida^mese Yagwise hamadzElaqwa. 
Wa, la^me xwasa, qa^s loltawe, qa^s la laLlESEla laxa g-6kula. Wa, 
hex'^ida^mese Qasnomalase yaq!Eg'a%. Wa, la ^nek'a: "La^mEn 
Le^laloLai' ^uE^nEmokwai' qaEn nEgiimpox ^maxiilagihsex, qEns 
yalex Yagwise," ^nek'Exs lae q!welnda. Wit, la liex'^ida^ma Kwa- 

75 kug'ule hox^wiilta, qa^s la hogwiL lax g'okwas K' !adalagilise. Wa, 
g-Il-mese ^wl4aeLExs lae hogwiLe ^maxiilagllise LE^wis gEUEme L'.a- 
LlElEwedzEmga, qa^s la klus^ahl laxa ogwiwalilasa g'okwe. Wa, 
g-lPmese klus^alilExs lae yacjlEg'a^le Qasnomalase. Wa, lit ^nek'a 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTOKIES 1071 

fiiends, Naklwax'da^x", be ready to pacify II our great friend Yagwis SO 
(Y 1)." When he stopped speaking, | Yagwis (V 1) uttered the 
cannibal cry at the door, and then | the Nak !wax' da'x" sang four 
songs; and when they had pacified | Yagwis (V 1), Qasnonialas 
(III 14) let him sit down at the seat of | ^maxulag' ilis (IV 9). When 
he was seated, Qasnomalas (III 14) brought the 11 carved privilege- 85 
box. On top of the box was a neck-ring I of red cedar-bark. Then he 
turned to his | tribe the Nak!wax"da^x". He did not speak loud, | 
and said, ■' Wliat shall we say against this, what I carry here, niy 
tribe | Nak'.wax'da^x"? for this is what the late ^maxwa (II 1) 
obtained in marriage II from the Awik' !enox". Now, this shall go to 90 
my son-in-law | ^maxulag'iUs (IV 9), and also the name for this 
cannibal. His | name shall be Hamtse^stasElag'ilis; and after a while 
1 shall give | names to the other three dancers when I pay the mar- 
riage debt." Thus he said while he was putting | down in front of 
Yagwis (V 1) the box containing the cai-ved privileges. After || this 95 
they gave food to the Kwag'ul; and as soon as the | Kwag'ul had 
eaten, they went out, and Yagwis (V 1) | carried the carved box. 
Then he went out of the house and | went aboard the canoe of his 
father ^maxulag'ihs (IV 9). Now | l !aL lElEwedzEmga (IV 3), and 



" Weg'il la ^ne^nEmok", Nak!wax"da^x", qlagEmg'aliLEx, qEns y^H- 
dexEns ^nEmox"dzek'ase lax Yagwise." Wa, g^il^mese qlwel-idExs SO 
g'axae hamtslEg'a^le Yagwise laxa tiEx'ila. Wa, la^me dEnx^Ideda 
Nak Iwax'da^xwasa mosgEme q !Emq lEmdEma. Wii, giPmese yaHde 
Yagwisaxs lae klwag'all^lEms Qasnomalase laxklwaelasas^maxiilag'i- 
lise. Wa, g^Il^mese kIwag'alilExs g'axaase Qasnomalase dalaxa 
k"!awats!e k'!esgEmala g'ildasa. Wa, la wulk^Eyaleda LEkwe k"!a- 85 
watsIekMinala qEnxawe L!agEkwa. Wa, la gwegEmg"alit laxes 
g'okulotaxa Naklwax'da^xwe. Wa, la kMes hasElaxs lae yaq!E- 
g-a^la. Wa, la -nek'a: " Qa ^maseltses watdEmLaos, g'okulot, 
Naklwax'da^x"; qag'in daaktik' yixs g^a'mae gEg'adanEms ^maxwola 
laxa Awik' lenoxwe. Wa, la^meslk' lal laxEn nEgumpex laxox 90 
^maxulag'Uisex. Wa, he^misa LegEme qaeda hamats!a. LaEms 
LegadElts Hamtse^stasElagilise. Wa, al^EmlwisEu Lex^edLEx LeLEgE- 
masa yuduxwidala leled, qEnLo qotex'aLo," ^nek-Exs lae hSngEmli- 
iasa k"!awats!e kMesgEmala gildas lax Yagwise. Wa, giHmese 
gwalExs lae hfimgulasE^weda Kwakug'ule. Wa, g'U^mese gwaleda 95 
Kwakug'ule ha^mapExs lae hoquwElsa. Wa, la he^mise Yagwise da- 
laxa k"!awats!e k'lesgEmala gildasaxs lae lawEls laxa g"6kwe, qa^s 
la laxs lax xwaklunases ompe ^maxulag'ilise. Wa, la ElxLa^ye 
LlaLlElEwedzEmga LE^wis la^wunEme 'maxulagilisaxs lae hoquwEls 



1072 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [kth. ann. as 

500 her husband ^maxGlag' ilis (IV 9), went last H out of the house, and 
went aboard the canoe in which Yagwis (V 1) was seated. When | 
all the Kwag'ul had gone aboard, they started, and went home to 
Fort Rupert. | Late at night they arrived at Fort Rupert, and | 
immediately all the Kwag'ul went ashore into their | houses. When 
5 dayhght came, in the morning, ^maxiilag'ilis (IV 9) invited || the 
Kwag'ul to a feast in the house of his son 'nEmogwis (V 1), | for now 
his name was no longer Yagwis (V 1), because it was no real | winter 
dance. When all the GwetEla, Qlomoya^ye, | ^walas Kwag'ul, and 
Q!6mk"!ut!Es had come in, they were given breakfast; | and after 

10 breakfast ^UEmogwis (V 1) took the copper || Looking-Sideways and 
told the four Kwag'ul tribes that he was going to sell it. | At once the 
chief of the numaym | G'ig'ilg&m of the Q!omoyS,^ye, whose name 
was ^walas, arose, and asked ^nEmSgwis (V 1) for the copper. | 
Immediately ^nEmogwis (V 1 ) gave the copper | to the chief ^walas. 

15 He took it, and said that he || would buy it for fourteen hundred 
blankets. | When he stopped speaking, ^nEmogwis (V 1) thanked him 
for what he had said; | and after they had finished talking, the 
Kwag'ul tribes went out | before noon. Then Chief ^walas called to- 

20 gether the |four Kwag'ul tribes, to sit in the summer seat outside II of 
his house; and when all the Kwag'ul had assembled, | ^walas asked all 
the men to pay their blanket debts, and | immediately they paid him. 

5Q0 laxa g'okwe qa^s la hox^walExs lax la k!waxdzats Yagwise. Wa, g'il- 
^mese ^wilxseda KwakQg'ulaxs lae sEp !eda, qa^s la na^nak" laxTsaxise. 
Wa, la^mese gala ganoLExs lae lag'aa lax Tsaxise. Wa, a^mise 
hex'^idaEm ^naxwa la hox^wultaweda Kwakug'ule, qa^s la laxes 
g"ig"6kwe. Wa, g"lPmese ^nax^^Idxa gaalaxs lae Le^lale ^maxulag'l- 
5 lisaxa Kwakug'ule, qa, las k!wela lax g'okwases xiinokwe ^nEmo- 
gwise, qaxs lE^mae gwal LegadEs Yagwise, qaxs kMesae alaEm 
ts !ets !eqa. Wa, giPmese g"ax 'wFlaeLeda GwetEla LE^wa Q !6moya^ye 
LE^wa ^walase Kwag'ula LE-wa Q!omkMut!Ese, lae gaaxstala. Wa, 
g'iPmese gwal gaaxstalaxs lae Sx^ede ^nEmogwisaxa Llaqwa, lax l!e- 

jQ saxElayowe, qa^snelexamosgEmakweKwakug'ulExslE^maelaxodi-Eq. 
Wa, hi'X'^ida^mese Lax^ullle g'igama^yasa ^UE^memotasa G'lg'ilga- 
masa Q!6moya^yexa LegadEs ^walase. Wa, la dak'Ialaxa L!5qwa 
lax ^nEmogwise. Wa, hex'Hda^mese ^nEmogwise la ts!asa L!aqwa 
laxa g"IgS,ma^ye ^walas. Wa, la^me dax'^IdEq. Wa, laEm 'nek'Exs 

25 lE^mae kilxwas mop!Enyag'auala pIslxElasgEm laxa Llaqwa, ^ne- 
k'Exs lae qlweHda. Wa, he^mise ^nEmogwise mo^las waldEmas. 
Wa, g"iPmese gwale w^ldEmasexs lae hoquwElseda Kwaktig'ulaxa 
k'les^Em uEqala. Wa, hex'^ida-mesa gTgama'ye ^walase Lex'LElsaxa 
mosgEmakwe Kwakug"ula qa las k!uts!Es laxa Swagwase lax LlasanS,- 

20 'yas g'okwas. Wa, g'il^mese ^wIlg'aElseda Kwakug'ulaxs lae gilgQne 
^walasaxes g'ig'alaxa ^naxwa bebEgwauEmaxa p !ElxElasgEme. Wa, la 



BOAS) FAMILY HISTORIES 1073 

The Kwiig'ul did not stay there a long time. | They paid enough for 23 
the price of tlie copper. Then | they bouglit it for fourteen hundred 
bhxnkets; and || after they had bought it, Yagwis (V 1) became excited 25 
again, and in the evening | he was pacified. Then he danced, wearing 
around his neck the thick | cedar-bark ring which carried tlie winter 
dance, and a tiiick head-ring of red cedar-bark, and he also | wore the 
bear-skin blanket while he was dancing. After | they had sung four 
songs for him, he was pacified. || Now he had the name given him in 30 
marriage by K' !adalag"ilis (IV 4). Now his name was | Hamtse- 
^stasElag'ilis (V 1); and after this he was no longer called Yagwis 
(V 1) ; I and when he went into the sacred room, they gave away | the 
fourteen hundred blankets to the four Kwag'ul tribes; | and after the 
blankets had been given away, the Kwag'ul went out. || This was the 35 
marriage mat given by l !aL lElEwedzsmga (IV 3) to her husband, | 
fourteen hundred blankets. Now | K' ladalag'iUs (IV 4) is going to 
pay the marriage debt to his brother-in-law ^maxulag'ilis (IV 9) the 
coming winter. | That is all about this. | 



Now I shall answer what I have been asked by you about the late 1 
cMef I ^'maxu yahdze when he married Q !ex'sesElas (III 7) , the princess of 
Q !iimx' od (II 8) . | Q !umx' od gave in marriage his name Q !umx' od | to 



hex'^idaEm giinasE^wa. Wa, k' lest !a gex'g'asa Kwakiig'ulaxs lae he- 22 
laleda giina^ye pIslxElasgEm lax laoxwasa Llaqwa. Wa, hex^^ida- 
^mese k'ilxwasa mop '.Enyag'anala p lElxElasgEm laxa l laqwa. Wa, g'il- 
^mesegwala kilxwaxs lae xwasa et!ede Yagwise. Wa, la ganul^idExs 25 
lae yalasE-'we Yagwise. Wa, gil^mese ylx^widExs lae qEnxalaxa LEkwe 
k'iosEnxawe LlagEkwa LE^wa LEkwe qEX"lme LlagEkwa. Wa, laxae 
^uEx^unalaxa LlEntslEme -UEx^una^yaxs lae ylxwa. Wa, g'll^mese 
gwal q!Emtasosa mosgEme q !Emq lEmdEmxs lae yal'ida. Wa, la- 
^me LegadEsa LegEmg'ElxLa^yas KMadalagllise. Wa, laEm LegadEs 30 
Hamtse^stasElag^thse. Wa, laEm gwal LegadEs Yagwise laxeq. 
Wa, giPmese latslalll laxa lEme^latslaxs lae yax^wldayoweda pIsbcE- 
lasgEme moplEnyag'anila laxa mosgEmakluse Kwakug'ula. Wa, 
giPmese gwala yaqwasa p lElxElasgEmaxs lae ^wi^a hoqiiwElseda 
Kwakug'ule. Wa, heEm le^waxses L!aL!ElEwedzEmga laxes la^wQ- 35 
nEma m6p!Enyag"anala p'.ElxElasgEma. Wa, la^mese qotex'aLe 
K' !adalag'ilisaxes q!ulese ^maxtilag'llisaxwa tsISwunxLex. Wa, 
laEm lala laxeq. 

Wa, la^mesEn na^naxmelxes wiiLasE^wosg'axEnlaxa g'lgama^yolae 1 
^maxuyalidze yixs lae gEg'adEs Q!ex'sesElas lax k'ledelas Q!um- 
x'ode. Wa, la^lae Q!umx'ode LegEmg'ELxLalaxes LegEme Qlumx'ode 

1 This is the marriage of ^raaxulagilis, the narrator, to his second wife. 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 2 19 



1074 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [bth. ann. 35 

his son-in-law, ^maxuyalidze (III 1) . Then the name of ^maxQyahdze || 
5 was Qlumx'od after that. Then the father-in-law (II 8) of the one who 
had now the name Qlflmx'od | gave property to his tribe, and then 
he had the name Q !umx' Elag'ilis (II S) . | Now one of the family names 
of the chief Q lumx'od (II 8) had been given away in marriage, | for he 
gave him a name in marriage ; for Q liimx' 6d had many family names | 
before he had given the name Qlumx'od to his son-in-law ^ma- 

10 xuyaUdze. || His family names were NEg'a and NEg'adze, and | 
NEg'aesi^lak", and NEg'ag'i^lak", and the other kind of mountain 
names | were Qlumx'od, and Qlumx'Elag'ihs, and Q!umx'axElag'ihs; 
and I as soon as he had given away in marriage one of Ms family 
names, he took | another one of his family names. When he gave 

15 away in marriage the name || Q!umx'6d, he gave a potlatch to his 

tribe, and took the other | name Qlumx'Elag'ihs; and his numaym 

had no word against it, | because they were his own family names. | 

And when the princess of Q!umx' Elag'ilis married again, he | could 

20 give away in marriage the name Qlumx'Elag'ihs. || He gave a pot- 
latch to his tribe, and took his other family name Q lumx'axElag'ilis; | 
and when he had given these three family names in man-iage | — 
Qlumx'od, Qlumx' Elag'ilis, and Q lumx'axElag'ilis — then | he had 
the name NEg'a and the other family names derived from mountain. | 
Tlierefore you know that I did not make a mistake when (I said that) 

25 he who had the name || Q lumx' od and gave the name Q lumx' od 

laxes nEgiimpe ^maxiiyalidze. Wa, laEm Legade ^maxuyalidzas 
5 QIQmx'ode laxeq. Wa, la^lae nEgumpasa la LegadEs Qlumx'ode 
plES^idxes g'6kul5te. Wa, laEm LegadEs Qlumx'Elag'llise. Wa, 
laEm ^nEmsgEmg'ElxLale LexLEgEmelasa g'igSma yix Qliimx'ode, 
ylxs lae LegEmg^ElxLalaq, yixs qlenEmae LexLEgEmelasa Qlumx'ode, 
yixs k'les^mae LegEmg'ElxLalax Qliimx'ode laxes nEgumpe ^maxii- 

10 ya^lidze. Wa, g'a^mes LexLEgEmeltseg'a NEg'ii, l6^ NEg^adze, 
NEg'aesi^lak", NEg'ag'i^lak". Wa, g'a^mes ^nEmx'sa nEg'a lble- 
gEme Qlumx'ode Lo^ Qlumx'Elag'ihs lo Qlumx'axElag'ihs. Wa, 
g'iPmese LegEmg'ElxLalaxa ^uEinsgEme laxes LexLEgEmile lae 
Lex^etsa ^uEmsgEnie laxes LexLEgEmile. Wa, he^maexs lae LegEm- 

15 g-ElxLalax Qliimx'ode. Wa, la plEs-'Idxes g'okulote. Wa, la 
S,x^edxes ^uEmsgEme LegEme Qlumx'Elag'ihs. Wa, la k'leas wal- 
dEms ^nE^memotaseq qaxs hfts^maaq LexLEgEinila. 

Wa, g'll^mese etied la-wade k'ledelas Qlumx/Elag'llise, wa, la 
gwex'^idaasno.x;"^Em la LegEmg'ElxLalax Qlumx'Elag'llise. Wa, la 

20 plEs^idxes g'okiilote qa^s Sxedexes ^nEme LexLEgEmile Qlumx'Ela- 
gilis. Wa, g'lPmese ^wi^la la LegEmg'ElxLalaxa yudux"sEme lcxle- 
gEmiltse Qlumx'ode lo^ Qlumx'Elag'llise l6^ Qlumx'axElag'ilise, lae 
Lex^edES NEg'a LE^wes waokwe nanax'bala LexLEgEmila. Wa, 
hermits lag'ilaos qIaLElaxg'in k'lesek' LexLeqOlilg'in lek' nex'qexs 

See pp. 1029, 1030, individual II 8. 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1075 

away in marriage, had the name | QWmx" slag" ills. That is all 26 
about this. | 

Now ' I shall talk about the children of Q !umx' 6d (III 1 ) , K" esoyak' e- 
lis, ( and Hamdzid, and the two nephews of Q!umx"od; | for Agwila 
(III 12) was the younger brother of Q !umx'6d. The name of the elder 
one ||of the children of Ag^vila was HaqElax (IV 1 ) , and the name of the 30 
younger one was | Q lex'Lala (IV 11) ; and the marriage of AgwUa and 
his wife was a disgrace, | for Agwila never performed the marriage 
ceremony with his wife Alak'ilayugwa (III 13). | Some men say that 
Alak'ilayugwa was an Awlk" lenox"" woman, | and others say that she 
was a Gwa^sEla woman, and they are ashamed || to talk about them. 35 
This is what the Indians call an irregidarly married woman, | when she 
just takes her husband without being formallj' married. | It is like the 
female dog and the male dog sticking together. | Tliese children of the 
chief are not counted, because | their parents acted this way; and the 
numaym of AgwUa was the || numaym of his elder brother Q lumx'od. 40 
Ag\sala was never treated well | by his people, because he had for 
his wife Alak'Uaj-ugwa, and | they were not formally married; 
therefore his children were not well treated, for | they were a dis- 
grace to his elder brother Qliimx'od. Then Q!fanx'6d pitied his | 
two nephews; therefore he took them as his dancers. That || is all 45 
about this. I 



LegEmg'EbcLalae QIQmx'odaxes LegEme Q!flmx-ode. Wa, la LegadEs 25 
Q!unix'Elag"thse. Wa, laEm gwala laxeq. 

Wa, la^mesEn gwagwex-s-alal lax sasEmas Qliimx-ode lax K'esoya- 
k'Elise Lo^ H&mdzide LE^wa ma^lokwe LoLales Q.'umx'ode, ylx 
Agwila yLxs ts!a^yaas Qlumx'ode. Wa, la Legade ^nolast!EgE- 
ma^yas sasEmas Agwila yls HaqElal. Wa, la Legade ts.'a^yas 30 
Qlex'Lala, yixs q!Ema^yae ha^yasEk-^laena^yas Agwila LE^wis gE- 
nEme qaxs hewaxae Agwila qadzeLaxes gEnEme Alak'ilayugwa, yLxs 
^nek'aeda waokwe bEgwanEmqexs Awik' laxsEmae Alak'ilayugwa. 
Wa, la ^nek'eda waokwaqexs Gwa^sElaxsEmae. LaEm max'ts!a 
gwiigwex's^ala laq. Wa, heEm gwE^yasa baklume k.'fltExsdaxa ts!E- 35 
daqe yixs wul^mae la^wadEX'^itses la^wunEme k'les qadzeLasE^wa. 
(He gwex'sa-wats!axs klutExsdaeda ts!Edaqe ^wats!e LE^wa bEf^wa- 
nEme ^wat !sa.) Wa, heEm k' !es gElokwe sasEmasa g'lg&ma^yaxs hae 
gwex'Mdes g'Ig'aolnokwe. Wii, heEm ^nE^memots Agwila yix ^ue- 
^memotases ^nole Q!umx'ode. Wa, heEm hewaxaEm aek'ilaso'^ses 40 
g'okiilote Agwila qaxs lae gEg'atses gEUEme Alak'ilayugwa yLxs 
k'lesae qadzeLaq. Wa, laxae k'!es aek'ilasE^we sesEnias qaxs 
lE^mae qlEmeses ^nole Qlumx'ode. Wa, la'lae Q!umx'6de watses 
ma^lSkwe LOLaleya, lag'ilas fix^edEq qa las lax senatas. Wa, laEm 
gwala laxeq. 45 

' See p. 1034, line 89. 



1076 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [bth. ANN. 35 

46 Now I shall talk about my wife's uncle, Qasnomalas (III 14) ;' | for 
that is his shaman's name, for it is said that | Qasnomalas was the name 
among people of olden times for a great shaman ; and when he had a 

50 son, I or even a daughter, the child was at once || washed in water to 
be purified, for they wished that when he grew up | he should be a 
shaman, for they wished the child to have the name Qasnomalas. | 
Qasnomalas the shaman never had a child, | and the name of 
Qasnomalas is past, because he just died this summer | wliile he was 
fishmg at Rivers Inlet. ll 

55 Now I shall talk about his name as chief of the | numaym 
TEmltEmlEls of the Nak !wax' da^x" on his father's side | which was 
YaqoLas (III 14),forYaqoLas(l5) was thefatherof PlasElal. jLalep la- 
las was an only child | , — that is the mother of P !asElai — , and her 
father was | LElak'Eux'^Id, head chief of the numaym ^walas. Then 

60 Laleplalas made a potlatch |1 for her son P!asElai. Then she gave 
him the name | G' exse^stalisEma^ye. Now he was the head chief 
of the numaym ^walas. | Now he obtaLaed the name G' exse^stali- 
sEma^ye from his mother's side; | for some cliiefs of the tribes and 
their wives do that way. The cliief and his | wife both gave a pot- 

65 latch, and their son had || one name from the father's side and one 
name | from the mother's side. This is done by couples who do not 



46 Wii, la^mesEn gwagwex's^alal lax qlule^yasEn gEnEme Qasnomalas, 
ylxs Legadaas laxes paxalaene^ye qaxs Legadaa^laes g'ilg'alisasa Le- 
gEmox Qasnomalasexa ^wajase paxala. Wa, g'lPmese xOngwa- 
dEx-^itsa babagume LE^wa wax'^Em ts!ats!adagEma lae hex'idaEm 

50 g'ig'iltala laxa ^wape qa^s qleqElexs lae helakMox^wida qaxs ^nek"ae 
qa^s paxalax'^Ide qaxs ^nek-ae qa^s laLexa LegEme lax Qasnomalase. 
Wa, la^lae hewaxa wiyoLeda sasEm^nakiilasa Qasnomalasaxa paxsila. 
Wa, g"axox LegEms Qasnomalasde qaxs aPmaa wlk" lEx^Idxwa he- 
Enxex laxes k'eLasa Awik" !enoxwe. 

55 Wa, la^mesEn gwagwex's^alal lax LegEmas laxes g'igama^yaasa 
^nE^memotasa TEmltEmlElsasa Nak!wax"da^xwe laxes askMote Ya- 
qoLase qaxs he^mae ("imps P!asElale YaqoLase. Wa, la^lae ^nEmo- 
x^Qm xunokwe Lalep!alase, yLx abEmpas PlasElalases ompe LeIS- 
k'Enx'^ide, yixs Laxuma^yaasa ^nE^memotasa ^walase. Wa, la p!E- 

60 s-ide Laleplalase qaes xiinokwe P'.asElale. Wa, laEm^lae Lex^edEs 
G'exse^stalisEma^ye laq. Wa, laEm Laxumesa ^nE^memotasa ^walase. 
Wa, laEm g'ayanEmaxa LegEme G'exse^stalJsEma^ye laxes abask' !ote 
qaxs he-mae gweg"ilatsa waokwe g'ig-Egamesa lelqwalaLa^ye le^wIs 
o-EUEme; a-mae ^nsmax'^Id plEseda g'lgama^ye LE^wis gEUEme qa 

65 AiEmsgEmes LegEmases xunokwe laxes ask" !ote. Wa, laxae Legad 
laxes abask' !ote. Wa, heEm he gweg-ila ha^yasEk^alaxa yax'stosaq 



'Seep. 1063, line 20. 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1077 

want I their names to go out of their family to their relatives 67 
together with the seats and | the privileges. | 

Now' I shall talk about SesaxMas (IV 8), whose father's name had 
been |1 Sesaxalas (III 15) . And Sesaxalas had a younger brother l !aso- 70 
tlwahs (III 11) ; 1 and Sesaxalas (III 15) had for his wife l !aL !Eqwasila 
(III 16),the princess of | Q!eq!Ex"Laladze(II 12),chief of the numaym 
of the G'lg'ilgam of the Gwa^sEla; | and QleqiEx'Laladzehad for his 
wife Ek' lalahii^lak" (II 13), and Ek' !alaliMak" was the princess of | 
YaqoLas (I 5), head chief of the numaym Q!omk' !ut!ES. || And Sesa- 75 
xalas (III 15) had a son | with his wife l !aL lEqwasila (III 16), and 
before the boy was two | years old his father Sesaxalas died. | Then 
the ancestors of the Gwa^sEla wished that LlasotlwaUs (III 11) should 
marry ^ | l !aL lEqwasila, the widow of his elder brother SesaxSlas 
(III 15). And when ||he married l !aL !Eqwasila (III 16), he gave the 80 
marriage presents to her son; and | then the son of l !aL lEqwasila 
gave a potlatch with the marriage gifts paid for his mother. | 
Then his name was Sesaxalas (IV S), the name of his dead lather, 
and I he gave an oil feast. Now his name was also Kwax'se^stala 
(IV 8), the I name of his uncle i. lasotiwalis (III 11); for his feast 
name was |1 Kwax"se^stala. Now the name Kwax'se^stala was 85 
given in marriage by | QleqiEx'Laladze (II 12) to his son-in- 
law L lasotiwalis. Then | L!asotIwalis (III 11) treated his nephew 
Sesaxalas (IV 8) like his own son, and he gave him the feast 

l§,lts!awes LeLEgEme laxes LeLELala le'wis LeLaxwa^ye LEwes k' !e- 67 

k'lES^O. 

Wa, la^mesEn gwagwex's^alal lax Sesaxalas, yix's iyadaasa Legado- 
las Sesaxalase. Wa,la tsla^yanokwe Sesaxalaswiilas Llasotlwalise. 70 
Wa, la gEg'ade Sesaxalaswulas LlaL lEqwasila kMedelas Q!eq!EX"La- 
ladze, yixs g'lgama^yaasa ^nE^memotasa G"igilgamasa Gwa^sEla. 
Wa, la gEg-ade Q!eq!Ex-Laladzas Ek' !alalili-'lak", ylxs k'!edelae 
Ek' lalalili^lakwas YaqoLas Laxuma^yasa ^nE^memotasa Q!omk'!u- 
tlEse. Wa, laEm^lawise xungwade Sesaxalaswiilasa babagume 75 
LE^wis gEUEme L!aL lEqwasila. Wa, k'!es-Em^lawise ma^lEnxe ts!a- 
wunxasa babagumaxs lae wik'lEx^ides ompde Sesaxalase. Wa, 
hex'^idaEm^lawisa g'alasa Gwa^sEla ^nex' qa kwaloses Llasotiwalisax 
LlaL lEqwasila lax gEnEmases ^nolax'de Sesaxalasde. Wa, g'iHmese 
qadzeLax lIHl lEqwasila, yixs he^mae tslEwede xiinokwas. Wa, 80 
hex'^ida^mese xiinokwas LlaLlEqwasila plEs'Ttsa qadzeLEmax abEm- 
pas. Wa, la^me LegadEs Sesaxalas j^ix LegEmases ompde. Wa, la 
klwe^las^Itsa Lle^na. Wa, laEmxae LegadEs Kwax'se^stala, yix 
LegEmases qlule^ye Llasotlwalise qaxs he^mae kIweladzExLayose 
Kwax'se^stala. Wa, laEm LegEmg'ElxLa^ye Kwnxse^stala, yJs 85 
QleqiEX'Laladze laxes nEgtimpe Llasotlwalise. Wa, la xwayEnx"sila 
LlasotTwalisaxes Lole^ye Sesaxalas qa las klwe^ladzEXLalax 

' See p. 1057, line 94. tAccording to the levirate custom. 



1078 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL (eth. ann. 36 

88 name | Kwax'se^stala. Tlien he was the head chief of the numaym 
SisEnLle I m the seat of Llasotiwahs (III 11), for L!as5tlwahs treated 

90 Sesax&las like his own son; || for L'.asotiwalis (III 11) had no cliild of 
his own. I L !aL lEqwasila had only one child. | Now Sesaxalas was the 
prince of l lasotlwahs. Then Sesax&las married my (present) wife, | 
and he was given in marriage the name | Kwax'ilanokum. Then my 

95 wife, this || l laiEyig'ilis (IV 3) , gave much oil to her husband | Sesaxa- 
las as a marriage present, and at the same time the feast name Kwa- 
x'ilanokum. I Then Sesaxalas gave a feast with the oil to his tribe, 
the I Gwa^sEla, to the two numayms, G'Ig'i]g5m and the | Q!omk' !u- 
100 tlEs; for the numaym of Sesaxalas (IV 8) were the SlsEULle^, || and 
Sesaxalas was the head chief of the numaym | SisEULle^. Next to 
his seat was the seat of Llasotiwahs (III 11), | next to the seat of his 
elder brother Sesaxalas (III 15). Then Sesaxalas had also a seat | in 
the numaym SIseul !e^. Then Sesaxfi,las had two | feast names in his 
5 numaym || SlsEnLle^. He had the name Kwax'se^stala, when he was 
made to give a feast | by his uncle Llasotlwalis (III^ll); and by his 
vnie when his wife gave him | oil at the time of their marriage, he was 
given the feast name Kwax'ilanokum. Next Llasotiwalis (III 11) 
died, I and immediately Sesaxalas gave a potlatch. Then | Sesaxalas 

10 had also the name Llasotiwahs. Now Sesaxalas had two seats, || his 
own and that of l lasotiwaUs. I think that is aU about this. | 

88 Kwax'se^stala. Wa, laEm^lae Laxumesa ^UE^memotasa SiseulIc 
lax Laxwa^yas L!as6tiwalise, qaxs lE^mae Llasotiwalise xwa- 

90 yEnx"silax Sesaxalase qaxs kMeasae tianawaes xunox"s Lla- 
sotiwalise. Wa, laxae ^nawabEwe xtinox"s LlaLlEqwasila. Wa, 
laEm Lawslgama^ye Sesaxalasas Llasotiwalise. Wa, lii gEg'adEx'^Ide 
Sesaxalasasg'in gEUEmk'. Wa, lak" LegEmg'ElxLaiax Kwax'i- 
lanokum lax Sesaxalase. Wa, laEm lag'm gEUEmk' yixg'a 

95 LlalEyig'ilis wawadzEsa qleuEme Lle^na laxes la^wunEme 
Sesaxalas qa ^nEma^nakulotsa k!we^ladzEXLayo LegEme Kwax^ilano- 
kume. Wa, laEm^lae Sesaxalase klwe^las^itsa Lle^na laxes g'okiilota 
Gwa^sEla laxa ma^ltsEmakluse ^nai^uE^memasaxa G'Igilgame LE^wa 
Q!6mk'!ut!Ese qaxs hae ^nE^memots Sesaxalaswiila SisEnL!a^ye. 
100 Wa, he^mes Lax"stE^wes6s Sesaxalasa Lfixuma^ye laxes ^nE^memota 
SlsEULla^ye. Wa, la mag'apla^ye Laxwa^yas Llasotiwalise lax 
Laxwa^yases ^nolole Sesaxalaswiile. Wa, he^mis la Laxwes Sesaxa- 
lase laxaaxes ^nE^memota SlsEULla^ye. Wa, laEm ma^ltsEme LegE- 
mas Sesaxalase laxa k Iwe^ladzEXLayo LegEin laxes ^nE^memota 
5 SlsEULla^ye. Wa, laEm LegadEs Kwax"se^stala, yixs lae klwelasa- 
matsoses qluleye Llasotiwalise. Wii, la wawadzEso^ses gEnEmasa 
Lle^na. Wa, la kiwe^ladzExxalax Kwaxilanokume. Wa, lawIk'lE- 
x^Ide Llasotlwalisde. Wa, hex'^ida^mese plEs^Ide Sesaxalase. Wa, 
laEmxae Legade Sesaxalasas Llasotiwalise. Wa, laEm ma^lox"sale 

10 Sesaxalase lo^ Llasotiwalise. Wa, lax'stlaax"^Em ^wPla laxeq. 



liOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1079 

Now '■ I shall talk about Q !umx'od {TV 4) and why he had the name | 1 1 
K' I&dalag' ilis (IV 4) ; for Q !umx' 6d married the niece of the chief | of the 
numa3'm G' exsEm of the Nak !wax' da^x", whose name was Wayats !5- 
ii^lak" (IV 12), I the daughter of Llaqwag'ilayugwqa (III 17) the sister 
of Sewid(III18),|| head chief of thenumaymG'exsEm; but the father 15 
of Wayats loli^lak" was a Gwa^sEla | whose name was KIwaelask'in 
(III 19), head chief of the | numaym Q!6mk' !ut!ES of the Gwa^sEla. 
Therefore | Sewid had Wayats loli'lak" for his princess, because | 
KIwaelask'in died early, when Wayats loli^lak" (IV 12) was a young 
child. II Sewid took her for his princess, because he had no daughter. | 20 
When Wayats loli^lak" was grown up, Q!fimx'od | asked her in mar- 
riage from her uncle Sewid. Then Q!umx"od was accepted. | Then 
Q liimx'od married Wayats !oli^lak" | from her uncle Sewid. And Sewid 
gave a copper as a marriage present to || Q lOmx'od, and Sewid gave him 25 
in marriage the name K" ladalag' ilis. | Q lumx'od at once sold the cop- 
per. And when | the copper, whose name was Angwala, was sold, three | 
thousand blankets were the price of the copper. It was bought by 
LElak'lnx'^id, | chief of the numaym Ts lets lEmeleqEla. Then 
Q lumx'od II gave a potlatch with the blankets to the five numayms 30 
of I the Nak !wax' da^x" ; that is, besides to the Eagles, to the numa3rms 
G'esxsEm, | SiseulIc^, TEmltEmlEls, and Kwakug'ut. The | num- 

Wa, la^mesEn gwagwex's^alal lax Qlttmx'ode, yix lag-ilas LegadEs 11 
K" ladalag'ilis, yixs lae gEg'adEX'^Ide Qlumx'odii Lolegasas g'lgama- 
^yasa ^nE^memota G'exsEmasa Nak!wax'da^x"xa Legadas Wayats !6li- 
^lak", ylx tslEdaqe xiinox"s Llaqwag'ilayugwa, yix wEq!was Sewide, 
yix Laxuma^yasa ^nE^memotasa G'exsEm. Wit, laLa Gwa^sEle ompas 15 
Wayats !5li^lax"xa Legadas KIwaelask'in, yix Laxuma^yasa ^nE^me- 
motasa QlomkMutlEsasa Gwa^sEla. Wa, g"a^mes lag'ilasa g'iga- 
ma^ye Sewide g'ax kMedadEs Wayats loli^lak", yixs gEyolae wik"!Ex^- 
ede K Iwaelask'in^olaxs he^mae ales g'inanEme Wayats loh^lakwe. 
Wa, laEm ax^ede Sewidii qa^s kMedela qaxs k"!easae tslEdaq xuno- 20 
kwa. Wa, g'lPmese exEnt!ede Wayats loli^lakwaxs lae Qlilmx'ode 
g'ayala lax q Iiile^yase Sewide. Wa, hex'^ida'mese Q !umx"6de daexE- 
ma. Wa, hex'^ida^mese Qlumx'ode qadzeLax Wayats !oli^lakwe 
laxes qlule^ye Sewide. Wa, la Sewide sayabalasa Llaqwa lax Q!um- 
x'ode. Wa, la LegEmg'ElxLala Sewidax K'ladalagilis liix Q!um- 25 
x'ode. Wii, hex'^ida^mese Q!Qmx-6de laxodxa Llaqwa. Wa, gil^mese 
k'ilxwasE^weda Llaqwaxa Legadiis Angwala, yixs yudux"p!Enae lox- 
SEmx'^id p lElxElasgEme k'ilwa^y^xa Llaqwa, yis LElak'inx'^ide, yix 
g'lgama^yasa ^uE^memotasa Ts!ets!EmeleqEla. Wii, la^me Qliimx'od 
plEs^etsa p lElxElasgEme laxa sEk"!asgEmak!use ^nal^uE-'memasasa 30 
Naklwax'da^xwexa ogil^la laxa kwekwekwexa ^uE^meraotasa G"exsEm 
LE^wa SisEULle LE^wa TsmltEmlElse LE^wa Kwakiig-ule, yixs ^nE^me- 

1 See p. 1063, line 23. 



1080 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 3b 

33 aym ol Qliimx'od was ^walas. Then Q!iimx'6d took at the potlatch 
the name K' !adalag'ilis. | And these were the family names of 

35 Sewid: || K' ladoqa, K' !ade, and K' lade^staJa, and also the name 
given in marriage to | Qliimx'od, K' ladalag'ilis. Now Sewid had 
given one | of his family names to the husband of his niece Wayats !o- 
ii^lak". I 1 think that is all about this. | 

(Eagle and head chief are those who eat the long cinquefoil roots. || 

40 Common people, low people, and speakers are those who | eat short 
cinquefoil roots.) 

History of the Dzendzenxq!ato 

1 Now, I will talk about the chief of the numaym DzEndzEnx'- 
qlayo, |who was called ^max'mEwIsagEme^ (II ]), when he went 
to marry | LEyalag'ilayugwa (II 2), the princess of Q!aed (1 1), 
head chief | of the AwiiJedEX, the head tribe of the Bellabella. || 

5 The ancestors of the numaym DzEndzEnx'qIayo went to get her in 
marriage; | and after they got her in marriage by (paying) fifty 
dressed elk-skins — | for they were married at once when they 
arrived at the beach of the house of the | one whose daughter he was 
to marry — when the elk-skins had been put ashore out of the | 



33 madadae Qlttmx'odasa ^walase. Wa, laEm LegadEs K" !adalag"ilis 
yix Qlumx'ode laxes plEsae. Wa, g'a^mes LexLEgEmelts Sewideg'a 

35 K!adoqa Lo^ KMade lo^ KMade^'staia; wa, he^mise la LegEmg'ElxLcs, 
yix K' ladalag'ilis lax Q'.umx'ode. Wa, la^me ^uEmsg'Emg'ElxLale 
LexLEgEmelas Sewide lax la^wfinsmases Lolegase Wayats loli^lakwe. 
Wa, lax'stlaax^um ^wFla laxeq. 

(Kwek", ogume^, xamagEme, Laxume^, g'lg&me^ g'astaEm ha^mapxa 

40 LaxabS.lise. BEgwanEmq !ala, bEgiil^ide, bEgwab^^ye,a^yllk", g'astaEm 
ha^mapxa t!Ex"sos.) 

History of the Dzendzenx'qIayo 

1 Wa, la^mesEn gwagwex's^alal lax g'Jgama^j'as ^nE^memiisa DzEn- 
dzEux'q layowexa Legada ^max'mEwIsagEma^ye yixs lae gagak' !ax-^I- 
dEx LEyalag'ilayugwa lax kMedelas Q!aed, yixs xamagEma^yae, 
g'lg^mesa AwiL!edExwe, yisa xamagEnna^yasa Heldza^qwe. Wa, 

5 la^me ^wlPwIlg'lLe la qadzeLeda g'alasa ^nE^memiisa DzEndzEnx'q !a- 
yowe. Wa, g'lPmese gwala qadzeLasa alag'Imaxs sEk' lax'sokwae ylxs 
hex'^ida^mae qadzil^edExs g-fdae lag-alis lax LlEma^sas g'okwases 
qadzeLede. Wa, g'lPmese ^wi^lolt&weda alagime qadzeLEm laxa 
qadzcLatsle xwaxwftk lunaxs lae qlwag'aElseda mokwe lax ayll- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1081 

marriage canoe, four of the speakers || of Q!aed (I 1) arose and 10 
invited the chief and his crew to come | and eat in his house; and he 
also called his | tribe to come and eat with his son-in-law. When they 
were all in, | the people who came to get the chief's daughter in 
marriage began to eat. After they had eaten, | the four speakers of 
Chief Q.'aed (I 1) arose and told II the tribe that Q!aed (I 1) was 15 
going to give the box with his privileges to his | son-in-law, namely, the 
cannibal dance, the tamer of the cannibal-dancer, the rattle, and 
the I rich-woman, and also the fire dance, all of which were in the box 
of privileges ; | for, indeed, they kept in the privilege-box the | neck- 
rings of red cedar-hark, the head-rings of red cedar-bark, the leg- 
rings, II and the wrist-rings of red cedar-bark, and also the rattle of 20 
the cannibal-tamer. | Then they took the privilege-box out of the bed- 
room. It was brought out | by the ca-nnibal-dancer of Q!aed (I 1). 
He carried it, for it was given in marriage | to ^max'niEwisagEme^ 
(II 1) , and the names of the four | privileges were also given. The name 
of the cannibal-dancer was Q!adanats!e, || and the name of the rich- 25 
woman dancer was Q !^minawag&s, and the name | of the cannibal- 
tamer was TslaqaxElas, and the name of the fire-dancer was | Xwa- 
dzes; and then the privileges-box was given to | ^max'niEwasagEme^ 
(II 1) by his father-in-law (I 1), and also the secular names | Qlwel- 
taak" and DoqulasEla. That is the number of names || given to 30 

kwas Q!aed qa^s LePwultodexa g'lgama^ye LE^wis leElote qa las 10 
^wPlosdesa qa^s la L'.Exwa lax gokwas. Wa, laEmxaawise axk" lalaxes 
g"6kulote qa las klwamela laxes nEgiimpe. Wa, g'il^mese la ^wi- 
^laeLExs lae LlExwIlag'ila qadzeLELEla. Wa, g'iPmese gwalalelExs 
lae Lax^ulile mokwe ayilx"sa g'ig&ma^ye Q!aed. AVa, la^me nela- 
xes g'okulotaxs lE^mae laLe QIaedases k"!es^owats!e g'lldas laxes 15 
nEgiimpexa hamats!a LE^wa helik'ilaLEla LE^wis yadEne LE^wa 
q lammawagas. Wa, he^misLeda nonltse^stalale guts !axa k' .'es^owats !e 
gildasa, yixs lex'a^me ala gTyimtsIaxa k'!es^owats!e g'lldasa L!e- 
L!agEk!uxawa^ye LE^wa L!eL!agEkuma^ye LE^wa iJaL!EgEX"sidza^ye 
LE^wa L!aL!EgEx"ts!ana^ye. Wii, he^misa vadEnasahelek'ilaLEla. Wa, 20 
la^me ax^etsE^weda k" les^owats !e g'lldas laxa ots !alile qa^s g"axe daax"s 
hamatslasa g'lgama^ye Qlaede. Wa, la dalax'saEmqexs lae lak'Il- 
g'alEm lax ^max"mEwisagEma-ye LE^wa LCLEgEmasa mox^widala 
k' !ek' lEs^owa. Wa, he^mis LegEmsa hamatsle Q!adanats!e. Wa, 
he^mis LegEmsa qlaminawag^s Q!aminawaga.s. Wa, he^mis LegEm- 25 
sa lielik-ilaLEle Ts'.riqaxElase. Wa, he^mis LegEmsa nonltse^stalale 
Xwadzes. Wa, la^me layoweda k'!es^owats!e g'ildas lax ^max'- 
mEwIsagEma^yases nEgiimpe. Wa, he^misa baxuse LegEma, 
ylx Qlweltaak" Lo^ DoqulasEla. Wa, hcEni ^waxaatsa LCLEgEme 
g-axyo lax ^maxTOEwisagEma^ye yises nEgiimpe Qlaede. Wa, 30 



1082 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ANN. 35 

31 ^max'mEwIsagEme^ (II 1) by his father-in-law, Q!aed (I 1). | Now 
^max'mEwIsagEme^ (II 1) had the privilege-box, and the | names for 
the winter dance, and the secular names; and when | the speakers 
stopped speaking, ^max'mEwisagEme^ (II 1) expressed his thanks | 

35 for the privilege-box and the secular names; || and when he stopped 
speaking, the carved posts of the house were given to him | by his 
father-in-law, Qiaed (I 1). Now the house was given by Q!aed (I 1) 
to I ^max'mEwIsagEme^ (II 1); and when the speaker stopped 
speaking, the | Bellabella went out. | 

40 Now, ^max'mEwIsagEme^ (II 1) hved with his Bellabella || wife. 
^max'mEwisagEme^ (II 1) was left by his | numaym the DzEndzEux'- 
q!ayo when they went home, and | ^max'niEwisagEme^ (II 1) just 
continued to visit his people with his | Bellabella wife at Tslade, for 
that is where the DzEndzEnx'qIayo hved. | Now -max'mEwisagEme^ 

45 (II 1) staid for a long time with the Bellabella. || He had two sons and 
two I daughters. The name of the eldest son was | LaLeliLla (IIIl); 
and the next one was a girl, who was named | K'anelk'as (III 2); 
and the third one was a girl, whose name was | Llaqwael (III 3); 
and the youngest one was a boy, whose name was Gweno (III 4). || 

50 And when LaLehL !a (III 1) and K'anelk'as (III 2) were grown up, | 
^max'mEwIsagEme^ (II 1) and his two children, j LaLehL !a (III 1) and 
K'anelk'as (III 2) went home; and he left behind his wife and | his 

31 la^me laLe ^max'mEwisagEma^yaxa k'!es^owats!e glldasa LE^wa 
LCLEgEme lax ts!ets!eqa LE^wa baxtise LeLEgEma. Wa, g'iPmese 
qlwei^ideda a^ytlkwaxs lae momElk'Iale ^max'mEwisagEma^yasa 
k'!ekMEs^owats!e g'tldasa LE^wa baxudzEXLayowe LeLEgEma. Wa, 

35 g'll^mese q!wel4dExs lae ^wi-la layoweda k'!ex'k'!adzEkwe g'ok" 
laxaaq ylses uEgiimpe QIaede. Wa, la-me g'okulxLe Q'.aede lax 
^max'mEwisagEma^ye. Wa, g'll^mese q !wel-ideda Elkwaxs lae hoqii- 
wElseda Heldza^qwe. 

Wa, la^me ^max'mEwisagEma^ye ha^yasEk'ala LE^wis Heldza^q !wax- 

40 sEme gEUEma. Wii, laEm lowaLEme ^max'mEwIsagEma^yases 
^UE^memotaxs g'axae na^nakweda DzEndzEnx'qIayowe. Wa, a^mese 
^max'mEwisagEma^ye he^mEnalaEm g'ax baguns LE^wes Heldza- 
^qlwaxsEme gEUEm lax Tslade qaxs he^mae g-okiilatsa DzEndzEiix'- 
qlayowe. Wa, lii gala hele ^max'mEwisagEma^ya Heldza^qwe. 

45 Wa, la^me sasEnmox"sa ma^lokwe babEbaguma he-mesa ma^lokwe 
tslats'.edagEma. Wa, la^me Legadeda ^nolast lEgEma^ye babagums 
LaLellLla. Wa, he^mes mak'ilaqeda ts!ats!EdagEmaqe Legadiis 
K'anelk'ase. Wa, he^miseda qlaya^ye ts!ats!EdagEma Legadiis Lla- 
qwael. Wa, la ama^inxa^ya babagume Legadas Gwenawe. 

50 Wii, giPmese ha^yalak'lox^wide LaLeliLla l6^ K'anelk'asaxs g"a- 
xae nii^nakwe ^max'mEwIsagEma^ye LE^wa ma^lokwe sasEms, ytx 
LaLeliLla l6^ K'anelk'ase. Wa, la^me lowaLases gEUEme LE^wa 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1083 

two children, — Gweno (III 4), the third boy; | and the younger girl, 
his daughter, l !aqwael (III 3). They || were going to stay with their 55 
mother among the AwiL !edEx. | 

Then ^maxniEwisagEme^ (II 1) went home with his two children, | 
taking along his privilege-box, every kind of |food, and two expensive 
coppers, Leta and Sea-Lion, | for these were the names of the two 
coppers. When II they arrived at Tslade, they were called in by 60 
their tribe in the evening. | It was nearly winter-time when they 
arrived. After having eaten, | they all went out, and then his tribe 
went to eat with him. | When all had gone out, ^max'mEwisagEme^ 
(II 1) sent his two | speakers to ask the chiefs of his numaym || 
DzEndzEnx'qlayo to come into the house of ^max'mEwisagEme^ to a 65 
secret meeting; | and when all the men and the women were asleep, | 
when it was past midnight, the four chiefs | of the DzEndzEnx'q !ayo 
came in, — -HamotElaso^ Qlumlednol, | and Wadze, and also 
YaqoLas, — and wJien all were seated, || they were told by ^max'- 70 
mEwIsagEme^ (II 1) that he was going to give a winter dance in | 
winter with all the kinds of food that he had brought in his canoe, 
and I the two coppers; and then his prince | LaLeliLla (III 1) was 
to disappear to be a cannibal-dancer; and his daughter | K'anelk"as 



ma^lokwe laxes sasEme ylx Gwenawexa q!aya,^ye babaguma, wa, 53 
he^misLes amayadza^ye ts!ats!EdagEm xunokwe Llaqwaele. Wa, la- 
^me hex'saEml lada AwiLledExwe LE^wis abEmpe. 55 

Wa, g'ax^mesLa ^max^mEwisagEma^ye le^wIs ma^lokwe sasEm 
malaxa k'!es^6wats!e gildasa LE^wa ^naxwa qa^s gwex'sdEma he- 
maomase LE^wa maltsEme lela^xiila LlaLlEqwa yix Leta l6 Mawa- 
k"!a qaxs he^mae LeLEgEmsa ma^ItsEme LlaLlEqwa. Wa, giPmese 
lag'aa lax Ts!adax lae hex'^idaEm Lale^lalasoses g'okiilotaxa dza- 60 
qwases lag'alTsdEmexa la Elaq tslSwunxa. Wa, g'il^mese gwal ha^ma- 
pExs lae hoquwElsa LE^wa g'axe kIwamelEq ylx g'okiilotaseq. Wa, 
g'lPmese ^wil^wiilsax lae ^max'mEWisagEma^ye ^yalaqasa ma^lokwe 
laxes ayilkwe, qa las awabEnoLEmaxa g"IgigS,ma^yases ^nE^memoteda 
DzEndzEnx'q layowe, qa g'axes -wFla lax g'okwas ^max'niEwisagE- 65 
ma^ye, qo lal ^wFla mex^idLa ^naxwa bebEgwauEm LE^wis ts!edaqe. 
Wa, g'il^mese la gwal nEgeg'exs g'axae hogwiLeda mokwe g'lg'Ega- 
ma^yasa DzEndzEnx'q !ayowe, yix HamotElasE^we lo^ Q!umlednole 
l6^ Wadze; wa, he^mise YaqoLase. Wii, g'H^mese ^naxwa klus^a- 
IiIexs lae nele ^max'mEwisagEma^yaxs lE^mae yawix"ilalxa ts!a- 70 
wQnxe yises m&ya ^naxwa oguq!emas hemaomasa. Wa, he^misa 
ma^ltsEme L!aL!Eqwa; wa, he^misexs lE^mae xis^idLe Lawslgama- 
^yas, yix LaLeliLla, yixs liamatsleLe; wa, he^misa ts!ats!EdagEme xu- 
nox"se K'anelkasaxs lE^mae x'ls^IdEl laxes q !aminawagaseLe. Wa, 



1084 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [bth. ann. 35 

75 (III 2) was to disappear to be a rich-woman dancer; li and after he 
had spoken, LaLeliLla (III 1) disappeared when it was nearly day- 
light; I and in the evening disappeared the girl K'anelk'as (III 2), 
who was to be a | rich-woman dancer. Then he took two young men 
from I among the nearest relatives, who were to disappear on the 
following day, to be a | fire-dancer and a cannibal-tamer. Now II 

80 ^max'mEwIsagEme^ (II 1) gave a winter dance to his tribe with what 
he received in marriage from the | AwiLJedEX of the Bellabella. 
Now he had the first cannibal-dancer | and rich-woman dancer and 
fire-dancer and cannibal-tamer. | After he had given his winter 
. dance, he changed the name of LaLeliL.'a (III 1); and his | cannibal 
name was Q!adanats!e; and the rich-woman dancer name of 

85 K'anelk'as (III 2) was || QIaminawagas; and the name of the fire- 
dancer was Xwadzes; | and the name of the cannibal-tamer was 
TslaqaxElas. Thus | the BeUabella dances and names came first to 
the Kwakiutl. | Then he woed the princess of Lalak'otsia (II 3), the 
head chief | of the TEmltEmlEls, one of the numayms of the Mamale- 

QO leqala, li for LaLeliL !a (III 1) ; for now he had changed his name for 
his secular name, and | his name was now DoqiilasEla (III 1). The 
name of the princess of Lalak'otsia (II 3) was LElEndzEwek'e 
(III 5). I Now he had her for his wife; and | DoqiilasEla (III 1) had 
not been married long to her when they had a boy. | They called him 

95 PEUgwed (IV 1). This name was obtained II from his father-in-law 

75 giPmese gwale waldEmasexs lae x'ls^Ide LaLeliLlaxa la Elax ^nax'^ida. 
Wa, la dzaqwaxs lae x'is^Ideda ts !ats lEdagEme yix K'anelk^asexa 
q l^minawagaseLe. Wii, la^me ax^edxa ma^lokwe ha^j^aPii g'ayol 
laxes max'mEg'ile LeLELala, qa x'ls^idaxa laxat! ^nax'^ida, qa nonl- 
tse^stalala LE^wa helek'ilaLElaxa hamats!a. Wii, la^me yawix'i- 

80 lale ^max'mEwisagEma^ye qaes g'okulotases gEg'adanEme laxa 
AwiL ledExwasa He4dza^qwe. Wii, la^me hamdzadasa gale hamats !a, 
LE^wa q !aminawagase, LE^wa nonltse^stalala, LE^wa helek'ilaLEla. 
Wa, gii'mese gwalExs yitwix'ilae, lae L'.ayoxLaye LaLeliLla. Wa, la^me 
hSmdzEXLalax Q!adanats!e. Wa, laxae K'anelk'ase qlaminawagE- 

85 dzEXLiilax Q laminawagase. Wii, liixae Legadeda nonltse^stalalas Xwa- 
dzese. Wii, he^misLal LegEmsa helik'llaLEle Ts !iiqaxElase. Wii, heEm 
g'il: g'ax leletsa He^ldza^qwe, LE-wa LeLEgEme liixa Kwiig^ule. Wii. 
la^me g'iiyox^wItsE^we k'ledelas Liilak-6ts!axa xamiigEma^ye g'lga- 
mesa TEmltEmlElsexa =nEmsgEmakwe ^iiE^'memot laxa Mamaleleqa.la, 

90 qa LaLeliLla, yixs lE^mae L!iiyoxLiixat! laxa biixtise. Wii, laEm 
LegadEs DoqQliisEla, ylxs Legadae k'ledela Lalak'otsliis LElEndzE- 
wek'e. Wii, la^me gEg'adEX'^Its. Wa, k'lestla giila lii hayasEk'&la 
DoquliisEliixs lae xungwadEX'^Itsa biibagume. Wii, hex'^ida^mese 
Lex^IdEs PEiigwede laxes xunokwe. Wii, la^me g-ayauEmaxa Le- 

95 gEme lilxes nEgumpe lax Mamalelexk'lot'.Ena^yases xiinokwe. 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1085 

on the Mamaleleqaia side for their son. | Then they had another 96 
child, a girl, and she was called | MEled (IV 2). Then they had 
another child, a girl, | who had the name MEnledaas (IV 3); and 
they had another child, | a boy, who was named LaqlEvos (IV 4). || 
Lalak'otsia (II 3) gave these names to his shn-in-law DoquliisEla 100 
(III 1) to be the | names of his children. Now the marriage debt was 
paid by Lalak'ots !a (II 3) to DoqulasEla (III 1 ) ; | and he gave as privi- 
leges to his son-in-law the speaker's dance, and the great dance from 
above, | and the war-dance, and the double-headed-serpent dance; 
and the name of the | speaker's dance was Aomalal; and the name of 
the great dance from above, II Nong'axta^ye; and the name of the 5 
war-dance, ^wilEnkiilag'ilis; | and the name of the double-headed- 
serpent dance was ^wax'sgEmlis. And the secular | name of Doqula- 
SEla (III 1) was now ^walas Kwax'ilanokume^, | and (those mentioned 
before) were the names of his children. Then he | went back to his 
tribe at Tsliide, and that winter he gave a winter dance. Ii He used 10 
the names which he iiad received in marriage from Lalak'ots !a (II 3) | 
for his children; and thus the names of the Mamaleleqala came to 
the I DzEudzEnx'qlayo, and the winter dances. This is all about 
the I BellabeUa and the Mamaleleqala. | 

Now I will talk about K' an elk' as (III 2). She || married the chief 15 
of the Q!5moy&.^ye, Yaqok Iwalag' ihs (III 6). | He received the house 



Wa, laxae et!ed xiingwadEX'^Itsa tslatslEdagEme. Wa, la^mese Lex^e- 96 
dEs MElede laq. Wa, laxae et!ed xungwadEX'^Itsa tslatslEdagEme. 
Wa, laxae LegadEX'^Ides MEnledaase. Wa, laxae ximgwadEx"^itsa 
babagiime. Wii, la Lex^ets LaqlEyose laq. Wa, la^me hex^same 
Lalak'ots !a ts!asa LeLEgEme laxes nEgfimpe DoquIasEla, qa lcle- 100 
gEmses sasEme. Wii, hx-'me qotex'^Ide Lalak'ots !ax DoqulasEla. 
Wa, la^me k' les'ogulxLalaxa hayaq '.EntElale, LE^wa ^walas^axaa- 
kwe, LE^wa tox^wide, LE^vva sIsEyiiLElale; wa, he^mis LegEmsa 
hayaq lEntElale, Aomalale; wii, he-mis LegEmsa ^walas^axaiikwe 
Nong'axta^ye; wii, he^mis LegEmsa tox^wide ^wIlEnkulagilise; wa, 5 
he^mis LegEmsa sIsEyuLElale ^wilx'sgEmlise; wa, he^mis biixflsLeLE- 
gEmse, yix DoqiiliisEla. Wii, laEm LegadEs ^walase Kwax'ilano- 
kuma^ye. Wii, he'mis LegEmas silsEmas. Wa, laEmxae g-ax 
nii^nakwa laxes g'okulase liix Tslade. Wa, la^me yawixllaxa la 
tslawunxa. Wii, la^me Lex^etsa LeLegEmg'ElxLa^yas Lalak'otsia 10 
laxes sasEme. Wii, gilx^me LeLEgEmasa Mamaleleqala laxa DzEn- 
dzEnx'q layowe LE^wa lelediisa ts!ets!eqa. Wa, laEm gwal laxa 
He^idza^qwe LE'wa Mamaleleqala. 

Wii, la^mesEn edzaqwal gwagwex's^alal liLx K'anelk'asaxs lae 
la^vadEX'^id laxa Qlomoya^ye yls g'lgama^yase Yaqok !walagilise. 15 
Wa, la^me layoweda g'okwe liiq, LE^wa hamatsla, LE^wa helik'i- 



1086 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [bth. ann. 35 

17 and the cannibal dance, and the cannibal-tamer | dance, and the 
rich-woman dance, and the fire-dance, and the names; | and there- 
fore the Qlomoya^ye have BellabeUa names. | This is all about the 

20 Qlomoya^ye; for Yaqoklwalag'ilis (III 6) had only one || child with 
K' an elk' as (III 2), a boy, who was named | PoLElas (IV 5). He 
received the name from DoqulasEla (II 1). | K' an elk' as (III 2) did 
not stay long with Yaqok!walag'ihs (III 6), who | was chief of the 
numaym Yaex'agEme^ of the Q!5moya^ye. | 

25 Now I will talk about DoqulasEla (III 1), who next il took for his 
wife the princess of the chief of the Ts lets lElwalagftme^, | a numaym 
of the Nimkish — Lax' LElidzEmga (III 7), the princess of | LlaqoLas 
(II 4) . They had a boy, who received the name | YaqoLas (IV 6) ; 
and they had another child, Psngwed (IV 7). As soon as | he began 

30 to grow up, YaqoLas (IV 6) married the princess (IV 8) of || Hamisk'E- 
nis (III 8), chief of the G'Ig'ilgam of the Nimkish. Now | YaqoLas's 
(IV 6) name was Doqwayis, for he changed his name. Now the 
marriage debt was paid to | D5qwayis (IV 6) by Hamisk'Enis (III 8). 
Tlien he gave him the names | A^mawlyus and K' !ade for his secular 
names, and Lanalag'ihs for the | hamshamts !Es-dance, and G'lga- 

35 meqlolEla for the great-fool dance, ll and ^wllEnkulag'ilis for the war- 
dance, and NEuqlolEla for the | great-bear dance. These were his 
four names for the winter dance. | Now they changed the name of 

17 laLElaj LE%a q !aminawagS,se, LE^wa nonltse^stalale, LE^is lble- 
gEme. Wa, he^mis lag'ila He^ldza^q Iwale LeLEgEmasa Q!omoya^ye. 
Wa, laEmxae gwal laxa Qlomoya^ye, qaxs ^nEmox"^mae xunox- 

20 ^widas Yaqoklwalag'ilise lax K'anelk'asexa babagumexa LegadEs 
PoLElase. Wii, laEmxae hcEm g'ayola LegEme DoqiilasEla, ylxs 
Lomae ^nEmal^id la^wade K'anelk'asas Yaqoklwalag'ilise, ylxa g'lgS- 
ma^yasa Yaex'agEma^yasa Qlomoya^ye. 

Wa, la^mesEn gwagwex's^EX'^idEl lax DoqulasElaxs, lae gaga- 

25 kMEX'^id lax k'iedelasa gigama^yasa Ts lets lElwalagSma^yasa ^nE- 
^memote laxa ^nEmgese, yix LaxxElIdzEmga, ylxs k'ledelaas Lla- 
qoLase. Wa, la xungwadEX'^Itsa babagiime, yixa Legadas Yaqo- 
Lase. Wa, laxae etled xungwadEx-^Its PEngwede. Wa, gil^mese 
qlulyax^wide YaqoLasaxs lae gEg'adEx'^Itsa k'ledelas Hamisk'E- 

30 nise, g'lg&ma^yasa G'Ig'tlgEmasa ^nEmgese. Wa, laEm Legade 
YaqoLasas Doqwayisaxs lae LlayoxLa. Wa, la^me qotex'^itsE^we 
DoqwSyisas Hamisk"Enise. Wa, la^me LegEmg'ElxLalasa yisox A^mil- 
wlyuse Lo^ K'lade laxa baxuse. Wa, lii LegadEs Lanalag'Ilise laxa 
hamshamts lEse ; wa he^mis G'lgameqlQlEla laxa ^walase nulEmala. 

35 Wa, he^mis ^wilEnkillagilise laxa tox^wide lo^ NEnqlolEla laxa 
^walase nana. Wa, laEm LeLEgEms laxa tsletsleqaxa mosgEme 
LBLEgEma. Wa, la^me LlayoxLa'ye LaxxElIdzEmgiis ^na^nEmplEn- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1087 

Lax' LElIdzEmga (IV 8) to ^na^nEmplEng'ilayugwa (IV 8) | because 38 
her father paid the marriage debt. Now they had a | daughter, who 
was named by Hamisk'Euis (III 8), ^maxiilayugwa (V 1). || Then 40 
Doqwayis (IV 6) came to Fort Rupert with his wife, | ^na^nEm- 
p !Eng' ilayugwa (IV 8), and their princess, ^maxiilayugwa (VI). 
Before | ^maxiilayugwa (V 1) had grown up, DoqwS,yis (IV 6) 
became sick; | and the chief did not He down long before he died. | 
Doqwayis (IV 6) left a copper, the great expensive copper || LobiHla, 45 
which he had obtained from his father-in-law Hamisk'Eiiis (III 8) 
when the latter paid his marriage debt; | and when those who had 
buried Doqwayis (IV 6) came home, | Awade invited all the men of 
the Gwetsla (that is, the real | Kwag'ul) and the Q !omoya^ye. He 
did not invite the | ^walas Kwag'ul, for the dead chief, Doqwa^ds 
(IV 6), belonged to them. |1 And when all had come into the house of 50 
Awade, he told them | why he had called them in. He said, " Now 
we will go and comfort | ^maxulayugwa (VI), because she was the 
princess of the past Doqwayis (IV 6) ; for | the girl ^maxulayugwa 
(V 1) is the only daughter of Doqwayis, | although Doqwajns (IV 6) 
had a younger brother, PEngwed (IV 7) ; but || he could not take the 55 
place of his elder brother, because D6qw§,yis (IV 6) had | ^ma,xula- 
yugwa (V 1) for his daughter, and she belonged to the elder hue of the 
head family of | ^max'mEwisagEnie^ (II 1). The eldest brother and 
his descendants are always the head family; | and they could not 



g'ilayugwaxs lae qotex'^ldes ompe. Wa, la^me xungwadE- 38 
x'^itsa tslatslEdagEme. Wa, la Lex^ede Hamlsk'Enisas ^maxula- 
yugwa laq. Wa, g'ax^me Doqwayise lax Tsaxise LE^wis gEUEme 40 
^na^iiEmp Isng'ilayugwa LE^wis k" ledeie ^maxulayugwa. Wa, k' !es- 
'mese laEm exEutlede ^maxula3'-ugwaxs lae tslEx^qlEx'^ide Do- 
qw&yise, wa k'!est!a gael qElgwilExs lae wlk' lEx^Ideda g'Jgama- 
y5la. Wa, la^me Llaqwaelale Doqwayisaxa ^walase laxula Llaqwe 
Lobihla, yix g'ayanEmas laxes uEgumpe Hamisk'Enisaxs lae qote- 45 
x"aq. Wa, g'il^mese g'ax na^nakwa wunEmtax Doqwayisaxs lae 
Leltslode Awadolaxa ^naxwa bebEgwanEmsa GwetElaxa alak'Iala 
Kwag'ula, LE-'wa Q!omcya^ye. Wa, laEm k-!es Lalelts!6tk-inaxa 
^walase Kwag'ula, qaxs he^mae gixgwalEx Doqwa,yisde. Wii, 
g'll^mese g'ax ^wi^laeL lax g'okwas Awadaxs lae nelases Le^laie- 50 
laxa ^naxwa bEgwanEma. Wa, la^mes ^nek-a qa^s la tslElwaqax 
^maxiilayugwa lax k" ledelas Doqwayisde, qaxs • ^uEmox^mae xu- 
nox"dEs Doqw&yisdeda ts !ats lEdagEme, yix ^maxQlayugwa, ytxs 
wax'^mae tsalyanokwe Doqwayisdas PEngwede. Wa, la kMeas 
gwex'^idaas he Lax"stodxes ^nolax'de, qaxs xungwadae Doqwa- 55 
yisdas ^maxulayugwa, ylxs ^nolawalilae, qaxs kwekwae ^max'- 
mEwisagEmayole. Wa, hex'sa^mes kwekwa ^nolawalilexa g'a- 
jkwe laq. Wa, laxae kMeSs gwex'^idaas layowa ^walase Llaqwe 



1088 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann-. 35 

give the great copper | Lobilila to PEngwed (IV 7). Therefore 

60 Awade wished to go || and conifort ^maxQlajoigwa (V 1) who was to 
take the place of her past father. | When Awade stopped speaking, 
the men went out | and entered the house of ^maxidayugwa (V 1) 
and all the | ^walas Kwag'ul were inside and sitting down with 
'maxulayugwa (V 1) in the rear | of the house. Then the GwetEla 

65 sat down at the right-hand side, ll inside the house; and the Q!6- 
moya^ye sat down on the left-hand side | of the house; and when 
they were all in, the head chief | of the Maamtag'ila, AwaxElag'ihs, 
stood up and comforted her; | and when he had ended his speech, he 
sat down. Then the | head chief of the Kukwakliim, Odze^stahs, 

70 stood up and comforted her, || and when he had ended his speech he 
sat down; then the | head cliief of the G'ig"ilgam of the Qlomoya^ye, 
YaqoLadze, arose and | comforted ^maxulayugwa (V 1), and when 
he had ended his speech | he sat down; then the head chief of the 
Yaex'agEme^, | Lalak'ots.'a, stood up and comforted her, and when 

75 he had ended Ms speech |1 he sat down. Now four chiefs had spoken. | 
Then Hamasaqa, chief of the DzEndzEnx"q!ayo, stood up. | He 
carried the great expensive copper, Lobihla, and he | promised to sell 
it to give property to all the tribes on behalf of ^miixulayugwa (V 1). 



Lobilila lax PEngwede. Wa, he^mis lag'ilas Awade ^nex' qa^s la 

60 tslslwaqax ^maxillayugwa, qaxs lE-mae Lax^stodElxes ompde. Wa, 
gil^mese q !wel-ide Awadaxs lae ^wi^la hoquwElseda bebEgwfinEme, 
qa^s lax'da^xwe lax g'okwas ^maxulayugwa. Wit, la^me ^wi^laeLE- 
leda ^walase Kwag'ul k!wesEmelEx ^maxiilayugwa laxa ogwiwalilas 
g"6kwas. Wa, S,^mise klus^alllEleda GwetEla laxa helk' lots lalllas 

65 awlLElasa g^okwe. Wa, het!alada QlomoytVya gEmxotslalllas awi- 
LElasa g'okwe. Wa, g^il^mese ^wI'laeLExs lae Lax^ullle xamagE- 
ma^yasa Maamtag'ila, yix AwaxElag"ilise; wa, la ts'.Elwax^eda. 
Wa, gil^mese labe waldEmas lae k!wag'alila. Wa, la Lax^iilile 
xamagEma^yasa Kukwakliime Odze^'stalise qa^s tslElwax^ede. Wa, 

70 g'il^mese labe waldEmas lae klwagalila. Wii, la Lax^ulile xama- 
gEma^yasa G'ig'ilgEmasa Q!omoya.^ya, yix YaqoLadze, qa^s 
ts !Elwax^edex ^maxulayugwa. Wii, giHmese lilbe waldEmas lae 
kiwiig'alila. Wii, la Lax^ullle xamiigEma^yasa Yaex"agEma^ye, yix 
Lalak"6ts!a, qa^s ts!Elwax^ede. Wa, gil^mese labe waldEmas lae 

75 kiwiig'alila. Wii, la^me mokwa g'igigama^ye yaqlEg'a^la. Wii, 
la^mes Lax^iillle Hamasaqa, yix g'igama^yasa DzEndzEnx'qIayowe. 
Wii, la^me diilax Lobilllaxa ^wiilase laxula Llaqwa. Wa, la^me dzo- 
xwas qaeda ^naxwa lelqwalaLa^ya qa ^maxulayugwa. Wii, laEm 



BOAS] FAMILVT HISTORIES 1089 

Now j he changed her name to Doqwayis (V 1). Then they gave 
blankets || to the head man. That is all about this. | 80 

Now Doqwayis (VI) was wooed by Wag'idis (V 2) | head chief of 
the LatVlaxsE^ndayo, soon after Doqwayis (V 1) had invited | all 
the tribes.' | 

Doqwayis had not had Wag'idis for her liusband for a long time 
when she had a || son . . . Then his name was Tsaxis (VT 1) [of that 85 
boy,] I because he was born in Tsaxis. \Vlien he was ten months 
old, I the thunder-bird rings were put on him . . . | 

Not long after this Doqwayis (V 1) gave away blankets on behalf 
of her son (VI 1). | Now Doqwayis herself spoke, and said to her 
numaym, || the DzEndzEnx'qIayo, that her son would take the | 90 
head seat, and that she, Doqwayis (VI), would stand at the end of 
the I DzEndzEnx'qIayo, and that the name of Deyad (VI 1) would 
be Doqwayis (Vl 1). | His mother's name was now YaqoLas (V 1). 
It was not I long before Wag'idis (V 2) and his wife (V 1) YaqoLas 
had another son (VI 2) ; || and when he began to grow up, then 95 
Wag'idis (V 2) gave away blankets | on behalf of his new son (VI 2). 
He was going to place him in the seat | of his own father, of the 
numaym Laalax'sE^ndayo, who had died, and who was named | 
LElbEx' salag' iUs (IV 9). Now the new child of Wag'idis (VI 2) had 

LlayoxLa, laEm LegadEs Doqwayise. Wii, lasm yaqwaso^ laxa 
kwekwe. Wa, laEm gwal laxeq. 80 

Wa, la^me gagak' !Ex-^itsE^we Doqwayisas Wag'idise, yix xama- 
gEma^yasa Laalax's^Endayowe nExwag'eqexs lax'de Letele Doqwa- 
yisaxa ^naxwa lelqwalaLa^ya.' 

Wa, k'!est!a gala la^wade Doqwayisa Wag'idisaxs lae xungwa- 
dix'^itsa babagume . . . Wa, la^me LegadEs Tsaxise, ylxs babagu- 85 
mae, qaxs hae mayoLEme Tsaxise. Wa, la helogwilaxs lae 
kiinxwedEkwa . . . 

Wa, kMest!a alaEm galaxs lae plEs^ide Doqwayise qaes xiino- 
kwe. Wa, la-me xamoda^me Doqwayise nelaxes ^nE'memoteda 
DzEndzEnx"q layowaxs lE^mae laLes xiinokwe LlayostodLEq laxa 90 
kwekwe. Wa, S,^mise Doqwayise la Laxwala laxa gwaxsdE^yasa 
DzEndzEnx'qIayowe. Wa, la^me Legade Deyadas Doqwayise. Wa, 
^^mise lii abEmpas la LegadEs YaqoLase. Wa, k^Iestla alaEm 
galaxs lae et!ed xungwadEx"^ide Wag'idise LE^wias gEnEme Yiiqo- 
Lase. Wa, g'll'mese q !waq lillyakwalaxs lae p!Es^Ide Wag'idise 95 
qaes ale babagum xunokwa. Wa, la^me Lax"stots lax Laxwa^ya- 
ses ompwule laxa 'nE^memote, yixa Laalax's'Endayowexa Legadolas 
LElbEX'salag'llise. Wa, la^me Legadeda ale xun6x"s Wag'idisas. 

1 Here follows the description of the customs relating to pregnancy and birth, p. 649- In regard to this 
marriage, see also p. 1111. 

75052 — 21—35 eth— pt 2 20 



1090 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIITTL [eth.ann.3b 

a name. | Then the grandfather (III 8) of YaqoLas (V 1) — that is, the 
200 father (III 8) of the mother (IV 8) of YaqoLas (V 1), — || died, for her 
father was Hamisk' Enis (III 8) . He was the chief of the numajon | 
Ts lets Ifilwalagame^ of the Nimkish; and the mother of | YaqoLas 
(V 1), ^na^nEmp lEng' ila_yugwa (IV 8), had no time to take her 
father's seat, when | she also was taken iU and died. Now YaqoLas 
(V 1) I was with child, and the cliiefs of the Nimkish wished in vain || 
5 for YaqoLas (VI) to take the seat of her grandfather, Hamisk' Enis 
(III 8). I Then YaqoLas (V 1) said that she would take it after a 
wliile. Then she had another | son (VI 3) ; and when he began to 
grow up, I YaqoLas (V 1) and Wag'idis (V 2) gave blankets to the 
Nimkish, | and then the new child took the seat of Hamisk' Enis 

10 (III 8) in his numaym the II Ts!ets!Elwalagame^; and his name was 
Hamisk' Enis (VI 3), although he was | a child, and he also 
took his seat. That is all about this. | 

Now I will speak again about Wag'idis (V 2), when he wooed the 
princess of | ^maxwa (V 3), head chief of the Mamaleleqala on behalf 
of his eldest son | Doqwayis (VI 1) ; for the princess of ^maxwa (V3) 

15 was Hamdzid (VI 4). Now || Doqwayis (VI 1) married her. It was 
not a long time before tiiey had | a son (VII 1). When the son of 
Doqwayis (VI 1) was | ten months old, he was given the name 
Wawalk'ine (VII 1), for this is the name of the child | of Doqwayis. 
Now the child got a name from his | mother's side. Then ^maxwa 

Wa, la^me Ie^Ic gagEmpas YaqoLase, yix ompas abEmpas Yaqo- 
200 Lase, yixs ayadaas Hamisk'Enise, yixa g'igama^yasa ^nE^memasa 
Tslets'.Ehvalagama^yasa ^nEmgese. Wa, wisomfdat.'a abEmpas 
YaqoLase, yix ^na^nEmplEng'ilayugwa la Lax"stodxes ompaxs lae 
ogwaqa ts!Ex'q!Ex'^ida, wa, lii wlk'lEx-eda, ylxs la^maaxaa Yaqo- 
Lase bEwekwekwa. Wa, laEm wax'a gig^Egama^yasa ^uEmgese ^nex' 
5 qa he^mise YaqoLase la Lax"stodxes gagEmpde Hamisk'Enisde. 
Wa, la ^nek-e YaqoLase, qa^s hayalales la. Wii, la^me et!ed 
xungwadEX-^ida, yisa babagiime. Wii, g-il'mese q !waq !ulyax^wi- 
dalaxs lae YaqoLase lo^ Wag'idise p lEts lELElaxa ^nEmgese. Wa, 
la^me Lax"stodeda ale xiinox"sex Hamisk' Enisde laxes ^UE^memota 

10 Ts!ets!Elwalagama^ye. Wa, la^me LegadEs Hamisk'Euisa wax'^me 

ginanEma. Wa, laEmxae laLEx k!wa^yas. Wa laEmxae gwal laq. 

Wa, la^mesEn edzaqwaLEs Wagidisaxs lae gagak' !ax k" !edelas 

^maxwa, yix xamagEma^ye g'lgamesa Mamaleleqala qaes Lawul- 

gama^ye Doqwayise, yixs k'ledadae ^maxwas Hamdzide. Wa, 

15 la^me gEg'ade DoqwS.yisas. Wii, k'!est!a giilaxs lae xungwadEx'^i- 
tsa babagume. Wii, la^mes hayaqeda xunokwas Doqwayisaxes 
helogwilaena^ye, yix Wixwalk'ina^ye, qaxs he^mae LegEms xiino- 
kwas D5qwayise. Wii, laEm gwek'lotlEndale LegEmas xiinokwas 
laxes abaskMote. Wii, la^me ts'.EX'qlEx'^ide ^maxwa. Wa, k'lestla 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1091 

(V 3) was taken ill, and after a || short time he died. Before he died, 20 
but I when he knew that he was not going to recover, because he was 
gettmg I weaker all the time, he asked his daughter (VI 4) to | call 
in his numaym, the Mamaleleq !am, for he said he wanted to speak to 
them. I Immediately Hamdzid (VI 4) called in her numaym. || When 25 
all came in. Chief ^maxwa (V .3) | spoke, and he told his numaym that 
his mind was getting weak ] on accoimt of his sickness. "I wish | 
my grandchild Wawalkinc (VII 1) to take my place. His name | 
shall be ^niaxwa when I die." Thus he said to his tribe. II Now, what 30 
should his numaym say ? for really the child was of his own blood , | 
the child of Dociwayis (VI 1) and of his wife Hamdzid (VI 4). | Wlien 
night came. Chief ^maxwa (V 3) died, | and in the morning at day- 
break the Mamaleleqala buried | their chief ^maxwa (V 3). When 
the people who had buried him came back, || the chief of the numaym 35 
WiwomasgEm, | NEg'ii, called his tribe the Mamaleleqala; and 
when I they were all in his house, NEg'a said that he called them | to 
comfort Hamdzid (VI 4) and her child Wawalk-ine (VII 1). | 
Then all who were in the house of NEg'ii went out and || went into the 40 
house of Wawalk"ine (VII 1); and the | chiefs of the Mamaleler[ala 
spoke in turns, comforting Wawalk'ine (VII 1) | and his mother 

galaxs lae wlk" lEx^ida. Wa, hexoLexs k' les^mae wlk' lEx^Ida. Wii, 20 
laEm cjIaLEle ^maxwaxs k'lesae la ekMema, ytxs a^mae hextala 
wixLlemadzE^nakiila. Wa, he^mis la axk" lalatsexes k"!ede}eqa Lel- 
ts!odesexes ^nE^memoteda Mamaleleq !Eme, qaxs ^nek'aaxs waldEm- 
noklwexsdaaq. Wii, hex'^ida^mese Hamdzide Lelts!6dEx ^UE^me- 
motas. Wii, g'iPmese g'ax ^wFlaeLExs laasa g'lgama^ye ^miixwa 25 
yaqlEg'a^la. Wii, la^me nelaxes ^nE^memotaxs lE^mae ^wi^weLle- 
x^ede nS,qa^yas laxes ts!Ex'q!aena^ye: "Wii, yu^mesEn gwE^yS qa 
Llayo g'axEnEn ts !ox"LEmiici6x Wawalk'ina^ye. Wii, la^mox Legad- 
LEs ^maxwa qEnLo lal WEyEmsaleLo ;" ^nekexes g'okulote. Wii, 
qa ^mases wiiMEmas ^nE^memotas, qaxs aia^mae hEsEmq Elkweda 30 
giniinEme, yix xunokwas Doqwayise LE^wis gEUEme Hamdzide. 
Wii, g'iPmese ganul^IdExs lae wik' lEx^ededa g'igiima-ye ^miixwa. 
Wii, giPmese ^nax'^Idxa gaalaxs lae wtinEmt lededa ^naxwa Mama- 
leleqaliixes g"igamex'de ^maxwa. Wii, giPmese g'iix nii^nakwa 
wunEmtax'daq, lae hex'^ida^me g'lgama^yasa ^nE^memotasa Wiwo- 35 
masgEme NEg'ii Lex'LElsaxes g'okulotexa Mamaleleqala. Wii, g"il- 
^mese ^wI^laeL liix g'okwasexs lae nele NEg'iixs he'mae Lelts!odEg"il, 
qa^s la ts!Elwaqax Hamdzide LE^wis xunokwe Wawalk'ina^ye. 
Wa, la^me ^wi^la la hoqiiwEls lax g'okwas NEg'ii qa^s la hogwiL 
lax g'okwas Wiiwalkina^ye. Wa, la^me L!aL!ayogull}Ela ts!Elwa- 40 
qeda g'lg'Egama^yasa Mamaleleqala tslElwac^ax Wiiwalk'ina^ye, le- 
^wis abEmpe Hiimdzide Lo^me DoqwSyise. Wii, g'iPmese ^wilxtod 



1092 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

43 Hamdzid (VI 4), and Doqwayis (VI 1). After all | the chiefs had 
comforted her, HawasElal, who was chief | under ^maxwa, arose and 

45 promised to give away blankets to all the tribes || on behalf of 

Wawalk'ine (VII 1); and now his name was to be changed, and his 

name was | ^maxwa (VII 1 ) ; and he was the highest among all the 

Mamaleleqala, | although he was a child. That is all about this. | 

Now, you know there was one daughter of | ^max'mEwIsagEme^ 

50 (II 1), Llaqwael (III 3), and also one son, || Gweno (III 4), who were 
left behind among the AwIl !edEx", when he went | home with' his 
prince LaleliL!a (II 1) and Kaiielk'as (II 2) to | Tslade. As soon 
as (jweno (III 4) was a young man, he married | the princess of 
Wak'as (II 5), chief of the OyalaidEX"; and the name of | the princess 

55 of Wak'as (II 5) was Q!akuylg'i4ak" (III 9). They had a son, || and 
the name of this child was GwayolElas (IV 10). | He took this name 
from the names of ^maxmEwIsagEme^ (II 1). | That is aU that I will 
say about this, j 

Now, Llaqwael (III 3) married Chief Ts.'Ese (III 10) of the 

60 XaesEla, | and she had a son, and the name of the son || was ^max'- 
mEwIsagEme^ (IV 11). The boy obtained his name | from the 
DzEndzEux'qlayo; and | Llaqwael (III 3) was also given in mar- 
riage the name Llaqwaelax ^maxiiyalidze (III 3). These names also 
camefrom | theDzEndzEnx'qIayo. Andshehadanotherchild,agirl. | 

43 la ts '.Elwax^ldeda g-Ig'Egama^yaxs lae Lax^ulile HawasElalexa g'iga- 
ba^yax ^maxwa. Wa, la^me dzoxwa qaeda ^naxwa lelqwalaLa^ya 

45 qa Wawalkina^ye, ylxs lE^mae LlayoxLa. Wft, laEm LegadEs 
^maxwa. Wii, lasm kwekwa yisa ^naxwa Mamaleleqala, yixs wax'- 
^mae ginansma. Wa, la^me gwal laxeq. 

Wii, laEniLas qlaLElaqexs ^uEmokwaeda tslEdaqe xiinox"s ^max"- 
mEwIsagEmae, yix Llaqwaele; wa, he^misa ^uEmokwe babagiim 

50 xunox"s, ylx Gwenawe lo^waLEs laxa Awil ledExwaxs g'axae na- 
^nak" LE'wis LEwQlgamaH^e LaLeliLla; wa he^mise K'anelk'ase lax 
Tslade. Wa, gil^mese helak' !ox-wide Gwenawaxs lae gEg-adEx"^its 
k- !edelas Wak-ase, yix g-Igama^yasa OyalaidExwe. Wa, la Legade 
k-ledelas Wak'asas Qlakiiylgi-'lakwe. Wii, la^me xiingwadEx'^Itsa 

55 bilbagume. Wii, la^me Legadeda glnanEmas GwayolElas. Wa, 
la^me gwek'!ot!Endala lax Lex'LEgEmelas ^max'mEwisagEma^ye. 
Wii, heEinLEn walox^vaLElal laq. 

Wii, lii hVwade Llaqwaele laxa XaesEla lax g'igama^yase TsIesc. 
Wii, laEm xungwadEX'^itsa babagume. Wa, la^me Legade xuno- 

60 kwas ^miix'mEwisagEma^ye. Wii, laEmxae gwek'!ot!Enale LegE- 
masa biibagume laxa DzEndzEnxq!ayowe. Wa, laEmxae LegEm- 
g'ElxLale L'.aqwaelax -miixuyalldzex. Wii, laEmxae g'ayola LegEme 
liixa DzEndzEnx'qIayowe. Wii, la et!ed xungwadEX'^itsa ts!ats!E- 
dao-Eme. Wii, la LegadEs ^walasLala. Wii, laEmxae gayola lb- 



BOAS J FAMILY HISTORIES 1093 

Her name was ^walasLala (IV 12), and she obtained II the name from 65 
the UzEndzEnx'q !ayo, and the winter dances wliich she gave in mar- 
riage ! to her husband. It is said that Llaqwael (III 3) had many 
children by her | husband; and it is said the chilch'en married other 
women | among the XaesEla, and therefore the northern tribes liave 
the names Hamdzid and | l lacjwag'ila. At last this is the end. || . 

This is the reason why the names of the DzEndzEux" cj !ayo are 70 
scattered. | It is on account of their chief ^maxmEwIsagEme^ 
because he went far away to marry, | and on account of his children 
and grandchildren. That is aU. ( 

The Laxsa 

I shall begin with LloLlotsa, the poor one who lielped | 0-maxt!a- I 
laLe, when they lived in the village K' !aq !a. Nobody | knows 
where LloLlotsa came from. He would have been chief on account 
of his supernatural treasure, | the canoe found on the river G'Eyox", 
but he just gave it to O'maxt lalaLe, || when he first came home 5 
sitting in the hunting- | canoe, which he obtained as a supernatural 
treasure from Blue-Grouse. Then l !ol !otsa was foolish, | and he 
was only the steersman of O^maxt lalaLe. He j never became rich, 
for he was made unlucky by the hunting-canoe which he obtained as 
supernatural treasure. | He only continued skinning sea-otters which 
were speared by || O^maxt lalaLe, and only was looking on when 10 

gEme laxa DzEndzEnx'q layowe LE^wa ts lets !exLEne la lagElxLes 65 
laxes la^wiinErae. Wa, la^lae (j!enEme sasEmas L!aqwaele LEwis 
la^wunEme. Wa, laEm^laxaawise laElwade waokwe ts!edaq sasEms 
lax gwayasa XaesEla, ylx lag'ila LeLEgadeda gwayases Hamdzid l6^ 
L!aqwag"ila. Wa, ladzala^me laba laxeq. 

Wa, heEm lag^ilas gwel-lde LeLEgEmasa DzEndzEnx-q!ayowe 70 
qaes g'lgama^ye ^max"mEwIsagEma^yaxs qwequsg'ilae lax gKg^ade 
LE^wis sasEme LE^wis ts !ots !ox"LEma. Wa, laEm gwala. 

The Laxsa 

HeEmLEn g'ag'iLElaLe L'.oLlotsa, ylxa wiwosllaga helobalts lanes 1 
O^maxt'.alaLe, yixs g^okiilae lax K-!aq!a. Wa, he^mesex k!esae 
cj'.ale g"ayolasas LloL'.otsa, yixs wax'ilaxsde g'Igame qaes Logwa^ya 
xwaklfma lax was G"Eyoxwe. Wii, a^mese la ts'.as lax O^maxtlala- 
La^j'axs g"alae g'ax na^nakwa k!waxsala laxes Logwa^ya ale^wats'.e 5 
xwak'.una laxa mag'ag'u. Wii, la^me gwalElaEm nEiiolowe l!6l!o- 
tsa. Wii, la^me aEm la kIwaxLes O^maxt !alaLa^ye. Wa, la^me 
hewiixa qlomx'^ida cjaxs lE^mae amelamatsoses Logwa^;, .i ale^watsle 
xw!ik!una. Wii, laEnrlae aEm liemEnala siijjaxa q!asa ale^wauEms 
O^maxtlalaLa^ye. Wa, laEm^lae aEm xits'.axilaxO^maxt'.alaLa^yaxs 10 



1094 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

12 O^maxtlalaLe | invited all the villages in the bay of Tsaxis. | Many 
tribes lived there — Lalax's^Endayo, and DzEnx'q!ayo, | and the 
others, l !6l !otsa was always walking, | and he went to the village 

15 of Lalaxs^Endayo at Tayagol. He would || always come home when 
it was nearly morning, for | Lalaxs^Endayo had a pretty woman for 
a slave. Her name was Tsele. It is | not known where she came 
from. L !6l !otsa went to her | every day. Now Tsele was preg- 
nant. I L!oL!otsa took Tsele for his wife. After some time she 

20 gave || birth to a child, and l !ol !otsa did not marry his wife Tsele in 
the formal way. | This is called an illegitimate marriage (sticking 
together). Now Tsele gave birth | to a boy, and Lalax' s^Endayo was 
ashamed of what had been done | by his slave Tsele. He thought 
about the name which he was to give | to LloLlotsa. Then he gave 

25 him [the name in marriage] NEn5logEme^ as |1 a marriage-name for 
L.'oLlotsa, and also ijesplegaak" for the name of his child. | Lalax'- 
s^Endayo just invented these two names, j Now NEnologEme^ 
wished to remain with Lalax's^Endayo. Then | NsnologEme^ left 
O^maxtlalaLe. Now | his wife Tsele was again with child, and she 

30 gave birth to a boy, || and his children were called illegitimate chil- 
dren. I Then Lalax' s^Endayo made a name for him [his name], and he 
named him I BawEle. Then Tsele had another child; and I Lalax'- 



11 LelElaaxa ^naxwa g'6x"g'Egwes laxg'a 6ts!alisg"as Tsaxis. Wii, laEm- 
^lae q lenEm la lelqwalaLa^ya g'okulotas Lalax's^Endayo lo^ DzEnxq !a- 
yo LE^wis waokwe. Wii, laEni^lfiwise heniEiiala-me l !ol '.otsa la qas^ida 
qa^s le lax g'okulasas Lalax's^Endayo lax Tayagole. Wa, la^ae alna- 

15 xwaEm g'ax nii^nax^xa la Elaq ^nax'^idxa gaala, ylxs cj!agwadae La- 
lax's^Endayasa ex'sokwe tslEdaqaxa Legadils Tsele. Wii, laEmjcae 
k'les q!ale g'ayolasas. Wii, he^mis lanaxwa heJEnsos L!oL!otsaxa 
^naxwa giigEnoLa. Wii, laEm^lawise bEwex^wide Tsele. Wii, aEm- 
^lawiseLloL'.otsa lagEg'adEX'^IdEs Tsele, g'ag'alagEmaqexs k'les^mae 

20 mEyul^ida. Wii, la^me. hewiixa qildzeLe L'.oLlotsaxes gEnEme 
Tsele. Wii, hcEm LegadEs k!ut!Exsde. Wa, la^me Tsele mayul- 
^itsa biibagume. Wii, lil^lae Lalax's^Endayo raax'tslas gwex"^idaa- 
sases q'.ak'owe Tsele. Wii, la^me sEnx'^Id qa^s LegEmg'ElxLa^ye 
lax L!oL!otsa. Wa, laEni^lae LegEmg^ElxLillax NEnologEma^ye qa 

25 LegEms L'.oLlotsa; he^mise L!esp!egaak" qa LegEms xiinokwas. Wa, 
laEm a^me Liilax's^Endayo sEnenox"sa ma^ltsEmex LeLEgEma. Wa, 
la^me NEnologEma^ye hela dzEuaase Lalax's^Endayowe. Wa, la^me 
alax'^id bEwe NEnologEma^yas O^maxt '.illaLa^yaxs lae et!ed bEwe- 
kwes gEUEme Tsele. Wii, laEmxae miiyui^Ide Tselasa babagume. 

30 Wa, heEm LegadEs k'.ut lExsdanEm ginginanEme silsEmas. Wii, 
ia^me Liilax-s^Endayowe Leqela qa, LegEms. Wii, la^me Lex^ets 
BawEle. Wii, la^me wax'dzala milyoLe Tsele. Wii, laEmxae 
Lalax's^Endayowe Llayux LegEmas Tsele. Wa, laEm Lex^edEs 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1095 

^sEndayo changed the name of Tsele and he named her | Lalax"- 
s^aq !anak", for he was helped by || NEnologEme^, his wife and his 35 
children, for they all were working. | And therefore Lalax' s^Endayo 
treated Liilax's^aqlanak" as his own daughter. | Now Lalax's^aq!a- 
nak" gave birtli to a girl | next to the two boys which were first 
born. I Then Lalax"s^Endayo named her Alak" ilayng^^'a, || and he also 40 
only made up this name. "The name means," | thought Lalax'- 
s^Endayo, "that she will make dressed skins for me." | Tlius he 
thought. Therefore he named the girl Alak'ilajiigwa. | Then the 
many children of NEnologEme^ grew up. | Then Lalax' s^Endaj'o saw 
that II L!esp!egaak", the eldest one of the children of | NEnologEme^, 45 
was wise. He took care of his property. Then | l !esp legaak" said 
that he would invite the people living at K' !aq !a | — ^walasKwax'ila- 
n6kiime=, and his prince O^maxt.'alaLe, and his younger brother | 
^walas ^nEmogwis — to give a potlatch. As soon as they came into || 
the house of Lalax's^Endayo, ^walas Kwax"ilan5kume^ felt sick at 50 
heart | when he saw l !ol !otsa, who had now tlie name Neuo- 
logEme^, I who formed now a great tribe with his children; for | 
^walas Kwax'ilanokume^ had given NEnologEme^ to Lalax' s'Endayo | 
to be liis slave. And tlien Lalax' s^Endayo said that || NEnologEme^ 55 
and his children sliould now form another tribe, i And the name of 



Lalax's^aqlanakwe laq, qaxs alae Lalax's^Endayowe la helEmalas 
NEnologEma^ye LEnvis gEUEmeLE^wis sasEme, qaxseaxElae^naxwa; 35 
wa he^mis lag'iias Lalax"s^Endayowe ^nEmax'is^Emla lo^ xungwadss 
Lalax"s^aq!anakwe. Wa, laEm^lae ts!ats!EdagEme mayuLEmas La- 
lax"s=aq!anakwe mak'ilaxa ma^lokwe babEbagiime g'il mayuLEms. 
Wa, laEm^lae Lalax's^Endayowe Lex^edEs Alak'ilayugwa laq. Wa, 
laEmxae aEm SEnanEmaxa LegEm, ylx ^ne^nak'ilasa LegEme, ylxs 40 
^nenk" !eqElae Lalax's^Endayo, "lE^maas alak"ilal qaEn," ^nex'^lae 
naqa^yas. Wa, he^mis lag'iias Lex^edEs Alak'ilayugwa laxa ts'.a- 
ts'.EdagEme. Wa, la^lae q !ulsq lulyax^wideda qlensme sasEms 
NEnologEma^ye. Wii, laE^mlae Lalax's^Endayowe doqulaqexs naga- 
dae bEgwanEme L!esp!egaakwexa ^nolast !EgEma^yas sasEmas Neuo- 45 
logEma^ye. LaEm^lae axelaxes dadEk'ase. Wa, laEm^lae ^nek'e 
Llesplegaakwe qa^s LelElexa g'okiila lax K'!aq!a lax ^walas Kwaxi- 
lanokiima^ye LE^wis LEwElgama^ye O^maxt !alaLa^ye LE^wis ts!a^ye 
^walas ^nEmogwise qa^s p!Eseq. Wii, g'il^Em^lawise g'ax hogwiLa 
lax g'okwas Lalax's-Endayo laa^lase ts!Ex'ila naqa^yas ^walas Kwax'l- 50 
lanokume lae dSx^waLElax L'.oLtotsaxa la LegadEs NEnologEma^yaxs 
lae la qlenEm lelqwalaLa^ya LE%'is sasEme. Wii, he^mis liig'ilas 
g'ex^ede ^walas Kwax'ilanokuma^yas NEnologEma^ye lilx Lalax'- 
s^Endayowe qa q!iik'6s. Wa, he^mis la ^neg'ats Lalax's^Endayowaxs 
ogu^la^mae la lelqwalaLa^ye NEnologEma^ye LE^wis sasEme. Wa, 55 
la^mesox lEguxxiilax Elgunwe g'ag'iLEla liixwa ^niilax, ^nex'^lae 



1096 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

57 that tribe was Elgiinwe^ beginning that day. Thus said | Lalax'- 
s^Endayo to ^walas Kwax ilanokiime^, and now the name of the 
tribe | of NEnologEme^ and his children was Elgiinwe^ Now | 
L!esp!egaak" gave away property to his guests. And then L!esp!e- 

60 gaak" || said that he would change his name, and he said his name 
woidd be | G'exk"Enis. He did not get the name Gexk'Enis from 
any place. | He only thought that he was a chief, because he invited 
the tribe from | K'!aq!a. But they can not wipe off their ancestors: | 
his father l !ol !otsa and his mother Tsele had been slaves. This is 

65 called by the || Indians "not-noble stock," because theyare slaves on 
both sides, those whose tribal name is | Elgunwe^ It is a great dis- 
grace to the numaym Elgiiiiwe^ that | both were slaves — the father of 
Gexk'Enis and his mother — | and also that ^walas Kwax'ilanokiime^ 
gave away NEnologEme^ | that is LloiJotsa, to Lalax's^Endayo. || 

70 Now G'exk'Enis and his younger brother BawEle | were grown up, 
and also their sister Alakilayugwa. Now he tried in vain | to marry 
the princess of DzEnx'qIayo, whose name was ^maxulayugwa. | 
Now DzEnx'q !ayo had also changed his name DzEnxq !ayo; | and he 

75 had the name Hayalk'EngEme^ He laughed, and || said, "Don't try 
too much G'exk'Enis. Evidently you believe | that you are a chief, 
G'exk'Enis, that you ask for your wife DzEux'q !ayugwa." |Thus said 
Hayaik'EngEme^, and called him his slave. Then | G'exk'Enis 

57 Lalax's^Endayo lax ^walas Kwax'ilanokuma^ye. Wa, la^me lEgilxLa- 
lax Elgilnwa^ye NsnologEma^ye LE^wis sasEme. Wil, lil^Iae yax- 
^wide L!esp!egaakwaxes LelElakwe. Wa, la^me ^nek'e L!esp!egaa- 

60 kwe qa^s LlayoxLexes LegEme. Wa, laEm^lae ^nex' qa^s Legades 
G'exk'Enis. Wa, laEm k'!eas g'ayoLatsexes LegEme G'exk^Enise, 
yixs a^mae k'ota laEm glgama^ya qaes LelElaena^yaxa g'okula lax 
K'!aq!a. Wa, la k"!eas gwex'^idaas deg'tLEle q!aq!Ek'aes g'ilg'ali- 
sexes ompe LloLlotsa LE^wis abEmpe Tsele. Wii, heEm gwE^yasa 

65 biik'.ume k'leas awanaya ogu^la lax q!aq!Egunose, yixa la lEguxLalax 
ElgGnwa^ye. Wa, laEm ^walas qlEmasa ^nE^memotasa Elgunwa^ya, 
yixs maledala, yixs qlaq'.Ek^ae ompas G'exk'Enis LE^wis abEmpe. 
Wa, he^mise ^walas Kwax'ilanokuma^yaxs lae g'ex^its NEnologE- 
ma^ye, ylx L'.oL'.otsa lax Ijalax's^Endayowe. 

70 Wa, laEm^lawise q !ulsq '.lilyakwe G'exk^Enise LE^wis ts !iVye BawEle. 
Wa, he^misLes wEq'.we Alak'ilajaigwa. Wa, laEm^ae wax" ^nek' 
qa^s gEg'ades k'ledelas DzEnx'qlayaxa Legada las ^maxulayugwa. 
Wii, iiEm^lawise DzEux'q!ayaxa lE^maxat! L!ayoxLa DzEnx'qla- 
yowe. LaEm^lae LegadEs Hayalk'EngEme, daHida. Wa, la^lae 

75 ^nek'a: "Gwaldzas xEULlala G'exk'Enisa lE^maaxEnqos oq!us^Em la 
gigama^ya G'exk'Enisa, yudzax'e gEUEmse yux DzEnxqIayugwax," 
^nex'^lae Hayalk'EngEma^ye Lex^edxes qiak'owe. Wa, laEm^lae 
G"exk"Enise qlaL^aLElaqexs q'.aq'.Ek'iies g'Ig'aolnuk" laxeq qaxs we- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1097 

found out that his parents had been slaves; for he did | not believe it, 7P 
although he had been told by them that his parents had been slaves. || 
Now he only had DzEnx'q.'ayugwafor his sweetheart. He had not SO 
been long | in the house of Hayalk'EngEmeS when DzEnx' q layugwa 
left I and went into the house of Lalax's^Endayo. Now Lalax's^En- 
dayo changed his name | and liis name was l laqwalal ; for | Neuo- 
logEme^ and his children still remained there. The reason why || 
DzEnx"q layugwa went away was that she discovered that she was 85 
with child. Then she | gave birth to a girl. Now l !aqwalaj thought 
up a I name for her, and a name occurred to him, and he called | the 
child of G'exk"Enis Alag'imll. Then DzEnx'q layugwa | gave birth 
to a boy, who was born next to || Alag'imll. Then G'exk'Enis 90 
invented a name, | and his invention was Ek'!awig'i4ak". That was 
the name of the boy. | He named him Ek"!awig'i^lak". The name 
was I only an invention. | 

Now I stop for a while to talk about Gexk"Enis, and I || shall talk 95 
about the sister of G'exk'Enis, Alak'ilayugwa, who became | the 
Sweetheart of Tslag'i^lak", a foolish man, the youngest one | of the 
five sons of the chief of the numaym | Haayalik'awe^, who was 
named HaxttyosEme^ ; for | the youngest one is never taken care 
of by his father, there being five sons and || he was like a slave and a 100 

yoqiiisaaxs wax"ae ^nex'SE^wa, yixs q!aq!Ek"aes g'Ig"aolnukwe. Wa, 
la^me a^mEl waLadEX"^idEs DzEnx'q!ayugwa. Wli, k'!es^lat!a gala 80 
hela g'okwas Hayalk'EngEma yixs g"axae bEwe DzEnx'q'.aj^ugwa 
qa^s g'axe lax g'okwas Lalax^s^Endayo yixs lE^maaxat! L!ayuxLa 
Lalax's^Endayowe. Wa, laEm LegadEs L'.aqwahxl qaxs hex'sa^mae 
lii NEuologEme^ye LE^wis sasEme. HeEl lag'ilas g'ax ma^wa lae 
DzEnx'q!ayugwa, qaxs lae q!alaxs lE^mae bEwekwa. Wa, la^lae 85 
mayul^itsa ts!ats!EdagEme. Wii, laEm^lae L!aqwalal sEna qa 
LegEins. Wil, la^lae g^ig'aex^ed qa LegEms. Wa, la^me Lex^ets 
Alagimile laxa xiinokwas G'exk'Enise. Wa, laEm^lae UzEnx'q la- 
yugwa yala mayuLasa babagiim lae etlede mayuLEms mak'ilax 
Alag'iniile. Wii, he4at!a G'exk'Enise sEnx'^id qa LegEms. Wii, 90 
lasm^lae sEniinEmax Ek'!awigi^lak". LaEm^lae Lex^ets liixes baba- 
giime xunokwa. Wii, la^me LegadEs Ek' '.awig'i^lak" liiq. Wa, la- 
Emxae aEm sEniiiiEmaxa LegEms. 

Wii, la^mEn gwiil gwagwEX's^iila lilx G'exk'Enise yawas^ida qEn 
gwiigwex's^ale lax wiiq!was G'exk'Enise liix Altik'ilayugwa, yixs 95 
laaxat! waLadEsTs!ag'i^lax"xa nEnolowe bEgwanEma iimiiyinxa^yas 
sEk' !akwe bebEgwiinEm siisEm bagwanEmx'sas g'igama^yasa ^nE- 
^memotasa Haayahk'awa^yexa LegadEs HaxuyosEma^ye,yIxs k' !esae 
qladzayo amilyinxa^yases ompax sEk' !akwae bagwanEmxsaye sasE- 
mas, yixs a^mae ^nEmax'is LE^wa q!ak'o LE^wa ^wats!e. Wa, laEm^ae 100 



1098 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

2 dog. Now I Alak'ilayugwa really loved TsIag'Hak", and | Tslag'i- 
^lak" never left the house of iJilqwalal; for | Ts!ag"i^lak" came as a 
stranger from south of Tsiixis. Now | Alak' ilajmgwa reaUy did not 
5 mind that her brother G'exk"Enis tried to tell her || in vain that she 
should not make known that Ts !ag i4ak" was her lover. | Alak'i- 
layugwa only said that she was proud | to have for her lover the 
prince of HaxuyosEme^. Then | G'exk'Enis was silent. NowAJalt'i- 
layugwa was with child. | Then she was driven away by her brother 

10 G'exk'Enis, when he found out that || Alak'ilayugwa was with child. 
Immediately Ts!ag'i^lak" | asked Alak'ilayugwa to carry their goods 
to I a cave this side of K' !aq !a. Then the lovers carried tlieir goods 
there. | Then Ts!ag'i^lak" and his beloved Alak'ilayugwa | staid there 
a long time. Then she gave birth to a boy in the cave. They || 

15 Hved there a long time in the cave. Then Alak'ilayugwa | asked her 
lover Ts.'ag'i^lak" to go with their goods to Wadzolis. | Immediately 
Ts!ag'i4ak" loaded his small canoe, and | they went to Wadzolis. 
Wlaen they arrived there, | Ts !ag' i-lak" took his slow-match box and 

20 he took out || his slow-match, which was burning at one end just like 
a rope of soft cedar bark. | Then he made a fire; and when the fire 
blazed up, | he put out his slow-match, and put it into the slow- 
match box. I Now he was already making fires wherever he went 

1 alak'lala laxiilanokwe Alak'ilayugwas Ts'.ag'i^lakwe. Wit, la^me 
Ts!ag"i^lakwe k'les bEx"bokwas g'okwas Llaqwalaie, yixs bagiinsae 
Ts'.ag'i^lakwe g'ax'^id laxa ^nalenak'alas Tsaxise. Wa, la^me klak' !ala 
k' !e& awilag'ile Alak'ilayugwa lax wax'aes wuq !wa yix G'exk'Enisaxs 
5 wax'ae axkMalaqa k"!eses xEULEla neltsEmalax waLadaas Tslag'i^la- 
kwe. Wii, aEm^Jawise Alak'ilayugwa ^nek'Exs LEmqaes naqa^yaxs 
waLadaasa LawElg§,ma^yas HilxiiyosEma^ye. Wa, iEm^lawise G'ex- 
k'Enise la q Iwel^eda. Wa, laEm^lae bEwex^wide Alixk'ilayugwa. Wa, 
la^me k'ayolEmses wuq!we G'exk'Euise, yixs lae q!a^staqexs lae 

10 bEwekwe Alak'ilayugwa. Wa, a^mese hex'-ida^me Ts'.ag'i^lakwe 
SxkMalax Alak'ilayugwa qa^s lax'da^xwe ma^wa laxa gwasa^yas 
K'!aq!a laxa x'opese. Wa, laEm^lawise ma^weda waLala. Wa, 
laEm^lawise giilak'as hele Ts!ag"i^lakwe LE^wis waLEle Alak'ilayu- 
gwa. Wa, laEm^lae mayul^itsa babagume laxa x'opese. Wa, laEm- 

15 ^lawise giilak'as^Em g'okula laxa x'opese. Wa, la^lae Alak'ilayugwa 
axk'!alaxes waLEle Ts!tig'i-1ak" qa^s la ma^wa lax Wadzolis. Wa, 
hex'^idaEm-lawise Tslag'i^lakwe moxsaxes xwaxwagiime. Wa, la^me 
lax'da^x lax Wadzolis. Wa, g'lpEm^lawise lag'aa lae hex'^ida^me 
Tsiag'i^lakwe ax^edxes pEnagats'.e g'ildasa. Wii, lii^lae iixwultslod- 

20 xes pEnaqexa x'ixbala g'ilt!a he gwex'sa dEOEma k'lidzEkwe. 
Wii, la^me lEx^walisa. Wa, g'lFmese x'ik'ostawe lEqwela^yas lae 
k'lilx^edxes pEnaqe, qa^s g'etslodes hlxes pEuilgats'.e g'ildasa. Wii, 
la^me gwiilEkxEm laxsa laxes LeqwiHiilase. Wii, la^me ^nex'xes 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTOEIES 1099 

(Laxsii). Now he said to his | beloved Alak' ilayugwa, "Let our 
child have a name, ll and his name is Ma^nakula (Moving-along), as 25 
we were doing when we went | moving our goods to Wadzolis." 
Thus said Ts!ag'i4ak" to his beloved | Alak' ilayugwa. Now their 
illegitimate child had the name | Ma^nakula. He also just invented 
tliis name for liis | son. Tliese are the ancestors of tlie numaym 
Laxsa. || And therefore the people of the numaym are ashamed of the 30 
name Laxsa, | for Tsltlg'i-'lak" was the youngest of tlie cliildren of 
HiixiiyosEme-, the | head chief of the numaym Haayalik'awe^ of the 
Qlomoj'a^ye. | 

And Alak' ilayugwa gave birth to a girl, | and Tslag'i^lak" invented 
a name for her, || and the name he invented for his daughter was 35 
ALe^stalidzEmga. | Then he named her Abe^stalidzEmga. | Now 
Ts!ag'i-lak" and his wife | Alak' ilayugwa had two children, the boy 
Ma^nakula and ALe^stalidzEmga. | Then Ts!ag'i-lak" moved again, 
and went to G'Eyox". || There he lived; and now his two children 40 
grew up. I Now ALe^stalidzEmga was grown up, and | Ma^nakula also 
was a full-grown man. Then | Ts lag'i^lak" saw a canoe coming along 
towards them | from the south. It arrived at the beach of the house 
of Ts!ag'i^lak". || Then Tslag'i^ak" and his two children went to 45 
meet them. | And immediately Tslag'i^lak" asked the stranger why 

waLEla, lax Alak'ilayugwa: "Wa, g'adzix'ox Legadsns xunokwex 
qa he^mes LegEmsoqe Ma^nakula laxEn gweg'ilase g'axeg'ins 25 
ma^wa laxox Wadzolise," ^nex'^lae Ts!agi^lakwaxes waLEle Alak'i- 
layugwa. Wii, laEm^lae Legade k!utExsdanEme xunokwa, yls 
MfVnakula. Wa, laEmxae aEm sEnanEmaxa la LegEmses baba- 
gume xunokwa. Wa, lieEm g'Ug'alitsa ^nE^raemotasa Laxsa. Wa, 
he^mis lag'ilas la max'ts!olEm LeqElasE^we ^nE^memotasa Laxsii, 30 
yixs amaylnxa^ye Ts'.ag'i^lakwas sasEmas HaxuyosEma^ye yix xama- 
gEma^ye g'Igamesa ^nE^memotasa Haayalik'awa^yasa Qlomoya^ye. 

Wa, laEm^laxae et'.ed mayut^ide Ahik'ilayugwa yisa ts!ats!Eda- 
gEme. Wa, laEm^laxaawise Tslagi^lakwe sEna qa Legsms. Wa, 
la^lae sEnauEmax ALe^stalidzEmga qa LegEmses ts!ats!EdagEme 35 
xunokwa. Wa, laEm^lawise Lex^edEs ALe^stalidzEmga laq. Wa, 
laEm^lae ma^lokwe sasEmas Ts!ag'i^lakwe LE^wis gEnEme Alak'ila- 
yugwa, ytxa bEgwanEme xun5x"se Ma^nakiila lo^ ALe^stalidzEmga. 
Wii, laEm^laxae ma^wa yix Ts!ag"i^lakwe qa^s lii liix G'Eyoxwe. Wii, 
hex'saEm^lawise la g^okiile. Wa, laEm^lae q !ulsq !ulyax^wide ma^lo- 40 
kwe sasEms. Wii, laEm exEnte ALe^stalidzEmga. Wii, laEm^laxa- 
iiwise la nEXLaala bEgwanEme Ma^nakula, laa^lase dox%'aLEle 
Ts'.ag'i^lakwaxa sio^nakula xwiik'.una gwasx'ala g'ilya^nakula lilxa 
^nalenak'iila. Wa, g'ax^lae g'ax^alislax LlEma^isasg'olcwas Ts!ag'i4a- 
kwe. Wii, laEm^lawise ^wFla lalale Ts!agi-1akwe LE^vis ma^lokwe 45 
sasEmq. Wa, hex'^idaEm^Lawise Tslag'i^lakwe wuLaxa lelakume lax 



1100 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

4S he came | paddling. The man repHed to him. Now | the visitor 
saw that ALe^staUdzEmga was a pretty woman, | and he guessed 
that she must be the daughter of Ts !ag' i^lak" : therefore he said, || 

50 "I came to marry your princess, chief. I am ^maxfiyahsEme^, | 
head chief of the numaym Haayahk'awe^, and my father is Hiixu- 
yosEme^." | Thus said the visitor. He did not recognize that this 
was I his younger brother Tslag'i^lak", from whom he asked a wife. 
Ts!ag'i4ak" | just said, "Go, son-in-law, to your wife ALe^stali- 

55 dzEmga." || Now she had her uncle for her husband. | ^maxflyalisEme^ 
and his wife ALe'stalidzEmga had not been married long | when she 
was with child. Then she gave birth to a boy. | Now ^maxuyalisEme^ 
was I reaUy glad, because he had a son. | He felt only badly because 

60 he did not know || the name of his father-in-law; for the children 
never named him anything but | Dada, and Alak' ilayugwa also called 
her husband Dada, | and ^maxtiyalisEme^ hesitated to ask for the 
name of his father-in-law. | But Tslag'i^lak" knew already that he 
was his eldest brother | -'maxiiyalisEme- when he said that his 

65 father was HaxuyosEme^, head chief of the numaym || Haayalik'awe^. 
Then | Ts!ag'i-lak" was glad on account of what 'his brother had 
done; for j ^maxuyalisEme^ had always tormented his youngest 
brother Ts!agi4ak" | — |. 

47 se^wena^yas. Wa, h¥lae nanaxma^yedabEgwanEmaq. Wa, laEm^la- 
edalelakiime dSqulax ALe^stalidzEmgilxs exsokwaes ts!Edaq!ena^ye. 
Wa, la^lae k'otaq xun6x"s Ts!ag'i4akwe, lag'ilas ^nek'e; "Gaga- 

50 k' '.EnLaxs k'ledelaqos, gigame^. Wit, nogwaEm ^maxQyalisEma^ya 
ogumesa ^nE^memotasa Haayalik"awayEn ompe HiixiiyosEma^ye," 
^nex'^laeda lelakume. Wa, la^me k"!es malt'.alaqexs he^mae 
ts!a\yes la g'ayalasa lax Tslagi^lakwe. Wa, aEm^lawise Ts'.ag'i^la- 
kwe ^nek'a: "Gelag'a, nEgump, laxg^as gEnEmgos laxg'a ALe^sta- 

55 lidzEmgak'." Wa, la-"me lawatses q!oieye. Wit, kMest!a giila 
hayasEk'ale ^maxiiyalisEma^ye LE^wis gEnEme ALe^stalidzEmgiixs 
laaEl bEwex^wida. Wii, la^lae mayuPitsa babagume. Wii, laEm- 
^lae Loma ek'e naqa^yas ^maxiiyalisEma^ye qaxs bEgwanEmaes 
xunSkwa. Wa, lex'a^raes ^yag'Ems naqa^yasexs k" !es^mae q!al^aLE- 

60 lax LegEmases nEgtimpe, qaxs hewaxa^maes sasEme LeqElas ogii^lax 
Dada. Wii, laxae Alilk'ilayugwa LeqElas Dada laxes la^wiinEme. 
Wa, la ^maxuyalisEma^ye halala wuLax LegEmases nEgumpe, ylxs 
gwiilEla^mae q'.tll-aLEle Tslagi^lakwac^exs he^mae ^nolast!EgEma^ye 
^maxuyalisEma^ye, yixs lae ^nek'Exs oguma^yaes ompasa ^nE^me- 

65 motasa Haayalik'awa^ye, yix HaxilyosEma^ye. Wa, la^me ek'e 
naqa^yas Tslagi^lakwe qa gwex'^idaasases ^nola, qaxs he^mae 
^maxiiyalisEma^ye hemEnala momayalaxes SmayEnxa^ye Ts!ag'i^la- 
kwe. 



uOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1101 

Now ^maxuyalisEme^ said that he was very happy || on account of 70 
his son. "Now I | shall give my name to be his name. Now you 
will call him ^maxiiyalisEme^" | Thus he said. Then Ts!ag'i4ak" 
had obtained what he was wishing for (to | be said by his son-in- 
law), and A.lak'ilayngwa thought in the same way. | Now ^maxiiya- 
lisEme- wished to || go home to his village in LEx'siwe^ with his wife | 75 
ALe^stalidzEmga, and his father-in-law Ts.'ag'i^ak", and his wife 
Alak'ilayugwa, | and also Ma^nakilla, the elder brother of Axe^- 
stalidzEmga. | Then they loaded their traveling-canoe with their 
belongings; | and when aU their belongings were in, they paddled. || 
Now ^maxuyalisEme- — for I continue to call him so, | for now 80 
^maxuyahsEme-, the cliild of the | former ^maxuyalisEme^, had that 
name — sat in the bow of the canoe of his wife | ALe^stalidzEmga, 
who was carrying in her lap her son. | Then they arrived at LEx'sIwe^ 
where his village was. Then ll his three younger brothers came down 85 
to meet him, and they | unloaded the goods. Then Tslag'i^lak" and 
his wife Alak"ilayugwa | and his son Ma^nakQla went into the house 
of his son-in-law. | Now the former ^maxiiyahsEme^ was asked by 
his father HaxiiyosEme^. | He said, "Now tell me where did your 
father-in-law come from. || Wliat is his name, and that of your wife ?" 90 
Thus he said. 1 Then the former ^maxuyahsEme^ said, "1 don't 

Wa, hiEin^lawise ^nek'e ^maxflyalisEma^ye ^nek"Exs: "Lomak. 
ex'g'En naqek' qaEii xunokwaxs bEgwanEmaex. Wii, la^mesEn 70 
Leqosaltsg'Eii LegEmk' laq". Lasms LeqslaLEs ^maxuyalisEma^ye 
laq"," ^nex'^lae. Wa, la^me laLe Ts!agi^lakwaxes walagEle qa 
waldEmses nEgump. Wa, heEmxaawise gwala naqa-yas Alak"ila- 
yugwa. Wa, laEm^lae ^nek'e ^maxuyalisEma^ye qa^s lalag'I na- 
^nakwa laxes g'okulasa lax LEX'siwa^ye LE^wis gEiiEme ALe^sta- 75 
lidzEmga LE^wis iiEgumpe Tslag'i^lakwe le^wIs gEnEme Alak'i- 
layugwa; wa, he^misLa Ma^nakuUv, yix ^nolas Axe^stalidzEmga. 
Wa,lax'da^x"^lae moxsases mEmwala laxes yae^yats!e xwaxwakluna. 
Wa, g'iPEm^lawise ^wilxse mEmwalas lax'da^xwae sex^wida. Wa, 
laEm'lae ^nek^e ^miixuyalisEma^ye ; — qEn hex'sa^me LeqElayoq, 80 
yixs hiiaLal la LegadEs ^maxiiyalisEma^ya g^inanEme, yix xiino- 
kwas^maxuyalisEmemotla. Wa,laEm^lae k!wag'iwala,ylxes gEnEme 
ALe^stalidzEmga q'.ElklEqElaxes babagume xunokwa. Wa, laEm- 
^lawise lag'aa lax LEx'siwa^ye laxes g'oktilase. Wa, g'ax^Em^Iawise 
g'ag'axalasoses yiidukwe ts!ats!a^j'a. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawis moltoyE- 85 
we mEmwalas. Wa, la^me Ts'.ag'i^lakwe le^wIs gEUEme Alakilayu- 
gwa LE^wis ximokwe Ma^nakula, heEm g'acLEle g"okwases nEgumpe. 
Wa, laEm^lawise wuLasE'we ^maxuyalisEmemot'.a yises ompe Hiixu- 
yosEma^ye. Wa, la^lae ^nek"a: " Wag'adza gwas^idEs g'ayEiiiaxaa- 
sasox nEgumpex. Angwaxxox le^wos gEnEmak'os," ^nex^^lae. 90 
Wa, aEm^lawise ^maxiiyalisEmemotla ^nek"a: "KMedzEn q!ala- 



1102 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

92 know I any other name of my father-in-law but Dada, and | my 
mother-in-law has the name Alak"ilayugwa, and my brother-in-law's 
name is Ma^nakfila, | and my wife's name is ALe^stalidzEniga." 

95 Thus he said. || Then the chief, his father, HaxiiyosEme^, spoke 
again, | and said, "He must be a great man on account of these | 
names, for they seem to be very high names. Let me ask | your 
father-in-law where he came from." Thus he said to his | prince. 
200 Now HaxuyosEme^ called his whole || numaym, the Haayahk'awe^, 
to come into his house | with his children. When they were in, | 
Tslag'i^lak" with his wife Alakilayugwa and his son | Ma^nakiila 
and ALe^stalidzEmga, the wife of the | former ^maxuyalisEme, sat 
5 among them. Chief || HaxuyosEme^ did not stand up, and he was 
just sitting in the house, when he spoke, and | said, "The reason why 
I call you, tribe, is that you shall listen to the | answer of the father- 
in-law of my prince ^maxtiyalisEme^ | to my question." Thus he 
said. Then he turned | towards Ts lag" i4ak" and said, "O chief ! do || 

10 teU me where you come from, and your name, and the name of | 
your father." Thus he said. Then Tslag'i^lak" arose and | said, 
"I will answer your question, chief, indeed, since you really | ask for 
my name. Evidently this your prince did not recognize | me. I 



92 xox LegEmaxsEn nEgtimpex ogu^la LegEmsox la Dada. Wa, Ielox 
Alak'ilayugwax'LEn tslEdaqex nEgumpa. Wa, lox Ma^nakulax'LEn 
q!ulesex. Wa, lax ALe^stalidzEmgax'LEn gEUEmex," ^nex'^lae. 

95 Wa, la^lae edzaqwa yaq'.Eg'a^leda g'lgama^ye, ompse Haxuyosaa- 
ma^ye. Wa, la^lae ^nek"a: " AwIlaEmxEntox bEklwena^yaxs qaos 
LeLEgEmex, yixs Lomaex ealasgEm i.eLEgEma. Wegax'En wuLaxox 
bEgwanEmex nEgumpa lax g'ayEmaxalasasox," ^nex'^laexes La- 
wElgama^ye. Wii, laEm^lawise Le^lale HaxuyosEma^ye ^wFlaxes 
200 ^uE^memota Kaayalik'awa^ye qa g'axes ^wFlaeLEla lax g'okwas 
LE^wis sasEme. Wa, g'iPEm^lawise ^wi^laeLa, wa, g'ax^Em^lae 
Tslag'i^lakwe LE^wis gEuEme Alak'ihiyugwa LE^wis bEgwauEme 
xunokwe Ma^nakula; wa, he^misLa ALe^stalidzEmga, ylx gEnEmas 
^maxuyalisEmemot'.a k'.wagelilEq. Wa, k'!es^lat!a Lax^iillleda g"Iga- 
5 ma^ye HiixiiyosEma^ye. AEm^hie k!waela lae yaq!Eg"a^la. Wa, 
la^lae ^nek'a: "HedEn lag'ila Lelts'.odol, gokulot, qa^s hoLelaos lax 
nanaxma^yayoLasox nEgumpaxsEn LawElgama^ye ^maxuyalisE- 
ma^ye laxEn wuLasoLa laq"," ^nex'^lae. Wa, la^lae gwegEmx-^Id 
lax Ts!alagi^lakwe. Wa,la^lae ^nek'a: "Yul, g'igame^: weg'adzax-E- 

10 nu^x" qlal^aLElaxes g"ayEmaxaasa5s le^wIs LegEmaos lo^ LegEmas 
&sa," ^nex-^lae. Wit, la^lae LaxHIlTle Ts!ag-i^lakwe. Wii, liVhie 
^nek'a: "La^mEn nanax^melxes waldEmSs, g'lgame^. Ahx^mas wii- 
LaxEn LegEma. Wii, laxEntox LawElgama^yaqos k'les maltlala 
g"axEn. NogwaEm Ts !ag"i^lakwa, ^ma^yEuxesos sasEmaqos, omp," 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1103 

am Tslag'Wak", tho youngest of your children, father." || Thus he 15 
said. As soon as he ended his speech, they saw that | their chief was 
dead. He died of shame on account of what had been done | by his 
prince, who married the (common) little daughter of his | youngest 
son: therefore the breath of the past chief HaxuyosEme^ jumped out 
of his body | — II . 

I forgot part of what Ts!ag'i4ak" said to his father | when he said 20 
at the end, "My tribe, and that of my children are the Laxsa. | 
Now my grandson, whose name is ^maxiiyalisEme^, | stands at the 
head of the Laxsa." Thus he said. | 

As soon as the former ^maxiiyalisEme^ found that his father the 
chief II was dead, because he had died of shame, he arose and | spoke. 25 
He said, "O tribe! Let my | past father-in-law and the whole 
number of them and my child stay away for a while. | Now my 
former na.me, ^maxuyalisEmeS shall be his true name, for the | head 
chief for the Laxsa." Thus he said. "Now I shall have the name 
HaxiiyosEme^, || the former name of my father." Thus he said. 30 
Immediately j Ts!ag'i4ak", and his wife Alak' ilayugwa, and | 
Ma^nakula, and ALe^stalidzEmga, and her child | ^maxuyalisEme^ 
got readj^ and went aboard their travehng-canoe. They | went 
home to G'Eyox". Tslag'i^lak" was happy because he had fooled ll 
his eldest brother, and because he had obtained the true name | 35 

^nex'^lae. Wa, g"Il^Em^lawise q!illbe waldEmasexs lae dox^waLEla 15 
g'igamexdiixs lE^maalaxoL lE^la. LaEm max'ts'.alisEm qa gwex'^i- 
daasases LawElgama^yaxs lae gEg'adEs tsIatslEdagEme xunox"ses 
ama^yEiixa^ye, lag'ilas dEx"awe hasa^yasa g'lgamayole HaxQyosE- 
mayola. 

Wa, hexoLEn L'.ElewesE^we waldEmas Ts'.ag'i^lakwaxes ompde, 20 
yixs lae alxLala ^nek"a: "He^mEn lEguxLilyo Logiin sasEmg^e Laxsa. 
Wa, g'ax^mesg'En ts!6x"LEmak" LegadEs ^maxiiyalisEma^ye qa Laxfl- 
mesa Laxsil," ^nex'^lae. 

Wa, gipEm^awise qlal^aLEle ^maxuyalisEmemot!axes g-igamex^de 
ompExs lE^mae lE^la, yixs milx'tsIalisEmae, wa, la Lax^ulila qa^s 25 
yaqlEg'a^le. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "^ya, g-okiilot, hag-aEml lasLak- 
qwedg'En uEgumpdg'En Logwas ^waxaasEk', i-ogijn xunox"dEk". 
Wa, la^mes laLEn LegEmx'de ^maxuyalisEma^ye qa ala LegEms laxa 
Laxtuna^yasa L^xsa," ^nex'^lae. "Wa, latoesEn LegadElts Haxuyo- 
sEma^ye lax LegEmx'dasEn 5mpda," ^nex'^lae. Wa, hex'idaEm^la- 30 
wise xwanal^ide Ts!ag"i^lakwe LE^wis gEUEme Alak'ilayugwa lo^ 
Ma^nakula ; wa, he^mise ALe^stalidzEmga LE^wis xiinokwe ^maxiiya- 
lisEma-'ye, qa^s hoguxse laxes ya^yatsle xwakluna. Wii, g-ax^me 
na^nak" lax G^Eyoxwe ek' leqEla lae Tsag'i^lakwe qaes nanoltselax'- 
^idaaxes ^nolast'.EgEma^ye. Wa, he^misexs lae lalxa alaEm LegEme 35 



1104 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

37 ^maxuyalisEme^ for his grandchild. Only once [ did the numaym 
L§,xsa obtain a name from their relatives; for | their other names 
were invented: therefore they have only one | true name ^maxQ- 

40 yalisEme^. They have no privileges, because || nobody allowed the 
sons (of the Laxsa) to marry the princesses of the | chiefs of the 
tribes; for only that way do | the chiefs of the tribes obtain privi- 
leges. The I Laxsa are called "slaves-born-from-the-j'oungest-one," 
and here the one who told me the story stopped. | He said that he was 

45 ashamed to talk 1| about the clan Laxsa, because Ts!ag'i^lak" just 
made up | the names. The past chief | HaxilyosEme^ gave the 
name Ts!ag'i4ak" to his youngest son. | Therefore there are two 
names obtained from their relatives, | ^maxiiyalisEme^ and the name 
of the wife of Tsiag'i^ak". || 

The elgunwe^ 

1 Now Lalax's^Endayo, he who changed his name | Lalax' sE^ndayo 
to the name Llaqwalal, had a slave. He also changed | the name of 
his slave Tsele, and gave her the name Lalax's^aq !anak". | Then he 

5 regretted what he had done with his name || Lalax'sE^ndayo, and 
therefore he changed his name to l !iiqwalal. Now he oiJy | invented 



36 ^maxuyalisEma'ye qa LegEmses ts!6x"LEma. Wa, ^nEmplEna- 
Em^lae l^Le ^nE^memotasa Laxsaxa LeLELadzEse LegEma, ylxs a'mae 
'wl^la sEnanEmaxes LeLEgEme. Wil, he^mis lag'ilas ^uEmsgEm ala- 
kMala LegEmse ^maxiiyalisEma^ye. Wa, laEm k!eas k'les^os qaxs 

40 k'.esae helq'.olEm gEg-ades bebEgwanEme sasEmsa k"!esk"!Edeiasa 
g'Ig'Egama'yasa lelqwalaLa^ye, ylxs lex"a^mae axnSgwatsa al^ogii- 
qala k"!ek'!Es^axa gug'Egama^yasa lelqwalaLa^ye. Wa, heEm ama- 
^yEnxa^yawa q!ax"k" '.otEmx'Leda Laxsa. Wa, heEm walale waldE- 
masa nosa qaEu. Wa, laEm ^nek'Exs max'tslae et!ed gwagwex"- 

45 s^ala laxa ^nE^memotasa Laxsa yix lag'ilas ^nex'so aEm sEnanEme 
Ts'.^gi^lakwaxes LeLEgEme. Wa, laEm^lae hSs^Emxa g'Igamayolae 
HaxuyosEmayola LeqElae Ts!ag'i^Iakwe qaes ama^yEnxa^ye xiinSkwe 
Ts'.agi^lakwe. Wii, la^me maltsEmxoxa LeLexaladzEse LegEm lo^ 
^maxuyalisEma^ye. Wa, he^mae LegEmas gEnEmas Ts!ag'i^lakwe. 

The Elgunwe^ 

1 Wii, la^me qlagwidase Lalax's^Endayo, yixa la L'.ayoxLa Lalax'- 
s^Endayowe, ylxs lae LegadEs L'.aqwalal. Wii, laEmxae Llayox 
LegEmases q!ak'owe Tsele. Wii, laEm Lex^edEs Lalax-s^aqlanakwe. 
W^, laEm^lae mayatases gwex^^idaasases LegEnie Liilax"s^Enda- 

5 yowe, lag'ilas L'.iiyox'LalabEnts Llaqwalal. Wa, laEmxae aEm 
sEnenux" la LegEms LloL'.otsa, ylxs lae LegadEs NEnologEma^ye 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1105 

a name for l !ol !otsa when he named him NEnologEme^, | because he 7 
was a foolish man. Then the latter had a boy, | and l laqwalal 
thought about a name. Then he invented the name | l !esp !egaak". 
Then (l !ol !otsa) had another son, and || l laqwalal named him 10 
BawEle, and he also invented this | name. Then he had a daughter, 
and it occurred to | l laqwalal that she should work dressing skins 
when she was grown up, | and therefore l laqwalal named her Ala- 
k'ilayugwa. | Now the eldest of the children of NKnologEme^, II l !esp !e- 15 
gaak", invited the tribe living at K" !aq !a, ^walas Kwax ilanokflme^ | 
and his children; and Llesplegaak" planned to change his name. | 
Then he invented the name G'exk'Enis for his new name. Then | 
his name was G'exk'Enis. All his names were invented, | and these 
were the ancestors of the numaym ElgQnwe^ of the II GwetEla who 20 
are now called Kwexamot. | Gexk'Eniswas the head chief of the num- 
aym ElgQnwe^. He had for a | sweetheart the slave of DzEux'q !ayu, 
whose name was DzEnx'qlayugwa; | for the house of L laqwalal and 
DzEnx'q !ayu were close together | at Tayagol. As soon as DzEnx'q !a- 
yugwa had found that she was || with child, she loaded her belong- 25 
ings, and went to the house of l laqwalal, | and there she hved with 
her illegitimate husband. And DzEnx'qlayugwa gave birth to a | 
girl, and l laqwalal invented a | name for the girl. Then it occurred 

qaes nEn5lae bEgwanEma. Wa, la xungwadEx'^Itsa babagume. 7 
Wa, la L laqwalal sEnx'^id qa LegEms. Wa, laxae sEnanEmax Lles- 
plegaakwe. Wa, laxae et led xungwatsa babagume. Wa, laEmxae 
L laqwalal Lexe^dEs BawEle laq. Wa, laEmxae aEm sEnanEmaxa lO 
LegEme. Wa, laEmxae etled xungwatsa tslatslEdagEme. Wa, lil 
Llaqwalal g'lg'aex^edqexs eaxEleLaxa aiag"Eme q5 q lulyax^wIdLa 
tslatslEdagEme, lag'ilas Llaqwalal Lex^edEs Alak'ilayugwa laq. Wa, 
g'iPmese ^nolast lEgEma^yas sasEmas NEnologEma^ye, yix Llesple- 
gaak" Lelfilaxa g"okiila lax K* laq la, yix ^walas Kwax'llanokuma^ye, 15 
LE^wis sasEme lae sEnx'^Ide Llesplegaak" qa^s LlayuxLalabEndaya. 
Wa, la SEnanEmax G'exk"Enise qa^s al LegEma. Wa, la^me 
LegadEs G'exk'Enise. Wit, la^me aEm. ^naxwa sEnanux"ses 
LeLEgEme. Wa, heEm gilg'alitsa ^uE^memotasa Elgunwa^yasa 
GwetElaxa gvvE^yo Kwexamota. Wa, laEm^lae Laximia^ye 20 
G'exk'Enisases ^nE^memota Elgflnwa^ye. Wa, laEm^awise 
WaLadEX'^IdEs qlak'as DzEnx'qlayaxa LegadEs DzEnx'qlayugwa 
qaxs nEnxwag'alae g'okwas Llaqwalale lo^ g'okwas DzEnx'qlayo 
lax Tayagole. Wa, g'll^Em^lawise DzEnx'qlayogwa qlaLElaxs 1e- 
^mae bEwexHvida, lae hex'^idaEm laEl ma^wa lax g'okwas Llaqwalal. 25 
Wa, la^me klutExsda. Wii, la^lae mayuKde DzEnx'qlayugwiisa 
tslatslEdagEme. Wa, heEm^laxaawise Llaqwalal sEnx'^id qa Le- 
gEmsa tslatslEdagEme. Wa, la^lae g'lg'aex^edqexs eaxEliLaxa ala- 
75052—21—3.5 eth — pt 2 21 



1106 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

to him that she would work dressing skins | in his house, and there- 

30 fore he named herAlag'imil; II and it was notlong before Dzeux' q !a- 
yugwa was again with child, | and she gave birth to a boy. And 
then G'exk'Enis | thought up a name for the boy, and he invented 
the name | Ek" lawigi^Iak" for him. Then the | two children of 

35 G'exk"Enis and of his illegitimate wife || DzEnx" q layugwa grew up. 
When Alag'imil was grown up, | Ts!§,g'i4ak" was looking for a wife 
for his son Ma^nakiila | of the L^xsa of the Q lomoy^^ye. None of 
the chiefs who had | daughters wanted M^^nakOla, for it was known 
that I his father Ts!ag'i4ak" was the youngest of the children of 

40 Chief II HaxuyosEme^ who was the head chief of the numaym 
Haaya^Hk■awe^ | and also that Ts!fi,g'i4ak" had contracted an ille- 
gitimate marriage with the slave Alak'ilayugwa: | therefore they 
were unwilhug. Then | Ts!ag"i4ak" learned that G'exk'Enis had a 
daughter who was just | grown up, namely, Alag'imi}. Then 

45 Ma^nakula || tried to get Alag'imil for his wife, and G'exk'Enis 
asked | Ma^nakiila to marry her at once. Now Ma^nakiila did so, | 
and Ma^nakula at once was married. Now | he had Alag'imil for 
his wife* This was the first time that | those descended from 

50 Ts!ag'i4ak" bought a wife. They had not been || married for a long 
time, when Alag'imil was with child. Then she gave birth to a 
girl. I And the father of the girl Ma^nakula | thought of the name of 

g-tme lax g'okwas. Wa, he^mis lag'ilas Lex^edEs Alag-imile laq. 

30 Wa, k"!es^lat!a galaxs lae et!ed bEwex^wida, yix DzEnx'q layugwa. 
Wa, la^lae mayul^idxat! yisa babagiime. Wa, laEm^lae he^me G'ex- 
k"Enise sEna qa LegEmses babagume xunokwa. Wa, la^lae sEna- 
nEmax Ek-'.awigi^lakwe qa LegEms. Wa, laEm^lawise qliilsq'.ul- 
yax^wide ma^lokwe sasEms Gexk'Enise LE^wis k!fitExsdote 

35 DzEnx'q layugwa. Wa, laEm^lae exEnte Alag'imile. Wa, laEm- 
^lawise yala Tslag'i^lakwe alii qa gEnEmses ximokwe Ma^nakiila, 
ylxa Laxsasa Q'.omoya^ye. Wa, hVlae k'leas ax^exsdEsa sasEmno- 
kwasa ts'.edaqe g'ig'Egamex Ma^nakula qaxs qlEqlalagalayaaxs 
ama^yEnxa^yae ompase I's'.ag'i^Iakwaxs sasEmas g'igamayolae Ha- 

40 xuyosEmayola, yix Laxuma^yasa ^uE^memotasa Haayalik'awa^ye. 
Wa, he^mesexs k'.iitExsdae Ts'.ag'i^lakwe LE^wa qlak^owe Alak-i- 
layugwa. Wa, he^mis lag-ilas k'!es nanageg'esE^we. Wa, la^lae 
qlale Tsiag'i^lakwe yixs xungwadae G'exk'Enise yisa he^ma ale 
exEnte xunokwase Alag'imile. Wa, g'iix^Em^lae gagEkMe Ma^na- 

45 kula lax Alag'imile. Wit, aEm^lawise G'exk'Enise axkMiilax Ma^na- 
kiila qa hex'^ida^mese qadzeLa. Wa, heEm^lawise gwex'^ide Ma^na- 
kula. Wa, la^me hex'^idaEm qadzeLe Ma^nakula. Wa, la^me 
gEg"adEs Alag'imile. Wa, hesm ales ^nEmplEna qadzeLaxes gE- 
iiEma g'ag'iLEla lax Ts'.ag'i^lakwe. Wa, k'!est!a laEm gala hayasE- 

50 k'alaxs lae bEwex^wide Alag'imile. Wa, la^lae mayui-'itsa ts!ats!E- 
dagEme. Wa, la^lae ompasa tsIats'.EdagEme, yix Ma^uakula sEn- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1107 

his father Tslag'i^lak", who had died. | Then he cut in two the name 52 
of Tslag'ilak", and he named | the girl Tsialalih^lak". Now Alag'i- 
mil was a L&xsii woman, || because her husband was M§,^nakula, 55 
and she turned | to the numaym L^xsa. | 

Here the story-teller said to me that he had forgotten the middle 
part of the story which he was teUing | me, and he said that he would 
jump a long way to the latter half of the | story of the ancestors of 
two numayms L&xsa and || Elgiinwe^. | 60 

Now G'exk'Enis remained head chief, and his | name was always 
given to the eldest son of G'exk'Enis, whenever the father died. | 
Now there were many people in the numaym of the | Elgiinwe^, who 
had for their chief G'exk'Enis, and the || numaym Elgunwe^ still 65 
keeps together witht he La&lax's^Endayo, for they | also had for their 
chief Llaqwalal, and he did the same; for when a | Llaqwalal dies, 
then his eldest | son takes the name l laqwalal ; even if the eldest 
child is a woman, she | takes the place of her father. Although she 
may have many || younger brothers, they can not even take it away 70 
from their | eldest sister. | 

Now all the seven numayms had gathered | at Qalogwis. G'exk'E- 
nis had many children. | The youngest one of his children was a 



g'aaLElax LegEmases ompde Ts!ag'i^lakwe, yixs lE^mae lE^la. Wa, 52 
he^mis la malts lEiidzosxa LegEme Ts'.ag'i^lak". Wa, la^me Lex^edEs 
Ts!ala]ili^lakwe laxes ts!ats!EdagEme xunok". Wa, la^me Laxsaax- 
sEme Alag'imile qaxs lae la^wadEs Ma^nakula. Wa, laEm gwagwa- 55 
aqa lax ^nE^memotasa Laxsa. 

Wa, laEm ^nek'eda nosa qaEntaxs Isnoyox^widaaxes noyEme 
qaEn. Wa, la ^nek'Exs gwasg'iliLe dEx"sEq!axa nEgoya^yasa noyE- 
maxs g'ilg'alisasa ma^ltsEmakluse ^nal^uE^mematsa Laxsa LE^wa 
Elgunwa^ye. 60 

LaEm^lae hex^saEm Laxuma^ye G'exk'Enisexa aEm hayosEla Le- 
gEm laxa ^nolast !EgEma^yas sasEm^nakiilasa G'exk'Enisaxs lae 1e- 
^les ompe. Wa, laEm^lae qleuEm^El la lelqwalaLa^ya ^nE^memotasa 
Elgunwa^yexa g'lgadEs G'exk'Enise. Wa, laEm^lae q!ap!ex'saEm- 
^laeda ^nE^memotasa Elgunwa^ye LE^wa Laalax's^Endayoxa hex'sa- 65 
^maxat ! g'lgama^ye Llaqwalal, ylxs a^maaxat! he gweg'ile g'iPmae 
lE^le Llaqwalale lae hex'^idaEm Llayo L!aqwalalLe ^nolast!EgEma^yas 
sasEmsxa bEgwanEme xun6x"s, wax'e ts!Edaqa^nolast!EgEma^ye, la 
heEm Llayostodxes ompde. Wax'^mae qleuEme bebEgwanEm ts'.a- 
tsla^yas. Wa, la k'leas gwex'^idaas daxLEyaq laxes tslfidaqe ^nola- 70 
st'.EgEma^ya. 

Wii, laEm^lae ^wi^la la q!ap!ex'^ideda aLEbosgEmak '.use ^nal^nE- 
^memas lax Qalogwise. Wa,]aEm^lawise qleuEme sasEmas G'exk'E- 
nis. Wa, laem^lawise Loma ex'sok" bEgwanEme ama^yEnxa^yas 



1108 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

75 handsome boy, |1 whose name was Hawas. And the youngest | 
daughter of Wag' ides, the speaker of the house of iJaqwalal, | chief 
of the numaym Laalax's'Endayo, whose name was l lax'L lEledzEmga, 
was also very pretty. | Now G"exk"Enis and his children lived 
together in a house; | and Wag' ides and his children lived in the 

80 house of Llaqwalal. || Then Hawas was in- love with Llax'LlEle- 
dzEmga, and went to her | every night. They never guessed that 
Hawas was the | lover of L!ax'L!EledzEmga. When it was | seen 
that L!ax'L!EledzEmga was stout, she was called by her father 
Wag' ides, | and she was asked by her father: "Why are you || 

85 stout and has your face so much | changed?" he said to her. tlax'- 
LlEledzEmga did not try to deceive | her father Wag'ides. She told 
him at once that | Hawas lay with her e^ery night and that he was 
the cause of her | pregnancy. (She said) "I do not love any one 

90 except Hawas:" || therefore what could her father Wag'ides say? 
What could he do, when he | saw that his youngest daughter was 
really in love with | Hawas? Therefore he only said, "ReaUy show 
yourself with him, | that it may be the same as though Hawas were 
your husband." Thus he said. Then | Hawas and l !ax'L IsledzEm- 
ga lived together as illegitimate husband and wife. Hawas belonged H 

95 to the numaym Elgtinwe^ and his illegitimate wife | l lax'L lEledzEmga, 
whose father was Wag'ides, belonged to the numaym | Lafilax'- 

75 sasEmasxa Legadas Hiiwasa. Wa, la^laxae Loma ex'sokwe &ma- 

■ ^yEiixa^ye tslEdaq xun6x"s Wag'idese yE^ax yaq!Endelas Llaqwalal, 

yix g"igS,ma^yasa ^nE^memotasa Laalax's^Endayo, l lax'L lEledzEm- 

gax'Leda tslEdaqe. Wa, la^nie qlaplaele G'exk'Enise LE^wis 

sasEme lo^ Wag'idese LE^wissasEme lax g'okwas Llaqwalal. Wa, 

80 heKm^lawis laats Hawasaxa gagEnoLe qa^s la kti^lll l6^ l lax'L 1e- 
ledzEmga, hemEnalaxa gagEnoLe. Wa, hewaxaEm^lawise k'otaso^ 
waLade Hawasiis Llax'LlEledzEmga. Wii, al^Em^awise dox^waLEle, 
L lax'L lEledzEmgaxs lae pEnLa, wa, la^lae Le^lalasoses ompe Wa- 
g'idese. Wa, la^lae wuLasE^wa yises 5mpe: "^madzes xEnLElag'i- 

85 laos la pEnLa. Wa, yo-mesoxda gogiima^yaqos yixs laaqos xEnLEla 
oguqEm la," ^nex'^laeq. Wa, k'les^latla wiil^Em hay ame Llax'LlE- 
ledzEmga qaes ompe Wag'idese. LaEm^lae aEm hex'^ida nelax 
hemEnala^mae kiilktilk'a lo^ Hawasaxa gagEnoLe; "Wa, he^mesEn 
bEwegwase qaxg'En k'leasek' ogu^la waLEla lax Hawasa," ^nex'^lae; 

90 qa ^maselawls waldEmas ompase Wag'idese qa wex'^ides qaxs do- 
qiila^maax naqa^yases ama^yEnxegasaxs alak' lalae laxulanux"s Ha- 
wasa, lag'iias asm ^nek'Eq: "Alag'aEma neltsEmx'^Id LE^we qa^s 
^nEmax'is^maos l6^ la^wadas Hawasa," ^nex'^lae. Wa, laEmxae 
klutExsde Hawasa lo^ Llax'LlEledzEmga. Wa, heEmxae g'ayole 

95 Hawasa laxa niE^memotasa Elgunwa^ye. Wa, la kliitExsdotase 
L lax'L lEledzEmga g'ayole ompase, ylx Wag'idesa laxa ^nE^memotasa 



iiOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1109 

s^Endayo. Then Llax'LlEledzEmga gave birth to a | boy, and the 98 
father of Llax'LlEledzEinga, Wag' ides, named | the son of Hawas 
and L!ax"L!EledzEniga LElbEx'sahig'iHs. || This was a real name, and 100 
was not invented as | a name for the boy who was named LElbEx- 
salag'iUs. It was not | long before Llax'LlEledzEmga gave birth to 
another boy, | and Wag' ides gave a name to his grandson. | He gave 
the name K' !aso« as the name for the boy. || He gave him improperly 5 
a true name; for it is wrong, because | Llax'L.'EledzEmga was not 
properly married when she became the wife of Hawas. Now | the 
father of Hawas, G'exk'Enis, died, and at once | Hawas took the 
place of his father. Then his name was G'exk'Enis. | Now LElbEx'- 
salag'ilis grew up. Then li LElbEx'salag'ilis saw a girl belonging to 10 
the I numaym Hemasxdo, the daughter of a common man whose 
name was QIomledEnol. | His daughter's name was also Llax'- 
L!EledzEmga^. | Then LElbEx'salag'ilis always went | with her to 
Tsaxis; for the Kwag'ul tribes had followed the || white men, when 15 
they first built houses at Fort Rupert. Now | LElbEx'salag'ilis was 
the lover of | Llax'LlEledzEmga. Then Llax'LlEledzEmga went at 
once into the house of her sweetheart | LElbEx'salag'ilis, and soon 
Llax'LlEledzEmga was with child, | that is called "to get pregnant 
outside," when a woman without a husband becomes pregnant. || 

Laalax's^Endayo. Wa, laEm^lae mayuHde Llax'LlEledzEmgasa ba- 97 
bagume. Wa, la ompas Llax'LlEledzEmga, yix Wag'idesa Lex^edEs 
LElbEx'salag'ilis qa LegEmsa babagume xun6x''s Ilawasa lo^ Llax'- 
LlEledzEmga. Wii, laEm ala LegEma yixs k'lesae aEm sEna^yaxa 100 
LegEmasa babagiimexa la Legadss LElbEx'salag'ilis. Wa, k' lest la 
gaiaxs lae etled mayui^de Llax'LlEledzEmgasa babagume. Wa, 
la^laxae he^me Wag'idese Lex^ed qa LegEmses ts!ox"LEma. Wa, 
la^me Lex^edEs K'lasE^we qa LegEmsa babagfime. Wa, laEmxae 
wax' i,lak'!ala LegEma. Wa, la lEkwalaxs k'lesae qadzeLasE^we 5 
Llax'LlEledzEmgases klutExsdote Hawasa. Wa, la^me lE^le 
ompas Hawasa, yix G'exk'Enise. Wit, hex'^idaEm^lawise Ha- 
wasa Llayostodxes ompde. Wa, la^me LegadEs G'exk'Enise' 
Wii, la^me qliilyax^wide LElbEx'salag'ilise: Wa, laEm^lawise 
doqule LElbEx'salag'ilisxa tslEdaqe xun6x"sa g'ayole laxa ^nE- 10 
^memotasa HemaxsdS, yixa bEgwanEmqlalame LegadEs QIom- 
ledEnol. Wa, la^lae Llax'LlEledzEmgax'LaEm laxae tslEdaqe 
xunox"s. Wa, laEm^lae LElbEx'salag'ilis heniEnalaEm la qleqlEyot 
LE^we lax Tsaxise, qaxs g'ax^mae ^wi^la masgEmexa Kwilkilg'ulaxa 
mamalaxsg'alae g'ax g'oxwales lax Tsaxise. Wa, laEm^lae LElbEx'- 15 
salag'ilise waLadEs Llax'LlEledzEmga. LaEm^lawise a^me Llax'LlE- 
ledzEmga aEm hex'^ida la laeL lax g'okwases waLEle LElbEx'sala- 
g'ilis qaxs hex'^ida^mae bEwex^wide Llax'LlEledzEmga. Wa, hcEm 
LegadEs boxulsxa will^me bEWEx^widExs k' leasae la^wunEma. Wa, 



1110 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ANN. 35 

20 AH the men and all the women made fun of her, because she got 
pregnant outside: therefore it occurred to Llax'LlEledzEmga that | 
she would go into the house of her lover LElbEx'salag'ihs, and | to 
live with him as his illegitimate wife. Now this was a new disgrace 
to the I numaym Elgiinwe^; for all kinds of disgrace happen to them. 

25 Then || l !ax' l teledzEmga gave birth to a boy; and immediately | 
the father-in-law of LElbEx'salag"ihs, QlomledEnol said that he | 
would give a name to his grandson, and he named his grandson 
WawiingEnol. | And it was not long before | Llax'LlEledzEmga gave 

30 birth to another boy, and he did not hve long || before (the boy) 
died. Then Llax'LlEledzEmga gave birth to another | boy, and his 
grandfather QlomledEnol gave him the name | Hayaik'in. Then 
the name of the boy was Hayaik'in. | Hayaik'in was the youngest 
after his two elder brothers. | Wlien Hayaik'in grew up, his elder 

35 brother || WawungEnol paddled, hunting at the lower end of LE^lad; 
and I there his canoe upset, and WawungEnol died by the upsetting 
of his canoe. | Now Hayaik'in was the only son of | l lax'L IsledzEmga 
and LElbEx'salag'ihs. Now | he grew up to be a young man, and 

40 he always went to the II house of Doqwa^is; for Llax'LlEledzEmga, 
the mother of | Hayaik'in, said that she was a near relative of the 
past chief Doqwayis; | and therefore Hayaik'in always went there. 



20 la aEmlalayowa b5xulsasa ^naxwa bebEgwanEma LE^wa ^naxwa 
ts'.edaqa. Wa, he^mis g'Ig'aeges Llax'LlEledzEmga lag-ilas he 
eg'ase &Em la laeL lax g'okwases waLEle LElbEX'salagilise qa^s ala- 
g'a^me kliitlEXsd LE^we. Wa, laEmxae aleg'e q lEma^yasa ^nE^me- 
motasa Elgunwa^yexa ^naxwa^me qlEma-'yes gwayi^lalase . Wa, la 

25 mayuWde l lax'L lEledzEmgasa babagiime. Wa, hex"^idaEm^lawise 
wOnala nEgumps LElbEX'salag'ilise, yix QlomledEnole ^nex" qa^s 
he^me Leqela qa LegEmses tslox"LEma. Wa, la Lex^edEs Wawun- 
gEnote qa LegEmses tslox"LEma. Wa, k' lest la galaxs lae etled 
inayuHde Llax'LlEledzEmgasa babagiime. Wa, k" lest la gael qlQ- 

30 laxs lae lE^leda babagumx-de. Wa, laxae etled mayulHde L lax'L lEle- 
dzEmgasa babagiime. Wa, la gagEmpase QlomledEnole Lex^edEs 
Hayaik'ine laq. Wa, la^me LegadEs Hayalkinexa babagume. 
Wii, la^me ama^ysnxa^ye Hayalkinases ma^lokwe ^no^nEla. Wa, 
gil'mese qlwaqlOlyax^widale Hayalk'iuaxs lae sex^wide ^nolas, yix 

35 WawEngEnole qa^s la hanaLla lax gwalaiis LE^hlde. Wa, he^mis la 
qEbats lianaLlaatslas xwaklxlna. Wii, la^me qabalisEme WawEngE- 
nolde laxeq. Wa, la^me la -nEm6x"^Em la bEgwanEm xun6x"s 
Llax'LlEledzEmga lo^ LElbEX'salagilise Hayalkine. Wa, la^mese 
qlQlyax^wida, laEm hel^a bEgwauEma. Wa, la^me hemEnala la lax 

40 g'okwas Doqwayis qaxs 'nek'ae Llax'LlEledzEmga, yix abEmpas 
Hayalk'Inaxs mag'ilae LeLELala laxa g'igamayolae Doqwayiswtila. 
Wa. he^mis lag'ilas hemEnala^me Hayalkine la liiq. Wit, hiEm 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1111 

Now, the I princess of Doqwa>-is was grown up, and Doqwayis was 43 
the chief of the | numaym DzEndzEnx'qIayo; and they never 
thought II that Hayafk'in was the lover of ^maxQlayugwa. Then | 45 
Chief Doqwayis became sick, and he had not been lying down more 
than I four days when he died. Then Hayalk'in | never left his 
sweetheart ^maxiilayugwa. Now, Doqwayis left his copper | 
Lobellla, a high-priced copper. And when || ^maxulayugwa had been 50 
an orphan for almost two months, j all the men and all the women of 
Fort Rupert began to talk about them secretly. | Now it was known 
Hayalk'in was going to marry ^maxfllayugwa ; | but Hayalk'in was 
of too low rank to marry the princess of Chief | Doqwaj-is. Then 
they discovered that the princess ^maxiilayugwa herself || wished 55 
it: therefore they thought that she was with child, and that there- 
fore I she had made up her mind to marry Hayalk'in. When | the 
chief, the father of Doqwayis died, | ^maxulayugwa gave away 
property at once to the Kwag'ul; and then she took the name 
Doqwayis. | This was her chief's name, and her princess name was 
^maxulayugwa. Now she had || always two names, and she was a 60 
chief on the | right-hand side, and she owned a princess on her left- 
hand side; for she was the only | daughter of Doqwayis and his 
wife, whose name was ^na'UEmplEng'ilayugwa, | the princess of the 
chief of the numaym | Ts letselwalagame^ of the ^UEmges. Then 



exEntlede k'ledelas Doqwayise, ylxs g'lgama^yae Doqwayisasa 43 
^nE^memotasa DzEndzEnx'qIayo. Wa, la^me hewaxa gayol k'otle- 
tsE^we Hayalkine waLadEs ^maxulayugwa. Wa, la^mes ts'.Ex-qlE- 45 
x'^Ideda g"Igamay6lae Doqwayiswula. Wa, k"!est!a hayaqax 
moxsa ^nalas qElgwila lae wlk" !Ex^ida. Wa, la^me Hayalk'ine 
hewaxa bases waLale ^maxulayugwa. Wii, la^me L'.aqwaelale 
Doqwayisdax Lobelilaxa qlEyoxwe Llaqwa. Wii, laEm Elaq mal- 
tsEmg'ila la xamale ^maxulayugwa laase wunwunosa q!eq!Eyodeda 50 
^naxwa bebEgwanEm LE^wa ^naxwa ts'.edaq laxg'a Tsaxis. Wa, 
la^me qlale Hayalk'uiaxs lE^mae gEg'adolts ^maxulayugwa. Wa, 
la^me k'lodEme Hayalk'uie la gEg'adEs k'ledelasa g'lgamex'de, yix 
Doqwayisde. Wa, la qliistasoxs hasmaaxa k" ledele ^maxulayugwa 
naqa^ya. Wa, he^mes lag'ilas k'otaso laEm boxulsa, yix lag'ilas 55 
xEnLEla ts!asala qa^s iii^wades Hayalk'ine. Wii, he^maaxs lae 
lE^eda g'lgamex'de ompse Doqwayisde, lii hex'^idaEm plEse ^maxii- 
layugwaxa Kwag'ule. Wa, la^me LegadEs D5qwayis. Wa, la^me 
g'lgEXLalaq. Wa, lii k' ledelExLiilax ^maxulayugwa. Wa, la^me 
liemEnalaEm ma^ltsEme LeLEgEmas. Wii, la^me g'lgama^ye yix 60 
helk'!ot!ana^yas. Wa, lii k'ledadEses gEmxotlana^ye, yixs ^nEmox"- 
^mae xunox"s Doqwayisde LE^wes gEUEmolexa Legadiis ^na^nEm- 
p'.Eng'ilayugwa, yix k' !edelwulasa g'Igamayolasa ^nE^memotasa 
Tslets'.elwalagama^yasa ^nEmges. Wa, la^me Hayalk'ine qadzeLax 



to 



1112 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

65 Hayalk'in married || Doqwayis, and it was not long before ^maxu- 
layugwa gave birth | to a boy. Now, ^maxiilayug\va herself caused 
her name to be disgraced | and to become a bad name, because she 
had a common man for a husband, | for Hayaik'in had no chiefs 
among his ancestors. | Now ^maxulayugwa was called a fool on 

70 account of what she had done; and so || all her children wiU be bad on 
their father's side, and | they will be in vain good on their mother's 
side. Now Doqwayis gave away | to Hayalk in the copper Lobelila 
left behind by the chief, her father. | Then she gave in marriage the 
name Wanuk" for the name of Hayaik'in. | Now Hayaik'in had 

75 obtained a chief's name, and |1 he was no longer called Hayaik'in, 
because he obtained by good luck the real name | Wanuk". And 
now he had the name Wanuk"; for now he invited all the | tribes 
with the price of the copper Lobelila. Now, | it was just as though 
Wanuk" had taken away the copper from the father of his wife, | for 
the deceased Doqwayis was going to sell his copper in order to 

80 invite || all the tribes: therefore .all the men were sick at heart | on 
account of what Wanuk" and his | illegitimate wife ^maxulayugwa 
had done, she whose name was now Doqwayis. | 

There was one woman whose name was Q.'walax'alayugwa, who 
was always | going to Victoria, for she was a prostitute. Wlien she 

85 came home to || Fort Kupert, she brought many blankets, and she | 



65 Doqwayise. Wa, alakMalatla k"!es giilaxs lae mayuLe ^maxulayu- 
gwasa babagiime. Wa, laEm qlulex'seme -'maxulayugwa q!amag'ila 
qa^s Legadesa ^yax'sEme LegEme qaxs lae la^wadasa bEgwanEmq'.a- 
lEmexa k'lease g'lqag'iwa^ye wiwompwulas Hayalk'ine. Wii, la^me 
LeqElasE^we ^maxulayugwas nEnolo qaes gwex'^idaase. Wa, he^me- 

70 sexs laLe ^naxwaEml lal ^yax'k'.ot'.EnalaLe sasEmasexes ask' !ote. Wa, 
la ex'k'!ot!Enalal waxLaxes abaskMote. Wii, la^me sap!ede Doqwa- 
yisasa Llaqwaelawa^yases gigamayola omp, yix Lobelila lax Hayal- 
k'lne. Wa, la LegEmg'EXLalax Wanuk" qa LegEms Hayalk'Ine. 
Wa, la^me laLe Hayalkinaxa glgamedzEse LegEma. Wa, la^me 

75 gwal LegadEs Hayalk'uie, qaxs lE^mae Logwalaxa alak" !ala LegEme 
Wanukwa. Wa, laEm LegadEs Wanuk", yixs lae Lelalaxa ^naxwa 
lelqwalaLa^ya yis k'ilomax Lobelllaxa Llaqwa. Wa, la^me ^nErna- 
x'ise Wanukwe l6^ lenEmanEmaxa L'.acjwa lax ompdases gEnEme 
qaxs wax'ilaxsde laxode Doqw&yisdaxes Llaqwa qa^s LelElaya.xa 

80 Miaxwa lelqwalaLa^ya. Wa, he^mis lag'iias alak'lala ts'.EX'lle nenS,- 
qa^yasa ^naxwa bebEgwanEm qa gwex'^idaasas Wanukwe LE^wis 
k'.iitlExsdote ^maxulayugwa, yixa la LegadEs DSqwayise. 

Wa, la ^Eraokwa ts!Edaqe LegadEs Q'.walax-alayugwaxa hemE- 
nala la liixa Ts'.amase qaxs Llasgasae. Wii, g'axe na^nakwa lax 

85 Tsaxise. Wa, la^me malaxa q!enEme plElxElasgEma. Wii, la he 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1113 

carried them into the house of Wanuk", but Q Iwalax' alayug^va 86 
was no I rehitive of Wanuk", (but) she had no relatives Hving. | 
Therefore she went into the house of Wanuk". | Then Maled intended 
to sell his copper named W^x^se^stala, || and Q Iwalax' alayiigwa 90 
bought it with seven hundred and sixt^y | blankets (which she paid) 
for the copper Wax"se^stala. Before | long Q !walax' alayugwa be- 
came sick, and she also | died, and Wanuk" obtained by luck the 
copper Wax"se^stala. | Now Wanuk" sold Wax"se^stala, and it was 
bought II for five thousand one hundred and twenty blankets; | and 95 
Wanuk" again invited aU the tribes; and | he took the name of the 
father of Q Iwalax' alayugwa, | whose name was Wag' ides. Now 
they stopped calling Wanuk", Wanuk", | for he had the name 
Wag' ides. Now 1| his child had the name Hamadzalas, and now 200 
Wag' ides was called | chief because he had invited twice the tribes. | 
Then the heart of Wag' ides was proud because he was spoken to as a 
chief by | aU the chiefs of all the tribes. And in the feast | his seat 
was among the real chiefs. II 

Now, you, Chief Dr. Boas, you must have been surprised when I 5 
went to I Chicago with Johnny Wanuk" and his wife Doqwayis' | — 
that is ^maxillayugwa — when I called 'maxulajTigwa a queen, | but 
Johnny Wanuk" was just like a sl"ave of his wife ^maxtilayugwa. | 

mawiLe g"6kwas Wanukwe, yixs k'lesae Q'.walax'alayugwa lcle- 86 
Lala lax Wanukwe, yixs k'!easae la q!ulas LeLELalax'das Qlwalax'a- 
layugwa. Wa, he^mis lag'ilas he laeLe g'okwas Wanukwe. Wa, 
la laxoyuwa Llaqwaxa LegadEs Wax"se^stala, yis Malede. Wa, la 
k'ilx=wide Q!walax'alayugwasa mama%imalp!Enyag-alasa q!EL!ax'- 90 
sokwe plElxElasgEm laxa L'.aqwa lax Wax"se^sta]a. Wa, k'!est!a 
galaxs lae tslEX'qlEX'^ide Q Iwalax' alayugwa. Wa, laEmxae wlkME- 
x^Ida. Wa, laEmxae Wanukwe Logwalax Wax"se^stalaxa L!aqwa. 
Wa, la^me Wanukwe laxodEx Wax"se^stala. Wa, la^me k'ilxwa 
sE^wa yisa qIaqlaLlEplEnyag'analasa ma^tsokwe p!ElxElasgEma. 95 
Wa, laEmxae Wanukwe LelElaxa ^naxwa lelqwalaLa^ya. Wa, la^me 
Wanukwe ax^edEx LegEmas ompwulas Q!walax'alayugwax'de, ylxa 
LegadEs Wag'ides. Wa, la^me gwal Legade Wanukwas Wanukwe. 
Wa, la^me LegadEs Wag'idese. Wa, la^me Legade babagume xu- 
n6x"s yis Hamadzalas. Wa, la^me LeqalasE^we Wag'idesas g'igE- 200 
ma^ye qaxs lae malp'.Ena Lelalaxa ^naxwa lelqw&laLa^j^a. Wa 
la^me LEmqa naqa^yas Wag'idese qaxs lae g'agegElaqwalasosa 
^naxwa g'Ig'Egamesa ^naxwa lelqwalaLa^ya. Wa, la^me klwageiiLxa 
fi,la^me g'ig'Egamexs klwelae. 

Wa, yuL, g-igame-' Dr. Boas, yixs q!ayaxag'anEmaaqos lax 5 
Chiagoxg'Eu la lo^ Johnny Wanuk" LE^vis gEnEme Doqwayis, 
yix ^ma.xulayugwaxg'in lak' Leqalas Queen lax ^maxulayugwa. Wa 
i^mese ^nEmax'ise Johnny Wanukwe l6^ qiak'oses gEnEme ^maxfila- 

1 They were among the Kwakiutl who visited the World's Fair in 1893. 



1114 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

And this is what I now talk about, the ancestors of the married 

10 couple II Wauuk" whose name was Wag' ides, which name he obtained 
from I Qlwalax'alayugwa, and his illegitimate wife ^maxiilayugwa. | 
I only wish you to know that Wag* ides probably thought that you 
considered him a real | chief. This is called by the Indians "a-newly- 
made-chief," | like Wag'ides in the numaym Elgunwe^. || 

15 When we came back to Fort Rupert Wag'ides went into his house, | 
and he said at once that he would buy oil with | the money that he 
had obtained, paid by you, Dr. F. Boas. Then he gave a grease | 
feast to all the tribes, and now his wife ^maxtilayugwa | gave him the 

20 marriage name Kwakux'alas for the feast name of her ll husband 
Wag'ides. Now, ^niaxulag'ilis, | the chief next to Llaqwalal, chief 
of the I numaym La&lax's^Endayo, became sick. Now, he had the 
copper Lobelila. | Wag'ides always took care of him; and when he 

25 became very | sick, Wag'ides took the chief ^maxiilag'ihs || into his 
house. At once ^maxulag'ilis said to | Wag'ides, "You make me 
glad, because you take pity on me, because you | come and do good 
to me. If I should die quickly, | only take this my copper Lobelila, 
and sell it, and | invite again all the tribes." Thus he said to him in 

30 the morning. || And when night came ^maxulag'ilis died. | Wag'ides 
also obtained by good luck the copper Lobelila. Now, | Wag'ides 



yugwa. Wa, g'a^mesEn la gwagwex's^alase g'alEmg'alisasa hayasE- 

10 k'ale Wanukwe, ylxa la LegadEs Wag'idesxes helanEme LegEm lax 
Qlwalax'alayugwole, LE^wis k'.utExsdote ^maxiilayugwa. Wa, 
a^mEn ^nex' qa^s q'.alaosax Wag'idese yJxs ^neg'auEmaak'osaq alaEm 
g'igama^ya. Wa, hcEm gwE^yosa bak'.ume ala^lek" g'igama^ya 
yix Wag'idese laxes ^UE^memota Elgunwa^ye. 

15 Wa, g'axEnu^x" na^nak" lax Tsaxisak'. Wa, la laeL laxes g'okwe 
Wag'idese. Wa laxae hex'^idaEm ^nex" qa^s k'ilxwexa L'.e^na ylses 
gwauEme dalaxes halagEmos Dr. F. Boasaq. Wii, la^me L!e^nag"ila 
k'.we^lasxa ^naxwa lelqwalaLa-ye. Wa, la^me gEnEmase ^maxti- 
layugwa LegEmg'ElxLalax Kwakux"ilas qa kIweladzEXLayoses 

20 lii'wflnEme Wagidese. Wii, la^mese tslEX'qlEx'^ide ^maxulagilisxa 
g'igama^ye mak'ilaxa g'igama^ye Llaqwalalexa g'igiima^yasa ^nE- 
^memotasa Laalax's^Endayo. Wa, laEm LlagwadEs Lobelila. Wa, 
la^me Wag'idese hemEnala la aaxelaq. Wa, giPmese la alax'^id 
ts!EX"q!axs lae Wag'idese ax^edxa g'ig§,ma^ye ^maxQlag'iUse qa^s las 

25 laxes g'okwe. Wa, §,^mise hex'Hda^me ^maxulagilise ^nek'ax Wa- 
g'idese: "LaEms ek'amasg'En naqek' qaes laenayos wasEn qa^s 
g'axaos aek'ila g'axEn. Wii, he^maak'EnLo yix'Elalax wik'lEx^edE- 
lax las aEm ax^edxox LobelilaxEn Llaqwax qa^s laxodaosasox qa^s 
etledaos LelElaxwa ^niixwax lelqwalaLa^ya," ^nex'^laeqxa gaaia. 

30 Wa, g'll^mese ganui^dExs lae wik'lEx-'ede ^miixulag ilisde. Wa, 
laEmxae Logwale Wag'idesaxa Llaqwa lax Lobelila. Wa, laEmxae 



» 



iiOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1115 

sold that also. Then he invited all the tribes. | Now Wag' ides was 33 
really proud, | and said that he was not afraid of any one, even notof 
the true chiefs of ll all the tribes. | 35 

Then Wag"ides sat among all the chiefs of the tribes, | when they 
were aU invited by the Lawets !es. This is called ( the chief's feast. 
Wag' ides boasted, saying that he was not | afraid of any one; and 
therefore the chief of the Mamaleleq§la, II whose name was ^walas 40 
Kwax'ilanokume^, became angry. Then the | chief, ^walas Kwax'i- 
lanokiime^, became angry. Then the | chief, ^walas Kwax'ilan- 
okiime^, said that he would put him back into the place of | the 
slaves his forefathers. Thus he said. Then he took | the expensive 
copper named QlEmtslaxsde and | broke it, and he asked one man 
to throw II the copper into the sea outside the village Qalogwis; and 45 
after | he had finished, TIeqwap arose and sent a man | to get his 
copper Tslages; and when that man came | carrying Tslages, he 
gave it to TIeqwap. Then he spoke, | and said to his uncle, ^walas 
Kwax'ilanokume^, "Now, || chief, you told us to do this to him who 50 
claims that he is not afraid of any one, | this new man Wag'ides — that 
little slave who comes from his slave ancestors: | Now I'll try him who 
claims to be a | true chief." Thus he said, and broke the copper 
Tslages. He | said, "Chief Wag'ides, now you will be a bullhead 



Wag'idese laxodEq. Wii, laEmxae Lelalas laxa ^naxwa lelqwala- 32 
La^ya. Wa, la^me 41ax'dEla LEmqe naqa^yas Wag'idese. LaEm 
^nek'Exs k"!e&sae la k'ilEms laxa wax'^me alakMala la g"Igamasa 
'naxwa lelqwalaLa^ya. 35 

Wii, la^mese Wag'idese kiwagelllxa ^naxwa gig'Egamesa lelqwa- 
laLa^ye, ylxs lae ^wFla Lela^lax"sa Lawets !ese. Wa, heEm LegadEs 
g'igelkwa kiwele. Wa. lii Wag'idese qlayodalag'ilil ^nek'Exs k"!ea- 
sae k'ilEma. Wa, he^mis lag'ilas ^yak'illle g'lgama^yasa Mamalele- 
qalaxa LegadEs ^walas KwaxilanSkume. Wa, la^me ^nek'eda g'l- 40 
g&ma^ye ^walas Kwaxilandkume qa^s aedaaqes "lax gwex"sdEmases 
q!aq!akwag"iwa-'yaos yixes g^alEmg-alisaSs," ^nex'^laexs lae dax'^id- 
xa qlayoxwe L'.aqwaxa LegadEs QlEmtslaxsde. Wa, la^me k'6- 
qwaq. Wa, lii &xk' !alaxa ^nsmokwe bEgwauEm qa les tslExstEn- 
daxa Llaqwa laxa L'.iisakwasa g'okula liix Qalogwise. Wa, g'iPmese 45 
gwtila lae Lax^ulile TIeqwap e qa^s ^yalaqesa ^UEmokwe bEgwanEm 
qa las ax^edEx Llaqwas yix Ts!agese. Wa, g'iPmese g'axeda bEgwa- 
nEm dalax Ts'.iigese la ts'.as ISx T'.eqwape. Wii, lii yaq!Eg-a%. 
Wa, la ^nek'a laxes q'.uleye ^walas Kwaxilanokume : "Laqlamaaqos 
^nek-a, g-Jgame^, qEns he gwex'^idExg'a ^nek'Eq kMeaskilEm laxg-a- 50 
da alak' bEgwanEma, yixwa q'.aq'.agumex g'iig^ELEla laxes wiwomp- 
wulasox Wag'idesex. Wii, la^mesEn gtinx-^idolxwa ^nek'ex laEm 
alaEm g"igama^ya," ^nek"Exs lae k"5x^widEx Ts!agese. Wa, la 
^nek'a: "Wa, g-ig^mayai', Wiig'idesai', laEms lal k'fomasox Qalo- 



1116 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. anm.36 

55 of Qalogwis." || Thus he said, and gave the rib of the copper to a | 
man, and told him to throw it into the sea outside [ of the village. 
Thus he said to him. Then K Iwamaxalas, | chief of the Haxwamis, 
arose, and he sent a man | to get the copper named KwexanEm. 

60 Now he broke || it on account of Wag' ides, and he gave him the rib. 
This was | given to Wag' ides. Then Wag' ides became a slave again | 
after this. He could not get three large | coppers to break to meet 
the other three; and he thought it best | not to go with his tribe 

65 when they were invited by the tribes, || because he was really ashamed. 
Now ^maxulayugwa never became a true chieftainness. | 

The copper Lobelila that was broken on account of Wag' ides, is 
worth I twelve thousand blankets; and | the copper Ts!ages, broken 
by Tleqwap on account of Wag' ides, | is worth nine thousand 

70 blankets; and || the great copper KwexanEm, broken by Klwaina- 
■ xalas on account of Wag' ides, | is worth eighteen thousand blan- 
kets. I Now, Wag' ides could not get thirty-nine thousand | blankets 
to buy three coppers | to meet those broken; and all the Kwag'ul 

75 were ashamed || on account of what they had done. That is the end 
of this. I 

I forgot this: that the eldest of the children of | Wag' ides and his 
wife ^maxulayugwa died. She took the one next to (the eldest), | 
and Doqw&yis put him into the numaym DzEndzEnx'qIayo, | and 

55 gwisex," 'nek'Exs lae ts !S.sa galasa^yases Llaqwax'de laxa ^nEmokwe 
bEgwauEma. Wa, la ^nek'Eq: "Hag'a tslExstEntsoq" laxa L'.asa- 
kwakwasa g'ox"dEmsex," ^nek'Eq. Wa, la^me Lax^idlle K!wamaxa- 
lasxa g'lgama^yasa Haxwamise. Wa, la ^yalaciasa bEgwansm qa las 
ax^edEx L'.aqwasexa LegadEs KwexanEme. Wa, lasmxae k'ox^wi- 

60 dEq qa Wag'idese. Wa la yax^wltsa galasa^ye laq. Wii, la^me 
ts'.Ewe lax Wag'idese. Wii, la^me et!ed la q!alq!ax"se^sta Wag'i- 
dese laxeq. Wa, laEm k' !eas gwE^yoLatsex yudux"sEma ^wa L!a- 
Llaqwa qa^s k'ak'ogwalayaxa yudux"sEme. Wii, hexEnt'.a eg'atsexs 
k"!esae la lillasgEmexes g'okulotaxs LelalasE-waasa lelqwalata^ye 

65 qaxs alae miix'ts'.a. Wii, la^me hewiixa modzel^ide ^maxiilayugwa. 

He^mae Lobelilaxa Llaqwa la k'oqwaso^ qa Wiig'ides yixs mii^igE- 

yoplEnae loxsEmx'^id p'.ElxElasgEme laoxwas. Wa, he^mise Ts!a- 

gesxa Llaqwa k'oqwasos T!eqwap qa Wag'ides ylxs ^na^namaplEnae 

loxsEmx'^id p'.ElxElasgEme liioxwas. Wii, he^mise KwexanEmxa 

70 ^walas L'.aqwa k'oqwasos K!wamaxalas cja Wiig'ides, yixs ma^lgii- 
nalEg'EyoplEnae loxsEmx'^id plElxEJasgEme laoxwas. Wii, la^me 
k' !eas gwE'yoLase Wag'idesax raamosgEmg'ustalasa ^nii^namap !Ena 
loxsEmx'^id p!ElxElasgEm qa^s k'llomx yudux"sEma L!aL!aqwa qa^s 
k'ak'ogwalaya. Wii, lii ^niixwaEm max'tsleda Kwiig'ulas gwex'^i- 

75 daasaq. Wii, laEm laba laxeq. 

HexoLEn LlElewesE^wa ylxs lae lE^le ^nolastlEgEma^yas sasEmas 
Wag'idese LE^wis gEUEme ^maxiilayugwa. Wii, la 3,x^edxa miik'ilaq 
qa las Lax^stodEx Doqwayise laxa ^nE^memotasa DzEndzEnx'- 



r.oAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1117 

his name was D6qwS,yis. And ^maxulayugwa || put his younger SO 
brother in the nunaaym Ts lets lelwalagame^ | of the Nimkish, as 
chief Qlumx'alag'iUs; for he was the father of | ^na^nEmplEng'i- 
layugwa, the mother of ^maxulayugwa. Now | the name of the son 
of Wag'ides was Qlumx'alag'ilis among the Nimkish. | Now ^maxu- 
layugwa herself thought Httle of her husband. | 

Stouy of the lelegede, QloMK' !xjt!e.s, KWAG'Ut 

This is the tale of the reason why the double-headed serpent is on 1 
the I outer front of the house of Laleplalas at QlEg'es, for that is 
where the ] ancestors of the numaym LeLEged live, who have as 
their chief Lalep lalas. | The young men were talking about a salmon 
of bright color l! which they were trying to spear in the river of 5 
Q !Eg' es, for their house was on the bank of the river. | They could not 
hit it when they were trying to spear it, for there were many | steel- 
head salmon there, and one of them had a very bright color. Then | 
Chief Laleplalas said that he would try to spear it, for he was a | 
good spearsman, because he was a seal-hunter. They || went and 10 
followed him to the river. Many young men followed | their chief 
Laleplalas. When they got to what was | referred to by the young 



qiayowe. Wa, la^me LegadEs Doq\^S,yise. Wa, laxae ^maxulayu- 
gwa Sx^edEx tsla^yas qa^s las lax ^nE^memotasa Ts lets lelwalagftma- go 
^yasa ^nEmgesexa g"ig&may5lae Q'.iimx'alagilis yixs he^mae omps 
^na^nEmp lEng'ilayugwa ylx abEmpas ^maxulayugwa. Wa, he^mis 
la LegEms xunokwas Wag'idese Qfumx'alagiiise laxa ^nEmgese. 
Wa, lEm qlQlex's^me ^maxulayugwa k"!5taxes la^wtinEme. 



1 



Story of the lelegede, Q!6mk-!ut!es, Kwag'ul 

Wa, g-a^mes nuyamsa g-axelas axewa^ya sisEyiiLe lax tsaqEma- i 
^yas Llasana^yasa g"5kwas Laleplalas lax Q'.Eg'es, yixs haaEl g'okule 
g'alasa -'nE'memotasa LeLEgedexa gugadas Lalep lalase. Wa, laEm- 
^lawiseda h8,^yal'a gwagwex's^ala laxes wax'a sEk'aso^ ex^stokliin 
k'lotEla laxa ^was QlEg^ese qaxs he^mae g^SkwiigesE^wa ^wa, yixs 5 
k'lesae qlapaqexs wax^ae sEk^aq, yixs q!enEmaeda kMotElaxa 
g"Exwa. Wa, la^lae Loma ex'stokluna ^nEme. Wa, laEm^lawisa 
g'lg&ma^ye Lalep '.alase '"nek- qa's le gQnx-^Id sEx-'idEq qaxs alak'Ia- 
lac sEk' !enoxwa qaxs ale^winoxwaaxa megwate. Wa, lax"da^x"^lae 
qas^ida ^nagamalaxa ^wa. Wa, laEm^lae lag-a^yeda qleuEme h&^ya- iq 
l^axes g'lgama'ye Lalep lalase. Wa, gll'Em^lawise hig'aa lax gwE- 
^yasa ha^yal^a magHtalatsa ex'stok'.una k-'.otEla lae axk' lalasE^we 

1 Continued on p. 778, line 1. 



1118 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKITJTL [eth. ann. 35 

13 men as the bright salmon swimming about, | Laleplalas was asked 
to stand downstream from the place where the bright | salmon was 

15 swimming about. He had not been standing there long when || 
Laleplalas saw a very bright salmon. Immediately he | threw his 
spear and hit it. He took it and went home | to his house. Before 
he got to his house he felt | like giddy, and he just hid the salmon | 

20 and went to his house, and before long he was very sick. || When he 
arrived in front of his house, he just | sat down; and there it was 
seen by his wife, ^na^uEmp lEug'ilayugwa, | that her husband was very 
sick. Therefore | she built a small hut over him. And when they 
finished the house for the sick man, the ancestors | of the numaym 

25 LeLEged went to see their chief Lalep !alas. 11 Their chief was hardly 
alive. Then Laleplalas heard | a canoe coming to the beach in 
front of the sick man's hut, and he heard | a man say, "Go to him 
and let our ] friend come." Thus said what was heard by the sick 
Laleplalas. Then the one who was sent said, | "I can not go to 

30 our friend for || many are watching him." Thus he said. Then the 
man who had j spoken just said, "Just come aboard the canoe. 
Let me | go and pull him out." Thus he said. Then the man 
stepped out of the canoe, and | went into the sick man's hut where 
Lalep !alas was lying down . Then he took the | soul of Lalep !alas, 



13 Laleplalas qa^s ha La^wisa gwabalisasa mag'iltalasasa ex'stdk'.une 
kMotEla. Wa, wllaxdze^lae gala laxes La^widzase liiaEl dox^waLEle 

15 Lalep lalasaxa ala la ex'stok'.iin k'lotEla. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise 
SEX"^IdEq. Wa, la^me qlapaq. Wa, la^lae ax^edEq qa^s le na^nak" 
laxes g'okwa. Wa, k"!es^Em-lawise lag'aa laxes g"okwaxs laaEl he 
gwex"s k' !EdElxa^nakule. Wa, aEm'lawise la qlElalEsaxa k'lotEla 
qa's la hayalEnikMa laxes g'okwaxs k"!es^mae Max^^Id tslEx'q'.Ex'^ida. 

20 Wa, giPEm^lawise lag'aa lax L'.ilsana^yases g'okwe laaEl asm k'.wa- 
g'aElsa. Wa, laEm^lae dogultses gEnEme ^na^uEmplEng'ilayugwa, 
yixs alae ts!Ex"q!es la^wiinEme. Wa, lag'ilas &Em liex'^idaEm 
hosgEuiElsaq. Wa, g'il^Em-lawise gwala hose laa^lasa g'alasa ^nE- 
^memotasa LeLEgede la awElpaxes gugSma^ye Lalep lalase. Wa, 

25 laEm^lae halsElaEm la sak' '.EgElseda gigama^ye. Wa, la'^lae wule- 
laxa g'axalis xwak!una laxa LJEma^isas hodzasas. Wa, lae wule- 
laxa bEgwauEma ^nek'a: "Hag'a laqo qa g'axlag'IsEns ^nEmo- 
kwax," ^nex'^lae wuLElas Lalep lalasexa ts!Ex'q!a. Wa, la^lae ^nek"a 
wax'e ^yalagEma: " ^ya, kMeadzEu gwayoLasg'Ens ^nEmokiik' qaxs 

30 q!enEmeg"a q!Esemsg'aqEk"," ^nex'^lae. Wa, aEm^lawisa gilx'de 
yaq!Ent!alabEgwanEm ^nek'a: '" Wa, gelag'a, aEm g'ax-alExs qEu la 
nexawElsaqo," ^nex'^lae. Wa, g'ax^lae l^ltaweda bEgauEme qa^s la 
laeL laxa hose qElk!vvadzasas Lalep lalase. Wa, la^me axodEx bExii- 
na^yas Lalep !alase qa^s la laxsas laxes ya^yatsle xwak'.una. Wa, 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTOKIES 1119 

and went aboard his canoe. || Ijalep !alas knew that he had gone 35 
aboard the canoe. | He heard those say in the hut where he had 
lain, when he was taken | by the man, "Oh! He is dead!" Thus 
they said, and | all the women began to wail. They had not been 
paddling long when they arrived at | many houses. There were 
really many people. Then It they all went ashore out of the canoe, 40 
and went into the great | house. Then Lalep!alas was asked to sit 
down j near the door of the large house on the right-hand side. | 
Then Lalep lalas looked at the great raven which was sitting in the | 
middle of the doorway. Its legs were spread apart, and the doorway 
was between the li legs, and a double-headed serpent was on top of 45 
the front outside | of the house, and a wolf was standing on the head 
of the man in the middle of the | double-headed serpent. Then he 
remembered this. Lalep !alas just sat down. J Then a handsome 
man spoke j and said, "Stand up, spirits, and let us be happy and || 
dance on account of the game of our friend Dadoxkwene^." He | 50 
meant the salmon speared by Lalep !alas, for the bright salmon was a 
double-headed serpent. | Then the spirits arose, and immediately | 
a man came to where Lalep !alas was sitting | and said, "O friend 
Lalep lalas! run away, else you might || stay away. Just look at 55 
this house and imitate it." j Thus he said. Then Lalep !alas was glad 



laEm^lae q!aLEla^me Lalep!alas yixs lae laxs laxa xwak!Qna. Wii, 35 
IMae wuLalaxa ^nek'a lax hose qElk!wadzats yixs g'alae ax^etsE^wa 
yisa bEgwauEme: "A, lE^moxwek" !Ex^Ida," ^nex'^laexs lae q!waq!usa- 
weda ^naxwa ts!edaqa. Wa, k'!es=lat!a gala sexwaxs lae lag-aa laxa 
q!enEme g'okiilaxa Loma q!enEm lelqwMaLa^ya. Wa, laEm^lawise 
'wi-la hox^wiilta laxes ya^yats!e xwak!una qa^s la hogwiL laxa ^walase 40 
g"6kwa. Wa, la^me axsEwe Lalep !alase qa^s he-me k!wag'alile 
max-stalilasa t!EX'ilasa -walase g5kwa lax helk- !otstalTlas. Wa, 
laEm-lae Lalep !alas doqulaxa ^walase gwa^wina k!wael lax uExsta- 
^yasa t!Ex"lle. Wii, la^lae gaxala he^me la t!EX'ile awagawa^yas 
g'og'iigwa^yas. Wa, he^misa sisEyuLe geg'iwesa tsagEmas Llasana- 45 
^yasa g'okwe. Wa, lit g'ilaleda aLanEme lax x'omsas bilk-awa^yasa 
sIsEyuLe. Wii, laEm^lae g'ig"aeqElaq. Wii, hcEm^lawis ales k!wii- 
g'alile Lalep !alas lila^lase yiiq !Eg'a^leda ex'sokwe bEgwauEm. Wa, 
la^lae ^neka: " Wagil la q!wiigillLEx haEyalilagas qEns eek"!eq!ale 
yixwa qaox yauEmaxsEns ^uEmokwae Diidoxkwena^ya," heEm gwE- 50 
^yaseda k' !6tEla sEg'Ekwas Lalep !alas yixs sisEyuLaexa ex"st6k!tine 
k'!otEla. Wa, lii^lae q!wiig"ilileda haEyalilagase. Wa.hex'^idaEm- 
^liiwisa ^uEmokwe bEgwauEm g'iix liix k!waelasas Liilep!alas. Wa, 
lii^lae ^nek'a : "^ya, qast, Liilep!alas. Hag'a kMexwax aLas g"iixlax 
xEkMa laq". A^ma doqwalaxoxda g'okwex qa^s nanaxts!EweL6- 55 
saq"," ^nex'^lae. Wa, ala^lat!a Lalep !alase molas waldEmas qaxs 



1120 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

57 on account of what he had said, | for the one who had told Lalep !alas 
to run away said also that this was | the gathering-place of the souls 
of the dead; and when | the spirits began to sing, Lalep !alas ran out 

60 of the door of the || house, and ran along the beach. He went a | 
long distance, and arrived at a place where eagle-down was thick. 
He had not \ gone far when his breath gave out. Then he died 
again. | Then he heard the words of another tribe | where he was 

65 staying. He was taken and Iniried on a tree. || There was no cofhn. 
This was the village of Winalag'ilis. ! Before evening a man came 
and I sat down at the place where he was. Then the man spoke, ! 
and said, "0, friend Lalep !alas! how is your mind? Don't you | 

70 wish to go home to 5'our country?" Thus he said. Then || Lalep !- 
alas rephed and said, "Indeed, but I wish in vain, | for I do not 
know in what direction my house is." Thus said Lalep !alas to 
the ! man. Then the man spoke again, | and said, "I am Bluejay. 
Arise and ] sit on my back that I may take you to your house." 

75 Thus said Bluejay to him. |] Lalep !alas went at once and sat on his 
back; and | Bluejay flew inland over a great mountain. | And when 
they had passed over the mountain, they arrived. It was nearly | 
dark in the evening. And Lalep !alas saw that his | hut was stiU 



57 lae neHda la axkialax Lalep lalase qa k' '.exwes, yixs he^mae la 
qlap'.e^nakOlats bEx-'una^yasa la lelE^la. Wa, g'il^Em^lftwise dEnx- 
^ideda haEyalilagase laa^lase Lalep !alase dzEx^wEls laxa t!EX"ilasa 

60 g'okwe qa^s dzElx^waesEle laxa LJEma^ise. Wa, laEm^lawise qwes- 
g'ilaxs lae lag^aa laxa wakwe qsnixwasa kwek". Wa, k-!es^lat!a 
qwesg'ilaxs lae wibalisEma. Wa, laEmxae wekMEx^eda. Wii, la 
laLa ^naxwaEra wuLElax waldEmasa ogu^la^me la lelqwalaLa-yes la 
&xasa. Wa, laEm^lae ax'etsE^wa qa^s la wfinEmtaso^ laxa Ease. 

65 Wa, laEm k' !eas dEgats!es. Wa, heEm^El g-ox"dEmtsa Winalag'J- 
lise la axats. Wa, k"!es-lat!a laEm dzaqwaxs g'axaasa bEgwanEme 
k!wag"aaLEla lax axasas. Wa, la^laeda bEgwanEme yacj'.Eg'a^a. 
Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "'"ya, qast, Lalep !alas. Wales naqa^yaqos kMesas 
^nek' qa^s laos na^nak" laxes awlnagwisaos," ^nex'^lae. Wa, la^lae 

70 Lalep lalase na^naxmeq. Wa, la^lae -nek'a: " QaLEn wax'a aEm- 
x'st'.En k'les q!aLElax gwaqEnwa^yaasase,' ^nex'^lae Lfdep lalase laxa 
bEgwanEme. Wa, la^lae edzaqwa yaqlEg^a^leda bEgwanEme. Wa, 
la^lae ^nek"a: "NogwaEm kOsktisa. Wag'a LaxELElax qa^s g'axaos 
k'.wag'e g-axEn qEn la taodos laxes g'okwaos," ^nex'^lae kuskusaq. 

75 Wa, la^lae Lalep lalase hex'-idaEm la kIwag'EndEq. Wa, la^lae 
kuskiis aaLaaqaxs lae plEl^ida qa^s le p'.EltsEqIaxa ^walase nEg"a. 
Wa, g'll^Em^lawise hayaqaxa nEg'a lae lag'aa. Wa, la^lae Elaq 
plEdEX'^idaxa dzaqwa laa^lase Lalep !alas doqiilaqexs hex'sa^mae las 
hose. Wa, la^lae laeL laq. Wa, la^lae dox^waLElaxes ok'.wina^yaxs 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1121 

there. He went iu, and he saw his body || lying there dead. Then 80 
his soul went into it, \ and immediately the body became warm. 
In the I jnorning when day came many men and women came in | 
to wail, and they came to l)ury him. Then one man | went into the 
hut, and the man saw that Lalep !alas !| was alive, and at once he 85 
spoke with him. | Then they made a house just like the house where 
he had been; | and therefoi-e the numaym LCLEged own the house. | 
This is all. | 

Waxap Ialaso^ (lelegeu, QIomk" !ut!es, Kwagui.) 

The ancestor of the Yaexagsme* Yix'agEme*, lived at XudzE- 1 
dzaUs, I at the village site LEx'siwe^; and | Waxap !alaso^, and his 
prince Xaxosenaso^, lived on the east side of XudzEdzalis; | and it is 
said that Yix"agEmo |! and Waxap !alas6^, claimed XudzEdzalis 5 
as their property. Finally Waxaplalaso^ began to get tired | of 
Ylx'agEme^. He moved away. | and came to GtEk' lExsdEls with 
his prince, Xaxosenaso^, | and they built a house there; and when the 
house they built was finished, | Waxap!alaso^ lay down on his back, 
thinkmg what to do. || Then it occurred to him that he had been 10 
told in his former village, XudzEdzalis, | from a man who lived at 
Xoxop !a, a Qweq"sot!enox". ] He did not name him, for he did not 

he^mae ales yaq'.use. Wa, la^lae lalak'axes bEx^unayede. Wa, 80 
hex'^idaEm^lawise ts'.Elx^wide oklwina^yas. Wa, laEm^lawise 
^nax'^idxa gaalaxs g'axaasa qlemala bebEgwauEm LE^wa tsledaqe 
q !waq '.usalaxa wunEmtaLaq. Wa, la^laeda ^nEmokwe bEgwansm 
laeL laxa hose. Wii, la^lae dox^waLEleda bEgwauEmax Lalep !alasax 
q'.ulae, qaxs a^mae hex'^idaEm yaeq!Ega^l le-wS. Wa, la^me asm 8.5 
hex"^idaEm g"okwelaxa g'okwe he gwex'se g'okwases laasde. Wa, 
he-mis g'axelts g'ogwadeda ^nE^memotasa LeLEgedasa g'okwe. Wa, 
laEm laba. 

WaxapIalaso^ (leleged, Q!6mkMut!es, KwAG'ut) 

Gokflla^lae g"alasa Yaex'agEma^ye yix Ylx'agEma^ye lax XiidzE- 1 
dzalise, lax gwak' lotas ^was LEX'sIwa^ye. Wa, la^lae g'okule Waxa- 
p'.alaso- LE-wis LawElgama^ye Xaxosenaso- lax ^nalantllisas XudzE- 
dzalise. Wii, laEm'lawise hemEnalaEm lenEmap!e Yix'agEma-'ye 
l6^ Waxap !alas6^waxa xiisElas XiidzEdzahse. Wa, la-lae k' !ilt !ede 5 
Waxap!alas6^was Yix'agEma^ye. .Wa,laEm-iae mawa Waxap '.alaso^ 
qa^s g'axe lax GtEk' lExsdElse le^wis Lawulgiima^ye Xaxosenaso^. 
Wa, la^lae g'okwela qa^s g'okwa. Wa, la^lae gwale g'okwela^yas. 
LaEm^awise Waxap !alas5^ t!eg"il SEn^yastolil qa^s gweg'ilasa. Wa, 
la-lae g"ig'aex-edxa g'axe ts!Ek'!alEm laxes g'ale g'okiilase XiidzE- 10 
dzalise, ylsa g'ax'^ide lax Xoxop !a Qweq"sot!enox" bEgwanEma. 
Wa, la^me k'les Lex^edEx LegEmas qaxs k'lesae qlaLElax LegEmas. 
75052—21—35 eth— pt 2 ^22 



1122 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

14 know his name. | The visitor had said to Waxap !alas6^, | "Look 
out for the one of our tribesmen who has a great treasure! — I mean || 

15 Head-Winter-Dancer- -for he will go around our world to play i with 
the people of supernatural power, all around our world." Thus he 
had said. | 

This occurred to Waxap !alaso^ while he was lying on his back. | 
When night came, he tried to he down in his bed; \ he did not go to 

20 sleep the whole night, however; but 11 his prince, Xaxosenaso^ 
slept sweetty. When day came, | in the morning, Waxap lalaso^ 
arose and scolded his | prince. He said to him, "Don't | think 
always of sleeping! Don't you thmk of Head-Winter-Dancer, | the 
great shaman, the great war-dancer, who is famous all over the 

25 world, II and who is looking for a great shaman to play with ? I | 
mean you ought to rise and wash yourself in this good river | 
Ts!Elgwad. Thus he said. Xaxosenas5^ took up the | tongs and 
struck his prince with them. || 

30 Xaxosenaso^ arose at once and went out of | the house. He 
wanted to kill himself. He went up the river | TslElgwad; and 
when he came to the cascade of \ TsJElgwad, he saw a hole in the 
rock on the bank of the | river. He wanted to examine it, and he 

35 saw II that the holes were the eyes of a Dzonoq !wa. They were 

13 Wa, la^lae ^nek'eda bagunse bEgwanEm lax Waxap!alaso^: "Wa- 
gil la yaL!aLEx qaoxda ^walase Logwala laxEnu^x" g'okulotex, yix 

15 Ts!aqama^ye qaxs ^nek'ae qa^s la^stalesElexEns ^nalax qa^s amle 
LE^w5x nanawalakwaxsox awFstaxsEns ^nalax," -nex'^lae. 

Wa, hcEm^lawis g"ax g'ig'aeges Waxap ialaso^ laxes t!eg'i^lena^ye. 
Wa, la^lae ganol^ida lae wax" kulx'^ida laxes kMelase. Wa, la^lae 
hewaxaEm mex^edEx ^wasgEmasasa ganoLe. Wa, la'lae ex"p!astE- 

20 £wesE^wes L&wiilgama^yase Xaxosenaso^. Wa, laEm^lawise na^nakil- 
laxa gaalaxs lae Lax^wide Waxap lalaso^ qa^s la lawitsialagwaxes 
Lawulgama^ye Xaxosenaso^. Wa, la^lae ^nek'Eq: "Gwaldzas xeuleI 
lex'aEm naqa^yosxes mexena^yos. K'lesas glg'aeqElax TsIaqSma- 
^yaxa ^walasa paxalaaxa ^walasa tox^wida yixs tslelwalaa la^stalisE- 

25 lalxEns ^nalax alax ^walasa p&xftla qa^s iml^wuta. Wa, he^mesEn 
*ne^nak'ile qa^s Lax^widaos qa^s liios gug'iltala laxwa ekMex w^x 
Ts!Elgwadex," ^nex'^lae. Wa, aEm^lawise Xaxosenaso^ lex'ElIl qa^s 
etlede mex^eda. Wa, heEm^lawis lag'ilas Waxap !alaso^ dax'^Idxa 
ts!esLala qa^s kwex^ides laxes LSwiilgama^ye. 

30 Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise Lax^ulile Xaxosen&so^ qa^s laEl lawEls 
laxa g'okwe qa^s la ala qa^s g'ayalasa. Wa, laEm^Iae qaswustalax ^was 
TslElgwade. Wa, gil^Eni'lawise lag'aa laxa k' !amadzenasa ^was 
Ts!Elgwade, wa, la^lae dox^waLElaxa x'op !a tlesEma lax ogwaga^yasa 
^wa. Wa, lae ^nex' qa's max"p!altoweq. Wa, heEm-lawis dox^wa- 

35 LElatseqexs gEyagEsaasa Dzonoq !wa. Wa, laEm^lae qoqutlastosa 



BOAS] FAMILV; HISTORIES 1123 

both full of I water. Then Xaxosenaso^ heard some one who said, | 36 
"O fi'iend, Xaxosenaso^! go into these two eyes, for [ then nothing 
will be too difficult for you." Thus spoke what was heard by him. 
Xaxosenaso^ did not see | any one. Then Xaxosenaso^ il broke off 40 
hemlock-branches, tied them together in four bunches, and went 
towards | the eyes. He sat down in the water in the right-hand 
eye, | and rubbed liimself with one bunch of the hemlock on the 
right side of liis body; | and when all the needles of the hentlock had 
come off, he put it down on the rock, and | took another bunch, 
dipped it into the water, and rubbed l| the left side of his body. 45 
When all the needles were off, | he put it down on the rock and came 
out of the water. Then [ he went into the water in the left eye, 
and he sat j down in it. Xaxosenaso^ took another bunch of hem- 
lock, dipped it into j the water, and rubbed the right side of his 
body. II Wien all the needles had come off, he put it do-svn on the 50 
ground; and he | took another bunch of hemlock, dipped it into the 
water, and rubbed | himself on the left side of his body; and he 
only stopped when all the i needles had come off. Then he put the 
heuJock on the ground. After he | had put it on the ground, the 
man who was || invisible to Xaxosenaso^ spoke again, and said, 55 
"Don't, don't, don't | come out of the water in which you are 
washing! Dive, and stay below water a long time, ] four times! 

^wape. Wii, la^lae Xaxosenaso^ wiiLElaxa yaqlEg'a^laxa ^iiek'e: 36 
"Weg"a, qast, Xaxosenaso-, la^sta laxwa maltsEmex gegEyagEsa qa^s 
k'leaseLos waLEmI," ^nex'^lae wuLElas. Wii, la^lae k-ieris dogfilts 
bEgwanEma yix Xaxosenaso^. Wii, la^lae hex'^ida^me Xiixosona35= 
LiEx^wIdxa q!waxe qa^s yacLlEXLEndexa moxLa. Wa, la^lae gwa^sta 40 
laxa gegEyagEse qa^s liiEl klwa^sta liixa helk'iotsta^ye gEyagEsa. 
Wii, la^lae ginx^witasa ^iiEmxLa qlwiixa liixes helkMot!Ena^ye. 
Wii, g'ipEm-liiwise ^wi^lawe k'lamo^masa qlwaxe, lae g'ig'aElsaq qa^s 
dax'^idexa ^nEmxLa qa% hapstEndes liixa ^wape qa^s ginx^wi- 
tasa ^nEmxLa liixes gEnixot!Ena^ye. Wii, gil^Em^lawise ^wi^lawe 55 
kMamo^mas lae g'ig'aElsaq. Wa, la^lae la^sta laxa ^wape qa^s la 
liVsta liix qlo^sta^yax gEmxotsta^ye gEyagEts. Wii, hVlae k!wa- 
^sta laq. Wii, lii^lae diix'^idxa -'nEmxLa qiwaxa qa-'s hapstEndes la- 
xa ^wape. Wii, lii^lae g'inx^wltas laxes helk"!ot!Ena^ye. Wii, 
g'il-Em^lawise ^wi^lawe kMamo^masexs lae g'lg^aElsaq. Wii, la^Iae 50 
dax'-idxa ^nEmxLaEm la qa^s hapstEndeq. Wii, la-'lae g-lnx^wl- 
taa liixes gEmxot!Ena^ye. Wa, al^Em^lawise gwalExa lae ^wi-'lawe 
k'amo^mas. Wa, la-lae g'Ig'aElsaxa q!waxe. Wii gll'Em^lawise 
g-Ig'aElsaqexs lae et!ed yiiqlEg'a'leda bEgwiinEme, yix k'!ese do- 
gults Xaxosenaso^. Wii, la^lae ^nek-a : "Gwo, gwo, gwo, gti^no 55 
la^sta liixos g'lgiltalasex ^wapax. Weg"a g'iig-ildetsia dasndEx 
mop leuEusaLEs qa^s laLaosaxa lakwelii qa^s k" leaseLos waLEmLos," 



1124 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

57 Thon you wiU o})tain what makes you strong, so that nothing wiU be 
too difficult for you." j Thus said the one who was invisible to 
Xaxosenaso^. Then Xaxosenaso^ | said, "I will do so;" and he 

60 sat down and dived under water, and 1! held on to the bottom in the 
very cold water. He staid there a very long time, i and then came 
up. He just wanted to get his breath. | Then he dived again, and 
he staid down even longer than he had staid | the first time when he 
dived. He came up again, and | sat down on the rock to get his 

65 breath; and as soon as he had |1 recovered his breath, he dived 
again, and staid below water for really | a long time. Then he came 
up and sat down on the rock to | get his breath; and as soon as he 
had recovered his breath, ] he arose to dive again. Then spoke again 
the man ] whom he had heard speaking before, and who was invisi- 

70 ble to him. 1| He said, "O friend! now really do not | come up until 
your breath gives out. Keep open your eyes | while you are under 
water, then there will be notliing that you can not see." Thus said 
the one who was heard. | When the speech of the one who was heard 
by Xaxosenaso^ was ended, | he repUed, and said, "I shall do so." || 

75 And he dived into the water in the eyes of the Dzonoq !wa. i Now he 
kept his eyes open, and held on to the bottom, Avlule he staid under 
water; | and he only let go when his breath gave out. | Then he 
floated up, and he did not know how long a time he had been | 

58 ^nex'^lae k'!esadoguItsXaxosenaso^. Wa, laEm^lawise nek'eXaxose- 
naso^: "HeLEn gwalaLe," ^uex'^^laexs lae k'.unsa laxa ^wape qa^s 

60 gElbEnts'.e laxa ala wuda^sta ^wapa. Wa, he^latla la gEyEnsElaxs 
g'axae q!ax^wida. Wa, aEm^lawise ^nex' qa qlEsmEnx^wIdeses hasa- 
^yaxs lae edEnsa. Wa, la^iae gagEymsElagaweses ^wa^wadzEnsElas 
laxes g'ilae das'Ida. Wa, g^ax^lae q!ax-wida. Wa, galaEm^lawise 
k!waa qa q'.EsmEnx^wIdeses hasa^ye. Wii, g'll^Em^lawis ^uEmx'- 

65 dzEx^wide hasa^yasexs lae et!ed das-ida. Wa, laEm^lae alax"^Id 
gEyEnsEla. Wa, g'ax^lae q'.ax^wida. Wa, la^lae k!wag"aala qa 
qlEsmEux^wideseshasa^ye. Wa, g'ipEm^lawise qlEsniEnx^wIde hasa- 
^ya lae Laxiila qaxs lE^mae etledEl das^IdEl, laa^Iase edzaqwaEl 
yaq'.Eg'a^le wuLElnaxwiis yaq'.Entlala bEgwauEma, yix k'lese dogiilts. 

70 Wa, la^lae ^neka: "-'ya, qast, wag'il la alaX-^IdLEx laEm al^Eml q!ax- 
^widEl qaxo lal labai.os hasa-yaqos. Wii, laLEs dsx-alal qaso lal 
gEyEnsElal qa^s kMeaseLos kMes dogulLol," ^nex'^lae wuLElas. Wa, 
CT-il^Em^lawise q!iilbe waldEmasa yaq!Ent!ala wuLEits Xaxosenaso' 
lae na^naxmeq. Wii, la^lae 'nek^Eq: "Hcleu gwalaLe," ^nex"^laexs 

75 lae das^ida laxa «^wape q !ostE=^wes gegE^yagEsasa Dzonoq !wa. Wa, 
laEm^lae dEx'ala. Wa, ax'saEm^awise gElbEnts!a lae geyEnsEla. 
Wa, a^mes heEm gElpak'Elaatsexs lae wixLax'^ides hasa-ye. Wa, 
g-ax^Em^lae aEmpEX"6sta. Wa, laEm^lae kMes q'.aLElaxes ^wa^watsla- 
ase yaqiwa. Wa, la^lae ts'.Ek'lEx^ida. Wa, laEm^lawise Laxiila- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1125 

lying there in a faint. Then he awoke and arose, ll i'oi- he had been 80 
dead, and came back to his senses. He had first dived twice | into 
the right eye of the Dzcnoqlwa, and twice | into the left eye. 

Then again he heard speaking in the woods. (The voice) said, | 
"Come, friend Xaxosenaso^ ! Let us try our strength!" Thus said 
what he heard. || Then Xaxosenaso^ turned around to see who was 85 
coming from the phice where some one was talking, | and he saw a 
handsome man standing on the ground. \ Xaxosenaso^ went to him 
at once. Wlien he reached ! him, the man asked Xaxosenaso^ to 
try to I twist a spruce-tree, "so that I ma}' see how strong you are." 
Thus he said. || Immediately Xaxosena,so^ cUmbed the tree, and, 90 
beginning | at the top, he came down twisting the spruce-tree. He 
came to the ground. | It is said that Xaxosenaso^ never found it 
difficult, because he was exceedingly | strong. Then Xaxosenaso^ 
was given advice | by the man to take good care when traveling 
about; || "and you shall always purify yourself in this river in the 95 
morning and in the evening, | so that no harm may befall you." 
Thus he said. | 

Then Xaxosenaso^ questioned the man, and said, | "0 friend! 
who are you who take pity on me and give me advice? " Thus he said 
to him. I Then the man replied, and said, "O friend! || I am Work- 100 



yixs la^mex-de lE^la. Wa, la^me nages^Ida, yixs hae g'il ma^lp!Ena 80 
das-Ide helk' !otstaye gsyagEtsa Dz5noq!wa. Wa, la^lae ma'ip!Ena 
das-'Id laxa gEinxotsta^yas. 

Wa, la^lae et!ed wuLElaxa yaqlEg^a^la lax aLa^yasxa 'nek-a: "Ge- 
lag'a qast Xaxosenaso^ qEns lalokwap!e," ^nex'^lae wuLEhis. Wa, 
la%e Xaxosenaso^ niEls-id qa^s dox^widex g'aya^nakidasasa yaq!En- 85 
tlala. Wa, la^lae dox^waLElaxa Lase ex'sok" bEgwanEma. Wii, 
hex'^idaEm^lawise Xaxosenaso^ la laq. Wii, gil^Em^lawise h"ig\ia 
laq laa^lase bEgwrmEme axk'!alax Xaxosenaso^ qa ^mEns^ides 
SElp!ldxa alewase Lasa, "qEn doqwalexs laxwa^yaqos," ^nex'^lae. 
Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise Xaxosenaso' la hax^wid laxa Livse qa's g'axto- 90 
dexs g"axae ba^nolEla sElpaxa alewase. Wa, g'ax^lae g'ax^Elsa. 
Wa, laEm^lae Xaxosenfi,so^ hewaxaEm laxomx'-'Ida qaxs alae laEl 
lak!wemas bEgwanEma. Wa, laEin^lawise Lexs^alasE^we Xaxosena- 
80^ yisa bEgwanEm qa a^mes yaL!awa laxes gwiihigildzase. "Wa, 
he^mis qa^s hemEnaJa^maos la^sta laxwa ^waxxa gegaala LE^wa dza- 95 
dzEqwa qa^s k"!easeLos amelasLol," ^nex"^lae. 

Wa, la^lae Xaxosen&so^ wuLaxa bEgwanEme. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: 
"^ya, qast, angwasex waxk!alaex Lexs^ala g'axEn," ^nex'%eq. Wa, 
la^lae na^naxma'"yeda bEgwanEmaq. Wa, la^lae ^nek"a: "^ya, qast, 
nogwaEm Es-ak'IlElsa. HemEnalaEm Lexs'alaxa g'axe laxos g'axa- 100 



1126 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

1 man. I always give advice to those who come | the way you have 
come." And after Workman had said so, he disappeared. | — | 
Xaxosenaso^ just stood there as thotigh he were out of his | mind 
5 on account of the actions of the one who had spoken. |1 Then 
it occurred to him to walk again towards the source of the river. I 
He went, and continued going a long distance up the | river. Then 
he saw a large round thing on the rock, which looked like a stone, | 
a Uttle distance away from the place whence he came. It seemed 
strange to him. | He went to it to examine it. Then he saw that 1| 

10 it was the great head of a man staring at Xaxosenaso^ as he stood on 
the rock. | The large head looked angry. It had no body. | Then 
Xaxosenaso^ was angry, and stared at it. [ Then Xaxosenaso^ 
remembered that his father had talked about \ something like this, 
what he was seeing, and that he had called it Hcad-without-Body. 

15 Thus II Xiixosenaso' was just watching the Head -wi thou t-Body, as 
it was changing [ the expression of its face. Four times it changed 
its face, as though it were | trpng to frighten Xaxosenaso^. There- 
fore it did so. And the great tiling | opened its mouth, and the 
head of a man appeared | in the mouth of the Head-without-Body. 

20 It kept its mouth opened, || and uttered the cannibal-cry, like the 
cannibal-cry of the hamshamtsles of the ancestors of the Kwakiutl. | 
Then a pair of hands appeared in the mouth of the [ Head-without- 

1 qos gwalagildzasa. Wa, he^meq," ^nex'%exs lae xis^Ida, yix 
Es-ak ilElsa. 

Wa, aEm^lawise Xaxosenaso^ la Lasa he gwex"s nEnolox"^wIdes na- 
qa^ye, qa gwex'^idaassases yaeqiEntlalodaxs laek'Ieas la doqulaqe. 
5 Wii, la^lae ^nenk'lex^ed qa^s lalag'i et!ed qas-ida lax ^nEldziisa ^wa. 
Wa, laEm^lawise qasa. Wa, laEm^lawise ^nElg'ila lax ^uEldzasa 
^wfixs lae ddx^waLElaxa ^walase ^mEk'.wa he gwex's loxsEm t!esEm 
laxa qwaqwesala lax giiyolElasas. Wa, laEm^lae anilq!ESEq. Wa, 
la^lae qas^ida qa^s la ^nExwax"^id laq. Wii, laEm^lae awulp !alt6qexs 

10 ^walasae x'oratsa bEgwanEme doqwalax Xaxosenaso^xs Lfiwae. 
Wii, laEm^lae lawisEmaleda ^walase x'omsa, yixs k' !easae bux"sos. 
Wii, aEm^liiwise XaxosenasS^ ogwaqa lawisEmaia dodoxsEndEq. 
Wii, laEm'lae Xiixosenaso^ g'ig'aex^edxes ompaxs gwiigwex's-iilae 
liixa he gwex'se la doqwalaso-sxa Legadiis X'Osalole. Wa, laEm^lae 

15 aEm la Lawa doqwale Xaxosenasoxa X'osalole, ytxs lae Llayi^Iales 
goguma^ye. Wii, la^lae moplEna Llayi^lale gogiima^yas he gwex"s 
k^ak'alEmax Xiixosenaso^, liigilas he gweg"ile. Wii, ladzek^as-lae 
aqElse sEmsas. Wti, heEm^lawis g'ax nelEmx'^idaatsa bEgwiinsme 
awiL'.EXwawa^yas X'osalole. Wa, liiEm^lae tsokwale sEmsas. Wii, 

20 lii^lae hamts!iilasa hilmtslalaena^yasa hamshiimts!Esasa g'iila Kwa- 
g'ula. Wa, g'ax^lae e^eyasas nel^d lax wax'sanodzExsta^yas sEmsas 
X"6sal6le xwexulequla. Wii, g'ax^lae klwa^nakiilaxs g"iix aeg'iix^- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1127 

Body. They were trembling, and (the cannibal-dancer) came in a | 22 
squatting position out of the mouth of the Head-without-Body. 
After he had come out, | the mouth of the Head-without-Body 
closed; and the hSmshamtsles went right on !| and took the right 25 
arm of Xaxosenaso^, and bit a wide piece out of it. | Xaxosenaso^ never 
moved. And when | the piece had been bitten out by the hams- 
hamtslEs, the latter went back, | uttering his cannibal-cry, "Wip, 
wip, wip!" as he went back into the mouth of the Head-without- 
Body. I Now the hSmshamtslEs had gone back into the mouth: 
and II as soon as he had gone in, the Head-without-Body disappeared. | 30 

Then Xaxosen^so^ heard some one back of him spealdng, and | 
saying, "O friend Xaxosenaso^! now you have obtained as your 
treasure what you have seen, | the hS.mshilmts!Es, and the name 
One-Man-Eater, whenever you show | this; and the front of the 
sacred room out of which he came is the head of our world, || the 35 
Head-without-Body; and you will do among your tribe what was 
done ] by One-Man-Eater to you when he bit you, for you will eat 
human flesh. I Now spit on your riglit arm, and press down the 
place I bitten by our friend One-Man-Eater, then it will heal up," 
said the one | whom he heard. Xaxosenaso^ never saw who was 
speaking. || He went at once into the river to wash, and | after he 40 
had done so, he sat down under the branches of a I cedar-tree. 



weIs lax sEmsas X'osalole. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise laltslaxs lae qEm- 23 
kiwale SEmsas X'osalole. Wa, he^nakulaEm^lawisa hamshamts lEse 
qa^s dax'^Idex helk"!6lts!ana^yas Xaxosonaso^ qa^s qlEx'^ideqxa ala 25 
lexa. Wii, hewaxaEm^lawise Xaxosenaso^ yawix'^ida. Wa, g'il^Em- 
^lawise lawiimaseda hamshamts lEsaxes qlEk'oyo laa^lase aedaaqa 
qa^s hamtslEg'a^le wip wip wipxaxs lae ax^edeL lax sEmsas X'osa- 
lole. Wa, laEm^lae laeLeda hamshamts !Ese lax sEmsas. Wa, g'll- 
^Em^lawise laeLExa lae x'isaleda X'osalole. 30 

Wa, la^lae yaqlEg'a^le wuLElas Xaxosenaso^we hixes aLa^yexa 
^nek'e: " Wa, qast, XaxosenjisoS laEms Logwalaxes layos dox^waLE- 
laxa hamshamts lEse LEwis LegEme Nanogwise, qaso lal nel^idamas- 
LEq. Wa, he^misLal mawlltses g"ay6lts!Ewasa x'omsasEns -iialax, 
ytx X'osalole. Wa, hcEmlwits gweg'ilaLxes g'okulotaose gwex'^idaa- 35 
sas Nanogwise Ikh, ylxs lae qlEx'^Id laL, yLxs bEX"bakweLaqos. 
Weg'a kwes-IdExs helk'!6lts!ana^yex qa^s LE^x"stoda6s laxox qlEk'a- 
^yasEiis ^nEmokwae Nanogwisa laL qa mEts!Edesox," ^nex'^lae 
wuLElas. Wa, laEm hewaxa dox^waLEle Xaxosenaso^xa yaq lEnt !ala. 
Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise Xaxosenaso^ la^stEx'^Id laxa ^wa. Wa, g'll- 40 
^Em^lawise gwalExs lae kIwaagElsaxa tlEnyaba^yas wilts lana^yasa 



1128 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

43 There he slept that night, not far from the ] house of his father 
Waxap !aUxs6^, at GcKk' IexscIeIs. \ 

45 In the morning, when day came, he arose and went || into the river. 
He carried four bunches of hemlock-hranches, and rubbed | the 
right side of his body. Wlien the needles had come off, | he stopped. 
Then he took another bunch and rubbed the \ right side of his bod^^; 
and when ail the needles had come off, he | stopped and took another 

50 bunch of hemlock-branches, dipped it into the || water, and rubbed 
the left side of his l)ody; and when the \ needles had come off, he 
stopped, and took the one bunch left on the rock, | dipped it into 
the water, and rubbed the left side of his body, i When the needles 
had come off, he stopped. Then } he remembered the words of the 

55 one who had spoken to him ; that is, || the one who had taken pity 
on liim and had given him advice. He dived four times, and staid a 
long time under water each time; | and when he came up the fourth 
time, I he heard a man back of him speaking. He said, | "You have 
done well, friend Xaxosenaso^, to do what you have done, for you 
have j dived four times. Go, now! Before you go far, you will || 

60 see your treasure." Thus he said; and Xaxosen&so^ said, \ "1 shall 
do so, friend!" He did not try to see | who was speaking to him. j 



42 welkwe. Wa, heEm^lae mex^edxa ganoLexa k' !ese qwesala lax 
gokiilasases ompe Waxap !alas6- lax GrEkMExsdElse. 

Wii, g'U^Em^lawise ^na^nakulaxa gaalaxs lae Lax^tilsa qa^s la la^sta 

45 laxa 'wa. LaEm^lae dalaxa moxLa q!waxa. Wii, laEm^lae ginxwi- 
tas laxes helk' !ot lEna^ye. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise ^wPla we k' !aino^mas 
lae gwala. Wit, la^Iae dax'^idxa ^nEmxLa qa^s g'inxwites laxaaxes 
helk' !6tEna^ye. Wii, gil^Ein^laxaawise ^wrtilwe k'!amo^mas lae 
gwala. Wa, lii dax'^idxa ^nEinxLa q!waxa qa^s hapstEiides laxa 

50 ^wapaxs lae ginxwitas laxes gEmxotiEna^ye. Wa, g"lpEmxaawise 
^wi^lawe klamo^mas lae gwala. Wii, lii diix'^idxa ^iiEm^Em la g'E^ya 
qa'^s hiipstEndes liixa ^wiipe. Wii, laxae g'inxwitas liixes gEmxo- 
t!Ena^ye. Wa, g'lPmese ^wi^lawe k' !amo^mas lae gwiila. Wa, laEm- 
^liiwise g'lg'aex^idEx waldEmasa yaq!Ent!ala bEgwiinEma, yixa 

55waxkMala Lexs-aliiq. Wii, laEin^lae mop!Ena gegEyEnsElaxs lae 
diis'ida. Wii, gil^Em^lawise q!ax^widExs lae mop!Ena dtis-'ida, 
laa'lase ct!ed wuLElaxa yiiq!Eg"a^la bEgwiinEiii liix aLa^yasxa ^nek'a: 
"LaEms heliixa, qast Xiixosenaso^ laxos gwex'^idaasex, laaqos 
m6p!Ena diis^ida. Hiig'a qas^idEx kMesLEs qwesg'ilal qaso dox^wa- 

60 LElalxos LogweLaqos," ^nex"^lae. Wii, la^lae X.axosenaso^ ^nek'a: 
"HeLEn gwalaLe, qast." Wii, laEm^lae k' !es wul-'Em dadox^waLE- 
laxa yaq!Ent!alaq. 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1129 

At once Xaxoseuaso^ started and went up | the river. After he 
had heen going up [some time], he saw a || large bird sitting on the rock. 65 
As soon as he saw it, he remembered | what the man had said to him 
when he said to him, "Go ! | You will not go far before you see your 
treasure." | Then Xaxosenaso^ started, and stood near the | thun- 
derbird that was sitting on the rock. Then the || thunderbird first 70 
spoke to him, and said, " O friend ! why | do you come here walking ? " 
And I Xaxosenaso^ said at once, "I came to obtain you, Great- 
Siipernatural-One, as a treasure." | Thus he said. Then the thun- 
derbird called Xaxosenaso^ to come | to him. He went there at 
once; and 1! the thunderbird said, "Come and sit among the \ 7-'j 
feathers of my wings, that we may go and see our world ! " Thus he 
said. I Xaxosen^so^ at once went up to the wings | and sat among 
the feathers at tne base of the wings; | and when Xaxoscnaso^ was 
seated among || the feathers, the thunderbird flew up. Then } SO 
Xaxosen&so^ was asked by the thunderbird to look at | everj^thing 
that was going on where they were going. | Xazosenaso^ did so. He 
kept in mind the strange things that ] he saw everj'where. After 
four days they came !1 back. Then the thunderbird sat down on 85 
the rock ! whei'e he had been seated when Xaxosenaso^ met him. 



Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise Xaxosenaso^we qas^ida qa^s la ^na^na^laaqa 63 
laxa ^wa. Wa, laEra^lawise ^iiElg'ilaxs lae dox^waLElaxa k!waa 
^walas ts!ek!wa. Wa, g"ipEm-lawise dox^waLElaqexs lae glg'aex^i- 65 
dEx waldEmasa yaqlEnt'.ala bEgwanEmqxa ^nek'Eq: "Hag'a qas^i- 
dEx. KMesLES qweg'ilal qaso dox^waLElalxos LOgweLaqos." Wa, 
laEm^lawise Xaxosenaso^ qas^ida qa^s la Lax^wala laxa ^nExwala lax 
kiwaaasasa kiinkunxtilig'a^ye. Wa, hcEm^lawis g'il yaqlEg'a^leda 
kunkunxulig'a^yaq. Wii, la^lae ^nek'a: "^ya, qast, ^masos g'ag'ExI- 70 
Jaqos laxwa g'axaqos qayasa," ^nex'^lae. Wa, hex"^idaEm^lawise 
Xaxosenaso- ^iiek'a: " LaLogwasdEyEn, qast, yul ^nawalax"dzek"as,' 
^nex'^lae. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawiseda kiinkunxidig'a^ye Le^lalax Xa'- 
xosenaso^ qa liis laq. Wa, hex-^idaEm^lae la laq. Wa, la^lae kiin- 
kunxiilig-a^ye ''nek'a: "Gelag'a qa^s k !wak Iwagayaos laxg'a tslEl- 75 
(s!Elk'g'asg'm p!ELEmk' qEns la dox"se^stalisElaxEns ^nalax," ^nex'- 
-'lae. Wit, hex-^idaEm-lawise Xaxosenaso^ la lag'usta laxplELEuias 
qa^s le k!wak!waqax tslEltslElk^as ek" !ot lExLa^yas oxLa^yas plELE- 
mas. Wii, gil^Em^lawise hel^aLEla k!wak!waga^yaena^yas Xaxose- 
naso^ lax ts!Elts!Elk-e laa'^lase p!El^ideda kunkiinxulig'a^ye. Wa, SO 
laEm^lae Xaxosenaso^ axk" lalaso'sa kunkiinxvillg-a^ye qa doqwala- 
k'asesex ^naxwa gwayi'lalatses lalalasLa. Wa, hcEm^lawise gweg'ile 
Xoxoseuctso^, ^naxwaEm^lae axela^nakulaxes amlqlEdza^ye laxes^nax- 
wa dodEgula laxes ^naxwa lalalasa. Wa, la^lae mop lEnxwa^sExs g'axae 
aedaaqa. Wa, hcEm^lawise k!wag'aaleda kunkunxulig'a^yes k!waaa- 85 
saxs g'alae bak^o lo- Xaxosenaso^. Wa, g'ipEm^lawise k!wag"aalaxs 



1130 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKITJTL [eth. anx. ss 

87 As soon as he sat down on the rock, | the thunderbird asked Xaxo- 
senS,s6* to go down ; | and when the thunderbird went down, he gave 
advice to him | to remember aU the time, if the great supernatural 

90 one, II Head-Winter-Dancer of the Qweq"sot!cnox", should come 
and make war on him, that there was really nobody who | could 
overcome his supernatural power. "And if he discovers that you 
are not an ordinary | man, he will at once come to make war upon 
3'ou; and as soon as you want | me to help you, sing my sacred 
song. Now, listen to | my sacred song! so that you may sing it 

95 when II Head- Winter-Dancer comes to make war on you." Thus 
he said, and he sang it. These are the words of his sacred song: | 
"Burn them, burn them, burn them, you who burn the world ! | 
Hail, hail, hail, hail, hailstorm is brought by you!" 
"This you shall sing when you want those to die who come to | play 
with you, and if you want them to turn into stone or into ice; namely 
200 all the men, || the crew of Head-Winter-Dancer, if they should come." 
Thus said the thunderbird | to Xaxosen&so^. Then Xaxosenaso^ 
turned away from the | thunderbird. Then he turned his face back 
to the place where the thunderbird had been seated on the rock, | and 
the thunderbird had disappeared. Immediately Xaxosenaso^ | went 
into the river. II 
5 He did not know that he had been away four years from his | 
house in GEk' !ExsdEls. Now he wished to go home to his | house 

87 lae kunkiinxtthg'a^ye axk"!alax Xaxosenaso^ qa laxalag'is. Wa, 

g^il^Em^lawise laxaxs lae kiinkiinxuhg-a^ye Lexs-alaq qa tVmese 

heniEnalaEm g'lg'aeqElaqexs g'axeLe winasoltsa '^walasa ^nawalakwa, 

90 yix Ts !aqama^yasa Qweq''sot!enoxwe qaxs ala^mae kMeas^Em ek'a 

lax ^nawalak!wena^yas. "Wii, qo q!alaLExs kMesaaqos la aoms 

bEgwauEma laLe hex'^idaEml g'axL winaLoL Wii, gipEmlwIts ^nex'L 

qEn g'EX^wIdaoL, wa, las yiilaqwasg'in yalax"LEnk\ Weg'a hoLelax 

qEn yalaqwe qa^s a^meLos yiilaqwaltsEk" qaso g'axL winasoLEs Ts!a- 

95 qama^ya," ^nex'%exs lae yalaqwa. G'a^mes qayatsa yalaxLEng"a: 

"TsEXwaamt, tsExwaamt, tsExwaamt xumtxumtElig'a^ya. 

Tsaalx, tsaalx, tsaaix, tsaalx, tsElxtsElxElIg'a^ya.'' 

"Wa, heEms yalagwatsoxs laaqos ^nex' qa lelE^les g'axxa aEml- 

q!En^waLol qa t!esEmx'^Ides lo^ qa L!ox^wides ^naxweda bebEgwa- 

200 nEme leElots Ts!aqama^ye qa g'axLo," ^nex^^lae kunkunxulig-a^ye 

lax Xaxosenaso^. Wa, laEm^lawise Xaxosenaso^ lox^wits kunkun- 

xiilig'a^ye. Wii, la^lae et!ed^El gwegEmx'^id lax k!waaasdiis. Wii, 

la^me xis^ida yix kiiukunxiilig'a'ye. Wii, hex'-idaEm^lawise Xiixo- 

senaso^ la^sta laxa ^wa. 

5 Wii, la^me k"!es qlaLElaxs lE^mae mox^unxelaxa ts!awunxe bases 

gokwa lax GEk'iExsdElse. Wa, laEm^lae ^nex' qa^s lalag'I nii^na- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1131 

that evening. He resolved j to cjo home. Then he heard the singing 8 
of a sacred song downstream. | Immediately Xaxosenaso^ sat down 
on the rock and went into || the river; and he repeated the sacred 10 
song, which sounded like that of a woman. I After Xaxoscnaso^ had 
been in tlie water, a small j man came to the place where Xaxosenaso^ 
was seated; and as soon as | he came to tlie place where Xaxosenaso^ 
was seated , the | small man spoke, and said, " friend Xaxosenaso^ ! || 
I have been sent by our friend TEwag'in to call you to j witness her 15 
dance. Come!" Thus said the j small man to Xaxosen^so^ 
XaxosenS,so^ immediately' I arose from the place where he was 
seated, and followed the one who had invited him, aiid it was not i 
long before they were inside of a large house. || When they reached 20 
the door, it o])enGd, and | Xaxosenaso^ and the one who had invited 
him went in. Then ] Xaxosenaso^ was asked to sit dowii at the 
left side of the door of the | large house, so that he should be able to 
witness well what was being done there, | and the speaker of the 
great winter-dance house spoke to him. Then II Xaxoscnaso^ 25 
listened to the sacred song of the woman ■ behind the large winter- 
dance house, and he secretly repeated her song. | When Xaxo- 
senaso^ had sat down, | the speaker of the large winter-dance house 
spoke, and said, "Now, | take good care, friend Xaxosenaso^! You 

kwa laxes g"6kwaxa dzaqwa. Wa, laEm^lawiso Ele^sta naqa^yas 7 
qa^s lalag'i nii'nakwa, laa^lase wuLax^aLElaxa yalaqlwala laxes gwa- 
laa. Wa, hex'-idaEm^lawise Xaxosenaso^ k'.wag'aala qa^s la^ste 
laxa ^wa. Wii, la-lae dEnxig'ex yalacju^layasa ts!Edaq!Exsda. Wa, 10 
heEm'lawis ales gwale Xaxosenaso^ la-staxs g'axaiisa &masgEmala 
bEgwanEm gwasolEla lax kiwaaasas Xaxosenaso^. Wa, gipEm^la- 
wise g'ax-aLEhx lax kiwaaasas Xaxosenaso^ lae yaqlEg'a^eda amas- 
gEmala bEgwiinEma. Wii, Ifi^lae ^nek'a: "Yul qast Xaxosenaso^, 
^yalagEmEULasEus ^nEmokwe TEwag'in qEn g'axe Le^laloL qa^s layos 15 
x'lts'.axulaqexs kwexElasE^weLe. Wa, gelag'a," ''nex'^laeda Umiis- 
gEmala bEgwamEmx Xaxosenas5^. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise Xaxo- 
senaso^ Lax^iila laxes k'.waaase qa^s la lag'ixa Le'lalaq. Wii, k'les- 
^latla qwesg"Ilaxs lae liig'aa lax Llasana^yasa ^wiilase g'okwa. Wii, 
g'il^Em^lawise lag'aa liix tlExiliis laa^lase axstoda. Wii, la^lae 20 
hogwiLe Xaxosenaso^ LE^wa i.e^liilElg'ise. Wa, laEm^lawise Xa- 
xosenaso^we axk'Iiilaso- qa^s he kiwiig'alile gEmxotstalilas tiEX'lliisa 
^walase g^okwa "qa wagiltsox help!altalalxEns gwegwitlag"ilPlasLa," 
^nex'^lae yayaqlEntEmelasa ^walase ts'.iigats'.e g'okwa. Wii, laEm- 
4ae Xaxosenasowe heniEnalaEm wuLElaxa yiilaq Iwiilii tslEdaq laxa 25 
aiJiisa ^walase ts!iigals!e g'okwa. Wii, la^lae wimiila dEnxeg"eq. 
Wii, g'il^Em^liiwise kiwiig'alile Xiixosenasowe laa^lase ya^q'.Eg'a^leda 
yayaq'.EntEmelasa ^walase ts!agats!e g'olcwa. Wii, la-lae ^nek'a: 
"Weg'a yiiL IewIIloI, qast, Xaxosenaso^, g'ax-Ems g'axeL laxwa ^wala- 



OeCtD^ir.AL C©LLb6E UBRARt 



1132 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [ejh. ann. 35 

30 have come into this great || winter-dance house. Now you will see 
what we are going to do." | And the cannibal-cry was uttered back 
of tlie sacred room, which was | the head of a man standing on the 
floor of the house. It opened its mouth, and the | hamshamtslEs 
sliowed himself from inside of the head. He came ! out and danced; 

35 and when his song ended, he went back || into the mouth of the head; 
and it was not long before he came, wearing the revolving | mask on 
his head. Then he went around the fire | of the large winter-dance 
house; and after he had gone around, he | went back into the mouth 
of the sacred room, which had the form of a head. It was not long 
before | lie came again, uttering the cannibal-cry in this way, "Wip, 

40 wip, wip!" II when he was uttering the cannibal-cry. He had no 
whistles. He danced, accompanying three I songs, besides the one 
song with which ] he first came out of the mouth of his sacred room, 
the great head of the Head-without-Body. | When the last song was 
at an end, he went back into tlie mouth of the | sacred room of the 
Head-without-Body. || 

45 As soon as he had gone in, the speaker of the great winter-dance 
house spoke, | and said, "O friend Xa.xosenaso^ ! | now you have 
seen your treasure. This is One-Man-Eater whom you saw | dancing, 
and this is your dancing-dress that you will wear on your face, | and 
this is the sacred room of the Head-without-Body. Now aU this 

50 shaU go to you as your || treasure." Thus he said. "Now your 



30 sex ts!agats!e g'okwa. Wii, la^mets doqwalalxEnu^x" gwegwalag'ili- 
^lasLa," ^nex'^laexs laasa hftmtslEg'a^la lax aLadza^yasa mawilexa 
^mEgwilaxa x*5msasa bEgwauEme. Wa, la^lae aqElIle sEnisas g'axaasa 
hamshS,mts !Ese nelEmx'^id lax awlLlExawa^yasa x'onise. Wa, g"axe 
hilts !a qa^s yEx^wide. Wa, g^il-mese labe q!EmdEmas lae laeL et!ed 

35 lax sEmsasa x'omse. Wa, k'lese galaxs g"axae axamalaxa x'ilplE- 
g'EXLiila bEgwanEm hamsEmla. Wii, la^lae hii-stalilElaxa laqawall- 
lasa ^walase ts!agats!e g"6kwa. Wii, g"iPEm^hiwise la^stalilExs lae 
xwelaqa laeL lax sEmsases mawila x'omse. Wii, k" !es-lat !a giilaxs 
g'iixae et'.ed h&mtslEg'a'la laxes gwek" '.iilasaxs wip wip wipxElaaxs 

40 hiimts!alae. Wii, laEm k'!eas mEdzets. Wii, laEm'lae yridux"sEme 
yix^wldayas qlEmq'.EmdEma ogu^la liixa nEmsgEme q!EmdEmsexs 
g alae g"ax^wQlts!a liix sEmsases mawila ^wiilase x'omsa X'dsalole. 
Wii, g'iPEm^lawise qlulbe alElile dEux-edayoxs lae laeLa lax sEmsases 
mawila X'osalole. 

45 Wa., g'll^Em^lawise laeLExs haa^lase yaqlEg'a^le yayaq!EntEmelasa 
^wiilase tsiigatsle gokwa. Wii, hl^lae ^neka: "Yul, qiist Xaxosena- 
80^, la^mas doqulaxes Logwa^yos. HeEm Niinogwisexa layos dogul 
ylxwa. Wa, he^mis hiixLEnses la^yos dogul g'ax axEmes. Wa, 
he^mis milwiltsa X'osalole. Wii, laEm ^wi4a la lol, qiist. LaEms 

50 Logwalaq," ^nex"-lae. "LaEm LegadElts Niinogwise," ^nex'^lae. 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTOEIES 1133 

name shall be One-Man-Eater." Thus he said. | "Now, take good 51 
care, friend Xaxosenaso^! when our great friend here, j ^wllEnku- 
lag'ilis, comes in, that you may observe | all she does here." Thus 
he said. | 

Then a woman came in, singing her sacred song in the door of the || 
great winter-dance house. She came in. Her clothing was | made 55 
entirely of hemlock-branches, not like the clothing of One-Man- 
Eater, whose | head-ring was made of red cedar-bark, and also his 
neck-ring, his I wristlets, and his anklets; but of hemlock-branches 
was the liead-ring | of the war-dancer of ^wllEnktilag'ilis, and of 
hemlock was her neck-ring, || and of hemlock were her armrings and 60 
anklets. | Her belt was made of hemlock twisted together. | The 
ends of the hemlock-belt went down to her knees, j As soon as she 
came into the door of the great dancing-house, | her sacred song was 
sung. Then she danced, 1| going towards the rear of the house; and 65 
when the song ended, j she turned towards the fire in the middle of 
the great dancing-house. | She spoke, and said, "O friends! | come, 
one of you, to cut off my limbs and my head ! | Whoever shall do 
this to me will obtain as his treasure this great dance, |1 and my treas- 70 
ure, and my name, ^wilEnkiilag'tlis." Thus she said. | After she had 
finished her speech, the speaker | of the great winter-dancing house 

Wa, la^mets yaL'.EweLol, qast, Xaxosenaso^, qo g^axeLgins ^nEmox"- 51 
dzeg'a, yixg'a ^wilEnkulag'ilisg'a qa^s ^nilxwa^meLos q!ag"ex gwa- 
lag'ilFlasLasg'a," ^nex'^lae. 

W&, g'ax^Em^lae g^ax^aLEleda yalaqlwala tslEdaq lax t!Exilasa 
^walase ts!agats!e g'okwa. Wa, g'ax^lae gaxeLa. LaEm^lae %axwa 55 
q'.waxe gweigwalas, k"!es he gwex"se gwelgwiilas Nanogwise, yixs 
^naxwa^mae L'.agEkwes qEX"Ema^ye LE^wis qEnxawa^ye LE^wis qe- 
qEx'tslana^ye LE^wis qeqExsidza^ye. Wa, la^lae qlwaxe qEx'Ema- 
^yasa tox^wide, ylx ^wilEnkuIagilise. Wa, la^lae qlwaxe qEnxawa- 
^yas. Wa, la^lae ^naxwaEm q'.waxe qeqEX'tslana^yas LE^wis qeqEx'- 60 
sidza^ye. Wa, la^lae yipEmakwa q!waxe, yix la qEnoyEwes. Wa, 
la^lae g"ax^aLEla^me oba^yasa qEnoy&^ye q'.wax lax okwax'a^yas. 
Wa, g'll^Em^lawise g'axeL laxa t'.EX'lIasa ^walase ts!agats!e g"okwa 
laa^lase dEux^idayowe yiilaqGlayas. Wa, laEm'lawise yo^nakiila 
giiyolEla laxa ogwiwalilasa g'okwe. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise qliilbe q!Em- 65 
dEmas lae L'.asgEmx'^id laxa laqawalilasa ^walase ts!agats!e g'okwa. 
Wa, la^lae yaqlEg'a^la. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "ya, ^ne^uEmokwai', 
gelanok" las qa^s t'.osEmodaosaxg'In LasLalak' ^wFla Logtin x'omsEk', 
yix heLa gwex'-IdEt g'axEn, la^mese lal Logwalalg'In ^walasEk" lada 
Logun Logweg'In le^wuu LegEme ^wilEnkulag'lIise," ^nex'^lae. Wa, 70 
gil^Em^lawise qlwel^idExs yaqlEntlalae laa^laseyaqlEg'a^le yayaq'.En- 
temelasa ^walase ts'.iigatsle g'okwa. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a; "Yul, qast 



1134 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL Ietii. ann. ss 

73 spoke, and said, "O friend | Xaxosen&so*! come and cut off the lim])s 
of our I friend here, and cut off her head, so that you may obtain 

75 her || magic power." Thus he said. Then Xaxosenaso^ | said at 
once, "1 shall do so, O friend;" and, as he said so, he stood up. | He 
was given a shell knife (the knife of the ancient | people) ; and 
XaxosenasS^ walked, and stood in front of the ! great war-dancer. 

80 Then ^wllEnkulag'iUs raised her || right hand ; and she said, "O 
friend Xaxosenaso^ ! | cut it off with my shoulder and | throw it 
towards the door." | Xaxosenaso^ cut off lier shoulder and her whole 
right arm; \ and after he had taken them off, he threw them towards 

85 the door. || Then he cut off the left arm and shoulder and threw 
them I towards the door. Then the great war-dancer sat down on 
the floor, | and he cut off her legs and tlirew them about on the 
floor. I Then the great war-dancer told him to cut off her head; and 

90 at I once Xaxosenaso^ cut around her neck, and || took off her head 
and threw it down. Now tlie limbs of the great supernatural one 
were off, | and her body just lay on the floor of the house. | After 
Xaxosenaso'" had done so, he spoke, and | said, "O friends! it is not 
my wish, what I have done | to our gi'eat friend: it was her own 

95 wish that I sliould do this || to her." Thus he said. Then he went 



73 Xaxosonaso^, gelag'il la qa^s wag'aos tlosEmwalaxg'a LasLaUig'asgm 
^uEmox'^dzek' lo^ qa^s qax'^idaosaq qa^s weg'aos soEm Logwalaxg'a 

75 ^nawalak!weneg"as," ^nex"^lae. Wa,la^lae hex'-ida^me Xaxoseuaso^we 
^nek"a: "HeLEn gwiilaLe qasta," ^nex"^laexs lae Lax^ullla. Wa, 
laEm^lawise tslaso^sa gEltslEme, yix k'lawayasa g'ale bE- 
gwauEma. Wit, la^lae qas^ide Xaxosenaso^we qa^s la i.axumlilaxa 
^walase tox^wida. Wii, ex'^Em^lawise ^wIlEnkulagilise sag'ostotses 

80 helk"!olts!a,na^ye. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "Wii, qast, Xaxosenaso^, 
^wi^loda^ma t'.osodEq" LE-'wun LaqludEuex qa^s ts'.Ex- 
stolilaosasox laxa tiExila," ^nex^^lae. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise Xaxo- 
senaso^we t!6s-idEx Laq'.udEnas qa^s ^wl^lodek' lo^ heIk"!ots!ana'yas. 
Wa, g'll^Em^lawise lawaxs lae ts lExstolilas laxa tiExila. Wa, la^lae 

85 etod t!os-idEx gEmx6lts!ana^yas l6- LaqludEniis qa^s ts lExstolIles 
laxa tlEx^ila. Wa, la^lae k!wag"allleda *wahxse tox^wida. Wa, 
la^lae ^wPla t!6sEmoyowe g'og'Egilyas qa^s gwel^alelsme. Wa, 
la^laeda ^walase tox^wid ^nex" qa wegis qax'^idEq. Wit, hex'^i- 
da^Em^lilwise Xilxosenaso^we tlotse-stEudEx q!6q!onas. Wit, la^lae 

90 lawEyddEx x'omsas qa^s tslEx^aliles. Wii, la^me ^wi^lawe LilsLalasa 
^walase ^nawalakwa. Wii, aEm^lawise la ^mEgwIle bEx"sas. Wa, 
gipEm^awise gwiile Xiixosenaso^we lae yiiqlEg'a^a. Wa, lii^lae 
^nek'a: "YuL, hamalEl ^ne-uEmok", nosawese naqa^yaxEn gwex'n- 
daase laxg'tns ^nemox^dzek" h&smeg'aseq watdEma qEn he gwex^^i- 

95 dEqEq," ^nex'^lae. Wii, gil^Em^lawise la kiwiig'alil laxes kiwaelase 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1135 

and sat down at the place where he had been seated before. | Then 96 
the body began to move. It rolled, and went rolling towards 
where I the head lay on the floor, and the head stuck on the body; | 
and the body rolled to where the two legs lay, | and they stuck on; 
and the body roUed to || where the arms lay, and they stuck on the 300 
body. I Then the great supernatural one arose and sang her sacred 
song; I and after she had finislied her sacred song, she told the men 
to beat tune on the boards rapidly. | Immediately they beat time; 
and ^wilErktilag'ihs | caught her supernatural power in her hands 
and threw it down on the floor of the |! great winter-dance house, 5 
and the floor of the house began to be flooded. | The fire in the 
middle of the great | winter-dance house went out, and therefore it 
was dark inside. Then | the speaker of the great winter-dance 
house spoke, | and said, "O friend Xaxosenaso^! you obtained as your 
treasure the two things || that you have seen — the hamshamtslE; 10 
and his dress, and the name | One-Man-Eater and his sacred rooms 
and also this great magic power, | the war-dance; and what you did 
to her when you cut off her I hmbs; ana the flooding of j'our house; 
and also the dress, | and the name ^wilEukOlag'ihs. And this 1 tell 
you; II do not be afraid to have your limbs cut off when you are 15 
asked | to play by the great supernatural one, Head-Winter-Dancer ; 
for she has given to you the | magic power of being cut to pieces. You 



laa^lase qlwenalElile bEX"s^s. Wa, la^lae loxulil qa^s la lax ^mEgwe- 96 
^lasases x"6mse. Wa, la^lae k!Ot!aLElaxa x'omse laxes bEx"sawe. 
Wa, la^lae loxulileda bEx"s^we qa^s la lax k'atk'Ede-iasasa ma^le 
g'og'EgOyS.. Wa, laxae k'.utEmg'aaLEla. Wa, la^lae lex'ElilEla qa^s 
le lax k'atk'Ede^lasases e^eyasowe. Wa, lalaxae klutEmg'aaLEla. 300 
Wa, liVlae Lax^ulileda ^walase ^nawalakwa qa^s yalaqwe. Wa, 
g-fl^Em^lawise q'.iilbe yalax"LEnas lae waxa qa LexEdzodesa ^naxwa 
bEgwanEma. Wa, hex'^ida^m^lawise LexEdzoda. Wa, la^lae ^wiIeu- 
kulagilise dasgEmdxa ^nawalakwe qa^s mEx^aliles lax S.winagwilasa 
'walase ts'.agatsle g'okwa. Wa, la^lae paol^ideda ^wape lax S,wiua- 5 
gwilasa g'okwe. Wa, laEm^lae k^Elx^ideda laqawalasa 'walase 
ts!agats!e g'okwa. Wii, la^me plEdEg'ila. Wa, heEm^lawis la 
yaq!Eg"a^latsa yayaqlEutEmelasa ^walase ts!agats!e g"6kwa. Wa, 
la^lae ^nek'a: "Wa, qast, Xaxosenaso^ laEms Logwalaxes mal^edalos 
dox^waLElaxa hamshamts'.Ese LE^wis gwelgwala LE^wis LegEme 10 
Nanogwise LE^wis mawile. Wa, he^misa ^walase ^nawalakwa 
tox^wide LE^wis layos gwex'^idaasEq, ylxs laaqos t!5sEmwalax 
LasLalas LE^wa paolaxes g'okwaos. Wa, he^misa yalax"LEne. Wa, 
he^misa LegEme, yix ^wilEnkulagilise. Wa, g'a^mesEn waldEmoL 
qa^s k"!esaos kilEla t!5sEmwalay6s LasLalaqos, qaso g'ax aEmIq!E- 15 
wasosa ^walasa ^nawalakwe Tslaq^ma^ya, qaxs lE^maa^lasa ^nawala- 
kwases t lot IeIs lalasE^waos l^L. Wa, aEml^wits he gwayi^lalaLe 



1136 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

will do as she | did when she began to put. on her arms and limbs." 
Thus he said in the | darkness. Xaxoscn&so^ never saw again the || 

20 liouse ana the men. Tlie great j winter-dance house and all the 
people disappeared, and ! Xaxosenaso^ was just sitting do^vn on 
the ground. | 

Then it occurred to him to go down the river that night. | He 

25 walked, and came to the |1 lower end of the cascade, and he wished 
to try to sing the \ sacred song of ^wllEnkiilag'ilis, for he wished to 
know it well before going | to the village Gsk" !ExsdEls. Now he 
sang it, and I these are the words of the sacred song: j 

1. "1 was taken to the other side of the world, I was taken to the 
30 other side of the world, || by the great supernatural power. 

I was taken to the other side of the world by the great super- 
natural ! power. I 

2. "I received ever^'thing, I received everything, from the great 

supernatural power, j 1 received everything from the great 
supernatural power. We, we! | 

3. "I have everything, I have everything, belonging to his super- 
35 natural power. I! I have eveiything, I have everj'thing, 

belonging to his supernatural power. We, j we ! | 

As soon as the sacred song was at an end, he felt very happy, | 
because he Icaew the words of the sacred song, and on accoimt of 

18 ^gwayi^lalasasexs lae klutEmg-aaLElaLasLalas," ^nex'^lae laxa plEds- 
k'lla. Wa, laEm^lae hewiixa et!ed dox^waLEle Xaxosenaso^waxa 

20 g'okwe LE^wa bebEgwanEm. Wa, laEm^lae x'is^ededa ^walase ts la- 
gats !e g'ok" LE^wa ^naxwa bebEgwauEma. Wa, laEm^lae XaxosenS,- 
so^we aEm la klwas laxa fi.winakliisqlala^me. 

Wa, laEm^lae g'lg'aex^id qa^s lalag'i nekwatosElaxa ^waxa ganoLe! 
Wa, laEm^lawise qas-ida. Wa, g'ii'Em'hiwise g'ax^aLEla lax gwa- 

25 ^yasa k'lamadzena laaEl ^nex' qa^s wegi niEns^id dEnx^etsa yala- 
qttlayas ^wIlEnkulag'ilise qaxs ^nek'ae qa^s 41ak' !ale q!aLElaq qo lal 
laxes g'okulase GEk' '.ExsdElse. Wa, laEm^lawise yalaqwa. Wa, 
g'a^mes qayatsa yalax"LEnaseg'a: 

1. QwesEiixEledzEmx'dEU, lax'dEn qwesEnxEledzEms henoma 
30 ^nawalakwii. Lax'dEn qwesEnxEledzEmseya aik'as ai ai ^nawa- 

lakwa. 

2. ^wFloLElesax'dEn, lax'dsn ^wi^loLElesax ^nEnwalak'.wenaek'asii, 
g"axdEn ^wFlSLEleisa^yaqeya ai ai aik"as ^nawalakwa, we we. 

3. ^naxoLElisax'dEn, g'axdsn ^naxoLElisayax ^nEnwalaklwenaek'a- 
35 saheyas, g'axdEn ^naxoLElisaqeyas ai ai aik^as ^nawalakwa, we 

we. 

Wa, g"il^Em^lawise qliilbe^'yalaqtilaena^yasexs laaEl alak" !ala ek'es 
n§,qa^yaxs lae q!ala ^wi^lax qaqEyasasa yalax"LEne LE^wis ^naxwaEl 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1137 

his I different treasures. Then it occurred to him that he would go || 
in front of the house of his father and sing his sacred song hefore 40 
daylight, ] so that his father might hear him. Then he started, for 
the house was not far away; j and as soon as he came to the heach 
in front of the house, | he walked out to the sea and sang his sacred 
song. Immediately | Waxap lalaso^ heard him, and he recognized 
the voice |! of his prince Xaxosenaso-. He was singing his sacred 45 
song. Then | he arose from his bed and went out of his house. | 
Now he really recognized the voice of his prince. \ He went to the 
houses of his tribe, and called the people j to come to his house. 
Daylight had not nearly come yet, |1 when they all came; and 50 
Waxap !alas6^ talked to his I tribe, the ancestors of the LeLEged of the 
Great-Kwakiutl' and I asked them to capture Xaxosenaso^. Thus he 
said. I His tribe agreed at once to do what he said. They took 
their | batons and the boards, and the men went out of || the house. 55 
As soon as they were all outside, they started, | and went down to 
the beach at low tide. Now it was fidl | dayhght, therefore they 
could see Xaxosenaso^. He was walking in the water. ' AH the men 
stood in a row, and | they beat rapid time. Xaxosenaso^ came 
ashore at once || when he heard the beatmg. When he came, he 60 

ogiiqala Logwa^ya. Wa, la^lae^nenk" lex^id qa^s la qas-ida qa^s la lax 
L'.asagwisas g'okwases ompaxa k!es-Em ^uax'-ida qa's lii yalaqwa laq 40 
qa wuLEliis ompaseq. Wa, la^lae qas^ida qaxs kMesae qwesale 
g'okwas. Wii, g"ipEm^Iawise lag"aa lax LlEma^isases g'okwaxs lae 
qaqasamak" hlxa dEmsx'e. Wa, la^lae yalaqwa. Wa, hex'ndaEm- 
^lawise Waxap !alaso^ wuLax^aLElaq. Wa, la'lae ^malt!exsdeqexs 
he-maes Lawillgama^ye Xaxosenaso^wa yalaqlwala. Wa, la^lae 45 
he-x^idaEm Lax^ulil laxes ku-lelase qa^s le lawEls laxes g'okwe. 
Wa, lawisLa lae alak"!ala ^malt'.exsdEndqexs he^maes Lawtilgama'ye, 
wa, la^lae latlEs^id lax g'ig'okwases g'okulote, qa^s ^wPle gwex'^idsq 
qa g'axes^wi^la hogweL lax g"6kwasxa kMes^Em ex"ala qa-s ^nax'-ide. 
Wa, g'ax'lae ^wPlaeLa. Wa, laEm^lawise ^nek'e Waxap !alas6- laxes 50 
g'okulota g'alasa ^uE^memote LCLEgedesa ^walasKwag'ul' qa^shex'^i- 
da^me k'imyax Xaxoseniso^we, ^nex"^lae. Wa, hex'^idaEnriawise 
^naxwa ex'^ak'e g'okiilotasex waldEmas. Wa, lil^lae ax'etsEweda 
tiEmyayo LE^wa saokwe. Wa, la^lae ^wi^la hoquwElseda bebEgwa- 
nEme laxa g'okwe. Wii, g'lHEm^lawise g'ax ^wi^lEWElsa lae qas'ida 55 
qa^s la ^wFlEnts'.es laxa LlEma^isexa x"ats'.aese, yixs lE^mae qliilx'^id 
^nax'^ida, lag'ilas doqulaEmx Xaxosenaso^waxs lae qaqasamak"a. 
Wa, la^lae yipEing'aliseda ^naxwa bebEgwaiiEm qa^s ^uEmax'^ide 
LexEdz5da. Wii, hex'^idaEm^liiwise g'axe Xaxosenaso^we iiLe^staxs 
g'alae wuLax^aLElaxa la LexEdzoda. Wii, laEm^lae k' !es ^na^nawa- 60 

1 This should be Q!6mk-!ut!Es: however, since this division is much reduced in numbers and has joined 
the 'walas Kwagul they are generally counted with them 

75052—21—35 eth— pt 2 23 



1138 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

61 (lid not I show that he had magic power. Xaxosenaso^ and all the 
men came up the beach. \ They just beat rapid time as they ] were 
coming up the beach; they beat time four times. Then I they all 
went into the house. He never told his father about his treasure. || 

65 And Xaxosenaso^ just listened to his tribe when they | talked about 
the great magician Head-Winter-Dancer; for | the ancestors of the 
numaym LeLEgea were expecting him who would soon come, him 
who was looking for some one | with whom to play in the use of magic 
power. ] Xaxosenaso^ just listened to what they said. Xaxo- 

70 senaso^ was intending || to startle his tribe when the}'' should come to 

loiow his treasure, when j Head- Winter-Dancer should arrive; 

therefore he kept quiet, and sat down ! in the rear of the house. | 

Now all the men went out of the house, j and many people asked 

75 one another why || XaxosenSso' had been singing a sacred song. 
They were forbidden by some men, who said, ''Don't j talk that 
way! Don't make fun of Xaxosenaso^, who was singing a sacred 
song! for we do | not know what treasure he m.ay have obtained." 
Tims they said. ! 

When it was four days after Xaxosen§,so^ had come | home to 

80 Gfik' lExsdEls, he went away into the water || at the mouth of the 
river Ts Islgwad mornings and evenings ; | and the men were afraid 
of what might be done by the | great supernatural Head-Winter- 

61 lax"sEmaxs g'axae. Wa, g'ax^lae hdx^wiisdesEla ^naxweda bebE- 
swauEme l6^ Xaxosenasowe. Wa, aEm^lawise la LexEdzodnaxwaxs 
g'axae aLolisEla la-laa qa^s moplEne LexEdzoda. Wa, la^lae laeL 
laxa g'okwe 'wFla. Wa, laEm'lae liewiixaEm nelases Logwa^ye laxes 

65 ompe. Wa, aEm^lawise la hoLele Xaxosenaso^waxes g"6kulotaxs lae 
gwagwex"s-ala laxa ^walasa ^nawalakwe Ts'.iiqama^ye, ytxs lE^mae 
nak' '.alaxa g'alasa ^nE^memotasa LeLEgedaqe laEm Elaq nel'idaxa ala 
qa=s aml-wut lax ^nawalakwa bEgwauEma, ^nex'^lae. Wa, aEm^la- 
wise XaxosEuaso^we hoLelax waldEmas. Wa, he^latla naqes Xaxo- 

70 senaso-'we qa odax""idameltses g'okfdote q lal^aLElaLEx Logwa^yas qo 
g'axLe Tslilqama^ye. Wii, he^mis lag'ilas aEm q'.weLale laxes k!wa- 
e'lasa ogwiwalllasa g'okwe. 

Wa, laEniHawise hoqiiwElseda ^naxwa bebEgwauEm laxa g'okwe. 
Wa, laEm^lae q'.euEma bebEgwanEme waLapIax lag'ilas ytilaqule 

75 Xaxosenaso^we. Wa, la^lae bElaso^sa waokwe bEgwauEm qa k' !eses 
hegwek'!ala la aEmlalas yalaqtilaena'yas Xaxosen^so^we, "qaxg'ins 
k'!es^mek' q'.al'aLElax Logwa^yaxs," ^nex""lae. 

Wa, g'll^Em^lawise moplEuxwa^se Xaxosenaso^we la na^nakwa 
laxes g'okwe lax GEk'lExsdElse. Wa, laEm^lae hemEnalaEm la^sta 

80 lax 6x"siwa^yasa ^was Ts!Elgwadexa gegaala LE^wa dzadzEqwa. 
Wa, laEm^lae ^naxwa k'Ik'aleqEleda bebEgwauEmas gwex'^idaasLasa 
^walasa ^nawalakwe Tslaqama^ya qo g'axLo. Wii, g'il^Em^lawise 



UOASJ FAMILY HISTORIES 1139 

Dancer, if he should come. Wlien | Xaxosenaso^ had been in his 83 
house for four days, in | the evening they saw a canoe coming, being 
moved by paddles. !l They came, and told Chief Waxap !alas6^. 85 
Immediately | Xaxosenaso^ asked Wa.\ap!alaso^ to clear the | 
floor of his house, "for this is my friend Head-Winter-Dancer | who 
has been seen coming." Thus said Xaxosenaso^ to his father 
Waxap !alaso^. | Immediately Waxap !alaso^ asked his tribe to l! 
clear the floor of his house, and the people \ cleared the floor of his 90 
house. Then | Waxap lalaso^ and his tnbe were very glad; for 
indeed they guessed that | Xaxosenaso^ had found a treasure, for 
otherwise he would not have asked his father to clear ! his house. 
As soon as the house had been cleared, there were people talking || 
standing in the canoe in front of the village; and (one of them) 95 
said, I "I only come to notify you, great tribe, that | our great 
friend the powerful Head-Winter-Dancer has arrived. I have 
come I to ask j^ou to take cai-e. Go and purify yourselves quickly ! | 
When you have done so, I shall go and paddle for them, and ask 
them to come to-day; || for the traveling-canoes of our tribe are 400 
at anchor | on the other side of the point Burnt-Point." Thus he 
said. I 

Immediately the ancestors of the numaym LeLEged were asked 
bj' I Waxap lalaso^ to go into the water at the mouth of the river 

mop'.Enxwa^se Xaxosenaso^we mexa laxes g'okwe, wa, laEm^lawise 83 
dzaqwaxs lae dox^waLEla gwasx'iila sio^nakula xwakliina. Wa, 
g'ax'lae neiasE^va g'Tg^ma^ye Waxap '.alaso^. Wa, hex'^idaEm-la- §5 
wise Xaxosenaso^we axkMalax Waxap '.alaso^we qa ex^wItsE^wes awl- 
nagwilasa g'okwe, "qaxs yu^meg'in ^nEmokwa, yix Tslaqama^ya 
g'ilxax dogula," 'nex'-lae Xaxosenaso^waxes ompe Waxap !alaso^we. 
Wa, hex"ndaEm-lawise Waxap lalaso^we axk'lalaxes g'okiilote qa 
g'axes ekwax awlnagwilases g'okwe. Wa, hex'^idaEni^lawise g"ax 90 
^wPle g'okulotas ekwaxa awinagwilasa g'okwe. Wa, laEm^lae ek'e 
naqa'yas Waxap '.alaso^we LE^wis g'okiilote, qaLaxs lE^mae k'otax 
Xaxosenaso^we laEm LSgwala, liilaxs axk" lalaxes ompe qa ekwa- 
SE^wesa g'okwe. Wa, g'ilEm^hxwise gwal ekwaxs laa^lasa yaq!Ent!ala 
Laxuxs laxa xwakliina hangEmalisxa g'okilla. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: 95 
" A^mEn g'ax hanalg'iwa^ya, ^walas lelqw^laLe^, ylsa ^walasa Logwa- 
laxEns ^nEmokwadziie Ts'.aqama^ya. Wit, la^mesEii g'ax qEn q!a- 
qlaq'.EmlaoL qa^s ^naxwa^maos g'ig'iltalax'^lda halabala. Wa, 
qaso gwaLO la^mesEn liil sex"bEndElqe qa g'axlag'iltsexwa ^nalax 
qaxs he^maa mExale yae^yats!asEnu-x" g'okulotaeda awilba^yexa 400 
LEgEgwIlbala lax qwesodllba^yas," 'nex'^lae. 

Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawisa g'alasa^nE^memotasa LCLEgede axk'Ialaso^s 
Waxap lalaso^we qa^s ^wPle la la^sta laxa ox"siwa^yas ^was Ts lElgwade. 



1140 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 36 

TslElgwad, I and XaxosenSso^ went also into the water. When || 
5 the speech of the speaker in the canoe was at an end, he paddled 
back. I After the ancestors of the nuniaym I LeLEged had been in 
the water, they went into the house of Waxap!alaso^; j and Xaxo- 
sen&so^ sat down in the rear of the house, | listening to what the 

10 tribe said, for the tribe was really afraid of the || reports about the 
great sujjernatural man Head-Winter-Dancer. | Now Xaxosenaso^ 
knew that several | men referred to him, because he had been in the 
woods for four years. | He had come home, and they had never seen 
his treasure, | therefore the foolish ones among his tribe were sick 

15 at heart, !l but many wise men of the tribe of Xaxosenaso^ | saia 
that they had faith in Xaxosen^so^, although he did not talk about \ 
the reason Vvhy he had been singing his sacred song when he first 
came home, | ai\d the wise men knew that he had a great treasure | 

20 and his father Waxap!alas6^ guessed that his || prince Xaxosenaso^ 
had obtained a great treasure, when he asked his father to | clear 
out the floor of his house; for he was really glad when they first 
learned that the | great supernatural man, Head-Winter-Dancer, 
was coming. As soon | as the talking of his tribe became less, a 

2.5 man ] who belonged to his tribe came in. He stood in the || door- 
way of the house of Waxap !alas6^, and spoke. | The great super- 

Wa, laEm^lawise ogwaqe Xaxosenaso^we la^sta, ytxs i^mae q!ulbe 
5 waldEmasa yaqlEntultala laxa xwakluna bEgwanEmxs lae aedaaqa 
sex^wida. Wa, g'iPEm^lawise gwal la^sta ^wi^le g'alasa ^nE^memo- 
tasa LeLEgedaxs laa^l ^wi^la hogweL lax g'okwas Waxaplalaso^we. 
Wa, aEm^lawise Xaxosenaso^we lak!wagalil laxaogwiwalllasa g'okwe 
hoLelax waldEmases g"6kulote qaxs alak'Ialae kilEles g'okulotas 

10 tslelwEx'LEnasa ^walase ^nawalak" bEgwanEme Ts'.aqama^ye. Wa, 
laEm^lae Xaxosenaso^we q'.aLElaEmxs he^mae 'ne^nak"iltsa waokwe 
bEgwauEma, yixs lax'de mox^unxela g'iyak'Ela laxa aL!e. Wii, 
g"axe na^nak" laxes g'okwe. Wa, la hewilxa laEm x"its!Enle Logwa- 
^yas. Wa, he^mes tslEUEms nenaqa^yasa nesnEnolo lax g'okiilotas. 

15 Wa, laLe q!enEma nenagade bebEgwanEms g'okulotas Xaxosena- 
so^we ^uex'qexs heleqElaas Xaxosenaso^waxs k" !esae gwagwex"s-ala 
laxes lag"ila yalaqulaxa g'ilx'dEmas g'ax na^nakwa. Wa, he^mis 
qlalag'iltsa nenagade bebEgwanEmqexs ^walasaes Logwa^ya. Wa, 
lie^mes kotledaats ompase Waxap !alaso^waq ^walase Logwa^yases 

20 L3,wtilgama^ye Xaxosenaso^waxs he^x"^ida^mae axk^alaxes ompe qa 
ekwasE^wes awlnagwilasa g'okwe, yixs ^lae molaxs g'alae q!afaxa 
^walasa ^nawalak" bEgwanEme Ts '.aqama^yaxs g'ax^mae. Wa, g'il- 
^Em^lawise tslexiViiakille waldEmas gokul5tas g'axaasa bEgwanEme 
g'ilxeLa g'ayol lax g5kiilotas. Wa, la^lae Lax"st6lila laxa awlLEliisa 

25 tiExilas g-okwas Waxap'.alaso^we. Wa, la^lae yaqlEg'a^. Wa, 
la^lae ^nek'eda ^walase^nawalak" bEgwanEme Ex'ag'ide, qaxs he^mae 



liOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1141 

natural man Ex'ag'id — for that | was the name of the shaman who 27 
had come and was standing in the door of the house — said, ] "'Now, 
keep silent, tribe! that I may speak about what the supernatural 
powei' says | to me about our friend ^wilEnkulag'ihs, who |! has great 30 
magic power, and whom you call Xaxosenaso^, O tribe! | 1 shall be 
his attendant. Tims said my supernatural power, because I am 
a cruel | man. Just don't move, tribe! 1 am | told by this super- 
natural power that | Head-Winter-Dancer will first use his super- 
natural power, and we shall just look on. When they have finished, || 
then our great friend ^wllEukiilag'ilis will change places with him, 35 
and you ! will use well your batons." Thus he said. Wlien his 
speech was at an end, | aU sat down by the side of ^wilp;nkulag'ilis, 
and they whispered together. | Then they were aU happy — Chief 
Waxap!alaso^ | and his tribe. The supernatural man Hand Ex'ag'id, 40 
and ^wilEnkulag'ilis had not been sitting together for a long time — 
for now I stop calling him | Xaxosenaso^ — when ^wilEnku lag' ilis | 
arose and went out of the house. He went back into the woods; 
and ! Ex'ag'id alone sat down at the place where they liad been 
sitting, and | he gave instnictions to his tribe to take care of all 
the II ways, of what they would do with the great supernatural man, 45 
Head-Winter-Dancer. | Thus he said. Wlien he had just stopped 
speaking-, a man | came in, reporting that many | canoes were 

LegEmsa paxalaxa g'axe Lax"stMit laxa t!EX"llasa g'okwexa 'nek'e: 27 
" Weg^aEmasL tsEmotalax g'okulot qEn yaq!Ent!alesg'a waldEmg'as 
^nawalakwa g'axEn qaEns ^nEmox"dzex laxox ^wIlEnkulag'ilisexxwa 
^walasex ^nawalakwaxos gwE^yaqos Xaxosenaso^wa g'okulot. Wa, 30 
nogwaEm^El nExwalaLEq", ^nek'e ^nawalakwa yin, yixgin wayadek' 
bEgwauEma. Wii, aEmlwits k' !eas yawinalaLos g'okulot. Wii, Ieu 
-nex'so^s ^nawalakwa cja he^misg'ali^lalaxa ^walasa ^nawalakwe Ts!a- 
qama^ya. Wa, laLEns tiEml x'ltslax'Uaiqe wax'i gwalaliL. Wii, 
laLEns ^nEmox"dzex L!ayogulllxox ^wilEnkiilag'llisex. Wa, la^mets 35 
aEml aek' !aLExs t!Emyayacj6s," ^nex'^lae. Wii, g'iPEm^lawise q!ulbe 
waldEmasexs lae k!wanodzElilax ^wilEnkulag'ilise qa^s awilpaie. 
Wa, laEm^lae ^nilxwa ek'!ex^ededa g'igama^ye Wiixap !alaso^we 
LE^wis g'okulotc. Wii, k' !es-lat!a gael k!iidzeleda ^nawalakwe bEgwa- 
nEme Ex'ag'ide l6^ ^wilEiikulag'iiise (qaSg'm la^mek" gwal LeqElas 40 
Xaxosenaso^we laq). Wii, la^lae Liix^iilile ^wIlEiikfllag'llise' qa^s la 
lawEJsa lilxa g'okwe qa^s lii tXLe-sta liixa iiLle. Wii, aEin^liiwise la 
lex'ael^Em la k!waele Exag'ide laxes k!wae^lase. Wa, laEm^lae 
Lexs^alaxes g'oktilote qa a^mes ^naxwa yiiL!a laxes ^naxwaLa qa^s 
gwegwiilag'illlasL LE^wa ^willasa ^nawalak" bEgwaiiEme Tsiiiqama^ye, 45 
^nex'^lae. Wii, heEm^awis iiles q!wel-ed yaq!Ent!alaxs g'axaasa 
g'iixeLe bEgwauEm ts!Ek'!alElaxs g'ax^mae g'axawilEleda q!ets!ax- 



1142 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth, ann. 35 

coming across. Those were the ancestors of the niimayni Memogwins 
of the I Qwcq"s6t!enox^. As soon as they arrived at the beach, 

50 Waxaplalaso |! invited them to come and eat in his house; and at 
once I all the canoes came ashore, and the [visitors] went up the beach, | 
walkmg behind the great supernatural man, Head-Winter-Dancer. ] 
All wore head-rings and neck-rings of red cedar-bark, and | they 

55 went into the house of W.axap !alaso^. The || great supernatural 
man, Head -Winter-Dancer, did not allow his tribe to sit in the 
rear | ol the house. He wanted his tribe to sit next to the door | 
of the house, and Waxap !alaso^ and his tribe were sitting in the rear 
of the house. 1 Thus he said. .iVnd the ancestors of the | numajon 

60 LeLEged obeyed his wishes, for || Head-Winter-Dancer meant that 
they should sit at the door of the house ol Waxap !alas6^, | in oi'der 
to drive them back if the tribe of | Waxap !alas6^ should try to 
escape when they -were frightened by his playing. That is | why 
Head -Winter-Dancer wished the ancestors of the \ Lei.Eged to sit in 
the rear of the house. Then the crew of Head-Winter-Dancer ate. I! 

65 He himself did not eat. After | the tribes had eaten, the great 
supernatural head-winter-dancer arose | naked; and at once one | 
man arose also, and asked for batons from Waxap lalaso^. | Then he 

70 was given many batons, and at once || the man distributed the 



48 moLa^ye xwaxwak'.Qna, yixa g'alasa ^uE^memotasa Memogwins visa 
Qweq"s6t!enox". Wa, g'ipEm^lawise g'ax^lisa lae Waxap lalaso^we 

50 Lel^iiltodEq qa g"axes ^wPla LlExwa lax g'okwas. Wa, la^lae hex'^i- 
daEm ^wi^la hox^wiilta laxes yae^yats'.e qa^s la hox^wiisdesEla laxa 
L'.Ema^ise ElxLaleda ^walase ^nawalak" bEgwanEme Ts!aqama^ye. 
^naxwaEl L'.agEkwes qEx'Ema^ye LE'wis qEnxawa^ye. Wii, la^lae 
hoo-wlL lax g'okwas Waxap lalaso^we. Wa, la^lae kMes helq!aleda 

55 ^wSlase ^nawalakwe Tslaqama^yaxes gokfllotehe kliis^alila ogwiwali- 
lasa o"6kwe, yixs hiiaEl gwE^yos qa k lus^ali^latses g'okulota ostali- 
lasa g'okwe qa he^mesLas la Waxap '.alaso^wa ogwiwalilases g'okwe 
LE^wis g'okulote, ^nex'-'lae. Wii, la nanageg'eEm^lawisa g'alasa 
^nE^memotasa LeLEgeda waldEms, yLxs hae ^ne^nak-ilts Ts!aqa- 

60 ma^ye qa^s hii k!us-alila ostalilasa g'5kwas Waxap !ala- 
so^we qa^s a^mel k'akimyalaLEx wax'La heltsalts g'okiilotas 
Waxap lalaso^we, qo lal kiPidElts am^leneLas. Wa, he^mis 
lagilas /nek'e Tsliiqama^ye qa has ^wFla kludzela g'alasa lble- 
gede ogwiwalilasa g'okwe. Wa, laEm^lawise LlExweda ^wFla leElotas 

65 Ts'.aqama'^ye. Wa, lalaLa k'les LlaL'.awalax hae. Wa, g'il^Em^la- 
wise o-wal L'.Exweda lelqwalaLa^ye laa^lase Lax^ulileda ^walase ^nawa- 
lakwe' Ts'.iiqama^ye xa^nala. Wii, hex'idaEm^lawisa ^nEmokwe bE- 
gwiinEm LaxHllil ogwaqa qa^s la dak'!alax tiEmyaya lax Waxapla- 
laso^we. Wii, ItVlae ts'.aso^sa qleuErae tletlEmyaya. Wii, hex'^ida- 

70 Em^lawiseda bEgwanEme la ts'.awanaesasa tIet'.Emyayo laxes g'okii- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1143 

])atoiis among his tribe. ] Then at once thej' beat rapid time; and | 71 
Head-Wi7iter-Dancer got iiis supernatural power, and threw it on 
the floor of the house. | At once water welled up from the floor of 
the I house and flooded it. || Then the fu-e in the middle of the house 75 
was extinguished, and the water receded, | and the floor of the house 
became dry. | Waxap lalaso^ and his tribe never moved, | although 
they were up to the waist in water, and when | the floor of the house 
was dry again, they re-arranged the fire in the middle of the house, || 
and it blazed up. Then the great supernatural man, I Head- 80 
Winter-Dancer, told them to cut off his head; and immediately | 
one of the tribe of Head-Winter-Dancer — his name is not known — | 
arose, took his shell knife, and went to the place where Head-Winter- 
Dancer was standing | and cut off his head. As soon as it was off, || 
the man went around the fii'e, carrjang the head; | and after he had 85 
gone around four times, he put it on | where it had been before, and 
Head-Winter-Dancer arose as a whole man. | Then he sat down, for 
he had luiished. Then | the man who had cut off his head spoke, 
and said, || "O friends of my side! I want these our friends to see | 90 
this great supernatm-al Head-Winter-Dancer." Thus | he said. 
And at that time a sacred song was sung in the house of Waxap !a- 
laso^. I 



lote. Wa, hex'^idaEm-iawise ^uEmax-^Id LexEdzoda. Wa, la^lae 71 
Tslaqama^ye dasgEmdxa ^nawalakwe qa^s mEx^allle laxa g"5kwe. 
Wa, hex-^idaEm^lawise qlolEmg'ustaweda ^wape lax awinagwilasa 
g'okwe. Wii, la^me paolElileda ^wape lax awlnagwilas. Wa, 
g'il^Em^lawise ^wi=la k'!ilx^ideda laciawalll laa^lase xut'.Ex'^ideda 75 
^wape. Wa, la^me xwelaqa lEmxwallle Swlnagwilasa g"okwe. Wa, 
hewitxaEm^lawise yawixillle Waxap lalaso^we LE^wis g'okiilote wax'- 
^mae la t!et!Ebo-yolIlxa ^wape. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise lEmxwallle awi- 
nagwilasa g'okwaxs lae x'ax'eq!Ex'itsE-we laqawalilasa g"okwe. 
Wa, g'iPEm^lawise x'iqostaxs laeda 'walase ^nawalak" bEgwaiiEme SO 
Ts'.ilqama^ye ^nex' qa^s qax'itsE^we. Wa, hex'^idaEm^hlwise i.ax^ii- 
lileda g'ayole lax g'okulotas Ts!aqama^ye (la^me k" '.esq '.ale LegE- 
mas,) dalaxa q!Elts!Eme qa^s le lax LawFlases Ts!aqama^ye. Wa, 
la'lae qax'^idciexs La^wllae. Wii, gil^Em^lawise lawii x"6msas lae 
qas^ideda bEgwauEme dalaxa xEweqwe lii^stalilElaxa laqawalile. 85 
Wa, he^lat'.a la mop !ene^stalIlExs lae xwelaqa ax^aLElots laxes 
axalaase. Wa, la^me xwelaqa la sEnalax'^id bEgwanEme Ts!aqa- 
ma^ye laxeq. Wa, laEm^lae k'.wag'alila qaxs lE^mae gwala. Wa, 
la^lae yaqlEg'a^leda bEgwanEme, yixa qak'aq. Wii, la^lae ^nek"a: 
"Wa, nos, ^ne^nE^mok", qaLaxg'ins a^mek' ^nex" qa dox^waLElesEns 90 
^ne^nEmokwaxg'ada^walasEk' ^nawalakwa laxg'aTs!aqamek"," ^nex'- 
^laexs laa^lasa yalaq!ug"a^la laxa iiLana^yas g"okwas Wiixaplalaso^. 



1144 ETHNOLOGY, OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

Immediately Ex'ag'id arose from his seat, and | spoke. He said, 
95 "Now you have finished, great tribe ! || Come to the rear of the house, 
and let me and my tribe go | to the door, so that you may also 
witness our supernatural power." | Thus he said. Immediately the an- 
cestors of the uumaym Memogwins | went to the rear of the house, 
and the numaym | LeLEged went to the door of the house, and they 
500 sat down. || Then they all beat rapid time, and | ^wllEnkiilag'ilis 
sang his sacred song: "I was taken to the other side of the world, I 
was taken to the other side of the world, | by the great supernatural 
power. I was taken to the other side of the world, ai, ai, by the | 
supernatural power," and the other words. Then he came | into the 
5 house of his father, Waxap !alas6^. His dress was made of ll hem- 
lock-branches. His tribe beat rapid time. | And when he had gone 
around the fire in the middle of the house, he caught his | super- 
natural power, and tlirew it on the floor of his house. Immedi- 
ately I water welled up from the floor of the house, | and it only 
stopped rising when it had put out the fire in the middle of the || 
10 house. Then it went down again, and the.| floor of the house was 
dry. They built up | the fire in the middle of the house; and as 
soon as it blazed up, | ^wllEukulag' ilis spoke, and said, "O friends! 
15 let I one of you come to cut off my limbs;" thus he said, |1 and at 



93 Wii, hex'-idaEm^lawise Ex'ag'ide Lax^ulil laxes kiwaelase qa^s 
yaqlEg'a^e. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "Wii, laEms gwala, ^walas lelqwa- 

95 laLe^ Wa, gelag"a laxg'ada ogwiwalilEk' qEn la Logun g'okiilotEk" 
laxwa ostalilex qa^s ogwaqaos x'lts'.ax'^idExg'in nosEk' ^riawalakwa," 
^nex-lae. Wil, hex"^idaEm-lawisa g'alasa ^iiE^memotasa Memogwins 
la lag-Eyolil laxa ogwiwalile. Wa, la'lae histohle ^uE^memotasa 
LBLEgede laxa ostalilasa g'okwe. Wa, g'il^Em^lawise ^wHa klus^ali- 
500 Iexs lae hex'^'idaEm ^naxwa LexEdz5da. Wa, la^me yalaqiile ^wilEn- 
kulagihsasox: "QwesEnxEledzEmx'dEn, lax'dEn qwesEnxEledzEms 
henoma ^nawalakwa. Lax'dEn qwesEnxEledzEmsea aik'as ai ai 
^nawalakwa," LE-wis waokwa qaqEyasa. Wa, g'ax^Em-hie g^axcLa 
lax g'okwases ompe Waxap lalaso^we. Wa, laEm^lae ^naxwaEm 
5 qlwaxe gwelgwilliis. Wa, laEm^lae LexEdz^^ye g'okulotas. Wa, 
g'll^Em^lawise ^nEmplEne-stalllxa laqawalihixs lae dasgEmdxa ^nawa- 
lakwe qa^s niEx^allles lax awinagwilases g^okwe. Wa, liex'^idaEm- 
^lawise q!olEmg"usti,weda ^wape lax awinagwilasa g'okwe. Wii, 
al-Em^lawise gwal paol^nakiilaqexs lae k" lElx'^idaxa laqawalilasa 

10 g'okwe. Wa, la^lae xwelaqa xut!EX'^ideda ^wape. Wa, la^me xwe- 
laqa lEmxwallleda awinagwilasa g'okwe. Wii, hVlae x'ax'eqlE- 
x'^itsE^weda laqawalile. Wii, g'll^Em^liiwise xiqostiixs laa^lase yiiqlE- 
g'a^le ^wilEnkulag'Ilise. Wii, hx^lae ^nek'a: "Yul, ^ne'nEmok", gela- 
g'ax'i ^uEmokwa lax'da^xoL qa t losEmwalaxg'in LasLalak'," ^nex'^lae. 

15 Wii, hex'^idaEm^lawise Ex'ag'ide la lax La^we^lasas ^wilEnkiilag'ilise 



uiiAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1145 

once Ex'ag'id went to where ^wllEnkulagilis was standing. | He 10 
carried his shell knife, and said, " Your words are good, great friend. ! 
I am cruel. Therefore I shall do according to your wish, Super- 
natural-One. I Let me do it!" Thus he said, and he cut around the 
shoulder-blade so that it remained | attached to the right arm. He 
cut it off and threw it toward the || door; and he took off the left 20 
arm and threw it down | in front of the place where Head-Winter- 
Dancer was seated; and he cut off the | right leg at the hip, and 
threw it down not | far from where Head-Winter-Dancer was 
seated : and he cut off the | left leg and threw it down; and Imally he 
cut off his head, || and tlirew it down not far from where ] Ex'ag"id 25 
was standing. And it was not long before the body moved | and 
rolled toward where the head lay. And when 1 it came to it, the 
head stuck to the body, | and it roUcd toward the place where the 
right leg lay, and it stuck || on; and it rolled to where the left leg 30 
lay, I and it stuck; and it roUed to where the | right arm lay, and 
it stuck on; and he arose | and walked back to liis left arm, and 
stuck it on. | And after he had done so, Head-Winter-Dancer and || 
his tribe ran out of the house, and went aboard their canoes, \ and 35 
they escaped from ^wllEnkulag'ihs. Now they were all going home. 
They were | ashamed, because Head-Winter-Dancer had been over- 
come by ^wilEnkulag'ths. | 

dalaxa q'.EltslEme. Wa, la^lae ^nek"a: " Ek"es waldEmos, ^nEmox"- 16 
dzek'as. NogwaEm wayada. La^mesEn weg'il lax waldEmas, ^nawa- 
lakwa, qEn gweg'ilasoL," ^nex'^laexs lae t!6s^idEx pEl5ts!as qa axa- 
les lax helk"!6ltsE3'ap!ayasexs lae t!os6dEq qa-s ts!Exstollle laxa 
tiEx'ila. Wa, la^lae etodxa gEmx6hsEyap!a^yas qa^s tslEx^alileq 20 
laxa L'.asalila k'.wae^lasas Ts!aqama^ye. Wii, laflae tlosodEx helk" !ol- 
tsidza'ya g-ilg'iLEla lax onolg-a^yas qa^s IslExnilile laxakMese qwe- 
sala laxaax klwae^asas Tsliiqama^ye. Wa, la^laxae etodEx gEmxol- 
tsldza^yas qa^s tslEx^allles. Wil, la^lae alElxsdalaxs lae qax'^idEq- 
Wii, la^lae ts!Ex-alilasa xEweqwe laxa k' !ese qwesala lax Lawi^lasas 25 
Ex"ag'ide. Wa, kMes-lat!a gael ^mEgwila biix"sas lae q'.wenalElIla 
qa^s la len^nakula lax -megwFlasasa x'omsas. Wa. gil^Em^lawise 
lag'aa laqexs lae klut'.aLEleda x'omse luxes bux"sowe. Wii, hvlae 
len^nakula lax k'ade^sases helkloltsidza^ye. Wa, la^laxae k!ut!a. 
LEla. Wa, la^lae len^nakiila lax k\ade'lasases gEmxoltsedza-3'e. Wa, 30 
la^laxae k!ut!aLEla. Wa, la-'lae len'nakula lax k'ade^lasases helkMol- 
tsEyapIa^ye. Wa, la^lae k!ilt!aLEla. Wa, la^lae Lax^iillla qa^s 
qas-"ide la dagililaxcs gEnixoltsEyapIa^'ye qa^s k!ul !aLElodes. Wa, 
heEm-lawis iiles gwalExs lae q!umx'EWElse Tslaqama^ye LE^wis 
g-6ktilote laxa g'okwe qa^s la hexsEla laxes yae-yats!e xwaxwakluna, 35 
qa's le heltsas -wilEnkulag'ilise. LaEm Ifd na-"nakwa. Wa, laEin 
max'tslaxs waLae Ts'.aqama^ye lax ^wilEnkulag'ilise. 



1146 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [etii. axn. 35 

Then ^wilEnkiilag'ilis asked his father Waxap !alas6^ | that his 

40 tribe should not go out of his house for a while, and || to tell him 
when Head-Winter-Dancer approached Burnt-Point, | and that aU 
the men should hold their batons | in readiness to beat M^hen he 
should go up to the roof of the house. | Thus he said. Then Waxap !a- 
laso^ sent a | man to sit outside the house, and to announce when |1 

45 Head-Winter-Dancer should arrive at Burnt-Point. Then | ^wIIeu- 
kttlag'ihs gave instructions to his tribe, and said, "As soon as I | go 
up on the roof, beat rapid time, and | continue to beat time until I 
stop singing my sacred song. | And when I stop, you also stop beat- 

50 ing time; for you will see || what will happen to our world and to 
my great friend Head-Winter-Dancer." | Thus he said. He just 
stopped speaking, when the one who was j watching Head-Winter- 
Dancer came into the house and | said that Head-Winter-Dancer 
was already near Burnt-Point. | Immediately ^wilEnkulag'ilis went 

55 up to the roof of the house; || and when he sang his sacred song, his 
tribe beat time | in the house; and these are the words of his 
sacred song, which he obtained | from the thunderbird: | 

"Burn them, burn them, burn them, you who burn the world! | 
"Hail, hail, hail, hail, hailstorm is brought by you !" || 

38 Wa, laEm^lawise ^wilEnkiilag'ilise axkMalaxes ompe Waxap !ala- 
so^we, qa k'les^mawisLes la hoqiiwElse g'okulotas. Wa, he^mis qa 

40 nelasE^wes qo lal ex'^alaLe Ts!aqama^ye laxa LEgEgwIlbala. "Wa, 
he^mis qa ^naxwa^mesa bebEgwauEme dalaxes tIetlEmyayowe gwa- 
lala qa^s LexEdzodel qEnLo lal lag-as laxwa ogwasaxsEns g'okwex," 
'nex"^lae. Wa, laEm^ae Waxap !alasowe ^yalaqasa ^nEmokwe bE- 
gwauEm qa las k!was lax Llasana^yases g'okwe qa g'axL nelalts Ts'.a- 

45 qama^ye qo lal lag'aa laxa LEgEgwilbala. Wa, laEm^lawise ^wIIeu- 
kulag"tlise Lexs^alaxes g'oktilote. Wa, la^lae ^nek"a: "G'il^max'In 
lag"as laxwa ogwase laaqos ^uEmax'^id LexEdzoda. Wa helmets 
wawasElil LexEdzE^wexgin k' les-'meLEk' qlwel^id yalaqula. Wii, 
g'll^mesEn qlwel^idEx laex ogwaqa gwal LexEdza^ya qa^s doqwaleLos 

50 ^naxwax gwex'^idaasLasEns ^nalax LE^wiln ^nEm5x"dzae Tslaq^- 
ma^ya," ^nex'^lae. Wa, heEm^lawis alese q!wel-idExs g'axaasa q!a- 
q'.alalElgisax Tsliiqama^ye g'axeLa laxa g'okwe. Wa, laEm^lae 
nehisexs lE^mae Elaq lag'ae Tslaqama^ye laxa LEgEgwilbala. Wa, 
la^lae hex'^ida^me ^wIlEnkiilagllise lagusta laxa salases g'5kwe. 

55 Wa, gipEmlawise yalaqwaxs laaEl LexEdzoda yix g'okulotas lax 
awlLElasa g'okwe. Wa, g'a^mes qayats yalEx"LEnaseg-a yix g'aya- 
nEmas laxa kunkiinxullg'a^ye, g'ada: 

TsExwaamt, tsExwaamt, tsExwaamt xilmtxumtEleg'a^ya. 
Tsaalx, tsaalx, tsaalx, tsaalx, tsElxtsElxEleg"a^ya. 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1147 

Wlien he stopped singing, they also stopped | beating time in the 60 
house. Immediately our world became dark, | and there was light- 
ning and loud thunder. | Hail fcU, and the hailstones were the size 
of a head. | When the thunder and the hailstorm had passed, they 
saw II the canoes aU turned into rock; and these are now the many | 65 
islands at the east side of the mouth of Hardy Bay, and they are 
called I Spots-at-Mouth-of-Bay. Now Head-Winter-Dancer | and 
his crew were dead. | 

Then ^wilEnkulag'ihs was feared by his tribe, for they || discovered 70 
that he had obtained a great treasure; and his tribe just wished | to 
be slaves of ^wilEiikiilag'ihs. He was the only | head chief of the 
numaym LeLEged. He did not do any | work, for his tribe were 
working for him; that is, they gathered food | of all kinds for him, 
and brought firewood and water. || If he wanted a canoe of a man, 75 
he I just asked for it, and it was given to him. This is the end. | 

Later on I shall tell how he disappeared again, and how after that | 
he became a cannibal. | 

It was when ^wllEnkfllag'ihs had overcome the great supernatural | 1 
man Head- Winter-Dancer. He had [not] been | treated as a chief for a 
long time by his numaym, the LeLEged. Then he said to his father | 



Wa, g'ipEm^lawise qlwel^Id yalaqfllaxs lae ogwaqa qlweHdeda 60 
LexEdza^ye lax awiLElasa g'okwe. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawis plEdEx'^i- 
dEiis ^nalax. Wii, la^lae LlEnex^wida. Wa, ladzek'as-lae kiinxwa. 
Wa, la^lae tsElx^itsa yu^ma a^wawEns x'omsexa tsElxmese. Wa, 
g'il^Em^lawise hayaqeda kunxwa LE^wa tsElxaxs laaEl dox^waLE- 
laxa xwaxwak!unax-daxs lae ^naxwa tlesEmx'^idaxwa lax q!enEm 65 
^maEmk'ala laxQx ^nEJk' '.odExsta-'yaxs GwadzE^yexa lax LegadEs 
Dzadzobaltsewe. Wa, laEm^lae alakMala ^wi^wule Ts!aqama^ye 
LE^wis IcElotde laxeq. 

Wa, laEm^lae kilEme -'wilEnkiilag-ilisases g'okQlote, j'lxs lae 
qlal^aLElax ^walase LOLEgwa^yas. Wa, laEm^lae gokiilotas ^nex' 70 
qa^s alag'a^me q!aq!Ek"as ^wllEnkiilag'ilise. Wa, laEm ^nEmox"-Em 
la xa^magEme^ g'ig'ame^sa ^nE^memotasa LeLEgede. Wa, laEm 
k' le^s eaxenes qaxs ^naxwa^mae eaxEles g'okulote qae, ylxa papE- 
walaxa ^naxwa qa^s gwex'sdEm hemawiila LEHva lEqwa LE-wa tsaxa 
wape qae. Wax'e ax^exsdxa xwak'.unasa ^nEmokwe bEgwanEma, 75 
a^mese dak'Ialaq. Wa, la hex'^idaEm tslEwe laq. Wa, laEin laba. 

Wa, al-EmlwIsEn gwagwex's^alal laqexs lae xis-ida etieda. Wa, 
laEm hamshamts!ESL laxeq. 



£• 



Wa, heEm^laexs lae ^yax'^idamase ^wilEnkiilagilisax ^walase ^nawa- 1 
lak" bEgwanEine TslaqSmex-de. Wa, k' !es^Em«lawise alaEm gala 
la g'ag'exsilaso^ses ^nE^memota LeLEgede. Wa, la^lae nelaxes ompe 



1148 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [mth. ann. 36 

Waxapa lalaso^, that he had not yet shown his supernatural treas- 
5 ures; || "for I obtained as supernatural treasure the flooding-waters 
and the cutting-off of | my limbs and four dances; for I have for my 
dance the | AwiloLElal, and my first dance is Haj^alik'Elal. | And 
after I have finished the Hayallli'Elal, I turn into the | speaker 

10 dance; and when my song of the speaker dance is ended, || I turn into 
the chief tainness dance; and when | the song of m}^ chief tainness 
dance is ended, then I sing my sacred song | of the war dance and I 
turn into a war dancer; | and therefore my name is ^wllEnkiilag'ihs/ 
Now j I wish you would give a winter dance," thus he said to his father 

15 Waxapa !alaso^, "that i| I may also show my other great dance the | 
hamshamts !es, that has a sacred room; and the name Nanogwis; and 
the cannibal mask with | a man with turning top; and his red cedar- 
bark rings. I mean | that all my supernatural treasures shoidd be 
seen." Thus said ^wilEnkulag'iiis | to his father Waxap !alas6^. 

20 Immediately Waxap lalaso^ || told his prince to go ahead and to dis- 
appear. I Now it was not known among the tribe what Waxp !a- 
laso^ and his | prince ^wllEnkulag'lhs had said. When ) night 
came ^wilEnkiilag'ilis lay down. It was not yet | near daylight when 

25 he arose and went to the river || ^wag'Ela. Then he walked up the 
river, and he wished to | arrive at its lake. He did not arrive there 

Waxap !alaso^we, ylxs k'les^mae ^wPla nel^idamasxes Logwa^ye, 
5 "yixg'inhe^mek" Logwa^ya paolasa ^wape Loxgun lak' tlosEmwiilayo- 
giin LasLalak' laxEn mox-widajax lelada yixgin ludEnokweg"asa 
AwiloLElale. Wa, hcEm g'alEn yEx^widayowa Hayalik'Elale. Wa, 
g'il^mesen gwat yExwa laxEn Hayalik'Ela^lena^ye liig'EnlasElellaxEn 
Hayaq!EntElale. Wa, gil'mese q!ulbaxEn q!EmdEme laxEn Haya- 

10 qlEntEla^lena^ye lag'in lasElil laxa Aomalale. Wa, giPmese q!ul- 
baxEn q'.EmdEme laxEn Aomala^lena^ye lag'hi yalaqwasEn yalax"- 
LEne laxa tox^wide. Wii, laEmxaEn lasElIl laxEn tox^widae- 
na^ye. Wa, he^mesEu lag'iia LegadEs ^wIlEnkulagilise. Wa, la-me- 
SEn ^nex' qa^s yawix'ilaos," ^nex"^laexes 5mpe Waxap !alaso^we, "qa 

15 g-axlag'Ise nel-'ideda ^nEmx'HdaLa ^walas ladaxa ma-'wilade hams- 
hamts Issa LE^wis LegEme Nanogwis LE^wis hamsEmlexa xitplEgEx- 
Lala bEgwanEma LE^wis LlaLlEgEkiila. Wa, ytl^mesEn ^ne^nak^ilox 
qa ^wFla'mesox dox^waLElaxEn Logwa^yex," ^nex'^lae ^wilEnkulagili- 
saxes ompe Waxap !alaso^we. Wa, hex'^idEm-lawise Waxap !ala- 

20 so^we waxaxes LawuJgama^ye ^wIlEnkulag'ilise qa wag"is xis^eda. 
Wii, laEm^lae k'!etis qlalax waldEmas Waxap !alaso^we LE-wis La- 
wulgama^ye ^wIlEnkulag-ilise laxes g-okiil6te. Wa, giP'Em^lawise 
ganoHda lae kuLx'^da, ylx ^wilEnkulagilise. Wa, k' les^Em^lawise 
ex'ala qa^s ^nax''idexs lae Lax-'wida qa^s la qas'ida qa^s la laxa ^was 

25 ^wag-Ela. Wa, la-'lae qas-ustalaq. Wa, laEm^lae -'walaqela qa^s 
lag-ae lax dzE^lalas. Wa, la^lae weg-aaxs lae ganoHda. Wa, S-Em- 

'Carrying everything. 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1149 

before night came. Then | he went into the water of the river, and 27 
he took four henalock-branches and | rubbed his body on the right- 
hand side with one hemlock branch, and | he imitated what he had 
first done with the four hemlock-branches. || As soon as he had 30 
fmished, he hij^ down in the shelter of a cedar-tree | which stood on 
the bank of the river. As soon as dayhght came in the morning, he 
washed again | in the river; and after lie had done so, lie again 
walked up the | river. Now it was past noon when he came to the | 
lake of the river ^wag'Ela. Inxmediately, it is said, he built a house 
of hemlock-branches || on the shore of the lake. He always | went 35 
into the water on the shore of the lake ever^^ morning and every 
evening. | Now it was almost four months since he had disappeared. 
Then he dreamed | that he saw the Head-without-Body. Then it 
opened its mouth and the | hamshamts.'Es came out of the mouth. 
Then he cried, " Wip, wip, wip !" || And in his dream he saw how he 40 
went right up to ^wilEnktilag'ilis, and | bit his left hand; and after 
the piece bitten hj liim had come off, | he went back mto the mouth 
of the Head-without-Body. Then the Head-without-Body disap- 
peared. I Then ^wilEnkulag'ilis awoke, and | he saw that it was 
da3iight. || He arose at once and went into the water on the shore of 45 
the lake; and | after he had been in the water, he went do-WTi, fol- 
lowing the river, while he was walking down river. | When evening 

^lawise la^sta laxa ^wa, ylxs dalaaxa qlwaxe moxLa. Wa, he^mis la 27 
g'inx^wedEms laxes helk' !ot lEna^ya ^nEmxLa q!waxa. Wii, laEm^lae 
§,Em naqEmg'iltawi^lalaxes g'ale gweg'ilasa, ylsa moxLa c[!waxa. 
Wa, g-ll^Em^lawise gwalExs lae kuixLElsaxa t lEiiyaga^yasa welkwe 30 
Lag'agexa ^wa. Wa, g'iPEm^lawise ^na^nakiilaxa gaalaxs lae et!ed 
la^'sta laxa ^wa. Wa, gil^Em^lawise gwalaxs lae et!ed qas-'Ostalaxa 
Hva. Wa, laEm^lawise gwak' '.odEXLiilesa L'.esElaxs lae lag'aa laxa 
dzE^alas ^was ^wag'Ela. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawise g'okwelaxa q!wax- 
SEme g'okwa lax ogwiiga^yasa dzE^lale. LaEm^lae heniEnalaEm 35 
la^sta laxa ogwaga'yasa dzE^lalaxa gegaala LE'wa dzadzEqwa. Vv^a, 
laEm^lawise Elaq mosgEmg'ilaxa ^mskula xisalaxs laaEl mexElaxs 
doqulaaxa x'osalole. Wii, laEm^lawise aqElaxs g'axae g"ax^wElseda 
hamshfimtslEse lax sEmsas. LaEm'lae hamts'.ala, ^wip ^wip 'wip- 
xaEl. Wa, la^lae he^nakulaEng'a lax ^wilEnkulagilise qa^s q Iex'^i- 40 
dex gEmxohs'.ana^yas. Wa, g'il^Em^hlwise lawiimasxes q!Ex'^I- 
tsE^we laaEl xwetagil lax sEmsas Xosalole. Wa, la^lae xis^ede 
X'Qsalole. Wa, hex" ^idaEm^la wise ts'.Ex'^ide ^wilEnkulag'ilise. Wii, 
laEm^lae dox^waLElaqexs lE^maaEl ^nax'-ida. Wii, hex'ndaEm-lawise 
Liix-wida cpi^s la^ste laxa ogwaga^yasa dzE^lale. Wii, gih'Em-iiiwise 45 
gwal la^staxs g'axae nagiimiilaxa ^waxs g'iixae qiisatosElaq. Wa, 
laEm wiitos liix ox"siwa^yasa ^wiixs lae dziiqwa. Wii, la^lae aEm 



1150 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

48 came, he bad not arrived at the mouth of the river. Tlien | he lay 
down under a cedar-tree; and when daylight came in the morning | 
he arose and started. It was not yet noon when he arrived at the || 

50 mouth of the river ^wag'Ela. Then he just sat down under a tree. | 
They do not know what kind of a tree it was. He waited for even- 
ing. I Therefore he did so. As soon as evening came, he walked | 
along the beach. Now it was dark when he I arrived on the east 

55 side of the river TslElgwad. Then he cried, || "Wip, wip, wip!" 
aloud, so that his father should hear him. | 

Then his father Waxap !alaso^ heard him. | Immediately it 
occurred to Waxap lalaso^ to | invite in his tribe when it would be 
evening, that they should come and try to surround him that | 

60 night. Thus he thought. Almost all his tribesmen had ll heard the 
cry: "Wip, wip, wip!" | Therefore the Sparrow Society at once arose 
and went into the | winter-dance-house of Waxap lalaso^ (for this 
name was given by the | ancestors of the Kwakiutl to a winter- 
dance-house. Only lately it was named | the Emptied-House, 
instead of Winter-dance-House, because recently they became 

65 mixed with the || Rivers Inlet people; and recently the name Winter- 
dance-House is Coming-out-House, | for the NakKvax'da^x" call the 
winter-dance-house | Coming-out-House and Ceremonial-House; and 

48 kulxLElsaxa welkwe. Wa, g'iPEm^lawise ^na^nakulaxa gaalaxs lae 
Lax^wida qa^s qas^ide. Wa, k' les^Em'^lawise nsqalaxs g'axae lax 

50 ox"siwa^yasa ^was ^wag'Ela. Wa, aEm^lawise k!waxLalesaxai-tVse. 
La^me k'!es q aLElax Lats!5na^yas. Wii, laEm^lae esEla qa dzaqwes 
lag'ilas he gwex"^ide. Wa, g'ipEm^lawise dzaqwaxs lae qas4da 
g'ag-ants!esEla laxa L'.Ema^ise. Wa, hiEm^awise plEdEx'^IdExs lae 
lag'aa lax ^nslk" '.otsewa^yasa ^wasTslElgwade. Wii, la^lae hamtslE- 

55 g'a^la ^wip ^wip ^wipxa hasEla qa wiLleIbs ompaseq. 

Wa, heEm^lawise ompase Waxap !alaso^we gil wuLax^aLElaq. 
Wa, hex-'idaEm-lawise g^ig^aex^ede Waxap lalaso^we qa^s hex'-ida^mel 
LeltslodElxes g"okulote qo lal dzaqwaL5 qa^s wag'il k'ik'ilnalalxa 
ganoLa ^neuk" !eqEla^lae. Wa, laEm^lae halsElaEm k' !es ^naxwaEm 

60 wuLEle g'okulotasexa hamtslala ^wip ^wip ^wipxElii. Wa, he-mis 
lag'ilasa gwegwiitslEme hex'^idaEm ^wi^la Lax^wida qa^s la laxa 
yawix'Ehits'.e g'okwas Waxap '.alaso^we (yixs he^mae LeqElayosa 
g'alilsa Kwag'ulaxa g'okwe yawix'Elatsle yixs al^mae LeqElaso^s 
lobEkwe laxa yawix'Elats!e g'okuxs lae q!uq!ulg6x'wid LE^wa Awi- 

65 kMenoxwaxwa aPmex. Wa, laxaox al=Em LegEmox" g'ag'Uelatsle 
laxaaxa yawix'Elatsle yixs hae LeqElaseda Nak'.wax'da^xwe yis 
g'ag'Uelats'.e lo^ ts!ets!egats!e g'ok''. Wa, laxae ^nex'^ma Kwag'ule 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1151 

the Kwakiutl also call it | Ceremonial-House. I just want to talk \ 68 
about this). || 

As soon as the members of the Sparrow Society were all in, | 70 
Waxap !;Uas6'' told them to try to surround him that night, and i 
Waxaplalaso^ also told them that he would call his tribe in the | 
afternoon. "Now we all will sit down at the place where you wish 
that I we sit down, that you may learn all the four songs, || the 75 
songs of Nanogwis; that is, ^wllEnkulag' ihs ; | for indeed we shall 
just now see all the supernatural treasures of my | prince, when he 
comes out of the woods." Thus said Waxap !alas6^ to the Sparrow 
Society. | "He has sung his four songs | to me: therefore I laiow the 
songs II of the great supernatural one who is a hamshamts !es." SO 
Thus said Waxap lalaso^ | to the Sparrow Society. As soon as 
day came in the morning, | all the members of the Sparrow Societ}^ 
went home to their houses. They were very | glad on accoiuit of 
the words of Waxap !alas6^. | 

As soon as evening came, a man who was sent by Waxap !alas6^ 
went II to whisper an invitation to all the men to go to the sitting- S5 
place. ' I (Some men say that the sitting-place has the name | 
Song-Leader-Place. Now all the men are never invited twice | for 
the meeting; for the men immediately arise | when they are firet 

ylsox ts'.ets'.egats'.e g'okwa. Wa, a^men ^nex' qEn gwagwex's^ale 68 
laq). 

Wa, g'il^Em^lawise g'ax ^wi^la liogweLeda gwegwats!Eme, laa^lase 70 
Waxap lalaso^we nelaxs lE^mae k'ik'ilnalalxa ganoLe. Wii, laEm- 
xaawis nele Waxap '.alaso^waxs lE^mae Lelts'.odElxesgokiilotaxalaLa 
gwal nEqalal: "Wii, la^mesEns lal ^wPla k'.walai laxes gwE^yoLaos 
qEiis k'.walaasL qa^s q'.aq'.oLlaos ^naxwaxa mosgEme qlEmq'.Em- 
dEma, yix qlEmdEmx'sa^yas Nilnogwise lax ^wilEnkulagilise; To 
qaLaxg'ins he'mek' aleLEns ^wi^la dox^waLElaLEx Logwa^yasEu La- 
wulgama^ya cjo g'ax^wult!aLo," ^nex'^lae Waxap '.alaso^waxa gwegwii- 
tslEme. "Wa, la ^naxwaEm dEiix^elsa mosgEme q!Emci!EmdEms 
qaEn. Wa, he^mesEn lag'ila ^naxwa cj'.aLElax q'.EmcjlEmdEniLas 
ylsa ^walasa Logwalaxes laena-ya hamshamts'.Esa," ^nex'^lae Waxa- 80 
p'.alaso^waxa gwegwatslEme. Wii, g"iPEm^hiwise ^niix'idxa gailliixs 
lae -wFla nii^nakweda ^naxwa gwegwilts'.Em liixes g'igokwe iilak"!ala 
ek'es neuaqa-ye qa wiildEinas Wiixap'.alaso^we. 

Wii, gil^Em-liiwise dzax"bEndExs hie ^yiilagEmas Waxap !alaso'we 
qa^s le opala Le^liilaxa ^niixwa bebEgwanEm qa liis liixa k'.wiilaase. 85 
(Wii, la ^nek'eda waokwe bEgwanEmaqexs Legadaexa kiwiilaasas 
naq'.iise. Wa, la k"!es ^nEmp'.Eiia malp'.ene^sta Le^lalasE^weda 
^naxwa bebEgwanEm cjaeda k!wala, yixs a^mae hex'^idaEm Lax'iili- 

' A place in the woods where the songs are secretly taught. See Beport of the U.S. National Museum, 
1895, 'Plate 43. 



1152 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

90 called to go to the sitting-place. || When a man does not go — no 
matter whether he is a chief | or one of the common people — nobody 
talks about him.) | Then Waxap lalaso^ at once sang the songs | 
referred to by ^wilEnkulag'ilis, the songs of Nanogwis, | the 
hS,mshamts !es, who has the Head-without-Body for his sacred 
room. II 

95 As' soon as the song leaders knew the four songs, | they talked 
about the one man belonging to the I common people. At once four 
men were sent to go and | call him to come to the sitting-place. Then 
100 the four | men started, and before long they came back || walking 
with the man (the man who told the story to me did not know the 
name) . J Inmiediately Waxap !alas6^ asked the chief of the Spar- 
rows to speak, | and at once the chief of the Sparrows | asked the 
man to sit down, not very near | the place where all the men were 
5 seated. Then || the cliief of the Sparrows spoke, and said, "Now let 
us know I what is more important than to go into the woods to sit 
in our sitting-place; | for you know that no chiel is too great that he 
should not | come here." Thus he said, and took off his head-ring 
of cedar-bark and | put it on the ground. "Done," he said, "go on 

10 and consider || whether you wish to remain ahve. Then you will 
take up this red cedar-bark and | give a winter dance next year. If 

ieda bEgwauEmaxs g'alae Le^lalasE^wa qa^s lil laxa kiwaiaase. Wa, 

90 g'll^mese k" !es Ieda ^nsmSkwe bEgwanEmaxa wax'^me g'ig'ama^ya 

Loxs hae g'a-yola bEgul'ida^ye. Wa, k' least !a gwagwex's-ala laq.) 

Wa, la^me aEm hex'ndaEm^lae Waxap lalaso^we dEnxntsa qlEmqlEm- 

dEme, yix gwE^yas^wilEnkulag"ilise q'.Em'.qEmdEms Nanogwise, yixa 

hamshamtslEse mawi^ladEsa X'osalole. 

95 Wa, g'ipEm^lawisa nenagade ^wFla q'.alaxa mosgEm qlEmqlsm- 

dEmxs lae gwagwex's-id laxa ^nEmokwe bEgwauEm g'a^yol laxa 

bEgiiPida^ye. Wa, laEm^lae ^yalagEma mokwe bebEgwanEm qa 

las Le^lalaq qa g"axes laxa kiwaiaase. Wa, laEm^lawisa mokwe 

bebEgwanEm qas-ida. Wa, k"!es^lat!a galaxs g^axae aedaaqa 

100 qaqElaxa bEgwanEme. (K'!es q'.ale LegEmas, yisa nosa qaEn.) 

Wa, hex^^idaEm^lawise Waxap lalaso^we axk' lalaxa gwesE- 

ma^ye qa yaq'.Ent'.ales. Wa, hex'^idaEm^lawisa gwesEma^ye 

axk' lalaxa bEgwanEme qa klwag^aElses laxa k'!es alaEm Lala 

lax kluts'.Edzasasa ^naxwa bebEgwanEma. Wa, la^lae yaqlEg'a- 

5 ^leda gwesEma^ye. Wa, la^lae ^nek"a: "Weg'ax'Enu^x" q!alax 

awilagawa^yasEnux" g'axex aLalEls k'.wala laxwa kiwalaasex, 

ytxs q'.aLEla^maaqos ytxs k'leasae gilntlasa g'lglgama^ye qa^s k"!ese 

g-ax laq"," ^nex'-'laexs lae axodxes qEX'Ema^ye LlagEkwa qa^s 

ax^Elseq. "Wa." Wa, la-lae ^nek'a: "Weg^a doqwalaxes naqa^yos 

10 qaso ^nex"L qa^s qlulaos, la^mets dax'^idELEXg'ada LlagEkuk" qa^s 

yawix'ileLosax qwesEyEnxLa. Wa, qaso k' !esL dax'^idElqEk' la^mets 

1 The following is an intercalation, explaining part of the procedure of the winter ceremonial. 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1153 

you do not take it up, you will | die where we are sitting here." 12 
Thus he said. Immediately the | man arose from the place where he 
was sitting, and took up the red cedar-bark and | hid it in his armpit, 
and then he had saved his life; for he had || hidden the red cedar-bark 15 
which he was going to put into his box, which was in | his house. 
The red cedar-bark was not to be seen again imtil he would give a 
winter dance | the next winter, when he was to invite for a winter 
dance. This is called | Begging-for-One's-Life — the taking up of 
the red cedar-bark when it is put down on the sitting-place to | be 
taken up by the one who disobeys the chief of the Sparrow Society; 
for the II chief of the Sparrow Society is the chief of the winter 20 
dance. Generally he is | chief, for the chief of the Sparrow Society 
has no dance. | 

(I will talk for a httle while about this. When | the chief the 
father of QlEmtqIadas gave a winter dance, while | Ts!5x"ts!aes 
was stni a child — for this was his name in summer — || all those who 25 
were to disappear were placed in a row to be seen by all the men | 
who had been taken by the supernatural power of the winter dance. 
Then | Ts !6x:"ts !aes stood among them on the right-hand side of 
those who were to disappear; and | after they had been looked at, 
they went into the woods where the whistles sounded. Then | 
Ts !6x"ts !aes went backward ; and he was taken by the chief of the 
Sparrow Society, || not by the father of Ts !ox"ts !aes. Then the 30 
chief of the Sparrow Society said, | "You will not go, friend Tslox"- 

1e-1 laxEns klwalaasex," ^nex'^lae. Wa, aEm^lawise hex'^ida^ma 12 
bEgwanEme Lax^uls laxes k'.wadzase qa^s le dax'^idxa LlagEkwe qa^s 
qlulal^edeq laxes dEmgQlase. Wa, la^me q!ulaxanux"s qaxs la^me 
q'.ulal^idxa LlagEkwe qa^s lal gitsIodElts laxes g'tldasexa ha-'nela lax 15 
g'okwas. Wa, al^Emlwise dox^waLElLa LlagEkwaxs lal yawix'ilalxa 
laLa et'.edEl tslawunxa qo lal yawix'ilaLo. Wa, hcEm LegadEs 
q'.ulaxexa dax'^idaxa LlagEkwaxs g"ig"aEldzEmae laxa k'.walaase qa 
dax'^itsE^wesa hatlElax waldEmasa gwegwesEma-ye qaxs he^mae 
g"igamesa ts'.etsleqaxa gwegwesEma^ye yixs hemEnala^mae g'igame 20 
bEgwauEma, yixa gwesEma^ye, yixs k' leasae laenesa gwesEma^ye. 

(Wa qEns yawas-Ide gwagwex's^ala laq. Wa, he^maaxs lae yawi- 
x'ile g'lgama^ye omps QlEmtqladaswula, yixs he^mae ales gina- 
nEme Ts!ox"t3!aesa qaxs he-'mae LegEms laxa hcEnxe. Wa, he^ma- 
axs lae yipEmg'ale^lEma xis^IdLe qa dox^waLElesa ^naxwa bEgwa- 25 
nEmx laLanEmasa ^nawalakwasa ts!ets!eqa. Wa, la^me L^gellle 
Ts!ox"ts!aesa lax helk' lodEnoLEmalilasa xis^IdLe. Wa, gtl^inese 
gwal doqwasoxs lae aLe^sta lax hek' lalasasa LEx'Exse. Wa, g'il- 
'mese la ElxLa^ye Ts!6x"ts!aesa lae dax'^itsE-wa yisa gwesEma^ye 
ogu^la lax ompas Ts!6x"ts!aesa. Wa, la ^nek'eda gwesEma^ye: 30 
"KMesLEs laLol, qast, Ts!ox"ts!aes, g'aEm ex'g'in gwex'sdEmk".'' 
75052—21—35 eth pt 2 24 



1154 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL, [eth. ann. 35 

32 tslaes. My way is the best." | And he still held him while all the 
men shouted. | Then the supernatural spirit and aU those who had 
disappeared were frightened away. | And after they had frightened 
away the supernatural spirit and aU those who had disappeared, then 

35 the II chief of the Sparrow Society, who was holding Ts !ox"ts !aes 
spoke, and said, | "Come, give me red cedar-bark to put on the head 
of my friend here." | Thus he said. Then he was given a head-ring 
of red cedar-bark and a neck-ring | of red cedar-bark spread open. 
He spoke, and said, "Go on, | look at him, friends. I put on the 

40 head of my friend || what I took away from the supernatural power." 
Thus he said, and put around the neck the | red cedar-bark, and put 
the head-ring of red cedar-bark on his head. | As soon as he had 
done so, he took a rope and put it around his waist as a belt. | Then 
he took a thin cane and gave it to Ts!ox"ts!aes, | and he said while 

45 he gave to him his cane, || "Friend, this is your Sparrow cane, for 
you wiU be a great Sparrow, | that you may not be afraid of anything 
that happens in this winter-dance | house; for now you have a name, 
since you have a cedar-bark head-ring; and you are a member of the 
Sparrow Society." Thus he said. | Then he turned his face toward 
all the men, and said, "O | friends! You will not wish that a 

50 winter dance be given || to our friend here — the great one who has 
red cedar-bark rings and who is a member of the Sparrow Society. | 
Now do not call him Ts !ox"ts !aes. You shall call | him Q.'Emt- 

32 Wa, la dalax'saEmqexs lae xaHdeda ^naxwa bebEgwanEm. Wa, 
la^me xalostoyoweda ^nawalakwe LE^wa ^naxwa la xis^ida. Wa, g^il- 
^mese gwala xalostodasa ^nawalakwe LE^wa x'ixis^ide laase et!ed 

35 yaq'.Eg'a^leda gwesEma^ye yixa dalax Ts!ox"ts!aesa. Wa, la ^nek'a: 
"Gelag'a ts!as LlagEkwa g'axEn qEn qEx'Emdexg'in ^nEmokuk','' 
^nex'^lae. Wa, la ts'.asosa qEX'Ema^ye LlagEkwa LE^wa qEnxawa^ye 
L'.agEk" LEpala. Wa, la yaq!Eg"a^ia. Wa, la ^nek'a: "Wega 
doqwalax hamalfil ^ne^nEmok", la^mEn qEX'EmdELEsg'ins ^nEmokQk" 

40 laxg'a le^nE^manEmk' lax ^nawalakwa," ^nek'Exs lae qEnxotsa LlagE- 
kwe laq. Wa, la qEX'EmdEq yisa qEx'Ema^ye LlagEkwa laq. Wa, 
gil^mese gwaia lae iix-edxa dEUEme qa^s qEuoyodes laq qa wu- 
seg'anos. Wa, la ax^edxa wil-Ene dzomeg'ala qa^s ts'.E^wes lax 
Ts!ox"ts!aesa. Wa, la ^nek'Exs lae tsl^sa sek'Iagano dzomeg'ala. 

45 "Wa, qast, yoEms gwesp'.eqLox, ylxs ^walasaaqos gwesElesa yixs 
k"!easeLaqos k'llEmLol laxEns gwaelasex laxwa ts!ets!egats!ex 
g-okwa, yixs laaqos LegadEs qEx^Emak" gwesElesa," ^nex'^lae. Wa, 
la gwegEmx"^id laxa ^naxwa bebEgwanEma. Wa, la ^nek'a: "Yul 
ha^malEl ^ne^nEmok", k'!esLEs awiulqElal qa^s laLos yaweuEmnux"- 

50 LEsg"ins ^uEmokiik' laxg'ada ^walasEk' qEx'Emak" gwesElesa. 
Wa, laEms gwal LeqElas Ts!ox"ts!a6sa laqEk'. Wa, laEms LeqE- 



BOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1155 

q !adas." Thus he said. '''And when he is an old man, | he shall be 53 
chief of the Sparrow Society." Thus he said.) | 

As soon as the men took up the red cedar-bark, he || spoke, 55 
and said, "O friends! this, our master, | the red cedar-bark, 
has come. Now I shall go and put it away into my box, | that 
it may help in my purification, untU next winter." Thus he said, 
as he I went away to hide the red cedar-bark, and put it into 
his box in his | house. As soon as he had gone away, the 
chief of the Sparrow Society spoke, || and said, "Now we have 60 
acted correctly on behalf of our friend; | for he has taken our 
master, the red cedar-bark, to make us happy | next winter." Thus 
he said. "Now let us talk about | our attempt to surround the 
novice this night. Now these are the ones who wiU wipe the floor 
of the house — | the fool dancers, the grizzly-bear dancers, and the 
hamaa — and those next || who are brought back (after their initia- 65 
ation), each in his way. And when | they come in, then our beloved 
ones (the princesses) shall come in, each according to her way. ) 
And then the ghost dancer will come — the supernatural one — 
when dayhght comes in the morning." ' | Thus he said. | 

When he had spoken, they all went out of the woods, and staid || 
for a short time in their houses. Then they ate quicklj^, for | it was 70 
evening. As soon as it was getting dark, four men were called | 

laLEs QlEmtqIadase laq," ^nex'^lae. Wa, g'iPmese la nomas bE- 52 
gwauEma lae gwesEma^ya, ^nex'^lae.) 

Wa, g'il^Emlawise dax'^ideda bEgwanEmaxa LlagEkwe laa^lase 
yaq!Eg'a^la. Wa, la^lae ^nek"a: "Wa, ^ne^nEmok", g'ax'Emg"a ada- 55 
g"aEnsg'ada LlagEkuk' qa lalag'iltsEk' g'lg'aalts'.&l laxEn g'Udasa 
qEn qleqElalag'i Lok" qaoxda SpsEnx^idLex," ^nex'^Iaexs lae 
qas-ida qlulaLElaxa LlagEkwe qa-'s la g"ets!ots laxes g'ildase laxes 
g"okwe. Wa, g'lpEm^lawise la qas^ida laa^lase yaqlEg'a^leda gwesE- 
ma^ye. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: "LaEmLEns helaxamasa qaEns ^nEmo- 60 
kwa qaxs lE^mae dax'^idxEna adaxa L!agEkwa qa^s ek' !eqElamasL 
g-axEnsaxsqwesyEnxLa," ^nex-^ae. "Wa, la^mesEns gwagwex's^alal 
laxEns kikilnalaenencLaxwa ganoLex. Wa, he^mEns deg'ilelEmLeda 
noEnlEmala LE^wa nenane LE^wa hamaa. Wa, he^mis mak'llaLa 
kwekwexElakwe laxes gwegiix"sdEme. Wa, giPEmlwise ^wI^laeL qo 65 
g'axLEns laElwena^ya ex'^Eml g'ayaxElal laxes gwegux'sdEm. Wa, 
laLe laLelaLa LElolalalaxa ^nawalakwe, laLas ^na^nakulaLEx gaa- 
laLa," ^nex"^lae. 

Wa, gil^mese gwale w&ldEmas lae ^wFla hoxwultia qa^s la yawa- 
s^Id laxes g-ig'okwe. Wa, la'me halEmqlEs^ed hamx-^ida qaxs 70 
lE^maaEl dzaqwa. Wa, g"IPEm^lawise p!EdEX'sto^naktilaxs lae Le^la- 

1 That is to say, the ghost dancer will finally succeed in bringing back the novices. 



1156 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL [eth. ann. 35 

• 

72 whose hereditary office is to walk and call those who try to sur- 
round the novice ; for there is | no way that one should go on calling 
who does not own the privilege. As soon as the | four members of 
the Sparrow Society came- — who walk to invite — Waxaplalaso^ 
75 took II four good cedar-bark blankets, and gave one to each of the 
members of the Sparrow Society | who went to call. Then he took 
new fiat red cedar-bark, and | gave it to them, and he put the broad 
cedar-bark around their necks, [ and he put the spread red cedar- 
bark around their heads. As soon as | they had put on the cedar- 
80 bark rings, they put on eagle down, || and they blackened their 
faces with charcoal, and they took a | well-made, shaved, round 
cedar stick. This is the cane of the Sparrows. | And they all went 
out of the winter-dance house. | They went to the east end of the 
village and went into | the house, and they stood inside of the door, 
85 and || they spoke. And the one who has the right to speak first 
began to speak, and said : | 

" We SiiaU try to go into the house, shamans. | 
"We shall beat time that it may be heard by those who rule the 
winter dance, shamans. | 

"Now sprinkle your body, Ha^masE^wed. | 

"Now sprinkle your body, Hilmsbe^. You shall go to wipe the 
90 floor, II Uttle Sparrows. Go in while it is dayhght, shamans." | 

When they had gone to all the houses, they went for a short time 
into I the winter-dance house. Then the heralds walked again, and 

72 lasE^we mokwe k' les^onokwasa qasa qaeda k"ikilnS,laLe, ylxs k" lek- 

sae gwex'^idaas la qasaxa k' !ese axnogwadEs. Wa, giPmese g-axeda 

mokwe gwegttdzaxa qeqasElg"isLe laa^lase Waxap lalaso^we ax^edxa 

75 mowe es^Ek" k' lobawas qa^s ts lEwesa ^nab'nEme laxa gwegtldzaxes 

qeqasElg'lsLe. Wa, la^lae ax^edxa alomase LEpala LlagEkwa qaxaas 

tslEwes laq. Wa, laEm^lae qeqEnxalaxa awodzo LlagEkwa. Wa, 

la^laxae qeqEX'Emalaxa LEpala LlagEkwa. Wa, gil^mese gwala 

ax^aLElodalases qeqEX'ila LlagEkwa lae qEmx^witsa qEmxwasa kwe- 

80 kwe. Wa, heEm^lawisa ts'.olna lae tslotslElEmda. Wa, la^lae S,x^ed- 

xa aek'laakwe kMak" lex'^En klwaxLa^wa; wa, heEm gwespleqse. 

Wa, lax'^da^x"^lae ^wHa hoquwElsa laxa yawix'HatsIe g-okwa. Wa, 

la^lae hebElsEla laxa ^nElbalasasa g'Sx^dEmse. Wa, la^lae hogweLa 

laxa g'okwe qa^s le qlwael lax lax awlLp:lasa tiEx'ila. Wa, la^me 

85 qag-a-le axnogwadasa g-ildzaqwa qa^yala. Wa, la^lae ^nek'a: — 

"La^mEns henax'aleLai', pepExalai'. 

"La^mEns wulaxodLai' hoLaxElalxEns q!alaLElai', pepExalai'. 
"LaEms xositledLai Ha^masE^wedai'. 

"LaEms xositledLai' H&msbayai', laEmLEs deg-ilelEmLol gwa- 
90 gOgwedzEma ^na^nEmts laEuiLEs pepExalai'." 

Wa, gil^Em^lawise ^wilxtolsaxa g'okulaxs lae yawas-id hogweL 
laxa yawix'Hatsle g"6kwa. Wa, la-'lae et!ed qasax'da^xweda 



HOAS] FAMILY HISTORIES 1157 

weat into the houses, | and for a short time they went agam 
into the winter-dance house. II Wlien they went back to call, they 95 
said, "Now we really go back to call;" | for the first two times they 
go to call, they only say, | "We go to call." And after they have 
finished their speeches, they say, | "Now we really go back to call. 
'Wo, wo, wo! get ready, | be ready, when we come to haul you 
away, Sparrows, || and you, Sparrow women.' " Thus they said to 200 
them. Then they all staid | thus in all the houses. When they 
went into all the | houses, they did not go into the winter-dance 
house. I Then they just went back to the east end of the village, 
and went into the | house and said, "We have come. Now we 
really come to call, || 'Wa, wa, wa, arise, arise!'" And at once | the 5 
Sparrows and their wives arose, and went into the house in which 
the novice was to be surrounded. | They went into all the houses, 
and then they went | into the dance-house. They did not stay long. 
Then the | four heralds said, "Now we shall go to look for a 
face." II Thus they said, and went out of the winter dance-house, and 10 
they went straight | to the east end of the village, and went into a 
house. I Then they said, "We come to try to see a face;" and when 
they found a | man sitting in the house, they asked him to go. They 
do not ask the | uninitiated to go too. And they use the same 

mokwe qasElg'isa. Wa, g"il^Em^laxaawise ^wiLxtolsaxa g'okii- 93 
iaxs lae et!ed yawas^id hogweL laxa yawix"ilats!e g'okwa. 
Wa, la^lae qatse^sta. La^me ^nek'a: "La^mEnu^x" alax'^Id qatse- 95 
*stai'," yixs S,^mae ^nek'Exs g'alae qasa malp !Ene^sta : "La^mE- 
nu^x" qasai'." Wa, g'ilnaxwaEm q!ulbe ^nek' !ena^yas : "La^mE- 
nu^x" 41ax"^id qatse^stai'. Wo, wo, wo, xwanaHd qa^s 
gwalalaos qEnu^xo g'axLe alak" nanexElilax'da^xoL gwe- 
^dza Lo^s gweguts!axsEma," ^nek'Eq." Wa, laEm^lae ^naxwa he 2OO 
gwekMala laxa ^naxwa g'ig-okwa. Wa, g'll^Em^lawise ^wilxtolsaxa 
g'okulaxs lae kMes la hogwiL laxa yawix'Hats!e g'okwa. LaEm^lae 
aEm xwelaqa laxa ^UElbalasasa g'ox"dEmse qa^s le hogwiL laxa 
g'okwe, qa^s ^nek'e: "G'ax^mEnu^x"; la^mEnu^x" alax'^id qatse^stai'. 
Wa, wa, wa, Lax^wid, Lax^wid." Wa, ala^mese hex'^idaEm qlwag'E- 5 
liieda gwegudza LE^wis gEgEUEme, qa^s la hoxtsia laxa k"lkilnE^lats!e 
g'okwa. Wa, g'ipEmxaawise ^wilxtolsaxa g'ig'okwaxs lae hogwiL 
laxa yiiwix'i^latsle g'okwa. Wa, k' lest la geg'tlll^Id laqexs lae ^nek'eda 
mSkwe qasElg'is bebEgwanEma: "La^mEnu^x" lal dadoqumal," 
snex'^laexs lae hoquwEls laxa yawix'i^lats!e g'okwa. Wa, la^lae he- 10 
^nakula laxa ^nslbalasasa g'6x"dEmse qa^s le hogwiL laxa g'okwe. 
Wa, la ^nek'a: "G'Sx^mEnu^x" dadoqttmai." Wa, g'll^mese qlaxa 
k!waele ^nEmokwa lae axk'lalaq qa las. Wa, la k'les 3,xk'lalaxa 
baxiise qa las ogwaqa. Wa, la^lae hex'saEm waldEms ytxa laeLae 



1158 ETHNOLOGY OF THE KWAKIUTL I i;i ii. ann. :^b 

15 speech as they enter || the houses. After they have been to all the 
houses, they enter | the winter dance-house. Then they tell them that 
all have come in | whom they have invited. Immediately the speaker 
of the I winter dance-house arises. He belongs to the old men, 
the I head of the chief of the Eaters, for this is their Sparrow name. 

20 He speaks || and says, " Now come, shamans, come in. Now I shall 
call I the unitiated to come and witness what we are doing." Thus 
he says, and | goes out of the door of the dance-house, and he | 
stands outside. Then he shouts aloud, "Come, uninitiated, | come 
and witness what we are doing. Look from the door into the house 

25 and sit by the door whUe we are || trying to surround the novice." 
Thus he says. Then he comes back into the house, and | stands 
outside of the place where the Sparrows who will sing are seated in 
the rear of the house | in which the novices are to be surrounded. 
Then the uninitiated come in | and sit down at the left-hand side 
inside of the door of the winter dance- | house. Then the Sparrow 

30 Society and the uninitiated are inside, il only the hamshS,mts !es, 
grizzly-bears, | fool-dancers, wasp-dancers, cruel-dancers have not 
come in. | Then the speaker of the dance-house speaks again, | and 
says, "O friends! You are not yet all inside. | Come, now, friends, 

35 and go to our friends the great dancers, || that they may come and 
keep watch over what we are going to do here." Thus he says. | 

15 laxa gig'okwe. Wa, g'il^mese ^wilxtolsaxa g'ig'okwaxs lae hogwiL 
laxa yawixi^lats !e g'okwa. Wa, laEm^lae nelaqexs lE^mae ^wPlaeLes 
qasasE^we. Wa, hex"^idaEm^lawise Lax^iilile yayaq lEntEmelasa yawi- 
xl^latsle g'okwa, g'a^yol laxa q Wlsq lulyakwe bebEgwanEmxa Laxu- 
ma^yasa HemElk", ylxs he^mae gwedzEXLayose qa^s yaqlEg'a^le. 

20 Wa, la ^nek'a: " Wa, gelag'a, pepa.xal, g'ax^Ems ^wPlaeLa. La^mesEn 
lal Le^lalalxa baxiisa qa g'axese x'lts'.ax'ila g-axEns," ^nex'^laexs lae 
qas^ida qa^s la lawEls laxa t'.Exllasa yawix'i^latsle g'okwa qa^s le 
Lax^uls lax L!asan§,^yas. Wa, la hasEla ^nek"a: " Wa, gelag'a, baxu- 
sai', gelag'a x'itslax'llax qa^s g'axaos ^na^nElgEmlll k!ustalll laxg'ada 

25 k'lk'ilnElak'," ^nex'^lae. Wa, g'ax^lae xwelaqa, laeLa qa^s la Lax- 
^ulit laxa Llasalilas kludze^lasasa dEnxElaLe gwegtidzalax nEqewa- 
lllasa k'ik"ilna^lats!e g'okwa. Wa, g'ax^lae hogweLEleda bebaxuse 
qa^s la kliis^alil laxa gEmxotstalilas awlLElasa t!EX'ilasayawix'l^lats!e 
g"6kwa. Wa, laEm^lae ^wPlaeLeda gweguts!E