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Full text of "Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution"



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BOSTON 

PUBLIC 

LIBRARY 




TWENTY-SIXTH • 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



1904-1905 




WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1908 



1\ ■ 






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Smithsonian Institution, 
Bureau of American Ethnology, 

Washington, D. C, June 1, 1906. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the Twenty- 
sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 
The preliminary portion comprises an account of the oper- 
ations of the Bureau during the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1905, and this is followed by two memoirs, The Pima Indians, 
by Frank Russell, and Social Condition, Beliefs, and Lin- 
guistic Relationship of the Tlingit Indians, by John R. 
Swanton. 

Permit me to express my appreciation of your aid in the 
work under my charge. 

Very respectfully, yours, 

W. H. Holmes, Chief. 
Mr Richard Rathbun, 

Acting Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



CONTENTS 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF 

Page 

Inf rodurtion ix 

Research work xii 

Handbook of American Indian Languages xxi 

Handbook of American Indians xxiii 

Archeological map xxvi 

Exposition work xxvii 

Study of Indian delegations xxviii 

Collections xxviii 

PuVjlications xxix 

Editorial work xxix 

Illustrations - xxx 

Library xxx 

Clerical work xxxi 

Property xxxi 

ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 

The Pima Indians, by Frank Russell (plates i-xlvii, figures 1-102) 3 

Social Condition, Beliefs, and Linguistic Relationship of the Tlingit Indians, 

by John R. Swanton (plates XLViii-Lvm, figures 103-117) 391 

Index 487 

V 



REPORT OK THE CHIEF 



TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OP THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



W. H. Holmes, Chief 



INTRODUCTION 

Ethnologic researches have been conducted by the Bureau 
of American Ethnology for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1905, in accordance with the act of Congress making provi- 
sion "for continuing ethnological researches among the 
American Indians, under the direction of the Smithsonian 
Institution," approved April 28, 1904. 

The work of the Bureau has been conducted in conformity 
with the plan of operations approved b}' the Secretary June 
17, 1904. The systematic researches have been carried for- 
ward by the eight members of the Bureau's scientific staff, 
assisted by a large number of associates and collaboi-ators 
who have been called on to prepare papers on special sub- 
jects or to condvict investigations for which their qualifica- 
tions especially fitted them. During the year seven mem- 
bers and associates of the Biu'eau have made researches in 
the field, the regions visited including Maryland, Virginia, 
Oklahoma, Indian Territory, Arizona, New Mexico, Oregon, 
and Mexico. 

The amount of field work has been somewhat curtailed by 
the necessity of detaining a number of the ethnologists in the 
office to assist in the completion of the Handbook of American 
Indians (hitherto referred to as the Cyclopedia or Diction-' 
ary of Indian Tribes), which was designed to be submit- 
ted to the Secretary at the close of the year. The enlarge- 



X BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

merit of the scope of the work to inchide not only descrip- 
tions of the tribes and their settlements, but also popular 
articles covering the whole range of ethnological and archeo- 
logical research relating to them, greatly increased the 
amount of investigation required, bvit the value of the 
Handbook as a work of reference has been more than pro- 
portionately increased. With the view of revising and uni- 
fying the great number of articles designed foi' introduction 
into the Handbook a committee of revision was organized, 
consisting of members of the Bureau and all available resi- 
dent anthropologists, fourteen in all, who met three times 
each week to discuss the papers presented. The meetings of 
this committee proved both interesting and profitable, and 
suggested the advisability of holding similar meetings here- 
after for the discussion of current researches of the Bureavi. 

As a result of the preparation of the papers for the Hand- 
book, covering, as they do, the entire range of Indian ethnol- 
ogy, the researches conducted in the office during the year 
have been exceptionally comprehensive; every branch of 
anthropology, including somatology, psychology, linguistics, 
sociology, religion, technology, and esthetics, has received 
such consideration as the comprehensive though necessarily 
brief articles for the Handbook required. Besides the arti- 
cles treating of these primary departments of research, many 
others have been prepared, on the various phases of the 
history, archeology, biography, and education of the Indians 
and the administration of their affairs. With the exception 
of the bibliography and index, which were retained for refer- 
ence in proof reading, the manuscript for the Handbook, 
accompanied with about 800 illustrations, was submitted to 
the Secretary July 1. 

Under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution the 
Chief visited Europe for the purpose of attending the Inter- 
national Congress of Americanists, held at Stuttgart, Ger- 
many, beginning August 18, 1904. In addition to repre- 
senting the Smithsonian Institution, he served as delegate 
of two other scientific organizations, and was also designated 
by the Department of State as the official representative at 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XI 

the congress of the United States Government. As a mem- 
ber of the scientific staff of the National Museum he was 
intrusted with the additional commission of visiting a number 
of the principal museums of f.urope for the puipose of acciuir- 
ing information to be utilized in the erection and furnishing 
of the new National Museum building. On July 26 the 
Chief sailed from New York in company with Mr J. R. Mar- 
shall, of the firm of Hornblower & Marshall, architects of the 
new building, and reached Plymouth, England, August 1. 
Nine days were spent in visiting the museums of London, 
Oxford, and Cambridge, and eight days in similar observa- 
tions in Paris, and on August 18 Stuttgart was reached. 
The opening session of the Congress of Americanists was held 
in the forenoon of that day and was attended by a large num- 
ber of members and other prominent persons, including His 
Majesty King WiUiam II of Wurttemberg, who, in response 
to the address of the president of the congress. Prof. Karl 
von den Steinen, expressed at length his appreciation of the 
aims and work of the congress, and his pleasure at having 
the session held in his capital city. 

A report of the last meeting of the congress, held at New 
York City in 1902, was presented by Dr Franz Boas, honor- 
ary philologist of the Bureau, and other routine business was 
transacted. Members of the congress were invited to take 
luncheon with the King at his suburban palace, which was 
followed by a reception in the palace gardens. The King's 
interest was highly appreciated and contributed much to the 
success of the occasion. During the presence of the Ameri- 
canists receptions were held also by Count von Linden, vice- 
president of the congress, and by Mr Edward N. Ozmun, 
United States consul at Stuttgart. Sessions were held on 
August 19, 20, 22, 23, and 24, and a large number of papers, 
dealing in the main with questions of American history, 
ethnology, and archeolog}-, were read. On the 20th the 
Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology delivered an 
address on "Contributions of American Archeology to 
Human Historj-," and at its close he presented to the con- 
gress a set of 75 bound volumes, relating chiefly to American 
archeologj^ and ethnology, published by the Smithsonian 



XII BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Institution and two of its bureaus — the National Museum 
and the Bureau of American Ethnology — for which the 
president extended the thanks of the congress. The Chief 
presented also a series of 66 photographs of American 
Indians, representing delegations which visited Washington 
during the winter of 1903-4, the series having been taken 
conjointl}^ by the Bureau of American Ethnology and the 
National Museum. Various excursions were made to points 
of interest, the principal being to Schaffhausen, Switzerland, 
to visit the sites of Dr J. Nuesch's recent explorations of 
the famous lake-dwelling stations at Schweizerbild and 
Koenigsbau. 

After the adjournment of the congress the Chief proceeded 
to Dresden, where, under the guidance of Dr A. B. Meyer, 
director of the Royal Zoological and Anthropological Museum 
of Saxony, the various museums of that city were examined. 
After leaving Dresden, a number of cities in Germany, Hol- 
land, and Belgium were visited with a view to museum study, 
and on September 12 he returned to Paris, and on the 25th 
sailed from Cherbourg, en route for New York. Between the 
date of his arrival in Plymouth, August 1, and his departure 
from Paris, September 25, the Chief of the Bureau visited 
and made studies of about 50 museums. The observations 
made are embodied in a separate report submitted to the 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

RESEARCH WORK 

Shortly after his return from Europe, in September, the 
Chief found it necessary to undertake the preparation of a 
number of articles relating' to alwriginal art and archeology 
for the Handl)Ook of American Indians. Among the sul^jects 
treated at some length are antiquity, archeology, architec- 
ture, art, bonework. Bureau of American Ethnology, catlin- 
ite, cliff-dwellings, copper, engraving, graphic art, mines and 
quarries, metal work, ornament, pottery, sculpture, shell 
heaps, shellwork, and stonework. The only field work under- 
taken by the Chief during the year was a brief visit to Cave- 
town, Md., for the purpose of observing the exploration 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPOKT XIII 

there being conducted by Dr Charles Peabody and Mr W. K. 
Moorehead in the well-known cave near that village. Mr 
J. D. McGuire had begun the exploration of this cave for the 
Carnegie Institution in 1903 and had obtained valuable evi- 
dence of its former occupancj' by Indians. The present 
work, which consisted of extensive excavations within the 
outer chamber of the cavern, yielded much additional mate- 
rial of the same general character. 

During the first few weeks of the 3'ear Mr James Mooney, 
ethnologist, was in St Louis supervising the final installation 
of the Kiowa heraldrj^ exhibit in the Smithsonian section of 
the Government building, Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 
This exhibit comprised about 120 articles, filling 50 linear feet 
of wall case, together with one floor case, and consisted of 90 
small shield models, 4 original shields, 5 tipi models, 6 paint- 
ings on buckskin, with several ceremonial lances and smaller 
objects. On the completion of this work, after a ]:)rief leave 
of absence, Mr Mooney returned to Mount Scott, in the Kiowa 
country, Oklahoma, where he continued his researches, 
including the preparation of models and the collection of 
ethnological material. A number of Cheyenne tipi models 
were also made for the Field Columbian Museum, of Chicago, 
with funds provided b}" that institution, as authorized by 
joint arrangement with the Bureau. At the end of October 
Mr Mooney returned to Washington and was engaged in 
writing a preliminary paper on Kiowa heraldry until about 
the end of the calendar year, when he was called on to coop- 
erate in the preparation of the Handbook of American Indians, 
for which work the following articles were furnished: Ara- 
wakan colony, Calusa tril)e, Cheyenne tribe, Kiowa tribe, 
military societies, peyote, population, shields, signals, sign 
language, skin-dressing, and Timucua tribe. Besides these 
about 100 minor articles were prepared, treating of tribes, 
biographies of noted Indians, and other subjects. In connec- 
tion with this work the available information relating to the 
ancient tribes of Florida and the Gulf states generally was 
found to be so deficient and confused that Mr Mooney under- 
took an investigation of the subject from original sources. 



XIV BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

A portion of the results has been embodied in the Handbook of 
American Indians, and the foundation has been laid for an 
extended paper on the ethnology of this region, to form a 
complement to his previous studies of the Siouan tribes of 
the East and the Cherokee. In the meantime he also super- 
vised the photographing of the large series of shield models 
and other portions of the heraldry collection made by him 
during previous years, and prepared catalogues and labels 
for such portions of this material as were required for the 
Bureau exhibit at the Lewis and Clark Exposition held at 
Portland, Oreg. 

Dr J. Walter Fewkes, ethnologist, spent the first six months 
of the year in the completion of the text of his monograph 
on the Aborigines of Porto Rico. He left Washington on 
Januarv 7, 1905, for an extended archeological trip to the 
Republic of Mexico, under a grant from the Smithsonian 
Institution, and returned on the 15th of May. About three 
weeks were spent by Doctor Fewkes in the City of Mexico 
making arrangements with Government officials for letters to 
those who could aid him in the prosecution of his studies. 
While not thus engaged at the capital his time was profitably 
employed in studying the collections in the Museo Nacional 
and one or two private collections and in making several excur- 
sions to places of archeological interest in the neighborhood of 
the city, including several of the ruins near Lake Tezcoco, as 
well as those at Iztapalapa and at San Juan Teotihuacan. 
Wliile awaiting letters of introduction from the President to 
the governors of Veracruz and Tamaulipas, Doctor Fewkes 
visited Cuernavaca, where he photographed the so-called 
"Victory stone," the pictograph of the eagle, and the famous 
stone lizard, and made a trip also to the ruins of Xochicalco 
and Tepoztlan. From the ruin known as Casa del Tepozteco 
he obtained copies of inscriptions on the raised seat in the 
inner room. 

After receiving the necessary letters through the courtesy 
of President Diaz, Doctor Fewkes proceeded to Xalapa, in 
the State of Veracruz, which he made the base of operations 
during February, March, and a part of April. While in 
the city of Veracruz, considera):)le time was devoted to an 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XV 

examination of the fine collection of Governor Dehesa, as well 
as to the collection of Seiiora Estafania and others. The vicin- 
ity of Xalapa was found to be particularly rich in ruins and 
mounds, among which are those at Coatepec, Bandarilla, 
and Xalapa Viejo. An excursion was made also to Texolo, 
where there are thirteen or more large mounds, some of 
which are evidently the remains of temples of an old Totonac 
cit}^ Xico Viejo, an undescribed ruin of a Nahuatl garrison 
town mentioned l^y Bernal Diaz and Gomara, was also 
visited in the mountains near the trail taken by Cortes 
from the coast to the City of Mexico in 1519. Instructive 
photographs of this ruin were taken, and notes made on the 
idols and pottery fovmd in the neighborhood. 

Doctor Fewkes made two visits to the ruins of Cempoa- 
lan, about 20 miles from the city of Veracruz. On the first 
visit he was accompanied by an official representative of 
Governor Dehesa, by the alcalde of San Carlos, a neighbor- 
ing town, and by the inspector and owner of the ruins. On 
the second trip, when he spent a week at the ruins, Governor 
Dehesa kindly permitted him to employ the services of the 
State photographer, Seiior Ximenes. 

At the close of March Doctor Fewkes visited the old city 
of Villa Rica de la Veracruz, now called Antigua, founded 
by Cortes. In the neighborhood of this city, but on the 
opposite side of the river, he found many mounds indicating 
the site of a large prehistoric city. Other ruins were observed 
at Santa Fe. 

Doctor Fewkes examined some of the antiquities about 
Cordova and Orizaba; he also visited the pyramid of Cho- 
lula, near Puebla, and near the middle of April proceeded 
to the state of Tamaulipas, spending about three weeks at 
Tampico in a study of the numerous ruins along the Panuco 
and Tamesi rivers and on the adjacent lagoons, and in visit- 
ing the extensive shell heaps and temple mounds a mile east 
of Tampico and others not far from the site of the old town, 
Tampico Viejo. Doctor Fewkes found numerous antiquities 
at Altamu'a and mounds on the banks of the Champayan 
lagoon. Many other evidences of former occupancy, as 
idols, pottery, stone weapons, and ornaments, were seen in 



XVI BUREATJ OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

this region. The old city of Chila, destroyed by Cortes, 
situated about 10 miles west of Tampico, was found to be 
hidden in a forest. Evidences of temples and burial mounds 
also occur abundantly in this locality. About 50 photo- 
graphs of bowls, jars, and idols found in the neighborhood 
of Panuco, Tampico, and the lagoons along the banks of the 
Tamesi river, were made. Of more than usual interest are 
those of large stone idols at Altamira and in the com"tyard 
of a house in Tampico. 

• On his return to Washington, Doctor Fewkes continued 
the study from his notes and photographs and prepared a 
general account of his visit to Cempoalan and Xicochunalco, 
which was transmitted for publication by the Smithsonian 
Institution. The illustrative material brought back includes 
about 200 large photographic negatives, numerous smaller 
views, tracings of pictographs, and many drawings, plans, 
and maps. 

Dr Cyrus Thomas, ethnologist, was engaged during the 
year largely on the Handbook of American Indians, assisting 
Mr Hodge in the laborious task of preparing the manuscripts 
for puljlication. Among the articles written by Doctor Thomas 
dvu'ing the year for this work are agriculture, calendar, count- 
ing, Five Civilized Tribes, fortifications, habitations, maize, 
migi'ations, mortuary customs, mounds and mound builders, 
population, reservations, and treaties, besides a numl^er of bio- 
gi-aphical sketches and certain archeological articles of a more 
special character. The work of reading the proofs of Bulle- 
tin 28, which required especial acquaintance with the arche- 
ology and glyphic systems of the ancient Mexicans, was also 
intrusted to Doctor Thomas, and was completed before the 
end of the year. He was also frequently called on for data 
required in official correspondence relating to his special 
branches of research. 

Mr J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnologist, at the beginning of the 
year began the preparation of various articles for the Hand- 
book of American Indians, and continued the correction and 
elaboration of the material pertaining to the Iroquoian stock 
for the same work. Among the articles in hand are those 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XVII 

on adoption, chiefs, clans and gentes, confederations, govern- 
ment, mythology, scalping, wampum, and women. The work 
of cataloguing the collection of linguistic manuscripts, of 
which Mr Hewitt is custodian, was completed as far as 
copying the old cards in duplicate, when the work was laid 
aside for that of the Handbook. He also gave material assist- 
ance in furnishing data required in the correspondence of 
the Bureau relating to tribes and languages. 

Mrs M. C. Stevenson, ethnologist, spent the month of July 
in New Mexico, where she had l^een for some months making 
a study of the arts, industries, religion, and social customs 
of the Zuiii tribe. It was obsei'ved that the Zuhi pantheon 
is largely similar to that of the Hopi and the Rio Grande 
pueblos. Although the Zuiii worship numerous deities which 
take both, hviman and bestial form, they believe also in a 
supreme power without . form, yet embracing all form, the 
breath of life — life itself. These beliefs indicate that the 
Zuhi have reached a higher stage of culture than has previ- 
ously been supposed, although it can not yet be said to what 
extent this maj' be attril^uted to the Spanish influence to 
which the tribe was more or less subjected for three centuiies. 
Various details relating to Zuili life were investigated, and 
valuable information regarding mortuary customs was 
obtained through the death and burial of Naiuchi, a cele- 
brated priest-chief, whose demise occurred during Mrs 
Stevenson's stay in Zuhi pueblo. Native plants entering into 
the medicine and dietary of the Zuiii were also studied; the 
arts of preparing and dyeing wool, which have not been 
practised for many years, were observed, and specimens of 
the native materials and devices employed in the process, as 
well as of the dyed wool, were collected. Studies of symbol- 
ism as embodied in Zuhi lextile and ceramic art, and investi- 
gations into the everyday life, and especially the child life, 
of the pueblo were likewise made. 

Early in August a day was spent by Mrs Stevenson with 
the Santa Clara Indians in making a series of photographs 
of then- annual fiesta. The month was occupied principally, 
however, in a study of the Sia Indians, a few days being given 

2ti ETH— 08 2 



XVI ir BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

to the neighboring Jemez pueblo. On the 27th Mrs Steven- 
son reached Cochiti, whence a visit was made to the great stone 
carving of cougars on the mesa 10 miles distant. In Mrs 
Stevenson's comparative studies these sculptvu-es are of 
special interest, as they are referred to in some of the most 
sacred myths of the Zuni. The first part of September was 
employed in a visit to the cavate and mesa ruins about 12 
miles from Santa Clara and in making observations among 
the Tewa people of San Ildefonso, Santa Clara, and San Juan 
pueblos. The religious beliefs, rituals, and daily customs of 
these people were found to be closely allied to those of the 
Zuiii, difference in language alone indicating that distinct 
peoples are involved. In October Mrs Stevenson returned to 
Washington, where she has since been engaged in the revision 
of proofs of her memoir on the Zuiii Indians, in the Twenty- 
third Annual Report, and, as opportimity afforded, in the 
elaboration of her several studies on Zuni religious beliefs, 
on the edible and medicinal plants of the Zuiii, on symbol- 
ism as embodied in the textile and ceramic arts, and on the 
dyeing of textile fabrics. 

Dr J. R. Swanton, ethnologist, was engaged during the 
year in copying and preparing for the press material obtained 
by him among the Tlingit Indians of Alaska dm-ing the win- 
ter of 1903-4. This work, as completed, consists of 137 
pages treating of the general ethnology of the Tliagit peo- 
ples, 20 native texts with interlinear and free translations, 
the words of about 100 songs, with translations, together 
with English versions of 88 stories obtained at Sitka and 
Wrangell — altogether making 900 typewritten pages. Doc- 
tor Swanton has prepared also grammatical accounts of the 
Dakota, Haida, and Tlingit languages for introduction into 
the Handbook of American Indian Languages now in course 
of preparation under the direction of Dr Franz Boas, honorary 
philologist of the Bureau; and he has also been called on to 
contribute several articles for the Handbook of American 
Indians, including kinship, names and naming, priests and 
priesthood, secret societies, social organizations, thunderbird, 
totem poles, and numerous tribal articles. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XIX 

Dr A. S. Gatschet, ethnologist, continued his work on 
certain unfinished Hnguistic studies which it was hoped could 
be completed for publication before his failing health made 
further progress impossible, but in January he was compelled 
practically to relinquish his efforts, and on March 13 was 
placed on furlough. 

Early in the year arrangements were made with the United 
States National Musevmi to have Dr Ales Hrdli(5ka, curator 
of physical anthropology in the Museum, visit Ai'izona and 
New Mexico in behalf of the Bureau for the purpose of mak- 
ing physical, physiological, and medical observations among 
the Apache and the Pima Indians. Leaving Washington 
on Januaiy 20, Doctor HrdliCka began his studies five days 
later on the San Carlos Apache reservation, where he 
remained until February 8, when he visited a group of 
Apache residing near what is known as the Sawmill, in the 
Black River region. From this point he retiu'iied to San 
Carlos, and on February 13 reached the Rice Station Apache 
school and district, situated farther northeast on the reser- 
vation. On February 26 Doctor HrdliCka endeavored to 
reach the White Mountain branch of the Apache, but was 
prevented from doing so by exceptionally heavy rains. On 
March 1 he was able to proceed to Sacaton, Ariz., where 
studies of the Pima tribe were made. From March 12 to 
16 he was at Casa Blanca. On the latter date he returned 
to Casa Grande, and thence proceeded to El Paso, Tex., 
reaching the reservation of the Mescalero Apache in New 
Mexico on the 19th. After remaining six days with the 
Mescaleros, Doctor Hrdli^ka began his return journey, reach- 
ing Washington March 31. 

Doctor HrdliCka's researches were conducted with the 
object of supplementing his former investigations among 
the same tribes. As much attention as possible was devoted 
to the children, from birth onward, the number examined 
being nearly 1,000. Other important subjects to which 
study was especially devoted were fecundity, mortality, 
native foods, hygiene, disease, and curative means and 
methods. These studies were greatly facilitated by the 



XX BUBEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

officials of the Indian Office, and met with httle objection 
on the part of the Indians. 

In addition to his direct anthropologic investigations, 
Doctor Hrdli5ka succeeded in gathering specimens of about 
150 medicinal and food plants and a number of ethnological 
objects. He procured one Apache skull and five complete 
Apache skeletons, and in addition to making observations of 
value among the ancient ruins of the general region, obtained 
many archeological specimens from hitherto unexplored 
ruins in the San Carlos valley. 

In April Mr E. L. Hewett, who was engaged during the 
winter months in preparing for the Bureau an archeological 
map of Colorado and New Mexico, was commissioned to pro- 
ceed to New Mexico for the purpose of making extended 
researches among the ancient ruins of the so-called Pajarito 
Plateau district. His first work was the investigation of 
numerous deserted and ruined pueljlos of the Tewa tribes. 
This was followed by excavations of ancient mounds in Otowi 
canyon, which yielded results of exceptional interest. Upward 
of 175 ))urials were uncovered, and the osseous remains of more 
than lUO individuals were collected and forwarded for study in 
the National Museum. The art remains comprise numerous 
entire earthenware vessels and many fragments, with a fair 
complement of implements of bone and stone. Mr Hewett 
was fortunate in reaching this arid spot in an exceptionally 
wet season, as he found water always within easy reach. 
At the close of the year he had completed his studies within 
the boundaries of Pajarito plateau and was preparing to ex- 
plore the plateaus and mountains to the west and the Jemez 
valley beyond. 

In June a report reaching the Bureau that important finds 
of prehistoric remains of man and art had been made on the 
site of the forthcoming Jamestown Exposition, near Norfolk, 
Va., Mr J. D. McGuire was commissioned to visit the locality 
and report on the character of the discoveries made. Mr 
McGuire spent one day on the exposition grounds collecting 
such information as was available, and later reported that 
although traces of human remains had l:)een exposed in the 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXI 

excavations of the exposition company, the reports had been 
greatly exaggerated, the discoveries being meager and uni- 
form in character with the rehcs of countless other sites in 
the Chesapeake-Potomac region. 

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN INDIAN LANGUAGES 

The work of Dr Franz Boas, honorary philologist, was con- 
fined to the preparation of the Handbook of American Indian 
Languages, which has been luider way for several years. 
The main part of the field work for the first part of the Hand- 
book was closed during the present year and some field work 
designed to be embodied in the second part was taken up, 
Doctor Boas also furnished the article on languages for the 
Handl)ook of American Indians. 

In the course of the fiscal }'ear the following manuscripts 
for the Handbook of American Indian Languages have been 
submitted : 

1. Dr P. E. Goddard: Grammatical notes on the Hupa 
(Athapascan stock). 

2. Dr A. L. Kroeber: Grammatical notes on the Yuki 
( Yukian stock) . 

3. Dr Roland B. Dixon: Grammatical notes on the Maidu 
(Pujunan stock). 

4. Dr William Jones: Grammatical notes on the Sauk and 
Fox (Algonquian stock). 

5. Dr John R. Swanton : Grammatical notes on the Dakota 
(Siouan stock). 

6. Dr John R. Swanton: Granunatical notes on the Haida 
( Skittagetan stock) . 

7. Dr John R. Swanton : Grammatical notes on the Tlingit 
( Koluschan stock) . 

8. Dr Franz Boas: Grammatical notes on the Kwakiutl 
( Wakashan stock) . 

9. Dr Franz Boas: Grammatical notes on the Chinook 
( Chinookan stock) . 

The following manuscripts are still outstanding: 
L Mr J. N. B. Hewitt: Grammatical notes on the Iro- 
quois (Iroquoian stock). 



XXII BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOC4Y 

2. Dr Franz Boas: Grammatical notes on the Eskimo 
(Eskimauan stock). 

3. Dr Franz Boas: Grammatical notes on the Tsimshian 
(Chimmesy an stock). 

During the year the gi'ammatical notes on the Shoshoni, b}' 
Mr H. H. St Clau", 2d, have been revised. 

The general plan of the Handbook of American Indian Lan- 
guages has imdergone no material change, except in so far as 
it was deemed advisable to add briefer articles on the gram- 
mar of others of the remaining languages of the northern part 
of the continent. These are the Tlingit, the Salish, the Kute- 
nai, and the Chimakum. It is deemed advisable to add also 
a sketch of one of the coast languages of Oregon which was 
collected during the year 1904-5 by Mr St Clair, who sub- 
mitted his material on the Coosa and Takelma of Oregon 
during the present year. 

It was considered desirable to add also certain data relat- 
ing to the formation of the noun in Chinook, which seemed 
of importance, in order to elucidate some questions relating 
to the fundamental traits of that family of languages. Since 
all our information on this stock is derived from one inform- 
ant, it was deemed essential to obtain additional material 
from other sources and from another dialect. For this rea- 
son preparations were made to send Mr E. Sapir to the 
upper Columbia river to make a study of the Wasco. In the 
preparation of this work the Kathlamet dictionary, based on 
Bulletin 26, was arranged and copied. 

The work on the Southern group of languages will require 
long and energetic field work. So far only one of the lan- 
guages of the Gulf states, the Yuchi, has been taken up, this 
tribe being selected because it seems most likel}^ to furnish 
material that will be not only of linguistic value, but will 
afford knowledge of the early history and customs of the 
Southeast. This work has been intrusted to Mr Frank G. 
Speck, who spent the siunmer of 1904 among the Yuchi tribe 
and who returned to this field at the close of the fiscal year. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXIII 

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN INDIANS 

Work on the Handbook, hitherto frequentlj- referred to as 
the "Diet ionaiy of Indian Tribes," has been vigorously 
prosecuted during the year under the immediate supervision 
of Mr F. W. Hodge, of the Smithsonian Institution, who, with 
the approval of the Secretary, has devoted most of his time 
thereto. Mr Hodge has had the almost undivided assistance 
of Dr Cyrus Thomas, and, as occasion required, nearly the 
entire scientific staff of the Bureau has aided both in the 
preparation of the anthropologic and kindred articles and in 
the revision and elaboration of the tribal descriptions found 
to be necessar}- by reason of recently acquired knowledge. 
So far as the funds of the Bureau afforded, the aid of eth- 
nologists not ofiicialh' connected with the Bureau was also 
enlisted. The services generously rendered bj' these, either 
gratuitousl)' or for a merely nominal consideration, are 
highly appreciated. 

As outlined in former reports, it was originally the plan of 
Major Powell to classify the linguistic families, tribes, and 
settlements north of Mexico and to identify the various 
names by which these had been known in the vast literature 
of the subject, with a brief description of each such group. 
This material, recorded on many thousands of cards, became 
known as the "Cyclopedia of Tribes, with Synonymy." 

In 1903 the Secretary altered the scope of the work by 
directing the incorporation of brief separate articles pertain- 
ing to the habits, customs, arts, and industries of the Indians 
and of their dealings with the Government, together with 
biographies of noted individuals and a list of words of north- 
ern Indian origin that have been incorporated into the Eng- 
lish language. No work so comprehensive in its scope had 
hitherto been attempted, consequently in making plans for 
the new departure it became necessary to begin at the foun- 
dation. The popular st}-le of treatment was ever kept in 
mind, and considerable time was consumed in correspond- 
ence with experts 'best qualified for the preparation of many 
of the special articles called for by the enlarged plan. For 
these reasons it has not been possible to complete the work 



XXIV BITKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

at an earlier date. Owing to the fact that many of the spe- 
ciahsts do not reside in Washington, it was difficult, within 
a limited time, to arrange for entire consistency in treatment 
and to prevent repetition through encroachment of one sub- 
ject on another when written by many hands. On this 
account, and for the purpose of obtaining the views and 
criticisms of as many experts as possible, conferences were 
held, as already mentioned, three times each week, which 
were faithfully attended by the ethnologic staffs of the 
Biu'eau and the National Museum, as well as by other resi- 
dent ethnologists; and ethnologists from elsewhere, while 
visiting Washington, often gave this committee of revision 
the benefit of their criticism. 

As the articles prepared both b}' the regular attendants 
and by others were read at the conferences, and thus were 
accorded opportunity for criticism, the value of the meet- 
ings in promoting the authoritativeness of the forthcoming 
Handbook is inestimable. New subjects were constantly 
suggested, and in some instances much new light was shed 
on others, after having been written, by reason of the per- 
sonal knowledge of one or another of the critics present. 

In addition to the special articles elsewhere mentioned in 
this report as prepared by members of the Bureau, the fol- 
lowing are among the more important of those that have been 
furnished by specialists not officially connected with it: 

By Dr A. F. Chamberlain: Armor, Bascjue inffiience, Chi- 
nook jargon, Dutch influence, Eliot's Bible, English influ- 
ence, fur trade, German influence, Hawaiian influence, 
Kutenai, linguistic families, "Lost Ten Tribes," maple sugar, 
Melungeons, Negro and Indian, race names, Scandinavian 
influence, Spanish influence, wild rice, and many articles 
pertaining to words of Indian origin incorporated into the 
English language. 

By Mr Stewart Culin: Games. 

By Dr William H. Dall: Russian influence. 

By Miss Anna Dawes: Commission to the Five Civilized 
Tribes. 

By Dr G. A. Dorsey: Ceremony, Sun dance. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXV 

By Mr Wilberforce Eames: Bible translations, dictiona- 
ries, periodicals. 

By Dr Livingston Farrand: Marriage, and many articles 
descriptive of some of the linguistic families and tribes of 
the Northw^est. 

By Miss Alice C. Fletcher: Adornment, agency system, 
buffalo, camping and camp circles, civilization, dramatic 
representation, dreams and visions, earth lodge, etiquette, 
fasting, feasts, furnitui'e, governmental policy, grass lodge, 
land tenure, masks, music and musical instruments, ora- 
tory, orientation, poetry, property and property- rights, quill- 
work, soldiers, tattooing, totems, trading posts, war and war 
discipline, and articles descriptive of the Caddoan tribes. 

By Mr Gerard Fowke: "Lansing man," and many articles 
on technological subjects. 

By Dr George Bird Grinnell : Horses. 

By Mr H. W. Henshaw: Atlantis, exchange, pictography, 
popular fallacies, slavery, and sweating and sweat houses. 

By Mr F. W. Hodge: Adobe, Casa Grande, irrigation, kiva, 
and many tribal articles, especially those pertaining to the 
Southwestern Lidians. 

By Dr Walter Hough : Altar, clothing, collecting and exca- 
vating, dyes and pigments, fire making, food, illumination, 
preservation of specimens, and Snake dance, in addition to a 
large number of brief articles on various implements, utensils, 
materials used in manufacturing processes, etc. 

By Dr Aleg Hrdlicka; Anatomy, artificial head deforma- 
tion, cannibalism, health and disease, mixed bloods, and 
physiology. 

By Mr J. D. McGuire: Drilling, fishing, pipes, smoking, 
storage and caches, tobacco, and trails and trade routes. 

By Dr Otis T. Mason: Arrows, bows, and quivers; arts and 
industries, basketry, beadwork, boats, commerce, domestica- 
tion of animals, education, environment, featherwork, hunt- 
ing implements, invention, needlework, traps, travel and 
transportation, weapons, and weaving. 

By Dr Washington Matthews : Color symbolism, dry paint- 
ing, ethics, family, magic, measurements, medicine, and 
mourning. 



XXVI BUREAU Oi' AMERICAN' ETHNOLOGY 

The Bureau was also fortunate enough to have the services 
of Dr A. L. Kroeber, of the University of C'aUfornia, wlio gen- 
erously revised the accumulated material pertaining to many 
of the lingviistic families of California, and in addition gave 
much valuable information respecting the Shoshonean and 
Yuman families and the Mission Indians. The remaining 
Calif ornian stocks were reviewed or revised by Dr P. E. 
Goddard and Mr S. E. Barrett, also of the University of 
California, and by Dr Roland B. Dixon, of Harvard University. 

With the exception of a few articles that had not been quite 
finished by those to whom the subjects were assigned, the 
manuscript of the body of the Handbook, recorded on more 
than 40,00(J cards, together with about SOU illustrations, was 
submitted to the Secretary for transmittal to the Public 
Printer on July 1, 1905, for publication in two octavo vol- 
umes as Bulletin 30 of the Bureau. These cards do not 
include about 37,000 cross-references to the tribal synonyms, 
nor the bibliography, which are retained for use in reading 
the proofs of the text. After serving this purpose thej^ will 
be ready to be put in type to appear at the close of the work. 

ARCHEOLOGICAL MAP 

The work of compiling an archeological map of the United 
States, which had received some attention in previous years, 
was carried forward with all possible dispatch during the last 
year. The departments of the Government having control 
of the public lands have undertaken to protect the archeolog- 
ical remains of these lands from despoliation by commercial 
relic hunters and unskilled and imauthorized explorers, and 
excellent progress in this direction has been made, especially 
by the Department of the Interior. For years the Bin-eau 
has been collecting data relating to these remains, and when- 
ever called on has furnished all available information for the 
use of the departments in carrying out this laudable enter- 
prise. During the winter months Mr J. D. McGuire was 
engaged in collecting and collating data relating to the 
antiquities of Arizona and Utah, and in platting these on 
topographical maps furnished by the United States Geo- 



ADMINISTRATIVK liEPORT XXVII 

logical Survey ; and Mr E. L. Hewett has carried forward prac- 
tically to completion a corresponding work in Colorado and 
New Mexico. The several maps have been completed so far 
as the data are at hand. Accompanying the maps is a card 
catalogue of the various sites, giving information regarding 
location, character of remains, and explorations previously 
carried on. These maps and catalogues are at the disposal 
of the departments when called for. 

In New Mexico the following sheets embrace 512 sites of 
sufficient interest to be catalogued: Santa Fe, Santa Clara, 
San Pedro, Pajarito park, Bernal, Las Vegas, Chaco canyon. 
Mount Taylor, Largo, Lamy, Wingate, Jemez, Taos, Tierra 
Amarilla, Quemado, Acoma, Manzano, Pinos Wells, Tularosa, 
Chloride, San Marcial, Fort Stanton, Big Hatchet, Chama, 
El Paso, Fort Baj^ard, Las Cruces, San Juan, Albuquerque, 
and Tres Hermanos. Li Colorado the Mesa Verde sheet alone 
includes 54 sites. On the 21 Arizona sheets (Tusayan, Fort 
Defiance, San Francisco mountain. Echo cliff, St Johns, Pres- 
cott, Verde, Florence, Holbrook, Canyon de Chelly, Solo- 
monsville. Globe, Phoenix, Casa Grande, Fort Apache, Dia- 
mond creek, Chino, Marsh pass, Tombstone, and Tucson) 270 
sites are recorded, and on the Utah sheets (Ashle}', Beaver, 
Escalante, Fish lake, Henry mountain, Kanab, Manti, Salt 
lake, San Rafael, St George, Price river, Uinta, La Salle, 
Abajo, and Utah) are noted 122 sites. The 1,008 archeo- 
logical sites thus catalogued are scattered over an immense 
territory and come under the jurisdiction of the Interior, 
Agricultviral, and War Departments. 

EXPOSITION WORK 

The exhibit of the Bureau installed in the Smithsonian 
section of the Government building of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition at St Louis during 1904, and described in 
the report for that year, was dismantled at the close of the 
exposition and a large part of it transferred to Portland, 
Oreg., where it has been installed as a part of the Insti- 
tution's exhibit at the Lewis and Clark Exposition. The 
remainder of the material has been returned to Washington 
and deposited in the National Museum. 



XXVIII 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



STUDY OF INDIAN DELEGATIONS 

The systematic study of visiting Indian delegations has 
been continued vi^ith success. During the year 23 delega- 
tions, representing 21 tribes, have been conducted, through 
the agency of Mr Andrew John, to the Bureau and the Na- 
tional Museum laboratories. About 280 portrait negatives 
have been made, and casts and measurements of a numljer 
of individuals have been obtained. Few Indians of the 
higher type, however, are willing to submit to the experience 
of having the face encased in plaster. The tribes repre- 
sented are as follows: 



Tribe. 


Photo. 


Cast. 


Measure- 
ment. 




3 

1 

1 

i 

5 
3 
3 

2 
4 
1 
4 
1 








1 


1 


Cherokee 


Choctaw 






Cayuga 






Colvilles . 






Creeks 




3 


Flatheads 


Menominee 

Mission In^lians. 


1 


2 








Omaha 


1 


1 





Tribe. 



Measure- 
ment. 



Oneida 

Onondaga. . . 

Osage 

Pawnee 

Pueblos 

Seneca 

Stockbridgcs 

Sioux 

Wyandot .... 

Total .... lis 



1 






1 






5 


1 


2 


4 




4 


11 




11 


3 


2 


1 


1 





1 


n 




11 


9 








1 



COLLECTIONS 

The ethnological collections ol^tained during the year fall 
considerably short of those of previous years, owing to the 
reduced amount of field work undertaken. This condition 
was due, as already explained, to the necessity of keeping 
most of the scientific staff in Washington to aid in the com- 
pletion of the Handbook of American Indians. The acces- 
sions are a valuable collection made by Mrs M. C. Steven- 
son at Zuiii, a series of archeological objects obtained by 
Doctor Hrdlicka in Arizona and New Mexico, and several 
minor collections, all of which have been deposited in the 
National Museum. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXIX 

PUBLICATIONS 

The distribution of publications has continued as in former 
years. The great increase in the number of libraries in the 
country and the mukiphcation of demands from the public 
generall}^ have resulted in an almost immediate exhaustion 
of the cjuota of volumes allotted to the Bureau, few copies of 
any of the reports remaining six months after the date 
of issue. Part II of the Twent3'-second Annual Report 
was issued in January. During the year 1,591 copies of the 
Twenty-first and Twenty-second Annual Reports were sent 
to regular recipients, and 2,000 volumes and pamphlets were 
transmitted in response to special requests, presented largel}- 
by Members of Congress. The proof reading of the Twent}'- 
third Annual Report and of Bulletin 28 was practically com- 
pleted at the close of the year, and it is expected that the 
presswork of these publications will soon be begun. The 
Twenty-fourth Annual Report was in the hands of the printer 
before the close of the year, and Bulletins 29 and 30, the latter 
being the Handbook of American Indians, were ready to be 
submitted to the Secretary on June 30, 1905, while the 
manuscript of the Twenty-fifth Annual Report was com- 
pleted, with the exception of a small number of illustrations. 

EDITORIAL WORK 

The editorial work of the year has presented features of 
exceptional difficulty, on account of the large number of 
papers dealing with linguistics and technical subjects. The 
Bureau has had the services of Mr Frank Huntington for 
the greater part of the year, and Mr J. P. Sanborn, jr, received 
a probational appointment as editor in Ma)\ The reading 
of the proofs of Mrs Stevenson's monograph on the Zuiii 
Indians for the Twenty-third Annual Report, a work of 
much technical difficulty, was intrusted mainly to Mr E. G. 
Farrell. 



XXX BUREAU OP AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

The work of preparing illustrations has continued in 
charge of Mr- De Lancy Gill, who has been assisted, as here- 
tofore, by Mr Henry Walther. The photogi-aphic work has 
included the making of portraits of members of 21 Indian 
delegations which visited the capital during the year. Three 
views of each individual were taken, besides several group 
views, the negatives numbering 298. In preparing illus- 
trations for the publications of the Bureau upward of 200 
negatives were made, and 156 films exposed in the field by 
members of the Bureau were developed in the laboratory. 
During the year about 2,350 prints were made, mainly for 
immediate use in illustrating the Bureau publications. 
Illustrations prepared for the Twenty-fourth Annual Report 
number 45; for the Twenty-fifth Annual Report, 128; for 
Bulletin 30, 800. Illustrations transmitted with reports 
submitted to the Secretary for j^ublication are: For the 
Twenty-fourth Annual Report, 1,103; for Bulletin 30, 871. 
Illustrations edited for the Twenty-third Annual Report 
number 25; for the Twenty-fourth Annual Report, 1,102. 
The printed editions of 48 colored plates submitted by the 
engravers for the Twenty- third and Twenty-fourth Annual 
Reports, niunbering about 450,000 prints, were individually 
examined and approved or rejected. 

LIBRARY 

The library has been in immediate charge of Miss Ella 
Leary, who has had the assistance of Mrs Ella Slaughter. The 
accessioning and cataloguing of the books, pamphlets, and 
periodicals received during the year have been kept up to 
date, and the cataloguing of the publications of scientific 
societies has been commenced. Owing to the crowded con- 
dition of the library and their questionable place in an eth- 
nological library, about 400 publications relating to natural 
history, received through exchange, have been transfeiTed 
to the National Museum. During the year there have been 
received and recorded 398 volumes, 500 pamphlets, and the 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXXI 

ciUTent issues of upward of 500 periodicals; 120 volumes have 
been bound at the Government Printing Office. The libraiy 
now contains about 12,563 bound volumes, 7,000 pamphlets, 
and a large number of periodicals bearing on ethnology and 
kindred topics. Purchase of books for the library has been 
restricted to those that bear on the subject of anthropology, 
with special reference to the American Indians, and only 
indispensable works have been obtained by this means. 

CLERICAL WORK 

The clerical force of the Bureau consists of four regular 
employees — Mr J. B. Clayton, head clerk; Miss Emilie R. 
Smedes and Miss May S. Clark, stenographers; and Miss 
Ella Leary, clerk and acting librarian. During the year the 
compilation of the Handbook of American Indians neces- 
sitated the employment of additional clerks with special 
training in dealing with cyclopedic material and in biblio- 
graphic work. In this the services of Mrs F. S. Nichols, Mrs 
Gertrude L. Rogers, and Miss Laura W. Steever have proved 
invaluable. 

PROPERTY 

The property of the Bureau is comprised in seven classes, 
as f oUows : Office furniture and appliances ; field outfits ; lin- 
guistic and ethnological manuscripts and other documents; 
photographs, drawings, paintings, and engravings; a work- 
ing library; collections held temporarily by collaborators 
for use in research ; and undistributed residue of the editions 
of Bvireau publications. 

The additions to the property of the Bureau for the year 
include a typewriter and a few necessary articles of furni- 
ture. The only improvement made in the offices was the 
changing of the electric-light wiring, which was done under 
the du'ection of the District authorities, at a cost of $116.55. 



ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 



26 ETH— (it< ;{ 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



BY 



FRANK KUSSELL 



CONTENTS 

Paee 

Iiilrodiiction 17 

History 19 

Name 19 

Villages 20 

Prehistoric ruins 23 

Contact -with Spaniards 26 

Relations with Americans 30 

Civil and military expeditions 30 

Agents 33 

Schools 34 

Annals 34 

Chronological records 34 

The Pima calendar 36 

Nature of the events 37 

The narrative 38 

Technology 66 

The food supply 66 

Preparation of food 68 

Plants used for food .69 

Medicinal plants 79 

Animals used for food SO 

Domestication of animals 84 

Agriculture 86 

Methods 86 

Irrigation 86 

Division of lalior 89 

Products 90 

Cereals 90 

Vegetables 91 

Trade 92 

Standards of value 92 

Measures 92 

Barter 93 

Artifacts 95 

Wood 95 

Weapons 95 

Agricultural iinplemenls 97 

5 



CONTENTS 

r'hniilogy — Continued. Page 
Artifacts — C'ontinued. 

Wood — Continued . 

Household iitensils 99 

Miscellaneous 103 

Stone 108 

Metate 108 

MuUer 109 

Pestle 109 

Ax 110 

Arrowheads Ill 

Arrow-shaft straightener _ Ill 

Hammer stones Ill 

Firestones : Ill 

Crystals Ill 

Magic tablets. 112 

Turquoise 112 

Pipe 112 

Fiber and leather 113 

Saddle 113 

Saddlebag 113 

Head rings 113 

Rope 114 

Halters 115 

Bridles 115 

Fetish 115 

"War headdress : 116 

Hairbnish 116 

Skin dressing 117 

Firebag 118 

Tobacco pouches 118 

Sling 120 

Shield : 120 

Sandals 122 

Yoke straps .' 122 

Lariat 122 

Horned toad effigy 123 

Pottery 124 

Material 124 

Implements 126 

Method 126 

Finished products 127 

Basketry 131 

Materials 131 

Implements 135 



CONTENTS 7 

Technology — Continued. Page 
Art if acts — Cont i mied . 

Basketry — Con t inued . 

Method 135 

Basket bowls 135 

Description of plates 136 

Kiaha ; 140 

Storage l)askets .• 143 

Minor tj^jes 145 

Sleeping mats 147 

Textiles 148 

Spinning 14S 

Weaving 149 

Implements and methods 150 

Architecture 153 

Types 154 

Clothing 157 

Materials and types ] 57 

Esthetic arts 158 

Personal decoration 158 

Hair log 

Nails 160 

Teeth 160 

Painting I,i0 

Tattooing I61 

Ornaments 163 

Ornamentation I63 

Musical instruments 166 

Flute ]g,. 

Drum 167 

Scraping stick 167 

Rattles 168 

Dancing I70 

Festivals • 170 

Athletic sports 171 

Aldtt 172 

Kicking-ball races 172 

Relay races I73 

Swimming I74 

Games I74 

Ki"ts 175 

Haeyo 17g 

Vaputai 17g 

Vaputta 177 

Vatamnmnlitc h;ikoAoliwia • 178 



8 CONTENTS 

Esthetic arts — Continued. Page 

Games — Continued. 

Papaietcitakiit 178 

Okmaitceke 178 

Naof towe knkrsa 178 

ICnorsa 179 

Kwaltusiwikiit 179 

Mekut toakut .' 179 

Ka-amisakflt 179 

Tcnlikiwifkut 180 

Cup stone 181 

Ring stone 181 

Sociology 182 

Family organization 182 

Relations before marriage 182 

Puberty dance 182 

Marriage 183 

Duration of union 184 

Children 185 

Ceremony of purification 187 

Baptism 188 

Names 189 

Education 190 

Old persons and their treatment 192 

Views concerning deatli 193 

Mode of burial 193 

Funeral rites 194 

Moinning 195 

Social organization 195 

Officers 195 

Gentes 197 

Slaves 197 

Social morals 197 

Formulas of politeness 199 

Intertribal relations 200 

Alliances 200 

Warfare 200 

Raids 200 

Lustration 204 

Dance in celebration of victory 205 

Sophiology 206 

Myths 206 

Tcn-unnyikita, the creation myth 206 

Coyote 230 



CONTENTS 9 

Sophiology — Continued. Page 
Myths — Continued. 

Another version of the creation myth 237 

Children of Cloud 239 

Skull and his magic 241 

Origin of the liorse 241 

Nursery tales 242 

The five little orphans and their aunt 242 

Coyote and the quails 243 

Tlie woman and Coyote 244 

The Pima boy and the Apaches 244 

The birds and the flood 245 

Death of Coyote 245 

Coyote and the bluebird 245 

The boy and the beast 246 

The thirsty quails 247 

The naughty grandchiklren " 247 

Abstracts of myths 247 

The creation myth 247 

Coyote 248 

Children of Cloud 249 

Skidl and his magic 249 

Origin of the horse 249 

Abstracts of nursery tales 249 

The five little orphans and their aunt 249 

( 'oyote and the quails 249 

The woman and Coyote 249 

The Pima captive and her son 250 

Coyote and the bluebird 250 

The boy and the beast 250 

Tile naughty grandchildren 250 

Religion 250 

Deities 250 

The soul and its destiny 252 

Dreams 253 

Sacred places 254 

Medicine-men 25fi 

Legerdemain 258 

Cause and treatment of disease'. * 260 

Pro\-alent diseases 267 

Linguistics 269 

Vocabularies 269 

Songs 270 

Classification 270 



10 CONTENTS 

Linguistics — Continued. Page 
Songs — Continued. 

Archaic songs 272' 

Creation songs by Earth Doctor 272 

The creation of the earth 272 

The creation of the sun 273 

The creation of the moon 273 

The creation of the stars 273 

Flood songs by Earth Doctor 274 

The warning of the flood 274 

The people climbing Superstition mountain 274 

Flood songs by South Doctor 275 

On Superstition mountain before the flood 275 

Before the people turned to stone on Superstition mountain. . 275 

Flood songs by Elder Brother 275 

In his olla before the flood 275 

The flood 276 

Coming from his olla after the flood 276 

Post-flood songs by Elder Brother 277 

At the central part of the earth 277 

Climbing the cliffs to attack Eagle 277 

Elder Brother as a fly 278 

Destruction of Ha-ak 278 

In the nether world 279 

On emergence from the nether world 280 

On approaching pueblos 281 

Festal songs 283 

Middle run song 283 

Name song 285 

Circling songs , 289 

Eagle song 289 

Basket-beating song 291 

Swallow song 292 

Butterfly song 295 

Game songs 297 

Takal song 297 

Football sung , 298 

Lay song 299 

Children play song 299 

Hunting songs 299 

Datura song 299 

Pihol song 301 

Medicine songs 302 

Cure song ■ , 302 

Turtle song 306 

Horned toad song 307 



CONTENTS 1 1 

Linguistics — Continued. Page 
Songs — Continued. 

Medicine songs — Continued. 

Gila monster song 307 

Black lizard song 308 

Rattlesnake song 309 

Owl song 311 

Quail song 312 

Roadrunner song 312 

Mouse song 31-t 

Hare song 314 

Dog song 31.5 

Coyote song 31G 

Black-tailed deer song 317 

Bear .song i 318 

Gopher song 319 

Beaver song 320 

Badger song 321 

Lightning song 323 

Wind song 324 

Fetish song 32-5 

Navitco song 326 

Magician song 327 

Down song 328 

Demon song 329 

Puberty song 330 

Rain songs 331 

Hoahihiuf song 331 

Corn song 333 

War songs 335 

Straight song 335 

Tie song 336 

Scalp song 337 

011a song 338 

Speeches 339 

Elder Brother as he restored himself to life 339 

Opening of rain ceremony 347 

Going to war 353 

Wa' chief urging the people to go on the wai-path against the .\paches. 357 

First niglit on tlie warpatli, first speech 363 

First night on tlic warpath, second speech 366 

The warpatli, first speech 369 

The warpath, second speech 375 

The warpath, third speech 380 

The warpath, fourth speech 385 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plate I. Sacaton. 

II. Three nf the author's Pima informants. 

III. f'asa Granile ruin. 

IV. Three preliistoric Pima ruins. 

V. Casa BUinra and ruins of tirst selioolhouse. 
VI. Pima lireail, kitchen, and firephvcee. 
VII. Ironwoud and cat's claw. 
VIII. Two varieties of cactus. 
IX. < 'haracteristic desert vegetation. 
X. Mesquite and paloverde. 
XI. Fields and village in Pimeria. 
XII. ( holla cactus. 

XIII. Pima weapons. 

XIV. A'mina. 

XV. Riding saddle and cinch. 
XVI. Clay pits. 
XVII. Pima woman making pottery. 
XVIII. Pottery — pots and canteens. 
XIX. Potter}' — pan, plates, vases, cup. 
XX. Pottery — spoons and bowls. 
XXI. Characteristic desert vegetation. 
XXII. Baskets decorated with the fret. 

XXIII. Baskets decorated with the fret. 

XXIV. Baskets. 
XXV. Baskets. 

XXVI. Baskets. 
XXVII. Baskets. 
XXVIII. Baskets decorated with flower-like patterns. 
XXIX. Baskets, upright forms. 
XXX. Baskets, upright forms. 
XXXI. Baskets, upright forms. 
XXXII. Baskets, variants of upright forms. 

XXXIII. Yavapai baskets. 

XXXIV. Woman with kiaha. 
XXXV. Houses and sheds. 

XXXVI. Arrow-bush kitchen and Pima woman. 
XXXVII. Pima man, showing costume worn in hot weather. 
XXXVIII. Pima women, showing modes of hair dressing and face painting. 
XXXIX. Cemeteries and grave. 
12 



ILLUSTRATIONS 13 

Plate XL. Objects from Hahatesumiehin shrine. 
XLI. Ceremonial hill and shrines. 
XLII. Pima men and boy. 
XLIII. Elderly Pima men. 
XLIV. Pima men. 
XLV. Pima boys. 
XLVI. Pima boy and women. 
XLVII. Pima girls. 

Page 

Figure 1. Map of Pima reservation _ 22 

2. Fat Louisa g7 

3. Dried saguaro fruit 73 

4. Sheds with caches on roofs 74 

5. Men and women in modern costume, and pinto pony 8.5 

6. Bm-den bearer 89 

7 . Gourd canteen 91 

8. Gourd rattle 91 

9. Wax clubs iJC 

10. Agricultural implements, a, Digging stick; b, shovel; c, hoe; 

d, dibble 97 

1 1 . Wooden plow 98 

12. Yoke 98 

13. a, b, Mortars; c, wooden pestle; d, bread tray 99 

14. a, Doughnut fork; b, ladle: c, unfinished ladle 100 

15. Pottery paddle 101 

16. a, Hanging shelf 101 

6, Door 102 

17. Bird cage 102 

18. a, Fire drill; b, .saguaro hook: c. ha'num tweezers 103 

19. a, Cradle frame 104 

b. Cradle 104 

20. Calendar sticks, a, From Casa Blanca; b, from Gila Crossing; 

c, from Blackwater 105 

21. Wooden spur 10,5 

22. Awls, a, Wooden handle; 6, gum handle 106 

23. Rope twister 106 

24. A'mina with reed cloud blower and attached feathers 107 

25. a, Horned toad effigy 107 

b. Lizard effigy 107 

26. Navitco mask 108 

27. Ceremonial wands 108 

28. Grinding wheat on metate 109 

29. Stone pestle 109 

30. Arrowheads 1 ] 

31. Arrow-shaft straight cner 110 



14 ILLUSTRATIONS 



Figure 82. ( 'rystals from medicine liasket Ill 

33. a, b, c, Magic tablets . . 112 

3-4. Stone pipe 112 

35. Saddlebag 113 

36. Head rings, a, Willow bark; i, agave leaf; f, doth 114 

37. a, Horsehair halter; b, maguey rope 114 

38. Maguey liber 115 

39. o, Fetish; 6, hair- ornament 116 

40. Warhea'ddress 117 

41. Hairbrushes, a, Sacaton gras.s roots; b, maguey fiber 118 

42. Fire bag 118 

43. a, b, c, Tobacco pouches 119 

44. Sling 120 

45. a, Shield ; b, reverse of shield 121 

46. a, b, Models of shields 121 

47. Shield 122 

48. Sandals 122 

49. Yoke straps ! 123 

50. a, Horned toad effigy, of deerskin 123 

6, Living horned toad 124 

51. Sala Hina 124 

52. The burning 128 

53. 0, 6, Water coolers 129 

54. 011a found hidden in the hills 130 

55. 011a, with whitish designs on red ground 130 

56. Willow tree 131 

57. a, Willow splints; 6, niartynia; r, collonwood 132 

58. Bundles of mart^Tiia pods 132 

59. Martynia pod 133 

60. Stripping martynia 134 

61. Basket with scroll decoration 138 

62. Basket with scroll-feet decoration 138 

03. ICiaha 140 

04. Helping stick 141 

05. Mending kiaha net 142 

06. Storage ba.skets 143 

07. Small storage basket, showing weave 144 

OS. a, Tiinket basket 145 

b, Medicine basket 145 

09. a, Old sieve; b, modern sieve 146 

70. Sleeping mat 146 

71 . DetaD of sleeping mat 147 

72. Model of loom 148 

73. Spindle 149 



ILLUSTEATIONS 15 

Page 

Figure 74. Cotton balls, native spinning 150 

75. a, Old belt headband; 6, new belt headband 152 

7fi. Diagram of house 1.54 

77. Paint bags, a, Deerakin ; 6, cloth 160 

78. Tattooing outfit, a, Mesquite charcoal; fc, willow charcoal; 

c, needles 162 

79. Runner's hair ornament 16:? 

80. Flutes 166 

81. Scraping sticks 167 

82. Gourd rattle 168 

83. Disk rattle 168 

84. Belt rattle 1G9 

85. Cocoon rattle 169 

86. a. Alder stick; 6, double ball 172 

87. Kicking balls, o, Wood covered with gum; i, without covering. . 173 

88. Kicking balls, a, Stone covered with gum; 6, without covering. . 17.3 

89. Ki"tskut 175 

90. Diagram used in ki"ts ] 70 

91. Canes used in vapdtai 176 

92. Diagram used in vaputta 177 

93. Pottery disks 177 

94. Gaming stones 179 

95. Staves used in game of ka-amisakut 180 

96. Dart-and-ring game 180 

97. Diagram used in tclnikiwikut J81 

98. Cup stone , 181 

99. Ring stone 181 

100. Eagle feather aspergills 187 

101 . Funeral cache south of Casa Blanca 194 

102. Ha-ak altar 255 



PIMA SOUNDS AND THEIR SYMBOLS 



a as in father. 

a as in law. 

a as in what. 

a as in hat. 

V- indeterminate sound between a 

and ii. 

c as sh in shall, a rare snund: occurs 

in vi-sliiik (hawk). 

d as in dread. 

e as in they. 

e as in then. 

f as in fife. 

J as a mere breathing. 

as in good ; occurs in foreign words. 

between k and g. 

h as in he. 

i as in pique. 

i as in pick. 

k as in kick. 

1 as in lull. 

1 as with a faint \ following. 

m as in mum. 

n as in nun. 

n as ng in sing. 

o as in note. 

6 as in whole, (German soil). 

p as in pipe. 

16 



r an initial uvular r. 

8 as in sauce. 

t as in touch. 

td ....heard now as t,now as d, or be- 
tween. 

u as in rule. 

il as in pull. 

li as in but. 

n like the German o in Gothe. 

V as in valve. 

A a synthetic sound, v+w. 

w as in wish. 

y as in you. 

hy. . . .as in hue. 

iig as in finger. 

ny as ny .in canyon. 

tc as ch in church. 

t' an exploded breathing. 

d" an exploded breathing. 

k' an exploded breathing. 

p' an exploded breathing. 

X a k sound with an expulsion of 

breath before sounding it. 

I an m with lips closed. 

'=exploded breathing. 

'=laryngeal closure. 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



By Frank Russell 



INTRODUCTION 

From November, 1901, until June, 1902, the writer made his head- 
quarters at Sacaton (see pi. i), on the Gihx River reservation, in south- 
ern Arizona, where he was engaged in a study of the Pima tribe. With 
the aid of five native inter]3reters information was obtained from ten 
Pima men and women,*' selected because of their intolHgence and 
special aptitude in certain lines. With so many persons engaged in 
the investigations, the work of one frequently overlapped and served 
as a check on that of another. This made it possible to obtain a quite 
full account of Piman ethnology for the time employed. A house-to- 
house canvass of the villages, week after week, month after month, led 
to personal contact with nearly every household on the reservation 
and visits were made also to the Salt River Pimas and the desert 
Kwahadk's. One valuable result was the collection of more than 300 
specimens illustrative of nearly all Piman arts, gathered from among 
a people whom poverty had induced to dispose of so man}- of their 

a The name and a brief sketch of each of the author's informants and interpreters are here given: 

Informants. Ka'maltkak, Thin Leather (pi. xliv, 6) , an old man, issaid to be the most popular of the 
few remaining narrators of myths and speeches, or " speakers." He is an intimate friend of the head 
chief, Antonio Azul (pi. ii.a), and has always occupied a prominent place in the councils of the tribe. In 
his prime he exceeded 6 feet in stature and was strong and sturdy of frame. Indeed, his hand grasp 
is yet vigorous enough to make his silent and friendly greeting somewhat formidable. Intelligent, 
patient, dignified, his influence must have been helpful to those youths who formerly came to him for 
instruction. From him was obtained the cosmogonical myth of the tribe, many speeches, songs, and 
much general information. He also made a model of a loom and a few other specimens for the collection 
of material pertaining to the Pimas. 

Sala Ilina. Sarah Fish, or Hina (fig. 51), as she was caUed by her people, was recommended as one of 
the most intelligent of the older women. An earnest Christian, she had no scruples about relating all 
that she knew concerning the religious beliefs of the tribe. She had undergone a long and e.xacting 
training in practical botany which rendered her a valuable assistant in gathering information concern- 
ing the economic plants of the region. Taught by gaunt Hunger, she and her kind had learned to know 
and use a large numl>er of vegetal products. She inherited through her father some of the Kwahadk' 
potters' skill, which enabled her to impart valual)Ie knowledge of the art and to furnish specimens. 

Sika'tcu, Dry, an old woman, is the half sister of Antonio Azul and is one of the best known nurses 
and midwives about the Sacaton settlement. Though unable to speak English, after a few interviews 
with an interpreter she was quick to understand by means of signs and a few Pima words when to pose 
for photographs and the like. Among her earliest recollections was the sight of the covered wagons of 
the emigrant trains that followed the Gila route in such numbers during the early years of the California 
gold excitement. Her memory therefore extends over a quarter of a century of the period of bitterest 

26 ETH— 08 4 17 



18 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

old belongings that for a month or two after going into their midst 
there seemed but little opportimity of securing an^^thing approacliing 
a representative series. Several specimens that were finally discov- 
ered are believed to be the very last of their kind among the Pimas, 
though of course such a statement must be made with reserve. Prof. 
J. J. Thornber, of the University of Arizona, accompanied the party 
on a round trip of SO miles along the Gila river and to him the 
collection is indebted for about 50 herbarium specimens, represent- 
ing the larger portion of the economic ])lants of the Pimas that are 
susceptible of preparation in this way. To him also is due the credit 
of examining and identif\ang the mass of material gathered by the 
persons engaged at Casa Blanca and Gila Crossing. As complete a 
list as possible of the plants used for food, medicine, and the like was 
made, after wliich the services of both men and women were enlisted 
to point out the plants m the course of a trip through the river l^ottoms 
or on the hills. Furthermore, a number of sets of seeds was obtained, 
a portion of which were planted durmg the summer of 1902 for the 
purpose of raismg plants that could not otherwise be identified. 
Unfortunately, the season proved too dry for them to germinate and 
the list is consequently less complete than it should be. The Pima 
name is given in all cases. 

The American people owe the Pimas a lasting debt of gratitude. 
The California pioneers that traversed the southern route before the 

warfare lietween the Pimas and the Apaches. After several months acquaintance with this old woman 
Mrs Russell obtained from her much information concerning the Pima woman's views of warfare as 
well as knowledge of facts pertaining to various customs, especially those peculiar to her sex. 

Antonio Azul (see pi. ii. a) was the head chief of the tribe, and from him much information concerning 
war customs and recent history was obtained. 

Ki'satc, Cheese, an old Santan pariah, had employed such wit as grudging nature had endowed him 
with in practising the arts of the medicine-man. His contributions, while of a minor character, proved 
to be of interest. 

William Blactwater, an elderly Pima, had taken an active part in the later history of the village of 
Blackwater, which is situated at the eastern end of the reservation. He was employed but a short time 
and gave information concerning history and customs. 

Ha'hali, or Juan Thomas, a Christian Pima who was formerly a medicine-man, contributed much val- 
uable information concerning the " occult." He also furnished a calendar record and made a number 
of specimens illustrating the medicine-man's paraphernalia. 

Tco'kiit Nak, Owl Ear (pi. ii, b), an old man, lived at the Salt River village and was the first from 
whom a calendar record was obtained. 

Benjamin Thompson, so far as could be learned, kept the onlycalendar In the central group of villages 
about Casa Blanca, and he related the events that are commemorated by it. 

Kaema-a, Rattlesnake Head (pi. ii. c). a chief, is known to the whites as Joseph Head. He gave 
an excellent specimen of a calendar record and stick. 

Interpreters. The principal interpreter, who was employed by the month during the entire period of 
the writer's stay, was Jose Lewis, a Papago who had lived from childhood among the Pimas. He had 
once been engaged by the Bureau of American Ethnology to write a vocabulary of his own language 
and to supply other information, so that he was acquainted with the phonetic alphabet and other 
approved methods of procedure. He was engaged in linguistic work the greater part of the time. 

Melissa Jones, the official interpreter at the agency, was employed to interpret the statements of 
Sika'tcu, her mother, known to the whites as" Old Mary," and also at intervals on the calendars. 

Jacob L. Roberts spoke quite as good English as the average white man of the country and was em- 
ployed to secure Tco'kiit Nak's calendar (pi. ii. b) and for the final revision of the linguistic material. 

Carl Smart, of Sacaton. and Thomas Allison, of Blackwater, were occasionally engaged as tempo- 
rary interpreters. In addition to these there were half a dozen others who were employed for from 
one to three days each at the lower villages. 



RUSSELL] NAME 19 

days of transcontinental railroads often owed their lives to the friendly 
browai-sldnned farmers whom they met upon the Gila." This tribe 
rendered notable assistance as scouts in the long contest with the 
Apaches. Even had they remained neutral, they would have deserved 
friendly consideration on the part of the whites, but as they fought 
bravely in the latter' s behalf justice requires that their services be 
accorded proper recognition. 

The Pinias live in two river valleys that are strewn with the ruins of 
preliistoric buildings and other evidences of the presence of a consider- 
able population that hail attained probably the highest degree of civil- 
ization or culture to be found north of Mexico. The present race has 
been variously regarded as the descendants of the one that has disap- 
peared, as having amalgamated with it, and as being entirely inde- 
pendent of it. The determination of the exact relationsliip of the two 
groups has been held constantly m mind during the course of these 
investigations. Closely connected with this principal problem are 
those problems of the extent and direction of the migrations of men 
and culture toward the Sierra ^ladre, the Rio Grande, the Pacific, and 
the plateau to the northward. Was this a center of culture or was it 
a halting place in the march of clans? 

HISTORY 

Name 

The tribe known as the Pimas was so named by the Spaniards 
early in the liistory of the relations of the latter with them. The 
oldest reference to the name witliin the writer's knowledge is that by 
Velarde: ''The Pima nation, the name of which has been adopted by 
the Spaniartls from the native idiom, call themselves Otama or in the 
plural Ohotoma; the word pima is repeated by them to express 
negation."' This "negacion" is expressed by such words as pia, 
"none," piatc, "none remaining," pimatc, "I do not know" or "I 
do not imderstand." In the last the soimd of tc is often reducetl to a 
faint click. The Americans corrupted this to " Pimos," and wliile this 
form of the word is now used only ])y the illiterate living in the neigh- 
borhood of the tribe, it is fairlj^ common in the literature referring to 
them. They call themselves A'-a'tam, "men" or "the people,'' and 
when they wish to distinguish themselves from the Papago and other 

o Sylvester Mowry, lieutenant in the Third Artillery, in an address before the American Geographical 
Society. in New York, February 3. 1859 (Arizona and Sonora, 3d ed., 30), said: "Much as we pride our- 
selves upon our superior government, no measures [the United States Goverimient have [sic] since, 
under urgent pressure of the writer, made some small appropriations for the Pima Indians] have been 
taken to continue our friendly relations with the Pimos; and to our shame be it said, it is only to the 
forbearance of these Indians that we owe the safety of the Ufe of a single American citizen in central or 
western Arizona, or the carriage of the mails overland to the Pacific." 

''■'La nacion pima,cuyo nombre han tomado los espaiioles en sunativo idioma, se llama Otama yen 
plural Ohotoma, de la palabra Pima repetida en ellos por ser su negacion." Documentos para la 
Historia de Mexico, 4th ser., i, 345. 



20 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

divisions of the same linguistic stock they add the word a'kimlilt, 
"river." " River people" is indeed an apt designation, as evidenced by 
their dependence on the Gila. 

Gatschet has thus defined the Pima linguistic stock in an article 
entitled ''The Indian languages of the Pacific," wliich was published 
in the Magazine of American History : ° 

Pima. Dialects of this stock are spoken on the middle course of the Gila river, and 

south of it on the elevated plains of southern Arizona and northern Sonora (Pimeria 
alta, Pimeria baja). The Pima does not extend into California unless the extinct, 
historical Cajuenches, mentioned in Mexican annals, spoke one of the Pima (or Pijmo, 
Pimo) dialects. Pima, on Pima reserve, Gila river, a sonorous, root-duplicating idi(jm; 
N^vome, a dialect probably spoken in Sonora, of which we possess a reliable Spanish 
grammar, published in Shea's Linguistics; & Papago, on Papago reserve, in southwest- 
ern Arizona. 

Villages 

During the early part of the nineteenth century there were eight 
Pima villages on the Gila, according to statements madeby Ka'mal tkak 
and other old men of the tribe. The numerous accounts by travelers 
and explorers contain mention of from five to ten pueblos or villages. 
The names are usually those bestowed by the Spanish missionaries or 
unrecognizable renderings of the native terms. The villages were 
principally upon the south bank of the river, along which they 
extended for a distance of about 30 miles. "^ Some have been aban- 
doned; in other cases the name has been retained, but the site has 
been moved. The first villages named by Kino were Equituni, 
Uturituc, and Sutaquison. The last two were situated near the 
present agency of Sacaton (pi. i). The first may have been the 
village of Pimas and Kwahadk's, which was situated west of Picacho 
on the border of the sink of the Santa Cruz river (fig.l), which was 
abandoned about a century ago and was known as Aktitciny, Creek 

o Vol. I, 156. 

b The most valuable publication relating to the Pima language is the " Grammar of the Pijaa or 
Nt^vome. a language of Sonora, from a manuscript of the XVIII Century." This was edited by Buck- 
ingham Smith, and ItiO copies were issued in 1S02. It is in Spanish-Nevome, the latter differing slightly 
from the true Pima. The grammar has 97 octavo pages with 32 additional pages devoted to a ''Doc- 
trina Cristiana y Confesionario en Lengua Nevome, 6 sea la Pima." 

c The Kudo Ensayo states that '• between these Casas Grandes, the Pimas, called Gilenos, inhabit 
both banks of the river Gila, occupying ranches on beautiful bottom land for 10 leagues farther down, 
which, as well as some islands, are fruitful and suitable for wheat. Indian com, etc." Records of the 
American Cathohc Historical Society, v, 128. 

" The most important of these ranches are, on this side, Tusonimd, and on the other, Sudacson or 
the Incarnation, where the principal of their chiefs, called Tavanimd, lived, and farther down, Santa 
Theresa, where there is a very copious spring." (Ibid., 120.) This "spring" was probably above the 
present Gila Crossing where the river, after running for many miles underground in the dr>' season, 
rises with a strong flow of water that supplies extensive irrigating ditches. 

Whipple, Ewbank, and Turner, w'riting in 18.55, enumerate the following Pima villages: San Juan 
Capistrano, Sutaquison, Atison, Tubuscabor, and San Seferino de Napgub (see Pacific Railroad 
Reports, ni, pt. 3, 123). 

In 1858 Lieut. A. B. Chapman, First Dragoons, U. S. .\rmy, completed a census of the Pimas and 
Maricopas. The names of the villages, leaders, and the population of both tribes are here reprinted 



RUSSELL] 



VILLAGES 



21 



Mouth. The site of this settlement was visited by the writer in 
April, 1902. It is marked by several acres of potsherds that are 
scattered about the sand dunes on the south side of the dry river 
bottom that is scarcely lower than the level of the plain. A few 
Mexican families have lived in the vicinity for many years, pumpinfr 
water from a depth of a hundred feet and depending upon crops of 
corn and beans raised in the siunmer when a few showers fall upon 
their fields. These Mexicans plow out stone implements and bits 
of pottery, but have never found any burial places." There are two 
medium-sized adobe ruins on the flat river bottom ; one of these has 
walls of the same pise type that is exhibited by the Casa Grande 
ruin (pi. Ill), situated 25 miles to the northward. 

from S. Ex. Doc. 1, pt. 1, 559, 35th Cong., 2d sess., 1859. The number of Maricopas is included that the 
comparatively small importance of that tribe may be appreciated. 

MARICOPAS 
[Head chief, Juan Chevereah.] 



Villages. 



Chiefs. 



Women | 
Warriors. and j Total, 
children. 



El Juez Tarado 




f 116 
1 "13' 


198 

128 


314 


Sacaton 




204 




192 


320 1 


518 



PIMAS 

[Head chief, Antonio Soule [Azul].] 



Biien I.lano, . . . 
Orniejera No. 1, 
Orinejera No. 2, 
Casa Blanca. .. 

Chemisez 

RlJiiez Tarado 
Arizo del Aqua, 
Aranca No. 1 . . 
Aranca No. 2 . . 



Ojo de Biiro and Vit'Ia <ii'I Arispe 

Miguel and Xa\ier 

Cabeza del Aquila 

Chelan 

Tabacaro 

Cadrillo del Mundo and Ariba Aqua Bolando. 

Francisco 

La Mano del Mundo 

Boca Pulce 




1,152 I 



2,965 4,117 



Mr Browne, a memlier of Commissioner Foston's party that visited the villages in January, 18*i4, 
wrote: "The number of Pima villages is 10: Maricopas, 2; separate inclosures, 1,000." (J. Ross 
Browne, Adventures in the Apache Country. 110.1 On a later page (290) he gives the population by 
villages, of which he names but seven: 



Ilcrringuen ,ji4 

Llano 392 

Total 3, 067 



Aqua Baiz 533 

Cerrito 259 

Arenal (ilG 

Cachunilla 43S 

Casa Blanca 315 

" There are 1,200 laboring Pimas and 1,000 warriors." 

James F. Rusling (The Great West and the Pacific Coast, 369), who visited the Pinias jti isr.7. also 
states that there were then ten Pima villages. 
aFont mentions a Pima-Papago village in this vicinity, called "Cuitoa." Manuscript Diary. 35. 



22 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



The villages known to the oldest Pimas are as follows: 

1. Peta'ikuk, Where the Petal (ash tree?) Stands. 

2. Tcupatak, Mortar Stone. 

3. Tcu'wutrkawutfik, Earth Hill. 

4. Os Ka'kumuk Tco'tcikam, Arrow-bush Standing. 

5. Ko'-okup Van'sik, Medicine Paraphernalia. 

6. Ka'mit, Back. 

7. Tco'utik Wu'tcik, Charcoal Laying. 

8 and 9. Akutciny, Creek Mouth. One 5 miles west of Picacho and another south- 
west of Maricopa station. Both depended upon flood waters. 



112 West from Greenwich 




•yo/)/! S. Torbtrt. 



Fig. 1. Miip of Pima reservation. 

There are two Maricopa villages: Hi'nama, Hina Head (hina, a 
kind of fish) and Tco'iitcik Wu'tcik, which is included among the 
Pima villages, as it was occupied by them after the Maricopas moved 
down the river to their present location below Gila Crossing. The 
Ili'namtx people now reside on the south bank of the Salt, east of 
the Mormon settlement of J^ehi. 



RCSSELL] PREHISTORIC KUINS 23 

The Pimas have a tradition relating the circumstances of the 
coming of the band of Sobaipuris," whom they call Rsa'rsavina, Spot- 
ted, from the San Pedro. They are said to have drunk na'vait or 
cactus liquor together with a village of Pimas of forgotten name, on 
the north side of the Gila, near the present Blackwater and the Pica- 
cho village of Akiatciny, before the time when the Apaches forced 
them to leave their homes on the San Pedro. 

Since the settlement of the Gila and Salt river valleys by the 
whites and the establishment of peace with the Apaches, the Pimas 
have again manifested a disposition to extend their settlements, 
principally owing, however, to the scarcity of water on the Gila 
River reservation. The present villages are as follows : 

Os Kuk, Tree Standing, known as Blackwater. 

We'tcu(r)t, Opposite, North Blackwater. 

Ha'rsanykuk, Saguaro Standing, Sacaton Flats. 

S'a'opuk, Many Trees. The Cottonwoods. 

Tat'situk' , Place of Fright , the settlement about Cruz's store. 

Ku'-u Ki. Big House, Sacaton. 

j\^o'pohiiim, (?), Santan. 

Hu'tcilttcik, Round Clearing, village below Santan on north bank of river. 

Va'-aki, Ruin or Ancient House, Casa Blanca. 

Sta'tannylk, Many Ants, a village between the two last preceding, on south liank 
of Gila. 

Pe-ep'tcilt'k', Concave (from a family with noses of that shape), northeast of Casa 
Blanca. 

Rso'tuk', Water Standing, northwest of Casa Blanca. 

Ska'kaik, Many Rattlesnakes, on north side of Gila, opposite Rso'tuk'. 

Rsa'nuk, Beginning, about a mile east of Sacaton station on Maricopa and Phoenix 
railroad . 

Ka'woltuk' Wutca, Hill Below, west of railroad. 

Hi'atam, Sea Sand Place, from Hi'akatcik, where the people of this village formerly 
lived. Hi'atam was just north of Maricopa station. 

Ka'matuk Wu'tca, Ka'matAk Below, GOa Crossing. Ka'matuk is the Pima name 
of the Sierra Estrella. 

Herm'ho, Once, or A'md A'kimtllt, Salt River, known by last name. This is the 
settlement on the north side of the river, .S miles from Mesa. 

Pkehistokic Ruins 

The Pimas have long since gro^vn accustomed to being interro- 
gated concerning the builders of the great stone and adobe pueblos 
that now lie in ruins on the mesas of the Gila and Salt river valleys. 
However ready they may have been iit the past to claim relationship 



«"The most warlike among all the Fimas are those we call the Sobiarpuris, lor they are bom and 

reared on the border of the Apaches: but they have become tired of living in constant warfare, and have, 
during the present year of 1702, abandoned their lieautiful and fertile valley, retiring, some to Santa 
Maria Soanca. and some to San Xavier del Bac and to Tucson, thus leaving to the enemies a free en- 
trance to the high region of the Pimas." Rudo Ensayo, translated by Eusebio Guit^ras, Records of the 
American Catholic Historical Society, v, 192. 



24 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

with the Hohokam" or relate tales of the supernatural origin of the 
pueblos, they now frankly admit that they do not know anything 
about the matter.* As early as the time of Kino and Mange men- 
tion is made of the chief of the former pueblo of C'asa Grande, who 
was called "Siba." Mange in his Diary of November, 1697, trans- 
lates this word as "bitter" or "cruel." The present pronunciation 
is sivan'' and the same name is given to all Ilohokam chiefs; no one 
now knows the meaning of the word. The query arises. Is the simi- 
larity of this term to the native name for the Zunis a mere coinci- 
dence? Mr Gushing states that "Gibola equals the 'C"hi-vo-la' of 
Fray Marcus, of Nizza, equals the Zuni name for themselves, namely, 
Shiwona, or Shiwina.'"'' 

Each ruin is called va-aki, ancient house, and in the myths a 
name is added to distinguish it from other ruins and to it si'van'' to 
identify him from other chiefs. 

Following is the list of the best known places, with their chiefs: 

■ Tco'-olt(ik, Corner, Casa Grande. Ruled by Sia'-al Tcu-vtakJ, Morning Blue. 
A-at'kam Va-aki, Sandy Ancient House, Santan. Ruled by Kia'-atak, Handle. 
S'o'am Nyu'i Va-aki, Yellow Vulture Ancient House. Name of chief not known 
to my informants. 

The following names of chiefs are preserved in tlie myths, but the 
ruins are referred to simply as va-aki: 

Tcuf'haowo-o, Dipper, was the sivan'' at the ruin situated about 4 miles northwest 
of Santan. (PI. iv, a, b.) 

Ta'-a, Flying, lived at the Sweetwater puelilo. (PI. iv, c) 

Tco'-otcuk Ta'tai, Black Sinew, at Casa Blanca.<i 

Tcu'narsat, Lizard, at Gila Crossing. 

A'-an Hi'tupaki, Feather Breathing, at Mesa. 

Vi'-ik I'alt Ma'kai, Soft Feathers Rolling, ruled the pueblo between Tempe and 
Phoenix that is now being excavated by the Arizona Antiquarian Society. 

Wlien a single cMef is referred to, he is usually called Si'van'', and 
when the full name is given, Si'van'' is always added, so that it is 
not surprising that. Mange, Bandelier,'^ and others should have sup- 

o The term Ilohokam, That which has Perished, is used hy the PLnias to designate the race that occu- 
pied the pueblos that are now rounded heaps of ruins in the Salt and Gila river valleys. As there is 
no satisfactory English term, the Pima name has l)ccn adopted throughout this memoir. 

6" I made frequent inquiries of the Pimos and Coco-Maricopas as to the builders of these (Salt 
River ruins) and the ruins on the Gila, but could obtain no other than the ever ready, Qu!en sabe? 
These, as well as the ruins above the Pimo villages, are known among the Indians as the 'houses of 
Montezuma,' an idea doubtless derived from the Mexicans, rather than from any tradition of their 
own. We asked our Indian guide who Monteziuna was. He answered, ' Nobody knows who the 
devil he was; all we know is. that he built these houses.' " Bartlett, Personal Narrative. 1854, ii, 248. 

fCongr&s International des Amdricanistes, 70"^ sess., 1890, 15.5. 

dThe ruin at Casa Blanca (pi. v,a) is one of the largest south of the Gila. The adobe walls yet show 
at the level of the surface of the mound. SedeLmair states in his Relaci(5n that there were two houses 
standing at Casa Blanca in 1744. This and the ruin in Santan are the only ones near which the modem 
villages are built. Casa Grande is 6 miles from the nearest Pima village, which was, furthermore, 
quite recently established by families from points farther dowTi the river. 

f " While in New Mexico the chain of traditional information appears almost unVjroken as far down 
as San Marcial, in .\rizona the folk-lore of the Zuhi terminates, according to Mr Cushing. with the north- 
em folds of the Escudilla and of the Sierra Blanca. The remarkable architecture prevalent on the 



KfssELL] PREHISTORIC RUINS 25 

posed that the Casa Grande pueblo was under the control of "Siba" 
or "SiVan'';" indeed it is now frequently designated "Si'vany Ki" 
by the Pimas. Fifteen miles southeast of the Casa Grande ruin is 
the mountam ridge that rises abruptly from the nearly level plains 
which is laiown as Ta-a'tljkam or Picacho mountain. Picacho is an 
isolated peak south of the mountain. The pass between them, . 
through wliich the main trail ran from the Pima villages to Tucson, 
and through which the railroad has been built, was one of the most 
dreaded portions of the overland trail when the Apaches were "out," 
as they were most of the time. To the northeast of the mountain is 
a small pueblo ruin that lies about 15 miles from the river, which is 
apparently the nearest water. It was probably occupied during a part 
of the year only. East of the mountain is a ruin called Kis'tcoit 
Yatcik', Table Tank; on the north is one known as Mo'-ok' Yatcik, 
Sharp Tank; and at the foot of Ta-a'tukam, on the west, is A'-alt 
Vap'tck', Small Tanks. Southwest of the mountain were situated the 
Pima village of Alvutclny and the two pueblo ruins pre^^ously men- 
tioned. There is another small pueblo ruin a few miles northwest of 
the site of Akfitciny, but no others of similar type are known to the 
writer at anj- point in Arizona south of Picacho. A personal examina- 
tion of all the ruins of the southeastern part of the Territory has shown 
them to be of a different type from those of the upper and lower 
Gila and the Salt river valleys. , The ruins along the San Pedro, it is 
true, extend to the southward of the parallel of Picacho, and it is 
believed to be desirable that some of them be explored. Superfi- 
cially they resemble the ruins about Solomonsville, where cremation 

Salado, Gila, and Verde has no light shed upon it by their folk-lore tales. Here the statements of the 
Pimas, which Mr Walker has gathered, are of special value; and to him I owe the following details: 
The Pimas claim to have been created where they now reside, and after passing through a disastrous 
flood — out of which only one man. Cl-ho, was saved — they grew and multiplied on the south bank of 
the Gila until one of their chiefs, Ci-va-nt*!, built the Casa Grande. Theycall it to-day 'Ci-va-nfi-qi' 
(house of Ci-v^-nfOl also 'ViXt-qi' (ruin*. A son of Ci-v^-nO settled on lower Salt river, and biult 
the \allages near Phoenix and Tempe. At the same time a tribe vrith which they were at war occupied 
the Rio Verde; to that tribe they ascribe the settlements whose ruins I have visited, and which they 
call ' 0-6t-g6m-vatqi ' (gravelly ruins). The Casa Blanca and all the ruins south of the Gila were 
the abodes of the forefathers of the Pimas, designated by them as 'Vi-pi-s6t' (great-grandparents), 
or ' IIo-ho-q6m' (the e.xtinct onesi. (Ci-vji-nri had twenty wives, etc. ['Each of whom wore on her 
head, like a headdress, the peculiar half-hood, half-basket contrivance called Ki'-jo.' Papers Archeol. 
Inst., IV, 4t)3.]l At one time the Casa Grande was beset by enemies, who came from the east in 
several bodies, and who caused its abandonment; but the settlements at Zacaton, Casa Blanca, etc., 
still remained, and there is even a tale [' It is even said that the people of Zacaton made war upon their 
kindred at Casa Blanca and blockaded that settlement by constructing a thorny hedge around it. 
Through the artifices of the medicine-men the hedge turned into a circle of snakes.' Papers Archeol. 
Inst., IV, 4t>4] of intertribal war between the Pimas of Zacaton and those of Casa Blanca after the 
ruin of Casa Grande. Finally, the pueblos fell one after the other, until the Pimas, driven from their 
homes, and moreover decimated by a fearful plague, became reduced to a small tribe. A portion of 
them moved south into Sonora, where they still reside, but the main body remained on the site of their 
former prosperity. I asked particularly why they did not again build houses with solid walls like 
those of their ancestors. The reply was that they were too weak in numbers to attempt it, and had 
accustomed themselves to their present mode of living. But the construction of their winter houses — 
a regular pueblo roof bent to the ground over a central scaffold — their organization and arts, all bear 
testimony to the tfuth of their sad tale, that of a powerful sedentary' tribe reduced to distress and ■^ 
decadence in architecture long before the advent of the Spaniards." Bandelier in Fifth Ann. Rep. 
Archeol. Inst. Am., 1883-84, SO, 81. 



26 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. Ann. 26 

was the prevailino; mode of disposing of the dead, as it was also on the 
lower Gila and the vSalt river. Notliing was learned to indicate that 
the Sobaipuris of the San Pedro practised incineration. If some of 
the clans of the Hopis or Zunis are to be identified with the Hohokam 
of the Gila, as is maintained by some of the most able authorities 
upon Southwestern archeology, "^ how is the total disappearance of 
this primal custom to be explained? 

There is a strong belief among the Pimas that they came from the 
, \ east. It is in that quarter that the abode of their dead is located. 
Their gods dwell there. Their beliefs do not seem to have been 
influenced in this respect in the least through contact with the tribes 
of Yuman stock who have sought a paradise in the opposite direc- 
tion. There are vestiges of a tradition that the Pimas were once 
overwhelmed by a large force of \\arriors who came from the east 
and destroyed nearly all the people and devastated the entire Gila 
valley. This does not appear to be another version of the account 
of the invasion by the underworld clans. While the majority of the 
Pimas declare that their people have always lived where they now 
are, or that they came from the east, there are some who say that 
the Hohokam were killed by an invasion from the east before the 
Pimas came. 

The Pimas formerly regarded the ruins with the same reverence or 
aversion wliich they felt toward their own burial places. After the 
excavations made by the Hemenway Expedition on the Salt river, 
as no disasters followed the disturbance of the dead, they grew less 
scrupidous and can now readily be hired as workmen to excavate 
the ruins or ancient cemeteries. 

Contact with Spaniards 

From the meager records of the Coronado Expedition of 1540-1542 
it has been surmised that Chichilticalli was the Casa Grande, but this 
statement lacks verification. After traversing the entire southern 
and eastern part of Arizona the writer can not but believe that it is 
extremely improbable that Coronado saw the Casa Grande and the 

"The earliest mention of the Gila origin of the Hopi theory is that of Garc^s; "Also they knew that 
I was padre ministro of the Pimas, who likewise are their enemies. This hostility had been told me 
by the old Indians of ray mission, by the Gilenos, and Coco-Maricopas, from which information I have 
imagined (he discurrido i that the Moqui nation anciently extended to the Rio GUa itself. I take my 
stand (fundome. ground myself) in this matter on the ruins that are found from this river as far as 
the land of the Apaches, and that I have seen between the Sierras de la Florida and San Juan Nepo- 
muzeno. Asking a few years ago some Subaipuris Indians who were living in my mission of San Xavier 
If they knew who had built those houses whose ruins and fragments of pottery (losa for loza) are still 
visible — as, on the supposition that neither Pimas nor Apaches knew how to make (such) houses or 
pottery, no doubt it was done by some other nation — they replied to me that the Moquis had built 
them, for they alone knew how to do such things, and added that the Apaches who are about the mis- 
sions are neither numerous nor valiant; that toward the north was where there were many powerful 
people; 'there went we,' they said, 'to fight in former times (antiguamente) ; ajid even though we 
attained unto their lands we did not surmount the mesas whereon they lived.'" Diary in Coues, On 
the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, New York, 1900, ii, 3S6, 387. 



RUSSELL] CONTACT WITH SPANIARDS 27 

neighboring Pima villages. For a century and a half after that inva- 
sion no white man is known to have reached the territory of the 
Pimas Gilenos. 

The earliest as well as the most important explorer in the history 
of Pimeria Alta was Father Eusebio Francisco Kino, who, between 
the years 16S7 and 1710, journeyed many a dusty, thirsty league in 
the eager search for souls. In 1694 he reached the Casa Grande in 
company vdth native guides who had informed him of the existence 
of the ruin. Absolutely nothing is known about this expedition 
except that a mass was said witliin the walls of Casa Grande. How- 
ever, it may be safely inferred that Kino visited the near-by Pima vil- 
lages. As the Papagos were at that time also called Pimas it is some- 
times difficult to determine what part the true Pimas played in the 
events chronicled by the padres. Yet it is probable that they are 
referred to in the account of the religious festival which was observed 
in 169S at Remedios, in Pimeria Baja. Among the visitors were 
"native chieftains from as far north as the Gila valley." Then as now 
the Pimas and Papagos were on a frienilly footing, ami the character 
and movements of the Spaniards must have been made known to the 
Pimas before the latter saw Kino or any other white man. 

Kino diligently strove to establish missions among the many tribes 
that he visited, but was much hampered by lack of funds. He suc- 
ceeded in interesting the authorities sufficiently to induce them to 
send a military expedition to the Gila in 1697 for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the disposition of the Pimas. The party included 20 soldiers, 
with 3 officers. Juan Mateo Mange was sent with Kino to write the 
official reports of the expedition. On the upper San Pedro river 
30 Sobaipuris joined the party, which followed that stream to the 
Gila. They reached the Pima villages on the 21st of November, vis- 
iting and for the first time describing the Casa Grande. The return 
was by the more direct route of the Santa Cruz A^alley. It was bj' 
this route also that Kino in September, 1698, again descended to the 
Pimas with a small partj' of native guides. He returned by waj' of 
Quijotoa (0 and the Gulf. 

Early in 1699 Kino, in company with Mange, made his fourth jour- 
ney to the Pimas by way of Sonoita and the lower Gila. The return 
was by way of the Santa Cruz. 

A year later Kino again reached the Gila by a new route. From a 
point above the Bend, and hence doubtless among the Pimas, he 
descendeil to the mouth and returned to Sonora by way of Sonoita. 

In 1702 he made his sixth and last journey to the Pimas, going by 
way of Sonoita and the lower Gila. Among the "40,000 gentiles" 
whom he is said to have baptized there were quite a number of Pimas, 
but as his sojourn among them was never of more than a few days' 
duration his influence could not have been verv great. Nevertheless, 



28 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

he gave away great quantities of beads, and as the people already 
valued highly those of their own manufacture it is probable that they 
readily accepted Kino's statement that magic power resided in the 
new beads of glass. At any rate, the writer has found very old glass 
beads on all Piman shrines and has no doubt that some of them were 
brought by Kino. The fir.st horses, also, to reach Pimeria were brought 
by these expeilitions. There is no record of any cattle being brought 
so far north, though they were generally distributed to the Papago 
rancherias in Kino's time. 

After the death of Kino, in 1711, no Spaniard is known to have 
reached the Gila or even to have entered Arizona for a period of more 
than twenty years. In 1731 two missionaries, Father Felipe Segres- 
ser and Juan Bautista Grashoffer, took charge of the missions of San 
Xavier del Bac and San Miguel de Guevavi and became the first per- 
manent Spanish residents of Arizona. In 1736-37 Padre Ignacio 
Javier Keller, of Suamca, made two trips to the Pima villages on the 
Gila, where he found "that manj' of the rancherias of Kino's time 
had been broken up." " Again in 1743 Keller went up to the Pimas 
and endeavored to penetrate the Apache country to the northward. 
Commvuiications by means of native messengers indicated a desire on 
the part of the Hopis to have Jesuit missionaries come to them from 
Sonora. The point of greatest interest to us is that any communica- 
tion should have existed at all. Keller failed in his attempt on 
account of the hostility of the Apaches, and Sedelmair, who tried to 
make the journey in the following year, was unable to induce the 
Pimas or Maricopas to accompany him. In 1748 Sedelmair reached 
the Gila near the mouth of the Salt river and journeyed westward. 
Of his trip to the Gila in 17.50 little is known. 

Accounts of these earliest missionaries of course preceded them bj^ 
means of Papago messengers, who doubtless made clear the distinc- 
tion between the slave-hunting Spanish adventurers and the Jesuits 
and Franciscans. Fortunately for the Pimas they were quite beyond 
the reach of the former and were so remote from the Sonoran settle- 
ments that only the most devout and energetic friars ever reached 
them. 

The first military force to be stationed in Arizona was a garrison of 
50 men at Tubac, on the Santa Cruz. This presidio was moved to 
Tucson about 1776, and in 1780 the garrison was increased to 75 men. 
Even when at Tucson the influence of this small force on the Pimas 
could not have been very great. Between 1768 and 1776 Padre Fran- 
cisco Garces made five trips from San Xavier del Bac to the Pimas 
and beyond. The fifth entrada was well described in Garces's Diary 
(admirably translated and edited by Elliott Couesimder the title "On 
the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer"), though he exliibited a pitiful waste 



o Bancrolt, xvii, 362. 



KrSSELLl 



CONTACT WITH SPANIARDS. 29 



of opportunities for ethnological observation while among the Pimas." 
Fpom this time forwartl until the American occupancy of the Gadsden 
Purchase in 1853 the Spanish and Mexican population of Tucson 
varied from 500 to 2,000, and there was more or less trade with the 
Pimas either at the post or through small trading parties that went 
from Tucson to the Gila villages. 

a Pfefferkorn, who published his Beschreibung der Landschaft Sonora in 1794-95, gives a very full 
account oi the southern Pima-speaking tribes, but dismisses the "unconverted Pimas" in the follow- 
ing words: 

"Hierauf folgen den Oila hinunter die noch unbekehrten Pimas, welche sich auf beyden Seiten des 
Flusses ausbreiten. Dieses Yolk ist in drey zahlreiche Gemeinden getheilet: woven die starkeste ein 
anmiithiges mit Baumen wohl besetzes Land von 14 Meilen bewohnet; welches durchWasserleitungen, 
die sich wegen dem ebenen Boden mit geringor Miihe aus dem Flusse auf das umliegende Land tiihren 
lassen, befeuchtet. und fruchtbar gemacht werden kann." (Vol. i, p. G.i 

Padre Pedro Font, who accompanied Garc6s in 1775, wrote an extended diar>' of the journey, in which 
he devotes a few pages to the Pimas. Following is a translation from a copy of the original manuscript, 
pages 48-52: 

" First of November: Wednesday.— I said mass, which was attended by some Gilenos Indians who 
happened to be there and who gave evidence of considerable attention, good behaWour, and silence. They 
sought to imitate the Christians in crossing themselves, which they did awkwardly enough, and in 
other things. We left the Laguna (Lagooni at half-past nine in the morning, and at one o'clock in the 
afternoon we reached the town of San Juan Capistrano de Uturituc, after having travelled four leagues 
towards the west-northwest. This town consists of small lodges of the kind that the Gileiios use. We 
were received by the Indians, whom I estimated to be about a thousand in niunber. They were drawn 
up in two rows, the men on one side and the women on the other. After we had dismounted they all 
came in turn to salute us and offered their hand to the Commander and the three Fathers, men and 
women, children and adults. Indeed they all gave token of much satisfaction at seeing us, touching 
their breast with their hand, naming God, and using many other expressions of benevolence. In short, 
their salutation was most lengthy, tor almost every one of them bowed to us, saying: ■ ' Dios ato m' busi- 
boy,"asdo the Pimas Christians of Pimeria alta, which signifies "May God aid us." We, on our part, 
must needs return their salutations. Tliey lodged us in a large hut, which they constructed to that end, 
and in front of it they placed a large cross. Pagans though they were. The river being somewhat dis- 
tant, the Governor ordered his wives to bring water, which they straightway carried to his lodge for 
the people. These Pimas Gilenos are gentle and kind-hearted Indians. In order to fete our arrival 
they sought permission of the Commander to dance, and soon the women were moving from mess to 
mess, dancing after their fashion with hands clasped. In short, the whole people gave token of great 
pleasure at seeing us in their country, and some of them even offered us their little ones to be baptized. 
This we did not do, being desirous of proceeding with circumspection, although we sought to comfort 
them mth good hopes. In the afternoon I went to the town with Father Garcfis and the Governor, 
Papago de Cojat, to see the fields. These milpas are enclosed by stakes, cultivated in sections, with 
five canals or draws, and are excessively clean. They are close by the town on the banks of the river, 
which is large only in the season of the freshets. At that time its water was so low that an Indian who 
entered and crossed it had the water but halfway up his leg. From what they have told me, this is the 
reason they had not yet made their sowing, for inasmuch as the river was so low the water could not 
enter the canals. They also told me that to remedy this need they were all amxious to come together for a 
council, and had already thought of sinking many stakes and branches into the river to raise the water 
so that it might enter the drains; this industry on their part is a proof of their devotion to toil and 
shows that they are not restless and nomad like other races, for to maintain themselves in their towns 
with their fields they themselves have contrived to hold and control the river. I also saw how they 
wove cloaks of cotton, a product which they sew and spin; and the greater number of them know 
how to weave. They own some large-sized sheep whose wool is good, and also Castilian fowl. These 
Indians are somewhat heavy in build, very ugly and dark, the women much more so than the men. 
Moreover, perchance on account of their excessive eating of pechita, which is the husk of the crushed 
mesquite made into a gruel, of screw bean, grass seed, and other coarse foods, a very foul odor may be 
noticed when they are gathered in groups. This evening the Commander presented them all with 
■ tobacco, beads, and glass trinkets, wheremth they were highly pleased. The distribution of these 
things lasted until night. 

2nd Day : Thursday.— We began to say mass very early in the morning, and with the sacred vestments 
I carried with me and with those which Father GarcSs brought from Tubac to use in Colorado river, 
we erected two altars. It being All-Souls day, we three Religious said nine masses. It was, moreover, 
a most notable and unheard of thing that in the river Gila so many masses should be said. They were 
attended by a goodly munber of Indians, who preser\'ed the utmost decorum and silence. We left the 
town of Uturituc at eleven o'clock in the morning, and about three in the afternoon we halted on the 



30 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 26 

Kelations with Americans 
civil and military expeditions 

Early in the nineteenth century American beaver trappers began 
to penetrate tlirough the Apache-infested momitains that bordered 
Pimeria on the north and east. Beaver were then fairly al)imdant in 
the mountain streams and down the Colorado Grande to the veiy end 
in the burnmg lowlands. The aimals of the Pimas make no mention 
of these earliest visitors from the United States, but it is known that 
several parties reached the "Pimos Gilehos," who were foimil uni- 
formly friendly. The Patties, father and son, journeyed from the 
Rio Grande to trap beaver in the Gila country between 1825 and 1828, 
and in the latter year pushed on to California." Kit Carson, with a 
party of trappers, returned fi'om liis first trip to California by this 
route durmg the winter of 1829-30. The famous trapper, Paul 
Weaver, inscribed his name on the walls of Casa Grande in ISSS.' 

Besides the self-reliant and well-armed trappers, a few parties of 
settlers made their waj^ to California tlirough the Gila valley wliile it 
was yet in the possession of the Mexicans, though the best-known 
route was then north of the Colorado canyon. With the opening of 
the new era of American o\vnership l^egan the journeys of surveyors 
and explorers. The first military invasion was by General Kearney, 
with a party of 200 troopers, in 1846. Emory's excellent Notes of a 
Military Reconnoissance and Jolmston's Journal give details of this 
journey with the first reliable information concerning the Pimas. 
Kearney was followed by Lieutenant-Colonel Cooke in command of 
the iloriuon battalion, wliich opened a practicable wagon road to 
California by way of Tucson and the Pima villages. In liis official 
report Colonel Cooke states : 

I halted one day near the villages of this friendly, guileless, and singularly inno- 
cent and cheerful people, the Pimos. Tliey were indeed friendly, for they refused 
to surrender supplies that had been left at the villages to be held for the Mormon 
battalion, and they threatened armed resistance to the Mexicans who demanded the 
mules and goods. 

banks of the river Gila near the to\\Ti of the Incarnation of Sutaquison, having journeyed more than 
four leagues towards the west and a quarter northwest. The Indians of the town canie out to receive 
us and saluted us with tokens of great joy. Their number I estimated to be five hundred souls. On our 
way we passed through two other small towns. In this limited territory lies almost all the land occupied 
bythe tribeof the Pimas Gilenos. Thesoiihereisvery poorandraisesa verystickj'dust.onaccountof 
which and their wretched food the Indians are very ugly, dirty, and repulsive. The river Gila was dry 
in this region, so they obtained their water by digging wells in the sand. It is only during the season of 
freshets that the river is of any service for the seed lands and fields of the Indians. The banks of the 
river are covered with a grove of undersized Cottonwood trees. In the evening tobacco was distrib- 
uted among the Indians and glass beads were promised the women for the following day. We asked 
the Indians why they lived so far from the river, for formerly they had their town on its banks. They 
replied that they had changed its site because on account of the groves and woods on its banks they 
could defend themselves but ill against the Apaches, but that by living apart from the river they were 
able to have a clear field for pursuing and killing the Apaches when they came against their town.'* 

a Pattie's Personal Narrative. 

* J. R. Browne, .Vdventures in the Apache Country. New York, 1869, 118. 



O 5-7^.91 '^S%1 13^^- 



^ Oi, 



EUssELL] RELATIONS WITH AMERICANS 31 

A battalion of dragoons under Maj. L. P. Graham marched west- 
ward to CaUfoniia b}- way of the Pima villages in 1848. Bancroft 
states that he has a manuscript tharj^ from Capt. Cave J. Coutts, of 
this battalion, in which it is recorded that the Pimas were very hos- 
pitable and exhibited conspicuous signs of tltrift." 

The parties of the Boundary Survey Comim'ssioners passed dowm 
the Gila in 1851, and the accoimt of the Pimas by J, R. Bartlett, the 
American commissioner, is by far the best that has been published 
thus far.* Bartlett's party returned eastward through the Pima 
villages in 1852. 

In 1854 Lieuts. J. G. Parke' and George Stoneman began at the 
Pima villages the survey for a railroad which was destuied to pass 
through just a quarter of a century later. In 1855 Lieutenant Parke, 
with another party, made a second survey and again visited the villages. 

From the time of the discover}- of gold in California, in 1849, 
parties of gold seekers, numbering in all many thousand persons each 
year, followed the Gila route, meeting with hospitality from the Pimas 
and almost equally uniform hostility from the Apaches. The loca- 
tion of the Pimas in the midst of the 280-mile stretch between Tucson 
and Yuma was a peculiarly fortimate one for the travelers, who could 
comit upon supplies and if need be protection at a point where their 
journey otherwise must have been most perilous.'' 

The United States Government first recognized the value of the 
assistance rendered by the Pimas when liv act of Congress of Feb- 
ruary 28, 1859, $1,000 was appropriated for a survey of their lands 
and $10,000 for gifts.^ 

a History of Arizona and New Mexico, 470. 

b Personal Narrative, 1854, 2 vols. 

t: '■ Their chiefs and old men were all eloquent in professions of friendship for the ^Vnaericans and were 
equally desirous that we should read theeertificates of good offices rendered various parties while passing 
through their country." Pacific Railroad Report, ir, 5. 

d" Since the year 1849 [they] have acted in the capacity of and with even more efficiency than a frontier 
military. They have protected .Vraerican emigrants from molestation by Apaches, and when the latter 
have stolen stock from the emigrants, the Pimos and Maricopas have punished them and recovered their 
animals. Yet in all this time [ten yearsl nothing has been done for them by our Government." E-xtract 
from a letter in the -Uta California, June 2S, 1858, quoted in S. Ex. Doc. 1, pt. 1, 55G, 35th Cong., 2d 
sess., 1859. 

"A company of nearly one hundred of their best warriors was enlisted into the United States service in 
the latter part of 1865, which served one year with great credit to themselves and did much good serv- 
ice in quelling our common enemy. Seventy of them have just been mustered out [1S67] of the United 
States service, after having performed six months' duty as spies and scouts, for which service they are 
invaluable." Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1867, 163. 

f Following is a list of the articles distriliuted among the Pimas and Maricopas, as reported by Mowry; 
444 axes. 36 hammers. 3 pairs tongs. 

618 shovels. 48 rakes. 1 set stock and dies. 

31 hand saws. 48 trowels. . 12 file handles. 

706 butcher knives. 12 screw-drivers. 36 hatchets. 

516 hoes. 1 " carpenter shop." 120 picks. 

240 sickles. 15 plows. 7 kegs nails. 

48 files. 15 sets plow harness. 9 gross screws. 

270 harrow teeth. 1 forge. 1,400 needles. 

48 mattocks. 1 an\-ll. 1 box sheet tin. 

72 whetstones. 1 \-ise. 4,000 pounds barley. 

15 grindstones. 1 set sledges. 1 pint turnip seed. 

36 hay forks. 1 cast-steel hand hammer. 

Mowry explains that a larger number of plows would have been included in this lot of tools and imple- 



32 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

Maricopa Wells, near the lower villages, became an important stage 
station when the overland mails began to pass late in the fifties." 

With the advent of the stage, the emigrant and the military trains 
began the breaking down of the best that was old and the building 
up of the worst that was new. For a period of thirty years, or from 
1850 to 18S0, the Pinias were visited by some of the vilest specimens 
of humanity that the white race has produced. Until 1871 the tribe 
was without a teacher, missionary, or, to judge from their own story 
and the records of the Government, a competent agent. Bancroft 
has thus summarized the conditions prevailing during that period: 

In many respects there has been a sad deterioration during forty years of contact 
with civilization, notably by acquiring habits of intemperance, prostitution, and pil- 
fering; yet they are still vastly superior to most other tribes. For several years, from 
1868, serious troubles with them seemed imminent. Presuming on their military 
services and past immunity from all restraint, they became insolent and aggressive, 
straying from the reservation, robbing travelers, refusing all satisfaction for inroads 
of their horses on the settlers' fields, the young men being beyond the chiefs' control. 
Swindling traders had established themselves near the villages to buy the Indians' 
grain at their own prices, and even manipulate Government goods, the illegal traffic 
receiving no check, but rather apparently protection from the Ten-itorial authorities. 
Whiskey was bought from Adamsville or from itinerant Mexicans; the agents were 
incompetent, or at least had no influence, the military refused support or became 
involved in profitless controversies. Worst of all, white settlers on the Gila used so 
much of the water that the Pimas in dry years had to leave the reservation or starve. 
General Howard deemed the difficulties insurmountable, and urged removal. Had 
it not been for dread of the Pima numbers and valor, the Apaches still being hostile, 
very likely there might have been a disastrous outbreak.'' 

As early as 1859 Lieut. Sylvester Mowry, special agent, Indian 
Bureau, foresaw danger threatening the interests of the Pimas and 
wrote: 

There are some fine lands on the Gila and any extensive cultivation above the 
Indian fields will cause trouble about the water for irrigation and inevitably bring 
about a collision between the settlers and the Indians. c 

Again in 1861^ Boston gave additional warning: 

If in the eager rush for farms or embryo cities the land above them should be 
occupied by .Americans, and their supply of water be reduced, it might j:)roduce 
discontent.<i 

ments had not the Indian Department distributed a few plows a short time previously. (S. Ex. 
Doc. 2, 723, 36th Cong., 1st sess., 1859.) The gifts were distributed by Lieut. Mowry and the survey 
was made under his direction by Col. A. B. Gray. 

This original survey contained 64,000 acres — much less than the Pimas claimed and actually required 
for their fields and grazing lands. The commissioners who negotiated with them assured the tribe 
that the present boundaries were but temporary limits to protect the people in their rights, and that 
the Government would enlarge the reservation later. This promise was made good by a survey in 1869, 
which added 81,140.10 acres (U. S. Statutes at Large, 1869, n, 401). In 1876 9,000 acres about the 
village of Blackwater were added to the eastern end of the reservation. 

a " In August and September, 1857, the San Antonio and San Diego semimonthly stage line, under the 
direction of I. C. Woods, was estabUshed, James Burch acting as contractor. This continued till the 
Butterfield semiweekly hne was put upon the route, in August, 1858, under a contract of si.x years with 
the Postmaster-General, at §600,000 a year." J. R. Browne, .Vdventures in the Apache Country, ly. 
The journey of nearly 2,500 miles was made in from twenty to twenty-two days. 

ti Bancroft's Works, xvn. 548. 

c S. Ex. Doc. 2, 727,36th Cong., 1st sess., 1859. 

^ Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs 1863, 386, 1864. 



snssBLL] EELATIONS WITH AMERICANS 33 

Agjent R. G. Wheeler protested against the diversion of the water 
of the Gila from the Pima reservation at the time the Florence canal 
was projected in 1886 and succeeded in gaining the attention of the 
Department of the Interior which instructed the Director of the Geo- 
logical Survey to investigate the matter. As a result of the investi- 
gation the following facts were established : 

(1) That the water supply of the Pima and Maricopa reservations under present 
conditions is no more than sufficient for the wants of the Indians. 

(2) That the construction of a dam by the Florence Canal Company of the character 
represented in the correspondence will give the control substantially of all the waters 
of the Gila river. 

(4) That if the water supply from the river be shut off, the Indian reservation would 
become uninhabitable. 

Other facts were presented, but these are the essential ones that 
directly concern us here." Notwithstanding the above finding, no 
effective efforts were made to prevent the water from being diverted 
from the reservation, and the result was nearly as predicted — a result 
that should bring a blush of shame to eveiy true American. A thrifty, 
industrious, and peaceful people that had been in effect a friendly 
nation rendering succor and assistance to emigrants and troops for 
many years when they sorely needed it was deprived of the rights 
inhering from centuries of residence. The marvel is that the starva- 
tion, despair, and dissipation that resulted did not overwhelm the 
tribe. 

AGENTS 

In 1857 John Walker was appointed Indian agent for the territory 
embraced in the Gadsden Purchase, with headquarters at Tucson. 
The Pimas were of course within his territory, though his control 
over them could not have been very great with the agency separated 
from the villages by a 90-mile stretch of desert in the scarcely dis- 
puted possession of the Apaches. Walker presented no report to his 
superior at Santa Fe in 1858, but in 1859 gave some account of the 
condition of the Pimas. 

In 1864 Charles D. Poston was appointed superintendent of Indian 
affairs for Arizona, but he resigned that year. He was succeeded by 
four others during the next eight years, at the end of which period 
the office was abolished. Abraham Lyons was appointed agent for 
the Pimas in 1862, and he also lived at Tucson. Ammi M. White, 
appointed in 1 864, was a resident trader. He had built a mill at Casa 
Blanca, which was destroyed by the flood of September, 1868. Levi 
Ruggles, appointed in 1866, administered afl'airs from Tucson. Dur- 
ing 1867 C. H. Lord acted as deputy agent. Fairly adequate adobe 
buildings were erected for the agent at Sacaton in 1870, and the agents 

o U. S. Geol. Surv., Water-Supply and Irrigatiou Papers, no, 33, p. 10. 
26 BTH— 08 5 



34 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

thereafter resided at that place. The present commodious dwelhng 
was erected in 1883. Following is a list of the later agents, with the 
dates of their appointment: 



Capt. F. E. Grossman, 1869. 

J. H. Stout, 1871-1875, 1877-78. 

Charles Hudson, 1876. 

A. B. Ludlam, 1879. 

E. B. Townsend,,18Sl. 

R. G. Wheeler, 1881. 

A. H. Jackson, 1882. 



R. G. Wheeler, 1885. 
C. M. Johnson, 1888. 
C. W. Crouse, 1889. 
J. R. Young, 1893. 
Henry J. Creveland, 1897. 
Elwood Hadley, 1898. 
J. B. Alexander, 1902. 



SCHOOLS 



The first school (pi. v, h) among the Pimas was opened by Rev. 
C. H. Cook, in the employ of the Government, February 18, 1871, in 
an adobe building about 2 miles west of the present agency of 
Sacaton. This day school had a good attendance from the first, and 
much of the present beneficial influence of the missionary may be 
ascribed to the command over the children which he obtained during 
the seven years that he occupied the position of teacher. The change 
to a boarding school located at the agency was made in 1881, and a 
Mr Armstrong was the first superintendent. The school buildings 
were destroyed by fire in November, 1888, and the mission church 
was occupied during the remainder of that year. The capacity of the 
school is now 225, though during oin- stay at Sacaton more than 300 
were crowded in. Two and three cliildi'en were apportioned to sleep 
in narrow single beds and even in the hospital the beds were over- 
crowded. For 3'ears the accommodations have been inadecjuate to 
receive all the cliildren that desired education. Day schools at Gila 
Crossing and Salt River take care of a few, and three or four new build- 
ings for day schools have been erected at Blackwater, Lehi, Mari- 
copa, and Casa Blanca. 

Annals 

chronological records 

Three chronological records have thus far been preserved from 
among the many that are supposed to have existed among the 
American tribes. The first of these to be published was the Walum 
01am of the Delawares, the definitive edition of which was published 
by D. G. Brmton." In 1877 Col. Garrick Mallery brought to light 
the "Lone-dog wonter count" of the Sioux and subsequently secured 
several other records from the same tribe.'' Recently James Mooney 

a The Lenape and their I^egends, Brinton's Library of Aboriginal American Literature, v, 18S5. 
&A Calendar of the Daliota Nation, Bulletin U. S. Geol. Surv., in, no. 1; also Fourth and Tenth 
Annual Reports of the Bureau of Ethnology. 



RUSSELL] ANNALS 35 

has published a series of Kiowa calendars that resemble those of the 
Sioux, but are more distinctly calendric." 

In addition to these published records we have references to yet 
others that have wholly disappeared; references that can not now be 
verified. For example, the Iroquois are said ^ to have maintained 
a record of their exploits in war by means of war posts on which 
notches indicated tlie occurrence of campaigns and conventional 
characters denoted the number of scalps and captives taken. Events 
of a certain class were thus recorded in chronologic order. Among 
the Santee Sioux Clark " found a notched stick which he was assured 
represented the history of the tribe for more than a thousand years. 
Mooney suggests that this must have been used in connection with a 
chant sunilar to that accompanying the Walum 01am. However, it 
seems extremely improbable that any record should have survived 
the vicissitudes of an Indian camp for so long a period. The use of 
notched sticks for mere numeration is common enough in all cultures 
and among all peoples, but such a use as that made by the Santees is 
not, so far as known, mentioned elsewhere in the literature. 

The writer was therefore greatly interested to discover no fewer 
than five notched calendar sticks among the Pimas. Two sticks 
were "told" to him by their possessors. The record covers a period 
of seventy years, dating from the season preceding the meteoric 
shower of November 13, 1833, as do the oldest of those discovered 
among the Kiowa. There are traditions of older sticks that have 
been lost or buried with their keepers. Juan Thomas, of the village 
of Blackwater, had lost his stick in some mexplicable manner, but he 
was contmuing the history with pencil and paper, thus rendering it 
more nearly comparable to the calendars of the Plains tribes. It is 
noteworthy that the change from stick to paper introduced a ten- 
dency to use pictorial symbols rather than merely mnemonic char- 
acters, such as are most easily incised on the surface of a stick having 
clearly marked grain. Among the sticks there is an evident increase 
in the number and elaboration of characters which may be attributed 
to contact with the whites, though not to their direct influence, as 
the existence of the calendars has been almost entirely imknown to 
them. 

The year begins with the saguaro harvest, about the month of Jinie. 
At that time, also, the mesquite beans are ripenmg, as well as the 
cultivated crops. It is the season of feasting and rejoicijig. No 
other annual occurrence can compare in importance with these fes- 
tivities, so that it is not surprising that the years should be counted 
by harvests. The Lower California tribes, as described by Baegert 

a Calendar History of the Kiowa, Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 
t> J. E. Seaver, A Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jemison, 70: cited by Mallery. 
c The Indian Sign Language, 211, 1885; cited by Mooney. 



36 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



more than a century ago, similarly numbered the years. A space of 
three years would be expressed by the term "three pitahayas," 
" yet they seldom make use of such phrases." " 



THE PIMA CALENDAR 

It is said that when Elder Brother was leaving Pimeria for the last 
time he told the people to count the tail feathers of the little bird, 
Gisap, which are twelve in number, and that they should divide the 
year into that number of parts. He gave them names for these 
parts, except for the coldest and the hottest months. The writer is 
disposed to regard the recognition of the "moons" as of recent origin. 
Not many have any names for them and these do not agree even in 
the same village. For example, the list of months given by the chief is 
quite different from that furnished by K4'mal tkak, and also contains 
references to wheat, which is of course modem. 

The months according to Antonio Atul. 



The months according to K&'mAl tkdk. 

1. Harsany paihitak marsat, Saguaro 

harvpst moon. 

2. Tcokiapik, Rainy. 

3. Rsopol usaplk, Short planting. 

4. Varsa kakatak, Dry grass. 

6. Huhokiapk', Winter begins. 

6. 0am, Yellow. 

7. Ka-amak, Leaves falling. 

8. Aufpa hiasik, Cottonwood flowers. 

9. Aufpa i-ivakitak, Cottonwood leaves. 

10. Koi i-ivakitak, Mesquite leaves. 

11. Koi hiasik, Mesquite flowers. 

12. Kai tcokolik, Black seeds on saguaros. 



1. Peikan? paihitak marsat, Wheat har- 

vest moon. 

2. Hai-sany paihitak, Saguaro harvest. 
.3. Tcokiapik, Rainy. 

4. Rsopol usaplk, Short planting. 

5. Varsa kakatak. Dry grass. 

6. Vi-ihainyik, Windy. 

7. Ovalik, Smell. 

8. Ku-utco s'hupitcik, Big winter. 

9. Kamaki, Gray. 

10. Tcu-utaki, Green. 

11. 0am, Yellow. 

12. Ka-ak, Strong. 



As they have no winters the Pimas naturally do not have a "winter 
count." As there are two rainy seasons and neither is of any con- 
sequence as a general rule, while both are sometimes wanting alto- 
gether, they coidd not be expected to mark the flight of years by the 
recurrence of the rains. There are but two seasons in the Gila valley, 
one of torrid heat ^ and one .of ideal weather throughout the remainder 
of the year. The onset of the former coincides with the harvest season 
and the new year is therefore adapted, albeit unwittingly, to seasonal 
change. The year mark is invariably a deep notch across the stick. 

The records of the early years are memorized and there are few 
minor notches to aid in recalling them. The year notches are exactly 
alike, yet on asking a narrator to go back and repeat the story for 
a certain year the writer found that he never made a mistake. Tak- 
ing the stick in hand he would rake his thumb nail across the year 

a The aboriginal inhabitants of the Califomian Peninsula in Smithsonian Report, 1864, 388. 
t> Maximum temperature recorded for a period of nineteen years at Phoenix was 119° F. Report 
of Chief of Weather Bureau, 1900-1901, 1. 



rdssf.ll] 



ANNALS 37 



notch aiKn)oirin: "That notch means," etc. The interpreter, either 
through invitation or because of the same mode of thought, would then 
take the stick and dig his thumb into the same notch before repeating 
the story in Enghsh. Both seemed to endow the stick and the par- 
ticular notch with a definite personality in their minds. That notch 
looked exactly like its neighbors but it stood for something different, 
which was apparently recalled as much by the sense of touch as by 
that of sight. 

Dots or shallow circular pits and short notches are the most com- 
mon symbols on the sticks. These have no distinctive meaning, and 
are used for recording a great variety of events. The human figure 
is freely used, and may signify that a man killed Apaches or was killed 
by them, that he was bitten by a rattlesnake, struck by lightning, or, 
in short, any event relating to a man in any manner may be denoted 
by this symbol. The date of building railways was recorded by an 
ideogram, representing rails and ties. Only one symbol had come 
arbitrarily to designate a single event. This is the T which was used 
to record the "tizwin drunks," or festivals at which saguaro or agave 
liquor was brewed and freely imbibed. 

NATURE OF THE EVENTS 

It has been frequently observed that the records of the American 
Indians contain much that is trivial arid oftentimes omit that which 
is invportant. There are obvious reasons for this that have been 
adequately set forth by Mallery," and it must also be borne in mind 
that the relative importance of an event differs according as i,t is 
viewed by Caucasian ej'es or by those of the American Indian. Judg- 
ing by the early portions, of the records, the conclusion might be 
reached that the purpose was to secure chronologic sequence, though 
the Pimas are not known to have had ceremonies that bj^ their infre- 
quent recurrence would recpiire calendric regulation. However, the 
later years are so filled with events that the primary purpose is clearly 
narrative. They are therefore to be designated annals, rather than 
calendars. Moreover, the years are never named. ''In this 3'ear 
the crops failed;" "In tliisyear the floods overspread the whole val- 
ley," etc., but never, "This is the fanune year" or "Tliis is the flood 
year." Upon analysis the events recorded are found to be distrib- 
uted as follows : 

Battles or skirmishes 66 

Infrequent phenomena, eclipses, floods, earthquakes, etc 14 

Famines and years of abundance 5 

Epidemics 11 

Accidents, rattlesnake bite, lightning stroke, etc 13 

Events relating to whites, but not to Pimas 19 

o Tenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 271. 



38 



THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 



Relations with whites, building churches, etc 21 

Number of sorcerers killed 18 

Changes of village sites 2 

Races, relay, kicl^ing ball, and horse races 7 

Festivals in which liquor was brewed 25 

Trivial events, including those of personal interest : 13 

Number of persons killed diuing drinking Ixiuts 24 

THE NAUKATIVE 
1833 34= 

ev '"'^iZa Crossing, Salt River. During the moon preceding the 
*.« meteoric shower the Yumas, armed with chibs, bows, and arrows, 
attacked the Maricopa village. The Yumas siu-prised the Maricopas 
and captured their women, whom they siUToimded and tried to take 
away with them. They were about to cross the Gila with theu- cap- 
tives when the Pimas arrived and attacked them. The women took 
advantage of the confusion to escape into the chaparral. The Yumas 
fought bravelj^, 1)ut they were overpowered by numbers and few 
escaped to tell of their defeat. 

In the earh- winter" the meteoric shower took place. This event 
was followed by heavy rains that caused floods in the Salt and Gila 
rivers. The spectacle of falling stars was to the Pimas an augiay of 
disaster, and the succeeding floods were regarded as a punishment 
for sins which they had committed. What the sins might be they 
did not know, but concluded that they must have off'ended some 
medicine-man who jjossessed great magic jjower. Many thought it 
must be the medicine-man Kaku who brought this calamity upon 
them because they had not shown him the respect that he thought 
was due liim. It is said that when the flood was at its height he 
climbed a cottonwood tree and thence proclaimed in a loud voice that 
he would perform certain miracles that wotdd prove disastrous to 
them if tiie}- did not listen to him and show him respect. 

Others declared that the floods were caused by the two sons of an 
old goddess, Takwa-artam. When she saw the flood threatening to 
overwhelm the Pimas and Maricopas she said to her sons: "Give me 
back my niilk and then you can drown my people. The land is yet 
what it was when it was new." This puzzled the two brothers. They 
knew that they coidd not return the milk that had nourished tliem 
in infancy, so they did not aWow the flood to rise any higher, but 
caused it to go down. 

1834-35 



Salt River. Tliis year was long remembered because of the boun- 
tifid crops of wheat, corn, stiuashes, pumpkins, and watermelons tliat 
were raised. The desert mesas were carpeted with flowers and the 



a November 13, 1833. 



rdssell] 



ANNALS 39 



bloom of cacti further transformed them into gardens. "Our people 
worshiped the gods in gratefid recognition for their protection; we 
danced unmolested by the murderous Apaches; we looked after the 
welfare of our households." 

1835-38 

GHIa Crossing, Salt River. One summer afternoon when only 
women and old men were at home, the Apaches came and killed two 
Punas, a man who was irrigating his field and a boy who was hunting 
doves. That morning the younger men of the village of Rsantlk had 
planned to have a rabbit hunt toward the north, but when the crier 
gave the final amiouncement it was to hunt toward the south. Thus 
it was that one side of the village had been left unprotected, and when 
the fighting men returned it was too late to follow the raiders and the 
revenge was postponed. 

1838 3Y 

Salt River. At the begmning of tliis year the fruit of the giant 
cactus was gathered and a large cpiantitj'^ of liquor prepared from it. 
All the men became mtoxicated — too drunk to be on their guard 
against an attack from the Apaches. Early in the morning a wonuxn 
started toward the hills to gatlier cactus fruit. She had not gone far 
when she saw a man mount a horse and start toward her. She 
suspected danger and walked backward for some distance before 
turning to flee. She got halfway to the village before she was over- 
taken by the Apache, with whom she struggled so desperately as to 
raise a cloud of dust. Those who were somewhat sober hastened 
toward the place, but too late to rescue the woman from being roped 
and dragged to death. However, they overtook the party of Apaches 
and killed five of them, l^pon examining the dead Apaches it was 
found that their bodies were protected with rawhide armor; then the 
Pimas understood why their arrows had glaiiced off or jumpetl back. 

Gila Crossing, Salt River. A year passed without a visit from the 
marauding Apaches. "We tilled our fields, danced our war dances, 
sang songs, kept up target practice, and exercised m the use of the 
shield." 

1837—38 

Gila Crossing, Salt River. One cold night m the sprmg a Pima 
at Rso'ttik was irrigating liis wheat field by moonlight. Without 
thought of enemies he built a fire to warm liimself. This the Apaches 
saw and came about liim m the thicket. Hearmg the twigs crackmg 
under their feet, he ran to the village and gave the alarm. The Punas 
gathered in sufficient numbers to surround the Apaches, who 
attempted to reach the hills on their horses. Two horses stumbled 
into a gully, and their riders were killed before they could extricate 



40 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

themselves. The others were followed and all killed. "This was 
the only event of the year, and our ]:)eople were undisturbed further 
in the practice of their customs." 

1S38 30 

Salt River. Late in the spring a party of Pinias went to Tucson 
to buy clothing and other needed supplies. On their return they 
were ambushed and barely escaped massacre. The Apaches had con- 
cealed themselves on either side of the trail, and when the attack was 
suddenly made the Pimas were at first panic-stricken, but recovered 
sufficiently to repel their assailants, with the loss, however, of two 
men killed and a boy captured. Tliis youth is said to have been a 
very handsome fellow, skillful in the use of the bow and arrow. 
Fearing a renewal of the conflict, the Pimas hastened home. 

A few months later they obtamed their revenge upon a party of 
Apaches who came to the villages to steal horses. The enemy were 
seen and chased across the river. On the way thej^ were met by a 
party of Punas, returning from a council, who called out to the 
approaching horsemen to ask who they were; on receiving no 
answer they shot one of them. An Apache called "Slender Leg" 
was pushed off his mule and two Pimas jumped off their horses and 
tried to hold hun, but he was too strong for them and they had to 
tie him. He was taken to the well-swept ]3laza of the village, accord- 
ing to the Salt River calendar, or to an open alkali flat iiear the vil- 
lages, as stated by the Gila Crossing amaalist, where the people gath- 
ered and danced and sang around him. Two widows of men Idlled 
in an ambuscade earlier m the season walked four times around the 
' outside of the circle of dancers, and then passed inside as an avenue 
was opened for them. They carried long clubs of mesquite, with 
which they beat the captive into msensibility. 

1830-41 

There are no events recorded for these two years on either of the 
two sticks that date back thus far. 

1341-4=2 

* Gila Crossing, Salt River. The Maricopas of the village of Masa- 
kimillt, accompanied by one Pima, went on a campaign against the 
Yumas. The enemy gathered to meet them and sent a messenger 
to tell them that they should leave aside their knives and bows and 
fight only with sticks. The Maricopas agi'eed to this, but the Pima 
said he had made his bow and arrpws to use on the enemy and he 
would keep them m liis own hands. The Yuma messenger showed 
the Maricopas where to cross the Colorado river and conducted 
them to the assembled Yumas on the farther side. It was agreed 



nussELL] ANNALS 41 

that foiu' from each side should engage m the combat, iismg sharj) 
sticks about 6 feet long (lances) instead of the customary war club. 

Four times each squad ran in a semicircle near the enemy's line; 
four times they approached each other before the fight began. At 
the first onslaught tliree Maricopas and two Yumas were killed; the 
Yumas killed the surviving Maricopa and retired to their line. 

Then PantatCdc, "bravest of the Maricopas," ran his horse through 
the entire party of Yumas, striking many with his lance before being 
caught in the Ime of women behind the warriors. Katltci Pai, 
Hawk-tail, also rode tlu-ough the Yuma lines, and is living to-day 
(1902). 

Tcuwut Hakvitany, Earth-crack, challenged a Yuma to single com- 
bat and was wounded, but recovered. 

Then the fight became general, most of the Maricopas being killed. 
Many Yumas were also Idlled. The Pima killed so many with his 
arrows that they could not reach liim with their lances, and he 
escaped, as did some Maricopas, and they reached home in safety. 
Aapap Anton, Maricopa Antoine (pi. xliii, &) also kept liis bow and 
arrows, and when closely pressed by the Yumas exclaimed in the 
Puna language: "You can not catch me!" winch somewhat con- 
fused his enemies and enabled him to escape. 

184=2-43 

Salt River. In the autunm the Yumas agam came to attack the 
Maricopa village, but did not attempt to surprise it. They formed 
in line of battle ojiposite the line of Maricopas, who were eciually 
courageous. The war cliiefs stood between the lines. Each man was 
armed with a club only. The Yuma chief said to his opponent : ' ' I 
am ready to have you strike me first if you can." The Maricopa 
cliief answered: " It is for me to let you trj^ youv club on me, because 
you want to kill me, and you have traveled far to satisfy your heart." 
In the personal combat which ensued the Yuma was killed, the sliarj:) 
end of his ojjponent's club piercing his side. Then the fight became 
general, each attacking the man opposite him in the line. There 
were some Mohave Apaches with the Yumas who fought with bows 
and arrows. Wlien they saw the line of Yumas wavering, they de- 
serted them. The Yumas retreated some distance and again made 
a stand, and the fight ended in an indecisive manner, with perhaps 
a greater loss to the Maricopas than to the Yumas. After the fight 
the Mohaves wanted to scalp the dead enemy, but the Yuma cliief 
said no, they might scalp some Yumas by mistake, and they must 
wait until these had been "athei'ed from the field. 



42 THK PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

184:3-44 

Salt River. In the spring the Maricopas, Pinias, and Cocopas went 
on a campaign agauist the Apaches. They were scouting through 
the Verde valley west of the Four Peaks one afternoon when they 
saw a small band of the enemy. They were unable to overtake the 
Apaches, who kept sending up signal smokes. The next morning 
the number of Apaches had increased ami formed a circular line, 
wliich attacked the allies, who lost two men, father and son. 

Four days later a woman went with her daughter to gather cactus 
fruit for drying. She was accompanied by her husband, who went 
as a guard. While she was busy gathering the spiny cactus, she heard 
a steji and, turnmg, saw an Apache. She screamed for help and told 
her daughter to run to the village and give the alarm. The husband 
was hunting near at hand, l)ut was too far away to rescue his wife. 
The little girl brought the men of the village, but they could find no 
trace of the enemy. 

A few days later the Apaches killed a party of Pimas who had gone 
to the mountains to gather mescal. The Pimas had planned to go 
to the Kwahadk camp, but changed their minds and camped oppo- 
site them. The Apaches sent down scouts from the hills to see how 
many there were at the place where the smoke from the mescal pits 
was seen. It was a night attack and many Pimas never wakened 
to see another day; only one escaped to tell the Kwahadk's of the 
massacre. Thej^ followed the trail of the Ajiaches but did not over- 
take them. The dead were buried there by the Kwahadk's, who knew 
the Pimas well. 

In the summer, when the watermelons were ripe, a large force of 
Yumas came to attack the Pimas and Maricopas. Their commg was 
heralded by messengers, who said they were advancing in great 
numbers as gaily as for a dance. The Maricopas were read}' to meet 
them, but the Pimas were not. The Maricopas went out to engage 
the enemy and check their advance while the women got out of the 
way. The Yumas wei'e driven back, but the Maricopas lost two of 
their bravest warriors. 

18-44—45 

Salt River. The next year the Yumas and Mohaves came to attack 
the Maricopa village. The fight was imdecided, l:)ut the enemy re- 
treated. One Pima and several Maricopas were killed. 

tGila Crossing, Salt River. A plague swept tlirough all the tribes 
during this year. Those stricken with it usually died witliin twenty- 
four hours, but if they recovered they were well again in three days. 
From 4 to 10 died each day. The people of Akutciny came to the 
Gila and the Gila villagers fled mto the desert. The [cholera or] 



RUSSELL] ANNALS 43 

tcoko vihasik, "black vomit,"" as it was called, brought all the medi- 
cme-men not in the best repute under suspicion. Four were killed, 
and the survi\'ing medicine-men were kept busy guarding the camps 
against the plague. 

^ Gih Crossing. During the winter, when ice was on the water and 
» snow was evenly sprinkled on the lowlands, the Apaches came to 

tthe village of Rstinlik, where one of the marauders was killed. 
The Apaches, accompanied by the Piisina tribe from the north, 
attacked the Papagos at Kihotoak (Quijotoa) in April as the mesquites 
were changing from bud to leaf. The Apaches advanced with drums 
beating and with cries like the howl of the coyote. The Papagos were 
few m number, so they concealed their women m a cave and sought 
to protect them by fighting outside, but the enemy had firearms and 
all the Papagos fell m the futile attempt to preserve their loved ones 
from slavery. There j^et lives a Pima who was shot tlu-ough the 
leg and left for dead on the field of this battle. Many Apaches were 
wounded but none were Idlled. 

1845-4:e 

O Gila Crossing. A party of Apaches was encamped on Mo'hatuk 

^ momitam, and two of them came to steal corn from the fields 

at Gila Crossing. The theft was discovered and three Pimas lay in 

wait for the thieves. When they again entered the field those lying 

m wait sprang upon them and killed one; the other escaped. 

Salt River. During the whiter the Pimas went on a campaign 
agamst the Apaches, several of whom were killed. The attacks were 
made at night and the enemy were killed before they could defend 
themselves. One Pima was killed and one wounded so severely that 
he died after retummg home. 

In the spring the Apaches waylaid a party of Pimas who were 
returning from a mescal-gathering expedition in the mountains. 
Nearly all the party were lulled and two girls were made prisoners. 
The Apaches were followed, most of them killed, and the girls rescued 
by a party from the villages. 

1 84:8-4 V 

fl Gila Crossing. Tlu"ee Apaches were going toward the Papago vil- 
lage near Maiitcpat, or Table mountain, when a Puna, coming to 
the Gila river, crossed it and discovered their trail. A party went in 
pursuit and succeeded in killing all three. Ka'mal tkak's brother was 
in this party of Pimas and was himself killed a few days later in an 

a"Aquellas gentes y sus ministros gozan por lo general de buena salud: entre los naturales pasan 
muchos de cien anos, excepto los pimas altos que segun se cree por razon de las aguas y sombrio cauce 
de sus arroyos, son espuestos ^ diversos achaques. El mas temible entre ellos es, el que llaman sagiuii- 
dodo 6 v<5mito amarillo." -Vlegre, Historia de la Compafila de Jesus en Nueva-Espana, n, 213. 



44 THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



ambush into wluch the Pimas were lured in the Santan hills. One 
other Pima was killed in this engagement and many were wounded, 
but no mjury was infhcted on the Apaches. 

The Pima Kwakrsan was surrounded by the enemy, who clung 
to him and to his horse and sought to pull him down; but he had 
spurs on his feet and' striking them deeply uito his horse's liank he 
caused the animal to rear and tlirow the man who was holding its 
head, high in the air. In the confusion he escaped. 

Salt River. The Apaches came one moonhght night to steal horses. 
Leaving their own mounts tied in the brush, they crept toward the 
houses near wloich were the Pima ponies. They were discovered and 
pursued to the river, where all were killed in a rumiuig fight. 

184=7-4:8 

f) GHa Cross'lng. The Rsanuk villagers went to Ka'mattik to hunt 
deer. They were seen coming by the Apaches, who lay m wait 
at the spring, and two were shot before they could reach cover. 

Salt River. The Apaches came to Santan earlj^ one morning and 
killed four Pimas. They were chased, overtaken, and five of them 
killed before pursuit was abandoned. 

1B4:8-4:Q 

There is no record for this year upon either calendar stick. 

lS4:Q-50 

C" Gila Crossing. Three Apaches were discovered approaclung the 
villages and a party was sent out on horseback to attack them. 
They fled to a hill near Tempe, where they hastily built up a wall of 
stone, behind wliich they maintained themselves until nearly sunset, 
when a Pima led his party inside the Apache breastwork and the 
enemy were killed. 

1850-51 

>Gila Crossing. The Yumas came again to attack the Maricopas 
They surprised the village, killed several, and carried their prop- 
erty to a hill near by, where they sang and danced, saying that 
they were waiting for the Maricopas to bring their fi-iends, the Pimas, 
to be defeated next. But they underestimated the number and valor 
of the Pimas, who soon put them to flight, leavuig man}^ of their dead 
upon the field. One of their chiefs, knowm to the Pimas as Vlsaki- 
kitoAa[(t), when he saw most of his men fallen, came back saying 
he did not wish to escape alone. He had but a knife in his hand and 
was killed with arrows. 

The remnant of the party took refuge in a thicket near the Estrellas, 
where the pursuers rushed in upon them with horses and killed all. 
Many Pimas were wounded but none killed. A strand of hair was 



RDSSELL] ANNAXiS 45 

cut from the head of eacli fallen Yuma, but these have since been lost 
or buried. There were 134 Yumas killed; their bodies were left on 
the field. 

1851-52 

I V Gila Crossing. Two Apaches were discovered near the Mari- 
copa village by Wliyenanavim, a Maricopa warrior, who killed one 
of them before they could escape. 

The Pimas went on a campaign against the Apaches on Salt river, 
near where the present reservation is located, and one of their num- 
ber was killed. 

I Blachwater. In this year the Apaches raided a Papago village 
A^ near Quijotoa, called Kol Tatk' (mesquite root)." 

1852-53 

For three years the Gila Crossing calendar has nothing but the 
year marks on it, and the keeper could recall no event for that period. 
jH,-^ Blaclcwater. At the hill shaped "like a nose," in the Santans, 
the Apaches ambushed a party of Pimas and Maricopas. They 
sent six men to the Maricopa village, near which they discovered and 
killed some women. The Maricopa and Pima warriors pursued the 
Apaches, who retreated slowly, thus luring them withui reach of the 
arrows of the waiting Apaches, who killed four Maricopas and one 
Pima. The survivors retreated to their supports, who were coming 
up in such numbers that the Apaches withdrew. The dead were 
burned that day north of the Santan hills. 

At about the same tune the Punas killed four Apaches south of 
the villages.'' 

WTaen the wheat was ripe [June] the Apaches were pursued north 
of the Santan hills and four of them killed. Tlu"ee men are yet 
living who killed Apaches in this fight. 

1853 54 

Blacluiafer. The Apaches came to steal horses and brought 
a live vulture with them. They were discovered and several 
killed. 

1854-55 

Blackwater. The Apaches were reported by the Papagos to 
w be stealing horses in their territory and the Pimas were 
requested to aid in driving the enemy out of the country. 
In the Rincon mountains, at Tava Kosuwa, Turkey Neck, the horse 
thieves were overtaken and many of them killed. The horse's head 
indicates the purpose of the Apaches. 

a The figure on the Blackwater stick is intended to represent a mesquite root. 

f> .Vt a point about 15 miles from the Gila where the Southern Pacific now runs — just south of the 
reservation. 



46 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

1855 58 

Gila Crossing. Skaakoik was approached one evening by seven 
Apaches, who were discovered and surrounded. Six escaped in .the 
darkness, but one was tracked into the arrow bushes, where he dropped 
his bow. He was soon found to have secreted himself in a hole washed 
deep in the sand. The Pimas could not see or reach him, so they 
shook live coals down upon the fugitive, which caused him to yell 
and suddenly leap out among them. The apparition so startled 
everyone that no move was made to detain him. As he was passing 
through their line some asked those around them, "Can we catch 
him?" but he was such a giant and the peculiar manner of his 
appearance among them so unnerved for a moment the courage of 
the men whose deepest instinct was to crush out the life of the 
Apache, that he made his escape. 

n o Blackwater. The Apaches, whom the Pimas attacked during 
a raid of this year, were grinding out mesquite beans from the 
dry pods when the arrows began to fall into their camp. A 
blind Apache was killed as his companions fled. 

lS5e-57 

Blaclcwater. The Pimas and Maricopas joined the white sol- 
diers in a campaign against the Apaches under White Hat. 
Two Pimas were killed and two wounded, but no Apaches were 
injured. While the Pimas were on their way home still another of 
their party was killed. The Pimas burned their dead. Later they 
killed several Apaches who were raising corn on Salt river. 

1857- 5S 

Salt River. About the end of the year a band of Apaches came to 
the Pima villages one morning. They were discovered and chased 
30 miles to Tempe butte, where the}' were surroimded. They hid 
themselves at the summit of the butte, but were all killed except one, 
who escaped into the brush. 

In the summer the Yumas came again, accompanied by the Mohaves. 
They sent scouts ahead, who found the Maricopa women gathering 
mesquite beans. They killed all the women except one, whom they 
kept to act as a guide. She was the sister of a well-known Maricoj^a 
warrior, and they compelled her to lead them to her brother's home. 
When they reached it she was killed with a club and the man was 
chased, but he was as good a runner as he was fighter and they could 
not catch him. A Yuma told him to stop and die like a man, but 
he answered that if they could overtake him he would show them 
how to die like a man. The Maricopas fled from their village and 
the Yumas burned it. ^lessengers went to all the villages that day 
and under cover of the night the Pimas and Maricopas gathered. 
They kept coming until late the next forenoon. They found the 



RnssELL] ANNAliS 47 

Yumas encamped near the river at a spot where they had assaulted 
some women and a Pima had been killed while defending them. 
The Yumas had spent the night in singing their war songs. Now 
and again a medicine-man would come forward to puff whiffs 
of smoke in order that their cause might find favor with the gods. 
The Pima-Maricopa council ended about noon and it was decided to 
surround the Yumas and to make special effort to prevent them from 
reaclung the river to obtain water. Formed in a semicircle, the 
Pimas and Maricopas shot down the Yumas upon three sides. wSoon 
the Yumas began to waver and become exhausted from thirst in the 
heat of the day. They made several attempts to break through the 
line, but failed, and finally gathered in a compact body to make a last 
attempt to reach the river. At that moment the Pimas and ^lari- 
copas who were on horseback rushed in upon the enemy and rode 
them down. After a hand-to-hand combat the Yumas were all 
killed except one, who was stunned by the blow of a club and lay 
unconscious under a heap of dead. During the night he recovered 
his senses and escaped. Tlris was the bloodiest fight known, and the 
Yumas came here to fight no more." 

, Blaclcwater. During the year Pimas were killed in two 
places by the Apaches ; three south of the river and one 

* north.* 

1858-59 

Blaclcwater. The meteor of 1859 was observed by the 
Pimas, who called it pai-ikam ho-o. During a raid into the 
Apache country three of the enemy were killed and also one 
Pima. 

a " In 1857, with Mohave. Cocop,a, and Tonto allies, the>- [the Yumas] attacked the Pimas and Papa- 
gos up the river, and in a great battle were almost annihilated." Bancroft, Arizona and New Mexico, 
501. 

Cremony visited the Punas as a captain in the Caliiomia Col umn in 1862. In his Life Among the 
Apaches, 148, he mentions this conQict of the Pimas mth their old enemies, saying: "The grazing 
ground to which we resorted during our stay near the Maricopa villages had been the scene of a des- 
perate conflict between that tribe and the Pimos, on one side, and the Yumas, CWmehuevis, and 
Amohaves on the other. Victory rested with the Maricopas and Pimos, who slew over '100 of the allied 
tribes, and so humiliated them that no effort has ever been made on their part to renew hostilities. 
This battle occurred four years before our advent, and the ground was strewed with the skulls and 
bones of the slaughtered warriors." 

For the Yuma side of the story see Lieutenant Ives's Eeportupon the Colorado River of the West, p. 45. 

In a letter from an unnamed correspondent living among the Yumas or at Fort Yuma, to Sylvester 
Mowry, it is stated that the tribes engaging in this battle were the Yiunas, Yampais, Mohaves, and 
Tonto Apaches, with one or two Dieganos [Dieguenos], against the Pimas, Maricopas, and Papagos. 
One thousand five hundred men were engaged on each side. The Yumas " lost not less than 200 of the 
flower of their chivalry." See S. Ex. Doe. 11, 588, 35th Cong., 1st sess., 1858. 

The Blackwater annalist could give but little information concerning the victory over the Yumas, 
but he had recorded it upon the calendar stick liy a fringed line, in itself meaningless. 

The two men in the figure are not meant to represent two killed, but that the events occurred in 
two places. 



48 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

1S59-SO 

Blaclcwater. The Pinias attacked a party of Apaches and 
killed a man and a boy. A wliite man who accompanied 
the Pimas was slightly wounded with an arrow. 

1S60-61 

Gila Crossing, A plague which killed its victims in a single day 
prevailed throughout the villages. Three medicine-men who were 
suspected of causing the disease by their magic were killed^ ''and 
nobody was sick any more." 

/)l| ft Blackwater. The one-armed trader sold his store to Ammi 
^ M. White during this year and for some reason unknown to 

the Pimas threw away his grain sacks." 

/^ Two Pimas were killed by Apaches, but the details concerning 
the event are beyond recall. 

1S61-S2 

^ Gila Crossing. The trader, Ammi M. White, was captured by 
the ''soldiers from the east."^ 

a Probably to avoid contagion. 

b " Early in 1S62 a force of two or threehundred Texans, under Captain Hunter, marched westward 
from Mosilla and in February took possession of Tucson for the Confederacy. There was, of course, 
little opposition, Union men, if there were any left, fleeing across the line into Sonora. Not much is 
really known of Hunter's operations in Arizona so far as details are concerned, even the date of his 
arrival being doubtful. Besides holding Tucson, driving out men suspected of Union sympathies, eon- 
flscating a few mines belonging to Northerners, and fighting the Apaches to some extent, he sent a 
detachment to the Pima \Tilages, and possibly contemplated an attack on Fort Yuma. But — to say 
nothing of the recent floods, which had greatly increased the difficulties of the route, destroying Gila 
and Colorado cities — the news from CaUfornia was not reassuring, and Hunter deemed it best to retire. 
'■This news was to the effect that California troops were on the march eastward. These troops, 
about 1,800 strong, consisted of several volunteer regiments or parts of regiments organized at the 
beginning of the war, and which, on receipt of intelligence that Arizona had been invaded, were ordered 
to Yuma and Tucson, constituting what w'as known as the California Column, under the command 
of Colonel James H. Carleton. The main body of this army in detachments, whose exact movements 
now and later I do not attempt to follow in detail, left Los Angeles and was concentrated at Yuma 
in April, and in May followed the Gila route to Tucson. But previously Lieutenant-Colonel West, 
commanding the advance, had sent out some parties from Yimia, and these were the only troops that 
came in contact with the Confederates. Jones, in February, was sent with dispatches to Tucson and 
fell into the hands of Hunter, who released and sent him Itack by another route, bearing the first defi- 
nite news that Tucson had been occupied. Captain William McCleave, of Company A, First Cavalry, 
being sent out to look for Jones, was captured, with three men, at the Pima villages on the 6th of April 
and was carried to Mesilla, where he was soon exchanged. Captain William P. Calloway was next 
sent up the Gila with a stronger force to rescue McCleave. At the Pima villages he heard of a Confed- 
erate detachment of 16 men, under Lieutenant Jack Swilling, and sent Lieutenant James Barrett with 
12 men to cut them off. Pursuing the enemy into a chaparral, Barrett was killed, with two of his men, 
one or two of the foe being also killed and three taken prisoners. This was the only skfrmish of the 
campaign with Confederates, and it occurred on the 15th of April at a spot known as El Picacho." 
Bancroft, xvii, 514. 

Both the Gila Crossing and the Blackwater calendars mention the capture of White, but the cal- 
endrists can give no definite information concerning the events related by Bancroft. The trader was 
of vastly more interest and importance to the Pimas than the whole Confederate or Union army. He 
was agent for the Pimas, an office which he held until 1865. The writer has not found any account of 
his capture in the records of the period, but it is probable he was soon released. As soon as he was 
taken away, the Pimas took possession of his store and quarreled over the distribution of the stock 
of wheat on hand. 



nrssELi,] ANNALS 49 

;/^ (V BJaclwater. A man named Thomas [whether given name 

'^^~^ or surname could not be ascertained], who had been trad- 
ing at Gihi Crossing, took charge of White's store after the 
latter left. The soldiers from the west fought the soldiers from the 
east at Picacho and were defeated. Then a white man known to 
the Pimas as Has Viakam came from the east and traded with them. 
[John] Walker" came from the west with the California Column 
and learned the Pima language at the same time that Thomas learned 
the Maricopa. 

1862-83 

^ Gila Crossing. The men of Rso'ttik went to the mountains about 
Prescott in search of Apaches during the summer of 1862. As they 
were following a mountain trail they caught sight of a man lying on 
his coat asleep. From his dress they could not be sure, if he were 
an Apache or a Pima, so two men >vent to waken him. "How did 
you sleep?" said they. On hearing tliis the man sprang up and they 
saw that he was an Apache. One struck him on the head with his 
club, but he jumped and would have escaped had not the other 
shot him. Soon afterwards two Apaches came to the village of 
Akdtciny antl their trail was discovered by two Pimas who were 
hunting for their horses. They followed the Apaches, who ran 
toward the Estrellas. The elder Pima was some distance ahead of 
the other when the leading Apache climbed the mountain and the 
other turned back to fight. The two men used their bows, each 
endeavoring to protect himself behind a clump of bushes. Finally, 
as they were chasing each other around the same clump of bushes, 
the Apache getting the better of the conflict, having wounded the 
Pima in the elbow and side, the other Pima came up and killed the 
Apache, who was called by the Pimas Whaiemtia. 

Two Maricopas dragged the body of the Apache to a hill near Gila 
Crossing and tied it to a post, where it remained for some time. A 
friend of the dead Apache led a party of six to the place where he 
had fallen anil followed the trail of the dragged body to where it 
stood tied. The friend wept and went away without attempting to 
remove the body. As the party returned up the river they entered 
an isolated house in which there were two old Maricopa men. They 
warmed themselves at the fu'e, but tlid not molest the old men. 

Salt River. Two Apaches came near the villages and were seen by 
a man working in the fields; he calleil to his friends to help him and 
at once set off after the enemy. When the Apache who was farthest 
away saw that his companion was in danger he turned back and 
attacked the first pursuer. The other Apache escaped, but the braver 
one was killed. The Pimas returned home, but the Maricopas dragged 

o See p. 33 for list of Pima agents. 
26 ETH— U8 6 



50 THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



the body to the buttes at the point where the Maricopa anil Phoenix 
railroad now crosses the Gila and left it tied to a post. The Apache 
who ran away led a party of his people to recover the body, but it 
was afterwards ascertained from the tracks that they turned back 
just before reaching the spot. 

A Pima was killed by the Apaches while the California Column was 
at the villages and a squad of soldiers accompanied the pursuing party 
of Pimas as far as the Estrellas, but the enemy escaped. The raid was 
in the saguaro fruit season "as shown by the red on the dead Pima" 
[or the month of June, 1862]. 

c ^ o/4iM^■ BJachwater. Two medicine-men, father and son, were 
"" " A/\ killed during the year because of their supposed machin- 
ations against the people. 

ises-e* 

I], j] Gila Crossing, Salt River. For a short time there was peace 
between the Pimas and Apaches. During this period the Mari- 
copas killed two old men and captured a boy from a party of Apaches . 
who came to the Maricopa village. The boy was sold to a half- 
brother of the trader A. M. White [named Cyrus Lennan], known to 
the Pimas as Satciny Va, Chin Beard. 

This man took the boy with him on an expedition against the 
Apaches. There was a Mexican in the party who understood the 
Apache language, so that commimication was opened with the enemy 
as soon as they were discovered. The wliites placed flour, sugar, and 
other rations on blankets, and the Apaches, believing that the food 
was intended as a peace ofl'ering, came up to them. The soldiers 
were accompanied by three Pimas, but they had concealed them 
under blankets. They had stacked their guns, but retained their 
side arms concealed. At a signal from the leader of the party the 
Apaches were fired upon and nearly all of them were killed. Lennan 
was killed while following the escaping Apaches, but the Pimas killed 
the man who had tlu-ust a lance into his breast." The place has since 
been known as Yatakit ku Kakiita, Place where the snare was set.* 

a Owl Ear states that Lennan shot the man who struck him and they fell dead together. 

tj As we have independent white testimony, it is interesting to compare it with the Piman account. 
In his Adventures in the Apache Country J. Ross Browne describes the engagement in which Cyrus 
Lemian was killed. It was at the "Bloody Tanks" and is known in history as King Woolsey's 
(infamous) "pinole treaty." A party of 26 whites had been pursuing a band of Apaches with stolen 
stock for several days until they ran out of provisions and sent to the Pima villages for supplies. They 
were joined by 14 Maricopas under the leadership of Juan Chivaria and Cyrus Lennan. The entire 
party under the command of King Woolsey camped on the Salt river in a small valley which could 
not have been far from the upper end of the Salt River canyon. As soon as the smoke of their camp 
fire arose they were approached by Apaches to whom "Wool.sey sent Tonto Jack, an interpreter, to 
learn what they had to say, and at the same time to tell them it was not the wish of his party to fight 
them; that he wanted them to come down and he would give them some pinole." The .\paches were 
finally prevailed upon to enter the camp to the number of 30 or 35. After the display of some insolence 
on the part of the Apache chief Woolsey drew his pistol and shot him dead. "This was the signal 
for the signing of the treaty. Simultaneously the whole party commenced firing upon the Indians, 
slaughtering them right and left. Lennan stood in advance of the Maricopas and was warned by 



RtsSELL] ANNALS ^ 51 

Salt River. While peaco prevailed between the tribes a party of 
Apaches came to the Pimas to trade goods for ponies. When near 
the villages they divided into two parties, one of which came on to 
trade and the other went around to try to steal horses. The thieves 
were followed and when it was found that their tracks joined those 
of the party at the villages the Pimas went back and killed many of 
those who were trading. Some of the Pima warriors overtook the 
horse thieves and killed several of them. 

Blacliwater. A Pima was killed by Apaches while looking 

for his horses near Kfi'mattik, the hill between Blackwater 

and the Sacatons. 



a 



JL Gila Crossing, Salt River. This was the first year in which the 
Pimas were supplied with firearms (by order of General t'arleton) 
and aided the United States sokliers." 

Salt River. The Pimas and Maricopas went on a campaign against 
the Apaches and met a band that had probably ambushed some 
American soldiers, for they had arms and other army property. The 
allies rushed the camp of the enemy and captured all that had l)een 
taken from the soldiers. When they returned with their spoils to 
the villages some whites accused them of having killed the soldiers. 
They told how they obtained the things, but the whites would not 
believe them. .''That is why I do not think the white man is good 
enough to trust us," said Owl Ear. When several guides took the 
whites to the battle ground they were satisfied when they saw the 
dead Apaches there. 

Pp^^ Blackwater. In a raid in this year two Apaches were killed 
jl V and their ears cut off and nailed on a stick. 

In an effort to establish peace with the Apaches, the soldiers and 
Pima scouts took a wagon loaded with rations to the Superstition 
mountains. The Apaches took it to be a hostile move and attacked 
the party, killing the driver of the wagon. The Apaches were pur- 
sued and several were killed before the trail was lost. 

Woolsey to make sure of a lame Indian with a lance, who was eyeing him suspiciously. 'I'll look 
out for him,' was Lennan's reply, and the slaughter became general. * * * The fight, if such it could 
be called, lasted seven or eight minutes. Lennan had incautiously closed upon and shot an Indian 
near him, forgetting the lamo one against whom he had been cautioned, who the next moment ran 
him through Che body with his lance. Dye (a rancher) coming up, killed this Indian. The only person 
wounded was Tonto Jack, who was shot in the neck with an arrow. * * * Twenty Tontos and 
four Finals lay dead upon the ground. Others were seen running off with the blood streaming from 
their wounds, and it is supposed some of them died." (P. 121.) 

a .lohn Walker, the first agent for the Pimas, in his report for the year 1860 stated that the tribe 
petitioned for more guns, as theirs were " few and old." .See Report of Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs 1860, 168. In the report of .1. L. Collins, superintendent of Indian affairs in New Mexico, 
it is stated that 100 muskets and 10,000 rounds of ammunition had just been given the Pimas. In 
ibid., 1862, 239, 1863. 



52 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 26 

18S5-ee 

Gih, Crossing, Salt River. The Pimas went on a campaign 
against the Apaches and one of their numl)er was killed. His fel- 
lows bui-ned the corpse with the bow and war gear. Dry ironwood 
was used in the iTcniation." 

In the same engagement another Pima was wounded and came 
home to die. 

Gila ( 'rossiiKj. The Pimas soon afterwards went to the moun- 
tains nortli of Tempe to seek Apaches. Tv>o of their party- 
were killed and a third came home mortally wounded, 
•o-o Blackwater. Another war party attacked an Apache camp, 
described as the one at which the children were playing and 
piling up gounls, and killed several of the enemy. 

iB6e-e7 

Gila Crossing. Many died this year of a sickness characterized by 
shooting pains that resembled needle and knife pricks. One day the 
three medicine-men who were accused of havmg caused the disease 
came home dnmk from the Gila Bend stage station and were set upon 
by their fellow-villagers. Two Were killed and the other was seriously 
but not fatally wounded. 

Gila Crossing, Salt River. This year was marked by a devastating 
fever at Rso'tClk and three medicine-men were killed ther(> in the hope 
of stopping it. 

JBlachwater. A party of Pimas accompanied the soldiers to 
the Verde region and there killed a number of Apaches, among 
whom was a man with a very long foot. 



^ 



isev-es 

Gih Crossing. During this year a disease prevailed that from 
the description would seem to have been malaria. Many died, 
and the medicine-men were blamed, as usual, for the calamity. Two 
were killed before the disease abated. 

BlacJcwater. The Pimas went raiding in the Superstition 
/^ Mountain region and killed one Ajjache who was running 
"^ away with his shield but who stumbled and fell. 

ises-ss 

Gila Crossing. A heavy rain caused a flot)d which destroyed the 
store at Casa Blanca.'' 

This was known as the Vamati Tcoki, Snake rain. 

o This custom of burning the dead is occasionally referred to in these annals, though my informants 
always insisted that this method was never resorted to by their people e.xeept in the ease of those killed 
in war. 

b The store was more than 2 miles south of the channel of the river, but it had been built at the foot 
of a little rise upon which the present village is located and was within the reach of the flood. This 
is but one of many instances where the white settlers of Arizona have not profited by the experience 



RCSSELI,] ANNALS 53 

Blackwafer. The Pimas went on a campaign against the 
Aparlies with the Papagos, but the parties quarreled and 
separated. The Pinias killed an Apache woman near Salt 
river while on their way home. 

1869-VO 

^ Gila Crossing. A man at Rso'ttik was killed by the accidental 
discharge of a revolver in the hands of a companion. 

Blaclcwater. An imusually heavy rain occurred during the 
winter, which gidlied the hills deeply. 
The Apaches were making tizwin when the soldiers and Pima 
scouts attacked them; they took the alarm and escaped, leaving the 
liquor in the hands of the allies. 

1S70-71 

Gila Crossing. The ilrst canal " at Tempe was built by the Mormon 
settlers [1870]. 

y/L^/? BJackwater. The Apaches had come to the river at Santan 
h rt for water and some Punas discovered their trail and set off 
^ '^ in pursuit. Thej- failed to inflict any mjury upon the enemy 
and retired with one of their own number mortallj' woinided. 

At this time a Pima was killed at Ta-atfikam by the Apaches. 
These two corpses were burned. 

Another Pima was killed during the year at Tempe by the Apaches, 
and his body was buried. 

1871 72 

Gila Crossing. An epidemic of measles prevailed in all the villages 
durmg tliis year. The Indians knew absolutely nothing about treat- 
ing the disease, and many died.* 

Salt River. In the whiter the Kwaliadk's went on the warpath 
against the Apaches and were accompanied by Na-aputk t . They 
tried to surprise the enemy at a tank near Picacho, but found no one 
there. They followed the trail, however, until they came to a point 
near the present station of Red Rock, where they sent out scouts in 
the night, who discovered the whereabouts of the enemy by hearing 
one of them cough. They surrounded the camp and attacked it at 

of the natives, ancient and modem, who have located their homes beyond the reach of the freshets 
that transform the shallow beds of blistering- sand into irresistiJile torrents that overrun the bottom 
lands which may have been untouched by flood formany years. "The flood of September, 1868. was 
perhaps the most destructive ever known, destroying three of the Pima villages and a large amount 
of property on the lower Gila." Bancroft, xvii, 5;?0. 

a The main canal is less than 2 miles in length. It has been enlarged several times, so that its capac- 
ity is now 325 cubic feet per second, irrigating over 30,000 acres. 

6 The experience of the agency physicians in after years show that the high rate of mortality from 
this disease has not been due to the lack of acquired immunity, but to the ignorance of the Pimas as 
to the proper care of patients, and especially those convalescing. The youth who was the only victim 
at Sacaton in 1890 took a cold water shower bath ar soon as he was able to be about and paid the penalty 
for his rashness. 



54 THE PIMA INDIANS 



[eth. axx. 26 



daylight. The Apaches ran confusedly about without their weapons; 

fifteen were killed and many guns, bows, and quivers were captured. 

^ Blacl-water. At the hill, Ka'niatuk, somewhat detached 

from the Sacatons on the northeast, a man was bitten by a 

rattlesnake and died. 

At about the same time the Pimas killed an Apache who was known 

as Vakoa, Canteen, near the Superstition mountains. 

1SV2-73 

Gila Crossing, Salt River. For several years the Pimas had had little 
water to irrigate tlieir fields and were begmning to sufl'er from actual 
want when the settlers on Salt river invited them to come to that val- 
ley. During this year a large party of Rso'tftk Pimas accepted the 
invitation and cleared fields along the riyer bottom south of their 
present location. Water was plentiful in the Salt and the first year's 
crop was the best that they had ever known. The motive of the Mor- 
mons on the Salt was not wholly disinterested, as they desired the 
Pimas to act as a bufl^er against the assaults of the Apaches, who were 
masters of the country to the north and east." 

Salt River. It was duruig this winter that the United States sol- 
diers and the Pima, Maricopa, and Apache scouts surrounded the 
Superstition Mountain Apaches at the "Tanks" and rained bullets 
into their ranks until not a smgle man remained alive. ' 'It was a 
sight long to be remembered," said Owl Ear, in narrating the cir- 
cumstances.* 

1873-74 

V^ Gila Crossing. Ku-ukamOkam, the Apache chief, and his band 
^ were killed by the soldiers and Pima scouts. 

Kamtik Wutca A-^tam, People-under-Ka'matuk, or the village at 
Gila Crossmg, was .settled during this year.'^ 

"^Tp^pip-jl — -^ Gila Crossing, Salt River. The telegraph line was 
'^ v \1 \l rm^ through from west to east during the winter.'' 

a By Executive order of June 14. 1879, the land occupied by the Pimas on Salt river was set apart as 
the Salt River reservation. It embraces about three townships on the north side of the river about 
30 miles north of the original Pima villages. There are several large ruins and at least one large 
canal upon the reservation that were built by the Ilohokam. By an arrangement with the canal com- 
panies the Pimas have insured forthemselves a constant supply of water, and the Salt Rivercommunity 
is regarded as the most prosperous among the Pimas. 

b This sharp engagement took place on the 28th of December, 1872. in the canyon of the Salt river, 
south of the Mazatzal mountains. It has heen graphically dcscriljed by Capt. .John G. Bourke in his 
On the Border with Crook, 191-200. lie states that 76 Apaches were killed and 18 captured. One 
wounded man was overlooked and made his escape. "Lead poured in by the bucketful" and an 
av^^lanche of bowlders was hurled down hundreds of feet from above upon the enemy. 

c There is an unfailing supply of water at this place; the Gila, after flowing 75 miles beneath the sur- 
face, rises to form a stream large enough to irrigate several hundred acres. 

d This was a military telegraph built from funds obtained by special appropriations from Congress. 
Arizona was fairly well provided with telegraph lines by the time the railroad reached Yiuna, in 1877, 
as there were more than 1,000 miles in operation in the Territory. 




nrssELL] ANNALS 55 

The Pimas went on a campaign against the Salt River 
Apaches soon after a heavy ram. \^^ien they reached the 
Salt river it was too high to be safely forded, so they built 
a raft and tried to take their saddles and blankets across 
upon it. The raft sank and they lost all their effects. 
Some of the party who had not engaged in the raft enter- 
prise found a safe ford and continued on their raid, m which they 
killed several of the enemj-, and near Four Peaks captured an 
Apache lad." 

1874=-75 

Gila Crossing. A man trjdng to catch his pony approached 
from the rear so that he could reach its tail, which he probably 
thought it advisable to lay hold on until he could fasten the rope 
around the animal's neck. One end of the lariat was attached to his 
waist, the other he tied to the horse's tail. The animal broke away 
and dragged him to death.'' 

Blackwater. The Apache White Hat killed a Pima. 



1875—78 

Gila Crossing. In this year sickness prevailed in the village of 
Rsanfik, apparently the same as in 1866, when the principal symp- 
tom of the disease w&s shooting pains through the body. Two medi- 
cine-men were suspected of having caused the trouble by magic means, 
and they were killed to stop the plague. 

e I I Blackwater. For a short time the Pimas were free from 
" ' ' Apache attacks, and they ventured into the moimtains to 
gather mescal. Wliile there, a race took place between a man and a 
woman, in which the woman won. 

Later in the season there was a general gathering of the villages 
to witness a race with the kicking-ball. 

1878-77 

^ Gila Crossing. There was an Apache village called Havany 
"^ Kas at the junction of the Gila and Salt rivers while a truce 
existed between the Pimas and Apaches. During this year an epi- 
demic of smallpox prevailed in that village, as well as in all those of 
the Pimas and Maricopas. 

a He afterwards became known as Doctor Montezuma, now a prosperous physician practising in 
the city of Chicago. 

& This, the only event of the year in the Gila Crossing record, is unimportant in itself, and yet it illus- 
trates a phase of Pima character that is worthy of notice. In handling horses they exhibit a patient 
subtlety resembling that of the snake creeping upon its prey, until they have gotten a rope or halter 
on the animal, when their gentleness disappears. Yet in all their harnessing or saddling they mani- 
fest an innate tendency toward carelessness. They always work up on the right instead of the left 
side of a horse, and they also mount from that side. 



56 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

In the spring of 1877 the Gila Crossing Pimas and the Gila Mari- 
copa villagers were pitted against each other in a relay race, the first 
between the two tribes." 

^Jr/ BlacJcwater. While a party was gathering mescal just 
■ %/TF ^ before the wheat ripened a mare gave birth to twin 
TTP colts. 

1877-V8 

■ - - Gila Crossing, Salt River. During the winter a man who had 
<=a=5 gone a long distance to search for his horses perished from 
the cold, and his body was found in a sitting position under a tree.'' 

Gila Crossing. A party of Pimas went to the Kwahadk' village to 
drink tizwin, and in the quarrel which ensued the Casa Blancas 
killed two men of Santan. 

Some time afterwards the Gila Crossing people drank tizwin, anil 
one of their number was killed by a man from Salt River. 

Blackwatev. A man of Blackwater who was with a party that 
^/4 - went to gather mescal sickened from some unknown cause, and 
died. The corpse was brought back to the village. 

1878-79 

/^ Gila Crossing, Salt River. BlacJcwater. The principal event 
A^ of the year was the building of the Southern Pacific railroad 
^^ along the southern border of the Gila River reservation. 

^ Salt River (a), Blaclivater (b). A feud that had originated 

(o) in the quarrel at the Kwahadk' village during the preced- 
^ ing year reached an acute stage in February, 1879. The 
-^/^ majority of the people of Blackwater and the lower villages, 
A which were then known as Santan, conspired to kill the 
(6) men of a certain faction during a night tletermined upon 

several days in advance. A guard was set at Blackwater, 
who was to watch their movements without giving them 
(*) any hint of his purpose. One of those who were prepar- 
ing for the attack at Blackwater had a brother at Casa Blanca, and 
he feared that this brother might be included in the list of victims 
at the lower villages, so he went one night to warn him or to get 
him to return with him to Blackwater. The next day the brother's 
conscience began to act, and he finally decided that if these men 
were killed and he did not warn them he would be answerable for 
their death. He therefore sent a runner to Blackwater, who told 
one of the intended victims of the conspiracy formed against them. 

a Tcfirlkfls, one of the Maricopa runners, afterwards won a six-day race in San Francisco and was a 
close second in a s imil ar endurance race in New York. 

6 The Pimas believe that he froze to death, and if this be true it indicates an unusually low tempera- 
ture and that one man at least had very slight power of resistance to cold. The lowest temperature 
recorded at the Phoenix meteorological station for a period of sixteen years is 11° F. Kept, of 
Chief of Weather Bureau, 1900-1901, 1. 



H 



Ki'ssELi.] ANNALS 57 

The recipient of tiie news sent one of his family to inform another 
of his party, and so the news was spreail so quietly that the guard 
scarcely noticeil what was going on until the men began slipping 
one by one into the niesquite thickets. Before he could reach his 
friends, who were out in the fields, the whole proscribed party had 
escapetl anti were on their way toward Santan, where they and 
their friends attacked their Santan opponents early the next morning. 

Juan Thomas, his two brothers, father, and uncle were in the party 
attacked. The old man. Has, was the bravest, and fought openly 
witli bow and arrows luitil they succeeded in driving off their assail- 
ants. He was slightly wounded with a bullet in the alxlomen and 
an arrow in the arm, but no one was killed. One of the brothers 
was irrigating his field when a runner came with the news that his 
family was Iteing killed anil that he M'as in danger also. He ran 
toward the Double buttes and soon saw another man running in a 
course parallel to his own. The other saw him, and both began 
dodging to escape fr<jm the two clumjjs of mesquite behind which 
tliey had halted. Then they discovered that they were brothers, 
and they debated long as to what they should do. It is also said that 
they shed tears at the jieril of their relatives, to whose aid they coidd 
not go without weapons. It was also a cause of grief that their fel- 
lows should rise against them. They decided to return to the village, 
but by that time the fight had ended. 

lias had come out of liis house and chasetl those who were trying 
to shoot him. Thej' fired several shots and some arrows at him, 
but when he came near they ran away. He called his enemies by 
name, inviting them to come and get satisfaction if they were bent on 
kilhng him. When the attacking party withdrew, the Thomas family 
went to the Double buttes, and on finding that they were not pur- 
sued they went. to Blackwater, where their story so aroused their 
friends that an expedition was organized to seek revenge. They 
secured two boxes of cartridges from the trader at Blackwater and 
came down the river. 

They formed a skirmish line as they approached the lower settle- 
ment and met their opponents at the Government school building. 
The Santan party hastily knocked a few loopholes in the adobe walls 
and gathereil in and around the building, to withstand an attack. 
The Blackwater men killed three among those outside the school- 
house and could have killed many more with their superior weapons, 
but their thirst for revenge seemed to be satisfied with that number, 
and they did not pursue those who fled across the mesa like fright- 
ened rabbits. 



58 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. an-n. 26 

187Q-80 

Gila Crossing. During this winter tliere was a heavy fall of snow." 

^ Blackwater. At an abandoned store above Casa Blanca, the 

-^p walls of which are yet standing, a white man was killed by 

^ two young men, who were caught before they secured the 

money of the victim, robbeiy being the motive for the deed. The 

one who did the shooting was taken to the county jail at Florence. 

isso-si 

Gila Crossing. At the beginning of the year a man was bitten 
and killed by a rattlesnake at Gila Crossing. 




Blackwater. The murderer mentioned in the record of the 
preceding j'ear was hanged at Florence. 

XSSI— 82 

(Jila Crossing. During a tizwin drunk at Salt River two young 

men killed each other. The Casa Blanca people went to Gila 

Crossing to participate in a feast and dance. 

'MK Blackwater. The Pima police were sent from Sacaton to 

arrest some Kwahadk's living at their village about 50 miles 

south of the agency. Two were killed.'' 

1SS2-S3 

y ^^ GUa Crossing {a). Blackwater {h). An epidemic of measles 
'==} prevailed among the Pimas and Maricopas, causing the death 
of many persons. 

a An event of such rarity that it is mentioned but twice in these records of seventy years. 

b The Kwahadk's had been drinking tizwin. and as they liad never been interfered with by the agent 
they were not conscious of having trangressed anylaws. Furthermore, drunkemiess was the ruie among 
the few whites with whom they came in contact, and it was a privilege that the Kwahadk's indulged in 
but once or twice a year. Old inhabitants at Sacaton tell me that the agent was working prisoners 
upon a reservation farm and selhng the crop for his own profit. The Pimas had been conunitting no 
misdemeanors or crimes that offered any excuse for imprisoning them and the crops needed attention, 
but nevertheless he ordered his pohce to bring in the Kwahadk's dead or alive. One of the young Ivwa- 
hadk's frankly declared his innocence of any intentional transgression and defied the police to take him 
from his home. Ue was promptly shot. .\s the police were returning to Sacaton they were overtaken 
by the father of the murdered man, who told them that he had nothing to live for, as they had killed his 
son and they might as well kill him. The police obhginglycompUcd with his request. " Innocent and 
unoffending men were shot down or bowie-knifed merely for the pleasure of witnessing their death 
agonies. Men walked the streets and pulilie squares with double-lmrreled shotguns, and hunted each 
other as sportsmen hunt for game. In the graveyard of Tucson there were 47 graves of white men in 
ISUO. and of that number two had died natural deaths, all the rest having been murdered in bar-room 
quarrels." I/ife Among the Apaches, by John C. Cremony, 117. 



RUSSELL] • ANNALS 59 

1883 84 

T" Gila Crossing. The Salt River Pimas went to a fiesta at Gila 
Crossing. 

/K BJackwater. A drunken Pima while riding on a box car on 



% 



the Southern Pacific was run over and killed. " 



1884 85 



^^^ Gila Crossing. An epidemic during this j-ear among the Kwa- 
hadk's caused the execution of two medicine-men who were sus- 
pected of bringing the visitation upon the tribe.'' 
0\_Jq\ Bhchwater. The first wagons issued by the Government 
to the Blackwater people were received this year. 

1885-se 

Q Gila Crossing. Hwela, named for the agent Wheeler, was bap- 
tized tliis year as the first Cliristian convert among the Pimas."" 
\\ Two youths were throwii from their horses during a rabbit hunt 
and killed.'' 

Blackwater. Two prominent men of Blackwater died. 

1886 -87 

A Gila Crossing. Tizwin was made at Gila Crossing in such quan- 
titles that it was passed ai'ound in bowl-shaped baskets. One 
man was killed. 
\^ The first adobe houses were built at Gila Crossing, and their 

owaiers were thereby entitled to one wagon each.'' 
/\ A man at Salt River was shot by a white man: the particulars 
were not known to Kaema-a. 

«The practice of allowing the Indians to ride free upon freight trains was estabUshed when the road 
was first built and is yet continued. The oliject of this generosity is said to be the procurement of the 
good will of the natives, who in return would give warning of washouts, or obstructions intentionally 
placed on the track and, perhaps, give concessions of rights of way across the reservations in the event 
of future extensions, .\gent Jackson in his report for 1883 stated that si.x Pimas had been killed that 
year by falling from trains when drunk. 

6 It will be noticed that such common events as this among the Kwahadk's are recorded by the calen- 
drists. thus showing how closely related the tribe is to the Pimas. 

c Mr C. H. Cook, a Ci\1l War veteran, had come as a teacher and missionary among the Pimas at the 
close of the year 1870. .^ sincere and devout Christian, he labored for nearly fifteen years before the peo- 
ple to whom he has devoted his life began to understand the message that he brought to them. He 
mfornis the writer that three or four other men had accepted his teaching before Hwela, but it is prol)- 
able that this year marks the beginning of the conversion, which thereafter advanced very rapidly. 
Mr Cook has described his experiences among the Pimas and Apaches in a small volume of 136 pages, 
entitled. Among the Pimas, 1893. The chapter on " The Pima Indians, their manners and cus- 
toms," by Rev. Isaac T. Whittemore, is inaccurate and inadequate. 

d These hunts were frequently made and resulted in the destruction of large numbers of hares and 
rabbits, two species of the former and one of the latter. They were simply drives by a company of 
mounted men who surrounded the area to be beaten over and then advanced toward the center, where 
the animals were shot with arrows or killed with clubs. Such hunts are yet continued. 

•^ These w^agons were issued to such men as were willing to cut their long hair. l)Uild adobe houses of 
reasonable size, and pro\ide suitable sheds to shelter the wagons from the scorching heat of summer. 
which is exceedingly severe on vehicles. 



60 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. Ann. 26 

Gila Crossing, Salt river. The Maricopa and Phoenix railroad 
was built during this A^ear, and thus connection was established 
between the fertile districts of the Salt river and the Southern 
Pacific railroad. ° 

Salt River. The medicine-man Staups gave a great dance at San- 
tan, wliich was accompanied by races and other ceremonies which 
attracted many visitors, among whom were a Yuma and his wife. 
e o o o Blaclcwater . Juan Thomas was employed as a scout by 
6 8 8 the troops who pursued Geronimo during his last flight into 
Mexico. The eight dots on Juan's stick represent the soldiers whom 
the Pinias accompanied. The minor leaders of the Apaches had 
entered the Pima canap thinking that they were friends, and had been 
captured, except seven who broke away. The commanding officer 
having ordered a fresh party of Pimas who had come up, to pursue the 
escaping Apaches, thirty-one Pimas and eight soldiers tracked the 
Apaches for two months, until the}' doubled back to the White moun- 
tains, where they were captured by the white soldiers before the 
Pimas overtook them. 

18S7~S8 

A£ Gila Crossing, Salt river. Special mention is made by two 
annalists of the severe earthquake of May 3, 1887.'' Owl Ear 
declared that "it was noticed by many of our people, if not by all, 
who wondered why the earth shook so." 
y! Gila Crossing. The stage station at Gila Crossing, no longer 

needed after the railroad was built from the Southern Pacific to 
Phoenix, was moved during this year to Maricopa junction. 

I The Gila Crossing settlement was prosperous, and the Casa 
■•** Blanca people went down to dance and share the products of 
their brothers' industry. 

i I During a tizwin carousal which took place later in the year, two 
Gila Crossing men killed each other. 
/^ It was at this time that "a Mexican (sic) counted the bones of 

the people." '^ 
/ The ]\Iaricopas were all living together at Mo'hattrk mountain 

when a quarrel arose in wliich a medicine-man was killed. His 
friends retaliated by killing a medicine-man of the opposite faction. 
This resulted in a division of the tribe, some going to the Pima settle- 

a The road was completed July 2, 1887. 

b This is known as the ' ' Sonora earthquake. " The shocks were so severe in that state as to be destruc- 
tive to property and human life. At Tombstone, Ariz., the severe shocks lasted ten seconds, and the 
vibrations continued for a full minute. The earthquake was felt throughout the southern part of the 
Territory, and many ranchmen firmly believe that the drought of the last few years, which has trans- 
formed the grassy mesas into a desert waste, Is due to that earthquake. See Goodfellow in Science, 
New York, Aug. 12, 1887. 

f This is the Pima view of the somatological investigations of Dr Herman F. C. ten Kate, who meas- 
ured 312 Pimas, besides many others among the Marieopas, Papagos, Zunis, etc. His results are briefly 
summarized in the Journal of American Ethnology and Archaeology, ill, 119. 



EDSSELL] ANNALS 61 

iiient on Salt river and the remainder goino; to their present location 
on the Gila below the crossing:. 

Salt River. A white man killed an unknown Pima some time after 
the earthquake for sonie unknown reason. 

,188S-S9 

^ 6ila Crossing. The American settlers at Tenijie invited the Salt 
^ Eiver Pinias to a feast. 

^ An eclipse of the moon was observed by the Pimas, and asusiuil 
was spoken of as the "time when the moon died." " 

TA prosperous season enabled the Salt River jieople to hold a 
dance festival. 
O Tizwin was made at Gila Crossing, but no one was killed in the 
resulting debauch. 
eA Blackwater. A Papago who knew the bluebird series of songs 



sang for the Santan people during the festival held by them. 



"0,0. , The captain of the native police and the calendrist went 
H \ to Fort McDowell with three other men to act as scouts for 
the soldiers stationed there. 
During the year an epidemic carried away three prominent men at 
Blackwater. 

18S9— 90 

/\ Gila Crossing. Two tramps killed a man near the Maricopa 
and Phoenix railroad. 
Q The Salt River people made tizwin, and during the carousal 

which followed a man was shot and killed. The murderer was sent 
to Yuma. 
O The Hi'atam villagers who formerly lived at Akutcmy, south of 

Maricopa station, went to Gila Crossing to join in the dance 
festival held there. 

TSalt River. In a tizwin drunk at Salt River Santco was killed. 
Soon afterwards another general debauch residted in the death 
of Hitiraki. These events caused the order prohibiting the Pimas 
from making tizwin. 

Blackwater. The wife of tlie head chief died. 

18QO-91 

I Gila Crossing. During a tizwin drunk at Gila Crossing a man 
put poison into the licpior of an enemy, who died in great agony 
after drinking it. 

o Notwithst.inding the fact that several score of partial and total eclipses of the moon were visible 
in Pimeria during the period covered by these annals, which in that clear atmosphere must have been 
seen, they are mentioned but twice, and that in recent times. As it is known from American testi- 
mony that the Pimas were profoundly impressed by such phenomena, the failure of the annalists 
to note them can be accounted for only liy their aversion to even a mention of supernatural events 
supposed to be threatening in character. 



62 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

W At the Salt River settlement a Mexican under the influence 
of whisky killed a Pima, but the Indians "were good enough not 

to want to kill" the murderer. 

kj Gila Crossing (a) , Salt River, Blackwater (h) . In the spring of 
(a; 1891 occurred the last and most disastrous of the Gila floods. 

t: , The Maricopa and Phoenix Railroad bridge was swept away and 

a^s^ the channels of both the Gila and Salt rivers were changed in 
"'' many places. The destruction of cultivated lands led to the 

change of the Salt River Pimas from the low bottoms to the mesas. 

1891-Q2 

TTTT Gila i 'rossing. A boarding school " for Indian children was 
established at Phoenix. 

Two men died at Gila Crossing during the autumn, and it was 
supposed that they were poisoned by the tizwin which they had 
been drinking. 

V— In a tizwin drunk on the Salt River reservation a Papago 
^^ shot a Pima and fled to escape the consequences, leaving his 
wife at the village. 

'F ^1\ Blackwalcv. The chief and one of the headmen at Black- 
A 1 water died during the year. 

1892-93 

Gila Crossing. Two friends went to Maricopa and got drunk 
on whisky. One cut the other's throat; he then went to the 
villages on the river above Gila Crossing and in maudlin tones said he 
thought he saw himself striking someone under him.* 
fTJT The schoolhouse was moved out of Plioenix to a point .3 miles 
north of the city during the summer of this year (1892). 
1 A woman was struck by lightning at Hi'atam, the village above 

Gila Crossing. 
■"I 1 1 A dance at Salt River occurred in wliich two men, drunk 
I with whisky, killed each other. 

I In the spring of 1892 the Gila Crossing chief, Ato'wakam, died. 

The Government issiled barbed wire for fencuig at Gila Cross- 
ing, and directed the people to make a road across the fields, which 
should be fenced to form a lane. 

BlacTcwater. A woman was gored to death at Blackwater by 
a cow. 

The chief, who had been bitten some years before by a rattle- 
snake but had recovered, died m the spring of 1893. 

" It was opened in a leased hotel building in September, 1891. Owing to lack of lacilities only boys, to 
the number of 42, were admitted. 

& The passion for distilled liquor had arisen within the last quarter of a century. Lieutenant Emory 
wrote, in November, 1S4G, "Aguardiente (brandy) is known among their chief men only, and the abuse 
of this and the vices which it entails are yet unknown." 



RUSSELL] ANNALS 63 

1893-04 

'^^ Gila Crossing. The village of Hi'atani and the Gila Maricopas 
had a dance together, but no one was killed. 
Tizwin was made secretly at Gila Crossing, but no fatalities occurred. 
I The "prettiest woman in the village" died at Gila Crossing, and 
her husband was suspected of having caused her death. 

A man was shot by anotlaer, who was drunk with whisky. 






BlacTcwater. This year the first horse race ever held by 
the Pimas took place at Blackwater." 



1894-95 

(rila, Crossing. The Gila Crossing Presbyterian Church was 
!) built at the beginning of the year — that is, during the summer 
of 1894. It was dedicated in December of that year.' 
A woman was found dead on the Phoenix road. It is sup- 
posed that she had been killed by a Maricopa or a Chinaman. 
' The Gila Crossing people held a dance festival. 



/ 



The Santa Fe railwav reached Phoenix. 




^v^ There was an eclipse of the moon during this year. 

Blackwater. The chief at Gila Crossing favored tizwin drinking 
and resisted the progress that was beginning to manifest itself. 
He died in jail at Sacaton. 

In a horse race between animals owned by the 
Sacaton flats and Blackwater villages, that of the 
former won. 

1895 96 

'^ (rila Crossing. The Maricopas living on the Gila came to GOa 

Crossing to attend a dance festival. 
J? K^ema-a was elected a chief at the Gila Crossing village. The 
ys line is drawn " crooked because I was crooked in my mind whether 
' or not I should accept the responsibility." 

Salt River. Two brothers-in-law got drimk together and in the 
quarrel that ensued one was seriously injured. 

Soon afterwards Juan made some wine and invited a number of his 
friends to come and drink with him. All became drunk and Luigi 
killed a man whose name was not known to the calendrist. Luigi 
was sent to the Territorial prison at Yuma, where he died a year later. 

a However, this sport has not become popular among them, partly owing to their poverty, which 

prevents them from feeding a horse well enough to. enable it to run and from accumulating property 
with which to bet on the race, and perhaps partly owing to the growing influence of the church party 
in the community. 

b This church was established by the veteran missionary, Mr C. H. Cook, who successfully awakened 
an interest in Christianity among the Gila Crossing villages and had a number of converts at the time 
when it was considered that, owing to its isolation, the settlement should have a resident missionary. 



64 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

Blackwater. Two Christians died in this year, one at Blackwater 
and the other at the Cottonwoods." 

^K Durincr this year a Bhickwater youtli at the Phoenix school 
A committed suicide by shooting himself. 

jy Gila Crossing. Tlie Kwahadk's indulged in a tizwin drunk in 
//\ which one man was killed. 

i\ Gila Crossing, Salt River. The Gila Crossing chief fell dead in 
the prisoner's chair when on trial at Sacaton for selling whisky. 

1896 97 

<rH (rUa ( 'ross'nig. An epidemic of smallpox prevailed and the 
V whites established a c[uarantine which the calendrist interprets 
as, "the Pimas were ordered to stay at home." 

I Blaclcwater. Square indicates the Gila Crossing church. 

Salt River. The Maricopa and Phoenix railroad was extended 
from Tempe to Mesa [a distance of about 8 miles] during this year. 

1S9V 98 

'r^ Gila Crossing. At the beginning of this year the Gila 
^^?'~ Crossing Catholic and the Casa Blanca Presbyterian churches 
were being built. 

v7 A Papago chief was killed at Maricopa by a companion who 
/ii was drunk \\'ith whisky. 

^^ The Rsanikam people went to Akiitciny to dance and run a 
' relay race. 

In various wa^'s the Spanish- American war was brought to 
the notice of the Pimas and Kaema-a made a record of the 
event by the sign which might be supposed to be a bush or a j'ucca 
plant. 

Blackwater. Juan's brother "and another man" died. 

1898-99 

* Gila Crossing. Many children died this year of measles at the 
Phoenix Indian boarding school.'' ' 

■ o Professing Christians among ttie Pimas were not so rare at tliis time that the death of two need have 
been recorded. This was the time when the long iabors of the missionary were beginning to talce effect 
and the converts numbered hundreds each year. 

b The disease also prevailed at Sacaton. Nearly all the children in the school, about two hund red, were 
sick, but the indefatigable efforts of the agency physician saved all but one, who disobeyed his orders. 



BISSELL] ANNAIiS 65 

There was a heavy fall of snow that could be rolled into great balls 
as it was melting. 

BlacJcwater. There was no crop this year." 

1899 IQOO 

Gila Crossing. During the summer of 1899 a Catholic 
mission school was established at Gila Crossing. 

A Papago was killed by lightning at GUa Crossing. 




Barbed wire was issued from the agency at Sacaton.*! 

©The Indian Department established a day school at Gila Cross- 



i 



ing at this time. 

Victor Jackson was struck by lightning as he was returning 
to Sacaton on the stage road from Casa Grande/ 

Blackwater. A woman at Blackwater was fatally bitten 
by a rattlesnake/ 

o The water of the Gila had been so far utilized by white settlers above the reservation, for the most 
part more than a hundred iniles al.tove. that there was none left for the Pimas. It is difficult to obtain 
accurate informationat this time of the number who perished either directly orindirectly by starvation. 
During this and the f oUon-ing year five persons are known to have died from this cause, and it is proba ble 
that there were others. Most of the Pimas will not beg, however desperate their need maybe, so that 
not all cases were reported. 

In one case a wood chopper tried during the hot season to cut mesquite for sale, but he was too weak 
to withstand the heat and the exertion and was found de^d in the chaparral. An old couple were found 
dead in their house \vlth no food of any kind in their storehouse, and it is supposed that they preferred 
to starve rather than beg. A man riding to Salt River was too weak from hunger to keep his saddle 
and fell and perished. 

i> The agent wisely stipulated that if they received free wire they must leave a lane for a road through 
the fields. The ^^•idth was not prescribed and they made the lane so narrow that two teams can scarcely 
pass e-ach other in it, and it becomes churned into mud when the adjoining land is flooded for pur- 
poses of irrigation. The Pimas have not manifested any striking road-building instinct that would 
lead an enthusiastic admirer to rehite them to the Aztecs or Incas. Year after year they plodded 
through the slough l)etween the agency and the river without making an effort to put in a bridge or 
filling. When one of the Govemnient employees was building a bridge for them several passing team- 
sters preferred risking their teams and wagons in the sea of mud to assisting for a few minutes to put 
the bridge in place. 

The soil of the reservation is well adapted for road making, and a little care would make the thorough- 
fares as hard and smooth as those to be found anywhere. However, those upon the tillable lands of 
river silt readily cut into light dust that rises in clouds when disturbed. In a few places this condition 
has been remedied by resorting to the temporary and shiftless expedient of the white settlers, who cover 
the road with straw or corral refuse. The mesa roads, which include ail those leading any distance 
from the Gila, pass alternately over loose soil containing coarse sand that gradually accmnulates in the 
ruts and renders the road "heavy," and over *• adobe" soil which is hard and firm in dry seasons, and 
which makes an ideal roadbed. Hill roads are unknown and there are very few traveling sand dunes 
to be crossed near the reservation. 

c His horse was killed and its bones are certain to be pointed out to the stage traveler by the loqua- 
cious driver, John McCoy. 

d It may be presumed that such occurrences are rare or they would not be deemed worthy of record. 
This v.oma n had gone far out on the desert to search for mesquite beans, as she wa s without food ; indeed 
the whole community was starving because of the failure of the crops owing to the lack of water in 
the river for their ditches. Rattlesnakes sometimes make their way into the houses and bite the occu- 
pants. Repeated inquiries failed to elicit infonnation that would indicate that any remedies were used 
for snake bites. A common weed (golondrina?) is called snakeweed by a few whites, and is supposed to 
be used as a remedy by the Pimas. but I have not yet found a native who ever heard of its being so used. 

26 ETH— 08 7 



66 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

10OO IQOl 

GUa Crossing. It was during this year that the President came to 
Phoenix." 

/| ft Gila Crossing, Salt River. During the spring the man employed 
to carry the mail between Phoenix and Scottsdale became insane 
and shot a wlute man and a Pima youtii whom he met on the road 
near the latter place. 

lQOl-2 



• - ..'■■■• Gila Crossing. In September, 1901, the day school was 
** started at Masa'kimljlt, the Gila Maricopa village. 

TECHNOLOGY 

The Food Supply 

The Pimas subsist upon a mixed diet in which vegetable food pre- 
dominates. In the past it would seem probable that the proportion 
of meat was greater than at present, though they have long been tillers 
of the soil. Certain articles of their diet appear to be markedly flesh 
producing, and this tendency is at least not diminished by the habits 
of life resulting from the semitropical climate of the Gila valley. 
They are noticeably heavier than individuals belonging to the tribes 
on the Colorado plateau to the north and northeast, and many old 
persons exhibit a degree of obesity that is in striking contrast with 
the "tall and sinewy" Indian conventionalized in popular thought. 
(Fig. 2.) 

About every fifth year in jjrimitive times the Gila river failed in 
midwinter, the flow diminishing day by day until at length the last 
drop of water that could not gain shelter beneath the sands was 
licked up hy the ever-tlairsty sun. The fish gathered hi the few jiools 
that were maintained by the underflow, the ducks and other water 
birds took flight, but the deer and antelope could the more readily be 
stalked because of their resorting to known watering places. With- 
out water in the river and canals there could be no crops, and neces- 
sity drove the peoj)le to sepk far afield for the native plants that in 
some degree produce fruits or seeds even in dry .seasons. The fruit 
of the saguaro and the seed or bean of the mesquite were the most 
abundant and accessible resources. When even these failetl the 
Pimas were driven to make long journeys into the Apache country — 

a The visit of President McKmley to Phoenix, in May. 1901, made a profound impression upon the 
Pimas. Kaem^-^ lives but 20 miles south of the Arizona capital, and was present at the time of the 
President's \asit. lie made no marlc upon the calendar stick to conimeiiiorate the event, hut related 
the circumstances as a part of the history. 

It is not surprising that the Pimas. who had heard for many ye.irs of the Great Chiefs in Washington, 
should be desirous of seeing one in the flesh when the opportunity presented itself. The official interpre- 
ter at the agency frequently, during the winter of l'.J01-2, expressed her desire to olitain a good biography 
of the late President. After commenting upon the hideous crime of the assassin at BulTalo she made 
the truthful and suggestive remark that ' no Pima would do such a thing; he would never kill his chief." 



RTSSELL] 



THE FOOD SUPPLY 



67 



and whenever they got a mile from their ovm villages they were in the 
lantl of the Apache — in search of animal food, roots, berries, and 
especially the edible agaves. 

At other times the very abundance of water proved disastrous; 




floods destroyed the canals and swept away the crops. As early as 
ion? Padre Kino reported that owing to the fields havmg been over- 
flowed the Pimas could offer liim no pinole," but gave mes({uite meal 
instead.'' The resort to uncultivated products such as their Papago 

a Manuscript, Heraenway Collection, x, p. 6, copy by Bandelier from Doc. His. Mex. 

6 Made by grinding parched com into meal and mixing it Tiith water to form a thin gruel; wheat is 
now similarly treated. Pfefferkom gives the foUomng appreciative description of pinole in his Beschrei- 
bimg der Landschaft Sonora, the second volume of which was published in 1795: "Auch auf dem Feldo, 
iind auf der Reise, wo keine Bequemlichkeit zum Kochen ist, haben die Sonorer ihre Nahrung von dem 
Mais. Sie nehmen den nothigen Vorrath mit: dieser bestehet in dem Pinole, den ihnen die Weiber auf 
folgende Art bereiten. Nachdem der Mais im Wusser etwas geweicht,und hemach getrocknet ist; rosten 
sie denselben in einer irdenen Schiissel, und riihren ihn bestandig herum. damit er nicht onbrenne. 
Wahrendem Rosten. springen die Komer auf; und das Mark bricht, gleich einer schneeweissen Blume, 
hervor. Dieses wird Ksquita genant und ist nicht unangenehm zu essen. Der auf diese Art gerostete 
Mais wird auf dem Mctate gemahJen; und bekomint alsdaim den Namen Pinole. Diese Fold und 
Reisekost fiihrt der Sonorer in dem Balge von einer wilden Katze. oder einem andem Thiere, mit sich. 
Sogar die Soldaten, und andere Spanier, haben auf der Reise keine andere Nahrung. Wenn sie essen 
woUen; so werfen sie zwei oder drei handvoll Pinole in eine Corita. welche ihnen zu dem Ende allezeit 
zur Seite hangt: schiitten Wasser dazu, riihren heides durcheinander; und nehmen also aus einem 
Geschiere, zur selbigen Zeit, Speise und Trank. So sehr der Pinole von den Amerikanern geschatzet 
wird; so wenigen Beifall findet sein fiesehmack bei dem Europaer; nur Zimmet, und Zucker, koaneu ihni 
densel ben angenehm machen." (Vol. ii^ p. l'S2.\ 



68 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. an.\. 26 

cousins to the southward wholly subsisted upon did not prevent the 
Pimas from attaining proficiency in agricultiu-e, as will be seen later, 
and it must many times have preserved them from total extinction. 
With what success they sought for edible plants may be judged from 
the subjoined list, which is believed to be fairly complete. It con- 
tains 22 plants of which the stems, leaves, or flowers were eaten, 4 
that furnished roots or bulbs, 24 with seeds or nuts, and 15 that 
supplied fruits or berries. And this in a region tliat ajipears to the 
casual visitor to be a desert with but a few thorny slu-ubs and but one 
tree that he woukl tleem worthy of the name. 

PREPARATION' OF FOOD 

Very few articles of Pima iliet are eaten raw, and many of them are 
of such a nature as to necessitate thorough cooking; thus the agave 
and the fruit of some of the cacti are baked for many hours. It may 
be well, therefore, to describe the methoils, so far as they could be 
ascertained, of preparing the various plants for use. The art of 
cooking is not well developed among these people ; no such elaborate 
preparations as Mr Cushuig found at Zuni tempt the Pima palate. 

In the olden time maize was gromid upon the flat metates and 
formed into loaves, which must have been ''sad" indeed, to judge 
from their modern counterparts. With the advent of the wliites 
came the introduction of a new and quickly accepted cereal, wheat; 
and the bread made from it also, without leavening agent, is heavy 
and indigestible. One loaf was obtained (pi. vi, a), said to be a com- 
paratively small one, that weighed 1 4 pounds and yet was onh' .3 inches 
tliick and 20 inches in diameter. No knowledge of the pueblo wafer 
breads exists among the Pimas, who confine their treatment of mes- 
quite, corn, wheat, and other flour to baking as tortillas or as loaves 
m the ashes, frying in suet, or boiling, either in water to form a gruel 
or mush, or with other foods in the shape of dumplings. 

A large part of the cereal food of the Pimas is parched before it is 
ground. 

The process of parching on, or rather among, the coals is dex- 
terously carried out. The coals are raked into the parching pan (pi. 
XIX, a) and after the grain has been thro\ni upon them it is given a 
series of tosses with a quarter-turn to each which redistributes the 
light but bulky coals and the heavier grain. A frec(uent pufl^ of 
breath carries away the f(uickly gathering flakes of ashes. The con- 
tents of the pan are separated by a few short jerks that carry the 
coals in a mass to the edge of the dish, whence the larger particles are 
scraped olF and the smaller blo\m out. Another method of parching 
seeds is to place over the fire an olla that has been broken so that at 
least one side is wanting, thus admitting the hand to stir the contents 
as they are browned. 



RUSSELL] THE FOOD SUPPLY 69 

Meat is roasted on the coals, a favorite method of cooking dried 
meat or that of small rodents, or it is boiled until well done. In the 
latter method, according to one informant, it is put on the fire m cold 
water. The broth is then tlirowii away lest it cause consumptit)n. 
A coarse-grained flour is sometimes boiled with the meat to make what 
a Canadian voyageur woukl term rubabu. 

Occasionall}' a housewife will be met with among the Pimas who is 
scrupulously neat and clean in cooking and in the care of the home. 
Most of the women, however, carry traces of dried dough on their 
fingers from week's end to week's end, and the cooking vessels know 
no cleansing except the scraping that seeks the last particle of food 
that ma}' cling to them, the rasping tongue of the starving dog, or the 
hast}' sloppuig of a little cold water mto them just before using agaui. 
The evil effects of slovenliness are reduced, however, by the peculiar 
conditions, such as the dry air, wliich saps the moisture from all 
organic matter, even m the shade; the outdoor cooking place exposed 
to a sun that withers all germs; and the habit of eatmg all the food 
prepared for each meal, which mcludes the rule of etic[uette prescril)- 
ing that one must eat all that is set before liim. 

The kitchen is an arrow-bush inclosure, about 4 or 5 meters in cUam- 
eter (pi. vi, b), containing its set of half a dozen pottery vessels. 
In the center are the tlu-ee stones on which the cooking pot rests. 
Such an inclosure is ([uite common at the present day, though many 
have adoped the oval fireplaces of adobe (pi. vi, c), some obtain iron 
kettle stands from the agency blacksmith, and a few (cliiefly those 
who live in adobe houses) are using modern stoves. 

PLANTS USED FOR FOOD 

A'nillc i'avak, Atriplex bracteosa var. ; A. coronata Wats. ; A. elegans 
Dietrich. These saltbushes, with a few others as yet unidentified, 
are sometimes boiled with other food because of their salty flavor. 
They are cooked in pits with the fruit of the cactus, Opuntia arbo- 
rescens, the method of roasting them being described below. The 
young shoots of some of them are crisp and tender. Conmionly 
known as "sagebrush," these saltbushes are among the most abun- 
dant plants in that region. There are both herbaceous and woody 
species, the former being eaten by stock and the latter being useful 
for fuel. 

A'opa M'dsik, Populus deltoides Marsh. The cottonwood occiu's in 
a tliin fringe, with here and there a grove along the Gila and Salt 
rivers. In February and March the women send some of the liare- 
foot boys into the tree tops to throw down the catkins, which are then 
gathered in baskets and carried home to be eaten raw by stripping 
them off the stem between the teeth. 



70 THE PIMA INDIANS ieth. anm. 26 

Aot, Agave americana Linn, (possibly a few related species also). 
Mescal was gathered in times of famine, and it would have been 
much more extensively used had it not been for the danger from " the 
enemy," the Apaches, that attended even the shortest journey away 
from the villages. The plant has ever l)een a favorite, not only 
among the Pimas but also with the Papagos, the Apaches, and a 
score of other tribes. The first day's work after reaching the hills 
where this plant grows was to seek suitable wood and make digging 
sticks. Then the men gathered the mescal heads bj- piying them 
out with the sticks, and trimmed off the leaves with a knife, leaving 
one or two, so that the heads might be tied in pairs and slung on a 
rope for carrying. Thin-leaved specimens were rejected, inasmuch 
as they not only contain little nourishment, but blister the mouth 
when eaten. Wliile the men were bringing in the mescal, the women 
gathered wood for fuel. Pits were dug, and after the fire built in 
them had died down small stones were placed on the coals. The 
mescal was then placed on the stones and the whole covered with 
earth. When it had roasted for twenty-four hours, a small opening 
was made in the pit and its contents examined; if the cooking was 
not yet complete, the opening was closed and the pit left undisturbed 
twelve hours longer. If the roasting was not done when the pit was 
first opened, it was believed that the incontinence of some members 
of the party was the cause. The heads of the fruit were opened by 
removing the envelope on one side; the center was cut out and dried 
in the sun, when it was ready for use or for storing away. 

Mescal is now obtained from the Papagos. It is eaten by chewing 
until the juice is extracted and rejecting the fiber. It is used alone 
or together with pinole. vSirup is extracted from the prepared mescal 
by boiling until the juice is removed, which is then thickened by pro- 
longed boiling until it becomes a black sirup, somewhat similar to 
sorghum. It is inferior to saguaro sirup. 

A' pan, Monolepis chenopoides. The roots are washed, boiled in 
an olla, and cooled in a l)asket. The water is scpieezed out, and they 
are again put into the olla with a little fat or lard and salt. After 
cooking for a few moments the}' are ready to serve with tortillas. 
This plant is also used in a similar manner by the Mexicans, who are 
supposed to have learned its value frojn the natives. The seeds are 
boiled, partially dried, parched, ground on the metate, and eaten as 
pinole. 

A'taftak, Cucurbita fcetidissima H. B. K. The seeds of this wild 
gourd are roasted and eaten. 

E'ikdfi. The root of tliis small plant is gathered, boiled, and eaten 
without peeling. 

Haif'Jcam, Olneya tesota. The nuts of the ironwood tree (pi. vii, a) 
are parched in an olla, or, what is more usual, the broken half of one, 



RtrssELL] " THE FOOD SUPPLY 71 

and eaten without further preparatit)n. The tree grows on the mesas 
on all sides of the villages, where it is very conspicuous for a few days 
in May, when it is covered with a mass of purple flowers. 

lia'howat, Phoradendron calif ornicum. The berries of the mistletoe 
that grows on the mesquite are gathered and boiled without strip- 
ping from the stem. They are taken in the fingers, and the berries 
stripped off into the mouth as eaten. Various species of mistletoe 
are very abundant on the trees along the Gila, but this one only is 
eaten. 

Halt, Cucurbita pepo Linn. The common species of pumpkin 
grown by the Pimas, as well as by the whites and Mexicans, is cut in 
strips and dried, wlicn it is known by a number of difl'erent names, 
according to the manner of cutting and the particular variety. This 
species includes the pumpkins proper, the bush scallop squashes, the 
sununer crook-necks, and the white or yellow warty squashes. The 
club-shaped, pear-shaped, or long-cylindrical smooth scjuash is Cucur- 
bita moschata Duchesne. It is extensively grown by the Pimas. The 
seeds of the pumpkin are parched and eaten. When the dried pumj> 
kin is used, it is softened in water and boiled. 

Ha'n'dm, Opuntia arborescens. The fruit of this cactus (pi. viii, a) 
is gathered with an instrument that resembles an enlarged wooden 
clothespin. It is collected in large cjuantities and carried home in 
the kiaha, or carrying basket. A pit is dug and a fire built in it, on 
which stones are heated. As the fire dies down the stones are removed 
and a layer of the saltbush, Suseda arborescens, is placed over the 
coals; above this is placed a layer of cactus fruit, then hot stones, 
and so alternately to the top, over which a thick layer of saltbush is 
laid with earth outside. The pit is left imdisturbed over one night, 
then its contents are spread out, dried, and the fruit stirred with a 
stick until the thorns are rubbed off, whereupon it is ready to store 
away for future use. In its final preparation it must be boiled. It is 
then salted and eaten with pinole. The acid flavor is usually relieved 
by the addition of various plants cooked as greens. 

Ha'rsany, Cereus giganteus Engelni. The fruit of the giant cac- 
tus, or, as it is more generally known in the Southwest, the saguaro 
(pis. VIII, 6, and ix, c, d), is gathered in June, and so important is 
the harvest that the event marks the beginning of the new year in 
the Pima calendar. The supply is a large one and only industry is 
recjuired to make it available throughout the entire year, as both the 
seeds and the dried fruit may be preserved. Seeds that have passed 
through the body are sometimes gathered from the dried feces, 
washed, and treated as those obtained directly from the fruit, though 
there would seem to be some special value ascribed to them as in the 
case of the "second harvest" of the Seri." 



<» Cl. W J McGee in Seventeenth Annual Report ol Bureau o£ jVmerican Ethnology, 212. 



72 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

The fruit is eaten without preparation when it ripens. It is of a 
crimson color and contains many black seeds about the size of those 
of the iig, which fruit it resembles in taste. By a process of boiling 
and fermentation an intoxicating liquor is obtained from the fi-esh 
fruit wliich has been more highly esteemed than the nutritious fooil 
and has rendered this new-year a season of debauchery." 

The fruit is dried and preserved in balls 15 or more centimeters 
in diameter (fig. 3). From either the fresh or dried fruit sirup is 
extracted Ijy boihng it "all day." The residue is ground on the 
metate into an oily paste which is eaten without further preparation. 
The seeds may be separated from the pulp at the time of drying the 
fruit and may be eaten raw or groiuid on the metate and treated as 
any meal — put into water to form a pinole or combined with other 
meal to bake into bread. 

Ila'vaU, Yucca bacatta. The fruit is boiled, dried, ground on the 
mealing-stone, and boiled with flour. It is also eaten raw as a cathar- 
tic. The stems are reduced to pulp and used as soap. Y. elata is 
also used as soap. 

Ilo'ny, Zea ^lays. Corn, the most important crop of the Pueblo 
tribes, has, in recent years at least, been of less value to the Pinias 
than wheat. The numerous varieties are all prepared in about the 
same manner. As the husked corn is brought in by the women, it is 
piled on a thin layer of brush and roasted by burning the latter, after 
wliich it is cut from the cob, dried, and stored away for future use. 

o " I arrived at the Pimas Gilenos, accompanied by the governor of the Coco-Maricopas. There was 
great rejoicement, for there had spread thus far the report that they (the Moquis) had mo killed. The 
governor of the I'imas told me that all the relatives were wrll content, and wishing to make a feast, 
all the pueblos together. I agreed to this, Imt on condition that it should be apart from me, foreseeing 
in this what would come to pass. In a little while I heard that they were singing 'aheap' {de monton); 
this was stopped presently, but was followed by a great uproar of discordant voices, and shoutuig, in 
which they said, 'We are good! We are happyl We know Godl We are the fellows to fight the 
Apiiches! We are glad the old man (as they call me) has come, and not been kiiledl ' This e:.trava- 
gant shouting iexorbitanfe grUeria), a thing foreign to the seriousness of the Pimas, I knew came from 
drinking, which produced various effects. Some came and took me by the hand, saluting me. One 
said, "I am padre de Pedro.' Another said to me, "Thou hast to baptize a child.' Another, 'This is 
thy home — betake not thyself to see the king, nor to Tucson.' Others made the sign of the cross, partly 
in Spanish, so that though 1 felt very angry at such general drunkenness, there did not fail me some 
gusto to 1 ear the good expressions into which they burst, even when deprived of reason. The next 
day I complained of these excesses to the .governor, who told me that it only happened a few times and 
in the season of saguaro, and adding that it made his people vomit yellow and kept them in good health. 
What most pleased me was to see that no woman got drunk : instead of which saw many of them leading 
by the bridle the horse upon which her husband was mounted, gathering up at the same time the clothes 
and beads that the men scattered about, in order that none should be lost." (Garcfis's Diary, 438.) 
" The three pitahaya months," says Father Salva-Tierra [describing the saguaro harvest in Cah- 
fornia], ' ' resemble the carnival in some parts of Europe, when the men arc in a great measure stupi- 
fied or mad. The natives here also throw aside what reason they have, giving themselves up to feast- 
ings, dancings, entertainments of the neighboring rancherias, buffooneries, and comedies, such as they 
are; and in these, whole nights are spent to the high diversion of the audience. The actors are 
selected for their talent of imitation; and they execute their parts admirably well." (Venegas, His- 
tory of California, i, 82.) "The gathering of this fruit may be considered as the harvest of the 
native inhabitants. They can eat as much of it as they please, and with some this food agrees so 
well that they become corpulent during that period, and for this reason I was sometunes unable to 
recognize at first sight individuals otherwise perfectly familiar to me, who visited me after having fed 
three or four weeks on these pitahayas." (Jacob Baegert, The Aboriginal Inhabitants of the C'ali- 
fomian Peninsula, in Smithsonian Report, 1803, 3ti3.) 



RCSSKLL] 



THE FOOD SUPPLY 



73 



The shelled corn is ground on the metate and baked in large cakes 
in the ashes. Corn is also boiled with ashes, dried, and the hulls 
washed ofT, then thoroughly dried and parched with coals or over 
the fire. It is then made into a gruel, but is not so highly regarded 
as the wheat pinole. 

I'savlk. The thorns of tliis cactus are removed as soon as gathered, 
and it is eaten without further preparation. 

I'tany, Atriplex sp. The heads of this saltbush are pounded up 
in the mortar and screened to separate the hulls. The seeds are 
washed, spread to dry, parched in a piece of olla, and ground on the 
metate. They are then ready to be eaten as pinole, or dry, in the 




Fig. 3. Dried saguaro fruit. 

latter case a pinch of the meal being taken alternately with a sip of 
water. 

Ka'lfsa, Cicer arietinum Linn. The chick-pea is raised in small 
quantities and is also purchased from the traders. This is the gara- 
banzo of Mexico. The name chicos is sometimes applied to tliis pea 
as it is to anything small, especially to small or, rather, sweet corn 
that is just old enough for roasting. 

Kaf, Chenopodium murale. The seed is gathered early in the sum- 
mer and prei:)ared by parching and grinding, after wliich it may be 
eaten as pinole or combined with other meal. 

Kci'meHi^at. After the August rains this seed is gathered, parched 
over coals in the parching pan, ground on the metate, and eaten as 
pinole. 



74 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETII. A.\N. 26 



Kan'yo, Sorghum vulgare Pers. Sorghum is cuhivated when the 
water supply permits. It has been obtained recently from the whites, 
who raise it extensively in the Southwest. 

Ki'al-. The heads of this annual are gathered and the seeds beaten 
out \vith the kiaha stick used as a flail. The seeds are moistened, 
parched, wlxich makes it resemble pop corn, ground on the metate, 
and eaten by taking alternately pinches of meal and sips of water. 

Koi, Prosopis vehitina. Mesquite beans" formed nearly if not 
quite the most important article of diet of the Pimas in primitive 
times (pi. X, a). They are still extensively used, though tlie supj)ly 
is somewhat curtailed by the live stock which feed avidly upon 
them. As already stated, the crop sometimes fails, "especially in 




Fig. 4. Sheds with caches on roofs. 



hard times," as one of our informants naiveh^ remarked. The mes- 
quite harvest takes place somewhat later than that of the saguaro. 
The beans are gathered and stored in the pod in cylindrical bins on 
the roofs of the houses or sheds (fig. 4). Wliile yet on the trees, the 
bean pods are bored by larvae of the family Brucliidae. *" 



o Analysis of mesquite beans, including the pod: 

Ter cent. 

Moisture 5. 9G 

Dry matter 94. 04 

Crude ash 5. 20 

Crude fat 5. 12 



Per cent. 

Crude cellulose 32. 53 

Albuminoids 14. 03 

Nitrogen-free extract 37. 13 

Nutritive ratio 1: 5.8 



" The amount of cellulose, or woody fiber, is very much larger in the bean, and the amount of nitrogen- 
free extract considerably smaller; but the albuminoids and fats compare very well indeed. The bean 
pod is 4 to 8 inches in length, and grows in bunches from six to eight pods tothe bunch." Third .\nnual 
Report, 1888, Texas Agi'icultural Experiment Station, Reference landly supplied by Mr Ewell, Bureau 
of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture. 

6 '' There are two species of Bruchus which are especially common in mesquite seeds in Arizona — both 
the common mesquite and the scn^w bean, namely, Bruchus prosopis Lcc. and Bruchus desertoruru 
Lee. Occasionally other species breed in the seeds." Dr L. O. Howard, Department of Agriculture, 
letter. 



KUSSELi.] THE FOOD SUPPLY 75 

The beans are prepared for use by being poimded up in a mortar 
with a stone pestle, or, if a large quantity is reqviired, with a large 
wooden one. The pods niaj' be ground with the beans. Another 
method of preparation is to separate the beans from the pods, parch 
them by tossing them up in a pan of live coals, and reduce them to 
meal b}^ grinding, whereupon they niay be eaten as pinole. This 
has a sweetish taste and is reputed to be very nourishing. 

The catkins of the mesquitc are eaten without preparation by strip- 
ping fi'om the stem between the teeth. 

The white gum which exudes from the mesquite limbs is used in 
making candy. 

The imier bark is employed as a substitute for rennet. 

Eo'hitc vliiLiaki, Parkinsonia microphylla (in the foothills) ; P. tor- 
reyana (on the mesas) (pi. x, h). The paloverde bean was formerly 
eaten either as gathered or after Ijeing pounded in the mortar. It 
was not eaten as pinole, but was sometimes mixed with mesquite 
meal. 

Ko'nMf. The heads are gathered and washed, sometimes twice, 
theii boiled in an olla with a little water. ^Mieat flour and a sea- 
soning of salt are added and the whole is stirred until the heads fall to 
pieces. 

Ko'-oTcupaltM:. According to tradition the seeds were eaten in prim- 
itive tunes, but no one now knows how they were prepared. The 
plant is now boiled with meat as greens. 

Ko'Htcilt, Prosopis pubescens. Screw beans are abundant along 
the banks of the Gila. They are cooked in pits which are lined with 
arrow bushes set on end. The beans are placed m lasers alternatmg 
with cocklebur leaves, the whole covered with earth and left to stand 
tliree or four days, after which they are taken out and spread to dry. 
They are then ready to use or store away in the arrow-bush basket 
bms on the house tops. They are further prepared for food by pound- 
ing up in a mortar, the fuie flour then being ready to be eaten as 
pmole. The coarser portion is taken up in the hands with water, 
the juice sucked tlu-ough the fingers, and the remainder rejected. 

Kina'aolt, Liciuui fremontii var. The red berry is boiled and eaten. 

Ma-atatilk. This is described as resembling asparagus. The stems 
may be eaten raw or boiled or roasted in the ashes. 

Me'la, Citrullus ^ndgaris Shrad. Watermelons are among the most 
important crops of the Pimas and are eaten during at least six months 
of the year. 

Naf , Opimtia engelmanni. The thonis are brushed off the fiiiit 
of the prickly pear before it is gathered. It is then peeled and eaten, 
the seeds being throwm away. The Papagos make a sirup from the 
fruit (which is said to cause fever in those not accustomed to its use) 



76 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

and dry the fruit as they do that of the sagiiaro, but the Pimas make 
no further use of it than to eat it raw. 

Xyi'dtam, Malva sp. This plant is boiled and the liquid used in 
making pinole in times of famine. 

O'-opat, Acacia greggii. The beans of the cat's-claw (pi. vii, h) 
were eaten in primitive times, but no one of the present generation 
knows how they were prepared. 

site c'wii pat, Zizyphus lycioides. The black berry of this thorny 
bush is gathered in the basket bowls after it has been beaten down 
with sticks. It is eaten raw and the seeds are thrown away. 

Pap'lam. The heads are tied in bunches and dried in the sun. 
They are then shelled, screened, the seeds parched, ground on the 
metate, and eaten as pmole. They are "not sweet." 

Pavfii), Phaseolus vulgaris Lmn. At least one variety of the com- 
mon kidney bean, pole bean, bunch bean, etc., was laiown to the 
natives before the advent of the Spaniards. Venegas states " that 
"red frixoles, or kidney beans" [Phaseolus sp.], were cultivated by the 
natives of lower California, and tliis may have been the variet}^ known 
in Pimcria.* 

PeVfalany, Triticum sativiun Lam. "VVlieat is the principal crop 
of the Pimas, and four varieties are known to them. It is ground 
on the metate to make the flour used in cooking the great loaves 
that weigh from 10 to 20 pounds. Tortillas resembling those of 
the Mexicans are now more commonly used than the heavy loaves of 
former days. A light and toothsome doughnut is fried in bubbling 
hot suet (pi. VI, a). One of the commonest methods of preparing 
wheat is to parch it , grind it on the metate, and eat it as a sort of thin 
gruel called hak(i) tcoi; or the wheat maybe boiled before parching, 
in which case the product is known as p^rs^j tcoi. Both are Itnowai to 
the wliites hy the Mexican term ''puiole." 

Rsat. The bulb of the wild onion is eaten. It is common on the 
slopes at the foot of the Estrellas. 

Rso'-oiD'dt. The fuie reddish seed is boiled with flour as a mush. 

Rscr'su-uUk. This is used as greens with similar plants. 

« History of Califomia, 45. 

b The entire region occupied l)y tribes of the Piman stock, extending over the larger part of Sonora 
as far northward as the Rio Gila, was known to the Spanish as Plmeria. That portion between the 
Yaqiiis and the Gila was called Plmeria Alta. The Papagos occupy nearly all this territory, and of 
late it is commonly called Papagueria. For an undetermined number of centuries the Pimas proper 
have occupied the middle Gila district. Their habitat differs, therefore, from that of the other tribes 
of the stock, and for convenience their territory will be here designated by the term Piraerla. 

Buschmarm states in Die Pima-Sprache that " Duflot de Mofras (exploration du territoirc de VOr^gon, 
des Cnhfornies et de la mer lermeille T. I., Par. 1S44, p. 20S) setzt die Pimeria alta vim den Fliissen Colo- 
rado und Gila an bis zur Stadt HermosiUo und zum rio de los Ures;die Pimeria baxavonAa, anbiszum 
rio del Fuerte, welcher die Granze von Sonora und Cinaloa bildet. Er setzt beide, zu grosse Pimerias 
gleich Ober- und Nieder-Sonora: 'La Sonore se divise en haute et basse, et prend aussi, A cause des 
Indiens Pimas, le nom de Pimeria alta y liaja.' Arricivita (p. 396) bestimmt die Pimeria alta so: ' Die 
ganze Pimeria alta dehnt sich aus vera Presidio de Ternate bis zu den playas de Taborca, fiber 100 leguas; 
und von der Mission S. Ignacio von S naeh N bis zum G//f/-Flusse. wieder 100 leguas; ihr grosster Theil 
liegt unter dem 30ten Breitengrade. Toda la Pimeria (397) estd habitada de Indies.' " F. 321, 322. 



RUSSELL] THE FOOD SUPPLY 77 

Sdi't'dlcain iaviJc. The leaf of this thorny plant is eaten raw or 
boiled. 

Si'ek'u, Ciiciimis melo Linn. The muskmelon is extensively raised 
by the Pimas. 

Si'mtcllt, Riiniex hymenosepalus. The canaigre is cultivated by 
the whites in the Gila valley for tannin, yet it is eaten by the Pinias. 
The stem is roasted in the ashes or, recently, stewed with sugar. We 
have seen the children greedily devouring the raw roots in March. 
Doctor Palmer states that the roots are used to tan deerskin and 
also as soap. 

So'-odof, Sophia pinnata (Walt) Britton. The seeds are parched, 
ground, and mixed with water to form pinole. The Mexicans of 
Arizona use the leaves of this plant in preparing a drink. An infu- 
sion made from the leaves is also emjjloyed as a remedy for sores. 

TaM. Gosypiiun sp. The cotton plant is no longer raised, ])ut from 
pre-Spanish days down to the last quarter of a century it was culti- 
vated both for the fiber and the seeds. The latter were poimded up 
with mesquite l)eans in the mortar or they were sometimes parched 
and eaten without grinding." 

Tai^Tc . These seeds resemble those of flax in appearance. They 
are eaten either raw or boiled and are j-et extensively used. 

Tapkalt. This is one of the varieties of squash that is cultivated 
by the Pimas at the present time. 

Ta'ta a'ndJ,-, Atriplex nuttallii. The stems of this saltbush are 
boiled with wheat. They are cut in short lengths and used some- 
times as a stuffing for roast ral)bit. 

Tcia, Salvia columbaria Benth. The seeds when infused in water 
form a pleasant mucilaginous beverage, very popular with the 
Pimas. 

Tii'dldi. The fi'uit of this cactus is bi'ought by the Papagos and 
traded to the Pinias. It is cooked in the same manner as Opuntia 
arborescens. 

Tciaaolt, Echinocactus wislizeni. The pulp of the visnaga is con- 
sidered valuable in lieu of water to those sufl'erLng from thirst. It is 
also eaten after being cut in strips and boiled all day. It is some- 
times boiled with mesquite beans, a layer each in the cooking olla. 
It is occasionally boiled with sugar. It is quite a popular confection 
among the whites, who, in some places, obtain the raw material from 
the Papagos. 

Tci'-ifJcwatal-, Lithospermum sp. The leaves are eaten without 
preparation. 

a C. D. Poston stated in 1S64 that he had recently fumislied the Pimas with 500 pounds of cottonseed, 
though he did not give any reason for doing so. It is fair to presume that the Pimas had sufficient seed 
from the plant that they had raised from time immemorial. 



78 ' THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

Tdl'tipln (Sp.). This pepper is raised by the Papagos and brought 
to the Pimas. 

Tco'hoMa. The leaves are gathered in spring and sometimes baked 
in tortillas. In summer the seeds are gathered, ground on the metate, 
mixed with meal or squash, or they may be parched and groimd to 
be eaten dry. 

Tco'tclTc a'nijik, Suseda arborescens; S. suffrutescens. These are 
added to greens or cactus iruit to give flavor. 

To'a, Quercus oblongifolia. The acorns of this oak are traded 
from the Papagos. After the hulls have been removed they are 
parched and ground into meal. 

ijriam, Atriplex lentiformis. The seed of this saltbush is cooked 
in pits which are lined with Suseda arborescens and the papery inner 
bark of the cottonwood moistened and mixed together. The roasting 
requires but. one night, then the seeds are taken out, dried, parched, 
and laid away for future use. "When eaten, it is placed in a cup and 
water added until a thick gruel is pioduced. 

Vakwai'hai-tudiim, Solanum elgeagnifolium. The berries are put in 
the milk from which cheese is made to serve as a substitute for rennet. 

Yal-'iixiiuldtH, Rumex berlandieri. This plant is used with the 
cactus fruit, Opuntia arborescens, in the same manner as the saltbush, 
Suseda arborescens. 

Vi'jnnoi, Opuntia versicolor. The fi'uit is sometimes eaten raw, 
but it is iisually prepared in the same manner as Opuntia arborescens. 

Dr Edward Palmer, who collected among the Pimas in 1885, 
obtained some nuts of the "quinine plant," Simmondsia californica 
Nutt., which he says are eaten either raw or parched. Professor 
Thornber states that the Mexicans use the oil as a hair tonic. He also 
describes an "Indian potato," HofTmanseggia falcaria Cav., which, 
when roasted, tastes like the cultivated Irish potato. However, this 
is a member of the pea family and not a potato. A true Solanum 
is found native to Arizona, but we have not learned that the Pimas 
know of it. 

At least three kinds of chewing gum are in use. That most highly 
esteemed iscalled vi-ipam, "milky; " it is obtained from a plant which 
somewhat resembles a sweet-potato vine. The pointed pods are 
gathered, their milk poured into a squash stalk and heated in the 
ashes, whereupon it is ready to chew. A bush, Encelia farinosa, 
called fohafs, exudes a clear gum; and that on the stems of some of the 
Compositae is sometimes gathered and chewed by children. 



RUSSELL] THE FOOD SUPPLY 79 

MEDICINAL PLANTS 

A'taftak. The root of the wild gourd " is pounded vip in mortars, 
boiled, and the extracted juice j)ut into the ear to cure earache. It is 
poured into a hollow tooth to stop aching. "It kills maggots in open 
sores." 

Ha'tam, Sphteralcea angustifolia. The leaves are boiled and used 
as a remedy for diarrhea. Another informant states that the root 
is boiled and the liquid extracted is used as a remeily for biliousness. 
Ka'Jcaitco u-us, "quail plant," Heliotropium curassavicum. The 
upper part of the light yellowish root is dried and ground in mortars, 
dried again, and ground very fine upon the metate, when it is ready 
to be applied to sores or wounds after they have been washed. 

Kdl'pitdm. The leaves of this bush are boiled and the extract used 
as an emetic. 

Koi, Prosopis velutina. The black gum of the mesquite is boiled 
and the dilute licpiid used as a wash for sore eyes and open wounds. 
The inner l)ark of the mescjuite is boiled anil the liquid useil as an 
emetic and cathartic. 

KdUiilf, Prosopis pubescens. The bark of the root of the screw 
bean is pounded up in mortars, dried, and again ground into a fine 
powder on the metate; or it may be boiled without pounding or 
grinding and the liquid used as a dressing for woimds. After a few 
days, as the wound heals, the dry powder is substituted. 

Osikakamilk, Pluchea borealis. The bark of the arrow-bush root 
is separated by pounding between stones and then placed in water 
for a few hours to extract a liquid for washhig the face and for sore 
eyes. 

0' site iw&t pat, Zizyphus lycioides. The root of this bush is pounded 
up in mortars and boiled, the liquid extracted being used as a remedy 
for sore eyes. 

Pihoi. An evil spirit that lives in the east is called Piliol- He 
causes certain diseases, which have their appropriate songs. One 
informant declared that a tree that grows near the Maricopa village 
on the Gila was also called piho{, and from it a medicine stick is 
made that will cure diseases of the throat. The writer was unable 
either to verify or to disprove this statement. 

Rsios. Two unidentified species of Bigelovia are used as a dress- 
mg for scarified wounds. The briused leaves are applied to bleeding 
surfaces that have been cut with broken glass. 

Rsvkaikol-ul-, Larrea mexicana. The leaves of the creosote bush 
(pi. IX, a) are boiled and the liquor is allowed to cool a little, when it 
is drunk as an emetic. The boiled leaves are also used as a poultice. 



fl In pioneer days the whites used the roots of two species of wild gourds. Cucurhita. palniata 
and C. digitata, as a cathartic, Doctor Palmer stating that they were '■ very much belilsed by the 
soldiers." 



80 THE PIMA INDIANS [bth. ann. iG 

SivitcUt, Rumex hymenosepalus. The root of the canaigre is 
dried, ground and the powder applied to sores. 

So' am hi'aseikliam, "yellow flower." An infusion made from the 
flowers of this plant is used as a remedy for sore eyes. 

jjrtam, Atriplex lentiformis. The root is powdered and applied to 
sores. 

firto, Krameria parvifolia. Used in the same manner as the 
preceding. 

Vai'e^Lxi, Xanthium canadense. Cocklebur pulp is combined with 
soot as a remedy for sore eyes. 

Va'valsh, Houttuynia californica, called "yerba mansa" by the 
Mexicans. The roots are crushed and boiled. The extract is used 
as a tea for consumptives, according to one informant, and as an 
emetic according to another. 

Vipilkam, Alba marginata. The root is chewed as an emetic. 

Teamsters' Tea, Ephedra antisyphilitica Berland, is a native of 
Arizona, and is used by the Pimas in making a beverage. It is also 
used by both the Pimas and Mexicans as a remedy for syphilis. 

A composite, Perezia wrightii, is used as a styptic. 

Thamnosma montanuin is said to be used as a decoction for the 
cure of gonorrhea by the Pimas and Apaches. (Dr Edward Palmer, 
manuscript.)" 

ANIMALS USED FOR FOOD 

Kd'-dtci, or tasi'-ikalt, Tayassu angulatum sonoriense. The peccary 
is yet found in the larger mountain chains that were formerly reached 
by the hunters of Pimeria, though the Gila river is about the north- 
em limit of the range of tliis animal in the West. It could never 
have been an important article of diet, and is practically unknown 
to the younger generation. 

KaJ\ Taxidea taxus (subspecies ?) . The badger is occasionally seen 
along the Gila, but is not abundant and is no longer eaten. It is 
one of the animals that cause disease among men, and a badger tail 
is an essential part of the medicine-man's equipment. 

Ka'katco, Lophortyx gambeli. The handsome topknot quail is the 
most abundant of the feathered inhabitants of the Gila thickets. It 
is tabued to the women, though no explanation for this could be 
discovered. 

Kd'son. A "rat" was formerly eaten, but it was found impossi- 
ble during my stay to get specimens for identification.'' 

aThis is similar to, but not identical with, the "cordoncillo" of the Arizona Mexicans, from which 
an infusion is made that is used as a tonic and blood purifier. (Thornber.) 

bMr Fisher, of the Biological Survey, lists the following species of niice and rats for Pimeria: Mus 
alexandrinus, introduced: Mus musculus, introduced: Mus norvegicus, introduced: Orychomys tor- 
ridus; I'eromyscus, 2-3 species: Sigmodon liispidus arizonse; Reithrodontomys (sp.?) ; Neotoma (sp.?) ; 
Fiber zibethicus pallidas. 



RUSSELL] THE FOOD SUPPLY 81 

Kd'vi, Castor canadensis frondator. The beaver was common along 
the Gila, and was esteemed highly for food." 

Ka'viyo, Equus caballus. The horse is seldom eaten by the Pimas. 
In tunes of famine, however, horses are sometimes used, although the 
more than half-starved condition of the animals suggests anything 
but nourishmg viands. 

Ko'-ovik, Antilocapra americana mexicana. The antelope is now 
unknown in Pimeria, but the hunters of former centuries success- 
fully stalked these animals upon the mesas, particularly upon the 
higher grassy plams to the eastward. 

Ma'li'dm. These unidentified worms (?) are plentiful when a rainy 
season insures a heavy crop of desert plants. They are gathered in 
large quantities, their heads pulled off, and intestines removed. The 
women declare that their hands swell and become sore if they come 
in contact with the skin of the worms. The worms are then put into 
cooking pots lined with branches of saltbush and boiled. The skins 
are braided together while yet soft and dried a day or two in the sun. 
The dry and brittle sticks are eaten at any time without further 
preparation. 

Ma'vit, Felis hippotestes aztecus. The puma is yet abundant in 
the mountain ranges of Arizona, and in former times one was occa- 
sionally secured by the Pimas when in quest of other game. 

Rsu'lil-. There are at least six species of ground squirrels in this 
region,* but in the absence of specimens the writer could not learn 
if the Pimas distinguished among them. When water was obtain- 
able it was poured into the burrows of these squirrels imtil they were 
driven. out, whereupon they were killed with clubs or shot with arrows. 
They were tabued to the women under penalty of nosebleed or 
deficiency in flow of milk for their babies. 

Si'-ilc, Odocoileus couesi. 'Wliite-tail deer are yet fairly conmion in 
the mountains and two deerskins were seen among the Pimas during 
the period 'of six montlis spent with them. Perhaps one in two or 
three j^ears would be an excessive estimate of the number killed by 
the men of the Gila River reservation. The deer figures largely in 
their traditions and religion. 

Ta'matdlt. During the winter months these birds are caught at 
nearly every house by means of traps. The trap commonly used is 
described on page 101. 

nThe earliest American invaders of PimerSa were beaver trappers who descended the Gila early in 
the last century. One of the first Americans that the oldest li\-ing Pimas remember was Ka'vi 
V&'namam, " Beaver Hat." who told the Pimas that the buildings now in ruins along the Gila and 
Salt rivers were destroyed by waterspouts. He lived several years among the Pimas, and was 
finally killed near Prescott by Apaches. 

ft Eutamias dorsalis (?), Spermophilus canescens, S. grammurus, S. harrisi, S. spilosoma macrospi- 
lotus (Oracle), S. teretieaudus (Fort Yuma). 

26 ETH— 08 8 



82 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

Td'pi, Lepus arizonas. The small cottontail is fairly coinmon in 
river bottoms and on the mesa throughout the Pima country. It is 
shot with arrows made mth a straight point without stone or metal 
head. It is included m the list of victims that result from rabbit 
drives in which the hares, Lepus texianus and L. alleni, are the prin- 
cipal desiderata. 

Tcirsany, Ovis nelsoni. The moxmtain sheep has served as food 
when obtainable, though it has been many years smce they have 
been abundant." 

Tcok tcof, Lepus texianus. There are two species of large hares 
along the Gila, where they are termed "jack rabbits" by the whites, 
very few of whom distinguish them apart. The Pimas, however, 
recognize the difference and call this species the daik or gray, and 
the other the white, tcof. 

Tcu'tcuU, Gallus domesticus. Durmg the late Spanish and the 
Mexican regime a small breed of fowl was introduced, probably by 
the Papagos, which in turn gave way to the large varieties brought 
by the Americans in the last half century. Hens' eggs are eaten 
either fried or boiled. One of the interpreters confided to Mrs Russell 
that she economized time and labor by boiling the eggs in the coffee. 

To'a tcof, Lepus alleni. These are common and utilized for food to 
a considerable extent. There seems to be no preference for one 
species of hare over the others, but "none are so good as beef." The 
stomachs of this hare and of Lepus texianus are used in makmg 
cheese. 

Va'owolc, Procyon lotor. The raccoon is said to be used for food, 
though the writer did not see any of the animals or any of their 
skins during a stay of a year and a half in Arizona. 

Vd'prsa, Thomonys cervinus. Gopher hunts are occasionally 
arranged m a manner similar to those in which the hares are driven. 
The animals are poked out of their retreats with sticks and without 
preparation thrown upon the coals to roast. 

a " Having traversed 4 leagues, we arrived at a town, Tusonimon, which is so named from a great 
heap of horns, from the wild or sylvan sheep, which appears Uke a hill, and from the munbors that 
there are of the animals, they make the common subsistence of the inhabitants.'' (Juan Matio Mange: 
Diary extract translated for Schoolcraft, in, 30.3.) This \dsit of Mange to the Pima towns was in 
November, 1697. The discovery of this .'statement by Mange and also a letter of inquiry from Mr 
Hodge directed the writer's attention to the significance attaching to the horns of the mountain .sheep 
after he had returned from his sojourn among the Pimas. Inquiry was then made of a number of 
Pinja correspondents and of Mr C. II. Cook, at Sacaton. The latter ascertained from Antonio Azul, 
the head chief, that the horns of the mountain sheep were never brought home l>y hunters, which does 
not agree with Mange's statement. Each man had a place set apart where he deposited them in 
order that they might exert no evil influence upon the winds or rains. At times the Papagos held 
rain ceremonies, during which the medicine-men deposited the tails of mountain sheep together with 
eagle feathers at springs. The same tribe at one time sacrificed some children in their efforts to increase 
the supply of water, but " instead of bringing them water this dried up all the springs." A few 
mountain sheep remain in the Superstition mountains and in the other high ranges near and on 
the reservation. When climbing the Sierra Estrella, in March, 1902, the writer saw a flock of five 
which did not manifest any such fear at the sight of man as do the mountain sheep of British Colum- 
bia and the more northern Rockies. Indeed, the Pima chief at the foot of the mountains expiarned 
the reason for their indilference very adequately when he declared the sheep were game fit only for the 
Papagos, who had no fields to look after. 



iirssELi,] THE FOOD SUPPLY 83 

Vafop. There are occasional references to fish in tlie traditions of 
the Pimas and the notes of Spanish and American travelers sometimes 
mention them. It is certain that at times they caught large num- 
bers of fisli, but in seasons of drought the river, then as now, becoming 
wliolly dry near the villages, could not be relied upon to furnish 
such a convenient supply of food. Either the long series of dry 
years and the absence of fish have caused the people to forget former 
classifications or else they never distinguished one species from 
another, for they now have but one name for all fresh fish. How- 
ever, there were several species in tlie Gila and adjoining streams that 
were large enough for food." 

Wh'ai, Odocoileus hemionus (subspecies ?) . Information concern- 
ing this species was very vague and unreliable, though it seems cer- 
tain that the black-tail deer was sometimes killed by the Pimas, at 
least before the growing power of the Apaches prevented the former 
from roaming through the mountains that border Pimeria on the 
north and east. 

Wo'poldo, Equus asinus.'' The burro (donkey) is not in high repute 
among the Pimas, where the distances to the white settlements and 
between villages necessitate a more speedy animal for draft or riding 
purposes. Few in number, they could not be very important as an 
article of diet. They have been eaten in the past, but are rarely so 
used at present. 

Snakes are not eaten, even m times of famine, and the idea of eating 
lizards is repudiated with scorn. 

o Garo^s, who traversed the Pima country in 1775, wrote: ' ' There is found in this river no other 
fish than that wiiich they call matalo'te, which is so very savory to the taste, hut is troublesome on 
account of the many bones that it has." (On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, ii, 142.) Jordan says: 
"Garct^s's reniarlis settle the matalo'te. There are no large fish in the Gila except the two large, bony 
chubs called, by Baird and Girard, Gila robusta and Gila elegans. In the very mouth of the river 
there is also a big, rawboned suclcer of the same build, called Xyrauchen cypho, the Razor-back or 
Hump-back Sucker. The Gila is a hump-back chub, about a foot and a half long, with a low, large 
mouth and a long, broad tail. It is popularly known as Bony-tail, Gila Trout, and Round-tail, and 
is about as poor eating as a fish can be." The Land of Sunshine, xiit, 436. 

In The Fishes of the Colorado Basin, Evermann and Rutter enumerate several species that must 
have been accessible to the Pimas. Their names and the localities where they were collected are as 
follows: 

Pantosteus arizonae Gilbert. Salt river, Tempe. 

Pantosteus clarkii (Baird and Girard). Gila river, Fort Thomas. 

Catostomus latipinnis (Baird and Girard). Rio San Pedro and Fort Thomas. 

Catostonuis gila Kirsch. Fort Thomas. 

Catostomus insignis Baird and Girard. Rio San Pedro and Fort Thomas. 

Xyrauchen cypho (Lockington). Mouth of Gila and Fort Thomas. 

Ptychocheilus lucius Girard. Various stations on the Gila. Called Gila trout by Emory in 1848. 

Gila elegans Baird and Girard. Taken from several places along the Gila by collectors. 

Gila robusta Baird and Girard, Also described from several Gila stations under various names, 

Cyprinodon macularius Baird and Girard. " Rio Gila." 

In addition to these may be included the species collected in the San Pedro and Santa Cruz rivers, 
which are both tributaries of the Gila above Pimeria and within reach of Pima hunting parties: Leu- 
ciseus niger (Cope), Tiaroga cobitis Girard, Agosia oscula (Girard). Agosia chrysogaster Girard, and 
Meda fulgida Girard. 

>> It is uncertain whether the burro of the Southwest is a descendant of the Asiatic species of wild 
asses, Equus hemionus, E.heniihippus, and E. onager, or of the African, E. africanusand E. somaticua. 



84 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. a.\n. 20 

Domestication of Animals 

Dogs. The only domesticated animal which there is any certainty 
that the Pimas possessed at the time of the discover}- is the dog. 
The old people say that in their youth the dogs were all alike and 
resembled coyotes. At present there are many small mongrels, 
obtained principally from the Mexicans (pi. vi, c). The dogs have 
shared wdth their masters the misfortunes of the last few years. 
Scarcity and want has left them gaunt and weak. They formerly 
served a useful purpose in giving warning of the presence of enemies 
about the villages. There are now no enemies and little within to 
tempt the thief to enter and steal. Dogs are called by the word 
"toot," "toot," "toot," uttered rapidly in a falsetto voice, the indi- 
vidual at the same time holding out a morsel of food to lure the 
animal within reach. A dog that has been bitten by a mad dog 
is saved by having a cross burned on its head. 

Horses. The horse may have been seen by the Pimas in the 
sixteenth century, but it is doubtful if they obtained this animal 
before the seventeenth. They have been known so long that their 
origin has become accounted for by myths without a shadow of 
historic truth in them. The only individual who ventured to dis- 
pute the commonly accepted mythical origin assured me that they 
came from the West. Font, who visited the Gila in 1775, stated 
that his party was met by 18 mounted Pimas; so that the horse was 
evidently in use at that time. 

There were very few horses among the Pimas until the last quarter 
of a century. The statements of the old persons agree with the calen- 
dar records, which make it evident that there were horses enough for 
but a small proportion of the warriors who engaged in conflicts with 
the Apaches. Horses stolen in Mexico were sold to the Papagos, 
who in turn sold them to the Pimas at much less than their true 
value. As the number in Pimeria increased, the tliieves began to 
operate in both directions, selling Sonoran horses on the Gila and 
Piman mounts in Sonora. However, tliis practice has been aban- 
doned, and the tribe has quite as many horses as are needed. They 
are rather undersized animals, as may be seen from the pinto pony 
in figure 5. As the fields now yield an insufficient supply of food 
for their owners, it follows that there is little grain for the horses, 
which grow poor and thin in winter; indeed, many die of starvation. 
Their principal food during that season is saltbushes." 

The once famous grassy plains that made the Pima villages a 
haven of rest for cavalry and wagon-train stock are now barren, 

a Professor Thomber says that " the native saltbushes, arranged in the order of their import- 
ance, that are eaten by range stoclc are as follows: Woody species, Atriplex canescens, A. nuttallii, 
A.polycarpa, A. lentiformis, A. confertifolia. The herbaceous species that are grazed by stock are; 
Atriplex corona ta, .\. elegans, A. bracteosa. The true greasewood. Sarcobatus vermicularis, a species 
closely allied to the saltbushes, is also browsed to a considerable extent. 



RUSSELL] 



DOMESTICATION OF ANIMiVLS 



85 



and it is not until the mesquite leaves appear in April that the 
horses can browse upon food sufficiently nourislTiing to put them in 
good condition. As the mesquite beans ripen, in June and July, live 
stock fattens rapidlj'. A few owners gather and store the beans for 
stock feed. Very feW' are able to buy hay or rolled barley. 

Cattle." Sala Hina declared that her father and liis brother, two 
Kwahadk's, brought the first cattle to the Pimas about 1820. The 
Spanish missionaries throughout Papagueria brought live stock to 
their stations for at least two centuries before the date given, so that 




Fig. 5. Men and women in modem costume, and pinto pony. 

the Pimas were at least aware of the value of cattle for a long time. 
The custom of killing and eating the cattle at the death of their 
owners contributed materially toward preventing increase in Pima 
herds. Oxen were very scarce for half a century after their intro- 
duction, and the old men and women speak sadly of the weary 
waiting for their turn to use the single ox that dragged the wooden 
plow for perhaps a whole village. Oxen are now no longer used; 
with their head yokes and the wooden plows they are of the past, 

o In 1846 Emory lomid that "they have but few cattle, which are used in tillage, and apparently all 
steers, procured from the Mexicans. Their horses and mules are not plenty, and those they possessed 
were priced extravagantly iiigh." Notes, 84. 



86 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

and of that period of the Pimas' past that it is best for them to 
forget. 

Cattle are ih'iven and "roped" with the hiriat, but no conventional 
mode of calhng them is in vogue. Like the horses, they are branded 
and run at large. Their range is almost unlimited in some directions, 
but the entire absence of water away from the river prevents them 
from straying. With horses, cattle formed a great attraction to the 
Apaches during the last century until peace was declared in 1879, 
and the Pimas suffered frequent losses, for some of which, it must be 
added, the marauders paid dearly. To guard against the thieves it 
was customary to corral all stock within the village at night. When 
it strayetl away across the mesas during the tlay it was sought by 
tracking or by waiting at the water holes, and while so engaged the 
men had many encounters with the enemy, who were ever on the look- 
out for such an opportunity to attack. 

Mules. A few mules are raised, but, like the horses, they are small 
and of little value. 

Donl-eijs. While the biuTo has been used for some time, it is not 
a popular animal among the Pimas. It is too slow for traveling 
across the wide, waterless plains of Pimeria and is not adapted for 
farm work. 

Poultry. Until the recent introduction of large American breeds a 
small breed of poultry had been kept for several years." This had 
been obtained from the Mexicans, from whom also the manner of 
calling "pul," "pul," "pul" was derived. With the new breeds 
came the American custom of calling "peep," "peep." 

Edf/les and red-failed hawks were kept for their feathers. All the 
inhabitants of a village assisted in catching lizards and in furnisliing 
other suitable food for the village bird. The feathers were regularly 
plucked for the paraphernalia of the medicine-men. 

Sonora doves were and are yet confined in log-cabin cages built up 
of arrowwood rods. 

Agricultitre 

METHODS 

lRRir;.iTiox 

The Gila river carries an unusually large amount of suspended 
matter when in flood. As shown by the tests made during the sur- 
veys for the dam which is intended to supply Pimeria with water, it 
carries on an average 10.5 per cent of mud, with a maximum of 20 
per cent.' The entire bottom land upon which the fields are located 
has been built of this material. It is so light that wagons cut readily 
into it during the dry seasons and work it into fluffy dust several 

a "A few chickens and dogs were seen." Emory, Notes, 85. 
6 Water-Supply and Irrigation Papers, no. 33, p. 36. 



RDSSELL] AGRICULTUKE 87 

inches in depth. The Pimas do not practise rotation of crops, the 
soil bemg so rich from silt which is periodically deposited by the 
river at flood stage that the idea of exhausting it has never occurred 
to them. 

Irrigation was practised for unknown centuries by the Hohokam, 
and the course of their great canals can yet be traced for miles," not 
only along the river bottoms, but also across the mesas where the 
large water-worn pebbles bountl together with caliche'' or deposited 
lime must have required infinite labor for their construction. At 
the first appearance of the Pimas it may be presumed that they used 
the canals already constructed by their predecessors, hence they 
would be dull indeed if they could not maintain irrigation systems 
suilicient for their needs. The testimony of the early writers is to 
the effect that they possessed canals larger than they required and 
that the water flowed away from the fields in volume scarcely dimin- 
ished from that at the head gates. The Gila has a uniform fall of 
S feet to the mile at this place, wliile the canals need not have more 
than 2. 

As the water of the Gila and Salt rivers is strongly impregnated 
with alkali it tentls under certain conditions to deposit salts in such 
quantities that the land is renilered unfit for use. The alkali rises to 
the surface in an efflorescence that resembles snow in appearance. 
From early descriptions of the country we learn that alkaline deposits 
were known while the tribe was yet under purely aboriginal con- 
ditions." 

The Pimas knew, however, how to deal with this dilliculty — they 
flooded the tract repeatedly and in tliis way washed the alkali out 
of it. They declare that they never abandoned a piece of ground 
because of it. 

No very reliable estimate of the total amount of land cultivated 
by this people has been made.'' Each family cultivates from 1 to 
5 acres. With an abuntlance of water and the new needs of the 
tribe it is probable that the size of the individual holdings will rap- 
idly increase. The farms are rectangular, arranged with reference 

a ' ' The mode of canal construction employed by these pueblo builders [Ilohokam] was another indi- 
cation of their patience and industry. Their canals are models for the modern fanner to imitate; yet 
they could have l->een dug in no conceivable manner save by the laborious process of hand excavation 
■with stone or wooden implements, the earth being borne aw^ay by means of Iilankets, baskets, or rude 
Utters. Notwithstanding this, the outlines of at least a hundred and fifty miles of ancient main irri- 
gating ditches may be readily traced, some of which nieander southward from the Salt river a distance 
of fourteen miles.'' P. W. Hodge, "Prehistoric irrigation in Arizona," American Anthropologist, vi, 
324. 

b For an account of this formation see P. Blake, *'The caUche of southern Arizona: an example of 
deposition by vadose circulation," in The Genesis of Ore Deposits, 710. 

c " We continued [from Casa Grande] toward the west, over sterile plains. On aU the grounds about 
these buildings there is not a single pasture: but appear as if they had been strewTi with salt.'* Mange's 
Diary, in Schoolcraft, iii, 303. 

d Carets, writing in 1775, stated that "Todos estos pueblos hacengrandes siembras de trigo, algunas 
de maiz, algodon, calabazas y otras semillas, para cuyo riego tienpn formadas buenas acequias, cercades 
las milpas con cerco comun, y divididas las de distintos duenos, con cereos particulares.'' Doc. His. 
Mex., 2d ser., i, 235. 



88 THE PIMA INDIANS [etii. ann. 26 

to the supplying canal, and are always fenced with some care (pi. 
XI, a) . Before the Pimas obtained barbed wire from the Government 
the fences were of willow wattling or the tops of mcsquite trees and 
various kinds of brush. When a tract was newly brought untler irri- 
gation a committee of six men was chosen to make allotments to 
those who had assisted in digging the ditches. They chose the best 
land for themselves, which seems to have been taken as a matter of 
course, in a measure compensating for their trouble. The plots were 
from 100 to 200 "steps" (see p. 93) in width, according to the number 
in the family to whom they were allotted. The brush was not difli- 
cult to remove even with the primitive implements at their command; 
the mescjuite trees were not cut down, but their lower branches were 
trimmed so that they did not shade the ground to any considerable 
extent. 

The canals were dug with the digging stick and shovel (fig. 10, 
a, h), the former being also used to prepare the easily pulverized 
ground and to plant the seed. In addition to the digging stick and 
shovel the primitive agriculturists also used a wooden implement 
which served the purpose of a hoe, though it resembled a weaver's 
batten in appearance (fig. 10, c). In comparatively recent times the 
wooden plow (fig. 11) was added to the list of implements. From 
the Mexicans they also obtained a hybrid implement (fig. 10, d) that 
combined the functions of spade and hoe. At the present time the 
tribe is supplied with modern agricultural implements by the Gov- 
ernment. The crops, however, are stored in much the same way 
that was followed in prehistoric times, in circular bins of willow, 
arrow bush, and wheat straw, the last having been used since the 
introduction of wheat. 

One of the Pima villages (pi. xi, b) situated southwest of the Mari- 
copa wells was too far from the river to obtain water from it and 
depended, as do their kinsfolk and neighbors, the Kwahadk's, already 
referred to, on flood irrigation. To secure the benefit of tliis, they 
cleared fields on mesa slopes, over which water from the surround- 
ing hills might be conducted whenever there were summer rains. 
Around the lower sides of the diminutive fields low dikes were raised 
to catch and retain the water. On the slopes of the Santan hiUs north 
of the present Pima village of Santan there are several hundred acres 
of stony mesa that have been cleared and cultivated (pi. iv, a,b). The 
rocks have been gathered in rows that inclose rectangular areas of but 
a few square yards in extent. There are about six clumps of creosote 
bush inclosed in it." This locality adjoins a large ancient canal and 

o At various places in the Southwest the writer has seen extensive areas over which the loose bowlders 
that were originally thickly scattered on the surface had been gathered in rounded heaps or in rows 
that divided the ground into rectangles that average about 5 meters to the side. Thelargest of these 
'■ fields " personally inspected is north of the town of Pima, nearly 200 miles east of the Pima reserva- 
tion. On a lava-strewn mesa that is too high to be irrigated and too far from the hills to be flooded 



KUSSELL] 



AGRICULTURE 



89 



an extensive ruin of a stone pueblo. Learning that the chief had 
declared that these fields had been cultivated within the memorj^ of 
livinsj men, the writer sent for him, but learned on questioning that 
neither he nor any other Pima knew aught about them. All the 
fields, canals, and cleared 
roads over the lava hills that 
appear in plate xi, c were 
the work of the Hohokam. 

Division of Labor 

The work of clearing the 
fields, planting, and irrigating 
devolved upon the men. The 
women harvested the crops, 
carrving the products in their 
kiiihas. The men thrashed 
the wheat — with horses after 
those animals were intro- 
duced. Prior to that time, 
and even now when the crop 
is small, the women beat out 
the grain with straight sticks. 
As it was thrashed, the women 
winnowed it in baskets and 
piled it on a cotton cloth, the 
corners of which were tied 
together, forming a sort of 
sack that was thrown upon u 
horse and taken by the men 
to the storehou.se or brought 
in sacks on their heads b}' the 
women (fig. 6). Pumpkins 
and all crops except wheat 
were carried by the women in 
their kiahas. Considering the 
fact that the Pimas were constantly harassed by the Apaches, so 
that the men could not safely lay aside their bows during any 
waking moment, this distribution of labor was not discreditable 
to them. 

there are a half dozen of these tracts. The largest is a little more than half a mile in length by nearly 
a quarter in width. There are no signs of human occupation on the surface other than the disposition 
of the stones. Five miles east of Solomonsville there is a similar field and on the I'rieto plateau 40 
miles northeast of the last is another among the pines. These fields are distinctly dilTerent from the 
terraces that one sees on the north slope of Mount Graham and elsewhere. 




Fig. 6. Burden bearer. 



90 THE PIMA INDIAN!^ [eth. axx. 26 

PRODUCTS 

Possessed of the foremost American cereal, maize, at least one 
variety of legume, and the cotton plant, as well as species of Cucur- 
IjitacejB and other plants, the agriculture of the Pimas was well 
beyond the initial stages before the arrival of the whites." 

Cereals 

The Pimas distinguished half a dozen varieties of maize, to which 
they have now added the large corn brought by the Americans. The 
first crop is planted in April and the second in July, the first being 
gathered in June and July and the second in October. When gath- 
ering corn the women lay aside the best ears for seed ; they are stuck 
in pairs on sticks and carried in the hand. Wlieat is now the prin- 
cipal crop, and when a wet season insures sufficient water several 
million pounds are raised. It is sowed in December and reaped 
with hand sickles in June. Of the several varieties "Sonora" and 
"Australian " are favorites. One called skaofkutco was raised before 
Ka'mal tkak's father was born. Wheat is ground for the Pimas at 
the Government mill at Sacaton (pi. i), but a great deal of it is yet 
parched and ground on the metates to be made into pinole. 

There have been at least half a dozen trading stores on the Gila 
River reservation for a numl)er of years whose principal tratle has 
been in wheat. The traders have naturally encouraged the growing 
of this cereal as much as possible and assisted in the introduction of 
suitable varieties. They have also profited in a legitimate way from 
the contracts awarded by the Government in times of famme for the 
support of the natives. 

" In the year 1858. the first year of the Overland Mail Line, the surplus crop of wheat was 100,000 
pounds, which was purchased by the company: also a large quantity of beans called taperis. and a 
vast quantity of pumpkins, squashes, and melons. In 1859 Mr St John was sent among them as a special 
agent with a supply of seeds and some agricultural implements. That j^ear they sold 250,000 pounds of 
wheat and a large supply of melons, pumpkins, and beans. In 18{)0 they sold 400,000 pounds of wheat — 
all the Mail Company would purchase. They had more, and furnished the Government and private 
teamsters all that was necessary for transportation from Fort Yimia to Tucson. Beyond this they 
had no market, except for about 40,000 pounds of wheat which Mr White purchased for the supply of Fort 
Breckenridge. In 1.S61 they sold to Mr-White 300,000 pounds of wheat, 50,000 pounds of com, 20,000 
pounds of beans, and a large amount of dried and fresh pumpkins, which was all intended for the sup- 
port of the California Colimm. The greater part of this crop was destroyed or given back to the Indi- 
ans by the Texans under the guerrilla. Hunter, who arrived at the PLmo villages that year, robbed 
Mr White of his property, and took him prisoner in their flight to the Rio Grande. The PLmos sold, 
during the same year, 600 chickens and a large amount of other stuff, showing a gradual merease of 
production under the encouragement of an increased demand. In 1862 they sold to the Government 
over a, million pounds of wheat, included in which was a portion of the previous year's crop, returned 
to them by the Texans. They furnished pinole, chickens, green peas, green corn, pumpkins, and melons 
for the entire California Column, subsisting nearly a thousand men for many months." (J. R. Brownie, 
.\dventures in the Apache Countrj'. 110.) Browne's statements about the Pimas, though not 
grossly inaccurate, are not generally reliable, but as he was intimately acquainted with A. M. White, 
with whom he traveled from California, it is probable that the above estimates are as nearly correct 
as circumstances permitted. 



Rl'SSELL] 



AGKICULTUEE 



91 



Oats are seldom raised in tliat region. They are called "white 
tassels" by the Pimas. Barley is the universal gram feed of Ai'izona, 
and there is a ready market for the small quantity the Pimas raise. 

Vegetables 

Watermelons, muskmelons, pumpkins, anfl squashes are exten- 
sively cultivated. The watermelons are preserved imtil after the 
1st of January by burying them in the sands of the river bed. The 
pumpkms, squashes, and muskmelons are cut 
in strips and dried, the best-keeping varieties 
being left in the storehouses until midwinter 
(pi. XXXV, /). Accordmg to tradition the 
first pumpkins, called rsas'katflk, were ob- 
tained from the Yumas and Maricopas." 
There are three species of wild gourds 
that are quite common 
along the Gila, namel}^: 
Cucurbita fcetidissima 
H. B. K., C. digitata 
Gray, and Apodanthera 
midulata Gray. Culti- 
vated gourds have been 
knowii to the Pimas for 
a long period — how long 
it is impossible to say. 
The Papagos have a tra- 
dition that tliis plant was 
introduced by Navitco, a 

deit}" who is honored by ceremonies at mtervals 
of eight years — or, if crops are bountiful, at the 
end of every four years — at Santa Rosa. The 
gourd is used as a canteen (fig. 7), and if it 
becomes cracked a rabbit skin is stretched over 
it wliich slirinks in drying and renders the vessel 
water-tight again. Dippers and canteens are 
occasionally made of gourds, but the chief use of 
gourds seems to be in the form of rattles (fig. S) wliich contain a little 

o When Garct's was among the Yumas in 177-5 they were raising "countless" calabashes and melons— 
*'calabazas y melones, perhaps better translated squashes and cantaloupes, or pumpkins and musk- 
melons. The Piman and Yuman tribes cultivated a full assortment of cucurbitaeeous plants, not 
always easy to identify by their old Spanish names. The sandia was the watermelon inTariably; the 
melon, usually a muskmelon, or cantaloupe; the calabaza, a calabash, gourd, pumpkin, or squash of 
some sort, including one large rough kind hke our crook-neck squash. * * * Major Heintzelman says 
of the Yumans, p. 36 of his Report already cited [II. E. Ex. Doc. 76. 34th Cong., 3d sess., 1857]: 
'They cultivate watermelons, muskmelons, piunpkins, corn, and beans. The watermelons are small 
and indifferent, muskmelons large, and the pumpkins good. These latter they cut and dry for winter 
use [they were Ijrought to Pimeria before the Maricopas came to Gila Bend].' " Note in Coucs' On 
the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, New York, 190O, I. 170. 





Fig. 7. Gourd canteen. 



Fig. 8. Gourd rattle. 



92 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 26 

gravel and are mounted on a handle. Gourds are never used as 
forms over which to mold pottery. 

At least five varieties of beans are now cultivated. The fii-st 
known, the tatcoa pavfi, "white bean," is said to have been brought m 
some forgotten time from the valley of the great "Red river," the 
Colorado. Considerable quantities are raised and the tlirasliing is 
done by horses driven in a circle on the same hard floor that is prepared 
for the wheat thrashing. 

Not witli the withering drought alone has the Gileiio planter to con- 
tend, but also with the myriads of crows that are extravagantly fond 
of a corn diet, and with the numerous sf(uirrels and gophers that 
thrive apace where protecteil in a measure from the coyotes, wliich are 
themselves a menace to the fields. From the birds and predatory 
animals the fields are guarded during the day by the boys, who amuse 
themselves meanwliile by a dozen games that develop skill in run- 
ning, and shooting with the bows and arrows which scarcely leave their 
hands during their waking hours. Scarecrows, "men artificial," are 
used, but a Ihittermg rag was never as effective as a feathered shaft 
hurtling from a well-drawn bow. Night marauders were in oklen 
times kept at a distance by the rings of the terrible cholla cactus, 
Opuntia bigelovii Engelm., that were laid up aromid the imlividual 
plants. Plate xii illustrates tliis cactus as it grows on the liills about 
Sacaton. It is recognized as the most effectually armed of the many 
cacti and is the symbol in Pima lore of impenetrability. 

Trade 

standards of value 

For purposes of trade or in gambling the following values were 
recognized: A gourd was equivalent to a basket; a metate, a small 
shell necklace, or the combination of a basket and a blanket and a 
strand of blue glass beads was equivalent to a horse; a string of blue 
glass beads 4 yards long wasec[uivalent to a bag of paint; and a basket 
full of beans or com to a cooking pot. 

MEASURES 

The principal linear measurement was the humaka os, "one stick," 
equal to the distance from the center of the breast to the fuiger tips. 
The writer is inclined to regard this as a primitive Pima measurement, 
notwithstanding its resemblance to the yard of the invading race. 
This corresponds with the Aztec cenyollotli, the Cakchiquel m vach qux, 
and the Maya betan." It was the basis of a sort of decimal system, as 
follows: Ten"sticks" made one "cut "of calico, equivalent toa"load" 
of wheat, or about 150 pounds. Ten cuts or loads were equivalent to 

<• D. G. Brinton, The Lineal Measures of the Semi-civilized Nations of Mexico and Central America. 



BfSSELL] TRADE 93 

one horse in value. Two units were employed in measurement of 
distances. One of these is an ancient measurement wliich it will be 
of interest to apply to the Hohokam ruins of the region. It is 
humakei kuirspa, "one step" — that is, one step with the same foot, 
ef|ual to about 5 feet. Land is divided into plots 100 or 200 ''steps" 
in wiilth, acconling to the size of the family. Long tUstances were 
measured in terms of a day's journey on foot ; thus it is said to be seven 
days to Zuiii. The term "' step " is also applied to the English mile, but 
they have had as 3'et little opportmiity to acquire a definite knowledge 
of the meaning of the latter term. 

BARTER 

For a long period prior to 1833 the Maricopas lived at Gila Bend 
and came at harvest time to trade with the Pimas. Soon after that • 
time they settled beside the Pimas, li\ang upon such intimate terms 
with them that barter between the tribes was of no more consequence 
than between two Pima villages." With all other tribes they were per- 
petually at war, except with their Papago kinsfolk to the southward. 
These people live in a vast territory of cactus-covered plains, here and 
there interrupted by up-thrust barren peaks that, with striking out- 
lines, form good landmarks and yet offer little to those that hunger 
and are atliirst. The Papagos are a desert tribe, and yet so well had 
the}' mastered their all but hopeless environment that the trade which 
they carried on with the Pimas was by no means one-sided, as may 
be seen from the following list of products that were formerly brought 
to the Gila at the time of the June harvest. Of vegetable products 
there were saguaro seeds, the dried fruit and sirup; tci'aldi, a small 
hard cactus truit; a^ave fruit in flat roasted cakes ; agave sirup ; rsat, 
an unidentified plant that grows at Santa Rosa; prickly pear sirup; 
wild gourd seeds; a small pepper, called tcU'tipin; acorns of Quercus 
oblongif olia ; baskets of agave leaf; sleeping mats; kiahas and fiber 
to make them; maguey fiber for picket lines. They brought the 
dried meat of the mountain sheep, deer meat, deer tallow in small 
oUas, buckskins, dried beef, tallow, cheese, and cords of human hair. 
Cattle were formerly traded "sight unseen," but the modern "educa- 
tion" of the Papagos led them to exaggerate the good qiuilities of 
their stock and even to deal in "fictitious values," or cattle that the 
new Pima owner sought in vain to find, until finally the Pimas would 
consider no proposition to trade stock unless the animals were exhib- 
ited. Of mineral products they brought red and yellow ochers for 
face and body paint, and the buff beloved by Pima weavers. They 

o The author of the Rudo Ensayo, who wrote in 1762, stated that "these very numerous nations 
[Opas and Maricopas] inhabit both sides for a distance of 36 leagues down the river, and at the far end 
of their territory there is a very abundant spring of hot water a short distance from the river to the 
north." This spring is now known as Ojo Caliente; it is at the southern end of the Bighorn mountains. 
Guiteras translation in Records of the American CathoUc Historical Society, v, 129. 



94 THE PIMA INDIA.NS [kth. anx. 2(5 

made religious pilgrimages to the salt lakes below the Mexican bound- 
ary to obtain the sacred salt. They lived on pinole during the 
journey and walked with their eyes fixed upon the trail, looking 
neither to the right nor to the left. 

As they approached the shore of the lagoon in which the Great 
Spirit resided they ran at topmost speed and circled four times around 
the salt deposits before those who understood the proper ritual began 
to collect the salt. Even on the homeward journey there was magic 
power in the salt, and if a horse died the whole load was tlirown away. 
As the salt gatherers approached the home village they were given a 
noisy welcome but were compelled to remain outside for four days, 
and for a long time thereafter they must abstain from certain acts 
that need not be detailed here. For four days those who remained 
at home sang for those who journej'ed, and then all might eat the salt 
and were free to bring it to the Pimas." The latter sometimes made 
journeys to the lake for salt, being two days on the way to Quijotoa 
and two days on the trail beyond. 

In excliange for the objects of barter brought to them the Pimas 
gave wheat, which was also given the Papagos for aid in harvesting 
it; corn; beans; mes((uite beans; mesquite meal, roasted in mud-lined 
pits; cotton blankets and cotton fiber, with the .seed; dried sfpiash, 
pumpkin, and melon; rings of wiUow splints and of de\'il's claw for 
baskets; besides articles of lesser consequence. 

In recent years there has been some trade carried on in colored 
earths and salt with the once hostile Yumas and Mohaves. 

From the seventeenth century the Pimas sent well-armed bands 
through the Apache cordon to trade at the Spanish and Mexican set- 
tlements of Sonora. The latter also sent trading parties from Tucson 
and other towns to barter with the Gilenos. Lastly, American 
traders appeared about 1850, and for many years there have been 
half a dozen stores on the reservation. These are under bond to limit 
their profit to a maximum of 25 per cent, though it is supposed that 
this rule was never enforced until the present year. Some Pimas 
sometimes try to turn the tables on the traders by offering damp wheat 
that of course overweighs. • More frequently they put a quantity of 
sand in the middle of the wheat sacks, which are furnished by the 
trader and not ordinarily emptied when the wheat is brought in. 
Rarely, the best wheat is put on top and an inferior quality lies 
concealed beneath. 

a "These Papagos regularly visit a salt lake which lies near the coast and just across the line of 
Sonora, from which they pack large quantities of salt, and find a ready market at Tuhac and Tucson. 
Mr. Lathrop, superintendent of the Sonora Mining Company, told me that he had bought some twenty 
thousand pounds annually from them." (John Walker in S. Ex. Doc. 2, 720, .3(ith Cong., 1st sess., 
1860.) It would seem from this rather extensive traffic that the Papagos did not allow their religious 
scruples to interfere seriously with trade. 



kussell] artifacts 95 

Artifacts 

The inaniifactures of the Pimas were few in number and simple in 
character. It is interesting to compare the number of implements 
and weapons that are of wood with those made of stone, as this is a 
people classed as belonging to the Stone Age. It will be noticed 
that the articles of stone are of little consequence in point of number 
as compared with those of wood, but the stone objects are of the utmost 
importance from a cultural standpoint. The metate admits of no 
wooden substitute, and without it the fidl food value of maize could 
not have been utilized nor could wheat raising have been so readily 
taken up as an agricultural pursuit. Without the stone ax and 
knife there could have been little done in wood working; arcliitecture 
would have been modified; agriculture, dependent upon irrigation, 
would have been all but impossible. In short, these three simple 
implements, made by striking one stone against another, have sufficed 
to transform the Pimas from the slaves of a harsh environment, com- 
pelled to rend their prey with tooth and nail, into an agricultural 
people who adapt the environment to their needs and make some 
provision, however slight, for the future. 

WOOD 

Weapons 

Bow. First in importance among weapons must be placed the 
bow and the arrow. Pima bows are simple, undecorated, and not 
very carefidly made. Those which exhibit weakness througli split- 
ting or otherwise are bound with fresh sinew in bands which shrink 
around the arms at the point where reenforcement is needed. War- 
riors made their bows of mulberry wood " obtained in the Superstition 
and Pinal mountains. A bow that has been long used, especially in 
successful warfare, becomes a highly prized possession with which its 
owner is loath to part. The writer was so fortunate as to secure 
such a specimen (pi. xiii, a) which has the graceful compound curve of 
the conventional bow; it is of mulberry wood and has a neatly 
twisted, two-strand sinew string.'' Hunting bows'' (pi. xiii, h) are fre- 
quently made of osage orange wood, a material that is now obtain- 
able from the whites along the Salt river. When mulberry wood 
was not available willow was used, and most of the hunting bows 
which men as well as boys continue to make for hunting hares and 
similar small game are of that wood. The primary type of arrow 
release prevails, the bow being held as in plate vii, 6. 

o "The mulberry plays an important part in the domestic economy of the Apaches; the branches 
are made into bows, and the small twigs are used in the fabrication of baskets." John G. Bourke, 
Jour. Am. Folk-Lore, in, 210. 

'> Length 1.3.50 m.. width at grip 26 mm., thickness 18 mm. 

c Length 1.365 m., width at grip 26 mm., thickness 22 mm. 



96 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[eth. axx. 2G 




Arrows. The arrows of the Pimas are made from the straight 
stem of the arrow bush. Tlie Kwaliadk's and Papagos sometimes 
sold arrows of yucca stem to the Gilefios, but these were scarcely 
equal in cjuality to those made of wood. The hunting arrows " 
(pi. XIII, c) have two split feathers, two hand's breadths in length. 
War arrows'' have three feathers, less than half as long and slightly 

curved. All arrow shafts are measured 
and cut the length from tip of forefinger 
to nipple of breast of the maker. Both 
bows and arrows are sometimes stained 
with the blood of the jack rabbit, and 
war arrows may he dyed at the ends with 
the cochineal which makes its home on the 
Opuntias. The quiver is made of wild-cat 
skin (pi. XIII, d). 

War dub. The club was of scarcely less 
importance tlian the bow, and it was cus- 
tomary for a portion of each band of war- 
riors to fight with shield and club alone."^ 

La nee. A short sharpened stick was some- 
times used by the Pimas, who adopted it 
from the Yumas and Maricopas after the 
Spaniards supplied steel heads for the weapon. The sticks were colored 
red with mineral paint.'' 

» There are eleven bunting arrows in the collection; length 0.785 m., sharpened to blunt points but 
ha\ing neither head nor foreshaft. There are 3 bands of sinew 4 cm. apart, the first at the point. 
The seizing at the forward end of the feathers is 5 cm. long. The feathers vary from 12 to 22 em. in 
length between the seizing at ends. They project 1 cm. from the shaftment. There are 10 bands of 
sinew very neatly laid on to hold the feathers in place. The notches are 4 mm. deep. 

I' The single war arrow in the collection is unusually long, 0.850 ni. It is stained with cochineal for a 
distance of 0.117 m. from the point. It carries a small obsidian point 2 cm. in length, with the sinew 
seizing continued from the point 3 cm. along the shaft. The feathers are 0.10 cm. long and project 
7 mm. from the shaftment. The butt is stained for a distance of 5 cm. 

r Bartlett, usually an admirable observer, failed to notice that the war club was a popular Pima 
weapon. He says: "The only weapon used by these tribes is the bow and arrow. The short clul) of 
the Yumas and the long lance of the Apaches 1 never saw among them." (Personal Narrative, ll, 237.) 
The clubs were made of mesquite root or of ironwood, weighed about 2 pounds, and in general appear- 
ance resembled the old style potato mashers of New England kitchens. (Fig. 9.1 The handle was 
brought to a sharp point, which was almost as effective as a dagger in a back-handed blow. The club 
was carried thrust point downward through the belt. One club was obtained from its owner and 
another found in a cache of personal property that had been made in the hills at the death of the owner. 
The former is 42 cm. long, the head 10 cm. long and 9 cm. in diameter; the point is 9 cm. long. A 
club in the National Museum, (no. 27846) that was coUeeted some years ago at Saeaton is 0.385 m. 
long, 7 cm. in diameter. Doctor Palmer secured three m 1885 and believed that none remained 
among the Pimas. These clubs, now in the Museum, are of the following lengths: no. 76023, 48 
cm.; 76024, 44 cm.; and 76025, 46 cm. 

dThe collection contains a wooden lance, made from a giant cactus rib, that was carried in sham 
battles near the Double buttes. It is 1.595 m. long, the larger end colored black to represent the 
iron head, which is represented as 0.265 m. long, 24 mm. wide, and 10 mm. thick. The handle is 
stained a light red. 



Fig. 9. War clubs. 



KUSSKI.I.] 



ARTIFACTS 



97 



Agricultural Implements 



Digging stick. The earliest agricultural iniplem^t was the dig- 
ging stick. It was used in planting maize and other crops, as a lever 
to pry out bushes when clearing the ground, as a pick when digging 
irrigating ditches, and in case of surprise it made an effective weapon 
of defense. It was made of ironwood or from the spiny tree, Zizyphus 
lycioides." The short handle necessitated a crouching or sitting 
position by the operator. (Fig. 10, a. ) 

Shovel. Wooden shovels were used to throw out the earth that 
usually required loosening by the digging stick when constructing 
the irrigating canal. They were of cottonwood, in the case of the 
larger, lighter ones, or of niesquite. 
The handle and blade were in one 
piece, the former being very short 
and the latter having the natural 
curve of the trunk from which it 
came.* (Fig. 10,6.) 

Hoe. Another implement of 
earh" adoption by the Pimas com- 
bined the fimctions of spade and 
hoe. It was usetl to loosen the soil 
around plants and to cut away 
weeds. It was made of ironwood 
and was thin, hard, and heavy. 
As it was quite short and curved 
but slightly it could be used only 
when the workman was in a kneel- 
ing or sitting position. It was 
sharpened along the convex curve 
at the wider end. The entire im- 
plement was so thin that it must 
have chafed the hands. But one specimen was found on the reserva- 
tion (fig. 10, c).*^ 

Dibble. The implement described above was superseded by one 
obtained from the Mexicans who frequently came to trade with the 
Pimas. The new implement more nearly resembled the primitive 
digging stick than it thd the flat "hoe" (fig. 10, d). It was furnished 

"No genuine specimen being now obtainable, the writer liad a digging sticlt (fig. 10, a) made, which 
measures 1.140 m. in length. It is 40 mm. in diameter, and is flattened at the lower end. 

&The old people yet remember how the wooden shovels were made. Whether the Pimas have 
directly descended from the Hohokam or not, it is very probable that the former have used the 
same form of shovel that was used by the latter when constructing the great irrigating canals of that 
region. The specimen figured here (fig. 10, 6 1 may therefore be accepted as a representative of the 
shovel that was probably the instrument that made those canals a possibility. It is 0.850 m. long: 
the blade is 0.276 m. long and 0.167 m. wide. 

c It is 0.680 m. long and 0.0S3 m. wide; the cutting edge is 17 em. long. 

26 ETH— 08 9 




abed 
Fig. 10. Agricultural implements, a, Digging 
stick; b, shovel: c. hoc: d, dibble. 



98 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



(ETH. ANN. 26 



with a steel blade that was straight on one side and rounded on the 
other." 

PlouK Of comparatively modern introduction, the wooden plow is 
of but passing interest in our present researches. It is a survival of 
European culture that effectively influenced the Pinias for but one 
generation, or from 1850 to 1880, when the influx of Americans cre- 
ated a demand for wheat which the Pimas were able to supply in part 
as they could not have done without this implement. By the end of 




Flo. 11. Wooden plow. 

tliat period they received steel plows. The wooden plow was made 
of mesciuite or ironwood with a Cottonwood tongue that extended to 
the ox yoke. The rear end of the tongue was beveled underneath to 
an edge wliich engaged with a transverse notch in the handle. The 
bottom dragged at a considerable angle, so that the point alone came 
in contact with the soil. The cutting face was usually supplied with 
an iron or steel covering resembling the single-shovel cultivator of 
the Americans. The bottom ami single hantlle were of one piece, the 




Fig. 12. Yoke. 

latter being a branch that set at a convenient angle, about 70 degrees, 
with the trunk of the tree from whicli the bottom of the plow was 
cut (fig. 11).'' The tongue was held in place by a mesquite pin 
passing througli the bottom and a slot in the butt of the tongue and 
tightened by two wedges wliich were adjusted by means of a mes- 
quite mallet carried for thp purpose.'' 



a Length, 1.090 m.; length of blade, 0.215 ni. to top of socket; width, 0.115 in. 
t> Two specimens were collected; only one other was seen or heard of on the reservation, 
one is complete, with tongue. It is 0.900 m. long; handle, 0.850 m., and tongue 3.490 m. 
' A mallet in the collection measures 0.380 m. in length and 5 cm. in diameter. 



The larger 



RrSSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



99 



Yolce. With the introduction of cattle tlie Pimas obtained their 
first draft animal. They were used principally in plowing and were 
fitted wdth yokes (fig. 12) of cottonwood or willow wliich were attached 
to the horns of the animals as in southern Europe to the present day. 
The yokes themselves are the best evidence that the burden upon the 
animals was light, for these small sticks of brittle wood would snap 
at the first strain if on the shoulders of an ox team with a heavy load. 
There are a few yokes yet to be found, though they have not been 
used for several years. The specimens collected are fairly well made, 
straight, but witli sections hollowed to fit the necks of the team.'' 



Household Utensils 

Mortar. Perhaps the mor- 
tar should be placed first in 
importance among the utensils 
of this class. There are two 
forms, one (fig. 13, a) with the 
hole sunk in the end of the 
log, and which may be either 
sharpened at the other end 
and set permanently in the 
ground or cut flat at the op- 
posite end so that it will stand 
upright and may be moved 
about. The other style (fig. 
1.3, b) lies horizontal, with the 
hole in the side of the log. 
This is always portable.'' 

Two or three stone mortars, 
rounded and well shaped, were 
seen; they had been obtained 
from the ruins and were little 
used. At the Double buttcs, 
near the center of the Gila 



Ik 




-^ 





Fig. 13. a.b, Mortars: r, wooden pestle; d, bread tray. 



River reservation, there are 



a few 

mortar cavities in the solid rock ledges. There is also one in a large 
bowlder wliich is regarded with superstitious reverence. Mortars 
in solid stone are not uncommon in Arizona. The writer saw a row 
of them at the end of a cliff ruin of eight or ten rooms in Aravaipa 
canyon. There are several in a rough hillock in Harshaw canyon, 
Patagonia mountains. The base of the conical hill at Tucson is well 

o There are two specimens in the collection. The larger is 1.460 m. long; 10 cm. in diameter at the 
middle, with notches for necks: 30 cm. wide. The second specimen is 1.200 m. long. 

& The mortar of the horizontal type in the collection is perhaps a trifle smaller than the average. 
It measures 40 cm. in length, 27 cm. in height, and 23 cm. in thickness. A heavy specimen of this 
type in the collection measures 37 cm. in height, 32 cm. in diameter; the cavity is 17 cm. deep. 



100 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



pitted witli them. They are occasionally met with almost anj-- 
where in the eastern lialf of the Territory. With that portion west 
of the Rio Verde the writer is unacquainted. Reference to the pages 
devoted to a description of the plants that furnish food for the Pimas 
will show how exten.sively the mortar is used in grinding seeds. 

Pestle. For pounding up mesquite beans in the mortar a large 
wooden pestle is sometimes used. It is simply a mesquite club with 
rounded head (tig. 13, c).° 





Fig. 14. a. Douglinut fork; h, ladle: c. unfinished ladle. 

Bread tray. Neatly made trays of mesquite, rarely of cottonwood, 
are used, and appear to be among the most prized of the household 
utensils (fig. 13, d). They are employed for a variety of purposes be- 
sides that of mixing bread. '' Smaller trays and plates — circular, eUip- 
tical, and rectangular — are sometimes obtained from the Papagos. 

a One specimen, the only one seen, was secured. It is 1.210 m. long and the bead is 0.335 in. in 
diameter. 

& The specimen collected is 0.615 m. long. 0.355 m. wide, and 0.071 m. deep. The legs are 24 cm. 
long; they are three in number and of the same piece of wood as the body of the tray. There is one 
round shallow tray, no. 76051 , in the Nationa; Museum that is 4ti cm. in diameter. 



RUSSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



101 





Fork. In frying doughnuts it is necessary to have some instrument 
with wliich to remove them from the fat. A slender sharpened rod 
of arrowwood is used for tliis purpose (fig. 14, a).° 
Ladle. Ladles are said to be of recent intro- 
duction, the Pimas having obtained them from 
the Papagos, who in turn had derived the art of 
making them from the Mexicans. They are com- 
monly made of mesquite, though the Papagos 
make them of paloverde wood. The bowls are 
not rounded, but are made in the shape of a flat- 
tened cone, as thej- 
can be more readily 
worked into that 
form with astraight- 
bladcd knife.'' 

Pottery paddle. A F.g. 15. Pottery paddle. 

paddle of cottonwood is used to shape 
the outer surface of pottery. It is 
hoUowed to fit the convex surface of 
the vessel, and is now frequently made 
from a barrel stave, which has the 
proper curvature. The paddles are of 
varying sizes, according to the sizes of 
the vessels on which they are used, but 
the handles are always proportionately 
short.'' 

Shelves. There is a class of objects 
that are used indifferently for doors'' 
of sheds and houses, for shelves'^ that 
are suspended in the arbors, and for 
bird traps. ^ They are usually made 
of large arrowbush rods, which are 
quite straight and of imiform diameter. 
The rods are tied to cross pieces, as shown in figure 16, a, or are held 
by twisted cords of hide, as in figure 16, &. The latter specimen was 

a The specimen collected is 45 cm. long. 

b TliG finislied specimen in tlie coUection is rather smaller than the average (fig. 14, 6) . It is 0.394 m. 
long. The bowl is 94 nun. in diameter and 42 nun. deep. The unfinished specimen (fig. 14, c) is a large 
one, measuring 0.570 m. in length. The National Museiun contains a specimen, no. 76050, which 
measures 56 cm. in length, with bowl 15 cm. in diameter. 

c The collection contains one which is 0.268 m. long and 0.112 m. wide (fig. 15). 

dThe door (fig. 16, b) is 1 m. long and 0.850 m. wide. The rods are from 1 to 2 centiineters in 
diameter and are held by 5 hide strands, 2 at each end and 1 in the middle. The stiflening of the 
rawhide has warped the upper portion. 

e The shelf (fig. 16. a) is 1.050 m. long and 50 cm. wide. 

/When used as traps they are tilted at an angle of 20° or 30° from the ground and supported in 
that position liy a short stick to which a long cord is attached. Wheat strewn under the trap lures 
small birds, which are caught when a jerk on the line removes the supporting stick. One of these 
traps was seen at nearly every house during the winter of 1901-2. 



Fig. 16, a. Hanging shell. 



102 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETII. ANN'. 26 



serving as a door when purchased, and the fact that a "MeUcano" 
wanted it caused its owners great astonishment and amusement. 
Indeed, the Pimas manifested a hvely interest in our purchases of 

househokl articles and never 
failed to laugh at the spec- 
tacle presented by the little 
wagon half buried beneath 
its load of unassorted 
objects. 

Bird cage. The cages 
made by the Pimas are 
all of the same character, 
w hether they are made for 
the large eagle or for the 
small Sonora dove, as in the 
case of the specimen" figured 
(fig. 17). They are of arrow- 
\\'ood, laid up in log-cabin 
style or tied to transverse 
bars, as in the house doors. 
Kidlia frame. It is to be 
remembered that the pecu- 
liar form of carrying basket 
is naade possible hj the use 
of the wooden frame. It is 
fully described on page 140. 
Fire drill. In primitive times fire was kindled by the Pimas by 
means of a two-part drill (fig. IS, a),* the simplest and most wide- 
spread form of fire drill. The operator knelt upon the ends of the 
hearth stick and twirled the upright stick between his palms. The 
hearth was of sagiuiro wood or of 
any other soft wood if that were not 
obtainable. Tinder was not used, 
the flame being developed in any 
inflanunable material as soon as the 
smoke began to arise from the dust 
accumulated at tlie point of the drill. 
With the advent of the whites 
flint and steel were used to kindle fire. 
The men carried these, with a little ^"'■'''- Birdcage. 

cotton for tinder, in leather pouches (fig. 42). Fire was preserved 
at each village or camp in an old stump whenever practicable. 

» This specimen lias an arched top and a single piece of pine board for a floor. It is 32 cm. long by 
23 cm. wide and 15 cm. high. 

6 The drill hearth in the collection is 0.315 m. long and 21 mm. wide. The spindle isGScm. long and 9 
mill, in diameter. 




Fig. 111. b. Do 




RnSSBLL] 



ARTIFACTS 



103 



Miscellaneous 



Saguaro hook. The fruit of the griant cactus grows at so great a 
height" that it can not bo reached without the aid of some long- 
handled implement for dislodging it. Hooks ^ are made by attach- 
ing, by means of maguey fiber, a straight piece of wood to the end 
of a long cactus rib. Doctor McGee has called the v/riter's atten- 
tion to the fact that the angle at which the hook stands is of great 
ceremonial importance among the Papagos, but there would seem to 
be no significance attached to it by the 
Pimas, who have not been so dependent 
upon the cactus in the past as have their 
nomadic neighbors. 

Tweezers. The spiny fruit of Opuntia 
arborescens is picked by means of wiUow 
tweezers (fig. 18, c). The arms are flexible 
and sufficiently elastic to spring back into 
place readily.*^ 

Tree. It was formerly the custom to 
erect a branched post in the space before 
the house door, on which to hang vessels 
or bags containing food. Of late a few 
(tlu-ee were seen) "tree animals" are set 
in the ground near the buildings to serve 
as seats and for the children to play upon. 
They are sections of mesciuite trees that 
have each a branch perpendicular to the 
plane of the trunk at a point where the 
latter bends in the opposite direction 
slightly, so that when the branch is set in 
the ground tiie trunk is horizontal with 
the exception of the end which curves 
upward in a manner somewhat resembling 
a vaulting horse. 

Cradle. The frame of the cradle is of 
willow, in the form of a narrow bow 

with from 5 to 10 cross bars (fig. 19, o). It closely resembles 
the Mohave trellis frame, but is more rudely made."* The frame 
was formerly covered with shredded willow bark to a depth of 3 or 
4 inches and a bit of cotton cloth covered the whole. Now the 
willow bark is not so thick, and much more cloth, no longer of native 
make, is used. The cradle (fig. 19, h) is provided with a detachable 

oSe« pi. IX, a, where the snguaro appears in flower in the background. 

b The specimen illustrated in fig. 18, b was cut short for convenience of carrying. The handles vary 
in length from 2 to 5 m. The hook is 165 mm. long and 8 nun. in diameter. 
<* The specimen collected is 31 cm. long; natural spread of jaws, 55 mm. 
dSee Mason in Report National Museum, 1894. 524. 






u 



Fig. 18. a. Fire drill; 6, saguaro 
hook; f, ha'nfim tweezers. 



104 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 




Fig. 19, a. Cradlo frame. 



hood made of willow bark in the checker style of weaving, the sur- 
face being ornamented in geometric patterns colored black and red. 
Over the hood a loose piece of cloth may be thrown to protect the 
occupant from flies. The babies when strapped closely in the cradles 
are frequently carried on the heads of their mothers, who may at the 

same time have no insignifi- 
cant burdens in their hands. 
Wlien the children are about 
a year old they are carried 
astride the liip, unless upon 
a journey, when they are 
shifted around to the back, 
still astride," and there sup- 
ported by a shawl or large cloth bound around the waist.* The 
writer has seen women with children of 2 or 3 years on their backs, 
each carrying a sack of wheat on her head and lighter bimdles in 
her hands. "^ 

Paint hrush. The lines of pigment with which the face was for- 
merly ornamented were applied by means of slender bits of arrow- 
wood two or three inches long. The Kwahadk's were accustomed to 
gather the tufted ends of the 
arrow - bush branches anil 
carry them southward into 
Papagueria to be used as 
paint brushes. 

Calendar sticks. The Pi- 
mas keep a record of pass- 
ing events by means of 
sticks carved with arbitrary 
mnemonic symbols. There 
are five such records in the 
tribe to-day — or were a year 
ago. The oldest of these 
sticks bears the history of 
seventy years. There were other sticks before these, but the vicis- 
situdes of war, fire, and the peculiar burial customs of the people 
made away with them."* There are three sticks in the collection, 
which have been designated Gila Crossing, Blackwater, and Casa 
Blanca calendars,' from the names of the villages whence they 
came. The Casa Blanca stick (fig. 20, a) is of willow, peeled, 

a Doctor Palmer says that as soon as a child is old enough to stand alone the mother carries it on an 
immense cincture of bark worn on her back. The author saw no such cinctures in use and believes 
that their use has been abtindoned. 

6 Mason, Cradles, in Report National Museum, 1887, 184. 

c The frame of the cradle figured is 67 cm. long by 20 era. wide. The hood is 38 cm. high. 

d See p. 35. They are mentioned here merely for the purpose of describing the sticks as products 
of the woodworker's sldll. 

«The Casa Blanca calendar is not recorded in " The Narrative,'' p. 38. 




tHi. iv. 0. Cradle. 



RUSSELL] 



AETIFACTS 



105 






slightly flatteno<l, Init otherwise bearing no signs of preparation 

for tlie symbols that occupy the greater part of one side." The 

Gila Crossing calendar (fig. 20, h) is a pine stick on which the rec- 
ord was copied several years ago from a stick yet in the same 

village. The record begins on the back, 

passes over the lower end in the figure, 

and extends again to the back over the 

upper end.* The Blackwater stick (fig. 

20, c) is of sagiiaro wood smoothed and 

carved for the writer by the keeper of the 

record, who lost the original some years 

ago and who has since been using paper 

and pencil, but the same symbols.'' 
Spurs. Wooden spurs were made from 

crotched limbs of mesquite of suitable 

size. They were attached to the foot 

by a deerskin thong fastened to form 

two loops of equal size, one passing 

over the instep and the other under the 

heel of the foot. So rare have they now 

become that the \vriter spent six months 

on the Gila River reservation without 

discovering 
a n y, and 
therefore 
hired a n 
old man to 
make a pair 
for the col- 
lection. 
Soon after- 
wards a single old spur was found, which 
differs from those made to ortler only in 
having deerskin instead of maguey fiber 
fastenings (fig. 21).'' 

Saddle. Wooden saddletrees are some- 
times made, both for riding and pack 
saddles. The former are covered with 
rawhide, slirunk on, and provided with 
stirrups of mesquite or willow wood, 
are at best but crude imitations of the 
Saddle blankets for use with them 



/j^H 


jA 


,f/\ 


^ -M.. '/^^^^^^Hipil->4^dlA- W& 


H^^ 



Fig. 20. Calendar sticks, a. From 
Casa Blanca; b, from Gila Crossing; 
c, from Blackwater. 



Fig. 21. Wooden spur. 



They are not common and 

saddles made by the whites. 

are of matted grass or maguey fiber 



o Length, 93 cm.; diameter, 16 mm. 
b Length, 96 cm.; diameter, 18 mm. 



c Length, 1.395 m.; diameter, 20 mm. 

d Length, 0.152 ni.; spread across fork, 9 cm. 



106 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



r ETH. ANX. 



Fig. 22. Awls, a. Wooden 
handle; b, gum handle. 



Awl. There would seem to be no tradition of the former use of 
bone awls among the Pimas. They declare that awls of mesquite 
wood were used in making baskets before the introduction of steel. 
At present the points are of pieces of umbrella rib set in wooden 
handles of native manufactiu-e (fig. 22, a)." It will be observed that 
the upper end of the hantUe is provided with a button, so that it 
may be held between the third and fourth fingers while 
the thumb and other fingers are engagetl in the mani]iula- 
tion of the basket splints. Handles of round balls of 
creosote gum* are also used (fig. 22, b).' 

Rope tivister. This apparatus is probably 
I if European origin. It consists of a pin or 

thantlle of hard wood, such as mesquite or wil- 
j low, which is thrust through a hole near the 

^^^k end of another stick, which acts as a spindle 
^^^H whorl. The latter piece has a button at the 
^^^V short end, to wliich are attached the maguey 
fibers or horse hairs (fig. 23). The operator, 
by a slight rising and falling motion of the 
handle, causes the spindle to revolve rapidly, 
thus twisting the fibers into a cord which 
lengthens as he steps backward. A second person meanwhile adds 
fresh fibers to the other end.'' 

A'mina. Among the most important of the sacred objects in the 
paraphernalia of the medicine-men were the a'mina , or medicine sticks. 
They are usually of 
arro wwood ; a 1 w^ a y s 
bound together with 
cotton twine of native 
spinning, either with 
or without feathers 
attached to each sep- 
arate stick. There 
are six a'mina bundles 
in the collection. One 
was made by Ka'mal 
tkak, to be used ex- 

1 • 1 • . 1 Fig. 23. Rope twister. 

clusively m the exor- ^ 

cism of the Tcu'nyim, a spirit of disease. The bundle contains four 
groups of sticks: Two pairs, one bundle of 4, and one of 6. All are 
plain, being unmai-ked in any way (fig. 24).' 

n Length of specimen (fig. 22. a) 0.103 m., of which 56 mm. is handle. 

^ Deposited on the branches of the creosote bush by the minute scale insect. Carteria larre*. 

c Length, 3 cm.; diameter of handle, 24 mm. 

t^ Length of pin, 0.254 m.; diameter, S mm.; length of spindle, 32 cm. 

« Length, 0.167 m.; diameter, mm. 




Bl'SSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



107 




Fig. 24. A'mfna with nu-d 
cioiiii blower and attached 
feathers. 



The second bundle is painted green. Each stick is wliittled to a 
bUmt point at one end and has two short, downy turkey feathers 
attached (pi. xiv, 6)." 

The third bundle contains two sets of 4 
sticks each, which were originally painted blue. 
They are sharpened to tapering points at one 
end. To each stick is tied two of the tail 
feathers of some small bird (pi. xiv, a).'' 

The fourth bundle contains three sets of 4 
sticks each and the remains of another set 
which probably contained 4, though it is so 
old that it is in a fragmentary condition (pi. 
XIV, d).'' A bundle of feathers attached by 
strings is bound in with the a'mina, each one 
of which also bears two feathers, all the 
feathers being from a red-colored bird. 

The fifth bundle contains three sets of 4 
sticks each, but they are so old and broken 
that their original length can not be deter- 
mined. They also have red feathers bound to them (pi. xiv, c). 

The sixth bundle is very small and very old and it is probable 
that the unusual number of sticks — 5 — is due to the fact that a por- 
tion of the bundle has cruftibled with 
age (pi. XIV, e). 

Aniinal effigies. Wooden images of 
reptiles and the like are used in the 
medicine-men's efl'orts to cure certain 
diseases. Two such specimens were 
collected. One is intended to repre- 
sent a horned toad (fig. 25, a),'' the 
other a lizard (fig. 25, h) .^ They are either carelessly or clumsily made. 
Mask. During liis stay among the Pim'as the writer heard of but 
two wooden masks be- 
ing in their possession. 
One of these was col- 
lected and is here de- 
picted in figure 26.-' 
Doctor Hough called his 
attention to the fact 
that it resembles those maile by the Yaquis of Sonora, and it 




Fig. 26, a. Horned toad effigy. 




Fig. 25, 6. Lizard efflgy. 



a Length, 0.155 m.; diameter, 21 mm. The feathers are a trifle shorter thau the sticks. 

6 Length, 0.136 m.; diameter, 10 mm. 

c Length of sticks, 17 cm.; diameter, 7 nun. 

d Length, 10 cm.; width, 42 mm. 

e Length. 2.S em.; width. 4 em. 

/ Length, 0.20S m.; width, 0.153 m: 



108 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



is probable that the conception, if not the mask itself, was im- 
ported from the southward along with the masked Xavitco cere- 
monies, despite the assertion of its former owner to the contrary, 
because it represents a higher degree of skill in woodworking 

than anjr piece of carving that the 
writer has seen done by a Pima. 
It is of Cottonwood, perforated for 
the insertion of horsehair eye- 
brows, chin wliisker, and two tufts 
on the center of each cheek, and is 
ornamented by an interrupted 
scroll and other lines unmistak- 
ably intended to be decorative. 
The mouth contains a half dozen 
pegs, giving a very reahstic rep- 
resentation of teeth. 

Wand. There are two wands or 
ceremonial sticks in the collection 
(fig. 27).° The longer is of grease- 
wood, Sarcobatus vermicidaris, the 
material prescribed for ia'kita, or 
ceremonial paraphernalia of this 
class. It is spotted with black 
and red paint. The shorter wand is of willow, spotted with red. 
Both were made to be held in the hand during ceremonies intended 
to bring rain, to cure disease, and for kindred purj^oses. 




Fig. 26. Navitco musk. 



STONE 
Metate 



The metate is the most abundant of the stone implements of the 
Southwest, or, if arrow points exceed them in numbers, the former is at 




Fig. 27. Ct-'remoni;il %vands. 



least the most noticeable. About nearly every ruin one sees the frag- 
ments of broken metates, in some cases to the number of several score, 
as at the ruin near Patagonia, in the Sonoita valley, where sixty 



" Length of the longer figure, 76 cm.; oHhe shorter, 28 cm. 



RI'SSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



109 



metates were counted on the ground (every one had been intention- 
ally broken), and there must have been a much larger number beneath 
the surface. Some of those found in the Ilohokam ruins are of lava 
and have legs several inches in length. Most of these are hollowed 
out, as are those of the HojDis, whereas the metates of the Pimas are 




perfectly flat on the tup from side to side, being slightly concave 
form end to end (fig. 28). They are of coarse-grained rock from the 
surrounding hills and never carved or provided with legs. They varj^ 
in weight from 20 to 200 j^ounds and are carried about the jjremises 
as needed, never being set in bins, as among the Pueblo tribes. Their 
grinding surface is sharpened or rougliened by pecking with a stone 
ax, or with a similarly shaped stone if an ax is not obtainable. 

MULLER 

The muller is of lava or of 
stone similar to that of the 
metate itself. It is longer than 
that used by the Holiokam, so 
that the entire upper surface 
of the metate is worn down. 
It is not shaped into a rectangular bar, as is that found in the ruins. 
Indeed, the writer saw few that showed any evidence of having been 
shaped in any manner except through use. 

Pestle 

The stone pestle" is used in every Pima household to crush the 
mesquite bean and other seeds in the wooden mortars. The pestle 
varies in size from the small stone the size of one's finger to the great 

o An average-sized specimen in the collection weighs 4J pounds; it is 253 mm. long and 76 mm. in 
diameter (fig. 29) . 




Fig. 29. Stone pestle. 



110 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



cylinder weighing 20 pounds that requires both hands to wield it. 
Many of these are obtained from the ruins, but some are sliaped by 
pecking. Tliis is not all done at once, but, a suitable stone having 
been selected, it is shaped little by little, day by day, as the owner has 
leisure for the work. Tliis suggests that much of the stonework of 
primitive peoples wliich excites our admiration for their patience has 
been done in this manner, the implement being in use continually and 

the task of pecking it 
into more convenient or 
more pleasing shape be- 
ing taken up from time 
to time as "knitting 
work." 



kkkkklk 

kkki 



Ax 



I-'iG. 30. .Vrrowheads. 



The stone axes of the 
Pimas were obtained 
from the ruins that are 
far more extensive than 
the Pima villages in the Gila and Salt River valleys. Most of these 
axes have each a single blade, many are double-bitted, and some are 
of the adz form. Others are so large and finely pohshed as to render 
plausible the supposition that they were intended for ceremonial use. 
All are of hard, fine-grained igneous rock called hatovik by the 
Pimas, some of whom assert that the material comes from near the 
Gulf of California, where they have seen it when on journeys after 
salt. Others declare that there is no such s^one on the surface of 
the earth, and that all the axes we find now were made from 
material that was brought from the underworld when Elder Brother 
led the nether-world people up to conquer those 
then living above. However, no particular religious 
significance is attached to the axes, as might l)e 
expected, considering their origin. They are sold 
readily enough, though when a suitable ax is kept 
for sharpening the metate of the household it is 
sometimes diificult for a collector to secure it. 
There is an abundance of suitable stones along the Salt river below 
where it breaks through the Superstition mountains, and it is probable 
that all the axes in the valley were obtained from that immediate 
locality. The few that were seen hafted were fastened with sinew in 
the fork of a hmb of suitable size. 




Fig. 31. Arrow-shaft 
straightener. 



RUSSELL] 



AETIFACTS 



111 



AUHI)\VHEADS 

A great portion of those used ]>y the Pimas were made by the Hoho- 
kam. However, the Pinias always had a few arrowhead makers who 
worked in obsiilian, shale, or flint. They produced small heads vary- 
ing from 1 to 2i cm. in length by 1 in breadth. Those represented in 
figure 30 are old points. The heads are stemless, sometimes having 
shouklers for the sinew seizing. One man was found who continues 
to make arrowheads, which he sells to the whites. 

A ui!( i\v-si[AFT Straightener 

The Pimas had very little need for grooved stones for straightening 
arrows as the arro-\\nvood is naturally as straight as could be desired. 
It is probable that the stones of this kind found in the ruins were 
used merely for polishing. The Pimas used them scarcely at all." 

Hammer Stones 

These are frequently seen around the ruins of Arizona, but the 
' Pimas seem to have little use for them. 






Fig. 32, CrysTuis from medicine Ijasket. 

FiRESTONES 

Three stones, each about 1.") cm. in diameter, were used to support 
the cooking pots over the fire. They have been largely supplanted 
by an iron frame obtained frt)m the agency blacksmith. These 
stones were picked up when needed and little effort made to preserve 

them. 

Crystals 

Crystals and curiously shaped stones of all kinds were preserved in 
the outfits of the medicine-men. Several such specimens were pur- 
chased and some were found in a cache among the hills (fig. 32).'' 

a A specimen (Hohokam) in tlie collection (fig. 31} has been shaped to represent some animal (?). It 
is 92 mm. long and 60 nun. wide. 

fc Compare Cashing: "In this connection it is interesting to add as of possible moment suggestively 
that associated with the ultra mural remains [in the Salt River valley], both house- and pyral-. 
were found small, peculiar concretion-stones and crystals evidently once used as personal fetiches or 
amulets, as is the case at Zirni to-day." CongrSs International des Amfiricanistes, vii"« sess., 1890,17!). 



112 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 





Magic Tablets 

The collection contains two tablets which were obtained from 
medicine-men and half of one which was found in the cache above 
referred to (fig. 33, a, h, c). Two have ornamental borders, while 

tlie tliird is quite smooth to the rounded 
margin; it has the figure of a horse scratched 
on one side and that of a man on the other." 

TujlQUOISE 

This stone, which is so common in some 
parts of the Southwest that every Indian has 
it hanging from ears, 
neck, or arms, seems to 
be rare in Pimeria. 
But one pair of ear 
pendants was seen. It 
was somewhat more 
abundant in e&v\y days. 
It was believed that if 
a man lost a turquoise 
the mishap was due to 
magic, and as a result he- would be afflicted with some mysterious ail- 
ment which could be cured only by a medicine-man skilled in the 
cure of the "doctor's disease." He would use another piece of tur- 
quoise or a slate or a crystal, placing the stone in 
water and giving the latter to the patient to drink. 

Pipe 

A stone cylinder (fig. 34),'' probably a pipe, was 
obtained from a Pima, who said that he had "found 
it long ago." It seems short for such a purpose, yet 
it is longer than a cane cylinder the writer found in 
actual use. The smoke is blown outward in certain 
ceremonies and in others drawn in. These tubes were also used by 
the Pimas in sucking and blowing the bodies of the sick for the 
l^urpose of expelling disease. 

<• The last tablet is 122 mm. long by 56 mm. wide; it is 6 mm. thick at one side and tapers to 2 mm. 
at the other. The largest specimen is 151 mm. long by 94 mm. wide and 10 mm. thick; the border is 10 
mm. wide, marked thus: XXXX. The broken specimen is 87 mm. wide; its length can not be deter- 
mined. The X pattern at the margin runs over to the surface of the reverse side. 

i' Length. 48 mm.; internal diameter, 16 mm.; maximum external diameter, 26 nun. 



Fit;. 33, o, b, c. Magic tablets. 




Fiu. 34. Stone pipe. 



RUSSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



113 



FIBER AND LEATHEK 

Saddle 

In addition to the wooden saddletrees already mentioned the 

Pimas made them each of two rolls of grass or straw, inclosed in blue 

denim or canvas and bound with a network of rawhide. A specimen" 

in the collection (pi. xv, a, h) has two such rolls fastened together with 

both horsehair and maguey cords. The top is covered vith leather 

taken from two old boot legs. One 

stirrup is wanting; the one that 

remains is of native manufacture. 

The accompanying cinch (pi. xYjC)* 

is of horsehair neatly twisted and 

quite strong and serviceable. When 

used, it was passed over the saddle 

instead of being attached to it. A 

Pima is rarely seen ridmg bareback, 

and most have good saddles of 

American manufacture. Bartlett 

states that those who rode bareback 

at the time of his visit in 1850 thrust 

one foot under a loosely fastened 

surcingle."^ 

Saddlebag 

A coarse net of maguey fiber is 
made to carry bulkj^ objects upon 
either pack or riding saddles. The 
fibers are twisted into two strands, 
which are united to form a rope 5 mm. 
in diameter; with this the meshes 
are made about 12 cm. in length by 
an interlocking knot of the simplest 
character. The bag in the collection 
is about 1 m. in length (fig. 3.5). 




Fig. 35. Saddlebag 



Head Rings 



The round-bottomed water jars and many similar heavj^ burdens 
besides were borne upon the heads of the women with the aid of the 
rings of willow bark in the early days, and now with rings of rags 
WTapped with cotton cloth.'' Of less common use are the agave- 
leaf rings, wliich should be classed as twined basketry.* They are 

o Length, 60 cm.: diametor of rolls at the iniddli?, 10 cm. They are thickened slightly at the ends to 
form pommel and cantle. 

I' Length, 75 cm.: width, 7 cm. 

c Narrative, ii, 237. 

d The bark head ring (fig. 3ti, a) is 1.'..5 mm. in diameter and the npening in the center is 42 mm. in 
diameter. 

« Diameter of specimen collected, 10 cm.; height, 165 mm. • 

26 ETH— 08 10 



114 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



folded at each margin so that a ring is made up of three thicknesses 
of matting. This ring is smaller than the other types and is used 
for lighter burdens (fig. 36, 6). Almost any cloth (fig. 36, c) may be 
improvised into a head ring, and aprons are especially convenient for 
such use. 




Fig. 30. Head rings, a, Wiiinw bark; b, agjive leaf; c, cloth. 

Rope 

Picket ropes of maguey fiber (figs. 37, h and 38) are brought by 
the Papagos to trade to the Pimas. They are about 10 m. long and 
1 cm. in diameter, made of four 2-ply strands. They are strong, but 




Fig. 37. a, Horsehair halter; b, maguey rope. 

the harsh and coarse fiber renders them disagreeable to the touch of 
any but a hardened hand. The prepared fibers for rope making iu 
this collection measure 60 cm. in length. With such material and a 
rope twister the process of manufacturing rope is a rapid one. 



KDSSELL] ARTIFACTS 115 

Human hair is Itoth twisted and braided into cords for tightening 
kiaha frames. The cords are usually made of four strands of 2-ply 
twisted threads. They are about 5 mm. in diameter when finished. 

Halters 

Horsehair is quite popular as a material for the manufacture of 
halters. The halter here illustrated (fig. 37, a) has a loop of light 
cord, 45 cm. in length, to be passed over the horse's head. The rope 




Fig. 38. Maguey fiber. 

has a loop 26 cm. long that passes over the nose. The length of the 
rope from the knot of this loop is 3.150 m. It is of four strands of 
4-ply threads, one of the strands being white. 

Bridles 

Bridles are also made of horsehair, vicious looking bits being sold 
by the traders for them. 

Fetish 

The collection contains a fetish (fig. 39, a) and a hair ornament 
made of seven wing feathers of a hawk (fig. 39, b) wliich have been 
joined by laying a strip of cotton cloth on the c[uill of each feather 



11(5 



THE riMA INDIANS 



(ETII. ANN. 20 



and binding it there with sinew, then braiding the loose ends of the 
strips togetlier into a cord 15 cm. h)ng. In this way the feathers 
are permanently fastened to one another and ma}' be easih' attaclied 
when it is desired to wear them as a fetisli, or they may be readily 
attached to the hair to form a ]iortion of the headdress. 

^Var Headdress 

At Gila Crossing we were so fortunate as to secure a specimen of 
an old Pima headdress made from the hair of an Apache and the wing 

feathers of three species of large raptorial 
birds (fig. 40). Tlie hair is about 45 
cm. long and is gathered in strands 1 
cm. in tliickness, which are held by 
two strips of cotton that are twisted or 
twined on each other a half turn between 
eacli pair of hair strands." Viewing the 
headdress from the rear there are on 
tlie left four owl feathers, symbolizing 
keenness of \asion by night; next are 
tlirec hawk, then one owl, and again 
liawk feathers to the number of five, 
syndjolizing keenness of vision by day; 
on the right are two eagle feathers, the 
symbol of swiftness. Thus the wearer 
of this headdress possessed the cour- 
age and cunning of the hated enemy, 
the keen sight by day and by night of 
the birds that have great magic power, according to Pima belief, and 
tlie swiftness as a trailer of tlie king of birds, wliich occupies a 
prominent jilace in Piman mythology. 

Hairbrush 

Using tlieir fingers as combs, tlie women become ver}' skillfid in 
straightening out tangled locks. They frequently smooth the hair with 
a brush which was formerly made of the roots of the ''Sacaton grass," 
Sporobolus wrigiitii (fig. 41, a),'' but as this no longer grows along tlie 
river, where the majority of the villages are situated, they now make 
use of maguey fiber, Agave lecheguea. Yucca paccata, etc. (fig. 41,5).= 

a The general use of human hair for cords and in headdresses by the Pimas suggests Lower Califomian 
affinities, as we are told l)y Venegas that the natives of that peninsula were accustomed to adorn them- 
selves on ceremonial occasions w.th "a large cloak cover. ng them from their head to their feet, and 
entirely composed of human hair." II. story of Califom a, I, 99. 

li Length of spe:-iraen figured. 23 cm.; diameter, 37 mm. 

c Length of specimen figuied, 17 cm.; diameter, 18 nun. 




Fig. 39. a. Fetish: b, liair ornament. 



IU'SSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



117 



These fibers make very satisfactory brushes, but they are not so stiff 
as brushes made of bristles. The fibers are not set in a handle but 
are tied in a round bundle a little below the middle, then folded out- 
ward from the center so that the upper end or handle is round and 
smooth while the lower end includes all the free fiber ends. Twine 
is then wrapped in a coil around the upper end dowTiward until the 
brush end remains just long enough to give the fibers plaA' in passing 
through the hair. The wrapping may be either of fiber or of horse- 
hair; in the latter case pleasing geometric patterns are often worked 
out with contrasted black ami white threatls. The specimen illus- 





^^SiJU^Ik 


^'''J^pW^BW^^^^^^ 


'^^mX 


y^jjgOVijflf 


'^11 


"■'tP'^1 




HP 


■t'v 1! 


r 


rMm 


w 






1 


IsH' 




l^f U 


M 




n 


^— -^^ 


l^^^m 



Fig. 40. War headdress. 

trated in figure 41 , i is bound with maguey fiber which has lieen deco- 
rated with three lines of purple dye, put on after the wrapping has 
been completed. 

Skin Dressing 

The use of leather in the manufacture of clothing was reduced to a 
minimum among the Pimas. For sandals, rawhide sufficed, and if 
tliis was not to be had there was an abundance of yucca fiber, wliich 
made a fair substitute. For the shields, with the use of wliich they 
became adept through training from cliildhood, rawhide was employed. 
So the needs which dressed leather alone could satisfy were but few, 



118 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



I ETH. ANN'. 26 



anil 
skin 



it is probable that Gileno women did little more than enough 
dressing to keep the art alive among them. At present there are 

very few who know anytliing about 
it, and this is the method which 
they say ''long ago make it." 

A skin was soaked in water for 
two«r three days to soften it; then 
it was laid on an inclined log and 
the liair scrapeil off with a deer's 
rib. Two tanning media were 
used — brains and saguaro seeds. 
The former were kept dried into a 
cake with dry grass ulitil they were 
needed, when they were softened 
in water. The seeds were avail- 
able at any time, as they were 
always kept in store as an article 
of food. 

The roots of the plant known 
as tTto, Krameria parvifolia, were 
used to dve leather red. 




Fig. 41. Hairbrushes, a, Sacaton grass roots; 
b, maguey fiber. 



Fire Bag 



Leather bags were used to carry 
flint and steel, ami a specimen of these comparatively modern arti- 
cles is shown in figure 42. It is ornamented with tin bangles and 
glass beads. 

Tobacco Pouches 

Tobacco was not recognized by 
the Pimas as a narcotic that would 
stunt the growth in youth or injuri- 
ously affect the heart as age ad- 
vanced, nor yet as a solace for 
leisure moments. It was to them 
a plant of divine origin that in its 
death (burning) released a spirit 
(odor and smoke) that was wafted 
b}' the breeze to the home of the 
magic beings that shape man's 
destiny. Throughout Pimeria one 
may find sacred places where large numliers of cane cigarettes have 
been deposited by worshipers. It is uncertain how far this form of 




Fig. 4.'. Fire bag. 



RUSSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



lUt 



cigarette was in use by the Pimas. Most of those found were made 
by the Hohokam." 

To carry this sacred powder it was necessary to have somethina; 
more than an ordinary receptacle, and so pouches were made of buck- 
skiia, ornamented in vivid colors with symbols of the sun and pro- 
vided with rattles that tinkled with every motion of the wearer. 
Both in shape and in ornament they closely resemble the tobacco 
pouches of the Apaches. There are two specimens in the National 
Museum. No. 27S40 (fig. 43, a) is of buckskin,*" doubled so that 
the opening of the pouch on the unornamented half is covered 
by the fold. The margin is ornamented by a fringe of short strings 
of buckskin passed through holes along the edge of the pouch, most 






Fig. 43, a, b, c. Tobacco pouches. 

of them having cylinders of tin, slightly bell-shaped, arranged in 
pairs and pinched into place around the thongs by pounding. The 
front bears a conventional symbol of the sun in red and blue. There 
is a short loop with which to suspend the pouch from the belt or to 
hang it up when not in use. 

Another pouch, no. 27839 (fig. 43, h, c), is of soft deerskin, with 
a red fringe made by parallel cuts along the edge. There are a few 

a At the present time most men and some women smoke cigarettes rolled in com husks or paper, 
obtained, as is much of the tobacco, from the whites. The native tobaccos are: Nicotiana trigonophylla , 
known as vi'opal vi'ofO, "like tobacco." gathered near BabcquiTari by the Papagos and brouglit 
to the Pimas; N. bigelo-\-ii, known as pan vi'ofu, ''coyote tobacco." and N. attenuata. allied 
rsukai .\u'tca vi'ofd, '• under-the-creosote-bush tobacco." Boys learn to smoke at an early age, 
though the use of tobacco is not encouraged. The father's favorite saying in reply to a request for 
tobacco is. " I wall give you some when you kill a coyote." 

6 Length, 10 cm.; width. 11 cm.; 114 bangles. 



120 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[KTH. ANX. 26 



tin bangles at the bottom. The margin is ornamented inside the 
fringe with a herring-bone pattern burned on. One side of the pouch 
has a human figure and the other bears two sun symbols. These are 
very similar to some seen by the writer upon the walls of eaves in the 
Chiricahui mountains, an old Apache stronghold." The pouch is 
sewed with cotton thread and secured at the top by an American 
button. The cord for suspension has 4 clusters of 6 bangles each 
upon it. 

Sling 

Slings were used by Pima youths before the advent of the whites. 
They were of the usual elongated oval shape. The National Museum 
contains a sling, no. 760.31, that was obtained from 
the Pimas half a century ago. It is of leather, prob- 
alily cut from a boot leg, with strings 08.5 cm. long. 
The imperforate center is 18 by 7 cm. (fig. 44). 

Shield 

The fighting men were divided into two parties — 
those who used the bow and those who fought with 
club and shield. When advancing upon the enemy, 
the warrior crouched so that the comparatively 
small shield protected his entire body. He also 
leaped from side to side for the double purpose of 
presentmg a more difficult target, and of bewildering 
the enemy and thus unsteadying their nerves through 
the suggestion of magic, which plays a larger 
part in the warfare of the American Indian than is 
generally known. The preparation for a war expe- 
dition is an invocation to the gods and the cere- 
monies during the journey are incantations for the 
development of magic power that shall not only 
render the party invincible but shall induce its magic 
power, on its own account, to overwhelm the magic 
power of the enemy. It is not the strength nor the intelligence 
of the Apache that they fear, nor his arrow with its stmg, but his 
magic — a creation of their own imagination. And so the shield, 
with its magic .symbols in brilliant colors, is kept in rapid motion 
not only from side to side but also revolving by the reciprocal 
twist of the bearer's forearm. 

A long and carefid search failed to disclose the presence of a single 
old shield among the Pimas, but there is a specimen in the National 
Museum, no. 27830, that was obtained several years ago (fig. 4.5, a, h). 
It is a rawhide disk 49 cm. in diameter, provided with a cottonwood 




Fig. 44. .Sling. 



1 Length, 17 cm.; width, 16 cm. 



RrsSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



121 



handle of convenient size for grasping. The handle is slightly eoncave 
on the side next to the shield. It is attached by means of thongs, 
which pass through two holes for each end of the handle, at the center 
of the disk. When not in use, it was carried by a sling strap that 




Fig. 4.5. a, Shield; b, reverse of shield. 



It 



passed through two holes at the border 24 cm. apart, 
mented by an ogee swastika in blue, red, and white. 

There are also two models of Pima shields in the National Mu.seum. 
One is a small painted disk of rawhide; the other is a hoop v.ith 





Fig. 46, a , 6. Models of shields. 

muslin stretched over it. The former, no. 76073 (fig. 46, h), is orna- 
mented with a cross in white, blue, red, and yellow. The latter, no. 
76028 (fig. 46, a), is 225 mm. in diameter, or about one-third the full 
size. The design in red and j^ellow is also in the form of a cross. 



122 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



A similar shield decorated with swastika in red and white (fig. 47) 
was collected in 1887 by Mr F. W. Hodge, of the Hemenway Expedi- 
tion, and by him presented to the Free Museum of the University of 
Pennsylvania. 

S.\NDALS 

Some protection for the feet was necessary when on journeys across 
the stony mesas and mountains that surroimd the Pima villages. 

Rawhide was the most M'idely used ma- 
terial and the sandal was the form of foot 
gear. It was kept in place by a single 
thong, which passed through two holes in 
the front of the sandal, so as to go between 
the first and second and the fourth and 
fifth toes, then backward obliquely across 
the foot, so that the two parts crossed each 
other over the instep, dowTi through a hole 
in the end of a heel plate and around be- 
hind the heel, where it was doubled back 
and forth two or three times before passing 
through the hole in the opposite end of the 
heel plate, and so on forward again. The heel plate passes transversely 
through two longitudinal slits in the heel of the sandal and is of the 
same hard and stiff rawhide. The doubled thongs behind the heel 
are usually wound with softer material to prevent chafing (fig. 48). 




Fig. 47. Shield. 



Yoke Strap.s 

Ox j-okes were bound to 
the horns of the animals hj 
long strips of hide that had 
been roughly dressed without 
removing the hair. The two 
straps collected were the only 
ones seen. It is some years 
since they were last used for 
this purpose, and it is not sur- 
prising that most such straps 
should have been employed 
for other needs (fig. 49). 




Fig. 4S. Sundiils. 



L.\RIAT 



The use of the lariat was, of course, learned fi'om the whites and 
was developed gradually with the tardy introduction of live stock. 
The "rope." as it is universally known in the Southwest, is of rawhide 



ARTIFACTS 



123 



made in a 4-ply braid 
noose at the outer eml 
folding a heavy piece of 
rawhide three or four 
times and bringing the 
ends together to form 
an oval ring. The end 
of the rope is passed 
through a longitudinal 
slit in one end of the ring 
and by a braided en- 
largement prevented 
from bemg pulled out 
again.' Astrip of rawhide 
about 1 cm. in width is 
rolled in the interior of 
the ring, and passing 
through a transverse 
cut close to one end it 
is continued around the 
outside, being itself slit 
where the rope enters 
the ring, and also pass- 
ing under two loops m; 



rounded by pounding when wet. The slip 
is supplied with an ingenious loop made by 




ade 



Fig, 49. Yoke straps. 

by catching up the outer layer of hide 
on the ring it then passes through a 
transverse slit in the outer and over- 
lapping end of the ring and is knotted. 
It therefore passes twice around the 
ring and is the only means of uniting 
the ends of it. When hardened the 
ring is large enough to permit free play 
of the rope through it.° 

Horned Toad Effigy 



Among the most highly prized objects 
made oi leather by the Pimas, found 
by the writer, was a life-sized effigy of a 
horned toad. It is of deerskm, orna- 
mented with white beads, as shown in 
figure 50, a. It was used in the cure 
of the toad disease by being passed 
over the affected part. This act and 
the singing of the toad songs effected a complete cure, our informant 
believed. Figure 50, b, is a photograph of a living horned toad. 

a Length of lariat, 13.93 m.; diameter, 9 mm. Length of loop ring, 6 cm.; width, 4 cm. 




Fig. 5G, a. Uorned t cad effigy , of deerskin. 



124 



THK I'IMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



POTTERY 

As a tribe the Pimas are not skillful potters. Their work is 

decidedly inferior to that of the 
Kwahadk's, which in turn appears 
to be improving as a result of a mod- 
ern demand for it. It is probable 
that the best potters among the Pi- 
mas are of Kwahadk' descent, or have 
learned the art from that tribe. A 
great part of the Pima ceramic ware 
is plain and undecorated. The cool- 
ing ollas in which water is kept about 
their homes are the only vessels that 
are generally decorated. The pot- 
ters aver that the designs are copied 
fi-om the Hohokam potsherds that 
bestrew the mesas and that the sym- 
bolism is absolutely unknown to them. 
Furthermore, many of the smaller 
decorated pieces are traded from both 
the Kwahadk's and the Papagos, the 
latter bringing them filled with cactus 
sirup to exchange for grain. The vessels here illustrated were made 
by Sala Hina (fig. 51), one of the best pottcs on the Gila. 




Fig. 50. 6. Living horned toad. 



Material 

The common ware that 
is intended to be subjected 
to heat is generally made 
from clay obtained among 
the Skasowalik hills, which 
lie on the southern border 
of the Gila River reserva- 
tion. The material is a dry 
granular claj' combined 
with cjuartz pebbles and 
feldspathic detritus. The 
place where it occurs looks 
much more like a stone 
quarry than like a clay pit 
(pi. XVI, a). Indeed, a 
great part of the mass is sharp, angular stone, wliich must be win- 
nowed out by hand in the shallow baskets. 




Fig. 51. Sala Hina. 



RUSSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



125 



Tlie process is well illustrated in plate xvi, 6." 

Another well-known clay jnt is situatotl on McClellen's branch, at 
the northeastern base of the Sacaton liills (])1. xvi, c), whence a 
whitish clay is obtained. The villa<j^es about the Casa Blanca ruin 
obtain clay from pits within a stone's thntw of the ruin itself and 
from the river bottom near the village of Rso'tuk. 

The tempering materials used in the clays last mentioned are sand 
and ground potsherds. The clay from the Skasowalik hills is- so 
coarse that it requires no tempering. 

Red ocher is employed as a slip, which is applied to the sm^face of 
the common utensils just before the drying that precedes burning. 
The water coolers are usually made witliout this coating of ocher. 

Black gum is used for decoration. This is obtained by boilmg in 
a small earthen pot, or in a segment of a large one, mesquite chips 

a Samples of this clay were submitted toDoctor Wiley, Chief of the Bureau of Chemistry of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, who ascertained the percentage composition of the material to be as follows: 



Per cent 
Combined water, organic matter, and other 
volatile constituents (loss on ignition). . . 4. 94 

Sulphuric acid, SO3 45 

Carbon dioxide, C02 Trace 



99.90 



Per cent 

Silica, SiOj 59. (i4 

Alumina, AI2O3 IS. 55 

Ferric oxide, FeaOs 6-72 

Manganous oxide, MnO Trace 

Lime, CaO 2. 35 

Magnesia, MgO 1. 44 

Alkalies, K20 and NaaO 5. «1 

He also explains the general method of determination. 

For industrial purposes an attempt is made to separate the proximate constituents of a clay Ijy 
what is chilled a ■' rational analysis." For this pui-pose the clay is treated wath sulphuric acid, which 
is supposed to dissolve the clay substance proper and leave insoluble quartz sand and sand composed 
of feldspar or other minerals. 

In order that the composition of this clay might be compared with analyses of other clays made upon 
this plan, a determination was made of the matter insoluble in sulphuric acid in sample 24881, with the 
following results: 

Per cent 

Clay substance 35. 33 

Quartz sand, feldspathic detritus, etc 04. 57 

99.90 
The sand insoluble in sulphuric acid is composed approximately as follows: 

Percent 

Feldspathic detritus, etc 28. 57 

Quartz sand 3(j. Ot) 

Comparison of these results with analyses given by Langenbeck indicate that the material represented 
by sample 24881 resembles the clays used for the production of so-called *" rod ware" more than any 
other class of clays used in pottery manufacture by civilized peoples. The follo%ving analysis of a 
typical clay used for making ** red ware ' ' is quoted from Langenbeck for purposes of comparison (The 
Chemistry of Pottery, 1895. (iO): 



Tola} (iiwlij-sis 

Per cent 

Silica 74. 75 

Alumina 12. 55 

Ferric oxide 5. 28 

Lime 1. 28 

Ma^esia 85 

Alkalies 2. 27 

Combined water 3. 23 

100.21 



Rational analysis 

Per cent 

Clay substance 39. 12 

Quartz 52. 54 

Feldspathic detritus S. 55 

100. 21 



12() THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

from portions of the tree on wliich black gum has tlried into hard 
scales. After boiling, this dye is in the form of a very thin liquid 
which is so pale that it is scarcely ilistinguishable on the dark clay, 
l)ut after the vessel has been given a slight burning the pattern 
appears in deep black. 

Implements 

As the new vessel is built up the outside is struck with a paddle 
(pi. XVII, 6), and the inside is supported ])ya flat circular stone about 
10 cm. in (Uameter. A smaller stone is used to polish the outer 
surface. Long, smooth, finger-shaped stones are used in polishing 
the necks of vessels or in places where there are sharp curves. 

Method 

The fictile ware of the Pimas is made by coiling. The clay is first 
thoroughly dried, a condition that is easily and ((uickly brought about 
by spreading it on blankets in the sun. It is then sifted to remove the 
larger particles of stone. It is next mixed with water and kneaded 
a few minutes, formed into lumps the size of the fist, and laiil aside 
to "ripen" over night. The base of the new vessel is begun by 
spreading a layer of clay over the bottom of an old vessel of suitable 
size and smoothing it down with the paddle until it extends out several 
centimeters from the center (see jil. xvii, a, where the vessel shown 
in the potter's lap has just been taken from the olla over which it 
was molded). The new bottom is allowed to dry an hour in the 
sun before it is removed and the process of coiling begun. Dipping 
the fingers in water, the operator moistens the edges of the new ves- 
sel, wliich has dried enough to retain its shape. Then taking one of 
the prepared balls of clay she rapidly rolls it between the palms 
imtil it is lengthened into a cylinder about 20 cm. long, wliich is 
laid on the margin of the vessel and pinched into shape. One or 
perhaps two more rolls are laid on to complete the circuit and then 
the paddle is applied with the right hand in quick taps to the out- 
side while the circular stone is held on the inside with the left (pi. 
XVII, b). The handle of the paddle is held dowaiward so that the trans- 
verse concavity of the instrument is adapted to the horizontal con- 
vexity of the growing vessel, which is hekl in the lap and the coils 
applied only so fast as they dry sufficiently to cause it to hold its 
shape. For tliis reason it is customary for a potter to model three 
or four vessels at the same time so there need be no delay by waiting 
for the last layer to dry. As each coil is fuiished it is placed where 
the sun can shine upon it and the work progresses much faster than it 
could in a less arid climate. As soon as the vessel has been built up 
a little way so there is room for the padtlle to be used above the plane 



RUSSELL] ARTIFACTS 127 

of the bottom it is placetl on the ground and a little loose soil is 
drawn up to serve as a suj^port and in this it is turned slowly with 
the liands as reeiuired (pi. xvii, c). As the lower coils become dry 
they are smoothed with a polishing stone with strokes made from 
below upward ; if a part has become too hard to be easily rubbed 
do^\^l the hand is dipped mto the vessel of water that is within reach, 
and applied to the spot. 

When the last coil has been shaped a dark red shale is ground in 
water mitil the li((uid has become quite thick; tliis is applied to the 
outer surface with the hands. As the slip dries it is rubbed with the 
polishing stone until it becomes hard and smooth. 

After drying over night the vessel is ready for burning. A very 
shallow pit is dug and a fire is kept in it for some time to dry the 
earth thoroughly, then a little dry mesquite or decayed willow wood 
is spread in the depression, and the vessel is laid on its side upon the 
wood and entirely covered with sticks laid up "log-cabin fashion." 
In the specimen shown in figure 52 the wood had burned away in 
about twenty minutes. The photograph was taken as the burning 
brands fell from the sides. 

The final step, if the vessel is to be decorated, is to apply the black 
mesquite pigment with a sharpened stick (pi. x\n,d), made from 
Baccharis glutenosa, which has a large pithy center. The vessel is 
again subjected to heat for a few minutes until the decoration has 
assumed a deep black color, when it is finished. 

Finished Products 

Water reservoirs or coolers (fig. 53, a, h) are the largest and finest 
pieces of fictile ware made by the Pimas and Papagos. The latter 
carry on a thriving trade with the whites by supplying each house 
with one or more of these big round-bottomed pots, which are so 
porous that the evaporation from the outside measurably cools the 
water within. Although the term "olla" is applied to all Indian 
pottery in the Southwest, the word generally refers to this particular 
class of vessels. One will be found set in a three-forked post under 
the arbor at every Pima home." An olla was secured which had been 
hidden away among the rocks in the hills for many years (fig. 54). 
It is among the smallest of those used for water coolers, and may 
well serve here to illustrate the minimum size and also a variation 
in decoration.' 

Ollas with angular profile are not uncommon (fig. 55). 

Cooking pots (pi. xviii, a) are more numerous than the water 

oThelarger specimen (fig. 53, 6) collected is 0.387 m. high, 0.275 m. in diameter at the top, and 1.161 m. 
in its maximum circtimforence. The decoration is derived from the Uohokam pottery of theCasa 
Blanca district. 

b Height, 0.330 ni.; diameter at top, 0.175 m.; maximum circumference, 0.9-50 m. 



128 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



coolers. Every kitchen contains several; some of them broken in 
halves or smaller fragments, yet retained for use in parching wheat or 
corn over the fii-e, or for other purposes. They are undecorated and 
not carefully smoothed and polished "because they would be slipijerj' 
to handle when they became wet." ° 




Fig. 52. Tlie burning. 

Bean pots are made with handles as represented in pi. xviii, h. 
They form a distinct type unlike any other aboriginal ware known to 
the writer.' 

Canteens were formerly made of pottery, but they have been 

" The specimen shown in pi. xvm. a. is 0.285 m. high, 0.255 m. in diameter at the top, 0.950 m. in 
maximum circamfcrence. 

& Pl.xvni, b, represents one of these vessels, which is 0.159 m. high, 0.195 m. in diameter at the top, 
0.74S m. in maximum circumference. 



RUSSELL] 



AKTirACTS 



129 



superseded by the cheap and scarcely less fragile metal ones of 
American manufacture. They were globular in form, and not pro- 
vided with projections or loops for the attachment of straps. In 
fact, they were intended to be carried in the woman's kiah§,; men on 
the warpath or traveling far from water must learn to endure thirst, 
but the women when compelled to go far for wood or cactus fruit were 
accustomed to carry water in these canteens. The vessels were 
sometimes broken, and Sala Hina told us of such an experience in 
which she nearly perished of thirst before she reached tlie river, 
though she had gone but a few miles from home. Canteens were 
decorated in a variety of patterns, including human figures." 

What may be termed a parching pan (pi. xix, a) is made for roasting 
grains preparatory to grinding them for pinole. It is a large oval 
shallow dish with margin extended at ends for handles.* 





Fig. 53. o, 6. Water cooler.'!. 

A tortilla baking plate (pi. xix, I) is sometimes seen. It is nothing 
more than a slightly concave undecorated disk."^ 

Cups were seldom made of clay; dippers of gourd or bowls of 
basketry were lighter and less perishable. It is probable that most 
of the few cups of Indian manufacture now to be found among the 
Pimas were obtained from the Kwahadk's or the Papagos. They are 
so highly polished as to appear to be glazed and are usually decorated 
with geometric designs to which no meaning can be ascribed by their 
makers. '^ 



o There are three specimens in the collection. PI. xviii, c is 0.19.5 m. high, 0.000 m. in circumfer- 
ence, with an opening at the top 31 mm. in diameter. PI. xvm. d is 0.135 m. high, 0.305 m. in circum- 
ference, and has an opening 29 mm. in diameter. PI. xvni, e is a doubie-neclced canteen. 

^ Represents a pan that is 0.445 m. long. 0.3^4 m. wide, 0.117 m. high. 

c The collection contains one of these plates, which is 0.350 m. in diameter and stands 63 imn. high. 

dpi. XIX. €. represents a cup which was made by the Kwahadk's and traded to the Pimas. It is 84 
mm. high and 84 mm. in diameter. 

26 ETH— 08 11 



130 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. AXX. 2( 




Fig. 54. Olla fnund hidden in 
the liills. 



Plates (pi. XIX, c, f) are now obtained from the Kwahadk's, but it is 

doiil)tful if the latter made them before the advent of the whites. 

Tliey are polished and decorated in a manner similar to the cups. " 

Fanciful figures of a variety of shapes are made by the Kwahadk's in 

imitation of American crockery, and the like, 

and are traded to the Pimas, who sometimes 

sell to gratify the desires of tourists for 

souvenirs, the seller being as ignorant of the 

fact that the buyer wishes to get specimens 

of Pima handiwork as the latter is of the fact 

that the ware is packed on the heads of 

women fi-om the villages of another tribe 30 

to 50 miles to the southward. 

Two specimens (pi. xix, d) were obtained 
from a Pima woman at Casa Blanca, who had 
''made them to sell," which have not the 
characteristic polish and the decoration of 
Kwahadk' ware. They are of interest because they show the Pima 
method of treatment of the human figure in clay modeling, and also 
tlie manner in which the face was painted. The larger effigy'' has 
light brown lines on the body, both front and back, which repre- 
sent a necklace, belt, 

skirt ( perhaps) , and 
what would seem to be 
the V-shaped opening 
at the neck of an up- 
per garment. The face 
is painted in vertical 
stripes of red and blue, 
as was the custom with 
this tribe a few years 
ago. The front hair 
is represented on the 
forehead by prominent 
ridges. 

The smaller effigy ' 
has fewer lines on the 
face, and the body 
undecorated. 

From the ruins pottery spoons or ladles are sometimes taken which 
have apparentl}^ acquired magic import from the character of their 
source. These spoons are used in feeding the sick, and for no other 

a The larger specimen figured is 264 nun. in diameter and 73 mm.Mgh. The smaller is 212 mm. in 
diameter and 43 mm. high. 
' Height, 212 mm. 
<■ Height, 20 cm. 



is 




Olla with whitish designs on red ground. 



BL'SSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



131 



purpose, so far as the writer is aware. The collection contains one 
very old spoon of Pima manufacture," which is practically an elon- 
gated bowl (pi. XX, fl). Another specimen'' was made for us to illus- 
trate the type, which, thou^;;!! rare, is well recognized (pi. xx, h). The 
collection contains also a bowl (pi. xx, c) , two coiled bowls (pi. xx,d), 
and two decorated bowls (pi. xx, e). 

Pottery was mended with gum from the creosote bush, Larrea 
mexicana (pi. ix, a). This bush grows abundantly on the driest plains 
of the Gila watershed, but its leaves are so bitter that it is not touched 
by stock, however extreme may be their hunger. 

BASKETRY 

The art of basket making is practised in nearly every Pima home. 
The more skillful basket makers produce wares that are useful, dur- 
able, and handsome. 
The work, wliich is 
done by the women, 
requires much time and 
patience. Owing to the 
poverty of the tribe 
since the river water has 
been taken from them, 
some women have been 
induced to begin the 
manufacture of baskets 
without having re- 
ceived the necessary 
trainingin girlhood and 
without any pride in 
the finished product, as 
it is possible to dispose 
of them at once at a 
fair price, no matter 
how wretchedly bad 
they may be. 









^^■.,^ 




k 


il 


^^^^^%: 


^ 


' 


^'"'^^ 



Fig .W. Willow tree. 



Materials 

There are tliree materials which surpass all others in importance, 
and quite a number that play a minor part. First of all should be 
named the willow, Salix nigra (fig. 56), twigs of which are gathered 
in March just before the leaves appear. The Yavapais who now 
live at old Fort McDowell use the willow for the white part of the 
outside of baskets and for the inner coil as well; but the Pimas 
employ the willow for the weft only. The twigs are about 50 cm. in 

a Length, 11.') mm. : width, 74 mm. : depth, 25 mm. 
i> Length, l.iO mm.; width, 25 mm.; depth, 30 ram. 



132 



TI[E PIMA INDIANS 



f ETH. ANN. L'O 



length. The bark is removed by catching it at the middle of tlie 
twig in the teeth and raising it far enough to insert the thumbs of 
botli liands between the bark and the wood, and then running tlie 
thumbs outward to the ends of the twig. Two siicli movements 




Fig. 57. a, Willow splints: b, martynia: c, cottonwood. 

suflice to strip the twig, whicli is then split into three or four strips 
at the smaller end with the teeth and the splitting carried to the other 
end of the twig by careful manipulation with both hands, so that the 




Fig. 58. Bundles of martynia pods. 



strips may be as even as possible. These strips are kept in coils, 
which are from 10 to 15 cm. in diameter (fig. 57, a). Willow bark is 
also used in basketry, both alone (cradle shields) and in conjunction 
with other materials (grain baskets). 



RUSSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



133 



The stems of the cat-tail, Typha angustifolia Linn., are used as 
foundation in the common baskets. They are gatliered in July when 
green, and are split and dried. The stalks curl inward along the split 
surface while tlrying, so that they have the appearance of round 
stems with a mere line running along one side to show where they 
were split. These stalks are from 1 to 2 m. long and are kept in 
bundles, sometimes 25 cm. in diameter, but usually much less. 

The pods of the devil's claw, Martynia fragrans Lindl., furnish the 
third material necessary for the ordinary basket. The supply of 
wild plants is not large enough, and a few martjmia seeds are planted 
each year by the basket makers. These are gathered in the autumn 
at any time after the plant has dried. They are made into bundles 
(fig. 58) for storing or for 
barter by tying a few hooks 
together and then pushing 
other hooks down into the 
center and allowing the 
pods to curve over one 
another. Each half of a 
pod is provided with one of 
these long recurved hooks, 
fi'om 15 to 20 cm. in length 
(fig. 59). They are black 
on the surface, and hence 
desired for the purpose of 
contrasting with the white 
willow to form the designs. 
Their central portion is 
pithy, but the outside is 
very tough and woody. To 
prepare for use, the devil's 
claw is soaked over night 
and then buried in moist 
earth for a day or more. It is then dug out, usually by a party of 
women, who make a "bee" of it, and the outer fiber of each claw is 
removed by breaking the hooked end and holding it in the teeth 
while the split fiber is pulled off with the fingers. Figure 60 shows 
such a party stripping the fibers, wliich appear in a coil at the knees 
of the second figure from the right. In the foreground is a heap of 
stripped pods. A small board in front of each woman is to lay the 
splint on when tliinning and shaping it. Instead of soaking and 
burying the devil's claw, some have begun to hasten the process by 
pouring hot water over it and proceeding at once to strip off the 
fiber. The strips are kept in coils (fig. 57, b) similar to those of willow. 
They are valued somewhat more highly than the willow splints, and 




Fig. 59. Martynia pod. 



134 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ ETil. ANN. 26 



hence a higher price is sometimes demanded for baskets in which a 
large amount of devil's claw is used. 

Leaves of the agave are sometimes used, but baskets of this mate- 
rial are obtained chiefly from the Papagos. Wood from the slender 
branches of cottonwood is sometimes used to take the place of willow, 
but it is less ilurable and soon becomes yellow. It is prepared in 
the same manner and kept in the same sort of coils as the willow 
(fig. 57, (■). 

Wheat straw is extensively used in the manufacture of the jar- 
shaped grain baskets. It is of modern introduction, and has not fully 
supplanted the ancient style of grain bin. 











2 


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^^^HL« ■ ' i^l 


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myp^ - "jl 


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Fig. 60. .Stripping mflrtynia. 

The arrow bush (Pluchea borealis) was the principal material 
employed in the construction of storage bins or baskets. It is 
everywhere abundant along the river, and is one of the few shrubs of 
Pimeria that is not armed with thorns, its slender, graceful stalks 
being easily manipulated (pi. xxi, a). 

Reeds, Phragmitis communis, were formerly common along the 
Gila, but continuous seasons of drought caused them to disappear. 
Sleeping mats were made from them, but such mats are now rarely 
seen, agave leaf being used instead. 

Plate XXI, c illustrates the crucifixion thorn, Holocantha emoryi, 
surrounded by saltbushes. 



Rl-ssELL] ARTIFACTS 135 

Implements 

The only implements useil in the manufacture of the common 
liaskets are awls antl knives. The awl was formerly of bone or 
mescjuite wood. Now it is of steel with a wooden or gum handle 
(fig. 22, a, b). Common case knives or light butcher knives, well 
sharpened, are used to trim the strips of willow at the time of use. 

Method 

The ordinary baskets are made by the process known as coiling. 
The center is of devil's claw, wliich is generally started as a coil, but is 
sometimes made by the process called checker weaving for a few cen- 
timeters before beginning the coil. The half stalks of the cat-tail are 
again split before being used and about a dozen of these splints are 
taken to form a foundation. The other two materials, willow antl 
devil's-daw splints, are kept in water at the time of use to render 
them flexible. One end oi each splint is liekl in the teeth while the 
knife is rapidly scraped along the rough side and while the edges are 
trimmed smooth and made parallel. Upon tliis part of the operation 
depentls much of the evenness antl fineness of the finished basket. 
The details of the work do not difl'er from those of coiled basketry 
ever^'Tvhere, wluch have been so fully and entertainingly described by 
Professor Mason. The margin was left vvdth the splint wrappetl 
smoothly around it until a few years ago when "some man," supposed 
to have been a Papago,"told them to braid it;" the tops of baskets 
are therefore usually finished by passing a single devil's-claw splint in 
and out and backward and forward over the margin, to which it gives 
a braided appearance. Wlien the weaving is completed the ends of 
the splints jiroject on the exterior surface, making it very rough. It 
is also soiled and stained from having been lying about during the 
intervals when it was not in the maker's hands for the weeks or 
months that have elapsed since it was begun. By means of a knife 
the longer and tougher ends are cut away, while the others are broken 
and- the stains are removed liy thoroughly rubbing the surface with 
leaves and twigs of the saltbushes, Atriplcx lentiformis, A. canescens, 
A. polycarpa, etc. 

Basket Bowls 

This term may be accepted in lieu of a better one, for the tray- or 
bowl-sliapod l)askets, which are shallow and have their sides sloping 
at a low angle from the horizontal. They range from a perfectly flat 
disk to a bowl with roimded bottom having a depth of 20 cm. 

The designs upon these old-style baskets are often very pleasing 
and even remarkably good. When questioned as to the meaning of 
the elements of these patterns, the basket makers invariably replied: 
"I don't know; the old women make them in tliis way. They copied 



136 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

the patterns long ago from the Hohokain pottery." Wliile these state- 
ments are true in the main, some of the elements will be seen to be of 
wide tlistribution and some are peculiar to the Pacific coast. There 
are three common designs: Those embotlying the fret, the e([ual-armed 
cross, and the spiral. Nearly all that do not represent these directly 
are more or less evident modifications of them. The fret, wMcii the 
Pimas probably with truth called the oldest motive, leads almost 
directly into the swastika and suavastika pattern, as shown in the 
illustrations. The flower design based upon the cross is apparently 
the same as that on the necks of water jars made by the Hohokam, 
anil such vessels are similarly decorated to the jjresent day by both 
Pimas and Papagos. On the pottery the design is laid upon a convex 
surface, wliile in the baskets it is worked upon the interior, or concave, 
side. The elements of the design are, first, a series of four radiating 
arms of black separating the petal-like areas wliich are usually in 
the shape of spherical triangles. The second element is a series of 
encircling lines that lie parallel to the radiating bars and follow their 
outline entirely around the basket, having also rectangular enlarge- 
ments where they change direction to cross the ends of the bars or to 
follow along tlieir sides. It is just such a design as miglit easily 
originate in pottery decoration where a complete line may be traced 
continuously, but it is not one that can be easily explained if it is 
assumed that it originated in basketry, esj^ecially when it is remem- 
bered that these j)eople prepare no pattern whatever beforehand, but 
develop the designs upon the baskets as previously conceived in the 
mind. 

The volute, or whorl, is a common motive in primitive art, ami is 
especially frequent in Southwestern basketry. As the angidar weav- 
ing necessitates irregularities in the lines of curvature, tliey are not 
infrequently modified by terrace-like enlargements. Terraces are used 
in combination with nearly all the other elements known to the basket 
maker. 

It will be observed that the decoration of Pima baskets is in black 
on a white ground for the most part, yet the proportions vary greatly. 
Brown, and more rarely some other color, may be seen in perhaps one 
basket in a thousand. Occasionally a basket is made with a dozen or 
more blue glass beads fastenetl on the border at equal intervals by 
weft splints passing through them. Rarely, work t>r trinket baskets 
are made to sell tliat have t)pen s])aces in their sides. 

Description of Plates 

The fret is a connnon motive in Pima basketrj^. In the small — and 
usually badly made — baskets it is commonly single and of uniform 
width. In the first of our series (pi. x.xii, a) it appears as a double 
line with five folds. Had there been but four the effect of the whole 



RUssKi-r.j ARTIFACTS ' 1 37 

would have sugcrested the swastika. The laro;e basket, h, has three 
parallel lines, a larger number of folds, and an unusually large center 
of unrelieved black. Baskets c, d, and e exliibit slight modifications 
of the fret, in c the parts of the inner circle being four in number and 
in e five. The design in / is a fret of four folds, and the fret is the 
princi]^al motive also in some of the upright baskets shown in plates 
XXIX and xxx. Basket g shows an equal-armed cross in white and a 
series of four broken lines that pass, in the form of a whorl, fi-om near 
the center to the margin after each taking one and a half turns around 
the basket. Ba.sket h combines the fi-et and whorl, there being seven 
radiating lines that reach the margin after half a turn each. 

In plate xxiii, a, is shown a rare form — a flat disk, ornamented 
with a whorl of six broken lines, an intermediate form between the 
fret and the whorl. In 6 there is an unusual treatment of the dark 
center, elsewhere invaria])ly a solid disk of black. It looks as if the 
maker had changed the design after starting the six rather irregidar 
bars of black from the center. In c the six radiating lines advance 
toward the periphery by the interpolation of an independent motive 
that will be seen later in upright shapes. Baskets d and e are orna- 
mented with five pairs of whorled lines that contain squares of black, 
which may also be regarded as an independent motive. In / the 
number 5 again reappears and also the simple motive of c, but this 
time in white on a black ground. This is called by some the "coyote 
track." It is well siiown in plates xxix and xxx. 

Plate XXIV, a, illustrates a comliination of the broken whorled 
lines of the preceding plate with a pattern obtained by the chil- 
dren at school in an early stage of their instruction in drawing. At 
the margin is the diamond pattern that has the effect of netting. 
In b, although the lines do not radiate from the center, they have 
sometliing of the whorled efi'ect, and they unite with the fi'et of the 
preceding illustrations a new element — the terrace — which is so com- 
mon on the ancient pottery of Arizona. The parts are in five, there 
being two reduplications of the unit in the outer row to one in the 
inner. In c the parts are again in six. The central portion is diffi- 
cult to analyze, but the outer repeats the terrace, together with a fret 
that by its breadth of line at the center suggests the form of the 
cross known as the swastika. Basket d has the fret combined with 
the terrace, being similar to the first basket in the last figure. The 
parts of the design in tliis plate are in four, five, and six. 

Plate XXV, a, depicts a form of equal-armed cross that we shall 
later see passes into another type of design that is complicated, yet 
pleasing, namely, the flower pattern. Baskets with the design shown 
in a are quite common. In b the attenuated arms may be likened to 
the limbs of some giant spider. They will be seen to be nearlj^ the reverse 
of the white arms of the design in basket c. Basket d represents a 



138 



THE PTMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 




Fig. 61. Basket with scroll decoration. 



variant that was seen in a few shallow baskets and which occasionally 
appears in the upright forms, as in plate xxx, j. It resembles a gigan- 
tic pictograph upon an ancient altar near Sacaton, the largest picto- 
graph the writer has seen in Arizona. Baskets e and /, and also a, h, 
and c, plate xxvi, contain designs that are perhaps the most abundant 

to be found in Pima basketry. Tlie 
patterns are whorled frets with many 
modifications. The decorative effect 
is enhanced by the addition of the 
triangular element, to wliich the same 
name, mo'iimvitcka, "triangle," is 
applied as to the terrace. It is seen 
to be an independent element com- 
pleted by an extended hook. In 
plate XXVI, a, c, the triangle at tlie 
margin is relieved with white, but in h 
it appears in its more common form. 
In plate xxv, /, the mode of origin 
of the triangle is seen in the termi- 
nal enlargement of a segment of the terrace. The triangle gives color 
balance to the whole, as in h, and also fills space due to the elements 
of the main figure being carried as a whole nearly straight to form 
an equal-armed figure on a spherical surface. These designs are 
usually in fours, though sometimes in threes and fives. Figure 61 
includes two designs with dissimilar elements which adapt equallj^ 
well rectangular designs to a hemi- 
spherical surface. The design, while 
clumsily made and unsj'mmetrical, 
is yet pleasing by the at least par- 
tial harmony of design and form. 
The motive in tliis design will be 
recognized by students of Calif oi- 
nian basketry. The basket shown 
in figure 62 is a rarely beautiful one, 
having simplicity of design pleasing 
by its rhythm or repetition and colors 
well proportioned. 

Plate XXVII contains several exam- 
ples of good baskets. The second 
has many triangles, those along the margin suggesting a mode of 
origin of what is known as the "top-knot" design. The outer band 
on tliis basket has the appearance of having been added as an after- 
thought, but such was not the case, as the device is not uncommon 
and occurs in the unusually fine basket shown in c. The latter is the 




Fig. 62. Basket with scroll-feet decoration. 



Ri'ssKLLl ARTIFACTS 139 

largest basket in the collection, yet it is so well proportioned, not- 
withstanding the reduction of the number of repetitions to three, that 
an artistic design is produced. The warp coils grow successively 
narrower from the center, thus making the walls tliin ami flexiltle. 
Figures d and e contain modifications of the equal-armed cross, with 
an apparently new element in d, which is shown in c to be a derivation 
of the triangle. These two baskets are examples of one of the oldest 
designs. It is also .seen in the upiight basket, plate xxxii, c. The 
white in /"suggests the rattlesnake rattle design. 

Plate XXVIII introduces a new design whicli the Pimas call si'sitciTt- 
ci'fTk, "very much figured" or "complicated." Analysis shows c and 
d to be much .simpler than they appear at first sight. The elements 
in d are an equal-armed cross and parallel lines around it, with enlarge- 
ments wherever they change direction. The efl^ect of the whole is 
suggestive of a flower with four petals. In a the petals appear largely 
in white. This flower design is said to be of recent origin. Sala 
Hina, who is perhaps 70 years of age, declares that it was unknown 
in her girlhood days. 

Plates XXIX, xxx, xxxi, and xxxii include a series of baskets from 
photographs representing basket collections in Sacaton. Many have 
the upright waste-paper basket form, and are recent. Nearly aU the 
Pima baskets made during the winter of 1901-2 were of these 
shapes. Many are decorated with simple motives that depend for 
their effect upon repetition. A notable feature of the ornament is 
the introduction of badly executed human figures. Certain traders 
urged the basket makers to put as many human and animal figures as 
possible on the baskets. Truly we need a society for the protection of 
American art. The most successful of these designs seen by the writer 
is the Gila monster shown in plate xxx, n. However, it is but a sorr}^ 
substitute for the old-time simple motives. These baskets serve 
also to illustrate the varied treatment of the geometric elements met 
with in the shallow baskets as applied to the convex surfaces of the 
upright forms. 

In conclusion, it is believed to be advisable to add the names of the 
elements of the designs whicli the Pima basket makers regard as dis- 
tinct. But two in the list refer to natural objects, namely, numbers 3 
and 7 below. It is worthy of note that the continued inquiries of 
visitors have aroused the interest of the natives to such a degree that 
they have begun to devise plausible interpretations to symbols the 
meaning of whicli is absolutely unknowoi to them. 

1. Atc'uta, the black center of all baskets. 

2. Ka'kiopins, "crossed lines" (pi. xxii). 

3. Ktim'ketcit, "turtle," applied to a square design (pi. xxii). 

4. Mav'spitchita, "locked together," the interrupted fret (pi. xxvi, e). 

5. Mo'umvitcka, "triangular," all triangles and terraces. 



140 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. i!6 



6. O'pumusult, "parallel lines doubled on themselves" (pi. xxui). 

7. Pan ika'klta, "coyote tracks" (pi. xxix). 

S. Sa'-ai, "figured," plain design with radiating black bars 
(pi. XXVIII, e). 

9. Si'hitalduwutcim, "spiral," whorled or spiral designs (pi. xxiii). 

10. Si'sitcutcrfik, "very much figured," the flower pattern 
(pi. xxviii). 

11. Stoa, "white," having a few narrow lines. 

12. Sftp'epCitfini kakaitoa, "striped witli black and white," a 
general term for de.signs in alternating black and white lines. 

13. Ta'sita, "set" or "prearranged," the swastika and suavastika. 

14. Tco'ho-utcilt, "crooked lines," the fret. 




Fig. 63. Kiaha. 



Kl.UlA 

In the Golden Age of Pinicria all burdens were borne ])V the women, 
either upon their heads witli the aid of the head ring or upon their 
backs with the unique contrivance which they call kiahfi (fig. 6.3), 
a name that it may be well to retain fcjr the purpose of precise descrip- 
tion, as the term "carrying basket" suggests the conical receptacle 
of other tribes, which is an entirely different affair. The kiaha, 
though unwieldy in appearance, is very light and strong, and heavy 
loads of wood and other Ijidky articles may be piled upon the frame- 
work, as ma}^ be seen in the series of pictures (pi. xxxiv a, h, c, d), 
which illustrate the manner in which the kifiha is loaded while set 
on the ground with the two long frcmt frame sticks and a separate 
helping stick (fig. 64), forming a tripod. After loading the kiAh&, 
the old dame is seen in h rising to her feet with the aid of the help- 
ing stick. Had she had to carry a baby in its cradle she would have 



ARTIFACTS 



141 



placed it in a horizontal position on the top of the heap of mesquite 
wood; as it was, her load weighed nearly 100 pounds, yet she knelt 
down, engaged her head under the carrying strap, and struggled to 
her feet without assistance (c). The method of unloading is shown 
in d, where, by bending forward, the entire burden is thrown off 
clear of the head. Figure 65 illustrates the manner in which a kiaha 
net is mended. 

As the kiaha is distinctively a woman's utensil, so is it closely 
associated with her life history. The young girls of 8 or 10 begin to 
use small kiahas made especially for them or that have 
been cut down from old ones. They learn the methods 
of loading so that the burden may be stable and of 
proper bulk, they acquire the necessary nerve and muscle 
coordinations that enable them in later years to lift 
loads weighing more than do they themselves, they 
become inured to the fatigue of long journeys, and they 
learn to preserve their kiahas with care from rain. The 
maiden must have long and gaily-spotted frame sticks 
at the front of her kiaha, which are wound with long 
hair cords. She uses a helping stick that is orna- 
mented with a long deerskin fringe pendent from the 
binding at the crotched end (fig. 64). As she walks 
along with the sharpened end of the stick thrust into 
the load the fringe hangs above and forward of her 
head, swinging at every step or fluttering with every 
breeze. It is indeed a conspicuous object, and it is not 
surprising that it should have caught the attention of 
every passing traveler, whose illustrations of it are 
uniformly bad." 

As the age of the owner advances she becomes care- 
less of the appearance of her kiaha, the spots on the 
frame are less fretiuently renewed, the cordage grows 
short and worn, and the foresticks of the frame are cut 
down in length. However, her burdens do not diminish, 
and the woman here photographed, though her age 
exceeds the scriptural allotment, is yet able to carrj^ more than 100 
pounds at a load. 

The kirdia is of entirely different materials from the ordinary Pima 
baskets. Wood is used for the four frame sticks, two at the front 
and two at the rear. Saguaro ribs are invariably used for the pur- 
pose, as they are very light, S3'mmetrical, straight, and sufficiently 
strong. The hoop is a double band of willow. 



Fig. r)4. Helping 
stick. 



a'* They are highly prized by their owners, as they are very useful to them, and are made with 
much labor. For the only specimen 1 could obtain I was obliged to give goods to the value of SIO."' 
Bartlett, Personal Narrative, n, 236. 



142 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[KTH. ANN. iCi 



Agave leaf serves for the front matting or apron that rests against 
the back. Between the front and the frame a roll of bark or cloth 
is usually placed to prevent chafuig. The headband is of the same 
material as the apron. It is really a circular band that is flattened 
out and doubled across the forehead. 

Human hair is used to attach the hoop to the frame sticks. It is 
of 2-ply 4-strand cord, which is made fast to the hoop and, after 
drawing the hoop as high as possible to tighten the net, wound from 
10 to 50 times around the frame sticks. 

The maguey, Tasyhrioni wheeleri, furnishes the fiber for the net 
(fig. 38). Yucca elata is also a valual)le fiber ])lant and it is prob- 
able that the Papagos obtain netting material from Agave hetera- 
cantha. The first two of these plants are found ou the higher hiUs 




Fig. 65. Mending kiaha net. 

and mountains of Pimeria, whence they are gathered by parties who 
go especially for them. Pits are dug and fires are buOt in them as 
the maguey is gathered. After the fire has died down it is cleared 
out and the pits are lined with small stones. The maguey is spread 
on these, covered with earth, and allowed to roast over night. After 
it has been removed from the pit the pulp of the roasted plants is 
scraped away with a deer's scapula, leaving the fibers a foot or two 
in length. These are dried, and when they are long a roll 6 inches 
in diameter wiU be sufficient for a kiaha net. Such a roU of fiber is 
easily transported, and is a recognized article for barter between 
Pimas and Papagos. The spinning of kiaha thread is a social event, 
and the women gather for the purpose and gossip merrily as they 
twist the 2-ply twine, which is roUed into balls that may also be bar- 



RUSSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



143 



t'ered or kept for some time before being made into the nets of con- 
ventional pattern (fio;. 63)." 

After the net has been bound to the hoop by a spirally wound cord 
that completely covers the latter, it is colored with red and blue dyes 
in such a manner as to emphasize the outlines of the pattern. 

Maguey fiber, or horsehair, may be used for the cord which extends 
from the headband to the frame. It is about 8 mm. in diameter. 
When of maguey, it is often so well made as to pass readily for 
machine-made cordage until we examine it closely.'' 




Fig. 66. Storage baskets. 

Storage Baskets 

The use of large baskets made especially for storing grain and other 
supplies was widespread in America. They were and are yet of the 
highest utility to the Pimas, who have raised an abundance of corn 
and later of wheat to supply all their own needs and more. Two 
tjT^es prevail: A circular bin of arrow bush covered with bushes and 
earth (fig. 66), and a globular basket of wheat straw built up by 
coiling (fig. 67). 

a For detail of the wea\Tng see Mason's Origins of Primitive Culture, 251; also Report National 
Museum, 1894, 471. where Professor Mason makes the statement that the kiaha net, worked in what 
is " commonly called the buttonhole or half-hitch stitch, finds its most northern extension among the 
Piman stock. Nowhere in the Pueblo trilies is it found, according to the collections In the U.S. National 
Museum. But south of the Piman it occurs in Central America, in Latin South America as far south 
as Tierra del Fuego, where it will be found to be the only attempt at textiles. " This is another link in 
the chain of evidence that separates the Pimas from the Ilohokam and other Pueblo peoples. 

^ The collection contains an old woman's Idaha, the foresticks of which are 1.340 m. long and 3 cm, in 
diameter at the butt. The shorter sticks are 70 cm. long. The hoop is 65 cm. in diameter. The apron 
is 58 cm. long by 28 cm. wide. The headband is 35 cm. long and 8 era. wide. The accompanjing 
helping stick is 1.90 m. long and 22 mm. in diameter; the notch is 6 cm. long and 35 cm. wide at the 
opening. 



144 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



The former type is furnished with a l)ottom of willow branches. 
The sides are built up by twisting rolls of arrow bush with the butts 
thrust into the coil beneath to bind the whole together." This t;y'pe 
is used for storing mesquite beans on the tops of the houses or sheds 
(fig. 4). They are also built on the ground in groups, which are 
inclosed by a low fence to protect them from stock. They are made 
before the harvest begins, and as the coils are large and there is no 
close work required a large bni may be built up in half a day. 

The straw baskets have their coils fastened with strips of willow 
bark about 5 mm. in width. The stitches pass through the upper 
margm of the last coil and are about 20 mm. apart. The coils are 
from 1 to 2 cm. in diameter. The baskets are from one-half to IJ 




Fig. 67. Small storage baskot. showing weave. 

meters in height. They are covered by a circular disk of the same 
material or, more frequently, by a section of the bottom of an old 
worn-out basket. 

In making these baskets two rolls are carried around at once, but 
as they are made with some care it takes mucli longer than to make a 
bin of arrow bushes. The baskets are made after the harvest, when 
the straw is available. 



a The remains of a basket of this type were found by the writer in June. 1901, when examining the two 
large clifE-houses about 4 miles south of the Salt river, opposite the mouth of the Tonto. Bamlelier 
gives the ground plan of these structures in Papers of .\rchool. Inst.. Am. ser., iv, pt. ii, 42ii. This 
would suggest relationship with the Pueblo clifl-dwellers (assuming that the place had not been 
occupied recently by .Vpaches or other invaders), were it not for the fact that this type of bins, as 
well as the arbors on which they are l>uilt. prevails among the southern California tribes. 



EUSSELL] 



AKTIFACTS 



145 



Minor Types 

Rectangular trinket baskets (fig. 68, a) are made of agave leaves, 
but nearly all are obtained from the Papagos, as tlie Pima women 
seldom make them. They are deeper than broad, somewhat enlarged 
at the bottom, and are provided with lids." They are of the twmed 
style of weaving. At a distance 
of 1 cm. from the interior margin 
of the lid the warp splints (so 
termed for the sake of clearness 
in description — they are exactly 
like the weft) are cut and the 
ends show on the inside of the 
lid. The weft is contmued to 
the margin, turned back on it- 
self at right angles to form what 
looks like a separate ring around 
the lid; at a height of 5 or 6 cm. 
it is agam folded in and the ends 
of the splmts are cut about 1 
cm. from the last fold, so as to 
be concealed from view. 

"Medicine" baskets (fig. 68, 6) 
are of the same material and 
style of weavuig as the trinket baskets. They have a characteristic 
shape — long, square cornered, with rounded margin. They are made 
in two nearly equal parts, one of which slips over the other as a lid.* 




Fig. 68. o. Trinket basket. 




P"IG. 68. 6. Medicine basket. 

Food bowls of remarkably fine workmanship and graceful shape 
were carried by warriors on the warpath. They were used to mix 

" The collection contains a specimen of average size, which measures 19 cm. in height. 17 liy 18 cm. at 
the base, and 16 cm. square at the top. 

6 The collection contains one very old medicine basket which is 29 cm. long, 10 cm. wide, and 9 cm. 
deep. 

26 ETH— 08 12 



14(1 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



pinole in and also served as drinking cups. They were light and 
indestructible. They are no longer made and but two were seen on 
the reservation. 




Fig. 63. a, Old siove; 6. modern sieve. 



Head rings of agave leaf (fig. 36, b) are occasionally seen, but they 
are supposed to have been adopted from the Papagos (see p. 113). 




Fig. 70. Sleeping mat. 



Oval sieves were made of willow rods, and were very usefid in clean- 
mg seeds, and iii separating jiuce from pulp in a variety of plants 



Rl'SSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



147 



(fig. 69, fl). They have been sni>phinte(l hy a wire sieve" made by 
building a coiled basket rim around a piece of \vire netting that has a 
mesh of 1 mm. (fig. 69, h).^ 

Bird traps, house doors, shelves, bird cages, and the like verge 
upon basketry, but these have all been described in connection with 
other objects of wood. 

The hoods of cradles (described on p. 103) must be mcluded m the 
list of articles of basketry in use by this people. They are of willow 
bark cut into strips about 5 nun. wide and woven in the simplest 
checker style. They are light and flexible, and thus better adapted 
for their purpose than if made of willow and devil's-claw splints. 
At the bottom of this hood or shield the strips are gathered into two 
wrapped bundles, which 
slip mto place on each side 
of the first transverse bar 
beneath the baby's head 
The convexity of the rolls 
prevents the hood from 
slijjping past the bar and 
the weight upon them in- 
sures stability, wliile at 
the same time the hood 
may be readily detached. 

Sleeping Mats 

Mats were formerly made 
by the Pimas of the cane, 
Phragmitis communis, that 
grew in abundance along 
the Gila until the water 
supply became too scant 
for the maintenance of this plant. They are now made of agave 
leaves by the Papagos, who barter them to the Pimas (fig. 70). 
They are woven in a diagonal pattern, each splint passing under 
tliree others before appearing again, and the wrong side being rough. '^ 
The splints are softened by soaking at the time of weaving and 
become somewhat stift" when dried. The warp and woof are alike, 

a Twenty-six cm. in diameter at the tup and 22 at the bottom. There are 7 coils in the rim, making 
it 4 cm. deep. 

& The willow sieve in the collection was made on request by Sala Hina, as there are now none of the old 
style to be found. It is 32 cm. long, the ends of the rods projecting 3 cm. beyond the hoop to form a sort 
of handle. The hoop is 2(.i cm. wide. There are 4 cross-twisted strands to hold the rods in place. The 
willow rods are 2 mm. apart and 2 nun. in diameter. 

c Fig. 71 shows the detail of this, with the ends of the splints that have been doubled back, showing 
at a, a, a. Thus the warp splints continue as such to the margin and double back to a as weft. The 
under or what may be called weft splints, similarly treated, appear in the figure at b, b, b. The length 
of the mat collected is 2.100 m.; width, 1.480 m. 




1. Detail of sleeping mat. 



148 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



and extend in a direction oblique to the sides of the mat. At a 
distance of about 7 cm. from the margin of both sides and ends the 
warp and weft splints are woven separately to form a double border, 
which is held together by single splints occm-ring at intervals of 
about 15 cm. 



TEXTILES 

Spinning 



The Pimas no longer spin and weave ; the art is dying with the pass- 
mg of the older generation. It was with difficulty that enough raw 




I'lG. 



Model of loom 



cotton of Pima raismg was secured to make the beginning of a piece 
of cloth on the small model loom shown in figure 72. This loom was 
made by the writer's old friend Ka'mal tkak, who, though an adept in 
weaving, could not spin and had to engage a woman to do that por- 
tion of the work. She removed the seeds by first spreading out the 
cotton and l)eating it with a switch. 

Ka'mal tkak succeeded in finishing the spuming (see spmdle, fig. 
73) before the writer had an opportunity to witness the process. 
However, it has been well described by others." 

1 Lieutenant Emory thus describes the manner in which it was done in 1840: "A woman was 
seated on the ground under the shade of the cotton sheds [arbors on which the cotton was spread to 
dry]. Her left leg was tucked under her seat and her foot turned sole upwards. Between her big toe and 



ARTIFACTS 



149 



3s 



Fortunately, Doctor Palmer obtained in 1885 a complete loom with 
sample l)alls of cotton threat! (fig. 74) from the Pimas. The warp is 
smoothly and evenly spmi into a tliread about 1 nun. in diameter. 
The woof threads are softer ami are about 3 itim. in diameter; the ball 
(Museum no. 76012) is 61 cm. in circumference. 

Sinew fi-om the back and legs of tleer was made into 
tliread and was used in tying cradle bars/ shield han- 
dles, arrows, kiiiha frames, and even tattooing needles. 

An unidentifieil species of grass, called a'kivik by 
the Pimas, is said to have been spun into tlireatl in 
ancient times. According to the myth, it supplietl 
the son of Corn Woman with materi-al for liis bow- 
string. When there is sufficient rain, this grass 
grows on the Mo'hattik lulls, north of Gila Crossing. 

Weaving 

The art of weaving was not highly developed 
among the Pimas, yet the few simple fabrics of cot- 
ton wliich they produced sufficed to satisfy their 
needs for clothing and adornment." Unlike their 
neighbors, they have all but al)andoned the art of 
weaving; at no time in their history have they ad- 
vanced as far as the Pueblo tribes. Where they 
learneil the art or if they developed it t hemselves we 
may not know. We can only hazard the guess that 
they had the ingenuity to imitate the fabrics which 
the Hohokam left beliind or wliich the Pimas actu- 
ally saw them using. . 

Early accounts of the Pimas '' contain references to their fields of 

the next was a spindle about 18 inches long, with a single fly of four or six inches. Ever and anon she 
gave it a twist in a dexterous manner, and at its end was drawn a coarse cotton thread." (Notes, 85.) 

'' The implements used by these tribes for spinning and weaWng are of the most primitive character. 
\ slender stick about 2 feet long passing through a block nf wood, which serves to keep up the 
momentum imparted to it, constitutes the spindle. One end of this rests on a wooden cup inserted 
between the toes and the other is held and twirled by the fingers of the right hand, while the left hand 
Is occupied in drawing out the thread from a supply of cotton which is coiled on the left arm in loose 
rolls." (Bartlett. Personal Narrative, II, 225.) 

The spindle collected is of arrowwood, the cross bar is of cactus rib. Length, 730 mm.; diameter, 
7 mm.; length of bar. 175 mm.; width, 31 mm. (Fig. 73. t 

n ■' I suppose that all are p^o^^ded with cotton blankets; hut, owing to the almost incessant heat of 
the day, they seldom wear them," writes Bartlett (Personal Narrative, ii, 229) ; but in fact there were 
many poor Pimas who had no blankets and in winter they must have been miserable, indeed, despite the 
mildness of the cUinate. Those who w'ere unable to weave but were well to do obtained blankets by 
bartering corn, beans, and other produce, or horses at the rate of one horse for two blankets. 

'> Bartlett describes the Pima method of weaving as follows: '' In wea\ing, the warp is attached to two 
sticks, and stretched upon the ground by means of stakes. Each alternate thread of the warp is passed 
round a piece of cane, which, being hfted, opens a passage for the shuttle in the manner of a sley. The 
operator sits in the fashion of a tailor, and, rai.sing the sley with one hand, with the other passes the shut- 
tle, which is simply a pointed stick with the thread wound upon it, between the threads of the warp. 
The work is beaten up after the passage of each thread by the use of a sharp smooth-edged iustnmient 
made of hard wood. The operation of course progresses slowly, and from the length of time consumed 
in spinning and wea\ing they set a high price upon their blankets, asking for them ten or twelve dollars 
in money, or a newwoolenblanket of equal size. The weaving is generally done by the old men." (Per- 
sonal Narrative, ii, 225.) 



Fig. 7.i. .Spindle. 



150 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



cotton, which was picked and spread on the roofs of their arbors to dry 
in the pod. When dried and separated from the pods it was stored in 
large ollas, where, if covered, it would keep for an irnlefinite period in 
that dry climate. Usually, however, it was stored until winter, when 
there was time for the women to s]>in it into tlu^eads and for the men 
to weave it" into squares of cloth wliicli served as robes for protecting 
the body by day and as blankets by night, girdles for the waist, and 
similar but smaller bands for the head. In later times it is said that 
bolts of cloth of considerable length were woven to be bartered with 
adjoining tribes, but this would seem not to have been in accordance 
with primitive custom. 

Accounts of the Pimas that were written m the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries contain references to the use of wool as well as 
native cotton, but very little information is obtainable concerning the 




Fig. 74. Cotton balls, native spinning. 

use of wool, and there was not a single sheep on the reservation at the 
time of the writer's visit. 

No dyes were used except a dark buff ocher '' bartered from the 
Papagos, into which the cotton was dipped. No mortlant was used and 
the resultmg color was neither brilliant nor permanent. However, it 
was applied only to the selvage thread. Bayeta was unraveled to 
obtain scarlet thread for belts after the inauguration of trade relations 
with the Mexicans. 

Sewing was unknovm, and holes were patched by weaving in a new 
piece. 

hnplements and methods. The loom was simpler than that used by 
the surrounding tribes and was spread horizontally instead of being 
set upright. Four stakes were first driven firmly in the ground out- 

o It is of interest to note that this di\ision of labor diflers from that of the Ilopis and the Znfiis. 
b A sample of the mineral used was found upon analysis to contain 30. .52 per cent ferric oxide. 



BUSSELL] ARTIFACTS 151 

lining a rectangular space the exact size of the projected fabric. A 
deep layer of clean white sand from the river bed was spread between 
the stakes to prevent the under surface of the fabric from becoming 
soiled. The end or yarn beams were of saguaro ribs of suitable size, 
held in j)lace across the end stakes by cords which were stretched taut 
at the sides. The beams were about 6 inches from the ground, thus 
permitting the warp to pass freely around them as it was wound over 
one and under the other in a continuous thread. A heavy double 
binding thread, usually dyed bufi', was passed through the loops at the 
ends of the warp and was given a half turn as each loop was caught up. 
The yarn beams were then removed, leaving a lease rod of arrowwood 
in jjlace of one of them. The binding thread was next bound to the 
yarn beams by a heavy thread wound in a spiral from end to end. 
The warp could then be stretched in place by again putting the beams 
outside the stakes and pidling the side cords taut. The lieald rod was 
also of arrowwood put in place by passing a loop from a thread that 
had been slipped through the open shed from the right imder each 
lower warp thread and pushing the rod through the loop from the left. 

The weaver sat upon his haunches on the ground or on the cloth 
when it was finished too far for him to reach from the end. He low- 
ered the lease rod beyond the heddle and gathered the upper threads 
in front of the heddle on a slender sharpened rod, which enabled him 
to lift them high enough to pass the shuttle through. The shuttle was 
an arrowwood stick to one end of which the weft thread was tied and 
then passed to the other in a slightly spiral direction; there it was 
wound twice around and then passed back; thus it was wound from 
end to end of the shuttle until the latter carried many yards of thread. 
After the shuttle was passed through the shed the thread was struck 
home with a fiat batten of mesquite wood. If the warp threads were 
irregular, they were adjusted with a short peg which took the place of 
the comb used by the other tribes that weave in the Southwest." Two 
heavyr selvage threads la}^ at the side of the warp, and as the shuttle 
was passed through the shed it was brought between them and they 
were given a half turn to engage the woof thread before it passed back 
in the other shed which was opened by raising the heddle. 

The width of the cloth was not well maintained, as there was a strong 
tendenc)^ for it to become narrower, but by the aid of a stretcher or 
temple this was partially overcome. The temple had two k)ngitudinal 
grooves separated by a distance equal to the width of the cloth. In 
each groove was placed a section of willow or arrowwood stem an inch 
in length, bound with a heavy thread around the stretcher. The outer 
end of the short stick was sharpened so that it might be pushed 

a Length of the specimen collected, 11 cm. It is shown in fig. 72 at the margin of the finished cloth, 
where it was pushed under a few threads to hold it in position for photographing. 



152 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



through the cloth under the selvage, thus rendering the temple readily 
adjustable." 

The collection contains one old headband' or belt (fig. 75, a), which 
its owner had laid away wrapped around his long hair which he had 
been induced to cut off. It is woven from tightly twisted cotton yarn, 
the colors being black, white, green, and yellow, arranged in a zigzag 
pattern, as shown in the figure. The reverse side is without pattern 
and not intended to be seen. Another headband "^ (fig. 75, h) was made 





Fig. 75. a. Old belt headband; b, new Ijelt headband. 

to order and is of a much simpler design and style of weaving. The 
colors are black, wliite, and red. 

There are two belts or headl)ands in the National Museum that 
were collected by Bartlett in 1850. One of these, no, 178911, is a 

» Doctor Palmer collected a Pima loom In 1885, which is now in the National Museum, no. 76008. The 
beams are of cactus wood, 1.410 m. long. 6 cm. in diameter. The heddle is of arrowwood, the same length 
as the beams, and is 8 mm. in diameter. The blanket, which is about half finished, is 57 cm. wide and 
1.100 hi. long. The selvage is not dyed, but there is a red weft thread 29 cm. from the end and a second 
one near it wtiich passes across the middle third of the cloth. The liatten is 91 cm. long, 25 mm. 
wide, and the shuttle 92 cm. The cloth is smoothly and evenly woven, ha\-iiig 8 warp and 11 woof 
threads to the inch. 

l> Length. 1.900 m.: width, 65 mm. 

c I-ength, 2.270 m.: width, 57 mm. 



RUSSELL] ABTIFACTS '153 

fine specimen of double weaving." It is of tightly twisted cotton 
thread in dark blue, red, yellow, and white. The fringe threads are 
braided together so that two colors are united in each strand. 

The other belt, no. 178910, is also double, and woven in dark blue, 
light blue, buff, red, and white.'' 

The abandonment of the art of weavnng these simple fabrics with 
their tasteful patterns is unfortunate. Their loss is relieved by no 
compensatory improvement in other directions."^ 

ARCHITECTURE 

In their natuxal state the Pimas built dwellings of four different 
t^'pes besides a storehouse. First in importance is the round, flat- 
roofed ki, which resembles an overturned wash basin in shape. 
Notwithstanding the fact that some have declared that the Piman 
ki suggests the pueblo style of architecture and should therefore be 
admitted as e^vidence of relationship between the Hohokam and 
Pimas, the author must confess that he has been unable to detect 
the remotest resemblance to the pueblo tyjie. On the contrary, 
analogies may be found with the dwellings of tribes much farther 
distant from Pimeria. The ki is built by the men, who gather in 
parties of ten or fifteen for the purpose — a custom which affords 
another instance of a different division of labor from that in vogue 
among the Pueblos, as with them the house building is the work of 
women. "* Though the Pimas have had an example of pueblo struc- 
ture at their very doors ever since they have inhabited the Gila 
valley, in the noble Casa Grande, the walls of which yet rise 30 feet 
above the ])lain, and have seen the adobe buildings of the Spaniards 
and Mexicans for three hundred and fifty years, nevertheless they 
have continued to construct houses of the simplest type that are but 
little better than tem])orary shelters. The first Piman adobe house 
was built by the head chief, Antonio Azul, twentj'-two years ago, 
and since that time the people have made very commendable prog- 
ress. Some villages — such, for example, as Blackwater — now contain 
few dwellings that are not of adobe. However, there are others, 
such as Ska'kixik, that retain the old-time ki. As an inducement 
toward progress, the Indian Department or its authorized agent has 
stipulated that a man must cut off liis long hair and build an adobe 
house before he, may receive a wagon from the Government. The 

n Length, 2 m.: width, 6 cm.; length of fringe, 15 cm. 

*> Length, 2.03 m.: width, 05 rara. The fringe is 20 cm. in length and neatly braided. 

c Frobel, who \-isited the Pimas half a century ago. says of their weaving. ■■ Man wiirde sich aberirren 
wenn man glaubte. dass diese Kiinste durch die Bekehrung ziun Christenthum befordert worden seien. 
Tm Gegentheile sind sie dadurch in Verfall gerathen, denn bei den heidnischen Pimas flndet man die- 
selben in einem hoheren Grade von VoUkommenheit." Aus Amerika, ii, 440. 

d It is worthy of note that the southern California CoahuiUa [Kawia] similarly differ from other 
American Indians. In that tribe, also, the houses (jacals) are built by the men. See D. P. Bar- 
rows in American Anthropologist, n. s., 1901, III, 755. 



154 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



|ETH. ANN. -Id 



old custom of destroying the buildings at the death of their owners 
has practically disappeared, but its retarding influence upon archi- 
tectural development continued throughout the aboriginal p_eriod. 

Usually but one family occupies a single dwelling, though some- 
times two and even three related families live together. If there 
are two, their sleeping mats are placed on each side of the entrance, 
so that in sleeping the heads may be toward the east, the door being 
on that side in order that the inmates may rise early to greet the 
Day god as he appears over the distant summits of the Sierra Tor- 
tilla. A more practical motive for placing the doors on the east 
side is to avoid the southwest wintls which blow in the afternoon 
during nearly the entire year and which are especially strong during 
the month of March. The wind usually begins to blow at about 10 
in the morning and increases to a velocity of 10 miles an hour by mid- 
afternoon, after which it decreases 
until midnight. 

Types 

The general plan of the house 
is shown in the accompanying 
diagram (fig. 76). The central 
supporting framework is usually 
entirely of cottonwood, though 
other timber is sometimes used. 
The lighter framework shown in 
plate XXXV, a, is of willow, on 
which is laid the arrowv/ood, cat- 
tail reeds, wheat straw, cornstalks, 
or similar material that supports 
the outer layer of earth. 
The roof is supported by four crotched posts set in the ground 
3 or 4 m. apart, with two heavy beams in the crotches." Lighter 
cross poles are laid on the last, completing the central framework. 
Light willow poles are set half a meter in the ground around the 
periphery of the circle, their tops are bent in to lap over the central 
roof poles, and horizontal stays are lashed to them with willow bark. 
The frame is then ready for the covering of brush or straw. Although 
earth is heaped upon the roof to a depth of 15 or 20 cm. it docs not 
render it entirely waterproof. When iinished the ki is veiy strong 
and capable of withstanding heavy gales or supporting the weight of 
the people who may gather on the roof during festivals. 




Fig. 



'fi. Diagram of bouse, 
feet. 



Scale: 1 inch ^ 



d" For the larger dwellings nine are used — three on each side and one in the center.' 
sonal Narrative, ii, 233. 



Bartlett, Per- 



BUSSKI.I.1 ARTIFACTS 155 

Lieutenant Emory estimated the size of the ki at from 25 to 50 
feet in diameter," which is mucli too hio;h. From 10 to 25 feet 
would have been much nearer the true diameter. The average 
dimensions are as follows: 

Meters 

Circumference 18. 59 

Interior diameter 5. 48 

Interior height 1. 72 

Distance between main supporting posts 2. 28-2. 43 

Distance between po,sls and walls 91-1. 60 

Diameter of rafters .08 

Distance between rafters .30 

Distance between horizontal ribs .30 

Distance between arched willow riljs .20 

Height of door .81 

Width of door .61 

The absence of a smoke hole is noteworthy, as it is almost univer- 
sally present in primitive dwellings. Its absence can not be explained 
bv the fact that the mildness of the climate permits the Pimas to 
spend most of their time in the open air and build their fires out- 
side, because in winter fires are maintained within to such an extent 
that the roofs become loaded with masses of soot. It would seem 
probable that the roofs were not provided with openings in order 
that the houses might be as little open to the attack of the Apaches 
as pos.sible were it not for the fact that the Cocopas and others 
living southwest of the Pimas build huts similarly devoid of smoke 
vents, which suggests that the Pimas have come from that tjuarter 
where tlie torrid heat renders indoor fires imnecessary at any season. 
The doorwa3's were low and narrow for the same reason (60 b}" 90 cm. 
in size). They were closed by pieces of old blankets (pi. xxxv, i), 
by slats woven together with rawhide, or by loose sticks of wood 

(pi. xxxv, (',/). 

In each village a low rectangular council house afforded a meeting 
place for the men and at times the women also of the comnmnity. 
Rev. C. H. Cook informs the writer that he has addressed an audi- 
ence of as many as 80 persons in one of these houses, all bending low 
to avoid the smoke. The last council house was destroyed at 
Pe-eptcilt in January, 1902. 

Another form of dwelling place was the woman's menstrual lodge, 
which was a mere shelter of branches to afl'ord protection from 
the Sim. 

The fourth type of dwelling is the arbor, or, as some of the early 
writers termed it, "the bower." It is a cottonwood framework suji- 
ported by crotched posts, roofed with arrowwood and earth, afford- 
ing a shade from the sun, from which protection is desirable during 

a Notes, p. 85. 



156 THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



the greater part of the year. The roof furnishes a convenient place 
for drying squashes, melons, fruit, and, in the old days, cotton, 
where the dogs and poultry can not disturb them. Under its shade 
the olla of drinking water is set in a crotched post or is suspended 
from above by a maguey fiber net. Here two parallel ropes may be 
hung and a cloth folded back and forth upon itself across them, thus 
forming an impromptu hammock in which to swing the baby. Here 
the metate and mortar are usually seen, and here the women sit and 
weave baskets or perform such other labor as may be done at home. 
It is the living room throughout the day the yesLV aroimd, and now 
that the fear of Apaches has gone it is becoming the sleeping place 
as well. From a hygienic ])oint of view it is a great pity that the 
Pinias are learning to build adobes, for the tendency is for them 
to live indoors and to abandon the healthful arbors, every inch of 
whose floors is purified by a burning sun that throws its sterilizing 
rays well under the arbor during the morning and afternoon. Tuber- 
culosis is present in nearly every family, and it is difficult, if not 
impossible, for the agency physician to induce those stricken with 
it to remain out of doors; they invariably confine themselves within 
the baciUi-laden dwellings. The arbor is kept well swept and clean, 
as is the entire yard about the house, so that a more healthfid habi- 
tation could not be devised. Occasionally one or more sides of it 
may be inclosed witli arrowwood through which the cool breezes 
readily find their way. 

Beside each dwelling will be found a rectangular storehouse l)uilt 
with a framework of about the same shape and size as the arbor, 
but with waUs of upright okatilla trunks or cactus ribs. The large 
bush, Baccharis glutenosa, is often used for this purpose. It is seen 
in its natural state in plate xxi.b; also surrounding the unit figure 
in plate xxxvi and forming the walls of the storehouse in plate 
XXXV, /. Plate IX, 5, illustrates the okatilla, Fouquiera splendens, 
as it grows on the mesas within 2 miles of Sacaton. Each stem is 
crowned with a briUiant spray of scarlet flowers. Plate xxxv, d, 
shows the framework of a storehouse at the right and the fuiished 
wall of arrow bush in the center. Plate xxxv, e, is a complete store- 
house with arrowwood bins for mesquite beans on the roof. Some- 
times mud or adobe is added to the walls, which renders the structure 
equivalent to the Mexican jacal. The most noticeable feature is the 
door, made by piling up a great heap of unwieldy logs before the 
opening. 

While not to be dignified by the name of house or dwelling, the 
Pima kitchen is an extremely practical affair, as will be realized by 
anyone who attempts to cook on an open fire exposed to storms. 
Plates VI, h, and xxxvi show the mamier of arranging these wind- 
breaks, for they are nothing more. In exposed situations the sand 



KUSSELL] AETIFACTS 157 

ill time accumulates in a drift of sufficient height to require a change 
of location. Not all families have such a kitchen, and there is reason 
to believe that it has been adopted from neighboring tribes in recent 
years. 

CLOTHING 

The description of Pima clothing need not be long. Throughout 
fully three-fourths of the year clothing for protection is quite unnec- 
essary in that region, and that worn in winter was of the simplest 
character. The history of Pima clothing may be divided into four 
periods, namely: The first, in which natural products, little modified, 
were employed; the second, in which native textiles were introduced; 
the third, in which more or less remote imitations of Mexican cos- 
tumes were in vogue ; and the present period, when very plain and 
serviceable clothing is purchased from the whites. 

Materials .\nd Types 

In primitive times the men wore breech-cloths (pi. xxxvii, a, h) 
and the women kilts that fell to the knee, both made of the soft and 
flexible inner bark of the willow, which is used by some among the 
Colorado River tribes to the present day. During the brief season 
when the temperature approached the freezing point at night the 
men wore deerskin shirts, and when abroad upon stony trails 
encased their feet in red-dyed moccasins, also of deerskin. For pro- 
tection at home both sexes wore rawhide sandals, which appear to 
Caucasian eyes all too scant protection for the feet where nature arms 
most species, animate or inanimate alike, with tooth and claw." 

After the adoption of the art of weaving, the cotton blanket was 
worn in winter, and in summer also b}^ the women, who girded it, 
doubled, around their waists with mague}^ cords, neatly woven belts, 
or merelj" tucked one edge within the other. When the winds from 
the sacred caves blew cold upon their shoulders they were shielded 
by the outer fold of blanket, which was drawn up around the neck; 
at least by all save the widow, who dared not raise the blanket aliove 
the armpits during the period of mourning. Plate xxxvi illustrates 
the mode of wearing this garment. As the blanket hinig to the knees 
it might be converted l)y the men into baggj' trousers by looping a 
cord from the girdle behind down between the legs and drawing it 
up in front. Some there were too poor or too strongly beset by the 
passion for gambling long to retain the single fabric that served for 
clothing by day and bedding by night, and they were compelled to 
resort to the bark garments of the ancients. Another material avail- 

o .\s an example of this tendency of desert plants to clothe themselves with armor, mention may be 
appropriately made of the crucifision thorn, Ilolocantha emoryi, as it grows abundantly upon the 
mesas between the Oiia -v-lllages and the Salt River Pima settlement. 30 mUes northward. It becomes 
a small leafless tree that is a tangle of thorny spikes, each a hand's breadth in length (pi. sxj, c). 



158 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. an.v. 26 

able for winter blankets was rabbit skins, which were cut in strips 
and braided together in the manner customary among so many 
American tribes. 

During the Spanish and Mexican regime the sombrero found favor, 
and even yet the steeple crown of this head gear may occasionally 
be seen. The women adopted a sleeveless chemise, which they wear 
to some extent to-day; it is shown in plate xxxviii, b, though visually 
no longer woin by a woman so young. A few women also follow the 
Mexican fashion of covering their heads with improvised mantillas — 
usually towels or aprons — as shown in figure 5, where the costumes 
of a group of both sexes are well shown. This view was taken at 
the agency, and as they were unaware of the author's presence with 
the camera, which was kept concealed, the posing was perfectly natural. 
When the summer heat begins to be felt the older men strip to the 
breechcloth, as shown in plate xxxvii, a, b, when they are about 
their homes. 

ESTHETIC ARTS 

Personal Decoration 

The Pimas of to-day are rapidly adopting the personal adornments 
of their civilized neighbors. With the exception of the manner of 
treating the hair, the old methods of enhancing personal beauty have 
been almost entirely abandoned. Judging from the statements made 
by the old people, this art could never have reached the development 
among the Pimas that it did among the Pueblos. Their status recalls 
that of the Yuman tribes on the great river to the westward. 

Pride of person manifested itself among the men in the care of 
the hair and the elaboration of the designs painted upon the skin. 
Feathers and beads were also worn in abundance. When through 
uncleanly hal)its a man became too filthy his associates said " skulof," 
"He smells like an old man." But the whole tribe has a charac- 
teristic odor that is easily detected by the nasal organs of the whites; 
even the school children who are regularly bathed and well clothed 
exhibit this characteristic. . 

HAIR 

Men wore their hair long (see pi. xliii, c) ; that of the old chief 
Tiahiatam reached to his heels when he stood upright, but usually 
the hair fell aV)out to the waist. At the age of 20 the yomig men 
began to braid or twist their hair into skeins, which retained the 
hairs shed — and other things besides^a marvelously convenient 
abidmg place for microbes. It was the fashion to wear the skeins 
cut scjuarely across at the bottom, and they did not scruple to piece 
out their shorter locks with hair from the tails-of their horses. Some- 
times, indeed, they even added the liair of their W(jinen, who trimmed 



RUSSELL] PERSONAL DECORATION 159 

their liair in nKiurning for lost relatives. The skeins were from 1 
to 2 cm. in diameter; the hair of one old man, purchased from him, 
is 1.1 m. long; one of the skeins has been broken in the middle 
and tied in a hard knot. Such flowing locks coukl not, of course, 
be worn unconfined at all times; they were usually wound around 
the head and inclosed beneath a headband or by a cord of varie- 
gated colors (pi. XLiii, a; see also fig. 75). The earlocks that are the 
pride of so many tribes were sometimes braided by the Pimas and 
ornaments of shell, bone, and, later, tin and scarlet cloth, were tied 
to them. The front hair was cut squarely across the forehead. 

The eyelashes and eyebrows were not tampered with, but the scanty 
beard was plucked out with tweezers. The hair of cliildren was for- 
merly "cut" with a burning brand whenever it reached their shoul- 
ders, in order that it might grow more abundantl}'. The portion cut 
oft" was mixed with mud and plastered on the head again for a few 
hours that it might improve the growth of the new hair. It was an 
evil omen if the cliild should chance to touch the hair just cut from 
liis head, for was it not a sign that he would steal the sacred salt? 

Women wore their hair long, but not twisted into skeins as was 
that of the men, and, furthermore, they were accustomed to cut it in 
mourning to a much greater extent than the men, so that it never 
attained extreme length. When at work it was twisted up on the 
head in a temporary coil that was confined by any convenient cord or 
bit of cloth. Unless engaged in vigorous exercise, as grinding with the 
metate, the older women allowed their hair to hang loose (pi. xxxviii,a, 
XLVi, c). The front hair was trimmed to fall just clear of the eyes, 
as in same plate, b. Incidentally, it thus protected the eyes from 
the smi, though it is questionable how far the originators of the fashion 
were conscious of this useful purpose. Above all else the hair was the 
pride of Pima women; twice at least each tlay it was brushed until it 
shone in smooth, el>ony waves that were ever luxuriantly abundant.. 
"Every once in a while," or about once a week, the hair was treated 
to a mud bath made by mixing black river mud with mesquite gum 
and allowing the plaster to remain over night (pi. xxxviii, c). Some- 
times the gum was diluted with warm water and applied as a wash 
before the mud was laid on. The nuid killed the vermiia and cleansed 
the hair as does soap The gum is believed to darken the hair and 
prevent it fi-om growing gray. The Pimas declare that when widows 
mourn for four years without washing their hair it becomes a rusty red 
from beuag burned liy the sun. The method of cleaning the hair 
above described is still practised, even by the younger generation. 



160 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



NAILS 



Finger nails were bitten off wlien they reached a troublesome 
length. The nails of the toes received little attention, and in old per- 
sons to-day they are seen of inordinate length, cm-led over the ends 
of the toes. 

TEETH 

Many brown teeth were seen, 
but no satisfactory information 
was obtained as to the cause. 
All agreed that the red berry 
of Licium fremontii would tem- 
porarily blacken the teeth, but 
as the Kwahadk's and Papagos, 
who do not eat this berry, have 
the darkened teeth, some other 
cause must be sought. Rumex 
berlandieri, Rumex hymen ose- 
palus, and a thorny weed called 
by the Pimas sdit'dkam iavdk 
are also said to blacken the 
teeth. Charcoal was used to 
clean the teeth before the ad- 
vent of the wliites, and the prac- 
tice is still continued. 

PAINTING 

In bags of deerskin or cloth 
(fig. 77, a, h) bright-hued ochers 
and other minerals were kept 
with wliich to paint the face and 
body.° Baby Pima had his face 
painted immediately after birth 
with reil oclier mixed with his 
mother's milk "to improve his skin." Thereafter the paint was 
mixed with grease or the grease was applied to the skin first and the 
pamt was added. In cold weather the grease and color were applied 
to prevent chapping and even for the sake of warmth. Usually the 




Fig. 77. Taint bags, a, Deerskin: 6, cloth 



" Upon the four samples of face paint that were collected at Sacaton and submitted for analysis the 
following report was received: "It was found that uith the exception of traces of manganese in 24884 
and 24887 the color of these substances is due to varjing amounts of iron as modified by the pres- 
ence of and combination mth other substances which by themselves possess practically no coloring 
power. 

''The percentages of iron (calculated as ferric oxide) found in these samples are as follows: 

No 24883 6. 13 No. 24885 13. 87 

No.24884 1.28 N0.24SS7.. 9.62 



KUSSELL] PERSONAL DECOBATION 161 

face alone was painted, but during festivals and on other special 
occasions the entire body was painted. On dress occasions the lines 
on the face were made much narrower, and instead of being applied 
with the hands the color was laid on with a splinter or twig of arrow- 
wood 2 mm. wide by 80 mm. long. Both men and women painted 
their bodies and both used the same colors on their faces, but in dif- 
ferent proportions. The men used more black and were especially 
careful to intensify the tattoo marks. The women also emphasized 
the tattooing, and there were black lines, therefore, under the eyes of 
both sexes, showing that the permanent embellishment was regarded 
as especially significant. 

The designs were simple vertical and transverse lines, as shown in 
plate XXXVIII, d. The paint was not often washed off, but addi- 
tional lines were added as the design became effaced. Each person 
painted his o^\^l face and used an olla of water as a mirror. The men 
painted the hair of the frontal region either wliite or red in preparing 
for a dance, and never both colors at the same time. The women 
painted their hair in spots, and bands of white. 

Besides the yellow ocher obtametl from the Skasowalik liills (jil, 
XVI, a), the yellow pollen of the cat-tail, Typha angustifolia Linn., was 
used. Red was obtained from the Mohaves, and in recent years from 
the Yumas. From the latter als(3 was bartered the bluish black 
specular iron ore that glistened on the warrior's cheeks. Red and white 
were brought liy the Papagos from out of the vast desert to tlie south- 
ward, the mineral resources of which are yet scarcely known to the 
invading race. Lastly, diamond dyes were used to some extent, but 
their day was short, for now no Pima paints at all. Indeed, it was 
with difficulty that two persons coidd be liired to paint their faces 
that the writer might photograph them. 

If in the pristine period of Pimerian liistory the lines upon the rich 
brown skins were meant to symbolize the thought or fanc}^ of the 
artists, no knowledge of the fact has survived the vicissitudes of war 
and strife through the centuries. To-day they are meaningless and 
to-morrow will have been forgotten. 

T.\TTOOING 

A few Imes were tattooed on the faces of both men and women. 
Thorns and charcoal were used in the operation. The thorns were 
from the outer borders of the prickly-pear cactus; from two to four 
were tied together with loosely twisted native cotton fiber to 
enlarge the lower portion to a convenient size for grasping, wliile the 
upper end was neatly boimd with sinew. The charcoal, from either 
willow or mesquite wood, was pulverized and kept in balls 2 or 3 cm. 
in diameter (fig. 78). 
26 ETH— 08 13 



162 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



Both men and women did the work, but tlie female artist was pre- 
ferred, as "she was more careful." Their fees were small and uncer- 
tain, as the operation was not one calculated to expand the heart of 
the victim and induce liim to pay generously. The lines were drawn 
on the face first in dry charcoal, then some of the powdered charcoal 
was mixed with water, and the thorns were dipped into tliis and 
pricked into the skin along the outlines. As the operation pro- 
gressed the face was fi'ec(uently washed to see if the color was being 
well pricked in. Two operations were necessary, though it some- 
times took more; one operation occupied an entire day. For four 
days thereafter the face remained swollen, and throughout that 
period the wound was rubbed with charcoal tiaily. At the end of that 
time a wash of squash seeds macerated in water was applied. Some- 
times the lips were slow in healing and the individual was compelled 
to subsist upon pinole, as the swollen lips ami chin forbade partaking 
of solid food; during tliis time the squash applications were continued. 

The men were tattooed along the margin 
of the lower eyelid and in a horizontal line 
across the temples. Tattooing was also 
carried across the forehead, where the pat- 

• ^ tern varieil from a wavy transverse line to 

^^^ M short zigzag vertical lines in a band that 

^^M jM was nearly straight from side to side. Oc- 

^^V T 11 casionally a band was also tattooed around 
^^^ '^ the wrist. 

The women had the line under the lids, 
as did the men; but instead of the lines 
upon the forehead they had two vertical 
lines on each side of the chin, which ex- 
tended from the lip to the inferior margin of the jaw and were united 
by a broad bar of tattooing, which included the whole outer third of 
the mucous membrane of the lip on either side. 

The tattooing was done between the ages of 15 and 20; not, it 
would seem, at the time of puberty, but at any time convenient to the 
mdividual and the operator! Oftentimes a bride and groom were tat- 
tooed just after marriage. All the older Pimas are tattooed, but the 
young people are escaping this disfigurement. As in the case of 
painting, the practice of the art is passing away and the meaning of the 
designs is unknown. The Pimas aver that the lines prevent wrinkles; 
thus fortified they "retain their youth." The purely apocrjqihal 
theory that the women about to be married have their lower eyelids 
tattooed, that they may thereafter "look at no man except their 
husband," is untenable, as we shall see when we come to study their 
marriage customs. 




Fig. 78. Tattooing outfit, a, Mes- 
quite charcoal: &, willow char- 
coal: c. needles. 



ROSSELL] 



ORNAMENTATION 



163 



ORNAMENTS 

Both sexes, but especially the men, wore strands of beads sus- 
pendetl from their ear lobes and necks. The beads and gorgets were 
of disks cut from seashells, stone, more or less wrought, 1)onp carved 
and decorated, small deer bones without other manipulation than 
drilling, and turtiuoisc, which was usually rubbed into flat rectangular 
pendants. Upon the arms of the women and on the right arm of the 
men were bracelets of similar materials. The men wore on the left 
arm a soft coyote skin wTist guard or one of rawhide for the bowstring. 
Large beads of blue Venetian glass were brought by the earliest Spanish 
mis.sionaries, and are now to be found scattered about the sacred 
places of the Pimas. 

"A very brave man" pierced the septum of his nose and wore 
therein a skewer of neatly polished bone, or else suspended from it a 
bit of turf|uoise or a shell. Two men yet living in the Santan village 
have pierced noses, though they long ago 
abandoned the practice of wearing anything 
in them. Indeed, all the old-time orna- 
ments have been abandoned, and the Pimas 
exhibit a marked contrast to the bead- 
covered Navahos and other tribesmen. 

The men ornamented their long rope-like 
locks with the soft breast feathers of the 
eagle, turkey, or other large bird. The war 
headdresses were of eagle, hawk, and owl 
wing feathers. We secured one that con- 
tained the hair of an Ajiache warrior in 
addition to the feathers (fig. 40). 

Contestants in the relay and distance 
races wore an ornament in their hair that suggests those of the 
Yumas, wliich in turn resemble the "eyes" of the Huichols." 

The women twined in their hair coronets of simflowers or of corn 
husks, in recent years colored red or blue by boiling with calico. 

Ornamentation 

We have .seen that the Pimas, by means of paint, tattooing, and 
ornaments, had developed the art of personal tlecoration to a consid- 
erable extent. When we examine their implements and weapons it 
soon becomes evident that their taste for ornamentation was more 
rudimentary. Indeed, their desire for embellishment seldom reacheil 
expression in carving; it was confined chiefly to painting, as in the 
case of shields, or to the smooth finish given to their bows. Paint- 

a Such an ornament was made for the writer's collection by Sika'tcu of arrowwood with four hooka 
of devils' claw attached to it with sinew. The hooks are arranged in the same plane and curved 
downward as shown in figure 79. The upper pair are wound with blue strings tenninating with 
b'lff at the tips. Total length, 237 mm.; spread of hooks, 170 mm. 




Runner's hair ornament. 



164 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

ing upon shields, cradle hoods, kiahas, and tobacco pouches was of a 
crude sort and manifestly inferior to that upon the person. The 
moderately smooth finish given to all weapons, to trays, ladles, pot- 
tery paddles, fire-drills, awls, pestles, axes, basketry, and some 
pottery M^as of course based upon utilitarian motives, though the 
gratification of esthetic needs must have been subsidiary thereto 
and conconiitantly developed. That the desire for embellishment 
was less consciously felt is evident from the fact that the other 
articles made by the Pimas that may be equally effective, when 
smoothness ami symmetry are lackmg are coarse and rough. The 
metate, for example, is unhewn and angular except upon the grinding 
surface and presents a striking ccmtrast to the symmetrical metates 
of the Ilohokam. Not only do the Pimas not give a pleasmg finish 
to all artifacts, but they exhibit so dull an esthetic sense in their 
treatment of the beautiful polished axes that they find about the ruins 
that we are moved alike by pity and indignation. There are tons 
of stones within easy reach of the villages suitable for roughening the 
grinding surfaces of metates, yet the Pimas take the axes that are 
almost perfect in symmetry and polish and batter them into shapeless 
masses for the purpose. To the MTiter this affords an argument 
stronger than all the surmises of the early Spanish writers to the con- 
trary that the Pimas are not the descendants of the Hohokam. 
Furthermore, the poverty of design and the absence of symbolism 
are a ver\- strong indication of relationship with the California tribes 
rather than with the Pueblos. 

One of the most striking examples of the poverty of esthetic 
resource among the Pimas is seen in their textiles. The wonderful 
possibilities of this art were almost unknown. True, after the whites 
brought bayeta to them their weavers produced a very creditable 
belt by closely copying the ornamentation from the Hohokam relics 
and from their southern congeners. But the principal pieces, the 
blankets, the weaving of which kept the art of making textile fabrics 
alive, were ornamented with nothing more elaborate than a dingy 
border of doubled selvage threads. After the red thread was imported 
we find scant trace of it in the Idankets. However, we must credit 
the Pimas with the rudimentary esthetic sense that found expression 
in the smoothness and evenness of weaving in these plain white 
blankets. 

The arts of basketry and pottery making tlo not furnish nmch 
evidence of a well-developed esthetic sense in the Pimas. The 
former art is recent and borrowed; at best it is in a mediocre state. 
If the baskets of the Punas are compared with those of the Yavapais 
(pi. xxxiii, a, h, c, d), who have also begun to use similar motives 
very recently, we see that the latter tribe manifests superior taste. 
The Yavapai baskets were the only ones at the Fort McDowell 



RUSSELL] ORNAMENTATION 165 

camps at the time of the writer's visit, so that they were certainly 
not selectetl specimens, whereas the Pima baskets, and particuUirly 
the upright forms, which the writer did not collect himself, were better 
than the average Pima product. The Yavapai baskets command 
just ilouble the price in the open market that is paid for Pima baskets 
of equal size. The principle of rhythm is well understood by the Pima 
basket makers, as the illustrations show. Both the simple elements, 
such as the so-called coyote tracks, or plain triangles, and the more 
complex, such as the flower pattern, or the scroll fret, are frequently 
repeated. But the principle of .symmetry is not so well developed 
and it is rare that a basket exhibits it. The specimen in figure 62 
shows that its maker possessed this faculty. 

It is rare that the descent of pottery making from basketry is 
reversed, but among the Pimas this is true to some extent ; that is, 
the basketry designs are in part copied from the pottery of the 
Hohokam. In part they were adopted from the Maricopas. The 
pottery designs likewise are copied, so that the credit due to the 
Pima decorators is reduced to a minimum. Their wares are mostly 
unornamented, as we have seen, and the decorations that are used 
are applied with indifferent taste. Though they have al)imdant 
examples of fictile ware scattered over their fields, much of which 
is embellished by indented coils, they seem never to have conceived 
the idea of utilizing this simple though effective form of ornamenta- 
tion. The pottery illustrated in this memou- is rather better than 
the average Pima ware. The Kwahadk' pottery, while superior to 
the Piman, is yet lacking in symmetry. It is pleasing by reason of 
the rich browTi color and the polish that almost ecjuals a glaze, but 
the ornamentation is crude and vastly inferior to that of the ancient 
Hohokam. 

We can not explam the inferiority of Piman ornamentation by 
saj'ing that the Pimas had degenerated because they were harried 
by the Apaches and Yunias imtil they had no energy or inclmation 
left for indulging their esthetic tastes, for this is not true. They 
whipped the Yumas until the latter were reatly to accept peace upon 
any terms, as appears from the calendar records, which are well 
authenticated by white testimony. They kept the Apaches in whole- 
some fear of their clubs and arrows and made fi'equent raids into 
the enemy's territory. They never hesitated to attack the Apaches 
in equal nambers and fight hand to hand. In short, they were not 
the degenerates that some have considered them, an error that the 
records of Pima scouts accompanying the United States army in 
Apache campaigns would do much to dispel." Their backwardness 

a Early accounts of tlie Pimas uniformly testify to their ability to fight their enemies. They "have 
ever been numerous and brave." wrote Garc^s a centurj' and a quarter ago (Schoolcraft, in. 299), 
and in 18.39 Mowry declared, ''The Pimas and Apaches wage hereditary and fierce war, in which the 
Pimas are generally the victors." Arizona and Sonora, third edition, p. 30. 



166 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



can not be explained by their environment, because the same sur- 
roundings produced the superior cuhure of the Hohokam, which 
there is no reason to beheve was not indigenous. It mav be 
surmised that the Pimas would have accomplished more in recent 
years in the art of ornamentation if they had adopted the curved 
knife that has become so widespread among other American Indians 
since the advent of the whites. A full discussion of the factors that 
have influenced their culture would better be deferred until after an 
examination of the evidence furnished by social organization (which 
through the absence of totemism has not directly influenced their 
art), by history, and by religion. 

Musical Instruments 

The Pimas have four kiiuls of musical 
instruments — the flute or flageolet, the bas- 
ket drum, the scraping stick, and tlie rattle, 
the last having many forms. They say 
that the first two instruments were adopt- 
ed from the Maricopas within a century or 
two. If this be true Pima attainments in 
instrumental music must have been of a 
very modest character indeed. There are 
few flutes to be found and the drum is 
never heard except in ceremonies which are 
themselves becoming increasingly rare. 
The gourd rattle is the commonest form of 
the last class of instruments. 

FLUTE 

u u c 

Fig. 80. FlHte.s. mi -r>- 

The Pmia or Maricopa flute is of cane 
cut of such a length that it includes two entire sections and about 
4 cm. of each of the two adjoining. It therefore contains three 
diaphragms, of which the two end ones are perforated, while the 
middle one is so arranged that the air may pass over its edge from 
one section into the other. This is done by burning a hole through 
the shell of the cane on each side of the diaphragm and j\)ining them 
by a fiuTow. With such an opening in the upper section the instru- 
ment can not be played unless a piece of liark or similar material be 
WTapped over all but the lower portion of the furrow to direct the air 
into the lower se(^tion. The forefinger of the left hand is usually 
employed as a stop if no ])ermanent wrapping directs the current of 
air so that it may impinge upon the sharp margin of the opening mto 




RUSSELL] 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 



167 



the second section." As there are but three finj^er holes the range 
of notes is not great and they are very low and plaintive. 

These instruments are usually ornamented with geometric designs 
having no s_\Tnbolic significance at the present time among the Pimas. 
A bit of cloth or ribbon is sometimes attached to the middle of the flute, 
as in specimen c, figure SO.' 

DRUM 

Any shallow basket of sufTicient size, such as are in common use 
in every household for containing grain or prepared food, maybe 
transformed into a drum by simply turning it bottom up and beating 

it with the hands. In accompanying 

certain songs it is struck with a stick 
in rapid glancing blows. 

SCRAPING STICK ' 

The notched or scraping stick is in 
very general use to carry the rhythm 
during the singing of ceremonial songs. 
Wlien one end of the stick is laid on 
an overturned basket and another 
stick or a deer's scapula is drawn 
quickly over the notches the result- 
ing sound from this compound instru- 
ment of percussion may be compared 
with that of the snare drum. How- 
ever, it is usually held in the hand and 
rasped wath a small stick kept for 
the purpose. So important are these 
instruments in Pima rain ceremonies that they are usually spoken of 
as "rain sticks." 

There are four scraping sticks in the collection. One of these 
(fig. 81, a), is smoothly cut, tapering, and evidently very old. The 
wood has not been identified, though it resembles ironwood. There 
are six small notches at the side of the handle, possibly fulfilling 
some mnemonic purpose. At the base of the series of notches is a 
broad X ; there is another at the middle, and evidences of a third 
appear at the tip, which is broken away. There are 36 deep transverse 

a "The principle ot its construction is believed to be different from any known among other tribes or 
nations. These instruments are common with the Coco-Maricopas, and Yumas or Cuchuans, and 
among the tribes on the Colorado. Young men serenade their female friends with them." ^^^lipple, 
Pac. R. R. Rep., ii, 52. 

6 Length of flute a (fig. 80),3<i4mm.: diameter, 22 mm.; 6, length, 518 mm.; diameter, 23 nmi.; (-.length, 
512 mm.; diameter, 22 mm. Flute c has an old pale yellow necktie tied around the middle as an orna- 
ment and to direct the air past the diaphragm. 




bed f / 

Fig. 81. Scraping sticks. 



168 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



notches on the lower part and 49- on the upper." This stick was 
used for the cure of the piliolt disease (p. 265) and was probably 
obtained from the Yaquis. The other three sticks (c, e,/) are much 
rougher and are undoubtedly of Pima make. The two large ones 
(c, e) have deep notches, which are few in number.* 



RATTLES 

The gourd rattle is used in most Pima ceremonies. It is made by 

fitting a wooden handle to a gourd in which gravel have been placed. 
The handle passes through the center and, re- 
duced in diameter, projects slightly from the 
larger end, as shown in figure 82,*^ which also 
illustrates the distribution of the perforations, 
which are said to be for the purpose of "letting 
the sound out." It will be observed that the 
sacred number 4 is represented by the principal 
lines of holes extending longitudinally. About 
a dozen specimens were seen and none were 
decorated in any way except in the arrange- 
ment of the perforations ; the 
handles were invariably rudely 
made. 

A disk rattle that has been 
used in the Navitco ceremo- 
nies was secured at the village 
of Pe'-eptcilt. It is not a 
Pima instrument, but whether 
Papago or Yaqui the wTiter 
can not say. It contains two 

sets of four tin disks loosely held by wires passing 

through a wooden handle. The sound emitted 

resembles that of tambourine rattles (fig. SS).** 
From the same individual who used the disk 

rattle the writer obtained a rattle that had been 

used as a belt during the Navitco ceremonies. 

-r . • \ c • 1 £L 1 Fig. 83. Disk rattle. 

It IS made ot successive layers or canvas, retl 

cotton cloth, oilcloth, and an old braided hatband, to wliicli arc 

attached by leather strings 21 brass cartridge shells (fig. 84). 

There are two sets of cocoon rattles in the collection that were worn 
on the calves of the legs in certain ceremonies. The cocoons were 

a Length, 675 mm.; width, 25 mm.; thickness, 15 mm. The accompanjing stick (6) used to scrape 
with is 494 mm. long. 

ft Scraping stick (fig. 81, c), is 630 nmi. long, 19 mm. in diameter, and has II notches: e is 625 mm. long, 
26 mm. in diameter, with 12 notches; / is 555 mm. long, 11 mm. in diameter, and is provided with 35 
shallow notches. 

c Length, 3.32 mm.: diameter, 90 mm.: diameter of handle, 25 mm. 

^ Length, 247 mm.: diameter, 36 mm.; diameter of disks, 40 mm. 




Fig. 82. Gourd rattle. 




KUSSELL] 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 



169 



obtained from the Papagos or Yaquis of Sonora. They are of a 
species of bombyciil moth ; their outer coverings have been removed," 
and a few gravel have then been sewed in each cocoon. There are 




Fig. s4. Belt rattle. 



70 pairs of cocoons in one strand and 66 in the other (fig. S.5). The 
rustling sound given out by this number of rattles is not unlike the 
warnino; of the rattlesnake.* 




Fig. 85. Cocoou raltk. 

At the village of Sacaton Flats at least one turtle-shell rattle is 
still used m the treatment of the "turtle disease," although no speci- 
men of such rattle was seen. 

a " The Iluichols use the cocoons of .\ttacus Orizaba for necklaces," Liiniholtz. Symbolism of the 
Huichol Indians. 189. 

!> Each cocoon now measures 30 nun. in length by 25 nmi. in breadth. The entire strands are 1.900 m. 
long. 



170 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

Hoof rattles, usually of dewclaws, were of universal distribution 
among the American Indians and were common among the Pimas, 
though none are to be found at the present day. Bartlett figures 
such a rattle in his Personal Narrative (ii, 223). 

Dancing 

Dancing was frequently indulged in by both sexes and wns accom- 
panied by song, together with instrumental music furnished by the 
basket drum and the rattle. The dancers stood in a circle with arms 
extended across the shoulders of those adjoining. This position did 
not permit much freedom, and movements were confined to stamp- 
ing the feet and bending the body. When food was plentiful dances 
might occur at anj' time. Their number increased anil their moral 
character sadly deteriorated as tlie men relaxed their vigilance after 
peace was made with the Apaches. The energy formerly expended 
on the warpath was then wasted in debauchery. The dances began 
in the morning and lasted all day. Both men and women came with 
freshly painted faces and bodies, the women with their hair neatly 
dressed. Each woman brovight a contribution of food in the form of 
mesquite dumplings, corn and wheat pinole or tortillas, meat, and 
the like. Throughout the day a few at a time stopped to eat, so that 
the dancing and the feasting both proceeded without interruption. For 
an account of the war dances, see page 205; puberty dance, page 182. 

Festivals 

Of course all festivals partook somewhat of the nature of sacred 
ceremonies, but when this element was at a minimmn, as in the 
saguaro harvest festival, its description may properly appear here 
with the arts of pleasure. These festivals were of annual occurrence, 
except during the occasional seasons when the fruit failed. The 
leading feature of these gatherings was the preparation and drinking of 
navait or saguaro liquor, and they became drunken orgies in which, 
since the introduction of knives and firearms, men were sometimes 
killed. The Government has prohibited "tizwin drunks," as they 
are called by the whites, though they are still surreptitiously held. 

The sirup of the saguaro fruit is boiled for two days in the prepa- 
ration of the liquor, and in the meantime the people gather and 
dance m the plaza nearest to the spot where the large ollas are sim- 
mermg. During the fuial carousal all the men and some of the women 
become intoxicated. Through the influence of the missionaries, 
the native police under the agent's orders, and the actively exerted 
influence of the more mtelligent men in the tribe, the custom is djong 
out. The subcliief, Kaema-a (pi. ii, c), at Gila Crossing has been a 
zealous advocate of temperance for a number of years, and it is 
not unlikely that the folly of such debaucheries was apparent to 



KISSKI.I.] ATHLETIC SPORTS 171 

some members of tlic Pima community during preceding generations 
before outside influences were brought to bear upon them. Indeed, 
some measure of prudence was enforced by the fact that the Apaches 
were hovermg upon the outskirts of the villages watching for an oppor- 
tunity to attack when the warriors were incapacitated for resistance. 

The "Name song" is a social device that accomplishes the ends of 
organized charity, together with those of the ordinary festival. If a 
village suffers from a scarcity of food, it visits one where the crops 
have been plentiful and shares in the bountiful harvest in the following 
manner: The visitors camp outside the village and come in during the 
evening to learn the names of the residents and to arrange these names 
in the song, which provides places for two names in each stanza . 
There are seventy stanzas in the song, and if there are more than 
twice that number of visitors it may be repeated and other names 
substituted. Each visitor assumes the name of a resident of the vil- 
lage as a seal of fellowship and for the purpose of contributing to the 
pleasure of the festivities of the morrow, when the strangers come 
into the village to sing. As the song is sung and a name is called the 
wife or daughter of the person of that name runs with some light 
object, and the wife or daughter of the person who has assumed the 
name for the day pursues the other woman to take it away from her. 
If she is unable to catch her, some of the other visiting women aid in 
ca]:)turing the runner, and she leads her captors to wtere " the value 
of her husband's name," in the form of corn, wheat, beans, or other 
foodstuffs, is read}^ to be presented to the visitor. 

When there are many participants in the ceremony nearly the 
entire day may be consumed in its performance. \ATien some of the 
resident villagers are destitute, onlj' the names of those who have 
plentifid crojis are used. The visitors give not lung but their serv- 
ices as singers, and they receive very substantial rewards. Etiquette 
requires that the visit be returned within a reasonable time — late 
the same season or during the following year. However, when the 
nomadic Papagos come to give the Pimas entertainment the \asit can 
so seldom be returned that the gifts are more of the nature of ex- 
changes by barter, with the advantages in favor of the Papagos. 
The Punas always received the Papagos cordially, though rarely 
returnmg their visits — so rarely that in the last fifty years the Pimas 
have sung the name song but twice in Papagueria, the two visits 
being to Suijotoa. 

Athletic Sports 

The men received thorougli training in speed and endurance in 
running during their raids into the Apache country, but they had few 
sports that tended toward physical improvement except the foot 
races. Sometimes a woman ran in a contest against a man, she 



172 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



tliTowing a double ball by means of a long stick, while he kept a kick- 
ing ball before him. But the women seldom ran in foot races, though 
their active outdoor life, engaged in the various tasks that fell to 
them, kept them in fit condition. However, they had an athletic 
game which corresponded in a measure to the races of the men and 
developed skill in running. This game was played as follows: 

ALDU 

Two of the swiftest runners among the women acted as leaders 
and chose alternately from the players until all were selected in two 
groups. Two goals were fixed about 400 j^ards apart, one side say- 
ing, "To the trail is where we can beat you," while the other party 
declared, "To that mesquite is where we can beat you." Two lines 
were formed about 25 yards apart, and the ball was put in play by 




Fig. so. a. Alder stick: 6, double ball. 



being tossed up and started toward the opponent's goal. It was 
thrown with sticks until some one drove it beyond the goal and won 
the game." To touch the ball with the hands debarred the person 
from further play. This game was abandoned about 188.5. 



KICKIXG-BALL RACES 



These races were frequentl}^ intertribal, and in their contests with 
the Papagos the Pimas nearlj^ always won. The use of these balls 
in foot races is very widespread in the Southwest, and even yet we 
hear of races taking place that exceed 20 miles in length. 

The kicking ball, when of wood, resembles a croquet ball in size, 
but it is usually covered with a coating of creosote gum. These balls 

a The stick in the collection is of willow, 1.230 ra. long, with a maximum diameter of 18 mm. The balls 
are in pairs, \^ cm. apart, connected by a 4-strand 2-ply leather thong, the balls being mere knotty 
enlargements of the thong (flg. 86, o, 6). 



BDSSELL] 



ATHLETIC SPORTS 



173 



are made of mesquite or paloverde wood (fig. 87, a, b). Stone balls 
about 6 cm. in diameter are also used, covered with the same black 
gum (fig. 88, a, h). 

Each contestant kicks one of these balls before him, doing it so 
skillfully that his progress is scarcely delayed; indeed, the Pimas 
declare that they can run faster with than without the balls, which 
in a sense is true. Perhaps 
the occurrence of the stone 
balls in the ruins gave rise to 
the idea that they possessed 
magic power to "carry" the 
runner along, for all tilings 
pertaining to the Hohokam 
have come to have more or 
less supernatural significance. 
Two youths will sometimes 
run long distances together, 
first one and then the other 

kicking the ball, so that it is almost constantly in the air. The cus- 
tom of using these balls is rapidly disappearing, as, it is to be regretted, 
are the other athletic games of the Pimas. 




Fig. 87. Kicking balls, a. Wood covered with gum; 
b, without covering. 



RELAY RACES ^ 

f 

At various points in Arizona the writer has found what appear to 
have been ancient race tracks situated near the ruins of buildings. 
One of these was seen on the south bank of the Babacomari, 3 miles 

above the site of old Fort Wallen. It 
is .5 m. wide and 275 m. long. It is lev- 
eled by cutting down in places and the 
rather numerous bowlders of the mesa 
are cleared awa3^ In the Sonoita val- 
ley, 2 miles east of Patagonia, there is 
a small ruin with what may have been a 
race track. It is 6 m. wide and 180 m. 
long. At the northern end stands a 
scjuare stone 37 cm. above the surface. 
These will serve as examples of the 
tracks used by the Sobaipuris, a tribe 
belonerine; to the Piman stock. The dimensions are about the same 
as those of the tracks that the writer has seen the Jicarilla Apaches 
using in New Mexico. The tracks prepared by the Pimas opposite 
Sacaton Flats and at Casa Blanca are much longer. 

The relay races of the Pimas did not difl'er materially from those 
among the Pueblo tribes of the Rio Grande or the Apaches and others 
of the Southwest. When a village wished to race with a neighboring 




Fig. 88. Kicking balls, a. Stone covered 
with gum: ft, without covering. 



174 THE PIMA INDIANS [etii. a.nn. :>G 

one they sent a messenger to convey the information that in four or 
five days, according to the decision of their council, tliey wished to 
test their fortunes in a relay race, and that in the meantime they were 
singing the bluebird (or, as the case might be, the humming-bird) 
songs and dancing in preparation. Both had the same time to prac- 
tise and the time was short; in this preparation the young men ran 
in groups of four or five. There were 40 or 50 runners in each village, 
and he who proved to be the swiftest \vas recognized as the leader 
who should run first in the final contest. It was not necessary that 
each village should enter exactly the same number of men in the race ; 
a man might run any number of times that his endurance permitted. 
When the final race began each village stationed half its runners at 
each end of the track; then a crier called three times for the leaders, 
and as the last call, which was long drawn out, closed the starter 
shouted "Ta'wai!" and they were off on the first relay. Markers 
stood at the side of the track and held willow sticks with rags attached 
as marks of the position of the opposing sides. Sometimes a race was 
ended by one party admitting that it was tired out, but it usually was 
decided when the winners were so far ahead that their runner met the 
other at the center wdiere the markers also met. 

The women encouraged their friends with shouts in concert that 
were emitted from the throat and ended in a trill from tlie tongue. 
At the close oLthe race the winning village shouted continuously for 
some time; after which the visitors would go home, as there was no 
accompanjang feast. 

SWIMMING 

Mention is made in the calendar records of parties of Pimas or 
Maricopas being engaged in swimming and dicing to catch fish with 
their naked hands, and Mr Cook assures the writer that he has seen 
them do both. 

Games 

The Pimas were deeply imbued with the passion for gambling, and 
many games were played for the gratification of that desire. The 
old games are now practically abandoned and those who have the 
means and the desire to gamble employ a deck of filthy Mexican cards. 
Beads, paint, blankets, and any and all personal or family property 
were wagered. The women were quite as fond of gaming as the men, 
and staked their blankets when all else was lost, making shift to get 
along with a smaller piece of cloth m lieu of a skirt. \Mien every- 
thing was gone the loser might wm some stipulated article from her 
opponent if she could beat her in a foot race. A woman might gamble 
away the family sleeping mat, the metate, in fact any household 
property, although she hesitated to wager the drinking gourd, prob- 



lU'SSKLL] 



GAMES 



175 



ably owing to the fear of provoking Navitco, the deit}' who gave the 
gourd to man. 

In common with other American Indians the Pima knew naught 
of "hick" or "chance." He felt himself aided or opposed by siiper- 
natural bemgs, whose assistance he sought by gifts of beads and other 
sacrifices deposited on altars in the recesses of the hills, which will be 
described later. A favorite place of prayer for gamblers was the 
ceremonial hill northeast of Casa Blanca, near the center of Pimeria. 
The following games were played by the men: 




Fig. sm. Ki"i,skut. 



KI^TS 

Under the name of " ghing-skoot " this game has been described 
as played by the Papagos." The Pima name of the game is ki"ts, of 
the sticks ki^tskut. Four sticks are used in playing. The set col- 
lected (fig. 89) '' is of giant cactus wood. The 
sticks are not named "old man," "old woman," 
etc., as among the Papagos, but are designated as 
follows : 

No. I — Ki-ik. "four." 

No. 2— Tco-otp', "six." 

No. 3 — Si-Ika, meaning of word unknown to informants. 

No. 4 — Ki"ts, meaning al.so unknown. 

The players sit about 10 feet apart and put the 
sticks in play by striking from below with a flat 
stone held in the left hand. The sticks are held 
nearly vertical, but are inclined a little forward so 
that they will fall in the center of the space between the jilayers, 
who rake them back with a long stick after each throw. 

The count is similar to that described for the Papago game, if we 
substitute the Pima names for the pieces, as follows: 

2 backs and 2 faces count 2. 

1 back and 3 faces count 3. 

Ki-ik facing up and others down count 4. 

All faces up count 5. 

Tco-otp' facing up and others down count 6. 

All faces down count 10. 

Si-ika facing up and others down count 14. 

Ki°ts facing up and other.s down count 15. 

The counts are kept upon a rectangle marked upon the ground 
usually approximating 12 by 8 feet, having 10 holes or pockets, 
counting the corners each tune, along each side. At two alternate 
corners are 2 quadrants called ki, "houses," of 5 holes each, not 

a Culin in Report National Museum, 1896, 738. His description is from notes and material collected 

by McGee. 

''Lcngt!]. 222 mm.; width, 17 mm.: thiclcness, 7 mm.; hemispherical in section; not colored on 
either side. 



176 



THE PIMA INDIAINTS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



counting the comer holes, called ut'pa, "doors."" The stick used 
by each player or side to mark its throw is called rsaika, "slave" or 
"horse." When a player is "coming home" and his count carries 
his "slave" only to the last hole of his house it is said to be "in 
the fire" and remains "burnt" until he throws a number less than 
14 or 15. 

The comer hole of the rectangle is called tcolftt, 
"hip;" the second, tco-olrs^n, "near the corner;" 
the third, rsa-aklt, " middle; " the fourth, ko'ketam, 
"above the end;" the fifth, ko-ok, "last;" the first 
hole of the house, tco'-oletam, "above the hip;" 
the second, ki-ik vak' LTtra, "four-hole end;" the 
third, vai-ik vak' utra, "three-hole end;" the 
fourth, sap'k' rtra, "right end" or "place;" the 
fifth, tai-i itra, "fire end" or "in the fire." (See 
diagram, fig. 90.) 



Fig. 90. Diagram used 
in ki^ts. 



HAEYO 



This game affords considerable amusement for the spectators as 
well as the participants. Four men provide themselves with moder- 
ately large stones, hayakut, which thej- throw between two holes set 
about 50 feet apart. All stand at one hole and try successively to 
throw into the other. If but one succeeds in throwing into the hole 
he and his partner are carried on the backs of their opponents across 
to the opposite goal. If both partners throw into the hole, they are 
carried across and returned to the first hole, 
the "horses" who carry them attempting to 
imitate the gallop of the horse. 

VAPUTAI 

A guessing game in which a number of 
players act as assistants to two leaders. A 
small bean* is used by the Papagos and a 
ball of black mesquite gum by the Pimas. 
It is placed in one of four joints of reed. 
The reeds are then filled with sand, all being 
concealed under a blanket, and the oppo- 
nents guess which reed contains the ball. 

The reeds are called v&plitakut (vaptltai, lay), "laying imple- 
ments" (fig. 91).'' Reed a, called kuh, "old man, " has 17 longitudinal 
rows of 8 spots each; reed b, &ks, "old woman, " is unmarked; reed c, 

a Culin in Report National Museum, 1896, p. 739. 

b Oiitained from Sonora from the tree ealled paowl by the I*inias and ehilicoti Ity the Mexicans. 

c The collection contains one set of reeds which are 27 em. long and 22 mm. in diameter. 




a bed 

Fig. 91. Canes used in viipGtai. 



RT'SSELL] 



GAMES 



177 



Fig. 92. Diagram used in vaputta. 



hota stcok, "middle black," has 6 longitudinal rows; reed d, lua- 
atcoAolt, has 5 rows around the open end. 

One hundred grains of corn are placed between the players in a 
hole, from which they are taken as won and placed in a hole in front 
of each player. When a player wins all the corn, he puts up a stick 
in tlie sand. The number of sticks may be from 1 to 10, as deter- 
mined beforehand. Each player cancels one of his opponent's sticks 
when he wins one himself. 

Two plaj'ers confine their attention to the guessing; one on each 
side fills the reeds; one on each side watches the counting. Four 
men, one at each corner, hold the 
blanket, under which the filling is done, 
and sometimes offer suggestions to the 
leaders. The "old people," the plain 
reeds, and the marked reeds, are kept together and the "young 
people" are used by the opponents. When the two pairs are filled 
with sand and a bean or ball is concealed in each pair, the blanket 
is dropped and the reeds are laid in the center, each filler handing 
his pair over to the side of his opponent. If A guesses wrong and B 
right, four grains of corn are forfeited to the winner. If neither 
guesses right, they exchange reeds and begin again. If both guess 
right, there is no coimt. When one guesses right, he takes the four 
reeds and places his l)a]l in one and the opponent then decides 
which pair it is in l)y laying one reed across the other in the pair 
which he thinks does not contain it. Then he pours out the sand 
of first one then the other. If he has guessed right, he does not 

score, but continues the 
play by filling and ofl'er- 
ing to his opponent. If 
he guesses wrong, the 
opponent scores 4 and 6 
additional if the ball is 
in the under reed, 10 if it 
is in the upper. 

Cheating is done in 
various ways, but there is reason to believe that this practice has 
arisen since the Pimas have come in ct)ntact with the whites. 




Fig. 93. Pottery disks. 



VAPUTTA 

Any number of players may participate, but they are under two 
leaders who are selected by toss. Each draws up Ms men in line so 
that thej^ face their opponents (fig. 92). A goal about 50 j^ards 
distant is marked out and the game begins. A small object, usually 
a circular piece of pottery, one of those so common about the ruins 
of the Southwest (fig. 93), is carried around behind the line by a 



26 ETii— OS- 



-U 



178 THE I'IMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

leader and placed in the hands of one of his men. The opposite 
leader guesses which man holds the object. If he guesses wrong, 
the man at the end of the line in which the object is held who stands 
farthest from the goal runs and jumps over the upheld leg of the 
man at the opposite end of his own line. This moves the winning 
line the width of one man and the length of a jump toward the goal. 
If the first guess is correct, the object is passed to him and there is 
no jumping until a guess fails." 

The boys play several simple games which develop skill in shoot- 
ing the arrow or in running In the former class may be included 
the following game : 

VATAMnMXlLiTC imKOAOLIWIA 

The players stand in a circle while a boy runs around outside, 
dragging at the end of a string a bundle of rags. When the play 
begins each boy deposits an arrow in a heap and the one who trans- 
fixes the l>undle as it flies past is entitled to the pile of arrows. At 
the end the best marksman may have nearly all the arrows. The 
same runner continues throughout the game and receives a few arrows 
as compensation for his services. 

PAPAIETCITAKIJT 

The name of this game signifies "cooking place." Several boys 
play in the game. A rag ball the size of one's fist is tossed up and 
the one nearest where it falls tries to throw it against another, using 
a slightly curved stick called henyusika. The one liit has to stand 
with his head down to protect his face while the others throw the 
ball at him. After all throw, the game begins anew. 

OKMAITCKKE 

A bundle of grass, called woliwikke, is tied with willow bark so 
that it is about 125 mm. long and 50 mm. in diameter. The ])layer 
tosses the bundle upward with his left hand while holding the bow 
in his right, ready to shoot the bundle before it can strike the earth. 

When the bundle is thrown forward instead of upward it is called 
tcomalt maitceke, ''to shoot the bundle low." 

XAOF TOWE K.IKKSA 

The title given above signifies "prickly-pear standing opposite." 
There are usually four players, though sometimes two engage in 
this shooting game. Pi'ickly-pear leaves are set up opposite each 
other at a distance of about 30 yards. The game is to pierce the 

a The object is callei rsaika, "slave." It is 40 or 50 mm. in diameter, is pitted in the center "to 
prevent cheating," and may be of either pottery or stone. 



KISSELL] GAMES 179 

leaf with an arrow, and when four are playing the two partners 
share equally the winnin<^s or losses. Arrows, bows, and such similar 
property as these ragged urchins possess are wagered. A bow is con- 
sidered worth from 10 to 20 arrows, according to quality. 

K.lORSA 

Either two or four may play. The game consists in shooting an 
arrow so that it will lie on the ground at a distance of about 100 
feet and then shooting two more arrows with the intention of cast- 
ing them across the first. 

KWAITUSiWIKUT 

The children sometimes amuse themselves by tossing into the air 
corncobs in which from one to three feathers liave been stuck. 
They do not shoot arrows at tiiem. 

There are three games in addition to the athletic game of aldft 
which were played exclusively by the women. 

MEKUT TOAKUT 

Two women play this game. Five stones that have been carefully 
selected from rounded pebbles .3 to 4 cm. in diameter (fig. 94) are 
used. The first player 
calls one of these "my 
stone" and tosses it 
into the air, keeping 
her eyes fixed upon it 
while she snatches up 

» , , . , « Fig. 94. Gaming stones. 

one of the other tour 

stones before the first falls. After all are picked up in this way she 
begins again and picks up two at a time, then three and one, then 
all at once. If she proceeds thus far without mistake she wins the 
game. The next game is more difficult. The named stone is to.ssed 
up as before, but those remaining are shoved under an. arch formed 
by the thumla and middle finger with the first finger crossed over 
the middle one. The stones are pushed under the arch in the same 
order as in the first game. In the one-plus-three combination the 
player selects one stone \\hi{h she calls her opponent's and says she 
will not pick that one up first. 

KA-AMISAKUT 

This stave game is played with eight sticks in two sets of four each, 
which are colored black on the rounded side in one set and on the 
flat side in the other, the opposite side being stained red (fig. 95). 
Two play, each using her own set of sticks, but exchanging them 




180 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



alternately, so that first one set is in use and then the other. They 
are held loosely in the right hand and are thrown from the end of the 
metate or any other convenient stone. If all fall red side up one 

point is scored by a mark in the sand. 
If all are black two are counted. Win- 
ning four points completes the game." 

TC.ILIKIWIKUT 

This is the Gileno form of the wide- 
spread dart -and -ring game. It is 
not exclusively a woman's game, but 
was sometimes played by them. The 
j^ounger generation knows nothing 
about it. The apparatus consists of 
a series of rings cut from cultivated 
gourds (fig. 96). They vary in di- 
ameter from .3 to 12 cm., and are 
strung on a 2-ply maguey fiber 
cord 50 cm. long. They are kept from slipping oft" at one end by 
a rectangular piece of gourd a little larger than the opening in the 
smallest ring, which is at that end. At the other end of the string 
is fastened a stick 20 cm. long, the outer end of which is sharp- 




FiG. 95. Staves used in game ol ka-amlsakflt. 




Fig. 90. Dart-and-ring game. 

ened. The game is to toss the rings up l)y a swing and, while holding 
the butt of the stick, thrust the dart through as man}' of them as pos- 
sible. If the thrower fails she hands the apparatus to her opponent, 
but she continues throwing as long as she scores, and counts the num- 
ber of rings that are caught on the dart. In the specimen collected 



o This is similar to the game described in Report National Museum, 1896, 742. 



RUSSELL] 



GAMES 



181 



Fig. 97. Diagram 
used in touliki- 
\\ikrit. 



there are 14 rings, but only a few may be caught at a single throw. 
A certain number of marks, 2, 3, or 4, agreed upon in advance, con- 
stitute the game. These marks are made upon a diagram laid out in 
the sand in the form of a whorl (fig. 97). The scoring 
commences in the center, called the tcunni ki, " council ; ; ". .' .* 

house," and runs out to the last hole, called hoholdega .* • .'• .■»' • *, 
ki, " menstrual house," which is on the west side of the 
diagram ; then the score returns to the center before 
the player is entitled to one point toward game. 
If the player who is behind throws a number that 
brings her counter to the same hole as that of her opponent she 
"kills" the latter and sends back her counter to the beginning point, 
but tliis is not done if she passes her opponent's position. 

Two specimens were obtained at Sacaton wliich were probably 
used in games by the Hohokam, illustrations of which are here pre- 
sented for the benefit of those engaged in special researches concern- 
ing gaming devices. 

CUP STONE 

One of these objects is a cup-shaped stone of lava 
wliich was obtained from a Pima who had found it 
in one of the Gila Valley ruins west of the Casa 
Grande (fig. 98). Doctor Fewkes has called the 
writer's attention to the fact that it resembles the 
wooden cups used by the Hopis in a game not un- 
like the European "shell game."" 

RING STONE 

A few rings of porous lava have been found about 
the ruins wliich have been called "head rings" 
because of their resemblance to the ordinary head 
rings of cloth or bark in common use among the Pimas 
(fig. 99). However, as most of them are too small 
and the material is extremely unsuited for such a purpose it is 
much more probable that they were employed in some game with 
which the present race is unacquainted.'' 

o It Is 96 mm. long, 53 mm. in diameter, with cavity 26 mm. in diameter and 42 mm. in deptli. 
b Difljneter of ring, 115 nun.; internal diameter, 45 mm.; thickness, 55 mm. 





' ' '~^^^l 





Fig. 98. Cup stone. 




Fig. 99. Ring stone. 



182 THE PIMA INDIANS [etii. anx. 26 

SOCIOLOGY 

Family Organization 

relations before marriage 

Accurate information concerning the relations between the sexes 
before marriage can only be obtained fi-om the oldest persons among 
the Pimas, as the moral atmosphere has been heavily clouded since 
the advent of the Americans and since the peril from the Apaches has 
ceased to exist. With all their surplus energies expended in war- 
fare, the young men formerly lived exemplary lives as compared with 
the youths of the last generation, who would chase and even lasso 
any girl that they could catch. Nevertheless, the conditions were 
never as bad as among the Yumas of that period. ° Before the Pimas 
came in contact with "civilization" chastity was the rule among the 
young women, who were taught by compelling precept, though ever 
witnessing the demoralizing example of free and easy divorce. 

PUBERTY DANCE 

A gu-1 reached the age of puberty at 11 or 12, sometimes as early 
as 10. The acquii'ement by a j^oung woman of the (to them) wholly 
mysterious functional characteristics of the age of puberty ren- 
dered her an object of concern and distrust to the elders. When 
the fact was discovered her mother selected some favorite woman 
friend, not a relative, in whose charge she placed the girl for a period 
of four days. During this time the preceptress taught her liow to 
perform such household tasks as she may not alreadj' have learned; 
also the principles of industry, honesty, chastity, and the like. They 
cooked their meals and ate together apart from their families. Wlien 
not otherwise engaged the girl occupied her time in making a basket 
which must be given as a present to the elder woman. She talked 
little; if she wished to scratch her head she used a stick — to use the 
fingers at this critical period would cause lice. She dared not blow 
the fire or her teeth would come out. 

There was "danger" in the girl that must be breathed out by songs 
ere she, the members of her family, and the community as a whole 
were exempt from the hazard of the lightning stroke and other 
perils. Woe to the girl who concealed her condition, for the medicine- 
man's magic would enable him to discover the culprit and should 
accident befall he would ascribe it to her. As a matter of fact, how- 
ever, some girls avoided the "coming-out" ceremonies as long as 
possible and when the parents were poor no dance was held. When 
the parents had a sufficient supply of food on hand to entertain with 
becoming hospitality they invited friends and neighbors to participate 

" Compare Rusling, The Great West and the Pacific Coast, 361. 



RUSSELL] FAMILY OKGANTZATION 183 

in a dance that occupied four nights. The father and mother did not 
dance, but they took care to select the best girls to dance with their 
daughter " for their good influence." The men and women formed 
two lines facing each other on the hardened and well-swept plaza 
outside the house; their arms were extended to embrace those 
adjoining, and the blankets were stretched along the line to cover as 
many .is they would reach over instead of being wrapped around 
each individual. The lines advanced and retreated rhythmically 
while the pidaerty songs were sung. These songs were in sets that 
were retained in the memories of certain persons and the set for the 
night was generally determined by the chance that brought the first 
leatler to the spot when all was ready to begin. It was an exhausting 
dance, as there was no stopping for rest or food during the night. In 
the morning all returned to theu' homes to spend the day in sleep. 

During the menstrual period all women were secluded for four days, 
during which they lived in the bushes near the village, making little 
shelters to shade them from the sun and occuppng their time in 
making baskets. Tliey lived on pinole, which was brought each 
morning and left at a short distance from their camp. Sometimes 
there were several together. They always bathed in the river before 
returning to their homes. 

MARRIAGE 

The youth of Pimeria marry "early and often.'' In the majoritj^ 
of cases the choice is made by the girl who seeks to avoid an alliance 
with a lazy man. A handsome fellow is of course desired, but when 
she "knows in her heart" that he is the right man even the homely 
youth is chosen. As to what is the ideal of physical beauty, ques- 
tioning naturally elicited only general information. For example, 
he must be tall antl strong; dark, because he will not WTinkle as soon 
as the lighter colored; he must not be too fat. The woman must not 
be fat nor vet thin; "she nuist have good hair and a good face." 
The writer's informant volunteered information that a stranger 
might distinguish between the married and the unmarried women 
by the fact that the latter kept their hair in much better condition 
than the former. No peculiar style of hair dressing such as that hi 
vogue among the Hopis serves to distinguish the unmarried gu'ls 
(see pi. XL VII); with the change of state they simply "let themselves 
go " in a very human wa}', though even at the worst theu' hair receives 
probably more attention than that of the vast majority of their white 
sisters. 

When a youth selects a bride he visits her home in company with 
a young married friend who pleads his cause while he sits in the 
background. After several nights of wooing by proxy, if his cause 
is favored he remains and is accepted as a husband without further 
ceremony. For four daA^s thev remain at her home and on the evening 



^•\ 



184 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axs. 26 

of the fourth day they go to the home of liis parents. At (hxwn the 
next morning the mother-in-law gives the hride a hirge l)asket of 
wheat to grind on tlie nietate. She is expected to have completed 
the grinding by sunrise. In the quaint language of the interpreter 
we were informed that ' 'if she ran away and left part of it unground 
it was a sign that she would not be a very good wife. When she 
finished her work she went quietly into the house and sat talking 
with those around her until she got acquainted with her new home." 
The groom presented the bride with a new blanket and his parents 
gave her presents, but there was no idea of purchase and no gifts 
were made to the bride's parents. 

Occasionally a man possessed such a character that no woman 
would marry him, and more rarely a woman would remain^ unmarried. 
There is one such at Casa Blanca and one at Blackwater at the present 
time, the latter being regarded as possessed of supernatural powers 
because of her spins terhood. 

A rejected suitor might appeal to the medicine-man for assistance. 
If he stole a hair from her head and the medicine-man buried it the 
girl would die. How like the folklore of the Caucasian is this bit of 
superstition that savors more of vengeance than of love. But that 
the divine passion does take strong hold upon the Pimas there ciin be 
no doubt, as disappointed hopes have been known to lead to suicide. 

Polygamy was practised to some extent, but the division of labor 
was such that no great economic advantage resulted. There were 
seldom more than two or three wives, though a chief's son in recent 
3'ears had sLx. The plural wives lived in separate houses, the husband 
spending most of his time with the first. Wlien a youth married he 
brought his wife to the home of his parents if there was room for 
them; if not, a house was built near by and the families ate together. 

It was the custom for a widower to wed the sister of his deceased 
wife. "Supposing that she does not like the man and does not wish 
to marry him?" the writer inquired. Whereupon the answer was 
given with an air of superior wisdom, " She always wants to." Uncles 
and nieces are not permitted to marry and cousins do not marry 
"out of respect of the parents for each other." The most careful 
search failed to discover any trace of groups within the tribe between 
which marriage was prohibited. 

DURATION OF UNION 

Separation was lightly regarded and easily effected. The woman 
usually took the initiative, by either going to the home of her parents 
or going away with another man. Sometimes such remarks as " Rain- 
bow Leaves is trying to get Sand Cloud's husband away from her," 
"Dawn Tinkle has changed husbands," were heard. Notwithstand- 



ROSSELLj FAMILY ORGANIZATION 185 

iiig the natural independence of the women, they made an effort to 
retam the affection of worthy husbands, and even resorted to suicide 
when deserted. Moreover, the desirabiUty of lasting unions was rec- 
ognized by some, as, for example, by the father of wise old Sala 
Hina. "Work well at home," he told her, "Go not to others for the 
morsel they must needs in hospitality bestow, and then when you 
serve faithfully j'our husband he will provide well for you. If the 
husband you choose proves to be lazy do not desert him ; work in the 
field with him; help and encourage him." 

CHILDREN 

Further evidence in support of the fact that the Pimas were not 
a degenerate race at the time of the introduction of the white man's 
whisky and diseases is found in the size of their families. As many 
as twelve children have been known in a single family, and twins are 
received with general rejoicing. Every inhabitant of the village 
brings gifts and the mother feels assured that she will henceforth be 
a fortunate woman. Male cliildren were preferred, because "tliey 
would grow up to fight Apaches." With the consent of the parents 
deformed infants were taken by the midwife, who watched them until 
they died of exposure and want of nourishment. So strong was the 
feeling of the Pimas against the abnormal that they tried in recent 
years to kill a grown man who had six toes. 

Tribal pride is sufficiently strong to induce the Pimas to destroy 
infants of American or Mexican fathers in the same manner as those 
which are deformed. The writer learned of but two persons who had 
escaped such a fate. Inquiries concerning albinos met with the reply 
that "there never were any." Probably such a child would share 
the same fate as that accorded any other exhibiting abnormal 
characteristics. 

A pregnant woman was not allowed to eat anything that an animal 
had touched. For example, if a gopher had cut a vine on which a 
melon was ripening, she might not eat the fruit; or, if the mice 
nibbled at a basket of wheat she might not eat of the tortillas made 
therefrom. She dared not go where Apaches had been killed, or the 
baby would die. If her husband killed a rattlesnake at that time, 
her child's stomach would swell and it would die soon after birth. 
She must not eat liver or her child would be disfigured by birthmarks. 

During confinement the husband absented himself from the home 
and women friends attended the patient, who sat over a hole in the floor 
in which a cloth had been spread. The placenta was buried in a hole 
and covered with ashes. The mother bathed in the river immediately 
after deliverj', and until tlie umbilicus of the child was healed she 
dared not eat salt. At times much pain was suffered, and some died 



/■ 



186 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axx. 26 

in labor, in which case, if the child lived, it was taken in charge by 
the maternal grandmother. 

Babies were nursed until the next child was born. Sometimes a 
mother nursed a child until it was 6 or 7 years old and if she became 
pregnant in the meantime she induced abortion by pressure upon 
the abdomen. The unborn was sacrificed because it was believed 
to be prejudicial to the welfare of the nursing child, which the 
mother loved the more "because she could see it." Illegitimate 
children were aborted at three or four months. One case of abor- 
tion at seven months was reported, but it was done with the aid of 
the medicine-man. These operations were usually successful, but in 
a small percentage of cases they caused the death of the woman. 

No attempt was made by any of the Pimas to explain the cause of 
steriUty. 

The tribe has been large enough to prevent ill effects from close 
inbreeding, and there has been a constant addition of foreign blood. 
Sala Hina (fig. 51), who is perhaps 65 or 70 years old, recalled the 
names of tliree Apache women who had been married by Pimas. One 
of these had "many children." She had also known two Maricopa 
men married to Pima women and two Pimas married to Maricopa 
women. How lasting these unions had been she was unable to say. 
There is a Hare-eater from Sonora and a Yaqui who have married 
Pima women at one of the upper villages. Intermarriage with the 
desert-dwelling Kwahadk's has been fairly common. The father of 
Sala Hina was a Kwahadk' and prominent in Piman history as the 
man who brought the first cattle to the tribe. The few Kwahadk' 
women among the villages make the peculiar pottery that is char- 
acteristic of their tribe, and which should not be confounded with 
that of the Pimas. Detecting a slight dialectic difference in the 
speech of one of the temporary interpreters the author learned upon 
inquiry that his mother had been a Kwahadk'. Another interpreter 
said that his people called him "mixed," which is not surprising, as 
in his veins flowed the blood of Pimas, Maricopas, Papagos, and 
Apaches, peoples of three distinct linguistic stocks. The greatest 
influx of foreign lilood has been from the related 5*P«r?o tribe whose 
caravans anmuxlly made their ajipearance at the harvest season. 
Some Papago families have always lived with the Pimas, at one 
time forming an outpost on the north by maintaining a village on 
the .Salt river. 

In the past there was also some intermarriage with the Sobaipuris, 
and there is both traditional and historical evidence of the final 
amalgamation of the remnants of that tribe with the Pimas. Some 
were captured by the Apaches, as shown by Bourke in his researches 
upon the clans of that tribe. "The Apaches have also among them 



RfSKELL] 



FAMILY ORGAN IZATIO?^ 



187 



Tze-ldiuie, or vStone-housc people, descendants of the clifl'-dwelliiig 
Sobayi^uris, whom they drove out of Aravypa Canon and forced to 
flee to the Pimas for refuge about a centurv ago." " 



CEREMONY OF PURIFICATION 



As soon as a cliild began to creep aliout it was taken by the parents 
some afternoon to the medicine-man in oriler that the rite of purifica- 
tion might be administered and the chikl's future be rendered free 
from harmful magic influences. Putting 
a sacred pebble and an owl feather into 
a seashell containing water, the medi- 
cine-man waved an eagle feather (fig. 100) 
about, while the parents and the child 
drank the water and ate some white ashes 
or a little mud. Tliis simple ceremony 
was sufficient to thwart the malice of all 
evil demons; lightning would not strike 
the child, and the jjossibility of accidents 
of all kinds was thus precluded. As a 
further precaution the mother must not 
^eat salt for four days thereafter. 

This appears at first glance to be a 
modification of the Christian rite of bap- 
tism. Further investigation seems to 
show that it is similar to that and also to 
a purely aboriginal ceremony that in the 
opinion of the writer was practised liefore 
the advent of the friars. The Pimas 
declare that their "medicine-men got 
it up themselves." Cushing found "that 
the Zuhi of to-day are as eager as were 
their forefathers for baptism and for bap- 
tismal names adtlitional to their own 
But it must be remembered," he continues, "that baptism — the 
purification of the head by sprinkling or of the face by washing with 
medicine water — was a very okl institution \v-ith tliis jDeople even 
before the Spaniards found them."* He also ascribes the readiness of 
various other tribes to receive baptism to the existence of their own 
similar custom. This readiness is otherwise difficult to account 
for, as the zeal, and, at times, lack of judgment, of the priests led 
them to baptize as many of the Indians as they were able to con- 




FIG. 100. Eaglt? feather aspergills. 



u Capt. John G. Bourke, Journal of .\merican Folk-Lore, ix, 114. 

t> Cushing in Thirteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 335. 



188 THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



trol for the purpose; this procedure must have caused trouble very 
soon had the ceremony been wholly unknown to the natives." 

BAPTISM 

Before a cliild is a year old it is named by friends of the parents in 
the following manner: The fi-iends, or godparents, accompanied by 
other visitors, come for four successive mornings and seat themselves 
just before sunrise on the ground before the house in which the child 
lives. First one and then another of the company holds the child for 
a moment, but if it is a boy the kompalt, godfather, repeats a cere- 
monial speech, passes his hands across the hmbs of the infant and 
holds it aloft to receive the first rays of the rising sun; then he bestows 
upon the boy the name by which he shall be known throughout life — 
though nicknames are common and often supplant the baptismal 
name to some extent. If it is a girl, the kamiilt, godmother, delivers 
the speech and gives the name. Beads were formerly held up to 
receive the first rays of sunlight, and were then placed about the 
child's neck. Gifts of clotliing, food, baskets, and the like were also 
made by the godparents, who "tliink as much of the cliild afterwards 
as its own father and mother," said one of our informants. The 
parents in their turn reciprocate by naming the children of the couple 
that acts as godparents to their own.'' 

The names assumed by the men during later hfe are very frequently 
derived from the sexual organs, particularly those of the female, but 
such names are never bestowed at the time of baptism. Any unusual 
event or physical pecuharity may impose a name upon an individual. 
For example, a man who worked several weeks for the missionary 
was so well fed that he began to lay on flesh. Ever afterwards he was 
known as Preacher's Fat. One is known as Uvaatuka, Spread Leg, 
from his i>eculiar gait. 

From the age of 10 until about the time of marriage neither boys nor 
girls are allowed to speak their own names. The penalty is bad luck 
in losing arrows in the case of the boys, in losing the rsa'lika, or kiaha 
stick in the case of the girls. . The name of a deceased person is not 
used; he is alluded to as the brother of So-and-so. The word or 
words in the name, however, are not dropped from the language. 

"Whipple, Ewbank, and Turner in the Pacific Railroad Reports, ui, :!S, mention the occurrence ol 
the custom of baptism among the Cherokees when the infants are 3 days old. "They believe that 
without this rite the child can not live. They have a custom of sacrifices and burnt offerings." 

^"Cada niiio tiene un peri, que es una especie de padrino. que convidan sus padres. Este, despues do 
haberle hecho un largo discurso al recien nacido sobre las oljUgaciones propias de su sexo, le va tentando 
por todo el cuerpo. estirAndole los brazos y piemas, y luego le impone un apellido 6 nombre de su lengua, 
no sigmficativo. Despues de la ceremonia, el peri y l1 niiio se reputan en lo civil como una misma persona, 
y tienen con sus respectivos parientes la misma rclacion. Lo mismo hacen las raugeres en su proporcion 
con las ninas." Alegre, Historia de la Conipania de Jesus en Nueva-Espaiia, ii, 217. 



RUSSELL] 



FAMILY ORGANIZATION 



189 



NAMES 



The names of the Pimas proved so interesting to the present investi- 
gator that a number of examples were recorded, as follows: 



Rainliow 

Rainl)ow-Bow 

Stick-Rainbow 

Cloud-Rainbow 

Bear-Rain Ijow 

Apac lie-Back 

Sand-Arms 

Cloud-Thundering 

Cloud-Heart 

Ant's-Cry 

Moon-Fragment 

Big-Moon 

Scared-Eagle 

Tail-Shed 

Fog 

Shming-Star 

Coyoto-Footprint 

Coyote-Shod 

Coyote-Dust 

Coyote- Lightning 

Coyote-Skin 

Coyote-Flower 

Coyote-Running-Races 

Coyote-Runner 

Coyote-Howl 

Coyote's-Quiver , 

Bear 

Bear's-Body 

Bear's- Paws 



Cloud-Flower 

Cloud-Peak 

Cloud-Curve 

Flowers 

Sun-Flower 

Flowers-Flying 

Flowers-Runnmg 

Sun's-Rays 

Sun-Flying 

Morning-Rays 

Morning-Running 

Morning-Clouds 

Morn i ng-Wa ving-Hands 

Bluish 

Singing-Rattle 

Pleasing-Mirage 

Snowflakes 

Water-Fern-Leaves 

Foam-Rolling 

Ancient-House-Shining 

Ancient-House- Drops 

Ancient-House-Sparks 

Rainbow- Dispelled 

Rainliow-Leaves 

Leaves-Flyinf 

Bows- Spotted 

Water-Fern-Tops 

Song-I'lower 



Names of men 

Bird-Eyes 

Black-Wheat 

Frozen-Beans 

Bean-Barter 

Greasy-Eagle 

Big-Eagle 

Evening-Murmuring 

Evening-Come 

Closing- Twilight 

Light-Shines 

Wmd-MUky-Way 

Wind-Bow 

Speaking-Bow 

Evening-Hands 

Running-^\■ind 

Evening- Roaring 

Soft-Fealhers-Morning 

Sun-Sparks 

Eagle-Sparks 

Hawk-Bow 

M il ky-W' ay-Bow 

Sun-Bow 

Foam-Bow 

Sticking-Feathers 

Hawk-Shield 

Telling-Shooting 

Raven 

Brown-Eagle 

Coyote's-Hair 

Names of women 

Morn i ng- Disappearing 

Morning-Beating 

Clouds-Passing 

Darkness- Passing 

Darkness- Loosened 

Morn i ng- Loosened 

Morn i ng- K nead i ng 

Willow 

Sing-Tinkle 

B ird-Down- Flowers 

Bird-Down-Sprinkle 

Rainbow- Water-Grass 

Cloud-Tinkle 

Gray- Leaves 

Morning-Dew 

Big-Leaves 

Sunflower 

Night-Wind 

Dawn-Tinkle 

West-End 

Spring-Lea-'/es 

Morning- Water-Grass 

Morning- Leaves 

Sun- Leaves 

3ow-End 

Morning-Trail 

West-Sprinkle 

Quivermg-Heat- Waves 



Squash-Stem 
Shields-in-Line 
Eagle-Head 
Liglit-Bird-Down 
Shield-Light 
Rat-Skin 

Ralllesnake-Rattle 
Thin-Leather 
Hide-Bucket 
Bad-Bow 
Running-Noise 
Red-Corn 

Scorpion's-Stomach 
Drum-Stomach 
Hawk - Beginning-To-Lay- 
Eggs 
Shining-Nose 
Coyote 
Centiped 
Centiped's-Rattle 
Beaver's-Mouth 
Ducks 

Birds-Feather 
Bird-Sharp 
CI iff- Rainbow 
Many-Shields 
Round-Frog 
Shining-Back 



Foam-Tinkle 

Morning-End 

Morning-Tossing-Up 

Morning-Shadow 

Cloud-Rolling 

^\'at er-G rass-Growing 

Night-Twinkle 

Many-Leaves 

Sand-Cloud 

Night-Flower 

First-Flower 

Red-Flower 

Yellow-Flower 

Singing-Noise 

Two-Flowers 

Basket-Leaves 

They-Come 

Sun-Mirage 

Mirage-End 

Salty 

Raw 

Soft 

Alone 

Crooked-Knife 

Dew-Woman 

Butterfly 



190 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. L'6 

I 

EDUCATION 

In addition to the education that every Pima child received by the 
, method of imitation and apprenticeship, careful oral instruction in 
moral, religious, and other matters was also given by the elders. 
Wliile yet quite young the Pima lad was taken up in his father's arms 
at daybreak and held there while he was told something of the mys- 
teries of the great Sun god that nearly every morning in the year rises 
bright and free fi'om clouds above the Sierra Tortilla. As he grew too 
big to be held in arms he had to sit up very straight and pay strict 
attention while his father or guardian lectured to him on the jjropcr 
conduct of a Pima warrior and citizen; or, ui other words, soldier 
and gentleman. If he was not fully awake and paid indifferent heed 
to what was told him, the father's stiffened middle finger woidd 
suddenlj' strike the side of his nose, bringing his face around until he 
looked straight into his father's eyes. (See pi. xlii, c, xlv, xlvi.) 

He learned that he must be ever alert and ready with bow and 
arrows to repel the attacks of Apaches. Day bj^ day tliis lesson was 
taught by precept and example until it became the strongest instinct 
of the youth to be ready and watchfid. He was taught to go on scout 
duty m the morning or to look after the live stock before he partook 
of his morning meal. It was well for him to accustom himself to cold 
food and to that which remained after the family had satisfied their 
himger, for it was only by practising abstemiousness that he could 
hope to be fit for the long war trail into the barren Apache stronghold. 
"If you are wounded in battle," said the father, "don't make a great 
outcry about it like a cliild. Pull out the arrow and slip away; or, 
if hard stricken, die with a silent throat. Go on the war trail with 
a small blanket. It is light and protection enough for one aided by 
the magicians. Inure yourself to the cold while yet a boy. Fight 
not at all with your comrades; preserve your strength for the combat 
with the Apaches. Then, if brave, will come to you high honor. Be 
imselfish or 3-ou will not be welcome at the fire of the friendly. The 
selfish man is lonely and his untended fire dies. Keep your peace 
when a foolish man addresses the people. Join not in his imprudent 
coimcilings. Above all, talk not foolishly yourself. Bathe in the 
cold water of the early morning, tliat you may be prepared for the 
\ purification ceremony after killing an enemy." 
^>A Thus the lad was taught fortitude, courage, forbearance, unselfish- 
ness, industrj^ — qualities that might well be adapted to the changed 
conditions and incorporated m the system of instruction of the white 
man's "Indian schools." As time went on he learned that if he 
profited by the advice given him he would become a desirable party 
for some soft-voiced home keeper, and with his marriage his education 
ceased. 



EDSSELL] FAMILY ORGANIZATION 191 

As a hunter he made his debut by giving away all the first deer 
that he killed. Afterwards he took his choice of the meat before 
sharing with his fellows. 

Every youth when about 20 years old was told the ancient tra- 
ditions, or Ha-ak Aga, Story of Ha-ak. For four days and four 
nights he remamed with the keeper of the legends, who was usually 
a man selected as tribal historian because of possessing a good mem- 
ory. Durmg that period he was not allowed to eat salt. This and 
similar tabus with reference to salt may have been due to contact 
with the Papagos or to survival from the period when the Pimas 
lived by the sea. 

The advice given Sala Hina by her father may be taken as an 
example of the kind of instruction given the girls. Sala's mother 
was careless and indifferent, so that the responsibility of her training 
fell upon the father, as often happens. "Stay at home with your 
mother," he told her. "Watch and help her handle the cooking 
pots, the mortar, and metate, that 3'ou may know how to prepare the 
seeds of Pimeria. Keep the fire alive and have wood ever ready. 
See that the drinking olla is never empty. If you do these tilings 
well, you will not gad about after you are married and leave your 
hearth vacant so that your husband may come home to find the fire 
out or to put it out to your discomfiture ; for it is the office of man to 
kindle the fire but the part of woman to keep it burnmg." 

As in the case cited, one parent may neglect the trainuig of the 
children. It rarely hajjpens that both are wholly indifferent. They 
are inclined to punish the cliildren more than do the members of any 
other tribe with wliich I am acquainted. The youngsters are seldom 
whipped, but they niay be scolded, slapped, or shaken for their mis- 
demeanors until they become 10 or 12 years old. If a girl stum- 
bles and breaks an olla when gomg for water, her elders take some 
of the broken pieces and scratch her naked arm. The girls begm 
to assist in the cooking at 7 or 8 and at 9 or 10 they begin to make 
baskets. Some are lazy and are allowed to idle away their time, never 
makmg more than the single basket required during their puberty 
ceremonies. 

The younger girls make very realistic rag dolls, which they carry 
thiough the drama of life with as great seriousness and "make- 
believe" as their white sisters. The writer once came upon them 
when they had twenty or more figures variously posed around them 
as spectators of the burial of a whole family, with accompanjdng 
destruction of ("make-believe") propert3^ In addition to "fimerals," 
they had parties for which they ground wheat for pinole, though an 
adult observer would have said that they were grinding up weed 
seed. The "dishes" were molded with mud on their little brown 
elbows and were ready for use after scarcely more than a minute's 



192 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. Ann. 26 

drying iii the sun. One form of mischievous activity was to play 
hide-and-seek in the wheat fields, but such a game was brief and apt 
to be attended with unpleasant consequences. In the evenings they 
played "puberty dances" or listened to the wonderful tales of prowess 
of their elders or of the adventures of the mj^thic animals of ancient 
Pimeria. The boys practise daj' after day, year after year, until it 
is not surprismg that they become such accurate shots with the bow. 
Woe to the birds and squirrels that cross their path. Unlike the 
pueblo lads, they are not prohibited from killing the rattlesnake, but 
they must not use the same arrow agam. If the rattles are desired 
for ornament, they must be taken from a living snake. We have 
seen them teasing a Gila monster, but this and the horned toad are 
exempt fi'om their arrows. Fish offered a spleiidid target for them 
when there was any water in the river and any fish were to be seen. 
There was no parental prohibition against destroying birds' nests, 
though the warning "If j^ou touch quail eggs you will go blind" 
served most effectually to protect one species at least. The owl was 
not so much a bird of evil as of mystery and death, and its feathers 
were sought for their magic potency m medicine and other ceremo- 
nies. If a lad shot one, he had to pluck the feathers from the bird 
before it died or the magic power of the plumes was lost. Besides 
the bow and arrows the Puna youngsters possessed the sling of raw- 
hide, which, by the usual process of evolution, came to be made in later 
years of boot leg. From the scanty Mexican population with which 
they came in contact they learned to use stilts, but none were seen 
in use durmg the writer's stay among them. As they grew older 
they were cautioned not to eat from an olla, else when they had to 
run away from superior numbers of Apaches the olla would get 
between their legs and obstruct their movements. 

OLD PERSONS AND THEIR TREATMENT 

Favored by the mildness of the climate, the lot of the aged among 
the Pimas was less unenviable than among most of the other Indian 
tribes. As they were a sedentarj- people, the custom of abandoning 
the aged on the march could not prevail. As a matter of fact, the old 
and helpless were not killed by the active members of the community, 
tiiough they were sometimes neglected until they starved to death and 
sometimes they set fire to their houses to commit suicide. The heart- 
lessness of youth sometimes manifested itself in such acts as throw- 
ing stones at aged persons, nierel}^ "to see them act like children." 

One case observed may be mentioned — that of an old man at 
Sacaton dragging out a miserable existence. Totally bhnd and 
scarcely able to walk, he lived in a brush shelter about S feet square 
that contained a httle straw and the single blanket that served to cover 
him. When he ventured al^road into the world the limits of his jour- 



ROSSELL] FAMILY ORGANIZATION 193 

neys were prescribed by the length of the rope wliich was attached by 
one end to liis doorpost. His food was cooked by some of his adult 
grandchildren who occupied a house near at hand. His time was 
spent absolutely alone in the shelter, wliich was as devoid of utensils or 
furnisliings as any dog kennel. And yet, with a pride that is tleath- 
less in the human soul, he boasted of the time when he was a man 
among men and overcame the ferocious Apaches on the latter's own 
ground. 

VIEWS CONCERNING DEATH 

The usual primitive views of death — that it was not a natural event, 
but a residt of magic influences lirought to bear by enemies, hunum or 
superhuman — prevailed among the Pimas. In the legends the first 
death that occurred in the history of the human race is attributed to 
the venom of Soft Child, the rattlesnake, who was given the power of 
death to protect liimself from unmerited abuse by man. The legends 
also indicate a disposition to view the Destroyer pliilosophically, 
inasmuch as the predecessors of the present race are regarded with 
commiseration on account of their becoming so crowded because of 
none dying to give place to the oncoming generation. 

Again and again the information was elicited that those who died 
during the day were killed by the Sun, while those who died during 
the hours of darkness were killed by Night. Tliis the author inter- 
prets to mean that the prayers that were regularly addressed to Sun 
and Night were for preservation, and that death resulted from some 
lapse or inattention on the part of these two deities. This agrees 
with the equally emphatic statements that "death is always due to 
magic, to animals, or to neglect of the ceremonies or tabus." 

MODE OF BURIAL 

At the moment of death the friends of the djang flee from them as 
if to avoid the magic that may not be satisfied with one victim. The 
near relatives cover the face of the corpse and bind the bod}' in a 
bundle, with the legs drawn up. Before the Pimas obtained horses 
the bod}" was borne to the grave on a litter. With primitive tools the 
graves were not dug as deep as at the present time, and to this biuial in 
shallow graves is attri])uted the cause for covering the graves with the 
timbers of the sheds or storehouses of the deceased (see pi. xxxix, 
a, b, c). Now a round hole is dug to a depth of 5 or 6 feet, then a 
small chamber is scooped out on the west side, in wliich the body is 
extended, with the head to the south. Billets of wood are then 
placed so as to lean against the roof over the bodj^, so that in filling 
the grave no earth falls upon it. Medicine-men are buried in a sit- 
ting position, and in several instances have been buried in isolated 
places which have acquired special sacredness. 
26 ETH— 08 15 



194 



THK PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. AMN. 2G 



The dead are never cremated, as they are by the adjoining tribes on 
the west. There is an apparent exception to this rule in the occasional 
cremation practised wliile on the warpath. Tlie waiter is unable to 
account for tliis, unless it be due either to the influence of the Mari- 
copas or to a survival pointing toward western affinities of the Pinian 
stock. So far as ascertained, no disinterment for removal had ever 
been made by the Pimas. They never buried beneath the floors, as 
did the Hohokam. 

FUNERAL RITES 

Water and pinole are placed on the grave for the use of the soul in 
the other world, not on the journey thitiier, as that takes but a 







II lUl run 111 I Rh uth ILi iBhnci 

moment's time. In order that the soul may betake itself to the proper 
abiding place and not disturb the survivors, the latter are accustomed 
to say at the grave, " We piit j^ou here. Go to your home in the 
East. Do not come back." Ghosts are uncanny things to have 
about and are liable to touch sleeping persons, this meaning that the 
one touched must accompany the visitor back to the land of shades. 

When a householder died his ki was formerly burned — an excellent 
hygienic precaution, but detrimental to the development of architec- 
ture. The other structures about the premises were either burned or 
piled on the grave. Personal property was similarly destroyed, and 
if there was any Hve stock, it was killed and eaten by anyone who 
chanced to be on hand, though the immediate relatives never partook 



lUssKi.L] SOCIAL ORGANIZATION 195 

of such food." When a husband was so fortunate as to possess two 
bhmkets, liis widow sometimes kept one of them. The name of the 
deceased was not mentioned thereafter, and all tilings possilile were 
done to obliterate his memory from the minds of the survivors except 
that the rites of mourning were practised for some time. 

The death of a pauj^er who had nothing to leave at the grave 
released a vexed soul to wander about until some one in charity placed 
an offering on the grave. Sometimes the paraphernalia of a medicine- 
man, when it was not handed down to a successor in the family, was 
concealed in an olla in the hills instead of being destroyed. More 
rarely these caches were made of the property of ordinary men. Fig- 
ure 101 shows such a cache, which was found in a rugged granite iiill 
about 4 miles south of Casa Blanca. The olla was covered with a 
bowl, and as neither was broken it was perfectly water-tight. Among 
the contents of the cache (pi. xl) were a number of crystals and 
concretions, a neatly carved stone rattlesnake, tlu-ee seashells for use 
in medicine, and a war club. The last was too large to be placed 
in the olla, and, being exposed outside, it was somewhat gnawed by 
rodents. 

MOURNING 

In mourning for near relatives tiie men cut their hair so that it 
does not fall below the middle of the back. The women cut theirs 
to the level of the ear lobes for husband, cluld, etc., and an aged 
widow cropped her hair close to the head " because she felt the worst." 
In all cases the cut hair was buried in the sand of the river bed; if 
it were burned it would cause headache and death. And yet when 
blankets were destroyed at the death of their owner thej^ were 
burned. 

Very few widows mourned for the full period of four years. 
Dining that time the}- were compelled to remain at home, to refrain 
from wasliing their hair, and to cry aloud the name of the deceased 
every morning at daybreak. They were allowed to bring their l>lank- 
ets up around imder the armpits, but not over the shoulders, even in 
the coldest weather. When the chemise was adopted, as the blankets 
went out of use, it was customary to revert to the blankets during 
the period of mourning. 

Social Organization 

officers 

The Pimas are governed by a head chief and by a chief for each 
village. These men are assisted by village councils, wliich do not, 
the author believes, appoint any representatives to the tribal coun- 

a Compare Bourke. " When a Mohave dies, there is a feast made of some of his horses and other 
edibles; but none of his clans;nen will eat of it." .lournal of American Folk-Lore . ii, 184. 



19fi THE PIMA INDIANS fETH. axx. 26 

cils. The office of head chief is not hereditary, thoiio;li the present 
incumbent succeeded his father. He is elected by the village chiefs. 

The present head chief is Antonio Azul (pi. ii, a), known aniono; his 
people as Hva-a'tuka, Spread Leg, from a peculiarity in his gait; 
also as Ma'vit Ka'wutam, Puma Shield, and by other names less ele- 
gant. The calendar records are silent upon this, and as to the date 
of liis accession, reference to it in contemporary literature has been 
seen. He became chief before 1864, as Poston mentions in his report 
as special commissioner in that year that Antonio had just had his 
commi.ssion revoked for l)ad conduct." 

Antonio's father had been the preceding head chief. He was known 
as Culo Azul, als(j as Ti'ahiatam, Urine. His predecessor was Rsan'tali 
Vi'akam, who was killed by Apaches before Kamal tkak, who is prob- 
ably 75 years old, was bom. His predecessor was named O'sivf, 
Joseph. No recollection of any earlier chief remains. In the Rudo 
Ensayo Tavanimo is named as the chief about the year 1757,'' and 
it is possible that he was the predecessor of O'sivf. 

The decrees of the councils are announced from a house top by 
the village crier, who is selected because of possessing the loudest and 
clearest voice. There are sometimes two of these officials in a village. 

In each village there was also a "ceremony talker," or master of 
ceremonies, whose duty it was to arrange and control the details of 
the festivals and general ceremonies not especially provided for by 
the religious fraternities. 

At the command of each council was a messenger who might be 
sent to summon those required by that body. 

Any man of acknowledged courage might, with the approval of 
his fraternity (the information obtained at this point was some- 
what vague — perhaps " neighbors " or " thp community " is the better 
term), organize a war party. He was then called Tcunyim or 
Tcu'yinyim, Smoker, or War Speaker. His name and authority ended 
upon returning from the campaign. 

It is important to note that the tribe acted as a unit against the 
Apaches. With their compact territory and well-develo])ed agri- 
culture they might well have easily developed yet further their 
division of labor and established a warrior class. Then, with their 
increasing numbers under the stimulus of material well-being, they 
might have easily extended their power. No neighboring tribes 
except the Apaches and Papagos surpassed them in numbers; the 
former were without resources, the latter were related and friendly. 
The advantages of confederation hat! been learned from more than 
half a century's experience with the Maricopas, a tribe of alien speech 
and blood. 

oSee Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs 1864, 153, 1865. 
6 Records American Catholic Historical Society, v. 129. 



RUSSELL] 



SOCIAL ORGANTZATION 197 



GENTES 



Descent is traced in the male line and there are five groups that 
may be called gentes, though they exert no influence upon marriage 
laws nor do they manifest any evidences of organization so far as 
ascertained. The names of these groups have lost all meaning. 
They are called A'kol, A'pap, A'puki, Ma'-am, and Va'-af. 

The first three are known as the Vulture or Red People, the last 
two as the Coyote or White People. However, they are spoken of 
as the SHwfi'ki O'himal and Sto'am O'liimal, or Red Ants and White 
Ants." In the Pima creation myth presented in fidl in this memoir 
reference is made to black ants, tcotcik tatany, and to the termite, 
hiapitc, but no connection is supposed to exist between them and 
the o'himal. 

The Red People are said to have Ijeen in possession of the coiuitry 
when Elder Brother brought the White People from the nether world 
and conquered them as described on page 226. There were more 
than two gentes of the White People, but Coyote laughed too soon 
at them and the earth closed before the others got through. The 
author suspects that this division signifies that the tribe was formed 
by the junction of two peoples, the only trace of the original groups 
being the names and the maintenance of the laws of vengeance. 

SLAVES 

The slaves taken by the Pimas were chiefly from the ranks of the 
Apaches or their allies.' Though war was waged for many years 
against the Yumas it was not of a character to enable them to capture 
many Yuma children. When captured, Apache children were not 
killed: they were soon forwarded to Tucson, Altar, or Guaymas and 
sold to the Spaniards or Mexicans. These captives were well treated, 
but their origin was never forgotten and the fear and suspicion of the / 
tribe found expression at times in the decrees of the medicine-men 
that certain misfortunes were caused by the presence of the aliens. 
Somewhat rarely the girls were married into the trilie and an appre- 
cialjle amoimt of foreign l)lood was introduced in this way which 
doubtless had its effect upon the vigor of the race. 

SOCIAL MORALS 

It would be a more agreeable task to write of the morality of primi- 
tive Pimas than of that which developed as a result of contact with 
Spaniards and Americans. To the honesty and ^^rtue of the tribe a 

" The same divisions exist among the Papagos, and Jos6 Lewis, the Papago who interpreted for 
Professor McGee, submitted specimens of the ant as examples of the insect referred to as " o'himal." 

t>'- Que los Cocomaricopas apressan lo£ muchachos Nijoras (que todos son gentiles) y los venden por 
esclavos & los mas, y estos & los Espaiioles, que los compran en cortas cantidades." Villa-Sefior, y 
Sanchez, Theatro Americano, IT'^S, pt. 2, i, 396. 



198 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

score of writers have testified, leading to the belief that moral stand- 
ards in Pimeria at least equaled if they did not resemble our owti. 
Life and property were secure. By their industry the}^ had mas- 
tered the difficulties of their environment. The relations of the 
sexes and the division of labor had lieen adjusted in a mamier credit- 
able to them." 

The law of vengeance operated to prevent homicide. ".Speak not 
foolishly," said the elders; "do not quarrel and kill your neighbor, for 
that loads to retaliation." Thus the youth were instructed and the 
abhorrence of bloodshed grew deep and lasting. Within the tribe 
there was but one exceotion to this — to kill the convicted sorcerer was 
meritorious. 

No odium attached to the crime of suicide. The body was buried in 
the usual manner and the property was similarly divided or destroyed. 
Several instances of self-destruction were ascertained. A blind old 
man had shot himself and a young man had ended his career because 
his father would not let him sell some piece of personal property. 
Another man had shot himself because his wife had deserted him and 
their family of small children. A woman had starved herself and 
baby in the liills of the desert because her husband had left her. 

The crime of arson was unknown, though dwellings were frequently 
burned by accident. 

Adultery was punished by turning the woman away from the home. 
Sometimes the husband shot the horse of the offending man and " then 
he felt all right." 

Prostitution with its train of diseases has not depleted the numbers 
of the Pimas as it has the population of so many surroimding tribes. 
Loose women are said by the old people to have been rare in the old 
days. Independent testimony of the wliites accords with this. 
"They are exceedingly jealous oi their females; and their chastity, 
as far as outside barbarians are concerned, remains, with a few excep- 
tions, unimpeachable." '' One informant assured the writer's party 
that the infant daughter of a prostitute by an unknown father was 
always destroyed lest she "grow up to be as bad as her mother." 



u "The Indians, although they were crowding about our tents, and everything was exposed to them, 
made no effort to steal anything." Captain Johnston, Journal, GOO. 

" Um das Bild dieses indianischen Volksstammps zu vervoUstandigen, muss ich nur noch hinzufiigen 
dass dersellie mit seinen friedlichen und liebenswiirdigen Eigenschaften eine unbestrittene Tapferkeit 
verbindet, die selbst dem wilden Apachen Ilochachtung einfldsst. Ich glaube nicht dass sich bei irgend 
einem anderen noch erhaltenen Stamme der Charakter dcr amerikanischen I'rbevolkerung auf eine 
vortheilhaftere Weise darstellt." Julius Frobel, Aus Amerika, ii, 44S, 449. 

Emory found them "surpassing many of the Christian nations in agriculture, little behind them in 
the useful arts, and immeasurably before them in honesty and virtue." 

'* The heathen Indians receivedus with jubilee, giving of their provision to the soldiers, and we counted 
two hundred persons, who were gentle and affalile." Mange's Diary, from an extract translated by 
Buckingham Smith in Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes, in, 303. 

" These Gila Pimas are gentle and comely." Ibid.. 301, from Diary of Pedro Font. 

ftC. D. Poston, in report as special Indian commissioner, in Report of Commissioner of Indiiin Affairs 
1864, 152, 18b5. 



nrssKLL] SOCIAL ORGANIZATION 199 

Theft hf'came a common criino with the increasing vagabondage 
arising from (lejmvation due to tiie wliites. An extensive system of 
horse and cattle steaHng grew up, whereby the Papagos stole in 
Sonora and sold to the Pimas, and the latter stole from one another 
and sold to the Papagos, who bought or stole to sell again in Mexico. 

During the worst period of their demoralization they stole wheat 
from each other and sold it to buy whisky. It is to be remembered 
that by far the greater part of the tribe disapijroved of such deeds, 
and the few that engaged in such enterprises had not the support of 
public opinion, which even in an Indian village is an autocratic power. 

Thus into.xication was always regarded as reprehensible, though a 
distinction was made between the persons guilty of drinking the 
white man's whisky and those who followed the immemorial custom 
of getting drunk on native-brewed liquors iluring the saguaro harvest. 

Laziness was condemned, and boys and girls were taught to spin 
and delve — how well may be judged from the fact that the tribe jiro- 
duced a large surplus crop year after year during the early period of 
American occupancy of the region ami at the same time fought back 
the Apaches and aided the soldiers materially, while the Americans 
and Mexicans with all their soldiers and outside resources were 
driven into the shelter of the forts. 

Cleanliness is learned by imitation. The floors of the houses are 
kept free of such objects as can be picked up with the hands and 
the yards are swejjt with liundlcs of arrow bushes or mesquite 
branches. Bathing was a daily practice. 

Public opinion strongly condemned lying. Stinginess could not be 
more abhorred. The chiefs, especially, were expected to bestow 
liberally all gifts within their control. The present chief has had a 
canny sense of thrift and possesses a large bank account, which ren- 
ders him much less popular than he might otherwise be. 

FORMULAS OF POLITENESS 

No conventional words of greeting were in use before the intro- 
duction of the Spanish and American forms. Tciars tam wu'sahain, 
"the god sends his regards," were the closing words of any speech. 
Ha'iku-ult, "good-bye," was the usual response of the listeners. 
Sometimes in finishing astory the narrator exclaimed atoa'tt^ik, "anus," 
at wliich those present said the word expressing the degree of their 
relationship to the speaker, or if they were not related they said 
na'wotc," friend." The same expressions are used in accepting a gift. 

Hand shaking was unknown until introduced by the whites, though 
it is now universally practised." It is said that the custom of kis.sing 

o "Antonio and his son had tipped fingers and grunted in tolcen of joy," wrote J. R. Browne, in 
describing the meeting of the chief and his son after a long separation. Adventures in the Apache 
Country, 84. 



200 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

was confined to mothers and infants. Accurate information of the 
primitive custom can not now be obtained. Formerly, when long- 
separated friends met they expressed their joy in tears. The terms 
expressing their degrees of relationship or simply "fi-iend" were 
sometimes used. 

Guests were offered pinole upon arrival if it were not near meal- 
time. Pinole was easily prepared without cooking and stayed hun- 
ger. At meals guests were helped to food in a dish apart from the 
common bowl out of v.hich the family ate. 

Intertribal Relations 

alliances 

Tlie relations of the Pimas to their neighbors had a profound in- 
fluence upon their social organization and general cultural develop- 
ment. They held possession of the best agricultural lands in their 
section of the Southwest, and were compelled to fight for the privilege. 
Their alliance with the Maricopas entailed a long and sanguinary 
struggle with the Yumas, which resulted in what Bancroft has termed 
"the almost total annihilation" of the latter tribe. From the Mari- 
copas they received, however, efficient aid against their principal 
enemy, the Apaches. Thus the Pimas learned the advantages of con- 
federation, and there is reason to believe that their culture, based 
on a thrifty system of agriculture, in time might liave surpassed 
that of the Hohokam. The Yavapais were sometimes hostile, but do 
not appear to have been very formidable opponents." In the Annals 
there are references to a few tribes of minor importance that it is 
almost imjiossible to identify from their Pima names, but they were 
always allied with either the Yumas or the Apaches. Aside fi-om 
the Maricopas, the tribes friendly to the Pimas were their congeners, 
the Papagos and Kwahadk s and the Sobaijjuris of the Santa Truz 
and San Pedro valleys. 

WARFARE 

Raids 

A better understanding of the division of labor prevailing among 
these people may be had by studying tlie conditions imposed upon 
them by the presence of the aggressive Apaches. The men may be 
forgiven for allowing the women to perform certain tasks in the 
cultivation of the crops that are usualty considered the portion of the 
stronger sex when it is learned that this plan was necessary in order 
to maintain pickets constantly for long periods, and that an armed 
guard was the sole guaranty of safety to the villages. Every three 

a Garc6s relates in his Diary that the "Yabipais Tejua," [Yavapais] have "in some way remained 
enemies of the Pimas and Cocomaricopas Gileiios." Cones', On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, u. 449. 



RissELL] INTERTRIBAL RELATIONS 201 

or four days small parties of five or ten would come to steal live 
stock or to kill any individual that might have gone some little dis- 
tance from the villages. Larger war parties came once or twice a 
month, though longer periods sometimes elapsed without a visit 
from the Apaches. Chief Antonio declares that the Apaches formerly 
lived farther away from the Pimas, anil hence their raids were less 
frequent than they were during the middle portion of the last century. 
At all events the activity of the enemy became sufficient to cause the 
abandonment of the outlying villages east of the present agency of 
Sacaton and the concentration of the tribe into seven villages upon 
the Gila plain. On stormy winter nights, when the noise of the ele- 
ments might afford cover for the approach of the enemy, sentinels 
were posted about the camps. These men were accustomed to build 
little shelters of brush and leave smoldering fires in them, then con- 
ceal themselves in the darkness near Ity and watch for marauders that 
might attempt to steal toward the light. In this way the main trails 
were guarded, and the coyote-like curs at the houses afforded addi- 
tional security from surprise. They supposed that the Apaches 
always guarded their own camps. 

When a cliief "felt in his heart" that he would like to avenge liis 
people for some particularly flagrant i)utrage, or that he desired the 
honors thai reward the successful warrior, he went from settlement 
to settlement making an appeal for followers by repeating conven- 
tional speeches of magic character. The arrangements for the cani- 
paign wei'e speedilj^ made. The preparation of the roasted meal for 
pinole required much less time than the ceremonies necessary to 
secure the reqmsite amount of magic power to insure victory. The 
extra supplies of food were carried, before the introduction of the 
horse, by one or more women. These women were chosen from those 
who had recently lost kinsmen in l)attle and they were invarialily 
accompanied by a male relative. At night the party was surrounded 
bj^ pickets, who came in to report at intervals. During the evening 
a set speech was repeated by a man whose office it was to keep appro- 
priate speeches in memory. These were arranged in order, as "first 
night," "second night," etc., and were "adapted" for tiie occasion, 
though based upon the supposed speeches of the gods at the time of 
the creation. The valor of the party was roused by the recital of deeds 
performed, but the primary object was to compel the attention of 
supernatural beings and secure magic power that would not only 
enable them to overcome but would also attack the magic power of 
the enemy. Then, of course, if the magic power of the enemy were 
defeated, the Pimas could easily overpower the Apaches." After the 
speech the warriors sang the magic war songs, a'-atan nyui, while the 

a "The Pimas, though not an aggressive, are a brave and warlike race. They are the dread of the 
-\pache, who always avoids them." Sylvester Mowry in S. Ex. Doc. 11, pt. 1, 587, 35th Cong., 1st 
sess.. IS.W. 



202 THE PIMA INDIANS [ETn. ann. :;6 

makai, or magician, swung an owl feather over them. At the close of 
the songs he foretold the number of the enemy that would be killed. 
Thus they fared forth, carrying a little roasted meal and a small but 
shapelj' basket ])owl from wliich to eat it, provided with a little 
tobacco for the ceremonial smokes that wafted their individual 
praj^ers to the .Sun god. A portion of each l)and was arined wath 
bows and arrows; the former of the elastic mulberiy wood from the 
same mountains in wliich the enemy found refuge, the latter of the 
straight-stemmed arrow bush, whose tufted tips waved in billowy 
masses on the Pimerian lowlands. When a conu-ade fell in battle his 
bow was broken and his arrow shafts were snapped and left upon the 
spot. Oftentimes the body of a man killed in battle was burned, 
though tills method of disposal of the body was never employed at 
the villages. It may have been a survival from the time when the 
Pimas lived on the Colorado or it may have been recently adopted 
from the Maricopas, who habitually cremate their dead. On the 
homeward journey no fires were allowed for cooking or warmth, though 
with due precautions they might be built on the outward trail. 
Another portion of the war party was provided with circular sliields 
of rawhide and short but heavy clubs of mesquite and ironwood. 
Their appeal to the God of War was expressed by the sun sjTubols 
that decorated the shields, and the latter were kept swiftly rotating 
upon the supple forearms of their bearers as the advance was made 
for hand-to-hand conflict. The frequent use of the figure, "like pred- 
atoiy animals or birds of prey," in the ceremonial .speeches imbued 
all with the spirit of agility and fierceness that manifested itself in the 
leaps from side to side and the speed of their onward nish. Crouch- 
ing low, springing quickly with whirlmg shield that concealed the 
body, in feather headdress and battle colors, they must have pre- 
sented a terrif^mig spectacle." Their courage can not be questioned, 
and in some conflicts, of which there is independent white testimony, 
they killed several hundred warriors. But these were rare occasions, 
and their raids usually terminated with the loss of a man or two and 
the destruction of an Apache camp, with perhaps a half dozen of the 
enemy killed and a cliild taken prisoner. 

The head chief, Antonio Azul, thus described to the author the 
circumstances of liis first campaign: With 30 friendly Apaches from 
the San Xavier settlement, 200 Papagos, and about 500 Pimas he 
went lip the Gila a distance of about 50 miles and encountered the 
enemy in the rough country around Riverside. The Apaches tied 
the bushes together to prevent the mounted warriors from getting 

a " In battle tho Indians are not quiot for a moment, but, with constantly bended knees, leap rapidly 
from side to side, waving their sliield and its long streamers, for the purpose of dazzling the eyes of 
their adversaries, .\paches are said to oil their joints l)efore going to Ijattle, in order to malce them 
supple." Whipple, Ewbank, and Turner. Report upon the Indian Tribes, in Pacific Railroad Reports, 
III. 30. 



BUSSELL] INTERTRIBAL RELATIONS 203 

through, so that the Piiiias fought on foot. Without the advantage 
of surprise the ardor of the latter soon cooled, and being of divided 
opinion as to the advisability of pursuit, they permitted the enemy to 
escape with a loss of but 6. Then tliis by no means inconsiderable 
body of warriors marched bravely home again. Further accounts of 
more sanguinary struggles are given in The Narrative, in the present 
paper, page 38. 

Three Pima women kno\\Ti to Sika'^tcu went out on the mesa to 
gatlier cactus fruit. Another woman was asked to accompany them, 
but at first she refused to go because she had had a bad dream. 
After the others had started she set out to follow them and ran into 
a trap set for theni at the hills south of the villages. The four cap- 
tives were forced to walk naked before their enemies. Two were 
soon killed by the wayside. That night two Apaches were detailed 
to watch the other two women. These men relaxed their vigilance 
toward morning, whereupon the captives gathered all the bows and 
arrows of the party and threw them over the cliff. They also tried 
to strangle their captors and partially succeeded. They then made 
their escape. One of these brave women is yet living. 

It was customary for the Piinas to attack the Apaches at night or 
at the earliest dawn. This required carefid scouting durhig the pre- 
ceding day in order to locate the position of the enemy, who were 
always at least equally alert and wary, without betraying their own 
presence. 

On one of their raids toward the east a war party came upon a 
young Apache and his wife in the Sierra Tortilla. The man escaped, 
but the wonian, named Hitalu'I, was captured and' brought to the 
villages, where she was questioned through La'hxll, an Apache woman 
who had been captured in childhood. The cliief asked about the 
attack that had recently been made upon a party of Pimas at Ta-a'tCi- 
kam. She replied, "I shall tell a'ou the truth about that. I shall 
never take my life to my people agam. I am here to my death." 
She was soon led to the open ground east of the Double buttes, where 
a death dance was held with the captive hi the center of a group of 
old women, for it was not dangerous for them to touch the Apache. 
Outside the old women the other members of the community danced 
until at length the victim was killed by an old man who stepped upon 
her throat. The body was tied to a pole in an upright position and 
left as a warnhig to Apache prowlers. 

These raids were not infrequent, but they could hope to reaj) no 
better reward for their efforts than revenge for past injuries, whereas 
the Apaches were spurred on to constantly renewed attacks for the 
sake of the plunder that they might secure. Thus the feral pauper 
preyed upon the sedentary toiler, but paid dearly in blood for his 
occasional prize of grain or live stock. The effect upon the two tribes 



204 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

of SO strenuous a life was beginnmg to manifest itself in an inter- 
esting manner at the time of the intervention of the Americans. 
The Spaniards and Mexicans had shown their utter incapacity to 
cope with the Apaches, and their presence in Sonora was rather an 
aid to the enemy than otherwise. The Pimas were compelled to 
fight their own battles. In doing so they learned the advantage of 
concentrating their fields. They perfected a system of attack, 
appointed runners for bringing in assistance, and organized a fairly 
satisfactory method of defense. They never used smoke signals 
except to announce the victory of an incoming war party. They 
kept themselves constantly in fit condition by their campaigns, and 
even engaged in sham battles for the practice. These have been held 
wdthin the last decade at the lower villages on the reservation. Their 
daily duties were ordered with reference to the j^o-ssibility of attack. 
Their arts were modified bj^ the perpetual menace. Their mj^ths were 
develo])ed and their religion thiged by the same stress. In short. 
the Pimas were building up a war cult that in time might liave led 
them from the lethargic state in which the natural environment 
tended to fix them. 

Lustration 

There was no law among the Pimas observed with greater strict- 
ness than that whicli required purification" and expiation for the deed 
that was at the same time the most lauded — the killing of an enemy. 
For sixteen days the warrior fasted in seclusion and observed mean- 
while a number of tabus. This long period of retirement immeiliately 
after a battle greatly diminished the value of the Pimas as scouts and 
allies for the United States troops operating against the Apaches. 
The ])ravery of the Pimas was praised by all army officers having any 
expei'ience with them, but Captain Bourke and others have complained 
of their unreliability, due solely to their rigid observance of tlus 
religious law. 

Attended hj an old man, the warrior who had to expiate the crime 
of blood guilt retired to the groves along the river bottom at some dis- 
tance from the villages or wandered about the adjoining lulls. Dur- 
ing the period of sixteen days he was not allowed to touch liis head 
with Ills fingers or his hair would turn white. If he touched his face 
it would l)ecome wrinkled. He kept a stick to scratch his liead with, 
and at the end of every four days tliis stick was buried at the root and 

a "All savages have to undergo certain ceremonies of lustration after returning from the war-path 
where any of the enemy have been killed. With the Apaches these are baths in the sweat-lodge, accom- 
panied with singing and other rites. With the Pimas and Maricopas these ceremonies are more elabo- 
rate, and necessitate a seclusion from the rest of the tribe for many days, fasting, bathing, and singing. 
The Apache ' bunches' all his religious duties at these times, and defers his bathing until he gets home, 
but the Pima and Maricopa are more punctilious, and resort to the rites of religion the moment a single 
one. either of their own naml)ers or of the enemy, has been laid low." John G. Bourke, On the Border 
with Crook, New York, 1891, 203. 



RUSSELL] INTERTRIBAL RELATIONS 205 

Oil the west side of a cat's claw tree and a new stick was made of 
greasewooil, arrow bush, or an_y other convenient shrub. He tlien 
bathed in the river, no matter how cold the temperature. The feast 
of \actorY which his friends were observing in the meantime at the vil- 
lages lasted eight days. At the end of that time, or when his period 
of retirement was half completed, the warrior might go to his homo to 
get a fetish made from the hair of the Apache whom he had killed. 
The hair was wrapped in eagle down and tied with a cotton string and 
kept in a long medicine basket. He drank no water for the first two 
days and fasted for the first four. After that time he was supplied 
with pinole by liis attendant, who also instructed liim as to his future 
conduct, telling him that he nuist henceforth stand back until all 
others were served when partaking of food and drink. If he was a 
married man liis wife was not allowed to eat salt during Ms retirement, 
else she would suffer from the owl disease which causes stiff limbs. 
The explanation offered for the observance of this law of lustration 
is that if it is not obeyed the warrior's limbs will become stiffened 
or paralyzed. 

Dance in Celebration of Victory 

Upon the return of a victorious war party the emotions of those who 
hail remained at home in anxious waiting and those who had retiu-ned 
rejoicing were given vent in vigorous shouting and dancing. It is 
interesting to observe that the abandonment of these occasions was 
not wholly approved by the leatlers, as is shown by the invariable 
formula that closed every war speech that was delivered while the 
party was on the campaign: "You may think tliis over, my relatives. 
The taking of life brings serious thoughts of the waste ; the celebration 
of victory may become unpleasantly riotous." Throughout the cere- 
monies the women of the tribe play a prominent part, particularly 
in mourning for relatives if any have fallen ^nctims to the attacks of 
the Apaches. 

The dance was held on the low rounded hill near the Double buttes 
(see pi. XLi, a), or on a liiil near the railwa}" siding called Sacaton, or 
upon some alkali flat wiiich the deposits of the rainy season leave as 
level and the sim bake* nearly as hard as a floor. Sometimes the 
dance was held on any open ground about the \'illages. Four basket 
drums were lieaten in the center, while either four or ten singers 
formed a close circle around tiieni. Within a larger circle numerous 
appointed dancers stamped and swayed their bodies, moving ever 
in a sinistral circuit. Sometimes the crowd danced witliin tliecircle 
pf selertethteTiceTsr-ir^whirlrcase they danced as individualswithout 
holding hands; but usually tiiev remained outside the circle. Outside 
the circle of spectators twenty men and two or more young women. 



206 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

according to the number of female relatives of those killed in liattle 
kept running. In addition to these forty horsemen also circled from 
left to right about the whole iratherino:. 

SOPHIOLOGY 

Myths 

The traditions of the Pimas are kept by those who show special 
aptitude in remendjcring them and who gradually become recognized 
as the tribal liistorians. To them the boys are regularly sent that 
they ma_y listen for four nights to. the narrative of how the world was 
made and peopletl; whence the Pimas came and how they struggled 
with demons, monsters, and savage enemies. These tales are not 
usually told in the presence of the women, and consecjuently they 
know only imperfect fragments of them. 

The myths are not related in the summer because of tlie fear of 
being bitten by rattlesnakes, which of course hibernate. No informa- 
tion was obtainable that the Pimas jjelieve that the snakes then carry 
venom, nor why the snakes should bite those who disregard the tabu. 
The Pimas do not hesitate to kill rattlesnakes except in certain cases. 

TCll-UNNYIKITA," THE CREATION MYTH 

In the beginning tliere was nothing where now are earth, sun, moon, 
stars, and all that we see. Ages long tiie tlarkness was satherinc. 
until it formed a great mass in which developed the spirit of Earth 
Doctor, who, like the fluffy wisp of cotton that floats upon the wind , 
drifted to and fro without support or place to fix himself. Con- 
scious of liis power, he determined to try to bmld an abiding place, 
so he took from his breast a little dust and flattened it into a cake. 
Then lie thought within himself, "Come forth, some kind of plant," 
and there appeared the creosote bush. Placing this in front of him, 
he saw it turn over as soon as his grasp upon it relaxed. Advancing 
toward it, he again set it npriglit, and again it fell. A third and yet 
a fourth time lie placed it, and then it remained standing. When 
the flat dust cake was still he danced upon it, singing: 

Earth Magician shapes this world. 

Behold what he can do! 
Round and smooth he molds it. 

Behold what he can do! 

Earth Magiciari makes the niuiintains. 

Heed what he has to say! 
He it is that makes the mesas. 

Heed what he has to say. 



"■" Smoke talk," from tcu-utc, smoke, and nyiak, talk. This myth is also called H&-&k Akita, ' ■ Ha-ak 
Telling." 



KUSSELL] MYTHS 207 

Earth Magician shapes this world; 

Earth Magician makes its mountains; 
Makes all larger, larger, larger. 

Into the earth the magician glances; 
Into its mountains lie may see. 

Next Earth Doctor created some black insects, tcotcik t^t§,ny, 
which made bhick gum on the creosote bush. Then he made hia- 
pitc, the termite," whicli worked upon and increased the small begin- 
ning until it grew to the proportions of our present earth. As he 
sang and danced the wonderful world developed, and then he made 
a sky to cover it, that was shaped like the round house of the Pimas. 
But the earth shook and stretched so that it was unfit for habita- 
tion. So Earth Doctor made a gray spider, wliich he commanded to 
spin a web aroimd the unconnected edges of earth and sky. When 
this was done the earth grew firm and solid. 

All that we now see upon the lantl — water, mountains, trees, grass, 
and weetls — was made, and then he made a disli, poured water into 
it, and the water became ice. Taking this block of ice he threw it 
toward the north, where it fell at the place where earth and sky 
forever meet. At once the ice shone forth a;s the brilliant disk we 
now know as the sun. For a certain distance the sun rose into the 
sky and then fell back again. Earth Doctor took it and threw it 
toward the west, where earth and sky are sewn together, and again 
it rose and slid back into the ground. And in the south.it behaved 
in a similar manner, but when he threw it to the east it rose higher 
and higher, until it reached the zenith, and then went on to sink in 
the west, and thus it has continued to do until this day. As the 
evening glow grew dim the tfarkness fell in inky blackness. So 
Earth Doctor poured more water into the dish and it became ice, and 
he sang: 

I have made the sun! 

I have made the sun! 
Hurling it high 

In the four directions. 
To the east I threw it 

To run its appointed course. 

Tlien to the north he threw the ice until it dropped at the edge where 
the earth and skj' are woven together. It became the shining circle 
which we call the moon. The moon rose in the sky, but soon fell 
back as the sun had done, so he threw it to the west, and then to 
the south, and finally to the east before it rose and pm-sued its course 
across the sky as it does to the present time. 

<i Ternies flavipos Koll. It was formerly l)elieved that if anyone ate food prepared from grain that 
was contained in anything upon which this insect lived that person's teeth would fall out. 



208 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axx. jg 

Then he sang: 

I have made the moon! 

I have made the moon! 
Hurling it high 

In the four directions. 
To the east I threw it 

To run its appointed course. 

Earth Doctor saw that while the moon was yet above the horizon 
there was suflicient hght, but when it ihsappeared the darkness was 
intense, so he took some of the water in his mouth and blew it into 
the sky in a spray, which formed the stars, but the night was still 
dark. Then he took his magic crystal and, after breaking it, threw 
it also into the sky to form the larger stars, so the darkness was 
less intense. Then he sang: 

I have made the stars! 

I have made the stars! 
Above the earth I threw them. 

All things above I've made 
And placed them to illumine. 

Next he took Ids walking stick, and placing ashes on the end he 
drew it across the sky to form the milky way. 

When the earth was thus prepared for habitation, Earth Doctor 
created all manner of birds and creeping things. Next he formed 
images of clay, which he commanded to become animate luuuan 
beings, and they obe3'ed him. For a time they increased and over- 
spread the earth until it became so populous that food became scarce 
and there was not sufhcient water to supply their needs. Of sick- 
ness and death they knew nothing, and their numliers grew apace. 
Hungering, they began to kill one another and to eat human flesh. 
Earth Doctor pitied them in their extremity, but coidd devise no 
plan for relieving their distress, except to destroy all, and this he at 
length felt forced to do. 

Earth Doctor said: "I shall imite earth and sky; the earth shall 
be as a female and the sky as a male, and from their union shall be 
born one who will be a helper to me. Let the sim be joined with 
the moon, also even as man' is wedded to woman, and their offspring 
shall be a helper to me." Then he caught the hook of his staff into 
the sky and pulled it down, crushing to death the people and all 
other living tilings. Thrusting his stick through the earth, Earth 
Doctor went through the hol(> and came out alone on the other side. 
He called upon the sun and moon to come forth from the wreck 
of world and sky, and they ol)eyed him. But there was no sky for 
them to travel through, no stars nor milky way, so he created all 
these anew. Then he called for the offspring of earth and sky, but 
there was no response. Then he created a race of men, as he had 
done before; these were the Rsasanatc. 



iilissKLL] MYTHS 209 

Out: in the west beneath tlie toahafs bush the moon gave birth to 
Coyote and then went down. Coyote grew apace, and when large and 
strong he came to the land where lived the Pima nation. 

After a time the earth gave birth to one who was afterwards known 
as Itany and later as Siuuhft, Elder Brother. He came to Earth 
Doctor and spoke roughly to him, and Earth Doctor trembled liefore 
his power. The people increased in numbers, but Elder Brother 
shortened their lives, and they did not overrun the earth as they 
had done before. But this did not satisfy Elder Brother, who 
announced to Earth Doctor that he would destroy the latter's peo- 
ple, and this is how he accomplished the second destruction of the 
world : 

Elder Brother created a handsome youth, whom he directed to go 
among the Pimas, where he should wed whomsoever he wished. 

He must live with her until his first child was born, then leave her 
and go to another, antl so on until his purpose was accomplished. 
His first wife gave birth to a cliild four months after marriage and 
conception. The youth then went and took a second wife, to whom 
a child was born in less time than the first. The period was yet 
shorter in the case of the third -wife, and with her successors it grew 
shorter still, until at last the child was born from the yoimg man at (he 
time of the marriage. This was the child that caused the flootl which 
destroyed the people and fulfilled the plans of Elder Brother. Several 
years were necessary to acconi])lish these things, and during this time 
the people were amazed and frightened at the signs of Elder Brother's 
power and at the deeds of his agent. At the time of the commence- 
ment of these strange events Elder Brother began to make a jar or olla 
of some substance, either bush or gum. Wlien this should be finisiied 
the flood would come. How? This is the way in wliicli it came: 
The handsome young man, whom Elder Brother sent about among 
the people to marrj' and beget children in so short a period of time, 
came at last to the home of Vakolo Makai, South Doctor, who 
lived somewhere in the south, and who had power similar to that of 
Elder Brother. South Doctor was noted for his knowledge of all 
things and his skill in reatling signs. He declared that he would 
put an end to Elder Brother's schemes. One day South Doctor 
asked his beautiful young daughter why she cried all the time. She 
replied that she was afraid of tlie handsome yomig man who went 
about marrying the young women and begetting sons and daughters. 
Her fatlier told her tiiat it was her duty to marry the young nuin in 
order that a divine plan migiit be accomplished. But she continued 
crying, so her father told her to fetch some of the topmost thorns of a 
cholla cactus. AVlien she had obeyed him he placed the thorns upon 
her, telling her not to be afraid of the yoimg man, but that when he 
26 ETH— 08 16 



/ 



210 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

came she should take good care of his bow, arrows, shield, war club, 
spear, or any other weapon he might bring. At this the maiden 
dried her tears and awaited with pleasure the bridegroom's coming. 
Wlien he came she took his bow and arrows and carefully put them in 
a safe place. After exchanging good wishes for health and happiness, 
they went to the dwelling prepared for them. Soon the screams of 
a child aroused old South Doctor and liis wife, who came running, 
desirous of seeing their grandcliild. The old woman took up the babe 
and tried to present it to her daughter, but she refused to accept it, 
saying, "I am not the mother. He gave birth to the child. Give it 
to liim." So the yoimg man took the child away and returned to 
Elder Brother, but as he was very much ashamed of himself, he did 
not bring the baby, but left it by the wayside. Elder Brother knew 
what was happening, for he was finishing his olla. As the youth 
approached he asked, "How does it happen that _vou come alone and 
do not bring the young cliild that is born of you? Go bring it liitlier, 
and we will take care of it. We have been outwitted and our plan 
defeated, but that is the best we can do." The young man went after 
the cliild, the screams of which shook the earth and could be heard for 
a great distance. Earth Doctor then called his people together and 
told them there would be a great flood. After describing the calam- 
ity that would befall them, he sang: 

Weep, my unfortunate people! 

All this you will see take place. 
Weep, my unfortunate people! 

For the waters will overwhelm the land. 
Weep, my unhappy relatives! 

You will learn all. 
Weep, my unfortunate relatives! 

You will learn all. 
The waters will overwhelm the mountains. 

He thrust his staff into the ground, and with it bored a hole quite 
through to the other side of the earth. Some of the people went into 
the hole, wliile others appealed to Elder Brother. Their appeals 
were not heeded, but Coyote asked his assi.stance, and he was told to 
find a big log and sit upon it. Tliis would carry him safely on the 
surface of the water along with the driftwood. Ekler Brother got into 
his olla and closed the opening by which he entered, singing in the 
meantime : 

Black house! Black house! Hold me safely in; 

Black house! Black house! Hold me safely in, 
As I journey to and fro, to and fro. 

As he was borne along by the flood he sang: 

Running water, running water, herein resounding. 

As on the clouds I am carried to the sky. 
Running water, running water, herein roaring. 

As on the clouds I am carried to the sky. 



sussBLL] MYTHS 211 



Wlien he finally emerged from the olla he sang: 

Here I come forth! Here I come forth! 

With magic powers I emerge. 
Here I come forth! Here I come forth! 

With magic powers I emerge. 



I stand alone! Alone! 

Who will accompany me? 
My staff and my crystal 

They shall bide with me. 

Tlic young man went to the place where he had left the child and 
fountl that its tears were welling up in a great torrent that cut a gorge 
before it. He bent over the cliild to take it up, but at that moment 
they both became birds and flew above the earth over which the 
floods were spreading. It is said that five birds in all were saved 
from all those that had been previously known. These were Ivoli- 
vltct*d\am' Hikivik (flicker), Vipisimal, Kisopi, and Xyui (vulture). 
They clung by their beaks to the sky to keep themselves above the 
waters, but the tail of the flicker was washed by the waves, and that 
is why it is stiff to this day. Finally, as they were threatened with 
destruction, the god Vikarskam took pity on them antl gave them 
power to make "nests of down" from their own breasts which 
floated on the surface of the waters and so enabled theni to survive 
the flood. If anyone harms the little Vipisimal to this day the flood 
may come again. Accidental injuries to the bird must be atoned 
for; if it be killed, its tail feathers must be kept for a time to avert 
cHsaster; if it is found lying dead, it must be buried and appropriate 
gifts must be placed upon its grave. 

When the child had been taken from tliem. South Doctor called 
the people to liim antl annoimced that a flood was coming to destroy 
the earth and all things thereon. Then he sang: 

The waters dissolve the land. 

The waters dissolve the land. 
The mighty magician tests his strength. 
The waters dissolve the mountain. 

The waters dissolve the mountain. 
Nasi foresees what is coming. 

Some of the people came to liim and were saved from the flood by 
passing tlirough to the other side of the earth by means of the hole 
which he had made with his cane. He told the others to go with 
him to Earth Doctor and hear what he might say to them. Earth 
Doctor told them that they were too late in coming, that he had 
already sent all that he could save to the other side of the earth. 
However, there was yet hope for them if they would climb to the 
summit of the Crooked moimtain. He gave power to South Doctor 
and directed liim to aid the people to the extent of his ability, so the 



212 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

latter conducted the people to the top of the Crooked mountain, 
and as they went away Earth Doctor sang: 

Haiya! Haiya! Flood! Flood! Hai-iya! 

See the doom awaiting them! 
Haiya! Haiya! Flood! Flood! Hai-iya! 
Here are my doomed people before me. 

As the flootl rose toward the top of the mountain, South Doctor 
sang a song which caused the mountain itself to rise higher and 
ever higher above the waters which raced toward them as if on the 
level plain. These are the words that lifted the mountain upward: 

On the Crooked mountain I am standing, 

Trying to disperse the waters. 
On the Crooked mountain I am standing, 

Trying to disperse the waters. 

When he ceased singing he traced a line around the mountain and 
this marked the limit of the flood for a time, but it soon rose again 
and threatened to overflow the summit. Again South Doctor sang: 

On the Crooked mountain top I'm standing. 

Trying to disperse the waters. 
On the Crooked mountain top Pm standing, 

Trying to disperse the waters. 

Four times he sang and raised the mountain al)ove the rising waters 
and then declared that he could do so no more, for his power was 
exhausted. He could do but one more thing for them, and holding 
liis magic crystal in his left hand he sang: 

Powerless! Powerless! 

Powerless is my magic crystal! 
Powerless! Powerless! 

I shall become as stone. 

Then he smote with his right hand and the thunder peal rang in all 
directions. He threw his staff into the water and it cracked with a 
loud noise. Turning, he saw a dog near him, and this animal he 
sent to see how high the tide had risen. The dog turned toward the 
people and saiil, "It is .very near the top." When the anxious 
watchers heard the voice they were transfixed in stone; and there 
to this day we see them as they were gathered in groups, some of the 
men talking, some of the women cooking, and some cr3ang.'' 



a Pedro Font has given the following version of this myth in his Diary, pages 23 to 24a of original 
manuscript: " lie farther said that after the old man, there came to that land a man called El Bebedor 
*S, . (the Drinker), who became incensed with the people dwelling there and sent so much water that it 
covered all the land. He then set out for a mountain ridge, which may be seen from that place, called 
the Ridge of Foam, whither he brought with him^a little dog and a coyote. This ridge is called the 
Ridge of Foam, because at its summit, which ends gradually and , accessible after the fashion of the edge 
of a bastion, may be descried near the very top a white crest like a cliff, which follows horizontally 
along the ridge for a good space. The Indians say that this is a mark of the foam of the waters which 
reiched that height. The Bebedor remained above and left the dog below, so that he might warn him 
when the waters reached that height. When the waters rose to the crest of foam, the beast warned 
the liebedor (for in those days animals could speak) and the latter raised him up from below. A few 



BU.SSKLL] MYTHS 213 

Coyote was caiTieil soiitliward by the drifting log to the place 
where all the driftwood of the flood was collected. To this day the 
place is referred to as Driftwood mountain, though its exact location 
is not known. C'oyote came out of the drift after the water had 
fallen. 

Earth Doctor escaped destruction by inclosing himself in his reed 
staff, which floated upon the surface of the water. We do not know 
what adventures befell him, but suppose that his stafT came to rest 
somewhere in the east, as he is next heard from in that quarter. 

Elder Brother was rolled along on the ground under the watei-s in 
his olla and finally came to rest beyond Sonoita, near the mouth of 
the Colorado river. The olla, now called Black mountain, mav be 
seen there to this day. It is black because the gum from which the 
vessel was made was of that color. After the waters disappeared 
Elder Brother came out ami went about until he had visited nearly 
all parts of the land. At length he met Coyote and Earth Doctor. 
Each claimed to have been the first to appear after the flood, but 
finally Elder Brother was admitted to have been the first, and 
he became the ruler ol^ the world, and is accepted as such by many 
to this day. Elder Brother on becoming the chief ruler told his sub- 
ordinates to search for the center of the land, which is known as hik, 
navel. He sent Earth Doctt)r to the east and Coyote to the west. 
The latter returned first, and a long time afterwards Earth Doctor 
came in. They all went. some distance east and again the messengers 
were sent out — Coyote east and Earth Doctor west. This time 
Earth Doctor returned first, so they all journeyed yet farther east 
before sending out the messengers. Coyote was sent west this time 
and again returned first. Then all moved east a little farther, and 

days later the Bebedor sent the Humming-bird (Sheparosas) and the coyote to bring him mud, and 
when it was brought be made from it various men, some of whom turned out good and others bad. 
These men spread over the land up and down the river. Not long afterwards he sent some of his men 
to see If those who dwelt up the stream could speak. They set forth and shortly returned, saying that 
although thej- spoke, they could not understand what they said. .\t this the Bebedor was greatly 
incensed, namely, that those men should speak without having received his permission. Thereupon 
he sQnt other men downstream to look after those who were there. They returned, saying that they 
had been well received and that the people there spoke another language, which, however, they had 
been a,ble to understand. Then the Bebedor told them that the men who dwelt downstream were the 
good men, who extended as far as the Opas. with whom they were friendly; and that the others who 
dwelt upstream were the bad men and were the .Vpaches, their enemies. The Bebedor once grew wrath- 
ful with the people and slew many of them, converting them into Saguaros in that land. The Saguaros 
is a green trunk, aqueous, of fair height, of uniform circuiufprence. and perfectly straight from its base 
to its top. with rows of tllick thorns which extend along its whole length and usually with two or three 
branches of the same shape wliich look like arms. Once again did the Bebedor become wrathful against 
men and caused the sun to descend to burn them. Thus they were on the point of being destroyed when 
the men entreated him earnestly not to burn them. Then the Bebedor said he should not now burn 
them, and ordered the sun to ascend once more, but not to such a distance as before, sajing that he 
left it lower down in order that he might burn them with it if thej' should .again anger him. For this 
reason it is so hot in that land during the summer. .\t this point he added that he knew other stories 
which he could not relate because the tune did not permit, and he agreed to relate them to us another 
day. But inasmuch as we made some fun of his stories, which he told quite seriously, we could not 
afterwards persuade him to tell us anything else; for he kept saying that he knew no more. .\ll this 
story 1 have related in the phraseology you have doubtless noticed in order better to adapt it to the 
fashion in which the Indians explain it." 



214 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

from that point both returned at the same time, so they knew they 
were at the middle of the land. 

This is the song that Elder Brother sang when they reached the 
middle: 

Here I have come to the center of the earth; 

Here I have come to the center of the earth. 
I see the central mountain; 

I see the central mountain. 

He then bent down and scratched his head. The lice that dropped 
became ants, which dried up that particular spot in a very short 
time, for the earth had been everywhere wet and muddy. Then they 
all sat down to create the various animals that had lived before the 
flood. Elder Brother sat facing the west, for, said he, "I came out 
upon the earth in the west and I am going to face that way." Coyote 
sat facing the south, for "I came out in the south and I am to face 
that way." Earth Doctor seated himself facing the east, for, said 
he, "I came out in the east and lam going to face that way." Each 
agreed not to look at what the others were making nor to tell what 
he was doing until all was finished, and then all that they had made 
should be showed at once. A moment later Elder Brother said he 
was ready and asked the others to show what they had made. So 
Coyote and Earth Doctor brought their work before him. Coyote 
had made all the web-footed animals, snakes, and birds. Earth Doc- 
tor had made creatures resembling human beings, but they were 
deformed — some having but one leg, others immense ears, some with 
imperforate bodies, others with flames of fire in their knees. ° 

Elder Brother told Coyote to throw the animals which he had cre- 
ated into the water. He told Earth Doctor to place his creatures 
in the west. Both obeyed. After throwing his beings into the west 
Earth Doctor sank into the earth, but while his body was yet half- 
way down Elder Brother jumped and tried to grasp it. He was not 
successful, and Earth Doctor disappeared. Elder Brother in trying 
to hold Earth Doctor got his hands covered with dirt and blood, 
like those of a man killing an animal. He shook his hands and the 
blood sprinkled over all the earth. That is what causes all kinds of 
sickness among us now, for the diseases were scattered over the land 
and in the water. 

Elder Brother and Coyote were left in possession of the land. 
After the images which the former had made had been kept for four 
days, one of the Apache group (they were divided into equal groups) 
came to life and said, "It's very cold," and began to sway its body 
back and forth. Earth Doctor said, " Oh, I didn't think you would 
be the first to awake!" and he was so angry he took all the Apaches 

tt There is no generic name for these monsters. Earth Doctor is supposed to have created them thus 
in order that they might not become rivals to his underworld people for the possession of the earth. 



Rl'SSELL] 



MYTHS 215 



up in his hand and threw them over the mountain. That made them 
angry, and that is why they have always been so fierce. 

These were the Indian people of which there were four tribes: 
The Wit-aki Ap," the Apaches, the Maricopas, and, lastly, the Pimas, 
though they were given superior qualities — such as a knowledge of 
the seasons, the power to bring down rain from the sky, the ability 
to cure sickness, and the like. 

These people occupied this country from that time forward and 
multiplied in mnnbers. The Yumas and Maricopas were at first 
united, but the Maricopas left the Yumas and joined the Pimas, 
finally settling in the Salt Kiver valley, where they formed perma- 
nent settlements. They tried to build canals, but were not successful, 
on account of the hard rocks and soil. 

The Maricopas asked Elder Brother for advice or assistance. He 
caused the ground to become soft for a while, but it hardened again, 
and upon bemg appealed to a second time he said he could do no 
more for them, but told them to go and see Toa'koa-atam Aks, 
White-eater-old-woman, Elder Brother's sister, who also had great 
power. She finished all the work in a single night, but Elder Brother 
refused to do anything more for the people. From that time on he 
began to do mischief, such as marrying the young women and then 
deserting them for others. The people began to be jealous of him 
and planned to destroy him. 

For a time after the creation of the four tribes of men and the 
animals they were confined in a great house together. Rattlesnake 
was there, and was known as Ma'ik Sol'atc, Soft Child. The people 
liked to hear him rattle, and little rest or peace could he obtain because 
of their continual prodding and scratching. Unable to endiu-e it 
longer, he went at last to Elder Brother to ask help of him. Elder 
Brother took pity upon him and pulled a hair from his o\m lip to cut 
in short pieces to serve as teeth for Soft Child. "Now," said he, "if 
anyone bothers you again, bite him." In the evening T^-api, Rabbit, 
came to Soft Child as he sat at the door and scratched him as he had 
so often done before. Soft Child raised his head and bit his tor- 
mentor as Elder Brother had instructed him to do. Feeling the bite, 
Rabl)it scratched Soft Child again, and again was bitten; then he ran 
about telling that Soft Child was angry and had bitten him twice. 
Again he went to him and agam he was bitten twice. During the 
night his body swelled and the fever came upon him. All through 
the dark hours he suffered and throughout the next day; often he 
called to those around him to prepare a place that might give him 
rest. No bed that they could make brought any ease to liis stricken 
frame. He asked for sea sand that he might lie upon it and cool his 

<■ " Go in Ap." An unknown tribe that is believed by the Pimas to have lived somewhere in the 
northwest, perhaps the Hualapis [Walapui.] 



210 THE PIMA INDIANS Ietii. ann. 26 

fevered body. Coyote was sent to the sea to fetch the coohng sand, 
but it gave no reUef. Rabbit asked for a shade of bushes that the 
coohng breeze might blow beneath them upon liim, but this, too, 
failed to help him. The traveling shade likewise brought no relief. 
His agony increased until death came to give him peace. 

For this first loss of life the people blamed Elder Brother, because he 
had given Soft Child the teeth that made him a menace to all who 
approached him. The disposal of Rabbit's body formed a serious 
problem to the tribes, for they feared the mterference of Coyote. 
Said one, "If we bury him Coyote will surely dig him out." "If we 
hide him," said another, "Coyote will surely find him." "If we put 
him in a tree," said a third, "Coyote will surely climb up." Finally 
the Maricopas proposed that he be burned, and in order to get Coyote 
out of the way during the ceremony he was sent to Sun to get some 
fire, for he always kept the flame lighted in his house." 

As soon as Coyote had gone the people called upon Tcu-utak(i) 
MoAa[t, Blue Fly, to help them, and this is how the first fire drill was 
made. Taking a stick like an arrow, he twirled it to and fro between 
his hands, the lower end resting in a socket at the margin of a flat stick 
that lay upon the ground. Soon smoke ascended, and the first fire 
began to glow. Gathering fuel, they proceeded to burn the corpse. 

Wlien Coyote left them he was suspicious of thek intentions, and 
said to himself, "I think they have some purpose in sending me 
away." So he looked back frequently as he went along, and soon 
saw the smoke ascending. With excited heart he turned and ran 
back as fast as he could go. When he made his appearance the 
people formed a circle and tried to shut him away from the burning 
bod}'. "Let me see my brother! Let me see with one eye!" he 
cried as he rolled upon the ground. No one would listen to him, so 
he ran round and round the circle seeking an opening. There was a 
weak spot in the cordon where two short men were standing, and he 
jumped over their heads, bit out the heart of the burning body, and 
ran away with it. The people pursued, but Coyote outstri])])ed 
them. South of the Sierra Estrella Coyote stopped and laid the heart 
upon the an bush, but the people came up and he fled again. To this 
day that halting place is called Antikam Tcukwoanyik, Place of the 

a "When Matyavela died, Mustam-ho, by his direction, started in toorematfehim. The Coyote wanted 
to eat the corpse. At that time there was no Are on earth. The Blue Fly put a star in the sky; ' (io 
over there and get me some of that fire,' he said to the Coyote. The Coyote was fooled, and scampered 
olT to bring in the star. lie didn't know thiit the Blue Fly had learned the art of rubbing sticks together 
and making Are. While he was gone the Blue Fly made a big fire and Matyavela was burnt up. 

"The Coyote happened to look back; he saw the blaze, and knew that something was up. He came 
back on the full run. .Ul the animals were present at the funeral; they saw the Coyote returning, and 
formed a ring round the fire to keep him away from the corpse. 

" The Coyote ran round the ring until he came to the Badger, who was very short. The Coyote 
jimiped over him, seized the heart of Matyavela, which was the only part not burnt up, and made off 
with it. He burnt his mouth in doing this, and it's black to this day." John G. Bourke, Notes on the 
Cosmogony and Theogony of the Mohave Indians of the Rio Colorado, Arizona, Journal of American 
Folk-Lore, ii, 188. 



masELL] MYTHS 217 

Uprooted An Bush. Near Kihatoak' he stopped agam upon a 
mountain to eat the heart, but he saw that it was covered with ashes, 
so he shook it and the ashes fell and covered the moinitain, so that it 
is white to this da}', and is called Gray mountain. Again the people 
overtook Coyote, and he ran northward across the Gila, where he ate 
the heart, and as he did so the grease fell upon every stone of the 
mountain, which accounts for its appearance and the name it bears 
to this day — Mo'hattik, Greasy mountain. From that place Coyote 
ran to live in the sea in the south. 

Now the tribes of men began to learn how they should provide for 
themselves, how they might gather food, hunt, and till the soil. 
Mavit, Puma, and Rsu-u-<i, Wolf, joined their fortunes and went 
hunting together. One day Wolf said, "1 wonder where is our 
brother, Coyote; suppose I call him." So he took the kidney of a deer 
and roasted it and the wind carried the appetizing odor toward the 
south. When Coyote smelled it he said, ''Surely, these are iny broth- 
ers, who wish me to return." So he ran to the place where Puma 
and Wolf were living. When he reached them he was in great dis- 
tress, for when he ate food it fell from him as wheat falls from the 
broken sack. Finally, Puma and Wolf stitched his skin until it 
retained the food he ate. Then they all went in search of wives. 
Coyote found a woman and called to the others, who came to see her. 
She became the wife of Puma, but Coyote said he would take her home. 
On the way he fell antl pretended to be in great pain. The woman 
was frightened and knew not what to do. Coyote said, "I shall not 
get well unless you strip off my clothing and your own and carry me 
on your back for a few yards.» That is the way my brothers treated 
me when I was in this condition before." So she obeyed and made 
their clothing into a bundle, which she carried on her head, as is the 
Pima custom. Coyotem hiuneris sustulit, sed cum paucos modo 
passus ingressa esset, ''Siste! Siste!" exclamavit Coyote, "Doleo; 
jiaulum me dimitte." Ubi quod poposcit fecerat, copulare potuit. 
Mulierem turpiter dum domum iebant Coyote egit. This was the 
cause of much trouble, for she belonged to a tribe that had great magic 
power. They tried to induce her to return, l)ut she would not. Fur- 
thermore, Puma refused to restore her to her friends. Then the Rsar- 
stikatc A-atam," magicians, revenged themselves by driving the deer, 
the antelope, and every animal that is swift of foot and soft of fur and 
useful to human kind into a cave in the Aloam or Yellow mountain, 
which lies south of the present Pimeria and northeast of Baboquivari. 
This deprived the tribes of men of their chief support, and messengers 
were sent to see if some means could not be found by which the impris- 
oned animals could be liberated. One by one these agents failed to 

oThe mirage that distorts the early morning landscape in Pimeria is called rsarsClkatc, and it is 
believed that it is the spirits of the ancient magicians rotumed to earth . 



218 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

accomplish the task assigned to them. Year after year they returned 
without success. At last Coyote was sent to liberate the inhabitants 
of the cave, who exclaimed as they saw him coming, "Now, we have 
a visitor who will do us harm." They thought to appease his appe- 
tite by oifering a piece of meat in the hope that he would eat it and go 
away. When Coyote had roasted the meat in the fire and looked 
about him, he saw the gate of the cave and this is what happened: 
"Where shall I put this meat? It is hot. Where shall I put it ? It is 
hot," he said, and then ran straight to the door of the cave. Before 
the occupants could recover fi-om then alarm he threw open the door 
and out swarmed the deer and other game animals as pour forth the 
bees from a newly opened hive. 

Coyote ran for his life and the people pursued him, but he escaped 
and went to live in the water in the west. 

When A-anhitiipalvi Si'van'', Feather-breathing Si' vans', was a boy 
he was mischievous and troubled his grandmother. He went to the 
cave of the Winds and saw the bow. He made one like it and showed 
it to his fellows, but they handled it and so took away its power. He 
made several bows, but the people ruined them by looking at them 
or handling them. At last they ceased troubling him anil he was able 
to kill rabbits and give them away. 

Seeing that he was a good shot, the people told him to take his stand 
at the two hills and close the gap. He went as directed, but instead 
of shooting the deer as they were driven past he paid no attention to 
them, but occupied himself in building a fence of brush from one hill 
to the other. 

Again they told him to perch in a tree above a game trail and watch 
for anything that might pass umler him. He did so and saw the game 
running, but did not shoot. 

A third time they drove the animals toward him and instructed him 
to shoot the pregnant ones, as they would be fat. He took his place 
and shot a pregnant woman instead of a doe. 

The fourth time they told him to shoot an old one (meaning a deer 
with large antlers), and he killed an old man. 

Then he showed that he had magic power, for he was able to go out 
and bring m deer without taking days of time like other hunters. He 
built a house (Va'-aki, now one of the ruins of Salt river), married, and 
settled down. Vantre was a thief, gambler, liar, and profligate who 
came to the house of A-anhitiipaki Si'van^, who, knowing his char- 
acter, did not wish to see him. Vantre brought four reeds filled with 
tobacco, lighted one, and smoked it. A-anhitiipaki Si'van^' woultl 
not speak to him and Vantre finally went away. This happened three 
nights, but not a word was spoken until the fourth night, when 
A-anhitiipaki told Vantre he would be his friend if Vantre would stop 
lying, stealing, and the like. He would make the sticks called 



EUSSELL] . MYTHS 219 

ki''tcs, and with them Viintre might win if he wished to gamble. He 
phxced such magic power in the markings on the sticks that no one 
coidd win from Viintre. Elder Brother recognized the power in the 
sticks and told the people that they were powerless to win from Van- 
tre. Elder Brother told the man at whose house Vantre gambled 
that if he would let his son and daiighter work for him (Elder Brother) , 
he would arrange it so that Vantre could not win from others. The 
man agreed. Elder Brother sent the son to a roosting place of large 
birds to get feathers. The boy brought the feathers to the house. 
The girl was told to singe the feathers, grind them into a powder, and 
mix them with some pinole. 

The next day Vantre came to the same place to gamble. Elder 
Brother said to the young woman, "Go to the pool with your kiaha 
and ollas. Take the pmole and make it ready when Vantre goes 
there." She followed Elder Brother's directions and went to get 
the water. Vantre said to the man with whom he had been playing 
on previous days, "I am gomg to the pool to get a drink of water 
before we begin playing." The others told him to go into the house 
to get the drink, but he went off, saying that he wished to see the 
young woman. Wlien he came to her he said he wanted her for 
his wife, but she replied that she would not make any promises 
unless he drank her pinole. So Vantre was glad to take the drink. 
The first swallow seemed sour or bitter, but he took a second, a 
third, and a fourth drink. The moment he took the fourth drink 
feathers began to appear upon liis bodj^; these grew out at once 
anil he became a large eagle. The yomig woman took her basket, 
returned to the village, and told what had happened. The people 
then took their bows and arrows, went to the pool, and there found 
the eagle sitting on the bank. They surrovmded him, but he flew 
away and found refuge in the mountains, whence he came from 
time to time to carry away men anil women to his hiding place. 
As their numbers decreased the people cried out for help to Elder 
Brother, who said he would kill the eagle after four days. He told 
the people to watch a sharp-pointed momitain after his depart lu'e 
and if a cloud appeared at the left of the peak they would Icnow 
that he had been killed: if the cloud appeared at the right they 
would know that he had done some great thing. Eagle was so large 
and strong that when he sat on the mountain top it broke beneath 
his weight. It used to be all flat and smooth, but it was his sitting 
on it that made the peaks and rough places. When arrows were shot 
at him he caught them m his hand. (This must be a true story, for 
there is a picture of him with the arrows in his hand, on the tlollar. 
So the Americans must have knowai about him.) 



220 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

When Eagle was away Earth Doctor climbed the clifi's to his 
house, singing as he ascended : 

Up the cliff, Hoep and smooth. 

Up the cliff, steep and smooth. 
Up the cliff, steep and smooth, 

Climljs Elder Brother. 
With his shining power, 

Up the cliff, steep and smooth, 
Up the cliff, steep and smooth. 

He climbs, step by step. 

He then carried on the following conversation with Eagle's wife: 

"Can tliis baby talk?" 

"No; he doesn't say very much and doesn't seem to know any- 
tlung; he's too small." 

"Does Eagle ever sleep in the daytime ?" 

"No, not very often; but sometimes, if I sit downt with him and 
scratch his head, he will go to sleep." 

"Do that next time I come." 

At that moment Eagle was again heard approaching with a roar 
that shook the mountain like a tree in the wmd. He brought four 
living men, whom he threw from a distance upon the rock, where 
they lay groaning for a time before breathing their last. Eagle 
asked his wife if anybody had been there and she said no one was 
abotit. He declared that he smelled some one, but finally concluded 
that he had been mistaken. After he had eaten he lay down, and 
as she sang the following song and rubbed his head he ci.uickly went 
to sleep: 

Haya yakahai yahai mo! Haya yakahai nio! 

I am sleepy, I am sleepy. 
Haya yakahai yahai mo! I am sleepy. 

When Eagle returned, the baby tried to tell him what had hap- 
pened, and liis father inquired, "What made him say that? He 
never talked that way before ; besides, I smell somebody. Some one 
must have been here." 

"No, nobody; we have been here alone." 

Then in the form of a fly Earth Doctor concealed himself among 
the dead bodies that were corded up like wood and sang: 

Himovali! Die fly! Himovali! Die fly! 

I shall sleep! I shall sleep! 
Himovali! Let die! I am drowsy. 

I will sleep! Biizz-z! 

When he had gone to sleep she began to whistle. He awoke and 
said : 

"What made you whistle like that?" 

"Oh, nothing; I was just playing with the baby; that's all." 



uussELL] MYTHS 221 

So he went to sleep a<j;ain ami again she whistled; he awoke again 
and asked: 

"Wliy <lid you whistle?" 

''Oh, I was just playing with the hahy." 

So the third time he went sound asleep, and she whistled softly, 
hut he did not awake. Then she whistled louder and Elder 
Brother came out and resumed his natural form. He beat tlie 
head of Eagle until it was flat. He cut Eagle's throat antl that of 
his son, sprinkled their blood upon the dead bodies, whereon they 
all regained their lives. He asked them where they belonged, and 
on finding where each lived he sent Mm home. When he came to 
the last bodies he found that they spoke a different tongue, so he sent 
them to a distant land, where they practised their peculiar customs. 
The Pimas suppose that these were the whites, who became wliite 
from lying under the others until decayed." 

Elder Brother then went home and told the people how to conduct 
themselves when thejr had killed an enemy, such, for example, as 
the Apaches. On his return he found the people singing and dancing. 
He arranged four periods, and each period contained four days. So 
to tliis day the man who kills an Apache must live sixteen days in 
the woods and subsist upon pinole. 

While these events were occurring here the people about Baboqui- 
vari wished to have Elder Brother come to them. 

At the time when Elder Brother transformed Vantre into an eagle 
strange things happened to the peojile of Casa Grande. There is a 
game called takal played by the women. One day the women were 
playing takal, and among them was the daughter of Si'al Tcu'-iTtak 
Si'van^. Suddenly a strange little green lizard dropped in front of 
her while she was standing among the other women. The earth 
about the spot became like the green part of the rainbow. They dug 
there and f(5und some green stones (stcu'-uttiik ha'tai'), wliich became 
very useful for necklaces and ear pendants. 

There were people living at some tanks on the east side of the 
mountains (Ta'-atiikam) north of Picacho, and among them was a 
man named Tarsnamkam, j\Ieet the Sun. He saw the beautiful stones 
used at Casa Grande and wished to get some of them; but how was 

« " Mr J. D. Walter, an old resident of the vicinity of Casa Grande, who has been to me personally 
an excellent friend and valuable informant, told me this tale: 

"' The Gila Pimas claim to have lieen created on the hanks of the river. After residing there for some 
time a great flood came that destroyed the tribe, with the exception of one man, called Ci-ho. He was 
of small stature and became the ancestor of the present Pimas. The tribe, beginning to grow in num- 
bers, built the \illages now in ruins and also spread to the north bank of the river. But there appeared 
a monstrous eagle, which, occasionally assuming the shape of an old woman, visited the puelilos and 
stole women and children, carrying them to his abode in an inaccessible clilf. On one occasion the 
eagle seii;ed a girl with the intention of making of her his wife. Ci-ho thereupon went to the chff. but 
found it impossiljle to climb. The girl, who was still alive, shouted down to him the way of making 
the ascent. When the eagle came back Ci-ho slew him with a sword, and thus liberated his people 
from the scourge.' " A. F. Bandelier. Papers Archeol. Inst., ser. iv, pt. ii. 4(i2-403. 



222 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

he to do it ? He made a fine green bird, stcu-utlik o'-oftk, parrot, and 
sent it to Casa Grande, telling it to swallow all the green stones it 
could find about the houses. The parrot went to Casa Grande and 
was found one day by the daughter of Si'al Tcu'-utak Si'van^. The 
bird was kept several days, but it would not eat, so it was turned 
loose. It went about until it found a piece of turquoise, wliich it 
swallowed. The daughter of Si'al Tcu'-utak Si'van'' saw tliis and 
told her father, who directed her to give the bird all the turquoises 
she could find in the house. The people gathered to see the bird 
that ate stones, but as soon as it had eaten until it was full to the 
mouth it flew away. Tarsnamkam was glad to see it come safely 
home. The parrot vomited the stones, which its owner gave to the 
people to use, and tliere were plenty for all. vSi'al Tcu'-utak Si'van^ 
was angry when he learned that the bird had been sent to steal all 
his turquoises. He sent the rain for four periods, or sixteen days, to 
destroy Tarsnamkam, but the latter also possessed magic power and 
was not injiu-ed. At the end of the sixteen days Tarsnamkam sent 
a man with a fine football (rso'nyikivol), directing him to give it to 
Si'al Tcu'-utak Si'van'"s daughter, who.se name was Pia Konikam 
Of'(i). The messenger went near the woman's house as she was at 
work and kicked the ball so that it rolled close to her. She took it 
up and liid it mider her dress and told the man there had been no ball 
there when he came up to inquire about it. He declared that it 
stopped close by her, but she again said no, she had seen no football. 
The man went off, but the young woman called to liim to come and 
get his football. When he came back she searched for the ball, but 
it was not to be found. It had gone into her womb and become a 
child. Wlien tliis cliild was born it was a strange-looking creature. 
The people wanted to destroy it, but the mother said it was her child 
and she wished to care for it. 

The people wished to destroy the child, because it had long claws 
instead of fingers and toes; its teeth were long and sharp, like those 
of a dog. They gave it the name of Ha-ak, meaning something 
dreadfid or ferocious. This female cliild grew to maturity in three 
or four years' time. She ate anything she could get her hands on, 
either raw or cooked food. The people tried to kill her, because she 
killed and ate their children. She went to the mountain Ta'-atiikam 
and lived there for a wliile in a cave. Then she went to Babocjuivari 
for a time and then to Poso Verde, where she was killetl by Elder 
Brother. As Elder Brother and the people were preparing to over- 
come the magic power of Ha-ak they sang together: 

Dazzling power has Elder Brother, 

Mastering the winds with song. 
Swiftly now we come together, 

Singing to gain control. 



RUSSELL] MYTHS 223 

Kovakova, kovakova, 

Kovakova, kovakova. 
Singing on the summit 

Of great Mo'liatuk mountain, 
Anayokuna. anayokuna, hayokuna. 
Sacred pipe of Tcu-unarsat, 

Sleep-inducing sacred pipe, 
Anayokuna, anayokuna, hayokuna. 

Ha-ak flees from her pursuers. 
But her spring and mortar stay. 

Throw a great stone! 
Throw a great stone ! o 

The blue owl is brightest, 
Throw a great stone! 

The blue owl is brightest, 
Throw a great stone. 

When he killed Ha-ak a great feast was made, just as when Eagle 
was killed, and to this day the cave remains there where Ha-ak was 
killed, and 2 or 3 miles distant is a stone inclostire, H§,-ak moakkftt, 
Place where H3,-ak was killed. The people formerly placed offer- 
ings within the inclosure to bring them good luck. 

Another version of the same story states that Vaktcuktciithap, the 
mosquito hawk, wished to marry the virgin at Casa Blanca, who had 
many suitors. He went to the Sun, who gave him a many-colored 
ball, which he took to the woman Pia Konlkam Of'(i). When near 
her he kicked it as the Pimas do the kicking ball, so that it rolled 
near her. She placed it m the fold of her blanket and became 
pregnant. 

After Ha-ak was killed the people were invited to come and partake 
of the feast wliich had been cooked there. One old woman and her 
two grandsons were not invited to come. When the feast was over 
she told her grandsons to go and see if they could find any of Ha-ak's 
blood, and if so to bring it to her. After the boys had brought the few 
drops of blood which they found among the rocks she put it into a 
dish and told them to look at it after four days. Wlien they did so 
they fomid two eggs in the dish. On reporting this to their grand- 
mother she told them to look again after four more days. When they 
looked they saw two httle birds, at which their grandmother told them 
to look again at the end of four days. When they came to look they 
found two very beautiful birds. After four days the people came and 
tried to destroy the grandmother and the boys in order to get the 
birds. The old woman told her grandsons that after another four 
days the people woidd come and take their bhds away. So they must 
take them at night to a distant land and set them free there. She said 
that when they returned they would fuid her dead, as the people 
would have killed her. 

a The stone referred to is the one thrown against the cave walls by Ha-ak when she was entrapped. 
In proof of the story we may see the stone there to the present day. 



224 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

After the people had killed Ila-ak they followed the tracks of the 
boys, who had gone toward the east with their parrots. The pur- 
suers raised a cloud of dust as the}' went along, which betrayed their 
presence on the trail to the boys, who exclaimed, "Wliat shall we do!" 
At length they set free the parrots, which flew up into the mountains, 
where they concealed themselves in the forest. Following their ex- 
ample, the boys hastened to the same place, where they successfully 
eluded the pursuers. After the people had abandoned the search the 
boys went ])ack to their former home and found that their grand- 
mother had been killed. She had left directions which they carried 
out. They gave the body proper burial in the sand. At the end of 
four-day periods she had told them to ^^sit iier grave until they saw a 
plant growing out of it; four days after it appeared they were to 
gather the leaves, and in time they would learn what was to be done 
with them. The boys obeyed her commands and obtained tobacco, 
which they learned to use through the instruction of Elder Brother. 

After killing Ha-^k Elder Brother made his home at Baboquivari 
for some time. Hearing of the fact that the boys were living alone at 
their old home, he visited them. He incjuired about their welfare and 
seemed to be disposed to befriend them. Finding the tobacco leaves, 
he inquired if they had been used yet, and was assured that they had 
not been. Elder Brother then revealed the purpose for which the 
leaves had been intended. "These are to be roUed in corn husks and 
smoked," said he; "I will give you, also, eartii flowers" to mix with 
the tobacco when you smoke if you desire to gain the favor of the 
women." He showed them how to coUect the bark of the tree which 
induces sleep.'' "Make this into a powder," said he, "and when you 
wish to overpower anyone just shake tliis before them." Then Elder 
Brother left the youths, who foUowed his instructions and found the 
love philter and the sleeping powder to be irresistible. But the peo- 
ple were incensed at their use of the charms and finally kiUed them. 

Elder Brother continued to live in the cave at Baboqnivari for 
some time. He went about the country from village to \'iUage seeking 
to do mischief. He sang the song of the menstrual period and accom- 
panied it by reviling the family of the young girls. At last the people 
could endure his pranks no longer and drove him away. He went to 
Mo'hattik mountain, north of the Gila, and the people there gathered 
to destroy him. 

Elder Brother went into his house and the people came and clubbed 
him to death. They pounded his head until it was flat, then dragged 

a Tcuvmt hidsik, a whitish lichen gathered by the Pimas and kept in little bags or in hollow reeds 
3 or 4 inches long. 

^Kd'sltakiit ("to make sleep"), said by the Papagos to stand on a mountain about 40 miles south- 
west of Peso Verde. So powerful is it supposed to lie that those who go to gather the bark are overcome 
with sleep if they do not hasten when cutting it. 



RDSSELL] MYTHS 225 

him into the woods and left him there. The news was spread about 
the country that he was dead, but the next day he reappeared among the 
people. They were afraid, but gathered together and killed him again. 
After carrying him to the woods they cut his flesh and scattered the 
pieces, pounded his bones into powder and cast it to the winds, but 
the next day at the same hour he was about among them again. 
Again they killed him, and this time his body was burned to ashes. 
Yet lie was among them the next day as before. Then a great council 
was called and they discussed plans for getting rid of Elder Brother. 
Some declared that if tliey did not kill him the fourth time they would 
never kill him. So they called on Vulture, who had been saved with 
Elder Brother at the time of the flood, thinking that he must have 
magic power or he would not have sur\'ived the flood. 

Vulture was a man who transformed himself into a bird with his 
own magic power and had gone through the openings in the sky and 
thus saved himself from destruction during the flood. After he 
came down from the sky he wandered about the country and finally 
built a va'-ald, magic house, the ruins of which yet remain, south of 
where Phoenix now stands, between the Gila and Salt rivers. 

Vulture was living in tlris va'-aki when the people came to him 
with their complaints concerning Elder Brother. They asked if he 
could do anything to help them. Vulture said he had never u.sed 
his magic power, but he would test it. He asked thi> people to come 
to his va'-aki and he would make the trial in their presence. 

After the people had gathered in the house and the doors had been 
closed he brought on darkness with his magic power while it was 
yet daytime. The darkness was so heavy that the people could see 
no tiling. A beam of light arose which grew stronger and stronger 
until during the second night of their sojourn in the house it became 
as brilliant as sunlight. There were four colors, four threads of 
light, that extended upward until they reached the sun. Vulture 
then ascended each thread in turn, telling the people that he must 
have magic power or he could not have done so. He told the people 
that in four days Elder Brother would fall dead. On the fourth 
night he reached the sim and remainefl there. All the people who 
were in the va'-aki saw these miracles performed. 

Vulture told the sun to spit on the house of Elder Brother," on the 
four pools of water at the va'-aki where Elder Brother kept his 
magic power, on his dwelling places so that heat might fall upon him 
and smother him. The sun did as he requested. Toward the end 
of the four days Elder Brother acted like a lunatic. The heat 
became so intense that the cool fountains became boiling water and 
he was finally suflfocated. 

o Said by Thin Leatiier to be in the Estrella mountains. Antonio thinlcs it is in Baboquivari 
mountain. 

26 ETH— 08 17 



226 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

After liis death his skeleton was exposed for a long time, until one 
day some boys were playing near where it lay. They heard a strange 
noise like thunder that shook the earth, though there were no clouds 
in the sky. The boys saw that Elder Brother was regaining life and 
power. He sat up and rocked back and forth like a drunken person. 
The boys ran and told their story to the people, who were perplexed 
and alarmed. They gathered together, bringing all their weapons, 
and finaUy surrounded Elder Brother, who was by tliis time in full 
possession of his power. As the people came about him with their 
bows and arrows in hand he began to sink down into the earth, and 
in spite of their outcry he disappeared before their eyes. 

Elder Brother sank through the earth and found the people that 
Earth Doctor had assisted to reach that side in order to escape the 
flood. Elder Brother told the people there of his iU treatment and 
asked them to come through and fight with him and to take the land 
away from the Indians. After four months' preparation they set 
out upon their journey, fii'st singing the following song: 

We go; we go; we go; we go. 

Happy, we leave our homes. 
We go; happily we go. 
We run; we run; we run; we run. 

Happy, we leave our land. 
With pleasure hence we hasten. 

Elder Brother told Gopher (Tcu'oho) to bore a hole for the people 
to come through. Gopher made a hole through the earth like a 
winding stair. 

Coyote learned that these people were coming out in our country 
and he went about looking for the place of their emergence. He 
finally discovered them coming tlirough like ants from their hills. 
Elder Brother told Coyote not to go near them imtil all had come 
forth. Coyote did not heed the caution, but went and looked down the 
hole and laughed, which caused the opening to close. Five gentes" 
had come out, and it is supposed that those that were shut in belonged 
to yet other gentes. Upon their emergence Elder Brother and his fol- 
lowers danced and sang as follows: 

Together we emerge with our rattles; 
Together we emerge with oiu- rattles, 
Bright-hued feathers in our headdresses. 

With our nynn3?Irsa we went down; 
With om' nyiinyirsa we went down. 
Wearing Yoku feathers in our headdresses. 

This is the White Land, we arrive singing. 

Headdresses waving in the breeze. 
We have come! We have come! 

The land trembles with our dancing and singing. 

a See p. 197. 



lU'ssELL] MYTHS 227 

On these Black mountains all are singing, 

Headdresses waving, headdresses waving. 
We all rejoice! We all rejoice! 

Singing, dancing, the mountains trembling. 

About half of these people came out and followed Elder Brother's 
leadersliip until they had killed all his enemies and captured young 
and old that did not resist. 

Elder Brother's greatest enemies were the people living in the large 
pueblos, the ruins of wliich yet remain scattered about the Gila and 
Salt river valleys. He and liis supporters approached one of the 
easternmost of these pueblos on the Gila, which is now known as Casa 
Grande, singing: 

Yonder stands the doomed habitation. 

About the pueblo runs its frightened chieftain 
In yellow garment with hand-print decoration. 

They attacked and defeated the forces of Morning-Blue Si'van'', 
and then moved about 18 miles northwestward to Santan, where they 
sang : 

In their house of adobe they are staying; 
Their chief with magic power fears me. 
In their house of adolje we see their chief. 

The cliief of tliis extensive pueblo was Kia-atak Si'van^'. His 
forces were defeated and his pueblo overrun by Elder Brother's war- 
riors, who next moved to the villages about 4 miles west of Santan, 
where they sang: 

Some will truly see; 
Some will truly see; 
Will see their house 
Behind the okatilla stockade. 

The chief of this place was called Tcuf Baowo Si'van!", and after he 
had been overcome the conquerors moved across the Gila toward the 
pueblo of Sweetwater, singing as they approached: 

There is the land of many beads. 

There is the land of many beads. 
Some one comes forth. 

He knows what will befall him. 

The leader, Ta'-a Si'van^', was easily defeated, whereon the victors 
moved upon the pueblo of Casa Blanca, singing: 

It will be difficult. 

It will be difficult. 
To captiu-e this pueblo 

With its magic power. 

They then attacked Tcii'tciik Ta'tai Si'van>', who was the most 
powerful of all the chiefs who ventured to oppose them. 



228 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann-. 26 

He knew that they would defeat him, yet he struggled bravely to 
save his people and at the last to save himself. He first took some 
soot from his chimney, powdered it in the palm of his hand, blew it 
into the air, and darkness immediately fell so dense that Elder Brother's 
warriors could see nothing. Tco'tctik T^'tai Si' van'' then threw down 
his dwelling and made his way through the midst of his enemies. 
But the god of darkness dispelled the night and the escaping leader 
was seen in the distance. Elder Brother's warriors succeeded in 
getting ahead of him and were about to surround and kill him when 
he wiped the tears from his eyes and blew the drops among the men 
about him. This produced a mirage which concealed him from view. 
But the god of the mirage caused the veil to lift and again he was seen 
fleeino; in the distance. Again Tco'tciik Ta'tai Si'van*' was headed 
and in danger; but this time he took out his reed cigarette and blew 
pufi's of smoke, which settled down upon his pursuers like a heavy 
fog through which he continued his flight. The god of the fog drove 
it into the sky and he was seen escaping. He now realized that he 
had but one more chance for his life. When the fog liad formed 
clouds in the sky he took his belt and threw it upward and climbed 
up and laid himself against the clouds as a rainbow. It was impossi- 
ble for the god of the rainbow luiaided t (i bring him down ; he made 
several unsuccessful attempts before he hit upon the expedient of 
making some spiders which' he .sent after the rainbow. They formed 
a web over the bow and lirought it to the earth and destruction. 

Elder lirother's warriors were so astonished at the prowess of 
Tco'tcuk Ta'tai Si'van*' tiiat they thouglit he must have a strange 
heart, so they cut it open to see and, sure enough, they found within 
it a round green stone about the size of a bullet. The stone is kept 
to this day in a medicine basket which they captured with his grand- 
son. Before he had imdertaken his flight he had told the boy, 
Ka'kanyip, to go with his basket and hide under a bush : after the 
grandfather should be killed the lad should come, toucli liim, and 
swallow the odor of the body and lie would accjuire the power of 
the Si'van>'. But a warrior named S hohany discovered the little 
Ka'kanyip and after a time sold liim to the Papago chief, Kak 
Si'siveliki, Two-Wliirlwinds. The box is yet kept by the Papagos 
livang .30 miles south of Gila Bend. If it is disturbed a severe storm 
is produced and cold weather prevails in Pima Land. 

After capturing the pueblo at Sweetwater and destroying its chief 
the invaders moved against Vulture's pueblo, 6 miles west of where 
they fought the last battle. 
■ They then sang; 

Child of the- Raven! ChiUl oS thv Raven! 

You of the dazzling power. 
Sec my magic power ."jhining like the mirage. 



RCssELi.] MYTHS 229 

Elder Brother told his army to capture Vulture alive. "How can 
we identify him? We do not know him," said they. Elder Brother 
told them to capture the warrior with white lefjging.s; they were 
the distinguishino; mark of ^'ulture. They obeyed and brought the 
defeated leader to Elder Brother, who scalped him: this accounts 
for the naked head of the vulture of to-day. 

Moving on to Gila Crossing, Elder Brother and his party sang: 

I am the magician who with the sacred pipe 

Of Trii-unarsat increase my magic power. 
I am the magician of the downy feathers. 

With the soothing sacred pipe 
I bring sleep upon my enemy. 

In the battle which ensued Tcu-unarsat Si'van> was defeated, 
whereon the victors proceeded to Mesa: and before the pueblo of 
A'-an Hi'tupaki Si'v^an>' they sang: 

The small Blue Eagle alights; 

The small Blue Eagle alights. 
After emerging from the middle of the land. 

To and fro he moves before me 
As ray staff already has foretold. 

After capturing this pueblo the conquerors moved against the 
Vi'-iki-ial Ma'kai Si' vans' near Tempe, singing: 

Look for him! Look for him! 

Poor distracted enemy; take him! 
Poor fear-stricken enemy; take him! 

They then proceeded westward against other pueblos, which they 
destroyed, and afterwards returned to take possession of the Gila 
valley. 

While the war raged along the Gila some of the inhabitants of the 
Salt River pueblos sought safety in flight toward the Colorado. Tliey 
descended that streant to the Gulf of California, the east coast of which 
they followed for some distance, then turned eastward and finally 
northeastward, where they settled, and their descendants are the Rio 
Grande pueblo tribes of to-day. 

Ka'kanyip married Kold Ha-akam, the daughter of Kak Si'sivellkl, 
and lived with his father-in-law in the Salt River valley near where 
Phoenix now stands. There his wife became pregnant and would eat 
nothing but green plants and game fointd in the mointtains. So one 
day Ki\'kan3'Ip went to the motmtains to search for provisions for his 
wife. He killed a deer which it took him some time to dress. In tlie 
meantime the Apaches surroimded liim. He fought bravely, but they 
succeeded in Idlling him. His father-in-law awaited his coming dur- 
ing the evenmg and through the night ; then he called the j)eojile 
together and told them that his son-in-law had disappeared. All 
searched until his body was foiuid. Tliis they burned to ashes before 



230 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

returning to their homes. After this event the people moved south- 
ward as far as Santa Rosa. There Ka'kanylp's son was bom. He 
was named Pat' A'-anukam, and under his mother's care became a 
brave and noted man. Wliile yet a boy he one day accompanied the 
people on a hunting expedition. Some of the hunters asked hiin many 
questions to learn if his mother thought about marrying them. He 
told his mother about these inquiries, which caused her to weep bit- 
terly. She told him how his father had been killed. iVf ter hearing 
this sad story he went into the council house and told the people that 
he wished to see the springs and other places where the Apaches 
obtained drinking water, and also to see the trails they used. His 
further adventures are related in the texts, page 353. 

COYOTE 

At the time of the destruction of the earth, Coyote was saved in the 
maimer already described, and he again appeared at the emergence of 
the underworld Pimas that Elder Brother brought up to fight his own 
battles. Then it was that Coyote looked do\v^l the opening to see the 
humans struggUng vipward like a long line of ants ascendmg a tree, and 
the sight provoked him to laughter, an act that caused the earth to 
close up and prevent many people from reaching Pima Land. After 
that Coyote disappeared again. Now we are to hear the story of his 
subsequent life. 

Coyote wandered about alone somewhere in the West after we last 
heard of him, until one day he made two other coyotes from his image, 
which he saw reflected from the water; one he called the elder brother 
Or Sandy Coyote, and the other younger brother or Yellow Coj^ote. 
He told each to fetch a log. When they brought the logs he told them 
to embark upon the sea and seek for land beyond it. They followed 
his directions and sailed for days and nights across the water, the 
younger always behind the other. One day the elder said: 

"Younger brother, why are you always behind? Wliy don't you 
come faster?" 

"My log will not go any faster, that is why I am not with you," 
replied Yellow Coyote. 

"How are you traveling, with your eyes wide open or with them 
closed?" 

"My eyes are closed," answered Yellow Coyote. 

"Oh, that is why you are so slow. Look up and open your eyes and 
your log will travel fast." 

Yellow Coyote opened his eyes, but when he looked upon the water 
the ^v^nd blew the foam into his face and blinded him. "I am blind," 
he cried. 

Sandy Coyote stopped and tried to restore his sight, but without 
success, finally concluding that they had better return to their father 



RUSSF.LL] MYTHS 231 

Coyote for assistance. After they had returned to land and Coyote 
had restored the sight of Yellow Coyote the two brothers went to 
dwell in the land lying between the Pima country and the Mohave 
territory, near the mouth of the Grand Canyon. There they built a 
house with the doorway toward the east, as is the Pima custom. 
Wlien it was finished Sandy Coyote said, "Go in and take your choice 
of sides. You need only half the house, and I will take the other half." 

Yellow Coyote said, "You take your choice and I will take what is 
left." 

And so they continued telling each other to go in and take the first 
choice mitil the house grew old and fell do\vn. They built a second 
house, and again their dispute lasted until it fell. The same result 
was reached with the third house, but when the fourth was built the 
elder brother went in and chose the south side of the house, leaving 
the north side for the younger. 

When they went to gather the screw bean the elder brother took the 
beans on the south side of the trees and the younger brother took those 
on the north side. One day the elder said to the younger, " How do 
the beans taste on that side of the tree." 

"They are very good," replied the younger, but when they returned 
home m the evenmg he was taken sick. 

" It is caused by the beans you ate," said Sandy Coyote. " The beans 
on the north side are not ripened by the sun as are those on the south 
side. To-morrow you shall see the difference." And so the next day 
they went again and found the screw beans sweeter on the south side 
of the trees. 

Every evening they sat and split sticks with wliich to build bins, 
log cabin fashion, for the screw beans that they gathered. One day 
the elder brother said, "Let us play some kind of a game and bet our 
screw beans, and then we will not sleep too soon." So they made some 
ki°tsklJt." The younger lost all his screw beans that night and the next 
day the elder said, "We will not go for beans to-day." So that day 
the younger went hungry, and for many days thereafter, for the game 
of ki°ts continued until the beans were rotten and not fit to eat. Then 
they wagered their arrows and other property. Sandy Coyote won 
the arrows, bow, sinew, and feathers belonging to Yellow Coyote and 
then went out and brought in all the large and fierce animals, but 
Yellow Coyote without a weapon could get nothing but the small 
creatures which were of little use to Mm. 

In these straits Yellow Coyote sought the aid of Finish, who lived 
in the West. " I need your help, for I am losing a great deal," said he. 
Finish accompanied Yellow Coyote to the latter' s home. When they 
reached the house Yellow Coyote went in first, but when the stranger 
tried to enter he was caught by sticks and held fast in the doorway. 

<• See p. 175. 



232 THE PIMA INDIANS Ieth. ann. 2C 

He saw that the house was divided into two parts before him; even 
the fireplace was divided, and no one said a word to indicate wliich 
side lie should enter. For a long time he was silent. Then he said: 
"Wliat kind of people are you that you do not speak to me? It is 
the custom to ask a stranger 'Where are you from?' or, if they come 
at night, ' Where were you when the sun went down ? ' Wh}^ are you 
not thus courteous? Am I a thief, a murderer, or a ghost that makes 
you speechless with fright?" 

After the stranger had spoken, Mountain Lion got up, took his 
tobacco, rolled and lighted a cigarette. 

"Ha, you are here also," said the stranger, "and have said nothing 
to me." But Mountain Lion put away his tobacco without oll'ering 
any to the other, who exclaimed: "Do you think I have no tobacco? 
Don't you see that T am caught here in the door because I have so 
much tobacco in my bundle that it will not go through?" Then 
Yellow Coyote invited him to come to the south side of the house. 

For many nights they played different games, but Yellow Coyote 
continued to lo.se at all of them. At last he told Finish that ho had 
hit upon a game that he believed they could win with. So he called 
Tco'kokoi, or Black Beetle, and told him that the}^ wanted him to 
run a football race with A'ap'kai-iki, Duck. When Black Beetle 
heard that the south division of the house wanted him to run a race 
he said, "While you people were planning for this I had a dream. I 
dreamed that I had in my right hand a green ball, which I threw or 
kicked with my right foot toward the east. After I had kicked four 
times I reached the place where the sun comes up. When T turned 
around the darkness came behind me, but I kicked the ball four 
times and reached the place where the sun goes down, and the dark- 
ness did not catch me." 

All his party were glad to hear of Black Beetle's dream, saying that 
it was a sign of good luck. So the next day Yellow Coyote said to 
his brother, "We will draw a line here for the starting place. If 
your man kicks his ball back over this line first he will be the winner 
and if my man kicks his ball first over the line I shall be the winner." 
They agreed that whoever won .should have the privilege of marryang 
at the end of foiu' days. 

Duck and Black Beetle started off and ran for miles, and after a 
long time the latter came in, kicking his ball first over the line, 
thus winning the race for Yellow Coyote. At the end of the four 
days Sandy Coyote acted in bad faith, for he went away in the evening 
and toward midnight returned with a wife whom he had taken among 
the Va-aki A-ap, who lived northwest of the Coyote home. Her name 
was Itany Of'i." Yellow Coyote said, "I am going to build a fire 
and see what kind of looking woman my elder brother's wife is." 

a Itany is the nam? given a saltbush, Atriplox sp. , the seed of which is eaten by the Pimas. 



ROSSELL] MYTHS 233 

But the fire would not burn, and he got angry, exclaiming, "What 
shall I do? Here is that dirty syphilitic woman. I know her. I have 
passed her house many times, and I never thought she was to be my 
brother's wife. When she came in I smelled her breath, and the 
odor filled the house. What a lunatic my brother is to bring such a 
woman into the house." Then he covered the embers of the smol- 
dering fire and laid down to sleep. 

After four days "i'cllow Coyote went away in the evening toward 
the southeast and came home with a wife at midnight. She belonged 
to the people living on the Gila river supposed to be the ancestors of 
the Pimas, and her name was Ho-ony Of'i," Com Woman. When 
they entered the house Sandy Coyote said, "I am going to build a 
fire and see what kind of looking woman my younger brother's 
wife is." But the fire would not burn, and he became angry, ex- 
claiming, "What shall I do? Here is that dirty syphilitic woman. 
I know her. I have passed her house many times, and I never 
thought she was to be my brother's wife. When she came in I 
smelled her breath, and the odor filled the house. What a lunatic 
my brother is to bring such a woman into the house." Then he 
covered the embers of the fire and lay down to sleep. 

After a time they began to play ki"ts again, and Yellow Coyote 
lost as before. After he had lost ail his property he wagered his ])ody 
and soul, which Sandy Coyote won. Then the latter killed him and 
ate his flesh. Yellow Coyote's wife was pregnant at that time and 
later gave birth to a boy. When this boy was about nine years old 
he went out one day and met Sandy Coyote, who was bringing in a 
deer on his shoulders. A piece of the deer fat fell, and the boy picked 
it up, concealing it in his armpit. Sandy Coyote asked him if he had 
seen anything of the fat, but the boy said he had not. Sandy Coyote 
searched him and found the fat, which vexed him so that he thought 
to treat the lad as he had his father. "Let us play ki^ts together," 
said he. The boy told his mother about it, and she cautioned him 
not to gamble, as that was the cause of his father's death. For fear 
that he might do so she took him that night away toward the east. 
It was raining, but she carried fire with her in a small olla. She took 
up her residence in the Superstition mountains, where they lived upon 
herbs and grass seed. One day while the mother was away gathering 
seed the boy killed a l)ird with his little bow and arrows. When she 
returned he declared that he had killed a bird, but she would not 
believe that he had done it. But they buried the bird in the ashes 
and ate it. After that the boy killed many birds, rats, cottontails, 
and large hares. From time to time Ins mother made larger arrows 
and a heavier bow for him. One day he came rumiing to Ins mother 
asking for a yet larger bow that he might kill a mule deer. She told 

"There is a conflict of opinion as to which of these two women was married by Sandy Coyote. 



284 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 26 

him that only a grown man and not even he single handed could kill 
a mule deer. But he insisted, saying that he could kill it. So she 
made the large bow, and he went away with it. Wlien he reached 
the place where the deer was and was creeping close upon it a soft 
whistle reached his ear. He looked around and saw Mountain Lion 
coming toward him. Wlien Mountain Lion came up he said, "Wait 
here and I will kill the deer for you." He was as good as his word 
and brought the deer and also gave the boy his bow, arrows, quiver, 
and clothing, at the same time telling him not to let his mother know 
who had killed the deer, but to tell her that a man had given liim the 
other tilings. The mother went with the boy and tried to fuid a 
track, but she could find nothing. After that the boy killed plenty 
of deer. One daj' he shot a deer which escaped with an arrow in him. 

One day as Vulture was returning to his home near Maricopa he 
saw a dead deer with a strange arrow in it. He took both deer's 
meat and arrow home with him and showed it to the people who 
gathered according to their custom about him. He asked whose 
arrow it was, but no one could tell him. Sandy Coyote was in the 
company and recognized the arrow, but was too much ashamed to 
speak. Then Vulture said, "I think I know the arrow. I have 
heard of a boy living in the west who was ill treated, so that he and 
his mother were driven away to the mountains. I think they must 
have found a home somewhere in this country, for this is his arrow." 

Sandy Coyote admitted that it was his son's [nephew's] arrow. 
"Give it to me, and I will some day go there and give it to him," he 
said. The next day Sandy Coyote searched for and found his broth- 
er's widow and her son. When he reached their house he went in 
and saw them eating a dish of meat. "Here, take your arrow," 
said he. "You shot a deer, which carried it away and your father's 
brother found it, brought it to his home, and inquired whose it was. 
At last they said it was yours, so I bring it to you." The boy said 
nothing, but took the arrow and put it away. After the boy and 
his mother were through eating they put away the remaining food 
without a word. 

Sandy Coyote turned to leave, making an attempt to whistle to 
show his indifference to the coldness manifested toward him, but he 
only succeeded in shedding tears. "What is the matter with you 
that you cry so?" said the boy; "when I was younger and lived 
wdth you, you never gave me meat, but I did not cry." 

A long time after that the woman said to her son, "I am going 
home to my own people, where I may get some tiling to brmg to you, 
and then you may go and play ki"ts with Sandy Coyote, who Idlled 
your father; I think you are clever enough to beat him now. " For 
many days he waited for his mother to return, and at last he went 



RUSSELL] MYTHS 235 

after her. On the way he saw two attractive girls approacliing Mm. 
Turning aside, he lay dovnx beside the trail and began to sing a 
pleasing song just after the girls had passed him. Surprised at hear- 
ing a voice beliind them, thej' looked back to see whence it came, 
but could find no one. They saw nothing except a dead body that 
was well advanced with decay. WTien they started on they heard 
the singing again, but when they renewed the search they could find 
no livuig person. The younger said, "It must be this decajdng 
corpse that is smging. '' 

"Let us go," said the elder; but the younger refused, saying, "I 
am going to take that dead body, for I can see it winking." So she 
took it to her home and left it while she went to gather grass seed. 
Soon the younger ghl wanted to return to the house. 

"You want to go back to that putrid corpse," said the elder; 
"jou crazy tlung!" 

"Well, I am gomg; and if you are going to stay here, stay as long 
as you like." So the younger woman got ready to go home, but the 
other also got ready and accompanied her. ^Vlien they reached the 
house the younger went in and found a handsome young man, to 
whom she went without a word. The elder girl called her several 
times, asking her to come and help cook some food. At last the 
elder girl came and discovered the young man, and she also came to 
hmi. But the younger said, " You scolded me for bringing him here; 
now you may go out and leave him to me." 

Finall}' the joung man said, "Go out, both of you, and cook some- 
tlung for me to eat; I am hungry." So they both went to do as he 
wished. The next day the husband of the two young women came 
home, and was very angry at finding the j'oung man there. 

"Put up one of your wives," said he, "and we will have a game." 

The young man said, "I have nothing to wager." But the hus- 
band replied, "Put up one of your wives." Then the young man 
said, "You riiust put up your shirt." And it was the turn of the 
husband to reply, "I have no shirt." 

"Yes, you have." 

"No, this is my skin," he answered, scratching his breast until 
the blood came. 

"It is not your skin; it is your sliirt. If j'ou do not believe me, 
I will take it off you and then I shall win the wager from you. " "I 
agree," said the other. So the young man took the husband of the 
women up by the hands and shook liim, and he dropped dead out of 
his skui. 

At this time the young man's mother came, and they took the two 
yoimg women with them to their home. Soon he went to play ld°ts 



236 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

with Sandy Coyote, taking with him beads, deerskins, and other 
thiags to wager. As he journeyed he sang: 

Vasohona, vasohona, aikinynaimiginu yangai ku-uli. 

Vasohona-a, vasohona. 
Over there, over there, you pay me my father old. 

Over there, over there. 

As he went along he took sojne white stones, which he made to 
resemble white birds' eggs. These he put in a little nest wliich he 
made. When he reached his uncle's house he told Sandy Coyote 
that he had come to play ki°ts with him. They got ready to play 
and put up their wagers, but the young man said, "It is about time 
the birds laid their eggs. " 

"No," said Sandy Coyote, "it will be two or three months from 
now before they begin to build their nests. " 

"As I came along I saw that the dove had already laid her eggs." 

"No; you are lying to me." 

Then the yotmg man said, "Well, if I go and bring those eggs to 
you and show you that I was telling the tiiith I shall win our wager, 
if I do not liring thcni you shall win. " So the yovmg man went out 
and brought the eggs. After the wager had been paid they pre- 
pared for another game and another wager was laid. When they 
were ready the young man cut liis toe nail and tlu-ew it mto the 
west, where it hung, looking like the rim of the new moon. 

"Look at the moon there in the west," said he. 

"No; we are having a fidl moon now," said Sandy Coyote, "it is 
in the east; you are lying to me. How could the full moon be in 
the west in the evening?" 

"Well, suppose you look. If you fuid any moon you shall pay 
me the wager, and if you do not then I shall pay you." So Sandy 
Coyote looked and saw the supposed moon and came back and said, 
"You win." 

Again and again they played and again and again the young man 
won. 

WTien they were ready to play ki°ts Sandy Coyote said, "Sit there; 
it is your father's place." 

But the young man answered, "No; I shall sit here and you may 
sit there. If you wish me to sit there j^ou nuist carry me there. If 
you can carry me there you will win all we have wagered this game; 
if you can not, then I shall win. " 

So Sandy Coyote thought he could do it easily, and took hold of 
the young man to carry him to the other side, but he found the man 
so heavy that he could not move liim. So Sandy Coyote lost again, 
and was compelled to admit that he had lost all that he had. The 
young man said lie woidd like to have Sandy Coyote wager him- 
self, if he had nothing else, and the other agreed to this. 



KUSSELL] MYTHS 237 

"\Mieii they were ready to throw tlie ki^ts the young man said, 
"Your cane is looking at nie very sharply; I wovild like to have it 
turned the other way. " 

Sandy Coyote replied, "No one can move it in any way. I can 
not, nor can you." 

"Well, suppose I pull it out and turn it the other way, then I 
shall wni the wager; and if I can not, then you shall win." 

The other agreed; so he got up and moved the cane aroimd as he 
wished, thus winning the final wager. Then the young man grasped 
Sandy Coyote by the hair and shook him until he dro]")]5ed down 
dead. Taking all that he had won, the young man went home. 

After a time his mother said she would like to go to where her 
people were living. After some preparation they started on their 
journey. At the end of the first day they camped. During the 
night the mother turned herself into a gray spider. The second day 
they went on again and camped hi the evening. That night the 
elder wife turned herself into a black s])ider. At the end of the next 
day's journey they camped again, and that night the remaining wife 
turned herself into a yellow spider. The young man was left alone 
the next day, but he hojied to reach his mother's people, and so jour- 
neyed on until nightfall, when lie camped. During the night he 
turned himself into a rough black lizard. 

Even to this day (loyotc is known as the wise one. It is dan- 
gerous to kill or harm him, for lie will avenge himself by stealuig or 
doing worse mischief. He knows well the house of the one who tries 
to injure liim, no matter where tlie deed may have been performed. 
And yet he is not always unfriendly, for if he is heard to cry out as 
if jumjjing it is a warning that the Apaches are near and danger 
menaces. 

ANOTHER VERSION OF THE CREATION MYTH" 

before the earth was made nothing but darkness. It lias been found 
only wind blows came rolling from one place to anotlier, nothing but 
wintl. at the time there was a man in the darkness alone, and has told 
tiiat this man was wandering from point to pt)iiit. 
This has been for quite awhile, and no pleace for to rest on. So the 
man feel himself and know tliat he was a man by himself, and more of 
he found a push called (Slii(|uia) '' and after he founil this, and he call 
(Shic|uia) 
And also he made the earth, and so he call himself a God. now at the 

n It seems worth while to iiresent here the version of the cosmogonical myth which was written 
for the author by a young Pima who had learned to write English during the term of several years 
which he spent at a Government school. It illustrates the confusion existing in the minds of the younger 
generation: to some extent, also, the order of words in the Pima sentence, as well as the difliculties that 
must speedily beset the ethnological investigator as soon as the older people shall have gone. 

f> Rsukoi. 



238 THE PIMA INDIANS [etu. anx. 26 

time tills darkness was still on yet. so the first he made water, when 

he had done tliis work, he took the water and throught up In Heaven. 

which means stars, also he made the moon and mialk-way. to give 

more light, he also made the sun. which is greater then what he made. 
\ \ . . . 

\* now in those day's there, at a ceatan day. He sitted himself to made 

a first man out of a very hard mud. and there was another man name 

(Sis Hia.) and (Gia- (via mack) 

These two men begain too make all kinds of living creaters. and when 

these two men made men out of hard mud the pleaced at a house to 

see what will be, in a day or two. 

now when these men pleaced at. tliey want a little way to 

see what will be done with they work, so the haerd sone one speacking 

in that house, but could not understand, next there was another one 

speaclcing in our Lounger and Sie Hia) said that he imderstand that 

will be great wares to all nathion, not very long after this poeple at 

Mesa trying to make a cUtch. so they gather one day saking each other 

of way to get water. 

And one of these pearty said that there was man name Cea-gens who 

knows much about ditch, so the send for, when tliis Cea-vens) came 

to there camp, and told them that the must make a spath out of a 

tree call (Oie a came) so they work on for c{uite a wliile. 

while the working this man Cea-ven went away for some reason, 

while he way. these poeple at mesa had a great trouble anong them- 

self. 

there where begain they war. 

so they call a day, which these poeple to make Bows and arrows. 

Sho-jiak,« (Caveid) ^ 

and so these poeple start way down near Florince and then come to 

Casa great Rounen, and so on to Casa Planco. 

A mowan who's name (Stoke C(ui thani) his two son's one of them 

name (Parhane) another (Par-lrad) 

one day when the were at home, thire mother told about an eagle of 

there owne. and one day these boy's wanted to go and see what there 

mother been told them. So the start for there Eagle. 

when the were at the plaece. the youngest said to his brother, that 

he may try first, to clime up for the birds, he tryd But could not 

make, then the oldest one. got them, and bring them dovra. the 

yoimgest brother took the oldest bird, and there begain to quirral 

about these two birds, the oldest said to his brother that he might 

have the yoimgest becouse he was the youngest. 

and the oldest might have the oldest too. But the youngest would 

not let his oldest bird go. becouse he was the first one that he took. 

and would not let his brother give what he got first. 

a Club. i> Shield. 



RUSSELL] MYTHS 239 

CHILDREN OF CLOUD 

[Told by Inasa] 

When the Hohokain dweU on the Gila and tilled their farms about 
the Great Temple that we call Casa Grande there was chagrin among 
the yoimg men of that people, for the prettiest woman would not 
receive their attentions. Slie would accept no man as her hus- 
band, but Cloud came out of the east and saw^ her and determined tc 
marry her. The maiden was a skillfid mat maker, and one day she 
fell asleep when fatigued at her labor. Then Cloud sailed through the 
skies above and one large rain drop fell upon her; immediately twin 
boys were born." 

Now all the men of the puel)lo claimed to be the father of these 
cluldren. After enduring their clamors for a long time the woman 
told her people to gather in a council circle. TVlien they had come 
she placed the children within the circle and said, "If the}* go to any- 
one it will prove that he is their father." The babies crawled about 
within the circle but climljed the knees of no one of them. And so it 
was that the woman silencetl them, sa>ang, ''I wish to hear no one of 
you say, 'these are my cliildren,' for they are not." 

Wlien the boys had reached the age of 10 they noticed that tlieir 
comrades hatl fathers and tliey inquired of their mother, "Wlio can 
we call father? Who can we run to as he returns from the hunt and 
from war and call to as do our playmates?" 

And the mother answered: "In the morning look toward the east 
and 3"ou will see white Cloud standing vertically, towering heaven- 
ward; he is your father."'' 

"Can we A'isit our father?" they inqmred. 

"If you wish to see him, my children, you may go, but you nuist 
journey without stopping. You will first reach Wind, who is your 
father's elder brother, and behind liini you will find your father." 

They traveled for foiu- tlays and came to the home of Wind. ''Are 
you our father?" they incpiired. 

"No; I am your uncle. Your father lives in tlie next house; go 
on to liim." They went to Cloud, l)ut he drove them back, saying: 
"Go to your uncle and he will tell you sometliing." Again the uncle 
sent them to the father, ami ft)ur times they were turned away from 
the home of each before their father would acknowledge them. 

a Bourke mentions this myth in his notes upon the Mohaves; " This Earth is a woman; the Sky is a 
man. The Earth was sterile and barren and nothing grew upon it; but by conjunction with the Sky 
(here he repeated almost the very same myth that the .\paches and Pimas have to the effect that the 
Earth was asleep and a drop of rain fell upon her, causing conception) two gods were born in the west, 
thousands of miles away from here." Journal of American Folk-Lore, n, 178. 

b .\mong the Navahos Sun is the father of the twins who grow to manhood in four days and then set 
out to find their parent. See Wasiiington Matthews, The Navajo Mythology, in American Antiqua- 
rian, V, 216. 1883. 



240 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axx. 26 

"Show me that you are my children," said he; "if you are, you can 
do as I do." Tlien the younger sent the chain hghtning with its 
noisjr peal across the sky. The older sent tlie heat lightning with its 
distant diapason tones. "You are my cliildren," exclaimed Cloud, 
" vou have power like unto mine." As a further test he placed them 
in a house near by where a flood of rain had drowned the inmates. 
"If they are mortals," thought he, "they will be drowned like the 
others." Unharmed by the waters about them, the children demon- 
strated their power to survive, and Cloud then took them to his home, 
where they remained a long time. 

Wlien tliey longed to see their mother again, Cloud made a liow 
and some arrows different from any that they had ever Imown and 
gave to them. He told them that he would watch over them as they 
journeyed, and admonished them against speaking to anyone that 
they might meet on the way. As the boys were traveling toward 
the westward, they saw Raven coming toward them, but they 
remembered their father's injunction against speaking and turned 
aside so as not to meet him. They also turned aside to escape meet- 
ing Roadrunner, Hawk, and Eagle. Eagle said: "Let's scare those 
children." So he swooped down over their heads, causing the boys 
to cry from fright. "Oh, we just wanted to tease you, that's all; 
we don't mean to do you any harm," said Eagle. 

Thus they journeyed on until they met Coyote. They tried to 
turn aside in order to avoid him, but he ran around and put himself in 
their way. Cloud saw their predicament and sent down thunder 
and lightning, and the boys by their magic power added to the bolts 
that flashed before the eyes of Coyote until he turned and fled. 

It was on the mountain top that the boys were halted by Coyote, 
and one stood on each side of the trail at the moment when they were 
transformed into the largest mescal that was ever known. The place 
was near Tucson. 

This is the reason why mescal yet grows on the mountains and why 
the thunder and lightning go from place to place — because the chil- 
dren did. This is why it rains when we go to gather mescal." 

o A similar version of tliis myth was related to Lieutenant Emory by the interpreter of the Chief Juan 
Antonio Llunas. This man said: ■■ That in bygone days a woman of surpassing beauty resided in a 
green spot in the mountains near the place where we were encamped. All the men admired and paid 
court to her. She received the tributes of their devotion— grain, skins, etc.— but gave no love or other 
. favor in return. Tier virtue and her determination to remain unmarried were equally firm. There 
came a drouth which threatened the world with fiimine. In their distress the people applied to her, 
and she gave corn from her stock, and the supply seemed to be endless. Ilcr goodness was unbounded. 
One day as she was lying asleep with her body exposed a drop of rain fell on her stomach, which pro- 
duced conception. A son was the issue, who was the founder of a new race which built all these houses." 
When he was asked if he believed the story he repUed: ■■ No; but most of the Pimos do. We know, 
in truth, nothing of their origin. It is all enveloped in mystery." W. H. Emory, Notes of a Military 
Recoimoissance, S. Ex. Doc. 41, 83, 30th Cong., first sess., 1848. 



RUSSELL] MYTHS 241 

SKULL AND HIS MAGIC 

> 

Once there was a pretty girl who was unwilhngj to marry anyone. 
All the young men brought presents of game to her parents, but none 
found favor in the eyes of the critical maiden. At last to the surprise 
of neighbors and kinsmen she chose for her husbantl one who was a 
man by night anti a skull by day. Then all laugheil at the marriage, 
saying, "One man in this valley has a bone for a son-in-law." 

One morning the crier of the village made this proclamation: 
"To-day we hunt deer in the mountains to the northward!" Skull 
went ahead of the party and hid in a defile in the mountains. When 
the hunters came driving the game before them the deer all fell dead 
at the sight of gruesome Skull; so the people had an abundance of 
venison without the trouble of trailing and killing. Thus it was that 
Skull rose in their regard and ridicule was no longer heaped u])on him. 

The next day had been appointed for the foot race in which the 

runners would kick the ball. Skull entered as one of the contestants, 

though his neighbors laughed and said: "How can one ball manage 

another?" But when he reached the goal a winner the last voice of 

'contumely was silenced. 

ORIGIN OF THE HORSE 

Two brothers who lived apart from their kinsfolk were skillful deer 
hunters. Day by day they followed the deer and antelope, and when 
their chase was successful they carried the ganie home on their shoul- 
ders. This was heavy work, and at last the elder in the goodness of 
his heart took pity on his younger brother, saying: "You must help 
me to carry out my plans and I shall become transformed into some- 
thing that will be useful to you. Shoot an arrow through my body 
from front to back and another from side to side ; cut me transversely 
into four pieces and throw them into the water. In four days you 
may come back and see what has happened." 

Wlien the younger man, sorrowing and wondering, had obeyed he 
returned to find four strange animals which we now call horses, two 
males and two females, colored black, white, bay, and yellow or 
"buckskin." lie was not frightened, for his brother had given him 
warning, and he had provided himself with a rope, which he tied around 
the neck of one of the horses, took a half hitch in its mouth, and rode 
it home, driving the others. 

Thereafter horses multiplied m Pimen'a and in time all were pro- 
vided with mounts, though had it not been for the sacrifice of the 
good brother we should never have had any. 
26 ETH— 08 18 



242 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

Another version 

At the time when the Rsarstikatc A-atam confined the game animals 
in the cave at Aloam mountain" our people were living between Casa 
Grande and Tucson. Among them were two unhappy brothers, one 
blind and the other lame. One day as the elder was lamenting, 
crying, "Wliy am I lame?" and the other was saying, "Why am I 
blind?" they suddenly heard a peal of thunder and a voice said, 
"Take care! Take care!" At this they were frightened, and the 
yoimger opened his eyes to see and the elder sprang to his feet and 
walked. 

Then they went to hunt for game, but the Rsarslikatc A-atam had 
cleared the ranges of every living thing that could supply the Pimas 
with food, so that the brothers wandered over mountain and mesa 
without success imtil they were gaunt with hunger. Then the elder 
told his brother that he would die for the latter's sake and that after 
a time the younger brother should return to see what had l)een the 
result of his sacrifice. When the young man returned he found two 
horses, a male and a female. 

Nursery Tales 

the five little orphans and their aunt 

Five little Indians (not Pimas) were once left orphans because their 
parents had been killed by Apaches, and they got their aunt (their 
mother's younger sister) to come and live with them. She had no 
man, and it was very hard for her to take care of them. One day the 
cliildren all went away to hunt, and they were met by five little rabbits 
(cottontails) in the mountains. The oldest of the rabbits came run- 
ning to the children and crying, "Don't shoot me; I have something 
to tell you." So the children stood still and the rabbit said, "The 
Apaches have come to your place and burned down all the houses; 
you had better go home now." But the children surrounded the 
rabbit and killed it A\ith an arrow and took it home. 

When they reached home, they saw their aunt lying outside the ki 
in the shade, and something bloody near her. The oldest boy said, 
"Just look what auntie has been doing! She's been eating our paint 
and poisoned herself." But it was blood they saw coming out of her 
mouth, for the Apaches had come and killed her. When they came 
closer, they saw that a bunch of her hair had been cut off, and she 
looked so unnatural in death that they thought it was somebody else, 
and that their aunt had gone away. They had never seen a dead 
person before. So they said, "Let us dig a big hole and make a fire all 
day long and put hot stones in it, for she has gone to the mountains to 

a Twenty-five miles southwest of Tucson. 



EUSSELL] NURSERY TALES • 243 

get some mescal." So they did, and waited all day long till sunset, 
when she usually came, but she did not come. Then they said, "She 
has gone far and has a heavy load and is waiting for us to come and 
hel]i her: let us go." But the oldest boy said, "No, she will come 
anyway, she always does, even if she has a heavy load." So they 
waited till night, and gave her up, and went into the house to sleep; 
but they kept their sandals on, as the Pimas always did, so they could 
start off quickly if there were danger. 

In their sleep they heard her coming in her sandals, groaning and 
murmuring, so they all got up and went outdoors. They heard her 
go and look into the fire pit, and then come and stand in their midst. 
One said, "I think it is a ghost; " so they turned to the right and ran 
around the ki, and she followed them around and around. Finally 
they all went inside, still pursued, and the cliildren stood on each side 
of the door and turned into stone. And the woman went away. 

COYOTE AND THE QUAILS 

Once Coyote was sleeping very soumlly and a great number of quails 
came along and cut pieces of fat meat out of him; then they went on. 
Just as they were cooking the meat Coyote overtook them and said, 
" Oh, where did you get that nice fat meat ? Give me some." They 
gave him some, and after he had eaten all he wanted he went on. 
When he had gone a little way, the quails called after him, "Coyote, 
you ate your own meat." 

"What did you say?" 

"Oh, nothing; we heard sometliing calling behind the mountains." 

Presently they called again, "Coyote, you ate your own meat." 

"Wliatf" 

"Oh, notliing; we heard somebody pounding liis grinding stone." 

So Coyote went on; but finally he felt liis loss, and then he knew 
what the quails meant. So he said he would eat them up, and turned 
around after them. The quails flew above ground, and Coyote ran 
under them. Finally the quails got tired, but Coyote did not, for he 
was angry and did not feel fatigue. 

By and by they came to a hole, and one of the smartest quails picked 
a cholla cactus branch and pushed it into the hole, and they all ran in 
after it. Coyote dug out the hole, and when he came to the first quail 
he said, "Was it you that told me I ate my own meat ? " "No," said 
the cpiail, so he let him go, and he flew away. The next one he asked 
the same question and received the same reply, and let him go; and 
so on till the last quail was gone, and he came to the cactus branch. 
Tliis was so covered with feathers that it looked Uke a quail, and the 
Coyote asked it the same question. There was no answer, and Coyote 
said, "I know it was you, because you do not answer." So he bit 
into it very hard and it killed him. 



244 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 26 

THE WOMAN AND COYOTE 

Once the river rose very high and spread over the land. An IncHan 
woman was going along with tortillas in a basket on her head, and 
she waded in the water up to her waist. 

C'oyote was afraid of the water, so he was up in a cottonwood tree. 
When he saw the woman he said, "Oh, come to this tree and give me 
some of those nice tortillas." 

"No," said the woman, "I can not give them to you; they are for 
somebody else." 

"If you do not come here I will shoot 3H)U," said Coyote, for he was 
supposed to have a bow. So she came to the tree and said, "You 
must come down and get them, for I can not climb trees." C'oyote 
came down as far as he daretl, but he was afraid of the water. Then 
the woman said, "Just see how shallow it is, only up to my ankles." 
But she was standing on a big stump. C'oyote looked and thought it 
was shallow, so he jumped down and was drowned. And the woman 
went on. 

THE PIMA BOY AND THE APACHES 

An old woman once lived with her grandson. The boy's father had 
been killed by the Apaches and his mother taken captive. They had 
treated the woman very badly and burned her arms with hot ashes and 
coals and made big scars. The lioy had heard these stories about liis 
mother. 

The boy and the old woman had a very hard time getting along, and 
he used to go where certain persons were grinding corn and brush a 
few grains as they fell from the metate into his blanket anil carry them 
home and the grandmother would make soup of them, and that was 
the way they lived. But by and by these people went away and when 
the boy went to get some corn there was none there and he had nothing 
to take home. The grandmother scolded him and told him to go back; 
and when he refused she whipped him. Then he said, "I know where 
my mother is, ami I am going to her." The old woman said, "No, you 
must not; the Apaches will kill you." But he said, "I am going; my 
mother will not let them harm me." So he went. His grandmother 
trailed him to the mountains, and finally from the very highest peak 
she saw him going along toward the camp. She also saw his mother, 
her daughter-in-law, out alone gathering seeds. She recognized her 
at a distance by the shining of her scars. The old woman ran after 
the boy, but when she caught up with him he stepjied aside and turned 
into a saguaro. Then after she had turned around and gone back he 
resumed his form and went on to liis mother. 

When she saw him she cried out, "Don't come near me, the Apaches 
will kill you; 3'ou know what they did to me, and they will kill you." 

"What can'l do?" he said, "What do the Apaches like?" 



BUSSELL] NURSERY TALES 245 

"They like little doves." 

"Then I will turn into a little dove." 

He dill this and she carried him home in her basket. The Apaches 
asked, "What is that?" and she replied, "The young of a dove; so I 
brought it home." But when the Apaches left the room they could 
hear her talking to it, antl when they came in she would be still. They 
could not understand the wonls but knew she was speaking her own 
language, so they said, "This thing belongs to her tribe. Let us kill it." 

So they went in and the chief took it in one hand and smashed it 
hard with the other and the pieces came through between his fingers. 
These pieces then flew up out of the smoke hole and turned into a flock 
of hawks, and they fell upon the Apaches and beat them all to tleath 
witli their wings. 

Then they turned back into the boy again and he antl his mother 
started home. But when they reached the place where the grand- 
mother had turned back they could go no farther. They turned into 
saguaros, one on each side of the road. 

--j— THE BIRDS AND THE FLOOD 

Wlien the waters covered all the earth two birds were hanging 
onto the sky with their beaks. The larger was gray with a long 
tail and beak; the smaller was the tiny bird that builds its nest like 
an olla, with onlj^ a very small opening to get in. The larger one 
cried and cried, but the other just held on tight and said, "Don't 
cry. You see that I'm httler than you, but I'm very brave. I 
don't give up so easily as you do. I trust in God; He will take care 
of those in danger if they trust in Hini."° 

DEATH OF COYOTE 

After the waters had gone down Ekler Brother said to Coyote, 
"Don't touch that black bug, and do not eat the mesc[uite beans; it 
is dangerous to harm anything that came safe through the flood." 
So Coyote went on, but presently he came to the bug, and he stopped 
and ate it up. Then he went on to the mesquite beans and looked 
at them and said, "I will just taste one, and that will be all." But 
he stood there and ate and ate till they were all gone. And the 
beans swelled up in his stomach and killed him. 

THE BLUEBrRD AND COYOTE 

The bluebird was once a very ugly color. But there was a lake 
where no river flowed in or out, and the bird bathed in this four 
times every morning for four mornings. Every morning it sang: 

Ga'to setcu'anon ima rsoiiga. 

Grnanursa, 
Wus'sika sivany tcutcunona. 



" This sentence is clearly inspired by Christian teachings. 



246 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ank. 26 

(There's a blue water, it lies there. 

I went in, 
I am all blue. I 

On the fourth morning it shed all its feathers and came out in its 
bare skin, but on the fifth morning it came out with blue feathers. 

All this while Coyote had been watching the bird; he wanted to 
jump in and get it, but was afraid of the water. But on that morn- 
ing he said, ' ' How is tliis all your ugly color has come out of you, 
and now you are all blue and gay and beautiful? You are more 
beautiful than anytliing that flies in the air. I want to be blue, too." 
Coyote was at that time a bright green. "I only went in four times," 
said the bird; and it taught Coyote the song, and he went in four 
times, and the fifth time he came out as blue as the little bird. 

That made liim feel very jiroud, because he turned into a blue 
coyote. He was so proud that as he walked along he looked about 
on every side to see if anyone was noticing how fine and blue he was. 
He looked to see if his shadow was blue, too, and so he was not 
watching the road, and presently he ran into a stump so hard that 
it threw him down in the dirt and he became dust-colored all over. 
And to this day all coyotes are the color of dirt. 

THE BOY AND THE BEAST 

Once an old woman lived with her daughter, son-in-law, and grand- 
son. They were following the trail of the Apaches. WHienever a 
Pima sees the track of an Apache he draws a ring around it with a 
stick, and then he can catch him sooner. But at night while they 
were asleep the Apaches came and grasped the man and woman by 
the hair and shook them out of their skins as one would shake com 
out of a sack, and the old woman and the boy were left alone. They 
had to live on berries, but in one place a strange beast, big enough 
to swallow people, camped by the bushes. The grandmother told 
the boy not to go there, but he disobeyed her; he took some very 
sharp stones in liis hands ami went. As he came near the animal 
began to breathe and the boy just went inside of him and was swal- 
lowed all up. But with his sharp stones he cut the intestines of the 
beast so that he died. When the grandmother came to hunt for 
the boy he came out to meet her and said, "I have killed the animal." 

"Oh, no; such a little boy as you are to kill such a dangerous 
beast!" 

"But I was inside of him; just look at the stones I cut liim with." 

Then she went up softly and saw the holes and believed. And 
after that they moved down among the berries and had all they 
wanted to eat. 



uussKLL] NURSERY TALES 247 

THE THIRSTY QUAILS 

A quail hail more than 20 cliiklren and with them she wandered 
over the whole country in search of water and could not find it. It 
was very hot and they were all crving, '' Wliere can we get some water? 
Wliere can we get some water?" but for a long time they could find 
none. At last, away in the north, under a mesquite tree, they saw 
a pond of water, but it was very muddy and not fit to drink. But 
they hatl been wandering so many tlays and were so tired that they 
stopped in the shade, and by and by they went down one by one 
and drank the water, although it was so bad. But when they had 
all had enough it made them sick and they died. 

THE NAUGHTY GRANDCHILDREN 

An old woman had two bright grandcluldren. She ground wheat 
and corn every morning to make porridge for them. One day as 
she put the olla on the fire outsitle the house, she told the cliiklren 
not to fight for fear they would upset the water. But they soon 
began quarreling, for thej^ did not mind as well as they should, 
and so spilled the water, and the grandmother had to whip them. 
They became angry and said they were going away. She tried to 
make them imderstand why she had to wliip them, but they would 
not listen and ran away. She ran after them, but could not catch up. 
She heard them whistling and followed the sound from place to place, 
until finally the oldest boy said, "I will turn into a saguard, so I 
shall last forever, and bear fruit everj' summer." And the younger 
said, "Well, I will turn into a palo verde and stand there forever. 
These mountains are so bare and have notliing on them but rocks, 
so I will make them green." The old woman heard the cactus whis- 
tling and recognized the voice of her grandson; so she went up to it 
and tried to take it into her arms, and the thorns killed her. 

And that is how the saguaro and palo verde came to be. 

Abstracts of Myths 

the creation myth 

Out of primeval darkness spirit of Earth Doctor developed. He 
first created creosote bush from dust. Next created black ants and 
termites; these caused the world to develop and Earth Doctor cre- 
ated the sky. Then made gray spider and commanded it to spin 
web connecting edges of earth and sky. Threw blocks of ice into 
the sky for sun and moon and spray of water for stars; large stars 
made from magic crystal, and milky way by walking stick dipped in 
ashes. All living things then created and human beings from images 
of clay. Earth became overpopulated, as there was no death yet, 




248 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

SO Earth Doctor pulled the sky down on the earth and crushed every- 
thing to death. But he came through a hole to the other side and 
made a new creation. After a time Elder Brother, a rival to Earth 
Doctor, arose and threatened to destroy the people again. This 
accomplished, through the cliild of Elder Brother's agent and South 
Doctor's daughter, who was the last of the youth's many wives. 
Child was abandoned and its tears caused a flood that overwhelmed 
the earth. Elder Brother was saved in his olla, Coyote on a log, 
father and cliild by turning into birds. Earth Doctor by hiding in his 
staff, and some people by going into a hole in the earth made by Earth 
Doctor. 

After the flood Elder Brother was the ruler and Earth Doctor and 
Coyote his subordinates. When they found the middle of the land 
they all took part in a new creation. First death caused by Rattle- 
snake biting Rabbit. Burning corpse stolen by Coyote; afterwards 
he abused the woman and in retaliation the magicians concealed all 
the usefvd animals in a cave; these released by Coyote. 

Vantre supplied with magic gambling sticks by Feather-breathing 
Si'van''. Elder Brother interfered and caused Vantre to be turned 
into an eagle. Eagle lived on mountain and preyed on the people 
until killed by Elder Brother. 

Tarsnamkam sent his parrot to. steal turquoises at Casa Grande; 
sent football to daughter of Si'van'' there; cliild born fi-om tliis 
became the monster Ha-ak, who killed and ate children until destroyed 
by Elder Brother. Tobacco plant grew from grave of old woman 
who had stolen Ha-ak's blood. 

Elder Brother fell into disfavor with the people, who killed Mm 
several times, but he always came to life again, until the magic power 
of Vulture was invoked, who killed him through the agenc}' of the 
sun. Came to life once more, but sank through a hole to the under- 
world, where the survivors of the flood lived. Some of these came 
above under his leadership and conquered the people there. 

COYOTE 

After closing up by his laughter the hole through which the imder- 
world people were coming up. Coyote wandered to the west, and one day 
made two other coyotes from his image in the water, Sandy Coyote 
and Yellow Coj^ote. They sailed on logs across the water, but Yellow 
became blind and they turned back and went to live near the Grand 
Canyon. Gambled with each other and Sandy won; Yellow assisted 
by Finish, who causes Duck and Black Beetle to run a race, in which 
latter won for Yellow. Sandy finally won Yellow's body and soul 
and killed him. Death finally avenged by his son, who won from 
Sandy by stratagem. 



KUSSELLJ ABSTRACTS OF NURSERY TALES 249 

nilLDKEN OF CLOUD 

Twin boys immediate result of marriage of Cloud and the beautifid 
mat maker, who had refused all suitors. Boys grow up, inquire for 
father, sent to the east to find him. Meet Wind, their uncle, and 
Cloud, their father. Tested by rain, thunder, and lightning, and 
accepted. After long visit start for home; encounter Raven, Hawk, 
Eagle, and Coyote; stand on each side of trail to avoid latter and are 
transformed into mescal. 

SKULL AND HIS MAGIC 

Man by night and Skull by day, he married maiden who had 
refused other suitors. Successful hunter because deer fell dead at 
sight of him. Winner in football race, thus silencing all ridicule. 

ORIGIN OF THE HORSE 

Two brothers burdened with heavy game. One conceives plan of 
relief and asks other to help him. Latter cuts body of former into 
four pieces and throws them into a lake; in four days returns and 
finds four horses. 

Abstracts of Nursery Tales 

THE FIVE little ORPHANS AND THEIR AUNT 

Parents killed by Apaches and unmarried aunt supported children. 
While hunting one day warned by cottontail rabbit that Apaches had 
been at their house. On return find aunt dead, but never having seen 
a corpse did not recognize her. With mescal kept fire against her 
return; at night frightened and pursued hj her ghost until all turned 
to stone. 

COYOTE AND THE QUAILS 

Quails cut pieces of fat from Coyote as he slept; he awakened and 
overtook them in camp; asketl for refreshment and was given of his 
own flesh; starting on he was tauntetl about it by the quails. Turned 
to pursue them and almost ran them down when they ran into a hole, 
the foremost carrying a cholla stem. Coyote asked eacJi in turn if 
she were guilty; on denial, let them go; finally asked cholla, and 
receiving no reply, bit it hard and it kiliecl him. 

THE WOMAN AND COYOTE 

Coyote in cottonwood tree asked woman wading in river to give 
him some of her tortillas; she refused, but on being threatened went 
up to tree and tokl him to jump down, as the water was shallow; l)ut 
she was standing on a stump; when he jumped he was drowned in 
the deep water. 



250 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

THE PIMA CAPTIVE AND HER SON 

Boy whose mother captured by Apaches hved with liis grand- 
mother. Quarreled with her and started to find his mother. Reach- 
ing her he turned into a dove, and she carried him home; Apaches 
heard her talking in her language to it, so the cliief crushed it in his 
hand; pieces flew up through the smoke hole and turned into flock 
of hawks, who beat the Apaches to death. Mother and son started 
home, but turned into saguaros on the way. 

COYOTE AND THE BLUEBIRD 

Bird became blue by bathing in lake. Taught Coyote how, and 
he became blue, too. So proud that he gazed at himself as he went 
along and ran into a stump, fell into the dust, and became gray, as he 
is to-day. 

THE BOY AND THE BEAST 

Parents killed by Apaches and boy lived with grandmother. 
Frightened from berry bushes by terrible beast. Boy took some 
sharp stones and approached the beast, who swallowed him; cut his 
way out with the stones and thus killed the beast. 

THE NAUGHTY GRANDCHILDREN 

Quarreled with grandmother and ran away; when pursued the 
boy turned into a saguaro and the girl into a palo verde. Old woman 
grasped the cactus and it killed her. 

Religion 

DEITIES 

The Pimas are far less given than their pueblo neighbors to the 
outward show of religion, such as is seen in the varied and frequent 
ceremonies of the Hopis and Zunis. On the contrary, they appear 
to have no other than an occasional "rain dance," the navitco (see 
p. .326), and other ceremonies for the cure of disease. So far as 
could be ascertained in a comparatively brief sojourn among them 
their religion comprised a belief in the supernatural or magic power of 
animals, and especially in the omnipotence of the Sun. Wlien in 
mourning, sick, or in need, the Pima addressed his prayers to the Sun in 
the morning: Tars! Oeki'up sinha-ikui-itiik iupin'yimak kuv'kutuki! 
"Sun! Kindly help me through the day!" Or at nightfall his peti- 
tion was raised: Stcoho'komam ! Oek iup sliihii'ikui-ittik iup inyimak 
kukutfiki! "Darkness! Kindly help me through the night!" The 
following form of supphcation was often employed : Tars ! Pa'pGtitcfi 
slnha'i-iku[ldi], contracted from Tars! Pa'pflt itcok'si sinha'ikuit, 
"Sun! There, have mercy on me." When weary upon a journey, the 



itrssELL] KELIGION ' 251 

Sun was appealed to, and the first whifF of cigarette smoke was puffed 
toward him. The disk was not regarded as the "sliield" or "head- 
dress," but as the veritable person of the god. He moves unceasingly 
around the flat earth, going beneath the western rim and passing 
across below to rise in the east. 

It is Sun that, by means of magic power, kills those who die during 
the day. It is Night who kills those who die during the hours of 
darkness. Moon is Sun's wife, but she is not accredited with the 
power that is given to Darkness. Coyote is the child of Sun and Moon, 
and figures largely in the myths. His character, by its buft'oonery 
and trickery, much resembles that of the culture heroes of some other 
tribes. 

At the present time two deities are recognized, Tcu'wut Makai, 
Earth Magician (medicine-man or doctor), and Si'Clti, Elder Brother. 
They live in the east, dividing the control of the universe between 
them. The former governs the winds, the rains, etc. ; sometimes he 
is called Tciors, Dios [Spanish]. Their names are pronounced when 
a person sneezes, or, he may simply exclaim "pity me," referring 
tacitly to one or the other of these two deities. There is a jjuzzling 
mingling of the old and the new in the myths, though it seems prob- 
able that the greater part of them have been of ancient origin with 
recent adaptation of Earth Doctor and Elder Brother from the Chris- 
tian religion. Among the Pimas themselves opinion is divided as to 
whether the myths have been largely adopted from the Papagos. 

At the solstitial point in the northeast lives Tcopiny Makai, Sink- 
ing Magician, who also has a "house" in the northwest. In the 
southeast lives Vakolif ^lakai. South Magician, who also occupies 
the corresponding point in the southwest. Along the Sun's path are 
the houses of the four minor gods : 

Wupuki Makai, Lightning Magician, is the southernmost, and when 
the Sun is in liis neighborhood we have lightning that is not accom- 
panied by thunder. 

Toahim Makai, Thimder Magician, causes the thunders that are 
heartl during the second month. 

Huwult Makai, Wind Magician, produces the strong winds that 
blow so continuously in the spring. 

Tatrsaki Makai, Foam Magician, causes the river to rise and bear 
foam upon its waves in the month succeeding the month of wind. 

It is difficult to determine the exact position of Coyote in the Pima 
pantheon, though he is classed with the leading deities in the myths, 
and his modern but degenerate descendants are regarded as very 
wise. 

When a coyote comes by moonlight and sees the shadow of a 
chicken he can pounce upon the shadow and so bring down the bird 
within reach. He has been known to steal a baby from between its 



252 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

sleeping parents, an informant declared. Considering the manner 
in wliicli the moon is supposed to have originated, it is strange that 
it should contain the figure of a coyote. No explanation of this 
belief was found. 

The stars are living beings: Morning Star is the daughter of a 
magician; her name is Su'mas Ho'-o, Visible Star. Polaris is the Not- 
walking Star, but is otherwise not distinguished from his fellows. 
Possibly this term has been adopted since the advent of the whites. 
Once a mule with a pack load of flour was going along in the sky, 
but he was fractious and not gentle, as is the horse. He bucked off 
the load of flour, which was spilled all along the trail. A part of it 
was eaten by (byote, but some remains to form the Milky Way. 

THE SOUL AND ITS DESTINY 

The soul is in the center of the breast. It makes us breathe, but 
it is not the breath. It is not known just what it is like, whether 
it is white or any other color. 

The views of the Pimas concerning the destiny of the soul varied 
considerably. Some declared that at death the soul passed into 
the body of an owl. Should an owl happen to be hooting at the time 
of a death, it was believed that it was waiting for the soul. Referring 
to the diet of the owl, dying persons sometimes said, "I am going 
to eat rats." Owl feathers were always given to a dying person. 
They were kept in a long rectangular box or basket of maguey leaf. 
If the family had no owl feathers at hand, they sent to the medicine- 
man, who always kept them. If possible, the feathers were taken 
from a living bird when collected; the owl might then be set free 
or killed. If the short downy feathers of the owl fell upon a person, 
he would go blind. Even to-day the educated .young people are 
very chary about entering an abandoned building tenanted by an 
owl." 

By some it is said that after death souls go to the land of the 
dead in the east.*" All souls go to Si'alik Rsan, Morning Base, or 

a " Having been asked what information they possessed of their anrestors {antcpasados), they told 
me about the same things as {lo mismo poco mas 6 menon que) the (Pimas [Maricopas?]: Gilenos said 
to the senor oomandante. and Padre Font put in his diary, concerning the dehige and creation; and 
added, that their origin was from near the sea in which an old woman created their progenitors; that 
this old woman is still somewhere (quicn sabe en donde) , and that she it is who sends the corals that 
come out of the sea; that when they die their ghost {corazon) goes to live toward the western sea; 
that some, after they die, live like owls (tecolbles; and fimilly they said that they themselves do not 
understand such things well, and that those who know it all are those who live in the sierra over 
there beyond the Rio Colorado." Oarers' Diary in Coues, On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, i, 122. 

"After death Mohaves become spirits; then they die again and become a kind of an owl; a second 
time they turn into a different kindof an owl, and a third time into still another; fourthly, they hecome 
water beetles; after that they turn into air. 

" If anything is left of their bodies, the arms, the muscles of the upper arms lieeome one kind of an 
owl, and the heart another." J. G. Bourke, Journal of American Folk-Lore. ii, 181. 

''Compare the Navaho belief, as recorded by Matthews: "For is it. not from the west that the snow 
comes in the winter, the warm thawing Itreezes in the spring, and the soft rains in the summer to nour- 



BcssELL] RELIGION 253 

place wliere the sun rises. The East Land is separated from the 
hind of the hving by the chasm called Tcu'wut Hi'ketany, Earth 
Crack. When one of the writer's interpreters had gone to school at 
Hampton, Va., her associates said that she had gone to the abode of 
spirits. All is rejoicing and gladness in that other world. There 
they will feast and dance, consequently when one dies his best cloth- 
ing must be put on and his hair must be dressed with care, as is the 
custom in preparing for an earthly ceremony. No idea of spiritual 
reward or punishment for conduct in this life exists. 

Again, the souls of the dead are supposed to hang about and per- 
form unpleasant pranlvs with the living. They are liable to present 
themselves before the living if they catch the right person alone at 
night. The ghost never speaks at such times, nor may any but 
medicine-men speak to them. If one be made sick by thus seeing 
a ghost, he must have the medicine-man go to the grave of the 
offending soul and tell it to be quiet, "and they always do as they 
are bid." Old Kisatc, of Santan, thought that the soul continued 
to reside in the body as that was "its house." During his youth 
he had accompanied a medicine-man and a few friends to the grave 
of a man who had been killed near Picacho, about 40 miles south- 
east of Sacaton. The medicine-man addressed the grave in a long 
speech, in which he expressed the sorrow and regret of the relatives 
and friends that the corpse should thus be buried so far from home. 
Kisatc avers that tlie spirit within the grave replied to the speech by 
saying that he did not stay there all the time, but that he occasion- 
ally went over to hang about the villages, and that he felt unhappy 
in the state in which he found himself. Of course the medicine-men 
claim to be in communication with the spirits of the departed as well 
as with supernatural beings capable of imparting magic power. 

DREAMS 

Dreams are variously regarded as the residt of evil doing, as a 
natural and normal means of communication with the spirit world, 
and as being caused by Darkness or Night. During the dream the 
soul wanders awa}' and passes through adventures as in the waking 
hours. The young men never slept in the council ki for fear of bad 
dreams. 

To dream of the dead causes sickness in the dreamer and if he 
dream of the dead for several nights in succession he will die. Dreams 
are not consulted for information concerning future action except in 

ish the com in thp valleys and the grass on the hills? Therefore it is that when we are in need we 
pray to Estsanaltehi, the Goddess of the Sunset Land. 

'* But first man and first woman were angry becausn they were banished to the east, and before 
they left they swore undying hatred and enmity to our people. And for this reason all evils come 
from the east — smallpox and other diseases, war, and the white intruder." The Navajo Mythology, 
in American ^Vntiquarian, v, 224, 1883. 



254 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 26 

the case of the would-be medicine-man who may be called to his 
profession by means of persistent dreams. Since Night may cause 
one to dream as he wishes it is fair to presume that it is that god 
who oversees the destinies of the medicine-men. 

Many years ago Kisatc, in either a swoon or trance, believed that 
he went far away to a place where a stranger gave him a magnificent 
bow and a set of beautiful arrows. On regaining consciousness he 
asked for the things that had been givert him while he was away and 
became cpiite indignant when they assured him that he had not been 
out of their sight. To this day he believes that they deceived him. 

SACRED PLACES 

Hahatesumieliin or Hahatai s'maihisk, Stones Strike, is a large 
block of lava located in the eastern Santan hills (see pi. xli, b). 
The largest pictograph ever seen by the writer in the Southwest is 
cut upon it and 2 or 3 tons of small angular stones foreign to the 
locality are piled before it. There are also many pictographs on 
the bowlders round about. This was probably a Hohokam shrine, 
though it is regarded with reverence by the Pimas, who still place 
offerings of beads, bits of cloth, and twigs of the creosote bush at the 
foot of the large pictograph. There is a tradition that a young man 
was Ijdng asleep uj)on the flat rock and was seen by two young women 
who were passing along tlie opposite hillside. They tried to awaken 
him by tossing the pebbles which are yet to be seen. Pima maids 
thus awaken their lovers to the present day. 

Ha-ak Va-ak, Ha-ak Lying, is a crude outline of a human figure 
situated about 5 miles north of Sacaton. It was made by scraping 
aside the sniaU stones with wliicli the mesa is there tliickly strewn 
to form furrows about 50 cm. wide (fig. 102). The body furrow is 
35 m. long and has a small heap of stones at the head, another 
at a distance of 11 m. from the first, and another at the junction of 
body and legs. The latter are 11 m. long and 1 m. apart. The 
arms curve outward from the liead and terminate in small pyra- 
mids. In aU the piles of stohe, which liave a temporary and modern 
appearance, are glass beads and rags, together witli fresh creosote 
branches, showing that the place is j^et visited. The beads are 
very old and much weathered. Beside the large figure is a smaller 
.one that is 4.5 m. long, the body being 2.7. Ha-ak is supposed to 
have slept one night at this place before reaching Ha-ak Tcia 
Hak, a cave in the Ta-atlikam mountains, where she remained for 
some time. 

I'aksk', Place of Sacrifice, is a heap of stones on a knoll near Black- 
water where it is probable that a Hohokam or Pima medicine-man 
has been buried. 



RL'SSELI.l 



RELIGION 



255 



Pat'aiiikam, Place of the Bad One, is the name of a grave at Gila 
Crossing. It seems probable that the grave of some Ilohokam medi- 
cine-man has been taken for that of the son of Kakanyp. 

There is another similarly inclosed but unnamed grave at Gila 
Crossing, also one between Sweetwater and Casa Blanca, and there 
are three at Blackwater. Such inclosures are called o'namuksk, 
meaning unknown. Beads are to be found strewn about all of them. 

Ma'vit Va-ak, Puma Lying, or Tci'apatak, Place of the Mortar, is a 
heap of small stones (pi. xli, c) between the Double buttes, 10 miles 
west of Sacaton. Stones are there piled over a shallow mortar in 
which beads have been placed and partly broken. Bunches of fresh 
creosote branches were mingled with the deca^ang fragments of arrow 
shafts at the time of the writer's visit, showing that while the shrine 




Fig. 102. Ila-ak altar. 

is yet resorted to it is of considerable antiquity, for wood does not 
decay rapidly in that climate. 

Evil spirits dwell in the Picacho and Estrella mountains, but this 
belief may be presumed to be an inheritance from the Apache period. 
The writer has not learned of any shrines being located in those 
ranges. 

It is said that in the Santa Rosa mountains there was once a tightly 
covered medicine basket which was kept on a mountain top by a 
Papago medicine-man who carried offerings to it. All others were 
forbidden to touch it; but someone found it and when he lifted the 
cover all the winds of heaven rushed forth and blew away all the 
people thereabout. 



256 THE PIMA INDIANS 1 kth. ann. 26 

Near the summit of one of the lava-formed Santan liills is a small 
cave in wliich the Hohokam placed sacrifices. A number of articles 
were discovered there a quarter of a century ago and sent to some 
eastern museum. Since that time the Pimas deposited the body of a 
child and some other things in the cave, which were secured by an 
Arizona collector in 1901. The cave is known as Va'rsa Va'-ak, Basket 
Lying, because it contained a basket such as the Pimas use for their 
medicine paraphernalia. It was discovered by two Pima warriors, 
who were serving their sixteen-day period of lustration for having killed 
Apaches. The basket contained sinew from the legs of tleer, and sticks, 
which the finders assumed to be for the same purpose as those with 
which they were scratching their own heads at the time. 

When a medicine-man dies his paraphernalia, if not transmitted to 
his descendants, may be placed in an olla and hidden under a heap of 
stones in the hills. He may also sacrifice a part of his stock in a simi- 
lar way during his lifetime. The property of warriors is sometimes 
similarly cached. 

Such places were formerly respected by the tribe, but they are now 
robbed with impunity to get "relics" to sell. A man at Pe-e'pdtciltk' 
informed the author's interpreter, Jose Lewis, of the location of one 
of these caches in the low hills south of Casa Blanca. We found that 
a number of concretions, crystals, shells, a bird carved from stone, 
and a war club had been deposited in an olla with a bowl turned over 
it, rendering it water-tight. The whole had been hidden under a heap 
of stones at the summit of a spur of the liill about 4 miles from the 
villages. 

Medicine-men 

There are three classes of medicine-men among the Pimas. Those 
who treat disease by pretended magic are known as Si'atcokam, Exam- 
ining Physicians. As many women as men belong to this order, 
to which entrance is gained chiefly tlirough heredity. This is the 
most powerful class in the community, though its members pay for 
their privileges at imminent risk. How great this risk is may be seen 
from the calendar records, page 38. The Si'atcokam were more 
numerous than the other classes. Those who have power over the 
crops, the weather, and the wars are called Makai, Magicians. 
Only one or two women were ever admitted to this order among the 
Pimas. There were usually about five Makai in each village. 
These two classes were the true rulers of the tribe, as their influence 
was much greater than that of the chiefs. Their combined strength 
was for years turned against the missionary. Rev. C. H. Cook, but 
their influence is now fast waning and several medicine-men have 
become avowed Christians. From these converts information was 
obtained that in all probabihty could not have otherwise been secured. 



KL'SSELL] 



MEBICINE-MEN 257 



Yet another class of persons, inrliulin^ both men and women, and 
few in number, might be termeil medicine-men. They are called 
Hai'-itcottam, Something given to drink. They are not highly 
esteemed, however skilled they may become in the use of roots and 
simple remedies, yet they are the true physicians of the Pimas. It 
may be that among the many empiric remedies wliich they employ 
some will be found to possess true therapeutic qualities. 

The traditional liistory of the tribe tells of many families of medi- / 
cine-men, and the profession was very generally handed down from ' 
father to son. Those receiving magic power in tliis maimer were 
somewhat more highly regarded than others. A second method by 
which a person might secure power was by what might be termed a 
process of natural selection; anyone who recovered fi"om a rattle- . 
snake bite on the hand or near the heart might become a medicine- 
man or medicine-woman. A tliird method was by dreams and U 
trances. Ivisatc saitl that during liis youth he had dreamed every 
night that he was visited by some one who endowed him with magic 
power. Under the influence of these dreams he decided to become a 
medicine-man, but as soon as he began to practise the dreams ceased. 
These dreams are not sought by fasting or other unusual conditions, 
nor does the person to whom they come seclude himself from his 
fellows. 

Several informants declared that "any man who received instruc- 
tion from a medicine-man and learned to do some little tricks could 
become a medicine-man." The process of acquirmg power was called 
va'ikita, "getting power" (literally, "pouring in oUa"). The novice 
was tested, either alone or along with one or more fellow-aspirants, 
by the medicine-man, who had the youth kneel before liim on all fours, 
and then threw four sticks, each about 8 inches long, at him. If 
the novice fell to the ground during the throwing he was ''shot" with 
the power and could then take the next degree. This was admin- 
istered by the instructor, who "coughed up" tcu'tcaka (word of 
unknown meaning), white balls the size of mistletoe berries, and 
rubbed them "into" the breast of the novice. Another informant 
said that the novice swallowed the balls. Four or five balls were thus 
administered, though the "power began to work" in some cases 
where only one or two balls were used. One informant thought that 
the medicine-man had a sort of "nest of power" wherein the balls 
developed as in the ovary of a hen. No matter how many were given 
off the supply continued undiminished. 

Sometimes the doctor wished to teach the youth, in which case the 
latter paid nothing for his instruction." But the usual fee was a 

« * ' The Indians of the nation of Loretto had schools, whereby these professors instructed their youths 
in the above opinions, and some other needless puerilities: but recommended to them as truths of great 
importance. In order to this, their pupils attended them to caves or solitary places, at a distance 

26 ETH— 08 19 



258 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann, 26 

horse, "a piece of calico," or the like. Throughout the period of his 
initiation the novice was not permitted to go near a woman's men- 
strual lodge nor might he allow anyone to know that he was learning; 
that implied that he should not practise until the end of the novitiate 
period, usually two years, sometimes four. Wlien at length he began 
to practise his success depended on his ability to develop dreams 
and visions. 

While the Si'atcokam can induct any young man into the mysteries 
of the order, that man's son can not inherit his father's profession. 

Legerdemain 

The Makai were intrusted with the important duty of securing 
supernatural aid to insiu^e good crops. One method of procedure 
was to gather the people in the large lodge and have some one bring 
in an oUa filled with earth. Tliis the Makai stirred with a willow 
stick and placed before a clear fire, where it stood all night while 
rain songs were being sung. At dawn the olla was emptied and was 
found to contain wheat instead of earth. Four grains were given 
to each one present, to be buried at the corners of the fields or the 
four grains together at the center. 

For a consideration the Makai would go to a wheat field and per- 
form rites which he assured the owner would result in a heavy yield 
of wheat. After rolling and smoking a cigarette at each corner of 
the field, he would go to the center of it and bury a stick (fi,'mina) 
3 or 4 inches long. 

To cause an abundance of melons and squashes, the Makai entered 
the field and took from his mouth — or, as his followers supposed, 
from the store of magic power in his body — a small melon or squash. 
The object was partially covered with hardened mud, symbolic of 
the productive earth. The rite was performed at a time when no 
melons or squashes had yet appeared, and it is supposed that he 
obtained the "magic" melon by stripping the outer leaves from the 
growing end of young vines. This was buried at the root of a 
growing plant to insure a prolific yield. 

Again, the germination and growth of wheat were sometimes 
imitated by concealing several grains of wheat in the hair and shaking 
them down upon the soil. Then by a dextrous manipulation of a 
previously prepared series of young wheat shoots the growth was 
represented up to the point where a stalk 2 feet in length was 

from the woods: and there they taught them to form certain figures on tablets, and when perfect in 
these, they were taught others, as children in our schools are taught to write. . . . But their 
most usual device was to hold up in their hands some little tablets of wood made with great labour, for 
want of iron tools of mesquite, or another hard wood called Una de Gato, on which were painted 
some grotesque figures, affirmed to be the true copy of the table, which the visiting spirit left with them 
at his departure to heaven: and these figures were the same which the Loretto professors [medicine-menj 
taught the boys at their private academy." Venegas, History of California, i, 98, 100. 



KDSSELL] LEGERDEMAIN 259 

slipped from the long coils of hair at the operator's shoulders and shown 
to the awe-stricken spectators as a fully developed plant. 

A favorite trick was to have young men chew mescjuite leaves, 
which on being ejected from the mouth were seen to be wheat or corn. 

During the rain ceremonies, when the Makai were at the height of 
their glory, one of their most impressive acts was to pour dry earth out 
of a reed until it was half empty and then it would be seen that the 
remainder was filled with water. "Then it rained right away." 
If the Makai ]iut one of the magic slates in a cup of water at the time 
the rain songs were being sung and also dug a shallow trench to 
show the rivulets how they should cut their way, it would rain in 
four days. 

Another device of the Makai was to conceal reeds filled with 
water and then while standing on a house top to direct the singers 
to stand in a close circle around below him. Exhibiting a handfid 
of eagle down or eagle tail feathers and throwing dust on them to 
show how dry they were, he would then sweep his hand about and 
scatter water over the spectators and singers, apparently from 
feathers but in reality from the reeds. 

During the season when rain is especially needed any one may 
petition for it by means of the small gray fly that has a large head. 
Rubbing soot from the roof or chimney in the fly's eyes the person 
must say, "Go quickly, little fly, tell your grandmother to send the 
rain." 

Some Si'atcokam arouse the wonder and admiration of their fellows 
by placing hot coals in their mouths (where they hold them between 
the teeth), or by holding them in their hands (taking care to have a 
thin layer of ash or mud beneath them). 

When the exigencies of the case demand it, the Si'atcokam sink small 
pointed pieces of wood, an inch in length and flat at the larger end, 
into the flesh of their patients. The bits of wood are "t^\-isted back 
and forth between the thumb and forefinger as one would twist a 
thread until the wood disappears." The great grandmother of 
Jacob L. Roberts, a young man of Apache-Maricopa and Pima- 
Kwahadk' lineage, thus treated him during a temporary attack of 
sickness in his infancy. She sank two pieces of creosote bush into 
his breast and predicted that he would not be ill as would other 
children. She also said that she would die witliin the year — and 
she did. Strange to say, ^Jacob also escaped the epidemic diseases 
that afflicted liis playmates. 

The Si'atcokam prize certain crystals very highly and claim to obtain 
them in the following manner: The person possessing the necessary 
power may be going along in some cjuiet place when all of a sudden 
a man will be seen approaching. The stranger never reaches liim 
but will be seen to disappear; then if the Si'atcokam searches about 



260 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

the spot where the man was last seen, he will find a transparent 
crystal, h§,'tai t8,n'tam, stone white, which contains a spirit that will 
aid him in all his subsequent undertakings and wliich will desert the 
stone at the death of the holder.'^ 

The Si'atcokam treats a wounded man by sucking the evil from 
the wound. He shows a strand of green that resembles a roll of 
water plants about 8 inches long. The wounded man sucks this 
crosswise four times and the Si'atcokam pretends to swallow it. 
"This insures complete recovery." 

Cause and Treatment of Disease 

The Si'atcokam carries his tcackut or staff in hand when called to 
treat the sick. He begins by singing the "cure songs" or causing 
them to be sung for the purpose of aiding him in correctly diagnosing 
the case. Then he puffs out cigarette smoke over the body of the 
patient in order that he may ''see'' the disease. Most common ail- 
ments are attributed to certain definite causes and the diagnosis is 
easy. T\nien he is well paid for his services he may sing more than 
one night before announcing the name ofthe disease. If he is too 
hasty he may "see" the bear when it is really the deer that is causing 
trouble. However, he can not sing more than four nights: then, if he 
fails, he must call in a fellow-practitioner. The case of Sala Hina is 
an interesting and instructive one and will illustrate very adecjuately 
these peculiar methods. Several years ago Sala carelessly ate some 
weed which poisoned her and she had barely strength enough to reach 
home. As close relatives are not allowed to treat a patient, a neigh- 
boring medicine-man was called in. Her husband rolled a cigarette 
for the learned doctor, who smoked it, but however skillfully he 
spread the smoke cloud over the groaning patient he could not "see" 
the cause of the trouble. Then another Si'atcokam was calletl in and 
a cigarette was rolled for him and he peered through the veil suffi- 
ciently to see '"something." But he could not tell just what it was 
and advised sending for another medicine-man who was a specialist 
in intangible shapes. Sala was suffering the greatest agony in the 
meantime. If she moved she "felt full of pins inside." Those about 
her expected her to die at any moment. Number three at length 
arrived and smoked his cigarette, blowing the smoke across the 
patient from a distance to dispel the unusually heavy darkness. He 
said he must have his gourd rattle and niagic feathers brought before 
he could see clearly. Meanwhile the husband had brought in a fourth 
medicine-man. Number four then smoked a cigarette and pro- 

o " Small rock crystals, supposed to be produced by the shamans, are thought to be dead or even 
living— a kind of astral bodies of the Theosophists. Such a rock crystal is called tevali (plural 
tevali'r) or 'grandfather'— the same name as is given to the majority of the gods. But it may', 
however, represent any person or relative, in accordance with the directions of the shaman." Lum- 
holtz, Svmbolism of the Huichol Indians, (i3. 



ECSSELL] CAUSE AND TREATMENT OF DISEASE 261 

nounced the verdict of death. Poor Sahi had been compelled to lie 
quiet to avoid the torture from the "pins" but her mind was active 
and she understood every word that was said in her presence. Deter- 
mined to do what they could, the last two arrivals set to work singing. 
Number three sang four songs, followed by four more songs from 
number four. Then number three sang four more, and so they 
alternated all night. Toward morning they put ashes into a cup of 
water, sweeping eagle feathers across the dish meanwhile. They 
then announced that they would get the evil out soon. Number 
four sprayed water from his mouth over the patient and declared 
that he had found her to be suffering fi'om the presence of the horn 
of a homed toad in her heart. Falling on his knees beside her he 
sucked with all his might until he had removed the offending object. 
As it flew into his mouth it gagged him and he hastened to withdraw 
it. Calling for a piece of cotton he put the hot and burning horn 
into it and told the brother of the patient to throw it into the river. 
Then the two Si'atcokam sang twice and later in the day sang twice 
through their set of four songs for the homed toad. This faithful 
treatment brought about a recovery. 

Sala's brother fell ill of some throat disease over which the doctors 
sang, sucked, and smoked for a month before he died. 

It will be seen from the cases described that the songs play an 
important part in the treatment, and -they are sung with endless 
repetitions. After the cause of the affliction has been decided upon 
the songs of that animal or object are sung. An image or a part of 
the animal or object is pressed upon or waved over the part affected 
and then the farce of sucking out the evil is gone through. Juan 
Thomas informed the writer that he had fi-ecjuenth" concealed imder 
his thiunb nail the objects which he pretended to suck from his 
patients. 

Sometimes ashes are rubbed upon the skin of the sick person. No 
matter what the disease may be, the ashes are administered with light 
rubbing. No explanation could be given for this treatment. For 
any disease, also, pledgets of cotton might be burned on the skin, and 
as these were half an inch in diameter and two or three might be 
burned in one place, the effect must have been very painful. 

The female Si'atcokam never treated children; they confined their 
labors to the treatment of abdominal troubles not necessarily peculiar 
to sex. They treated men for abdominal difficulties and men treated 
women for all diseases. 

Payment is promised to the Si'atcokam when they are called in. It 
may be a horse, cow, some wheat, a basket, or similar property. If 
he contracts to sing three nights and to receive a horse in payment, 
he will not receive the horse if the patient dies after he has sung two 



262 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axx. 26 

nights, but »vill receive some compensation. The death of the patient 
does not annul the obligation imder any circumstances. 

In addition to the animals, birds, and reptUes that cause disease, 
the variety of human aihnents and the fertility of the native's imagi- 
nation necessitated the invention of yet other causes. These were 
sometimes superhuman, but only too often the tribe merely descended 
to the level of the African savage, and accused some medicine-man of 
the crime of causing disease. There would seem to be some reason 
in this if the medicine-man who had the case in hand were the one 
accused, btit that was not the custom: it was a rival practitioner who 
bore the onus and frequently paid the penalty with liis life, as maybe 
seen from the accompanying annals. It would seem that every epi- 
demic of any extent that ever afflicted the Pimas caused an almost 
wholesale destruction of medicine-men. In individual cases.of malice 
on the part of the medicine-man the treatment is to sing the medicine 
song and aftenvards to place four magic stones in a cup of water, 
taking out one at a time and holding it under the nose of the patient, 
that he may inhale its power: then he must drink the water. 

If a person beheves that a medicine-man has brought sickness upon 
his household he calls in another doctor to find the charm. The one 
consulted takes four assistants and searches day and night until some 
object is found which they can safely assume was hidden in the vicinity 
by the malicious medicine-man. When found the object must not be 
touched, for fear of death, but the mere discovery renders it harmless 
to the person against whom it was aimed. 

Sometimes the medicine-man causes sickness by "' shooting" char- 
coal, made from the burned body of an enemy, into some one who 
does not notice it at the time, but whose body bums in consequence. 
If it is sucked out before it is entirely consumed the charcoal loses 
its power and the patient recovers. 

The badger causes a severe throat disease, which, however, is con- 
sidered to be of rare occurrence. The remedy is to sing the badger 
song (p. 321) and to press the tail of the badger on the patient's neck. 

The bear causes swellings upon the body, headache, and fever. 
The remedy is to sing the bear songs, of which there are several 
(p. 318): the singing is sometimes continued throughout the entire 
day. No part of the animal is used in the treatment. The bear is 
friendly to the Pimas. If a man meets one he must say, "I'm red," 
and then the bear will not touch him, though he is free to kill the 
animal. 

The black-tailed deer causes diseases of the throat and lungs. The 
remedy is to sing the deer song (p. 317) and to press the tail of the 
deer on the affected part. 



RUSSFXL] CAUSE AND TREATMENT OF DISEASE 263 

Tlie coyote causes sickness in children; some believing that he 
brings on the dysentery when the mother eats melons before the birth 
of the child, others thinking that he causes rash and blisters on the 
baby's tongue. The remedy is to sing the coyote song (p. 316) and 
swing the tail of the coyote over the child. 

The dog, a very near relative of the coyote in Pimeria, also causes 
trouble for the children. Wlien a child a month or two old is fretfid 
and sleepless the medicine-man is pretty certain to diagnose the case 
as "dog disease." He does not treat it in any manner, but some one 
who knows the dog song (p. 315) is called in to sing, and as he sings 
he sways a stick that has some of a dog's yibrissse tied to it, to and 
fro over the child. 

The gopher causes stomach trouble, particularly in children. The 
remedy is to sing the gopher song (p. 319) and to press moistened 
earth from a gopher hill upon the affected part. At Gila Crossing 
were obtained two small deerskin bags containing tufts of eagle's down 
and two ,or three twigs that had been cut by a gopher. These were 
to be pressed upon the stomach of the child. 

The jack rabbit causes open sores. The remedy is to sing the rabbit 
song (p. 314), and during the singing to swing over the patient the 
tail of the hare to which the animal's vibrissse have been tied. 

The mouse, kuwakawapakam, causes constipation in children. This 
is cured by singing the mouse song (p. 314), and pressing the tail of 
the mouse on the abdomen. If no prepared tail is available a dead 
mouse is used. 

The ground sc[uirrel of the mesas causes nosebleed. 

There are but four birds that cause disease. There appears to have 
been no conscious classification in the minds of the Pimas in attribut- 
ing certain afflictions to the birds. These diseases are all of a different 
nature, and are similar to those assigned to manxmals and reptiles. 

The eagle causes hemorrhage. The remedj^ is to sing the eagle song 
(p. 289) and to pass the down of the eagle over the part. 

The eagle is also blamed for the lice that find refuge in the hair of the 
Pimas. The remedy is to blow cigarette smoke over the head. 

The hawk causes hemorrhage in grown persons only. The disease 
is cured by singing the hawk song and passing the wing feathers of 
the bird over the patient. If one touches a hawk he must be secluded 
for four days. 

The owl throws people into trances and fits. They are restored by 
having the owl song (p. 311) sung while six owl feathers mounted on 
a stick are swung over them. The cry of the small owl, kokovol(t), 
in the night is a bad sign. When the large owl utters a sound re- 
sembling human speech sickness may be expected. 

The vulture or turkey buzzard causes sores, especially sj'pMlis, and 
sore eyes on the baby if the parent eat a dead animal just before the 



264 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

child is born. The remedy is to sing the buzzard song and pass the 
wing feathers of the buzzard over the child. 

A Gila monster if killed by the father just before the birth of 
a child causes the baby's bodj^ to become red and feverish. The 
remedy is to sing the Gila monster song (p. 307). Such a disease 
must be of rare occurrence and no other treatment is prescribed. 

The horned toad causes rheumati.sm and hunchback. The remedy 
is to sing the horned toad song (p. -307), and press an image of the 
creature upon the patient (fig. 25, a). If one accidentally steps on 
a horned toad he must tie a red string around its neck and let it go, 
saying, " nyxr u-ut hok," my blood eat. This is to cause the subtle 
toad to eat the bad blood that may cause disease in the person. 

The large lizard, tcosokalt, is responsible for a fever in cliildren, the 
most prominent symptom of which is the whitening of the skin. If 
any one who knows the lizard song (j). .308) is available he comes and 
presses an image of a lizard (fig. 25, h) on the child as he sings; if not, 
a lizard is killed and fat from its body is rubbed upon the child. 

The rattlesnake causes kidney and stomach troubles in children. 
These are cured by singing the rattlesnake song (p. 309) and pressing 
the parts affected with an image in wood or stone of the rattlesnake. 

The bite of the rattlesnake is cured by sucking the wound every 
morning for four days. Others suck it one or two days, and also 
ligature the limb with horsehair, or draw a circle around it with char- 
coal to define the limit of the swelling. The Papagos and Mexicans 
use the plant Euphorbia marginata to poultice snake bites, and it is 
possible that some Pimas use it also, though the writer was vmable to 
find anyone who knew of its being so used. 

While the rattlesnake is dreaded and under circumstances previ- 
ously mentioned is regarded as possessing magic power, he occupies a 
far less important place in Pima thought than in that of the Hopis. 
It is said to be unlucky to come upon two rattlesnakes, one soon 
after the other, when engaged in searching for anything. If a child 
puts its foot through an olla head ring that is commonly left lying 
about the premises, the mother warns him that the rattlesnake will 
bite him. The same fate is threatened if he puts his foot into the 
mortar in which the mesquite beans and other articles of food are 
ground. The rattlesnake is accredited with wisdom that directs it to 
the place where the best mesquite beans are to be had, though why 
such a locality has any attractions for it was not explained. 

The turtle causes large sores on the body or cripples the legs. 
The treatment is to sing the turtle song (p. 306) and shake a rattle 
over the patient. The rattle is made by killing a river turtle and 
placing the body in an ant-hill until the ants have thoroughly cleaned 
out the shell, which is then mounted on a handle, and some gravel 
put into it. 



RUSSBLh] CAUSE AND TREATMENT 0¥ DISEASE 265 

A butterfly with striped winp;s causes internal pains. The treat- 
ment consists in singing the butterfly song (p. 295) and pressing the 
body of the patient with four or five images of the butterfly cut from 
deerskin. 

The worm, kammalt, when found dead and dried is ground uj) in 
the mortar and the powder used to cure sores around the baby's 
moutli. 

One's teeth will fall out if he eats food over which some caterpillars 
have crawled. 

The nausea of pregnancy is caused by unfaithfulness on the part 
of the woman. It is cured by singing the proper songs and striking 
two sticks a foot long over the patient afterwards. 

The remolinos, or wliirlwinds, that are so common in Pimeria, cause 
pains in the legs, but not swellings. The remedy is to sing the wind 
song (p. 324) antl to rub the limbs with the black gum of the okatilla, 
Fouquiera splendens. 

The sun may cause disease for which there would seem to be no 
special song. However, a small colored image of the sun with feather 
rays attached is used by the medicine-man. 

A captured Apache child might cause lameness in some member of 
the family by whom he was kept. It was cured by some one who had 
killed an Apache singing over the patient. Then the cliild must be 
sold to the Mexicans or Americans. It was also supposed that the 
touch of an Apache woman might cause jiaralysis. 

Piliolt was once a man, but is now an evil spirit living in the east, 
and causing a disease which has its songs. 

The Nyavolt, an evil spirit, may induce a horse to tlirow his rider 
and injure liim. The patient is cured by singing the Nyavolt song 
(p. 329) and swinging a pair of crossed sticks over the injured part. 

A certain disease of the throat is called wheita, and the same name 
is given to a stick made from mesquite root, which is thrust down the 
patient's throat four times and then passed four times over the heart 
to cure him. 

Tcuuyim is an evil spirit that causes sickness in cluklren. The 
most characteristic symptom is fretfulness. The Tcunyim song 
is sung and the child's body is jiressed with a strand of hair taken in 
war from an Apache's head. The hair is cleaned and washed l)y 
some old person, then the ends are gluetl together with the gum of 
the creosote bush before it is ready to use. A'mina sticks tied with 
bluebiril and retlbird feathers are also useil. 

Ka'm&l tkak (pi. xliv, h), who was accustomed to assist the 
doctors, states that this name is applied to a disease of the throat 
which causes the victim to lose flesh. The treatment consists in 
placing a'mina in an olla of water to soak while the doctor or his 
assistant blows through a tube, called the tcunyim cigarette, upon 



266 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

the forehead, chin, breast, aiul stomach of the patient. The tube 
has a bunch of feathers attached called a-an kiattita, and these are 
next swept in quick passes downward over the body. The a'mina 
are then taken and sucked four times by the patient, after which the 
end of the bundle is pressed against the patient's body, then laid 
flat upon his breast and rubbed. Finally, the assistant repeats the 
speech of Siu-u at the time when that deity restored himself to life, 
at the same time making passes toward the patient. 

Magic influence exerted by evilly disposed persons, especially medi- 
cine-men, may cause a particular ailment, called "doctor's disease," 
in the cure of which the slate tablets found in the ruins are believed 
to be most efiicacious. The information was given that no marking 
was made on the slates; they were simply placed in a vessel of water 
and the patient drank the water. 

Sometimes the sickness of a cliild was believed to be due to the fact 
that some person desired to take it away from its parents. If they 
went to the covetous one and accused him of the crime the child 
immediately recovered. 

Navitco (fig. 26) is an evil spririt adopted from the Papagos. His 
home is in the mountain called Papak, Frog. " This spirit causes 
the knees to swell and the eyes to become inflamed. It may safely 
be inferred that this disease has been a common one, as it is the prac- 
tice to treat several at one time in a somewhat more elaborate cere- 
monial than is usual in the treatment of other diseases. One medi- 
cine-man personates Navitco, another known as Kakspakam accom- 
panies him; both are masked. At a signal from Navitco, given by 
tin-owing corn meal on the baskets, 15 or 20 persons appointed for 
the purpose sing the Navitco song (p. 326) , accompanied by the notched 
sticks, after which Navitco goes to each patient and pats him with 
eagle feathers until he has presumably drawn out all disease. He then 
throws away the feathers. He is followed by Kakspakam, who seats 
himself before each patient to give him an opportunity to touch the 
mask and then the swollen knees. When the singers have finished, 
they rub the notched sticks over their own bodies to prevent conta- 
gion. All concerned in the ceremony must not eat salt for four days 
thereafter. 

The Navitco medicine-men also claim to possess the power to bring 
rain. 

The treatment of a cliild afflicted with dysentery mingles the new 
order with the old in an interesting manner, combining Christian 
baptism with pagan sun worship and magic medical practice. 

A man and his wife who are close friends of the parents come early 
in the morning and wash the baby. If it is a boy, it is taken up at sun- 

a Santa Catalinas, north of Tucson; altitude, 10,000 feet. 



KissELi.] PREVALENT DISEASES 267 

rise by the man, who breathes upon a cross and holds it toward the sun 
four times. If it is a girl, it is taken bj' the woman, who breathes upon 
a medal and holds the object toward the sun four times. Whichever 
object is used is next passed in the form of the cross over the face and 
again over the body of the infant by both the man and the woman. 
Each then holds the child four times in his or her arms before handing 
it to the parents. A name is given the cliild by the godfather and 
godmotlier. No child except one thus ill or another in the same 
family of a naming age at the time is ever christened thus. The 
godparents must give the child some wheat or corn each year until it 
grows up, and the parents give a basket each year in return. 

Even horses may become sick through the evil influence of mali- 
cious medicine-men, who, it is said, "shoot" live coals into them — 
coals that have been taken from an Apache fire. The remedy is of 
a similar magic character. A rejiutable medicine-man is called in, 
who diagnoses the case and decides from what direction the coal was 
"shot." He does not sing, but after smoking a cigarette and blowing 
puffs of smoke about the ])remises and upon the horse he determines 
the place to suck out the coal from the distressed animal. When he 
gets the coal into his mouth he makes a pretense of being burned by it 
and immediately fills his mouth with water, after which he casts out 
the coal. 

The transparent trick of sucking a hair from the body is resorted to 
in veterinary practice in a manner similar to that pursued when treat- 
ing human ailments. 

Prevalent Diseases" 

Consumption is the most frequent and fatal disease, due to poverty 
of diet and contagion. The Pimas do not attempt to prevent infec- 
tion. Their former treatment was a diet of mountain turtle and 
sun-dried beef. 

Dysentery is common in summer because of the peculiar habit, by 
no means confined to the Pimas, of eating unripe melons. 

Impetigo contagiosa is the worst skin chsease, and is principally 
conliiied to the children. 

Cliildren are intentionally exposed to smallpox and measles, that 
they may have the diseases in lighter form. Smallpox was regardetl 
as an evil spirit of which they did not dare to show fear. They said 
"I like Smalljiox," thinking that he would be thus placated. At one 
time they attempted inoculation from persons that had light attacks, 
but the experiment resulted in many deaths. From 1S70 until the 
Government sent a physician to the agency, the missionary, Rev. C. H. 

From 1892 until 1S95 Dr A. E. Marden held the position of agency physician at Sacaton and from 
1900 until the time of the writer's visit to the Pimas in 1902 continued his practice as missionary phy- 
sician among the Pimas. The writer is indebted to him for the greater portion of the information 
relating to the degree of prevalence of disease. 



268 



THE 1'IM.A INDIANS 



lETH. iXN. M 



Cook, supplied the Pimas witli vaccine. They retained some of their 
old dread of the demon and continued to place the bandages with 
which the arm had been dressed upon a certain mescjuite tree, not 
daring to burn them for fear of offending. Smallpox has usually 
been brought to the Pimas by the Papagos from Mexico. Measles 
appears every three or four years, but does not seem to be any more 
fatal than among the whites, though it is more likely to be followed 
by consumption. 

Rheumatism of the chronic articular type is fairly common and is 
treated like many other pains by scarifying the part affected with 
bits of broken glass. 

There are a few cases of accjuired syphilis among the Pimas and a 
few due to hereditary taint, but they are fairly free from the ilisease, 
considering their habits, and are much more exempt from it than their 
allies, the ^laricopas. 

Diarrhea was supposed to be due to touching ripe wheat in the 
fields, and it was considered necessary for a meilicine-man to walk 
about in the standing grain and blow the danger away with smoke. 

Bleeding wounds were bandaged; burns were plastered with wet 
mud; broken limbs were set with skill and inclosed in light and 
strong splints made of reeds. 

Melancholia sometimes afflicts "a man who has killed Apaches" 
so that he wanders about without clothing and refuses to talk. No 
treatment is attempteil, and the victim dies of neglect. 

Massage is a common form of treatment of almost any tlisease and 
of itself is enough to endanger the patient, for it sometimes happens 
that the operator administers a vigorous pommeling to the abdomen. 

Table of diseases 



Rare 


Occasional 


Common 


Acne 


Asthma 


Bronchitis 


Epilepsy 


Cataract 


Caries 


Dementia 


Eczema 


Conjunctivitis 


Lupus 


Favus 


Consumption 


Melancholia 


Heart disease 


Diarrhea 


Typhoid 


Neuralgia 


Dysentery 




Pleurisy 


Impetigo contagiosa 




Scabies 


Measles 




Smallpox 


Pneumonia 




Syphilis 


Rheumatism 




Urticaria 


Toothache 



BCSSKLL] VOCABULARIES 269 

LIXGinSTICS 

Vocabularies 

There are four short vocabularies of the Pima language in manu- 
script in the possession of the Bureau of American Ethnology: 

Words 

Dr 0. <'. Parry, under orders of Maj. W. H. Emory, 1852 154 

Ammi M. White. Pima trader at Casa Blanca 191 

John D. Walker, Company I, Fifth Infantry Colored Volunteers, Tneson : . . . 197 

F. W. Hodge, In Ciishing's party on Salt river. 1887 53 

The first is pubhshed in Schoolcraft, volume iii, page 461, and forms 
the basis of the English-Pima vocabulary published in Die Pima- 
Sprache by Buschmami in 1S57 (p. 367). Doctor Parry employed a 
Maricopa interpreter. Buschmann's vocabulary also includes words 
obtained by Doctor Coulter, which were published by Gallatin in 
Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, volume ii, page 
129, and by Scouler in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of 
London, volume xi, page 24S. Buschmann further drew from Pfeflfer- 
korn's Beschreibung der Landschaft Sonora, volume ii, passim; three 
words from Miihlenfordt's Schilderung der Republik Mejico, volume 
II, page 2'2.5; and words from the Lord's Prayer in Pima as given by 
Hervas in Saggio Practico Delia' Lingue (p. 124-125). There are 182 
words, in all, in Buschmann's list. Fewer than half the 53 pages of 
his ]iaper are devoted to the language of the Pimas. 

Lieutenant Whipple obtained a vocabulary of 67 Pima words, which 
was publishetl in his Report upon the Indian Tribes, Pacific Railroad 
Reports, volume in (pt. in, p. 94). 

In the Journal of the Royal Geograpliical Society for 1841, page 248, 
there is a Pima vocabulary of 38 words that was collected by a Doctor 
Coulter; where, it is not stated. The orthography is not explained. 

In his Opuscula, page 351, R. G. Latham has published a vocab- 
ulary of 27 words, stating neither from whom it was derived nor where 
it was written. In liis Natural History of the Varieties of Man, 
Latham devotes three pages to quotations from Lieutenant Emory 
descriptive of the "Pimos." 



270 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



As examples of the orthography and extent of these vocabularies, 
two are republished below. 

Vocabularies 



English 


Coulter 


Latham 


English 


Coulter 


Latham 


Man 


tiuot 


huth 


SaU 


ona 




Woman 


uba 


hahri 


Light 


tai 




Indian 




huup 


Day 


tashimet 




Boy 


andi 




Night 


stuiikum 




Chief 


capit 




Cold 


scapit 




Father 


niook 




Hot 


ston 




Mother 


intui 




Stone 


jote 




Body 


nionh 




Mountain 


toak 




Head 


nemoh 


mouk 


White 


stoxa 




Hair 




ptmuk 


House 


nihki 




Ear 


naank 


ptnahauk 


Door 


piialit 




Nose 




tahnk 


Bow 


ilikat 




Mouth 




chinits 


Arrow 


napot 




Tongue 




neuen 


I 




ahan 


Tooth 




ptahan 


He 




yeutah 


Beard 




chinyo 


One 




yumako 


Hand 


noh 


mahahtk 


Two 




kuak 


Foot 




tetaght 


Three 




vaik 


Heart 


ipdtflk 




Four 




kiik 


Sky 




ptchuwik 


Five 




puitas 


Sun 


tash 


tabs 


Nine 


humukt 




Moon 


maskat 


mahsa 


Ten 


huistemani 




Star 




non 


Eleven 


maato 




Snow 




chiah 


Twelve 


koohk 




Fire 




tahi 


Brave 


tiout 




Water 


shontik 


suntik 


Bad 


mtimko 




Sea 


kakatchck 




Good 


skukit 




River 


akemuli 




Great 


vohovakuitch 




Lake 


v6 











Songs 



CLASSIFICATION 

During a stay of seven months among the Pimas not a single native 
song was ever heard from a man, woman, or child. This is in striking 
contrast with the writer's experience among most other tribes that 
have not been longer in contact with the whites. Not half a dozen 
individuals can be found in the upper villages who know any consid- 
erable number of the old songs. And yet the number of these songs 
is very great and most of them are by no means unpleasing even to a 
Caucasian ear. The songs are in series that are known to different 
individuals. Thus, the songs sung at the puberty dances are in series 
that are started by the first singer to arrive upon the scene in the even- 
ing. If another singer arrives first during the next evening the series 
of songs for the night is changed; though all belong to the general 
class of "menstrual songs." Sometimes a festival is inaugurated 



KtlSSELL] SONGS 271 

because of the accidental presence of some one who knows a group, as 
the "Bluebird songs" or the "Swallow songs." Examples of all the 
principal groups of songs are here recorded. They include: 

Archaic songs; included in the cosmogonical myth; they are known 
as "Emergence songs," and contain a few words of a meaning 
unknown, owing either to age or to borrowing. 

Festal songs; including "Circling," "Basket beating," "Middle 
run," "Name," etc. 

Game songs ; these are short, not numerous, and often borrowed. 

Hunting songs; there are a few songs that appear to have once been 
used in the ceremonial preparations for hunting, but which are now 
employed in the magical treatment of disease. 

Medicine songs; this is the largest class; every conceivable ailment 
has its appointed song, ascribed to some animal or natural phenome- 
non or even supernatural agency. Many of these are from the Papagos. 

Puberty songs; some are especially for this ceremony, though any 
festal songs may be sung at this time. 

Rain songs; these contain interesting references to deities not else- 
where mentioned. So far as known, their source has not yet been 
ascertained. 

War songs; these were numerous and of great importance in the 
ceremonies. 



272 . THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 26 

ARCHAIC SONGS 

[Told by Kft'mill tkfik, Thin Leather] 
Creation Songs by Earth Doctor 

THE creation OF THE EARTH 



Tcuwutu Makai tcuwutf nata miakuka nyuita hasitco-onj i ! 

Earth Magician. earth nialie come. ^ see what ytiu inte'iid ! 

(Repeat) 

*Sikalamu nata miakuka nyuita hasitco-onyi ! (D; C. to *) 

Round make come, 'see what you intend ! 

t Tcuwutu , Makai taAaku nata miakuka, nyuita hasiyaiia ! 

Earth Magician mountain make come. see whnt .voii tell ! 

Tapinyimri natii miakuka. nyuitii liasiyafia ! (D. C tof) 

Smt^oth make come. 'see what you tell I 

II 

Tcuwutu Makai tcuwutu nata; Tcuwutu Makai tcuwutu nata, himlo. 

Earth Doctor earth make: Earth Magician eartli make, going. 

himlo. himlo, himutco-o. (Repeat) 

going. goilig, goin,g (causal). 

"Tcuwutu Makai tav'a ku nata; Tcuwutu Makai tavaku 

Earth Docti^r mountain kind of make; Earth Doctor mountain 

nata, himlo, himlo. himlo. himutco-o. (D. C. to*) 

make, going. going. going, going. 

Ill 

Tcuwutu tapa sihaitconyoka-ana: 

Earth open magician 

Tavafiyu tapa sitco mamatcu-u. 

Mountain open magic powers knows, 

Trd inflation 

Earth Magician shapes this world. 

Behold what he can do! 
Round and smooth he molds it. 

Behold what he can do! 
Earth Magician makes the mountains. 

Heed what he has to .«ay! 
He it is that makes the mesas. 

Heed what he has to say. 
Earth Magician shapes this world; 

Earth Magician makes its mountains; 
Makes all larger, larger, larger. 

Into the earth the Magician glances; 
Into its mountains he may see. 



RUSSELL] ARCHAIC SONGS 273 

IV 

THE CREATION OP THE SUN 

Vanyiiigi Tarsal wu natiikahi; vanyingi Tarsal natakahi, hiyanyl 

I am Sun made; I'am Sun made; here me 

tamai ya-ahal punanaltco-o. (Repeat) 

abnve ' both directions throw. 

*Sl-iyaldi takio wopahimu kahowu taitcunyuku sapava muuuna-a. 

East direction throw there rise running right running htivk. 

(D. C. to*) 

Triinxlation 

I have made the Sun! 

I have made the Sun! 
Hurling it higli 

111 the four directions. 
To the East I threw it 

To run its appointed course. 



THK CREATION OK THE MOON' 

Vanyingi Marsatu natiikahi; vanyingi Marsatu natiikahi; hiyanyl 

I am Moon make; I am Moon make; here me 

tamal ya-ahal punanaitco-o. (Repeat) 

above ' botli directions throw. 

*Si-iyaldi takio wopahimu kahowa tcursanyuku .sapava hlmuna-a. 

East direction throw tliere came up correct come. 

(D. C. to*'' 

Translation 

I liave made the Moon! 

I liave made the Moon I 
Hurling it high 

In the four directions. 
To the East I threw it 

To run its appointed course. 

VI 

THE CREATION (IF THE STARS 

Vanyingi Yo-ohowu nata; vanyingi Yo-oliowu nata, tamaiwu nangita 

I am Stars make; I am Stars make, above throw 

tcuwutu maniasl-1. (Repeat) 

earth liglit. 

* Vanyiiigi wus altco nata tamaiwu nangita tcufhutu tanali-i. 

I am ■ all things make above throw land shines. 

(D. C. to*) 

Transliitioii 

I have made the Stars! 

I have made the Stars! 
Above the earth I threw them. 

All things above I've made 
And placed them to illumine. 
26 ETH— 08 20 



274 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ax.v. 26 

Flood Songs by Eakth Doctor 



THE WABNIXG OK THE FLOOD 



Haya, rsa-ahlSgtr nyhu-umatcita tcomunga wu-uwusi n3-uinahi-imu; 

Weep, pitiable me people you will all '^ see happen; 

haya, rsS-ahifigu nyhu-umatcita tcomunga wu-uwusi nyuinahi-imu. 

weep, pitiable me people you will all see bappen. 

Ko.sl'na rso-otaki kosina tcutcuwu^u vamohai-i. (Repeat) 

That water that land dissolve. 

*Haya, rssi-ahingu nyha-atconyi tcomunga wu-uwusi mamatcu-u; 

Weep, pitiable ' my relatives you will all learning; 

haya, rsa-ahifigu nyha-atconyi tcomunga wu-uwusi mamatcu-U. 

weep, pitiable my relatives^ you will all learning. 

Kosina rso-otaki kosina tatavaku vamohai-i. (Repeat to *) 

That water that mountain dissolve. 

Translation 

TV^eep my unfortunate people! 

All this you will see take place. 
Weep my unfortunate people 1 

For the waters will cover the land. 
Weep my unhappy relatives 1 

You will learn all. 
Weep my unhappy relatives! 

You will learn all. 
The waters w'ill cover tlie mountains. 

THE PEOPLE CLIMBING SUPERSTITION MOUNTAIN 

Haiya! haiya! vina, vina, hai-iya! Punha rsiihika tconyihi-i, 

Aha! Aha! Flood, flood, Aha!'^ Remember pitiable making. 

haij-al haiya! vina, vina, hai-iya! Punha rsahika tconyihi-i. Hamai 

Aha! .\ha! Flood, flood, .\ha'! Remember pitiable making. Here 

pa-apaitcomhi nyhu-umatcita rsahika himuna-a. (Repeat) 

before me me people pitiable going. 



TVanslution 

Haiya! Haiya! Flood! Flood! Hai-iya! 
See the doom awaiting them ! 
Haiya! Haiya! Flood! Flood! Hai-iya! 
Here are my doomed people before me. 



RUSSELL] AKCHAIC SONGS 275 

Flood Songs by South Doctor 
ON superstition mountain before the flood 
Rsonangi tcuwuju vamohai-i ; rsonangi nyuwutu vamohai-i, 

Water land dissolve ; water . land dissolve, 

kundangu makaiva sihaitco-o rsonangi nanaka tconyihi-imu. 

in magician powerful water experimenting making. 

Rsonangi tavaku vamolaai-i ; rsonangi ta\"aku vamohai-i, kundailgu 

Water mountain dissol\e; water mountain dissolve, in 

Nasiava sitco-omai-i rsonangi iiauaka wowoi-hi-niu. (Repeat) 

Nasi understand water experimenting toward-going. 

Kakanda ku tatavaiigu ta-atama nauyolinalva rso-otaki yomahi- 

Crooked kind of mountain top I stay water disperse. 

imu. (Repeat) 

Ta-atauia nayolinaka rso-otaki yoinahi-imu. (Repeat) 

Top I stay wattir disperse. 

Translation 

The waters dissolve the land ! 

The waters dissolve the land ! 
The mighty magician tests his strength. 

The waters dissolve the mountains! 
The waters dissolve the moinitains ! 

Nasi foresees what is coming. 

On Crooked mountain I am standing, 

Trying to disperse the waters. 
On Crooked mountain I am standing, 

Trying to disperse the waters. 

BEFORE THE PEOPLE TURNED TO STONE ON SUPERSTITION MOUNTAIN 

Sihaitcohtt! Sihaitcoha! Nyhanaka wuwuma sihaitcoha! Wuwuma 

Powerless! Powerless! My magic crystal with powerlessi With 

siamhu nyhataitco. (Repeat) 

right _ petrify. 

And again he sang before they liecame petrified: 

Tramlation 

Powerless ! Powerless ! 

Powerless is my magic crystal. 
Powerless ! Powerless ! 

I shall become as stone. 

Flood Songs By Elder Brother 

IN HIS OLLA BEFORE THE FLOOD 



Tcokoi vavahaki! tcokoi vavahaki! Ku-tjn:)a nyi yolina. Ku^a nyi 

Black house! black house! In I hold. In I 

yolinha-a wu-umatci yahai nyimitco-o. (Repeat) 

stay ivith to and fro ' I go. 

Translation 

Black house! Black house! Hold me safely in; 

Black house! Black house! Hold me safely in, 
As I journey to and fro, to and fro. 



276 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ixx. 26 

II 

THE KLOOII 

Rsotaki rautu-u! rsotaki niutukal Mujava putanyii, tamaiAukatcinia 

Water running! water running! In sounrting, top laying 

tcuvaki parsa pa-anyhimitco. 

cloud near by on there I borne. 

Rsotaki mutu-u! rsotaki rautuka! Mu^ava rsarsavai, tamaiAukatcinia 

Water running! water running! In roaring, top laying 

hononyi parsa pa-anyhiniitco. (Repeat) 

evening near by on there I borne. 

Translation 

Running water! Running water! Herein resounding, 

As on the clouds I am carried to the sliv. 
Running water! Running water! Herein roaring, 
As on the clouds I am carried to the sky. 

Ill 

COMING FROM HIS OLL.V AFTER THE FLOOD 

Hianyai worsunyu; hianyai worsunyu-u, sihai nyoka hiayai 

Here' I eame oilt; here I came out, magician here I 

worsunyu .sihai tcoka-a. Hianyai worsunyu: Hianyai worsunyu-u, 

came out magician. Here I came out; Here'l came out, 

sitco luatcu hianyai worsunyu sitco matcu-U. 

magical powers here I came out' magical pt^wers. 

Hianyai worsunyu-u sihai nyoka; hianyai worsunyu sihai tcoka-a. 

Here I came out magicfan; here I came out magician. 

Hianyai worsunyu-u sitco niatcu hianyai worsunyu sitco matcu-U. 

Here'l came out magical know here I eame oiit magical know. 

(Repeat) 

Taiiyo wumu; tanyo wuma kukiAa. Sundai wuinu, sundai wumu 

Who" I with; who I with stand. Who with, who with 

tahiwa. 

sit. 

Itaiigu n3^o-osihaka wuma kukiwa. Itaiigu nyil-atahal^a wumu 

TMsmyeane with stand. This my crystal with 

tahiwa. (Repeat) 

sit. 

TrarislaliiDi 

Here I com^ forth! Here I come forth! 

With magic powers I emerge. 
Here I come forth! Here I come forth 1 

With magic powers I emerge. 

1 stand alone! Alone! 

Who will accompanj' me? 
My staff and my crj-stal 

They shall liide with me. 



KUSSELL] ARCHAIC SONGS 277 

Post-Fldiid Sonus hy Elder Brother 
at the t'entrai, part of the earth 

Ka^u nyutva worsa hikii nyuwundu yanyuiiia; katu nyutva worsa 

There ' 1 dxme navel land Isee; there " I came 

hikii nyuwundu vanyuina. (Repeat) 

navel * land I nee. 

* Kaju nyutva woisa hikii navafigu \anyuina; katu nyutva worsa 

There " 1 cjime navel mountnni 1 see; there " I came 

hiku navafion vanyuina. (Repeat to *) 

navel mountaui I see. 

7'randatio)i 

Here I have come to the center of the earth; 

Here I have come to the center of the earth. 
I see the central mountain; 

I see the central mountain. 

CLIMBING THE CLIFFS TO ATTACK EAGLE 

Kand vavai tapinymu. kand vavai tapiiiyniu. Kand vavai tapinymu, 

up steep bank smuuth, up steep bank .smooth. I'p steep bank smooth 

kand vavai tapinymu. Viipat tcotcoa kslinatca himuna. (Repeat) 

up bank smooth. Points stick after going. 

Kand vavai napinymii, kand vavai napinyiuii, vapat tcotcoa kainatca 

Up stone smooth; up stone smooth, points stick after 

himuna. (Repeat) 

going. 

Tanyi tahai I itiii. tanyi tahai I-itai, 

I am white Elder I am white Elder 
Brother, Brother. 

Tanyi tahai Litiii, tanyi tahai Litai. 

I am white Elder I am white Elder 
Brother, Brother. 

Va-a.sif tcotcoa kainaka himuna. (Repeat) (Repeat both lines 

Leafless stick after walking. 

twice) 

'rninxtd.lion 



Up the cliff, steep anil smooth. 

Up the cliff, steep and smooth, 
Up the cliff, steep and smooth, 

Climbs Elder Brother 
With his shining power. 

Up the cUff, steep and smooth. 
Up the cliff, steep and smooth. 

He climbs step by step. 



'278 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. an.x. 26 

ELDER BROTHER AS A FLY 

Song sunij hij Elder Brother as he concealed himself in the form of a fly 
Himovali inovali moko, himovali movalimoko. Hivanvtasikasiimo, 

(?) fly die, (?) fly die. I wi]"l sleep, 

hivanyta sikasiiino. (Repeat) 

1 will sleep. 

Himovali moko, hivanyta .sikasiimo, hivanyta sikasiimo. (Repeat) 

(?) die, I will sleep, I wil'l sleep. 

Tcinyny. 

Buzz-z.' 

Translation 

Himovali! Die fly! Himovali! Die fly! 

I shall sleep! I .shall sleep! 
Himovali! Let die! lam drowsy. 

I will sleep! Buzz-z. 

Song sung hij the Eaglets wife to put him to sleep 
Haya j^akahai vahai mo, haya vakahai mo, hovanyt^ sika,siimo, 

(?) (?) " (?) (?) (■.") ' (•.') (?), I ' sleep. 

hovanyta sikasiimo. Haya yakahai mo, hovanytS sikttsiimo, hovanyta 

I sleep. (?) " (?) (?), I sleep, I ' 

sikasiimo. (Repeat) 

.sleep. 

Translation 

Haya yakahai yahai mo! Haya yakahai mo! 

I am sleepy, I am sleepy. 
Haya yakahai yahai mo! I am sleepy. 

Destritction op Ha-ak 

As they prepare to destroy the female monster, Hd-dk, Elder Brother and the people 

slug together 

I 

Ta-anunama Lttiii hawuli voponak nyuhuna. AmunyutS 

Dazzling power Elder Brother winds *tie singing. Then sing 

mulivak wu-umany voponak nyu-nhuna\ 

came swiftly together " tie, singing. 

II 

KovakovB, kovakovB, kovakovB, kovakovB. lyali MoahanaiT- 

(?) (?) (?) (") Great Mo'hataka 

inamnyu-una. KoTakovis, • kovakovn. 

top .singing. (?) (?) 

Translation 

Dazzling power has Elder Brother, 

Mastering the winds with song. 
Swiftly now we come together, 

Singing to secure control. 

KovakovB, kovakovB, 

KovakovB, kovakovB. 
Singing on the summit 

Of great Mo'hatiik mountain. 

oMo'hatQk, Greasy mountain, between the Gila and Salt rivers near their confluence. It Is 
supposed to be the home of Elder Brother. 



RUSSELL] ARCHAIC SONGS 279 

III 

Anayokuna, auayokuna, hayokuna. Tcu-unarsatV vavatcuki; 

(?) " (,■') (?) (?) " cigarette; 

kSsinakon ySvatcuki. Anayokaua, anayokuna, hayokuna. 

sleep-inducing ' cigarette. '(?) ' (?) " (?) 

IV 
Ala was mo'-omok tatavaka tci'pia lui'ak avajiaiia mi'ak at'cupaiia. 

This all sharps mountains moving near their well near having mortar 



Vaj wutaiua \-opahimu. Vaj wtrtama vopahimu. Vaj wutama 

steep bank on throw. (Repeat) 

vopahimu. 
Tcutcunofii ko'kovoli .sis'viinuka-a. Vaj wutama vopahimu. 

Blue (or green) owl having brightest. Steep bank under throw. 

Vaj wutama vopahimu. 

(Repeat) 

Translation 

Anayokuna, anayokiina, hayokiina. 

Sacred pipe of Tcu-unarsat', 
Sleep-indiK-iug sacred pipe. 

Aiiayokvlna, anayokilna, hayokima. 

H;i-ak flees from her pursuers. 

But lier spring and mortar stay. 
Throw a great stone! 

Throw a great stone! 

The blue owl is brightest, 

Throw a great stone! 
The blue owl is brightest. ♦ 

Throw a great stone. 

Songs sung hij Elder Brother and his followers in the Nether World 
In the Nether World 
I 
Vatcikia himu; vatcikia himu; vatcikia himu; vatcikia himu. 

We go; we go; we go; we go. 

Huk Ssinyu apu ka'na. Hita tuvavaki ahiya wunanitil. Vatcikia 

That me plea.ses (?). This home here we leave. we 

himu; vatcikia himu; huk Ssinyu apu ka'na. 

go; we go: that me pleases (?) 

Translaiion 

We go, we go, we go, we go, 

Happy we leave our homes. 
We go happily we go. 

o Tcu-unarsat' is the name of a former Pueblo chief who lived near Mo'hatilk mountain. 



280 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

II 

Vatci'ki mutdtj; vatciki mutdu. Vatciki mutdu; vatciki mutdu. 

We run; ' we run. We run: we run. 

Vatciki niunc; vatciki munu. Hulvasiiiyamu kana. Hita tuyaitaka 

\Vc run: we run. That me p'l eases ('?\. This our country 

hiya. Vavoyok vatciki munu. Hukasinyrunu kana. 

here. To leave we hasten. That me pleases (7). 

Tratislrition 

We run, we run, we run, we run. 
Happy we leave our land; 

With pleasure hence we hasten. 

On Emergence from the Nether Wori^d 

On their emergence upon the .surface of the earth the Nether-world 
people danced together and with Elder Brother .sang the following: 

Itavany nyi rsavikfit dawuwum aworsanyu. (D. C.) 

We thing our rattle with together. 

Inu yatda m'omai gifngin vaikii. 

This parrot tails waving (?). 

Itavany nyi nynnyirsa awuwum anyopinyu. (D. C.) 

We thing our (?) with we" went down. 

In a 3'^oku mamai iyinyin vaiku. 

This (?) tails 'waving (?). 

Kusi tahai tcutcuwuta(r) tamai tcitciviaka nyuhunatci. 

l^ind of white eountries on come ' singing. 

Vapanama huwutda-a. Kotca wus tcitciviaka. (D. C.) 

Head-dresses moving. We . all come. 

Nyuhunatci tconanyuka tcutcuwutda tcuna nyu-u-u. 

Singing dancing lands shakes " (?) 

Kusi tcokwe tatavaku tamait' a-ahuka nyuhunatci sisivata 

Kind of black mountains on all come ' singing head*dresses 

inoiiuva-a 

waving. 

Kotca wus sita-ahuka; kotca wus sita-ahuta. 

We all cherished: we all cherished. 

Nyuhunatci, tconayuka, ttitavaku kaviinyu-u. 

Singing, dancing, mountains rumblmg. 

Translatiov 

Together we emerge with our rattles; 

Together we emerge with our rattles, 
Bright-hued feathers in our head-dresses. 

With our nynnyirsa we went down; 
With onr nyiTnylrsa we went down. 

Wearing Yoku feathers in our liead-dresses. 
This is the white land; we arrive singing, 

Head-dresses waving in the breeze. 
Weliavecome! We have come! 

The land trembles with our dancing and singing. 
On these black mountains all are singing, 

Head-dresses waving, head-dresses waving. 
We all rejoice! We all rejoice! 

Singing, dancing, the mountains trembling. 



RfssELL] ARCHAIC SONGS 281 

Songs of Elder Broilwr ami hi.i undfrworhl mipporifrs as tJiei/ approached Casa (Irande 

I 

• Kan(d)ukai moki \'a-aki ku-uka ama va-aki ta-amai sivany 

Yonder dead habitation standing. Tlit-re habitation at that place lie runs 

mumuda-a', Sa-ahamu niaopanu kama iko-osi-i-i." 

about, Yellow liands having fabric. 

'J'ranslatioii 

Yonder .standi tlie doomed habitation. 

About the piiel)lo runs its frightened chieftain 
In yellow garment with hand print decoration. 

On Api'Ro.vcniN'd Pueblos 

.Is the unilerv'orUl peojde approached Sanlaii 

Pipinu havavahaki kutda liaiiio-olina. pipinii havavahaki. 

Mud their house in they stay, mud their liiiuse. 

Kutda maka hitcu, kotdeiia .sinyu-upiutaka kutda ahamo-olina. 

In one hav- see, he was Eoe afraid in they stay. 

ing power 

Pipinu hav^avahaki kutda maka hitcu. 

Mud their liouse in one hav- see. 

ing power 

Traniihitioi) 

In their house of adobe they are staying; 
Their chief with magic power fears me. 
In their house of adolie we see their chief. 

As they apiproaclied llic riUage heloir S((nta)i 

Amuka vu-ulianyui-ita : tiinuka vu-uhanyuita-a ; hainanyui-i-i'. 

Some will (ruly"see; some will truly" see; some will see. 

Kuhiyu hukiva niu-ulihaku i>a-anuka puva-aki nyui-i'. 

That old okatilla fence their house see. 

Translation 

Some will truly see, 

Some will truly see, 
Will see their house 

Behind the okatilla stockade. 

.Is //(('// (ijiproached Sti:eelirater 

Katdu kanyuvu-untdai .sikamuinali; katdu katcuvu-utdai 

There land plenty beads; there earth 

sikaiiiumali. Ku-u nanyuta-a wo-or,sai-i'. (Repeat from beginning) 

plenty beads. The somebody come out. 

place 

Hamiva j'Una-a Huta-ii-i' wo-or.sai-i" ku nyi-inuita-a Kutiinali-i. 

There ^ place somebody came out his .soul shines. 

(Repeat) 

Transhilioii 

There is the land of many beads. 

There is the land nf many lieads. 
Some one comes forth; 

He knows what will befall him. 

a Iko-osi-i-i' is for iks, meaning almost any textile fabric. 



282 THE PIMA INDIANS (etii. axx. lifi 

As theij (ipprofiched Casa Blancii 
Kuisi kavuhuka; kui.si kawuhuku, vavahaki kutda makalii 

Very difficult: very difficult. house there magic 

' power 

tcu-u'. 

see. 

Translation 

It will be difficult, 

It will be ditiicult, 
To capture this pueblo 

With its magic power. 

.Is theii approached Vulture's home 
Hava'n3'i yali nyanga, Hava'nyi yali nya-aka, tanaliku naiiavai-i. 

Raven "chiM saving. Raven " child "nie call. brightness glitter. 

(D. C.) ^ 

*Hiyan3'i yaniuka nyuita tanaliku konyonj'oi. (D. C to *) 

Here me ' there ' see brightness mirage. 

Above Gila <_'rossing 
Nanyiki va-aho mt'kai hiyanyi wor.sanyuk himuna Tcunarsan 

I am ? magician here me aro.se went Tcunasat 

yavatcuki yoahana hokatci namaiina siamu kokomaiAoaki-i. 

cigarette ' holding with my enemy correct incantation. 

Nanyiki vi-ilviho niBkai hiyanyi woi-sanja^k himuna ka.sikun 

I am soft feather magician here me arose went sedative 

yavatcuki yoahana hukatci namaiina .sisiniii kiikauasi-i. 

cigarette holding with my enemy right make slecpi. 

Hiyanyi wor.sanyuk himuna Tcunarsan vavatcuki yoahana 

Here me arose* went Tcunasat cigarette ' holding 

hukatci namaiina siamu kokomaiAoaki-i. Hiyanyi worsanyuk himuna 

with my enemy correct incantation. Here me arose' went 

kasikun avwatcuki yoahana hukatci namaiina siamu kaka-slsi-i. 

sedative cigarette ' holding with my enemy correct make sleep. 

At Mesa 
Halisi tcu-uniiki pahaka pahivwoa. Halisi tcu-unaki pahangu 

Small blue eagle puts tail on. Small blue eagle 

pahivwoa tcuvwuna s-utpava wor.sanu-u. (D. C.) 

put tail on land middle came out. 

Hiyanyi paiitcomi yahaiiAa kukivwa tavanyi j'osiaiiga hukio 

He're me before me to and fro stand it was my cane already 

simamatcu-u. 

know. 

Between Tempe and Phoenix 

Haniuka vanyuitahimu hamanyu tiltahivwoakti nyuittihimu 

Some will you look for there me sit ' you look for 

hamuka njaiinahi. (I). C.) 

you will you look for. 

Rssihiku napahui tunataku-u hamuka pumuihi-i. 

Pitiable enemy crazy you will take. 

Rsahiku napahtsi tunavamo-o hamuka pumuihi-i. 

Pitiable enemy drunken you will take. 



ECSSELL] 



FESTAL SONGS 



283 



FESTAL SONGS 

£l-nj,A Vapai Nvni, Middle Run Song 

[By Ki-hva, Bitten] 



Makai kik(i) nyuitcota. * Makai kik(i) nyuitcota itauj^ tanulikany 

Magician houses singing tu. Magician liouses singing to this my shining 

rsursui tcotcoa kon\' am 113'ui tco. (Repeat. Then repeat twice 

my straight stand I * there singing to. 

from *) 

II 

Tcutcupavfi yohovfi wupungu viiifimna; *tcutcupavfi yohovfi 

Prostitute women tirst came running; prostitute women 

wupuno-u vaifimuna, tcutcutangi yiasiiiga 3'okatc. Vaitiiniina 

first came running. bhu* ^ flowers liolding. Came running. 

siyalingu tatangio vav'aayifiafigi tconyopitci nyunyakimu. (Repeat 

east direction tiling slow talking. 

stanza; then repeat twice from *) 

(At the beginning of this .stanza the appointed singers appear in two 
files, men and women apart) 

III 

Vanyingi nyonyu[a himuhuna; * vanyifigi nyonyuja himuhuna 

I am "crooked going; I am "crooked going 

honunyngu. ^uhuAuiva himukai kiki3'anu kahatc maiiguvak 

west. Toward going to rainbows with swing the arms 

gamonj'a himuhuna. (Repeat same as above) 

there I going. 

TraiiKlation 

Singing to the gods in supplication; 

Singing to tlie gods in supplication, 
Thus my magic power is uplifted. 

My power is uplifted as I sing. 

Prostitutes hither runniu;.' come; 

Prostitutes hither rutming come, 
Holding l)lue flowers as they run. 

Talking in whispers they file along. 

Along the crooked trail I'm going. 

Along the crooked trail going west. 
To the land of rainbows I'm going, 

Swinging my arms as I journey on. 



284 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

IV 
Tananstma sialik varsatx-a itnuiia; "■■' tananania sialik varsatca iiiiukuk 

Sliining morning up there come; shining morning up there coniu 

nyaihimuiia yoipikot. Aimuna marsata iinuna tarsaiAa tcursatcimu 

me reaching pieiades. Come moon come sun appear 

sisiAii} 3'ovaya puihinitina. (Repeat stanza; then repeat twice from *) 

rises high^ lifting. 

V 

Huvatcondu vaifimuna *iiiomoi yohofi; vaifiniunatcuvaiigi miiniiitak; 

Blueljird came running many women; came running elouds lieadw carrying; 

Vililiiniiia wu.sat nianiunama tcuAahangi yonounyi nak vat vaiigu 

came running all there top of heads clouds sluiKing it that shaking 

nyihiiia-a. (Repeat as above) 

us. 

VI 

Afiwus kamaiigi takunad niakai * tarsai; wopondak niarsat yalihimuna 

Kind (tf gray spider magician sun; tie moon ndl 

hamukai kukiwoak yopain livaiinidvani. ipiyuina tcuntxiigi tciiiikond 

there stand ' turn go. See green cane 

katc yovaya puihimuna-a. (Repeat as above) 

with raisii^g higher. 

7'r(iiislfilioii. 

The brifiht Jawii ajipfars in the heavens; 

The liriglit dawn apjiears in the heavens, 
Anil the pahnj; pleiades grow dim. 

The nifMin is los^t in tlie rising sun. 

Witli tiie women Blueliird came running; 

Witli the women Bluebird came running; 
All came carrying clouds on their heads, 

And these were seen shaking as they danced. 

See there the (iray Spider magician; 

See there the Gray Spider magician 
Who ties the Sun while the Moon rolls on. 

Turn back, the green staff raising higher. 



RUSSELL] 



FESTAL SONGS 



285 



TcHTCiiKA Nvni, Name Soxg 
[By Virsak Val-i, Hawk Flying] 

There are seventy stanzas in this song. Two names are called in 
each, a name being inserted in place of the words here in brackets. 
The song may begin with any .stanza, but the name of the place where 
the dance is held must be inserted as the first name: thus, in the stanza 
below, the name of the village would l)e substituted for "Ma-akahi.'' 

I 

Halakoit nanianu vapaka worsan^'uk niahainama tcUAuli. (Repeat) 

(?) top rft'ds arose' ■ placing increase in 

height. 

HitaAU (Ma-akahi) moa-akatc yahakaha hukatcai pawusika kopatc 

This [ ] kills with * painted with it all over hair 

maitcu-u. 

knock down. 

Hitavu Hivayomi pukatc yahakaha hukatcai pawusika katatc 

This [ * ] catch ' painted with it all over bow 

maitcu-u. (Repeat) 

knock down. 

II 



Halakoit, ma-akahi wuma wor.sahi; halakoit (ma-akahi) wuma 

(?) magician with came up: (?) magician with 

worsamu. 

came tip. 

HukaitcuAu Ma-akahi kopatc maitcu-u; hukaitcuAu Hivayomi 

That long [ ] hair knockdown; that long [ ' ] 

katatc maitcu-u. 

bow knock down. 

Translation 

The ceremonial reeds are lifted; 

Tlie rereiiKinial rt'eds are lifted. 
Ma-alialii has killed an Apache, 

And we meet together here in war paint 
To collect hair trophies with their power. 

Hivayomi has taken a captive, , 

And the magic of his bow dies with him. 

Ma-akahi has come to our festa; 

Ma-akahi has come to our festa. 
Ma-akahi ties the enemy's hair; 

Hivayomi kills the enemy's bow;. 



286 THE PIMA INDIAN'S [eth. ann. 26 

III 

Siyal wutcaka huma-akahi yahandak niaitcu-u. 

East under magician " colored knock down. 

Hononj' wutcaka humaakahiva-apaku yahandak maitcu-u. 

West ' under magician reed colored knock down. 

Ma-akahi sapaAuhu nya-aku ko-opatc maitcu-u; Hivayonii sapaAuhu 

[ ] correct talk hair knock down ; [ ' ] correct 

tcohi ka-atatc maitcu-u. 

do bow knock down. 

IV 

Imovali kav'ahaiki, kavahaiki. kaivaya, mokovaya tamahi, (Repeat) 

Near to rumbling, rumbling, passing, waving top go, 

tamamhu. 

top go. 

Hitavu Ma-akahi pahaiigu Aupuhiiva kavandaimu na-aka worsahi; 

This [ ] eagle like shield grasp arose; 

hitava Hiva3'omi virsafiga vupuhava r.sanvitcuki muka worsamu. 

this [ ] hawk like club grasping arose. 

V 

Kamonya imuka nyuwunda nyuitahi sikufiga kop maitcu-u. 

There going land looking good hair knock down. 

Komoiiyi munduku navaiiga nyuitamhu sikuiigu, kata maitcu-u. 

There run mountain seeing run good, bow knock down. 

Ma-akahi wumatc nyuitahi sikunga kop maitcu-u; Hivayomi 

[ ] with looking good hair knockdown; [ ] 

wumatc nyuitahi sikungu kata maitcu-u. 

with seeing good bow knock down. 

Translation 

On this side the East Land the magician 

Tlie sacred colored object has knocked down. 
On tltis side the West Land tlie magician 

The sacred colored reed has overthrown. 
Ma-akahi wisely talks, tying hair; 

Hivayomi wisely acts, killing bow. 

The scout hears with trembling the sounds of night; 

The scout hears with trembling the sounds of night. 
Ma-akahi eagle-like grasps his shield ; 

Hivayomi hawk-like comes with his club. 

Well-seeming is the land to the warrior 

As he goes to collect an enemy's hair; 
And its mountains, as he kills the bow. 

Ma-akahi sees clearly as he ties the hair; 
Hivayomi sees clearly as he kills the bow. 



BL'SSELL] 



FESTAL SONGS 



287 



VI 

Kakatak tamai pabafigu nai\vo-oi\sa, Yakimuli tamai vii'sangu 

Crooki-d top eagle arose, river top hawk 

naiwo-orsa. 

arose. 

Hitavu Ma-akahi pabafigu wumu nyahakukaAu handa tafigu 

This [ ] eagle with " talk shield grasp 

kaworsahi. 

arise and go. 

Hitavu Hivayomi virsafiga wumu nyiihaka rsauyi-itcuki puhuka 

— ■ [ " ] hawk witli ' talk club grasp arlae 



This 

worsamu. 

and run. 



VII 



lya 

here 

iya 

here 



vawoAapa. 

brought. 



Tcunakima kopanya ikitcu 

Blue hair " cut 

Sivakimu katanyi iiiuhuka iya vawovapa. 

Full-leaved bow' catch here broughti 

Ma-akahi moaka hi-iya vu-unafigifiga vovapa; 

[ ] kill here dizzy broviglit: 

hi-iya vunavamofigi vovapa. 

here drunk brought. 



Hivayomi mipuhi 

r 1 catch 



VIII 



Gamonya iniuna; gamonya imuna; gamonya 

There I going; there f going; there I 

Gainonyi mununa; gamonyi munuua; gamonyi 

There I run: there l' run; there I 

Itavu Ma-akahi paha yonanda hak tanlimuna; 

This [ ] eagle arrow feathers that shining; 

virsaka yomanda hak nyunyuvaiku. 

hawk arrow feathers that air waves. 

Translalion 



From the Superstition mountain rose the Eagle; 

From the sluggish-moving Gila rose the Hawk. 
Ma-akahi talked with the Eagle, then 

Arose, grasped his shield, and went his waj-. 
Hivayomi talked with the Hawk and then 

Arose, grasped his club, and journeyed forth. 

With hair trophies our courage is renewed. 

iSIany of the enemy's bows we've captured. 
Ma-akahi bravely endures fasting; 

Hivayomi bravely endures all thirst. 

There I am going; there I am going. 

There I am running; there I am running. 
Ma-akahi' s eagle-feathered arrows! 

Hivayomi' s strong hawk-feathered arrows! 



imuhuna. 

go. 

inunuhuna. 



hitava Hivayoma 

this [ ] 



288 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. an.n. i;6 

IX 

HaliAuta sihuiil na-anaka kainarau nyakna yoTiva sipuhiuio 

Brother older incoherent sounds talk "woman take 

kaiyavu nyakna hatcyahanii. 

liere talk accomplish. 

HaliAuta sihufii na-anaka kainama n\uhuna . yaliva sipuhimo 

Brother older incoherent sfiunds ^ sing child take 

kaiyava nyuhuna hatcyahami. 

here sing acconii'lish. 

Itavu Ma-akahi na-anakii kainamu n3'akna yovava sipuhimo kaiyavu 

This [ ] incoherent sounds " talk ' woman take here 

nj'akna hatcyahami. 

talk accomplish. 

Itavu Hivayomi na-anaka kainama nyuhuna vaHva sipuhimo 

This [ * ] incoherent sounds 'sing ' child take 

kaiyava nyuhuna hatcyahami. 

here "" sing accomplish. 

X 

Hi-i-i voUva hi-ij'oliva ya viyoli-iva hi; (Repeat) mhu. 

(?) ' (?) (?) (?) ■ (?) go; run. 

HihitaAu Ma-akahi ipoitatc tcutanyu hi-i-ivoliva yaviyoli-ivahi. 

This [ ] hard beating" (?) ' (?) 

Hihitava Hivayomi hu'ja tatc kavanyu hi-i-iyoliva vaviyoli-ivamhu. 

This [ ■ ] mind (?) rattling (?) " ' (?) 

XI 

Panumand katcokatc vihili hana viii vawu-upa vatcohina. 

Co.v<»te cub there it is (?) on (?) like appearance. 

(Repeat) 

Hukaitcufu Ma-akahi pahaka wu-upa vatcohifia; hukai tcufu 

That long [ ] eagle like appearance; that long 

Hivayomi virsaka wu-upa vatc-ohifia. 

L ] hawk like appearance. 

Translalion 

Elder Brother inumblinu caught the woman; 

Elder Brother crooning caught the child. 
Ma-ahaki mumbling takes the woman; 

Hivaj'omi crooning takes the child. 

Hi-i-i yoliva! Hi yoliva! 

Hi-i-i ya viyoli-iva mhu! 
Ma-ahaki's heart trembles on the war path; 

Hivayomi's soul shivers with its fear. 

There's the Coyote cub, Coyote cub! 

There's the Coyote cub, Coyote cub! 
Ma-ahaki resembles the Eagle; 

Hivayomi resembles the Hawk. 



RLSSELLi CIRCLING SONGS 289 

XII 

Yavahimu yavahimu j-avahi. (Repeat) 

Yavahimu yavahi. 

Yavahimu yavahimu yavamhu. (Repeat) 

Yavahimu yavamhu. 

Naiiu suku Ma-akai taiwonyuk kavandai paimitco yavahimu 

I guess that [ ] arose nmiiirig ' shield (") 

yavahimu yavahimu yavahi, nafiu suka Hivayomi taiwonyuk 

(?) " (■?) ' (?) I guess that [ ' ] arose 

rsanyitcuki mulitco, yavahimu yavamhu. 

club make run, ' (?) ' (?) 

Translation 

Yavahimu, yavahimu, yavahi! 

Yavahiuiv, yavaliimr, yavahi! 
Ma-akahi rose and ran with his shield; 

Hivayomi rose and ran with his club. 

CIRCLING SONGS" 

Pa-ak Nyfli, Eagle Song 
[rompnsecl by Varsa Akam, Rat-Back. Told by Ki-iwa] 

Accompanied by dancing and the beating of baskets. The dancers 
move in a circle made up of men and women alternately. "It looks 
bad for two men to be together.'' 



Tarsaii gamai yononj^imuta kun(d)a mananahiwoakai tamaiku 

Sun there ' go d*(>\vn in sit there 

pahaka nyunj^ui kop iyu rsanawoitco. (Repeat) 

Eagle ' songs you here commence. 

Makai ki tava worsanyhu kamo nyi paitci tcuwu^u katcimhu. 

Magician house arises before me in front land lays. 

Tamaiku pahaka nyunyui kop iyu rsanawoitco. (Repeat) 

There Eagle songs ' you here commence. 

Translation 

As the Sun sinks to the westward 

We begin singing the eagle songs. 
The home of the magician rises, 

Standing before me in the land. 
We begin singing the eagle songs. 

o Sik:llhlm Nyul; called also Basket-beating songs, Hoa Rs&rsClna. 
26 ETH— 08 21 



290 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ax.\. 26 

II 

Yai kapi worsa, yai kapi worsa; Hatcuwuc(u Makai, yai kapi 

Now order arises, now order arises: he Earth Doctor. now order 

worsa (Repeat) 

arises, 

Yai kapi worsa, hinavat awutca tcut nyunyui tcoma worsana 

Now order arises. hidden below from songs there arise 

tcuwun^ yiiinukama tcoatcoaii. (Repeat) 

land " after planted. 

Ill 

TcuwuU' .sapanyiki nyui, tcuwuiu .sapanyiki nyui, siyalingu 

Land right I see, land right I Vee, east 

tiifigio tcu; Itai yahaj tcuwuiu sapanyiki nyui. (Repeat) 

direction from Elder ^child land right I see. 

Brother 

Tcuwu^u sapanyiki nyui siyalingu tangio tcut Itai yaha] tcuwu^u 

Land right'l see, ' east direction from Elder child land 

Brother 

sapanyiki nyui. (Repeat) 

right I see. 

IV 

Tavaiigu mai-i, tavafigu mai-i; liononyikii tangio tcu:), Toakoatam 

Mountam win, mountain win; west direction from, White-Eater 

havivihi tavuku mai-i. (Repeat) 

she remained mountain win. 

Tavafigii mai-i, iiononyiku tangio tcu}, Toakoatam havivihi 

Mountain win. west direction from, White-Eater she remained 

tavuku mai-i. (Repeat) 

mountain win, 

Translatio7i 

Earth Magician now comes hitlier; 

Earth Magician now come.s hither. 
From the depths the songs are rising, 

And by him are here established. 

A a now the land is prosperous ; 

As now the land is prosperous 
Elder Brother comes from the East; 

He coiTies here as a child might, 
The land prospers with his coming. 

It was in the western mountains 

That White-Eater Woman dwelt. 
It was in the western mountains 

That White-Eater Woman dwelt. 



EcssELL] CIRCLING SONGS 291 

V 

Hononyi ikamoisi iwujjioni kuna ka-a3'ofika hawus anyivia 

West ' there reftdisli in there bird they all came 

hananyi wufig'a nyi. 

there"' aroutia nie. 

Pahaka hanyonyaki ivaAiina hiyaiiyi imapai imaAoaka anyuina. 

Eagle hi's voice stretched liere I to yoii to touch to see, 

haiya ha aiya haya haya ha-a! Hainukil nyuita. (Repeat) 

haiya (?) (?) (?) {f) (?) You "see. 

Hiva nvi imapai imavoaka anyuina, haiya ha aiva haya haya lia-a! 

Here I to yoti to touch ' see, (?) (?) (f) (?) (?) t?) 

Hamuka nyuita. (Repeat) 

You see. 

Tntiu<lafioii 

' The evening glows red in the West, 

And the birds here gather about me. 
Now I hear the screams of the Eagle. 

Haiya ha aiya haya haya ha-a! 
Now I meet and see you. Haiya ha ! 

HoA RsAsuNA Nyni Basket-Be.\ting Song 

[By Virsuk Viil-l] 
I 

Kanu vavai kokoana iyaimu. (Repeat) 

Y'onder elilT end ' roll. 

Vayaki yuwulimu. (Repeat) 

steep house ' windy. 

Hitu ma-akahi yuwulikatei opaiuana yitana, kanu vayai kokoana 

This magician windy with turn back wind borne, yonder clitf end 

iyaimu. 

- roll. 

Vayaki yuwulimu. (Repeat) 

steep house * windy. 

II 

Siva^ tanundaka muhuka mu^una siko[i kamhoyatcokahi yahana 

Morning dawn far rinming younger brother preceding 'feathers 

rsolingahimu. (Repeat) 



throwing. 



lyanslation 

Roll from cliff end to cliff end, 

Roll, Winds, from the steep house walls. 
Thus the growing excitement 

Gathers like the winds that blow 
From the house cjf Wind Magician. 

In the East, my younger brothers. 
We are preceded by the bearers 

Of the sacred eagle feathers. 

In the East, my younger brothers, 

We are preceded by the bearers 
Of the sacreii eagle feathers. 



292 . THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. a\x. 26 

t 

III 

Pahaku yaitanga inutilnyunu. (Repeat) 

Eagle ■ field tlui"d. 

Sahapa kainaiiia mutanyimu tcorsaji pumunaikmu-u. (Repeat; 

Agreeable sounding thud" rolling thunder. 

then sing all twice) 

JWmslatioii 

In the distant land of Eagle, 

In the distant land of Eagle 
Sounds the harmonious rolling 

Of reverberating thunder. 

KiKiTAVAL Nvai, Swallow Song 

[By Ki-iwa] 

A song for tiestas that is accompanied bj' dancing. 

I 
Ivikitavali j-ofingii hiyanj' wuwuma nyunyui ivaniii rsarsanutco 

Swallow birds here ' with me songs more eommence 

hiyamy wuwuma nyuhuta-a. (Repeat) 

here " with me singing. 

Rsaingaiiia so-ofi j'umapim olina-a hiyany wuwuma nyuhuta-a. 

Poor women togetner stay here with me singing. 

(Repeat) 

II 
Vavaisa Sinitavali nam kuka-a, vavaisa niiiitavali nam kuka-a; 

Rocks swallows meet standing, rocks swallows meet standing; 

ku^ama nyovapa-a, ku^ama nyovapa-a, hanany wuwukany tcutania 

.there me brought, there me brought, there me around blue 

kikihyatu wovakimhu. (Repeat) 

rainbows appeared. 

Vavaisa fiiiiits'ivali nam kuka-a ku^ama nyovapa-a hanany wuwukany 

Rocks swallows meet standing there ine brought there me around 

tcutaiigia kikihj'aju wovakimhu. (Repeat) 

blue rainbows appeared. 

Translation 

Now the Swallow begins his singing; 

Now the Swallow begins his singing. 
And the women who are with me, 

The poor women commence to sing. 

The Swallows met in the standing cliffs ; 

The Swallows met in the standing cliffs. 
And the rainbows arched above me, 

There the blue rainbow arches met. 



BussKLL] CIRCLING SONGS 293 

III 
Tcotcoka kinitiiAaid liiiitTivaiAuka, hiatAvuiAuka nionyi vanyimuia 

Black swallows (they) here run- (they) here run- took leading me 

iiing came, iiing came 

kaniu ksti-iny vanyinuTja. (Repeat) 

there me " brought me. 

HiataviiiAukahi kamu kai-iny vauyimuja kaniu kai-iny vanyimu^a. 

Here runniug came there me lea&iug me there me leading me. 

(Repeat) 

IV 

Haiya! Rsaifiga tcuAungi pi yunafigita-a kahcsiyali Auputcaha 

Ala's! Poor clouds not discoverable far in tlie east under 

tiiAanga itcu-u^aa hamu katcu konya-am himulivuka-a. (Repeat) 

moiuitain in there lay I there arrived running. 

TcuAungi pi yunaiigita-a kaho siyali Auputcaha taAanga itcu-uta-a 

clouds not (Tiscoverable far in the ea,st under mountain in there 

haniu katcu konya-am himuliAuka-a. (Repeat) 

lay I there arrived running. 



Vatciki hyoata punga hihivaka nyuhuna, vatciki yoa tapunga 

We are basket scraping singing, we are basket 

hihivaka nyuhuna; hodony mu^a vahaniutiinyu konyufigu kaitcoiiga 

scraping ' singing; evening in thud " 1 am listening 

hitanyi yahana kokana tcufa kianu rsaitcofiga. (Repeat) 

this niy feathers tips clouds there hanging. 

Vatciki hyoata punga hihivaka nyuhuna; hodony mu^a vahamutanyu 

We are basket scraping 'singing; evening in thud 

konyufigu kaitcoiiga hitanyi yahana kokana tcufa kianu rsaitcofiga. 

i am listening this my " feathers tips clouds there hanging. 



(Repeat) 



Translation 

The Black Swallows running hither; 

The Black Swallows running hither, 
Running hither came to lead me, 

Lead me there, lead me there. 

Haiya! Far in the distant east 

Lie the clouds hidden under the mountain. 
Far in the east direction 

To the hidden clouds come running. 

We are beating the basket drums ; 

We are beating the basket drums. 
1 am singing, I am listening; 

From my feathers clouds are shaking. 



294 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 2G 

VI 
Vanyu tantinadungii kamudukai vapaiiioi(d) rj^orsonaki; namha 

I am dizzy run bog water; there 

nanyinyiviha ku^a iik makafa} nyuta-a vapaaka figingi rsa-aka ihya 

I came in there tadpole singing reeds bark girdle here 

vanj'uta. (Repeat) 

singing. 

Vapamo|(d) rsorsonaki namha nanyinyiviha ku:ja uk makafa? nyuta-a 

Bog water there I came in there tadpole singing 

vapa-aka ngiiigi rsa-aka ihya vanyuta. (Repeat) 

reeds Dark girdle here singing. 

VII 

Hodony kdnyunyuAund katcu tamai sitccna-aki vangitcud yaimu^a 

Evening land lay top very blue dragon fly going 

rsona-aki nanainai, Auangihya hunyul mamai kany rsotaiigi tcoakana. 

water top, hanging his tail with* water stick in. 

(Repeat) 

Kony hya-ama nyinyiviha kanyuita hunyul mamai kany rsonangi 

I there came see his tail with water 

tcoakana yanakuAi rsanihon3'u. 

stick in flapping rustling. 

VIII 
Himonyi munu-una, hinionyi niunu-una; tcokaiigia sisikimu, 

There I run, there *" I run; darkness rattling, 

tcokaiigia sisikimu-u, tciavoid hyasinga kony hunga sifanatcama 

darkness rattling, visnaga 'flowers I that wear in hair 

nyuimulhimu. (Repeat) 

singing place going to. 

Himonyi munu-una, tcokangia sisikimu, tcokaiigia .sisikimu-u, 

There I run, darkness rattling. darkness rattling, 

tciavojd hyasiiiga kony hunga sifanatcama nyuimulhimu. (Repeat) 

visnaga 'flowers I that wear in hair singing place going to. 

Translation 

I ran into the swamp confused ; 

Tliere I heard flie Tadpoles singing. 
I ran into tlie swamp confused, 

Where the bark-clothed Tadpoles sang. 

In the West the Dragonfly wanders, 

Skimmitig the surfaces of tlie pools. 
Touching only with his tail. He skims 

With flapping and rustling wings. 

Thence I run as the darkness gathers, 

Wearing cactus flowers in my hair. 
Thence I run as the darkness gathers, 

In fluttering darkness to the singing place. 



KCSSELL] CIRCLING SONGS 295 

IX 

Sikala imuta vanyi kinyonyoi vawupii nyiwoata-a, hai-iya! 

Eiumd going I vulture like I make, haiyii! 

TainaiAu katcimu parsa vanyoliiia kanyuita-a itavanya ipuinanga 

Top laj-ing nearby to I stay 'see this" breath 

tcTJtcunafigu-TT. (Repeat) 

blue. 

Taiuaivu katcimu parsa vanyolina kanyuita-a itavanya ipuinanga 

Top laying near by to I stay "see this breath 

teutcunangu-u. (Repeat) 

blue. 

X 

AUngihomi nakamula, Aungihonii nakamula; hiaAat nyuihunda 

Reddish bat, reddish hat: here " song end 

Aakamunanahakimu pahanga vivingi hukanyi sivsinatconaha Asikamu- 

rejoices eagle down that l' put in head dress re- 

nanahakimu pawoi yasi-imu. 

joices pawoi (tree) flower. 

Translation 

I am circling like the Vulture, 

Staying, flying near the blue. 
I am circling like the Vulture, 

Breathing, flying near the blue. 

Nfiw the Redilish Bat rejoices 

In the songs which we are singing ; 
He rejoices in the eagle down 

With which we ornament our headdress. 

HAhAkimat Nvai, BrrrERFLY Song 

[By Virsak Val-1] 
I 

Yakima^i nyunyui rsanatco, yakiraap nyunyui rsanatco; *vat£i 

Butterfly song ooinmence, " butterfly song commence ; they 

tcotconaku yahaipu vapaki(f)wa komoinanyi yovaiya pumuhimu-u. 

dance "either side to and fro smoke raise higher. 

(Repeat all; then repeat four times from*) 

II 
Yakimai vofifiu, yakimap yofifiu, *mohomoi iiyuhiAu rsSnatco 

Butterfly " bird, butterfly bird, many song conunence 

wuhuwui nyi nuduna kita rsarsanuk komuhi. (Repeat all; 

toward I run house close to dust. 

then repeat twice from *) 

Traiidation 

The Butterfly song we now commence; 

The Butterfly song we now commence, 
Dancing on tiides to and fro 

Until the dust arises. 

The Butterfly Bird^the Butterfly Bird 

Commences to sing his many songs. 
I run to where tlie dust arises. 

Close to the walls of the house. 



296 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

III 

Vanyiki yumotci nyunyuiAu rsanatco. (Repeat) 

I am ' now song coramence. 

*Konyami kakayilk wuhuAui uyi mudukai konyka wumaika 

I there heard toward me run 1 that with 

wumanyi rsanawoitco. (Repeat all; then repeat twice from *) 

with him commence. 

IV 

Yonofafigu yahaka mohofi *yakanyhi wuwumu rsanawoitco, 

Cat-tail ' leaf woman here me with commence, 

liinhovat wuganya himihimu iakofiga nyi iovaha hayauy 

in there round going here my taking here 

iiuamarsaku mawoihimuna-a. (Repeat all; then repeat twice from *) 

my breast touch. 

V 

Matcipand unavaiigu moi tcuAangi katci wuma nyuna. 

Ma-atepat mountain toward cloud lay with singing. 

(Repeat) 

*Kamundak Unavaiigu pia kiaya tcuAaiigi katci wuma nyuhuna-a. 

Kfi'matOk mountain not have cloud lay with singing. 

(Repeat all; then repeat twice from*. Sing four times) 

VI 

Mokali navangu kuhuka, mokali tavaiigu kuhuka ; * yaifingia 

Dead mountain standing, dead mountain standing; hurry 

imukama tciviyaka nyuitana sikoli kakiwonda yuwuhulitc 

run arrive see younger brother I guess wind his 

an avaiyu iigagaiva raunduhuna-a. (Repeat as above) 

there pass across run. 

Translation 

I commence the song, I commence the song. 

I heard the singing as I ran; 
I heard the singing as I ran. 

I join ill with the singing. 

Tlie Cat-tail Woman commences singing; 

Tlie Cat-tail Woman commences singing. 
I join the circling dancers, 

Striking my breast and singing. 

I .sail in the clouds to Table mountain; 

I sail in the clouds to Table mountain, 
And I sing with K:l'matiik mountain 

Upon wliich there are no clouds. 

Hurry to the Dead Standing mountain; 

Hurry to the Dead Standing mountain. 
See there, niy Younger Brother, 

How the winds there run their course. 



RUSSKLL] GAME SONGS _ 297 

VII 

Mayai Niivaiigu, Mavaj Navafigu, * hanavanyi wutcoma 

Mn-ayal mountain, Ma-iiyal mountain, yonder before 

tcuwu^ unakiomainu hamavaki yuiKlafiga 3ohof(i) yuhumuna-a. 

land strip house " in woman " laughing. 

(Repeat as above) 

VIII 
Kakandaku Navaiigu yalikapa nyuna. (Repeat) 

Kakotuk mountain 'downliiU suiging. 

*Tatarsaki ngiiigikoatci iiu'iiva kuuwusi tcunangi rsonaiigitco-o. 

Foam neaa band came running kind that blue water. 

(Repeat as above) 

Trdiislatioii 

At the cleariiifi; of JIa-ayal mountain; 

At the clearing of Ma-ayal mountain, 
Before the house of the Magician, 

There stands the woman laughing. 

Here on the slopes of Crooked mountain; 

Here on the slopes of Crooked mountain, 
Around whose crest the foam remains, 

We have run for blue water. 

GAME SONGS 

Tak.\t(d) Nviii, TAkal Song" 
[By Virsak VAl-I] 



Takalimhu, takalinihu, *taita wiva yuwuli mulitco-o. (Repeat all; 

Takalimhu, takalimhu, our lield toward * wind make run. 

then repeat twice from *) 

TriiHslatiiin 

Takalimhu, takalimhu, 

The wind helps us with our ala 
When we play the game of takal(d). 

Takalimhu, takalimhu. 
The wind helps us with our ala 

When we play the game of takal(d). 
The wind helps us with our ala 

When we play the game of takal(d). 
The wind helps us with our ala 

When we play the game of takal(d). 

" This song is sung in the evening, and during the next day the women play the game called 
Takai(d). 



298 THE PIMA INDIANS (eth. ann. 26 

II 

Huwuli mulitcona, * huwuli mulitcona hukanyki takalimu wusi 

Wind, make it run. wind make it run tliat I wUh takal(d) all 

kukuhuva-a. (Repeat as above) 

vrin. 

Translation 

Wind, swiftly make our ala run 

That I may win at takal(d). 
Wind, swiftly make our ala run 

That I may win at takal(d), 
That I may win at takal(d), 

That I may win at takal(d). 

WoiTC\)TA OR RsAN'YKi Nyhi, Football Song o 
[By Virsak Vftl-I] 

I 

Momoi yanaiua humiaki nymkimu. (Repeat) *Konyu sima 

Many people together talking. That I there 

kukiwak 3'osi kawonaku naitcona kitavali yofiiigu nyapayanufigu 

stand stick ball throw swallow bird me napping 

vimu. (Repeat all; then repeat twice from *) 

(?) 

II 

Tcokoikamu tanavangu *kaniova hondonyingu parsava kukiniuta 

Black mountain far west this side stand 

samuka wuwui pamumTjlimu tarsal yunda nyoka wungany naipiniu. 

toward run sun in middle round '^ run. 

(Repeat as above) 

III 

Tawot yatamu *komfis siny wunatti-aku vany niulitco kamova 

Who man you me with me* run there 

tcokama nyuitaimu hinavanj' nyoiagi ta numamanguvi j^ukaimu 

goal ' looking there me in front of waving the hands 'his shadow? 

(Repeat as above) 

Translation 

Many people have gathered together, 

I am ready to start in the race. 
And the Swallow with beating wings 

Cools me in readiness for the word. 

Far in the west stands the Black mountain 

Around which our racers ran at noon. 
Who is this man running with me, 

The shadow of whose hands 1 see? 

oSuDg the evening before the day of the foot race. 



RUSSELL] HUNTING SONGS 299 

VApCtai Nyni, Lay Song <* 
[By Viisak VSl-l] 

I 

Yandundo itcaya, yandundo itcaya. (Sing three times) 

II 

Yandundo iya-andundo. (Sing three times) 

Hoho kaviyo fund, ama aimivakavi 30 fund; ova, ova, yo wiyanhi 
hila atcovayo nimi^^a no kiyaho. Hoho kaviyo fund ama, uiniva 
kaviyo fund. (Repeated until the opponents guess where the sticks 
are) 

A-AL Hatcitcivitak Nyni, Ohildken Play Song 

[By Sika'tcu, Dry] 

jYuk'imiilolo tak vaiwana. (Repeat indetinitely) 

The children clasp hands and dance and sing this song. They are 
divided into two parties, one leader saying il'numatcit and the other 
kil'siya. 

HUNTING SONGS 

KatiItapi Nyni, Datura Song * 
(By Virsak V;il-1] 

I 

Tahaiva siyali kukim, *tahaiva siyali kukim; kuta njn worsanyiik' 

White mornmg stand, white morniiiK stand; in I arose 

hi-im. (Repeat from *) 

go. 

Tcutangi yondany kuiTgusim. * tcutafigi yondany kungusin; kuta nyi 

Blue evening falls, blue ' evening falls; in I 

worsanyuk hi-im. (Repeat from*) 



go. 



Translation 

At the time of the White Dawn; 

At the time of the White Dawn, 
I arose and went away. 

At Blue Nightfall I went away. 



"Derived from another tribe, but from which is not known. The meaning of the words is not 
known to the Pimas. 

t This and the Pihol song are sung to bring success when setting out on a deer hunt. This song is 
principally depended upon in cases of sickness where the chaxacteristie symptoms are vomiting and 
dizziness. 



300 THE PIMA INI>IANS [eth. ann. 26 

II 

Katundami" ya-ahangu, *katundaDii ya-ahangu; konyitcoma 

Thornapple ' leaves, thornapple leaves: I that 

hongiyak naiijahangu rsakali mumulihimu. (Repeat all; then repeat 

eat' dizzy stagger run. 

from *) 

Katundami yasiiigu, * katundami yilsingu ; tcoma hiyaku navahamo 

Thornapple tiowers, thornapple flowers; that drink drunk 

rsakali mumulihimu. (Repeat from *) • 

stagger run. 

Ill 

Kakata koviholi yanamu nyaita-a. * hiyava nyiahu vatany, mumoak 

Bows great remaining man 'following, 'here overtook he me, killed 

inyi, wopa hitany yahafiga hikomiaka rsoliiiga-a. (Repeat from *) 

me, left this my horns cut off throw away. 

Vapaka kuviholi yanamu nyaita-a, * hiyava nyiahu vatanj% 

Reed.s great remaining man following, here overtook he me, 

mumoak inj'i, wopa hitany niinhavia hikomiaka rsoliiiga-a. (Repeat 

killed me, left this my feet eut otf throw away. 

from *) 

IV 

Momovali natakimu, * moinovali natakimu, kajoho miawaka hama 

Fly crazy, fly crazy. there drf)p there 

yanaki taimhu-u. (Repeat from *) 

flap. 

* Yakimalinavakahi, yakimali navakahi, ka^oho miawaka hama tapai 

Butterfly drunk, ' Butterfly drunk, there drop there open 

kimu-u. (Repeat fi'om *) 

and shut wings. 

Traiislalion 

I ate the thornapple leaves 

Ami the leaves made me flizzy. 
I drank thornapple flowers 

An<l the drink made me stagger. 

The hunter, Bow-remaining, 

He overtook and killed me. 
Cut and threw my horns away. 

The hunter, Keed-remaining, 
He overtook and killed me. 

Cut and threw my feet away. 

Now the flies become crazy 
And they drop with flapping wings. 

The drunken butterflies sit 

With opening and shutting wings. 

aX native thornapple. Datura meteloides D. V. It is popularly believed that if one eat an tindi- 
vided root it will render him temporarily insane, but if the root be divided or branehing it is 
innoetious. There is a tradition that a man at Blackwater ate of the root and directed that he be 
locked in an empty house until the effects should wear off. He was locked in at noon and toward 
evening he was seen running through the thickets toward the ri\'er a couple of miles distant. He 
recovered bis senses when in the middle of a thorny thicket of mesquites. His limbs were scratched 
and bruised, yet he had been unconscious of any injury until the moment of recovering his wits. 



RUSSELL] HUNTING SONGS 301 

PiHOT Nvni, PinoL Song 
[By Virsftk Y:U-1] 



Yali tcovu niakai tcokak ut mu^utatc yoai tcokak yoapa. 

Younger hare mngicinn lilai'kuess in running hiacli-tailed meat bring 

deer 

sialim anta yoapa, sialiiii aiita yoapa-a. Yali kaAu makai tcokak ut 

morning I will ' bring, morning I will " liring. Younger badger magician blaekness '" 



mujutatc yoai tatat yoapa, siaiiin anta yoaka, sialiiii aiita yoapa-a. 

running black-tailed feet "bring, morning I will "bring, morning I will " brnig. 
deer 

(Repeat four times) 

II 

Nany pia hyuwulik, nany pia yuwulik, r.any pia hayuwuli-ika-a. 

Had i no wind, liad "l no " wind, had I no " wind. 

Nanv pia liatcuAaluk, nany pia tcuvakik. nany hatcUYa ki-ika-a. 

Had "l no clouds, had! no clouds. had"! no clouds. 

KahoYa siyali wutca saliama Ikoj kukatc yamliii nyu Yaita, nany pia 

Di.stant e"ast under yellow (?) standing " there me calling, had 1 iii.i 

yuwulik, nany pia hayuwuli-ika-a. KanihoYa hondony wutca sahauia 

" wind, hadi no " wind. There west " under yellow 

Ikoi kukatc yamha nyu Yaita. nany pia yuwuUk, nany pia 

(?) standing there ine calling, had I no wind, had I no 

hayuwuli-ika-a. KamhoYa hondony wutca sahama Iko] kukatc 

wind. There west ' under yellow (") standing 

yaiuha nyu vaita, nany pai tcuwukik, nany pia hatcuwuki-ika-a. 

there me calling, had 1 nn clouds, had I no clouds. 

Trimaldtioii 

Young Hare Magician running 

Brings black-tailed deer venison. 
And young Badger Magician 

Brings the feet of hlack-tailed deer. 

Had 1 neither winds or clouds? 

In the east the Yellow Ikol, 
In tlie west the Yellow Ikol 

Called ine. I had no winds or clouds. 



302 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

MEDICINE SONGS 

ToATciTA Nvni, Curb Song" 
[By Juan Thomas] 

I 

Hodony Aungiomima kaJhowa n^'opinyima, hodonj' Aungiominia 

Evening red not yet sink, evening" red 

kaihowa nyopinyirua; * kony suna yuna tcomu nahivaka nyuina 

not yet sinli'; me I in tiiere sit see 

itanyi rsavikdna sikaj munukai mtna sisinyi hikimu. 

my gourd round run in rattling hikimu. 

Hodony Aungiomima Iviiiiiowa nyopinyima, hodony Aungiomima 
kaihowa -nyopinyima; **kony suna yuna tcomu nahivaka nyuina 
itanyi matcuowina sikaj munukai mu^a pupunai hikimu. (Repeat 

featliers rumbling 

to*) 

Kony suiia yuna tcomu nahivaka nyuina itanyi rsavikona sika{ 

I I in there sit ' see this my gourd {'') 

munukai mu'ja sisinyi, hikimu. (Sing from **) 
(?) (?) (?) (?) 

Konv suna yuna tcomu nahivaka nyuina itanyi matcuowina sikai 

(?) ■ (?) (?) (?) (?) (?) (?)■ feathers 

munukai mu;a pupunai hildmu. (Repeat all four times) 

II 
Kus sitcofia muAauy vaninyi taiima. (Repeat) 

Kind of all night heme shaking. 

Kaho- makai kiyundavam nyoapaimu kus sitcona muAany vaninyi 

Up there magician's house me brought kind of all night he me 

in there 

tuiima. (Repeat second line; then repeat all four times) 

shaking, 

TVatislation 

The evening glow yet lingers; 

The evening glow yet lingers, 
And I sit with my goiinl rattle 

Engaged in the sacred chant. 
As I wave the eagle feathers 

We hear the magic sounding. 

Puissant Might is shaking me 

Just as he did at the time 
When I was taken up in spirit 
To the great Magician's house. 

a This song was sung by a Blackwater medicine-man when making his diagnosis of a case. In 
this connection read the history of Sala Hina's treatment when poisoned (p. 260). 



KUSSELL] MEDICINE SONGS 303 

III 

Alisi yoa-amu vavatcosi hutcu[ ya-ana yopanaka yukatc vanyi 

Kind of yellow wren himself feathers pull out with it ma.ke me 

tccrpaftcona *hiyanyi mamtttarau maAursapaiimu tcuwiinda wusika 

prostitute 'here' my head oUisp hands land all over 

mumuhulimu. (Repeat; then repeat twice from*; repeat all four 

run. 

times) 

IV 

Alisi tcutcunani ktilakamu * tcuwnnda ionitan(u) tcutafii yuwulhula 

Kind of blue kakakamu land edge blue ' wind 

vair^^apaiimu tata j'uwulhula vipiahimu vatai huAuudak tcunyuwuna 

lying on while wind left make wind land 

kopaiiyima. (Repeat as above) 

dust. 

V 

Mamursanu tanali kia nyB^a vini kukionyiit. *Amuka valnyuihita 

Moons shine here me in here stand'. You men wi'll see 

nalo-oji tcutani vaptrkanyi kohona var.soi muk nyi nanamu. (Repeat 

women blue reed me " blow far distant me meet. 

as above) 

VI 

Haiya! Haiya! Rsavikohot man sisikimu. (Repeat) 

Haiya! Haiya! Gourd there rattling. 

Konyu wuwuiAa himuk am nyuita himan vaitcokimu rsavikohot 

That" I toward go there 'see laying gourd 

man sisikimu. (Repeat; then repeat all four times) 

there rattling. 

Translalion 

Yellow Bird placed \n>> feathei-s 

Where they fell on the head of the woman; 

Making o1 her a harlot who ran about 
With her hands clasped before her. 

Bluebird drifted at the edge of the world, 

Drifted along upon the blue wind. 
White Wind went down front his dwelling 

And raised dtist upon the earth. 

The moonshine abides in me; 

And soon you men and women will see 
The reed that I now am blowing 

Bring the Moon down to meet me. 

Haiya! The gourd is rattling; 

Haiya! The gourd is rattling. 
When I go to see it there 

I surely find it rattling. 



304 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 26 

VII 
Kotc yumoiva lo^ony taimu, kotc yumoiva loion}- taiiuu; ha 

We now evening taimu, we now evening laimu; our 

rsursupinyimu * kusu fclta niahiimama kifii tavali inatcuwoena fiingi 

younger bro'thers Ivind of white headed swallow (bird) wing feathers four 

kaj'a putanyinaha kiya lo^ony taiiniu. (Repeat; then repeat twice 

there rattling here evening tailmu. 

from *. Sing all four times) 

VIII 
Litai Makai * vapaka likotcuku kamo nyi paitcomi vopa 

Elder Brother reed magician cut yonder me before in front throw 

kuirsapaiimu kun^ak tcuAafii kaitafiima. (Repeat from *. Sing all 

step on in clouds sounding. 



four times) 



IX 



Alisi kakamaki Wtjmukali * vaviki s'oam aiitco tconyitcokimu 

Kind of gray Coyote he is yellow something making 

p'mumi's huk vamat an kiwonatcona. (Repeat all; then repeat twice 

meddler that snake there belt. 

from *) 

X 
Aliwusi tcutsiiii papat lohoji namkak varso nyi nanamiik kamhony 

Kind of blue frog woman meet there me meet somewhere 

puitcokirau * kaho sialinu. Marsii .sutiita tcuAakia paitcotco hamuiiu 

carry me yonder east. Front white clouds there stand there 

yainuka painj^ pui tcokimu. (Repeat all; then repeat twice from *) 

after me carry me. 

Translation 

It is evening, it, i.s evening. 

And four times at evening 
Calls the white-headed Swallow 

As he plucks out his feathers. 

Elder Brother cuts his reed, 

Yonder before me now he throws it, 
Stepping upon it so that the 

Clouds loudly repeat tiie sound. 

Gray Coyote is a dirty meddler, 

He wears a belt of snake skin. 
Gray Coyote is a dirty meddler. 

He wears a lielt of snake skin. 

Blue Frog-woman met and carried me 

To the cloud land in the East. 
Blue Frog-woman met and carried me 

To where the clouds are standing. 



nussELL] MEDICINE SONGS 3U5 

XI 

Kokiiki moinoviny tcufuhulinur * kuina kus kamaki Wumukali, 

Woixl triangle ' rising in liind of gray Coyote, 

naiwouyima uyanu kaiAu matcuowina hukanyai nyi tanalhitaimu. 

arose at one side of the bacic wing feathers with it me shine. 

XII 

Yainupauu tiitavana * ku^ana Litai tcunyuwunda tcopolitaiiniu 

Dead field mountain in Elder land rectangular 

Brother 

konyu hunc yunda raavavaka nyuina konyu hunu nyuita-imu. 

I in that in enter there see I in that ' saw. 

XIII 
Alwus yoa-am vavatcosi * kahamova muhutnuka tcutcakamu 

Kind of yellow wren • yonder distant caves 

tatavafiu woeka punyi puitcokiinu kamodanyi mamaitcomhi 

mountain toward there me' carry me before me close to 

pakuuyim tcukahima. 

thump so far. 

XIV 

Alwusu kakamani Ta^rai wotu inakai kainhu mama^atc piohokimu 

Kind of gray Road-runner he magician he young his hungry 

tcom rsoakimonha *hia tataiwonyk tcutcuwuna tcutcumaka 

then cry here arose lauds everywhere 

mumuhulima alAapayoli niunioahak koAarsatc kahi yan matai 

running miinpe'ds killed approaching across there carry 

tcofia. 

on back. 

Translation 

Gray Coyote stood in the forest, 

From his shoulders he plucked feathers 
That gave me shining power, 

Plucked wing feathers bearing power. 

I entered YMnupanu mountain 

And saw Elder Brother's land 
Marked off with its sijuare corners, 

Marked as in a rectangle. 

Yellow Bird carries me to the caves, 

To the distant caves of the mountain. 
And we hear the sound of his footsteps 

As he moves upon his way. 

Gray Road-runner, the magician. 

As his young cried out with hunger. 
Ran about engaged in killing 

Millipeds that he carried home. 
26 ETH— 08 22 



306 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

XV 

AlwusD tcotcok kamkitcuma *tcokafii niopondak varsatc 

Kiiui of black turtle darkness made a belt toward 

vaitcokimu am kai panyumunda tcokaki voiiu nyitaimu. 

laying there make shake darkness shaking nyitaimu. 

XVI 

Icnpaf yohofi naiwonyk *anavan3' wuwukany mumuhuliniu yavany 

Harlot woman arose and run around me me " ran liere me 

pamarsiilpu niamakuAa. 

breast beat the air. 

XVII 
Aina .smamatcun rsursupinyi *inafiu tarsai kaho toconyihima 

Hurry know younger broth'ers around sun up there come up 

yaifia smamatcun rsursupinyi kasikayany mamaka himu. 

hurry know my younger brothers drowsiness " gave himu. 

Triinslation 

The Black Turtle now approaches us, 

Wearing and shaking his belt of night. 
The Black Turtle now approaches us, 

Wearing and shaking his belt of night. 

The harlot arose and ran about. 

Beating her breast and the air. 
The harlot arose and ran about, 

Beating her breast and the air. 

Understand, my younger brothers. 

That it is the Sun that gives me 
The trance vision that I see. 

The Sun gives magic power. 

Kamk.itc.1t Nv:ii, Turtle Song 
[By Virsak Val-I] 

Sivany lahai, sivany lahai, sivany lahai, sivany lahai. (Repeat) 

Chief told, chief told, chief" told, chief" t<pld. 

Kuwusi kuhuiiga siyali worsa kundangu pahaka wuwumia nyukai, 

Kind of good mo"rning rise at the same time eagle with "sang, 

siyany lahai, siyany lahai. Kuwusi kuhuiiga hondony tcopi kundaiiga 

chief told, chief told. Kind of good evening sank at the same time 

yirsaka wuwumia nyukai, sivany lahai, sivany lahai. (Repeat four 

hawk with sang, chief told, chief told. 

times) 

Translaiion 

Tell their leader, tell their leader; 

With their leader sings the Eagle 
When the morning dawn is here; 

Hawk sings with him at even. 



BUSSELL] MEDICINE SONGS 307 

Karakutcut, kamkutcut, papt vatcivi varso hutcui rsotk ut vatcivi, 

Turtle, turtle, where swim there pond water in swim 

kosta, kosta, kosta, kosta, kosta, kosta. (Repeat four times) 

(?) (?) (?) (?) (?) (?) 

Tra»xli(tion 

Turtle, Turtle, where are you? 

Where is the pond in which you swim? 
Kosta, kosta, kosta, kosta. 

Where is the water you swim in? 

TcaMAMAiKi Nv.ii, Horned Toad Song 

[By Virsrik Vftl-1] 



Siyalika nyunyuwuta vasitu mahaitama tcohiiiga. (Repeat) 

East direction land plea-sant look.s. 

*Konyuka wuhuwuiva himuka nyuita vasitu mahaitama tcohinga. 

I that toward go " see pleasant looks. 

(Repeat as above) 

II 

Hondonyika nyunyuwutu vasita mupuitama tcohifiga. (Repeat) 

West direction land very tearful looks. 

*Samuka wuhuwuiva mundu ka nyuita vasita mupuitama tcoiiiga. 

There toward run see very tearf'il looks 

(Repeat as above) 

TrauslcitiiJii 

The East Land seems very pleasant. 

I go toward it and I see 
How pleasant it seems to be. 

I go toward the Pleasant Land. 

West Land is most terrible. 

I go toward it and I see 
How terril)le the Land is. 

I go toward the fearful Land. 

TciATAKi N'Y.ii, Gila Monstkr Song 

[By Si-tatk(i), Prepare] 
I 

Rsaingali tcupati yohof, *kailiova yon(d)onyima nyi moitaku 

Pitiame prostitute woman. not yet " evening me soul 

yaha.simu kahova nyainaka tcupatia uyi moitaku yahasimu. 

flower up after prostitute me heart flower. 

(Repeat; then repeat from*. Sing all four times) 

Translation 

Pitiable harlot though I am, 

Jly heart glows with the singing 
While the evening yet is young. 

My heart glows with the singing. 



308 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

II 

Ya-a]^ vavaitcotconi hanavany Aunganyi figafigaki nyukai *hami 

That stone standing there " around ' two ' sing there 

tamai tcokafigi huwun(d)iiku noahiiiiu kainaku yahai yananguhuAa. 

top black wind roaring after back and forth flutter. 

(Repeat as above) 

III 

Ya-ai tahai Sgiwolik, *hanii tamai sutcunangi mamahat nyu-uhuna 

That white Ngiwolik, there top ' green frog ' singing 

kusu tcufiafigi tcuvaki kahatc momoi nyuhuna. (Repeat as above) 

kind of blue clouds lay many singing. 

Translation 

Where the two stones were standing, 

Black Winii roared in fearful blasts, 
Driving the birds before him 

Fluttering back and forth. 

On the summit of white Sgiwolik 

There the green frogs are singing. 
Lying near the blue storm clouds 

There many frogs are singing. 

Tcoso-oKAT Nyai, Black Lizard Sons 

[By Ha-ata, Finished 011a] 

I 

Makai ki wupuku nyuitco, *inakai ki wupuku nyuitco, sikoj tarsal 

Magician house first sing to, magician house first sing to, round sun 

tcursunying tarsai .sisvan huvvuwum haimhuna-a. (Repeat ; then 

arose sun rays with go. 

repeat from*. Sing all four times) 

II 
Tcutcupavi yohoti kaka wondu Auitimuna, *tcutcupavi yohoti 

Prostitute 'women group come running, prostitute 'women 

kakawondu Aaitimuna. tcutcupavi Aaifununa hikimoli yasika 

group come running, prostitute come running (a plant) "flower 

Sgiiigikoatci Aaifimuna-a. (Repeat as above) 

crowns come running. 

Translaiimi 

We first sing at the Magician's; 

We first sing at the Magician's, 
The round disk of the Sun arose. 

Accompanied with its rays. 

Harlots came running in a group; 

Harlots came running in a group. 
Harlots came with hikimoli. 

Flower crowns upon their heads. 



RiTssELL] MEDICINE SONGS 309 

III 

Hali wusTJ tcotcok tcosokali *Hit;ii mulkon kainak tata tctJAahangi 

That kind of black lizard Elder of running followinfj white clouds 

Brother trail 

nvuyapa nanavitc miiak kuhuwus tatam rsorsoiigimu. (Repeat as 

came out arms following kind of white pools. 

above) 

IV 

Yali vaAufigam navaiigu *tamai tcokaki yondunyihimu, wukanyi 

That stony mountain top darkness go down, round' 

minyumu tataip j'oakoiigimu. (Repeat as above) 

going backward scatter. 



Hali wusu AupuiTgioai vapaiuandu takunandu vinyina tcoikatc 

That kind of reddish .snakes spider string like 

yondrnyu, kamovingi j'ondonyika vaAana takuniindu vinyina tcoika 

came down west direction stretched spider string like 

there, 

yahai puvaopana-a, 

opposite sides stretching. 

Translation 

Black Lizard found the trail where 

Elder Brother had beeu running, 
And he came out from the clouda 

AVith water upon his arms. 

Darkness settles on the summit 

Of the great Stony mountain. 
There circling round it settles 

On the great Stony mountain. 

The ruddy beams like spider threads 

Across the sky came streaming. 
The reddish snakes like spider's web 

To the opposite side came flaming. 

Kak.U Nvai, R.vttlesnake Song 

[By Ki-iwa] 
I 

Yalova yondonaa kanyuhuta, *yalova yondonaa kanyuliuta ; 

Early evening I .sing, " early evening I sing; 

kamodauyi mamatcomi nyunyiri Aixmamatakaimu konyhufiga 

ahead of me in front songs open I that 

wuhuAuma momoiva nyuhu-una. (Repeat from beginning; then 

with many ' singing. 



repeat twice from *) 



Translation 

In the early evening, 

In the early evening 
We begin to sing many songs; 

And I join in singing many. 



310 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



II 

Kiimundakr nanavaka worsanyimu, *haiiiali mamarsaka likorsapi 

Ka'matOk mountain came forth, there near low clouds 

nyuyapakimu-u. Kiiiuundaku naniivaku miapitaiiuu kokongaaia 

came out. Ka'matOk mountain closer top 

nj^uyapakimu. (Repeat as abov^e) 

came out. 

HI 

Tawondu yiihauama iyatcom umasi, * tawondu yahanama iyatcom 

Who man ' here appear, who ' man here 

umasi* Konyi tcoma yangamu -kakaiva yulina iiiaviki j^ungai 

appear? I * there horned snake think not him 

wonda tciyatcomr niamasimu? (Repeat as above) 

here appear? 

IV 
Tcotcoku yakimaii uj'u-una, tcotcoku j^akiniap nyu-una; *va-aki 

Black butterflies " sing, black butterflies sing; ruins 

rsarsanantr ya-ana ko-onyuiigu marsaviki nyo-onyi yahimu-una. 

below marked I that front passing going. 

(Repeat as above) 

Translation 

It was near Ka'matlik mountain 

That this Rattlesnake came forth; 
And he saw the low clouds lying 

Near the sumiiut of the mountain. 

Who is this, who is this? 

Is it not Horned Rattlesnake? 
Is it not Horned Rattlesnake 

Who now a]ipearp hetore us? 



The Butterflies are singing; 

The Butterflies are singing, 
As I go past the foundations 

Below, of the ancient house. 



RUSSELL) MEDICINE SONGS 311 

TcoKOT Nvai, Owl Song 

[By Virank VfiI-1] 
I 

Yahali Ksimundak nanavangu, * inoiva hondonifiga kongana 

Large Kfi'miitilk mountain, many evenings summit 

AupongiohoDii kony hcnga wuwui nyuinunduk imukai, momoi 

rea<lish I * that toward * to sing going, many 

nj'unyci wuwusi namukimu. (Repeat from beginning; then repeat 

songs all meet. 

twice from *) 

II 

Tcokot ya-atama muumuka nyuhuna kony kaitcongatci wuwuiny 

Owl * man far 'singing I ' hearing toward 

haimiuhuna. * Momoi yo-ofi inamatama tcupafinga-a amifaiAuktr 

going back and Manv 'women top prostitute there come 

forth. 

kayuhinui kainakimu-u. (Repeat as above) 

running sounding, 

laughing 

III 

Tfokot yofingu lvokowo|(d) 3-a-atama tcoma .'iinyi wupavingi 

Owl ' bird small owl ' man try me like 

tcohikamu j'a-ahana kony yudanyi amuAulhangi taimu hano 

cla.ss ' feathers I ' ' with *" to make wind there 

kokonganu ktikamaiwakinui. (Repeat as above) 

points ashy. 

IV 

7\^Ungihomi rsonangi *tcomung(isi raamangia nyi-itcolio-ona; 

Reddish water you slowly 'me make drink; 

pianyingi papaki navahamo kani siyalika wohoirsakal 

not I slowly drunk tliere east toward 

himumuiliimu-u. (Repeat as al)ove) 

wobble run. 

Translation 

Toward great KA'matuk mountain 

I go to join the singing, 
During tlie glow of evening. 

I meet all the singers there. 

Owl is singing in the distance, 

I hear him moving back and forth. 
Many harlots came here running; 

Here came running and came laughing. 

Small Owl resembles Tcokot; 

The winds rise from Owl's feathers. 
With their ashy tips he starts them. 

Small Owl is like the Large Owl. 

Owl makes me drink the reddisli water; 

Rapidly intoxicated 
I try to walk straight toward the east, 

And find my footsteps staggering. 



812 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

Kakaitco Nyhi, Qxtail Sosg 
[By Sutatki] 

I 

Kakamangi kakaitcovu kakawo^a miyanyita. ^crmung-ali mulivak 

Gray quails bunched grouping. Coyote came running 

tatai panyuinahimu. (Repeat four times) 

above looking. 

II 

Tcutcunangi kakaitcova kakawo^u vaiAukai, ^umungali nyuinaku 

Blue quails bunched ran together, Coyote' saw 

kakai vanyuinahimu-u.- (Repeat four times) 

sidewise looking. 

Trauxlation 

The Gray quails were bunched together, 

Coyote ran to look upon them. 
The Blue quails were bunched together; 

Coyote looked sidewise at them. 

Tatai Nvni, Roadbunnee Song 
[By A-an Tftirsaki, Feathers Foam] 

I 

Tatai, Tatai, sivalik ma-aka, Tatai, Tatai, sivalik mu-iika 

Roadrunner, Roadrunner, bushy head. Roadrunner. Roadrunner. bu.shy head 

kita Aung-aiiy r.snrsulu, poi! poi! poi! (Repeat four times) 

house round always, poi ! poi ! poi ! 

II 

Tatun(d)ai, Tatun(cla)i piwopAsa; Tatun(d)ai, Tatrn(cl)ai, piwopusa, 

Roarlruniiers, Roadrunners unattended; Rnndrunners. Koadrunners, unattended, 

masika hohotcut utciawa. (Repeat four times) 

morning lizards he devours. 

'rrituslaiHtii 

Roadrunner with the busliy liead 

Is always crying, poi! poi! 
As he runs around the house. 

Poi! poi! poi! around the house. 

Here is the lonely Roadrunner; 

Here is the lonely Roadrunner. 
He eats lizards in the morning; 

He eats solitary lizards. 



RUSSELL] MEDICINE SONGS 313 

III 

Alisi Axjpuiigi wopuikam ^^tan(d)ai, alisi Atjpungi wopuikam 

Kind of reddish I'.vi'il tliat Koiidruiiiier. reddish eyed that 

{]ltan(d)ai hinangu yakawanda tcuflga tcoviny! tcoviny! Alisi 

Roadrunner about mistletoe see (imitative) Kind of 

Acpungi wopuikam ntan(d)ai. (Repeat four times) 

reddish eyed that Koiidriiiiner. 

IV 



Konyi liamo yangitaka mumulihimu. konyi kauao yangitaka 

I there hide had running', I there liide 

mumulihimu kamangi tcosokaii moakai vakatc ki-ima ho-o. (Repeat 

had ruuning gray lizard kill stomach fat eat. 

four times) 

V 

Ka^o tcuof koi kuka kciiganii kiiihasi haopa{ mat ta; tcoi-ika 

Over yonder long mesquite stand tops basket hawk young talon like 

koiiganu kiahasi. (Repeat four times) 

tops basket. 

•VI 

Konyi ngamo rsahika mumulihimu ama aitcovasi nyaikuita ama 

I there pitiable had ruuning there something lucky there 

aitcovasi nyaikuita hiya vany mosi j'Un(d)a siviahawa. (Repeat four 

something ' lucky here my vulva in put penis. 

times) 

vn 

Moi ya-atama, moi ya-atamaka; siAuiigivia, siAuiigivia ma-atama 

Many people, many people; red penis, crown 

ikitanyi hiyami nyum(d)a rsotuki vitciwanyu. (Repeat "our times) 

cut from there water whirlpool. 

Translation 

Here is the red-eyed Roadrunner; 

Here is the red-eyed Roadrunner, 
Who runs about the mistletoe. 

This is the red-eyed Roadrunner. 

I run and liide! I run and liide! 

Now I Icill the Gray Lizard 
And I eat liis fat body. 

I run and hide! I run and hide. 

Over yonder in tlie mesquite 

Stands the Hawk's nest with its branches 

Whicli rise like kidhd frame sticks, 
Over yonder in the mesquite. 

(Translation of sixth and seventh stanzas omitted) 



314 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

Nahakia Nvnl, Mouse Song 

[By Virsak VM-l] 
I 

Halapita nyuitamokam ofiiiga *hih3-avat tatamaiva limunatci hyana 

Something inaccessible bird here top waliiing feathers 

kuviny kainhikimu am tgai kukiAakai tatai luamatcuka tconyopiny 

wave ' sounding there you stand up head slow 

kaihama. (Repeat; then repeat twice from *) 

listen. 

II 

Vanj^iiigi rsahingu hyatata vinaka tcunj'uwutu rsarsanu vamhoikimu 

I am pitiable here we flooded land bases caving in 

haya-ava hanyi supunyu, kamova siyalika naifonyima haya-ava hanyi 

cry see afraid. there before east came out cry see 

supunj'U kamova hondonyikil naifonyima hayava hanyi .supunyu. 

afraid* there west direction came 'out cry see afraid. 

(Repeat) 

Translation 

Wings of birds invisible 

Are now fluttering above you. 
You stand with face uplifted 

And quietly listen there. 

Our land was unfortunate; 

The floods came rolling westward, 
Then they came flowing eastward, 

And I cried out much afraid. 

TocFu Nvni, Hare Song 

[By Virsak VfiT-1] 
I 

Rsursui tcotanyuk nyuhuta, * rsur.sui tcotanyuk nyuhuta; hiya nyi 

straight danced * singing, straight dance'd 'singing: here rue 

tamai yuwuli mutaklmu-u. (Repeat ail; then repeat twice from*) 

top wind roaring. 

II 

Kakai tcotanyuk nyuhuta', "*kakai tcotanyuk nyuhuta; hiya nyi 

Horizontal danced * singing. horizontal danc'ed singing; here me 

tamai tcuvaiigi mutakimu-u. (Repeat a.s above) 



top clouds roaring. 



Translation 



Hare is jum]iing and singing; 

Hare is jumping and singing, 
While the wind is roaring, 

While the wind is roaring. 

Hare is dancing and singing; 

Hare is dancing and singing, 
While the clouds are roaring. 

While the clouds are roaring. 



Kl'SSELL] 



MEDICINE SONGS 



315 



III 
Tcokondu ya-ana vamtitani sesivanatco, * tcokondu yana vamutani 

Owl leathers flop headdress, owl feathcra flop 

sesivanatco; mumukit tcunyuwuta tauumanu kakata namukimu. 

headdress: far country top bow made. 

(Repeat as above) 

. IV 

Kakamaki Nahakia *hondonYi simainatcima kuhunda mataiwonj'ukai 

Gray Mouse evening very know In came out running 

tcokangiiiga ipoiwa. (Repeat as above) 

darkness breath. 



V 

Vata raasi, vata masi, siamu, tany kokopaimu; *vata masi, 

I gues,s morning, 1 guess morning, right I * shut; I guess morning, 

vata masi, siamu tanv kokopaimu; vata masi, vata masi, siamu 

I guess morning, right l' snnt; I guess morning, I guess morning, right 

tanj' kolvopaimu-u. (Repeat as above) 



I 



shut. 



Trnnslaliim 

With headdress of owl feather.^- 

AVith headdress of owl feathers, 
He comes to my far country ; 

He comes bringing hence his bow. 

The Gray Mouse came at nightfall; 

The Gray Mouse came at nightfall, 
Came running in the darkness; 

Came breathing in the darkness. 

I am shut in at day dawn; 

I am shut in at day dawn, 
All night I am free to run 

But am shut in at day dawn. 

KAks Nyai, Dog Song" 
[By Virsak VSl-I] 
I 

Hodony ka nyunyui rsar.san, *katfim tangio tout yuwuhu|(t) 

Evening at songs commence, laying direction from wind 

mundrkai vata mumuinania muiidukai vata youginyu tcopina wufui 

running was terrible running was ' shaking north toward 

nyi pahiva viyohon(d)a. 

me tail wind blew over. 

Trcmslation 



The songs commence at nightfall, 

And the winds blow toward the north. 

The winds are blowing strongly, 
Blowing my tail toward the north. 



aSung rapidly while the side of a basket is beaten to carry the rhythm. 



316 THE PIMA IKDIAN8 [eth. ANN. 26 

II 

Yilkimali yahanu, *yukiiiiali yabanii; hiya vany nanamana kopali 

Butterfly ' wings, 'butterfly ' wings; liere I ' above face 

iigungursti hama huka nyuina nyi ipoina sivahama tcoinga-a. (Repeat 

down fall there you ' see me soul more appearance. 

all; then repeat twice from*) 

III 

Yahali gaHgas simuliwuka, rsaifigali gaiiga.s muliwuka, vapukiali 

Small dogs came running, pitiable dogs came running, riders 

mainaka wovakimu haluliumimakainaiigu-u. 

alter came up laughing so\inding. 

lyanslation 

Butterfly wings are falling; 

Butterfly wings are falling, 
Falling upon and harming; 
My suffering is greater. 

See the small dogs come running; 

See the poor dogs come running. 
See the horsemen coming after; 

See the horsemen coming laughing. 

Pan Nyiii, Coyote Song 
[By Virsak VAl-1] 

I 

Panai kukiwaka nyunyui rsarsanutcona-a. (Repeat) *Tcovanga 

Coyote stands songs'- commence. Girl at puberty 

mohofi yaikapi vvorsauyimu Panai nyunyui vaAunahimu. (Repeat 

woman ' hurry cam'e Coyote ' songs stretching. 

all; then repeat twice from *) 

II 

Pahaiigu yahauu, *Pahafigu yahanu komus huku vany vanani 

Eagle ' feathers, Eagle ' feathers you that that my hat 

liatcona-a, komu.s huku vany vanam hatcona-a vahama tcolkama, nyi 

made, you that that my hat made more looks, me 

imoitaku vahama tcoinga. 

heart more looks. 

Trawslnlion 

Coyote commences singing; 

Coyote commences singing. 
The young woman hurries forth 

To hear the Coyote songs. 

A hat of eagle feathers; 

A hat of eagle feathers, 
A headdress was made for me 

That made my heart grow stronger. 



nf.ssELL] MEDICINE SONGS 317 

III 

Sikali rsouukama, *sikali rsoiiukainii; ku^aiTgu Panai sitcunakimu 

Around water, around water; there in Coyote blue 

mamasina konyuiiga wuwui Aapaimuna. (Repeat as above) 

dyed i in toward rvin. 

Trimslatlon 

Coyote ran arouml it; 

Coyote ran around it, 
Ran into the blue water, 

Changeil the color of his liair. 

HoAi Nviii, Black-Tailed Deer Song 
[By Ki-iwa] 



Vavaki yuwu^a, vavaki yuwtna; * konyuka wutotima yukahimrna. 

Ruins " windy, ruins ' windy: I that under put in the shade of 

wutcaina yukaliimuna; kufigu 113'ahanga yuwinuna, kun3'U 

under put in tlie shade of; large horns ' windy, that 

nahanaka yuwuduna. (Repeat; then repeat twice from *) 

my ears " windy. 

II 

Hamsi muia nyoiigitcu, hania mu;a nyongitcu; kungamatcomu 

Over there run shaking, over there run * sliaking; ahead 

vapaimuhu *kabo nyainak kaiigata ttitaiiulihi kaiya muka nyaihinuna. 

run many up after bows shining here far ' me reach. 



(Repeat as above) 



TVdii^hilwn 

Down from the houses of magic; 

Dcjwn from the hriuses of magic, 
Blow the winds and from my antlers, 

And my ears they stronger gather. 

Over there I ran trembling; 

Over there I ran trembling, 
For bows and arrows pursued me. 

Many bows were on my trail. 



318 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

III 

Tawon'^u kaviyo, tawon^u kavij^o; hiya mukava puny namukimuna 

What horse, what horse; hei-e far in ' meet me 

hanii nyaina, hami nyiuna, siyonyoena, siyonyoena; rsahavasi 

there after, there after, trying to eatch up, trying to catchup; how 

inamaiigia hiinu kunyi yaihiniuna. (Repeat) 

slowly going I ' * reaching. 

*Ho-o koakam kaviyo hi.ya mukava puny namukimuna hami 

star foreliead horse here far me ^ meeting me there 

nyaina, hami nyaina, siyonyoena, siyonyoena; rsahavasi 

'afler, tliere "after, trying to catch vip, tryi'ng to'^catch up; how 

mamangia iiimu kunyiyaihimuna. (Repeat from *) 

slowly going reaching me. 

IV 

Atcimtcia pakaitcuna, yatcimtcia pakaitcuna. (Repeat) 

We here sit, we here sit. 

Siyaiika vavanyima nyunyui kotcungu wus am yanga, yatcimtcia 

East'direetion there 'songs we are all there *^ sing, ' we here 

pSkaitcuna. Hondonyika vavanyima nyunyui kotcungu wus am 

sit. West direction there 'songs' we are all there 

yanga, yatcimtcia pakaitcuna. 

sing, we here sit. 

Translaiion 

What horse is trying to catch me? 

What horse is trying to catch me? 
The horse witli tlie star forehead 

Now slowly gainw ujion me. 

We are sitting here together; 

We are sitting here together, 
Singing the song (jf the east, 

Singing the song of the west. 



TcoTOM Nvni, Beak .Song" 
[By Virsak V,'iT-I] 

I 

Nanyi wonda tcotcoka tcodohom, *hiyavany tamai kakayu vaopa 

Was'l black "bear, here me ' top across stretched 

.sikadaka himu kamhii nyuita yanaliuvia .siraa hanvu-u. (Repeat all; 

around going there 'see waving dew falling. 

then repeat twice from *) 

Trdiixlalioti 

I am the Black Bear: Around me 

You see the light clouds extending. 
I am the Black Bear. Around me 

You see the light dew falling. 

aSometimes used as a rain song. 



RUSSELL] MEDICINE SONGS 319 

II 
Haliwusi Auiigihonii rsotaiigi *konyama ihyoku; kamo nya imuhai 

Kind of reddish wnlfv I there drink; there 1 going 

nyuja vanioniokimu vany tj4isumuhunyu-u. (Repeat as above) 

me in dead I afraid. 

Ill 

NyuuyuUu rsarsana; *wuwui iiya himunahany nya .sikoli nyunyui 

Soiigs commence; toward I going cry I younger songs 

brother 

simamatcimu-u. (Repeat as above) 

know. 

TrwiK/fitloii 

I drink the reiUli.Mli liquor 

Whifh kills the spirit in me. 
I drink the reddish liquor 

Whifh kills the spirit in me. 

Now the singing has commenced, 

Now the singing has commenced. 
I go with my younger brother; 

I know the songs we're singing. 

TcnFHA Nyhi, Gopher Song 
[By Sutatki] 

I 

Hon(d)onv siAupuiigioiiii kony ainatca ihimuna-a; itanyimoina 

Evening - reddisli I ' after go; thismy many 

Aupufigiomi ivasi yasiniuna-a wuwui nyokai Aapanganyi nyuwun(d)u 

reddisli makes ' flowers toward ' go holes land 

yaihimuna. (Repeat four times) 

reaching. 

II 

PahangtT matcuwuina ngingikava yuwun(d)a, pahangu niatcuwuina 

Eagle's wing feathers four " windy, eagle's wing feathers 

iigingikava yuwun(d)a; vakavany woa kaviki nyuina tantilinga 

four ■ windy; ' liere me " turn to 'see shining 

nyimoi kayukayamina. (Repeat four times) 

'soul crossed. 

lyanslnlion 

In the reddish glow of nightfall, 

In the reddisli glow of nightfall 
I return to my burrow, 

About which the flowers bloom. 

With the four eagle feathers, 

With the four eagle feathers 
I stir the air. When I turn 

My magic power is crossed. 



320 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx, 2C 

III 

Tcuwunda nyi moata-a, inaikaAa tcuwunda ii^i moata-a: maikawa 

Land my hill, soft laml niy lull; soft 

moiiginanu tanalifiga hinioiwehiniu kauio iidanyi niaiteomi rsahifiga 

ill front of shining exhalu there me ' before pitiable 

tcohifioairau-u. (Repeat four times) 

appearance. 

Translutiiiti 

And I make hills of soft earth; 

And I make hills of soft earth. 
My breath withers all before it; 

My breath withers all before it. 

Kavi Nydi, Beaver Song 
[By Sutatki] 

I 

Namiiigi vasiny upinyi, namiiigi va.siny ipinyi; moi Auvapamandu 

Say me about truly* airaid. say me alxuit truly' afraid; many snakes 

nyi moitta mohiwa rsonaki nainanha nyonyid ha hiQiuhuna. (Repeat 

I have power of exhale water top 'zigzag going, 

transfor- 
mation 

four times) 

II 

Vapi yaivikia himu kunyi nyuina him, vapi yaivikia himu kunyl 

You not quick go I ' " see go, you "not quick go I 

nyuina him; kusi tarsai kam hayo-osi worsanyimhu api maniarsaka 

see go : kind of sun there trees growing there tame 

kunga mipoita ka muAuna-a. (Repeat four time.s) 

that breath windy. 

Ill 

Sikoli, tanyi kavi, tanyi kavi; humus Alitcoikatci nahaka, hanavany 

Younger I* beaver, I beaver; humus! Appearance ear, there I 

brother, 

wunganj'i, 3'o-osa kiyolhirau hanavany wunganyi; yo-osa kopalt 

roiind, ^ trees "biting there I ' round; trees facedown 

anawihimuna-a. (Repeat four times) 

overthrown. 

Translation 

You talk about and fear me; 

You talk about and fear me. 
As like the sinuous snake 

I go upon the water. 

I see that you go slowly; 

I see that you go slowly. 
Strong as the Sun among the trees, 

You leave your mark upon them. 

Younger brother, I am Beaver, 

I am the quick-eared Beaver 
That gnaws the trees of the forest, 

'Tis I who overthrow them. 



RUSSELL] 



MEDICINE SONGS 



321 



Kaf(u) Nvni, Badger Song 
[By Sutatki] 

I 

Vanyi rsaika vanyunyui pimamatcima; * tarsal vayon(d)onyu, 

I ' pitiable those songs not know; sun * set, 

nyunyui piniatcivaiyaiiga. (Repeat; then repeat twice from *. Sing 

son^ not know'sing. 



thus four times) 



II 



Tarsai yon(d)onyikon(d)a nycnyuwun(d)a, tarsai yon(d)onyikon(d)a 

Sun sets ^ land, sun seta 

nyunyuwun(d)a; am miyun(d)anga * kusukamangi tcokon(d)a 

land: there in there kind of gray owl 

nyinyivimu hana vany wufiganyi nyougorsa-ali kohota itala 

came address there me around low hooting 

nyimoinaiiga kayovaiya puihimu. (Repeat as above) 

higher lifting. 



this 



my heart 



III 



Kan(d)onga nyaAiun(d)a siAapawany, konyuii 

There land sleeping, I there 

tanaliugu kakavitci vavanha, hayanyi ! Maman(d)a 

shining narrow stretch, haya ! My young 

rsainganhi tcomali kopanyu. (Repeat eight times) 

pitiable making ^ ' 



SfU ainaka imuna 

after going 

vamingi 

you 



dust. 



IV 



Tar.saiiigamtJ kavai *kahov"a yon(d)ony tatafiia kukiwaku yaitco 

Sun there up there up there " west direction stand something 

kuwusi tanunamu rsavikon(d)a hon(d)onyi tatafiia 

kind of shining gourd rattle west ' direction 

(Repeat: then repeat twice from*. Sing all four 



nyam 

"tell 



tcomu 

there 

Aukainakimu 

sounding. 

times) 



Trdimhtlion 

Here am I unfortunate; 

Here am I unfortunate, 
Not to know the songs to sing; 

The song.s we i^iiig at sunset. 

There came a Gray Owl at sunset, 
There came a Gray Owl at sunset 

Hooting softly arcjund me, 
He brought terror to my lieart. 

The laml lay quietly sleeping; 

The land lay (juietly sleeping. 
My young stretch, crying, haya! 

Pity them digging in the dust. 

You Sun out there in the West; 

You Sun out there in the West, 
You now are talking to nie. 

You are sounding your gourd rattle. 



26 ETH— 08- 



322 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. L>6 



Tcuwun(d)a rauihimu, tcuwun(d)ii muihimu; konyika yvVA tcoma 

Land burning, land burning; I " in there 

worsanyimu, konyu yu^a hapilnyunahungu hanavany Ai&nganyitc(i) 

rise go, I in there I looking around me behind me 

nyuinahafigu hanavata vunganyi tcu\van(d)a kakavitc tcama 

looking many around * land narrow there 

tcunakirau. (Repeat eight times) 

green. 

VI 
Vanyu pinyi mamatcuka vama nyiwahana, *vanyu pinyi 

I not know surely more * I make, I ' not 

mamatcuka vamil nyiwahana ; ku«i tcupafi kama anyitaka 

know surely more I make : very prostitute hold 'feel 

.siamanyi maraukaha kony hunga imoitaka tcama yon(d)onyiiTga 

right " give I that take in there ' we^t " • 

wuwui tcutccma. (Repeat; then repeat from *. Sing all four 

toward reached. 

times) 

VII 

Vikamu S^ak;in(d)ak iiyoiiinanu movinyama yukaimuna *vikamu, 

Remaining Crooked mountain * me beftire pointed shadow remaining, 

S^gaktin(d)aku nyoiiinanu iiaiiakali yukaimuna ku^ana nyunyui 

Crooked mountain, * me before curved * shadow in ' songs 

Aukaiva nakimu r.siiikala nyimoitaiiga tcupafi tcona. (Repeat; then 

sound pitiable " my heart prostitute. (?) 

repeat from *. Sing four times) 

VIII 
KakaitcoAu yahala hon(d)onyinga vungioma maku nataimhu 

Quails small evening gR>w arrive make 

hapavini nyonyopitci nyunyukamu tcokafigingu tangiomakai 

there slowly fly darkness stripped 

mamanamu tafiitaimu. (Repeat eight times) 

crown throw on. 

Translation 

The laud is parched and burning, 

The land is parched and burning. 
Going and looking about me 

I see a narrow strip of green. 

Yet I do not know surely, 

Yet I do not know surely. 
The harlot is here among us. 

I go away toward the west. 

The shadow of Crooked mountain, 

The curved and pointed sliadow. 
'Twas there that I heard the singing; 

Heard the songs that harmed my heart. 

The light glow of evening; 

The light glow of evening 
Comes as the quails fly slowly. 

And it settles on the young. 



RLSSELL] MEDICINE SONGS 323 

WehAm Nvni, Lightning Song 
[By Sutatki] 

I 

Weyiima himunatcia himunania kaiyum kaiyany, sikoli, mumuka 

Weham weut going li'^lun here, younger far 

^ brother 

yohosi mumoahi [tataka sitana-a]. (Sing four times, alternating the 

tree kUl half split. 

last two words with the one precedino-) 

II 
Rsai kanya sikoli kaino nyimuitcoka, kamo nyimuitcoka, liana, nyi 

Pitiable I younger there me carry, there me carry, there me 

"brother 

wuwungatci tanavaiiga tcotcim parsii uyoAana. (Repeat four times) 

around mountain stand near by tliere carry. 



Ill 

^trpuiigiomi vapamand tcomaiya weyiimi, tcomaiya weyami, 

Reddish .snaiies tries to make ligfitning, tries to make lightning, 

kahova j'osi tapa kukiwopa pivanyi nakaka. (Repeat four times) 

there up "tree on stand not I " do. 

IV 

Rsai kanya sikoli tcokangi noahimtconakia vapahimu vanyu 

pitiable I younger darkneHs roaring going running 1 

brother 

pina-akak tamai Aukahatcimu parsapu katawa. (Repeat four times) 

, not do top sky near by shoot. 

Tra)i!ilali(Mi , 

See the destructive lightning 

Going to kill the distant tree. 
It is going, my younger brother, 

To split the distant tree. 

Around the mountain I carry 

ily poor younger brother; 
Carry him around the mountain 

And then I stand before it. 

The lightning like reddish snakes 

Tries to lash and shiver the trees. 
The lightning tries to strike them, 

But it fails and they yet stand. 



(Translation of fourth stanza omitted) 



324 THE PIMA INDIANS ■ [eth. ann. 26 

Haw.no Nv.ii, Wixd Song 
[By Ha-ata] 

I 

Yuwujdi nyuhuma, *hiyawu rsanahatco, kamo danyimaniaitconia 

Wind sing, here commence, there ' my in front 

tcunyuwuta nyonyoahaiigu-u. (Repeat all; then repeat twice from*) 

land ' sfretching. 

II 

Yuwuhuld ki-iki mumunaiku, *yu\vuhuld ki-iki luuiiiunaiku; 

Wind house thunder. * wind house thunder: 

konyi kamho imuna tcuwunja tcutcumaka mumunaiku-u. (Repeat 

I there going laud covered thunder. 

as above) 

HI 

Hiiijo tatavaka yuwuhu^a. *hiino tatavaka j^uwuhu^a, himo 

Tliere mountain ' windy, there mountain "^ windy, there 

tavavaka yuwuhina; wusika wimaihafiuindangu tciya muliva-a. 

nioinitain windy, all over centipeds here came running. 

(Repeat as above) 

IV 

Tcotcok vapaiiianda huwuling *tcotcok vapamanda huwuling; 

Bluck siuike wind. black snake wind; 

figai hiyata nyuiyuta muliva kungata nyuiyut pimihivi. (Repeat 

that here song in came running that song ' in tie around. 



as above) 



Trmistutio)! 

Wind now commences to sing; 

Wind now connnences to sing. 
The land stretches before me, 

Before me stretclies away. 

Wind's liouse now is thundering; 

Wind's liouse now is tlnnidering. 
I go roaring o'er tlie land, 

The land covered with thunder. 

Over the windy mountains ; 

Over the windy motmtains, 
Came the myriad-legged wind; 

The wind came running hither. 

The Black Snake Wind came to me ; 

The Black .Snake Wind came to me, 
Came and wrapped itself about, 

Came here running with its song. 



BUSSELL] MEDICINE SONGS 325 

V 

Vanyi naiwonyini *vasipi muhuk naiwon^-uka rai-itco vanyitii 

lam came out cup uf water hold came swiftly make drink I 

nanaku naiwonvuka t^isikali imunduhuna-a. (Repeat as above) 

crazy came sw'iftly round running. 

VI 
Tata yanami ivakimu, tata yanami ivakimu; kunda iiyi mulivukai 

white cactus leaves, white cactus leaves; in I came running 

rsaifigu nicmulihi-i. (Repeat as above) 

poor running. 

Trini^ktiion 

Swiftly with a cup of water 

I came rtmuing to make you drink. 
I make you drink the water 

And turn dizzily around. 

Among the white cactus leaves ; 

Among the white cactus leaves, 
I came running to that place ; 

I came running to that place. 

KoKPU Nvni, Fetish Song's 
[By Virsak Vai-1] 

I 

Kokopu nyunyui rsarsan, * kokopu nyunyui gando vifigi rsarsan; 

Fetish song commence. fetijih song there commence; 

woivanya imuna piavat mateimaka rsarsan, tcokangi mu^a sigi 

toward going not know commence, night in very 

konyimuna-a. (Repeat all; then repeat twice from *. Sing four time.s) 

noisy 

II 

Kokopu nyunyui teotcoahimu, * kokopu, nyunyui tcotcoahimu; 

Fetish .song stood. fetish song stood; 

kaij'ak wuwui vapa himu;a sitcupafinga-a. (Repeat as above) 

heard toward run going crazy. 

Tranxlalioii 

We commence the fetish song; 

We commence the fetish song. 
It i.s difficult but I try; 

The night grows very noisy. 

The fetish song arises; 

The fetish song arises. 
To it the crazed women run; 

To it tiie crazed women run. 

« Apache hair with the down of birds is placed in a medicine basket where a spirit "developes" 
that is helpful if food is set out each night for him to eat. If he is neglected he may cause disease, 
whereupon this song is sung. 



326 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

III 

Rsaiganywana, rsaigan^'wanu ; wusikainy naiigioma, rsaiganj'wana, 

Poorme, poor me; all over me stripping, poor me, 

wusikiiiny nangioraa knyuhuna-a. (Repeat as above) 

all over me stripping singing. 

IV 

Tcokangi nyuimuihimu, tcokaiigi nyuimn[hiinu; Si vat Tanafaiigu 

Night * sing going, night sing going; Sievat mountain 

wuwui vanyuiinulhimu konyhungu wuwui tcomu vapahimu. (Repeat 

toward lead me I that toward there running. 

as above) 

TVamlation 

Pity me! Oh ])ity me! 

And strip away my disease. 
Now strip away my disease; 

Clear it away by singing. 

I'm going to the singing; 

I'm going to the singing. 
It is leading to the mountain, 

Running to Sievat mountain. 

Navitco Nvni, Navitco Sono 
[By Virsak Vai-I] 
I 

Tcotculik viahaka tcutculuk miaAa tcutculuk miaAa. 

Fowl bean sounds drop sounds drop. 

II 

Kat vavaiworsunyu, kat vavaiworsunyu ; sami worsunyihimu 

There stone wall arose. there stone wall arose; there arose 

sahapsi kainama kohai, sami worsunyu, sanii worsunyihimu. (Sing 

pleasing sound buru open, there arose, there arose. 

once and dance) 

Translation 

The chicken beans are rattling, 

They are rattling as they fall. 
The chicken beans are rattling. 

They are rattling as they fall. 

And tlie stone wall arose there. 

And the stone wall arose there. 
When .the gourd .seed was planted 

It made its way through to grow. 



RUSSELL] MEDICINE SONGS 327 

Makai NYfli, Magician Song 
[By Virsak Viil-I] 

I 

Kust tahai vasialikui vavahaki kuiua n3'Uta tciviha-a. (Repeat) 

Kind of white morning ruins in I come. 

* Haiiiaiiyuta tcivihaku nyipoinaku sisiva^u tanali-i. (Repeat twice 

There! came ' my heart flame shine. 

from * ; then repeat all twice) 

II 
Yahanu vapakosi tatamanhu ihihamu vayonyu-u. (Repeat) 

Featliers mat-like topmost bu.siness singing. 

* Tamai kukukimhu nyipoinaku .sisiva^u tanali-i. (Repeat as above) 

There go slowly my heart flame shine. 

Ill 

HaliAuta sihungia wowosaiku tcutcuwutu, tamhaiAu imukai hunga 

That our older brother first came out lands, topmost go that 

to walk 

tasi vahoma hij^ava tcohinyu-u. (Repeat) 

very more here loolis. 

*Tcutcuwuta tamhaiva himtjkai tanalika nyimoitangu hiyaAu 

Land topmost go shining my heart here 

vamhonyu-XJ. (Repeat as above) 

more. 

IV 

Tcuwun'^u makahi * tcuwunju uiakahi; wumatci papamo wuwumia 

Land magician, land magiclaD; with angry with 

himukai vavakia sihainyingi teo-o. (Repeat as above) 

go ruins wasted make. 

Th-anslation , 

At early dawn 1 entered, 

Entered in the white light of day. 
And my heart flamed witli power 

As I entered the magic house. 

In the lofty feather house 

His magic is increasing, 
And he moves very slowly 

With the power in his heart. 

Elder Brother first came forth; 

Ekler Brother first came forth, 
And with his shining power 

Governed over all the land. 

Earth Magician became angry; 

Earth Magician Isecame angry. 
And with his magic power 

He destroyed all the houses. 



328 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. Ann. 26 



Sitcokai vamanqatco, * sitcokai vaman^atco, hukanyi vavaki 

Black snake made, black snake made, with I ruins 

wopoua-a. (Repeat as above) 

tie. 

VI 

Sitahai vamamatco * hukatci vavaki wopona-a. 

White snake made with it ruins tie. 

Kosinanumuinaka worsanyu. (Repeat as above) 

That fears me go out. 

Translaiion 

With a Black Snake I tie them; 

With a Blai-k Snake I tie them, 
The houses with a Black Snake, 

The houses with a Black Snake. 

With a White Snake I tie them; 

With a Wliite Snake I tie them, 
The houses with a White Snake, 

The houses with a White Snake. 

ViKiTA Nvni, Down Song « 
[By Virsak Val-1] 



Moadaiigi taiiiai luonoi tcuvangi tcotco. (Repeat) 

Mo'hatOk top many clouds stand. 

Moandaiigi tamai momoi ikoniu wor.sa. (Repeat) 

Mo'hatOk top many fog arose. 

Haiiii tamai tcotco hoho. 

There top stand. 

II 

Hiatat vinalc sivai yuwu'ja. *Hiatrit vinak sivai yuwu'ja; momoi 

Here we flood bitter wind. Here we flood bitter ' wind; many 

gafigata nyuitco, momoi gaiigatii nyuitco hoho. (Repeat all; then 

bows singing to, many bows singing to. 

repeat twice from*) 

Translation 

On tlie top of Mo'hatCik 

There are many clouds standing. 
On the top of Mo'hatCik 

Many fog clouds are rising. 

The hitter wind blows on us; 

The bitter wind blows on us, 
As weeing with many bows. 

aVipinylm Hanyul, North People song. In the treatment of some swellings upon the body the 
vipinylm songs are sung by a number of men, who at the same time perform a simple ceremony 
intended to assist in the cure of the patient. Retiring to a structure temporarily erected from poles 
and sleeping mats, the participants, not necessarily medicine-men, make a number of images of 
animals and edible plants, which they take, one at a time, to the patient, and allow him to touch. 
After he has touched the object carried by each man in the party of singers they retire to get a 
second supply. This is repeated a number of times until the cure is supposed to have been com- 
pleted. 



RDSSELL] MEDICINE SONGS 329 

III 

Nanyi wot navitcho komsap iiaka tamaikatcim makahap 

I ' am Navitco you talk about laying tliniuKli 

put head 

niulitcota navitcho kahatc inulitco hoho. (Repeat as above) 

run Navitco like run. 

IV 
Yo-osa ikomiakahi, *vo-osa ikoiniakahi, yo-osa ikomiakahi rusursu[ 

sticks cut, "sticks cut, ' sticks cut straight 

tcotamhu. (Repeat as above, dancing) 

Translation 

Though I am a Navitco, 
I hear you talk about tue. 

I thrust my head through the sky 
And with it I run away. 

Cut sticks, cut sticks, cut sticks straight. 

Nyavolt Nvni, Demon Song 
[By Virsak VAl-1] 

I 

Kamundak navaiiga kunda kamomoi nyunyui kaihiraa, *Kamundak 

Ka'matCik mountain in many songs listen, Ka'matfik 

niivaiig-a kunda kamomoi nyunyui kaihima; kunda nyi muliAaku 

mountain in many songs listen; in I came running 

vakaimu muda^vu rsar.savaiku. (Repeat all; then repeat twice from*. 

sang within echoed. 

Sing four times) 

' II 

Hodonyisi miamunda mursar.sana, *hodonyitii miamunda mursarsana; 

Evening close to foundations, evening close to foundations: 

kunda kanyunyawojd anyuyapaka hiya avaivaka uyimoina 

in 'demons 'appeared here came running my soul 

kuuangiomahimu. (Repeat as above) 

stripped. 

Translation 

Singing at Kft'matiJlk mountain ; 

Singing at Ka'matuk mountain, 
I listen to their singing ; 

I come running to sing with them. 

Evening now is falling ; 

Evening now is falling, 
And demons appeared running 

To strip and expose my soul. 



330 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axx. J6 

III 

Tcuvai Tamwaiiga munu tiyunvu kaimu, *Tcu\-ai Tanavaficra muna 

Tcuva Toak mountain in "liole," Tcuva Toak mountain in 

nyunyu; kaimukunda nyuiiyukaimu, kunda nyhivaka nyuta, kunda 

hols; in hole in in " I enter see, in 

kanynnyawo](d) aiinohiva. (Repeat as above) 

demons breath out. 

IV 

Nyunyawoi(d) iyahala, *hiya vaiAukahi, huAusyasingam nj'C 

Demons boys. iiere came running, many flowers me 

rsa-akiiua kukiniu kamo mumuka kaAukatcunyujunda huku iiamanha 

grasp standing there far hard "land that top 

nyoAapimu nyiuioitafigu yovaiya puihimu. (Repeat as above) 

bring me to my heart lift " higher. 

Tfiinslation 

In a Santa Rita cave; 

In a Santa Rita cave, 
As I entered in the cave, 

I saw the breath of demons. 

Here demon boys came running ; 

Here demon boys came running, 
Grasping my iiair the}' carried me, 

Brought me to a distant land. 

WOAKA NYIli, PUBERTV SONG 

[By Virsak VM-1] 
I 

Aika piworsanymhu, Sika piworsanymhu; *hukia tovatcoraa 

Hurry come out, hurry come out; already became 

yondohonyu katcokaiii rsarsavaikimu. (Repeat; then repeat from *. 

go down that night echoing. 

Sing all four times) 

II 

Tcovak mohof(i), *tcovak. mohof(i); kasingu pivayu rsumatcoua 

Virgin woman, viifein woman; sleepy not inditTerent 

hamukai nyunarsuna-a hamukai, n3^unarsuna-a teokafigik yiiitaimu. 

there wake there, wake night "think about. 

(Repeat all; then repeat from *) 

TVmislation 

C!ome- hurry forth, hurry forth. 

Already the echoing sounds 
Of darkness are heard around. 

The Virgin is not sleepy, 

She is wakeful through the night. 



RUSSELL] 



KAIN SONGS 



331 



III 
Harsan}' yamainangu. * harsany 

Giant * caotus Ijrokt'ii, ijiaiit 

kudanofu nahana miawoitafigu wuvutcimu 

drop laying 

(Repeat as above) 



yamainangu 

L-aotu.s broken; 



in there feathers 

Matcipant yaihi. 

Ma-atepat close to. 



: kadomia woissimu 

there piled 

j^ovaiya mumuhuk 

raise higher 



IV 



Hali pungu kavanyuk vany puitcokimr itali yoof(i) kakayaku 

Small that rnmbring I carrying this "woman heard 

vapikakarsa itauy tata:(an kokokana bote hairsa, hairsa. 

they not sleep this on feet there points nail broke, broke. 



Tcokaugi mamahauga woisi, tcokangi mamahanga woisi; konyi 

Night branch thrown night ' branch thrown I 

down, down, 

suka wutca mingi worsa, konyisuka wutca miiigi worsa nyahanu 

in under there gone past, I in under there gone past my feathers 

maikomia. 

cut oft. 

Translation 

The Saguaro lies there broken; 

And my fallen feathers rise 
O'er the top of Table mountain. 

The boy stirred the rumbling stones; 

The woman heard and could not sleep. 
And my toe nails are broken. 

The branches of darkness fell, 
Cutting my feathers as 1 passed. 

RAIN SONGS 

HoAHIHliF 

[By K.'i'mal tkak] 

I 



hanyunyui vsanatcona; 

our song commence; 

yahina-a. (Repeat from *) 



Hi-ihiyanaiho-o; *Nyunyui rsanatcona, 

(?) Song commence, 

havatumahainamu rsanatcota, hitciya 

pleasing commence, (?) (?) 

Haiigunngunda onyoi nyuitcota, vatumahainamu rsanatcota, hitciya 

Large corn singing to, pleasing commence, (?) 

yahina-a. Hij'a-ala onyoi nj-uitcota; vatumahainamu rsanatcota; 

(?) Small corn " singing to; pleasing commence; 

hitci3'a 3'ahina-a. 

(?) (?) 

Trarmlat on 

Hi-ihiya naiho-o ! Let us begin our song, 
Let us begin, rejoicing. Hitciya yahina-a. 

Let us begin our song, let us begin, rejoicing. 
Singing of the large corn. Hitciya yahina-a. 

Singing of the small corn. Hitciya yahina-a. 



332 - THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

II 

Hi-ihiyanaiho-o, tcunoni hononyiiia kusimu kudavat iaiigilta 

'") blue evening drops in tliere ceremonial stieks 

nyuitco, yahaiva monanaiika niiiivai kuna-a, hitciya yahina. 

sing to, iillar.)unil tassels waving there. (?) " (?) 

Ttthaiva sia-alina kukiva kudavat ianguta nyuitco, yahaiva 

White dawn rises there ceremuniul sticks "sing to, "all around 

monanaka fiinivui kuna-a, hitciya yahina-a. Tcutani hononyina 

tassels waving there, (?) " (?) Blue evening 

kusimu kudavat ianguta nyuitco, j'o-onyoi mondanaka niiiivai 

drops in there ceremonial sticks 'sing to, corn" tassels waving 

kuna-a, hitciya j'ahina. Tiihaiva sia-aliiia kukiva kudavat iaiiguta 

there (?) (?) Wliite dawn rises there ceremonial sticks 

nyuitco, ya-ali yahaka iiiiiivili kuna-a, liitciya yahina-a. 

sing to, 'squash "leaves waving there, (?) " (?) 

III« 

Hi-ihiyanaiho-o, *tcuwuna luumuuai, tcuwuna niumunai; vatciki 

(?) earth rumbling, earth rumbling; we are 

yoa iwuna; tcuwuna mumunai; wusika U "°'H" hitciya yahiua-a. 

2 ( nyoko-o 

basket sounding cartli rumbling; everywhere J I Slimming (?) (?) 

(Repeat from *; then repeat all) 

Translation 

Hi-ihiya naiho-o! The darkness of evening 

Falls as we sing before the sacred amina. 
About ua on all sides corn tassels are waving. 

Hitciya yahina! The white light of day dawn 
Yet tinds us singing, while corn tassels are waving. 

Hitciya yahina-a! The darkness of evening 
Falls as we sing before the sacred fimlna. 

About us on all aides corn tassels are waving. 
Hitciya yahina! The white light of day dawn 

Yet finds us singing, while the squash leaves are waving. 

Hi-iya naiho-o! The earth is rumbling 

From the beating of our basket drums. 
The earth is rumbling from the beating 

. Of our basket drums, everywhere humming. 
Earth is rumbling, everywhere raining. 

a Song not accompanied with dancing. 



BL'SSELL] 



RAIN SONGS 



333 



IV 
Hi-ihiyanaiho-o, *Pahangu matcDvwena yopanha, sia-aliiigu 

('» Eagle last Ming feathers " pull out. east 

tafiio vayolinha guiiguna tcuwangimuta-a, liitciya yahina-a. Pahanga 

direction point out large elourls there, (?) * (?) Eagle 

viiigiiiga yopanha, hononyngu tanio vayolinha; ya-ala ikomainuka-a, 

soft leathers ' pull out, west direction point out; *, small clouds there, 

hitciya yahina. (Repeat from *) Hamo vaki wutco vanoahiniu 

(?) ' (?) There house below rumbling 

gufiguna onyoimuta-a, hitciya yahina-a. Hamo vaki wutco 

large 'corn there. (?) ' ' (?) There house below 

vanj'okonlia, ya-ala onyoimuta-a, hitciya yahina. 

raiuiug. small corn there, (?) * ' (?) 

Triiitshilion 

Hi-ihiya naiho-o! Pluck out the feathers 

From the wing of the Eagle and turn them 
' Toward the east where lie the large clouds. 

Hitciya yahina-a ! Pluck out the soft down 
From the breast of the Eagle and turn it 

Toward the west where sail the small clouds. 
Hitciya yahina ! Beneath the abode 

Of the rain gods it is thundering; 
Large corn i,s there. Hitciya yahina ! 

Beneath the abode of the rain gods 
It is raining; small corn is there. 

Ho-ONYi Nyfli, Corn Song« 

[By Ka'mal tkak] 
I 

Hi-i-lo-o ya-a-a. Tti-ama wuts sinyuina yaii kak aonyoi vworsanyu 

(?) (?) W'ho all seeing 'that two cor'n standing 

ta-sima wus sinyuina .siko-oholi, hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. Ta-ama wus sinyuina 

who all seeing yotingcr brother, (?) (?) Who all seeing 

yalilvak all worsanyu: til-ama wus .sinyuina siko-oholi, hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. 

that two squash standing; who all seeing younger brother. (?) (?) 

Ta atfikam hutania onyoi vworsanyu, tsi-amawus sinyuina siko-oholi, 

Ta-atOkam that top'corn standing, who all seeing younger brother, 

hi-ilo-0 j^a-a-a. Ta-atrikam huta-ama ali vworsanv'U ta-ama wus 

(?) ' (?) Ta-atiikam that top squash standing*^ who all 

sinyuina, siko-oholi, hi-ilo-o yaa-a. (Ended by singing hi-ilo-o 

s'eeiug younger brother, (?) (?) 

woihiJ) 

Translalioii 

Hi-ilo-o ya-a-al He who sees everytliing 

Sees the two stalks of corn standing; 
He's my younger brother. Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! 

He who sees everything, sees the two squashes; 
He's my younger brother. Hi-ilo-o ya-a-al 

On the summit of Ta-atukam sees the corn standing; 
He's my younger brother. Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! 

On the summit of Tti-atiikam sees the squash standing; 
He's my younger brother. Hi-ilo-o woiha! 

a The first songs ever sung to bring rain. Ho-onyi was the name of the Corn god who left the Pimas 
for many years and then returned to live at the mountain north of Picacho, Ta-atOkam. whence he 
sang as above. 



334 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

II 
Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. Ta-atukam hu tanavaiigu tatamana tcuvwaki 

(?) (?) Ta-atilkam that mountain topmost clouds 

rsaika-a amaiius sikai-itamu toahimu, hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. Ta-atiikam hu 

suspended there makes very loud rumbling, (?) (?) Ta-atOkam that 

tanavangu tatamana hikom hu rsaika-a, amaiius sikai-itama tcokona, 

mountain top above clouds that suspended, there makes very loud raining, 

hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. Tcu-unaiigi huvwatcona tcuwaki yokanj'i sanavwu 

(?) (?) Blue blucliird clouds holding there 

rsaika-a amaiTus sikaitamu toahimu, hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. Sa-a-ham" hu 

suspended there makes very loud rumbling, (?) (?) Yellow that 

vanyokofia hikom ha yokanyi sanavivu rsaika-a, aminus sikaitama 

"binl clouds that " holding there suspended, there makes very loud 

tcokoiia, hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. 

raining, (?) (?) 

Ill 

Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. I-itai vahimo'ina huwunduka kahoiiu; Ta-atiikam 

(?) (?) Elder Brother breathe out wind over there; Ta-att'>knm 

hu ta-ama tcuwaki vo-orsa vasitumahaitamu toahimu, hi-ilo ya-a-a. 

that above clouds very pleasant to appear rumbling, (?) (?) 

I-itai vahimonia huwunduka kahofiu; Ta-atnkam hu ta-amu hikomu 

Elder Brother breathe out wind over there ; Tu-atiikam that above clouds 

rsaika vasitumahaitama tcokona, hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. Hami yuna, ,sami 

suspended pleasant appear raining, (?) " (?) There in, there 

yutda, hamanyi yolihina kanyu-u vasitumahaita-amu toahimu, hi-ilo-o 

in, there me stay sing very pleasant appears rumbling, (?) 

ya-a-a. Hami yuna, sami yutda, hamanyi yolihina kanyu-U vasitu- 

. (?) There " in, there in, there me " stay sing pleasant 

mahaita-ama tcokona, hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. (hi-ilo-o woih^) 

to hear again raining, (?) (?) 

Traiidiitioii 

Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! Over Ta-atiikam 

Ri.-^e tlie clouds with their loud thundering. 
Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! Over Ta-atukam 

Rise the clouda with their loud raining. 
Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! The Bluebird is holding 

In his talons the clouds that are thundering. 
Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! Yellowbird is holding 

In his talons the clouds that are raining. 

Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! See Elder Brother 

Breathe out the winds that over Ta-atukam 
Drive the clouds with their loud thundering. 

Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! See Elder Brother 
Breathe out the winds that over Ta-att"ikani 

The welcome storm clouds are susjiending. 
Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! In the great rain clouds 

Let me sing my song of rejoicing. 



o sa-a-ham from Sa-am, is a Sonora Papago word. 



RUSSELL] WAK SONGS 335 

WAR SONGS 
Rsm Nvni, Straight Songo 

[By Virsak Val-I] 



Hihi tcotcok aiyanp-ama nyunyuwunda tama numulva aihivaihi 

That black * sandj' ' land top came running (?) 

vutaiiguvi. (Repeat) 
(n 
Tama numulva aihivaihi vutanjjuvi. (Repeat) 

Top came running (') {'') 

II 

Hihi himtco himtco, himtco, vitco taiiguvi himtco, vitco tauguvi. 

That shove shove, shove, (?) (?) shove, (?) (?) 

(Repeat) 

Liiio liho li yawoinc .silsyo yawoine sikvo apiatama sikj'o tanguvi 

(■') (?) (?)■ (?) (■') (?) (?) you also (?) (?) 

apiatama sikyo tanguvi. (Repeat) 

(?) (?) (?) 

Ill 

Hana okolrsanihi maoli kij'an taiiguyi. (Repeat) 

On (?) (?) (?) (?) 

Takiwo^a nyihali moakahi hopama u[kana sitana maikana rsene 

That was slave killed skin empty strip off stretch soften (?) 

I'solihiye taiiguvi. (Repeat) 



(?) (?) 



Translation 

Over that black sandy land, 
Over the top came running, 

Over the top came running. 
The Apache .-^lave was killed 

And his hide tanned for leather. 



" Sung on returning victorious from war. The singers dance and shake gourd rattles. This is 
believed to be a very old song original with the Pimas. 



336 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

WoLUTA Nvni, Tie Song« 
[By Virsak V;M-1] 



Tanahali vavanyimhu yanama hiyava tcimyivia hiyava nyinyivia 

Shining row man hero came here came 

kanyhuina tcokangiku yatany yahatcimu. (Repeat four times) 

see darkness here me collected. 

11 

Panai yahaji kavahanda kikitaka kunda tcomu narsawopimu vanyu 

Coyote young shield house in there sat I am 

ingi sahai mundatcoma ihinaha kimu. (Repeat four times) 

like in there shouting. 

m 

Panai yahaji tcokangi yawolima vxrvuikanyi vanyi mulimu kuda 

Coyote ' young darkness tied toward me leading me in 

miiiiyoapa hanava n3'i wukangi yavatcukia kiiigi kahimuna. (Repeat 

brotrght me tliere me around cigarettes four departures. 

four times) 

Mahyal nrivaiiga kuka tainai virsaku .yauyi Aumukai munda tcoma 

Mahyal mountain standing top hawk here me with in there 

putahitlcimu. (Repeat four times) 

flop. 

Trrmslatiuit 

Here the warrior, Shiiiing-row, 

Came and saw the night around me. 
Young Coyote made a shield house 

And he sat in it shouting, 
And that was pleasing to me. 

Young Coyote tied the darkness; 
The cigarettes were passed around, 

Four times when he led nie there. 
The Hawk on Mahyal mountain*' 

Stood with me beating his wings. 

a Sung on return from an Apache campaign at the time when the hair ot the enemy is tied by the 
aged companion appointed for each successful warrior. 
i> Mahyal is the Pima Tiame of the mountains about Silver King. 



RUSSELL] WAE SONGS 337 

Ma-at'k' Nvni, Scalp Song" 

[By Virsak VftI-1] 

I 

SiyaliEigu tangio yatamu taiwonyu, *sivalingu tangio j^iitamu 

' Efist direction ' man arose, east direction ' man 

taiwonyu; kuhuwusi ya.sikamu iwavatcuki vany nanamu koma 

arose: kind of ' flowers "cigarettes I * meet there 

hakoma hanyu. (Repeat all; thsMi repeat twice from*) 

smoking. 

II 

Navamoku nyaka, navamoku nyakatei, figamova muka munduhuna. 

Drnnk false said, drunk me about said, there far running. 

(Repeat) 
*R.saingal anyimoinanga wuwumu navamo Kakandaku uanhavafigu 

f'itiful * my soul with drunk Crooked mountain 

yaihimu. (Repeat twice from*) 

moving toward. 

Ill 

Kamo nya himuna, * kamo nya himuna; kT].si Auiigiomi nSvaita 

There I go. there I go; kind of relish liquor 

nyitcona pia nyiki uavamok rsakalai mumuhulimu. (Repeat twice 

I caused not me drunk stagger run. 

to drink 

from *) 

IV 

Yahandu kavinyik, *yahandu kavinyik; kunda Tgali iiyohonyoiAu 

.Sandy hill,* " sandy hill; in kind of ' vulture 

taiwonyuk hana vany wukany tcuwut lamu tanahali. (Repeat all; 

come out there my around land on shining, 

running 

then repeat twice from*) 

Troiislatum 

There arose in the East Land 

One whom I met there smoking 
Flowerlike cifjarettes. 

Running dazed and falsely sjieakiiig 

Pitiable and faint-hearted 
I feel at Crooked mountain. 

There I'm going, there I'm going. 

I have to drink the liquor 
That makes me stagger as I run. 

Vulture arose from Sandy hill 
Shining upon the land around. 

a Accompanied by dancing. 
26 ETH— 08 24 



338 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

V 

Kakamaki takutat makaiiiga tcu, * kakamaki takutat luakainga 

Gray spider magician find, gray spider magieian 

tcu; ku.si tcopolima kihata makai nyahafiga, haiya, hiya, hiyaka hiniu. 

And; kind of squarely likeakiShA magiciam " he said, (■')" (?) (?) (?) 

(Repeat as above) 

VI 

Kahova hinakimu *kahova hinakimu; yatciAu tavanga wutcava 

Up there shouting, up there shouting; * Atci hill under 

hinakimu yatam hawus am rsaika Aukaitcuna. (Repeat as above) 

shouting people all there poor said. 

Translation 

The Gray Spider magician 
He made a square kidhii. 
He is indeed a magician. 

They are shouting, they are shouting, 

Around the hill of Atci. 
The poor jjeople there are shouting 

As the news of battle comes. 

Kot{d)u Ha-.\kam Nvai, (?) Olla Song* 

[By Sika'tou] 
I 

Patamahimu, patamahimu, vapi yaijima tciviabimu nangusi 

Where going, where going, not ' quick come I gue.ss 

yukiyupai mokonama muhiAupa kama hyova kukimu. Haya 

already .somewhere die fire like there distant stand. (?') 

mailo mane. (Repeat ad lib.) 

(?) (?) 

II 

Namu tany yavany hitconaki yo-osi kokapu vany naki-hiya. 

You do me ^ raven ^ to make ^ tree top me hang. 

(Repeat ad lib.) 

Ill 

Kanoiigali vavai tanun(d)ama yovi naputhiiigi rsaitc unda 

Far down rocks shining woman you grass in 

yafioitaka inuiidukai samu tamai pahaiigu namuku kakuvihimu. 

hide run there top eagle meet whipping. 

(Repeat ad lib.) 

Translation 

Now where is he, where is he. 

That he has not already come? 
Yes, I fear that he has been killed. 

You hung the Raven trophie^' 

On a pole and danced around them. 

Amid the rocks of the mountain 

' The women tried to hide themselves; 

But the men ran and killed them. 

oWhen the Pimas were Tictorious the women sang these songs at the moment of hearing the 
first news from the runners that came in advance of the war party. 



UrSSKLL] 



SPEECHES 



339 



Speeches 



Set speeches which recited portions of the cosmogonical myth were 
a feature of many ceremonies and were especially important in the 
preparation for war. Thej* were slightly adapted for each occasion 
but their general content remained the same. Highly figurative 
language is used and in consequence it is extremely difficult to obtain 
even an approximately correct translation. The free translation 
offered is the result of many discussions with the older men. 

In the ten speeches here given reference is made to the following 
deities, magicians, etc.: 



Elder Brother. 

Earth Doctor. 

South Doctor. 

Vulture. 

Talking Tree. 

Sun. 

Gray Gopher. 

Black, Blue, and White 

Mocking-bird. 
Kuvlk. 
Gray Spider. 
Blue Gopher. 



Black, Blue, Red, and 
White JI e a s u r i n g 
Worm. 

Liglitning Magician. 

Thunder Magician. 

Wind Magician, 

Foam INIagician. 

Sinking Magician. 

Vakolif Magician. 

Vikarskam. 

Nasia. 

Old Woman Magician. 



White, Blue, Black, and 

Yellow Dragonfly. 
Yellow Spider. 
Down Roll. 
Yellow Raven. 
Bluebird. 
Yellow Bird. 
Mountain. 
Mocking Bird. 
Blue Coyote. 
Black Kangaroo ]\Iouse. 
Owl. 



ELDER BROTHER AS HE RESTORED HIMSELF TO LIFE 

You people desired to capture Elder Brother so that }'ou might 
destroy him. You secured the assistance of Vulture, who made a 
miniature earth; you saw him at his home engaged in this work. He 
shaped the mountains, defined the water courses, placed the trees, and 
in four days completed his task. Mounting the zigzag ladders of his 
hou.se" he flew forth and circled about until he saw Elder Brother. 
Vulture saw the blue flames issuing from Elder Brother's heart and 
knew that he was invulnerable. In his turn Elder Brother knew that 
Vulture wished to kill him and had made the miniature earth for that 
purpose. 



Komtava Sis Makai spada 

Villi were Elder Brother magician ill 

tcukitc aitk' si-imiiitatcotk' am 

followed very many plans there 



placed by 
him 

tcotcoatc 

handiwork 

rsorsoki 

water 



.s ap 

right 



ilituk tatcoa. 

plan desired. 

tcu-uma-a. 

covered. 



It tcuwui 

This land 

It ta-iita-ak 

Thi.s mountains 



aitk si-imaitatcotk' am 

followed very many plans there 

tatoatc aitk' si-imiiitcotk' 

placed followed very many plans 



sap 

riKht 



am s ap 

there right 

ku-ursatc aitk' si-imiiitatcotk' am sap ko-oki . 

put followed very many plans there right tips. 

himitcotk' am tcoika kopal hutculwoitc. Ka-am katckahimitc am 

pushed there elsewhere turned tlown slide. There remains there 



ko-oki . It rsarsanukam 

tip.s. This springs 

tcu-uma-ii. It os 

covered. Thi.s tree 

Am ki-ik'ha tcux 

There four times bounce 



« The ruin a few miles south of Tempe. 



340 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

Elder Brother, as he reg'ained consc-iou.sness, rose on hands and feet 
and swaj-ed unsteadily from side to side. He thought of the world 
about him and it seemed but a barren waste around him; as he 
recovered from his bewilderment he saw the true condition of things. 

Looking about him he saw a river toward the west along which 
grew arrow bushes. From these he cut four magic sticks; placing 
his hand on these he blew cigarette smoke over them, whereupon 
magic power shone forth from between his fingers. He was much 
pleased with this and laughed softly to himself. He rubbed his magic 
bag of buckskin four times with each of the four sticks and then put 
them in and tied it. He then arose and stamped down all mortal 
magicians and even ground his own house into the earth. He stamped 
upon the orator, the warrior, the industrious, and the provident 
woman, and crushed them down. Then he sank beneath the surface 
of the earth. He reappeared in the east and made from the point of 

trtcukita. Ka^si-itatakrsk' ivam(pi) am uvwukatc inyunhak tcum 

it life. Witli his liands raisecT there around look lie 

nyui avapi hukam haitco kanhastcoik. It wusk' ap tcum 

saw not them thing famiy/ar. This all that he 

umatciamahimuk piunakii. Im ho^inyik wof Aatuva kus tcutaki 

it ponder fails. In west toward laj* kind of blue 

TJAamatuta hokit am woihyamuk am pui vatak os. Am ki-ik 

^nake beside there went to there catch wet tree. There four 

hikomiak am uwutca toak am sikommo. Kotak tanalikatc am 

cut there under placed there conjure. That rays there 

maorsatiikit siwoAak towe katcim tcnwu:^ tam am kokoAa. Towe 

between the fingers opposite fixed country on there reach. Opposite 

katcim tcuwuj maska olt'; towe tcotcim ta-ata-ak Aupukiomitk' 

fixed country clear remains; opposite fixed mountains reddish 

tcotcoa. Tak hap tcoikam tcom nyuitok am uta tcorsal ihuhumia. 

made and That this thing he * saw there in murmur laugh, 

erected. 

Im ho'jinyik takio tcut ihimitc kus tcok uka-amhaiAakita. Huk 

In west direction from pushed kind of black his haze. That 

hukatc itakihonuk uta pimaska ioliniik .sa-apf ita-atan. Im katcim 

with strip in invisible hold manner made. In laying 

takio ihimitc kus ta-at'ki uka-amhaiwakita huk hukatc isita-akihonuk 

<lirection pushed kind of blue his haze that with strip thoroughly 

uta pimaska ioliniik sa-ap itti-atan. 

in invisible stay hold manner made. 

Im sialik takio tcut ihimitc kus tantam ukahaiAakita huk hukutc 

In east direction from pushed kind of white his haze that with 

sitakihonuk uta pimaska iolinuk sa-ap itatan. It tutamu tcut ihotony 

strip in invisible hold manner made. This ab(»ve from down 

kus tcutaki uka-amhaiAakita huk hukutc sita-akihonuk uta pimaska 

kind of blue his haze that with strip in invisible 

ioliniik sa-ap itatan. Im hojinyik takio tcut himitc kus tcoak 

hold manner made. In sunset direction from pushed kind of black 

UAamatutak huk hukutc isiAotk' nata. Im katcim takio tcut 

his snake that with it tie finish. In laying direction from 

ihimitc kus ta-at'ki' UAamatutak huk hukutc isivotk' nata. Im 

pushed kind of blue his snake that with it tie finish. In 

sialik takio tcut ihimitc kus tantiin UAamatutak huk hukutc 

east direction from pushed kind of white his snake that with 



ROSSELLl SPEECHES 341 

emergence a transparent trail to th(> place where he had gone down. 
About the ba.se of his mountains the water began to seep forth; 
entering, he came out with spirit refreshed. Taking all waters, even 
those covered with water plants, he dipped his hands in and made 
downward passes. Touching the large trees he made downward 
sweeps with his hands. Going to the place where he had killed Eagle 
he sat down looking like a ghost. A voice from the darkness asked, . 
"• Why are you here :! " He answered that notwithstanding all that he 
had done for them the people hated him. Renewing his power four 
times in the east at the place where the sun rises, he blew his hot 
breath upon the people, which like a weight held them where they 

isivotk' nata. It tutamu tcut ihotiny kus tcu-utaki UAamatatuk 

tie finish. Thi.s above from down kind of blue his snake 

huk hrkutc isivotk' nata. Am ivorsanyuk am siukuirs. Ava 

that with tie finish. Tliere arose there stamp on. It was 

lirpai taha kus makait'kam a-atam kotak am sikuihitcony ata-am 

whore sitting having powers people that there stamp down then 

of magician 

pai-itc siukuirs. Ava hupai taha kus nyiakam a-atam kotak am 

further stamp on. It was where sitting kind of 'orator man that there 

sikuihitcony ata-am pai-itc si-ikuirs. Ava hupai taha kus siakam 

stamp down ' tlien further stamp on. Then where sitting kind of hrave 

a-iitam tak am sikuihitcony, iivawot iwus taani siukuirs. Ava hupai 

man that there stamp down, it was last then stamp down. Then where 

tahaku ofi stcopoihitukam ku of'i stcotcukitukam kot huk 

sitting kind of woman energetic gathers kind of woman stored tluit tliat 

hawunatk' am .sikuihitconyitk' am tco-opi'. Am kamalm miiirspahiniuk 

together there stamp down there sank. There thin cover with earth 

sialik takio ma-akanyik am tcut kus tantam uAakita itcu. Kus 

east direction eruptioii there from kind of white his trail put up. Kind of 

ku-uku-uitam ta-ata-ak tcotcoate ursarsan ap vapa-aAany. Huk wusk 

large mountains made and its bases there seeping. That all 

erected 

uta vap'ki'hitc hukute huk uiputak ivao.sitahim. Rsarsanukam 

in enters and returns with that his soul moisten. Springs 

rsorsoki tatoatc haakia nanukatcoikam mamathat katcp ui intc 

water placed many various water plants with it covered 

wuo(f)utck huk wusk ut mawopitc hukute huk ui-iputak ivaositahim. 

lays that all in dips with that his soul wet. 

Kus ku-ukutam o-os tcotcoatck' huk wusk ap mawopitc hukatc 

Kindof large trees made and erected that all there dipped with 

huk uiputak ivaositahim. ^^itaAa tcuma-si huku Pa-ak umoa-akiit 

that his soul wet. Therefore cover at Eagle he kill 

woitcotk' pitcimuk woitcotk' napatoAak vi-itckut tcoik tcivia. Hastco 

straight to go around straight to sitting (?) resembles came. What 

puhiniutk' tciviak vi-itckut tcoik'tc' tcivia. Hi-iks, nanypim akit 

grasp came (?) resemblance came. Yes, I thus told 

spathalitk' tatcoa tcuwui ttcuki huniata tarsa. Ta-am sialik woa 

think evil desires country for me placed human set. There east toward 

ki-ik aprsars, AataAa tcu-uma-sl ta.is tcutcrsatckiit ki-ik ap (m)aitam 

four renewals, therefore reached sun place of coming up four there groups 

kavatltk' ki-ik ap (m)aitam tcutany. AvaAut kuirspakutatc wus kiis 

hollow tour there groups thud. It was .stepping place all over 

huwulhakitak wus kas tcuAakitak tciim pipapak'i huk uta ap 

windy all over cloudy not slowly that in there 



342 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

were. He accompanied the Sun on his journey, traveling along the 
south border of the trail where there was a fringe of l)eads, feathers, 
strings of down, and flowers." He jerked the string holding these so 
that the J fell and made the magicians jump. In the north he saw a 
trail bordered like the one in the south and overturned it. 

On his journey along the Sun's orbit Elder Brother came to Talking 
Tree. "Whj'doyou come like a ghost?" asked Tree. He replied, 
"Notwithstanding all I have done forthe people they hate me." Tree 
broke one of its middle branches and cut a notch around it to form a 
war club and gave it to him. Then Tree broke a branch on the south 
side and made a bundle of ceremonial sticks from it for him. He saw 
a trail toward the south and another toward the noi'th Ijordered with 
shells, feathers, down, and flowers, which he overturned. 

takuirspan utco kotak uta ap siukuirs. Avawot takrspakuta.tc wus 

enougn result that in there stamp. It wus place tor hand his all 

kits huvuhakitak wus kas tcuAakitak tcomi)ipapak'i huk uta apta 

over windy all over cloudy if nut slowly that in there 

takrspam utco kotak uta ap si-itakrs. Am iAorsanyik koiwoa 

may put the hand that in there put his hand. There arose' ahiiutto 

result throw down 

i-ipoiAoak koiwoa itak tc kowa paitcok koiwoa i-ipoiwoa koiwa 

oreath about to shoved further about to breath about to 

throw down throw down throw down 

itakk'tc'kowa. Am pai-itcok koiwa i-ipoiwoak koiwa itakk'tc' koiwa 

shoved. There further about to breath about to shoved about to 

throw down throw down throw down, 

Avawot iwurs ta-am i-ipoiwoak koiwa itakk'tc'kowa. Avawot uta 

It was final there breath about to shoved. It was in 

throw down 

katcim vakitatc kotak iai katcim takio vakitatc wus kas payokatak 

main route that follow laying direction route all over necklace 

wus kas nahakiatak a-an kiatuta hokituk vi-ik kiatuta hokituk os 

all over earrings feathers string side Uowii string edge tree 

hiktc'ka hiasitastc hokituk kak sivantc koAate sikopal woihim. 

short piece flower stuck edge that drags jerks facedown thrown, 

on irtificiul 

Nanuk i ait takio vakitatc wus kas payokatak wus kas nahakiatak 

North field direction route all over necklaces all over earrings 

a-an kiatuta hokitak vi-ik kiatuta hokituk os hikutc'ka hiasitastc' 

feathers strings edge do^vu strings edge tree short piece flowers stuck on 

artificial flowers 

hokituk kak sihopanytc. 

edge that uproot. 

Sitcuxliim tcotahim. Kahupai taha kus makait'kam il-atam 

Jumping high continue. Where set kind of having powers of man 

magician. 

kak am sitcuxhim tcotahim. ^atava tcu-umaa ku nyiakutam os. 

that there jumping high continue. Therefore reach kind of ' Talking Tree. 

Woitcotk' pitcimuk' woltcotk' napatoAak viitckut tcoik'tc' tcivia. 

straight to go around straight to sitting (?) resembles came. 

Hastco puihimutk tciviak viitckiit tcoik tc' tcivia. Hi-iks, nanj'pim 

What grasp came (?) resembles came. Yes, I thus told 

akit spathalitk' tatcoa tcuwu^ Ttcuki humata tarsa. P'ata kaitam 

think evil desires country for me human set. So noise 

placed 

a " Wood shavings." 



KussELL] SPEECHES 343 

Arriving at the drinking place of the Sun he knelt down in the 
tracks made by the Sun to drink, and saw a dark-blue stone." He 
left there the arrow- bush ceremonial sticks containing- his enemies' 
power, but i-etained in his grasp the sticks cut from Talking Tree. 
Toward the south were strewn necklaces, earrings, feathers, strings of 
down, and flowers, all of which he jerked and threw face down. 
Toward the north he threw down the same objects, and as they struck 
the earth they caused the magicians to jump. Reaching the place 
where the sun sets he slid down four times before he reached the 
place where Earth Doctor lived. 

" Why do you come looking like a ghost f asked the god. "Not- 
withstanding all that I have done for them the people hate me," he 
answered. By Earth Doctor's order the wind from the west caught 
him up and carried him far to the east, then brought him back and 
threw him violently down. . . . The south wind carried him to 

tcutcua aAawot uta kukam vaokatc tak siam kioAltkatk' ap isi 

said it was in standing stalli that right cut around there more 

kamurspitc' avawot ksisivoltatc tak ap vanytc'k' ku sialik 

carry on the rump it was chrysalis that ttiere pluuk kind of east 

Aukiomilikatc wus ka itakihonuk Aunatk ap isi kamurspJtc' avawot 

dawn all over strip with it there more carry on the rump it wus 

ulutatc kas siam tcokut matsik ak tc korsa ip takitcony vi-ikam 

skin how proper owl hook call nape persist shove remainder 

ap isi kakiimhaitckatat. Im mot katcini takio mamhakatc 

there more cut cheek hair. In this direction laying direction branch 

tak ap molinuk siam amina vupatk' sikapitckatk' rsak. Avawot 

that there break right ceremonial like sticks bound hold. It wus 

uta katcim vakitatc kotak iai katcim takio viikltatc wus kas 

in laying route that follow laying direction route all over 

payokatak wus kas nahakiatak a-an kina-atuta hokiftuk vi-ik kiatuta 

necklaces all over earrings feathers strings edge down strings 

hokitiik OS hikutc ka hiasitastc hokituk kak sivantc'koAatc sikopal 

edge tree cut stuck up edge that pull by jerking facedoun 

artilicial flow 

woihim. Nanuki ait takio Aakitatc wus kas payokatak wus kas 

lay. North Held direction route all over nV'cklaces all over 

nahakiiitak a-an kiatuta hokituk vi-ik kiatuta hokituk os hikitc'ka 

earrings feathers strings edge down strings edge tree short cut 

hiasitastc hokitiik kak sihopauytc sitcuxhim tcotahini. Ka liupai 

stuck up edge that uproot jimiping high continue. Where where 

artilicial flow 

taha kus nyakam ii-atam kak am sitcuxhim tcotahim. ^ataAa 

setting kind of talking man that there jumping high continue. Therefore 

tcu-uma-a ku tars i-ikut rsotaki kaot tan woikotatc wus kas 

reach kind of sun drinking place water that was knee place for kneeling all over 

huwulhakitak wus kas tcuAakltak. Tcum pipapaki huk uta apta 

windy uU over cltiudy. Not slowly thut in there 

tan woim utco tak uta ap sitanwoa. Kaot takrspakotatc wus kas 

up knee not put result that in there stamp knee. That was handhold all over 

huAulhakitak wus kas tcuAakitak. Tcum pipapaki' huk uta apta 

windy all over cloudy. Not slowly that in higher 

takrspam utco tak uta ap si-itakrs. Am i-itcomalkatk' am i. 

may place hand result that in there put hand. There be stooped there drink, 

a Square, rough edged; causes consumption if one finds it and does not properly care for it. 



344: THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. an.\. 26 

the north; the east wind carried him to the west; the wind from the 
zenith carried him to the sky; all returned to throw him violently down. 
From his cigarette containinj;- two kinds of roots Earth Doctor blew 
smoke upon the breast of Elder Brother, whereupon green leaves 
sprang forth and he gained consciousness. Earth Doctor cleared the 
ground for a council and then picked up Elder Brother as he would 
have taken up a child and put him in his house. 

Earth Doctor sent Gray Gopher up through the earth to emerge in 
the east by the white water where lay the eagle tail. He came out by 
the black water where lay the raven feathers. He came out b}' the 

Am tcum nyui kuk uta am kuk stcu-utaki hatai tapinya. Kot 

There he saw that in there stand blue stone smooth. That 

huk wutea am maorsk am takitha huk A-iips' kam uiimina. 

that under there thrust in there relinquish that enemies' power short sticks. 

Nyiakutam os uamina viak huk rsa-ak isii. AAawot uta katcim 

"Talliing tree short sticks left that grasp hefollowed. It was in laying 

vakitatc kotak iai katcim takio viikitatc wus kas payokatak wus 

trail that he follow laying direction trail all over necklaces all 

kas nahakiatak a-an kia-atuta hokitak vi-ik kiatuta hokitvk os 

over earrings feathers strings sides down strings edge tree 

hiktc'ka hiasitastc' hokitvk kak sivanitckovatc sikopa] woihim. 

short sticks artificial edge that jerks face down thrown. 

Na-anki' ait takio vakitatc' wus kas payokatak wus kas nahakiatak 

North field direction trail all over lieeklaces all over earrings 

a-an kiatuta hokitvk vi-ik kiatuta hokitvk os hik'tcka hiasitastc' 

feathers strings edge down strings edge tree shortcut artilicial 

hokitvk kak sihopanytc' sitcuxhim tcotahim. Kahupai taha kus 

edge that uproot jumping high going. Where sitting kind of 

siakam a-atam kak am sitcuxhim tcotahim. ^ataAa tcu-uma-a 

brave man tliat there jum])ing higli going. Therefore reach 

ku taJs hotokot ki-ik ap miiitam sutapionytc katc kotak iiitk' 

kind of sun every other four there groups smooth" lay that followed 

evening 

ki-iklia itapionyili imho tUAutca s'papaki tcu ku sis makai. 

ftiur limes slides there us under slowly discover kind of older brother 

magician. 

Woitcotk pitcimk woitcotk' napatoAak vi-itckut tcoi-ik'tc' tcivia. 

straight to go around straight to sit flat (?) resembles came. 

Hastco pulhiniut'k' tcivia, hastco puihinmt'k' tcivia, hastco puiliimut'k'^ 

What do you wish to get ei-nue, what do you wish to get come, wiiat do you wish to get 

tcivia, hastco piiihimutk tciviak vi-itckut tcoik'tc tcivia. Hi-iks, 

come, what do you wish to get came (?) resembles came. Yes, 

nanypim akit spathalitk' tatcoa tcuvu^ nytcuki humata tarsa p'ata 

I thus told thiuk evil desires land for Vie placed people set Be said 

kaitam tcutcu. Ata-im hojinyik takio tcut aitktcut tcivia. 

noise said. Far in west direction from after came. 

Im sialik woi tcuxhimtcotk' sialik parsainatkitk' opam tarsowa im 

In east toward jumpiug higli east turn back near home set in 

katcim takiotcut aitktcut tcivia. Na anki ait woi tcuxhimtcotk' 

laying direction from follow came. North field toward jumping high 

na-anki ait parsaipatkitk' opam tarswoa. Im sialik takiotcut 

north field turn back near home set. In east direction 

aitk tcut tcivia. Ho^inyik woi tcuxhimtcotk' hojinyik parsainatkitk 

follow came. West toward jumping high west turned back near 

opam tarswoa. It tamutcut tlitktcut tcivia. Tam atcim woi 

home set. Here above follow came. Top sky toward 



RUSSELL] SPEECHES 345 

blue water where lay the bluebird's feathers. He came out bj' the 
yellow water where lay the hawk feathers. He found so many people 
that he feared they could not be conquered. But he gnawed the magic 
power of their leader until he weakened it. Then he returned to the 
council in the nether world, whore his power as a magician was recog- 
nized, and he was placed on a mat with Elder Brother. 

The people were now ready to do whatever Elder Brother desired of 
them and, like fierce predatory animals or raptorial birds, they poured 
out of the underworld and fell upon the inhabitants of the upper 
world, whom the^- conquered without difficult}-. The victors swept 

tcuxhimtcotk tam atcim parsainatkitk opam tarswoa haapatavaita-ata. 

bounding top sky turned btn'k near hcpme set done. 

An wukatc huk tcuwm itakiomk hastcoprs all wupatk' ikamuk huk 

There around that land stripped resembles young make like hold that 

TJta am tarswoa. Kawot ku kakai tax ajitcikitc ° pawois tax :i.;itcikitc 

in there set. That was kind of ghost root cigarette his pawois rofit cigarette his 

kotak ap par.sa i-ipfiihuiAoa kota siam uiAakitat kavaot kus kamaki 

that there near he puffed that right left it was kind of gray 

tcuflia rsjiikatc kotak ap imuk rsarsoa. Kota am tcopinyk am sialik 

gopher pet that there my cry. That there sank there east 

takio ma-akaniik am kus tantam rso-otaki' tcu. Ku Pa-ak pahiwoa 

direction pop out there kind rif ^vl^te water discov- Kind of Eagle tail 

ered. 

kate am simairsk tcu. Am pai-itc tcopinyik am ma-tikanyik am kus 

lay there covered placed. There further sank* there pop otit' there kind of 

took rso-otaki tcu. Ku liaAany a-an katc mairsk am tcu. Am 

black water discov- Kind of raven feathers lay covered there placed. There 

ered. 

pai-itc tcopinyk am ma-akanyk am kus tcu-utaki rsotaki tcu. 

further sank there pop out there kind of blue water discov- 

ered. 

HuAatcot a-an katc nairsk am tcu. Am pai-itc tcopinyk am 

Bluebird feathers lay covered there placed. There further sank" there 

ma-akanyk am kus soam rso-otaki tcu. Ku Aatcokok a-an katc 

pop out there kind of yellow water discov- Kind of hawk feathers lay 

ered. 

mairsk am tcu. Am tcopinyk am ma-akanyk am ikoatcitk' am 

covered there placed. There sank' there i>op out " there look around there 

tcum nyui. It Aakuta katcim pipapaki hastco katc tcoitcim tcoi-ik. 

he .saw. This trail laying not slowly what lay manner thing. 

Avak tcom sitairstc takatk' u-ulit huk makai. Kota am wukatc 

They firmly seated think that magician. That there around 

katcim iia-anka tcoi-itckatc sisarspiil ki-ikomia. Puk am opam 

laying all beltmgings short bite off. Took there home 

tcopi . Ki-ik ap ma-iikanyk makai na-ata tcu-umuk hokit an takitii. 

sank. Four there pup out magician lire covered beside release. 

S makai-itakam ii-atam vaksitk' tam tarswoa. Tak uta huk isi 

Powerful magician man placed for on set. There in that ready 

kuirsk kukiAak nyui Aiapaku-ilika tcuwu^a mututam UAuptlki' o-ofik 

stamped stood me sons land running like birds 

oAjitclkltc from Papago. 



346 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

the property and everything relating to the conquered from the face 
of the earth. 

Consider the magic power which abode with me and which is at your 
service. 

ta-atam uAupaisitk nyuinylt tarn ap uiaAalc ap piatco tatkitcotk' ap 

flying fike fly on there seize tliere nothing wrestle there 

sutapam pui. Am Aukiitc katcim nauanuka tcoitckatc si-inasik 

smooth catch. There around laying all belongings gather 

s'papakf kaAolkatk' s'papakf hahsik inyu woa. 

slowly bundled slowly revolve me throw down. 

Hapkvk humu.s uhitk' tatcoa aAaot kus ku-uk toakak konta ap puk 

"i ou may think desire it was kind of good life I took there took 

antaAaioapa. 

brought. 



OPENIN(; OF RAIN CEREMONY'* 

Explanation, 

When rain is desired one of the leading men who understands the 
ceremony will notify the medicine-men, the orator or reeiter, and the 
singer. These agree upon beginning the ceremonj' at the end of four 
days. On the third day they send one or more men as criers to 
announce to the people of the adjoining villages that the ceremony 
will be held on the morrow. 

When all have assembled in the evening the leader calls out the 
names one by one of the medicine-men, who take their position behind 
the fire, facing toward the east. Then the names of those who will 
sing are called. The leading singer sits behind the medicine- men and 
his assistants place themselves on either side of him and around the 
fire. Then the orator is named and takes his place with the medicine- 
men. When the leader announces that it is time for the ceremony to 
begin, the orator recites the following: 

Trandation 

Is it in this condition that we are sitting here, undei'standing the 
advice of our forefathers? There is an unknown house in which lies 
the magic brand; toward tlys we point the ceremonial cigarette and 
smoke, thus acquiring an insight that shall enable us to speak wiselj'. 

When the earth was new it was shaking and rough.* As j'ou know, 
Black Mocking Bird lives in the west. I had considered my relation- 



NS Hums hapa tcoik' kotcs huk utu tathaktc' haps ma-atc 

Not like this condition that for in sitting in therefore understimii 

haitco a-ak. Kavawot qetai' ki, huk uta amkatC huk'' kotck' 

thing counsel. It was (?) hoase, for in lays brand 

vi-ituk. Oatciki' ttin huk woi amukuk kotc hukap hawaktc hap 



remnant. Cigarette knee that 



standing that which inhaling 



samatc haitco ak. Kota tcuwu? humoi 

know thing counsel. Then earth new 

amuta tcotcoaktc' katc. Ava im ho^inyik 

in inserted and lay. As you toward west 
projecting know 

rso-ok kontak hap tcoikam mamatcuk ap imuk 

mocking I had theretore that cla-ss guessing my 

bird visible 



utcu 

was 



amuta 

made in 

takio 

direction 



haintc 

moving 

kus 

kind of 



rsarsoa 

weep 



there, 
fore 

katc 

lay 

tcok 

black 

kotap 

because 



aXhe so-called Tcrte kita, make rain. 

flit shook because it was wet and spongy at that time, " like the wet bank of the river." 

cAm=a prefi.^ denoting certainty. 

d Connective inserted for euphony. 

eimiik — "My (brother or other relative)," a form of entreaty. 



347 



348 thp: pima Indians [eth. axn. 26 

ship to bill) and ouessed what should be the right manner in which to 
address him. Because of my entreaty he was disposed to be friendly 
toward me. 

Yes, Black Mocking Bird, if your plans for controlling the earth 
have failed, go far hence and leave the black wind and the black clouds 
behind you. Your people will henceforth entreat your assistance 
from a distance. 

When the land was new I knew of a Blue Mocking Bird in the 
.south, and I called on him also for help, and he came. He gave com- 
mands to control the hills, mountains, trees, everything. But still 
the earth continued shaking. 

Yes, Blue Mocking Bird, if your plans have failed, go hence and 

sinyhal-ikui-itam utatk' amitcut tcivia. Ha-akia haitco ua-aka it 

friendly felt from came. Many things his counsel this 

tcuwui tcumuk vaopanuk tcuwuj tcovituk ap kuorspahimuk ap 

land everywhere stretched bind hills on touching on 

tata-ak kokok ap kukuorspahimuk o-os kokok ajj kukuorspahimuk 

mouutuin tops on touclied trees tops on touched 

natsj. Avak hukutc tcilmsi katcikak ak hap tcumtco. Ava 

finish. Then with covering remain fixed deter- he made it has .\s you 

mining since failed. know 

amuta haintc katc amuta tcotcoaktc kutc Ahu-u, kus took rso-ok 

in moving lay in inserted and lay. Yes, kind of black mocking 

projecting bird 

vatcim piam utcon hukum tcoiftcik kop varsatc" iolinhi kus tcoitcik 

may try your iihin you farther stay kind of black 

uhuwulik kus tcoitcik utcuwakik kamis.ihi ap kukiovan. 

your wind kind of black your clouds carried behind there stand. 

Hiik hum humata hupai tcukak* apamuk mimhi r.sasoakan kop 

That your people some time future my entreaty you 

pimaska vai-iwumkan p'ata tcu-uk va-arsatc iol(t). Im ka-atcim<^ 

unseen will helii, he said near stay. This laying 

takio kus tatk rso-ok kontak hap tcoikam mamutcik ap imuk 

tiirec- kind blue mocking I was there- 1 know guessing to my 

tion of bird fore 

rsarsoa tap smyhai-ikui-itam utatk' amtcut tcivia. Ha-akisi htiitco 

weep eonse- friendly felt from come. .Munv things 

qnently 

ua-aka it tcuwu; tcu-uink vaopanuk tcuwuj tcovitk ap 

his advice this land covering stretched land hill to 

kuowurspahimuk ap ta-ata-ak ko'kok ap kukuowurspahimi'ik o-so 

touching on mountjiiii tops on touched trees 

aj) kukuowurspahimuk na-ata. Avak hukutc tcoiiisi katckak 

on touched finish. Then with that tor the remain 

purpose 

a-ak hap tcumtco. Ava amuta haintc katc amuta tcotcoaktc' 

fi.xed deter- he made it has As you in moving lay in inserted and 

mining since failed. know projecting 

katc. Ahu-u, kus tatk' rso-ok vatcum piam utcon hukum tcoitcik 

lay. Yes, kind of blue mocking bird your may try your plan 

kop varsatc iolinhi kus tatk' uhuwulik kus tatk' utcuwakik 

farther stay kind of blue your wind kind of blue your clouds 

a Kop varsatc, "farther," when any one is moving toward an object near at hand; "near" when 
speaking of an object close by if no one is approaching or seeking It. 
'- From I'apago. 
c Speaker here points to the quarter about which he Is speaking. 



EOSSELL] SPEECHES 349 

leave the blue wind and blue clouds behind you. Your people will 
henceforth entreat your assistance from a distance. 

Then I knew the White Mocking- Bird in the east, and I called on 
him for help, and he came, bringing commands that would control the 
hills, mountains, trees, everything. But the earth continued shaking. 

Yes, White Mocking Bird, if your plans for controlling tlie earth 
hav^e failed, go hence and leave the white winds and the white clouds 
behind you. Your people will henceforth entreat your as.sistance 
from a distance. 

Then, above me enveloped in darkness lived the magician Kuvik, 
on whom I called for help. He came in a friendly spirit, with com- 
mands that would control the hills, mountains, trees, everything. 
The earth Ijecame much quieter, but still moved somewhat. 

kamirshi ap kukiovan. Huk hum huma-ata hupai tcukak apamuuk 

carried there stand. That your people some time future 

behind 

mimhi rsasoakan kop pimaska vaiwundam p atatcu-fik varsatc iol(t). 

my entreaty you unseen will help he said farther stay. 

Im sialik takio kus tantam rso-ok kontak hap tcoikam mamutcuk 

This east direction kind of white mocliing I was determin- I l;no\v sncssing 

bird ing 

apinulk rsasoa tap' sanyhai-ikui-itam utatk' am tcut tcivia. Ha-akia 

to my weep he * friendly felt from come. Many 

haitco ua-aka it tcuwu^ tcundv vaopanuk tcuwu? tcovituk ap 

things his advice this land covering stretched land hill there 

kuowur.spahimuk ta-atak kokok kukror.spahinudi o-os kokok ap 

touching mountains tops touched trees tops there 

kxjkuorspahimiik na-ata. Avak hukatc tcomsi katckak a-ak 

touched finish. Then with for the purpose remain fixed 

hap tcumtco. Ava amuta haintc katc amuta tcotcoaktc 

deter- he made it has As you in moving lay in inserted and 

mining since failed. know projecting 

katc. Ahcr-u, vatcim piam utcon hukum tcoitcik kop varsatc iolinhi 

lay. Yes, may try your plant you farther stay 

kus tata uhuwulik kus tata utcuwukik kamirshi ap kukiovan. 

kind white your \viiid kind of white your clouds carried there stand, 

of ' behind 

Huk hum humata hupai tcukak apa mu-uk mimhi rsarsoakan 

That your pieople some time from far my entreaty 

kop pimaska vai-iwumkan. Ava! " lat tam huk stcohokam 

your unseen assistance. As you know! Here above that darkness 

kusikalk'tc' ka-atc'. Ava! Uta siamp uolintc huk Kuvik karskam 

enveloping there. As you know! In right held that Vi-ik nest 

ma-akai. Kontak hap tcoikam mamutcik ap imuk rsarsoa. Kotap 

magician. I was tliat kind of guessing to my weep. Because 

sanghai-ikui-itam utatk ha-akia haitco ua-aka rsa-aku anitcut 

friendly felt many things his advice grasping from 

tcivia. Ha-akia haitco ua-aka it tcuwu^ tcumuk vaopanuk tcuwu^ 

conie. Many things his advice this land covering stretched land 

tco^itk ap kuorspahimiik tatak kokok ap kukuorspahimuk o-os 

hill to touching mountain tops to touc-lied trees 

kokok ap kukuorspahimuk na-atak ata hukatc am hu-us tatalim 

tops to touched finish fiy with that from little quiet 

utcu. Am ha-as ihikava amuta haintc katc amuta tcotcoaktc katc . 

remain. From brief time in moving there in inserted and lay. 

projecting 

o Ava means " as you know," but is here an interjection. 



350 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



tETH. AXX. 1*6 



Then, there was a Gray Spider in the west." J called on him for 
assistance. He was friendly to me and came in answer to my appeal. 
He took bundles of sticks, which he placed in the edg-es of the land 
and sewed them tirmly together. He pulled the black corner at the 
west, where stands the house of the Rain god of the west. He tirmly 
enveloped the earth with his black power. He pulled the blue corner 
at the south, where stands the house of the Rain god of the south. 
He firmly enveloped the earth with his blue power. He pulled the 
white corner at the east, where stands the house of the Rain god of the 
east. He firndy enveloped the earth with iiis white power, and with 
that the earth became quieter. 



Im hojinyik takio kus kamaki taktiit. Kontak hap tcoikam 

In sunset direction kind of gray spider. I was ihiit class 

mamutcik ap imuk rsarsoa. Kotap sinyhai-ikul-itam utiitk' o-os 

guessing to my weep. Because " friendly felt trees 

uhikiaka rsa-ak amtcut tcivia. It tcuwu; hohokitak sikoapitk' 

bundles of grasping from come. This land edges firmlv sewed 

sticks ^ together 

natii. Im ho^inyik woi ivanyonuk am kus took mawatatuk' kus 

finish. In sunset toward pull from kind of black four corners of kind 

the earth tied of 

with something 

tcok va-aki katc am si maitcoyitilk' kus tcotcik'k' omii katc 

black house with from firmly envelope kind of black two-feathered lay 

arrow 



am si kuowurs. 

from very hold down. 

mawatatiik' kus 

four corners of kind of 
the earth tied 
with something 

tatk' omu katc 

blue two-feathered lay 
arrow 



Im 

In 

tatk' 

blue 



ka-atck 

laying 

va-aki 

house 



woi ivanyunak am kus tatk' 

toward pull from kind of blue 

katc am si maitconytk' kus 



lay 



am 

from 



firmly 



envelope 



kind of 



am si kuowurs. Im sialik woi ivanyonuk 

from firmly hold down. In east toward pull 



am 

from 



kus 

kind of 



tantiim 

white 



mawatatuk' kus tantam va-aki katc am 



four corners of 
the earth tied 



kind of white 



house 



SI 

lay from firmlv 



maitcoyituk 

envelope 



kus 

kind of 



with something 

tata omu katc am 

white two-feathered lay from 



SI 

firmly 



kuowurs. 

hold down. 



Huk 

That 



ata hukutc amahava tatalim utcu. Im ho4inyik takio kus tcok 



with it 



atcuvik. 

measuring 



make 

Kontak 

I was 



quiet 



sunset direction kind of black 



hap tcoikam mamatcuk ap imuk rsarsoa. 

that cla.ss guessing to my weep. 



Kotap' sinyhai-ikui-itam utatk' amtcut ki-ikhii iutcovitkatk' am 



Because friendly felt from four times 

rsa-tirspal ua-siminiik am slam utcutiintatk' unata. 

short broken from right itself on posts finish. 

takio kus tatk atcuvik kontak hap tcoikam 

direction kind of blue measuring worm I was that class 

imuk rsarsoa. 

my weep. 



raises up from 

Im ka-atcim 

In laying 

mamutcik ap 

guessing to 



u Not a magician, "just a wise man.' 



RossELL] SPEECHES 351 

Then, in tlie west there was a Black Measuring Worm that was 
friendly to me and came in answer to my entreaty. He came in four 
strides and in short broken lengths stood up as crotched posts. In 
the south there was a Blue Measui-ing Worm that was friendly to me 
and came in answer to my entreaty. He came in four strides and in 
short ])roken lengths formed the joists to lie upon the posts. In the 
east there was a White Measuring Worm that was friendly to me and 
he came in four strides in answer to my entreaty. He in short ])roken 
lengths covered the joists with a layer of small poles. In the north 
there was a Reddish Measuring Worm that was friendly to me and 
came in four strides in answer to my entreaty. He in short broken 
lengths covered the other parts in a curved outer layer, thus finishing 
the framework. 

Then, in the west there was a Blue Gopher who came with plenty 
of brush which he placed layer above layer around the house, cover- 
ing it as with thin clouds. Around the house were four gopher hills 
with which he covered it with earth in a thin, even layer, as snow 



Kotap' sinyhai-ikui-itam utatuk amtcut ki-ikha iutcovitakatuk 

Because ' friendly felt from four times raise up 

am rsiirspiil uaminuk am siamp kakai-i uviiopa. Im sialik takio kus 

from short broken from right level it laying. In east direction kind of 

tantam iitcuvik kontak hap tcoikam mamtcik ap imuk rsarsoa. Kotap 

white measuring worm I was that class guessing to my weep. Becau.se 

sinyhiu-ikui-itam utatuk amtcut ki-ikha iutcovitakatuk am r.sarspal 

friendly felt from four times he it raise up from short 

uaminiik am siamp i"su-ursurl uvaopa'. Im nanuk' aitu takio kus 

it broken from right straight it laying. In north tield direction kind of 

wukiiim actuvik kontak hap tcoikam mamtcik ap imiilc rsarsoa. Kotap 

reddish measuring worm I was that class guessing to my weep. Because 

sinyhai-ikui-itam utatk' amtcut ki-ikha iutcovitakatuk am rsiirspal 

friendly he felt from four times he it raised from short 

uaminuk am siamp ukikiatatk' unata. Im katcim takio kus tatk 

it broken from right curve themselves finish. In laying direction kind of blue 

tcufha kontak hap tcoikam mamtcuk ap imuk rsarsoa. Kotap 

gopher I was that .class guessing to my weep. Because 

sinyhai-ikui-itam utatk' ha-akia rsai umoa-atak amtcut tcivia. Huk 

friendly felt many gra.ss killed from came. That 

itcuwulitk' hukutc ap isirsa-itcitk' natii. Kus kuk kamalt 

he raised with that to he thoroughly covered finish. Kind of good thin 

tcuwakita ak hap tco. An wukatcik tucwu) ki-ik ap mo-oat. 

clouds make and has failed. There behind land four to gopher hills. 

Huk ihimitcotuk hukutc ap isihiarsk nata. 

That pushed with that to he covered dirt finish. 

Kus kuk kufainta ak hap tco. An wukutcik tcuwu? itakiomilk 

Kind of good set make and has failed. There around dirt clean 

hastcopsp' all muwupatikituk im kamfik it uta imu tarsowa. 

what thing young your likene.ss in hold this in here place. 

Siwat muhutam ko-otck' ipuk imu wutcantcu. Oatcik' tan huk 

Flame light brand he took here lower place. Cigarette knee that 

woi am kui. Tak ap ko-orsk vamusk am sialik woi si-ipueva. 

toward from stand. That to stick smoke from east toward puff. 

Ta-am kus tatam utcotcua himuk sialik supapuk tcunia. Kus tata 

Then kind of white stand went east slowly reached. Kind of white 



352 THE PIMA INDIAKS [eth. axn. 26 

covers the gTound. Looking around the earth I selected one to take 
me up like a little boy and place me in the house. He placed a brand 
of fire down before me and a cigarette also. Lighting the cigarette 
he pufied smoke toward the east in a great white arch. The shadow 
of the arch crept across the earth beneath. A grassj' carpet covers 
the earth. Scattering seed, he caused the corn with the lai'ge stsilk, 
large leaf, full tassel, good ears to grow and ripen. Then he took it 
and stored it away. As the sun's rays extend to the plants, so our 
thoughts reached out to the time when we would enjoy the life-giving 
corn. With gladness we cooked and ate the corn and, free from 
hunger and want, were happy. Your worthj' sons and daughters, 
knowing nothing of the starvation periods, have been happy. The 
old men and the old women will have their lives prolonged yet day 
after day by the possession of corn. 

People nmst unite in desiring rain. If it rains their land shall be 
as a garden, and they will not be as poor as they have been. 

kikihat uvaopanuk sialik sipapilk tcuniaa. Wutca tcuwu!) 

rainbows stretched east slowly reached. Below land 

s'ahamasma rkahimuk sialik supapuk tcumaa. \Yutca tcuwu:j 

beautiful shadow yoes east slowly reached. Below land 

s'ahamasama mamuthat'tk' utcu. Huk tarn wors hukunanuka 

beautiful branched placed. That on grow that different 

tcoikam mukaiituta. Kursavatk' vaok tatany hahak skuk motatuk 

sort your seeds. Very large stalk wide ' leaf good tassel 

hiasik hikum pimokam kai-iktc pai. Ta-am amutco ta-am siam 

flowers those undying grains ripe. Then was made then good 

hasitcok puk kantcu. Kaot ta.is sisiwutak'tc' huk uta ap kokokuva. 

intend take placed. It was sun rays that in to had ended, 

Kotak wunatiik am hasitcok pa-ak wutcum kupi haskam haitco 

That was together from intend swallow happy nothing notnt»ticing thing 

tatam. Kus kuk mv viapoku-ulika, skuk mu tcuhiaka vvum 

feeling. Kind of good your sons, good your daughters with 

kupi haskam haitco tatam. Kota humaka vi ikam kulimhakam 

nothing not noticing thing feeling. That one remnant old man 

ak ap tcinyivak wutciim kii-ak hojony uwue nviatc' kamvamp' 

old to put mouth inanimate two evening's opposite give sight forward 

woman against 

panymut. Hapukhums aulitk' tatcoak humok uithi hap masin 

crawling. Perhaps will think desire now think deter- venture 

mining 

hukiit tcuwutika kotc huk nyuitan natc apahap, rsasaikam 

that land our we that ' try our right thing discouraged 

t tat kan. 

ourselves feel. 



GOING TO WAR 

Because I was a boy I did not understand these things. When anj'- 
one was preparing food I stood with folded arms. They gave me 
food so hot that it Ijurned me. I went with a hunting party. They 
killed a little bird and gave it to me. I thought it was good to eat, so 
I carried it home to my mother and threw it down before her. When 
she saw it she turned her l)ack upon it and began to cry. She turned 
and told me about my father's death. I grieved in my heart and after 
a time went to consult a man of authority, to whom a boy should not 
have had the temeritj- to go. He listened to my story, approved of 
my plans, and told me to come at a time which he appointed. Then 
the people would accompany me to the enemy's country that I might 
see it. When we had gone to an appointed camping place we encamped 
and 1 slept well. The next day we continued to the camping place 

Konyo vawo^aps alik'tc' ithap tcoikam pimatc. Hastco 

Because I was yotiiig this kind not know. What thing 

hatconyi woi kukitc nyu vii-ak kamiitc. Koma hastco stiinyik 

cooked toward standing my stomach hold. You what hot 

nyuma konta nyu papaitcituk ho. Hastco ala-aitamult ka-atc kont 

me give I was me burned eat. What liuiiting place I 

huk aitk' iwors. Komuta hastco kutivitc mat moak nyu 

that alter go. You what kutivitc young kill me 

tcultsp. Konj-ak skuk hastco mokik ak tc kahap tcontcok tc 

carry at nip. I was good what shoot and kill telling from bringing 

ipuk an nyu akitak wutca iwoa kota-amtcrm nyuitak 

tetch there me mother under to blame for then 'she saw 

knocking down 

kamko-okam itanewa' ha-akia rkokoi mata. Kota hupai tcukak 

turned back sat many her cry open. That sometime then 

am kookituk ipuk in nyu wutca iwoa ithap tcoikam 

there ended letch In me under toblamefor this kind 

knocking down 

haitco has utcok'tcim. Kota it imho nyu uta kukiva kontak puk 

anything making ■ accident. That this there lue in stand I was nold 

iwors. A-atam hupai ta wotatcum kuhas ulata kont huk pihas 

rise. People where sit important kind of regard I that no 

ulitak huk woi ivapiik'ki. Ithap tcoikam nyu tatcoi ipuk 

think that toward pass through. This kind me plans fetch 

an wutca iwoa. Kotaps nyu hiii-kui-itam utatuk an puik 

there under to blame for He was me friendly felt there grasp 

knocking down. 

haitco nyiu aka. Am tcotcoi huk siali kontak am sihasi:>rsolkahim 

thing me advice. There appoint that mornings I was there clear away with 

something 

kot am himuk am uai kont huk puk iwors. Himuk hupai 

that there going there reach I was that grasp rise. Going some 

26 ETH— 08 25 353 



354 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

agreed upon and there I slept well. The next da}' we reached the land 
of the Apacheis, where I was at'i'aid. I kept my Ijody i^rotected with 
my shield and carried my club in hand. I could not rest for fear. 
Then I remembered how my mother had told me what my feelings 
would be in the enemy's country. She told me that the liirds would 
sing differently, all nature would be strange; but she did not tell me all. 
This is the feeling that one experiences. The next day I reached the 
Apache mountain, where 1 felt like a drunken person from fear. I lost 
faith in my ))ow. I was frightened at sight of an old reed ari-ow of 
the Apaches. Then as I sat below the mountain I swayed from side 
to side looking for the enemy. Again I remembered what my mother 
had told me of the perils among the enemy. The next day I arose and 
went to the springs of the Apaches, where I saw a gourd drinking cup, 
with which 1 cleared away tiie surface of the water and drank. Think- 
ing that perhaps my father had been brought to that place by the 
Apaches, I was alarmed and feared that 1 must already be in danger, 
because I had drunk the water belonging to the enemy. The next day 

tcuwui matcolituk huk tam ho^inyik woak s'aptahatam kai. Kota 

land appointtMl that over evening overthrow right feeling sleep. That 

niassi kont worsanyik himuk hupai tcvwv} matcolituk huk tam 

morning I was went going some land appointed that over 

ho'jinyik woak s'aptahatam ktii. Kota masi kont worsanyik 

evening overthrow riglit feeling sleep. That morning I was went 

himuk ap ai A-ap tcuwutaka huk niitakik katc siukafwkatc' 

going there reach .\pache land that madness lay difficult 

kaatc. Hakf sikaik' katc umairstc' katc, os rsiipalk katc 

there. Hide round lay covered lay, sticli short lay 

siumairstc katc. Ava-am a-ai nyu iai. Konya hap intatam. 

very covered lay. And there sway me rolling. I was witii feelings. 

Ahu-u, it Cika" hap a-aktc' hap kaitc' huk nyu akitak panya intatam. 

Yes. this is what was meant as said that me mother I was feelings. 

Kota masi kont himuk ap ai A-ap toaka kok huk naAamutak 

That morning I went there reach Apache mountain it that drunkenness 

katc siukakavitc katc tcotc. Kat molinyik va-apk' takrsunyik 

lay very resembling lay small mountain Bow broken reed strip 

peaks stand. 

katc siutcutanytc tcotc. Kot huk wutca ap nyu tarsuvak 

lay very strengthen standing. It that under there me sat 

aAa-am a-ai nyu ia^. . Konya hap inta'tam, ahu-u, it aks 

and then swaying me rolling. I was with feelings, yes, this is 

hap a-aktc hap kai-itc huk nyu akituk panyu intatam. Kota masi 

what was meant as said that me mother I was feelings. That morning 

kont worsanyik himuk ap ai A-ap rsotaki. Avawo:} nyu ma-a 

I was rose ^ going there reach Apache water. It was ine hair 

hikivanyik'tc' hukatc'p' umairstc' katc kus kuk mamathoi Apa^ak 

cut out roughly that with covers lay kind of good water plants like 

huk hokit ap katc huk nyu karsova hainyik. Konta huk ipCik 

that beside tothere lay that me skull broken. I was that take 

hukiitc kamikufitckuAa am vasipuk ap i. Anya hastco 

with it knock down there take there drink. I was something 

anliotcum rsapupu. Kota masi kont wor.sanyik himfik ap ai 

trying to grasp. That morning I was rose going there reach 

ait iiks refers to something held in the hand or discovered to be true. 



RCssKLi.] SPEECHES 355 

we reached a black water, where I smelled traces of the Apaches, who 
had washed off their paint in this water. I cried when I thought of 
the camp tires whose ashes now drifted to and fro on the winds. 
Around that spot my imagination revolved four times, like the wind 
twisting around an object. Wandering about I again remembered 
what my mother tried to tell me. This is what one feels in tlie land of 
the Apaches. 

My friend Coyote went toward the east to spy upon the enemy. I 
7-elied upon him for information and assistance and put away my imagi- 
nar}' fears. He looked carefully about and returned to tell me that 
he had found the Apache tires. Then our party, with the courage of 
tierce predatory animals and raptorial birds, ran toward the enemy. 
Nothing could stop us and we swept them away with scarcely any 
resistance. We killed all and gathered up their property to return. 
Mj' trail was down a steep declivity and I reached home, slackening 
speed only four times during the march. 

A-ap rsotaki. Kawot nyti woihia tcokolitak'tc' hukatcp umairstc, 

Apacne water. That wa,s my face black paint at once covered, 

wuska s'mataimaki huk hokit ap katc huk nyu karsova hainyik. 

all over ashes resemble that beside to there, lay that me skull broken. 

Kus kuk ka-vaik hao wupa^ak kont huk am puk hukatckam 

Kind of good hollow cup like I was that there take with it 

ikufwitckuAa am vasipk' ap i. Ava saso-ofw(u). Map ku-uk 

it knock there take there drink. And smell. Close to standing 

huk hsitai ap wutca huk tcuwu; sva-avanyitc katc. Avawo} nyu 

that stone there under that earth wet ' lay. It was me 

S-Sktc hap tcoi-ik, an Aukatc huk nyu huwulik ki-ikhil siuitap 

tears as it is there around that me wind four times twisting 

konya huk parsa aptcim nyu hadrsap ka-am a-ai himin na^kit. 

I was that front of tliere me stick to was swaying going to and fro. 

Konya hap intatam; ahu-u, it aks hap ak'tc' hap kaitc huk nyu akitak 

I was with feelings; yes, this is what was meant as said that me mother 

pan3'a intatam. Kaim .sialik takio kus kamaki t uwumakalt 

I was feelings. Faraway east direction kind of gray our friend 

kotpk' A-ap s'kakikam kont ap imuk r.sarsoa kotap sinyhai-ikui-itam 

able Apache trailer I was there my cry he was friendly 

utatuk ametciit wupfik tcivia. Ami utcuwulitk' am tcu A-ap 

felt from first came. There he raised himself there saw .\pache 

nanta worsanjak wukutc pitcimitahinulk tcoikam nyunarsunahimuk 

fires rose around around going appearance me look carefully 

opam tciviak nyu akit. Tcuwuia mututam o-ofik ta-atam uwupakik 

turn around came me tell. Ground on running birds fly it like 

huk nyir viapaku-ulakak nyunyik tam ap uiava ap piatco 

that nie .sons 'jump on there alight on there nothing 

tatukitcotuk' ap sutapam pui. Wukutc katcim nanukatcoitcikatc 

easily capture there sweep clean catch. Around home occupations 

si-inasik supapaki kawolkatk puk opam lia-ahak inyuoa. Kotak 

all gathered slowly packed grasp turn around me around. With that 

nyu vakita skoivatam utcu kont huk aitiik ki-ik apr.sorsuk 

me trail steep false appearance I was that followed four incantations 

ap nyu tcuwutika tam oapa. Hukutc am simaisk tcu huk 

there me country on brought. With it there entirely left that 

covered 



356 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

The news of victor}^ which I brought caused my people to rejoice 
with singing and dancing. There was a magician's house, enveloped 
in white winds and white clouds, into which we went to perform our 
ceremonies. The captives excited the children, who ran about bewil- 
dered. 

You may think this over, my relatives. The taking of life brings 
serious thoughts of the waste ; the celebration of victory may become 
unpleasantly riotous. 

nyu tcuwutika. Avawo^ makai ki, stSta huwulikutc si-ipistc 

me country. It was that magician house, white wind with entirely around 

tata tcuvak katc si-imaitconitc ku-uk. Kont huk uta am va-aki' 

to put clouds lay entirely envelope stand. I was that in there get into 

A-ap all nyu pui, kot huk uta am rsarsoa. Kot huk a-akutc 

Apache young me captive, it that in there cry. It that tears 

stcuhutukim suka-akal hihimuk sku-uk nyu viapapu-ulika ap kui, 

blue curves going good me sons there drop, 

sku-uk n3^u tcuihiyaka ap kui. S'ha-ap hapilk humrsa ulitk' 

good me daughters there drop. That way you you will think 

tatcoa, na-anka tcoikam nyu imiki' kotc humo hap pa^uma ta-atan 

want various things me relatives we now that lazy make 

huk pat rsaika natc apohap takaihiikim kaitc. 

■ that despised slave we riglit think disturbance said. 



WAR CHIEF URGING THE PEOPLE TO GO ON THE WARPATH AGAINST 

THE APACHES" 

Yes, my poor brothers-in-law; this land was covered with herbage. 
The mountains were covered with clouds. The sunlight was not bright 
and the darkness was not dense. All was rolling before our eyes. It 
was thought that the time had come for considerinar these thinsfs in 
council, my brothers. Then wood was gathered and a fire kindled, 
the flames of which burst forth, reaching to the sky and causing a 
portion of the earth to fold over, disclosing the under side, where a 
reddish mountain stood. After these things had happened the enter- 
prise was decided upon. 

Then my breast was tightened and my loins girded; my hunger was 
appeased; sandals with strings were made for my feet; my canteen 

Ahu-u, rsaik tahatam nyu kikiu. Kava humo it Aakta katcim 

Yes, sad feelings me brothers- It was how this thingspread laying 

in-law. on the ground 

to situiiun 

ha-akia a-anukatc umairstcaip tcom katc. Tam tata-ak tcotcoatc 

many feathers with he covered it lay. On mountain his standing 

ha-akia suvikitak tca-ip tcom tcotc. Tam tataf tcom ihivathik 

many lets down with it stands. On sun it came but 

pitanuliktc ihi. Tam tcohokomolitatc tcom i-ia vathik piukutaktc' i-ia. 

ray not shone came. On darkness his it came but he no darkness came 

rolling rolling. 

Tava it hapa utco moi manuka tcoikan nyi-imil(i), Avao^ hutcul nya-a 

It wa.s this was happened many different class my relatives. It was alone me 

vakomakitak konta inasik am siii-am nai-i. Kota am u-u:|a sitoahimilk 

bones old I was gathered there right kindle It was there within rumbling 

tire. 

am sisiAa'^ muk tamatcim supapak(i) maxaniik skoiAa^am i-inairs.* 

there flames burning sky slowly open hollow fold. 

Tuwoi katcim tcuwu^ maska oi(t) tuwoi tcotcim tata-ak wupkiomitk' 

Opposite laying land to cause hold opposite standing mountain make red 

to bring 
to view 

tcotcoa ttak haptcoikani tcom nyui. Kotava it hapa utco moi nanuka 

stands I that class then saw. It was this was hap- many kind 

pened 

tcoikam ny imik(i). Avao*; hutcuj nyana-am kontak ap isitcutk ap 

sort my relatives. It was alone my ribs I was there very saw there 

iputat. Avao:^ htrtcuj nyhihi konta ivanyoniik hukatc sis iiim ho;a 

make heart. It was alone my*^ bowels I was stretch with very proper across 

nywo. Kao:> hutcu^ nyhahap konta hastco sku-uk hok(i) ak pa-ak 

tied. It was alone my intestines I was what good food intend swallowed 

a This speech is believed to be based upon an adventure in which a Pima gambled with the 
Apaches and lost all his property. Overcome by the passion for gambling, he wagered the life of 
his brother and lost. The striking figures of speech indicate the speaker's greed. 

b Here « = a mere hissing. 

/ 357 



358 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

was made read}'. I went about the countiy. from mountain to village, 
beneath the sheds and trees, otfering all an opportunit}^ to join me. 
Returning- home I thought I saw m}^ brother when I was in a trance. 
I tried to grasp him and ray arms embraced nothing but myself. I 
somehow caught in my palm what I thought to be his power; turning 
this over I found it to be but a creation of my imagination, and again 
I was disappointed. I was unkempt and rough, and my tears moistened 
the land. 

The plan occurred to me to ask Nasia, the old woman magician, for 
aid. Thinking that I saw her I ran toward the eastward and finally 
reached her. I said "Yes, you who make the bow of the Apache like 
a kiaha and crush his arrowheads, jh)U who paint triangles and curves 
on the kiaha bottoms with the arrow foreshafts of the Apache dipped 

IP skavat. Avao; hutcui nyma-atk' ulutak kontak nyma-a hoputak 

tfien full. It was alone * my head skin I was my hair loose 

ap isi kai kia-atajk siam isitcuka. Avao^ hutcuj nykarsuva kont 

there very make sandal string right put-up. It was alone my skull I was 

hutcuj nyu-ut ap vaikitk' i ik sunavaman nyiak. Iworsanyik 

alone me blood there put in drink intoxicated talk. .\rose 

tcutcuwu; tcotcovitk' iiitk' ikuxiamhi mamtaip iawis kontuk aitk 

lands hills after slowly go ashes thrown I was after 

ikuxiamhi. O-os u-uktak uta ikuxiamhimuk tcora nyu matciamahimilk'' 

slowly go. Trees shadows in slowly go then my considering 

pinaka. Tcuwu'} sutapk' tam kopa[ hutcuiwoa, kota It ku himutam 

unsuccessful. Land smooth on facedown slide it was this kind of 

tutamai tcukak amtcut koewoa ihutcu[woak nyparsa ku kiowoa. 

going our above came there from down slide my breast stand. 

Konta an tcom kamuk antaprs utcu[ nykam. Hasitcok puk nymatk' 

I was about try embrace I was alone mc ciiibracc. Somehow take my palm 

uta woak a-ai wopak tcom tcutcukak ava hapta nyuit hakim tcoi-ik 

in throw all throw then e-xamine it was sight of disagreeable sort 

kus ku-ukuny rsaiktak. Woihya stcoktak ma-a sikivtinyk. Ahu-u, 

kind of good sorrow. Face dirty head rough.' Yes, 

konyuks anvtcom sirsaiktak taktcitk' nyulit. Piam hai-itco ia-aksun 

guess me t!ien much misery embrace th(tught. But here something 

tamp' uolintc' kus ku-uk I'saiktaktc amtcut a-akatc kokoiAa sisiAa:^ 

are on being held kind of good misery from tears down trembled 

ihohotktc wutca tcuwui va-akanuk tcu. Kava it hapot tcoi-ikam 

descending under land damp place. It was this thing class 

muntatcoi konta ipux muk sisiaatk parsa woa ku Nasia aks makai. 

my plan it was took far east front of throw kind of Nasia old woman 

magician. 

Kontak hap tcoi-ikan mamtcuk huk woi stcukam tai-iwonyk ap 

I was that class guessing that toward dark sat there 

supapak(i) tcuma-a. Anya hap kaiitam wumatc nyiak. Ahu-u, 

slowly covers. I was that loud with talk. Yes, 

kopava apim olintc. A-ap kat s'iiini vapuka:^ wupakit. A-ap 

you there bold. Apache bow right reed artificial Apache 

likeness. 

o-o kop kaikuirsontc siam isiammaki^at. A-ap vat kopuk. A-ap 

arrow you crushed right jmt back on. Apache hisat take. Apache 

U-ut katc s ahaniasma mo-omovitc a-ahtlntc hukatc huk ukiaha 

blood with beautiful triangles painting with that his kiAh.^i 

sisuvinam kuo(f)ursp. A-ap u-utkatc s'ahamasma ka-aka[ ia-ahanu(k) 

very hard more weight. Apache blood with well look curved painted 



RUSSELL] SPEECHES 359 

ill his blood, you who twist the hair of the Apache and tie your kiaha 
with it." Thus I addressed her and she gave me a bundle of power 
which I grasped under my arm and ran with it to my home. 

I thought of Vikiirskam and prayed for his aid. When I finally 
reached him I said, "'Yes, your house is built of Apache bows and 
bound with their arrows; you use his bowstrings and sinew to tie 
these withes. You use Apache headdresses and moccasins to cover 
}'our house. Within it you have square piles of Apache hair. At the 
corners of the piles cigarettes give otf wreaths of smoke, resembling 
white, black, glittering, purple and yellow blossoms." Thus I spake 
and he gave me power which I carried awa}' beneath mj' arm. 

I thought of South Doctor and finally prayed to him. I said to him, 
" Yes, you who can make the Apache bow as harmless as a rainbow, his 
arrows like the white tasseled grass, his arrow shafts like soft down, 

ukiaha. A-ap kop kop s'akrsp imulutcotc hukatc sis ia-amp ipuphu. 

his kiAhfl. Apache hair you left make run with very right tighten, 

S ha-ap anya ikaitam wumatc nyiak kota hastco sku-ukam ak sis 

Way I noise with talk it was what good said very 

kavitcim nyhukrsp(i) Ttak siskavitcim hukrsk am tai-iwors. Ap 

narrow me hugged I that very narrow hugged there go out running. There 

kuirsk tcux iahapunytco. Ava it tam kus tcohokom sikalktc katc. 

stepped bound here approach. It was this on kind of darkness round lay. 

Ava uta s'ia-amp uolintc ku vidiirskam makai. Kontak hap 

It was in right being held kind of down nest magician. I wa.s that 

tcoi-ikam supapaki tcumii-a. Anya hap kai-itam wumatc nj'iiik. 

class slowly correct. I that loud" with talk. 

Ahu-u, kopava apim olintc. A-ap kat s ia-iim sikikia. A-ap o-o katc 

Yes, you there hold. Apache bow right bend t(to Apache arrow lay 

much. 

kaisipirsp. A-ap kia-ajak A-ap tatakatc sis vinam wo[. A-ap 

across bind. Apache bowstring Apaclie .sinew his tighten knot. Apache 

vanam A-ap ta^arsakatc simai-itcontc kux. Huk u^ak A-ap kops 

headdress Apache sandals with cover stand. That in .\pache hair 

tcotcopolimp ia-aks. Tcotcopolr:( ap tcote si-avaptck(i) tatantc hutcu[ 

squarely piles. Made corners there stands cigarettes knees alone 

kodrsantc ku nanilksi masma uhiasitahim. Statam uhiasitahini 

smoking kind of different colors blossoms. White blossoms 

stcotckom uhiasitahim sunanafkim uhittsitahim supitumukim 

black blossoms glittering blossoms dirty 

uhiasitahim s'oa-ama uhiasitahim. S'ha-ap anyai kaiitam wumatc 

blossoms yellow blossoms. Way l' noise with 

nyiak. Kota hastco sku-ukam ak siskavitcim nyhukrsp(i) kontCtk 

talk. It was what good tell very narrow me hugged I was 

siskavitcim hukrsk' am tai-iwonyiik kaiirsp inataki. In ku Vakolo 

very narrow hugged there go out running straddle came. In kind of South 

Makai kontak hap tcoi-ikam supakak(i) tcuma-ak anya hap kai-itam 

Doctor I was that class slowly covered I that loud 

wumatc nyiak. Ahu-u, kopaAa apim oliny. A-ap kat kopa kus 

with talk. Yes. you there hold. Apacne bow you kind of 

ku-uk kiiiha? wuptikit. A-ap o-o kopa kus stata mo;atkam wupiikit. 

good rainbow liken. Apache arrow you kind of white tassel liken. 

A-tip vat kopa kus ku-uk vik(i) wupakit. A-ap ors kopaprs pit 

Apache arrow- yon kind of good down liken. Apache arrow- you make mud 



a In this manner or in this wise, what was said or how the voice is modulate. 



360 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 26 

his arrowheads like thin dry mud, his arrow poison like water fern 
upon the pools, his hair like rain clouds." 

Thus I spake, and he gave me power which I grasped under 1113' arm 
and journeyed westward with four slackenings of speed. The home 
magician gave me a seat of honor. The cigarette smoked, and I took 
it and, drawing in a cloud of smoke, I prayed to Old Woman Magician, 
saying, "Yes, you make the Apache bow like a game ring; you crush 
his arrow shafts and make headbands of them; you split his arrow 
foreshafts, color them with Apache blood and make game sticks of 
them; his arrowheads you make like pottery paddles; j'ou make a 
girdle of Apache hair." Thus I spake and he gave me his power, 
which I caught under my arm and ran home, with four slackenings of 
speed. The home magician gave me a seat of honor. The cigarette 
smoked, and I took it and, drawing in a cloud of smoke, breathed it 
forth in the direction of the enemy. The power grew and shone on 

kamajk wupakit. A-up hinatc kopaprs kus ku-uk mamatha'j wupakit. 

thin liKcn. Apache arrow you make kind of good water plant liken, 

poison 

A-ap kop kopa si:i-am vi-itcwoi wupakit. S'ha-ap anyai kai-itam 

Apacne hair you right (?) liKen. Way I loud 

wumatc nyiak kota hastco sku-tikam ak siskavitcim nyhukrsp(i) 

with talk it was what good told very narrow 'me hugged 

kontak siskavitcim hukrsk am taiwonyuk am hotinyik woi ki-ikap 

I was narrow hugged there go out run- there west toward four 

Ding 

rstirs ku Aks Makai supapak(i) tcuma-ak anya hap kai-itam wumatc 

renew- kind Old Magician slowly covered I that loud with 

als of Woman 

nyiak. Ahu-u, kopova apim oliny. A-ap kat siii-ani haxoatc s ia-am 

talk. Yes, you there hold. Apache bow right make a ring right 

mulitcitakut wupakit. A-ap 0-0 kop ki-irsonytc ukoawutca sikikoat. 

runner liken. Apache arrow you crush ' his forehead very circle. 

below 

A-ap vat kop taprsatc A-ap u-utkatc paprsa iwupukantc s'ia-am 

Apache arrow you split Apache blood with in front of redden right 

foreshaft 

ka-amhairsakot wupakit. A-ap ors kopa kus ku-uk ha-atakot 

a game uke. Apache arrow you head kind of good instrument used 

for pottery paddle 

wupakit. A-ap kop kopa s ia-am isikisa-a. S'ha-ap nyai kai-iam 

liken. Apache hair you . right bark girdle. Way 1 loud 

wumatc nyiak. Kao"} uwu-uwue kokokam kota pinyhoAitct 

with talk. It was facing points it was not me prevent 

.siskavitcim nyhukrsp(i) kontak siskavitcim hukrsk am tai-iwonyuk 

very narrow * me hugged I was very narrow hugged there go out running 

am wutcom ki-ik ap rsarsk makai nata tcumuk hokit an takuta. 

there to four there renewals magician fire covered edges there release. 

Smakaitkam il-atam sivaksitk' tam tarsuwoa. Avaoj makai oatck 

Expert Magician peojjle place prepared on sitting. It was magician cigarette 

with something 
spread to sit on 

tantc hutcui ko^r,san3'itc kuk. Kontak ap sihaAak am nyaputak 

knee alone smoking stand. I was there inhale there my enemy 

woi siAostaniik taihiwoa. Kota am kus fcitam utcotcoahimuk ap 

toward puffed sat. It was there kind of white erected there 



RUSSELL] 



SPEECHES 361 



and on until it slowly disclosed the enemy. The Pima magician 
desired that the earth move, the ti'ees take on their leaves, the land 
be softened and improved, that all be straightened and made correct. 
The place was one where food was increased and they were gathered 
about it. Their springs were made larger and they were gathered 
about them. Their game was gatliered together. Some of the enemy 
were in the west and they said, "We know that harm may come to 
us if we go to that place, but we will not heed our own misgivings." 
The}' started on their journey and camped on the wa}-. In the morn- 
ing they arose and continued, I'eaching their friends' camp during the 
day, where they saluted them. In the distant east were other enemies 
who heard that their friends were gathering. When they heard of it 
they said, '' We know that harm may come of it if we go to that place, 

supapak(i) tcuma-iik nyuaputa. Tcuwu') hokit ap sikaj ihi os ap 

slowly covered me enemy. Land edge there around cume tree there 

ku-ukam shahaktcotk' wutca tcuwui maikatk' s'aptahatcotk' 

stand select a tree with under land softened satisfied 

many leaves 

fsulutcotk' woitcotk' ivantckuwoak huk tam ap takta. Avak 

straight toward Jerked that on there release. It was 

hastco kai-ikam matcom sistac(anyim katc u-ulit kont huk tam ap 

what plants with seed considered very wiSe lay thought I was on there 

sihumap ioi. Rsarsanukam rsorsokia tcum sistatanyim wutck u-ulit 

together hold. Springs waters then very wi3e lay he thought 

kont huk tam ap sihumap io(. Hastco aimututam matcom 

I was that on there together hold. What walking considered 

sistatanyim aimulik u-ulit kont huk tam ap sihumap io[. Kota am 

very wide haunts thought I was that on there together hold. It was there 

tcom ka hotinj'ik takio takam kus mas sunyaputa. fimokikatc ot 

then here west toward sitting kind of kindly appearance His dead he 

me enemy. 

pik u-ulittamtc am tcom kaiak pi-inakslk worsanyk himiik hupai 

like he thought there then heard impossible arose go somewhere 

tcuwu; matcolitk' tam kursk kai. Imasi kot worsanuik himiik tataf 

land considered on fall sleep. Next he arose go sun 

carefully morning 

hupai tcok tciviak skai-itamp uimu. Ava kamuk sialiitk ap uolintc 

somewhere there arrive very loud (?). It was distant east there being 

held 

kus mas sunyaputa. ||raokikatc ot pik u-ulittamtc am tcom kaiiik 

kind friendly appearance His dead he like it he thought there then . heard 

of * me enemy. 

pi-inakak worsanyik himuk hupai tcuwu^ matcolitk' tam kursk kai. 

impossible arose go somewhere land considered on fall sleep. 

carefully 

Imasi kot wor,sanyik himuk tataf hupai tcok tciviak skai-itamp uimu. 

Next he arose' went sun some- where came very loud (?). 

morning where 

Avao} ku tahakiho koi-irsam kutars sisi(f)takatc no-omovitc pum 

It was kind of cochineal dye kind of sun headdress triangles he 

rays 

a-ai kak sivantckuwomtc hukatc sisiamp utcutcuhitc katc. Kota 

figured that jerked with right it covered lay. It was 

uta hux isikuirsk kuxiwoak nyu viapa ku-uluka. Tcuwu^ii 

in already firmly stepped stand me boy reared. Land 

mututam, o-ofik ta-atam uwupakitk nyunyik tam ap uiwoak ap 

running birds flying liken fiy on there alighted there 



362 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

but we must go." They .started on their journey and camped once 
before arriving and saluting their friends. They took sun's ra3's and 
painted triangles on their blankets. 

While this was happening among them my 3-oung men were prepar- 
ing to fight. They rushed upon them like Hying birds and swept them 
from the earth. Starting out upon my trail I reached the iirst water, 
whence I sent my swiftest young men to carry the mes.sage of victory 
to the old people at home. Before the Magician's door the earth was 
swept, and there my young men and women danced with headdresses 
and flowers on their heads. The wind arose and, cutting ofl' these 
ornaments, carried them to the sky and hung them there. The rain 
fell upon the higli places, the clouds envelojied the mountains, the 
torrents descended upon the springs and fell upon the trees. 

You may think this over, my relatives. The taking of life brings 
serious thoughts of the waste; the celebration of victory may become 
unpleasantly riotous. 

pia-atco tatkitcotk' ap sutapam pui. Tait nyu vakita skoeAa^am 

ncithing wrestle there smooth take. That tfiis me trail hollowed 

utcu kontuk aitk' am ki-ikap rsars. Hokitkii rsotaki tarn si 

laid I was after there four renewals. Edge water on very 

humaptol(d). Anitcut mamtcuk am tcotcoaa kus stco-otcoaatcmakam 

one make. There from guess there stand kind of swiftest 

nyu vipiapka. Kota ki-ikap rsarsk mulifkai-i kai-itc kulivi-Ikam 

me boy. It was four times renewals came running notify old man remain 

aks vi-ikam. Ava am makai kitcik amuk tcuwu; tcoi-istc katc. 

old woman remain. It was there magician door there land powdered lay. 

Kotak tam mumutak tcitcivi kus ku-uk nyu viapaku-ulka kus 

It was on run play kind of good me boy reared kind of 

ku-uk nyu tcuhyaka wum mawarsk tam mumutak tcitcivi. Kus 

good me daughter with clasping hands on run play. Kind of 

ku-uk nyu viapaku-ulka kus ku-uk paihiwoatc sijtat kus ku-uk 

good me boy reared kind of good tail touch kind of good 

nyu tcunhyaka kus ku-uk tajr.sak(i) ukoa wutca kikoatk' wum 

me daughter kind of good foam her forehead under crown with 

mawarsk tam mumutak tcitcivi. Kotak huwu[katc am sivanyukumiak 

clasp hands on run play. It was his wind there "broken 

tamatcim parsil pia-atcokam an haha:)rs. Amtcut ko-okoewa si-isiAa? 

spy near by nothing there sticks. There from down flames 

ihohotk kuvipkam sisiatcot'cokam tcutcuwu; tco-otcovitk' tam am 

descended surviving powerful magicians lands hills on there 

kokokoa. Anitcut ko-okoewa si-MAa^ ihohotk' kuvipkam 

touches. There from down flames descended surviving 

sisiatcotcokam tata-ak kokok ap rsarsai-iwa. Amtcut ko-okoewa 

powerful magicians mountains peaks there hang. There from down 

si-isiAfit ihohotk' kuvipkam sisiatcotcokam rsarsaniikam rsorsok(i) 

flames descended surviving powerful magicians springs waters 

vufutcim tam kokokoa. Amtcut ko-okoewa si-isiAsq ihohotk 

laying on touched. There from down flames descended 

kuvipkam sisiatcotcokam o-os kokok ap rsarsai-iwa. S'ha-ap hap 

surviving powerful magician trees tops there hang. Way that 

humsa ulitk tatcoa nanuka tcoi-ikam inyi-iniik(i) kotc humo hap 

you think i)lan different sorts my relatives we now that 

pa^ma ttita huk pa} rsaika natc apaiiiipta kaihakim kaitc. 

lazy make that bad slave way right noise said. 



FIRST NIGHT ON THE WARPATH. FIRST SPEECH 

We have come thus far. my brothers. We have already laid our 
plans. With magic power the trail is made easy, bordered with 
flowers, grass, and trees. The enemy saw the apparent bounty of 
nature and assembled, laughing, to gather the seeds and plants. It 
was the power of the distant magician which made the enemy enjoy 
his fancied prosperity. In the center of our council ground the fire 
burned and, lighting a cigarette, I puft'ed smoke toward the east. 
Slowly a vision arose liefore me, a white cane before a whitish house. 
I grasped the cane and thrust it into the corner of the hou.se and there 
came forth a kind of white water. Afterward there came forth a kind 
of white dragon flies, which circled about four times before thej'sank. 
In the south stood a blue house with a blue cane before it. Thrusting 

lat tiiva tcutcka nanuka tcoi-ikam nyi-imik(i). Huk(i) attavai natak 

Here we came various (.-lasses my relatives. Already we finished 

hai-itcot aka. Huk(i) isivakitk' tcu. Kontaim sia-liktakio kus tiitam 

something tell. Already planned trail placed. I was in east direction kind of shining 

hiasitk am nyu Aakita hokit am takita. Kota am nyu Aakita liitk 

artificial there my trail edge there dropped. I was there my trail after 

flower 

ku nanuka masma uhiasitahimuk ap katcim tcuwu^u supapaki tcuma-a. 

kind different appearance like a wave there laying land slowly cover, 

of flowers came 

Kot ap katcim tcuwuH' kunanuka niasma hia. Ap kckam os 

That there laying land kind of various full-blown flowers. There standing tree 

kinds 

kunananka tcoi-ikam hia. Kota am tcum nyui kuny iiputak ha.stco 

various classes full-blown flowers. I was there then see my enemy what 

sku-ukam ui(d)itk' am uta tcoi'sal ihuhumiha.'' Kaot muk mamakai 

good thought there in .slowly he laughed. It was far magicians 

tadrsa pamutaktc' s'ha-apai utcoktc'. Ava im tcuwD? s'utafitcotc' 

placed unite correct result. It was in landmark center 

kutaniam hatai tunata kutc. Huk woi am kukuk oatck(i) tantc hutcuj 

kind of white stone our fire lay. That toward there standing cigarette knee itself 

ko^rsantc kuk kontak ap sihavak am sia-alik woi si-iphuewoa. Kota 

smokes stand I w'as there inhale there east toward exhale. I was 

am kus tiitam utcotcoahimfik sialik supapak(i) tcumtt-a. Ava apa kuk 

there kind of white stand east slowly cover. It was there stand 

kutan^ani va-akitcuk parsa ap kux kutan^am tciiiikot. Kontak ipuk 

whitish house before there stand whitish cane. I was grasp 

hukatc ap itco|k ap sitcoa-akat. Kota ap nyuiapa kus tiita rsotak(i). 

with there made there stick. I was there came out kind of white water, 

corner 

Huk aitk ap nyuiapa kus tata vaktcutcuihapi. Am ki-ikha si-iskat 

That after there came out kind of white dragon flies. There four times around 

hibimuk am koavit tcotcp(i). Im katcim takio kus tatk(i) va-aki kux 

going there down sink. In laying direction kind of blue house stand 

a A "half laugh; more than a smile and less than a hearty laugh." 

363 



364 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. a.nn. 26 

the cane into a corner there came out a bhie water and then blue 
dragon flies, which flew about four times and then went back. In the 
west stood a black house with a black cane before it. This 1 thrust 
into a corner and there came forth a black water followed by black 
dragon flies, which flew around four times and then sank down. In 
the north stood a yellow house with a yellow cane before it, which I 
took and thrust into the corner. There came forth yellow water fol- 
lowed by yellow dragon flies, which circled about four times and then 
sank down. 

On the mountain tops was a yellow spider magician, upon whom I 
called for help. He went to the enemy, darkened their hearts, tied 
their hands and their bows, and made them grow weak as women. 
Then he pushed us on to destroy the enemy. We rushed upon the 



tcuk parsa ap kux kus tiitk(i) tciaikot. Kontak ipuk hrkatc ap 

in front stand kind of blue cane. I was grasp with tliere 

itcolk' ap sitcoa-akat. Kota ap nyuiapa kus tatk(i) rsotak' kuk aitk' 

made there stieli. I was there came out liind of blue water tliat after 

corner 

ap nyuiapa kus tatk(I) vaktcutcu5hap(i). Am ki-ikha si-iskal hihimuk 

there came out kind of blue dragon flies. There four times around going 

am koavit tcotcp(i). Im ho^inyik takio kus tcok va-aki kuk tcuk 

there down sink. In sunset direction kind of black liouse stands in 

parsa-ap kux kus tcok tciaikot. Kontak ipuk hukatc ap itcoik' ap 

frontof there stands kind of black cane. I was grasp with there made there 

corner 

sitcoa-akat. Kotaap nyuiapa kus tcotck' rsotak' kuk iiitk ap nyuiapa 

stick. I wa.s there came out kind of black water that after there came out 

kus tcotck' vaktcutcu;hapi. Am ki-ikha si-iskal hihimuk am koavit 

kind of black dragon flie.s. There four times around going there down 

tcotcp(i). Im nanuk(i) ait takio kus oam va-aki kux tcuk par.sa-ap 

sink. In north field direction kind of yellow house stands front 

kux kus oam tciaikot. Kontak ipuk hukatc ap itcoik' ap sitcoa-akat. 

stands kind of yellow cane. I was grasp with there made there stick. 

corner 

Kota ap nyuiapa kus oa-am rsotak kuk aitk' ap nyuiapa kus oa-am 

I was there came out kind of yellow water that after there came out kind of yellow 

vaktcutcu;hap(i). Am ki-ikha si-iskal hihimuk am koavit tcotck(i). 

dragon flies. There four times around going there down sink. 

Avak atuk ap uolintc' kus oam takiitat makai. Kontak hap tcoi-ikam 

It was near therebeing held kind of yellow spider magician. I was that class of 

mamutcuk ap imukrsarsoatapsinyhai-ikui-itam utatk' amtcut ki-ikha 

guess there address cry he friendly felt from four times 

skawo[ tahiwoak ap supapak(i) tcuma-a kuny a-aputa. Hux ipimaska 

crouch set there slowly cover my enemies. .\lready not visible 

iputatc kakhai wopotk' nanavitc kakhai wopotk' kat kiattatc kakhai 

his soul crossed tied his hands crossed tied bow string crossed 

wopotk ataprs hastco pat Aupatk ap woa. Huk aitk' inyoihai kont 

tied he made what OAd like there throw. That after nie push I was 

huk aitk ita-ak ap kursk ap pia-atco tatkitcotk' ap sutapam pui. 

that after jumped there fall there nothing wrestle there smooth take. 

An wukatc katcim nanuka tcoi-itckatc si-inasik supapak kaAo]katk' 

About around laying various belongings gathered slowly grouped 



Ri:ssF.LL] SPEECHES 365 

Apaches and killed them without difficulty. With gladness in my 
heart I gathered the evidences of my victory and turned toward home. 
You may think this over, mj- relatives. The taking of life brings 
serious thoughts of the waste; the celebration of victory may become 
unpleasantly riotous. 

prk opam ha-ahakinyuwoak nytcuwu^uka tarn oa-apa. Huk hukatc 

take homeward lace turneii * my land on brought. That with 

am simai-irsk tcuk nytcuwujuka. S'ha-ap hap humsa ulitk' tatcoa 

there covered placed ' my land. That way that you thought desired 

kotc humo hap padma tatanuk pat rsaika natc apahapta kai-ihakim 

we now that lazy made bad slave way right noise 

kai-itc. 

said. 



FIRST NIGHT ON THE WARPATH, SECOND SPEECH 

We have come thus far, my brothers. I prayed to the Ocean, to the 
distant Magicians, and to Down Roll" to grant me power. Sun ex- 
tended his power to me as a descending trail along which the various 
villages gathered with greetings to each othei". A gray headdress 
was placed upon me. A blue haze enveloped and concealed me as in a 
garment; in this I was borne along. 

I called upon Yellow Raven, who came gladly to my aid. Four times 
he with crackling gashed the land. Drawing blood from the enemy 
he sprinkled it in drops upon the land. 

On the mountain top was Yellow Spider Magician upon whom I 

lat tava tcutcka nanuka tcoi-ikam nyi-imik(i). Konya vaprs 

Here we came various classes iny relatives. I was there 

matai-itc uta kopa[ katc muk vavanyim imitc rsoak. Muk mamakai 

ashes in face down lay far extending my cry. Far magicians 

lying 

tadrsa pamiltak imitc rsoak. Vik Ia](d) Makai imitc rsoak. Tava 

placed unite my cry. Down Roll Magician my cry. It was 

ku vi-itckiit itcursatk' UAakita skoeAajam itcu. Kotuk aitk' am 

kind of deer ascend his trail down placed. He then after there 

uiatcuk tcuwu^a mututamuk skai-itamp uim.* Paitcp' uiatcuk o-ofik 

grouped land running loud naming. Further grouped birds 

ta-atamuk' skai-itamp uim. Am paitcp uiatcuk tcuwu^si mututamuk 

flying loud naming. There further grouped land running 

skai-itamp uim. Paitcp' uiatcuk o-ofik ta-atamuk' skai-itamp uim. 

loud naming. Further grouped birds flying loud naming. 

Vatai-ip uptcursatck' kus kamak(i) usiAuta ihodonyitk hukatc 

They were rising kind of gray head dress bring down with 

sikopa[ puny ate. Vatai-ip uptcursatck' kus tcutak(i) ukainhaiAakita 

face down myself put around They were rising kind of blue hazy 

throw neck. 

ihodonyitk uta pimaska myolinuk inyii pupuhi. Ava it tam kus 

bringdown in invisible me held m'e carry. It was this top kind of 

oam ha.vanta kontak hap tcoi-ikain mamutcuk ap imiik rsjir.soa kotap 

yellow raven magic I was that sort of guess there naming cry it was 

sinyhai-ikui-itam utatk' ki-ikha am uta sikakiifk ihodonykuk 

he me friendly felt four times there in crackling bring down 

tcuwu^ an katcim kakhai sikuofdrs. Humatckam ap aimututam 

land about laying crossed gashed. People there moving 

huk ipimaska u-u^ itcursutctk' hahatai tatU4am .s'ahamasuma 

that invisible blood bring up stones setting fine appearance 

isipanymat. Huk atuk' ap uolintc kus oam takiitat makai. Kontak 

fall in drops. That side of there he stays kind of Yellow spider Magician. I was 

a Living in the ruin at Tempe. 

f> Imitc, past tense; uim, present. Both convey the meaning of addressing by naming speaker's 
relationship and person addressed. 

366 



RUSSELL] SPEECHES 367 

called for help. He went to the enemy, darkened their hearts, tied 
their hands and their hows, made them grow weak as women. Then 
he pushed us on .to destroy the enemy. We rushed upon the Apaches 
and killed them without difficulty. With gladness in my heart I 
gathered the evidences of my victory and turned toward home. There 
I left my firebrands, and I left my knife that the enemy should know 
that destruction was impending. The sharp stone was left there with 
which to cut his hair. The land thundered, the darkness trembled, 
the mountain roared, the trees waved; it was difficult for me to rcMuain 
under such conditions. One of the enemy came running to that place. 
He slept a part of the night; but at length fled in terror with a light to 
seek a hiding place in the rocks. 

In the evening Blue Bird sang, because he was glad. Shaking his 
feathers he transformed the land into a habitable world again, as 
smooth as the moss under the bushes. In the evening Yellow Bird in 
the gladness of his heart sang, shaking his yellow feathers." Mountain 

hap tcoi-ikam mamilcuk ap imuk rsarsoa tap sinyhai-ikui-itjim 

that sort of guess there naming cry he me friendly 

utatk' amtcut ki-ikhii skaAoj tahiwoak ap supapak(i) tcuma-a kuny 

felt from four times croueh set there .slowly arrive my 

a-aputa. Hul ipimaskii iputatc kakhai wopotk' naniivitc kakhai 

enemy. .\lready invisible soul cros.sed tied hands his crossed 

wopotk kat kiatiitatc kakhai wopotk ataprs hastco pat Aupatk ap 

tied bow string crossed tied he made what bad like there 

woa. Huk aitk' inyoihai kont huk aitk' ita-ak ap kursk ap 

throw. That after me push I was that after fly there fall there 

pia-atco tatkitcotk ap sutapam pui. An wukatc katcim nanuka 

nothing wrestle (here clean catch. About around laying diflerent 

tcoi-itckatc si-inasik supapak kaAo|katk' puk opam ha-ahiik inyuwoa. 

occupations gathered slowly grouped catch turn face me home. 

Huk tam ap takutii.x nyu kotck(i) vi-itak, tafkoan smo-okuk tarn 

That top there release liiy brand remaining. flint sharp on 

ap takutak hukatcuk ukikiat ho^a-Mtkihak ak hap tco. Hukatcuk 

there release with abandoned disturb told that made. With 

ukop hixiAanhak ak hap tcok huk tam ap takuta. Kotak hukatcuk 

hair cut roughly told that made that on there release. It was with it 

tcuwu^ am uta sipuputk' utcu. Stcohokmom am uta sikikifk 

land there in roar lay. Darkness there in tremble 

utcu. Tfita-ak tcotcim am uta sirsarsafk utcotcoa o-os tcotcifm 

lay. Mountains stand there in echoed stands trees standing 

am uta simokuofk utcotcoa-akuk tam pita hodontam utco. Kota 

there in waved somebody placed in on not camping place make. It was 

a staiidiiig position 

humaka vi ikam nyuaputa hupaitcut mutate huk tam kursk team 

one remaining me enemy wherefmni running that on fall then 

karsk hu-us tcohok uta pi-inakak kotk' hastcoi-ikam kaAaik' ap 

sleep night part of night in can not stand tire what sort of hollow there 

itcum vakiamhi. Kota hodonuk huAatcot makai s'hux utatk' kox. 

he enter. It was evening Blue Bird Magician glad filled sing. 

Kus tcuhutak(i) uwapa ikik(i). Kotak hukatcuk tcuwu? s'ahamasraa 

Kind of blue his feathers shake. It was with it land fine appearance 

a The yellow flowers that color the mountains. 



368 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 26 

tucked these feathers under his belt to improve his appearance. In 
the evening ghid Mocking Bird" sang and shook his white feathers 
which made white the earth.'' 

You may think this over, mj' relatives. The taking of life brings 
serious thoughts of the waste; the celebration of victory may become 
unpleasantly riotous. 

mamathiitk' titcu. Kota hodonuk vatcokok makai s'hux trtatk' kox 

water pliiuts lay. It was evening Yellowish Magician glad felt sing 

kus oa-am uwapii ikiki. Kotak huxatcuk tata-ak tcotclm s'ahamasma 

kind of yellow his feathers shake. It was with it mountain stand fine appearance 

s' oa-am hihifurspatakutc tcotc. Kota hodonuk rsok makai s'hux 

yellow tuck under .stand. It was evening Mocking Bird Magician glad 

utatk' kox kus tata uwapa ikiki. Kotak huxatcuk tcuwu; wuska 

felt sing kind of white his feathers shake. It was with it land all over 

tansltk utcu. S ha-ap hap humsa ulitk' tatcoa kotc humo hap pa^ma 

white lay. Way that you thought desire way now that lazy 

ttitanuk pat rsaika nate apahapta kaihiikim kai-itc. 

made had slave way projier noise set. 

a People. 6 With sunshine. 



THE WARPATH. FIRST SPEECH 

We have come thus far. my brothers. I went from village to village, 
telling you to l)e ready. You came to our village and ate our liuml)le 
fare and drank from our ollas. As the blue shadows of evening began 
to fall we gathered in a circle and neglected our usual duties. The 
next day at nightfall we again gathered and repeated the ceremonies 
of the first evening. 

To-night our medicine-man shall render tlie darkness yellow and 
gray, so that we may Ijecome invisible to our enemies. He examines 
his equipment, his shield and club, his sandal strings and the netting 
of his gourd canteen are tightened, his headdress is moistened and 
shaped, his black paint is renewed that he may be properly painted 

lat' tava tcutcka nanuka tcoi-ikam nyimiki. S ha-ap ant, hums, 

Here place we various classes relatives. That I. yes, 

itata, OS nyu moluna wusk ap iwoetahi ka-am smatc' ait himuk am 

do tree me broken all there distribute there know after going there 

utcuma-ak himilk am utcumii-a. Kota hupaitcut mujutam nyimiki 

arri\e going there arrive. It was where from running relatives 

atavai tcivia. Avaprskam katc huk hastcony pat hohoki katc 

had came. He was lay that what my bad food lay 

Tjkukosit. Rsotaki nyu vasipitc ip uvavinyit. Kota ima.si, kota 

he eats. Water me take with he quenched. It was morning, it was 

itany ipum hutculuwa kus tcutaki nyhojinyik kus tcutaki nyhakoata 

novv you slide kind of blue ine eveni'ng kind of blue * me ring 

kontak hap tcoi-ikam takutiik huk uta am s iam vakitk' tarsuwa. 

with that that sort of release that in there right eilter placed. 

Kota imasi kota itany ipum hutculuwa kus tcutaki nyho^inyik 

It was morning it was now you slide kind of blue evening 

kus tcutaki nyhaxoata kontak hap tcoi-ikam takutiik' huk uta am 

kind of blue me ring with it that sort of release, that in there 

s'iam vakitk' tarsuwa. Kota-ama pi-ipuk nyunya konta iworsanyik 

right enter placed. It was the in breathless silent I was arose 

tcuwu') tciakasik sikuirsk kukiwa. Kota ama makai tcokaki ikui 

land rock shelter stei)ped stood. It was then magician darkness fell 

uhokit an oama uhokit an m'ata" tak' si-ivantckuwak' hukatc sis 

side by side there yellow side by side there ashy that jerk with very 

ia-amp maiirsk tcu. Anya huk wukatc am taktc' amhunyuwii. 

good covered placed. I was that around there sitting preparing. 

Nyu kaAat masit ors rsiipatk' nyu wuntahim. Nyu kaikia 

^Ie shield renew stick short me together. Me sandal 

sivinukutcot nyu vaka sisuvinam pihiwuk. Nyu sivuta sihiavtck' 

strings tighten me gourd tightening envelope. Me headdres.s soften 

woehya nytcokolitc ap uta ip sintatak, huk wukatc amutaktc 

face me black paint there in with spread, that around sitting 

" .\ guttural expulsion of breath follows m'. 
26 ETH— OS -M ' 369 



370 THE riMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 2G 

for the last journey if he should take it. He extends his hands toward 
the four cardinal points that he may foretell the result of the expedi- 
tion. We went into the enemy's country and our scout saw the ani- 
mals running, which the Apaches have started, and he trails them until 
he comes upon the Apaches warming themselves about their fire. 

The scout upon the back trail reports no enem}^ in sight. The scout 
in the direction of the enemy, the scout at the west, and the scout at 
the north report and again return to their posts. From the south the 
animals come and 1 have wondered what is happening there. All is 
silent in that quarter; the land, the mountain, the beasts, the trees 
are quiet. 

The scout from the north reports that he has discovered an old man 
and a young one. The scout said, "I went out and took my stand in 
an advantageous position where I could see in all directions. From 

haitcok malik kaihyam. Kota sia-alik takio tcut kursk avaipung 

Bomething listen. It waa east direction from iall he waa 

akit. Im kursotak(i) worsutak takio tcut hastco v^apakam ukakuta 

tilling. In much water origin direction from what hairy killing 

himuk itcutcitk in pum iaAa. Ahu-ukrs, apa katc apaitc nyiatc 

going ascended here them fell. Yea, there lay after looking 

nyui-itanuk ap aithivai umamasitam s'ha-apavai utcoktcinuk 

saw there after follow appears and dis- that manner he made 

appears, moving 
rapidly 

tcoi itckatc p'anv avai-ikaitc mokiak'tc' kul katc puny hokatcit. Im 

prfiperty I ' thus tell sitting big lay me warming. In 

rsulitcotk ta-ak hi kursk avai-ipuny akit. Im ku vak worsiitak 

straightened fly in fall he me told. In kind of trail appeared 

takio tcut ta-ak im kursk avai-ipuny akit. Ahu-ukrs, apa katc ap 

direction from fly in fall he me ' told. Yes, there lay there 

aitc, nyiatc nyui-itank ap aithivai umamasitam sha-apavai utcoktciniik 

after looking seeing there after appear that manner he does 

tcoi-itckatc pany avai-ikaitc mokiaktc' kulkatc puny hokatc. Im 

pr*»perty I manner tell sitting big lay me warming. In 

ho^inyik takio tcut ta-ak im kursk avai ipuny akit. Im ku Pa-ak 

west direction from fly in fall he me told. In kind of Eagle 

kars takio tcut ta-ak im kursk avai-ipuny akit. Ahu-ukrs, apa katc 

nest direction from fly in fall he me ^ told. Yes. there lay 

ap aitc nyiatc nyui-itank ap aithivai umamasitam s'haapavai 

there after looking * seeing there follow appear and disappear, that way 

moving rapidly 

utcoktciniik tcoi-itckatc pa- any avai-ikaitc mokiaktc kulkatc puny 

he does property I told sitting big lay me 

hokatcit. Im ku rsotaki worsutak takio tcut ta-ak im kursk avai 

warming. In kind of water origin direction from fly in fall he 

ipuny akit, p'any avai-ikaitc kos has utco. Tcuwu? tatalim katc os 

me told, 1 * said how what do. Land stationary lay tree 

tatalim kux ta-iita-ak tatalim tcotc hastco vapakam tatalim a-iiimulik. 

stationary, stand mountain stationary stand what with liair stationary undisturbed. 

Ahu-ukrs, hap aatcok'tc' kahim hiap kukiwahui s'ha-akok iuwoan 

Yes, there stay direction stand turn and lor)k some one 

pavai-i utcoktcink tcoi-itckatc p'any avai-ikaitc mokiaktc kulkatc punj' 

manner he stays belongings lay I said sitting big lay me 

hokatcit. Im ku Pa-ak kars takio tcut ta-ak im kursk avai ipuny 

Avarming. In kind of Eagle nest direction from fly in fall he me 



m-ssELL] SPEECHES 371 

the west something told me that there were an Apacho and hi.s nephew 
there who killed some game and carried it home, to return at once for 
more." " Yes," I said, "like foolish children, they wish to die with 
their daughters, sons, and valuable property." From the east a scout 
came to tell me that in the bruits the tracks of the Apaches show 
plainly. "Yes, like foolish children, they wish to die with their 
daughters, sons, and valuable possessions." 

Now a man with the strength and agility of the wildcat crept upon 
them from that side. And one with the sinuous silence of the gray 
snake glided upon them from the other side. Another crept up 
behind the shelter of the trees. Render yourselves invisible upon the 
gray earth! Crawl through the arroyos, advance s]owl3'. I select a 
patient aide, telling him what he shall do. He called loudly to another 

akit. Ahu-ukrs, hapa-atcoktc' kahim hiap kukiwahai s'ha-akok ixiwoan 

told. Yes, there stay direction stiiiid turn and look some one 

pavai utcoktcinuk tcoi-itckatc pa-any avai-ikaitc mokiaktc kulkatc 

manner he stays belongings lay I said sitting big Ijiy 

puny hokatcit. Aik wusk ap kakaitcitk' humiap uolunan kony am 

me warming. Now all there notify gather crowd I * there 

iworsunyhi hai-itcova am tcotan p any avai-ikaitc mokiaktc kulkatc 

arose something iinderstand I ' manner sitting big lay 

puny hokatcit. Kotava viiha wusk ap kakaitc kotavai-i humiap vo\. 

me ' warming. It was true all there notify there w'ere gather crowd. 

Konta iwor.sanyik tcuwu-j tciaktisik sikuirsk kukiwa. Im hotinyik woi 

1 was arose land rock shelter stepped stand. In sunset toward 

s hovitam mawak sialik woi s hovitam mawak rsulitcotk s'hovitam mawa. 

selfish reacli for east toward selfish reach for straight sellish reach for. 

Kota Im ho;in\'ik takio tcut ta ak im kursk avai ipuny akit. A-iip huk 

It was in sunset direction from fly in fall he me told. Apache that 

utcotco^ wumuk umoa-a humo im imat kakha atai imat. Ahuhu a-al va 

her nephew with game now in carry twice they carry. Yes, children 

na^a uki apst oa-apaim uovitak suAumam ualitak sUAumam sku-uk 

crazy his house there fetch daughter coax his son coax good 

ha.stco utcoi-itak suAumam. Im sialik takio tout ta-ak im kursk avai-i 

what his things coax. In east direction from fly in fall he 

puny akit. In kus vapaik tamuk vapak moi-ipa-atoa ha.stco 

me told. In kind brul6 toj) trails many appeared what 

puihyamkotatc sAutcitckamaip umasit. Ahuhu, a-alAa nata uki apst 

gathered places fresh appears. Y'es, children crazy hishouse there 

oa-apaim uof itak suAumam ualitak suAumam sku-uk hastco utcoi-itak 

bring his daughter coax his son coax good what things 

suAumam. Kota-ama humakii vi-ikam nyu viaptiku-uluka ta-ama 

coax. It was then one remainder me son then 

kuofhii stcoviatkam tcok(ut). Humaka hatai ma-atcotk' kaipanyim. 

wild cat sly assume fiesh. One stone heail came crawling. 

Ata-ama humaka vi-ikam nyu viapiiku-uluka ta-ama sliamaki vamat 

And then one remainder me son then gray snake assume 

tcokut. Humaka osukatc ma-atcotk' kaipanyim. Ata-ama humakti 

flesh. One tree his head came crawling. And then one 

vi-ikam nyu viapiiku-uluka ta-ama skamaki tcuwu; tcokut. Humaka 

remaining me son and then gray ground assume flesh. One 

vi-irsany ma-atcotk' kaipan3'im. Konyak aitc ipkukhim. Awao^ sistco 

small arroyo head came crawUng. 1 was after advancing slowly. It was very 



372 THE PIMA INDIANS [etii. anx. 2(! 

to jxcoonipauy him to see what .shall happen. He reached a gap in 
the inouutain and peeped through. Calling to hi.s companion he told 
him to look and .see what is l)efore them. There the}' saw a tire liuilt 
bj' a stumiJ and an old Apache cracking bones. A boj' was shouting 
and a girl was laughing. When he hea;rd this he sent his companion 
to tell us to hide and remain hidden until he gave the call of the road 
runner. We heard the messenger coming and thovight it was the 
Apaches, so that we caught up our belongings. Our leader said that 
.some of our friends must have shown tliemselves, which would cause 
the Apaches to take the alarm and to depart. As we listened the sun 
went down and the messenger arrived. He told us to hide and our 

papkikam nyimiki kontak mamutctrk am kuik aAa uwumkam akit. 

j'iitient my relatives I was guessing there appoint and liis oompanioii told. 

Aik rsasikotc vaphai hai-itco va-amtctan p ata kai-Ttam tcutcu. Atava 

Hurry then we run something unfler.stand he loud .said. Then 

vaha viipk toa-akatc rsa-a[k am spa-apak(i) ikoatcitk uAumkam akit. 

true run mf.untain like his gap there .slowly peeped his companion told. 

Aik miak i-iolin kony am inytcu Aulithi haitco va-amtctan pata kaitam 

Hurry here hold I there raised something understand just as loud 

tcutcu. Tava vahsl miak i-ioi(t). Ta-am i-itcuAU[itk' tcum nyui kota 

said. That true here hold. And llien he raised there saw then 

humaka orsan ap atavai inai. Huk ujak a-ap kuli s'ap kaitam a-a 

one stump there huilt tire. That in Apaehe old right sound bones 

r.sany sku-uk viapai s'ap kai-itam rsava] hinuk' sku-uk tcuhya 

pounding good boy right sound adult condition shout good girl* 

s ap kai-itam rsavaj tcutciak, kotaam tcum kayiik UAumkam akit. 

right sound adult condition laugh, then there heard his companion told. 

Kamai opam kuksimhai hupait imik(i) tcu-ukhi akitank hupai 

There homeward fall at intervals where relatives found told where 

hastcoi-ikam kaAajk ap itcom u-ustan. Kony hapa tcoi-ikahim 

somewhere hollow there try hid. I here was like 

hiwukatc pitcimithai tcuwu^ teumihiakhai hu-us tcohok uta 

around lay going around earth covered little dark in 

hastcoi-kam kava|ik ap haprs itcom humu kakan. Kotava vaha opam 

what kind hollow there will you look. He then true homeward 

kuksimuk woitcok tcorsaj tcovinyhim. Kota katho nyu wukatcuk 

fallal intervals straight slowly chortling. Then there me behind 

hastco pat koa-aki tatuku varsai tatuku. 

what bad firewood wrestle grass wrestle. 

Rsam piatcu-uk hai it(;o kai-iham na-aks hujDaiva uteuki hukt 

silent nothing something listen might where showed our 

imik(ij tuwoi tcorsal tcovinyhim pata kai-itam tcutcu. KotaAavahii 

relatives to us slowly chortle not loud kej»t saying. Then true 

r.sam piatcu-uk hai-itco kai-iham kotak tataf vaprs kam tcom kuvitp 

silent nothing something listen that sun westward glance 

kotak uta vai-i tcivia. Haspk' umakitan nanukanyimik(i) na-anysapa 

then in here came. Undecided told various relatives I guess right 

tcivia. Kotrs hapa tcoi ikaihimhai hupai hastcoi-ikam kavillik ap 

came. Perhaps we in same condition where what kind hollow there 

itcom tu-usttln pata kai-itam tcutcu. Kava vtiha hastcoi-ikam 

try hide not loud kept saying. It was true what kind 

kavii[ik ap isiatuvintc tai-ihim. Ka-am hap tcoi-ikahimtc' wor.sanyik 

hollow there retreat sitting. There there was in that condition arose' 

wukatc pitcimitahiuuik tcoi-ikam nyunarsunahimuk hu-ustcohok uta 

around going around kind ' ^ e.xamine in the night into 



KissELi.) SPEECHES 373 

scout would come for us during the night. We went and concealed 
ourselves in a cave. The scout came for us and we mistook him for 
the Apaches and wrestled with the grass and stones in our efforts to 
conceal ourselves. Our leader said we must be quiet and listen, for it 
was our friend that was coming. He said he came carefully so as not 
to give the alarm, hut that there were no rocks or trees about the camp 
of the Apache, so the medicine- men must cause darkness with a yellow 
and gray edge that will render the warriors invisible. 

The medicine-man threw his spell upon the enemy and the_v slept. 
The Apache dreamed, and when he awakened he thought it was true 
that his younger brother and his uncles had been killed. Again he 
dreamed, and when he awakened he thought, ''Did I eat food that I 
never saw? Did I drink water that 1 never saw i Things that 1 never 
saw have I used for clothing T' When he thought of these things he 
was frightened and tried to hide hiniself. 

I sent the men with shield and club in two parties in the east and 
west direction to meet at the camp of the Apaches. Some went straight 
with me. There, gathered about a stump, are the Apaches. When 

tuwoe rsamonyim. Kota katho nyu wukatcuk hastco pat koa-ak(i) 

us making noise. It was behind nu' at that place \vhat bad lirewood 

tatuku varsai tatuku. Rsam piatcu-uk hai-itco kai-iham na-aks 

wrestle grass wrestle. Silent nothing said something listen might 

hupaiAa utcuki hukt imik(i) tuwoe rsamonyim p'ata kai-itam 

where showed our relatives us straight mailing noise not loud 

tcutctJ. Kotava vaha rsam piatcu-uk hai-itco kai-iham kotak uta 

kept saying. It was true silent nothing said something listen that in 

vai tcivia. Haspk uniakitan nanukii nyimik(i) na-amysapa tcivia. 

here came. Undecided told various relatives guess right came. 

Pia-ava wukatc hatai ta pia-ava wukatc os ku-uk p'ata kai-itam 

Not good around stone sitting not good around tree stand not loud 

tcutcu. Kota-ama makai tcokak{i) ikui, uhoklt an oama uhokit 

kept saying. And tlie magician darkness fall, side by side tliere yellow side by side 

an mata. Kotak ivantc(u)kovak hukatc sisiamp mairsk tcu. Kotak 

there asliy. That jerked with very right covered placed. That 

Uta am kurs karsk am pa4atp utcutckihim. Hu-us tcohok uta am 

in there fall sleep there perhaps of himself dreampt. Some niglit in there 

bad 

inyiak hap utatam rsat utco ttiva hukiai puikun siu-uhuki 

waked that felt himself how do it was long ago catch hini older brother 

nydrsupitc hCmtata nyhaki vat hik tcivia. Kupiny nyuita 

younger brother mother's father's I guess he came. Nothing* seen 

younger brother younger brother 

humatckam vant hik rsakit ai-imu. Kupiny nyuita hastco hohoki 

people guess got in among going. Notliing seen what food 

vant hik ho. Kupiny nj'uita rsotak(i) vasip(i) vant hik i. Kupiny 

guess ate. Nothing seen water take guess drink. Notiiing 

nyuita hastco tcoi itak vant hik tcoi-it t . Hap ata-atatk 

seen what property guess own. That lie thought 

amahavapk' mok katc. Awao; kaof(w)k takakam kont am uta taf 

there then died lay. It was hard rooted 1 there in split 

tapaniik sia-alik takio pitcimitk liotinyik takio pitcimitk s lamp 

in half east direction go around sunset direction carry around right 

unam. Kontak hastco pat wum rsulitcut ita. Apai-i humaka 

meet. 1 was what l^ad with straightened jump. Up there one 



374 THK PIMA INDIANS [irni. axn. 20 

our men heard of this from a messenger they spraiiif upon the enein\-. 
We killed one who slipped upon the grass and fell down hill and 
another who stumbled upon a branch. We cleaned up everything 
about the Apache camp. Animals and birds alone remained to prey 
upon the dead. 

I turned back and my trail was downward. I reached home after 
slackening speed four times. When at the first drinking place I sent 
four of my sons to give notice of our approach. They told the old 
men and the old women at the villages and the}^ rose and cleaned their 
faces and brushed theii' liair smooth. Then I came bringing the evi- 
dences of my victory. My land rejoiced with me and the mountain 
<lonned its headdress, the trees took on gladness. We notified our 
relatives to the east, west, and south, that we might rejoice together. 

You may think this over, my relatives. Tiie taking of life l)rings 
serious thoughts of the waste; the celeVjration of victory may become 
unpleasantly riotous. 

orsan ap p'ata kai-itam tcutcu. Kontak aitk' ita-ak ap kursk 

stump thert' not loud kept saying. I wiis after jumped pnt against foot 

ap pia-atco tatilkitcotk' ap sutapam pui. Kao? utcinykatc stco 

there nntliing wrestle tliere smooth eatch. It was his mouth with expert 

moa-atkamtc' ap ki-irsk ap itcuAaim. Kaoj uhotckatc stco 

killing there bite there drag. It was iiis nails with expert 

moa-atkamtc' ap hokrsk'an itcuAaini. An wukatc katcim nanTdva 

killing grasp there drag. There around laying various 

tcoi-itc(i) katc sinasik supapak kaAo](d) katk puku opam ha-ahok 

powdered ground lay gathered .slowly group look homeward faee 

inyuwa. Kota it nyu wakita skoiwajam utcu. Kontak aitk' ap 

I. That this me trail steep ineline placed. I was after there 

ki-ikap rsars. Kaoj rsotakiu nyi-Ikottc' kanvarsaii i)Lkukrsa kont 

four renewals. It was water drfnking plaei' near Ijy fall I was 

huk uta am kursk am i. Kao^ krs tcootcoa-atcmakam hunyu 

that in there fall there drink. It was kind of swiftest my 

vipiapka kont hamam tcrk am hatc(jtcoa-a. Kota ki-ikap rsarsk 

yimtlis I was liad foUTid there api)ointed. Thai tour renewals 

mulifkai ikai-itc kuli vi-ikam aks vi-ikam. Kota kat si-itatakrsk 

center running to old remainder female remainder. That there put hands 

ivamik uwoihia mawoak kamiutakoa uhakvatutak uta mawoak kam 

arase hi,s face touch rutj oil his mistletoe like head in put hand hrush 

kaniutap ka. Konyak aitck' kus s'aptahatkiun nyr moa-a oa-atc 

."imooth. I was after kind of good feelings nic killing holding 

antavai-1 oa-apa. Huk hukatc am simai-irsk tcuk nytcuwujuka 

then brought. That with 'there covered placed my land 

nytiita-aka isisisAutatc os nyu ku-ursa isitaktcotk isikok{i). 

my mountain very headdress tree my planted grasp put <.in top. 

Hotinyik takio takam tuimik{i) kaitamlk suniatchait imutan 

Sunset direction sitting our relatives notify inform ad<lress 

katcim takio takam tuimik(i) kaitanilk suniatchait imutan sia-alik 

laying direction sitting our relatives notify inform address east 

takio takam tuimik(i) kaitanuk suniatchait imutan. S'ha-ap 

direction sitting our relatives notify inform addre-<s. Tliat way 

hapuk humsa ulitk tatcoa kotc humo hap patmatatan huk pat 

that you think desires for now that lazy make that bad 

rsaika natc apahapta kaihtikim kai-itc. 

slave guess on which noise said. 



THE WARPATH, SECOND SPEECH 

We have come tints t'tir, my brothers. The land about us is truly 
our own. On my way hither I have slackened speed but four times. 
The trail led to the white reed, with which I made four passes down- 
ward, but there were four layers of earth and I could not reach them 
all. I made four passes upward, but there were four layers of sky 
and I could not reach them all. I stood in the center of the world and 
looked about me. To the westward extended the black trail as far as 
the base of the black reed. I made four passes downward and four 
passes upward as before. Again I returned and stood in the middle of 

la-ataAa tcu-utcka nanuka tcoi-ikam nyi-imik(i). Kiivaot nyu 

We have come various classes * relatives. It Avas me 

tcuwutuka kontak kuirsk im kukiAak im aai n^'Unhak tcum nyui. 

land that stepped on in stood in looking arouncl then saw. 

Im sialik woi kus toa han(y) tcukrsantalik katc kont huk aitk 

In east toward kind of white my drawn line lay I that after 

am ki ik p'tcukak ap tcu-uma-ak tcum nyuik ap r.sant ap kuk 

there four coming there covered then saw there base there stand 

kus toaha vapk". Kont ap rsant ap mawoak im koavit itakio 

kind of white reed. I was there hase there reach in down strip 

kait tcuwu; ki-ik ap utam katc kak am pia-is kontak am 

this land four there on top of lay this there not rich I was there 

another 

pihukaitcotk' am tcux itakio kait tamkatcim ki-ik ap utam katc 

mistaken there bound strip this above laying four there on top of lay 

another 

kak am pia-is kontak am pihukaitcotk' am opani hap intcok im 

this there not rich I was there mistaken there homeward that went as in 

before 

tcuwui s utaf kukiwoa. Am a-ai nyunhak tcum nyuik im ho^inyik 

land center stand. There look in various then saw in west 

directions 

woi kus took nyu tcokrsantalik katc. Kont huk iiitk am 

toward kind of black my drawn line lay. I was that after there 

ki-ik p'tcukak ap tcu-uma-ak tcum nyuik ap rsant ap kuk 

four going there there covered then saw there base there stand 

kus took vapk'. Kont ap rsant ap mawoak im koavit itakio 

kind of black reed. I was there base there reach in dow ii strip 

kait tcuwu:> ki-ik ap utam katc kak am pia-is kontak am 

this land four there on top of lay this there not rich I was there 

another 

pihukaitcotk' am tcuxitakio kait tamkatcim ki-ik ap utam katc 

mistaken there bound strip this above laying four there on top tpf lay 

another 

kak am pia-is kontak am pihukaitcotk' am opam hap intcok 

this there not rich 1 was there mistaken there homeward that went as 

before 

im tcuwu^ s'utaf kukiwoa. Am a-ai nyunhak tcum nyuik 

in land center stand. There in various directions then saw- 

looking 

375 



376 THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



the earth. Lookincr about ine I saw in the south " the Sea god, to whom 
I loudl}' cried for swiftness, dreams, visions, magic bow and arrows, 
ininuinity from cold, thirst, and hunger, and accuracy of aim. These 
favors lie gave me tied in a bundle and I bore them away to my home". 
In the north were the four living streams'' stretching in a line, behind 
which sat the Apache magician. His camp fire shone out upon a red- 
dish reed, which I went and easily pulled out, though T thought I could 
not. With this reed I scattered the fire, destroyed his food and water. 
I did this because 1 feared him, yet when 1 had finished I was not satis- 
fied. I returned to my home and stood in the center of the land. 
Again I looked around me and saw in the heavens Talking Tree. 

avarsan hut vSta katc kont huk woi iahap nyu tcotcohimuk 

there then that • laid lay I was that toward here me comiiiK 

ap supapak(i) tcuumti-a. Anya-am sisk ai-itam imutc rsoak. Kota 

there slowly ' covered. I'was very loud address cry. This 

pinyu hovitc ku naniika tcoi-ikam ukuofkutalik sku-uk tcu-utcik(i) 

not me tinselfish kind of various things liis strength good dreams 

tanalim haitco nyuita. JS'apukam kat kiaatkam SLflu ta-atam vapk 

visible something "saw. fiood bow .•itritig straight fly reed 

tcoi-ita. HuoAastalik kostalik piohokistaiik tcoatcmatalik suliwi 

smooth. Inured t<» cold inured to inured to luiuger swift accurate 

thirst of aim 

talik. Hakia katcim nankoaa tcoi-itcik pinyuhovitcitk' siskavitcim 

Many laying various occupations unselfish very narrow 

huntak(i). Kontak siskavitcim tak opam ha-ahak inyu woa. Kaim 

held. I was very narrow hold home- face me toward. In this 

ward . direction 

nanuk(i) ait woi ku vipukam rsorsok(i) ki-ik apmaitam wuAuftc 

north tield toward kind of remainclers waters four successive stay 

konyak kakhai am sikukshim. Kainot wukatc katcimtc huk 

I was across there falling. In this around lay stay tliat 

wukatcuk makai am ta. Ha-as siAat muhutam iiata. An wukatcik 

around aljout magician there .sitting. Large flames light fire. About around 

stcohokmom sitanattc' katc, huk hokit am am katcik' s'wukiom 

darkness shone lay that edge there there staid reddish 

r.sotakitc' huk utca am ku-uk huk kus swukiom vapk. Am 

water that in there stand that kind of reddish reed. There 

pihupai miacut ha.stcokatc tatcoi-itcim tcoi-ik. Kontak huk(i) 

nowhere near something powerless condition. I was that 

■slspathak ulitk huk imulivitahimk antaprs.suputam antcum 

very determined thought that dodging toward I feared there 1 

puk antaprskam hop(u). Antak hukatc huk makai nata am a-ai 

grasp I did pulled out. Then with that magician fire there both 

sikantat. SkaAiikam hastco hohokitc ap iawoitc. Kus vavinyikam 

direc'ions Cloying what plenty of there thrown Kind of quenching 

scattered. food away. 

rsotaki vasipitc ap sivasipowitc. Antak am (p)rstcum hukaiitcotk 

water take a drink there empty. Then there make that resemble 

in a cup for some one 
who is absent 

tatcoa, kaowo") pihukai-i. Kont opani hapintcok ini tcuwu? 

plan, it w'as not that. I was homeward just as before in land 

s utaf kukivoak am a-ai nyunhak tcum nyui. Ava ittamatcim 

center stand there both (directions then saw. It was this above 

looking 

(I Vata Katc. b Vipflkam. 



RCSSELL] SPEECHES 377 

Branche^^ extended in the four directions; tliat toward tlie west held 
the black wind, which came down upon me and, taking me by the hair 
in his grasp, carried me to the margin of the earth where he left nie. 
This he did to render me hardy and brave. The branch toward the 
soutli bore the hurricane, which grasped and bore me to the edge of 
the world. He did this that I might become brave. The east branch 
bore the white wind, which came slowly down and grasped my head 
and swung me to the margin of the earth. He did this that 1 might 
become brave. The straight branch bore the licking wind, which 
grasped, swung, and slowly carried me to the edge of the earth. This 
he did to inure me to hardship. Now I thought that all was done, but 
it was not. 

I returned to my home and stood in the middle of the land. Look- 
ing about 1 again saw above me Talking Tree, bearing on its western 

parsa kuk hunyiaktam os. Am a-ai s'nanalitc kuk. Im hotinyik 

near tnat kind talking tree. There botb directions stand. In sunset 

under branches 

woi imamahaktc huk tarn am kuk kus tcok huoAui(d). Amtcut 

toward brancli that on there stand kind of black wind. Tliere from 

a-akrsp ihodonyik iany mii-atam nj'U rsak tamatdm parsfi ki ik ap 

down went down here overhead me grasp above near below iour there 

sinyuvitotk' amtcut 8upapak(i) iiiyu hodontahimuk tcuwun hohokit ap 

me swing therefrom slowly me down land edges tliere 

a-ai siiiyu kukioliktc. Avapihaskam haitco tathak nyuaktc ap nyu too. 

both me fix at edges. It was imthing what feel me told there me do. 

directions 

Ava im katck'woif imamahaktc' huktam am kuk huk kusiofhuwui(d). 

It was in ocean toward branch that top there stand that kind of bitter wind. 

Amtcut a-akrsp ihodonyik iany ma-atani nyu rsak tamatcim parsa 

Therefrom down went down here head top me grasp sky near 

ki-ikap sinyu vitotk' am tcut .supapak(i) imyu hodontahimuk tcuwu^ 

four times m*e swing there from slowly me lowered land 

hohokit ap a-ai sinyu kukioliktc. Ava pihaskam haitco tathak nyu 

edges there both me standing. It was ■ nothing thing feel me 

directions 

aktc' ap nyu tco. Im sialik woi imamahaktc' huk tam am kuk huk 

told there me do. In east toward branch that on there stand that 

kus toahuwuld. Amtcut a-akrsp ihodonj'ik iany mii-atam nyu rsak 

kind of white wind. Therefrom down went down here head top liie ^rasp 

tamatcim par.sa ki-ikap sinyu vitotk' amtcut supapaki inyu 

sky near ffiur times me swing from slowly me 

hodontahimfik tcuwu:( hohokit ap a-ai sinyu kukioliktc'. Ava pihaskam 

lowered land edges there both me stand. It was nothing 

directions 

haitco tathak nyu aktc' ap nyutco. Suld kukam tam am kuk ku 

thing feel ine told there ine do. Straight standing on there stand kind of 

viiiyom huwuld. Amtcut a-akrsp ihodonyik iany mii-atam nyu r.sak 

licking wind. Therefrom down lowere'd here head top liie grasp 

tamatcim parsii ki-ikap sinyu vitotk' amtcut supapak(i) inyu 

sky near four times me swing from slo^vly me 

hodontahimuk tcuwu; hohokit ap a-ai sinyu kukioliktc . Ava 

lowered land edges there both me stand. It was 

directions 

pihaskam haitco tatliak nyu aktc' ap nyu tco. Hap atavainytco. 

nothing thing feel me told there me do. There finished te.sts. 



378 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

braiu'h the black lightniiiii'. This came in a thunderbolt, which .split 
tiio earth and made a furrow toward tiie noi-th a.s far as the Apaches. 
This caused the spirit of our youth to be strent>thened. In a vision the 
location of the enemy was disclosed. The south branch bore the l)lue 
lig'htning. which descended to split the trees in all directions, reuderinjr 
visible our enemies. In the east the white lightning de,tcended to split 
and scatter the mountain in all directions, rendering visible the enemy. 
The straight stem bore the blue lightning, which descended in a bolt, 
splitting the sky in two parts and disclosing the plan of the Apaches, 
After receiving these powers I was pushed toward the enemy. I 
rushed upon the Apaches and killed them without dithculty. W^ith 

Kontak amursptcum hukai-itcotk' t'tcoa kao^ pihukai-i Kont opam 

I was there then that thing (or that) desires it was not that. I was hiime- 

warii 

hapinytco. Im tcuwDj s'utaf kukiwoak am a-ai nyunhiik teum nyui. 

just as tfffore. In land center stand there both "looliing then "saw. 

directions 

Konta tamateim woi inyiak tcum myui. Ava it tamatcim parsii kuk 

I was .sky toward iooli then .saw. It was this sky near stand 

huk ku myiaktam ostc am a-ai sunanaldtc' kuk. Im ho^inyik woi 

that kind of 'talking tree there both branches stand. In suns'et toward 

directions 

inaldk' apta kus tcok woeham. Am u^a sikaponyik ihodonyk amt 

branch there kind of black lightning. There in explosion descended there 

sitting 

u^a sikukioMoak huk teuwu'} am kavitc sihioftanuk tuwoe katcim 

in stand tirm that land there narrow furrowed us opposite laying 

tcuwui tam am kokowoitc. Huk aitk' huk viapiii ipiltak am 

land on there points reach. That after that youth .soul there 

sitanalitk' aptco. Aptarsa prsoi(d) huk nyu aputak huki atava nyu 

visible that do. Disclose throw that uiy enemy that me 

woitatk haptco. Im katck woi inaldk' apta kus tatk(i) woeham. Am 

forme made. In ocean toward branch there kind of blue lightning. There 

sitting 

uta sikapanyk ihodonyik o-os aptcotcim am uta sitafutrsk am a-ai 

in explosion descended trees standing there in .split there both 

sinyuntc. Aptarsa pr,soi(d) huk nyu aputak huk(i) atava nyu woetatk' 

directions Disclosed through that my enemy that me for me 

throw. 

haptco. Im sialik woi inaldk' apta kus toaha woeham. Am uta 

made. In cast toward Ijranclt tliere kind of white lightning. There in 

sitting 

sikapanyk ihodonyik ta-ata-ak tcotcim am uta sikamtrsk am a-ai 

c-xplosioii de.scended mountjtiu standing there in split there both 

directions 

sinyuntc. Aptarsa prso](d) huk nyu aputak huk(i) atava nyu 

thrown. Disclosed through that my enemy that me 

woetatk' haptco. Sui(d) kukamt apta kus stcutak(i) woeham. Am 

forme made. Straight standing sitting kind of blue lightning. There 

there 

uta sikapanyik ihodon3'ik huk tutamatcim am uta sikamutanuk ap a-ai 

in explosion descended that our sky there in split there both 

directions 

sitarswoa. Aptarsa prso[(d) huk nyu apCitak huk(i) atava nyu 

tly apart. Disclosed through that my enemy that me 

woetatk' haptco. Huk aitk' inyor-ihai. Kont huk iiitk' ita-ak ap 

for me made. That after me pushed. I was that after jumped there 



Hi'ssELL] SPEECHES 379 

gladucrss in my heart I giitliorecl the evidences of 1113- victory and 
turned toward home. 

You may think this over, my relatives. The taking- of life brings 
serious thoughts of the waste; the celebration of victory may become 
unpleasantly riotous. 

kursk' ap pia-atco tatkitcotk ap sutapam pui. An wukatc katcim 

fell llKTe nothing wrestle there smoipth lake. About around laying 

nanktitcoi-i tcikatc simasik supapak(i) kawoikatk puk opam ha-ahak 

various belongings gathered slowly grouped grasp home- around 

lay ward 

imyu woa. Hapiik humsa ulitk tatcoa nanka tcoi-ikam nyu imik(i) 

me toward. You now thought desire various sorts me relatives 

kotc humo hap patnmtiitan huk pat rsaika natc apa-apta kaihakim 

we now that lazyj^ke that bad slave us right discord 

kai-itcitan. 

said. 



THE WARPATH, THIRD SPEECH 

We have come thus far, my brothers. The evening' has come when 
I complete my preparations for attacking the enemy. I have made 
them dislike their hows and arrows and made their magicians drowsy. 
Their wives and children are reproved and rejected. Maj' they fall 
out among- themselves. May they be unable to eat or drink. The 
time approaches when they shall die. 

After the sun arose we left camp and went to the Sand Hills," where 
we halted and held a council of war. Morning came quickly and again 
we went on. I brought my }-oung men together to kill rabbits, rats, 

lat tava tcutcka nanilka tcoi-ikam nyi-imik(i). Tava hoiinyik ikui 

Here we came various classes my relatives. It was evening fall 

kuny huk uta moi-i nanuka tcoi itcik tarn mai-i tcuxitahhii kuny 

I that in many different sorts on there iilaced for I 

a-iiputa. Katatc s'ahatatctahim vapatckatt' s'ahatatctahim kiikai^u- 

enemy. Bow his cause to dislike reed his cause to dislike be- 

tahimiik kasitahimuk s'ha-ap itata. Kota ho^inyik ikui kuny Ink uta 

witch make sleepy proper make. It was evening fall I " tliat in 

moi-i nanuka tcoi-itcik tam mai-i tcuxitahim kunj' a-aputa. Otitatc 

many dilferent sorts on there placed for I .enemy. "Woman 

desire for 

wumatc. vaimutatc s fihatatctahimiik alitatc kamkimtatc s'ahatatctahim 

gather to lay \\ith desire make dislike child his desire to embrace causes to dislike 

kakaijutahimrik kilsitahimuk .s'ha-ap itiita. Kota hoiinyik ikui kuny 

bewitch make sleepy proper make. It was evening fall I 

huk uta ruoi-i nanuka tcoi-itcik tam mai-i tcuxitahim kuny a-aputa. 

that in many difTerent sorts on there placed fur my enemy. 

Wupa tcoi-Tkam wumatc aimulukatc wumatc nyiakimtatc s'ahata- 

Fellow-man sort of with accompany with address make 

tctahim kakiiitutahimuk kasitahimuk s'ha-ap itata. Kota hotiiiyik 

dislike bewitch make sleepy proper make. It was evening 

ikui kuny huk uta moi-i nanuka tcoi-itcik tam mai-i tcuxitahim kuny 

fall I that in many difiereut sorts on there placed for my' 

a-aputa. Hastco hohokimtatc rsotaku) vasipitc i-imtatc s ahatatctahim 

enemy. What eating desire for water drink drinking make dislike 

desire for 

kakaitutahimuk kasitahimuk s ha-ap itata. Ava it kuhimutam s'hatu- 

bewitch make sleepy proper make. It was this kind of going 

kai-ip una^ahitcai-ip kamo-o. Kontavai-i ipui siAa; muhutam nyu 

hurry bend afternoon. I was catch flames burning my 

kotak rsotaki nyu vasip(i). Varsuu alhia tam atava utcu siatcokam 

stick water me drink. Yonder small sea on they lay magical 

sand 

nyu tcokakita kontuk tairsk tahiwoa. Am wutcom tatcoip sutatkim 

my darkness I was press sitting. There before me thinking adjusting 

«Sand Hills in the Reservoir, a Hohokam reservoir a few miles north of the Double buttes. 
380 



EUSSELL] SPEECHES 381 

and quails. About noon we nuived on to Salt river and camped again 
in the evenini;'. We had too much food and ate it half cooked. Next 
morning we journeyed on. I went swift \y along the dry water courses, 
where stands the cat's claw. 1 went past the rocks to camp at the 
ironwood trees in the evening' and ate the left-over food half raw 
again. Continuing, I appointed a jjlace of meeting and the d-dx passed. 
Gathering my young men I told them to grasp their weapons and run 
forward. Crossing a small canyon they proceeded, killing deer and 
antelope, beyond the red hill. Knowing the location of the small 
springs, the}' went to the low mountain. Others I told to gra.sp their 
weapons and run in a westerly direction. They ran thi'ough bushes 
and met those who ran in a line along the dry water courses until the}' 

kusim. Kota s'hiitkai nyu masitatc kontavai ipuisiAaj muhutam nyu 

diflu-ullifs. It was liurry Die earh- morning I was take flamt-s hiirning me 

kotak. Kamaintala ipupuhimiik varsun tcytckikut am antaAa tcu. 

brand, Bel'i.ire me soon carrit-d yonder rejilace there I \Vas placed 

Kota prstcum sikal muk tataf kotavai humap io[t kuny vipiapka 

It was then round running sun I was come together I ' youths 

kunya am ha-akit. Kota ap ikukukuk alnaktc' almututam alkik'tc' 

I was there told. . It was there striking little ear moving " little house 

takam ala-antcta-atam tarspi ha-apam tilta. Varsan ku mutatam tam 

sitting small feathers way perform* Yonder kind of running top 

ataAa utcu siatcokam ntatajka kontuk tairsk taihiwoa. Ha-akia nyu- 

they place magician my sun I was press sitting. Many my 

moaa tayak pa wutcom itatcoip sutatkim kusim. Ava it kuhimutam 

killing raw before swallow thinking adjusting ditticnlt. It was this kind of going 

s'hatkai ip untidahitciap kamo-o. Kontavai ipui siAaj muhutam nj'u 

quickly curved afternoon. I was grasp flames burning my 

kotak rsotaki nyu vasip(i). Va-iirsany muliniik hohokit an alsopatkam 

brand water ine drink. Dry washes junction edges about cat's claw 

vtvatkak konyuk aitc' pinatai hap tcoi-itcik. Alhiitai kux piak 

dry wash I was after unfinishred there condition at the Small stone go around 

time of going. standing 

antaAa pitc. Alhaitkam tcotck' ap atava utcu siatcokam ntcokakita 

I was go around. Smalliron tree standing there they placed magician my darkness 

kontuk tairsk tahiwoa. Ha-akia nyu moa-a tayak pa wutcom tatcoip 

I was press sitting. Many me killing raw swallow before thinking 

sutatkim kusim. Kota s'hatkai nyu masitatc kontavai ipui siAat 

adjusting difhcult. It was quickly me early morning I was grasp flame 

muhutam nyu kotak(i). Kamaint ala ipupuhimfik varsuny tcutckikut 

burning my brand. Before I soon carry yonder " ceremonial 

ground 

am antava tcu. Kota prstcom sikal muk tataf kotavai-i humap iold 

there 1 was placed. It was make round run sun it was unite 

kuny vipiapka konya am ha-akit. Kota am rsarsk taitcitk' ipiim 

my youths I was there told. It was there grasp ran up you 

athai. Al(d) r.sarsukik kakhaip ukakiitahimfik al Auk Kamajk 

run after. Small canyons crossed they killing small red thin 

Taxtcoi"im iava. Aid rsotak(i) worsutak amtcut takitak takitrika|(d) 

end of in fall. Small water came therefrom ■ release release small 

hiitai kux ap haahok i-iwoa huk wupukatc. Konyak vi-ikam akituk 

stone standing there face home that first. I was remainder told 

kuny vipiapka kota am rsarsk hodon takio ipimi athai. A|(d) 

my"^ youths it was there grasp sunset direction you rini after. Small 

f* Camel Back mountain, near Scottsdale. 



382 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

reached the place where many yucca.s .stood. They proceeded in two 
lines, with a narrow interval between them. Unacquainted with the 
country they went forward, finding deer and antelope, which they 
killed. Camping on the summit of the small mountain the}^ ate their 
venison half raw. There they made preparations for continuing, as the 
time fled swiftly on. Taking up my possessions and a supply of veni- 
son for the next day I went forward to camp at the .small Gravelly 
Water. I renewed preparations when I halted at nightfall. Morning 
came quickly and I went on. During the next day 1 addressed mj^ 
young men, telling them to go and kill mountain sheep. They went 
on to the spring under the kam tree, where they camped and continued 
their preparations for war. Morning came quickly and I conjured the 

rsarsai-ikam aitk' ursarsaittahimiik ai(d) vaptapat kitcik an im iaAa. 

grassy after penetrate small .-^liade door about in full. 

abandoned 

A|(d) vii-arsany mulinuk amtcut takitak takitak ai(d) otiikoa taihak 

Small dry \va-sbes^ junction therefrom release release small yucca setting 

ap hahok i-iwoa huk wupukatc. Ata haasp rsapalt nyu vi-i konta 

there face home that first. It was small narrow me remain- I was 

der 

iwors liastco pat wum. Hap horsp al(d) tcotcoi-ikam .sitatakhim 

arose what bad with. That way small appearance handle 

utar.spi matck' tatku tcotck paphaikam nj'U viptckot tata vapkam nyu 

I not know wrestle black tails me doer white bellies me 

viptckot ntarspi ha-apam tata. Varsatc al(d) vapuk tam ataAa utcu 

deer I not way make. Up there small reed top they stay 

siatcokam utatajka ttuk tairsk tahiwoa. Ha-akia nyu moa-a tayak pa 

magician my sun 1 press sitting. Many n'ly killing raw 

wutcom tatcoip sutatkim kusim. Ava it kuhimiltara s'hatkai-ip 

swallow thinking adjusting difficulties. It was this kind going hurry 

before 

unadahitcaiip kanio-o. Kontavai ipui .siAaj muhutam nyu kotak 

bend afternoon. I was grasp flame burning my . brand 

rsotak(i) nyu vasip(i). Konj'arsp koewoa .sihutcuiwoehim. A](d) 

water iiiy drink, I was step down slide. Small 

a-utilkam rsotaki tam atava utcu siatcokam Itcokakita ttuk tairsk 

gravelly water lop they placed magician my darkness I pre.ss 

tahiwoa. Am wutcom tatcoip sutatkim kusim. Kota s'hatkai-i 

sitting. There before thinking fixing difficulties. It was quickly 

nymasitatc kontavaii ipui siAa; muhutam nj^u kotak(i). Kamaint ala 

me early morn- I was grasp flame burning my brand. Before 1 soon 

ing 

ipupuhimuk varsuny tcutckikut am antava tcu. Kota prstconi sikai 

carry yonder ceremonial place there I was placed. It was made round 

muk tataf kotavaii humap io] kuny vipiapka kunya am ha-akit. 

run sun it was come together I ' youths I was there told. 

Kotaprs am skavitcim nyu pia-aj ttarspi matck' tatk' rsum mamam 

It was there narrow me surround 1 not know wrestle kind heads 

tuhuhumakilt. Varsatc ai(d) kam wutca rsanak ap atava utcu 

our ones. Up there small k.'im (tree) under spring there they placed 

siatcokam Itcokakita kontuk tairsk tahiwoa. Wutcom tatcoip 

magician my darkness I was press sitting. Before thinking 

sutatkim kusim kota s hiitkai-i nymasitatc kontak aimulukatc s'iihilta- 

adjusting difficulties I was quickly me early morning 1 was haunts his cause 

tctahinulk katatc s'ahatatctahinu'ikvapHtckatc s'ahatatctahimuk rsotaki 

to dislike bow his cause to dislike reed his cause to dislike water 



RUSSELL] SPEECHES 383 

enemy's magician. May he not like his bow and arrows. In drinlving, 
may he swallow but his image reflected in the water. May he grasp 
the V)ranches of trees and fall under them exhausted. I sent my young 
men east, west, and toward the center. The scout to the east saw the 
freshly hroken grass trodden by the enemj-. He sent a messenger to 
inform us of his discovery and to state that he would report as soon as 
darkness fell. Hastening to make ready, those in the lead rushed for- 
ward. The scout to the west ran in, telling of the discovery of signs 
in a canyon in that direction. I sent two experienced men to investi- 
gate; they moved carefully forward and discovered a camp of Apaches. 
Like birds my 3'oung men swept down upon and surrounded the 
enemy. I sent my white power and my blue to aid them. After 

vasipitc siwutca olinuk tcu. Kota ita-ak iTta am vataprs u-ukutak pa. 

drink very under hold put. It was jumped in there fall his shadow swallow. 

Avaot osukatc mamhaktc' huk isipui kotak wutcil am kurskai-ipop 

It was tree his branch that grasp it was under there fall exhausted 

kontak hap tcoi-ikam tcum nyui-itak im sia-al woi wapai-itcotk' ho'jr- 

I was that sort then saw in east toward sent running sun- 

nyik woii wapai-itcotk' uta wapai-itc. Huk aitk' kai hu-rkiarsiirs kota 

set toward sent running in race. That after not yet any moves it was 

sia-al takio tcut ta-ak iakursk hastco wapakam kuikmiakatc o-ok in 

east direction from 6ew here fall what hairy traces take in 

irso](d). Kota am tcom nyuik nyi-imik(i) am wus tcukaitam utatk' 

throw. It was there before seen iiiy relatives there all prompt one felt 

am pi itcivix tcu. Kota hodon takio tcut ta-ak iakurskaipuny akit. 

there not allow see. It was sunset direction from flew here told fall me ' told, 
each other 

Humaka rsakik isipitcimim tcoi-ik am iisutakowoim tcoi-ik am iisuta- 

One canyon turn like there end of hill may like there may be 

touch 

hama tcoi-ik. Avaot kus kamak(i) tcokut makai kontak hap tcoi-ikam 

sitting like. It was kind gray owl magician I was that sort 

mamtcik ap imiik rsarsoa kotap .sinhsii-itam utatk' worsanyik wukatc 

guess there ( ) cry I was friendly felt arose around 

pitcimitahimuk ha-akia stcohokmomkatc mai-irsk ap woak opam tciviak 

going many darkness with covered there throw home- came 

ward 

nyu akit. Kotak uta hux isikuirsk kukiwoa kuny viapaku-ulka. 

me told. It was in already stand Urmly on stand my sons. 

Tcuwu^a mututam o-ofik ta-atam uwupakitk' nunyik tam ap uiawa 

Land running birds flying assume form fly on there alight 

kavap(uk)' itcuAulitk hukatc ap iniik ap tatk'. Kao^ hus tandam nyu 

reed lengthen with it there inclose there wrestle. It was kind of white me 

piahakut kontuk tcux ihimtcotk' hukatc ap aimulkatc hokit ap tarsk 

instrument I was bound go with it there ground his «dge there set 

hap ttlta. Kao} kus tcutak(i) nyu piahakut kontak tcux ihimtcotk' 

that make. It was kind of blue me instrument I was bound pushed 

hukatc ap aimulkatc hokit ap tarsk hap tiita. Anta am vam hap 

with it there haunts his edge there set that make. I there more that 

inytcok pia-atco pux imyu mulunaki. Kao^ taprs katatc kontuk puk 

same way nothing take m'e turn around. It was his bow I was catch 

as before 

im tcuwu^ s' utdaf tcotk' kursk kai-ipop. Amtcut mamtcuk am hat- 

in land center fall exhausted. Therefrom guess there make 



384 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 20 

destroying these Apaches I went on, but killed only an old woman." 
1 took their bows and then fell exhausted. Next I sent the swiftest 
young men to carry home the news of victory to the old men and 
women. , With the news that I bring, the earth, the thunder, the night, 
the mountain, and the trees rejoice. 

You may think this over, my relatives. The taking-* of life brings 
serious thoughts of the waste; the celebration of victor3' may become 
unpleasantly riotous. 

cotcoa kus tcotcoaatcmakam nyu vipiapka kota ki-ik ap rsars. Ata 

stanil kind of swiftest me youths it was four there renewals. They 

them 

mulifkai kai-itc kuli vi-ikam aks vi-ikam. Konj'ak aitc' kus s'ap- 

eame running notify old man remainder old remainder. I was after kind good 

woman 

tahatkam nyu moa-a oa-atc antavaii oapa. Tak hukatc huk tcuwu^ 

feelings me killing held I was had brought. That with that land 

am uta sipuputk' utcu. Tak hukatc stcohokmom am uta sikikifk 

there in roared self stay. That with it night there in shake 

utcu tata-ak am uta sirsarsafk utcotcoa. O-os tcotcim am uta 

self stay mountain there in echoed st:ind. Trees standing there in 

simokofk utcotcoa. S ha-ap hap humsii ulitk*" tatcoa nanuka tcoi-ikam 

shaking stand. Way that you thought desire different sorts 

inyi imiki kotc humo hap patma tatan huk paj rsaika natc apahiipta 

my relatives we now that lazy make that bad slave we proper 

kaihakim kai-itc. 

noise said. 

a " An arrow without feathers." 



THE WAKPATH. FOl'RTH SPEECH 

We have come tlius far, 1113' brothers. In the east there is White 
Gopher, who is skillful with his teeth. He was friendlj- and eame to 
me after coming- out to the surface four times on the journej'. Look- 
ing- in all directions he saw that a plan had been formed, in accordance 
with which he slowly approached the enemy, appearing at the surface 
four times during the journey'. He gnawed the power of the enemy 
and sank their springs. He saw tliat the wind of the enemy was strong 
and he cut it up. He gnawed in short pieces their clouds. They had 

lat tava tecrtcka nanuka tcoi-ikam nyi-imik(i). Ava im sia-lik 

Here we came various classes my relatives. It was in east 

takio ku tiiniam Tcufha. Kotpk' hastco ski-Itckatkam kontak hap 

direetion kind of white gopher. He i.s ^vhat gnawer I was that 

tcoi-ikam mamtcuk ap imuk rsfirsoa kotap sinybai-ikui-itam utatk' 

sort guess there luy cry it \vas ' friendly felt 

amtcut ku tiinqjam utcohokik woak huk aitk ap ki-ikap 

there from kind of white itself darkened lay that after there four 

nii-akanuk makai nata tcumuk hokit an tahiwoa. Am a-ai 

appearanees inagieian lire all over edges about sitting. There four 

nyunhtik tcum nyuik iivak makai vakita tanattc katc. Kot huk 

direetions looking then *saw it was magician trail whitish lay. That that 

aitk am ku fcintam utcohokik woak huk aitk' ap ki-ikap 

after there kind of white itself darkened throw that after there four 

na-akanuk ap supapak(i) tcuma-ak nyu aapiita. Avak tcuwut ap 

appearances there slowdy covered iny enemy. It was land there 

katc toa-ak ap kuktc' tcom s'unaki-itc kux u-ulit kotak am 

lay mountain there standing it hanging standing he he was there 

believes 

sirsa-iirspaj ki-ikoamia. Avak rsarsaniikam rsotak(i) tata-atc tcom 

short bitten off. It was springs waters put it it 

s'unaki-itc wutc u-ulit tak am siki-ikarsahimiik am sitco-otcpit. 

hanging laying believes that there continue biting there sink it. 

Avak huwuikatc ava tcom tcoviomatk u-ilit tak am sirsaarspai 

It was wind lay it was it like land thought that there short 

ki-ikoamia. Avak tcuAakikatc ava tcom stcova-akupatk' 

bitten off. It was clouds his it was it very sprinkle 

U-ulit tak am .sirsa-arspai ki-ikoamia. Avak humatckam 

he thought that there short Ijitten off. It was people 

huk tam ap aimututam vatcom sku-uk tcu-utc kat 

that on there haunts not good dreams he 

U-ulit tan(d)ulim haitco nj'uitatk' u-ulit tak am sirsa-arspal 

thought brightly something false seeing he thought that there short 

ki-ikoamia. Avak humatckam huk tam ap aimututam 

bitten off. It wa.s people that on there haunts 

vatcom s'apukam kat kia-atkam, rsul ta-atam vapu(k) 

not best bow string, straight flying reed 

26 ETH— 08 27 385 



386 ■ THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axx. 26 

dreams and shining' power, good l)ow.s and arrows, hut all those he cut 
in pieces. Gathering all their possessions, he brought them with him, 
rising to the surface of the ground four times on his journey. Leaving 
all that he brought, he went home, making four appearances at the 
surface on his way. The land roared and rejoiced with him for what 
he had done. 

In the south is Blue Coyote, upon whom 1 called for assistance. He 
was friendly to me and came running, circling aroiuid, howling, four 
times on the journey. When he ari'ivcd he approved of my plan. He 
cast his blue darkness upon the enemy and slowly reached their place, 
after circling around, howling, four times on the way. He sucked in 
the power of the enemy, their springs, trees, winds, clouds, dreams, 

tcoi-ita rsakiitcitk' u-ulit tak am sirsa-arspal ki-ikoaraia. An 

clean liacl grasped he thouglit that there short bitten off. About 

■wukatc katcim nanuka tcoi-itckatc si-inasik supapak(i) kaAo|katk 

around lay different belongings gathered slowly ground 

puk opam ha-akok i-iwoa. Ap opam ku tiintam I'tcohokik 

took homeward turn around. There homeward kind of "white itself darkened 

woak aitk' ap ki-ikap ma-akan makai nata tcumuk hokit am 

plaeed after there four appearanee.s magician lire all edges over ab(.mt 

takuta. Smakaitkam u-atam sivakssitk tam tarsiiwoa. Vi ikam 

release. Expert magician people a prepared place top sat. Remainder 

with something 
spread to sit on 

supapak(i) kaAoikatk' pux am opam ku tan^am utcohokik woak 

slowly grouped catch there homeward kind of w'hite his darkness throw 

aitk' ap ki-ikap ma-akan uAai-ikut tcuma-a. Hik hukatc 

after there f<iur appearances his bed come. That with 

s'hai-itcokm utatk' kot huk hukatc huk tcuwu; am uta sipuputk 

conceit felt he that with that land there in roar 

utcu. Im katcim takio kus tcutak(i) tuwumukaj wot'pk' hastco 

placed. In laying direction kind of blue t)ur uith to expert what 

tcokok s'hokimutam kontak hap tcoi ikam mamutcuk ap imuk 

made carnivorous I was that sort guess there my 

rsarsoa kotap sinyhai-ikui-itam utatk' amtcut kus stcutak(i) 

cry it * friendly felt there from kind of blue 

utcohokik woak huk aitk' ap ki-ikha sikal mutk' hihinakhimfik 

his itself throw that after there four ronnd run sliouting 

darkened 

makai nata tcumuk hokitan tcu^akiwoa. Am a-ai nyunhak tcum 

magician fire everywhere edges thud. There four directions then 

looking 

nyui. Avak makai vakita tanatc' katc. Kotuk iiitk kus stcutak(i) 

"saw. It was magician trail whitish lay. It was after kind of blue 

utcohokik woak huk aitk' ki-ikha sikiil mutk' hihinakimk ap 

his itself darkened throw that after four times around run shouting there 

supapak(i) teuma-ak nyu a-aputa. Avak tcuwuj ap katc 

slowly covered me enemy. It was land tliere lay 

toa-ak ap kuxtc tcom s'unaki-itc kux u-ulit kotak am sihafw(u). 

mountain there stand it hanging stand he thought it was there inhale. 

Avak rsarsanukam rsorsok(i) tata-atc tcom s'unaki-itc wukatc os 

It was .springs waters jdaced it hanging round tree 

ap kukam tcom s'unaki-itc tcotck u-ulit tak am sihafw(u). 

there standing it hanging stand he thought that there inhale. 

Avak huwuikatc ava tcom tcoviomatk' u ulit tak am aihafw(u). 

It was wind his it was it cause to blow thought that there inhale. 



KL'SSKI.L] 



SPEECHES 



387 



and niagic power, also their hows and arrovv.s. Gathering up their 
other posses.sion.s he turned toward iionie. En\(doped in his ))lue dark- 
ness ho came to nie, eircling around, liowling, four times on the jour- 
ney. Leaving all that he brought, he went home, ti'aveling through 
his blue darkness and eircling around, howling, four times on the way. 
lie rejoiced at his deeds, jumping in the four directions, and in the 
morning all rejoiced with him. 

In the west is Black Kangaroo Mouse, an expert thief, upon whom 
I called for iielp. Ht; was friendh^ to me, and enveloped nie in his 
mantle of darkness, making four halts on the way. After surveying 
the situation he approved oi my plan. Sending ff)rth his black dark- 
ness he pushed his way througli it to the eneun-, making four stops on 
the waj'. He opened the sack containing the most prized magic prop- 



Avak tcuvakikatc tcom stcova-akupatk' u-ulit tak am sihafw(u). 

It was clouds his it sprinkle thouj^ht that there inhale. 

Avak humatckam hi;k tarn ap aimututam vatcom sku-uk 

It was people that on there haunts it was good 

tcu-utckatvk u-ulit tan^am haitco nyuitatk' u-ilit tak am sihiifw(u). 

dream thought white thing " seen thought that there inhale. 

Avak humatckam huk tam ap aimutu:)am vatcom s'apukam kat 

It was [leople that on there haunts it was best bow 

kia-atkam rsuj ta-atam vapuk' tcoi-ita rsakutcitk' u-ulit tak 

string straight flying reed clean had grasped he thought that 

am sihtlfw(u). An wukatc katcim nanukii tcoi-itckatc sinasik 

lay ditTerent belongings gathered 

ha-ahak i-iwoa. Ap opam kus 

turned back. There ' 

huk altk' ap ki-ikha 

that after there lour 

Smakaitkam a-atam 

Expert musician people 



there inhale 

supapak(i 

slowly grouped 

stcutak(i) utcohokik 

blue itself darkened 

makai nata hokit an 

magician fire edge about 



About round 

kawojkatk' puk 

take 

woak 

throw 

takiita. 

release. 



tam tarsuwoa. Vi-ikam 

on placed. Remainder 

stcutak(i) utcohokik 

blue itself darkened 

hihinakhimuk uAtiikut tcuma-a 

shouting his bed 

tcu^akiwoa 

thud. 

sirsarsafuktc' tcotc. 



supapak(i) 

slowly 

woak aitk' 

throw after 



sikaf 



a-aip 

all directions 



echoed 



stand. 



kawojkatk puk 

grouped take 

ap ki-ikha 

there four 

Hukatc s hai-itcokam 

■overed. With conceit 

Hukatc huk sia-ai tcotcini 

With that east standing 

Im hotinyik takio kus tcok 

In sunset clirectirm kind of black 



homeward kind of 

sika] mutk 

rf)Und run 

isivakssitk 

a i>rcpared place 
witli sniricthing 
si)rcad to sit on 

kus 

kind of 

mutk' 



opam 

homeward 



round 

utatk'tc' 

felt 



am 

there 



am 

there 



uta 

in 

nahakiii. 

kangaroo 
mouse. 



Wotpk hastcos uskani kontak hap tcoi ikain mamutcuk ap imuk 

Expert something robber 1 was that sort gue.ss there my 

rsarsoa kotak sinvhai-ikui-itam utatk' amtcut kus stcok utcohokik 



cry it was 

weak aitk ap 

throw after there 

tahiwoa. Am 

sit. There 

sitana:(utc katc. 

brightly lay. 

huk aitk' am 

that after there 



friendly felt therefrom kind of black itself darkened 

ki-ikhti tahiwoak makai nata tcumfik hokit an 

magician tire 

tcom nyuik 

then saw it 

kus stcok 

black 



four sitting 

a-ai nynuhak 

all directions looking 

Kot huk iiitk' 

It that after 

ki-ikha tahiwoak 

four sitting 



kind of 

ap 

there 



covered edges about 

avak makai vakita 

was magician 

utcohokik 

itself darkened 

supapak(i) tci nia-a 

.■slowly covered 



trail 

weak 

throw 

huk 

that 



388 THK PIMA INDIANS (eth. an.n, 20 

erty of the ciiem_y, though the sack w;is tied in many plaees, and took 
from it the blue necklaces, blue earrings, down, and everything- of that 
nature before turning homeward. Enveloped in his yellow darkness 
he reached me after four rests. Leaving all at the council ground he 
went to his home, halting four times on the way. Rejoicing, he jumped 
about, and the night rustled like the Huttering of leaves in sympathy 
with him. 

I called on Owl, above, for assistance. He'was friendly to me and 
came, sailing four times on the waj'. He looked about him and saw 
my plan. In accordance with this he slowly reached the enemy after 
sailing four times. He cut the power of the enem}', their springs, 
their trees, and their dreams. He grasped their bows and arrows and 

nyu a-aputa. Ava it noarsamitc vatcom ha-akia utam 

my enemy. It was this hug was it many on top of another 

hawolk u-ulit tak am siki ikassahimuk aitk' am mawoak am 

tied he thought that there bit oft after there reaeh tliere 

pui kus stcutak(i) payoka tcckita^akatc. Kus sku-uk vi-ik 

take liind of blue neeklace lioard. Kind of good down 

tcukita^akatc. An wukatc katcim nanfika tcoi-itckatc si-inasik 

hoard. About round laying different belongings gathered 

supapak(i) kawojkatk' puk opam ha-ahak i-iwoa. Ap opam kus 

slowly grouped take homeward turned baek. There homeward kind of 

.stcok utcohokik woak aitk' ap ki-ikhii tahiwoak makai nata tcumuk 

Ijlnek itself darkened throw after there four sitting magieian lire everywhere 

hokit an takita. Smakaitkam a-atam isivakusitk' tam tarsuwoa. 

edges about release. Expert magii'ian people seat on placed. 

Vi-ikam srpapak(i) kawoikatk' puk am opam kus stcok utcohokik 

Remainder slowly grouped take there hf)meward kind of black itself darkened 

woak iiitk' am ki-ikhil tahiwoak UAaikiit tcuma-a. Hukatc s'haitcom 

tlirow after there four sit his bed covered. With conceit 

utatk' am a-aip tahiwop kuk hukatc steohokomom am uta si 

felt there all directions sits that with darkness there in 

rsamontc katc. Ava it tam kus steohokomom siktllktc katc. Avak 

rustling lay. It wa.s this on kind of darkness round lay. It was 

uta s'iti-amp uolintc' kutiinjam u-ut vaohotam kontak hap tcoi-ikam 

in right );ieing held kind of white blood sucker I was that sort 

mamiltcuk ap imuk r.sar.soa tap .sinyhai-ikui-itam utatk anitcut 

guess there my cry ' friendly felt there from 

ki ikha ikamalwoak makai nata tcumuk' tam unakia. Am a-ai 

four thin fly magician tire covered on hang. There all 

nvunhiik tcom nyuik ava makai vakita tanattc katc. Tuk ilitk 

directions then 'saw it was magician trail brightly lay. That after 

looking 

am ki-ikha ikamalwoak ap supapak(i) tcuma-ak huk nyuaputa. 

there four thin fly there slowly covered that me enemy. 

Avak tcuwu; katc toa-akatc tcom s'unaki-itc kuk u-ulit tak am 

It was land lay mountain it hanging stand thought that there 

sir.sa-ar,spa[ ki-ikomia. Rsilrsanukam rsorsok(i) tatoatc, os kur.satc 

very short bit oft. Springs waters his placed, tree i>lant his 

tcotcom .sis unaki-istc u-uIit tak am sirsa-arspa[ ki-ikomia. 

standing very hanging thought that there short bit off. 

Humatckam huk tam ap aimutujam vatcom sis ku-uk tcutckatk 

People that on there haunts was it very good dreamed 

u-ulit tak am sirsii-arspai ki-ikomia. Vatcom .s'apukam kat kiatkam 

thought that there very short bit off. Was it good-best bow stringed 



Kissr.i.L] SPEECHES 389 

bit tlieiii in twain. He hit otl' their flesh and sinews, and in their bones 
made lioles. From the tilings collected he made a belt from a bow- 
string and turned homeward. lie came through his gray mist in four 
flights. Leaving all that h(> had secured in my behalf, he reached his 
home in four flights. At early dawn he rejoiced in his success and 
the darkness rattled with liim. 

You may tliink this over, my relatives. The taking of life brings 
serious thoughts of th(> waste; the celebration of victory may become 
unpleasantly riotous, 

rsui ta-atam vapiik(u) tcoi-ita rsaktcitk' u-ulit tak am sirsa-arspa 

!^traiglit fl>*ing reed clean had grasped thought that there very short 

ki-ikomia. Am vak huk tcohokatc ahava ki-ikomia. Katatc isi 

hit off. There enter that flesh his then bit off. Bow his very 

kiahontuk a-atc ktihaitcutckarsk ap koapatk' ap kirsa-atk' ap opam 

relaxed bones his perforate there wig there bark dre,ss there turn 

kv tan4am utcohokik woak hukiiitk' ap ki-ikha ikamalwoak svao.slm 

kind of \\hitish itself darkened throw that after there four thin fly damp 

i.sitcki. ]\Iakai nata tcunulk' hokit an takita. Smakaitkam a-atani 

rattling. Magieian lire eover edges about release. E.xpert magician people 

isivakssitk tam tarsuwoa. Vi-ikam supapak(i) kaw^o|katk pidv am 

a prepared place on sitting. Remainder slowly grouped take there 

W'ith something 
sjiread to sit on 

opam ku tan^am utcoiiokik woak aitk' am ki-ikha ikamuluwoak 

homeward kind of whiti.sh itself darkened throw after there four times thin fly 

suvaosim isitckim UAaikut tcuma-ii. Hukatc s'haitcokum utatktc 

damp rattling his bed arrive. With conceit felt 

aiu a-ai tai-inyok nva, hukatc stcohokomom am uta sistic'ktckatc. 

there all directions flying It was with darkness there in rattling lay. 

S ha-ap hapiik' hrmsa ulitk' tatcoa naniika tcoikam nyi-imiki koto 

Way that you think plan different class my relatives we 

humo hap patmatatan huk pat rsiiika nate apahapta kaihsikim kaitc. 

now that lazy make that bad slave way proper noise said. 





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BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. 




b TCO'KUT NAK, HOLDING A CALENDAR STICK 



a ANTONIO A/UL 





C KAEMA-A 

THREE OF THE AUTHOR'S PIMA INFORMANTS 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. Ill 





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BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. IV 




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(■SWEETWATER i FROM THf ^-UTHWEST) 

THREE PREHISTORIC PIMA RUINS 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. V 




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FIELDS AND VILLAGE IN PIMERIA 




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a ANCIENT SPOON 



b NEW SPOON 





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a FRAMEWORK OF HOUSE 



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a CEMETERY AT SACATON 




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PIMA GIRLS 



SOCIAL CONDITION, BELIEFS, AND LINGUISTIC 
RELATIONSHIP OF THE TLINCIT INDIANS 



JOHX U. SWANTOK 



391 



\ 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 395 

Tlingit subdivisions : 396 

Historical development 407 

Clan emblems 415 

Names 421 

Social customs 423 

Potlatches 434 

Gatoes 443 

Medicines and cUanns 445 

War 449 

Cosmology 451 

Fate of souls 460 

Shamanism 463 

Witchcraft 469 

Relationship Ijetween the Tlingit and Haida languages 472 

393 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page 
Plates XLVIII-LVI. Facial paintings of the Tlingit Indians. 

LVII. a. Small basket representingamountain called TsAlxa'n. 

b, Wooden drum with design of killer whale. 

LVIII. a. Crest hat rei>resenting killer whale. 

6, c, il, e, Copies of shamans' masks. 

Figure 103. Crest hat representing shark 417 

104. Crest hat representing killer whale 418 

105. Crest hat representing grizzly bear 419 

106. Room partition bearing design of beavers 420 

107. Crest post of the Ka'gwAntan 421 

108. Model of grave post surmounted by grave box 4.31 

109. Model of grave post having grave bos inserted in the back 431 

110. Grave posts at Wrangell 432 

111. Grave post at Wrangell 433 

112. Shaman's medicine 465 

113. Anthropomorphic representation of the land otter, carved in bone 467 

114. Shaman's medicine box 467 

115. Medicine case proper wound with human hair 468 

116. Shaman's carved comb 469 

117. Carved post placed on salmon trap 470 

394 



SOCIAL CONDITION, BELIEFS, AND LINGUISTIC 
RELATIONSHIP OF THE TLINCIT INDIANS 



Bv John K. Swanton 



INTKODl^CTTON 

The material contained in this paper is a portion of the results of 
about two months' work at Sitka, Alaska, lietween Januar}- and March, 
1904, and about one month at Wranj>'ell, March to April of the same 
year. The remainder of the material gathered at that time consists 
principally of texts in the native language with translations and myths 
recorded in English. The chief objects of the investigation were: (1) 
To obtain a sufficient number of Tlingit myths to round out the col- 
lections of tales from the north Pacific coast; (2) to collect enough lin- 
guistic material for a careful study of the Tlingit language, with the 
special object of comparing it with that of the Haida, with which some 
sort of relationship was believed to exist and with which the writer 
already had considerable acquaintance; and (3) to add as much as pos- 
sible to our knowledge of Tlingit ethnology generally. This paper 
comprises most of the notes made with the third purpose in view, 
and the results of the writer's comparison of Tlingit and Haida. Very 
little attention is given to the arts, the industries, and the food quest, 
partlj' because these have been treated very fully in Krause's monu- 
mental work, Die Tlinkit Indianer (Jena, 1885), and in one particular, 
that of basketry, in "'The basketry of the Tlingit," by G. T. Emmons, 
in volume iii of the Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural 
History, and partly Iwcause these are not so readily studied in con- 
nection with language and myths, and indeed require independent 
investigation. 

The phonetics used are almost identical with those employed by 
Professor Boas, the writer, and others in connection with the work of 
the Bureau of American Ethnology and the American Museum of 

395 



396 



THE TLINGIT INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



Natural History, upon the Pacific coast, and are as follows, the arrange- 
ment, however, being the writer's own : 





Sonants 


Surds 


Fortes 


Spirants 


Nasals 


Semi- 
vowels 

and 
breath- 
ing 


Vowels 




(Only in 

y 

g 


foreign or 


a few onomatopoetic words) 


w 




Gutturals: 

Vocalic-velar 




Velars 


q 

k 


q! 

k! 
k-! 

t! 

s! 
ts! 
tc! 

l! 


X 




h 

y 


a,a, A, a 
I c i e 


Palatals 




Anterior-palatals 






Dentals 


d 


t 
s 
ts 
tc 

L 


(s) 
c 


n 






Sibilants 






Dental-sibilants 


dz 







Dental-sibilant-aspirates .. 




1 


Dental liquids 


2 


: 1 




1 



X is German ch in achl, x almost like German ch in ich. L is nearly the same as dl and L as tl or 
kl, while) is an aspirated sound represented best perliaps by hi. dj is Engli,sh j, tc English ch in 
church, and c English sh. The velars are similar to the palatals, but pronounced farther back in the 
throat, and the vocalic-velar farther back yet. The fortes are pronounced explosively or sometimes 
with a pause following. The characters " and » represent barely formed u and o sound.s. 

TLINGIT SUBDIVISIONS 

At the present day tribes speaking Tlingit (or Kokischan) occupy 
all of the "pan-handle" of Alaska, coast and islands, except the 
southern third of Prince of Wales island and the smaller islands imme- 
diately to the southwest of it, and extend westward along the coast as 
far as Copper river. The people on Taku and Stikine rivers camp and 
travel some distance into British Columbian territory, while the Atha- 
pascan Indians in turn camp well over into Alaska and come down to 
the coast towns to trade or visit. The Tiigish, a purely interior people 
living in British Columbia north of the Chilkat, are said to speak a 
dialect of tiiis language; but, if that is indeed the case, it has probablj'' 
been adopted by them in comparatively recent times. An Eskimo 
tribe, l;|:e Tgalakraiut, living just east of the mouth of Copper river, 
has been so far modified by contact with the Yalvutat as to be enumer- 
ated with the Tlingit tribes proper, though historically it has no right 
to that po.sition. 

Leaving these two peoples out of consideration, fourteen geo- 
graphical groups may be recognized, as follows: The Tongas (TAnga'c 
qoan), Sanya or Cape Fox Indians (Sfi'nya qoan), Henya (He'nya qoan), 
Kuiu(Kuiu (joan), Kake (Keq! qoan), Sumdum(S!aodri'nqoan), Stikine 
(Staqlhl'n qoan or CqlAtqoan), Taku (T!aq!°qoan), Auk (Ak!"qoan), 
Hutsnuwu (Xuts.'nuwu' qoan), Huna (Hu'na qoan), Chilkat (Djilqa't 
qoan), and Yakutat (YaqMa't qoan or Laxayi'k qoan). The Hehl 
(Xel qoan), now at Wrangell, once formed an independent group on 
Revillagigedo island. 



SWANTOX] TLINGIT SUBDIVISIONS 397 

Each of these divisions or tribes had at least one winter village and 
a section of coast on which the people camped every suniiner or back 
of which they hunted in winter. The number of permanent towns as 
well as their location varied considerably from time to time. In the 
case of the Chilkat there were four of these, while the people of 
Killisnoo were formerly divided between two. 

The following is a list of the Tlingit towns, ancient and modern, 
that were enumerated to the writer, with the division to which each 
belongs, though it must bj' no means be supposed that this exhausts 
the number: 

TAnga'c Tongas 

Gac San ya 

TA'qdjik-an (Tuxican) Henya 

EAwa'k (Klawak) Henya 

CAx;Vn (Shakan ) Henya 

Kuiu Kuiu 

KOq! (Kake) , Kake 

Slaodfi'n Sumdum 

QatcxA'na-ak!", "Human-hip-lake" (Wrangell) Stikine 

QiiltoALl-an (tCAL! = "alders") (Old Wrangell) Stikine 

S!ikAnAsa'nk!i-rin Taku 

T!aq°qlaka-rin, "Town-at-the-mouth-of-Taku-inlet" Taku 

A'ntcgaltsu Auk 

TsA'ntik!i-hin (Juneau) Auk 

Nattu'ck-fin, "Town-on-outside-of-point" Killisnoo 

Angii'n, "Right-across-the-town," signifying that a road runs across a 

narrow strip of land from behind the town to some body of sea water. Killisnoo 

Gaot!:Vk-an, "Drum (or Bell) town" Huna 

Luca'cakli-:"in, "Sand-hill-town" Huna _ 

KAqlAnuwii'. --- Huna 

XAkAnuwii' Huna 

Gona'xo (at the mouth of Alsek river) Huna 

G.ithi'ni, "Silver Salmon creek" (north of Dry bay) Huna 

Lak°-an ' ' Renowned town ' ' ( Klukwan ) Chilkat 

Qatqlwa'Altu "Town-on-the-point-of-a-hill" (Katkwaltu) Chilkat 

YeudG'staqle Chilkat 

Djilqo't (Chilkoot) Chilkat 

Dave' (Dyea) Chilkat 

CqagUL'' (Skagway ) Chilkat 

Decu' (Haines mission) Chilkat 

Citlka', "Behind Baranof island (Ci)" Sitka 

I,A'xq!''xo-an, " Town-where-one-does-not-sleep-rauch " Sitka 

KAStaxe'xda-an Sitka 

Llisti' Sitka 

LAnA'xk Sitka 

Qona' Sitka 

Qleckunuwu', "Blue-jay-fort" Sitka 

Daxc' t, "Fallen-stunned," because a man there once ate so much 

halibut that he fell down as if stunned Sitka 

L!uxa'cayik-an, "Town-straight-opposite-Mount Edgecomb (lIux)"... Sitka 

Yaq"da't (Yakutat) Yakutat 

Laxavi'k, "Inside of Ea'xa (an island)" Yakutat 



398 THE TLINGIT INDIANS [eth. anx. 26 

Some of the foregoing names represent probably little more than 
camps, while others were designations of towns once occupied by 
people who are now living elsewhere. 

Dialectically the Yakutat wei-e set off from all others, and there was 
also a certain dialectic, as well as social, distinction between the north- 
ern and the southern members of the remaining groups. They will 
be referre'd to as '' northern" and "southern." Each smaller group 
also had certain minor dialectic peculiarities. 

Besides these geographical divisions, which one might ahnost cull 
" involuntary," the Tlingit were separated socially into two sides or 
phratries, each strictly exogamic with descent through the mother. 
One phratry was known as Raven through