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Full text of "Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution"

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Given By 

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TWENTY- EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 



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BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TO THE 



SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



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WASHINGTON 
GOYKBNJIENT PRINTING OFFICE 

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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Smithsonian Institution, 
Bureau op American Ethnology, 

Washington, D. C, August 17, 1907. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith a report of the 
operations of the Bureau of American Ethnology for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1907. 

Permit me to express my appreciation of your aid in the 
work under my charge. 

Very respectfully, j^ours, 

W. H. Holmes, Chief. 
Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



CONTENTS 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF 

Page 

Systematic researches 3 

Special researches 15 

Preservation of antiquities 17 

Catalogue of linguistic manuscripts 18 

Editorial work .". 19 

Publications 19 

Library 20 

Collections 20 

Illustrations 21 

Note on the accompanying papers 21 

ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 

Casa Grande, Arizona, by Jesse Walter Fewkes; plates 1-78; figuies l-o-l 25 

Antiquities of the Upper Verde River and Walnut Creek Valleys, Arizona, by 

Jesse Walter Fewkes; plates 79-102; figures 55-68 181 

Preliminary report on the linguistic classification of Algonquian tribes, by 

Truman Michelson; plate 103 (map) 221 

Index 291 

5 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



W. H. Holmes, Chief 



SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

The operations of the Bureau of American Ethnology, con- 
<iucted in accordance with the act of Congress making pro- 
vision for continuing researches relating to the American 
Indians, under direction of the Smithsonian Institution, have 
been carried forward in conformity with the plan of opera- 
tions approved by the Secretary July 19, 1906. 

Systematic ethnologic researches have been prosecuted by 
the scientific staff of the Bureau, assisted by a number of 
collaborators who have been invited to conduct investiga- 
tions for which they are especially qualified. The Biu-eau's 
scientific staff is restricted to a small number of investigators 
whose field of labor is necessarily limited, and it has always 
been the policy of the Bureau to widen its scope by enlisting 
the aid of specialists in various important branches. While 
thus seeking to cover in the fullest possible manner the whole 
field of American ethnology, it has sought with particular 
care to pursue only such branches of research as are not 
adequately provided for by other agencies, pul)lic or private. 
The result sought by the Bureau is the completion of a sys- 
tematic and well-rounded record of the tribes before the 
ever-accelerating march of change shall have robbed them 
of their aboriginal characteristics and culture. 

Dming the year researches ha\e been carried on in New 
Mexico, Arizona, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Mississippi, Florida, 

9 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

New York, and Ontario. The field work has not been so exten- 
sive, however, as diwing most previous years, for the reason 
that a number of the ethnologists had to be retained in the 
office to assist in the completion of the Handbook of American 
Indians and in the proof reading of reports passing through 
the press. 

The Chief of the Bureau remained on duty in the office 
during nearly the entire year. Administrative duties occu- 
pied much of his time, but during the winter and spring 
months he was called on to assist in the preparation of the 
exhibit of the Smithsonian Institution at the Jamestown 
Exposition, and in April in installing this exhibit. The com- 
pletion of numerous articles for the Handbook of, American 
Indians, the revision of various manuscripts submitted for 
publication, and the proof reading of reports and bulletins 
claimed his attention. Aside from these occupations his 
duties as honorary curator of the department of prehistoric 
archeology in the National Museum and as curator of the 
National Gallery of Art absorbed a portion of his time. The 
Chief was called on also to assist in formulating the uniform 
rules and regulations required by the Departments of the 
Interior, Agricultiu-e, and War in carrying out the provisions 
of the law for the preservation of antiquities, to pass on 
various applications for permits to explore among the antiq- 
uities of the public domain, and to furnish data needful 
in the selection of the archeologic sites to be set aside as 
national monuments. In addition he was able to give some 
attention to carrying forward the systematic study of 
aboriginal technology and art, on which he has been engaged 
for several years, as occasion offered. 

At the beginning of the year Mrs. M. C. Stevenson, ethnolo- 
gist, was in the Indian village of Taos, New Mexico, continu- 
ing her studies of the arts, habits, customs, and language of 
this tribe begun during the previous year. Although the 
field was new and the traditional conservatism of the tribe 
made investigation in certain directions difficult or impossitile 
much progress was made, and when the work is completed 
results of exceptional value will doubtless have been ol)tained. 



ADMINISTRATIVE EEPOKT 11 

In November Mrs. Stevenson visited Santa Clara pueblo 
with the object of making studies of the people and their cul- 
ture for comparative pm'poses, and observations were made 
of the social customs and religious ceremonies of the people. 
Afterward several days were spent in Santa Fe, examining 
the old Spanish records preserved in the archives of the His- 
torical Society of New Mexico, with the view of learning 
something of the early relations of the local tribes with the 
Spanish invaders and with their Spanish-speaking neighbors 
of later times. Late in November Mrs. Stevenson visited 
the pueblo of Zuiii, the site of her former extended researches, 
and spent some weeks in completing her studies of certain 
phases of the native ritual and worship, of religious sym- 
bolism as embodied in pictogi'aphy and ceramic anjd textile 
decoration, and in the revision of her list of plants employed 
for food, medicine, and dyes. Numerous photographs and 
sketches of ceremonies and ceremonial objects were made. 
A number of changes were noted in the dramas and other 
ceremonies since her last visit, and Zuhi, heretofore presenting 
at night the quiet somberness of an aboriginal village, has 
now, when dusk falls, the appearance of an eastern town 
with many lighted windows. Mrs. Stevenson notes that 
changes are creeping steadily into all the pueblos, Taos per- 
haps excepted, and is led to express the earnest hope that 
the work of investigating the town-building tribes of the 
Southwest be carried forward with all possible energy. 

On April 1 Mrs. Stevenson returned to the office, where 
during the remainder of the year she has been engaged in 
the preparation of reports on her field researches. 

Dr. Cyrus Thomas, ethnologist, has been employed the 
greater portion of the year in assisting Mr. Hodge on the 
Handbook of American Indians, not only in the preparation 
of separate articles, but also in assisting the editor on certain 
lines of proof reading relating to omissions, uniformity in 
names, etc. Such time as could be spared from these duties 
was devoted to the preparation of a Catalogue of Books and 
Papers relating to the Hawaiian Islands. For this pm'pose 
the Library of Congress and other libraries in Washington 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

were consulted, and a short trip to Worcester and Boston, 
Massachusetts, was made for the purpose of examining the 
libraries of those cities, which are the chief depositories in the 
United States of the early publications of the missionaries in 
Hawaii. The number of titles so far obtained is about 2,000. 
Doctor Thomas assisted also with the official correspondence 
on subjects with which he is particularly familiar, his attain- 
ments as a student of ancient Mexican writings having proved 
of special value in the examination of certain manuscripts in 
the Cakchikel language submitted by the Librarian of the 
American Philosophical Society, of Philadelphia. 

During the latter part of the previous fiscal year, in pur- 
suance of his linguistic studies, Dr. John R. Swanton, eth- 
nologist,, was engaged in preparing an English-Natchez and 
Natchez-English analytical dictionary, embodying all the 
published and unpublished material available — that is, about 
two thousand words and phrases; he also copied on cards 
all the words and phrases collected by the late Doctor Gat- 
schet from the Attacapa, Chitimacha, and Tunica Indians. At 
the beginning of the fiscal year Doctor Swanton was engaged 
in compiling a dictionary of the Tunica language similar to 
that made for the Natchez. In the field of general ethnology 
he excerpted and, when necessary, translated, all the avail- 
able material bearing on the tribes of the lower Mississippi 
Valley, and arranged for publication that portion dealing 
with the Natchez. 

On April 3 he left Washington to make investigations 
among the tribal remnants of Louisiana and Oklahoma, and 
visited the members of the Houma, Chitimacha, Attacapa. 
Alibamu, Biloxi, Tunica, and Natchez tribes, and was able 
definitely to establish the relationship of the Houma to the 
Choctaw and to identify the Ouspie — a small people referred 
to by the early French writers — with the Ofogoula. From 
the Tunica and Chitimacha he collected several stories which 
will be of importance in the endeavor to restore the mythology 
of the tribes of this area, now almost a blank. In the Chero- 
kee Nation (Oklahoma), contrary to expectation. Doctor 
Swanton found several persons who still speak the Natchez 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 13 

language. This discover}' will necessarily delay the publi- 
cation of the Natchez material already referred to, but ^if 
prompt measures are taken, will insure the preservation of 
that language in its completeness. At Eufaula (Creek Nation) 
he made a slight investigation into the social organization 
of the Creeks — enough to determine that much work still 
remains to be done in that tribe entirely apart from language. 
Doctor Swanton returned to the office June 7, and during 
the remainder of the year was engaged in arranging and 
collating the material collected by him. 

Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, ethnologist, was employed in* the 
office during the first month of the year reading proofs of 
his articles on the Aborigines of Porto Rico and Neighboring 
Islands and on Antiquities of Eastern Mexico, for the Twenty- 
fifth Annual Report of the Bureau. Part of Atigust and all 
of September were devoted to the preparation of a bulletin 
on the Antiquities of the Little Colorado. He spent seven 
months in Arizona, leaving Washington on October 15 and 
returning the middle of May. During four months he super- 
intended the work of excavation, repair, and preservation of 
the Casa Grande Ruin, in Pinal County, Arizona, and in 
March and April visited a number of little-known and unde- 
scribed ruins along Canyon Diablo and Grapevine Canyon, 
gathering material for his bulletin on The Antiquities of the 
Little Colorado Valley. During May and June he was em- 
ployed in the office, devoting his time to the preparation of 
an account of the excavations at Casa Grande. The explo- 
rations at Casa Grande were conducted under a special 
appropriation disbm-sed directly by the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, and Doctor Fewkes's preliminary report has been 
submitted to the Secretary. It is anticipated that a final 
report on the work when completed will be published by the 
Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt was occupied during the earlier months 
of the year in preparing and correcting matter for the Hand- 
book of American Indians, devoting special attention to the 
articles on the Irocjuoian family, Iroquois, IMohawk, Montour, 
Mythology, Nanabozho, Neutrals, Oneida, Onondaga, and 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOLIY 

Ottawa, and to the lists of towns formerly belonging to the 
Iroquois tribes. 

From the 20th of January to the 23d of March, 1907, he 
was engaged in field work among the Iroquois tribes in 
New York and in Ontario, Canada. The entire period 
was devoted to collecting texts in the Onondaga and Mohawk 
dialects, embodying the basic principles and the civil and 
political structure and organization of the League of the 
Iroquois and data relating thereto. The Onondaga texts 
aggregate about 27,000 words and the Mohawk texts about 
1,500 words, making a total of 28,500 words. The following 
captions will indicate suflficiently the subject-matter of 
these texts: The Constitution of the League, the Powers of 
the T'hadoda'ho', Amendments, Powers and Rights of the 
Chiefs, Powers and Rights of the Women, Powers of the 
Women Chiefs, Procedure on Failure in Succession, Powers 
and Restrictions of "Pine Tree" Chiefs, Procedure in Case 
of Murder, Address of Condolence for Death in a Chief's 
Family, Forest-edge Chanted Address of Welcome, The 
Chant for the Dead, Interpretation of the Fundamental 
Terms, Peace, Power, and Justice. 

Mr. Hewitt also continued his duties as custodian of the 
collection of linguistic manuscripts of the Bureau, the com- 
pletion of the catalogue of which was entrusted to Mr. J. B. 
Clayton, head clerk. He has also been called on to furnish 
data for the correspondence of the office, more particularly 
that portion relating to the Iroquoian tribes. 

Mr. F. W. Hodge, ethnologist, has been engaged during the 
entire year on the Handbook of American Indians, the edi- 
torial work of which has proved extremely arduous and 
difficult. This work is in two parts: Part I, A — M, was 
issued from the press in March last, and the main body of 
Part II was in type at the close of the fiscal year, though 
progress in proof reading was exceedingly slow on account 
of the great diversity of the topics treated and the difficulty 
of bringing up to date numbers of articles, many of them 
relating to obscure tribes and subjects. 

During the entire fiscal year Mr. James Mooney, eth- 
nologist, remained in the office, occupied chiefly on the 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 15 

Handbook of American Indians and in the classification 
of the large body of material previously obtained relating 
to the tribes of the Great Plains. His extended article 
on Indian Missions, written for the Handbook, has been 
made the subject of a special reprint, a small edition of 
which was issued by the Bureau. Mr, Mooney has also 
grven valuable assistance in connection with the corre- 
spondence of the Bureau, more especially that portion 
relating to the languages of the Algonquian stock. 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES 

For a number of years Dr. Franz Boas, assisted by a 
corps of philologists, has been engaged in the preparation 
of a work on the American languages, to be published as a 
bulletin of the B.ureau, entitled "Handbook of American 
Indian Languages," and it is expected that the manuscript of 
the first part will be submitted for publication at an early 
date. Of Part 1, sections relating to the languages of the 
Eskimo and the Iroquois alone remain incomplete. During 
the summer of 1906 Mr. Edward Sapir was engaged in col- 
lecting data for the handbook, on the language of theTakelma, 
residing at the Siletz Agency, Oregon, and toward the close 
of the year Mr. Leo J. Frachtenberg began similar studies 
among the Tutelo remnant on the Tuscarora Reservation in 
Ontario, Canada. 

Reports of the discovery of fossil remains of men of ex- 
tremely primitive type in the vicinity of Omaha, Nebraska, 
led to the assignment of Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, curator of 
physical anthropology in the National Museum, to the duty 
of visiting the University of Nebraska, at Lincoln, where the 
remains are preserved, and also the site of their exhumation. 
The examinations were made with the greatest care, and 
the results are embodied in Bulletin 33 of the Bureau, which 
was in press at the close of the fiscal year. The conclusion 
reached by Doctor Hrdlicka with respect to the age and 
character of these remains is that they are not geologically 
ancient, belonging rather to the mound-building period in 
the Mississippi Valley, and that, although a number of the 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

crania are of low type, this was a characteristic appearing 
among many comparatively recent mound-building tribes. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year the Bureau was fortu- 
nate enough to enter into arrangements with Prof. Herbert 
E. Bolton, of the University of Texas, for recording the 
history of the Texan tribes. During the early historical 
period the French controlled and came into intimate relations 
with the northern Caddo, hence the early history of this group 
is to be found chiefly in French records ; but with this excep- 
tion it is mainly in Spanish documents, scattered and almost 
wholly unprinted. These facts make the task in every sense 
a pioneer one. 

The Spanish manuscript sources available to Professor 
Bolton, and upon which, aside from the printed French 
sources, he has thus far mainly drawn, consist of (1) the 
Bexar archives, a rich collection of perhaps 300,000 pages of 
original manuscripts that accumulated at San Antonio during 
the Spanish occupancy, now in the University of Texas; 
(2) the Nacogdoches archives, a similar but much smaller 
collection that accumulated at Nacogdoches and that is 
now in the State Historical Library; (3) the Lamar papers, a 
small collection of Spanish manuscripts, now in private 
hands; (4) mission records preserved at the residence of the 
Bishop of San Antonio; (5) copies of docimients from the 
Archivo General of Mexico, belonging to the University of 
Texas and to Professor Bolton; and (6) the various Mexican 
archives. From these have been extracted a great many 
notes, but much material yet remains to be examined. 

During the year Professor Bolton's efforts have taken three 
principal directions: (1) He has systematically and fully 
indexed, on about 10,000 cards, a large amount of the early 
material, including tribal, institutional, linguistic, historical, 
and other data on the whole Texas field. (2) From this 
material as a basis he has written for the Handbook of 
American Indians many brief articles on tribes and missions, 
aggregating about 20,000 words. (3) While in the analysis of 
the materials and the making of the index cards he has 
covered the whole field, in the final work of construction he 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 17 

has begun the Caddoan tribes of eastern Texas, with the 
design of treating them separately. In this work Professor 
Bolton has made commendable progress. He has already 
written a detailed description, consisting of about 40,000 
words, of the location, social and political organization, 
economic life, religion, and ceremonial of the Hasinai, com- 
monly designated "Texas," as known and described by the 
earliest European chronicles, accompanied with a map. 

The task of writing a history of the Texas tribes is a great 
one, and can be performed only by long and painstaking 
effort, but its successful accomplishment promises an impor- 
tant addition to our knowledge of the native Americans. 

PRESERVATION OF ANTIQUITIES 

With the object of assisting the departments of the Govern- 
ment having custody of the public domain in the initiation of 
measures for the preservation of the antiquities of the 
country, the compilation of a descriptive catalogue of anti- 
quities has been continued, and the preparation of bulletins 
having the same end in view has also received every possible 
attention. Bulletin 32, Antiquities of the Jemez Plateau, by 
Edgar L. Hewett, was published and distributed during the 
year, and Bulletin 35, Antiquities of the Upper Gila and Salt 
River Valleys in Arizona and New jMexico, by Dr. Walter 
Hough, was in page form at the close of the year, while bul- 
letins by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, on the Antiquities of the 
Little Colorado Valley, and Edgar L. Hewett, on the Anti- 
quities of the Mesa Verde, Colorado, were in course of prep- 
aration. 

The sum of $3,000, appropriated by Congress for the 
excavation, repair, and preservation of Casa Grande Ruin, 
in Arizona, was disbursed by the Smithsonian Institution, 
Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
having charge of the work. A brief preliminary report on 
the first year's operations will appear in the Quarterly Issue 
of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. A second 
appropriation of $3,000 is provided for continuing the work 
during the coming year. 

20903°— 28 ETH— 12 2 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

During the year uniform rules and regulations intended to 
ser\'e in carrying out the recently enacted law for the preser- 
vation of national antiquities were formulated and adopted 
by the three departments having control of the public 
domain. Under these, on recommendation of the Secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution, permits were issued for con- 
ducting explorations on Indian reservations and in national 
forests in Idaho and Wyoming, by the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York, and among the ancient ruins on 
the public lands in Navajo and Apache Counties, Arizona, by 
the University of California. Arrangements were also made 
with the Interior Department for carrying on explorations 
at Casa Grande Ruin, Arizona, by the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. Under the same law during the year three important 
archeologic sites were declared national monuments by the 
President of the United States. They are as follows: 
Chaco Canyon, in New Mexico, including several important 
ruined pueblos; El Morro, New Mexico, commonly known as 
Inscription Rock; and Montezuma Castle, in Arizona, an 
important cliff-ruin. 

CATALOGUE OF LINGUISTIC MANUSCRIPTS 

The archives of the Bureau contain 1,626 manuscripts, 
mainly linguistic, of which only a partial catalogue had 
previously been made. In January Mr. J. B. Clayton, head 
clerk, began the preparation of a card catalogue, which was 
completed at the close of the year. The manuscripts were 
jacketed in manila envelopes of uniform size, except where 
bulk prevented, and were numbered from 1 to 1,626. 

The catalogue comprises about 14,000 cards which give, 
as completely as available data permit, the names of stock, 
language, dialect, collector, and locality, as well as the date 
of the manuscript. It was not possible in every instance to 
supply all the information called for imder these heads, but 
the card has been made as complete in each case as the 
information permitted. The cards have been an-anged in 
one alphabetical series, the names of the languages not only 
under these languages in their proper alphabetic place, but 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 19 

also alphabetically under their stocks. Under the name of 

each collector his manuscripts are indexed under stocks, 

languages, and dialects. The data in regard to "place" are 

defective, and a number of the manuscripts are from unknown 

soui'ces. 

EDITORIAL WORK 

Mr. Joseph G. Gurley, who was appointed to the position 
of editor for a probationary period during the previous year, 
was permanently appointed on August 16, 1906. 

The editorial work of the year may be summarized briefly 
as follows: The proof reading of the Twenty-fourth Annual 
Report was completed and the work advanced to publication. 
At the close of the year the Twenty-fifth Annual was prac- 
tically finished, with the exception of the presswork, while 
the Twenty-sixth Report was in page form, so that the work 
was practically ready for printing. Bulletin 32 was com- 
pleted and published early in the year, and Bulletin 36 also 
has been issued. Bulletins 33, 34, and 35 are in type, and 
the proof reading on Bulletins 33 and 35 has progressed so far 
that they can be put on the press at an early day. 

For about three months the Bureau has had the efficient 
services of Mr. »Stanley Searles, who was courteously detailed 
for the purpose from the proof-reading force of the Govern- 
ment Printing Office. The editor has assisted to some 
extent in the proof reading of the Handbook of American 
Indians, Bulletin 30, which is in charge of Mr. F. W. Hodge. 

PUBLICATIONS 

During the year the Twenty-sixth Annual Report and 
Bulletins 33, 34, 35, and 36 were forwarded to the Public 
Printer. Bulletins 31 and 32 were pul^lished in July. 
Part I of the Handbook of American Indians (Bulletin 30) 
appeared in March and the Twenty-fourth Annual Report 
in May. One thousand copies of the List of Publications of 
the Bureau (Bulletin 36) and 500 copies of a special article 
on Indian missions were issued in June. Fifteen hundred 
copies of the Twenty-fourth Annual Report and the same 
number of Bulletin 30, Part I, and Bulletin 32 were sent to 



20 ItUUKAU OI'' AMKHICAN KTHNOLOGY 

rojiuhir recipients. About 1,500 copies of Bulletin 30, Part 
I, and 200 copies of the Twenty-fourth Annual, as well as 
numerous bulletins and separates, were distributed in 
response to special requests, presented for the most part by 
Members of Congress. 

The distribution of publications was continued as in 
former years. The great increase in the number of libraries 
in the country and the multiplication of demands from the 
public generally have resulted in the almost immediate 
exhaustion of the quota of volumes (3,500) allotted to the 
Bureau. Few copies of any of the reports remain six 
months after the date of issue. 

LIBRARY 

The library remains in charge of Miss Ella Leary, who was 
able to bring the accessioning and cataloguing of books, 
pamphlets, and periodicals up to date. In all, there have 
been received and recorded during the year 760 volumes, 
1,200 pamphlets, and the current issues of upward of 500 
periodicals, while about 500 volumes have been bound at the 
Government Printing Office. The library now contains 
13,657 volumes, 9,800 pamphlets, and several thousand 
copies of periodicals which relate to anthropology. The 
purchase of books and periodicals has been restricted to such 
as relate to anthropology and, more especially, to such as 
have a direct bearing on the American aborigines. 

COLLECTIONS 

The collections of the year comprise large series of objects 
obtained by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, in his excavations at 
Casa Grande Ruins, Arizona, conducted under the unme- 
diate auspices of the Smithsonian Institution, and by Mrs. 
M. C. Stevenson in Zuui and Taos pueblos. New Mexico. 

Some of the minor collections are a cache of stone knife 
blades from the vicinity of Tenleytown, District of Columbia, 
obtained through the kindness of Mr. C. C. Glover; a series 
of relics (fragments of pottery) from the temple of Diana at 
Caldecote, presented by Mr. Robert C. Nightingale; relics 



AnMINISTRATIVE REPORT 21 

from the shell heaps of Popes Creek, Maryland, presented 
by Mr. S. H. Morris, of Faulkner, Maryland; and a number 
of stone implements and unfinished soapgtone utensils from 
the ancient quarries on Connecticut Avenue extended, Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, collected by Mr. W. H. Gill. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

The division of illustrations was, as heretofore, in charge 
of Mr. De Lancey Gill, who was assisted by Mr. Henry 
Walther. One hundred and fifty-nine illustrations were 
prepared for Bulletins 30, 33, 34, and 35, and a large number 
of proofs of illustrations for the various volumes were 
revised. The photographic work included the making of 
277 negatives required in the illustration work and 160 
portraits of Indians of visiting delegations. Negatives 
developed for ethnologists returning from the field numbered 
96. During the year a total of 11,078 photographic prints 
was made. 

Albert Samuel Gatschet, a distinguished philologist and 

ethnologist, for many years connected with the Bureau, 

died at his home in Washington, District of Columbia, 

March 16, 1907. 

W. H. Holmes, Chief. 



NOTE ON THE ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 

The papers included in this vohuue are not necessarily to be re- 
garded as a part of the scientific results of the Bureau's researclies 
(hiring the jieriod covered by the athiiinistrative report, but are incor- 
porated herein for the sake of convenience. 

The report by Doctor Fewkes on the celebrated Casa Grande and 
surrounding ruins in southern Arizona embodies the resuUs of his 
observations during excavations comkicteil therein throughout two 
winter seasons, by means of special appropriations by Congress for 
that purpose, together with a review of the general knowledge of 
tliese ruins from tlie time they })ecame known to the Spaniards in tiie 
seventeentli century. Two papers on the subject of Casa Grande 
were previously jniblis])ed under tlie auspices of the Bureau, one, by 
]Mr. Cosmos ^lindcleff, in the Tlurteentli Annual Report, tlie other, 
by the same author, presenting an account of tlie rejiair of the main 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

mill, iu Iho Fifteenth Annual Report. It was not until the excava- 
tions conihioted by Doctor Fcwkes, liowever, that an adequate 
kiiowleilge of the character anil importance of the great house clus- 
ters was obtained, and this knowledge, together with such historical 
data as are available, is now embodied in the present volume as a jier- 
manent and final record. A preliminary report of Doctor Fewkes' 
work at Casa Grande during the first season has been published in the 
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 

A second paper by Doctor Fewkes summarizes the results of his 
investigations of the Antiquities of the Upper Verde River and Wal- 
nut Creek Valleys, Arizona. This report is preliminary in character 
antl is supplementary to the memoir by Mi-. Cosmos Mindelefl' pub- 
lished in the Thirteenth Aiuiual Report of the Bureau on the arche- 
ology of tiie lower valley of the Verde. No excavations have yet 
been conducted iu the region of which Doctor Fewkes treats, yet suf- 
ficient evidence has been gathered from a study of the arclutectural 
features of the ruins now visible to enable a determination of the 
western limits of Pueblo culture in central Arizona and to defuie the 
area in which a distinct culture has its begimiing. 

The memoir by Dr. Truman Michelson, being a Preliminary Report 
on the Linguistic Classification of Algonquian Tribes, with a map, is 
based on the author's studies for the Bureau during the years 1910- 
1912. The Algonquian tribes are now found to be divided Imguist- 
ically into four major groups, Blackfoot, Cheyemae, Ai-apalio, and 
Eastern-Central. The results of Doctor Michelson's observations 
elucidate many questions formerly existing with respect to the inter- 
relations of the various Algonquian languages and dialects. The 
map illustrating the memoir was prepared with the cooperation of 

Dr. John R. Swanton. 

F. W. Hodge, 
Ethnologist-in-charge. 
April, 1912. 



ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 



23 



CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA 



JESSE WALTER FEWKES 



25 



CONTEXTS 

Page 

Introduction 33 

Work of excavation and repair 37 

First season 37 

Compound A 37 

Second season 40 

Compound B 40 

Clan-house 1 41 

Compounds C and D 42 

Traditions 42 

Font's legend 43 

Legends from other sources 44 

How a chief of another "great house" enticed the women from Casa ■ 

Grande 45 

How turquoises were obtained from Chief Morning Green 46 

How Morning Green lost his power over the Wind gods and the Rain 

gods 47 

The birth of Hok 48 

A creation legend 49 

A flood legend 49 

Historj' 53 

Discovery and early accounts 54 

Mange's narrative 55 

"Rudo Ensayo " narrative 56 

Garc6s' narrative 57 

Font's narrative 58 

Grossman's narrative 61 

Early American reports 62 

Emory's narrative 63 

Johnston's narrative 64 

Bartlett's narrative 66 

Hughes's narrative 68 

Later American reports 68 

Hinton's description 68 

Bandelier's account 69 

Cushing's researches 72 

Fewkes's description 72 

Cosmos Mindeleff's description 79 

Present condition 82 

Main building 82 

Construction 82 

Rooms 82 

Walls 83 

Floors 84 

Doorways and windows 85 

Casa Grande mounds 86 

General description 86 

Compound A 88 

Southwest buildint,' 88 

Northeast building 89 

27 



28 CONTENTS 

Casa Grande mounds — Continued. 

Compound A — Continued. Pago 

Rooms on the west hall 90 

Six ceremonial rooms .• 90 

Central building 91 

Pont 's room 91 

Rooms between Casa Grande and Font 's room 92 

Rooms adjoininj; the most northerly of the six ceremonial rooms 92 

Northwest room 92 

Rooms near east wall 92 

Northeast plaza 93 

Central plaza 93 

East plaza 93 

Southwest plaza 93 

South court 93 

Compound B 95 

Pyramid A 97 

Pyramid B 98 

Rooms east of Pyramid B 99 

Southeast plaza 100 

North plaza 100 

West area 100 

Subterranean rooms 102 

Compound C 102 

Compound D 104 

Compounds E and F 106 

Clan-house 1 106 

Piefuse-heaps Ill 

Reservoirs Ill 

Irrigation ditches 113 

Mescal pits 116 

Methods of disposal of the dead 117 

Minor antiquities 118 

Mindeleff collection ■ 119 

Pinckley collection 120 

Fewkes collection 120 

Stone idols 120 

Stone implements 122 

Pottery 133 

Specialized forms 133 

Decoration of Casa Grande pottery 137 

Beams and rafters 142 

Cane cigarettes 142 

Shell objects 143 

Bone implements 145 

Wooden implements 146 

Basketry 147 

Fabrics 148 

Copper bells 148 

Pictographs 148 

Seeds 150 

Relation of compounds to pueblos 150 

Summary of conclusions 153 

Appendix; Catalogue of specimens from Casa Grande 161 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Page 

Plate 1. Adamsville (Sanford's Mill) 34 

2. Tcurikviiaki 35 

3. Section of wall of ruin between Casa Grande and Tcurikvaaki 35 

4. Bird's-eye view of Casa Grande group of ruins, looking northwest . . - 36 

5. General view of Casa Grande group of ruins 37 

6. Ground plan of Compound A 38 

7. Bird's-eye view of Compound A, from the east 39 

8. Casa Grande, from the southwest 43 

9. Northeast corner of Casa Grande 43 

10. West wall of Casa Grande, showing component blocks 79 

11. Bird's-eye view of north half of Compound A 80 

12. Bird's-eye view of Compound A, from the south 80 

13. Southwest building of Compound A 88 

14. Southwest building of Compound A, from the north 88 

15. Northeast rooms, Compound A 89 

16. Northeast rooms. Compound A 89 

17. Area adjoining Casa Grande on the east 89 

18. Six ceremonial rooms, Compound A 90 

19. Ceremonial rooms and plaza, Compound A 90 

20. West wall of Font's room, from the southeast 91 

21 . East rooms. Compound A 91 

22. Rooms and corner. Compound A 92 

23. Northwest corner, Compound A 92 

24. Northeast comer. Compound A 93 

25. Compound B, before excavation 95 

26. Ground plan of Compound B 95 

27. Bird's-eye view of Compound B, from the south 95 

28. Bird's-eye view of Compound B, from the east 96 

29. Northeast corner of Compound B 97 

30. Corner and rooms. Compound B 97 

31. Plaza and rooms. Compound B 97 

32. Walls and rooms. Compound B 97 

33. Plaza and walls. Compound B 97 

34. Views of Pyramids A and B, Compound B 98 

35. Comers of Compound B 98 

3fi. Plazas and rooms. Compound B 99 

37. Plaza and rooms, Compound B 99 

38. Typical ancient reservoir, and rooms of Compound B 100 

39. Walls of Compound B 100 

40. Pictographs from Casa Grande and vicinity 101 

41. Subterranean rooms and clay-pits 102 

42. Appearance of compound-walls before excavation 106 

43. Bird's-eye view of Clan-house 1, from the northeast 106 

44. Bird's-eye view of Clan-house 1, from the southwest 106 

45. Clan-house 1 106 

29 



30 ILLUSTRATIONS 

Pugc 

Plate 46. Annex to Clan-house 1. ..i 108 

47. Stone idols 121 

48. Stone idols 121 

49. Grooved stone axes 123 

50. Grooved stone axes 123 

51. Grooved stone axes 123 

52. Grooved stone axes 124 

53. Grooved stone axes ] 24 

54. Grooved stone axes 124 

55. Grooved stone ax, showing effects of secondary pecking 124 

56. Stone hammers 124 

57. Stone hammers 125 

58. Problematical stone implements 125 

59. Problematical stone implements 125 

60. Grinding-stones 125 

61. Stone implements 126 

62. Grinding-stones 126 

63. Manos , 126 

64. Mortars and pestle 127 

65. Mortars 128 

66. Problematical stone objects 129 

67. Miscellaneous objects 130 

68. Stone disks 131 

69. Stone balls and disk 131 

70. Stone shovels 131 

71. Stone shovels 131 

72. Pottery 133 

73. Pottery 133 

74. Clay objects '. 137 

75. Shell carvings 143 

76. Wooden shovels or spades 146 

77. Wooden paddles 146 

78. Modern objects found on surface 147 

Figure 1. Sketch of Casa Grande ruin (Mange) 55 

2. Ground plan of Casa Grande ruin (Mange) 55 

3. Ground plan of Compound A (Font) 59 

4. Casa Grande in 1846 (after a drawing by Stanley) 64 

5. Casa Grande in 1846 (.Inhnston) 65 

6. Casa Grande in 1852 (Bartlett) 66 

7. Casa Grande ruin, from the south 73 

8. Interior of room, showing doorway and lines of floor 75 

9. Interior of north room, looking west 76 

10. Casa Grande ruin, looking northwest 78 

11. Southeast corner of ruin, showing part of east wall 83 

12. West wall of Font's room (about 1880) 87 

13. Ground plan of Compound B (made before completion of excava- 

tions), showing height of walls in feet 96 

14. Ground plan of Compound C 103 

15. Ground plan of Compound D •. 104 

16. Hand-prints and eroded base of wall of house in Compound D . . . . 105 



ILLUSTRATIONS 31 

Page 

Figure 1 7. Ground plan of Clan-house 1 107 

IS. Sarcophagus in room K of annex to Clan-house 1 108 

19. Seat in room M, Clan-house 1, looking northeast 109 

20. Seat in room M, Clan-house 1 , looking southwest 110 

21 . Stone image of mountain sheep 122 

22. Stone ax 123 

23. Stone ax 123 

24. Stone ax 124 

25. Grooved double-edge ax. .-. 125 

26. Stone hammer 126 

27. Dumb-liell shaped stone maul 127 

28. Plummet-like object 127 

29. Tixil for rubbing or grinding pigment 128 

30. Paint pestle from burial in annex room M. ( Ian-house 1 129 

31 . Perforated stone slab of unknown use 129 

32. Perforated stone disk used in game 130 

33. Knife or projectile point 131 

34. Stone balls 132 

35. Stone bead 133 

36. Stone ornament 133 

37. Ornament of jasper 133 

38. Tooth-shaped pendant of stone 133 

39. Shovel with handle 134 

40. Three-legged earthenware dish 135 

41. Pottery fragment bearing bird's head 135 

42. Bowl bearing bird's head decoration (restored ) 136 

43. Spindle whorls 137 

44. Fragment of burnt clay ha-\-ing lines incised in surface 138 

45. Earthenware bowl decorated with triangle pattern 139 

46. Triangle design decorating bowl 140 

47. Design decorating vase 141 

48. Bracelet of Pecturwuhis shell 144 

49. Shell (Conils) finger ring decorated with incised design 144 

50. Shell frog 144 

51. Copper bells 148 

52. Incised pictograph of "the House of Tcuhu " 149 

53. Model of Pima circular house constructed south of Compound A . . 1.53 

54. Tj'pical modern Pima rectangular dwelling 154 



CASA O^iRANDE, ARIZONA 



By Jesse Walter Fewkes 



INTRODUCTION 

The ruin known by the Spanish name Casa Grande, "Great House," 
is situated near the left bank of the Gihx River about 12 miles from 
the site of the present town of Florence, Ariz. Immediately after 
the discovery of Casa Grande by Father Kino, in 1694, there arose a 
legend, wliich became persistent, that it was one of the halting places 
of the Aztec on their way south, or that it was connected in some way 
with the southern migrations of ]\Icxican tribes. We find it desig- 
nated also, in early, and even in later writings, Casa Montezuma, or 
the House of Montezuma, a name that in late years has passed prac- 
tically out of use, the ruin being now universally known, among both 
Americans and Mexicans, as Casa Grande, the name given it by 
Father Kino. The Pima Indians, who dwell in the neighborhood, 
claim Casa Grande as the habitation of one of their ancient chiefs, 
and designate it by several names, among wliich are Vaaki, Old 
House ; Civanavaaki, Old House of the Cliief ; and Sialini Civanavaaki, 
Oltl House of Chief Morning Green. 

Casa Grande was a ruin when discovered and has not been perma- 
nently inhabited since it was first seen by a wliite man. The identity 
of its builders has furnished a constant theme for speculation from the 
discovery of the ruin to the present time. Although it has been 
ascribed to the Aztec, there is no evidence that the ancient people 
who inhabited this building were closely related to any tribes of the 
Mexican plateau, whose culture, as indicated by archeologic remains, 
was tlifferent from that of the Pueblos, or sedentary tribes of New 
Mexico and Arizona. The age of Casa Grande and contiguous 
remains is unknown, but there is good reason to believe that settle- 
ments on their site were older than most of the present pueblos or 
cliff-dwellings. The Pima claim, however, that it is not so old as 
ruins of the same general character situated near Phoenix, on Salt 
River, a short distance from its junction with the Gila. 

20903°— 28 ETH— 12 3 33 



34 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [etii. ann. 28 

Some of the Pima formerly had a superstitious fear of Casa Grande 
which at times led tliem to avoid it,' especially at night, and many 
do not now willingly slecj) or camp near this remarkable monument 
of antiquity — a feeling that has given rise to stories that Casa Grande 
is haunted. It is believed by some Indians that at times flames issue 
from the ruin; several Pima women were seen to cross themselves 
when passing near it. 

Although Casa Grande is situated a considerable distance from the 
nearest railroad station, it can be conveniently reached by carriage 
either from the town of Florence, or from Casa Grande station on the 
Southern Pacific Railroad. The route to the ruin via Florence is 
slightly shorter than that from Casa Grande station, enabling one to 
make the visit and return in a single day. There are a hotel and 
livery stables in both towns, but the visitor should proviile for his 
own refreshment at the ruin, where there is a gootl well w'ith abundant 
water.- 

After leaving Florence the road to Casa Grande follows the left 
bank of the Gila westward, crossing a level stretch and skirting for a 
few miles the base of a low gravelly mesa. The first aboriginal object 
of interest met with is a group of Indian huts situated on the left 
of this road. This settlement is of recent origin; the rectangular 
houses composing it are built in the old style and inhabited by Pa- 
pago. Near it looms a low white mound indicating an ancient ruin, 
which will well repay a brief visit. Following the road farther west- 
ward, the traveler passes through a cluster of houses known as Adams- 
ville (pi. 1), formerly called Sanford's Mill, an old Mexican settlement; 
this consists of a double row of rambling roofless houses built of 
adobe. Although AdamsviUe is one of the "dead" to\vns of Arizona 
and for the most part is deserted, a Mexican famity still lives in a fairly 
well preserved room at the west end of the village. The walls of an 
old gristmill are still pointed out and those of the former hotel can 
still be traced. This settlement was once an important station ^ on 
the stage-coach route between Tucson and Phoenix, and many stories 
are current regarding the stirring events which took place in these 
now tenantless rooms when Apache roamed unrestricted the plains 
of Arizona.* The foundations of the adobe walls have been much 

1 This is not true of most of the Pima. While engaged in relating to the writer the accompanying legends 
of Casa Grande, Thin Leather slept for several weeks in the west room of the ruin. The hooting of the owls 
which nest in the upper walls may add to the Pimas' dread of it. but did not seem to disturb him. Sevi<ral 
rattlesnakes have been killed in this room , the record of the area covered by the mounds being 20 for the year 
the writer was engaged in work on Compound A. 

2 The resident custodian, Mr. Frank Pinckley, has built his house in Compound .\. and has likewise dug 
a well, no water having been available when he took up his residence at the ruin. On account of the 
extreme heat in midsummer, the autumn, winter, or spring months are the best seasons of the year in 
which to visit the ruins at Casa Grande. 

3 Several persons in Florence, known to the writer, who were bom in .Idamsville, remember when it was a 
flourishing town. 

* If the walls of this place could speak they could recount many bloodcurdling tales of early Arizona ' 
history. The son of the Pima chief, Antonio Azul, is sai<i to have been killed in this village. 




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TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 2 




FROM THE SOUTHWEST 




FROM THE SOUTHEAST 
TCURIKVAAKI 



FEWKEs] INTRODUCTION 35 

weakened by rains and in a few years the buildings now standin*;; will 
fall to the ground. 

Somewhat off the main road to Casa Grande, about half a mile south 
of Adamsville, on a plateau or mesa, rises a cluster of mounds ■ indicat- 
ing the site of a settlement called by the Pima Tcurikvauki {tcuriJc, 
"bisnaga cactus"; vdaki, "old house"), which is well worth visiting. 
Tliis ruin (pi. 2) is approached from the Casa Grande highway by a 
rarely traveled road, not much more than a wagon track, branching 
from the main thoroughfare a short distance west of the town. The 
standing walls of a house - that rise considerably above the surface of 
one of the mounds resemble in structure and general appearance those 
of Casa Grande. Among the mounds in tliis cluster is one oval in 
shape wath a central ilepression indicating a former tank or reservoir. 
Near by, the surrounding wall of a large compound, including a high 
mound, suggests that Tcurikvaaki was formerly a place of consid- 
erable importance. From this ruin there is a road to Casa Grande 
which passes a large, conspicuous mound, the site of .another ancient 
Indian settlement. This mound (pi. 3) is instructive because it shows 
sections of a wall formerly inclosing a rectangular area, suggesting 
the surrounding wall at Casa Grande. 

If the visitor follows the direct route from Adamsville to Casa 
Gramle 'W'ithout making a detour to the Indian mounds above men- 
tioned, he can discern the roof, of corrugated iron, painted red, for 
some distance before he arrives at his destination. On each side of 
the road the traveler passes several small mounds belonging to the 
Casa Grande Group, which are situated not far from the large p3Tam- 
idal elevations marking Compound B. 

The high range on the north side of the Gila in fuU sight of the 
traveler the whole way from Florence to Casa Grande is called Super- 
stition Mountains. Tliis range separates part of the Gila Valley from 
the valley of the Salt River; it is a very wild and broken area, ending 
precipitously on the south and the west. Concerning this region 
many Pima legends are extant, the best known of which recounts how 
a flood once covered the whole earth.'' To this place an antediluvian 
chief, named White Feather, followed by his band, once retreated, 
climbing to the top of these mountains for safety. The water is said 
to have risen in the valley to a level half-way up the mountain side, 

1 The niins in the Gila-Salt Valley resembhng Casa Grande are considered in another report, Prehistoric 
Ruins of the Gila Valley (in Smithsonian Miscellaneoits Collections, No. 1873). 

2 The writer has been informed that Dr. Carlos Montezuma was sold in this house by a Pima Indian. 

3 This is supposed to be the flood the legend of which is still related by old men of the Patki clans of 
Walpi, who say it was the cause of their leaving Palatkwabi, the mythic southern home of this people. 
The Pima have a legend of a place in southern Arizona out of which at one time water gushed and cov- 
ered the whole earth. Here they made offerings, which are continued even to the present day. They 
call the place by a name meaning "where women cry," for a child was once sacrificed there to cause the 
waters to subside. 



36 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [etji. ANN. 'JS 

where tlicro is now a stratum ol' white rock' wliich is ch'ariy visil)le 
from Casa Grande. White Feather is said to iiave taken his stand 
on top of one of the pinnacles, whence he aihlressed his followers, re- 
minding them that he had exhausted his magic power in vain efforts 
to stay the flood. But one supreme resource to control the rising 
water still remained. As he spoke, he lield aloft in the palm of one 
liand a mediciiie-stone, invoking the aid of the Sky god, who in reply 
sent a bolt of lightning that shattereil the stone. But as the chief 
turned to his followers they were found to be j)etrified where they 
stood, and tliere they still stantl as rocky pimiacles.- 

Tiiere are many Indian shrines in Superstition Mountains, and as 
the wind whistles through the deep recesses the Indian fancies he 
can hear the moans of the shades of the dead who inhabit tliose 
dreary canyons. 

Another less conspicuous hill, called Walker's Butte, on the north 
side of the GOa not far from the river bank, is constantly in sight 
for a long distance from the road from Florence to Casa Grande. 
Near its base ruined housewalls were discovered, and other remains 
of aboriginal life, as pictographs, can be found on lava rocks in the 
neighborhood. 

The traveler along this road catches glimpses also of the lofty Santa 
C'atalina Mountains far to the southeast, while to the south rises the 
distant Casa Grande Range. A solitary peak called Pichacho Moun- 
tain is a spur of a range of the same name that lies to tlie southeast, 
marking the position of a pass through which the early travelers 
entered this region from Mexico. Near tliis peak was situated in 
old times a Pima settlement called Akutchin ("moutli of tlie creek"), 
inhabited from early Spanish times down to a comparativel}' late 
date. The mountain itself, known as Tcacca by the Pima, is also 
associated \\'ith Pima legends of the country.^ The area about the 
ruin of Casa Grantle is broken by but few elevations. 

The vegetation in the vicinity of Casa Grande consists mainly of 
desert growth — mesquite trees, sagebrush, and giant cacti. After the 
spring rains begin many herbs appear, some bearing small flowers 
which carpet the earth ■with variegated colors. Long before one comes 
to the largest mounds (pi. 4) at Casa Grande, fragments of pottery 
and other indisputable evidences of former human occupancy may 
be detected on the surface of the ground. At a Mexican adobe house 
a few miles from the ruins, near the GUa River, can be traced a long 
ditch, filled in here and there, marking the site of the prehistoric 

' A feature of the huge butte here rising to the right of the road to Eoose\-eIt Dam, resembling in form 
an eagle, by which name it is known to the Pima. 

: These pinnacles are in plain sight from the road from Mesa to Roosevelt Dam. They are results of ero- 
sion, the work of which on a vast scale is risible in many places on the slopesof the Superstition Mountains. 

3 There are still a few Tima and Tapago huts in the neighborhood. 




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PEWKES] WOKK OF EXCAVATION AXD REPAIR 37 

irrigiitiou ciuial, rescinbliny a inodtTU ditch in approximately tlie 
same place. 

There is no considerable outcrop of rock in the innnediate vicin- 
ity of Casa Grande and the neighboring plain is almost wholly devoid 
of stones large enough to vise in the construction of walls; neverthe- 
less, several rooms have stones of considerable size built into the 
foundations of their walls.' 

WORK OF EXCAVATION AND REPAIR 

The excavation of the mounds of Casa Grande was conducted by 
tlie Smithsonian Institution by means of appropriations made by 
Congress for the jiurpose, the work extenduig through two winters 
(1906-07 and 1907-08). The first season's field work was limited to 
what is here designated Compound A; the second to Compound B 
and Clan-house 1, together with considerable work on Compounds 
C and D.- (Pi. 5.) 

First Season 

compound a 

In the first season the excavations were begun at the base of the 
two fragments of walls rising from the ground at the southwest angle 
of Compound A. At the beginning of the work the writer was wholly 
ignorant of the existence of a wall surroundmg the area now called 
Compound A, the object of opening the mound at the base of the 
outside fragment bemg to repau- the base with cement to prevent its 
falling. With the exception of several low mounds, more or less 
scattered, the area about the historic building, Casa Grande, was 

1 rertain implements from Casa Orande, as hatchets and axes, were apparently made from stones col- 
lected in the river bed or washed into view along the- arroyos, 

2 The manual work of excavation and repair was performed by Pima Indians together with several white 
men who voluntarily assisted, among whom should be mentioned the custodian, Mr. Frank Pinckley, and 
Messrs. Hugh Hartshome, Thomas Ackerman, the late Thomas Ray, and others. 

Road building, cutting away underbrush, grading, and incidental work, necessary to open the niin to 
visitors, consumed some time during both seasons. 

In order to aid those who wish to know when early discoverers visited Casa Grande, and to enable 
them to follow descriptions where the designations Compounds A, B, C, etc., are used in this report, 
signljoards bearing that information were erected at convenient places. Wooden steps were also placed 
wherever they could facilitate mounting to the tops of the pyramids. 

The Pima workmen above mentioned were natives of the neighboring town of Blackwater, a collection 
of modem houses, settled by colonists from Casa Blanca. At the time ef the discovery of Casa Grande and 
for several years thereafter, there was a Pima settlement called Uturituc ("tlie comer"), a few miles from 
Casa Grande, near the Gila. The natives were driven out of this settlement, the site of which is said to have 
been washed away as the result of a change in the course of the river. The writer has heard an old Pima 
call Ca.sa Grande Utiu-ituc, owing to a confiLsioii of localities. 

San Juan Capistrano de Uturituc is thusreferred to by Father Pedro Font (1775): "This town consists of 
smalllodgesof the kind that the Gilenos use . . . Theylodged meinalargehut [possiblylikethe "Cap- 
ilia' ' on the San Pedro) which they constructed to that end and in front of it they placetl a large cross, 
pagans though they were ... In the afternoon I went to the town with Father Garces and the 
governor. Papago de Cojel, to see the fields. Their milpas are Inclosed by stakes, cultivated in sections 
with fine canals or draws, and are excessively clean. They are close by the town on the banks of the river, 
which i3 large in the season of the freshets." 



38 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [lOTii, ANN, 28 

level, no sign of the Ixmndarv wall of tlie compound projecting 
above the siirroundiuir plain. 

On excavating to the base of the western, or outermost, of the two 
fragments it was discovered that the true foundations are deep below 
the eroded part and that a thick wall extends north and south fi-om 
that point. This wall was found to continue to a point 420 feet to 
the north, where it turns at right angles, forming the northwest 
corner of the compound, thence runnuig 230 feet in an easterly 
direction. Thus was brought to light the west wall, the longest wall 
of any compound in the Casa Grande Group of rums. It was then a 
simple task to trace the three remaining walls, those forming the 
north, south, and east sides of the compound. (PL 6.) 

After the surroundmg walls of Compound A had been traced 
throughout their whole length by excavation, a trench being dug 
along the outside of each to its foundations, it was necessary to 
remove the earth that had accumulated without and within the 
inclosure through the years that had passed since Compound A had 
been abandoned. This was an undertaking of magnitude. When 
Casa Grande was inhabited the wall of the compound was probably 
7 feet high. The upper part (about 3 feet) had fallen level with the 
ground, about 4 feet above the base, and the debris had filled in 
along the base throughout the whole length and breadth of the 
compound.' This great accumulation of clayey soil was removed by 
means of scrapers and transported to the distance of about 50 feet 
from the compound. 

In addition to the removal of the earth that had fallen outside the 
compound,^ on the four sides, a drain was dug from the base of each 
wall along its entire length. This was constructed with sufficient 
incline to convey water from the wall into a larger ditch extending 
from the northeast corner to a depression 200 feet away. Similar 
removals of earth were made and similar ditches constructed on all 
sides of Compound A; the aggregate length of the drains thus made 
about this compound is not far from 1,500 feet. 

The construction of the main drainage ditch just mentioned was 
a work of considerable magnitude, as it was necessar}', in order to 
insure the requisite fall, to cut through several elevations or refuse- 
heaps, that obstructed' the course. In addition to the draining 
ditches above described, a layer of clay coated with a thin layer of 
cement was placed along the bases of the walls of Compound A to 
prevent undermining and rapid destruction of their foundations; in 
some places Mexican adobes were laid on top of the wall to shed 
water and preserve it from erosion. The foundations of the waUs 

1 A preliminary report on the excavations made in 1900-7 was published in Smilhsonian Miscellaneous 
Collections, L (No. 1772), 1907. 

2 The accumulation of earth on the east side near the southeast angle was not removed. It is conjectured 
that this part ot the compoimd was once occupied by small huts, the habitations of the people. 




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FEWKES] WORK OF EXCAVATION AND REPAIR 39 

vvero piorced at intoivals to ])revent water from accumulating in the 
compound. 

The excavations within the compound were even more extensive 
than tliose outside ; from this inclosure a Larger amount of debris had to 
be removed to a greater distance than from the area outside the walls. 

A block of rooms was excavated in the southwest mound from 
which rise the two fragments of walls above mentioned. It is 
instructive to note that the east walls of these rooms are worn down 
more than the west walls, which are still several feet high, and that 
the effects of erosion are also more marked on the east side of the 
historic structure of Casa Grande. The condition may be explained 
in this way: Originally the east walls were probably not so high as 
the west walls, a terrace, or platform, being situated on the former 
side, but the prevailing storms, which come from the east, beating 
with greater force against the eastern walls, caused them to disin- 
tegrate more rapidly. 

The now conspicuous row of six ceremonial rooms extending from 
the northeast corner of the historic building to the north wall of the 
compound presented the appearanc* before excavation merely of a 
low ridge. This ridge, or mound, was a favorite camping place for 
visitors, especially when the sun was high, the walls of the building 
making here a pleasant shade. The excavation and removal of 
the earth from these six rooms and the clearing away of the fallen 
material from the foundations of the outer walls proved to be a work 
of considerable magnitude.^ 

The removal of the earth from the plaza in the northwest part of 
Compound A to the former level of its floor, the excavation of the 
room in the northwest angle, and the transportation of the accumu- 
lations of earth alone necessitated the employment of many workmen 
for a considerable period. Much time was consumed in clearing out 
the large cluster of rooms on the northeast side of the compound. 
Wlien excavation began at this point nothing was visible but a large 
mound. 

The massive-walled building east of Casa Grande, the west wall of 
which rose several feet above the surface of the mound, was not 
difficult to excavate, as the earth could be readily removed and the 
distance to the dump was not great. The southeast section of the 
compound, which presents no conspicuous elevation, still awaits 
excavation. (PI. 7.) 

To show the supposed character of the habitations of the ancient 
people of Compound A, a Pima circular jiut (fig. 53) was built near 
the southwest angle, outside the inclosure. 

1 Some walls which especially needed protection against the elements were capped with adobe bricks to 
prevent erosion. 

3 The number of cubic yards of earth removed from this vicinity was not accurately determined, but 
some idea of the aggregate may be given by the statement that 10 scrapers were employed for almost a 
month in accomplishing this result. 



40 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [btii. an.v. 28 

Second Season 

The field work carried on in l!){)7-8 was devoted to Clan-house 1 
and to Compounds B, C, and D, beginninf:; with an attempt to deter- 
mine the position of the surrounding wall of Compound B. The only 
indication of the existence of this wall was a low "platform," or 
elevation, mentioned by several authors, rising a few feet above the 
surface of the plain. 

COMPOUND B 

The boundary wall of this compound was fu-st encountered at its 
southeast angle and the first section to be laid bare was the south 
wall. Having determined the course and length of this wall, the 
debris was removed from its foundation so that the wall stood clear 
for an average height of 3 feet. A drain was dug about 5 feet 
from the base to carry the surplus water into a depression a few 
hundred feet northwest of the compound. 

The determination of the east wall of Compound B was somewhat 
more difficult than that of the north and west walls because of a 
reconstruction, or change in direction, possibly by way of repair 
by the builders, at the southeast corner. The east wall was found 
to be for the greater part more massive than the south wall and 
more dilapidated on top than the other walls. The excavation of 
the north wall followed the completion of the work on the east, the 
debris about it being removed by means of scrapers. Provision 
was made for turning all drainage to the northwest corner where the 
level was somewhat lower than elsewhere; thence the water was 
conducted into a depression a hundred feet away. 

The sidjterranean room untler the northeast wall of Compoiuid B 
was roofed over to prevent it being filled with water, which in couree 
of time would have destroyed the floor and other evidences of its 
existence. The wall of the compound, which passes over this sub- 
terranean room, was in danger of falhng. In order to prevent this 
a support made of masonry was placed under it, resting on the floor 
of the underground room. 

More earth had to be removed from the base of the west wall of 
Compound B than from all the others combined, a fact which suggests 
that formerly this wall was higher than the others but that a con- 
sideraMe portion had fallen or been worn dowai, buiying the founda- 
tions. The task of carrying away earth that hatl fallen from the 
walls on the outer side and the removal of debris that hatl washed 
over it from a neighboring refuse-heap was a considerable one. \Mien 
this work was finished the wall stood, in the middle, about 10 feet 
in height. 

The excavation of the plazas and rooms adjoining the two great 
pyramids, or inclosed mounds, of Compound B was not so difficult 



PEWKES] WORK OF EXCAVATION AXD REPAIR 41 

as in the case <if Compmind A, but the removal of the earth was 
more tedious, it being necessary to carry tlie material a f)jreater 
distance. Tlio difficulties of work in Compound B were somewhat 
increased by the presence of successive floors, one below another. 
This condition was found on the tops of the mounds and in the 
plazas, necessitating careful excavation by hand. 

The outlines of the many fragile-walled houses supported by rows 
of posts could readily be followeil, but as the supports were much 
decayed, provision for the preservation of evidence of the existence 
of these rooms, which otherwise under the torrential summer rains 
would soon be destroyed, had to be made. To incUcate the positions 
of the upright sui)ports of these walls, new posts of cottonwood were 
inserted in the old holes, most of which were found to be filled with 
fine j^ellow sand and the decaj^ed remains of the former su]i|)orts. 
The fireplaces in the middle of the floors of these fragile-waUed 
rooms, opposite the entrances, were jjrotected with wooden covers. 
The floors were smoothly made and evidenth' had been tramped 
do\vn. 

The bases of all the walls exposed by the excavation work were 
strengthened wth cement, so that the.y might resist longer the action 
of the water. 

CLAN-HOUSE 1 

The excavation and repair of Clan-house 1 were satisfactorily 
completed. No walls were visible wlien work began, but two low 
ash-col( red mounds were traceable among the mesciuite trees, indicat- 
ing the site of a large building; there was no means of knowing, how- 
ever, the shape or size of the rooms later brought to light. As work 
progressed on the larger, or more westerly, of these mounds, the west 
wall of a large building was the first to be traced. Having determined 
the position of the southwest corner, the removal of earth from the 
south and west walls was easily accomplished. The earth was hauled 
some d'stance from the walls by means of scrapers and later provi- 
sion was made for diverting the surface drainage on these two sides. 
The ou side of the east and north walls was similarlj^ treated. Tem- 
porar}' roadways left about midway in the west wall were utihzed for 
liauling the material removed from the central room. The plaza east 
of tliis loom was filled originally with earth to the level of the top of 
the compound walls; the removal of this to the level of the floors 
of the central room and plaza required abdut a month. The bases 
of the walls were treated with cement and shallow drains parallel 
with them were dug to carrj' away the surplus water. 

The presence of unusually large accumulations of earth in the 
rooms of Clan-house 1 can not be accounted for wholly by the f alhng 



42 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [etii. ann. ;;8 

of tho iniitoriiil eroded from the top of tlic walls, hut was due in part 
to drifted sand, wliich for the fijrcater part lillcd the rooms of the 
compounds. The saiidstorms left deposits at tlie bases of the walls, 
both witliin and without, the sand often drifting like snow; but 
when the drift was once arrested by the walls and by roots of mes- 
quite trees, and weighted down by the adobe that fell from the 
walls, the rooms and walls were eventually covered. 

COMPOUNDS C AND D 

The amount of excavation and repair work on Compounds C and 
D was not so extensive as on Compounds A and B. Neither of 
the former contained high mounds, and apparently neither ever had 
included extensive buildings mth thick high walls. The walls of the 
central building of Compound C were low and few in number. The 
corners and surrounding walls in Compounds C and D having been 
determined, part of the accumulated earth was removed, provision 
being made for protection of the wall where necessary. In both 
these compounds the surrounding wall had been worn down almost 
to the level of the plain, a low platform being the only visible evidence 
of its former existence. 

TRADITIONS 

The question. Who built Casa Grande ? has been repeatedly asked 
the Pima Indians dwelling in the neighborhood from tlie time of its 
discovery in 1694 and their answer has generally come to be, the 
" Hohokam," or Ancients. But if their old men are interrogated 
more closely they frequently mention the name of a chief (civan) 
called Morning Green, who, they affirm, constructed the buildings 
and ruled over the inhabitants. There is internal evidence that the 
legends they relate of this chief are not inventions of the modern 
Pima; at all events incidental references to him as master of the 
Wind gods and the Rain gods date back to Father Font's narrative 
in 1775. Modern variants of the legends are probably somewhat 
embellished, however, by repetition from one generation to another.' 
The Pima conception of this chief is best indicated by quoting a few 
folk-tales, some of which have not been pubhshed while others have 
been known for many years. 

1 Dr. Frank Russell's excellent monograph on The Pima Indians (S6lh Ann. Eep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol.) 
shows the wealth of Pima (or Maricopa?) material still available. This material, like all legends, can be 
treated in a scientific way in the Interpretation of culture and should not be rejected by archeologists. 
Ethnology is simply culture-history, of which archeology is one chapter. 

Neglect of ethnology in the study of the archeology of the American Indians is unfortunate. Some 
of the Pima told the writer that nis interpreter had made mistakes in interpretations, so that what is 
given here can be regarded only as approximations to tnith. As will appear in many of these legends, 
the chief of Casa Grande is exalted into a cultus-hero, who had extraordinary magic powers; in some stories 
he is represented as the supernatural offspring of the sun and a maid. 




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FBWKES] TRADITIONS 43 

There still survive among the Mexicans living in the neigliborhood 
of Casa Grande (pis. 8, 9) a few stories connecting Montezuma with 
this ruin. One day wliile the writer was at work on Compound B, an 
old Mexican who visited the place said that several years ago as he was 
driving past the ruin from Florence to his farm, which is soutli of the 
main building, a man with a long white beard, clad only in a single 
short garment, stopped him and without a word took his seat on the 
wagon. When they arrived at Casa Grande the mysterious personage 
alighted and ^\'ithout speaking entered the ruin; he was never seen 
agam. The Mexican asked whether the writer thought this strange 
person was Montezuma the old cliief . 

Font's Legend 

This legend (1775) contains the following story (related to Father 
Font by the governor of Uturituc), which is the oldest legendary 
account of Casa Grande, or Civanavaaki,' extant, from Pima sources: 

He [the governor] said — 

That in a very distant time there came to that land a man who, because of his 
evil disposition and harsh sway, was called The Bitter Man; that this man was old 
and had a young daughter; that in his company there came another man who was 
young, who was not his relative nor anything, and that he gave him in marriage 
his daughter, who was very pretty, the young man being handsome also, and that 
the said old man had with him as servants the Wind and the Storm-cloud. That the 
old man began to build that Casa Grande and ordered his son-in-law to fetch beams 
for the roof of the house. That the young man went far off, and as he had no ax nor 
anything else with which to cut the trees, he tarried many days, and at the end he 
came back without bringing any beams. That the old man was very angry and told 
him he was good for nothing; that he should see how he himself would bring beams. 
That the old man went very far off to a mountain range where there are many pines 
and, calling on God to help him, he cut many pines and brought many beams for 
the roof of the house. That when this Bitter Man came, there were in that land neither 
trees nor plants, and he brought seeds of all and he reaped very large harvests with 
his two servants, the Wind and the Storm-cloud, who served him. That by reason 
of his evil disposition he grew angry with the two servants and turned them away and 
they went very far off; and as he could no longer harvest any crops through lack of the 
servants, he ate what he had gathered and came near dying of hunger. That he sent 
his son-in-law to call the two servants and bring them back and he could not find them, 
seek as he might. That thereupon the old man went to seek them and, having found 
them, he brought them once more into his service, and with their aid he had once more 
large crops, and thus he continued for many years in that land ; and after a long time 
they went away and nothing more was heard of them. 

He [the governor] said also, that after the old man there came to that land a 
man called The Drinker, and he grew angry with the people of that place and he 
sent much water so that the whole country was covered with water, and he went 
to a very high mountain range which is seen from there, and which is called The 
Mountain of the Foam (Sierra de la Espuina), and he took with him a little dog and a 
coyote. (This mountain range [Superstition Mountains] is called ' ' of the foam " because 
at the end of it, which is cut off and steep like the comer of a bastion, there is seen high 

' The term Clvanavaaki, which has been translated "chief of the ancient house," is a general term applied 
also to other casas grandes in the Gila-Salt Valley. 



4-i CASA URANDE, ARIZONA (etii. ann. 28 

up noar the top a white brow as of rock, which also continues along the range for a good 
(lislamc, and the Indians say that this is the mark of the foam of the water which rose 
to that height.) That The Drinker went up, and left the dog below that he might 
notify hiiu when the water came too far, and when the water reached the brow of the 
foam the dog notified The Drink(^r, because at that time the animals talked, and the 
latter carried him up. That after some days The Drinker Man sent the Rose-sucker 
(Chuparosas) to Coyote to bring him mud; they brought some to him and of the mud 
he made men of different kinds, and some turned out goo(J and others bad. That 
these man scattered over the land, upstream and downstream; after some time he 
sent some men of his to see if the other men upstream talked ; these went, and returned 
saying that although they talked, they had not undoi-stood what they said, and that 
The Drinker Man was very angry because the,-!e men talked without his having 
given them leave. That next he sent other men downstream to see those who had 
gone that way and they returned saying that they had received them well, that they 
spoke another tongue but that they had understood them. Then The Drinker Man 
told them that those men downstream were the good men and there were such as far 
as the Opa, with whom they are friendly, and there were the Apache, who are their 
enemies. He [the governor] said also that at one time The Drinker Man was angry 
with the people and killed many and transformed them into saguaros (giant cacti), 
and on this account there are so many saguaros in that country . . . Furthermore, 
he said that at another time The Drinker Man was very angry with the men and 
caused the sun to come down to burn them, and was making an end of them; that he 
now begged him much not to bum them, and therefore The Drinker Man said that 
he would no longer bum them and then he told the sun to go up, but not as much as 
before, and he told them that he left it lower in order to burn them by means of it, 
if ever they made him angry again, and for this reason it is so hot in that country in 
summer. 

He [the governor] added that he knew other stories; that he could not tell them 
because the time was up, and he agreed to tell them to us another day; but as we 
had laughed a little at his tales, which he related with a good deal of seri'ousness, 
we could not get him afterward to tell us anything more, saying that he did not know 
any more.' 

Legends from Other Sources 

In the account of Casa Grande given by Johnston^ lie wrote (1847) 
as follows: 

The general asked a Pimo who made the house [Casa Grande] I had seen. '-It is 
the 'Cara [sic] de Montezuma,'" said he; "it was built by the son of the most beautiful 
woman who once dwelt in yon mountain; she was fair, and all the handsome men 
came to court her, but in vain; when they came, they paid tribute, and out of this 
small store, she fed all people in times of famine, and it did not diminish; at last, as 
she lay asleep, a drop of rain fell upon her navel, and she became pregnant, and brought 
forth a boy, who was the builder of all these houses." 

Capt. F. E. Grossman^ in 1S71 made the following allusions to tlie 
Pima legends regarding Casa Grande : 

The Pinias claim to be the direct descendants of the chief S6'-ho. The children of 
S6'-h6 reinhabited the Gila River Valley, and soon the people became numerous. 

1 It will be seen that there are some parts of this story almost identical with a story that lollows, told 
I lie writer by Thin Leather in 1907-8. 

! Johnston, Journal, in Emory, Notes of a Military Reconnoissant-e, Washington, 1848 (Ex. Doc. 41 , 30th 
Cong., 1st sess., 1,848). 

3 Smithsonian Report for 1871, p. 408. 



FBWKES] 



TRADITIONS 45 



One of the direct descendants of So'-ho, King Si'-\ a-no. erected the Casas Grandes 
on the Gila River. Here he governed a large empire, before — long before— the 
Spaniards were known. 

The following quotation is taken from Bandelier's report:* 

Mr. J. D. Walker, an old resident in the vicinity of Casa Grande, who lias lieen to 
me personally an excellent friend and valualile informant, told me this tale. 

The Gila Piraas claim to liave been created on the banks of the river. After residing 
there for some time a great flood came that destroyed the tribe, with the exception of 
one man, called Ci-ho. He was of small stature, and became the ancestor of tlie present 
Pimas. The tribe, beginning to grow in numbers, built the villages now in ruins and 
also spread to the north bank of the river. But there appeared a monstrous eagle, 
which, occasionally assuming the shape of an old woman, visited the pueblos and stole 
women and children, carrying them to his abode in an inaccessible cliff. On one 
occasion the eagle seized a girl with the intention of making of her his wife. Ci-ho 
thereupon went to the cliff, Init found it impossible to climli. The girl, who was still 
alive, shouted down to him the way of making the ascent. When the eagle came l)ack, 
Ci-ho slew him with a sword, and thus liberated his people from the scourge. - 

The following existhig Pima legends relating to Morning Green, 
cliief of Casa Grande, were collected from Thin leather (Kamaltkak), 
an old Pima regarded as one of the best informed story-tellers of 
the tribe.^ Some of his legends repeat statements identical witli 
those told to Father Font, 137 years ago, a fact which proves ap- 
parently that they have been but little changed by intervening 
generations. The statement whicli recounts how Morning Green 
was miraculously conceived by a Hohokam maiden has been verified 
by several legendists. The following stories supplement published 
legends of tliis chief and other ancients and sited light on the condition 
of early society in the settlement over wliich Morning Green is said 
to have ruled. 

HOW A CHIEF OF ANOTHER " GREAT HOUSE " ENTICED THE WOMEN 

FROM CASA GRANDE 

Morning Green, chief of Casa Grande, invited Chief Tcernatsing and his women to 
visit him. Tcernatsing lived in a great house situated near Gila Crossing, which is so 
far away from Casa Grande that he found it necessary to camp one night en route at 
the settlement on the Gila River opposite Sacatou. \\"hen the visitors arrived at 
Casa Grande a dance was celebrated in the open space north of Compound A, some- 
where between it and the circular wall inclosing a reservoir or "well." Here the 
women who accompanied Tcernatsing danced with those of Casa Grande, singing the 
song: 

Ta sai na ivu uH 
Sun shade sing with me 
My body will become a humming-bird 
When Tcernatsing came and witnessed the women dancing he shook his rattle and 
sang a magic song, which enticed all the women of Casa Grande to follow him to 

1 Bandelier, Final Rep., pt. n, in Papers Arch. Irmt. Anur., iv, p. 463, 1892. 

2 For another version ol this talc, see Bancroft, Native Races, vol. iii, p. 79. 

3 Many other legends were collected, but these have no bearing on Casa Grande, and some of them have 
been published by previous observers, especially Doctor Russell, who obtained many of his stories from 
the same authority. It is said that most of these legends are from the Maricopa; several show missionary 
influence. 



46 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [bth. ann. 28 

another fiance place, nearer the Gila. Morning Green, who also sang a magic song, 
found it powerless ' to prevent the departure of the women, and he went back to his 
house for a more powerful "medicine," after which he returned to the dance and 
ordered his women back to their dwellings; but they were so much bewitched by the 
songs of Tceniatsing that they could not, or would not, obey him. Farther and 
farther from their homes Tcernatsing enticed the women, dancing first in one place 
and then in another until they came to his compound. Among the women who 
abandoned their home was the wife of Morning Green, who refused to return even 
after ho sent a special messenger to her. 

The sequel of the legend is that Tcernatsing married Nactci, a daughter of Morning 
Green, making her father so angry that he sent a spider to bite his own grandson, off- 
spring of the union. When the boy was sick unto death Tcernatsing invited Morning 
Green to visithisgrandson before the boy died. Morning Green relented and senthis 
daughter an herb (the name of which is lost) powerful enough to cure the spider's bite, 
and thus the child's life was spared.^ 

Another legend of Chief Morning Green, also obtained from Thin 
Leather, affords an instructive glimpse of prehistoric thought. 

HOW TXJRQUOISES WERE OBTAINED FROM CHIEF MORNING GREEN 

One day, long ago, the women and girls of Casa Grande were playing an ancient 
game called toka,^ formerly much in vogue at Casa Grande, but now no longer played 
by Pima. During the progress of the game a blue-tailed lizard was noticed descending 
into the earth at a spot where the stones were green. ^ The fact was so strange that it 
was reported to Morning Green, who immediately ordered excavation to be made. 
Here they eventually discovered many turquoises, with which they made, among 
other things, a mosaic covering for a chair that used to stand in one of the rooms of 
Casa Grande. This chair was carried away many years ago and buried, no one knows 
where. 

Moniing Green also distributed so many turquoises among his people that the fame 
of these precious stones reached the ears of the Sun, in the East, who sent the bird 
with bright plumage (parrot?) to obtain them. Wlien Parrot approached within a 
short distance of Casa Grande he was met by one of the daughters of the chief, who 
returned to the town and announced to her father the arrival of a visitor from the Sun. 
The father said, "Take this small stick, which is charmed, and when Parrot puts 
the stick into his mouth, you lead him to me." But Parrot was not charmed by the 
stick and refused to take it into his mouth and the girl reported her failure. The 
chief answered, "Perhaps the strange bird would eat pumpkin seed," and told his 
daughter to offer these to him. She made the attempt without result and, returning, 

' Evidently Morning Green had met his equal in Tcernatsing, whose " medicine "was superior to that he 
employed on the first trial of magic power.. 

= Morning Green (SiaUm Tcutuk) is regarded by the Pima as an historic personage. Ciran is here inter- 
preted as a generic name for "eliief,'' not limited to Morning Green alone; all chiefsof the ancients are called 
civani. In commenting on the word Siha of Kino and Mange, and on Cibola, Doctor Russell puts this 
query: Is the similarity of this term (siba) to Shi'wona or Shi'wina, given by Mr. F. H. Cushing as the 
native name of the Zufli country, a mere coincidence? This question assumes a new significance if we 
remember that some of the Zufli clans originally came from villages ruled over by the Civani. 

3 The players in this game were generally 10 in number, facing each other about 100 yards apart. Eacb 
participant had a pointed stick with which she caught a rope having a knot at each end. 

< In a legend of the Hopi, turquoises are said to be the excrement of a reptile. 

The legend of the "throne" of Montezuma covered wilh turquoises may be of late introduction, but how 
the resemblance to the Mexican accoimt is to be accounted for among the Pima does not appear; possibly 
by the same means as in the ease of the name Montezuma. In this connection attention is directed to the 
"seat" excavated in Clan-hou.se 1 (fig. 19). 



FEWKES] 



TRADITIONS 47 



reported that the bird refused pumpkin seed. The father then said, "Put the seed 
into a blanket and spread it before the bird; then perhaps you may capture him." 
Still Parrot would not eat, and the father thereupon suggested watermelon seeds. 
But Parrot was not tempted by these nor by seeds of cat's claw, nor was he charmed 
by charcoal.' 

The chief of Casa Grande then told his daughter to tempt Parrot with corn well 
cooked and soaked in water, in a new food-bowl. Parrot was obdurate and would not 
taste it, but, noticing a turquoise bead of blue-green color, he swallowed it; when the 
two daughters of the chief saw this they brought to him a number of blue stones, 
which the bird greedily devoured. Then the girls brought valuable turquoise beads, 
which Parrot ate; then he flew away. The girls tried to capture him, but without 
success. He made his way through the air to the home of the Sun in the East, where 
he drank an emetic and vomited the turquoises, which the Sun god distributed 
among that people which reside near his house of rising, beyond the eastern moun- 
tains. This is the reason, it is said, why these people have many stone ornaments 
made of this material. 

But when the chief of Casa Grande heard that Parrot had been sent to steal his tur- 
quoises, he was greatly vexed and caused a violent rain to fall that extinguished all 
fires in the East. His magic power over the Rain god was so great that he was able 
even to extinguish the light of the Sun, making it very cold. Then the old priests 
gathered in council and debated what they should do. Man-Fox was first sent 
by them into the East to get fire, but he failed to obtain it, and then Road-runner 
was commissioned to visit Thunder, the only one that possessed fire, and steal his 
lighted torch. But when Thunder saw him running off with the torch he shot an 
arrow at the thief and sparks of fire were scattered around, setting afire every tree, 
bush, and other inflammable object, from which it happens that there is fire in every- 
thing. 

HOW MORNING GREEN LOST HIS POWER OVER THE WIND GODS AND 

THE RAIN GODS 

Morning Green is reputed to have had special magic power over two supernatural 
beings, known as Wind-man and Rain-man. It happened atone time that many people 
were playing a game with canes in the main plaza of Morning Green's settlement [Casa 
Grande], on the south side of the compound; among these were Rain-man and Wind- 
man. The latter laid a wager that if he lost, his opponent should look on the charms 
of a certain maid. When Wind-man lost, in revenge he sent a great wind that blew 
aside her blanket, at which indignity she cried and complained of Wind-man to 
Morning Green, who wa-i so angry that he made Rain-man blind, obliging him to l)e 
led about liy his servant, the wind; he also banished both from Casa Grande. They 
went to the San Bernardino Mountains in what is now California and lived at Eagle 
Mountain, near the present town of Wadsworth, where as a consequence it rains 
continually. 

After the banishment of these two the rain ceased at Casa Grande for four years, and 
Morning Green sent Humming-bird to the mountains where Wind-man ancF Rain-man 
resided. Humming-bird carried with him a white feather, which he held aloft to detect 
the presence of the wind . Three times he thus tried to discover Wind-man l)y the move- 
ment of this feather, V)ut was not successful. When at last Humming-bird came to a 
place where there was much green grass he again held up the feather to see whether it 
showed any movement of the air. It responded by indicating a slight wind, and later 
he came to the spot where W'ind-man and Rain-man were, but found them asleep. 

1 Charcoal, the product of fire, is regarded by the Hopi Yaya, or fire priests, as possessing most powerful 
magic ID healing diseases, especially those of the skin in which there is a burning sensation. 



48 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [ktii. anx. 28 

Humming-bird dropped a little medicine on the breasts of Wind-man and Hain- 
man, which caused them after a time to move and later to awake. \Mien they had 
risen from their sleep Humming-bird informed them that Morning Green had fient him 
to ask them to return and again take up their abode with him at Casa Grande. Rain- 
man, wholia<l no desire to return, answered. "Why did Morning Green send us away?" 
and Wind-man said, "Return to Morning Green and tell him to cut off his daughter's 
hair and make from it a rope.' Bring this rope to me and I will tie it about my 
loins that Rain-man, who is blind, may catch hold of it while I am leading him. But 
advise all in Casa Grande to take the precaution to repair the roofs of their houses 
so they will not leak, for when we arrive it will rain violently." Humming-l)ird 
delivered the message to the chief of Casa Grande and later brought back the twisted 
rope of human hair. Wind-man and Rain-man had barely started for Casa Grande 
when it began to rain, and for four days the downpour was so great that every roof 
leaked. Morning Green vainly used all his jiower to stop the rain, liut the magic 
availed but little. 

THE BIRTH OF HOK 

Long ago the Sun god sent a messenger on an errand to the settlement now called 
Casa Grande. As this messenger proceeded on his way he occupied himself in kicking 
a stone ball, and on approaching Casa Grande he gave the ball so violent a kick that 
it landed near a maiden who sat on the housetop making pottery. Seeing the object, 
the girl picked it up and hid it under her belt. \Mien the man sought the stone it 
was nowhere to be found; he asked the girl if she knew where it fell, but she would 
not divulge what had become of it. Discouraged in his quest, the man was about to 
return to the Sun god, but the girl urged him not to depart but to search more dili- 
gently for the ball. She also sought for it, but it was no longer under her lielt; it had 
disappeared. Later she was with child and in due time gave l)irth to a girl l)aby, 
which, instead of feet and hands, had claws like a bear or a mountain lion. As thia 
strange child grew older and played with other boys and girls she scratched them so 
often with her claws that they were afraid of her, and ran away whenever she appeared. 
The brothers of the girl were hunters of rabbits, but were unsuccessful.. When their 
sister grew older she followed them to the hunt and their luck changed, so that thence- 
forth they killed plenty of game. As she matured, however, she outgrew all restraint 
and became a wild woman. She was then called Hok. and developed into a cannilial 
monster, who caiitnred her victinis wherever she went and carried them in a basket 
on her back until she wished to devour them.- Hok once met two youths, whom she 
tried to capture, but they ran swiftly away and when she made another attempt they 
blinded her by throwing sand in her eyes. This monster terrorized the whole country 
to such an extent that the ancients sought her life, but in vain. The culture-hero, 
Tcuhu, endeavored to kill Hok. He turned himself into a snake and furnished the 
children with rattles; when Hok approached them they shook these rattles and 
frightened her. Hok first retired to a distant cave in the Santa Catalina Mountains, but 
later went south to Poso Verde. The peojile living there were also opjjressed by Hok 
and desired to kill her. Tcuhu ' sent word to his uncle that there was to be a dance at 
Casa Granule and asked him to invite Hok to attentl. This was a kind of ceremonial 
dance in which men and women participate, forming a circle and alternating with 
each other. Several invitations were sent to Hok, but she did not accept; at last she 
promised to attend the dance and to be there at sunset. Tcuhu danced and smoked 
with Hok, and the festivities lasted four days and nights. \\'hile she was absent the 

' Ropes were made of human hair up to within a few years l)y the I'ima. who used them on burden- 
baskets (kihits) and for other purposes. 

2 The Hopi have a similar bogy, who is personated annually at Walpi in February, at which time she 
threatens to kill all children. She carries a knife in her hands, and has a basket on her back for the heads 
of the victims she declares she will decapitate. 

^ The name Tcuhu is sometimes interchanged with Atonlezuma a-s if the two personages were identical. 



FEWKES] , TRADITIONS 49 

womcr. <;;itlierod wood and made a fire in the cave where Hok lived. When she dis- 
covered what had taken jilace she flew to the top of her cave and entered it through 
a crack open to the sky. At the opening Tcuhii stood so as to prevent Hok's escape 
and slew her as she emerged. 

A CREATION LEGEND 

In the beginning all was dark and there was neither earth nor sky. Earth Doctor 
(Tcuwut M;irka) was the only being then living.' 

Earth Doctor t6ok a particle of sweat from his body and made from it a small disk, 
which he hold in his hand and started to go to the west. When he stopped, the sweat 
showed signs of life, for it trembled; he proceeded and still the material moved. He 
halted four times in his course and as he stopped the fourth time the disk, which was 
the nucleus of the earth, became stable, and neither trembled nor wavered.- He then 
knew he was at the middle point of the universe. Earth Doctor then made a bush and 
created small ants to feed on it. lie took a louse from his breast and put it at the root 
of the bush. This insect found a ring of soil that kept growing larger and larger as 
Earth Doctor danced near it, until it became the earth. In the same way the solid 
sky was formed . Earth Doctor pounded ' ' medicine " in a bowl and shortly afterward 
there appeared over the surface a transparent substance resembling ice. Earth Doc- 
tor threw this substance toward the north, where it fell but shortly afterward rose 
again and then sank below the horizon. He then cast another fragment to the west 
and it fell below the horizon, never to rise again. He threw another fragment into 
the south; this struck the earth or sky and bounded back, whereupon he picked it up 
and again threw it to the south. This time it ro.se and passed over the sky. These 
fragments became the sun and the moon, both formed in the same way. Earth Doctor 
spurted a mouthful of medicine-water into the sky and created the stars, first the 
larger and then the smaller, the last of all being nebukie like the Milky Way. Having 
formed the celestial bodies, he made seeds of all food used by man, after which he 
created men and women from a particle of sweat or grease from his body. 

Buzzard Doctor lives in the Underworld, where there are many people similar to 
those who inhabit the earth. The entrance [si'pa/)i(] to this underworld is in the east. 

As soon as men and women had been created they began to quarrel; this an- 
gered Earth Doctor and he put them to death. After he had killed all human beings, 
Earth Doctor and Buzzard emerged together from the Underworld and the former 
begged the latter to help him re-create men and women. The result was men who 
were gray-haired at birth. Earth Doctor again destroyed man because he smoked 
too much, but on the fourth trial there emerged from the earth four men who later 
became great medicine-men — Land, Buzzard, Tcuhu, and Tohouse.' 

The youth Tcuhu became a great warrior and married many women, whom he 
deserted before children were born.* 

A FLOOD LEGEND 

The Pima believed that the flood was caused by Earth Doctor, who stuck his staff * 
into the ground, making a hole out of which water issued, covering the earth. Tcuwut, 
Tcuhu, and To house crawled into ollas and floated away. \Vhen the earth was 

' This legend diCfers from other purely aboriginal creation legends with which the author is acquainted, 
in accounting for the origin of earth and sky. 

= See Zuni legend of the search for the "middle," or stable, point on the earth (in 13th Ann. Rep. Bur. 
Ethnol., p. 373). 

2 Because the men were thus destroyed foiu" times some people think there are four worlds. 

* The son of Tcuwut went to get his child, but when he took it in his arms he became a snipe and the baby 
became what the IMma call a water baby. 

^.Several Hopi and Hano legends recount that when the tipoiii, or emblematic palladium, was placed on 
the earth a spring was developed. 

20903°— 28 ETH— 12 4 



50 CASA ORANDE, ARIZONA . I etii. ann. L'8 

covered with water, Iluniniinjj-liiid, led by liuzzaid, flow into the sky, cryinn; out 
that they wt)uld return after the water should have subsided. lUizzard soareil aloft 
to an opening in the sky, throuf;h which he passed, but his companion could not 
follow him. Both were caught in the passage and there they hung. Humming-bird 
cried because it was cold in the sky region, but Woodpecker made a nest of feathers 
to keep them warm. The flood rose until the water reached them and there may still 
be seen on the feathers of the woodpecker marks where the water touched him. 

The olla in which Tcuhu was concealed floated far away into the southwest, but 
that containing Earth Doctor went northwest. The third, in which was Tohouse, 
went east. The tracks of the ollas of Earth Doctor and Tohouse Doctor crossed sev- 
eral times and as they did so Earth Doctor addressed the other as Elder Brother. 
There were seven persons saved from the flood, and these were called brothers. Their 
names are Tcuwut, Tcuhu, Tohouse, Buzzard, Woodpecker, Humming-bird, and an 
unknown. When the water had subsided these seven brothers held a council to deter- 
mine the position of the middle of the earth. Woodpecker was sent to the east and 
Humming-bird to the west, to find it. Three times they returned without success, 
but on their fourth meeting they reported that they had found the middle of the 
earth. 

Tcuhu plucked a hair from the right side of his head and, jiutting it in his mouth, 
drew it back and forth, stretching it and miraculously forming a snake, which he laid 
on the earth at his north side. He took a hair from the left side of his head and, stretch- 
ing it out as before, created a second snake, which he laid at the west side. He then 
laid one at the south and another at the east.' These snakes prevent the water from 
flooding the land and cau.se it to flow in channels or rivers. Tcuhu created ants, 
which he put on the wet ground; these threw up hills that became dryland. After 
the water had subsided Earth Doctor, Tcuhu, and Tohouse set themselves to re-create 
men, having agreed not to inform one another what kind of beings each would make. 
To prevent one another from seeing their work they faced in different directions — Earth 
Doctor to the east, Tohouse to the south, and Tcuhu to the west. WTaen their crea- 
tions were finished it was found that Tcuhu had made men similar in form to those 
now living, but that Tohouse's men had webbed fingers like ducks, while those cre- 
ated by Earth Doctor had but one leg each and subsisted not on food, but on smells, 
which they inhaled. Tcuhu asked Tohouse why he made his men with webbed 
fingers. "That they may live in water," responded Tohouse. Tcuhu was dissat- 
isfied with the beings made by Tohouse, and he threw them into the water, where they 
became ducks. The creations of Earth Doctor became fishes and snakes; he was 
much pleased with his children, which descended into the Underworld where he 
daily visits them. 

When Earth Doctor stuck his staff into the ground to cause the flood and water cov- 
ered the earth, most of the people perished, but some escaped and followed White 
Feather, who fled to the top of Superstition Mountains. The water rose, covering all 
the valley until it was as high as the line of white sandstone which is a conspicuous 
landmark. White Feather, surrounded by his followers, tried all his magic in vain to 
prevent the further rise of the flood. When he saw he was powerless to prevent this, 
he gathered all his people and consulted them, saying, "I have exhausted all 
magic powers but one, which I will now try." Taking in his left hand a medicme- 
stone from his pouch, he held it at arm's length, at the same time extending his 
right hand toward the sky. After he had sung four songs he raised his hand and 
seized the lightning and with it struck the stone which he held. This broke into 
splinters with a peal of thunder and all his people were transformed into the pinna- 
cles of stone which can now be seen projecting from the summit of one of the peaks 
of the Superstition Mountains. 

' It is thought that dreams come from the east and that the west sends cold. 



FEWKKs] TRADITIONS 51 

The fcillowcrs of Tcuhu and Tohouse united and built a house. Four days after 
this house was begun Tcuhu sent Tohouse to visit a people he had created, in order 
to learn what language they spoke. When Tohouse found that they spoke Apache 
and so reported, Tcuhu assigned them to the land of cold wind and rain. Tcuhu 
again sent Tohouse to discover whether there were other people on the eai-th; return- 
ing after a time the latter reported to Tcuhu that he had heard of men speaking 
Mohave, Yuma, and Maricopa, but not Pima. After four days Tcuhu again sent 
Tohouse to search for any men allied to his people, and he reported finding those 
who continually said, <S(on, stoK, ''it is hot." He returned and told Tcuhu he had 
found lost brothers, because he had detected in their speech a Pima word. Tcuhu 
said they must be his people; he said also, ' ' I will give them dark cool nights in which 
they can sleep, and I will send them dreams and they shall be able to interpret these 
dreams." All these peoples were gathered into the house Tcuhu had built [Casa 
Grande?]. But after a while there were bickerings and quarrels among men. The 
Apache left for the mountains where they said they also would have dreams and 
thus they became hereditary enemies of the Pima. At this time all the Pima inhab- 
ited the Salt River Valley, not far from the site of the present Phoenix. 

White Feather and his people lived in a settlement called Sturavrik Civanav^ki, 
near Tempe, the site of which is now a large mound. According to some legends, 
this chief was the first man who taught the Pima irrigation and he showed them also 
how to plant corn. Through his guidance his people became prosperous and all the 
Pima congregated at his settlement to trade. 

The people of a settlement near Mesa could not build a canal because the ground 
in the vicinity was so hard, so they asked Tcuhu to aid them. He sang magic songs 
for four days, and at the fourth song the ground softened and the people easily exca- 
vated the ditch, but the water would not run in it. Tcuhu found he was powerless 
to make it do so and advised them to invite Towa Quaatam Ochse,' an old woman 
who lived in the west by the great water, to aid them. She was summoned and 
sent word to the Mesa people to assemble in their council-house and await her com- 
ing. They gathered and awaited her coming but she did not appear. At night a 
man passing that way saw her standing at the highest point of the canal blowing 
"medicine" along the ditch. Later there came a great wind that dug out a wide 
channel and water ran in the canal. The Casa Grande people, it is said, learned the 
art of irrigating from those living on the site of Tempe, who were taught by Tcuhu. 

Feather-plaited Doctor was an evil-minded youth who lived at Wukkakotk, north 
of Casa Grande. Tonto- visited Feather-plaited Doctor, but the latter would not 
notice him, although he made the customary offering of four cigarettes. Three times 
Tonto repeated his visit to Feather-plaited Doctor, and on the third visit the latter 
accused him of being a gossip and on that account refused to have anything to do 
with him. On the last visit he told Tonto that although he did not like him he did 
not object to his visits, but he warned him, if he wished to see him, not to gamble at 
night and not to have anything to do with women without his permission. At that 
time there was a man who wished to gamble with Tonto but, forewarned, the latter 
refused. When Tonto was asked the reason, he revealed his promise to Feather- 

■ This personage corresponds to Hazrinwuqti, or Woman of Hard Substance (shell, stone, and turquoise) 
of the Hopi. 

2 The writer's interpreter claimed that tonto is a pure Pima word, hence the fact that in Spanish it 
signifies " foolish " would seem to be fortuitous. It appears in the term Totonleac, used bj- early Span- 
iards to designate a "kingdom," sometimes regarded as synonymous with Jlfotj. also a Pima word. On 
the theory that totonteac is pure Pima, the writer derives it from In-ton, and toac orleac, a termination which 
occursinthe name of a mountain (Kihutoac, "mountain of the fciAu, or carrying basket"). The term 
Totonteac would mean "mountains of the Tontos." 

When first mentioned Totonteac was reputed to be a kingdom of great power; later it was found to be 
a hot spring surroundeil by a few mud houses. In the opinion of the writer, the hot springs in the lower 
part of the Tonto Basin, near the Koosevelt Dam, may represent the locality of the so-called fabulous 
Totonteac. 



52 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [etii. ann. 28 

plaited Doctor :iiui said lie must gel- |)ermis>sion. Tonto was allowed by Feather- 
plaited Doctor to gamble with this man, but was warned not to play again if he were 
beaten; but should he win twice he must desist by all means from further playing. 

The game at which Tonto gambled was that known as the "cane game, " and on this 
occasion Feather-plaited Civan marked the canes. Tonto played and won twice 
from his opponent; he would not play a third time, but carried all he had won to the 
house of Feather-plaited Civan. Whenever he played with the marked canes, he 
won, so that one of his opponents consulted Tcuhu to learn the reason. Tcuhu 
informed him that the sticks were endowed with magic derived from the sun, which 
gave them supernatural [jower over all others. 

Tcuhu then told a maid to search under trees and gather in the early morning the 
feathers of eagles, crows, buzzards, and hawks, bind them together, and bring them 
to him. After these feathers had been brought Tcuhu instructed her to strip every 
feather to its midrib and cut each into short sections. Having roasted the feathers 
with meal of popcorn, the girl placed them on a basket tray. She was then instructed 
to fill two small bowls with "medicine" and to carry them to a spring near the place 
where Tonto was going to play the next game. Before Tonto began this game he 
declared he was thirsty and started for the spring, kicking before him the stone ball. 
When he reached the spring he perceived the girl and fell in love with her. She prom- 
ised to marry him if her parents were willing. The maid handed Tonto a drink of the 
"medicine " instead of water; at the first draught he began to tremble; a second caosed 
him to shake violently, and at the third feathers began to form all over his body, and 
shortly afterward he took the form of a bird resembling the eagle. ^Mien the maid 
had witnessed this metamorphosis, she sought the man with whom Tonto had agreed 
to gamble and told him Tonto had become a bird, at the same time pointing to an eagle 
perched on a rock near the spring. The man tried to shoot Eagle, but he flew away 
and alighted on the top of a peak of the Superstition Mountains, which shook violently 
as Eagle landed thereon.' In his flight Eagle carried off the maid, now called Baat, 
with whom he lived. He killed many people dwelling near his home and heaped their 
bodies in a great pile near the cave in which he made his home. He became so dan- 
gerous, in fact, that the survivors asked Tcuhu's aid; he promised to come in four 
days but did not do so. A new messenger was sent with the same request and he 
again promised to come in four days but again failed to fulfill his promise. Tcuhu 
told the messenger to bring him ashes, and the man brought mesquite charcoal, which 
he did not wish. Tcuhu procured charcoal from cactus fruit and, having groimd the 
seeds into fine meal, he fashioned it into the form of a big knife. He then procured a 
flexible stick, such as grows in the White Mountains, and other pointed sticks resem- 
bling bone awls. Having made four of the.se sticks, he sharpened them and started 
forth to overcome Eagle, leaving word that if he were killed a smoke would be seen 
for four days, but that if he killed Eagle, a cloud would hang over the place of 
the combat. Tcuhu traveled eastward a long distance and came to the mountain 
where Eagle lived, in between perpendicidar precipices, surrounded by deep fissures. 
Tcuhu metamorphosed himself into a fly and hid himself in this fissure, where he slept 
that night. On the following day he changed himself back into a man, stuck the 
sticks into the crevice of the cliff, and by their help climbed up to the crag in which 
Eagle had his home.- 

• A mountain in the Superstition Range, resembling a monster bird (eagle), is now pointed out from the 
Roosevelt Dam road. 

2 This story of Eagle seems to be a variant of that previously recorded in whit-h the avian being killed was 
the monster Hok. Here Tcuhu found only a captive woman, who said the monster had gone to procure 
victims. Tcuhu having revealed his mission, they agreed on a signal, and he changed into a fly. When 
Eagle returned, although suspicious, he went to sleep and the woman whistled three times. .\t the last 
whistle Tcuhu returned to human form and decapitated Eagle, throwing his head, limbs, and body to the 
four world quarters. Then the woman sprinkled "medicine "on a pile of bones, the remains of former vic- 
tims, and brought them to life. Thereupon all descended from the mountain over which hovered dense 
clouds, the signal that the monster was dead. 



FEWKES] HISTORY 53 

HISTORY 

No prehistoric structure in the Southwest has been more ire- 
quently described and figured than Casa Grande. This venerable 
ruin is one of the few in what is now the United States that bears 
a Spanish name reacliing back to the close of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Some of the more important contributors to its history are 
mentioned in the followuig pages.' 

It was once believed that this celebrated rum was one of the so- 
journing places of the Aztec on their southerly migration in ancient 
times, and was generally supjjosed to be identical with the Chichil- 
ticaUi (Aztec, "Red House") mentioned by Fray Marcos de Niza 
in 1539 and by Pedro de Castaneda and other chroniclers of the expe- 
dition of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado in 1540-1542. There seems 
no foundation for the association of the people of Casa Grande with 
the Aztec and considerable doubt exists whether the ruin was ever 
visited by Coronado or any of his companions. 

Ahnost every Avriter on the Southwest who has dealt with the ruins 
of Arizona has introduced short references to Casa Grande, and many 
other wTiters have incidentally referred to it in discussing the antiqui- 
ties of Mexico and Central America. Among the former are Browne,- 
Ruxton,^ and Hinton,* while among the latter may be mentioned Pres- 
cott,^ Brantz Mayer," Brasseur de Bourbourg,' Humboldt,^ Miihlen- 
pfordt," and Squier.'" 

As there are several very complete accounts of Casa Grande, and 
as these are more or less scattered through publications not accessible 
to all students, it is thought best to quote at least the earliest of 
these at considerable length. As will be seen, most of these descrip- 
tions refer to the historic building, while only one or two shed light 
on the great compounds, which formerly made up this extensive 
settlement." 

1 The writer is indebted to Mr. F. W. Hodge, ethnologist in cliarge of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology, for some of the historical material used in this portion of the present work. 

2 Browne (J. Ross), Adventures in the Apa^-he Country, pp. 114-124. New York, LS09. 

3 Ruxton (George Frederic), Sur hi migration des Anciens Mexicains; in Nouvilles Annahfi des VoyagcSf 
ome S(5r., t. xxn, pp. 40, 46, 52, Paris, 1850. 

< Hinton (Richard J.), The Great House of Montezuma; in Harper's M'eekli/, xxxni, New York, May 18, 
1889. 

s Prescott (Wm. H.), History of the Conquest of Mexico, ill, p. 38.3, Philadelphia [c. 1873]. 

« Mayer (Brantz), (1) Mexico, .\ztec, Spanish, and Republican, u, p. 39ii, Hartford, 1853. (2) Observa- 
tions on Mexican History and Archaeology; in Smithsonian Contribulions to Knowledge, ix, p. 15, Wash- 
ington, 1856. 

' Bras.seur de Bourbourg (M. I'Ablj^), Histoire des nations civilis^es du Mexique et de I'Am^rique- 
Centrale, t. 2, p. 197, Paris. 1858. 

8 Humboldt (Friedrich H. .\lex. de), Essai politique sur le royaimie de la Nouvelle-Espagne. t. i. p. 
297, Paris, 1811. 

» Milhlenpfordt (Eduard), Versuch einer gelreuen .Schilderung <ler Republik Mejico, Bd. u. p. 4.3.5, 
Hannover. 1S44. 

loSquier (E. G.), New Mexico and California; in A mtrican Review, Nov., 1S4S. 

n See Winship, The Coronado Expedition, in lJ,th Ann. Hep. Bur. Ethnol. 



54 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [bth. ann. 28 

Jtocent stiulonts of tho route of the C'oronado expedition have 
followed Bandelior, who has shown that tho army may have traveled 
down the San Pedro River for part of its course, thus heaving C'asa 
Grande several miles to the west. 

Discovery and Early Accounts 

The first known white man to visit Casa Grande was the intrepid 
Jesuit Father Eusebio Francisco Kino, or Kuehne, the pioneer mis- 
sionarA' among the Opata, Pima, Papago, and Sobaipuri Indians from 
1687 until his death in 1711. In 1694 Lieut. Juan Mateo Mange, 
nephew of Don Domingo Jironza Petriz de Cruzate, the newly 
appointed governor of Sonora, was commissioned to escort the mis- 
sionaries on their perilous journeys among the strange and sometimes 
hostile tribes of the region. In June of that year, while making a 
reconnoissance toward the northeast from Kino's mission of Dolores 
on the wes'tern branch of the Rio Sonora, Mange heard from the 
Indians of some casas grandes, massive and very high, on the margin 
of a river which flowed toward the west. The news was communicated 
to Kino and shortly afterward was confirmed by some Indians who 
visited Dolores from San Xavier del Bac, on the Rio Santa Cruz 
below the Indian village of Tucson. In November (1694) Kino went 
from his mission on a tour of discovery, finding Casa Grande to be as 
reported, and saying mass within its walls.' The house was described 
as large and ancient and certainly four stories high. In the immediate 
vicinity were to be seen the ruins of other houses, and in the country 
toward the north, east, and west were ruins of similar structures. 
Kino believed that Casa Grande was the ruin (Chichilticalli) spoken of 
in 1539 by Fray Marcos de Niza,- whose journey was followed in the 
next year by Coronado's famous expedition. Ortega, Kino's biogra- 
pher, speaks of the ancient traditions of the Mexicans (Aztec), favor- 
ably received by all the historians of New Spain, that tliis Gila locaUty, 
as well as the Casas Grandes of Chihuahua, was one of the stopping 
places on their migration southward to the Valley of ^lexico. This 
belief was prevalent during the period, and Casa Grande on the Gila 
is frequently marked on early maps as an Aztec sojourning place. 
For this reason it was also commonly designated Casa de Montezuma. 

Three years later, in the autumn of 1697, Kino, accompanied by 
Mange, again started from his mission of Dolores and traveled across the 
country to the Rio San Pedro, on which stream, at a point west of the 
present Tombstone, the missionary was joined by Capt. Cristobal M. 
Bernal with 22 soldiers. Proceeding down the San Pedro, the party 
reached the Gila on November 16, and on the ISth arrived at Casa 
Grande. 

' Mange in Doc. His. Mei., 4th ser., i, 250, 259, Mexico, lS5fl. 

' (Ortega.) Apostolicos afanes de la Compania de Jesus, escrito por un Padre de la misma sagrada religion 
de su Provincia de Mexico, p. 253, Barcelona, 1754. 



PKWKES] 



HISTORY 



55 



MANGE S NARRATIVE 




Fig. 1. 



Sketch of Casa Grande ruin 
(Mange). 



Mange's account ' of the famous ruin (pis. 8, 9) is so interesting and 
so important for comparison with the condition of Casa Grande as 
it exists to-day that it is here given in full : 

On the 18th we continued westward across an extensive plain, barren and without 
pasture, and at a distance of 5 leagues we discovered on the other side of the river 
other houses and buildings. Sergeant Juan Bautista de Escalante and two companions 
swanj across to reconnoiter and reported that the walls 
were 2 yards thick, like a castle, and that there were 
other ruins in the vicinity, all of ancient workman- 
ship. We continued westward and after making 4 
more leagues we arrived at noon at the Casas Grandes, 
in which Father Kino said mass, having till then kept 
his fast. One of the houses is a great building, the 
main room in the middle being four stories high and the 
adjoining rooms on the four sides of it being three 
stories, with walls 2 yards thick, of strong mortar and 
clay, so smooth on the inside that they look like 
planed boards and so well burnished that they shine 
like Puebla earthenware; the corners of the windows, 
which are square, being very straight and without any 
hinges or crosspieces of wood, as if they had made 
them with a mold or frame: and the same is true of 
their doors, although these are narrow, whereby it might be known that this is the work 
of Indians. The building is 36 paces long and 21 paces wide, of good architecture. 

A crossbow shot farther on 12 other houses are seen, half tumbled down, also with 
thick walls and all with roofs burnt, except one room beneath one house, with round 
beams, smooth and not thick, which appear to be of cedar or savin, and over them 
reeds very similar to them and a layer of mortar and hard clay, making a ceiling or 
story of very peculiar character. In the neighborhood many 
other ruins may be noted and {terremotos?) [heaps of earth], which 
inclose two leagues, with much broken pottery of vessels and 
pots of fine clay, painted in various colors, resembling the 
Guadalajara pots of this country of New Spain, whence it is 
inferred that the settlement or city was very large, inhabited 
by a civilized race, under a regular government. This is 
evidenced by a main ditch which branches off from the 
river into the plain, surrounding the city which remains in 
the center of it, in a circumference of 3 leagues, being 10 
yards wide and 4 feet deep, by which they diverted perhaps one-half of the 
river, that it might serve them for defense, as well as to provide water for their 
city subdivisions and to irrigate their crops in the vicinity. The guides said 
that at a distance of a day's journey there are other edifices [-] of the same kind of work- 
manship, toward the north, on the other bank of the river in another ravine which 
joins the one they call Verde, and that they were built by people who came from the 
region of the north, their chief being called El Siba, which according to their defini- 


















Fio. 2. Ground plan of 
Casa Grande ruin 
(Mange). 



I Mange, op. cit., pp. 282-284. The original manuscript journal in the Archives of Mexico contains a 
slcetch and a ground plan, which are introduced with some changes in an extract from Mange's diary pub- 
lished in Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes (ra. SOl-.WS, 1853), from a translation by Buckingham Smith, but 
these do not appear in the printed copy of Mange's Diary in Doc. Hist. Mei. The sketch and plan 
(figs. 1, 2) reproduced in the present work are from photographs of the original manuscript, procured 
through the courtesy of Dr. Nicolas Le6n of the City of Mexico. The accompanying translation is from 
the published Spanish account. 

' Evidently those now in ruins near Phoenix, Tempe. and Mesa, in the Salt River Valley.— J. W. F. 



56 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [eth. ann. 28 

tion ill thoir language means "the bitter or cruel man," and that through the bloody 
wars which the Apache waged against them and the 20 tribes allied with them, killing 
many on both sides, they laid waste the settlements, and jiart of them, discouraged, 
went off and returned northward, whence they had started years before, and the 
majority toward the east and south; from which statements we inferred that it was 
very likely that these were the ancestors of the Mexican nation, judging by their 
structures and reiics, such as those that are mentioned under the thirty-fourth 
degree [of latitude] and those in the vicinity of the Fort of Janos under the twenty- 
ninth degree, which are also called Casas Grandes, and many others which, we are 
told, are to be found as far as the thirty-seventh and fortieth degrees north lati- 
tude. On the bank of the river, at a distance of 1 league from the Casas Grandes, we 
found a rancheria in which we counted 130 souls, and, preaching to them on their 
eternal salvation, the Father baptized 9 of their little ones, although at first they 
were frightened at the horses and soldiers, not having seen any till then. 

Early in March, 1699, during a seventli tour of Pimeria, as the 
Pima country was called, Father Kino made his final visit to Casa 
Grande,' and in 1701 he prepared a map of the countrv, remarkably 
accurate for its day, in which Casa Grande is charted for the first 
time. 

The next visits to the celebrated ruin of which there is record 
were made m 1736-37 by Father Ignacio Keller, of the mission of 
Suamca, not far from the present Nogales, reference to which is 
made in the Kudo Ensayo. Again, in 1744, the Jesuit father, 
Jacobo Sedelmair, of the mission of Tubutama, on the Kio Altar, 
went to the GUa near Casa Grande in an endeavor to cross the 
northern wilderness from this point to the Hopi (Moqui) country. 
He describes what was evidently the present main structure as a 
large edifice with the central part of four stories and the surrounding 
wings of three stories.^ 

"EUDO ensayo" NARRATIVE 

Twenty years later, that is, about 1762, another definite descrip- 
tion of the rum is given by the author of the anonymous Rudo 
Ensayo,^ attributed to Father Juan Mentuig, or Nentoig, of the 
mission of Guazavas, on the Rio Bavispe, a branch of tlie Yaqui. 
The author seems not to have visited the ruins himself but to have 
gathered his information from other missionaries, notably Father 

1 (Ortega,) Apostolicos Afanes, etc.. op. cit., p. 276. 

! Documentos para la Hisluria de Miiico,3es6tie, iv, S47, 1S53-57. Sedelmair's account, as Bancroft (Native 
Races, iv, 023, 1882) lias pointed out, is a literal copy of Mange's Diary in the .\rchives of Mexico. See 
also Orozco y Berra, Geografia, p. 108, 1S64. 

3 Rudo Ensayo tentativa de una prevencional dcscripcion Geographica de la Provincia de Sonora. etc., 
por un Amigo del Bien Comun, San Augustin do la Florida, Ano de 17113. This work, the original of 
which is in the Department of State of Mexico and a duplicate copy in the Uoyal .\cademy of History at 
Madrid, was published by Buckingham Smith. Under the title Descriiwion geografica natural y curiosa 
de la Provincia de Sonora (1704) this essay appears in the Documentos para la Historia de Mexico, 3e st^rie, 
IV 503. and from it the part pertaining to Casa Grande was translated liy Buckingham Smith and pub- 
lished in Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes, m. 304-300, 1853. .\n English Ironslalion of the Rudo Ensayo. by 
Eusebio Guitfiras, appears in the Records of the American Catholic Historical Society, v. 110-204. Pliila., 
1894. 



FBWKES] HISTORY 57 

Keller, to whom reference has been made. This interesting docu- 
ment says : ' 

Pursuing the same course for about 20 leagues from the junetion [of the San Pedro], 
the Gila leaves on its left, at the distance of 1 league, the Casa Grande, called the 
House of Moctezuma be<-ause of a tradition current among the Indians and Spaniards, 
of this place having been one of the abodes in which the Mexicans rested in their long 
transmigrations. This great house is four stories high, still standing, with a roof made 
of beams of cedar or llascal and with most solid walls of a material that looks like the 
best cement. It is divided into many halls and rooms and might well lodge a traveling 
court. Three leagues distant and on the right bank of the river there is another 
similar house but now much demolished, which from the ruins can be interred to have 
been of vaster size than the former. For some leagues around, in the neighborhood 
of these houses, wherever the earth is dug up, broken pieces of very fine and variously 
colored earthenware are found. Judging from a reservoir of vast extent and still 
open, which is found 2 leagues up the river, holding sufficient water to sujiply a city 
and to irrigate for many leagues the fruitful land of that beautiful plain, the residence 
of the Mexicans there must not have been a brief one. About half a league west from 
this house a lagoon is seen that flows into the river, and although the surface is not very 
large it has been impossible to measure its depth by means of cords tied together, etc. 

The Pima tell of another house, more strangely planned and built, which is to be 
found much farther up the river. It is in the style of a labyrinth, the plan of which, 
as it is designed by the Indians on the sand, is something like the cut on the margin; 
but it is more probable that it served as a house of recreation than as a residence of a 
magnate - I have heard of other buildings, even more extensive and more correct in 
art and symmetry, through Father Ignatius Xavier Keller, although 1 can not recol- 
lect in what place of his apostolic visits. He spoke of one that measured in frontage, 
on a straight line, half a league in length and apparently nearly as much in depth, the 
whole divided into square blocks, each block three and four stories high, though 
greatly dilapidated in many parts; but in one of the angles there was still standing a 
massive structure of greater proportions, like a castle or palace, five or six stories high. 

Of the reservoir, as in the case of the one spoken of above, the reverend father said 
that it not only lay in front of the house but that, before its outlet reached there, it 
divided into many canals through which the water might enter all the streets, 
probably for cleansing purjioses, when such was desired, as is done in Turin and other 
cities of Europe and was done even in Mexico in olden times. This last Casa Grande 
is perhaps the same as that of which we spoke before and which lies on the other side of 
the river, for tho.se who have been there agree that there are ruins not merely of a 
single edifice but of a large town.- 

GARCES' NARRATIVE 

The next recorded visit to Casa Grande is that of Lieut. Col. Juan 
Bautista de Anza, accompanied by a force of 239 persons, including 
Fathers Francisco Garces, Pedro Font, and Tomas Eixarcli, who were 
among the first Franciscans to serve as missionaries in this region 
after the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1767. During an excursion from 
Tubac, in October, 1775, the i)arty ap|)roached the Gila on the 30th, 
and on the following day, Anza having decided to rest, an opportunity 
was given of "going to see the Casa Grande that they call [Casa] de 
Moctezuma." Garces continues : ^ 

> Translation by Eusebio Guit^ras, op. cit., pp. 127-128. 

'It is shown elsewhere (in Amtr. Anlhr., N. s., ix, pp. oI0-ol2, 1907) that this is a misconception. 
The Indians did not intend lo suggest a dwelling but the ground plan of a game.— J. W. F. 

3 In Coues, On the Trail of a Spanish I'ioneer: The Diary and Itinerary of Francisco Garcfe. . . in 
1775-76, I, 66, 1900. 



58 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [bth. ann. 28 

We [Garcia and Font] traveled about 3 leagues s(juthea8t and arrived at the casa, 
whose position is found in latitude 33° 03' 30". For the present condition of this caaa 
I refer to the description thereof that Padre Font has given; and in the end will speak 
of that which I have been enabled to conjecture from what I saw and learned at 
Moqui. 

Later, on Julj' 4, 1776, wldle lat the Hopi (Moqui) village of Oraibi, 
ill northeastern Arizona, Garc^s, who had been inhospitably received 
by tlie natives, learned of the hostility that existed between the Hopi 
and the Pima.* 

This hostility had been told me by the old Indians of my mission, by theGilefios, 
and C'ocomaricopas; from which intormatir)n I have imagined (he discurrido) that 
the Moqui nation anciently extended to the Rio Gila itself. I take my stand (fun- 
dome, ground myself) in this matter on the ruins that are found from this river as far 
as the land of the Apaches; and that I have seen between the Sierras de la Florida 
and San Juan Nepomuzeno. Asking a few years ago some Subaipuris Indians who 
were living in my mission of Sin Xavier, if they knew who had built those houses 
whose ruins and fragments of pottery (losa, for loza) are still visible — as, on the sup- 
position that neither Pimas nor Apaches knew how to make (such) houses or pottery, 
no doubt it was done by some other nation — they replied to me that the Moquis had 
built them, for they alone knew how to do such things; and added that the Apaches 
who are about the missions are neither numerous nor valiant; that toward the north 
was where there were many powerful people; "there went we," they said, "to fight 
in former times (antiguamente) ; and even though we attained unto their lands we did 
not surmount the mesas whereon they lived." It is confirmatory of this that I have 
observed among the Yabipais some circumstances bearing upon this information; for 
they brought me to drink a large earthenware cup very like the potsherds that are 
found in the house called (Casa) de Moctezuma and the Rio Gila. Asking them 
whence they had procured it, they answered me that in Moqui there is much of that. 
Ab I entered not into any house of Moqui, I could not assure myself by sight; but from 
the street I saw on the roofs some large, well-painted ollas. Also have the Pimas 
• Gilenos told me repeatedly that the Apaches of the north came anciently to fight with 
them for the casa that is said to be of Moctezuma; and being sure that the Indians 
whom we know by the name of Apaches have no house nor any fixed abode, I per- 
suaded myself that they could be the Moquis who came to fight; and that, harassed 
by the Pimas, who always have been numerous and valiant, they abandoned long ago 
these habitations on the Rio Gila, as also have they done this with that ruined pueblo 
which I found before my arrival at Moqui and of which I have made mention above; 
and that they retired to the place where now they live, in a situation so advantageous, 
BO defensible, and with such precautions for self-defense in case of invasion. 

font's NARRATIVE 

It is unfortunate that Garcfe did not describe Casa Grande inde- 
pendently of his companion, Father Font, but most fortunate that 
the description and plan of the latter exist, as they afford valuable 
data for comparison with Mange's account of 1697 and with the 
present condition of the ruin. Font's narrative reads as follows:^ 

1 Ibid., n, 386-387. 

« Diario 4 Monterey por et Rio Colorado del Padre Fr. Pedro Font, 1775. The original manuscript is in 
the John Carter Brown Library, Providence, R. I. A recent copy of it, from which the accompanying 
traaslation was made and the plan reproduced, is in the archives of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 
See also Notice sur la grande raaison dite de Moctecuzoma, in Ternaux-Compans, Voyages, ix, app. vu, 
383-386, 1838. 



FEWKES] 



HISTOEY 



59 



NOKTE 



Slst day [of October, 1775], Tuesday. I said mass, which some heathen Gila Indians 
heard with very quiet behavior. The senor comandante decided to give his men a 
rest to-day from the Ion,? journey of yesterday, and in this way we had an oppor- 
tunity of goinp; to examine the Casa Grande which they call the house of Moc- 
tezuma, situated at 1 league from the River Gila and distant from the place of 
the, lagoon [Camani, where they had camped] some 3 leagues to the east-southeast; 
to which we went after mass and returned after midday, accompanied by some 
Indians and by the governor of Vturitiic, who on the way told us a history and 
tradition which the Pima of Gila River have preserved from their ancestors concerning 
said Casa Grande, which all reduces itself to fictions mingled confusedly with some 
catholic truths, which I will relate hereafter. I took observations at this place of 
the Casa Grande, marked on the map which I afterward drew, with the letter A, 
and I found it to be without correction in 33° 11' and with correction in 33° 3J'; 
and thus I say: In the Casa Grande of the River Gila, 31st day of October of 1775, 
meridional altitude of the lower limb of the sun, 42° 25'. We examined with all 
care this edifice and its relics, whose ichnographic plan [fig. 3] is that which here I 
put, and for its better understanding I give the description and explanation which 
follow. The Casa Grande, or Palace of Moctezuma, may have been founded some 
500 years ago, according to the stories and scanty notices that there are of it and 

that the Indians give; because, as it 
PU„u M,.i..,.i.,. J. t- Ca» t...n.f. J« t R,c Ciu appears, the Mexicans founded it 

when in their transmigration the 
devil took them through various 
lands until they arrived at the 
promised land of Mexico, and in 
their sojourns, which were long, 
they formed settlements and built 
edifices. The site on which this 
casa is found is level in all direc- 
tions and distant from Gila River 
about 1 league, and the ruins of the 
houses which formed the settlement 
extend more than a league to the 
east and to the other points of the 
compass; and all this ground is 
strewn with pieces of jars, pots, 
plates, etc., some plain and others 
painted various colors — white, blue, 
red, etc. — an indication that it 
was a large settlement and of a 
distinct people from the Pima of 
the Gila, since these know not how 
to make such pottery. We made an 
exact inspection of the edifice and 
of its situation and we measured it 
with a lance for the nonce, which 
measurement I reduced after- 
ward to geometrical feet, it being 
approximately the following: The casa is an oblong square and laid out perfectly to 
the four cardinal points, east, west, north, and south, and roundabout are some ruins 
which indicate some iuclosure or wall which surrounded the house, and other buildings. 



m 



n=D 



/ 1 3*sCrt9>» ' 
iT-ri 111 I i't } 

S fits. 

sva 



Fig. 3. Ground plan of Compoiind A ( Font). 



60 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [etit. ann. 28 

particularly at the torncrs, where it seems there was some strutture like an interior 
castlo, or watch tower, for in the corner which lies at the southwest there is a piece of 
ground floor with its divisions and an upper story. The exterior inclosure [fig. 3] is 
from north to south 420 foot long and from east to west 2t)0. The interior of the casa 
is composed of five halls, tho three equal ones in the middle and one at each extremity 
larger. The three (middle) halls have a length from north to south of 26 feet and a 
width from east to west of 10. The two halls of the extremities (one at each end) are 
from north to south 12 feet and from east to west 38. The halls are some 11 feet high 
and all are equal in this respect. The doors of communication are 5 feet high and 2 
feet wide and are all about equal except the four first of the four entrances, which it 
appears were twice as wide. The thickness of the interior walla is 4 feet and they are 
well laid in mortar, and of the exterior ones 6 feet. The casa is on the outside from 
north to south 70 feet long and from east to west 50 feet wide. The walls have a smooth 
finish on tho outside. In front of the door of the east, separated from the casa, there 
is another building with dimensions from nc.irth to south 26 feet and from east to west 18, 
exclusive of the thickness of the walls. The woodwork was of pine, apparently, and 
the nearest mountain range that has pines is distant some twenty and five leagues, and 
also has some mesquite. The whole edifice is of earth, and according to the signs it is 
a mud wall made with boxes of various sizes. From the river and quite a good dis- 
tance there runs a large canal, by which the settlement was supplied with water. It 
is now very much choked. Finally, it is known that the edifice had three stories, 
and if that which can be found out from the Indians is true, and according to the indi- 
cations that are visible, it had four, the basement of the casa deepening in the manner 
of a subterranean apartment. To give light to the apartments there is nothing but the 
doors and some circular ojicnings in the midst of the walls which face to the east and 
west, and the Indians said that through these openings (which are pretty large) the 
Prince, whom they call El Hombre Amargo [The Bitter Man] looked out on the sun 
when it rose and set, to salute it. There are found no traces of staircases, from which 
we judged that they were of wood and were destroyed in the conflagration which the 
edifice suffered from the Ai)ache. The story which the governor of Vturitiic related 
to us in his Pima language, which was interpreted to us by a servant of the seiior coraan- 
dante, the only interpreter of that language, is as follows: He said that in ^ery olden 
time there came to that land a man who because of his evil disposition and harsh sway 
was called The Bitter Man; that this man was old and had a young daughter; and 
that in his company there came another man who was young, who was not his relative 
nor anything, and that he gave him his daughter in marriage, who was very pretty, 
the young man being handsome also; and that the said old man had with him as 
servants the Wind and the Storm-cloud. That the old man began to build that Casa 
Grande and ordered his son-in-law to go and fetch beams for the roof of the house. 
That the young man went far off; and as he had no ax, nor anything else with which 
to cut the trees, he tarried many days and at the end he came back without bringing 
any beams. That the old man was very angry and told him that he was good for 
nothing; that he should see how he himself would bring beams. That the old man 
went very far off to a mountain range where there are many pines and that, calling on 
God to help him, he cut many pines and brought many beams for the roof of the house. 
That when this Bitter Man came, there were in that land neither trees nor plant>;;he 
brought seeds of all and reaped very large harvests with his twoservants, the Wind and 
the Storm-cloud, who served him. That by reason of his evil disposition he grew angry 
with the two servants and turned them away, and they went \ery far off ; and as he could 
no longer harvest a»ny crojjs through lack of the servants, he ate what he had gathered 
and came near dying of hunger. That he sent his son-in-law to cull the two ser\-ants 
and bring them back but he could not find them, seek as he might. That thereupon 
the old man went to seek them and, having found them, brought them once more into 
his service; with their aid he once more had large croi>s and thus he continued for 



FEWKES] HISTORY 61 

many years in that land; and after a long time they went away and nothing more was 
heard of them. He [the governor] also said: That after the old man there came to that 
land a man called The Drinker and he grew angry with the people of that place and 
sent much water, so that the whole country was covered with water, and he went to a 
very high mountain range, which is seen from there and which is called The Mountains 
of the Foam (Sierra de In Espunia), and he took with him a little dog and a coyote. 
(This mountain range is called "of the foam " because at the end of it, which is cut of^ 
and steep like the corner of a bastion, there is seen high up near the toj) a white brow as 
of rock, which also continues along the range for a good distance, and the Indians say 
that this is the mark of the foam of the water, which rose to that height.) That The 
Drinker went up, and left the dog below that he might notify him when the water came 
so far, and when the water reached the brow of the Foam the dog notified The Drinker, 
because at that time the animals talked, and the latter carried him up. That after 
some days The Drinker Man sent the Rose-sucker (Chuparosas) and the Coyote to 
bring him mud; they brought some to him and of the mud he made men of different 
kinds, and some turned out good and others bad. That these men scattered over 
the land, upstream and downstream; after some time he sent some men of his to see 
if the other men upstream talked; these went and returned, saying that although 
they talked they had not understood what they said, and that The Drinker Man was 
very angry, because those men talked without his having given them leave. That 
next he sent other men downstream to see those who had gone that way and they 
returned, saying that they had received them well, that they spoke another tongue, 
but that they had understood them. Then The Drinker Man told them that those 
men downstream were the good men and that these were such as far as the Opa. \vith 
whom they are friendly; and that the others upstream were the bad men and that 
these were the Apache, who are their enemies. He [the governor] said also that at 
one time The Drinker Man was angry at the people and that he killed many and trans- 
formed them into saguaros [giant cacti], and that on this account there are so many 
saguaros in that country. (The saguaro is a tree having a green trunk, watery, rather 
high, and uniformly round, and straight from foot to toj), with rows of large spines from 
above downward ; it usually has two or three branches of the same character, which look 
like arms.) Furthermore he said: That at another time The Drinker was very angry 
with the men and that he caused the sun to come down to burn them, and that he was 
making an end of them; that the men begged him much not to burn them and that 
thereupon The Drinker said that he would no longer burn them; and then he told the 
sun to go up but not as much as before, and he told them that he left it lower in order 
to bum them by means of it if ever they made him angry again, and for this reason 
it is so hot in that country in summer. He [the governor] added that he knew other 
stories, that he could not tell them because the time was up and he agreed to tell them 
to us another day; but as we had laughed a little at his tales, which ho related with 
a good deal of seriousness, we could not get him afterward to tell us anything more, 
saying that he did not know any more. This whole account or story I have reproduced 
in the dialect here given, because it is more adapted to the style in which the Indiana 
express themselves. 

Grossman's narrative 

Regarding the story of the origin of Casa Grande, it may be well to 
incorporate here the Pima myth regarding the ruin and the descrip- 
tion of the structure as given by Capt. F. E. Grossman in 1871:' 

The Pimas, however, claim to be the direct descendants of the chief S6'-ho above 
mentioned. The children of S6'-ho inhabited the Gila River valley, and soon the 

' In Smithsonian Report for 1871, pp. 408-409, Washington, 1873. 



62 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [bth. ann. 28 

poo))Ie became numerous. One of the dirert descendants of S6'-h6, King Si'-va-no, 
erected the Casas Grandes on the Gila River. Here he governed a large empire, 
before — long before — the Spaniards were known. King Si'-va-no was very rich and 
powerful and had many wives, who were known for their personal beauty and their 
great skill in making pottery ware and ki'-hos (laaskets which the women carry upon 
their heads and backs). The subjects of King Si'-va-no lived in a large city near the 
Casas Grandes, and cultivated the soil for many miles around. They dug immense 
canals, which carried the water of the Gila River to their fields, and also produced 
abundant crops. Their women were virtuous and industrious; they spun the native 
cotton into garments, made beautiful baskets of the bark of trees, and were particularly 
skilled in the manufacture of earthenware. (Remains of the old canals can be seen to 
this day, and pieces of neatly painted pottery ware are scattered for miles upon the 
site of the old city. There are several ruins of ancient buildings here, the best pre- 
served one of which is said to have been the residence of King Si'-va-no. This house 
has lieen at least four stories high, for even now three stories remain in good preserva- 
tion, and a portion of the fourth can l>e seen. The house was built square; each story 
contains five rooms, one in the center, and a room on each of the outer sides of the inner 
room. This house has been built solidly of clay and cement; not of adobes, but by 
successive thick layers of mortar, and it was plastered so well that most of the plastering 
remains to this day, although it must have been exposed to the weather for many years. 
The roof and the different ceilings have long since fallen, and only short pieces of 
timber remain in the walls to indicate the place where the rafters were inserted. These 
rafters are of pine wood, and since there is no kind of pine growing now within less than 
50 miles of the Casas Grandes, this house must either have been built at a time when 
pine timlier could lie procured near the building site, or else the builders must have 
had facilities to transport heavy logs for long distances. It is certain that the house 
was built before the Pimas knew the use of iron, for many stone hatchets have been 
found in the ruins, and the ends of the lintels over doors and windows show by tlieir 
hacked appearance that only l;>hmt tools were used. It also appears that the builders 
were \vnthout trowels, for the marks of the fingers of the workmen or women are plainly 
\'isible both in the plastering and in the walls where the former has fallen off. The 
rooms were about 6 feet in height, the doors are verj' narrow and only 4 feet high; 
round holes, al>out 8 inches in diameter, answered for windows. Only one entrance 
from the outside was left by the l)uilders, and some of the outer rooms-even had no 
communication with the room in the center. There are no stairs, and it is believed 
that the Pimas entered the house from above by means of ladders, as the Zuni Indians 
still do. The walls are perfectly perpendicular and all angles square.) 

Early American Reports 

The first American visitors to the Gila-Salt Basin appear to have 
been trappers, who found beaver fairly abundant, especially on the 
river and its tributaries. In 1825 the Patties,' father and son, were 
in the neighborhood of Casa Grande, and Paul Weaver, a trapper, is 
said to have mscribed his name on its walls in 1833. One of the most 
renowTied of all the pathfinders anil explorers of the West. Kit Car- 
son, led a party of Americans from New Mexico to California in 
1829-30. It may "be safe to say that every traveler who rested a 
longer or shorter time at or near the neighbormg Pima village of 
Blackwater visited Casa Grande. These earlier visitors left no record 

' Pattie, Personal Narrative. See also J. Ross Browne. Adventure.'! in the Apache Country, p. 118. New 
York, 1869. A ligureof Casa Grande as it appeared in 1859, somewhat modifled in Nadaillai'. L'.VmiTiiiue 
Pr<5historique, is given in Cozzens, The Marvellous Country, London, 1S74. 



FEWKES] HISTORY 63 

of tlicir visits, liowcver. or made at the most only meager references 
to tlie ruin. Tlie most important accounts of Casa Grande in the 
middle of the nineteenth century are found in the ofHcial reports of 
the expedition to California led by General Kearny, in 1S46, at the 
time of the ^h^xican war. 

In 1846 Brantz Maj'er erroneously ascribed the discovery of Casa 
Grande to Fathers Garccs and Font in 1773. He also mistook Font's 
measurements of the wall of tlie surrounding compound for that of 
the main etlifice, for he WTites: ' 

Liku most of the Indian works, it was built of unbiirned bricks, and measui-ed 
about 4.50 feet in length, by 250 in breadth. Within this edifice they found traces 
of five apartments. A wall, broken at intervals by lofty towers, surrounded the 
building, and appeared to have been designed for defence. 

The error of confounding the dimensions of the main structure 
with tliose of the surrounding wall, which Font gave with fair 
accuracy, lias misled several later ^Titers on the ruin. 

Emory's narrative 

In 1846 the ruins were visited by Lieut. Col. William II. Emory, 
with the advance guard of the "Army of the West." Under date of 
November 10 of that year Emory makes the following entry in liis 
journal and includes an illustration which shows that the main 
building had not suffered greatly from the elements during the .70 
years immediately following the time of Font and Garces:- 

November 10. — . . . along the whole day's march were remains of zequias 
[acequias], pottery, and other evidences of a once densely populated country. About 
the time of the noon halt, a large pile, which seemed the work of human hands, was 
seen to the left. It was the remains of a three-story mud house, 60 feet square, pierced 
for doors and windows. The walls were 4 feet thick, and formed by layers of mud, 2 
feet thick. Stanley made an elaborate sketch of every part; for it was, nt) doubt, built 
by the same race that had once so thickly peopled this territory, and left behind the 
ruins. [Fig. 4.] 

We made a long and careful search for some specimens of household furniture, or imple- 
ment of art, but nothing was found except the corngrinder, always met with among the 
ruinsand on the plains. The marine shell, cut into various ornaments, was also found 
here, which showed that these people either came from the seacoast or trafficked there. 
No traces of hewn timber were discovered; on the contrary, the sleepers of the ground 
floor were round and tmhewn. They were burnt out of their seats in the wall to the 
depth of 6 inches. The whole interior of the house had been burnt out, and the walls 
much defaced. \\Tiat was left bore marks of having been glazed, and on the wall in 
the north room of the second story were traced the following hieroglyphics [appar- 
ently not ."^hown.] 

From a Maricopa Indian Colonel Emory learned a version of tlie 
Pima tradition of the origin of Casa Grande : 

I asked him, among other things, the origin of the ruins of which we had seen so 
many; he said, all he knew, was a tradition amongst them, that in bygone days, a woman 

> Mexico. As it Wa.s and .\s It Is. p, 239, Philadelphia. IS47. 

2 Notes of a Military Reconnoissance, from Foi t Leavenworth, in Missouri, to San Diego, in California, 
etc.; Ex. I)oc. No. 41 , 30th Cong., 1st sess., Washington, 1848. 



64 



CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA 



[KTII. ANN. 28 



of surpassing beauty resided iu a green spot in the mountains near the place where we 
were encamped. All the men admired, and paid court to her. She received the trib- 
utes of their devotion, grain, skins, etc., but gave no love or other favor in return. Her 
virtue, and her <lelermination to remain unmarried were equally firm. There came 
a drought which threatened the world with famine. In their distress, people applied 
to her, and she gave corn from her stock, and the supply seemed to be endless. Iter 
goodness was unbounded. One day, as she was lying asleep with her body exposed, a 
drop of rain fell on her stomach, which produced conception. A son was the issue, 
who was tlie founder of a new race which built all these houses. 




Fig. 4. Casa Cirande in 1S46 (after a drawing by Stanley). 

Johnston's narrative 

Capt. A. R. Jolinston's account of the ruin, iiccompanied by a 
sketch of the elevation and a ground phm,' which is pubhshed with 
Emory's, reads as follows: 

November 10. — Marched about 8, and after marching G miles, still passing plains 
which had once been occupied, we saw to our left the "Cara [Casa] de Montezuma." 
I rode to it, and found the remains of the walls of four buildings, and the piles of earth 
showing where many other had been. One of the buildings was still quite complete, 
as a ruin. [Fig. 5.] The others had all crumbled but a few pieces of low, broken 
wall. The large cara [casa] was 50 feet by 40, and had been four stories high, but the 
floors and roof had long since been bunit out. The charred ends of the cedar joists 
were still in the wall. I examined them, and found that they had not been cut with a 
steel instrument; the joists were round sticks, about 4 feet [sic] in diameter; there were 
four entrances — north, south, east, and west; the doors about 4 feet by 2; the rooms aa 
below, and had the same arrangement on each story; there was no sign of a fireplace in 
the building; the lower story was filled with rubbish, and above it was open to the sky; 
the walls were 4 feet thick at the bottom, and had a curved inclination inwards to the 
top; the house was built of a sort of white earth and pebbles, probably contairung lime, 
which abounded on the ground adjacent; the walls had been smoothed outside, and 

' Reprinted in Sciuier, New Mexico and Calitornia; in American Review, Nov., 1848. 



FHWKES] 



HISTORY 



65 



plastered inside, and the surface still remained firm, although it was evident they had 
been exposed to a great heat from the fire; some of the rooms did not open to all the rest, 
but had a hole a foot in diameter to look through; in other places, were smaller holes. 
About 200 yards from this building was a mound in a circle a hundred yards around; 
the center was a hollow, 25 yards in diameter, with two vamps or slopes going down to 
its bottom; it was jirobably a well, now partly filled up; a similar one was seen near 
Mount Dallas. A few yards further, in the same direction, northward, was a terrace, 
100 yards by 70. About 5 feet high upon this, was a pyramid about 8 feet high, 25 
yards square at top. From this, sitting on my horse, I could overlook the vast plain 
lying northeast and west on the left bank of the Gila; the ground in view was about 15 
miles, all of which, it would seem, had been irrigated by the waters of the Gila. I 
picked up a broken crystal of quartz in one of these piles. Leaving the "Cara," I 




Fig. 5. Casa Grande in 184(1 (Johnston). 

turned toward the Pimos, and traveling at random over the plain, now covered with 
mesquite, the piles of earth and pottery showed for hours in every direction. I also 
found the remains of a sicia [acequia], which followed the range of houses for 
miles. . . . The general asked a Pimo who made the house I had seen. "It is the 
Cara de Montezuma," said he; "it was built by the son of the most beautiful woman 
who once dwelt in yon mountain; she was fair, and all the handsome men came to 
court her, b>it in vain; when they came, they paid tribute, and out of this small store 
she fed all people in times of famine, and it did not diminish; at last, as she lay asleep, 
a drop of rain fell upon her navel, and she became pregnant, and brought forth a boy, 
who was the builder of all these houses. 

Shortl_y after the visit to Casa Grande of Lieutenant Colonel Emory, 
Lieutenant Colonel Cooke, in command of a battalion of Mormons, 
made his way to California via Tucson and the villages of the Pima, 
but there is little in his official report concerning the ruin. In 1848 
Maj. L. P. Graham, of the dragoons, followed; although he must have 
passed near Casa Grande he says but little about it. 
20903°— 28 ETH— 12 5 



66 



CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA 



[BTII. ANN. 28 



BARTLETT-S NARRATIVE 

Six years after the advance guard of the "Army of the West" 
crossed southern Arizona the ruins were visited by members of the 
Mexican Bounchiry Survey, one of whom, John Russell Bartlett, was 
the author of an excellent account, accompanied with a sketch 
(fig. 6). Under date of July 12, 1852, Mr. Bartlett wrote of Casa 
Grande as follows:' 

The "Casas Grandes," or Great Houses, consist of three buildings, all included 
within a space of 150 yards. The principal and larger one is in the best state of preser- 
vation, its four exterior walls and most of the inner ones remaining. A considerable 
portion of the upper part of the walls has crumbled away and fallen inwards, as appears 
from the great quantity of rubbish and disintegrated adobe which fills the first story 
of the building. Three stories now stand and can plainly be made out by the ends 




Fig. 0. Casa Grande niin in 1S52 (Bartlett). 

of the l)eams remaining in the walls, or by the cavities which they occupied; but I 
think there must have been another story above, in order to account for the crumbling 
walls and rubbish within. The central portion or tower rising from the foundation, 
is some 8 or 10 feet higlier than the outer walls, and may have been several feet, pn)l>- 
ably one story, higher when the building was complete. The walls at the ba.'se are 
between 4 and 5 feet in thickness; their precise dimensions could not be ascertaineil, 
so much having crumbled away. The inside is perpendicular, wliile the exterior 
face tapers toward the top, in a curved line. These walls, as well as the di\ ision 
walls of the interior, are laid with large square blocks of mud, prepared for tlie pur- 
pose by pressing the material into large Vioxes about 2 feet in height and 4 feet long. 
When the mud became sufficiently hardened, the case was moved along and again 
filled, and so on until the whole edifice was completed. This is a rapid mode of 
Vmikling; but the Mexicans seem never to have applietl it to any purpose but the 

I Personal Narrative, etc., ii, 272-277, New York, 1S54. Cozzens' account, in his Marvellous Country, is 
practically a quotation from Bartlett here given. In the map of his "route" Casa Grande is located 
north instead of south of the Gila. 



FEWKES] 



HISTORY 67 



erection of fences or division walls. The material of this building is the mud of the 
valley, mixed with gravel. The mud is very adhesive, and when dried in the sun, 
is very durable. The outer surface of tlie wall appears to have been plastered roughly; 
but the inside, as well as the surface of all the inner walls, is hard finished. This is 
done with a composition of adobe, and is still as smooth as when first made, and has 
quite a polish. On one of the walls are rude figures, drawn with red hues, but no 
inscriptions. From the charred ends of the beams which remain in tlie walls, it is 
evident that the building was destroyed by fire. Some of the lintels which remain 
over the doors are formed of several sticks of wood, stripped of their bark, but showing 
no signs of a sharp instrument. The beams which supported the floors were from 4 to 
5 inches in diameter, placed about the same distance apart and inserted deeply in 
the walls. 

Most of the apartments sire connected by doors, besides which there are circular 
openings in the upper part of the chambers to admit light and air. The ground plan 
of the building shows that all the apartments were long and narrow without windows. 
The inner rooms, I think, were used as store-rooms for corn; in fact, it is a question 
whether the whole may not have been built for a similar purpose. There are four 
entrances, one in the center of each side. The door on the western side is but 2 feet 
wide, and 7 or 8 high : the others 3 feet wide and 5 in height, tapering towards the top— 
a peculiarity Ijelonging to the ancient edifices of Central America and Yucatan. With 
the exception of these doors, there are no exterior openings, except on the western 
side, where they are of a circular form. Over the doorway corresponding to the third 
storj', on the western front, is an opening, where there was a window, wliich I think 
was square. In a line with this are two circular openings. 

The southeni front has fallen in in several places, and is much injured l_iy large 
fissures, yearly becoming larger, so that the whole of it must fall ere long. The other 
three fronts are quite perfect. The walls at the base, and particularly at the corners, 
have cnimbled away to the extent of 12 or 15 inches, and are only held together by 
their great thickness. The moisture here causes disintegration to take place more 
rapidly than in any other part of the building; and in a few years, when the walls 
have become more undermined, the whole structure must fall, and become a mere 
rounded heap, like many other shapeless mounds which are seen on the plain. A 
couple of days' labor spent in restoring the walls at the base -with mud and gravel, 
would render this interesting monument as duralile as Ijrick, and enable it to last for 
centuries. How long it has been in this ruined state is not known; we only know 
that when visited by the missionaries a century ago it was in the same condition as 
at present. 

The exterior dimensions of this building are 50 feet from north to south, and 40 
from east to west. On the ground floor are five compartments. Those on the north 
and south sides extend the whole width of the building, and measure 32 Ijy 10 feet. 
Between these are three smaller apartments, the central one being within the tower. 
All are open to the sky. There is no appearance of a stairway on any of the walls; 
whence it has been inferred that tlie means of ascent may have been outside. 

On the south-west of the principal building is a second one in a state of ruin, with 
hardly enough of the walls remaining to trace its original form. . . . The central 
portion, judging from the height of the present walls, was two stories high; the outer 
wall, which can only be estimated from the debris, could not have been more than a 
single story. 

Northeast of the main building is a third one, smaller than either of the others, but 
in such an utter state of decay that its original form can not be determined . 1 1 is small, 
and may have been no more than a watch tower. In every direction as far as the 
eye can reach, are seen heaps of ruined edifices, with no portions of their walls standing. 
To the north-west, about 200 yards distant, is a circular embankment from 80 to 100 
yards in circumference, which is open in the center, and is probably the remains of 



68 CASA GRANDK, ARIZONA [etii. ann. 28 

an iiiplosuro fur rattle. For milow around those in all directions, the plain is strewn 
with br()k(Mi pottery and metates or coru-ijrinders. The pottery is red, white, lead- 
color, and black. The figures are usually geometrical and formed with taste, and in 
character are similar to the ornaments found on the pottery from the ruins on the 
Salinas and much farther north. Much of this pottery is painted on the inside, a 
peculiarity which does not belong to the modern pottery. In its texture too, it is 
far superior. I collected a quantity of these fragments, from which I selected the 
larger pieces. 

HUGHES's NARRATIVE 

Casa Grande was thus described by Lieut. John T. Hughes ' in his 
account of Doniphan's expedition in 1847 : 

After a march of 6 miles on the 10th of November, passing over plains which had 
once sustained a dense population, they came to an extensive ruin, one building of 
which, called the "Hall of Montezuma," is still in a tolerable state of preservation. 
This building was 50 feet long, 40 wide, and had been four stories high, but the floors 
and the roof had been burned out. The joists were made of round beams 4 feet in diam- 
eter [si'c]. It had four entrances — north, ea<it, south, and west. The walls were built 
of sun-dried brick, cemented with natural lime, which aboimds in the adjacent coim- 
trv, and were 4 feet thick, having a curved inclination inwards toward the top, lieing 
smoothed outside and plastered inside. Aliout 150 yards from this building to the 
northward is a terrace 100 yards long and 70 wide, elevated about 5 feet. Upon this 
is a pyramid, 8 feet high and 25 yards squai-e at the top. From the top of this, which 
has no doubt been used as a watch-tower, the vast plains to the west and north-east, for 
more than 15 miles, lie in plain view. These lands had once been in cultivation, and 
the remains of a large ascequia, or urigating canal, could be distinctly traced along the 
range of dilapidated houses. 

About the same day they came to the Pimo villages on the south side of the Gila. 
Captain Johnston observes: "Their answer to Carson when he went up and asked for 
provisions was, 'Bread is to eat, not to sell — take what you want.' The general asked 
a Pimo who made the house I had .seen. 'It is the Casa de Montezuma, 'said he, 'it was 
buQt by the son of a most beautiful woman, who once dwelt in yon mountain. She 
was fair, and all the handsome men came to court her; but in vain. — When they came 
they paid tribute and out of this small store she fed all people in times of famine, and 
it did not diminish. — At last as she lay asleep a drop of rain fell upon her navel, and 
she became pregnant and brought forth a son, who was the builder of all these houses.' " 

Later American Reports 

hinton's description 

The observations of a party of which Mr. Richard J. Ilinton was a 
member, who visited Casa Grande on December 13, 1877, are thus 
recorded by him,= the description being accompanied with a full-page 
lithograph illustration of Casa Grande: 

The Casa Grande itself is the remains of a lai^e building, the walls of which are 
composed of a species of gray concrete or groat. They still stand in a crumbling and 
almost disjointed condition, for a height of from 30 to 45 feet, the inside wall being 
the highest. The exterior walls at their thickest part are 4 feet 6 inches thick. The 
interior walls at different points are well preserved, and show a uniform thickness of 

» This account is taken largely from Capt. .\.. R. Jolinston's narrative, given on pp. 64-<)S. 
2 Richard J. Hinton, Hand-book to Arizona. 



FEWKES) HISTORY 69 

nearly 4 feet. At the north-east comer there is a great rent, and the walls are 
entirely separated; the opening here is about 5 feet and occupies the whole of that 
angle. In the center of each .side there are crumliled, out-of-shape openings, which 
on the north and west sides indicate old doors or entrances, but on the other sides 
appear to have resulted from the crumViling away of the walls. The interior shows a 
length of 52 feet north and south, and a width of 36 feet 6 inches east and west, while 
the exterior walls show in the same way a length of 61 by 45 feet 6 inches. Of course 
the exterior walls are much worn, furrowed and crumbled. In all probability they 
were originally not less than 6 feet thick. The interior walls still show above the 
debris traces of three stories, rows of small round holes indicating where the rafter poles 
had rested. In one room on the west side we were able to count them, and found 28 
holes each side of the apartment, showing an average of 6 inches apart, vnth holes of 
4 J inches diameter. The interior room or compartment is the best-preserved part 
of the structure. It is entered only on the ea-st side and on the lower story as now 
Aisible, by a small window or aperture originally about 2 feet 4 inches wide, and about 
4 feet 6 inches high, rather narrciwer at the top than at the base. This is the case with 
the other openings. There are six in all — two each on the interior walls to the north 
and south, one on the east wall, and one forming the entrance to middle rooms, with 
none at all on the west side. As to the exterior entrances, they appeal- to ha\'e lieen 
on the north and south fronts; tliose on the east and west being ajiertures liroken Ijy 
time and decay. There are several apertures in the interior walls, the purpose of 
wliich can not be ascertained. One is about 10 inclies each way, though it is some- 
wliat irregular in form: the other two would be aliout 7 inches each way. These 
apertures do not face each other, and consequently were not used to rest beams or 
rafters upon. The interior walls have been coated with some sort of cement or ^-arnish 
which has a reddish-orange hue, and which at the present time can be peeled off by 
a penknife. There are a number of names scrawled on the inside walls, but none of 
special note. The accumulated d6bris almost forms a mound on the exterior, while 
inside the floor is verj' uneven. The interior room gives out a hollow sound . Outside 
tne rains and winds are rapidh' undermining the base of the walls; unless something 
be soon done to roof the s^tnicture and prop the walls, the Gila Casa Grande will be 
altogether a thing of the past. 

bandelier's account 

Bandelier's account of Casa Grande is one of the most instructive 
of later descriptions. This explorer was the first, since Father Font, 
to give a ground plan of what is styled in the present report Com- 
pound A (Bandeher, p. 454) in which is represented the relation of 
the surrounding wall to tlie main structure. He gives likewise a 
plan of the mounds and ])latform of Compound B, before excavations, 
showing the two pyramids. 

Bandelier's description is as follows:' 

The walls of the Casa Grande are unusually thick, measuring 1.22 m. (4 feeti, and 
even the partitions 0.92 m. (3 feet). At the Ca-sa Blanca their thickness is only 0..50 m- 
(22 inches). 

As already said, and in otlier ruins between Casa Grande and Florence, 0.02 and 
0.60 m. (3 and 2 feet) were measured l>y me. . . . 

The doorways are higher and wider than in northern ruins, so are the light and air 
holes. The roof and ceilings, as far as traceable, belong to the usual pueblo pattern, 

' Final Report of Inve-stigations among the Indians of the Southwestern United States, Part n; in 
Papas of the Archs-ological Institute of America, .\merioan Series, rv', Cambridge, 1S92. 



70 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA Ieth, anx. 28 

that IS, they consist of round beams supporting smaller poles, on which rested a layer 
of earth. All the woodwork is destroyed except the ends of the beams, V)ut I was 
informed that a few posts of cedar wood were still visilile some years ago. Cedar only 
grows at some distance from t'asa Grande, but this was no obstacle to the patient and 
obstinate Indian. I could not find any trace of stairways or ladders. It wa.s remarked 
in the last century, that the Apaches were the destroyers of the woodwork in the 
building and something similar was told me; but to what extent this is true, I am 
unable to determine. 

Of the other shapeless mounds surrounding the Great House, or composing the 
northern cluster of the ruins, I am not in a position to say anything except that they 
indicate two-story edifices, long and comparatively narrow. Their size without 
exception falls short of the dimensions of northern communal pueblos, and, not- 
withstanding the extensive area occupied by the ruins, the population can not have 
been large. I doubt whether it exceeded a thousand souls. Almost every inch of 
the ground is covered with bits of pottery, painted as well as plain, and I noticed 
some corrugated pieces. They all resemble the specimens excavated by Mr. C'ushing 
from the vicinity of Tempe, and what I saw of those specimens con\'inces me that 
they belong to the class common to the ruins of Eastern and Central Arizona in general. 
There was among the potsherds which I picked up myself a sprinkling of pottery 
that closely resembled the modern ware of the Pimas and Papagos; but as I had 
already noticed the same kind on the Rio Verde, and had l)een forced to the conclu- 
sion that they were ancient, I am loath to consider them as modem at Casa Grande. 
Of other artificial objects, I saw Ijroken metates, and heard of the usual stone imple- 
ments. The culture, as indicated by such remains, offers nothing at all particular. 

The profusion of pottery scattered far beyond the area covered by the buildings 
has caused the imjiression that the settlement was much larger than I ha^■e repre- 
sented it to be; I have, however, no reason to modify my opinion. I have already 
stated that clusters of ruins are numerous about the Gila, and at no great distance 
apart. Intercourse between these settlements, if they were contemporaneously 
inhabited — of which there is as yet no proof — must have been frequent, and the winds 
and other agencies have contributed toward scattering potsherds over much larger 
expanses than those which they originally occupied. The acequias which run parallel 
to the Gila in this \Tcinity, and of which there are distinct traces, are usually lined 
with pieces of pottery which leads the untrained observer to draw erroneous impres- 
sions. 

On the southwestern comer of the northern group of the Casa Grande cluster stands 
the elliptical tank which is indicated on plate i, figure 59 [here pi. 5, "well "]. Its 
greatest depth is now 2| meters (8J- feet), and the width of the embankment surround- 
ing it varies between 8 and 10 feet. A large mezquite tree has grown in the center 
of this artificial depression. As the tank stands on the southwestern extremity of 
the northern, and not 100 meters (300 feet) [sic] from the southern group, it was prob- 
ably common to both. 

Bandelier's references to the use of the "great houses" of the Gila 
are instructive. He writes (p. 460): 

I have no doubt they may have been used incidentally for worship; still it was 
probably not their exclusive object. It should be remembered that we have in the 
first half of the seventeenth century descriptions of analogous buildings then actually 
used among some of the natives of Central Sonora. Those natives were the Southern 
Pimas, or "N6bomes, " kindred to the Northern Pimas, who occupy the banks of the 
Gila near Casa Grande, Ca.sa Blanca, and at intermediate points. Father Ribas, the his- 
toriographer of Sonora [1645], says that the villages of the N6bomes consisted of solid 
houses made of large adobes, and that each village had besides a larger edifice, stronger, 
and provided with loopholes which served, in case of attack, as a place of refuge or 
citadel. The purpose of this building was not merely surmised by Father Ribas, 



FBWKES] 



HISTORY 71 



who had means of acquiring personal knowledge, having been one of the early mis- 
sionaries in Sonora. The Spaniards had an opportunity of experiencing its use to 
their own detriment, and the edifice was so strong that its inmates had to be driven 
from it by fire. Such a place of retreat, in case of attack, the Casa Grande and analo- 
gous constructions in Arizona seem to have been. The strength of the walls, the 
openings in them, their commanding position and height, favor the suggestion. That 
they may also have been inhabited is not impossible; Mr. Cushing's investigations 
seem to prove it. 

After mentioning certain Pima traditions, Bandelier continues 
as follows: 

The gist of these traditions is that the Pimas claim to be the lineal descendants 
of the Indians who built and inhabited the large houses and mounds on the Gila 
and Lower Salado Rivers, as well as on the delta between the two streams; that 
they recognize the Sonoran Pimas as their kindred, who separated from them many 
centuries ago; that they attribute the destruction and abandonment of the Casa 
Grande and other clusters now in ruins to various causes; and, lastly, that they claim 
the \-illages were not all contemporaneously inhabited. Further than that, I do not 
at present venture to draw conclusions from the traditions above reported ; but enough 
is contained in them to justify the wish that those traditions may be collected and 
recorded at the earliest possible day, and in the most complete manner, in order that 
they may be critically sifted and made useful. 

Regarding the kinship of the inhabitants of Casa Grande, Bandelier 
writes:' 

Here the statements of the Pimas, which Mr. Walker has gathered, are of special 
value; and to him I owe the following details: The Pimas claim to have been created 
where they now reside, and after passing through a disastrous flood, — out of which 
only one man, Ci-ho, was saved — they grew and multiplied on the south bank of the 
Gila until one of their chiefs, Ci-va-no, built the Casa Grande. They call it to-day 
"Ci-va-no-qi" (house of Ci-va-no), also "Vat-qi" (ruin). A son of Ci-vS-no settled 
on Lower Salt River, and built the villages near Phoenix and Tempe. At the same 
time a tribe with which they were at war occupied the Rio Verde; to that tribe they 
ascribe the settlements whose ruins I have visited, and which they call "O-ot-gum- 
vatqi" (gravelly ruins). The Casa Blanca and all the ruins south of the Gila were 
the abodes of the forefathers of the Pimas, designated by them as "Vi-pi-set" (great- 
grandparents), or "Ho-ho-q6m" (the extinct ones). (Ci-va-no had 20 wives, etc. 
["each of whom wore on her head, like a headdress, the peculiar half-hood, half-basket 
contrivance called Ki'-jo. " — Papers Archxol. Iiist. Amer., iv, 463.]) At one time the 
Casa Grande was beset by enemies who came from the east in several bodies, and who 
compelled its abandonment; but the settlements at Zacaton, Casa Blanca, etc., still 
remained, and there is even a tale of an intertribal war between the Pimas of Zacaton 
and those of Casa Blanca after the ruin of Casa Grande. Finally, the pueblos fell 
one after the other, until the Pimas, driven from their homes, and moreover, decimated 
by a fearful plague, became reduced to a small tribe. A portion of them moved 
south into Sonora, where they still reside; but the main body remained on the site 
of their former prosperity. I asked particularly why they did not again build houses 
with solid walls like those of their ancestors. The reply was that they were too weak 
in numbers to attempt it, and had accustomed themselves to their present mode 
of living. But the construction of their winter houses — a regular pueblo roof bent 
to the ground over a central scaffold — their organization and arts — all bear testimony 
to the truth of their sad tale^that of a powerful sedentary tribe reduced to distress 
and decadence in architecture long before the advent of the Spaniards. 

' In Fifth Annual Report of the Archxological Institute oj America, 1883-84, pp. 80, 81, Cambridge, 1884. 



72 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA |etii. ann. 28 

In liis Final Report Banddier gives a figure or ground plan of the 
walknl inelosuro in whicli Casa Grande is situated, the only modern 
representation of the outside wall of Compound A with which the 
present writer is familiar. There is also an illustration of the two 
mounds of Compound B. 

gushing' S RESEARCHES 

Cosmos Mindeleff thus speaks of ¥. II. Cushing's researches relating 
to ruins similar to Casa Grande: ' 

In 1888 Mr. F. H. Gushing presented to the Congres International des Am^ri- 
canistes ^ some "Preliminary notes" on his work as director of the Hemenway south- 
western archeological expedition. Mr. Gushing did not describe the Casa Grande, 
but merely alluded to it as a surviving example of the temple, or principal structure, 
which occurred in conjunction mth nearly all the settlements studied. As Mr. 
Cushing's work was devoted, however, to the investigation of remains analogous to, 
if not identical with, the Casa Grande, his report forms a valuable contribution to 
the literature of this subject, and although not everyone can accept the broad infer- 
ences and generalizations drawn by Mr. Gushing — of which he was able, unfortunately, 
to present only a mere statement — the report should be consulted by every student 
of southwestern archeology. 

FEWKES'S DESCRIPTION 

In 1892 the following description of Casa Grande by the present 
writer was published : ^ 

A short distance south of the Gila River, on the stage route from Florence to Casa 
Grande station on the Southern Pacific Railroad, about 10 miles southwest of the for- 
mer town, there is a ruin which from its unique character has attracted attention from 
the time the country was first ^'^sited. This venerable ruin, which is undoubtedly 
one of the best of its t>'pe in the United States, is of great interest as shedding light on 
the architecture of several of the ruined pueblos which are found in such numbers in 
the valleys of the Gila and Salt Rivers. The importance of its preservation from the 
hands of vandals and from decay led Mrs. Hemenway and others, of Boston, to petition 
Congress for an appropriation of money for thin purpose. This petition was favorably 
acted upon, and an appn^priation was made to carry out the suggestions of the 
petitioners.* . . . 

As one approaches the ruin along the stage road from the side toward Florence," 
he is impressed with the solidity and massive character of the walls, and the great 
simplicity of the structure architecturally considered. Externally, as seen from a dis- 
tance, there is much to remind one of the ruins of an old mission, but this resemblance 
is lost on a closer examination. The fact that the walls of the middle (central) cham- 

i In ISth Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol, p. 297. 

' Berlin meeting. 1S8.S: Comptc-Rcndu. Berlin. 1890. p. 1.50 et seq. 

3 In Journal of American Ethnology and Archseology, n, Boston and New York, 1892. 

* The repairs and other work carried on by means of this appropriation have been described at length by 
Mr. Cosmos Mindeleff (in tSth Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol.). 

Later a corrugated iron root was erected over Casa (irande to protect it from the elements. This feature 
detracts somewhat from the picturesqueness of the ruin, but is necessary for the preservation of the stand- 
ing walls. The bases of the walls, undermined and about to fall in several places, have been strengthened 
with cement and with iron rods strung from wall to wall. This roof was repainted in 1907 out of the 
appropriation for the repair of the building. 

6 The WTiter visited the ruin from this side, but one coming from the Eastern States would probably find 
it more convenient to make the station of Casa Grande on the Southern Pacific the point of departure. 



FEffKES] 



HISTOKY 



73 



ber rise Bomewhat above tlioae of the peripheral is evident from a distance, long before 
one approaches the ruin. Tliis architectural feature imparts a certain pyramidal out- 
line to the pile, rendering it somewhat difficult to make out the relationship of the 
different parts. The departure of the outer face of the external walls from a vertical 
line, which deviation is probably d\ie in part at least, possibly wholly, to atmospheric 
erosion and natural destruction, the falling in of the material of which the upi^er courses 
are made, is a marked feature of the vertical liue-i of the external walls on all sides. 
[Fig. 7.] The d^lwis within the chambers on the present floor ' is evidently iai part 




Fig. 



Casa Grande ruin, from the south. 



the result of the falling in of roofs and floors of upper stories, but no large fragments 
indicating the character or position of such in place could be found. 

The orientation of the ruin corresponds to the cardinal jioints. From my want of 
instruments of precision, I was not able to determine its true position or to state accu- 
rately the exact orientation of the ground plan; but by means of a pocket compass, it 

1 Several persons have told me that it was but a few years ago when wooden beams and lintels were to 
be seen in situ in the building. These informants have also told me that within a short time the walls 
were much better preserved than at present. As far as I have examined the ruin, not a fragment of wood 
still remains, although the holes from which the vigas [beams] have been tal^en can still be readily 
seen in several places. 



74 CASA GRANDE, AKIZONA [kth. ann. 28 

was seen that the variation of the bounding walls from north-south, east-west lines was 
not very great. It seems evident tliat it was the intention of the builders to align the 
walls with the cardinal points. 

It may be convenient to consider the chambers of the ruin as if seen by a bird's-eye 
view, without reference to the different stories which were once found in the building, 
and gave its elevation. Practically, at present, indications only of these stories 
remain. 

The plan [see pi. 6] given at the close of this article shows the general arrangement of 
the rooms, and may be of use in understanding the description of the separate chambers 
which follows. Examining this plan, it will be seen that the bounding walls of the 
ruin inclose five cliambers which fall in two groups: Twin chambers, one at either end, 
and triplets in the interval between them. The rooms from their position may very 
conveniently be designated, from the side of the ruin in which they are: The north, 
south, east, west, and central chambers. The north and south are alike, and extend 
wholly across their respective sides of the ruin, so that their east and west walls are por- 
tions of the eastern and western external walls of the building. With the east and 
west chambers, however, it is somewhat different. Whereas three of the walls of the 
north and south chambers are external walls of the building wholly or in part, there is 
but a single wall of either the east or west rooms which is external. None of the walls 
of the remaining member of this triplet, the central chamber, excepting possibly those 
belonging to upper stories, are external. All the cliambers of both kinds have a rectan- 
gular form, and their angles are as a general thing carefully constructed right angles. 
The vertical and horizontal line^ are seldom perfectly straight, although much truer 
than is ordinarily the case in more northern ruins. [Fig. 8.] 

Let us take up for consideration the different chambers which have been men- 
tioned, in order to call to mind any special features in their individual architecture. 

North Room (A) 

This room occupies the whole northern end of the ruin, and has all the bounding 
walls of the lower stories entire, with the exception of the northeast corner and a small 
section of the adjacent northern wall. As one approaches the ruin from the side 
toward Florence, it is through this broken-down entrance on the northeast corner 
that one enters Casa Grande. Although, as will be seen presently, there are several 
other entrances to the ruin, this passageway is in fact the only means of entrance into 
the chamber. 

The greatest length of the room is from the eastern to the western wall. There are 
good evidences in this room of at least two stories above the present level of the ground 
which now forms the floor of the chamber.' As the floors are destroyed these former 
stories now form one room with high bounding walls. On the northern side in the 
second story of this chamber, there is an artificial break in the wall which indicates 
that there had once been a passageway. The walls of this opening are not perpendic- 
ular, but slightly inclined, so that their upper ends slightly approach. The eastern 
wall of this passageway is now cracked, and will probably fall in a short time. The 
position of the lintel is well marked, but the lintel itself, which was probably of 
wood, has been removed from its former place, and cavities alone remain, plainly 
showing, however, its former size at the two upper corners of the opening. A groove 
on the inner side of the northern wall, which marks the lines of the flooring of an upper 
chamber, is well shown, although broken and gapped in many places. Near the 

•It would not be possible to demonstrate how many stories Casa Grande formerly had without excava- 
tions. Even if the lower floor should be laid bare, there would always remain the difficulty in the deter- 
mination ot how many upper stories have been destroyed by the weathering of the walls. I think that it 
is not difficult to find evidences of four stories at certain points. The observations which I could make on 
the present condition of the ruin do not justify my acceptance of the theory that there were more. There 
is good evidence that there were three stories. 



FEWKES] 



HISTORY 



75 



western end of the northern wall, not far from the corner, there is an opening just 
above the line of the second floor. The line of insertion of a possible third floor can 
be easily traced above the northern passageway. . . . 

The western wall of the room ia pierced by a single circular and a rectangular 
window, situated in the same story as the northern passageway above mentioned, 
about on a level with the top of the door or opening on the northern side. [Fig. 9.] 
This single opening lies midway between the northwestern and southwestern corners 
of the room. 




Fig. 8. Interior of room, showing doorway and lines of floor. 



The Bouthem wall of the north room (A) shows certain architectural details in con- 
struction which are characteristic. Two openings lead from the chamber A into 
adjoining rooms. One of these opens into the eastern chamber D; the other into the 
western, B. There is no passageway from room A into the middle chamber, C, but 
through the wall into chamber B is a broad opening through that portion of the wall 
which forms the second story. This is undoubtedly artificial, as the sides of it are 
smooth and resemble similar jambs in doorways and windows of inhabited i)ueblos. 
Their surface wall i.s smooth, and they are nearly vertical. Below this opening the 



76 



CASA GKAKDli, AKIZONA 



I KTll, ANN. ^8 



chamber wall is more or lees broken and onlarpied, its edjjes are rough, and in them are 
rounded cavities. It is next to iniixw.siblo now to say whether tho openinp; is the 
result of an enlargement of a previously existing doorway, or simply the result of a 
breaking away of the wall. Tho upper portion of the doorway on the second story 
is broken and destroyed. A passageway from A inio the east room, D, situated in the 
second story, is very conspicuous. Its sides slo])e slightly, one side being more out 
of perpendicular than the other. The width of the opening is thus greater at the base. 
Between the openings from the north room into chambers B and D, the floor groove 




Fig. 9. Interior of north room, looking west. 



of the second story can be easily traced, and well preserved impressions of the ends 
of the small sticks which were probably placed above the beams can be readily seen. 
In several instances it was possible to pick out of the adobe a few small fragments of 
woody remnants of the ends of the small sticks which formerly filled these holes, but 
as a rule these fragments are very small. The impressions in the adobe, however, 
whererods formerly existed are as well shown as if the sticks or reeds had been extracted, 
but a few weeks ago. 

WTiile room A is by no means the best pre.'^erved of the five chambers which compose 
Casa Grande, its walls are still in a fair condition for study. There are but few van- 



FEWKES] 



HISTORY . 77 



dalistic markinirs upon it, and aside from (he fact that the northeast corner is broken 
down, the walls are i\\ tolerably ijood condition. Possibly the thing most to be regret- 
ted in the recent mutilations of this j)art of the ruin is an attempt by some one to dis- 
cover by excavation how far the foundations extend below the surface of the ground 
by undermining the northwest corner of the ruin on the outside. This excavation 
reveals the amount of weathering of the wall at the surface of the ground, but it has 
been left in such a condition that it weakens the whole corner of the building, for it 
affords an all too good opportunity for additional undermining by the atmosphere, 
rains, and like agents of erosion. 

Room B, West Room 

This chamber, which belongs to the middle triplet of rooms, being the most western 
member of the three, like its two companions has a rectangular shape, its longest 
dimension being from north to south. It has an external entrance on the west side, 
and there are indications of former artificial passageways into chambers A and E. 
There is an opening into the central chamber C, but no passable way through. The 
opening tlurough the wall into room A, as seen from that room, has ali-eady been men- 
tioned. On this side it is very much broken iu the first story, but on the second, the 
upright walls of the former passageway are smooth and little broken, except in the 
upper part, near where the lintel formerly was. The wall of the chandler on the 
north side, above the former passageway, is more or less broken and looks as if it would 
tunilile in at no distant date. 

The eastern wall of chamber B is higher than the western, making the additional 
story, which forms the western wall of a central chamber. WTiile there is no passage- 
way into the central chamber C large enough to enter from this side, there are two 
openings, one above the other, in the wall. The lower of these is rectangular in shape, 
with the larger dimension horizontal; the upper is elongated, rectangular, with the 
side vertical. The size of rooms B, (!', and D is about the same, 24 feet long by a 
little over 9 broad. 

The single opening from chamber B into the south room E appears to be the enlarge- 
ment of two passageways, one on the first, the other on the second story. The former 
is almost wholly clogged up by fallen debris strewn over the floor of the chamber. 
A portion of the wall above the latter has fallen into the opening so neatly that it would 
seem to have been placed there. The upper part of the west chamber on the south 
side is very much broken, and traces of the upper story which probably once existed 
are difficult to discover. 

Room D, E.\st Room 

The chamber on the east of the ruin, like its fellow B on the west, is elongated in 
a north-south direction, and plainly shows at least two stories above the present 
level. One can enter this room from the side, and from it one can readily pass into 
the central chamber C. It seems in kee})ing with what is known of ceremonial inclo- 
sures used by Indians at certain times, that if the central room was a sacred chamber 
or used for religious ceremonials, it very properly had an entrance from the eastern 
room and not from the others. [Fig. 10.] 

The exterior entrance to room D is enlarged by the breaking of the walls, and 
affords e\ddence that it was one of the principal entrances into the building. It 
opens into the chamber about midway in its length and shows well-defined lintel 
marks. On the second story the walls are more or less broken on the eastern side, 
both externally and internally. A generous passageway from the second story of room 
D into room A occupies about a fourth part of the width of the north wall. The wall 
is intact with this exception, and the position of the flooring of the chamber above 
the surface of the ground can be readily seen. The "floor groove" of the second story 
is pronounced, that on the east wall being a little lower than that on the west. The 



78 



CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA 



lETII. ANN, 28 



south Willi o{ llie first story of room D is intat-t; an opening which would seem to iiuli- 
•cate the position of the i)asHageway into the south room has its vertical jamlis still 
well preserved, but its to)) lias fallen and is very much broken. 

Room E, South Room 

The south chamber of the ruin, like the north, extends across the whole end of 
the ruin. Its greatest length is thus east and west. Its northern wall forms the 
southern side of the east, west, and central chambers B, D, and C, just as the southern 




\ - 



Fig. 10. Casa Grande ruin, looking norlhwest. 

wall of the northern chamber A separates this room from the same members of tlie 
middle series. As with its northern fellow, there are openings into the lateral 
chambers B and D, the western and .eastern rooms, but no signs of the existence of an 
entrance at any time into the central chamber C. The southeastern angle of room E, 
which is at the same time the southeastern corner of the ruin, is liroken down so that 
a gap is formed, by which alone one can enter the room. Possibly tliis opening is 
not wholly the product of natural destruction. Two great gaps break the continuity 
of the southern wall, but the southwest corner of the chamber is entire from the ground 
to a considerable height. 



FBWKES] HISTORY 79 

The supposed former passageways into chambers B and D have already been de- 
scribed in my consideration of these rooms. When seen from the south room they do 
not materially differ from what has already been said of them. The western wall of 
room E is pierced by a small, square, windowlike opening high up in the second 
story. Upon this side of the room one can without difficulty make out two stories and 
the remnants of the third above the present level of the ground. The line of holes in 
which the floor logs formerly fitted can be traced with ease, and a row of smaller 
cavities can be readily seen between the passageway into room B and a middle ver- 
tical line of the north wall. Vandalistic scribblings of varied nature deface this 
room, and ambitious visitors ■n-ith no claim for complimentary notice have cut their 
names upon the smoothly plastered walls. There are also spiral markings resembling 
forms of pictographs common on the sides of the mesas inhabited by the Tusayan 
Indians. 

Room C. Centr.\l Room 

The central chamber of Ca.sa Grande, like the other rooms, the eastern and the 
western, is elongated in a north-south direction. It differs from the others in that it 
shows the walls of an additional story on all four sides, and has but one entrance. 
This entrance is from its eastern side. The walls are very smooth and apparently 
carefully polished. There are well preserved evidences of the flooring, and the 
smaller sticks which formerly lay upon the same are beautifully indicated by rows 
of small holes in the northern wall. The eastern opening by which one enters has 
already been described, as well as the windowlike openings leading into the western 
chamber. 

The walls of the third story on the western side are pierced by three circular 
openings about 5 inches in diameter, which preserve theii' ancient outline. The rim 
of these openings is smoothly polished, which would indicate that thej' were never 
used for floor joists; indeed, theu- position seems to point in the same direction. They 
were possibly windows or lookouts. On the north and south wall there are similar 
openings, one on each wall. The round hole in the south wall is situated about on 
the middle vertical line of the wall, while that on the north is a little to the east of the 
middle. On the east wall there are three of these small round holes, placed one to 
the north of the doorway and one to the south. These openings are at times placed 
as high as the head of a person standing on the floor of the third chamber, but there 
are some which are only a few feet above the probable level of the floor. They appear 
to be characteristic of the central room and of the third story. 

COSMOS mindeleff's description 

The most comprehensive description of Casa Grande is by Mr. 
Cosmos Mindeleff. (Pis. 8-10.) As this is available to all who have 
access to the reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology, it is not 
here cjuoted in its entirety, but reference is made to certain pouits, 
some of which were first brought out hj this talented author. 

The name Casa Grande has been usually applied to a single struc- 
ture standing near the southwestern corner of a large area covered 
by mounds and other debris, but some WT-iters have applied the term 
to the southwestern portion of Compound A, while still others have so 
designated the whole area. The last-mentioned seems the proper 
application of the term, but throughout this paper, in order to avoid 
confusion, the settlement as a whole will be designated the Casa 



80 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [ktii. ann. 28 

Gnuulo Group, and tlie single striK-ture, with standing walls, the Casa 
Grande ruin, or simply Casa Grande. 

Probably no two investigators would assign the same limits to the 
area covered by the group, as the margins of this area merge imper- 
ceptibly into the surrounding country. 

The bird's-eye views here used (pis. 11, 12) to illustrate the relation 
of Casa Grande to the surrounding mounds are in general correct, 
although not entirely in agreement with the results of the excavations. 
According to Mmdelefl', the area covered by the Casa Grande Group 
"extends about 1,800 feet north and south and 1,500 feet east and 
west, or a total area of about 65 acres." 

The following description of Casa Grande is from Mindeleff : ' 

The Casa Grande ruin is often referred to as an adobe structure. Adobe construc- 
tion, if we limit the word to its proper meaning, consists of the use of molded brick, 
dried in the sun but not baked. Adobe, as thus defined, is very largely used through- 
out the Southwest, more than 9 out of 10 houses erected by the Mexican population 
and many of those erected by the Pueblo Indians being so constructed; but, in the 
experience of the writer, it is never found in the older ruins, although seen to a limited 
extent in ruins known to belong to a period subsequent to the Spanish conquest. 
Its discovery, therefore, in the Casa Grande would be important; but no trace of it 
can be found. The walls are composed of huge blocks of earth, 3 to 5 feet long, 2 feet 
high, and 3 to 4 feet thick. These blocks were not molded and placed in situ, but 
were manufactured in place. The method adopted was probably the erection of a 
framework of canes or light poles, woven with reeds or grass, forming two parallel 
surfaces or planes, some 3 or 4 feet apart and about 5 feet long. Into this open box 
or trough was rammed clayey earth obtained from the immediate vicinity and mixed 
with water to a heavy paste. When the mass was suiHciently dry, the framework was 
moved along the wall and the operation repeated. This is the typical pis6 or rammed- 
earth construction, and in the hands of skilled workmen it sulBces for the construc- 
tion of quite elaborate buildings. As here used, however, the appliances were rude 
and the workmen unskilled. An inspection of the illustrations herewith, especially 
of 'Plate Lv [here pi. 10], showing the western wall of the ruin, will indicate clearly 
how this work was done. The horizontal lines, marking what may be called courses, 
are very well defined, and, while the vertical joints are not apparent in the illustration, 
a close inspection of the wall itself shows them. It will be noticed that the builders 
were unable to keep straight courses, and that occasional thin courses were put in to 
bring the wall up to a general level. This is even more noticeable in other parts of 
the ruin. It is probable that as the walls rose the exterior surface was smoothed with 
the hand or with some suitable implement, but it was not carefully finished like the 
interior, nor was it treated like the latter with a specially prepared material. . . . 
The floors of the rooms, which were also the roofs of the rooms below, wore of the 
ordinary pueblo type, employed also to-day by the American and Mexican popula- 
tion of this region. . . . Over the primary series of joists was placed a layer of 
light poles, IJ to 2 inches in diameter, and over these reeds and coarse grass were 
spread. The prints of the light poles can still be seen on the walls. . . . 

The walls of the northern room are fairly well preserved, except in the north- 
eastern corner, which has fallen. The principal floor beams were of necessity laid 
north and south, across the shorter axis of the room, while the secondary series of poles, 
IJ inches in diameter, have left their impression in the eastern and western walls. 

1 In ISth Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol, p. 309 



I- 
I 
o 




< 

o 

z 

o 

a. 



5 

UJ 



LLl 

> 

LlJ 

a 
m 



FEWKES] 



HISTORY 81 



There is no setback in the northern wall at the first floor level, though there is a very 
slight one in the southern wall; none appears in the eastern and western walls. Yet 
in the second roof level there is a double setback of 9 and 5 inches in the western 
wall, and the northern wall has a setback of 9 inches, and the top of the wall still 
shows the position of nearly all the roof timbers. This suggests — and the suggestion 
is supported by other facts to be mentioned later — that the northern room was added 
after the completion of the rest of the edifice. 

The second roof or third floor level, the present top of the wall, has a decided pitch 
outward, amounting to nearly 5 inches. Furthermore, the outside of the northern 
wall of the middle room, above the second roof level of the northern room is very 
much eroded. This indicates that the northern room never had a greater height 
than two stories, but probably the walls were crowned with low parapets. . . . 
The walls of the western room were smoothly finished and the finish is well preserved, 
but here, as in the northern room, the exterior wall of the middle room was not finished 
above the second roof level, and there is no doubt that two stories above the ground 
were the maximum height of the western rooms, excluding the parapet. . . . 

The walls of the southern room are perhaps better finished and less well constructed 
than any others in the building. The beam holes in the southern wall are regular, 
those in the northern wall less so. The beams used averaged a little smaller than 
those in the other rooms, and there is no trace whatever in the overhanging wall of 
the use of rushes or canes in the construction of the roof above. The walls depart 
considerably from vertical plane surfaces; the southern wall inclines fully 12 inches 
inward, while in the ncjrtheastem corner the side of a doorway projects fully 3 inches 
into the room. . . . The walls of the eastern room were well finished, and, except 
the western wall, in fairly good preservation. The floor beams were not placed in 
a straight line, but rise slightly near the middle, as noted above. The finish of some 
of the openings suggests that the floor was but 3 or 4 inches above the beams, and that 
the roughened surface, already mentioned, was not part of it. . . . 

Openings. — The Ca.?a Grande was well pro\-ided with doorways and other open- 
ings arranged in pairs one above the other. There were doorways from each room 
into each adjoining room, except that the middle room was entered only from the east. 
Some of the openings were not used and were closed with blocks of solid masonry- 
built into them long prior to the final abandonment of the ruin. 

The middle room had three doorways, one above the other, all opening eastward. 
The lowest doorway opened directly on the floor level, and was 2 feet wide, with 
vertical sides. . . . The doorway of the second story is preserved only on the northern 
side. Its bottom, still easily distinguishable, is 1 foot 6 inches above the bottom of 
the floor beams. It was not over 2 feet wide and was about 4 feet high. ... In 
addition to its three doorways, all in the eastern wall, the middle tier of rooms was 
well pro\'ided with niches and holes in the walls, some of them doubtless utilized as 
outlooks. On the left of the upper doorway are two holes, a foot apart, about 4 inches 
in diameter, and smoothly finished. Almost directly above these some 3 feet, and 
about 2 feet higher than the top of the door, there are two similar holes. Near the 
southern end of the room in the same wall there is another round opening a trifle 
larger and about 4i feet above the floor level. In the western wall there are two 
similar openings, and there is one each in the northern and southern walls. ... In 
the second storj', or middle room of the middle tier, there were no openings except 
the doorway in the eastern wall and two small orifices in the western wall. 
20903°— 28 ETH— 12 6 



82 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [etii. ann. 28 

PRESENT CONDITION 

Main Building 

The following description of the Casa Grande ruin (pis. 8-10) 
contains new facts derived from the author's observations and exca- 
vations made in the winters of 1906-7 and 1907-8: 

construction 

The walls of Casa Grande are of a fawn color slightly tinged 
with red. Externally they are rough and veiy much eroded, but 
the interior walls are plastered, still showing places that formerly, in 
the words of Father Kino, were as smooth as "Puebla pottery." 

The walls. are constructed of a natural cement, commonly called 
calicJie by the Mexicans, composed of lime, earth, and pebbles; this 
was made into blocks, which were laid in courses. These blocks are 
supposed to have been made in position, the materials therefor being 
rammed into bottomless baskets or wooden frames, that were raised 
as the work progressed, until the wall reached the desired height. 
The blocks are not of uniform size, consequenth' the horizontal 
joints of the courses are not always the same distance apart. Although 
clearly shown in the outside walls, these joints are not visible in 
the interior walls on account of the plastering. 

The exterior faces of the walls are not perfectly plumb, the thick- 
ness of the walls at the top being much less than at the base. 
Impressions of human hands appear in places in the plaster of the 
north and the west room. Posts were used to support some of the 
narrow walls, and stones employed for the same purpose are found 
in their foundations. 

ROOMS 

The ground ])lan of the main building shows that its walls form 
five inclosures, which may be termed the north, west, south, east, 
and central rooms. \Mien the walls had reached the height of about 
7 feet, these inclosures Vv'ere filled solitl with earth, the upper surface 
forming the floors of the rooms of the first storj^. In the north, west, 
south, and east inclosures there were two rooms above each ground 
room; the central room had three stories, being one story higher than 
the rooms which surrounded it.' 

' Many conflicting statements regarding the former height ot Casa Grande are on record, most authors 
favoring three or four stories. There were undoubtedly four stories counting from the level of the plain 
to the top of the highest wall, as could be seen from the outside as one approaolied the structure, but the 
lowest story was fdled solid with earth, so that inside the building there were really only three tiers of 
rooms, one above the other in the central part of the ruin and two on each of the four sides. The entrance 
■into the lowest room was on a level with the roofs of the surrounding buildings, forming a terrace that 
surrounded the base of Casa Grande. Entrance to the upper rooms was elfected by means of ladders from 
the outside and by hatchways. The positions of the outside doonvays indicate that there were entrances 
on all four sides, but the middle room had only one doorway, which was situated on the east side. 



KEWKES] 



PRESENT CONDITION 
WALLS 



83 



The interior walls of the north rooms in both stories are well pre- 
served except in the southeast corner (fio;. 11), where there was prob- 
ably a connection with six rooms which exttuided to the north wall of 
the indosure. As imlicatetl by a series of holes in the eastern and 
western walls, the floor beams extended north and south. The posi- 




FiG. II. Southeast comer of ruin, showing part of east wail. 

tion of the floors is also indicated by ledges, or setbacks, one of the 
best of which a|)pears on the level of the roof in the north wall of 
the first story; there is also a narrow ledge on the south wall. The 
east and west wahs in both stories are true to the perpendicular 
from base to top. The tops of the north and west walls of tlie second 
stoiy show setbacks, and the apertures where the beams were inserted 
are clearly marked. Small holes indicating that rushes were used 



84 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [etii. axn. 28 

in tho construction of tlie roof aro well marked in the east and west 
walls of the second story. The outer face of the north wall is much 
eroded near the top, exhibiting no evidences of continuation into a 
third stor}'. There was a low parapet rising slightly above the roof 
on the north, as well as on the east and west walls of the north room. 
Both lower and upper stories of the west room have smooth walls, 
but the exterior surface of the walls of the central room, above the 
line of the second floor, is rough, indicating that the western inclosure 
never had more than two stories. The east wall of the west room 
is slightly curved, while the west wall of the same room is straight. 
Rows of holes in the east wall, which formerly received the floor beams, 
are arranged somewhat irregularly. The inner faces of the walls of 
the south room are finely finished, jiarticularly on the south side, 
although the wall itself is in places more broken than the north or 
west walls. The holes for beams in the south wall are less regular 
in arrangement than those in the north wall. 

A fragment of the east wall of the south room remained standing 
up to within a few years, when the repairs were made by contractors. 
At one time the south room was excavated far below its original 
floor, as indicated by the line of erosion on the surface of the north 
wall and a corresponding line on the opposite sitle walls. There were 
formerly two doors, one above the other, in the south wall, but the 
lintel between them has disappeared, the south wall remaining in the 
form of two very unsteady sections. The interior walls of the east 
room are finely finished, while the exterior surface of the east wall of 
the central room is ver}' much eroded. The exterior surface of the 
east wall of the central section shows the effects of exposure to the 
weather, suggesting that there were l)ut two stories to the eastern 
part. The north wall of the central rooms runs through the east 
wall, without bonding, suggesting later construction of the latter. A 
wide crack left in the east wall where the north wall joins is snioothl3' 
plastered over for part of its length, a condition which imjjlies earlier 
construction. The inner walls of the central rooms are smooth; the 
marks of reeds, grasses, and rafters indicate the former existence of 
floors in this part of the building. The roughness of the plaster above 
the line of the floor of the second story indicates that there was once 
a low banfjuette about the room. The row of lioles that accommodated 
the beams of the roof of the third story is not flush with the top of 
the wall but somewhat below it, indicating that the walls there were 
formerly continued into a low parapet. 

FLOORS 

The floors of the second and third stories served as ceilings of tho 
first and second stories, respectively, and resemble those of the ordi- 
nary adobe houses of the Southwest. The beams were small cedar 



FEWKKS] PRESENT CONDITION 85 

logs, most of which were laid across the width of the room, their 
extremities being inserted for support in the walls, or in some in- 
stances laid on a ledge or in a recess. The rows of holes that accom- 
modated the ends of the beams are to be seen in most of the rooms; 
some of these holes are not strictly in line. Each roof was covered 
with mud firmly packed down ami hardened by exposure to the air 
and to the constant pressure of human feet; in places appear the prints 
of reeds and grasses which were formerly laid on the rafters. Many 
Americtuis have told the writer that when they first saw Casa Grande 
the ends of burnt timbers protruded from the walls. Logs were 
found in several rooms, some of which were charred, while others 
had been untouched by fire. 

DOORWAYS AND WINDOWS 

The external entrances into most of the rooms of each story of Casa 
Grande were lateral, and there is reason to suppose that the rooms 
in which no openings appear iii the side walls were entered by hatch- 
ways. As the floors have all disappeared, it is impossible, of course, 
to know what or where the entrances to rooms from the roof were. 
In the lowest story was a doorway about midway in each side. Open- 
ings appear in about the corresponding positions m the stories above, 
except the third, where the only entrance to be seen is on the east 
side. As its threshold was on a level with the roof of the second 
story^, this doorway probably opened on the roof of the east rooms 
in that story. In addition to these external openuigs there were 
passageways between the north, south, east^ and west rooms, in the 
first and second stories. 

The doorway of the middle room in the first story was on the 
east side. 

All the doorways were constnicted on the same pattern. They 
averaged about 2 feet m width, and some were slightly narrower at 
the top than below. This decrease in width may be a survival of the 
times when the conical, or beehive, form of arcliitecture prevailed. 

The masoniy over the doorways is now, as a rule, more or less 
broken, but it stOl shows holes for the insertion of logs that formed 
the lintels, which were arranged in series one above another. Wliile 
most of the lintels which supported the adobe have been WTenched 
out, some remain, holdmg m place the heavy material of which this 
part of the wall was built. 

The doorway between the west and tlie south room has been closed 
with large solid blocks of masonry. 

The sills of most of the doorways are l)r<)ken, but the jambs are 
entire and smoothly plastered. 



86 CASA GRANDE, AKIZONA [eth. ann. 28 

There are several rmiiul apertures in tlie walls that may have served 
for lookouts. In the east wall of the central room to the left of the 
upper doorway are two such openin<;^s, each about 4 inches m diameter, 
and near the south end of this room in the east wall is another. Two 
similar apertures are found in the west wall of the inner room, one in 
the up])er stoiy of the north wall, and another in the south wall. 

Cosmos Mindeleff makes the following statement : ' 

The frequency of openings in the upper or third story and their absence on lower 
levels, except the specially arranged openings described later, supports the hypothesis 
that none of the rooms except the middle one were ever more than two stories high 
and that the wall remains above the second roof level rejiresent a low jjarapet. 

CASA GRANDE MOUNDS 
General Description 

It is evident to anyone who visits Casa Grande that the historic 
structure called by this name is only one of many blocks of buildings 
which formerly existed in the immediate vicinity. While it is now 
difficult to determme whether all these structures were contempora- 
neously occupied, it is evident that the Casa Grande Group, m its 
prime, was no mean settlement. Evidences of former habitations 
cover much of the surface of the reservation- anil extend on all sides 
far beyond its boundaries. The lunits of this prehistoric settlement 
are difficult to determine. The whole plain was dotted at intervals 
with houses similar to those of Casa Grande, from the point where the 
Gila leaves the mountains to its junction with its largest tributaiy, 
the Salt, the valley of which is also marked by the remains of many 
similar prehistoric buildings. Not all the mounds on the Casa 
Grande Reservation, however, contain rums of great builduigs; many 
walled structures, fonnerlj^ homes of the mhabitants, have fallen, 
leaving but slight traces of their existence — no vestiges of walls 
above the surface of the ground, merely broken metates or frag- 
ments of pottery scattered over a limited area. This destruction was 
inevitable, owing to the fragile character of the wattled walls. Even 
the foundations of heavier walls of many of the builduigs are buried 
in the debris from the upper courses. 

Two types of mounds occur in the Casa Grande Group: (l) Those 
containhig walls of houses and (2) those consistuig entu-ely of earth 
and debris not includuig buried walls. The former are composed of 

1 ISth Ann. Rep. Bur. Elhnol., p. 314. 

' As is well known, this reservation, through the efforts of many public-spirited men and women, has 
been placed under the supervision of a resident custodian. The present custodian is Mr. Franli Tinckley. 



FEWKES] 



CASA GRANDE MOUNDS 



87 



earth or clay, which lias fallen from the walls, burying the founda- 
tions, augmented by sand blown by the winds. Mounds of the sec- 
ond class are composed solely of debris; when opened, some of these 
show stratification, as if formed of mud or soil deposited artificially 
on them from time to time in clearing out reservoirs or making 
other excavations, while others contain ashes and fragments of pottery 
scattered through the soil from the surface to a considerable depth. 
Certahi of these mounds are devoid of features suggesting artificial 
origin. 

Mounds of the first class admit of still further classification into 
two kinds: (a) Those 
ari'anged in clusters, 
each restmg on a i)lat- 
form, bounded by a 
surrounding w all — 
these are remains of 
compounds; (b) com- 
pact blocks of rooms, 
each without a sur- 
rounding wall, known 
as clan-houses. Wliile 
the name Casa Grande 
is here apjilied to the 
main building of one 
compound (A), the 
designation Casa 
Grande Group of 
mounds includes all the 
clusters of adjacent 
mounds situated on 
the reservation. For 
many years the main 
building and a few 
outlying walls (fig. 12) were the only structures projecting above the 
surface, but now it is known that the historic Casa Grande is but one 
of many aboriginal buildmgs in this neighborhood. Excavations 
have established the fact that many mounds of the Casa Grande 
Group are rcmams of former houses, and that there are as many 
others composed of the debris of fomier habitations. 

For convenience of study and reference the large walled inclosures 
constituting the first class of mounds, called compounds, are desig- 
nated A, B,C, D, and E. These will be considered in order. 




Fig. 12. West wall of Font's room (about 1S80). 



88 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [eth. ann. 28 

Compound A 

Compound A (pis. 7, 11, 12) is not only the largest' of the Casa 
Grande compounds, but is also the most '.m])ortant, containing as it 
does the iiistoric ruin and a few otiier walls of rooms standing above 
ground when excavations began. The following description is quoted 
from the writer's preliminary repoit on the excavations at Compound 
A, in Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections for 1907. 

The following buildings, plazas, and courts were excavated in Compound A : 
(1) Southwest building; (2) northeast building; (3) rooms on west wall; (4) six cere- 
monial rooms; (.5) central building; (0) Font's room; (7) rooms between Casa Grande 
and Font's room; (8) rooms adjoining ceremonial rooms on north wall; (9) northwest 
room; (10) room near east wall ; (11) northeast plaza; (12) central plaza; (13) east plaza; 
(14) southwest plaza; (15) south court. 
[The most important block of rooms is of course (16) Casa Grande.] 

1. SOUTHWEST BUILDING 

Father Font wrote of Casa Grande as follows: "The house Casa Grande forms an 
oblong square facing to the four cardinal points, east, west, north, and south, and 
round about it there are ruins indicating a fence or wall, which surrounded the house 
and other buildings, particularly in the corners, where it appears there has been some 
edifice like an interior castle or watch-tower, for in the angle which faces towards the 
southwest there stands a ruin with its divisions and an upper story. " This southwest 
building is undoubtedily one of the "other buildings" referred to. [Pis. 13, 14.] 

In Font's plan (fig. 117) [here, fig. 3] of Compound A, a single chambered room is 
represented in the southwest corner. Bartlett gave a plan of the cluster of rooms in this 
angle, but neither Bartlett's nor Font's plans are complete, for there are in reality six 
rooms in this corner of the compound, not counting an adjacent rectangular room sepa- 
rated from this cluster by a court. Several later authors have mentioned and figured 
these two fragments of walls standing above a mound southwest of the main building, 
and one or two have suggested that they were formerly connected with Casa Grande 
by walls. The best view of these pinnacles appeared in Cosmos Mindeleff's valuable 
account of the ruin. 

The author's excavations of Compound A were begun at the base of the more western 
of these two standing walls, at the level of the ground, where it was found that the 
wall was so eroded as to be seriously undermined. It was recognized that extensive 
filling in was necessary at that point, and that other repairs were imperative to keep this 
fragment from falling. The fragment east of the last mentioned was, if anything, in 
a worse condition, and also required protection. 

Digging down below the eroded jiortion, there came into view a fine smooth-faced 
wall, which extended several feet still lower. The excavations were then continued 
north and south, following the face of the wall to the northwest and southwest angles, 
laying bare the whole west wall. . . . After having traced this wall, attention was 
directed to the general character and arrangement of the walls hidden below the mound 
near the bases of the two fragments of walls where the excavation started. It was 
found that the southwest corner of the compound is occupied by a cluster of six 
rooms . . . the most picturesque of all those uncovered during the winter. 

1 The dimensions of Compoimii A are as follows: The length of the west wall is 419 feet : of the east wall, 
420feet; of the north wall, 223.3 feet; and of the south wall, 215 feet. The west wall bearsnorth :!° ()()' east; the 
south wall, south 81° 3.5' east. The west wall of the main buildinR bears north 4° 30' ea-st, or south 4° :!()' 
west, i. e., 1" .10' out of parallel with the compound. The dimensions of the various rooms may be seen 
from the ground plan (pi. 6), which is drawn to scale. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 13 




FROM THE SOUTHWEST (PARTIALLY EXCAVATEDJ 




FROM THE NORTHEAST 

SOUTHWEST BUILDING OF COMPOUND A 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 14 




PARTIALLY EXCAVATED 




FULLY EXCAVATED 

SOUTHWEST BUILDING OF COMPOUND A, FROM THE NORTH 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 15 




FROM THE SOUTHWEST 




FROM THE EAST 

NORTHEAST ROOMS, COMPOUND A 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 16 




FROM THE WE. 




FROM THE NORTHWEST 




FROM THE NORTHEAST 

NORTHEAST ROOMS, COMPOUND A 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 17 




BEFORE EXCAVATION 




AFTER EXCAVATION _H'JiVINl. NjHIHEAST BUILDING 
AREA ADJOINING CASA GRANDE ON THE EAST 



FEWKEs] CASA GRANDE MOUNDS 89 

" 2. NORTHEAST BUILDING 

As may be seen from the ground plan (plate xxiv) [here, pi. 6], the first historic 
building, Casa Grande, was not the largest in Compound A, The combined length 
of the six ceremonial rooms is double that of the main building, although their width 
is much less. A building standing northeast of Font's room [pis. 15, 16] is the 
largest yet excavated and contains many more rooms, some of which are larger than 
any in the historic building. 

The arrangement of the rooms in the northeast building ... is different from 
that of Casa Grande . . . but is typical of others, especially the extra-mural 
clan houses. This similarity would lead one to suspect that this building was not, 
like the main building, a ceremonial, but rather a residential house. The typical 
form, to which reference is made, is that of a carpenter's try-square, or that of two 
sides of a rectangle — a form that reappears in the most southerly situated of the two 
clan houses on the east and the cluster of rooms in the southwest comer of Com- 
pound B. The six ceremonial rooms, together with those extending eastward from 
the most northerly of these along the inner surface of the north wall, make also a 
group of the same try-square shape. Since one arm of the northeast cluster is formed 
by the east wall of the compound, it follows that this arm extends approximately 
east and west, and necessarily the other arm of the try-square lies at right angles, or 
north and south. . . . 

There are five rooms in the east-west arm of the northeast cluster . . . two at 
each end, separated by a single room. All of these rooms have comparatively massive 
walls, and in most the superficial covering, or plastering, is fairly well preserved. 
[PI. 16.] 

Room A, at the west end of the eastern arm of this try-square, had been partially 
excavated before the Government began work at Casa Grande, but was left in such a 
bad condition that parts of the east and south walls were practically destroyed. The 
author repaired them, filling in the badly eroded oles and walls with adobe bricks 
and restoring the wall as best he could to its original condition. [PI. 17.] 

Room B is one of the best-preserved rooms of those excavated. It was opened down 
to the level of the floor, which was found to be hard and well plastered. Midway 
through the center of this room ... at equal distances from east and west walls, 
there are two holes, a, a, in the floor, in each of which was a log, charred by fire, 
but still standing erect. These vertical logs once supported a horizontal rafter extend- 
ing from the east to the west wall, resting on both and on the vertical supports. Side 
rafters were supported by this middle log, with ends resting on the north and south 
walls. Upon these smaller rafters was the roof covering of reeds and clay. 

The other three rooms, C, D, E, of the east-west arm of the northeast building were 
excavated to their floors. Their walls were found to have good surface finLsh, "as fine 
as Puebla pottery," and in one instance, D, .showed superficial painting. These 
rooms, D and E, have no lateral doorways, a significant fact, which strengthens the 
belief that their former entrances were hatchways on the roof. None of the above- 
mentioned rooms open into one another. Large stones were found to have been used 
in the construction of the foundations of the north wall of room D. 

The rooms of the east section . . . vary in size, and apparently some had lateral 
doors, others hatchways. The narrow wall of the small room, G, was supported by 
upright logs. A section of the fallen roof was laid bare in room H, in which the raft- 
ers and the clay upon them were well preserved. Apparently the rafters in this 
room had simply fallen against a side wall, the ends that formerly rested on the east 
wall having decayed. . . . 

The walls of rooms J and K show plainly the action of fire, for large quantitiea of 
charcoal filled these rooms. G has a good floor and fine surface finish on the walla. 
The partiliiins between the.se rooms are, however, much broken down. In view of 
their suppo.«ed domiciliary character, it is interesting to point out the absence from 
these rooms of domestic utensils. 



90 CASA GRANDE ARIZONA (ktii. ann. 28 

3. ROOMS ON THE WEST WALL 

Between the cluster of rooms occupyinp; the southwest alible of the compound and 
the single "bastion" or "castle" at the northwest corner, there are several rooms, the 
walls of which appeared when the soil was removed from the inner or east side of the 
west wall. 

The most characteristic of these dependent rooms, G, is separated by a narrow 
court from the northern wall of the southwest cluster. Unfortunately, one corner of 
this room was cut down before its existence wa.'i detected, but wherever its four walls 
were revealed they indicated a room of large size. ... In one comer there 
stood a large vase, too fragile to remove, which was consequently left in the jilace 
where found. The Casa Grande-Florence stage route formerly crossed the compound 
over the corner of this room directly above this vase. 

On the west side of Casa Grande, or directly between the main building and the 
west wall of the compound, there were excavated several rooms, H, I, and J, the 
walls of which are low and single-storied. One of these rooms, J, is situated on the 
northwest corner of the ruin, and has its west wall continuous with that which forma 
the retaining wall of the north terrace. There are also two rooms on the southwestern 
corner which bear the same relation to the terrace wall of the south side. These two 
are separated by a court . . . and have low walls. There does not seem to 
have been a building directly west of the main ruin and no sign of a terrace now 
remains on that side. . . . The exact connections of the rooms along the west 
wall, southwest of the main ruin, with those on the southwest corner can be made 
clear only by continuation of the work in the unexcavated part of the compound. 
As shown in the ground plan, . . . there are walls standing in that part of the 
compound; there is also a level space called the southwest plaza, situated between the 
wall of the most southerly room at the southwest angle of the main ruin and the 
northern wall of the room on the west wall adjacent to the building in the southwest 
angle. 

4. SIX CEREMONIAL ROOMS 

Linear arrangement of rooms is exceptional in this compound. This row extends 
from the northeast corner of the main building to the north wall of the compound, with 
which the most northern room is united. The line of these rooms is not parallel with 
either the east or west walls of the compound, and their longest measurements vary, 
although the widths of the rooms are about uniform. Although the connection which 
formerly bound these rooms to the main building has been destroyed, there is no doubt 
that such a union once existed and that they were probably united to a solid terrace 
which we must suppose existed on the north, east, and south sides of the main building. 

Before excavations were begun, the row of ceremonial rooms was indicated only by 
a ridge ... of earth extending from the northeast corner of the main building 
northward. It is evident that the roof of these rooms was on a level with the floor 
of the lowest rooms of Casa Grande, which communicated with the roofs of these 
ceremonial rooms on the north, east, and south by means of the basal terrace, of which 
mention has been made. In this way one could pass directly into these rooms 
through the doorways in the middle of the sides of the main building. 

The form, size, and general appearance of the walls of these six rooms are shown in 
the accompanying plan (plate 24) [here, pi. G] and in plate xxx, a and b [here, pis. 
18, 19]. All these rooms were excavated to their floor-, the soil from them being 
removed beyond the surrounding wall of the compound. Earth was likewise taken 
from the west side, opening the east portion of the northwest plaza, so tliat the walls 
on that side now average five feet in height. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 18 




FROM THE SOUTH 




WALL SHOWING EFFECTS OF EARLY EROSION 

SIX CEREMONIAL ROOMS, COMPOUND A 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 19 




SIX CEREMONIAL ROOMS, FROM THE WEST 




NORTHWEST PLAZA, EAST SIDE, SHOWING WORK OF EXCAVATION 
CEREMONIAL ROOMS AND PLAZA, COMPOUND A 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 20 




BEFORE EXCAVATION 




AFTER EXCAVATION 
WEST WALL OF FONT'S ROOM, FROM THE SOUTHEAST 



FBWKES] CASA GRANDE MOUNDS 91 

5. CENTRAL BUILDING 

When work was begun on Compound A the central building was a low, regular 
mound . . . situated near the southeast angle of the main building, orrupying 
a somewhat similar relation to that corner that the first of the six ceremonial rooms 
does to the northeast angle. This mound was opened to the base, revealing several 
intersecting walls and rooms (plate xxiv) [here, pi. 6]. ^^^len one stands at the 
north wall of the compound and runs his eye along the east side of the six ceremonial 
rooms, it is found that the middle wall of the central building is in the line of the eye, 
which also follows the supposititious retaining wall of the east terrace of the main 
building and the east boundary wall of the southwest plaza. The southeast comer 
of the main building, Casa Grande, is broken in much the same way as the northeast 
angle near the six ceremonial rooms, possibly from the same cause. 

6. font's room 

Mange states that Father Kino said mass in the Casas Grandes, and it is generally 
believed that this ceremony was performed in one of the rooms of Casa Grande. As 
there were at the time of Kino's visit several other rooms in the group, some of which 
were more commodious, it is interesting to speculate on the possibility of one of these 
being that referred to. 

Just east of Casa Grande was a large building (plate xxiv) [see accompanying pi. 
20], formerly two stories high, which was apparently in a fair state of preservation 
when Father Font visited it in 1775. So accurately has this zealous priest described 
. . . and mapped this room, that it is called after him and is referred to as 
"Font's room" in this article. 

Mange states in his diary that "a crossbow shot farther on 12 other houses are seen 
half tumbled down, also with thick walls and all with roofs burnt except one room 
beneath one house, with round beams, smooth and not thick, which appear to be 
cedar or sa\-in, and over them rush reeds very similir to them and a layer of mortar 
and hard clay, making a ceiling or story of very peculiar character." 

Font, 70 years after, wrote: "In front of the east door, separated from the Casa, 
there is another building with dimensions from north to south 26 feet and from 
east to west 18, exclusive of the thickness of the walls." . . . 

Although it was possible in 169-4 for the observer, standing on the roof of Casa 
Grande, to see the walls of all the buildings which were excavated by the author, 
the best preserved of all, judging from Font's account, was that named after him. 
At that time this was apparently the only two-storied building in good preservation 
east of the main one, which could be designated as "one room beneath one house." 
The general appearance of this building last October (1906) is shown in the accom- 
panjing plate (xxxiv, a, b,) [here, pi. 21]. The upright wall of this room was 
the only fragment besides the main building above ground, with exception of the 
two walls at the southwest angle. The condition of the base of this wall necessitated 
immediate repair; for, although 3 feet thick, it was so undermined that light was 
\-isible through holes in the base. The author erected on its east side a buttress 
of adobe bricks to strengthen it, and took other precautionary measures to keep 
what was left from falling. The row of holes in which were formerly inserted the 
ends of the rafters of the upper chamber can still be seen in the east face of the wall. 

Directly west of Font's room is a passageway communicating with the central 
plaza. The floor of this passageway is hard and very compact, and on one side there 
were excavated an eagle skeleton and bones of several rabbits. 



92 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [bth. ann. 28 

7. ROOMS BETWEEN CASA GRANDE AND FONT's ROOM 

East of Casa Grande there were several large rooms, A-E (plate xxxii, 6) [here, 
pi. 21], with low massive walls, evidently of one story. It would appear that in 
ancient times these rooms joined the terrace at the base of Casa Grande, and we 
may suppose that their roofs were on the level with the floor of the lowest room of 
the historic building. Apparently these rooms were not all constructed at the same 
time, the two at the north showing evidences of being older than the southern 
pair. . . . 

One of these rooms, C, was found to contain much debris, consisting of pottery 
fragments, charred basketry, cloth, maize, mesquite beans, . . . marine shells, and 
other objects. It appears to have been a dumping place, and as it has every ap- 
pearance of having once been a room, we may suppose that it was deserted while 
some of the otherrooms of Compound A were still inhabited. 

8. ROOMS ADJOINING THE MOST NORTHERLY OF THE SIX CEREMONIAL 

ROOMS 

Adjoining the most northerly of the six ceremonial rooms on its east side, there lies 
a room or court, G, surrounded by walls, which appears to have been without a 
roof. . . . Its floor is hard, as if made so by the tramp of many feet; its walls are 
massive, with smooth surfaces. A walled-up doorway, recalling a similar feature in 
the west room of the main building, occurs in the wall separating this room from the 
most northerly of the six ceremonial rooms. 

In the surface of the west wall of this room, at the level of the floor, there is a deep 
erosion of the wall (plate xxix) [here, pi. 22, a], due to former weathering. The south 
wall of this inclosure was evidently built since the erosion took place, for its end is so 
constructed that it extends into the eroded region, following the imperfection in 
the surface without being itself weathered at that level. The five rooms, G-K, 
forming the west building are large and have massive walls. No evidences of roofs 
occur, and lateral doorways are absent except in the east side of I. K shows evidence 
of an east wall, and the narrow enclosure H is more of a court than a room. A pile 
of wooden hoes or planting sticks (plate xxxix, g) [here, pi. 76] was found on the 
floor of room I. 

9. NORTHWEST ROOM 

The dimensions of the room [pi. 22, 6] occupying the northwest angle of Compound 
A [pi. 23] appear in the accompanying plan [here, pi. 6]. . . . This room is single 
storied with free walls on two sides, the other sides being the walls of the compound. 
An entrance into the compound on the north side is situated near this corner room. 

The excavations revealed many ceremonial objects on the floor, which would appear 
to indicate that the room was used for other than secular purposes. Household utensils, 
as grinding stones, which would be expected in a living chamber, were absent. No 
soot or other evidences of a fire were observed on the walls, and there were no charred 
logs or rafters. 

10. ROOMS NEAR EAST WALL 

South of the plaza which lies to the eastward of the two-storied building known 
as Font's room are situated the remains of some massive walls which formed a large 
square enclosure separated from the east wall only by a narrow passage. . . . 

This building was e\'idently formerly one story high. Its size is so great that it 
is doubtful whether or not it was roofed, but if it had a roof it would be one of the 
largest rooms of Compound A. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 22 




a, NORTH ROOMS 




h, NORTHWEST CORNER 

ROOMS AND CORNER, COMPOUND A 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 23 





NOHIHWEST CORNER, COMPOUND A 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 24 




FROM THE EAST 




FROM THE NORTHEAST 
NORTHEAST CORNER, COMPOUND A 



FBWKES] CASA GRANDE MOUNDS 93 

11. NORTHEAST PLAZA 

The removal of earth to a depth necessary to show the original height of the walls 
about this plaza was a work of some magnitude, but was accomplished in a short 
time. . . . The plaza (plate xxviii, a) [here, pi. 24] was not apparent until after the 
position of the northeast angle of the compound had been determined and the walls 
of the northeast building had been excavated. 

The situation of this plaza and the fact that no doorways opened into it or terraced 
roofs looked down upon it imply that it was not a favorite one for ceremonial dances 
or spectacular performances. As the walls about it are, as a rule, massive, the plaza 
may have served as a safe place to which to flee for protection, and it is probable that 
cabins, not unlike the Pima huts of the last generation, were temporarily erected in 
this and other plazas. 

12. CENTRAL PLAZA 

The centrally placed, and on that account probably the most sacred, plaza ... of 
Compound A is surrounded by buildings, the roofs of which no doubt served as eleva- 
tions from which spectators could witness the sacred dances and games. The floor of 
this plaza was solid, apparently hardened by constant tramping of feet. The labor 
involved in cutting down the earth in this plaza to the former floor was considerable, 
it being necessary to remove many cubic yards of grout that had fallen from the thick 
walls of the northeast building and the six ceremonial rooms. The southwest comer 
of the plaza was not excavated, because of a la:^e stake to which is attached the iron 
rod that serves as a guy for the northeast comer of the roof built over the ruin. 

The plaza appears to have been used as a burial place, for a human skeleton waa 
dug out of the floor near its southeast comer; but the body might have been buried 
after the compound had been deserted. 

There were excavated from this plaza, near the passageway west of the tall wall of 
Font's room, the skeleton of an eagle and several rabbit bones. It was probably cus- 
tomary at Casa Grande to domesticate eagles for their feathers and to keep them in 
confinement. 

13. EAST PLAZA 

This plaza was almost wholly surrounded by rooms, and from its position was evi- 
dently one of the most popular of all the inclosures of this kind. From the roof of the 
main building one could probably look over Font's room into this plaza. Although 
the plaza is a small one, its eastern pasition would give it considerable ceremonial im- 
portance. The accumulated earth was cut down to the original level and removed 
outside the compound. There does not seem to be sufficient evidence that there was 
an eastern entrance way to this plaza, although it was looked for when excavations 
were made. . . . 

14. SOUTHWEST PLAZA 

This plaza [pi. 14, upper] adjoins the west wall of the compound, extending from the 
rooms southwest of the main ruin to the first of the cluster of rooms in the southwest 
angle. Although large quantities of earth were removed from this enclosure, it has 
not been wholly leveled to the floor, especially on the east side, near a wall which is a 
continuation of the rooms at the southwest comer of the main ruin. This wall was 
exposed along its whole length, but showed no rooms on the west side, although proba- 
bly there are several on the east, or unexeavated, side. . . . 

15. SOUTH COURT 

A long court extends across the whole south end of the compound from the southwest 
cluster of rooms to the east wall. Its form suggests a ball court or course for foot races. 
In connection with the former suggestion it is interesting to note that several stone 



94 C'ASA UKANUE, AKIZONA |ETn. ANN. 28 

balls, such as were used, according to Pima legends, in a game of kicking ball, wore 
found in this court; this gamo is still practiced by the Pimas. Near one end thtre 
was excavated a square perforated stone, recalling that through which balls were 
thrown in the Nahuatl game of pelote. 

As mil be seen from the accompanying plan (pi. 6) of Compound 
A, the whole inclosure has not been completely excavated, but enouf;;h 
d6bris has been removed to show its general character. There are 
no large unexcavated mounds remaining in this compound, and the 
level space in the southeastern part was either a plaza or, more proba- 
bly, the site of many habitations, whose fragile walls liave fallen, rais- 
ing the surface to a uniform height. On tliis supposition we should 
look here for the remains of houses in wliich the majority of the peo- 
ple lived. 

From the study of Compound A we can get an idea of the structural 
character of one of these Gila Valley prehistoric settlements. The 
people lived in clusters of houses surrounded by a common wall, which 
inclosed also massive houses that served as temples or as citadels for 
pr9tection. Eegarding the sociologic condition, whether eacli com- 
pound housed and protected many famihes unrelated bj' blood, or 
clans related to one another, can not be determined from the infor- 
mation available. That the compounds may have been built at 
different times appears probable, but it can hardly be supposed that 
one compound was completely deserted at one time and that the inhab- 
itants might have moved to another site a few hundred feet away. If 
these compounds were inhabited at the same tune, it may be readily 
supposed that there was considerable intermarriage of clans and there- 
fore intermingling of blood. As no known legends sjieak of more 
than one cliicf of Casa Grande, the supposition is that the inhabitants 
recognized only one head. There is gi'ound for the belief that the 
age of Compound A is not so great as that of Compound B, although 
it is of considerable antiquity. Casa Grande itself seems to have 
been constructed at different times, as it shows evidences of growth 
by a series of additions. There are no known data by which its age 
can be computed and tione to determine wliich compound was the last 
to be deserted. It is known that Compound A was a ruin in 1694, but 
from the earliest accounts nothing can be ascertained which would 
show liow long before that date the ancients occupied the buildings. 
The indications afforded by the rate of wear of the walls since the 
beginning of the eighteenth century lead to the belief tltat a few gen- 
erations before that time Casa Grande was a populous settlement. 

The orientation of the surrounding walls of the compounds and of 
the buildings witliin them is well-marked, this feature appearing very 
significantly in Compound A. The greatest length of all the com- 
pounds is north and south. The doorways of the builduigs, when 
practicable, open toward the east. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 25 




l-KOM THE WEST 




FROM THE EAST, SHOWING TERRACE 

COMPOUND B, BEFORE EXCAVATION 



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FBWKES] CASA GRANDE MOUNDS 95 

In certain walls is found evidence contradicting tJie theory that 
they were built by stamping caliclie into bottomless baskets or boxes, 
as generally taught, and as indicated by the joints on tJie west side 
of the main ruin. At various places in the walls may still be seen 
masses of clay patted into sliape by human liands, the imprints of 
which are clear. Some of these masses, which are just large enough 
to have been handled by one workman, were evidently dumped on 
the wall and subsequently were not so stamped tJiat they lost tlieir 
original shape. 

Compound B 

When work on it began (pi. 25) Compound B consisted of two 
mounds resting on a platform, the bases around both mounds being 
so fdled in' mth earth that the surrounding wall formed the edge of 
•a platform or terrace. The most extensive of tliese inclosed mounds 
(Pyramid B) occupied the southwest corner of the platform. The 
largest and most massive (Pyramid A) has a flat top, from wldch the 
visitor can see, in clear weather, the cupola of the courthouse in 
Florence, 12 miles away. 

Compound B (fig. 13) is 840 feet northeast of Compound A. Its 
excavated surrounding wall on the east and north sides, respectively, 
measures 299 feet and ISO feet; the west side is 297 feet long and the 
south side 167 feet. The compound is oriented approximately north 
and south (pis. 26, 27). 

When the excavation of Compound B began no part of the sur- 
rounding wall was visible, its existence being indicated only by a 
slight rise above the level of the surrounding plain. The firet work 
attempted was the determination of the angles or cornei-s of this 
compound. This work brought to light a massive wall surrounding 
the whole inclosure. It is evident from the amount of debris that 
had accumulated on the outside of tliis wall that it must have been 
formerly at least 7 feet lugh. The accumulated earth was removed 
to a depth of 4 feet, the present average height of the wall. This wall 
was found to be much liigher on the west side than on tiie east, south, 
or north, and in order to obtain a level for the drain constructed 
around the compound to carry awaj- the surplus water, it was neces- 
sary to remove debris on tlie west wall to a depth of at least 9 feet. 
Below that depth many circular depressions, sinailar to those used by 
Pima in mixing mortar for the walls, were found, and it is behoved 
that the former level of the foundation of the compound was reached 
on that side. 

None of the outside walls of Compound B laid bare by excavation 
were found to be straight and none were exactly perpendicular. 
The tliickness of the surrounding wall varies; in some places it is 



96 



CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA 



[ETH. ANN. 28 



as much as 5 feet and is, on the avorago, about 3J foct. Outside 
tlio wall, about 7 feet from the former foundation, was dug a shsxllow 
ditch surrounding the whole compound. This ditch was continued 



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in feet. 

into deeper ones extending froni the northwest ami southwest corners 
(])1. 35) in order to carry all superfluous water from tlie foundations 
of the walls into a natural depression some 50 feet from the com- 
pound. (PI. 28.) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 25 




BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF COMPOUND B, FROM THE EAST 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 29 





INTERIOR 
NORTHEAST CORNER, COMPOUND B 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 30 




<l. SOUTHEAST CORNER 




I'. ROOMS EAST OF PYRAMID B 
CORNER AND ROOMS, COMPOUND B 



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BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 32 




INSIDE THE WEST WALL 











ROOMS WEST OF PYRAMID A 




LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM PYRAMID A 

WALLS AND ROOMS, COMPOUND B 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 33 




NOHTH PLAZA OF PYRAMID A 




SOUTH WALL 



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PLAZA AND WALLS, COMPOUND B 



FBWKES] CASA GRANDE MOUNDS 97 

A subterranean room provided ^\^th a cemented floor, walls, and 
firejilacc, was discovered near tlie northeast corner, under the foun- 
dation of the exterior wall.' Tliis was evidently a pit-house inhabited 
before the massive wtJI had been constructed and antedating the 
structures built above it. Traces of similar subterranean r(jums are 
found \vithin the compound, near the same corner (pi. 29) . 

Tiie outside wall of Compound B was constructed, like that of 
Casa Grande proper, of huge blocks of natural cement, which were 
made where they now rest, the marks of successive blocks being 
visible at several points where the union is not perfect. Evi- 
dences that this Widl had been repaired by ancient builders are seen 
in many places, and it appears that the form and direction of the 
original wall have been modified bj' its enlargement at the southeast 
corner (pi. 30) . Witliin the mclosure surrounded by the massive exterior 
wall were found evidences of two kinds of buildings : First, those made 
of cement blocks, characteristically massive; second, those having 
fragile walls supported by upright posts. Some of the walls of build- 
ings of the former class still remain upright, but those of the latter 
have fallen, their positions being indicated oidy by decayed stumps. 
To the first type belong also well-plastered floors, in which are present 
circular depressions that served as fireplaces. If we interpret budd- 
ings of the first type as temples used for ceremonial purposes, the 
fragile-waUed buildmgs ma}^ be regarded as habitations of the people 
comparable with those in which the Pima have lived since known to 
history. 

PYRAMID A 

The two large pjTamidal elevations, occupying mucli of the inclosure 
of Compound B, were found on excavation to be remarkable struc- 
tures, suggesting a style of architecture common in Mexico. It 
appears that the larger and most northerly of these structures, desig- 
nated on the map as A (pis. 31, 32, 33), was a pjTamid, formerly 
marked by the presence of two or three terraces, the massive walls of 
wluch stUl rise at one point to a height of more than 10 feet. The top of 
tliis pyramid (pi. 31) is square and level. A deep excavation made in 
its north end revealed a long chamber, suggesting the north room of 
Casa Grande. On the southwest side of this pjTamid shallow exca- 
vations revealed several cemented floors, one below another, and verti- 
cal walls indicated by decayed posts which formerly supported them; 
each of these floors contains a well-made fire pit. The shape of the 
rooms (pis. 32, 33) , as shown by the positions of the stumps, was rec- 
tangular; the length was double the ^ndth. A doorwaj^, indicated by 
the absence of upright logs from one side, was just in front of the fire- 

* The diagonals of none of the rooms at Casa Grande are exactly equal in length. 
20903°— 28 ETH— 12 7 



98 CASA GBANDE. ARIZONA |eth, ann. L'8 

place, which itself was situated not in the center of the room but 
slightly nearer one side. The existence of these floors, or evidences 
of rooms situated one above the other, would seem to indicate that a 
consitlerable portion of this pyramid was formed by accumulations 
of earth resulting from the decay of habitations; the supposition 
is that this accumulation continued through a long period, and 
that new habitations were built on the debris of those below. Exca- 
vations extended in the southwest angle of the pyramid to a level 
with the outside plazas showed that there were in this mound seven 
layers of floors, indicating by the above theory seven successive con- 
structions or times of habitation. 

PYEAMID B 

Pyramid B (pi. 34), which is situated in the southwest section of 
Compound B, is separated in part from the west wall of the compound 
by a plaza 100 feet long by 50 feet wide. The pjTamidal form, so 
well seen in Pyramid A, does not appear in Pyramid B (pi. 36, h), 
the shape of which is trisquare, a mound extending north and south 
with a western extension. On the top of this mound, as on P^Ta- 
mid A, were found floors of houses whose upright walls were indi- 
cated by decayed posts; below were other floors, resembling those 
found on top of Pyramid A. There were remains of a shiine (pis. 
26, 35) at the southwest corner of the top of Pyramid B; in it were 
found fragments of copper and many strangely-formed stones. The 
north end of P3Tamid B (pi. 35), extending toward the west w;dl 
of the compound and forming the north wall of the southwest plaza, 
was occupied by two rooms, the massive walls of which are 8 feet 
high and average 4 feet thick. The groimd plan of these rooms 
resembles m shape a trisquare. Their common west wall is separated 
from the west wall of the compound by a passageway, through which 
one formerly could enter the southwest plaza from the central plaza.' 
The walls show no indication of a side entrance, and no proof was 
obtained that the rooms were roofed; the most logical supposition 
is that they were entered from the top of the adjacent mound by 
means of ladders or notched logs. Each of these rooms had a 
fireplace near the middle of the room, well-plastered floors, and 
vertical walls; they have no lateral openings for commtuiication 
with each other. 

In one of these rooms was found a mass of caliche about the size 
of a small keg, which had a cavity in one end, wliile the opposite 
extremity was rounded. This object resembled a rude stove or 

• These narrow passageways exist also in Compound A, as between Font's room and the massive-walled 
structures east of the main building. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGV TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 34 




JiiTHtAsT Cv'h'NER >JF PYRAMID B 




~>j-l(IVLl,.^,t1 



Jt- *■ , 






PYRAMID B. FROM THE SOUTHWEST 




SOUTHWEST CORNER OF PYRAMID A 
VIEWS OF PYRAMIDS A AND B, COMPOUND B 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 35 




SOUTHWEST CORNER 




NORTHWEST CORNER 
CORNERS OF COMPOUND B 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 36 




II, SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST PLAZAS OF FrRAMID B 




h. ROOMS NORTH OF PYRAMID B 
PLAZAS AND ROOMS, COMPOUND B 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 37 




a. SOUTH PLAZA 




li, ROOMS OF SOUTHEAST CORNER 




PLAZA AND ROOMS, COMPOUND B 



FEWKES] CASA GRANDE MOUNDS 99 

oven,' the cavity being used formerly for storage of fuel. A some- 
what similar object was found buried under or near the west wall of 
Compound C (see fig. 14). The other objects found in these rooms 
are evidentlj' ceremonial and perhaps serveil somewhat the same 
pui'pose as those found in the large rooms of Casa Grande. 

In the floor of what appears to have been either a room or a small 
plaza, on top of Pyramid B at its southwest corner (pi. .3.5), was found 
a sliallow pit or depression about a foot in diameter, wluch had a 
hemispherical cover made of caliche; tliis cover, which was perforated 
by two holes, fitted accurately into the depression. The purpose of 
this pit and cover was not a.scertained, nothing being found that 
afforded any clue to their use. 

ROOMS EAST OF PYRAMID B 

The inclosm'e east of Pyramid B and south of Pyramid A forms 
a large plaza, in the southern part of which are several buildings 
of massive proportions. These (]ils. .30; 36, a; 37, 6, c) have been 
excavated to their floors, which are well preserved. Two of these 
rooms are especially noteworthy. These were formerly a single story 
in lieight and show no evidence of ever having been higher. Although 
separated by a narrow court or passageway, both rooms open into 
the same court through well-made doorways the jambs and thresholds 
of which are smooth and well preserved, '\^^^en these rooms were 
uncovered it was found that their floors were made of hardened 
adobe upon which, when first brought to light, could be seen impres- 
sions of matting, laid upon them when the room was inhabited. 
This would seem to show that the ancient people of Casa Grande 
used a Idnd of sleeping mat, similar to that employed by the Pima 
Indians. The preservation of these impressions for so long a time is 
certainly remarkable. 

The walls of these rooms are covered witli several layers of smooth 
plaster, each very carefully applied. The size and shape of the 
rooms lead to the belief that they were connected with ceremonial 
rather than with domestic life. In the open places (pi. 37, h, c) adjoin- 
ing these chambers, the former existence of rectangular rooms is 
indicated by rows of holes in which were found decayed fragments 
of wooden posts that had formerly supported the fragile walls, 
long since fallen. Wliere possible, these were carefully replaced by 
new logs. The number of these habitations could not be determined. 
Their floors may be traced by the remaining cement, hardened by 
the tramping of many feet, but no fireplaces were found in these 
floors or in the walled l>uildings east of Pyramid B. 

' Like the pits the Hopi use in liaking their ceremonial pudding (pigume). 



100 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [urn. ann. 28 

SOUTHEAST PLAZA 

In the southeast plaza (pi. 30, h) of Compound B evidences of several 
rooms were brought to light, although for the greater part their once 
massive walls were very much broken down. Here were fovmd 
indications of fragile-walled rooms, tlicir floors situated one above 
another, separated by a few inches of soil. There had evidently 
been a change of plan in this quarter which had led to secondary con- 
struction, thus modifying more or less the original architecture. 
The exterior walls of the compoimd at this point and for about 50 
feet north along the east wall are double. Witliin the inclosure 
near the southeast angle ' appeared rows of decayed posts, remains 
of walls, arranged in quadrangular form, indicating the former 
existence of several fragile-waUed dwelhngs. 

East of Pyramid A, between it and the east wall of the compound, 
were traced portions of the massive walls of a large biulding, very 
much mutilated. To the north of this building are remains of three 
fijie rectangular buiklings ha\'ing well-formed floors, fii-eplaces, and 
walls. 

NORTH PLAZA 

Due north of Pyramid A, between it and the north wall, from 
which it is separated by a narrow passage, was found a large building 
fully 40 feet long; the floor is partially subterranean and the door- 
way opens to the south. Between this building (pi. 41, a, b) and 
the northeast corner of the compound were other massive rooms 
the walls of wliich are destroyed to so great an extent that their 
groiuid plan can not satisfactorily be traced. In this region reoc- 
curs evidence of successive strata of floors (pi. 41, a), suggesting 
repeated occupancy of the same site by the rebuilding of new houses 
on the debris formed by the destruction of older ones. Almost all 
the nortlx side of tlus compound is occupied by a room 15 feet wide 
and extending in length about SO feet eastward from the north- 
west angle. The use of a roona of this shape and size is conjectural. 
There is no evidence of the former existence in this area of rooms 
of fragile construction. 

WEST AREA 

The west area of the inclosure (pis. 36, h: 38; 39, b), or the section 
north of Pyramid B, was wholly covered with fragile-walled build- 
ings, the remnants of which show that they were built along streets 
and around courts, wluch can still readily be traced. Here occur also 
remnants of thick walls, indicating dwellings of moderate height but 
without large rooms. It would seem from the arrangement of the 
rows of holes in which the upright supports of the former walls stood , 

' It was not possible to trace the rooms by means of the remaining walls in the southeast angle of this 
inclosure, owing in pari to the clilapidnteii condition of these walls. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOQV 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 38 



^'fe'- jt 



-v^/ 



yiv/*, 



RESERVOIR 







ROOMS NORTH OF PYRAMID B 

TYPICAL ANCIENT RESERVOIR, AND ROOMS OF COMPOUND B 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 39 




, WEST WALL, LOOKING SOUTH 




■■. f- T [ ■.[< ■ t NORTH WALL 
WALLS OF COMPOUND B 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 40 






PICTOGRAPHS FROM CASA GRANDE AND VICINITY 



FEWKES] 



CASA GRANDE MOUNDS 101 



tliat a street, extending north and soutli, bisected this section of the 
compoiuid and that rooms were arranged along both sides. These 
rooms were rectangular, with a fire-pot or fii-eplace in the floor of 
each, at or near the center; the doorways are in the longer side, 
about midway. 

Attention should be called to a room of tliis row, on the north 
side of the street about west of the middle pyramid. West of the 
great Pyramid A was an inclosure in the walls of a liouse, containing 
three small stone idols (pi. 26, shrine) and a number of oddly 
formed stones, all suggestive of shrine deposits.' 

"VMien the workmen who had excavated this shrine and removed its 
contents ceased work, one of the. Pima made a symbol called tcuhuJci 
("house of Tcuhu, " fig. 52) on the ])ile of excavated sand. Although 
disclaiming any knowledge of connection between tlus figure and 
the contents of the shrine, he gave reason to believe there was some 
meaning not yet discovered. The same symbol was found by 
iMindeleft' on a wall of C'asa Grande (see pi. 40). 

The collection of stones from this shrine is among the most re- 
markable the writer has ever seen, being ec^ualed only by the con- 
tents of certain shrines of the Ilopi. Most of these stones had been 
brought from a distance; they consist of bowlders and pebbles 
from the Gila, twisted and contorted fragments of lava, jietrified 
wood, and objects of sandstone and other rocks, botryoidal in form. 
There are also pigments of various colors — green copper ore, wliite 
kaoHn, and black shale, with fragments of red iron oxiile. 

The general appearance of Compound B after excavation leads 
to the beUef that it contained fewer massive-walled buildings tlian 
Compound A, and that the number of more perishable habitations 
was much larger. 

The character of the mounds of Compound B and the evidence 
of great erosion (greater than in Compound A) they exhibit suggest 
considerable age, an idea confirmed by the superposed strata of 
floors and the subterranean walls and "pit-rooms" under the boundary 
walls. Compound B is believed to be much older than Compound 
A, but wliether it was abandoned before tlie latter was erected is 
a question which can not be answered. The age of Compound B 
as compared with tliat of the other compounds is also hypothetic; 
few (lata remain that can be used in such comparisons. - 

' These objects are described on pp. 120, 121. The significance to be attached to these stones is not quil e 
clear, but the custom of collecting ditlerent forms in an inclosure is recorded from many pueblo ruins and 
still survives in several modern pueblos. In searching for an explanation of their significance the mind 
naturally ascribes to the Casa Grande shrines and their contents the same meaning as to the i>ueblo 
counterparts, but simibr collections of odd-shaped stones having other meanings attached thereto are 
widespread among prehistoric peoples. 

2 The two compounds, A and B, with Clan-house 1 (pis. 11, 12, 27, 44), were modeled Ijy Mr. II. W. 
Hendley, of the U. S. National Museum, vmder the writer's direction, for the Alaska-Vulvon-I'acific 
Exposition, at Seattle. These models, now in llie National Museum, illustrate more graphically lliaa 
can any descriptions the resemblances and d;fferences between these structures. 



102 CASA GHANDE, ARIZONA [eth. ann. 28 

SUBTERRANEAN ROOMS 

Siihtorrancan rooms wove found near tlie, northeast corner of Com- 
])oun(I B,. ajjparontly filling tlie whole of that section. The best- 
preserved of these (pis. 29; 41, b, c) Hes directly under the east wall, 
M'hich passes over it at an angle. It seemed im])ortant to protect 
this room by erecting a roof over it, as shown in plates 29; 41, c. 
The position of the wall, of the floor beneath, and of the fireplace 
several feet below it and the level of the plain, indicates that these 
subterranean structures were made before the wall of the compound 
was constructed (pi. 41, c). 

The presence of subterranean rooms under the walls of Compound 

B proves that the people of tliis region lived in pit-dwellings on that 

site before they constructed the wall. Tills fact points to a belief 

that the pit-dwelling is the oldest form, and if so search for the kin 

of the original inhabitants of the Gila-Salt Valleys may be made 

among those dwelling in similar habitations. Taken in connection 

with the existence of cremation, this clue serves to direct attention 

to California tribes, thus adding weight to a legend that the i)re- 

historic peopling of southern Arizona was by migi'ation by way of the 

mouth of the Gila. 

Compound C 

Compound C, situated due west of B, is, on account of its moder- 
ate height, the least conspicuous of all the compounds. As there are 
no mounds within the inclosure it seems never to have had extensive 
buildings, but to have been merely a rectangular area surrounded by 
a wall, in which was clustered a large number of fragile-walled rooms 
that once served for dwellings but are now destroyed. (Fig. 14.) The 
outside dimensions of the compound are not far from 300 feet long 
by 40 feet wide, and the surrounding wall in places was 4 feet in 
tliickness and probably breast high. There ap])ears to have been 
a gateway about midway in the west side, and at the northwest 
corner was once an opening of consitlerable size. The shape of the 
compound is not perfectly rectangular, the whole northern portion 
having been much more eroiled by the elements than the southern 
end. In the southern section still remain fragments of walls, some 
of which were a part of buildings of considerable size, possibly of 
communal nature. Most of the walls of buiklings in Compound C 
were supported by upiight posts, the stumps of some of wliich still 
remain, notwithstanding the walls themselves have fallen. In the 
southeast corner rose a small square tower, or lookout, the founila- 
tions of which are well jireserved, although the jjortion of the walls 
above ground is entirely destroyed. 

The greater part of Compound C was covered with rows of houses, 
the floors and fragments of the walls of which, although present in 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 41 




NORTHEAST CORNER 




h. WALLb L,F oUETERRANEAN ROOM, NORTHEAST CuRNER 




c, EAST WALL AND ROOF OVER SUBTERRANEAN ROOM 
SUBTERRANEAN ROOMS AND CLAY-PITS 



FEWKES] 



CASA GRANDE MOUNDS 



103 





several places, are now very much dilapidated. All the evidence 
indicates that this compound was of much later construction than 
Compounds A and B and that it was not inhabited long enough to 
have temples or specialized rooms for ceremonial purposes. 

Not far from the west side of tliis compound can be traced for a 
considerable distance the remains of an irrigating ditch, which extends 
from the Gila to a 
point west of the Casa 
Grande Group of ruins. 
Tliis ditch entered the 
Gila at a point higher 
up, about 3 miles from 
the ruin 

Near this compound, 
averaging about 2 
feet distance from the 
surrounding walls, is 
a succession of low 
mounds resembling 
the refuse-heaps found 
in the vicinity of the 
other compounds. 
From the numerous 
fragments of pottery 
that are found on them, 
it may be inferred that 
some of these mounds 
were perhaps places 
where pottery was 
fired; others of cir- 
cular shape show on 
their surface c h a r - 
coal and wood ashes. 
These elevations may 
possibly have been 
used in some instances 
for the cremation of 
human bodies. Exca- 
vations in mounds of 
this kind revealed al- 
ternate layers of charcoal and ashes, with drifted sand deposited 
upon each. From the relatively large number of pottery fragments 
and stone implements in this mound it appears that the place 
was formerly inhabited by a large number of persons. The inclos- 
ing wall served as a protection for the buildings within it that have 
long since fallen. 



FiQ. 14. Ground plan of Compound C. 



104 



casa grande, arizona 
Compound D 



[ETn. ANN. 28 



Compound D (fig. 15), which is situated about the same distance 
east of Compound B as is Compound C in tlie o]>posite direction, is 



/^9 




Fig. 15. Ground ]ilau of ConipuiiJi'i D. 



i-ectanguhir in shai)e and oriented about north and south, as are other 
Casa Grande compounds. It was of apparently the same general 



FEWKES] 



CASA GRANDE MOUNDS 



105 



charartpf as the ofhors, containing a massive building centrally 
placed, the walls of which have been greatly eroded by the elements. 

Witliin tlie surrounding wall were also numerous rooms whose 
fragile walls have fallen, l)ur_ving their floors two or three feet below 
the siu'face. At the perijihery of one of the floors a row of holes in 
wliich upright ]iosts fornieily stood could readily be traced, show- 
ing that the room was rectangular in form and had a doorway on 
one side. The fireplace, a round depression in the floor just in 
front of the doorway, still contained ashes. The conditions here are 
similar to those in 
Compound B. The 
m a s s i V e - w a 11 e d 
buildings doubtless 
served as granaries 
or possibly were 
devoted to religious 
purposes; the frag- 
ile-walled struc- 
tures were the 
dwellings of tlie 
people. The eroded 
appearance of tliis 
compound suggests 
great age, stamping 
it as one of the 
oldest of the Casa 
Grande Group. 

In the character 
of the masonry the 
massive-walled 
buildings of Com- 
pound D closely 
resemble those else- 
where described. 
They are not as- 
liigh as the corre- 
sponding structures 
of Compounds A and B. Jiaving been greatly weathered. The sur- 
rounding wall was low, in no place above the surface of the ground, 
and its course could not be traced by excavation. The central 
building was apparently connected by a wall with one side of the 
wall of the compound. 

On the ])lastering of one of these buildings are black impressions 
of human hands (fig. 16). The rooms were excavated to their floors, 
but no objects of importance were found. 




Fig. 10. IlanJ-prints ami eroded base of wall of house in Compound D. 



106 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [ktii. ann. 28 

Compounds E and F 

Remnants of lar<^e walls identified as boundaries of several other 
compounds were traced at various places in the reservation, the most 
conspicuous being those of Compounds E and F, which could be 
followed for a considerable distance west of Compound A. These 
inclose low wliite mounds, sparsely covered with mesquite and other 
growth, which seem to contain the remains of massive buildings, the 
walls of which have fallen or have been worn down by rains to a level 
with the jilain.' In this vicuiity there are numerous other low mounds 
without walls which bear outward resemblance to refuse-piles. 

No excavations were made in these mounds, althougli there is evi- 
dence that some of them would repay exanunation. The presence 
of fragments of pottery, and broken stone objects, apjiarently worked 
by hand, suggests sites of many former habitations. 

Clan-house 1 

In addition to the compounds, or structures inclosed by a com- 
mon wall, there is a type of tliick-walled buildings at Casa Grande from 
which this wall is absent or at least has not yet been discovered. The 
best example of this ty^^e is the so-called Clan-house 1 (pis. 43, 44), 
one of the most striking group of rooms excavated during the writer's 
field work in the second year. 

Clan-house 1 is 740 feet due east of Compound A. The group of 
rooms brought to light by excavation possibly belonged to a large 
compoimd the boimdary walls of which had been practically buried or 
totally destroyed. Wlien work on Clan-house 1 began, two ash- 
colored treeless mounds rising a few feet above the level of the plain 
were all that was visible, the space between the mounds bemg covered 
with scattered trees, bushes, and cacti. The results of the excava- 
tion appear in the accompanying plan (fig. 17), in the bird's-eye view 
(pi. 43), and in the illustration of the model (pi. 44). 

Clan-house 1 has 11 rooms (A-J, M, fig. IS) inclosmg a plaza, its 
outside measurements, exclusive of the annex (L, K), being 113 
feet long and 49 feet wide. The longer walls extend east and 
west, instead of north and south as in the compounds. In addi- 
tion to the 11 rooms which form the main portion of the struc- 
tures excavated, there are three low-waUed rooms on the east side, 
which we may call the annex; one of the main puq>oses of tliis struc- 
ture was to contain the grave (fig. 18) of the former chief , possibly the 
owner of the whole building. From various circumstances it is believed 
that the walls of this annex were built later than the remainder. 
The walls of Clan-house 1 are massive (pi. 45), averaging 4 feet in 
thickness; the altitude of the highest is 10 feet. As shown in 

' The appearance of the tops of walls of Gila ruins, before excavation, is shown in plate 42. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE -12 





APPEARANCE OF COMPOUND-WALLS BEFORE EXCAVATION 



ilie (■olir>L-s of the walls iiiny he traced by the while " imths" on the surfiu-e, whii-h are j)rartie:illy 

devoid 01' vegetation. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 43 




Jit,>Vr»aJ**. ^iiL , . 



BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF CLAN-HOUSE 1, FROM THE NORTHEAST 





o 

I 

z 
< 



FEWKKS] 



("ASA GRANDE MOUNDS 



107 



broken sections, those walls were supported in ])art by upriglit logs 
(l)ls. 44, 45), but were constructed of huge cubes of rammed natural 
cement, in the same way as the walls of Casa Grande. The arrange- 
ment of the 11 rooms composing Clan-house 1 is as follows: On both 
the north and south sides there is a row of rooms the breadth of which 
is about uniform, wliile the length varies ; the room at the east end of 
each series is the largest. There are five rooms (F-J) in the series on 
the north and four (A-D) in the series on the south. To the west of 
the plaza, between these rooms and connecting them on this end, are 
two rooms (E, M), which have the highest walls and were apparently 
the most important rooms in Clan-house 1. These rooms occupy 




//J<5" 
Fig. 17. Ground plan of Clan-house 1. 

about half of the space between the north and south series of rooms, 
the remaining area consisting of a plaza, or open space, having an 
entrance from the room on the west side. The several rooms in the 
series on the north side (F-J) do not communicate, nor have they 
external passageways except in two instances (G, J) ; also, room D 
in the southwest corner communicates with a large room (M) at the 
west end of the plaza. In the middle of the centrally placed (M; of 
the 11 rooms above mentioned was found a seat (figs. 19, 20) facing 
the south, made of a great block of natural cement. 

It is suggested that Clan-house 1 was a structure similar to Casa 
Grande proper and pertained to the worsliip of the six primary 



108 



CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA 



I KTII. ANN. i;8 



points — north, west, soiitli, cast, nbovo, juid hclow. It is an intcT- 
csting fact that tlio number of rooms in Clan-Iioiise 1, oxcopting tlio 
annex, is exactly the same as in Casa Grande. In the former, how- 
ever, the 1 1 rooms are one story in heiglit, wliereas in Casa Grande 
there were iive rooms in each of two lower stories and one room in 
a third. 

Perhaps the most remarkable of the several rooms in Clan- 
house 1 are the two massive-walled inclosures (K, L) on the north 

side, which have 
been designated 
"the annex" (pi. 
46). One of these 
(K) seems to have 
been merely an open 
space surrounded by 
thick walls formerly 
higher than at ])res- 
ent. In this inclo- 
siire were found the 
remains of a walled- 
up cyst of natural 
cement, one side of 
which was l)uilt con- 
tinvious ^Yit\\ the 
south wall ; the other 
sides of this cyst, vis- 
ible from the room, 
were decorated with 
figures' of birds and 
other animals, 
painted red. 

In the interior of 
this cyst, or rude 
sarcophagus (fig. 

Fig. 18. Sarcophagus in room K of annex to Clan-house 1. . q\ ,iri« fniind 

human skeleton extended at full length with the liead directed to the 
east; near the head was a receptacle for mortuary offerings. From the 
nature of the objects associated with this skeleton and the special 
receptacle apparentl}' made for them, it is supposed that the remains 
were those of an old priest, possibly of a cliief, wlio once occupied 
these rooms. The mortuary objects are figured and described later 
(see pp. 124, 127, 130) and their s])ecial significance, so far as can now 
be determined, is discussed. They appear to be priestly paraphernalia, 
similar to tliose now used in ceremonies by priests of tlie Pueblo 




BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 46 




a. FROM THE NORTHEAST 




'' NUH rhWEST CORNER 

ANNEX TO CLAN-HOUSE 1 



CAS A GRANDE MOUNDS 



109 



Indians. All the facts gathered show that this burial chamber was 
built after the main building was constructed, but its age, as compared 
with that of the other compounds, is unknown. In the sand outside 
the walls were found one or two clay vessels containing burnt human 
bones, covered with clay disks, which are sui)posed to be the partially 
cremated remains of inliabitants of this building. The two methods 




Fig. 19. Seat in room M, Olan-house 1, looking norttieast. 

of disposal of the dead — uiliumation and cremation — were practised 
in all the compounds of Casa Grande.' 

It is sometimes stated that the priests of the Gila compounds were 
alwaj's buried in houses while the less-favored classes were cremated, 
their calcined bones being deposited in cinerary urns or vases that later 
were buried on the borders of the mounds where they had been com- 
mitted to the flames. While not able to prove or disprove this theory, 

* At the present day the Pima bury their dead, and the graves of the shamans are different from those of 
other people. The custom of burning the dead does not now exist among these people. 



110 



CASA GBANDE, ARIZONA 



|ETH. ANN. 28 



it is believed tliat the griive of the chief of Clan-liouse 1 has an impor- 
tant bearing on this question. Here, as stated, a man was found 
buried with care in a rude sarcophagus evidently constructed for the 
purpose. This is the only example known to tlie writer of an intra- 
mural grave of this character, although other burials within house 
inclosures have been found, namely, in the floors of one of the rooms 




i'lG. a). Seat in room M, Clnn-house 1, looking southwest. 

of the block in the southwest corner of Compound A. A human 
skeleton was also excavated from the plaza west of the northeast 
building of the same compoiuid, at the point marked "skeleton" in 
the ground plan (pi. 6) of that compound.' 

' The writer is inclined to reearii this burial as having been matle long after the aliimdonment of the 
ronipound, and the same may be true of the " Eagle burial" also, near the northwest angle of Font's room. 
Near the latter, however, were found fragments of deeayed posts, as if part of the corral in which the eagle 
bad been confined. The ends of these posts were inserted in holes below the general le\ el of the pUua. 



fkwkes] casa grande mounds 111 

Refuse-heaps 

The large structures, especiiill_y compounds A, B, and C, are sur- 
rounded by refuse-heaps, the surfaces of which are strewn in some cases 
sparingly, in others plentifully, with fragments of pottery and with 
ashes and other evidences of human occupancy. No remains of 
house walls were found in these mounds and their structure shows 
that they may be regarded as dumping places for the habitations in 
the vicinity. Some of those heaps were thrown up from neighboring 
depressions, or reservoirs, and their stratification indicates that layers 
of earth were deposited on them at different times. A vertical 
section exhibits beds of ashes and other refuse alternating with sand 
and soil, showing how the mounds increased in size.' 

Distinct from these are the small mounds or elevations, rising a 
foot or two above the plain, that like\\isc mark man's presence. 
These mounds indicate the f(jrmer existence of dwellings in the open, 
and it is reasonable to suppose that outside the compounds, espe- 
cially along the irrigation ditches, there were isolated dwellings some- 
what resembling the modern Pima houses. Wliile these may have 
been shelters used by farmers only while planting or watching tlieir 
crops, they show that the country around the compounds had its 
quota of inhabitants. Within and near the compounds these houses 
may have been very numerous, so closely arranged as to give the 
appearance of a village, in the middle of which rose the great com- 
munal structure that served as a place of refuge in great emergencies 
or for ceremonies when desired. 

A mound situated a short distance east of Compound B was exca- 
vated to the depth of 9 feet. Trenches were dug across it at right 
angles, bisecting the mound east and west, north and south. This 
mound was found to contain fragments of potterj-, sticks, charcoal, 
and other refuse; also the remains of several skeletons, extended at 
length, the skulls of one or two being in fairly good condition. It 
thus appears that the inhabitants of Casa Grande buried some of 
their dead in mounds and others in the floors of houses and plazas. 
As will presently appear, they also cremated the dead here as else- 
where in the Gila and Salt Iliver Valleys. 

Reservoirs 

It has been already mentioned that, scattered over the area occu- 
pied by the Casa Grande Grouj) of ruins, there are several depressions 
into which drains from the comj)ounds have been run. The largest 
and deepest of these is found northeast of Compound B. These 
depressions, which have no masonry walls, appear to be the places 

• One of the largest of these refuse-heaps lies between Compound A and Clan-house 1, nearer the former. 
This mound, which extends about parallel with the east wall of Compound A, contains many fragments of 
pottery. 



112 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [ETH. ANN. 28 

from wliich was ()l)tiiinc(l tlio ciilicho of whii'li the buildings are 
iiuulo. One or two of tlie (l('])rcssions are, so sitaated with respect 
to (he hxrgest buildings tliat llie adobe of wliich the houses were built 
mav have been eai'rieil at times a (•onsi(leral)I(> distance. 

Similar areas inclosctl by artificial circular ridges of earth are found 
in several of the clusters of mounds in the Gila and Salt River 
^'allcvs, among wliich may be mentioned the one in the group near 
Adamsville and the reservoir at Casa Blanca. The Escalante Group, 
situated near the Phoenix-Florence Railroad, also contains a similar 
reservoir. In the country south of the Southern Pacific Railroad, 
inhabited by a group of Indians of Pimaii stock called the Qua- 
hatika (Kwahadt), similarly shaped depressions are recorded, some 
of which are still used as reservoii-s at certain seasons. This is hke- 
wise true of so-called Indian tanks (Pima, vasliki), to the east of Casa 
Grande, near the Santa CataHna Mountains, and elsewhere (pi. 38) . 

Certain areas marked by no mounds or depressions maj- have 
served as race courses or dance places, the existence of wliich is men- 
tioned in legendary accounts of Casa Grande. 

On the southwest side of the large reservoir is a depression from 
which were obtained the sand and earth out of which walls were 
made, and a similar depression on the east side may, have been due 
to a similar cause. There are depressions in the surface near Clan- 
house 1 and Compound D, and those near the western clan-houses ' 
served the same purpose. 

From remains of ancient irrigating ditches in the neighborhood of 
the several compounds it is evident that water from the Gila River 
was conducted over the plain west of Casa Grande. Here and 
there, especially near the large mounds, occur numerous depressions 
in the earth's surface, some of which are possibly reservoirs, or places 
where the water was stored for irrigation, drinking, and other purposes. 
Most of these depressions are surrounded by a ridge of earth, l>y which 
their capacity was increased and the chance of overflow chminished. 
Their prevailing shape is oval. The incUcations are that they have 
been filled to a considerable extent with drifting sand since Casa 
Grande was deserted.^ The largest is situated about midway of a 
line extending from the northwest corner of Compound A to the south- 
east corner of Compound C. It was supposed that this reservoir was 
lined with a cement wall, but a section exposed through the rim on the 
south side, which was solid sand throughout, revealed no such condi- 
tion. It is interesting to note that the floor of this reservoir is now 
thickly overgrown with trees and bushes, although without water. 

• There are mounds west of Compound A. which are here referred to as "western clan-houses," but these 
were not excavated . although traces of caliche walls were found in them. Potsherds were abundant. 

2 Many of the casas grajidcs in tlte Cila-Salt region have similar reservoirs, or circular depressions with 
raised rims. Cushing's excavation of one of these depressions convinceii him that it was not a reservoir 
but a ceremonial chamber. 



PBWKES] CASA (iRANDE MOUNDS 113 

At one end of this reservoir may still be seen a trail along which 
the women toiled with water jars from their dwellinj^s near b}'. 
The shapes of the water jars and certain ligad-rests that have been 
found indicate that the vessels were carried on the head, as at Zuni, 
rather than on the back as at the Hopi pueblos. There is strong 
evidence that the people of Casa Grande were >vell supplied with 
water by means of reservoirs and irrigation ditches. This need was 
not so pressing as in northern Arizona. It does not appear from 
sj'mbolism on the pottery or from other evidences, which it must 
be confessed are scanty, that rain ceremonies occupied the prom- 
inent place in the Morship of the inhabitants that they do among 
the present Pueblos. The people depended for water less on rain 
than on the Gila ; the river was tj^pified by the plumed serpent, which 
was worshipped. 

There are indications of small mounds in the neighborhood of these 
reservoirs, a fact from which it would seem that every reservoir had 
a cluster of habitations around it and that houses were built along 
the courses of the irrigation ditches. Nothing now remains to mark 
these houses except the mounds upon which are found fragments of 
pottery and broken stone implements, including now and then a 
well-worn metatQ. Excavation of one of these mounils revealed a 
hardened floor surrounded by holes in which are found decayed 
stumps of the posts that formerly supported the walls. The resem- 
blance of these houses to those now built by the Pima and Papago 
Indians is striking. They resemble also the remains of rooms of the 
ancient people in the various compounds of Casa Grande. 

Irrigation Ditches 

The evidences of prehistoric irrigation in the neighborhood of 
Casa Grande are many, but it is difficult to trace any cUtch very far. 
The main canal which supplied the fields with water extended along 
the left bank of the river, from a point 3 miles higher up; this was 
probably provided with lateral ditches along its entire length. It 
approached Casa Grande about midway between Compound B and 
the river, on the north side of the compound, and, extending west- 
ward, turned to the south, sending oflF smaller branches toward the 
east and west. Although the main ditch can not be traced through- 
out its entire course, traces of it appear at intervals; in some places 
it is clearly marked by walls of earth containing small stones simi- 
lar to those found in stretches of its bed nearer the river. In places 
the canal is 20 feet wide, adecjuate for canying a great amount of 
water. 

The construction of the Casa Grande ditch was not difficult, as the 
earth is not hard to dig and no considerable elevation was encoun- 

20903°— 28 ETH— 12 8 



114 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [eth. ann. 28 

tercd throughout its entire course. The canal divided probably 
shortly after it left the river, sending a branch that runs east of 
Clan-house 1 to supply the fields on the east side of the compounds. 
From the point of bifurcation the remains of a smaller canal can be 
traced for some distance. 

As above stated there is evidence that buildings once stood on the 
banks of these ditches, where their former presence is now indicated 
by low mounds on which are scattered fragments of pottery and a few 
broken stone implements (metates, or grinders). Irrigation <ljtches 
are more apparent elsewhere in the Gila and Salt River Valleys than 
at Casa Grande. The settlement near Poston Butte was supplied 
with water by one of the best-preserved of these ancient ditches in 
the Gila-Salt Valley. This follows the right bank of the Gila from a 
point several miles higher up the river and extends to the neighbor- 
hood of the Escalante ruin, where it is lost in laterals or minor 
branches. Near Poston Butte, the southern side of which it skirts, 
the banks of this prehistoric ditch are head high and can be traced 
for many hundred feet without difficulty. The writer has been in- 
formed by an old Mexican who lives in Florence that when a boy he 
saw stumps of old logs in this ditch at the point where the banks are 
highest; he believes these were remains of a prehistoric head-gate. 

In the following quotation H. C. Hodge refers to a prehistoric irri- 
gation ditch on the north side of the Gila near Poston Butte :^ 

About 2 miles west of Florence, on the north side of the river, between the homes of 
Mr. Stiles and Mr. Long, is a stretch of hard, stony land, through which another of 
the large irrigating canals was cut, and where, for several hundred yards, one can ride 
on horseback in the canal, which is yet so deep one can not look over its banks on 
either side, when sitting on his horse. 

Some of the best irrigating ditches in the Gila-Salt Valley were 
found near Phoenix and Mesa when the country was first en- 
tered by Americans. That near Mesa was utilized by the Mormon 
farmers who settled this region; others have been filled or destroyed 
by modern agriculture. The lines of many of the new ditches fol- 
low substantially the lines of the prehistoric canals, showing the 
skill of the primitive farmers. The irrigation ditches in the neigh- 
borhood of Phoenix have been traced and mapped by Mr. H. R. 
Patrick,^ under whose guidance the writer has visited certain remains 
still visible near that city. These can now be traced only at inter- 
vals, and in manj" instances nothing remains but ridges of earth or 
rows of stones. 

It appears from Mr. F. H. Cushing's studies of the irrigation d itches ^ 
near the ruins of Los Muertos in the Salt River Valley that some 

' Arizona As It Is; or, The Coming Country, p. 182, Boston, 1877. 

2 The \ncient Canal Systems and Pueblos of the Salt River Valley, Arizona, Phoenix. .\riz., 1903. 

3 See F. W. Uodge, in A mtricaii Anlliropologist, vi, 323, Washington, ISW. 



FBWKBS] CASA GRANDE MOUNDS 115 

parts of these wore well-])rescrve<l. The existence of a narrower 
channel in the bed of a large ditch, through which the water could run 
when the supply was small, was seen elsewhere by the present writer. 
The main ditches were large enough for irrigation when fidl of water 
and doubtless were used for that purpose. Not far from Blackwater 
is a hill, surrounded by a prehistoric ditch above the level of the plain, 
around which the ditcli was dug to avoid a too rapid descent. 

The testimony of the old men consulted supports the theory that 
the ancient irrigation ditches were dug by means of wooden shovels 
similar to those mentioned and figured later in this report, tlie earth 
probably being carried to a distance by the women and cliildren. 
The present Pima say that they now organize to construct irrigation 
ditches in a way somewhat similar to that of the ancients. As all 
clans enjoy the advantage of the water thus obtained, everj' clan has 
its representatives in constructing the canals, and failure to work 
mvolves loss of water right, although a clan may be represented by 
members of other clans. The amount of labor necessary in the con- 
struction of new ditches is settled in council, in which all clans inter- 
ested take part. 

The construction by the ancients of the great irrigation ditches led 
to greater cooperation of labor in the Gila-Salt Valley than anywhere 
else in the prehistoric Southwest. This union of manj' men under 
a chief, with equal representation in council, led to an advanced social 
organization and culture, a degree of culture which would not have 
been realized so soon under less favorable conditions. This coop- 
eration and resultant organization made possible also the buikling of 
the great compounds and the massive structures they inclosed. 

Excavation of one of the banks of an irrigation ditch near Casa 
Grande shows successive layers of soil and small stones, indicating 
repeated clearing out of tlie canal. The layers of stone may have 
been necessary to prevent the earth washing into the channels. 
These were also contmually filling up mth mud and detritus from 
the river, the amount of which was considerable when the Gila was 
swollen. The head-gates were probably made of posts and brusli, 
not unlike the gates constructed at the present day by the Puna and 
the Maricopa. 

Closely connected with the irrigation ditches are the reservoirs 
(vashhi), of which there are one or more near every large group of 
compounds in the GUa-Salt Basin. These reservoirs are shallow 
depressions in which rain water collects, but were not always con- 
nected with the irrigation ditches. Drinking water was probably 
obtained from these and other receptacles. 



116 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [eth. ANN. 28 

Mescal Pits 

Scattered at intervals over the reservation, not fni' from the com- 
ponnds, l)iit never within them, one finds here and there circles of 
blaokiMU'd soil, the smi'aces of most of whicli are on a level wth, or 
slightly depressed below, the snrrounding phuTi. No considerable 
quantity of vegetation of any kind flourishes within these cii-cles, 
and exanrination of the soil reveals the existence of charcoal and 
other evidences of fire. One of tlie circular areas was dug into 
and as excavation progressed the eft'ects of fire became more appar- 
ent, until at a depth of about 5 feet there was found a number of 
stones affected by fii-e in a marked degree. Below tliese stones was a 
layer of cinders and charcoal resting on a surface made of cla}' well 
tramped down. The evidence of the action of fire on this floor is 
unmistakable. The clay walls of these pits also show the effect 
of intense heat. It is evident from excavations that these pits 
are similar to those still constructed b}" the Quahatika (Kwahadt) 
for roasting the tender leaves of tlie agave.' Tlie method of using 
these pits is as follows: Great fires are fii-st kindled in them, after 
which heated stones are thrown in; on these stones are laid 
agave leaves, sometimes to a depth of 2 or 3 feet. Fire is kindled 
over this accumulation and by action of the heat below and above, 
the leaves are roasted without being burnt. The number of these 
large pits found indicates that mescal was a favorite food with the 
people of Casa Grande, each compound seeminglv having had its 
own mescal ovens. 

One of these pits was thoroughly dug out and the burnt stones 
were removed; they were then carefully replaced in their former 
position. The broken wall of the depression was made of clay burnt 
in place. This was carefully repaired, sho^\'ing the type form of 
these structures. One of the best examples of a mescal jnt is 
situated close to the road to Casa Grande station, not far from the 
southwest corner of Compoimd A, and can readily be seen from a 
wagon by one apjiroaching the ruin from the south. Most of the 
mescal pits were found south and east of the compounds. It 
can hardly be possible that the pits were placed so that the smoke 
would give the least trouble to the inhabitants of the houses, as 
that consideration is rarely taken into account by Indians. Prob- 
ably it was more convenient to place them on the sides where they 
were found in greater numbers. - 

' Similar ancient mescal pits are found at the ruins near Tempe, Mesa. Phoenix, and elsewhere in the 
Salt and Gila Valleys. 

2 It is instructive to note en passant that the greater erosion ia the walls ot the large blocks of buildings 
of Compound A is on tlie east side. This side of Font's room was so worn down that the east wall was 
level with the ground. Ail tlie east walls of the southwest building were much eroded and the corre- 
sponding wall of tlie historic Casa C.rande ruin is more eroded than is the nortlnvest or the soutli wall. This 
unequal wearing of tlie walls is ascribed to the rain beat ing on tlie east side. Possibly the buildings were 
terraced toward the east for priests engaged iu sun worship. 



fbwkbs] casa grande mounds 117 

Methods of Disposal of the Dead 

Considering the large jiopulation that must have Hved at Casa 
Grande, it is strange that in all the writer's excavations so few 
human skeletons were foun<l. There is evidence of two kinds of 
burial, inhumation in houses and mounds, and cremation, an in- 
stance of which was discovered not far fi"om the north wall of 
Compound B.' 

Wliethcr or not tliis difference in the manner of disposal of the 
dead was due to the rank of tlie deceased is not clearly evident, but 
the nature of the objects buried with a skeleton in Clan-house 1 
would seem to indicate the grave of a priest. Skeletons unaccom- 
panied by mortuary objects were found in the plazas of Compound A 
and in rooms of the soutliwest angle, but whether these are ancient 
or modern is not positively known. 

The absence, so far as kno\vn, of evidences of cremation from the 
cemeteries of the Little Colorado region, including those of Zuni, and 
of Sikyatki, Awatobi, and other Ilopi ruins, has been used as an argu- 
ment against associating the former inhabitants of these pueblos mth 
the Hohokam of the Gila-Salt Basin. Moreover, the Pima do not 
burn their dead, nor have they tlone so in historic times. It may 
be said in reply to this objection tiiat the Hohokam inhu mated 
as well as cremated, thus furnishing a double precedent for their 
descendants. Moreover, there is gooil evidence that cremation was 
practiced in the eastern and northern Pueblo region, at Mesa 
Verde for instance. According to Castaneda, the Cibolans - burned 
their dead. 

The human bodies buried in the earth at Casa Grande were laid at 
full length, no remains of an inhumated boil}' in a flexed position hav- 
ing been found. It is usual to find in pueblos and cliff-dwellings^ 
skeletons burieil in both ways. The manner of interment may liave 
had in some cases an esoteric meaning, but in most instances it had 
no special significance. 

Several theories have been suggested to account for burial in the 
contracted position. It has been asserted by some authorities that 
the corpse was so disposed to represent the embryonic position. 
According to a second theory the body was deposited in the squat- 
ting position as suggestive of a state of rest. 

' It would appear that a people who burned their dead did not believe in a resurrection of the body, 
and the same may be true of those who buried their dead. The placing of offerings in the grave indi- 
cates faith in the continuation of life, but does not prove, of course, belief in immortality. The practice 
of burning the dead, which was widespread in the Southwest in prehistoric times, was abandoned when 
the teachings of the missionaries were followed. 

3 Cibola is identified by the be.«t authorities as ancient Zuni, but no evidence of cremation has yet 
been found in Zuni ruins. 

5 .V clilT-dwelling is practically a pueblo built in a cave, and what is true of one probably holds true for 
the other, with slight modification. 



118 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [bth. ann. 28 

It has been pointed out also that a body m tlio contracted 
position can be more readily carrietl on tiie back, than when it is 
extendetl. In house burials, in which the bodies were carried only a 
short distance, they were coninioiily laid on tlie side in the extended 
position, perhaps in the same position as at death.' 

As a rule, the few bodies uncovered from mounds by the writer were 
extended at full len<;th, but one or two had the knees brouglit to the 
chest (contracted position), as is common among many Indian tribes. 
Mortuary offerings were found with most of the skeletons. 

It is believed that cremation is the oldest and most general manner 
of disposal of the dead and that it was formerly widespread in the 
Pueblo area. Even when cremation and inhumation coexist, it is 
possible that one of these practices may have been introduced much 
later than the other. They may also suggest the existence of a former 
dual sociologic composition. 

The interments found near Compound B were in several instances 
about 9 feet below the surface. Other human skeletons, however, 
were found just below the surface. 

In the cases in which human remains were cremated the calcmed 
bones and ashes were placed in oUas or vases- over which were luted 
cu'cular clay or stone disks. 

MINOR ANTIQUITIES 

The two seasons excavations at Casa Grande revealed instructive 
objects, some of which shed light on the former culture of the people 
of this valley; but consitlering the amount of earth removed in that 
time, comparatively few objects were found. This may be due to 
the fact that no cemeteries were discovered and hence the number of 
mortuary objects was small. 

The collections consist of objects of stone, clay, shell, bone, and 
wood, and fabrics of various kinds, including cloth, string, and net- 
ting. The stone and clay objects, being the least perishable, are 
naturally the most numerous. 

Similar specimens fountl in many of the ruins in the Gila and Salt 
River Valleys exist in a number of museums and private collections, 

1 The Hopi now bury in the contracted position, and it is customary for the oldest male relative to 
carry the body down the mesa side on his back and deposit it in the sand at the base of the foothills. 
House burials among modern Hopi have long since ceased, but when Sikyatici and Awatobi were in 
their prime they were not uncommon. 

Among the modern Pima the graves of medicine-men are apart from cemeteries, and have a somewhat 
different character. a.s described by Doctor Uussell. It is instructive to note that the body of a medicine- 
man is said to be placed in a sitting posture, while the Pima generally now bury the body extended. 
Such shaman burials are not common and by this time may have been wholly abandoned, since through 
the zeal of missionaries and other teachers the Pima are practicallyno longer pagans. Still. the survival 
into the present generation of two forms of inhumation is noteworthy. 

' Similar vases with calcined human bones have been found along the San Pedro and throughout the 
Pueblo Viejo Valley, especially in association with the ruin at San Jos6. 



PEWKES] 



MINOR ANTIQUITIKS 



119 



but few of these came from Casa Grande. These collections embrace 
many types not found at Casa Grande and manj' beautiful specimens 
illustrating the same types as tliosc referred to in this report. It is 
onl}- necessary to refer to the magnificent material in tlic Peabody 
Museum, Cambridge, collected at Los Muertos and elsewhere in the 
Salt River Valley, by the Ilemen way Southwestern Expedition under 
Mr. F. 11. Cushmg, and to tlie private collections made at Phoenix, 
Arizona, by the late Doctor Miller. 

ilr. Benham formerly had installed in his shop at Phoenix a fine 
collection of Gila Valley antiquities, containing specimens owned by 
several persons. 

Some of the objects above mentioned have been described by other 
archeologists,' but it may be said that there is no comprehensive 
account of the antiquities of the Gila-Salt area. Although the 
present article will not supply this deficiency, it is the intention to 
include in it all olijects found by Government officers at Casa Grande 
and now deposited in the National Museum at Washington. 

A fist of these specimens with brief notices and measurements of 
most of them is appended to tliis report. As wall be seen by consult- 
ing this fist, more than 1,300 objects have been obtained and cat- 
alogued. It is unnecessary to do more than to refer to the more 
striking of these, but there are added notices of one or two objects 
from neighboring ruins, and of a few collected at Casa Grande before 
the writer's excavations began. 

MiNDELEFF COLLECTION 

The specimens deposited in the National Museum as the result 
of the repair work in 1891, referred to in Mindeleff's report,- are as 
follows: 



National 
Museum 
number 



Bureau 

of Eth- 
nology 
number 



.\rticle 



Num- 
ber of 
speci- 
mens 



Remarks 



155088 
1S50S9 

155090 
155091 
155092 
155093 
155094 



595 
596 

597 
598 
599 
GOO 
601 



Fragments of large earthenware vessel . 
Large bowl 



Large vase 

Pottery fragments 

Pottery vase Ctoy) 

Pottery bowl (toy) 

Pottery disk or spindle . 



Lot. 



Plain red on both sides. 

Red outside: black, polished inside; 

stored. 
Decorated outside; restored. 
Decorated. 
Small, dark brown. 
Small, black. 



* Mr. Warren K. Moorehead has figured and mentioned in his "Stone Age" and other writings many 
Instructive archeologic objects found by him near Phoenix, Mesa, and Tempe. 

» The Repair of Casa Grande Ruin. Arizona, in 1891 ( Fifteenth A nn. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol., 1S97). This 
report, as its title indicates, deals with the details of the repair of the ruin, and likewiseof excavations thai 
were found necessary; it contains also a short description of the ruin as it was in 1.891. Several good 
views, reprinted from a former report, are introduced. In the course of the excavations made in 
preparation for the repair of the ruin at that time, a portion of the east wall near the south comer fell, 
and tlie connection of the six ceremonial rooms with the main building was destroyed. 



120 



CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA 



[KTH. ANN. 2S 



National 
Museum 
number 



155095 



Bureau 
of Eth- 
nology 
number 



(J02 
003 

004 
005 
000 
607 
608 
C09 
filO 
611 
612 
613 
614 

615 
610 
617 
618 



619 
620 
621 
622 
623 
624 

625 
626 
627 
62S 



Article 



Pottery toy (moiinfain j^oal ) 

Adobe 

Small shells 

Small shells 

Small shells (Conns) 

Small shells (cut and perforated ) . . 
Small shells, l)eads, and pendants. . 

Bone awls 

Bone fragments 

Chalk, obsidian chips, and brown adobe 
Charred wood, 2 nuts, and a corncob 

Charred textiles, cloth 

Wooden-joist fragments 

Reed 

Stone axes 

Pounding-stone and fragment 

Stone pestles 

Stone inullers 

Stone hammers 

Stone mullers, flat 

Stone mortar, flat 

Stone mortar 

Stone, polished 

Stone hoes or chopping knives 

Limestone ornament 

Small stone vessel 

Stone arrowheads 



Num- 
ber of 
speci- 
mens 



Remarks 



Lot. 

Lot. 

Lot. 

Lot. 

Lot. 
3 
6 

Lot. 
4 
2 
3 

1 

7 



Dark brown. 

Lumps: 1 showing im])ression of 
cloth, the other of a himian foot. 



For use as pendants. 
1 string and 2 fragments. 



Partly charred. 



3, 6, and 9 inches long; 4 inches diam- 
eter. 

12 inches long. 

And 3 broken, grooved. 

Of sandstone, with ring-shape handle. 

One VZh inches long, XJ inches diam- 
eter; one 9\ inches long, U inches 
diameter; also a fragment. 

1 pitted. 
5 broken. 
6J by 12 inches; 2 inches thick. 

13 by 22 inches; 6 inches thick. 

22 inches long; 6J inches diameter 
restored. 

Carved, fragmentary. 
Serpent carved on the outside. 
1 of obsidian, very small, and 1 of 
flint; also a broken specimen. 



PiNCKLEY Collection 

Mr. Frank Pinokley, the present custodian of Casa Grande, has 
made a valuable collection, now installed at the ruin, which can be 
inspected by visitors.' 

It is to be hoped that a museum for Casa Grande antiquities may 
be erected 1 ter near the ruin and that in it may be placetl not only 
all specime s gathered from the reservation and its neighborhood, 
but also such books, maps, and other materials as pertain to the 
ruin, in order to increase the educational value of this example of the 
culture of the former people of the Gila Valley. 

1 The writer basseen in private hands one or two specimens which their owners claim were foimd at Casa 
Grande. In view of the fact that there is doubt as to the provenance of some of these objects, and as 
thej' are in no way exceptional, it is thought best not to include a description of them in this report. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 47 




(No. 2.i44o7) 
IN HUMAN FORM 



(No. -Jol^oS) 
FROG-SHAPED 



STONE IDOLS 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL P^EPORT PLATE 48 





COILED SERPENT I N". -r.li;" 



UNKNOWN ANIMAL ( Nn. 2.>U22 1 




BIRD-SHAPED— FRONT (N". 2.i44ftG) 




BIRD-SHAPED— SIDE (No. 2.")44.')()) 
STONE IDOLS 



PBttKES] MINOR ANTIQUITIES 121 

Fewkes Collection 
stone idols 

Several small stone idols (pis. 47, 48) ' were found durinj; tiie exca- 
vation and repair of Casa (Jrande, among wiiich are rejiresented a 
human being, a lizaril, and a bird. Tiiese objects are as a rule rudely 
made and exhibit no traces of ])igment. As most of them were found 
in a shrine, we may suppose they were used ceremonially. The 
sculpturing of these objects does not indicate a high degree of art. 
The best image is made of diorite, evidently taken from an arroyo 
or a river bed. It is instructive to note that the shrine in wliich 
the images were found was situated within a compound and was not 
extra-mural. 

Human figure . — This iilol (pi. 47) evidently represents a female. 
The carving is very rude; the arms and legs are closely approximated 
to the body, the former in low relief, the latter indicated by slight 
ridges. The posture of the lower part of the body would seem to 
indicate that it was the intention to represent the figure in a sitting 
position. There is no mouth; a low ridge indicates the position of 
the nose, at right angles to one end of which are scratches show- 
ing the ])osition of the eyes. There are no eyebrows. The surface of 
the idol is smooth, and it evidently was made from a river stone, 
which was but slightly worked. 

Reptile. — It is impossilile to identify the genus of reptile or batra- 
chian intended to be represented in plate 47, which is suggestive of 
some tailed species, possibly a turtle or a lizard. The amount of 
working in tlie case of tliis specimen is somewhat greater than in 
that of the human figure. The rear and fore legs are drawn to the 
sides of the somewhat inflated body, suggesting the attitude of a 
frog. The head is slightly fractured. The top of the body is occu- 
pied by an elliptical depression, ^ in which are traces of red ])igment. 

Bird. — One of the most interesting stone idols in the Casa Grande 
collection, found in a shrine of Compound B with the human and rej)- 
tilian images, is that representing a bird, shown in the accom])anying. 
illustration (pi. 48). The identification of this bird is not possible, 
but the occurrence of a bird-form image in a Casa Grande shrine is 
unusual. No similar stone idol'' is known from the Gila-Salt Basin, 
and the few bird fetishes from the Little Colorado differ in form 
considerably from tlie Casa Grande sj)ecimen. 

Mountain sheep. — The idol identified as a mountain sheep (fig. 21) 
on account of the large curved horns is of lava loughly fashioned. 
The body is quite long, the tail short; the legs appear as stumpy 

' The numbers beneath the illustrations on the plates, beginning with plate 47, correspond to the 
U. S. National Museum numbers in the table on pp. liU-179, 

2 An idol found in a ruin on the San I'cdro by Mr. Childs, of Mammoth, has a similar depression in the 
back. This idol resembles a niouiUain sheep, the liorns licing well represented. There is a similar stone 
idol in the museum of the I'niversity of Arizona, at Tucson. 

3 Several bird fetishes made of shell are known to the writer, but these bear no resemblance to the stone 
image above mentioned. 



122 CASA GEANDE, AKIZONA tBTH. ann. 28 

ap})on(la<};es. In other collections from the Gila-Salt region are sev- 
eral idols in tlie form of mountain sheep, a fact wiiicli h^ads to tlie 
belief that this aniniiil iignrcd conspicuously in tlu^ myths and rituals 
of the inhabitants of Casa Grande. 

Serpent. — One of the most remarkable stone idols from Casa Grande 
is a spiral sj)ecimen (pi. 4S) representing two snakes twisted together. 
The heads of the reptiles are obscurely shown;' cross lines on the 
body indicate the markings or the scales. It has been supposed that 
this object is a fetish. The form, which is rai-e in Arizona, suggests 
serpent images from Mexico. 

Among many carved shell objects seen in collections from the Gila 
Valley are several representing serpents, suggesting that the sei-pent 
assumed an important place among Casa Grande fetishes. 

UnJcnown animal. — This object (pi. 48), while bearing little resem- 
blance to an animal, was evidently fashioned with care for a purpose, 
and suggests certain animal fetishes found among the Pueblo Indians. 
The image is of lava, has a rough surface, and is unique in the col- 
lection. - 




Fig. 21. Stone image ot mountain sbeep. 
STONE IMPLEMENTS 

A fairly large munber of stone implements was found at Casa 
Grande, the section near Clan-house 1 being especially rich in such 
objects. The specimens (pis. 49-71) consist of axes, hammers, 
mauls, perfoi'ated stones, paint grinders, mortars, corn grinders, 
sinkers, disks, beads, ceremonial stones, polishers, crystals, and 
other cult objects. Considering the. extent of the excavations at 
Casa Grande, a greater number of stone objects was expected. The 
implements range in hardness of material from diorite to friable 
sandstone. While most of the implements are smoothly polished, 
several are rough and unfinished, showing marks of chipping com- 
bined with jiolishing. Several stone implements were picked up on 

'Among tlie interesting specimens from Casa Grande recorded in Mindelcfl'slist is a "small stone vessel 
with a serpent carved on tlie outside." The nTiter has referred this specimen to "Magic Tablets," a similar 
specimen having been recorded from the Tonto Basin. 

» As a rule there are more of these figurines in Ciiia Valley ruins than in Mher places in .\rizona where the 
writer has worked. 



^ 



■J" 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 51 




I No 'iVJIllL"! iXo. M2324) 

c d 

GROOVED STONE AXES 



FBWKES] 



MINOR ANTIQUITIES 



123 



tho surface, but the majority were found ])romiscuously during tlio 
excavations, or came from graves, evidently having been deposited as 
offerings with the dead. Several were found on the floors of rooms 
in the compound. 

The ancient inhabitants of Casa Grande were adept in the manufac- 
ture of cutting implements, which are made of very hard stone. The 
favorite stone for mortars and meal grinders was a volcanic rock of 
close texture which is very abundant in the lulls not far from the ruins. 
As a rule the stones from which implements were made came from 
the river bed.' 

Axes. — Most of the axes (pis. 49-55; also figs. 22-27) are grooved 
on two faces and one edge, the groove not extending over the 
remaining edge, a form tj'pical of Gila Valley axes. In one or two 






Fig. 22. Stone ax. 



Fig. 23. Stone ax. 



examples (pi. 55 and fig. 2.3) the groove completeh" surrounds the ax, 
and there are specimens without a groove, its place being taken by 
a nick in one edge. One end of these axes is sharp, the other blunt. 
There are also several double-edged examples; these are finely made, 
their edges being curved and showing little evidence of use. Each 
of two specimens has a groove on one side as if for the insertion of 
a wedge to strengthen the hafting. 

The beautiful double-bladed axes shown in plate 51 are grooved 
on the faces and one edge. Specimen a is not grooved on the sides 
but has a notch on one edge. This ax is one of the most beautiful 
in the collection. Specimen b has a deep groove with a ridge on each 

• The modern Piraa make use of the ancient stone implements, finding it easier to procure these from niins 
than to manufacture them. Their stone metates and manos. or grinding stones, are coarser than the 
ancient specimens, a fact sometimes cited to prove that the rima are not descended from the Uohokam. 



124 



CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA 



[BTH. ANN. 28 



sido !iii(l resembles specinicns from uorlhern Arizona. Another 
partially fjrooved ax is shown in iignre 24. The specimen figured as 
c of plate 51 shows the effects of fire, being much splintered. This 
was once a fine implement, sharpened at each end, with a shallow 
groove on two sides and the rim. Specimen d is likewise a double- 
bladed ax but is not so finely polished as that last mentioned. The 
specimen shown in figure 25 was found in the grave of the chief of 
Clan-house 1. With one exception none of the axes show marked 
ridges above or below the groove, a feature common to grooved axes 
from Hopi nuns. 

Plate 52 shows four typical stone axes which 
differsomewhat inform; the differences are more 
in the shape of the poll and in the cross-section, 
the groove for hafting being nearly uniform in 
all. Specimen a is somewhat pointed and h 
is smoother at the edge than on the sides ; c is 
deeply grooved while in d the groove is shallow. 
The two specimens figured in plate 53 are ex- 
ceptional, one side being flat and the opposite 
side convex ; the groove is confined to the latter 
side, extending in b from a point near one 
edge to the other edge. 

One of the axes (pi. 54, i) was too large, per- 
haps, for use as such; its surface shows marks 
of pecking, and in some places the original 
smooth surface. Possibly this is an imfinished 
implement. Specimens a and d in this plate 
are almost circular in section, while c is nearly 
rectangular. 

The remarkable ax figured in plate 55 viewed 
from the side and the front, is of unusual char- 
acter, although in general form it is not very 
dift'erent from the typical Casa Grande ax. 
One face and a part of the groove show de- 
cided roughness, ascribed to secondary chipping. 
Grooved liammers or mawZs.— There are in the collection many 
grooved stone hammers more or less battered on their ends by long 
and hard usage. Most of them are regular in shape. Some of the 
hammers were originally axes which, becoming greatly worn or broken 
at the edge, were adapted for use in pounding. Several hammers 
are illustrated in plates 56 and 57 and figures 26 and 27. 

Some of tlie hammers are circular in cross section, elongate, 
grooved on tlu-ee sides and convex at the ends, or are dumb- 
bell shaped, short and stumpy. Others are almost scjuare in 
cross section. The two ends may be of equal size, with the groove 




Fig. 24. Stone ax. 




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BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 56 




(No. 2A2330I 



(Xo. :;."ij:iL;{i 




STONE HAMMERS 




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FBWEBS] 



MINOR ANTIQUITIES 



125 



midway in the length, or of unequal dimensions, with the groove 
nearer one end. A typical hammer of dumb-bell shape is shown in 
figure 27. The hammers shown in plate 57, a, b, are very much worn 
at what was formerly tlie sharp edge, and the polls are very flat; c is 
much worn down on both enils; d is without groove; and in e the 
groove is inconspicuous. 

Problem at ical implements. — XTnder this head may be mentioned the 
long, thm, flat stones (as pi. 58, d), some of which are sharp at one ex- 
tremity and blunt at the other. One of these specimens (b) is broad 
at one end antl tapers uniformly, while another (c) is shovel-shaped. 

In this category may be mentioned a broken implement having 
two deep marginal incisions, which, perhaps, should more strictly be 
assigned to objects of the hoe 
or shovel tj^pe. This unique 
specimen (pi. 58, a), which is 
of slate, has incised mark- 
mgs on the fiat face. 

Of the specimens figured 
in plate 59 it is probable that 
a and d represent pestles; b. 
f, and i, grinding stones ; and g 
and J), pecking stones. The 
purposes for which c and e 
were used are not clear. 

One of the object s(f)shown 
in plate 66 probably served 
as a paint-grinder, while d 
and e of the same plate may 
have been used as pecking 
stones. 

Plummet-like object. — A remarkable stone object (fig. 28) from C'asa 
Grande, found deejily buried in the earth covering Compound B, is a 
cylinder provided with an eyelet in the top, like a plumb-bob, the 
whole resembling in form an object of unknown use from Mexico. 
On account of its form it has been suggested that this object was 
employed as a plummet hy the ancient masons. Although the valid- 
ity of this theory is regarded as very doubtful, no suggestion is here 
made of the meaning of this most exceptional specimen. 

Tablets. — Certain flat rectangular stones, called tablets, most of 
which are of slate, have smooth margins; the ornamentation of 
their borders varies considerably, in some specimens takmg the form 
of parallel lines arranged in clusters. One of these tablets (pi. 60, d) 
is typical of many found in ruins in the Gila-Salt Valley, qnd suggests 
a pigment slab.' 




Fig. 25. Grooved doulile-eilge ax. 



» This specimen resembles certain slai'S of animal shape, one of which was figured years ago in the 
writer's report on the antiquities of the upper (!ila (see .'.'d Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Elhnol., pp. ISii-lSB). 



126 



CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA 



[BTH. ANN. 28 



ArroiD-shaft polishers. — Several grooved stones, iclentifietl as arrow- 
shaft polishers, two of which (pi. 61) are fine specimens, were (kig 
lip at C'asa Grande. The best specimen has a double groove and a 
surface ornamented with incised lines. Another, of equally fine 
workmansliip, is smaller and considerably broken. Both are made 
of a black stone, the surface of which is highly polished, es])ecially 
along the grooves. One of the specimens is oval in shape; the other 
rectangular. 

Grinding stones. — Slabs and disks used for grinding purposes are 
fairly common at Casa Grande. The several specimens found vary 
in size, shape, and other characters. They are circular or rectan- 
gular, with or without a 
marginal groove; many are 
provided with a knob. These 
objects (pi. 62) are ordinarily 
made of lava or other hard 
rock. It is not clearly known 
whether they served for grind- 
ing pigments, seeds, or other 
substances. Corn grinding 
was accomplished by means of 
larger implements, as metates 
and manos, many forms of 
which are found in tlie col- 
lections. 

The metates (pi. 60, /) are 
in no respect exceptional.^ As 
a rule these are made of lava; 
they are flat or concave on one 
side, many are rough on the 
opposite surface, and some 
have marginal ridges. The manos, or hand stones (pi. 63) , vary in size 
and shape as well as in the material of which they are made. A com- 
mon form is flat on one side, rounded on the opposite, with edges and 
ends rounded. The grinding surfaces of others have two planes at 
an angle forming a ridge along the middle. None of the metates were 
found set in boxes as among clifi'-dwellings and pueblos, and it is 
probable that when used they were simply placed on the floor, the 
women kneeling while employed in grinding. 

Stones used as paint grinders (pis. 64, 65 ; 67, f ; and figs. 29, 30) , many 
showing traces of pigment on their surfaces, var}' in size ami shape 

1 None of the metatos found have legs, although Doctor Russell speaks of metates provided with three 
legs, and the writer has found examples of this type elsewhere, hut not at Casa Grande. They were 
apparently laid on the floor and moved from place to place as needed. 




Fig. 2b. Stone hammer. 




CO 

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< 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 64 





(Xo, ■jr.i:;71i 
« 




MORTARS AND PESTLE 



FEWKES] 



MINOK ANTIQUITIES 



127 



from a small slab containing a slight superficial depression to a well- 
formed mortar. Pigments ground in these utensils were used for 
decoration of face and body and for ornamentation of pottery. 

To the surface of one of the 
best of these grinders still adhere 
stains of green paint that had 
been ground on it. This (pi. 60, 
a), the most interesting perhaps 
of all the paint grinders, is made 
of hard blackish stone; it is rec- 
tangular, about 10 inches long. 
There is a slight symmetrical de- 
pression on one side: the rim is 
decorated. With this specimen 
was found a finely made pestle 
(fig. 30), also of hard stone, with 
smooth finish, its grinding end 
slightly flaring. Both these ob- 
jects were exhumed from the 
burial cyst of Clan-house 1 , ac- 
companying the skeleton of the 
priest, or possibly chief. The fin- 
ger bones of the right hand, when 
found, still held fragments of paint, 
and there were arrow-points anil 
spear-points in the left hand. 

Plate 62, a, shows one of these rubbers of oval shape with a knob- 
Hkeprojection at one side. In b the rubbing part is more massive, 
while the handle, which is not very prominent, occupies a similar 
position. In c the handle is more elevated and the 
rubbing portion of the stone relatively smaller, 
while in d the handle is greatly depressed and the 
rubbing part elongate. Specimen e represents a fine 
rubbing stone belonging to the series having the 
knobs between the center and the periphery, wliile 
in / the handle is centrally placed and the body is 
circular and thin; the latter is one of the best made 
of all the rubbing stones in the collection. In g the 
diameter of the knob is only slightly less than that 
of the body of the grinder. 

Mortars. — These range in form from circular to 
rectangular; some are deeply concave, some have nearly a plane sur- 
face. One of the simplest specimens (pi. 64, c) is of irregular shape, 
concave on one side; d is almost rectangular, considerably longer 




Fig. 27. Dumb-bell shaped stone maul. 




Fig. 2.S. Plummet-like 
object. 



128 



CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA 



[ETH. ANN. 28 



than broiul; d ;uid h sliow no siijju of concavity; and e is barely more 
than a flat stone. 

From the simple mortars last mentioned we pass to those more 
elaborately made, shown in plate 60. Specimen h is rectangular, with 
a thin border surrounding a shallow smooth concavity. The rim of 
the depression is raised at each end, difl'eriug in this respect from/, 
which is practically a metate. S])ecimen e is much longer than 
broad, the depression resembhng a groove rather than a concavity, 
while figure d in addition to a raised rim has bars across the rim, 
approximating in form a tablet (p. 125). Specimen c resembles a 
miniature metate but may be a concretion of symmetrical shape. 




Fig. an. Tool for rubbing or grinding pigment. 

The two mortars shown in plate 65 are typical, the one (a) oval, the 
other (b) circular in shape. They were doubtless used as at present 
among the Pima ui bruising mesquite beans and in crushing seeds. 
The cavity was either worn out by constant use or it may have 
been worked out with pecking stones. The lava of which these mor- 
tars were made, both a soft ]>orous kind and a hard compact variety, 
is found in the mountains near Casa Grantle. 

Although there are in the collection no wooden pestles to use with 
these mortars, the native ironwood was well adapted for the purpose 
and no doubt was so emj)loyed. 




< 

I- 

o 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 66 




(Nn. 231 6S0) 

e 



PROBLEMATICAL STONE OBJECTS 



FBWKES] 



MINOK ANTIQUITIES 



129 



Perforated stones. — Among the proi)lematic stones from Casa 
Grande are several specimens (pi. 66, a, h), measurinsj; from a few 
inches to 2 feet in length, with a largo per- 
foration near the margin. None of these 
stones are polished, and their rough exterior 
shows no signs of decoration. The use to which 
these objects were put is unknowni, but their 
presence in all collections from the Gila and 
Salt River ruins indicates that they were im- 
portant.' 

An UTegular stone slab having an ovoid 
perforation (fig. 31) may be merely a dis- 
carded paint or seed grinder, the hole tlu'ougli 
it being the result of wear. The suggestion 
that it was used in a ball game as the per- 
forated stone through which a stone ball was thrown is hardly' tenable. 

Perforatetl disks of stone (fig. 32) are among the rare objects found 
at Casa Grande. These have the same general shape as the perforated 




Fig. 30. Paint pestle from 
burial in annex room M, Clan- 
house 1. 




Fig. ;il. Perforated stone slab of unknown use. 



pottery disks which are common throughout the Pueblo area. It is 
supposed that these objects were employed in games, but some speci- 
mens were undoubtedly used as spindle whorls. The larger stone 
disks, of which there are several in the collection, varymg in size and 
degree of finish, were probably used as covers for mortuary jars. 

* It has been suggested that these objects were hung from rafters of houses or from trees or bushes and 
ser\-ed as sounding stones, or gongs, to call the people together, but the fact that many of them are of soft 
nonresonant lava would seem to preclude their employment for such purpose. 

20903°— 28 ETH— 12 9 



130 



CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA 



[ETH. ANN. 28 



A rin<j-shii|)0(l stoiio was ])rol)al)ly used in a jjamp. It is not unlike 
one tlescril)0(l ami ligured by Doctor Russell.' Of the use of such 
stones he is doubtful, but says: 

A few riii^s of porous lava have been found about the ruins which have been 
called " head rings" because of their resembhuice to the ordinary head rings of cloth 
or bark in common use among the Pimas. . . . However, as most of them are too 
.«imall and the material is extremely unsuited for such a purpose, it is much more proba- 
ble that they were employed in some game with which the present race is unacquainted. 

Medicine stones. — The Arizona Indians, especially the Hopi, make 
use of a variety of stones in tlieir medicine ceremonies; these differ 
in shape, color, and degree of liardness, properties considered im- 
portant by the priests. To this category belong rock crystals, botry- 
oidal stones employed in treating disease or by sun priests in rain 
ceremonies. Any strangely formed stone, as agatized wood, a fossil 
or concretion, a fi-agment of lava, was regarded, no doubt, by the 

priests of Casa Grande as efficacious in 
sacred rites. 

Crystals of quartz (pi. 67, a) are prized 
by many of the Southwestern tribes for 
medicinal purposes. These cr3'stals are 
found in several ruins in northern Ari- 
zona, where the}' had, no doubt, the same 
significance. Numerous cjuartz crystals 
were found at Casa Grande. It is 
known from legends of the Pima as well 
as from Pueblo tratlitions that such 
crystals were employed hi the ])ractice 
of medicine; specimens have been found in fetLsh bags of the dead. 
Pigments. — From their constant use in ceremonial proceedings, 
stones and minerals suitable for pigments are highly prized by all 
Indians. The same pigments were employed by the natives of Casa 
Grande as by the northern Pueblos. The most common of these 
appear to have been various oxides of iron, carbonates of copper, 
black shale, and gypsum. These were prepared hy grinding, in 
much the same waj' as the Pueblos prepare tlieir jtaint materials. 
A medicine outfit containing several different pigments was found 
with what is herein descrilted as a priest's skeleton, in a room in the 
northwest corner of Compound A. 

Arrow-Tieads and spear-points. — The author has seen a considerable 
collection of fine arrow-lieads jiicked up at Casa Grande. These 
objects differ in no respect from other arrow-heads found throughout 
the Southwest. Most of them were gathered from the surface of the 
ground and may have been dropped by those who built the Casa 
Grande compounds or by other people. 




Fig. 32. Perforated stone disk used In 
game. 



' Twentysizth Ann. Rep. But. Amer. Elhnol, p. 181. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 67 





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(Xo. 252168) 
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MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTS 






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MINOR ANTIQUITIES 



131 



Miscellaneous utones. — Several fragments of obsidian and a few 
flint flakes, water-worn pebbles, squared pieces of lava of unknown 
use, baking stones, an object shaped like a whetstone, and various non- 
descript objects (pi. 67, h, d) are contained in tlie collection. A single 
specimen of knife or projectile point (fig. 33) was found in the ruins. 
Many specimens of fossil wood were taken from one of the shrines, 
and concretions were uncovered from various places in the compounds. 
Among other problematic specimens are elongate or cubical objects 
of coarse sandstone, a hemispherical object of pumice, and a small 
pointed stone used perhaps as a drill. 

Fragments of artificially worked mica, asbestos, galena, and chal- 
cedonj' are also in the collection fromCasa Grande. Like the ancient 
people who inhabited the northern pueblos, those of the south prized 
petrified wood, obsidian, any stone of grotesque shape, fossils, and 
water-worn pebbles. Many of these specimens must have been 
brought a considerable distance, as they are different from stones 
found in the immediate vicinity. 

Disls and halls. — Stone disks (pis. 68 ; 69, (?) and balls (pi. 69, a, c, and 
fig. 34) of various sizes were found in consider- 
able numbers. These were artificially worked 
and are supposed to have belonged to gammg 
paraphernalia, but they may have been used as 
weapons. In the latter case, it maybesupposed 
they were fastened to handles with thongs of 
skin. These balls should not be confounded 
with the small smooth pebbles used for polish- 
ing pottery or with ceremonial stones used in 
making medicine. There are several stones 
similar to those used in the Hopi foot race, 
"kicking the stone," in the collection. 

Beads and pendants. — Several stone beads 
and pendants (figs. 35-38) of various sizes and 
shapes are contained in the collection. Some are spherical, many 
are perforatefl cylinders, while others consist of fragments of tur- 
quoise perforated for use as ear or neck ornaments. 

A piece of carved red jasper (fig. 37), eyadently an ornament, may 
be appropriately mentioned m this place. Fragments of mica were 
probably used for a similar purpose. Little squares of turquoise 
show evidences of having once been portions of mosaic, like the mosaic 
frog from Chaves Pass, figured elsewhere.' Fig. 38 is a tooth-shaped 
stone ornament. 

Shovels and hoes. — There is a number of flat implements of slate 
(pis. 70, 71), sharp on one edge and blunt on the opposite, identified 




Fig. 3:!. Knife or projectile 
point. 



1 Twenty-second Ann. Rep. But. Amer. Ethnol., pi. XLiv. 



132 



CASA (iHANDE, AKIZONA 



[DTII. ANN. 28 



as shovels and hoes. Some were probably attached to handles (fig. 39), 
or even held directly in the hand. One or more of tliese are shaped 
like spades, an extension on one side serving for attachment of a 
hantilc; others are elongate, circular, or semicirculsir. 

Slate a])pears to iiave been the material most commonly emjjloyed 
in the manufacture of these implements, obsitlian being better 
adapted for cutting tools. 





Fig. 34. Stone balls. 



Several hoe-like implements, especially those without indication of 
attachment, are chipped along the sharp edge, the opposite edge be- 
ing thicker and smooth. These (pi. 71) are more like scrapers than 
shovels, and may have been used in dressing skins. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 72 




MORTUARY URN (N(i. 254605) 




(No. i54l'.13 



(No. 254615) 



SCOOPS 




(X... -5 
TRIPOD DISH 



iN". --"1 1626 I 
BIRD-SHAPED VASE 
POTTERY 



I No, 2'>I(V_"-1 
SPOOL-SHAPED OBJECT 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 73 



■■ 


^^^^ 


I^H 


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CUP BEARING GEOMETRIC ORNAMENTATION ( Nn. -'iJlilt'O 




FOOD-BASIN 



FOOD-BOWL iXo. -iSJlUS) 




MEDICINE-BOWL (No. 2516S1) 
POTTERY 



FIWKSS] 



MINOR ANTIQUITIES 



133 



POTTERY 

Pottery objects of almost every form known among Pueblos, 
inehuling food basins or bowls (pi. 73), vases, ollas, ladles, spoons, 
anil cups, are found in Gila Valley ruins. The Casa Grande pottery 
resembles that found in the other ruins of this region. Unfortunately 
it consists for the greater part of fragments, only a few pieces being 




Fig. 37 



Fig. 35. Stone bead. 



Fig. 36. Stone ornament. 



Ornament of 
jasper. 



entire when found. Some of the more fragile VjowIs show signs 
of repair, an indication that cracked vessels were not immediately 
discarded. 

Specialized Forms 

Spoolr-sTiaped object. — This specimen (pi. 72) is different from any 
other in the collection; the use to whicli it was ])ut is not known. 

Medicine-howl. — This bowl, illustrated in plate 73, is cylindrical 
except for the slightly flaring rim. In the middle of the upper sur- 
face is a circular depression, between the raised rim of which and the 
outer margin of the lip the surface is concave. Any decoration this 
surface may once have borne has become obliterated. 
The ornamentation of the sides, now more or less 
obscure, consists of a series of vertical parallel lines 
alternating with crooks, or terraces, as shown in the 
illustration. The rim of tliis bowl is broken in places, 
a result no doubt of hard usage since it was dis- 
carded. One form of these bowls resembles a pot- 
tery rest, the depression consisting merely of a 
shallow concavity in the surface. Several examples 
of these vessels, made of undecorated ware, were found (see spool- 
shaped object, pi. 72). 

Spoon-shaped scoops. — Several pieces of pottery liave the form of 
scoops (pi. 72) ; the handles are formed by prolongation of the rim. 

Dishes. — There are several small shallow dishes (pi. 72 and fig. 40), 
undecorated, each mounted on three stumpy legs. 

Water jar. — In a corner of a room in Compound A, directly under 
the old stage road from Casa Grande to Florence, was found a very 
large jar, or olla. Hundreds of people have driven over the spot 
beneath which this jar was buried. The object was left in place, 
being too large to move without breaking. 




Fig. 38. Tooth-shaped 
pendant of stone. 



134 



CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA 



[BTH. ANN. 28 



Mortuary urn — The specimen here illustrated (pi. 72) is of tyjncal 
form. A stone disk luted in place with adohe served as a cover. 

In addition to those above mentioned there are various earthenware 
objects in the collection. Among these is a vessel with slanting sides, 
a Hat bottom, and a hooked handle. Another spechnen (pi. 73) is a 
cup provided with a handle looped on one side. This cup bears 
geometric ornamentation in the form of triangular designs in red. 

Most of the vessels when found were 
empty. One contamed a number of shells, 
however, while in a few were fragments 
of paints of various colors. 

The presence in the collection of several 
fragments of pottery afi'ords evidence that 
relief figures and effigy vases were not rare 
at Casa Grande. One of the best of these 
is a fragment (fig. 41) from a bowl on which 
a face is painted ; it resembles a bird's head, 
with the beak in relief. The specimen as 
restored by a Pima potter is shown in 
figure 42. 

Bird vase. — A vase (pi. 72) having the 
form of a bird, with rudimentary wings 
and broken tail represented m relief, sug- 
gests sunilar pottery from the Little 
Colorado ruins and vases from Sikyatki, 
elsewhere figured. Its small size would 
seem to indicate that it served as a recep- 
tacle for salt, sacred meal, or other sub- 
stance. This is the only receptacle of this 
form that was found iii the coui-se of the 
excavations at Casa Grande, but similar 
vessels are reported from several other 
ruins in the Gila region. In this vase only 
the rudiments of the wings appear as low ridges on the opposite sides, 
the avian form being greatly conventionalized. There is no sign of 
pauit on the surface, but it is probable that the \vuags at least were 
once decorated with paraUel Imes, as is customary in bird effigy vases 
from the Little Colorado.' 

Images of animals. — One or two small clay effigies of animals 
(pi. 67, c) were found at Casa Grande. These are rudely made, 
their forms not being sufficiently well modeled to admit of identi- 
fication. 




Flu. 3'.). Shovel Willi hanille. 



1 See S2d Ann. Rep. But. Amcr. ElhnoL. p. 68. 



FEWKBS] 



MINOR ANTIQUITIES 



135 




Fig. 40. Three-legged earthenware dish. 



It seems to have been a universal custom among the people of the 
Gila compounds, as among those elsewhere in the Southwest, to make 
animal images for 
sacred or secular 
use. These objects 
may have served 
at times as play- 
tliings but often 
may have had a 
ceremonial use, for 
it is probable that 
they were manu- 
factured to deposit 
in shrines, thus 
serving as prayers 
for the increase of 
the animals they represent, just as a few years ago (possibly to-day 
also) the Hoj)i deposited in the corner of their sheep corrals clay imi- 
tations of sheep and in certain shrines wooden eagle eggs.' These 
efligies may be classed as pi-ayer objects, to the use of wliich in Hopi 

ceremonies attention has been drawaa else- 
wliere. 

The prayer objects are not regarded as 
symbolic representations of sacrificial offer- 
ings (as similar figurines are interpreted by 
some authors), but as material representa- 
tions of animals desired. The sheep efligy 
of the modern Hopi is not a sacrifice to the 
god of growth, but a prayer symbol employed 
to secure increase of flocks. The painted 
eagle egg has a corresponding significance. 

Pil}e or cloud-Uower. — TheCasa Grantle peo- 
ple used in smoking perforated tubes of clay or 
The cane cigarette also was commonly used, 
as showTi by rejected canes found in great abundance in some of the 
rooms of Compound A. A large number of these canes are found 
also in shrines or other sacred places of the Hohokam, where they 
were placeil by the ancients. - 

A broken pipe made of clay was excavated at Casa Grande and 
another was found on the ground. The former object has a slight 
enlargement of the perforation at one end. Although much of the 
stem is missing, there is no doubt that this pipe belongs to the type 

' Many clay figurines of quadrupeds have been taken from ruins on the Salt River. 

' The ends of these canes are invariably burnt, as if after use. The canes were deposited in shrines, fol- 
lowing the custom which still holds in the New Fire and other ceremonies at Walpi. The a.shes made by 
sacred fire and those from the sacred pipe are not thrown to the winds, but are placed in appropriate 
shrines. 




Fig. 41. Pottery fragment bear- 
ing bird's head. 

stone resembling pipes. 



136 



CASA (JKANDE, AKIZONA 



[ETH. ANN. 28 



called the straight-tiibo viiriety, whioli is considered by tlie best 
authorities to be the prehistoiic form in the Soutiuvest. 

It has been suggested that the fragnaent of stone shown in plate 
61, containing a cavity worketl in the side, is an unfinished pipe, but 
it is so slightly shaped that its final function can not bo definitely 
determined. 

Spindle whorls. — The spindle whorls from Casa Grande resemble 
those of Mexico. This form of spinning whorl has never been 
recorded north of the Mogollon Mountains or on the Colorado 
Plateau, but is found southward from the Gila into Central America. 




Fig. 42. Bowl bearing bird's head daoration (restored). 

Many of the specimens are very much worn on the edges and one is 
exceptional in being grooved on the rim (fig. 43). 

Perforated disl's. — In atldition to the spindle whorls above de- 
scribed wcFe found many perforated pottery disks, some of which 
bear ornamental designs. The character of the decoration on some 
of these shows that they are simply fragments of pottery cut into 
disk form, while in others the disks were evidently ornamented after 
they were made. Small pointed rods associated with these whorls 
are also represented in the collection. Among the finest of the per- 
forated disks are those made of slate. Several clay disks have no 
central perforation, a fact which leails the writer to ascribe to them 
uses other than those connected with the perforated variety. 

Shhs. — The writer is unable to explain the purpose of several 
fragments of clay slabs (pi. 74 and fig. 44), some bordered by a 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 74 




(Xn. -.-.1627) 
FRAGMENT OF FLOOR, SHOWING IMPRESSION OF REEDS 




(No. 252395) 
FRAGMENT OF SLAB, SHOWING IMPRESSION OF BASKETWARE 

CLAY OBJECTS 



FEWKES] 



MINOR ANTIQUITIES 



137 



low ii(l<;e and beaiiiifj basketwarc markings on the surface, made of 
course while the clay was soft. Others do not have the peripheral 
ridge and the rectangular surface markings. In no instance is there 
any trace of smoke or evidence that the slabs were used in cooking. 
The basketware imjM-cssions are not unlike tiiose observed on the 
floors of several rooms, especially the room designated O, east of 
Pyramid A in Com])ound B. 

Decoration of Casa Grande Pottery 

As a rule the decoration of Casa Grande pottery partakes of the 
sunplicity characteristic of ceramic ware found elsewhere in this 
region. We miss in it the pictorial clement, or representation of life 
forms, that is so marked a feature of the pottery of the Little Colorado 




Fig. 43. Spindle whorls. 

and of true Hopi or Tusayan (Sikyatki) M'are, rectilinear patterns 
predommating. It is almost impossible to distmguish some of the 
geometric designs on Casa Grande ware from decorations on pottery 
found in the cliff-dM-ellings of northern Arizona and southern Colo- 
rado. This is especially true of the graj'-and-black ware, which is 
one of the most ancient and widely distributed varieties in the South- 
west. The designs on the pottery from the Gila-Salt drainage have 
only a remote likeness to decorations on that from the Casas Grandes 
in Chihuahua, although the potter}' from ruins on the upper Santa 
Cruz, one of the tributaries of the Gila, resembles well-known Mexican 
forms. As a whole, however, the ornamentation of the pottery from 
Casa Grande may be classed as Mexican rather than Southwestern 
notwithstanding many pieces show northern characteristics. 

While a characteristic polyclirome ware is the most abundant 
at Casa Grande, there are found Hkewise vases of black-and-white ' 

1 The potters of Casa drande had made the important discovery, universal among cliff-dwellers and 
common in many pueblos, that a smooth surface can be secured by covering a rough pot with a white slip, 
producing what, after decoration, is commonly called black-and-white ware. 



138 



CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA 



[ETII. ANN. 28 



and of rcd-and-brown ware; also several food-bowls decorated in 
white-anil-black, or bcarino; red-and-brown patterns. Most of the 
pieces are of red ware, nndecoratcd. Several scooj)s are rod, lined 
with black, resembling pottery from the Little Colorado niins. 
There is likewise a gray ware decorated with black or brown pig- 
ment ajiparently somewhat changed by long burial. Coiled ware 
is not as common at Casa Grande as in the cliff-dwellings, but rough, 
unpolished ware is often found. 

Many of the geometric figures used in the decoration of Gila pottery 

are found also on 
the pottery of 
other regions in 
the Southwest ; the 
writer has yet to 
find any such fig- 
ures peculiar to 
G a s a G r a n d e . 
There are several 
designs from the 
Pueblo region 
w h i c h a re not 
found in the Gila 
area. This is in- 
terpreted to mean 
that culture of the 
Gila area affected 
that of the Pueblo 
region, but was not 
affected by it. 

The decoration 
consists mainly of 
terraced and zig- 
zag figures, but 
broken spirals are also represented. The so-called "line of life," or 
broken encircling line, occurs on several fragments. 

As mentioned, stepped, or terraced, figures are found on specimens 
from the Casa Grande region, but are not as numerous as on that 
of true pueblo ruins of the San Juan drainage. Comparatively few 
figures are frmged with rows of dots, but short parallel lines are not 
uncommon. 

One of the characteristic decorations of potterv found in the ruins 
along the Gila and its tributaries is the triangle having two or more 
parallel lines extending from one angle, which form generally a contin- 
uation of one side. (Figs. 45, 46.) This design is common also to 
pottery from the ruins of dwellings along the Little Colorado, most of 




Fig. 44. Fragment of burnt clay having lines incised in surface. 



FEWKES] 



MINOR ANTIQUITIES 



139 



which were once inlialiited hy clans from the northern tributaries of 
the Gihi and the Salt, but is found only sparingly in the northern 
Arizona ruins and those of New Mexico and Colorado. Among the 
Hopi ruins no example of this ornament was found at Sikyatki and 
but one or two at Awatobi.' 

The triangle design above described is not commonly found on 
the Mesa \'erde pottery and is rare in the Rio Grande region. In 
the opinion of the writer this may be safely regarded as one of the 
symbols (figs. 45, 46, 47) of prehistoric pottery derived from southern 
Arizona; it has been identified as head feathers of the cjuail, and is 
found not only on pottery but also on other objects. The outside wall 




Fig. 4.5. Earthenware bowl decorated with triangle pattern. 

of the sarcophagus discovered in Clan-house 1 is decorated with a series 

of these triangles having quail-feather decorations in red pigment. 

The use of the swastika ^ in the decoration of prehistoric pottery 

is so rare that mention of a single specimen from Casa Grande is 

1 Sikyatki pottery shows no signs of Little Colorado influence, a tact which is in harmony with tribal 
legends, but former contact with culture of the south is evident in Awatobi ceramics, as would lieexpected. 
The Plba (Tobacco) clan, that once lived atChevlon ruin, may have brought from the Little Colorado the 
triangle design above described. In the Keam collection there are one or two pieces of pottery with this 
decoration, but their provenance is indefinite — either Canyon de Chelly or Tusayan, two distinct ceramic 
areas. 

' This design, now so freely used in the decoration of Navaho blankets, silverware, and other objects, 
has been foimd on pottery from mins on the Little Colorado, and variant forms occur at Sikyatki, but it 
seldom appears on cliff-house pottery. The old Ilopi priests do not give a cosmic interpretation to the 
swastika, nor do they identify it as a "good luck" symbol. Some of the Pima suggest tliat it represents 
the four claws of the eagle. 



140 



CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA 



[ETH. ANN. 28 



imi)ortant. Amoiijj all th(> Indians of the Southwest none surpass 
the Pinui in the number antl variety of the examples of this symbol, 
which is especially elaborate on their basketry. It is used on their 
pottery also, particularly on specimens made by the Kwahadt 
(Quahatika), near Quijotoac' 

The single example on their jiottery and one or two examples on 
fragments of basketry show that the swastika was not unknown 
to the Casa Grande people. 

One looks in vain on Casa Grande pottery for representations of 
the feather symbol of Sikyatki, or the "sky band" with dependent 
bird forms highly conventionalized, symbols so common on prehis- 
toric Hopi earthenware. Likewise absent are the fine geometric fig- 
ures so well represented in the ceramics of ancient Ilopiland. Wliile 
there is a likeness between the pottery of the Gila drainage and that 
of the Little Colorado and the Colorado Plateau, there is only the 




Fig. 46. Triangle design decorating bowl (see fig. 43). 



most distant resemblance of the life figures of the pottery first 
named and that of the San Juan and Rio Grande areas .^ 

The relative predominance of geometric figures in Casa Grande 
ceramic decorations alUes the ware to that of the San Juan and Rio 
Grande drainage rather than to the pottery of the ancient Hopi and 
Little Colorado. In the old Ilopi ware life forms predominate over 
geometric figures, as may be reailily seen by an examination of the 

1 A comparison of modern Pima pottery witii ancient Casa Grande ware does not reveal a very close 
resemblance in symbolism, but the collection of the former is too small to ser\'e as a basis for extensive 
studies. Modern Pima ware is marlced by the presence of but few life fonns, while many geometric decora- 
tions (bands, straight and curved, and a number of other designs) are used. Terraced designs, so common 
on Pima pottery, are not utilized to any considerable extent on Gila ware. 

The Kwaliadt , a group of Indians related to the Pima, living south of Casa Grande, seem to have preserved 
to a greater extent than the Pima or the Papago the ancient potters' art, although the Pima are good potters. 
Kwahadt pottery has a fine luster, which is not found on the Casa Grande ware, and bears characteristic 
symboUc decorations. The designs on this pottery differ radically from the symbols on Pima i>ottery and 
basketry, and often suggest symbols on ancient vessels from Casa Grande, combined with features taken 
from other tribes. 

At the present day Sala (Sarah) Hina, of Kwahadt ancestry, is regarded as the most expert Pima potter. 
She spent considerable time at Casa Grande while the excavations were in progress and copied many designs 
from the ancient ware. 

2 Although we might predict that the pottery of the Verde and Tonto Basins closely resembles that 
of the Gila, no assertion as to the resemblance can yet be made, as there are no collections of pottery 
from these river valleys. 



FKWKES] 



MINOR ANTIQUITIES 



141 



beautiful bowls and vases from Sikj-atki, Awatobi, and Shongopovi. 
Life motives predominate also in pottery from the Little Colorado 
re<rion, but they are rare in cliff-dwellers' pottery, where the propor- 
tions are reversetl.' 

There is every reason to believe that all the Casa Grande pottery 
and the decoration connected therewith are tlie work of women, 
and tlie imlustry still sur^avcs in feminme hands among both Pueblos 
and Pima. In a pueblo such as Sikyatki, where symbolism in pre- 
historic times reached highest development in the Southwest, we find 
a great predominance of bird designs, but in the Casa Grande pot- 
tery there are only one or two such patterns. 

A number of the more striking specimens of pottery from the 
Pueblo Viejo Valley are figured in color elsewhere. - Stray specimens 
of Gila Valle}^ ware are found 
in tlie luins along the Little 
Colorado, where, however, it is 
not indigenous. Many frag- 
ments, most of which bear geo- 
metric designs, were brought 
to light at Casa Grande, but no 
life forms with exception of a 
bii'd's head in relief on a smaU 
fragment (fig. 41). 

The designs on the Pueblo 
and other Southwestern pot- 
tery, ancient antl modern, are 
decidedly idealistic rather than 
reahstic. The hfe forms rarely 
represent real animals but 
rather those which the native potters conceived of as existing. The 
varied pictures of hving beings wliich, as alreadj^ stated, constitute 
so important a feature in the decoration of Sikyatki potterj', were 
not copied from nature but are highly conventionahzed.^ 

Although some of the common symbols, as tlie rain cloud, which 
can be recognized without difficulty among the Pueblos, have not 
yet been traced among Casa Grande tlecorations, it may be that 
water symbols of another kintl were regarded as more important. 
The fields of the Casa Grande farmers were watered b}' irrigation, and 

iln modem Pueblo pottery life fonns play a conspicuous r61e, as may he seen -by examination of 
modem Keres or Tewa ware. 

2 In Wd Ann. Rep. Bur. Amir. Elhnol. 

' The sjTnbols on Sikyatki ceramic objects were imdoubtedly made by women and it is probable that 
they understood their significance. These sjTiibols afford a good idea of woman's prehistoric art in one 
locality of our Southwest and show that it is conventional in the highest degree and largely mythologic, 
two features that characterize the art products of other Pueblos. 




Fig. 47. Design dec'Orat ing vase. 



142 CASA GRANDE, AEIZONA [ktii. ANN. 28 

allliougli rain ceremonies were no doubt common, the river cult may 
have been more prominent. There are reasons to believe that the 
phnned serpent was to tliom syml)olic of the Gila and it is possible 
that zigzag figures employed m decoratmg their pottery have refer- 
ence to this animal.' 

BEAMS AND RAFTERS 

The roof of a section (room H) of the Northeast Building having 
fallen in almost entire, the writer was enabled to ascertain the man- 
ner in which roofs and floors were constructed. The construction of 
the former seems to have been not unlike that of Pueblo houses. 
On the rafters, transversely, were placed cedar poles over which were 
laid sticks supporting clay firmly stamped down. Several fragments 
of adobe from roofs and floors, showing impressions of logs, branches, 
and reeds, are in the collection brought back to Washington. Many 
of the poles and rafters in tins building show the effects of fire, being 
superficially charred or, in some cases, converted completely into 
charcoal. 

Wliile the roof was supported for the greater part by beams laid 
from wall to wall, it was strengtliened by perpendicular logs set in 
the floors of the rooms. The holes in which these supports were 
placed were found to be filled with decayed remnants of the logs. 
Some of these logs must have been dragged from the forests on tlis- 
tant hills. 

CANE CIGARETTES 

Along the Gila River in prehistoric times and long after the dis- 
covery of Casa Grande there grew great quantities of a species of 
reed out of which the ancient Gilenos made cigarettes, by filling 
short sections, generally between nodes, with tobacco. Some of 
these sections are found wrapped with fragments of cotton and in 
most instances they are cliarred. It would appear that when these 
cigarettes were used, the smoke was blown through them. An unus- 
ually large number of these canes was found in one of the six cere- 
monial rooms that extend from the northeast corner of Casa Grande 
to the north wall of Compound A. Cigarettes were uneartlied also 
in rooms of Compound A, but not in Compounds B, C, and D. They 
are found also in shrines, in the hills north of Casa Grande, not far 
from Superstition Mountains. They may be considered sacrificial 

1 The nopi cult of the plumed serpent Is said lo have been derived from Palatkwabi, the land of the 
giant cactus. The writer has seen vases from Casiis Grandes in Chihuahua on which arc tlepicled 
serpents bearing horns and feathers on their heads, iike those introduced into Walpi by the Patki clans 
of the HopL 




CO 

z 
> 

< 

a 



UJ 

I 

CO 



3.5. 



S'3 



s « 



FEWKEs] MINOR ANTIQUITIES 143 

objects, deposited because they had been used for ceremonial pur- 
poses. Tliis form of cei'emonial cigarette has been discovered in 
some of the ruins aloho; tlic Little Colorado and is still used among 
the Ilopi in kiva exercises, although now almost wholly superseded 
by cigarettes wrajiped in cornhusk. 

A small dish containing native tobacco (Nicotiana attenuta) was 
fountl in one of the rooms. 

SHELL OBJECTS 

From the number and variety of marine shells found in the exca- 
vations at Casa Grande it is evident that the ancient inhabitants 
prized these objects and either obtained them directly from the sea- 
shore, or carried on an extensive trade in them w^th other tribes. 
All the genera of marine shells found are indigenous to the Pacific 
Ocean or the Gulf of California; there is not a single specimen that 
can be traced to the Gulf of Mexico. These shells in prehistoric 
times must have been widely distributed, for they are found through- 
out Arizona and New Mexico and far into Chihuahua. We find the 
shells both entire and cut into various ornamental forms, in imitation 
of birds, reptiles, frogs, and other animals, the specimens in the last- 
named group presenting fine examjiles of art in shell. 

The esteem in which shells were held is explained in part by their 
supposed magic power to bring rain, wliile the great brilliancy of the 
pearly layer of certain genera, as the abalone, or ear shell* (Haliotis), 
made them especially attractive ornaments. 

The most common gcmus of mollusk found at Casa Grande is Peo- 
ianculus, the Pacific ('oast clam, which was cut into a variety of orna- 
ments, among which may be mentioned wi'istlets, armlets, carved 
frogs, and ear pendants. The largest s]iecimens of Pectunculus were 
always chosen for armlets, the smaller being made into wristlets. 
Armlets were prepared by grinding down the convex surface, leaving 
a rim about the knob, which was perforated. As many as seven of 
these armlets were found on the humerus of a single skeleton exliumed 
from a mound near Compound B. Some armlets and bracelets (see 
fig. 48) are ornamented exteriorly with incised lines into which 
were rubbed colored paints, as red and yellow. The surface of one 
of the most beautiful specimens of incised finger rings was thus dec- 
orated with red figures representing rain clouds and lightning. This 
specimen (pi. 75, a) is large enough for the middle finger of an adult; 
it was found, together with bones of a human hand, in a grave. (See 
also fig. 49.) 

' Specimens of this shfU were found t-iitin; and in fragments; some of the latter weiQ cut into orna- 
ments and perforated. 



144 



CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA 



[ETH. ANN. 28 





Fig. 48. Bracelet of Pectunculus shell. 




Several sj^ocimons of Pectunculus were perforated in the mirldio, 
but were not suilicientl_y ground down to make bracelets or armlets. 
These, which were found near the base of a human skull, may have 
been parts of necklaces or of strings of shells worn about the neck, 

resembhng those which have 
been described from ruins in 
northern Arizona. 

An artistic example of .shell 
carving found at Casa Grande 
represents a frog cut out of a 
Pectunculus. In this specimen 
(pi. 75, h), which is one of the 
best shell carvings known to 
the author, from the South- 
west, the legs, head, and body 
are in relief, the eyes especially 
being artistically made. (See 
also fig. 50.) 
One specimen (pi. 75, c) of these shells explains 
how the frogs were made. The legs and arms are 
indicated by scratches on one side, the backbone of 
the animal also being marked out by scratches on 
the surface of the shell. These markings were fol- 
lowed in cutting out the parts of the body. 

Several perforated Pectunculus shells (pi. 75, d) 
similar to those found in Little 
Colorado ruins were brought to light at Casa 
Grande. 

A single shell fragment, bearing on the back 
remains of rows of turquoises, was also found at 
Casa Grande. Although it woukl appear from 
several broken specimens that turquoise mosaics 
representing animals were not uncommon in the 
Gila-Salt region, it is doubtful whether these re- 
markable objects were manufactured in Ai-izona.' 
Among the more numerous marine shells which were found in 
Compound B of the Casa Grande Group of ruins are many large 
conchs, the points of the spires of nearly all of which were ground off 
and perforated as if for trumpets. Judging from known ceremonies 
of the Ilopi, it is highly jirobable that these trumpets were used in 
dramatic celebrations in which elligies of the great serpent were intro- 
duced, the priest using the instruments to imitate the supposed roar 
of this animal. More than a dozen complete specimens, and many 

> The turquoise frog found in the ruins at Chaves Pass is figured in S3d Ann. Kep. Bur. A met. Elhnol., 
pi. XLTV. 



Fig. -19. Shell finger 
ring (Conus) deco- 
rated with incised 
design. 




Fig. 50. Shell frog. 



FEWKKS] MINOR ANTIQUITIES 145 

fragments of conch shell that may have been parts of trumpets, were 
foinul in the course of the excavations at Casa Grande, the greater 
number being obtained on the west side of Compound B. All these 
shells came originally from the Pacific coast. 

In addition to the worked shell objects mentioned above, there 
were found a few fragments carved to represent various animals, 
among them lizards, birds, serpents, rabbits, and certain creatures 
the itlentification uf which is impossible. Similar small shell carv- 
ings exist in all collections from the Gila ruins and are classified as 
fetishes. These small carvings, which give evidence of considerable 
artistic skill, were apparently personal amulets. Several had evi- 
dently been worn, many being perforated as if formerly suspended 
about the neck or fastened to the ears or to some other part of 
the Ijody. These were picked up on the surface, apparently having 
been washed out of the ground by rains. The number found was 
com])arativcly small. 

Other shell fragments and shell objects vary from small perfor- 
ated disks to spherical or oval beads or small flakes. No cord was 
found by which these beads were strung together. 

Shells of the genus Conus (pi. 75, e) were cut into tinklers, which 
were either attached to sticks, forming rattles, or to the edges of 
kiltlike fabrics or garments. Those objects were made by cutting 
off one end of the shell, generally the pointed extremity; in some 
cases the whole spire was removed and the pointed end perforated, 
the shell thus becoming a conical bell open at the side. The tin- 
kling was produced by rattling several of these attached shells 
against one another.' 

It was suggested by one of the old Pima that the lip of the Peden 
shell was used in making zigzag or other designs on the cheeks, which 
had previously been covered with pigment. The shell, he explained, 
was drawn down the cheek, its lip being pressed against the skin. 
Nearly all the Pima formerly painted their faces for ornamentation 
or for protection against the rays of the sun. 

BONE IMPLEMENTS 

A comparatively small number of bone objects was found, most 
of them very good specimens. One of the best was taken from 
the collar bone of an adult, having been placed on the shoulder with 
the point toward the heart. "Wliile most of the bone implements 
are needles, awls, and pins, tliis object has been identified as a dirk. 

I Rattles of this kind are abundant in ruins north of the rim of the Mogollones and are still used by 
the Hopi and other Pueblos. We sometimes find shells replaced by tinklers made of metal, the best 
known examples of which arc those on the margin of the kilts of the Snake priests at Walpi. 

20903°— 28 ETH— 12 10 



146 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA Feth. ann. 28 

A tube mado of a turkey hone perforated about midway in its length 
was doubtless used as a whistle. It is similar to objects useil by the 
Hopi in some of their ceremonies, to imitate bird calls. Several arti- 
ficiall}' pointed bones are charred at the end. 

Among the bones recognized are those of the antelope, turkey, 
rabbit, and bear. Bird bones are the most common, but the speci- 
mens have been workeil to so great an extent as to make identifica- 
tion impossible. Most of them are simply pointed, rarely decorated, 
but some are perforated for use as beads or needles. 

WOODEN IMPLEMENTS 

Although there were few trees suitable for building purposes in the 
immediate neighborhood of Casa Grande, in the distant liills were 
trees of sufficient size to yield good boards. In rooms which have 
been excavated are found long beams of considerable size and flat 
boards the surfaces of some of wliich are as smooth as if they had 
been planed. Some of these beams may have been hauled to Casa 
Grande from localities at least 5 miles or even farther away; they 
are squared and their surfaces bear evidence of having been worked. 
They were extensively used to support roofs and floors and in some 
of the smaller buildings as studding for the walls. In the latter case 
they held in place withes or osiers upon wliich was laid the plaster. 
The trees most commonly used for tliis purpose were the pine and 
cedar. 

Ironwood, which is very hard and extremely difficult to cut, was 
shaped into planting sticks for cultivating the soil. These (pi. 76) 
are saber-shaped, being long and thin-bladed ; most of them are pro- 
vided with a short handle at one end, wliile the curved rim is 
sharpened. In one of the rooms of Compound A* was a pile of five 
of these objects- averaging 4 to 5 feet in length, that had evidently 
been deposited there when the place was deserted. Dibbles and 
planting sticks were found also in excavations, especially in the 
mound south of Compound B. 

Several very good specimens of paddles (pi. 77) of ironwood, of 
practically the same shape as modern Pima pottery paddles, were 
unearthed at Casa Grande; these vary in form, some being knife- 
shaped, others spatulate. They were evidently used in the manu- 
facture of pottery, for finishing the outer surface of the vessel. As 

1 See ground plan of room 1, near northeast plaza (pi. 6). 

2 There was some difEerenee of opinion among Pima workmen and others regarding the use of these imple- 
ments, but the statement of the older men that in their youth they had seen similar objects used as shovels 
is accepted as the most probable explanation. Another theory, that they were implements used in war, 
after the manner of broadswords, is rejected on account of the exceptional character of such weapons 
among the Southwestern tribes. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 76 




(Nos. 2o'2134-2.=i'2138) 
WOODEN SHOVELS OR SPADES 




_] 
Q 
Q 
< 



U 

a 
o 
o 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 78 




(No. 2S2r39) 
WOODEN STAMP 







<'XV / 







BALL USED IN KICKING GAME 

MODERN OBJECTS FOUND ON SURFACE 



FEWKEs] MINOR ANTIQUITIES 147 

there is no evidence whatever tliat the ancients of Casa Grande had 
knowledge of the potter's wheel, paiklles of this kind were necessary. 
Smootliing was hkewise accomplished by means of stones, after the 
clay had dried, in the same way that the fuie glossy surface is often 
imparteil to earthenware by modern Pima potters. 

Among other wooden objects are small pointed sticks of ironwood, 
a few inches long, which served probably for needles, possibly for 
weaATng. Decayed fragments of a prayer-stick painted green also 
came to light; this was used possibly in prehistoric ceremonies. 

The two objects showai in plate 78 were found on the surface and 
are motleni. The ball was used possibly in the ball game, which is 
still played at times by the Pima. 

BASKETRY 

The women of Casa Grande were skillful basket makers. Jilany 
fragments and several small whole pieces of their work have been 
found in the excavations in the houses. The specimens of Casa 
Grande baskets obtained are of two kinds, one of which is loosely 
woven of ^\'illow twigs, flat in form, more like a Hopi plaque than an 
ordinary basket. While varying in size, most of these baskets are 
quite large, the remains of one indicating so great a capacity that it 
might have been used as a bin for the storage of corn or other grain 
in much the same way that a similar granary is used by the modern 
Pima. The other type of flat basket belongs to the coiled variety, 
being made from the fiber of raffia wound over bunches of the same 
material. Most of these baskets are small and bear evidences of 
ornamentation, the strands of which they are composed being vari- 
ously colored. One specimen of this type was found covered with 
a thin deposit, possibly pitch, as if to render it serviceable as a water 
jar. Similar waterproof baskets are not uncommon among the 
Apache and other Indians of northern Arizona. 

A large fragment of coarse matting was unearthed in one of the 
rooms; this is evidently part of a mat that was used in much the 
same way as the ancient Pima used their sleeping mats. Impressions 
of one of these mats were seen iipon the adobe floor of one of the 
rooms of Compound B, elsewhere mentioned (p. 99). These mats 
were made of a rush which, according to historians, formerly grew 
abundantly along the banks of the Gila and Salt Rivers, but which 
in late years has become rare in the vicinity of Casa Grande. 

FABRICS 

From the number of fragments of cloth excavated at Casa Grande 
there is little doubt that the preliistoric inhabitants of this settlement 




148 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [bth. ann. 28 

wore fainiliar with native cotton and had also fabrics made of other 
vegetable libers." They likewise wove the hair of certain animals 
into articles of wearing apparel. Of all varieties of fiber used in 
weaving the most abundant and most readily obtained was that of 
the agave, which grows luxuriantly everywhere in southern Arizona 
deserts. A combination of this fiber with that of cotton was com- 
mon, and the manufacture of feather garments was not unknown. 
A small skeleton found in one of the rooms was wrapped in a 
garment of this kind and in another room similar wrappings were 
found around a small bowl containing green pigment. There were 
unearthed also fragments of a belt decorated with rectangular and 

zigzag patterns, similar to designs on fabrics 
discovered among cliff-dwellings in northern 
Arizona ; one end of this belt was embroidered. 
Worthy of mention also is a lace-like fabric, 
a large piece of which was unearthed in the 
refuse that formerly almost filled one of the 

Fig. 51. Copper bells. . . f n r« 1 r» 

rooms just east or Casa brande. On ac- 
count of the great heat, thick clothing was not made by the people 
of this community. 

COPPER BELLS 

The inhabitants of Casa Grande appear to have been ignorant of all 
metals except float copper, a specimen of which was found in the 
excavations (pi. 67,/). Two copper bells (fig. 51) were picked up on 
the surface of the ground. These bells do not dift'er in shape or size 
fi'om those found in ruins along the Little Colorado and elsewhere in 
the Southwest and may have been obtained in trade from Mexico, 
•although there is no evidence that they were not made by the Casa 
Grande people. 

PICTOGRAPHS 

Casa Grande is situated in a plain and in the immediate neigh- 
borhood there are no outcroppings of rocks available for pictographs, 
although it is probable that certam pictures on rocks distant about a 
mile date back to the time when Casa Grande was inhabited. As 
a rule, these pictographs are pecked into the rock, paintings, if any, 
having been washed or worn away. The largest cluster of picto- 
graphs lies in the outcropping lava on the north side of the Gila, 
opposite the settlement of Pmia, called Blackwater. 

There are also many pictographs on the "pictured rocks" a few 
miles east of Florence, and still others in the Casa Grande Mountain 

• Many of the fragments of doth found were charred, and on that account some of the best specimens 
fell to pieces when handled. 



FEWKBS] 



MINOR ANTIQUITIES 



149 



Ranj^e west of the ruins. The pictographs near Sacaton are perhaps 
the best known in this section, ahhough those farther down the GiJa 
are more extensive. There is a general similarity in all these picture 
writings, some of which are regarded with reverence by modern 
Pima. 

The pictures impart but slight information respecting the life or 
customs of the prehistoric people who made them, being much the same 
as pictographs found elsewhere in the Southwest. Symbols that may 
be clan totems or even rude 
representations of mytho- . .^ 

logic beings are found in •'.• :-'.i';- ■.■'■'■ .■ 

the neighboring hills; these _ . ■■■ •;■•-:;■.■.?..•''>,•' ;:■.••■ 

may indicate camping places, 
shrines, or other sites, but 
beyond this we can offer no 
suggestion as to their mean- 
ing. They tell no connected 
story of the ancients. 

The walls of Casa Grande 
formerly bore names of many 
American visitors and a few 
markings that can be as- 
cribed to Indians. One of 
the best of these, shown in 
the accompanymg illustra- 
tion (fig. 52; see also pi. 40), is 
sometimes called tcuhuki, or " the house of Tcuhu." Its resemblance 
to a figure in an early Spanish narration has been commented on 
elsewhere.' Several pictographs found in the vicinity of Casa Grande 
are also shown in plate 40. 

In a speech in the House of Representatives (Mar. 2, 1865) Colo- 
nel Poston said: 




Incised pictograph of "the House of Tcuhu.' 



The oldest living trapper in Arizona, at this day, is old Pauline Weaver, from ^^'hite 
County, Tennessee. Ilis name is carved on the Casa Grande, near the Pima villages 
on the Gila River, under date 1832. 

Although not disposed to doubt that Weaver may have visited the 
ruin at that early date, the writer has not been able to find his name 
or the date on its walls. 



1 See American ^n/ftropoZoj/w/, N. s., IX, 512, 19<>7. The account previously quoted from the Rudo 
Ensayo is that here referred to. The tcuhuki was not a ruin, as the author understood the Pima, but a 
game in which the figiu-e mentioned was marlied out on the sand. This game, now about extinct, has becD' 
played within the memory of one of the writer's informants. 



150 CASA fiRANDE, ARIZONA [etii. ANN. 28 

SEEDS 

In inw of the rooms east of Casa Grande were found seeds of several 
kinds — corn, beans, and mesquite beans. The corn grains wore often 
encountered in masses, generally charred, some being so much burnt 
that they were recognizable only with difficulty. 

Some of these seeds were found in pottery vessels, many of which 
were in fragmentary condition; most of this pottery came to light in 
the rooms east of the main building of Compound A, wliich was 
evidently used as a dumping place long after the rooms were aban- 
donetl. The presence of many fragments of textiles, pottery, corn 
stalks and leaves, charcoal from sticks or beams, and ashes in quanti- 
ties suggested that possibly fires were once built here. 

RELATIOX OF COMPOUNDS TO PUEBLOS 

The architecture of the compounds of the Gila-Salt Basin is suffi- 
ciently characteristic to distinguish them from pueblos, making pos- 
sible the assumption that the sociology of the peoples was also 
chflferent. In compounds and pueblos we recognize buildings of at 
least two types, apparent^ devoted to two distinct purposes, secular 
and ceremonial. The homoiogue of the massive house with its sur- 
rounding wall is unknown among pueblos, and the I'iva of the latter 
is not represented architecturally in the Gila VaUe}^ ruins.' 

It is instructive to note that the ruins in the valley of the Little 
Colorado, where the influence of the Gila Valley culture was marked, 
contain no true kivas. Their ceremonial rooms were JciJius, morpho- 
logically different from, although functionally the same as, kivas. 
The Zuni Mmtse architecturally resembles a kihu rather than a kiva, 
and is i)robably a survivor of the ceremonial room of the Little Colo- 
rado ruins. Among the Hopi there are both kivas and kihus, the 
former traceable to northern and eastern influence. The reason kivas 
have not been found in the Little Colorado drainage is that there the 
ceremonial rooms were kihus, which are difficult to distinguish from 
other rooms in the house masses. 

It is hard to reach a definite conclusion regarding the relative ages 
of the Gila Valley compounds and the pueblos of northern Arizona, 
or to compare as to age the Arizona ruins with those of Now Mexico 
and Colorado. If we rely on traditions for that comparison, they 
teach, in the opinion of the writer, that both are older than the Little 
Colorado pueblos, to which group the Zuni ruins belong. 

> These two architectural fonas of Pueblo ceremonial rooms are so dilTerent that one can hardly have 
been derived from the other. They are analogous but not homologous, and their relations are dilEcult to 
.determine. 



FEWKEsl RELATION OF COMPOUNDS TO PUEBLOS 151 

Culturally, all northern' and central Arizona ruins, ancient and mod- 
ern, seem to show a dual composition, having connections on the one 
side with the Rio Grande pueblos and on the other with the habitations 
of the Gila Valley. Wliether the pueblos of Xew Mexico in the Rio 
Grande drainage were derived from the compounds of the Gila or 
vice versa, is an open question, but there seem to have been two foci 
of cultural distribution m the Southwest. 

Hopi traditions suppoi-t tlu* theory that the ruins in the Verde and 
Tonto Valleys were settled by offshoots from the "great house" 
builders of tlie Gila and Salt Valleys in prehistoric times, and that the 
ruins along the Little Colorado were peopled in part by clans from 
the same river valleys. There appears to be no way of ascertaining 
the sources or the relative age of the Rio Grande culture, whether 
derivative or autochthonous. - 

The geographic limits of the ruins called "compounds" appear to 
be the plains of the Gila-Salt Basin. Following up the tributaries of 
the GOa-Salt, these ruins give place to pueblos and clifT-houses, and 
even where there are extensive plains, as in the Little Colorado Basin, 
the construction of "great houses" likeCasa Grande does not appear 
to have been undertaken. The so-called Casas Grandes ruins in 
Chihuahua, however, belong to the same type as the compounds in 
the Gila-Salt Valley of Arizona, although larger and apparently more 
ancient. The environmental conditions of the deserts of southern 
Arizona and northern Mexico, like the ruuis, are quite similar. 

Although without Ivivas, the cliff-houses in the Sierra Madre of 
northwestern Mexico resemble in many features those of Arizona, 
Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah, and stand in somewhat the same 
relation to the casas grandes along the river of the same name as do 
the cUff-dwel lings near Roosevelt Dam to Casa Grande. This in- 
dicates the existence of a homogeneous culture, and shows that, 
where similar environmental conditions existed, the inhabitants con- 
structed similar dwellings. By this method of reasoning, the conclu- 
sion is reached that the Sierra Madre and the Arizona cliff-dwellings 
were not derived one from the other, but arose as independent modi- 
fications of a similar culture.' 

Thus, it would appear that while architecturally there is con- 
siderable difference between the compounds and the pueblos, some 
of the latter may have housed descendants of the inhabitants of the 
former None of these pueblos, however, are found in the neighbor- 

* Except possibly those on the San Juan and its tributaries. 

2 There is evidence that some of the oldest Hopi villages were settled by clans from this region. 

3 The circular subterranean kiva, so constant a feature of the cliff-houses of northern Arizona, southern 
Colorado, and the Rio Grande and San Juan drainage, does not e.xist in the elifl-houses of southern Ari- 
zona, nor in the Sierra Madre in Mexico. This form is not found in the cILff-houses of the Red Rocks, on 
the Verde, or on any tributary of the Gila; it originated in the eastern part of the Pueblo area, and its influ- 
ence was not suflicient to be felt in any prehistoric pueblo on the Colorado River. 



152 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [bth. ann. 28 

hood of tho "groat liousos" of tlie (Jila-Salt Basin; Ihero aro no 
nioilorn jiuoblos in southern Arizona. Wlion Europeans entoretl the 
Gihi Valley they found tribes living in isolated dwellings not very 
diflferont from tho houses of modern Pima and Papago, who are sup- 
posed to be the descendants of tlie builders of Casa Grande. 

The appearance of the great walled compounds like Casa Grande 
suggests tho warlike rather than the peaceful character of tho inhab- 
itants. Thej' were constructed for defense and their presence implies 
that their builders had enemies they feared. It is hardly possible 
that any considerable number of distant enemies could have menaced 
Casa Grande at the time tliis structure was built, but its inhabitants 
were fearful of their own neighbors, of warriors of their own stock, 
perhaps speaking their own language. Judging from what we know 
of the Pueblos, there was little unity of action among the people of 
the compounds. The conditions were feudal, each community for 
itself; the people did not unite to resist a common foe. Constant raid- 
ing led to a union of relatetl clans, which erected thick-walled dwell- 
ings for protection. Possibly sometlring akin to what has been called 
the "megalithic era" influenced these ever-growing communities. 
The "unconscious aim at expression of abstract power" by huge 
buildings may also have had its influence. An American feudal sys- 
tem developed in the Gila-Salado Basin, marked by the erection of 
buildings belonging to some chief (civan), aro;md which wore clus- 
tered small huts in which the common people lived. There was 
nothing like tliis condition among the Pueblos or even probably 
among the cliff-tlwellers, but such a condition existed in Mexico in 
the days before tlie advent of the European concjuerors. 

But if it be true that ancestors of the Pima built Casa Grande, why, 
it may be asked, have the Pima lost the art of building "great 
houses," and why did they inhabit only small huts when the Spanish 
explorers came?' In reply it may be said that they were forced to 
abandon their great structures, being unable to defend them on 
account of their unwieldy size. Hostile invaders found these con- 
spicuous structures easy prey and broke up this phase of Pima cul- 
ture, overcoming the chiefs and driving out the defenders of the com- 
pounds. But, although scattered, the common people naturally con- 
tinued to occupy inconspicuous huts similar to those in which they 
hatl always lived. (See fig. 5-3.) This apparent change of culture is 
paralleled among sedentary tribes in Mexico. Although forced to 
desert their temples and great buildings, the ancient Mexicans still 
lived in huts, in which nothing remained to tempt the cupidity of 
their enemies. 

■ "Great houses" are said by Bandelier, quoting Father Ribas (Final Report, pt. ii, p. 460), to have 
been occupied liy southem Pima in historic times. 



FEWKES] 



RELATION OF COMPOUNDS TO PUEBLOS 



153 



Summary of Conclusions 

The preceding roncliisioiis may be summarized as follows: In 
ancient times the whole drainage of the Gila and its tributaries from 
the points where they leave the mountains as far at least as Gila 
Bend was inhabited by an agricultural people in a homogeneous stage 
of culture. Throughout this region existed minor divisions of a 
common stock. The Pima name Hohokam may be adopted to des- 
ignate this ancestral stock, to whom may be ascribed the erection 
of the casas grandes on the Gila. These "great houses" were places 
of refuge, ceremony, and trade. They were inhabited and ruled by 
the chiefs whose names they bear among the present Pima. The 




Fig. 53. Model of Kma circular hoase constructed south of Compound A . 

people dwelt in small huts of perishable character, not unlike Pima 
jacales of historic times, a few of wluch still survive. In the course of 
time a hostile faction bent on pillage came into this region from east 
or west and drove the agriculturists out of their casas grandes or at 
least broke up the custom of building such structures. But although 
dispersed, the ancient house l)uilders were not exterminated; some of 
them became refugees and migrated south into Mexico, some followed 
the course of the Verde and the Tonto into the northern mountains, 
but others, perhaps the majority, gradually lost their former culture 
but still remained in the Gila Valley, becoming ancestors of the present 
Pima. Papago, and Kwahadt (Quahatika). Those who went north- 
ward later built pueblos (now ruins) in the Little Colorado Valley. 



154 



CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA 



[ETIt. ANN. 28 



Their descendants ultimately joined the Ziiiii and the Ilopi, \v'ith 
whom, acooi-dinfi; to legends, they still live.' 

Historians have paid little attention to these migrations, for they 
occurred in prehistoric times, but vague legends still survive among 
both Zuni and Ilopi bearing on the life of some of their clans in the 
south. These migration legends are supported by archeologic evi- 
dence and are supplemented by Pima traditions. 

One objection that has been repeatedly urged against acceptance 
of the traditions of the modern Pima that they are descendants of the 
inhabitants of Casa Grande is that the former do not now construct 
great massive-walled houses like the buildings here described, but 




Fig. 54. Typical modern Tima rectangular dwelling. 

live in thin-walled houses supported by posts. The Pima have 
not constructed habitations of the former type in liistoric times. 
The excavations in Compound B show that many fragile-walled 
houses of rectangular form once stood ^\'ithin tliis inclosure and there 
is good evidence that they existed in the other compounds also. 
The people of Casa Grande, or at least some of them, inhabited the 
same kind of houses as the modern Pima. These great buildings 
are not habitations; they are sacred edifices or communal citadels. 
But it may be objected that the typical Pima houses were round, 

' These legends call for new researches on the character of the prehistoric cultiu-e along the northern 
tributaries of the Salt River, the Verde, the Tonto, and other streams. Accurate information on the fol- 
lowing, among other, points is needed; (1) What relation exists between the symbolism on pottery from 
these valleys and on that from the Gila and the Little Colorado? (2) Was cremation practised along 
the Verde and the Tonto in prehistoric times? Is there any evidence of cremation in ruins on the Lit He 
Colorado? 



FEWKEsl RELATION OF COMPOUNDS TO PUEBLOS 155 

while those of Casa Gnimk^ were rectanguhir.' (Figs. 53, 54.) This 
objection at present seems unanswerable, but attention may be drawn 
to the fact tliat some of the Pima dwelHngs are rectanguhir. Objec- 
tion is made also because of tlie tlilVerence in the manner of (bsposal of 
the dead. As is well known, the Pima do not burn their tlead, whereas 
cremation was a common custom at Casa Grande. Evidence has 
been presented already, showing that the inhabitants of Casa Grande 
sometimes interred their dead as well as burned them and that both 
customs existed side by side in the same compound. 

In traversing the Gila region one finds mounds of earth, reservoirs, 
and remains of irrigation ditciies similar to those above considered. 
Examination of these structures reveals a morphologic resemblance 
which leads us to regard this region as a single culture area. On 
comparison of the arcliitecture of Casa Grande with that typical of 
cave or pueblo constructions the differences seem to be so marked 
that they can not be included in the culture area of which the first- 
named style of arcliitecture is a type. The Pueblo culture area is 
arcliitecturally different. But when Casa Grande is compared with 
buildings farther south, including those in the northern States of 
Mexico, striking resemblances appear. The Gila Valley culture area 
is limited on the north by the plateau region, but extends to an as yet 
undefined bortler on the south. 

There are similar limitations and extensions in physiographic condi- 
tions. The environment changes as we pass out of the culture area of 
which Casa Grande is a type into the region of Pueblo culture. It is 
not illogical to suppose, therefore, that Casa Grande affords another 
striking example of intimate relationship between human culture and 
en\'ironment , under a law intimately connected with a more com])re- 
hensive one, namely, the relation of geography and human culture 
history. 

As pointed out by the late Doctor KusseU, the Pima have legends 
that tliey came from the east, but he does not state that all the Pima 
clans have identical legends. Some clans claim that their ancestors 
built Casa Grande; here tiie legends may refer to those clans living in 
the Gila Valley before the arrival of the eastern contingent mentioned 
by Russell. Like most of the Southwestern tribes, the modern Pima 
show evidences of being a composite tribe and it is not unlikely that 
ancestors of some of the components may have come from one direc- 
tion, others from another. The craniologic differences between the 
budders of the GiJa-Salt compounds and the modern Pima may be 
accounted for b}^ this fact. 

» None of the wattle-walled hiits, the floors and decayed posts of which can be so well traced in Com- 
pound B, were circular in form. When the I'inia were first visited nearly all their huts were circular. 
Only a few of this type now remain. 



156 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [eth. ann. 28 

In tlio light of tho various objects found iit ('asa Grande, already 
described, the inliabitants of tlie, prehistoric settlement may be con- 
sidered as people of the Stone Age, notwithstanding tlieir accpiaint- 
ance with copper. There is no evidence that they were familiar 
with any other metals, as iron, bronze, silver, or gold. But even 
in this stage they must have developed a comparatively high social 
organization. Every student of the "great houses" of the Gila- 
Siilado Basin must marvel at their relatively enormous size and the 
evidences of cooperation and intelligent direction of labor that they 
show. The erection of such structures requires many workmen and 
an able director, a sociologic condition not found elsewhere in North 
America outside of Mexico. In another place the writer ascribes 
the origin of this cooperation to the necessity of union of labor in 
the construction of the irrigation ditclies essential for successful agri- 
culture in this region, one of many examples that might be cited of 
the influence of climate on culture liistory in the Southwest. 

These buildings were constructed on a characteristic plan, which was 
adhered to everywhere in the Gila VaUey. As already stated, the 
builders evolved two distinct types of architecture: "Great houses" 
with thick walls, apj)arently constructed by many persons, features 
wliich point' to these structures as. devoted to public purposes; (2) 
one-room habitations with wattle walls, provided with a central fire- 
place in the floor, and with a doorway in the miiklle of one of the 
long sides.' 

The presence of stone idols indicates a weU-developed idolatry 
and ceremonial system. While the inliabitants possessed eiTective 
weapons in tlie form of spears, and bows and arrows, they were 
essentially agricultural, cultivating fields of corn and possibly beans, 
squashes, and tiie like. They also gathered mesquite beans. 

They wove fibers into belts or into cloth which was colored with 
bright ])igments. They raised cotton and utilized tlie fibers of agave 
and other plants in weaving. They maile basketry and pottery, 
which they decorated with symbols, but did not glaze. As potters 
they were inferior to their neighbors atCasas Grandes, in Chihuahua,^ 
and to the aboriginal artists of Sikyatki and Awatobi in tlie Hopi 
country. In disposing of their dead they practised both cremation 
and inhumation. 

A conclusion arrived at in the writer's studies of the habitations, 
sometimes called pueblos, of sedentary peoples in the Southwest, is 

1 It is probable tliat the doorway served also as a smoke vent, as in modem Pima houses, which are not 
provided with an opening in the roof. 

2 The pottery from this Mexican State sliares with tliat from Sikyatlii and other ancient Ilopi ruins, the 
reputation of being the best painted ware of prehistoric Norlli America, exclusive of soutlicrn Mexico and 
Central America. The relation of the polychrome ware from these two regions is close so far as colors are 
concerned, but diverse as regards symbols. 



FEWKES] RELATION OF COMPOUNDS TO PUEBLOS 157 

that they form two clistmct architectural types — tlie true pueblos ami 
the compounds — ^differini;; radically from each other. These indicate 
two centers of cultural distribution, one of which was in the east, the 
other in the south, or, broadly speaking, in what is now called Colo- 
rado and New Mexico on the one hand, and southern Arizona on the 
other. Between these centers lies the great valley of the Little Colo- 
rado, which was a meetuig ground of prehistoric people, wherein a 
mLxed cultural type was formed and distributed. It has a composite 
type of pottery showing features of the Colorado-New Mexican and the 
southern Ai-izonian ware, sometimes one, sometimes the other, pre- 
dominating. 

The aboriginal migrations of man in the Southwest may be rouglily 
likened to the spread of vegetation or to the stocking of regions by 
animals from a center of cUstribution. There was a slow passmg of 
clans from one place to another, largely uifluenced by the scarcity or 
abundance of water and food. Tlie pressure of incomuig hostUes 
played a part in determining the directions of the migrations, but not 
the most important part, the main cause beuig failure of water, due 
to desiccation of the land, and increased sahnity. The situation of 
streams was an important factor in these migrations, as it determmed 
the location of the trails which man followed. The routes of the pre- 
historic migrations are indicated by rums left along the banks of these 
streams. In these movements sites that could be readily defended 
were generally adopted, but each group of clans acted independently: 
there was little unity of action and at times open hostility among 
members of the same group. Clusters of clans were continually 
unitmg and groups of families were as constantly divergmg from the 
main body. Two great movements can be detected, one settmg from 
the Rio Grande toward the west and south, and the other from the 
Gihi toward the north and east. An objective region for both was 
the valley of the Little Colorado, which offered an attractive home 
for all the tribes. 

The Grand Canyon of the Colorado, situated north and west of the 
Pueblo region, served to keep back from the Little Colorado Valley 
the inhabitants of the country in those directions, so the immigrants 
entered this region in prehistoric times mainly from the east and 
south. One stream of colonists followed down the San Juan, another 
went up tlie northern tributaries of the Salt. The ruins at Black 
Falls mark the southern limit of the people passing west and south 
from the San Juan; those on the Little Colorado above Black Falls 
can be traced to the southern colonists. 

The advent of the southern colonists into the Little Colorado Basin 
was at a late day ; their influence was widely spread. The tributaries 
entering the Salt from the north served as pathways by which the 
culture of the south spread from the Gila north and northeast. 



158 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [etii. ann. 28 

Of tlie various tributaries tJiat have served for the triiusmission 
northward of the culture of the Gihi-Salt region tlie Tonto and tlie 
Verde were the most important routes. Along their banks are 
many ruins of former liouses of the clans from tlie south that migrated 
northward, a few reaching Tusayan, as traditions of the Hopi declare. 
MindelefF ' reached tlie conclusion, from which the author dissents, 
that there was a migration in the Verde Valley from the north to the 
south, as shown in the following quotation: 

The internal evidence supports the conclusion that the movement [along the Verde] 
was southward and that in the large ruin near Limestone Creek the inhabitants of the 
lower Verde Valley had their last resting place before they were absorbed by the 
population south of them, or were driven permanently from this region. 

The existence of many large ruins and the small amount of arable 
land in the southern part of the Verde Valley would seem to mdicate 
that the clans traversed the valley seekhig better agricultural lands, 
the soil improving as one goes north. They crossed the mountains 
from south to north, eventually descendmg into the valley of the 
Little Colorado, wliich was uninhabited. An exammation of 
the narrow lower Verde Valley shows that it was not fitted for the 
support of so large a population as that indicated by the re- 
mains of the great settlements along the Gila. The ruins of 
the pueblos built in this region bear inlaerent evidences that the}^ 
were not long inliabited; the clans drifted farther north, where 
the valley afforded better soil and more abundant water. With 
progress northward the number of ruins increases, showing that the 
land was more thickly populated and the length of occupancy greater. 
When the emigrants above mentioned met the eastern clans they 
became assimilated with them and the faither they went from the 
Gila the more they lost resemblance to the parent type. .The sphere 
of influence of the southern culture can be fairly well traced, its 
northern limit being not far from the mesas of the Hopi, who have 
been somewhat modified by it. It can be traced as far as the upper 
Verde and extended eastward to the pueblo of Acoma.^ 

The ruins directly ascribed to the southern culture show little 
influence of Keresan or Tanoan clans but suggest the blocks of build- 
ings in the Gila compounds. These ruins contain no circular subter- 
ranean kivas. The pottery of these southern pueblos has character- 
istic symbols traceable throughout the regions to wliich its influence 
extended. 

The pottery of the first-settled pueblos of the Hopi, as Sikyatki, 
is distinctly allied to that of the eastern culture type and shows little 
resemblance to that from the south. Hopi pottery was never pro- 

' In ISthAnn. Rep. But. Ethnol., p. 259. 

2 Pneblo ruins like Kintiol, north of Navaho Springs, show strongly this southern influence and marked 
resemblance to Ziini Valley ruins. 



FEWKEs] RELATION OF COMPOUNDS TO PUEBLOS 159 

foundlv affected hy clans from that direction. Prehistoric Ilopi 
pottery symbols are Kcresan. The influx of Tewa and Tigiia in com- 
paratively modern times has radically modified the symbols so that, 
as elsewhere pointed out, modern Hopi pottery is practically Tanoan. 

At Zuhi, however, prehistoric pottery is more closely related to 
that of the southern clans, by whom the valley was first settled, and 
belongs to the Little Colorado ceramic area.' Modern Zuni pottery, 
however, is radically different from the ancient, resembling that of 
modern Hano or of the so-called modern Hopi. 

If, as the character of the pottery seems to indicate, Ziiui culture 
is more modern than Ilopi culture, the earliest colonists in the Zuni 
Valle\' were clans related to those that peopled the Little Colorado 
Basin later than the time of the founding of Sikyatki and other pre- 
historic Hopi pueblos. 

A comparative study of Acoma pottery sheds no light on the age 
of Zuni as compared with that of the abandoned pueblos of the 
Little Colorado and the ancient Hopi ruins. ' ^"ery little archeologic 
data regarding Acoma has been gathered, and few clan or migration 
legends of this pueblo have been published, but judging from ceramic 
decoration it appears that Acoma pottery bears little resemblance to 
that peculiar to southern clans; it is distinctly Keresan and resembles 
more closely the pottery of ancient Hopi than it does that of ancient 
Zuni or Little Colorado ware, by which it does not apjiear to have 
been affected. Certain known facts bear on this question. Acoma 
is the oldest pueblo on an ancient site in the Southwest. Since its 
settlement it has been in continual conflict with other peoples. When 
its clans came into the country they were forced to defend themselves 
and chose as the site of their home a high rock, from which other 
clans could not dislodge them. Acoma is regarded, then, as the east- 
ern limit of southern, or Gila, influence and marks one })oint on a line 
of demarkation of the dual influences which merged at Hopi and Zuni. 
According to Hopi legend, it was settled by clans allied to the Snake 
and the Horn, from Tokonabi on the San Juan, which united with 
those from the far eastern region, possibly of Keresan parentage, as 
the present language indicates. 

The Hopi Snake legend tells of clans called the Tcamahia that left 
the Snake clans at Wukoki on the Little Colorado and made their way 
east to Acoma, ^ where they met other clans from the east. These 
two groups were kindred, and as Tcamahia is a Kcresan term we 
may conclude that they were Keresan in kin. The relations of the 
Tcamahia of Acoma and the Snake clans at Walpi were never com- 

' From the relation of the ancient Zuni pottery to that of the Little Colorado and the Gila the writer is 
led to hel'eve that the first colonists of that valley came from the south and west. 

2 In estimating the extent of the influence of Gila Valley cullure in the northeastern part of the pueblo 
region, especially in the neighborhood of Acoma, it is desirable that ruins ascribed to ancestors of Acoma 
Clans be studied in the light of their traditions. 



160 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [eth, ann. 28 

plotel}' broken, unci at every Snake festival one of the Tcamahia 
from Acoma is a guest. This is the asperger, who chants the words 
Tcamalna, Awahaia, etc. 

In considering the preliistoric migrations of agricultui'al peoples 
in the Southwest, especially with respect to changes in culture and 
to diminution of population, we must not lose sight of the influence 
of increased salinity due, directl}' or indirectly, to long-continued 
prehistoric irrigation. This cause was perhaps more effectual than 
human enemies or increased aridity in breaking up tlie prehistoric 
culture. If barrenness of the soil, due to the cause mentioned, led 
to the abandonment of populous aboriginal compounds, this fact 
has an important bearing on the future of the white farmers in the 
Gila and Salt River Valleys. 



APPENDIX 

CATALOGUE OF SPECIMENS FROM CASA GRANDE 

FoUowang is a list of specimens collected from Casa Grande in 
1906-7 and 1907-8, prepared by Mr. E. P. Upliam, of the United 
States National Museum, who has introduced measurements of many 
of the objects. The objects bearing accession number 48761 were 
obtained mainly from Compound A in 1906-7, and the remainder, 
under No. 49619, are from Compounds B, C, D, and Clan-house 1, 
collected in 1907-8. A few specimens were picked up on the surface 
of the ground between the compounds or dug up in the mounds east 
and south of Compound B, midway between Compound A and Clan- 
house 1. 

The whole number of specimens obtained is approximately 1,300, 

exclusive of fragments and objects gathered from the surface, some 

possibly not belonging to the ancients. The brief references to the 

Casa Grande specimens in the following lists are supplementary to 

the more complete descriptions, accompanied with illustrations, of 

some of the more striking examples that appear in the preceding 

pages. 

Accession No. 4S761, Casa Grande, Arizona 



V. s. 
Nat. 
Mas. 
No. 


Bur. 

Amer. 

Eth. 

No. 


251669 


477a 


251670 


478b 


251671 


479c 


251672 


480d 


251673 


481e 


251674 


482t 


251675 


483g 


251676 


484a 


251677 


485b 


251678 


486c 


251679 


487d 


251680 


48«e 


251681 


489f 


251682 


490g 


252001 


1 


252002 


2 


252003 


3 


252004 


4 


252005 


5 


252006 


6 


252007 


7 



Lots 



20903'' 



Fragment of clay vessel with painted bird's head; length, 4J inches 

Wooden pottery paddle; iS\ x 2 J inches 

Double-edged stone ax; length. 4i inches; width, 2J inches , 

Stone shovel; length, o\ inches; width, 4 J inches 

Stone ball used in game; diameter, 2i inches 

Stone paint grinder; height, 2J inches; diameter, 4 inches 

Wooden hoe; length, 3 feet 2h inches; width, 4| inches 

Pectunculus shell, carved to represent frog (surface); length, 2 inches 

Clay saucer with three legs; height, 2^ inches; diameter, 5 J inches 

Carved stone serpents (surface); length, 2J inches; diameter, IJ inches 

Stone slab forpahit grinding; length, 3 inches; width, 1^ inches 

Problematical stone (surface); length, 3J inches 

Clay bowl; height, 3 inches; diameter, OJ inches 

Perforated Pectunculus shell; diameter, 2 inches 

Fragments of potten,' 

Earthenware bowl, containing six Pectunculus shells 

Earthenware vase ', 

Earthenware disks 

Pieces of large earthenware vessel with charred bones of birds and small animals 

attached 

Pieces of charred shell 

Charred bone implements, fragments of pottery, shells, quartz, crystal, etc 

28 ETH— 12 11 161 



29 



162 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [btu. ann. 28 

Accession No. 48761, Casa Grande, Arizona — Continued. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 


Bur. 

.\iiier. 

Eth. 

No. 


252008 


8 


252009 


9 


252010 


10 


252011 


11 


252012 


12 


252DI3 


13 


252014 


14 


252015 


15 


252010 


16 


252017 


17 


252018 


18 


252019 


19 


252020 


20 


252021 


21 


252022 


22 


252023 


23 


252024 


24 


252025 


25 


252026 


26 


252027 


27 


252028 


28 


262029 


29 


252030 


.30 


252031 


31 


252032 


32 


252033 


33 


252034 


34 


252035 


35 


252036 


36 


252037 


37 


252038 


38 


252039 


39 


252040 


40 


252041 


41 


252042 


42 


252043 


43 


252044 


44 


252045 


45 


252046 


46 


252047 


47 


252048 


48 


262049 


49 


252050 


50 


252a51 


51 


262052 


52 


252053 


53 


252054 


54 


262055 


55 


252056 


56 



Articles 



Lots 



Charcoal cylinders, paint sticks 

Mass of charred com 

Shell, Pecten 

Piece of cliarred sea shell 

SLoneax, double-bitted, showing effects of fire; length, 5 g inches 

Grooved stone ax, showing effects of fire; length, 6i inches 

Piece of charred beam; length, 14 inches 

Pieces of wooden beams or posts; lengths, 13^, IGJ inches 

Fragments of wooden hoes; Mound 6, east of Compound B 

Stone mortar, slab; 12J x lOA x 4} inches 

Rubbing stones, mainly rectangular in outline; lengths, 2| to 5i inches 

Hammer stones, irregularly shaped pieces, with battered edges 

Stone disks, natural forms, some with fracturod edges; diameters, 3\ to 5J inches. . 

Stone pestle in form of tapcrhig cylinder; length, 5f inches 

Arrow-shaft polisher (broken); length, 3 inches 

Irregularly shaped natural forms 

Fragment of pottery, leg of tripod vase: length, 2 inches 

Earthenware pot. suspension holes near rim, plain ware; height, 5i inches; diameter, 

7 inches; Mound 6, Group B 

Fragment of earthenware vessel, plain ware 

Earthenware bowl, painted decoration; height, 5 inches; broken but can be restored ; 

Mound 6, Group B 

Fragments of pottery, vases, some decorated; Mound 2, Group B 

Fragments of pottery, handle of vase, decorated 

Shell bead and pendants, Conus \ 

Concretion; length, 5 inches 

Piece of obsidian ( waterworn): length, 5 inches 

Earthenware bowl, plain ware; diameter, 6J inches; height, 3 J inches 

E arthen ware bowl , fragment 

Fragments of decorated pottery 

....do 



.do. 



Fragments of tripod dish (small) '. , 

Clay disks made from broken vessels; 7 perforated, 5 not perforated , 

Animal figurine, baked clay; length, IJ inches , 

Charred bones, fragments , 

Charred shells 

Pitted stone (lava), oval outline; length, 4^ inches , 

Pitted stone (lava), globular outline; diameter, 3 inches -. 

Piece of red ocher( paint) 

Polishing stone; 31 x i x J inches 

Concretions used as polishers (small) 

Obsidian flake, knife; length, 3 inches i 

Piece of bluish clay, paint , 

Concretions and (|uartz crystals 

Digging tools of iron i (spade-like): length, 7 inches; (evidently Spanish; not pre- 
historic) 

Mealing stone; 7x4x2 inches 

Hammer stones; lengths, 3i and SJ inches 

Rubbing stones, small, lava; lengths, 3 and 3J inches 

Piece of adobe (cylindrical); length, 5 inches; diameter, 4J inches 

Piece of adobe, irregular shape 



1 These were 
near the ruin, 
long after the 



FBWKES] APPENDIX 

Accession No. 4S761, Casa Grande, Arizona — Conlinuetl. 



163 



u. s. 

Nat. 
Mas. 
No. 


Bur. 

Amer. 
Eth. 
No. 


252057 


57 


252058 


58 


252059 


59 


252060 


60 


2520lil 


61 


252062 


62 


252063 


63 


252064 


64 


252065 


65 


252066 


66 


2S2007 


67 


252068 


68 


252069 


69 


252070 


70 


252071 


71 


252072 


7*' 


25207.'5 


73 


252074 


74 


252075 


75 


252076 


7H 


252077 


77 


252078 


7S 


252079 


79 


252080 


80 


252081 


81 


252082 


82 


252083 


83 


252084 


84 


252085 


85 


252086 


86 


252087 


87 


252088 


88 


252089 


89 


252090 


90 


252091 


91 


252092 


92 


252093 


93 


252094 


94 


252095 


95 


252096 


96 


252097 


97 


252098 


98 


252099 


99 


252100 


100 


252101 


101 


252102 


102 


252103 


103 


252104 


104 



Articles 



Lois 



Piece of adobe, incised design 

Part of large disk of clay, bearing stamped design 

Globular and irregularly shaped concretions; shrine offerings 

Squared pieces of lava, mealing stones 

Squared pieces of lava, with pits on two surfaces; 5i x 4 x 2J inches 

Pitted stone, oval outHne, lava; length, 4^ inches 

Rubbing stone (lava), disk with rounded upper surface; diameter, 4J inches 

Fragment of implement (lava), originally with perforation 

Pestle (lava) with expanding base; length, 3J inches 

Rubbing stone; 5x3x2 inches 

Hammer stone, cylindrical; length, 21 inches; diameter, IJ inches 

Hammers, irregularly shaped, with abraded edges 

Fragment of metate 

Fragment of baking plate 

Water-worn pebbles, slight evidences of use; rubbing stones 

Disk-like natural forms 

Chipped blade, digging implement; oj x 4^ x | inches 

Piece of stone, flat surface, with traces of paint 

Sharpening or abrading implement, made of sandstone, with squared edges; 

5 i X 5 X 1 i inches 

Sharpening or abrading stone, made of sandstone, witli squared edges; OJ x 3^ x 1} 

inches 

Sharpening or abrading stone; 4 x 2 x | inches 

Sharpening or abrading stone; 3i x2J x i inches 

Sharpening or abrading stone; 3x1^x1 inches 

Sharpening or abrading stone; sandstone, with longitudinal groove in one surface; 

5* X 4i X li inches , 

Sharpening or abrading stone, tufa; oj x 32 x 2J inches 

Slab for mixing paint; oV x 3J x g inches 

Whetstone, oval section; 8 x 1 J x 1 J inches 

Lot of charred and much weathered pieces of wood, beams, lintels, etc., from the 

northwest court, Compound A 

Lot of charred timbers, etc 

Ilammer stones; irregularly shaped pieces with battered edges 

Rubbing implement (lava); section, rounded prism; length, 4\ inches 

Rubbing implement; irregular shape, with one flat surface; length, 4i inches 

Rubbing implement; irregular shape, with one flat surface; length, 4 inches 

Small pestle (lava); conical; length, 4 inches 

Rubbing implements of tufa; nearly disk-shaped; diameters, 2^ to 2J inches 

Sharpening or abrading implement, sandstone, with squared edges; 6^ x 4i x 

1 J inches 

Sharpening or abrading implement (fragment) 

....do '.... 

Sharpening or abrading implement (fragment ; sandstone) 

Stone with much worn depressions, grinding stone for implements; BJ x 6 x 1 

inches 

Small paint mortar, oval outline: 4 x 2| x IJ inches 

Grooved stone, shaft rubber; irregular outline , 

Water-worn pebbles; no signs of use , 

Fragment of obsidian ■. , 

Piece of ore 

Mass of quartz crystals , 

Concretions of unusual forms , 

Piece of baked clav 



16-4 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [eth. ann. 28 

Accession No. 4S761, Casa Grande, Arizona — Continued. 




2521(KJ 
252107 
252108 
252109 
252110 
252111 
252112 
252113 
252114 
252115 
252116 
252117 
252118 
252119 
252120 
252121 
252122 
252123- 
252124 
252125 
252126 
252127 
252128 
252129 
252130 
252131 
252132 
252133 
252134 
252135 
252136 
252137 
252138 
252139 



252141 


141 


252142 


142 


252143 


143 


252144 


144 


252145 


145 


252146 


146 



252148 
252149 



252150 



105 

106 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 
130 
131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 



148 
149 



Fragments of charred textile, garment, room west ot Father Font's room, Com- 
pound vV 

....do 

Charred basketry 

Charred com and fragments of hasketry 

Mass of cliarred thread 

Charred com 

Piece of charred reeds wrapped with twine 

Charred seeds 

Charred basketry 

Shell, PectuncuUis 

Sliell, Cardita 

Unworked shells, Conus 

Pendant made from Pecten shell 

Pendant (fragment), section of shell 

Shell pendant 

Shell pendant, made from Conus shells 

Shell bead 

Fragments of decorated pottery 

Pottery ladle, toy 

Pottery head, representing animal 

Pottery disk, perforated; diameter. 1 \ inches 

Piece of red ocher, from room west of Father Font's room. Compound A 

Fragment of cement 

Quartz crystal 

Piece of obsidian 

Piece of fossil wood ■. 

Concretion 

Flakes of jasper (1) and obsidian (2) ^ 

Small rubbing stone; 2J x IJ inches 

Implement of wood, hoe; northwest court, Casa Grande; length, 19 inches 

Implement of wood (part of); northwest court. Casa Grande; length, 6J inches 

Implement of wood; northwest court, Casa Grande; 72 x 2 inches 

Implement of wood : northwest court. Casa Grande; 5x2 inches 

Implement of wood: northwest court, Casa Grande; 8 x 2 J inches 

Implement of wood; northwest court, Casa Grande; height, 6 inches; diameter, 
32 inches 

Shell pendant ornament, Pectunculus; Moimd 2, Group B, Casa Grande; diam- 
eters. 11 and 21 inches 

Shell pendant ornament , 'furritella; length. 2} inches 

Shell ear pendants; fragments; Pectunculus 

Shell pendants. Conus 

Conus shells, not worked 

Fragment of decorated pottery 

Fragment of pottery vessel; shallow dish; northwest room. Compotmd A. Casa 
Grande; tliameter. 4 inches 

Piece of float copper, found free in soil, 1906; north room of Casa Grande; 3} x 1 
inches 

Earthenware bowl, plain ware; height, 4 inches; diameter, 7} inches 

Earthenware bowl; interior has painted design; height, 4 inches; diameter, OJ 
inches 

Earthenware bowl, compressed globular, plain ware; height, 4 inches; diameter. 
6 J inches 



^X 



APPENDIX 

Accession \o. 4S761, Casa Grande, Arizona — Contimiccl. 



165 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 



Bur. 
.\mer. 

Eth. 
No. 



Articles 



Lots 



1 

15 



252152 
252153 

252154 
252155 
252156 
252157 
252158 
252159 
2.52100 
25211)1 
252162 
2521(i3 
252104 
252165 
252160 
252167 
252168 
252169 
252170 
252171 
252172 
252173 
252174 
252175 
252176 
252177 
252178 
252179 
252180 
252181 
252182 
252183 
252184 
252185 
252186 
252187 
252188 
252189 
252190 
252191 
252192 
252193 
252194 
252195 
2.52196 
252197 
252198 
252199 
252200 
252201 



152 
153 

154 

155 
156 
157 
158 
159 
160 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 
177 
178 
179 
180 
ISl 
182 
183 
184 
185 
186 
187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 
103 
194 
195 
196 
197 
198 
199 
200 
201 



Earthenware vase, compressed, globular.body, short neck; height, inches; diam- 
eter, 7 inches 

Pectunculus shells, found in vase No. 252151 

Small earthenware vase, containing small shells (Nassa), Conns shells, bits of 
turquoise, deer tooth, etc.; diameter, 3i inches; height, 2.^ inches 

Fragments of decorated potterj', various designs 

....do 



Fragments of fleeorated pottery, various designs; fragment with swastika design. 

Potti'ry disks, made from broken vessels; diameters, IJ to3 inches 

Potter>' disks, made from perforated vessels; diameters, 1 J to 2 inches 

Fragments of pottery, representing head of parrot 

Fragments of pottery, representing animal head 

Grooved stone ax; length, 7 inches 

Grooved stone ax; length, (H inches 

Polished stone implement, chisel(?); 7 x IJ x i inclies , 

Abrading implement , sandstone, squared edges; 6x23x1 inches , 

Mealing stone: 5 x 3 J x 3 inches , 

Stone implement; length, 3} inches 

Abrading implement, grooved surfaces; length, 2\ inches 

Abrading implement, tool sharpener (?); length, 3i inches , 

Stone implement; 4| x 3J .\ i inches 

Stone implement, polisher (?); 4J x2J x -V inches 

Stone implement; length, 4J inches; diameter, \ inch 

Rubbing stone, with handle, tufa; diameter, 4 J inches 

Stone pestle flava); length. 3J inches -. 

Stone disk; diameter, 5 inches: thickness, f inch 

Stone disk, partly perforated; diameter, 3J inches; thickness, g incli 

Stone disk; perforated; diameter, 2 inches; thickness, J inch 

Stone implement, oval outline, thin flat pebble; 3J x 2t x % inches 

Stone balls; diameters. 1| to '2\ inches _ 

Hoe, thin blade, chipped; length, 5J inches 

Hoe, one edge showing wear: length, 6.J inches 

Hoe, one edge showing wear; length, 4^ inches 

Hoe, one edge showing wear: length. 5J inches 

Concnnion resembling grooved implement; length, 3 inches: 

Obsidian chips. 

Worked flake of obsidian; length, 2J inches. 

Arrow-point, flint, triangular; length, 2J inches. 

\rrow-points, flint, stemmed; lengths, 2i and \\ inches. 

Perforator or drill, chalcedony; length, 1| inches; diameter. J inch. 

Fragments of turquoise. 

Turquoise beads. 

Piece of carved red jasper (amulet) 

Small watcr-wom pebbles of rare forms. 

Concretions, stone chips. 

Quartzcrystals, 

r>argc shells (Cardium), unworked 

Small shells, Pectunculus, unworked 7. ! 

Shells, Conus, unworked 

Shells, Olivella, some worked 

Shell pendants, Turritella 

Fragments of shell ear pendants made from sections of Pectunculus. 
Shell i>endants, Pecten 



3 
4 

lU 
9 
3 



166 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [etii. ann. 28 

Accession No. 4S761, Casa Grande, Arizona — Conlinued. 



u. s. 

Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 


Bur. 
Vmer. 
Eth. 
No. 


252202 


202 


252203 


203 


252204 


204 


252205 


205 


252206 


206 


252207 


207 


252208 


208 


252209 


209 


252210 


210 


252211 


211 


252212 


212 


252213 


213 


252214 


214 


252215 


215 


252216 


216 


252217 


217 


252218 


218 


252219 


219 


262220 


220 


252221 


221 


252222 


222 


252223 


223 


252224 


224 


252225 


225 


252226 


226 


252227 


227 


252228 


228 


252229 


229 


252230 


230 


252231 


231 


252232 


232 


252233 


233 


252234 


234 


252235 


235 


252236 


236 


252237 


237 


252238 


238 


252239 


239 


252240 


240 


252241 


241 


252242 


242 


252243 


243 


252244 


244 


252245 


245 


25224G 


246 


252247 


247 


252248 


24S 


252249 


249 


252250 


250 


252251 


251 


252252 


252 


252253 


253 


252254 


254 



Articles 



Shell beads, made from entire shells, Nassa 

Shell pendants, small Glycymeris 

Bone perforator; length, 4i inches , 

Bone perforator, part of deer antler; length, 2\ inches , 

Tooth of deer 

Mass of vegetable substance 

Piece of vegetable substance 

Fragment of fabric made from vegetable liber 

Mealing stone for metate; 7J x31 inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 1\ x 3} inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 8 x3J inches 

Mealing stone for metate: 7 x3J inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 7 x3i inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 7J x 3i inche^s 

Mealing stone for metate; 6 x3J inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 5J x3A inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 6 x 3J inches 

Mealing stone for metate: 6J x 3| inches 

Mealing stone for metate: "} x3i inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 7J x 4 inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 5^x3 inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 5h x3J inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 6 x 32 inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 6i x 3-J inches 

Mealijig stone for metate; b\ x3J inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 5 J x3i inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 5i xSJ inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 8x4 inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 5 x 2J inches 

Broken mealing stones 

Shallow paint mortar; 6^ x 2J inches 

Stone mortar; diameter, 9^ inches; height, 4^ inches 

Stone pestle (part of); height, 4i inches 

Rubbing stone; 5x4 inches 

Rubbing stone; 5 x3i inches 

Rubbing stone; 4^ x25 inches 

Rubbing stone; 4 x 3J inches 

Rubbing stone; 4i x3J inches 

Rubbing stone; A\ x2i inches 

Hammer stones 

Mealing stone (broken) 

Stone disk; diameter, 3i inches 

Rubbing stone, natural form; f>\ x 41 x 1} inches 

Rubbing stone; Kh x 2| inches 

Stone implement, pestle, expanding base; height, 2J inches.. 

Natural form resembling handled implement 

Natural form resembling handled implement; 6^x7* inches. 

Flint cores or nuclei 

Chips of obsidian 

Bits of turquoise 

Small stone, polished; length, 2J inches 

Quartz crystals ^--■ 

Rounded pebbles, small 



I^ots 



12 
2 



FEWKES] APPENDIX 

Accession No. 4S~61, Ciisn Grande, Arizona — Continiiccl. 



167 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 


Bur. 

Ainer. 
Eth. 
No. 


252255 


255 


2522,if. 


256 


252257 


257 


252258 


258 


252259 


259 


252260 


260 


252261 


261 


252262 


262 


252263 


263 


252264 


264 


252265 


265 


252266 


266 


252267 


267 


252268 


268 


252269 


269 


252270 


270 


252271 


271 


252272 


272 


252273 


273 


252274 


274 


252275 


275 


252276 


276 


252277 


277 


252278 


278 


252279 


279 


252280 


280 


262281 


281 


252282 


282 


252283 


283 


252284 


284 


252285 


285 


252286 


286 


252287 


287 


252288 


288 


252289 


2S9 


252290 


290 


252291 


291 


252292 


292 


252293 


293 


252294 


294 


252295 


295 


252296 


296 


252297 


297 


252298 


298 


252299 


299 


252300 


300 


252301 


301 


252302 


302 


252303 


303 


252.W4 


304 


252.305 


305 


252306 


306 


252307 


307 



Articles 



Lots 



Small piecps of mica 

Shell, slightly workcl. Pectimculus 

Conus shells, iinworked 

Shell pendants, Conus 

Shell disk, drilled on edge for suspension; diameter, 1| inches 

Fragments of shell pendants 

Shell pendant : length , 1 J inches 

Shell pendants; small shells (Pecten) 

Fragments of various shells 

Spurs of fowl 

Bone awl; length, 41 inches 

Bone needle; length, 2| inches 

Fragments of painted pottery, handle of vase 

Pottery disk made from broken vase; diameter, 2 inches 

Small baked clay vessel; diameter, 1^ inches 

Leg of tripod dish 

Fragments of i)ottery showing various decorations 

Long wooden hoe; length, 36 inches 

Long wooden hoe; length, 34 inches 

Long wooden hoe; length, 31 inches. 

Long wooden hoe; length, 36^ inches 

Wooden posts of beams, showing marks of stone-cutting tools 

Mealing stone for metate; 82 by 3^ inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 8x3^ inches 

Mealing stone for metate; Sf x3J inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 8 x 3 J inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 7J x 3§ inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 6J x 3^ inches 

Mealing stone for metate; Gi x 4i inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 5 x 3J inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 6J x 3J inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 6i x 3 inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 7i x3 inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 7^ x 4J inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 7 x 3| inches 

Mealing stone for metate; (if x3i inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 5i x 31 inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 5J x 3 J inches 

Mealing stone for metate; 5J x 2^ inches 

Small mortar; 5V x3J inches 

Mortar; diameter, lU inches; height, 7^ inches 

Mealing stone; 9J x 4 inches 

Mealing stone; 8 x3J inches 

Mealing stone; 7J x3J inches 

Mealing stone; S{ x 31 inches 

Mealing stone; 7i x3| inches 

Mealing stone; 7} x3i inches 

Mealing stone; 6J x 3i inches 

Meahng stone; 5i x 31 Inches 

Mealing stone; 5| x 31 inches 

Mealing stone, recently worked edges; OJ x 2J inches 

Natural form ; fi x 1 3 x 2 inches 

Grooved stone ax, large ruin near iiUoreucej Arizona; length, 6^ Inches 



168 CASA GKANDE, ARIZONA [eth. ann. 28 

Accession No. 4t^761, Casa Grande, Arizona — Continued. 




252308 
252309 
252310 
2523 U 
252312 
252313 



252315 


315 


252316 


316 


■mau 


317 


252318 


318 


25-2319 


319 


252320 


320 


25-2321 


321 


252322 


322 


252323 


323 


252324 


324 


252325 


325 


252326 


326 


252327 


327 


252328 


328 


252329 


329 


252330 


330 


252331 


331 


252332 


332 


252333 


333 


252334 


334 


252335 


335 


252336 


336 


252337 


337 


252338 


338 


252339 


339 


252340 


340 


252341 


341 


252S42 


342 


252343 


343 


252344 


344 


252345 


345 


25-2346 


346 


252347 


347 


252348 


348 


252349 


349 


252350 


350 


252351 


351 


252352 


352 


252353 


353 


252354 


354 


252355 


355 


252356 


356 


252357 


357 


252358 


358 



308 
309 
310 
311 
312 
313 

314 



Grooved stone ax. large ruin near Florence, Arizona; length, CJ inches 

Grooved stone ax, large ruin near Florence. Arizona; length, 0^ inches 

Grooved stone ax, large ruin near Florence, Arizona; length, 6J inches 

Grooved stone ax, large ruin near Florence, Arizona; length, \\ inches 

Grooved stone ax, large ruin near Florence, Arizona; length, 4 inches 

Grooved stone ax, found by Mr. Schultz near an abandoned corral at Casa Grande; 

length , 1\ inches 

Grooved stone ax; room northeast cluster, Compound A, Casa Grande; length, 5g 

inches 

Grooved stone ax; length, 8 inches 

Grooved stone ax; length, 8J inches 

Grooved stone ax; length, 5| inches 

Grooved stone ax; length, 5J inches 

Grooved stone ax; length, 5 inches 

Grooved stone ax, length, \\ inches 

Grooved stone ax; length, 4J inches 

Grooved stone ax; length, 4 inches 

Grooved stone ax (squared sides); length, \\ inches 

Grooved stone ax, double-bitted; length, h\ inches 

Grooved stone ax, red jasper; length, 5 inches 

Grooved hammer: broken ax, showing use as hammer; length, 5| inches 

Grooved hammer; broken ax, showing use as hammer; length, SJ inches 

Grooved hammer; broken ax, showing use as hammer; length, 5^ inches 

Grooved hammer; broken ax, showing use as hammer; length, 5 inches 

Grooved hammer; broken ax, showing use as hammer; length, 4^ inches 

Grooved hammer; broken ax, showing use as liamraer; length, 5 inches 

Grooved hammer; broken ax, showing use as hammer; length, 4i inches 

Grooved hammer: broken ax, showing use as hammer; length. 4 inches 

Grooved hammer: broken ax, showing use as hammer; length, 4i inches 

Grooved ax; length, 1\ inches 

Hammer stone; diameter. 3^ inches 

Hammer stone; diameter. 1^ inches 

Rubbing stone (lava); 3| x 2^ inches 

Kubbing stone, natural form utilized; length. 31 inches 

Thin slab, sharj^ening stone; 4J x 21 x \ inches 

Stone disk (natural form); diameter, 2 inches 

Arrow-shaft rubber (2 grooves); length, 2J inches 

Arrow-shaft rubber ( fragment) 

Fragment of drilled ceremonial stone; 1\ inches 

Piece of tufa 

Piece of quartz (pale green) 

Quart? CHi'stals 

Concretions, various shapes; shrine offerings 

Obsidian cores and flakes 

Chipsof flint and jasper 

Bits of turquoise 

Paint stone 

Piece of yellow ocher 

Arrow point, flint; stemmed; length. 2 mchcs 

Fragments of largo marine shells 

Cardium shells 

Pectmiculus shells, slightly worked 

Conus shells 



15 
1 
I 
1 

Itj 

6 
29 



FEWKES] APPENDIX 

Accessinn No. 4S761, CasaGrande, Arizona — Continuetl. 



169 




252359 


359 


252360 


3(in 


252361 


361 


252362 


362 


252363 


363 


252364 


364 


252365 


365 


252366 


366 


252367 


367 


25236$ 


3fiS 


252369 


309 


252370 


370 


252371 


371 


252372 


372 


252373 


373 


252374 


374 


252375 


375 


252376 


376 


252377 


377 


252378 


378 


252379 


379 


252380 


380 


252381 


381 


252382 


382 


252383 


383 


252384 


384 


252385 


385 


252386 


386 


252387 


387 


252388 


388 


252389 


389 


252390 


390 


252391 


391 


252392 


392 


252393 


393 


252394 


394 


252395 


393 


252396 


396 


252397 


397 


252398 


398 


252399 


399 


252400 


400 


252401 


401 


252402 


402 


252401 


403 


252404 


404 


252405 


405 


25240*i 


406 


252407 


407 


252408 


408 


252409 


409 



Ventjs shell; used as paint cup 

Shell pendant, Pectunculus, drilled for suspension : 

Fragment of ear pendants, sections of Pectunculus 

Shell pentlant^, made from Conus shells 

Shell pendant, Pecten 

Shells. Olivi'lla, some worked 

Shell beads, made from Nassa shells 

Shell pendant, Turritella 

Shell i,>endant, Cerithhun 

Small shell, GlycjTneris 

Shell ring, made from Conus 

Fragments of charred shells 

Bone perforator, moundeast of Group B, Casa Grande, found on breast of skeleton, 

point resting on right shoulder; length, 10 inches 

Bone perforators; 2 to 4\ inches 

Fragments of bone, implements 

Fragmf-nts of charred bone 

Bone point, charred, antler tip; length, 3 inches 

Small cylinder of wood, showing tool marks, nmch weathered; length, 2J inches; 

diameter, | inch 

Fragments of wooden implements 

Branch or stem; length, 5^ inches 

Mass of charred beans; mesquite , 

Charred reeds 

Pottery disks; height, 3 inches; diameter, 4} inches 

Pottery bowls, plain ware; diameters, 1| to 3 inches , 

Fragments of small tripod dish , 

Legs of tripod dish 

Fragments of decorative pottery, swastika scroll and other designs 

Fragments ofcoarse heavy eatl hen ware dish , 

Fragments of decorated pottery vases, large lot , 

Hammer stones 

Mealing stones (fragments) 

Fragments of sharpening stones 

Digging implements, large tliin flakes with more or less chipped edges 

One-half of stone ball (lava); diameter, 3 J inches 

Large mass of baked clay 

Implements of baked clay, pestlelike; length, Si inches; diameter, 2i inches 

Fragments of large baked clay disk showing stamped markings 

Lump of adobe with markings of reeds on one surface 

Lump of adobe with markings 

Fragment of potterj* 

Perforated stone, with squared sides, worn out mortar; KU x llj xG inches --. 

Large stone raetate; ISJ x 12^ x 7 inches 

Hammer stones 

Half of sandstone disk; diameter, 4 J inches 

Thuislab with one smoothed surface: 4J x 3 x J inches 

Fragment of stone hoe ., 

Fragment of thin stone disk 

Smoothing implement: 2f x J x A inches 

Leaf-shaped arrow -point 

Arrow-point, stemmed 

Chips and flakes of flint, etc 



1 
1 

8 

49 

1 

12 

28 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 



10 
3 

1 

1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 
1 
2 
4 
2 
1 
4 

3 
2 



170 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [eth. ann. 28 

Accession No. 4^761, Casa Grande, Arizona — Conlinuod. 




252410 
252411 
252412 
252413 
252414 
252415 
252416 
252417 
252418 
252419 
252420 
252421 
252422 
252423 
252424 
252425 
252426 
252427 
252428 
252429 
252430 
252431 
252432 
252433 
252434 
252435 
252436 
252437 
252438 
252439 
252440 
252441 
252442 
252443 
252444 
252445 
i52446 
252447 
252448 
252449 
252450 
252451 
252452 
252453 

252454 

252455 

252456 
252457 
252458 
252459 
252460 



410 
411 
412 

413 
414 
415 

416 j 

417 1 

418 I 

419 I 
420 
421 ' 
422 
423 
424 
425 

426 j 

427 i 
428 
429 

430 I 

431 I 

432 I 
433 
434 
435 
436 
437 
438 
439 
440 
441 
442 
443 
444 
445 
446 
447 
448 
449 
450 
451 
452 
453 

454 

455 

456 
457 
458 
459 
460 



Chips and flakes of obsidian '. 

Small water-worn pebbles 

Piece of chalky substance (paint) 

Quartz crystal 

Bitot turquoise 

Concretions 

Fragments of animal bones. 2 pieces worked 

Fragments of charred bones , 

Bone points, charred 

Fragments of animal tooth (deer) 

Fragments of shells, Venus; valves more or less broken 

Fragments of shells, Cardium; valves more or less broken 

Fragments of massive marine shell 

Fragments of shell, Abalone 

Fragments of shell, Strombus 

Fragments of charred shell 

Shells, Conus 

Shells, Olivella .' , 

Shells, Pecten, 1 valve 

....do 

Shell pendant, drilled valve of Pecten 

Fragments of pendants, section of Pectunculus 

Charred seeds 

Charred vegetable substance 

Charred com 

Charred seeds 

Jar containing earth and Nassa shells - 

Shaft or handle for stone implements: length, 17 inches 

Pottery disks, made from broken vases; diameters, 11 to 3i inches 

Pottery disks, perforated (broken) ." 

Fragments of large pottery disk, stamp markings 

Fragments of pottery dish, shallow 

Part of pottery vase, angular outline, plain ware 

do 

Part of pottery vase, compressed globular 

Part of bowl 

Part of vase, straight sides 

Fragments of pottery bowl, polished black ware 

Fragments of pottery vase, decoration in red and green 

Handles of vases 

Legs of tripod vases , 

Fragment of pottery bowl, hole near edge 

Fragment of painted vase, showing coils on exterior 

Fragment of pottery, white or pale yellow slip wash, hundreds of pieces, decorations 

in black, large lot ■ 

Fragments of pottery, gray slip wash, black decorations 

Fragments of pottery, pale yellow slip wash, decorations in black, with solid areas 

of red 

Fragments of pottery, pale yellow slip wash, decorations in red 

Fragments of pottery, plain undeeoratcd ware, large lot 

Polishing stone: length, 21 inches: width, U inches • 

Rubbing stone (sandstone); 3 x 2J x g inches 

Rubbing stone (sandstone), part of 



18 
2 
3 



FEWKES] APPENDIX 

Accession .Vo. 48761, Casa Grande, Arizona — Continued. 



171 




2S2461 

252462 
252463 
232464 
252465 
252466 
252467 
252468 
252469 
232470 
252471 
232472 
252473 
252474 
252475 
252476 



461 Rubbing stone (sandstone), oval outline: length, 2J inches 

462 Digging tool, large flake, oval outline: length, 5i inches 

463 I Digging tool, large thin flake, irregular outline: length, 6i inches 

464 do 

465 Digging tool, large thin flake, irregular outline; length, 5 inches 

466 , Fragments of large marine -shell, charred *. 

467 1 Fragment of large marine shell 

468 I Fragments of shells, some showing use as paint cups 

469 1 Fragment of pendant, section of Pectunculus 

470 Mass of charred corn 

471 I Charred seeds 

472 1 Piece of adobe showing impression of reeds 

473 j Implement of wood (part of): length, 6J inches 

474 ; Painted potterj' bowl, with bits of shell, modern ware: diameter, 4| inches 

473 ! Painted pottery vase, with glass beads, modern ware; length, 21 inches 

476 Gambling sticks, modern 



Accession No. 49619, Casa Grande, Arizona 



254301 


1 


254302 


2 


254303 


3 


254304 


4 


254305 


5 


254306 


6 


254307 


7 


254308 


8 


254309 


9 


254310 


10 


254311 


U 


254312 


12 


254313 


13 


254314 


14 


254315 


13 


25431G 


16 


254317 


17 


234318 


18 


254319 


19 


234320 


20 


254321 


21 


254322 


22 


254323 


23 


254324 


24 


254325 


25 


254326 


26 


254327 


27 


254328 


28 


254329 


29 


254330 


30 


254331 


31 


254332 


32 



Large unfinished stone ax, natural form, showing shaping process of grooving and 

surfacing by pecking: 12 x 3^ x 4 inches 

Grooved stone ax, interrupted groove; 8 x 3 x 2i inches 

Grooved stone ax, interrupted groove; 7J x 2^ x U inches 

Grooved stone ax, interrupted groove; 7 x2J x I J inches 

Grooved stone ax, intemipted groove; 7 x2i x 1| inches 

Grooved stone ax, interrupted groove; G} x2j x2i inches 

Grooved stone ax, interrupted groove; GJ x22 x 2 inches 

Grooved stone ax, interrupted groove; 5 J x 3 x 2} inches 

Grooved stone ax, intemipted groove; 5\ x 2J x U inches 

Grooved stone ax, interrupted groove; 6 x2i x2i inches 

Grooved stone ax, interrupted groove; 6 x 2J x 2 inches 

Grooved stone ax, interrupted groove; 6 x 2J x 2 inches 

Grooved stone ax, interrupted groove; 6 J x 2^ x 1^ inches 

Grooved stune ax, interrupted groove; 5i x2i x IJ inches 

Grooved stone ax. interrupted groove; GJ x2J x IJ inches 

Grooved stone ax. interrupted groove; 6 x2i x 1 J inches 

Grooved stone ax, intemipted groove; 5 x2J x IJ inches 

Grooved stone ax, interrupted groove; 4J x 1} x 1 J inches 

Grooved stone ax, interrupted groove; 3i x 2J x 1 J inches 

Grooved stone ax, double-bitten encirch'ng groove; 5 x 3J x li inches 

Broken ax blade, upper portion roughened; 3 x 2 x 1 J inches 

Grooved stone hammer or siedge; 8 x 3 x 2i inches 

Grooved stone hammer or sledge; 7 x 3 x 2i inches 

Grooved stone hammer; 6J x 2 x 1 J inches 

Grooved stone hammer; 5 x 2 { x U inches 

Grooved stone hammer; 4 J x 3J x 2 inches 

Grooved stone hammer; 4J x 2i x IJ inches 

Grooved stone hammer; 4 x 2^ x 2J inches 

Grooved stone hammer; 3i x 2i x 1^ inches 

Grooved stone hammer; 3J x2 x J inches 

Grooved stone hammer (broken); 4Jx3 x2J inches 

Grooved stone hammer (broken); 4J x2i x IJ inches 



172 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [bth. ann. 28 

Accession No. 49619. Casa Grande, Arizona — Conliiuipd. 




254333 
25 4334 
254333 
25433C 
254337 
254338 
254339 
254340 

254341 

254342 

254343 

254344 

254345 

254346 

254347 

254348 

254349 

254350 

254351 

254352 

254353 

254:i54 

254355 

254356 

254357 

254358 

254359 

2543(» 

2543til 

254362 



Hammer stone, cylindrical; 4} x 21 x 2 inches 

Hammer stone, rouKhly spheroidal; diameter, 3J inches 

Hammer and nibbing stone; 3i x 2A x U inches 

Hammer stone, square, with roimdcd edges; diameter. 2 inches 

Rubbing stone; 3J x IJ x 1 inches 

Pairft muller, conical outline; length, 3 inches: diameter, 1 J inches 

Paint muller, conical outline: length, 3 inches; diameter, 2} inches 

Chalcedony concretion; cylindrical outline, surfaces slightly polished by use; lengtli. 

3i inches; diameter, 1| i aches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel edges with rounded ends (lava); 8} x 3J 

X 1-^ inches 

Rubbing stone formetate, having i>aral]el edges with rounded ends (basalt); 8x3J 

X 1 J inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel edges with rounded ends (lava); 6J x 3J 

x 1 J Inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel edges with rounded ends (basalt); 7 x 

3i X 1 5 inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel edges with rounded ends (basalt); 7 x 

3 J X 1 inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel edges with rounded ends (basalt); 7i x 

3i X 1 inches 

Rubbing stone for metate-, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (basalt); 

7 X 3 J X 1 } inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (basalt): 

6J X 3 X I J inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (basalt); 

6 J x3J X 1 inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with roimded ends (basalt): 

53 x 34 x 1 i inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with roimded ends (basalt): 

6J X 3 5 x 1 S i nchos .' 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (basalt); 

6J x3\ X 11 inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with roimded ends (basalt); 

5J x3 X I finches 

Rubbirig stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (basalt); 

5 X 3 J X 1} inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (basalt); 

5 J X 3 J X 1 1 inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (lava); 

6 J X 3 1 X 1 J i nches .- 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (basalt); 

I) X 3 J X 1 1 i nches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with roimded ends (lava): 

61 x3J X IJ inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (lava); 

4.\ X 4 X 11 inches , 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (baealt); 

5^ X 3A X 1 1 inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (basalt); 

iii X 3^ X 1 inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (basalt); 

si X 35 X 3J mches 



FEWKES] APPENDIX 

Accession No. 49619, Casa Grande, Arizona — Continued. 



173 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 



Bur. 

Amer. 
Eth. 
No. 



.\rticles 



Lois 



2343(i3 

2o43M 

2o43lJ5 

254360 

254367 

254308 

254369 
254370 
254371 
254372 
254373 
254374 
254375 
254;i76 



254392 



254393 


93 


254394 


94 


254395 


95 


254396 


96 


254397 


97 


254398 


98 



254378 


78 


254379 


79 


254380 


80 


254381 


81 


254382 


82 


254383 


83 


254384 


84 


254385 


85 


254386 


86 


254387 


87 


254388 


. 88 


2543S9 


89 


254390 


90 


254391 


91 



Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (lava); 

7i x3i X IJ inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (basalt); 

7i x^ K U inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (basalt); 

8 X :U X 1 \ inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (lava): 

7 x^ X li inches 1 

Rulibing stone for met-ate, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (basalt); 

6i x:U X IJ inches 

Rubbing stone for metate, having parallel sides, edge with rounded ends (lava); 

5x3 X 2 1 inches 

'Rubl)ing stone for metate, having edge slightly curved (basalt); 5x3x1 inches. , 

Rubbing stone for metate (basalt); 3J x 21 x IJ inches 

Rubbing stone, irregular outline; 6^ x 5 x 1 inches 

Ruhl)ingstone, natural fonn, semi-lunar outline; 5^ x3xl inches 

Grinding or polishing stone, rectangular outline; 4| x 3 x J inches , 

Grinding or polishing stone, reddish sandstone; 3] x 3i x J inches 

Grinding or polishing stone, approximately disklike, lava; 3 x2i x 1 inches 

Rubbinghammerstone, natural form, approximately diskUke outline; diameter, 4 

X ] J inches 

Mortar, large slab, with one slightly concave suifBce, evidently used for grinding 

pigments; 10 J xSJ x2^ inches 

Grinding stone, rectangular outline (sandstone); 6J x 4^ x IJ inches 

Grinding stone, rectangular outline (sandstone); 4J x 4 x IJ inches 

Grinding stone, rectangular outline (sandstone); 3^ x3 x 1^ inches - . . ., 

Grinding stone, rectangular outline (sandstone); showing narrow grooves, possibly 

sharpening tool for wood and bone awls; broken piece, 4 x 3i x IJ inches 

Grinding stone (broken), sandstone; 4 x2J x IJ inches 

Grinding stone (broken), sandstone; 21 x 2 x i inches 

Thin, irregularly shaped pieces, showing use lor grinding pigments; 7i x 3 x i 

inches 



Thin, irregularly shaped pieces, showing use for grinding pigments; 6 x 4} x i 
inches 

Thin, irregularly shaped pieces, showing use for grinding pigments; 6i x 4 x | 
inches 



Thin, irregularly shaped pieces, showing use for grinding pigments; 5 x31 x^ inches. 

Thin, irregularly shaped pieces, showing use for grinding pigments; 3 x2 x i inches. 

Fragment of polishing stone; 2^ x 2^ x 3 inches 

Paint mortar, rectangular outline (sandstone); 6J x 4^ x 1 inches 

Irregularly shaped piece of sandstone, with pit in one surface, paint mortars; 5J 
X 3 } X 1 J inches 

Irregularly shaped piece reddish sandstone, with pit in one surface, paint mor- 
tar; 5 x5 X IJ inches 

Irregularly shaped stone with pit in one surface, basalt; 41 x 3} x 2^ inches 

Sliarpeningstonof?), thin slab, with depression in one surface; (>J x 41 x H inches . 

Small shallow mortar (?), rectangular outline with rounded ends, paint mortar; S-i 
X 2J X 1 1 inches 

Sharpening stone,irregularlyshaped piece, with depressions on two surfaces; 5 x 3 x 
I inches 

Sharpening stone, irregularly shaped piece, with depressions in two surfaces; 5x21 
x 1 inch 

Small natural(?} form, with shallow depression; 2J x2xi inches 



174 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [ktii. ann. 28 

Accession No. 49619, Casa Grande, Arizona — Continued. 




254399 
264400 
254401 
254402 
254403 

254404 

254405 
254406 

254407 

25440S 

254409 

254410 
254411 

254412 
254413 
254414 
254415 
254416 
254417 
254418 
254419 

254420 



254421 


121 


254422 


122 


254423 


123 


254424 


124 


254425 


125 


254426 


126 


254427 


127 


254428 


128 


254429 


129 



254430 

254431 
254432 



99 
100 
101 
102 
103 

104 

105 
106 

107 

108 

109 

110 
111 

112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 

120 



131 
132 



Stone mortar (lava), oval outline, mortar cavity , IJ inches deep; 9 x 6 x 3J inches. . 

Brolien pitted stone (lava), pits in two surfaces; 3 x 3 x 1 J inches 

Broken pitted stone (lava), disk outline; diameter, 3J inches; thickness, IJ inches-. . 

Small, Ijrokon mortar, with hole in one edge; 15x2 inches , 

Grinding slone, irregularly shaped piece, with slight depression inonesiu-face; 5 x IJ 

X 12 inches 

Sharpening stone, thin slab, with long, narrow grooves; H x 4i x J inches 

Sharpening stone, thin slab, with long, narrow grooves; 3J x 2 x J inches 

Large stone slab, with depression in one surface made by grinding; the center has 

been broken out, forming an oval aperture 5 J x3f inches ;.. . 

Natural form, conical outline, grinding stone; base diameter, 3^ inches; height, 

12 inches 

Natural form, conical outline, grinding stone; base diameter, 2J inches; height, 

1 J inches 

Stone disk, one surface showing depressions as if for grinding or polishing; diame- 
ter, 2| inches; thickness, 1 inch 

Rubbing stone, outline nearly square (tufa) ; 4^ x 4 x 1 J inches 

Rubbing stone, disk-shaped (part of), tufa; diameter, i\ inches; thickness, IJ 

inches 

Rubbing stone, oval outline; 5J x 32 x IJ inches 

Rubbing stone, disk-shaped; diameter, i\ inches; thickness, | inch 

Rubbing stone, broken, oval; length, 3} inches; thickness, J inch 

Rubbing stone, oval outline; 3} x 2J .x 2 inches 

Rubbing stone, cylindrical (tufa); length, 2J inches; diameter, U inches 

Fragment of stone ring, implement (lava) 

Rubbing stone, oval outline (tufa); 5 x4x IJ inches 

Rubbing stone, disk-shaped, with knob handle; diamecer, 4 inches; height, 2 

inches -. 

Rubbing stone, disk-shaped (lava), incurved edge, convex base; diameter, 3J 

inches; height, 12 inches 

Rubbing stone, roughly shaped piece of tufa, with slight groove; length, 3} inches. 

Roughly shaped carving, with animal head (?); height, 2J inches 

Toy bowl; diameter, 1 J inches: height, | inch 

Digging implement, large, thin flake of stone, with one edge showing a polish 

from use; length, 9i inches; width, 5J inches; i inch thick at the back 

Digging implement, large, thin flake of stone, with one edge showing a polish from 

use: length, 8* inches; width 3 inches; h inch thick at the back 

Digging implement, large, thin flake of stone, with one edge showing a polish from 

use (broken); 6 inches wide; i x h inch thick at the back 

Digging implement, large, thin flake of stone, with one edge showing a polish from 

use; 6i inches wide; 4 x A inch thick at the back 

Digging implement, large, thin flake of stone, with one edge showing a polish from 

use, on three sides; 6J inches wide: 4 x § inch at the back 

Digging implement, large, thin flake of stone with one edge showing a polish from 

use; hoe, notched at upper end; length, 5J inches; width, 4J inches; thickness, 

2 inch 

Digging implement, large, thin flake of stone, with one edge showing a polish from 

use; hoe, notched at upper end; length, 6} inches; width, 3i inches; thickness, 

J inch ., 

DiggLag stone implement, large, thin flake of stone with one edge showing a polish 

from use, or knife, semilunar shape; 6 inches; width, 3i x } inch 

Diggingimplement, hoe(see 124, above); length, 4incbes; width, 3} Inches; thick- 
ness at back, 2 inch 



FKWKESl APPENDIX 

Accession Xo. 49619, Casa Grande, Arizona — Continued. 



175 




254433 
254434 
254435 

254436 
254437 
254438 
254439 
254440 
254441 
254442 
254443 
254444 
254445 
254446 
254447 
25444$ 
254449 
254450 
254451 
254452 
254453 
254454 
254455 
254456 
254457 



254461 
254462 
254463 
254464 
254465 
254466 
254467 
25446S 
254469 
254470 
254471 
254472 
254473 
254474 
254475 
254476 
254477 
254478 
254479 



133 

134 
135 

136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 
150 
151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 



264458 ' 158 

I 

254459 159 

254460 160 



161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 
177 
178 
179 



Digging implement (brolcen): 4} x 3 x | 

Digging implement, lioc (broken), notched; 3J x3 x J inches 

Long stone nibbing implemimt, with two edges, showing transverse grooves (12), 
section square with rounded edges; length, 11 ^ inches: thickness, 1 J inches 

Stone pestle, cylindrical; length, 10 inches; diameter, 21 inches 

Stone pestle, roughly shaped; length, 12} inches; width, 3 x IJ inches 

Stone pestle, roughly shaped; length, 15 inches; width, 2} x 1} inches 

Natural form implement; length, 81 inches; width, 1 J x | inch 

Natural form whetstone; length, 51 inches; width, 11 x J inch 

Natural form charm stone; 5J x 1 1 x 1 inches 

Natural form charm stone, prism section; 4^ x 1 x 1 inches 

Natural form charm stone; length, 4J inches 

Natural formcharai stone; length, 41 inches 

Natural form charm stone; length, 3| inches; width, 1 J inches 

Natural form charm stone; 3J x 2 x J inches 

Natural form chann stone; 3^x2 inches 

Natural form chann stone; 33 x J inches 

Natural form charm stone; 3x2 inches 

Stone with longitudinal groove; artificial groove, k inch deep; 4} x 11 inches 

Cone-shaped piece of tufa, for drilling in shell; length, 2^ inches; diameter, J inch . . 

Water-worn pebble, fiat; 4x3x2 inches 

Stone disk, thin; diameter, 3J inches; thiclmess, } inch 

Stone disk, thick; diameter. 2J inches; thickness, f inch 

Thin pebble, oval outline; length, 2J inches; width, 1| inches; thickness, J inch . . , . 

Stone carving, bird-shaped; length, 3J inches; height, 31 inches; width, 35 inches. . . 

Stonecarving. conventionalized female figure; length, 82 inches; width, 2J inclies; 
thickness, IJ inches 

Stone carving, lizard (?); mortar cavity on back for grinding pigments; length, 7} 
inches; width, 41 inches; thickness, 1 inch , 

Stone car\'ing, part of thin piece with three triangular indentations on one edge; 
41 X 4 X J inches 

Ax-shaped stone, with shallow groove; ends and edges with ground faces at differ- 
ent angles; flat surfaces marked with incised lines; charm stone; length, 31 
inches; width, 2J inches; thickness, 2 inch 

Stone Ijalls used in games; diameters, I inch to 2J inches 

Concretions more or less spheroidal; charm stones ■: 

Stone balls used in games; diameters, 1 inch to 2^ inches 

Stone concretions, charm stones 

Natural pebbles (small) 

Natural forms fragments of concretions, etc., charm stones 

Fragments of mineral 

Fragments of mineral; turquoise 

Obsidian cove and flakes 

Piece of ore, used as paint 

Piece of ore, used as paint 

Piece of ore, used as paint 

Small water-worn obsidian pebbles 

Piece of specular iron, use<l for paint 

Pieceof red jasper ^ 

Bits of red ocher 

Stone flake 

Flint flakes 

Quartz crystals; charm stones 



1 
7 
4 

10 
4 

10 

10 
1 

12 
5 
3 
1 

10 
6 
I 
1 
4 
1 



176 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA' (ktii. ann, 28 

Accfssion No. 49619, Casa Grande, Arizona — Continued. 



U. P. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 


Bur. 

.\nier. 

Eth. 

No. 


254480 


ISO 


254481 


181 


254482 


182 


254483 


183 


254484 


184 



254486 


186 


25448" 


187 


254488 


188 


254489 


189 


254490 


190 


254491 


191 


254492 


192 


264493 


193 


254494 


194 


254495 


195 


254490 


196 


254497 


197 


264498 


198 


254499 


199 


254500 


200 


254501 


201 


254502 


202 


254503 


203 


254504 


204 



254506 


206 


254507 


207 


254508 


208 


254509 


209 


254510 


210 


254511 


211 


254512 


212 


254513 


213 


254514 


214 


254515 


215 


254516 


216 


254517 


217 


254518 


218 


254519 


219 


254520 


220 


254521 


221 



185 



Articles 



Stone disks, spindle whorls, not perforated; diameter, 2i inches; thickness, iV inch 

Stone disks, spindle whorls, perforated; diameter, 2J x^V inch 

Stone disks, spindle whoris, perforated; diameter, 1 J x -jV i"ch 

Stone disks, spindle whorls, perforated; diameter, U x iV inch ' . . . 

Carved stone tablet (fragment), reetan^lar outline; upper surface with raised 

border, ornamented with incised line design; magic tablet; length, 2 inches; 

thickness, J inch 

Car\'ed stone tablet (fragment), rectangular outline; upper surface with raised 

border, ornamented with incised line design; magic tablet; length, 2 inches; 

thickness. I inch - 

Arrow-point, triangular, flint; length, 2i inches 

Arrow-points, stemmed, flint; lengths, ^ inch to 1 1 inches 

Arrow-points, triangular, obsidian; length, ^ inch 

Beads, stone 48, turquoise 72, and pendants (5), mainly turquoise 

Stone pendant, cylindrical body with loop at one end; length, 1 i inches; diameter. 

? inch 



Small cylindrical stone tapering at each end; length, 2 inches; diameter, J inch 

Stone bead, cylindrical; length, f inch; diameter, f inch 

Stone pendant, claw-shaped; length, 1 inch 

Small green stone disk; diameter, i inch; thickness, \ inch 

Copper beils 

Perforated object of lava, irregular outline, use unknown: 9x7x3 inches 

Perforated object of lava, small; 4 x .'U x 1^ inches 

Fragment of perforated object of lava; 3| x 2J x 1| inches 

Fragments of asbestos 

Natural form, slightly resembling worked stone object; charm-stone; 4x3x2* 
inches 



Natural form, slightly resembling worked stone object; charm-stone; 5 x 3}x2,l 
inches 

Natural form, slightly resembling worked stone object; charm-stone; 3 J x 4 x 2^ 
inches 

Natural form, slightly resembling worked stone object; charm-stone; 3J x 3J x IJ. 
inches 



l.ots 



1 
1 
4 
2 
125 



Natural form, slightly resembling worked stone object; charm-stone; 3J x 3J x 2 
inches 

Natural form, slightly resembling worked stone object; charm-stone; 3 x 3 x 1 J 
inches - 



Concretion (geode); 5x3 x3i inches 

Piece of adobe with perforation; 2 x 21 inches 

Roughly worked stone implement; 4^ x 3 x 25 inches. 

Roughly worked stone hammer; 4 x 2J x 2 inches 

Roughly worked stone implement 

Flint flake; 3 x2Jx J inches 

Piece of petrified wood; 21 x Ig x I inches ^ 

Water-worn pebble 

Piece of galena 

Shell, Strombus; length, 7i inches 

Shell; length, 8 inches 

Shell^ength. 7 inches 

Shell; length, 6 J inches 

Shell; length, 6 inches 

Shell, Murex; length, 5i inches 

Shell. Haliotis; length, 7 J inches 



u. s. 

Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 



L'oM22 
254.123 
254524 
254525 
234526 
254527 
25452S 
25452<1 
254530 
254631 
254532 
254533 
254534 
254535 
254530 
254537 
234538 
254539 
254540 
254541 
254542 
234543 
254544 
254543 
25454(1 
254547 
234548 
234549 
234550 
254531 
254552 
254553 
254534 
234555 
254356 
234557 
254538 
254559 
234560 
254561 
234562 
234563 
254504 
254365 
23456(i 
254567 

254508 
254509 
254370 
254371 
234572 



Bur 

.\iner. 
Eth 
No. 



222 
233 
224 
225 
226 
227 
22S 
229 
2:i0 
231 
232 
233 
2:14 
2.35 
236 
237 
238 
239 
240 
241 
242 
243 
244 
245 
^46 
247 
248 
249 
250 
251 
252 
253 
234 
255 
250 
257 
258 
259 
200 
201 
202 
203 
204 
2(a 
2Mi 
207 

2rp8 
209 
270 
271 
272 



APPENDIX 
Accession No. A9619, Casa Grande, Arizona — (.'otitinued. 

Arliclos 



177 



Lots 



Shell: length. 5J inches 

Shell; length. 55 inches 

Shell; lenpth, 5\ inches 

Shell; length, 5 inches 

Shell (broken); length, 4| inches 

Shell (brokrn); length, ;JJ inches 

Shell (broki-n); length, 3} inches 

Shell (broken); length, 43 inches 

Shell; length, 43 inches 

Shell; lengt h, 4\ inches 

Shell (broken); length, :i\ inches 

Shell, Pecluncnhis; diameter, 3 J inches 

Shell, Pectiuieulus, slightly worked; diameter, 3J inches 

Shell, Pectimcuhis, slightly worked; diameter. 2^ inches 

Shell, Pcetunciilus, slightly worked; diameter, 2 inches 

Shell, Peetunculus. sliirhtly worked; diaineter, 2 inches 

Shell, Peetunculus, slightly worked; diameter, 15 inches 

Shell, Peetunculus, perforated; diameter, 2 J inches 

Shell, Peetunculus, perforated; diameter, 21 inches 

Shelly Pectimculus. perforated; diameter. 2 inches 

Shell, Pectimculus, fragment, worked 

Sliell, Peetunculus, showing frog partly finished: diameter, 2J inches.. 

Sliell carving, frog, Pectimculus; diameter, liinchps 

Shell carving, pendant earring, Peetunculus; diameter, 2 inches. . 

Shell car\'ing, pendant earring, Peetunculus; diameter, 1 inch 

Shell carving, pendant earrin.?, Pectimculus; diameter, ^ inch 

Shell pendant, Peetunculus; length, 1^ inches 

Shell ornament; length, I inch 

Small shell, partly worked; length, h inch 

Shell ring, incised decoration; diameter, 2 inch 

Small shells, worked; lengths, A to J inch 

Shell lieads. Olivella; lengths, g to J inch 

Shell beads, Dentalium; lengths. J inch to 1 inch 

Shell disk, TIaliutis; diameter, 1 inch 

Shell disk; diameter,^ inch 

Shell ornaments, ear pendants, Pectimculus shells 

...do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



20903' 



Fragments of shell ornaments, ear pendants, Peetunculus shells; average diam- 
eter, 2 J inches , 

Shell ornament; length, 4J inches 

Shell ornament; length, 2f inches 

Shell omament(broken); length, 1} inches 

Shell ornament; length, \\ inches 

Shell pendant made from tonus; lengths, J to 1| Inches 

—28 ETH— 12 12 



13 



178 CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA [etii. ANN. 28 

Accession No. 49619, Casa Grande, ylmorm— Continued. 




254573 

25457'! 
254575 
254576 
254577 
254578 
254579 
254580 
254581 
2545S2 
254683 
254584 
254585 
254586 
254587 
25 4588 
254589 
254590 
254591 
254592 
254593 
254594 
254595 
254596 
254557 
25459S 
254599 
254600 
254601 

254602 

254603 

254604 
254605 

254606 



254607 


307 


254608 


308 


254009 


309 


254610 


310 


254611 


311 


254612 


312 


254613 


313 


254614 


314 


254615 


315 


254616 


310 


254617 


317 



273 

274 
275 
276 
277 
278 
279 
280 
281 
282 
283 
284 
285 
286 
287 
288 
289 
290 
291 
292 
293 
294 
295 
296 
297 
298 
299 
300 
301 

302 

303 

304 
305 

306 



Conus shells, mainly imworked; lengths, 3 to 2 inches 

Shell pendant: length, 2t inches 

Sheli pendant : length. 2^ inches 

Shell pendant; length, 2 inches 

Shell pendant; length, 21 inches 

Shell pendant; length, 1 J inches 

Fragments ofshell 

Animal bone; length, 2\ inclies 

2 fragments of jawbones: lengths, 3 and 4} inches 

Animal tooth 

Bones of small animal 

Bone awl; length. 51 inches 

Bone awl; leiigl h, 5 } inches ., 

Bone awl: length, 5 J inches 

Bone awl; length, 4 J inches 

Bone awl: length, 4 inches 

Bone awl, 3 pieces 

Bone whistle; length. 2\ inches 

Part of wooden implement; length, 6i inches 

Part of wooden implement: length, 51 inches 

....do 

Part of wooden implement: length, 7^ inches 

Paddle-shaped wooden implement: length, 8} inches 

Basket tray; diameter, 14 inches 

Corncob; length, 3 J inches x . . . 

Stripsof fiber for basket work; t)undle 

Stripsof fiber for weaving; bundle 

Gourd; length, 141 inches 

Earthenware bottle, roimded bottom, angular sides, wide mouth; height, 71 inches; 

diameter, 61 inches 

Earthenware vase (broken), flat bottom, conical outline, looped handle on one side; 

height, 45 inches: diameter, 43 inches .' 

Earthenware vase, gloliular body, wide mouth, handle looped on one side, painted 

decorations, triangular designs in red; height, 4 inches; diameter, 4J inches 

Earthenware pot (liroken), plain ware; heiglit, 31 inches; diameter, 4J inches 

Earthenware jar, angular outline, wide bottom tapering to mouth, plain ware; 

height. 4 J inches; diameter, 8 inches 

Earthenwarepot(broken),globularbody, plain ware; height, 3i inches; diameter, 

5 inches 

Earthenware bowl, plain ware; height, 4 inches; diameter. 6} inches 

Earthenware bowl, plain ware; height, 4 inches; diameter, 71 inches 

Earthenwarejar, flat bottom, nearly straight sides, wide mouth, plain ware; height, 

6 inches; diameter at base, 5 inclies 

Fragments of bottle (restored) 

Earthenware bowl, plain ware; height, 3 inches; diameter, 5i inches 

Fragments of bottle 

Earthenware ladle, plain ware; length, 8J inches; diameter, 5J inches; depth, 3 

inches 

Earthenware ladle, plain ware; 63 x 4} x 3 inches 

Earthenware ladle, plain ware: 41 x 3 x IJ inches 

Earthenware ladle, plain ware: 31 x 2i x J inches 

Earthenware ladle, plain ware: 3J x 2 x J inches 



10 



FEWKEs) APPEKDIX 

Accession No. 49619, Casa Grande, Arizona — Continued. 



179 



U. S. ' Bur. 

Nat. .\nier. 

Mus. Kih. 

No. No. 



Articles 



Lots 



354618 318 



254619 319 



254620 
2S4621 
254622 
254623 

254624 

254625 



254626 326 



254627 
^4(i28 

254629 
254630 
254631 
254632 
254633 
254634 
254635 
254636 
254637 
254638 
254639 
254640 
254641 
254642 
254643 
254644 
254645 
254646 
254647 
254648 
254649 
254650 
254651 
254652 



320 
321 
322 
323 

324 

325 



327 
328 

329 
330 
331 
332 
333 
334 
335 
336 
337 
338 
339 
340 
341 
342 
343 
344 
345 
346 
347 
348 
349 
350 
351 
352 



Earthenware bowl, exterior red painted, interior dark; diameter, 4 inches; height, 
2 inches 

Earthenware bowl, plain ware; diameter, 3^ inches; height, 2i inches 

Earthenware disli, tripod: diameter, 4 inches; height, 1^ inches 

Earthenware dish, tripod; diameter, 3i inches; height, 2 inches 

Earthenware dish, tripod; fragment, massive; length, 3i inches; height, IJ inches. 

Earthenware bowl, conical outline, painted; interior black, exterior butf, with line 
and triangular decorations in red; diameter, 31 inches; height, 2 inches 

Earthenware bowl, flat bottom, straight flaring sides; exterior reddish brown, in- 
terior black, polished; diameter, 3 J inches; height, U inches 

Earthenware bowl, decoration and outline ditto; diameter, 31 inches; height, IJ 
inches 

Earthenware efhgy vessel, bird form; length, 3J inches; body, 3 inches wide by 2} 
inches high 

Mass of adobe showing imprint of reeds; length, 4 inches: thickness, 2^ inches .... 

Earthenware stand for holding round-bottom vessels; diameter, 2 mehes; height, 
U inches 

Legs of tripod vases 

Disks of pottery made from broken vessels: diameters, IJ inches to 3 J inches 

Disks of pottery, perforated: diameters, 1 to 2J inches 

Earthenware spindle whorl, double convex outline; diameter, 1 } mehes 

...do 

Earthenware spindle whorl, diameter, IJ inches 

....do 

Eartlienware pipe, tubular; 2i x 1 inches 

Fragment of pottery vessel with bird's head 

Fragment of pottery vessel, looped handle ', 

....do 

Fragment of pottery, olla 

Fragment of pottery; decorations in red 

Fragment of pottery; necks and rims of painted vessels, decorated in red 

Fragment of pottery, ladle, gray with Ijlack decorations , 

Fragment of pottery, large vase, t)art of rim 

Fragment of pottery, large bowl, interior decoration , 

Fragment of pottery, large bowl, interior decoration symbolic 

Fragment of pottery, large bowl, interior decoration 

Fragment of pottery, large olla, exterior decoration 

Fragment of pottery, bowl, interior decoration 

Fragment of pottery, showing luted handle ....l 

....do ; 

Fragment of pottery, with hole in one edge 



ANTIQUITIES OF THE UPPER VERDE RIVER 
AiND WALNUT CREEK VALLEYS, ARIZONA 



BY 
JESSE WALTER FEWKES 

a-- 



181 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 1S5 

Ruins on tlie upper Verde River 187 

Ruins at the mouth of Oak Creek 188 

Cliff-houses of the Red Rocks 194 

Cliff-house at the mouth of Black's Canyon 197 

Ledge-houses near Jordan's ranch 198 

Ruins in Sycamore Canyon 199 

Ruins in Hell Canyon 200 

Ruins near Del Rio 201 

Ruins near Baker's ranch house 201 

Ruin near the mouth of Granite Creek 202 

Limestone Butte ruin 204 

Ruins on Wahiut Creek 206 

Historical account 206 

Fort below Aztec Pass 210 

Ruins near Drew's ranch house 211 

Ruins near Ainsworth's ranch house 211 

Ruins near Shock's ranch house 211 

Ruin near Marx's ranch house 213 

Ruin near sheep corral, lielow Marx's ranch '. . . . 214 

Ruins six miles below Marx's ranch 215 

Fort on Indian Hill near Prescott 215 

Forts near Frog Tanks, Agua Fria River 215 

Conclusions 216 

Kinship of early inhabitants of Walnut Creek and upper Verde Valleys 216 

Age of Walnut Creek and Verde Valley ruins 219 

1S3 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page 

Plate 79. Montezuma Castle and outlet of Montezuma Well 187 

80. Montezuma Well .' 187 

81. Ruins at the mouth of Oak Creek 188 

82. Cavate rooms overlookinc; Oak Creek 188 

83. Cavate rooms overlookina; Oak Creek 188 

.84. Cavate rooms overlooking Oak ("reek 188 

85. Ruin below Marx's ranch, and Palatki 196 

86. Palatki, and basalt columns on the upper Verde River 196 

87. Cliff-houses on the upper Verde River 197 

88. Cliff-houses on the upper Verde River 198 

89. Limestone Butte and Cornville ruins 204 

90. Limestone Butte ruin 204 

91. Limestone Butte ruin 204 

92. Old Camp Hualapai and Mount Hope 206 

93. Views in Walnut Valley 207 

94. Views in Big Burro Canyon 209 

95. Ruins of two ancient forts 210 

96. Fort below Aztec Pass 210 

97. Fort below Aztec Pass 210 

98. Terrace-ruins in Walnut Valley 211 

99. Walnut Valley ruins 211 

100. Ruin six miles below Marx's ranch 215 

101. Fort and picto<;raphs 215 

102. Trincheras at Frog Tanks ruins 216 

Figure 55. Ground plan of pueblo on bluff overlooking Oak Creek 189 

56. Ground plan of cave rooms on Oak Creek (western end and middle). 191 

57. Ground plan of cave rooms on Oak Creek (eastern end) 193 

58. Ground plan of Palatki 196 

59. Ground plan of Honanki 196 

60. Ground plan of cliff-house at the mouth of Black's Canyon 197 

61. Ground plan and section of ledge-house near Jordan's ranch 199 

62. Ground plan of cliff-dwelling at Baker's ranch 202 

63. Ground plan of fort near the mouth of Granite Creek 203 

64. Ground plan of Limestone Butte ruin 205 

65. Ground plan of fort below Aztec Pass 210 

66. Ground plan i>f fort overlooking Shook's rant h 212 

67. Ground plan of terrace-ruin near Shook's ranch 213 

68. Ground plan of terrace-ruin on Mai-x's ranch 214 

184 



ANTIQUITIES OF THE UPPER VERDE RIVER AND 
WALNUT CREEK VALLEYS, ARIZONA 



By Jesse Walter Fewkes 



INTRODUCTION 

The lollowiiif^ jxigcs are more in the nature of a jn-ehminary report 
than an exliaustive account of the antiquities of the valleys of the 
upper Verde Kiver and Walnut Creek. Tliis report deals w-ith areas 
little known archeologically, although, bj"- reason of their geograi)hic 
positions, presenting to the student of the prehistoric culture of 
Arizona most interesting problems. The aim is to consider ty]ies 
rather than to enumerate many examples of the same kind of ruins. 
The present discussion is confined for the greater part, though not 
entirely, to arcliitectura! features. 

The reader is reminded that the anticjuities of these valleys have 
not been wholly neglected by former students. Ruins believed to 
be preliistoric were rejiorted from the Verde many years ago, and 
those on the lower Verde have been described monograpliically by 
Mr. Cosmos Mindeleff.' 

The antiquities of the region bordering the Verde River from 
Camj) Verde to the point where it discharges its waters into the Salt 
naturally resemble those of the other tributaries of the latter, although 
the geologic conditions on the ui^i^er Verde have led to certain 
architectural diilerences. The locahty of the i-uins here considered is 
the western frontier of the ancient Pueblo country. The inhabitants 
of tliis region, an agi'icultural people, were subject to attack by power- 
ful nomadic tribes. Here, where defensive structures were necessaiy, 
we should naturally look for a relatively large number of forts or for- 
tified hilltops. The upper Verde River and Walnut Creek flow through 
a part of Aiizona occupied to witliin a few years by the Yavapai, 
a more or less nomadic tribe of mixed blood, who reasonably may be 
regarded as descendants of the jirehistoric house builders. Descend- 
ants of other sur\avors of preliistoric times may be looked for among 
several groups of modern Indians of Yuman stock — the Walapai and 
the Ilavasupai, especially the latter, now living in the depths of 
Cataract Canyon, a branch of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, 



1 In ISIh Ann. Rep. But. Ethnol. 



185 



186 ANTIQUITIES OF THE VEHDE AND WALNUT CREEK I ktii. ann. 28 

where they roiincrly wore driven lor protection. According to 
Major Powell, these peoi)le have legends that their ancestors inhabited 
villages and clifT-houses, and they claim to be descendants of the 
aboriginal iniiabitants of the cinder-cone dwellings near Flagstaff. 
There is said to be a ruin north of SeUgman, Arizona, which they 
likewise claim as remains of a former home. 

The records available constituting the written history of tliis 
part of Yavapai County are not very extensive and shed little or no 
light on its archeology. Western Ai-izona was visited in 1.5S.3 by 
Antonio de Espejo and was traversed nearly a quarter of a century 
later by Juan de Onate, who penetrated as far as the mouth of the 
Colorado River. Forty years before Espejo the explorer Alarcon 
at the farthest point reached on his trip up the Colorado heard of stone 
houses situated in the mountains to the east, and no doubt Father 
Garces in 1776 visited some of these villages in liis journey from the 
Colorado to the Hopi villages. The routes of the early Sj^anish 
explorers in this region have not yet been very accurately determined ; 
but it is probable that they made use of old Indian trails, one of 
wliich ran from the Verde to the Colorado, followed Walnut Creek, 
and went over Aztec Pass to the sources of the tributaries of the Santa 
Maria and the Bill Williams River, wliich flow into the Colorado. 
Although the accounts of these early travelers are vague, one fact 
stands out in reUef, namely, that the region was populated by Indian 
tribes, some of whom wore agriculturists and sedentary, who con- 
structed stone houses of sufhcient size to attract the attention of the 
explorers. But it was not until early American explorers visited the 
Southwest that knowledge of tliis region took more definite form. 
The Government reports of Sitgreaves in 1S5.3, of Wliipple and others 
in 1853-1854, and of the Wheeler Survey in the '70's drew attention 
to the ruins, and the establishment by the War Department of a 
fort on the Verde (moved in 1861 to a near-by site and abandoned in 
1891) opened tliis interesting region to students of archeology con- 
nected with the Ai'my. The presence of the camp at Fort Huala- 
pai seems to have led to no scientific results so far as archeology is 
concerned, although situated in the midst of a valley containing 
many ruins.' 

' Consult the following: 

Sitgreaves, L., Report of an Expedition down the Zuni and Colorado Rivers. Sen. Ei. Doc. 59, :J2d 
Cong., 2d sess., Washington, 1853. 

Reports of Explorations and Surveys . . . from the Mississippi River to the l^acific Oce.in, vol. ni, 
Washington, 1S5G. ("Whipple Survey.") 

U. S. Geographieal Survey.s of the Territory of the United States West of the IMth Meridian. .Innuat 
Reports, Wasliington, 1S75-7S. ("Wheeler Survey.") 

IIolTraan, Walter J., MLscellaneous Ethnograpliic. Observations on Indians Inhabiting Nevada, Califor- 
nia, and Arizona. In Ttnlli Ann. Rep. Hayden Survey, Washington, 1.S7S. 

Mearns, Edgar A., Aneient Dwellings of the Rio Verde Valley. In Pop. Sci. Mo., xx.wn, New York, 
Oct., 1890. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 79 





MONTEZUMA CASTLE lABOVE' AND OUTLET OF MONTEZUMA WELL 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE fiO 








MONTEZUMA WELL 



FEWKESj RUINS ON THE UPPER VEKDE KIVER 187 

The biiildiiip;s herein considered have few points of likeness to New 
Mexican pueblos;' in details they are more nearly related to the ruins 
of habitations called jacales, on the Gila and its tributaries. The 
forts or fortified hilltops suggest the trincheras of Sonora and Chi- 
hualuia, in northwestern Mexico, and present arcliitectural features 
(lislinguishing this tyjie from true pueblos of New Mexico, Colorado, 
northern Arizona, and Utah, the fort or fortified hilltop being a 
southern and western rather than a northern and eastern type of 
structure. 

Comparison of the ruins along the upper Verde with those on 
or near Walnut Creek shows clearly the mfluence of environment 
on human habitations. In the former region cliff-dwellings and 
cave habitations predominate, the latter because they could be 
easily excavated in the soft rock, whereas in the Walnut Creek 
basm the formations consist of granite and basalt. The con- 
struction of cliff-houses or cave-ilwellings here being impossible, 
they are replaced by forts. Judging from the size and number of 
these forts, the conflicts between the inhabitants and the hostile 
tribes must have been severe. 

RUINS ON THE UPPER VERDE RIVER 

All evidence indicates that the upper part of the Verde Basin, 
like the middle and lower sections, had a considerable aboriginal 
population in prehistoric times. The valleys of the tributaries of 
the Verde also show evidences of former occupancy, almost every 
high hUl being cro\med by a ruin. The walls of some of these struc- 
tures are still intact, but most of them are broken down, although not 
to so gi-eat an extent that the gi-ound plan of the rooms can not 
be fairly well traced. Many river terraces, or elevated river banks, 
where agriculture was possible, are the sites of extensive ruins, as 
indicated by rows of foundation stones. 

The most important and typical ruins along the middle Verde 
are Montezuma Castle and the aboriginal shrine, Montezuma Well, 
which are so well known that the author has merely introduced 
illustrations (pis. 79, 80) of them for comparative purposes. 

The present record of unpublished studies begins with the con- 
sideration of cave-dwellings at the mouth of Oak Creek, from an 
archeologic pomt of view one of the least known groups of cave- 
dwellings in the Verde Valley. 

1 The author has repeatedly pointed out a distinction between the type of ruin called jacaUa, char- 
acteristic of southern and western Arizona, and that known to archeologists as "pueblos," so abundant in 
New Mexico. 



188 A.NTKHiriKS OF THE VEUDK AND WAI.XU'J' CKKICK I r.nr. A\x. US 

Ruins at the Movth oi- Oak Creek 

Tlie cavate rooms (pis. 81-84) in tlie hliitt' ovcrlookinf]; Oak (Vcek 
are good examples of cave domiciJes artiiicially excavated in cliffs. 
This cluster of rooms, accompanied by a building above, is situated 
in the angle formed by Oak Creek and the Verde, about 50 yards 
from the Cornville-Verde road, having a wide outlook across the 
valleys of both streams. Although not so extensive as the cavate 
lodges found lower down the Verde, and somewhat smaller than 
most similar caves in the Rio Grantle region, tliis cluster is repre- 
sentative of Verde Valley cavate lodges. 

The rock of which the bluff is composed is a friable tufaceous 
formation, superficially much eroded by weathering. This rock is so 
soft that it could be readily worked with stone implements, as shown 
by certain peckings on the vault of the roof and on the walls Df the 
rooms. Judging from the nature of the rock, it is probable that the 
face of the bluff above the river has been worn away considerably 
since the caves were deserted ; the front walls have changed somewhat 
even in modern times. 

Although these artificial caves have been known for some time, 
especially to people living in the vicinity, little detailed study has 
been given to them by archeologists. In his re]>ort on the lower 
Verde ruins, Mindeleff does not mention or figure them, and they are 
not discussed in other accounts. In 1898 the present author directed 
attention to the interesting character of these caves.' 

A marked feature of cavate rooms m Ai'izona- is the almost unex- 
ceptional association with them of buddings constructed on the talus 
at their bases or on the mesa above them. Associated with the Oak 
Creek caves, as with the cavate dwellings of Clear Creek, lower down 
the Verde, there is a buildmg (pi. 81) on the mesa above but none 
on the talus below. Althougli at present much broken down, this 
building presents strong indication of long habitation and is believed 
to have been occupied contemporaneously with the caves below, pos- 
sibly by the same clans. 

If the cavate rooms and the pueblo on the mesa were inliabited 
synchronously, the suggestion naturaUy occurs that they may liave 
had two distuict uses: possibly one was for ceremonial, the other 
for secular, purposes; or one was for storage of food and the other 
for dweUing purposes. The author inclines to tlie belief that each 
of these two types was devoted to a distinct use, but he is unable 
definitely to substantiate tliis hypothesis. The ruin (jil. 81) on top 
of the bluff overlooking Oak Creek was an extensive village resem- 
bling a pueblo; some of its walls are well preserved. One can hardly 

> In ITthAnn. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 

2 similar caves found on Clear Creek resemble in general those on <>ak Creek, anil there is no reason to 
doubt the tribal identity of the inhabitants of the two localities. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 81 





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RUINS AT THE MOUTH OF OAK CREEK 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 82 




a. MIDDLE SERIES 




6, EASTERN END 
CAVATE ROOMS OVERLOOKING OAK CREEK 






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RUINS ON THE UPPER VERDE RIVER 



189 



suppose this structure to have been inluibitccl by ])eople Ixostile to 
those occupying the cliffs below, nor is it reasonable to regard its 
walls as of a later or an earlier jieriod of construction. It is known 
that a division of rooms into kivas and living cjuarters is a constant 
feature in most modern, and in some ancient, pueblos.' Possibly 
there was a corresponding duality in this cluster, the cavate lodges 
and the pueblo on the bluff liavmg different functions. 

While most of the walls of the Oak Creek pueblo have fallen, a 
few of the rooms arc fairly well jM-cscrved. These are situated on the 
south side, rising from the rim of the precipitous bluff'; the descent 



OePRETSSION 




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i'\a. 55. Ground plan of pueblo on UluU overlooking Oak Creek. 

on the north side is more gradual. xVn examination of the ground 
plan (fig. 55) shows that the total length (measured east and west) 
is 231 feet and the breadth 135 feet. Most of the rooms are fairly 
large; their walls are of undressed reddish-colored stones, bearing evi- 
dences that they were formerly plastered. The lughest waU stiff 
standing is about 20 feet, wliile several walls are 15 feet, in height. 
The ]>ositions of projecting floor beams and of apertures which for- 
merly received such beams indicate that the structure in its highest 
part originaUy contained three stories and was a pueblo.' 

* It is known tliat there are no circular kivas in Verde ruins, and the rectangular ceremonial rooms 
(kibus) in tills vaile3* have not yet been dilTereu tinted from liabitation,s. 

s A pueblo is a compact community building, generally more than two stories liigh and terraced, the 
stories above the first having lateral entrances. 



li)() ANTIQUITIES OF THE VERDE AND WALNUT CREEK [etii. ann. 28 

In all the outlines of rooms that have been traced there arc no 
evidences of kivas (subterranean chambers specialized for ceremonial 
purposes), but at the northwestern corner, outside the walls, is a 
circular depression suggesting a former reservoir. Viewed from 
below or from the left bank of Oak (^reek, the ruin with the line of 
cavate rooms beneath and the wall of the pueblo crowning the bluff 
forms a striking ])icture, as shown in the accomi)an)ang illustrations 
(pis. 81, h; 82). The caves below — that is, the rooms excavated in the 
side of the bluff — will be considered first. 

The openings into these cavate lodges appear at two levels, those in 
the lower row being the more numerous. The front wall of the upper 
row has been almost completely destroyed by the elements. Three 
sections may be distinguished in the lower or main line of cavate 
rooms — western, middle, and eastern. While in general style of con- 
struction the rooms of all three sections are similar, the chambers 
vary to so great an extent in size, depth to wliich excavated, antl in 
other particulars as to suggest that they were used for different pur- 
poses. The rooms of the western end (pi. 83), which are larger than 
those of the other two sections, are more easily approached. The 
cluster of rooms at the eastern end (pis. S3, 84) can not be entered 
from the others, but is approached by climbing the bluff (pi. S4) above 
the CornviUe road. The broken openings of the western and middle 
sections face southward beyond Oak Creek, wliile those at the east 
face more toward the east. 

In order to comprehend more fuUy the character of the site of these 
excavated rooms, let us consider a high cUff or bluff (pis. 83, 84) with 
a river flowing along its base, bordering which is a low talus of 
fallen stones, the debris from the wall above. From the top of 
tills talus to the level of the floors of the cavate rooms is about 15 
feet. The pathway follows a low bench in the cliff a few feet below the 
floor level, at too great a distance, however, for one to climb to the 
rooms, except at two points. Viewed from a level jdace across the 
creek the lines of cavate rooms appear as rows of irregularly shaped 
holes in the side of the chff (pi. 81, h). The jagged openings indicate 
former entrances of caves artificially excavated in the rock, the marks 
of the workers' tools being visible on the walls. 

The average depth to wliich these caves are excavated is 20 feet, 
and the whole length of the western and middle parts is about 207 
feet, the former being 183 feet and the latter 24 feet. Attention is 
drawn to the fact that each of the 10 rooms composing the western 
series of cavate rooms is rudely circular or oval in form, none of 
the corners forming right angles. The floors of most of the rooms 
are approximately on the same level; their roofs are formed bj' 
the roof of the cavity, wlule the partitions consist of walls of the 



FEWKES] 



BUINS ON THE UPPER \TERDE KIVER 



191 



rock left in place. There was evidently once a passageway (pi. S3, b) 
alonsj the ledges in front of the line of entrances into the cavate 
rooms, and it hkewise a])pcars that many walls formerly closed the 
fronts, whose positions are now indicated by great jagged apertures. 
Wliile only fragments of these front walls remain, it appears from 
one (in the middle series) still standing (pi. 81,&) that walls of tliis 
kind formerly extended along the whole length, from floor to roof, 
and were pierced for entrance. 

There is no evidence that a builtling once stood on the talus in front 
of tills line of cavate lodges (pi. 83, h), as found in connection with 
some similar habitations. The situation of the caves with relation 
to the cliff above would seem to afford evidence against such sup- 



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Fig. 56. Ground plan of cave rooms on Oak Creek (western end and middle). 

position. It is doubtful also whether there were any rooms on the 
river bank, wliich was flooded regularly at liigh water. 

The rooms of the western and middle series of Oak Creek caves are 
indicated on the ground plan (fig. 56) by the letters A-M, East of 
room J the partition separating the rooms of the western series from 
those of the middle series approaches so close to the edge of the chfl 
that it is impossible to pass around it from one room to another. The 
entrance to tins series of rooms Ues at the point A; the aperture is small 
and bounded by broken walls (pis. 81, i; 83, h). Once on the ledge, 
however, one can walk on a projection the whole distance from room A 
to room J without inconvenience, passing through many connecting 
passages. Room B, wliich is somewhat more spacious than A, has in 
one corner a small closet or niche ; in C there are two of these niches, once 
used for containing food or water. No sign of front walls appears in 



192 ANTIQUITIES OF THE VERDE AND WALNUT CREEK linii. ann. 28 

A, B, or C. Kdoni 1) is now, us it probably always has been, really an 
arched passageway ; in its floor is a mortar-like depression in which pos- 
sibly grain may have boon pounded. A solid rock support left by the 
prehistoric workman, in front of tlus arched passage, shows on its 
sides the marks of the builder's stone tools. Room E was apparently 
an open area, perhaps a recess or court rath(>r tlian a living room, 
and, as there are no signs of a front wall, probably served as a porch 
for room F. At the edge of tliis porch is a shallow groove cut in the 
floor, exteniUiig at right angles to the edge of the cliff, in which it 
may be supposed the ancients rested their weapons before they 
discharged them at the enemy below.' The front wall of room F is 
well preserved, making tlus room the best in condition in the western 
series; it has a window and a closet, or niche, in the rear. The 
pear-shaped passageway into the adjoining room (G) is cut through 
a solid rock partition, the opening being just lai-ge enough for the 
passage of the human body. The remaimng rooms (G, H, I, J), 
wliich are open in front, are comparatively large. There is an 
elevation in the floor forming a platform between rooms F and 
G, wliich maj" be hkened to the bancpiettes in some other cavate 
lodges. 

The middle series of cavate lodges at Oak Creek has three rooms 
(K, L, M) ; these are merely a continuation of the western series 
from wliich the room first mentioned (K) is separated by undisturbed 
rock. This room is almost circular in shape; the curve of the roof 
extends from the liighost point (about 6 feet), in the middle, to the 
floor. The distance on the floor across the broken entrance (there is 
no front wall) measures 11 feet, and from the face of the chfT to the 
rear waU 15 feet. . The surface of the floor, composed of the natural 
stone considerabty worn, is smooth, almost poUshed. There are three 
small niches in the rear of the room, the bottoms of wliich are slightly 
below the floor level. 

Room L is the only one in the middle series retaining a remnant of 
the front wall that once closed the entrances of those caves. The 
distance from tlus wall to the rear wall is 10 feet, the width of the 
entrance 14^ feet, and the height of the room 5 to 7 feet. There 
are two niches in the rear of tliis room and a shallow groove on 
the ledge in front, which projects beyond the wall at right angles to 
its length. Here also are two circular shallow depressions in the rock 
floor that might have been used as mortars for pounding corn or other 
seeds. 

The doorways or passages betw'een rooms L and K and L and M 
apparently remain in about the same conchtion as when the rooms 

1 Similar grooves aiv found on the East Mesa of the Hopi, overlooking the trail near Hano, which early 
warriors are said to have used for the same purpose. 



FEWKES] 



EUINS ON THE UPPER VEKDE EIVER 



193 



were inliabited. Room M has one small mche and two large niches; 
the open front shows no vestige of masonry. 

Excavated in the northeastern corner (pi. 84) of the bluff, some- 
what to the east of the middle series of rooms and separated therefrom 
by an impassable chfT, are the eastern caves, which open toward the 
east, overlooking the CornviUe-Vcrde road and Oak Creek. There 
are but llu-ee rooms (N, O, P) in tliis cluster (fig. 57). Room N 
faces more to the southward than the remainder. Tliis room is irreg- 
ular in shape. The rear wall is 21 feet from the edge of the cliff at 
the floor level ; the dome-shaped roof, wiiich is blackened with smoke, 
slojies imiformly backwartl, the highest pomt bemg near the entrance; 
the average height is 5 feet. A peejjhole cut through the rock par- 
tition looks out over Oak Creek, on the southern side. One of the 
walls contams a niche. Room N opens into rooms O and P. The 




Fig. 57. Ground j)lan of cave rooms on Oak Creek (eastern end). 

former is about 8 feet liigh; this can be entered by a jjassageway 
from front and side. The roof is vaulted; the floor on the north side 
is shghtly raised. Passage tlu'ough the narrow opening from one of 
these rooms to another can be effected only by crawling on all fours. 
Room P has a vaulted roof, averaging 7 feet in height; there are two 
niches at the floor level, the openings of which are ])ear-shaped. 

In their general features the Oak Creek cavate lodges,' as show^l in 
the preceding jxxragraphs, arc not unlike structures of similar char- 
acter in the Verde VaUcy. They closely resemble inhabited caves in 
various parts of the world, excavated in similar rock formations by 
people of the Stone Age. 

' No sufficient reason to reject the word "cavate" occurs to the writer nor docs he know of any better 
term that has been suggested by those who object to its use to designate caves of this tj-pe. Most of these 
artificial caves are found in cUffs and may l^e properly called clill-dwellings, especially those which have 
buildings in front of them. They undoubtedly grade into other types, as natural caves having houses 
buill in them, but the term is the most e.xpressive yet suggested for cliff-rooms artificially excavated. 

20903°— 28 ETH— 12 13 



194 ANTIQUITIES OF THE VERDE AND WALNUT CKEEK Fetii. ann, 28 
Cl-IFK-lIOl'SES OF THE ReD RoCKS 

The cavato rooms of Oak Crook here describod and illiistratod 
are not the only form of chfT-dwolhnfjs in the upper Vorde region. 
Wo find tliero also wallod housos built in caves or in recesses pro- 
tected by an overhan<^ of the cliff, in wliich little or no artificial 
excavation is apparent. The largest known cliff-houses of this type 
along the upjicr Verde are situated in the Red Rocks, which can 
easily be seen across the valley from Jerome, Arizona. The geologic 
character of these rocks and the peculiar structure of the caves in 
which they occur impart to these cliff-houses a form rescmblmg the 
cliiT-dwollings of the Navaho National Monument in northern Ai'izona, 
the characteristic feature being that the rear wall and in some cases 
the side walls of the rooms consist of the cave wall. The latter walls 
are built so that their ends join the rear wall of the cave, unlike 
pueblos, which are independent of cliffs for support so far as lateral 
walls are concerned. This type, like the ledge-houses in the Mesa Verde 
National Park, Colorado, forms a connectmg link between cavate 
lodges and cliff-dwellings, the essential differences being that the 
former are artificial excavations while the latter are constructed in 
natural caves.' In some of the rooms of cliff-houses of the most 
independent construction, the walls of the cliff constitute rear or side 
walls of the dwellings, so this feature can hardly be said to indicate any 
cultural difference; it is rather an expression of geologic environment, 
a difference that is worth consideration and may be convenient in 
classification. 

The aboriginal habitations discovered by the author in 1895 in 
the Red Rocks ^ belong to the type of cliff-houses rather than to that 
called cavate lodges, the latter being represented on Oak and Clear 
Creeks. 

Some of the smaller cliiT-houses on the upper Verde and its tribu- 
taries have a characteristic form, approximating more closely those 
in Walnut Canyon, near Flagstaff, than they do those of the San 
Juan drainage.^ Tliis difTerence is due largely to the character of the 
rock formation and the erosion of the cliffs in wliich the first-men- 
tioned dwellings are situated, but is also in part traceable to the com- 
position of the clans that once inhabited them. 

In Montezuma Castle (pi. 79), the typical clifl'-dwelling in the Verde 
Valley, there are a main building and several smaller houses, which 
are duplicated on the Sycamore and other tributaries of the upper 
Verde. 

1 Several of the Verde cliff-dwellings are simply natural caves whose entrances have been at least par- 
tially walled up. The external differences between these and artificial caves closed liy a front wall are too 
slight perhaps to be considered. The method of formation of the cave, whether by nature or by artificial 
means, is more important as a means of classification. 

2 See 17th Ann. Rep. Bur. Amcr. Ethnol. 

' The author regards tliese as closely related to the ledge-houses of the Mesa Verde, although exteriorly 
they are closely allied to cavate lodges and may be situated in artificially excavated caves. 



FEWKES] RUINS ON THE UPPER VERDE RIVER 195 

The cliff-dwellings of the Rod Rocks, built as they are in a rock 
formation different from that in wliich Montezuma Castle is situated, 
have certain architect ural dissimilarities wliich are evident from com- 
parison of the illustrations. 

Ilonanki and Palatki, the ])rincipal cliff-houses in the Red Rocks, 
may be visited from Jerome, Arizona, by a more direct road than that 
from Flagstaff. This road passes through the valley settlements to 
Cottonwood, near which place it crosses the river. Above and just 
beyond a ford there are low mesas on which are situated ruins,' the 
walls of which can be seen fi'ora the crossmg. (PI. 89.) From the 
ford the road is fairly good as far as Windmill ranch, and thence is 
passable with wagons to Black's ranch, at the mouth of one of the 
canyons of the Red Rocks. As there is always water in this canyon, 
the mouth of which lies midway l)ctween Honanki and Palatki, a 
short distance from each, it is a favorable place for a permanent 
camp. The canyons in which the two ruins are situated are waterless. 

Several small cliff -houses are found in this and neighboring canyons, 
and there are many caves showmg evidences of former occupancy as 
mescal camps by Apache or others, but the main interest centers in 
Honanki and Palatki, the largest cliff-houses yet discovered in the 
Verde region with the ])ossible exception of Montezuma Castle. 

As already stated, it is evident that the character of the rock of 
the cave in wliich these two great ruins are situated is different from 
that in wliich Montezuma Castle stands. Like the latter, the small 
cliff-house in Sycamore Can3^on is literally built in a recess in the 
cliffs, the roof of the houses being a short distance below the roof of 
the cavity.- In Honanki and Palatki, however, the opening is large 
and more in the nature of a cavern with a slight overhanging roof 
high above the tallest building. In these ruins there is no refuse- 
heap back of the inner rooms, the wall of the precipice serving as the 
rear wall of the room. 

The cliff-dwellings of the Red Rocks are more closely related archi- 
tecturally to those of the Navaho National Monument,^ in northern 
Arizona, than to Montezuma Castle. They differ also fi'om the ruin 
at Jordan's ranch, which is in reality a ledge-ruin, being built in 
a natural cave following the line of softer rock strata, having the 
front closed by an artificial wall extending from base to roof.* 

The two ruins, Honanki and Palatki, discovered by the author in 
1895, were the first cliff-dwellings in this part of the Verde i-egion 
made known to science.^ At that time photographs of these ruins were 

1 There are two niins on the mesa above this ford, on the lelt bank of the river. These can be seen from 
Jerome with the aid of a field glass. 

' The author has not yet determined whether the cave at Montezuma Castle is wholly natural. 

' See Bull. 10, Put. .4 mer. Elhnol. 

< Several ruins of this type occur in the rock under Montezuma Castle; the ruins in Walnut Canyon, 
near Flat'statT. also l-eiong to this type. 

'•ntli Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Elhnol. 



196 



ANTIQUITIKS OK TllK VERDK AND WALNUT CREEK [eth. ANN, 28 



published, acconipaMiod by (Uvscriptioiis of the various rooms and 
minor anti(iui(ies. Tlio author adds \\evv but little to his former 
description of the ruins, but has introduced better ground plans (figs. 
ns, r>fl) of them tluxn any yet published. Although reports of ruins 




Fig. 58. Grouud plan of I'alalki. 



much larger than these of the Red Rocks, situated higher up on the 
Verde, were brought to the author in 1895, he is convinced that there 
is but slight foundation for them. There are undoubtedly several 
small cliff-houses and many natural caves, as "Robber's Roost," 




Fic. .'J9. Grounil pluii of llonanki. 



in the Red Rocks, but no cliff-dwellings of great size are to be found 
between the Red Rocks and the Chino Valley. Palatki (pis. 85 : 86, a) 
lies in the canyon east of Black's ranch, a short distance therefrom, 
and Honanki about the same distance to the west. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 85 






iif 







RUIN BELOW MARX'S RANCH (ABOVE', AND PALATKI 




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BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 87 




AT THE MOUTH OF BLACK'S CANYON 




NEAR JORDAN'S RANCH 
CLIFF-HOUSES ON THE UPPER VERDE RIVER 



FE« ICES] 



KUIX3 ON THE UPPER VEEDE RIVER 



197 



On approaching Palatki from Black's ranch by the trail at the 
base of tlic cUlf a number of natural caves are encountered that evi- 
dently were formerly used by the Apache, as their smoke-blackened 
Willis are decorated with characteristic Apache pictographs.' No 
iiulications of house walls were discovered in these caves, and there 
is only scanty evidence of occupancy prior to that of the Apache, 
wliich was clearly very recent. 

Cliff-house at the Mouth of Black's Canyon 

The small cliff-house at the entrance to Black's Canyon, on the west 
side, is one of the interesting forms of cliff-houses in the Red Rocks, 
differing from any yet described in the Verde region. The ruin (pi. 
87) spans a narrow crevice, resting partly on the top of a detached 




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Fig. 60. Ground plan of cUfl-house at the moulh ot Black's Canyon. 

bowlder and partly on a ledge under the wall of the cliff above; in 
other words, the house is situated in part of a recess out of which the 
bowlder has fallen. 

Many pictographs, consisting of zigzag figures, dots, and parallel 
lines, resembling "counts" and rude faces, occur in the neighborhood 
of tliis ruin; these are not pecked in the rock surface, as are most 
ancient Pueblo pictographs, but are painted in white, red, or other 
pigments. The ground plan of this ruin is shown in the accompany- 
ing illustration (fig. 60) and its general ajjpearance \'iewed from the 
hills back of the camp in plate 87. This ruin is much dilapidated, 
most of its walls having fallen; a considerable section, however, 
containing a doorway or window, can still be seen. The house is 



> Most ol the clia-dwcUers' pictographs are incised, wtiile ttiose made by Apache are painted.. 



198 ANTIQUITIES OF THE VEKDE AND WALNUT CREEK [ktii. ann. 28 

of stone, but there iire ulso fraji^nuMits of julobc* wnJls luul sections of 
plastered clay floors adlierinjjj to the ledjijo and adjacent parts of t\w 
bowlder. As before stated, between clilf and bowlder is a crevice once 
bridged by the biiildhigs. Two or three beams project from the top 
of the bowlder opposite the ledge, indicating that the space between 
the bowlder and the sides of the cliff was formerly floored or roofed, 
the ends of the supporting beams resting on the bowlder and the ledge. 
Tliis floor was evidently supported in part by a stone wall built in the 
cre\nce, remains of wliich are shown in the ground plan. Possibly 
tliis wall formerly served as a partition between two small basal 
rooms occup^nng the crevice, the remaining walls of wliich are no 
longer traceable. 

A row of shallow pits cut in the surface and sides of the bowlder 
occupy approximately the position indicated in fig. 60; these served 
as footholds and apparently furnished the only means by winch the 
inhabitants of this building could gain access thereto. 

Lebge-houses near Jordan's Ranch 

The small cliff-dweUings near Jordan's ranch, about 6 mUes from 
Jerome, belong to the type known as ledge-ruins, i. e., natural caves 
of small extent having the fronts closed by walls of masonry. There 
are several similar ledge-ruins in the valley, but the Jordan ruins are 
probably the best preserved. Several ruins of this type are found in 
the cliffs below Montezuma Castle, as shown in plate 79. 

The Jordan ruins are situated in the cliffs on the right bank of the 
Verde about 50 feet above the river bottom and can be reached 
by an easy climb over fallen stones. There are several ledge-houses in 
this locality, three of which face east and the fourth north, all over- 
looking the river. The soft limestone composing the clifl' is here 
stratified, the strata being slightly tilted and in places very much 
eroded; the formation is colored white and red. The cave walls are 
much blackened with smoke. It was possil)le to enter reailily all but 
one of these houses ; the trail leading to the fourth has been obliterated 
by erosion. 

The largest of the Jordan ruins (pis. 87, 88), which is 175 feet in 
length, extends approximately north and south. ' About half the front 
wall and two end walls are still intact but the intermediate section of 
the front wall is broken. The cliif slightly overhangs the house, form- 
ing a roof; the walls extencl from the edge of the cliff to the roof. The 
rear wall of the cliff forms the corresponding wall of the rooms, as 
indicated in the ground plan (fig. 61) — a characteristic feature of 
Verde VaUey cliff-houses. 

On a lower level of the cliff, just beyond the Jordan ruins, are two 
rooms, with blackenetl walls, connected by an almost cylindrical 




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FEWKBS] 



RUINS ON THE UPPER VERDE RIVER 



199 



passagewav through the intervening partition. The front wall of 
one of these rooms is pierced l)v a round peephole, which commands a 
view upstream. The walls of this ruin are thick except in front, where 
they are badly broken down. On their inner plastered surfaces marks 
of human hands appear.' 




TALUS 



Fk;. hi. Ground ijlan and section o( ledgu-house near Jordan's ranch (height of front wall about 50 feet). 

Ruins in Sycamore Canyon 

The presence of ruins in Sycamore Canyon (Dragoon Fork of some 
of the older maps) was reported, but on mvestigation the author was 
unable to find any large buildhigs on this tributary of the Verde 
River, although he examined several ruins — forts, cavate rooms, and 



' These are the ruins about which an imaginary story was pul)lished in a Jerome {.\rizona) newspaper, 
later copied into journals of wider circulation, that they were still Inhabited. 



200 ANTIQUITIES OF THE VERDE AND WALNUT CHEEK I btii. a.vn. 28 

wiUled-up caves or cliir-ilwcllings. lli<^her up the canyon is called 
Sycamore Basin; this also is reputed to contain cliff-dwellings and 
other e\'idences of former hal)itation, but was not visited.' 

In Sycamore Canyon, about a mde from the jimction of the Sycamore 
and the Verde, a fine spring bubbles out of the ground, the outflow from 
wliich formed a considerable stream at the time of the author's visit. 
Half a mile farther up the canyon is a well-preserved but inaccessible 
cliff-house, having an upper and a lower fi-ont wall, as shown in the 
accompanying illustration (pi. 88). This ruin is situated in a cave 
in the side of the cliff", the approach to which is worn away. The 
stones of the upper front wall of the inner building are supported by 
upright logs. 

About 2 miles from the junction of Sycamore Creek and the Verde, 
on both sides of the canyon, even where the walls are steepest, are 
natural caves showing evidences of former occupancy.^ For the 
greater part the waUs in these caves have tumbled down, but rem- 
nants of front walls are still standing. Here and there the volcanic 
rock is of columnar form. (PI. 86, h.) The formation of the cUff 
in wliich the caves are situated is uniformly soft and tufaceous; the 
color is commonly reddish, in places almost white. 

Apparently the preliistoric population of Sj^camore Canyon was 
small and the area that could be cultivated was meager. 

On a level place to the left of the road from Jerome as one descends 
to the mouth of the Sycamore there is a pueblo ruin wliich is much 
dilapidated. 

Ruins in Hell Canyon 

Hell Canyon is a branch of the Verde Canyon and the small 
stream flowing through the former discharges into the Verde a short 
distance from the mouth of Granite Creek. The author had been 
informed that there were extensive ruins of cliff-dweUings in Hell 
Canyon, but although there are here several stone ruins of the fortress 
type, referred to by ranchmen as "corrals," there are few remains of 
cliff-houses. One ranchman declared the Hell Canyon ruins to be the 
largest on the upper Verde ; this may be true, but no ruins of great 
size were visited by the author. Not far from the junction of this 
canyon with the Verde is a low bluff of soft stone, suggestive of the 
Oak Creek formation, which looks as if it once might have been 
honeycombed with cavate rooms. These have now disappeared, only 
a hint of their former existence remaining. The rock here is suitable 
for cavate houses like those at the mouth of Oak Creek, and there is 
level land adjacent that would serve for agricultural purposes. 

1 There is evidence of the existence of a large ruin on the rim of the mesa or the point of the tongue of 
land between the Verde and the mouth of the Sycamore, 25 miles from Williams, but this ruin was not 
visited. 

2 It is impossible to drive up this canyon, but the trip can easily be made on horsebaclc. 



fewkes] ruins on the uppee verde river 201 

Ruins near Del Rio 

The ruins in the neighborhood of Del Rio, most of which are on the 
summits of low mounds, have the same general form. Three of these 
ruins, one on the Banghart ranch, described by Ilinton,' were visited. 
Walls of ruined houses, of small size and inconspicuous, are to be 
seen to both the right and the left of the railroad, near the station. 

The ground plan of these ruins has been almost obliterated, as the 
stones from the fallen walls have been carried away for use in the 
construction of modern buildings in the neighborhood. Most of 
these buildings seem to have consisted of small clusters of rooms. 
Few of them are situated very far from tlie streams, and the more 
copious the supply of running water the more extensive are the signs 
of former aboriginal life. The ruins at Del Rio belong to the Chino 
series, the characters of which they possess in all essential particulars.^ 

Ruins near Baker's Ranch House 

The Baker ranch lies on the right bank of the Verde about 7 mUes 
above the mouth of Sycamore Creek. Several forts, cave habitations, 
and gravelly terraced mesa ruins (pi. 99) exist near the house now 
owned by Mr. Perkins.* 

Following up the stream about 2 miles to the Government road, 
the author observed on a malpais hill, about a mile from the river, 
obscurely outlmed walls of what was formerly a large fort. Within an 
inclosure bounded by the fallen waUs are the remains of several rooms. 
Although this is not one of the best-picserved or largest forts on the 
upper Verde, its walls ai-e still breast high. About 2 miles down the 
Verde from the Baker ranch house is a cave on the walls of which 
is a circular pictograph painted in black, probably Apache. 

A nule down the Verde from Baker's (Perkins') ranch house, on 
the right bank of the river, are the remains of a cliff-house of con- 
siderable size, the ground plan of which is shown in figure 62. A 
few years ago the walls were in good condition and the structure was 
then regarded as a fine example of a chff-house. Owing to the fact 
that this ruin lies in the surveyed route of the proposed railroad 
from Cedar Grove to Jerome, most of its walls will have to be de- 
stroyed when the road is built. The cave in wMch the ruin is situ- 
ated is about 40 feet in deptli and about 34 feet in width (from north 
to south wall) at the entrance; the height of the floor above the creek 
is 50 feet. On the plain in front of the cave, between the talus and 
the river, are fallen walls of a small pueblo from which many stones 

' Hinton, Handbook to Arizona, p. 419. 

- Del Rio, sometimes called Chino, is not a town but consists merely of a section house on the Santa F6, 
Prescott & Phoenix Railroad. 

^ .Mrs. Baker, who formerly lived here, is reported to have made a collection of archeologic objects, among 
which is said to have been an obsidian ax. 



202 ANTIQUITIES OF THE VERDE AND WALNUT CREEK [eth. ann. 28 

have bepii removed recently for use in the construction of a neigh- 
borinfi wall, but enough of the foundation stones remain to enable 
tracing the general ground plan. 

jVlthough this cave is a natural formation, in the rear are niches or 
cubby-holes evidently artificially excavated. The roof is about 15 
feet above the floor of the rooms. The cave floor is covered with 
fallen stones upon some of wliich tlie foundations of the remaining 
walls still rest. Evidently this ruin has been considerably dug over 
by relic seekers, for in the fine dust which covers the floors are 
found charcoal, fragments of pottery, stones showing artificial work- 










S lO 15 20 ZiFf.iO 

scale: §^ 




Fig. 62. Ground plan of ilill-dwelling at Baker's ranch. 

ing, fragments of corncobs, twine, and other objects. It is said that 
a few fine specimens have been removed from this debris, but noth- 
ing of value was found by tlie author. The remnants of several 
plastered walls painted red can still be traced. 

Ruin near the Mouth of Granite Creek 

Granite Creek, on which the city of Prcscott is situated, discharges 
its waters into the Verde not far from Del Rio. About 2 miles down 
the Verde from the mouth of Granite Creek, the stream makes an 
abrupt bend by reason of a volcanic cUff rising perpendicularly from 
the river. This cliff is crowned by a large fort (pi. 95) of aboriginal 



FBWEES] 



BUINS ON THE UPPER VERDE RIVER 



203 



construction. The ruin ' is situated almost due north of Jerome 
Junction, from which it can be reached by the road which turns at 




N 



O 15 3o ^S 60 75 90 FEET- 










Fig. 63. Urouud plan of fort near tlie mouth o: Granite Creek. 

Del Rio at right angles to the railroad and continues eastward to 
the mouth of Granite Creek. A visit can be readily made by wagon 

' This is proliably one of the ruins mentioned by Hinton, in his Handbook to Arizona. 



204 ANTIQUITIES OF THE VERDE AND WALNUT CREEK Iktii. ann. 28 

IViini Del Rill l)y following the Ix'd of tiic Verde. Tlio great trachyte 
clifi" rises precipitously about 300 to 400 feet above the river on the 
eastern, northern, and western sides, but on the south the approach, 
although steep, is more gi-adual; even here access is difficult. Ap- 
proached from the river, the ruin presents the appearance of a cas- 
tle towering above and commanding a view of the stream. 

The general ground plan (fig. 63) of the ruin is roughly oval, with its 
longer axis extending north and south. The northern part is without 
a high wall, tlie precipice, from the edge of which it rises, serving the 
purpose of defense in that direction; but the southern part is protected 
by a high massive wall 320 feet long, fairly well preserved, and provided 
with an entrance at the southern extremity. The short axis of the 
ruin, measured from one extremity of the south wall to the other, is 
about 125 feet in length. 

The northern and southern sections of the ruin are separated by a 
row of several rectangular rooms. The distance of these structures 
from the southern entrance is 87 feet, and from the nearest point of 
the northern section, 65 feet. The section south of these rooms 
appears to have been an enclosed plaza, without houses. In the 
northeastern part of the northern section are several rooms the com- 
bined length of which is 61 feet. 

The walls of this fort and of the included buildings average 6 feet 
in thickness ; they contain no mortar. 

This ruin is evidently the one mentioned by Hinton, as follows 
(pp. 419-20):' 

Four miles below the place described, there is a hill overluoking the Verde River, 
with a series of ruins of stone houses, inclosed by a stone wall on the south side, which 
in places is 20 feet high and 12 feet wide. The other sides of the hill are abrupt and 
precipitous, and 200 to 300 feet perpendicular. 

LIMESTONE BUTTE RUIN 

The Limestone Butte ruin (pis. 88-91), situated about 6 miles west 
of Jerome Junction and 16 miles north of Prescott, is one of the best 
preserved of the hilltop forts. It crowns a limestone ridge com- 
manding fine views of the valleys to the east and west and of the 
distant Juniper Mountains to the northwest, with the Cliino Valley 
and the distant peak called Pichacho. To the west Ues Williamson 
Valley and to the south the mountains surrounding Prescott. The 
approach to this ruin on the east is more abrupt than that on the 
west. All old Government road which runs through Aztec Pass 
lies at the base of the ridge on top of which the ruins stand. This 
ridge rises 500 to 600 feet above the neighboring valley. 

The general plan (fig. 64) of the Limestone Butte rum is rectan- 
gular, the orientation slightly east of north. The walls are solid 

' Hinton, Richard J., Handbook t» Arizona, San Francisco and New York, 1878. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 89 





LIMESTONE BUTTE 'ABOVE' AND CORNVILLE RUINS 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTV-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 90 




a. FROM THE NORTH 




h, FROM THE SOUTH 




c, WESTERN WALL 
LIMESTONE BUTTE RUIN 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 91 




a, INTERIOR 




/;, WESTERN SIDE 'FROM BELOW i 
LIMESTONE BUTTE RUIN 



FEWKES] 



LIMESTONE BUTTE RUIN 



205 



masonry, well preserved, averaging about 8 feet in height and 4^ feet 
in width. On tlie western side the foundations conform more or less 
with the edge of the cliff, tlie face of wluch is sinuous; the other 
walls are fairly straight. The inside north-south. measurement is 69 
feet; tlie oast-west, "27^ feet. 



-■:S§' (^"£;?O^°0^ ? ^°-'?'? ^c'^f^ P.^-^L^?"' 



c::,^.<!i!>i 




Fig. 64. (Jrouiid plan of Limestone Butte ruin. 

No trace of mortar remains and the component stones of the 
walls are rougldy dressed. The northern angle is almost wholly 
occupied by a small low-walled room, but the rest of the inclosure is 
Avithout debris: tlic floor is solid rock. At a southwestern angle of 
the surrounding wall there was originally a crevice in the floor, since 



206 ANTIQUITIES OF THE VERDE AND WALNUT CREEK Iktii. ANN. 28 

walled up, suggesting tiic former j)reseiU'o of an entrance from below, 
hut the adjacent walls have fallen to so great an extent that its 
purpose is difllcult to determine. Below the western wall, the curve 
of which is shown in the accompanying views (pis. 90, c; 91, b), 
is a rude wall suggesting a cave-room, the other walls of which are 
obscurely indicated. 

Viewed from the nortli, almost entire walls are seen, the founda- 
tions of which at certain places are large projecting bowlders. (See 
pi. 91, a, h.) 

RUINS ON WALNUT CREEK 

Walnut Creek is a small stream the waters of which at times flow 
into the Chino, but which, on the occasion of the writer's visit, were 
lost in the sands about 8 miles below old Camp Hualapai. In the 
report of Wliipple's reconnoissance the stream bears the name of 
Pueblo Creek, from certain "pueblos" on the hills overlooking it, 
which he described, but the name is no longer apphed to it. The 
ruins of Walnut Creek are of two kinds, one situated on the low 
terrace bordering the creek, the other on the hilltops. The stream 
is formed by the junction of two branches and the valley is continuous 
from Aztec Pass to the point where it merges into Chino Valley. 

There is evidence that Walnut Valley had a considerable aboriginal 
population in preliistoric times. A number of forts and many remains 
of settlements strewn with pottery fragments and broken stone arti- 
facts were found. Here and there are mounds, also irrigation ditches 
and pictographs. 

A few years ago Walnut VaUey had a number of white settlers 
and a post office/ but the families have now dwindled in number to 
three or four, and the place is characterized chiefly by abandoned 
houses. Camp Ilualaj^ai is deserted, the adobe houses shown in the 
accompanying illustration (pi. 92) being almost the only reminder 
of its former existence. 

Historical Account 

Whipple was the first to mention the numerous ruins (' ' pueblos ' ' and 
forts) and other evidences of a^ former aboriginal population in Walnut 
Creek Valley. Subsequent to his \nsit no new observations on them 
appear in published accounts of tlie ruins of Arizona, and no arche- 
ologist seems to have paid attention to this interesting valley, a 
fact wliich gave the author new enthusiasm to visit the region and 
inspect its antiquities. These seemed of special interest, as Whip- 
ple's account was inadequate as a means of determining their rela- 
tions with other aboriginal ruins in the Southwest. Who built the 

' The post office wm removed to Simraous, in Williamson Valley. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 92 





OLD CAMP HUALAPAI AND MOUNT HOPE 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 93 




NEAR AINSWORTH'S RANCH 




AZTEC PASS 

VIEWS IN WALNUT VALLEY 



FEWKES] RUINS ON WALNUT CREEK 207 

structures and wlio arc the descendants of the builders, are impor- 
tant questions. 

In ancient times there was a well-worn Indian trail from tlie 
Colorado River, past Mount Hope, through Aztec Pass, down Walnut 
Creek, and across Williamson and Chino Valleys to the Verde. Tliis 
trail, used by later American explorers, was doubtless the one fol- 
lowed by some of the early Spanish missionaries in their efforts to 
reach the Ilopi Indians from the Cahfornia side. Although the route 
taken by early Spanish travelers in crossing the country west of the 
Hopi villages is more or less problematical, it would seem that Onate, 
in 1604, may have crossed the divide at Aztec Pass (pi. 93, h) , and that 
Father Garces, 172 j^ears later, may have followed this trail past Mount 
Hope and down Walnut Creek. The Yavapai ("Yampais") were 
ninnerous in this region at that time and much later, as indicated on 
the few maps and descriptions wliich have come down to us. 

In 1S53 Sitgreaves followed the same Indian trail over Aztec Pass, 
crossing the country afterward traversed by Whipple, but, although 
he must have seen several ruins in this region, he mentions none, nor 
do others who followed approximately the same route, namely, Beale's 
road, known also as the Government road. 

There is considerable arable land lying along Walnut Creek (pi. 93), 
which is continually sliifting, owing to the inroads made by the stream, 
hence it is hardly probable that the flats now seen are those once 
cultivated by the Indians. It may be for this reason that tlie ancient 
farmhouses were built on the tongue-shaped terraces or on gravelly 
mesas bordering the stream, where the ruins are now found. 

The forts were built on the summits of the highest prominences 
both for protection and for the sake of obtaining a wide \new up and 
down the stream, and it is an instructive fact in this connection that 
one rarely loses sight of one of these hill forts before another can be 
seen. By means of a system of smoke signals news of an approacliing 
foe could be communicated from settlement to settlement from one end 
of Walnut Valley to the other, giving the farmers in their fields skirt- 
ing the stream opportunity to retreat to the forts for protection. 

The ruins in Walnut ("Pueblo") Creek Valley' are thus referred to 
in Wlujjple's report : 

Five mile.s beyond Turkey Creek we came upon Pueblo Creek, so called on account 
of exteni^ive ruins of houi^es and fortifications that lined its banks . . . Wide 
Indian trails and ruins of extensive fortifications constructed centuries since upon 
the heio;hts to defend it showed that not only present tribes but ancient races had 
deemed Aztec Pa.ss of great importance. 

> The names ''Turkey Creek" anri " Pueblo Creek," mentioned by Whipple, do not seem to have been 
generally adopted by white settlers. The stream called by Whipple " I'lieblo Creek " is now called Wal- 
nut Creek. "Aztec Pass" also is a name but little known to settlers in this region. 



208 ANTIQUITIES OF THE VERDE AND WALNUT CREEK Ietii. axx. 28 

The only iiwuuiits known to (lie author, of tlic ruins in Walnut 
Valley are tlic rc[)orts of Lieutenant Whipple and Lieutenant Ives/ 
wliich unfortunately contain but meager descriptions of tliese antiqui- 
ties. Most of the writers on the ruins of Arizona do not refer to 
those found in this valley. 

Whipple spealvs of several ruins on Walnut (Pueblo) Creek, but 
his references are too brief even for identification. One of these, 
said to be situated on Turkey Creek, he characterizes (op. cit , pt. 1, 
p. 92) as- 
dilapidated walls of a tower. The ground-plan was an ellipse, with axes 25 and 15 
feet, partitions dividing it into three apartments. The walls must have been large, 
as they yet remained 5 feet in height, and 6 feet wide. The hill is 250 feet above the 
river. 

This description does not correspond with respect to size, elevation, 
or general appearance with any ruin visited by the author in tliis 
region. 

Alarcon ascended the Colorado to the point where it forms a 
"straight channel between high mountains," possibly the mouth of 
BiU Williams River, the mountains being situated, as pointed out by 
Professor Turner, not far from the junction of this stream with the 
Colorado. 

Whipple found near his camj) (No. 105) a ruin similar to those 
here mentioned, of wliich he wi-ote (p. 94) as follows: 

To obtain a still more extensive view, Mr. Campbell climbed a steep hill, several 
hundred feet above the ridge of the pass, formed by a short spur from the abrupt ter- 
mination of the northern mountain chain, and found upon the top ruins of another 
fortification. Its length was 100 feet. It was 25 feet wide at one end, and 20 at 
the other. The wall was well built, 4 feet thick, and still remaining 5 feet high. It 
commanded a view of the pass, and, with proper armament, was well situated to defend 
and keep possession of it from an enemy. The entrance, 6 feet wide, was from the 
steepest side of the hill — almost inaccessible. From a fancy founded- on the evident 
antiquity of these ruins, we have given the name of Aztec Pass to this place. 

A ruin supposed to be that just described was visited by the 
author, the results of whose observations, however, differ so much 
from Wliipple's account as to suggest doubt regarding the identity 
of the remains. 

From Walnut Creek the old Indian trail followed by Whipple 
ascends Aztec Pass, becoming a rough wagon road bordering gran- 
itic rocks. West of the pass tlie country is comparatively level, 
sloping gradually to a sheep ranch on the Baca Grant, called Oaks 
and Willows. The high mountain seen from the road for some dis- 
tance west of Aztec Pass is called Mount Hope (pi. 92).- Beyond 

I Reports of Explorations and Surveys to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a 
Railroad from tlie Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Made under the direction of the Secretary of 
War in 185.'i-4. Vol. in. parts i-iv. Extract.s from the [preliminary] report of Lieut. A. W. Whipple 
[assisted by Lieut. J. C. Ives], Corps of Topographical Engineers, upon the route near the thirty-fifth 
parallel. 

'This mountain is incorrectly located on the Cnited States Land Office map. It stands on the Baca 
Grant. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 94 





VIEWS IN BIG BURRO CANYON 



FEHKKs] RUINS ON WALNUT CREEK 209 

Oaks and Willows, keeping tliis mountain on the right, a fairly clear 
trail continues to a deserted ranch, marked by a ruined stone chim- 
ney and a corral, at the head of Burro Creek. Here, at the terminus 
of all wagon roads, among magnificent pines, is a pool of water; 
beyond, the traveler may continue on horseback to the Big Burro 
(pi. 94), one of the large canyons of this region. 

Following Bill Williams River westward to its junction with the 
Colorado, no ruins on hilltoi)s were seen by Wheeler's party, but 
at Yampai Sjjring, near the former river, the lower side of a liigh 
slielving rock forms, according to Wliipple's report, a cave the walls 
of wliich are "covered" with ])ictographs. 

The former habitations of the Walnut Creek aborigines were doubt- 
less constructed after the manner of jacales, supported by stone or 
adobe foundations, a common feature of most of the ruins herein 
described. Entrance to these inclosures must have been difficult, 
as the doorways no doubt were guarded and many of the pas- 
sages wei'e de\'ious, a defensive measure quite commonly adopted 
in the pafisaded houses of the tribes bordering the Colorado River. 
The In(hans along tliis river, mentioned by Don Jose Cortez in 1799 
as the Cajuenche and the Talliguamays (Quigyuma), erect their huts 
in the form of an encampment, inclosing them with a stockade. 
According to the same author, the Cuabajai (Serranos), another 
tribe, built their towns ("rancherias") in the form of great squares, 
each provided with two gates, one at the eastern, the other at the 
western end; here sentinels stood. The dwellings consisted of huts 
constructed of limbs of trees. 

A typical ruin of the Walnut Creek Valley is thus referred to by 
Wliipple (op. cit., pt. 1, p. 93).: 

Lieutenant Ives and Doctor Kennerly to-day ascended a peak 300 or 400 feet 
high, the last in the ridge that bounds and overlooks the valley of Pueblo [Walnut] 
Creek, some 3 miles below camp, and found upon the fop an irregular fortification of 
atone, the broken walla of which were 8 or 10 feet high. Several apartments could 
be distinctly traced, with crumbling divisions about 5 feet thick. From thence to 
the pueblo, upon the gravelly slopes that lie slightly elevated above the bottom lands 
of the creek, there are, as has before been noted, vast quantities of pottery, and what 
appear to be dim traces of the foundations of adobe walls.' It would seem, therefore, 
that in ancient times there existed here a large settlement, and that the inhabitants 
were obliged to defend themselves by strong works against attacks from a powerful 
enemy. ^ 

No excavation was attempted by the author in the Walnut Creek 
region but his attention was drawn to human bones that had been 

* \Ti important obser\'alion, as most of the dwellings were built on stones which formed their founda- 
tions. The adol)e walls and the posts and wattling supporting them have now disappeared, the founda^ 
tion stones tjeing all that remain of the buildings.— J. W. F. 

' The "old chief" told Alarcon of great houses of st«ne inhabited by a warlike race. These people were 
said to live near a mountain and to wear long robes sewed with needles of deer bone. Their fields of 
maize were small.— J. W. F. 

20903°— 28 ETH— 12 14 



210 ANTIQUITIES OF THE VERDE AND WALNUT (^EEK Iicrii. asn. 28 

found in flio ruins on the river terrace above Mr. Ainsworth's ranch 
anil in the neighborliood of Mr. Peter Marx's house. Al -hou^li, as 
is commonly the case, the fragments of skeletons are locally supposed 
to have belonged to giants, the few bones examined by the author 
were of the same size and had the same general characters as those 
found elsewhere in the Southwest. Rings of stones indicating human 
burials are prominent just outside the fort above Mr. Shook's house 
and in the gravel of the river terrace not far from the residence 
of Mr. Ainsworth. 

Fort below Aztec Pass 

A short distance from Mr. William Johnson's ranch house on the 
road to Drew's ranch, on the right bank, rises a steep hiU, 100 feet 
high, on which is situated the best-preserved fort in the Walnut Creek 
region. This is probably the "pueblo" mentioned by Whipple, pos- 
sibly one of the structures that gave the name Pueblo Creek to the 




O 6 lO 15 ZO 



'f-o reET 



Fig. 65. Ground plan of fort below .\ztec Pass. 

stream now called Walnut Creek. The fort commands a view up 
and down the valley from Aztec Pass to the fort near Shook's ranch, 
and beyond. 

The accompanying illustrations (pis. 95-97) show tlie present ap- 
pearance of this fort anil the stee[)ness of the hill from the side toward 
Walnut Creek; on account of the trees on the summit the ruin is 
almost invisible. 

The walls are oriented east and west (fig. 65), the northern and 
southern sides being the longer. Although seemingly rectangular 
in outline, the northern side, measuring (inside) SO feet in length, is 
5 feet longer than the southern side. The eastern and western sides 
are respectively 30 and 25 feet in length. The average thickness of 
the walls is 4 feet and their height 6 feet. 

At present the walls are in almost the same condition as when con- 
structed. Except at the northeastern and northwestern corners, 




o 



o 
z 
< 




en 

z 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 96 






FORT BELOW AZTEC PASS 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 97 





HOKT BELOW AZTEC PASS 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 





NEAR AINSWORTH'S RANCH 




NEAR AINSWORTH'S RANCH 




ON MARX'S RANCH 

TERRACE-RUINS IN WALNUT VALLEY 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGy 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 99 




FORT OVERLOOKING SHOOK S RANCH 




FORT OVERLOOKING SHOCK'S RANCH 




RUIN ON MESA AT BAK. ■■; . :; .\CH 
WALNUT VALLEY RUINS 



FEWKES] KUINS ON WALNUT CKEEK 211 

where the entrances to the inclosure were situated, only a few stones 
have fallen. All the walls are made of snaall rough stones laid with- 
out mortar, the largest stones for the greater part forming the 
foundation; the walls slant slightly inward, as is noticeable in the 
corner shown in plate 96 (bottom) . A cross section of the broken wall 
reveals the fact that large stones were used in construction on the 
inside and the outside facings, the intermediate section being filled 
in with smaller stones — a common mode of mural construction in 
the Walnut Creek and other regions. 

Ruins near Drew's Ranch House 

A short distance from Mr. Drew's ranch house,' now (1911) de- 
serted, are several level terraces on which are small stones arranged 
in squares in rows, and other evidences of former aboriginal habita- 
tions. A considerable quantity of pottery fragments is also to be 
found, indicating that the few level areas in this vicinity were once 
occupied by man. Rings of stones like those near the Ainsworth 
ranch house, from which fragments of human bones had been exca- 
vated, are supposed to mark the sites of burial places. 

Ruins near Ainsworth's Ranch House 

It may safely be said that wherever in the Walnut Creek Valley 
land well situated for cultivation may be found, there may be expected 
also evidences of occupancy by former inhabitants, either remains 
of houses or irrigation ditches, or pictographs. Most of these habi- 
tations are situated on the low river terraces or tongue-shaped grav- 
elly mesas that project into the valley. The sites of the ancient 
farms are difficult to determine, for the reason that, as before explained, 
the continually changing stream has modified more or less the bottom 
lands along its course. 

From some of the best of these ruins (pi. 98), situated near Mr. 
Ainsworth's house, human skeletons, fragments of pottery, and other 
evidences of former human occupancy have been obtained. The sites 
of the houses are indicated by rows of bowlders,- which in some places 
are arranged in circles. 

Ruins near Shook's Ranch House 

One of the largest forts in the Walnut Creek region overlooks 
Shook's ranch, from the summit of a lofty hill on the left bank of 
the creek. This fort (pi. 99), which is visible for a long distance up 

» Drew's ranch is the last wliite man's home encounterpd on the way up the valley, before the road 
ascends the hill to -Vztec Pass. Walnut Creek divides at a point near level areas showing evidences of 
cultivation. The coimtry is well wooded, forming part of the PrescoU National Forest, the ranger of which 
lives near old Camp Hualapai. 

= Resembling the so-called ''bowlder sites" in the middle and lower Verde Valley, described by Cosmos 
Mindelell. 



212 ANTIQUITIES OF THE VERDE AND WALNUT CREEK (hth. ANN. 28 

aiul down tlu^ streaiu, is tlio first of tlie series seen on entering Walnut 
Valley from Simmons ]iost oilice. 

Tliis ruin (dg. 6G) is nearly rc^ctangular in shape, moasuiing 103 feet 
on the western si(U', 87 feet on tlve eastern, 118 feet on the northern, 
and on the southern, the side overlooking the river, 100 feet. The 










SO 



7s re^r. 



Fig. 60. Ground plan of fort overlooking Shook's ranch. 

inner antl outer faces of the walls are composed of large stones, the 
space between them being filled with rubble. 

The fallen walls wthin the inclosure indicate the former presence 
of many buildings, some circular in form. Rings of stones, averaging 
16 by 13 feet in diameter, aic found just outside the fort, on the side 
facing the river, where the ground is level. 



FEWKES] 



KUIXS ON WALNUT CREEK 



213 



Directly across Walnut Creek from Shook's ranch house, not far 
from the ford and overlooking the valley, on a low, gravelly river 
terrace, are the remains of a quadrangular wall, oriented approxi- 
mately north and south (fig. • 



? 



lOO FT 



17 FT- 












L ^ 

.?5 



•9. 






67). The northern side of 
this quadrangle is 100 feet in 
length, the southern 93 feet, 
the western 125 feet, and the 
eastern 143 feet. The walls 
are composed of rows of stones, 
rising at no point very high 
above the present surface of 
the ground. Mr. Shook, the 
owner of the ranch on which 
this ruin is situated, informed 
the author that formerly this 
wall was higher, stones having 
been removed for use in the 
construction of buildings across 
the stream. 

Tn the middle of this cpiad- 
rangle is a low, flat-topped 
mound, about 4 feet in heiglit, 
measuring 94 feet in length by 
17 feet in width. The relation 
of this interior structure to the surrounding wall suggests the 
massive-walled building of a compound, as described in the 
author's account of Casa Grande, in this volume. 



*^! 



"'iW 



93 rr. 



I 



i 
V 

I 



I 



I 



Fig. 07. GrounJ plan of terraoc-ruin near Shook's ranch. 



Ruin near Marx's Ranch House 

Artificial mounds are found on terraces among the cedars on the 
right bank of Walnut Creek almost to its mouth. One of these 
mounds, opposite Mr. Peter Marx's house, is particularly interesting. 

This ruin (pi. 98) consists of two parts — a rectangular inclosure, 
oriented north and south, and a nearly circular mound about 100 feet 
to the west. The former (fig. 68) measures 28 feet on the northern 
and 2.3 feet on the southern side; the eastern side is 6.5 feet long, and 
the western 63 feet. The two axes of the mound measure, respectively, 
72 and 77 feet. Large ancient cedars grow on the mound and also 
within the rectangular inclosure. 

The decorated pottery found here varies in color and design. For 
the greater part it consists of white ware bearing black decorations. 
The designs are geometrical patterns, mostly terraced figures, squares, 



214 ANTIQUITIES OF THE VERDE AND WALNUT CREEK fETii. ann. 28 

and parallel lines. Fragments of coiled ware, which is veiy rare in 
the Walnut Creek region, have been unearthed in these ruins. There 
are also many fragments of coarse, undecorated ware. 

Manj^ artificial mounds are found in the cedars on terraces on the 
riglit bank of the creek. One of these is situated on the bank of the 
creek opposite Mr. Marx's house. 

Not far from the terrace on which these mounds are situated the 
course of a prehistoiic irrigation ditch can be traced about 100 feet, 
and several distinct pictographs (pi. 101) may be seen.' 



LOi^ /^0<JA/0 




■is 3o +5 rcET 







Fig. 68. Ground plan of terrace-ruin on Marx's ranch. 

Ruin near Sheep Corral, below Marx's Ranch 

About a mde and a half from the Marx ranch stands a ruin about 
50 feet above the creek, on a tongue of land projecting eastward, 
overlooking a deep canyon on the south and a more gradual decline 
toward Walnut Creek on the north. The remains indicate the 
former presence of a block of rooms, or row of houses, 52 feet long 
by 17 feet wide. Four rooms with low walls, none of which was 
more than a single story in height, can be plainly traced. 

The numerous fragments of pottery strewn over the ground outside 
the walls afford evidence of the occupancy of this structure for a 
considerable period; it served as both a post of defense and a perma- 
nent residence. 



• The pictographs of western and southern Arizona are characteristii', diflering from those made by 
Pueblos. In places are piles of rocks, each bearing one pictograph. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIQHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 100 




^*>'^^^^^.^;*^'- 




FROM THE NORTH 




FROM THE SOUTH 

RUIN SIX MILES BELOW MARX'S RANCH 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 101 




PICTOGRAPH ON BOWLDER AT MARX'S RANCH 




FORT NEAR BATRE'S RANCH 












^•'^ 




PICTOGRAPHS NEAR BATRE'S RANCH 

FORT AND PICTOGRAPHS 



fewkes) forts neak frog tanks 215 

Ruin Six Miles below Marx's Ranch 

A ruinod fort (pis. 85, 100) occupies a low limestone hill a short 
distance from the right bank of the river, where the valley widens 
somewhat before opening into Chino Valley. There was no running 
water in the stream in October, and possibly this condition exists at 
other times. On account of the level <'haracter of this region the 
fortification is visible a considerable distance from every direction. 

The walls, which are more or less broken down, cover the whole 
top of the hUl. The general ground plan of the surrounding wall is 
rouglily oval, its longer axis extending north and south; there is an 
entrance at the north. The periphery of the wall measures approxi- 
mately 227 feet. Wliile a large part of the walls of rooms witliin 
the inclosure have fallen, so that they can not well be traced, a con- 
siderable section still remains, forming near the doorway what ap- 
pears to have been an entrance. 

The habitations dependent on this fort can be traced nearer the 
creek bed. On an island farther down stream are walls of another ruin. 

FORT ON INDIAN HILL NEAR PRESCOTT 

On the summit of a s3Tnmetrical eminence, known as Indian 
Hill, not far west of Prescott, is a fort similar in construction to 
the forts overlooking Walnut Creek. The walls are extensive and 
in places weU preserved, but a considerable section has fallen. No 
fragments of pottery were found here. 

In the vicinity of Thumb Butte, another eminence near Prescott, 
are pictographs not unlike those found in the Walnut Creek region. 

Remains of other Indian structures and settlements occur at 
various places near Prescott; these show that the aboriginal culture 
of this vicinity had many points in common, if it was not identical, 
with that of Chino Valley and the Walnut Creek region. 

Along Hassayampa and Granite Creeks and in Agua Fria and 
other valleys is found the same type of ruins, none of which are 
those of true pueblos. 

FORTS NEAR FROG TANKS, AGUA FRIA RIVER 

There are many forts and river-terrace ruins on the Agua Fria 
and other streams that head in the mountains about Prescott and 
flow into the Salt and the Gila. Those on the Agua Fria near Frog 
Tanks are tyj^ical. 

About a mile up this stream, near the Batre mineral claim, where 
the valley widens into a level area, or bar, rises a prominent hill 
crowned by the remains of an old fort (pi. 101). The walls here 
have fallen to so great an extent that it is almost impossible to trace 
the ground ])lau of the ruin. There appears to have been a citadel. 



216 ANTIQUITIES OF THE VERDE AND WALNUT CREEK [eth. ANN. 28 

or central building, liigher than the surrounding structure, at the very 
top of the hill, in the midst of a level inclosure, protected by a wall, 
while fragments of other walls are found on the sitles of the hill. 

About 3 miles down the river from Frog Tanks stand several ruins 
still more important than that just mentioned. One of the most 
imposing of these is on the right of the road to Glendale, on an 
upheaval of rocks the tops and sides of which are surrounded by many 
walls of stone, as shown in plate 102. These walls are nowhere very 
high, but the sides of the outcrop are so steep and the walls so numerous 
that it is evident the place was a well-fortified stronghold.' 

Near a ranch about a mile away are many mounds, evidently 
remains of houses and surrounding walls, indicating the former exist- 
ence of an inclosure of stone, resemblmg a compound. Many speci- 
mens of stone implements, fragments of pottery, pictographs on 
scattered bowlders (pi. 101), and other examples of aboriginal handi- 
work are said to have been found in this locality. The site of these 
mounds is a gravelly river terrace like that of the rancherias of Walnut 
Creek. Each locality has a place of habitation, and a fortified place 
of refuge in case of attack — the two essential features of ancient 
aboriginal settlements in this part of Arizona. 

CONCLUSIONS 

Kinship of Early Inhabitants of Walnut Creek and Upper 

Verde Valleys 

Very little is known of the kinslup relations of the aborigines who 
inhabited the caves and erected the buildings now in ruins in the upper 
Verde and Walnut Creek Valleys. From traditional sources it seems 
probable that some of their descendants, of mixed blood, are to be 
looked for among the Yavapai, W^alapai, and Havasupai tribes. The 
Hopi also claim, however, that certain of their clans once Uved in the 
Verde Valley, and there are archeological e\'idences Jn support of this. 
The structures whose ruins lie to the west of the upj^er Verde, and 
those situated in the Chino, Williamson, and Walnut Creek Valleys, 
are probably too far west to have been the product of Hopi clans; 
but although their former inhabitants were not Pueblos they built 
dweUings similar in type to those of the latter. 

According to Wliipple, Ewbank, and Turner ' (Pacific Railroad 
Report, vol. iii, pt. 3, pp. 14-16, Wasliington, 1856) — 

The vast region toward the south [of San Francisco Mountains], lying between Rio 
Verde and the Aztec Range of mountains, is occupied by Tontos; while west and 
northwest of that range, to the mouth of Rio Virgen, are found a tribe calling them- 
selves Yabipais, or, as sometimes written, Yampais. Their numliers are estimated 
at 2,000 each. Leroux and Savedra believe these three to be allied tribes; but there 
exists some doubt upon the subject. The language of the latter proves that they have 

I The writer's attention w;is drawn to this ruin by Mr. Batre, who has extensive mineral claims in this 
neighborhood. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 105 



















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TRINCHERAS AT FROG TANKS RUINS 



FKWKEs] CONCLUSIONS 217 

an aflSnity with the Mojaves and Cuchans of Rio Colorado; while, according to Don 
,Ios^ Cortex, the Tontos belong to the Apache Nation. I have myself found Tonto 
villages intermingled with those of Pinal Lenas, north of Rio Gila, with whom they 
lived on frienilly terms, with like customs and haliits; except that they sulisisted 
almost exclusively upon mescal and piiiones . . . and possessed none of the 
fruits of agriculture. Yet the country they now occupy shows traces of ancient 
acequias, and has extensive valleys of great fertility . . . 

The tribe that now occupies the region from Pueblo Creek to the junction of Rio 
Verde with the Salinas is called Tonto. The word in Spanish signifies stupid, but 
Mexicans do not apply that signification to these Indians; on the contrary, they con- 
sider them rather sharp, particularly at stealing. Therefore, as it is not a term of 
reproach, we may reasonably suppose that, as is frequently the case, it is the Indian 
name corrupted, perhaps, by Spanish spelling. . . . Don Jos6 Cortez, as may 
be seen in chapter vi, calls them Apaches; but Sevedra [sic], who is a well-informed 
Mexican, and, having been much among wild tribes of Indians, is generally considered 
authority in whatever relates to them, says that Tontos are Indians of Montezuma, 
like those of the puelilos of New Mexico. Pimas, Maricopas, Cuchans, and Mojaves, 
also, he adds, lielong to the same great nation. In proof of this, he asserts that they all 
have one custom — that of cropping the front hair to meet their eyebrows, . . . 
suffering the rest, back of their ears, to grow and hang down its full length. 

In the present uncertainty as to the ancestors of the three or more 
tribes that inhabited the Walnut Creek region from the time the first 
Spaniards entered the country to the advent of the exploring parties 
whose reports are here quoted, it is not possible to reach a final opin- 
ion with regard to the kinsliip of these people. The sedentary tribes 
that once lived in the region have been modified, in so far as their 
consanguinity is concerned, by intermixture with nomadic peoples 
(Apache and other tribes). The archeologic evidences indicate tliat 
they had close affinity to the Mohave and Colorado River tribes and 
to those living about Prescott and along the northern tributaries of 
the Salt River. In order to estimate the value of this evidence, a 
few fortified hills near Prescott were visited and a preliminary exami- 
nation of similar structures at the mouth of Agua Fria was made. 

The ruins on the terraces along Walnut Creek are similar to those on 
the Verde, the "bowlder sites " of Mindeleff , who thus refers to them : ' 

It seems quite likely that only the lower course or courses of the walls of these dwell- 
ings were of bowlders, the superstructure being perhaps sometimes of earth (not adobe) 
but more probably often of the type known as "jacal" — upright slabs of wood plastered 
with mud. This method of construction was known to the ancient pueblo peoples 
and is used today to a considerable extent by the Mexican population of the south- 
west and to a less extent in some of the pueblos. No traces of this construction were 
found in the bowlder-marked sites, perhaps because no excavation was carried on; 
but it is evident that the rooms were not built of stone, and that not more than a small 
percentage could have been built of rammed earth or grout, as the latter, in disin- 
tegrating leaves well-defined mounds and lines of debris. 

It is probable that the bowlder-marked ruins are the sites of secondary and tem- 
porary - structures, erected for convenience in working fields near to or overlooked 
by them and distant from the home pueblo. The character of the sites occupied by 

' Mindelefl, Cosmos, Aboriginal Remains in Verde Valley, Arizona, in tSlh A nn. Rep. But. Ethnol. , p. 237. 
2 It seems to the author more probable that these were permanent dwellings, as viewed in the light of 
correspondinK structures on Walnut Creek. — J. W. F. 



218 ANTIQUITIES OF THE VEBDE AND WALNUT CREEK [kth. an.n. 2S 

ihciii and the ))laii of Ihe slructurea themselves support this hypothesis. That they 
woro coiuiectod with the permanent stone villages is evident from their comparative 
abundance about each of (he larger ones, and that they were constructed in a less 
substantial manner than the home pueblo is shown by the character of the remains. 

Tilt' resemblances of forts and accompanying habitations of the 
upper Verde and Walnut Canyon to those about Prescott, on Granite 
Creek, the Hassayampa, Agua Fria, and in other valleys of northern 
and central Arizona, and to similar structures in the valleys of the 
Gila and Salt and their tributaries, have led the author to include the 
structures of the first-named group in a culture area which reached 
its most specialized development in the neighborhood of the present 
towns of Phoenix and Mesa City, and at Casa Grande. 

It is the autlior's conviction that the people who built the forts and 
terrace habitations ' on Agua Fria, Hassayampa, and Granite Creeks 
were the "frontiersmen" of those who occupied formerly the Gila and 
Salt River Valleys, where they constructed the great compounds, or 
communal buildings, like Casa Grande. 

Clans of these people migrating northward met other agricultural 
tribes wliich had drifted from the Rio Grande pueblo region to the 
Little Colorado and its tributary, Zuiii River, and became amalga- 
mated with tliem. Lower down the river they settled at Homolobi, 
near Winslow, wliich later was abandoned, some of the clans continu- 
mg northward to the Hopi mesas. These people, the ancestors of the 
so-called Patki clans of the modern Hopi, followed in their northern 
migrations the Tonto and Verde Rivers. Some of those who went up 
the Verde branched off to the Little Colorado, but others continued 
along the banks of the former stream, sending offshoots along its upper 
tributaries, and at last entered the Cliino Valley, where thev met 
clans moving eastward. Many northern migi'ants followed the Has- 
sayampa and the Agua Fria. As these clans entered the mountain 
canj'ons, naeasures for protection necessitated construction of the 
many liiUtop forts and other defenses whose remains are stUl found. 

The general characteristics of the tnncheras on Walnut Creek and 
the upper Verde suggest similar structures overlooking the valleys of 
the Gila and Salt. There are of course in the Walnut Creek area no 
large "compounds" with walls made of natural cement (caliche), for 
this region does not furnish material adapted to such construction. 

The trincheras,^ Uke those near Caborca and Magdalena in Sonora, 
or Chakyuma near Tucson, closely resemble the fortified hilltops along 
the Agua Fria, at Indian Hill near Prescott, and in the Chino, upper 
Verde, and Walnut Creek sections. Associated with these defenses 
are found on the terraces along the rivers in these regions rows of 
foundation stones, from which once rose walls of mud on a frame- 

1 There are also remains of irrigation ditches in this neighborhood. 

' The "fort" is for the greater part a more compact structure tliau tlie Irinchfra; it is more nearly rec- 
tangular iu form but the walls of the two types are practically identical in character. 



FKWKES] 



CONCLUSIONS 219 



work of posts and wattling, the remains of houses not unlike in con- 
struction certain former habitations at Casa Grande.' 

In other words, the ancient people of these regions seem to have 
constructed two kintls of buildings — forts on the hilltops and fragile 
habitations on the river terraces, which differed structurally and were 
occupied for special and distinct purposes. The former were defen- 
sive retreats for use in case of attack, the latter permanent domiciles 
or habitations, conveniently situated on terraces adjacent to farms. 
The same or an allied people erected also houses in natural caves or 
excavated them in soft rock. Dwellings of the latter kind are found 
particularly in the area on the border of the Pueblo region, especially 
where the character of the rock lent itself to their construction. The 
inhabitants apparently had no kivas (rooms especially devoted to 
rehgious ceremonies), but they probably had a comphcated ritual. 
Terraced ruins are rare or unknown. 

It appears that the dwellings of these people belong to a special 
type distinct from the terraced compact community houses, or pueblos, 
still represented among the Hopi, the Zufid, and the numerous Pueblos 
of the Rio Grande, although identical with some ancient houses in 
New Mexico. It is not strange if some of the descendants of clans 
formerty peopling tliis area have become amalgamated with the Hopi. 
In ancient times, however, the two cultures were as distinct, for 
instance, as are the present Havasupai and the Hopi, and in certain 
areas one of these cultures antedated the other. The Hopi and the 
Havasupai are friends and visit each other, and at times the Hopi 
allow some of the Havasupai to enter their kivas. 

The two types of artificial caves used as domiciles have been dis- 
tinguished elsewhere as those with vertical and those -with lateral 
entrances. Both types may possess waUed buildings above or in front 
of them, the cave becoming in the former case a storeroom, in the 
latter a rear chamber, possibly devoted to ceremonies. 

The association of waUed buildings with artificial caves is quite 
general, the former being found either on the talus below or on the 
cliff above the latter, as well shown in the cavate dwellings on Oak 
Creek. A similar duality in cave-dweUings occurs in the case of 
some of the larger cliff-houses, as, for example, those in Canyon de 
ClreUy. This duality is parallel with that existing in the forts and 
rancherias or terrace (bowlder) sites on Walnut Creek. - 

Age of Walnut Creek and Verde Valley Ruins 

It does not appear from evidences presented thus far that any con- 
siderable antiquity can be ascribed to the aboriginal structures in 
the Walnut Creek region, wliiclr were probably in use in the middle 

' See Prehistoric Ruins of the Gila Valley, in Smithsonian Miscellaneous CoUeeliojis, vol. 52, pt. 4. 
Massive-walled buildings for protection and fragile-walled habitations exist together within the iuclo- 
sures of Gila Valley compounds, presenting the same dual combination, architecturally speaking. 



220 ANTIQUITIES OF THE VEBDE AND WALNUT CREEK riorii. ann. 28 

ol' tlic s(>Y('iit('cntli (•cnturv- 'I'licro aro no oxtonsivo, ])ilea of debris in 
connection with most of tlic ruins;, and tlic hnildinfjs are not very 
different from those which were inliabited in otiier ])arts of tlie South- 
west, as in tlic San Peth'o Valley, when Father Kino passed through 
it in 1610.' Nothing found in these ruins indicates a development 
of arts superior to those of the tribes that inhabited western Arizona 
when they first were visited by wlute men. 

The sup])osition that the forts herein described were built by nomads 
does not rest on satisfactory evidence. Moreover, the manufacture of 
pottery is not an industry of wandering tribes, and the designs on 
fragments found in tliis region, although tUfferent in minor details, 
belong, as a whole, to a sedentary people alhed to ancient Pueblos 
and cliff-dwellers. There seems no reason to question legends of the 
Walapai that their ancestors built and inhabited the now-ruined 
buildings scattered over the region herein treated, and were driven 
out by tribes with wliich they afterward amalgamated. It appears 
that the ancient inhabitants did not burn their dead, for unburned 
human bones have been found at several points in Walnut Valley. 
So far as it may be accepted as evidence, absence of cremation seems 
to connect them with certain modern Pueblos rather than with cliff- 
dwellers and with those of Yuman stock and the ancient people of 
the Gila, who both inhumated and burned their dead. 

It is hardly ])QSsible that the former inhabitants of these valleys 
were completely destroyed by invaders, although it is probable that 
they were conquered, a condition which may have led to an admix- 
ture of Athapascan blood with a corresponding change in physical 
features. Their language, customs, and beliefs were similar to those 
of the Yuma or kindred Colorado River tribes; their buildings, pottery 
fragments, and other artifacts point to a sedentary rather than to a 
nomadic people ami connect them with both the Pueblos and the in- 
habitants of the Colorado Valley. Wliile the relationship with the 
Pueblos is apparent, it is more distant tlian their kinshij) with the 
ancient inhabitants of the valleys of the Gila and the Salt. A duality 
of building types occurs throughout the Pueblo region of New Mexico, 
where are found domiciUary structures hke those along Walnut Creek. 
At times, and not without good reason, these have been interpreted 
as pre-Pueblo buildings, and some have gone so far as to designate 
them as belonging to a pre-Pueblo culture. Their likeness to the 
buildings of the western region is ap])arent, and they well may be 
regarded as representing a lower culture stratum. Trincheras are 
rare in the Pueblo region, and true pueblos (compact terraced commu- 
nity houses) have not yet been found west of the upper Verde, facts 
sufficient to divide the two regions into distinct culture areas. 

1 The pueblos on the Little Colorado west of Zuni were inhabited in the middle of the seventeentli cen- 
tury. In 1604 Oiiate found Mohoce (the Hopi pueblos) 12 to 14 leagues west of Zufli, and in 1632 the 
missionary Letrado wa? murdered on his way to the Ciplas (Tsipiakwe), who apparently Uved at the 
mouth of Chevlou Fork, west of Cibola (Zuii). 



PRELIMII^ART EEPORT ON THE LESTGUISTIC 

CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQULAN" 

TRIBES 

BY 

TRUMAN MICHELSOlSr 



221 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 225 

Notes on pronunciation 226 

Algonquian linguistic groups 229 

Blackfoot (Siksika) 229 

Cheyenne 232 

Arapaho 234 

Eastern-Central 237 

Central subtype 237 

Cree-Montagnais 238 

Cree 238 

Montagnais 247 

Menominee 249 

Sauk, and close linguistic cognates 252 

Shawnee 256 

Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo 258 

Oj'ibwa, and close linguistic cognates 261 

Ojibwa, Potawatomi, Ottawa, and Algonkin 262 

Peoria 270 

Natick 272 

Delaware 275 

Eastern subtj^pe 280 

Summary 289 

Appendices 290 

1. Comparative table of the Cree (Moose and Fort Totten), Menominee, 

Fox, Shawnee, Passamaquoddy, Abnaki, Ojibwa, Algonkin, Peoria, 

Natick, and Delaware independent mode, present tense 290 

2. Comparative table of the Cree (Moose and East Main), Fox, Shawnee, 

Oj'ibwa, Algonkin, Peoria, Natick, and Delaware subjunctive mode, 

present tense 290 

3. Comparative table of the Fox, Shawnee, Micmac, and Peoria conjunc- 

tive mode 290 



ILLUSTRATION 



Plate 103. Map showing the distribution and interrelation of the Algonquian 

dialects . at end 

223 



PRELIMI^TARY REPORT ON THE leGUISTIC CLASSI- 
FICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES 



By Truman Michelson 



INTRODUCTION 

In order to determine the linguistic classification of the Algonquian 
tribes, the wTiter visited in the season of 1910 the Piegan of Mon- 
tana, the Northern Cheyenne of Montana, the Northern Arapahn 
of Wyoming, the Menominee of Wisconsin, and the Micmac of Resti- 
gouche, P. Q., Canada. Later in the year the Ojibwa of White 
Earth (Minnesota) sent a delegation to Washington, and the occasion 
was utilizetl to procure a few grammatical notes from them. During 
the season of 1911 he visited the Fox of Iowa, and the Sauk, Kicka- 
poo, and Shawnee of Oklahoma. In the winter of 191 1-12 he spent a 
few weeks at the nonreservation school at Carlisle, Pa., and there had 
an opportunity to obtain some notes on Northern Arapaho, the Cree 
of Fort Totten (listed officially as Turtle Mountain Chippewa), 
Menominee, Sauk, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Abnaki. The 
results of the field work of 1911 and 1912 could be incorporated only 
in the proof-sheets of the present paper. For some Algonquian 
languages dependence has also been placed on the unpublished 
material of the Bureau, some manuscripts of the late Dr. William 
Jones (for Kickapoo) and of Mr. W. Mecliling (for Malecite) , and the 
published material. Prof. A. L. Kroeber verj^ kindly furnished some 
of his Arapalio texts to supplement those of the writer. Prof. J. 
Dyneley Prince generously oflfered the use of his collection of conso- 
nantic clusters in Passamaquoddj^ and Abnaki. Owing to unforeseen 
circumstances these can not be published here, but they have been of 
assistance in determining the general character of Eastern Algon- 
quian, and his helpfulness is appreciated. Thanks are due also to 
Dr. Robert H. Lowie, of the American Museum of Natural History, 
for the privdege of using some Northern Blackfoot texts. Dr. 
Etlward Sapir, of the Geological Survey of Canada, with character- 
istic liberality, placed his fiekl-notes on Croe, Montagnais, Abnaki, 
Malecite, and Delaware (collected in the season of 1911) at the 
20903°— 28 ETH— 12 15 225 



226 CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES rRni. ann. 28 

writer's ilisj)osal; but tlioy wore rticoivod too lato to make ])ossible 
the insertion of extracts, except in the proof-sheets. 

While it is too early to publish in detail the results of tlie writer's 
investipitions (this applies esperially to Blackfoot, Cheyenne, and 
Arapaho), still in view of the purely geograpliic classification by 
Mooney and Thomas in the Handbook of American Indians,' C. C. 
Ulilenbeck in Anthropos (iii, 773-799, 1908), and F. N. Finck in 
his Die Sprachstamme des Erdekreises (Leipzig, 1909), a preliminary 
linguistic report may be acceptable. 

The linguistic classification of Algonquian tribes in the present 
paper is based essentially on the occurrence of consonantic clusters 
and a few other phonetic phenomena, and on the jironominal forms 
of the verb. 

It wiU be seen that the various tables introduced tliroughout 
tlus paper to illustrate grammatic forms are rather uneven, because 
in many cases the writer has not ventured to abstract the personal 
terminations proper from the examples given in the authorities. It 
will be remembered that none of the older anil only a few of the recent 
writers take into account instrumental particles; the result (com- 
bined with inaccurate phonetics) has been that often it is too haz- 
ardous to venture an opinion as to what the form actually was. 
Likewise the exclusive and inclusive first persons plural are frequentty 
not distinguished, and here the writer has had to foUow his own 
judgment. 

In conclusion, his thanks are due his colleague, Dr. John K . 8 wanton, 
for assistance in preparing the accompanying map (pi. 103). 



Notes on Pronunciation 

It is believed that the reader will have little trouble in understanding the symbols 
employed in this paper, as much the same system is employed as in the Handbook of 
American Indian I,anguages (Bulletin 40, B. A. E.). However, the following notes 
may prove useful. 

Piegan: 

X is post-palatal, approximately between German eh in ich and ch in bacli. 

X is post-velar. 

There are no sonant stops. 

Cheyenne: 

w is a voiceless semivowel. 

i' is bilabial. 

X is the surd velar spirant. 

c is the surd alveolar spirant. 

e and 6 (employed by R. Petter) represent whispered vowels. 

Arapaho: 

X is the siird velar spirant. 

X is the same, weakly articulated. 

'Bull, so, But. Amer. Ethnol. 



MICHKI.SON] 



IXTRODUCTION 227 



tc is an intermediate with predominating surd quality, approximately between 
English ch in church andj in judge. 

6 is a pure sonant. 

g is post-palatal; its sonanoy is not so marked as that of b. 

The surd stops are ordinarily unaspirated; when aspirated, the aspiration is indi- 
cated by ("). 

I is very open. 

is a surd spirant articulated between the tongue and upper teeth, nearly on the flesh. 

(") indicates aspiration. 

^ indicates the glottal stop. 

n indicates the nasality of the vowel. 

('ree(Fort TOTTENI: 

/ has the sound of obscure i. 

e is long and close. 

(") indicates an aspiration; it is approximately a weak .r; 't is apt to be heard as dl. 

Pure surd stops are easily distinguished, but the corresponding sonants are stronger 
than those of English; final g gives almost the impression of aspirated k (k'). 

Cree (Rvpert's House: .see p. 247): 

ts' is alveolar, between ts and tc. 

g is close and short. 

Cree (Moose): 

d has the sound of long close e. 

MoNT.\GXAis (from Doctor Sapir's notes): 

ts' is palatized, between ts and tc. 

i is long and very open. 

Meno.minee: 

e I and 6 u are nearly indistinguishable. 

g is very strong; finally it gives nearly the same impression as aspirated k tk'). 

Fox, Sauk, and Kickapoo: 

For Fox, see Handbook of American Indian Languages {Bull. 40. B. A. E.), pt. 1, 
pp. 741-745. 

Here it may be remarked that in all three dialects there are no true .sonants; they 
are much stronger than in English. 

'k, 't, and 'p among the younger people are but feebly to be distinguished from /■, I, 
and p, respectively. 

(r in Fox and Sauk is intermediate, nearly between ch in chill and ; in judge; in 
Kickapoo it is a pure tenuis, approaching ts. 

The final vowels are spoken much more faintly by the younger generation than by 
those advanced in years. 

The writer believes Doctor Jones's hw is simply voiceless iv (iv). 

Shawnee: 

Surd and sonant are difficult to distinguish. 

is the surd interdental spirant. 

e I and o u are extremely difficult to distinguish. 

The final vowels are somewhat more easily heard than in Fox. Sauk, and Kickapoo. 

tc among the older generation is pronounced as such; among the younger people it 
resembles more nearly ts in sound. 

« and ™ are consonants that are hardly sounded — merely indicated — in words by 
themserves; a vowel preceding renders them full sounding. 

(■) indicates an arrest. 

Ojibwa (of Baraga): 

d has the sound of ii. 

Algonkin (of Lemoine): 

a has the sound of d. 



228 CLASSIFICATION OF AUJONQUIAN TRIBES I kth, ann. 28 

Ottawa: 

i is long and close. 

Surd and sonant (espc'cially whon final) are difficult to distinguish; final f/ has 
nearly the same sound as /,'. 
T) is jiost-palatal. 
Delaware: 

n', etc. of Zeisberger indicates u followed by an obscure vowel. 
Abnaki (of Sapir): 
/ has the sound of i. 

has the sound of close o. 

4 has the sound of nasalized obscure a . 

Malecitb (of Sapir): 

$ is long and very open. 

P has the sound of p weakly articulated. 

Passamaquoddy : 

u has the sound of oo in good. 

m is syllabic. 

MiCMAc: 

g has the sound of velar (/.• apt to be heard as r. 

1 and n are svllabic. 



ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 

The AJgonquiaii tribes linguistically fall into four major divisions, 
namely: Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Eastern-Central. Each 
division is discussed in the following pages under the appropriate 
head. 

Blackfoot (Siksika) 

This division includes the Piegan, Bloods, and Blackfeet proper. 
According to Wissler,' the linguistic differences among the tribes 
are mainly m the choice of words and idioms. The same authority 
states that the Northern Blackfeet seem to differ more from the 
Piegan than the latter do from the Bloods. The present \vriter can 
describe only the language of the Piegan of Montana from personal 
observation. It is characterized by an abundance of harsh conso- 
nantic clusters and long consonants. The latter occur usually 
between vowels but may occur in clusters. The first of the following 
tables shows all the clusters - of two consonants found in one of the 
writer's longer texts; the second, all the clusters of three consonants 
in the same text: 



Initial 


Second member of cluster 


naot 


t 


k 


t 


P 


s 


ts 


tc 


k 
t 










ks 




tic 


m 










ms 






s 




sk 


St 






sis 


sic 


ts 




Isk 




tsp 


Iss 






? 




Ik 


It 


?p 


zs 




ztc 


I 


m 




It 


ip 






ztc 



Social Lite of the Blaclifoot Indians, p. 8, New York, 1911. 
2 In this and similar tables some combinations are given which are not clusters in the strictest sense of 
the word, but they are introduced here for convenience and on account of their importance. 

229 



230 



CLASSIFICATION OP ALGOKQUIAN TRIBES 



lETII. AXN. 28 



Initial 
consonant 


2d conso- 
nant 


3d conso- 
nant 


k 




s 
k 




\ " 


P 




1 ' 


1 : 


V 


» 


1 : 


n 


s 


k 




k 

1 


1 : 

Is 


s 


s 


1 ;. 




Is 


1 ^ 


Is 


X 


k 


X 


k 


s 


I 


? 


t 









SUMMARY 

Consonants permitted initially: k, i, p, n, s. Is, x, x. 
Consonants permitted medially: q,k, t,s, Is, i. 
Consonants permitted finally: k, I, p, s, Is. 

It is likely that ts and tc represent a sound intermediate between 
these two. The following clusters also were noted in the same text: 
xqtt, skies, stspss. 

The following are all the clusters of two consonants found in three 
texts of Northern Blackfoot taken down by Dr. Robert Lowie: 



Initial 
conso- 
nant 


Second member of cluster 


Q 


k 


S 


t 


P 


s 


:.« 


m 










qs 






k 










ks 






P 










ps 






s 


sk 




si 


sp 




sis 




X 


xk 


^9 


i( 


xp 


xs 


Its 


xm 


is 


tsk 








tss 







It is clear that xg is due to mishearing. 



MICHELSOX] 



ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 



231 



The followiii':^ tahle shows all the clusters of tliree consonants 
in the same texts: 



Initial 
consonant 


2d conso- 
nant 


3d conso- 
nant 


k 


s 


k 


P 


.V 


k 

I 1 

P 


X 


k 
ts 


\ : 

k 


ts 


Is 


k 


X 


k 

\ P 
t 


I 









The following cluster of four consonants occurs in the same texts: 
xkst. 

It will be seen b}^ com]>aring the tables of such other Algonquian 
languages as have numerous clusters that such a condition as obtains 
in Blackfoot (Piegan) is unique. So far as the writer can judge, 
the clusters are genuine, not ])seudo. The origin of most of them 
is obscure.' Some are due to the assibilation of t before i.^ It is 
likely that the cluster sk is original, as can be demonstrated for st 
in certain cases. For the latter, note nestoa^ i (chances not to occur 
in the writer's texts); Cree nista i also; and the mstrumental st in 
nitcitAnistav/^ i said to him (ni — dw^ i — him; stem Ani) is to be asso- 
ciated with a similar instrumental in Cree.^ 

However, the formation of the verbal compounds is tj^iically 
Algonquian and most of the personal terminations of the present 
independent mode are patently Algonquian. The terminations in 
-pinndn'^ (e. g., ni — pinnan'^ we [excl.]) are to be associated with 
Fox -penP', Passamaquoddy -l)An. Similarly, Tci — fuwdwa ye, is to 
be connected with Fox and Shawnee -pvf-, Passamaquoddy -ha. The 
form lei — dwdw" te — him has an exact ecjuivalent in Cree and Meno- 
minee. The forms ni — aw°, M — dvf' i^him, thou — him, respectively, 
agree mth Cree, Fox, Menominee, and Delaware (one form) as 
opposed to Ojibwa, Algonkin, Shawnee, and Eastern Algonquian. 

Forms Uke lei — oxpinndn'^ we — ^thee, you (not in writer's texts; 
based on Tims; of. Uhlenbeck, op. cit., p. 8, bottom) certainly sug- 

' For one or two probable sources liesides those given here, see p. 232. 

! Thisthange has been already noted by C. C. Uhlenbeck, Original BlackJoot Te.xts, p. 95, Amsterdam, 
1911. 
s J. W. Tims, Grammar and Dictionary of the Blackfoot Language, London, 1889. 
< J. Horden, Cree Grammar, p. 99, London, 1881. 



232 



CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES 



[ETII. ANN. 28 



gest Passamaquocldy Jc — Ipen, which might be taken for Ic — ulpen, l)iit 
as a inattor of fact the u has nothing to do wiili the termination; 
owing to the plionetics of the hxnguage if a vowel following I is elimi- 
nated, thereby causing the I to become final or immediately to pre- 
cede a consonant, the preceding vowel takes an o or a u tinge (see 
the discussion of East<n-n Algonquian, p. 283). Now is it not possible 
that there is a similar phenomenon in Piegan and that the termina- 
tion should really be given as lei — xpinndn'^ , in which the x represents 
a secondary change of original n, as does the I of the Passamaquoddy 
form ? * The same query would apply to certain other forms not 
dealt with here. 

To judge from Tims, the termination for ?i'f (excl.) — hm agrees in 
formation with Cree and Ojibwa. The agreement with the latter is 
no doubt purely fortuitous. 

Forms like nestoa (Tims) i show agreement with Cree. 

According to the writer's information some demonstrative pronouns 
have reference to the state of the object designated, that is, whether 
at rest or in motion; but some informants contradict this. It is a 
matter that deserves special attention. 

Summing up, we may say that though Blackfoot must be classed 
apart from Eastern-Central Algonquian, it has the closest affinities 
to Fox, Eastern Algonquian, and Cree. 

Cheyenne 

Cheyenne possesses consonantic clusters, though not in so great 
profusion as Piegan. By consulting the various tables it will be seen 
that some of the clusters are peculiar to the language. As is men- 
tioned more than once in this paper, the fact that such Algonquian 
languages as have numerous clusters differ with respect to the types 
of clusters tends to show that most of these are unoriginal. 

The following clusters of two consonants were noted in three of 
the writer's Cheyenne texts: 



Initial 


Second member of cluster 


sonant 


k 


t 


n 


» 


c 


ts 

IIS 


V 


( 


tk 




« 








n 








ns 


nc 






s 


sk 


St 








sis 




c 


ck 


cl 










cv 


IS 


tsk 




Isn 










X 


xk 


xt 




IS 




xls 




V 








vs 


vc 







' Or it may be that the original sound is lost and that the z is an accretion, as x in kl—iipuwaw" ye— 
ME (cf. Fox ke—ipw). 



MicHKi.soM ALUONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 233 

The cluster tsn so far as noted is a pseiulo-cluster, but the others, 
so far as the writer lias been able to analyze them, are genuine. 
The foUowang clusters of three consonants were noted in the same 
texts: nst, xst, mst, nsts, stn, the last being certainly a false one. 
The following clusters were noted as occurring finally: sts, ns, 7ists 
xs, vs. A single cluster (st) was observed initially, and that but 
once; hence it is likely an initial vowel was not heard. 

The origin of the clusters that apparently are genuine is practi- 
cally unknown. One case of xp seems merely to have developed 
from /), e. g., woxpi white (Fox wdpi). The clusters sh and st are 
probabl)^ original (see discussion of Cree, p. 238. Unfortunately the 
writer has not been able to find corresponding expressions in Cree 
for such Cheyenne words as possess these clusters). 

There are a number of words of patent Algonquian origin. Exam- 
ples are: woxin white, mahd'mw'^ wolf, nic two, 7nve four, 
mataxtit" ten, matama"' old woman, nd and, misi eat, mi give, 
ami move. 

It should be noted that under unknown conditions Central Algon- 
quian n appears as t (compare the treatment in Cree, p. 239; but the 
two languages do not agree wholly in the usage) ; fm-thermore, this 
secondary t, as well as original t, becomes ts before a palatal vowel. 
Examples are hitan"^ man (Fox ineniw'^), nitnndwitatsi'm,'^ let us 
gamble together (tsi = Fox, etc., ti). Original I- under unknown 
conditions appears as n. Tliis, together with the other phonetic 
changes stated above, renders most of the forms of the independent 
mode intelligible. Thus, ni — ts i — thee; ni — tseme i — you; ni — 
tsemeno WE(excl.) — thee; ni — emend thou — us(excl.).' It will be 
noted that the structure for i — yoi^, we (excl.) — thee agrees with 
Natick, Algonkin, and Peoria. The terminations for we (excl. and 
incl.), intransitive, approximate the Ojibwa type. The termination 
for YOU (intrans.) is ni — w° (Fetter ni — me), which phonetically 
approximates Algonkin, Ottawa, and Ojibwa rather than Peoria. 
(It may here be mentioned that Peoria, Ottawa, and Ojibwa all 
belong to the same division of the Central Algonquian languages.) 
The termination for WE(excl.) — him {7ia — on, Fetter) has a corre- 
spondent in Natick and Eastern Algonquian. The terminations with 
the third person singular animate as subject are obscure. Those 
with the inanimate plural as objects patently are to be connected with 
the nominal suffix for the inanimate plural. With the assumption 
that original intervocalic g is lost, some additional forms take on a 
more Algonquian appearance. So violent a change is paralleled by 
the apparent change of -p{A)m- to -m- and -p{A)t- to -xt-. 

' The last three forms arc taken from Rodolphe Fetter's Sketch of the Cheyenne Grammar, in Mem. 
Amer. Anthr. Ass,, I, pt. 6, 1907. 



234 CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES fErii, axx. 2R 

Che3-enne possesses a mode that is frequently used in narration as 
an indicative; it happens that but few of the forms occur in the 
writer's texts. The third person singular animate, intransitive, ends 
in -s: the third person plural animate, intransitive, in -wus (the initial 
sound is represented by w merely for convenience. The writer has 
been unable to determine its exact value; it is heard now as v, now 
as w; the only thing absolutely certain is that it is bilabial) ; he — him 
is -us; THEY (an.) — him -owns; to distinguish third persons, the intran- 
sitive third person has an obviative -niwus. Assuming the phonetic 
change of tc to s, it will be seen that the forms resemble the Fox, 
Shawnee, and Peoria conjunctive. The ni of -niwus corresponds to 
the ni of Fox -nitci, etc. 

The termination of the plural inanimate can be derived from the 
normal Central Algonquian termination by the phonetic laws stated 
above. At the same time it greatly resembles the Natick and Piegan 
forms, which apparently can not be derived from this source. 

Summing up, we may say that although Cheyenne must be classed 
as a distinct major branch of Algonquian languages, yet it has close 
affinities with the Ojibwa division of the Eastern-Central major divi- 
sion; but as consonantic clusters beginning with a nasal and followed 
by a stop are not permitted, and the clusters sTc and st occur, we 
must assume rather a more northern origin. If the Moiseyu really 
are the Monsoni, as James Mooney thinks {Mem. Anthr. Ass., i, 
369, 1907), there is historical support for this assumption. The 
fact that Natick in the ending of the termination of the present 
indepentlent mode resembles the Ojibwa type probably led Petter 
(ibid., 447) to consider Cheyeiuie ' closer to Natick. The latter 
does permit consonantic clusters with a nasal as the prior member 
and a stop as the second member, but it does not agree entirel}' with 
Ojibwa in tliis usage; note especially the present suppositive (sub- 
junctive) mode. But it should be noted that the cluster st is not 
permitted, though sic is; and the cluster st is a distinct trait of 
Algonquian languages of northern origin (cf. Eastern Algonquian, 
Montaguais, Cree, Blackfoot). 

Arapaho 

This division includes Arapaho proper, Gros Ventre (Atsina), two 
dialects that are on the verge of extinction, and one dialect that at 
present is either absolutely extinct or is spoken by only very few indi- 

1 According to the writer's present information there are two Sutaio (a tritje that Ijecame incorporated 
with the Cheyemie) who can still spealc their own Umguape, namely, White Bull (Icoj of the Northern Chey- 
enne and Left Hand Bull of the Southern Cheyenne. Unforttmately the former ceased work before any texts 
could be secured from him, and the wTitcr has heard only recently of the latter's ability to speak his own 
language. For this reason no accurate idea of the language can be given here. Cheyenne traditions are 
unanimous, however, in stating that the language was intelligible to the Cheyenne. 



MKHKLSOM AUiONQUIAN LINUUISTIC GROUPS 235 

Antlunls. The writor can ilescribe fi(im personal investigation only 
Arapaho proper; he has been informeil by members of this tribe that 
Gros Ventre is reaility understood by them. According to Dr. A. L. 
Kroeber, the dialect mentioned as possibly absolutely extinct closely 
resembled Blackfoot ; according to information received, the Piegan of 
Montana say a boily of them joined the Arapaho and still speak their 
own language. This matter requires careful investigation. It is to be 
hoped that Doctor Kroeber will publish at an early date liis compara- 
tive vocabularies of the dialects and also those phonetic laws of 
Arapaho proper that he has discovered and courteously communicated 
to the writer. 

That Arapaho is an Algonquian language is shown b}' such words 
as Mne'n man, ni^se^e my elder brother, no'^Hane^ my daughter, 
fie'sV MY' GRANDCHILD, ms' TWO, ndsd three, ye^n' foxjr, batdtAx ten, 
hatehi old woman, netd my' heart, hu'sitd^" it is hot; as well as by 
the .system of the possessive pronouns. Some of the more radical 
phonetic changes that the author has observed (some of these had 
been anticipated by Doctor Kroeber) are tc becomes d: -nid, Fox -nitc'; 
J) becomes 6: netc' water. Fox nej/, netc my arrow. Fox mpV h be- 
comes li: hi- THY', Fox Ice-, Jidw° not, Ojibwa Tcdwin; p becomes gQc): 
slslgd^ DUCK, Fox deip"; w becomes n: no^lcu rabbit, Ojibwa wd'pos; 
m becomes 6 (and w1): bdteM old woman, Fox metemd'", hdtdtAx ten; 
slciv becomes x': wax'" bear, Cree iuasIcwa, Fox ma'kw". With the 
assumption that y becomes n, and gr + , a final whispered vowel, becomes 
^, a number of verbal pronominal forms grow clearer in formation. 
(How these changes may distort words almost beyond recognition 
may be shown by niHcebgdhuf he runs by: m(^) is a common verbal 
prefix (?); tceb = Fox perni; gdhu = Fok -paho-; -f the pronominal 
ending.) Doctor Kroeber has already remarked that in nominal 
forms the inanimate and animate plurals are not distinguished, though 
they are in verbal forms.' The exclusive and inclusive first person 
plurals are not distinguished in verbal forms, according to information 
received by the writer, but they certain!}' are in the possessive pro- 
nouns. It is thus seen that Arapaho has become verj' specialized. 
In the writer's judgment, no Algonquian language has deviated 
farther from the normal. 

Arapaho is characterized by very weak nasal vowels, which when 
pronounced rapidly, however, betray scarcely any nasality. The 
glottal stop is extremely common. There are a number of conso- 
nantic clusters, but none of more than two consonants. 

1 See Bulletin of the American Miiseum of Natural History, vol. xviii, p. 5, 1902. 



236 



CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES Ii;tii. asx. 28 



Tho following table shows all the consonantic clusters louiul in the 
winter's Arapaho notes of 1012: 



Initial 
conso- 
nant 


Arapaho 


Second member of cluster 


1: 


9 


' 


n 




tc 


s 


t 








In 


( 






b 




bg 




in 






bs 


s 


sk 




St 


sn 


s 






I 




IS 


It 


irt 




xlc 





It has not been feasible to separate genuine and pseudo clusters. 
The X before t and tc is exceedingly weak. The clusters in the 
writer's Arapaho notes of 1910 were of the same general character 
but contained 6g, dd, 6n, and vn also. No clusters begin or end a 
word. 

It will be seen that the clusters differ fundamentally in character 
from those of Piegan, Cheyenne, and Eastern Algonquian. This fact 
points decidedly to the clusters, with certain exceptions, in all of these 
languages as secondary in nature and not original. 

The grammatical analysis is extremely difficult. It is clear that 
many secomlary phonetic changes have taken place in the welded 
verbal compound, and so have obscured the stems. However, a 
sufficient number are clear enough to warrant the assertion that the 
general structure of Arapaho agrees essentially with the general 
analysis of Algonquian given by Dr. WilHam Jones. The instru- 
mental particles occur in the correct position. Of these the writer 
has been able to recognize b (Fox, etc., m; no ?h exists in Arapaho), 
n, It, t, w. 

The personal pronouns of the independent mode (with certain 
apparent exceptions in the negative verb) are suiFixed. Here is a 
very striking difference between Arapaho and normal Algonquian. 
The fact that the terminations are suffixed (not jjartially prefixed and 
partially suffixed) suggests that in origin they are conjunctive endings 
(compare Micmac), and so far as the writer has been able to find cog- 
nates at all for them (in only a decided minority of instances), it has 
been with the termmations of this mode. Doctor Kroeber, al)ove cited, 
has noted that Cheyenne th- as the prefix of the second person singu- 
lar, indei>endent mode, apparently corresponds witli Arapaho -n. 
This the writer considers imjirobable, as it would be incredible that in 
Arapaho a verbal pronoun that in all other Algonquian languages is 
prefixed, should be suffixed. 



MICHELSON] ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 237 

There are some formations that seem tlioroughly un-Algonquian; 
e. g. heOo"hofc he, she told him, hek, them (an.), the obviative of 
wliich is hede'hok. This formation is rare; the writer has met it but 
a few times, always in words of the same, or approximately the same, 
meaning. The stem of the examples given is hok; M is allied with 
hei; so far as known at present there are no phonetic equivalents for 
the incorporated pronominal elements in any other Algonquian lan- 
guage. The i)refixing of the termination for he — him, her, them (an.) 
before the initial stem is thorougUy im -Algonquian, and can not be 
jiarallcled elsewhere in these languages. The occurrence of the 
objective pronominal elements immediately after an initial prefix ( ?) 
is another anomaly. 

To sum up, Arapaho seems to have become specialized at an early 
pei'iod, but it is likely that when the phonetics of the language are 
better understood more points in common with Eastern-Central 
Algonquian will become apparent; and it is possible that borrowing 
from a non- Algonquian stock may be shown. 

Eastern-Central 

Although the Eastern branch presents considerable differences 
from the Central branch — cliiefly in the abundance of consonantic 
clusters — it is perfectly obvious that, compared with Blackfoot, 
Cheyenne, or Arapaho, it belongs intimately with the Central group. 
See the discussion of Eastern Algonquian (p. 280). 

central subtype 

All these dialects are very intimately connected. To say that one 
dialect is not closely connected with another means merel}' that the 
relations between the two are not so close as between one of the 
dialects and a third. The lexical correspondence is very marked and 
the correspondence in the grammatical terminations is close. In the 
independent mode (or indicative mode) the correspondence is not so 
close as in the subjunctive. The reason for this is probably that in 
the latter case there is nothing to connect the personal endings 
with, and that in transitive forms the single pronouns (which are 
always suffixed) expressing both subject and object are so specialized 
that it is not possible readily to analyze them into their component 
elements, whereas the pronominal endings of the independent mode 
are imquestionably to be associated with the possessive pronoims 
and therefore vary more. (The Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo forms 
in -pena, the Shawnee forms in -pe, and the Sauk, Fox, Kickapoo, 
and Shawnee forms in -pwa are wholly anomalous.) However, in 
the case of the independent mode, the analysis is far clearer than in 



238 CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES [eth. an.\ i!S 

other niddcs. Tlui transitive forms are based mainly on the combin- 
ation of intransitive ones, sometimes part being prefLxed and i)art 
suffixed, <ir both parts are suffixed. In certain forms it is necessary 
to assume certain pronominal elements which are totally imconnected 
with the possessive or independent pronouns, but which nevertheless 
reoccur in other modes than tlio independent. 

The writer's classification of tJie dialects of the Central subtype is 
based on a study of the present independent and subjunctive modes, 
together with phonetic and a few other considerations. 

It is possible to formulate certain subdivisions of the group. These 
are — 

Cree-Montagnais. 

Menominee. 

Sauk, Fox, Kickapoo, together with Shawnee, the last-named being 
somewhat removed from them. 

Ojibwa, Potawatomi, Ottawa, Algonkin, with Peoria somewhat 
removed from them. 

Natick. 

Delaware. 

It may be further noted that Cree-Montagnais, Menominee, Sauk, 
Fox, Kickapoo, and Shawnee collectively form a unit as compared 
with any other of the subdivisions. 

Cree-Montagnais 



Cree is characterized by the maintenance of the clusters sic, sp, si 
{ch, cp, cf), which in other members of the Central group (with certain 
limitations noted below) are converted to 'k, 'p, 't, respectively.' It is a 
special point of contact with Eastern Algoncjuian that these are like- 
wise retained in them. Examples are Cree amisl- (Lacombe) beaver, 
Stockbridge (Edwards) amisque, Ojibwa am.il:, Delaware amochlc. 
Fox ame'kw'^ (Shawnee hamakwa, Gatschet), Peoria amdhwa, Abnaki 
pep8n-emesl-8 (Rasles) winter beaver, Micniac pul-umsTcw beaver 
OF THIRD year;- Cree miskawew he finds him, her, Malecite mus- 
Icuwan he found her, Natick miskom he finds it. Fox me'kmndw'^ 
he finds him, her; Cree ishwe'u woman, Micmac l-esigo-eshic'^ old 
WOMAN, Natick squaw, Fox i'hwdtv^, Ojibwa i'kwd, Delaware 
uxkwciu (Sapir); Cree niAsTcwA bear. Fox ma'l'w'^, Shawnee ™A-u'o, 
Peoria maxkwa, Ojibwa ma'Jctua, Natick mosq: Cree islipimik above, 
Ojibwa ishpiming, Menominee icpdmiyA above, Penobscot spumJci 

I Moreover, under unknow-n conditions a sibilant is retained before k in Fox, Ojibwa, etc., and these agree 
in the retention or loss of the sibilant. 
' Rand, Dictionary of the Language of the Micmac Indians, Ualifax, 1SS8. 



MiCHELsoxl ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 239 

HEAVEN, Abnaki spemk, Passaniaquoddy sperneh high, Shawnee 
spemegi above (in the sky), Fox a'pemegi, Peoria pdmingi; Ci-ee 
micpun it snows. Fox mepu- to snow, Natick muhpoo it snows; 
Cree midig wood, Fox me'tegtvi, Shawnee ™tegtri, Menoniince meHig 
(probable mishearing for me tig), Ojibwa mi' tig (Jones), me'^tig (Turtle 
Mountain, ^lichelson), Natick mehtug, Delaware inehittuclc, Minsi 
michtulc.^ 

It should be noted likewise that Cree t{tt) coiresponds uniler 
unknown conditions to n (or its phonetic correspondent) in the other 
Central Algonquian languages as well as in Eastern Algonciuian. Thus 
Cree atal: star. Fox Andgw'^, Shawnee alagwa, Peoria alangwa, 
Ojibwa anang, Delaware allanque, Natick anoglcs; Cree atim dog, 
Fox Anemo'^, Natick anum, Delaware allum, Ojibwa animosh, Malecite 
ulamus (the last two really are diminutives). - 

Below \k\\\ be found tables for the Cree present indicative and sub- 
junctive-jiarticipial modes. ^ The phonetic laws stated above should 
be kept in mind to see the correspondence with other Algonquian 
languages. 

» It is gathered from Doctor Gatschet's notes on the pronunciation and his grapliic fluctuation of fc, 'k, 
ifc in the same words when corresponding to Cree sk, that the tnie value in Peoria is 'fc . By this is inferred 
the same regarding p. Examples are lacking to show the correspondent to Cree at, but the inference made 
at any rate is plausible. The writer's conclusions regarding Fox, Sauk, Kickapooare based on Doctor Jones's 
and his own texts; those on Shawnee are from Doctor Gatschet's graphic variants as well as the author's 
own notes (but apparently there are also some secondary changes in Shawnee); those on Menominee rest 
on the writer's own notes; those on Ojibwa are formed mainly from a study of Doctor Jones's texts, though 
partly from the writer's notes; in other cases the assumption rests on analogy. The quotations from the 
manuscripts of the late Doctor Jones are available through the liberality of the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington. Most of the Ojibwa wordscited in this paperare from naraga;theyareeasily distinguished by 
lack of most diacritical marks and by 1 he use of sh for c. Similarly, the Cree of the writer can be easily 
distinguished from that of Horden or Lacombe. Such words and grammatical terminations as are taken 
from or based on Doctor Sapir's field notes on Cree, Montagnais, Abnaki, Malecite, and Delaware, are 
expressly noted as such. 

-Abnaki wdamis his dog, Passamaquoddy ndemis MY DOG, both cited by Prince, are forms ptizzling to 
the writer. See American Anthropologist. N. s.. iv, 316, 317, 324, 6S4. Even so, the statement that Cree 
( can correspond to n, etc., of the other dialects, will stand. 

3 These are extracted from Horden (Cree Grammar, London, 1,S81) with the exception of the inani- 
mate forms both as subjects and objects, which are extracted from Lacombe. The latter forms are not 
readily found in Horden and the t^ble in Lacombe is highly confusing in other forms. That the forms 
exist in Moose Cree is shown by the texts in Uorden's Grammar. 



240 



CLASSIFICATION OK ALGONQUIAN TKIBES [irni. ann. 28 



a 

01 

g 


1 






1 

li 




s 






a 


T 








■SI 1 

g 1 § 3 1 -M 

ttTtTII i 


i 

1 


a 

^ 


. 1 i f 1 L 1 1 L 1 ^ i 1 « 

S .f 1 1 1 £ 3 11 5 ^ 1 1 1 1 ^ 


o 

^ 


s 


s g 1 

s i 1 

-« ■« ^ ^ ^ 

S S ^ ^ ^ '? '? ? 


J3 


f 


S> s ji = ^ ^ j; 


>> 


s 

f 


1 ^ 1 

1 1 1 1 1 i i 1 
f f ! T T 


* 
>> 


^ 

\ 




o 


•L 


gill •§ 

.s 1 lis 

II III 


o 


S 


1 1 ' ' ',111 


1 


1 

•a 


1 1 1 1 1 i i i i 

a B ' . ' 

1 1 1 


i 


3 


1 1 1 1 |- . s 

1 ?1 f 


"3 

1 


e 


1 1 1 a S s e K 

Ills g 


a* 




III ^1 

1 1 1 11 1 


t-4 


^ 

e 


S 

' ' '.Li . 

T T 1 1 1 


- 




111 •S s 

s J « i 1 






ca 

c 

. ^ '■ . . . 5 B 

• Si . e i 
¥ S » 1 § .§ 1 S 

e s a ■S >. s: S .-s 




2 


1 11 1 1 1 H 



MicHELsoxj ALGOXQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 241 

While nt Carlisle in the winter of li)ll-r_' the writer had an oppor- 
tunity of studying for a brief period the Cree spoken at Fort Totten, 
North Dakota. Below' are tables for the present independent mode 
and for wliat was intended (by the wTiter) to be the subjunctive of 
the same tense. Apparentl}' there was some misunderstanding, for 
the forms of the latter correspond with Lacombe's "suppositif" of 
the ''subjonctif" and Horden's future tense of the subjunctive. 
20903°— 28 ETH— 12 l(j 



242 



CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES 



(ETH. ANN. 28 



S 3 

I .1 



5 5 S ^ 

S =S S <* ca. ^ 

o. o. a -^ -; 2 

11 I a S S 



s e 



I I .! 



S 
'8 
S a 



I .1 



I 1 I 



S S g 

T T :? 



s s .„ 






■e t5r -e 'e a 



»» ai ^ to) i 



I I I 



I I I 



I I 1 



I I 



M ^ M 



I I .§ 



! ! ! 

'^ '.a .it 



I I I e e e K s 

f fl!! 

.id ^ s e ^ 



I I I I I 



I 1 I 



s 

'9 s 

s = = 

5 ^ S u I 

'^ S S ^ 7 



s 

Ml Is? 

e g s s e 

1 1 ! ! ! 

At I« e s s 



I I I 



s » 



g B 






3 g S ■" 



MiCHELSON] ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 243 

Wo w-ill first discuss the indicative forms. In the following Mon- 
tagnais is loft out, as tlio relations of Crec and Montagnais arc treated 
speciallj' below. Here it is sufficient to say that the two with plio- 
netic differences are essentially a linguistic unit. Statistics follow: 

I — YOU (pi.) no correspondent ; composed of the intraus. forms for 
I and YOU with phonetic changes. 

I — HIM agreement with F., Men., D. (one form).' 

I — THEM an. agreement witli F., Men., D. (one form). 

I — IT agreement with Men., A., Oj. 

I — THEM inan. agreement with Men., S. 

WE (excl.) intrans. agi-eement with D. (one form). 

WE (excl.) — THEE agreement with D. (one form). 

WE (excl.) — YOU agreement with D. (one form). 

WE (excl.) — HIM agi'eement with Oj., A., D. (one form). 

WE (excl.) — THEM an. agreement with Oj., A., N. 

WE (excl.) — IT agreement with A. 

WE (excl.) — THEM inan. formation same as we (excl.) — it. 

WE (inch) intrans. (Hordeu) no correspondent. 

WE (inch) intrans. (Fort Totten) agreement with Oj., A. 

WE (incl.) — HIM (Hordcn) ; cf. Men.^ 

WE (incl.) — HIM (Fort Totten) agi-eement Oj., A. 

WE (incl.) — THEM an. (Horden) no correspondent, cf. Men.^ 

WE (incl.) — THEM an. (Fort Totten) agi'eement with Oj., A. 

WE (incl.) — IT (one form, Lacombe) no correspondent. 

WE (incl.) — it (one form, Lacombe; Fort Totten) agreement 
with A. 

WE (incl.) — THEM inan. formation same as we (incl.) — it. 

thou^us (excl.) no correspondent; composed of thou intrans. 
+ i + ndn: cf. Fox l-e — ipena for the formation. 

THOU — HIM agreement with Men., F., D. (one form). 

THOU — THEM an. agreement with Men., F. D. 

THOU — IT agreement with Men., Oj., A. 

THOU — THEM inan. formation the same as thou — it. 

ye intrans. no correspondent; same formative elements found in 

YE ME. 

YE — ME no correspondent; composed of the intrans. form for ye +i. 

YE — us (excl.) no correspondent; formation precisely the same as 
THOU — us (excl.). 

YE — HIM agreement witli ]\Ien., D. (one form); cf. also Oj., A., S., 
N., Pass. 

" The followng arc the principal abbrevialions usod in this paper: A., Algonkin; an., anhuate; C, 
Cree; D., Delaware; excl.. exclusive; F., Fox; inan., inanimate; inci., inclusive; M.. Miemac; Men., 
Menominee; Mont., Montagnais; N.. Natick; Oj., Ojibwa; Ot.. Ottawa; P., Peoria; Pass., Passama- 
quoddy; Pot., Potawatomi; S., Shawniee. 

2 Lacorabe gives a variant that agrees absolutely with Menominee. 



244 CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES [eth. axn. 28 

YE — ^THEM an. agroemout with Men., 1). (one form); cf. also ()j. 
A., S., N. 

YE — IT no coiTosiiondent; of. Oj., A., S. 

YE — THEM inan. formation the same as ye — it. 

HE — us (excl.) agreement with F., Oj., A., D. (one form). 

HE — us (inch; Horden) agreement with Men. 

HE — us (ind.; Fort Totten) agreement with F., Oj., A. (D.?). 

HE — YOU agreement with F., Men. 

HE — ^HiM agreement with F., Men. (N.?). 

HE — THEM an. agi-eement with F., Men. 

HE— IT agreement with F., Men., P., Oj. (one form). 

HE — THEM inan. agreement witli F., Men., P. 

THEY an. — US (exel.) agreement withF., Oj., A., N., D. (one form). 

THEY an. — us (inch; Horden) agreement with Men. 

THEY an. — us (inch; Fort Totten) agreement with F., Oj., D. 

THEY an. — YOU agi-eement with F., Men., D. 

THEY an. — -HIM agi-eement with F., Men. 

THEY an. — THEM an. agreement with F., Men. 

THEY an. — -IT agi-eement with F., Men., P. 

THEY an. — THEM inan. agreement with F., Men., P. 

THEY inan. no correspondent. 

Common Central Algonqnian agreements are naturally not included 
in the above statistics. Phonetic changes have caused certain termi- 
nations to resemble Ojibwa rather than Fox, e. g., he — me, thee, but 
these are not included, as the formation is identical. The customary 
final n is not here added to the forms for i and thou when intransitive, 
as it seems to be purely a phonetic product. The forms for they 
an. — ME, thee look strange in comparison with other Algonquian 
languages, but in the writer's opinion a phonetic archaism is the dis- 
turbing factor. 

It maj'' be mentioned here that in the statistics given in the dis- 
cussion of other Central Algonquian languages they inan. intrans. is 
not noted, as all agree (so far as material is available), as opposed to 
Cree. It \\all be seen that the greatest number of agreements is with 
Menominee, with Fox (Sauk and Kickapoo) second, and Delaware, 
Ojibwa, and Algonkin about equal, in the third place. The statistics 
likewise show that the unity of Cree-Montagnais, ilenominee, Sauk, 
Fox, Kickapoo, and Shawnee mentioned on page 238 applies espe- 
cially to Cree-Montagnais, Menominee, Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo. It 
is due almost entirely to the very intimate relationship between Sauk, 
Fox, Kickapoo on the one hand and Shawnee on the other (see 
pj). 252, 258) that the last-mentioned language must be attached to 
the group. (Sauk, Fox, Kickapoo are practically one language, with 
slight variations (see pp. 252, 258). In the entire discussion of the 



MiciiELSON] ALGONQVIAN UXGL'ISTIC GROUPS 245 

statistics throughout this ])aj)or it is undorstood tliat .ill arc in agree- 
ment, unless the contraiy is expresslj- stated.) 

Tiie discussion of the subjunctive-participial does not recjuiie such 
elaborate statistics. 

The variant forms of the thii'd person ])ka'al anunate both as sub- 
ject and object, ending in -tv, are stated b^^ Horden to be distinctive of 
East Main Cree, Avith the exce])tion of the variants for they an. — him, 
THEM an. which occur elscAvhere as well. The forms under discussion 
closely resemble the correspondents in Menominee, Algonkin, Ojibwa, 
and (to a lesser extent) Ottawa. (In Ojibwa they an. — us excl. 
has different formation, but has the characteristic ending.) More- 
over, the respective forms of the second table of Fort Totten Cree 
(which is discussed below) show the same general structure. The 
other forms of the third person an. plural as both subject and object 
(except HE — THEM an., whicli is a true subjunctive) correspond to the 
Fox, Shawniee, and Ojibwa partici]nal — not subjunctive. Even so, 
THEY an. — us (excl.) agrees wath Fox (and approximates the Shawnee 
form), not Ojibwa. i — y'ou agrees with Menominee, Ojibwa, and 
Algonkin. we (excl.) — thee, y'ou is a true active common Central 
Algonquian form as opposed to the Ojibwa (and probably Potawo/- 
tomi) correspondents, which are passives in structure. 

Outsiile the abdve, excluding phonetic differences, as the presence 
of the nasal in Ojibwa (also in Delaware), the agreement between 
Cree, Ojibwa, and Fox in this mode is remarkable. It is a matter 
of great regi'ct that hardly a single transitive form of the Peoria sub- 
junctive or participial is found among Doctor Gatschet's papers. The 
terminations of the participial, subjunctive, and conjunctive modes 
are closely allied in Algonquian (compare the tables in the Hand- 
book of American Indian Languages). Fortunately Doctor Gatschet 
has left examples of transitive forms of the Peoria conjunctive, so 
we can make some conjectures concerning the subjunctive. It pos- 
sessed the nasal as in Ojibwa, and the forms for the third person 
plural animate, both as subject and object, corresponded exactly 
with tiie exception of we inch — them an., they* an. — him, them 
an., to Cree. The personal terminations for we — thee, you (pi.) 
were the true active ones; he — us (excl.) agreed with Fox and Cree, 
as also that for they an. — us (excl.). (For the last two cf. Shaw- 
nee, Algonkin, and Menominee.) The form for i — you (pi.) agreed 
with Ojibwa, Algonkin, and Cree. Herein we find an important 
point of contact with Peoria. (See, however, p. 271.) It should be 
noted that the Micmac conjunctive agrees partially with Peoria in 
having forms for the third person plural animate both as subject 
and object that corres])ond to the F'ox participial, not conjunctive. 
We may accordingh- conjecture that the Micmac subjunctive agrees 
partially with Cree in the same way. This together with the reten- 



246 CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES [etii. axn. '^ 

tion of the consonant ic clusters ,vA-, ,sy*, st constitute important i)oints 
of contact between (Vee and Eastern Algontjuian. The Natick present 
subjinictive api)roxiniates closely to the Fox present subjvinctive and 
so agi'ees to a certain extent with Cree, but it should be noticed that 
practically all the forms with the third person animate, singular and 
plural, as subject are entirely diii'erent in structure from either the 
Cree or the Fox correspondents. The Delaware subjunctive shows 
marked peculiarities of its own and therefore presents few points of 
agreement with Cree, none in fact which are not shared by other 
Central Algonquian languages. 

The discussion of the second table of Fort Totten Cree must neces- 
sarily be brief, as the sole object of its introduction is to illustrate 
the variant forms of East Main Cree with the thii'd person plural as 
subject and object in the present subjunctive, and the correspondents 
in Menominee and Ojibwa. As is stated abov(*, the table really corre- 
sponds with Horden's future tense of the subjunctive and Lacombe's 
"suppositif " of the "subjonctif." The forms for he, they an. — 
us (excl. and inch), you are certainly passives in formation (cf. the 
Ottawa correspondents of the subjunctive) ; but in every case 
Lacombe gives variants which are actives, and Horden gives these 
alone. Agamthe variants given by Lacombe for we (excl. andincl.) 
— HIM, THEM an.; ye — him, them an. (which alone are given by 
Horden) in structure have the same formation as the correspond- 
ents of the present subjunctive. The Fort Totten Cree forms are 
composed of the respective intransitive subjects combined with the 
common objective form of the third person animate, namely a, which 
undergoes phonetic change before the initial y of the suffixes (the 
forms given by Lacombe do not show this change). The forms of 
the Fort Totten Cree in which the animate objects are plural exliibit 
the identical formation but have the characteristic w suffix. (The 
form given in the table for ye — them an. is reconstructed by the 
WTiter; the form -Atwdwi, obtained by direct questioning, is surely 
due to some misunderstanding, as it patently is the form for thou — 
them an. It should be noticed that in the forms for we (excl. and 
incl.) — him; we (excl.) — thee, you; thou, ye — us (excl.) Lacombe's 
Cree terminates in -?', not -u as Fort Totten Cree does. In the forms 
for WE (excl. and incl.) intransitive, we (excl. and incl.) — it, them 
(inan.), Lacombe gives forms with both -i and -u. Horden gives 
only the forms with -a (his transcrijjtion for long close |) corre- 
sponding to Lacombe's -i. Fort Totten Cree in these personal 
terminations has -u, and this only. It should be mentioned that 
corresponding to Horden's t before -a (his symbol for long close 
I), the Cree of Lacombe and of Fort Totten have tc {tj in Lacombe) 
before -i tliroughout. Again, Horden's Cree in the form for ye 



MicHKLSoxl ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 247 

intrans. ends in -;/'(7. wluM-cas Lacoinbc's and Fort Totten Cree end 
ill -u. It should bo added tliat Lacombe in the forms for he — them 
an. and they an. — it, them inan. gives variants whicli resemble the 
corresponding subjunctive (participial) ones in structure, as well as 
forms wliich agree with the Fort Totten correspondents. It need 
scarce be said that neither Lacombe nor Horden distinguishes surd 
and sonant, nor 'Jc from 1-, in his paradigms. 

The formation of a preterite with a suffix pun in both the indica- 
tive and the subjunctive is an important point of contact with Ojibwa 
(see the discussion of that language, p. 269). 

Another special point of contact with Peoria that should be noted 
is that the inanimate plural, nominative, ends in -a; yet notwith- 
standing these points of contact with Cree, Peoria (as will be shown 
later) belongs rather with Ojibwa. 

The dialectic variations as nlna i, nlra, nlya, nWa are well known 
and need no discussion. However, it should be mentioned that the 
so-called Cree of Rupert's House ^ is not Cree at all, but Montagnais. 
This the writer infers from a comparison of Doctor Sapir's notes on 
the Cree of Rupert's House with his notes on Montagnais, as well as 
with Lemoine's Dictionnaire Franfais-Montagnais (Boston, 1901). 
The following (taken from Sajnr's manuscripts) will illustrate the 
point under consideration: inA'slcwAts' bears, nilcA'm^ats they 
SING, ts' inikA'tngn thou singest. (See the discussion of Montagnais 
below.) According to Skinner (loc. cit.), the Fort George Indians 
speak the same dialect as those at Rupert's House. 

MONTAGNAIS 

As was stated above, excluding phonetic changes Montagnais is 
practically the same language as Ci'ee. Some of the phonetic changes 
which Montagnais has suffered are: fc (Cree h, Fox Ic) becomes tsh 
before i (Fox e and I, Cree e), tshi- thou (verbal). Fox Tee-, Cree Tee-, 
tshi- initial stem meaning completion, Fox l-i{ci\-, Cree Tee-; k (Cree Ic, 
Fox g) becomes ts before final i and e, even if these are lost, -uts 
(ending of animate pi. of nouns), Cree -uk, Fox -Ag^, -uts (third person 
pi. animate, independent mode, intransitive), Cree -wuJc, Fox -WAg', -ts 
(sign of locative singular animate), Cree -Ic, Fox -g^, -iats (first i)erson 
pi. excl. intransitive, subjunctive mode), Cree -yak, Fox -yag"; sk before 
i becomes ss; Cree askiy land, Montagnais assi (Fox a'k') ; tsh[i]t (Fox 
k[e]i) becomes st, stuk:i thy ear, as compared with utuki his ear, tshiiu 
thy body, kutaui thy father, staiamiau thou prayest, as compared 
with ntaiamiau i pray; t[ti]k becomes ts before e, -tse (sign of the dubi- 
tative), Cree -tokd, Fox -tugc; k[e]sh becomes tsh, tshiuelin thou art 
HUNGRY for ke -\- sh-; tc[i]k[i] becomes ts, -ats (subj . mode ; third per- 

' Skinner, Notes on the Eastei^ Creo and Northern Saultcaux, p. U, New York, 1911. 



248 CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES rETH, ann. 28 

son pi. an. suhj., third person sing. an. ()l)jcct) ns compared with 
Cree -ateiJc, Fox (particii)ial) -ateig': ,sli[i]]c[i] becomes ss, -ss (subj. 
mode, third p\. an. subj., second person sing, object), Cree -shik, Fox 
-'Jcig' (part.). Further, it may be noted that final -w", w' after con- 
sonants, has a history in Montagnais different from that in Cree. 
Observe Montagnais ni — hu he — me (independent mode), Cree ne — 1c, 
Fox ne — gu/', tshi — hu he — thee (imlependent mode), Cree ke — Ic, 
Fox Ice — gwa, -%ku (first person pi. ind. of subjunctive), Cree -yuk, 
Fox -yAgW. These phonetic changes are of extremely wide appli- 
cation. It is unnecessary to give tables showing the verbal termina- 
tions as they agree with those of Cree. It may be noted that -v. 
corresponds to Cree -w and -au to Cree -ow, except in the first person 
pi. inch, where we find -u. The reason for the latter is not clear. 

After emphasizing the essential unity of Cree and Montagnais it 
may be well to point out some individual traits of the latter. In the 
first place though there is a pan (Cree pun) preterite, it is confined to 
the indicative and does not occur in the subjunctive. Another point 
is that the "suppositif" of the mode "subjonctif" is clearly allied 
to the Fox potential subjunctive for which there is no correspondent in 
Cree (compare Mont. -■iatuiue we iexcl.),-i7cua]cue'WE (incl.), ^ekuelcue 
YE with Fox-yAgdge'', -yAgAgu^, -ydgdgu", respectively). The other 
intransitive persons in Montagnais have the characteristic ku but 
have no correspondents in Fox. The transitive forms do not corre- 
spond closely, though there are resemblances between the two lan- 
guages; hence tables are not given. In closing, it may be added that 
the Montagnais on — me, etc., has the appearance of a passive in 
structure, but there are several points which are not clear. (The 
above examples of Montagnais and Cree are taken, respectively, from 
Lemoine and Horden, wth the exception of Cree askiy, wliich is from 
Lacombe. It will be seen by consulting the tables of Fort Totten 
Cree that the terminal k of Horden is doul)tless the strong (impure) 
sonant g of the former, Fox, Sauk, Kickapoo, Ottawa, etc. A couple 
of examples of Sapir's Montagnais, ts'inipahd'vjAts thou killest 
them an. (Fox kenepaJimvAg'-) , is-lnipaM'tVAts he killed them an. 
(Fox klcinepahdwAg') , ickwe'wAts women (Fox i'kwdwAg*), illustrate 
the ]>rinci])les mentioned al)ove. The WTiter suspects that Skinner's 
ta a (Rupert's House Cree) thou is reaUy fs'iya. The initial is' at 
once classes the word as Montagnais. It is true that according to 
Lemoine the ordinary Montagnais correspondent has 7, not y; but it 
should bo noticed that in Cree dialectically k'li/a occurs (see Horden, 
Cree Grammar, p. 3, London, 1881 ; Lacombe, Dictionnaire de la 
Langue des Cris, p. xv, Montreal, 1874). The Rupert's House Cree 
then wo\ild oorrespontl to tliis.) 

In discussing the relations of other Eastern-Central Algonquian 
languages, it is understood that Montagnais agrees Adth Cree unless 



MICHELSON] ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 249 

the contnny is expressly mentioned. Hence tlie f.ict that Montag- 
nais sometinies is not mentioned merely means tliat it agrees with 
Cree. 

Menominee 

Menominee is eharaoterized by peculiar consonantic clusters due 
to the elimination of the final i of initial stems; thus, wdpmd'wAg 

THEY BEGAN TO CRY (FoX tVapi-) , tVdpkctcptpA'xtaw" HE BEGAN TO 

RUN SWIFTLY (Fox u'dpi-, l'e'(ci-), inl-e&ndifd'wAg i have seen them 
(Fox neHnndwdwAg') , l-dtcmd'vMg they are crying hard (Fox 
TcetdmaiyowAg'), IcesinW he has come (Fox Jctdpydw'^) , Jcilcesine- 
l-dmgundv'Ag they fought us (Fox l-eHcumgdiThe gundriAg'). This 
elimination may cause a double consonant, as plplvamelcdtdwAg they' 
fought as they went along {Yojl pemi + pydmlgdilxuAg'^), pipivaui- 
esew'^ HE WENT PAST EASING HIMSELF (Fox pemi + pydmwiw"') , 
icdpinpA'xfaw" he began to run (Fox wdpi + pyd-). The combi- 
nation of the subordinating particle as with initial stems also 
gives rise to clusters — for example, AspemdtiseyA we shall live. 
The only true consonantic clusters that occur within the same mor- 
phologic division of a word are st and sp; the latter alone is impor- 
tant in determining the general relations of Menominee. Examples 
are: fcespin perhaps, Cree Iclspin, Ojibwa Icishpin; k-pdmiyA above, 
Cree ishpimilc, Ojibwa ishpimm^, Fox apemigi (see discussion of 
Ojibwa, p. 261). The combination xt agrees with Micmac, e. g. [n- 
/uxtair" he is coming on the run, Micmac poxtAmMsid he went 
on. Surd and sonant are exceedingly difficult to distinguish; like- 
wse e and 1. The writer was unable to determine these with abso- 
lute acciu'acy; the sounds are given as taken down. Whisi)ered 
vowels are easy to hear after w; in other cases it is questionable 
whether they actually exist. A peculiarity of Menominee is that 
Central Algonquian s under unknown conditions becomes n; thus 
no'nee^ my father (Fox nose), na^ne' my elder brother (Foxnesese), 
ponindw'^ he stopped in his flight (Fox pdnisdw'^, -ond- walk (Fox 
-UrSd-) . 

A table of the independent mode follows. 



250 



CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES 



[ETH. ANN. 28 



a S 3 3 S Ch Ch 



^^ ^^ » ^ 



I s 



E£ ^ .V .V ,S£ 



.g 3 



1 1 1 .1 : 

ES ^ a: l^d ' 



g I 

J T 
5 is 



I I I 



T'T 



1 i I 



.1 I 



T'T 



r "^ "^ 

i .i .i 

Ue ^ •u 



I I I I I ,1 



S 5 
I 1 



ji ji e c e 



I I I 



.g S = e 

t T ! .! I 

J2 j2 e e S 



^ .3 



S. 'O » 3 



e s 



0.§£ 

>. s: is 



E 5 



It will ho. seen that Menominee has 
many forms quite peculiar to itself, and 
that the agreements wdth Cree-Montag- 
uais are far more numerous than with 
any other languages of the Central sub- 
division; those with Fox are next in 
order of number. For the agreements 
with Delaware, see the section on that 
language. Details follow: 

I — YOU no correspondent; nearest N. 

I — HIM agreement with C, F., D. 

I — THEM an. agreement with C, F., 
D. (N.?). 

I — IT agreement with C, A., Oj., Ot. 

I — THEM inan. agreement with C. 

WE (excl.) intrans. no correspondent; 
nearest P., Oj., A., Ot., N. 

WE (excl.) — ^THEE no correspondent; 
nearest P., N. 

WE (excl.) — YOU no correspondent; 
nearest N., A., Ot. (P.?). 

WE (excl.) — HIM no correspondent; 
structure as we (inch) — him. 

WE (excl.) — THEM an. no correspond- 
ent; cf. WE (incl.) — THEM an. 

WE (excl.) — IT no correspondent. 

WE (excl.) — THEM inan. no corre- 
spondent. 

WE (mcl.) intrans. no correspondent; 
nearest P., Oj.; cf. also C. 

WE (incl.) — HIM; cf. C 

WE (incl.) — THEM an.; cf. C 

WE (incl.) — IT no correspondent. 

WE (mcl.) — THEM inan. no corre- 
spondent. 

THOU — us (excl.) no correspondent. 

THOU — HIM agreement with ("., F., D. 

THOU — THEM au. agreement with C, 
F.,D. 

THOU — IT agreement with C, A., Ot., 
Oj. 

THOU — THEM kian. agreement with C. 

1 Lacombe gives a Cree variant which is the exact corre- 
spondent. 



MKHELSOX] ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 251 

YE, intraixs. no con'espoudeut; nearest P., N.; cf. also Oj., Ot., A.; 
for last syllabic cf. C 

YE — ME no correspondent; nearest N.; cf. also A., Oj., Ot. 

YE — us (excl. ) no correspondent. 

YE — HIM agreement with L\, D. 

YE — THEM an. agreement with C"., D. 

YE — IT no correspondent. 

YE — THEM inan. no correspondent. 

HE — us (excl.) no correspondent; for the structure cf. he — us 
(incl.) 

HE — us (incl.) agreement \vith t'. * 

HE — YOU agreement with C, F. 

HE — HIM agreement with C, F. (N. ?). 

HE — THEM an. agreement with C, F. (N. ?). 

HE — IT agreement with. C, F., P., N., Oj. (one form). 

THEY an. — us (excl.) no correspondent; cf. they an. — us (inch). 

THEY an. — us (incl.) agreement with V. 

THEY an. — YOU agreement with C, F., D. 

THEY an. — HIM agreement with C, F. 

THEY an. — THEM ail. agreement with C, F. 

THEY an. — IT agreement with C, F., P. 

THEY an. — THEM inan. agreement with C, F., P. 

Where all agree with or without phonetic changes, no record has 
been made. In certain cases it is impossible to be sure whether 
phonetic changes have not disguised agreements. 

THEY inan., intrans., looks strange as contrasted with the common 
Central Algonquian form (on the Cree coiTespondent, see p. 244) ; how- 
ever, it is merely because the word from which it is taken chances 
to have a vowel before the termination, and not a consonant. The 
same is to be observed in Kickapoo, and doubtless other dialects; 
thusKickapoo tetejn/dAn', i. e., tetepydwAn' (see p. 258) they inan. are 
ROUND (analysis: tetepi circle, initial stem; -a- secondary connective 
stem, inan. copula; -wau' termination of the tliird person inan. pi. 
intrans. independent mode after a vowel as contrasted with -oni 
after a consonant). [Note -niwAn^ in Fox as compared with -on', the 
ordinary termination of the tliird person pi. inan. intrans. independ- 
ent mode; see Handbook of American Indian Languages {Bull. Jfi, 
B. A. E.), pt. 1, p. 8.33.] 

It should be specially noted that Menominee, Cree, and Fox 
agree m having the objective forms of it and them inan. expressed 
by a smgle fomi as opposed to Ottawa, iVlgonkin, Ojibwa, and 
Shawnee. It is a common Algonquian feature that in subordinate 
modes the forms are expressed by single pronouns. 

A table for the sul)junctive mode is not available; however, the 
writer can give some information concerning the relations indicated 



252 CLASSIFICATION OF ALUONQUIAN TBIBES | ktii. anx. 28 

by it. Many of tJu^ forms seem pecuiiai' to Menominee and arc 
difficult to iuialyze. i — you agrees with C, Oj., A., Ot., in structure 
and presunuibly also with Peoria, he — us (excl.) has no correspond- 
ent (the form is -lyAme), but distinctly approaches the correspond- 
ents of C, F., S., A., and presumably P. The forms of the third 
person plural animate both as subject and object closely resemble 
the correspondents in Oj., A., the East Main C'ree of Horden, certaua 
variants given by Lacombe in his Grammaire dc la Langue des Cris 
(Montreal, 1874), and to a lesser extent the coiTcspondents in Ottawa. 
The corresponding forms of Horden's future of the subjunctive, and 
Lacombe"fe "suppositif" of the "subjoncttf," as well as the supposed 
present subjunctive of Fort Totten C'ree also closely resemble them. 
It goes without sayuig that the Menominee forms lack the nasal of 
the Ojibwa, Algonkin, and Ottawa. On the other hand the various 
forms of C'ree possess an extra syllable with w. 

To sum up, we may say that although Menominee must be classed 
by itself, yet it is perfectly clear that it belongs intimately with 
Cree-Montagnais, etc., on the one hand, and with Sauk, Fox, and 
Kickapoo on the other. 

Sauk, and Close Linguistic Cognates 

The differences between Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo consist of a 
trifling modification of pronunciation, vocabulary, and idiom. Shaw- 
nee is slightlj' removed from them. To facilitate the discussion of 
the relations of the last-named language to them as well as the rela- 
tions of the entire group, tables for the independent, conjunctive, 
and subjunctive modes in Fox, and for the same modes in Shawnee, 
are given. 



MICHKI.SON] 



ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 



253 



a 
o 
s 

Eh 

Q 
Z 
(d 
Pli 

Q 
g 

O 



d 

1 

>> 

1 


■1 




^ 


? 




3 
1 


'S, 


■5 -a '1 

frrfrttt 

S S ^ ^ ^ ^9 '? ■? 




2 = 1 
S s ,2 

«§'§=! 1 

S 3 S S 3 i 

i lT \ r i i g 

g g ^ ^ ^ :, :? 7; 


f. 


I 


, e 1 1 1 c = = 

is s 3 s 

Q. Q. ft. a a. 

•ft 'iTT 


3 

1 


•it 


T t T T T 


1 
1 




1 1 1 1 1 « a « 

e: e e 

s. s, 5. 
! ! '! 

.id ^ -v 




g 

! 


1 1 1 1 § 2 s 2 

2- 1 I 1 1 

T T n T 

^ .« e e e 


" 


e 


111 s '^ 

' ' '.III 

! irn 

j« ji 5 8 e 




s 


§ 

a 

■11 ■ ■ ■ = i 
B 3 3 5 g. II .-■ 



i 


3 




s 


•a; 




i 
1 


■^ 


:i s 1 III 

1 2, ? ~ § S s 


s 


? 


.Jl 1-.- 


g. 


t 


III 1 

II if 


3 

1 




11; 

ll ^^ 


i 

1 




1 1 1 1 1 1 
Is 


1 


t 


1 1 1 

1 .1 1 1 

? 7 T "^ 


" 


1 


1 1 1 » ._ 
1 1 - 1 

f ^ "? T 




& 

a 


M 

p s 

• : ^ ^ : : 1 i 

„ £ .S g 3 g 5 
S s a ■S p^ a S 



254 



CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES 



[KTir. Axs. 28 





:S 




1 


« 
^ 




5 




£ 1 S S B 1 

■1 2. ?■ i t i i 


o 

^ 


V 


I 
1 

1 s § 1 




s 

t 


111 

3 ^ ^ ■§• 


3 

1 


s 

?- 


III 


c 

i 
1 




1 1 1 1 1 1 
a 1 

T 1= 


J 


1 

III 

^ l.« t 

■O ■? o. S 

? ? T 7 


I-H 1 

i 


'1 i ?T 




1 


S g 

_• a 

" - J ■ 'la 

g = g 3 £ 5 

2 m » S o .5 - 
E 3 3 S >> J5 — 



.a 

1 






.•s 


1 




1 


3 
V 


._ t 't t = 3 g g 

!{.r!.rffff 

^ ^ .a .a ^ to "^ 'O "^ 


s 


e 


i s § i ,5 .« ■« 1 

.r.r.r.r.rTTTf 




e e Jd .« -« 'o 'o 'o 'o 


^ 




g 1 1 1 e 't 1 1 
1 « a s i 5 

T t T T .1 .i 


1 


-S 


III 

if il.!! 

Ua ^ ^ ^ \ii M 


.a 

1 


3 


1 1 1 1 1 . „ . ; 

=i. ::. a. =1. 

! .! ! ! 

a; .« a: Ai 


a* 


1 


' ' 1 "u %j «j *j w w 

=i. n. o. n. n, n, 

f 7 'T T T T 

i5 ^ 5 a s c 


- 


e 


III 1 - « 

T?Tf?f 

3 S e S e 5 




a 

t-4 








■ i s = : -■ E ■ E 



2 ® 






11 



SlICHELSON] 



ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 



255 



i 

.3 


^ 




.s 


^ 




i 




1 .| 1 3 f 1 1 


1 


■5 


"5 

^ s .§■-.- 


u 


1 . ' ' ' . ^ 


S4 


III 
•1 1 f 1 


1 
1 


1 

2. 


1 1 1 1 1 1 
ll 


1 


fc. 


Ill 

§.|'tt 


" 


^^ 


1 1 1 




a 

B 

s 


me 

us excl. . . . 
us iiicl. . . . 

Ihec 

you 

him, them, an. . 
it, them.inan. . 



i 

1 


?. 




•^ 


?> 






1 

1 "Si <w "c 

s 1 U til 

1 .f .& :^ a a .| ? 


M 


V 


•^ .=> :j g. .S :| ? 



>> 


1 


. ill 1 

1 1 1 1 


thou 
-ydne 


III 

s t ~ s 


£ 




1 1 1 1 1 1 


■3 


^ 


'II 

,& s =• s 

2 a ■;: -J 


- 


'1 


1 1 1 

.Hi 




1 


§ g 

a -s 

• « 1 • ■ "- .§ 



256 CLASSIFICATION Ol' ALGONQUIAN TRIBES rivrii. a.nx. 2? 



SHAWNEE 



The forms' i — iiiM, them an., them man.; thou — him, them an., 
THEM iiian.; ye — him, them an., it, them inan.; he — you (pi.), 
him, them man.; they an. — you (pi.), him, it, them inan. agree 
with Ojibwa, etc., m structure. For the probable noteworthy agree- 
ments with Peoria, see the discussion of that language. It is quite 
clear that one of the Delaware dialects agrees ui the formation of he— 
us (excl. and inch), they an. — us (excl. and inch), even if there is 
but the form he — us (excl.) in the table to support the assertion. 
Passamaquoddy agrees in the forms for i — you (pi.) him, them an.; 
thou — him, them an.; ye intrans.; ye — me, him; he — us (excl. 
and mcl.); he — you (pi.), him; they an. — him. It is probable 
that the forms for he — them an. and they an. — them an. are 
shared by Passamaquotldy (and Algonkm) but the phonetics are not 
certain. The forms correspond nearly to the Fox possessive pronouns 
for HIS (an. pi.) and their (an. pi.). It is unfortunate that the 
inanimate forms of Passamaquoddy are not available, as they might 
show further agreements with Shawnee. However, it may be noted 
that I, THOU, YE — them (man.), ye — it agree also with Cree. 
Natick curiously shows apparent agreement in he — us (inch), and so 
presumably would he — us (excl.). However, they an. — us (excl.) 
shows a different formation, and hence presumably they an. — us 
(inch) would also. The agreement with Delaware, in the form for 
he — -him may be noted in addition to the one already mentioned. 
(For another one, see the discussion of Delaware, p. 277.) 

The forms with the termination -pe, though unique, are certainly 
to be associated with the Fox -pena even if the two do not entirely 
coincide. Those with the termination -pwa make it certain that Shaw- 
nee is related very intimately to Fox, etc., for no other Central Aigon- 
quian languages have the termination, though it is found (modified 
phonetically) ui Eastern Algonquian, and an allied form occurs in 
Piegan. The forms for i, thou — it point also in this diiection. 

The terminations of the two subordinate modes giveji agree with 
Fox, Cree, and Micmac in lacking the nasal of Ojibwa and Peoria, 
and Delaware, and the terminations are to be associated TOth those of 
Fox. The w of the forms for he, they (an.) — you is unique at present, 
otherwise the forms are normal. The forms he, they an. — us (excl.) 
are to be associated distmctly with the Fox correspondents, though 
the syllable -ge- suggests the Ojibwa correspondents. The fii-st 
person singular intransitive agrees with Delaware and'^Iicmac. i — 
thee at present is unique, but if complete schedules were available 
for the various Delaware dialects and for the eastern subdivision of 
the Eastern-Central branch, correspondents would doubtlessly be 
found. I — IT, them inan. agrees with Delaware. 



< In giving these statistics no account is taken o( such forms as are common Central .\lgonquian. 



MICHBLSON] . ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 257 

Phonetically Shiuviiee differs somewhat from Fox. The sibilant 
is retained in the cluster sp, which appears as 'j) in Fox though 
retained in Ojibwa (but not in Peoria) : spcmegl on high, Fox a'pemegi 
(see the discussion of Crec and Ojibwa, pp. 238, 261). The combina- 
tion -w" is lost after i and a, as in Ojibwa: Shawnee hileni man. 
Fox ineniw'^; Shawnee hugirnd chief. Fox ugimdw'^.^ It may be noted 
that -w"' is lost after e under unknown conditions when corresponding 
to Fox: pemde (Fox pemusdw") he walked on, piew" (Fox {pyavfi) 
HE came. The combmation -wa- is lost medially under unknown con- 
ditions: pyegi they went (Fox pyawAgi) as contrasted with hiwaki 
(Gatschet, confu-sion of surd and sonant; Fox hkvAgi) they said. The 
sound s of Fox is replaced by the mterdental surd spirant and the pre- 
cedmg vowel is ordmarily syncopated: noda my father (Fox nosa), 
TcdlcomderM our (mcl.) grand.iother (Fox Ico'lcomesendna) , "Oeda 
MY elder brother (Fox nesesa). Corresponding to Fox, Ojibwa, 
Menominee, etc., n, Shawnee has I and n under unknown conditions, 
agreeing, however, with Peoria, Delaware, and (partially) Eastern 
Algonquian m this use. 

To sum up, we may say that while Shawnee has certain features 
of its own, it stands nearest to Fox, and next to Eastern Algonquian; 
in fact it stands nearly halfway between the two. It will be seen 
that Ojibwa shares but these persons of the indejjendent mode, 
namely, ye — them an., they an. — you (pi.), which are not shared 
by Passamaquoddy. (No account is taken of the agreements 
in the inanimate objective forms, as we have no correspondents 
available m Passamaquoddy by which to test them.) On the other 
hand, Passamaquoddy shares the followuig forms with Shawnee 
which are not shared by Ojibwa: i — you (pi.), ye mtrans., ye — me; 
THEY an. — HIM. The forms for he — us (excl. and incl.) presumably 
are phonetic correspondents; those for he — them an. and they 
an. — THEM an. probably are equivalents. The Passamaquoddy 
forms for we (excl. and inch, intrans.), we (excl.) — thee, you; 
thou — us (excl.); ye — us (excl.), coincidmg phonetically with the 
respective Fox forms, are closely sinular to the corresponding Shawnee 
forms. Accordingly, it may be that many of the apparent points of 
contact with Ojibwa are due merely to the latter having certain points 
in common with Eastern Algonquian antl Cree (this last has reference 
particularly to the inanimate objective forms above noted). The 
fact that Ojibwa in the independent mode shares only the ter- 
minations for HE — us (excl. and inch), and they an. — us (excl. 
and inch), with Fox as opposed to Passamaquoddy, while the latter 
shares numerous terminations with Fox as opposed to Ojibwa, and at 

' It is possible that tlie last cliange may account for tlie differences in certain persons of the independent 
mode in Fox on the one hand and in Ojibwa and Shawnee on the other; but it is also possible to consider 
the terminations as differing in morphologic structure. The same point occurs in certain other cases. 

20903''— 28 ETH— 12 17 



258 CLASSIFICATION OF AUiONQUIAN TRIBES [eth, ann. 2)! 

the same time a goodly number of terminations with Ojibwa as opposed 
to Fox — certainly points in the same direction. For Cree (Fort Totten) 
likewise shares the terminal ions for he — us (excl. and incl.) and they 
an. — us (excl. and incl.) with Ojibwa and Fox. Now Ojibwa shares 
in the independent mode no terminations with Fox as opposed to Cree, 
while the latter shares a number with Fox as opposed to Ojibwa 
(see below), at the same time having some points in common with 
Ojibwa as opjiosed to Fox (see the discussions of Cree and Ojibwa, 
pp. 247, 267, 268). Therefore the fact that Ojibwa shares with both 
Cree and Fox the terminations mentionetl ma}^ be j)ure chance. Now 
if Ojibwa and Fox are only remotely connected, it is improbable on 
the face of it that Shawnee, which is most intimately related to Fox, 
should be closely connected with Ojil)wa also. Consequently, there 
remain but few points of contact between Ojibwa and Shawnee 
that are certain. 

SAUK, FOX, AND KICKAPOO 

We have seen above that Sauk, Fox, anil Kickapoo ' differ from 
one another by very trifling modifications of pronunciation, vocabu- 
laries, and idioms, and that Shawnee is intimately related to them. 
The close connection of the Eastern Algonquian dialects is to be 
noted. It may be well to show that the Shawnee forms for they an. 
— us (excl. and inch), you (pi.) are much closer to the Fox forms than 
the corresponding forms of Passamaquodily are to the latter, even 
if the Shawnee forms are not absolutely identical with the Fox corre- 
spondents. On the other hand, Passamaquoddy shares absolutely 
with Fox the terminations in -pena which Shawnee onl}' approxi- 
mates. Yet Passariiaquoddy shares the han preterite of Ojibwa (see 

1 The first two are somewhat more closely related than either is to the third. In the disciLssions of the 
interrelations of Algonquian languages it is to be understood that Sauk and Kickapoo.agree with Fox, 
though this is rarely mentioned. 

Characteristic of Sauk is the use of thcsingular for the plural alsoin the obviative (objective) ease, and in pos- 
sessive pronouns of the third person (singular and plural). Thus Sauk u^4 7ifm6A.in"pyon;u'/ini means either 
HIS noG IS COMING Of HIS DOGS -\RE COMING. The Fox expressions for these are, respectively, ut.inemohe- 
m.ini pydniw An' , ul.incmdhema i pydniica'i (by chancein the phrase Sauk «M nfraoA.ini lacks the ;n sufHx 
which Fo.x has; but even in Sauk the writer has heard the word with them sufBx, though (purely by acci- 
dent) not in this particular phrase). Note, too. Sank /7.-M'a«'a neslcinaivdiro ncniwAni cemaincg'^ ant' tAmagutci 
uslmchAn', which means either the wom.\n hated the uxs because her younger brother had been 

SLAIN BY HIM. or the WOMAN H.\TEDTHE MAN BECAUSE HER YOUNGER BROTHERS HAD BEEN SLAIN BY IIIM.Or 
THE WOMAN HATED THE MEN BECAUSE HER YOtrNGER BROTHER HAD BEEN SLAIN BY THEM, Or THE WOM.\N 
H.\TED THE MEN BECAUSE HER YOUNGER BROTHERS HAD BEEN SLAIN BY THEM. In Fox SUch ambiguity 

is impossible. See sections 34, 4,5 of the Algonquian sketch in the Handbook of .Vmerican Indian Lan- 
guages (BuUetin iO, part I. of the Bureau of American Flhnology). Her younger brother and her 
YOUNGER brothers are distinguished by the respective terminations -Ani and -a'>: the ob\iative,s man 
and MEN would be kept apart by the identical respective suffixes: but the subordinate verb would never- 
theless have the ending -t£i. 

Kickapoo agrees with Fo,x against Sauk in these respects, and so miLst be counted as nearer the former 
than the latter. Nevertheless in phonetics Kickapoo is further apart from them than either is from the 
other. In Kickapoo a special feature is a weak «■ which is either heard as full sounding, as (i, or not at all. 
Doctor Jones's and the writer's texts exhibit these variations, and strangely enough agree in such varia- 
tions for the greater part. .Vn example is ngiindwtj, ugimiiha, ujimd" chief fselected from Doctor Jones's 
texts; Sauk and Fox ugimdw). lu their native syllabary Kickapoo exhibit the variation of recording 
and not recording the w. 



MiriiEi.sox] ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 259 

the discussion of tliat language, p. 269), and this feature forces us to 
rank it as more distant from Fox than is Shawnee. The consonantic 
chisters of Passama([uoddy, even if for the greater part these are 
secondary and due to the phonetic ehmination of vowels (see the 
discussion of Eastern subtype, p. 283), also point in this direction. 

The fact that Picgan in certain persons of the independent mode 
shows distinct affinities to Fox has been briefly mentioned above 
and is treated more fully in the discussion of Piegan (p. 231). 

We have seen that Ojibwa is connected only remotely with Fox, 
but it may be noted that the Ojibwa subjunctive mode of the dubi- 
tative conjugation corresponds to the Fox interi-ogative subjunctive; 
but to what an extent the transitive forms agree is questionable, as 
these are not given by Doctor Jones. 

Peoria undoubtedly belongs with the Ojibwa group of Central 
Algonquian languages; still there are some points of contact with 
Fox. It should be noted that the sibilant is not retained before j) 
as in Ojibwa, e. g. Ojibwa islqnming, Shawnee spemegi, Fox a'pemegi, 
Peoria pdmingi above, in the sky. The fact that Peoria is in cer- 
tain respects phonetically' more archaic than Ojibwa makes certain 
terminations of the intlicative seem to resemble Fox i-ather than 
Ojibwa (see the section on Ojibwa, etc., pp. 267, 271) ; but there is one 
termination, namely, that for tiiey an. — it, them inan., in whicli the 
question of phonetics does not arise and which agrees entirely with 
Fox as opposed to Ojibwa. 

The relation of Natick to Fox is not particularly close. In the 
discussion of the former language it is pointed out that most of 
the present suppositive mode corresponds to the Fox present sub- 
junctive and that certain persons of the "praeter" suppositive mode 
correspond to the Fox potential subjunctive. 

From the statistics given in the discussion of Menominee it mil be seen 
that there are no certain agreements with Fox (Sauk, Kickapoo) that 
are not shared also by C'ree and Montagnais, while Menominee shares 
quite a few t erminations with Cree and Montagnais wliich are not shared 
by Fox. The forms that are pecuhar to these four languages, with the 
possible exception of Natick in the first two — the orthography is not 
clear — are he — him, them an., they an. — him, them. The agree- 
ment of. Delaware (one form) with these four dialects in the forms 
for I — HIM, them an., thou — him, them an. is noteworthy. The 
fact that the inanimate plural in the objective forms of the inde- 
pendent mode in Cree-Montagnais, Menominee, Sauk, Fox, Kickapoo 
is expressed by the same forms as the inanimate singular as opposed 
to Ojibwa, Algonkin, Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Sha^\^lee, is remark- 
able. Peoria presumably agrees with the first group. 

The agreement of Ojibwa, Fox, Cree, and Montagnais in the form 
for they an. — us (inch) of the independent mode may be noted, as also 



260 CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES Trth. ann. 2S 

the agreement of Fox, Ojibwa, Cree, Montagnais, and Delaware (one 
form) in the t ermination f or he — us (excl.). (Note that Fort Totten 
Cree agrees with Fox and Ojibwa in the forms for he, they an. — us 
(excl. and inel.).) 

Fox, Shawnee, Cree, Montagnais, and Natick lack the nasal in the 
present subjunctive whicii Ojibwa, Peoria, and Delaware have. It 
will be seen that Cree agrees with Fox, as opposed to Ojibwa, in the 
forms WE (excl.) — thee, you; he — us (excl.). Note that Algonkin 
agrees with Fox and Cree in the first two instances and approaches 
them in the last. Presumably Ottawa agrees with Algonkin in the 
last form as it does in the first two. Few transitive forms of the 
Peoria present subjunctive are available, but it is certain that Peoria 
is in substantial concord with Algonkin and Ottawa. The Cree 
forms with the third person plural as subject or object correspond to 
the similar Fox participial forms. In some of these forms therefore 
Ojibwa seems close to Fox, but most of them are entirely different in 
structure from both Cree and Fox. Cree and Ojibwa agree in the 
form for i — you (pi.) as opposed to Fox. The remarks made concern- 
ing Cree apply with certain limitations to Montagnais. (For these, see 
the discussion of that language, p. 248.) It is a matter of great regret 
that so few Peoria subjunctive forms are to be found among Doctor 
Gatschet's papers; for the Peoria conjunctive agrees in the forms for 
the third person plural animate as both subject and object (with the 
apparent exception of the forms we (inch) — them an. and they an. — 
IT, THEM inan.) with the Fox participial rather than with the Fox 
conjunctive, resembling Cree in the case of the present subjunctive. 
Now, as may be seen by reference to the Algonquian sketch in the 
Handbook of American Indian Languages, the ternunations for the 
conjunctive, subjimctive, and participial are closely allied; hence it 
is very jirobable that the Peoria subjunctive is in similar agreement. 
(See, however, p. 271.) It is remarkable that Micniac in the con- 
junctive, though lacking the nasal, agrees with Peoria in that many 
forms in which the third person animate plural is either subject or 
object coincide with the Fox participial rather than with the sub- 
junctive; but the forms for ye — them, he — them, they — yov cor- 
respontl to the Fox conjunctive, not participial. The forms for 
HE — him; they an. — him, them an. differ in structure. (See the dis- 
cussion of the Eastern subtype of Eastern- Central major division of 
Algcmquian languages, p. 287.) 

In the discussion of Montagnais it has been pointed out that the 
"suj)p()sitif " of the "motle subjonctif " is allied with the Fox poten- 
tial subjunctive. It is repeated here to emphasize the northern 
affinities of Fox. 

The relations of Fox to Delaware may be briefly dismissed. That 
Delaware shares in the independent mode the forms for i — him, 



MI0HEI.SON] ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 261 

THEM, and THOU — HIM, THEM ail. with Fox, Menominee, Montag- 
nais, and Crce has been already pointed out as well as the agreement 
(one form) with Fox, Ojibwa, Cree, and Montagnais in the termina- 
tion for HE — us (excL). The concord of Delaware, Fox, Cree, and 
Montagnais in the ending for they an. — us is of importance in that it 
shows the northern relationsliips of Delaware, but a striking simi- 
larity is to be found in the fact that Delaware has a correspondent, 
though altered considerably phonetically, to Fox -pena. As noted 
above, this termination is found alone in Fox but has correspond- 
ents in Eastern Algonquian and Piegan, and Shawnee approximates 
it. The forms which have the equivalent oi -pena in Delaware are: 
WE (excl., and inch?), intransitive; we (excl.) — thee, you (pi.), 
him; THOU — us (excl.); YE — us (excl.). In all these, however, Dela- 
ware has another form as well. The forms for we (inch) are not 
given by Zeisberger, but it is reasonable to beheve that they would 
be the same as the inclusive forms, that is where they would occur, 
with the substitution of h' for n' . It may be added that Delaware 
has a correspondent to the Fox conjunctive mode. (For other 
points, see the discussion of Delaware, p. 277.) 

Ojibwa and Close Linguistic Cognates 

The following compose this group: Ojibwa, Ottawa, Potawatomi, 
Algonkin,and (somewhat removed from them) Peoria, etc. A feature of 
the gi-oup is the accretion of a nasal. Delaware agrees with the group 
in this respect and this is to be considered a special point of contact with 
the Ojibwa group. Examples are: Fox utci whence, Ojibwa, Peoria 
ondji, Otta.-w a undji (Gatschet), Delaware untschi; Fox aneta some, 
Cree atit (for the phonetics, see the discussion of Cree, p. 239), Ojibwa 
anind, Peoria alenda, Delaware alinde; Fox Andgw"- star, Cree atalc, 
Shawnee alagwa, Peoria alangwa, Ojibwa and Algonkin anang, Dela- 
ware allanque. Other examples can be readily found by consulting 
the tables of verbal terminations. The formation of the negative 
verb by means of a sufl&x ssi (or slightly varying forms) apparently 
is found in no other Algonquian languages. Examples are: Ojibwa 
Tcdwin Tciwdbamigossi he does not see thee, Jciwdbamigossig they 
DO not see thee; Peoria wapamissolco do not look at me, kikdlin- 
dansiwa she did not know (Fox Tce'Tc + dne + ita-), Ottawa Tcawimshe 
kikikdnedissiwalc (Gatschet) they are not yet acquainted with 
each other {^oyikl-\-Tce"k + dne + t%-[-wAg'^ they had known each 
other), a sibilant is retained before p (as in Menominee and Shaw- 
nee) in Ojibwa, Otta-wa, and Algonkin, though not in Peoria (the 
writer can give no information about Potawatomi on this point) : Cree 
Tclcpin (klspin) if, Ojibwa kishpin, Ottawa klcpin; Algonkin kicpin; 
Cree ishpimik above, Ojibwa ishpiming, Peoria pdmingi, Shawnee 



262 CLASSIFICATION OK ALGONQUIAN TRIBES [ktii. ann, 28 

spemegi, Fox a peine gi (cf. Menominee icpdmiyA ovEii and above). 
It is pointed out in the section on Sauk, etc., that Shawnee shares 
the loss of -wa with Ojibwa after i and a, e. g.. Fox ineniwa, Menom- 
inee itianiwa, Cree (Moose) ileliw, Shawnee hileni, Ojibwa ineni, 
Ottawa nine, Potawatomi nene (Peoria Idni-a; see below) ; Fox 
ugimdw'^, Menominee olcemdw", Cree okimaw, Shawnee hugimd, 
Ojibwa ogima, Algonkm okima, Ottawa ugima (Gatschet), Peoria 
Icimd. Final wa is lost after e{a) in Ojibwa, Algonkin, Ottawa, and 
Potawatomi: Fox i'kwdw'^ woman (Shawnee ^'kwaw'^), Cree iskwe'U, 
Ojibwa i'hwd, Algonkin ilcwe, Ottawa 'kue (Gatschet), Potawatomi 
kwa (Gatschet). 

OJinWA, POTAWATOMI, OTTAWA, AND ALGONKIN 

According to Dr. William Jones, Ojibwa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi 
are very closely related. This opinion is confirmed by Doctor 
Gatschet's notes and by personal information. Doctor Jones makes 
the observation that Potawatomi has a tendency to slur over sylla- 
bles; this also can be confirmed from Doctor Gatschet's notes and the 
writer's persojial information (e. g., nenwAg men, Ojibwa neniwAg). 

Following is the table for the Ojibwa independent and subjunctive 
modes, taken from Bishop Baraga's Grammar of the Otchipwe Lan- 
guage (second edition, Montreal, 1878). The second n of nin in the 
independent mode is the accretion spoken of above. Under certain 
conditions it is omitted. Presumably Algonkin agrees in the usage. 
(It may be noted that apparently the dialect of the Mississippi band 
of Ojibwa at White Earth, Minn., does not completely agree with 
the usage given by Baraga in his paradigms.) 

The very close relationsliip of Algonkin may be seen from the tables 
showing the Algonkin present, independent, and subjunctive modes, 
extracted from Lemoine's Dictionnaii'e Fran^ais- Algonkin (Quebec, 
1911). 



MICBELSON] 



ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 



263 



r r 1 1 1 § s ^ 8 

i i 1 1 1 7 T 7 7 



r = 

i r 



.i 1 

^ .AC <ia .££ 



e s 

J J 



I I I 



S § g g 

n T 7 



sill 



1 1 

•a -a 



a C3 

I I 



e 

T 7 



I I I I I 



e 8 

a « 

e s 

e a 

I I 



8 e 
i S 

7 7 



I I I 



I I .S .S 

.J2 -3 8 e 



I I 



I I I 






a a S2 S2 .n o .= 
HH I c 9 P -^ >^ x; 





a 












n 


a 








-o 












O 








o 


a 



S 2 S 

EU 0) 






« 'a 



■S > Ea 

.- ^ Q 

[>-. 3 in 

CJ CJ — 



S3 ^-2 



i 9. 



6- 



■S s 










s s 




ei 






?• r 


e 


^ 




o 


° 2 










? T 


-w 




? 


? 



I I I 



I I I 



•« ■s s 



I I I I I 



3 § 



I I I 



.S .Si a. to, ^ 
S o e 8 s 



I I I 



3 S ?3 f-, fl 



264 



CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN • TRIBES [eth. axn. 28 



O 

o 
S 

Eh 

a 
iz; 
N 

;? 

hH 

og 

Ai 

I— t 

S5 
O 
O 
>:) 



c 
















a 








>* 
















a 










f 








i 
















C 
















^ 














i 






e 5 ^ e i 








is 1 f^ S S 


m 








J^ 




T 


S^^^oooo 




A 
























c 




c c 


S 


^,^ 




e i S S 




1^ 


1 


ni—go 
ki—go 
ki-k 
ki—go 
o—an 
o—d. 
— an 
— an 




'^ 










e 








B e 


<u 










g 

1 


g 


1 ' ' ' 1 1 i 1 




T 


T T T T T 




'V 


a; 


a; ^ ,« ^ ^ 






6 








A 








A 




Q 




"m ^ 




_g 






a 1 1 1 e 


■** 




■It '*J 


g Ji e 8 




.A 


TS 


T T T T T 




M 


^ 


,S£ a: ^ ^ rV 








e 








•^ i 




















•S 






S: 


s 

1 




f f f f 




"^ 




.:« .^ ^ .3^ 








e 








u a 8 






1 


•S -s c a a a 


" 


i 

1 




II 1 1 1 1 






f f T T T T 




s 




j< U* s s s e 


l-t 




1 


1 1 e ^1 








f T it T T 




e 




ji 5 5 a a 8 




•" 








1 




2 -3 § g E i .1 




a 


a 


= Di3 >.^ii.^cj 





M 




- 


Ai 




G 
03 

X3 




.31 1 ^ a 1 

1 i 1 i &i i i 

•T ■? ■? ■^ ? ? ? ? 


0) 

43 


u 


all 1 a a §• 


cj 


.2^ 


1 1 1 

t :| & 1 1 


3 

1 




1 1 1 

8 §■ g § 
.5 1 S S g 
■? ■? ? ? ? 


1 

OJ 


1 


r 1 1 1 1 

g f 

til 

7 ? ? 


1 




Ill 

S a a 8 a 


hH 


a 
2 


1 1 1 

f HI i 






§ 

s 

■11 • • pi 

1 § S 5 g. S 5 £ 



MICBEI.SOX] ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 265 

Tho independent mode will be discussed first, we (excl.) — thee, 
YOU a<;;rees in structiu'e ^^^th the correspondents in Ottawa, Potawa- 
tomi, Natick, and Peoria (the writer hicivs a form to prove this for 
Peoria in the form we (excl.) — you, but the inference is justifiable). 
They approximate the Menominee correspondents, we (excl. and 
incl.) — IT agrees in structure with Ottawa and the Cree of Fort Totten; 
WE (excl. antl mcl.) — them man. agrees with Ottawa (it will be 
remembered that in Cree the third person plural inanunate coincides 
with the singidar). he — them an., and they an. — them an. agree 
with Passamaquoddy in formation. 

The subjunctive mode now ^\t11 be taken up. we (excl.) — thee, 
YOU agree in formation ^^^lth Cree, Fox, Shawnee, Natick, Delaware, 
and presumably also with Peoria. (The correspondent in Ottawa 
for WE (excl.) — you is not absolutely certain: see below.) The 
Ojibwa correspondents are passives in structure; the same may be 
said of the same forms of the Ojibwa mdependent mode, we (excl.) — 
him, thou — HIM, HE intrans., he — me, he — us (excl.), he — him, 
HE — THEM an., they an. intrans., they an. — me, they an. — him, 
they an. — them an., they an. — it, them inan. are conjunctives in 
structure and agree (with the regidar phonetic differences) absolutely 
•with the corresponding forms in Fox, and with the exception of 
HE — us (excl.) and they an. — us (excl.) (which differ slightly in struc- 
ture, though exhibiting the same type of formation) also with those of 
Shawnee. Peoria agrees with the Algonkui forms under discussion 
m the terminations for we (excl.) — ^him, thou — him, he intrans., 
HE — me, he — HIM, THEY an. intrans., they an. — him, they an. — it, 
THEM inan. The Algonkin form for they an. — us (excl.), though 
agreeing with Ojibwa in the final syllable, nevertheless agrees with 
Fox (and partially with Shawnee and Cree) m morphological forma- 
tion. It should be noted that the structure of he — us (excl.) and 
they an. — us (excl.) is fundamentally the same m the corresponding 
forms of the Fox, Shawnee, Cree (and Peoria?) subjunctive; the 
Fox, Shawnee, and Peoria conjunctive; the Fox and Shawnee 
participial. 

With the exceptions noted above, Algonkin agrees completely with 
Ojibwa in the present tense of the independent and subjunctive modes. 

The writer's personal experience with Ottawa was confined to a few 
hours at Carlisle; hence but a brief description can be given. 
S3'Ilables are slurred over as in Potawatomi, though probably not to 
so great an extent. Examples are kwdbAmim ye see me, Jcminin i give 
THEE. Final n is almost inautUble; compare the suppression of final 
m, n, I in Nass (Handbook of Ameiican Indian Languages, part 1, 
p. 288). In some cases the writer has consistently recorded the sound 
as a mere aspiration, e. g. in the independent forms for we (excl. and 
incl.) — HIM, HE — us (excl. and mcl.). In the objective forms of 



266 CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES Fkth. ann. 28 

THEM iium. iho wiitiT has consistently recorded the terminal n as 
full-sounding, as also in the forms for i — it, thou — it, he — him, 
HE — them an., he — it, they an. — him, them an., they an. — it. In 
the remaining cases wliere final n is to be expected in the independent 
mode, excepting the form for i — thee, the writer has been inconsistent 
in the recording and non-recording of the sound in question. The 
problem is furtlier complicated by the fact that the informant likewise 
spoke Ojibwa, and gave certain forms with the terminal n as Ojibwa 
and the correspondents without them (at least to the writer's ear) as 
Ottawa. Hence it is possible that confusion of dialect may account for 
the apparent inconsistency noted above. It may be mentioned that the 
late Doctor Gatschet's notes on Ottawa show forms without terminal 
71 when etymologically expected; but the writer can not say whether 
the former was consistent in his usage. Another point in phonetics 
worth noting is that the terminal vowel in the forms i — him, thou — 
HIM, y'E — him is distinctly aspirated. Surd and sonant when terminal 
are extremely hard to distinguish. This applies especially to d and t. 
The writer is convinced that with the possible exception in the forms 
HE — thee, it, they iuan., intransitive, of the subjunctive, Ic does 
not occur terminally, and that forms which sound as if containing 
this really end in strong (impure) sonant g. Medially surds and 
sonants are far easier to keep apart. Corresponding to Ojibwa and 
Algonkin terminal ng in the subjunctive the writer consistently heard 
a post-palatal y without a following stop. 

Turning now to the verbal forms of the present independent and 
subjunctive which show the general relationship of Ottawa to other 
members of the group: In the independent mode the forms for we 
(excl. and mcl.) — it, them inan.; we (excl.) — thee, you agree in for- 
mation with Algonldn as opposed to Ojibwa. (The form for we (excl.) 
— thee, you Tc — ninim is noteworthy for the difference in plionetics as 
compared with the Algonkin correspondent.) In the same mode Ot- 
tawa agi'ees with Ojibwa as opposed to Algonkin in the forms for he — 
them an., they' an. — them an. Distinctive of Ottawa (apparently) is 
the fact that the form for they an. — it is the same as they an. — them 
inan. In the subjunctive it may be noted that the forms for we 
(excl.) — him, thou — him, he intrans., he — me, he — him, he — them 
an., THEY' an. intrans., they' an. — me, they an. — him, they an. — them 
an. are subjunctives (cf. Ojibwa) and not conjunctives (cf. Algonkin). 
The forms that the writer received for he — us (excl.), they an. — us 
(excl. and inch), they an. — thee, they an. — you are passives in 
formation, probably due to some misunderstanding. The structure 
of WE (excl.) — THEE (and presumably we (excl.) — you) agrees with 
Algonkin as opposed to Ojibwa. It should be noted that the form 
for THEY an. — it, them inan., andwdd, apparently is absolutely 
unique, but the form evidently is to be associated with it, them iuan. 
in objective forms of the independent mode. 



MICHKLSON] ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 267 

The writer's personal information on Potawatomi is too slight for 
him to make very tlcfinito statements concerning its precise relation- 
ship with Ojibwa, Ottawa, and ^Vlgonkin. As stated above, all are 
very intimatety related. Potawatomi agrees with Algonkin and 
Ottawa in the structure of the form for we (excl.) — thee, you of the 
independent mode as opposed to Ojibwa. On the other hand it agrees 
with the latter language in the formation of we (excl., and presum- 
ably inch) — IT, THEM inan., of the same mode as opposed to Ot- 
tawa and Algonkin. Potawatomi possesses some marked charac- 
teristics of its own in the formation of the independent mode; we 
(excl.) — HIM {n — dmin) and we (incl.) — him (k — dmin) have no corre- 
spondents in any Central Algonquian language noted thus far. The 
forms resemble strongly the inanimate correspondents, but the instru- 
mental m (not t) distinctly proves that they must be animate. The 
component elements are the respective intransitive correspondents 
combined with the common objective pronoun, third person animate, 
a. The plurals of the forms under chscussion must have had a similar 
structure, they an. — you (t — gom) is unquestionably a passive in 
formation. Apparently they an. — it has the same termination as 
THEY an. — them inan. 

Owing to phonetic differences, Cree, Menominee, Ojibwa, Algonkin, 
Ottawa, Delaware, and Passaraaquoddy seem to agree in the forms 
for he — ME, THEE as opposed to Sauk, Fox, Kickapoo, Shawnee, and 
Peoria, but Penobscot and Montagnais demonstrate that the phonetic 
change, though the same in the dialects mentioned, is merely a parallel 
development and has no significance in deteiTnining the ethnic rela- 
tions of the tribes. The umlaut of Passamaquoddy in the fonns 
demonstrates that the change in that dialect at least was a very recent 
one. In the same way Ojibwa -dm is merely the phonetic equivalent 
of Fox xmw" and Peoria -amwa. 

The Ojibwa present, of both independent and subjunctive modes 
wiU now be discussed. Bearing in mind the comments made above 
on Algonkin, Ottawa, and Potawatomi, tliis will make clear the 
general linguistic relations of the entire group. The special points 
of Peoria are considered below. It may be mentioned here that 
ortUnarily in the statistics of linguistic agreements given tlu'oughout 
this paper the agreement of Algonkin, Ottawa, and Potawatomi with 
Ojibwa is not noted. Where the agreement of Peoria is important, 
the fact of the agreement is noted. We will begin with the inde- 
pendent mode. 

As noted in the discussion of Fox, Ojibwa shares no terminations 
with that language which are not shared by Cree except the termina- 
tions for HE, THEY' an. — us (incl.) which are allied to the forms for 
HE, THEY an. — us (excl.) and they inan. intrans. (Fort Totten 
Cree agrees mth Ojibwa and Fox in they an. — us (mcl.).) For 



268 CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES [eth. ann. 28 

tills reason wo can definitely state that Ojihwu lias few, if any, special 
points of contact with Fox. As is pointed ont in the discussion of 
Shawnee, Ojibwa shares the following fonns with that language: 
I — HIM, THEM an.; thou — HIM, THEM an.; ye — HIM, THEM an.; he — 
Tou (pL), him; they an. — you (pi.), him. It will be observed 
that Passamaquoddy likewise shares these fonns except that for 
YE — them an. It should be noted that the Shawnee forms for 
I, thou, ye, he, they an. — them inan.; ye, they' an. — it certainly 
are closely connected with the Ojibwa correspondents. It is unfortu- 
nate that the Passamaquoddy equivalents are not available. How- 
ever, it should be noted that Cree agrees in general structure with 
Shawmee in these forms with the exception of he, they an. — them 
inan., they' an. — it. On account of the unsatisfactory material at 
our disposal, it is best to abstain from a discussion of the relations of 
Ojibwa to Delaware regarding the independent mode here and refer 
the reader to the section dealing with Delaware. It will be noted 
that Ojibwa and Natick show some very marked agreements in the 
independent mode, namely, in the terminations for the first (excl., 
and inch ?) and second persons plural as both subject and objects. 
Owing to the deficient orthography, it is difiiciUt to establish other 
close relations with Natick, but it is clear that in a considerable 
number of cases Natick cUffers from Ojibwa. With Cree, Ojibwa 
shares no forms that are not shared also by other Algonquian 
languages outside the Ojibwa group. (Forms are lacking to prove 
this for WE (inch) — him, them an.; but the inference can be made 
with certainty.) The same applies to Menominee. The Menominee 
forms for we (excl. and inch), ye intraiis., ye — me approximate the 
Ojibwa correspondents, but it should be noted that in these cases 
Natick likewise resembles them. The same applies to i, we excl. — 
Y'ou. (The form w^e (inch) intrans. is lacking, but the analogy of we 
(excl.) intrans. permits us to infer the form.) The agreement of Cree 
and Menominee with Ojibwa in the forms of i, thou — it, and their 
approximation in the forms for y'e — him, them an. should be noted; 
as also the approximation of the Cree form for ye — it. 

We will now proceed to discuss the subjunctive. The presence of 
the nasal as in Algonkin, Ottawa, Potawatomi (?), Peoria, and Dela- 
ware will be noted. But Ojibwa has little in common with the last 
language in tliis mode outside the presence of the nasal. The ter- 
minations of the third person animate, plural, as both subject and 
object, for the greater part are in -wa. It should be noted that Peoria 
differs most from Ojibwa in the same persons of the conjunctive 
and hence presumably (see below) in the subjunctive. Algonki^ 
and Ottawa agree with Ojibwa in this formation. It is a matter of 
regret that a table for the Potawatomi present subjunctive is not 
available, as it would be of great assistance in determining the pre- 



MiCHELSON] ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 269 

cise relations of that language to the other members of the division. 
A similar formation is found in Menominee and also in CYee (East 
Main). See the section on ^lenominee. Owing to phonetic changes, 
Ojibwa and Cree seem to agree often as opposed to- Fox, Peoria, and 
Shawnee, but this is quite accidental. The terminations for we 
(excl.) — THEE, YOU are really passives in formation; Algonkin and 
Ottawa represent the original type. The formation of the termi- 
nations of HE — ITS (excl.), THEY an. — us (excl.) is characteristic of 
Ojibwa, ([uite irrespective of the fact that the last ends in -wa. The 
forms are certainly allied to the forms for we (excl.) — him, them 
an. The termination for i — you agrees with Cree and Peoria as 
opposed to Fox. Exclusive of the formations mentioned, the agree- 
ment between Ojibwa, Cree, and Fox in this mode is remarkable. 

There are a few other points to be considered. Ojibwa can form a 
preterite in han. Cree and Delaware have a correspondent and the 
formation of past tenses of subordinate modes by means of tliis 
suffix is an important point of contact between these languages. It 
'is remarkable that Montagnais, though sharing the formation m the 
indicative, apparently lacks it in subordinate modes. Penobscot and 
Malecite likewise share the formation in the indicative, but the writer 
can not say whether they use it in the formation of past tenses of 
the subordinate modes. However, here we find a point of con- 
tact with Eastern Algonquian. Peoria has a similar formation but 
with a suffix pa. So far as known to the writer, its use is confined 
to the mdependent mode. Delaware possesses the same formation 
and it is also used to build up past tenses of subordinate modes. It 
is found also in Xatick but seems to be confined to the independent 
mode. In Micmac it is attached to the conjunctive mode (which 
is used as an indicative) to form a past tense of the indicative; 
it is used in the subjunctive also, to judge from I'Abbe Maillard's 
Grammaire de la Langue Mikmaque (New York, 1869). On the same 
authority it may be added that Micmac apparently has the equivalent 
of the Ojibwa ban preterite, but only in the subjunctive, not else- 
where. These features make the Micmac forms seem so strange. 

To sum up, Ojibw'a cliief linguistic relations are with Ottawa, 
Potawatomi, Algonkin, and (somewhat removed) with Peoria (see 
below). It has relations also with Eastern Algonquian and Cree; 
it is apparently but distantly related to Fox (also to Sauk and 
Kickapoo); it apparently has important pouits of contact wdth 
Shawmee, but, as stated in the discussion of that language, these, for 
the greater part, may be due to the fact that Shawnee has much in com- 
mon with Eastern Algonquian. Ojibwa and Delaware, exclusive of 
the nasality and the ban preterite (both of which are striking), have 
not very much in common, but the trouble may be with our material. 
Ojibwa is not closely related to Menominee. 



270 



CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES 



[ETH. ANN. 28 



PEORIA 

It was noted above that Peoria ' certainly belongs to the Ojibwa 
group, as is shown by the accretion of a nasal and the formation of 
the negative verb. However, it possesses some strongly marked 
traits of its own. First of all, it has both n and I corresponding to 
Ojibwa, Menominee, Fox, etc., n imder unknown conditions, and it 
agrees with Shawnee and Delaware in tliis use and to a certain extent 
with Eastern Algonquian. Further, a sibilant is not retained before 
p as it is in Ojibwa, e. g., pamingi, Ojibwa ishpiming, Fox a'pemcgK 
Below appear the tables of the Peoria independent, conjunctive, and 
subjunctive modes so far as the writer has been able to construct them 
from Doctor Gatschet's notes and texts. The transitive fonns of 
the indejjendent mode are all taken from texts. Apparently Doctor 
Gatschet mistook the conjunctive for the independent. The confusion 
of surd and sonant has been left imchanged. 







PEORIA INDEPENDENT MODE 








I 


we excl. 


we incl. 


thou 


ye 


he 


they an. 


Intrans. . . 




mmf 


ki—miTM 


ki- 


ki—mwa 


-v)a 


-waki 


mc ... 




— 


— 






ni — kwa 


n — koki 


us excl. . . 


— 


— 


— 






ki — gona 




us incl. . . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






thee . . . 




ki— lamina 




— 


— 


ki — kwa 




you . . . 
him . . . 


ki—limwa 
nd — a 






— 


— 


-a 




them an. . 


ni — aki 2 














it, tliem inan. 












-amwa 


-amoki 



PEORIA CONJUNCTFV'E MODE 



Intrans. 



me . . 

us excl. . 

us incl. . 

thee . . 

you . . 

him . . 
them an. 

it . . . 



we excl. 



-yangi 



-lani 
-lakoki 

-aki 

-akiki 

-amani 



I -langi 

-langi 
I -akinci 

-akinciki 



we incl. 



-yangun 



-angwi 
•angwi 



thou 



-yam 



-lyam 
-iyangi 



-adji 
-adjiki 



yp 



-yikwi 



-dji 



-iyikwi 
-ianyi 



-ekwi 
-ekwiikit) 



-ita 

-iaminda 

-langwa 

-atciki 

•lakwa 

-ata 

-atciki 

a-ngi 



they an. 



-wadji 



-itciki 

-iaminciki 

-langwiki 

-kiki 

-}akwiki 

-atciki 

-atciki 

amowatct 



PEORIA SUBJUNCTIVE MODE 




I 


we excl. 


we incl. 


thou 


ye 


he 


they an. 


Inti-ans. . . 


-yanii 


-yangiii 


-yangwii 


-yand 


-yikwa 


-<d 


•waia 


him . . . 


■aka 




-angwa 


■atd 


-akwd 


-atd 


-awatd 



' The writer has not sufBcient material to warrant dealing with the question of the exact relation of 
Peoria to Miami, etc., beyond stating that they all seem intimately related. 
2 Miami. 



MICHEI.SON] ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 271 

Owing to the fact that Peoria phonetioaUy is more archaic than 
Ojibwa in some respects, some of the forms of the indepemlent mode 
seem to reseml)le more closely Fox than Ojibwa (the same applies to 
the conjunctive mode). But passing these over, Peoria lias at least 
.these formations wliich have no correspondents in Ojibwa: i — tou 
(pi.); WE (excl.) — thee; they an. — rr, them inan. The first two 
agree with Algonl^in, Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Natick, the last 
with Fox, Cree, and Menominee. It is a matter of regret that 
Doctor Gatschet made no systematic collection of indicative forms, 
as some of them might prove to be important in establishing the 
relations of Peoria. However, from the meager terminations that 
the WTiter has been able to collect, it is possible to infer with cer- 
tainty the forms for i — thee, thou — hem, thou — them an., ye — me, 

YE — HIM, YE — them an., he — YOU, THEY an. — THEE, THEY an. YOU; 

and these confirm us in maintaining that Peoria belongs with Ojibwa, 
Ottawa, Algonkin, and Potawatomi. The form for he — us (excl.) is 
extremely interesting: unless there is a phenomenon similar to that 
in Ottawa, and unfortunately we have not sufficient material to deter- 
mine tliis, we have a point of contact with Shawnee (which geo- 
grapliically would not be surprising) . If the form in question is really 
identical mth the Shawnee form, then we can infer with absolute 
surety that the forms for he — us (inch), they an. — us (excl. and 
inch) agree with their Shawnee correspondents. 

The Peoria conjunctive and subjunctive are discussed in the sec- 
tions dealing witli Cree and Sauk. The terminations of the con- 
junctive, in wliich the tliii'd person plural animate is subject or object, 
correspond to the Fox, Shawnee, and Ojibwa participial mode. Now, 
as in Algonquian the terminations of the conjunctive, participial, and 
subjunctive are verj' closely alhed, we may infer that the Peoria sub- 
junctive in these persons agreed with the conjunctive. It will be 
observed that, with the apparent exception of the terminations for 
he — them an. and we (inch) — them an., these forms would agi-ee 
(as do those of the conjunctive) with the Cree subjunctive. (Inreading 
Doctor Gatschet's texts the writer has met with -atci antl -awatci, the 
terminationsfor he — him, them an., they an. — him, them an., respec- 
tively. These are true conjunctive forms. The question hence arises 
to what an extent his notes giving the forms in the table should be 
accepted. The true conjunctive forms agree with the Fox and Shaw- 
nee correspondents of the same mode, and with the Algonkin corre- 
spondents of the subjunctive mode.) Even substituting the Ojibwa 
participial for the subjunctive in these persons, they an. — us (excl.) 
represent a different structure from that of the Ojibwa correspondent; 
note also the same difference exists in the form for he — us (excl.) (see 
the discussion of Algonkin and Menominee, pp. 252, 265) . they an. — 
IT, them inan. is a true conjunctive and agrees exactly with the Fox 
and Shawnee form of the same mode, and the corresponding Algon- 



272 



CLASSIFICATION OK ALUONtiUIAN TRIBES 



tKTH. ANN. ;i8 



kin form in tlu> sul)juiictive mode. It should bo notiood that iV[ic- 
mac partially shares the feature of the Peoria conjunctive. In the 
other forms of the conjimctive Peoria agrees with Fox (Shawnee 
nearly), Algonlvin, Cree, and Micmac (treating conjunctive and sub- 
junctive as interchangeable) in the terminations for we (excl.) — 
THEE, you; he — us (excl.) ; (with Natick also in we (excl.) — thee,' 
you); withOjibwa, Algonkin, and Cree in the form for i — you (pi.). 
The other forms call for no comment. 

From its phonetics Peoria, as said aliove, seems to resemble Fox 
closely in some particulars. But its more northern relationships are 
shown by the fact that the nominative plural of the inanunate noun 
ends in a, agreeing absolutely with Cree, and also by the fact that it- 
shares with Cree and Montagnais a set of terminations that correspond 
to the Fox interrogative conj unctive and subj unctive, but lack the final 
syllable ni, whereas Ojibwa and Algonkin have the n even if the final 
vowel may be lost. 

In closing the discussion of Peoria it should be mentioned that 
this language, together with Fox, Sauk, Kickapoo, and Shawnee, are 
the only Algonquian languages in which every animate noun and 
inanimate noun are known positively to end in the nominative singu- 
lar in a and i, respectively (excluding cases in which wa is lost pho- 
netically in Shawnee). It is possible that others also may share tliis 
feature. Menominee and Ojibwa should be especially investigated 
with a view to securing additional information on this point.' 

Natick 

That Natick belongs to the Central subdivision and not to the East- 
ern subdivision of the Eastern-Central major division of Algonquian 
languages is patent from the personal terminations of the verb in the 
present tense (aflirmative form) of the inchcative and suppositive 
(subjunctive) modes. Compare the following tables, extracted from 
EUot:^ 





I 


we excl. 


we incl. 


thou 


ye 


he 


they an. 


Intrans. . . 


71- 


iir—mun 




k- 


k—mwco 


3 
•U 


-wog 


me ... . 


_ 








k-eh 


k—imwo) 


n~k 


n—kquog 


us excl. . . 


— 


— 


- 


k—imun 


k—imun 




n—kqunncmog 


us incl. . . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


k—kqun 




thee . . . 


k—sh 


k—numun 


— 


— 


— 


k—k 


k—kquog 


you . . . 


k — numwo 


k—numun 


— 


— 


— 


k-ka> 


k—kwoog 


him . . . 


«-[?] 


n — oun 




!:-(?] 


k—au 


-uh 


-ouh 


them an. 


n—dog 


n — Mtnonog 




k—a>g 


k—oag 


■uh 


-ouh 


it,theminan.(?) 


n—umun 


7? — umumun 




k—umun 


k—umumuio 


-umun 


\-umwog 



' Though the writer worked with the Mississippi band of Ojibwa (living at White Earth. Minn.) 
only a short time, he was able to dctennine the fact that in the independent mo<ie the termination for 
THOU — ME in the same mode hi\s a final whispered -i. 

2 In Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll.. 2d ser.. ix, Boston. 1832. 

3 Tal£en from forms in J. H. Trumbull's Natick Dictionary (Bull. ?.i, Bur. A met. Elhnol.'). 



MICHBLSON] 



ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 



273 





I 


we oxcl. 


we incl. 


thou 


ye 


he 


thoy an. 


Intrans. . . 


-on 


-og 




-an 


-6g 


-09? 


-oheUitt 


me .... 


— 


— 


— 


-ean 


-e6g 


-it 


-hettit 


us excl. . . . 


- 


— 


— 


-eog 


-eog 


-kgueo'g 


-kgueog 


usincl. . . . 


— 


— 


- 


— 


— 






thee .... 


-non 


-nog 


— 


— 


— 


-kgutan 


-kquean 


you .... 


■ndg 


-nog 


— 


_ 


— 


-kquebg 


-kquebg 


him ... . 


-og 


-ogkut 




avdl 


-dg 


-ont 




them (an.). . 


-og 


-ogkut 




-adl 


-bg 


-ont 
-ahettit 


-a'hettit 


It, them inan.C?) 


-umnn 


-umog 




-uman 


-umdg 


-uk 


-umohettit 



We will first take up the terminations of the intiicative. i — you, 
YE intrans., ye — me resemble the correspondents in Peoria and 
Menominee. Owing to the deficient orthography, a positive conclu- 
sion as to which of these Natick most closely resembles in the forms 
under discussion is not possible. It is probably the latter, we 
(excl., intrans.); we — thee, you; thou, ye — us (excl.); ye — him 
patently are to be associated with the Algonkin equivalents (and 
hence partly the Ojibwa ones), i, we (excl.), thou, ye — them an. 
presumably have the same affinities, he — us (incl.) resembles the 
Shawnee (as certain others do as implied by the agreement with 
Algonkin) and Passamaquoddy (possibly also Peoria), he — him 
apparently is to be cormected with the Cree, Menominee, and Fox 
equivalent, but the phonetics are uncertain; they an. — them an. 
prol)ably is to be associated with the Algonkin and Shawnee corre- 
spondent, we (excl.) — him has a counterpart in Passamaquoddy. 
The forms with the inanimate object (s) are plainly composed of the 
intransitive forms and the pronominal element to be seen in Fox 
-Amw'^, -Amowate, etc.: see section 34 of the Algonquian sketch in the 
Handbook of American Indian Languages {Bulletin Ifi, B. A. E.), pt. 1. 
The final n in i — it, thou — it, he — it presumably is a purely phonetic 
accretion.. It should be mentioned expressly that -umwog they an. — 
IT is not to be directly connected with Cree -AinwAg, as is shown by 
the forms of they an. — me, thee (Cree ni — gwAg, hi — gwAg, respec- 
tively). The corresponding inanimate forms of Delaware should be 
compared. 

It should be noticed that the personal terminations of the suj)posi- 
tive mode do not have the n as do the Ojibwa group and Delaware, 
thus agreeing with Fox, etc. ,Ciee-M<)ntagnais, Menominee, and Micmac. 
A detailed discussion is uncalled for. Most of the forms have the 
closest correspondence to Fox. The following find their clo.sest corre- 
si)ondents in Delaware: he — thee, he — you, he — them (one form) 
an., THEY an.; intransitive, they an. — me, they an. — thee, they 
an. — you, they an. — him, they an. — them; he, they an. — us 
(excl.) resemble the Delaware correspondents. 
2090:3°— 28 ETH— 12 18 



274 



CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES 



[KTH. ANN. 28 



The terminations of the "jjia-.ter" tense of the suppositive mode 
are patently alUed to those of tlie present tense of the same mode. 
Tlu' distinctive mark is a final s. It will be observed from the 
ft)llo\ving table that the endings for he — me, he — him, he — them 
an. correspond to the Fox potential subjunctive: 





I 


we excl. 


we incl. 


thou 


ye 


he 


they an. 


Intrans. . . 


-o» 


-ogkis 




-as 


-dgkis 


-ogkis 


-ohetlis 


me ... . 











-ras 


-cdgkus 


-is 


-(e)hcttis 


usexcl. . . 


— 


— 


— 


-ragkus 








us inel. . . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-kqueogkus 


-kqueogkus 


thee . . . 


-nos 


-nogkus 


— 


— 


— 


-kqueas 


-kqueas 


you . . . 


-ndgkus 


-nogkus 


— 


— 


— 


-kquebgkus 


-kqueogkus 


him . . . 


-nogkus 


-nogkutus 




-as 


-dgkus 


-OS 


-alitllis 


them . . . 


-nogkus 


-nogkutus 




-as 


-Agkus 


-OS 


-abctfis 


it, them in- 


-umos 


-umogkus 




-umosa 


-umdgkus 


-ukis 


-umahetlis 


an.(?) 

















The negative verb is formed by the insertion of -oo- (o), wliich 
apparently corresponds to Delaware -ml-. Examples are: Natick 
Icujrpaumuncop i did not pay thee, Delaware atta Ic' pendolowip i did 
NOT hear thee. 

The inanimate plural of nouns resembles the Piegan and Cheyenne 
forms. 

The cluster sic is kept as in Cree and tlie Eastern subtype of the 
Eastern-Central major division of Algonquian languages; the com- 
bination of a sibilant + p and t presumably become 'p and 't, respec- 
tively, though this is not certain, owing to the deficient alphabet: 
Cree micpun it is snowing, snow, Fox me'pu- to snow, Natick 
rmihpoo it snows; Cree mictig wood. Fox me'tegiin tree, Shawnee 
^tegwl, Ojibwa meHig (Turtle Mountain), Natick mehiug, Delaware 
meJhiiiucTc, Minsi michtuk; Cree mis^awew (Lacombe) he finds him, 
Fox me'k- to find, Malecite muskvwan he found her, Natick 
m.iskom he finds it; Cree niAskwA bear. Fox ma'kwd, Shawnee 
'"'kwa, Ojibwa ma'kwa, Peoria maxkwa, Natick mosq. (There are 
also cases where a sibilant apparently is retained before p in Natick.) 
The characteristic consonantic clusters of the Eastern subtype are 
wanting, and it should be noticed that I also is lacking, confirming 
the opinion that Natick belongs to the Central type. 

Owing to the deficient alphabet it is diiiicult to determine the true 
consonantic clusters of the language. The groups -dt- and -gl-- and 
-bp- are merely graphic for strong sonants so characteristic of many 
American Indian languages. The accretion -n-, -7n- occurs but does 
not agree with Ojibwa in usage, now having it where lacking in 
Ojibwa, now lacking it where Ojibwa has it. Thus, wompi avhite. 



MicHELSOs] ALGONQUIAX LINGUISTIC GROUPS 275 

Ojibwa wdhi, Fox wdpi; wonkqussis fox (really a diminutive), Ojibwa 
UHi'guc: anogqs star, Ojibwa anang, Delaware aljanque, Peoria 
ahuigwa. Fox AiiagW", Cree atak (for the phonetics, see the discussion 
ofCree, p. 239). 

The lexical corres])ondence with the dialects of the Central subtype 
is far greater than is indicated in Trumbull's Natick Dictionary. 
(The same may be remarked of the Pequot-Mohegan material pub- 
lished by Speck and Prince.) However, at the present time it is 
impossible to say in which language the greatest number of corre- 
spondents are to be found. 

Delaware 

Zeisberger's material as contained in his grammar ' is not good : ^ 
The forms of the various dialects are given without assigning each 
form to its proper dialect (see Zeisberger, p. 11.3, footnote); in the 
same paradigm some transitive forms have instrumentals, while 
others lack them; the spelling of one and the same personal termi- 
nation is frequently absolutely inconsistent (e. g., -que, -Ice); some 
passives are given as active transitive forms, and in at least one 
instance (possibly in more; see below) an inanimate objective form is 
given as animate. Under these unfortunate conditions the tables 
here given for the present indicative and subjunctive are bound to 
contain errors, for in the absence of Delaware informants represent- 
ing the three dialects the writer has had to use discrimination as to 
the rejection or retention of certain forms. For this reason it is 
impossible to make very definite statements concerning the general 
relationships of Delaware among Algonquian languages. Yet the 
tables will have one result at least, albeit a negative one, namely, that 
the common supposition that Delaware is intimately connected with 
Eastern Algonquian (Micmac, Malecite, Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, 
and Abnaki) is certainly a mistaken one. On the possibility that 
the three Delaware divisions, Munsec, Unami, and Unalachtigo, were 
really separate tribes, each having special points of contact with 
different Central-Algonquian languages, though mutually intelligible, 
and that the apparent unity was only political, see page 279. 

' A Grammar of the Langiiage of the Lenno Lenape or Delaware Indians, Philadelphia, 1830. 
2 others also have criticized Zeisberger adversely (see Brinton, The Lenape, p. 105, Philadelphia, 1885, 
who holds that the criticisms were unnecessarily severe. Correct his last reference to 1SG9-70, p. 105 ff ). 



276 



CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES (eth. ann. 28 









^ 


J;^ 


-« 






a 

CO 


o 


o 


e 1 i 
e S g. 


Si. 1 

tu 3 o e 


s s 


s 






ii^ 


O tu e« 
Qt e3> Ot 

J 




s t - ^ - 


n 


~ 1 i 

9 e J -3 


1 ? i f £ 
1 J 1 -g J s 




|_?_3 


K 


c £. 


^d£, Ji! 


'^ ^ 


7 ? S f" 


7 s ? "?■ a ? 


O) 






ss 










J2 






<u 








.!£ 






e 


e e 


c 












3 


3 3 


3 












^ -Si 


iSi (3i 


^L^ 


3 


"« 


= r 1 




1 


1 


1 


J 


J 


e a "3 


a J s 




s ? 


e 


"c 


^ 




? ? ?• 


? s ? 








, 








E 








■g i 








« = J 


?. 


s 1 




e 1 e S 

5U -*- Su 3 


1 1 


1 


a 1 


a a = 




g S 


s 


.S S S g 






a 8 

CS C3. 


11 ° 




j 


7 


J 






j 


1 s- 




^ 




^ 






i^ 


i =1 
















?S 


5 






Q 


1 1 


1 




- i i 


j:: 






e Ei 


1 1 


1 
















i B i 


i i 1 




« 


J 


Jd 






J 


I i 


"3 
















a 




















1 


1 


1 I 


1 






o 
















s 
































"S 










c ^ 






X 








- 2 


e 3 


^ 


e a 3 a S 


1 


1 i 


1 


' 


1 g g 


3 £ 


S g 


awun 
awun 
awaw 
awaw 

tmohh 




e "^ 






,2 5 


S 5 


S = 




1 






' — i — ' 


■ j ' 


j 


f 1 




e 






■id 


^ 


*e 


'e e 












o 




, 


'"' 




1 


1 


1 


c 

3 


3 












s s 




;s 3 
e a s 


ii. i 




i 






j 

3d 


J<i 


e 


1 1 
















c 
2 




s 




"o 


-rj 






a t 




f~- 


o 


X 


■= s 


3 


B 






>-< 


s 


3 


3 5 


g. 


3 


5 :i 



MICHELSON] 



ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 



277 



§ 

1 


1 


-achtite 

-achtite 
-awachtite 

-amichtite 


s 


~ 


III .^ i . 


g. 


3 


1 1 1 

II Hli I 


1 


1^ 


III g 

s ^ « K ^ 1 i 

II illii 




•3 

.9 

1 




„ 

§• i 


X 

o 

1 


1 


rg. Is 


hH 




Ill 

V U U -M -V (4 




e 

C 


c 
• « 

s< d ^ C — 

8 3 35^1 1 - . 



We will first discuss the in- 
dependent mode. The first 
thing that will be noticed is 
the diversity of forms for one 
and the same person as sub- 
ject and object. Such diver- 
sity is not found among other 
Algouquian languages and at 
once arouses suspicion that 
the multiplicity of forms is 
due to the fact that the dif- 
ferent forms really belong to 
separate dialects. Wlien we 
note further that the different 
forms point to contact with 
different Algonquian lan- 
guages, the probabihty of this 
inference is heightened. Thus, 
n' — neen we (excl. intrans.), 
t' — loneen we (excl.) — thee, 
Tc' — i/i few THOU, YE — us (excl.), 
agree with Cree-Montagnais; 
n' — hheriawK (excl., intrans.), 
Ic' — loTihena we (excl.) — thee, 
h' — ihhena thou, ye — us 
(excl.) agree with Fox and 
Passamaquoddy; n' — a i — 
HIM, F — a THOU — HIM agree 
with Passamaquoddy, Shaw- 
nee, and Ojibwa; n' — awa i — 
HIM, F — mva THOU — him with 
Fox, Menominee, and Cree- 
Montagnais ; n'- — guna he — us 
(excl.) agrees with Passama- 
quoddy, Shawnee, and Peo- 
ria(?); n' — guneen he, — us 
(excl. ) with Fox, Cree-Montag- 
nais, and Ojibwa; n' — nneen 
WE (excl.) — him agrees with 
Ojibwa and Cree-Montagnais; 
n'- — ohhena we (excl.) — him 
agrees with Fox. 

The cognates of the remain- 
ing forms so far as available 



278 CLASSIFICATION OF ALOONQUIAN TRIBES fuTH. ann. 28 

will now bo <:;! veil : n\ — awak, k'- — uwak i — tiiem an., thou — them an., 
rospiH-tivcly, have correspondents in Fox, Menominee, and Cree- 
Montagnais; k' — aiuawa ye — him agrees with Menominee and Cree- 
Montagiuiis; («,' ?) — gunanak, (F ?) — gunanak they an. — us (excl. 
and incl., respectively) agree wath Fox, Fort Totten Cree, and Ojibwa 
(tlie former also with the Cree of Horden and Montagnais) ; ¥ — guwa 
HE — YOU (pi.) has a correspondent in Shawnee, Passamaqnoddy, and 
Ojibwa; V — guwawak in^Y a.i\. — you (pi. ), one in Fox, Menominee, 
and Cree-Montagnais ; n' — gun, k' — gun have counterparts in the Mon- 
tagnais forms for on — me, te, respectively; w'- — he (intrans.) has a 
correspondent in Eastern Algonquian, -u he intrans. corresponds to 
Fox, Shawnee, and Peoria -wa, Cree -w, Montagnais -u; -gok they 
an. — them an. is a passive and corresponds to Fox -gogi; tlie forms 
n'-, k' — II, len; k'-; k' — i; -wak; n' — k, k' — k, n' — gook; k'- — gook are 
common Central Algonquian ; k' — ihenook ye — us (excl.) is a plural- 
ized form of k' — ihhena: t' — awawak ye — them an. agrees with 
Menominee and Cree-Montagnais and illustrates the same formation; 
-awall they an. — him (with phonetic differences) is close to the 
Ojibwa correspondent: if w'- is to be restored, it coincides exactly; 
as it stands it agrees with the Passamaqnoddy correspondent; the 
forms n — gchhena, k' — gehhimo are palpably passives and really should 
not have been included; -gol he — him, to judge from Sliawnee and 
Passamaqnoddy, is really a passive; as a plural they an. — him, 
it seems an extension of this; cf. n' — geneen (graphic variant for 
n' — guneen); the same applies to k' — geneen (Fox ke — gundna; 
there are correspondents in Ojibwa and Cree) ; w' — anawak (pre- 
sumably a variant of w' — anewak) in its last part decidedly resembles 
Cree mowanewun they (indefinite third person plural animate) are 
eating them (third person plural animate) ; '■ so it is clear that the 
terminations witli newo are built up on some such sj'stein, though it 
is possible that some of the forms contain inanimate objects, not ani- 
mate objects as given in the table (see the tables of the Ojibwa and 
Algonkin independent mode, pp. 26.3, 264). The forms n' — an. k' — an, 
w' — an are clearly of the same formation as Malecite kfian thou 
tellest him; tian, otian he tells him (stem ti); unfortunately there 
is no example available in Malecite for i — him. The forms with inani- 
mate object(s) show the same type of formation as the Xatick corre- 
spondents. The conjectural initial k' restored by the -writer is con- 
fiirmcd by Sapir's notes. In closing the discussion of the independent 
mode it may be pointed out that it is impossible for one and the same 
dialect to contain both k' — guwa and {k' ?) — guwawak (see the tables 
for Fox, Cree, Shaw^loe, and Ojibwa). 

The present subjunctive does not require so detailed a report. It 
has the nasal as have Ojibwa and Peoria, but otherwise the forms are 

'Horden, p. US. 



MKHELSON] ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 279 

far closer to Fox and Natirk. The forms witli the third jierson 
animate, singuhir and plural, as subject are the same in structure as 
those of the latter in nearly all cases and represent a formation other- 
wise unknown in Central and Eastern Algonquian. Some of the 
terminations seem peculiar to Delaware. 

The forms -inke they an. — me, -inde we (excl. or inch ?) — them, 
whicli, ft)Ilowing Zeisberger, one would be forced to consider transi- 
tive forms of the sulsjunctive, in reality are indefinite passive con- 
junctives (Fox -igi, -etci, Peoria -ingi, -anda, respectively). Again 
following Zeisberger, -geyenke, -geyane, -geyeque they an. — us 
(excl.), THEE, YOU, respectively, would have to be considered transi- 
tive forms, but they are simple passives. The termination -amanque 
WE (excl.) — THEM an. really contains an inanimate object (see 
the tables for Fox and Ojibwa). Observe that i — it has an exact 
correspondent in Shawnee. Certain persons have n' and fc' prefixed 
indiscriminately in the same forms and have been omitted from the 
above scheme as unreal {n and A'' are suggestive of the indicative). 

Delaware has a p, and panne preterite. The former is shared by 
Peoria, Natick, and Micmac; the latter is found in Ojibwa, Cree, 
Montagnais, Malecite, and Penobscot (for the combination of both in 
the subjunctive mode, see the discussion of Ojibwa, p. 269). 

The suffix of the future -tsch is presumably the same as Fox -ted* 

VERILY. 

It should be mentioned that Delaware has a relative mode that 
corresponds to the Fox, Shawnee, Micmac, and Peoria conjunctive. 
The forms given are too few to constitute a complete series but the 
important point that the first person singular intransitive ends in 
-ya, as in Shawnee (cf. Micmac), is certain. 

Delaware has consonantic clusters but to what an extent is not 
clear from the inadequate phonetic system employed by Zeisberger. 
Some of these clusters are due to changes of a sibilant with a voice- 
less stop, e. g., u'xkwdu (Sapir) woman, Cree isJcwe'u. Others are 
patently due to the ehmination of vowels, e. g. , n' milguneen he gives 
us (excl.), Fox neimnegundn", tulpe titrtle, Abnaki tolha, Scaticook 
tiUlpds (really a diminutive), Natick tmnuppasog (pi.). Others are 
due to tlie combination of the signs for the preterite with the final 
consonant of the present. A nasal before stops agrees with Peoria 
and Ojibwa in this use as opposed to Fox, Shawnee, Cree, Montag- 
nais, and Menominee. The origin of other clusters is quite obscure. 
It is doubtful whether there are true long consonants in Delaware; 
there is reason to suspect that their apparent existence is due merely 
to a faulty or deficient phonetic system. 

It was .shown above how Delaware exhibits great diversity in 
points of contact with other Algonquian languages; attention may 
here be drawn to the fact that since Fox and Shawnee are closely 



280 CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES [etii. ann.28 

related to each other and both to the Eastern Algonquian languages 
{see the discussion of Sauk, Fox, etc., p. 258), agreement on the part 
of Delaware with any of these would imply a certain amount of agree- 
ment with the others, and as Fox has some decided points of contact 
with Cree, a similar state of affairs exists as to the latter language. 
However, these generalities do not answer specific questions. Though 
it is hazardous, as noted above, to give an opinion on the subject, the 
writer ventures to believe that Delaware as Zeisberger has presented 
it is not a single dialect but a composite. The facts of the case prob- 
ably will be best satisfied by assuming one dialect the closest relation- 
ship of which was with Shawnee, but which shared with Fox (the pho- 
netic representative of) -'pena (Shawnee -fe), and another the closest 
relationship of wliich is mtli Cree-Montagnais, both of which assumed 
dialects had points of contact with Ojibwa and Natick. In the opinion 
of the writer there is not sufficient evidence at present to warrant the 
belief that another dialect had especially close relations with Eastern 
Algonquian, though it is possible there was a dialect that shared a 
few forms with Eastern Algonquian that were not shared by the 
other Delaware dialects. But all these theories must remain con- 
jectures more or less plausible till all the Delaware dialects shall have 
been entirely restudied with tlie aid of living informants. 

EASTERN SUBTYPE 

The existing dialects composing this group are Micmac, Malecite, 
Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, and Abnaki. As mentioned above, 
these are all characterized by peculiar consonantic clusters and by 
certain grammatic terminations. However, as compared \\\t\\ Black- 
foot, Cheyenne, or Arapaho they belong in the Central group, for 
there are numerous patent correspondents to the latter in vocabu- 
laries and in the discussion of Sauk, Fox, etc., it has been shown how 
intimately they are related to Fox and Shawnee in the verbal termi- 
nations. The correspondence in vocabulary with the Central type 
is far more general than has been supposed. Tlie peculiar termi- 
nations are not very startling and show no more specialization than 
those of other Algonquian languages of the Central subtype. The 
pecuhar terminations of the Micmac verb are due to the fact that the 
supposed indicatives are really correspondents to the Fox conjimctive. 
So in its last analysis the consonantal clusters are the distinguishing 
feature of the group. Below is a list of consonantic clusters in 
each of the following: Micmac (from one of the ^Titer's longer texts), 
Malecite (from one of Mr. Mechling's longer texts), Passamaquoddy 
(from one of Doctor Gatschet's texts, of moderate length), and 
Penobscot (from Prof. J. Dyneley Prince's glossary in his article on 
Penobscot in Amer. Anthr., n. s., xu, No. 2, 183-208, 1910) : 



michelson] 



ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GEOUPS 
MICMAC 



281 



Initial 


Second consonant of cluster 






























nant 


P 


b 


I 


d 


k 


9 


m 


n 


I 


s 


tc 


^J 


Lt 


P 






Pt 




P^ 








pi 










5 


Ip 








tk 






bn 


bi 










il 














dm 


dn 


di 










k 


kp 




kl 












kl 


ks 


kic 




kLr 


9 














gm 


gn 


9l 










m 


mp 




ml 


md 


mk 








ml 


ms 


mtc 






n 


np 




nt 




nti 




nm 






ns 


ntc 


nij 




I 


Ip 


■lb 


It 


Id 


it 


ig 


1m. 


In 




h 


lie 






s 


sp 




St 




sk 




sm 


sn 


si 










Ic 










tck 


















ij 










djk 




djm 


djn 


djl 










X 






xt 












xs 


xtc 







' Probable mishearing for rik; nk in the Malecite and Passamaquoddy tables likewise is rf:. 

The semivowel w occurs after b, d, Tc, g, n, I, s, M-, pi:, tl', nl', sl\ tch. 

Tlie only long consonants observed are tt and 1:1-. These are of 
rare occurrence. 

It has not been possible as yet to determine whether all these clus- 
ters occur in the same morphologic parts of words or are due to com- 
binations of different morphologic components. The same statement 
applies to the clusters of the other languages discussed. 

In the text the following clusters occur finally: tk, pic, mlc, nlc, lie, 
tck, djk, sk, kt. Initially only kl occurs; w in initial combinations 
occurs only after k. 

■ MALECITE 













Second member of cluster 








Initial 


















consonant 


























p 


b 


t 


d 


k 


9 


m 


n 


I 


s 


tc 


P 






■pi 




pk 










ps 




b 
























t 


•p 


tb 






tk 


tg 


tm 




tl 






d 


















dl 






k 


kp 




kt 








km 


kn 


kl 


ks 


kte 


9 














gm 


gn 








m 


mp 






md 


mk 






mn 




ms 




n 


np 




nt 


nd 


nk 














I 


Ip 






Id 


Ik 




Im 


In 




& 




s 


sp 




■ tt 




sk 








si 






I 




, 














il 






tc 










tck 















282 



CLASSIFICATION OP ALdONQUIAN TKIBES 



[BTH, ANN. 2S 



The somivDWol ir occurs after b, k. g, s, tl.\ t<i, jd-, sk\ 
The folio wiiif^ clusters of three consonants occur: nisi-, stele, std. 
The initial clusters that occur in the text are: sic, sp, hn, Icn, ib, 
ps, si, tl. The semivowel w in initial comhinations occurs only after 
Ic and (J. The clusters which occur tcrniinally are: kt, lie, ptc. 

PASSAMAQUODDY 



Initial 


Second member of cluster 


nant 


P 


h 


t 


d 


k 


9 


m 


n 


I 


s 


tc 


ts 


P 
b 
1 
d 
k 

9 

m 

n 

I 

s 

tc 

X 


kp 

np 
sp 




pt 

kl 
ml 
It 

St 

xt 


md 


tk 

mk 

sk 
tck 
xk 


ig 


pm 


pn 

mn 
In 

xn 


dl 
nl 
xl 


ks 

ms 
ns 

xs 


ktc 


tsn 



The following clustei's of three consonants occur: ntk, nsk, ksk, 
psk, stck, xsm. 

The semivowel w occurs after k, g, I, sk, xk, tk, Ig. 

The following two long consonants occur: ss, II. 

These clusters have been observed initially: kt, kp, km, ks, lie. 
Finally, the cluster sk was observed. The semivowel w was noted 
as occurring after k and g of initial consonants. 



PENOBSCOT 













Second member of cluster 










Initial 




















consonant 


p 


b 


t 


d 


k 


" 


n 


n 


( 


s 


r 


P 


















pl 


ps 




b 

t 






bt 




tk 














d 
























k 




















ks 




9 


















9t 






m . 








md 


mk 


mg 












n 




nb 


nl 
It 


nd 
Id 


nk 
Ik 


ng 
Ig 




In 






m 


s 


sp 




St 


sd 


sk 














271 






zt 










zn 








tc 










tck 















MICHKI.SOX] ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 283 

The semivowel iv occurs after t, g, d, I, m, sk, mk, tc. 

The oniy true consonantal clusters observed initially were si', sp. 
After initial g and k, w occurs. The only final consonantic cluster 
noted was ps. 

The following long consonants were noted: kk, pp, II, ss. 

Two clusters of three consonants were observed: hsk, nsk. 

An examination of the tables will show that the old view that 
Micmac alone of Eastern Algonquian dilTered especially from Central 
Algonquian by reason of clusters, is incorrect. 

The consonantal clusters of such words that have known equiva- 
lents in Central Algonquian are due for the greater part to the elimi- 
nation of vowels. Thus Micmac kesaptug after he looked at it 
(for kesi + din + t + tig: Fox kicdpitAg') , u'^pk in the morning (Fox 
wdbAg'). iriAndu devil (Fox mAnitdW), elmied he went on (Malecite 
elimialit when he (obs.) went away, Fox initial stem Auemi yon 
way); /iflno, Penobscot alno&e Indian (Shawnee TiiZeni, Ojibwa inem, 
Fox ineniw^, Cree iyiniw man) ; Penobscot spuniki heaven, Abnaki 
spenik heaven (Passamaquoddy spemek high, Cree islvpimxk, Ojibwa 
islipinnng, Shawnee spemegi. Fox a'pemeg', Peoria pdmingi (cf. Me- 
nominee AcpdmujA) ; Micmac kospemk at the lake (Passamaquoddy 
k&spemuk on a lake; Cree kuspamuw road which goes beside tim- 
ber where there is water) ; Penobscot pehonkik in the north 
(Fox pepdn'+a'kig'); Penobscot ivdhtegua wild goose (for wob- cf. 
Fox wdpi-, Natick wompi- white) ; Penobscot n'weweldamen i know 
IT {-el- = Fox -dne-) ; Micmac elmodjig dogs ; Malecite ul&mus (really 
a diminutive), Delaware aZum; Ojibwa am/ftos/i, Fox Anemo'^, Natick 
armm, Cree atim (for the phonetics see the discussion of Cree, p. 239) ; 
Abnaki kidaani'm' (Sapir) thy stone (Fox ket a' senium', cf. Abnaki 
s/7i' stone) ; Malecite k'Pmi/seha (Sapir) ye run (Fox kepemusdpwa) . 
When a vowel is lost after I (corresponding to Fox n, Shawnee and 
Delaware I) and a consonantal cluster arises tliis way, or if the I thereby 
becomes iinal, the preceding vowel takes an o (m) tinge; if the preced- 
ing vowel be i, then o attaches itself thereto. To make clear the 
examples of this it is necessary to state that the cluster pw becomes p 
or h (note that pw does not occur in the tables given above). Thus 
Malecite kAnirmol i see thee (stem nimi; intervocalic instrumental 
h lost), Passamaquoddy ktekAinA\ i strike thee {-m- is an instru- 
mental ])article) ; compare Fox ke — ne, Shawnee ke — le; for Malecite 
kAnim\o\\>a i see you (pi.), Passamaquoddy ktekmvi\pa i strike you 
(pi.); cf. Fox ke — nepwa, Shawnee ke — lepwa. (It may be as well to 
mention that Fox ke — nepwa is made up of ke — pwa and ne, and is not 
a morphologic unit.) Micmac dagAmulkw°- he strikes us, inclusive, 
corresponds to Fox -meiiAgwe, in which m is the instrumental particle, 
e the phonetic insert, iiAgwe (Shawnee -lagwe) the termination for 



284 CLASSIFICATION OK ALOONQUIAN TRIBES [kth. ann. 28 

HE — -US (incl.) of the conjunctive mi)(l<'. The participial -ultitcig in 
Micniac (and tlie corrosponding forms of the other dialects) corre- 
s])onds to Fox -ndUcigi^^in which n is the instrumental particle, e the 
phonetic insert, ti the sign of reciprocity, tcigi the third person animate 
intransitive of the participial. 

It slioukl be noteil that the elimination of vowels sometimes causes 
nasals and liquids to become syllabic, a phenomenon which Sanskrit- 
ists call samprasdrana, e. g. Passamaquoddy mhwaxsan red stone 
(pipe) (cf. Fox meclcw- + Asen^) . 

Especially should it be observed that the clusters, consisting of a 
sibilant + Icor p, are kept exactly as in Cree (see the discussion of Cree, 
p. 238). Thus Cree amisk beaver, Stockbridge (Edwards) a7nisque, 
Ojibwa ami'lc, Delaware amochlc, Fox ame'kw"', Shawnee hamakwa, 
Peoria amakwa, Abnaki pepSnemeskS winter beaver, Micmac pHl- 
urnskiv beaver of third year (Rand) ; Cree miskaweiv he finds him, 
her, Fox me'lcawdw" he finds him, heu, Natick miskom he finds it, 
Malecite inuskuwan he found her; Cree ishpimilc above, Ojibwa 
ishpiming, Fox a'pemegi, Peoria pdmingi, Shawnee spemegi, Menominee 
icpdmii/A above, Penobscot spumti heaven, Abnaki spemk heaven, 
Passamacjuoddy spemeJc high; Cree huspamuw road which goes 
beside timber where there is water, Micmac JcdsTpemk at the lake, 
Passamaquoddy kuspemulc on a lake; Cree iskwew w^oman. Fox 
i'lcwdw'^, Natick squaw, Delaware ochqueu, Micmac Icesigo-eskw" old 
woman. Since sp and sk are original, it is probable that st is like- 
wise. The cluster is not common, and the writer has not found in 
Central Algonquian analogues as yet to such words as contain it. 
Yet it is perhaps possible to establish the claim indirectly. Micmac 
Jcesewistodiclj means after they had finished speaking; it is to be 
presumed that the std corresponds to Fox 'to (see section 21.7 of the 
Algonquian sketch in the Handbook of American Indian Languages, 
part 1). The 't points phonetically to an original *st. These clusters 
strongly point to a more northern origin than Fox had. 

It is true that the origin of many clusters can not be explained 
at present, but it is not unreasonable to believe that the application 
of the foregoing principles wiU explain many more when our knowl- 
edge of the languages shall have increased, and perhaps phonetic 
laws yet to be discovered will account for the remainder. For the 
consonantic clusters in Piegan, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Eastern 
Algonquian are so fundamentally different that it is improbable that 
any of their types are original. It may be assumed, then, jirovision- 
ally that the Central type, from which true consonantic clusters are 
lacking, with certain limitations, shows the most primitive condition 
of Algonquian languages. 



MICHELSON] 



ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 



285 



All original o or u under unknown conditions seems to umlaut the 
vowel of the preceding syllable to o, u, as does postconsonantal w. 
Thus, Malecite tiogul he was told; tliis stands for *tegdV (of. Shaw- 
nee otegoV HE WAS told) , in which o — gd¥ is the passive termination 
and te the initial stem. Penobscot ¥nanviogona he sees us (inch), 
Abnaki F namiogonna are additional illustrations. The terminations 
arefor*A:e — guna (cf. Shawnee); -he-, the instrumental + the e insert, 
has suffered the changes shown above and the Ji is lost ; the stem is 
nami. Passamaquoddy ndelcarmigun he strikes us (excl.) and 
Melcamugun he strikes us (incl.) are for *ne — meguna and *]ce — ■ 
megunxi, respectively; m is the instrumental particle;/ the phonetic 
insert which has been umlauted to u. Other examples of this umlaut- 
ing will be mentioned in the discussion of the verbal endings. Exam- 
ples in which a w (either maintained or lost) has caused umlaut are: 
Penobscot namiukw he sees me (for n'n-), Abnaki n'namiok, Passa- 
maquoddy Tidekamuk he strikes me (Fox ne — gwa; rest explained 
&hQYQ) -jTctelcamulc he strikes thee (Fox te — gwa). 

Below are tables of such forms of the Passamaquoddy independent 
mode (present tense) and of the Micmac conjunctive (which is used 
like the indicative) mode as the writer has been able to extract from 
Doctor Gatschet's papers. 

PASSAMAQUODDY PRESENT INDEPENDENT MODE 





I 


we excl. 


we incl. 


thou 


ye 


he 


they (an.) 


Intrans. . . 


■n- 


71 — 6^71 


k — bAn 


li- 


k—ba 




-wuk 


me ... 











k-i 


k—iba 


n—k 




us excl. 






— 


— 


— 


k~ibAn 


k—ibAn 


n—gun 


n—gunwuk 


us incl. 






« 


— 




— 


— 


k — gun 


k — guuwuk 


thee . 






l-T 


k — Ipcn 




— 


— 


k—k 


k—guk 


you 






k—lpa 


k — Ipen 


— 


— 


— 


k—guwa 


k—gua 


him . 




' 


n—a 


n—an 




k-a 


k—awa. 


u — al 


-awal 


them (an 


) 




n-ah 




k—anwuk 


k—ak 


k—awa 


u — a 


u — awa 



MICMAC CONJUNCTIVE MODE 





I 


we excl. 


we incl. 


thou 


ye 


he 


they (an.) 


me . . . 











■in 




-i( 


■idjik 


us excl. 






— 


— 


— 


■iek 


-iek 






us incl. 






— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


-lk8 


-Ikwik 


thee . 






-I 


-lek 


— 


— 


— 


-si 


-skik 


you 






-lox 


-lek 


— 


— 


— 


■lox 


-lox 


him . 






-uk 


-uget 






-ox 


-adl 


■adidl 


them (an 


) 




-gik 


-ugidjik 






-ox 


■aiji 


■adidjik 



286 



CLASSIFICATION OF AUiONQUIAN TRIBES 



[KTH. ANN. 28 



In comparing the forms with other i\Jgoii(|uiaii languages it is 
necessary to keep in mind the phonetic changes hinted at above. 
In the Passamaquoddy independent mode the u and w umlaut occurs 
in the forms for he — me, us (incl. and excl.), thee; they an. — me, 
US (excl. and inch), thee, you. The agreement in the use of I with 
Shawnee, etc., in contrast with Fox, Ojibwa, Crec, etc., n should be 
noted; also the elimination of vowels and the phonetic changes 
involved. 

Wliile treating of the linguistic relations of Fox and Shawnee, it 
was necessary to treat Passamaquoddy at some length. It was 
shown that Passamaquoddy is very closely related to Fox on the 
one hand and to Shawnee on the other. The form for we (incl.) — 
them an. approximates most closely the corresponding Cree and 
Montagnais form, though not identical with them. The relationship 
is the same in the case of we (excl.) — him. This last approximates 
the form in Cree, Montagnais, Delaware (one form), and Ojibwa; it coin- 
cides with the analogue in Natick and by chance with that in Chey- 
enne. We say by chance, as Cheyenne has no other special agreements 
with Eastern Algonquian, whereas, as was pointed out in the discussion 
of Fox, Natick happens to share another termination. The form for 
they an. — us (incl.) approximates the Cree, Montagnais, and Me- 
nomiiice analogues. The agreement of the last named with Passama- 
quoddy is undoubtedly fortuitous, due simply to the fact that 
Menominee as well as Eastern Algonquian shows certain aflEinities with 
Cree-Montagnais. The form for ye — them an. apparentlj- is the 
same as that for y'E — him. The form for they an. — us (excl.) is 
based on the same formation as they an. — us (inch). The fact that 
Passamaquoddy shares certain persons of the independent mode wdth 
Ojibwa was shown in the discussion of Fox. But it should be noted 
that all such persons are likewise shared by Shawmee. 

There is given below a table of the Abnaki present independent 
mode so far as the writer has been able to extract the terminations 
from Doctor Sajiir's notes: 





I 


we e.xcl. 


we incl. 


Ihou 


ye 


ho 


they an. 


Intrans. . . 


ni- («-) 


(n)—birm' 




ki-(k-) 


k—ba' 




-woJt' 


me. . . . 
us excl. . . 
us incl. . . 
thee . . . 
you . . . 
him . . . 
them an. . 


k—i 
k—l.ba' 

(n)-4' 
(n)—Ar)k' 


k—lblna' 
k—lbina 
{n)—Abrna' 


- 


k-i 
k—ibtna: 

k-4 
k—Avk- 


k—ibitm' 

k—A mba' 
k—Amba' 


[(n)—g(ibina'] 
0-4' 


(.n)—gnk' 
k-)Qk' 



MICHELSON] ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GKOUPS 287 

A (l(>tailed discussion is uncalled for. It should, however, bo noted 
that Abnaki ag^rees with Fox as opposed to Shawnee (and Passama- 
quoddy) in the forms for ye — him, them an. Initial n apparently is 
lost before certain consonants. Tliis accounts for the strange appear- 
ance of certain forms. The form for we (excl.) — him agrees with Fox 
as opposetl to Passamacjuoddy. he — us (excl.) is the equivalent of Fox 
ne — gopena, of the indefinite passive, independent mode. It may be 
noted that Malecite agrees with Passamaquoddy in tliis respect. 
From Doctor Sapir's notes it would seem that in Malecite a faint final 
w is retained after ¥ where etymologically required, which is lost (or 
at least not recorded by Doctor Gatschet) in Passamaquodd}^. The 
MT-iter's available material is too scanty in the case of Malecite and 
Penobscot to give tables for them; but it is certain that they agreed 
essentially with Passamaquoddy and Abnaki. 

As Eastern Algonquian shows certain points in common with 
Cree-Montagnais as opposed to Ojibwa, etc. (see pp. 238, 284) it may 
.be that the pAn ])reterite is really a pomt of contact between East- 
em Algonquian and the former; but this is forcmg matters, as cer- 
tain personal endings of Eastern Algonquian agree with Ojibwa, 
etc. (those shared also by Shawnee), as opposed to Cree-Montagnais. 
(For additional points of contact between Eastern Algonquian 
and Cree-Montagnais, see p. 245, in the discussion of the Micmac 
conjunctive.) Despite the usual view of the subject, the I'clations 
of Eastern Algonquian with Delaware are not close. On consult- 
ing the tables given in the discussion of Delaware it will be seen 
how few terminations of the independent mode phonetically coin- 
cide with those of Passamaquoddy. There are no agreements be- 
tween the two that are not shared either by Fox or Shawnee; as a 
matter of fact, Delaware agrees in some cases with Fo.x as opposed 
to Shawnee and Eastern Algoncjuian. But, as was shown in the 
discussion of Delaware, the existing material is poor, and it is 
clear that the several Delaware dialects had different linguistic 
relations. At present, however, there is not sufficient evidence to 
show that any one of the dialects had especially close relations with 
the Eastern branch of the Eastern-Central group of Algonquian 
languages. 

A table of the Micmac conjunctive from Doctor Gatschet's notes is 
here given because the one from the writer's notes and texts contains 
too many unfilled schedules. The table is supplemented by the form 
for HE — us (excl.), Amet, and these intransitive forms are given: 

I WE (excl.) WE (incl.) thou ye he they (an.) it, they (inan.) 
-i -ieg -igwa -in -i/o -d -d}i(j 



288 CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TEIBES Ietii. ann. 28 

The forms which Doctor Gatschet gives as -adl and -adidl are con- 
sidered broken Micmac at St. Anne de Restigouche. The current 
forms are -Adjl, -adidjl, yet one of the informants, a woman upward 
of eighty, constantly used the forms given by Doctor Gatschet. The 
question of dialectic variation must be taken into account, as Doctor 
Gatschet's material came from New Brunswick. Final surds and 
sonants are exceedingly hard to distinguish at St. Anne de Resti- 
gouche, but this difficulty is not encountered with those occupying a 
medial position. In the opinion of the writer there are, finally, 
neither true surds nor sonants, only intermediates. 

A detailed discussion of the forms is uncalled for. There is I cor- 
responding to Fox n, of course, but the forms themselves morpho- 
logically approximate very closely the Fox analogues; as was pointed 
out in the discussion of Sauk, etc., however, certain terminations 
resemble the Fox participial rather than the subjunctive, thus par- 
tially agreeing with the Peoria conjunctive and the Cree subjunctive. 
The termination for the first person singular intransitive apparently 
coincides phonetically with the Shawnee and Delaware analogue. 
The form for he — us (excl.) is important as showing the fact that 
the relations with Ojibwa, Delaware, and Natick are not close. It 
should be noted that the forms with the third person singular ani- 
mate as subject suggest relationsliip with the Fox subjunctive rather 
than conjunctive. The terminations -adl and -adidl certainly con- 
tain the obvialitive I, but though the former is clear enough in for- 
mation {-ad + D, the latter is not. 

It may be noted that there is another conjunctive form for the 
third singular, namely, -tc, e. g., pemietc when he walks along; 
this resembles closely the Fox analogue. The other terminations 
seem to be based on the ordinary conjunctive mode with the addition 
of a suffix ( ?) (J with certain phonetic modifications. 

There is a dual, e. g., hispanadidjig they are tired, as compared 
with Tcispanedjig they two are tired. The actual terminations 
seem to be the same; the -di- on the face of it apparently corresponds 
to Fox -tl-, the sign of reciprocity. Tliis is brought out by such 
expressions as mAdndidjig they (more than two) fought. The 
analysis of the example is niAd to fight, w instrumental particle, -di- 
reciprocal sign, -djig terminations. The expression then means 
THEY fought TOGETHER, the idea of plurality or duality originally 
not being expressed. Then the later restriction of such forms to 
plurality would be merely a specialization. 

To sum up the general relations of Eastern Algonquian, we may 
say that the group is very intimately related to Fox and Shawnee; 
next, to Cree-Montagnais; not closely to Ojibwa; and remotely to 
Delaware and Natick. The relations with Piegan are not sufficiently 
clear to justify a positive statement, but it should be observed that 



uiCHBLSON] ALGONQUIAN LINGUISTIC GROUPS 289 

certain personal terminations of the independent mode have close 
analogues (which are shared by Sauk, Fox, Kickapoo, and partially 
by Shawnee). 

The material at the writer's disposal does not permit a strong 
characterization of the inilividual traits of the various dialects com- 
posing the Eastern subtype of the major Eastern-Central division of 
Algonquian languages. According to J. Dyneley Prince and W. Mech- 
ling (personal communications), Penobscot, Abnaki, Passamaquoddy, 
and Malecite are more closely related to one another than any one is to 
Micmac. According to information received, Micmac can under- 
stand Malecite without much dilliculty. A characteristic of Micmac 
is the apparent lack of forms corresponding to the independent mode 
of the other ilialects ; but the latter have forms corresponding to the 
Micmac conjunctive. The preterite "indicative" of Micmac is based 
on the conjunctive, whereas in the other dialects it is based on the 
forms of the independent mode; but the principle of formation is 
alike. According to Prince, the differentiation of Penobscot and 
Abnaki is comparatively recent. The writer, however, does not 
consider Abnaki nasahzed vowels archaic; on the contrary, he 
believes the Penobscot pure vowels more original. Passamaquoddy 
and Malecite are very similar to each other and may prove to be 
practically identical. In closing the discussion of the Eastern sub- 
type, the writer thinks it well to add that in his judgment the /' which 
appears in the works of the older writers was an intermediate between 
r and /.• hence the}' recorded it with the sound with which they 
associated it. 

Summary 

Algonquian tribes linguistically fall into four major divisions: 
Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Eastern-Central. The Black- 
foot major group shows some unmistakable signs of contact with 
Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo of the Central subtype and with Eastern 
Algonquian. Cheyenne exhibits affinities wath the Ojibwa subdivi- 
sion of Central Algonquian, though it has also some rather northern 
affinities. It is premature to venture an opinion with which language 
or languages Arapaho is to be most intimately associated. The 
Eastern-Central major division is divisible into two subtypes. Central 
and Eastern. The Central subtype has further groupings within itself: 
Cree-Montagnais, Menominee, Sauk, Fox, Kickapoo, and Shawnee; 
Ojibwa, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Algonkin, and Peoria; Delaware (see 
the discussion of this language, p. 279), and Natick. Eastern Algon- 
quian may perhaps be divided into two groups, Micmac, on the one 
hand, and the remaining extant dialects (which, collectively', may be 
designated Abnaki), on the other. The very intimate connection of 
Eastern Algonquian with Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo, as well with 

20903°— 28 ETH— 12 19 



290 CLASSIFICATION OF ALGONQUIAN TRIBES [eth. ann. 28 

Shawnee, shoiilil be emphasized. Owing to the pecuharity in Micniac, 
noted on page 289, it is not possible to be so confident as to whether 
this rehitionship extends as intimately in this language; but the con- 
junctive mode points in this direction.' 

1 It will be noticed that on the accompanying map showing the distribution and interrelation of the 
Algonquian dialects (pi. 103), there are many names of dialects not dealt with systematically in the tt^xts. 
This is because the e.xisting material did not make such treatment feasible. The author does not doubt 
that Nanticokc, etc., are Algonquian dialects. (I)r. Frank G. Speck, of the University of Pennsylvania, 
has kindly made tor the use of the writer extracts from manuscripts in the library of the American 
Philo-sophical Society, demonstrating that Nanticoke belongs to Ihe Eastern-Central major division of 
Algonquian languages. Unfortunately verbal forms were practically absent; so until our knowledge of 
Unami, Unalachtigo, and Munsee shall be more extensive, it will not be possible to settle definitely the 
exact posit ion of Nanticoke. Hence it is probable that the other southern Algonquian dialects along 
the .\tlantic coast belong to the Eastern-Central division.) In this connection it may _be stated that 
Pennacook is assigned to the Abnaki-Micraac group, partly for geographical reasons, partly on account of the 
history of the tribe. The early French and English writers can not be relied on regarding the intimate 
or remote relationships among the various Algonquian dialects, except where they can be corroborated 
by existing dialects. The reason for this is not far to seek. As before stated (p. 237). the Central .\lgon- 
quian dialects are very intimatelyrelated, and philology at the time had not reached a point where fine 
distinctions could be made. It will be remembered how recently it has been possible for philology to 
determine the interrelations of the dialects ^vithin the major divisions of Indo-European languages, and 
how deficient even to-day is our knowledge of the interrelations of tlie major divisions of those languages. 
Moreover, inaccuirate phonetics would blur out many distinctive points. It is simply a waste of time to 
attempt to unravel the vagaries of the orthography of the older ^Titers in the case of dialects existing to-day. 
The accompanying map does not attempt to represent the distribution of Algonquian dialects at any one 
period. It will be remembered that our knowledge of the various tribes was not synchronous. It would 
have be^n feasible to make a map showing their localities, with dates, provided the interrelations were not 
shown; but the prime object was to show the interrelations. (A case in point is the localization of the 
habitat of the Sauk. They were first kno^vn in the eastern peninsula of Michigan, only later in the localit y 
shown on the map.) The authority for the localizations can usually be foimd in the Handbook of American 
Iniiajis iSulktin SO, B. A. E.). With respect to the map the following departures from the color scheme 
should be noted: Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton formed part of the Micmac territory. Mani- 
toulin Island and the peninsula between Georgian Bay and Lake Huron were occupied by Ottawa and 
the peninsula between Lakes Superior and Michigan east of the Menominee by Chippewa. 

It may be noted that under the name Abnaki, the .\bnaki (properly speaking), Malecite, Passama- 
quoddy, and Penobscot are included. 

The form Chippewa on the map follows that of the Handbook of .\merican Indians; the form Ojibwa. 
in the text conforms to the orthography of the Handbook of .\merican Indian Languages (BuUelin 40, 
B.A. E.). 

From Edwards' Observations op the Language of the Muhhekaneew Indians, reprinted in Mass. Hist. 
Coll., 2d ser., x (Boston, 1S23), p. 81 ff., some notes may be made on the language of the Indians of 
Stockbridge, Mass., though imsystematically. The words a mis que skiver, spummuck HE.^VENat once 
show the dialect does not belong with Delaware. So does paumscauk we (excl. gr incl.?) walking 
(Fox pdmusdyag' or -yigw) by lacking a nasal in the pronominal ending. The words npihtuhquisseh- 
nuh WE ARE TALL, nme€ts€hnuh we eat (both exclusive in formation) demonstrate that the dialect is 
not to be associated with Natick, Delaware, or the Abnaki group. The termination n—nuh suggests that 
the termination for WE incl. intrans. was k—nnh: this last coincides with a variimt Cree correspondent 
given by Lacombe. On the other hand n~nuh and k—nuh resemble very much the Menominee corre- 
spondents save the lack of the m syllable. On a later occasion the writer will rctiu-n to this particular 
point. Here it may be said that the m + vowel is not so vitally important as the other portions of the 
termination. The phonetics of metooque wood are also against intimate relationship with Cree. The 
word ktuhwhunoohmith i love you resembles closest the Natick form; but nduhwhunuw i love him 
has a different look. The phonetics of noj/i my father .suggest affinity with Delaware; cf. jiuiao my 
father (Sapir). These notes were made subsequent to the printing of the map (pi. 103). 

It is needless to say that all Algonquian tribes and subtribes could not be shown on the map for want 
of space. 



ADDENDIBI 

It was impossible to insert in the text the results of the \vriter'9 
field work in the summer, autumn, and winter of 1912, but the most 
important results may be summarized briefly here. 

Piegan (of Montana) has whispered vowels terminally after w and 
nasals; x is distinctly post-velar; final k is distinctly aspirated. Gros 
Ventre (Atsina) sheds little light on Araj^aho, sharing with the latter 
practically all deviations from normal Algonquian. Potawatomi dif- 
fers more from Ojibwa, Ottawa, and Algonkin than these do from 
one another. According to communications from Doctor Sapir of the 
Geological Survey of Canada and Doctor Radin of the International 
School of Ethnology and Arclieology, the Ojibwa dialect at Sarnia, 
Ontario, seems to be highly specialized. The intimation given in the 
section on Delaware tiiat Zeisberger's material represents no single 
dialect was borne out by the writer's experience with the Munsee of 
Kansas and the Delaware of Oklahoma. Apparently no distmction 
can be tirawn to-day between Unami and Unalachtigo. The pho- 
netic system of Zeisberger is very deficient. Every stop occurs as 
surd, sonant (after nasals), surd aspirate (terminally), and glottalized. 
A^oiceless I occurs medially before consonants in both Delaware and 
Munsee, and terminally in tlie latter (where it seemingly is lost in the 
former). Long consonants are common, also consonantic clusters, 
owing largely to elimination of vowels. Umlaut is caused by w. On 
the whole, both Delaware and Munsee have suffered very considerable 
phonetic changes from normal Central Algonquian ; Munsee is by far 
the more archaic of the two. In Munsee whispered vowels occur 
initially, medially, and terminally (after w). In Delaware seemingly 
tliey are found medially and terminally after w. In both, s, y, w, and I 
occur glottalized as well. The variety of fonns given in the table is 
due in part to dialect mixture, in part to phonetic changes. Some of 
the forms are due possibly to mishearing; some contain double 
objects; others seemingly are to distinguish third persons; still others 
owe their origin to causes which are unknown although the forms 
exist to-day. The statement that one dialect had the closest rela- 
tions with Cree-Montagnais and another with Shawnee, is wrong. 
Zeisberger's inadequate phonetics were wrongly interpreted. It is 
clear that both Delaware and Munsee are closely related and, though 
tliey can not be easily classed with any other large gi'oup, it is clear 
that they approximate the Ojibwa group in unportant points, and 

290a 



•290b ADDENDUM 

(Ottawa in particular. Phonetically, however, in some points they 
appruxiiiuite more closely Peoria and otlier languages belonging to 
tiie same group. (Zeisberger does not distinguisli -F [Fox -g*] and 
-kw" [Fox -gw"]: both are written -k; the case of -mvf, wliich remains 
in Munsee but undergoes certain changes in Delaware, is somewhat 
smiilar.) From Doctor Sapir's notes it would seem that the Dela- 
ware of Oklalioma ami that of Canada (Smoothtown) differ in certain 
points. 



1 Comparative Table 
Absaki. Ojibwa 



or THE Cree (Moose and Fokt Totten), Menomisee, Fox, Shawnes, pAssamaquoddv. 
AuwsKis, Peoria. Natiok, and Delaware Independent Mode, PgESE*T Tense 



Al'PISNDIPES 

Comparative Table of the (^bee (Moose and East Main), Fox, .Shawnee, Ojibwa. Aluonkin. Peoria, 
Natick, and Delaware Subjunctive Mode, Present Tense 



3. Comparative Table of the Fox, .Shawsbe, Michac, a»d Peoeia Cow™or.„ 



Mode 



- - 


1 1 j -**^- 


1 welDol. j thou ! ye 


lie 


tliey aa. 


r 


they ImiD 




I 


we Bxol. 


welticl. 


tbon 


JO 


he 


they an 


11 


(buy loan. 




1 


w« ««l. 


welncl. 


IMu 


y 


&« 


u,.,.,. 


lt,Ul«rlBKi. 

■■u 




ne- ] IK— non 


b—nanou' , 
HI -m.»lM^ 

k bdn 
tt-mirt 


r 


tt—ravav 


-tf« 


-tfUt 

-VA9 
■w.iti 


1 


-wa 

-U4n' 
■em 


' Intniultlve 


r. 


-iron 


.,01 


■SHk 


-imn 


■VOk 


-T -ICit 


-ft 


l-fti 


Inlrunsltlve 


F. 


-mi 


■yagt 

-fOtt 

-Itg 
-yunjl 


•SAgwr 
■yAfvt 

■gangwl 


■tAtli 

■fAni 
■yanl 


-|>«irf 


■tH 

•Iti 


•waiel 

-teOUi 


c tr. T.} 


«■ 


nt-Mn 
m-oundu- 


t,- 


kl-pua 




F. 

S. 
OJ. 


-rant 

■ya 

■lan 


■sagi 


-fAgiet 

-VAgipt 
■iang 


•VAIII 
■llAnr 
-Ian 


■vSgu!. 
■lig 


-d 


■viaii 
-waif 

■wo-l 


■9' 
-k 


-91 

-k 




U. 
P. 


-1 
.yam 




Mm. 
F. 


■ylkuii 


■4 
.4)1 


^ 1 
-WOJ/I 






3. 

Pu. 

Ab. 

OJ. 

A. 


>U- 


oi— fw 
nin-min 


»- 


k-ba 
k-ba- 

ki-in 


('» 


■utik 
-waJi- 
■aae 


(') 


-on 




N. 


-tan 
■tana 


■mg 

-Konjli 

■og 


-•ang 
•liantaa 


-(on 

-yonfi 

-an 


■itg 

■sikwa 

■o-l 


■la 
■ogt 


■uale 
■wolfi 
.ohtlllff 


-ft 


























w. (<«-) 


til-mla 


kt-min 


kt- 


tt-m 


(lost ptaonell 


.irot 


(Idtl pho- 


-on 




D. 


\Z.. 


\y,.U 




■van* 


■ytqut 


■u 


•cAIIW 




































rallrl 




ii«ilrally) 








|-(ronc 


\ 






































P. 


' "'Im. 


a- 


b-mlno 


ti- 


ki-miea 


"'' 


■uaki 


















































N. 


■• 


•-niK 




lt- 


1 k-mu><n 


-u 


-IfOJ 

-irat 


















































1). 


n-- 


H:nL 




*'- 


I'-ir 


!*■- 


"""' 
















































— — — 


C.{M.) 

C.(F.T.) 

Men 

F. 
S. 
Cms 

UJ 








If— in 


kr— tnovw 


In^-lt 


nt-tuuk 




! me 


1 


_ 


- 


■tgun 


■€vak 


-u 


■llctk.-ituiou/ 




loe 


P. 








■IfAnt 











no 








ki—in 


M-indwdua 


til—t 


ni-ta>A9 




K 


; — 


— 


— 


■IV Ant 


•ivOgwc 


-lit 


■ItcOU 






S. 


_ 




~ 


-iyotirt 


■Uel 


-iHdId 








1 ~ 


_ 


ki-i 


ti— jinuiduia 


n(-j 


nl~g„f 




S 


— 


— 


— 


-iVAnt 


-lyatu't 


-itt 


■IvOU 






M. 


_ 






"'"■"" 


■ifSg^t 


■Uti 


HBTdln 






- 


! : 


- 


kt-i 
ki-i 


tt—ipaa 
ti— tpifa 


nt-guxi 


nt-969i 

r,i-t6f 




OJ. 
. A. 


I 


- 


- 


-lion 

-lion 


-Uia 
-i'lg 


-id 


■luad 

4v>ale 






P. 


- 


- 


- 


-fyanf 


-(yiftwl 


-ila 


-im 

-Uaki 






- 


- 


- 


Jt-i 


t-iba 


fl-* 


(ii)-ff«l' 




1»: 


- 


- 


- 


•tan 


-to-g 


.it 


•htlllt 




























_ 


_ 


lii-{0 


JU-fm 


nlH-l 


Bin— ju* 




D. 


- 


— 


- 


■ivani 


■iyiqut 


■\it 


•tehtlli 




























_ 


_ 


li-(ll last 


H-im 


nl-k 


nr-iWl 




















































' fjbuii«llcally 




















































p. 


_ 




) 




M~kiea 


n-tolii 














































S 


- 


' 


l' " 


k-imwo> 


n-k 


n-kfuos 














































D. 


_ 


j 


- 


*■-! 


k--ihlilmo 


" "jfrun 


"■■" 


























































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■aelilltt 


























N. 


n-Ou# n— Aunmi'V 


t-oot 


k-o«(r 


-uh 


■ouh 




U. 


\-awakt 


1 


-airi-njut 


-uchw 


-acAfivi" 


■akhittiit 


■awaeMItt 




















































{iktt\ 






























D. 


Hr. 


avuna 


iau-ak 


1 Jfliroifuk 
~\aaauan 




le- -ouaa-ak 

It aiiaicok 

1 
















































aifavnt 


1 














































U 


r rL)< 


nJ-M 


nJ-mdn 


H^L 


1'- 




-am 


■aniirufc 




It, Ui«iii Inan. 


C.i 


^ffldn 


-flmdt 


-arnak 


^man 


-om(k 


■ Ik 


\-okik 




It.lhfiDliiaii. F. 
S- 


-jradni 
-Aim 


■AmOff 
-AwOtt 


-4nM,W< 


-AmAtI 1 -4ma«ir/ 


■Afi 

.Afi 


-.inalfdiri 






C. (F.T.I 


ni-dn 


M-anJn 


tl-dndn 


kl-in 


kl-dnd«du'« 


-AW 


-AmwAS 






F. 


•Amant 


•4H.fi(( 


■AmAJ^Cl 


->ra4nc 


--ma(,>f, 


-ASl 


■AtnotciUt 






M. 


















Uen. 


ni-jn 


ni-dTnfndiro 


J(l-*' 


kl—tn 


fcl-.linw)if« 


-Am 


-Afntit 






S. 


-A ma 


.4-na{r.r 


-AmAfwe 


-.ini.4ii( 


-j[natfir( 


-Atr 


■AtauifHle 






P. 


■«mani 


smonst 






-anti 


^niovairi 






F. 


n(-« 


M— aptna 




t(— o 


tf-dpira 


-Aiaua 


-Amltl 






0). 


-imait 


■a-nflnff 


•amting 


-iiiiiur. 


■ara«r 


-iuf 


Smowad 












: ! 








S. 


Bl-4 


fil-dp< 


ki-apt 


ki-o 


»t-aBairo fi-a 


u-dnrtiro 






A. 


•njnan 


■arndng 


•aiHonj 


-u'liori 


-uinfu 


-ang 


■amoiralc 
























Pub. 


















P. 










-urnofcu'a 




























Al). 


















N. 


•union 


-amaj 




•uman 


■ufiidy 


-uk 


-iimaArtdl 
























Oj. 


nJn-ln 


Bin— drain 


U—imln 


ll-Otl 


I. iFWifa ; -4m 


u-dnaira 






V. 


-a ma 


|-a»imkr 


1 


-amatu 


-amrfiK 


-0.lt( 


■aTFiitkrlK 


























A. 


wl-m 


nl— iinaiuin 


ii-onnn ; i.' -a» 




o-atwu-a 










j-orntnfui- 


1 


































P. 






1 


amita 


-anidti 














































N. 




n^r.um»n 




t~«fflu« 


j-umun 


':zi 






































1 


1 






D. 


n'^««. 






















































ibem loBD. 


..... 


ni-<Ti 


ni-oiftfi 


"-& 


Ui-«i 


1 
ki-mawau- -om 


-araifltik 










C.(F-T-) 


lu-an 


flj^nOn 


tl"dndn 


t.^n 


ki-dni]>nl<ri -.ifn 


.jmvA9 














































Hen. 


ni-^D 


n(-dminav- 


fci-A' 


ti 'An 


b-jmirdira , .jn> 


-Amut 














































F. 


Df-a 


lu—apma 


lW-«pfno 


t*-a 


fcf— dpva -^mua 


■Am69> 














































6. 


Bf-dU 


ni— flp* 


W-ape 


I'-dna 


U-ona*M 1 a-OM 


o-andu-a 














































Pm. 




























































Ab. 




























































OJ. 




nifl-Amln 


H-dmm 


t—afun 


ki-dnouan 


o-dnon 


o-dnawan 














































A. 




nf -annndnln 




ti-anan 


ki-anairan 


o-oiun 


o-andwan 














































'■ 












^mum 


■arriaki 














































N. 


n-umuF. 


n— timumufl 




II— umun 


t-uraurauu-uo 


i:r" 


|...., 














































D 


"■-*""" 


n' —nmohhma 




[kfi-Qian 


Ik7]-«nioUuma 




■aiiifnripa 


























1 




i 













' See Uie tootiuites to the tabic on p. 3U 



~J^ 





^7^ 



i*L HEPOST PT.*T£ ■ 



m 


r 




1 


/^■^ 


0'^^ 




ty p 



o w 



...-<-. 



iA/ 



L^V 



A; 



LEGEND 

LANGUAGES OF THE CREE TYPE 

Cree and Montagnais 

Nascapee 

Menominee 

Sauk Fox. and Kickapoo 

Shawnee [Abnaki 

Abnaki - Micmac Group / Pennacook 

iMicmac 
LANGUAGES OF THE CHIPPEWA TYPE_ 
Chippewa , Ottawa, Potawatomi and Algonkinl 
Illinois and Miami 

LANGUAGES OF THE MASSACHUSET TYPE 
Massachuset .Marraganset.Wampanosg 

Nauset.Montauk ect 
(Nipmukand Connecticut River Indians) 
LANGUAGES THE EXACT POSIT/ON OF WHJCH 
/S UA/CEPTAIN 

Unami.Unalachtigo.Munsee. Wappinge 
V Mahican and Pequot. 

SIKSIKA 

CHEYENNE AND SUTAIO 

ARAPAHO AND ATSINA - 

UNCERTAIN 

NANTICOKE, CONOY. POWMTAN. WEAPEMEOC 
5 E COT AN ETC- 



NOTE- 

Names in p3 
which probably forms one group with that beneath 
which it is placed. but they are kept apart for the 



Names in parenthesis belong to tribes, each of 
arms one 
,but they 
present for lack of sufficient data 




r 



INDEX 



Page 

Abali^ne shell, ornaments of 143 

Abnaki language — 

description 280, 283, 284, 285, 286-287, 2S9, 290 

examples in comparison with — 

Cree 238, 239 

Delaware 238, 290 

Fox 238, 239 

Micmac 238 

Natick 290 

Ojibwa 238 

Passaraaquoddy 239 

Peoria 238, 239 

Shawnee 238, 239 

Stockljridge 238, 290 

pronunciation 228 

relationships 289 

Abnaki tribe— 

linguistic investigations among 225 

reference to 290 

Accompanying papers, note on 21 

Ackerman, Thomas, reference to 37 

AcoMA Pueblo, references to 158,159-160 

Adams\ille , Ariz. . references to 34-35, 112 

ADMINISTRATn'E REPORT 9-22 

Adobe construction, description of 80 

Agave fiber, use of 118 

Age or Casa Grande, references to 33, 105 

Agua Fru. Valley, ruins in 215-216.218 

Ainsworth's ranch— 

reference to 210 

ruins on , 21 1 

Akutchin , ancient Pima settlement 36 

Alarcon. route of 186, 20S 

Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition, refer- 
ence to 101 

Algonkin language— 

conjunctive mode 272 

description 261-262, 264-269 

examples in comparison with — 

Cheyenne 2.'!3 

Cree 243, 244, 

245, 250, 251, 252, 259, 260, 261 , 262, 272 

Cree-Montagnais 259 

Delaware 243, 244, 261 

Fox ... 244, 245, 252, 259, 260, 261, 262, 271 , 272 

Kickapoo 259 

Menominee 243, 

244.245,2.50,251,252,259,201,262,271 

Micmac 272 

Montagnais 272 

N'atick 233,243,244,250,251,271,273 

Ojibwa 243, 244, 

245,250,251,252,261,262,271,272,273 

Ottawa 233, 

245, 250, 251, 252, 259, 260, 261, 262, 271 



Page 
Algonkin language— Continued. 

examples in comparison with— continued. 

Passamaciuoddy 24.'i, 273 

Peoria 2,33, 245. 

250, 251, 252, 260, 261, 262, 271, 272, 273 

Potawatomi 259, 262, 271 

Sauk 259 

Shawnee 243, 244, 245, 

251, 252, 256, 259, 261, 262, 271, 272, 273 

indicative mode 273 

pronunciation 226-228 

relationships 238, 244, 289, 290a 

subjunctive mode 260 

Algonquian languages — 

pronunciation 226-228 

summary of linguistic investigations. . . 225-226 
.\LGONQuiAN TRIBES, linguistic Classification— 

memoir on 22,221 

linguistic major divisions 229 

Alibamu. researches among 12 

American Museum of Natural History. 

archeologic explorations by 18 

Ancients, The. reference to 42 

See also Hohpkam, Inhabitants. 

Animal effigies, clay (Casa Grande) 134-135 

Anticosti Island, reference to 290 

Antiqihties of United States, preservation 

of 10,17-18 

Antonio Azul, Pima chief 34 

.\NTs, in P'ima legend 49, 50 

Anza, Lieut. Col. Juan Bautista de, visit 

to Casa Orande .57 

Apache— 

baskets used by 147 

in Pima flood legend 51 

pictographs 197. 201 

references to 34, 44, 5C, 68, 61, 70, 195, 217 

Arapaho language — 

consonantic clusters 284 

description 234-237 

pronunciation 226-227 

reference to 225 

relationships 22, 229, 237, 280, 289, 290a 

See also Atsina, Gros Ventre, Northern .\rap- 
aho. 

Archeology in relation to ethnology 42 

Architecture— 

of Casa Grande 72-74, 154-155 

of Oila-Salt Compounds 150-152, 156 

Arizona— 

age of niins ; 150 

antiquities 17 

archeologic work in 13,18 

ascultural center 157 

291 



292 



INDEX 



Pago 
Arizona— Continued. 

(Cemnil) iliuil composilion of ruins 151 

clift'-dwcllings 151 

collections from 20 

fetish from 122 

nat ional monuments 18 

(Northern) dual composition of ruins 151 

fabrics from ruins 148 

pottery 137, 139 

shell work 144 

researches in 9 

shells among aborigines 143 

(Southern) cliff-houses 151 

lacking in modern pueblos 152 

pictographs 214 

pottery 139 

(Western) early explorations in 186 

pictographs 214 

Aerow-heads (Casa Grande) 130 

Arrow-shaft polishers (Casa Grande) 126 

Attacapa, researches among 12 

Atsina, linguistic classification of 234 

See also Oros Ventre. 

AWATOBl — 

disposal of dead 117,118 

pottery 139, 141, 156 

Axes, stone (Casa Grande) 123-124 

Aztec— 

references to 54, 186 

traditional association with Casa Grande. 33 
See also Mexico (ancient inhabitants). 

Aztec Pa.ss— 

fort below 210-211 

origin of name 208 

references to 206, 207, 211 

road through 204 

Baat, legendary Pima maiden 52 

Baca Grant, reference to 208 

Baker's r.\nch house, ruins near 201-202 

Balls, stone, from Casa Grande 93-94, 131 

Bancroft— 

cited a.s an authority 45 

on Sedelmair's account of Casa Grande. . . 56 
Bandelier— 

cited as to Coronado expedition 54 

description of Casa Grande 69-71 

on Pima 69-72,152 

Pima legend from 45 

Banghart ranch, reference to 201 

Baraga, Bishop— 

Ojibwa modes from 262-263 

references to 227,239 

Bartlett, John Russell, account of Casa 

Grande 66-68, 88 

Basketry— 

Casa Grande 147 

Gila-Salt region 156 

Pima 147 

Quahatika 140 

Batke miner.1L claim, fort near 215-216 

B.vtre, Mr., acknowledgment to 216 

Beads, stone (Casa Grande) 131 

Benham collection of Gila Valley antiqui- 
ties 119 

Bernal, Capt. Crist6bal M., reference to. . 54 
BfeXAR ARCHIVES, reference to 16 



Pago 

Big Burro Canyon, reference to 209 

Bill Williams River, references to. . 186,208,209 

Bilo.xi, researches among 12 

Bird, idol in form of (Casa Grande) 121 

Bitter Man, The, in Pima legend 43-44,60-61 

Black Falls ruin, reference to 157 

Blackfoot language— 

cluster sMn 234 

reference to 186, 225 

relationships 22, 229-232, 235, 237, 289 

Black's Ca.n-yon, clilY-house at mouth of.. .197-198 

Black's ranch, references to 195,196,197 

Blackwater, .\kiz.— 

pictographs near 148 

references to 37, 62, 115 

Bloods, linguistic afRnit ies of 229 

Boas, Dr. Fr.\nz, work of 15 

Bolton, Prof. Herbert E., work of 16-17 

Bone implements. Sic Implements. 
Brasseur de Bourbourg, cited as to Casa 

Grande 53 

BRtNTON, Dr. D. G, on work of Zeisberger. . 275 

Browne, J. Ro.ss, work of, cited 53,62 

Burials. See Mortuary customs. 

BurroCreek, .Vriz., reference to 209 

Buzz-iRD, in Pima legend 49,50,52 

Caborca, reference to 218 

Cactus, giant, in Pima legend 44,52,61 

C.\DDO.iN TRreES. history of 17 

C.iiuENCHE. reference to 209 

Cakchikellangu-ige, manuscripts in 12 

Cauche, description of 82 

California tribes, reference to 102 

Camp Hu.^l.ip.u, references to 1S6, 206,211 

Cane cigarettes. See Cigarettes. 

Cane game, in Pima legend 52 

Canyon de Chelly— 

clifl-houses 219 

potter;- 139 

C.\NY'ON Diablo, ruins in 13 

Cape Breton, reference to 290 

Carusle (Pa.) Indun School, linguistic 

investigations at 225 

Carnegie Institution of Washington, 

acknowledgment to 239 

Carson, Kit, reference to 62 

Cartier, reference to 290 

C.VSA Bl.\nca. reference to 71 

Casa Gr.inde, .\riz — 

application of name 79-80,87 

memoir on 25 

origin of name 33 

Casa Grande Mount.\inS, Ariz.— 

pictographs found in 148 

reference to 36 

.Casa Grande St.\tion..\RIZ., reference to... 72 
Casa Montezuma, designation of Casa 

Grande 33, 34 

See also Monteztmia. 
C.1SA3 Grvndes (Chihuahua)— 

pottery 137,142,156 

reference to 54 

type '51 

CisAS Grandes of the Gila l">3 

CastaSeda de Nagera, Pedro de, refer- 
ences to 53,117 



INDEX 



293 



Page 
Catali.n.v Mountains. A kiz.. reference to 36 

("AVATE— 

dwellings, tj-pes ot 188, 219 

use of term 193, 194 

Cedar, used at Casa Grande 146 

Central Algonquian i_\nguages— 

divisions 233 

examples in comparison with— 

Cheyenne 233 

Cree 233,239,245 

Menominee 249, 251 

Ojibwa 245 

Potawatomi 245 

reference to 290 

relationship with Micmac 2S3 

Ceremonial rooms— 

reference to 142 

types of 150 

See also Kihus, Kiva. 
CuACO Canvox, N. Mex., declared national 

monument IS 

Charcoal, magic power of 47, 52 

Chaves Pass, turquoise frog from 131,144 

Cherokee Nation, researches in 12-13 

Chevlon Fork, reference to 220 

Chevlon EtJiN , reference to 139 

Cheyenne division of Algonquian languages, 

relationships of 229, 289 

Cheyenne language— 

consonantic clusters 284 

description 232-234 

inanimate plural of nouns 274 

pronunciation 226 

reference to 225 

relationships 22, 237, 274, 280, 286 

See al.to Northern Cheyenne. 

Chichilticalli, references to 53, 54 

Chihuahua, Mexico, shells amongaborigines. 143 

See also Casas Grandes (Chihuahua). 
Chino Valley, .\riz.— 

earl}' migration into 218 

references to 196, 204, 215 

ruins 201,216 

Chitimacha, researches among 12 

Choct.\w, reference to 12 

Cibola, references to 117,220 

See also Zuni. 

Cigarettes, cane (Casa Grande) 135,142-143 

Ci-ho, legendary Pima hero 45, 71 

CiPiAS. home of 220 

Cr\"AN, application of term 46 

CtVANAVAAKi. Pima name for Casa Grande. . . 33, 43 

Ci-v.i-Ni5, Pima legendary chief. 71 

See also Sf-va-no. 
Ci-v.v-nO-qi, name appUed to Casa Grande. . . 71 
Clax-house 1, Casa Grande— 

burial found in 117,127,139 

description 106-110 

excavation and repair 41-42 

■'seat" excavated in 46 

CL.VYTON, J. B.. work of 14,18 

Cle.ir Creek, caves on 188 

Cuff-dwelungs— 

decorated fabrics from 148 

in Colorado 151 

in Sierra Madre, Mexico 151 

in upper Verde region 188, 194 



Pago 
Cliff-dwellings— Continued. 

in Verde Valley 198 

pictographs in 197 

pottery 137, 138, 139, 141 

resemblances among 151 

use of term 117, 193 

Cocomaricopa. ref rence to 58 

Collections — 

Casa Grande 20, 118-121 

Fewkes 121, 161-179 

summary as to 20-21 

Colorado — 

ancient cultural center 157 

antiquities 17 

ruins- 
age of 150 

cliff-dwellings 151 

pottery 137, 139, 140 

See also Little Colorado. 
Colorado River tribes— 

reference to 217 

relationships 220 

Compounds, Casa Grande- 

age 105 

ancient inhabitants 152 

Compound A — 

description 88-95 

excavation 37-39 

Compound B— 

description 95-102 

excavation and repair 40-4 

Compound C— 

description 102-103 

excavation and repair 42 

Compound D— 

description 104-105 

excavation and repair 42 

Compounds E and F — description 106 

relation to pueblos 150-160 

Conch shells, trumpets of (Casa Grande). 144-145 
Conjunctive mode— ■ 

AJgonkin 272 

Arapaho 236 

Cree : 272 

Fox 234, 253, 260, 261, 2ti5, 271, 272, 279, 288 

Micmac 245, 269, 272, 279, 285, 287-288 

Natick 272 

Ojibwa 268, 272 

Peoria. 234, 245. 260, 265, 268, 270, 271 , 272, 279, 288 

ShaH-nee 234, 245, 255, 265, 271, 272, 279 

Conjunctives, indefinite passive (Algon- 
quian) 279 

Consonantic clusters— 

Abnaki 280 

Arapaho 235, 236 

Cheyenne 232-233, 234, 236 

Cree 231, 238, 246 

Delaware 279,290a 

due to elimination of vowels 283 

Eastern .\lgonquian 236,246,284 

Fox 249, 283 

linguistic classification based on 226 

Malecite 230, 281-282, 283 

Menominee 249, 280-281 

Micmac 280-281, 283 

Munsee 290a 

Natick 234 



294 



INDEX 



Pugl' 

CoNSONANTic (LUSTERS— Continued . 

Norlhcrn Dlai-ktoot 23(>-231 

I'assamaquoddy 259, 280, 2X2 

I 'PMobscot 280, 282-283 

I'jegan 229-230, 231, 23« 

various Aigonquian languages 274 

Construction ofCasa Grande, method of. . 82,95 
See aim Walls. 

CONUS SHELL, Ornaments of US 

Cooke, Lieut. Col. . reference to t'>5 

Copper, specimens found in Southwestern 

ruins 98, 148 

CORONADO EXPEDITION, reference to 53,54 

CoRTEZ, Don Josfi— 

cited as to Tontos 217 

on Colorado River tribes 209 

Cotton (Casa Grande), references to 148,156 

Cottonwood, Ariz., reference to 195 

COUES, Elliott, work by, cited 57 

Coyote, the, in Pima legend 44 

Cozzens, work by. cited 62,06 

Creation legend, Pima 44, 49, 61 

Cree language — 

cluster «(in 2.34 

conjunctive mode 272 

consonantic clusters 231, 283 

description 238-247 

e.xamples from Horden 248 

e.xamples in comparison with— 

Abnaki 279, 283, 284 

Algonkin 250, 

251,252,260,261,202,265,267,272 

Cheyenne 233, 286 

Delaware 250. 251, 

256,259,200-201.265.267,269, 

273, 274, 275, 278, 279, 284, 286 

Eastern Algonquian 257. 269 

Fox 235, 

247, 248. 249, 250, 251. 252, 256. 

. 258.259,260-261.262,203,265, 

267. 269, 271, 272, 273, 274. 275, 

278, 279, 2S0, 283, 284. 280, 288 

Kiekapoo 248, 259, 267 

Malecite 274, 279, 284 

Menominee 249, 250, 251. 252, 

259, 261, 262, 267, 271, 273, 279. 2S3, 284. 280 

Micmac 256, 272, 284. 288 

Minsi 274 

Montagnais 247, 

248, 259. 261, 267, 272. 278, 279. 286 



Natick 

251, 266, 273, 274, 275, 279. 283 

Ojibwa 249, 

252, 256, 257, 258, 261. 262, 203. 265, 
269, 271, 272, 274, 275, 278, 279, 283, 

Ottawa 248.250.251,261 

Passamaquoddy 267.283 

Penobscot 267.279, 

Peoria 250, 251 . 252. 256. 261 , 202, 

269. 271. 272,'274. 275. 278, 279,283 

Potawatomi 

Sauk 248, 269,267, 

Scaticook 

Shawnee 

252,256.257.258.261.262,265. 

269, 271, 272,274,278.279,283, 

Btockbridge 



.. 250, 
,284.286 
250,251, 
267, 208 
284,286 
202.267 
284.286 
283. 284 
265.267, 
,284,2.S8 
,. 262 
,271,288 
.. 279 
,. 251, 
267.268, 
284.280 
284,290 



Page 
Cree language— Continued. 

independent mode 247, 248,268, 268 

indicative mode 273 

relationships 232 

subjunctive mode 247.248,260.265,269,271 

See also Cree-Montagnais, East Main Cree, 
Fort Totten Cree, Moose Cree, Rupert's 
House Cree. 
Cree-Montagnais language— 
examples in comparison with — 

Algonkin 269 

Delaware 273, 277, 280 

Eastern Algonquian 286,287,288 

Fox 259, 273, 277, 278 

Kiekapoo 259 

Menominee 259, 273, 277, 278 

Micmac 273 

Natick 259,280 

Ojibwa 259,260,273.277.280,287 

Ottawa 259 

Passamaquoddy 277 

Peoria 259 

Potawatomi 259 

Sauk 259 

Shawnee 259. 287 

independent mode 269 

relationships 244. 250. 252. 288, 289,290a 

suppositive mode 273 

See also Cree, Montagnais. 
Cremation. See Mortuary customs. 

Crows, in Pima flood legend 

Cruzate. Don Domingo Jironza Petriz de 

reference to 

Cuabajai, reference to 

CucHANS, reference to 217 

Clt-ture centers, ancient, in Southwest . . 157 
Cu.sniNG, Frank Hamilton— 

head of Ilemenway Southwestern expedi- 
tion 119 

on irrigation (Salt River Valley) 114-115 

references to 46,70,71,112 

researches of ._ 72 

Delaware language— 

consonantic clusters 283 

description 228, 275-280,290a, 290b 

examples in comparison with — 

Abnaki 238, 284 

Algonkin 243,244,261,265.267.268.273 

Cheyenne 286 

Cree 238.239.243.244.251.256, 

261, 265, 267. 269. 273, 274, 276. 284. 286 

Cree-Montagnais 273 

Eastern Algonquian... 257,269.270,287,288 

Fox 238, 

239, 243, 244, 250, 251 , 256, 257. 259. 260-261 , 
265, 267, 270, 273. 274. 275. 283,284. 2S7, 290 

Kiekapoo 259.267 

Malecite 239,269,283 

Menominee 239, 

243,244,250,251,257,261,267,270,273 

Micmac 23^,266,273.284.288 

Minsi 239.274 

Montagnais 269.261.267.269,286 

Natick 239, 

243. 244. 250. 266. 269. 273. 274. 284. 2S6. 2S8 

Ojibwa 238.239,243.244.256.257.261, 

265, 267, 268, 269, 270, 273. 275. 284, 286, 288 



52 



64 
209 



INDEX 



295 



Pagn 
Delaware language— Continued. 

examples in comparison with— Continued. 

Ottawa 201.265,267.268,273 

I'assamaquoddy 243,267, 2,S6,287 

Penobscot 207, 269 

Peoria 238, 

239, 250, 257, 201 , 265, 267, 268, 270, 275, 284 

Potawatomi 261 , 268, 273 

Sauk 259, 207 

Shawnee 238, 239, 243, 244, 

250.257.261.265,267,274,283.2.84,287,288 

Stock-bridge 238,284,290 

Turtle Mountain (Ojibwa dialect). . 239 

format ion of negative verb 274 

independent mode 231,2i')0-261,268,287 

indicative mode 273 

reference to 225 

relationships 231,238,244,289 

subjunctive mode 246, 260. 205, 208 

suppositive mode 273 

Pel Ric>— 

references to 202. 203.204 

ruins near 201 

Demonstrative pronouns, Algonquian . . . 2.12 

Discovery of Casa Grande 54 

Disks from Casa Grande— 

pottery, perforated 136 

stone 129-130, 131 

District of Columbia, collections from 20.21 

Dog. the, in Pima legend 01 

Dolores Mission, reference to 54 

Doniphan's expedition, reference to 68 

Doorways and windows (Casa Grande). 81,85-86 

Dragoon Fork, application of name 199 

Sec also Sycamore Canyon. 

Dreams, Pima notion of 50 

Drew's ranch— 

reference to 210 

ruins on 211 

Drinker, The, in Pima legend 43-44,61 

Eagle BURi-VL(Casa Grande), references to. 93,110 

Eagle Mountain, Cal.. references to 36,47 

Eagle, the, in Pime. legends 45,52 

Ear shell, use as ornaments 143 

Earth Doctor in Pima legend 49, 50 

Eastern Algonquian languages— 

close connection among 258 

consonantic clusters 234.238,246,284 

examples in comparison with— 

Cheyenne 233, 286 

Cree 233, 239, 257, 280 

Cree-Montagnais 286. 287, 288 

Delaware 257. 270. 278. 280. 287, 288 

Fox 257,261,270.279-280,287.288 

Malecite 269 

Menominee 257,270 

Xatick 233. 286. 288 

Ojibwa 257. 270. 287.288 

Passamaquoddy 257 

Penobscot 269 

Peoria 257, 270 

Piegan 261 

Shawnee 257, 261 , 270, 27»-280, 287, 288 

independent mode 231 

relationships 231 , 232, 275, 288, 289 



Page 

Eastern-Central Algonquian languages, 

relationships of 22, '229, 232, 237-238, 289 

East Main Cree dialect— 

examples in comparison with — 

Potawatomi 268 

Menominee 269 

forms 245. 246, 252 

subjunctive mode 269 

East Mesa (Hopi), reference to 192 

Editorial work of Bureau, summary of 19 

Edwards— 

on language of Stockbridge 284,290 

reference to 1 . 238 

Eixarch, TomAs, reference to 57 

EuoT, John, Natick forms from 272-273 

El Morro, N. Mex., National Monument-. . 18 

El Sira, ancient Pima Chief 55 

Emory. Col. Wiluam H.— 

on Casa Grande 0.3-64 

work by 44 

Environment, influence on habitations 187 

EsCALANTE ruins, references to 112,114 

Escalante, Sergeant Bautista de, refer- 
ence to 55 

Espejo, Antonio de, reference to 186 

Ethnology in relation to archeology, refer- 
ence to 42 

Excavation of Casa Grande, account of. 13, 37-42 

Fabrics (Casa Grande), description of 147-148 

Feather-plaited Doctor (Civan), in Pima 

legend ; 51 , 52 

Feathers (Casa Grande), garments of 148 

Fetishes (Casa Grande) 121, 145 

Fewkes, Dr. J. Walter — 

bulletin by 17 

collection made by (Casa Grande) 20, 

121,161-179 

memoirs by 23, 181 

work of 13, 17, 21-22 

Finck, F. N., reference to 226 

First persons plural, reference to 226 

Fishes, in Pima flood legend 50 

Flagstaff, \mz., refei-ences to. .' 186, 194, 195 

Flood legend, Pima 49-52 

Floors of Casa Grande, construction of. . . 80, 

83,.S4-,S5 
Florence, Ariz.— 

pictographs in vicinity 148-149 

references to 33, 34. 72, 95, 114 

Florida, researches in 9 

Fly, the, in Pima legend 52 

Font, Father Pedro— 

account of Casa Grande... 42,43-44,58-61,88,91 

references to j 45, 63 

Uturituc described by 37 

visit to Casa Grande 57 

Font's room (Casa Grande) 91,98,116 

Fort, comparison with trinchera 218 

Fort George Indians, dialect of 247 

Fort Totten Cree dialect— 

discussion of 241-24'/ 

examples in comparison with — 

Algonkin 265 

Fox 257, 267, 278 

Ojibwa 257, 267, 27-8 

Ottawa 265 



296 



INDEX 



Page 
Fort Tutten Cree dialect— Continued. 

independent mode 260,265 

investigation of 225 

pronunciation 227 

reference to 248 

sul)jimctivo mode 252 

Fox LANGUAGE— 

certain forms 239 

conj nnct ive mode 234, 265, 271, 272, 279, 288 

consonantie clusters 249 

description 252-255, 258-261 

examples in comparison with— 

Abnaki 238, 239, 279, 283, 284, 285, 287 

Algonkin 244. 

245, 251, 252, 261, 262, 265, 267, 271-272 

Arapaho 235 

Cheyenne 233,234 

Cree 235, 238, 239, 243, 244, 245, 247, 

248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 256, 257, 258, 261, 
262, 263, 265, 267, 269, 271, 272, 273, 274, 
275, 278, 279, 280, 283, 284, 286, 287, 288 

Cree-Montagnais 273, 277, 278 

Delaware 238, 239, 243, 244, 

250, 251, 256, 257, 260-261, 265, 267. 270. 
273, 274, 275, 277, 278-279, 283. 284. 287 

Eastern Algonquian 257, 

258,261,270,287,288 

Eastern-Central Algonquian 237 

Fort TottenCree 258,267,278 

Kickapoo 248, 258, 267, 272 

Malecite 238, 239, 274, 283, 284 

Menominee 238, 239, 243, 

244, 245, 249, 250. 251. 257. 261, 262, 267, 

270, 271, 272. 273. 277, 278, 279, 283. 284 
Micmac 238, 

245, 249, 256, 272, 273, 279, 283, 284, 288 

Minsi 239. 274 

Montagnais 247, 248, 261, 267, 272, 279 

Moose Cree 262 

Natick 238, 239, 244, 250, 

251, 265, 273, 274, 275, 278-279, 283, 284 
Ojibwa 235, 

238, 239, 244, 245, 249, 251, 256, 257, 258, 
261, 262, 263. 265, 267. 268. 269. 270. 271, 
272, 274. 275. 277. 278. 279, 283. 284. 286 

Ottawa 248, 251, 261, 262, 265, 267 

Passamaquoddy 239, 

257, 258, 277, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287 

Penobscot 238, 267, 283, 284, 285 

Peoria 238, 239, 244, 245, 251, 

252, 256. 257. 261, 262, 265, 267, 269, 270, 

271, 272, 274, 275, 278, 279, 283, 284, 288 

Piegan 261 

Potawatomi 262 

Sauk 248, 258, 267, 272, 288 

Scat icook 279 

Shawnee 238, 239, 245, 25 1, 252. 256, 2S7, 

258, 261, 2li2. 21». 267, 269, 270. 271. 272, 
274, 278. 279. 280. 283, 284, 286, 287. 288 

Stoekbridge 238, 284 

Turtle Mountain (Ojibwa dialect) ... 239 

Independent mode 247, 

248, 267-268, 271, 287, 289 

indicative mode 273 

noun endings, nominative singular 272 

pai'ticipial mode 245, 265, 271 



Faga 

Fox LANGUAGE— Continued. 

possessive pronouns 250 

pronunciation 227 

relationships 231, 

232, 238, 244, 250, 252, 2S0, 288, 289 

subjunctive mode 246, 247, 248, 205, 269, 272 

subjunctive-participial mode 245 

suppositive mode, 273 

See also Kickapoo, Sauk. 

Fox TRIBE (Iowa), linguistic investigations 
among 225 

Frachtenberg, Dr. Leo J., work of 15 

Frog Tanks, Ariz., forts near 215-216 

Garc£s. Father Francisco — 

account of Casa Grande 57-58 

references to 37, 63, 186 

route 207 

GASPfe Peninsula, reference to 290 

Gatschet, Dr. Albert Samuel— 

death 21 

linguistic work 12 

Micmac forms from 285, 287-288 

on Ottawa forms 261,262,266 

on Peoria forms 239, 245, 2ii0, 270, 271 

on relationship of Ojibwa, Ottawa, Pota- 
watomi 262 

on Shawnee forms 239, 254 

Passamaquodd y forms from 280, 282, 285 

Potawatomi form from 262 

references to 238, 257, 287 

Georgian Bay, reference to 290 

Gila Crossing, reference to 45 

Gila River— 

growth of reeds along 142, 147 

in Pima legend 45 

plumed serpent symbolic of 1 13, 142 

Gila-Salt region— 

cremation practised in 220 

early inhabitants.. 44.61-62.94.102.115,156.218 

geographic limit of compounds 151 

"great houses" described 156 

pottery : 137,141 

reservoirs 112,115 

shell carvings from 145 

summary of conclusions as to 153-160 

See also Salt River Valley, and titles re- 
lating to Casa Grande. 

Gila Valley, antiquities of. bulletin on 17 

Gill. De Lancev. work of 21 

Gill, W. H.. collection made by 21 

Glottal stop (.\rapaho) 235 

GLO^'ER, C. C. acknowledgment to 20 

Graham. Maj. L. P., reference to 65 

Grand Canyon OF the Colorado, reference 

to 157 

Granite Creek. Abiz — 

reference to 200 

ruins along 202-204, 215. 218 

Grapevine Canyon, niins in 13 

Grinding-stones (Casa Grande) 126-127 

See also Disks, Slabs. 

Grossman, Capt. F. E.,on Casa Grande 44- 

45.61-62 
Gros Ventre language, classification 
of 234.235,290a 



INDEX 



297 



Page 
GoAZAVAS MissTOM, reference to 56 

GmxfiRAS, EusEBio, as a translator 56,57 

GURLEY, Joseph G., appointment and work 
of 19 

Hauotis, ornaments of 143 

Hammers, stone (Casa Grande) 124-125 

Handbook of American Indian Lan- 
guages, cited as to Fox 227 

Handbook of American Indians— 

part 1 issued 19 

preparation 10, 1! . i:i-14, 15. 16, 19 

reference to 226 

Hand stones (Casa Grande) 126 

Hano — 

legends 49 

pottery 159 

Hartshorne, Hugh, work of 37 

HasInai, description of 17 

Hassayampa Creek . Ariz., ruins on 215, 218 

HAVAStTAI— 

ancestors 185. 216 

relations with Hopi 219 

Hawaiian BIBLIOGRAPHY, preparation of 11-12 

HawTvs. in Pima legend 52 

Hazrinwuqti . legendary Hopi being 51 

Hell Canyon, ruins in 200 

Hemenway, Mrs., efforts in behalf of Casa 

Grande 7? 

Hemesway Southwestern Expedition, 

collection of 119 

Hendley. H. W., models made by 101 

Hewett, Edgar L.. bulletin by 17 

Hewitt. J. N'. B., work of. 13-14 

HiNA. Sal-v. Pima potter 140 

Hdjton, Richard J.— 

on Casa Grande 53.68-69 

on rain near mouth of Granite Creek 204 

references to 201, 203 

History of Casa Grande — 

detailed accounts 54-81 

general discussion 53-54 

reference to 33 

Hodge. F. W.— 

acknowledgment to — '. 53 

on "accompanying papers '* 21-22 

work of 11. 14. 19 

Hodge, H. C, on ancient irrigation ditch. . . 114 

Hoes, stone (Casa Grande) 131-132 

Hoffman, Walter J., work of, cited 186 

Hohokam— 

application of term 153 

references to 42. 117 

See also Gila-Salt region (early inhabi- 
tants). 
Ho-ho-q6m. name applied to Pima's ances- 
tors 71 

See also Hohokam. 

Hok , legendary Pima monster 48-49. 52 

Holmes, W. H., work of 10 

HoMOLOBi, early inhabitants of 218 

HoNANTCi, description of 195-197 

Hopi— 

ancestors 151, 154, 159, 216 

axes used by 124 

bird-calls 146 

ceremonial rooms ^ 150 



Page 
Hopi— Continued. 

cigarettes 143 

contents of shrine 101 

country of 56 

cult of plumed serpent 142 

dwellings '. ■. 219 

East Mesa 192 

foot race 131 

Horn clan 159 

legends 46,49.151,158.159 

medicine stones 130 

mortuary customs 117,118 

mythologic monster of 48 

objects deposited in shrines 135 

Patki clans 218 

pits used as ovens 99 

pottery 137, 139, 140, 156, 158-159 

rattles ' 145 

references to 58. 113, 144, 207 

relations with Havasupai 219 

Yaya (fire priests) 47 

See also Moqui. 
Horden. J.— 

on Cree forms 231,243,244,245,246,248 

references to 239, 241, 252, 278 

Horn clan (Hopi), reference to 159 

Hough. Dr. Walter, bulletin by 17 

Houma. researches among 12 

House of Montezuma, designation of Casa 

Grande 33 

See also Montezuma. 

HrdliCka. Dr. AleS. work of 15-16 

Hughes, Lieut. John T., on Casa Grande... 68 
Human remains. See Mortuary customs 

(burials). 
Humboldt, Friedrich U. Alexander de, • 

cited as to Casa Grande 53 

Hummingbird, in Pima legend 47, 48, 50 

Idaho, archeologic explorations in 18 

Idols— 

Casa Grande 101,121-122 

Gila-Salt region '. 156 

iLLUSTR.tTioN WORK OF BUREAU, Summary. 21 

Implements found at Casa Grande— 

bone 14.5-146 

problematical 125, 129 

stone ,122, 131 

wooden 146-147 

Independent mode (Algonquian)— 

Abnaki 286-287 

Algonkin 231, 233, 262, 264, 265, 266, 267 

Arapaho 236 

Cheyenne 233 

Cree 231, 247-248, 258, 259-260, 268 

Cree-Montagnais 259 

Delaware 260-261, 268, 287 

Eastern Algonquian 231, 233 

Eastern-Central Algonquian 237-238 

Fort Totten Cree 241-245, 260, 265 

Fox 231, 

247, 248, 253, 258, 259-260, 267-268, 271, 287, 289 

Kickapoo 259, 289 

Menominee 231, 250-251, 259, 265, 268 

Montagnais 247, 248, 259-260 

Natick 233, 234, 265, 268, 269 

Northern Blackfoot 231 



298 



INDEX 



Page 
Independent mode (Algonquian)— Contd. 

Ojibwa. . .■ 233, 

25S, 259-200, 2li2-2«3, 2(a, 206, 267, 2t>8, 271, 286 

Ottawa 233, 265-266, 267 

Passamaquoddy 231, 265, 268, 285, 286, 287 

Peoria 233, 259, 205, 269, 270, 271 

personal pronouns 236 

Piegan 231, 259 

Potawatomi 265, 267 

Sauk 259, 289 

Shawnee 231, 254, 208, 286, 289 

Sec also Indicative mode. 

Indian Hill, forts at 215,218 

Indian missions, article on 15 

Indian tanks, reference to 112 

Indicative mode (Algonquian)— 

Cheyenne 234 

Creo 239, 240, 247, 273 

Delaware 273, 275-278 

Malecite 269 

Micmac 209, 273 

Natick 272-273 

Ojibwa 247, 273 

Penobscot 269 

Peoria 259. 273 

various languages 273 

See also Independent mode. 
Indo-European languages, reference to. . . 290 

iNHAIilTANTS— 

rasa Grande 94, 156 

Upper Verde-Walnut Creek region 185, 186 

Sec also Migrations, Pima. 
Inscription Rock, N. Mex., declared na- 
tional monument 18 

Instrumental particles — 

« Arapaho 230 

reference to 220 

Interior Department, part in archeologic 

explorations 18 

Iron WOOD, used at Casa Grande 146, 147 

IROQUIAN TRIBES — 

habitat 290 

researches among 14 

Irrigation, ancient— 

effect on soil 100 

in Casa Grande region 36-37. 

51,55,57,08,103,113-115 
in Walnut Creek Valley 214, 218 

Ives, Lieut. J. C, reference to 208, 209 

Jacales, references to 187. 209 

Jamestown Exposition, Smithsonian ex- 
hibit at 10 

Jasper, ornament of (Casa Grande) 131 

Jemez Plateau, antiquities of, bulletin on. . 17 

Jerome, Ariz., references to 194,195 

Jerome Junction, Ariz., references to 203,204 

Johnson's ranch, reference to 210 

JOHN.STON, Capt. A. R., account of Casa 

Grande 44, 64-05 

Jones, Dr. Wiluam— 

acknowledgment to ; 225 

Kickapoo texts 258 

on Fox, Sauk. Kickapoo, Ojibwa, forms. 239 
on relationship of Ojibwa, Ottawa. Pota- 
watomi 202 



Page 
Jones, Dr. William— Continued. 

references to 227. 2.^9 

reference to analysis of A Igonquian 236 

Jordan's ranch, ruins at and near 195,198-199 

Juniper Mountains, Ariz., reference to 204 



Kamaltkak. See Thin Leather. 

Keam collection, pottery in.... 139 

Kearny, General, e.xpedition of 63 

Keller, Father Ignacio, visit to Casa 

Grande 56-57 

Keresan clans, reference to 158 

Keresan pottery, references to 141, 1.59 

Kickapoo Indians (of Oklahoma), linguistic 

investigations among 225 

Kickapoo language — 

certain forms in 239 

descript ion 252-255, 258-261, 272 

independent mode 289 

pronunciation 227 

relationships 238,244.251,252,289 

See also Fox, Sauk. 

KicKiNG-BALL GAME, in Pima legend 52 

Kihvs, references to 150, 189 

KiHUTOAC, reference to 51 

KiNo, Father Eusebio Francisco — 

account of ■ 56 

name Casa Grande given by 33 

references to 46,55.82.91.220 

visits to Casa Grande .54 

KiNTiEi. ruin, reference to 158 

KlVA— 

application of term 150 

description '. 151,158 

examples in Verde ruins 189 

KiwiTSE (ZuSi), application of term 150 

Kroeber, Dr. A. L. — 

acknowledgment to 225 

on Arapaho language 235 

on Cheyenne prefix 236 

Kueune. See Kino. 

KWAHADT. See Quahatika. 



Labrador coast, reference to 290 

Lacombe— 

on Cro3 forms 243,246,247.248.250.252.290 

references to 239, 241 

Lamar papers, reference to 16 

Land, in Pima creation legend 49 

League of the Iroquois, researches relative 

to 14 

Leary', Miss Ella, work of 20 

Ledge-ritins, meaning of term 198 

Legends, Pima 42-52 

Lemoine— 

Algonkin modes from 262. 264 

on Montagnais forms 248 

reference to 227 

work of, cited 247 

Le6n, Dr. Nicolas, acknowledgment to 55 

Leroux, cited as to tribal relationship 216 

Letrado, murder of 220 

Library of Bltie.iu, summary as to 20 

Limestone Butte rian, description of — 2O4-'206 



INDEX 



299 



Pag(i 
Little Colorado region— 

ancient inhabitants 151.157,158,218 

antiquities 13.17 

cremation not practised in 117 

pueblos 15S. 220 

ruins- 
bird fetishes from 121 

ceremonial rooms 150 

cigarettes from 143 

copper bells from 148 

pottery from 134, 159 

shell carvijijjs from 144 

Lizard, THE, in rimalegend 46 

Long consonants— 

Delaware, Munsee 290a 

Piegan 229-230 

Los MuERTos RUINS, reference to 114-115 

Louisiana, researches in 9, 12 

Louse, the, in I'ima creation legend 49 

Lo'ft^E, Dr. Robert H. — 

acknowledgment to 225 

on Northern Blaekfoot 230 

Magdalena, Sonora, reference to 218 

Magic, in Pima flood legends 45-52 

Maillard, l'Aube, work on Micmac 269 

Malecite language — 

description 280.281-282.283.284.285.287,289 

examples in comparison with — 

Cree 238. 239. 269 , 274. 279 

Delaware 239. 269. 278. 279 

Eastern Aigonquian 269 

Fox 238. 239. 274 

Micmac 269 

Montagnais 269, 279 

Natick 238. 239. 269. 274 

Ojibwa 239. 269. 279 

Penobscot 269. 279 

Peoria 269 

indicative mode 269 

M.iLECiTE tribe, reference to 290 

Man-Fox, in Pima legend 47 

Mange, Lieut. Juan Mateo— 

account of Casa Grande 55-56. 91 

explorations of .14 

reference to 46 

M.4NOS CCa-sa Grande), description of 126 

Manuscripts, linguistic, catalogue of 1,S-19 

Maricopa— 

in Pima flood legend 51 

references to 42, 45, 115 

relationships 217 

Marx's ranch— 

reference to 210 

ruins below 214-215 

ruins on 213-21 4 

Mauls, stone (Casa Grande) 124-125 

Mai^r. Brantz, on Casa Grande 53.63 

Mearns, Edgar A., work by, cited 186 

Mechung, W.— 

acknowledgment to 225 

Malecite consonantic clusters from 281 

on relationships among .Mgonquian lan- 
guages 289 

Uedictne stones (Casa Grande) 130 



Pago 
Menominee language— 

certain forms 239 

consonantic clusters 283 

description 249-252 

examples in comparison with — 

Abnaki 239. 2.83. 284 

Algonkin 243, 

244. 245. 259, 261, 262, 265, 267, 271 , 273 

Cree 238, 239. 243 . 244 , 

245.259.261.267,268,269,271,279.284.286 

Cree-Montagnais 259, 

261, 262, 273, 277, 278, 279, 286 

Delaware 239, 

243. 244. 257. 260-261 . 267. 270. 273, 279 

Eastern Aigonquian 257.270 

Fox 2.39.243.244.257.259.201.262, 

267. 270. 271. 272. 273, 277. 278. 279. 283. 284 

Kickapoo 259, 207, 272 

Micmac 273 

Minsi 239 

Montagnais 259.261.267,279.286 

Moose Cree 262 

Natick 239. 243. 244. 265. 268. 273 

Ojibwa... 238.239.243,244,245.257.259,201, 
262. 267. 26S. 269. 270. 271. 272. 279. 283. 284 

Ottawa 245.259.261.262.265.267 

I'assamaquoddy.. . 239. 243. 267. 283. 284. 286 

Penobscot 238-239. 267. 283. 2S4 

Peoria 239. 244, 257. 259. 261, 

262. 265, 267, 270, 271. 272. 273,279. 283. 284 

Potawatomi 259, 262, 265 

Sauk 259. 267. 272 

Shawnee 239. 243, 244, 245, 2.57, 

259. 261 , 262. 267, 270. 272, 273, 279, 283. 284 

Stockbridge 290 

Turtle Mountain (Ojibwa dialect). . . 239 

independent mode .' 231 , 259. 265. 26S 

indicative mode 273 

noun eildlngs 272 

pronunciation 227 

relat ionships 231 . 238. 244. 289 

subjunctive mode 246. 269 

suppositive mode ' . . . 273 

Menominee tribe— 

habitat 290 

linguistic investigations among 225 

Mentlho, Father Juan, reference to 56 

Mesa, .\riz.— 

references to 51, 55 

ruins near 114, 116, 218 

Mesa Verde, Colo.— 

antiquities 17 

cremation practised at 117 

ledge-houses 194 

pottery 139 

Mescal pits, description of 116 

Met.vtes (Casa Grande) 126.128 

Mexican ARcnn-ES, reference to 16 

Mexican Boundary Survey, reference to.. 66 
Mexico— 

ancient inhabitants 33, 57, .59, 152 

copper bells 148 

(Eastern) antiquities 13 

migration from the north 153 

(Northern) architect vire 155 



300 



INDEX 



Page 
Mexico— Conllnued. 

pottery I.17 

serpent images lli'i 

(Southern) pottery 156 

Sec also Aztec, Chihuahua, Sierra Madre. 

Miami LANGUAfjE, relation to Peoria 270 

MiCHELsoN. Dr. Truman, memoir by 22,221 

MiCMAC LANGUAGE— 

conjunctive mode 245,260,269,272,279 

description 2S0. 281,28.3-285.287-289 

examples in comparison with — 

Abnaki 238 

Algonkin 272, 273 

Central Algonquian 249 

Cree 238, 245, 25(i, 272 

Delaware 238, 256, 273, 279 

Fox ... 238, 245, 249, 256, 260, 272, 273, 279, 283 

Menominee 273 

Natick 238,269,273,279 

Ojibwa 238, 256, 269, 273 

Ottawa 273 

Peoria 238, 245, 256, 260, 272, 279 

Potawatomi 273 

Shawnee 238, 256, 272, 279 

Stockbridge 238 

indicat ive mode 2ii9, 289 

pronunciation 228 

relationships 289 

subjunctive mode 245, 269 

suppositive mode 273 

MlCMAC TRIBE- 

linguistic investigations among 225 

reference to 290 

Migrations, early, in Southwest , 153,. 

157-160, 218-219 

Miller collection, reference to 119 

MiNDELEFF, COSMOS— 

collection from Casa Grande 1 19-120, 122 

description of Casa Grande 72, 79-81, 86 

memoir on repair of Casa Grande in 1891. 119 

monographs by 185 

on migration in Verde Valley 158 

on researches of F. H. Cushing 72 

on ruins on Verde River 217-218 

papers by 21-22 

references to 88, 188, 211 

tcukuki found by 101 

Minor antiqihties, Casa Grande 118 

MiNsi LANGUAGE, references to 239, 274 

Sec also Munsee. 

Mission records, reference to 16 

Mississippi Band of Ojibwa — 

dialect 262, 263 

reference to 272 

Mississippi, researches in 9 

MIS.SISSIPPI Valley- 

antiquity of man in 15-16 

material relating to tribes of 12 

MocTEzUMA, Casa de (House of), references 

to 56-57,58,59 

See aUo Montezuma. 

Mohawk te.xts, character of 14 

MoHOCE, found by Oflate 220 

MoisEYU, reference to 234 

MOJAVE— 

in Pima legend 51 

references to 217 



Page 
MoKi. See Moqui. 
MONSONI, reference to 234 

MONTAGNAIS LANGUAGE— 

cluster St 234 

description 247-249 

examples in comparison with — 

Algonkin 267, 272 

Cheyenne 286 

Cree. . . 247, 248, 260, 261, 267, 269, 272, 279, 286 

Delaware 259, 260-261, 267, 269, 279, 286 

Fox 247, 248, 260, 261, 267, 272, 279 

Kickapoo 267 

Malecite 269, 279 

Menominee 261, 267, 279, 286 

Natick 286 

Ojibwa 261, 267, 269, 272, 279, 286 

Ottawa 267 

Passamaquoddy 267, 286 

Penobscot , 267,269,279 

Peoria 267, 272 

Sauk 267 

Shawnee 267, 279 

independent mode 259-2150 

pronunciation 227 

references to 225, 239 

relationships 238, 243 

subjimctive mode 260 

"suppositif" of the "subjonctif" 260 

Sfc o/so Cree-Montagnais. Rupert's House 
Cree. 
Montezuma— 

associated with Casa Grande 43, 44 

known also as Tcuhu 48 

reference to 46 

Montezuma, Ca.sa pe. references to 64,65 

See also Casa Montezuma, Moctezuma. 
Montezuma Castle, .\riz.— 

declared national monument 18 

description 194, 195 

referenceto 187 

Montezuma, Dr. Carlos, reference to 35 

Montezuma, Hall of. reference to 68 

Montezuma Well, reference to 187 

MooNEV, James— 

on Moiseyu 234 

reference to 226 

work of. 14-15 

MooREHEAD, Warren K.. Work by, cited. . . 119 
Moose Cree dialect, references to... 227,239,262 

MoQui, references to 51, 56, 58 

S(e also Hopi. 
Mormon settlers in Arizona, reference to . 114 

Morning Green. Pima Chief 33,42,45-48 

Morris, S. H., collection presented by 21 

Mortars (Casa Grande), description of 123, 

127-128 
Mortuary customs — 
burial — 

among Pima 109,117,118.155 

at Casa Grande 93.106, 

108-110,111.117.127.155 

in Walnut Creek region 210. 211. 220 

cremation— 

at Casa Grande 109-110,111,117.155 

distribution of 117,118,220 

Mosaic work, references to 131,144 

Mound-builders of Mississippi Valley 15-16 



INDEX 



301 



Page 
Mounds at Casa Grande, general descrip- 
tion S6-S7 

Mountain sheep, idols in form of. 121-122 

MotTNT Hope, references to 207, 208-209 

MChlenpfordt, Edvard. cited as to Casa 
Grande 53 

MUNSEE language— 

division of Delaware 275 

references to 290,290a,290b 

See also Minsi. 

Nacogdoches archives, reference to 10 

NAcra, legendary Tima maid 46 

Nadaillac, work by, cited G2 

Nanticoke language, reference to 290 

Nasal, accretion of ( Ojibwa) 261 

Nasal vowels (Arapaho) 235 

Natchez language, investigation of. 12-13 

Natick language— 

conjtmctive mode 272 

consonant ic clusters 234,283 

descripl ion 272-275 

examples in comparison with — 

.^bnaki 279,290 

Algonkin 233,243,244, 250, 265, 271 

Cheyenne 233,286 

Cree... 238.239.250,251,265,269,283.284,286 

Cree-Montagnais 280 

Delaware 238,239, 243, 244, 

250,265,209,278,279,280,284,280,288,290 

Eastern .\lgonquian 269, 288 

Fox 238, 239, 244, 250, 

251 , 269, 265, 279, 280, 283, 284 

Malecite 238, 239, 269. 284 

• Menominee 238,239, 

243,244,250,251,265,268 

Micmac 23S. 269, 279, 284, 288 

Minsi 239 

Montagnais 286 

Ojibwa 238, 239. 243,244, 

260,251,258,269,280,283.286,288 

Ottawa 250, 251, 265, 271 

Passamaquoddy 243 

Penobscot 269, 2S3 

Peoria 233, 239, 

250,251,265,269,271,279 

Potawatomi 265,271 

Scaticook 279 

Shawnee 238, 239, 243, 244, 256, 265, 280 

Stockbridge 290 

Turtle Mountain (Ojibwa dialect). . . 239 

independent mode 265,268, 269 

relationships 238, 288, 289 

subjunctive mode 246, 260,265 

suppositive mode 269 

National monuments, establishment of. ... 18 

N.4T10N OF THE FORK, habitat of 290 

N AVAHO, swastika among 139 

Navaho National Monliment, .Arizona, 

cliff-dwellings of 194, 195 

Neb6mes (Southern Pima), references to. . 70-71, 

152 

Nebraska, early man in 1.5-lc 

Negative verb, formation of 261,270,274 

Nentoig. See Mentuig. 

New Fike Ceremony (Walpi) 135 



New ME.X1C0 — 

ancient cultural center. 

antiquities 

collections from 

national monuments 



Page 

157 

17 

20 

18 

researches in 9, 11 

ruins — 

age of ISO 

cliff-dwellings 151 

pottery 139 

shells among aborigines 143 

New York, researches in 10,14 

Nightingale, Robert C, collection pre- 
sented by 20 

Niza, Fray Marcos de, references to 53,54 

Nogales. reference to 56 

Nominal forms (Arapaho) r 235 

Northern .\rapaho, linguistic investiga- 
tions among 225 

Northern Blackfoot Indians, compared 

with Piegan and Bloods 229 

Northern Blackfoot language— 

consonant ic clusters 230-231 

texts 225 

Northern Cheyenne, linguistic investiga- 
tions among 235 

Nouns in .^lgonqlian languages— 

inanimate plural (Cheyenne, Piegan) 274 

nominative singular endings 272 

Oak Creek— 

cavate dwellings on 219 

ruins at mouth of 188-193 

Obsidian, implements of (Casa Grande) 132 

Ofogoula, identical with Ouspie 12 

Ojibwa Indians, linguistic investigations 

among 225 

Ojibwa language— 

certain forms in 239 

conjunctive mode 272 

consonantic clusters 283 

description 261-263,205-269 

examples in comparison with— 

Abnaki 238,239,283,284 

Algonkin 243, 244, 245, 250, 

251 , 252, 259, 261 , 202, 271 , 272, 273 

Arapaho 235 

Central Algonquian 245 

Cheyenne 233,286 

Cree 238, 

239,243,244,245.247,250,251, 
256,257,2.59,200,261,202,272, 
274, 275, 278, 279, 283, 2S4, 286 

Cree-Montagnais 259,273,277,280,287 

Delaware 238, 

239,243,244,256,257,261,270,273, 
274 , 275, 278, 279, 280, 284, 2,80, 288 

Eastirn .\lgonquian 257, 270,287, 288 

Fort Totten Cree 258, 278 

Fox 235, 

238,239,244,245,251,256,257,258, 
259,260,201,202,270,271,272,273, 
274,275,277,279,280,283,284,280 

Kickapoo 259 

Malecite 239, 279 



302 



INDEX 



Page 
Ojibw.v language— Continued. 

fxamples in comparison with — Continued. 

Menominee 2)8, 239, 

243, 244,245,250, 251, 252,257,2.19, 
261, 262, 270, 273, 279, 283, 2S4 

Micmac 238,256,273,2*1, 288 

Minsi 2.39, 274 

Montagnais 259, 260, 261 , 272,279, 286 

Natick 238, 239, 243, 244, 

250,2.51,273,274-275,280,283,286,288 
Ottawa.... 245,250,251,252,259,261,262,271 

• Passamaquoddy 239, 

243,257,258,277,278,283,284 

Penobscot 238-239, 279, 283, 284 

Peoria 238, 239, 244, 245, 

247 , 250, 251, 252, 256, 257, 259, 261, 262, 
270,271,272,274, 275, 278-279, 283, 284 

Potawatomi 259, 261, 262, 271 

Sauli 259 

Shawnee 238, 239, 243 , 244, 245, 

251,256,257,258,259,261.262,270,271, 
274. 277, 278, 279, 280, 2S!, 284, 286, 287 

Stoclcbiidge 238, 284 

Turtle Mountain (Ojibwa dialect)... 239 

independent mode 258.271, 286 

indicative mode 273 

noun endings 272 

participial mode 245,271 

pronunciation 227 

relationstlips . 231. 232, 233, 234, 2JS, 244. 289, 290a 

subjunctive mode 245,246,260 

subjunctive-participial mode 245 

See also Mississippi Band. 

Oklahoma, researches in 9, 12-13 

OSate, Juan de— 

Hopi pueblos found by 220 

route of 186, 207 

Onondaga texts, character of 14 

Ontario, Canada, researches in 10, 14, 15 

O pa, references to 44,61 

Opata, reference to 54 

Oraibi village, reference to 58 

Oregon, rese:irches in 15 

Orientation of Casa Grande 73-74,94,95 

0RO2CO Y Berra, reference to 56 

Ortega, reference to 54 

Ottawa language— 

description 261-262, 265-269 

examples in comparison \vith — 

Algonljin 233, 

245,250,251,252,259,260,261,262,271 

Cheyeime 233 

Cree 245,250,251,252,261,262 

Cree-Montagnais 259 

Delaware 261 

Fo.x 248 . 259. 261 . 262 

Kickapoo 248, 259 

Menominee 245, 250. 251, 252. 259, 261, 262 

Montagnais 248 

Natick 250,251,271 

Ojibwa 233, 

245,250,251,252.259,261,262,271 

Peoria 250,251.252,260,261,262,271 

Potawatomi 259, 262,271 

Sauk 248 , 259 

Shawnee 251.259,261,262,271 



Page 

Ottawa language— Continued. 

prommciation.'. 228 

relationships 233,238,289.290a 

subjunctive mode 246, 260 

Ottawa tribe— 

habitat 290 

linguistic investigations among 225 

OuspiE, identified as Ofogoula 12 

Paddles, pottery (Casa Grande) 146-147 

Paint grinders (Casa Grande) 126-127 

I*alatki, description of 195-197 

Palatkwabi, references to 35, 142 

Papago— 

origin 152, 153 

references to 34, 36, .54, 70, 113, 140 

I^APAGO de Cojet, Governor, reference to. 37 

Parrot, the, in Pima legend 46-47 

Participial mode (Algonquian)- 

Cree 247 

Fox 245,260,265,271,288 

Ojibwa 245,247,271 

Peoria 245 

Shawnee 245,265,271 

terminations 245 

Passamaquoddy language — 

agreement with Fiegan 2U , 232 

consonantic clusters 259, 2S3 

description 280, 

281, 2S2, 2S3, 284. 285, 286, 287, 289, 290 
examples in comparison with — 

Abnaki 239, 284 

Algonkin 243, 265, 267, 273 

Cree 238, 239, 243, 244, 257, 267, 284 

Delaware 243, 267, 277, 278 

Eastern Algonquian 257 

Fox 239, 257, 258, 259, 267, 277, 284 

Kickapoo 267 

Menominee 238,243,267,284 

Micmac 284 

Natick 243 

Ojibwa 238, 

243, 257, 258, 267, 268, 277, 278, 284 

Ottawa 267 

Penobscot 238, 284 

Peoria 239,267,273,277,284 

Sauk 267 

Shawnee 239,243, 

256, 257, 258, 259, 267, 268, 273, 277, 278, 284 

independent mode 268 

indicative mode 273 

pronunciation 228 

reference to 225 

Passamaquoddy tribe, reference to 290 

Patki clans (IIopi), references to 142,218 

Patki cl.\ns (Pima ), reference to 35 

Patrick, II. R., on ancient irrigation ditches. 114 

Patties, the, reference to 62 

Peabody Museum, IIa^^■a^d University, 

reference to 119 

Pectunculus shell, ornaments of 143-144 

Pelote, Nahuatlgame 94 

Pendants, stone (Casa Grande) 131 

Penn.icook language, classification of 290 

Penob-scot langu.^ge— 

description 2S0-281, 

2S2-283, 284, 285, 2S7, 289, 209 



INDEX 



303 



Pat'c 
Penobscot language— rontiniied. 
examples in comparison with — 

Abnaki 239 

Algonkin 267 

Crec 238,267,269,279 

Delaware 267,269,279 

Eastern Algonqiiian 269 

Fox 239 

Kickapoo 267 

Malecite 269,279 

Menominee 238, 267 

Montagnais 267,279 

Ojibwa 238, 267, 269, 279 

Ottawa 267 

Passamaquoddy ' 239,267 

Peoria 239, 267, 269 

Sauk 267 

Shawnee 239, 267 

indieative mode 269 

Penobscot tribe, reference to 290 

Peoria language— 

certain forms in 239 

conjunctive mode. 234,245,260,265,268,279,288 

consonantic clusters 283 

description 261-262, 265-269, 270-272 

examples in comparison with — 

Abnaki 238, 239, 283, 284 

Algonkin 233, 250, 

251 , 259, 260, 261 , 265, 267, 268, 269, 273 

Cheyenne 233,234 

Cl«c 238, 

239,243,244,245,247,251,252,256,257,261, 
262, 265, 267, 269, 274, 278, 279, 283, 284, 288 

Cree-Montagnais 259 

Delaware 238, 239, 

256, 257, 261, 265, 267, 268, 275, 277, 279, 284 

Eastern Algonquian 257, 269 

Fox 23S, 

239, 244, 345, 251 , 256, 257, 259, 260, 261 , 262 , 
265, 267, 269, 274, 275, 278, 279, 283, 2S4, 288 

Kickapoo 259,267 

Menominee 238,244, 

250, 251 , 257, 259, 261 , 262, 265, 267, 279, 283 

Micmac 238, 256, 260, 279, 284, 288 

Montagnais 278, 279 

Moose Crce 262 

Natick 233 , 

238, 239, 250, 251, 265, 273, 274, 279 

Ojibwa 238, 

239, 244, 247, 250, 251, 256, 257, 259, 261 , 
262, 267, 269, 274, 275, 278, 279, 283, 284 

Ottawa 250, 

251, 252, 259, 260, 261, 262, 265, 267, 268, 269 

Passamaquoddy 239, 267, 273, 277, 283 

Penobscot 23S, 2S3 

Potawatomi 259,262,265,268,269 

Sauk 259, 267, 2as 

Shawnee . . 238, 239, 256, 257, 259, 261,262, 265, 
267, 269, 273, 274, 277, 278, 279, 283, 284 

Stoekbridge ; 238, 284 

Independent mode 259,265,269 

indicative mode 259, 273 

participial mode 245 

subjunct ive mode 245, 260, 265, 268, 269 

relationships 233, 238, 289, 2E0b 

Personal pronouns ( Arapaho) 236 

Pestles fCasa Grande) 128 

20903°— 28 ETH— 12 20 



Page 
Petter, Rodolphe — 

on certain Cheyenne terminations 233 

on relationship between Cheyenne and 

Natick 234 

reference to 226 

Phoenix, Ariz., references to 33, 

34,51,55,114,116,218 

PiBA Clan of Chevlon, reference to 139 

Pichacho Mountain, references to 36,204 

PiCTOGRAPHS— 

Apache 197, 201 

at or near Casa Grande 148-149 

at Yampai Spring 209 

in Walnut Valley 206, 214 

near Frog Tanks 216 

near mouth of Black's Canyon 197 

near Palatki 197 

near Prescott 215 

I*IEGAN language — 

consonantic clusters 231 , 284 

description 229-232, 290a 

examples in comparison with— 

Cheyenne 274 

Eastern .\lgonquian 261 , 288-289 

Fox 256, 261 

Natick 274 

Shawnee 256. 261 

inanimate plural of nouns 274 

independent mode 259 

pronunciation 226 

relationships 229.234.259,288-289 

PlEG.AN TRIBE— 

linguistic investigations among 225 

union of band with .Vrapaho 235 

Pigments (Casa Grande), description of 101, 

126-127,130 
Pima— 

ancient culture 62 

as workmen at Casa Grande 37 

attitude toward pietographs 149 

ball game 147 

basketry 147 

dwellings 39,97, 113, 154, 155, 156 

face painting 145 

fear of Casa Grande ruin 34 

kicking-bali game 94 

lava rings used by 130 

legends 35-36, 42-52, 61-62, 63-64, 65 

mortuary customs 109. 117, lis 

names for Casa Grande 33 

on use of wooden implements 146 

origin 71, 152, 153, 154 

pottery 141. 147 

quartz crystals used by 130 

references to 54,57.58.70.115 

relationships 71, 217 

Russell's monograph on 42 

sleeping mats 99 

stone implements 123 

swastika among 139,140 

See aim Southern Pima. 

PiMERfA. reference to 56 

Pinal LeSas. reference to 217 

PiNCKLE Y COLLECTION from Casa Grande 120 

PiNCKLE Y. Frank, resident custodian of Casa 

Grande 34,37,86 

Pine, used at Casa Grande 146 



304 



INDEX 



Page 

Pipes (Casa GRANnu). description of 135-136 

I'lT-RooMS (Casa Gbande), reference to 101 

See aho Sul>terraneiin rooms. 

Plains tribes, material relatinj; to 15 

Planting sticks (Casa Grande) 140 

Plazas (Casa Grande), description of.. 93-94, 

100-101 
Plumed serpent— 

Hopi cult of 142 

symbolism (Casa (irande) 113, 141-142 

Plummet, specimen found at Casa Grande. . 125 

Popes Creek, Md., collection from 21 

Porto Rico aborigines, article on 13 

Poso Verde, in Pima legend 4S 

Possessive proxovx— 

Arapaho 235 

Fox 256 

PosToN Butte, reference to 114 

PosTON, Col. C. D., reference to 149 

Potawatomi language— 

description 261-262, 265-269 

examples in comparison with — 

Algonkin 259, 262, 271 

Central Algonquian 245 

Cree 245 , 262 

Cree-Montagnais 259 

Fox 259, 262 

Kickapoo 259 

Menominee 259, 262 

Natick 271 

Ojibwa 245,259,262,271 

Ottawa 259, 262, 271 

Peoria 259, 262, 271 

Sauk 259 

Shawnee 259,262 

relationships 23S, 2S9, 290a 

Potawatomi tribe— 

habitat 290 

linguistic investigations among 225 

Potentul subjunctive mode (Fox) 259 

Pottery— 

ancient Pima 62 

Casa Grande — 

Bandelier's reference to 70 

decoration 133, 134, 137-142 

paddles used in manufacture 146-147 

reference to 68 

specialized forms 133-137 

Gi!a-Salt region 156 

Little Colorado ruins 134, 137-141 

Marx's ranch niin 213-214 

Sikyatki 134, 137, 139-141 

Southwestern and Mexican areas, com- 
pared 137-142, 158-159 

Walnut Creek region 220 

Powell, Maj. J. W., on ancient people of 

Upper Verde-Walnut Creek region 186 

Prescott, Ariz.— 

references to 202, 204. 215 

ruins near 218 

Prescott National Forest. Ariz 211 

Prescott, Wm. H., cited as to Casa Grande. . 53 
Preservation of Casa Grande ruin, .\riz... 17,18 
Preterite— 

in ban - 269 

in p and panne 27(J 

in pan — 287 



Pago 

Prince Edward Island, reference to 290 

Prince, Prof, .T. Dyneley — 

acknowledgment to 225 

forms cited by 239 

on certain Algonquian relationships 289 

Penobscot consonantic clusters 280, 282 

reference to 275 

Problematical implements (Casa 

Cirande) 125, 129 

Pronominal ELEMENTs,ol;jective( -Vrapaho). 237 

Pronominal forms of verb, reference to 226 

Pronouns, Eastern-Central Algonquian.. 237,238 
Pronunciation of Algonquian languages. . 226-228 

Pseudo-clusters (Cheyenne) 233 

Publications of Bureau, description of. 17,19-20 

Pueblo, term defined 189 

Pueblo Creek— 

origin of name 207, 210 

reference to 209 

Pueblos i buildings)— 

architecture of 156, 156-157, 187 

associated with cavate lodges 188-189 

not foimd west of upper Verde 220 

relation to compounds 150-160 

Pueblos (INDUNS) — 

adobe construction used by 80 

animal fetishes among 122 

divisions 189 

pigments used by 130 

pottery 141 

quartz crystals used by 130 

rattles used by 145 

reference to 33 

relationship 220 

Pueblos op Rio Grande, reference to 219 

Pueblo Viejo Valley, reference to 118, 141 

Quah^vtika— 

basketry 140 

mescal pits 116 

origin .' 153 

pottery ". 140 

reference to 112 

Quartz crystals, used by Southwestern 

tribes 130 

QuiGY'UMA, reference to 20D 

QuiJOTOAC, reference to 140 

Radin, Dr. Paul, on Ojibwa dialect 290a 

Rain ceremonies (Casa Grande) 113 

Rain gods, in Pima legend 42, 47 

R.\IN-MAN, in Pima legend 47-48 

Rand — 

on Micmac form 2.84 

work by, cited 238 

Rasles, reference to 23,8 

Rattlesnakes at Casa Grande 34 

Ray, Thomas, work of 37 

Red Rocks, clifl-houses of the 151,194-197 

REFUSE-iiE.tPs (Casa Grande) 92,111 

Relath-e mode (Delaware) 279 

Reugion of ancients, references to 47, 

48,116,117,118 
See also Idols, Magic, Plumed serpent. 
Reptiles, idols in form of (Cii*a Grande).. 121,122 
Researches, ethnologic, summarized 9-17 



INDEX 



305 



Page 

RESEnVOIRS— 

Casn Grande 70,111-113 

( ; ila-Salt region 115 

RiBAS, Father, on Southern Pima 70-71,152 

Rio Altar, reference to 56 

Rio Bavispe, reference to 56 

Rio C.raxde region— 

caves 1S8 

(lerivalion of pueblos 151 

early inhabitants , 151,218 

pottery 139,140 

Pueblos 219 

Rio San Pedro, reference to 54 

Rio Santa Crvz, reference to 54 

Rio SoNORA, reference to 54 

Road-runner, the, in Pima legend 47 

Robber's Roost Cave, reference to 196 

Roofs (Ca.sa Gr.4Nde)— 

modern protective covering 72 

original » 142 

Rooms (Casa Grande), description of 74-79, 

82, 89-92, 97-99, 106-109 

Roosevelt Dam , reference to 51 

RovTES to Casa Grande, description of. .. 34-37 

Rubbing stones (Casa Grande) 127 

Rlt)0 Ensayo, description of Casa Grande.. 56-57 
Rupert's House Cree — 

character .■ 247 

form from 248 

pronunciation 227 

S€e also Montagnais. 
Russell, Dr. Fr.4nk— 

monograph on Pima 42 

on lava rings ( Pima) 130 

on metates 126 

on Pima legends as to their origin 155 

on word siba 46 

references to 45, 118 

Ruxton, George Frederic, cited as to Casa 
Grande 53 

Sacaton, references to 45, 149 

Saguaro, in Pima legend 44, 52, 61 

Sala Hina. Pima potter 140 

Salt River Vallet— 

ancient migration route 157 

antiquities 17, 119 

figurines of quadrupeds from 135 

legendary home of Pima 51 

references to 35,55,147 

See also Gila-Salt region. 
San Bernardino Mountains, in Pima 

legend 47 

Sandstorms, elTect of, at Casa Grande 42 

Sasforti's Mill, Ariz., description of 34-35 

San Jost.minat 118 

San Juan Capistrano de Uturituc, refer- 
ence to 37 

San Juan region — 

pottery from 138, 140 

ruins 151, 194 

S.\N Pedro Valley, references to.. 54,118,121,220 
Santa Cat.^una Mountains, references to. 48,112 

Santa Clara Pueblo, researches in 11 

Santa Cruz, upper, pottery from 137 

San Xa\ter del Bac, reference to 54 



Page 
Sapir, Dr. Ed'ward — 

.\bnaki forms from 2S6 

acknowledgment to 225 

examples of Montagnais from 248 

on Delaware and Ojibwa dialects . . . 290a, 290b 

on Malecite form 2.S7 

on Rupert's House Cree and Mon- 
tagnais 247 

references to .' 228, 238, 239, 278, 290 

work of 15 

Sauk language— 

certain forms in 239 

description 252-255, 258-261 

examples in comparison with — 

Cree, Micmac 288 

Eastern-Central Algonquian 237 

Fox. Peoria 272,2S8 

Kickapoo, Menominee, Ojibwa, 

Shawnee 272 

independent mode 289 

noun endings '. 272 

pronunciation 227 

relationships 238, 244, 289 

See also Fox, Kickapoo. 
Sauk tribe— 

habitat 290 

linguistic investigations among 225 

Sault Ste. Marie, reference to 290 

Savedra, cited as to several tribes 216, 217 

Scaticook language, reference to 279 

Scrapers, stone (Casa Grande) 132 

Searles, Stanley, work of 19 

Sedelmair, Father Jacob, visit to Casa 

Grande 56 

Seeds found at Casa Grande 150 

Seligman, Ariz., reference to 1.S6 

Seranos. See Cuabajai. 

Shawnee Indians, linguistic investigations 

among 225 

Shawnee language— 

certain forms in 239 

conjunctive mode 234, 255, 265, 271, 272, 279 

consonantic clusters 283 

description 255-258 

examples in comparison with — 

Abnaki 238,239,283,284 

Algonkin 243, 244, 

252. 259, 261, 262, 265. 267, 271-272, 273 

Cheyenne 234 

Cree 23S, 239, 243, 244, 245, 252, 261, 262, 

265. 267, 269, 271, 272, 274, 279, 283. 284,286 

Cree-Montagnais 259, '287 

Delaware 238. 239, 2*!. 244,261, 265, 

267. 270. 274, 277. 278. 279-280. 283. 287, 288 
Eastern Algonquian... 261,269,270,287,288 

Eastern-Central Algonquian 237 

Fox 238,239,245,252, 

258, 259, 261 , 262. 265. 267. 269, 270, 271, 
272, 274, 279-280, 28:i, 284. 286, 287, 288 

Kickapoo 267, 272 

Menominee 238, 239, 243. 244, 

259.261, 262, -267, 270. 272,279,283, 284 

Micmac 238,272,279,284,288 

Minsi 239,274 

Montagnais 267 

Natick 238, 239, 243, 244, 265, 273, 274 



30G 



INDEX 



Pngi' 
Shawnee language— Continued. 

examples in comparison witli — Contd. 

Ojibwa 238, 239,243, 244, 

245, 258, 259, 261, 282, 265, 267, 268, 269, 270' 
271 , 272, 274, 277, 278, 279, 283, 284, 286. 287 

Ottawa 259, 261, 262, 265. 267, 271 

Passamaquoddy 239, 243, 

258,259,267,273,277,278,283,284,286,287 

Penobscot 238, 267, 283, 284 

Peoria. . . . 238, 239, 2.52, 259, 261 , 262,265, 267, 
269, 270, 271. 272, 273, 274, 277, 279, 283, 284 

Piegan 261 

Potawatomi 239, 262 

Saulf 267, 271, 272 

Stock-bridge 238, 284 

Turtle Mountain (Ojibwa dialect) ... 239 

independent mode 254, 268, 286, 289 

indicative mode 273 

noun endings 272 

participial mode 245, 265, 271 

pronunciation 227 

relat ionships . 231, 238, 244, 258. 280, 288-290, 290a 

subjunctive mode 255, 260, 265, 269 

Shell Objects (Casa Grande), description 

of 143-145 

SrawiNA, SmwoNA, native name of Zuni 

country 46 

Shongopovi, pottery of 141 

Shock's kanch— 

reference to 210 

ruins near 211-213 

Shovels (Casa Grande)— 

stone 131-132 

wooden 115,146 

Shrines (Casa Grande)— 

description 101 

objects foimd in 98,101,121.135,142-143 

reference to 98 

SuLiM CIvanavaaki, Pima name for Casa 

Grande 33 

Sl\um Tcutuk. See Morning Green. 

Siba, signiticance of term 46 

Sierra Madre, Mexico, cliff-houses in. . . 151 

SiKSiKA, Algonquian major linguistic divi- 
sion 229 

See also Blackfoot. 

SiKYATKI— 

mortuary customs 117,118 

pottery from 134, 156, 158-1.59 

See also Tusayan. 

Sitgrea VEs, L. , references to 186, 207 

Si-VA-No, King, legendary Pima chief..; 45,62 

Sec also Ci-Vil-no. 

Skinner, cited as to Cree 247,248 

Slabs (Casa Grande), description of — 

clay 136 

stone 123,126,129 

Smith, Buckingham, references to 65,56 

Smoke SIGNALING, reference to 207 

Smoothtown, Delaware dialect 290b 

Snake clan, Ilopi, reference to 159 

Snake priests of \Valpi, reference to 145 

Snake, the, in Pima flood legend 50 

Snipe, the, in Pima creation legend 49 

SouAiPURI, references to 54.58 

S0'h5, legendary Pimachief 44-45, 61-62 

SoNoRA, Mexico, references to 54, 70 



46 



136 



20 



Page 

Southern Pima, references to 70,152 

Spanish explorers, early, reference to 186 

Spanish m!s.sionaries, efforts to reach Hopi. 207 

Spear-points (Casa Grande), reference to 130 

Speck, Dr. I'rank G.— 

acknowledgment to 290 

material of 275 

Spider, the, in Pima legenil 

Spindle whorls (Casa Grande), description 

of 

Sqiher, E. G.— 

cited as to Casa Grande 

work by, cited 

St. Anne de Restigouche, Micmac dia- 
lect at 

Stevenson, Mrs. M. C. — 

collections made by ^ 

work of 10-11 

STOCKBRIDGE LANGUAGE— 

examples from 238, 284 

notes on 290 

Stone implements. See Implements. 

Storm-cloud, the, in Pima legend 43,60 

Sturavrik CfVANAVAAKi, legendary Pima 
settlement 51 

SUAMCA Mission, reference to 56 

SuBAiPURIs. See Sobaipuri. 

Subjunctive mode (Algonquian)— 

Cree 246-247, 248, 265, 269, 271 

Delaware 246, 260, 265, 268, 275-279 

Eastern-Central Algonquian 237-238 

East Main Cree 269 

Fort Totten Cree 241-242, 243-247, 252 

Fox 24S, 254, 259, 260, 285, 269, 272, 274, 288 

Menominee 246, 251-252, 269 

Micmac 245, 269 

Montagnais 248, 260 

Natick 234, 260, 263 

Ojibwa. 245, 246, 259, 260, 262-263, 266, 267, 268-269 

Ottawa 246, 260, 266, 268, 269 

Peoria 245, 260, 265, 268, 269, 270, 271 

Potawatomi •. 268 

Shawnee 255, 260, 265, 269 

See also Supposi tive. 

Subjunctive - participial mode (Algon- 
quian)— 

Cree 239, 240, 245 

Fox, Ojibwa 245 

Subterranean rooms, Casa Grande . 40, 97. 101 , 102 

SuNWORSHip, references to 47, 48, 116 

Superstition Mountains— 

in Pima legend 43-44,50,52 

reference to 35-36 

"Suppositif" of the "subjonctif"— 

Montagnais 24S, 260 

references to 241, 246, 252 

SuPPOsiTrvE mode (Algonquian)— 

Natick 234, 259, 272-274 

several Algonquian languages 273 

See also Subjunctive. 

SuT-UO language, reference to 234 

Sw.\nton, Dr. John K.— 

reference to 226 

work of 12-13,22 

Swastika, on pottery 139-140 

Sycamore Basin, reference to 200 

Sycamore C.vnvon, niins in 195, 199-200 

Sycamore Creek, references to 194,201 



INDEX 



307 



Page 

Tablets, STONE (Casa Grande) 125 

Takelma language, data on 15 

Talliguamavs, reference to 209 

Tanoan clans, reference to 158 

Taos Pueblo, N. Mex.— 

collection from 20 

researches in 10, 11 

TCACCA , Pima name for Pichacho Mountain . . 36 

TCAMAHIA clans (liopi), reference to 159-160 

Tcernatsing, legendary Pima chief 4.5-46 

TcuHU, in Pima legend 4S-49, 50, 51 , 52 

TcuHUKi, description of 101,149 

TcuRiKV.iAKi, rain near Adamsville, Ariz. . . 35 
TcuwuT Marka. See Earth Doctor. 

Tempe, Ariz., references to 51,55,116 

Ternaux-Compans, work by, cited 58 

Tewa, pottery of HI, 159 

Texan tribes, history of 16-17 

Tex.is (HasInai), description of 17 

Thin Le.\ther, Pima informant 34,44,45.46 

Thom.vs, Dr. Cyrus— 

reference to 226 

work of 11-12 

Thumb Butte, Ariz., pictographs near 215 

Thunder, in Pima legend 47 

Tigua, reference to 159 

Tims, J. W., on certain Piegan forms 231-232 

TiPONi, reference to 49 

Tobacco Clan of Chevlon, reference to 139 

Tobacco, native, found at Ca«a Grande... 143 

ToHousE.in Pima legend 49,50,51 

Tor A, legendary Pima game 46 

Tok6nabi, reference to 159 

Tom bstone, .\riz. , reference to 54 

ToNTO,in Pima legend 51-52 

ToNTo Basin— 

" magic tablet" recorded from 122 

pottery I'M 

reference to 51 

ToNTO RrvER, ancient migration route. 153,158,218 

TONTOS— 

description 216 

reference to 51 

ToTONTEAC, derivation of term 51 

ToWA QUAATAM OCHSE, legendary Pima 

magician 51 

Trapitions connected with Casa Grande 42-52 

Trinchera— 

comparison with " fort" 187, 218 

construction rare in Pueblo region 220 

Trumbull, J. H.— 

Natick Dictionary of, cited 275 

Natick forms from 272 

Tripiakwe, home of 220 

TUBAC, reference to 57 

TuBUTAMA UIS.SI0N, reference to 56 

Tucson, Ari7. , references to 34, .54. 65 

Tunica, researches among 12 

Turkey Creek, explanation as to name — 207 

TtTRQUOISE— 

in Pima legend 46-47 

in shell work 144 

mosaic work in 131 

TURTLE Mountain Chippewa, linguistic in- 
vestigations among 225 

"Turtle Mountain Ojibwa dlalect, refer- 
ence to 239 



Page 

TusA yan, pottery from 137, 139 

See aho Sikyatki. 

TUSAYAN Indlans, reference to 79 

TuscAROEA Reservation (Ontario), re- 
searches on 15 

TUTELO language, data on 15 

Uhlenbeck, C. C— 

on certain Piegan forms 231-232 

reference to 226 

Unalachtigo dialect, references to. . 275, 290, 290a 

Unami dlalect, references to 275,290,290a 

Untver.sity OF Caufornia, archeologic ex- 
plorations by IS 

Upham, E. p., specimens from Casa Grande 

listed by 161 

Utah, clifl-dwellings of 151 

Utukituc, old Pima settlement 37, 43 

Vaaki, Pima name for Casa Grande 33 

Vegetation about Casa Grande 36 

Verbal COMPOL'NDS, Northern Blackfoot — 231 
Verbal forms— 

Arapaho 235 

Micmac 280 

^'ERDE Valley — 

ancient migration route 153,158,218 

antiquities of, memoir on 22 

early inhabitants 216-219 

pottery 140 

ruins 151,187,219-220 

Vl-pi-sET, designation of ancestors of Pima. . . 71 
Vowel.s ( Algonquian), elimination of 284 

Wadswoeth, Cal., reference to 47 

Walapai, ancestors of 185, 216, 220 

Walker, J. D.— 

Pima legend from 45 

reference to 71 

Walker's Butte, reference to 36 

Walls of Casa Grande, constmction of 80-81, 

82, 83-84, 95-96, 97, 102, 106-107, 1 16 
Walnut Creek region— 

absence of large "compounds" 218 

early inhabitants 206,210-219 

habitations of aborigines 209 

irrigation works 214 

pictographs 214, 216 

pottery 220 

ruins- 
age of 219-220 

description 187 , 209 

histo/y 206-211 

references to 32, 194, 195, 216 

Walpi, Hopi settlement, references to 35, 

48,142,1.59-160 

Walther, Heney, work of 21 

Weaver, Paul, reference to 62, 149 

Western clan-houses, Casa Grande 112 

Wheelee Survey eepoets, reference to.. 1S6 
Whipple, Ewbank, and Turner, on early 

inhabitants of Arizona 216-217 

Whipple, Lieut. A. W.— 

Aztec Pass fort mentioned by 210 

on Wabiut Creek Valley 206-209 



308 



INDEX 



Page 
White Feather, ancient Pima chief. . 3.'-3('>, 50, 51 

White Mountains, in Pima legend 52 

Williamson Valley, Ariz.— 

rerercnces to 204, 207 

niins 216 

Wind, in Pima legend 43,60 

Wind gods, reference to 42 

Wind-man, in Pima legend 47-48 

Windmill ranch, reference to 195 

WiNSHjp, cited as to Coronado expedition 53 

WiNSLow, .Vriz., reference to 218 

WissLER, on linguistic differences among Al- 

gonquian triljes 229 

Woman of Hard Substance, legendary 

Hopi being SI 

Women— 

as basket makers 147 

as potters 141 

Wooden implements (Casa Grande), de- 
scription of 14IJ-147 

Woodpecker, the, in Pima flood legend 50 

WuKKAKOTK, in Pima flood legend 51 

Wyoming, archeologic explorations in 18 



Page 

Yabipais, Yampais. See Yavapai. 

Yampai Spring, pictographs at 209 

Yaqui River, reference to 56 

Yavapai— 

ancestors of 185,216 

references to 58, 207 

Yavapai County, Ariz., reference to 186 

Yaya, Hopl fire priests, 47 

Yuma— 

in Pima flood legend 51 

relationship 220 

YUMAN stock, cremation practised by 220 

Zeisberger— 

on Delaware language 275, 279, 290a, 290b 

reference to 228 

ZuRl— 

absence of cremation 117 

dwellings 150, 219 

early inhabitants 154, 159,218 

pottery 159 

references to 46. G2, 220 

researches in 11 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF AMERICAN 

ETHNOLOGY 



With Index to Authors and Titles 



NOTE 



The publications of the Bureau of American Ethnolog}' consist of 
Contributions to North American Ethnology, Annual Eeports, Bulle- 
tins, Introductions, and jNIiscellaneous Publications. 

The series of Contributions, in quarto, was begun in 1877 by the 
Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region 
(J. W. Powell, director). Of the earlier numbers, printed under 
authority of special resolutions of Congress, volumes i, ii (in two 
parts), and in had been completed when, in the year 1879, the Bureau 
of Ethnology was organized, with J. W. Powell as director. In 
March, 1881, the publication of volumes vi, vii, viii, ix, and x was 
authorized by concurrent resolution of Congress, but the series was 
discontinued in 1895, after volumes i to vii and ix had been completed. 

The publication of the Annual Reports in royal octavo form began 
with that for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1880. Until 1895 the 
successive reports were each authorized by Congress, usually by con- 
current resolution; since that time they have been published under 
authority of the law providing for the printing and binding and the 
distribution of public documents, approved January 12, 1895. 

At the close of the fiscal year 1911-12, twenty-seven Annual Reports 
had appeared (the Fourteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Nineteenth, 
and Twenty-second, each in two parts), in all, thirty-two volumes. 
The Twenty-eighth Report has since been published. 

The present maximum edition of the Annual Reports is 9,850 
copies. Of these the Senate receives 1,500, the House of Representa- 
tives 3,000, and the Bureau of American Ethnology 3,500 copies. 
From the remaining 1,850 copies are drawn the personal copies of 
Senators, Representatives, and Delegates, and 500 copies for distri- 
bution to Govermnent libraries and to designated public depositories ^ 
throughout the countrJ^ The remainder are sold by the Superin- 
tendent of Documents, Government Printing Ofiice, at a slight 
advance on the cost. 

1 Each Senator, Representative, and Delegate in Congress is entitled to designate one 
depository to receive all public documents (see annual reports of the Superintendent of 
Documents, Government Printing Office). 

I 



n BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

In August, 188G, the director of the bureau was authorized by 
joint resohition of Congress to begin the publication of a series of 
bulletins, which were issued in octavo form and in paper covers," and 
in July. 1888. the continuation of the series was authorized by concur- 
rent resolution. Provision for publishing the bulletins was omitted 
from the public printing law of Januarj' 12, 1895, and the issue termi- 
nated in 1894. Up to that time 24 bulletins had been published. By 
concurrent resolution in April, 1900, Congress authorized the resump- 
tion of the Bulletin series in royal octavo form. Nos. 25, 26, and 27 
were issued under this provision, and in February, 1903, by joint 
resolution of Congress the octavo form was again resumed. Since 
then bulletins 28, 29, 30 (in two parts),' 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 3G, 37, 
38, 39, 40 (part 1), 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, and 52 have 
appeared, while Nos. 40 (part 2) and 46 are in press. The maximum 
edition of the Bulletin series is 9.850 copies, of which the Senate 
receives 1,500, the House of Kepresentatives 3,000, and the Bureau of 
American Ethnology 3,500 coisies. The remaining 1,850 copies are 
distributed by the Superintendent of Documents, Government Print- 
ing Office. Of these about 500 copies are sent to designated libraries; 
the rest are held by him for sale at a price slightly above cost. 

Besides the series mentioned there have been issued small editions 
of four Introductions and of eight Miscellaneous Publications, 
intended wholly or chiefly for the use of collaborators and corre- 
spondents. These were not specially authorized by Congress, but 
as a rule wei'e paid for from the annual appropriations for continuing 
researches. 

With the exception of the few copies of the publications of the 
bureau disposed of by the Superintendent of Documents the editions 
are distributed free of charge. The quota allowed the bureau is 
distributed mainly to libraries and institutions of learning and to 
collaborators and others engaged in anthropological research or in 
instruction. 

Annual Keports 

First annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the secretary of 
the Smithsonian Institution 1879-80 by J. W. Powell director 
[Vignette] "Washington Government Printing Office 1881 
Eoy. 8°. XXXV, 603 p., 347 fig. (incl. 54 pi.), map. Out of print. 
Report of the Director. P. xi-xxxiii. 

On the evolution of language, as exhibited in the specialization of the grarn- 
matlc processes, the differentiation of the p.irts of speech, and the integra- 
tion of the sentence; from a study of Indian languages, by J. W. Powell. 
P. 1-16. 

' By concurrent resolution of Congress in August. 1912, a reprint of Bulletin 30 was 
ordered in an edition of 6,500 copies, of which 4,000 were for the use of the House of 
Representatives, 2,000 for the use of the Senate, and 500 for the use of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIOXS IH 

Sketch of the mythology of tlie North Americau Indians, by J. W. Powell. 
P. 17-56. 

Wyandot goverunient : a short study of tribal society, by J. W. PowoU. 
P. 57-09. 

On limitations to the use of some anthropologic data, by J. W. Powell. 
P. 71-86. 

A further contribution to the studj- of the mortuary customs of the North 
American Indians, by Dr. H. C. Yarrow, act. asst. surg., U. S. Army. 
P. S7-203, fig. 1-47. 

Studies in Central Americau picture-writing, by Edward S. Holden, pro- 
fessor of mathematics, U. S. Naval Ob.servatory. P. 205-245, fig. 4S-60. 

Cessions of land by Indian tribes to the United States : illustrated by those 
in the state of Indiana, by C. C. Royce. P. 247-262, map. 

Sign language among North American Indians compared with that among 
other peoples and deaf mutes, by Garrick ilallery. P. 263-552, fig. 61- 
342a, 3426-340. 

Catalogue of linguistic manuscripts in the library of the Bureau of Eth- 
nology, by James C. Pilling. P. 553-577. 

Illustration of the method of recording Indian languages. From the manu- 
scripts of Messrs. J. O. Dorsey, A. S. Gatschet, and S. R. Riggs. P. 579-589. 

Index. P. 591-603. 

Second annual report of the Bureau of Ethnolog}- to the secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution 1880-81 by J. W. Powell director 
[Vignette] "Washington Government Printing Office 1883 [1884] 

Eoy. 8°. XXXVII, 477 p., 77 pi., fig. 1-35, 347-714 (382 of these 
forming 98 pi.), 2 maps. Out of print. 

Report of the Director. P. xv-xxxvii. 

Zuiii fetiches, by Frank Hamilton Cushing. P. 3-45, pi. i-xi, fig. 1-3. 
Myths of the Iroquois, by Erminnie A. Smith. P. 47-116, pi. xii-xv. 
Animal carvings from mounds of the Mississippi valley, by Henry W. Hen- 

shaw. P. 117-166, fig. 4-35. 
Navajo silversmiths, by Dr. Washington Matthews, U. S. Army. P. 167-178. 

pi. xvi-xx. 
Art in shell of the ancient Americans, by William H. Holmes. P. 179-305, 

pi. XXI-LXXVII. 

Illustrated catalogue of the collections obtained from the Indians of New 
Mexico and Arizona in 1S79. by James Stevenson. P. 307— i22, fig. 347-697, 
map. 

Illustrated catalogue of the collections obtained from the Indians of New 
Mexico in 1880, by James Stevenson. P. 423^65, fig. 698-714, map. 

Index. P. 467-477. 

Thii'd annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution. 1881-82 bj- J. W. Powell director 
[Vignette] Washington Government Printing Office 1884 [1885] 

Roy. 8°. Lxxiv, 600 p., 44 pi., 200 (-f 2 unnumbered) fig. Out 
of print. 

Report of the Director. P. xiii-lxxiv. 

On activital similarities. P. lxv-lxxiv. 
Notes on certain Maya and Mexican manuscripts, by Prof. Cyrus Thomas. 
P. 3-65, pi. i-iv, fig. 1-10. 



IV BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

On masks, labrets, aud certain aboriginal customs, with an inquiry into the 
bearing of their geographical distribution, by William Ilealey Dall, assist- 
ant U. S. Coast Survey; honorary curator U. S. National Museum. P. 67- 
202, pi. v-xxix. 

Omaha sociology, by Rev. J. Owen Dorsey. P. 205-370, pi. xxx-xxxiii, 
fig. 12-12. 

Navajo weavers, by Dr, Washington Matthews, U. S. A. P. 371-391, pi. 
xxxiv-xxxviii, fig. 42-59. 

Prehistoric textile fabrics of the United States, derived from impressions on 
pottery, by William H. Holmes. P. 393^25, pi. xxxix, fig. 60-115. 

Illustrated catalogue of n portion of the collections made by the Bureau of 
Ethnology during the field season of ISSl, by William H. Holmes. P. 427- 
510, fig. 116-200. 

Illustrated catalogue of the collections obtained from the pueblos of Zufii, 
New Mexico, and Wolpi, Arizona, in 1881, by James Stevenson. P. 511- 
594, pi. xL-XLiv. 

Index. P. 595-606. 

Fourth annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the secretary 

of the Smithsonian Institution 1882-83 by J. W. Powell director 

[Vignette] Washington Government Printing Office 1886 [1887] 

Eoy- 8°. Lxiii, 532 p., 83 pi., 565 fig. Old of jmnt. 

Report of the Director. P. xxvii-lxiii. 

Pictographs of the North American Indians. A preliminary paper, by 

Oarrick Jlallery. P. 3-256, pi. i-lsxxiii, fig. 1-111. llla-209. 
Pottery of the ancient Pueblos, by William H. Holmes. P. 257-360. fig. 

210-360. 
Ancient pottery of the Mississippi valley, by William H. Holmes. P. 361- 

436, fig. 361-463. 
Origin and development of form and ornament in ceramic art, by William 

H. Holmes. P. 437^65, fig. 464^89. 
A study of Pueblo pottery as illustrative of Zufii culture growth, by Frank 

Hamilton Gushing. P. 467-521, fig. 490-564. 
Index to accompanying papers. P. 523A-532. 

Fifth annual report of the Bureau of Ethnologj^ to the secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution lS83-8i by J. W. Powell director 
[Vignette] Washington Government Priiiting Office 1887 [1888] 

Roy. 8°. Liii, 564 p., 23 pi. (inch 2 pocket maps), 77 fig. Out 

of print. 

Report of the Director. P. xtii-liii. 

Burial mounds of the northern sections of the United States, by Prof. Cyrus 

Thomas. P. 3-119, pi. i-vi, fig. 1-49. 
The Cherokee Nation of Indians: a narrative of their oflicial relations with 

the colonial and federal go\ernments, by Charles C. Royce. P. 121-378, 

pi. viii-ix (pi. VII and ix are pocket maps). 
The mountain chant : a Navajo ceremony, by Dr. Washington Matthews, 

U. S. Army. P. 379-167, ]il. x-xviii. fig. 50-59. 
The Seminole Indians of Florida, by Clay MacCauley. P. 469-531, pi. xix. 

fig. 60-77. 
The religious life of the Zuni child, by Mrs. Tilly E. Stevenson. P. 533-555. 

pi. xx-xxm. 
Index. P. 557-564. 



LIST OP PUBLICATIONS V 

Sixtli annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the secretary 

of the Smithsonian Insfitution 1884-85 by J. W. Powell director 

[Vignette] Wasiiington Government Printing Office 1888 [1889] 

Roy. 8°. Lviii, 675 p. (inch G p. of music), 10 pi. (incl. 2 pocket 

maps). 540) fig., 44 small unnumbered cuts. Out of pnnt. 

Report of the Director, r. xxiii-lviii. 

Aueieiit art of the province of Chiriqiii, Colombia, by William H. Holmes. 

P. 3-187, pi. I, fig. 1-2S5. 
A study of the textile art in its relation to the development of form and 

ornament, by William H. Holmes. P. 189-252, fig. 286-358. 
Aids to the study of the Maya codices, by Prof. Cyrus Thomas. P. 253-371, 

fig. 359-388. 
Osage traditions, by Rev. J. Owen Dorsey. P. 373-397, fig. 389. 
The Central Eskimo, by Dr. Franz Boas. P. 399-669, pi. ii-x, fig. 390-546 

(pi. II and III are pocket maps). 
Index. P. 671-675. 

Seventh annual report of the Bui-eau of Ethnology to the secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution 1885-86 by J. W. Powell director 
[Vignette] Washington Government Printing Office 1891 [1892] 

Eoy. 8°. xLiii, 409 p., 27 pi. (inch pocket map), 39 fig. Out of 
print. 

Report of the Director. P. xv-xli. 

Indian linguistic families of America north of Mexico, by J. W. Powell. 

P. 1-142, pi. I (pocket map). 
The Mide'wlwin or " grand medicine society " of the Ojibwa, by W. J. 

Hoffman. P. 143-300, pi. ii-xxiii. fig. 1-39. 
The sacred formulas of the Cherokees, by James Moouey. P. 301-397, pi. 

XXIV-XXVII. 

Index. P. 309-409. 
Eighth annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the seci'etary 
of the Smithsonian Institution 1886-87 by J. W. Powell director 
[Vignette] Washington Government Printing Office 1891 [1893] 
Roy. 8°. XXXVI, 298 p., 123 pi., 118 fig. Out of jmnt. 
Report of the Director. P. xiii-xxxvi. 
A study of Pueblo architecture: Tusayan and Cibola, by Victor Mindeleff. 

P. 3-228, pi. i-cxi, fig. 1-114. 
Ceremonial of Hasjelti Dailjis and mythical sand painting of the Navajo 

Indians, by James Stevenson. P. 229-285, pi. cxii-cxxiii, fig. 115-118. 
Index. P. 287-298. 

Ninth annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the secretai-y 
of the Smitlisonian Institution 1887-88 by J. W. Powell director 
[Vignette] Washington Government Printing Office 1892 [1893] 

Roy. 8°. XLVi, 617 p., 8 pi., 4.48 fig. Out of ■print. 

Report of the Director. P. xix-xlvi. 

Ethnological results of the Point Barrow exi)edition, by John Murdoch, 

naturalist and observer. International Polar expedition to Point Barrow, 

Alaska, 1881-1883. P. 3-141, pi. i-ii, fig. 1^28. 
The medicine-men of the Apache, by John O. Bourke, captain, third cavalry, 

U. S. Army. P. 443-603, pi. iii-viii, fig. 429-448. 
Index. P. 605-617. 



VI BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Tenth annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution 1888-89 by J. W. Powell director 
[Vignette] "Washington Government Printing OiRce 1893 [1894] 

Eoy. 8° XXX, 822 p., 54 pi., 1291 lig., 116 small unnumbered cuts. 
Out of print. 

Report of the Director. P. iii-xxx. 

Picture-writing of the American Indians, by Garrick Mallery. P. 3-807, pi. 

i-Liv, fig. 1-145, 1450-1290. 
Index. P. 809-822. 

Eleventh annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution 1889-90 by J. W. Powell director 
[Vignette] Washington Government Printing Office 1894 

Roy. 8°. xLvii, 553 p., 50 pi., 200 fig. Out of print. 

Report of the Director. P. xxi-xlvii. 

The Sia, by Matilda Coxe Stevenson. P. 3-157, pi. i-xxxv, fig. 1-20. 
Ethnology of the Ungava district, Hudson Bay territory, by Lucien M. 
Turner. [Edited by John Murdoch.! P. 159-350, pi. xxxvi-xliii, fig. 
21-155. 
A study of Siouau cults, by James Owen Dorsey. P. 351-544, pi. xliv-l, 

fig. 156-200. 
Index. P. 545-553. 
Twelfth annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution 1890-91 by J. AV. Powell director 
[Vignette] Washington Government Printing Office 1894 
Roy. 8°. XLViii, 742 p., 42 pi., 344 fig. Out of print. 

Report of the Director. P. xix-xr.vii. 

Report on the mound explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology, by Cyrus 

Thomas. P. 3-730, pi. i-xlii, fig. 1-344. 
Index. P. 731-742. 
Thirteenth annual report of the Bureau of Ethnologj^ to the secre- 
tary of the Smithsonian Institution 1891-92 by J. W. Powell 
director [Vignette] Washington Government Printing Office 1896 
Roy. 8°. Lix, 462 p., 60 pi., 330 fig. Out of print. 

Report of the Director. P. xix-lix. 

Prehistoric textile art of Eastern United States, by William Henry Holmes. 

P. 3^6, pi. i-ix, fig. 1-28. 
Stone art, by Gerard Powke. P. 47-178, fig. 29-278. 
Aboriginal remains in Verde valley, Arizona, by Cosmos Mindeleff. P. 

179-261, pi. x-L, fig. 279-305. 
Omaha dwellings, furniture, .nnd implements, by James Owen Dorsey. P. 

263-288, fig. 306-327. 
Casa Grande ruin, by Cosmos Mindeleff. P. 289-319, pi. li-lx, fig. 328-330. 
Outlines of Zuni creation myths, by Frank Hamilton Cushing. P. 321^47. 
Index. P. 449-462. 
Fourteenth annual report of the Bureau of EthnologA' to the secre- 
tary of the Smithsonian Institution 1892-93 by J. W. Powell 
director In two parts — parti [-2] [Vignette] Washington Gov- 
ernment Printing Office 1896 [1897] 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS VII 

Eoy. 8°. Two parts, lxi, 1-637; 639-1136 p., 122 pi., 104 fig. 
Out of print. 

Keport of the Director. P. sxv-lxi. 

The Menomini Indians, by Walter James Hoffman, M. D. P. 3-328, pi. 

i-sxxvii, fig. 1-55. 
The Coronado expedition, 1540-1542, by George Parker Winship. P. 329- 

618, pi. XXXVIII-LXXXIV. 

Index to part 1. P. 615-637. 

The Ghost-dance religion and the Sioux outbreak of 1S90, by James Mooney. 

P. 641-1110. pi. Lxxxv-cxxii, fig. 56-104. 
Index to part 2. P. 1111-1136. 

Fifteenth annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the secre- 
tary of the Smithsonian Institution. 1803-94 by J. W. Powell 
director [Vignette] Washington Government Printing Office 1897 

Eoy. 8°. cxxi, 366 p., frontispiece, 125 pi., 49 fig. Out of print. 

Report of the Director. P. xv-cxxi. 
On regimentation. P. civ-cxxi. 

Stone implements of the Potomac-Chesapeake tidewater province, by Wil- 
liam Henry Holmes. P. 3-152, pi. i-ciii and frontispiece, fig. l-29a. 

The Siouan Indians : a preliminary sketch, by W J McGee. P. 153-204. 

Siouan sociology : a posthumous paper, by James Owen Dorsey. P. 205- 
244, fig. 30-38. 

Tusayan katcinas. by Jesse Walter Fewkes. P. 245-313, pi. civ-cxi, fig. 
39-18. 

The repair of Casa Grande ruin, Arizona, in 1891, by Cosmos Mindeleff. 
P. 315-349, pi. cxii-cxxv. 

Index. P. 351-366. 

Sixteenth annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to 
the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1894-95 by J. W. 
Powell director [Vignette] Washington Government Printing 
Office 1897 

Koy. 8°. cxix, 326 p., 81 pi., 83 fig. 0^(t of print. 

Report of the Director. P. xiii-cxix. 

List of publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology. P. ci-cxix. 
Primitive trephining in Peru, by Manuel Antonio Muniz and W J McGee. 

P. 3-72. pi. i-XL. 
The cliff-ruins of Canyon de Chelly, Arizona, by Cosmos Mindeleff. P. 73- 

198, pi. Lxi-Lxiii, fig. 1-S3. 
Day symbols of the Maya year, by Cyrus Thomas. P. 199-265, pi. lxiv- 

LXIX. 

Tusayan snake ceremonies, by Jesse Walter Fewkes. P. 267-312, pi. lxx- 

LXXXI. 

Index. P. 313-326. 

Seventeenth annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to 
the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 180.5-96 by J. W. 
Powell director In two parts — part 1 [-2] [Vignette] Washing- 
ton Government Printing Office 1898 [part 1, 1900, part 2, 1901] 



Vm BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

lloy. 8°. Two parts, xcv, 1-128, 129*-344*, 129-468; 465-752 
p., 182 pi., 357 fig. Out of print. 

Report of the Director. P. xxv-sciii. 

Ijist of publications of tlie Bureau of American Ethnology. P. lxsv- 

XCIII. 

The Seri Indians, by W J McGee. P. 1-128, 129*-344*, pi. i-iiio, in6, iva. 

rv6, vo, v6, vio, vi6, viia, vii6-ixa, ix6-lvi, fig. 1-42. 

Comparative lexicology, by J. N. B. Hewitt. P. 299*-344*. 
Calendar history of the Kiowa Indians, by James Mooney. P. 129-445, pi. 

LVii-Lxxxi, fig. 43-229. 
Index to part 1. P. 447-468. 

Navaho houses, by Cosmos Mindeleff. P. 469-517, pi. lxxxii-xc, fig. 230-244. 
Archeological expedition to Arizona in 1895, by Jesse Walter Fewkes. P. 

519-744, pi. xcio, XC16-CLXXV, fig. 245-357. 
Index to part 2. P. 745-752. 

Eighteenth annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to 
the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1896-97 by J. W. 
Powell director In two parts — part 1 [-2] [Vignette] Washing- 
ton Government Printing Office 1899 [part 1, 1901, part 2, 1902] 

Eoy. 8°. Two parts, lvii, 1-518; 519-997 p., 174 pi., 165 fig. 
Out of print. 

Report of the Director. P. xxiii-lvii. 

The Eskimo about Bering strait, by Edward William Nelson. P. 3-518, pi. 

i-cvii, fig. 1-1G5. 
Indian land cessions in the United States, compiled by Charles C. Royce, 

with an introduction by Cyrus Thomas. P. 521-964, pi. cviii -clxxiv. 
Index. P. 965-997. 

Nineteenth annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to 
the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1897-98 by J. W. 
Powell director In two parts — part 1 [-2] [Vignette] Washing- 
ton Government Printing Office 1900 [1902] 

Roy. 8°. Two parts, xcii, 1-568, 569*-576*; 569-1160 p., frontis- 
piece, 80 pi., 49 fig. Out of print. 

Report of the Director. P. ix-xcii, frontispiece. 

Esthetology, or the science of activities designed to give pleasure. P. 

LV-XCII. 

Myths of the Cherokee, by James Mooney. P. 3-548, pi. i-xx, fig. 1-2. 
Index to part 1. P. 549-568, 569*-576*. 

Tusayan migration traditions, by Jesse Walter Fewkes. P. 573-633. 
Localization of Tusayan clans, by Cosmos Mindeleff. P. 635-653, pi. xxi- 

XXVIII, fig. 3. 
Mounds in northern Honduras, by Thomas Gann. P. 655-692, pi. xxix- 

XXXIX, fig. 4-7. 
Mayan calendar systems, by Cyrus Thomas. P. 693-819, pi. xr-XLiiid, 

xLiiift-xLiv, fig. 8-170, 176-22. 
Primitive numbers, by W J McGee. P. 821-851. 
Numeral systems of Mexico and Central America, by Cyrus Thomas. P. 

853, 955, fig. 23-41. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS IX 

Tusayan Flute and Snake ceieniouies, by Jesse Walter Fewkes. P. 957- 

1011, pi. XLV-Lxv, fig. 42-lG. 
The wild-rice gatlierers of tlie upiwr lakes, a study In American primitive 

economics, by Albert Ernest Jenks. P. 1013-1137, pi. lxvi-lxxix, fig. 

47^8. 
Index to part 2. P. 1139-1160. 

Twentieth annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to 
the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1898-99 by J. W. 
Powell director [Vignette] Washington Government Printing 
Office 1903 

Eoy. 8°. ccxxiv, 237 p., 180 pi., 79 fig. Out of print. 

Report of the Director. P. vii-ccxxiii. 

Technology, or the science of industries. P. xxix-lvii. 

Sociology, or the science of institutions. P. lix-cxxxviii. 

Philology, or the science of activities designed for expression. P. 

CXXXIX-CLXX. 

Sophiology, or the science of activities designed to give instruction. P. 

CLXXI-CXCVII. 

List of publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology. P. cxcix- 

CCXXIII. 

Aboriginal pottery of the eastern United States, by W. H. Holmes. P. 1-201, 

pi. I-LXXVIII, LXXVIII A, LXXIX-LXXIX B, LXXX-CLXXVII, fig. 1-79. 

Index. 

Twenty-first annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
to the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1899-1900 by J. W. 
Powell director [Vignette] Washington Government Printing 
Office 1903 

Eoy. 8°. XL, 360 p., 69 pi. Out of print. 

Report of the Director. P. vii-xl, pi. i. 

Hopi katcinas, drawn by native artists, by Jesse Walter Fewkes. P. 3-126, 

pi. II-LXIII. 

Iroquoian cosmology, by J. N. B. Hewitt. P. 127-339, pi. lxiv-lxix. 
Index. 

Twenty-second annual report of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nologj' to the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1900-1901 
J. W. Powell director In two parts — part 1 [-2] [Vignette] 
Washington Government Printing Office 1903 

Roy. 8°. Two parts, xliv, 1-320; 1-372 p., 91 pi., 178 fig. Out 
of print. 

Report of the Acting Director. P. vii-xliv. 

Two summers' work in pueblo ruins, by Jesse Walter Fewkes. P. 3-195, pi. 
i-Lxx, fig. 1-120. 

Mayan calendar systems. II, by Cyrus Thomas. P. 197-305, pi. lxxi- 
Lxxxii, fig. 121-16S. 

Index to part 1. 

The Hako, a Pawnee ceremony, by Alice C. Fletcher, holder of Thaw fellow- 
ship, Peabody Museum, Harvard University. P. 5-368, pi. lxxxiii-xci, 
fig. 1G9-17S. 

Index to part 2. 



X BUBEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Twenty-third annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
to the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1901-2 J. W. 
Powell director [Vignette] Washington Government Printing 
Office 1904 [1905] 

Roy. 8°. XLV, 634 p., 139 pi., 34 fig. Out of print. 

ReiKirt of the Acting Director. P. vii-sxv. 

The Zuiii Indians, tlieir mythology, esoteric fraternities, and cererionies, by 

Matilda Coxe Stevenson. P. 1-608. 
Index. 

Twenty-fourth annual report of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology to the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1902-3 
W. H. Holmes chief [Vignette] Washington Government Print- 
ing Office 1907 

Roy. 8°. XL, 846 p., 21 pi., 1112 fig. Out of print. 

Report of the Chief. P. vii-xl. 

Games of the North American Indians, by Stewart Culin. P. 3-809. 

Index. 

Twenty-fifth annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
to the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1903-4 [Vignette] 
Washington Government Printing Office 1907 

Roy. 8°. XXIX, 296 p., 129 pi., 70 fig. Out of print. 

Report of the Chief. P. ix-xxix. 

The aborigines of Porto Rico and neighboring islands, by Jesse Walter 

Fewkes. P. 3-220, pi. i-xciii, flg. 1-^3. 
Certain antiquities of eastern Mexico, by Jesse Walter Fewkes. P. 221-284, 

pi. xciv-cxxix, fig. 44-70. 
Index. 

Twenty-sixth annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
to the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1904-5 [Vignette] 
W^ashington Government Printing Office 1908 

Roy. 8°. XXXI, 512 p., 58 pi., 117 fig. Out of print. 

Report of the Chief. P. vii-xxxi. 

The Pima Indians, by Frank Russell. P. 3-389, pi. i-xlvii, fig. 1-102. 

The Tlingit Indians, by John R. Swanton. P. 391^85, pi. xlviii-lviii, flg. 

103-llT. 
Index. 

' Twenty-seventh annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnol- 
ogy to the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1905-6 [Vign- 
ette] Washington Government Printing Office 1911 
Roy. 8°. Pr672, 65 pi., 132 fig. 

Report of the Chief. P. 5-14. 

The Omaha Tribe, by Alice C. Fletcher, holder of the Thaw fellowship. Pea- 
body Museum. Harvard T'niversity, and Francis La Flesche, a member 
of the Omaha tribe. P. 15-654. 

Index. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS XI 

Twenty-eighth annual report of the Bureau of American Eth- 
noloey to the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1906-7 
[Vignette] Washington Government Printing Office 1912 

Roy. 8°. P. 308. xxxv, 103 pi.. 68 fig. 

Report of the Chief. P. 7-22. 

Casa Graude. Arizona, by Jesse Walter Fewkes. P. 25-179. pi. 1-78, fig. 

1-54. 
Antiquities of the upper Verde River and Walnut Creek, valleys, Arizona, 

by Jesse Walter Fewkes. P. 181-220, pi. 79-102. fig. 55-6S. 
Preliminary report on the linguistic classification of Algonquian tribes, by 

Truman Michelson. P. 221-290. pi. 103. 
List of publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology. P. i-xxxv. 
Index. 

In preparation 

Twenty-ninth annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
to the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1907-8 [Vignette] 
Washington Government Printing Office 
Roy. 8°. 
Report of the Chief. 

Bulletins 

(1). Bibliograi^hy of the Eskimo language by James Constantine 
Pilling 1887^ 

8°. V, 116 p. (inch 8 p. of facsimiles). 

(2). Perforated stones from California by Henry W. Henshaw 
1887 

8°. 34 p.. 16 fig. 

(3). The use of gold and other metals among the ancient inhabit- 
ants of Chiriqui, Isthmus of Darien by William H. Holmes 1887 

8°. 27 p., 22 fig. 

(4) . Work in mound exploration of the Bureau of Ethnology* by 
Cyrus Thomas 1887 

8°. 15 p., 1 fig. 

(5). Bibliography of the Siouan languages by James Constantine 
Pilling 1887 

8°. V, 87 p. 

(6). Bibliography of the Iroquoian languages by James C. Pil- 
ling 1888 [1889] 

8°. VI, 208 p. (inch 4 p. facsimiles), 5 unnumbered facsimiles. 
Out of print. 

(7). Textile fabrics of ancient Peru by William H. Holmes 1889 

8°. 17 p., 11 fig. 

(8). The problem of the Ohio mounds by Cyrus Thomas 1889 

8°. 54 p., 8 fig. 

20903°— 28 ETH— 12 21 



Xn BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

(9). Bibliography of the Muskhogean languages by James Con- 
stantine Pilling 1889 

8°. V, 114 p. Out of print. 

(10). The circular, square, and octagonal earthworks of Ohio by 
Cyrus Thomas 1889 

8°. 35 p., 11 pi.. 5 fig. Old of print. 

(11). Omaha and Ponka letters by James Owen Dorsey 1891 

8°. 127 p. Out of print. 

(12). Catalogue of prehistoric works east of the Kooky mountains 
by Cyrus Thomas 1891 

8°. 246 p., 17 pi. and maps. Out of print. 

(13). Bibliography of the Algonquian languages by James Con- 
stantine Pilling 1891 [1892] 

8°. X, 614 p., 82 facsimiles. Out of print. 

(14). Bibliography of the Athapascan languages by James Con- 
stantine Pilling 1892 

8°. XIII, 125 p. (incl. 4 p. facsimiles). Out of print. 

(15). Bibliography of the Chinookan languages (including the 
Chinook jargon) by James Constantine Pilling 1893 

8°. XIII, 81 p. (incl. 3 p. facsimiles). Out of punnt. 

(16). Bibliography of the Salishan languages by James Constan- 
tine Pilling 1883 

8°. XIII, 86 p. (incl. 4 p. facsimiles). Out of print. 

(17). The Pamunkey Indians of Virginia by Jno. Garland Pol- 
lard 1894 

8°. 19 p. Out of prmt. 

(18). The Maya year by Cyrus Thomas 1894 

8°. 64 p., 1 pi. Out of print. 

(19). Bibliography of the Wakashan languages by James Con- 
stantine Pilling. 1894 

8°. XI, 70 p. (Incl. 2 p. facsimiles). 

(20). Chinook texts by Franz Boas 1894 [1895] 

8°. 278 p., 1 pi. Out of print. 

(21). An ancient quarry in Indian Territory by William Henry 
Hohnes 1894 

8°. 19 p., 12 pi., 7 fig. Otit of print. 

(22). The Siouan tribes of the East by James Mooney 1894 
[1895] 

8°. 101 p., map. Out of print. 

(23). Archeologic investigations in James and Potomac valleys 
by Gerard Fowke 1894 [1895] 

8°. 80 p., 17 fig. Out of print. 

(24). List of the publications of the Bureau of Ethnology, with 
index to authors and subjects by Frederick Webb Hodge 1894 

8°. 25 p. Out of print. 



LIST OP PUBLICATIONS XUI 

(25). Natick dictionary by James Hammond Trumbull 1903 

Eoy. 8°. xxviii, 349 p. 

(26). Kathlamet texts by Franz Boas 1901 

Eoy. 8°. 261 p., 1 pi. 

(27). Tsimshian texts by Franz Boas 1902 

Roy. 8°. 244 p. 

(28). JMexican and Central American antiquities, calendar systems, 
and history twenty-four papers by Eduard Seler, E. Forstemann, 
Paul Schellhas, Carl Sapper, and E. P. DieseldorflF translated from 
the German under the supervision of Charles P. Bowditch 1904 

8°. 682 p., 49 pi., 134 fig. 

(29). Haida texts and myths by John E. Swanton 1905 

Roy. 8°. 448 p., 5 fig. 

(30). Handbook of American Indians north of Mexico edited by 
Frederick "Webb Hodge Pt. 1 1907 Pt. 2 1910 

8°. Pt. 1. IX, 972 p., many figures, map. Pt. 2 iv, 1221 p., 
many figures. Ovt of print. 

Reprint, 1912. 

(31). List of publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
with index to authors and titles 1906 

8°. 31 p. Out of print. 

(32). Antiquities of the Jemez plateau. New Mexico by Edgar 
L. Hewett 1906 

8^ 55 p., 17 pi., 31 fig., map 

(33). Skeletal remains suggesting or attributed to early man in 
North America by Ales Hrdlicka 1907 

8°. 113 p., 21 pi., 16 fig. 

(34). Physiological and medical observations among the Indians 
of southwestern United States and northern Mexico by Ale§ 
Hrdlicka 1908 

8°. IX, 460 p., 28 pi., 2 fig. 

(35). Antiquities of the upper Gila and Salt River valleys in 
Arizona and New Mexico by AValter Hough 1907 

8°. 96 p., 11 pi.. 51 fig., map 

(36). List of the publications of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology, with index to authors and titles 1907 

8°. 31 p. Out of print. 

(37). Antiquities of central and southeastern Missouri by Gerard 
Fowke. ( Report on explorations made in 1906-7 under the auspices 
of the Archaeological Institute of America) 1910 

8°. VII, 116 p., 19 pi., 20 fig. 

(38). Unwritten literature of Hawaii The sacred songs of the 
hula compiled and translated, with notes and an account of the hula 
by Nathaniel B. Emerson, A. M., M. D. 1909 

8°. 288 p., 24 pi., 3 fig., 14 musical pieces 



XIV BUREAU OF AMEKICAN ETHNOLOGY 

(39). Tlingit inyllis and texts by John K. Swanton 1909 

8°. VIII, 451 p. 

(40). Handbook of American Indian languages by Franz Boas 
Part 1 With illustrative sketches by Roland B. Dixon [Maidu], 
P. E. Goddard [Athapascan: Hupa], William Jones, revised by 
Truman Michelson [Algonquian (Fox)], John R. Swanton [Tlingit, 
HaidaJ, William Thalbitzer [Eskimo]; [Fi-anz Boas: Introduction, 
Chinook, Kwakiutl, Tsimshian; John R. Swanton and Franz Boas, 
Siouan] 1911. [Each sketch was issued also in separate form.] 

8°. VII, 1069 p. 

(41). Antiquities of the Mesa Verde National Park: Spruce-tree 
House by J. Walter Fewkes 1909 

8°. VIII, 57 p., 21 pi., 37 fig. 

(42). Tuberculosis among certain Indian tribes of the United 
States by Ales Hrdlicka 1909 

8°. VII, 48 p., 22 pi. 

(43). Indian tribes of the lower Mississip2)i valley and adjacent 
coast of the Gulf of Mexico by John R. Swanton 1911 

8°. VII, 387 p., 32 pi. (including 1 map), 2 fig. 

(44). Indian languages of Mexico and Central America, and their 
geographical distribution by Cyrus Thomas, assisted by John R. 
Swanton Accompanied with a linguistic map 1911 

8°. VII, 108 p., 1 map 

(45). Chippewa music by Frances Densmore 1910 

8°. XIX, 216 p., 12 pi., 8 fig., many musical pieces 

(47). A dictionary of the Biloxi and Ofo languages, accompanied 
with thirty-one Biloxi texts and numerous Biloxi phrases by James 
Owen Dorsey and John R. Swanton 1912 

8°. V, 340 p. 

(48). The Choctaw of Bayou Lacomb. St. Tamrriany parish, 
Louisiana by David I. Bushnell, Jr. 1909 

8°. 37 p., 22 pi., 1 fig. Out of print. 

(49). List of the publications of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology, with index to authors and titles 1910 

8°. 32 p. Out of print. (Second impression 1911, 34 p. Out 
of print.) 

(50). Preliminary report on a visit to the Navaho National Monu- 
ment, Arizona by Jesse Walter Fewkes 1911 

8°. VII, 35 p., 22 pL, 3 fig. 

(51). Antiquities of the Mesa Verde National Park: Cliff Palace 
by Jesse Walter Fewkes 1911 

8°. 82 p., 35 pi., 4 fig. 

(52). Early man in South America by Ales Hrdlicka in collabo- 
ration with William H. Holmes, Bailey Willis, Fred. Eugene Wright, 
and Clarence N. Fenner 1912 

8°. XV, 405 p., 68 pi., 51 fig. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS XV 

In Press 

(40). Handbook of American Indian languages by Franz Boas 
Part 2 With illustrative sketches 

(46). Choctaw dictionary by Cyrus Byington edited by John R. 
Swanton 

In Preparation 

(53). Chippewa music — II by Frances Densmore 
(54). The physiography of the Rio Grande valley, New Mexico, in 
relation to Pueblo culture: (1) Rio Grande valley, New Mexico, by 
Edgar Lee Hewett; (2) Geology and topography of the Rio Grande 
region in New Mexico, by Junius Henderson; (3) Climate and evi- 
dences of climatic changes, by Junius Henderson and Wilfred W. 
Robbins. 

(55). The ethnobotany of the Tewa Indians by Wilfred W. Rob- 
bins and J. P. Harrington 

(56). The ethnozoology of the Tewa Indians by Junius Hender- 
son and J. P. Harrington 

(57). The cosmograph}^ of the Tewa Indians by J. P. Harrington 
(58). An introduction to the study of the Maya hieroglyphs by 
Sylvanus G. Morley 

Contributions to North American Ethnology 
(All of the volumes of this series are out of print) 

Department of the Interior U. S. Geographical and Geological 
survey of the Rocky Mountain region J. W. Powell in charge — 
Contributions to North American ethnology — Volume I [-VII, IX] — 
[Seal of the department] Washington Government Printing Office 
1877 [-1893] 

4°. 9 vols. 

Contents 

Volume I, 1877 : 

Part I. Tribes of the extreme Northwest, by W. H. Dall. P. 1-106, 10 
unnumbered pL, 9 unnumbered fig., pocket map. 
On the distribution and nomenclature of the native tribes of Alaska 

and the adjacent territory. P. 7-40, pocket map. 
On succession in the shell-heaps of the Aleutian islands. P. 41-91, 10 

pi., 9 fig. 
On the origin of the Innuit. P. 9a-106. 
Appendix to part i. Linguistics. P. 107-156. 

Notes on the natives of Alaska (communicated to the late George 
Gibbs, JM. D., in 1862), by His Excellency J. Furuhelm, late governor 
of the Russian-American colonies. P. 111-116. 
Terms of relationship used by the Innuit : a series obtained from natives 
of Cumberland inlet, by W. H. Dall. P. 117-119. 



XVI BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Volume I, 1S77 — Continued. 

Part I. Vocabularies [I)y George Gibbs and W. H. Dall]. P. 121-153. 

Note on tlie use of numerals among the T'sim si-au', by George Glbbs, 
M. D. P. ISS-l.'jG. 
Part 11. Tribes of western Washington and northwestern Oregon, by George 
Gibbs. M. D. P. 157-241, pocket map. 
Appendix to part ii. Linguistics. P. 243-361. 

Vocabularies [by George Gibbs, Wui. F. Tolniie, and G. MengarinlJ. 

P. 247-283. 
Dictionary of the Nislswalli [Nisqualli-English and English-NisqualH], 
by George Gibbs. P. 2S5-361. 
Volume II, 1890 [1891] : 

The Klamath Indians of southwestern Oregon, by Albert Samuel Gatschet. 
Two parts, evil, 711 p., map; iii, 711 p. 
Volume III, 1877: 

Tribes of California, by Stephen Powers. 635 p., frontispiece, 44 tig. (incl. 
42 pi.), 3 p. music, pocket map. 
Appendix. Linguistics, edited by J. W. Powell. P. 439-613. 
Volume IV, 1881 : 

Houses and house-life of the American aborigines, by Lewis H. Morgan. 
xiv, 281 p., frontispiece, 57 fig. (incl. 28 pi). 
Volume V, 1882 :" 

Observations on cup-shaped and other lapidariau sculptures in the Old 
World and in America, by Charles Ran. 1881. 112 p., 61 fig. (form- 
ing 35 pis.). 
On prehistoric trephining and cranial amulets, by Robert Fletcher, M. R. 

C. S. Eng., act. asst. surgeon U. S. Army. 1882. 32 p., 9 pi., 2 fig. 
A study of the manuscript Troano, by Cyrus Thomas, Ph. D., with an intro- 
ductiou by D. G. Brinton, M. D. 1SS2. xxxvii, 237 p., 9 pi., 101 fig., 
25 small unnumbered cuts. 
Volume VI, 1890 [1892] : 

The f!egiha language, by James Owen Dorsey. xviii, 794 p. 
Volume VII, 1890 [1892] : 

A Dakota-English dictionary, by Stephen Return Riggs, edited by James 
Owen Dorsey. x, 665 p. 
Volume VIII : Not published. 
Volume IX, 1893 [1894] : 

Dakota grammar, texts, and ethnograpli.v. by Stephen Return Rigir.s. edited 
by James Owen Dorsey. xxxii, 239 p. 

Introductions 
(All of the volumes of this series are out of print) 

(1). Introcluction to the study of Indian languages, with words, 
phrases, and sentences to be collected. By J. W. Powell. [Seal of 
the Department of the Interior.] Washington Government Printing 
Office 1877 

4°. 104 p., 10 blank leaves. 

Second edition as follows: 

(2). Smithsonian Institution — Bureau of Ethnology J.W.Powell 
director — Introduction to the study of Indian languages with words, 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS XVH 

phrases and sentences to be collected — by J. W. Powell — Second edi- 
tion — with charts — -Washington Govei-nment Printing Office 1880 

4°. xi, 228 p., 10 blank leaves, 4 kinship charts in pocket. A 16° 
"Alphabet" of 2 leaves accompanies the work. 

(3). Smithsonian Institution — Bureau of Ethnologj' — Introduc- 
tion to the study of sign language among the North American Indians 
as illustrating the gesture speech of mankind — by Garrick Mallery, 
brevet lieut. col., U. S. Army — Washington Government Printing 
Office 1880 

4°. iv, 72 p., 33 unnumbered figs. 

(4). Smithsonian Institution — Bureau of Ethnology J.W.Powell, 
director — Introduction to the study of mortuary customs among the 
North American Indians — by Dr. H. C. Yarrow act. asst. surg. 
U. S. Army^ Washington Government Printing Office 1880 

4°. ix, 114 p. 

Miscellaneous Publications 
(All of the works in this series, except No. 9, are out of print) 

(1) . Smithsonian Institution — Bureau of Ethnology J. W. Powell, 
director — A collection of gesture-signs and signals of the North 
American Indians with some comparisons by Garrick Mallery bre- 
vet lieut. col. and formerly acting chief signal officer, U. S. Army — 
Distributed only to collaborators — ^Washington Government Printing 
Office 1880 

4°. 329 p. 

Note. 250 copies printed for use of collaborators only. 

(2) . Smithsonian Institution — Bureau of Ethnology J. W. Powell 
director — Proof-sheets of a bibliography of the languages of the 
North American Indians by James Constantine Pilling — (Distrib- 
uted only to collaborators)— Washington Government Printing 
Office 1885 

4°. xl, 1135 p., 29 pi. (facsimiles). 

Note. Only 110 copies printed for tlie use of collaborators, 10 of then on one 
side of the sheet. It was the intention to have this Bibliography form Volume X 
of the Contributions to North American Ethnology, but the work assumed such 
proportions that it was subsequently deemed advisable to publish it as a part ot 
the series of Bulletins, devoting a Bulletin to each linguistic stock. 

(3). Linguistic families of the Indian tribes north of Mexico, with 
provisional list of the principal tribal names and synonyms. [1885] 
16°. 55 p. 

Note. A few copies printed for the use of the compilers of a Dictionary of 
American Indians [Handbook. See BuUctin 30'\. It is without title-pnge. name, 
or date, but was compiled from a manuscript list of Indian tribes by .Tamoa 
Mooney. 



XTIII BUKEATJ OF AMEKICAN ETHNOLOGY 

(4). [Map of] Linguistic stocks of American Indians north of 
Mexico by J. W. Powell. [1891] 

Note. A limited edition of this map, wbicli forms plate 1 of the Seventh 
Annual Report, was issued on heavy paper, 19 by 22 inches, for the use of 
students. This map was revised and published in the Report on Indians Taxed 
ond Not Taxed in the United States at the Eleventh Census, 1890. (See No. 7.) 

(5). Tribes of North America, with synonymy. Skittagetan fam- 
ily. [1890] 
4°. 13 p. 

Note. A few copies printed for the use of the compilers of the Handbook of 
American Indians. It was prepared by H. W. Hensbaw, and contains two 
samples of style for the Handbook, the second beginning on page 7 with the 
head, "Dictionary of Indian tribal names." (See Bulletin 30.) 

(6). Advance pages Smithsonian Institution Bureau of Amer- 
ican Ethnology — Dictionary of American Indians north of Mexico 
. . . [Vignette] AVashington 1903 

8°. 33 p. 

Note. Prepared by F. W. Hodge. Two hundred and fifty copies printefl by 
the Smithsonian Institution for the use of the compilers of the Dictionary 
[Handbook. See Bulletin SOI. 

(7) [Map of] Linguistic stocks of American Indians north of 
Mexico by J. W. Powell. [1906] 

Note. Printed on heavy paper in advance of the Handbook of American 
Indians (Bulletin SO), part 1, of which it forms an illustration. 

(8). Bureau of American Ethnology with list of publications. 
Reprinted from Handhooh of Avierican Indians, Bulletin 30 (pt. 1), 
Bureau of American Ethnology. [1906] 

8°. 5 p. 

(9). Indian missions north of Mexico by James Mooney. Re- 
printed from Handhook of American Indians, Bulletin 30 (pt. 1).^ 
Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington 1907 

8°. 39 p. 

Index to Authors and Titles 

A=AnnuaI Report. B = Bu]letin. C = Contributions to North American Eth- 
nology. I = Introduction. M=JIiscelIaneous Publications. 

Aborigines of Porto Rico and neighboring Islands (Fewkes)_A xxv, 3. 

Activital similarities (Powell) A. iii, Ixv. 

Activities. .See Esthetology ; Philology; Sociology; Sophi- 

ology; Technology. 

Alaska, Notes on the natives of (Furuhelm) C i, 111. 

Algonquiau languages. Bibliography of the (Pilling) B 13. 

tribes. Preliminary report on classification of (AIichelson)-.V xxviii. 

See Bulletin 40 (pt. 1). 

Amulets, cranial, Prehistoric trephining and (R. Fletcher) ..C v. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 



XIX 



Animal carvings from mounds of the Mississippi valley 

(Henshaw) A. ii, 117. 

Anthropologic data. Limitations to the use of some (Powell) -A i, 71. 

Antiquities, Certain, of eastern Mexico (Fewkes) A xxv, 221. 

Antiquities; Mayau calendar systems, history, and (Forste- 

mnnn, Schellhas, Sapper, Seler, DieseldorfE) B 28. 

Mexican and Central American calendar systems and 

( Seler) B 28. 

of central and southeastern Missouri (Fowke) B 37. 

of the Jemez plateau. New Mexico (Hewett) B 32. 

of the Mesa Verde National Park: Spruce-tree House 

(Fewkes) JJ 41. 

Cliff Palace (Fewkes) B 51. 

of the upper Gila-Salt valleys (Hough) B 35. 

of the upper Verde and Walnut Creek valleys, Arizona 

( Fewkes) A xxviii. 

Apache, The medicine men of the (P.uurke) A ix, 443. 

Archeological expedition to Arizona in 1S95 (Fewkes) A. xvii, 519. 

Archeologic investigations in James and Potomac valleys 

(Fowke) B 23. 

Architecture of Tusayan and Cibola (V. Mindeleff) A viii, 3. 

Arizona, Aboriginal remains in Verde valley in (C. Min- 
deleff) A XIII, 179. 

Antiquities of the upper Gila-Salt valleys (Hough) B 35. 

Archeological expedition to, in 1895 (Fewkes) A xvii. 519. 

Illustrated catalogue of collections from, in 1879 (J. Ste- 
venson) A II, 307. 

in 1881 (J. Stevenson) A iii, 511. 

Navaho National Monument, visit to (Fewkes) B 50. 

The cliff-ruins of Canyon de Chelly in (C. Mindeleff) A xvi, 73. 

See Casa Grande ; Tusayan. 

Art, Ancient, of the province of Chiriqui, Colombia (Holmes) A vi, 3. 

ceramic. Form and ornament in (Holmes) A iv, 437. 

in shell of the ancieni Americans (Holmes) A ii, 179. 

Prehistoric textile, of eastern United States (Holmes) A xiii, 3. 

Stone (Fowke) A xiii, 47- 

textile, A study of the (Holmes) A vi, 189. 

Artists, native, Hopi katcinas drawn by (Fewkes) A xxi, 3. 

Athapascan languages. Bibliography of the (Pilling) B 14. 

See Bulletin 40 (pt. 1). 

Bering strait, Eskimo about (Nelson) A xviii, 3. 

Bibliography of the Alonquian languages fPilling) B 13. 

of the Athapascan languages (Pilling) B 14. 

of the Chinookan languages, including the Chinook jargon 

(Pilling) B 15. 

of the Eskimo language (Pilling) B 1. 

of the Iroquoian languages (Pilling) B 6. 

of the languages of the North American Indians. Proof 

sheets of (Pilling) M 2. 

of the Muskhogean languages (Pilling) B 9. 

of the Salishan languages (Pilling) B 16. 

of the Siouan languages (Pilling) B 5. 

of the Wakashan languages (Pilling) B 19. 

BUoxi-Ofo dictionary (Dorsey-.Sw:intou) B 47. 



XX 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



Boas, Franz. Chinook texts B 20. 

editor. Handbook of American Indian languages B 40. 

Kathlaniet texts B 26. 

The Central Eskimo A vi, 399. 

Tsimshian texts-- B 27. 

Boiirke, John G. The medicine-men of the Apache A ix, 443. 

Bowditch, C. P. [Papers translated under the supervision of] -B 28. 
Brinton, Daniel G. The graphic system and ancient methods 

of the Mayas C v (pt.3), xvli. 

Bushnell, David I., jr. Choctawof Bayou Lacomb, Louisiana_B 48. 

Byington, Cyrus. Choctaw dictionary (Swanton, editor) — B 46. 

Calendar history of the Kiowa Indians (Mooney) A xvii, 129. 

Calendar systems, Mayan (Thomas) A xix, 693, and 

XXII. 

Mayan antiquities, history, and (Forstemann, Schellhas, 

Sapper, Seler, Dieseldorff) B 28. 

Mexican and Central American antiquities and ( Seler) __-B 28. 

California, Perforated stones from (Henshaw) B 2. 

Tribes of (Powers) C iii. 

Can'lngs, Animal, from mounds of the Mississippi Valley 

(Henshaw) A ii, 117. 

Casa Grande, Arizona (Fewkes) A xxviii. 

Casa Grande ruin (C. Mindeleff) A xiii, 289. 

The repair of, in 1891 (C. Mindeleff) A xv,315. 

Catalogue of collections from New Mexico and Arizona in 

1879 (J. Stevenson) A ii, 307. 

of collections from New Mexico in 1880 (J. Stevenson) A ii, 423. 

of collections from Pueblos in ISSl (J. Stevenson) A iii, 511. 

of collections made in 1881 (Holmes) A iii, 427. 

of linguistic manuscripts in the library of the Bureau of 

Ethnology (Pilling) A i, 553. 

of prehistoric works east of the Rocky Mountains 

(Thomas) B 12. 

^egiha language. The (Dorsey) C vi. 

Central America, Indian languages of Mexico and (Thomas- 

Swanton) B 44. 

Numeral systems of Mexico and (Thomas) A xix, 853. 

Central American picture-writing. Studios in (Holden) A i. 205. 

and Mexican antiquities and calendar systems ( Seler) _-.B 28. 
Ceremonial of Hnsiolfi Dailjis and mythical sand painting 

of the Navajo (J. Stevenson) A viii, 229. 

Ceremonies, Tusayan Snake (Fewkes) A xvi, 267. 

Ceremony, The Hako, a Pawnee (A. C. Fletcher) A xxii. 

Cessions, Indian land, in the United States (Royce-Thomas)A xviir, 521. 

of land by Indian tribes to the United States (Royce) A sv, 315. 

Cherokee, Jlyths of the (Mooney) A. xix, 3. 

nation of Indians, The (Royce) A. v, 121. 

The sacred formulas of the (.Mooney) A vii, 301. 

Chinookan languages. Bibliography of the (Pilling) B 15. 

See Bulletin 40 (pt. 1). 

Chinook texts (Boas) J? 20. 

Chippewa music (Densmore) B 45. 

Chippewa music — II (Densmore) B 53. 

See Ojibwa. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS XXI 

Chiriqui. Colombia, Ancient art of the province of (Holiiies)_A vi, 3. 

The use of gold and other metals among the ancient inhab- 
itants of (Holmes) B 3. 

Choctaw dictionai-j- (Byingtou), Swantou, editor B 46. 

Choctaw of Bayou Lacomb, Louisiana (Busbuell) B 48. 

Cibola, Architecture of Tusayan and (V. Jlindeleff) A viii, 3. 

See Zuiii. 

Clans, Tusayan, Localization of (C. Miudelcff) A xix, 635. 

Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park, Arizona (Fewkes)-B 51. 

Cliff ruins of Canyon de Chelly, Arizona (C. Mindeleff) A xvi, 73. 

Codices, JIaya, Aids to the study of the (Thomas) A vi, 253. 

Collections, Illustrated catalogue of, from Xew Mexico and 

Arizona in 1S79 (J. Stevenson) A ii, 307. 

from Xew Mexico in ISSO (J. Stevenson) A ii, 423. 

from pueblos in ISSl (J. Stevenson) A iii, 611. 

made in ISSl (Holmes) A m, 427. 

Colorado, Antiquities of Mesa Verde National Park: Cliff 

Palace (Fewkes) B 5L 

Spruce-tree House (Fewlws) B 41. 

Coronado expedition, 1540-1542, The (Wiuship) A xiv, 329. 

Cosmography of the Tewa Indians, The (Harrington) B 57. 

Cosmology, Iroquoian (Hewitt) A xxi, 127. 

Cuba. See Isle of Pines. 

Culiu, Stewart. Games of the North American Indians A xxiv. 

Cults, Siouan, A study of (Dorsey) A xi, 351. 

Cup-shaped and other lapidarian sculptures (Kau) C v. 

Cushing, F. H. Outlines of Zuui creation myths A xiii, 321. 

Pueblo pottery as illustrative of Zuiii culture growth A iv, 467. 

Zuiii fetiches A ii, 3. 

Dakota-English dictionary, .V (Riggs) . C vii. 

Dakota grammar, text, and ethnography (Uiggs) C ix. 

Dall, William H. On masks, labrets, and certain aboriginal 

customs A III, 67. 

Terms of relationship used by the Iimuit C i, 117. 

Tribes of the extreme Northwest C i, 1. 

and Gibbs, George. Vocabularies of tribes of the extreme 

Northwest C i, 121. 

Day symbols of the Maya year (Thomas) A xvi, 199. 

Densmore, Frances. Chippewa music B 45. 

Chippewa music — II B 53. 

Dictionary, Biloxl-Ofo (Dorsey-Swanton) B 47. 

Choctaw (Byington), Swanton, editor B 46. 

Dakota-English (Riggs) C vii. 

Natick B 25. 

of American Indians north of Mexico. Advance pages 

(Hodge) M 6. 

Dleseldorff, E. P., and others. Mayan antiquities, calendar 

system.s, and history B 23. 

. Dixon, Roland B. See Bulletin 40 (pt 1). 
Dorsey, J. Owen. Illustration of the method of recording 

Indian languages A i, 579. 

Omaha and Ponka letters B 11. 

Omaha dwellings, furniture, and implements A xiii, 263. 



XXn BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Dorsey, J. Owen — Continued. 

Omaha sociology A iii, 205. 

Osage traditions A. vi, 373. 

Siouan sociology A. xv, 205. 

study of Siouan cults, A A xi, 351. 

The pegiha language C vi. 

and Swanton, John R. A dictionary of the Biloxi and 

Ofo languages B 47. 

editor. A Dakota-English dictionary, by Stephen Return 

Riggs C VII. 

Dakota grammar, texts, and ethnography, by S. R. Riggs_C ix. 

Dwellings, furniture, and implements, Omaha (Dorsey) A. xiii. 263. 

Earthworks, The circular, square, and octagonal, of Ohio 

(Thomas) B 10. 

Kconomics, primitive, A study in American (Jenks) A xix, 1013. 

Emerson, N. B. Unwritten literature of Hawaii B 38. 

Eskimo about Bering strait, The (Nelson) A xviii, 3. 

language. Bibliography of the (Pilling) B 1. 

See Bulletin 40 (pt. 1). 

The Central (Boas) A vi, 399. 

See Point Barrow ; Ungava district. 
Esthetology, or the science of activities designed to give 

pleasure (Powell) A xis, Iv. 

Ethnobotany. The, of (he Tewa Indians (Bobbins- Harring- 
ton) B 55. 

Ethnography, grammar, and texts, Dakota (Riggs) C rs. 

Ethnology of the Ungava district (Turner) A. xi, 159. 

Ethnozoology, The, of the Tewa Indians (Henderson-Har- 
rington) B 56. 

Evolution of language (Powell) A. i, 1. 

Expression : Philology, or the science of activities designed 

for (Powell) A XX, cxxxis. 

Fenner, Clarence N. (coUalorator) . Early man in South 

America B 52. 

Fetiches, Zuni (Cushing) A ii, 3. 

Fewkes, Jesse Walter. Aborigines of Porto Rico and neigh- 
boring islands : A xxv, 3. 

Antiquities, Certain, of eastern Mexico A xxv, 221. 

of Mesa Verde National Park : Cliff Palace B 51. 

Spruce-Tree House B 41. 

of the upper Verde River and Walnut Creek valleys, 

Arizona : ^A xxviii. 

Archeological expedition to Arizona in 1S95 A xvii, 519. 

Casa Grande, Arizona A xxviii. 

Hopi katcinas, drawn by native artists A xxi, 3. 

Preliminary report on visit to Xavaho National Monument, 

Arizona B 50. 

Tusayan Flute and Snake ceremonies A xix, 957. 

Tusayan katcinas A xv, 245. 

Tusayan migration traditions A. xix, 573. 

Tusayan Snake ceremonies A. xvi, 267. 

Two summers' work in pueblo ruins A xxii. 

Fletcher, Alice C. The Hako : a Pawnee ceremony A xxir 

and La Flesche, Francis. The Omaha tribe A xxvil 



LIST OF PtTBLICATIOKS 



xxin 



Fletcher, Robert. On prehistoric treijhiuing and cranial 

amulets C v. 

Florida, The Seminole Indians' of (MacCanley) A v, 469. 

Flute and Snake ceremonies. Tusayan (Fewkes) A six. 957. 

Form and ornaments in ceramic art (Holmes) A iv, 437. 

Formulas, Sacred, of the Cherokees (Mooney) A vii, 301. 

Forstemann, E.. and others. Mayan antiquities, calendar 

systems, and history B 28. 

Fowke. r.erard. Antiquities of central and southeastern Mis- 
souri B 37. 

Archeologic investigations in James and Potomac valleys. _B 23. 

Stone art A xiii, 47. 

Furniture, dwellings, and implements, Omaha (Dorsey) A xiii, 263. 

Furuhelm, J. Xotes on the natives of Alaska 1 C i, 111. 

Games of the North American Indians (Culin) A xxiv. 

Gann, Thomas. Mounds in northern Honduras A xix, 655. 

Gatschet, Albert S. Illustration of the method of recording 

Indian languages A i, 579. 

The Klamath Indians of southwestern Oregon C ii. 

Gesture signs, and signals of the North American Indians 

(Mallery ) M 1. 

Gesture speech. Introduction to the study of sign language 

as illustrating (Mallery) I 3. 

Ghost-dance religion f Mooney) A xiv, 641. 

Gibbs. George. Xotes on the use of numerals among the 

T'sim-si-an' C i, 155. 

Tribes of western Washington and northwestern Oregon — C i, 157. 
and Dall. W. H. Vocabularies of tribes of the extreme 

northwest C i, 121. 

Gila-Salt valleys, upper, antiquities of (Hough) B 35. 

Goddard, P. E. See Bulletin 40 (pt. 1). 
Gold and other metals, t'se of. among the ancient inhabit- 
ants of Chiriqui (Holmes) B 3. 

Grammar, texts, and ethnography, Dakota fRiggs) C ix. 

Graphic system and ancient methods of ihe Mayas (Brinton).C v (pt. 3), xvii. 

Haida language. See Bulletin 40 (pt. 1). 

texts and myths (Swanton) B 29. 

Hako, The: a Pawnee ceremony (A. C. Fletcher) A xxii. 

Hale, Edward Everett. Introduction to Natick Dictionai-y 

(Trumbull) B 25. 

Handbook of .American Indian languages (Boas, editor) B 40. 

of American Indians north of Mexico (Hodge, editor) B 30. 

Harrington. J. P. The cosmography of the Tewa Indians. ..B 57. 
and Henderson. Junius. The ethnozoology of the Tewa 

Indians E 56. 

and Bobbins, Wilfred W. The ethnobotany of the Tewa 

Indians B 55. 

Hasjelti Dailjis ceremonial of the Navajo (J. Stevenson) — A viii, 229. 

Hawaii, Unwritten literature of (Emerson) B 38. 

Henderson, Junius, and Harrington. J. P. The ethnozoology 

of the Tewa Indians B 56. 

and others. The physiography of the Rio Grande valley, 

N. Mex B 54. 



XXIV BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Henshnw, H. W. Animal carvings from mounds of tUe Mis- 
sissippi valley A ii, 117. 

Perforated stones from California B 2. 

Tribes of North America, with synonymy. Skittagetnn 

family r M 5. 

Hewett, Edgar L. Antiquities of the Jemez plateau, New 

Mexico n 32. 

and others. The physiography of the Rio Grande valley, 

N. Mex B 54. 

Hewitt, J. N. B. Comparative lexicology (of the Serian and 

Yuman languages) A xvii, 299*. 

Iroquoian cosmology .1 xxi, 127. 

Hieroglyphs, Maya, An introduction to the study of 

the (Morley) B ns. 

History: Mayan antiquities, calendar systems, and (Forste- 

maun, Schellhas. Sapper, Seler. Dieseldorff) B 28. 

Hodge, F. W. Advance pages. Dictionary of American In- 

diiins north of Mexico M C. 

List of publications of the Bureau of Ethnology B 24,36. 

editor. Handbooli of American Indians north of -Mexico B 30. 

Hoffman, W. J. The Menomiui Indians A xv, 3. 

The Mide'wiwin or " grand medicine society " of the 

Ojibwa A vii, 143. 

Holden, E. S. Studies in Central American picture-writing.A i. 205. 
Holmes, W. H. Aboriginal pottery of the eastern United 

States A xx, 1. 

An ancient quarry in Indian Territory B 21. 

Ancient art of the province of Chiriqui, Colombia A vi, 3. 

Ancient pottery of the Mississippi valley A iv, 361. 

Art in shell of the ancient Americans A il, 179. 

A study of the textile art in its relation to the develop- 
ment of form and ornament A vi, 1S9. 

{coUaborator.) Early man in South America B 52. 

Illustrated catalogue of a portion of the collections made 
by the Bureau of Ethnnlosy during tlie field season of 

1881 A. Ill, 427. 

Introduction to archeologic investigations in James and 

Potomac valleys (Fowke) B 23. 

Origin and development of form and ornament in ceramic 

art A IV, 437. 

Pottery of the ancient Pueblos A iv, 257. 

Prehistoric textile art of eastern United States A xiii, 3. 

Prehistoric textile fabrics of the United States, derived 

from impressions on pottery A iii, 393. 

Stone implements of the Potomac-Chesapeake tidewater 

province A xv, 3. 

Textile fabrics of ancient Peru B 7. 

The use of gold and other metals among the ancient in- 
habitants of Chiriqui, Isthmus of Darien B 3. 

Honduras, northern, Mounds in (Gann) A. xix.(i."i5. 

Hopi katcinas. drawn liy native artists (Fewkes) A xxi, 3. 

See also Tusayan. 
Hough, Walter. Antiquities of the upper Gila-Salt valleys.B 35. 
Houses and house-life of the American aborigines (Morgan) _C iv. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 



XXV 



Houses, Navaho (C. Mindeleff) A xvir, 469. 

Hrdlicka, Ales. Physiological and medical observations 
among the Indians of southwestern United States and 

northern Mexico C 34. 

Skelet.Tl remains suggesting or attributed to early m.nn in 

North America B 33. 

Tuberculosis among certain Indian tribes of U. S 1; 42. 

In collaboration with Holmes, Willis, Wright, and Fenner. 

Early man in South America IJ 52. 

Hudson Bay territory, Ethnology of the Ungava district 

(Turner) A xi, 159. 

Hula, Sacred songs of the (Emerson) B 38. 

Hupa language. See Bulletin -JO (pt. IK 

Illustrated catalogue of collections made in 1S81 (Holmes) _^A iii, 427. 
of collections from New Mexico and Arizona in 1S79 

(J. Stevenson) A ii, 307. 

of collections from New Mexico in 1880 (J. Stevenson) A ii, 423. 

of collections from pueblos in 1881 (J. Stevenson) A iii, 511. 

Illustration of the method of recording Indian languages 

(Dorsey, Gatschet, Riggs) A i, 579. 

Implements, Omaha dwellings, furniture and (Dorsey) A xiii, 263. 

Stone, of the Potomac-Chesapeake tidewater province 

(Holmes) A xv, 3. 

Indian Territory. Ancient quarry in (Holmes) B 21. 

Industries; Technology, or the science of (Powell) A xx. xxix. 

Innuit, Terms of relationship used by the (Dall) C i, 117. 

Institutions; Sociology, or the science of (Powell) A xx, lix. 

Instruction ; Sophiology, or the science of activities designed 

to give (Powell) A xx, clxxi. 

Introduction to Natick Dictionary (Hale) B 25. 

to the study of Indian languages (Powell) I 1 and 2. 

to the study of mortuary customs (Yarrow) I 4. 

to the study of sign language (Mallery) I 3. 

Iroquoian cosmology (Hewitt) A xxi, 127. 

languages. Bibliography of the (Pilling) B 6. 

Iroquois, Myths of the (Smith) A ii, 47. 

James and Potomac valleys, .\rcheologic investigations in 

(Fowke) B 23. 

Jemez plateau. New Mexico, Antiquities of the (Hewett) B 32. 

Jenks, Albert Ernest. Wild-rice gatherers of the upper lakes-A xix, 1013. 

Jones, AVilliam. See Bulletin 40 (pt. 1). 

Justice; Sociology, or the science of activities designed for 

(Powell) A XX, lix. 

Katcinas, Hopi, drawn by native artists (Fewkes) A xxi, 3. 

Tusayan (Fewkes) A xv, 245. 

Kathlamet texts (Boas) B 26. 

Kiowa Indians, Calendar history of the (Moouey) A xvii, 129. 

Klamath Indians of southwestern Oregon, The (Gatschet) C ii. 

Kwakiutllanguage. See Bulletin 40 (pt. 1). 

Labrets, masks, and certain aboriginal customs (Dall) A iii, 67. 

La Flesche, Francis, and Fletcher, Alice C. The Omaha tribe^A xxvii. 



XXVI BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Land cessions, Indian, in the United States (Royce-Tlaomas)_A xviii, 521. 

Language, Evolution of (Powell) A i, 1. 

Philology, or the science of (Powell) A xx, xxxix. 

Langniiges. Indian. Handbook of (Boas, editor) B 40. 

Illustration of the method of recording (Dorsey, Gatschet, 

Riggs) A I, 579. 

Introduction to the study of (Powell) 1 1 and 2. 

of Mexico and Central America (Thomas-Swanton) B 44. 

of the North American Indians, Proofsheets of a bibli- 
ography of the (Pilling) M 2. 

The ^tegiha (Dorsey) C vi. 

See Bibliography, Dictionary. 

Letters, Omaha and Pouka (Dorsey) B 11. 

Lexicology, Comiiarative, of the Serian and Tuman lan- 
guages (Hewitt) A XVIII, 299*. 

Limitations to the use of some anthropologic data (Powell). A i, 71. 
Linguistic families of America north of Mexico, Indian 

(Powell) A VII, 1. 

of the Indian tribes north of Mexico (Mooney) M 3. 

See Bulletin 44. 
Linguistic manuscripts in the library of the Bureau of Eth- 
nology, Catalogue of (Pilling) A i, 553. 

Linguistic stocks north of Mexico, map of (Powell) M 4, 7. 

List of publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology B 24, 31, 36, 49 ; 

A xxviii. 

Literature of Hawaii, Unwritten (Emerson) B 38. 

Louisiana, Choctaw of Bayou Lacomb, St. Tammany parish 

(Buslinell) B 48. 

MacCauley, Clay. The Seminole Indians of Florida A v, 469. 

McGee, W J. Preface to the Pamunkey Indians of Virginia 

(Pollard) B 17. 

Prefatory note to the Maya year (Thomas) B IS. 

Primitive numbers A xis, S21. 

The Seri Indians A xvii, 1. 

The Siouan Indians A xv, 153. 

and MuElz. M. A. Primitive trephining in Peru A xvi, 3. 

Maidu language. See Bulletin 40 (pt. 1). 

Mallery, Garrick. A collection of gesture signs and signals 

of the North American Indians, with some comparisons. M 1. 
Introduction to the study of sign language among the 
North American Indians as illustrating the gesture 

speech of mankind I 3. 

Pictographs of the North American Indians; a preliminary 

paper A iv, 3. 

Picture writing of the American Indians ^V x, 3. 

Sign language among North American Indians compared 

with that among other peoples and deaf-mutes .\ i, 263. 

Man, early, in North America, Skeletal remains of 

(Hrdliflja) B 33. 

Man. Early, in South America (Hrdlicka and others) B 52. 

Manuscripts, linguistic, in the library of the Bureau of Eth- 
nology. Catalogue of (Pilling) A i, 553. 

Notes on certain Maya and Mexican manuscripts 

(Thomas) A ill, 3. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS XXVII 

Mamiscript. Troiino. A study of the (Thomas i C v. 

Map of linguistic stoolis uorth of Mexico (Powell) M 4, 7. 

Masks, labrets, and certain aboriginal customs (Dall) A iii, 67. 

Massachusetts. See Natick. 

Matthews, Washington. Navajo silversmiths A ii, 1G7. 

Navajo weavers A in, 371. 

The mountain chant: a Navajo ceremony A v, 379. 

Maya and Mexican manuscripts. Notes on certain (Thomas) _A in, 3. 

Maya codices, Aids to the study of the (Thomas) A vi, 253. 

Maya hierogljTDhs, An introduction to the study of (Morley)_B 58. 
Mayan antiquities, calendar systems, and history (Forste- 

mauu, Schellhas, Sapper, Seler, Dieseldorff) B 2S. 

calendar systems (Thomas) A xix, 693, and 

XXII. 

Mayas, Graphic system and ancient methods of the ( Brintuu ) _C v ( pt. 3) , xvii. 

Maya year (Thomas) B IS. 

Day symbols of the (Thomas) A, xvi, 399. 

Medical observations among southwestern Indians 

(HrdliSka) B 34. 

Medicine-men of the Aijache, The (Bourke) A ix, 443. 

Menomini Indians. The (Hoffman) A xiv, 3. 

Mesa Verde National Park, Antiquities of: Cliff Palace 

(Fewkes) B 51. 

Spruce-tree House (Few^kes) B 41. 

Metals, Use of gold and other, among the ancient inhabitants 

of Chiriqui (Holmes) ' B 3. 

Mexican and Central American antiquities and calendar sys- 
tems (Seler) 1 B 28. 

Mexican and Maya manuscripts. Notes on certain (Thomas) -A iii, 3. 
Mexico and Central America, Indian languages of (Thomas- 

Swanton) B 44. 

Numeral systems of (Thomas) A xix, S53. 

Mexico, eastern. Certain antiquities of (Fewkes) A xxv. 221. 

northern. Physiological and medical observations among 

the Indians of (Hrdlicka) B 34. 

Michelson, Truman. Preliminary report on the linguistic 

classification of Algonquian tribes A xxviii. 

See Bulletin 40 (pt, 1). 
Mide'wiwin or "grand medicine society" of the Ojibwa, 

The (Hoffman) A vii, 143. 

Migration traditions, Tusayan (Fewkes) A xix, 573. 

ilindeleff, C. Aboriginal remains in Verde valley, Arizona__A xiii, 179. 

Casa Grande ruin A xiii, 2S9. 

Cliff-ruins of Canyon de Chelly, Arizona A xvi, 73. 

Localization of Tusayan clans A xix, 635. 

Navaho houses A xvii, 469. 

Repair of Casa Grande ruin in 1891 V xv. 315. 

Mindeleff, V. A study of pueblo architecture: Tusayan 

and Cibola A vjii, 3. 

Missions, Indian, north of Mexico (Mooney) M 9. 

Mississippi valley. Ancient pottery of the (Holmes) A iv, ;361. 

Animal carvings from mounds of the (Henshaw) A ii. 117. 

Lower. Indian tribes of (Swanton) B 43. 

Missouri, central and southeastern. Antiquities of (Fowke)-B 37. 

20903°— 28 ETH— 12 22 



XXVm BUREAU or AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Mooney, James. Calendar history of the Kiowa Indians A xvii, 129. 

Indian missions nortli of Mexico M 9. 

Linguistic families of Indian trihes north of Mexico M 3. 

Myths of the Cheroliee A xix, 3. 

Sacred formulas of the Cherolsees A vii, 301. 

Siouan tribes of the East B 22. 

The Ghost-dance religion, with a sketch of the Sioux out- 
break of 1890 A XIV, 641. 

Morgan, Lewis H. Houses and house-life of the American 

aborigines C iv. 

Morley, Sylvanus G. An introduction to the study of the 

Maya hieroglyphs B 58. 

Mortuary customs. Introduction to the study of (Yarrow) I 4. 

of the North American Indians (Yarrow) A i, 87. 

Mound explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology (Thomas) __ A xii, 3; B4. 
Mounds, Burial, of the northern sections of the United 

States (Thomas) A v, 3. 

in northern Honduras (Gann) A xix, 655. 

of the Mississippi valley. Animal carvings from (Hen- 

shaw) A 11,117. 

Ohio. The problem of the (Thomas) B 8. 

prehistoric, east of the Rocky Mountains, Catalogue of 

(Thomas) B 12. 

Mountain chant: a Navajo ceremony (Matthews) A v, 379. 

Muniz, M. A., and McGee, W J. Primitive trephining in Peru_ A xvi, 3. 
Murdoch. John. Ethnological results of the Point Barrow 

exijedition A ix, 3. 

editor. Ethnology of the Ungava district, Hudson Bay 

Territory (Turner) ' A xi, 159. 

Music, Chippewa (Densmore) B 45. 

Music, Chippewa — II (Densmore) B 53. 

Muskhogean languages. Bibliography of the (Pilling) B 9. 

Mythology of the North American Indians (Powell) A i, 17. 

Myths : 

of the Cherokee (Mooney) A xix, 3. 

of theHaida (Swanton) B 29. 

of the Iroquois (Smith) A ii, 47. 

of theTlingit (Swanton) B 39. 

Ziini creation, Outlines of (Cushing) A xiii, 321. 

Natick dictionary (Trumbull), with introduction by Edward 

'Everett Hale B 25. 

Navaho houses (C. Mindeleff) A xvii,469. 

National Monument, Arizona, visit to (Fewkes) B 50. 

Navajo ceremony. The mountain chant, a (Matthews) A v, 379. 

Indians, Ceremonial of Hasjeltl Dalljis and mythical sand 

painting of the (J. Stevenson) .A viii, 229. 

silversmiths (Matthews) A ii. 167. 

weavers (Matthews) A iii, 371. 

Nelson, E. W. The Eskimo about Bering strait A xviii, 3. 

New Mexico. Illustrated catalogue of collections from, in 

1879 (J.Stevenson) A ii,307. 

in 1880 (J. Stevenson) A n,423. 

in 1881 (J. Stevenson) .\ in, 511. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 



XXIX 



New Mexico— Continued. 

Jemez plateau. Antiquities of the (Hewett) B 32. 

Rio Grande valley. The physiography of the (Hewitt, Hen- 
derson, and Hobbinsl B 54. 

upper Gila-Salt valleys, Antiquities of the (Hough) B 35. 

Northwest, extreme. Tribes of the (Dall) C i, 1. 

Notes on the natives of Alaska (Furuhelm) C 1,111. 

Numbers. Primitive (JIcGee) A xix, 821. 

Numerals, Note on the use of, among the T'sini si-an' (Gibbs) _ C i, 155. 

Numeral systems of Mexico and Central America (Thomas) __. A six, 853. 

Ofo, Biloxi-, dictionary (Dorsey-Swanton) B 47. 

Ohio mounds. The problem of the'(Thomas) B 8. 

Ohio, The circular, square, and octagonal earthworks of 

(Thomas) B 10. 

Ojibwa, The Mide'wiwin or " grand medicine society " of 

the (Hoffman) A vii, 143. 

See Chippewa. 

Omaha and Ponka letters (Dorsey) B 11. 

Omaha dwellings, furniture, and implements (Dorsey) A xiii, 263. 

sociology (Dorsey) A in, 205. 

tribe, The (Fletcher-La Flesche) A xxvii. 

Opinions; Sophiology, or the science of (Powell) A xx.clxxl. 

Oregon, northwestern. Tribes of (Gibbs) C i, 157. 

southwestern. The Klamath Indians of (Gatschet) C ii. 

Osage traditions (Dorsey) A vi, 373. 

Pamunkey Indians of Virginia (Pollard) B 17. 

Pawnee ceremony. The Hako, a (A. C. Fletcher) A xxii. 

Perforated stones from California (Henshaw) B 2. 

Peru, ancient, Primitive trephining in (Muiiiz-McGee) A xvi, 3. 

Textile fabrics of (Holmes) B 7. 

Philology, or the science of activities designed for expres- 
sion (Powell) A XX, cxxxix. 

Physiography, The, of the Rio Grande valley, X. Mex., in 
relation to Pueblo culture (Hewett, Henderson, and 

Robbins) B 54. 

Physiological and medical observations (Hrdllfka) B 34. 

Pictographs of the North American Indians (Mallery) A iv,3. 

Picture-writingof the American Indians (Mallery) A x, 3. 

Studies in Central American (Holden) A i, 205. 

Pilling, J. C. Bibliography of the Algonquian languages B 13. 

Bibliography of the Athapascan languages B 14. 

Bibliography of the Chinookan languages B 15. 

Bibliography of the Eskimo language B 1. 

Bibliography of the Iroquoian languages B 6. 

Bibliography of the Muskhogean languages B 9. 

Bibliography of the Salishan languages B 16. 

Bibliography of the Siouan languages B 5. 

Bibliography of the Wakashan languages B 19. 

Catalogue of linguistic manuscripts in the library of the 

Bureau of Ethnology A i, 553 

Proof sheets of a bibliography of the languages of the 

North American Indians M 2. 



XXX 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



Pima Indiaus, Tlie (Kussell) A xxvi, 3. 

Pleasure ; EstlietoloKy. or the science of activities designed 

to give (I'ovvell) . A xix, Iv. 

Point Barrow expedition, Ethnological results of the 

(Murdoch) A ix, 3. 

Pollard, J. G. The I'ainuukey Induius of Virginia B 17. 

Pouija and Oruaha letters (Dorsey) B 11. 

Porto Rico and neighboring islands. Aborigines of 

(FewUes) A xxv, 3. 

Potomac and James valleys, Archeologie Investigations in 

(Fowke) B 23. 

Potomac-Chesapeake tidewater province, Stone implements 

of (Holmes) A xv, .3. 

Pottery, Aboriginal, of the eastern United States (Holmes)_A xx, 3. 

Ancient, of the Mississippi valley (Holmes) A iv, .361. 

of the ancient Pueblos (Holmes) A iv, 257. 

Prehistoric textile fabrics of the United States, derived 

from impressions on (Holmes) A iii, 393, 

Pueblo, A study of, as illustrative of Zuni culture growth 

(Gushing) A iv, 467. 

Powell, J. W. Esthetology, or the science of activities de- 
signed to give pleasure A xix, Iv. 

Indian linguistic families of America north of Mexico A vii, 1. 

Introduction to the study of Indian languages, with words, 

phrases, and sentences to be collected I 1 and 2. 

Map of linguistic stocks of American Indians north of 

Mexico M 4, 7. 

On activital similarities A iii, Ixv. 

On limitations to the use of some anthropologic data A i, 71. 

On regimentation A xv, civ. 

On the evolution of language A i, 1. 

Philology, or the science of activities designed for expres- 
sion A xs, cxxxix. 

Sketch of the mythology of the North American Indians__A i, 17. 

Sociology, or the science of institutions A xx, lix. 

Sophiologj-, or the science of activities designed to give 

instruction A xx, clxxi. 

Technology, or the science of industries A xx, xxix. 

Wyandot government: a short study of tribal society A i, 57. 

editor. Linguistics (of the tribes of California) C iii,439. 

Powers, Stephen. Tribes of California C in. 

Prehistoric trephining and cranial amulets (R. Fletcher) — C v. 

Primitive numbers (McGee) A xix, 821. 

Proljlem of the Ohio mounds. The (Thomas) B 8. 

Proof sheets of a bibliography of the languages of the North 

American Indians (Pilling) M 2. 

Publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology, List of— B 24. 31. 36, 49; 

A XXVIII. 

Pueblo architecture: Tusayan and Cibola (V. Mindeleff) A viii, 3. 

culture. The physiography of the Rio Grande valley, 

N. Mex., in relation to (Hewett and others) B 54. 

pottery as illustrative of Zuiii culture growth (Gushing) _-A iv, 467. 

ruins. Two summers' worli in (Fewkes) A xxii. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 



XXXJ 



Pueblos, nncient, Pottery of tbe (Holmes) A iv, 257. 

Quarry, Aucient. in Indian Territory (Holmes) B 21. 

Radin, Paul. Tlie Winnebago tribe : A xxix. 

Rau. Cbarles. Observations on cup-sbapeil and other lapi- 

darian sculptures in the Old World and in America C v. 

Regimentation (rowell) A xv, civ. 

Relationship. Terms of, used by the Innuit (Dall) C i, 117. 

Religion, Ghost-dance iMooney) A xiv, 641. 

Religious life of the Zuni child (JI. C. Stevenson) A v, 533. 

Rice gatherers of the upper lakes (Jenks) A xix, 1013. 

Riggs, Stephen R. Dakota-English dictionary C vii. 

Dakota grammar, texts, and ethnography C ix. 

Illustration of the method of recording Indian languagos__A i, 579. 
Rio Grande valley, N. Mex., The physiography of the (Hew- 

ett, Henderson, and Robbins) B 54. 

Robbin.s. Wilfred W., and Harrington, J. P. The etbuobot- 

auy of the Tewa Indians : B 55. 

and others. The physiography of tbe Rio Grande valley, 

X. Mex B 54. 

Royce, C. C. Cessions of lands by Indian tribes to the 
United States: illustrated by those in the State of 

Indiana A i, 247. 

Indian land cessions in tbe United States A xviii. 521. 

The Cherokee nation of Indians A v, 121. 

Ruin, Casa Grande (C. Mindelefif) A xiii, 2S9. 

Repair of, in 1891 (C. Mindeleff) A xv, 315. 

See Twenty-eighth annual rejiort. 

Ruin.s, Cliff, of Canyon de Chelly (C. Mindeleff) A xvi, 73. 

pueblo. Two summers' work in (Fewkes) A xxii. 

Russell, Frank. The Pima Indians A xxvi. 3. 

Sacred formulas of the Cherokees (Mooney) A vii, 301. 

Salishan languages, Bibliography of the (Pilling) B 16. 

Salt, upper Gila-, valleys. Antiquities of the (Hough) B 35. 

Sand painting of the Navajo Indians, Mythical (J. Steven- 
son) A VIII, 229. 

Sapper. Carl, and others. Mayan antiquities, calendar sys- 
tems, and history B 28. 

Schellhas, Paul, and others. Mayan antiquities, calendar 

systems, and history B 2S. 

Sculptures, cup-shaped and other lapidarian. Observations 

on (Rau) C v, 1. 

Seler, Eduard, and others. Mexican and Central American 

antiquities, calendar systems, and history B 28. 

Seminole Indians of Florida, The (MacCauley) A v, 469. 

Serian and Tuman languages. Comparative lexicology of 

(Hewitt) A XVII, 299*. 

Seri Indians, The (McGee) A xvii,l. 

Shell, .\rt in, of the ancient Americans (Holmes) A ii, 179. 

Sia, The (M. C. Stevemson) 1 A xi,3. 



XXXn BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Sign language among North American Indians (Mallery) A i, 2C3. 

Intro<liiction to tlie study of (Mallery) I 3. 

Signals, gesture-signs and, of the North American Indians 

(Mallery) M 1. 

Silversmiths, Navajo (Matthews) A ii, 167. 

Similarities, activital (Powell) A iii.lxv. 

Sioiian cults, A study of (Dorsey) A xi, 351. 

Indians, The (McGee) A xv, 153. 

languages. Bibliography of the (Pilling) B 5. 

See Bulletin 40 (pt. 1). 

sociology (Dorsey) A xv, 205. 

tribes of the East (Mooney) B 22. 

Sioux outbreak of 1890 (Mooney) A xiv, 641. 

Skeletal remains suggesting or attributed to early man in 

North America (Hrdlicka) B 33. 

Smith, Erminnie A. Myths of the Iroquois A ii, 47. 

Snalce and Flute ceremonies, Tusayan (Fewkes) A xix, 957. 

Snake ceremonies, Tusayan (Fewkes) A xvi, 267. 

Sociology, Omaha (Dorsey) A iii, 250. 

or the science of institutions (Powell) A xx, lix. 

Siouan (Dorsey) A xv, 205. 

Sophiology, or the science of activities designed to give in- 
struction (Powell) A XX, clxxl. 

South .\merica, Early man in (HrdliCka and others) B 52. 

Spruce-tree House, Mesa Verde National Park (Fewkes) — B 41. 
Stevenson, James. Ceremonial of Hasjelti Dailjis aud 

mythical sand painting of the Navajo Indians A viii, 229. 

Illustrated catalogue of collections obtained from the 

Indians of New Mexico and Arizona in 1879 A ii. 307. 

Illustrated catalogue of collections obtained from the 

Indians of New Mexico in 1880 A ii, 423. 

Illustrated catalogue of collections obtained from the 
pueblos of Zuiii, New Mexico, and Wolpi, Arizona, in 

1881 A III, 511. 

"Stevenson, Matilda C. The religious life of the Zunl child — A v. 533. 

The Sia A xi, 3. 

The Zuui Indians, their mythology, esoteric fraternities, 

and ceremonies A xxiii. 

Stevenson, Tilly E. See Stevenson, Matilda C. 

Stone art (Fowke) A xiii, 47. 

Stone implements of the Potomac-Chesapeake tidewater 

province (Holmes) A xv, 3. 

Stones, Perforated, from California (Henshaw) B 2. 

Studies in Central American picture-writing (llolden) A i, 205. 

Study of Pueblo architecture. A (V. Mindeleff) A viii. 

of Siouan cults, A (Dorsey) A xi, 351. 

of the manuscript Troano, A (Thomas) C v. 

Swanton, J. R., Haida texts and myths B 29. 

Indian tribes of the lower Mississippi Valley and adjacent 

coast of the Gulf of Mexico ' B 43. 

Tlingit Indians, The A xxvi, .391. 

Tlingit myths and texts B 39. 

and Dorsey, James Owen. Biloxi-Ofo dictionary B 47. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 



XXXIII 



Swanton. J. R. — Continued. 

and TLouias, Cyrus. Indian limguages of Mexico and Cen- 
tral America B 44. 

editor. Choctaw dictionary (Byington) B 46. 

See Buletin 40 (pt. 1). 

Symbols. Day. of the Maya year (Thomas) .\ xvi, 199. 

Synonymy. Skittagetau (Henshaw) M 5. 

Technology, or the science of industries (Powell) A xx, xxix. 

Tewa Indians. The cosmoEtrapliy of the' (Harrington) B 57. 

ethnobotany. The, of the (Kobbins-Harrington) B 55. 

ethnozoology. The, of the (Henderson-Harrington) B 50. 

Textile art. Form and ornament in (Holmes) A vi, 1S9. 

Prehistoric, of eastern United States (Holmes) A xiii, 3. 

Textile fabrics of ancient Peru (Holmes) B 7. 

Prehistoric, of the United States (Holmes) A iir, 393. 

Texts : 

Biloxl (Dorsey-Swanton) B 47. 

Chinook (Boas) B 20. 

grammar, and ethnography, Dakota (Riggs) C ix. 

Haida (Swnnton) B 29. 

Kathlamet (Boas) B 26. 

Tlingit (Swanton) B 39. 

Tsimshian (Boas) B 27. 

Thalbitzer, William. See Bulletin 40 (pt. 1). 

Thomas, Cyrus. Aids to the study of the Maya codices A vi, 253. 

A study of the manuscript Troano C v. 

Burial mounds of the northern sections of the United 

States A v, 3. 

Catalogue of prehistoric works east of the Rocky Moun- 
tains B 12. 

Day symbols of the Maya year A xvi, 199. 

Introduction to Indian land cessions (RiOyce) A xviii, 521. 

Mayan calendar systems A xix, 693, 

XXII. 

Notes on certain Maya and Mexican manuscripts A iii, 3. 

Numeral systems of Mexico and Central America A xix, 853. 

Report on the mound explorations of the Bureau of Eth- 
nology A XII, 3. 

The circular, square, and octagonal earthworks of Ohio B 10. 

The Maya year B 18. 

The problem of the Ohio mounds B 8. 

Work in mound exploration of the Bureau of Ethnology__B 4. 

and Swanton. Indian languages of Mexico and Central 

America B 44. 

Tlingit Indians, The (Swanton) A xxvi, 391. 

language. See Bulletin 40 (pt. 1). 

myths and texts (Swanton) B 39. 

Traditions. Osage (Dorsey) A vi, 373. 

Tusayan migration (Fewkes) A xix, 573. 

Trephining, Prehistoric, and cranial amulets (U. Fletcher) __C v. 

Primitive, in Peru (Muuiz-McGee) A xvi, 3. 

Tribal society ; Wyandot government : A short study of 

(Powell) A I, 57. 



and 



XXXIV BUBEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Tribes, certain Indian, of tlae United States, Tuberculosis 

among (Hrdliclva) B 42. 

Tribes of California (Powers) C iii, 1. 

of Xorth America, with synonymy. Sliittagetan family 

(Henshaw) M 5. 

of the extreme northwest (Dall) i, 1. 

of the lower Jlississippi Valley and adjacent coast of the 

Gulf of Mexico (Swanton) B 43. 

of western Washington and northwestern Oregon (Gibbg)_C i, 157. 

Troano manuscript, A study of the (Thomas) C v. 

Trumbull, J. H. Natick dictionary B 25. 

Tsimshiau language. See Bulletin 40 (pt. 1). 

Texts (Boas) B 27. 

T'sim si-an', ?\ote on the use of numerals among the (Gibbs)_C i, 155. 
Tuberculosis among certain Indian tribes of U. S. (HrdUcka)_B 42. 
Turner, Lucien M. Ethnology of the Ungava district, Hud- 
son Bay territory A xi, 1.59. 

Tusayan and Cibola, architecture of (V. Mindeleff) A viii, 3. 

Tusayan clans. Localization of (C. Mindeleff) A xix, 635. 

Flute and Snake ceremonies (Fewkes) A xix, 057. 

katcinas (Fewkes) ' A xv, 245. 

migration traditions (Fewkes) ,A xix, 573. 

Snake ceremonies (Fewkes) A xvi, 267. 

Ungava district, Ethnology of the (Turner) A xi, 159. 

Upper lakes. Wild-rice gatherers of the (Jenks) A xix, 1013. 

Verde (upper) river and Walnut creek valleys, Arizona, 

Antiquities of (Fewkes) A xxviii. 

Verde valley, Aboriginal remains in (C. Mindeleff) A xiii, 179. 

Virginia, The Pamunkey Indians of (Pollard) B 17. 

Vocabularies of tribes of the extreme northwest (Gibbs- 

Dall) C 1, 121. 

See Bibliography; Dictionary ; Languages ; Linguistic. 

Wakashan languages. Bibliography of the (Pilling) B 19. 

Walnut creek and upper Verde river valleys, Arizona, 

Antiquities of (Fewkes) A xxviii. 

Washington, western. Tribes of (Gibbs) C i, 157. 

Weavers, Navajo (Matthews) A iii, 371. 

Welfare; Technology, or the science of activities designed 

for (Powell) -^ sx, xxix. 

West Indies. See Porto Rico. 

Wild-rice gatherers of the upper lakes (Jenks) A xix, 1013. 

Willis, Bailey (coUahomtor). Early man in South America-B 52. 

Winnebago tribe. The (Kadin) A xxix. 

Winship, G. P. The Coronado expedition, 1540-1542 A xiv. 329. 

Wolpi, Arizona, Illustrated catalogue of collections from, in 

1881 (J. Stevenson) A iii, 511. 

Wright, Fred E. (collaborator). Early man in South Amer- 
ica B 52. 

Wyandot government : A short study of tribal society 

(Powell) '- A I, 57. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 



XXXV 



Yarrow. H. C. A further contribution to the study of the 

mortnnry customs of the North American Inilians A i, 87. 

Introduction to the study of mortuary customs among the 

North American Indians I 4. 

Yumau and Serian languages. Comparative lexicology of 

(Hewitt) A XVII. 299*. 

Zuni child, The religious life of the (T. E. Stevenson) A v, 533. 

creation myths, Outlines of (Gushing) A xiii, 321. 

culture growth, Pueblo pottery as illustrative of (Gush- 
ing) A IV, 46". 

fetiches (Gushing) A ii, 3. 

Zuiii Indians (M. C. Stevenson) A xxiii. 

Zuni, New Mexico, Illustrated catalogue of collection* from. 

inlSSl (J. Stevenson) A iii, 511. 

See Cibola ; Coronado. 



dtt 



• I