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Full text of "Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution"

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TWENTY-NINTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1907-1908 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1916 



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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Smithsonian Institution, 
Bureau of American Ethnology, 

Washington, D. C, August 4, 1908. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the Twenty- 
ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908. 

Permit me to express my appreciation of your aid in the 
work under my charge. 

Very respectfully, yours, 

W. H. Holmes, Chief. 
Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

3 



CONTENTS 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF 

Page 

Systematic researclies 9 

Special researches 18 

Preservation of antiquities 20 

Collections 20 

Publications 21 

Linguistic manuscripts 22 

Illustrations 23 

Library 24 

Clerical work 24 

Property 25 

Note on the accompanying paper 25 

ACCOMPANYING PAPER 

The Ethnogeography of the Tewa Indians, by John Peabody Harrington (plates 

1-21 ; maps 1-29, 29A, 30; diagram 1) 29 

Index : G19 

5 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 

or THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



W. H. Holmes, Chief 



The operations of the Bureau of American Ethnology for 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, conducted in accordance 
with the act of Congress making provision for continuing 
researches relating to the American Indians under direction 
of the Smithsonian Institution, were carried forward in con- 
formity with the plan of operations approved by the Secre- 
tary May 25, 1907. 

SYSTEMATIC KESEAECHES 

As in previous yeai's, the systematic ethnologic work of 
the Bureau was intrusted mainly to the regular scientific 
staff, w^hich comprises eight members. This force is not 
large enough, however, to give adequate attention to more 
than a limited portion of the great field of research afforded 
by the hundreds of tribes, and the Bureau has sought to 
supply the deficiency in a measure by enlisting the aid of 
other specialists in various branches of the ethnologic woi*k. 
By this means it is able to extend its researches in several 
directions at a comparatively modest outlay. While seeking 
to cover in the most comprehensive manner the whole range 
of American ethnology, the Bureau has taken particular care 
to avoid entering upon researches that are likely to be pro- 
vided for by other agencies, public or private. The results 
sought by the Bureau are: (1) Acquirement of a thorough 
knowledge of the tribes, their origin, relationship to one 
another and to the whites, locations, numbers, capacity for 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

civilization, claims to territory, and theii' interests generally, 
for the practical purposes of government; and (2) the com- 
pletion of a systematic and well-rounded record of the tribes 
for historic and scientific purposes before their aboriginal 
characteristics and cultiu-e are too greatly modified or are 
completely lost. 

During the year researches were carried on in Arizona, 
New Mexico, Colorado, Texas, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, 
and Ontario. Investigations in the field were more than 
usually limited on account of the necessity of retaining 
nearly all of the ethnologic force in the office for the purpose 
of completing the revision of their various articles for the 
second part of the Handbook of American Indians and in 
preparing additional articles on subjects overlooked in the 
fu'st writing or that are based on data recently collected. 

The Chief remained in the office during nearly the entire 
year, dividing his time between administrative duties and 
ethnologic investigations and wTiting. The completion of 
numerous articles for the second part of the Handbook of 
American Indians, the revision of reports and bulletins, and 
the examination of various manuscripts submitted for publi- 
cation, especially claimed his attention. Aside from these 
occupations, his duties as honorary curator of the Division 
of Prehistoric Archeology in the National Museum, and as 
curator of the National Gallery of Art, absorbed a portion 
of his time. During the year much attention was given to 
the collections of the Division of Prehistoric Archeology in the 
National IVIuseum, especially to their classification with the 
view of removal in the near future to the New National 
Museum Building. In the same connection the Chief carried 
forward the preparation of his Handbook on the Stone 
Implements of Northern America. 

In October the Chief was called on to make an official 
visit to the Jamestown Exposition for the purpose of exam- 
ining the exhibits of the Institution and superintending 
necessary repairs. In April he was assigned the very pleas- 
ant duty of visiting Detroit, Michigan, in company with the 
Secretary, for the purpose of inspecting the great collection 
.of art works recently presented to the Smithsonian Institu- 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 11 

tion by Mr. Charles L. Freer. On this occasion, he availed 
himself of the opportunity of examining the interesting col- 
lections of art and ethnology preserved in the Detroit 
Museum of Art. 

In June the Chief was selected to represent the Institution 
as a member of the delegation of Americans appointed by 
the Department of State to attend the Pan American 
Scientific Congress to be held in Santiago, Chile, beginning 
December 25, 1908, and he began at once the preparation 
of a paper to be read before the Congress, the subject chosen 
being "The Peopling of America". 

At the ])eginning of the year Mrs. M. C. Stevenson, eth- 
nologist, was in the office engaged in preparing reports on 
her recent researches in the field. Her work at Taos, Santa 
Clara, and other Rio Grande pueblos was not so well advanced 
as to admit of final treatment, but progress was made in the 
classification and elaboration of the data thus far collected. 
Principal attention was given while in the office to the com- 
pletion of papers relating to the medicinal and food plants 
of the Zuiii Indians, the pantheon of the Zuni religious 
system, the symbolism of Pueblo decorative art, and the 
preparation of wool for weaving among the Pueblo and 
Navaho tribes. 

On May 28 Mrs. Stevenson again took the field in the Rio 
Grande Valley with the view of continuing her investigations 
among the Taos, Santa Clara, San Ildefonso, and other 
Pueblo groups, and at the close of the year she was able to 
report satisfactory progress in this work. 

Mr. F. W. Hodge, ethnologist, was engaged during the 
year on the Handbook of American Indians, the editorial 
work of which has proved extremely arduous and difficult. 
This work is in two parts. Part 1, A-M, was issued from the 
press in March, 1907, and the edition became "practically 
exhausted in a few months. Indeed, the demand for the 
work has been so great that the Bureau has found it impos- 
sil^le to supply even a third of the copies requested by cor- 
respondents. The quota under control of the superintendent 
of documents also was soon exhausted, necessitating the 
reprinting of an edition of 500 copies (the limit allowed by 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

law) ill order to fill the orders received. The main body of 
Part 2 was in type at the close of the fiscal year, and about 
250 pages had been finally printed, though progress in 
proof reading was exceedingly slow on account of the great 
diversity of the topics treated and the difficulty of preparing 
or of bringing to date numbers of articles relating often to 
obsciu'e tribes and subjects. It is expected that the second 
part will be ready for distribution late in the coming autumn. 
In the editorial work Mr. Hodge had the assistance of all the 
members of the staff of the Bureau, and especially of Mrs. 
Frances 8. Nichols, who devoted her entire time to the task. 
In addition the following specialists rendered all possible 
assistance in their particular fields: Dr. S. A. Barrett, of the 
University of California; Rev. W. M. Beauchamp, of Syra- 
cuse; Dr. Franz Boas, of Columbia University; Dr. Herbert 
E. Bolton, of the University of Texas; Mr. D. I. Bushnell, jr.; 
Dr. Alexander F. Chamberlain, of C'lark University; Mr. 
Stewart Culin, of the Brooklyn Institute Museum; Dr. 
Roland B. Dixon, of Harvard University; Dr. George A. 
Dorsey, of the Field Museum of Natural History; Mr. J. P. 
Dunn, of Indianapolis; Mi'. Wilberforce Eames, of the New 
York Public Library; Lieut. G. T. Emmons, United States 
Na"vy; Dr. Livingston Farrand, of Columbia University; 
Miss AHce C. Fletcher, of Washington; Mr. Gerard Fowke, 
of St. Louis; Dr. Merrill E. Gates, of the Indian Rights Asso- 
ciation; Mr. William R. Gerard, of New York; Dr. P. E. 
Goddard, of the University of California; Dr. George Bird 
Grinnell, of New York; Mr. Henry W. Henshaw, of the 
United States Biological Survey; Dr. Edgar L. Hewett, of 
the Ai'chiseological Institute of America; Dr. W^alter Hough 
and Dr. Ales Hrcllicka, of the United States National Mu- 
seum; Dr. William Jones, of the Field Museum of Natural 
History; Dr. A. L. Ivi'oeber, of the University of California; 
Mr. Francis La Flesche, of Washington; Dr. A. B. Lewis, of 
the Field ]\Iuseum of Natui-al History; Dr. Charles F. Lum- 
mis, of Los Angeles; Dr. O. T. Mason, of the United States 
National Museum; Mr. Joseph D. ]\IcGuire, of Washington; 
Rev. Leopold Ostermann, of Arizona; Mr. Doane Robinson, 
of the South Dakota Historical Society; Mr. Edward Saph-, 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 13 

of the University of California; Mr. Frank G. Speck, of the 
University of Pennsylvania; Mr. C. C. Willoughby, of the 
Peabody ]\Iuseum; Dr. Clark Wissler, of the American 
Museum of Natural History. I take this occasion to express 
the appreciation of the Bureau for the valued aid so gener- 
ously rendered l^y these specialists, without which it would 
not have been possible to make the work either as complete 
or as accurate as it is. 

Throughout the year Mr. James Mooney, ethnologist, 
remained in the office, occupied either in the preparation of 
articles intended for the second part of the Handbook of 
American Indians or in prei^aring answers tp ethnologic 
inquiries made by correspondents of the Bm'eau. His prin- 
cipal work for the Handbook was an elaborate and detailed 
study of the numerical strength of the aboriginal population 
north of Mexico prior to distm'bance by the whites. This 
important foundation study of American ethnology has 
never before been undertaken m a systematic and comprehen- 
sive manner, and the result proves of much scientific interest. 
Contrary to the opinion frequently advanced on superficial 
investigation, the Indians "have not increased in number since 
their fu'st contact with civilized man, but have decreased by 
fully two-thh-ds, if not three-fom-ths. California alone, the 
most populous large section during the aboriginal period, 
contained probably as many Indians as are now officially 
recognized hi the whole United States. The causes of de- 
crease in each geographic section are set forth in detail in 
chronologic sequence in Mr. Mooney's study. 

During the year Dr. John R. Swanton, ethnologist, was 
occupied entu-ely with work in the office, principally in con- 
nection with the Indian languages of Louisiana and Texas. 
He finished the analytic dictionary of the Tunica language 
and compiled similar dictionaries of Chitimacha, Attacapa, 
and Tonkawa. All the extant Comecrudo and Cotoname 
material, as well as the material pertaining to related tribes 
contained in Fray Bartholome Garcia' s Manual para admin- 
istrar los sacramentos (Mexico, 1760), was similarly arranged, 
and in addition a comparative vocabulary was constructed 
which embraces the last-mentioned data as well as the 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Karankawa and Tonkawa. During the months of May and 
June another di(!tionary was prepared, embracing all the 
Biloxi linguistic material collected by Doctor Gatschet and 
Mr. J. 0. Dorsey in 1886, 1892, and 1893. The material 
in this last work is exceptionally full and complete. The 
Comecrudo and Cotoname, the material extracted from 
Garcia's catechism, and the Biloxi, are nearly ready for the 
press. The languages referred to above, with the addition 
of the Natchez, include practically all of those in the eastern 
and southern United States that are in immediate danger of 
extinction. The information regarding most of them is very 
limited, and in order that the precious material may not by 
any misadventure be destroyed, it should be published at 
an early date. 

Besides work strictly linguistic, Doctor Swanton had in 
hand a paper on the tribes of the lower Mississippi Valley 
and neighboring coast of the Gulf of Mexico. This can not 
be completed, however, until additional researches among the 
tribes in question have been made. 

Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, ethnologist, spent July and August 
largely in the preparation of his report on the excavation 
and repair of the Casa Grande iiiins, Arizona, during the 
preceding fiscal year, which was printed in the Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collections for October. 

Doctor Fewkes was in the Southwest from October 24, 
1907, to the end of the fiscal year. From November to the 
middle of March he was in charge of the excavation and 
repair work at Casa Grande, for which there was available 
the sum of $3,000, appropriated by Congress, to be expended 
under the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution. The season's operations at Casa Grande began 
with excavations in Compound B, the second in size of the 
great compounds which form the Casa Grande group. This 
was found to be a rectangular area inclosed by a massive 
wall; within this are many buildings, the majority of which 
were once vised for ceremonial and communal purposes. On 
excavation it Avas ascertained that the two great pyramids 
in Compound B are terraced and that they contain seven 



ADMINISTRATIVE EEPOKT 15 

distinct floors. The remains of small fragile-walled houses 
resembling Pima jacalcs were found upon the tops of these 
pjTamids, and in the neighboring plazas subterranean rooms 
with cemented floors and fireplaces were unearthed under 
the massive walls. This compound was thoroughly repaired 
with Portland cement, and drains were built to carry off the 
surface water. A roof was built over the subterranean 
room, the decayed upright logs that once supported the 
walls were replaced with cedar posts, and other steps were 
taken for the permanent preservation of these interesting 
remains. 

The walls of Compounds C and D were traced throughout; 
in the middle of the latter compound is a large building, 
the ground-plan of which resembles Casa Grande. The 
most extensive structure excavated at Casa Grande is a 
clan house, a building 200 feet long, with 11 rooms, whose 
massive walls inclose a plaza. In the middle of the central 
room of this cluster there is a seat, caUed by the Pima Indians 
"the seat of Montezuma". On the north side there is a 
burial chamber, the walls of which are decorated in several 
colors. This room contains a burial cyst in which was 
found the skeleton of a priest surrounded by ceremonial 
paraphernalia. The bases of the walls of the clan house 
were protected with cement, and drains were built to carry 
off water. For the convenience and information of visitors 
aU the buildings excavated were appropriately labeled and 
placards containing historic data were posted at various 
points. Although the appropriation was not sufficient for 
completing the work of excavation and repair of the Casa 
Grande group, the amount available made it possible to 
present a type niin showing the general character of the 
ancient pueblo remains in the Gila and lower Salt River 
VaUeys. 

At the close of the work at Casa Grande, Doctor Fewkes 
was able to make a comparative study of the mounds in the 
neighborhood of Phoenix, Mesa, and Tempe, and also of the 
ancient habitations on the Pima Reservation. Several large 
ruins in the vicinity of Tucson were visited, and an extensive 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

mill, known to the Pima and Papago as Shakayiima, was 
discovered near the northwestern end of the Tucson Moun- 
tains. Several ancient reservoirs, now called " Indian tanks," 
situated east of Casa Grande, along the trail of the early- 
Spanish discoverers, were identified by their historic names. 
In a reconnoissance down San Pedro River to its junction 
with the Gila a number of ruins was discovered on both banks 
of the San Pedro and of Aravaipa Creek. A visit was also 
made to the imposing cliff-houses near Roosevelt Dam, lately 
declared national monuments by Executive proclamation. 
Ruins near the mouth of Tonto River were likewise examined. 
At the close of April, by direction of the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution, Doctor Fewkes proceeded to the 
Mesa Verde National Park in southern Colorado, where he 
took charge of the excavation and repair work of the cele- 
brated Spruce-tree House. This ruin was thoroughly exca- 
vated and its walls were repaired and put in good condition, 
in order that it might serve as a type ruin of the cliff -dwellings 
of the Mesa Verde National Paa'k. One hundred and fourteen 
rooms and eight kivas were excavated ; two of the kivas were 
furnished with roofs reconstructed like aboriginal kiva roofs 
in Pea])ody House; an approach to the ruin was graded and 
drained; and labels were placed at convenient points for 
the information of visitors. Several large rooms, hitherto 
unknown, were unearthed, and the structure of the kivas was 
carefully studied. In order to deflect the water that fell on 
the ruin from the rim of the canyon, causing great damage, a 
channel 300 feet long was blasted out of the rock on top of the 
cliff. Two collections of considerable size were made, one at 
Casa Grande and the other at Spruce-tree House. The for- 
mer includes many rare and several unique objects that shed 
much light on our knowledge of the culture of the prehistoric 
inhabitants of the Casa Grande of the Gila. The latter includes 
skulls; pottery of rare forms and decoration; stone and 
wooden implements; basketry, cloth, and other woven fab- 
rics; sandals; and bone implements of various kinds. The 
objects from the Spruce-tree House will be the first large 
accession by the National Museum of collections of objects 



ADMINISTRATIVE BEPORT 17 

from the Mesa Verde ruins. Doctor Fewkes completed his 
work at Spruce-tree House on June 27. 

Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnologist, remained in the office 
during the entire year. Much time was devoted to the collec- 
tion and preparation of linguistic data for a sketch of Iro- 
quoian grammar as exemplified by the Onondaga and the 
Mohawk, with illustrative examples from the Cayuga, Seneca, 
and Tuscarora dialects, for the forthcoming Handbook of 
American Indian Languages. In pursuing these studies Mr. 
Hewitt was fortunate in obtaining data which enabled him to 
supply translations of a number of very important archaic 
political and diplomatic terms in the native texts embodying 
the founding, constitution, and structure of the government of 
the League of the Iroquois. The meanings of these terms are 
now practically lost among those who speak the Iroquoian 
languages. As time permitted these texts were studied and 
annotated for incorporation in a monograph on the above- 
mentioned phases of the government of the League of the 
Iroquois, a work which hitherto has not been seriously imder- 
taken because of its cumbrousness, its extremely complicated 
character, and the gi'eat difficulty in recording the native 
material expressed in tens of thousands of words. 

In addition to these studies Mr. Hewitt prepared for the 
Handbook of American Indians descriptions of the early 
mission towns and villages of the Iroquois tribes, and also 
brief biographical sketches of Red Jacket (Shagoyewatha) 
and Thayendanegen (Joseph Brant) . He wTote the articles 
Seneca, Sauk, Squawkihow, and Tuscarora, and has in 
preparation the articles Woman and Wampum. 

From time to time Mr. Hewitt was called on to assist also 
in preparing data of an ethnologic natm*e for replies to 
correspondents of the office. 

During the greater part of the year Dr. Cynis Thomas, 
ethnologist, devoted attention chiefly to the prepai'ation of 
the catalogue of books and papers relating to the Hawaiian 
Islands. After the num])er of titles had reached about 4,000 
the Institution's committee on printing suggested some 

87584°— 29 eth— 16 2 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

modification of the plan of the Qatalogue, which necessitated 
a change in the form of the titles of periodicals — about one- 
third of the entire list. In connection with this, work Doctor 
Thomas made supplementary examinations of works in the 
libraries of Washington, especially the Library of Congress 
and the libraries of the Department of Agriculture and the 
National Museum, and in those of Boston and Worcester. 
He carried on also, so far as time would permit, the prepara- 
tion of subject cross-references. 

Doctor Thomas continued to assist in the preparation of 
Part 2 of the Handbook of American Indians, furnishing a 
number of articles, especially biographies, and assisting the 
editor in the reading of proofs, particularly with the view of 
detecting omissions, lack of uniformity in names, and certain 
other shortcomings. 

SPECIAL RESEAECHES 

In addition to the systematic investigations conducted by 
members of the Bureau staff, researches of considerable im- 
portance were undertaken by collaborators of distinction. 
Dr. Franz Boas, honorary philologist of the Bureau, practi- 
cally completed his work on the Handbook of American In- 
dian Languages, and at the close of the year a large part of 
the manuscript of volume 1 had been submitted to the Bu- 
reau. This volume comprises an extended introduction by 
Doctor Boas, and a number of studies of selected languages, by 
special students, designed to illustrate the introdijctor}^ dis- 
cussion. With the approval of the Secretary the first of these 
studies — the Athapascan (Hupa) — by Dr. PUny E. God- 
dard, was submitted to the Public Printer with the view of 
having it placed in type for the use of Doctor Boas in pre- 
paring other sections for the press. The highh' technical na- 
ture of the t\^esetting made this procedure necessary. Field 
work requu-ed in completing the Handbook was limited to a 
brief visit by Doctor Boas to the Carlisle Indian School in 
Pennsylvania and to certain investigations among the rem- 
nant of the Tutelo Tribe in Ontario, conducted by Mr. Leo 
J. Frachtenberg. 



ADMINISTRATIVE EEPOET 19 

Dr. Herbert E. Bolton continued his studies relating to the 
tribes of Texas, so far as the limited time at his disposal per- 
mitted, but he was not able to submit the first installment of 
manuscript at the close of the year, as was expected. An 
outline of the work undertaken by Doctor Bolton was pre- 
sented in the last annual report. 

During the year for the first time the study of native Indian 
music was seriously taken up by the Bureau. Miss Frances 
Densmore was commissioned to conduct certain investiga- 
tions relating to the musical features of the Grand Medicine 
ceremony of the Chippewa on the White Earth Reservation, 
Minnesota. The phonogi'aph w\^s employed in recording the 
songs, and after the close of the ceremonj^ and visits to other 
Indian settlements. Miss Densmore was called to Washing- 
ton, where she reproduced her records and engaged success- 
full}^ in recording songs of members of the various Indian 
delegations visiting the Capital. A preliminary report was 
submitted by Miss Densmore, with the understanding that 
it is not to be printed until additional researches have been 
made in the same and related fields. The collection of 
phonographic records thus far obtained is extensive, and the 
investigation promises resvilts of exceptional interest and 
scientific value. 

During the year arrangements were made to accept for 
publication as a bulletin of the Bureau a report on certain 
explorations among the ancient mounds of Missouri by Mr. 
Gerard Fowke. These explorations were undertaken under 
the auspices of the Archaeological Institute of America, but 
form an appropriate addition to the work of the Bureau in 
this particular field. A part of the collections made by the 
explorer were presented to the National Museum by the 
Archaeological Institute. 

It is proper that appreciation of the gratuitous labors of 
Dr. Nathaniel B. Emerson in editing and proof reading his 
memoir on the "Unwiitten Literature of Hawaii," accepted 
for publication during the 3'ear as Bulletin 38, and also the 
important part taken in the preparation, of the "List of 
Works Relating to Hawaii," by Mr. Howard M. Ballon, 
should be acknowledged in this connection. 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

PRESERVATION OF ANTIQUITIES 

The Bureau maintained its interest in the antiquities of 
the country during the year. Bulletin 35, " The Antiquities 
of the Upper Gila and Salt River Valleys in Arizona and 
New Mexico," by Dr. Walter Hough, was issued. The 
$3,000 appropriated by Congress for the excavation, repair, 
and preservation of Casa Grande ruin in Arizona, and the 
$2,000 allotted by the Interior Department for similar work 
among the cliff-dwellings of the Mesa Verde National Park 
in Colorado, were expended under the immediate auspices 
of the Smithsonian Institution, the execution of the work 
being intrusted to Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, ethnologist, as 
elsewhere reported. 

Progress was made in the preparation of a catalogue of 
antiquities, and valuable data in this field were collected by 
Mr. W. B. Douglass, of the General Land Office, whose official 
labors recently brought hun into contact with the antiquities 
of southeastern Utah. 

Diu'ing the year, by Executive proclamation, several addi- 
tions were made to the growing list of national monuments. 
Three of these are of especial archeologic interest, namely, 
the Tonto National Monument, situated in the Tonto drainage 
basin, Gila County, Ariz., including two cliff-dwellings not 
yet reported on in detail; the Gila Cliff Dwellings National 
Monument, in the Gila National Forest in New Mexico, com- 
prising the group of cliff-dwellings described in the Bureau's 
Bulletin 35 (page 30) ; and the Grand Canyon National Monu- 
ment, comprising within its limits the Grand Canyon of the 
Colorado, in which are situated innumerable antiquities, 
including cliff-dwellings, pueblos, dwelling sites, and burial 
places. The cliff-dwellings are found mainly in the walls of 
the canyon, while the other remains are s.cattered along the 
margins of the plateaus. 

COLLECTIONS 

The collections acquired diu'ing the year and transferred 
according to custom to the National Museum are liot equal 
in importance to those of the pi*eceding year. They com- 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT • 21 

prise 14 accessions, the most noteworthy being collections 
of stone relics from the Potomac Valley, by G. Wylie Gill 
and W. H. Holmes, respectively; a collection of ethnologic 
material obtained from the Tahltan Indians of British 
Columbia, by Lieut. G. T. Emmons, United States Navy; 
a collection of stone implements from Washington State, by 
C. W. Wiegel; and relics and human bones from ancient 
burial places in Missouri, by Gerard Fowke. 

PUBIJCATIONS 

During the year IVIr. F. W. Hodge continued his labors as 
editor of the Handbook of American Indians, to which pub- 
lication reference has already been made. The general edi- 
torial work of the Bureau was in charge of IVir. J. G. Gurley, 
editor. 

The edition of the Twenty-fifth Annual Report, contain- 
ing papers by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes on his explorations in 
the West Indies and in Mexico, was received from the Public 
Printer in September; Bulletin 30, the "Handbook of 
American Indians," Part 1, in March; Bulletin 33, "Skeletal 
Remains Suggesting or Attributed to Early Man in North 
America," in November; and Bulletin 35, " Antiquities of the 
Upper Gila and Salt River Valleys in Arizona and New 
Mexico," in February. The Twenty-sixth Annual Report 
was in the bindery at the close of the year. At that time 
Bulletin 34, " Physiological and Medical Observations among 
the Indians of Southwestern United States and Northern 
Mexico," by Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, was for the main part in 
stereotype form, while Bulletin 38, "Unwi'itten Literature 
of Hawaii," by Dr. Nathaniel B. Emerson, the manuscript 
of which was transmitted to the Public Printer 'early in the 
year, was largely in pages. The manuscript of Bulletin 39, 
" Tlingit Myths and Texts," by Dr. John R. Swanton, and of 
a section of Bulletin 40, "Handbook of American Indian 
Languages," Part 1, was also transmitted to the Public 
Printer. 

In addition to the work required in connection with the 
foregoing publications, Mr. Gurley devoted a portion of his 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

time to reading proof of Part 2 of the Handbook of American 
Indians (Bulletin 30). He was assisted in the general edi- 
torial work of the Bureau by Mr. Stanley Searles, detailed 
for the purpose for about two months from the proof-reading 
force of the Government Printing Office, and in the prepara- 
tion for the press of the Handbook of American Indian 
Languages, by Miss H. A. Andrews, whose work was done 
under the personal direction of the editor. Dr. Franz Boas. 

The distribution of publications was continued as in 
former years. Fifteen hundred copies of the Twenty-fifth 
Annual Report, and a like number of Bulletins 33 and 35, 
were distributed to the regular recipients, most of whom 
sent their own publications in exchange. 

There was greater demand for the publications of the 
Bureau than during previous years. The great increase in 
the number of public libraries and the multiplication of 
demands from the public generally resulted in the almost 
immediate exhaustion of the supply (3,500 copies) allotted 
to the Bureau. During the year the Bureau received from 
outside soiu-ces a number of the earlier issues of its reports 
and was thus able to respond to numerous requests from 
Members of Congress for complete sets, except the First 
Annual, the edition of which is entirely exhausted. About 
1,000 copies of the Twenty-fifth Annual Report, as well as 
numerous copies of other annuals, bulletins, and separate 
papers, were distributed in response to special requests, 
presented largely through Members of Congress. 

LINGUISTIC MANUSCRIPTS 

The archives of the Biu-eau contain 1,659 manuscripts, 
mainly linguistic. The card catalogue of these manuscripts, 
begun in the preceding year and completed during the year, 
comprises more than 14,000 titles, which give as completely 
as possible the stock, language, dialect, collector, and 
locality, as well as the character and the date, of the manu- 
script. ^Vhile it was not possible in every instance to 
supply all the information called for under these heads, the 
catalogue is found to meet all ordinary requirements of 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 23 

reference. There were several important additions to the 
collection of manuscripts during the year, mainly through 
purchase. Prominent among linguistic students who have 
recently submitted the results of their labors to the Bm-eau 
are Mr. Albert B. Reagan, who is making important investi- 
gations among the Hoh and the Quileute Indians of Wash- 
ington, and JNIr. J. P. Dunn, an authority on the Algon- 
quian languages of the Middle West. 

Owing to the number and bulk of the Bureau's manu- 
scripts, it is not possible to place them all in the fireproof 
vault, and about half the material is arranged in file cases, 
convenient of access. These manuscripts may be classified 
as: (1) dictionaries and vocabularies, (2) grammars, and 
(.3) texts. By far the greater number are vocabularies, of 
varying length and completeness. Usually they give the 
Indian name and English equivalent without recording the 
derivation or cuiTent usage of the term given. Of greatest 
value are the several dictionaries, among them a (pegiha 
(Siouan) dictionary, prepared by the late Mr. J. Owen Dorsey, 
containing about 26,000 words; the Peoria dictionary of 
Dr. A. S. Gatschet; an Abnaki dictionary in three thick 
folio volumes, prepared by the Rev. Eugene Vetromile, by 
whom it was deposited with the Bureau; and a dictionary 
in five volumes, of the Choctaw tongue, by the Rev. Cyrus 

Byington. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

The Division of Illustrations was, as heretofore, in charge 
of Mr. De Lancey Gill, who was assisted by Mr. Henry 
Walther. Illustrations for Bulletins 37 and 38 were revised, 
and a large number of edition prints for the publications 
was examined. During the year 2,810 photogi'aphic prints 
were made for use in illustrating publications, for corre- 
spondents, and for the cataloguing of negatives, which is now 
well in hand. A large number of prints of Indian subjects 
were acquu*ed Ijy piu'chase and filed for reference and for 
future use as illustrations. The photogi'aphic work included 
the making of 366 negatives, 310 of these being portraits of 
Indians of visiting delegations. The importance of the col- 
lection of portraits thus being brought together is indicated 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

by the list of tribes represented, and is especially emphasized 
by the fact that these delegations usually consist of the best 
representatives of the tribes and hence may serve as types 
of the race. The negatives are 6| by 8^ inches in size. 

The tribes represented are as follows: Apache (Apache 
proper, Arizona and New Mexico; Chiricahua Band held as 
prisoners in Oklahoma), Arapaho of northern Wyoming and 
southern Oklahoma, Cheyenne of northern Montana and 
southern Oklahoma, Chippewa (White Earth, Red Lake, 
and Mille Lac Bands), Choctaw, Coeur d'Alene, Creek, Crow, 
Eskimo of Labrador, Flathead, Iowa, Kickapoo, Omaha, 
Osage, Oto, Pawnee, Pima, Potawatomi, San Bias (Argona 
tribe, Rio Diablo, south of Panama), Shoshoni, Sioux, Teton 
Sioux (including Brule, Ogalala, Hunkpapa, and Tihasapa), 
and Yankton. 

LIBRARY 

The librarian, Miss Ella Leary, made good progress in 
accessioning and cataloguing the newly acquired books, 
pamphlets, and periodicals. Li all there were received and 
recorded during the year 392 volumes, 800 pamphlets, and 
the current issues of upward of 500 serials, while about 600 
volumes were bound at the Government Printing Office. 
The library now contains 14,022 volumes, 10,600 pamphlets, 
and several thousand numbers of periodicals relating to 
anthropology, most of which have been received by exchange. 
The purchase of Ijooks and periodicals has been restricted to 
such as relate to the Bureau's researches. 

CLERICAL WORK 

The clerical force of the Bureau consists of five regular 
employees — Mr. J. B. Clayton, head clerk; Miss May S. Clark, 
stenographer; Miss Jeanne W. Wakefield, stenographer (ap- 
pointed through transfer from the United States Civil Service 
Commission in place of Miss Lucy M. Graves, resigned 
November 1, 1907); Mrs. Frances S. Nichols, clerk; and Miss 
Emilie R. Smedes, stenogi'apher, indefinitely furloughed but 
assigned to the pay roll for limited periods during the course 
of the vear. 



ADMINISTRATIVE EEPORT 25 

PROPERTY 

The property of the Bureau is comprised in seven classes, 
as follows: (1) Office furniture and appliances; (2) field out- 
fits; (3) linguistic and ethnologic manuscripts and other docu- 
ments; (4) photographs, drawings, paintings, and engravings; 
(5) a working library; (6) collections held temporarily by col- 
laborators for use in research work; and (7) an undistributed 
residuum of the Bureau publications. 

W. H. Holmes, Chief. 



NOTE ON THE ACCOMPANYING PAPER 

The accompanying paper on the Ethnogeography of the Towa Indians, by John 
Peabody Harrington, forming the body of this report, comprises some of the results 
of the research undertaken jointly in New Mexico by the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology and the School of American Archaeology of the Archseological Institute of 
America in 1910 and 1911, other results being the papers on the Physiography of the 
Rio Grande Valley, New Slexico, in Relation to Pueblo Culture, the Ethnobotany 
of the Tewa Indians, and the Ethnozoology of the Tewa Indians, either published or 
in press as bulletins of the Bureau. Still ftirther results of the joint investigation of 
the Tewa Indians and their environment are in preparation for publication at the pres- 
ent writing. 

Mr. Harrington has devoted much time during the last few years to study of the 
Tewa Indian.-? of New Mexico, especially those of the pueblos of Santa Clara and San 
Ildefonso, and his knowledge of the structure of their language has served him well 
in the preparation of the jjresent memoir. The task has lieen perplexing, as the 
Tewa people are notably conservative in all matters pertaining to their religious and 
social organization, making it extremely difficult to obtain information bearing on 
this phase of their life and requiring the utmost discretion in dealing with questions 
relating thereto. Nevertheless Mr. Harrington has succeeded admirably in his quest, 
as is shown by the results of his ethnogeographic studies. The scope of the paper is 
set forth briefly in the author's introduction; consequently more need not be said here, 
except to emphasize the importance of the contribution in the light it sheds on the 
concepts of tlie Tewa people with respect to the cosmos, their symbolism of natural 
phenomena, their periods of time, and their mode of thought with reference to the 
application of geographic nomenclature within the restricted limits of the universe 
as it is known to them. 

F. W, Hodge, 
Ethnologist-in-Charge. 

December, 1913 



ACCOMPANYING PAPER 



27 



THE ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE 
TEWA INDIANS 



JOHN PEABODY HARKIXGTON 



29 



OOI^TENTS 



Page 

Introduction 37 

Phonetic key 39 

I. Cosmography ■ 41 

The world 41 

The cardinal directions and Iheir symbohsm 41 

Cardinal colors 42 

Cardinal Corn Maidens 43 

Cardinal mammals 43 

Cardinal birds 43 

Cardinal snakes 43 

Cardinal shells 44 

Cardinal trees 44 

Cardinal mountains 44 

Cardinal sacred water lakes 44 

Other cardinal identifications 45 

The sky 45 

Sun and moon 45 

Sun-dog 48 

Stars 48 

Constellations 50 

The underworld 51 

The earth 51 

Earthquake 52 

Landslide 52 

Water 52 

Ocean, lake .' 52 

Wave 52 

Irrigation 52 

II. Meteorology 53 

Fair weather 53 

Ice 53 

Glacier 53 

Heat, cold 53 

Smoke 53 

Steam, vapor 54 

Mist, fog 54 

Dew 54 

Frost, hoarfrost 54 

Clouds • 54 

Rain 57 

Rainbow 58 

Hail 58 

31 



32 CONTENTS 

Page 

Snow 58 

Hail-like flakes of snow 58 

Rainy snow 58 

Little holes in the snow 58 

Wind 59 

Dust-wind 59 

A\Tiirlwind 59 

Lightning 59 

Thunder, thunderstorm 59 

"Heat-lightning " 60 

Mirage 60 

Echo 60 

IIL Periods of time 61 

Year 61 

Seasons 61 

Months 62 

The Christian week 67 

Day, night, times of day and night 67 

Hours, minutes, seconds 68 

Festival 69 

Fair, carnival 69 

Time of plague 69 

IV. Geographical terms 70 

V. Place-names 94 

Introduction 94 

Large features 98 

Trails 106 

Place-names in region mapped 107 

[1] Tierra Amarilla sheet 107 

[2] Pedernal Mountain sheet 120 

[3] Abiquiu sheet 129 

[4] ElRitosheet 140 

[5] Lower Chama River sheet 147 

[6] Upper Ojo Caliente sheet 157 

[7] Lower Ojo Caliente sheet 168 

[8] Taossheet 172 

[9] Velarde sheet 197 

[10] Old San Juan sheet 205 

[11] San Juan sheet 208 

[12] San Juan Hill sheet 219 

[13] Chamita sheet 223 

[14] Santa Clara West sheet 231 

[15] Santa Clara East sheet 249 

[16] San Ildefonso Northwest sheet 260 

[17] San Ildefonso Southwest sheet 278 

[18] Black Mesa sheet 289 

[19] San Ildefonso sheet 300 

[20] Buckman sheet 322 

[21] Jacona sheet 329 

[22] Santa Fe Mountain sheet 338 

[23] Nambe sheet 357 

[24 ] Namb6 North sheet 370 



CONTENTS 33 

Place-names in region mapped — Continued. Page 

[25] Cundayo sheet 377 

[26] Tcsuquo sheet 385 

[27] Jemez slieet 390 

[28] ("ochili sheet 409 

[29] Sdiilhem sheet 457 

Unmapped places 558 

U nlocated places, not in reiriou mapped 571 

Mythic places 571 

VI. Names of tribes and peoples 573 

VII. Names of minerals 579 

Bibliography 585 

List of place-names 588 

87584°— 29 eth— lU 3 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plates 

Page 
Plate 1. a. Gallinas "Bad Lands" in the Chama drainage. 6. Scene near 
the headwaters of Santa Clara Creek, the slender truncated 
cone of Pedemal Peak in the distance 114 

2. a. Ancient trail leading up the mesa to Tsipj^y'o^wj Ruin. 6. Tsi- 

piv f'qvici Ruin 121 

3. a. P'ese,ic'<2i}wi Knm. b. The large white rock near 5u'g77wi Ruin, 

from which the ruin prol.>al)ly derived its name 152 

4. ( liff of Puye Mesa 236 

&. Potsuwi'grjwi Ruin, looking west 271 

6. "Tent rocks" near Potsutvi' grjwi Ruin, showing entrances to exca- 

vated dwellings 272 

7. "Tent rocks" near Potsuwi'oywi Ruin, capped by projecting frag- 

ments of harder tufa 272 

8. "Tent rock " near Potsutvi'griwi'Rmn, capped by projecting fragment 

of harder tufa 272 

9. Scene on Ssekewi'i Mesa, showing the old Indian trail 273 

10. Scene on Siekeui't Mesa, showing the old Indian trail 273 

J.1. Ancient deer pitfall at Natawi'i 279 

12. a. Black Mesa of San Ildefonso, from the Rio Grande, looking north. 

5. View from top of the Black Mesa of San Ildefonso, looking 
southwest, c. T/a'piy f a small mesa-like peak, from the fields 
east of the Rio Grande, looking west 293 

13. Mouth of ■\\'hite Rock Canyon of the Rio Grande, looking south .... 323 

14. Soda Dam, one mile above Jemez Hot Springs 393 

15. Gorge of the Rio Giande near the mouth of Frijoles Canyon, looking 

upstream 410 

16. Ruined cave-dwellings in the noithern wall of Frijoles Canyon, 

near Puq-urige'gvwi Ruin 112 

17. Fields in the lower part of Frijoles Canyon, below Puqwig.e'oywi Ruin . 412 

18. The Painted Cave 423 

19. a. Cochiti Pueblo, b. Santo Domingo Pueblo 440 

20. a. San Felipe Pueblo, b. Santa Ana Pueblo 500 

21. ft. SiaPueblo. b. Scene near Cabezon, N. Max., Cabezon Mesa on the 

left 519 



Maps 

Map 1. Tierra Amarilla region 107 

2. Pedernal Mountain region 120 

3. Abiquiu region ] 2!) 

4. El Rito region 140 

5. Lower Chama River region 147 

35 



36 ILLUSTRATIONS 

Pago 

Map (i. Upper Ojo Calii'iite region 157 

7. Lower Ojo Caliente region 168 

8. Taos region 172 

9. Velarde region 197 

10. Old San Juan region 205 

11. San Juan region 208 

12. San Juan Hill region ' 219 

13. Chamita legion 223 

14. Santa Clara West region 231 

15. Santa Clara East region 249 

16. San Ildefonso Northwest region 260 

17. San Ildefonso Southwest region 278 

18. Black Mesa region 289 

19. San Ildefonso region 300 

20. Buckman region 322 

21. Jacona region 329 

22. Santa Fe Mountain region 338 

23. Nambe region 357 

24. Namb6 North region 370 

25. Cunday6 region 377 

26. Tesuque region 385 

27. Jemez region 390 

28. Cochiti region 409 

29. Southern region 457 

29A. Plat of the San Cristobal or E. W. Eaton grant 480 

30. Key to the several regions mapped 558 

Diagram 1. Ground-plan of southern half of San Ildefonso pueblo, giving 

the Tewa nomenclature for the jiarts of a pueblo ' 305 



THE ETMOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS 



By John Peabodt Harrington 



INTRODUCTION 

THIS paper presents the geographical knowledge of the Tewa 
Indians of the upper Rio Grande VaUey, New Mexico. These 
Indians speak a language of the Tanoan stock, related to the Jeniez 
and Pecos languages, and again to those of Taos, Picuris, Sandia, 
Isleta, and the Pu'o. The Tewa inhabit at present five villages 
by the Rio Grande: San Juan, Santa Clara, San Ildcfonso, Nambe, 
and Tesuque; and one, Hano, among the Hopi pueblos of north- 
eastern ,\inzona. The range of subjects is about the same as that 
covered by a school textbook on geogi-aphy. The information was 
gathered chiefly in 1910, partly by systematic f[uestioning, partly as 
incidental to other infonnation. 

The difficulties encountered have been many. The Tewa are 
reticent and secretive with regard to religious matters, and then- cos- 
niogi-ajiliical ideas and much of theii" Itnowledge about place-names 
are hard to obtain. Their country is rugged and arid. Most of the 
places visited were reached on foot in company with one or more 
Inilian informants whose names for obvious reasons are not here 
given. Tire region has never been accurately mapped., AU of the 
maps at the ^Titer's disposal are full of errors, many of the features 
shown being WTongly placed or named, wlrile others are omitted 
altogether, and still others given where they do not exist. The 
occurrence of many of the names in a number of dialects or languages 
has not facUitated the work. 

As in a school geography, cosmographical and meteorological 
information is presented fust. An alphabetically arranged list of 
terms denoting the geographical concepts of the Tewa is next given. 
The treatment of place-names follows. The region in which Tewa 
place-names are more or less numerous has been divided into 29 
areas, each of which is shown on a map. The places are indicated 
on the maps by numbei-s which refer to the adjacent text. Thus 
arranged, maps and names will be found convenient for reference. 
Names of places in Spanish, English, and various non-Tewa Indian 
languages have been included. A list of tribal names and one of 
names of minerals known to the Tewa conclude the paper. 

37 



38 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETn. ANN. 29 

The section on ])lace-names is the most complete portion of the 
paper. Tnterestin<; studies could be made concerning them. The 
large proportion of etymologically obscure place-names leads to the 
important conclusion that the Tewa have inhabited for a long time 
the region at present occupied by them. Again, tlic presence in 
various Tanoan languages of phonetically differentiated cognate 
forms of Tewa place-names indicates that certain names of places 
must already have been used by the Tewa at a remote tune in the 
past, when the divergence of the Tanoan languages was still nidi or 
slight. Folk-etymologies and forms assumed by Tewa names bor- 
rowed by Sj)anish are curious. The abundance and the preciseness of 
description of the geographical terms are also worthy of special men- 
tion. In an arid and little settled region there is perhaps more need 
of the richness and preciseness of these terms than elsewhere, since 
accurate descriptions of places seldom visited are necessarj' hi order 
to identify them. 

That a remarkably large numlier of tribes and minerals are knowTi 
by name to the Tewa should also be noted. 

The writer wishes to take this opportunity of acknowledging his 
deep indebtedness to Dr. E. L. Hewett, du-ector of the School of 
Axuerican Archaeology, who suggested that the work be undertaken, 
made it possible, and has given information and advice on many 
pomts connected with it. Thanks are also due to Mr. F. W. Hodge, 
othnologist-in-charge of the Bureau of American Ethnology, who 
has aided in many ways; Mr. K. M. Chapman, Mr. N. C. Nelson, and 
Mr. Owen Wood, who assisted in the preparation of the maps; Miss 
Barbara Freire-Marreco, Dr. H. J. Spinden, Mr. T. S. Dozier, Mr. K. A. 
Fleischer, Mxs. M. C. Stevenson, Mr. J. A. Jeanf on, Mr. J. L. Nusbaum, 
Mr. O. Goetz, Mr. C. L. Linney, and several other persons, including 
the Indian informants. 



PHONETIC KEY 
I. Tewa SotWDS 

1. Orinasal ("nasalized") vowels, pronounced with mouth and nose 
passages open: a (Eng. father, but orinasal), se (Eng. man, but ori- 
nasal), e (moderately close e, orinasal), i (Portuguese sim), (i (French 
pas, but orinasal), o (Portuguese tow;), y, (Portuguese atwrn). 

2. Oral vowels, pronounced with mouth passage open and nose 
passages closed b\^ the velum: a (Eng. father), e (moderately close e), 
i (Eng. rout/ne), o (moderatelj" close o), u (Eng. r?de). 

Length of vowels is not marked unless it distinguishes words other- 
wise alike; thus W'w 'hill,' 'yZw 'turtle.' A superior vowel symbol 
indicates that the vowel is very short and apt to be grating (Ger. 
hiarrstimmig). All the vowels are breathy. Unless a vowel or 
nasal is followed bj' the glottal elusive, a glottalized elusive, or a 
sonant, an aspiration is distinctl}' heard at its end. 

3. Semi-vowels: j (Ger. jia, but very fricative), ?r (Eng. ?ray). 

4. Laryngeal consonants: h (larj^ngeal A),' (glottal elusive). 

5. Dorsal consonants: h (voiceless lenis), Jiw (voiceless lenis labial- 
ized (Latin ^ais), h (glottalized), V (aspirated), g (Eng. fiwp'er, voiced 
intiative g preplosively nasal), g. (Castilian abo^ado), qio (Castilian 
juez), ij (Eng. sing&v), yw (Eng. Lawyworthy). 

6. Frontal consonants: nf (Castilian ma«ana), t (voiceless lenis), 
i (glottalized), f (aspirated), d (Eng. lart</ing, inflative d preplosively 
nasal), •(■ (Japanese /'oku), ts (Ger. z unaspirated), fs (Ger. z glottal- 
ized), s (Eng. saw), ff (Eng. ch&vi but lenis), ff (Eng. cAew, gloJ;tal- 
ized), /(the capital form is/-; Eng. sAip), n (Eng. now). 

7. Labial consonants: j) (voiceless lenis), p (glottalized), p'^ (aspi- 
rated), h (Eng. lawiJent, voiced inflative h preplosively nasal), & (Cas- 
tilian aJogado), in, (Eng. wan). 

The sound of I is heard in some words of foreign origin, and in San 
Ildef onso polamhn i ' butterflj'. ' 

The consonants may also be classified as follows: 

Voiced constringents: j^ w. 

Voiceless fricatives: A, *,/. 

Voiceless fricative labialized: qw. 

Voiceless lenis sonoplosive elusive labialized: I'lr. 

Voiceless glottalized clusives: 1% t, p. 

Voiceless lenis affricative clusives: ts, tj. 

39 



40 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIAISTS [irni. ann. 20 

Voiceless glottal ized affricative clusives: fs, {f". 

Voiceless aspirate clusives: k\ t\ ])\ 

Voiced iiitlative clusives, preplosively nasal: <j, d, b. 

Voiced levis clusives: g., •', b. The g of this series is not as levis as 
the .« and i. 

Voicetl nasals: y, n,f, n, m. 

The following phonems are consonantal diphthongs: qio, hr, is, fs, 
if, if, (J, d, and b. In the glottalizcd clusives {I; f, ts, ff, p) the glottal 
plosion follows the oral plosion, even following the glided or sukuned 
5 and/ of the consonantal diphthongs; that is, the h, t, fs, {J", or p is 
completely immersed in a glottal elusive. It has been determined 
that, in many instances, g and <j, d and .i, and S and b are respec- 
tively but two aspects of the same phonem, as is the case with 
Castilian g and levis ff, d and levis d, b and levis b. The consonants 
occur in one length only. They may be more or less orinasal when 
contiguous to orinasal vowels. The sonancy of the voiceless lenis 
clusives begins nearly simultaneously with the explosion. 

A grave accent is placed over the vowel of a syllable weakly stressed, 
and with falling intonation. The tone and stress of the other sylla- 
bles are not written in this memoir. 

An intensive study of Tewa phonetics has been made, the results of 
which will be published soon. The reader is referred to this forth- 
coming memoir for a more complete description of the Tewa sounds, 
including explanation of a number of assimilations and other phonetic 
phenomena not mentioned above. 

11. Phonetic Spelling of Non-Tewa Words 

The symbols used in Tewa have the same value as in Tewa. 

Vowels: d (French patte), y, (unrounded it). The acute accent over 
a vQwel symbol indicates. that it is loudly stressed. A circle under a 
vowel symbol indicates that it is surd. 

Consonants: ' (aspiration), '' (a peculiar weak aspiration occurring 
in Jemez), k (marginal, "velar"', h, lenis), q (Ger. acA), g, d, b (sonant 
stops as in Eng.), f (bilabial f); f after a consonant symbol indicates 
palatalized or palatal quality. 

III. Alphabetic Order 

The alphabetic order followed in this memoir is: aq aiexq bb i d d 
e if F g g gh i i J h lew Tc I:' II m n ny y Vf o q p p p' q qio r .< 
s f it t' ts tf fs {f n u u V w. The glottal elusive is ignored in the 
alphabetic sequence. 



I. COSMOGRAPHY 

The World 

'' Opa 'the worlcF 'the universe'. The word is pei'haps akin to 
Taos papist 'sky". 'Opa includes everything that is. It is thought 
of as being alive and is worshipped as ' Opasej)/ ' Universe Man ' i^opa 
'world'; s^yf 'man in prime'). The Milky AVay is said to belts 
backbone (see p. 51). The world is represented in Pueblo art in 
various ways. Bandolier^ writes: 

Here [among the Tewa], as well as among the Queres [Keresan stock], we must 
distinguish between the heavens and the sky. The latter is a male deity called 
0-pat-y Sen." 

This statement is incorrect; ' Oj)asii)f is not the Sky but the World. 
The Cardinal Directions and Their Symbolism 

The Tewa distinguish six cardinal directions or regions, namel}-: 
north, west, south, east, above, and below. They are usually named 
in the order here given. Tewa symbolism assigns series of colors, per- 
sons, animals, plants, and inanimate objects to these cardinal directions. 

Divinities in some instances are multiplied that one may be asso- 
ciated with each direction. These cardinal identitications are not 
regarded as merely general information, but rather as a portion of 
secret ritual: therefore it is difficult to obtain information about them. 

The names of the cardinal directions are clearly descriptive in ori- 
gin. In the names of the four horizontal directions the postpound is 
pije when 'in' or 'to' the region is expressed, ;!/g'^<? when 'from' 
the region is expressed. Pije^ii {-U 'from') sometimes takes the 
place of /)'a'^e. The names are used as nouns, adjectives, and adverbs. 

Pimpije^m the north ' 'to the north,' pimp'q'ge 'from the north' 
iviVf 'mountain'; j^V^ 'toward' 'direction'; p'a'fje 'from the 
direction of). 

Tsipripije 'in the west' 'to the west', tsqmijq'ge 'from the west' 
{tsclvf unexplained, but cf. tsO'iidP' 'yesterday,' and na'otsqnna 'it is 
a little cloudy'; pije 'towai'd' 'direction'; jp'(z';7^' 'from the direc- 
tion of). 

'Akqmpije 'in the south' 'to the south', "'ahqmp'a'ge 'from the 
south' i^ahqijf 'plain'; p>i}^ 'toward' 'direction'; p'q'ge 'from the 
direction of.') 

' Final Report, pt. i, 1890. pp. 311-12; see Bibliography, pp. 585-87 of the present memoir. 

41 



42 ETIINOGEOGRAPIIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [kth. ann. 29 

T'qmplje 'in tlie cast' 'to the east', t'qmp'a'ge 'from the east' 
(fai)f 'sun';7«76' 'toward' 'direction'; j/aV/c 'from the direction of). 

Wpalcedi 'in or to the top of the world or above', ^opak&iip'q'ge 
'from the top of the world or above' (^opa 'world'; %&(i 'on top of 
' top ' ; j9"gV/e 'from tlie direction of). 

U)panuge, nqnsogem/ge 'in or to the place under the world or down 
where the earth sits', ''ojmnug.e^ii, ^ojmnug.eji'q'g.e, nansog.er)vg.eM or 
minsog.enHgi'j)'q'^e 'from the place under the world or down where the 
earth sits' i^opa 'world'; nug.e 'below' 'under' 'down' <7iu^u''\in- 
Aqv\ ge 'down at' 'over at'; ^Jc'i'y 't'arth'; .wge 'to sit'; J-i 'from'; 
p'q'ge 'from the direction of). 

Bandelier^ gives the Tewa cardinal directions as "Pim-pi-i", 
north; "Tzam-pi-i", west; ''A-com-pi-i", south; "Tam-pi-i", east;. 
"0-pa-ma-con", above; "Nan-so-ge-unge", below. These are for 
pimpije, tsqmpije, ^aJcompije, fqmpije, ''opamakowa, and nq.nsog.envg.e. 
'Opamalwva means 'sky of the world' {\/jja 'world'; mal-owa 'sky') 
and is not the proper term. Bandelier docs not name the points in 
their Tewa order. 

Directions intermediate between the cardinal directions are defined 
by postfixing jaa 'between'; thus fnjupijetsqtnpijejci^a 'northwest' 
(pimpije 'north'; tsqmpije 'west'; ja'a 'between'). More definite 
descriptions of points between cardinal directions of points appear 
not to be used. Be'e ' dell ' ' corner ' is sometimes jjostpounded instead 
oija^a. 

Terms for the cardinal directions have been obtained in the neigh- 
boring languages also. The Taos and Jcmez have somewhat com- 
plicated systems, position higher or lower than the speaker requiring 
different forms. Each distinguishes six directions. The Cochiti recog- 
nize six directions, which they name in the same order as do the 
Tewa. 

CABDINAL COLORS 

The color symbolism is the same at all the Tewa villages. It has 
been obtained b}' the writer from all of them, that of some from a 
considerable number of informants. This s^'mbolism differs from 
that of some other Pueblo and non-Pueblo tribes of tte Southwest. 
Thus, the Ziuii and the Hopi color scheme assigns blue to the north 
and yellow to the west, but otherwise is the same as the Tewa. The 
cardinal colors of Isleta have been obtained by Gatschet,^ of Zuni by 
Mrs. Stevenson,- of the Navaho by the Franciscan Fathers^ and 
others, of the Apache by (ratschet,- of the Diegueno by Waterman.* 

I Final Report, pt. i, p. 311, 1890. 

: Handbook Inds., pt. i, p. 323, 1907. 

3 The Franciscan Fatliers, An Etlinologic Dictionary of tlie Navabo Language, p. 55, Saint Michaels, 
Ariz., 1910. 

<The Religious Practices o( the Diegueno Indians {Vniv. of Calif. Pubis, in Amer. Archxol. and 
EthnoL, vol. 8, pp. 332-4, 1910.) 



HARRINGTON-] COSMOGRAPHY 43 

The Tew:i colors are: noi-th, f.sqtjwxT' 'blue' 'green'; west, fsejP' 
'yellow"; south, pPi'' 'red'; east, tsse'l'^ 'white'; above, tssege'P' 'all- 
colored' or iseynsege^P^ 'variously colored'; below, j?'^7idP* 'black'. 

Baiidelier's information,' probably obtained b}' him at San Juan, is 
.identical. An old Tewa of San Ildefonso said that this assignment 
of colors seems very natural to him. The north always looks blue to 
him, he saj's. The west is j'ellow, for it is not as bright as the east. 
The south is hot and reddish. The east is white just before the sun 
rises. The above is a mixture of all colors, like the sky, and the 
below is black. The Tewa do not seem to be aware that neighboring 
tril)es assign difl'erent colors. 

In connection with Tewa color symbolism Bandelier says:' "The 
summer sun is green, the winter sun yellow." "The winter rainbow 
is white, the summer rainbow tricolored." 

CARDINAL CORN BIAIDENS 

The Tewa mention six corn maidens, each assigned a direction 
and a color: north, K'\dsqnfu''a^°nfy,, Blue Corn Maiden; west, 
K' '\j,iseiia°nf]i, Yellow Corn Maiden; south, K\ipinu-a'"-nfy,, Red 
Corn ilaiden; east, K'y,fssenj'u'a'''nj'y., White Corn Maiden; above, 
K'y.tsx(/eH'''a-''nj"ii, All-colored Corn Maiden; below, K'y,p'e'ndi^a'''n- 
j\i. Black Corn Maiden. 

CARDINAL MAMMALS 

North, Vstyf "mountain-lion'; west, lie 'bear'; south, Ice'a 'badger'; 
east,i''^'o 'wolf; above, tse 'eagle'; below, nqtjk^s^yf 'gopher', lit. earth 
mountain-lion {nnijf 'earth'; Vxyf 'mountain-lion'). These are very 
powerful medicine animals. The sacred corn-meal is thrown as a 
sacrifice to these and other divinities. The names have been obtained 
at San Juan, Santa Clara, San Ildefonso, and Nambe. Mrs. Stevenson 
has recorded similar "beast-gods" from Zufii and Sia. 

CARDINAL BIRDS 

All investigator at Santa Clara obtained the following names of 
cardinal birds: north, Ue ' eagle'; west, ; south, qwsRvipi ' red- 
tail hawk' or taiifi 'macaw'; east, ; above, l:'y,ntsue, unidenti- 
fied, lit. 'corn bird' {l-\irjf 'maize'; tsUe 'bird'); below, katsiie, un- 
identified, lit. 'leaf bird' {hi 'leaf; tftUe 'bird'). Mrs. Stevenson 
has recorded the Zuni and Sia cardinal t)irds. 

CARDINAL SNAKES 

The Tewa of San Ildefonso mention \(ian.f\i, or sei"pent deities of 
the six regions, each with its appropriate color. Mrs. Stevenson - 
mentions (not by name) the six snakes of the cardinal regions of the 
Zuni, and gives ^ the Sia names of six serpents of the cardinal points. 

' Final Report pt. i, p. 311, 1.S90. - The Zuni Indians, p. «5. = The Sia, p. 69. 



44 ETHNOGEO(iI!AI'H V OF TTIE TEVVA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

CARDINAL SHELLS 

Tho information was obtained at Santa Clara that ''eji 'abalone' is 
tlie siieil of tho west; 'og.(/e, applied to oiivcUa and cowrie shells, 
that of the south; fssef'a, applied to large white bivalves, that of the 
east. A San Ildefonso Indian told the writer that 'eji ' abalone' refers 
to the west, but that he had forgotten the other identifications. Tho 
Navaho shell assignments are given by the Franciscan Fathers.' 

CARDINAL TREES 

The native trees assigned by the Tewa to the cardinal points have 
not been learned. Mrs. Stevenson records those of the Zuiii ^ and the 
Sia^. An investigator learned at Santa Clara four cardinal fruit 
trees: north, he 'apple'; west, Mijipoqmhe, a kind of apple that ripens 
early, lit. St. John's apple {sqyq^oatjf < Span. San Juan; he 'apple' 
'fruit'), since it ripens in St. John's month, June; south, he'sejt'^ 
'yellow plum' nud pibe 'red plum' {be 'apple' 'fruit'; tseji'' 'yellow'; 
pi 'redness' 'red'); east, hepdi^^ 'peach' {he 'apple' 'fruit'; p^o 
'hair' 'hairy'; T' locative and adjective-forming postfix). 

CARDINAL MOUNTAINS 

The cardinal mountains are the same for San Juan, Santa Clara, and 
San Ildefonso. From the other villages they have not been obtained. 
North, Kcpiyf 'bear mountain' (A:e 'bear'; piyf 'mountain'), San 
Antonio Peak (see p. .560), northwest of Taos; west, Tsikumupiijf 'cov- 
ered obsidian mountain' {tsi ' flaking-stone obsidian'; huinu 'to cover'; 
piuf 'mountain'), Santa Clara Peak [2:13];*' south, 'Okupiij^f 'turtle 
mountain' ('o/iU 'turtle'; piijy 'mountain '), Sandia Mountain [29:S3]; 
east, '' Agaffienupiijf^ of obscure etymology ('agaffsenx, unexplained; 
.pVjf ' mountain "), Lake Peak [22:54]. There is no cardinal mountain 
of the above or the below. The cardinal mountains are also called, 
respectively, according to the regions: Fimpije^ynpyjf 'north moun- 
tain' {pimpije 'north'; ^yjf locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
pi)),f 'mountain'), etc. 

Zuiii and Sia cardinal mountains are mentioned by Mrs. Stevenson, 
but not identified with mountains now existing on earth. The names of 
the Navaho cardinal mountains have been recorded by Dr. Washington 
Matthews, the Franciscan Fathers, and Dr. Edgar L. Hewett. 

CARDINAL SACRED WATER LAKES 

The cardinal sacred water lakes have been learned for San Ildefonso 
only. "When medicine water, wopo {wo 'medicine'; po 'water') is 
prepared in connection with certain ceremonies, small quantities of 

1 An Ethnologic Dictioaary of Ihe Xiivaho Langiiiige, p. 56, 1910. 

1 Tlio Zuni Indians, p. 25. 

s The Sia, p. 2S. 

* See the accompanying maps, with explanation on p. 97. 



HARRINGTON'] COSMOGHAPHY 45 

water are collected from the following four places, all situated near 
San Ildefonso Pueblo: North, Busogcpnhoi [15:17]; west, Potsq.nseji- 
niP.pol;ri [16:37]; south, Potdmrege [19:12:]]; east, Pohlfuho [19:3ilJ. 
These places are also sometimes called, respectively, piinpije^yapokwi 
'north lake' {pimpije 'north'; yjf locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; po^Hn 'pool' 'lake'), etc. The medicine water from the above 
is rainwater; that from the below is obtained by digging a hole in the 
ground where water can be reached. The water from the six sources 
is mixed in a wopo.'sa'i'' " medicine- water bowl' {wo 'medicine'; po 
'water'; sa 'to be', said of 3+; T' locative) and used ceremonially. 

OTHER CARDINAL IDENTIFICATIONS 

Mrs. Stevenson' mentions cumulus clouds, ants, "Ahayuta," etc., of 
the six regions of the Zufii. Certainly many Tewa identifications 
remain to be obtained. 

The Skt 

Jfakowa ' sky '. Distinct from 'ojxiJceri ' the above ' ; see under Car- 
dinal Directions. This is probably what Bandelier means when he 
writes:^ "Here [among the Tewa], as well as among the Queres [Kere- 
san stock], we must distinguish between the heavens [the above ^] and 
the sky. The latter is a male deity called 0-pat-y Sen." "0-pat-y 
Sen" is evidently for '' Opcm^rjf 'the World,' as remarked above under 
The World. The sky is personated as Mahnoasindo 'Sky Old Man' 
{makowa 'sky'; s&ido 'old man'). The Sky is the husband of the 
Earth, who is personified &h JVqy7i.w/jo 'Earth Old Woman'; see below 
under The Earth. 

'In the sky' is expressed by makowa without locative postfix. 
Thus the sun, moon, stars, the Christian God, etc., are said to live 
or to be in the sky: makowa t'an mlfa 'in the sky the sun lives' 
{makowa ''skj''; <'a?;y'sun'; 724 'it' 'he'; fa 'to live'). MakowakeJ'i 
means 'up in the sky' 'at the top of the sky' {IceM 'on top of). 
Tewa stories tell of a pueblo in the sky in which an Indian from this 
earth has adventures. The sun and the moon have their paths in 
the sky. 

SUN AND MOON 

The sun is called t'aijf, the moon po. T'qijf is perhaps connected 
with the word t'a 'day'. Po is used also with the meaning 'month'. 
The divinities resident in the sun and moon are called T'qng^ndo ' Sun 
Old Man ' {t'q.ijf 'sun'; sejido 'old man") and Pimtndo 'Moon Old Man' 
{po 'moon'; si^iido 'old man'). Both sun and moon ai'e male, as they 

■ The Znni Indians, pp. 21, S.so. 

2 Final Report, pt. i, pp. 311-12, 1890. 



46 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETn. ann. 29 

nvv also ill the liolicf of the Cochiteiios, and the sun is never called 
'father'' ami the inoou 'mother', as amono- the people of Taos, Isleta, 
Jenu'z, anil Ziifii. 

"The Tehuas [Tewa]," says Bandelier,' "call the sun T'han and 
the moon Po; and their principal deities bear the names of T'han Sendo, 
sun-falhcr, and P"ho Quio, or moon-woman." The moon is never 
called Pukw/'Jo, nor does T'aw<in4o mean 'sun-father.' 

Names for sun in other Pueblo languages are: Taos fulena, Isleta 
fun id/', Piro (Bartlett) "pu-e", Jemez pe or pet j'dsa, Cochiti 6 fata, 
Zuiii jd'ttohf' a {Stevenson: "Yatokia . . . means bearer of light"), 
Hopi ta'wa. The moon is called: Taos paend, Isleta paue, Piro 
(Bartlett) "a-e," Jemez pA, Cochiti td'wata, Zuiii jduna?ine, Hopi 
myjau^y.. 

There is in Tewa no name such as 'luminary' applied to both sun 
and moon. 

The sun and moon pass daily from east to west over trails which run 
above the great waters of the sky. They see and know as do Indians 
here on earth. When they set they pass through a lake to the under- 
world and travel all night to the east, where they emerge through a lake 
and start out on their trails again. They know their trails,' imhlpo\'ir)f 
'they 2'+; J i possessive; ^o "trail'). Cf. Svinskrit dyu-patha- '• sky 
trail,' Latin cursus soils. The trails are also called 'ok'impo ' vapor 
trails' {'oFiyy 'vapor'; po 'trail'). 

When there is an eclipse the sun or the moon is said to die. The 
expressions are: ndt'antfu 'it sun dies' (nd 'it' 'he'; t'qijj' ' sun'; tfu 
'to die'), nqpotfu 'it moon dies' {nq 'it' 'he'; po 'moon'; tfu 'todie'). 
The Indians never say T'qnsf,ndo nqtfu or Pos(,ndo nqtfu, for the 
divine persons in the sun and moon can not die. "Our Lords can not 
die." 

The sun is said to walk through the sky clothed in white deerskin 
and ornamented with many fine beads. The sun has a beautiful face 
tse, hidden by a mask, t'qn/q or i'qmhi \i. {fqyf 'sun'; \l 'mask'; M 
possessive). An extracted tooth is thrown to the sun. " The summer 
sun is green, the winter sun yellow."^ 

Of a ring about the sun the Tewa say T^qns^nio 'obmnq 'Sun Old 
Man hasaring' {T'qns^do, see above; 'c'he' 'it'; bu 'ring' 'circle'; 
»ia ' to have '). Mexicans of New Mexico call this phenomenon ojo 
del buey ' ox's eye '. The Indians say that it does not mean anything. 

When the sun is "drawing water" the Tewa say t'qvtbi (jwseijf ' the 
sun's tail' {t'qijy 'sun'; ft* possessive; qwseyf 'tail'). This phenome- 
non is seen when the sun is low in the sky, and the name is applied 
because the rays resemble a tail. 

The emergence hole in the lake through which the sun rises is called 
t'qyk'oji {fqr)f 'sun'; Tcoji 'emergence hole' 'roof -hole'). Nqt'qmpi, 

I Bandelier, Final Report, pt. I, p. 30S, 1S90. 
2Ibid.,p. 3U. 



HARRIN-OTON] COSMOGBAPHY 47 

nqt'qmpi'x'^ 'the sun rises', lit. 'the sun conies out' («4 'it' 'he'; t'qyf 
'sun'; jn 'to come out' 'to go out' 'to issue'; '^'* 'to come'). JVq/iwa- 
jhnxijf 'it goes high' (w4 'it' 'he'; I'waje 'height' 'high' 'on top'; 
msetjf 'to go'). Nqtsiuteinxyf 'it sets', lit. 'it enters' {nq 'it' 'he'; tsiue 
'to enter'; inserjf 'to go'). 

Of the winter solstice is said: t^qn vqunijf or mit'qywiyf 'the sun 
stands still' {fqyf 'sun'; ntl 'it' 'he'; wyjf 'to stand'). The conception 
is that the sun rises at the same place for a number of da_vs. (Cf. the 
etj'mology of ''solstice'". ) The "winter solstice marks the beginning of the 
year (j)qjo), which is then called /jqjo tsqmb"' 'new year' {pqjo 'j'ear'; 
tsqjtibi''' 'new"). Of the time following the winter solstice, w'hen the 
sun rises a little farther south each day, theTewa say t'qnf ^ih'Culkqyf 
{fqijf 'sun'; 'i 'it'; h^qU'i said to indicate motion in steps or grades; 
hqijf 'to go away'); also: t'q77 mVsp^^ 'the sun is coming' (t'qyf 
'sun'; nq 'it' 'he'; ^"* 'to come'). The summer solstice is called 
fan nqt'a or nqfqnt'a 'the sun lives' {t'qyf 'sun'; nq 'it' 'he'; t'a 'to 
live'). When the sun rises a little farther north each day the Tewa 
say: t'qnf ^ik'qdijnq'i {t'qyf 'sun'; ^i 'it'; h'qdl said to indicate motion 
in steps or grades; ;«a'2 said to indicate the direction). Also: t'qn 
ndmsey f 'tlie sun is going' {t'qyf 'sun'; nq 'it'; mxr/f 'to go'). When 
the sun runs low, as in the period about the winter solstice, it is said: 
t'qnf ''qyqetaQe nqj'i^ 'the sun moves low' {t'qyf 'sun'; ''qygeta^e 'low' 
'on the lower part of a slope' <'qyf 'foot'; ^e locative; tcCa 'gentle 
slope': nq 'it' 'he'; jV^ 'to move' 'to go about'). When the sun runs 
high, as in summer, it is said: t'qn l-imje nq.ji''^ 'the sun moves high' 
{t'qyf 'sun'; kwaje 'height' 'high' 'on top'; 7iq. 'it' 'he';/*"' 'to move' 
'to move about'). 

The Tewa have no designation for the equinoxes and say that these 
are not recognized. 

The calendar is determined by noticing the point at which the sun- 
rises. This is done by sighting along race-courses, hills, or merely 
marking the rising place on the outline of the eastern mountains. At 
Santa Clara the sun appears always to rise at different points in the 
great gap in the Santa Fe Range known as Wijo [22:29]. Who does the 
determining of the rising place and just how it is done remain to be 
learned. The Tewa believe that the sun has a house in the east, and 
has a wife. The father of the War Gods, according to Tewa ver- 
sions, is '6'^-'M?(wpi 'red cloud' {^ok'uwa 'cloud'; p^^ ' red'), who lives 
on top of Sandia Mountain [29:83], and not the Sun. 

The spots on the moon are said to be his clothing: Pos^n4uti 'a ' the 
MoonOldMan's clothing' {pos^n4t>, see above; ti possessive; \i 'cloth 
'clothing'). 

The terms applied to the rising and setting of the sun are also 
applied to the moon. 



48 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

Tlip now moon is called po tsqmhi''^ ' new moon' (po 'moon'; tsq,mbi 
'new'; 'i' locative and adjective-forming postfix). Its appearance 
marks the beginning of the Tewa month. Of the slender crescent 
is said: ^/^'*'' nqpoho 'the moon is little' (tfse^ littleness' 'little'; 
'i'* locative and adjective-forming postfix; "Ik^ 'it'; po 'moon'; fco 
'to lie' 'to be'). As the crescent grows fuller they say: mlpo'ss'^ 
' the moon is coming' (nil ' it ' 'he'; po 'moon'; ^'* 'to come'). The 
full moon is called po fagV^ 'round moon' {po 'moon'; t'agP^ 'large' 
' round '), As the moon wanes they say : 7iqpomsg.'tjf ' the moon is going ' 
{nq, 'it'; po 'moon'; ms^yf 'to go'). When the moon disappears they 
say: wlpohqyf 'the moon is gone' {nq, 'it' 'he'; po 'moon'; hqyf 'to 
be gone'). Why the moon has phases the Tewa do not pretend to 
know. 

Other expressions are: Tcwqndi'^ po 'rainy moon' 'moon seen in 
rainy weather' {kwqyf ' rain'; T^ locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix; po 'moon'). Of the moon on top of a cloud is said Pos^ndo''o¥u- 
walcewenq^seyf ' Moon Old Man sits on a cloud' {poK»do, see above; 
'ci^'?H/'« 'cloud'; h'we 'on top of; wg 'it' 'he'; 'a=?;y 'to sit'). Po- 
s^ndo nqhmiq 'Moon Old Man has a ring' {Postndo, see above; 7)q. 'it' 
'he'; hu 'ring' 'circle'; mq 'to have'). The writer learned at San Ilde- 
fonso that this is a sign that it will rain in three or four days. The 
information was obtained at Santa Clara that if the ring is white it 
means snow; if blue, rain; if red, wind. Mr. C. L. Linnej', of the 
United States Weather Bureau at Santa Fe, states that in this part 
of New Mexico the lunar ring is truly a sign that it will rain in two 
or three days. He says it is a scientific fact. The ring is seen only 
when high clouds (cirrus or alta) are in the air. These clouds are 
supposed to be in reality minute spicules of ice — frozen moisture sus- 
pended in the air. 

SUN-DOG 

Tannage ndfse 'under the sun it is yellow' (i'qyy 'sun'; nu'u 'un- 
der'; y<? locative; 7iq 'it'; fse 'to be yellow'). 

STAKS 

\igojo 'star'. The gender is mineral. MaA'owa di^agojosa 'the 
stars are in the sky' {makowa 'sky'; dl 'they 2-i-'; ''ngojo 'star'; sa 'to 
be in or at', said of 3-I-). 

Pueblo languages have the following words for star: Taos pa<iy,- 
few«, Isleta pali^lauie, Piro (Bartlett) "a-hio-sa-e," Jemez wy/;^., 
Cochiti/e'i^yato, Hopi soli'^,. 

^Agojo so'jo 'large star' {'agojo 'star'; .w'jfo ' large'). \igojo'e 'little 
star' Cagojo''e 'star'; 'c' diminutive). Pin,f \igojo Jcipo''° 'the stars 
come out' {dwf 'they 3+to me'; ^agojo 'star'; hi 'light'; ^w" causa- 
tive). ^Agnjo dimxyf ' the stars are marching' {'ngojo ' star'; ^* ' they 
2+'; mi§rjf 'to go' 'to march'). 'Agojo iir\iwiek'qnd'y 'a dim star' 



HABRINGTON] COSMOGBAPHY 49 

i^agojo 'star; my,ws£ 'heat lightning 'light'; Vaijf 'boariness' 
'hoary'; T' locative and adjective-forming postfix). ^Agojoviij,'w^,- 
l-e^i^ 'a bright star' {'agojo 'star'; my.u's^ 'heat lightning' 'light'; 
Ice 'strength' 'strong'; T' locative and adjective-forming postfix). 

TT7 ''agojo nq^iyqwayj' 'a star descends angrj'' {loi 'a' 'one'; 
^(igojo 'star'; ??4 'it'; ^''Ci?y 'angry'; ^jmyy 'to descend'). This is 
said of a falling star; curiously enough, the Jemez have the same idea: 
plise wy,/iu gfuMmi 'a star is going to fight' ' a star is chasing to fight' 
{puse 'one'; wy,hib 'star'; gfuha 'to fight'; mi 'to go'). The Tewa 
sometimes also sa}' ^agojo nqketq 'a star falls' (^ agojo 'star'; ?i4 'it'; 
heiq 'to fall', said of a single object). 

A comet is called ^ agojo qivsendi^^ 'tailed star' (agojo 'star'; 
qiosRyf 'tail'; /'s locative and adjective-forming postfix). The comet 
seen in November, 1910, excited'the interest of the Tewa. 

The Morning Star, i. e., the brightest star seen in tlie morning, is 
called merely 'agfy'o so'' jo 'big star' (agojo 'star'; so' jo 'big'). In 
this Tewa agrees with nearly all the Indian languages of the South- 
west. It is a male divinity. "One of the fetiches of Tzi-o-ueno 
Ojua, or the morning star."^ Tsigjuws^nuyydk'mca is the Lightning 
Cachina (tsiguvjxmiyf 'lightning'; ''oJcuwa 'Cachina spirit') and not 
the Morning Star. 

The Evening Star is, however, to the Tewa a female divinity. Her 
name is Tsek^ an /agojo 'dim yellow star' or TaeFqykuujo 'old 
woman with the yellowish hoarj^ hair' (Fse 'yellowness' 'yellow'; 
Kqrjf 'dimness' 'dim' 'fadedness' 'faded' 'hoariness' 'hoary'; ''agojo 
' star ' ; Jxidijo ' old woman '). She is followed by ^Oke'agojo (see below), 
who has a carnal desire for her. 

' Ohe' agojo or '' Agojo'' oke ' star of San Juan Pueblo ' (' Ohe ' San Juan 
Pueblo'; ''agojo 'star') is said to be a bright star that continually 
chases Tsek' an /agojo; see above. 

Agojos^n^v^ 'horned star' Cagojo 'star'; s^ijf 'horn'; T'' locative 
and adjective-forming postfix) is a bright star not yet identified. 

^Alcqmpijei^ ''ago'/o 'the southern star' ^akqmpije 'south'; T' loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix; ''agojo 'star'). This is a bright 
star seen far in the southern heavens. In October it is seen near 
dawn. 

The Tewa had no special name for the North Star. They did not 
notice particularly that one star in the sky is stationary. Of it might 
be said: vyinnm^mpl 'it does not march' (wi , . . pi negative; nq 
^'iV'^msEyf 'to go'). 

The Tewa did not know planets other than the Morning Star and 
the Evening Star. The latter are now one planet, now another, but 
they did not know it. 

I Bandelier, Final Report, pt. i, p. 309, 1890. 
87584"— 29 eth— 16 4 



50 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

CONSTELLATIONS 

Ivc^ntabe 'meal-drying bowl' {Jcieyf 'flour' 'meal'; la 'to dry'; he 
'vessel' 'bowl'). This name is given to the Northern Crown constel- 
lation, the stars of which studded on the black sky show beautifully 
the form of a perfect and symmetrical meal-drying jar. These jars 
are of black ware, and meal is placed in them and stirred near a fire 
in order to dry it for keeping. Thei-e appears to be no New Mexican 
Spanish name for this constellation. 

Cassiopeia is not known to the Tewa. Persistent attempts to gain 
knowledge prove this. The Indians can readily see that it looks like 
a sCujioiijf 'zigzag' or W, but never call it thus. The Mexicans 
appear to call it "la puerta del cielo." 
fe''e 'ladder'. Said to be a constellation; not j'et identified. 
^Agojoteqwa 'star house' i^agojo 'star'; <<?^wa 'house'). This is a 
large constellation seen after sunset in the west in September. The 
writer did not identify the stars. 

T().tutsi 'bull's eye' {toMi 'bull'<Span. toro; tsi 'eye'). Name of 
a constellation called in Span. Ojo del Toro. Not identified. 

JBui'a 'big round circle,' name of an October dance {bu 'ring' 'cir- 
cle'; t'a 'large and round'). This is a great irregularly-shaped ring 
of stars near the Northern Crown. Some of the stars are very dim. 
No Spanish name. 

El Corral. Spanish name of a constellation near Cassiopeia. 
Los Ojitos de Santa Lucia. Spanish name; consists of two stars, 
seen east of Orion. 

La Campana. Spanish name of a constellation of perfect bell shape, 
seen between Orion and the Pleiades. 

'(9i"aw/6«'« 'sandy corner' {\'I/qvf 'sand'; iii'u ' large low I'ouud- 
ish place'). This is a large constellation of dim stars seen near Orion. 
MqVf 'hand'. This constellation contains five stars at the tips of 
the imaginary fingers, and one at the wrist. No Spanish name. 

QwUPyjf 'in a row' {qwUi 'row' 'line'; ^ivf locative and 
adjective-forming postfix). The San Juan form is qivUiniyf. This 
refers to the three bright stars in a row in Orion's belt. The Spanish 
name is Las Tres Marias. 

Tsebege 'seven corner' {tse 'seven'; he'e 'small low roundish 
place'; ge locative). This name is given to Ursa Major, which is 
said to contain seven bright stars. Some Indians call it tseqwxijf, 
which they translate 'seven tail' or even 'dog tail' {tse 'seven', also 
'dog'; qwxijf 'tail'). It is so called because some of the stars (the 
handle of the dipper) project like a tail. Mexicans call it El Carro. 

figvjf 'in a bunch' (tigi 'bunched'; 'i^y locative and adjective- 
forming postfix). The San Juan form is flginv)f. This is the name 
of the Pleiades. The Mexicans call them Las Cabrillas. 



HARRINGTON] COSMOGRAPHY 51 

l)Vqr)f 'turkey foot' {^i 'turkey' 'chicken'; '^?;y 'foot'). This 
is an easily learned constellation of the exact form of a turkey's foot. 
The Mexicans do not know it. The Tewa also make a cat's cradle in 
the form of a ii^qyf. 

KiujioUesipu 'belly of a sling' {Jcu 'stone'; q^niie 'to sling'; sipu 
'the hollow under a person's ribs'). This is applied to the Dolphin, or 
Job's Coffin, constellation. The Mexicans interviewed did not know 
it. It has the form of a sling belly. 

Feketo 'yoke' {p'e 'stick' 'wood'; he 'neck'; to ' to be in or on'). 
This is a translation of Spanish el Yugo, 'the Yoke,' name of the 
square part of the Little Dipper, or Ursa Minor, constellation. 

The JMilky Way has two names. ' Oj)atuJcy, ' backbone of the uni- 
verse' i^oj>a 'world' 'universe'; tu 'back'; ¥y. 'hard straight^thing' 
'bone') appears to be the common name. It is called also Tsxl'oJ.o 
'whitishness' (^s^ 'whiteness' 'white'; Ji'o^io element to weaken force 
of fsse). The Taos and the Jemez call the Milky Way by names which 
mean 'backbone of the universe.' The Mexicans usually call it el 
Camino del Cielo. 

The Underworld 

No term for 'underworld' different from those meaning 'the below' 
has been olitained. (See under Cardinal Directions.) The Tewa 
declare that they believe in a single undeiTvorld, where the sun shines 
at night, pale like the moon. It was there that the human race 
and the lower animals lived until they found their way through 
Sipop'e (see pp. 567-69) and entered this world. The underworld 
is dark and dank, and this world rests on top of it. The under- 
world is never personified; it is the base of 'opa ' the universe.' 
When the sun sets in the west it passes through a lake (pokwi) and 
enters the underworld {^ojMnuge or nqnsogenuge), passing through 
the latter to reach the east {t'qmpije) again. 

In the underworld is situated Wajima, "the happy hunting-grounds" 
(see pp. 571-72). Wajima is described as a kiva-like place of the 
spirits gi the dead. The word is akin to Cochiti Wenyema and Zuni 
Wcjima. 

The Earth 

N^n))f 'the earth'; personified as NqijJtwijo 'Earth Old Woman' 
{ndyy 'earth'; Icwijo 'old woman'), wife of the Sky. Bandelier' says: 
"The earth a female deity, called Na-uat-ya Quio, and totally dis- 
tinct from the conception of below." " Na-uat-ya Quio " must be 
intended for NqTjhvijo, as the Earth is not known by any other name. 
For the peculiar "-uat-ya " cf . Bandelier's ' ' O-pat-j' ", quoted under The 
Sky. According to Mrs. Stevenson- the Zuni spesik of "A'witelin 

' Final Report, pt. I, p. 312, 1890. ^The Zuni Indians, p. 24. 



"52 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OP THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

'Si'ta (Earth Mother)". The Tewa never speak of the earth as 
' Earth Mother ' but as ' Earth Old Woman '. The Taos call the earth 
name^id, the Isleta naTniie, the Jeniez /i^iii or hy,nqpeta, the Piro 
(Bartlett) "na-f'ol-e". 

EARTHQUAKE 

JViini'qt'a 'earthquake' {nqyf 'earth'; fat' a 'to quiver' 'to trem- 
ble'). JVCinqnt' at' qpo'° '' the earth is trembling' {ng. 'it'; nqijj' 'earth'; 
t'qt'q 'to tremble'; ^o'" postpound). 

LANDSLIDE 

Wqnq^isvnfu 'the land slides or slips'; nqnqnjemu 'the land falls' 
{nq 'it'; nqy_f ^ land'; sunfa 'to slide'; jemn 'to fall', said of 3+). 

Water 

Po 'water'. "Water was not personified. It symbolized life and 
fruitfulness. 



Pohvi 'lake' 'ocean' {po 'water'; hri unexplained). 

The Tewa in primitive times knew of many lakes, and doubtless also, 
in a more or less mythical way, of the ocean. All lakes were sup- 
posed to be the dwelling places of ^ok'uwa 'cachinas' and passage- 
ways to and from the underworld. 

WAVE 

^Vy/liijf 'wave'. ''Ola (<Span. ola) is also sometimes used. 

IRRIGATION 

The Tewa constructed systems of irrigation ditches before the 
Spaniards came to their country. Irrigation ditch is called hioPo. 
A large or main ditch is called j/'jakwPo, lit., 'mother ditch' (Jtja 
'mother'; hvt''o 'ditch'). Cf. Span, acequia madre, of which the 
Tewa expression may be a translation. xV small irrigation ditch is 
called kwi'o^e ('<? diminutive). The ditches in use at the present day 
are of modern construction and supply Mexican and American as 
well as Indian farmers. In the spring the governor of each Tewa 
pueblo orders the Indians 'of his pueblo to repair the ditches used by 
the jjueblo, and each male member of the community mast do his 
share of the work. In former times the women also worked at ditch 
cleaning. 



II. METEOROLOGY 

Fair Weather 

Kfjagi./qimq. 'it is fair weather' (of obscure etymologj-: ^'/appar- 
ently Might' 'bright'; nq. ' to be'). 

Ice 

^Oji 'ice'. Wji tsqywxi'' 'green or blue ice' Coji 'ice'; tsdrjtrse 
'greenness' 'green' 'blueness' 'blue'; 'i'' locative and adjective- 
forming postfix). HJji p\^ndi''' 'black ice' (^oji 'ice'; p'iVf 'black- 
ness' 'black'; 'r' locative and adjective-forming postfix). 'Black ice' 
is found the year round on the east side of Truchas Peak [22:13], q. v. 
' Ponoi'oji 'the water is frozen' {po 'water;' nq, 'it'; ^oji 'ice' 'to 
freeze'). Nq^ojijuwa 'the ice is melted' {nq 'it': ''aji 'ice'; juwa 
'to melt'). 

Icicle is called ^ojisatejjf 'long slender form in which the ice lies' 
(^ojl 'ice'; sa 'to be in or at', said of 3+, here used with sing, of min. 
gender; teij^ 'tube' 'thing of long slender form'). 

Glacier 

There is no special term for 'glacier.' The Indians would saj' 
merely ^oji ndlco 'ice lies' Coji 'ice'; nq 'it'; ^o 'to lie'). 

Heat, Cold 

jViiftuwa 'it is warm' ()iq 'it'; suwa 'to be warm'). Said of the 
weather and of objects. JVqtsdywx 'it is hot' {?iq, 'it'; tsqijwse 'to be 
hot'). Said of the weather and of objects. J^^qti 'it is cold' 'it is 
cool' («« 'it'; ?i 'to be cold'). Said of the weather onlj'. Ho'alii'jo 
nqt'i 'it is very cold' (ho'ahVjo 'very'; nq, 'it'; ti 'to be cold'). Said 
of the weather only. Nq'o¥(ui 'it is cold' {nq, 'it'; ''oh'adi 'to be 
cold'). Said of objects onlv- 

The winter is cold in the Tewa country-, and in the summer the 
temperature rarely rises above 90° F. 

Smoke 

''hifx ' smoke '. Tobacco is smoked in connection with ceremonies, 
the smoke symbolizing clouds. 

53 



54 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OP THE TEWA INDIANS [etu. ann. 29 

Steam, Vapor 

''Ol'iijf 'steam' 'vapor'. The trails of the Sun and the Moon are 
said to consist of vapor. See Sun and Moon. 

Kwii\)Fiyf 'rain vapor' {I'wil 'rain'; ''ol'iyf 'vapor'). This is 
applied to vapor or steam sometimes seen rising from the gromid after 

a rain. 

Mist, Fog 

Sotol'uwa 'mist' 'fog' (unexplained, cf. 'ok'mva 'cloud'). JVq- 
sotok'uwand 'it is misty' (;wi 'it'; soiol:'uwa,Sis above; wci postpound). 
JVqsoiok'uwapi 'the mist is coming out' {n4 'it'; soiok\iwa as above; 
jn 'to issue'). Nqsdbok'uv:a%o 'the mist is out' {nq 'it'; soio7/uioa, as 
above; ]co 'to lie'). Sometimes the mist comes strangely thick and 
white. This is called sohol'mva tsseka^t^ ' thick white mist' {soto^uwa., 
as al)ove; fsse 'whiteness' 'white'; !•« 'thickness' 'thick'; '^'Hocative 
and adjective-forming postfix). 

Mist is rare in the Tewa country, but sometimes there are two or 
three days of continuous mist. Mist is recognized by the Tewa as 
being merely a cloud on the surface of the earth. It is often seen 
rising from the river at nightfall in winter. 

Dew 

Pose 'dew' {fo 'water'; se unexplained). ^Iposejemnde" 'the dew is 
falling' ('i 'it'; pose 'dew'; jemu 'to fall', said of 3+, here used with 
sing, of min. gender; ^e'"' present). 

Frost, Hoarfrost 

Ts^j^i 'white comes out' {fsse. 'whiteness' 'white'; pi 'to issue'). 
Nqtscepimj, 'it is (hoar-) frosty' {ml 'it'; tsc^pi^ as above; nq 'to be'). 

' Oje(}i is a peculiar sort of light frost with long spicules, seen espe- 
ciall}^ on the surface of snow when after a snowstorm a cold wind 
comes from the northeast. Small spicules of ice come down as a mist, 
and even fall in such quantity that they can be scooped up by 
the handful where they have fallen as powder on top of the snow. 
It is also called p^qv/ojeqi {p'qyf 'snow'). According to IVIr. C. L. 
Linney, of the Weather Service at Santa Fe, ^ojegi is not hoarfrost — 
there is no popular English name for it. jSWoJegin/i 'the ground is 
covered with this kind of frost' {tiq, 'it'; ^ojegi, see above; nq. 'to be'). 

Clouds 

' OFuwa is applied to any kind of cloud. It is distinguished from 
^ol-'mra 'spirit' 'cachina' by having its first syllable short; it is doubt- 
less connected etymologically with the latter word. Cf. also soiok'uu'a, 
'mist'. Words meaning 'cloud' in other Pueblo languages are: Jemez 
wdhdf, Cochiti Axnaie, Hopi (Oraibi) oitiau^if,. 



HAUKiNGTOx] METEOEOLOGY 55 

Clouds are said to come up or out and then to be in the sky. 
JVir"^''nwapPae'^ 'the cloud is coming up or out', i.e. into view above the 
horizon (nq. 'it'; ^oFuwa 'cloud'; pi 'to issue' 'to emerge'; '^'^ 'to 
come'). ' 01c uwa mahowa nifss.ijf 'the cloud is in the sky' (^oh\i,wa 
cloud'; mal-mim 'sky' 'in the sky'; w'l 'it'; '^r;y 'to sit' 'to be'). 

The verb ■''ok'uwaml means 'to be cloudy'. Nii'oVuwanq, 'it is 
cloudy' {nq, 'it'; 'ok'nica 'cloud'; nq postpound). To give the mean- 
ing that the whole sky is overcast, i^H 'all' or ts^migpije 'in every 
direction' maj- be added. 

Clouds are frequentl}' mentioned in connection with their color. 
Thus ^oFuwa fsss''P^ 'white cloud' {'ok' uioa 'clovid'; fsse 'whiteness' 
'white'; '»'* locative and adjective-forming postfix); 'ok'uwa pPP' 'red 
cloud' {^ok'uwa 'cloud'; pi 'redness' 'red'; '/'' locative and adjective- 
forming postfix). The wordjioil 'flower' is used in describing fluffy, 
cumulus clouds of white or dark color. ' Oh'uwapoVi 'fiufly, cumu- 
lus cloud' {'ok'uwa 'cloud'; j>oii 'flower') — literally 'flower cloud'. 
'Ok'mni jyoilfss^'P' or ''oh' mm, fssepoUT'' 'white flower-cloud' 'fluffy 
white cloud' {'ok'uwa 'cloud'; jwtl 'flower'; fsig 'whiteness' 'white'; '*'' 
locative and adjective-forming postfix). 'Ok'iiwa poi\ny,k'y,H'^ or 
\/Fu2va '>iy,k'y,poiVr^ 'dark flower-cloud' 'dark-colored flufi'y cloud' 
{' oF uwa '■cloucV; poi\ 'flower'; 'ny,l''u 'dark color' 'dark'; 'i'' locative 
and adjective-forming postfix). 

Names of seasons are propounded. Frequent is pajo'ok^uwa 'spring 
cloud' {pqjo 'spring time'; ''o¥ uica 'cloud"). 

Clouds, may be described by their accompaniment. TFa'oi' uwa or 
\jk'uwaictPr' 'wind cloud' {ivq 'wind'; ''oh! uwa 'cloud'; '/'» locative and 
adjective-forming postfix). P' qy / olc uwa 'snow cloud' {}> oj)f 'snow'; 
''olcuwa 'cloud'). Kunyyolcuwa 'rain cloud' {hwqrjf 'rain'; ^ok'uwa 
'cloud'). Tsiguivxn'\t,)jyo¥uira 'lightning cloud' 'thunder cloud' {tsigu- 
ws^n^yf 'lightning'; -oh'uiva 'cloud'). 

Other expressions relating to clouds follow. KivqyiP^ nq'olc^uwana 
'it is cloudy and threatens rain', lit. 'rainily it is cloudy' {hoqyf 
'rain'; T' locative and adjective-forming postfix; nq 'it'; ''oh' uwa 
'cloud'; n4 verbifying element). Wk'uwawiyhi 'a long strip of 
cloud' 'a stratus cloud' {'oh'uwa 'cloud'; wiyhi 'long, straight, and 
narrow'). ''Oh'uwahu 'long bent cloud', stratus or other cloud that 
extends far across the sky, because of its length appearing to be 
bent {^oh'uvxi 'cloud'; hit 'length and state of being bent' 'long 
and bent'). '' Oh'uwa tsqijivsep igi''^ 'small flattish bluish cloud' of the 
kind seen high in the sky on some cold days {^oh'uvja 'cloud' ; tsqyivsg 
'blueuess' 'blue'; 'greenness' 'green'; ji//gfi 'smallness and flatness' 
' small and flat ' ; 'i'' locative and adjective-forming postfix). ' Oh' iiiva- 
boJd 'cloud pile' 'cumulus cloud' {'oh'uwa 'cloud'; bo^l 'pile'). 
^Oh'inva tsnywxT' 'bluish cloud' of the kind usually large and 
high (^oh'uwa 'cloud'; tnqywse 'blueuess' 'blue' 'greenness' 'green'; 



56 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

V" locative and adjective-forming postfix). '' Oh^iwasclywir) f 'cloud 
zigzag' 'cloud in zigzag form' ^ol^uwa 'cloud'; ttqijiniyf 'zigzag'). 
^Olc'wwa'oJcq 'cloud down', applied to high whitish cirrus clouds 
(^olcuwa 'cloud'; ''okq 'down' 'fine feathers' 'fluff'). '' OJcuwalceH^^ 
'sharp cloud' 'cloud with a sharp point or edge' Cok'^iwa 'cloud' ; fee 
'sharpness' 'sharp'; T' locative and adjective-forming postfix). 
K^ si,y / ok' uwa 'mountain-lion cloud', a light-colored cloud associated 
with the north {k'se.)]f 'mountain-lion'; "'ok'wwa 'cloud'). '' 01c mua 
qwaje'i''^ ' hanging cloud ' {'ok'uwa 'cloud'; qwaje 'to hang'; 'i"' loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix).' '' Ok'uwawidl 'horizontally pro- 
jecting point of a cloud' {ok' uwa 'cloud' ; wUi ' horizontal!}' project- 
ing point'; see under Geographical Terms). '' Ok'uwapiijf 'cloud 
mountain'; sometimes applied to a cloud that resembles a mountain 
{-ok'mva 'cloud'; piijj' 'mountain'); these clouds are usually dark. 
'' Ok'uwatocue'i'^ ' scattered clouds ' {^ok'mva 'cloud'; wcue 'scattered'; 
'i'* locative and adjective-forming postfix). ^Ok'uwa qwiil 'a line or 
row of clouds' i^ok'uwa 'cloud'; qvid 'line' 'row'). Pokanu,i\\Q 
Tewa name of Julian Martinez of San Ildefonso, is said to mean a line 
or arch of clouds. '' Ok'uwa t'y, 'spotted cloud', applied to a kind 
of greenish cloud with whitish tinge (^ok'uwa 'cloud'; t'lj, 'spotted- 
ness' 'spotted'). ^ Ok'uwa p'ag'i-^ 'broad flat cloud' (^ok'uiva 'cloud'; 
yo'agfi 'breadth and flatness' 'broad and flat'; '/"' locative and adjec- 
tive-forming postfix). ^ Ok'uwa' e 'little cloud' i^ ok'uwa 'cloud'; 'e 
diminutive). 

The mythological serpents, ^A^anfy,, and cachinas, ^ok'uwa, are 
supposed to live in the clouds and to be seen sometimes by people 
when looking upward. The cachinas or deified spirits i^ok'uwa) are 
supposed ever to be present among the clouds, and the close asso- 
ciation between them and the clouds probablj^ accounts for the 
resemblance of the words ''ok'uwa and ''ok'uwa. The Tewa also 
speak of mythic persons who are known as 'ok'itwatowa 'cloud peo- 
ple' {-ok'mva 'cloud'; iawa 'person' 'people'), ^ok'mva'eny, 'cloud 
youth' {'ok'uwa 'cloud'; 'tmy, 'youth'), and 'ok'uwcia'"^nyy, 'cloud 
maiden' {'ok'uwa 'cloud'; 'a'°'nj'y, 'maiden'). These people, youths 
or maidens, are also mentioned with appropriate colors for the six 
directions.' Ok'uwapi 'red cloud' figures in the War God myth. 
The Tewa also speak of 'ok'uwateqwa 'cloud house' {'ok'uwa 'cloud' ; 
teqvxi 'house'). They tell of a pueblo in the sky above the clouds. 

The terrace, so common in Tewa art, represents clouds. Bandelieri 
says: "The clouds, the moon, lightning, and the whirlwind maintain 
[in Tewa religious paintings] the same hues all the year round." 

Tewa personal names compounded with 'ok'uwa seem to be given to 
males only. 

Tobacco smoke, soap plant suds, feathers, etc., symbolize clouds in 
ceremonies. 

1 Final Report, pt. r, p. 311, 1890. 



HARRINGTON] METEOROLOGY 57 

The shadow of a cloud is called ^ok^uwa'oh'y, i^oUuwa 'cloud'; '"^■'•ji 
'shadow'). 

Cloudiness is n^otsq^nnq, ' it is a little cloudy ' ' the sun is somewhat 
obficured by clouds' (?;4 'it'; 'ofog'^y unexplained; cf. tsqmpije, 'west' 
and isqruji 'yesterday'; '»4 'to be' postpound). 

Rain 

"The rainy season is defined, inasmuch as it is limited to the months 
of July, August, and September. . . . Weeks may elapse without 
the discharge of a single shower; then again weeks may bring a series 
of thunder-storms accompanied by floods of rain. During the other 
nine months of the j'ear there are occasional days of rain, which 
usually comes from the southeast, and lasts until the wind settles in 
the opposite quarter. The same happens with snow-storms; the 
southeasterlj' winds are their forerunners, while north westerl}' cur- 
rents bring them to a close." ' Most rains of the Tewa country come 
from the southwest, not from the southeast as Bandelier states.^ 

Rain is of supreme importance to the farmer in the Southwest. The 
Tewa religion is replete with practices and prayers the object of 
which is to bring rain and insure crops. There are also special dances 
held by the Tewa for producing rain. These are called kwQnfcUe, 
kwdnipafa-ie, or lcwqL7nj)inqnf(Ue 'rain dance' 'rain-making dance' 
'rain-power dance' {kwqtjf 'rain'; /«.^<? 'dance'; jca 'to make';j'5iM«?;y 
'magic power'). 

Rain is called kwiyy. ^Ihwi'nio'° 'it is raining' ('*' 'it'; Inoqijf 
'rain'; 'o'" progressive postpound, present). '' Il'icqnnq, 'it has rained' 
("i 'it'; kwqijf 'rain'; nq verbifying postpound, jjerfect). JViihvqy/ra- 
4(i'°' 'it wants to rain' {nq, 'it'; Tiwqyf 'rain'; ^'a causative; dcO'^ 'to 
want'). Kmqi)/e 'a drizzle' 'a little rain' (^;?/vi9y 'rain'; 'ediminu- 
tive). Kwqijf /ii'in4"' 'a little rain' {kwuijj' 'rain'; hi'iijf 'little'; 
'*'' locative and adjective-forming postfix). Bajehi "'ikwqnio'" 'it is 
raining much' (bajeJci 'much'; '/ 'it'; hwqyf 'rain'; 'o'" progres- 
sive, present). Ht^wqkwqyf 'good rain' {IiPwq 'goodness' 
'good'; Tcwqrjf 'rain'). Nqkwq.i)w\i) f 'the rain is standing', said 
when rain is seen in the distance {iiq 'it'; Jiux'njf 'I'ain'; v'iijf 'to 
stand'). jVqkivqtjwi/ifse 'the rain stands yellow', said when rain is 
seen in the distance and looks yellowish {n4 'it'; Tcwqrjf 'rain': w\i]f 
'to stand'; tse 'yellowness' 'yellow'). Wikviqnf's^^ 'the rain is 
coming' (/m; 'it'; I'wqijf 'rain'; '^'* 'to come'), fuwagl HhiaqyTcemq 
'soon it will rain' (/wwagi 'soon'; '*' 'it'; X'?^ctZ7y 'rain'; ^'ema future). 
Eioqmpo 'rainwater' 'rain' (^wifj^y 'rain'; j>o 'water'). Kw^'n^iwe 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. I, p. 15, IKdO. 

2 See Henderson, Geology and Topography of the Rio Grande Begion in New Mexico, Bull. Si, Bur. 
Amer. Ethn. 



58 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ANN. 29 

(or l-wqmpo'hi'e) nqpopi 'springs come up in tlie rain' {hwqyf 
'rain'; Iwqjnpo 'rain' 'rainwater' <J^wqijf 'rain', po 'water'; ^we 
locative; nq 'it'; po 'water'; pi 'to issue'). 

A cloudburst is called hmmpo sd'qyf ' big rain ' {hwflmpo ' rain ' ' rain 
water' < hivqr)f 'rain,' po 'water'; sdo_'r)f 'big'). 

Rainb(iw 

Kwqnt^mhe 'rainbow' (^"i/xf^y 'rain'; !'f/;y 'long cylindrical thing 
or tube'; he referring to round or wheel-like shape; wagon wheel is 
called timie). The divinity of the rainbow is Kiaqnt^mhesindo ' Rain- 
bow Old Man ' {sindo ' old man '). A rainbow on top of another is 
called kivqnt^whe hwage'irjf 'rainbow on top' {kivage 'on top'; 'iyy 
locative and adjective-forming postfix.) Bandelier^ says: "The win- 
ter rainbow [of Tewa symbolism] is white, the summer rainbow 
tricolored." 

Hail 

Sahqmhe'" 'hail' (of obscure etymology; &e'^ seems to mean 'small 
and round'). ^Isakqmbe^d''' 'it is hailing' ('j'it'; 'o'" progressive). 

Snow 

P'oijf 'snow'. Ip^nd/O^" 'it is snowing' ('*' 'it'; p'oyf 'snow'; 
'o"" progressive). Snowball is called p'qmhwu or p' qmh<ie according 
to its size {poyf 'snow'; huio 'large and round'; J^'e 'small and 
round'). For 'snowy' the adjective is formed: hu p'o'nd'i^^ 'snowy 
stone' (hu 'stone'; p'ojjf 'snow'; '*'* locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix). 

HAIL-LIKE FLAKES OF SNOW 

P'qmbew^e 'small round snow' {pQVf 'snow'; heioe 'small and 
round'; 'e diminutive) is the name given to small flakes of snow, hai"d 
like hail, which come down while it is snowing. 

RAINY SNOW 

Kwqmp' 01} J' 'rain snow' {kwqijf 'rain'i^/o^y 'snow'). Said of 
snow mixed with rain. 

LITTLE HOLES IN THE SNOW 

Little holes seen in the crust of fallen snow are called jrj'oTW^'o'e 
{p'oijf 'snow'; 7/0 'hole'; 'e diminutive). 

* ' Final Kcport, pt. i, p. 311, 1890. 



iiAKRiNGTON] METEOROLOGY 59 

Wind 

W4 'wind'. ^Twq.'o'" ' it is blowing ' 'it is windy' ('*'it'; w^'wind'; 
'o'" progressive). JV(lwq4'i'^ 'it wants to blow' 'it looks like wind' («4 
'it'; Mv| 'wind'; i^a'" 'to want'). JTegi Uwqo'° 'it is blowing hard' 
{Icegi 'hard'). A bullroarer is called v^qty, 'wind call' {wq, 'wind'; ti^ 
'to call'). Wind is produced by TTT]^7r//V> 'Wind Old WoniaTi' (wa 
'wind'; hwijo 'old woman'), who lives on Sandia Mountain [29:S3J. 

) DTJST-WTXD 

Xa'"iji'' ' dust- wind' (of obscure etymology). ^Ina^iji''o'° 'it is dust- 
windy' 'there is a dust storm' f * 'it'; 'o'" present). Mi^'iji^^¥y, 'a 
dark dust-cloud' (m'^yi'*', as above; k'y, 'darkness' 'dark'). 

WHIRLWIND 

Ndgomi 'there is a whirlwind' {nq. 'it'; cjomi unexplained). Ban- 
delier ^ speaks of the whirlwind in Tewa symbolism. 

LlGHTNlNd 

Tsiguwseny.ijj' 'lightning'. 'Itsiguwspny,ndo''e 'lightning flashes' ('^ 
'it'; t8iguu'£e.ny,ijf 'lightning'; de'e present). At the point of each 
lightning bolt there is supposed to be a t»iguw^nij,ntsv i 'lightning 
point' [tsiguwseniiijf lightning'; tsiH 'flaking stone' 'piece of flint or 
obsidian' 'arrow point'). The light accompanying a lightning flash is 
called tsil''xi]f 'meal of the point' (fei'i as above; J/xyf 'meal flour'). 
Lightning is produced b}' ^d¥uwa, who throw it from the clouds. 
Flaking stone, wherever found, is supposed to be the result of light- 
ning striking the earth. An ' ok' wwa, having hurled a tsiguwse.nnnisi'i, 
picks it up again if it is not shattered. That is why no jjerfect 
tstguwseny.ntsl' I are ever found on the earth. 

The arrows of the War Gods were of lightning; these arrows they 
stole. 

Mr. C. L. Linne}^ of the Weather Bureau at Santa Fe gives the in- 
formation that lightning caused more than twenty deaths in New 
Mexico in 1911. Three years ago a prominent Indian of Nambe was 
killed at the place called Johulian. [25:60], east of that pueblo. 

Thunder, Thunderstorm 

£wdt4 'thunder'. U]cwqtq''o^° 'it is thundering' ('-* 'it'; liwqtq, 
'thunder'; ^o'" progressive). Thunder is produced by the KirqtqJcwijo 
'Thunder Old Woman' {hwqtq 'thunder'; kwljo 'old woman'). 

1 Final Report, pt. I, p. 311, 1890. 



60 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [btu. ajjn. 2» 

There is no Tewii name for ' thundei'storni', although such storms 
are very fretjuont in summer. The Tewa speak merely of kwiUi 
'thunder' and ^itJ^^^y 'rain'. 

' ' Heat-lightning" 

My,iCci 'heat-lightning' 'light of dawn which resembles heat-light- 
ning' 'northern lights' 'brightness/ said of starlight (of obscure 
etjunology). ]^iYm\iwmtfu 'the heat-lightning leaps up' {nq, 'it'; 
mibwc^ 'heat-lightning'; if a 'to leap'). ■ Imy,ws^(le''' 'it is light- 
ning with heat-lightning' {-l 'it'; muw^ as above; .^e'' present). 
Mpny,2Vsepo'"' 'it is lightning with heat-lightning' {nq. 'it'; m y.wx a.3 
above; po'" verbifying postpound). 2Iy,wx appears in a number of 
personal names. 

Mirage 

Nqpolcowagi ^iqto orndpokoivag.i \intj'qrjj' 'it resembles water lying' 
(?iy 'it'; j>o 'water'; Ico 'to lie'; w«g/'Iike'; na''\V\ to 'to resemble'; 
''V'Vf 'it'; tj'qvf 'to appear to one'). 

Echo 

Nqtoto 'it echoes' {nq 'it'; toto 'to echo'). 



TIL PERIODS OF TEME 
Year 

Pq>o 'j-ear'; cf. 2^'ij'JQ.eJ'l 'summer'. NsrT^ ^cH'^nfu'ke ts^Msi p<ijo 
^inqmu 'this ^irl is sixteen years old' {n!§ 'this'; T' locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; \i"^nfuke 'girl'; t^iisi ' sixteen '< i^K 'ten', 
•i! 'from', 4•^''six'; pqjo 'year'; '/'she'; w^'she'; imi, 'to have' 
'to be'). 

The year began at the time of the winter solstice. The time of new 
year was called ^cyo tsqmh"'^ {jm^o 'j'ear'; tsimbl 'new'; 'i''' locative 
and adjective-forming postfix). 

JSx^i^ 2^^'^ ' ^^^^ year ' {nx ' this '; T' locative and adjective-forming 
postfix). Hepaio 'last year' ijie 'last' in this sense). Nsewra pqjo 
or ^moewi^a pqjo ' next year ' {ns^ ' this ' ; wi'a ' coming ' ' other ' ' dif- 
ferent'; ^owe 'there'). Wije jMJo nqp' cuieH''^ 'two j^ears ago' {ivije 
' two ' ; pgjo ' year ' ; nq,'' it' ; p'cUe ' to pass ' ; T* locative and adjective- 
forming postfix). Wije pqjo 'nve ' in two years ' ' two years from 
now' {lo/'Je 'two'; jiqjo 'year'; 'iwe 'at', 'in' in this sense). 

Seasons 

The Tewa distinguish only two seasons — summer and winter. The 
summer (jxjjogeJi, unexplained, but cf. pqjo 'year') begins in the 
spring and lasts until the fall, including the months of April, Maj', 
June, July, August, and September. The winter {teniui, unex- 
plained) begins in the fall and lasts until the spring, including the 
months of October, November, December, January, Feliruary, and 
Marclf. The Tewa speak also of ia^qn^l ' the spring or planting time ', 
andp'(ye.<i 'the harvest time', both of these words being obscure in 
derivation and not considered to denote true seasons. Unlike the 
Tewa, the Jemez appear to distinguish four seasons: toddgiu 'spring', 
pef ' summer', pi1l ' autumn ', fool ' winter'. 

jVse'P' t^nvAi 'this winter' (w^ 'this'; '/'»' locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; tiniiJii 'winter'). NxwPa t^niui 'next winter' 
{7ise 'this'; wPa 'other'; t<in%ui 'winter'). Hete^niui 'last winter' 
{he 'last'; te'nuJ/i 'winter'). 

All the clans of the Tewa villages belong to either the Summer or 
the Winter phratry. The same clan, wherever it is found, always 
belongs to the same phratry. The Summer phratry or division is 
called Pqjoge.iPiiitowh 'summer people' {pqjog&ii 'summer'; '^/;y 
locative and adjective-forming postfix; iowa 'person' 'people'), 

61 



62 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF TTIE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 20 

Kiinyieiowa 'tur([iioise people' (/t(//(./;r. 'tiircjuoise'; ?r>W(>, 'person' "peo- 
ple'), or K'aje (of obscure etymolof^y). The Winter phratry is called 
Te^iuai'inio'tva 'winter people' {te'niui 'winter'; ^iy,/ locative and 
adjective-forming- postfix; hnm 'person' 'people'); Potowa 'squash 
people' {po 'squash' 'pumpkin' 'gourd' 'calabash'; towa 'person' 
'people'), or Kwiedi (of obscure etymology). The Summer people are 
presided over by the Summer cacique, po^ceiy,7ijo 'ceremony-presiding 
chief (po'^ 'to preside at a ceremony', said of either Summer or Win- 
ter cacique); ty.vjo 'chief, who is in charge of the summer ceremo- 
nies. The Winter people and ceremonies are in charge of the Winter 
cacique, 'ojikettpijo 'hard ice chief Cojl 'ice'; k'e 'hardness' 'hard'; 
tunjo 'chief'). Bandelier' writes: "The [Tewa] altar (Cen-te) used in 
the estufas is green for the summer months, yellow after the autum- 
nal equinox." So far as the present writer has learned, the Tewa do 
not recognize equinoxes, but only solstices. 

Distinct personal names were considered appropriate for childi-en 
according to the season in which they were born — summer or winter. 

Months 

The Tewa year contained twelve, not thirteen months. In this it 
agreed with the Zufii year according to Gushing (see the accompany- 
ing table). The months are said to have begun at the time of the new 
moon, but this subject needs further investigation. They are divided 
into summer and winter months (see under Seasons). Month is 
called po 'moon'. The term Pos^ndo is applied only to the divinity 
resident in the moon (see under Sun and Moon) . 

The months were known by descriptive names, which are passing 
out of use. These names diflered considerablj' according to the 
speaker and the village. The accompanying table gives month-names 
obtained from Indians of four Tewa villages; also Jemez and Zufii 
month-names, the latter from Gushing.- It will be noticed thjit the 
old designations of some months have been supplanted partial Ij^ or 
wholly by names of saints, whoso festivals play an important role in 
present-day Tewa life. December is invariably named from nup''a 
' Ghristmas,' and the old name could not be discovered. 

1 Final Report, pt. I, p. 311, 1890. 

sZufli BroadstutT, The MilUlone, p. 5s, April, 1884. 



HARRINGTON] 



PEKIODS OF TIME 



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uarrixgto.n] periods of time 67 

The Chkistian Week 

Jo'ii 'time between' Sundays, 'week'. Pomiygu 'Sunday' is fre- 
quently used to render ' week '. Spanish semana ' week ' is rarel.y used 
in Tewa. 

Pomiygh. 'Sunday' (<Spau. domingo). Lime 'Monday' (<Span. 
lunes). Jlcute 'Tuesday' (<Span. martes). MleJJiole 'Wednesday' 
(<Span. miercoles). Qioeie 'Tliursday' (<Span. jueves). Bl&m^ 
'Frida}'' (<Span. viernes). Saiadu 'Saturday' (<Span. sabado). 
No expressions meaning' 'first day', 'second day', etc., are in use. 

Day, Night, Times of Day and Night 

T'a 'day'; of. t'ayj' 'sun'. T'cui 'day' (i!'a'day'; u,i ablative, 
locative). T'a refers to the period beginning when it becomes 
light in the morning and ending when it gets dark in the evening. 
For a day of twenty-four hours there is no expression current in 
Tewa. 

NiW afsu^imseij f 'the days are getting shorter' (wy 'it'; t'a 'day'; 
tsiii 'cut short ' ; m^tjf ' to go ') . T/se^ia^'^ ii4t'an(l ' the days are short ' 
{tfaucC'^ 'short'; nq, 'it'; t'a 'day'; nq. 'to be'). Wqt'asomc^yf 'the 
days are getting longer ' {jtq 'it'; t'a- 'day'; so'large'; mcerjf 'to go'). 
Ileh^nfunqt'anq 'the days are long' (/^c/z^TiyM 'long'; ng 'it'; t'a 
'day'; ml 'to be'). 

Nqk'^nnq. 'it is da rlv' {ml 'it' ; l:'y.ijf 'dark' ; nq 'to be'). Nqkipowd)^^ 
'the light is going to come' {nq 'it'; Vi 'light'; powa 'to arrive'; '^'* 
'to come'). Nqt'e^se'^ho'" 'the light is already coming' 'it is beginning 
to get light' (nc* 'it'; t'e 'light' 'clear light'; '«'* 'to come'; Ao'° 'already'). 
Nqt'eiuj, 'it is light' 'it is clear' {nq 'it'; t'e 'light' 'clear light'; nq, 'to 
be'). Wqhijjo"' 'it is light' {nq 'it'; U 'light'; po"> 'to make'). Nqkinq, 
'it is light' {nq 'it'; kl 'light'; nq 'to be'). Wa'.iUi 'the time of the 
early morning when already light but not yet dawn or sun-up' (of 
obscure etymology). jVqt'aimt^se.''^ 'the dawn is coming' {jiq 'it'; t'amit 
'dawn'; '^'* 'to come'). Nqt'amunq 'it is dawn' {ml 'it'; t'amu 'dawn'; 
nq, 'to be'). Muwset'e 'the light of dawn' {muws^ 'heat-lightning'; t'e 
'light'). Nqmuwstt' epo^° 'the dawn is shining' {nq 'it'; muwxt'e as 
above; po"' 'to make'). Nqt'qmpi^s^^ 'the sun is about to come up' {nq 
'it'; t'qi)f 'sun'; pi 'to issue'; '^'* 'to come'). Nqt'qmpi 'the sun 
comes up' {ml 'it'; t'q)]f 'sun'; pi 'to issue' 'to come out'). T'qnt'e 
'sunshine' 'sunlight' {t'qi)f 'sun'; t'e 'light'). Nat' ant' e 'the sun is 
shining' {nq 'it'; t'qT)/ 'sun'; t'e 'to shine'). Hed^mho"' 'early morning' 
{heJi,T)f- 'morning'; ho'" progressive). IleJ^^n^i 'morning' 'forenoon' 
{heJ,^^^- 'morning' 'forenoon', absolute form never used; J'i ablative, 
locative). He-i^ntag.eJ'i 'morning straight up time' 'time about nine 
or ten o'clock in the morning' {heJ-ejj f 'morning'; ta^eJi as below; cf. 
t'e^itag.edP). 



68 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

Tag.e 'straight up', referring to the sun, ' noon' (cf. taje 'straight', 
not crooked or bent). Tage-ii 'noon' {tage as above; >ii ablative, loca- 
tive). T'qn tag.e~ii nq.nq 'the sun is at noon' {t'qrjy 'sun'; tageu^i 
'noon'; n4 'it'; «4 'to be'). JVdtag.epo'° 'it makes straight up' 'it is 
noon' {nq. 'it'; fage as above; ^o'" 'to make'). fuivag.i 7i(U(ig.>'/>'P° 
'noon comes very soon' {fuwagi 'soon'; nqtagejpo'"' as above). 
NqtageMp^a^ie 'noon is passed' {nq 'it'; fageM 'noon'; pcuie 'to 
pass'). Taged!p\:ueM 'afternoon' {tag&ii 'noon'; p\ue 'to pass'; .li 
ablative, locative). T'e^itage^i 'evening straight up time' 'time 
about two or three o'clock in the afternoon' {fe'i ' evening'; tage-ii as 
above). T'e'ui 'evening' {fe'i 'evening', absolute form never used; 
ui ablative, locative). JVkigej)ije nqfqmmseijf 'the sun is declining' 
(nuge 'down' 'below' <nu'u 'below', ge locative; ^?j/e 'toward'; nq 
'it'; t'qijf 'sun'; niceijf 'to go'). J^ql'lVf 'it is twilight' {nq 'it'; 
Mijf 'to be twilight'). Jv[ndi 'twilight' (k\yf 'to be twilight'; di 
ablative, locative). Nqliy-mpd" 'it gets dark' {nq 'it'; Ic'y^yf 'dark'; 
po'° 'to make'). Nqk'y,ijf 'it is dark' 'it is night' {;n4 'it'; ViiVf 
'to be dark'). NqJc'qnnq 'it is dark' {nq 'it'; l^'qrjf 'dark'; nq 'to 
be'). K^'qJ'i 'night', especially used meaning 'last night' (^'■ji, con- 
nected with Viiyf 'to be dark'; M ablative, locative). E^y^oiii 
'night' {k'lpii as above; J-i ablative, locative). 

Ns^fa 'to-day' {nse. 'this'; fa 'day'). K^ipii 'last night', see 
above. Tsq'n^i li'q^ii 'last night' {fsqndi 'yesterday'; i'lt-ii as 
above). TSg'n^i 'yesterday' (^fsciyy, cf. tsampije 'west' and n(Votsqn7>4 
'it is a little cloudy'; ^^' ablative, locative). Tsqmpxrjge 'day before 
yesterday' {tsqyf, as above; pxyge 'beyond'). T'a'ndi 'to-morrow' 
{t'ayf 'sun'; di ablative, locative). T'a'ndihed^ndi 'to-morrow 
morning' {fahidi 'to-morrow'; heJendi 'morning'). T'' (C mps^yge 
'day after to-morrow' {fayf, as above; p^7?ge' beyond'). 

Hours, Minutes, Seconds 

^Oda 'hour' (<Span. hora). Minutu 'minute' (<Span. minuto). 
Segundu 'second' (<Span. segundo). Wetiedijonu ^odh wi "daj-" 
^ twenty-four hours make a "day"' (wets^J-ijonu 'twenty-four'; '(Wa 
'hour'; wi 'one'). Segintsg!^ minutu wi ''odh 'sixty minutes make an 
hour' {segintse'^ 'sixtj^'; minutu 'minute'; wi 'one'; 'oda 'hour'). 
Segintse'^ seg.undUwi ininutu 'sixty seconds make a minute' {segintse'^ 
'sixty'; segundu 'second'; wi 'one'; minutu 'minute'). 

Clock or watch is called fqnta 'sun measure' {t'qrjf 'sun'; ta 
'measure'), or fqmjiiiywx 'sun for looking at' {fqrjf ''Bnn^; j>y,r)ici^ 
'to look at'). GxmuM '''qnibi t'qmpy,yiose 'look at your watch!' {gs^ 
'you 1' imperative; mudi 'to look'; ''unibi 'your'; t'qmj)y,ijwce 'watch'). 

'Ihed,i 'o'clock' (said to mean something like 'long being' — cf. henfi 
'long' — di ablative, locative; the '»' is unexplained). Tse ''ihedi 'i^'c-g'* 
'you will come at seven o'clock ' (fet' 'seven'; ""ihedi, as above; 'y 'you'; 
'a'* 'to come'). 



HARRINGTON) PEEIODS OF TIME 69 

Ilsenfu ^ih<i,i4n nqnq. 'what time is it'? {hienfu 'how much'; 
HhiJqyf, cf. '/Ae.</ above; nq. 'it'; 7iq 'to be'). Tc&^ilie-ii 'ten o'cloclv' 
(^t^'* 'ten'; ''ilieJ.i 'o'clock'). HcuUi tse'ihe^i or modi t^' lhe.il 'about ten 
o'clock' (JicuUi, mcui 'about'). Jonu J.aha piygeheM 'half past four' 
{jonu 'four'; .(aha 'and'; piyqeheJ'i 'half'</>i7;^<! 'in the middle', heJ-i^ 
cf. ''iheJ'i, above). Tx^ minutunqtetc^Mwij^iwe 'ten minutes before 
twelve' {tc^^ 'ten'; to^'ww^w 'minute'; nq 'it'; i^e 'to be lacking'; tseMwije 
'twelve'; ''iwe locative). Wl ''o.ia nqte 'one hour remains' i^i 'one'; 
'<Md 'hour'; ivq 'it'; te 'to be lacking'). 

Festival 

fqijhPui 'festival' 'fiesta' (of obscure etymology) or hi 'festival' 
'fiesta '(related to hitfq 'to be glad'). 

Fair, Caknival 

J''6i^«<Span. feria. Aa./M/6a(?)< Span, carnival. Fairs or carni- 
vals are held at Santa Fe and Albuquerque. 

Time of Plague 

HdHwiwaQJ, iowa tah4n4i'' 'dying of a great many people' {ha^iwi- 
wagi 'very many'< haHwi 'very many', wagi 'like'; Iovm 'people'; 
tahdyy 'to die of the plague'; '*'' locative and adjective-forming 
postfix). 



IV. GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS 

Note. — The alphabetic order is aadseseQhbidi}^ ^/f 9 Q Q.hi 
ij k ho Ic l' II m n vf y yw yf o q p p p' gqw r .i s f tt t' is tjfs Q' 
u y, y, V u\ The glottal stop (') is ignored in the alphabetic sequence. 

''A'a 'steep slope'. Cf. taa 'gentle slope'. 

^AkqnibiCu ' plain wholly or partly surrounded by higher land ' ' corner 

of a plain ' (^ak'oyf+hu''u). 
"'Akqmp^je 'south,' literally 'direction of the plains' (^al'qijf+pije). 
''Akqvipije''inte^e''so\i.ih. estufa' ('a^g/n/jzjfe 'south '+^e'e). Synonyms: 

fqjogeJLi'intowabite'e, lcij,nf£ete''e, and k'ajete'e. 
^ Akqmpijeiyqwapcfiijge 'locality beyond (south of) the south house- 
row of a pueblo' (^akqmpije ' south'' +'' P^+pi^yge). See diagram 1, 

p. 305. 
^ Akqinpije'i/yqwasy, 'south houserow of a pueblo' {^akqmpije ' south '+ 

'^''+l2«'asy). 
^ Akqiiip)ijepctn(i,i^^ 'south part of a pueblo' (^akqmpije+pcgn^i''^. 
''Al'qniliive 'at the plain' {■akqyf+^iwe). 
^Akqnnu 'plain' {'akqyf+nii). ^Akqn7ise ('alqyj'+nse) is never used. 

The various postfixes can be added to \d'q>i?ui as to 'akqyf with- 
out difference of meaning. But 'little valley' is rendered \thqyf''e, 

not ''ahqnm^e. 
''Akqyge, \ikqmmg.e 'down at the plains' (^akqyf, 'akonnu+ge). 
''Akqyf 'plain'. 
''AJiqyfhenfiyf 'long plain' ' long valley or glen with flat bottom' 

'long mesa-top' (^al-qyf+henfijjf 'length' 'long', mineral 

gender). 
''Al-qvfhu\i 'arroyo with a flat, plain-like bottom' (^ akqyf +hu'u). 
''Anuhi 'foot of a slope' 'below a slope' (^a^a+mi'u). 
^Apinmai 'middle of a slope' 'half way up or down a slope' ('«'a+ 

pinmui). 
''Awap'obithi, ^aimp'abe^e, ^awap'ibu'u, ''awap'lbe'e 'low place in which 

cattails grow' ^awap'^a^ \noap'i species of cattail -i- huu, bee). 
^jEfo 'race track' ('^ 'to run'+po 'trail' 'track' 'road'). 
'i^^■ 'V-shape'. 
''Ayge 'foot of 'base of ('ivf '■iooV+ge). This is often combined 

with other words, as: ayge'ag.e 'down the slope to the base of 

the slope'. 
''A/ifsegi 'on the head'. 
''Anfiegiku, {'qnj'^gi+l-i/) a conical rock bearing on its apex a rock 

cap, thought by the Indians to resemble a person carrying a 

burden on the head. (See pis. 7, 8.) 
70 



HARRINGTON] GEOGBAPHICAL TEEMS 71 

Ba'a ' woman's belt'. It is also used figui'atively of a belt or strip of 
countrj^. A man's belt is called simha''a {KVf 'man'+Jrt'a). 

Bah 'ford' (<Spau. vado 'ford'). 

Be 'pottery' 'vessel'. 

^e!e (1) 'small, low roundish place' 'dell' 'dale' 'small valley' 'small 
corner' of a space, as of a room. (2) 'of roundish ball-like shape' 
'ball' 'clod' 'mound'. 

Benydite 'watchhouse for watching a melon field' (henu4i 'musk- 
melon' -I- te). 

Bepuk'aie 'potsherd' {io ' pottery '-npw 'base'-^X■'«8e 'to break'). 

Bes^i ' chimne}' ' ' fireplace connected with a chimney ' (apparenth^ he^e 
(1) or he's {^2)+su 'arrow'). 

^esup'o 'hole or opening of a chimney' (besu+j/o). 

B^r)f 'little bend'. 

BojfhiCu 'arroyo the course of which bends at short intervals' (bz'r)f+ 
hu^v). 

Bi- 'small and roundish'. 

Big.e 'sharp bend' {bi- +g.e). 

JBUi 'small roundish pile, grove, clump, hill or mound'. 

Boka 'mouthof a canyon '(< Span, boca 'mouth' 'mouth of a canyon'). 

Bo.ii ' large roundish pile, grove, clump, hill or mound'. 

Buta 'dry dell' {bu\i {l)+ta 'dryness' 'dry'). 

.B?<'« (1) large roundish low place' 'dell' 'dale' 'valley' 'bottom' (in the 
sense of 'low dell') 'large corner of a space' 'courtyard' 'plaza' 
'placita' 'settlement surrounding a plaza' 'settlement' 'town' 
'city'. (2) 'of large roundish ball-like shape' 'large ball' 'large 
mound'. See diagram 1, p. 305. 

^uwate ' oven ' (buwa ' bread '' + te). 

BuVf 'large bend' 'large turn of a waterway'. 

By,yfhii;u 'arroyo the course of which makes large turns at intervals' 
buvf + hi'v) . 

Dep'o 'coyote's den' (de 'coyote' + p'o). 

Peyy ' small point' 'small conical point'. 

Dy.rjj' 'large point' 'large conical point'. 

' JS" ' oflFspring ' 'child', also used as the diminutive postpound. The 
tone in the singular is falling, in the 2 + plural it is rising-falling. 
When meaning 'offspring' 'child' two plural forms are in use: 'e 
and 'e7ij'se. 

^£kwela ''schooV (<Span. escuela 'school'). 

'' ETcwelateqwa ' schoolhouse ' Qekwela + teqwa) . 

''E-ia ' threshing floor ' ( < Span, era ' threshing floor ') . 

''Etapeta 'post office' (<Span. estafeta ' post office ') . 

^Eta^qn 'railway station' (<Span. estacion 'railwaj' station'). 

^Etup'a 'stove' (<Span. estufa 'stove'). 



72 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

6^6' 'at' 'down at' 'to' 'down to', locative postfix denoting rest or 

motion at or motion toward one or more places below the level 

of the speaker. 
HcS. 'that yonder' 'there yonder,' demonstrative element denoting 

location not very far from the speaker. Cf. nse, (1) and '<?. It is 

much used before postfixes of locative meaning, e. g. lixhwaje ' up 

yonder on top' {hce + l'waje). It is also used as a noun prefix, 

e. g. Jis^teqmd iwe 'at that house' {hs^+ teqwa+''iioe); also as an 

adjective A^'i'* ^e|7wa'iW 'at that house' {hsp + 'P^ + teqwa+''iwe). 
Hc^ge ' down there yonder,' denoting location not very far from the 

speaker and lower than the speaker {Itse, + g.e). 
Jl^ns^ 'there yonder,' denoting location not very far from the speaker 

{/iie+ nse [2]). 
7/sewe 'there yonder,' denoting location not very far from the speaker 

and at about level of or higher than the speaker {hs^ + we). 
Ss^unjakwo^P^ 'inner storeroom' 'closet' (hseioi 'something' 'thing' 

+ jakwo ' to be put away' + T'). 
JTsewiqwikwonu^P^ 'inner storeroom' 'closet' (hsetoi 'something' 

'thing' + qyuhconit 'to be hung up' + 'r')- 
Hqyge ' beside' 'at one side of and not contiguous {JiqVf- + ge). 
Hqyqioo-ie, poA'wi/idrjqioO'ie 'mouth of a lake or a body of water' (hqijf 

'respiration' 'spirit' + qioo.ie; pohiui). Hqyqioode is also applied 

to the break in the "life-line", a line which nearly encircles the 

vessel in certain designs of pottery painting. 
Hayf in Itqijfle. 

H^e 'small groove' 'arroj'ito' 'gulch'. 
He^e 'wide gap'. 
Ili'Qi 'gulchlike,' 'groove'. 

Jlejipije 'lengthwise' {hejl unexplained + pije). 
Jle^impa'age ' place down where the sun shines in the morning' {he-i^yf 

'morning' + j)a^og.e). 
JIe^i^m])a\ui 'place where the sun shines in the morning' (heunjj' 

'morning' + pc^cui). 
Jle-iiyJixniyge 'side or place where there is shade in the morning' 

{JKJ'iTjf 'morning' -v'kie.t)/ + ^iyffe). 
IleMrjlsRnnug.e 'place where there is shade in the morning' {h-ed^yf 

'morning' + I'seyf + nu + g.e). 
HeJ-^yhse.yfje ' place where there is shade in the morning ' {JiMiyf + 

fez?y + ge)- 

IlinfxsegP* 'neck of a peninsula' {hlnfx 'smallness' 'small' + segi 

'slenderness' 'slender' + T'). 
Ilui ' near,' locative prefix and adverb {hi unexplained + J,i). 
Huge 'large groove' 'arroyo' {hu\i + ge). 
Ifugipo 'arroyo water' 'water from an arroyo' (hii'u + ^,' + po 

'water'). 



HARRINGTON] GEOGRAPHICAL TEEMS 73 

JIiiijwog.e 'delta of an arro3'o' 'place down where an arroyo cuts 
through' {hu'-u + qwoge). 

Hidahuhi 'dry arroyo' (/tw'w + la 'dryness' 'dry' + hii'ii). 

HxHu 'large groove' 'arroyo' 'canada'. 

'7Sd locative postfix meaning 'in' 'into', referring to rest or motion 
in or motion into hollow obiect(s); '»'* + fed unexplained), '/fee is 
also used as a noun meaning 'room of a building'. 'In' contigu- 
ous gas, liquid or solid is expressed by ''Iwe. 

''Ibepiyqe 'in the middle' ('/fed + pvj(}e). 

'/'» is primarily a locative postfix meaning 'at', referring to place at 
about the same level as or above the speaker. It is also postfixed 
to adjective stems to denote gender and number. '7'^' never means 
'in.' Its forms may be tabulated as follows: 

Sing. Dual 3 + Plural 



Mineral gender . .' 'i'' ''ivf 



'*•'< 



Vegetal gender ''ivf ^VOf '^''' 

Animal gender 'P' ^\Vf ''VOf 

When postfixed to words ending in o, g, u or ■;*, w*'% wirjfxn&j be 
used instead of '*'% 'i^/y. '7'' appears as a part of many other 
postfixes, as '/fee ('«'' + fee), pxndV^ iv^Vf + ''"'O- '-^'* ^^^ its 
compounds denote place either near or remote. This can be 
observed by comparing 'ijaije ('«''* + pije) 'to this place' 'to that 
\)\&ce,'' -with ns^pije {nsp, + pije) 'to this place', hs^pije 'to yonder 
place', 'ojy'ije 'to that remote place'. The forms in ''iyf are some- 
times elided with the preceding syllable; thus Wk^Jf 'San Juan 
people' for '' Ohe\yf {^OJce 'San Juan Pueblo'). 

'T/e locative postfix meaning 'at', I'ef erring to two or more places of 
about the same level as or above the speaker ('^'' +je unexplained). 
At two or more places 'in' contiguous gas, liquid or solid, is also 
expressed by ^ije. Cf. ^hve. 

''Ijepije 'to' 'toward', referring to two or more places of about the 
same level as or above the speaker ^fje + pije). 

Ujedi 'from' 'out of, referring to two or more places of about the 
same level as or above the speaker {''ije + .li). 

^Imi ' in ' ' within ', referring to motion which takes place entirely within 
an object, as in the sentence 'eagles soar in the sky' ('*'* + nu). 

^Iwe locative postfix meaning 'at', referring to one place but to one or 
more objects of about the same level as or above the speaker 
('e'' + ^1?). 'In' contiguous gas, liquid or solid is also expressed 
by Hwe. Cf. ^ije. ^Iwe is also used as 'ifee is used, especially if 
the whole of an object is not inside, e. g. of a person's hand 'in' a 
box. 

^Iwepije 'to' 'toward', referring to one place but to one or more ob- 
jects of about the same level as or above the speaker i^lwe + pije). 



74 ETHNOCEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

''JweJ-i ' from ' 'out of ', referring to one place but to one or more objects 
of about the same level as or above the speaker {^iwe + <ii), 

Unnsg. 'side' 'at side' i^vjf (2) + nBe). 

Unnse^il 'side' 'at side' {^i>jj' (2) + w^ + u,/'). Cf. ^inn^. 

^Trjge 'side' below speaker, 'down at side' ('i^y (2) + ge). 

UygeJ-i 'side' below speaker, 'down at side' ('iyy (2) + ge + di). Cf. ^iyge. 

^Ivf (1) ^ form of 'i'% q. v. (2) appearing in several words meaning 
'side'. 

Ja 'in the middle', appearing in various compounds. 

Jage 'amid' 'in the middle of {ja + ge). 

JcUe in pojaue 'island' (apparently _;'« + de unexplained). 

Jcui 'between' ' among,' referring to a position between or among 
two or more places or objects (Ja + ui). 

Jawe ' outside' ' out doors' {ja, probably akin to ja 'to put away' ' to 
put out of the way' + ?w). 

Jt^nisVi 'willow-grown canyon' {jq-yf 'willow' + tsi}t). 

Jqyge 'amid' 'in the midst of {j<]yj'-+ge). Used, for instance, in the 
sentence Toivajqij[/e ^ojP^ 'lam moving about in the midst of a 
crowd of people' {fowa 'people'; 'o ''V;jP^ 'to move about'). 

Jdygi 'middle location' 'middle' 'medial' {jqyf + g'l, postfix appear- 
ijig in many adjectives). 

Jqyg ip' ag.i, Jqygip'igi ' flat terrace part way up between base and top 
of mesa', as, e. g., ' bench at top of talus slope' {jqygi- 'middle loca- 
tion' 'middle' 'medial' + p'agl 'largeness and flatness' 'large and 
flat';^'/g[i 'smallness and flatness' 'small and flat'). 

Jqyf' 'amid' in the convpownds jqyqe and jqygi. 

Jo augmentative postpound. It may be postpounded to certain words 
only, its usage being not as free or frequent as that of the dimin- 
utive 'e. 

Kdbajuk'aH''^ ' pasture fenced in for grazing for horses ' {hataju < Span, 
caballo 'horse' + 1:' a + T'). 

Eitiijute, lic^ajUteipim ' barn or stable for horses ' {I'aiaju < Span, ca- 
ballo ' horse' + te; teqwa). 

KanfeJ-a ' Canada' 'glen' 'narrow mountain valley' (< Span, canada, 
of same meaning). 

Karife-iapotsPi 'canada with canyon-like walls with a stream flowing 
in it' iJcanfeJ-a + poisi'i). 

Kapija 'chapel' (< Span, capilla' 'chapel'). 

Kqmpusmitn 'graveyard' (< Span, campo santo 'gravej'ard'). 

Kcg,n4P^ 'shady place' {I'leyf- + H''). 

K^nnu 'shady place' {^■spyf- + nu). 

Kxyf- 'shade,' in some compounds, as he-oeylxniyge). 

Keji 'old', said of things, not persons. Used only as a postpound. 

Ki, an element postfixed to many adjective stems. Its meaning is not 
clear. 

Kite 'prairie-dog holes' {hi 'prairie-dog' + te). 



HARRINGTON] GEOGRAPHICAL TEBMS 75 

Kimmu 'edge' (kijjf + imi unexplained). 

K\nnu 'edge' {kyjj'- + jni). 

Kijjge 'edge,' as of a table or mesa Qciyf + ge). 

E\i)f- in liVjge, Vyinu, etc. 

Kop^e 'boat' 'bridge' 'plank or log across a ditcn or body of water to 
serve as a bridge' Qco probably identical with Ico 'to bathe' + pe 
'stick' 'wood' 'timber' 'plank' 'log'). What is said to be a primi- 
tive Tewa bridge is to be seen over the mother-ditch at San Juan 
Pueblo. Such a bridge consists of a roughh' flattened log. 

^<?.^a 'corral' (< Span, corral 'corral'). The native Tewa equivalent 
is lea. 

KdM- 'right' opposed to left, in various compounds. 

Ko'MQ.eJ'l 'at the right side of locative postfix {hd'di- '+ g_e + J-i). 

Ko'Mnse. 'on the i"ight' 'at the right side' (l-d'di- + nse [2]). 

Kq 'bari'anca,' 'bank of an arroj^o or gulch' 'arroyo' 'gulch'. The 
term is applied especially to arroyos of which a barranca is a 
prominent featui'e. Arroj^os which have a bank on one side and a 
gentle slope on the other, like those of the Pajarito Plateau, are 
called l-q. As a term for arroyos A-okuhi is as common as y?'o. 

Kohu^u 'arroyo with barrancas or banks as a prominent feature' 'large 
gi'oove by the barrancas' (Z'o -i- Jni'ii). Cf. I'o. 

Koso'o, l:osog.e, kqsci'jo 'large barranca' 'large arroyo' {l-q + so'o 'large- 
ness' 'large'; g.e;jo). 

Kqialmhi 'dry arroyo' (kq + ta 'dryness' ^Avy'' + kvhi). 

KqwaM 'wide gap between barrancas' (A-o + va-ii). 

KqwiH 'gap between barrancas' (Zo + wPi). 

Kutfija 'knife-like tapering ridge' (<Sp. cuchilla of same meaning). 

KuwaJca 'sheep-fold' {kuwa 'sheep' + h'a). 

Ky,te 'store' 'shop' {hj, 'to barter' + te). 

Kwa- in hwage, Inoaje, etc. 

Jyivd'a ' downstiiirs ' 'on the ground floor', 

KwciQfi 'on or at the broad-topped height of 'flat-topped height' 
'mesa' 'height' {'kvm- + g.e). Used of mesa-top, top of frustrated 
cone, flat top of a hand-quern, etc. 

]ywag.>'fn''u 'horizontally projecting point of a mesa' {lwag,e +fu\i). 

Kwag.eu}ui 'horizontallj' projecting point of a mesa' {hcage + loui). 

Kwaje 'on or at the height of 'height' 'on top of 'above' {kwa+je 
unexplained). This is the most inclusive term meaning 'on top' 
'at the top' 'in the top' 'above' 'above the top'. It may be 
used, for instance, of a bird in the top of a tree, on the top of a 
tree, or above a tree. Pokwaje means ' above, not touching, the 
surface of the water ' (po ' water '). 

Kwajepije 'up' (kwaje + pye). 

KwaMu '' room'' ot a building (< Span, cuarto 'room of a building'). 
The term of native Tewa origin is '/fee. 

£wsfJcu''P* 'Mexican settlement' {KioseJcu 'Mexican' -i- '/''). 



76 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

£:wspkuiifi'/ju-<a^ P' 'Mexican settlement' {JvwseJcu, cf. Kwct^ityf 'iron', 
'Mexican' + tl possessive + teqwa +' *'*'). 

Kwsglcybu'u 'Mexican placita' ' Mexican plaza ' 'Mexican settlement' 
{Ktos^lcy, 'Mexican' + hii'u). 

Kwse%y,mpo 'railroad' (I'wxky^ijf 'iron' 'metal', cf. IcwseTcu 'Mexican' 
+ Hjjj', vegetal gender of 'i''?). This term is frequently' used for 
railroad train, thus: Kioxky,mpo nqmieyf 'the train is going,' lit- 
erally 'iron road goes' (h4 'it' + msRrjf 'to go'). 

Kwsiky,mpoloj>' e 'railroad bridge' {<kwseky,mpo + Icojfe). 

Kwsedi 'winter person 'member of winter pliratry' (unexplained.) 

Kwseuite' e 'winter people's estufa' QcwxM 'winter person' + fe'e). 
Synonyms: tenudi '^ {nlowatite' e, pimpije 'iniowaiite' e, pote'e. 

KwijekwVo 'irrigating ditch' {kwije 'to irrigate' + kwi'o). 

KwPo 'irrigation ditch' 'ditch'. The Tewa made extensive use of 
irrigation by means of ditches, in pre-European times. Ditch- 
work is now done by the men. In olden times it was done by 
men and women working together and the implements used were 
narrow shovel-shaped digging-sticks. Ditchwork is still, as 
former!}', communal and compulsory. 

Kwi-ojija 'main ditch', literally 'mother ditch' (kicPo +_/ {/a 'mother'). 
The corresponding term in New Mexican Span, is acequia madre, 
of which the Tewa name is probably a translation. 

KwPopo 'irrigation ditch water' 'water from an irrigation ditch' 
{hwPo + po 'water'). 

Ka 'denseness' 'dense' 'thicket' 'forest'. The word i-efers to any 
thick growth of vegetal matter. 

KaboM 'grove' 'clump-shaped thicket' Qta who'll). 

Kdbv!u 'grove' Qca + biiu). 

Kasoge 'big forest' 'grove' {lea + sd'o 'largeness' 'large' + ge). 

Ke 'point' projecting more or less vertically, 'projecting corner' as 
of a table, 'sharp point' as a cactus thorn. 

Ke 'neck' of man or lower animal. The tone of the word is distinct 
from that of he 'point.' 

Kedugi 'large pointed peak' 0ce + iu.g.l 'largeness and pointedness' 

^ 'large and pointed'). 

Keg.e ' edge ' i]ce ' neck ' + ge). This is perhaps the commonest word 

meaning 'edge' of a cliff, 'shore' of a lake, 'bank' or 'edge' of 
a river, etc. 

Ze^e 'dipper' 'ladle' (of obscure etymology). 

KeJ,i 'on top' of an upward-projecting pointed object (ke 'point' + 
u,i). The term seems to refer to an edge at the top of an upward- 
projecting more or less sharp object. 

Ke-.iipije 'to the summit' (JceM+pije). 

Kewe 'on top' of an upward-projecting pointed object, 'point' 'peak' 
'dome' {he 'point' + we). The term seems also to be used with 



HARRINGTON-] GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS 77 

the more general meaninp; 'in, on or at the top of 'above,' in 

such usage being- identical with hc/ijk Said of water, it denotes 

position above the surface, not touching the surface; cf. hwajti. 
Kewepa)°- 'near the top' 'a short distance below the top' 'not as far 

up as the top ' Qcen^e + ^«.'") . 
£^i'g[« ' on the upper surface and contiguous with the upper surface' 

'on top of or on a surface ' (of obscure etymology). Thus fo- 

Icigi means 'on the surface of the water' {po 'water'). 
Ku 'stone' 'rock'. 
Kub^e 'rocky dell' (hi + lee [1]). 
Kuhidi 'small pile of stones' 0cu + hid). 
Kuhodi 'large pile of stones' (Jcu + hoJi). 
Kuhu\t (1) ' rockj^ dell,' (2) ' place enclosed within a circle of stones', as 

at the shrine of the Stone Lions [28:27] or Stonehenge. 
K'ide(iegPi^\ huflndugPi''^ 'pointed rock' 'tent rock' {lcu+ didegi, 

^i/^«gr?' 'pointedness' 'pointed' 4- 'j''). See plates 6-8. 
Ki/4t>idejidi'',Kudu)idy.ndd^^ 'pointed 'rock' 'tent rock' (Jen + d&i4^VJ' 

'pointedness' 'pointed' + '*''). 
KuFaje ' stone fetish ' ' stone shrine ' (Jcu + Jc'ajti). This term is applied 

to all kinds of fetishes and shrines made of stone. Cf. l-'aji'kubo.ii. 
KiiV xmh^y f 'little gravellj^ bend', as for instance in the course of a 

creek {kuFs^yj' + i^rjf). 
Kuk'xmbu'u 'gravelly dell' [Icvlc' s^y f + huhi. [1]). 
Kuk'xmpo 'gravelly water' {huFieijj' + po ' water'). 
Kuk'xijf 'gravel' 'coarse sand' {Jcu + 1c'seyj' 'flour' 'meal'?). 
KnVvqyivi 'pueblo built of tufaceous stone' (Icuk'i 'tufa' 'tuff' 

'pumice stone' 'tufaceous stone' -f ^qywi). 
Kuk' i^ oywikeji 'tufa stone pueblo ruin' (Jcnlc'i 'tufa stone' + ''oywi + 

Iceji). 
Kulc'iwcuie 'place where tufa stones or blocks are strewn or scattered' 

(JcuTci 'tufa stone' + wcuie 'to strew' 'to scatter'). 
Kii'n/se.te 'ant nest' (Tcii'nfse 'ant' + te). 
KtCnfs^teh'ui 'ant hill' Qcwnfxte + hUi). 
Kunfcttie 'turquoise estuf a' (Jcunfee 'turquoise' + <e'c). Synonyms: 

'akompije'inte'e, pqjoge^Pintovxitite.e and Tc'ajete'e. 
Kv^oyvJi 'pueblo l)uilt of stone' (leu + ^oywi). 
Ku'oywikeji 'stone pueblo ruin' (ku + ^oywi + Tceji ). 
Kujau^unce, said tcj be a Santa Clara equivalent for 'ktHbiJ-i 'small pile 

of stones' Qcu +pu^u unexplained + ni§ (2)). 
Kupo 'stone water' 'water in stony creek-bed' {ku + po 'water'). 
Kiqyo 'hole in a stone' ' hole in a stone in which water collects' 'water 

hole' in a stone or rock (Icu+p'o). This is the onlv name by 

which water-holes are commoaly designated. 
Kxp'oj/aire 'hole through a stone' (leu, + j>' a + p awe 'to go completely 

through'). 



78 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ANN. 29 

Kiis<l))wi)nbu?u 'dell partly or wholly surrounded l)y a zigzag of stone' 
(htsCujwijjj' + bu^ii (1)). 

Kusq.yvnyj' 'zigzag stone' 'stone zigzag' (lcu + sqyioiyf 'zigzag'). 
Applied, for instance, to strata of stone with serratedly eroded 
edges. These are represented in pottery painting. 

Kiis^yf 'hornlike projection of rock' ijcu + s^rjf 'horn'). 

Kufa^u 'horizontally projecting point of stone' {hu +/u'u). 

Kiitq'''^n(li'^ ' painted rock' ' rock painting' {hu + tq^'iyf ' painting' + '«"''). 

Kutepa 'stone-wall' used either as a fence, or as part of a building 
(ku + tepa). 

Kutdba ' rock cliff ' (]iu + iota). 

Kut'adug.i ' rocky peak or pinnacle' (Jcu + fa unexplained + dug.i ' large- 
ness and pointedness' 'large and pointed '). 

Kuwa-ie 'place where stones are strewn or scattered' (ku + vYUe 'to 
strew' 'to scatter'). 

^a 'corral' 'fence' surrounding an enclosure, 'fence' 'enclosure'. 

K'abw'u 'roundish place enclosed by a fence or hedge of some sort' 
{Ic'a + bu'u [1]). The enclosures made for certain Jicarilla Apache 
and Navaho dances are called Vahit'u. 

K^aje 'fetish' 'shrine', applied to anything in which fino^yf 'magic 
power' is believed to reside. 

K'aje ' summer person ' ' member of summer phratrj^ ' (unexplained). 

K'ajeku, l-'ajekuhoM 'sacred stone' 'sacred stones' 'sacred stone-pile' 
'shrine' {Maje + ku. + ho^ii). Cf. huk'aje. 

K'ajete'e 'summer people's estufa' (k'aje 'siraimer person' + te'e). 
Synonyms: 'akompije'iniowaMte'e, pqjogeM'irdowatite'e, and 
Icunj'sete'e. 

M^avdH ' gap between fences ' ' entrance or exit of a corral ' (i'a + vn'-i). 

K^ewi'i 'outside corner o a houserow, house, corral, etc' (Jc^e unex- 
plained + wbi). 

K'o 'arm' of body oi", used figuratively, ' branch ' ' bough ' of a tree, 
'arm' of a lake or other body of water, 'inlet' 'bay' 'bight'. 

K'oji 'roof hole' 'door in the roof through which entrance and exit 
are effected'. In Tewa dwelling rooms the Icoji have been largely 
replaced by doors in the walls, but the estufas or kivas still have 
them. Mythical l:'ojl are believ^ed to exist at lakes ; see pohcik'oji. 
Tewa k'oji has been hispanized as coye, and the word is cur- 
rent in New Mexican Spanish. Bandelicr ^ writes "Ko-ye." 
Tewa k'oji means 'roof hole', not 'inner room'. 

K^qn^iwe 'place where mineral or other substance is dug' 'mine' 
'quarry' {h'qyf 'to dig' + ^iwe). 

K'qyge 'at the end' 'end' 'extent' {h'qyf + ge). 

K'qyj- in Icqyqe. 

Mah'ma 'machine' 'engine' 'sawmill' (<Span. maquina 'machine' 
'engine'). 

1 Final Report, pt. i. p. 262. 1890. 



HARRINGTON] GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS 79 

Mcu 'ocean' (<Span. mar 'sea' 'ocean'). 

Mcui'pokin 'ocean' {»uid+pohvi). 

J/aJpol-u:ipse)j(je>iq)j(/e 'the country down oeyond the ocean' {mcM- 
pokwi +p^ijge+nqrj f+g,e). 

Mesa 'table' 'mesa' 'tableland' (<Span. mesa 'table' 'mesa' 'table- 
land'). 

Mesahwagfi 'mesa' 'tableland' {mesa+hwag.e). 

Misate 'churoii' {misa <Span. misa 'Roman Catholic mass'+fc). 

Misate'e 'chapel' 'little church' {misate+'e). 

jVaia ' cultivable field ' 'field'. The word has the same meaning as 
Russian nfiva^ which it resembles in sound. Tewa «aSa has noth- 
ing to do with the uncommon Span, word na\a 'plain.' 

Nc^a ' game pitfall ' ' large bottle-shaped hole excavated in the earth, 
covered with brush and earth'; deer fall into it and are thus 
caught. Such a pitfall is called in the Taos language quana. 
Plate 11 shows an ancient naia. 

JVabahii'u 'dell of cultivable land' {naia ' field '+6i<'M [1]). 

I^aiahxi'u 'arroyo or cauada with cultivable land in it' 'field arroyo' 
{naha ' field '-hAm'm). 

Xabapokuhi 'arroyo or Canada with cultivable fields and a stream of 
water in it' {naba '&eld' +po/ui'u). 

I^abatsi'i 'canyon with cultivable land in it' 'field canyon' {ndba 
' field '+/si'/). 

iVasd, nam 'fishweir' (<Span. nasa 'fish weir'). 

JV^ (1) 'this' 'here', demonstrative element denoting position close by 
the speaker. Cf. hse and 'o. It is much used before postfixes of 
locative meaning, e. g. nxhwaje 'here on top' (/;« + hwaje). It is 
also used as a noun prefix, e. g. ns^teqwcHi/we 'at this house' 
ijiie, + teqrva + 'iwe); also as an adjective nseT^ teqiva'iwe 'at this 
house' {?ise + '«'' + teqwa + ^iwc-}. (2) 'at' locative postfix. 

]Vseg.e ' here ' ' down hei'e ', denoting position of or close by the speaker 
and relatively low {/tie + ge). 

JVsenie ' here ', denoting position of or close by the speaker («a? + jise [2]). 

jVsense'ot'onn^ 'on this side', referring usually to a river or other body 
of water (nsense + \jt' qnnss). 

JTsense^if 'on this side', said of body or otherwise (nsense + •'{). 

Nstloe 'here', denoting of or close by the speaker, and relatively high 
(?»« + we). 

Nc^^o&il- ' here' 'on this side' {ns^we + di). 

N(im'be'e 'small clump of earth' 'mound of earth' [nqyf + he's). 

Nqrnbu'u 'large clump of earth' 'mound of earth' {nqijf + hv/u [2]). 

NciTisipu 'shrine', literalh', 'earth's hollow where belly and rib- 
region join ' {niVf + s^P^ ' belly base ' ' depression below the ribs 
and above the protruding part of the belly on each side of the 
navel' <si 'belly', ^w 'bajse'). 



80 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

Nqnta 'desert' 'dryland' {m.yy + fa 'dryness' 'dry'). 

-ZVq)j(fe 'floor' 'country' {»Q)jy + gc). 

N'irjked.i 'on earth' 'in the world' (nCiyf + IceJi). 

NCiyf 'earth' 'land' 'country' 'soil' 'floor'. 

Nq''op^e 'plaster' 'mortar' («g. formative element + 'o^j'e'f? unexplained). 

Nqpo 'kneaded or workable mud' 'mud suitable for making adobe 
walls or brick' {iiq, formativ.e element + po ' water'). Cf. potsi. 

JVqpok'y, 'hard adobe' whether in form of adobe bricks or in other form 
(nqpo + k'y, indicating length and hardness, as in^'e/t'y 'bone' {p'e 
'stick')). The Tewa constructed pueblos of adobe in pre-Colum- 
bian times, building up the walls, a layer at a time, with formless 
mud (nqpo). They learned from the Spaniards how to make 
adobe brick and the modern Tewa pueblos are constructed of 
such brick. The Tewa call an adobe brick wi n^pQk'y, {ivi 'a' 
'one'). 

Wqpo' qywiheji 'adobe pueblo ruin' {nqpo + 'qyioikeji). 

MlfovM 'the water trickles down' said, for instance, of water trickling 
down a clifi' {nq 'it'; po 'water'; wq 'to trickle down'). 

Nqidbajemit, 'the bank falls' {nq 'it'; tdba 'cliff'; jemu 'to fall', said of 
3+, used herewith mineral singular). Cf. the San Juan name for 
February (p. 63). 

Ni a Nambe and San Juan form sometimes used instead of ''ijjf, loca- 
tive and adjective -forming postfix. 

No-ila 'well' (<New Mexican Span, noria 'well'). This is the ordi- 
nary Tewa word meaning 'well'. 

Nu 'ashes'. 

Nu locative postfix meaning 'at', referring to one or more objects at 
any level. It never means 'in'. Its usage appears to be iden- 
tical with that of w^. 

Nu^e ' below ' ' under ' ' beneath ' ' at the foot of ' {nu^u + g.e). 

Nugepije 'down' {nug_e + pije). 

Nu^u 'below' 'under' 'beneath' 'at the foot of 'at the base of 
'close to' 'down in'; said of liquids. 

Ijfws^nta'i''^ 'place where pine sticks are scattered on the ground' 
' place where pines are dry ' {yws^yf ' rock-pine ' + ta ' dryness ' 
' dry ' + '^'"■). ■ 

N'j'se'mse- 'left', in various compounds. 

Nfse^ma^qeM ' at the left side of; locative postfix {nfse'ms^- + g.e + J I). 

Nfs^m^Mse, 'on the left' 'at the left side' {n/ie'msR- + wg (2)). 

'(9 'that' 'there', demonstrative element denoting remoteness from 
speaker. It can not be postfixed. Cf . ns^ (1) and h^. It is much 
used before postfixes of locative meaning, e. g. , ^oJnvaje ' way up 
there on top' ('o + Jcwaje). It is also used as a noun pi-efix, c. g., 
''oteqwaHwe ' at that house ' ('o + teqioa + Hwe) ; also as an adjective 
'o'^'' teqioa'iwe ' at that house ' {'o + '^'* + tequ^a + ''hoe). 



n.VRRINGTOX] 



GEOGRAPHICAL TEEMS 81 



^Og.e 'down there', denoting remoteness from and position lower than 

speaker ('o + §<>). 
Wji 'ice'. 
^Ojipijjj' 'ice mountain' 'mountain with ice, snow or glaciers on it' 

i^ojl + piuf). 

' Oku ' hill '. Distinguished by its tone and the length of its vowels 

from ^oku 'turtle'. 
' Ohtheg.e ' gulchlike place by (lower than top of) hill(s)' {^oku + he'e + Q.e). 

Ohuheg.i 'gulchlike place of the hills ^{<A-u. + heg.i 'marked by gulches' 

'gulclilike'). 
' OTcukeioe ' hill peak ' ' peaked hill ' (ohu + Iceioe). 
''Okupigf 'large hill' 'small mountain' 'mountainous hill' 'hill-like 

mountain' (^ohu + pivf). , 

' Ohip'q rjki ' not very narrow hill or hilltop ridge ' {'ohu + p^qyki ' large- 
ness and narrowness' 'large and narrow'). 

''Ohupyokl 'narrow hill or hilltop ridge' {^ol-u+piyki 'smallness and 
narrowness' 'small and narrow'). 

'6>/Im/i//;«'¥7'o' very high hill' i^uku + ty,ijwse 'highness' 'high' 'tallness' 
'tall'; jo augmentative). The name is applied especiall}^ to cer- 
tain tall hills with shrines on them; near each of the three pueblos, 
San Juan, San Ildefouso, and Tesuque, one hill called thus and 
having a shrine on its summit is found. These were in former 
times ascended each dawn by a priest to worship the rising sun, 
it is said. 

^Okmo<ui 'wide gap in the hills' {'oku + wcuii). 

' Okuvyi'i 'gap in the hills' i^oku + lofi). 

'Ok'qmhe'e 'small sandy low place' i^ok'qijf + he'e). 

'OFdmbiii 'small sand pile' i^ok'qyf + bUi). This is used, for in- 
stance, of the sand piles made by ants. 

'OFqinboM 'sand pile' 'sand dune' {^ok'q,i]f+ lo.ii). 

' OFqmhu'u 'large sandy low place' Cok'qrjf + hu'u). This is also the 
name of a constellation. (See p. 50.) 

' Ok'qmpo 'sandy water' (^ ok' qt] f + po) . 

'Ok'qmp'o 'hole in sand' 'quicksand' (^ok'qrif + p'o). 

'Ok'qtmupo, nqnnupo 'subterranean water' ('ok'qyj' + nu'ii + po 
'water'; nqyf). 

'Ok'qrjk'xto, '' oF qyk' xtoh 'quicksand' {'ok\hjf + k's^to 'to sink in'; to 
'to be apt to' 'to look as if it would'). 

Wk'qyj' 'sand'. 

'Ok'iyf 'steam' 'vapor'. 

'Ok'u 'shadow' 'shade' 'shed'. 

'Ok'u'i)jgeJ4, 'shady side' ('oFy 'shade' 'shadow'; 'ivgeJ^i 'side' 
<'vjile 'side', di ablative, locative). The shady side of a moun- 
tain, e. g. of Truchas Peak [22:13], is called thus. 

'Ok'uteqvM 'shed' i^ohtj, + te(2vxi). 
87584°— 29 eth— 10 6 



82 ETHNOGEOGRAPIIV OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

^Ontp 'there', denoting remoteness from speaker ('o + 7isp, [2]). 
^Ot'qnnp^ 'on the other side', used especially with reference to bodies 

of water {\> + -i'qtjj'- + nx). For 'on this side' of a body of 

water nsense. ''ofqnnse. is used. 
^Oiee 'there', denoting remoteness from speaker and position at about 

level of or higher than speaker ('o + in). 
^Oywi 'pueblo' 'village'. The Santa Clara form is 'yr^wi. 
'Qrjwi^'cj/' 'pueblo ruin' i^oywi + heji). 
''Oywiyge 'pueblo' ' down at a pueblo' {"orjiai + ge). 
''Qijwip'aFqn4i''^ 'burnt pueblo' CQywi + p'ak'qrjj' 'to burn' < p'a 'lire', 

k'qyj' 'to do' + '/'*). 
'Oywitsqmbi^^ 'new pueblo' 'pueblo at present inhabited' {^qyivi + 

tsqmM^ 'new'). 
Pa a- in jMoge, pa^aM (akin to Jemez^t? 'sun'). 
Pa'"' 'sleeping mat' 'bedding' 'bed' 'mattress'. 
Pa'"- in 'keruiepd!"' . 

Pahige 'sunny place' below speaker {pd^a + Q,e). 
Pa'°-depije 'to the front' 'in front' (pa-^.te 'first' 'eldest' 'older 

brother or sister ' + pije). 
Pa'a.ii 'sunny place' {pa''a + •tP). 
PqjoQ.e-ii''intowa^Ue''e 'summer people's estufa' {j^qjogeM 'summer'+ 

'*'»■ + toioa 'people' + ti possessive + te'e). Synonyms: akqmpiji- 

in'(owatite''e, hmj'xte'e, and VajeWe. 
Pqnte 'oven' {payf 'bread' <Span. pan ' bread' + te). 
P^«yM!!e 'snake nest' 'snake hole" snake den' (ps^nfu 'snake' + fc). 
P^Mnqyjko 'salt lick' frequented by deer (jy* 'deer' + -le 'they' 3 + 

nqrjf + %0 'to eat'). 
Pa'a 'thread' 'string'. The word is probably also used figuratively 

to mean 'little stream'. 
Penihee, penihidti, 'gravej'ard' {peni 'corpse' + 6(?'<?, hiCu). 
Pesotc¥a 'pigsty' {p)esote 'pig' + l''a)- 

Pliiiage 'place where meat is dried' {pi^l 'meat' + ta 'to dry' + gfc). 
PPiwe 'ford', literally 'where they come or go through' {pi 'to issue' 

'to come or go through' + 'me). 
Pije 'to' 'toward' 'direction' 'region'. JSfaMpnje means 'to my 

home' {ndbi '■my'' +p/je), ''y.bipije 'to your home' ('y6«^ 'your' + 

Pij&ii 'from' 'from the region or locality of {pije + ■li). 
Piive 'ford' {pi 'to come or go through' + 7ce). 
Pinqyf 'power' 'magic' 'magic power resident in a fetish 
Pinnu 'in the midst of {piyf + mt). 
Pyinudi 'middle' 'in the middle' {pivf + nu + ui). 
Piijge 'in the middle of 'amid' {piyf + ge)- It means also 'half- 
way'. 
PiV^&ii 'in the middle' 'from the middle' (^nz/^/t; + .<«')• 



HARRINGTON] GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS 83 

Piyy 'heart' 'core' 'middle'. 

Pope 'driftwood' 'pile of driftwood' (unanalyzable). 

Popeho-il 'pile of driftwood' {pojye + hcui). 

Poj>ewaJ>e 'scattered driftwood' {pope + wcuie 'to scatter'). 

P(Ue 'fishweir' (unanalyzable). 

Po.iete 'watchhouse built near a tishweir' {j)o,ie+te 'dwelling place'). 

Potie ' squash estuf a ' {po ' squash ' ' pumpkin ' ' calabash ' + t^e). 

Synonyms : fimpije'inhnoiihltee, ten uui'intowaMte'e, and hws^uite'e. 
Potage 'place where squashes are dried' (po 'squash' 'pumpkin' 

' calabash ' + la ' to dry ^ + ge). 
Pw 'base' 'buttocks' 'root'. 
Puclvjf 'tree stump' (^jw + (ie/;y). 

Punabe 'ball' (probably containing 6e, referring to roundish shape). 
Punu'u 'near' 'a little way from', said, for instance, of an object on 

the ground near a house (pu + niiu). 
Pute 'rabbit holes' {pu 'rabbit' ' cottontail rabbit' + te). 
/*(««« 'cultivated land' 'ploughed field' (unanalyzable). 
Puwahuic 'dell of cultivated land' {puica + iiiht), 
Pwinte 'bridge' (< Span, puente 'bridge'). 
Psencji, 'on the other side' 'beyond' {pifyf + J,i). 
Ps^ti^P^ 'part' 'side,' used especially of i^arts or quarters of pueblos 

ipsiyj' + '/")• 
Pspnnse ' on the other side' 'beyond' {px7jf+ nie [2]). 
Pxyge 'over or down on the other side' ' beyond' (pseijj'- + ge). 
^?Z?y- 'beyond' 'side', used onlj^ in compounds, such as pxn4i'^, 

piennie pxijge. 
Pimbu'u 'a dell in the mountains' {piijf + huhi). 
PimpijeHnte'e 'north estufa' {pimpije 'north + 'e''' + te'e). Synonyms: 

pajogedi' inimvabite'e, pote'e, and Tiwxrite'e. 
PimpijeHijqwafyisyge 'locality bej'ond (north of) the north houserow' 

of a pueblo {pimpije ' north' + '*'*' + (pioa + ps^yge). 
Pimpije^ iyqwasih 'north houserow' of a pueblo {pimpije 'north' + T* 

+ qwasy). 
Pimpo 'mountain stream' {pii]f+ po 'water'). 
Piinpo 'mountain trail' {piuf + po 'trail'). 
Pimp'a 'flat-topped mountain' {pvjf + p''a' 'largeness and flatness' 

'large and flat'). 
Pimp^qijlci 'mountain I'idge' (fjiyy + /?'a7;^'i 'narrowness' 'narrow'). 
Pynp'opi 'bald mountain' {pijjy + p'o 'hair' + j9i negative). The 

term is doubtless due to the influence of Span, cerro pelado, etc. 
Pindugi 'mountain peak' {pivf + iugi 'largeness and pointedness* 

' large and pointed '). 
Pinn^ 'in the mountains' {pwf + nm [2] ). 
Pinsq.ywiyf 'zigzag-shaped mountain' {pivf + sqyiciyf 'zigzag'). 



84 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth ann. 29 

Pyjhvaje 'mountain top' 'mountain height' {pyjf + kwqje). 

Py/ke '.sharp mountain peak' {pyjf + let), 

Pyjicedugl 'mountain peak' 'mountain with a tall peak' {py)f + l:e + 
4ug.l 'largeness and pointedness' 'large and pointed'). 

Piijlcewe 'mountain peak' (piijf + Ice^oe). 

Pyjwcue ' place where mountains are strewn or scattered' {pijjf + v)<ue 
'to strew' 'to scatter'). 

Piywcud ' wide gap in the mountains' {piyf + vMi.it). 

Piywiho'o 'lone mountain' {pyjf + wi 'one' + bcPo 'being'). 

Piywi'i 'mountain pass' 'gap in the mountains' {pitjf + toP-i). 

Pyjj' ' mountain '. 

Piyf'e 'small mountain' {pwf + '«). 

PyOf'ok'ii, 'mountain shadow' 'shady localitj' in a mountainous 
country' (piyj' + "'oJi'y). 

Po 'water' 'river' 'creek' 'brook' 'body of water' 'juice'. The 
writer has not learned that rivers are personified by the Tewa. 
But Goddai'd says of the Pecos, Canadian, Rio Grande, and Chama : 
"These are the sacred rivers of the Jicarilla. The Canadian and 
Rio Grande are male, ' men,' the Pecos and Chama are female and 
are so pictured in the ceremonial by paintings.'" 

Po 'trail' 'track' 'road'. 

Pobe'e 'dell with water in it' (po 'water' + bee [1]). 

Poblg.e 'sharp bend in a stream' {po 'water' + biQe). 

Pobn^u 'dell with water in it' {po 'water' + 5«'« [1]). 

Po''e 'small stream' 'brook' 'puddle' {po 'water' + '<?). 

Po'e ' small trail' {po ' trail' + 'e). 

Po'ego 'a stream or body of water which shifts its bed' {po 'water' 
+ 'eg«9 'to shift'). 

Pog.e 'river' 'creek' 'low place where water is or runs' {po 'water' 

+ g.e). 
Pog.e 'trail' 'road,' conceived of as running low, on, or through the 

surface of the earth {po 'trail' 'road' + g.e). 
Pohe'e 'little gulch in which water is or runs' {po 'water' + Jw-e). 
Poheg.e 'little gulch where water is or runs' {po 'water' + he'e +g.e). 
Pohuge 'arroyoor canada in which water is or runs' (po 'water' + hu^u 

+ r)- 

PohuH ' arroyo or canada in which water is or runs ' {po ' water' + hu^u). 

PojaJe 'island' {po 'water' +jcue). 

Pojege 'confluence of two streams' (po 'water' +je 'to meet' ' to join' 

Pojenmge ' waterfall '(Ix? 'water' + jemu 'to fall', said of 3 + +ge). 
Pojemv'' P' 'waterfall' {po 'water' +jemn 'to fall', said of 3+ +'/''). 
PojemiCkve 'waterfall' {po ' water' +jemu 'to fall', said of 3 + + -iwe). 

1 Goddard, Jicarilla Apache Texts, p. 223, footnote, 1912. 



HARRINGTON] GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS 85 

Pokyjge 'bank of a river or body of water', said of a bunlv which has 
a rather sharp and straight edge {po 'water' + ki)j(jfe). 

Pohvaje 'up river' 'north' {po 'water' + hvaje). 

Polnci 'lake' 'pond' 'lagoou' 'sea' 'body of water' {po 'water' + 
Ixu-i unexplained). The -l-w\ can perhaps be explained by compar- 
ing the Taos paqwia- ' lake ' and Taos qwia- ' pit ' ' pitfall '. Lakes 
are believed by the Tewa to be the dwelling places of ^ok'uwa 
and to communicate with the waters beneath the earth. At every 
lake there is a k'oji or roof -hole, through which the ^ok'uwa pass 
when they leave or enter the lake. It is said that each pueblo has 
its lakes of the four cardinal points. Among the Tewa place- 
names will be found the names of many sacred lakes. 

Pokwi'e 'little lake' 'pond' 'lagunita' {pohri + '<?). 

Pohciffe 'lake' 'down at a lake' {pok>ri + g,e). 

Pokw^irjge ' rim of a lake' {pol-wi + I'iijge). 

Pol'wik'o 'arm or inlet of a lake' {pokwi + k'o). 

PohoiFoji 'roofhole of a lake,' a mythic opening- in a lake through 
which the ^ol' uu:a are supposed to pass {pohci + Foji). 

Pohioins^ 'by a lake' {pokwi + nsp. [2]). 

Pohvimi 'by a lake' {pokwi + n u). 

Pohwitaiwe 'place where lake grass grows' {pokwi + to- 'grass' -i- 'iwe). 

PoTcege 'banks or shore of a body of water' 'river bank' {po 'water' + 
kege). This word is commonly used where we use 'river.' The 
Tewa speak of going down to the river bank {pohege) instead of 
going to the river. 

Pnl-egepi'iwe ' place on the edge or shore of a body of water where 
one enters or emerges from a ford' {pohige + pi'iive). 

PoTco 'stagnant water' 'body of water' {po 'water' + Ico 'to lie'). 

Pokourtgi nqto 'mirage' {po 'water' + Tco 'to lie' + vxigl 'like' 'similar 
to' H- 7(4 'it' + ?i9 'to have the semblance of). 

Po%u 'rock in the water' {po 'water' + Tcxi 'stone' 'rock'). 

Pok'qyge 'end of the water' 'end or mouth of a river' {po 'water' + 
k^QVge). 

Poms^yf 'running water' {po 'water' -i- mss^Vf 'to go'). 

Po7iuge 'down river' 'south' {po 'water' + niige). 

Po^o 'water mill' 'mill driven by water' (po 'water' + 'o 'metate' 
'quern' 'mill').' 

Poin 'spring' {po 'water' + pi 'to issue'). 

Popihee 'dell where there is a spring or are springs' {popi + hee [1]). 

Popihu'ti 'dell where there is a spring or are springs' {popi + bu'u [1]). 

Popi'e 'little spring' {popi + ^e). 

Popip'o 'basin, pool or bowl of a spring' {popi + p'o). 

Pop'o 'water hole' 'hole in a rock or elsewhere in which water col- 
lects' {po 'water' + p'o). 

' For a good illustration of a New Mexican water-mill, see W. G. Ritch, Illustrated New Mexico, 
p. 133, ISSo. 



86 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ans. 29 



Poijira 'water tank' 'water reservoir' 'basin of water' {po 'water' + 

qwa). The artificially constructed reservoirs of ancient Tewa 

pueblos were called thus. 
Poqwa'e ' little reservoir ' ' cistern ' {po(jwa + 'e) . 
Poqioog.e ' delta of a stream' ' place where the water cuts through or 

washes out' {po 'water' + (jivog.c). 
Poqwo-ie 'water outlet' 'place where water cuts through or washes out 

little by little, as at the outlet of a lake' (po 'water' + qvKUe 'to cut 

through little by little '< (^?/w 'to cut through', de seemingly 

meaning 'little by little'). 
Posajen4iwe, posaj^hue ' place of bubbling, boiling or turbulent water' 

{po 'water' + saje, saj^ijf 'to bubble' 'to boil' 'to be turbulent' 

+ ''iwe). This term is applied to some hot springs and to the 

■water of the Rio Grande at Embudo Canyon [8:75], north of San 

Juan Pueblo. 
Posisif P'' 'stinking or stagnant water' {po 'water' + sisu 'to stink' + 

TO. " • 

Poso 'high water', said of the Rio Grande when it is high {po 'water' 

+ so ' to be at flood' ' to be high'). 
Posoge 'big river' {po 'water' + so'o 'bigness' 'big' + g.e). This term 

is applied especially to the Rio Grande. It is never applied to 

the ocean. 
Posdo 'big river' {po 'water' + sd'o 'bigness' 'big'). This term is 

applied similarly to posog.e, above. 
Posmva'i''^ 'warm water' 'place of warm water' {po 'water' + suvm 

'warmth' ' warm' + '^'"0. This term is applied to hot springs. 
PofiCu 'bend of a body of water reaching into the land' 'projecting 

bend of water of a river,' literally 'water point' {po 'water' + 

/«'«). 
Poto 'place where the water of a stream sets back' 'pool or place of 

stagnant or slowly flowing water beside a stream' {po 'water' 

+ to ''to set back'). 
Potde 'small backset or pool by a stream' {poto + '<^'). 
Potog,e 'backset side of a stream' {poto + g.e). 
Potoiyge 'place by the side of a stream where water sets back or a 

pool is formed {poto + 'iyffe). 
Pota 'drying or dry water' 'mud' {po 'water' + ta 'dryness' 'drj'' 

'to dry'). This is also used of low water in the river; opposite 

of poso ' high water.' 
Potag.e 'place where water is drying up or has dried up' {po 'water' + 

la 'dryness' 'dry' 'to dry' + g.e). 
Pota'P^ 'place where water is drying up or has dried up' {po 'water' 

+ ia ' dr3-ness' ' dry' ' to dry' + '/'»'). 



HAUBiN-GTOx] GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS 87 

PotaHwe 'place where water has dried up or is drying up' {po 'water' 
+ la 'dryness' 'dry' 'to drj^ ' + ''Iwe). 

Potsa 'marsh' 'swamp' ' marshy meadow ', in Span, cienega. Potsi 
'mud' is the diminutive form {po 'water' + fea, which is said to 
be identical with ^.sa ' to cut through' 'to cut across the grain', 
because water cuts or oozes through land in making a marsh, but 
this may be oiAj a popular etymology). Cf. potsi. 

PotftuQ.e ' marsh' (potsa + ge). 

Potsali' xntoio' live 'miry place', as in a marsh where persons or stock 
smk into the mud {potsa + k'mnto ' to sink in' + to ' to be apt to ' + 
^iwe). 

Piitsapojaue 'land in a marsh or swamp' {potsa + pojade). 

Potsqyws^'' P^ 'hot water' 'hot water place' {po 'water' + ^s^7;w^ 
'hotness' 'hot' + '/'O- This term is applied to hot springs. 

Potsi 'unkneaded and unworkable mud' 'nasty mud' 'puddly mud' 
'mud' 'muddy place' {po 'water' + tsi diminutive of the tsa 
which appears in potsa). Cf. wlpo. 

Potsihe^e 'muddy dell' {potsi + he'e [1]). 

Potsibuhi 'muddy dell' {potsi + iii'u [1]). 

Potsige 'muddy place' {potsi + g.e). 

Potsihu'K, 'arroyo with muddy places in it', as for instance Tesuque 
Creek [26: i] {potsi + hu'ii). 

PotsiUe incen^koe 'place where the water sinks into the earth' {po 'water' 
+ tsude 'to enter '+»zayy 'to go' + Hwe). 

Potsig.e 'canyon in which water is or runs' {po 'water' + te^'^' + g.e). 

PofsPi 'canyon with water in it' {po 'water' + fsi^i). 

Powe 'river' 'creek' {po 'water' + vje). Used only in the Nambe dia- 
lect. 

PouxPi 'gap through which a trail or road passes' {po 'trail' 'road' + 

tut"!). 

Powqn^iwe 'confluence' of two streams {po 'water' + wqyf 'to come 

down' + ''iwe). 
Pahee 'hearth' 'stove', literally 'lire corner' {i)'a 'fire' + h^e [1]). 
Pabxig.e 'hearth' {p'a 'fire' + Iii'u (1) + ge). 
rahuu 'hearth' {pa 'fire' + Wii. [1]). 
Palurwe 'hearth' {pa 'fire' + hee + we). 
Po'm.pije 'hither from' {pci'yf-y pije). Pq^mplje means 'from 

hither toward speaker'; .^iand its compounds mean merely 'from' 

and denote nothing as to destination. 
Pci^rjqe 'hither from' {;p'^(i''r)f-+Q.e). P'q^yqe means 'from hither to 

speaker'; .<^ and its compounds mean merely 'from' and denote 

nothing as to destination. 
PQ/''r)f, in p'<i''mpije., jt>'a'/;^e. 
P'e 'stick' 'timber' 'log' 'wood' 'plant'. 
Pek'a 'wooden corral or fence' {p e + V a). 



88 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

P ek' i^ykilceire 'a peak, hilltop, or mountain top as steep as a vertical 
pole' {'2>'e + k'lr.kl ' verticaluess' 'vei'tical' + %ewe). 

P'epu 'underside of a roof {]/e+pu). 

P'epumlyf ' dirt or dust that lodg'es on the rafters or thatch of tlie 
ceiling of a house' (p'epu + nqijf). 

Pep'cwiie'i^^ 'sawmill' {p'epa ' lumber' <p' e 'stick' 'wood' 'timber' 
'log', J9'a 'largeness and flatnfess' 'large and flat' + si8e 'to cut 
across the grain' + '/'*'). 8i%e should be contrasted with joaSe 'to 
split with the grain '. 

P'esiSe'*'' 'sawmill' (jo'e 'stick' 'wood' 'timber' 'log' + s^S(^ 'to cut 
across the grain ' + '^'''). 

P'e/«'(t 'horizontally projecting point of timber' 'horizontally pro- 
jecting point of cliff, mesa or rock with timber on it' {pe + fu'u). 

P'eteqioa 'wooden house' 'log cabin' 'log fort' [p'e + teqwa). 

P'ui 'small pile', said, for instance, of a pile of owl manure and of 
hills resembling in shape such a pile. See [3:18]. 

P'o 'hole', as opening through or into an object, 'mouth of a canyon 
'cave' 'pit'. 

P'ohe^e 'dell with a hole or pit in it' {p'o + hee [1]). 

P'w'd 'little hole' {po +'e). 

P' op' awe 'hole' going completely through an object {p'o + p'awe 'to' 
go completely through'). Such holes in natural rocks and hill- 
tops attract nuich attention and are represented in pottery 
painting. See [19:75J. 

Podi 'doorway' 'door', referring to the hole and not to the leaf 
or operculum {p'o + di). The word is applied only to holes 
through which people pass. P'odl' can be applied to a roofhole 
doorway or hatchway, although the more proper term for the 
latter is Jc'ojl. Cf. p'otUi, k'oji, and qioap'odl. 

P'utidi 'thin flat object used to close an opening' 'door' 'shutter' 
'operculum' {p'o + tiii 'shield'). 

P'owiii 'horizontally projecting point at or side of a hole' 'canyon- 
side at the mouth of a can von' {p'o + vrUi). 

Pqmpiyj' 'snowy mountain' {p'qijf 'snow' + fvjf). According to 
Fewkes' the Hano Tewa call the high, snowy San Francisco Moun- 
tains of Arizona, "Pompin," which is evidently this same term ; 
cf . Fewkes' spelling " Poii " as the name of the ' snow ' cachina (p. 
123 of the same report). 

Qiixi 'row of houses' ' house I'ow or side of a pueblo.' In its primary 
meaning it seems to denote the state of being a receptacle; cf. 
tepoa, foqiva. The houserow is regarded as the unit of pviel)lo 
architecture. Probably entirely distinct from gica-, qwi- below. 

Qv;a- referring to a wall in the compounds qica'awe and qwap'i. 

■Hopi Katcinas, Twenty-first Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 105, 1903. • 



nARKiNGTON'] GEOGEAPHICAL TERMS 89 

Qwa-, qwi- 'line', in the compounds (jwcui, qivUi. 

QwcHawe 'surface of a wall' 'wall of a building' 'housewall' {qwa as 
in qwap'i+\iwe unexplained). Cf. qwap'i, tc^a, and tep'i. 

Qwahvage 'a mesa tt}at resembles a pueblo houserow' {qwa+kwage). 

Qicahe, qwake'ii 'upstairs' 'second story' 'upper stories' {qvM+lce; 
di). 

Qwap'i ' small, low housewall,' apparently used as diminutive of 
qiraawe {qwa as in qwa'awe+p'i as in tejii, possibly identical with 
y>'^ in y>"i^'i 'narrowness' 'narrow'). Qwap'\ is emploj^ed espe- 
cially to designate the low parapet which runs around the flat 
roofs of Tewa adobe houses. Cf. qiocCaioe^ tepa, and U'})^^. 

Qwap'o ' window hole, through which people did not pass, in the wall 
or roof of a building' (qwa (X)+p'o). These holes were sometimes 
closed by Pueblo Indians in ancient times by means of slabs of 
selenite or mica or by stretching cornhusk. Cf. qwap'o.d. 

Qwap^oM ' window of the modern sort, fitted with panes of glass, and 
capable of being opened '. Distinguished from the ancient y?oa/>'o 
b}' their resemblance to doors {qwa + p 0,1!). Cf. qwap'o. 

Qwcui 'large long line' {qwa- + .li). Augmentative of qwUi. See 
woAki, the San Juan form of the word. 

Qwasy, 'row of houses' 'houserow or side of a pueblo' {qwa + sy, 
unexplained). 

QwatS'i'i 'street', as in Indian pueblos or Mexican or American settle- 
ments {qwa + tsvi). 

QioawPi 'gap or passageway between houserows of a pueblo' 
{qwa + wii). 

QwawiM 'end of a houserow' {qwa + ivWi). 

QwawiisPi 'street-like gap or passageway between houserows of a 
pueblo' {qioa + w'Ci h- tsij'i). 

Qwi 'fiber' 'line'. Cf. qwoJ'i^ qwiii. 

Qwiud 'small slender line' {qwi- + di). Diminutive of qwcui. See 
loUi^ the San Juan form of the word. 

Qwog.e 'delta' 'place down where an arro3"o or water cuts through, 
breaks through, or washes out' {qwo 'to cut through' + g.e). 

Qwoue 'outlet of a lake or body of water' {qwo 'to cut through' 'to 
break forth' + ^le). Cf. />4qwoue. 

}je is postfixed to many verb roots and denotes either continuous 
or intermittent action. Cf. se 'to push' and seM 'to push in little 
jerks'; qvK> 'to cut through' and qimde 'to cut through con- 
tinually', as water through the outlet of a lake. 

II I ' from.' The ablative meaning often goes over into almost locative 
meaning, fli and its compounds mean merely ' from' and denote 
nothing as to destination; jj^o^yge, p^^i'rnpije mean 'from', in a 
direction to or toward the speaker. 



90 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

Sawqyf 'vestibule' 'hall' 'corridor' (<Span. zaguan of same mean- 
ing)- 

Sqijwiyf 'zigzag'. 

Sipu ' the hollow at each side of the abdomen below the ribs ' {si 'belly ' 
+ pu 'base'). Sljyu. does not refer to the hollow just below the 
sternum nor to the hollow about the navel. The former is called 
pynpo 'heart hole ' {piyf 'heart' +p^o 'hole'), the latter siiep'o 
' navel hole' (siie 'navel' +p'o ' hole'). Sij.m appears compounded 
in the words rvlnsipu 'shrine' {mhjf 'earth'), and sipuvjiil 'pro- 
jecting ribs at the sides above the sipu'' (sipu + vnui), the latter 
being used as the place-name [2 :36]. 

Sipopigeteqioa 'sweat-house' such as the Jicarilla Apache use for 
taking sweats {sifo ' sweat' -i- pi ' to come out ' + g.e + teqwa). 

So ' mouth ' of person, animal, cave, bottle, etc. 

Sop'o 'mouthhole' of person, animal, cave, bottle, etc. 

Sy,n4oU'u]c'a 'military stockade' {sy,nda.iu 'soldier' +k'a). 

Siindadhpo 'military trail or road' {sy,n4adu 'soldier' + po 'road') 

Sy,n(iauup' eli' a 'military stockade' {sy^nda^tu 'soldier' +pel:'a). 

/Sy,ywse^P^ teqwa 'saloon' {sy,yws^''P' <sy,y7vs^ 'to drink' -)-'*'* +teqwa). 

£i^e 'ladder' 'stairway'. 

fulceg.e 'edge of a horizontally projecting point' {firu + heg.e). 

jfu'u 'horizontally projecting point' (probably connected with _/« 
'nose'). 

fuwvii ' horizontally projecting corner' [fii'-u + wi-ii). 

To' a 'gentle slope'. Cf. \i'a 'steep slope'. 

Tajepo 'straight trail' 'short-cut' {taje 'straightness' 'straight' + 
po 'trail' 'road'). 

Taki 'horizontal layer or stratum' (unanalyzable). 

T<^i)f ' painting ' ' pictograph '. 

Tqijle 'tank' 'water tank' (< Span, tanque 'tank'). The train is said 
to drink at a railroad water tank. 

Tqntscui; eda 'threshing floor' {tqyf 'seed' 'grain' -i- tsa 'to cut 
through' + M + 'e<ia). 

Te 'dwelling-place' 'house' 'habitation' 'nest or hole of certain 
animals'. 

Te-^ referring to wall in the compounds tejpa and tep'i. 

Te ' Cottonwood tree' ' Populus wislizeni'. 

le 'wagon'. Nothing could be learned as to the origin of this word. 
It means 'wagon' and nothing else. 'Wheel' is tehe {he 'round- 
ness' 'round'). 

le'a'tipi' 'wigwam' 'tent' {te ' dwelling place ' + '« 'cloth'). 

Tebee 'dell where there are cottonwood trees' {te 'cottonwood' -h 

ye). 

TebiCu 'dell in which there are cottonwood trees" 'plaza or park in 
which cottonwood trees grow' {te 'cottonwood' + hiCu [1]). 



HARRINGTON] GEOGRAPHICAL TEKMS 91 

T^e, te'i 'estufa' 'Idva.' Both pronunciations are in use. 

Te'ehufag.Pi'' 'round estufa' {tee + hwfag.!, 'roundness' 'round' + T'). 

Te'e heji'i^ 'rectangular estufa' {tee + Iwjl 'longness' 'long' + '^"'). 

Tehu'u 'arroyo or caiiada in which cottonwood trees grow' {te ' Cot- 
tonwood' + liii'u). 

Teji 'pueblo ruin' {te 'dwelling place' -v ji as in heji). This is said to 
be a little used San Juan form equivalent to the ordinary ''qyw\- 
lieji or tel-eji. 

TeJceji 'ruin' (?'e 'dwelling place' + keji). This is a more inclusive 
term than 'oTjwikeji. 

Tel-op i 'wagon bridge' {te 'wagon' + l-oj^'e). 

Tehi, 'cottonwood grove' {te 'cottonwood + lea). 

Tekaiodl 'roundish grove of cottonwoods' {te 'cottonwood' +'ka-\- 
hoM). 

T(^nuJ.v\nt(nno^it^e 'winter people's estufa' {te'mui 'winter' +f' + 
toioa 'people' +hi possessive + <(i'e). Synonyms: pimjnjeHn- 
ioivaiite^e and fote'e. 

Te'oJt'^ijf 'wagon shed' {te 'wagon' + 'o^''y/;y). 

Tepa 'wall' (^^ as in tep'i +j9a unexplained). Cf. tep'i, qwa^ awe B,ndi 
qroap'i. 

Tepo 'wagon road' {te 'wagon' + po 'trail' 'road'). 

Tep'i 'small, short wall,' apparently used as diminutive of tepa {te as 
in tepa + p'l, as in qxoap'i^ possibly the same as in p'il-i 'narrow- 
ness' 'narrow"). Tep^i is applied to the low, short walls or fire- 
screens built beside some fireplaces of Tewa houses. Tep'i was 
also applied to a low stone wall used as a fence, although tepa 
is said to be a more proper term for such a wall. Cf. tepa., 
qwti'awe, and qwap\. 

Teqina 'house' {te + qtca). This is the common term for separate 
house. A ' Kosa's house' traced on the ground in connection with 
a certain dance at Santa Clara was also called teqwa. 

Teqicaiee 'inside corner of a house' {teqiva + he'e {!)). 

TeqwalcevyPi 'outside projection corner of a house' (teqwa + Ji'eioiH). 

Teqwap ale qn^r^ 'burnt house' {teqwa+p'ali'qijf ' to burn'</>'a 'fire', 
Fqvf 'to do' + 'r'). 

Teqirawibo'o 'lone house' ' detached house ' not part of a houserow 
(tcqv-a + uil 'one' +bo^o ' being'). 

Tjenda 'store' (< Span, tienda 'tent' 'store'). 

Ta4awe 'place where the mud curls up when it dries' (ta 'todrj^' 
'dryness' 'dry' + ^awe 'to be curled up' 'to have risen in a 
curled state'). 

Tadavebuu 'dell where the mud curls up when it dries' (?a<?rtw't' + 

ToUv^ 'goal' such as set in playing certain games {ta unexplained + 
'^■'0. 



92 ETHNOGEOGEAPllV OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 20 

Tijemse- 'eveiy' in compounds. 

Txmsspije ' in cveiy direction ' {isp/n^ + p>je). 

r/4/i'dot'. 

ToWcm'. 

Totahi'tt. 'dell surrounded by cliffs' {hiia + hu'ii (1)). 

Tdbahup'o 'mouth of a cliff'- walled arroyo or cafiada' {hJbahu'u + p'o). 

Tdbahup'owUi ' horizontally projecting point at the mouth of a cliff- 
walled arroyo or cafiada' (foiahu^u + poi/y'./i). 

Tdbahu'u 'arroyo or cafiada with cliff-like walls' {toia + hit' a). 

Toiahetq'lim 'place where a cliff or bank is tumbling or falling down' 
0,oia + ket(l 'to fall' + Hwe). 

Toiakwfige 'mesa surrounded by cliff-like walls' {ioi<i + kwage). 

Totakioaje 'cliff top' 'heights at top of cliff's or cliff-like land' {ioia+ 
I'lrajfi). 

T(Jbanuu 'place at the base of a cliff' (tdba + nun). 

Toiaj/o 'hole in a cliff' {h/ia + p'o). 

Toiaqwa 'cliff-dwelling' 'cave-dwelling' (toia + qum). See plate 16. 

Tdbaqwal'' xnto l'^ 'subterranean cave-dwelling' (toimjiva + I'' lento 'to 
sink' -I- TO- 

Tdbafau 'horizontally projecting point of a cliff' ()oia +fa'u). 

foiatq'iicji'' 'painted cliff' [foia + iCi'ijj' + '/")• 

Toiavxui 'wide gap in cliffs' {ioia + waM). 

Tdbuwi'l 'gap or pass in the cliffs' (tiJba + v:i'i). 

Tuiatoui 'horizontally projecting point of a cliff' (Uiba + icui). 

TokoCakqyf 'sage-brush plain' (to 'chamiso', commonl}'^ called sage- 
brush ^- lea + ^akoijf). 

T^qmpijeiij<2ivap£^y^e 'locality beyond (east of) the east houserow' of 
a pueblo {t'qmpije 'east' + T' -i- qwa + p?eij(/e). 

T'qrnptje'iijqwasy, 'east houserow' of a pueblo {t'qmpije 'east' + '^"'' + 
giva^y,). 

T'gyy appears only in ^ot'onns^ 'on the other side'. 

Tsq,mp/'Je''iijt/wap^ij[/e 'locality beyond (west of) the west houserow' of 
a pueblo {tsi'impije 'west' + T' + qwa + px>j(/e). 

Tsq.mpije'iijqwasif, 'west houserow' of a pueblo {tsqmpije 'west' -i- T* 
+ qumsii). 

Tsima4M ' chimney ' ' hearth ' ( < Span, chimen^a, of same meaning). 

TsUeqioa 'dog house or kennel' {tsi 'dog' + teqwa)'. 

Ts\kwage 'basalt mesa' {fni ' basalt ' + Z'?/'agt'). 

Tsihcaje 'basalt mesa or height' {t.si ' basalt '-)- liwaje). 

Tsif It'll 'horizontally projecting point of basalt' {tsi 'basalt '+/«"?/). 

Tsiuu'di 'horizontally projecting point of basalt' (foi 'basalt'-)- «'/.</). 

7i'Mg6' ' entrance ' 'shed' (fow 'to enter '+ ye). 

TsudeP'' 'entrance' (fe?«^e 'to enter '-H Y'). 

^■M.^e'«W 'entrance' (fe^Me 'to enter' +^iwe). 

Tsige 'canyon' (tsi'i + ge.) 

Tsigepo ' canj^on water ' ' water from a canyon ' {tsPi + ge + po ' water '). 



HARRINGTON] GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS 93 

Tsi'i 'canyon' 'large steep-walled groove or channel'. 

Ts>i/o 'mouth of a canyon' {tsPi +po). 

Tsip'owUi 'horizontally projecting point at the inoutli of a canyon' 

i^n + p'owUi). 
T-stso^o 'great canyon' {FsPi + sn^o 'largeness' 'largo'). 
Tsiiriui 'wide gap in a canj'on' ifsri + irrui). 
TskoekPkce 'narrow place in a canyon' {fsPi +iceki 'narrowness' 

'narrow' + ''itre). 
Wa 'breast' 'mountain that resembles a breast'. 
Wage ' wide gap' {wa as in wa,ii + ge). This is an uncommon form 

equivalent to vxiJ-i. 
Wagiijf 'stair', especially foothole cut in rock for climbing steep 

slopes, cliffs, rocks, etc. (unanalyzable). 
Wall 'slope', used especially of 'talus slope' 'talus' at the base of a 

cliff {mi probabh^ identical with qca in v^fuii + Jci). 
Wake 'nipple' 'head of breast' {wa + Ice 'point'). 
Wa^ie 'to scatter' 'state of being scattered' 'scattered'. 
Wadi 'wide gap with sloping sides' (wa probably identical with va in 

wal-i, but cf. also %oPi, of which it may be the augmentative +.</). 
Wo'ii, San Juan dialectic form of qivcui. 
Wasil'a 'cattle corral' {loa-si 'cow' 'cattle' + k'a). 
Wasite'pca 'cowshed' {was/ 'cow' + teqwa). 
Wqp'o 'window hole' {wq 'wind' + jt>"o). 
Wqp'o.il 'window', the part that tills the hole, the removable part {wq, 

'wind' + j/o + .</). 
WqicPi 'windy gap' {icq 'wind' + v:Pi). 
We postpounded in manj' locative postfixes and postfixed in a number 

of place-names. It appears to have the same meaning as 'iW, 

supplanting the latter to a large extent in the Nambe dialect. 
Wegi 'hoUowness' 'hollow' or 'dell' of small size. Cf. wogi. 
Weki 'narrow place'. 

W^rjgehiM'' P^ 'council chamber' {w^7jge 'together' -i- hm 'to sit' -i- '/''). 
Wige 'gap' 'pass' {wPl + gi'). 
Wige 'horizontalh' projecting point or corner' {wi as in wui + ge). 

This is a form used only in the Santa Clara dialect and equivalent 

to wiui. 
Wihu'u 'arroyo or Canada running through or from a gap' {tvPi + hu^u). 
WPi 'gap' 'pass' 'chink'. 
Winqt' apPhce 'place where no one lives' 'desert' {loi . . . pi negative 

+ nq 'he' + t'a 'to live' 'to dwell' + Hive). 
Wui 'horizontalh' projecting corner or point' as of a cliff, mesa, or 

house {wl unexplained + m). 
Wui San Juan dialectic form of qioi.ii. 

Witsi'i 'can3'on running through or from a gap' {wPt + tsiH). 
Wdbe 'high and dry plain' 'arid plain' (unanalyzable). 
Wogi 'hoUowness' 'hollow' or 'dell' of large size. Cf. wegi. 



V. PLACE-NAMES 
Intkoduction 

The Tewa have a marked fondness for geographical conversation, 
and the number of place-names known to each individual is very large. 
Many a Tewa is acquainted with all or nearly all the place-names in 
localities in which he has lived or worked. A Tewa is almost certain 
to know most of the names of places about his village current in the 
dialect of the village. He is especially familiar with names of .places 
near his field or fields. Of places situated about other Tewa villages 
he usually knows but few names. Shepherds and hunters are best 
informed about places lying in the hills or mountains remote from the 
villages. The Tewa do not travel much outside their own country. 
A few occasionally attend festivals at Taos, Picuris, Cochiti, or Santo 
Domingo. They frequently go shopping to Espanola or to Santa Fe. 
Hardly any of the places with Tewa names lying outside the Tewa 
country are ever visited or seen b^^ the persons who use the names in 
daily speech. No one Tewa knows more than a fraction of the total 
number of place-names presented in this paper. The number of place- 
names known to an individual depends on environment, intei'est, and 
memor3\ 

The use of place-names by the Tewa before the introduction of Euro- 
pean culture was doubtless very much the same as it is to-day. As 
many places outside the Tewa country were known to the Tewa, and as 
few visited, as at present. 

Each Tewa pueblo has about it an area thickly strewn with place- 
names well known to its inhabitants and in their peculiar dialect. It is 
probable that these areas correspond closely with those formerly oc- 
cupied by the settlements of the clans which have united to form the 
present villages. The Tewa's knowledge of geographical details fades 
rapidly when one passes beyond the sphere of place-names of his 
village. 

The majority of the names are descriptive terms denoting land con- 
figuration. Elements denoting animal or vegetal life or things or 
events at the place are frequently prepounded. It requires but little 
use to make a descriptive name a fixed, definite label. It is said 
that no more flaking-stone is found at Flaking-stone Mountain than at 
other mountains of the western range, and yet the label is Flaking- 
stone Mountain [2:9], The Chama is a large river as well as the 
94 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 95 

Kio Grande, and yet the name Poso^e ' big river ' [Large Features : 3] 
is applied to the Uxtter only. Most of these names are made up of 
nouns or of nouns and adjectives. A number contain verbs, as for 
example: Ktmj.nj'y.piijj' 'where the stones slide down' [2:15]. The 
bahuvrihi type is rare; example: K'osq-tjyqijwi 'big-leggiug place' 
pueblo of the people who have the big leggings' [Unmapped]. 

Names of obscure etymolog}^ concerning the origin of which the 
people remember nothing, and which are nevertheless clearly of Tewa 
origin, form quite a numerous class. A newly settled country has its 
Saint Botolph's Towns, a country in which a language has long held 
sway, its Bostons. The occurrence of a considerable sprinkling of 
obscure names argues for the long habitation of the country by Tewa- 
speaking Indians; names of this class are especially noted in the treat- 
ment below. 

The translation into Tewa of foreign place-names is very rare. 
Aside from a number of problematical cases in which a Tewa name 
may be the translation of a Spanish place-name, or vice versa, and 
names like Taos Mountains, which would naturally be the same in all 
languages, there is known to the writer only one translated foreign 
name, that is, Tsepiijf 'Eagle Mountain ' [29:93], a peak south of Jemez 
Pueblo, which is clearly a translation of the current Jemez name. 

Quite a number of foreign names have, however, been borrowed by 
the Tewa; thus Sunfi ' Zuiii,' probably borrowed from the Keresan. 

Folk etymology has distorted some of these foreign loan-names. 
Keresan (Cochiti dialect) Eotfete^ a word of obscure etymologj' even 
in Keresan and which means nothing to the Tewa ear, has been taken 
into Tewa and changed to Eute^e ' Stone Estufa'; see [28:77]. 

Some names ot villages, mountains, rivers, etc., appear in various 
Tanoan languages in cognate forrps. These place-names were evi- 
dently already in use at some remote time in the past when the Tanoan 
languages were not so diversified as thc^^ are at jjresent. Such names 
are discussed in the detailed treatment below. 

When a pueblo was shifted from one place to another, the old name 
was regularly retained. There have been, for instance, three succes- 
sive pueblos of the San Juan Indians called by the same name, '' Oke^ 
each occupying a different site. Compare the English place-names 
transferred to places in America by the English colonists. 

Some much-used names are abbreviations; thus Pog.e 'Santa Fe' 
for ' Og.apog.e or £'wa'apoge [29:5]; Bu'v 'Espanola' for ^t<'MM?n,6i"' 
[14:1(1]. 

The practice of distinguishing villages or mesas by numbering 
them 'first', 'second', 'third', etc., seems to be peculiar to the Hopi. 
The Hopi distinguish the Tewa \allage of San Ildefonso as the 'first', 
Santa Clara as the 'second', San Juan as the 'third', Tewa village. 
See under the treatment of these village names. 



96 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. isu. 29 

Sometimes we find two names for one place current in a single dia- 
lect. Tlius the Rito do los Frijoles [28:6] is in Tewa Puqinigc, alias 
Tunaiahiige. Aj^ain, two or more places have precisely the same 
name. Almost everj' Tewa village has its ^okuf'iiywspjo 'high hill', a 
certain high hill near the village on which a shrine is situated being 
called thus, although there may be higher hills in the neighborhood. 
See [12:27], [19:27], [26:1-1:]. There are several arroyos in the 
Tewa country known as HutaJiiCu 'dry arroyo'; see [1:31], [15:2<3]. 
There is one PV/«'w [3:36] in the Chama Valley, another [20: unlo- 
cated] south of Buckman. Manj^ streams are called by different 
names in different parts of their courses, as the Chama River [Large 
Features : 2], Pojoaque Creek [19:3], etc. On the other hand, sevei-al 
arro3^os may have the same name if they come from the same water- 
shed, as [10:13]. Two streams starting from a pass, gap, or moun- 
tain in opposite directions sometimes bear the same name, as [13:19] 
and [13:20]; [20:9] and [20:10], etc. 

Place-names overlap as much as among us. One place-name may 
cover an area part of which is covered by one or more others. Such 
an inclusive name as fumapsg-ij^e 'the region about Buckman, south 
of [20:5]' covers many other more limited named localities. Names 
of small but important localities may be extended to cover the 
region of which the locality forms part. Thus P'efupije 'toward 
Abiquiu [3:.36]' is used with the meaning 'up the Chama Valley', 
since Abiquiu is to the Tewa the most important place in the valley. 

Numerous instances will be noticed of a stream being called from a 
height, or vice versa. 

The process of applying a name to a place not previously named, or 
giving a new name to a place, could not be directly studied. It 
occurs verJ^ rarely. It appears ^hat a place-name is usually first 
applied by a single individual. It may or may not be adopted by a 
smaller or larger group of other individuals. Manj-, perhaps the 
majority of place-names, exist for a shorter or longer time in the 
mind of one or a few individuals onl}' and are then forgotten, never 
becoming generally known to the community. The process can not 
be called an unconscious one. 

How ancient or recent a place-name is can not in most instances be 
determined. The vocabulary sometimes enables us to distinguish 
post-Spanish names. Tek'aiehwaje 'break- wagon height' [2:40] and 
Kcibajiieijjfhu'u 'colt arroyo' [17:42] are clearly given by a people 
familiar with wagons and colts. 

Manj' Tewa place-names have Spanish counterparts of the same 
meaning. In such instances the Tewa ma}' be the translation of the 
Spanish name, the Spanish may be a translation of the Tewa name, 
both may be translations of a name in some other language, or both 
may be descriptive and of the same or independent origin. It is im- 



HARniNGTON] PLACE-NAMES 97 

possible to df teniiine .satisfactorily the origin of man^^ of these names. 
Tewa feeling or tradition is the safest guide. Where Tewa idiom is 
violated, as in Tewa '' Al-qntintiR [13:-t6] for Spanish Loma Teudida 
(which is poor Tewa but good Spanish), the Tewa is clearly the 
ti'anslation. The Mexicans translated a number of Tewa place-names, 
and took not a fewof tlie Tewa words directly into their language, very 
carelessly modifying their pronunciation. It is a custom of the Mexi- 
cans to call a place after the surname of a long-resident, important, 
or numerous family, or the sole family inhabiting it. These names are 
sometimes singular, sometimes plui'al; as, Velarde [9:6], Los Luceros 
[9:3.5]. The Tewa, not well understanding this custom, attempt 
sometimes to translate Spanish names of this origin into their 
language, rendering Los Luceros, for example, by '' Agojoso'jo'vwe ' place 
of the morning star' (translating Span, lucero 'morning star'). 

There is and always has been considerable dislike for the Mexicans 
on the part of the Tewa, and this feeling is responsible for the purist 
tendencies of many Tewa speakers. The Tewa are apt to avoid the 
use of Spanish place-names when speaking Tewa, either translating 
them or using the old Tewa equivalents. When talking Tewa in the 
presence of Mexicans they are especially careful not to use any Span- 
ish words, lest they be understood and the secret subject of the con- 
versation be betrayed. Dislike for the Mexicans has tended to keep 
the old Tewa place-names in use, and, in general, to preserve the 
language. 

The area covered by the maps is that in which Tewa place-names 
are common. Twenty-nine regional maps (the key to which is pro- 
vided in map 30) are here presented, of varying scale according 
to the number of the place-names; these follow the Indian political 
divisions more or less faithfully. Each map is designated by a 
number in boldfaced tj-pe inclosed in brackets, and also hy a name 
repi'esentiug some prominent feature. For several reasons the 
place-names are not given on the maps: The Indian names are too 
long; freijuently they have several variant forms in a single dialect; 
many are found in several dialects or languages; there are often two 
or more names for one place. The places are indicated by numbers. 
The text treatment of the names follows their placement on the maps. 
The number in boldfaced type in brackets indicates the map on which 
the place occurs ; the light-faced number refers to the place of cor- 
responding number on the map. Thus [22:3] refers to sheet [23], or 
Santa Fe Mountain sheet, and to the place on the sheet numbered 3. 
Explanatory information inserted by the author in quotations is 
placed in brackets. 

Conversation with Mr. Francis La Flesche, student of the Omaha 
and other Siouan tribes, suggests interesting comparisons between the 
place-names of a sedentary Pueblo tribe, as the Tewa, and those 
87584°— 29 eth-16 7 



98 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

of a typical Plains tribe, as the Omaha. It appears that the Omaha 
have fewer place-names than the Tewa, but more widely scattered and 
more lucidl3r descriptive. A detailed study should be made of the 
place-naming customs of two such diverse tribes. 

Large Features 

[Large Features:!]. (1) Pimps^yge, Tsq.mpije'i'' pi7np3^7j(/e 'beyond 
the mountains ' 'beyond the western mountains' {pvrjf 'moun- 
tain'; Tsqmpije'i^^ pivf 'the Jemez Mountains' [Large Features: 
8]; ps^yffe 'beyond'). This name is applied to the region of the 
" Valles'" [16:44], [16:45], [16:131], and [27:6], q. v. 

(2) Eng. The Valles (<Span. (3)), "the Valles".' 

(3) Span. Los Valles 'the valleys'. = Eng. (2). "Los Valles ".^ 
These are high, grass -grown meadow -valleys west of the 

crest of the Jemez Range ( Tmmjjije' P^ fWf [Large Features: 8] ). 
Such valleys are found also in the Peruvian Andes, where they are 
called by the German-speaking inhabitants Wiesentaler. There 
are four of the Valles with distinct Spanish names: Valle de 
Santa Rosa [16:-4o], Valle de los Posos [16:44J, Valle Grande 
[16:131], and Valle de San Antonio [27:6]. See also [2:11] and 
Valle de Toledo [27:unlocated]. The Valles are at present unin- 
habited and no ruins of former Indian settlement have been dis- 
covered in them. This lack of inhabitants was perhaps due to 
altitude, cold climate, and unsuitability for Indian agriculture. 

' 'Altitude may have been the main obstacle to settlement in some cases, for 
the beautiful grassy basins, with abundant water and fair quality of soil, that 
extend west of Santa Fe [29:5] between the ranges of Abiquiu, Pelado, and 
Sierra de Toledo on the east, and the Sierra de la Jara and the mountains of 
Jemez on the west [for these names see under Tsdmpije' i' ' fivj' [Large Features: 
8] ], under the name of 'Los Yalk-s', are destitute of ruins. There it is the 
long winter, perhaps also the constant hostil.ty of roaming tribes contending for a 
region so abundant in game, that have kept the village Indian out."^ "Twenty- 
five miles separate the outlet of the gorge [14:24] at Santa Clara [14:71] from 
the crest of the Valles Mountains [Ts/jinpije'i'i ply f].* The Valles proper are 
as destitute of ruins as the heartof the eastern mountain chain [ T'^mpije'i' ' piv f1; 
beyond them begin the numerous ancient pueblos of the Jemez tribe".' 
" Against the chain of gently sloping summits which forms the main range 

iBandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 201, 1892. 

2 Ibid., pp. 12, 200. 

3 Ibid., pp. 11-12. 

* ' ' The distances are not absolutely accurate, but according to the statements made to me. the only 
means of checking them being my own experience on foot. The view from the crest, where the 
Pelado [3:13] looms up on one side and the Toledo range [a7:unlocated] on the other, is really 
striking. The sight of grassy levels glistening with constantly dripping moisture is something rare in 
the Southwest. To heighten the effect, groves of ' Pino ReAl ' and mountain aspen rise everywhere. 
The soil is very fertile, and there is abundant water, and yet no trace of ancient abodes has been 
found. The winters are long in the Valles. and there is too much game not to attract the cupidity of 
a powerful tribe like the Navajos [Navaho]. ... I suppose that no ruin on the flanks of the chain, 
both east and west, is to be found at an altitude exceeding 7,500 feet." 

& Bandelier, op. cit., pp. 65-66, and note. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 99 

from the peak of Abiquiu [2:10?] to the Sierra de la PaHsada [27:unlocated] 
in the south abuts in the west an elevated plateau, containing a series of grassy 
basins to which the name of ' Los Valles ' (the valleys) has been applied. Per- 
manent streams water it, and contribute to make an excellent grazing region of 
this plateau. But the seasons are short, for snow fills the passes sometimes till 
June, and may be expected again a,s earl}' as September. During the three mouths 
of summer that the Valles enjoy, however, their appearance is very lovely. . . . 
The high summits are seldom completely shrouded for more than a few hours 
at a time, and as soon as the sun breaks through the mist, the grassy basins shine 
like sheets of malachite. Flocks of sheep dot their surface, and on the heights 
around the deep blue tops of the regal jiines mingle with the white trunks and 
light verdure of the tall mountain aspens. It is also the country of the bear 
and the panther, and the brooks teem with mountain trout. 

But for agriculture the Valles offer little inducement; for although the soil is 
fertile, ingress and egress are so difficult that even potatoes, which grow there 
with remarkable facility, can not be cultivated profitalily. The descent to the 
east toward Santa Clara [14:71] is through a long and rugged gorge [14:24], over 
a trail which beasts of burden must tread with caution, while toward Cochiti 
[28:77] the paths are still more difficult. On the west a huge mountain mass, 
the Sierra de la Jara [27:10], interposes itself Ijetween the principal valley, 
that of Toledo [Valle de Toledo [27:unlocated] ], and the Jemez country. 
Both north and south of this mountain the heights are much less considerable; 
still the clefts by which they are traversed are none the less narrow, and the 
traveller is compelled to make long detours in order to reach the Jemez River 
[27:34].'" "The Valles constitute a water supply for the Jemez country. 
Two streams rise in it, the San Antonio [27:11] on the eastern flank of the Jara 
Mountain [27:10], and the Jara [Jara Creek [27:unlocated] ] at the foot of 
the divide, over which crosses the trail from Santa Clara [14:71]. These unite 
soon to form the San Antonio 'river' [27:11], which meanders through the 
Valles de Santa Eosa [16:45] and San Antonio [16:6] for seven miles in a 
northwesterly direction, and enters a picturesque gorge bearing the same name, 
and then gradually curves around through groves until, at La Cueva [27: 
unlocated], it assumes an almost due southerly direction." ^ 

See especially [16:i4]. [16:45], [16:131], [27:6], Valle de 
Toledo [27 : unlocated], and TsiimpijeH''^ fivf [Larj^e Features: 8]. 
[Large Features : 2]. (1) San Juan Popiyy 'red river' (p(?' water' 
river'; pi 'redness' 'red'; ^iijf locative and adjective-forming 
postfix). This is the old Tewa name of the Chama Kiver, doubt- 
less formerly current at all the Tewa pueblos. It is given because 
of the red color of the water of the river. The water discharged 
by the Chama frequently makes the Rio Grande red for miles 
below the confluence. Bandelier learned that this red water in the 
Chama comes from Coyote Creek [1:29] (see the quotation below), 
but the water of the Chama is at all times reddish. 

(2) Tfamapo, Tfanta pokeg.e ( Tfuma < Span. Chama, see Span. 
(5), below; po 'water' 'river'; Icege 'bank place' < Ice 'edge' 
' bank,' ge ' down at ' ' over at ') . This loan-name is current at all 
the Rio Grande Tewa pueblos. 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, pp. 200-201. 2 Ibid, pp. 201-202. 



100 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. anx. •iO 

(3) Cochiti Tfetepotfena 'northwest x'w^v'' {tfete 'north'; ^w 
' west' ; tfena ' river '). The Cochiti are fond of naming geograph- 
ical features according to'their direction from Cochiti [28:77]. 

(■i) Eng. Chama River. (<Span.). =Tewa(2), Span. (5). 

(5) Span. Rio Chama, Rio de Chama 'river of Ts<iinq\ the name 
Tsqirui having l)een applied b}- the Tewa to the pueblo ruin [5:7] 
and its vicinitj'. For a discussion of the origin of the name see 
[5:7]. =Tewa (2), Eng. (4). The upper Chama River above the 
confluence of [1:4] and Vado settlement [1:5] is called by the 
Tewa Pqmpo; see [1:6]. 

"A picturesque gorge or canon terminates above Abiquiu [3 :36], 
and from it emerges the Chama River".' 

The ("hama usually carries its waters above the sand to the Rio 
Grande confluence. "South of the Rio Chama, the waters of not 
a single tributary of the Rio Grande reach the main artery 
throughout the whole year".- 

The water of the Chama is alwaj's reddish. "The branches of 
which the Chama is formed are the Coyote [1:29] in the west, 
the Gallinas [1:24] north of west, and the Kutrias[l:14] north. It 
is said that the waters of the first are red, those of the Gallinas 
white, and those of the Nutrias limpid. According as one or the 
other of these tributaries rises, the waters of the Chama assume a 
different hue. The word 'Chama' is properly 'Tzama'".^ The 
water of the Chama is always somewhat reddish and when the 
water of the Rio Grande is reddish it is said to be due to the dis- 
charge of the Chama. See Posoge [Large Features: 3]. Compare 
the San Juan name of the Chama River given above. 

The region of the Chama River is sometimes spoken of as the 
Chama region or Abiquiu region. For the Tewa expression see 
[1: introduction]. 

See [1:4], [1:6],J1:S], [1:11], [1:14J, [1:15], [1:24], [1:29],[1:31], 
[5:7], [5:16], and Posog.e [Large Features: 3]. 
[Large Features: 3]. (1) San Juan, Santa Clara, San Ildefonso Fo-y^jge, 
Nambe Poso(/e 'place of the great water' {po 'water' 'river'; so 
'largeness' Marge' 'great'; g.e 'down at' 'over at'). The Nambe 
form is irregular. Compare the names of similar meaning. 

(2) Picuris "Paslapaane".^ 

(3) Jemez Hflnfapakwa 'place of the great water' {hqiifd 
'large' 'great'; p« 'water'; Z?m locative). Comj)are the forms 
of similar meaning. 

(4) Cochiti Tfena 'river'. 

1 Bandelier, Final Rerort, pt. n, p. 55, 1S92. >lbid,, pt. ii, p. 5G. 

'Ibid., pt. I. p. 17, 1890. <Spindeu, Picuris MS. notes, 1910. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 101 

(5) Zuni "the 'Great Flowing Waters'"/ evidently a transla- 
tion of d:he Zuiii name. Compare the names of similar meaning. 

(6) Hopi (Oraibi) Pajo 'river' — this is the only name for the 
Rio Grande familiar to the writer's informant. 

(7) Jicarilla Apache "Kutsohlhl".^ No etymology is given. 

(8) Eng. Rio Grande. (<Spau.). Compare the names of similar 
meaning. 

(9) Span. Rio Grande del Norte, Rio Grande, Rio del Norte 
'great river of the north' 'great river' 'river of the north'. 
Compare the names of similar meaning. 

The Rio Grande never becomes dry as far north as the 
Tewa countrj-. In summer the waters frequently sink into the 
sand a short distance above Bernalillo [29:96]. In July, 1908, the 
stream flowed only a short distance beyond Cochiti Pueblo [28:77]. 
At high water the Rio Grande is dangerous to ford in the Tewa 
country. 

The chief tributaries of the Rio Grande in the Tewa country are 
Truchas Creek [9:9], the Chama River [Large Features:2], Santa 
Cruz Creek [15:18], Santa Clara Ci-eek [14:21], Pojoaque Creek 
[19:3], Guaje Creek [16:53], "Buckman Arroyo" [20:25], Paja- 
rito Canyon [17:30], Water Canvon [17:58], and Ancho Canyon 
[17:62]. The Chama River is said to run perennially to its con- 
fluence with Rio Grande. "South of the Rio Chama, the waters 
of not a single tributary of the Rio Gi'ande reach the main artery 
throughout the whole year." ^. The Rio Grande is quite clear above 
the Chama confluence. The water of the Chama is reddish with 
mud and the water of the Rio Grande below the Chama confluence 
has a dirty reddish or brownish color. See under [Large Fea- 
tures:2]. 

Just above the Tewa country the Rio Grande passes through the 
Canyon [8:61], q. v. From this it emerges at [8:75], but the 
precipitous wall of Canoe Mesa [13:1] hugs the river on the west 
as far south as the Chama confluence. 

From the vicinity of the Chama confluence in the north to that 
of San Ildefonso Pueblo [19:22] in the south the valley of the Rio 
Grande is comparatively broad, bordered on the east by low hills 
and on the west by low mesas. This section is frequently called 
by Americans the " Espaiiola Valley ", from Espanola [14:16], its 
chief town. 

In this section lie the three Tewa pueblos situated by the river, 
namely, San Juan [ll:San Juan Pueblo], Santa Clara [14:71], and 

1 Cushing 111 Thr. MUMouc, vol. IX (Sept., 1S.S1), p. 152. 

2 Goddarti. Jirarilln Apache Texts, p. 41, 1911. 
sBandelier, Final Report, pt. i, p. 17, 1890. 



102 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

San Ildefoiiso [19:22]. In the east lie the Santa Fe Mountains 
{Tqiiqnjei^ fV)f [Large Features:?], in the west* the Jemez 
A\-Ah\{Tsqmpijei'''piijf [Large Features :8]), ranges parallel to the 
Eio Grande and 10 to 20 miles from it. 

About 3 miles below San lidefonso [11:22] at [19:125] tlie llio 
Grande enters a second canyon, which extends, with exception of 
a short stretch in the vicinity of Buckman [20:19], as far south 
as Cochiti [28:77]. This is called by the Tewa merely PofsPl 
'water canyon' or Posoge'p/ipofsPi 'water canyon of the Kio 
Grande '(p« 'water'; fsiH 'canyon'; Posoge 'Rio Grande' (see 
above); 'iyy locative and adjective- forming postfix); but tiie 
Americans have a specific name for it, namely, White Rock 
Canyon. See PofsiH [Large Features :4], below. 

So far as the writer has learned, the Tewa do not personify the 
Rio Grande and other rivers as do the Jicarilla Apache, according 
to Goddard. ' The Tewa appear to have no myth of the origin of 
the Rio Grande, but s&y that it has run since the beginning of the 
world, as the result of rain. 
[Large Features:4]. (1) PofsiH, PosogeimpofsPi 'water canyon of 
the Rio Grande' (po 'water'; fsPi. 'canyon'; Posoge ''Rio Grande'' — 
see [Large Features:3], above; 'vjy locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix). This is the only name which the Tewa have for this 
canyon of the Rio Grande. It is also one of the Tewa names 
of [8:04]. 

(2) Eng. White Rock Canyon. This name is said to have been 
applied onl^^ since the Imilding of the Denver and Rio Grande 
Railroad. Persons very" familiar with the region know of no white 
rock to which it refers. It can hardly refer to the white rock 
[28:;t4] from which Pefia Blanca [28:92] is named, for that is 5 
miles below the southern end of the canyon. Span, (-l) appears 
to be a translation of Eng. (3). "White Rock Canon.'- "White- 
Rock Canyon.''^ 

(3) Eng. Devil Canyon. The writer has heard an American 
jipply this name to the canyon. 

(4) Span. Canon de la Peila Blanca, Canon Blanco 'wliite rock 
cany on"white canyon.' (Probably < Eng.). =Eng. (2). "Canon 
Blanco. "2 

(5) Span. "Canon del Norte. "^ This means 'north canyon' and 
is a Span, name used by people living south of the canyon. 

(6) Span. Caja, Caja del Rio Grande, Cajon, Cajon del Rio 
Grande Canon, Canon del Rio Grande, 'box' 'box of the Rio 
Grande Canj'on' 'Canyon of tlie Rio Grande.' "Caja del Rio."'* 

1 Jicarilla Apache Texts, 1911. ' Hcwett, Communautife, p. 20, 1908. 

'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 79, 1S92. «Bandelier, op. cit., pp. 80, 149. 



HAKKIXGTOX] PLACE-NAMES 103 

"•Almost opposite San Ildefonso [19:22] begins the deep and 
picturesque cleft through which the Rio Grande has forced its 
way. It is called •Cailou Blanco,' 'Caiion del Norte,' or 'White 
Rock Canon.' Towering masses [Buckman Mesa [20:5]] of lava, 
basalt, and trap form its eastern walls; while on the west 
those formations are capped, a short distance from the river, by 
soft pumice and tufa." '■ The eastern wall of the canyon ends in the 
vicinitj' of Buckman [20: lit] with the discontinuation of Buckman 
Mesa [20:5], but is continued farther south by Chino Mesa [29:1]. 
The whole canyon is spoken of by Bandelier^ as "the canon 
that separates San Ildefonso [19:22] from Cochiti [28:77]". He 
also speaks of ''the frowning walls of the Caja del Rio . . . with 
their shaggy crests of lava and basaltic rock" as viewed from the 
dell [28:22] looking east. 

"Except at the little basin [20:22], the Rio Grande leaves no space for set- 
tlement between San Ildefonso [19:22] and Cochiti [28:77].^ It flows swiftly 
through a continuous canon, witli scarcely room for a single horseman along- 
side the stream. The lower end of this canon afforded the people of Cochiti 
a good place for communal fishing in former times. Large nets, made of yucca 
fibre, were dragged up stream by two parties of men, holding the ends on each 
bank. The shallowest portions of the river were selected, in order to allow a 
man to walk behind the net in the middle of the stream. In this manner 
portions of the river were almost despoiled of fish. The same improvidence 
prevailed as in hunting, and the useful animals were gradually killed off. 
After each fishing expedition, the product was divideii among the clans pro 
rata, and a part set aside for the highest religious officers and for the communal 
stores.""* 

See Posoae [Large Features:3], [8:61], also [19:125], [20:5], 
[28:81], [29:1]. 
[Large Features: 5]. Tewamhjge 'Tewa country' {Teica name, of the 
tribe; nqtjf 'earth' 'land'; ge 'down at' 'over at'). 

The Tewa consider their country the region between the Santa 
Fe {T'o-r/ipijeT^ jjiijflhavge Features:?]) and Jemez {TacimpijeH'''' 
fiijf [Large Features:S]) Mountain Ranges, from the vicinity of 
San Juan Pueblo [11: San Juan Pueblo] in the noi'th to that of 
San Ildefonso [19:22] and Tesuque [26:8] pueblos in the south. 
The Rio Grande Valle}' proper, that is, the narrow strip of culti- 
vated hind on each side of the river, is called Teiruhege"Yevi^ dell' 
{Tewa name of the tribe; iee ' small, low, roundish place'; ge 'down 
at' 'overat'). The entire low country of the Tewa, extending from 
mountain range to mountain range and including high hills and 
mesas, is called Ttuiihuge 'Tewa valley' {Teira name of the tribe; 
hii'u 'large, low, roundish place"; ge 'down at' 'over at'). The 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 79, 1892. 

2 Ibid., p. 179. 

3 The vicinitj- of Buckman [20:19] should also be excepted. 
' Bandelier, op. cit., p. 149. 



104 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

portion of the Tewa country at the foot of the mountain chains 
is known as Teiuapiiumge 'Tewa place beneath the mountains' 
{Teim name of the tribe; pitjf 'mountain'; nrcu 'below'; ge 
'down at' 'over af). According to the writer's informants the 
Tewa had in ancient times a strong feeling that the Tewa country 
was their land and propertj', and would have resented the attempt 
of any other tribe to make a settlement in it. The Tewa had in 
former times also manj' pueblos in the region south of the present 
Tewa country, known as T'artwg<?, q. v. [Large Features :6]. 

[Large Features: 6]. (1) T'anug.e, T'anug.e'akorjj' 'live down coun- 
try" 'live down country plain' {fa 'to live'; nug<' 'down l)e- 
low <nu^u 'below', ge 'down at' 'over at'; \iko)jj' 'plain'). 
This name refers to the great plain south of the Tewa country 
and east of the Rio Grande. Its Indian inhabitants were called 
T anugeiiitouKi, 'live-down-country people' {T'anuge, see above; 
'ij?y locative and adjective-forming postfix; towa 'person' 'peo- 
ple'), or for short T' anidowa. See Tano, page 576. 

(2) Eng. Santa Fe Plain. This term seems applicable. Santa 
Fe city [39:5] is at the northern border of the plain and com- 
mands a view of the greater part of it; hence the name is applied. 
This plain has been called by Bandelier "the central plain of 
northern New Mexico". He also speaks^ of the northern part 
of it as "the plateau of Santa Fe," while to the southern part he 
applies "theGalisteo [29:40] plain, "^ and " the basin of Galisteo ' 
[29:rt0]. This is the broad arid plain extending from the region 
about Santa Fe [29:5] in the north to that about Galisteo [29:40] 
in the south. This plain was, roughly speaking, formerly the 
homeland of the southern Tiwa. See Tano, under Names of 
Tribes and Peoples, page 576, and Galisteo Pueblo ruin [29:39]. 

[Large Features: 7]. (1) T'qmpije^r^piyf, t'qmpijephjf 'eastern 
mountains' (t'qmpije 'east' <t'qyf 'sun', pije 'toward'; '/'' 
locative and adjective-forming postfix, 3 4-plu. ; piijf 'moun- 
tain'). So called because the mountains are east of the Tewa 
country. Cf. T.nmplje'i''^ fWf [Large Features :8]. 

(2) Eng. Santa Fe Mountains, named fi-om Santa Fe city [29:5]. 
(<Span.). = Span. (3). This name has been applied sometimes 
to the whole range, as we use it here; sometimes to the southern 
part of that range only, in the vicinity of Santa Fe city. "Santa 
Fe range."* "Santa Fe liange."^ 

1 Final Report, pt. n, p. 88, 1892. 
nbid., p. 106. 
3Ibid.,pp. 20, 87, 88. 
* Ibid., pp. 4.5-16, 65. 

6 Land of Sunshine, a Book of Resources of New Mexico, p. 23, 1907. Ore Deposits of New Mex- 
ico, p. 163, 1910. 



HARRIN-GTON] PLACE-NAMES 105 

(3) Span. Sierra de Santa Fe, 'Santa Fe Mountains,' named 
from Santa Fe cit}' [39:5]. =Eng. (2). This name is, like its 
Eng. equivalent, applied now to the whole range, now to the 
southern part of the same. "Sierra de Santa Fe." ' 

(•i) Span. "Sierra Nevada."^ This means 'snowy mountains.' 
Identified with the Santa Fe Range by Bandelier.^ 

These names refer to the range of mountains east of the Tewa 
country f rom Jicarita Peak [22:9] in the north to the vicinity of 
Sant^i Fe [29:5] in the south and west of the upper course of the 
Pecos River [22:6:^]. They do not properly apply to the Taos 
Range [8:24], nor to the Mora Range [22:*U]. The peaks and 
other features of this range are given on [22]. 

The Span, name Sangre de Cristo 'blood of Christ' is not cor- 
rectly applied to these mountains. It is given on the standard 
maps as a range northwest of Trinidad, Colorado, separating the 
headwaters of the Arkansas and the Rio Grande in Colorado. 

Indians and Mexicans tell of a half-breed, called in Spanish 
Miguel el Indio, 'Michael the Indian,' "Indian Mike,"' who lives 
in the wild portions of these mountains, eating bear and deer 
meat and avoiding human company. He is said to talk very lit- 
tle Spanish, and no one seems to know what Indian language he 
speaks. 
[Large Features: 8]. (1) Tsampye^'P^pWf, Ts^mjrijepiyj' 'western 
mountains' (Ascf7«:^yV 'west' <tmyf unexplained, ^/!;V 'toward'; 
T' locative and adjective-forming postfix, 3 + plu. ; fV)f ' moun- 
tain'). So called because the mountains are west of the Tewa 
country. Cf. T"g??i/«^Vi''''pi^./ [Large Features: 7]. 

(2) Eng. Jemez Mountains, named from Jemez Pueblo [27:35]. 
This name has perhaps long been applied loosely to the whole 
range, but the writer has not found such usage in print earlier 
than the writings of Hewett. Bandolier^ uses "Sieri'a de 
Jemez" as a synonym for Jara Mountain [27:10], q. v. "A 
great complex of mountains loosely known as the Jemez."' 
"Jemez mountains.'"" 

(3) Valles Mountains. (<Span.). = Span. (5). Thisisthename 
applied to the chain by Bandolier, who uses it just as Hewett 
uses" Jemez Mountains." "Valles Mountains."' "Valles chain."* 
"Range of the Valles."' 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 120, 1892. 

2 C'aataneda (1640-42) quoted by Bandelier, ibid. 

3 Ibid. 

< Ibid., p. 72, note. 

' Hewett, Antiquities, p. 9, 1906. 

•Ibid., p. 14. 

'Bandelier, op. cit., pp.60, 72 (note). 

«Ibid., pp. 32, 53. 



106 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS Ieth. ann. 20 

(4) Eng. Santa Clara Mountains. This name is suggested by a 
prominent English-speaking Indian of Santa Clara Pueblo [14:71], 
who thinks the name Jemez Mountains or Valles Mountains is not 
appropriate. Santa Clara Pueblo is the only Rio Grande Tewa 
pueblo lying on the west side of the Rio Grande, and the names 
Santa Clara Creek [14:24] and Santa Clara Peak [2:13] are well 
established. 

(5) Span. Sierra de los Valles, 'mountains of the valleys,' re- 
ferring to the meadow- valleys known as Los Valles; see Pyn- 
pxyge [Lai'ge Features :1]. This is the name always used by 
Mexicans and by Tewa when they speak Spanish. It is also the 
name used by Bandelier. =Eng. (3). "Sierra de los Valles."'^ 
"Sierra del Valle."^ 

These names refer to the entire range of mountains west of the 
Tewa country, which Bandelier^ describes as "the mountains 
which divide the Rio Grande valley from the sources of the Rio 
Jemez [27:34]." Mountains or groups of mountains of this 
chain or range pass under many special names, most of which 
do not appear on any map, and cannot be definitel}' located. 

"As I shall have occasion to refer frequently to the different sections of the 
Valles Mountains under their current Spanish names, I give here a list of them 
from north to south. The northern end of the range is formed by the Sierra de 
Ahiquiu [2: unlocated], with the peak [Abiquiu Peak [2:10]j of the same 
name; then follows the Cerro Pelado [Santa Clara Peak [2:13]]; afterwards 
come the Sierra de Toledo [27: unlocated]. Sierra de San Miguel [28:29], 
Sierra de la Bolsa [27 : unlocated] , and, lastly, the Sierra de la Palisada [27: 
unlocated]. As seen from Santa Fe [29:5], they seem to constitute one long 
chain of contiguous heights. West of this range, at an elevation of at least 
8,000 feet, extend the grassy basins of the 'Valles' [Piv^pgyqe [Large Fea- 
tures: 1]]; beyond it rises the high Sierra de la Jara [.Tara Mountain [27:10]], 
sometimes called Sierra de Jemez, because the Jemez region lies on its western 



Other mountains of the range are: Capulin ]Mountain [1:2S], 
Pedernal Mountain [2:9], Eusimfy,piijj' [14:25], Pltcpyjj' [14: 
23], K'^johukwaje [16:134], Cochiti Mountains [28:5], and the 
moimtains with Jemez names shown on the eastern part of [27]. 

Trails 

Po 'trail' 'road'. Wagon roads are sometimes called tepo 'wagon 
road' (i!e 'wagon'; po 'road") or poso'jo 'big road'(|ir? 'road'; so'jo 
'big'), in contradistinction to which trails are called po''e ('e; diminu- 
tive). Kdbajupo or l-wprjipo 'horse trail' {kaiaju, hnxji 'horse'; po 
'trail'). JBu^npo 'donkey trail' {budu 'donkey'; po 'trail'). 

'Bandelier, The Delight Makers, p. 1, 1S90; Final Report, pt. n, p. 71, 1892. 

'Ibid., p. 199. 

'Ibid., pt. r, p. 14, note, 1893. 

< Ibid., pt. 11, p. 72, note, 1S92. 



MAP 1 
TIERRA AMARILLA REGION 







z 
o 
5 

HI 

IT 



< 

< 

< 
a: 

lU 



^c.. ^- ^-C #I^B;;^^^ 



MAP 1 
TIERRA AMARILLA REGION 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 107 

The region known to the Tewa is covered at present with a network 
of innumerable trails, most of which are made t)y stock. The intro- 
duction of the horse doubtless greatly modiiied the course and charac- 
ter of trails used in traveling. Satisfactory knowledge about the 
ancient trails is surprisingly difficult to get. The chief ancient trails 
leading west wei'e doubtless those which passed up the Santa Clara 
and Guaje Creeks and over the western mountains into the Jemez 
country. Important trails must have run along both sides of the Rio 
Grande and Rio Chama. All information obtained about ancient trails 
is included in the present section. Old Indian infoi'mants say that the 
Tewa had no bridges across the Rio Grande and the Chama in ancient 
times; their trails led them to well-known fording places. These 
were the only streams which could not be forded anywhere. Ford is 
called mercl}" popiuve 'place where one goes through the water' {po 
'water'; pi 'to issue' 'to go through'; ^iwe locative). As in the case 
of the trails, the fords are tnWy treated in the present section. 
Some of the smaller streams and ditches of the Tewa country were 
spanned by flat-hewn logs. 

Trails were sometimes named after the places or peoples to which 
they led or after the peoples who used them: Thus, P'efupo ' Abiquiu 
trail' {P't'fuu 'Abiquiu'; po 'trail'); Wqnsahepo 'Navaho trail' 
( W(j,nsaie ' Navaho ' ; po ' ti-ail '). 

Place-names in Regions Mapped 

[1] tierra amarilla sheet 

The Tewa have no current term for the region shown on map 1.^ 
Occasionally '' Abeljuplje 'up Abiquiu way' i^AMJcju 'Abiquiu', see 
[3:36J; jyije ' toward') is used to designate all the country about and 
beyond (north of) Abiquiu. Tierra Amarilla is applied to the sheet 
because Tierra Amarilla is the name of the county seat of Rio Arriba 
County, which has been used to denote this district. Bandelier ^ men- 
tions "the cold and well-watered Tierra Amarilla in northern New 
Mexico" as "among the few typical timbered areas". 

Only one pueblo ruin is shown on [1]. Probably many other ruins 
will be discovered later, however, in the southern part of this area. 
Inquiry has failed to reveal that the Tewa have anj' knowledge as to 
what people built these pueblos. The results secured by the writer 
are as negative as those of Bandelier, who writes: ^ "To what tribe or 
linguistic stock the numerous vestiges of pueblos along the Upper 
Rio Chama, north of Abiquiu and west of El Rito, must be attributed, 
is still unknown."' See [2:7]. 

' See explanation regarding maps, on p. 97. 
2 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. i. p. 19, 1S90. 
»Ibid.,pt. II, p. 53, 1892. 



108 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

The Jicarilla Apache now occupy the northwestern corner of (he 
area. It was not many decades ago, however, that these Indians 
ranged east of Taos, and the country now occupied by their reserva- 
tion was held by the Southern Ute. See Jicarilla Apache and Ute, 
pages 574 and 578, respectively. 

[1:1] (1) PokwiwPi 'lake gap' {pokivi 'lake' <po 'water', hoi 
unexplained; wPi 'gi^p' 'pass'). This name refers to the lake 
and the whole locality. It was not known to the informants 
whether there is a gap or pass there. 

(2) Po/cwiu-npokwi, PohriwPn^'pohvi 'lake gap lake' {pohci 
'lake' <po 'water', ktoj unexjilained; ^oPi 'gap' 'pass'; t' loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix, mineral singular; pohvi 'lake' 
<po 'water', /vr^ unexplained). This name refers especially to 
the lake. 

(3) Ka^ajupolcvn, Kwsgjipokwi, KcibajWi''^polcw\, Kv^sejPv^- 
pohvi 'horse lake' {hataju 'horse' <Span. caballo 'horse'; 
kwwji' 'horse', perhaps an early borrowing from Span, caballo 
'horse'; i'^ locative and adjective-forming postfix, mineral singu- 
lar, agreeing with postpounded pokwi ; pokwi ' lake ' <po '• water', 
kwi unexplained). =Taos (5), Eng. (6), Span. (8). 

(4) Pinipijepokwi, PimpijeT'pokwi 'northern lake' {pimpije 
'north' <piij.f 'mountain', j9i/tj 'toward'; T' locative and adjec- 
tive-forming postfix, mineral singular; pokiri 'lake'<2M 'water', 
kivi unexplained). Horse Lake is thus known as the northern 
lake, Boulder Lake [1:2] as the middle lake, and Stinking Lake 
[1:3] as the southern lake, of the present Jicarilla country. 
= Eng. (7), Span. (i>). 

(5) Taos Kdupaqwldand 'horse lake' {kdu- 'horse'; paqitna 
'lake' <pa 'water', qicld- unexplained, the compound paqivld- 
probably being cognate with Tewa pohni; and noun postfix, 
agreeing in gender and number with postpounded paqwid-). 
= Tewa (3), Eng. (6), Span. (8). 

(6) Eng. Horse Lake. =Tewa (3), Taos (5), Span. (8). 

(7) Eng. North Lake. =Tewa (4), Span. (9). 

(8) Span. Laguna del Caballo 'horse lake'. = Tewa (3), Taos 
(5), Eng. (6). 

(9) Span. Laguna del Norte 'north lake'. =Tewa (4), 
Eng. (7). 

This lake is on the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation. It is 
frequently mentioned in connection with Boulder Lake [1:2] and 
Stinking Lake [1:.3]. 
[1:2] (1) Kuk'a'hoe 'at the stone enclosure' (kuk'a 'stone barrier or 
wall of roughly piled stones enclosing a space' < kn 'stone', k'a 
'fence enclosing a space' 'corral'; ^iive 'at', locative postfix.) 



HAKBi.Nv.TON] PLACE-NAMES 109 

One informant stated that the lake is called thu.s because it is 
surrounded by a parapet or rim of rocks. 

(2) Euk'a^iiocpol'wi 'lake at the stone enclosure' (Icul'a 'stone 
barrier or wall of roughly piled stones enclosing- a space' < hu 
'stone', h'a 'fence enclosing a space' 'corral'; ''iwe 'at', locative 
postfix; pokiri 'lake' < po 'water', kv:i unexplained). Cf. (1), 
above. 

(a) Kufohioi 'stone lake' (Jcu 'stone'; pol-iri 'lake' < po 
'water', l->ri unexplained). = Taos (5), Eng. (6), Span. (8). 

(4) Pijjiicpol-wi, PyjgeT'pokwi 'middle lake' {j)i>j[/e 'in the 
middle '; «'' locative or adjective-forming- postfix, mineral singular, 
agreeing with postpounded pohri; pohri 'lake' < po 'water', 
kici unexplained). The lake is thus called in contradistinction 
to Horse Lake or North Lake [1 :1] and Stinking Lake or South 
Lake [1:3]. =Eng. (7), Span. (9). 

(5) Taos Qiupaqynaand 'stone lake' (qm- 'stone'; paqioia 
'lake' < pa- ' water', qwid- unexplained; and noun postfix, agreeing 
in gender and number with postpounded paquld- ). =Tewa (3), 
Eng. (0), Span. (8). 

(6) Eng. Boulder Lake. =Tewa (3), Taos (j), Span. (8). Cf. 
Tewa (1) and (2). 

(7) Eng. Middle Lake. =Tewa (4), Span. (0). 

(8) Span. Laguna Piedra 'stone lake'. =Tewa (3). Taos (.5), 
Eng. (6). Cf. Tewa (1) and (2). 

(9) Span. Laguna en el INIedio. =Tewa (4), Eng. (7). 

It is near this lake that the Jicarilla Apache hold a dance on the 
night of September 15 and for several nights following, every year. 
The dance takes place inside a large round corral built of bi-ush. 
This corral is known to the Tewa as ]eabi(\i 'large roundish low 
place enclosed by a corral' (Ji'a 'corral'; hiru 'lai-ge roundish 
low place'). The Tewa call tiie. dance k' abu' iifaJe {faJe ' dance '). 
This lake is often mentioned in connection with this dance ; also 
in connection with Horse Lake [1:1] and Stinking Lake [1:3]. 
[1:3] (1) Posy.'r' 'smelling water' {po 'water'; sy, 'to smell', in- 
transitive, said of pleasant or unpleasant smells; '^'* locative and 
adjective-forming postfix, mineral singular, agreeing with po). 
Cf. Span. (7). 

(2) Pokunsy,T^ 'smelling lake' (pokwi 'lake <po 'water', kwi 
unexplained; .iij, ' to smell', intransitive, said of pleasant or unpleas- 
ant smells; i'^ locative and adjective-forming postfix, mineral sin- 
gular, agreeing- with po. =Taos (4), Eng. (5), Span. (8). 

(3) ' Akomp/Jepokwi, 'Akompije^i' pohui ' southern 1 ake '( V<^-07«.- 
j?i/e 'south' <^al-qr)f 'plain' 'level countrj^', j9//e 'toward'; i'' 
locative and adjective-forming postfix, mineral singular, agreeing 
with-pohoi; ^oi-?«i ' lake ' <pc 'water', ^-y/j^ unexplained). =Eng. 



110 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ann. 29 

(6), Span. (9). The lake is thus called in contradistinction to 
Horse Lake or North Lake [1:1] and Boulder Lake or Middle 
Lako[l:-2]. _^ 

(4) Taos Paqioidlmcaand 'stinking lake' (pa/jwtd 'lake' <pa 
'water', qmd unexplained; la 'to smell', intransitive, said of 
pleasant or unpleasant smells; ?/>« said to have the force of ' which '; 
and noun postfix, agreeing in gender and number with postpounded 
laica). =Tewa (2), Eng. (5), Span. (8). 

(5) Eng. Stinking Lake. =Tewa (2), Span. (8). Cf. Tewa (1). 

(6) South Lake. =Tewa (3), Span. (9). 

(7) Span. Laguna del Ojo Hediondo 'lake of the stinking 
spring'. Cf. Tewa (1). 

(S) Span. Laguna Hedionda 'stinking lake'. =Tewa (2), Taos 
(4), Eng. (5). Cf.Tewa(l). 

(9) Span. Laguna del Sur 'south lake.' =Tewa (3), Eng. (6). 

Accoi-ding to some of the names and the statements of two 
Indian informants the lake gets its name from a spring the water 
of which has a strong odor. Just where this spring is situated 
could not be ascertained. This lake is often mentioned in con- 
nection with Horse Lake [1:1] and Boulder Lake [1:2]. Notice 
also [1:4]. Several other Tewa forms of the name of this lake 
are probably also in use. 

This lake is situated south of the Jicarilla Apache Indian 
Reservation, and not on it, as are [1:1] and [1:2]. 
[1:4] (1) Posy,^hvepohi'u, Pon'iCiweT^ pohiPu 'smelling water creek' 
{posui^ 'smelling water', one of the names of Stinking Lake <po 
' water', sy, 'to smell', intransitive, used of pleasant as well as of 
unpleasant smells; ' T' locative and adjective-forming postfix, min- 
eral singular, agreeing with po; Hwe, formed by the juxtaposition 
of i'* and we, 'at', a locative postfix which is not used unless pre- 
ceded by P^ except in the Nambe dialect; f' locative and ad- 
jective-forming postfix, mineral gender, agreeing with pohuu; 
pohiiu 'creek' < po 'water', hu^i 'large groove'). Cf. Eng. 
(2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Stinking Lake Creek. Cf . Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Arroyo de la Laguna del Ojo Hediondo 'creek 
or wash of the lake of the stinking spring '. Cf. Tewa (1), 
Eng. (2). 

Many other Tewa forms might also be applied to this creek. 
[1:5] (1) BauhuH ' Vado town' {hau < Span. Vado, name of the set- 
tlement; buu 'town'). 

(2) Eng. Vado. (< Span. Vado). 

(3) Span. Vado 'ford'. 

Vado is a small lumbering settlement. The informants did not 
know whether there is really a ford there. The Spanish name is 
never translated into Tewa. The Chama River above Vado is 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES m 

called Pqnipo, below Vado it is called Popiyy; see Chama River 
[Large Features :2]. 

[!:•)] Pqmpo 'river of the captive(s)' {pqi)f 'captive' 'prisoner'; po 
'water' 'river'). The informants do not know whj^ this name is 
applied. They do not know whether in Spanish a corresponding 
name, which would be Rio del Cautivo or Rio de los Cautivos 
'river of the captive(s)', is in use. 

This name is applied to what Americans call the upper Chama 
River above the confluence of [1:4] and the vicinity of Vado set- 
tlement [1:5]. TheTewa, however, consider Pquipo to be a river 
distinct from the Chama. See Popyjf [Large features : 2]. 

[1:7] (1) B.taslihu^u 'Brazos town' {Bdash <Span. Brazos, name of the 
settlement; bu^u 'town'). 

('2) Eng. Los Brazos. (< Span.). 

(3) Span. Los Brazos 'the arms' (bodypart) 'the branches'. 

Why this name was given is not known. Cf. [1:8] and [1:9]. 

[1:S] (1) B.iasupokuhi, Bdasui'^ pokii'u ' Brazos Creek' {Biash <Span. 
Brazos, name of the settlement; i'* locative and adjective-forming 
postfix, mineral singular, agreeing with pohu'u; pohiiu 'creek' < 
po 'water', ku^ti 'large groove'). 

(2) Eng. Los Brazos Creek. (< Span.). 

(3) Span. Rito de los Brazos 'arms creek.' Cf. [1: T] and [1:9]. 
[1:9] (1) B.iasupiijf,Biasu^iriipyjf 'Brazos mountain' (5.<asw <Span. 

Brazos, name of the settlement; Hjjf locative and adjective-form- 
ing postlix, vegetal singular, agreeing with pitjf; piyf 'moun- 
tain'). 

(2) Eng. Los Brazos Peak(s). ( < Span. Los Brazos ' the arms'). 

(3) Span. Cerro de los Brazos, Sierra de los Brazos 'the arms 
mountain '. 

The Indian informants stated that two peaks are conspicuous. 
Cf. [1:7] and [1:8]. 
[1:10] (1) 'OkUbu'u 'Ojo town' Cohh <Span. ojos 'springs'; bu'u 
'town'). 

(2) Span. Los Ojos 'the springs'. 

It is stated that this settlement is a couple of miles northwest 
of Tierra Amarilla town and east of the Chama River. Several 
informants have stated that the Tewa call the town of Parkview 
by this name. 
[Tierra Amarilla region] (1) JVq /ifsejiwe 'at the yellow earth' {nqrjf 
'earth'; ise 'yellowness' 'yellow'; iwe 'at' locative postfix, j 
being infixed whenever H-\ Hjjf or ''iwe is postfixed to tse). 
= Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Tierra Amarilla region. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), 
Span. (3). 



112 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

(3) Span, region de Tierra Amarilla 'yellow earth region'. 
= Tewa (1), Eng. (2). 

All the country about Tierra Amarilla town is known by this 
name. Several informants have declared that this is the "old 
Indian name" of the locality, and that the locality is named from 
the pigment deposit discussed below under [1:13]. Cf. [1:11] 
and [1:12]. Furthermore, it is stated that the earth in this whole 
region is yellowish. 
[1:11] (1) NqnTsejiwepo, Nq,ntseji%oii^^fo 'river at the yellow earth, 
1. e., in the Tierra Amarilla region' {nqnfsejhoe 'at the yellow 
earth' 'at Tierra Amarilla' <nqyf 'earth', fse 'yellowness' 'yel- 
low ', ^iwe ' at ' locative postfix,^' being infixed whenever '/''', ''irjf, or 
^iwe is posttixed to tse; !''- locative and adjective-forming postfix, 
mineral singular, agreeing with po; po 'water' 'creek' 'river'). 
=Taos (2), Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(2) Taos Namtsulifa! and 'yellow earth river, i. e., Tierra Am- 
arilla river' {namfsuli- 'yellow earth' 'Tierra Amarilla' <nam- 
'earth', rsull 'yellow'; pa- 'water' 'creek' 'river'; and noun 
postfix, agreeing in gender and number with postpounded fxi). 
= Tewa (1), Eng. (3), Span. (1). 

(3) Eng. Tierra Amarilla Creek. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Taos 
(2), Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Rito de Tierra Amarilla ' yellow earth creek '. = Tewa 
(1), Taos (2), Eng. (3). 

(5) Span. Rio Nutritas 'little beaver river'. Cf. [1:12], [1:11]. 
Cf. Tierra Amarilla region, above, also [1:12] and [1:13]. 

[1:12] (1) Nq.ntsejnoebu'u 'town at the j'^ellow earth' {nqyj' 'earth'; 
*se 'yellowness' 'yellow'; ^iwe 'at' locative postfix,^" being infixed 
whenever T', 'iyy, or ^iwe is posttixed to tse/ bii^u 'town'. Cf. 
Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Tierra Amarilla town. (<Span.). =3pan. (3). Cf. 
Tewa (1). 

(3) Span. Tierra Amarilla 'yellow earth'. =Eng. (2). Cf. 
Tewa(l). 

(1) Span. Las Nutritas "the little beavers'. Cf. [1:11]. [1:14]. 

Tierra Amarilla is the county seat of Rio Arriba County. Cf. 
[Tierra Amarilla region] above, also [1:11] and [1:13]. 
[1:13] (1) Tseji'' I: qndlwe 'where the yellow pigment is dug' {Fse 
'yellowness' 'yellow'; T' locative and adjective-forming postfix, 
mineral singular, here refering to yellow stufl^ or pigment, ;' being 
infixed whenever '/'% 'iyy, or 'i?w is posttixed to tse; k' qndlwe 
'where it is dug' 'pit' 'quarry' < Fqrjf 'to dig', ^iwe 'at' locative 
postfix). 

It is sai I that this pigment deposit is situated a short distance 
northwest of Tierra Amarilla town. The substance is moist when 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 113 

it is dug out. It is mixed with water and used for "yellowing" 
the walls of rooms in pueblo houses, near the floor. It is stated 
that the deposit is occasionally visited by Tewa Indians, who carry 
home quantities of the pigment for this purpose. The substance 
ma}' be called nqnfsejP'- 'yellow earth' {nqijf earth'), but is com- 
monl}' called merely fsejP^. See under Minerals. The names 
of the Tierra Amarilla region, river, town, etc., are probably to 
be explained from the presence of this deposit and from the fact 
that the earth is yellowish in the vicinity. Cf. [Tierra Amarilla 
region], pp. 111-12, also [1:11] and [1:12]. 
[1:14] (1) ^ OJoiepo 'beaver house water' {''ojote 'beaver house' 
'beaver nest' <''ojo 'beaver', te 'house'; po 'water' 'creek' 
'river'). This is probably the original Tewa name of this creek. 
Though Nutritas is perhaps as common in Spanish as is Nutrias, 
the former word is never translated in Tewa speech, while the 
Nutrias Kiver is regularly called ''Ojotepo. Cf. Taos (2), Eng. 
(3), Span. (1). 

(2) Taos Pajapaand 'beaver water' {paja- 'beaver'; pa 'water' 
'creek' 'river'; and noun postfix, agreeing in gender and number 
with postpounded pa). =Eng. (3), (Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Nutrias Creek. (<Span.). =Taos (2), Span. (4). 
Cf. Tewa (1). 

(4) Span. Rito de las Nutrias ' beaver creek '. Bandelier ' gives 
"the Nutrias". =Taos (2), Eng. (3). Cf. Tewa (1). 

Bandelier' says: "The branches of which the Chama is formed 
are the Co3'ote in the west, the Gallinas north of west, and the 
Nutrias north. It is said that the waters of the first are red, 
those of the Gallinas white, and those of the Nutrias limpid. 
According as one or the other of these tributaries rises, the waters 
of the Chama assume a different hue." Cf. the name Nutritas, 
[1:11], [1:12]. 
[1:15] (1) SiT^ po 'onion water' {si, 'onion'; T' locative and adjec- 
tive-forming postfix, mineral gender, agreeing with po; po ' water' 
'creek' 'river'). Probably a mere translation of the Span. name. 
= Eug. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Cebolla Creek. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Rito Cebolla 'onion river'. =Tewa (1), Eng. (2). 
Cf. [1:17]. 

[1:16] (1) Toiafss^'r' 'white cliffs' {ioia 'cliff'; is^ 'whiteness' 
'white'; T' locative and adjective-forming postfix, mineral gen- 
der). = Eng. (2). 
(2) "WTiiteButts".^ =Tewa (1). 

> Final Report, pt. ii, pt 56, note, 1892. 

' U. S. Geographical Surreys West of the 100th Meridian, Parta oi Southern Colorado aud Northern 
New Mexico, atlas sheet No. 69. 

87584°— 29 eth— 16 8 



114 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [RTii. ann. 29 

The white substance of which these cliffs are composed is said 
to be of no use to the Indians. 
[1:17] (1) SPlioe 'at tlic oiiion(s)' {s!. 'onion'; ^iwe 'at', locative postfix 
referring to a single place). Probably a mei'e translation of the 
Span. name. =Eng. ('2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Cebolla. (<Span.), =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cebolla' onion'. =Tewa(l), Eng. (2). "Sebolla."' 
The settlement is said to consist of a few scattered houses inhab- 
ited by Mexicans. It is said that the road from El Rito to Tierra 
Amarilla passes through this settlement. Cf. [1:15]. 

[1:18] Popiijj' is the name applied to the Chama River below Vado. 
See Chama River [Large features :2]. 

[1:19] (1) IQipWf 'turkey mountains' ' chicken mountains ' {^i 'tur- 
key ' 'chicken'; pi>;y 'mountain'). Probably a mere translation 
of the Span. name. =Eng. (2), Span. (4), Fr. (6). 

(2) Eng. Gallinas Mountains. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. 

(3) Eng. Gallinas Bad Lands. (<Span.). =Span. (5), Fr. (6). 
(J:) Span. Cerros de las Gallinas 'chicken mountains' 'turkey 

mountains'. =Tewa (1), Eng. (2). 

(5) Span. Terrenos ^lalos del Rio de las Gallinas 'chicken or 
turkey river bad lands'. =Eug. (3), Fr. (6). 

(6) "Les Mauvaises Terres de Gallinas"' 'Gallinas bad lands'. 
= Eng. (3), Span. (5). Cf. [l:2i], [1:25]. See plate 1, A. 

[1:20] (1) Kioi^d'cCa 'old woman steep slope' {kwijo 'old woman'; 
'a'a 'steep slope'). Tewa hwaje or hoag.e 'mesa' is never applied. 
Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Las Viejas Mesa. (<Span.). Cf. Tewa (1). 

(3) Span. Mesa de las Viejas 'old women mesa'. Cf. Tewa (1). 
This mesa or slope is east of the Chama River and north of 

[1:31]. It would be difficult to determine whether the Tewa or 
the Span, name is original. 
[1:21] (1) Eng. Largo Canj-on. (<Span.). 

(2) Span. Canon Largo ' long canyon'. 

This canyon drains into San Juan River. Two of the inform- 
ants know the canyon but say that there is no Tewa name for it. 
[1:22] (1) Sqmpirjyiwe 'at porcupine mountain' (sqinfijjf 'porcu- 
pine mountain', see [l:unlocated] <^oj)f 'porcupine', fiyf 
'mountain'; '/?w 'at' locative postfix, indicating a single place). 
This term is applied to the region which since Cope's time has 
been known to some Americans as Cristone. Cf. [1:23]. 

(2) Eng. Cristone. (<Span. creston 'hog- back ridge'). See 
[1:23]. 

'Topographic Map of New Mexico, U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 68, pi. i. 
sHewett, Communautis, p. 42, 1908. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 1 




/'^i.^i-*- 



""'^*'- .• 



A. GALLINAS "BAD LANDS" IN THE CHAMA DRAINAGE 




£. SCENE NEAR THE HEAD /.'„TE;;^ OF SAMTA CLARA CREEK, THE SLENDER TRUNCATED 
CONE OF PEDERNAL PEAK IN THE DISTANCE 



HARRIXGTON] PLACE-NAMES 115 

[1:23] (1) SomfiT)j'''!w^qywil-ejl, Sompiyj'Hwe'''P' ''qywiliejl 'pueblo 
ruin at porcupine mountain' {somfiy ^ iwe 'at porcupine moun- 
tain', see [1:22] (1); '*'* locative and adjective-forming^ postfix; 
^ywikeji 'pueblo ruin' <''or)wi 'pueblo', heji postpound 
'ruin'). Cf. «S'o;«/)iy,/' [l:unlocated] and [1:22]. 

(2) Eng. Cristone Pueblo ruin. This ruin was named by Prof. 
E. D. Cope, presumably from Span, creston ' narrow crest'. 

" In riding past the foot of the precipice I observed what appeared to be stone 
walls crowning its summit. Examination of the ridge disclosed the fact that a 
village, forming a single line of 30 houses, extended along its narrow crest, 22 
of them being south of the causeway and 8 north of it. The most southern in 
situation is at some distance from the southern extremity of the hog-back. . . . 
This town I called Cristone. The same hog-back recommences a little more 
than a mile to the north, rising to a greater elevation, say 600 or 700 feet above 
the valley.'" 

Professor Cope clearly had in mind Span, creston ' ridge ' 
'crest'. " Cristone. " = 

This ruin is described by E. D. Cope, as stated above. A part 
of Cope's report on the ruin is quoted by Hewett.^ 
[l:2-i] (1) Dtpo 'turkey water' 'chicken water' {di 'turkey' 'chicken'; 
po 'water' 'creek' 'river'). (Probably < Span. ). = Eng. (2), Span. 
(3). 

(2) Eng. Gallinas Creek. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Rio de las Gallinas 'chicken river' 'turkey river'. 
= Tewa (1), Eng. (2). "The Gallinas."^ 

"The branches of which the Chama is formed are the Coy- 
ote in the west, the Gallinas north of west, and the Nutrias 
north. It is said that the waters of the first are red, those of the 
Gallinas white, and those of the Nutrias limpid. According as 
one or the other of these tributaries rises, the waters of the 
Chama assume a difl^erent hue."* Cf. [1:19] and [1:25]. 
[1:25] (1) priwe 'where the turkeys or chickens are' {di 'turkey' 
'chicken'; ^iwe 'at' locative postfix indicating a single place). 
= Eng. ('2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Gallinas settlement. (<Span.). =Tewa(l),Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Las Gallinas 'the chickens' 'the turkeys'. =Tewa 
(1), Eng. (2). 

It seems probable that the Tewa name is a translation of the 
Spanish. Gallinas seems to be a favorite place-name with the 
Mexicans; cf. Gallinas Creek, by which the city of Las Vegas is 
built. See Gallinas Creek, page 559. The Tewa word di was 

' E. D. Cope, Wheeler Survey Report for 1875, VII, pp. 353, 365, 1879, quoted by Hewett, Antiquities, 
pp. 42, 43. 
2 Handboolc Inds., pt. 2, p. 305. 
•• Antiquities. j>p. 41-11. 
< Bandolier, Final Ileport, pt. n, p. 50, note, 1892. 



110 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

originally applied to the wild turkey, but since chickens were 
introduced it has been used to designate both turkeys and chickens, 
turkeys beinof distinguished when necessary by calling them pi))/'4 
'mountain chickens' {piuf 'mountain'; 4i 'turkey' 'chickens'). 
Cf. [1:19] and [1:21J. 
fCapulin region] (1) ''A^e'iwe 'where the chokecherry is' ('afte 'choke- 
cherry' 'Prunus melauocarpa (A. Nelson) Rydb.'; ''iwe 'at' loca- 
tive postfix indicating a single place). =Cochiti (2), Eng. (3), 
Span. (1). 

(2) Coc}a\t\ Apofuho 'chokecherry corner' {dpo 'chokecherry' 
'Prunus melanocarpa (A. Nelson) Rydb.'; folco ' corner'). =Tewa 
(1), Eng. (3), Span. (1). 

(3) Eng. Capulin region. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Cochiti (2), 
Span. (4). 

(1) Span, rejion Capulin 'chokecherry region'. =Tewa (1), 
Cochiti (2), Eng. (3). Cf. [1:20], [1:27]," [1:28]. 

[1:2(3] (1) 'Aie^t'weinid'ina, ''AWiioe^P^ makina, ^Aie^iwep'epaWi''^, 
^AteHwe'i^^ p'epaieH^^ 'chokecherry sawmill' i^dbe'iwe 'where 
the chokecherry is' 'Capulin', see [Capulin region], above; T*' loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix; ;«.«Z:/«a 'machine' 'mill' 'saw- 
mill' <Span. maquina 'machine' 'sawmill'; jo'e/^aSe'^''*' 'sawmill' 
<p'e 'stick' 'timber', pahe 'to cut crosswise', '*'' locative and 
adjective-forming postfix). =Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Capulin sawmill. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span, asserradero de Capulin 'chokecherry sawmill'. 
= Tewa(l), Eng. (2). 

This sawmill is frequently moved from one part to another 
of the wild region in which it is situated. Tewa Indians have 
been frequently employed at this sawmill. Cf. [Capulin region], 
above, also [1:27] and [1:28]. 
[1:27] (1) Wibepo 'chokecherry creek' ('rtSe, as under [Capulin region], 
above, 'chokecherry' 'Capulin'; po 'water' 'creek' 'river'). 
= Eng. (2),Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Capulin Creek. (<Span.). = Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span, Rito Capulin 'chokecherry creek'. =Tewa (1). 
Eng. (2). 

This creek is tributary to Gallinas Creek [1:24]. Cf. [Capulin 
region], above, also [1:26] and [1:28]. 
[1:28] (1) ''Aiepvjf 'chokecherry mountain' ('a&e, as under [Capulin 
region], above, 'chokecherry' 'Capulin'; pvjf 'mountain'). 
= Eng. (2), Span. (:3). 

(2) Eng. Capulin mountain. (<Span.). = Tewa (1), Span. (.3). 

(3) Span. Cerro Capulin 'chokecherry mountain'. =Tewa(l), 
Eng. (2). 

This mountain is said to be high. 



HARRixnTON) PLACE-NAMES 117 

[1:L'1>J (1) Depo 'coyote water' {de 'coyote'; po 'water ''creek' 
'river')! =Cochiti (3), Eug. (4), Span. (7). 

(li) x\l/po?(/po ' adobe river' ' mud river' (w(J2>6i?a 'adobe' ' clayey 
mud'; po 'water' 'creeii' 'river'). =Eng. (5), Span. (8). 

(3) Cochiti Potsonatsena 'coyote river' (fotsona 'coyote'; 
tsena 'river'). =Tewa (1), Eng. (4), Span. (7). 

(•4) Eng. Coyote Creelv. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Cochiti (3), 
Span. (7). 

(.5) Eng. Puerco Creek, Muddy Creek, Dirty Creek. (<Spaii.). 
= Tewa (2), Span. (S). 

(6) Salinas Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (9). 

(7) Span. Rio Coyote 'coyote river'. =Tewa (1), Cochiti (3), 
Eng. (4). "The Coyote."! 

(8) Span. Rio Puerco 'muddy river' ' dirty river'. =Eng. (5). 
Cf. Tewa (2). 

(9) Span. Rio Salinas 'creek of the allvali flats'. =Eng. (6). 
"Salinas Creek. " = 

After much questioning at San .luan it seems clear that these 
names refer to one stream, the name Coyote Creek coming per- 
haps from Coyote settlement, which is situated on the creek. "The 
branches of which the Chama is formed are the Coyote in the 
west, the Gallinas north of west, and the Nutrias north. It is said 
that the waters of the first are red, those of the Gallinas white, 
and those of the Nutrias limpid. According as one or the other of 
these tributaries rises, the waters of the Chama assume a differ- 
ent hue." ^ Cf. [1:30] and [29:120]. 
[1:30] (1) Z)e'i we 'coyote place' (^c 'coyote'; ^iwe'af locative post- 
fix referring to a single place.) (Probably < Span. ). = Eng. (2), 
Span. (3). This name refers of course to the whole region as 
well as to the Mexican settlement itself. 

(2) Eng. Coyote settlement and region. (<Span.). =Tewa(l), 
Span. (.3). 

(3) Span. Coyote 'coyote'. =Tewa (1), Eng. (2). Cf. [1:29]. 
[1:81] (1) ^wteAw'w ' dry arroyo arroyo ' (/m'i* 'arroyo' 'large groove'; 

<a 'dryness' 'dry'; A«'m 'large groove' 'arroyo'). =Eng. (3), 
Span. (5). ' This name is applied especially to the lower part of 
the stream, as far up as the white mineral deposit or farther, this 
portion of the bed being usually dry. This is perhaps a transla- 
tion of Span. Arroyo Seco. 

(2) Paesinyhu'' u, Pses^mpo ' deer horn arroyo' 'deer horn water' 
(ps^s^yy 'deer horn' <px 'deer', s(,ijy 'born'; Am'm 'large 

• Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 56, note, 1892. 

' r. S. GeograpMcal Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, Farts ol Southern Colorado and North- 
em New Mexico, atlaa sheet No. 69. 



118 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etu. ann. 29 

groove' 'arro3'o'; po 'water' 'creek' 'river'.) Cf. Eng. (-1), 
Span. (()). This name is applied most frequently perhaps to the 
upper course of the waterway, near Cangilon Mountain [1:35]. 
Since this is not an exact equivalent of the Span, name, Psesejjj 
may be an old Tewa name applied originally to either Cangilon 
Mountain or Cangilon Creek. 

(3) Eng. Cangilon Creek. (< Span.). =Span. (i). Cf. Tewa(2). 

(■i) Span. Rito Cangilon 'horn river'. =Eng. (3). Cf.Tewa(2). 

This creek rises at Cangilon Moimtain. Cf. [1:33], [1:34], 
[1:35], and [22:unlocated]. 
[1:32] (1) Satepo ' Athabascan water ' {Sate ' Athabascan '; po ' water ' 
'spring'). Cf. Tewa (2), Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(2) J^tmnsaiepo * Navaho water ' {I;/vjq?isabe ' Navaho' < ywqijj'- 
'Jemez', Saie 'Athabascan'; po 'water' 'spring'). =Eng. (3), 
Span. (4). Cf. Tewa (1). 

(3) Eng. Navaho spring. (<Span.). = Tewa (2), Span. (4). Cf. 
Tewa (1). 

(4) Span. Ojo Navajo 'Navaho spring'. =Tewa (2), I'^ng. (3). 
Cf. Tewa (1). 

This spring, said to be perennial, is situated on the west side 
of Cangilon Creek, as shown on the map. See Navaho Canyon 
[l:unlocated]. 
[1:33] (1) Eng. Lower Cangilon settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Cangilon el Ritoabajo ' horn settlement down creek'. 
= Eng. (1). Prof. H. E. Bolton states that the name Cangilon 
was given by Father Escalante in 1776. "Cangillon" is dis- 
tinguished from "Upper Cangillon".' "Canjilon."^ 

No Tewa name was obtained. Cf. [1:31], [1:34], and [1:3.5]. 
[1:34] (1) Eng. Upper Cangilon settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Cangilon el rito arriba ' horn (settlement) up creek'. 
= Eng. (1). "Upper Cangillon".' 
[1:35] PsesO}>pivJ' ' deer-horn mountains ' {pse-'^eijj' 'deer-horn' </?^ 
'deer', s^yj" 'horn'; piyy 'mountain'). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 
Since this is not an exact equivalent of the Span, name, PxsVJf 
may be an old Tewa name applied originally to either Cangilon 
Mountain or Cangilon Creek. Cf. [1:31]. 

The main road from El Rito to Tierra Araarilla is said to pass 
through Upper Cangilon. No Tewa name was obtained. Cf. 
[1:31] and [1:35]. 

1 TJ. S. Geographical Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, Parts o£ Southern Colorado and Northern 
New Mexico, atlas sheet No. 69, 1873-1877. 

' Map accompanying Hewett, Antiquities, 1906; also Topographic Map of New Mexico, U. S. 
Geological Survey, Professional Papers 68, pi. i, 1903-1908. 



H4BBINQT0N] PLACE-NAMES 119 

[l:3t>] (1) San Juan T'ibifhn^u 'T'i danc^ large low roundish place' 
'arro3'o'(7"i 'a kind of dance held in winter at San Juan Pueblo'; 
bu'u 'large low roundish place'; /tw'w 'large groove' 'arroyo"). 
At any time those wishing to dance the T'i dance get permission 
from the War Captain; a man and a woman are the principal 
dancers and property is thrown to the crowd at the close of the 
dance; ^j'^'i'o'" ' they are dancing this kind of dance ' {dl ' they 
3 +'; 'o'" progressive postfix). The etymology given above has 
been conlirmed by four San Juan Indians, from whom, howevei-, 
no information could be obtained as to the real meaning of i'i. 
The t' of t'i is clearly aspirated. A Santa Clara informant stated 
that the tifiUe (unaspiratod ;" .' ; fiUe ' dance') is a San Juan dance 
and described it as it had been desctibed to the writer b}' San 
Juan Indians. The Santa Clara informant stated that ti is the 
name of a kind of headdress, made of skin and sticks, which pro- 
jects upward and forward from the forehead of the wearer, and 
that this headdress is worn in the San Juan tifcuie. There has 
been no opportunitj' to have this information discussed by San 
Juan Indians. The place-name is not known to Santa Clara, San 
Ildefonso, or jMambe Indians so far as could be ascertained. The 
xevhs t' it' i 'to sparkle' AnAt'iJce^U 'to stumble' were suggested 
by ft San Ildefonso Indian as possibly throwing light on the 
etymology. 

(2) Span. Arroyo Silvestre 'Silvestre Arroyo'. The Span, 
name of the arroyo is from the name of the Mexican settlement 
Silvestre [l:unlocated]. 

Unlocated 

(1) Buwaku/iO 'breadstuff stone barranca' {buwahu 'guayave stone' 
<bmi'a 'breadstuff' 'any kind of bread', ha 'stone'; kq 'bar- 
ranca'). = Span. (2). 

This is one of the localities at which the kind of stone used 
for baking paper-bread is obtained. See under Minerals, 
where the preparation of these stones is described. This 
place is probably known to a number of people at each of 
the Tewa pueblos, but informants differ widely as to its location. 
They agree in placing the locality east or north of the upper 
Chama River. One informant places it above [1:20], another 
below [1:31]. 

(2) Span. Arroyo Comal 'arroyo of the stone or pan for cook- 
ing tortillas, guayave, and the like'. =Tewa (1). 
(1) Jundhre 'where the willows' {jAijf 'willow'; ''iioe 'at' locative 
postfix). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. La Jura 'the willow'. =Tewa (1). 



120 ETHNOGEOGRAPIIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ann. li'J 

This is the name of some locality on the Jicarilla Apache Reser- 
vation. The form Jqndiwe is in u.se in Tewa. 

(3) Eng. " Navaho Canyon". Given by Hewett ^ as a northern 
tributary of Cangilon Creek. 
(1) Pohelq 'water-jar barranca' [pohe 'water jar' 'oUa' <po 'water', 
he refeiring to roundish .-^hape; I'o barranca). Cf. Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Arroj'o Tiuaja 'large storage-jar arroyo'. Cf. Tewa 
(1). Tinaja is nqty^he in Tewa; Tewa pobe signifies 'oUa' in Span. 

This locality is said to be east or north of the upper Chama 
River. 
(1) Eng. Sierra Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rito Sierra 'mountain range creek'. =Eng. (1). 

This creek is either a tributary of Coyote Creek [1:29] or 
somewhere in the vicinity of Coyote Creek. None of the Indian 
informants had heard of this creek. 

(1) Span. Silvestre ' wild ' ' sylvan '. This is a hamlet on Silves- 
tre Creek [1:36]. =Eng. 2. 

(2) Eng. Silvestre town. (<Span.). =Span. (1). 
Sqmpirjf 'porcupine mountain' {sqr/f 'porcupine'; piyf 'moun- 
tain'). 

A high mountain somewhere near [1:23]. 
fswg.i^ii'P' 'where the white mineral' {fsseg.iJcu 'a kind of white min- 
eral used for whitewashing the walls of rooms of pueblo houses, 
perhaps gypsimi' <fsseg.i unexplained, ^;< 'stone' 'mineral'; T' 
locative and adjective-forming postfix, used here since mere 
fss^g.iku would not indicate the place but the mineral itself). 

This mineral is burned and then mixed with water and used for 
whitening interior walls. See under Minerals. The location 
of this deposit is somewhere east or north of the upper Chama 
River. The informants' estimates of the number of miles from 
Abiquiu to this deposit vary widely. Since this substance is 
called yeso in Span, the deposit may be on or by the Rito Yeso. 
See below. 
Span. "Rito Yeso".' This is given as an eastern tributary of Can- 
gilon Creek entering the latter near its junction with the Chama 
River. The name means 'gypsum or chalk creek', yeso being 
the Span, equiv-alent of Tewa fsf^g.iku. See the preceding item. 

[2] PEDERNAL MOUNTAIN SHEET 

The country shown on this sheet (map 2) includes some of the 
Chama River valley and part of the Tsqinpijei* piuf ' western moun- 

' Hewett, Antiquities, pi. xvii. 



MAP 2 
PEDERNAL MOUNTAIN REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 



MAP 2 




MAP 2 
PEDERNAL MOUNTAIN REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 2 




(Photugraph by J. A. Jeaiirou) 
A. ANCIENT TRAIL LEADING UP THE MESA TO TSIPiyJ'QyWI. RUIN 








:•'-■*.:. * > 



l,l'hutoyr.i|'h b\ J. A. Jciinvuu) 



B. TSIPiN|J''QyWl RUIN 



HABBINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 121 

tains' [Large Features: 8] of the Tewa. This portion of the western 
range of mountains, .situated near Abiquiu, is referred to by Bande- 
lier' as the range of "'Abiquiu", and as '• Sierra de Abiquiu"'." 

Pedernal Mountain [2:9], plate 1, B, 7,580 feet in altitude, is per- 
haps the most conspicuous feature of the area, and the sheet has been 
called Pedernal Mountain sheet. 

This region is as little known as that included in the Tierra Ama- 
rilla sheet. Here also the site of only one ruin is shown, although 
several doubtless exist. See Pueblo Ruin nearer to Pedernal Peak 
than [2:7J, [2:unlocated]. 

[2:1] See [1:29]. 

[2:2] See Chama River [Large Features: 2]. 

[2:3] See [1:36]. 

[2:4] (1) Eng. Canones Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rito Canones ' the creek by Canones settlement'. See 
[2:.5], [2:0], and [2:7]. 

[2:5] This is the upper part of Canones Creek [2:4] according to Mr. 
eT. A. Jeanfon. See [2:4], [2:6], and [2:7]. 

[2:0] (1) Eng. Polvadera Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) New Mexican Span. Rito Polvadera 'dust-storm creek'. 
= Eng. (1). See [2:4], [2:5], and [2:7]. 

[2:7] (1) Tsipiijj''qyviJ.-tjl 'flaking-stone mountain pueblo ruin' 'Ped- 
ernal Mountain pueblo ruin' {Tsipiijj' 'Pedernal Mountain', see 
[2:9]; "'oiju-ikeji 'pueblo ruin' <''oijivi 'pueblo', kejl postpound 
'ruin"). (Pl.2,B.) "Chipiinuinge (Tewa, ' house at the pointed 
peak')".^ = TsipijjyoT)vji:(je(g.e' dovmaV ' over at ' locative postfix 
indicating position not above the speaker). "Chipiinuinge".* 
"Chipiinuinge (inaison du pic pointu)".^ "Tziipinguinge (Tewa, 
the place of the pointed mountain, from tzii, meaning point, ping 
meaning mountain, and uinge the place or village'*." = Tsipiyf- 
^qijiuvie 'down at or over at the pueblo by Pedernal Mountain' 
(g:<; locative post-fix 'down at' 'over at"). "Tziipinguinge".' In 
a letter to the author, October 27, 1011, Mr. Jean^on states: "Re- 
garding the name. The Cerro Pedernal undoubtedly has given the 
ruin its name. The translation as given to me is: The Place or 
Village of the Pointed Mountain . . . Although Suaso' says 
there is another place nearer the Pedernal by that name and 
that this is not the true Tziipinguinge". In the same com- 

' Final Report, pt. ii, p. 11, 1892. 

» Ibid., p. 72, note. 

» Hewett, Antiquities, p. 36, r.K)6. 

« Ibid., pi. XVII. 

5 Hewett, Commnnaut^s, p. 42, 1908. 

* J. A. Jean^on, E.xplorations in Chama Basin, New Mexico, Hecords of the Past, x, p. 101, 1911. 

' J. A. Jean^on, Ruins at Pesedeuinge, ibid., xi, p. 30, 1912. 

8 Aniceto Suaso, a Santa Clara Indian. 



122 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS Ihtii. ann. 20 

mnnication Mr. Jeanpon locates the ruin as follows: "The ruin 
is located between two creeks. The Canones Creek joins the 
Polvadera just a short distance north of the ruin and the com- 
panion mesas are situated in the crotch formed by this juncture. 
Canones runs southwest from the junction, the Polvadera almost 
due south . . . The ruin is in the PiedraLumbre grant." The 
following remarks by Bandelior' have some bearing on this ruin: 
"The ruins above Abiquiu, and on the three branches by which 
the Charaa is formed, I have not visited. Some of them have 
been noticed in the pul)lications of the U. S. Geographical Survey 
and of the Bureau of Ethnology, to which I refer the student."^ 
"While at the Rito [4:5], Don Pedro Jaramillo told me of a 
pueblo lying west of it [i. e., of the Chama River], and north- 
northwest of Abiquiu".^ No information has been obtained as to 
what tribe built or occupied this pueblo. The name is merely a 
descriptive one and would be applied to any ruin near Pedernal 
Mountain. Cf. [2:4], [2:5], [2:6], [2:8], and [2:9]; see pi. 2, B. 

[2:8] Smaller mesa southeast of the mesa on which Tsipiijyqriwi 
stands. The end of the arrow marks the situation of a peculiar 
neck of land or causeway which connects this small mesa with the 
large and high mesa southeast of it.* 

[2:0] (1) Ys/|l»i/;y ' flaking stone mountain' (to''* ' flaking stone' 'obsi- 
dian' 'flint'; pi/;y 'mountain'). =Cochiti (2), Eng. (4), Span. (5), 
Fr. (6). Cf. Cocbiti (3). 

(2) Cochiti Ileflejan.fekot'e 'flaking stone mountain' 'obsidian 
mountain' {hefte'janfe 'flaking stone' 'obsidian'; Icofe 'moun- 
tain'). = Tewa (1), Eng. (4), Span. (5), Fr. (6). Cf. Cochiti (3). 

(3) Cochiti He flejanfemo nakakot'e 'black obsidian mountain' 
(Jiejle'jayife 'flaking stone'; nwnaka 'black'; 'kot^e 'mountain'). 
Cf. Tewa (1), Cochiti (2), Eng. (4), Span. (5), Fr. (6). 

(4) Eng. Pedernal Mountain, PedernalPeak. (<Span.). =Tewa 
(1), Cochiti (2), Span. (5), Fr. (6). Cf. Cochiti (3). 

(5) Span. Cerro Pedernal 'flaking stone mountain'. =Tewa(l), 
Cochiti (2), Eng. (4), Fr. (6). Cf . Cochiti (3). 

"The truncated cone of the Pedernal"." "Cerro Pedernal".' 

1 Final Report, pt. II, pp. 55-56, 1892. 

2 Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1875, Appendix LL (App. J, i), Part ii, p. 1086, copied 
into Report upon United States Geographical Surveys West of the Hundredth Meridian (vol. vii, 
Special Report by Prof. E. D. Cope, pp. 351 to 360 inclusive). It is also interesting to note that ruins 
on the Chama were also noticed in 177C by that remarkable monk. Fray Silvestre Velez do Escalante, 
during his trip to the Moqui Indians by way of the San Juan country. See his I>iarw of that jour- 
ney, and the Carta al P. Morfi, April 2, 1778 (Par. 11). 

' Bandelier, op. cit., p. 63, note. 

< See JeanQon, Explorations in Chama Basin, New Mexico, Records of the Past, x, pp. 102-103, 
1911. 
^Bandelier, op. cit., p. 32. 
^Hewett, Antiquities, pi. xvii." 



HAREINGTON] PLACE-NAMES ■ 123 

(6) Fr. "Pic Pedernal">. (< Span.). =Tewa (1), Cochiti (2), 
Edit. (4), Span. (5). Cf. Cocliiti (3). 

A number of Tewa Indians have stated that there is no more 
obsidian about Pcdernal Mountain than elsewhere in mountains 
west of the Tewa villages. 

The top of the peak i.s flat and its whole appearance is peculiar. 
It appears to be the highest mountain (7,580 feet) within 20 miles 
northwest of [2:13]. It can be seen from most of the surrounding 
countrj", and names for it will probably be found in a number of 
Indian languages. Floreiitin Martinez, of San Ildefonso, has 
Tsipyjj' as his Tewa name. Mr. J. A. Jean^on states that when 
he excavated at Tf<rpi>j.foijiri [2:7] very little obsidian was found, 
but quantities of calcedony and other varieties of flaking stone. 
See [2:7], [2:10]. and T&lmpije^ i^^ V^'Jf [Large Features:8]; also, 
pi. l,i?. 
[2:10] (1) yTA/ny./ 'cicada mountain' {Jy, 'cicada'; piyy 'mountain'), 
Cf. [5:19], [22:30]. 

(2) I]ng. Abiquiu Mountain. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cerro Abiquiu 'Abiquiu [3:36] mountain'. =Eng. 
(2). "Abiquiu Peak".^ "The pyramid of the extinct volcano 
of Abiquiu".^ The high peak of Abiquiu".' "The former vol- 
cano of Abiquiu".^ "The base of Abiquiu Peak, and of its south- 
ern neighbor, the Pelado"." For the Pelado see [2:13]. The 
writer has not found a Tewa Indian who knows this mountain by 
the name of Abiquiu Peak. 

Bandelier' states that this peak is 11,2-10 feet high according to 
Wheelers measurements. This mountain does not look to be as 
high as [2:9] and not nearly so high as [2:13]. Its top is quite 
pointed. A distant view of the peak is shown in plate 2, B. See 
[2:11], [2:12], Abiquiu Mountains [2:unlocatedJ, and Tn^mpljei^- 
pitjj' [Large Features :8]. 
[2:11] (1) fiipii/'ipfe,)jf/e ' beyond cicada mountain' {riipvjf-, see [2:10]; 
p!eij[/e 'l>e\'ond'). 

On the other side, 1. e., the western side of Abiquiu Mountain, 
there are no trees, it is said; but it is a beautiful place, with 
much grass, waist high. One kind of grass which grows there 
is ased for making brooms. See Pimpx>jf/e [Large Features:!]. 

' Hewett, Communaut^^s, p. 42. 

' V. S. Geographical Surveys West of Uie 100th Meridian, Parts of Southern Colorado and Northern 
New Mexico, atlas sheet No. 69. 1873-1877. 
" Bandelier, Final Report, pt. li, p. 32, 1892. 
'Ibid., p. 53. 
5 Ibid., p. 63. 
«Ibid., p. 33. 
'Ibid., p. 53, note. 



124 ETHNOGEOGBAPHV OF TUE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ann. 29 

[2:12] (1) fnpinnuge 'at the base of cicada mountain ' {piipivf, see 
[2:10]; nvge 'at the ba.so of <nu''u 'at tlie base of, (/d 'down 
at' 'over at'). 

(2) Eno-. Vallecito. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Vallecito 'little valley'. =Eng. (2). 

The Vallecito is a large, comparativeh' level, area where con- 
siderable dry-farming- is practised by Mexicans. This locality is 
reached from Abiquiu by driving up the canyon, which is also 
known as the Vallecito. This canyon the Tewa might call 
flipinnugepois.Pi {fypinnuge, as above; potsi'i 'canyon with 
water in it' <po 'water', Vsi'i 'canyon'), but they usually call the 
whole canyon and \\c\n\ty fupinnuge. See [2:10] and [2:11]. 
[2:13] (1) Tsil'uJmupyjf, probably abbreviated either from tsui- 
nqku''my, piy.f 'mountain covered with flaking stone or obsidian', 
or tHinqkaiwii piij f ' flaking stone is covered mountain ' ' mountain 
where the flaking stone or obsidian is covered ' {fsPi ' flaking stone ', 
here referring almost certainly to obsidian, which abounds in the 
range of mountains of which this is a peak; .il ' from ' ' by ' ' with ' 
postfix showing separation or instrumentality; fiq, 'it'; kii'mtj, 'to 
be covered'; piyj" 'mountain'). The writer has discussed this 
etymology with a considerable number of Indians. The first 
etymology mentioned above was suggested by an old man at San 
Juan, a very trustworthy old man at San Ildefonso, the old cacique 
of Nambe, and several other reliable informants. One often 
hears such an expression as JcujI nqku^my, 'it is covered with 
stones', said of the ground (I:m 'stone'; M 'from' 'by' 'with';«g 
'it'; Tcii^mu 'to be covered '). The verb Icn'mu may also be used of 
eyes covered by a hand, face covered by a blanket, etc. 

(2) Tsqmpije'wipirjf 'mountain of the west' {tsqm/pije 'west' 
<AsvJ9y unexplained, /)/;'(' 'toward'; ^ijjf locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; pijjf 'mountain'). This is the ceremonial name, 
the mountain being the Tewa sacred peak of the west. See Car- 
dinal MOUXTAINS. 

(3) P'op'ipijjf 'bald mountain' {p'opl 'bald' <p'o 'hair', 
pi negative; pij)f ' mountain'). =Cochiti (1), Eng. (5), Span. (T). 
This is a mere translation of the Span, name of the mountain, 
hardly ever used by the Tewa. Some of the informants did not 
know that it refers to Tsikv!mxipvi)f. 

(1) Q,ot^\\\i\ p£wat<ik6f e 'bald mountain '( /a'w'(?#« 'bald'; Mte 
'mountain'). =Tewa (3), Eng. (5). Span. (7). This translates 
the Span. name. The Cochiti use now the Span, name, now the 
term here given, for designating this or any of the other "bald" 
mountains of this part of New Mexico. 



HARRiNXiToN] PLACE-NAMES 125 

(5) Bakl Mountain, Baldy Mountain, Pelade Mountain. (<Span.). 
=Te\va (3), Cochiti (4), Span. (7). 

(6) "Santa Clara Teak".' 

(7) Span. Cerro Pelade 'bald mountain'. =Tewa (3), Cochiti 
(4), Eng. (5). 

"The base of Abiquiu Peak, and of its southern neighbor, 
the Pelado".- So far as it can be ascertained this is the 
highest peak of the Jemez or Valle Range. Its height is given 
b3- \Yheeler as 11,360 feet.' It is the Tewa sacred mountain of the 
west and worship is performed on its summit.* It may also be 
the sacred mountain of the east of the Navaho. See Cakdinal 
IMouNTAiNS, page 44. The Jemez name for the mountain could 
not be obtained. The top is almost destitute of trees, hence the 
Span. name. See [2:14]. For the name Pelado cf. [27:10], etc. 

[2:14] Tetol'vaje probably 'cottonwood inside of something height' 
{te 'cottonwood,' Populus wislizeni; to 'to be inside of some- 
thing', said of objects within hollow objects; kicaje 'on top' 
'height'). Why the locality is called thus is not known to the 
informants. This name applies to the yellowish slope near the 
top of Bald Mountain on the eastern side. This slope is grassy 
and, especially in autumn, has a bright yellow color. See 
[2:13]. 

[2:15] Kusy,nj'y,pir) f '' sWdiing stone mountain '(^m 'stone'; sy.nfy, 'to 
slide or slip down a gradual or steep slope'; fiyf 'mountain'). 
The mountain is called thus because its sides are so steep that a 
stone will slide down. 

This is a high and thin ridge which separates the upper Oso 
drainage from Santa Clara Creek. For designations of places 
along its southern side for which the Santa Clara people have 
names, see [14]. 

[2:16] KumqntsihiCu 'Comanche arroyo' {Kumqntsi 'Comanche' 
<Span. Comanche; hii'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

One of the headwaters of Oso Creek [5:35]. It is said that 
it flows into [2:17]. Comanche arroyo is a common name in 
New Mexico; cf. [6:12]. 

[2:17] Kqgipo 'wild-goose water' {Tcqgi 'wild goose'; po 'water' 
'creek' 'river'). 

One of the headwaters of Oso Creek [5:35]. See [2:18]. 

[2:18] Span. Riachuelo 'rivulet' 'arroyo'. 

This is a small Mexican settlement on the Kqgipo [2:17]. Three 
families lived there in 1911 according to a San Juan informant. 

'U. S. Geographical Surreys West of the 100th Meridian, Parts of Southern Colorado and Northern 
New Mexico, atlas sheet No. 69, 1873-1877. 

>Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 33, 1892. 

'Gannett, Dictionary of Altitudes, p. 648, 1906. 

'See W. B. Douglas.s, A World^quarter Shrine of the Tewa Indians, Records of the Past, vol. XI, 
pt. 4, pp. 159-1 73, 1912. 



126 ETIIMOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

[2:10] Juos^tsPi 'oak canyon' {hern 'oak'; fsPl 'canyon'). 

This is the most southerly of the chief headwaters of the Rio 
Osoj:5:35]. 
[2:20] Tsipl'sennse. 'at the white meal or flour ' (/s^ 'whiteness' 
'white'; l^^ttyf 'meal' 'flour'; nse. 'at'). 
This locality lies between [2:15] and [2:21]. 
[2:21] Pae.<t?Mi?^^6i'^''* '■where the deer oat earth' (/)^ 'mule deer'; -le 
'they 3+'; nqijf 'earth' incorporated object; Ico 'to eat': '*'* loc- 
ative and adjective-forming postfix). 

Presumably a salt-lick frequented by deer. The earth at this 
place is said to be salty. The locality is said to be a short dis- 
tance east of [2:20]. 
[2:22] Siebehiyije 'pottery bowl height' {ssehe 'a kind of bowl' <sse 
unexplained, be 'roundish' 'roundish vessel'; kicaje 'on top' 
'height'). 

This high flat-topped mesa is conspicuous from the Rio Grande 
valley. Cf. [2:2-4] and [2:25]. Sandj^ hills lie between this mesa 
and the Chania River. 
[2:23] Tsifijinse 'at the basalt fragments' {tsi 'basalt'; fiyf 'frag- 
ment' 'to break' 'to crack'; nx 'at'). 

It is said that this place is a short distance southwest from San 
Lorenzo settlement. See San Lorenzo [2;unlocated]. It is at 
the base of Malpais Mesa [2:24]. In this vicinitj' are strewn 
great quantities of cracked and broken basalt and lava. There is 
a spring at this place. 
[2:24] (1) Jla'xpijjj' unexplained {ma'^ unexplained; piijy 'moun- 
tain'). 

(2) Eng. Malpais Mesa. (<Span.) = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Mesa Malpais, Cerrito Malpais 'basalt mesa' 'basalt 
mountain'. 

The top of Jlq^sepyjj' has the shape of a mountain peak rather 
than of a mesa top. The height is about the same as that of Black 
Mountain. Cf. [2:22] and [2:25]. 
[2:25] (1) Piij^'uvf 'dark mountain' (piijf 'mountain'; Fytjf 
'darkness' 'dark' 'obscure'). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Black Mountain, Negro JNlountain, Black Mesa, Negro 
Mesa. ( < Span. ). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cerro Negro, Cerrito Negro, ]\Iesa Negro 'black 
mountain' 'black mesa'. =Eng. (2). Cf. Tewa (1). 

The Tewa name is more picturesque than the Span. The moun- 
tain looks peculiarly dark in certain light, but would hardly be 
called black. The top is quite flat, and it ma^' well be called a 
mesa. It can easily be seen from the Rio Grande Valley. Cf. 
[2:22] and [2:24]. 



BARKISGTOX] 



PLACE-NAMES 127 



[2:20J (1) P'eirabo,ii, P" ewa' hnhoui '•cvoss knob' {p'ewa 'cross' <p'e 
'stick', wa unexplained; ichti 'round pile' 'groove' 'knob' 
'knoir 'round-topped mountain'). Probably <Spau. =Eng. 
(2), Span. (3). 

(2)Eng. Ci-uz Mountain. (<Span.). =Tewa(l), Span. (3). 
(3) Span. Cerrito de la Cruz 'cross mountain'. =Tewa (l), 
Eng. (2). 

This small round mountain can be seen at the base of Ifq^se- 
fiijf [2:2'±]. The Tewa name is evidently a translation of the 
Span. Why it should be called ' cross mountain ' is not known to 
the informants. 

[2:27] (1) San Juan Eep'endr^hege 'over at the black peak gullies' 
(i-(? 'peak'; pejJJ' 'blackness' 'black'; '-r* locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; hee 'small groove' 'arroyito' 'gully'; ge'down 
at' 'over at'). 

(2) Eng. Capirote Kill. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. El Capirote 'pointed cap' 'hood' 'falcon hood'; also 
'})od\' louse' 'gra\'])ack'. The informants do not know with 
which meaning this name was originally u.sed. 

This hill was pointed out to the writer from several localities in 
the Chama Valley. It seemed to be dark or blackish. 

[2:28] San Juan To/iubu/iuii unexplained {Towibiia, see [2:29]; 
Am'« 'large groove' 'arroyito'). 

[2:29] San Juan Towibii'ii unexplained {fowi unexplained; one San 
Juan informant has tried hard to account for the origin of towz 
but without success; bii^u 'large low roundish place'). See [2:28]. 

[2:30] San Juan Kotlbuhu''u 'malarial chills dale arroyo' {Kotlbii'u, see 
[2:31]; hiPu ' large groove ' 'arroj^o'). 

[2:31] San Juan JSro</6M'?< 'malarial chills dale' ijcoti 'malarial chills' 
as in lul \)l-oh'j)o''° 'I have the chills' <''nq. 'I' emphatic pronoun, 
'o 'I' prefixed pronoun, l-oil 'malarial chills', jiw'" 'to make' 'to 
be affected by'; iu'u 'large low roundish place' 'dale' 'valley'). 
See [2:30]. ^ 

[2:32] San Juan Ts,Ttag.e7co, Tsxtag.e'irjkQ 'white slope barranca' 
{Tsaetag.e, see [2:unIocated]; 'iyy locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; 7iO 'barranca"). 

The place Tsxtag.e, from which, this barranca takes its name, is 
not located. See [2:unlocated]. 

[2:33] San Juan Tsikukqhu'u, Tsikniijl'o/ni^u 'basalt rocks arroyo' 
(tsi 'basalt'; ku 'stone'; 'yjj' locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; kqhiCu 'barranca arroyo'<Ao 'barranca', luCu 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 

\2\?A^ f'unfxk'qjidlwe hu'u, /•U7ij'ce.k\nn\j)f hii'ii 'ari'oyo where the 
white earth is dug' {punfce k'o?i4iv:e, see [2:35]; 'i?;y locative 
and adjective-forming postfix; Aw'« 'large groove' 'arroyo'). See 
[2:35]. 



128 ETIiNOGEOGRAPIIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

[2:35] San Juan piaij'fck'on^iwe 'where the white earth is dug' 
(Junfse. 'a kind of white earth used by the Tewa', see Minerals; 
h'qvf 'to dig'; 'iwe 'at'). See [2:34]'. 

[2:36] San Juan SipnwUl 'projecting corner formed by the lower ribs 
at each side above the abdomen' {>iipii 'tiie depression at eacli side 
of the upper part of the abdomen of a person, just below the ribs,' 
noticeable especially in lean persons <si 'belly', pu 'base'; irul 
' projecting corner '). This name is given to the ends of the tongues 
of the low mesa west of San Jose [13:4:4:] both north and south of 
fiiy fsel:' qndiv:ehu\i [2:34], but chiefly south of the latter. See 
[2:37] and [2:38]. 

[2:37] San Juan Sipuwiiiku^u, Si-pmoiii^iyfhuSi. 'projecting lower 
ribs arroyo' {St'jniwUi, see [2:36]; 'i^y locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; Aw'm 'large groove' 'ari'oyo'). This name re- 
fers to several small arroyos south oi £'unfs^Tcq'n4vu>ehvi}xi, [2:34] 
and at SipimuU. See [2:36] and [2:38]. 

[2:38] San Juan Sijnnuui'ohu 'projecting lower ribs hills' {Sipuwiii, 
see [2:36]; 'o/tw 'hill'). 

These low hills are seen on top of the plateau west of Sipuwiii. 
See [2:36] and [2:37]. 

[2:39] (1) WatfeJcivaje'ahqvf 'plain of the height by Guache' {Watfe 
'Guache' [14:11]; kicaje 'on top' 'height'; ^ahqijf 'plain'). 
= Tewa (2). 

(2) MahybxiQ.ek.waj^akq'Qf 'plain of the height by owl corner' 
{MaliybxHu^i see [14:11]; ge 'down at' 'over at'; hwaje 'on top' 
'height'; 'a/ioyy 'plain'). =Tewa (1). See [14:11]. 

[2:40] San Juan TeFaiehwaje 'bn^ak wagon height' {Tek'abe, see 
[13:47]; hvfije 'on top' 'height'). 

San Juan Indians go much to this place for firewood. They 
reach the height by driving up a small arroyo which is called 
■ Tek' aiehu 1/ f' sec [13:47]. 

[2:41] (1) Eng. lloman Mountain. {< Span.). "Mt. Roman."' =Span. 
(2). 

(2) Span. Cerro Roman. =Eng. (1). Only one Santa Clara 
Indian was found who knows this name. Inquiry at Espariola 
revealed the fact that this mountain bears the given name of 
Roman Sarasar, a Mexican butcher of Espafiola, who has cattle 
pastured there. 



[2 
[2 
[2 



42] Santa Clara Creek, see [14:24]. 
43] Coyote Creek, see [1:29]. 
44] Cebolla Creek, see [27:3]. 



' Hewett, Antiquities, pi. xvii. 



MAP 3 
ABIQUIU REGION 



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MAP 3 
ABIQUIU REGION 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 129 

Unlocated 

(1) Eng. Aliiquiu Mountains. (<.Span.). =Span. (2). "the range. 
... of Abiqiiiu." '- 

(2) Span. Sierra de Abiquiu 'Abiquiu Mountains', named from 
Abiqiiiu Peak [2:10] and Abiquiu settlement [3:36]. =Eng. (1). 
"Sierra de Aliiquiu."^ 

The mountains west of Abiquiu are thus called. They are 
really the northern part of the Jemez Range; see Tsq,mpijeH''^ pivf 
[Large Features: SJ. "The northern end of the range [Tsqm- 
pije'P'piijf] is formed by the Sierra de Abiquiu, with the peak 
of the same name [2:10]; then follows the Cerro Pelade [2:13]."^ 
It is very uncertain just which and how many mountains are in- 
cluded by the name. See [2:10] and [3:3t;]. 
PpQtjkwaje 'turkey tracks height' {di 'turkey' 'chicken'; 'az?y 'foot' 
'footprint'; liraje 'on top' 'height'). 

This is said to be a low mesa somewhere near Roman Mountain 
[2:41]. The name is familiar at San Juan, Santa Clara, and San 
Ildefonso. 
Santa Clara Kup'uhu^u ' hollowed stone corner' (leu 'stone'; ji>'?< 'hol- 
lowness' 'hollow'; huhi ' large low roundish place'). jP'M,isprob- 
ably connected with p'ri ' to inflate'. 

A place near upi^er Oso Creek [5:35], according to two Santa 
Clara informants. 
Santa Clara Mal-oivapyjf 'sky mountain' [inal'owa 'sky'; pyjf 
'mountain'). 
This is a mountain north or northwest of Santa Clara Pueblo. 
Span. San Jose 'Saint Joseph'. 

According to ilr. J. A. Jean^on this is a Mexican settlement 
on upper Oso Creek [5:35]. 

(1) Eng. San Lorenzo settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. San Lorenzo, Plazita San Lorenzo ' Saint Lawrence'. 
= Eng. (1). _ 

This Mexican settlement is said to be southeast of Sxbektnije 
^ [2:22] and northeast of Tsifijinx [2:23]. 
Tssetag.e 'over at the white slope' {tss^ 'whiteness' 'white'; ta'a 

'gradual slope' 'gentle slope'; g^^ 'down at' 'over at'). See 

[2:32]. 
Pueblo ruin nearer Pedernal Mountain [2:9] than [2:7], q. v. 

[3] AISIQUIU SHEET 

The Tewa refer to the country about Abiquiu as ^Aieljup/'je 
'up Abitjuiu way' {Aiekju 'Abiquiu' 'jpi/e 'toward'). The ruins 
shown on this sheet (map 3) are all claimed by the Tewa. 

1 BaiKielier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 11, 1892. 
" Ibid., p. 72, note. 
87584°— 29 eth— 16 



130 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 2!) 

[3:1] Span. "Arroyo Cubre." ' This would mean 'copper arroyo'. 

This name was not known to the informants. 
[3:2] (1) P'efupijjf'e 'projecting timber and little mountain' {P'efu, 

see [3:36]; piijj' 'mountain'; 'e diminutive). Cf. (3) and (3). 

(2) ''AieV/upijjf'e, ^Aiefupiij/'e 'Abiquiu little mouuttiin' 
(AieJiju, ^Aiefii 'Abiquiu', see [3:36]; pwj' 'mountain'; 'e di- 
minutive). Cf. (1) and (3). 

(3) K'<)f<o'Qr)wigepiijf''e, K'osopiyf'e 'large legging or large 
legging village little mountain' {IP oso' qywige, see [3:36]; fnjjf 
'mountain'; 'e diminutive). 

[3:3] See [2:12]. 

[3:4 (1) Eng. Santa Eosa Chapel. (<Span.). = Span. (2), 

(2) Span. Capilla de Santa Rosa ' chapel of Saint Rose'. 
The ruins of this chapel lie about a mile east of Abiquiu, south 
of Chama River, between the main wagon road and the river. 
The walls are still standing; the door was toward the east. The 
structure was built of adobe. 
[3:5] Chama River. See Chama River [Large Features: 2]. 
[Z:0']J(.lmp(ywlhu''o]iu''e 'little hills of [Z-.Ty {-/(Impowihu^u, see [3:7]; 
\>1:h 'hill'; 't; diminutive). 
The hills of [3:12] might also be called thus. 
[3:7] (1) J(inipovuhu''u 'willow water gap arroyo' (JampowVi, see 
[3:unlocated]; Aw'w ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

(2) Eng. Madera Arroyo. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Arroyo Madera, Canada Madera 'timber arroyo' 
'timber caiiada'. =Eng. (2). 

This arroyo enters Chama River slightly east of and opposite [3 :9]. 

Mexicans go up this arroyo to get timber with which to build 

houses, hence the Span. name. The_y get the timber especially at 

a place up the arroyo called Jg/'^P^M''''* in Tewa; see [3:unlocated]. 

A trail passing up this arroyo connects Abiquiu [3 : 36] and El 

Rito [4:5]. 
[3:8] (1) PofulceMhu'u 'squash projection height arroyo ' (P(9/■Ml6^^, 

see [3:10]; /((«';/ 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

(2) K\iJceJi.hu''u 'skunk-bush height arroyo' {Ky,)c&ii, see 

[3 :10]; An'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). See also [3:8]. 
[3:9] (1) PofvlceJi'qywil'ejl 'squash projection height pueblo ruin' 

{PofulceMyHee [3:10]; ''qywikeji 'pueblo ruin' <'Qijwi 'pueblo', 

keji postpound ' ruin'). 

(2) Ey.lce.ii' qipvil'ej I 'skunk-bush height pueblo ruin' (Ayl-e.//, 

see [3:10]; ^qyniil-eji 'pueblo ruin' < -qyiri 'pueblo', ^'t^'i 'ruin'). 

See also [3:8]. 

1 Hewett, Antiquities, pi. xvii. 



HAKKINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 131 

[3:10] [1) Jhfuke-^i 'squat^li projection height' (^>« 'squash' 'gourd' 

'pumpkin'; fu^u 'horizontally projecting end of anything'; ke^i 

'at the top' 'height'). 
(2) Jvuh'.'i 'sliunk-bush height' {ky, 'skunk-bush'; heu-i 'at the 

top' 'height'). 

There is much skunk-bush growing on this mesa. 
[3:11] (1) Toiiuijopvjf 'good piuon mountain' (to 'pinon tree'; majo 

'good' 'best' 'tip-top' 'chief, its second syllable being probabl3'^ 

the augmentative. /o; pijjf 'mountain'). 

It is probable that there are good-sized pinon trees on this 

mountain. With this name cf. Chiraaj'o [22:18]. 

(2) Eng. "Black Mouutains".i 
The mountain is not at all black. 

(3) Span. Cerro de los Burros ' donkey mountain '. So called 
because there either are or were many wild donlieys on this moun- 
tain. This appears to be the common name among Mexicans 
about Abiquiu. 

(4) Span. Cerro Tequesquite 'tequesquite [see Minerals] 
mountain'. This name is applied because Tequesquite Spring 
[3:1-4] is situated near this mountain. 

(5) Span. Cerro Abiquiu 'Abiquiu mountain'. This name is 
frequently applied b^^ Mexicans living in the Ojo Caliente region 
and in Chama River valley below the mountain. 

From Ojo Caliente it appears to be the most prominent moun- 
tain near Abiquiu [3:36]. 

Cf. [3:2], [3:13], [3:14], [3:15]. 

[3:12] fomajopimpxijge^ohii'e 'small hills behind [3:11]' {fomajopiijf, 
see [3:11]; pseijge 'over beyond' 'behind' <ps^yf- 'beyond', ge 
'down at' 'over at'; ^oku 'hill'; 'e diminutive). This name could 
be applied by a speaker anywhere, the Tewa thinking of the set- 
tled Chama Kiver country somehow as being in front of the 
mountain [3:11] and of the little hills [3:12] as being behind it. 
These hills could also be called Jq.mpovihuol-i/i' [3:ti] or hy sev- 
eral other descriptive names. Cf. [3:11], [3:13], [3:14], [3:15]. 

[3:13] Tomajop\nnuQ.t^6ka 'hills at the foot of [3:11]' {fomajopyjf^ 
see [3:11]; nuge 'over at the base of <)iu''it 'at the base of, ge 
'down at' 'over at'; ''oJai 'hill'). This name refers to the entire 
chain of four whitish hills and also to the two small dark hills 
[3:15] south of this hill-ch;iin. 

There are many iota 'clitfs' by these hills. Cf. [3:11], [3:12], 
[3:14], [3:15]. _ 

[3:14] (1) ''Afixpopt'e, TomaJopinni/ge'd.sxpopPe 'little alkali spring' 
'little alkali spring at the foot of [3:11]' ('(j*^ 'alkali' <(iasin 

'Hewett, Antiquities, pi. xvn. 



132 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OP THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

^qnfije, 'salt', see. 'pepperiuess', see Minerals; po/ii 'spring' <po 
'water', fi 'to come out'; 'e diminutive; Tomujopinnug.e as in 
[3:13]). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

Altliough '(J.va? refers to any kind of alkali the alkaline deposit 
of this spring has peculiar properties and is called in Span, by a 
special name. See Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Tequesquite Spring. (<Mex. Span.). =Span. (3). 
Cf. Tewa (1). 

(3) Span. Ojo Tequesquite 'spring where a peculiar alkaline 
substance known in Mexican and New Mexican Span, as teques- 
quite is obtained.' See Tequesquite under Minerals. =Eng. 
(2). Cf. Tewa (1). 

(4) Span. Ojo del Pajaro 'bird spring'. This name was ob- 
tained only from Mr. Jose Rafael Gallego, who lives at [3:20]. 
He says that he has heard the spring called by this name, but that 
it is usually called Ojo Tequesquite. 

This spring is in the arroyo which issues from between the most 
easterly of the chain of hills [3:13] and the hill next to the most 
easterly one. Mr. Gallego, who has lived long in the vicinity, at 
[3:20], and has visited the spring many times, states that the teques- 
quite is deposited as a crust on the bed of the arroyo about the 
spring. In most places this crust is so thin that the substance can 
not be gathered without considerable admixture of sand. Mexi- 
cans and Indians go to the place and carry away sacks of the sub- 
stance, which is used by them as a purgative and for raising bread. 
See Tequesquite, under Minerals. A specimen of the teques- 
quite from this spring was obtained from an old Indian of San 
Juan, who kept a sack of the substance in his house to use as medi- 
cine and as baking powder. Cf. [3:11], [3:12], [3:13], [3:15]. 

[3:15] Tomajofinnuge'okuk'y.rj/e ' little dark hills at the foot of [3:11] ' 
{To7najoinjmug.e2i.?,m\ji:12>]; ^oku 'hill'; h'v,ijf 'darkness' 'dark'; 
'e diminutive). 

These two small, low, dark-colored hills are situated on the 
southern slope of the chain of hills [3:13] and east of the Teques- 
quite Spring [3:1'±]. 

[3:16] Pueblo ruin. 

This ruin lies just west of Mariana [3:19], between the wagon 
road and the river. The writer used every endeavor at San Juan 
to obtain the Indian name of this ruin, but without success. A 
low mound could be seen in the field where the ruin lies. 

[3:17] Mahy,saj)' i.n/iu'u 'owl excrement pile arroyo' {Mahy.sap'iM, 
see [3:18]; huhi ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

This arroj'o is lost in the fields just east of Mariana [3:19]. 
See [3:18]. 



HARRINOTON] PLACE-NAMES 133 

[3:18] 2[ahiLsap' I'll 'little piles of owl excrement' {mahij, 'owl'; sa 
'excrement'; p'Ui 'small pile'). 
These hills might easily be thouj^ht to resemble owl excrement. 
[3:10] (1) Eng-. Mariana settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. ISIariana 'pertaining to Mary'. Mariana is in Span, a 
woman's given name. =Eng. (1). "Mardiana,"^ 

(3) Span. El Puente, La Puente, 'the bridge'. A Mexican 
living at this place said that there was formerly a bridge across the 
Chama River there; hence this name. " Three miles below (south- 
east) Abiquiu, at a place called ' La Puente ' (the Bridg'e). " ^ "La 
Puenta".^ 

It is said that some Mormon families came to live at this place 
about six years ago and that the name Mariana was never heard 
before they came. The name of the post-ofEce is now Mariana. 
Mexicans still call the place El Puente, and few who do not live 
in the vicinity seem to know that the name has been changed 
to Mariana. Mariano and Mariana are given names common 
in New Mexico. At present there are two frame houses at 
Mariana, in one of which is the post-office. The ruin [3:16] 
lies in the iields just west of Mariana and the ruin on a bluff 
150 feet above the river described by Yarrow, Bandelier, and 
Hewett, must be somewhere near. It is possible that the latter 
is [3:9]. See [3:unlocated] for complete discussion. 

[3:20] Span. Los Gallegos. This place is named from Mr. Jose Ra- 
fael Gallego and family, who have a ranch there. 
The place is just west of Tierra Azul [3:26]. 

[3:21] Tomajobu'u 'over at the corner by [3:11]' {Toniajo for Tomajo- 
piV-ft see [3:11]; ba'ii 'large low roundish place'). 
All this low sandy arid corner is called thus. 

[3:22] fowajoko/m'u 'arroyos of [3:11]' (fomajo for Tmnajofi^f^ 
see [3:11]; ^oAw'w ' barranca arroyo <liq 'barranca,' JaUu 'large 
groove' 'aiToyo'). 

The arroyo, which enters the river just east of the wagon road, 
has its mouth slightly to the west of the ranch of Mr. Farran, a 
Frenchman who married the daughter of a Mexican ranch owner 
named Chavez. See [3:11]. 

[3:23] The main wagon road between El Rito [4:5] and Abiquiu [3:36]. 

[3:2-1] 'J.?yjffl/>'a6i<'M 'cattail corner' (^awap'a 'cattail'; huht, 'large 
low round place'). 
This swampy place is just west of the cottohwood gi'ove [3:25]. 

[3:25] 7el:a6w'M ' Cottonwood grove corner ' {te 'cotton wood' '•Pofu 
lus wislizenV; ha 'thicket' 'forest' 'thick', 
gether'; buu 'large low round place'). 

I Hewett, Antiquities, pi. xvii. 

! Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 56, 1892. 

' Hewett, Communaut<!s, p. 42, 1908. 



134 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

This is almost due iiDilh of Tierra Azul [3:20]. 
[3:36] (1) Mintsilrjwxbii' a 'hluo or green esirth corner' (wc'i^y 'earth"; 
tsqywc§ 'bhieness' 'blue' 'greenness' 'green'; hii'u 'large low 
round place'). =Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Tierra Azul. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Tierra Azul ' blue earth '. 

The names refer to tlie bluish, or rather grayish, color of the 
soil at the place. The Indian informants insist that JVqjitsqijwuebu'u 
is the original Tewa name of the place. At present the locality 
is occupied by a number of Mexican farms. 

[3:27] Pepowil-qhuh(, see [5:12]. 

[3:28] foum'e, see [5:14]. 

[3:29] g; ItoHmpo, see [4:3]. 

[3:30] Ts(lmqfii)f,ii(tG\b:Q'\. 

[3:31] Sqywseprp^ 'at the red sandstone' {sqywse. 'sandstone'; pi 'red- 
ness' 'red'; '»'* locative and adjective-forming postfix). Cf. [3:32] 
and [3:33]. 

[3:32] TL'qtoaplhii'u 'red house corner' {teqwa 'house'; pi 'redness' 
'red'; 6ii'« 'large low roundish place'). 

This refers to the locality northeast of Mr. Gonzales' house. 
Cf. [3:31] and [3:33]. 

[3:33] (1) Teqwapibu''u 'red house town^ {teqwa ^ house'; pi 'redness' 
'red'; hia 'town'). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Plaza Colorada. (<Span.). = Span. (3). Cf. Tewa 

(1). 

(3) Span. Plaza Colorada 'red courtyard' =Eng. (2). Cf. 
Tewa (1). 

This is the name of the Mexican settlement north of Chama 
River opposite Abiquiu [3:36]. 
[3:34] (1) P' efunugepopi 'springs below [3:36]' {P'efu-, see [3:36]; 
nuge 'over below' <nu'u 'below', g.e 'down at' 'over at'; popi 
'spring' <po 'water', ^>i 'to issue'). 

(2) '' Abl'funugepopi, 'Al>el'junug.epqpi 'springs below [3:36]' 
CAtefu-,^Atek;u,see[3:36]; nuge 'over below' <mm'm 'below', g.e 
'down at' 'over at'; popi 'spring'' <po 'water'; ^^/ 'to issue'). 

(3) K'oso''o)jv:inHg.epopi 'springs l)elow [3:36]' {ICoso\])jwi, see 
[3:36]; nuge 'over below' <mi!v, ' below', ge 'down at' 'over at'; 
pojM 'spring' <po ' water', ^?/ 'to issue'). 

East of [3:35] are two little gulches in each of which is a peren- 
nial spring, the water of which is said to be very good. This is 
presumably the best water in the vicinity of [3:36]. 
[3:35] (1) Pefunugepotm 'marsh below [3:36]' {Pefu, see [3:36]; 
«?/g[e 'over below' <«?«'?< 'below', ge 'down at' 'over at'; potsa 
'marsh' <po 'water', tsa 'to cut through'). 



HARRINGTON] 



PLACE-NAMES 135 



(2) 'Aiefuni/g.epofsa, ^AbeJcjumig.epotsa 'marsh below [3:36]' 
('J.Je/K-,'J-5t%'«, see [3:36]; «?«ge 'over below' <nuhi 'below', 
gd 'down at' 'over at'; ^lofea 'marsh' < 2^0 'water', tsa 'to cut 
thro ugh'). 

(3) JCoso^qyuiinugepotsa 'marsh below [3:36]' {K^oso'Qipo% see 
[3:36]; nwge 'over below' <nu^u ' below ', ge ' down at ' 'over at'; 
potsa 'marsh' <po 'water', tsa 'to cut through'). 

[3:36] (1) San Juan P'efubit'u ' timber end town ' (^'e 'stick" timber'; 
/i«'w 'end of longish object in horizontal position'; biiu 'town'). 
The name P'efu- is applied to both the present town and the ruin 
[3:38]: it is used by the San Juan people only. It is undoubted I3' 
the original Tewa name of the pueblo ruin [3:38] as well as of the 
present Mexican town, and of it Span. Abiquiu is a corruption. 
See Span. (7). The original reason why this place is called thus 
appears to have been forgotten in the remote past. The name 
means either the end of a stick or log, or the sharp end of a mesa 
or some other geographical feature which projects horizontally 
and has timber on it. The same word appears as a San Ildefonso 
place-name in P\'fid-waje [20:46] and I''efutah( [20:47]. = Tewa 
(2), Cochiti (6), Eng. (7), Span. (8). "At San Juan the name 
was given to me as Fe-jiu".' This is given as the name of the 
present town. "In that case it is quite likely that its name 
was Fe-jyu".- This is given as the probable name of the 
pueblo ruin [3:38]. 

(2) 'AUfu'n, 'Aiekju. ( < Span. (8)). Both of these forms have 
been modified by folk-etvraology. ^Abe- is identical with \ite 
' chokecherry ' 'Prunus melanocarpa' while the Mexicans saj' 
AiiJcjti. fuhi in 'Aii-fiCu is the word meaning 'end' just as it 
appears in the original Tewa name P'efuhi, so that the whole 
meaning of \4.iefu'u, is 'chokecherry end'. This is the form 
commonly used at all the Tewa pueblos except San Juan, while 
''Aielju is seldom heard. =Tewa (1), Cochiti (6), Eng. (7), 
Span. (8). "Se-pa-ue and Abe-chiu."^ In the sentence fol- 
lowing the one from which these words are quoted Bandelier 
refers to information obtained by him from the Tewa of San 
Ildefonso. His "Abe-chiu"is evidently^ Abe fuu and was pro))ably 
obtained by him at San Ildefonso. "Abechiu (Tewa, ' the screech 
of the owl')".* "Abechiu (le cri du hibou)"." 

(3) K' osd' qij y qijwi, K'oso'oywi, K' oso' qmbuhi, K'osobii^u ' lai'ge 
legging pueblo' 'large legging town' {K' oso' qr) f 'Hopi person' 
<¥o "legging', so'qijf irreguljir vegetal singular of .w'y'o 'large', 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 54, 1892. 

»Ibid., p. 55. 

'Ibid., p. 78. 

« Hewett, Antiquities, p. 36, 1906. 

'Hewett, Communaut<5s, p. 42, 1908. 



136 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OP THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ann. 29 

aj^reeing with ^"(> 'legging', ot'ton clipped to ,w' or no in various 
forms referring to the Hopi; ^Qijwi 'pueblo'; Sw'M'town'). A 
peculiar feature of this name is that when 'i'' or 'irjy locative and 
adjective-forming postfix, is inserted, it becomes wP' or wiyf, 
thus K'oso'Qywinihu^u instead of ICoso^qyf'yhhu^u which one 
would expect. = Tewa (4) . " Jo-so-ge. " ' This seems to rest on 
some ungranmiatical Tewa form. The writer has spent much 
time inquiring about this form. All the informants agree that 
although a Tewa might say K^osoge or K'oso'q'Dge and these forms 
would be understood, they are not correct Tewa, for gi' 'down at' 
' over at' added to the name of a people means nothing. There are 
no such forms as Tewage, IPapoge, PogwoJ'ege, etc. It has been 
ascertained from San Juan, Santa Clara, San Ildefonso, and Nambe 
Indians that K'osoge is an incorrect form, which docs not sound 
right to Tewa ears. See Tewa (4) and the general discussion of 
Abiquiu below. 

(4) MolVoyivi, Moliiuhi 'Hopi (Moki) Pueblo' 'Hopi (Moki) 
town' {Mol% 'Moki' 'Hopi' <Span. Moqui, see Hopi (Names op 
Tribes AND Peoples); ^oyiri 'pueblo'; huu 'town'). = Tewa (3). 
"Muke". ■ For the reason why the names ICoso'qyf- and JIoll- 
are applied to Abiquiu, see the general discussion of Abiquiu, 
below. The name J/oXi is applied very seldom or not at all and 
is therefore omitted from the items on place-names about Abiquiu 
in which the name of [3:36] appears prepounded. 

(5) Gochiti 'AveAjtitsai {^Avelju <Span. (7); tsee locative). 
= Tewa (1), Tewa (2), Eng. (fi), Span. (7). 

(tj) Eng. Abiquiu. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Tewa (2), Cochiti 
(5), Span. (7). 

(7) Span. Abiquiu, Santo Tomas de Abiquiu. (<Tewa (1), 
above). = Tewa (1), Tewa (2), Cochiti (5), Eng. (»)). "Abiquiu".' 
This is the established Span, spelling of the name. Initially' in 
the San Juan dialect approaches bilabial /'and would easily be 
heard by Span, speakers as a medial Span. i. The Tewa -/- be- 
came Span, -qui-; the sound of Tewa / might easily be thought 
by a Spanish speaker to resemble that of -qui- (l:i or I'J). An a 
was added to the Span, form before the medial i. 

The Tewa have clearly explained this multiplicity of names 
as follows: The original Abiquiu was the pueblo ruin [3:38]. 
The original name of this was P'efu-. See Tewa (1), above. 
When the Mexicans came to the country they mispronounced 
P'efu-, calling it Abiquiu. . At present only the San Juan 
Indians preserve the old name P'efu- in their speech, the other 
Tewa calling the place by the Span, name usually mispronounced so 

1 Biinclelier, Fiiinl Report, pt. ii, p. 54, 1892. 
' Hewett, Antiquities, p. :<6, 190t). 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 137 

as to make it sound like, 'Atefu'u ' cliokecherry end'. See Tewa 
(2) , above. After the Tewa pueblo at Abiquiu was colonized by 
the Spaniards a number of Indian captives, mostly Hopi (Moki) , 
were settled there by the Spaniards. From tliis time the pueblo 
or town was known by the name K^osdoj)/- or 2IoFi- as well as 
by its old name, P'efu-, and its mispronounced Span, name, 
^Aiefu'u, 'Aiflju, because the Hopi (Moki) were or had been 
living there. Bandelier's information agrees with that of the 
Tewa infoi-mants and makes the history of these names very 
clear, "The modern town of Abiquiu stands almost on the site 
of an ancient village [3:38]. That town was peopled in part by 
'Genizaros', or Indian captives, whom the Spaniards had rescued 
or purchased from their captors. The Tehuas [Tewa] of Santa 
Clara contend that most of those Genizaros came from the Moquis 
[Hopi], and that therefore the old pueblo was called Jo-so-ge."* 
Considerable documentary history of Abiquiu is also given by Ban- 
delier. The Spanish settlers had always to contend with the Ute 
and later on with the Navaho, according to Bandelier. The Tewa 
word rendering Span, genizaro or cautivo is pqtjf- Great festi- 
vals were formerly held at Abiquiu, and manj^ people of various 
pueblos used to go thither to attend these. The Tewa say that 
there is much Hopi blood and still more Tewa blood in the present 
Mexican population of Abiquiu. The Tewa state that Abiquiu 
was a Tewa pueblo, whose inhabitants had the same culture and 
customs as the people of the other Tewa villages, and spoke a 
dialect which was slightly different from that of any other Tewa 
village but no more different from the dialects of the other Tewa 
pueblos than tlie dialect of San Juan is from that of Santa Clara. 
Abiquiu is today a quaint old Mexican town with one large plaza. 
It contains six saloons. Its largest store is owned bj^ a Hebrew 
merchant. On a cross which stands on the west side of the 
plaza one reads " Recuerdo de la Mission 16 de Marzo 1887." The 
Tewa and other Indian languages formerly spoken there have 
become entirely extinct. According to information obtained from 
a Tewa Indian by an investigator at Santa Clara the people were 
formerly saved from a flood b}^ taking refuge in caves at Abi- 
quiu, Chimayo, and the Black Mesa near San Ildefonso [18:19]. 
The cave at Abiquiu to which the people fled was as big as a 
house. According to the Tewa informants the pqTifth/e {pqyf 
' captive '; /«.<e 'dance'), called in Span, el baile de los cautivos, 
was much danced at Abiquiu a few generations ago. This was 
danced out of doors in the night-time in a specially prepared 
yard. Tewa, Hopi, and Mexicans took part. See [3:38]. The 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 54, 1892. 



138 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ann. 29 

OUero division of the Jicarilla Apaciie received rations from 
the Government at Abiquiu for several decades prior to 1880, 
according to Goddard.' 
[3:37] (1) P'cjaliwu 'arroyoof [3:3G]' {P'efu-, see [3:36]; hiCu 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 

(2) 'Alcfnhu'u, 'AMjuhu'u 'arroyoof [3:36]' {\mfu-,'AiekJu, 
see [3:36]; hii'u ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

(3) K' oso' qyn^ihii' u 'arroyo of [3:36]' {K' oso' qywi, see [3:36]; 
Ai^'w 'large groove' ' arroj'o'). 

[3:38] (1) P'efti'qijwikejl 'pueblo ruin of [3:36]' {P'efa-, see [3:36]; 
''qywikeji 'pueblo ruin' <''qytcii 'pueblo', bji 'ruin' postpound). 

(2) "'Ait'fu^qipril'eji^ ^ Aie^j li' q ijivikty i 'pueblo ruin of [3:36]' 
{^Aiefu-, 'Aiekju, see [3:36]; ''qywikeji 'pueblo ruin' <'qytoi 
'pueblo', kejl 'ruin' postpound). 

(3) iroso''qyyoyioU-eJi, ICoso'qijv)il-eji 'pueblo ruin of [3:36]' 
(^OA'c'Q?;y-, see [3:36]; 'o7;wiA;c// 'pueblo ruin' <''qyv)i 'pueblo', 
Jceji 'ruin' postpound). 

(i) MoMC qywikeji 'pueblo ruin of [3:36]' {3foki, see [3:36]; 
''qywiJiejl 'pueblo ruin' K^qijirj, 'pueblo', hyi 'ruin' postpound). 

This ruin is described by Bandelier- and by Hewett.^ See 
[3:36]. 
[3:39] (1) Pefuhwage 'mesa of [3:36]' {P'efu-, see [3:36]; kwaae 
'mesa'). 

(2) ^Aiefi/kwage, ^AleAjukwage^mesa,ot[S:3Qj i^Aiefu-, ^Aiekju, 
see [3:36]; kwag.e 'mesa'). 

(3) JPoscJ'qrjwil'wage 'mesa of [3:36]' ( ^oso'qt^ioJ, see [3:36]; 
Tcwage 'mesa'). 

This mesa is high and flat-topped, and is composed of basalt. 
Cf. [3:40]. 
[3:40] (1) P'efulceJd 'height of [3:36]' (PV/m-, see [3:36]; %&ii 
'height'). 

(2) ' Aiefuh&ii, '' AbeJcjukedi {'Aiefu-, ''Aiekju, see [3:36]; fce^ii 
' height'). 

(3) K' oso' qrpi^ike.ii, JC ono' qylccu,! 'height of [3:36]' {K^ oso' qywi, 
Koso'qyf-, see [3:36]; hdi 'height'). Cf. [3:2] and [3:39]. 

TJnlocated 

Cave near Abiquiu. Accoi'ding to information obtained by an inves- 
tigator at Santa Clara the ancient people were saved from a flood 
by fleeing to caves at Abiquiu, Chimayo, and the Black Mesa near 
San Ildefonso [18:19]. The cave at Abiquiu to which they fled 
was as large as a house. Since caves actually exist at Chimay6 

• Jicarilla Apache Texts, p. 7, 1911. 
a Final Report, pt. II, pp. 54-65, 1892. 
3 Hewett, Antiquities, No. 31, 1906. 



HAKRl.NT.TON] PLACE-NAMES ]39 

aud at the Black Mesa near San lldefonso we may assume that 
there is a large cave somewhere near Abiquiu. 

Jqmpoiiyi, see [3:7], 

Span. Mesa Eiicautada 'enchanted mesa'. 

Mexicans say that there is an enchanted mesa near Abiquiu. 
Sounds come from this mesa resembling a faint singing of many 
voices or again like the faint crowing of a cock. 

Tss^huhi, Tsie.''iijfhu\i',Tsiepo,TsaR''inipo 'white arroyo' 'white creek' 
{ts^ 'whiteness' 'white'; ^iyf locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix; hii'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'; po 'water' 'creek'). 

This is the name of an arroyo or creek not far west of Abiquiu 
on the north side of Chama River. 

Pueblo ruin northwest of Abiquiu. "While at the Rito [4:5], Don 
Pedro -Taramillo told me of a pueblo lying west of it [4:5], and 
north-northwest of Abiquiu." ' This ma}^ refer to [2:7]. 

Pueblo ruin on a high bluff near La Puente [3:19]. "Three miles 
below (southeast) Abiquiu, at a place called 'La Puente' (the 
Bridge), on a bluff' close to the river on the south l«ink, stands 
the ruin which Dr. Yarrow of Washington examined about sixteen 
years ago, and of which he has given descriptions and a ground 
plan." = 

Bandelier devotes pages 56 and 57 of his Final Report (pt. ii) to 
a description of this ruin. The ruin is described also by Hew- 
ett,^ and later mentioned by him.* Uufoi'tunately the writer's 
Tewa informants did not know either the location or the name 
of this ruin, unless indeed [3:9] be meant. Bandelier gives two 
names for this ruin, and Hewett records still another. 

(1) "To this ruin the San Juan Tehuas apply the name of 
Abechiu."^ This is true only in the sense that the San Juan 
people might apply the name of [3:36] to an}^ ruin in the vicinity 
of [3:36] of which thej' did not know the true name. The whole 
region about Abiquiu is called by the name of [3:36]. 

(2) " To this ruin the San Juan Tehuas apply tho name of Abe- 
chiu, while those of Santa Clara call it Oj-po-rege, 'Place where 
metates are made rough '. Abechiu is undoubtedly the original 
name, and the other one of more recent date'.'"" Li a footnote 
on the same page Bandelier adds: " ' Lugar adonde pican los 
metates'. As the ancient metates were not made rough by pick- 
ing, I therefoi'e conclude that it is a modern designation for 

'Bandelier. Final Report, pt. ii, p. 53, note, 1892. 

2n>id., p. oC. Bandelier refers to II. C. Yarrow, Notice of a Ruined Pueblo and an Ancient Burial 
Place in the Valley of the Rio Chama, Report upon United States Geographical Survc5'3 West of lOOth 
Meridian, \Ti, pp. 362-65. 

3 Antiquities, No. 30, 1906. 

< Conimunautc?s, p. 42, 1908. 

^Bandelier, op. cit., p. 58. 



140 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

the place." Either Bandelier or his informants have made a 
mistake in giving this form. '6^ pdi''^ means ' rough metate' ('o 
'metate'; po 'rough'; '*"'* locative and adjective-forming postfix). 
The expression meaning 'I make the metate rough' is nquqijf'o- 
fdo" {n4 'I' emphatic pronoun; uor/j' 'I it for myself prefixed 
pronoun; 'o ' metate ';^(? 'to roughen'; 'c'" present progressive). 
No such form as -poJ-e- is possible. The writer has studied this 
word especially with Santa Clara informants. Po ' rough ' is a 
very uncommon word, pa being the common word rendering 
'rough' and the verb hutsse the common expression meaning to 
roughen by pecking. ' OkutsseHwe would be the common Santa 
Clara translation of " lugar adonde pican los metates" {''> 'me- 
tate'; fcutsig. ' to roughen by pecking'; '/w.'f locative). T'odemea.ns 
'fish weir', pode means ' head'. Prepounding 'o 'metate' to either 
of these words would form a compound which has little meaning. 
The Santa Clara informants can not understand "Oj-po-re-ge" 
at all, and none of them nor an\' other Tewa informant ever 
heard Abiquiu Pueblo ruin called by such a name. ''Opo^oyioi, 
''qpo''oTjto'i//e could be formed, but ''does not sound right" ('f 'me- 
tate'; po 'rough'; 'oijivi 'pueblo'; ge ' down at' "over at'). 

(3) " Kwengyauinge ('blue turquoise house')."' "Kweng- 
yauinge (maison de la turquoise bleue)".- This name is evi- 
dently Kunj'S^^Qy^ci[/e 'over at the turquoise pueblo' {kiinj'se 
'turquoise' <ku 'stone', 7ij'ir. sm in 'qnyae 'salt', cf. '(] 'alkali'; 
'otpri 'pueblo'; ge 'down at' 'over at'). The Tewa know two 
pueblos by the name Kuy fx oyici; one is the inhabited pueblo 
called in Eng. and Span. Pueblito [13:15], which lies northwest 
from San Juan on the west side of the Rio Grande and is inhab- 
ited by San Juan Indians; the other is the pueblo ruin in the Tano 
country [29:23] near the turquoise deposit [29:55]. That the Tewa 
know a third pueblo by this name is not impossible, Init persistent 
questioning of informants has failed to bring the information that 
there is a Kunfse.^Qrjwi in tlie Chama Eiver valley. Cf. Kiiheui- 
^ Qijicil'ej i , one of the names of [3:9]. 

See [3:9], [3:16], [3:19], and [3:36]. 

[4] EL RITO SHEET 

The region shown on this sheet (map 4) is generally called in Tewa, 
Eng., and Span, after El Rito town [4:5] or the plain or creek bearing 
that name. In the central and southern part of the area shown vege- 
tation is scarce and the low hills are sand}'. 

1 Hewett, Antiquities, p. 34, 1906. 

2 Hewett, Communautfe, p. 42, 1908. 



■»■* 



MAP 4 
EL RITO REGION 



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S 
H 

(E 
O 

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MAP 4 
EL RITO REGION 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 141 

Two pueblo ruins are shown on the sheet. These two seem to be 
the only ruins in this area wliich are known to the San Juan people. 
They are claimed by the Tewa, who have definite traditions that they 
were built and occupied by their ancestors. 

[4:1] (1) PPqpitjf, PiilkvKiJe, PPQpiijhv/rje ' light-roddishness moun- 
tains' 'light-reddishness heights', referring to the color of the 
mountains {pi'(i old absolute form of pP4ioP\ pPqwiijj' 'light- 
reddishness' 'light red' 'pinkness' 'pink' <pi 'redness' 'red', 
'qtri'', 'q'U'i'jy 'brownness' 'brown' but when postpounded to 
other color names indicates light and faint quality of color; piijj' 
'mountain'; I'waje 'height'). With the use of the absolute form 
of the color-adjective in this name, that is, of pi'q. instead of 
ppq,wi'\ ppQwiyf compare posi 'greenness' 'green' in the name 
[6:24] instead of posiwr', posiwirjy, and ho 'grayness' 'gray' in 
the name [6:21] instead of hoici'\ howiijf. The forms pPq, posi, 
and ho do not occur in Tewa as it is spoken at the present time, 
but they are understood. They are old nouns and correspond to 
the noun-forms of other color- words, as pi 'redness', as compared 
with piV% pi'iyj' 'red'. 

These mountains or heights are more noticeably reddish than 
the plain [4:4] at their base, and it is not improbable that all the 
other geographical features which are called P/'a- get their names 
from them. The canyon [4:2] and creek [4:3], the town [4:.5], and 
ruin [4:7] certainl}' get their names PPq- from the mountains 
[4:1] and the plain [4:4], and since the plain is less conspicuously 
red than the mountains and bears the name Pi/qnuge ' over at the 
foot of the pink' (see [4:4]), one is led to think that the mountains 
give the names to all these places, or at least suggest the names 
as strongl}' as does the plain. 

(2) yitopiyf, ^itb'impyjf ' El Rito Mountains '(^iV() <Span. 
El Rito, Rito, see discussion under [4:3]; ^iyf locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; pij^y 'mountain'). =Eng. (3), Span. 

(3) Eng. El Rito Mountains. ( < Span.). = Tewa (2), Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Sierra del Rito Colorado, Sierra del Rito, Cerros del 
Rito 'red creek mountains'. See discussion under [4:.3]. =Tewa 
(2), Eng. (3). 

Cf. [4:2], [4:3]. [4:4], [4:5], and [4:7]. The most easterly of the 
mountains shown on the sheet is not as reddish as the others. 
[4:2] (1) PPqiiugepotsPi, Ppqnitg.eimpofsPi ''pink-below water can- 
yon' {PPqnuge, see [4:4]; 'iy,/ locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; potsPi 'canyon with water in it' < po 'water', fszi can- 
yon'). 



142 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS |f.th. ann. 29 

(2) ^/ityupofsPi, ^fituihipofsiH'' El Rito Can_von' (2^'i7?«, see [4:3]; 
'i^y locative and adjective-forming postlix; 2)0/54' * 'canyon with 
water in it' < po ' water', isPi 'canyon"). 

"The Mexican settlement of El Rito lies at the northern end of 
the basin, near where the creek issues from a sombre and rocky 
g-oro-e^_^ Cf. [4:2], [4:3J,_ [4:4], [4:5], [4:7]. 
[4:3] (1) PPqnug.epohu''ii, Ptdniig.i'yiipo}m' a 'pink below creek' 
{PTqn ug.e [4:4]; ^iijf locative and adjective-formingpostfix; pohuhi 
'creek with water in it' < po 'water', hu'^u 'large groove' 
'arroyo'). 

(2) ffitu^ pohu'u, Jjitvlynpoliaa 'El Rito Creek' {^ith < Span. 
(4), ^WJ" locative and adjective-forming postfix; pohu''u 'creek 
with water in it' < po 'water', hiiu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
= Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. El Rito Creek, Elrito Creek, El Rito Colorado Creek, 
Rito Creek. ( < Span.). = Tewa (2). Span. (4). 

(4) Span. El Rito Colorado, El Rito 'the red creek' 'the creek'. 
Mexicans say that the proper name is El Rito Colorado, but most 
of them say El Rito. =Tewa (2), Eng. (3). 

The creek proper, Tewa pohun, begins where the stream emerges 
from the canyon [4:2] three miles above El Rito town [4:5] and 
is called pohuhi from that point to its mouth. The course below 
El Rito town appears at the present time to be dry throughout the 
3'ear; this may be due to irrigation at El Rito town. The places 
[4:1], [4:2], [4:4], [4:5], and [4:7] seem to get their Span, names 
from the creek [4:3] while their old Tewa names, Fi(j-, are derived 
from either the mountains [4:1], the plain [4:4], or from both. 
Perhaps this creek is occasionally called by still another name in 
Tewa and Span. — KasUapohii'ii , Kas>ta-\inpoha''u, Span. Rito 
Casita, Rito de Casita, referring to [4:9] and [4:10], but San Juan 
Indians have denied this. Cf. [4:1], 4:2], [4:4], [4:5], and [4:7]. 
[4:4] (1) Pi'(jnu^e, Pl<l»ug.e'akoijj', PPan}(g.eyjf 'aJioyf 'pink beiow' 
'pink below plain' (^«'d 'pinkness' 'pink' < p/ 'redness' 'red', 
'f/ 'brownness' 'brown', but when postpounded to other color- 
names indicates light or faint quality of color; «»0p 'below' in 
contradistinction to the mountains [4:1] < nu\i 'below', ge 'over 
at' 'down at'; 'iyy locative and adjective-forming postfix; ^aliojjf 
'plain'). See [4:1]. Cf. [4:2], [4:3], [4:5], [4:7]. "The level 
basin of El Rito spreads out to the view. It is surrounded by 
wooded heights on all sides; its soil is dark red, and on its eastern 
edge flows the stream that has taken its name from the color of 
the ground."' 

'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p, 51, 1892. 



HABBINOTON] PLACE-NAMES 143 

(2) ^itu^al-qyf^^itli'wj' \thqyf 'El Rito plain' {flith < [4:3], 
Span. (4); Hijj" locative and adjective-forming pretix; ■ai'orjj' 
'plain'). =Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. El Rito Plain, Elrito Plain, Rito Plain. (< Span.). 
= Tewa(2), Span, (4). 

(4) Span. Llano del Rito Colorado, Llano del Rito, ' red creek 
plain' 'the creek plain'. =Tewa (2), Eng. (3). "The Rito 
plain.'" 

This name applies to the whole plain about El Rito town [4:.5], 
this plain lying entirely west of the creek [5:3]. The plain is 
level and reddish, but not as mai'kedly so as the mountains [4:1]. 
It extends toward the south beyond [4:9] and [4:10]. See [4:1]. 
Cf. [4:2], [4:3], [4:5],J4:7]. 
[4:5] (1) P'Pqnug.ebu'n, PPqnvg.e'pnbu'u 'pink below town' {PPd- 
nug.e, see [4:4]; ^y./ locative and adjective-forming postfix; bu^i 
'town'). 

(2) y^ ituhuhi, ffitu'imhu''u 'El Rito town' {^jitu < [4:3], Span. 
(4); 'i/;y locative and adjective-forming postfix; hu^u 'town'). 
= Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. El Rito settlement, Elrito settlement, Rito settlement. 
(<Span.). =Tewa (2), Span. (4). 

(4) Span. El Rito Colorado, El Rito, 'red creek' 'the creek'. 
"The Mexican settlement of El Rito."^ 

Baudelier gives the elevation of El Rito, according to Wheeler, 
as 6,792 feet.' " The Mexican settlement of El Rito lies at the 
northern end of the basin, near where the creek [4:3] issues from 
a sombi-e and rocky gorge [4:2]."" There is considerable land 
under irrigation at El Rito town. Cf. [4:1]. [4:2], [4:3], [4:4], [4:7]. 
[4:6] (1) ' Elwela ndumal. (<Span.). Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Spanish- American Normal School. =Tewa (1), 
Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Escuela Normal. =Tewa (1), Eng. (^). 

Mr. -Eulogio Cata, of San Juan Pueblo, is the only Tewa Indian 
who has attended this school, the object of which is the training 
of teachers for schools in which many of the pupils come from 
Mexican homes. 
[4:7] (1) Prqnug.(''oyrvikeji 'pink below pueblo ruin' {Pi''qnug.e, see 
[4:4]; 'o^^oi^-e/i 'pueblo ruin' <'qijwi 'pueblo,' /fce^V' 'ruin' post- 
pound). *■ 

(2) ffitu'oy'wikeji, ^ ituirj y qrjwikej 1 'El Rito Pueblo ruin' 
{^itb < [4:3], Span. (4); 'i^y locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix; ^oTfirikeji 'pueblo ruin' K^otjv^ ' pueblo ',Z;<?/* 'ruin' postfix). 

' Bandelicr. Final Report, pt.ii, p. 53, 1S92. 
"Ibid., p. 51. 



144 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etu. ann. 29 

The pueblo ruin is a quarter of a mile northeast of the Spanish- 
American Normal School. It consists of indistinct mounds 
which lie in a held. Potsherds of red ware may be picked up 
from the mound. According to San Juan informants this was 
a Tewa pueblo and its old name was the name given above 
under Tewa (1). This is all the information that could be 
obtained about it. 

[4:8] Si^psewe' QTjwikeji ' Sse.pfewe Pueblo ruin ' {Sxpsewe unexplained 
except that -ive is probably the locative postfix used in the Nambe 
dialect meaning 'at' 'up at'; 'Qyviikeji 'pueblo ruin' <^qy'wi 
'pueblo,' l-eji 'ruin' postfix). An effort has been made to get the 
explanation of this name at San Juan, Santa Clara, San Ilde- 
fonso, and especially at Nambe, where the old Winter Cacique 
thought a long time about it. The meaning of the word has been 
forgotten by the Tewa. ''Se-pii-ua".' "Se-pa-ue".^ "Sepaue".' 
"Sepawi".'' 

This ruin is described by Bandelier^ and by Hewett." Accord-- 
ing to Bandelier it is the largest ruin in New Mexico. "Les 
traditions rattachent cette trilm [Nambe] a celle des Sepawi 
sur I'oued El Rito, dans la vallee du Chama.'" "A 9 milles au 
sud-ouest d'Ojo Caliente, dans la vallee El Rito, on aperpoit Se- 
pawi, I'une des plus grandes mines de la region Puelilo . . . On 
n'en connait pas Thistoire, mais, d'apres la tradition, ce serait 
le village actuel dc Nambe, a [20] milles a vol d'oiscau au sud- 
est. " ^ The old W inter Cacique of Nambe informed the writer that 
Nambe people or Tewa used to live at Sseps^we, but this informa- 
tion had to be gained as an answer to a leading question. A num- 
ber of Tewa were found who knew of Sxpseice ruin, but not one who 
seemed to know definitely that Nambe people used to live there. 
It is generally known that it is a Tewa ruin. The writer is un- 
able to understand from reading Bandelier and Hewett on which 
side of El Rito Creek the ruin is situated. According to Hewett,' 
"Sepawi" is located on the east side of El Rito Creek: three San 
Juan informants and the old Winter Cacique of Naralje stated that 
the ruin is on the west side of the creek, but perhaps they were led 
to say this because they know the ruin is near El Rito town and 
that the latter is on the west side. 

[4:9] (1) Ju/slta. (<Span.). =Eng. (3), Span. (i). 

(2) Teqwa'e 'little house', translating Span. (4) {teqwa 'house' 
<te 'dwelling-place', qwa indicating hollowness or receptacle; 'e 

■ Banrtelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 17, 1S»2. 

2Ibiri., p. 51. 

3 Ibid., p. 52. 

> Hewett: General View, p. 597, 1905; .Vntiquities, p. 40, 1900; Comraunautds, pp. 33, 41, 99, 1908. 

& Bandelier, op. cit., pp. 61-.5*J. 

8 Antiquitie.s, No. 38, 1906; Communauti<s, pp. 33, 41, 1908. 

' Ibid., p. 33. 8 Ibid., p. 41. » Antiqtiities, pi. xvii. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 145 

diininutive). =Tewa (1), Eng. (3), Span. (4). This term would 
hardly bo used, l)ut the writer heard it employed once in the 
conversation of a San Juan Indian. 

(3) Eng. Casita. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Tewa (2), Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Casita ' little house'. =Tewa (1), Tewa (2), Eng. (3). 
The modern Mexican settlement is entirely on the western side 

of the creek. At this point a wide low plain extends eastward 
from the creek, but above and below Casita there is no plain east 
of the creek, the country being covered by low barren hills. 
See [4:10]. 
[4:10] (1) Kadtalvji, Kmifahdeji 'old Casita' 'old Casita town' 
{Kmith <Span. Casita 'little house'; hic^u 'town'; Jeejl 'ruin' 
postpound). • = Tewa (2), Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(2) Teqwa'el'eji, Tegtra^ebukeji 'little house ruin' 'little house 
town ruin' (feqica 'house' <te 'dwelling-place', jkyj indicating 
hollowness or receptacle; 'e diminutive; bu'w 'town'; Avji 'ruin' 
postpound). =Tewa (1), Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Old Casita. (<Span.). = Tewa (1), Tewa (2), Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Casita Vieja 'old little house' settlement. =Tewa 
(1), Tewa (2), Eng. (3). 

The ruins of the adobe houses of Old Casita are seen about a 
mile south of the present Casita on the eastern side of the creek 
[4:3]. The ruin of an adobe church looms among them. The 
ruin is about 500 feet east of the creek. An old plum tree stands 
on the western bank of the creek opposite the ruin. An old 
informant of San Juan said that when he was a boy Old Casita 
was still inhabited by Mexicans. See [4:9]. 

[4:11] Pohciiabu^u 'dry lake corner' {pohoi 'lake' <po 'water', h.vi 
unexplained; ta 'drjniess' 'dry'; iuhi 'large low roundish 
place'). 

This hollow among the hills is 3 or 4 miles east of [4:10] and 
north of [4:18]. An old San Juan Indian said that when he was 
a boy his father and he went deer hunting in the hills east of El 
Eito Creek; having killed a deer, they hung it up in a cedar tree 
at I'tikioijabu'u. They went to Placita Colorada [5:16] to get a 
donke}' on which to carry the deer home. When they returned 
to Pvhvitahu\i thej' discovered that someone had taken the deer 
during their absence. They found the deer at the house of a 
Mexican at the now ruined Old Casita. It is said that P(ihritaha''u 
does not drain into any creek. There is a little water in the lake 
tiiere only after a heavy rain. 

[4:12] DcpoirikqJiii'a 'coyote water gap barranca arroyo' {DefovP, 
see under [4:unlocated]; hqhxCu 'barranca arroyo' </?'o 'l)ar- 
ranca', luCu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
S75S4°— 29 ETH— 10 10 



♦ 146 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

This arroyo runs into [4:13] and is crossed by the wagon road 
[4:15] west of [4:14]. The gap from which it gets its name is 
somowliero near the upper course. The trail [4:16] is said to pass 
through this gap. See PepowPi [4:unlocated]. 

[4:13] fomajokqhu'u, see [3:22]. 

[4:14] Tonwe 'little people' 'the twin War Gods' ^owa 'person'; 'e 
diminutive). 

At the northeastern extremity of the low mesa indicated on the 
map stand two eroded knobs of earth about the size of half-grown 
children. These are at the top of a clifi' 20 or 30 feet high, at 
the level of the top of the mesa. The main road between El 
Rito and Abiquiu passes within a few hundred feet of these War 
Gods, the arroyo [4:13] lying between the wagon road and 
the etEgies. "Picturesque rocks, curiously eroded, line the creek 
bottom on the east." ^ 

[4:15] Main wagon road connecting El Rito and Abiquiu. The road 
from El Rito to Abiquiu passes the Spanish-American Normal 
School [4:6] and the Rito Plain [4:4], Casita [4:9], and somewhat 
below Casita crosses the creek [4:3], recrossing it just north of 

[4:17].^ .. 

[4:16] I^iinfsejlwepo, Nqntsejiwe'ijn po 'Tierra Amarilla trail' (iVcmSe- 
jiice, see [l:Tierra Amarilla region]; ''yjf locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; po 'trail'). 

In following tliis old trail one leaves Rio Chama town [5:16], 
crosses El Rito Creek [4:3] and the upper [4:13], passes through 
Pepowi^l [4:unlocated], and across [1:32], [1:15], and [1:14] to the 
Tierra Amarilla region. 

[4:17] 'Ol-u hehxnfii'i'^ 'long h\\V {'olni 'hill'; hehienfu 'long'; 'i' 
locative and adjective-forming postfix). 

One wagon road passes down the east side of the creek between 
the stream and the crest of this hill. In driving from El Rito to 
Abiquiu one takes the road which turns to the west [4:15] before 
reaching this hill. 

[4:18] Nameless arroyo, see [7:12]. 

[4:19] Tutsilmbekw u, see [7:18]. 

Unlocated 

Pepowi'i 'coyote water gap' {de 'coyote'; po 'water'; wPi 'gap' 
'pass'). 
This is a gap in the hills somewhere in the upper course of [4:12], 
q. v. The trail [4:16] passes through it. There is said to be a 
spring or a wet place at the gap, hence the name po ' water. ' 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. II, p. 53, 1892. 



MAP 5 
LOWER CHAMA RIVER REGION 




z 
g 

C3 

UJ 

a. 

cc 
ui 
> 

cc 

< 

< 

I 
o 

cc 

UJ 

O 

_i 



MAP 5 
LOWER CHAMA RIVER REGION 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 147 

Tsefu^u 'eagle end' {tse 'eagle'; fu'u 'projecting end of a long 
object in horizontal position '). 

This was said by a Santa Clara informant to be a mountain north 
of El Kite [4:5]. It was also said that the name is Tsefu 'eagle 
nose'(/'W 'nose'), but this was probably due to misunderstanding. 

[5] LOWER CHAMA ElVER SHEET 

This sheet (map 5) includes a part of the lower Chama River valley. 
Six pueblo ruins are shown, all of which have old Tewa names and 
are declared l)y the Tewa to have been occupied by their ancestors. 

[5:1] Tomajol-ohu'u, see [3:22]. 

[5:l'] fowh\', see [4:14]. 

[5:3] El Rito Creek, see [4:3]. 

[5:4] Tutsqinhehu'u, see [7:18]. 

[5:5] 2iy??icfpi9y 'wrestling mountain '(Tsa??^^5 see [5:7]; piyf 'moun- 
tain'). 

This small, round hill is about half a mile southeast of the junc- 
tion of El Rito Creek with Chama River. It is not more than 50 
feet high, but very symmeti'ical and prominent. The name given 
above is certainly the old Tewa name of the hill, and it is not im- 
possible that the hill gave the name Tsdniq- to the pueblo ruin 
[5:7] and other features in the vicinity. Inquiry was made of a 
Mexican family which lives on the i-anch situated between [5:5] 
and [5:GJ as to the Mexican name of the hill, but they said that it 
has none. However, another Mexican said that he calls it Cer- 
rito Redondo 'round hill'. See [5:7]. Cf. [5:6], [5:8], [5:9]. 

[5:6] T'<qmtiKe<ii, Tminql-imje 'wrestling height' {Tsiimq,, see [5:7]; 
Ic&ii, kwaje 'height'). 

This is the height on which the pueblo ruin [5:7] stands. The 
main wagon road down the Chama River valley east of the river 
passes between [5:5] and [5:6] and then along the base of [5:6], 
between [5:6] and [5:8] and [5:11]. Cf. [5:5], [5:7], [5:8], [5:9]. 

[5:7] Tsqm(i^qyuiikejl 'wrestling pueblo ruin' {tsqmq 'to wrestle'; 
'oijwikejl 'pueblo ruin' < 'oT/wj 'pueblo', keji 'ruin' postpound). 
Tlie verb tsqmq is used only in a perfect or past sense; the verb 
denoting 'wrestling' in the present or future is nfq. Thus fZ/fe/- 
nfqS,g'^ 'they are wrestling with each other' (^/Ji 'they 3+ with 
themselves'; n/q 'to wrestle'; V<^ progressive present); ^ibit.sqtnq. 
'they have wrestled with each other' {dUi 'they 3+ with them- 
selves'; tsqmq, 'to have wrestled'). The informants thought it 
likely that the name Tfsqmq was originally applied to the pueblo, 
perhaps ])ecause there was at some time in the past a wrestling 
contest there, and that the other places in the vicinity are named 



148 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. Ann. 29 

Tsqm<i from the pueblo. Tlic writer has not had an opportunity to 
look through early Span, documents for mention and forms of the 
name Chama. The form "Zama" isused byZarate-Sahnoron.' So 
far as lie i.s aware the only other form which occurs in Span, docu- 
ments is the now standardized Chama; San Pedro de Chama also 
occurs. These terms, Zama, Chama, and San Pedro de Chama, 
appear to have been used in Span, invariably to designate eitlier the 
whole Chama River district ("San Pedro de Chama, as the district 
was called after the reoccupanc}' of New Mexico"-) or the Chama 
River itself. The diminutive form Chamita has been and is given 
to the eastern part of the V-shaped tract of lowland formed by the 
confluence of the Ciiama River with the Rio Grande, and to the 
Mexican settlement made there. The latter place and settlement 
have been or are also called San Gabriel del Yunque and San Gabriel 
de Chamita, or even merely San Gabriel. See [13:28]. "The name 
Chamita dates from the eighteenth century, and was given in order 
to distinguish it from the settlements higher up on the Chama 
River." ^ Now Span. Zama, Chama, evidentW come from Tewa 
' Tsqmq, name of the former Tewa pueljlo [5:7], applied also to 
several other places near that pueblo. Since there is much land 
good for agricultuie in the vicin'ty of that pueblo, the writer 
believes that one of the Span, settlements higher up on tiie Chama 
River in contradistinction to which Chamita gets its name, was at 
Tsqmq-. At any rate, the tirst extensive farming land encountered 
in going up the Chama valley after leaving the region about the 
Canoe Mesa near San Juan [5:55] is at Tsqmq-, and it is not at all 
strange that the name Tsqmq- was taken over into Span, and 
applied first to a more or less definite region up the Chama Valley, 
as the Tewa applied it, then to the whole Chama River region, 
and more recently especially to the Chama River itself. It was 
forgotten long ago by the Mexicans, if indeed it was ever clearly 
understood by them, that TsqmA- is properly only the name 
of a former Tewa pueblo and of a little round hill, a marsh, and 
rich bottom-lands which lie ])eside it. What relation the name 
Placita Rio Chama [5 :16] bears to the names discussed above is 
impossible to determine without historical evidence. It is always 
called Placita Rio Chama 'Chama River town' and never Placita 
Chama. The settlement may be called by this name for no other 
reason than because it is in the Chama River valle}-. In going 
up the river it is the first compiiet Mexican settlement met after 
passing [5:33] and entering the narrower part of the Chama 
River valley. From Chama applied to the Chama River the 

'Quoted by Biindelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 60, 1892. 
^Bandelicr, ibid., p. 62. 



HARRINOTON] PLACE-NAMES 149 

modern town of Chiimii on the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad 
in the northernmost part of New Mexico o'ets its name. 

Tsqmq' qyiinkij i is a very large ruin consisting of low mounds. 
Three large courtyax'ds can be distinctly made out. An Indian 
living at San Juan also told4he writer that there are three ha''u 
'courtyards' which can be seen at this ruin. The long axis of the 
village, running through these court3^ards, is in a northeast-south- 
west direction. An old and disused wagon road can lie traced up 
the side of the slope toward [5:5]. The Indian informants are 
inclined to believe that this village had already been abandoned 
at the time of the coming of the Spaniards to this region. But 
the name TsqirKj, is still known to and used by the Tewa, being 
applied to this ruin and a number of places about it, but never, 
as the ^lexicans apply Chama, to the Chama River or tiie Chama 
River region. See[5:"5j, L5:(5],[5:SJ, [5:9], [5:1G], [13:27], [13:28], 
and Chama River [Large Features: 2]. 

[5:8] Tfiqmq?ii/g.epotsa 'swamp below [5:6]' {Tsqmq, see [5:7]; nuge 
'below' <?i«'i« 'below', g.e, 'down at' 'over at'; potsa 'marsh' 
<po 'water', tsa 'to cut through'). 
Cf. [5:.5]. [5 :(:!], [5:7], [5:0], [5:10]. 

[5:9] TsqmunugepoTcwi 'pools below [5:6]' {Tsqniq, see [5:7]; nuge 
'below' <nu^u 'below', g.e 'down at' 'over at'; pokwi 'lake'< 
po 'water', Jcwi unexplained). Cf. [5:5], [5:6], [5:7], [5:8], 
[5:10]. 

[5:10] Ts4m4>nig.eponisp'iwe 'where the water went below [5:6]' 
(Tsqmq, see [5:7]; 7?wg<? 'below'<««'M 'below', ge'down at' 'over 
at'; poi)ise\''we 'where the water went' <po 'water', msp. 'to 
have gone', ^twe locative). This name refers to the old bed of 
the Chama River, which can be clearly traced through the marsh 
[5:8]. Cf. [5:5], [5:6], [5:7], [5:8], [5:9]. 

[5:11] Mahy,sap'ui, see [3:18]. 

[5:12] 'OFq'ol-ii 'sand hills' {'oFq 'sand'; 'ohi 'hill'). 

[5:13] Tekasog.ikohu^ 11, TeTcasogiyj ko/itiu 'cotton wood grove bari-anca 
arroyo' (teJcasog./. 'cottonwood grove' <te 'cottonwood' 'Popiilus 
wislizeni'; Jca 'denseness' 'dense' 'forest'; sog.1 giving the idea 
'together' 'bunched'; ^yjj' locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
IcoJnCn ' barranca arroyo ' <ko 'l)arranca', '/(«';; 'large groove' 
'arroyo'). 

This little dr}- gulch is so called because its mouth is near a small 
grove of cottonwood trees on the river. 

\b:\-^^ I^ujceijiniilweokn, ' rockpine point hills' {rjios^yf ' rockpine ' 
' Pinus scopulorum ' ; tvUi 'projecting corner' 'point'; we elided 
form of ^iwe locative; ^ohu 'hill'). 



150 ETHNOGEOCIKAPIIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

These hills are opposite Rio Chama settlement [5:16]. The 

ends of the tongues of these hills projecting toward the Chama 

Riv'er would be called mlil^ a word which is applied to the corner 

of a table, for instance. 
[5:15] Nqnisejiwepo, see [4:16]. 
[5:16] (1) Eng. Rio Chama sottlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Placita Rio Chama 'Chama River hamlet'. =Eng. 

(1). For a discussion of the name see under [5:7]. 

It is at this place that the old trail to Tierra Amarilla leaves 

the Chama River valley. See [5:15]. 
[5:17] PJasita ^!u Tfama kwaje 'height by Placita Rio Chama' 

{Plasita^iu Tfama < [5:16], Span. (2); hcaje '.height'). 

This name is applied to the height back of Rio Chama settle- 
ment. The trail [5:15] passes up this height. 
[5:18] See Chama River [Large Features: 2]. 
[b:19] /■ij,po.'eq?jioi/ieji 'cicada head pueblo ruin' {fy, 'cicada'; pMe 

'head'; oywikeji 'pueblo ruin' < 'otjivi 'pueblo', keji 'ruin' 

postpound). 

The ruin is on the mesa [5:21] and at the foot of the hill 

[5:20]. The San Juan informant who pointed out the site of this 

pueblo ruin said that he guessed it got its name from the hill 

[5:20], which the ancient Tewa may have thought resembles a 

cicada's head. Cf. [2:10], [5:20], and [5:21]. 
[5:20] fiipoJeoku 'cicada's head hill' {fitpo.ie, see [5:19]; \>hi 'hill'). 

For an Indian's guess at the origin of this name see [5:19]. Cf. 

[5:21]. 
[b-.iil] fy.poJ^ekwag.e 'cicada's head mesa' {/"itpo-ie^ see [5:19]; hcage 

' mesa'). This name refei's to the broad rolling mesa on which the 

ruin [5:19] stands. See [5:19], [5:20]. 
[5:22] KaiMkqhu'u, Kapd'iijhqhiu 'leaf water barranca arroyo' 

(Kapo, see [5:23]; ■{tjj' locative and adjective-forming postfix; 

kokuho 'barranca arroyo' < ^o 'barranca', Aw' i« 'large groove' 

'arroyo'). 

Cf. [5:21]; also the similarly sounding names irapo, Santa 

Clara Pueblo [14:71], and "Kapo", a Tano Tewa pueblo ruin 

[29:unlocated]. The latter name may be but probably is not 

identical. 

This is described as a large pueblo ruin. Cf. [5:22], [5:24], 
[5:23] Kapd'qywilceji 'leaf, water pueblo ruin' {l-a 'leaf; po 'water'; 

^OTjirikeji 'pueblo ruin^ < ojji/'i 'pueblo', keji 'ruin' postpound). 
Where the leafy water is situated from which this pueblo ruin 

gets its name, is not known. The name may be taken from that 

of the arroyo [5:22], or vice versa. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 151 

[5:2-4] KaPohjjaje 'leaf water heights' {Kapo, see [5:23]; kwaje 

'height'). Cf. [5:22], [5:23]. 
[5:25] Pa^nfutebu^u 'snake dwelling-phice corner' {pxnfu 'snake'; te 

'dwelling place'; hifu 'large low roundish place'). Cf. [5:26]. 
[5:26] Pxnfutehwaje 'snake dwelling-place height' {ps^nfu 'snake'; 

;;<; 'dwelling place'; hwaje. 'height'). Cf. [5:25]. 
This is a very low mesa between [5:22] and [5:27]. 
[5:27] Tehit'U 'cottonwood arroyo' (/e ' Cottonwood' 'Populus wisli- 

zeni'; A«' if 'deep groove' 'arroyo'). 
It is not difficult to understand how this arroyo gets its name. 

There is at present a large cottonwood tree growing in it not far 

from the mouth. See [5:28]. 
[5:28] Tehii^ iicepopi, Tehii^kce'impopi 'spring in [5:27]' {Tehuhi^ see 

[5:27]; 'hce locative; ''iyf locative and adjective-forming postfix; 

fopi ' spring' < pc 'water', j?* 'to issue'). 
[5:29] Sxiehcaje, see [2:22]. 
Pieqwss.n4iive 'where the deer's tail' {px mule-deer; qv'S^yf 'tail'; 

''iice 'locative'). This is the name of the whole region about 

[5:30] and [5:31], q. v. 
[5:30] PxqxccRnd/iwepii) f 'mountains at the deer's tail place' {Ps^qwien- 

4iwe, see the preceding term; piijy 'mountain'). 
[5:31] Pcet2ivigdiy!e\'lu'e 'little hills at the deer's tail place' (Pspqivsen- 

dhve, see [5:29]; \//,-(i, 'hill'; '(? diminutive). 
[5:32] Span. Arroyo Palacio ' palace arroyo'. 

According to information obtained from a San Juan Indian, 

]Mr. Samuel Eldodt, the merchant of San Juan Pueblo, formed}' 

had a claim on a bit of tillable land at the mouth of this arroyo; 

but a freshet washed the land away and Mr. Eldodt quit the claim. 
[5:33] PovjqwUl 'water wind point' {po 'water'; wq, 'wind'; vi!m 

'projecting corner'). 
This point projects far out, forming a narrow gap through 

which the river passes. This gap is always windy, according to 

Tewa informants. Although perfectly conceivable that the point 

might have been given this name because of the river flowing past 

and the windy character of the location, the Tewa when using the 

name also think of the Poialhq. 'water-air spirits' {po 'water'; 

wq 'wind' 'air'; //(] 'pulse' 'respiration' 'life' 'spirit'), invisible 

spirits who live in the air and are sometimes heard to speak. 

According to one story they catch people who try to kill them- 
selves by hurling themselves over cliffs and make them fall lightly 

and unhurt. Cf. [5:34]. 
[5:34] I'owqvjitipyjj' 'water wind point mountain' {Powqwiii, see 

[5:33]; pi/;y 'mountain'). 

The following queer story came to the mind of a San Juan 

informant when he was asked about this high hill back of Powq- 



152 ETHNOGEOGEAI^HV OF THE TEWA INDIANS lETir. axx. 29 

wi..(i. St. Cecilia oiicc appeared to some Mexican soldiers near 
Las Truchas [22:11]. The soldiers followed her across the Kio 
Grande and across Chamita [13:28]. At last she passed throug-h 
a hole in FoimlwUipigf. The soldiers found her shoe on the 
other side. 
{b:'imi) P'ese.iepo 'shove stick creek' {P'esede, see [5:37]; po 
'water' 'creek'). This is the. old Tewa name of the creek. 

(2) Kepo 'bear creek' (Z'e'bear'; po 'water' 'creek'). This is 
a mere translation of Span. (4), but is frequentl}' used nowadays. 
= En(f. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Oso Creek. (<Span.). =Tewa (2), Span. (4). 

(4) Span, liito Oso, Kio Oso 'bear creek' 'bear river'. The 
Span.. name is often pronounced -Toso by native Span, speakers of 
New ]SIexico. 

Although the et^^mology of P'ese^e is discussed under [5:37], it 
is quite possible that the pueblo ruin [5:37] takes its name from 
the creek. Oso Creek iiows into Chama River nearly opposite, 
but somewhat above, the point at which Ojo Caliente Creek joins 
the latter from the northeast and just opposite the big- projecting 
tongue of land PoioQwUi [5:33]. See [5:37]. 

[5:3t>] ^Assehu''u 'alkali arroyo' Casse. 'alkali' <'c/ 'alkali', see 'pep- 
periness' 'peppery'; Aw'w 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[5:37] P'e-se<ie''oywikeji 'shove stick pueblo ruin' (p'e 'stick' 'log' 
'timber'; se-^e 'to shove or push away from one's self with little 
jerks'; ''qrjwileji 'pueblo ruin'< ''oyiri 'pueblo', keji 'ruin' post- 
pound) (PI. 3, A.) JVq. J^opesede means 'I push the stick or 
log in little jerks' («4 'I' emphatic pronoun; do 'I it'; pe 'stick' 
'log' incorporated object; seJ-e 'to shove or push away from one's 
self with little jerks'). iVcl •lop'ese would mean 'I push the stick 
from me steaxiily, not in jerks'). Cf. [5:35], [5:38]. "Indians of 
San Jnan have given me the names of some of the ruined pueblos 
that lie on the mesas west and south of the Chama River; for in- 
stance, Fe-se-re and Te-e-uing-ge".^ This is the only reference 
which Bandelier makes to this ruin. Hewett does not seem to 
mention it at all. "Pesede-uinge (Tewa, the place of the sliding 
log)",^ for P'esede'oywige 'down at or over at the shove stick jerk- 
ingly pueblo' {^Qijvi 'pueblo'; g<' 'down at' 'over at'). 

There is much information about P'cse-te'ojjicil-eji in two articles 
by Mr. J. A. Jean^on ^ which have recently appeared. See [5:38]. 

[5:38] P'eseJ'e'qtpifikejinaia 'fields of [5:37]' {P eseJ-e' oywikeji, see 
[5:37]; nata 'field where crops are raised').^ 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 58, 1892. 

'J. A. Jeanpon, Explorations in Chama Basin. New Mexico, Hfcords of the Past, vol. x, p. 96, 
19U. 

3J. A. Jeani;on, ibid., pp. 92-108; also Ruins at Teserteuinge, ibid., vol. xi, jip. 3S-37, 191^. These 
two articles give photographs and maps of the ruin. 

i See Jeangon. Exjilorations in Chama Basin, op. cil. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 3 




A. P'ESEHE'QyWl, RUIN 



(Photugraph by J. A. Juarivun; 



;'^1 '."•-■' 




(I'hotriKrai'h by .1. A. .Ii'ani;oii) 



E. THE LARGE WHITE ROCK NEAR KU'ONWl RUIN, FROM WHICH THE RUIN PROBABLY 

DERIVED ITS NAME 



HARRixc.rox] PLACE-NAMES 153 

[5:39] Ila'sepwj', see [2:24]. 

[5:iO] F'eirabo.u\ see [2:26]. 

[5:-tl] Kep'en4ty/ieg.e, see [2:27]. 

[5:42] Santa Clara Ku. qi)ir\keji 'stone pueblo ruin' (%i( 'stone': 
^oijirilvji 'pueblo ruin' K'orjiri 'pueblo', keji^ 'ruin' postpound). 
This name is not mentioned in the writings of Bandelier or Hew- 
ett. '"Kauinge''.' Mr. Jean(?on, who has described this ruin/ 
thinks that it may get its name because of an isolated column of 
cream-colored tufa which stands in the lowlands a short distance 
southwest of the mesa on which the ruin is situated. This rock 
(pi. 3, B) is a hundred feet or more in height and is at present un- 
scalable. There are well-worn old trails leading to it, and part of 
a trail which evidently once led up to the top was noticed by Mr. 
Jeanfon. This showed the effects of the attrition of human feet. 
There was probably a shrine on top of this rock, such as are 
found at high places about all Tewa pueblos. That the pueblo 
takes its name from this rock seems very probable, inasmuch as 
Jcu'oywil'eji means merely 'stone pueblo ruin' and is applied to 
any ruin of a pueblo built of stone, in contradistinction to 
nqpohCoyicileji 'adobe pueblo ruin' {?iqpota 'adobe' < nq, 'it', 
po 'water', ?« 'to be dry'). Mr. Jean(?on kindly furnished the 
following information regarding this ruin in a letter bearing date 
October 27, 1911: "Kuuinge is not the same ruin as Teeuinge 
[5:43J. We visited the latter first; then went back to the road 
just after it leaves San Jose [13:44], and taking a road leading to 
the left of the main road to Abiquiu, crossed the hills until we 
came in sight of the Oso. From there we turned directly to the 
left until we came to the vicinity of Kuuinge. The name was 
given me by Aniceto Suaso and was recognized bj^ a number of 
other Santa Clara Indians. The plan of the place shown by Dr. 
Hewett in his Antiquities of the Jemez Plateau as Teeuinge is 
altogether different from that of Kuuinge. Kuuinge can not be 
seen from Chili [5:46] or Cuchilla [5:4ii]." In October, 1910, the 
San Juan Indian who pointed out Te'eoywikeji [5:43] from the 
Chama Valley said that there is another pueblo ruin about a mile 
west of Te'e^qipi}\kej! and south of Oso Creek, but he could not 
remember the name. At San Juan Pueblo the writer talked with 
another Indian who knew of this ruin a mile or so west of 
Teii^qijv'ikej!, but he also was unable to give the name of it. 
After learning the name and location of Ku^oywih/jl from Mr. 
Jeanfon's article, a Santa Clara Indian was found who knew the 
ruin by that name and supplied the etymology of it, which Mr. 
Jean^on states he also obtained, although he does not give the mean- 

'J. A. Jeangon. Explorations in Chama Basin, New ile\ico, Records of the Pos<, vol. x, p. 92 et passim, 
19U. 
•Ibid., pp. 94-96. 



154 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. Ann. 23 

iiig of the nanio in his article. That the place received its name 
from the rock described above is only Mr. Jeanfon's conjecture; no 
Tnilian has explained the origin of the name in this way. Two 
San lldefonso Indians whom the writer asked about the name did 
not know either the name or the ruin, although they knew the ruins 
[5:37] and [5:43]. Notice also that Bandelier gives the names of 
the ruins [5:37] and [5:43], but does not mention [5:42].^ 

[5:43] Te^ewPoywiheji, Te''e'(ir)v}ikeji, Te^ewike-iPoywikeji, Te'ekedi- 
''qi)vi%kejl 'little cottonwood gap pueblo ruin' 'little cottonwood 
pueblo ruin' 'little cottonwood gap height pueblo ruin' 'little 
cottonwood height pueblo ruin' {Te^etohl^ Te^e, see [5:44]; Iciui 
'height'; ^qijtvikeji 'pueblo ruin' <^qijwi 'pueblo', kejl 'ruin' 
postfix). See [5:43]. "Indians of San Juan have given me 
the names of some of the ruined pueblos that lie on the mesas 
west and south of the Chama River; for instance, Fe-se-re [5:37] 
and Te-e-uing-ge"," "Teeuinge",' "Teeuinge",* "Teeuinge".^ 
This ruin is described by Hewett." The mesa on which this 
ruin stands can be clearly seen from Chili [5:46]; also from the 
Cuchilla [5:49] and many points in the Chama River valley south- 
east of the Cuchilla. The gap [5:44] and the hill [5:45] are also 
clearl}^ seen from these places. Mr. Jeanfon states that part of 
the ruin is being washed away by an arroyo and bones and various 
other objects are being exposed to view. 

[5:44] Te'ewPl 'little cottonwood gap' (te 'cottonwood' 'Populus 
wislizeni'; 'e diminutive; wPi 'gap'). 

This is a gap or pass between the mesa on which the ruin [5:43] 
lies and the hill [5:45]. It was presumably called thus because at 
some time undersized or young cottonwood trees stood at the 
place. This gap has given the name to the pueblo ruin [5:43], to 
the hill [5:45], and to the arroj'o [5:50]. An old trail is said to 
pass through the gap. Cf. [5:43], [5:45], [5:50]. 

[5:45] Te'ewiihodl 'little cottonwood gap knob' {Te^eiuPi, see [5:44]; 
Mi 'roundish pile' 'knol)' 'round hill'). Cf. [5:43], [5:44], [5:50]. 

[5:4t)] (1) San Juan T^'ipapn of obscure meaning {tsi'i 'flaking stone' 
'obsidian'; pa unexplained; pn 'buttocks', 'region about the 
anus'). This is the old San Juan Tewa name of the place. 

(2) TfilL (<Span.). =Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Chili settlement. {<Span.). = Tewa (2), Span. (4). 
Span. Chill unexplained. =Tewa (2), Eng. (3). 

1 See Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 58, 1892. 

> Ibid. 

a Hewett, Antiquities, p. 34, 1906. 

* Hewett, Communaut^s, p. 4'2, 1908. 

6 .leangon. Explorations in Chama Basin, New Mexico, Kecordti of the Past, vol. x, p. 97, 1911. 

« Antiquities, No. 29, 1906. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 155 

[5:47] (1) Tsipajm'oku'e 'little hills of [5:46]' {Tsipapu, see [5:46]; 
''oku, 'hill'; '<; diminutive). 

(2) TfiWoku'e 'little hills of [5:46]' {TfiU, see [5:48]; 'ohu 
'hill'; 't? diminutive). 
[5:48] (1) Tsip<ipul-o, Tslpapukqhu^u, 'barrancas of [5:46]' 'barranca 
arro3-os of [5:46]' {Tsipajm^see [5:46]; kq/iu'u 'barranca arroyo' 
<ko 'barranca', ku^u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

(2) Tfil/'Jco, Tfililcohuhi, 'barrancas of [5:46]' 'barranca ar- 
royos of [5:46]' {Tfili, see [5:46]; kqlui'u 'barranca arroyo' <kq 
'barranca', hu^u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
[5:49] (1) TsijokeJi 'knife height', translating the Span, name {tsijo 
'knife' <tsPi 'flaking stone\ jo augmentative; lc<Mi 'height'). 
Cf. Tewa (2), Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

{"!) Eutflja. (<Span.). = Eng. (3), Span. (4). Cf. Tewa (1). 

(3)Cuchilla. (<Span.). =Tewa(2), Span. (4). Cf.Tewa(l). 

(4) Span. Cuchilla, 'sharp narrow ridge of land'. = Tewa (2), 
Eng. (3). Cf. Tewa (1). 

This long thin ridge of basalt curves slightly northward just 
before touching the river. The extreme point of this ridge was 
cut through several j'ears ago for a proposed railwa}^ through the 
Chama River valley and the cut has been utilized for running an 
irrigation ditch. There are several narrow ridges of land called 
bv the Mexicans Cuchilla. in northern New Mexico. See for 
instance Cuchilla [9:2]. [5:41»] tapers gradually and is very 
S3'nimetrical. 
[5:oO] Te'eivihi^u ' little cottonwood gap arroyo ' (Te'en)*'*', see [5:44]; 
hu'u ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). See [5:44]. 

A wagon road leads up this arroyo. 
1^5:51] T(-l:a6o^j ' cottonwood grove ' (;^(? 'cottonwood' 'Populus wisli- 
zeni'; lea 'denseness' 'dense' 'forest'; iodi 'pile' 'cluster'). 
. The valley is wide here on the side southwest of the I'iver, with 
good alfalfa fields and a grove of cottonwoods. This is possibly 
the cottonwood grove where the Jicarilla Apache used formerly 
to hold a ceremony at certain times. See under [5:unlocated]. 
This is the cottonwood grove l.ving farthest down the river in the 
part of the valley above TsiirUi [13:2]. 
[5:52] Nameless arroyo of considerable size. 

[5:53] vSan Juan Musikwaje 'young female deer height' [mqsi said by 
an aged San Juan informant to be an antiquated form of m<ig.e 
'j^oung female of the mule deer'; kwaje 'height'). This is the 
old San Juan Tewa name. 

This hill is south of Ojo Caliente Creek. The main wagon road 
between Ojo Caliente and Chamita passes between this hill and 
the mesa [5:55]. 



156 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

[5:54] Tsiiciud ' projecting corner of basalt' (fsi ' basalt', as in Taikwaje, 
the name of tlie whole mesa [5:55]; vUi 'projecting corner'). 
Tfiiri.d is somi'tinies applied to this corner of the Black ]\lesa near 
San Jnan, though it is usually applied to the more piominent 
corner [13:2], q. v. See also [13:1]. 

[5:55] Tsihraje, see [13:1]. 

[5:50] San Juan Sqywuekohuhi 'sandstone barranca arroyo' (sqyw^ 
' sandstone ' ; kqhu'u ' barranca arrojo '<Iq ' barranca ', /»«'« ' large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 

[5:57] San Juan T<niu'buhu''u, see [2:28]. 

[5:58] San Juan flxtngeH, see [2:.32]. 

[5:59] San Juan Ti<ijcukqhuhi^ see [2:33]. 

Unlocated 

Cottonwood grove, where the Jicarilla Apache used to hold a fiesta. 
Doctor Hewett infonned the writer tliat he had learned from Tewa 
Indians that the Jicarilla Apache used to hold a fiesta at a cotton- 
wood grove in the lower Chama Valley about i miles above the 
confluence of the Chama with the Rio Grande, somewhere near the 
mouth of Ojo Caliente Creek. It is probably the same grove that 
he means when he writes: "About 4 miles above the confluence 
of the Chama with the Rio Grande is the noble cottonwood grove 
whose grateful shade has been the noon or evening goal of every 
traveler that has toiled up or down that sandy valley for a cen- 
tury. At this point a chain of detached fragments of the great 
Black Mesa (Mesa Canoa) [13:1] crosses over to the south side of 
the river and extends for some miles southwestward".^ Even the 
statement that the basalt formation crosses the river at the place 
does not enable the present writer to locate the grove. It is not 
vuilikely, however, that it is [5:51]. The San Juan Tewa inform- 
ants who accompanied the author up the Chama Valley knew 
nothing of the Jicarilla Apache having formerly held a fiesta at 
a grove in the lower Chama Vallev- An informant at Sun Juan 
Pueblo, however, knew of this practice and volunteered the in- 
formation that it was the "fiesta de San Antonio" which was there 
celebrated. But unfortunately he was not certain even as to the 
side of the river on which the grove is situated. One of God- 
dard's Jicarilla Apache texts says of the fiesta: "We [the Jica- 
rilla Apai he] started away [from Tierra Amarilla] immediately to 
Cuchilla [5:49] where they were to hold a feast. For that purpose 
we all came there. The Pueblo Indians brought fruits there and 
the Mexicans came with wagons and on horsebacli. They had a 
rooster race. After the feast was over we moved camp back 
again to Tierra Amarilla, where we and the Ute remained in sepa- 

i Hewett, Antiquities, p. 33, 1906. 



MAP 6 
UPPER OJO CALIENTE REGION 




o 

C5 
lU 
<£. 

Ml 

Z 

UJ 

-J 
< 
o 

O 

o 

a: 
u 

0. 
Q. 



MAP 6 
UPPER OJO CALIENTE REGION 



BAKRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 157 

rate camps". ^ Goddard explains concerning the fiesta: "The 
feast of San Antonio formerly held on the Chama River in a Cot- 
tonwood yrove near the mouth of Caliente Creek [Ojo Caliente 
Creek]".- The text implies tliat the grove is at or near the Cu- 
chilla [5:49]. Perhaps [5:51] is the grove. 
"Poiimuiiige".^ "Poihuungc?'-.^ None of the informants interro- 
gated have known the name or the ruin. The -uinge or -unge of 
the forms of the nauu^ quoted above is evidently for 'oyicifje 
'down at the pueblo' 'over at the pueblo' {^oyvi ' pueblo ',g<:'' down 
at' 'over at'). The etymology of the first part of the name is not 
apparent. 

The ruin is situated as follows: "About 4 miles above the con- 
fluence of the Chama with the Kio Grande is the noble cottonwood 
grove whose grateful shade has been the noon or evening goal of 
every traveler that has toiled up or down that sandy valley for a 
centurv. At this point a chain of detached fragments of the 
great Black mesa (Mesa Canoa) [13:1] crosses over to the south 
side of the river and extends for some miles southwestward. On 
the top of one of these black fragmentary mesas about a mile 
south of the river stood the village of Poihuuinge".^ See 
[9:uidocated], where Hewett's "Poihuge" is discussed. 

[6] UPPER OJO CALIENTE SHEET 

This sheet (map 0) shows the region about and above Ojo Caliente. 

Three pueblo ruins are included, all of which have old Tewa names. 
These are claimed by the Tewa as former pueblos of their people. The 
Tewa believe this region to have been the cradleland of their race. 
Ojo Caliente hot springs [6:24] and the caves at La Cueva [6:30], [6:31] 
are of special intei'est. 

[6:1] (1) Eng. Petaca. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Petaca. 'a small cofl'er or grip of sewed leather or 
cativas used in traveling or for storing articles, much as a suitcase 
is now used.' Very old petacas can still be seen in some of (he 
Mexican houses in New Mexico. "Why this name was applied to 
Petaca settlement has not been learned. 

This is a small Mexican settlement. See [6:4]. 
[6:2] Pol'X7i,ful-'ond!ice ' where a certain kind of mineral called po- 
he.nfy, is tlug' {polcxitfu, see under Minerals, p. 5S2; k'oudiwe 
'where it is dug' < k'oyf 'to dig', '/we locative). 

This mineral deposit is situated in the hills more than two miles 
east of IVtaca [6:1]. It is still occasionally visited l)y the Tewa 

1 Goddard, Jicarilla Apache Texts, p. 257, 1911. 

'Ibid., p. 161, note. 

' Hewett, Antiqiiitifci, p. 33, 1906. 

* Hewett, Communautos, p. 42, 1908. 

s Hewett: Anticiuilie.s, pp. 33-.S4. 1906; see also Cominunaiilrs, op. cit. 



158 ETlINOClEOGRAPnY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. axn. 29 

for the pnrpo.se of obtaiiiin<;' the yli.stciiing' earth called fiol'xn.fii, 
which is used by the Tcwa women in making pottery. The name, 
pol-scnfy, is applied to coal-tar and asphalt, as well as to mica, 
but it is supposed that it is mica' or micaceous earth which is 
referred to by the Indians. See [7:2] and Minerals, p. 582. 

[6:3] Ti-bodi 'cottonAvood grove' {te 'cottonwood' 'Populus wisli- 
zeni'; hihil 'pile' 'grove'). 

Petaca [6:1] is said to be situated about a mile north of this 
grove. This grove may be identical with Old Servilleta [8:8], q. v. 

[6:4] (1) Kipo, KPimfo 'prairie-dog water' {kl 'prairie-dog'; po 
'water' 'creek'). =Taos (3), Eng. (5), Span. (8). 

(2) Petotepo, PetoA:a'i?npo 'Petaca water'. (< Span.). =Eng. 
(4), Span. (7). 

(3) Taos EiCupaanq 'prairie-dog dwelling place water' {hi 
'prairie-dog'; t^y. 'to dwell', cognate with Tewa fa 'to dwell'; 
pa- 'water' 'creek'; anq, noun postfix). =Tewa (1), Eng. (5)^ 
Span. (S). 

(4) Eng. Petaca Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (7). 

(5) Eng. Tusas Creek. (<Span.). =Tewa(l),Taos(3),Span.(8). 

(6) Eng. Servilleta Ci'eek. (<Span.). =Span. (9). 

(7) Span. Kito Petaca 'leathern case creek', named from the 
settlement Petaca [6:1]. =Eng. (4). 

(8) Span. Rito de las Tusas 'prairie-dog creek'. =Tewa (1), 
Taos (3), Eng. (5). 

(9) Rito Servilleta 'napkin creek', named after Servilleta 
Vieja [6:unlocated]. 

[6:5] (1) Eng. Vallecito Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rito Vallecito, Arroyo Vallecito, 'little valley creek' 
'little valley arroyo'. =Eng. (1). 

[6:6] San Juan JIahy,s^nnx, Mqhy,sinn£epir) f 'at the owl's horns' 
'mountain at the owl's horns' (maA'ii 'owl'; s^Tjf 'horn', also 
applied to the "horns" of owls; nse locative; piyf 'mountain'). 
An old San Juan informant said that he had heard that the moun- 
tains are called thus because from the vicinity of Ojo Caliente 
[6:26] two peaks are seen resembling the horns of an owl. These 
are evidently the peak dirpctl3'^ north of [6:21] and the norther- 
most of the peaks or mountains called by this name. It requires 
considerable imagination to see this resemblance. The horn to 
the right is more prominent than that to the left. 

These mountains seem to be about as high as [6:16], whereas 
the other mountains shown on the sheet are lower. The caves 
[6:30], [6:31] are at the foot of the northernmost mountain. The 
colored cliff's [6:11] are in the southern slope of the southern- 
most. This southernmost peak of 2Iqhiis^nnse. one sees when look- 
ing straight up the Ojo Caliente Valley. 

'See W. G. Ritch, Illustrated New Mexico, p. 140, 1885. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 159 

[6:7] (1) I'oiiipo 'greenness water', referring to Ojo Caliente liot 
springs [6:2i]' (Posl, see [6:24]; fo 'water' 'creek' 'river'). 

(2) Taos FalMpamid 'hot water river', referring to Ojo Cali- 
ente hot springs [6:24]' (pa- 'water'; IM 'hot'; pa- 'water'; and 
noun postfix). =Picuris (3), Eng. (4), Span. (5). 

(3) ricuris "Pasxlupane''.^ =Taos (2), Eng. (4), Span. (5). 

(4) Eng. Ojo Caliente Creek. (<8pan.). =Taos(2),Picnris(3), 
Span. (5). 

(5) Span. Rito Ojo Caliente, Rio Ojo Caliente 'hot water creek' 
'hot water river', referring to Ojo Caliente hot springs [6:24]. 
= Taos (2), Picuris (3), Eng. (4). "This is the Rio del Ojo Cali- 
ente, which takes its name from the remarkable medicinal ther- 
mal springs [6:24] on its western banks''.^ 

[6:8] JiIqhy.soinsetsPi 'canyon at the owl's horns' {Jifqhy,siJinsp, see 
[6:r.]; fsi'i 'canyon'). 

This is a deep, narrow, and beautiful canyon. The walls are 
rocky and in many places perpendicular. Mq/ty,Ni?ins^ [6:(>] towers 
to the northeast and Fosipiijy [6:10] and Posipiijye [6:17] to the 
southwest. 

[6:9] J/qhy,.^^»nxfsi''iwepo'o 'water mill at the canyon by the owl's 
horns' {Mq/iij,s^7inxfsPi, see [6:8]; 'iwe locative; po^o 'water mill' 
<po 'water', 'o 'metatc'). 

The wagon road which runs through Jlqh^s^timgtsPi [6:8] is on 
the northeastern side of the creek. Several small brooks which 
flow down from the heights of Mqhy,sejinse. [6:6] cross this road. 
At the fourth of these brooks which crosses the road, counting 
from the confluence of Comanche Creek [6:12], stands the Mexican 
water-mill. The little brook which turns the wheel is said to flow 
quite strongly all the j'ear. 

[6:10] JIqhy,s(.nn^is{j/owUi, JIqhy,s(,nnsf'j/o7vui 'the projecting cor- 
ners or points at the opening or mouth of the canyon at the owl's 
horns' {JIqhy,s^?insefsi'i, see [6:8]; fowiM ' projecting corner or 
point at the opening or mouth of a canyon' < ])0 'hole' 'open- 
ing', luUl 'projecting corner or jwint'). This name refers to 
both the northern and the southern mouth of the canyon [6:8]. 
The northern mouth is also shown on the enlargement. A San 
Juan informant was heard to say Mqlvitsem p' oioi^i! , but when his 
attention was called to the name he said that he did not consider 
the latter part correct. 

[6:11] ]V(i>npP(hri'^ 'at the pink or light-reddish colored earth' {nay/' 
'earth'; piCiwP\ pPqwiyy 'pink' 'light reddish' < pi 'red' 
'redness', 'g 'brown' but when postpounded to color-denoting 

'Spinden, Picuris notes, MS., 1910. 'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 37, 1892. 



160 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OP THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

words indicatirif^ lifjht or faint quality til' color; i'' locative and 
adject ive-forni ill jf po.sttix). 

The flesh-colored area on the southern slope of the southern 
peak of 2lqhy,sinnse [6 :6] extends to about one-third the height 
of the mountain on this slope. It has the form of a broad stripe 
extending- east and west. It is seen when looking up Ojo Cali- 
ente Valley from the vicinity of Ojo Caliente hot sinings [6:L'4]. 
This earth is said to be of no use. 
[6:12] (1) Kumatslhuhi 'Comanche arroyo' {Kumqtsi 'Comanche'; 
Am'w 'large groove' 'ari-oyo'). =Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Comanche Creek. (< Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Canada de los Comanches, Canada Comanche, Arroyo 
Comanche 'Comanche gulch' 'Comanche ari-oyo'. =Tewa (1), 
Eng. (2). "Canada de los Comanches".' "The situation of 
Houiri [6:21] is such as to command a fair view for a few miles of 
the valley of the Canada de los Comanches".' 

The land on both sides of Comanche Creek is dry, rolling, and 
dotted with pinon trees. There is no water running on the sur- 
face of the creek bed during most of the year. The old Jutapo 
or Ute trail [9:17] crosses the Ku'mqtsihii?u above [6:1-1], but just 
where has not been determined. 

[6:13] Kumqtsi hup' owl.ii, Kumqtsip'owLhi ' the projecting corners or 
points at the opening or mouth of Comanche arroyo' {Kurnqtsi- 
kd^a, see [Q:10]; p'oivUi, ' projecting corner or point at the opening 
or mouth of an arroj^o' <p'o 'hole' 'opening', wLu 'projecting 
corner or point'). This name is said to apply especially to the 
northern projection, the southern one, on which the pueblo ruin 
[6:21], q. v., stands, being also called Ilowiii. Mr. Tomas 
Lucero still lives on his ranch at EumqtsUmp' oioUi north of the 
mouth of Comanche Creek just as he did when Bandelier visited 
the locality' 30 years ago. "Don Tomas Lucero, who lives near 
Houiri [6:21]",* As a San Juan Indian said: Tnma Lusedu 
Kumxltsip ow'iM 7iq.t'a ' Tomas Lucero lives at [6:13] ' ( To?na Liise-iv 
<Span.; JZiimqtsijyowUi, see above; nq 'he'; t'a 'to live'). 

[6:li] (1) Buwapiyf ' bread mountain ' {bmva 'any kind of bread'; 
piyj' 'mountain'). =Tevva (2). 

(2) Pqtiipyjf 'bread mountain' {pqyf 'bread" <Span. pan 
'bread'; piyf 'mountain'). This latter form is said to be the 
only one used by the San Juan. 

The mountain has the shape of an inverted cheese-box and must 
have been thought to resemble bread of some kind. It is men- 
tioned in the Posejemu story. The Sun first spoke to Posejemus 
virgin mother at Buimfjiyf. 

[6:15] PPqpiy.f, see [4:1]. 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. -10, 1892. 



HARRINGTON] 



PLACE-NAMES 161 



[6:16] (1) Posipii)f 'greenness mountain', referring to Ojo Caliente 
hot springs [6:24]' (Pfts/, see [6:2-1:]; pi ??y 'mountain'). 

(2) Eng. Ojo Caliente Mountain. (<Span.) (3). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cerro Ojo Caliente 'hot spring mountain'. =Eng. 
(2); Mexicans regularly give the mountain tliis name. 

This mountain is about as high as the highest (the north) peak 
of [6:0] and can be seen from afar, especiallj^ from the southwest, 
where there is nothing to hide it. It was said by Mexicans 
living on the lower Chama River to mark the site of Ojo Caliente. 
Cf. [6:17]. 

[6:17] P«6vY'i9y'6 'little greenness mountain' (Pos/, see [6:24]; piyf 
' mountain'; ^e diminutive). 
This hill rises just west of the pueblo ruin [6:18] Cf. [6:lfi]. 

[6:18] San Juan Tlupoi'i- ojjwil'eji 'pueblo ruin of the flower of the 
one-seeded juniper' {liy, 'one-seeded juniper' 'Juuiperus mono- 
sperma', coiumonlj' called sabina in Span, and "cedar" in Eng.; 
pdb\ 'flower'; ■qtpoil'eji 'pueblo ruin' <''oyiri 'pueblo', h^i 
'ruin' postpound). "Ho-mayo".^ "Homayo".^ Bandelier uses 
the spelling "Ho-mayo" once and the spelling "Homayo" a 
number of times; he does not give the meaning of the name. 
Hewett evidently copies Bandelier's spelling and name. That 
IIy,poil- is the name of this pueblo ruin is generally known among 
the older San Juan Indians. "Homayo", whatever Tewa form it 
may stand for, is certainly a mistake. San Juan Indians have sug- 
gested To'mdjo, the name of the large mountain [3:11] when 
"Homayo" has been pronounced to them. The sounds might 
easily not be heard, or it might be taken for A by an ear unused to 
Tewa; or "Homaj'o" may be for hy,majo 'good one-seeded juni- 
per' (Ay 'one-seeded juniper'; majo 'good' 'tip-top' 'chief'), 
although none of the San Juan informants had ever heard such a 
name as Ity.majn. Ily.jwi),- is the name for this pueblo ruin current 
at San Juan, and until someone proves that a second name for 
it resembling "Homaj^o" exists, we may remain sceptical. 
'■'' Thi,])<MC qjjvn is an old Tewa pueblo," said a San Juan Indian, 
"companion to Hon'Ui'qijiri [6:21 ]". Another San Juan informant 
volunteered the information that Poscjimu, a hero or god of the 
Tewa, lived at JIujioiTqtpri. This information was given vmder 
such circumstances that it could not be followed up by further ques- 
tioning. Ilnpoil and ILnrul [6:21] are said to lie farthest north 
of all pueblos. The ruin has been described by Bandelier ^ and 
by Hewett^. 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ir, p. 37, 1892. 

2 Ibid., p. 38 et passim; Hewett; General View, p. .597, igo."*; .^nllquities, p. 39, 1906; Communaut^, 
p. W, 19(18. 

3 Bjindelier, op. cit., pp. 41-42. 
< Antiquities, No. 36, 1906. 

S75.S4°— 29 ETH— 16 11 



162 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. anm. 29 

[6:19] San Juan ]Tn,p<ih)keui 'one-seeded juniper flower height' 
{lllijM/bl-, see [6:ls]; Jce-'t 'height'). This designates the height 
or mesa on which the pueblo ruin [6:18] lies. 

[6:20] San Juan IIy,p(^Ki/in\i 'one-seeded juniper flower arroyo' 
{ll'lijxibl., see [6:18]; /niit, 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[6:21] San Juan IIowUPoj]ir\k,jl 'gray point pueblo ruin' {lio a))so- 
luteforniof /w«n''*, Aow)i??y meaning 'grayness' 'gray'; toUi 'pro- 
jecting corner' 'point', referring to the projecting corner or point 
of mesa just below the confluence of Comanche Creek and Ojo 
CalienteCi'eek, on wliich the pueblo ruin stands; \i)w\keji 'pueblo 
ruin' <''orjii'i 'pueblo', kejl 'ruin' postpound). With the use of 
the absolute form of the color adjective in this name, that is, of 
ho instead of /tiiwP\ howiijj', compare ppq instead of p^qwi'*, 
pPqinijf in the name [4:1] and pusl instead of pos!ici'\ poshrivf, 
in the name [6:24]. The forms ho and posi do not occur in 
Tewa as it is spoken at the present time, but they are understood. 
They are old names and correspond to the noun forms of other 
color words still in use, as p/' 'redness' as compared with pPP', 
pi'iyj' 'red'. The pueblo gets its name, according to San Juan 
informants, from the 7ujijj' hovu"' 'gi'ay earth' (naijf 'earth'; 
howP^ h<)wy)f 'gray'), of which the 2/'i.<?' or point of land on which 
it stands is composed. The ground all about this place has, in 
fact, a gra J' color. "Ho-ui-ri".' "Houiri'".- Bandelier does not 
give the etymology. " Hoiuri".' Hewett evidently copies spell- 
ing and name from Bandelier. 

This ruin is said to have been an old Tewa pueblo, companion 
to IlippdbV oijioilej I [6:1SJ. ' 

[6:22] HowWikedi^ RowUl- 'gray point height' 'gray point' (ii^z«/^», 
see [6:21]; l-^',^/ 'height'). 

This is a low mesa projection about as high as [6:19]. 

[6:23] HowUikqhu'u 'gray point barranca arroyo' {IlowUi, see [6:21]; 
l-okuu 'barranca arroyo' <l'q 'barranca', hii'u 'large groove' 
'arroyo'). 

This is an arroyo, a hundred feet or so broad, which joins Ojo 
Caliente Creek just south of IloiouP qywil-ej i [6:21]. Its lower 
course runs straight toward Fosipiyf'e [6:17], the little mountain 
which stands west of Ojo Caliente Creek. 

[6:24] (1) Posipojii, Postpohvi 'greenness spring' 'greenness pool' 
{poul old absolute form of posiwi^ poslwyjf 'moss-greenness' 
'moss-green', this adjective being applied to water, stain, paint, 
and things stained or painted which have this color, while of 
ordinary green and blue colors tsqijioie is used; pojii 'spring' 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, pp. 22,37, 1892. 

2 Ibid., p. 37, et passim; Hewett: General View, p. 597, 1905; Antiquities, p. 40. 1906. 

3 Hewett, Communaut^s, p. 41, 1908. 

* For description see Bandelier, op. cit., pp. 39-10; Hewett, Antiquities, No. 37, 1906. 



HARRINCTON] PLACE-NAMES 163 

<po 'water', pi 'to issue'; pokw\ <po 'water', hoi unex- 
plained). With the use of the absolute form of the color adjec- 
tive in this name — that is, of po.^i instead of posnoP', posiwiijf — ■ 
compare pPq 'pinkness' 'pink' in the name [4:1 J instead of 
pPqiri'', ppqwiijf and ho 'g-rayness' 'gray' in the name [6:21] 
instead of lioioP'-, howiyf. As to the forms posi, pp(l and ho see 
[6:21] above. The etymology of posi {posiwP^, poslwiyf) is un- 
known to the modern Tewa, but it may be that it was origi- 
nall}' compounded of po 'water' and si 'to stink', which ap- 
pears, for instance, in n4sisy, 'it stinks' (nq, 'it'; si 'to stink' 
propound; sy, 'to smell' intransitive, said of agreeable or dis- 
agreeable smells), and that pos/' oiiginalh' referred to stinking 
water, which frequentlj^ has a moss-green color. This is, of 
course, only a conjecture, and in the absence of records of 
ancient Tewa language can not be proved. At the present 
time 'stinking water' is rendered in Tewa by posisy,^P' {po 
'water'; .s/sy'/'*' 'stinking' <si 'to stink,' which appears only 
prepounded to certain verbs, sy, 'to smell', intransitive, said of 
agreeable or disagreeable smells; 'i'' locative and adjective- 
forming postfix), and the -sy-- of this expression can not be 
omitted. The reason whj" this name fw*/ 'moss-greenness' was 
applied to Ojo Caliente hot springs by the ancient Tewa is easily 
discovered. "On account of the high temperature of the water 
of the stream, and of the Jwt springs ixsuing from the ncd'ed rock 
and covering them with an emerald-green stain, they were not 
only objects of curiosity to the native, but, like everything he 
does not comprehend, objects of veneration, of worship." ' 

The italics are the writer's. The green stain mentioned may still 
be seen where the hot mineral water oozes from the ground on 
the banks of the little arroyo just west of the bathhouse. 
The sacred old green-edged pool has been changed and obscured 
by building the bathhouse over it. Bandelier and Hewett have 
recorded a number of times, in Bandelier's spelling, the name of 
the pueblo ruin [6:25], which is derived from that of the springs; 
see under [6:25]. None of the other place-names begiiming with 
posi- have, so far as is known, been recorded or published, nor has 
the etymology of Posi been ascertained or published. Bande- 
lier has "Pose" or "P^ho-se" in all of his forms (see under [6:25]), 
the e of which can be explained only as a result of defective 
hearing or of confusion of this name with the name of the culture 
hero Fo.y^/'cmw, Bandelier's "Pose-3'emo", etc. It is needless to 
say that the place-names beginning with Posi- and the name of 
the mythical person Posejemu, alias Poseqivebe, have nothing in 
common except that they happen to begin with the word po 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, pp. 46-47, 1892. 



164 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ann. 29 

'water'. The. .springs give rise to (lie names of [6:7], [6:16], 
[6:17], [6:'2i>], [6:26]. See [6:0jo Caiiente region], page 165, 
where names for the Ojo Caiiente region in the Taos, Picuris, 
and Cochiti languages, based on names of the spring which were 
not recorded, are given. 

(2) Eng. Ojo Caiiente hot springs, or more properly Ojo 
Caiiente si)ring. (<Spau.). = Span. (8). 

(3) Span. Ojo Caiiente 'hot spring'. =Eng. (2). 

This hot spring is situated 25 miles west of Taos and 50 
miles north of Santa Fe, New Mexico, and about 12 miles from 
Barranca station [8:70] on the Denver and Rio Grande Railway, 
from which point a daily line of stages runs to the spring. 
Altitude 6,300 feet.' 

The hot spring is situated about 300 feet from the mouth of 
a small arroyo or gulch, which starts beneath Ojo Caiiente 
Mountain [6:16] and discharges into Ojo Caiiente Creek [6:7] 
from the west about 2 miles south of the junction therewith of 
Comanche Creek [6:12]. The spring is situated where this 
arroyo emerges from the mesa. Mineral water at a temperature 
of from 1*0° to 122° F. oozes out or spurts forth from the earth 
at this point, mostlj' on the southern bank of the arroyo, hut cov- 
ering a considei'able area.- The old pool, over which the bath- 
house is now built, was also on the south side of the arroyo. 

This greenish pool of hot water was one of the most sacred places 
known to the Tewa. According to a San Ildefonso informant, 
when the Tewa lived in the Ojo Caiiente region and Posejemu, 
the culture hero was still among them, he used at times to enter 
this pool. A Santa Clara Indian says that Postji'miis grand- 
mother lived and still lives in this pool; that Posejemu comes from 
the south to visit her one day each year, passing in some way 
near Santa Clara Pueblo when he makes this journe3^ Sacred 
pools such as this were l)elieved to be the dwelling places of 
mythic beings and openings between this world and ^oj)atiu^e 
' the under world ' through which spirits freely pas.sed. ''Joseph's 
Ojo Caiiente."^ "The Hot Springs belonging to the Honorable 
Antonio Joseph." * Mr. Joseph died several years ago, and the 
spring is now in charge of his son. 

San Juan informants said that the Tewa drink and probably 
also formerly drank the water of this hot spring. Bandelier 
writes: "It is not unlikely that superstition prevented the 
ancient Tehuas of Ojo Caiiente from using the warm waters of 
its stream for irrigation."^ The San Juan informants knew of 

1 Wheeler gives the altitude of Ojo Caiiente as 6,292 feet. 

2 For a geological description of the springs, see Lindgren, Graton, and Gordon, the Ore 
Deposits of New Mexico, Professional Paper 68, U. S. Geol. Snrv., pp. 72-74, 1910. 

■'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 22, 1892. 
< Ibid., p. 3fi. 
'Ibid., p. 47. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 165 

no such superstition. See [6:Ojo Caliente region], below, and 
nameless mineral spring 18 miles east of Abiquiu [3:36], [6:un- 
located]. 
[6:0j() Caliente region] (1) PosPP' 'at the greenness', referring to 
Ojo Caliente hot springs [6:2-1]' (Posi see [6:24]; T' locative and 
adjective-forming postfix). This name refers to the whole region 
about Ojo Caliente hot springs [6:21], from which the Tewa claim 
that they originally came. For spellings of Piwi- by Bandelier 
and Ilewett applied to the pueblo ruin [6:25] see under [6:25]. 
For the etvmology and origin of Posi- see [6:21]. 

(2) Taos Faludbd 'at the hot water' {pa- 'water'; IM 'hot', 
cognate with su in Tewa fiuwa 'hot'; M locatrive). =Picuris (3), 
Cochiti (1), Eng. (6), Span. (7). 

(3) Picuris "Paxluma",' probably a spelling for a form iden- 
tical with the Taos form given above. =Taos (2), Cochiti (1), 
Eng. (6), Span. (T). 

(1) Cochiti Kdwatfatsse. 'at the hot spring' (kdwa 'hot', said of 
water; ifya 'spring or issuing'; fo^ locative). = Taos (2), Picuris 
(3), Eng. (6), Span. (7). 

(5) J icarilla Apache '"''oho, 'Ojo Caliente '".- 

(6) Eng. Ojo Caliente region. (<Span.). = Taos (2), Picuris 
(3), Cochiti (1), Span. (7). 

(7) Span, region de Ojo Caliente 'hot spring region'. =Taos 
(2), Ficuris (3), Cochiti (1), Eng. (5). 

The Tewa always refer to this region as their cradleland. Cf. 
[6:7], [6:1(3], [6:17], [6:21], [6:2.5], [6:26], and nameless mineral 
springs IS miles east of Abiquiu [3:36], [6:unlocated]. 
[6:25] PoxPoijwiki'ji, Posi pok loiffehe'^P oy ivikcj I 'greenness pueblo ruin' 
'greenness pool height pueblo ruin' {Posi-, Posipohri, see [6:21]; 
ge 'down at' 'over at'; he-ti 'height'; 'oywikeji 'pueblo ruin' 
<^qr)ioi 'pueblo', Jieji 'ruin' postpound). The form PosPqywige 
{ge 'down at' 'over at') is evidently the form on which the 
spellings quoted below are based " Pose-uing-ge".^ "Pose- 
uingge".* "Village of Po-se or P'ho-se".^ "Pose Uingge".' 
"Poseuinge or Posege".'' The Tewa informants state that no 
such form as Posige or "Posege" is ever used, and that such a 
form is not correct. "Poseuinge".* 

The ruin has been described b}' Bandelier," and by Hewett.^" 
Posejemu, the Tewa culture hero, dwelt at this village and at 
IIy,j)()bl''qr)wi [6:18] and Howi-iPoriivi [6:21] according to a tra- 

' Spinden, Kcuris notes, MS., 1910. • Kid., p. 43. 

» Goddard, Jicarilla Apache Texts, p. 101, 1912. ' Hewett, Antiquities, p. 38, 1906. 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. i, p. 310, 1890; pt. « Hewett, Communautc^s, p. 41, 1908. 

ir, p. 22, 1892. » Bandelier, op. cit., pt. ii, pp. 43-46. 

• Ibid., p. 37 et passim. w Antiquities, No. 35, 1906. 
» Ibid., p. 42. 



166 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 20 

dition current at all the Tewa pueblos. "He [Posejeinu] is 
represented as having dwelt in the now ruined pueblo of 
Pose-uing-ge, at the hot springs belonging to the Hon. Antonio 
Joseph".' 
[6:26] (1) Posihi'u 'greenness town' {Posi-, see [6:24]; buht, 'town'). 

(2) Eng. Ojo Caliente town. (< Span.). =Span. (3). 

(;3) Span. Ojo Caliente 'hot spring'. =Eng. (2). 

Ojo Caliente town is east of the creek [6:7], opposite the hot 
spring [6:24]. 
[6: La Cueva region] (1) J/a/nj.uu'./d 'owl point', referring to the 
projecting corners or points of Ifahy.sinnx mountain {mahy, 
'owl', veievvmg to Mahy,sinnx [Q:&\\widi ' projecting corner or 
point'). 

(2) Eng. La Cueva region. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span, region de La Cueva 'region of [6:28]'. =Eng. (2). 
[6:28] (1) San Juan 3Iq/iy,wiJi'hvspJcubiiu, lIahy,toiiibu'u 'owl 

point Mexican town' 'owl point town' {3Iahy,vjiii, see [6: La 
Cueva region]; IcwseJcu 'Mexican', of obscure etymology; hii'u 
' town '). 

(2) Eng. La Cueva town. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. La Cueva ' the cave', referring to the caves [6:30] and 
[6:31]. =Eng.(l). 

A short distance north of the arroyo [6:29] stands the bouse of 
Florentin Gallegos, the most southerly house of La Cueva settle- 
ment. 
[6:2y] (1) San Juan MqTi'iiwUikqhuHu 'owl point barranca arroyo' 
{Mqli^wlil, see [6: La Cueva region], above; kqJiiCu 'barranca 
arroyo' <Tcq 'barranca', hiCu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

This arroyo has water throughout the year in its lower course, 
this condition being the result of the presence of a number of 
small springs. 
[6:30], [6:31] (1) San Juan Temapo 'Keres holes' {Tema 'Keres', 
applied to the Indians of Cochiti, Santo Domingo, San Felipe, 
Santa Ana, Sia, Laguna, and Acoma pueblos; p'o 'hole' 'cave'). 

(2) San Juan j\lqhy,uii'/'p'o 'caves of La Cueva region' 
{Mqhy,wi.ii, see [6: La Cueva region], above; ^*o 'hole' 'cave'). 

The cliff in which these caves are situated is about 25 feet high. 
The caves are tunnel-shaped, have a level floor, and are high 
enough for a man to stand erect in them. The northern cave 
extends into the cliff 25 or 30 paces; its innermost recesses are 
dark owing to a curvature which the cave makes. The openings 
are a few feet above the creek bottom. The interior surface 
of the caves is smooth and flesh-colored. From these two caves 
the Tcmaiowa, ' Keres people', are said to have come forth when 

I Bandelier, Final Report, pt. I, p. 310, 1890. 



HARRixGTox] PLACE-NAMES 167 

they first entered this world, while the Tewa orio-inated in the 
lake near Alamosa, Colorado (see p. 568). Notiiiii<r further con- 
cerning this advent of the Keresan people could be learned. 

[6:32] Smooth grassy bottom, not mai'shy. The land belongs to Mrs. 
Maria de la Luz Lucero. 

[6:83] (1) San Juan JlqhinoUipotsa 'marsh of La Cueva region' 
{JIqhy,wi.ii\ see [6:La Cueva region]; potsa 'marsh' < po 'water', 
tsa 'to cut through'). 

(2) Eng. La Cueva marsh. (<Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cienega de La Cueva 'marsh of the cave', referring to 
[6:2S] settlement. =Eng. (2). 

This marsh is found in two places as indicated on the sheet. The 
ground is grass-grown, soft, and boggy. Curiously enough, in 
front of the caves [6:30] and [6:31] and the little cave [6:36] there 
is firm grass-grown ground. According to a San Juan informant 
the land west of the creek, opposite and below this marsh, was also 
marshy when he was a boy, but has gradually become dry and 
sand3% 

[6:34:] This fence divides the land of Mrs. Maria de la Luz Lucero on 
the north from that of Mrs. Dolorita Menguarez on the south. 

[6:35] Smooth grassy bottom, not marshy. The land belongs to Mrs. 
Dolorita Menguarez. 

[6:36] A small cave is situated in the cliff at this place. 

[6:37] Remains of an old stone wall are seen here on the slope above 
the cliff. Whether this was made by Indians or b}^ Mexicans was 
not ascertained. 

[6:38] A small stream flows down a gully in the cliff" at this place; its 
source is evidently a spring. 

[6:39] A second ledge or cliff, 25 feet higher than the first. 

[6:40], [6:41] San Juan MqhinoUipohwi 'owl point pools' (J!/gA^wi^i, 
see [6:La Cueva region], page 166; pokwi 'pool' < po 'water', 
hini unexplained). 

According to the San Juan informants these two pools were as 
saci'ed to the ancient Tewa as was the pool [6:24] at Ojo Caliente, 
but the water in them was cool, not warm. The pool farther from 
the creek is now choked with sand. 

[6:42] San Juan Mqliii.ividi'' oh\C e 'little hills at owl point' {Mah^wiii, 
see [6:La Cueva I'egion], page 166; ''ol'u 'hill'; '<? diminutive). 

Unlocated 

Span. Falda 'slope at the rear of a hilF. 

A Mexican settlement on Petaca Creek [6:4] situated below [6:3]. 
Span. Servilleta Vieja 'old Servilleta. 

A Mexican settlement on Petaca Creek a short distance below 
Petaca [6:1]. See [8:8], which gives the approximate location; 
see also [8:9] and [6:4]. 



168 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [exit. anx. U'!) 

Soda Springs. "In the same county [Taos County], 3 miles north of 
Ojo Caliente, are soda springs. " ' 

Soda Springs. "There are . . . soda springs 4 miles southeast of 
Petaca, in the same county [Eio Arriba County]".' 

Old Spanish silver mine. "Traces of such ancient mining for silver 
are found ... at a prospect near Ojo Caliente".^ 

Nameless mineral springs 18 miles east of Abiquiu [3:3(5]. "There 
are mineral springs 18 miles east of Abiquiu in Rio Arriba 
Count}'. "^ This would place the springs somewhere near Ojo 
Caliente hot springs [6:^1], q. v. Perhaps the latter are re- 
ferred to. 

[7] LOWER O.JO CALIENTE SHEET 

This sheet (map 7) shows a portion of lower Ojo Caliente Creek 
and adjacent countr}-. The southeastern part of the area is occu- 
pied by the great Black Mesa, or Canoa Mesa [7:16]. Two ruined 
Tewa pueblos are located on this sheet. 

[7:1] San Juan Ny^tekq 'ashes estufa barranca' {N\ite^e, see [7:2]; l-q 
'barranca'). This arroyo is named after the pueblo ruin [7:2]. 

[7:2] San Juan iVyite'^ywiX-^'i 'ashes estufa pueblo ruin' {ny, 'ashes'; 
i;t;'e 'estufa'; "'qywi'kejl 'pueblo ruin' < 'g??wi 'pueblo', Iceji 'ruin' 
postpound). The connection in which the name was originally 
applied is forgotten l)y the Tewa of to-day. So far as they know, 
it is the ancient name of the place. 

The ruin lies between the main wagon road which leads up the 
valley, and the creek, being about 500 feet from the road and a 
couple of hundred feet from the creek. A modern irrigation 
ditch cuts through the ruin. Four cottonwood trees stand beside 
this ditch. The writer picked up a glistening black potsherd at 
the ruin, which an Indian informant said had been prepared with 
pokienfy, from [6:2]. The pueblo was of adobe, and the ruins 
are now in the form of low mounds. The land on which it stands 
was said by Mexicans who live near by to have belonged to Mr. 
Antonio Joseph. The land adjoining the ruin on the south 
belongs to Mr. Juan Antonio Archuleta. There is a small grove 
of cottonwood trees about 300 yards north of the ruin. This ruin 
marks the northern extent of Tfug.x' live. 

[7:3] (1) 77«9«'/««e 'place of the Falco nisus' (/m*/^ Talco nisus'; 
'iwe locative). =Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng.Gavilan settlement. (< Span.). =Tewa(l), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Gavilan 'Falco nisus'. =Tewa (1), Eng. (2). 

This name is applied to the locality extending on both sides of the 
creek from [7:2] to [7:8]. Most of the Mexican houses are on the 
eastern side of the creek. There is no plaza. It was at Tfi<g.:t''iwe 

iFro»tandWalter,TheLandofSunshine,aHandbook . . . of New Mexico, etc., p. 173, Santa Fe, 1906. 

nbi(i.,p. 177. 

^ Ore Deposita of New Mexico, p. 17, 1910. 



MAP 7 
LOWER OJO CALIENTE REGION 



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MAP 7 
LOWER OJO CALIENTE REGION 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 169 

that Posejemu, the Tewa culture hero, had his contest with Jon, 
the god of the Mexicans and Americans, according to a Tewa 
myth. Whether the Tewa name is a translation of the Span, 
name, or whether the opposite is true, could not be ascertained. 

[7:4] (1) Tfug.s^'' iwehmje, TJuQ.s^^iwi6kii!e 'Falco nisus heights' 
'Falco nisus hills' {Tfugse'iwe, see [7:3]; kioaje 'height'; -ohu 
'hill'; 'e diminutive). 

(2) San Juan N^tehwaje, ]\\te''oku''e 'ashes estufa heights' 
'ashes estuf a hills' (iVy^fe'e, see [7:2]; Zv«y^ 'height'; 'o^-m 'hill'; 
'e diminutive). 

A San Juan informant insisted that these hills ai'e not called by 
the same name as [7:5], although one cannot understand why they 
should not be so called. 

[7:5] San Juan Tsipxyge'ol-u^e 'little hills beyond the basalt', referring 
to [7:16]; tsi 'basalt', veievrmg to Tsil-waje 'basalt height' [7:16]; 
'ol-\i' 'hill'; '(? diminutive). 

[7:6] Tfugse''iwepo'o 'water mill at Falco nisus place' {Tfugx'hne, see 
[7:o]; po\i 'water mill' </>r^; 'water', 'w 'metate'). 

This Mexican water mill stands on the west side of the creek 
slightly north of the spot where [7:8] enters. 

[7:7] Tfiigpcko/iiiu, TJugse' iwehqhu^i ' barranca arroyo at Falco nisus 
place' {Tfugse, TJnQx'iwe, see [7:3]; l-qhuhi 'barranca arroyo' 
<kq 'barranca', Aw'w 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[7:8] (1) San Juan Kij,l'ahu\i 'skunk-bush corral arroyo' (^y 'skunk- 
bush'; Fa 'corral' 'fence'; hiCu ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). Per- 
haps a translation of the Span. name. 

(2) Lemita Arroyo. (<Span.). = Span. (3). Cf . Tewa (1). 

(3) Span. Arroyo de las Lemitas 'skuuk-bush arroyo'. =Eng. 
(2). Cf. Tewa (1). 

This small arroyo is less than three-fourths of a mile north of 
[7:11]. The most southerly' houses of Gavilan settlement [7:3] 
are north of this arro}'o. 

[7:9] Ojo Caliente Creek, see [6:7]. 

[7:1(»] About 200 yards east of the creek and about a quarter of a mile 
north of the mouth of [7:11] is a peculiar figure, like the ground- 
plan of two squarish rooms with corners touching. It is outlined 
on the valley bottom by small stones arranged one next to another 
so as to form lines. This structure is at the foot of the low mesa. 
Neither Indians from San Juan nor Mexicans who live at Gavilan 
[7:3] could explain the origin or significance of this figure. 

[7:1] (11) Eng. Buena Vista Arroyo. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Caiiada de la Buena Vista 'good view arroyo'. 
= Fng. (1). 

This name was furnished by Mr. Antonio Domingo Hivera of 
Gavilan [7:3]. The arroyo is less than three-quarters of a mile 
south of [7:8] and 710 paces north of the pueblo ruin [7:19]. 



170 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [btii. axn. 29 

[7:12] Nameless arroyo. This is a large and long gulch, without 
v;ator except just after rains. The main trail connecting San 
Juan Pueblo with El llito passes through this arroyo. 

[7:13] San Juan Ponfipa^°''ke^ii, Ponfipa^'^kwaje 'height of the beds 
of plumed arroyo shrub' {Ponfipa"', see [7:14]; Tc&ii. I'waje 
'height"). 

This is the height or low mesa on which the pueblo ruin [7:14] 
stands. 

[7:14] San Juan PonfipcC°lceriqriw\kejl, Ponfipa'Hnoaje'q'igwikeji 
'pueblo ruin of the plumed arroyo shrub beds height' {ponfi 
'plumed arroyo shrul)' 'Fallugia paradoxa acuminata', called by 
Mexicans living in the Tewa country, pofiile; j»rt'° 'bed' 'mat- 
tress' 'sleeping-mat'; KeJ>!, l-waje 'height'; ''orjwikeji 'pueblo 
ruin' K^qijwi 'pueblo', /t'eji 'ruin' postpound). Bandelier's 
"P'o-nyiPa-kuen" is almost certainly his spelling for PonfiptC'^- 
hwaje: "The Tehuas claim Sepilue [4:8] as one of their ancient 
settlements, but I failed to obtain any folk-lore concerning it. I 
was also informed that another ruin existed near by, to which 
the Indians of San Juan give the name of P'o-nyi Pa-kuen. It 
might be the ruin of which I was informed as lying about 7 miles 
farther west, near the road to Abiquiu. My informant told me 
that near that ruin there were traces of an ancient acequia".^ 
The supposition expressed in the next to the last sentence quoted 
is evidently erroneous. It is not clear from Bandelier's text 
whether the "traces of an ancient acequia" which he mentions 
are near "P'o-nyi Pa-kuen" or near the ruin 7 miles west of 
"Sepiiue". No traces of an ancient ditch were noticed near [7:14]. 
The circumstances under which the name Pojifipa'°'h'diy^»s origi- 
nally given were probably forgotten long ago. Large mounds 
lying on the mesa top mark the site of the ancient Tewa village. 

[7:L5] San Juan Ponfipa''"'k&ilkq]iuu^Ponj'\pa^"]iimjekohuu 'barranca 
arroj'o of the plumed arroyo shrub beds height' {Pcmfipa/'^hJi, 
Ponfipd'H-uiaje, see [7:14]; Iq/iu'i^ ' barranca arroyo ' <Z*o 'bar- 
ranca', hii'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

This is an arroj'o of considerable size, the first large arroyo 
joining Ojo Caliente Creek north of the northern end of TsU'iraJe 
[7:16]. A Mexican informant who lives at Gavilan [7:3] said that 
this arroyo has no Mexican name, but that he would call it Arroyo 
del Pueblo 'pueblo arro3'o', referring to [7:14]. 

[7:16] San Juan Tsikivaje, see [13:1]. 

[7:lower Ojo Caliente region] San Juan Tsipxr/ge, Tsihwajepxyge 
'beyond the basalt' 'beyond the basalt height', referringto [7:16] 
((^s^ 'basalt'; ^-/^aye 'heiglit"; p«??^<3' beyond'). This name refers 
to the whole region northwest of [7:16]. See [7:4], [7:5], [7:17], 
[7:19], [7:20], [7:22]. 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 53, 1892. 



HARRiNi:TnNl PLACE-NAMES 171 

[7:17] San Juan Tsipx)jgetehtho.ii 'cottonwood grove beyond the 
basalt', refeiTinjf to|7:16] (Asi 'basalt'; piey[/e 'bej'ond'; fe 'cot- 
tonwood' 'Populus wislizeni'; ka 'denseness' 'dense' 'forest'; 
bou,i 'roundish pile' 'grove'). 

This small group of cottonwood trees is west of the creek and 
southwest of [7:li]. 

[7:18] (1) San Juan Tutsambe/nPii 'peas arroyo' (tutsqmbe 'pea'< 
tu 'bean', tsQijj" 'blueness' 'blue' 'greenness' 'green', absolute 
form of tsdywx of same meaning, be denoting roundish shape; 
Am'?* 'large groove' 'arroyo'). (<Span.). =Eng. ('2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Arvejon Arroyo. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (.3). 

(3) Span. Arroyo Arvejon 'peas arroyo'. =Tewa (1), Eng. (2). 
[7:19] San Juan T^ipxtj^e'qsx^P' 'at the alkali be3'ond the basalt', 

referring to [7:16] {t-si 'basalt'; peeyge 'beyond'; 'a*-^ 'alkali' 
<'a 'alkali', sx 'pepperiuess'; T* locative and adjective-forming 
postfix). 

This is a small alkali flat. 
[7:20] San Juan Txipicyfjepotsa 'marsh beyond the basalt', referring 
to [7:16] {t»i 'basalt'; pxyge 'beyond'; potsa 'marsh'<po 'water', 
tsa 'to cut through'). 

This is a small alkaline marsh west of the creek [7:9]. 
[7:21] (1) Eng. Ranchitos del Coyote settlement. (< Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Ranchitos del Coyote 'little farms of the coyote.' 
= Eng. (1). 

This name is applied by Mexicans vaguely to an area a couple 
of miles in length. The settlement consists at present of a couple 
of deserted Mexican houses at the place indicated by the number, 
near where the trail from Estaca [10:3] descends the mesa [7:16]. 
[7:22] (1) San Juan Tsipceijgebu'u 'corner beyond the basalt', refer- 
ring to [7:16] {tsi 'basalt'; _p^/;^t^ 'beyond'; bii^ii, 'large low 
roundish place'). 

(2) T^eir/'bu^u 'eagle gap corner', referring to [7:24] {Tsewl'', see 
[7:24]; bu'u 'large low roundish place'). 

This large low area is formed partly by a concave curve which 
the mesa [7:16] makes at this locality, partly by the receding of 
the small hills [7:oj. The place is arid and uninhabited. 
[7:23] Tsewlkwaje, Tsewike^i ' ea,g\e gup height' {TsewPi, see [7:24]; 
I>'waje, he.'/' 'height'). 

This round knob is of the same height as the adjacent mesa-top 
[7:16] and is really only a detached portion of the latter separated 
from it by an eroded gap [7:24]. The little mountainous knob is 
ver}' striking in appearance, and appears to be well known to 
many Tewa in the various villages. It can be seen from a great 
distance at many points west and north of it, but is not visible 
from any of the Tewa villages now inhabited. It would not be 
surprising if a shrine were discovered on its top. 



172 ETHNOGEOGBAPIIY OF TTIE TEWA INDIANS [ktii. ann. 29 

[7:24J Tunoi'l 'eagle gap' (foe 'eagle'; loPi 'gap' 'passageway'). 

The gap is at its southeastern extremity porha])s only al)Out 

25 feet deep. It separates the well-known knob [7:i!3J from the 

body of the mesa [7:16]. 
[7: '25] Jvfapo, see [9:17].' 
[7 : yO] Tsewipo, see ] 10 : 3]. 
[7:27] Qwahe^i, see [13:3]. 

[8] TAOS SHEET 

This sheet (map 8) shows, roughly speaking, the countrj- of the 
Taos and Picuris Indians, which constitutes the extreme northeastern 
corner of the Pueblo territory. The attempt has been to locate on 
this sheet only those places which are known to the Tewa. Only a few 
Taos and Picuris names of important places are given below to supple- 
ment the Tewa, Eng., and Span, names. Most Tewa Indians have 
visited Taos and Picuris and are familiar with many if not nearly all 
of the places named on this sheet. The Taos and Picuris names for 
places in this area are however very numerous, and would require a 
special and prolonged study. Pueblo ruins exist in this area in great 
number, but, so far as is known, none is claimed by the Tewa as a 
village of their ancestors. For information about the relationship of 
the Taos and Picuris to the Tewa and other tribes see Names of 
Tribes and Peoples, pages 573-78. 



1] Cangilon Mountain, see [1:35]. 
2] El Rito Creek, see [4:3]. 
.3] El Puto Mountains, see [4:1]. 

■4] (1) Kipijjf 'prairie-dog mountains' (I.-i 'prairie-dog'; piyj" 
'mountains'). =Taos (2), Eng. (3), Span. (1). 

(2) Taori Kit'Upianend 'prairie-dog dwelling-place mountains' 
{Jil 'prairie-dog'; t'y, 'to dweir cognate with Tewa fa 'to dwell'; 
plan- 'mountain'; end noun ending). =Tewa (1), Eng. (3), 
Span. (1). 

(3) Eng. Tusas Mountains, Tusas Hills. (<Span.). =Tewa 
(l),Taos (2), Span. (3). 

(i) Span. Cerritos de las Tusas 'prairie-dog mountains'. 
= Tewa (1), Taos (2), Eng. (3). 
Cf. Petaca Creek, Tusas Creek [6:4], and Tusas settlement [8:6]. 
[8:5] Petaca Creek, Tusas Creek, see [6:4]. 

[8:6] (1) Kibv:u 'prairie-dog town' (Av' 'pi-airie-dog'; J^'if 'town'). 
= Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Tusas settlement. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Tusas 'prairie-dogs". =Tewa (1), Eng. (2). 

Cf. Petaca Creek, Tusas Creek [6:4], and Tusas Mountains [8:4]. 



MAP 8 
TAOS REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 8 



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TAOS REGION 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 173 

[8:7] Petaca settlement, see [6:1]. 

[8:8] (1) En^. Old Servilletii. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(■J) Span. Servilleta Vieja 'Old Napkin'. =Eng. (1). 
Before the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad was built Servil 
leta was a Mexican settlement situated on Petaca Creek [6:4] 
somewhat below Petaca settlement [6:1]. Since the building of the 
railroad Sei-vilieta proper has been situated on the railroad; see 
[8:9]. The former location is distinguished by calling it Old Ser- 
villeta, Servilleta Vieja. Old Servilleta has not been exactly 
located; therefore it is not shown on sheet [6] but is mentioned 
under [6:unlocated]. The writer is inclined to think that Old 
Servilleta is identical with [6:o], q. v. 
[8:9] (1) Eng. Servilleta town. (<Span). = Span. (2). 

(-2) Span. Servilleta 'napkin'. =Eng. (1). See [8:8]. 
The route commonly taken to Taos Pueblo is that from Ser- 
villeta Station. It is from Servilleta Station that Taos Pueblo is 
most frequently reached. 
[8:10] (1) Eng. No Agua settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2) 

(2) Span. No Agua 'no water'. =Eng. (1). 

[8:11] (1) Jvi/ira/ciipo/iu^n, I\/uicaKu''iiupohu\t 'mountain-sheep rock 
water arroj'o' {Kuwnlcu, see [8:12]; ■pohu''u 'arro^'o which carries 
water' <po 'water', hu'u 'large groove' 'arroj'o'). This is the 
old Tcwa name, still in common use. =Taos (2). 

()i) Taos KKwaqluijualuTK'i 'mountain-sheep rockarroyo' (Jcuwa 
'mountain-sheep'; qlu 'stone': quiilu- 'arroyo'; nA noun end- 
ing). = Tewa (1). 

(3) Eng. Tres Piedras Arroyo. (<Span.). =Span. (5). 

(4) Span. Arroyo de las Orejas 'ear arroyo', referring to Ore- 
jas Mountain [8:37]. This is the only name for the arroyo cur- 
rent in Span. Neither in Tewa nor Taos, nor in English, so far 
as is known, is this arroyo ever referred to I)}" the name of the 
mountain [8:37], as in Span. 

(5) Span. Arroyo de las Tres Piedras, Arroyo Tres Piedras 
'three stone arroyo', referring to [8:12]. This name is used infre- 
cjuently if at all in Span. 

The region whicii this arroyo drains is very barren. 
[8:12] (1) Kuwalcu 'mountain-sheep rocks' {l'iiir(t 'mountain-sheep'; 
iu 'stone'). = Taos (2). 

(2) Ivmoaqlund 'mountain-sheep rocks' (Z7«/w 'mountain-sheep'; 
qlu- 'stone'; 7id noun postfix denoting 2+ plural, the correspond- 
ing noun postfix denoting the singular being nu). =Tewa (1). 

(3) Eng. Tres Piedras rocks. (<Span.). = Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Tres Piedras 'three rocks'. =Eng. (3). 

These two or three large rocks are just west of Tres Piedras set- 
tlement [8:13]. Perhaps tlic? Tewa translation of the Span, name, 



174 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS fi.TU. ann. 29 

wliirli would he Pojiktc 'three rocks'' (poje 'three'; ka 'stone'), 
is ill use in addition to the old and commonly employed Tewa 
name given above. 
[8:13] (1) Kuwakul''^ 'at the mountain-sheep rocks' {Kuwalcu, see 
[8:12]; 'i''^ locative and adjective-forming posttix). = Taos (2). 

(2) Taos Kitwaqlufa, Kuwa<fiuhd 'down at the mountain-sheep 
rocks' 'up at the mountain-sheep rocks' {Kuwrujlu-, see [8:12]; 
^'d 'down at' 'over at'; 5a 'up at'). =Tewa (1). 

(3) Eng. Tres Piedras settlement, Tres Piedi-as region. 
(<Span.). =Span. (4). 

(1) Span. Tres Piedras, rejion de las Tres Piedras 'three rocks', 
referring to [8:12]. 

Taos is sometimes reached from Tres Piedras instead of from 
Servilleta[8:lt]. 
[8:11] (1) Eng. Caliente station. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Caliente 'hot'. =Eng. (1). 

[8:15] (1) Eng. Montuoso Mountain. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Cerro Montuoso 'wooded mountain'. =Eng. (1). 
[8:16] (1) Eng. San Cristobal Mountain. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Cerro San Cristobal 'St. Christopher Mountain'. 
= Eng. (1). 
[8:17] (1) Eng. Los Taoses Mountain. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Cerro de los Taoses ' mountain of the Taoses ', referring 
to [8:15], [8:53], and [8:58]. =Eng. (2). 
[8:18] (1) Eng. Los Cerros Mountains. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Los Cerros 'the mountains'. =Eng. (1). 
Just north of these mountainous hills, bej'ond the limits of our 
map, there is a Mexican settlement called Los Cerros. 
[8:1'.>] (1) Pipogepo, Pipoge^impo 'red water creek' (pi 'redness' 
'red'; po 'water'; g.e 'down at' 'over at', locative postfix; po 
'water' 'creek'). The name refers to P ik' qndiive, the mineral 
deposit [8:22]. Cf. Eng. (3), Span. (1). 

(2) Taos Ti^.nupaana of obscure etymology (iy.fii'ti unexplained; 
pft- 'water' 'creek' 'river'; a/>d noun posttix). This is the old 
and only Taos name of the stream. 

(3) Eng. Red River, Colorado River. (<Span.). =Span. (1). 
Cf. Tewa (1). 

(1) Span. Rio Colorado, Rito Colorado 'red river' 'red creek'. 
= Eng. (3). Cf. Tewa(l). 

No two maps examined agree in even the principal data concern- 
ing Red River. Cuesta town [8:20], Cabresto Creek [8:21]. and Red 
River town [8:2;>] are ditl'erently located on each map. The data 
given on sheet [8] concerning Red River, and Cuesta and Cabresto 
Creeks are derived from information furnished by Hon. MeUuiuias 



HARRINGTON] 



PLACE-NAMES 175 



Martinez of Taos, New Mexico, wlio is familiar witli tlie Ked 
River region. Certiiin proportions and directions may be incor- 
rect as shown, but Mr. Martinez states tliat the main features are 
correct. 
[8:20] (1) Eng. La Cuesta town. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. La Cuesta 'the slope'. =Eng. (1). Perhaps the name 
refei's to the red slope [8:22]. 
[8:21] (1) Eng. Cabresto Canyon. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Canon Cabresto 'rope canyon'. =Eng. (1). 
[8:22] (1) Pik'o/)d/we, p!pog.e'iiirpo\'wepil'o-ndiu'e 'where the red is 
dug' 'where the red is dug by red water creek' {pi 'redness' 'red 
pigment' 'red'; k'qijf 'to dig'; 'iioe locative; Pipoge'pnpo, see 
[8:1H]). Cf. Taos (2). 

(2) Taos P'alqwiha, Ty,siiifd FalqwiM ' up at the red slope ' ' up 
at the red slope over at [8:19]' {p'al- 'red', referring to the red 
pigment; qwi 'slope'; hd 'up at' locative; Ty,dut-, see [8:19]; 
t'd 'down at' 'over at' locative). 

The red pigment which is found at this place is used bj'^ the 
Taos, Picuris, Tewa, Queres, Jicarilla Apache, Ute, and other 
tribes. Indians belonging to various tribes come here to dig it. 
The pigment is called in Tewa pi 'redness' 'red', in Taos 
p'dljenem4 (derived from p'di 'red'). The Indians use it to paint 
their bodies, also moccasins and various other things. The deposit 
is on a slope between [8:19] and [8:21], about 7 miles from the Rio 
Grande. The soil of the whole locality has a reddish color, but 
there is only one spot where it is found in purity and has a dark- 
red color. A cavelike hole has been formed bj' Indians digging 
at this spot. The presence of this deposit and the red color of the 
soil of the slope have probably given rise to the names [8:19], 
[8:23], and [8:20]. 
[8:2:3] Eng. Red River town. Cf. [8:19] and [8:22]. 
[8:2-1:] (1) 2"awji|iiy./' 'dwell gap mountains' (7" at^i'i, see [8:45]; piyj' 
'mountain'). 

(2) Sandia "Tewipien".^ 

(3) Jemez ./mVo/i?.// 'Taos Mountains' (Ju'ld, see [8:i5]; fiy,/ 
'mountain'). 

(1) Taos Mountains. (< Span.). = Span. (5). 

(5) Span. Sierra de Taos 'Taos Mountains'. =Eng. (2). 
"Taos range". ^ "Sierra de Taos."^ "Mountains of Taos".^ 
This is the general name for the mountains east of Taos. 
[8:25] Eng. Wheeler's Peak.' 

This is northeast of Pueblo Peak [8:40]. 

> A. S. Gatschet, Sandia vocabulary. Bur. Amer. Ethn., MB. No. 1653. 
' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 34, 1892. 
s Ibid., p. 45. 



176 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OP THE TEWA INDIANS [jstu. Ann. 29 

[8:2(;j (1) Taos "•Lupulasita".^ 

(2) Eiig. Kliz!vt)ethtown. 

(3) Span. Moreiia. 

"In 1866 . . . prospectors from Colorado found placer gold 
... at Elizabcthtown in Colfax Countj^, and in that district 
opei'ations on a larger or smaller scale have continued until the 
present day ".^ 
[8:27] (1) Eng. Cebollas Creek. (< Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rito Cebollas, Rito de las Cebollas 'onion Creek'. 
= Eng. (1). 
[8:2S] Rio Grande. See Rio Grande [Large Features: 3], p. 100. 
[8:2it] (1) Eng. San Crist61)al Creek. (< Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rito de San Cristobal 'St. Christopher Creek'. 
= Eng. (1). Cf. [8:30]. 
[8:30] (1) Eng. San Cristobal settlement. (< Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. San Cristobal 'St. Christopher'. =Eng. (1). Cf. 
[8:2!.]. 
[8:31] Eng. John Dunn's Bridge. Cf. [8:36]. 

[8:32] (1) Taos Tuhupaand, of obscure etj-mology (^mAm- unexplained; 
pa 'water' 'creek'; and noun postfix). Cf. [8:33] and [8:31]. 
Budd gives Taos " Hii'aluli'la'ku 'Arroyo Hondo '".^ The au- 
thor's Taos informant could not understand this form at all. 
Perhaps it refei's to Arroyo Hondo [8:65]. 

(2) Picuris " Atsunahiilopaltillna".^ This name presumably 
indicates [8:32]. 

(3) Eng. Arroyo Hondo Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (5), 

(1) Eng. Los Montes Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (6). 

(5) Span. Arroyo Hondo 'deep gully'. =Eng. (3). "Arroyo 
Hondo ".^ 

(6) Arroyo de los Montes 'forest gully'. =Eng. (1). "Los 
Montes Creek "." Mr. Melaquias Martinez of Taos says that the 
name Los Montes is never applied to this creek at the present 
day, but that it is applied to the locality of an irrigation ditch 
somewhei-e south of [8:32]. 

[8:33] (I) Eng. Arroyo Hondo Canyon. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Caiion del Arro^'O Hondo 'deep gullj' canj'on'. 
= Eng. (1). , 

The canyon extends from a short distance east of Valdez settle- 
ment [8:35] to the sources of Arroyo Hondo Creek. 

iBudd, Tao9 vocabulary, MS. in possession of Bur. Amer. Ethn. 
2 Ore Deposits of New Mexico, p. 18, 1910. 
' Budd, op. cit. 

< Spinden, Picuris notes, MS., 1910. 
i Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 32, et passim, 1892. 

6 U. S. Geographical Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, Parts of Soutliern Colorado and Northern 
New Mexico, atlas sheet No. 69, 1873-1877. 



HARRINGTON] 



PLACE-NAMES 177 



[8:34] (1) Taos KiMlafd, of obscure etymology {MidJu unexplained; 
t'd 'down at' 'over at'). "Kualata".' 

(2) Eug. Arroyo Hondo settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Los Montes settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (5). 

(4) Span. Arroyo Hondo 'deep gully', referring to [8:3'i]. 
= Eng. C2). 

(5) Span. Los Montes ' the forests', referring probably to [8:32]. 
= Eng. (3). "Los ]Montcs".= Mr. Melaquias Martinez says 
that the name Los Montes is never applied to this town at the 
present day. 

Arroyo Hondo settlement is about 3 miles above the junction 
of [8:32] with the Rio Grande. The settlement lies on both sides 
of the creek. 
[8:35] (1) Eng. Valdez settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Valdez (Span, family name). =Eng. (1). 
Valdez town is situated just below the mouth of the canyon 
[8:33]. Unlike Arroyo Hondo settlement, Valdez lies entirely on 
the north side of the creek. 
[8:36] Eng. John Dunn's sulphur spring. Cf. [8:31]. 
[8:37] (1) De'ojepiijf 'coyote ears mountain' {de 'coyote'; ''oje 'ear'; 
piOf 'mountain'). =Taos (2). Cf. Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(2) Taos Tuqwatdludt' unil ' coyote ears mountain ' {iuijwa- 'coy- 
ote^; idlud- 'ear'; t'u 'pile' 'mountain'; nq noun postfix). 

= Tewa (1). Cf. Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Orejas mountain. (<Span.). = Span (4). Cf. Tewa 
(1), Taos (2). 

(4) Span. Cerro Orejas 'ears mountain'. =Eng. (3). Cf. 
Tewa (1), Taos (2). 

The mountain is said to resemble ears in some way. 
[8:38] A bridge constructed in Iftll to facilitate the driving of sheep. 
[8:39] (1) Eng. Cebolla spring. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Ojo de la Cebolla, Bajada de la Cebolla 'onion spring' 
'onion slope'. =Eng. (1). 
There is a spring of sulphurous water at this place. 
[8:40] (1) Miqiwlopiyf^ Mqqioalopirjf, Mdqwalupii) f , borrowed 
from the Taos language {Mqqwolo-, etc. <Taos (2); pijjf 
' mountain') . By some Tewa this name is perhaps applied vaguely 
to the whole Taos Range [8:24]. 

(2) Taos Mclqinalund, of obscure etymology {m^ unexplained; 
qwalu 'high', cf. qwalalam^ 'it is high'; nq, noun postfix). 
= Tewa (1). " One of them [referring to ruins of the Taos people] 
to which I was told the^^ gave the name of Mojua-lu-na, or Mo- 

> Budd, Taos vocabulary, MS. in Bur. Amer. Ethn. 

' U. S. Geographical Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, Parts of Southern Colorado and Northern 
New Mexico, atlas sheet No. 69, 1873-1877. 

87584°— 29 lth— IG 12 



178 ETHNOGEOGRAPJIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ktii. ann. 29 

jual-ua, is said to exist in the mountains".' Bandelier liiis here 
recorded the Taos name of Pueblo Peak. From his information 
the name appears to be applied also to a pueblo ruin probably 
situated somewhere near the peak. A Taos informant sa_vs that 
no such form as "Mojual-ua" is in use in the Taos language. 

(3) Eng. Pueblo Peak. (<Span.). = Span. (4). 

(4) Cerro del Pueblo 'mountain of the pueldo', referring to 
Taos pueblo. = Eng. (3). 

This great pealv rises immediately northeast of Taos Pueblo. It 
is a mountain especially sacred to the Taos. The sacred lake 
[8:50] is situated close to this mountain. The mountain and its 
Taos name in corrupted form are well known to the Tewa. 
[8:41] (1) Taos Fal-ui>acma, of obscure etymology (]>« 'water'; /i7« un- 
explained; pa 'water' 'creek'; and noun postfix). Cf. [8:42] 

(2) YvcuYis '' IlillotUne 'dry creek'."= =Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Arroyo Seco Creek, Seco Creek. (<Span.). =Picuris 
(2), Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Arroyo Seco 'dr}' arroyo'. =Picuris (2), Eng. (3). 
Cf. [8:42]. 

[8:42] (1) Taos Pakut'd, Pakubd, of oliscure etymology (paht- as in 
[8:41] <pa 'water', hi unexplained; i'd^ 'down at' 'over at'; M 
'up at'). '' Pdl-uta:'^ 

(2) Eng. Seco town, Arroyo Seco town. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Arroyo Seco 'dry ari-oyo'. = Eng. (2), named after 
[8:41], on the banks of which it stands. 

[8:43] (1) T'awipo^T'awi'impo 'dwellpass water' (T'fflm'i, see [8:45]; 
'i^y locative and adjective-forming postfix; po 'water' 'creek'). 
This name is sometimes used vagueh" to include [8:52] and [8:57]. 

(2) Taos ^ lalaj)' aipaana 'red willow water', referring to [8:45] 
('/afo/i"oi-, see [8:45]; pa- 'water' 'creek'; «/)« noun postfix). 

(3) Taos Tudtdpaand, Tudhdpaana 'water down at the pueblo' 
'water up at the pueblo', referring to Taos Pueblo {Tudt'd-, 
Twa?;'d-, see [8:45]; pa 'water' 'creek'; fl^^a noun postfix). =Eng. 
(7), Span. (y). _ _ 

(4) Taos Kipawai 'our water' (// . . . uwl 'our'; pa- 
' water '). 

(5) Jemez JiCldpd 'water of {Juld-^'sGQ [8:45], (13); i>d 
'water' 'creelv'). 

(6) Coch.\t\ TfetffoJcotfena ' north corner river', referring to 
the region of Taos (2y'd';;,//dl-o, see [8:45]; tfeiia 'river'). 

(7) Eng. Pueblo Creek. (<Span.). =Taos (3), Span. (9). 

(8) Eng. Taos Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (10). This name also 
refers to Fernandez de Taos Creek [8:52]. 

> Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 32, 1892. 

2 Spinden, Picuris notes, MS., 1010. 

' Budd, Tnos vocabulary, MS. in Bvir. .\mtT. EUin. 



HAEKINGTOX] 



PLACE-NAMES 1 79 



(9) Span. Rio del Pueblo, Rito del Pueblo 'pueblo creek', refer- 
ring to Taos Puoblo [8:45]. =Taos (3), Eng. (7). 

(10) Span. Rio de Taos, Rito de Taos 'Taos Creek'. =Eng. 
(8). This name is avoided by many Mexicans, since it is applied 
also to Fernandez de Taos Creek [8:52]. "Petites rivieres de 
Taos".i 

In its upper course the creek passes through a beautiful canyon. 
The lake [8:50], al)out whicli the Taos hold secret dances, flows into 
this creek. The creek is spanned b}" quaint log bridges at Taos 
Pueblo [8:45]. "lam informed by Mr. Miller that blocks or 
'chunks' of obsidian, as large as a list or larger, are found in the 
Arroyo de Taos. This would be about 60 miles north of Santa 
Fe".- The "Arroyo de Taos" here referred to is probably 
Pueblo Creek. 

[8:-44] (1) Eng. Lucero Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rito de los Luceros, referring to the settlement [8 :47]. 
= Eng. (1). See [8:44]. 

[8:45] (1) T'awtqrjici 'dwell pass pueblo' {t' a 'todwell' 'to live at a 
place ' ; wi^i ' gap ' ' pass ' ; ''o_yw\ ' pueblo ') . To what pass or gap 
this name refers or wh}' the name was originally applied is not 
known to the Tewa informants. The Tewa name for Picuris 
Pueblo [8:88] also contains postpounded ■wji'.s, although the Tewa 
do not understand to what pass it refers. It is not impossible 
that Tewa T'awi- is a corruption of Taos Tua-] see Taos (4) 
"Ta-ui"^, "Towih".* Hodge ^ suggests that the Span, name 
Taos is derived from the Tewa form, but Span. Taos resembles 
Taos Tua- as closely as it resembles Tewa T'dwi'i. Span. Taos is 
deriv^ed from Taos Tua-; see Taos (4) and Span. (22), below. 
By the San Juan a single Taos person is called T'awii''- or T'atvr*, 
while two or more are called T'awijjf ('/'', \i)f locative and 
adjective-forming postfix). At San Ildefonso a single Taos person 
is called T^iwi P* while two or more are called T' awi\yf. The 
San Juan form T^awijjf 'Taos people' sounds like 'dwell mice' 
(ij^a 'to dwell'; wyjf 'mouse'), and the informant took pleasure 
in pronouncing the name so that the second syllable sounded just 
like the word meaning 'mouse' or 'rat' (he rather looks down on 
the Taos people). 

(2) San Juan Fjri.w'o/;?/'! 'great mountain pueblo', referring to 
[8:24] or [8:40] {piijj' 'mountain'; so 'great'; ^qywi 'pueblo'). 
Tewa (1) is, however, the name for Taos commonly used at San 

' newett, Communaut*. p. 24, 1908. 

*Bandelier; A Vij^it to the Aboriginal Ruins in the Valley of the Rio Pecos, in Paps. Arch. Inst. 
Amer., Amer. ser. i, 2iJ e'l., p. 129. note. 1S83. 
' Bandelier, in Jicvuc i'Etlnio;iraphu. ji. 203, 18.«6. 

< Hodge, field notes. Bur. Amer. Elhn., 1S99 (Handbook Inds., pt. 2, pp. 6s,s, 691, 1910). 
' Ibid., p. 688. 



180 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

Juau. 'Taos per-soo' is rendered by Pin.sowi'', Taos people by 
Pinsowwf (T', ^ivf, wl'^, wpjj' locative and adjective-forming 
postfix). Tlie form Pinso^riijj' sounds liise 'great mountain- 
mice' while Tawyjf (see above, Tewa (1)), sounds like 'dwell 
mice' or even 'day mice' {t'a 'day'). 

(3) Taos ^Talap'aifa, '' Icilaj}' a}hd ' down at or at the red wil. 
lows' 'up at the red willows' ('id?a 'willow'<'m- 'willow' cog- 
nate with Tewa jayy 'willow', la 'wood' probably cognate with 
Tewa soDf ^ Grewood''; p'ai 'red'; t'a 'down at' 'over at'; M 
'up at'). The name seems to refer to ordinary willows, which 
are reddish, rather than to a peculiar species of willow. Accord- 
ing to a Taos informant this is the real name of Taos Pueblo. 
"Red Willow Indians".' ",-Ta-i-na-ma, or willow people "-—per- 
haps for ^IdtMnamq, 'willow people' {'id- 'willow'; tatndmq. 
' people'), a form about which no opportunity has been afforded 
to question a Taos Indian. "Ya^hlahaimul/ahutulba 'red willow 
place '."^ No opportunity has offered to ask a Taos Indian about 
this form either. The first three syllables are evidentlj' 
'lalap'di-; the syllable h\% is probably fa 'water'; the last sylla- 
ble ha is probably Id 'up at'. 

(4) Taos T'Vbdt' a, Tudhd 'down at or at the village' 'up at the 
village' {tud- 'house' 'houses' 'village' 'pueblo', cognate with 
Tewa ^d 'dwelling-place'; t'a 'down at' 'at'; M 'up at"). It is 
probably from the form Tud that Span. Taos is derived. See 
Tewa (1), above, and Span. (22), below. "Taos, or Te-uat-ha''.* 
"Taos, Te-uat-ha"'.^ "Tegat-ha"." Bandelier has here "ega" 
for ua. "Tiia-ta'\^ "Tai-ga-tah".' This spelling has "ai-ga" 
for 'fd. The orthography is pei-haps French and ai stands per- 
haps for the sound of e, which ii resembles ; the g is for w, as in 
Bandelier's form, above. 

(5) Taos Kitudwal 'our pueblo' {I' I . . . wai 'our'; tud as in 
Taos (-4), above). 

(6) Taos Tdlnd7n4 'the people', referring especially to the Taos 
people. This form is also postpounded to the Taos names for 
Taos Pueblo given above in order to render 'Taos people'. 
Thus, for instance, '' Idlap'dUdindmq, ^Idlap'aU'cAdindmQ,, 
^ Idlap dibatdlndrnQ. "Talinamu".^ 

1 Arny in Indian Affairs Report for 1871, p. 382, 1872. 

1 Miller, Pueblo of Taos, p. 34, 1898. 

'Hodge, field notes. Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1S99 (Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 691, 1910). 

• Bandelier, Final Report, pt. i, p. 123, 1890. 

6 Ibid., p. 260, note. 

6 Bandelier, Gilded Man, p. 233, 1893. 

' Jouvenceau in Catholic Pio-neer, i, No. 9, p. 12, 1906. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 181 

(7) " 'Indian name' Takhe".^ "Taos (in der eigenen Sprache 
Takhe genannt)" '"Taxe''.^ It may be tiiat the foi-nis used by 
Gatschet and tou are based on Loew's form. Loew's ortiiog- 
raphy and iuformucion are often incorrect. For Taos tila-? 

(8) Taos "Wee-ka-nahs".^ According to the authority^ 
from which many of tlie synonyms of Taos herein cited are taken, 
this name is given bj' Joseph as tlie Taos Indians' own tribal name 
for themselves. Misprint and error? See [8:88], (2), (4). 

(9) Picuris "Tuopa''." This spelling is probably for a form 
identical with Tuiiba; see Taos (4), above. "Tuopa 'the northern 
one'."' This spelling is probably also for a form identical with 
Tudl>a; see Taos (4), above. 

(10) Picuris "Kwapihalki 'Taos Pueblo.' It means 'chief 
houses or village'. Muwi is the present word for chief. 
Kwapihal was an old word for chief".' 

(11) Sandia "Towirnin"." 

(12) Isleta"Tuwirat".'' 

(13) Jemez Julutd of obscure etymology {Ju'JA 'Taos Indian'; 
td locative). There is reason to believe that locative post-fixes 
other than td may also be used, but no record of such forms 
appears in the writer's Jemez notes. Ju'Id means 'Taos Indian,' 
'Taos person'. For 'Taos Indians' 'Taos people' either the 
plural Ja'Iuf or the compound Jii'ldtsd'af (tsd'df 'people') is 
used. "Yulata"." This form is given as the Jemez and Pecos 
name of the pueblo. 

(14) Pecos "Yulata"." As Hodge suggests, Span. (25), below, 
may come from this form. There is a Jemez locative ending Id. 
Perhaps the forms Span. (25) come from a hypothetical Pecos 
Jic'ldhd. 

(15) Cochiti Tfetffohotspe. 'north corner place' {t/etf 'north'; 
foico 'corner'; t^as locative). Tfetffuko 'north corner' refers 
to the whole noi-thern corner of the Pueblo Indian country, 
to the whole Taos region. The Span, name Taos (see Span. (22)) 
is probably also used in the Cochiti language. 

(16) Sia "Tausame 'Taos people'".* This is probably from 
Span. Taos + inx 'people'. 

(17) Laguna "Ta-uth".» 

1 Loew in Whedct Survey Report, VII, p. 345, 1879. 

' Gatschet, Zwolf Sprachen, p. Jl, 1876. 

» Powell in Amer. Naturalist, xiv, p. 605, Aug., 1880. 

•.Joseph in First Report Bur. Amer. Elhn., p. 101, 1881. 

' ITandbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 691, 1910. 

* Hodge, ibid. 

' Spindeu, Picuris notes, MS., 1910. 

"Spinden, Sia notes, MS.. 1910. 

'Gatschet, Laguna MS. vocabulary, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1879. 



182 ETIINOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth, ann. 29 

(18) Zuiii "Topolianu-kuin 'place of cottonwood trees'".' 

(19) Jk'avilla Apache "Ivoho'hlte".^ " KTg5tsaye 'Taos' ".' 

(20) Jicarilla Apache "daooslye ' at Taos' ".* The lye is a loca- 
tive ending; the d is equivalent to the f used in this memoir. The 
name seems to be merely the Jicarilla Apache pronunciation of 
Span. ('J3). 

('21) Navaho "To Wolh 'water gurgles'"'.^ "Ta Wolh 'water 
gurgles'"." "Tqowhfil, 'the Taos'".' "Tqowhfd 'running or 
swift w^aterCO, Taos'". « 

(22) Eng. Taos. (<Span.). = Span. (22). 

(23) Span. Taos, probably from Tua-, the Taos name of the vil- 
lage; see Tewa (1), Taos (i), and Taos (.5), above. The -s is gently 
sounded in New Mexican Span. Such forms as Pecos and Tanos 
are often used by Mexicans as singulars, although these words, and 
probably also Taos, are properly plural forms. '• Taos".^ " Sant 
Miguel"." "Tahos"." "San Geronimo de los Taos"." "Ta- 
osy".'' "Taosij"." "Thaos".'^ "Taoros".'" "S. Hieronymo"." 
"Taosis".'' "SanGeronimode losTahos".'" "S*-Hieronimo".='' 
"S. Geronimo de los Thaos".=' "Tuas"." "San Geronymo de 
los Thaos"." "S. Jerome de los Taos"." "S^ Jeronimo".-^ 
"S* Jerome".^'' "San Geronimo Thaos".=' "Tous".-» "S. Je- 
ronimodeToas".^'' "Yaos".=" "Tons".'' "Taosas".='= "Tao".'' 
"Taoses".^'^ "Touse".'^ "Toas".=« "Taosites"." "Tacos".^« 
"San Geronimo de Taos ".^'' "Jaos".^" "Taosans"." Gatschet" 
quotes "Taos" as the name of a Nicaraguan tribe. 

1 Cushing, 1884, quoted In Handbook Inds., pt. -} Rivera, Diario. leg. 950, 1736. 

2, p. 691, 1910. ^ Mota-Padilla, Hist. Nueva Galicia, p. 515, 1742. 

2 Hodge, field notes. Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895, « Villa^Sefior, Theatre Americano, ii, p. 410, 
ibid. 1748. 

3 Goddard, Jicarilla Apaebe Texts, p. 14, 1912. " Vaugondy, map Amdrique, 1778. 
<Ibid., p. 121. sBowlus, map Am., 1784. 

6 Curtis, American Indian, i, p. 138, 1907. ^ Kitchin, map N. A., 1787. 

'Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 691, 1910 (misquot- ".ilccdo. Die. Geog., v, p. 115, 17S9. 

ing Curtis). ^ Arruwsmith, map N. A., 1795, ed. 1814. 

' Franciscan Fathers, Ethnologic Dictionary of ^ Walch, Charte America, 1805. 

the Navaho Language, p. 128, 1910. ™ Pike, Expedition, map, 1810. 

"Ibid., p. 136. 3[ibi(]._ opp. to pt. in, pp. 7.9. 

«Onate (1598) in Zioc./ned., XVI, pp. 109, 306, 1871. siGregg, Commerce Prairies, i. \\ 124, 1841. 

"Ouate {1698),ibid., p. 257. asDlsturnell, map Mt-jico.lSlG. 

1' Ziirate-Salmer6n (ra. 1629) quoted by Ban- « Ruxton, Adventures, p. 199. 1848. 

croft, Native Races, i, p. COO, 1882. ss Garrard. Wahtoya, p. 131, ISoO. 

"Benavides, Memorial, p. 87, 1630. ^Gallatin in Xuuv. Ann. Voy.. oth series, xxvii, 

18 Linschoten, Descr.de I'Amt^rifiue, map 1,1638. p. 304, 1851. 

" Sanson, P.\mcrlque, map, p. 27, 1657. s: Davis, El Gringo, p. 311, 1857. 

15 Freytas, Penalo.sa Rel. (1662), pp. 42, 74, 1882. " Buschmann, New Mexico, p. 230, 1858. 

■SBlaeu, Atlas, xii, p. 71, 1667. ^ Ward in Indian Affairs HeporlSoT 1867, p. 213, 

I'Ibid., p. 61. 186S. 

"Ibid., p. 62. «Hinton, Handbook to Arizona, map, 1878. 

"Vetancurt (1696) in Teatro Mex., tit, p. 318, " Poore in Donaldson, Moqni Pueblo Indians, 

1871. p. 101. 1893. 

»De I'Isle, Carte Mex. et Floride, 1703. "Zwolf Sprachen, p. 45, 1876. 



HAURINGTOX] PLACE-NAMES 183 

(24) Span. "Braba".' "Brada".^ As Hodge suggests,^ Cas- 
taueda's "'Braba" may be a miscopying of "Tuata"', but it seems 
to the writer that it is probably a miscopying of Tuaba or some 
such spelling of the Taos name Tuaha (see Taos (4), at)ove). 

(25) Span. " Valladolid".^ Taos was probabl}'- called thus by 
the Spaniards on account of its fancied resemblance to, or in mem- 
ory of, the Spanish city of this name. 

(26) Span. "Yuraba''.^ "Uraba"." As Hodge suggests,^ these 
forms are perhaps in place of the Pecos form equivalent to 
Julatd, or rather of Juldlo, which is thought to be another 
Jemez form. 

(27) Span. "Tayberon",' as a name for the province of '"Teos" 
Taos. 

(28) Span. ''Tejas".' Tt is not certain tliat Garces refers to 
the Taos when he u.^^es this word. 

(29) Span. "Tejos".'' This is identified with Taos." 
Bandelier describes Taos as follows: "Taos has two tall houses 

facing each other, one on each side of tlie little stream, and com- 
municating across it V)^' means of wooden foot bridges."" Cf. the 
names [8:24], [8:43], [8:51], [8:52], [8:53], [8:54], [8:57], [8:58]. 
[8:46] Pueblo ruin about a hundred yards northeast of Taos. 

Dr. H. J. Spinden has described this ruin as follows: "There 
is an old pueblo site about a hundred yards from Taos pueblo, 
on the north side of the creek, ujj the creek from Taos. This 
is said to be a part of Taos which burned down about four hun- 
dred years ago. Remains of pottery of several kinds, metates, 
mortars, etc., may be picked up at the ruin"'. The following de- 
scription evident!}' refei's to the same ruin: "Au nord du village 
de Taos, a quelques metres de la maison du nord du village aetuel, 
on voit les mines dajyuehlo occupe en dernier lieu par les Indiens 
Taos, avant I'etablissement des deux grandes constructions en ter- 
rasses qu'ils habitent aujourd'hui. Ces mines ne sont plus que 
des amas d'adobe desagrege en miettes. On ne sait pas quand le 
village de Taos a 6te rebati sur le plan aetuel, mais il est probable 
que ce fut dans la p^riode histori(]ue. Cette question sera stlre- 
ment elucidee par les investigations ulterieures".'^ 

1 CasUineda, 1596, in Fourteenth Kep. Bur. Amer. Ellui., pt. 1. pp. 511, 525, 1S%. 

^Curtis, Children of the Sun, p. 121, 1883 (misquoting Caslnnedu). 

' Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 688, 1910. 

<Castafleda, op. cit., p. .511. 

sRelaci6n del Sueeso (ra. 1542), ibid., p. 575. 

sjaramillo (ca. 1542). ibid., p. 587. 

'Onate (1598) in Doc. Intd., xvi. p. 257, 1871, given in Handboolc Inds., pt. 2, p. 691, 1910. 

sGarcfe (1775-76) diary, p. 491, 1900. 

'Squier in A-mer. licrifw, p. 522, Nov., 1848. 
■0 Handbooli Inds., pt. 2, p. 691, footnote, 1910. 
11 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. i, p. 2G6, 1890. 
»Hewett, CommunauU-s, p. 29, 1908. 



184 ETHNOGEOCiRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. ;;n 

[8:47] (1) Taos "Piuiwemiina'yaiuta 'Placita do lo.s Luceros'".' 

(2) Taos " Ya'h'iluiiiomtii 'Placita de los Luceros', second 
name".' 

(3) Luceros settlement. (< Span.). = Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Luceros, Plazita de los Luceros, from the family 
name Lucero. =Eng. (3). 

This ]\lexican settlement is a mile and a quarter southwest of 
Taos Pueblo, and just south of Prado settlement [Si^S]. 

[8:48] (1) Eng. Prado settlement. (< Span.). =Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Prado 'meadow'. =Eng. (1). 
This Mexican settlement is just north of Luceros [8:47]. 

[8:49] North branch of Pueblo Creek or Pueblo Canyon [8:43]. 

[8:50] The sacred lake of the Taos Indians. 

This was located for the writer by Mr. Melaquias Martinez, of 
Taos. Once when passing near this lake Mr. Martinez came 
suddenly upon a body of Indians, who leveled their rifles at him. 
He hastened from the spot as fast as he could go, not dating to 
look back. Mr. Martinez did not see Indians dancing. Two 
Mexican informants say that they have friends who have seen 
Indian men and women dancing naked about this lake. An 
American friend informed the writer that an old man (an Ameri- 
can) recently came upon the Indians when they were dancing at 
this lake, and that they had on their ordinary dancing costumes. 
Mr. ^Martinez says that he knows the location of the lake very 
well, and that it drains into Pueblo Creek [8:43]. 

[8:51] (1) Eng. Taos Peak. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Cerro de Taos 'mountain of Taos'. =Eng. (1). 
"The Truchas [22:13] are slightly higher than Taos Peak. 
The latter is 13,145 feet, the former 13,150,- — both according to 
Wheeler. The altitude of the Jicarita [22:9] has not, to my 
knowledge, been determined; but the impression of those who 
have ascended to its top is that it exceeds the Truchas in height."' 
It would appear that either Taos Peak, Truchas Peak, or Jicarita 
Peak is the highest mountain of the Santa Fe-Taos Range. 

[8:52] (1) Taos "Puxweniiapu hwik'qu" 'Fernandez Creek'".' "Pa- 
xwenua-" is evidently the same as " Paxwinowia-" in Picuris (2) 
and Paqwianuw- in [8:54]. 

(2) Picuris "Paxwin6wiapaxhune(pahua 'canyon'; paxwinowia 
'spring'), Fernandez de Taos Creek'".'' "Paxwinowia-"' is evi- 
dently the same as "Paxwem'ut-" in Taos (1) and " Paqwianuwa-" 
in [8:54]. 

1 Budd, Taos vocabulary, MS., Bur. Amer. Ethn. 

2 The United States Geological Survey has determined the height of Truchas I'eak to be 
13,275 feet. 

SBandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 34, note, 1892. 
'Spinden, Picuris notes, MS., 1910. 



BABRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 185 

(3) Eng. Fernandez Creek, Fernandez de Taos Creek, Taos 
Creek. (<Span.). =SiJan. (4). 

(4) Span. Rito Fernandez, Rito Fernandez de Taos, Rito de 
Taos, etc. See [8:54J. 

[8:53] (1) Eng. Fernandez Canyon, Fernandez de Taos Canyon, Taos 
Canyon. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Canon Fernandez, Caiion Fernandez de Taos, Canon 
de Taos, etc. See [8:54]. 

Perhaps Picuris (2) of [8:52] is the Picuris name for the canyon 
instead of for the creek. 
[8:54] (1) Taos ''Paqwiiinuwaaga" 'down at night pool', referring to 
the pool of a spring situated somewhere near Taos settlement 
{paqtrid- 'lake* 'pool'; nuwa 'night'; a<ja 'down at'). 

The pool to which the name refers is said to have green grass 
about it all winter. This name is evidently applied also to Fernan- 
dez Creek [8:52] and Fernandez Canyon [8:53]. See "Paxwenua-" 
and "Paxwinowia-" under [8:52]. 

(2) Eng. Fernandez de Taos, Fernandez Taos. (<Span.). 
= Span. (3). The name Taos is the official and commonly used 
form. 

(3) Span. Fernandez de Taos, Fernandez Taos. Information 
bearing on the historj' of this name is lacking. 

This is the town of Taos, county seat of Taos County. 
"The modern town of Fernandez de Taos, which lies about 3 
miles west of the pueblo". ' According to the maps "west" in 
the quotation above should be corrected to "southwest." "The 
Ranches de Taos [8:58] lie 4 miles from Fernandez de Taos, the 
modern town". ^ 
[8:55] (1) Eng. Taos Pass. =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Paso de Taos. =Eng. (1). 
[8:56] (1) T'anupo, T amig.e impo 'dwell below water' 'dwell below 
place water', referring to the Tano and especially to Galisteo 
[29-A0](T'a)m, T'a?uig.e, see [29:40]; p" 'water' 'creek' 'river'). 
(2) ffurjge'impo 'river of [29:33]' (fl'vuH'', see [29:33]; 'iuf 
locative and adjective-forming postfix; po 'water' 'creek' 
'river'). 
[8:57] (1) Eng. Rio Grande of Taos Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Rio Grande de Taos 'great river of Taos' 'big creek 
of Taos'. =Eng. (1). 

One would expect that this creek would also be called after 
[8:58]. 
[8:oS] (1) yajitfh. (<Span.). = Span. (5). 

(2) Taos "T'si'huuuna. 'los Rauchos de Taos"".' = Picuris (3). 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, j.t. ii, p. 32, 1892. 

sibid., p. 33, note. 

•Budd, Taos vocabulary, MS., Bur. Amer. Etbn. 



186 ETHNOGEOr.RAPIIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 20 

(3) Ficuris "Talainoiiii, 'name of the pueblo ruin at Ranchos 
deTaos'".' Evidently the same as Taos (2), above. 

(4) Eng. Ranchos de Taos, Ranchos of Taos, Ranches de Taos, 
Ranches of Taos, Ranchos, Ranches, Francisco Ranchos, Francisco 
Ranches. (<Span.). =Span. (5). 

(5) Ranchos de Taos, Ranchos, Ranchos de Francisco, Francisco 
Ranchos. "Ranchos de Taos".^ 

"The Ranchos de Taos lie '4 miles from Fernandez de Taos, the 
modern town".' "There are said to be considerable ruins near 
the Ranchos de Taos, and also extensive vestiges of garden 
plots''.^ See [8:59]. 
[8:5t»] Picuris "Talamona 'name of the pueblo ruin at Ranchos de 
Taos'-'.' Budd records what is evidently the same word as the 
Taos name for Ranchos de Taos [8:58]. 

Mr. Melaquias Martinez informs the writer that the pueblo 
ruin is at the site of the modern Mexican town [8:58]. Dr. 
Spinden states as follows: " There are remains of an old pueblo 
near Ranchos de Taos. This pueblo ruin is apparently quite 
modern — walls are still standing. I was informed at Picuris 
that this pueblo ruin had its former population depleted by dis- 
ease. Some of the remnant went to Taos and some to Picuris. 
The people have mixed with those of other pueblos, but there are 
none at present at Picuris." 
[8:60] (1) Eng. Miranda Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Arroyo Miranda, Arroyo de Miranda 'Miranda 
arroyo'. Miranda is an important family name in New Mexican 
histor}'. 

This is a small arroyo on which the sulphur spring [8:61] is 
situated. 
[8:61] (1) Eng. Sulphur Spring, =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Ojo de Azufre, 'sulphur spring'. =Eng. (1). 
This is a sulphur spring on the arroyo [8:60]. 
[8:62] (1) Eng. Frijoles Creek. (< Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rito de los Frijoles, Rito Frijoles 'bean creek'. 
= Eng. (1). 
[8:63] (1) Kup\ndiwe 'at the black stone' Qcu 'stone'; j^^vf 'black'; 
'lire locative). 

The informants were one San Juan and one San Ildefonso 
Indian. Each of these said that there must be a black stone 
somewhere near the settlement, but did not know where the stone 
is situated. 

(2) Eng. Cordova. (< Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cordova, name of a city in Spain. =Eng. (2). 

I Spinden. Picuris notes. MS.. 1910. ' Ibid., p. S3, note. 

> BandeUer, Final Report, pt. n, pp. 33, 31, 1892. < Ibid., pp. 32-33. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES . 187 

[8:04;] (1) PoJ-e^imPohnhi, Pode^vi^foisi" i ' iishweir water-canyon ' (/w.'e 
'fishweir': ''ivf loeatire and adjective-forming postfix; pohu\c 
'arroyo or canyon with water in it' < po 'water', hu'ii 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'; pofsii " canyon with water in it' < po 'water', 
tsi'i 'canyon'). This name was given because the Tcwa used to 
construct fishweirs in this can3'on. "Cf. Pode'd'aqimde'hre [8:67] 
and Podeiii\' [8:73J. 

The Cochiti used to make fishweirs in the canyon of the Rio 
Grande above the Keres country; see [28: White Rock Canyon]. 

(2) F(mig.i'ijnpohuH, PosogeHmpotsi/' 'water canj'on of tlie 
great river', referring to the Rio Grande {Poso^c, see [Large 
Features: .3]; 'JT/y locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
2>oAu''u 'arroyo or canyon with water in it' < po 'water', 
hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'; potsPi 'canyon with water in it' 
< po 'water', /^/'/ 'canyon'). This name could be applied to any 
canyon through which tlie Rio Grande passes. 

(3) Penibudii-i)npoku''u,Z>cmhiuuwi?npohv''u,PmihiuuHmpofsP{, 
Pemiiucmry/ipofsi'i 'Eml)udo water canyon' (Denihudu <Span. 
Embudo, see Span. (6), below; T', wi'*' locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; pohu\i 'arroyo or canj^on with water in it' <po 
'water', hu''u 'large groove' 'arroyo'; pofs-ii 'canyon with water 
in it' <po 'water', fsi'l 'canyon'). =Eng. (5), Span. (6). 

(4) Picuris "Pasxlapakwlix 'the whole Rio Grande or Embudo 
Canyon' (pasxlapaa 'canyon')".' 

(5) Eng. Embudo Canj^on. (<Span.). =Tewa (3), Span. (6). 

(6) Span. Caiion Embudo, Canon del Embudo, Embudo ' funnel 
canyon' 'funnel'. =Tewa (3), Eng. (.5). 

This gorge extends from the mouth of [8:43] to the mouth of 
[8:79], or according to other informants, to the mouth of [9:3]. 
"The banks of the Rio Grande, from the San Luis valley [Un 
mapped] to the [lower] end of the gorge of the Embudo, appear 
. . . not to have been settled in ancient times''.^ 
[8:05] (1) Kqbidsi'i 'barranca corner canyon' {I'o 'barranca'; hu''u 
'large low roundish place'; tsvi 'canyon'). The situation of the 
large low roundish place from which the arroyo takes its name 
was not made clear to the writer. 

(2)Taos Fatsiju/iuah/nd ' waterlocust creek' {pa- 'water'; fsiju- 
'cicada', equivalent to Tewa /y. Span, chicharra; hualu- 'arroyo', 
the first syllable of which seems to be cognate with Tewa huu 
'arroyo'; nil noun postfix). Budd's vocabulary has a form 
'"'' Hii'alulild'ku 'arroyo Hondo '".^ This form the Taos in- 
formant was unable to understand. It may refer to Arroyo 
Hondo [8:32]. 

' Spinden, Picuris notes, MS., 1910. 

2 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. II, p. 13, 1892. 

' Budd, Taos vocabulary, MS., Bur. Amer. £thn. 



188 ETHNOGEOGKAPIIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

(3)Eng. Arroyo Hondo, Arro_yo Hondo Arroyo, Hondo Arroyo. 
(<Span.). =Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Arroyo Hondo 'deep arroyo or gulch'. =Eng. (3). 

This i.s the first deep gulch entering the Rio Grande from the 
east above Cieneguilla [8:07]. According to Mr. Melaquias 
Martinez, of Taos, a Mr.' London Craig owns a fine piece of land 
at the head of this arroyo, which he irrigates hy means of 
springs situated where the arroyo begins [8:6GJ. Arroyo Hondo 
played an important part during the Taos rebellion of 1847. 
Cf. Arroyo Hondo [8:32]. 
[8:66] Kqhutsipopi 'spring of barranca corner can3-on' {KobuisPi, see 
[8:65]; fopi 'spring' <po 'water', pi 'to issue'). 

This is the spring (or springs) on Mr. Craig's place, referred to 
under [8:65]. 
[8:67] (1) San Juan PoJ'e'a'aqwaie'iive 'fishweir slope descending 
place' (^)(M<? 'fishweir'; 'a'a 'steep slope'; qvaie 'to descend'; 
Hice 'locative'). The name would indicate that a fishweir or 
fishweirs were formerly built at this place. Cf. the names of 
Embudo Canyon, PoM^impohv^ic [8:64], and Embudo Station, 
PoJ^uHwe [8:73]. 

(2) Eng. Cieneguilla. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cieneguilla 'little marsh'. =Eng. (2). 

This Mexican settlement lies on both sides of the little arroyo 
[8:68]. There is some marshy ground there; hence the Span, 
name. The name Cieneguilla appears never to be translated into 
Tewa. The San Ildefonsos seem to know the place only by its 
Span. name. Cf. [8:68] and [8:69]. 
[8:68] (1) San Juan Pode''a'a,/jiciii('' i irehw u, Po.te''a'aqwaie/'we'iyj'hii^ii, 
'fishweir slope descending place arroyo' {Po.(e\i\it/icaie' iwe, see 
[8:67]; 'i'* locative and adjective-forming postfix; Aw'w 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 

(2) Eng. Cieneguilla Arroyo. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Arroyo de la Cieneguilla 'arrovo of [8:67]'. 
= Eng. (2). 

[8:69] San Juan. Pode'ciaqwatehmje 'fishweir slope descending 
place height' (Podea^aqwaie-, see [8:Q7]; kwaje 'height"). This 
name refers to the mesa each side of Cieneguilla Creek; for 
some reason the name seems to be considerably used. Cf. [8:67]. 

[8:70] (1) Eng. Barranca station. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Barranca 'cleft' 'barranca'. =Eng. (1). 

[8:71] A bridge across the Rio Grande. This bridge, about 4 miles 
below Cieneguilla [8:67], is sometimes called Barranca bridge 
because it is near Barranca [8:70]. 



HAREiN-GTOX] PLACE-NAMES 189 

[8:72] (1) Eng. Comanche station. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Comanche, 'Comanche'. = Eng. (1). 

[8:73] (1) San Juan Po.ie'iioe 'at the fishweir' {jio-ie 'fishweii*'; ^iwe 
locative). The name implies that there was formerh^ a fishweir 
or tliat there were iishweirs built in the river at this place. Cf. 
[8:64] and [8:67]. 

(2) Eng. Embudo station. (<Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Embudo 'funnel'. =Eng. (2). The name is perhaps 
a recent one and is taken fi'om the canyon [8:64]. 

Cf. Dixon, Old Embudo, Embudo [8:7SJ. 

[8:74] Black Mesa neai- San Juan, see [13:1]. 

[8:75] (1) San Juan I'osajelwe 'where the water bubbles or boils' 
(fw 'water'; sq/i ' to boil' 'to bubble'; 'm'e locative). This name 
refers to the water bubbling over the rocks at the mouth of 
Embudo Canyon [8:64]. 

(2) P<ueimpohu])'owiAii ' projecting points at the mouth of 
[8:64]' {P<ue Hmpohu''u, see [8:64]; j/'mvul ' projecting point at 
mouth' <j/o 'hole' ' mouth of canyon, ' wUi ' projecting corner or 
point'). 

(3) Posogeijnpohup'owiui 'projecting point at mouth of 
[8:64]' {Fosog.e 'impohuu, see [8:64]; p'awidi 'projecting point 
at mouth' <p'o 'hole' 'mouth of can3'on', widi 'projecting corner 
or point'). 

(4) Pembu.'u'i/iipohvj/owiui 'projecting points at the mouth 
of [8:64]' {Petiiburu-impohii'u, see [8:64]; p'awUi 'projecting 
point at mouth' <p'o 'hole' 'mouth of canyon', Wi.<i 'projecting 
point or corner*). 

(5) Eng. Embudo Canyon mouth. (<Span.). =Span. (6). 

(6) Span. Boca del Canon del Enilnido 'mouth of funnel can- 
yon'. = Eng. (5). 

[8:76] San Juan Kiibeicelctvaje 'roundish rock height' {ku 'stone' 
'rock'; beire 'smallnessand roiuidishness' 'small and roundish'; 
Icu-aje 'height'). The mesa probably gets this name from its 
roundish appearance. 

This high mesa sepai'ates [8:79] from [9:3]. Its southernmost 
part rises just north of La Jo3'a corner [9:5]. Knbewehraje is 
about the same height as Canoe INlesa [8:74]. It may be the 
'"Table ^Mountain" of son)e Americans. 

[8:77] (1) Picuris "Paotsona 'the mouth of Embudo Creek '".i 

(2) Eng. Kinconada. (<Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Kinconada 'corner'. =Eng. (2). A Tewa translation 
of Rinconada would be '^X^jh&m'm ('a^o^y 'plain' ; Jw'w 'large 
low roundish corner'), but the Tewa use the Span, name only. 

The low land about the mouth of Embudo Creek [8:70] is called 
Rinconada. 

'Spinden, Picuris notes, MS., 1910. 



190 ETHNOGEOGRAl'HY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ANN. 20 

[8:7SJ (1) Eng. Dixon settlement. This is at pi-eseiit the official 
name. 

(2) Old Embudo, Erabu.lo. (<Span.). =Span. (-i). 

(3) Span. Dixon. (<Eno-.). =Eno:. (1). 

(4) Span. Embudo Viejo, Enibudo 'old funnel' 'funnel'. 
= En<;'. (2). This name refers to Fimbudo Canyon f8:<!4]. 

Before the Denver andKio Grande Kailroad was built, this was 
the only settlement called by the name of Embudo. The naming 
of the station [8:73] Embudo caused confusion and led to the 
final adoption of Dixon as the name of the old Embudo settlement. 
"Embudo is a small Mexican town five miles from the railroad 
station of the same name".' 
[8:7lt] (1) San Juan. TenfcBpo, Tenfx'impo ' Rydberg's cottonwood 
water or narrow-leaved cottonwood water' (Tenyse Tewa name of 
both R\'d})erg's cottonwood (Populus acuminata) and the narrow- 
leaved Cottonwood (Populus angustifolia); 't' locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; po 'water' 'creek' 'river'). 

(2) JDo/ihiuiupo, Deiiihuuu'impo 'Embudo water' {Demindu 
<Spau. Embudo, cf. [8:6i]; 'i''" locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; po 'water' 'creek' 'river'). 

(3) Eng. Embudo Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (4). 

(i) Span. Rio Embudo, Rito Embudo 'funnel river' 'funnel 
creek', referring to [8:78] and [8:(M]. "Rio del Embudo.'" 

Embudo Creek is formed by the joining of Pueblo Creek [8:Sfi] 
and Penasco Creek [8:85]. "One of these brooks is the Rio del 
Pueblo; the other the Rio del Penasco, and they imite at a dis- 
tance of a mile below the pueblo of Picuries to form the Rio del 
Embudo, and thus become tributary to the Rio Grande.'" 
[8:80] (1) Eng. Trampas Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (2) 

(2) Rio de las Trampas 'trap river'. =Eng. (1). For the 
name cf. Trampas settlement [22:4], (2). No Tewa name for this 
creek has been found. 
[8:81] (1) Eng. Ojo Zarco springs and settlement. (<Span.). 
= Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Ojo Zarco 'light blue spring'. =Eng. (1). 

"At Ojo Sarco on the Rio Grande, north of Santa Barbara 
[8:99], Taos County, is a fine group of mineral springs." - 
[8:82] (1) Eng. Ojo Zarco Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rito del Ojo Zarco 'creek of the light-blue spring', 
referring to [8:81]. =Eng. (1). 
[8:83] (1) Eng. Chamizal settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Chamizal, adjective form of Chamizo. an unidentified 
shrub common in the Tewa country. =Eng. (1). 

Cf. [8:.s4]. 

1 Bandelier, Final Eeport, pt. ii, p. 35, note, 1892. ' Land of Sunshine, p. 173, 1906. 



HAKKiN-nTOX] PLACE-NAMES 191 

[8:S4] (1) Eng. Chamizal Creek. (<Spiin.)- =Span. (2). 

(2) Sp:in. Rito Chamizul. 

Cf. Chamizal settlement [8:83]. 
[8:85] (1) Picuris "Tuikwepapama 'riv(>r on the other side', name of 
the Pefiasco River".' 

(2) Eug. reiiasco Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Lucia Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (5). 

(4) Span. Rio del Pefiasco, Rito del Pefiasco 'rock river or 
creek' 'rockj" clili' river or creek'. =Eng. (2). "Rio del 
Pefiasco".^ Peiiasco valley ".^ 

(5) Span. Rio Lucia, Rito Lucia ' Lucy River or Creek'. = Eng. 
(3). V^hy this name is applied was not ascertained. 

"From these two mountains [[9:4], [9:13], [22:U], [22:13]] de 
scend two streamlets, which run almost directly to the west, 
parallel with each other, for many miles, divided bj^ wooded 
ridges of small width. One of these brooks is the Rio del Pueblo 
[8:S(;i]; the other the Rio del Pefiasco [8:85], and they unite at a 
distance of a mile below the pueblo of Picuries to form the Rio del 
Embudo [8:79], and thus become tributarj^ to the Rio Grande".^ 
The present writer has not been alile to" learn any Tewa name for 
Pefiasco Creek. 

Cf. Penasco settlement [8:98]. 
[8:86] (1) Picuris " Teupopapama 'Pueblo canyon and Pueblo river 
near Picuris pueblo'.'" 

(2) Picuris " Telpupapama 'whole Pueblo river above Picuris' 
(telpapa 'above'; pama 'river')".' 

(3) Picuris "Tonopahukuil 'Pueblo river below the canyon' "'.' 

(4) Eng. Pueblo Creek, Pueblo River. (<Span.). =Span. (6). 

(5) Eng. Picuris Creek, Picuris River. =Span. (7). 

(6) Span. Rio del Pueblo, Rito del Pueblo, 'pueblo river', refer- 
ring to Picuris Pueblo [8:88]. =Eng. (4). "Rio del Pueblo ".^ 

(7) Span. Riode Picuris, Rito de Picuris. =Eng. (5). 
Budd's Taos " Pa'tiilshenaya 'Pueblo Canyon'"^ presumably 

refers to Pueblo Canyon [8:43] above Taos Pueblo. 

It is understood that the canyon extends from the vicinity' of 
Picuris Pueblo upward to the mountains. A short distance above 
Picuris Pueblo there was formerly a sacred rock in the middle of 
the stream, which had an ancient sun-painting on its surface. In 
spite of the protest of the Picuris Indians this rock was blasted 
away a couple of years ago by the employees of a lumber com- 
pany. See excerpt from Bandelior, under [8:85]. 
[8:87]. Confluence of Pueblo Creek [8:86] and Pefiasco Creek [8:85] 
about one mile below Picuris Pueblo [8:88]. 

' Spinden. Picuris notes, MS., 1910. ' Budd, Taos vocabulary, MS., Bur. Amer. Etbn. 

2 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 35, 1892. 



192 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. anx. 29 

[8:SSj (1) PyjwPoi/wi 'mountain-gap pue))lo' {pv]f 'mountain'; wPi 
'gap' 'pass'; ''qyivi 'pueblo'). The form with no other word 
postpoundcd is PiywPi. 'Picuris person' is regularly enough 
Piijtr/"r'; 'Picuris people', PiywPiijf ('/'*, 'i/;y locative and 
adjective-forming postfix). =Jemez (8). Ping-gwi' 'gateway 
of the mountains' ".' Picuris can hardly be said to be situated in 
a gap in the mountains, and wh}' the Tewa and Jemez names and 
perhaps some of the unexplained names should mean ' mountain 
gap' has not been made clear. Cf. T' awn 'dwell gap', the Tewa 
name for Taos Pueblo [8:45]. 

(2) Taos ' ' Wilana. " ^ = Picuris (4). 

(3) Taos "Hiututa."^ 

(4) Picuris: " Picuries, the aboriginal names of which are both 
UalanaandPing-ul-tha."* "Picuries, Ualana, alsoPing-ul-tha."^ 
"We-la-tah."" = Taos (2). Cf. [8:45], (8). 

(5) Picuris: "Pinuelta".' "Pi°weltha 'Picuris Pueblo."" 
"Pi"welene 'Picuris people."" 

(6) Sandia "Sam-nan.'" Cf. Isleta (7). This is apparently a 
plural form and may mean 'Picuris people.' 

(7) Isleta "Sam-na'i";' cf. Sandia (ti). 

(8) Jemez Pehoiletd 'at the mountain gap' {pe 'mountain'; 
kiolle 'gap' 'pass'; M locative). =Te\va (1). " Pe"kwilita'.'" 
A Picuris person is called Pehwile; two or more Picuris people 
are called PcTiviJeJ. One also saj's, for instance, PehcilSeJa 
'Picuris old man '($<?/'«' old man'), PfAiMuYeScf*?/ ' Picuris people' 
(fscCcif ' people '). Pe is cognate with Tewa fiyf ' mountain ' ; hwi- 
is cognate with Tewa tnPi 'gap.' 

(9) Jemez Ota of obscure etymology. OtatscHdf means 
' Picuris people' {tsd^df ' people '). This name was obtained from 
one Jemez Indian only. If it is correct, it may be that Onate's 
"Acha" (Span. (17), below) is a cori'uption of this name. 

(10) Pecos "Pe"kwilita'.'" This is given as the Jemez and 
Pecos name. 

(11) Cochiti Pikuri. The informant volunteered the informa- 
tion that this is merely the Span, name pronounced as. it is by 
Cochiti Indians. In New Mexican Span, the final s is usually 
faint or has disappeared altogether. Mexicans common 1}^ say 
Pikuri for the written form Picuris. =Sia (12), Keresan (13), 
Eng. (15), and Span. (Iti). 

1 Hodge, field notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1S95 ^ ibid,, p. 260. 

(Handboolt lads., pt. 2, p. 245, 1910). cjouvenoeaii in Catholic Pioneer, i. No. 9, p. 12, 

2 Ibid., 1899 (Handbool!; Ind.s., op. cit., p. 246). 1906. 

'Spinden, Taos notes, MS., 1910. 'Spindeu, Heuris notes, MS., 1910. 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. i, p. 123, 1890. 



HARRINGTON] 



PLACE-NAMES 



193 



(12) Sia "Pikuris."' Probably from the Span. =Cochiti 
(11), Keresan (13), Eng. (15), and Span. (16). 

(13) Keresan (dialect not stated) "Pikuri'a"^. '"Picuris from 
Piluria, its Keresan name."^ It seems probable that this is 
merely the Span, name as pronounced by Keresan Indians. 
= Cochiti (11), Sia (12), En^. (15), and Span." (16). 

(11) J icarilla Apache '•Tok'elc.'"' 

(15) Eng. Picuris. (<Span.). =Cochiti (11), Sia (12), Keresan 
(13), Span. (16). 

(16) Span. Pieuris (of unknown origin). '"Picuries."* "Sant 
Buenaventura."^ "Pecuri."'' "'San Lorenzo de los Pecuries-'"' 
"Pecuries."' " S. Loi'enzo de Picuries."^ "St. Lawrence.'''" 
"S. Lorenzo de los Picuries."" "Pecari."'^ "San Lorenzo de 
Picuries.'"" "Pecucio."" '"Pecucis."'^ "Pecuris."^" "Pica- 
ris."" "Pecora."'* "Picoris."'' "Vicuris."=° "San Lorenzo 
dePecuries."" "Picux."-^ "Picuni."-' "Ticori."^* "Picto- 
ris."" "S. Lorenzo." 2« "Picuri."" "Picuria."^' "Piccu- 
ries."^'' " San Lorenzo de los Picuries."^" "Levillag-e desPicu- 
ris."" "Picuris." =2 

(IT) Span. "Acha."^^ "Acha" is identified with Picuris by 
Baadelier. It may be a corruption of Jemez Ofa; see Jemez 
(S), above. Or it may come from a Pecos form cognate with 
Jemez Ota. 

Picuris Pueblo stands on the north side of Pueblo Creek 
[8:Si!] about a mile above the confluence of the latter with Pe- 
nasco Creek [8:S5]. Bandelier says of Picuris: "At the time of 
the first occupation of New Mexico, Picuries formed a considera- 



"Spinden, Sia notes, MS., 1911. 

!Hodge, field notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 

(Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 245. 1910). 
'Hodge, ibid,, p. 246. 

< Oflate (1.598) inZ)oc.7nc<Z.,xvi,pp.l09,2.57,18"l. 
6 Onate, ibid., p. 257. 
6 MS. of 1683, quoted hy Bandelier in An-h, Inst. 

Papers, in, p. 88, 1890. 
' Vetaneurt (ca. 1693) in Teatro Me.x.. p. 318, 

1871 (mls-sion name.) 
' Vetaneurt, ibid., p. 300. 
' Jefferys. Amer. Atla.s, map 5, 1776. 
"> Kitchin, map of N. A., 1787. 
n Bowles, map of America, 1750+ . 
■'Hervas {ca. 1800) quoted by Prichard, Phys. 

Hist. Man., v, p. 341, 1817. 
'* Alencaster (1805) quoted by Prince, New 

Mexico, p. 37, 1883. 
■» Pike, E.\ped., 2d map, 1810. 
"Ibid., 3d map. IMO. 

i« Humboldt, Atlas Nouv.-Espagne, carte 1, 1811. 
" Simpson, Exped. to Navajo country, 2d map, 
1850. 



18 Calhoun, in Cal. Mess, and Corresp., p. 212, 

18.50. 
1' Calhoun, ibid., p. 211. 
"> Lane in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, \, p. 689, 

18.55. 
2" Ward in Indian Affairs Report for 1867, p. 213, 

1808. 
" Hinton, Handbook to Ariz., map, 1878. 
-3 Powell in Amer. yaturaiist, xiv, p. 605, Aug., 

1880. 
2' Gatschet in Mag. Amer. Hist., p. 2.59, Apr., 

1882. 
K Curtis, Children of the Sun, p. 121, 1883. 
« Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., p. 281, 1889. 
2' Ibid., p. 176, map. 
» Indian Affairs Report, p. 506, 1889. 
» Ladd, Story of New Mexico, p. 201, 1891. 
» Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 206, 1892. 
3' Hewett, Communautfe, p. 29, 1908. 
32 Handbook Inds., pt. 2. p. 2-15. 
23 Castaneda (1596) in Temaux-Compans, Voy. 

IX, p. 168, 1838. 



87584°— 29 eth— 16- 



-13 



194 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ann. 29 

ble village; to-day it is reduced to a mere hamlet."' A San Juan 
informant says that the principal shrine of the Picuris Indians is 
on top of Jicarita Mountain [22:9]. An old scalp-house (Tewa 
Po¥owate 'head-skin house') is still to be seen in the plaza of 
Picuris. Scalps are hanging in this house in plain sight of all 
who enter. 

[8:89] The "Old Castle," presumably called in Span. Castillo Viejo. 
This ruin stands just north of the pueblo. Dr. H. J. Spinden^ 
furnishes the following information about it. "There are still 
several houses at Picuris which show pre-Spanish construction. 
The best example is the 'old castle' on a mound back of the 
pueblo. It is said to have been five stories high. It is now 
three, but is in an advanced stage of decay. There are still two 
perfect rooms, which are sealed up and which contain some 
sacred meal. There is a shrine on the moimd of the ' old castle.' 
On it a fetish of clay representing an animal, a piece of an old 
tube pipe, and four small stones, one of them a piece of obsidian, 
were to be seen." 

[8:90] (1) Piijioipiijf 'mountain-gap mountains' (Piytvi'i, see [8:88]; 
pioj" ' mountain '). 

(2) Picuris " Pi°ene— the Picuris mountains are called thus; 
also any range of mountains is called thus."^ 

(3) Eng. Picuris Mountains. =Span. (l). 

(4) Span. Sierra de Picuris 'mountains of [8:88]', q. v. =Eng. (3). 
"The dark mountains of Picuries divide the ruins in the Taos 

country from those to which the traditions of the Picuries are 
attached".^ " There is a trail leading from Taos to Picuries, but 
I preferred the wagon road as more connnodious and as furnish- 
ing a better view of the eastern high chain. This road sur- 
mounts the crests of the Sierra de Picuries by going directly 
south from the Ranchos de Taos [8:58] for some distance. It 
follows at first a pleasant valley and a lively rivulet, and then 
penetrates into forests of pine on the northern slopes of the 
Picuries chain. These wooded solitudes afforded no room for the 
abode of man in ancient times. The modern traveller delights in 
their refreshing shade, and notices with interest the animal life 
that fills the thickets. The jet-black and snow-white magpie 
[Tewa lwa\i] flutters about; blue jays [Tewa se] appear, and 
variegated woodpeckers. It is so different from the arid mesas 
and barren mountains that we forget the painful steepness of the 
road. Its general direction is now to the southwest. Once on 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. II, p. 35, 1892. ' Bandelier, op. cit., p. 33. 

' Picuris notes, MS., 1910. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 195 

the southern slope of the Picuries range, we strike directly for 
the west. . . . the abrupt Sierra de Picuries, against which the 
pueblo leans on the south, is covered with stately forests".' 

[8:91J Eng. United States Peak. 

Wheeler- gives the height as 10,73J: feet. It appears to be the 
highest peak of the Picuris Mountains [8:90]. 

[8:92] The old trail between Taos and Picuris. 

Bandelier^ evidently mentions this trail: ''There is a trail 
leading from Taos to Picuries ". Mr. Spinden * gives this infor- 
mation: " This trail goes over 11,000 feet high; some people can 
not stand it. The road attains a height of over 10,000 feet." 

[8:93] Picuris "Matsoita, meaning 'muy fragoso' 'very rough'".'' 

[8:9-1] Picuris "Poiketha".* 

[8:95] Picuris ''Kaket'hoa, 'the old pueblo' ".^ Whether this name 
means old pueblo in general or is the proper name of this ruin is 
not clear. 

Dr. Spinden furnishes the follpwing native description: "The 
old pueblo is on the ridge between Pueblo and Peiiasco Rivers. 
This old pueblo was established after the flood. It continued to 
increase until Cortes came. The people of this pueblo went to 
the east. But five families went west to California. Most of 
the Indians of this pueblo went to Red River [8:19] and founded 
a new pueblo close to a very high mountain. It was a very long 
time ago when they were last heard of. There are old remains on 
top of a flat ridge between Rio Pueblo and Rio Peiiasco about 1 
mile below Smith's store. Bowlder foundations extend over a 
large area. Pottery fragments are common. It is black and 
white painted pottery with geometric designs. A common ele- 
ment is standing triangles with parallel lines. Also incised black 
pottery was found. The incisions are horizontal lines a quarter 
to half an inch apart. Also a few samples of corrugated ware 
were picked up. Remains of small grinding stones were fairly 
common." 

[8:96] Picuris "Quta, lower bench of the tongue of land between 
Pueblo Creek and Peiiasco Creek ".^ 

"from these two mountains [22:9] [22:13] descend two stream- 
lets, which run almost directly to the west, parallel with each 
other, for many miles, divided by wooded ridges of small width".' 

1 BandelieY, Final Report, pt. n, pp. 3-1-35, 1S92. 

2U. S. Geographical Surveys west of the 100th meridian, parts of southern Colorado and northern 
New Mexico, atlas sheet No. 69, 1873-1877. 
^Bandelier, op. cit., p. 34. 
•Spinden, Picuris notes, MS., 1910. 
> Bandelier, op. cit., p. 35. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 9 




MAP 9 
VELARDE REGION 



HAKKIXGTON] PLACE-NAMES 197 

Unlocated pueblo ruin near Picuris Pueblo. " The ruins of a pueblo 
exist on oue of the mesas near by, but I had no time to investi-' 
gate them, and have only seen many fi'agments of pottery and of 
giinding-slabs from that locality."' Perhaps identical with 
[8:95]. 

Unlocated sulphur springs. " Five miles south of Taos . . . are 
sulphur springs of rare medicinal value." ^ Perhaps identical 
with [8 :(>!]. 

Unlocated sulphur springs. "Between Peuasco [8:98] and Mora 
[Mora in Mora County, not on any of the accompanying maps] 
on the Rio Pueblo [8:86], are sulphur springs of rare medicinal 
value. "^ 

[9] VELARDE SHEET 

All the region shown on this sheet (map 9) is claimed by the Tewa 
of San Juan. Three Tewa pueblo ruins are included. The sheet is 
named from Velarde [9:t)], which is perhaps the most widely known 
settlement. 



[9 
[9 
[9 



:1] Canoe Mesa, see [13:1]. 

:2] San Juan K^cbewehioaje, see [8:76]. 

:3] San Juan J'vAw'if 'cane cactus arroyo' (/o ' cane cactus ' 'Opun- 
tia arborescens'; Aw'w 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
[9:4] (1) San Juan Kop^Me 'boat corner' 'bridge corner', referring 
to the Span, name (Z:o/>'e 'boat' 'bridge' <tc unexplained, p& 
'stick' 'log'; ht^e small low roundish place). Cf. Span. (4). 

(2) Eng. Brady. This name, now the official one, was given 
to the place several years ago and is in common use. 

(3) Eng. Canoa. (< Span.). =Span. (4). Cf. Tewa (1). 

(4) Span. Canoa, 'canoe' 'boat'. The name is perhaps taken 
from Canoe Mesa [9:1]. =Eng. (3). Cf. Tewa (1). 

[9:5] (1) San Juan Tsig:iLhnh_i 'chico corner' (^'.v/g'U an unidentified bush 
very common in New Mexico, called by the Mexicans of the 
Tewa country chico; hu^u 'large low roundish place'). 
There is much chico growing at this place. 

(2) Picuris "Phahu'tena, 'hole in the ground.' "^ Perhaps a 
translation of the Span. name. = Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. La Hoya, La Joya. (<Span.). =Span. (4). Cf. 
Picuris (2). 

(4) Span. La Hoya, New Mexican Span. La Joya, 'the dell' 
'the hollow.' =Eng. (3). Cf. Picuris (2). The Span, name is still 

in common use as a designation of the whole locality. It was 

1 BaiidclitT, Final Report, j.t. ir, pp. 3.>-3fi, 1892. > Ibid., p. 17.5. 

" Land of Sunshine, Santa Fe, pp. 173-175, 1906. • Spinden, Picuris notes, MS., 1910. 



198 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS Frth. ann. 29 

formerly also used as the name of the settlement [9:6], which was 
recentl}'^ changed from La Hoya to Velarde l)ecause of confusion 
with La Hoya on the liio Grande below Albuquei'que. In New 
Mexican Span, words beginning with a vowel or h are frequently 
pronounced with an initial 7. Hence the current misspelling "La 
Joya" for La Hoya. Ho^'a is a much applied geograpliical term 
in New Mexican Span., being the nearest Span, equivalent of 
Tewa 6m'«, he'e. "La Joya (ten miles north of San Juan)".' 

[9:6] (1) Eng. Velarde settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Velarde (familj'^ name). =Eng. (1). 
This i)lace was formerly' called La Hoya settlement; see [9:5]. 
Because of confusion with La Hoya on the Kio Grande south of 
Albuquerque the name of the post office was recently changed 
to Velarde, this being now the official name and adopted by 
Mexicans living in the vicinity. The name Velarde was chosen 
because of a prominent Mexican family named Velarde, which 
resides at the place. 

[9:7] (1) San Juan Kutfijlt'ohu 'Cuchilla Hill' {Kutfija <Span. (2); 
'ohu 'hill'). Cf. Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Cuchilla, 'narrow sharp ridge'. Cf. Tewa (1). 
The bladelike point of [9:.s] is called by this name Some apply 
the name vaguely to the whole hill. See [9:8]. 

[9:8] San Juan Tsig.uhug.e\mf\i)f 'chico corner mountain', refer- 
ring to [9:5] {T!<ig,ubu\i, see [9:5]; g.e 'down at' 'over at'; 'i'' 
locative and adjective-forming postfix; piyf 'mountain'). This 
hill or mountain is perhaps sometimes called by the same names 
as [9:7]. Perhaps the Mexicans would call it Cerro de La Hoya, 
but such a name might refer to any mountain or large hill near 
La Hoya, while the Tewa name given above does not. 

[9:9] (1) San Juan ^ Omxrjfii'itjfhu\i, 'crooked chin place arro^-o' 
i'Omigtjffi, see [22:unlocated]; '■!'* locative and adjective-forming 
postfix ; /; u'u ' large groove ' ' arroyo '). 

(2) Eng. Truchas Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Rito de las Truchas, ' trout creek.' Probably so called 
from the presence of trout therein; but cf. Truchas settlement 
[22:11], which is probably named from the creek, although the 
reverse may be true. 

This long creek has perennial water only in its upper course. 
See ^Oms^yge^ [22:unlocated], and Truchas settlement [22:11]. 
[9:10] San Juan '' Om(e'ijgihug.etoia 'cliffs at crooked chin place arroyo' 
{Omce.yQihii'u, see [9:9]; ge 'down at' 'over at'; lota 'cliff"). 

These very noticeable cliffs are on the north side of the creek 
[9:9] about two miles from the Rio Grande. 

'Bandelicr, Final Report, pt. n, pp. 63-64, :S92. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 199 

[9:11] San .hum Kuso'jowihu'g.e hMa ^Omseyff^hugi'iyy'oh/. 'hills of 
[9:9] and [9:12]' {Kugo'jmoiJm'u, see [9:12]; g.e 'down at' 'over af; 
hedaa 'and'; ' Oinseyg^hu'u, see [9:9]; 'i'' locative and adjective 
fonning postfix; 'okit 'hill'). 

[9:12] San Juan Kujio'jouilhu\c 'great rock gap arroyo ' (^(^*oyoW«, 
see [9:15]; huu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[9:13] San Juan Jagem4''oku of obscure etymology {jag.e 'between'; 
riiii unexplained; ''ohu 'hill'). 

[9:1-4] San Juan Kmojo 'great stone' {ku 'stone'; so]jo 'great', form 
agreeing with ku, mineral singular). 

This stone is what remains of the woman who fed the water- 
man according to the mj'th related under [10:26]. Fleeing from 
Wke'oyicikeji [10:26] over the old trail to Picuris, she reached the 
site of this stone, where she became petrified as she lay down on 
the ground to rest. The stone lies on a little height about a dozen 
yards east of Kuso'jovn'' i [9:15] through which the old trail to 
Picuris passes. It is a hard grayish-white stone, about the size 
of a person. The length is live feet, its diameter averages about a 
foot and a half. Its surface is smooth and roundish. The stone 
lies north-northwest and south-southeast. The head end, which 
is to the south-southeast, is slightl}' higher than the other end. 
Arms, breasts, and other features (female) are clearly to be made 
out, as the old Indian informant showed the writer. The stone 
would weigh a thousand pounds, perhaps. Some small fragments 
of stone lie on the ground just southwest of the stone. These are 
said to be what remains of two ears of corn which the old woman 
had with her as provisions during her flight. This stone is a k'aje, 
or sacred thing. A wagon road passes a few rods east of the spot. 
Mexicans travel on this road, knowing nothing of the existence of 
the old woman. The stone has given names to [9:12], [9:15], and 

[9:16]- 
[9:15] San Juan Kiiso[jowiH 'great stone gap,' referring to the Kuso'jo 

[9:1-4] («'/'/ 'gap' 'pass'). 
The old trail to Picuris passes through this gap. The trail is 

deeply worn in the gap. The petrified old woman lies near by, 

to the east. 
[9:16] San Juan Kv^d'jd'olcu 'great stone hills', referring to the 

Kmo'jo (see [9:11]; 'oku 'hills'). 
[9:17] Jutapo 'Ute trail' {Jutli 'Ute'; po 'trail'). 

This is the old and still well-worn trail to the Ute Indian 

country. It climbs Canoe Mesa [9:1] opposite the pueblo ruin 

[9:23], passing up the Jutapo'ir)fhu''u [9:18]. It crosses Canoe 

Mesa [9:1], going toward the north, and Comanche Creek [6:12] 

at a place not determined, and passes thence to the country where 

the Ute formerl}' ranged. 



200 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

[9:18] San Juan Jut<ipo'iijfhu''ti ' Ute fcniil arroyo' {Jatapo, see 
[9:17J; 't'* locative and adjective-forming postlix; /m'w 'large 
groove' 'arroyo"). See [9:17]. 
[9:19] (1) Eng. Lyden t^tation. 

(2) Span. Bosque, 'forest', the Span, name referring to the 
locality both west and east of the Rio Grande. See [9:20]. 
[9:20] (1) San Juan £«/,(}. (<Span.). =Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Bosque. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

{?>) Span. Bo.sque, 'forest.' =Tewa (1), Eng. (2). 

This name is applied to the locality on both sides of the river, 
including Lyden, which is on the west side. The name Lyden 
seems never to be applied to the settlement on the east side of the 
river, which is alwaj's called Bosque. See [9:21]. 
[9:21] San Juan Bolep'eh'abii'u 'Bosque corral corner' (Boke, see 
[9:20]; p'ek'a 'corral' <p'e 'stick' 'timber', k'a 'fence' 'en- 
closure'; 6m'm 'large low roundish place'). 
[9:22] San Juan Ss^Juhuhi 'corn-silk arroyo', referring to [9:23] 
{Ssefu, see [9:23]; hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

This is a large arroyo. 
[9:28] San Juan Siejii' qrjiciJieji 'corn-silk pueblo ruin' {sscju 'corn- 
silk' < s^ 'corn-silk', fu perhaps connected with fy, 'to fl}''; 
^qywikeji 'pueblo ruin' <^oywi 'pueblo', keji 'ruin' postpound). 

"They [the Tewa of San Juan] also state that there are two ruins 
at La Joya [9:5], (ten miles north of San Juan), one of which 
they call' Sil-jiu Uing-ge', and the other 'I'ho-jiu Uing-ge'.''' 
"Poihuge (maison du clan de Teau), et Saihuge (maison du clan 
du tabac) a dlx milles au nord des villages actuels sur le meme 
cote de la riviere.'' - 

The ruin consists of low mounds on a low bluff beside the river. 
Potsherds and other debris are strewn along the edge of the bluff 
for a distance of 200 yards or more. The ruin is being eroded 
by the river, and much of it is already gone. An irrigation ditch 
runs at present at the foot of the bluff between the bluff' and the 
water of the river. The sandy island [9:2i] is opposite the ruin. 
[9:2-1] (1) San Juan Bol-epoja-ie 'Bosque Island' {Buke, see [9:20]; 
fojoue 'island' <i)o ' water ',_;a./c 'in the middle of 'in'). 

(2) San Juan SsefupojcUe 'corn-silk island' {Ssrfu, see [9:23]; 
pojade 'island' < po ' water', _;a^e 'in the middle of 'in'). 

This is a large, low sr.ndy ishind opposite the ruin [9:23]. 
[9:25] San Juan Ssefuhuu 'corn-silk corner' {Sscfii, see [9:23]; J(/"m 
'large low roundish place'). 

This is a little dell beside the river just below [9:23]. A small 
arroyo which has its mouth here might be called S^'fubnhuu 
{hi^u 'arroj'o'). 

I Bandolier, Finn! Report, pt. ii, pp. 63-64, 189J. 
' Hewett, Communautes, p. 30, 1908. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 201 

[9:20] Nameless arroyo. The San Juan informant could not remem- 
ber it8 name. 

[9:27] Nameless pueblo ruin. 

Many fragments of Indian pottery are strewn here on the ground. 
Part of a wall composed of adobe bricks was found at the place. 
The site is an open plain. It is not certain that this is the ruin 
of an Indian pueblo. The San Juan informant could not remem- 
ber the name of this ruin, but said that he had heard the name of 
either this or another ruin somewhere in this vicinity. It may 
be that this is PopdbVqijwikeji; see under [9:unlocated]. Mr. 
Juan de Dios Romero, whose home is in this region, told the 
writer that he knows of Mexicans finding Indian metates at a 
place not far from the river and about midway between [9:27] 
and [9:3i]. There used to be two Mexican houses at the place 
where the metates were found, but nobody lives there now. 

[9:28] Farmhouse of- Mr. Felipe Lopez, given in order to locate 
[9:27]. 

[9:29] Farmhouse of Mr. Manuel Martinez, given iu order to locate 
[9:27]. 

[9:30] San Juan Pdbxnfut-thirhjli'q 'barranca of Avaiiu dwelling-place 
corner', referring to [9:31](Fo6^/i/?«;;t'6«'«, see [9:31]; '/"' locative 
and adjective-forming postfix; kq 'barranca' 'arroyo with a 
noticeable bank"). 

This gulch runs straight back from Alcalde station. 

[9:31] (1) San Juan Poha^njmteiv/u^ 'Avanu dwelling-place corner', 
referring to the pool [9:32] {Pdbsgnjnite, see [9:32]; buhi 'large 
low roundish place'). 

(2) Eng. Alcalde station. (< Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Alcalde 'magistrate' 'judge'. =Eng. (2). This 
name was recently given and properlj- belongs to Alcalde settle- 
ment [10:15] on the east side of the river. 

There are a station and windmill at [9:31]. 

[9:32] San Jwan Foisenj'ute, Fois^nj'ufepokici 'Avanu dwelling-place' 
Avaiiu dwelling-place pool' {Pohseiifu San Juan form of the San 
Ildefonso ^Ahaiifu 'horned-snake divinity', probably < po 
'water', j^^n/u 'snake'; te 'dwelling-place '■,poku'i 'pool' 'lake' 
<po 'water', ^^wj unexplained). 

West of the station and windmill and by the river's edge is a 
depression as large as a span of hoi'ses, where water may collect. 
This was believed by the Tewa of San Juan to be one of the 
dwelling-places of ^Aianfit ' horned-snake divinity'. 

[9:33] San Juan Sipidaup ch' awiy f ^akqnnu 'plain of the corral of 
the soldiers' {Stpidaup' ek' a^ see [9:34:]; 'i'% wj'*; locative and adjec- 
tive-forming po-sttix; \ikqnnH 'plain' K^tkoyf 'plain', tut unex- 
plained). 

This is a wide, level, barren plain. 



202 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

[9:34] (1) San Juan Sim4aup'ek' a' iwe 'at the corral of the soldiers', 
translating the Span. name. = Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Corral of the Soldiers, translating the Span, name, 
Corral de Los Soldados. =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Corral de los Soldados,- 'corral of the soldiers'. =Tewa 
(1), Eng. (2). Cf. [9:33], [9:3.;], [9:37]. 

Some American soldiers had their barracks at this place at 
sometime or other, when, the informants did not know; hence 
the name. This place is about a mile below Bosque [9:20]. 
[9:35] (1) Eng. Los Luceros settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Los Luceros (a family name). =Eng. (1). 

The northernmost houses of Los Luceros are at [9:34]; the 
most southerly are at [9:44]. 
[9:36] San Juan Sundahp'ek'abiPu 'corner bj^ the corral of the sol- 
diers ' ( Sy,Jidauj_7'ek'a, see [9 :34] ; bi/u ' large low roundish place '). 

This name refers to the low place by the river about and below 
the mouth of [9:37]. The mesa almost merges into the bottom- 
lands here, so slight is its elevation. 
[9:37] San Juan Siuidaiq) eM a^iyl-qhu- u 'barranca arroyo of the 
corral of the soldiers ' {Sy,ndaup'ek'a,see [9:34]; 'i'Mocative and 
adjective-forming postfix; I'oA«';< ' barranca arroyo' <^'g 'bar- 
ranca ', /lu^ii ' large groove ' ' arroyo '). 

To this large arroyo the spring [9:38] is tributary. 
[9:38] (1) San Juan Tsig.upomra, Tsigjiponupriju 'down by the chico 
water' 'spring down by the chico water' {Tsigh unidentified 
species of bush, called by the Mexicans of the Tewa countrj'^ 
chico; ^0 'water'; mi'u 'below' 'down at'; poj>i 'spring' <po 
' water,' pi ' to issue '). 

(2) Eng. Ballejos spring. (<Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Ojo de los Vallejos, Barrancas de los Ballejos, 'Balle- 
jos Spring' 'Vallejos Barrancas' (Vallejos, Span, family name, 
name of a Mexican family which used to live near this place). 
= Eng. (2). 

This spring is the only water in the vicinity and is used for 
watering sheep. The place is almost due west of Alcalde station 
[9:31]. The old San Juan informant formerly spent much time 
herding sheep about this spring. When the spring did not have 
enough water, the sheep had to be driven down to the river to 
water them. The whole region south of Kiisi'jo [9:14] is loosely 
called nighponuu. See [9:39], [9:40], [9:41], and [9:42]. 
[9:39] San Juan Tsig.upomig.e^r'7oia\' 'little cliffs or banks down by 
the chico -water' {T>iiguponwu, see [9:38]: g.f 'down at' 'over at'; 
'/'* locative and adjective-forming postfix; ioia 'clifl' 'bank'; '^ 
diminutive). 

The spring and pool arc surrounded on the north and east b^' 
peculiar little clifi's. 



hakrixi:ton] place-names 203 

[9:40] San Juan THig.u^onug.ii^^ok\Ce 'little hills down by the cliico 
water' (7A'/g*>/)"«(/'w, see [9:38]; g(''downiit' 'overat'; '^''locative 
and adjective-forming posttix; ^ohu 'hill'; V' diminutive). 

Southeast of the spring and pool is a range of very small hills. 

[9:41] San Juan Tx!g.}tponug.e' impokwi'' c 'little pool down by the chico 
water' {Tsigupon it'll, see [9:3SJ; ge 'down at' 'over at'; T' loca- 
tive and adjective- forming postfix; pokwi 'pool' 'lake' <po 
'water', Inci unexplained; 'c; diminutive). 

This is a small round pool which drains to the south. North- 
east and west of it are small knolls of bluish, pebbly earth. 
Grass grows luxuriantlv in a small patch south of the pool. The 
little arroyo [9:42] can be traced from the spring. 

[9:42] San Juan Ts/guponiige''iijko 'barranca down by the chico 
water' {Tsiguponu'u, see [9:38]; g.e 'down at' 'overat'; T' loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix; ko 'barranca' 'banked 
arroyo'). See [9:41]. 

[9:43] San Juan P'Poge'oywi^/cjl 'pueblo ruin down at the wood- 
pecker place' {p'Po 'woodpecker', Span, "carpintero'; ge 'down 
at ' 'over at'; 'orjwihyi ''puehlo ruin' <^qywi 'pueblo', keji 'ruin' 
postpound). The whole region about the ruins is called F' Pog.e. 
There are several names of animals compounded with ge. Thus 
TsUege ' down at the bird place ' [17:34], for instance. " Pio-ge." ^ 
"Pioge."2 

The pueblo ruin lies perhaps a hundred yards southeast of the 
farm of Mr. Isador Lopez. A wagou road runs between this 
farm and the ruin. A ditch about 15 feet deep has been cut 
through the ruin from north to south. This ditch was con- 
structed for irrigation purposes about seven years ago, but owing 
to financial difliculties of the company which dug it, the ditch 
has never been utilized. The pueblo was of adobe and the ruin 
consists of low mounds. Bandelier' says of P'i-oge: "Pio-ge, 
three miles north of San Juan. This is smaller than Abiquiu [3 :38] ; 
but the disposition of its buildings appears to have been similar. 
Considerable pottery has been exhumed from Pio-ge, and hand- 
some specimens are in Mr. Eldodt's possession. Among them 
are sacrificial bowls witli the turreted rim that characterizes those 
vessels, and the sj'mbolic paintings of the rain-clouds, of water- 
snakes, and of the libella. Similar fetiches of alabaster have also 
been unearthed. Pio-ge is claimed b}' the Tehuas of San Juan as 
one of their ancient villages, and they assert that it was aban- 
doned previous to Spanish times." 

'■Quatre endrf)its sont bien connus des Indiens de San Juan 
pour avoir ete habites anciennemcnt par quclques-uns de leurs 
clans: Pioge, a trois milles au nord de San Juan."^ PToge has 
given the name to the small arroyo [9:44]. 

'Bandelier, Fioal Report, pt. Ii, p. 63, 1892. 2 Hewett, Communautfe, p. 30, 1908. 



204 ETHKOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

[9:i4] Siin Juan 1'' i'ligeyjlq 'barranca down at the woodpecker 
place' (P'i'oge, see [9:43]; T^ locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; Ji-q ' barranca ' ' cleft arroyo ' ). 

[9:45J Sau Juan ''Awap'ahiCu 'cattail corner' {^aioajid 'cattail', 
unidentified species; 6m'm 'large low roundish place'). This name 
is applied to the low land by the river south of the vicinity of the 
mouth of [9:4i] and north of the vicinity of the mouth of [10:6]. 
Cattails {^awajya) were seen growing at the upper end of this area. 
The corner has given its name to [9:4G] and to [10:C]. 

[9:46] San Juan 'Aivap'al-waje 'cattail heights', referring to [9:45] 
i^awap'a 'cattail', as in [9:45]; hmje 'height'). This name 
refers to the higher land east of [9:45]. The ruin [9:43] is said to 
stand on ^aicap'akwaje. 

Unlocated 

A puel)lo ruin mentioned by Bandelier as "Pho-jiu Uing-ge" 
and by Hewett as "Poihuge." 

" They [the Tewa of San Juan] also state that there are two ruins 
at La Joya (10 miles north of San Juan), one of which they call 
'Sa-jiu Uing-ge' [9:23], and the other 'Pho-jiu Uing-ge'."^ 
" Quatre endroits sont bien connus des Indiens de San Juan pour 
avoir ete habites anciennement par quelques-uns de leurs clans . . . 
Poihuge (maison du clan de I'eau)."^ No form like "Poihuge" 
can mean in Tewa " hovise of the water clan," and what is more 
perplexing no Tewa can make any meaning out of "Pho-jiu." 
The writer laboi'ed with these forms persistently among the San 
Juan Indians. The San Juan informants suggest that "Pho-jiu" 
is for I'lifiPu, the name of the pueblo ruin [3:9] situated near 
Abiquiu; and they think that " Poihuge" must be the same name 
with the locative g.e postfixed, as is often done. Bandelier may 
qvxite easil}' have made this mistake. There is, however, another 
jilausilile explanation, and that is that "Pho-jiu" may be for 
Pojwi\\ see PopuiV qywilej i , page 205'. Popdbi may have been 
changed to Pof it'll, by Pandelier's informant because of influence 
of Sse./ti, with which it was associated. Sxfii may have called to 
his mind Pofu\i, although the latter is a ruin in the Chama Kiver 
drainage, especiallj- since Pofu'ii and Poj'oil both contain po 
' squash ' as their first syllable. Or the writer's informants may all 
be wrong. But it would be strange if there were a pueblo ruin 
named Pof it'll near Abiquiu and another by the same name near 
La Hoya [9:5]. One should also notice in connection with these 
names Hewett's " Poihuuinge ", which he locates in the Chama River 
drainage; see "Poihuuinge" under [5:unlocated], page 157. 

' Bandelier. Final Report, |it. ii, pp. 63-64, 1892. = Hewett, CommunautiV, p. 30, 190S. 



MAP 10 
OLD SAN JUAN REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 10 




''/»'--;-;/iip vV/iMil/n v7''\,v'' M\«>-'/'>"''/i''^/?\^\< 



:^':^ 



OLD SAN JUAN reqiq^ 



•'///H'' 

".'.'.''/■ 



MAP 10 
OLD SAN JUAN REGION 



H.utRixcTox] PLACE-NAMES 205 

San .Inan PopoWqywiikeji 'squash flower pueblo ruin' {po 'squash' 
'pumpkin'; poit 'flower'; ^Qijwikeji 'pueblo ruin' <^Q>jwi 
'pueblo', Irji 'ruin', postpouud). This name was known to 
three San Juan informants. They ag-reed that this 'ruin' is lo- 
cated somewhere near Sfrfn'oijinl-ejl [9:23]. It may be the 
nameless and problematic ruin [9:27] the name of which the in- 
formant could not remember. At any rate it is almost certain 
that it is the name for which Bandelier's "Pho-jiu" is intended. 

[10] OLD SAN JUAN SHEET 

This sheet (map 10) shows a tract just north of San Juan Pueblo, One 
pueblo ruin, Old San Juan [10:26], is included, from which the sheet 
has been named. 

[10:1] Canoe Mesa, see [13:1]. 

[10:2] San Juan Qicakede\ see [13:3]. 

[10:3] Tsewipo 'eagle gap trail', so called because it passes north of 
but near [7:24] {Tsewn, see [7:24]; p,> 'trail'). 

This is an old trail. It is the one frequently taken when going 
bj' trail from the vicinity of San Juan to Ojo Caliente or El Rito 
regions. The trail winds its way up Canoe Mesa [10:1] just liack 
of jVqnij)'o))u''u [10:4] and almost tlirectly opposite the old ruin of 
PPog.!; [9:43]. The trail is perhaps also called by the San Juan 
Xqmjj'onupo {Mimj/onii^u, see [10:4]; po 'trail"). It is probably 
to this trail that Bandelier' refers when he says: "A trail leads 
across it [Canoe Mesa] to the Rio Grande from Ojo Caliente". 

[10:4] (1) San Juan JVqmp'omi'u 'down at the holes in the earth", 
referring to holes of some sort in the ground at the foot of the 
cliff of Canoe Mesa [10:1] at this place (nqyf 'earth'; p^o 'hole'; 
mi'u 'below', applied to distinguish the place from the height of 
Canoe Mesa [10:1], which overhangs it). 

(2) Eng. Estaca settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Estaca 'tlie stake'. =Eng. (2). In what connection 
this name is applied is unknown. "La Staka".^ 

The most southerly house of this place is the lai'ge residence of 
Mr. Juan Lopez, which is approximatelj' opposite Alcalde [10:15]; 
the place extends to the north to the point at which the Tscuu'po 
trail [10:3] climbs the mesa. The hill or slope called Qwake-ii 
[10:2] lies between the place and the cliff of the mesa [10:1]. 
[10:5] San Juan "'Awapabuhi, see [9:45]. 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 63, note, 1892. 

' U. S. Gcographieal Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, Part.s of Southern Colorado and Northern 
New Mexico, atlas sheet No. 69, 1873-1877. 



206 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [btu. ann. 29 

[10:t'iJ .Siin Juan ^Awap'abti'iylcQ 'cattail corner arroyo' CAwap'a- 

buu, see [9: 4:5]; 'i'* locative and adjective-forming postfix; Icq 

'barranca' •arro3'o with banks'). 
This is a broad and straight arroyo which gets its name because 

its mouth is at [10:5]. 
[10:7] (1) Eng. La Villita settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(•2) Span. La Villita 'the little town.' =Eng. (1). A few 

Mexican houses at this place are called by this pretentious name. 

No San Juan Tewa name for tliis place could be learned. 
[10:8] (1) Eng. Los Pachecos settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Los Pachecos (Span, family name). =Eng. (1). 
There are a few Mexican houses at this place. 
[10:9] San Juan \4.ny,bu''u of obscure etymology Canu unexplained; 

bii'u 'large low roundish place"). '^4«^ appears also in a number 

of other names; see [10:10], [10:11], [10:12], [10:13], [10:14], and 

[10:15]. 
[10:10] San Juan 'Any.'keui of obscure etymology Ca/iy,, see [10:H]; 

heM 'height'). This name is applied to the higher land east of 

[10:9]. 
[10:11] San Juan'' AniikQ of obscure etymology ('a^iy, see [10:9]; Jco 

'barranca' 'arroyo with banks'). 

This arroyo passes about half a mile north of Alcalde settle- 
ment [10:15]. 
[10:12] San Juan \i)iy,''oku of obscure etymologj^ Cany,, see [10:9]; 

'o/l'« 'hill'). 
The group of hills here referred to is about 2 miles from the 

Rio Grande. 
[10:13] San Juan ^Any,''ohikQ of obscure etymology ^any,, see [10:9]; 

'o^M'hill'; l-o 'barranca' 'arroyo with banks'). 
[10:14:] San Juan'' Anii'ohibu'u "J.?;/;* (unexplained) hill corner'' C (my,, 

see [10:9]; ''oku 'hill'; bii'ii 'large low roundish place'). 

This low place lies between 'Any'ohi, [10:12] and Ily^sehvaje 

[10:21]. It is said to be barren, with no trace of the works of 

man in sight. 
[10:15] (1) San Juan 'AnyhCu ' 'Any (unexplained) town' {'any, see 

[10:9]; bun 'town'). 

(2) 'Akadebuu 'Alcalde town' {'Akade, see Span. (4); 6«'m 
'town'). =Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Alcalde settlement. ( < Span) . = Tewa (2), Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Alcalde, Plazita Alcalde 'magistrate' "judge.' 
= Tewa (2), Eng. (3). Span, alcalde is translated in Tewa by 

the word twdiK but the name of Alcalde settlement is never 
translated. 

This is an old Mexican settlement. 



U.UiUixc;To.\] PLACE-NAMES 207 

[10:1<)] San Juan PPiioui 'clay point' (pPi 'a kind of pottery clay,' 
860 Nijin'i under Minerals; wi'.ii 'projectino- corner or point"). 
This name is ^iven to a small point of land projecting toward the 
south, situated about midway between [10:15] and [10:20]. Cf. 
[10:17] and [10:18]. 

[10:17] San Juan Pi'iwi^d'iijfhii'u 'clay point arroyo' {Priwidi, see 
[10:1(1]; T' locative and adjective-forming postfix; hu^u 'lai-ge 
groove' "arroj'o'). 

[10:18] San Juan PriwiJihii'u 'cla}' point corner' {Piiwi'di, see 
[10:16]; bu'u 'large low roundish place'). 

[10:1'.»] San Juan Q/rfhiensehi(\( 'corner where it cuts through' (qwode 
'to cut through' as a stream cuts through earth or sand; riBg, 
locative; hv^u 'large low roundish place'). Cf. [10:20]. 

[10:211] San Juan Qwo.ienseko/nt'u 'barranca arroyo where it cuts 
through' {Quxhienx, see [10:19]; l-qhii'u 'barranca arroj^o' <hQ 
'barranca', kii'u ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

This lai'ge ai'royo flows out from IlyTsel'tCKr/e [10:21], and in its 
upper part might perhaps be called Il^tsekohu^u. See [12:2]. 

[10:21] San Juan Ilyiselwaje, see [12:2]. 

[10:22] Small nameless arroyo. 

[10:23] San Juan PlUlcutsss^iyfhuu 'arroj^o where the meat is or was 
pounded' (7«S» 'meat'; Tcutsie 'to pound' 'to peck'; 'i'Mocative 
and adjective-foi'ming postfix; Jutn ' largo groove ' 'arroyo'). 

[10:21] San Juan 'Anfibuu 'sunflower corner' {^anfi 'sunflower', 
probably <Span. aiiile 'sunflower', used instead of the old Tewa 
x\?Lme t'lnnpdbl 'sun flower' (?■'(] ^/y 'sun'; pdtl 'flower'); hu'u 
'large low roundish place'). Why the name was originally ap- 
plied was not known to the informants. Cf. [10:25] and [10:26]. 

[10:25] San 3 \x?ir\^ An filce.i 1 ,'' An fihulced I , 'ylnyi6;<'o^fie'.</ 'sunflower 
height' 'sunflower corner height' 'sunflower height where Old 
San Juan is' i^anfi 'sunflower', ^AnfiJ)u''u, see [10:24]; ^olce, see 
[10:26]; IceM 'height'). The higher land east of [10:2-1] is called 
thus. 

Old San Juan Pueblo ruin [10:26] is at this place. 

[10:26] San Juan ^ Ohe'qijwil'eji, ''Anfibiidl'roiju'ikcji ^''Ohe (unex- 
plained) Pueblo ruin' '•^OJce (unexplained) Pueblo ruin at sun- 
flower corner [10:24]' (^ Oke unexplained, name of San ,Iuan 
Pueblo, see San Juan Pueblo under [11], pages 211-15; ^Qijivilrji 
'pueblo ruin' <\ijwi 'pueblo', keji 'ruin' postpound; ''Anfibu'u, 
see [10:24]). 

No previous mention of this pueblo ruin can be found. The 
San .Juan informants sa}' that San Juan Indians speak of it more 
frequently than they do of any other pueblo ruin, for it is old 
San Juan, and the San Juan people used to live there before they 



208 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIAKS [eth. ann. 29 

migrated south to build a pueblo [11:17], also called '' Olce and now 
in ruins, and more recently to build the present pueblo of San 
eTuan, which they now inhabit and to which they still ap))ly the 
old name ''Oke, the present pueblo being the third to which this 
name has been applied. 

''Atif'^buvke^qriwikeji, above, was abandoned because of a flood, 
according to the San Juan informants. It was once a very popu- 
lous pueblo. In those old days there were certain religious cere- 
monies which required that a man be shut up without food or 
water for twelve days. A certain man, inhabitant of the ancient 
pueblo, was once shut up according to this custom; he was con- 
fined in a dark room, and a man and a woman were appointed to 
watch him and see that he neither drank nor ate. On the eleventh 
day he burst out of the room like a madman, and crazed for want 
of water, running to a marshy place at 'Anfibi/'u [10:24], just 
below the old pueblo, he lay down and drank and drank of the 
water. This was a bad omen. After a while the man burst, and 
water from his bod}' gushed over all the highlands and lowlands 
and obliterated the whole pueblo. One can still see at the ruin 
ti-aces of this catastrophe. The inhabitants fled, and built a new 
' CV/i'd village at [11:17] about a mile farther' south. The woman 
who had been guarding the fasting man also took to flight, fol- 
lowing the old trail which leads to Picuris. Where this trail 
passes through a gap in the hills the woman lay down on the 
ground to rest, when she was suddenly transformed into a stone, 
which can still be seen l3'ing near the pass. This stone is called 
Euso^Jo'' great stone'; see [9:1-1:]. The gap referred to is £'(/wy(«r/'j 
' great stone gap' [9:15]. According to an old custom, the woman 
carried a couple of ears of corn with her to sustain her on her 
journey. These also turned to stone, and may be seen beside the 
petrified old woman. No names of the persons who figure in this 
myth could be obtained. 

The site of the ruin is on a low highland not far from the river. 
Not even a mound could be distinctly traced, so completely oblit- 
erated is the ruin. Some fragments of gray and black unpainted 
pottery were picked up. 
[10:27] San Juan iLQp'ag.Pirjj', see [11:6]. 

[11] SAN JUAN SHEET 

This sheet (map 11) shows the country in the immediate vicinity of 
San Juan Pueblo. So far as could be learned, only one pueblo ruin is 
included in the area shown. On the lowlands east of the Rio Grande 
and west and southwest of San Juan Pueblo the San Juan Indians do 
most of their farmin"-. 



MAP 11 
SAN JUAN REGION 




z 
o 

UJ 

tc 

< 

3 



Z 
< 

CO 



MAP 11 
SAN JUAN REGION 



nAUKiNv.TON] PLACE-NAMES 209 

[11: IJ Sail .luiin Tsik'owabe^e 'little cornor of tli(> lireflies' {tsiki/wa 
said to mean 'lirefly'; be''e 'small low roundish place'). 

This little oorner merges into \inj'ibtiu [10:24]. Mr. Julian 
Sanchez owns the land and has his house a shoi't distance east of 
the low place on Tsik'owakwaje [11:2]. This low place appears 
to have given [11:2] and [11:;-!] their names. 

[11:2] San Juan THikn'uvihDKJe, 7]</k(/'wiibekwaJe 'firefly height' 
' height of the little corner of the fireflies' {Tsik'owa, Tsik'owabe^e, 
see [11:1]: l-waje 'height'). This name is applied to the high land 
north and northeast of Ts-i//cnv<ibe\' [11:1]. 

[11:3] San Juan Tsil'cjwabe^iylco 'arro}'o of the little corner of the 
fireflies' {Tsllc'owaiee, see [11:1]; \''^' locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; I'O 'liarranca' 'arrojo with banks"). 
This little gulch is tributary to TsiUowab^e [11:1]. 

[11:4] San Juan KopFcyfie, Kqj^' ag.i''ir)lqpieij<je 'beyond the arroyo' 
' bej'ond the w ide gulch arroyo ' {Ko abbreviated from Kop ag./' yjl-q, 
see [11:6]; ps^yge 'beyond'). This name refers especialh' to the 
locality which lies immediatelj' north of the lower Kop'ag.!'iyf 

[11:<3]- 

[11:5] San Juan Kopseijgeby''u, Kqj}" ag.i' iijliqps^ygebu\i, 'low corner 
beyond the arroyo' 'low corner bej'ond the wide gulch arroyo' 
{Kqpxrjgebu a, Kqpag.Pii]hqpseygebiCu, see [11:4]; bu?)i 'large 
low roundish place'.) 

[11:6] San Juan Ii^qp'ng.!'ijjf, Ji'qj/ag.riylq 'broad arroyo' 'broad 
gulch arroyo' (^o 'barranca' 'arroyo with banks'; p'aQ-i 'broad'; 
■Vjf locative and adjective-forming postfix). 

This is a large and straight arroyo with barrancas at many 
places along its course. In the names [11:4] and [11:5] it is often 
referred to simply b}' Iq 'the arroyo'. Its mouth is opposite the 
upper end of the sandy island [11:9]. Its upper course is called 
Kqpil:ag.Piijkq; see[12:T]. Oneshould compare the name Jiqp'cg.'- 
^iykq with Kqp' ag.ekqhu\(, [19:3], the San Ildefonso name of the 
lower part of Pojoaque Creek, which lies north of San Ildefonso 
Pueblo just as this [11:6] lies north of San Juan Pueblo. 

[11:7] San Juan Jop^i'^''oku, see [13:17]. 

[11:8] Pneblita Pueblo, see [13:1.5]. 

[11:9] San Juan Pojaul 'the island' {po 'water'; jcul 'in the midstof 

'in")- 

This large sand}' island is crossed hy the wagon road which con- 
nects Chamita settlement [13:28] with San Juan Puel)lo. 
[11:10] PoTce 'water neck' 'water l)vink' (;V 'water'; Ice 'neck' 
'height"). The river bank in the vicinity of San Juan is known 
by this name. 
87584°— 29 eth— 16 14 



210 ETIINOGEOCRAiniV OV THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. an.n. 20 

[11:11J Sun ,luan l'()fiipi/l:/riig,e 'levL>,l bank by the bend in the river' 
(po 'water'; fn'ii 'projecting corner or point', in tliis instance 
referring- to a bcntl in the river; po 'water'; kwage 'higii and 
level place'). 

[11:12] San Juan ''Ohiakqnnu 'plain of OT^e or San Juan Pueblo' 
^Oke, see San Juan Pueblo, below; \ilconnv, 'plain' <''aJiq)jf 
plain; nu unexplained). The entire plateau on which the present 
pueblo of San Juan stands is called thus. Cf. [12:6]. 

[11:13] (1) San Juan Kkh'o Jija 'mother ditch', translating the Sjian. 
name {livvo 'irrigation ditch'; jija 'mother'). ' =Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Acequia Madre 'mother ditch'. =Tewa (1). 
This is the chief irrigation ditch of the San Juan Indians, and 
is therefore called by this poetic name. A part of it is shown on 
the map. 

[11:14] San Juan Jilrfk^^mhiCa of obscure etymology {jivf 'willow'; 
Ti'^ijf miexplained; hu^u 'large low roundish place'). 
Cf. [11:15] and [11:16]. 

[11:15] San Juan Jiiyk'iywUi of obscure etymology {Jqylc^ijf, see 
[11:14]; wUi 'projecting corner or point'). Cf. [11:14]. This 
name applies to a sort of projecting point of higher land east of 
the ditch [11:1.3]. 

[11:16] San Juan Penihege 'dead body corner' 'graveyard' {peni 
'corpse' 'dead body'; he^e 'small low roundish jjlace'; g.e 'down 
at' over at'). 

This is the Roman Catholic graveyard at San Juan at present in 
use. In earlier times interments were made in the churchyard 
[11:22]. The graveyard is on the level ground just north of the 
north end of the race-track [11:20]. It is surrounded by a fence. 

[11:17] San Juan Kiitig.ri'' 'bunched stones place' (kii 'stone'; tt'g.t 
' in a bunch ' ' bunched ', as in Tig.ryjj', San lldef onso name for the 
Pleiades; ' i'' locative and adjective-forming postfix). This name 
refers to the bunches or groups of stones, which are said to be all 
that remain of the second pueblo called by the name ' Oke. See 
Eufig^Vftkeoyjioil-ejl under [ll:unlocated], p. 219. The whole lo- 
cality about this as j'et uulocated ruin is called Ki'ug.i'i'K A 
number of Mexican houses are at the place. See Kidigikwaje 
[11:23], this name })eing applied to the height on which the present 
San Juan Pueblo is built. 

[11:18] San Juan Pejebu'u of obscure etymology {pe is said to sound 
like j)''i 'in unidentified species of rodent resembling the field- 
mouse'; j/V unexplained; 6m'm 'large low roundish place'). Cf. 

This low corner lies just west of the rise to the higher land and 
east of Kidig,iT' [11:17]. 



HARRINGTON] 



PLACE-NAMES 211 



[11:19] S;u\ Juan Pejehu'aa 'slope by [11:18]' (Pejcbau, see [11:18]; 
\ia 'steep slope'). It is said that the bottom [11:18] rises some- 
what to the north at this place; hence the name. 

[ll:L'ii] San Juan Puiij>iJ<'iij /srpo 'northern race-track' (pim/i/'Je 
'north' <puj.f 'mountain', j)(je 'toward', 'i'' locative and 
adjective-forming posttix; 'irpo 'race-track' <'^ 'to run,' po 
'trail" 'track'). 

This is the northern race-track of the San Juan Indians; it 
runs north and south. For the southern one see [11:."3]. Mrs. 
Perlina Sizer Cassidy, of Santa Fe, New Mexico, informs the 
writer that there are at the northern end of this race-track two 
stones, one on each side, marking the starting place. The one 
on the eastern side is a shaft of sandstone nearly a foot in diameter, 
about '2i feet high, and appioximately square. The one on the 
western side, about 30 feet from the other, is of a kind of granite 
formation of pyramidal form, about li feet high, with base of 
rounded triangular form, each side of which is about 2 feet long. 
At about '2 o'clock on St. John's day, 1912, after a race run 
on this track was tinished, three women were observed by Mrs. 
Cassidy to pour water with meal in it over these stones and rub 
them with their hands. This water was what remained in the 
ollas from which the racers had been drinking. Why there 
should be two race-tracks at San Juan and whether this one is 
considered to belong to the Summer or to the Winter phratry, or 
to l)oth or neither, are questions wliich, so far as the writer knows, 
have not l^een determined. 

[11: 21] San Juan ' Ohehwaje ' ' Ohe (unexplained) height ' (' Ohe^ see San 
Juan Pueblo, pp. 211-21.5; Incaje 'height'). The extreme north- 
eastern corner of San Juan Pueblo is called thus. This place is 
said to be called Aguapa by the Mexicans, a term for which no 
explanation has been obtained. 

[ll:San Juan Pueblo] (1) ^Okeqijici of obscure etymology Coke 
unexplained; ^oyivi 'pueblo'). The original etymolog}' of ^oke is 
no longer known to the Tewa. Wke sounds exactly like 'hard 
metate' ('o 'metate'; /iv 'hardness' 'hard'). One should al.so 
notice the ise'oke name of a certain Tewa religious officer, which is 
said to mean 'hard metate face '(^se 'face'; 'o 'metate';/!e 'hard"). 
In most of the forms quoted below the noticealjle aspiration at 
the end of the o just ))efore the k is represented by a letter such 
as // or Span. j. Dr. J. Walter Fewkes seems to have noticed some 
peculiarity, since he writes"'. A single San Juan person is called 
regularly ^Ok&P^; two or more San Juan people are called regu- 
larly ''Okeiijy, but the San Juan Tewa and perhaps some other 
Tewa sometimes say ' Ok^ijy ('/" \ 'jy,/ locative and adjective-form- 
ing posttix). The name^Oke was original!}' applied to tiie pueblo 



212 ETIINOGEOHRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ANN. 29 

ruin [10:2fi] and after that pueblo was destroyed, to the unlocated 
pueblo ruin at [11:17], the present puel)lo of San Juan being 
according to the tradition the third to which the name has been 
applied. See the general discussion ])elow. The forms of ' O^'e 
quoted from various sources ' all apply to the present San Juan, no 
mention of the pueblo ruins to which this name is applied being 
there made. "Ohque."^ "Ochi."^ "Oj-que."" "San Juan do 
los Caballeros, or Oj-ke.'" "San Juan, Jyuo-tyu-te Oj-ke."" 
The writer has not had opportunity to question Tewa al)out "Jyuo- 
tyu-te." The spelling has a non-Tewa appearance. "Ohko, 
'up-stream place'."' The meaning given is certainly incorrect, 
"©■"ke'."* Given as the Hano Tewa name of San Juan. "Kaj- 
kal;"° this is given as the native name. 

(2) San Juan Kuh'g.ihraje^oyu'i, Kuh'g.t'hvaJe^ol'e^oyu'i 'bunched 
stone height pueblo' 'bunched stone height pueblo of '(VZv? (un- 
explained)' {Kuh'g.ihixije, see [11:23]; WJce, see Tewa (1), above; 
'oy"'l' 'pue})lo'). This name is applied to distinguish the present 
San Juan from the first- and second-built pueblos, now in ruins, 
which were called by the same name. 

(3) Taos "Pakabaliiyii, 'where the Rio Grande opens into a 
plain'".' Cf. Picuris (4), Isleta (6). 

(i) Picuris "Pakuqhalai".'" "Pakupala"." Cf. Taos (3), Is- 
leta (6). 

(5) Picuris "Topiane 'San Juan people' "." 

(6) Isleta "Paku'parai".'" Cf. Taos (3), Picuris (4). 

(7) Jemez S(i/nvd (<Span.). The writer is convinced that this 
is the only name for San Juan commonly used at the present day 
by the Jemez. See Jemez (8). 

(S) Jemez /ydpaf/ri of obscure etymology ifjd unexplained; pa 
'water'; gPi ' down at' 'over at'). This is an old and abandoned 
name formerly applied to San Juan, as nearly as the informant 
could remember. It seems likely that it is however the old Jemez 
name of Santa Clara Pueblo; see [14:71]. The people oijydpdx/i'i 
were called /^apd^sa'd/ (tsadf 'people'). 

(0) Coe\\\ii S a jihwan. (<Span.). =Span. (l-t). 

(10) Sia "Sanhwan".'= (<Span.). = Span. (14). 

1 Chiefly through Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. -143, 1910. 

2 Smith, Cabetj-a de Vaca, p. 163, 1871. 

' Gatschet in Mag. Amcr. Hist., p. 259, April, 1882. 

< Bandelier in Ritoh. New Me.'cico, p. 201, 1885. 

s Bandelier. FiniU Report, pt. i, p. 123, 1890. 

» Ibid., note, p. 200. 

' Hodge, field notes. Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 (Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. Hi, 1910). 

8 Fevvkes in Xinclccnlh Rep. Bur. A)ncr. Ellin., p. 614, 1900. 

9 Jouvenceau in Catholic Pioneer, i. No. 9, p. 12, 190G. 
i» Hodge, op. cit., p. 444. 

n Spinden, Picuris notes, MS., 1910. 
" Spinden. Sia notes, MS.. 1910. 



UARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 213 

(11) Orail)i Hopi Jy,'paka Tewa 'last Tewa' (jii'paka 'last'; 
Teira 'Tewa'). San Juan is the village of the Tewa passed last 
of all when goinj^ up the Rio Grande Vallej'; hence the name. 

(12) Navaho " Kin Klechin! 'red house people'".' "Khinli- 
chfni, the red house people, the San Juan". = " Khlnlichi, red house, 
San Juan."^ 

(13) Eng. San Juan. (<Span.). =Span. (14). 

(14) Span. San Juan, San Juan de los Caballeros 'Saint John' 
'Saint John of the gentlemen'. =Eng. (13). Bandelier< 
explains whj' "de los Caballeros" was added to the saint name: 
"The village [13:27] was definitively forsaken in 1.59S, for the 
benefit of the Spaniards, who established themselves in the houses 
temporarily, until they could build their own abodes. This 
occurred with the consent of the Indians, who voluntarily relin- 
quished the place to join their brethren at San Juan; and it was 
partly on account of this generous action that the title ' De los 
Caballeros' was bestowed upon the Tehuas of the latter village".^ 
" Sant Joan"." " Sant Joan Batista".' '' San Juan de los Cabal- 
leros".' "Saint-Jean de Chevaliers"." "St. Johns".'" "San 
Juan"." "S.John".'^ "S. Joanne".'^ "S.Jean".'* "S. leau".'^ 
"San Juaners".'" "San Juan delosCabelleros"." "SanJuane- 
ros".'* "San Juan de Cabalenos".'^ 

1 Curtis, American Indian, i, p. 13S, 1907. 

s Franciscan Fathers, An Ethnologic Dictionary of the Xavaho Language, p. 128, 1910. 

3 Ibiil., p. 136. 

< Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, pp. 61-62, 1892. 

s " Historia de la Nueva Merico { fol. 141 ) — 

Aqni los Indios mui gustosos, 
Con nosotros sus casas dividieron. 
Y luego que alojados y de asiento, 
Hazkndo vezindad ntts assentamos. 
Also— 

Hazia un gracioso Pueblo bien tra2ado 
A quien San Juan por nombre le pujiieron, 
Y de los caualleros por memoria, 
De aquellos que primero lebantaron, 
Por estas nueuas tierras y regiones. 
El sangriento estandarte donde Christo, 
Por la salud de todos fue arbolado. 
This disposes of the fable that the title 'Caballeros' was given to the San Juan Indians foi 
their loyalty to Spain during the in.surrcction of 1G80. On the contrary, the Indians of San Juan 
were among the most bitter and cmel of the rebels; and their participation in the risings of 1G9-1 and 
1696 is well known".— Bandeliek, ibid. 

« Ofiate (1.598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, p. 2.56, 1871. 
' Ibid., pp. 109, 116. 

8 Cordova (1619) trans, in Ternau.x-Compans, Voy., x, p. 440, 1838; Villa-Seiior, Theatro Amer., ii, 
p. 418, 1748. 

9 Cordova, op. cit. 

" Heyleyn, Cosmography, p. 1072, 1703. 

" Shea, Cnth. )Ii.s.s., p. 82, 1870. 

» D'Anville, Map. N. A., Boltons ed., 1752. 

1' Morelli, Fasti Xovi Orbis, p. 31. 1776. 

I* Vaugondy, Map Am^rique, 1778. 

'5 Crcpy, Map Am^rique Septcntrionale, 1783 (?). 

" Davis, Span. Conquest New Mexico, p. 289, 1869. 

'" Villa-Senor (1748) quoted by Shea, Cath. Miss., p. 83, 1855. 

i» ten Kate, Reizen in N. A., p. 221, 1885. 

>» Donaldson, Moqui Pueblo Indians, p. 91, 1893. 



214 ETHNOGEOORAPUY OF THE TEWA INDIANS (eth. ANN. M 

According to San .luan tradition, the present pueblo is tiie third 
one which has been called ' Ol-e. The first ' Olie Pueblo is [10:26], 
the ruins of whicli are about a mile north of the present San Juan. 
When this pueV)lo was destroyed by a miraculous flood, tlie inlial) 
itants built a second pueblo called "" Ohe at ^^/i^0^'V'* [11:17], the 
ruin of whicli has not been located. This second jiueblo was only 
a few hundred 3ards northwest of the third and present pueblo of 
'' Ohe^ which is situated on the height or mesa near Eut-igi''i''\ the 
latter name applying to a low place. Why the second-built 
pueblo was abandoned for the present site was not known to the 
informants. The now ruined pueblo of J^yqe [13:27] and the 
pueblo of ' Olie (the present San Juan) used to be ' ' like brothers," 
it is said. When Juijge was abandoned its inhabitants went to 
live at ' Oke or at Pueblita [13 :15]. When Jwjije was permanently 
abandoned seems not to be known to the historians. Bandelier' 
says: "Yuge-uingge must have been still occupied in 1541, for 
Castaneda says, in Cibola, p. 138: 'Mais ceux de Yuque-yunque 
abundonnerent deux beaux villages qu'ils possedaient sur les bords 
du fieuve, et se retire rent dans les montagnes . . . On trouva 
beaucoup de vivres dans les deux villages abandonnes' ". 

Bandelier obtained the following interesting tradition from the 
San Juan Indians: "Indian folk-lore has much to say about Yuge 
uingge. The Tehuas relate that when their ancestors journeyed 
southward from Cibol)e, and the division into suumier and winter 
people occurred, of which I have spoken in the First Part oi this 
Report [p. 303], the summer people, under the guidance of the 
Pay-oj-ke or Po-a-tuyo, settled at Y^uge-uingge; but the winter 
people, after wandering over the eastern plains for a long 
while, at last went in search of their brethren, and established 
themselves near San Juan in sight of the other's village at 
Chamita. Finally it was agreed upon that a bridge should be 
built across the llio Grande, and the official wizards went to work 
and constructed it by laying a long feather of a parrot over the 
stream from one side, and a long feather of a magpie from the 
other. As soon as the plumes met over the middle of the stream, 
people began to cross on this remarkable bridge; but bad sor- 
cerers caused the delicate structure to turn over, and man}' people 
fell into the river, where they became instantly changed into 
fishes. Foi' this reason the Navajos, Apaches, and some of the 
Pueblos refuse to eat fish to this day. The story goes on to tell 
that both factions united and lived together at Oj-ke on the cast 
l)ank".= 

The present writer obtained a somewhat ditferent version of 
the same tale, which is given under Slpoji'e, INIythic Places, 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 61. note, 1892, 2 Ibid., pp. 60-61. 



HARRixcnox] PLACE-NAMES 215 

pages 571-72. The informant of San Juan who related this 
tale knew nothing of Jnyge [13:27] being settled by Summer 
people and Wke by Winter people. He said that he supposed 
that both these places Avere settled by the same kind of people. 
He did not know that the feather bridges were made at San 
Juan; he had heard merely that they were made somewhere 
across the Eio Grande. The informant said that both Jy.y^e and 
Whe (at its various sites) were inhabited for a very long time, 
but that at last Junge was abandoned, the people being merged 
into the ' Ol-e villagers, as stated above. The informant was an 
old man, and his statements were honestly made. 

The San Juan Indians will invariably tell one that San Juan 
was the chief Tewa village in olden days. Councils (Span, juntas) 
of villagers from all the Tewa pueblos, from Tano pueblos, Taos 
and Picuris, used to be held at San Juan. It was from San Juan 
that word was sent out when the Tewa tribe declared war. The 
Tewa of the other pueblos do not contradict these statements. 
San Juan, it will be remembered, played a leading part in the 
rebellion of 1680. 

In ancient times, it is said, the people of San Juan used to raise 
melons, corn, cotton, etc., on the highlands east of San Juan, in 
places which are now barren indeed. It was dry farming and crops 
were not certain; but usually plenty' of rain fell in those times. 

According to the informants, the Tewa of San Juan are of 
pure blood, not mixed with non-Pueblo blood as are the Taos. 
This information was received in one instance unsolicited. Yet 
Bandelier' says: "at San Juan the Yutas [Ute] and Apaches 
[Jicarilla Apache] . . . have assiduously contributed to the prop- 
agation of the species." As regards the architecture of San Juan 
the same authority says: "Santo Domingo, San Juan, Santa Ana, 
and especially Acoma, consist of several parallel rows of houses 
forming one to three streets."^ There is only one estufa at San 
Juan; this is in the northern part of the village. It is a rectan- 
gular structure, above ground, and contains no permanent paint- 
ings in its interior. 

The elevation of San Juan, according to the Wheeler Survey, 
is .5,(101 feet.^ 

There is a post office at present at San Juan Pueblo, but the 
official name of the post office is Chamita. 

The name ''Ol'e is also applied by the San Juan to a bright star 
seen in the southern skies; see Stars, page 49. 

1 Final Report, pt. i, pp. 261-262, 1890. 

2 Ibid., p. 26.i. 

« Gannett, Dictionary of Altitudes, p. 650, 1906. 



216 ETHNOGEOGRAPHV OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ann. 20 

[11:22] San Juan Misate 'mass-house' 'church' {mim 'mass' <Span. 
misa 'Roman Catholic mass'; te 'dwellinj^- place'). 

This is the Roman Catholic church. Its entrance faces the 
east. It is sometimes distinguished from the chapel across from 
it by being called Misate hejPi'^ 'the large church' (heji 'large'; 
'•/'' locative and adjective-forming postiix). Across the street 
from this church, east of it, is a Roman Catholic chapel, which 
has its entrance toward the west. This is called Mimtie Ce 
diminutive) by the San Juan Indians to distinguish it from the 
church. In front of the church stands a statue of the Mother of 
Jesus, which is called by the San Juan Indians ]Vq,^ii)ihi Kwijo 
'our lady', translating the Span. "Nuestra Seiiora" {ntfynhi 
'our'; hv'ljo 'old woman', used here to show reverence). 

[11:23] San Juan Kuiig.ihraje 'bunched stone height', referring to 
Kiih'gPi"' {Kidig.?,, see [11:17]; hraje 'height'). This name refers 
to the whole high locality on which the pueblo of San Juan is 
built, the present pueblo itself sometimes being distinguished as 
Eidig.iJivxije'ol-e; see San Juan Pueblo, above. See also [10:26] 
and [11:17]. 

[11:24] San Juan KiitehejiH''^ 'the big store' {1cy,te 'store' <hj, 'to 
trade', te 'dwelling-place' 'house' 'building'; heji 'large'; '*'' 
locative and adjective-forming posttix). 
This is the store of Reuth, Eldodt & Co. 

[11:25] San Juan ^Ag^e 'down at the slope' ('«'« 'steep or short slope'; 
g.e 'down at' 'over at'). All the lowland sloping toward the 
river west of San Juan Pueblo is called thus. This is the form 
used when the speaker is at San Juan and the place is below 
him. 

[11:26] San Juan Pofoa 'marsh' (po 'water'; tsa 'to cut through'). 
Although potsa is applied to any marsh, when used at San 
Juan, unless otherwise indicated, the word refers to this place. 
There is some swampy ground, and several cottonwood trees 
stand at the place. 

[11:27] San Juan 'Akoy[/e'iy/iQ 'the arroyo down at the plain' 'the 
arroj'o over at the plain' 'the arroyo of the plain', referring to 
' Oke\ikoTi iiii [11:12] C'al'oyj' 'plain'; ge 'down at' 'over at'; 
'i'' locative and adjective-forming posttix; lo 'barranca' 'arroyo 
with banks'). 

This arroyo runs in front of (north of) the residence of Mr. 
Samuel Eldodt, the merchant, of San Juan. See [11:28] and 
[11:29]. 

[11:28] San Juan Koqwoge 'down where the arroyo cuts through' 
' delta of the arro3'o', referring to [11:27] ijcq 'barranca' 'arroyo 
with banks'; qwo 'to cut through'; ge 'down at' 'over at"). 
This name is instantly understood by a San Juan Indian as 
referring to a detinite locality. See [11:27]. 



IIARKINGTOX] PLACE-NAMES 217 

[ll::i!lj San Juan KqmiQ.e 'down below thearro3'o', referring^ to [11:27] 
(Z(_) 'barranca' 'arroyowith Itanks'; nuu 'below'; g.e 'down at' 
' over at'). This name refers to quite a large and indctinite lofality 
below (i. e., west of) the end [11:28] of the arroyo [11:'27]. See 
[11:27] and [11:28]. 

[11:30] San Juan 'EJdobi feqwa 'dwelling house of Eldodt' {'Eldb 
< German Eldodt; 6/ possessive postfix; i'c^^wa ' house ' <!'<^ dwell- 
ing-place', iwa indicating state of being a receptacle). 

This is the red-brick residence of Mr. Samuel Eldodt. He has 
a collection of rare Indian objects from existing puel)los and 
pueblo ruins, which he courteously allowed the writer to examine 
and use for purposes of studj'. 

[11:31] San Juan - Eialcedi 'threshing-floor height' i^eJa 'threshing- 
floor' <Span. era 'threshing-floor', which in turn is derived from 
Latin area, of same meaning; lceJ>i 'height'). 

This is a high place southeast of Mr. Eldodt's house where wheat 
is threshed in Mexican fashion by driving aninmls over it. 

[11:32] San Juan '' Ekwelateqwa 'school house' {^el'wela 'school' 
<Span. escuela 'school'; teqwa 'house' <te 'dwelling place', 
» gwa denoting state of being a receptacle). 

This is the Government schoolhouso for Indian children. It is 
south of the pueblo. 

[11:33] San Juan '^l^o//;/;>/;Viyy'^|io 'southern race-track' (^al-qynpije 
' south ' < "'akqrjf ' plain ', plje ' toward ' ; 'i'* locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; '^p« 'race-track '<'^ 'to run', po 'track' 'trail'). 
This is the southern ceremonial race-track of the San Juan 
Indians. It lies on the level, barren height of Tsig.u\.il'onnu 
[11:34] and extends in a north and south direction as does the 
northern race-track. See [11:20], 

[11:3-1-] San Juan Tsig.u\d-0)inu, Ts/'g.ukwdje 'chico plain' 'chico 
height' {Tf<ig:u an unidentified species of bush, called chico by 
the Mexicans of the Tewa country; \-il-onnit 'plain' <'a/toyy 
'plain', nu unexplained; kwaje 'height'). This name is given to 
the high, barren plain southeast of San Juan Pueblo. Chico 
bushes grow on it; hence the name. 

This may also be regarded as a part of ^ Ok^aJcqnnu [11:12]. 
South of [11:34] is Tslgiihu' a [11:44], q. v. 

[11:35] San Juan ^Ekivelapxjjge'era 'threshing-floors be3'ond the 
school', referring to the Government schoolhouse [11:32] {^el'weld, 
'school' <Span. escuela 'school'; pxyge 'beyond'; ''era 'thresh- 
ing-floor' <Span. ei-a 'threshing-floor'). 

There are several threshing-floors at the locality known by this 
name. 

[11:36] San Juan Nuge 'down below', so called because of its low 
and southerly location {nu'u 'below'; ge'down at' 'over at'). 



218 ETHNOGEOGRAPH V OF THE TEWA INDIANS [urn. ann. 20 

Mr. Tomasino Martiiuv, lives about where the more southerly 
of the two circles suggesting this name is placed. 

[11:37] San Juan Eaqwrmug.e'yjl'q 'drag-stone-down arroyo' (Jcu 
'stone'; qwa 'to drag'; nuge 'down' 'from a higher place to a 
lower place across a sui'face' <nu'u 'below', ge 'down at' 'over 
at' 'down to' 'over to'; ''iyf locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix; l-q 'ban-anca' 'arroyo with banks'). 

Who dragged a stone down, and under what circumstances, is 
probably forever forgotten. It is not impossible that the arroyo 
itself did the dragging of a stone or stones referred to by this 
name. 

This arroyo is quite deep where it cuts through the edge of the 
highland. It starts at Tsig.ii\il:qnnu [11:04] and loses itself in 
the lowlands of Nuge [11:36]. See [11:38]. 

[11:38] San Juan P'ewawpKltwe 'where the cross stands' (pevm 
'cross' <pe 'stick', wa unexplained; ic\yf 'to stand'; Hu-e 
locative). 

On the high corner just north of [11:37] where the latter 
leaves the highland stands a wooden cross, said to have been 
erected b}^ jNIexicans in connection with a funeral procession. « 

[11:39] San Juan ^ig'apo ' badger water' (^e'a 'badger'; fi> 'water'). 
This is a low place near the bank of the Rio Grande. 

[Il:i0] San Juan Piyqe 'in the middle', referring in some way to the 
middle or central portion of the lowlands. 

[11:4:1] San Juan /'ug.dhe'e 'little corner of the mosquitoes' {Jugo 
'mosquito' ; h^e 'small low roundish place"). 

[11:42] San Juan Pmoaiu^u 'cultivated land corner' {pinra 'cultivated 
laud ' ' land under state of cultivation ' ; huii ' large low roundish 
place'). 

It is at this place that the clay-pit [11:43] is situated. 

[11:43] San Juan Prinapok' on4h'-'e'' yvhere the clay is dug', referring 
to a peculiar kind of clay {pPinapo 'moist clay' 'clay that is 
moist when it is dug out' <p>'i ' reddish pottery-claj-', iiapo as in 
7iapoia 'adobe'; k'orjj' 'to dig'; ^iwe locative). 

This is the source of the clay used in making the common red 
pottery of San Juan. See N<ip!'i, under JMinerals. The clay- 
pits are at the place called Pinoabuu [11:4:^]. 

[11:44] San Juan 7^■/g«6M' it 'chico corner' (fe/gi name of an imiden- 
tified bush which is called chico by the Mexicans of the Tewa 
country; hiiho 'large low roundish place'). See [11:34]. 

[11:45] San Juan Pute'w^q, see [12:20]. 

[ll:4(i] San Juan Pute''ii]hq(2iooge 'delta of jackral)l)it hole arroj-o' 
[11:45] {Pute'iyhq, see [12:20]; (jwoge 'delta' < qwo 'to cut 
through', ge ' down at' ' over at'). 

Pute'iykq is hei-e lost in the lowlands of Ts/'gubuu [11:44J. 



MAP 12 
SAN JUAN HILL REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 12 




SAN JUAN rt'LL Reqiqn 



MAP 12 
SAN JUAN HILL REGION 



HAURIXGTON] PLACE-NAMES 219 

UXLOCATEII 

San Juan Kuiig.Poyv^il-eji, Eid!g.Pi)h^oijwiJt-eji, '' Ol-e'q'Q%nleji''h\xv.c\ie^ 
stones puel)lo ruin' 'bunched stones pueblo ruin of ' Wrd (unex- 
plained)' 'pueblo ruin of ^ Oke (unexplained)' {Kutig.1, see [11:17]; 
'o7;u'i/?-(y'i 'pueblo ruin' <^qywi 'pueblo', hyi 'ruin' postpound; 
W^i', see San Juan Pueblo, above). 

This pueblo ruin of the second-built village called 'Oke is said 
to be somewhere in the vicinitj^ of the place called Kuiig.rp^ [11:17], 
in the lowlands a short distance northwest of the present San 
Juan Pueblo. The site was not visited ])v the writer. See dis- 
cussion under [10:26] and San Juan Pueblo, above. 

[12] SAN JUAN HILL SHEET 

This sheet (map 12) shows a small area of arid hill country east of 
San Juan Pueblo. The hill [13:27] is the chief ceremonial hill of the 
San Juan villagers. 

[12:1] San Juan Qwo^ieiia^hohu'u, see [10:20]. 

[12:2] San Juan Il^fselivaje 'yellow one-seeded juniper height' {hy, 
'one-seeded juniper' ' Juniperus monosperma'; tse 'yellowness' 
'yellow', absolute form of tseji'', tsejiijj' 'yellowness' 'yellow'; 
hvaje 'height'). These two long ridges bear this name. Cf. 
[12:3]. 

[12:3] Ssm Juan JIy,fsekQ 'yellow one-seeded juniper arroyos', refer- 
ring to [12:2] {MyTse, see [12:2]; kq 'barranca' 'arroyo with 
banks'). 

These arroyos join, forming QwiMcms^ko/ni'^i [10:20]. 

[12:i] San Juan Kqp'agi'irjf, see [11:6]. Only the lower course of 
the arroyo is called by this name. 

[12:5] San Juan ^ Ag.ekwaje al-qy f ' plain of the height above the slope ' 
('ffge 'down at the slope' <'a'a 'steep slope' 'short slope'; ge 
'down at' 'over at'; hvaje 'height'; ''akqyf 'plain'). 

Just why this name is applied did not seem to be clear to either 
of the two informants. It refers to the generally level plain 
north of [12:7] and east of 10:26]. 

[12:6] San Juan ■ 0/iekwag.e\ikq,j^' 'plain of the high flat place by ^ Ole 
(unexplained)', referring to San Juan Pueblo (' Oke, see San Juan 
Pueblo, under [11], pp. 211-215; kwage 'high flat place' 'mesa 
top'; ''akqyf 'plain'). 

[12:7] San Juan Kqpflcag^i 'red starving arroyo' {kq 'barranca' 
'arroyo with banks'; pi ' redness' 'red"; K/gi 'starving' 'becom- 
ing or having become thin from starvation"). 



220 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

The connection in whicii this name was originally given was 
not known to the informants. This arroyo and its height [12:Sj 
are reddish in places. The arroyo is nothing but the upper part 
of[12-A]. Cf. [12:S]. 

[12:8] San Juan KqpilcagPiylnoaje^ Kqpilcag.iirjlm^nje'ol'u ' red starving 
arroyo height' 'hills of red starving arroj'o height' {KopiJcag.i, 
see [12:7]; 'i'' locative and adjective-forming postfix; hvnje 
'height'; 'oku 'hill'). 

This reddish height is north and northeast of the arroyo from 
which it appears to take its name. See [12:7]. 

[12:9] San Juan Jq.mp'anil'o, Jq,mp'a''i>jl'0 'broad willow arroyo' 
iji'Jf 'willow'; ^'a 'broadness' 'broad' 'largeness and flatness' 
'large and flat', here evidently referring to the shape of a willow 
tree or a group or number of willow trees; ^ivf, ni locative and 
adjective-forming postfix, the San Juan dialect sometimes having 
■ui for inf; Iv 'barranca' 'arroyo with banks"). See [12:13]. 

Whether the name originally applied to the arroyo or to the 
height [12:13] it is of course impossible to determine. No willow 
trees were to be seen either in the dry gulch or on the height. 
See [12:13]. 

[12:10] (1) San ^xmnWol'ui 'medicine piles' {wo 'medicine' 'magic'; 
hill ' pile ' or ' heap ' of roundish shape). Why this name is applied 
appeared not to be known to the informants. Perhaps it refers 
to the occurrence of the medicinal plant referred to by name (2), 
below. 

(2) San Juan ''Ag.ojop'e'oku 'contrayerba hills' ^aQpjop^e 'con- 
trayerba' 'Dorstenia contrayerba', a kind of weed the stalks of 
which are chewed, the cud being applied to sores and swellings 
by the Indians K'aQojo ' star', ^"e 'stick' 'stalk' 'plant'; ''oku 
'hill'). 

[12:11] San Juan Papibe'e 'red fish corner', referring to [12:12] {Papi, 
see [12:12]; bee 'small low roundish place'). 

[12:12] San Juan Papikwaje 'red fish height', said to be applied 
because the height looks like the reddish spine of a i-eddish fish, 
although the writer could not see the resemblance {pa 'fish'; pi 
•redness' 'red'; Iwaje 'height'). 

[12:13] San Juan Jqmp alwaje 'broad wiUow height' {Jqmp'a, see 
[12:9]; kwaje 'height'. 

[12:14] San Juan Tuitq'ihlnys^'i' ' little shield painting' {tUi 'shield' ; 
fq'i 'painting'; hinfs^ 'small'; 'ei'' locative and adjective-forming 
postfix). 

This little hill is as round as a shield and is of reddish and 
3'ellowish color as if painted. The 'large shield painting' hill 
[12:33] is, however, not of shield shape. Cf. [12:15] and [12:33]. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 221 



[12:15] San Juan TUita^ihinfseJco 'little shield painting arroyo' 
{Tiditq'"ihinfse, see [12:14]; Iq 'barranca' 'arroyo with banks'). 
This little gulch takes its name from [12:14]. 

[12:1(5] San Juan JVqmpib/.d 'pile of red earth' {7iqijf 'earth'; pi 
'redness' 'red'; hUi 'roundish pile of small size'). 

This is a small roundish hill of bright red color which is con- 
spicuous afar off. 

[12:17] San Juan fdba, Tasintij,i]wsejot(iba 'the cliffs' 'the cliffs of the 
tall tusejjf grass species place', referring to [12:1',>] (i(iba 'cliff' 
' vertical bank'; Tastnty.yu'prjo, see [12:19]). 

These cliffs are high and noticeable, and give the upper part of 
the dell of [12:7] a markedly barren appearance. The cliffs are 
yellowish and reddish in color. See [12:18] and [12:19]. 

[12:18] San Juan fotapse.yfje, Tanejitiiyioiejohiapseyffi ' beyond the cliffs ' 
•beyond the cliff's of the tall tasejjf grass species place', referring 
to [12:17] {fnia, Tasinty.ijwsejotoia^aea [12:17]; p^ijffe 'beyond'). 
This name refers to quite a large region of arid, broken country. 

[12:19] San .Juan Tas^nty.rjivsejo'ol-u 'hills of the tall tasivf grass 
species' {tasty f 'an unidentified species of grass which is very 
good for grazing purposes and grows waist-high under very 
favorable conditions, called by the Mexicans zacate azul' <ta 
'grass', se';y unexplained; ty,ywce.jo "very high" <tiiijwse 'high', 
jo augmentative; ^oku 'hill'). 

These hills are much higher than any other hills shown on the 
map. They can be seen distinctly from places far west of the Rio 
Grande. There are two peaks or heights. 

[12:20] San Juan PuteHylo 'jackrabbit hole arroyo', referring to 
[12:'25] (Pute, see [12:25]; '/''' locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; kq 'barranca' 'arroyo with barrancas'). 

The lower course [11:45] and end [11:46] of this arroyo are 
shown on map [11]. 

[12:21] San Juan Tsig.uhu'u, see [11:44]. 

[12:22] San Juan Kidsqywsebt/iijkq ' blue rock arroyo' (Entsqijwxbi/''u, 
see [12:23]; 'i' locative and adjective-forming postfix; Av 'bar- 
ranca' 'arroyo with banks'). The name appears to be taken 
from [12:2.3], in which the arroyo lies. 
The arroyo is tributar}' to [12:20]. 

[12:23] San Juan Kutsqywsebii' u 'blue stone corner' {leu 'stone'; 
ttsqijwse 'blueness' 'blue' 'greenness' 'green'; 6m'« 'large low 
roundish place"). 

The informants said that there were bluish or greenish stones 
in this low place. The place has given names to [12:22] and 
[12:24]. 

[12:24] San Juan KutsqyvisEbukioaje 'blue stone corner height' {Kutsq- 
yw^bu'u, see [12:23]; kwaje 'height'). Cf. [12:22] and [12:23]. 



222 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

[12:-J5J Siin Juan Pute'ol-u ' rabbit hole hill' (/>i< 'rabbit'; ^^' 'dwell- 
iuy-phice' 'wiirren' 'rabbit hole'; ''olcu 'hill'). This name ap- 
plies also to the small hills surrounding the larger hill on which 
the circle is placed. See [12:26]. 

[12:2()] San Juan EuF q-ndiwe 'stone quarry' (^(i 'stone'; li'oyf 'to 
dig'; ^iwe locative). 

There is a quarry at this place from which stone has been taken 
to build the church and other buildings at San Juan Pueblo. 
The quarry is said to belong to Mr. Samuel Eldodt, of San Juan 
Pueblo. 

[12:27] San Juan '' Okuty.rjwse.jo 'high hill' {^olcu 'hill'; ty.i)wsejo 'very 
high' < tij,ywse ' high ',_;o augmentative). 

This is the sacred high hill of the San Juan Indians. It has 
two shrines on its top; see [12:28] and [12:30]. The unidentified 
medicine-plants Jcutebl and tiwo were found growing on this hill. 

[12:28] The northern peak of [12:27] hill. On this summit is a shrine 
of stones arranged like a letter U, about a yard in length, with 
the opening toward San Juan Pueblo. 

[12:29] The middle peak of [12:27] hill. 
There is no shrine on this peak. 

[12:30] The southern peak of [12:27] hill. 

There is on this summit a large V-shaped stone shrine with the 
opening toward San Juan Pueblo. Where the two lines of the 
V meet is erected a large slab of yellowish stone. 

[12:31] San Jniin'0]cutii'>jwfr'jopPcy[/e, 'Olcutuywffjopxyiiehu-u 'beyond 
the high hill' 'corner beyond the high hWV (^ (>luty,r)wiejo, see 
[12:27]; yiK??^e ' beyond ' ; 6k' w 'large low roundish place'). 
These names refer to a more or less definite locality beyond, 
i. e., east of, [12:27]. Cf. [12:3'2]. 

[12:32] San Juan H)huty,7)'wsi.jop^r)fjel£waje 'heights beyond the high 
hill' ('(9^7/i'y,9tt'ayV>2J«y[/(', see [12:31] ; hcaje 'height'). This name 
may be used to include [12:33], which has also a name proper 
to itself. 

[12:33] San Juan Tiiifq'iJujlH'' 'large shield painting' {Ti,(ifq''i, »q& 
[12: 14]; /tt^'i ' largeness " large'; T'locative and adjective-forming 
postfix). 

This is the large shield painting as distinguished from the 
'small shield painting' [12:14]. [12:33] is long and not shield- 
shaped, while [12:14] is round like a shield. As noted under 
[12:32], this hill is sometimes included with the hills designated 
[12:32] under the descriptive name of ^Ukutiiytv^Jopieyf/ehrnJe. 

[12:34] San Juan Toiap' okwajetoia 'cliff hole height cliffs' (Tdbap'o- 
kwaje, see [12: 36] ; hU ' cliff '). Cf . [12: 35]. 



MAP 13 
CHAMITA REGION 




z 
o 

liJ 
cc 



< 

I 
o 



MAP 13 
CHAMITA REGION 



b.M!KIx<;ton] ■ PLACE-NAMES 223 

[12:35] San Juan foiap'o, foiap'ai'' 'cliff hole' 'at the cliff hole' 
(ioia ' cliff'; p'o ' hole' ; T' locative and adjective-forming postfix). 
There i.s a cave in the cliff" at this place. This 'cliff' hole' has 
given names to [12:34] and [12:36]. 

[12:36] (1) San Juan Toiapol'wuje 'cliff hole height' {Tdbap'o, see 
[12:35]; hmjl- ' height'). The hills, or perhaps more properly the 
western hill only, are so called because of the well-known cave 
[12: 35]. 

(2) San Juan ^ A^ap' ehvaje, ^Ag.ap^dsiJcwaje^ of obscure ety- 
mology {'Ag.ap'e, ^Ag.ap'efsi'i, see [12:37] ; I'waje 'height'). This 
name is surely taken from that of [12:37]. 

[12:37] San Juan \ig.iip'efsPi of obscure etymology {'(ig.a an unex- 
plained word which occurs also in [22:54]; p'e 'stick'; fsPi 
' canyon '). 
This is said to be a deep gulch, tributary to [12:20]. 

[12:38] San Juan Sapohic'u 'corner of the thin or watery excrement' 
{sif 'excrement'; po 'water'; bu''u 'large low roundish place'). 
This is a large hollow in the hills which extends far to the south- 
east toward Santa Cruz Creek. Cf. [12:39]. 

[12:39] San Juan Sapohraje, Sapolniajeol->i 'height of the thin or 
watery excrement' 'hills of the height of the thin or watery 
excrement' {mpo, see [12:38]; kwaje 'height'; ^oku ' hill'). 

[12:40] 'OUq-tjwikeji, see [10:26]. 

Unlocated 

San Juan P/'bi/u 'red corner' (pi 'redness' 'red'; biru large low 
roundish place'). 

This is said to be a dell in the hills east of and not very far 
from San Juan Pueblo. 

[13] CHAMITA SHEET 

The area shown on this sheet (map 13) lies about the confluence 
of the Chama and Rio Grande, west of San Juan Pueblo [13:24]. 
Canoe Mesa [13:1] occupies the upper part of the sheet. The whole 
of the area shown was formerly claimed and occupied by the San 
Juan Indians. 

The entire region west of San eJuan Pueblo, west of the Rio Grande, 
is called '<9^' on w^ 'on the other side' ('(9i!'o);y unexplained; wa; loca- 
tive) by the San Juan Indians. They use also the Span, name 
Chamita, as do Mexicans and Americans, to indicate the teri-itory 
west of the Rio Grande, west of San Juan. Chamita is more strictly 
the name of the Mexican settlement [13:28]. 



224 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ktii. ax.x. i!!) 

[13:1] (1) Tuikwaje, Tsil'wag.e 'basalt hc.ifrht' 'basalt mesa' {tf^i 'ba- 
salt'; kwajb 'height'; lwag.e 'large flat high place' 'mesa'). 

(2) Eng. Canoe Mesa, Canoa Mesa. (<Span.). = Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Black Mesa, Black Mesa near San Juan. = Span. (5). 
Cf. [18:19]. "Black Mesa".' "Black Mesa (Mesa Canoa)". ^ 

(4) Span. ]\Iesa de la Canoa, Mesa Canoa 'Canoe Mesa' 'boat 
mesa'. =Eng. (2). " Mesa de la Canoa ".^ "Black Mesa (Mesa 
Canon)".* 

(5) Span. Mesa Pricta 'black mesa'. =Eng. {?>). Cf. [18:19]. 
The mesa is commonly called thus by Mexicans of the vicinity. 
Mr. Thomas S. Dozier of Espafiola informs the writer that this 
is the name which appears on deeds and land grants; he has seen 
a large blueprint map which had this name on it. 

This high mesa with its dark cliffs is one of the most striking 
geographical features of the Tewa region. It is called Black 
Mesa from its color, and Canoe Mesa presumably because of its 
oblong boatlike shape. The name Black Mesa is better avoided, 
lest it be confused with other mesas of the region called by this 
name. The Tewa of all the villages call it TsiJiwaje, or Tsil'wage. 
Bandelier^ says of the mesa: "In the east an extensive plateau, 
covered by a layer of black trap, separates this valley [the Chama 
Valley] from the Rio Grande; it is called the 'Mesa de la Canoa', 
and there are no vestiges of antiquity on its surface so far as I am 
aware, but there are rents and clefts in its eastern side that I have 
reason to believe are used to-day b}' the Indians of San Juan for 
sacrificial purposes ". Canoe Mesa is crossed by at least two im- 
portant trails; the Jutapo [9:17] and the Tsewipo [10:3]. It is 
probably to the latter trail that Bandelier^ refers when he says: 
"A trail leads across it [Canoe Mesa] to the Rio Grande from Ojo 
Caliente". See [5:51], [7:23], [13:2]. 

[13:2] San Juan TsiwUl, Tsifii'u 'basalt point', referring to [13:1] 
(fe^ 'basalt'; vndi 'projecting corner or point'; /w'm 'projecting 
point"). 

[13:3] San Juan Qwalce-ii 'housetop height' {q\Lm showing state of 
being a receptacle, as in teqwa 'house', poqwa 'reservoir for 
water', ^wtJiSt/ 'houserow of a pueblo'; ke.'i 'height' 'top'). It 
is said that this long hill is so called because of its resemblance to 
a house or row of houses; also, that QwakeMtdba {iota 'cliffs') is 
either another name of the hill or a name of a locality near the 
hill. See [13:4]. 

1 Hewett, Antiquities, pi. xvn, 1906. 

2 Jean^on, Explorations in Chama Basin. New Mexico, Records of the Past, x, p. 92, 1911. 
sBandelicr, Final Report, pt.ii, p. 63, 1892. 

*Jeancon, op. cit., 

' Bandelier, op. eil. , note. 



HARRIXGTON] 



PLACE-NAMES 225 



[13 :i] A large white house with a red roof, owned by a Mexican. 

The soutliern end of QwakeJ^i [13:3] i.s almost due west of this 

INIexican villa. 
[13:5] San Juan Ta^nf£^nty,'t)'WB^jo'oku,fa^nf£^ntui)ws^jobo'ii 'hill of 

the tall tii'nf^ijf bushes' (tanffcyf an unidentified species of 

bush; tiujwse.jo 'very high' Kty.ijwse 'high', j/o augmentative; 

^oku 'hill'; ho.ii 'large roundish pile' 'hill'). The adjective 

refers to the bushes, not to the hill. See [13:6]. 
[13:6] San Juan Ptiiwi'i 'meat gap' (jjiii 'meat'; wTl 'gap" 'pass"). 

This gap gives the name to Pltiwiiykq [13:7]. 
[13:7] San Juan Piliwi'iijlo 'meat gap arroyo' {Fiiiwrt, see [13:6]; 

'itjj' locative and adjective-forming posttix; ko ' barranca" ' arroyo 

with barrancas"). Why the arroyo was thus named, was not 

known to the informants. 
[13:8] San Juan Jefidqhu'u of obscure etymology (Jefu unexplained; 

Ji-qhu^u 'arroyo with barrancas' <IiO 'barranca', kii'u 'large 

groove' 'arroyo'). 
This arroyo is lost in the fields north of Pueblito [13:15]. 
[13 :y] San Juan Toiaj/okwajeboui 'the roundish height of the cave 

in the cliff', referring to [13 :;t](f^>Jrt^/'>, see [13:9]; kwaje 'height'; 

bodl ' large roundish pile'). See [13:10]. 
[13:10] San Juan foSff^'o 'cliff hole' {ioia 'cliff'; /)'c 'hole'). 

This cave is situated on the southern side and near the top of a 

peculiar round knob [13:9]. The cave opens to the south. Its 

floor is level. The mouth is 8 feet wide ; the depth of the cave is 

6 feet. From the innermost yjart of the cave and on the level of 

its floor a small tunnel-like hole runs back horizontally 5 feet or 

more. There is a niche in the western wall of the cave. The 

roof of the cave is arching, low, and sooty. 
[13:11] San Juan folap'okeJ'l 'cliff hole height' {Totap'o, see [13:10]; 

ke.ii 'height', here referring to a narrow ridge). 

This ridge incloses the low roundish place [13:13]. It is a 

thin neck of hill; one can walk along its top as along the ridge- 
pole of a house. See [13:12]. 
[13:12] Sun Juan foiafss^T' 'at the white cliff' {ioia 'cliff'; fss^ 

'whiteness' 'white'; T' locative and adjective-forming postfix). 
At the place indicated by the circle, on the eastern slope of 

[13:11], is this white cliff. See [13:11] and [13:12]. 
[13:13] (1) San Juan foiap'obu'u 'cliff hole corner', referring to 

[13:10] {foiap'o, see [13:10]; 6m'm 'large low roundish place'). 
(2) San Juan Toiafsxbuu 'white cliff corner", referring to 

[13:12] {foiafsse, see [13:12]; buti 'large low roundish place"). 

This arid low place gives the arroyo [13:14] its name. 
875S4°— 29 ETH— 16 15 



226 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

[13:14] (1) San Juan Toiap'o'iykq 'cliff hole arroyo', referring to 
[13:10] {fohap'o, see [13:10]; ^iyf locative and adjective-forming 
jjOstHx; Iq 'barranca' 'arroyo with barrancas'). 

{'!) San Juan Toiafscr'iijl'o 'white clitf arroyo', referring to 
[13:12] [Tifiafsse, see [13:12]; 'i?7y locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; Zg 'barranca' 'arroj'o with barrancas'). 

[13:1;")] (1) San Juan Kujifx^qijivi 'tunjuoise pueblo' ilcunfx. 'tur- 
(|uoiso' 'kalaite'; ^ywi 'pueblo'). This name is applied also to 
the pueblo ruin [29:2H]. Compare also "alaPuenta [3:10], on 
voit la grande mine de Kwengj'auinge (maison de la turquoise 
bleue)".' See [3: unclassified]. 

(2) San Juan' Ot'qnnx'qyivi 'pueblo on the other side' {''at- 
qmix 'on the other side' <''ot' qyf unexplained, nx locative; 'o/;«'i 
'pueblo'). This name is much used by the San Juan people. 
i?>) Eng. Pueblito settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (4). 
(4) Span. Pueblito 'little pueblo'. =Eng. (3). 
San Juan is the only Tewa pueblo which has a suburb — Pueb- 
lito. Pueblito is a genuine little Tewa pueblo, built about a court- 
yard or plaza, but inhabited by Indians who are identical with 
the San Juan in origin, dialect, and customs. Bandelier^ says of 
Pueblito: "The Indians of San Juan to-day still hold a portion of 
the arable lands about Chamita, and a small colony of them dwell 
on the west side of the Rio Grande at the so-called 'Pueblito'". 
A summer village of the Acoma is also called Pueblito in Span.' 

[13:1(5] San Juan Dc-siwihwaje. 'stinking coj^ote gap height' {DesiwPi^ 
see [13:18]; Iwaje 'height'). 

[13:17] San Juan Jop'e''P'''ol'!/, 'hill adorned with cane cactus' (/o 'cane 
cactus' 'Opuutia arborescens'; j^'e 'adorned' 'fixed up'; T'loca- 
tiv^e and adjective-forming postfix; ^oJcu 'hill'). 
The railroad track lies close under this hill. 

[13:18] San Juan PeshvPi 'stinking coyote gap' {de 'coyote'; *■*" said 
to mean 'stinking'; wCi 'gap' 'pass'). 

This place has given names to [13:10], [13:19], and [13:2(3]. 

[13:19] San Juan Pesiwikqhii'u 'stinking coyote barranca arroj-o' 
(PesiWi'i, see [13:18]; ]cqhu\i 'barranca arroyo' <l-o 'barranca', 
hiCu large groove' 'arroyo'). [13:2(3] is called by the same 
name. 

[13:20] San Juan Kqp^agPiyf, see [11:()]. 

[13:21] The San Juan name (which unfortunately has been mislaid by 
the writer) means 'where the water is deep'. 

[13:22] San Juan Tepohop'e 'wagon road bridge' {tepo 'wagon road' 
<te 'wagon', po 'road'; kop'e 'bridge' 'boat' Kl-o 'to bathe', 
j}'^e 'stick' 'log'). 

1 Hewett, Communauti^s, p. 42, 1908. 
2Final Report, pt. ii, pp. 6l>-63, 1892. 
•See Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 316, 1910. 



HAEniNGTOx] PLACE-NAMES 227 

[13:23] San Juan Pojcui, see [11:!>]. 

[13:24] San Juan Pueblo, yce under [11], page 211. 

[13:25] San J u(in I 'ttfevjlq, 8ce [12:20]. 

[13:26] San Juan JQesiwlkqhti'u 'stinking coyote gap barranca ar- 
royo' (Z)<'s/wv''/, see [13:18]; Ao/ij^'w 'barranca arroyo' <^g' bar- 
ranca,' A ;<'(< 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[13:27] (1) San Juan Juv^eqyxvil-ejl of obscure etymology {Jy^yge 
means clearly enough ' down at the mocking bird place ' <JUVf 
' mocking bird', g,e ' down at' 'over at,' jusst as the name of the 
pueblo ruin P'l'oQ.e [9:43] means ' down at the place of the wood- 
pecker' and that of the pueblo ruin Tsirege [17:34] means 'down 
at the place of the ])ird'; but although the San Juan informants 
agree that this is unquestionably the meaning, they state that 
when they use the word they never think of a mocking bird or of 
any etymology at all; ^oijwUvji 'pueblo ruiu' <\}ijiri 'pueblo,' 
keji ' ruin ' postpound). The forms quoted below from various 
sources are intended iov Jy,ijg:' oywvje (g*?' down at' 'over at'): 
" Yuque^'unque." ' This is a poor spelling, indeed. The writer 
may have been intluenced by Span, yunque ' anvil' < Latin incus 
'anvil.' " ' Yuque-Yun(]ue' are the Tehuas [Tewa], north of 
Santa Fe."' '' Yuque-yunque, or Chamita.'"^ "'Yuque-yun- 
que'. "^ "Yunque is but a contraction of Yuge-uingge. Esca- 
lante .says, in Carta al Padre 21orji. [April 2, 1778], par. 2: 'Una 
Villa de Espanoles, que era de San (labriel del Y'unque, primero y 
despues de Santa Fe.' " ^ Ji^ijcje is not a contraction but a portion 
of the name Jn.yi/e'oiprifje. London would hardly be called a con- 
traction of London town. "Yuqueyunk."' "Yuqui Y^ancjui,"^ 
" Y'nqueyunque.''* " Juke-yunque."^ "Yunque."^" "Yuge- 
uingge."" " Yuge-uing-ge."'- " Yugeuinge."'^ " ' Yun-que.'"" 
" Y'ugeuingge (Tewa: ' village of the ravine '). '' " This etymology 
cannot be correct. It is based on jy, ' to pierce.' 
(2) Span. " Sant Franci.sco de los Espaiioles."" 

iCastaneda (1596) in Fourteenth Ann. Sep. Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. .V25, 1896. 

•Bandelier (quoting Castaneda), nistorical Introduction, pp. 23-24, 1881. 

'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 31, 1892. 

< Ibid., p. 61, note. 

sibid., p. 60, note. 

'Gallatin in Trans. Amer. Ethn. Soc, ii, p. Ixxi, 1848. 

' Kern in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, iv, map, pp. 3S-39, 1854. 

'Davis, Span. Conquest of New Mexico, pp. 185, 221, 225, 1869. 

' Loew (1875) in Wheeler Surv. Rep., vii, p. 344, 1879. 

■"Bandelier in Ritch, X. Mex., p. 210, 1885. 

" Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, pp. 48, 58, 00, 61, 1892. 

'2 Ibid., pt. I, p. 123, 1890. 

'» Hewett: Antiquities, p. 38, 1906; Communautfc, p. 30, 1908. 

" R. E. Twitchell in Santa Fc New Mexican, Sept. 22, 1910. 

"Hodge in Handbook Inds., pt. 2, 1007, 1910. 

••Ofiate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, p. 116, 1871. 



228 ETHNOGEOGRAPJIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

(3) Span. "Saiit Gabriel."' "San Gabriel."- " Saiit Ga- 
briclo." ^ 

"The puoblo was voluntaiily relirKiufslied to the Spaniai'ds under 
Oiiate in 1598, the inliabitantn joininj^- their kindred at San Juan. 
In the year named the first white settlement in the West was here 
made, under the name ' San Francisco de los Espanoles,' and on 
September 8 the chapel was consecrated. In the following year 
the name was changed to San Gabriel, which has been retained 
by the Mexicans as the name of the place to this day. San Gabriel 
was abandoned in the spring of 1605 and Santa Fe founded as the 
seat of the New Mexican provincial government."^ The older 
Indians of San Juan are still familiar with the name San Gabriel.^ 

[13:28] (1) Eng. Chamita settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (l'). 

(2) Span. Chamita, diminutive of Chama <San Juan TsQmq,' 
see discussion under [5:7]. "The name Chamita dates from the 
eighteenth century, and was given in order to distinguish it from 
the settlements higher up on the Chama River."' "Chamita."' 
"La ville mexicaine de Chamita."* The Tewa use the Mexican 
name only. 

The name Chamita is applied definitely to the settlement 
[13:28]; also .vaguely to the whole region about this settlement. 
See [5:7], [13:27], [13:31]. 

[13:29] Chamita warehouse or station. 

[13:30] (1) San Juan Jiujgcohi'e 'little hills of [13:27]' {Jiiyffe, see 
[13:27]; ^o/cu 'hill'; 'e diminutive). This is the old name. 

(2) San Juan Tfamita'oku'e 'little hills of [13:28]' {Tfamith, 
Span. Chamita, see [13:28]; ^olu 'hill'; 'e diminutive). 

These hills are mentioned under the name first given, in a San 
Juan myth. 

[13:31] San Juan Tot' qyl:e.ii 'grass shooting up height' {fa 'grass'; 
t' orjf 'to shoot upward,' said to refer here to the slope of the land 
itself; Icedi 'height'). 

At the grassy rise known In' this name Mr. Romelo de Herrera 
has a store. Mexicans at the place said that they include this 
under the name Chamita. The arroyo indicated on the map, 
west of the circle indicating this place, is presumably named 
Tat' oijlieJ'lhu\i, or Tut'oyhu'a {huu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

lOaate (1598) in Doc. Inld., XVI, p. 116, 1871. 

2 Shea, Oath. Miss., p. 78, 1S70. 

sBandelier in Paperii Ai-i-h. Jnsl., i, p. 19, 1888. 

' Hodge in Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 1007, 1910. 

6 For a ground plan of the rnin see Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, pi. i, fig. 10, 1S<.'*2. For a de^^crip- 
tion see the same worli, pp. 58-63, and Hewett, Antiquities, No. 38, 11*06. See also San Juan Pueblo 
under [11], 

sBandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 62, note, 1892. 

^Ibid., p. .59 et passim. 

" Hewett, Communaut^s, p. 30, 1908. 



HARKINGTON 1 



PLACE-NAMES 229 



[13:32] Tlic San Juan have a special name for this localit\', but the 
information is not avaihiblo. 

[13:33J San Juan Kwifhympo 'the railroad' [hvx'ky,!] f 'iron' 'metal' 
unexplained; po 'trail' 'road'). 

[13:34] San Juan Jvwapkiimpoloye 'the railroad bridge' {Iiwseky.mpo, 
' see [13:33]; %/t; 'bridge "boat' </?o 'to bathe', p'e 'stick' 'log'). 

[13:3.5] San Juan ^Aftig.e 'down at the alkali point' ('<] 'alkali'; /w'^t 
'horizontally projecting point'; g.e 'down at' 'over at'). 

The V-shaped alkaline meadow at the confluence of the Chama 
and llio Grande rivers is called by this name. It is here that 
^Anfxhinjo, the Old Salt "Woman, used to dwell and give of her 
body to the people, according to San Juan mythology. See 
[29:110]. The San Juan do not gather salt from this place at the 
present time. The place is, indeed, very scantily supplied with 
alkali or salt, a fact may explain the origin of the myth, which 
relates that Old Salt Woman forsook the place. See [29:110], 
Salt, under Minerals; cf. [13:36], [18:15]. 

[13:36] San Juan Fojege 'down where the waters meet' {po 'water'; 
je 'to meet'; ge 'down at' 'over at'). 

This name applies to the confluence and the adjacent locality. 
As used at San Juan Pueblo it often refers especially to the fields 
of San Juan Indians bordering on the Rio Grande, just east of 
the confluence. 

[13:37] San Juan Qiveitji'Q.enuQ.elce-ii, sometimes abbreviated to Qwe- 
ienugekedi 'height of kick down together low place' {Qweie- 
jeg.enug.e, see [13:38]; ht'dl 'height"). 

The wagon road leading up the Chama Valley on the north side 
of the river passes over this height before plunging into [13:38]. 

[13:38] San Juan Qwetejeg.enug.e 'kick down together low place' 
(qwebe 'to kick an object' as in the kicking-race game; je 'to 
meet', said to refer here to the objects kicked; g.e ' down at' ' over 
at'; 71?/'?/ below'). The name proliably refers to the kicking of 
objects in a direction toward each other and downward at this 
place, in connection with the playing of some game, it is said. 
Cf. [13:37]. 

[13:39] San Juan Tttiko 'basalt arroyos' {txi 'basalt'; kq 'barranca' 
'arroyo with barrancas'). 

These short and broken gulches extend from the mesa-cliff to 
the river. The place is strewn with blocks and masses of basalt. 
Cf. [13:1], [13:i>]. 

[13:40] (1) Eng. Duende settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Duende 'dwarf. =Eng. (1). Whj' the name 'dwarf ' 
was given is not known. 



230 ETHNO(iEO(!RAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

There is no San Juan Tcvva name for this iNlexican settlement. 
The Tewa word moaning 'dwarf isp'mmi, but is never applied 
to this place. 

[13:-1:1] San •) unn /'tmj'sek' oii^nve/ui u, see [2:34]. 

[13:42] San Juan Sijniwui, see [2:86]. 

[13:43] San Juan SipuwUlhii'u^ see [2:37]. 

[13:44] (1) San Juan Il^Limiie. 'where the one-seeded juniper' {hy, 
'one-seeded juniper, Juniperus monosperma'; ''iyf locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; ?/,t locative). The use of two locative 
elements in this word appears to be irregular. The one-seeded 
juniper still grows at the place. This is the old name of the jilace. 
People at San Juan Pueblo often say Il\i!innsp 'ot'onuss {^ot'qnns^ 
'on the other side' 'on the other side of the river', refei'ring to 
the Rio Grande). 

(2) Eng. San Jose, San Jos6 des Chania settlement. (<Span.). 
= Span. (3). 

(3) Span. San Jose, San Jose de Chania 'Saint Joseph' 'Saint 
Joseph of Chama', referring to Chama River. =Eng. (2). 

This settlement extends for two or three miles in a northwest- 
erly-southeasterly direction. The Mexican houses are along the 
irrigation ditch, which runs where the higher irrigated lands to 
the southwest merge into the lower irrigated lands nearer the 
Chama River. The ditch is perhaps half a mile from the river. 
See [13:45]. 
[13:45] The Roman Catholic church at San Jose de Chama. 

This is situated at the southern end of the settlement. 
[13:46] (1) San Juan 'Al-onnutx ' stretched plain ' {'a'kqmiu 'plain' 
<''akonf 'plain', «« locative; tx 'state of being stretched' 
' stretched '). Cf . Span. (2). 

(2) Sp. Loma Tendida 'stretched hill' 'flathilF 'mesa'. Cf. 
Tewa (1), which is evidently a translation of this idiomatic Span, 
expression. 
[13:47] San Juan Tele dbehiC u 'bi-eak wagon arroyo' {te 'wagon'; 
IcaVe 'to break'; hiDu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

San Juan Indians go much to the mesa Tel' aht'liviije [2:40] for 
firewood. To reach tiie height they drive up this small arro3'0, 
the wagon road of which is very rough and hard on wagons. 
See [2:40]. 
[13:48] (1) Mahy,buwa/, 3[qhy,wUi 'owl corner point' 'owl point' 
{Mq/iiibu''u, see [14:11]; wul 'projecting corner or point'). 

(2) Watjhvidi 'point of [14:11]' {Waffe <Span. Guache, see 
[14:11]; 7vUi 'projecting corner or point'). 

This long projecting tongue of mesa separates Guache settle- 
ment from San Jos4 de Chama [13:44]. See [14:11]. 



MAP 14 
SANTA CLARA WEST REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOQY 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 14 










■'t<\ 



SANTA CLARA WEST reqion 



MAP 14 
SANTA CLARA WEST REGION 



BARUIN-GTO.N] PLACE-NAMES 231 

Unlocated 

San Juan Potekeg.e' qy-wil'tj i 'pueblo ruin down at the edge of the uglj' 
water' (jjo 'water'; te 'ugliness' 'ugly'; lccg.e 'down at the edge 
of Klce 'neck' 'height', g,e 'down at' 'over at'; ''qr)w\keji 
'pueblo ruin' <^orjivi 'pueblo', /icji 'ruin' postpound). This 
form was obtained from a single San Juan informant, now dead, 
as the name of a pueblo ruin somewhere near Chamita. 

[14] SANTA CLARA WEST SHEET 

The central feature of this sheet (map 14) is Santa Clara Creek 
[14:24]. Roughly speaking, the area of the sheet proper was claimed 
by the Santa Clara people, and a large percentage of the places included 
in this area have names which are known to the Santa Clara Indians 
only. 

Santa Clara Pueblo [14:71] is shown, also the important Mexican 
and American settlement of Espafiola [14:16], and a number of pueblo 
ruins which arc claimed by the Tcwa and in some cases rather defi- 
nitely by the Santa Claras as the homes of their ancestors. 

The Santa Claras claim also considerable territory east of the Rio 
Grande; see sheet [15]. 

[14:1] fy.pinnuge, see [2:12]. 

[14:2] SxMwaJe, see [2:22]. 

[14:3] Teiokwaje, see [2:11]. 

[14:4] Kumqntsihuhi, see [2:16]. 

[14:5] Kqgipo, see [2:17]. 

[14:6] Kwse.tsi'i, see [2:19]. 

[14:7] Oso Creek, see [5:35]. 

[14:8] Mq7iy,buwiJi, see [13:4,s]. 

[14:9] Hqky,bui)jA'o, Mqhii'iyl-o 'owl corner arroyo' 'owl arroyo' 
{Mqhijhuu, see [14:11]; ^{ijf locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix; l-q 'bari'anca' 'arroyo with barrancas'). See [14:11]. 

[14:10] MqJitjhuhjoaje'ol-u, lIqh]foku 'hills of the height by owl cor- 
ner' 'owl hills' {Mqh'\ibu''u, .see [14:11]; l-waje 'height'; \>lu 
'hill'). See [14:11]." 

[14:11] (1) Jfqhiibii'u 'owl corner' {iDq/nj, 'owl'; bu^u 'large low 
roundish place'). 

(2) Eng. Guache settiementand vicinity. (>Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Guache, of obscure etj'mology. =Eng. (2). So far 
as it has been possible to learn, " Guache" has no meaning in Span., 
and is not a corruption of any Tewa name. Cf., however, Guache- 
panque [14:20]. 



232 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 20 

This Mexican settlement merges into Placita Larga [14:12] on 
ttie south, and is separated from San Jose de Chama [13:44] on 
the north by Mqhyb^rwiui [14:8]. 
[14:12] (1) ^Oywiheji, J^uheji 'long pueblo' 'long town', translating 
the Span, name ('oT^wj 'pueblo', hardly properly applied to a INIexi- 
can settlement; /w^'/ ' length ' 'long'; 6«'m 'town'). =Eng. (2), 
Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Placita Larga. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Placita Larga 'long town'. =Tewa (1), Eng. (2). 
Mr. L. Bradford Prince of Santa Fe, New Mexico, has a ranch 

near this place. 
[14:13] ir^^S, *ii»/(o, see [15:13]. 
[14:14] (1)' Eng. Angostura settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Angostura 'narrow place'. =Eng. (1). 
[14:15] (1) Kutepaiwe 'stone wall place' (Jcutepa 'stone wall' <'ku 

'stone'; tepa 'wall'; 'iwe locative). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Corral dePiedra. (<Span.). =Span.(3). Cf.Tewa(l). 

(3) Span. Corral de Piedra 'stone corral'. =Eng. (2). Cf. 
Tewa (1). Both the Tewa and the Span, names are descriptive 
and may have originated independently. 

[14:16] (1) Buts(jbri'', Butsqbrhte 'new town place' (buhi 'town'; 
fsq.ii 'newness' 'new'; '*'' locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix; ^iwe locative). This name is felt to be the opposite of 
Bukejior Guachepanque [14:20], the latter name meaning ' old 
town '. 

('2) Eng. Espanola. (<Span.). =Span. (3). The "official" 
spelling of the name omits the tilde. 

(3) Span. Espanola 'Spanish', agreeing with some such femi- 
nine form as placita 'town', which is understood. =Eng. (2). 

The Santa Clara people definitely claim Espanola as within the 
territory formerly considered as belonging to them. Espanola 
contains two large stores and a number of American inhabitants. 
The Indians of Santa Clara and San Ildefonso pueblos do most of 
their shopping here. 
[14:17] Butsibi^P^kop'e, ButsqbTHepol-op'^e 'new town bridge' 'new 
town wagon bridge' {ButsQbiT\ see [14:16]; kop'e 'bridge' 
'boat' <ko 'to bathe', p'e 'stick' 'log'; tepo 'wagon road' 
<te 'wagon', po 'trail' 'road'). 

This is the only wagon bridge between San Juan Pueblo and 
Buckman [20:19]. When the Rio Grande is so high as to make 
the fords near San Ildefonso dangerous the San Ildefonso people 
in driving to Espanola take the road on the eastern side of the 
Rio Grande, which is not so good as that on the western side, cross- 
ing by means of this bridge. 



HAKitiNGTOs] PLACE-NAMES 233 

[14:1SJ Santa Cruz Creek, see [15:18]. 

[14:19] Santa Clara Tinjirirjokqhu'u 'high arrojo' {ty,tjv'sejo 'very 
high' <tij,tju\T ' high', y'o augmentative; toA«'« ' arroyo with bar- 
rancas ' < i"o ' barranca ', J)u\i ' large groove ' ' arroyo '). Why 
this name is applied was not known to the informants. 

[14:20] (1) Santa Clara Fotsipq'^ge 'down at the nmd string place' 
{potsl 'mud' <2>o 'water', tsi unexplained; pqi 'thread' 
'string' 'cord', used also figuratively; ge 'down at' 'over at'). 
Span. (-4) is a corruption of this name. The Santa Claras of the 
present day do not fully understand the meaning of the name, 
and the informants have puzzled much over it. The reference is 
perhaps to a muddy string, or to mud lying in the form of a 
string. The word potsl is applied to any mud except regularly 
made adobe mud, the latter being called napoia. 

(2) Bukeji 'old town' {bu'u 'town'; heji 'old' postpound). 
This name is felt to be the opposite of Butsdbi'i'', Espafiola 
[14:16], the latter name meaning ' new town '. The name Bukeji 
is used especially in conversation when it is feared that Mexicans 
would overhear and understand Guachepanque. 

(3) Eng. Guachepanque. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Guachepanque. (<Tewa (1)). =Tewa (1), Eng. (3). 
The settlement of Guachepanque lies mostly on the edge of the 

low mesa. The Santa Claras distinguish the lowlands Ij'ing in 
this vicinity by the river as Potsipq'igenu^e, see [14:21]. The 
Santa. Claras usually pass through Guachepanque when going to 
Espafiola. If talking Span., they sometimes use low tones when 
passing this place, for fear that the Mexicans will overhear. 
This is, of course, mere sentiment. 

[14:21] Santa Clara Potsipq,'-</enuge 'down below the mud string 
place', referring to [14:20] {Potsipq'ige, see [14:20]; nu'u 'below'; 
ge 'down at' 'over at'). As explained under [14:20], this hame 
is applied to the lowlands by the river at [14:20]. 

[14:22] Santa Clara Peak, see [2:13]. 

[14:23] Pitepiijf 'loathsome penis mountain' (pi for fyijla 'head of the 
penis'; te 'loathsomeness' 'loathsome'; pirjf 'mountain'). 

[14:24] (1) Ivapopohuhi^ ICapo''impohu''u, K' afyopotsi'' I , ICapo'impo- 
tshl 'creek of Santa Clara Pueblo [14:71]' 'canyon of Santa 
Clara Pueblo [14:71]' {IPapo, see [14:71]; ^{iqj' locative and ad- 
jective-forming postfix; pdlirHii, 'arroyo with water in it' <po 
'water', hiCu ' large groove ' 'arroyo'; pote*'^ 'canyon with water 
in it' <^c> 'water', Isr* 'canyon'). Pohiru is used of the more 
open, pofsPi of the more dosod-in, parts of tlie creek. Merely 
pohu\i or pofsii is often used by the Santa Claras, it being under- 
stood to which creek or canyon the reference is made. Santa Clara 
Creek is appropriately named, for Santa Clara Pueblo is at its 



234 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

mouth, and it i.s elaimed by tlic Santa C'liira Iiulians as their own 
creek. Cf. Eng. ('i). Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Santa Clara Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (3). Cf. 
Tewa (1). 

(3) Span. Rito de Santa Clara, Ari-ojo de Santa Clara, Cailon 
de Santa Clara ' creek, arroyo or canyon of [14:71]'. =Eng. (2). 
"Les rivieres . . . Santa Clara." ' Bandelier'.s "Arroyo de Santa 
Clai'a"- certainly does not apply to Santa Clara Creek; see 
under [14:116]. 

[14:2ri] Kusunfu'piijf, see [2:15]. 

[14:26] Santa Clara '^J.y)//)/6«'« 'naked red corner' (Vjo^' 'nakedness' 
'naked'; pi 'redness' 'red'; huu 'large low roundish place'). 
This name refers to a low place on both sides of the creek. It 
is said to be i-eddish. Cf. [14:27]. 

[14:27] Santa Clara 'J./)<|iz6M/i'wa/'e' naked red corner height ' {'Apipt- 
buii, see [14:26]; Icwaje 'height'). 

[14:28] Santa Clara Ts(^ewaJ'l 'wide gap of the little eagle' {Jise 
' eagle'; 'e diminutive; wcul ' wide gap '). 

[14:20] Santa Clara Ka<mfxg.riwe, Kn'on fiegliuu ' stone on its head 
place' 'stone on its head corner' (ku 'stone'; ""onfceg.! 'on the 
head', adverb; Hwe locative; huu 'large low roundish place'). 
There are at this place "tent-rocks" (see pis. 6-8), which are 
thought to resemble people carrying objects on their heads; hence 
the name. 

[14:30] Santa Clara Ts«>t'^«.n.« 'white meal place' (te^ 'whiteness' 
'white'; Jixyf 'meal' 'flour'; nx locative). 

A Mexican family is said to live at this place, which is north 
of tlie creek, under Kusimfupiyf [14:25]. 

[14:31] Santa Clara A'«i/Wff'/'* 'rock house place' (ku. 'stone' 'rock'; 
qwa denoting state of being receptacle ; T* locative and adjective- 
forming posttix). The name refers to the location of a rock 
which has caves in it or is hollow, capable of being used as a 
house. 

[14:32] Santa Clara Buu-akup<t^awe ' sunny place of the stone for baking 
bread' (buwaku 'bread stone', referring here to stone of the kind 
of which slabs are made for cooking buwajaie 'paper bread' 
< buwa 'bread', jabe 'to tear oti the surface layer from an 
object'; ku ' stone '; jw'awe 'sunny place' 'sunny side' <]>aa 
akin to Jemez^e 'sun', we locative). 

There is said to be at this place a deposit of the kind of sand- 
stone used for preparing guayave slabs. So far as could be 
learned, the Santa Clara or other Tewa do not get guaA'ave stones 
from this place at the present time. 

' Hewett, Communautt's, p. 24, 1908. ' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 05, ISO'.'. 



HiKEINOTOJi] PLACE-NAMES 235 

[14:33] 8anta Clara /'>ip'innie\ijwil'eji 'puehlo ruin at the narrow 
point' (/w'm ' horizontally projecting corner or point, as of a mesa 
top'; ji'vjf for p'iyli 'narrowness' "narrow', nse locative; 
\))jwilejl 'pueblo ruin' <'otjiri 'pueblo', leji 'old' postpound). 
The Santa Clara informant does not khow why this name is 
given; he thinks that the narrow point referred to may be the whole 
of the mesa. Bandelier writes: "On the north side a castle-like 
mesa of limited extent detaches itself from the foot of the Pelado. 
The Tehuas call it Shu-finne.'" "Shu Finne."= "Shu-finne/'^ 
"Shuiinne."^ "Shutinne."^ "Tsiphenu."" '-Tsifeno." " The 
forms "Tsiphenu" "Tsifeno," meaning black obsidian' (see 
under IMinerals, p. 5S4) are incorrect, being based on informa- 
tion obtained by the writer in I'JOS from San Ildefonso and Santa 
Clai'a Indians, who did not know the old Santa ('lara name for 
the place. Mr. Ignacio Aguilar of San Ildefonso calls the place 
Tulp'tnnu 'black obsidian' to this day. The ruin and locality 
are described by Bandelier' and by Hewett.' See [14:46], [14:64]. 

[14:34] Santa Clara Ktqfijhuu 'rocky rabbit-brush corner' {hu 
'stone'; /"'it 'rabbit-brush' ' Chrysothamnus bigelovii ' ; SM'w'large 
low roundish place'). See [14:35]. 

[14:35] Santa Clara Kup' y,bukwaje qijwiliej i 'pueblo ruin of the height 
at rabbit-brush corner', referring to [14:34] [Kup'uhuhi, see 
[14:34]; hvaje 'height'; 'o^wj^e/i 'pueblo ruin' Cqywi 'pueblo', 
keji 'old' postpound). 

[14:36] Santa Clara Qwsgnsapd'al-onnu 'plain of the soft rat excre- 
ment' iqwseyj' a species of rodent resembling the woodrat; sapo 
'watery excrement' <sa 'excrement', po 'water'; ^akonnu 
'plain' K'akoijy 'plain', w?/. locative). 
This is a low, level, meadow-like place. See [14:37]. 

[14:37] Santa Clara Qwsensapo'al'Onnu'Qtjwikeji 'pueblo ruin at the 
plain of the soft rat excrement', referring to [14:36] (Qwxnsapo- 
^akomin, see [14:36]; ^qywikeji 'pueblo ruin' K^oywi 'pueblo', 
keji 'old' postpound). 

[14:38] Santa Clara Tsipiwii 'gap where the pieces of flaking stone 
come out of the ground' {tsPi 'flaking stone'; j)i 'to emerge' 'to 
come out' 'to go out' 'to issue'; wPi 'gap' 'pass'). For quoted 
forms of the name see [14:39]. 

Doctor Hewett furnishes the information that the gap or pass 
referred to by this name is west of the ruin [14:39], q. v. 

1 Final Report, pt. ii, p. 66, 1892. 

'Bandelier, Delight Makers, p. 378, 1890. 

' Bandelier. Final Report, op. cit., pp. 7, 19, 66, 67. 

^ Hewett: General View, p. 598. 1905; Antiquities, p. 14, 1906; Communauttjs, p. 45, 1908. 

' Hewett in Out West, xxxi, p. 702, 1909. 

"Harrington, ibid. 

' Final Report, op. cit., pp. 66-67. 

s Antiquities, No. 1, 1906. 



236 ETHNOGEOGRAPIIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ann. 29 

[14:3!)] Santa Clara TtiiplwPqywikeji ' pueblo ruin at [14:M8] ' ( TsipiwPi, 
SCO [14:3SJ; ■Qywikeji 'pueblo ruin' <'qijiri 'pueblo', keji 'old' 
postpound). Hewett mentions "cliff dwellings of Chupadero 
Canyon" [14:87].' "Chipiwi".^ 

Tslpiwi'l is a ruin situated on the southern riui of the mesa 
east of the gap from which it takes its name, according to Doctor 
Hewett, b^' whom it is described.^ 

[14:40] Santa Clara Pajrl-oJuCu, Puje'iyhqhuhi, 'arroyo of [14:46]' 
{Puje, see [14:46]; ''iyf locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
kqhii'u 'arroyo with barrancas' <l'q 'barranca', hii'it 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 

The two chief head waters, or rather head gulches, of this 
arroj'o unite just south of the western extremity of the mesa 
[14:45] to form Piijel'qhuu proper. 

[14:41] Santa Clara Pujeywseylcaho.ih 'rock-pine grove of [14:46]' 
{Puje, see [14:46]; yuiserj/ 'rock-pine' 'Pinus scopulorum'; ha 
'denseness' 'dense' 'forest'; boM 'large roundish pile', possibly 
referring here to a hill, but more probably referring to a grove). 
The Santa Clara informant insists that this is a regular place 
name. 

[14:42] Santa Clara .SySe'e ' little corner of the one-seeded juniper' 
{/iy. 'one-seeded juniper' 'Juniporus monosperma'; be^e 'small 
low roundish place ') . Cf . [14 : 43] . 

[14:43] Santa Clara Hybehwaje 'height at the little corner of the one- 
seeded juniper' (Hiihe'e, see [14:42]; Invaje 'height'). 

[14:44] Nameless pueblo ruin, located by Doctor Hewett. 

[14:45] Santa C\sLV?k Pujekwaje, PujehwaQfi 'height of [14:46]' 'mesa 
of [14:46]' {Puje, see [14:46]; kwaje 'height'; kwag.e 'height' 
'mesa'). (PI. 4.) 

"Puye is a rock of grayish-yellow tufa, 5,760 feet long, vary- 
ing in width from 90 to 700 feet. It is a fragment of the great 
tufaceous blanket that once covered the entire Pajarito plateau 
to a thickness of from 50 to 500 feet."^ See [14:46]. 

[14:40] Santa Clara P}/je'y.ywilejl probably 'pueblo ruin where the 
rabbits meet or assemble' {pu probably 'cottontail rabbit'; je 
probably 'to meet' 'to assemble'; ^xbymiJceji 'pueblo ruin' 
<''yr)wi 'pueblo' (Santa Clara dialectic form of Tewa 'o^//'?), heji 
'old' postpound). This etymology is not certain, although it is 
given by Tewa Indians when asked to etymologize the word. The 
Santa Clara pronounce j^^'j'' with rising-falling tone of the last 
s}llable, while /(' 'to meet' has a level tone. One informant sug- 
gested that if the etymology given above is correct, the name may 

• General View, p. 69S, 1905. 

" Hewett: Antiquities, p. 15, 1906; Communautfe, p. 45, 1908. 
' Antiquities, No. 3, 1906. 

* Hewett in Out West, xxxi, p. 697, 1909. 



HARBI.NCTON] PLACE-NAMES 237 

refer to rabbits being driven together at a communal rabbit hunt. 
Although pu refers properly to the species of cottontail rabbits 
with which the Tewa are familiar, it is also used as the general 
word for 'rabbit'. Puje means 'deerskin'. Stephen' gives 
"puj'e" as meaning 'quail' in the llano dialect of Tewa. Note 
also the etymology bj" Hewett, quoted below. "Puiye."' 
"Puye."' "Pu-ye."'* "Puye (Tewa: [place of the] 'berry')".' 
"Puye."" 

The pueblo ruin is described by Bandelier,' by Hewett,* and by 
S. G. Morley.^ The Santa Claras say that their ancestors lived 
at Puye, although this is perhaps a conclusion at which they would 
naturally arrive rather than a definite historical tradition. The 
Tewa of the other pueblos consider that all the country about 
Santa Clara Creek belongs to the Santa Clara Indians, and that 
Pnye, being situated in this countr}-, must also belong to the 
Santa Claras. The ^vriter has talked with many Tewa on the 
.subject, but has never been able to learn anything further than 
this. But Bandelier'" writes: 

For two consecutive years I inquired of the Tehuas of San Juan and San Ilde- 
fonso if they l^new anything about the cave dwellers, and they invariably tijld me 
they did not. At last, in 1888, I became acquainted with the people of Santa 
Clara, and during three protracted stays at their village I succeeded in gaining 
the confidence of several of their principal Shamans. These medicine-men 
assureil me that the pueblo on the summit of the I'u-ye, and the cave dwellings 
in that cliff and at the Shu-flnne, were the work and abodes of their ancestors. 
Subsequently I questioned the medicine-men of San Juan, and they acknowl- 
edged that what their neighbors had told me was true, but that it was no part 
of their local traditional history. The same was said to me afterwards by one 
of the wizards of San Ildefonso. The Indians of Santa Clara also informed me 
that drought and the hostility of nomadic Indians had compelled the final aban- 
donment of the sites. The statements of these Indians were so emjihatic, that I 
am strongly inclined to believe them. The cave-houses and the highest pueblo 
appear therefore to have been the homes of that portion of the Tehua tribe whose 
remnants now inhabit the village of Santa Clara, in days long previous to the 
commg of Europeans. 

The statements which Santa Clara Indians have made to the 
present writer relative to this subject have been only what one 
might expect, and apparently are based on speculation rather 
than definite tradition. Hodge" says: 

The natives [the Santa Claras] assert that their ancestors dwelt in the clusters 
of artificial grottos excavated in cliffs of i)Uiuice-stoue (Puye and Shuiinue) 

I .\. M. Stephen, A Vocabulary of the Language ol Te'wa, One of the Moki Pueblos, extract made by 
A. S. Gatschet, Bur. Amer. Ethn., MS. no. 1540. 

'Bandelier, Delight Makers, p. 3, 1890. 

' Ibid., p. 178; Hewett: General View, p. 698, 1905; Communautcis, p. 29 et passim, 1908. 

< Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 07 ct passim, 1892. 

'Hewett in American Anthropologist, vol. vi, p. 649, 1904. 

•Hewett: Antiquities, p. 14, 1900; in Out West, xxxi, p. 703 et passim, 1909; Harrington, ibid. 

' Final Report, pt. ii, pp. 67-71, 1S92. 

s Anticiuities. No. 2, 1906, also in Out West, xxxi, 1909. 

sibid., xxxn. No. 2, p. 121, 1910. 
"Bandelier, Final Report, pt, ii, pp. 74-75, 1892. 
"Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 456, 1910. 



238 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. asn. 29 

west of the Rio Grande, and this may l)e true nf botli historic and preliistoric 
times; but the Santa Clara people probably ijere not the only Tewa occupants 
of these cliff-lodges. 

Puye has cfiven the names to [14:40], [14:45], and [14:47]. 

[14:47] (1) Santa Clara Pujepopi 'spring at [14:46]' {I'uje, see [14:46]; 
Popi 'spring' <po 'water', ^>2^ 'to' issue'). 

(2) Eng. Nine Mile spring. It is called thus because it is 
supposed to be 9 miles from Santa Clara Pueblo, or from the Rio 
Grande. 

[14:4s] Santa Clara Suwalq 'warm barranca' {sutoa 'warmth' 'warm'; 
Ao 'barranca'). Why this bank or gulch is called warm the in- 
formants did not know. Suwa is used much as Eng. 'warm' is 
used, of objects which are warm, of warm and sunny locations, etc. 

[14:49] Santa Clara KupiCurise, 'at the small pile or piles of stones' 
Qcu 'stone'; jom'w 'small roundish pile' of about the same mean- 
ing as hUi; nx locative). 

[14:50] Santa Clara Tap ojateqwdHwe 'place of Taf ova's house' 
{Tap'oja <Span. Tafoya, surname of a Mexican who has a house 
at this place; teqwa 'house' <te 'dwelling-place', (pva denoting 
state of being a receptacle; ''iwe locative). 

[14:51] Santa Clara Potage 'down at the place where the squashes, 
pumpkins, or gourds are dried' {po 'squash' 'pumpkin' 'gourd'; 
<tf 'tobedry' 'to dry', transitive; ge 'down at' 'over at'). Cf. 
[14:.52]. 

[14:52] Santa C\?i,vai Potagehv^ u 'arroyo at the place where the 
squashes, pumpkins, or gourds are dried' {Potag.e, see [14:51]: 
Jm-'U 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[14:53] Santa Clara ^Awap" asakPimu 'corner where the cat-tails are' 
Caivap'a 'cat-tail'; sn 2 + plural of ffa 'to be at a place'; kt"i?nu 
said to mean about the same as buu 'large low roundish place'). 

[14:54] Santa Clara P'up'innce, P'y,p'innsekwaje ' rabbit-l)rush nar- 
row place' 'rabbit-brush narrow place height' (p'u rabbi t-})rush' 
'Chrysothamnus bigelovii'; j/i?;./' for p'ijjki 'narrowness' 'nar- 
row'; nie locative; kwaje 'height'). Cf. [14:33] and [14:55]. 

[14:55] Santa Clara P'y,p'innse/m''u ' rabbit-brush narrow place arroyo' 
{P' iq/vmse, see [14:54]; ku'ii 'large groove '''arroyo'). 

It is said that the main wagon road leading to Puje [14:46] 
passes through the lower part of this arroyo. 

[14:56] Santa Clara 'Ateehuu 'little chokecherry arroyo' ('aft<? 
' chokecherry ' 'Prunus melanocarpa'; "t; diminutive; /t«'w 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 

[14:57] Roman Mountain, see [2:41]. 

[14:58] Santa Clara iVg.wjo'cwv6«'!< ' black earth corner ' {>i<JU./ 'earth'; 
p'vjf 'blackness' 'black'; biiti 'large low roundish place). Cf. 
[14:59]. 



HARKINGTO.N] PLACE-NAMES 239 

[14:59] Santa Clara Nqmp\yhra/e 'black earth height' {n4mp\i)f, 
see [14:58]; Icwaje 'height'). 

[14:60] Santa Clara T<:'jU'Ci'' 'box-elder place' {te'jUi 'box-elder' 
'Acer negundo'; T' locative and adjective-forming po.sttix). 

[14:61] Santa Clara Po6eV 'little corner of the squashes, pumpkins, 
or gourd' (po 'squash' 'pumpkin' 'gourd'; 6e'e 'small low 
roundish place'). Cf. [14:62]. 

[14:62] Santa Clara Pohehu'u 'arro3'o of the little corner of the 
squashes, pumpkins, or gourds' {Pobe'e, see [14:61]; hu'u 'large 
groove' 'arrovo'). 

[14:63] Santa C\ava ''A' ats(l,i)wsebe'e 'little corner of the blue slope' 
('a'a 'steep or short slope'; tsqywie 'blueness' 'blue' 'greenness' 
'green'; be'e 'small low roundish place'). 

[14:64] Santa Clara Fotsibe'e 'little mud corner' {potsi 'mud' < po 
'water', tsi unexplained; be'e 'small low roundish place'). Cf. 
[14:20]. 

[14:65] Santa Clara Qwxmpiwi'i 'gap of the red-tailed hawk' (qtospnipi 
"red-tail hawk", unidentified species of bird <q%cxijf 'tail', pi 
'redness' 'red'; un,'i 'gap' 'pass'). The gulch at the place is 
probabl3' called Qwaernpiwihu' u {hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

The locality was pointed out to the writer, but the gap itself 
could not be definitely located. Perhaps it is identical with the 
gulch or arroyo. 

[14:66] Santa Clara Jowi'i 'cane cactus gajj' {jo 'cane cactus' 'Opun- 
tia arborescens'; wi'i 'gap'). 

[14:67] Santa Clara K'apopohu''iijkwce.'ky,mpokop'e 'railroad bridge of 
[14:24]' {Tvapopohu'u, see [14:24]; ^iyj' locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; Icwspkumpo 'railroad' •dcWcehy,!] f 'iron', of ob- 
scure etymology ', 2^r; 'trail' 'road'; Jcx>pe 'bridge' 'boat' <Tco 
'to bathe', fe 'stick' 'log'). 

[14:68] Santa Clara Nubu'u 'corner below' (nu'u 'below' 'under'; 
bu'u 'large low roundish place'). The place is called thus, it is 
said, because it is far below Santa Clara Pueblo. 

[14:69] (1) Santa Clara Ka'pijalceji 'old chapel' {hapija <Span. 
capilla 'chapel'; Iceji 'old' postpound). =Eug. (3), Span. (4). 

(2) Santa Clara Misate'eJceji 'old chapel' {misate'e 'chapel' 
<misa <Span. misa 'Roman Catholic mass'; te 'dwelling-place' 
'house'; 'e diminutive; Iceji 'old' postpound). Cf. Tewa (1), 
Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. the Old Chapel. =Tewa (1), Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Capilla Vieja 'old chapel'. =Tewa (1), Eng. (3). 
Cf. Tewa (2). 

It is said that there is at this place the ruin of a (Catholic 
chapel. 



240 ETHNOGEOGKAl'llY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [icru. axn. 29 

[14:70] Seco Arroyo, sec f 15 :'2fi]. 

[14:71] (1) JCapo'iiywi of o))scure etymology (k'apo unexplained; 
^y,ywi 'pueblo'). Although a large number of Tewa Indians have 
been questioned concerning the etymology of this name and 
although what are apparently cognate forms of the name occur in 
other Tanoan languages, K'apo has withstood up to the present 
time all attempts to explain its meaning. Both syllables are 
long in the Tewa form of the name; the first syllable has level 
tone and the second syllable circumflex tone. The syllable h 'a 
with level tone has no meaning in Tewa. Neither h'a 'corral' 
'fence', ^''a 'weight' 'heav_y', I' 'a in tsiJc' a 'eyeball' {tsi 'eye') 
nor^'a'" 'wild rose' 'rose' 'anyrosa species 'is identical with 
the syllable h'amlCapo. The second syllable of A^'«fw, namely 
po, is even more perplexing. It has the circumflex tone, as said 
above, and is identical with Tewa po 'trail' 'road'. The seem- 
ingly cognate Jeraez form of the name (see Jemez (5), below) has 
as its second syllable the Jemez word pa ' water', cognate with 
Tewa po 'water'. The quoted Taos, Picuris, and Isleta forms 
seem to show pa 'water'. Tewa has besides po 'trail', also po 
' water ' and po ' moon', each of these thi'ee words having a difl'er- 
ent tone. The etymology of the name K'apo is not known either 
to the Tewa or to the Jemez. If a Tewa Indian is asked to give 
the meaning of K'apo he couples either ' corral ', ' heavy ', ' spheri- 
cal', or 'rose' with either 'trail', 'water', or ' moon'. Some of 
the fancied etymologies formed in this way ai'e very pretty. 
Thus he may render the name by ' rose-trail ' ' spherical moon ' 
' heavy water '. One informant was strongly in favor of 'corral 
water'. An investigator at Santa Clai-a Pueblo writes: " I asked 
. . . what Kapo meant . . . He answered without hesitation 
'dew' (Span, rocio) — what comes in the night and looks pretty in 
the morning." This Indian had chosen the meanings ' rose-water ' 
and construed them as the water on rose plants, that is, 'dew', the 
similarity in sound between Span, rosa ' rose' and Span, rocio (c 
in New Mexican Span. =*•), ' dew ', perhaps, helping along this ety- 
mology. In a later letter the same investigator writes: " I have 
discovered that the Indians do not know the meaning of K'apo." 
The writer is hopeful that a thorough study of the forms of the 
name in the Indian languages in which it occurs, other than Tewa, 
will make clear its etymology. Some of the forms quoted below 
represent a variant pronunciation, K'apo'°. It is possible, but 
hardly probable, that the name of a former Tano Tewa pueblo, 
Bandelier's "Ka-po", etc. [29:unlocated] is the same. Cf. this 
name, and also Kapo, name of the pueblo ruin [14:71], which is, 
of course, entirely distinct. The present pueblo [14:71] is said to 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 241 

be the third whieh has l)orne the name K' npo. The first to have 
this name was [14:110], the second [14;117J. See general dis- 
cussion below: '-Capoo."' "Capo."2 "Ca-po."^ "Ka-po."* 
"Kapung"^ (given as Hano Tewa name). •'Kapou."" 
"Ka-Poo."' "Kap-ho"* (given as San lldefonso and 
San Juan name). " I^ha-po'-o."'* "Ka'po."'" "Kah-po."" 
"■Ca-po."'^ " K'hapoo 'where the roses (?) grow near the 
water.'" " 

(2) Taos"Haipaai"." "Hai'bata".« Haiba'yu".' 

(3) Picuris "Haiphaha".* "Kaipaa 'in the river there are wet 
cornstalks"".''' 

(4) Isleta "K'haibhai".* 

(5) Jemez /'Jdpdt/i'i of obscure etymology but evidently ajjin to 
the Tewa, Tiwa, and Keresan forms {fjd unexplained; pa 'water'; 
at least it sounds exactly the same as Jemez fid 'water'; f/i'i loca- 
tive, probably equivalent to Tewa ^e 'down at' 'over at'). This 
name was given the writer as the old and now no longer used 
Jemez name of San Juan Pueblo. It was seen at once, however, 
that it must be the old Jemez name for Santa Clara Pueblo, K'apo. 
This is corroborated by the fact that the same name was obtained 
by Mr. Hodge as the name of Santa Clara Pueblo; see below. The 
people of fjdpdg/"i Are called by the Jemez fjdpdtfd^df {(J'd'd/ 
'people'). "Shi-ap'-a-gi".* 

(6) Pecos "Giowaka-a"'." "Giowatsa-a"'.'' "Giowa-" in these 
forms is clearly the same as Jemez glowd 'over above' 'up- 
country'; "tsa-a"' of the Pecos form second given is certainly 
equivalent to Jemez tfa'df 'people'. In the Jemez language 
ffioivdffd'df means 'up-countiy people' and is said to be applied 
to the Ute, Jicarilla Apache, Taos, etc., who live up-country, 

'Benavides, Memorial, p. 59, 1630. 

'Vetancurt (1696), Cr6nica, p. 317, 1871. 

•Bandelier in Eitch, New Mexico, p. 201, 1885. 

• Bandelier (1888) in Proc. Int. Cong. ArrUr., vii, p. 457, 1890; also in Final Report, pt. i, pp. 124, 260, 
1890. 

' Stephen in Eighth Sep. Bur. Amcr. Ethn., p. 37, 1891. 

" Bandelier, op. cit., pt. ii, p. 64. 

'Bandelier. Gilded Man, p. 232, 1893. 

eHodge, field notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 (Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 457, 1910). 

•Ibid. 

'"Fewke-s in Nineteenth Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn.., p. 614, 1900. 

" Jouvenceau in Catholic Pioneer, i. No. 9, p. 12, 1906. 

"Twitchell in Santa Fe New Mexican, Sept. 22, 1910 (quoting early Span, source). 

" Hodge in Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 456, luio. 

n Budd, Taos vocabulary, MS. in Bur. Amer. Ethn. 

" Spinden, Pieuris notes, MS., 1910. 

18 Stevenson, Pecos MS. vocabulary, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1887. 

87584°-— 20 ETH— 16 16 



242 ETiiNonEOfiRArnY of the ,tewa Indians [eth. ann. 29 

above, iiortli of Joinoz Puoblo. Probably the corresponding 
Pecos form, of whicli Stevenson has fortunately given us a record, 
had the same meaning, being applied to the Tewa and other tribes 
living up country from the Pecos. The " ka-a'"of the Pecos 
form lirst given remains unexplained. 

(7) Pecos "Ak'-e-ji".' 

(8) Cochiti Kdipa. This name is said to have no etymology 
known to the Cochiti. "Kai'p'a".^ 

(9) "Sia 'Tinjititja me'".^ The last syllable is evidently ms^ 
'people'. 

(10) Acoma "Kaiipa".^ 

(11) Oraibi Hopi Nascibe' etewa ' middle Tewa ' {nasate'e ' middle ' ; 
T6wa 'Tewa'). So called because Santa Clara is the central vil- 
lage of the Tewa villages on the Rio Grande, lying between San 
Ildefonso and San Juan. 

(12) Navaho "Ana S'ushI 'tribe like bears'".^ It is explained 
that the Santa Claras are so named from their skunk-skin moccasins 
which at first were thought to be of bear skin. 

(13) Probably Keres or Tiwa "Caypa"." This name is con- 
founded with San Juan. 

(l-t) Eng. Santa Clara. (<Span.). = Span. (15). 

(15) Span. Santa Clara 'Saint Clara'. =Eng. (14). "Santa 
Clara".' "S^Clara".' "S?'' Clara". ^ "S.Clara".^'' 

With ICapo compare the name of the pueblo ruin Kapo' qrjwiJceji 
[5:23] and Bandelier's " Ka-po" given as the name of a pueblo ruin 
near Golden, New Mexico [29 : unloc.ated]. Bandelier describes Santa 
Clara Pueblo:" "Jemez, Santa Clara, and San Felipe are each a 
double quadrangle with two squares." "At Santa Clara . . . 
the Yutas . . . have assiduously contributed to the propagation 
of the species".'^ A Santa Clara informant knew nothing of the 
Ute blood at Santa Clara Pueblo. "The church of Santa Clara was 
first used in 1761 ".'^ The present pueblo is the third to bear the 
name A'' (/po according to Santa Clara tradition. Tlie ^vst ICapo 
pueblo was [14:116], a short distance northwest of the present 
Santa Clara Pueblo. This was a})andoned, so the storj^ goes, its' 
inhabitants building a second village culled K'apo at a site some- 
what northeast of the present Santa Clara; see [14:117]. 

1 Hodge, field notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 (Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 457, 1910). 

' Hodge, ibid. 

' Spinden, Sia notes, 1910. 

* Hodge, op. cit. 

" Curtis, American Indian, i, p. 138, 1907. 

« Oflate (1598) in Doc. Inid., xvi, p. 256, 1871. 

'Ibid., p. 116. 

» De I'Isle, Carte Mex. et Flor., 1703. 

' D'Anville, Map Am^r. Septentrionale, 1746. 

"> Cr^py, Map Ami^r. Septentrionale, 1783 (?) 

11 Final Report, pt. i, p. 265,1890. 

12 Ibid., pp. 201-62. 
1' Ibid., p. 267, note. 



HARKIXIJTON] 



PLACE-NAMES 243 



[14:T;i] Santa Clara Kws^hee 'oak arroyito (hvx 'oak'; he'e 'small 
groove" 'arroyito'). Cf. [14:73]. [14:120]. 

[14:73] Santa Clara Kwsehekwaje 'oak arroyito height' {Kws^he'e, see 
[14:7-2]; hmje 'height'). Cf. [14:72]. 

[14:7-1:] Santa Clara Kiipunf^iid-qlm'u 'arroj'o of the corner where 
the stone is conspicuous' {Kiijnmj'sebu'u, see [14:75]; lo/iuu 
'arroyo with barrancas' <X'0 'barranca', /ni^u 'large groove' 
'arroyo'). Cf. [14:75]. 

[14:75] Santa Clara Kupunysebu^u 'corner where the stone is conspicu- 
ous' (ki/ 'stone'; pimj'x 'to be conspicuous' 'to be noticeably 
beautiful'; htru 'large low roundish place'). 

[14:70] Santa Clara Kunn' iy fhuhc 'arroyo below the rocks ' (Jcn^rock.'' 
'stone'; niCu 'below'; '/'' locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix; hull Mai-ge groove' 'arroyo'). 

There is said to be white sand in this gulch. Cf. [14:77]. 

[14:77] Santa Clara KuniCyjfhuhoaje, Kunuhcaje ' height of the 
arroyo below the rocks' 'height of the place below the rocks' 
{KiiniiHjf)fhu''u,Kunuh(,SGe\l^:liS\\ kwaje 'height'). Cf. [14:76]. 

[14:78] Santa Clara P' eqwa'pohiC u 'drag pole or log creek' {p e 'pole' 
'log'; qwa 'to drag'; pohuu 'creek with water in it' <fjo 
'water', Aw'« ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

[14:7'.t] Santa Clara K^Piij fju/u 'rocky arroj-o' {Jck 'rock' 'stone'; 
T' locative and adjective-forming postfix; hu'u 'large groove' 
' arroyo '). 

[14:80] San \VMon^oTsab!jodehu''u, see [18:S]. 

[14:'^1] Santa Clara Pi(lnfi§hu''u 'smooth red arroyo' {pi 'redness' 
'red'; \infsg. 'smoothness' 'smooth'; /(*<'?« 'large gulch "arroyo'). 

[14:82] Santa Clara T'qnfahuhi 'arroyo where the sun lives or 
dwells', said to refer to the shining of the sun {t'ayf 'sun'; t' a 
'to live' 'to dwell'; Am'm 'large gulch' 'arroyo'). For the name 
cf. [23:16] and [23:17]. 

[14:s3] Santa Clara 7"y'"/WiM't< 'arroyo of the yellow t'li!^ mineral' 
{t'^'^ a kind of whitish mineral, see under Minerals; tse 'yel- 
lowness' 'yellow"; hiCu ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

[14:84] Santa Clara QwawivMg:i'iijfhuu 'arroyo of the place like a 
gap between the houserows of a pueblo' {qwawPi 'gap between 
the houserows of a pueblo' <qwa 'house,' indefinite term show- 
ing state of being a receptacle, wf/ 'gap"; vxtg.1 'like' similar to' 
postfix; '^'' locative and adjective-forming postfix; Auhi 'large 
gap' 'arroyo'). 

[14:85] (1) Santa Clara, K'nAu'ii 'corral arroyo' {k'a 'corral'; /in'u 
'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Arroyo de las Latas 'slat arroyo'. Cf. Tewa (1). 

[14:86] (1) Santa Clara ywxinpupohuu, ^wsprnpiipo 'rock-pine roots 
creek' {ywspyj' 'rock-pine' 'Pinus saxorum'; pu 'base' 'root'; 



244 ETHNOGEOCHAIMI V Ul' THE TEWA INDIANS [ktii. ANN. 'J'J 

pohuu 'arroyowith waterin it' <po 'water', lut/u 'large groove' 
arroyo'). Cf. Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Arroyo del I'iiiavete 'rock-pine arro5'o'. Cf. 
Tewa(l). 
[14:87] (1) ^a,n{&C\a,VB,Ky,wihu^u ' skunk- bush gap' (Aywi'i, see under 
[14:unlocated]; Tiu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

(2) San lldefonso ^A^'^nfy^nda^xniyflm^u 'arroyo where the two 
maidens sit' (a'''n^^y,rjj'2 + plural of ■a'"^nj'y, 'maiden' 'virgin'; 
da 'they two' third person dual prefixed pronoun with intransi- 
tive verb; ^seyf 'to sit'; ''iyf locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix; Jiu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Why this name is applied 
was not known to the informants. 

(3) Eng. Chupadero Creek, Chupadero Arroyo, Chupadero 
Canyon. (<Span.). =Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Arroyo Chupadero, Canon Chupadero ' sucking place 
canj'on'. =Eng. (3). 

Span, chupadero means 'sucking place' 'nursing bottle'. 
Doctor Hewett explains the application of the name Chupadero 
to this canyon in a very satisfactory way. In the bed of the 
lower pai't of the arroyo. Doctor Hewett says, holes or pits in 
the sand are always to be seen. These, which are sometimes 5 
feet or more in depth, are made by the donkeys pastured in the 
region, who always obtain water in this fashion, although the sur- 
face of the arroyo-bed may be entirely dry. This explanation 
probably accounts for the frequent appearance of the name of 
Chupadero on the map of New Mexico. Mr. llodge informs the 
writer that the name "chupadero" is applied also to a certain 
apterous insect. Information given by Indians and IMexicans 
leads to the conclusion that no such application is current in New 
Mexico. "Chupadero Canyon.'" "Chupadero ".= For the name 
cf. [22:51], [22:i:.s], [23:L^5], [26:4]. 

[14:88] Santa Clara P'uiinik'ieijwi'i 'dwarf -corn meal gap' {p'inini- 
Fseyf 'dwarf -corn' a variety of corn resembling our sweet corn 
<p'inini 'dwarf 'puny and undersized person'. New Mex. 
Span, pinineo 'pygniy'l, Ic'^yf 'meal' 'flour; mi 'gap' 'pass'). 
For quoted forms of the name see under [14:93]. 

Doctor Hewett informs tlie writer that this is a deep gap. It 
has given names to [14:8;»J, [14:1*1], and [14:93]. 

[14:89] Santa C\AV2i P'ininik'xyvnkwaje ' height by dwarf -corn meal 
gap' {P'ininiF tf- ijtvi'i, see [14:88]; l-waj<' 'height'). 

[14:90] Santa Clara Naiahu'v,7jwil'eji 'pueblo ruin of the arroyo of 
cultivatable fields', referring to [14:91] {Naiahu'u, see [14:91]; 
'y,ywi]ceji 'pueblo ruin' <^y,ywi 'pueblo', Iceji 'old' postpound). 

> Hewett, General View, p. .=;9S, 1905. 
'Hewett ill Out M'cU, xxxi, p. 707, 1909. 



hakrin<;tox] PLACE-NAMES 245 

"Navahii".* "Navahu".- "Navaliu".' The ruin stands on 
low land, at the side of tlio arroyo [14:91] from which it takes its 
name. It is described h}- Ilowett.^ 

[14:91] (1) Santa Clara Naiahu'u 'arroyo of the cultivatable fields' 
{naia ' piece of land which is or has been cultivated or is con 
sidered capable of beinj;- cultivated'; hu'u 'large groove' 'ar- 
royo'). The name refers to any arroyo to which the definition 
applies. It means about the same as ' arroyo where the people 
raise crops'. There are manj' such arroyos in the rugged Navaho 
country-, and it is probable that the tribal name Navaho is a cor- 
ruption of Towa naialiu'ii as suggested 133'^ Hewett^; see under 
Navaho, page 575. For quoted forms of Natahu'u see under 
[14:90]. 

(•2) Santa Clara P'ininiFirijunjjfhu'u " dwarf -corn meal gap 
arroyo' (P'rainiwi'-i, see [14:88] ; 'i'' locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix; hu'u 'large groove' 'arro3'o'). 

[14:92] Nameless pueblo ruin. 

[14:93] Santa Clara P'inirnl' ^ywi'^ywikeji 'pueblo ruin at dwarf 
corn meal gap' (P'ininilc'seijwi'i, see [14:88]; 'y.7jwikeji 'pueblo 
ruin' <\iijwi 'pueblo', Tceji 'old' postpound). "Pininicangwi 
('place of the corn-flour')"." " Pininicangwi.'"* "Phiniiii- 
kanwi'i."" 

The ruin stands on low laud, at the side of the creek [14:91] 
and some distance east of the gap [14:88], from which it takes its 
name. 

[14:9i] Nameless ruin. 

[14:9.'^] Span. Arroyo del Ojo de Agua ' arroyo of the spring of 
water '. The name is supplied by Doctor Hewett. 

[14:96] Pimpije'iijqiiio^e 'northern arm of the delta' {pimpije 
'north' <piof 'mountain', pije 'toward'; T' locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; gwog.e 'delta' 'arm of delta' <qwo 'to 
cut through' 'to gouge out'; ge 'down at' 'over at'). One of 
the names of the creek [14:87] may also be prepounded. See 
[14:87], [14:97]. 

[14:97] '' Akqmpije iyqwoge 'southern arm of the delta' {^aJcqmpvje 
'south' K'akoijf ''p\iun\ pije 'toward'; T' locative and adjec- 
tive-forming postfix; qwoge 'delta' 'arm of delta' <qwo ' to cut 
through' ' to gouge out'; g.e ' down at' 'over at'). 

[14:98] llio Grande, see [Large Features], pages 100-102. 

[14:99] Black Mesa, see [18:19]. 

[14:100] San Ildefonso Kupo, see [16:50]. 

■ Hewett, Antiquities, p. 16, 1906. 

' Hewett, Communautftj, p. 45, 1908. 

"Hewett in Out HVs(, xx.xi, p. 704, 1909. 

* Hewett, Antiquities, No. 4. 

^Hewett in American Anthropologist, n. s., vni, p. 193, 1906. 

« Hewett: Antiquities, p. IG; Communuult's, j>. 45. 

'Harrington in Out West, xxxi, p. 706, 1909. 



246 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. an.n. 29 

1 14: 101] San Ildcfonso KiipiwcuPintsi''i, see [16:49]. 

[l4:102] (Juiije Creek, see [16:53]. 

[14:103] Sati lldefonso JVirg^efsPi, see [16:80]. 

[14:104] Siin lldefonso Tjx/uiu, see [16:20]. 

[14:105] San lldefonso T'y,p/'huu, see [16:24]. 

[14:100] San lldefonso P'ahewihu'ii, see [16:25]. 

[14:107] San lldefonso 'FXiV^Q/m'u, see [18:40]. 

[14:108] Santa Clara £\ipopo/n/f>sey(je 'beyond Santa Clara Creek' 
{K'apopokuu, see [14:24]; px)j(/e 'beyond'). 

This term is applied more or less definitely to the region beyond 
(north of) Santa Clara Creek. 

[14:l0it] Santa Clara JBe/ie^e 'arroyito of the fruit trees' {be 'intro- 
duced fruit' 'introduced fruit tree', meaning originally 'round- 
ishness'; he^e 'small groove' 'arroyito'). 

The informant thought that some fruit trees used to grow 
somewhere in this gulch. It is very small and dry, yet is appar- 
ently identical with Bandelier's "mountain torrent called Ar- 
Toyode Santa Clara".' See under [14:116]. Cf. [14:110]. 

[14:110] Santa Clara Behekwaje 'fruit tree arroyito hnghV {Behe^e, 
see [14:109]; hwaje 'height'). 

[14:111] Santa Clara Katsinahee ' Cachina arroyito' {Katsina 'cachina,' 
a kind of mythical being; Ae'e 'arroyito'). Cf. [14:112.] 

[14:112] Santa Clara Katsinahelwaje 'height by Cachina arroyito' 
{Katsinahe e, see [14:11]; Jcwaje 'height'). 

[14:113] Santa Clara Sa^epenihe' e 'Athabascan corpse arroyito' {Sate 
'Athabascan. Indian'; pe7ii 'corpse' 'what remains of a dead 
bodj''; Atj'e 'small groove' 'arroyito'). 

Mr. J. A. Jeanyon states that he learned while at Santa Clara 
Pueblo that two "Apache" Indians are buried somewhere 
slightly south of the village. At times in the night these Apache 
rise from their graves and are seen by Santa Clara Indians. Mr. 
Jeanyon's informant said that he always ran when he passed near 
the place at night. He refused to tell INIr. Jeanyon just where 
these Apache lie buried for fear the latter might dig up the 
remains, an act which the informant thought might cause trouble. 
[Cf. 14:11]. 

[14:114] Santa Clara Sdbepenihekwaje 'Athapascan corpse arroyo 
height' {Sati'penihec, see [14:113]; liraje 'height'). 

[14:115] Santa Clara Kuta''-wUi 'painted rock point' {ku 'stone' 
'rock'; ta'^ 'painting' 'pictograph'; wiii 'projecting corner or 
point'). 

[14:116] Santa Clara K' apo'y,i)icikf) i (first site) of obscure etymology 
{K'apo, see [14:71]; ^y,yiciktji 'pueblo ruin' <''{f/;(ri 'pueblo', 
keji 'old' postpound). 

'Bandolier, Final Report, pt, ii, p. 65, 1892 



HARBINOTON] PLACE-NAMES 247 

Thi.s ruin is said to lie northwest of Santa Clara and west of the 
railroad track. It is said that this is the first and oriuiual site of 
K'apo'y,)jwi. Bandelier certainly refers to this site when he 
writes: "A still older site [than [14:117]] is at the outlet of a 
mountain torrent called Arroyo de Santa Clara, a short dis- 
tance to the west [of Santa Clara Pueblo]. There, say the natives, 
stood ' old Kapo before the white man and the gray fathers came 
to dwell among us'"'.^ It is not known what is meant by a 
"mountain torrent called the Arroj^o de Santa Clara". Any 
arroj'o back of Santa Clara would be called Arroyo do Santa 
Clai'a by the Mexicans. The ruin must lie somewhere near Behe^e 
[14:10!)]. One would hardly call the latter a "mountain torrent". 
Can it be that the well known Santa Clara Canyon is here referred 
to? Hewett- refers to this ruin in the last clause of the fol- 
lowing i^assage: "Pres du village de Santa Clara, deux endroits 
ont etc. autrefois occupes par cette tribu. Celui qui a ete habits 
le plus recemment est Old Kapo [14:117], a quelques metres S, 
I'est du village actuel; de I'autre il ue reste que des debris". Cf. 
[14:71], [14:117]. 
[14:117] Santa Clara ICapo''y,ywil'eji (second site) of obscure ety 
mology {K'apo, see [14:71]; ^y-ywikeji 'pueblo ruin' <'ij,rjwi 
'pueblo', I'eji 'old' postpound). 

It is said that this ruin, which lies northeast of the present vil- 
lage of Santa Clara, is M'hat remains of the pueblo occupied by 
the Santa Clara Indians after they abandoned the pueblo [14:116] 
and before they built their present village [14:71]. Bandolier' 
says of this site: "The former pueblo and church of Santa Clara 
have long since disappeared, but their site is still known to the 
Indians, north of the pueblo". Of this ruin Hewett^ writes: 
"Pros du village de Santa Clara, deux endroits ont ete autrefois 
occupes par cette tribu. Celui qui a ete habite le plus recemment 
est Old Kapo, il quelques metres a Test du village actuel". Cf. 
[14:71], [14:116]. So far as can be learned this is the pueblo 
which the Santa Claras inhabited at the time of the coming of the 
Spaniards, and it was at this pueblo that the church and monastery 
were erected between 1622 and 1629.' 
[14:118] ^•x\ita.C\vkrvi Mmifeleji ' old church' (;«/«(>;'(? 'church' <inlsa 
<Span. misa 'Koman Catholic mass'; i'e 'dwelling-place' 'house'; 
keji 'old' postpound). 

"The church dates from 1761".' This church is now in ruined 
condition and is no longer used. 

I Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 65, 1892. 

« CommuniiutA'i, p. 31, 1908. 

3 See Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. ibl, 1910. 



248 ETHNOGEOGRAPTIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

[14:119] A special name is applied In' the Santa Clara Indians to the 
southern part of their village, Imt unfortunately the name is not 
avaiiat)le. 

[14:1 "Jo] Santa Clara Invxhepse.)jge 'beyond oak arroyito', referring to 
J14:72] {Kwcelie'e, see [14:72]; psetj^e 'beyond'). This name refers 
rather vaguely to the locality beyond (that is, south of) the gulch 
[14:72]. 

[14:121] Santa Clara K'aponuge 'down below [14:71]' [K'apo^ see 
[14:71]; wm'm 'below', ge 'down at' 'over at'). This name applies 
to the low farming lands near Santa Clara, lying west of the Rio 
Grande. 

[14:122] Santa Clara' 6^2!' o?!?i« 'on the other side' ('oi!'o?;y unexplained; 
nx locative). This name applies vaguely to the region east of the 
Rio Grande, on the side of the river opposite Santa Clara. It is 
very commonly used, sometimes added to other names denoting 
places east of the river. 

Unlocated 

Santa Clara Euwi'i 'skunk-bush gap' {l-n 'skunk-bush' 'three-leaved 
sumac' 'Rhus trilobata', called lemita by the JMexicans of the 
Tewa country; wPl 'gap'). 

This gap is somewhere in the drainage of [14:87]. It gives 
[14:87] its Santa Clara name. It also gives rise to the two names 
next below. 

Santa Clara Kuivikwaje, KiLwitoiaJiwaje 'skunk-bush gap height' 
'skunk-bush gap cliff height' {KiiwPi, see above; l-waje 'height'; 
lota 'cliff'). 

Santa Clara Kij,wi'y,rjwikeJ i 'skunk-bush gap pueblo ruin' {Kiiwti, see 
above; ^y,ywil-L'jt 'pueblo ruin' <-y,r)iri 'pueblo', ^v// 'old' post- 
pound). 

This is said to be a large pueblo ruin, near the place called 
E]iwPi. 

"Pajarito" Hill. "Lesruines les plus septentrionales [du district de 
Gallinas] appartiennent a la colline Pajarito, pres de la riviere de 
Santa-Clara, a dix ou douze milles a I'ouest du village indieu de 
ce nom".' 

San Juan Pimp'y, of obscure etjTnology (/n/;y 'mountain'; p'y. unex- 
plained). This name is applied by the San Juan Indians to a large 
mountain not far south of the headwaters of Santa Clara Creek 
[14:24]. It can be seen from San Juan Pueblo, but is difficult to 
identify. 

1 Hewett, Communaut^s, p. 42, 190S. 



MAP 15 
SANTA CLARA EAST REGION 




g 

C3 
UJ 

a. 

co 
< 

iU 

< 
a. 
< 



< 

I- 
z 
< 

CO 



MAP 15 
SANTA CLARA EAST REGION 



HARRINGTON] 



PLACE-NAMES 249 



Sim Juau Popilcanuhi, of obscure etymology {popi 'spring" <po 

'water', j9i 'to Issue'; ^'tf uiiexplainod; ««'« "below"). Nauie of 

a mountain situated not far south of the headwaters of Santa 

Clara Creek. 

This mountain can be seen from the vicinity of San Juan Pueblo. 
Santa Clara Qws&nfjopo ' creek or water of a species of rat-like animal 

called qivxyfjo^ {qwspyj'Jo unidentitied species of rodent, perhaps 

a kind of woodrat; po 'water' 'creek'). 
"Thampijebukwa 'east town yard', the narrow place east of Dono- 

ciano's house [at Santa Clara]. " ' 
"Teikwaa 'estufa yard' east of Jos6 Guadalupe's house, but rather 

south of it, near the corrals [at Santa Clara]."' 
Shrines on the hills west of Santa Clara. 
On the hills [14:110], [14:112], and [14:11-1], and on the high land 

just west of these hills are many curious shrines made by 

arranging stones of various kinds on the earth. Praj^er-sticks 

and sacred meal are deposited at these shrines. Mr. J. A. 

Jeanfon states that he counted more than 30 distinct shrines on 

these hills. 
Place near Santa Clara where candles are burned in the night on 

certain occasions. This custom is of Christian origin, according 

to Mr. Jeanpon. 

[15] SANTA CLARA EAST SHEET 

It is claimed by the Santa Clara Indians that the region about lower 
Santa Clara Creek [15:18] as far north as Ranchito [15:14], as far south 
as slightly to the south of Mesilla settlement [15:28], and about as far 
east as Puebla [15:25], was formerlj^ held by their people. (See map 
15.) San Juan and San Ildefonso informants also have stated that 
this region is considered to have belonged to the Santa Clara people. 
The pueblo ruins [15:21] and [15:22] are claimed by them. The ruin 
[15:24] is said bj' all the Tewa to have been a Hano pueblo. See under 
[15:24]. On the eastern side of the river San Juan names prevail as 
far south as Ranchito [15:14]. 

[15:1] Chama River, see [Large Features], pages 99-100. 

[15:2] Rio Grande, see [Large Features], pages 100-102, 

[15:3] San Juan Pirjfje, see [11:41]. 

[15:4] San Juan Tsig.ubii'u^ see [11:44]. 

[15:.5] San Juan Sapobii'u, see [12:38]. 

[15:6] San Juan Pojege, see [13:36]. 

[15:7] Sun Juan Pop ejidiwe 'black water place' {po 'water'; p^t)/ 

'blackness' 'black'; 'mw locative). 
At this place black marsh-water is found only about a foot below 

the surface of the ground. There is an apple orchard just east of 

the place. 

t Information, 1910. 



250 ETHNOUEOLIKAPUV 01' THE TEWA IJS'DIAXS Ieth. ann. 29 

[15:.S] San Juan Pit'oJcadiire 'cold water place' {po 'watcn*'; ^olri.ii 
'coldness' 'cold'; loe for ^iire locative). 

A stream of cold water runs from this place down to Pofmgc 
[15:10]. 

[15:9] Sun Juan F(ijug.e 'down Viy the bend in the river', i-eferring to 
a small bend in the ri\er {po 'water'; fu'a 'projecting corner or 
point', here referring to a bend of the river; ge 'down at' 'over 
af). 

There are several cottonwood trees at this place. 

[15:10] San Juan Potmge 'down at the marsh}' place' {po 'water-; 
tsa 'to cut through"; Q.e 'down at' 'over af). 

This place extends for some distance along the river. A stream 
from a spring, from which Po'olaMice [15:8] gets its name, runs 
down to this place. 

[15:11] San Juan Potsaqwog.e 'down where it cuts through or gouges 
out at the marshy place' {po 'water'; tsa 'to cut through' 'to 
ooze out'; qwo 'to cut through or gouge out as when a stream 
washes away land'; ge 'down at' 'over at'). This name is said to 
be applied to a kind of gulch or bank at Potsag.e [15:10]. 

[15:12] San Juan ^Ydbe 'the high plain' (unanalyzable). The level 
land all about Ranchito settlement [12:14] is called thus by the 
San Juan Indians. Cf. [12:13] and [12 :U]. It is probable that 
the locality called Llano [15:15] was formerly included under the 
name ^Vote. 

[15:13] (1) San Juan FroS«%/?o 'arroyo of [15:12]' ( TTTiJ*, see [15:12]; 
'■i'' locative and adjective-forming posttix; Ao 'barranca' 'arroyo 
with barrancas'). 

(2) Eng. Ranchito Arroyo. (<Span.). = Span. (.3). 

(3) Span. Arroyo do Ranchito "arroyo of the little farm', refer- 
ring to [12 :1-1]. "^=Eng. (2). 

This arroyo runs through the settlement of Ranchito [15:1-1]. 
[15:U] (1) Eng. Ranchito settlement. (<Span.). = Span, (2). 

(2) Span. Ranchito 'little farm'. =Eng. (1). The San Juan 
and Santa Clara Indians use only the Span, name when referring 
to this place. 

Ranchito lies on both sides of Ranchito Arroyo [15:13]. There 
are a number of Mexican houses and a small school-house at the 
place. 
[15:15] (1) Eng. Llano settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Llano 'the plain'. =Eng. (1). It is probable that 
the vicinitv of Llano was formerly included under the Tewa name 
m.Se [15:12]. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 251 

[15:1(5] Tt'.i(jpog.e '' down at the cottonwood fluli' water ' (/c.'/] 'green 
seedpod of the feinalo tree of Populus wi.slizeni, ropiUii.s aciiniiii- 
ata, or Populus angustifolia', but used in this place-name as an 
abbreviation of teM'tpoVi (jiotl 'flower') or tcMfoka Coku 'down' 
'fluti "), 'the fluff of the seed of the female tree of these si^ecies'; po 
'water'; g(? ' down at' 'ov(>rat'). There were cottonwoods and 
pools at the place; hence the name. 

This is the old Tewa name of the site of the present ranch of 
Mr. Lucero Amado, which is passed ]>y the main road connecting 
San Juan ruel)lo and Santa Cruz settlement [15:19]. 

[15:17] (1) Bii!iog.e, B>ii<()Q.epol'U'i 'big corner' 'pool of the big corner' 
(6w'«. 'large low roundish place'; so'" 'bigness' 'big'; ge 'down 
at' 'over at'; pohwi 'pool' 'lake' <po 'water', Iwi unex- 
plained). 

(2) San Ildefonso Pvmpijepohvi ' lake of the north ' {pimpije 
'north' <p>iyf ' mountain', jc^/V 'toward'; fxtkwi 'lake' <po 
'water', kwi unexplained). For the reason that this name is 
given, see below. 

These names refer to the large dell near the llio Grande just 
to the north of the mouth of Santa Cruz Creek [15:ls]. Near the 
Rio Grande this dell is marshy and there is a pool. This pool 
is the "lake of the north" of the San Ildefonso sacred water cere- 
mony; see Cardinal Sacred Water Lakes, pp. 44-45. It is 
at this pool that the Santa Clara and San Ildefonso Kosa societies 
hold their initiation ceremony annually, when certain members 
sing and pray at the pool for eight days. The Kom paint their 
bodies with stripes, using the mud of this pool for the purpose. 

[15:18] (1) Tsi7mijo'i/)ipohu''u 'creek of the superior flaking stone', 
referring to Tsimajo [22:18] {Ti<imajo, see [22:18]; T' locative 
and adjective-forming postfix; pohu'u 'creek with water in it' 
<po 'water', ku'u ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). Cf. Picuris (3). 

(2) KanfSRda, KaiifXda'impohu\i, ' the Canada' ' Canada Creek' 
{hanfc^Ja <Span. Canada, referring to the Canada de Santa 
Cruz, see Span. (5), below; T* locative and adjective-formino 
postfix; pohu w 'creek with water in it' <po 'water', hau 
'large groove' 'arroj'o'). This is a sort of translation of the 
Span. name. 

(3) Picuris "Chemaiyona 'Canada de Santa Cruz.'"' Cf. 
Tewa (1). 

(4) Eng. Santa Cruz Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (.5). 

(5) Span. Canada de Santa Cruz 'mountain valley of the holy 
cross', referring to Santa Cruz settlement [15:19]. 

The course of the headwaters of the creek is shown on sheet [22]. 

'Spinden, Picuris notes, MS., 1910. 



252 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ann. 29 

[15:19] (1) Kanfirda'imhu'u ' c-iinada town,' rcfefriiitj to the. Canada 
do Santa Cruz [15:lsJ {Kaiif^.ui, .see [15:18]; T' locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; hu'u ' town '). 

(•2) Eng. Santa Cruz wettkMnent. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 
(3) Span. Santa Cruz ' hol}^ cross'. =Eng. (2). 
The Roman Catliolic church at Santa Cruz is at present the onlj' 
church in the central and southern part of the Tewa country 
which has a priest in residence. Many Tewa are married at this 
church. 
[15:20] (1) Sam PeJu corrupted from the Span. name. =Eng. (2), 
Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. San Pedro settlement. (<Span.). = Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. San Pedro ' Saint Peter'. =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 
[15:21] Santa Clara P'aiohu'u'%Lijwikeji 'pueblo ruin of winnowing 

basket corner' {P'ajobu'u, see under [15:unlocated]; 'y.r)unJceji 
'pueblo ruin' <y,r)wi 'pueblo'. Iceji 'old' postpound). " Pa- 
yumbu''.' 

Bandelier does not mention this ruin. Hewett^ says of it: 

Pris (lu village de Santa Clara, deux endroita ont (5t6 autrefois occup^s par 
cette tribu. Celui qui a ^te habiti' le plus recemment est Old Kapo, a quelquea 
metres il Test du village actuel; de I'autre il ne reste que des debris. D'autres 
emplacements des clans de Santa Clara se trouvent dans la Canada de Santa- 
Cruz, vis-a-vis d'Espanola, de I'autre cote de la riviere, a deux ou trois milles 
de leur village actuel. Au sud de Santa Cruz, a moins d'un mille du confluent 
de la riviere avec le Rio Grande, Tewai' [15;22] s'^levait sur une haute colline. 
I'ayumbu est a un demi-mille au nord, du cotiS oppos6 de la riviere. Ce sont 
des lieux dont la tradition a garde le souvenir; il ne reste que des quantities de 
tessons qui couvrent le sol et quelques outils de pierre. 

Twitcheli ^ evidently refers to the ruin in the following passage: 

Up the Santa Cruz river [15:18], beginning just below the site of the pres- 
ent church, where there was a pueblo, in a number of places are sites of old 
pueblos, any one of which can be j^ointed out to the tourist or student. 

The writer has not visited the sites of [15:21] and [15:22]. 
These are located on the map through the Ivindness of Doctor 
Hewett and Mr. Jeanfon, who have visited them independently. 
A number of Indians also have located them for the writer. Both 
[15:21] and [15:22] are claimed b}- the Santa Claras as being 
former pueblos of their people. Cf. [15:22]. 
[15:22] Santa Clara Tewig.e'y.ywikeji 'pueblo ruin below cottonwood 
gap' {Tewi'ij see under [15:unlocated]; ge 'down at' 'over at'; 
'liywikeji ' pueblo ruin ' < \ywi ' pueblo '. l"eji ' old ' post- 
pound). "Tewai.''' The name resembles Tcwig^e, the Tewa 
name of Santo Domingo Pueblo [29:10'J], but has ditl'erent intona- 
tion and a totally distinct etymologj' and origin. See [29:109]. 

' Hewett, Communaut&, p. 31, 1908. ' R. E. Twitcheli in Santa Fe Xew Mexican, Sept. 22, 1910. ■ 



HAUKiNOTiiNi PLACE-NAMES 253 

Some Indians, however, careless in etj'mological matters, liave 
attempted to connect the two names. 

Bandelicr docs not mention this ruin. See excerpt from 
Howett, under [15:21]. 

The writer has not visited the site, but Doctor Hewett and Mr. 
Jeancon have liindl^ located it for him. ISlr. Jeancon writes ^: 
"Tewai as given in Hewett's report [Communautes] is correct as 
regards location." 
[15:23] Tsxwa.n'. This name means in the San Juan dialect, and pre- 
sumabh' also in the Nambe dialect, either 'broad white line' or 
'wide white gap' {fssp 'whiteness' 'white'; waui 'wide gap', but 
in the San Juan dialect and presumably also in the Nambe dialect 
qw(u! 'broad line' of the other Rio Grande dialects has become 
iva.ll). In the other dialects of Rio Grande Tewa the name means 
only 'wide white gap'. The interpretation of the name in Hano 
Tewa has not' been learned. A conspicuous broad line of soft, 
whitish rock occurs at this place on both sides of Santa Cruz 
Canada. Specimens of the rock were obtained, l>ut have not yet 
been analyzed. The Hano Tewa formerly lived at the pueblo 
[15:24] at this place and the name is probablj^ of Hano Tewa 
origin. The question whether the Tewa name meant originally 
'white line' or 'white gap' must await answer until it is deter- 
mined whether the Hano Tewa word meaning 'broad line' is 
qwadi or ivadi. The Nambe form TseVMi.il [23:30] clearlj^ means 
'yellow gap,' not 'yellow line'. The Tewa commonly translate 
the name as ' white gap'. At which Tewa village Hewett obtained 
the following explanation is not known to the writer : 

Tsawari est iin mot des Tewas et signifle han.de blanche vers le centre. Or, 
derriere la colline sur laquelle est situtS le village, s'eleve un plateau, et une 
intercalation de roches blanches calcaires, au centre de la parol du precipice, 
donne Tapparence d'une bande blanche autour du rocher. C'est la coutume 
des Tewas de donner a leurs villages dea noms qui decrivent leur situation.^ 

The pueblo ruin [15:24] has taken its name from this ruin, as 
Hewett says in the (juotation given above. For quoted forms of 
the name, see under [15:24]. 
[15:24] TlsewadVoywiJceji 'pueblo ruin of the wide white gap', refer- 
ring to [15:23] {Tsspwodi, see [15:23]; 'Qtjwikeji 'pueblo ruin' 
<qT}wi 'pueblo', Iceji 'old' postpound). For the application of 
the name, see the quotation under [15:23]. "Tcecwadigi," " Tcee- 
wiige".^ (Hano forms.) The iirst form is probably for Tsse- 
wodVi^^ ('i'* locative); the second form the writer takes to be a 

1 In a letter to the writer, November, 19U. sgtepheu in Eighth Rep. Bur. .imer. Elhn.. p. 35, 1S91. 
'Hewett, Communaut&i, p. 31, 1908. 



254 ETHNOGEOUKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

poorer spellin}^, equivalent to the first, "(^hawiiri".' "Tsa- 
warii".- Tliis form is doubtless for Tsseivcui't' (T' locative). 
"Tcewadi".^ "Tsawari".^ "Tsawari, ou Tcewadi".^ The first 
of these forms is evidently from Hewett's information from the 
Tewa, the second Fewkes's spelling. 

The ruin consists of low mounds of disintegrated adobe, lying 
on a low bluff on the south side of Santa Cruz Creek a short dis- 
tance west of the Mexican settlement of Puebla [15:25]. It is 
strewn with fragments of pottery. The site is well known to 
Mexicans who live in the vicinity, one of whom guided the writer 
to the place. 

The ruin is known to the Tewa by the name Tsaewcui'i'K Tewa 
and Mexican informants had never heard that it is called also 
" Yam P"ham-ba"/ San Cristobal, or any name other than Ts^wcui. 
Of the history of the people of Tssewaui prior to their building of 
the pueblo the informants knew nothing; not one of them had 
heard that the people of Tssewaui were Tano people or that they 
came originally from the Tano country or from ' down country '. 
See Tano (NamesofTribes and Peoples, page 576). The evidence 
is contradictory and confusing. A^'e quote in chronologic order 
what various writers say: " Los Que res [Keresans], Taos y Pecos, 
peleaban contra los Tehuas y Tanos."' "Los Tanos, que cuando 
se sublevaron vivian en San Cristobal [29:45] y en San Lazaro 
[29:52], dos pueblos situados en la parte austral de la villa de Santa 
Fe [29:5] despues por las hostilidadesdelos Apaches yde los Pecos 
y Queres [Keresans] se trasladaron y fundaron con los mismos 
nombres dos pueblos, tres leguas largas de San Juan [11 : San Juan 
Pueblo]."'* " Higher up [in Santa Cruz Canada, [15:18]], toward 
Chimayo [22:18], there are said to be well defined ruins on the 
mountain sides, the names of two of which are Po-nyi Num-bu [22 : 
unlocated] and Yam P"ham-ba [elsewhere given by Bandelier as 
the Tano Tewa name of San Cristobal [29:45], q. v.]. The site of 
Yam P"ham-ba is probably that of the socalled 'Puebla' [15:25], 
two miles east of Santa Cruz [15:1'.»]. The former [Po-nyi Num- 
bu] is very ancient, but Yam P'ham-ba was a village which the 
Tano [see Names of Tribes and Peoples, page 576] constructed 
in the vicinity of Santa Cruz [15:18] after the uprising of 1680, 
when they forsook the Galisteo [29:39] region and moved north in 

'Hodge, field notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 (Nambi5 information), Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 823, 
1910. 
'Ibid, (Santa Clara information). 

'Fewkes in Nineteenth Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 614 (Hano name.) 
* Hewett, General View, p. 597, 1905. 
s Hewett, Commiinaut(5s, p. 31, 1908. 
SBandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 83, 1892. 

' Escalante (1778), Carta al Padre Morfi, par. 7, quoted by Bandelier, ibid., p. 103, note. 
'Relacion An6ntma, 1718, p. 127, quoted by Bandelier, ibid. 



HARiuN.iTox] PLACE-NAMES 255 

order to be nearer their kindred, the Tehuas [Tewa]. Vargas found 
them there in 1692, when he made his first successful dash into 
New Mexico. There is also a ruin in that neighborhood, I-pe-rc 
[elsewhere given by Bandelier as the Tano Tewa name of San Laz- 
aro [29:52]], or San Lazaro, which dates from the same period. 
Both were abandoned after the reconquest, San Lazaro in 169-i, and 
Yam P'hamba or San Cristobal in the same year. It [San Cristo- 
bal] was subsequently reoccupied, and finally deserted in 1696, 
after the murder of the missionary Fray Jose de Arvizu on the ith 
of June. With him was killed the priest of Taos, Fray Antonio 
Carboneli. In the Canada de Santa Cruz [15:18], consequently, 
there are ruins of historic, as well as of pre-historic pueblos; a 
fact which future explorers should bear in mind".' "After the 
expulsion of the Spaniards [1631], the Tanos of San Cristobal 
[29:45] settled in the vicinity of Santa Cruz [15:18], as already 
related. Most of their descendants are now among the Moquis 
[Hopi]".^ "San Lazaro [29:52] . . . which was abandoned after 
the uprising in 16S0and never occupied again. "^ "Les mines de 
Tsawari se trouvent sur une petite coUine du cote sud, a cinq 
milles plus haut [than [15:21] and [15:22]], sur la Canada [15:18]. 
Le nom historique de ce village est San Cristoval. Nous avons 
etabli que ce lieu est le Tsawari, ou Tcewadi, oii vivait le peuple 
llano, aujourd'hui k Hopi. Les Indiens de Santa Clara et de San 
Ildcfonso out a cet egard des traditions. Dans ces deux villages, 
on trouve encore des Indiens qui se rappellent les visites faites 
par les Indiens Hano a leur demeure ancestrale, selon une coutume 
en usage chez les Pueblos. Une preuve d'identirication importante 
est la localiteelle-meme . . . L'identification decetendroitavecle 
San Cristoval de Thistoire est egalement complete, car c'est le nom 
par lequel la mine est connue des Mexicains de la vallee. A propos 
de ce village, Bandelier dit: 'Yam P'hamba etait un village con- 
struit par les Tanos dans le voisinage de Santa Cruz apres la 
revoke de 1680, lorsqu'ils abandonuerent la region de Galisteo et 
allerent au nord pour se rapprocher de leurs parents, les Tehuas. 
II y a aussi, dans ce voisinage, une mine, Ipera, ou San Lazaro, 
qui date de la meme periode. lis f urent tons deux abandonnes 
apres la conquete, en 169-1, furcnt ensuite repris et finalement 
desertes en 1696.'"* "The natives of this pueblo [San Cristobal 
[29:15]], and of San Lazaro [29:51] were forced by hostilities of the 
Apache, the eastern Keresan tribes, and the Pecos to transfer their 
pueblos to the vicinity of San Juan [ll:San Juan Pueblo], where 
the towns were rebuilt under the same names (Bancroft, Ariz, and 
N. Mex. , p. 186, 1889). This removal (which was more strictly to a 

•Bandelier, Final Report.pt.ii, p. 83 and notes, 1892. » Ibid., p. 105. 

•Ibid., p. 103. • 'Hewett.Communautfe, pp. 31-32, 1908. 



256 ETHNOGEOGRAPIIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ANN. 29 

place called Pneblito [ Puehla [ISr'i.")]], near the present Potrero [15: 
unlocatedj, about "1 in. i:. of Santa Cruz [15 :!'.»], on the llio Santa 
Cruz [15:18]), occurred after the Pueblo revolt of 1680, and prior to 
lt^>9'2, at which latter date the native.s were found by Vargas in their 
new locality. The pueblo was abandoned in KiOJ^, but was later re- 
occupied, and was finally deserted in 1696 after the niuidcr of their 
missionary in June of that year. Most of their descendants ai'c now 
among the llopi of Arizona." ^ It will be noticed that Bandelier ap- 
pears not to have visited Tss^wcui Pueblo ruin or vicinity, and 
merely approximates the site of "Yam P'ham-ba" (San Cristobal) 
as a pueblo [15:25]. Ilcwett is more definite, but hjs information 
is contradicted by the writer's information. Even the Mexicans 
living at Puebla [15:'25] whom the author interviewed had appa- 
rently' never heard that T ssewa J I Fuehlo ruin is called San Cristobal. 
The history of the people of Tss^wau-i after they abandoned the 
pueblo is, on the other hand, widely known among the Tewa. 
Bandelier says merely: "After the expulsion of the Spaniards 
[from New Mexico in 1680], the Tanos of San Cristobal [29:'45] 
settled in the vicinity of Santa Cruz [15:1!>], as already related. 
Most of their descendants are now among the Moquis [Hopi]."^ 
"It [San Cristobal by Santa Cruz [15:19]] was . . . finally deserted 
in 1696, after the murder of tlie missionary Fray Jose de Arvizu on 
the dtth of June."^ "Tsawari, ou Tcewadi, ou vivait le peuple 
Hano [unmapped], aujourd'hui a Hopi. Les Indiens de Santa 
Clara et de San Ildefonso ont a cet egard de traditions. Dans 
ces deux villages, on trouve encore des Indiens qui se rap- 
pellent les visites faites par les Indiens Hano h leur demeure 
aucestrale, selon une coutume en usage chez les Pueblos." ^ " Most 
of their descendants [those of San Cristobal [29:45] and San 
Lazaro [29:52]] are now among the -Hopi of Arizona."^ The 
writer has succeeded in ol)taining from a number of Tewa 
Indians the uniform information that the inhabitants of TsxwaJi 
were Tewa and that they fled to the Hopi several generations 
ago to escape from the tj'^ranny of the Mexicans and to help 
the Hopi fight the Navaho and the Mexicans. On reaching 
the Hopi country they built a new pueblo, called "Tewa" (see 
Hano [unmapped]). Hano Tewa frequently visit the Tewa and 
other pueblos of the Rio Grande drainage, trading or selling 
goods. They sometimes visit also Tsseivcuii, the site of their 
former pueblo. Two Hano Tewa men visited the Tewa villages in 
1910. Information obtained by a friend from J. ^I. Naranjo, an 
aged Santa Clara Indian, assigns a reason not usually given for the 
migration of the people: "Long ago people of our language 

■Hodge in Hanrlbnok Inds.,pt. 2, r.-138, 1910. a Ibid., p. 83. 

2 Bandelier, Final Report,pt. ii,p. 103, 1892. » Hewelt, Communaules, p. 31,1908. 



HARKIXOTON] PLACE-NAMES 257 

lived near Chimayo [22:1S], at Tsaewa.'i, and there came Moki 
[K^oso'oij,f, HopiJ people and said they were fighting much with 
the Navaho, and for these people to go with thera to fight the 
Navaho, and that they would give them lands to sow for their 
families. They all went, to a man, deserting Tsseivadi. The}^ 
went to foiakwaje ' a mesa top ' [toia ' cliff ' ; Awaje ' top "] and were 
given lands below. Then came Navaho, very many. The cap- 
tain told the people that he would spend the night below in the 
fields and half-way up on the mesa. After breakfast they all 
went down to fight the Navaho, they and the K^osoqyf. They 
met the Navaho at a place between two high hills. They fought 
all day, from breakfast until the sun was pretty low. All the 
Navaho were killed except one to carry the news home. Many 
Moki [Hopi] died also. So that place is called TuivPi [tu ' flesh'; 
wii 'gap"]." An old man of San lidefonso gave the writer 
the following information: A fellow tribesman of PiCe 'Little 
Jackrabbit' {pu 'jackrabbit'; 'e diminutive; Tewa name of a 
young Oraibi Hopi silversmith, who lives, working at his trade, 
at San lidefonso and Santo Domingo) visited San lidefonso a 
couple of years ago. This man said that the people of "Tano " 
village at Hopi used to live at TsseivaJ/'. When the people 
left Tss^wcui they buried a big storage jar {>iqhj,mbe ' storage 
jar,' Span, tinajon) filled with blue turquoise, red coral, and 
other beautiful things, somewhere near the pueblo. What the 
jar contains is very valuable. Nobod}- has yet found it. The 
Tsseuxui people went straight to the Hopi country. They shot 
an arrow four times and then they reached Hopiland. See 
[15:23], [15:25], Tano (Names of Tribes and Peoples, page 570), 
San Cristobal [29:45], San Cristobal [15:unlocated], San Lazaro 
[29:52], San Lazaro [15:unlocated], "Potrero" [15:unlocated], 
Jfiyk'qijgi [15:unlocated], ' Uk' quiho^i [15:unlocated], and Hano 
Pueblo [unmapped]. 
[15:25] (1) Eng. Puebla. (< Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Puebla, perhaps named from the large town of this 
name in Mexico. Span, puebla means 'settlement,' but is an 
uncommon and little-known word in New Mexican Span. 
= Eng. (1). 

"The site of Yam P'ham-ba is probably that of the so called 
'Puebla' two miles eastof Santa Cruz". ^ Bandelier identifies the 
site of his '• Yam P'hamba" with that of Tsacwcurqijwikeji; see 
"Yam Fhamba" [29:4:5]. "Tsawarii . . . The Tewa name of a 
pueblo that once stood at or near the present hamlet of La Puebla, 
or Pueblito, a few miles above the town of Santa Cruz, in s. e. Rio 

'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 83, note, 1892. 
87584°— 29 ETir—lG 17 



258 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

Arriba Co., N. Alex.'"' Indian and Mexic^an informants state that 
the phice is called Puebla, never Puehlito. The settlement consists 
of a string- of Mexican houses and farms between the arid hills on 
the south and the bed of Santa Cruz Creek on the north. See 
[15:23], [15:24]. 
[15:2<ij (1) HutaKuhi 'dry arroyo', probably translating the Span, 
name. Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Seco Arroyo, Arroyo Seco Arroyo. (< Span.). 
= Span. (3). Cf. Tewa(l). 

(3) Span. Arroyo Seco ' dry arroyo '. = Eng. (2). Cf . Tewa (1). 
This is a large, deep, and usually dry arroyo. It was at this 

arroyo that a "battle" was fought between Mexicans and Tewa 
Indians about a century ago, according to a San Juan informant. 
"The governor of San Juan Puet)lo was at that time Baltazar and 
the name of the captain of the Mexicans was Armijo. They had 
a battle in the Hidahuu, or Arroyo Seco, south of Santa Cruz 
Creek. It was a big battle. There were five wagonloads of dead 
Mexicans. One wagon which the Indians captured contained 
ammunition. At evening of the day of the battle the Mexican 
leader wanted to confer with the Indian leader. The latter agreed 
to come unarmed to the former. Peace was made. But when 
the Mexicans and Indians were returning together to Santa Cruz, 
suddenly the Indians were seized and were locked up in Santa 
Cruz church. Just a little bread was thrown in to the Indians, 
but they refused to eat such food. They were Tewa Indians, and 
some of them were from San Juan." This informant was an old 
man and he stated that his father took part in this. " battle." The 
writer is unable to explain this account. It can hardly refer to 
the engagement which Bandelier- mentions: "The Arroyo Seco 
was the scene of the engagement in August, 1837, in which Gov- 
ernor Perez was routed by the insurgents from Taos and north- 
ern New Mexico". 

It is said that there is a deposit of good guayave stone [see 
Minerals] somewhere near Seco Arroyo. 
[15:27] (1) Eng. Polvadera settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) New Mexican Span. Polvadera for Span, polvareda 'dust 
storm' 'dust wind'. =Eng. (1). 

The settlement consists of a few Mexican farms scattered along 
near the river. There appears to be no Tewa name. The Span, 
name is well applied; it is a very dust-windy place. 
[15:28] (1) San Ildefonso r'-ji/yopa-^^^t? ' beyond Black Mesa [18:19]' 
(T'y,njo, see [18:19]; psey^e 'beyond'). 

'Hodge in Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 822, 1910. 'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. S3, note, lsa2. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 259 

[15:29] 'Numhe Johii^u 'cane-cactus arroyo' {jo 'cane-cactus' ' Opun- 

tia arborescens'; huii 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

The upper part of this arroyo is shown on map [22]. Cf. 

[22:34]. 

Unlocated 

Santa Clara Jqy^qygl 'end of the willows' {JQijf 'willow'; k'qijgi 
said to mean 'end'). This name was obtained from a single Santa 
Clara informant, and was said bj' him to refer to a place near 
Tssewcui [15:2i]. It was obtained in connection with the writer's 
endeavor to get information respecting Bandelier's "Yam 
P'hamba''; see "Yam P'hamba" under [15:2-t]. 

(1) Eng. Montevista. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Montevista 'forest view'. =Eng. (1). 

This place is said to be a small Mormon settlement a short dis- 
tance north of Santa Cruz [15:19]. 

Santa Clara '0^'"§?n6o./* 'large sand-pile' ('o^'g^y 'sand'; So.// 'large 
pile'). 

This name was given as that of a place in Santa Cruz Canada 
[15:18] a short distance above Santa Cruz [15:19]. The inform- 
ant was unable to locate the place more definitely. It can hardly 
be the '"Yam P'ham-ba" of Bandelier; see under [29:4:5] and 
[15:24]. 

Santa Clara P'ttjobuhi 'winnowing basket corner' {p'ajo 'shallow 
roundish basket used for winnowing wheat and other purposes'; 
Jm'?/ 'large low roundish place'). 

This is the corner which gives the ruin [15:21] its name. Its 
exact location is uncertain. 

"Potrero".' The name means 'tongue of land' 'enclosed piece of 
pasture land '. "The natives of this pueblo [San Cristobal [29 :45]] 
and of San Lazaro [29:52] were forced by hostilities of the 
Apache, the eastern Keresan tribes, and the Pecos to trans- 
fer their pueblos to the vicinity of San Juan [11: San Juan 
Pueblo], where the towns were rebuilt under the same names 
(Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., p. 186, 1889). This removal 
(which was more strictly to a place called Pucblito [Puebla 
[15:25]] near the present Potrero, about 2 m. e. of Santa Cruz 
[15:19], on the Rio Santa Cruz [15:18]), occurred after the Pueblo 
revolt of 1680 and prior to 1692, at which latter date the natives 
were found by Vargas in their new locality. The pueblo [two 
pueblos?] was abandoned in 1694, but was later leoccupied, and 
was linally deserted in l<i96 after the murder of their missionary 
in June of that year. Most of their descendants are now among 
the Hopi of Arizona."' The present writer's Tewa and Mexi- 

' Hodge in Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 428, 1910. 



260 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

can informants knew of no place in the vicinity of Santa Cruz 
[15:19] called the "Potrero". See [IS^i-t], [29:45], [29:52], San 
Cristobal [15:unlocated], and San Lazaro [15:unlocatcd]. 

(1) Eng. Santo Nino. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Santo Niiio ' holy child ', referring to Jesus. =Eng. (1). 
This name is applied to a localit}- or a hamlet between Ranchito 
[15:14] and Santa Cruz [15:19]. 

(1) Eng. Cuarteles. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Cuarteles ' quarters' 'barracks'. =Eng. (1). "Quar- 
tellas."' 

The informants said that Cuarteles is somewhere south of Santa 
Cruz [15:19]. The archeological map ' referred to above places it 
on the northern side of Santa Cruz Creek, about a mile east of 
Santa Cruz. 

Santa Clara TewPi, Tewige 'cotton wood tree gap' 'down at cotton- 
wood tree gap' {te 'cotton wood tree' 'Populus wislizeni'; wlH 
'gap'; g<? 'down at' 'over at'). 

This unlocated gap has given the ruin [15:22] its name. See 
[15:22]. 

Span. San Cristobal, a former settlement of Tano Indians 3 leagues 
from San Juan [11: San Juan Pueblo], situated probably in Santa 
Cruz Canada [15:18]. See [29:45], [15:24], and San Lazaro 
[15: unlocated]. 

Span. San Lazaro, a former settlement of Tano Indians 3 leagues from 
San Juan[ll:San Juan Pueblo] and probably in Santa Cruz Canada 
[15:18]. See [29:52], [15:24], and San Cristobal, above. 

[16] SAN ILDEFONSO NORTHWEST SHEET 

This sheet (map 16) shows a large area of Pajarito Plateau, west of 
San Ildefonso Pueblo and south of Santa Clara Creek. The country 
is a high plateau of tufaceous stone cut by deep can3'ons and arroyos. 
The drainage is from the Jemez Mountains in the west to the Rio 
Grande in the east. The region shown is wild and little explored, and 
the existing maps of it are very inadequate. Many ruins exist, some 
of which are shown. In this area is the Pajarito Park. "I here 
restrict the name Pajarito Park to the district 10 miles long by 4 wide 
that is under withdrawal and consideration for a national park (II. R. 
Y269, 58th Cong.) ... As the lines are now drawn it creates Paja- 
rito Park with the 'Pajarito' [17:34] left out."^ 

[16:1] Santa Clara Creek, see [14:24]. 
[16:2] Puye Mesa, see [14:45]. 

iHewett, Antiquities, pi. xvii, 1906. •Hewett, General View, p. 598, 1905. 



MAP 16 
SAN ILDEFONSO NORTHWEST REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



27 






TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 16 






^^'^- ■■"■ V'J^^^??^ 













1^ ^ o" '->V':j:w'''/--i-- 










SAN ILDEFONSO NORTHWest REGION 



I 



MAP 16 
SAN ILDEFONSO NORTHWEST REGION 



HARBI.NGTON] PLACE-NAMES 261 

[16:31 Santa Clara P'eqwapohu''u, see [14:78]. 

[16:-t] Sanla Clara KuHjjfhuu, see [14:79]. 

[16:5] Santa Clara PPqn/!£hu\t, see [14:81]. 

[16:0] Santa Clara T'qnt'ahint, see [14:82]. 

[16:7] Santa Clara T' outsell u u, see [14:83]. 

[16:8] Santa Clara Qwawlwag.iHijfhu'u, see [14:84]. 

[16:9] Santa Clara K'ahu>i, see [14:85]. 

[16:10] Santa Clara ywiepupo/iuu, see [14:86]. 

[16:11] Santa Clara Natahu'u, see [14:91]. 

[16:12] Santa Clara Ayu'//(!<V,, see [14:87]. 

[16:13] Pi'mjaijeitjqicog.,', see [14:96]. 

[16:14] -Akomp/je'iyqwo^e, see [14:97]. 

[16:15] Rio Grande, see [Large Features], pages 100-102. 

[16:16] San Ildefonso Toiatjvxd: senfo' iwe 'cave-dwelling in which the 

meal was put' {toiaqwa 'cave-dwelling' <ioi(i ' cliff', qwa denoting 

state of being a receptacle; H^eyf 'Hour' 'meal'; to 'to put in' 

'to be in'; '*we locative). 
[16:17] San Ildefonso TfxhuHjnpiygehwaje 'the height between the 

two branches of [16:20]' (7ya;/twV see [16:20]; 'i"' locative and 

adjective-forming postfix; pivge 'in the middle of; kivaje 

'height'). 
[16:18] Siix^I\deiouso Py»j)/'/emffieh}i^ II ' northern branch of [16:20]' 

{piiiijMJe 'north' Kpirjy 'mountain'; pije 'toward'; T' locative 

and adjective-forming postfix; T/sehu'ii, see [16:20]). Cf. [16:19]. 
[16:19] San Ildefonso ^AlqiiipijeintfxJiii^u 'southern branch of 

[16:20]' i^akompije 'south' <i'al-qijf 'plain' 'down country'', 

pije 'toward'; 'i' ' locative and adjective-forming postfix; Tfse- 

^m'*/, see [16:20]). Cf. [16:18]. 
[16:20] (1) San Ildefonso Tfirlin'u of obscure etymology {tf^ unex 

plained, said to be neither tfx 'small' nor tfx- 'money'; hu'u 

'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. [16:26], [16:27]. 

(2) Eng. Las Marias Arroyo. (<Span.). =Span. ('?>). 

(3) Span. Canada de las Marias 'mountain valley of the three 
bright stars of Orion's Belt'. =Eng. (2). 

[16:21] San Ildefonso Pse(jWce.r]hioaQ.e 'deer tail mesa' {px 'mule- 
deer'; fpms^iQf 'tail'; lwaQ.e 'mesa'). 

[16:22] San Ildefonso Delt'bee 'little corner of the hard penis' {de 
'penis'; Av 'hardness' 'hard'; hee 'small low roundish place'). 

[16:23] San Ildefonso T'^bplkukwaje 'height by red white-earth ar- 
roj'o' {T'lipihuu, see [16:24]; hjoaje 'height'). 

[16:24] San Ildefonso T'y,pUtuH 'red white-earth arroyo' (<'y"" 'a 
kind of white earth', see under Minerals; pi 'redness' 'red'; 
hiCu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 



262 ETHNOGEOGRAPITY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

[16:25] Sail Iklcfonso I'^ahewihuhi 'arroyo of lire foully gap' {P'lthe- 
wPi, see under [16:unlocatcd], p. 277; hii'u 'large groove' 
'arroyo'). 

[16:26] San Ildefonso Tfxhjlwane of obscure etymology {tfie. unex- 
plained, as in [16:20] and [16:27]; T » locative and adjective-form- 
ingpo.stfix; 1'wag.e 'mesa'). 

[16:27] San Ildefonso Tfspfiijf of obscure etymology {tfiS- unex- 
plained, as in [16:20 and [16:26]; piyf 'mountain'). 

This large hill has a small flat top surrounded by cliffs. (See 
pi. 12, C.) This hill is said to have no Span. name. 

[16:2S] San Ildefonso Tfirpi/nbuu, Tfsebu^u of obscure etymology 
{TfiepivJ', see [16:27]; tfse unexplained, as in [16:20], [16:26], 
[16:27]; bu'ii 'large low roundish place'). 

[16:29] San Ildefonso T^iimijlc' oijtji 'down where the soft earth is 
dug' {txii 'soft'; Tiqyf 'earth'; VQijf 'to dig'; ge 'down at' 
'over at'). 

[16:30] Eng. Pajarito station. This station was established by the 
Denver and Rio Grande Railroad Company some time between 
1908 and 1912. The name was probably given by Miss Clara D. 
True, who owns a large ranch near by, which she has named Pa- 
jarito Ranch. The name Pajarito is taken of course from the 
Pajarito Plateau, etc.; see [17:34]. 

[16:31] San Ildefonso Sfii(isqhn!jdbtnaba 'Mrs. Stevenson's ranch' 
■ {StiiiSQ <Eng. Stevenson; hioijo 'old woman'; tl possessive; 
naia ' ranch '). 

Mrs. M. C. Stevenson has a ranch at this place. Mrs. Steven- 
son herself calls her ranch Tunyo Ranch, naming it from T'unjo, 
the Black Mesa [16:130]. 

[16:32] San Ildefonso Tahahuu, Tahii'u 'corner where the grass is 
thick' 'grass corner' {fa 'grass'; hi 'denseness' 'dense'; buu 
'large low roundish place'). 

This place is near the river, just south of Mrs. Stevenson's most 
southerly alfalfa field. 

[16:33] Pojoaque Creek, see [19:3]. 

[16:34] (1) San Ildefonso i*a>.sty.M«'« ' deer horn arroyo '(/;»«' mule- 
deer'; jsti^y ' horn'; Am' «' large groove' 'arroyo'). 

(2) Eng. Con trayerba arroyo. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Canada de las Contrayerbas ' narrow mountain val- 
ley of the weed-species called by the Mexicans contrayerba.' 
= Eng. (2). 

[16:35] San Ildefonso Ttfbikohii'u 'soft arroyo' {tseil 'softness' 
'soft'; kohii'u 'arroyo with barrancas' <^-o 'barranca', hii'v 
' large groove ' ' arroyo '). Tiei/' would be said of soft earth or 
rock or anv other soft substance. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 263 

[16:36] San lldefonso P('Jiig,e oyiril:ej /' ' pueblo ruin down at the place 
of a species of kangaroo rat' (j^e-fa a small rodent wliicii walks 
and jumps like a kangaroo, also called pe; ge ' down at ' ' over 
at'; ^oyivi 'pueblo'; hjl 'old' postpound). "Pe-ra-ge."' 
"Perage."- " Perage (maison du clan du rat des montagne.s)."^ 
Perage has been described by Bandelier/ and Hewett.* 
TwitcholP evidently refers to Pedage when he writes, "a large 
mound across the river from the present pueblo of San lldefonso." 
The present writer's Tewa informants did not know whether 
Pedage was still inhabited or ah'eady abandoned at the time the 
Spaniards first came to the Tewa country. The scene of a Corn 
Maiden story obtained at San lldefonso is laid at Peuage. The 
tradition that Pelage was a village of the San lldefonso people is 
very definite and widely known. According to Hewett: "When 
the mesa life grew unbearable from lack of water, and removal to 
the valley became a necessity, a detachment from Otowi [16:105] 
founded the pueblo of Perage in the valley on the west side of 
the Rio Grande about a mile west of their [the San lldefonso 
people's] present site.'"" It is believed that P&iage is located 
quite accurateh^ on the sheet. 

[16:37] (1) San lldefonso PotsQijwspsinnse, Potsqnsinns^, Potgqywsgs^n- 
nsepohvi, Potscttts^nnsepohvi, Poisqvws^s^7inse\>hi, Pofsqnfiin- 
9ise^ohi, Potsqywxsenniehjba, Potsqnsimispioia ' place of the blue 
or green water man ' ' pool at the place of the blue or green 
water man' 'hill at the place of the t)lue or green water man' 
' cliffs at the place of the blue or green water man' {po ' water'; 
tsqywsg. ' blueness ' ' blue ' ' greenness ' ' green ', the sj'Uable wse 
being most frequently elided when the place-name is pronounced; 
svjf 'man in prime'; nsp locative 'at', locative postfix; po/iu-i 
'lake' 'pool' <po 'water', kwi unexplained; \>ku 'hill'; h/ia 
' cliff'). Many inquiries regarding potsqywirsfyj' were made, but 
it was not possible to learn whether or not the name designates a 
mythic being. The color tsqywse symbolizes the north, not the 
west. The name Potsqywses^nnse. appears to have in its origin 
something to do with the pool; see below. 

(2) San lldefonso Tsqynpijepohwi ' lake of the west ' {tsqnip^e 
'west' <tsqrjf unexplained, /n}'d 'toward'; ptdwi 'lake' 'pool' 
<po 'water', iwj unexplained). For the reason this name is 
applied, see below. 

Tlie pool is just west of the big pear tree of the farm belonging 
to Mr. Ignacio Aguilar. This pool is the '"lake of the west" of 

Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 78, 1892. < Antiquities, p. 16, 1906. 

•Hewett: General View, p. 597, 1905; Antiqui- 'In Santa Fa New Mrrican, Sept. 22, 1910. 

ties, p. 16 1906. 'Hewett, Antiquities, p. 20, 1906. 
'Hewett, Commiinauti=s, p. 32, 1908. 



264 ETHNOGEOGKAPIIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 20 

the Sau Ildet'onso sacred water ceremony; see Caudinal Sacred 
Water Lakes, pp. 4-1-45. West of the pool rise two litth> hills — 
the W'M, with clifUike sides, and the toia. Cf. [16:38] and [16:a;»]. 

[16:38} San Ildcfonso Potsqywspsinnse''i'i)yAH''u, Pots(j,ns^nn£e''\j)fhu''u 
'blue or g-reen water man place arroyo' {Potsqyws^sitwx, see 
[16:37]; T* locative and adjective-forming postfix; huhi 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). The name is probably taken from [16:37]. 

[16:39] San Ildet'onso Potsqrjwi^-'iinnceHrjhvag.e, PofsqnsinnsR'iylwag.e 
'blue or green man place mesa' (Potsqywxstnnx , see [16:37]; 
'i'Mocative and adjective-forming postiix; hoag.e 'mesa'). The 
name is probably taken from [16:37]. 

[16:40] San Ildefonso K'lMohuu oi obscure etymology (VoJio unex- 
plained; hxHih 'large low roundish place'). Cf. [16:41]. 

[16:41] San Ildefonso IC oJiohuhwaQ.e 'mesaat [16:4u]'; {ICoMibiCu, see 
[16:47]; Xwage 'mesa.') 

[16:42] San Ildefonso ^Omapirifoi obscure etymology {^oma unex- 
plained; piyf 'mountain'). '<? means with different intonations 
'scar' and 'metate'. The syllable ma is postpounded in several 
other place-names, but its meaning is no longer understood. 
This high hill is thought of by the San Ildefonso in connection 
■with/'umapiyj' [16:130]. ''Omafnjjf is on the west side of the 
Rio Grande at the mouth of the canyon, finnafiiyf is on the east 
side. The locality at the foot of ' Omapiyf is called ' Onuipimiu'^u 
or '' Om.anu''u (?;«';/' below'). ^ Omapiyj' is ?i conapKuous moun- 
tain as viewed from San Ildefonso Pueblo. 

[16:43] San Ildefonso Wniapiya-ri, WmawVi 'gap by [16:42]' {^ Oma- 
PivJ'i '0?/i a see [16 :4:2~\; tvPi 'gap'). 

A wagon road goes through this gap or pass. 

[16:44] (1) San Ildefonso Pimps^yge 'beyond the mountains' {piyf 
'mountain'; pseyr/e 'beyond'). There is no more definite Tewa 
name for this valley. 

(2) Eng. Santa Rosa Val lev. (< Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Valle de Santa Rosa ' valley of Saint Rose '. = Eng. (2). 
This is one of the high, grass-grown meadow-valleys west of 

the Jemez Range. Such valleys occur also in the Peruvian Andesj 
where they ai'e called by the German -speaking inhabitants 
" Wiesentaier." Cf. [16:45] and [16:131]. See also [27:11]. 
[16:45] (1) San Ildefonso TfthsopimpFpyf/f'^ beyond the mountain of the 
great canyon', referring to [16:46] {Tsisopiyf, see [16 -AQ]; pieyge 
'beyond'). The locality is also referred to by the more inclusive 
and loosely applied name Pimpseyge ' beyond the mountains '. Cf . 
[16:4.5]. ■ 

(2) Eng. Posos Valley. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 



HiKRlNGTON] 



PLACE-NAMES 265 



(3) Span. Valle de los Posos 'valley of the holes'. =Eng. (2). 
The Span, name is said to refer to the holes in tlie grassy surface 
of the valley. 

This is, like [16:i4] and [16:131], one of the high, grass-grown 
ineadow-valle3's west of the Jeniez Itange. 

[16:4:t)] San lldefonso Tsisopiyj', Tsisopiykewe ' mountain of the great 
canyon ' ' mountain peak of the great canyon ' (Tsiso'o, see [16:53]; 
ViVf ' mountain "; Icewe ' peak'). 

This mountain is at the head of Tsiso'o, or Guaje Canyon [16:53]. 
A trail much used Ijy Tewa people when going to Jemez leads up 
the Guaje Canyon [16:53], over this mountain and across the 
Valle Grande [16:131] to Jemez. See [16:47]. 

[16:47] San lldefonso Tuisopiij f'afaT* 'great canj-on mountain steep 
slope where one goes up as one ascends stairs or ladders ' {Tsiso- 
piyf, see [16:46]; a'a' ' steep slope'; fa ' to go up a stairway or a 
ladder'; 'i'* locative and adjective-forming postfix). 

On this slope the trail mentioned under [16:46] is steep and 
stairway-like. 

[16:48] San lldefonso KupiwadPiylwag.e ' red stone strewn mesa' {Jcu 
'stone'; pi 'redness' 'red'; wcud 'strewn' 'scattered'; iyy 
locative and adjective-forming postfix; hvage 'mesa'). Whether 
the name 'red stone strewn' is originally applied to [16:48] or 
[16:49] or to both is not determined. Cf. [16:49]. 

[16:49] (1) San lldefonso Kupiwcui HnisiH ' red stone strewn canyon' 
{Kupmcui, see [16:49]; T' locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix; /s^'i ' canj'on '). Whether this name was originally applied 
to [16:48] or [16:49] or to both is not determined. Cf. [16:48]. 

(2) Eng. Angostura Canyon. (<Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. La Angostura, (]anon de la Angostura ' the narrow 
place' ' canyon of the narrow place'. =Eng. 2. 

[16:50] (1) San lldefonso Jtupo 'rock water' {leu 'stone' 'rock'; po 
'water' 'creek'). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Piedra Creek, Piedra Canyon. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 
Cf. Tewa (1). 

(3) Span. Agua de Piedra 'rock water'. =Eng. (2). Cf. 
Tewa (1). 

The stream gives [16:51] its name. Whether the Tewa name 
is a translation of the Span., or vice versa, is not determined. 
[16:51] San lldefonso Kupokwaje 'rock water height' {Kupo, see 
[16:.50]; hwaje 'height'). 

[16:52] San lldefonso Uinolje ''iwe ' place of the two arroyos', referring 
to [16:50] and [16:49] {huhi ' large groove ' ' arroyo '; wije ' two '; 
^iwe locative). 



266 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [mth. ann. 29 

[16:S;5] (1) San lldefonso Tsiso'o ' j^-reat canj-on' (FsPl 'canj'on'; 
si>\) ' gTcattioss ' ' great '). This name refers to the Guaje Canyon 
above its junction with [16:100]. Below this junction it is called 
by the San Ildefonso Tewa '' Omahuu; see [16:126]. The Guaje 
is a very large canyon, and it is easy to understand why the name 
Tv/so'o was originally applied. 

(2) Eng. Guaje Canyon. (<Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Caiion de Guaje, Canon Guaje, Canon do los Guajes 
'canyon of the long gourd(s) or gourd rattle(s)'. =Eng. (2). 
Wh}' the Span, name was applied has not ])een learned. " Guages."' ' 

This deep and long canyon has its mouth near the railroad bridge 
[19:121]. There is said to be always water in its upper course. 
The pueblo ruin [16:60], situated on the Guaje, is an important 
one. The trail leading up Guaje Canj^on is mentioned under 
[16:46]. _ 

[16:51] San Ildefonso Ts''weHps^>j[/e 'beyond the narrow canyon', 
referring to [16:55] {Tsiweki, see [16:55]; pseyge 'beyond'). 

[16:55] San Ildefonso Tslwekimie 'place of the narrow canyon' (TsiH 
' canyon ' ; wehl ' narrowness ' ' narrow ' ; ''iwe locative). The canyon 
is narrow at this place. The place has given the names to [16:51] , 
[16:56], and [16:57]. 

[16:56] San Ildefonso Piinpljetsvwel-i'iyhjoag.e^noTiheTnvLiGS?^ by the 
place that the canyon is narrow' {pimpije 'north' <pir]j' 'moun- 
tain' ' up country', ^//(3 'toward'; Tslwekl, see [16:55]; TMoca- 
tive and adjective-forming posttix; ^waye 'mesa'). Cf. [16:57]. 

[16:57] San Ildefonso Alcqmpijetslwel'i'ijjk^vage ' southern mesa by the 
place that the canyon is narrow' i^al-qmpije 'south' <''alqijf 
'plain' 'down country', j^ye 'toward'; Ts/we^;/, see [16:55]; '?;'' 
locative and adjective-forming postfix; kwag.e 'mesa'). Cf. 
[16:56]. 

[16:6.S] San Ildefonso Kapotewi'l 'gap by the Santa Clara houses' 
{Kapo 'Santa Clara Pueblo', see [14:61]; te 'dwelling place'; wPi 
'gap ') It is said that Santa Clara Indians used to dwell at this 
place; hence the name. 

The informants say that it was not more than a hundred years 
ago when Santa Clara people lived at this place. 

[16:5',»] San Ildefonso ^A'ljWc^tege 'down where the spider was picked 
up' {\r?jwse 'spider'; feHo pick up'; g.e 'down at' 'over at'). 

[16:60] Nameless pueblo ruin. Doctor Hewett informs the writer 
that this ruin is at least as large as that of PotsuwiH [16:105]. 
The Indian name for the ruin has not been ascertained. 

'Hewett: Antiquities, pi. xvn, 1906; Commiinautfe, p. 24, 1908. 



HARRINGTON] 



PLACE-NAMES 267 



[16:(51] (1) San Ildefonso PcViJekwage 'mesa where the threads meet', 
referrinsj to [16:62]; /*(i*?/V, see [16:62J; 1-wag.e 'mesa'). 

(2) Eng. CuchiUa de Piedra height. (<Span.). =Span. (3). 
(.3) Span. Cuchilla de Piedra 'stone ridge-point'. =Eng. (2). 

[16:()2J Sau Ildefon.so J^qijeT' ' where the threads meet', probably re- 
ferring to the two streams (/x]'- 'thread', now never applied to a 
stream of water; Je ' to meet' ' to flow together'; '^■'' locative and 
adjective-forming postfix). 

[16:63] San Ildefonso Piyjepiyf 'mountain in the middle', referring 
to its position between [16:53] and [16:85] {piyge 'in the middle'; 
fiVf 'mountain') 

[16:6i] (1) San Ildefonso f^s^biT' 'at the small white roundish rocks' 
{tssR 'whiteness' 'white'; b/ 'very small and roundish or conical'; 
'*"' locative and adjective-forming postfix). 

(2) Span. Las Tienditas 'the little tents'. There are many 
small tent-rocks (see pis. 6-8) at this place; hence the name. 
Cf. [16:05]. _ 

[16:65] San Ildefonso TssebPiykwag.e 'mesa at the small white round- 
ish rocks' (TsffJ/, see [16:64]; T' locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; Z'«'ag<? 'mesa'). See [16:64]. 

[16:66] San Ildefonso KumantsiJiil-etdbi'iwe ' where the Comanche fell 
down " (lui/iiqnfsi ' Comanche ' ; I'/tdti ' to fall down ' ; '/wd locative). 
This name refers to the locality about a high clifl' on the north 
side of the arroyo [16:67]. A Comanche Indian once, when pur- 
sued by the Tewa, fell over this clifi' and died; hence the name. 
The place has given the name to the arroyo [16 :67]. 

[16:67] San Ildefonso KiimqnU'iketc^i^yr) fKxH u 'arroyo where the Co- 
manche fell down' iyKumantsihetdhi , see [16:66]; T* locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; Am'« ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

[16:68] San Ildefonso QwstkadeQ.i 'little mountain mahogany forest 
peak' {qwx 'mountain mahogany' 'Cercooarpus parvifolius', 
called by the Mexicans 'palo duro'; lea 'denseness' 'dense' 'for- 
est'; ieQi 'smallness and pointedness' 'small and pointed'). 

Bushes of the mountain mahogany grow all over this little peak. 
Cf. [16:69]. 

[16:61>] San Ildefonso Q\DS^)caAegv\ntsi'i 'canyon of little mahogany- 
forest peak' [(^^v.isKkaAcQ.i., see [16:68]; T* locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; ts'il 'canyon'). 

[16:70] San Ildefonso Jqndi'^ 'where the willows' {Jqy.f 'willow'; 
T' locative and adjective-forming postfix). One infoi'mant said 
the Span, name of this place would be La Jara 'the willow.' 
The name refers to a nearly level place where willows grow. 
This is said to be a pretty place. Cf. [16:71]. 



268 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

[16:71] San Ildcfonso Jqmpo, Jqrnpotsl'l 'willow water' 'willow 
wator ninyon' {Jqij.f, see [16:70j; po 'water'; isi'i 'canyon'). 

[16:72 1 Sail Ildofonso PidatawPi 'dry head of penis gap' {pi4a 'head 
of penis'; ia 'dryness' 'dry'; wi^i 'gap') 

[16:73] San Ildetonao ]Vaiakwag.e, Naiainihti(ig.e 'pitfall mesa' 'pitfall 
gap mesa' {JVuia, JVaiaivPi, see [16:7-1]; kwag.e 'mesa'). 

[16:74:] San lldefonso JVabawPi 'pitfall gap' (nata 'pitfall'; wi'i 
'gap'). The nata were bottle-shaped holes several feet in length 
cut in the tufaceous rock in gaps through which deer and other 
large game were likely to pass. They were covered over with 
sticks and earth so that the animal suspected notliing till it 
crashed through. Cf. [16:73]. There is another jVa'bawPi in the 
Pajarito Plateau; see [17:1.5]. 

[16:75] San lldefonso Tseehakwaje ' little eagle corner height' 
{neebuiu see [16:76]; Iwaje 'height'). Cf. [16:76], [16:77]. 

[16:76] San lldefonso Tse^ehvlu 'little eagle corner' {Ue 'eagle'; 'e 
'diminutive'; iuUi 'large low roundish place'). This place has 
given names to [16:75] and [16:77]. 

[16:77] San lldefonso Tse^ebuhuhi 'little eagle corner arroyo' {Tse'e- 
bi/\i, see [16:76]; ku'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. [16:75], 
[16:76]. 

[16:78] San lldefonso Qwsgborice.bii'u 'mountain-mahogany round hill 
corner' {Qwsebonse, see [16:79]; buu 'large low roundish place'). 

[16:79] (1) San lldefonso Qivsebonx, Qw^honselcewe 'at the round hill 
of the mountain mahogany' 'round hill peak of the mountain 
mahogany ' (y«'^ 'mountain mahogany' 'Cercocarpus parvifolius' 
called by the Mexicans ' palo duro '; 6c, referring to large ball-like 
shape as in boM 'large roundish pile'; nsg. locative). Cf. [16:78]. 
(2) Span. Cerro Palmilloso 'hill where there is much 3-ucca'. 

[16:80] San lldefonso JV^s^getsPi of obscure etymology (?i;g unex- 
plained; ge 'down at' 'over at'; tee'^ 'canyon'). 

[16:81] (1) San lldefonso Pce^lntoJiiCu 'arroyo in which there are or 
were deer tracks' (/>;? 'mule-deer'; 'a^y 'foot' 'foot-track'; to 
'to be in'; hii^ w 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. [16:82]. 
(2) Span. Arroyo de las Barrancas 'arroyo of the barrancas'. 

[16:82] San lldefonso Psi'qntohuhee 'little corner b}' the arroyo in 
which there are or were deer tracks' {Ps^''q,ntohtCu, see [16:81]; 
bee 'small low roundish place'). 

[16:83] San lldefonso Sqn/upbee 'little corner where the firewood is 
or was' {sQTjf 'firewood'; ns^ locative; bt^e 'small low roundish 
place'). 

[16:8'±] San lldefonso Sqnns^beiyfhiPu 'arroyo of the little corner 
where the firewood is or was' {Sqnn^be'e, see [16:83]; T' loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix; hiCu ' large groove' 'arroyo'). 
Cf. [16:83]. 



HAKRINGTOX] PLACE-NAMES 269 

[16:85] San Ildeioni^o jywxijwPiyfhu.' n 'rock-pine gap arroyo' {l^wse- 
ijwti, see under [16:unlocated], below; "i'' locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; hiCu ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

[16:8(i] San WAeionao fuwalap qyl-W(ig_e 'dry louse not very narrow 
mesa' {fiiwa 'louse'; ia 'dryness' 'dry'; pay/ as in p'qylii 
'largely narrow' 'not very narrow' and corresponding nouns; 
hoag.!' 'mesa'). P'qyki is the augmentative form of piylci 
"narrow'. 

The flattish hill to which this name applies looks thin and nar- 
row, like a dry dead louse. 

[16:87] San lidefonso /'V^if^po^wagt' 'drag pole or timber trail mesa' 
{p^e 'pole' 'timber' 'log'; (pma 'to drag'; p<? 'trail'; Zwagt^ ' mesa'). 

[16:88] San Ildefonso Tmo^yqcliwagi' 'mesa where the pinon trees 
are all together' (?« 'piiion tree' 'Pinus edulis'; w^yye 'together 
in one place'; liwag.e 'mesa'). 

[16:89] San Ildefonso '' Ab^iiy .fhu"" tc 'arroyo with chokocherry grow- 
ing at its little bends' ('«&<;; 'chokecherry' 'Prunus melanocarpa'; 
hiVf 'a small bend'; hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo') Cf. [16:90]. 

[16:90] San Ildefonso Wt^bfy fJiuqwge 'delta of the arroyo with 
chokecherry growing at its little bends' {\iie^b^ij/hirn, see [16: 
89] ; qwog^e ' delta ' ' down where it cuts through ' < qwo ' to cut 
through', ge 'down at' 'over at'). See [16:89]. 

[16:91] San Ildefonso Jqyfhannu 'where the willow is all gone' 
{j'iVf 'willow'; Jmyf 'to be all gone'; nu locative). This name 
is applied to the locality both north and south of the stream. 
There are many cottonwood trees at this place and the inform- 
ants think that the Mexicans call the place Bosquecito 'little 
forest". 

[16:92] San Ildefonso Mqpoma of obscure etymology. (No part of 
the word can be explained; ma occurs as the last element of 
several place-names). 
This locality is on the southern side of the stream-bed. 

[16:93] (1) San Ildefonso Bu(iuk' ehvag.e ' mesa where the donkey was 
killed' {hiidu 'donkey' < Span, burro 'donkey'; Fe 'to be 
killed'; kwag.e 'mesa"). Cf. Span. ('2). 
(2) Span. Banco del Burro 'donkey bank'. Cf. Tewa (1). 
The following story explains the name: A Navaho once stole 
a donkey from the Tewa, taking it from a corral at night. He 
was overtaken by armed Tewa somewhat east of this place on the 
following morning. The Navaho made the donkey fall over the 
clitf of this mesa, thus killing it, and escaped by tleeing afoot. 
The Tewa found the dead donkey at the foot of the cliff. 



270 ETIINOGKOCKAI'IIV OF THE TFAVA INDIANS [eth. an.\. 29 

[16:94] Sail Ildefonso }jw!$mpeki''i.^ 'place, where the rock-pine tree is 
bent' (/;w;K9y 'rock-pine' 'Pinus scopuloruni'; 'peli 'bent', said 
for instance of an arm bent at tiie ell)ow or at the wrist; T* loca- 
tive and adjective-forniino- postfix). 

There is a peculiarly twisted and bent rock-pine tree at this 
place; hence the name. 

[16:'.I5] (1) San Ildefonso KKsin/qmhiCu of obscure etymology (ku 
'stone' 'rock'; 67' unexplained; nfiyf 'nest'; hjCu 'large low 
roundish place'). 

(2) Span. Vallecito 'little valley'. 

This is described as being a large and deep dell at the head of 
[16:98]. 

[16:96] (1) San Ildefonso Kul'' lwa^ilwag.e 'tufa-strewn mesa' (kiiJci 
'tufa' < lot 'stone', ^'/unexplained; um.d 'to strew' 'to scatter'; 
kwage 'mesa'). Cf. [16:97] and [16:99]. 

(2) Span. Chiquero 'pigsty' 'sheepfold'. Why this Span, 
name is applied is not known. 

[16:97] Hmx WdQionso KnJc' iwadipiyf, Kuk'iwcuipijjlcewe 'tufa-strewn 
mountain' ' tufa-strewn mountain peak' (Kuk'iwadl, see [16:96]; 
VWf 'mountain': Icewe ''T^edtk^). Cf. [16:96]. 

[16:98] San Ildefonso Pifsawe/iu-uoi obscure etymology (/(/apparently 
'redness' 'red'; ftawe unexplained; htt^)/ ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

[16:99] San Ildefonso Ki/k' iw/uiku 11 ' tufa-strewn arroyo' {Kid-' iwa<ii, 
see [16:96]; /*«-'« 'large groove' 'arroj'o'). This name is applied 
to the two upper forks of [16:100] because thej' are situated in 
the locality called Kid-'iui(UikvHig,e [16:96]. 

[16:100] (1) San Ildefonso Teh liu. ' cottonwood tree arroyo ' (fe ' cotton- 
wood' 'Populus wislizeni'; hirii 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. 
Span. (4), of which this Tewa name is perhaps a translation. 

(2) San Ildefonso -OieMiuu 'arroyo of [16:121]" {'Obebuii, see 
[16:121]; //m'w 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

(3) Eng. Alamo Canyon. (<Span.). =Span.(4). Cf.Tewa(l). 
"Alamo can}'on.''' "Canj-on de los Alamos." - 

(4) Span. Canada de los Alamos 'narrow mountain valley 
of the cottonwoods'. =Eng. (3). Cf. Tewa (1). 

The headwaters of this ari'oyo are called Ku¥iwaJ>ihu^u; see 
[16:99]. 
[16:101] San Ildefonso KHWa.s:int(>'i'\ K\iW(isint()'ir]huu 'place in 
which the horn or horns of the mountain-sheep is or was, are or 
were' 'arroyo in which the horn or horns of the mountain-sheep 
is or was, are or were' (7i'wr« 'mountain-sheep'; s^ijf 'horn": ;■" 
'to be inside or in'; T\ locative and adjective-forming posttix; 
h%iu 'large groove" "arroyo'). 

'Hewett, Antiquities, p. 18, 1906. "Ibid., p. 21. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 271 

[16:10:^] (1) San Ildefonso K uF seby./ni'' u 'arroyoof the large gravelly 
dells" [kid'se 'coarse gravel'; bu\/ Marge low roundish place'; 
Am'm 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. "Otowi canj'on".^ This is evidently the same can- 
yon. For the et}-mologj' of "'Otowi" see [16:105]. 

(3) Span. Canada de los Valles ' narrow mountain valley of the 
dells'. Cf. Tewa(l). 

The Tewa name is applied to the arrojo only above the vicinity 
of Fotsuwti [16^105]. Below that vicinity the arroyo is called 
fscie'^fsP!; see [16:115]. 

[16:103] San Ildefonso P£etohvolwag.e 'mesa on which the deer are 
or were enclosed' {])se, 'mule-deer'; to 'to be inside or in"; Jxwo 
'to be' said of 3 -|- ; 1-wag.e 'mesa'). The name is applied, it is 
said, because the walls of the mesa are so steep that deer on the 
top of the mesa were as if impounded in a corral. The eastern 
extremity of this mesa bears the ancient name Tfug.e'efxi'u; see 
[16:101]. 

[16:101] San Ildefonso Tfuge^eftPx 'little sorcerer point' {tfug.e 
'sorcerer' 'wizard' 'witch'; 'c diminutive; fnu 'horizontally 
projecting corner or point"). This name is applied. to the eastern 
extremity of T'^^oAwofef/ge [16:103]. Tfug.eefi(\t is just west 
of PotsmvPi ruin [16:105]. The name is said to be ''a very old 
one". The reason for its application was not known. 

[16:105] San Ildefonso Pofsuwroywil-eji 'pueljlo ruin at the gap 
where the water sinks', referring to [16:106] {Fotsirwii, see 
[16:106]; 'oywikeji 'pueblo ruin' <'o?jwi 'pueblo', keji 'old' 
postpound). Cf. [16:106], [16:141]: also, see plate 6. The "tent 
rocks", including several "rocks which carry a load on the head"', 
are shown in plates 6-8. "Po-tzu-ye".^ For Bandelier"s spell- 
ing of -«)*"* as "ye" or "yu" see [16:114] and [22:42]. "Otowi'".' 
"Otowo".^ 
Referring to Otowi Mesa, Hewett' says: 

Half a mile to the south [of [16:105]] the huge mesa which is terminated 
by Rincon del Pueblo bounds the valley with a high unbroken line, per- 
haps 500 feet above the dry arroyo at the bottom. The same distance to the 
north is the e(|nally high and more abrupt Otowi mesa, and east and west 
an equal distance and to aljout an equal height rise the wedge-like terminal 
buttes which define this great gap [16:106] in the middle mesa. 

PotHuwri ruin is merely mentioned by Bandelier;^ it is fully 
described by Hewett.' Of the location of the ruin Hewett says: 

The parallel canyons [16:102] and [16:100] running through this glade 
[16:106] are prevented from forming a confluence by a high ridge, the rem- 

' Hewett, Antiquities, p. 18, 1906. <Ibid., Table des matiires. 

'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 78. 1892. 
'Hewett: General View, p. 69s, 19te; Commu- 
aautfe, pp. 29, ih, 85, 86, 1908. 



272 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

nant of the intervening uiesa. Upon the highest part of this ridge is located a 
large pueblo ruin which formed the nucleus of the Otowi settlement. In every 
direction are clusters of excavated cliff-dwellings of contemporaneous occupa- 
tion and on a parallel ridge to the south are the ruins of one pueblo of con- 
siderable size and of seven small ones, all antedating the main Otowi settle- 
ment.' 

Of the ruins of the puoblo to the south, Hewett saj's further: 

This is a small pueblo ruin in Otowi canyon [16:100] just across the arroyo 
[tlie bed of [ 16 ;100]?] about 300 yards south of Otowi pueblo. It is situated on 
top of a narrow ridge which runs parallel w ith the one on which the large ruin 
stands. The stones of the building are smaller and the construction work is 
cruder. The building consists of one solid rectangle with one kiva within the 
court. Seven other small pueblo ruins or clan houses are scattered along the 
same ridge to the west within a distance of one mile, all apparently belonging 
to this settlement.^ 

It is a tradition generally known at San Ildefonso that a con- 
siderable number of the ancestors of the San Ildefon.so people 
ii.sed to live long- ago at Potsuwi'i [16:105] and at SselcewiH 
[16:114]. The writer has obtained two myths the scene of which 
is laid at Pofefm'T/. The San Ildefonso Indians insist that J'o- 
tsuiDii and Scg.lcew€i were inhabited by their ancestors, and not 
by those of any of the other Tewa villagers. Hewett says: 

The traditions of Otowi are fairly well preserved. It was the oldest village 
of Powhoge [San Ildefonso] clans of which they have definite traditions at 
San Ildefonso. They hold in an indefinite way that prior to the building 
of this village they occupied scattered 'small house' ruins on the adjacent 
mesas, and they claim that when the mesa life grew unbearal>le from lack of 
water, and removal to the valley became a necessity, a detachment from Otowi 
founded the pueblo of Perage [16:3ii] in the valley on the west side of the Rio 
Grande about a mile west of their present village site.^ 

The "tent rocks'' (pis. 6-S) near Pofsuwii ruin are called by 
the San Ildefonso Tewa Potsuuulcudtn4ind!we 'place of the 
pointed or conical rocks of the gap where the water sinks' {Potsii- 
Wii, see [16:100]; dindejjf 'largeness and pointedness' 'large and 
pointed'; '!we locative). 

From about half a mile to a mile above the main pueblo of Otowi is a cliff- 
village that is unique. Here is a cluster of conical formations of white tufa, 
some of which attain a height of thirty feet . . . These are popularly called 
'tent rocks'. They are full of caves, both natural and artificial, some of which 
have been utilized as human haliitations. These dwellings are structurally 
identical with those found in the cliffs. They present the appearance of enor- 
mous beehives.' 

See [16:106], [16:11-1]. 

[16:106] San Ildefonso Potsuwi'i 'gap where the water sinks' {po 
'water'; few 'to sink in'; wPi 'gap'). The ordinary expression 
meaning 'the water sinks' is nqpotsiuiemxT) f (ni 'it'; po 'water'; 

■Hewett, Antiquities, p. 18, 1906. nbid., p. 20. "Ibid., p. 19. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 8 




■TENT ROCK" NEAR POTSUWIOyWI^ RUIN, CAPPED BY PROJECTING FRAGMENT OF HARDER 

TUFA 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 10 




•- ■ *«*:' 



SCENE ON S/EKEWn MESA, SHOWING THE OLD INDIAN TRAIL 



HAKRINGTOX] PLACE-NAMES 273 

tsu>iem<tyf 'to sink in' <tsa 'to sink in', -le 'little by little', 
mxyf 'to go'). Wliy the g-ap is so called appears to be no longer 
known to the San Ildefonso people. Perhaps the water of the 
arroyos [16:102], [16:100] or some other water sinks or sank in 
the earth or sand at this locality. The name hints at the prob- 
able reason for the aljandonment of the pueblo. The gap gives 
its name to the pueblo ruin [16:105]. 
Hewett ' describes this gap as follows: 

The long narrow potrero [tongue of mesa] bounding the canyon on the north 
is entirely cut out for a distance of nearly a mile, thus throwing into one 
squarish, open park the width of two small canyons and the formerly inter- 
vening mesa. From the midst of this little jiark, roughly a mile square, a view 
of surpassing beauty is to be had. 

[16:107] San Ildefonso Si^nciaypinuru 'below the soldiers' road', re 
ferring to a road made in this locality by American soldiers, it is 
said {sy,ndah <Span. soldado 'soldier'; po 'trail' 'road'; nu''u 
'below'). Cf. [16:108]. 

[16:108] San Ildefonso Sy.ndaupokwaje 'soldiers' road height' 
{smdaupo, see [16:107]; hvaji 'height'). Cf. [16:107]. 

[16:109] Nameless pueblo ruin. Hewett^ says: 

This ruin is situated in Canyon de los Alamos on a high ridge running par- 
allel with the stream on its south aide. It is about three-quarters of a mile 
west of Tsankawi and its inhabitants eventually merged with the population 
of that village. The settlement consisted of one rectangular pueblo of consid- 
erable size and a number of small clan houses scattered along the ridge to the 
west for about half a mile. It belongs to the older class of ruins. 

Doctor Hewett informs the writer that an old trail leads 
straight from SsekfivPi [16:111] due west to this ruin. 

[16:110] Nameless pueblo ruin. Doctor Hewett informs the writer 
that a small pueblo ruin exists about where located on the map. 
St far as can be learned, this ruin has not been mentioned in any 
publication. 

[16: 111] San Ildefonso Ss^hewi/cwaje, Ssphewikwag.e 'height or mesa of 
the gap of the sharp round cactus', referring to [16:112] {SxhewPi, 
see [16:112]; kwaje, Iwage 'height' 'mesa'). =Eng. (2). 

(2) Eng. "Tsankawi mesa ".3 (<Tewa). f=Tewa(l). For the 
spelling of the name see [16:114]. (Pis. 9, 10.) 

[16:112] San Ildefonso Sn^keivn 'gap of the sharp round cactus' {ise 
applied to several varieties of jointed round cactus, among others 
to Opuntia comanchica and Opuntia polyacantha; ke 'sharpness' 
'sharp', probably referring to the sharpness of the thorns; ivPi 
'gap'). This gap has given the names to [16:111], [16:11.3], 
[16:114], and [17:13]. 



' .\ntiquitie. j '8,1906. 'Ibid., p. 21. ^Ibid., p. 20. 

87584°— 29 eth -IG 18 



274 ETUNOGEOGEAPIFY OF THE TEWA INDIANS linn. ann. 29 

This gap or narrow iind low place is west, of the pueblo ruin 
[16:114]. Whi^ther round cactus now grows at tiie pass has not 
been ascertaineil. For (pioted forms of the name, see under 
[16:114]. 
[16:113] San Ildefonso Sseh_nvinug.eoyiri/ieJi ' puelilo ruin below the 
gap of the sharp round cactus ', referring to [16:112] {SxlceivPi 
see [16:112]; nug.e 'down below' <nu'u 'below', gc 'down at' 
'over at'; ^oijwU'cJ/' 'pueblo ruin' <'oijv:i 'pueblo', A'eji 'old' 
postpound). Cf. [16:114]. 
Hewett' says of this ruin: 

This is a small pueblo ruin of the older type, situated on a lower bench just 
north of the Tsankawi mesa [16:111], about half a mile south of the Alamo 
• [16:100]. The walls are entirely reduced. The site belongs to the same class 
and epoch as nos. 9 and 11. 

See under [16:105] and [16:109]. It has not been possible to 
obtain any tradition about this ruin. 
[16:114] SanIldefon.so S^heioP oyiriJcej i ,Scelcevnlc\L'aje qijtnJcej i 'pueblo 
ruin of the gap of the sharp round cactus ' ' pueblo ruin above the 
gap of the sharp round cactus', referring to [16:112] {Sc^.lcewi'i, 
see [16:112]; Iwaje 'height' as in [16:111]; ^otjwikej/' 'pueblo 
ruin' <''oijwi 'pueblo', keji 'old' postpound). Cf. [16:113]. 
" Sa-ke-yu".- For Bandelier's spelling of wPi as " ye'' or "yu" 
see [16:105] and [22:42]. "Tsankawi".^ "T,sankawi" (Tewa, 
' place of the round cactus')."* 

SxkewPi ruin is merely mentioned by Bandelier; ^ it is f ull}^ de- 
scribed by Hewett." Of the location of the ruin Hewett says: 
" It is a veritable ' sky city \ . . . The site was chosen entirely 
for its defensive character and is an exceptionally strong one ". 
It is a tradition generally known at San Ildefonso that a consider- 
able number of the ancestors of the San Ildefonso people used to 
live long agoatPotmwi:i [16:105] and SsekewPi [16:114]. The 
writer has obtained a myth the scene of which is laid at iS^^fcewPi. 
The San Ildefonso Indians usually mention the names PotsvwPi 
and SfekewPi together and insist that these two places were 
inhabited by their ancestors and not by those of the other Tewa 
villagers. 
[16:115] San Ildefonso Tsede-HsPi ' canyon of the erect standing spruce 
trees ' {tse ' Douglas spruce ' ' Pseudotsuga mucronata ', called by the 
Mexicans pino real ' real pine '; ^e'^ as in deg.i ' erectness' ' erect'; 

I Antiquities, p. 22, 1906. 
^BandelicT, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 7.S, 1892. 

' Hewett: General View, p. 698, 190.5; Antiquitie>=. p. 20, 1906; Commimauti's, pp. 4.i, 85, 86, and table 
des matieres, 1908. 

< Hewett, Antiquities, p. 20, 1906. 
6 Bandelier, (ip. cit. 
^Hewett, op. cit. 



HARRINdTON] PLACE-NAMES 275 

/siV ' canyon '). Whether spruce trees now gi'ow in the canyon 
is not known to the writer. This name is applied to the arroyo 
or canyon only below the vicinity of PofsinvPi ruin [16:105]. 
8ee [16:102]. 

It is believed that the canyon is correctly located on the sheet. 

[16:116] San Ildet'onso Tseewi'i '<>-ap of the eao-le(s)' (foe ' eagle'; 'e 
diminutive; w/'/'gap'). Cf. [16:117]. 

[16:117] San Ildefonso Tseewikwaje ' height by the gap of the 
eagle(s)' {Tse'eivPl., see [16:110]; hwaje 'height'). 

[16:118] S'xn WAeiontio ^ Agnp' itege of obscure et\'inology ('aga unex- 
plained but occurring also in a few other Tewa place-names, for 
instance ''Ag.atfanu [22:51]; p^l said to sound exactly like ji i 'a 
sore'; te 'to lift up' ' to pick up'; ge 'down at' 'over at'). This 
name applies to the western part of the low mesa shown on the 
sheet. 

[16:119] San Ildefonso ''OheJ-waje ' height there by the little bend', re- 
ferring to [16:121]; ('O&e, see [16:121]; l-waje 'height') Cf. 
[16:122]. 

[16:120] San Ildefonso Ptenfu£ a'keq.e ' hill where the snake(s) live(s)' 
{pBen/K 'snake'; t'a 'to live' 'to dwell'; ^t'gf ' hill ' 'knob' <Tce 
indicating height, ge ' down at' ' over at"). 

The author was shown the holes in this hill in which many snakes 
of various kinds are said to live. 

[16:121] San Ildefonso VJbtbii'u 'corner there by the little bend' (V> 
'there'; be 'little bend'; biiic 'large low roundish place'). The 
canyon at this place is very deep and has precipitous walls, 
especially on the southeastern side. It forms a sharp little bend; 
hence the name. Cf. [16:119], [16:122]. 

[16:122] San Ildefonso 'Obebutoba, -cliffs there by the little bend', re- 
ferring to [16:121] {"Obebiiii, see [16:121]; ioia 'cliff'). 

As noted under [16:121], there are high cliffs at this place on the 
southeastern side of the canyon. These cliffs are of blackish 
basalt. 

[16:123] (1) San Ildefonso EJwxwUi 'oak-tree point' (kwse. 'oak'; 
v)Ui 'horizontally projecting corner or point'). Cf. Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Creston 'ridge' 'hog-back'. Cf. Tewa (1). 
These names are applied to a projecting ridge situated on the 
south side of Guaje Arroyo. There is a spring of good water at 
the locality. 

[16:124-] San Ildefonso ' Omapxijcje ' beyond [16:12]' (' Oma, see [16:42]; 
pxijge 'be3'ond'). This name is, of course, applied vaguely to the 
region beyond the hill [16:42]; especially to the lucalit}' indicated 
on the map. See [16:42]. 



276 ETIINOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

[16:12;")] San l\defon>io Kuny^tewaki 'turquoise dw(>llin<,''-i)liicc slope' 
{hunfie 'turquoi.so" <1cu 'stone', nfse. unexplained hut postlixcd 
to some other nouns, as ''an/se, 'salt'; te 'dwelling-place'; voaki 
'slope"). The informants were amused at this name. There is, 
thej' said, neither turquoise at this locality nor is it a dwelling-place 
for anything or anybody. The name applies somewhat vaguely to 
the slope on the southern side of Guaje Arroyo a short distance 
east of [16:123]. 

[16:126] San Ildefonso 'OmaUCu 'arroyo by [16:42]' ('(9wu/, see 
[16:42]; hii^u 'large groove' 'arroj'o'). The lower course of 
Guaje Arroyo, from the confluence of Alamo Canyon [16:100] to 
the mouth [16:127], is called thus very regularly by the San Ilde- 
fonso Indians. They think of the conspicuous hill or mountain 
[16:42] and of this wide arroyo together and call them both by 
the name 'Oma-. See [16:42], [16:53], [16:127]. 

[16:127] San Ildefonso ' Omahuqwog.e 'delta of [16:126]' {'Omahu'u, 
see [16:126]; qw(/g.e 'delta' 'down where it cuts through' <gwo 
'to cut through', g.e 'down at' 'over at'). 

The mouth of the great (xuaje is a wide dry gulch just west of 
the railroad bridge. See [16:126]. 

[16:128] San Ildefonso Totxi/hcaje 'quail height' (iotseii 'quaiF; 
kwaje 'height'). 

This is a large mesa-like height southwest of [16:42] and on the 
south of Guaje Arroyo. The Santa Clara Indians call (|uail fofse 
instead of totxbi. 

[16:129] San WA&ionao Beta'' iwe ' place that fruit is dried' {he 'roundish 
fruit', as apples, peaches, pears, etc.; ta 'to drj-' 'dryness' 'drj-'; 
^iwe locative). 

This nearly level place on the. western bank of the river was 
formerly used by Indians for drying fruit, so it is said. The 
name is probably of recent origin. 

[16:130] Buckman Mesa, see [20:5] 

[16:131] (1) San lldeionao Fcqwawipimps^yge 'beyond the reservoir 
gap mountains', referring to [16:132] (Poi^waWe, see [16:132]; 
Vivf 'mountain'; pcfy^e 'beyond'). Also called merely Pim- 
fs^yge 'beyond the mountains'. Cf. [16:44] and [16:45]. 

(2) Grande Valley, Valle Grande. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Valle Grande 'large valley'. =Eng. (2). 

This is the largest of the high grass-grown meadow- valleys 
west of the Jemez Kange. Cf. [16:44] and [16:45]. 
[16:132] San Ildefonso Poijwawi'i ' water reservoir gap' {poi/ica ' water 
reservoir' 'water tank' <2>o 'water', <^ttv/ indicating state of being 
a receptacle; ■ire"/ 'gap'). 



HAUui.NGTO.N] PLACE-NAMES 277 

The name is said to refer to a gap or pass in tiie range itself. 
Wh}' tlie name was given is not known; tlie informants say that 
there may be an old water reservoir there or that the pass may 
resemble a reservoir in some way. The canyon [16:lo3] begins at 
this pass, from whieh it takes its name. Cf. also [16:131]. 

[16:133] San lldefonso PotjwawltsPi ' water reservoir gap canyon ', 
referring to [16:132] {PoqwawPl, see [16:132]; fsri 'canj^on'). 

[16:134] San lldefonso K'y,johukwaje 'wolf corner height', referring 
to [16:135] {K'vjobwu, see [16:135]; hvaje 'height'). 

[16:135] San lldefonso K'ujohii'u 'wolf corner' {I'u'/o 'wolf; hicu 
'large low roundish place'). 
This name refers to a very large and well known low place. 

[16:136] San lldefonso Tsi.ieg.eHnfsPi', see [17:30]. 

[16:137] San lldefonso Xy/«^(?mw 'round-cactus point hill' (*'^ 'round- 
cactus' of various species, among others Opuntia comanchica and 
Opuntia polyacantha; /»'« 'horizontally projecting point or cor- 
ner'; K'Mv'hiir 'knob'). Three informants gave this form of 
the name independently; one gave the tirst syllable as fee 
' grouse '. 

This is a small roundish topped hill south of [16:135] and on the 
southern side also of [16:136]. 

[16:138] San lldefonso T' qnf akivajeijjj'/ni'' u , see [17:10]. 

[16:130] San lldeionso Posy,(/eiyj'ku\i, me [17:17]. 

[16;l-±0] San lldefonso Kedawihu^u, see [17:19]. 

[16:141] San lldefonso IjwqwihuSi, see [17:25]. 

[16:142] San lldefonso \ltebehu\i, see [17:29]. 

[16:143] San lldefonso Besuwyhu'n, see [17:37]. 

[16:144] San lldefonso nUekit'u, see [17:34]. 

[16:145] San lldefonso Tsilnvaje, see [20:45]. 

[16:146] San lldefonso Kaiaju'e^irjfhuhi, see [17:42]. 

[16:147] San lldefonso roJcpopq'^FsPi, see [17:58]. 

[16:148] Frijoles Canyon, see [28 :('.]. 

Unlocated 

San lldefonso K'ajepiijf 'fetish mountain' {I/cJe 'fetish' 'shrine'; 
piyj' 'niountain'). 

This mountain is said to be somewhere west of Guaje Creek 
[16:53]. 
San lldefonso P'aAeWi'i ' fire gulch gap ' {p'a 'tire'; Ac? 'small groove' 
'arroyito' 'gulch'; wPi 'gap'). 

This gap is said to be in the vicinity of the upper P' aheiD i h u' u 
[16:25] and gives the name to the latter. 



278 ETHNOGEOr.RAPfrY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ann. 29 

Span. Riiicon del Piu-hlo ' pueblo corner'. 

Half a niilo to the south [of [16:105]] the huge mesa which is terminated by Rincon 
del Tueblo bounds the valley with a high unbroken line.' 

Of two San lldet'on.so Indians one had heard this name, the 
other had not. Neither knew where the place is. 
San Ildefonso Toia/jwak'seio'iw/' 'place where the clitf-dwclling is sunk 
underground (iobcKjwa 'cliti'-dwelling' < ioia 'cliti', )/wa indicat- 
ing state of being a receptacle; k'^to 'to sink under' 'to be im- 
mersed', said for instance of one sinking into quicksand < /,se 
unexplained, to 'to be in'; ^iwe locative). This name was ob- 
tained from a single San Ildefonso informant, who could locate 
the place no more definitel}^ than to say that it is somewhere in 
the I'ajarito Plateau west of San Ildefonso. He had never seen 
the place. 

[17] SAX ILDKFONSO SOUTHWEST SHEET 

This sheet (map 17) shows a large area in the Pajarito Plateau south- 
west of the San Ildefonso Puel:>lo. The country is of the same charac- 
ter as that shown on sheet [16]. This sheet [17] contains Tsirege Pueblo 
ruin [17:34], after which Doctor Hewett named the Pajarito Plateau; 
see [17:M], and the introduction to sheet [16]. The area represented 
on the sheet proper is claimed by the San Ildefonso Indians, and most 
of the names of places are known to them onlj\ The soutliern boun- 
dar}^ of the sheet proper is approximately the Ijoundar^' between the 
country claimed by the San Ildefonso people as the home of their 
ancestors and that claimed by the Cochiti as the home of their anc(>stors. 
The part of the area near the Rio Grande is often included under the 
name fuinapc^rjge 'beyond Buckman Mesa [20:5]'; see introduction 
to [20]. 

[17:1] San Ildefonso fsiso'o, see [16:53]. 

[17:2] San Ildefonso Teha'u, see [16:100]. 

[17:3] San Ildefonso ' OtnahiC u, see [16:126]. 

[17:4] San Ildefonso Ss-lcewiliixiji', see [16:111]. 

[17:5] San Ildefonso Sy,ndtiup(miig.e, see [16:107]. 

[17:6] San Ildefonso Sy.ndaupokwaJe, see [16:108]. 

[17:7] San Ildefonso fot!«ilI.waje, see [16:128]. 

[17:8] San Ildefonso Bda'twe, see [16:129]. 

[17:9] San Ildefonso T'qnfakwaje 'sun dwelling-place height' {t'qyj' 

'sun'; t\i 'to live' 'to dwell'; Iwaje height). The name refers 

to a mesa. Cf. [17:10]. 
[17:10] San Ildefonso. Tqnfakwaje'iyj'hii'ti 'sun dwelling-place 

height arroyo', referring to [17:9] {T qnf ahraje^ see [17:9]; 't'» 

locative and adjective-forming postfix; hu\i 'large groove' 

'arroyo'). 

■Uewett, Antiquities, p. 18, 1906. 



MAP 17 
SAN ILDEFONSO SOUTHWEST REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPe.T MAP 17 




SAN iLDEFONSO Southwest region 



MAP 17 
SAN ILDEFONSO SOUTHWEST REGION 



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PLACE-NAMES 279 



[17:11] San Ildefonso Keidbmjwahoaje 'bear cliff-dwelling height,' re- 
ferring to [17:12] (7u?o6r/gHV, see [17:12]; fe(/;"f 'height'). The 
name refers to a roundish mesa, it is said. 

[17:12] San Ildefonso Kdotaqwa, Ketdbaqwa^ iwe 'bear cliff-dwelling' 
'bear cliff-dwelling place' {Jce 'bear' of any species; tdbtvpna 
'cliff-dwelling' <^>5(Z 'cliff',' yW'f indicating state of being a re- 
ceptacle; 'iwe locative). The name evidently refers to a cliff- 
dwelling which was occupied by a bear. 

The cave-dwelling is said to be near the top of the mesa [17:11] 
to which it gives the name. 

[17:13] San Ildefonso Spchnnl/iu'ii 'arroyo of the sharp round-cactus 
gap', referring to [16:li'2] {SxhivP/, see [16:112]; huu 'large 
groove' 'arroj'o'). 

This arroyo starts at [16:112] and flows into [17:U]. 

[17:14r] (1) San Ildefonso 5g/K/ /(i««6«/('/'M 'watermelon field arroyo' 
{sandia <Span. sandia ' watermelon ' ; nata 'field'; /*«'« 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (.3). This Tewa name is 
applied only to the upper part of the arroyo, the part below the 
gap [17:15] being called Posy.^eHyyhu'u; see [17:17]. The Eng. 
and Span, names, however, refer to the whole arroyo. 

(2) Eng. "Sandia Canyon."'. (<Span.) =Span. ('S). Cf. 
Tewa (1). 

(3) Span. Canada de las Sandias 'narrow mountain-valley of 
the watermelons.' =Eng. (2). Cf. Tewa (1). 

Possibly the name Posiifje [17:17], now applied only to the lower 
course of the arroyo, was originally applied to the whole arroyo, 
and the names given above owe their origin to watermelon fields 
in its upper course. There are many cliff'-dwellings in this arroyo. 
See [17:17]. 
[17:15] San Ildefonso NaiawiH 'pitfall gap' {nalia 'pitfall'; wii 
'gap'). There is another na'bnwi'i on the Pajarito Plateau; see 
[16:74]. For quoted forms of the name see [17:16], a pueblo 
ruin which is called after this ganiepit gap. The pitfall is shown 
in plate 11. Hewett describes [17:15] as follows: 

On the narrow neck of mesa about 300 yards west of the pneblo [17:16], at 
the convergence of four trails, is a game-trap (nava) from which the village 
[17:16] talies its name. This is one of a number of pitfalls which have Ijeen 
discovered at points in tliia region where game trails converged. One of tlie 
best of these is that at \avawi. It was so placed that game driven down the 
mesa from toward the mountains or up the trail from either of two side canyons 
could hardly fail to be entrapped. The trap is an excavation in the rock which 
could have been made only with great difficulty, aa tlie cap of tufa is here 
quite hard. The pit is bottle-sliaped, except that the mouth is oblung. It is 

'Hewett, General View, p. 598, 1905. 



280 ETHNOGEOOKAPirY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. anij. 29 

15 feet deep and alioiit 8 ftet in diiinieter at the bottom. The mouth of the jiit 
is about six feet in lenf;th by four in breadth. The trap has been used in 
modem times by the 8au Ildefonso Indians.' 

[17: If!] San Ildefoitso X(ii<iwPqi]%ril;ji ' pitfall gap pueblo ruin', rofor- 
riiig to the gap [17:iriJ, which is just east of the ruin {Kuhairt 1^ 
see [17:15]; ^qyunl-eji 'pueblo ruin' <^qywi 'pueblo,' ]ie/i 'ruin'). 
'Navakwi'.^ "Navawi ('i)hu'e of the hunting trap')"'\- "Ka- 
vawi."'' 

The ruin is not mentioned by Bandelier. It is fully described 
t)_y Hewett.^ 

[17:17] San Ildefonso Posy-f/ehu'v 'arroyo of the place where the 
water slides down' {Posy,^e, see under [17:unlocated]; /lu'u 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). The lower course of the arroyo [17:14], lielow 
the gap [17:15], is called by this name, although in Eug. and Span, 
the entire arroyo is called by a single name. For SqiidHina'bahuhi, 
the name of the upper course of the arroyo, see [17:14]; for Posy.<fe, 
see under [17:unlocated], page 289. 

[17:18] San Ildefonso ^Awap'aT' 'cattail place' {^awap'a a kind of 
broad-leaf cattail <\nva 'cattail', p'a 'large and flat', referring 
to the leaves). 

Some cattails grow at this place. It is said to bo the point of 
beginning of the KedawiJiit'u. There is a Mexican house at the 
place, but no Mexican name for it is known. See [17:19]. 

[17:10] San Ildefonso Kedawihv^u 'arroyo of the gap where the bear 
is or was desired', referring to ludaivPi [17:unlocated]; /ni\i 
' large groove ' 'arroyo"). Cf. [17:20]. 

[17:20] San Ildeionso Jixdawihu'irjkwaQe, 'mesa of the arroyo of the 
gap where the bear is or was desired' {KedaiL^ihuu, see [17:l!i]; 
'^"' locative and adjective-forming postfix; kicage 'mesa'). 

It appears that this name is given especially to the mesa north 
of the upper Kedawihuu; see [17:11*]. 

[17:21] San Ildefonso l^qntuheg.eiijkwaje 'height of the arrovitos of 
the earth ^Qsh^ (J^qntuheg<\ see [17:22]; T* locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; kwdje 'height'). 

[17:22] San Ildeionso ]y(hituheg.e''i)jfhu'u 'arroyo of the arroyitos of 
the earth flesh ', referring, it is said, to a kind of clay mixed with 
earth {niyf 'earth'; tu 'flesh'; he^e 'small groove' 'arroyito'; g.e 
'down at' 'over at'; '*"' locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
hu\i. ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

It is said that some brownish or reddish clay is mixed with the 
earth at this place. Cf. [17:21]. 

1 Hewett, Antiquities, pp. 22-23, 1906. < Hevvett, Communiiiites, p. 98, 190S. 

SHewett, General View. p. 598, 1905. ' Antiquities, No. 14, 1906. 

• Hewett, Antiquities, p. 22, 1906. 



HAKRIXGTOS] PLACE-NAMES 281 

[17:l'3] San Ildefonso iyuviwi'i 'wind gap' (^wa 'wind'; \vPi 'gap'). 
Tliis wide and windy gap is believed to be correctly placed on 
the sheet. The names [17:i:!4] and [17:25] are derived from it. 

[17:2i] San Ildefonso I^wilwikwaje, ijwqwilce-ii 'wind gap height', re- 
ferring to [17:23]; kwaje 'height'; 'ke.d 'height'). Especially 
the mesa between ^/wqwPl [17:23] and the Rio Grande is called 
by this name. 

[17:26] San Ildefonso I^wqwihiiu 'wind gap arroyo', referring to 
[17:23] (ywqwri, see [17:23]; hiPu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
The Ju'dinci/iu')/ [17:19] is the largest tributary of this arroj^o. 

[17:26] Buckman wagon bridge, sec [20:20]. 

[17:27] Buckman settlement, see [20:19]. 

[17:28] San Ildefonso A"oir(/j9"cf"/'' 'place of the twisted corn-husks' 
{k'owa 'skin' ' tegument ', here referring to 'corn-husks'; />'a:; 
'to twist' 'to braid' 'to interlace'; T' locative and adjective- 
forming postfix). 

Corn-husks were and are sometimes twisted and knotted into 
strange forms and thus prepared have some ceremonial use. At 
the ruins on the Pajarito Plateau a number of twisted corn-husks 
have been found. 

The locality is described as a nearly level dell at the head of the 
'Airhehuu [17:29]. 

[17:29] (1) San Ildefonso 'Aitbehiiit, 'Alebetsii 'arroyo of the little 
corner of the chokecherry ' ' canyon of the little corner of the 
chokecherry' {■Atebe^e, see under [17: unlocated], page 288; hun 
' large groove ' ' arroyo '; tsPi ' canj'oii '). 

(2) Buey Canyon, Ox Canyon. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Canon del Buey 'ox canyon'. =Eng. (2). 

[17:30] (1) San Ildefonso Tfiideg.etsPi, Tsueg.ehuu ' bird place can von' 
'bird place arroyo', referring to [17:34] {TsUege, see [17:34]; 
tsVi 'canyon'; huhi 'large groove' 'arroj'o'). The name 
Tm.icg.etsPi is applied especially to the upper, Tsueg.i'huu to the 
lower, course of the waterwaj'. Cf. Cochiti (2), Eng. (3), 
Span. (4). 

(2) Cochiti 'Wiiftetlanfo 'bird canyon', probably translating 
the Span, name {wdftet 'bird'; Mmj'o 'canyon' <Span. caiion). 
Cf. Tewa (1), Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. "Pajarito Canj^on".' (<Span.). =Span. (4). Cf. 
Tewa (1), Cochiti (2). 

(4) Span. Canon del Pajarito ' canyon of the little bird ', refer- 
ring to Pueblo del Pajarito [17:34]. =Eng. (3). Cf. Tewa(l), 
Cochiti (2). 

The arroyo begins at K'y.joiu'u [16:135]. At places in its 
upper course it is a deep and narrow canyon. The lower course 
seldom carries surface water. "A limited supply of water can 

' Hewett, Qeneral View, p. 59S, 1905. 



282 ETHNOGEOGRAPIIV OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. an.v. i;9 

^itill l)<> ()])tuin(>d lit iilmost any season at the spi'inir in the arroj^o 
a quui'ter of a mile away [from [17:34J J, and during wet seasons 
the Pajarito carries a little water past this point ".^ 

[17:31] (1) Siinlklchufio'' A/iOijf/ie'hjhvag^e ' long plain mesa' ('«/'07;,/ 
'plain'; ke 'length' 'long'; T' locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; kwag.)', 'mesa'). Cf. Span. (3). 

{•2) Eng. Phillips Mesa, so called because a ISIr. Phillips does 
dr3'-farming on this mesa, raising large crops of corn. 
(3) Span. Llano Largo ' long plain '. Cf. Tewa (1). 
This mesa is several miles in length. The ruins [17:3^] and 
[17:5()] are found here. 

[17:32] Nameless pueblo ruin. Doctor Hewett informs the writer 
that a large pueblo ruin lies on the mesa ajjproximately where 
indicated. See [17:31]. 

[17:33] San Udeionso JlakhiaT' 'sawmill place' (w^^^vVia 'machine' 
'sawmill' <Span. maquina 'machine'; T* locative and adjective- 
forming posttix). 

This is one of the sites on which sawmills have been built. 

[17:34] (1) San Ild(>fonso TnUt'g.e'oijwUejl 'pueblo ruin down at the 
bird' 'pueblo ruin of the bird place' (fsUe 'bird'; (le 'down at' 
'over at'; '' qr)wikej i 'pueblo ruin' <^oytvi 'pueblo', ktji 'old' 
postpound). Several other Tewa place-names are compounded 
of a word denoting a species of animal, plus the locative g^e; thus 
PToge 'woodpecker place' [9:43], J Wage 'place of a species of 
kangaroo rats' [16:30], etc. Some other place-names are animal 
names with 'live posttixed; thus Delwe 'coyote place' [1:30]. 
Why such animal names are given to places it has not been pos- 
sible to learn; it is believed that clan names have nothing to do 
with them. Bandelier ' says of Tsinge: " It is also called ' Pajaro 
Pinto," from a large stone, a natural concretion, found there, 
slightly resembling the shape of a bird."' A large number of San 
Udefonso Indians have been cjuestioned about this bird- shaped 
rock, but none has been found who knows of the existence of 
such. Several Indians ventured to doubt this explanation of the 
name, and said that it is the Tewa custom to name places after 
animals and that that is all they know about it. "Tzirege."^ 
"Tzi-re-ge."* "(Tewa; Tchire, bird; ge, house =house of tiie 
bird people: Spanish Pajarito, a little bird.) Tchirege.''^ "Tshi- 
rege (Tewa, 'a bird;' Spanish pajarito, 'small bird')."' "Tchi- 
rege.'" Cf. Cochiti (2), Span. (3). 

' Hewett, Antiquities, p. 25, 1906. 

!i Final Report, pt. ii, p. 79, note, 1892. 

3 Bandelier, Delight Makers, p. 3,si, 1890. 

< Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, pp. lU, "S, 79, 1892. 

s Hewett, General Vieiv, p. 598, 190.3. 

6He\vctt, Antiquities, p. 2.'!. 1906. 

' Hewett, Commuuautes, pp. 45. 85, 86, and table des matieres, 1908. 



HARRI.N-CTON] PLACE-NAMES 283 

(2) Cochiti Myiffethtiaftct/tfouKt 'old village of the liird' 
(wdftd 'bird'; hd'aj'teta 'village' 'pueblo'; foina 'old'). Cf. 
Tewa (1) ,Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Pueblo del Pajaro, Pueblo del Pajarito 'bird pueblo' 
'little bird pueblo.' Cf. Tewa (1), Cochiti (2). "Pueblo of the 
Bird''^ (evidently translating- the Span. name). "Pajarito."^ 
Bandelier gives "Pajaro Pinto" ['piebald bird'J^ as the name of 
the pueblo, but none of the Tewa informants are familiar with 
the name with "pinto" added. Mr. J. S. Candelario of Santa Fe 
informs the writer tliat he has heard the name Pajarito Pinto 
applied by ilexicans to a ruin somewhere near Saudia Pueblo 
[29:100]. 

Tahiegfi was first described l\y Bandelier.'' It is fully described 
by Hewett, who sa^ys in part: 

Tshirege was the largest pueljlo in the Pajarito district, and with the exten- 
sive cliff-village clustered abuut it, the largest aboriginal settlement, ancient or 
modern, in the Pueblo region of which the writer has j)ersonal knowledge, 
with the exception of Zuiii . . . Tshirege is said to have been the last of all 
the villages of Pajarito Park to be abandoned. A limited supply of water can 
still be obtained at almost any season at the spring in the arroyo a quarter of a 
mile away, and during wet seasons the Pajarito [17:30] carries a little water 
past this point.'' 

The San Ildefonso Indians state very definitely that their ances- 
tors and not the ancestors of the other Tewa villagers lived at 
TsUige. No detailed tradition, however, was obtained from 
them. One Cochiti informant stated that TsUeg.e was formerly 
inhabited by Tewa. The Pajarito Plateau (see introduction to 
[16], page 260) was named bj' Hewett after TxUegj'; so also Pajarito 
Park. Ti<Uege gave rise also to the names of [17:30], [17:35], 
[17:3«], and [17:39]. 

[17:85] San Ildefonso TsUeg.e'i'gqwahwag.e 'bird place house mesa', 
referring to [17:34] {TsUeg.e, see, [17:.34]; '/"' locative and adjec- 
tive-forming postfix; qwa indicating state of being a receptacle 
or. house-like shape; hvag.e 'mesa'). This name is applied, it is 
said, to a large mesa shaped like a tueblo house, situated just 
north of T^J./ege ruin [17:34]. Cf. [17:36]. 

[17:36] (1) Cochiti '"Tziro Ka-uasii".^ Bandelier says: "The Queres 
call it 'Tziro Ka-uash', of which the Spanish name is a literal 
translation". "Tziro Kauash"." Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Pajarito Mesa. (<Span.). = Span. (3). Cf. Cochiti (1). 

(3) Span. Mesa del Pajarito 'little bird mesa', doubtless refer- 
ring to [17:34]. =Eng. (2). Cf. Tewa (1). "Mesa del Paja- 

' Banaelier, Delight Makers, p. 378, 1892. . < Ibid., note. 

2 Hewett, General View, p. 698, 1905. s Hewett, Antiquities, pp. 23-25, ItiOC. 

'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii,p. 79, note, 1892. • Bandelier, op. eit., p. IGS. 



284 ETIINOOEOr.RAPIIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS Ietii. ann. 20 

rito".' So far as could be learned, the Tewa do not apply the 
term TnUege or Pajarito to any mesa other than [17:o5J. The 
Cochiti name quoted above is just as likely a translation from the 
Span, name as vice versa. Bandelier- says: "The Mesa del Paja- 
rito forms the northern rim of a deep gorge called Rito de los 
Frijoles [28:0]". Hewett^ writes: 

Beginning about a mile and a half south of Tsankawi [16:114], the aspect of 
the country changes. From the Pajarito Canyon [17: 30] to Rito de los Frijoles 
[28:6], a distance of perhaps 10 miles, the high abrupt narrow tongue-like 
mesas protruding toward the river with broad timbered valleys between are 
replaced by one great table-land, tbe Mesa del Pajarito, which at first sight 
appears to be one continuous expanse only partially covered with pinon, cedar, 
and juniper. It is, however, deeply cut at frequent intervals by narrow and 
absolutely impassable canj'ons. 

Cf. the names Pajarito Plateau and Pajarito Park; see intro- 
duction to [16], page 260. Perhaps [17:53] is the nearest Tewa 
equivalent to "Mesa del Pajarito" as the latter is applied by 
Bandelier. See also [17:65]. 

[17:37] San Ildefonso JBe.su iwe 'chimney place' {besu 'chimney' 
apparently <he ' smallness and roundness' 'small and round', sm 
'arrow' 'shaft'; '/«'« locative). 

It is said that some American soldiers once built houses at 
this place, of w"hich tlie chimne}'s are still standing. The arroyo 
[17:38] is named after this place. 

[17:38] San Ildefonso Besuiyfftii'u 'chimney place arroyo', referring 
to [16:37] [Besu'live, see [16:37]; '/'*' locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; Att'?/ ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

[17:39] San Ildefonso Txi.icge'al-qinpije'al-qyf 'plain south of the bird 
place', referring to [Vi :?A^{Ti<!deg.e, see [17:34]: ^ahqmpije 'south' 
<'akqrjf 'plain' 'down country', jo^/e 'toward'; \ikqr)f 'plain'). 
This name is applied to the large low region between Ts/'.teg.e and 
the Rio Grande. 

[17:40] Rio Grande, Box Canyon of the Rio Grande, see special treat- 
ment [Large Features], pages 100-102. 

[17:41] San Ildefonso Tnhwaje, see [20:45]. 

[17:42] (1) San Ildefonso Kdbaju'e''ijjfhu''u 'colt arroyo' {l-alaju 
'horse' <Span. caballo 'horse'; 'e diminutive; '/"'locative and 
adjective-forming posttix; //«'« 'lai-go groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. 
Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Colt Arroyo. (<Span.) = Span. (3). Cf. Tewa (1). 

(3) Span. Arroyo clel Potrillo ' colt arroyo'. =Eng. (2). Cf. 
Tewa (1). Whether the Tewa or the Span, name was first applied 
is hardly ascertainable, nor is it known why the name was applied. 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. II, pp. 79, 168, 1892. s Antiquities, p. 22, 1906. 

'Ibid., p. 79. 



HAEUINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 285 

The name 'horse or colt canyon or arroyo' is frequentl^y applied 
by Mexicans and Americans; cf. [28:52J. The name refers to a 
long arroyo which iiows into the river. 
[17:-17] is an important tributary. 

[17:i3] San lldefonso MahinuT' 'sawmill place' {?nakina 'machine' 
'sawmill' <Span. maquina 'machine'; T* locative). 

A sawmill is situated at this place at the present time (1912). 
Cf. [17:45]. 

ri7:-l:4:J Nameless pueblo ruin. The information is furnished by 
Doctor Hewett. 

[17:45] San lldefonso Kaiaju'chCijjliraJe, KatajiCehoaJe 'colt arroyo 
height' 'coltheight', referring evidently to[V1 •A2'\{Kcibafu'e}tu^u, 
luiiajue, see [17:42]; '-t'' locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
h^i'u ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). The name is applied, it is said, 
only to the mesa on the south side of part of [17:43] ; on the north 
side of [17:42] are [17:41] and [17:39]. 

[17:46] San lldefonso '4«y* «'*'«' 'smooth gap' {^qnyse. 'smoothness' 
'smooth'; w^i 'gap'). This gap is really smooth; hence probably 
the name. The gap connects [17:47] and [17:58]. Cf. [17:47]. 

[17:47] San lldefonso Anfiewiku^u 'smooth gap arroyo', referring to 
[17:46] (^Anfs^wPi, see [17:46]; huu "large groove' 'arroyo'). 
It is said that this arroyo flows into [17:42]. 'AnfsewiH [17:46], 
from which it takes its name, is situated near its head. 

[17:48] ^\inl\d.Qionso Besii'iweijjfhuu 'chimney place arroyo' (S^'sm 
'chimney,' apparently < 6e ' smallness and roundness ' 'small and 
round', sxi 'arrow shaft'; ''iwe locative' 'i'' locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; huH 'large groove' 'arroyo'). The name is the 
same as [17:38]. Either a mistake has been made or there are two 
arro3^os by this name. See [16:37], [16:38]. 

[17:49] San lldefonso Kwsehuhvaje 'height of the large roundish oak 
trees' (to^ 'oak'; iu 'largeness, and roundish form like a ball' 
"large and roundish like a ball'; Jtwaje 'height'). 

[17:50] Jemez Mountains, see special treatment, [Large Features:8], 
page 105. 

[17:51] San lldefonso Poqwawitsi'' !., see [16:133]. 

[17:52] San lldefonso Poqwawitstlwaje ' water reservoir arroyo 
height', referring to [17:51] {Poq'wawifsi''i, see [17:51]; i:waje 
'height'). 

[17:53] San lldefonso Kabajuk'a'P', luitajuk'a'iykwag.e ' horse fenced 
in place' 'horse fenced in mesa' {kaiaju 'horse' <Span. caballo 
'horse'; l-'a ' fence' 'corral'; '/'% 'iy./ locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfixes; hvag.e 'mesa'). This name is applied to a large and 
indefinite mesa area north of the upper course of the Rito de los 
Frijoles [28:6]. It is perhaps the nearest equivalent of " Mesa del 



286 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 2» 

Pajarito" as the latter i.s appliod by Bandelier. It is .said tliat 
horses are confined in tlic area and that this fact explains the 
name. Sec [17:30]. Cf.[17:.)7J. 

[17:54] San Ildefonso Qweempifii'ii 'red-tailed hawk point' {qWcemfi 

'an unidentified species of I'ed-tailed hawk' Kqwspjjf 'tail', pi 

'redness' "red'; fioa 'horizontally projecting point or corner'). 

The point gives the name to the canyon [17:55]. There is at 

San Ildofonso a Qws^mpi Clan. 

[17:55] San lld(>fonso Qwxnip!fi(g.e''%ntsi''i 'canyon down l)^' red- 
tailed hawk point', referring to [17:.54] {Qws^mpifuhi, see[17:54]; 
g.e 'down at' 'over at'; T' locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix; fsi'i 'canyon'). 

This is a deep canyon, on the northeast side of which [17:54] is 
situated. 

[17:5Gj Nameless pueblo ruin. 

This ruin has been approximately located through the kindness 
of Doctor Hewett. It is said to be at the upper end of the long 
mesa [17:31]. 

[17:57] San Ildefonso IuiiaJhl'a'i''po''iwe 'place of the water at the 
horse-fenced-in place', referring to [17:53] {K(tiajul'a'i'\ see 
[17:53]; j))? 'water'; '/«'e locative). The name refers to a spring 
at the very head of [17:58] proper. 

It is said that a sawmill was formerly situated about 100 yards 
north of this place. The locality is like a rolling valley, it is 
said. 

[17:58] (1) San Ildefonso Po-iepopcfi.sri^ literally 'fishweir water 
thread canyon', but the etymology is not clear {poJ-e 'fishweir"; 
po 'water'; j9o'- 'thread' 'cord' not used in modern Tewa with 
the meaning 'stream', but perhaps used so in ancient Tewa; fsi'i 
'canyon"). 

(2) Eng. Water Canyon. 'Water Canyon' is a common name 
in the Southwest. Cf. Huntington: "But there ain't no water in 
these mountains, except once in about 10 years in Water Can- 
yon ".' .The reference is not to this Water Canyon. 

(3) Span. Canon del Diezmo 'canyon of the tenth or the tithe'. 
Whj^ this Span, name is applied is not explained. 

The names apply to a very longf canyon, running from [17:57], 
it is said, to the Rio Grande. 
[17:59] San Ildefonso J/^/^/«^t"/"' 'sawmill place' {mal-ina 'machine' 
'sawmill' <Span. maquina 'machine'; T' locative and adjective- 
forming postfix). 

It is not ascertained on which side of the creek [17:58] the saw- 
mill formerly stood at this place. 

' Huntington in Harper's ilagazine, p. 294, Jan., 1912. 



HAi:RiX(iTox] PLACE-NAMES 287 

[17:60] San Ildefonso fiibateiehu^u 'oliff cottonwood little corner 
arroyo' {Tiibiifebi''e, see under [17:imlocated], Vjelow; Jut'u 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 

[17:()l] Nameless pueblo ruin. 

The ruin was located on the sheet by Doctor Hewett. 

[17:62] (1) San Ildefonso Titnahdhuht 'bean-field arroyo' {ta 'bean'; 
naia 'tield'; hnu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). It is said that for- 
merly there were bean-lields in this canyon; hence the name. 
This and not [38:(>j is the frijoi or bean canyon of the Tewa, but 
is never thus designated in Span.; cf. the Span, name of the 
neighboring Rito de los Frijoles [28:6]. 

(2) Eng. Ancho Canyon. (<Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Canada Ancha, Canon Ancho 'broad mountain-valley' 
'broad canyon'. It is so called because of its breadth and large 
size. =Eng. ('2). "Caiiada Ancha.'" " There are caves in the 
deep Canada Ancha. "^ 

[17:63] San Ildefonso Siywiijge'i'rjfhuhi 'arroyo down by the place 
where he or she stood and cried and wept' {Shjiriijge, see under 
[17:unlocatedJ, below; 'i'' locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
Jiuu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[17:64] Nameless pueblo ruin. 

This has been located on the sheet by Doctor Hewett. 

[17:65] San Ildefonso Toj/ojimvcT^ 'place of the pinon tree which 
has a hole through it', referring to a peculiar tree that stood and 
perhaps still stands in the locality (to 'pinon' 'Pinus edulis'; p'o 
'hole'; pawe 'pierced'; '/'' locative and adjective - forming 
postfix). This name is given to the mesa north of the Rito de los 
Frijoles, northwest of the pueblo ruin [28:12]. This is a part of 
the mesa region to which Bandelier applies the name ]\Iesa del 
Pajarito; see [17:36]. 

[17:66] (1) San Ildefonso ToliiCu 'arroyo of the chamiso hediondo' 
(/'/ 'an unidentified species of plant which the ^Mexicans call cham- 
iso hediondo; huu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. Eng. (3). 

(2) San Ildefonso Salcewe'iyfhv^u 'arroyo of a kind of thick 
cornmeal vm\&\i'' {salcewe 'a kind of cornmeal mush thicker than 
atole'; 'i'' locative and adjective-forming postfix; htPn 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 

(3) Eng. Bush Canyon. It is so called by Doctor Hewett and 
othei's, although this name appears never to have been pul)lished. 
Cf. Tewa (1). 

This is a short canyon between Ancho Canyon [17:62] and 
Frijoles Canyon [28:6]. See Rito del Bravo under [17:unlocated] 
below. 

■ Bandelier; Delight Makers, p. 381, 1890; Final Report, pt. n, p. 79, 1892. 
•Ibid. 



288 ETHNOGEOGRAPHV OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

[17:67] Frijolcs Canyon, Rito do lo.s Frijoles, .-see [28:0]. 
[17:68j Siiu Ildefonso ruqwig.ii'orjwikejh^ see [28:1:^]. 
[17:G'J] S:in Ildefonso Piiijwig.i'''infsl^epojemugt', see [28:14]. 
[17:70] Nameless canyon, see [28:17]. 
[17:71] Alamo Canyon, see [28:-2o]. 

[17:7:2] Capulin Canyon, Cuesta Colorada Canyon, see [28:30]. 
[17:73] Cochiti Canyon, see [28:52]. 
[17:7-1] Quemado Canyon, see [28:66]. 

UNLOf'ATED 

San Ildefonso ^Aiebe^e 'little corner of the chokecherry' (\ibe 'choke 
cherry' 'Prunus melanocarpa'; be'e 'small low roundish place'). 
This dell is said to be somewhere in the vicinity of the upper 
part of [17:29], to which it gives the name. 

Span. Rito del Bravo 'creek of the brave' 'creek of the non-Pueblo 
Indian'. 'Bravo' is often used by Span, speaking people of New 
Mexico to distinguish non-Pueblo from Pueblo Indians. But 
it is possible that the name is not Rito del Bravo, but Rito Bravo, 
'wild, turbulent river'; cf. Rio Bravo del Norte, an old Span, 
name of the Rio Grande. See non-Pueblo Indian, page 575, and 
Rio Grande [Large Features:3], pages 100-102. This name was 
not familiar to the Tewa informants. It is evidently the Span, 
name of some canyon not far north of Frijoles Canyon [28:6]. 

Hewett' mentions this stream at least three times in his Aritt'i- 
uities: " It [ruin No. 18] is not less than 800 feet above the waters 
of Rito del Bravo, which it overlooks". "No. 19 . . . A small 
pueblo ruin in the beautiful wooded park just south of the Rito 
del Bravo and a mile north of Rito de los Frijoles"." "This site 
[of ruin No. 20] overlooks the deep gorge of the Bravo to the 
north, and south a few rods is another deep canyon". 

San Ildefonso Kedawii 'gap where the bear is or was desired' {he 
'bear' of any species; da^a 'to wish' 'to want' 'to desire'; xi^Pi 
'gap'). For the name cf. NamboPai|«6M'« [22:44]. The circum- 
.stances under which the name was originally given were not 
known to the informants. 

San Ildefonso 'Odo''ehi'u 'little crow corner" {'odo 'crow'; 'e diminu- 
tive; bii'u 'large low roundish place'). 

This corner is indefinitely located as somewhere not very far 
north of Frijoles Canyon [28:6]. 

Span. Mesa Prieta 'dark mesa'. Bandelier^ writes: 

The formation of black trap, lava, and basalt crosses to the west side of the 
Eio Grande a little below San Ildefonso, and extends from half a mile to a mile 
west. Hexagonal columns of basalt crop out near the Mesa Prieta. 

' Antiquities, p. 25. 1906. ' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 148, 1892. 

'Ibid.,p. 2G. 



MAP 18 
BLACK MESA REGION 



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MAP 18 
BLACK MESA REGION 



HARBINOTON] PLACE-NAMES 289 

This place is seemingly situated on either [16] or more probabl^y 
on [17]. See the unlooated pueblo ruins given below. Two or 
three San Ildefonso Indians have been questioned, but they know 
of no mesa by tliis name. 

San Ildefonso Fosiige 'where the water slides down' (fw 'water'; sy 
said to be the same as sy, in sy,nj"ij, 'to slide'; g./' 'down at' 
'over at'). This name is said to be applied to a place in or near 
the lower course of Posy,[/citj,fhii!i [17:17], from which the latter 
takes its name. See [17:17]. 

San Ildefonso Siywijj<!e 'down where he or she stood and cried and 
wept' {siywiijf 'to stand and cry and weep' <si for sijPi 'to cry 
and weep', rjwvijf 'to stand'; ge 'down at' 'over at'). The rea- 
son why this name is applied is not known, nor can the place be 
delinitely located. See Slijwiijfjeijj flai'u [17:63], which takes its 
name from Shjwiijge. 

San Ildefonso Sy,tsi-id!we ' place of the weed sjiecies ' known as 
syisiiyf 'an unidentified species of weed which grows in 
marshy ground and is ground up and rubbed all over a person 
as a cure for fever' {Ksy^ 'to smell' intransitive, isiiyf unex- 
plained; ''iwe locative); said to be known in Span, as poleo. 

The name is applied to a locality on the west side of the Jemez 
Mountains opposite Kaiiijhl'' </ i'' [17:53]. 

San Ildefonso Tdbatebe'e 'little corner of the cliffs and cottonwood 
trees' (tdba 'cliff'; te 'cottonwood' 'Populus wislizeni'; ie'e 
'small low roundish place'). 

The informant savs that there are cliffs at this place in one 
of which is a large cave, but he does not remember any cottonwood 
trees. The place can not be definitely located. See Toiatebe- 
hiCu [17:60], which takes its name from Toiatebe'e. 

Pueblo ruins Nos. 17, 18, 19, and 20 of lilevieifs Antiquities {\9Q&) lie 
in the area, but it has not been possible to locate them definitel}'. 

[18] BLACK MESA SHEET 

This sheet (map IS) shows the Black Mesa north of San Ildefonso 
Pueblo and some of the hill country about the Black Mesa. Besides 
the ruins of temporary structures on the mesa, only one pueblo ruin 
is represented on the sheet proper; this is [18:9], which is perhaps in- 
correctly placed. The entire region shown cast of the Rio Grande is 
claimed by the San Ildefonso Indians and most of the place-names are 
known onh' to them. 

[18:1] San Ildefonso T' iin yjopxrigedipopi' iwe 'where they go through 
the river beyond [18:19]' {T'y,7iyjops^'yge, see [18:10]; 4' tliej' 3 +; 

87584°— 29 eth— 16 19 



290 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

po 'water' 'river'; j>/ 'to issue" 'to pass'; Hwe locative). This 
name is applied to the little-used wagon ford of the Kio Grande 
slightly north of Hobart's ranch [18:11]. 

[18:2] Santa Clara KiCwfhu'u, see [14:79]. 

[18:3] San Ildefonso N<lmpiheg,i 'red earth with the many little 
gulches' {nirjf 'earth'; pi 'redness' 'red'; heg.! 'gulched' 
<hee 'little groove' 'gulch' 'arroyito', g/ as in many adjectives 
which denote shape). Cf . [23 :50]. The name is applied to the 
first range of low reddish hills east of Black ^lesa [18:19]. 

The range is more than a mile long. It is much eroded and 
cut by small gulches. On its highest point is the ancient altar or 
shrine [18 :-i]. A higher range of hills, east of Nq mpihegl and run- 
ning parallel with it is Pijoge [21 :2]. 

[18:4] San Ildefonso JVcjinpi heg.ikubiu i 'stone pile of the place of the 
red earth with the many little gulches', referring to [18:3] 
{N<impihegi, see [18:3]; Icubodi 'pile of stones' 'altar or shrine 
consisting of a pile of stones' <liu 'stone', hodl 'large roundish 
object or pile'). 

This shrine is situated on the highest point of the whole 
JV<i/rrpt7ieg.i Range. 

[18:,j] San lldeionso j'unyiek'Qijwri 'gap where the mineral called 
funfse, is dug' {funfi^lcqyf-, see [18:6]; w^"^" 'gap'). This name 
refers especially to the vicinity of the pit [18:6] but more loosely 
to the whole gap between JWl/itpiheg.i [18:3] and P/y'^gt' [21:2]. 
See [18:6]. 

[18:6] San Ildefonso /'(my^^'gH^/!r<? 'place where the mineral called 
fun fee is dug' {funfce a whitish mineral used in pottery making 
(see Minerals); Fqrjf 'to dig'; Hwe locative). 

The pit follows the outcropping of the vein of the mineral. It 
extends 60 feet or more in length in an easterl}' and westerly 
direction. It is nowhere more than a few feet deep and a few 
feet broad. This is the place where San Ildefonso potterv-makers 
usually obtain funfse. A well-worn ancient trail leads to the 
place from San Ildefonso and a modern wagon road passes a short 
distance west of the pit. Cf. [18:.5]. 

[18:7] San Ildefonso Tsailjodehuicn 'stone on which the giant rubbed 
or scratched his penis' {tmiijo 'a kind of giant' <tsaii unex- 
plained, jf{? augmentative) ; de 'penis'; /nt^u 'to rub' 'to scratch'; 
Jcu 'stone'). 

This is a trough-shaped stone about 7 paces long and 2 or 3 
feet broad. The child-eating giant who lived within Black Mesa 
[18:19] used to visit this rock. In former times San Ildefonso 
Indians were accustomed to come to this stone to pray. The San 
Ildefonso informants say that the writer is the first non-Indian 



HARKlN'GTONl 



PLACE-NAMES 291 



to •whonathis stone was shown and explained. All knowledge of 
it is kept from outsiders with scrupulous care. Cf. [18 :S], to 
which this stone gives the name. 

[18:8] Sanlldefonso Tsaht.jod,ehH]cii'ir)fhu''u, Tsaiijodehii'u 'slvtojo oi 
the stone on which the giant ruhlied his penis' 'arroyo of the 
giant's \jems' {T><at/jode/iuku, 'Jhii/'Jodi', see [18:7]; 'i'' locative 
and adjective-forming postfix; hv^u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

The arroyo begins near [18:7] and takes its name from the 
latter. The ^Mexicans are said to refer to it as A.rro3'0 Seco 'dry 
arroyo' if thej^ give it a name. The arroyo enters the Rio 
Grande just north of Hobart's ranch [18:11]; it is perhaps some- 
times included under the name T' im fjopxr)gehu''u, see [18:lU]. 

[18:9] San Ildefonso and Santa Clara Qwapige' oywil-eji '' ^uehlo vuin 
of the red house-wall(s)' (rywv? 'house-wall'; pi 'redness' 'red'; 
g.e 'down at' 'over at'; -qywili'ej! 'pueblo ruin' <^oywi 'pueblo'; 
keji 'old' postpound). 

"VVhapige (maison du clan du faucon k la queue rouge), reconnu par les Po- 
whoges [San Ildefonso Indians] comme la maison d'undeleurs clans, ^I'^poque 
de Perage. Ce clan (Whapitowa) existe encore a San Ildefonso.' 

Hewett's informants confuse the first part of the name with 
qivs^mpi 'red-tailed hawk.' Early in November, 1911, Mr. J. A. 
Jean^on told the writer that Santa Clara Indians had informed 
him that the Tewa name of this pueblo ruin means "place of the 
lazy people." In a letter dated November 15. 1011, Mr. Jeanpon 
writes: 

I have had the Santa Clara people repeat the name a number of times and 
to my untrained ear I get ''Wahpie, which they say means the "Place of the 
Painted Walls." I misunderstood about the meaning "Lazy People." Itseems 
that the people of that place were very lazy, and that when people of other 
.places were lazy they were told to go to "^Wahpie. This does not refer to the 
name, however. This information was corroborated by Ancieto (?) Suaso, 
Nestor Naranjo, Victor Naranjo, Pueblo (?) Vaca, Pablo Silva, and (Teronimo 
Tafoya. All of these were questioned apart and without any intimation that 
any one else had been spoken to about the name. 

Doctor Hewett kindly located the ruin on the sheet, but it is 
doubtless placed too far south. Hewett describes its location 
very indefinitely: 

A quelques milles au nord de Tuyo [18:19], a la base de collines de sable, et 
vis-i-vis de Santa Clara [14:71], on voit I'emplacement de Whapige. ' 

Mr. J. M. Naranjo, an aged Santa Clara Indian, stated that there 
is a pueblo ruin at "La Mesilla [15:2s] — this was Qwapi and the 
people were T'anu." It was nut known to the writer's San Ildefonso 

'Hewett, Communautfa, p. 3:i, 1908. 



202 ETHNOGKOGHAPIIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS (eth. a.nn. 29 

iiiluriiiiints eitlior that the people of Qwapige were T'anu (Tsino) 
or thiit, as II('W(>tt says in tho quotation above,' they were the an- 
cestors of San Ildet'onso people. 

[18:10] Ban Ildefonso T'^nfjops^yge 'beyond [18:19]' ^T%.nfjo, see 
[18:r.>]; ^i^cTJ^^A' 'beyond"). This name refers especially to the 
locality just north of Black Mesa [18:19], and more vaguely to 
all the region north of Black Mesa. The name Hobart is some- 
times applied much as T\k7ifjops^ijge is applied, but Hobart 
refers properly to [18:11] only, cj. v. Cf. [18:14]. 

[18:11] Eng. Hobart's ranch, Hobart, so called because a Mr. E. F. 
Hol)art, now of Santa Fe. owned the ranch for many years. The 
ranch is now owned by Mr. H. J. Johnson. Sometimes the name 
Hobart is used to designate more or less vaguely all the region 
between Black Mesa [18:19] and Mesilla [15:28]" or to include 
Mesilla itself. 

[18:12] Rio Grande, see [Large Features :3], pages 100-102. 

[18:13] Santa Clara PPqnf^.hxt'u, see [14:Sl]. 

[18:14] San Ildefonso T' %.n fjopveycje \t) fluC u 'arroyo beyond [18:19]' 
'arroyo of the region [18:10]' (T'y,nfjo^ see [18:19]; pxycje 
'bej'ond'; 'i'' locative and adjective-forming postfix; A;/k 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 

This arroyo runs from T'y^tifjowi'i [18:21] to the Rio Grande. 
It passes south of Hobart's ranch [18:11], and is the first large 
arroyo north of Black Mesa [18:19]. To it is tributary the arroyo 
of the salt spring [18:1()]. 

[18:15] San Ildefonso ''Anfxpo, ^Anfxpd'iwe 'the salt water' 'at the 
salt water' ('a^ya? 'salt' <'<] alkali, nfie. unexplained, perhaps the 
same as in tcunfte 'turquoise', etc. ; po 'water'; ^iwe locative). 

The salt spring is about 100 yards above the confluence of the 
little stream which comes from the spring, with the main bed of 
[18:1(3]. The bed of the little arroyo in which the spring is situ- 
ated is whitish with saline substance for some distance about the 
spring. It is said that this spring never goes dry, but the little 
water it contains sinks into the sand at the s})ring or a few 
feet below according to season. It was at this place that the San 
Ildefonso Indians used to get salt many years ago, but now all 
the salt there has turned into pepjjery alkali ('ysa"), it is said. The 
arroyo [18:1<)] takes its name from this. See Salt, under JSliN- 
ERALs; also [29:110] Cf. [13:35]. 

[18:16] San Ildefonso ^Anf^pvij]fhuu 'arroyo of the saltwater' 
referring to [18:15] {^Anyiepo, see [18:15]; i'' locative and 
adjective-fprming postfix ; /lu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[18:17] Santa Clara T'qnfahuu, see [14:82]. 

' Communautt'S, p. 33, 1908. 



BURFAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 12 




A. BLACK MESA OF SAN ILDEFONSO, FROM THE RIO GRANDE, LOOKING NORTH 




B. VIEW l-ROM TOP OF THE BLACK MESA OF SAN ILDEFONSO, LOOKING 
SOUTHWEST 











• 






■■' '■ 


J 


iir 



a Tr^PjyJ', a small MESA-LIKE peak, FROM THE FIELDS EAST OF THE RIO 
GRANDE, LOOKING WEST 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 293 

[18:18] Santa Clara T'y,'y,fsehnu, see [14:83]. 

[18:19] (1) Tiuifjopii),/, apparently 'very spotted mountain' 'very 
piebald mountain' {t'luifjo, apparently identical with the augmen- 
tative form of t\ujf 'spottedness' < t\u]f 'spottedness ',7V) aug- 
mentative; pijjf 'mountain'). No etymolog-y for the name usu- 
ally exists in the minds of the Indian users. T'uyfjo 'very 
spotted' 'piebald' is in common use in the language and sounds 
exactly like the name of the mesa. T'uvf ^spottedness ' ' spotted', 
without the augmentative _;V>, appears in Tat'itijrje^ the old Tewa 
name for Tesuque; see [26:8]. The northern clifls of Black 
Mesa, especially about the cave [18:21], are marked with large 
greenish spots, and if T%,nfjo really meant originally 'very 
spotted' this feature may have given rise to the name. Many 
surrounding features are named from T'unfjo. "Tu-yo".' 
" Tuyo." ^ The Tewa name of Terecita JNIartinez, a young woman 
of San Ildefonso, is fimfjo 'weave basket' (tuvf ' basket'; jo ' to 
weave"), which merely happens to sound like the name of the 
Black Mesa. 

(2) Eng. Black Mesa, Black Mesa of San Ildefonso, Black Mesa 
near San Ildefonso (pi. 12, A). Cf. [13:1] No Span, name of 
similar meaning appears to be applied to this mesa. The mesa 
is composed of blackish basalt and is near San Ildefonso Pueblo; 
hence these names. "Black Mesa". ^ "The Black Mesa of San 
Ildefonso".^ "Black Mesa of San Ildefonso".= 

(3) Eng. "Sacred Fire Mountain"." It is so called because of 
the altar [18:23] on its top. 

(4) Eng. Mesita, Mesilla. (< Span.). =Span. (9). 

(5) Eng. Orphan Mountain. (< Span.). =Span. (10). This 
name is much used by Americans who live in the Tewa 
country. 

(6) Eng. San Ildefonso Mesa, Mesa of San Ildefonso. San 
Ildefonso is sometimes coupled with the other names applied in 
Eng. and Span, to the mesa. =Span. (11). 

(7) Eng. Beach Mesa, Beach Mountain. Doctor Hewett some- 
times calls it thus because its top is strewn with pebbles as if it 
had once been a beach. 

(8) Eng. Round Mesa, Round Mountain. Mr. John Stafl'ord 
of Espaiiola regularly calls the mesa thus. The name is given 
because of its apparent roundish shape, although in reality the 
mesa is squarish rather than roundish, as shown on the sheet. 

iBandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, pp. 81, 82, \mi. 

'Hewett: Communautes, pp. 32, 33, 1908; in Out West, xxxi, p. 701, 1909. 

2 Bandelier, op. cit., p. 173; Hewett: Communaut&s, p. 32, 1908; in Out West, op. cit. 

< Bandelier, op. cit., p. 81. 

'Ibid., p. 64. 

'Hewett, in Out West, op. cit, 



294 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ktii. ann. 20 

(0) Span. Mesita, Mesilla 'little tablehincr 'little mesa'. 
= Eiio-. (4). Cf. tile iiiunes of the .settlement Mesilla [15:2S] and 
of the Mesilla on the west side of the Rio Grande somewhere 
opposite the latter [14:unlocated], which take their names from 
[18:10]. 

(lU) Span. Huerfano 'the orphan', so called because the mesa 
issoisolated. =Enfj. (5). This is perhaps the commonest Span, 
name of the mesa. 

(11) Span. Mesa, Mesita 6 Mesilla de San Ildefonso. = Eng-. (0). 

The Black Mesa is the most conspicuous geog^raphical feature 
in the Tewa valley countiy. It looms like a g-reat lilack fort, 
about midway between San Ildefonso and Santa Clara Pueblos. 

Of the geology of the Black Mesa Hewett writes: " Here is an 
example of the g-eologicalh' recent basaltic extrusions which char- 
acterize the Rio Grande Valley from this point south through 
White Rock Canon".' The entire mesa is of blackish basalt; see 
the discussion of its history, below. The cave [18:21] was 
deepened in the hope of finding mineral deposits, but up to the 
present time no mineral of commercial value has been discovered 
at the mesa; see [18:21]. 

The Tewa say that the mesa has been used as a place of refuge 
and defense in time of war since the earliest period. The cliffs 
are scalable in four places only: [18:27], [18:28], [18:29], and 
[18:25]. At one of these places [18:29] are remains of an ancient 
wall. In historic times the San Ildefonso Tewa were besieged on 
the top of this mesa by the Spaniards at the close of the Indian 
revolt of 1680. 

It was on this cliff [18:19] that the Tehuas [Tewa] held out so long in 1694 
against Diego de Vargas. No documentary proof of this is needed. Vargas 
made four expeditions against the mesa, three of which proved unsuccessful. 
The first was on the 28th of January, 1694, and as the Tehuas made proposals 
of surrender, Vargas returned to Santa Fe without making an attack upon 
them. But as the Indians soon after resumed hostilities, he invested the mesa 
from the 27th of February to the VJth of March, making an effectual assault on 
the 4th of March. A third attempt was made on the 30th of June, without 
results; and finally, on the 4th of September, after a siege of five days, the 
Tehuas surrendered. Previously they had made several desperate descents 
from the rock, and experienced some loss in men and in supplies. The mesa 
is so steep that there was hardly any possibility of a successful assault. The 
ruins [18:24] on its summit [18:19] are those of the temporary abodes con- 
structed at that time by the Indians.- 

The San Ildefonso Indians preserve traditions of this siege. 
Brave Indians used to descend every night through the gap 
[18:27] and get water from the river for the besieged people to 

> Hewett in Out West, xxxi, \i. 701, 190'J. ^Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 82, and note, 1S',)2. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 295 

drink. The Spaniards were afraid to come near enough to l)e 
within range of rocks and arrows. The stone wall [18:29] and 
the ruined houses [18:24] probably date from the siege of Vargas, 
but still older remains of walls and houses maj' be discoverable 
on the mesa. 

Black Mesa has much to do with the mj'thologj^ and religion of 
the Tewa. A giant (Tewa tsaiijo) formerly lived with his wife 
and daughter within the mesa. They entered through the cave 
[18:21] and their oven was [18:30]. The giant was so largo that 
he reached San Ildefonso village in four steps. He made daily 
trips thither in order to catch children, which he took home and 
he and his family ate. He used to drink from the Rio Grande. 
See also [18:7]. At last the giant and his family were killed bv 
the War Gods (Tewa fmme 'little people"). The giant's heart 
is a white stone situated on top of the mesa at [18:22], which 
probably is mythic, as are so manj- other things both in the Tewa 
world and in our own. Cf. [19:118]. 

It is said that Black Mesa is one of the four places which for- 
merly belched forth fire and smoke. The others were fumawa- 
l-lpi-Plwe [19:116], ' Ogufieir,: [20:8], and foinapijjf [29:3], accord- 
ing to San Ildefonso tradition. 

The altar [18:13] on top of the mesa is still perfectly pre- 
served, and remains of offerings are to be found by it, showing 
that it is still used. It is said that dances were once performed 
on certain occasions on top of the mesa. 

From the top of Black Mesa one may view the whole Tewa 
country (see pi. 12, B). It is a strange place, full of historical and 
mythical interest, and no visitor at San Ildefonso Pueblo should 
fail to take a trip to the top of the mesa in companj' with an 
Indian informant. 

Mr. A. Renahan, of Santa Fe, has published a book of verse 
entitled " Songs of the Black Mesa". Whether the title refers 
to [18:11*] is not known to the writer. 
[18:20] San Ildefonso T'y,nfjirwal-i 'slopeortalusof [18:19]'(7"^%7»jo, 
see [18:19]; vmI'i 'slope' 'talus'). This name refers to the talus 
slopes at the foot of the cliti's of [18:19]. The clifl's themselves 
are called T'y.nfjoto'ba ( toia ' cliff '). See [18 :19]. 
[18:21] San Ildefonso T'y,)i fjop'o, T'linfjojioH'^ 'hole of [18:r.t]' 
'place of the hole of [18:19]' {T'y,nfj(i, see [18:19]; pD 'hole'; 
V' locative and adjective-forming postfix). Note that the p'o 
'hole' is used and not any of the words meaning ' cavit}' ' or ' cave'. 
P» suggests 7/ <A// 'door' and appears to be used Ijecause the cave 
is thought of as an opening leading into the hollow interior of 
the mesa. 



296 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS Imn. ann, 29 

According to information obtained from Tewa, Mexicans, and 
Americans, a naturui cave has always existed at this place. This 
cave was deepened about 25 years ago by a paity of miners from 
the Middle West, under extraordinary conditions, according to 
information obtained from Mr. E. F. Ilobart, of Santa Fe. A 
woman who resided in an Illinois town saw in a trance the Black 
Mesa, and mineral deposits at its center. She had never been in 
the West, but she saw it just as it is. Organizing a party consist- 
ing of four men and herself, a start was made at once for San 
lldefonso, under guidance of the spiritual insight of the woman. 
They made a camp near Hobart's ranch, and under the woman's 
direction the men commenced digging and blasting, making the 
ancient cave deeper. No mineral of commercial value was dis- 
covered. After carrying the cave to its present dimensions the 
project was abandoned and the party returned to the East. 

The cave is at present 13 feet high at its mouth and 6 feet 
across. The mouth is at the top of the talus slope, perhaps about 
300 feet above the bed of the Rio Grande. The floor is horizontal 
and the walls are quite uniform and smooth. The cave is 75 feet 
deep, and 50 feet from the mouth is a cavity with perpendicular 
sides, 12 feet deep. The portion of the cave near the mouth is 
clearly in its ancient condition, unaltered. There are traces of red 
lines still left on the roof, evidently the work of Indians. There 
are also concentric circle designs about -i inches in diameter, and 
some incised and reddened lines. It is difficult to determine just 
where the old part of the cave ends and the recently excavated 
portion begins, but it is not far from the mouth. 

Owing to mythological ideas even the sophisticated Tewa of the 
present day do not like to venture near the hole. It was through 
this hole or door that the child-eating giant went in and out. 
From out this hole in very ancient times the mountain belched 
smoke and fire. See further concerning this under [18:19]. 
According to information obtained at Santa Clara Pueblo b}- 
an informant, at the time of the flood the Tewa people were 
rescued in caves at Abiquiu [3:36], Chimayo [22:18], and T'imyjo. 

The only published reference to this cave that has been found 
is in Bandelier: 

On the steep side of the Tu-j'o there is a cave about which some fairy and 
goblin stories are related which may yet prove useful for ethnological and his- 
toric purposes.' 

See [18:19]. 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. II, p. 82, 1892. 



HARRINCTON] PLACE-NAMES' 297 

[18:22j (1) San Ildcfonso Tsatijohipiijf 'the giant's heart' (fmiijo 
'giaut'; bi possessive; /'i?;y 'heart'). 

(2) San Udeionso Kutsse" T' 'white stone' (ka 'stone'; fsse 'white- 
ness' "white'; T' locative and adjective-formincj posttix.) 

These names are said to refer to a white stone about a foot in 
diameter situated on the top of the mesa near the northern edge 
and slightly east of a point on the surface over the cave [18:21]. 
This stone is what remains of the giant's heart, it is said. 

An Indian told the writer that although he has been on top of 
the mesa many times and knows that the heart exists, he has never 
seen it. A careful search along the northern edge of the mesa 
failed to reveal the giant's heart. See [18:19], 
[18:28] San Ildefonso T'y,n.j'JohvaJek%ijeku 'holy stone on top of 
[18:19]' {T'linfjo, see [18:19]; hvaje 'height' 'on top of; Faje 
'holy object' 'fetish'; Icn 'stone'). 

This is a roundish bowlder-altar on the western side of the top 
of Black Mesa. Hewett describes it as follows: 

Un sanctuaire sur le bord ouest du plateau sert aujourd'hui encore an culte des 
Indiens!. C'est un cairn oreux, conique, de six piedsde haut, fait de gros cail- 
loux, avec un creux pour le feu a sa base. II est eonnu sous le nom du sanctuaire 
dufeu. 1 1 occupe la place la mieux en evidence de toute la valine du Eio Grande. ' 

Fresh prayer-plumes and feathers have been found deposited 
at the altar. Because of this shrine Hewett has called the Black 
Mesa "Sacred Fire Mountain" \ See [18:19]. 
[18:21] San Ildefonso T'^nfjcA-wajeteqwahejl 'old houses on the top of 
[18:9]' (/"yw/yw, see [18:19]; kvouje 'height' 'on top of; teqwa- 
^'(j/i 'old house' <tegwa^\ionsQ <i;e 'dwelling place,' ^wa denoting 
state of being a receptacle; I'eji 'old' postpound). 

Somewhat north and east of the center of the surface of the 
mesa the walls and rooms of former houses or shelters can be 
traced as low ridges and mounds. The Indians say that the top 
of Black Mesa was never inhabited except temporarily in times 
of war. Bandelier is evidently correct when he writes: 

It was on this cliff [18:19] that the Tehuas [Tewas] held out so long in 1694 
against Diego de Vargas. The ruins on its summit are those of the temporary 
abodes constructed at that time by the Indians.^ 

See[18:li»]. 
[18:25] At the place indicated one can climb up and down the cliff, 
but only with considerable difficulty. The cliff is high and steep, 
and there is no easy way up as there is at [18:27], [18:28], and 
[18:29]. 

' Hewett, Communaut(^s, pp. 32-33, 1908. ' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 82, 1892. 

2 Hewett in Out West, xxxi, p. 701, 1909. 



298 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 20 

fl8:'J(5] The place indicated is the hig^hest part of the raesatop. It i.s 
a sort of a ktioll on the otherwise flat surface. There is no 
shrine or altar on its summit. 

[18:27] San Ildefonso Tminpljekutsikipo'e ' little trail of the notch in 
the rock at the west side' {tminpije 'west' <tsnrjf- not fully ex- 
plained, jy/}'^; 'toward'; ^(^'rock' 'stone'; foi/ii' 'notch' 'notched'; 
fo 'trail'; \' diminutive). This is the expression in current use. 
It is said that through tiiis gap brave young Tewa went down 
to the river to get water at night when tlie San Ildefonso people 
wei"e besieged by Vargas on top of the mesa in 1694. It is at 
present diflncult to get up or down through this cleft. See 
[18:19]. Cf. [18:2S].' 

The cleft is called also Knpahe'i'we 'where the rock is cleft' Qcu 
'rock'; pa^e. 'to split'; '' iwe locative), but this is merely a de- 
scriptive term. It can, of course, also be spoken of as a wil, as 
[18:28] is usually referred to. 

[18:28] San Ildefonso ^ Al-oinp!jeit)w!'' I 'the south gap' C<ikqmp)'je 
'south' K^ahojjf 'plain' 'down country', -pije 'toward'; 'i"* 
locative and adjective-forming postfix; U'i'* 'gap'). 

It is through this gap in the cliff that access to the top of the 
mesa is usually gained. A well-worn ancient trail leads up the 
talus-slope and through the gap to the top of the mesa. See 
[18:19]. Cf. [18:27]. 

[18:29] San Ildefonso Tm})ijdb'ipqntiiwi\ntepaTcej'i 'old wall h\ the 
giant's oven', referring to [18:30] {Tsatijdbiptqnte, see [18:30]; 
^iu\' locative; 'i'* locative and adjective-forming postfix; f>pa 
'wall'; Iciji 'old' postpound). The name applies to the remains 
of a stone wall which may date from the time of de Vargas or 
earlier, or may have been built more recently for the purpose of 
fencing in stock. This was built across a place at which there is 
no cliff at all and at which ascent or descent would be eas}' if not 
barred in some way. See [18:19]. Cf. [18:30]. 

[18:30] San Ildefonso TaaiijJbipqnte ' the giant's oven ' {tmtt'Jo ' giant ' ; 
Si possessive; pqnte 'oven' <jt»a/?y 'bread' <Span. pan 'bread', 
te 'dwelling-place' 'house', prol)ably for an earlier biiiDate, buwa 
being the native Tewa word for ' bread'). 

This dome-shaped detachment at the southeastern extremity of 
the mesa is nearly as high as the mesa itself. It is separated 
from the main mesa-top bv a narrow and shallow gap [18:31]. 
Tewa tradition says that this was the giant's oven, in the inner- 
most recess of the mountain, at the extremity farthest from the 
opening [18:21]. Into this oven the cruel giant put the youthful 
War Gods, but they got out and, placing the giant's only daughter 



HAnRixGTON] PLACE-NAMES 299 

in the oven, they burned her up hi their stead. See [18:10J. Cf. 
[18:21t], [18:31J.' 

[18:31] San lldefonso Tsai/joi/'panteHywi^i 'gap by the giant's oven'" 
{Tmiijdbipqnte, see [18:3uJ; 'i"' 'locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; Mv'"* 'gap'). This name is applied to the narrow gap 
which separates [18:30] from the main mesa-top. See [18:;)0]. 

[18:32] San lldefonso T'y,nfjowi''i 'gap by [18:19]' {T'\bnfjo, see 
[18:19]; uu'i 'gap' 'pass'). 

The main wagon road connecting San lldefonso and Santa Cruz 
passes through this gap or pass. The northern [18:14] and south- 
ern [18:32] TunfJoha''us both start at this pass. For a similar 
pass cf. [20:9]. " See [18:19]. 

[18:33] San lldefonso ''Akompije^nfti.nfjohxCu, ''Akqmpije'int'y,nfjo- 
u'il-ojiuu, Tunfjohul-ohii'u 'arroyo south of [18:19]' 'southern 
arroyo of [18:19] gap' 'arroj^o at the foot of [18:19]' {^aTcqmpije 
'south' <'<(koyf 'plain' 'down countiw'; 'i'' locative and adjec- 
tive-forming postfix; T'y.nj'Jo, see [18:19]; /luu 'large groove' 
'arro^'o'; wi'i 'gap", here referring to [18:32]; l-qhiCa 'arroyo 
with barrancas' <kq 'barranca', hu^u 'large groove' 'arroyo'; 
mi'u 'below' 'at the foot of). 
This is the first large arroyo south of Black Mesa. 

[18:3-1] Santa Clara Kuwihii'u, San lldefonso ^A^'^nj'y.nda'spniyj'/ut'u; 
see [14:87]. 

[18:35] San Ildefon.so Fot'ipiijf, Pdb\f\r) / ohu 'flower mountains' 
'flower mountain hills' {pcltyi 'flower'; fiyf 'mountain'; ^oku 
'hill"). Why this name is applied is not known. 

There are three of these little hills, one north and two south of 
[18:3C]. The hills give the name to [18:30], which in turn gives 
the name to [18:37]. 

[18:36] San lldefonso PoVipiijwi"!, Pdbtpiy/'oJcuwi'i 'gap of the 
flower mountains' 'gap of the flower mountain hills', referring to 
[18:35] {PoViphjf, Poilpijjycl-i/, see [18:35]; wPi. 'gap'). 

This gap is between the hills [18:35]. It gives the name to the 
arroyo [18:37]. 

[18:37] San lldefonso J'oilpijjw/'/ui'u, Potlpijj yohtwihuhi 'arroyo of 
the gap of the flower mountains' 'arroyo of the gap of the flower 
mountain hills', referring to [18:36] (PoilfntjwPi, Poilpyjyokii- 
wPi, see [18:3G]; hiCu 'large groove" 'arroyo'). 

This arroyo begins at the highest part of Nqmpiheg.! [18:3] 
and flows through the gap [18:36] whence it takes its name. 

[18:38] SiinWAeionso KuinilciiVqndiive 'where the limestone is dug' 
(knnn 'limestone", literally 'stone ashes' <ku 'stone', >m 'ashes'; 
icu 'stone' 'rock'; k'qijf 'to dig'; 'Jwe locative). 



300 ETIINOCKOCRAIMIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS I inii. ANN. L'9 

Whitish stone, probably real limestone, is found at this place; 
lit any rate, Mexiruns and, iinitatinjr thoni, Indians, oather and 
burn this stone, making mortar or cement from it. The custom 
appears not to be a primitive Tewa one. See Kunulcu under 
Minerals. 

[18:39] San Ildefonso 'E''(irjl'qhi(Q,<'\)hi, ' E'qrj/ol'u 'hills of the ar- 
royo of the child's footprints' 'hills of the child's footprints' 
(E'qrjl'ohun, see [18:40]; g.'' 'down at' 'over at'; "ohu 'hill'). 
The name is probably taken froin [18:40]. It is applied rather 
indefinitely to a number of hills and hillocks, of which the three 
chief ones are shown on the sheet. The arroyo of the same name 
extends north of the most southerlj' and largest of these hills. 
Cf. [18:40]. 

[18:4(1] San Ildefonso 'E'qijl-ohiiK 'child's footprint arroyo' ('(» 'child' 
'offspring'; "'qijf 'foot' 'footprint'; kohiiu 'ai-royo with bar- 
rancas' <Ao 'barranca', /lu'u ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). Why the 
name was originally applied is not known. The arroyo extends 
through thc'hills [18:39], which are called by the same name. 

[18:41] Mrs. M. C. Steven.son's ranch, see [16:31]. 
,[18:42] San Ildefonso Tnhthuu, Tah/u, see [16:32]. 

[18:43] San Ildefonso Kqp agehuppeijcjedipopriwe 'where they go 
tiirough the river beyond [18:4(;]' {Kop'agehuhi, see [18:46]; pseyfje 
'beyond'; di 'they 3+'; po 'water' 'river'; pi 'to issue' 'to 
pass'; 'me locative). This is a wagon ford, often used when 
[19:12] is dangerous. 

[18:44] San Ildefonso Tfsehu'ii, see [16:20]. 

[18:4.5] San Ildefonso Fnjnyiv^\jku, see [19:5]. 

[18:46] Pojoaque Creek, see [19:3]. 

[19] SAN ILDEFONSO SHEET 

The area is claimed by the San Ildefonso Indians and is f idl of 
places known by name to them. One pueblo ruin [19:40] is included 
in the area of the sheet proper (map 19). 

[19:1] San Ildefonso Tffehu'u, see [16:20]. 

[19:2] San Ildefonso 'O.sibii'u 'corner there at the wrinkles' {\> 
'there'; si. 'wrinkle' as in a tegument or surface; bu-u 'large low 
roundi.sh place'). Why the name is applied is not known. This 
name is applied to the lowlands on both sides of Pojoaque Creek 
[19:3] at the confluence of the latter with the Rio Grande. 
There are several Mexican farms at the place where, among other 
crops, good melons are raised. Particular inquiry was made of 
the Mexicans; they have no special name for the place. 

[19:3| (1) Posy,iju)arg_eHjnptihit\i 'creek of [21:29], (Posy,r)Wgpg.e, see 
[21:29]; 'f' locative and adjective-forming postfix; pohuu 'creek 



MAP 19 
SAN ILDEFONSO REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



14. fi y 



>'''!.t'^, '^~?.' 



i-r.\ T- 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 19 




SAN ILDEFONSO REGION 



MAP 19 
SAN ILDEFONSO REGION 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 801 

in which water flows' <p(> 'water', hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
= Eng. (6), Span. (7). This name is applied especially to the part 
of the creek between Pojoaqiie [31:2i>] and the Rio Grande: but 
itisapplied also to the creek which runs pastNambe Pueblof23:-i]. 

(2) Jemez A?/,//)a 'creek of San Ildefonso [19:22]' {Pafu, 
see [19:22]; fxt 'water' 'creek'). 

(3) MmWimpohu'u 'creek of [23:4]' (JVqmie, see [23:4]; T' 
locative and adjective-forming postfix; pohiCu 'creek in which 
water flows' </)() 'water', hu'u. 'large groove' 'arroyo'). =Eng. 
(8), Span. (9). This name is sometimes applied only to the creek 
which flows past Nambe Pueblo [23:4] and down only as far as 
Pojoaque [21:29]; but it is applied also to the whole creek from 
the mountains back of Nambe to the Rio Grande. 

(4) San Ildefonso Kqp'ag.elnru. 'broad bank place arroyo' {Jcq 
'barranca'; f/a 'broadness' 'broad' 'largeness and flatness' 'large 
and flat'; ge 'down at' 'over at'; huht, ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 
This name applies properly to the lower part of Pojoaque Creek 
only, where it is a quarter of a mile or more M'ide; hence the 
name. Cf. Kqp^agriyf [11:6], a name of similar meaning applied 
by the San Juan people to a wide arroyo just north of their pueblo. 
For the application of the simple Kop'aQ.e, see [19:17]. 

(5) Nambe Po, Pohuu, 'the water' 'the creek' {po 'water';. 
pohu^u 'creek in which water flows' <vo 'water', hiCu 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). The Nambe people often refer to the creek 
merely by this simple designation; they mean the creek which 
flows past Nambe Pueblo [23:4] and less deflnitely the creek from 
the mountains back of Nambe to the Rio Grande. The Namlie 
people regularly say polceg^e of going down to the river or the 
river bank which refers to the creek, while the same word used 
at San Ildefonso refers to the Rio Grande. See [23:1]. 

(6) Eng. Pojoaque Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (7), Tewa (1). 
Applied the same as Tewa (1). 

(7) Arroyo de Pojoa(iue, Rio de Pojoaque 'arroyo of [21:29]' 
'river of [21:29]'. =Tewa (1), Eng. (6). Applied the same as 
Tewa (1). "Rio de Pojuaque, called in its upper course Rio de 
Nambe".' 

(8) Eng. Nambe Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (9), Tewa (3). 
Applied the same as Tewa (3). 

('.•) Span. Arroyo de Nambe, Rio de Nambe 'arroyo of [23:4]' 
'river of [23:4]'. =Tewa (3), Eng. (8). Applied the same as 
Tewa (3). " Rio de Pojuaque".' 

The most important tributarv of Pojoaque Creek is Tesuque 
Creek [26:1]. 



1 BiuKli'lier, Finiil Report, pt. ii, p. 84, 1892. 



302 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etu. an.n. 29 

|19:J:| Saa Ildefonso Pojipjwx'x of obscure etymology (/w 'water''; 
/■yy/' apparently 'to pierce'; wx'ce unexplained). 

Till! locality to wliieli tiiis name is applied includes a portion of 
the creek bed and some territory north of it. In the creek bed is 
a water hole frequented l)y live stock. North of the creek Fe- 
cundo Sanchez of San Ildefonso has a shanty. There are some 
Cottonwood trees by the northern bank. The locality in this 
vicinity south of the creek is Called Potsifuu; see [19:;i.s]. 
Pojliywce^ig. gives the name to the hills [19:.L)]. 

[19:5] San Ildefonso Pojy.ywx'ul'u 'hills of [19:4]' {P()jy,yws^^sr, see 
[19:4]; 'ohi'hWV). 

These little bare hills have ridges like devilfish arms stretching 
in many directions. 

[19:(;] San Ildefonso Px8t\)flm''u, see [16:34]. 

[19:7] San Ildefonso IWage qrjwilej i , see [16:36]. 

[19:8] San Ildefonso Txiikohu^u, see [16:35]. 

[19:9] Rio Grande, see [Large Features], pp. 100-102. 

[19:10] San Ildefonso Pot-nywcS-sinitie., see [16:37]. 

[19:11] San Ildefonso PotsqywsRSinnsRHijfhuhi, see [16:38]. 

[19:12] San Ildefonso pipopr/we, PoqicoQ.e4,ipopP iwe 'where they 
cross the river' ' where they cross the river b}^ San Ildefonso" {di 
'they 3+'; fo 'water' 'river'; pi 'to issue' 'to cross'; ^iwe 'loca- 
tive'; P(ifjwogi\ see [19:'i'2]). 

This is the chief ford in the vicinitj' and is more used than any 
other ford in the Tewa country, the bridges at Espanola and San 
Juan Pueblo making fording unnecessary at those places. At 
high water the river is 3 or 4 feet deep at this ford. The 
fords [18:1] and [18:43] are said to be slightly shallower, but not 
so conveniently situated. A Mexican familv named Gonzales 
lives just west of the ford. 

[19:13] San Ildefonso Potsig.ebu''u 'marshy place corner' {potsi 
'marsh' <po 'water', tsl 'to cut through'; g.e 'down at' 'over 
at'; hull 'large low roundish place'). This name is given to the 
low land on the eastern side of the river near the ford [19:12]. 

[19:14] San Ildefonso Polcege 'the bank of the river' {po 'water'; lie 
•height' 'above'; ge 'down at' 'over at'). This name is applied 
to the bank of the river and the land near the river bank. The 
common expression meaning 'I am going to the river' is «c'' 
'opolcege ''omsR (nq. 'I'; \) 'there'; pokege as explained above; 
'o'l'; wi« 'togo'). Cf. [19:15]. 
[19:15] San Ildefonso Poh'getage 'down at the slope by the river 
bank' {Pokegc, see [19:14]; ta^a 'gentle slope; ge 'down at' 
'over at'). This name is given to the level, gently sloping lands 
directly west of San Ildefonso Pueblo. Cf. [19:14]. 



nARRiNRTOx] PLACE-NAMES 303 

[19:1<1| Siin Ildefonso Tcfuhua 'cottonwood tree bend corner' {te 
' Cottonwood' Topulus wislizeni'; /«'« 'horizontally projecting 
corner', here referring to a bend of the river which is conceived 
of a.s a projection of the water of the river; hu^u 'largo low 
roundish place'). 
The place is by the river bank, due west of [19:3i]. 

[19:17] San Ildefonso /Coj>'>'g.t' 'down by the broad arroyo', i-eferring 
to the lower course of the Kop age hjfhu a [19:3]. This name is 
applied to the locality north of San Ildefonso Pu(?blo from as far 
south as the vicinity of the schoolhouse [19:18] to and including 
the arroyo [19:3]. See KopugehjfkiCn [19:3], the commonest 
San Ildefonso name for the lower part of Pojoaque Creek. 

[19:18] San Ildefonso '' EkweVateqwa 'the schoolhouse' {^elweUi <Span. 
esquela 'school'; tapjoa 'house' <i!e 'dwelling place', ^w<i denot- 
ing state of being a receptacle). 

This is the Government school, which the younger Indian chil- 
dren of Sau Ildefonso attend. There are a schoolhouse proper and 
a living house for the teacher. The well contains better water 
than is generallj' to be obtained about San Ildefonso. 

[19:19] Sau Ildefonso Tt'nug.ehii'u 'coi'ner down below the cottonwood 
trees' {te 'cottonwood' 'Populus wislizeni'; mt'ii. 'beneatii'; g^e 
'down by' 'over by'; hiru 'large low roundish place'). A large 
ai-ea northeast of San Ildefonso Pueblo is called by this name. 
There are at present no cottonwood trees at the place. 

[19:20] San Ildefonso Jvonttge 'down below the barranca or arroyo' 
{ko 'barranca' 'arroyo with barrancas'; wm'w 'below' 'beneath'; 
g.e 'down at' 'over at'). ' This name refers to the locality of the 
old plum orchard, situated aliout midway between San Ildefonso 
Pueblo and the schoolhouse [19:18] and west of the main road 
leading northward from San Ildefonso. There is an irrigation 
ditch with large l)arrancas at the side of the localitv toward San 
Ildefonso Pueblo; hence probably the name. The locality is used 
as a latrine. 

[19:21] San Ildefonso Tej/'k'wag.e of obscure etymology {tejl unex- 
plained; Iwuge ' mesa' 'high level land"). This name is applied 
to the locality north of the northern estufa [19:23] of San Ilde- 
fonso Pueblo, that is, north of the middle of the northern house- 
row. It consists partly of bare ground used as a dumping place 
for rubbish near the houoerow, and parti}' of a cultivated field 
which lies farther north. The infomiants say that it is an old 
name, of unknown etymology. 

[19:22] (1) F"'juiog.eo7juii 'pueblo where the water cuts down through' 
'pueblo down by the delta' (/)o 'water'; qv)og.e 'where it cuts 
down through' < qwo 'to cut through', g,e 'down at' 'over at'; 



304 ETHNOGEOGEAPIIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

^qywi ' pueblo'). A San Ildcfonso person is called either rej^ularly 
Poqwog.e'i\ 'i+ plural Pi)'pv/i^e'iy,f ('/'*, 'iy./" locative and adjective- 
forming postfix) or irregularly Ptt)jwo,ie, 2+ plural Poijwo.ie (qwo^ie 
'to cut through little by little' < qwo 'to cut through', u.e 'little 
by little'). Just where it was that the water cut through or wasted 
out was long ago forgotten. Any stream of water from the liio 
Grande running down to an irrigation ditch or gully may have 
done the work which gave the place its name. Qwog_e and qwode 
appear in ni'any Tewa place-names. The name Po(jwog.e was ap- 
plied both before and after the site was shifted to the north; see 
general discussion below. Cf. Hano (2), Taos (3), Isleta (4), 
Jemez (5), Cochiti (7), Santa Ana (8). "0-jo-que".' "Po-juo- 
ge".2 "P'Ho-juo-ge''.^* "Po-juo-ge''.^ "'Poo-joge".* "Po'- 
kwoide".° This form was obtained by Fewkes from the Hano; it 
is evidently Fewkes's spelling of Fo/jwoue 'San Ildefonso people". 
"Powhoge"." "Po-hua-gai".' The ai is evidently intended to 
be pronounced as in French, "Powhoge (maison au confluent 
des eaux)"." "O-jo-que"'." It maybe that Bandelier's "0-po- 
que" and TwitchelFs "0-jo-que" are copied from some Spanish 
source unknown to the present writer. 

(2) Hano "Posowe".^" No such form is known to the Rio 
Grande Tewa. Notice also the Hano form included under 
Tewa (1), above. Cf. Tewa (1), Taos (3), Isleta (4), Jemez (5), 
Cochiti (7), Santa Ana (8). 

(3) Taos "Pahwa"lita"." "Pawha'hlita".'^ Said to mean 
"where the river enters a canyon". Cf. Tewa (1), Hano (2), 
Isleta (4), Jemez (5), Cochiti (7), Santa Ana (8). 

(4) Isleta " P'ahwia'hliap ".'^ Cf. Tewa (1), Hano (2), Taos (3), 
Jemez (5), Cochiti (7), Santa Ana (8). 

(5) Jemez Pdfugi'l of obscure etymology {pd 'water'; fu 
unexplained; gP% locative, akin to Tewa g.e). San Ildefonso people 
are called PdJutsWdf {Pa fa, see above; fsd'df 'people'). Cf. 
Tewa (1), Hano (2), Taos (3), Isleta (4), Cochiti (7), Santa Ana (8). 
Cf. also Jemez (6). 

'Bandelier: In Ausland, p. 925, 1882; in Ritch, New Mexico, p. 210, 1885. 

5 Bandelier: Final Report, pt. i, p. 124, 1890; pt. ii, p. 82, 1892. 

' Ibid., pt. I, p. 2fi0. 

"Bandelier, Gilded Man, p. 232, 1893. 

s Fewkes in Nineteenth Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethit., pt. I, p. 614, 1900. 

'He'wett: In Amenean Anthropologist, u. s., VI, p. 630, 1904; Antiquities, p. 20, 1906. 

'Jouvenceau in Catholic Pioneer, i. No. 9, p. 12, 1906. 

sHewett, Coramunaut(5s, p. 32, 1908. 

= Twitchell in Santa Fe New Mexican, Sept. 22, 1910. 

"Stephen in Eighth Hep. Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 37, 1891. 

" Budd, Taos vocabulary, MS., Bur. Amer. Ethn. 

"Hodge field notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 (Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 441, 1910). 



DIAGRAM I 

GROUND-PLAN OF SOUTHERN HALF OF SAN ILDEFONSO 

PUEBLO 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 















it 



4) 



I. C 
du 



San. Ildef^^so P t a z oc 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT DIAGRAM 1 



Shcccijr ^ide 



4^ IT) 

I; J 



3j 



<0 

I i 






£rvc6 of T-ov^ 



Te 



^•^«^^i' 



of row 



West em Entrcxnc 



En. d of row 




Panfe 

Pot a. 

P. 



•ih(,4tonwooo[ tree 

I _ V'^P'ete 

Pante '.Com- 

' (> Oi^sn ; i loff 



Eastern Entrance 



>Iv1a| ^ ^^^g^ Skccc/j, Side 



' • • • 
Pota. 



-\ 



[L 



^ kgmp I J e'irf a w 






^outh. Si ate 



End of row 



K'ct 

Corral 



Pct'aJii 



my 



Te a \A^ ct w^ / g o^o 
'Separcci: e hoi^se 



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tStccir^ 



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a a Q e 






GROUND-PLAN OF SOUTHERN HALF OF SAN I 



LDEFONSO PUEBLO' ^I^ING ^^^ ^^^^ NOMENCLATURE FOR THE PARTS OF A PUEBLO 



DIAGRAM I 

GROUND-PLAN OF SOUTHERN HALF OF SAN ILDEFONSO 

PUEBLO 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 305 

(6) JemezSaliifoso. (<Span.). =Eng.(ll), Span. (12). This 
form is given because tiie corruption is in common use, is stand- 
arelizod. 

(7) Cochiti Pdk'wete of obscure etymology (no part of the word 
explainable; evidently borrowed long ago from Tanoan). Cf. 
Tewa (1), Hano (2), Taos (3), Isleta (4), Jemez (5), Santa Ana (8). 

(8) Santa Ana "Pakwiti".' The form is evidently identical 
with Cochiti (7). Cf. Tewa (1), Hano (2), Taos (3), Isleta (4), 
Jemez (5). 

(9) Oraibi Hopi Sostavanatewa 'first Tewa' {x'ostavayia 'first'; 
teioa 'Tewa' <Tewa TfWa). San Ildefonso or its population is 
so called because it is the first Tewa village reached a\ hen going 
up the Rio Grande Valley. Cf. the Hopi names of other Tewa 
villages. 

(10) Navaho "Tse Tfl Kinne";- said to mean " houses between 
the rocks ". 

(11) Eng. San Ildefonso. (<Span.). = Jemez (6), Span. (12). 

(12) Span. San Ildefonso ' Saint Ildefonsus.' = Jemez (6), Eng. 
(11). "Santllefonso".^ "Sanllefonso".^ "San Ildephonso".^ 
"S. Ildefonso '\« "S. Ildefonse".' " San Jldefonso'".* "Ilde- 
fonso"'.^ San Aldefonso''.'" "San Ildefonsia"." "San II de 
Conso"." "SanYldefonso"." San Ildefonzo"'." "SantYlde- 
fonso "." " San Yldefonzo ".'" 

(13) Span. (?) "Bove"." This reminds one of the Tewa word 
wdbe ' high plain '. With the name San Ildefonso cf . Ildefonso 
[19:49]. 

The plaza of San Ildefonso (see diagram 1) was formerly (previ- 
ous to the uprising of 1696, according to Bandelier^') just south of 
its present location, so that the row of houses south of the present 
plaza was then the row of houses north of the plaza. The place 

' Hodge, field notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 (Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 441, 1910) . 
^Curtis, American Indian, i, p. 138, 1907. 
>0nate (1598) in Doc. Iiitd., xvi, p. 116, 1871. 
< Bena-rides, Memorial, p. 26, 1C30. 
' Villa-Senor, Theatre Americano, ii, p. 413, 1748. 
^D'Anville, Map N. A., Bolton's edition, 1752. 
' Vaugondy, Map Am^rique, 1778 (French form). 
8 Wislizenus, Memoir, map, 1848. 

'Calhoim in Cal. Messages and Correspondence, p. 213, 1850, 
'"Simpson, Rep. to Sec. War, p. 140, 18.50. 
" Simpson, ibid.. 2d map. 

"Lane (18.54) in Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes, v, p. 689, 1855. 
"Davis, El Gringo, p. 88, 18.57. 
'•Brevoort, New Mexico, p. 20. 1875. 

'* Bandelier in A rch. Imt. Papers, i, 1881 (correcting Oiiate, according to Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 441, 
1910). 
"C urtis. Children of the Sun, p. 121, 1883. * 

" Oiiate, op. cit., p. 256. 
"Final Report, pt. IT, p. 82, 1892. 

87584°— 29 eth— 16 20 



306 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OB' THE TEWA INDIANS (eth. anx. 29 

formerly occupied by the plaza ia called Tadawe; see [19:2G]. The 
south estufa [19:2J:] was in the center of the former plaza. The 
house rows surroundinj^ the former plaza were two or three stories 
high; most of those of the present pueblo are only one story 
high, while a few have two stories. According to San Ildefonso 
tradition, when the plaza occupied its former southern location 
San Ildefonso was a populous and prosperous village. It was big 
and several-storied. All went well until certain sorcerers advo- 
cated moving the pueblo to the north. All good people, including 
the Fo's^ntujo (Summer cacique), opposed this move, saying that 
people must always migrate to the south, villages must always be 
moved southward. It was arranged at last that the good people 
and the bad sorcerers should hold a gaming contest and that the 
pueblo should be moved according to the wish of the winners. 
What kind of game was played is no longer remembered. The 
bad sorcerers won the game ))y witchcraft, and according to their 
wish the pueblo was shifted northward. Since that time the San 
Ildefonso people have decreased in number, have had pestilence, 
famines, persecutions. This is because the pueblo was shifted 
in the wrong direction. Concerning this shifting Bandelier says: 

After the uprising of 1696, when the church was ruined by fire, the village 
was moved a short distance farther north, and the present church is located 
almost in front of the site of the older one, to the north of it.' 

In a footnote Bandelier adds concerning the destruction of the 
church : 

This occurred on tlie 4th of June, 1696. Two priests, Father Francisco Cor- 
bera and Father Antonio INIoreno, were murdered by the Indians, who during 
the night closed all the openings of both church and convent and then set fire 
to the edifice. Several other Spaniards also perished. The facts are too well 
known to require reference to any of the numerous documents concerning the 
events. 

The plaza of the present San Ildefonso used to contain, within 
the memory of an informant about 45 years of age, seven large 
Cottonwood trees. Of these at present onlj' one remains. 
Cf. especially [19:23], [19:24], [19:25], [19:26]. 
[19:23] San Ildefonso Pimpijete'e 'the north estufa' {pimplje 'north' 
<PWf 'mountain' 'up country', jyy'e; 'toward'; tee 'estufa' 
'kiva'). 

This is a rectangular room, entirely above ground, a part of 
the north houserow of the village. Cf. [19:24]. 
[19:24] San Ildefonso ^ Akqmpijete^e 'south estufa' (^akompije 'south' 
<^alQi)f 'plain' 'down country', pije 'toward'; te'e 'estufa' 
'kiva'). 

'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 82, 1892. 



HAisniNGTOx] PLACE-NAMES 307 

This is a circular room, entirely above ground. It formerly 
stood in the middle of the plaza of the pueblo, before the pueblo 
was shifted toward the north. Cf. [19:23]. 
[19:ii.">J S;u\l\defonso Jlisaie, Poqwogemimie^ the churrh' 'the church 
of [19:22]' {misdte 'church' <7ni.sa <Span. uiisa, Roman Catholic 
mass', tc 'dwelling place", 'house'; Poqwog_e, see[19:22]). Of the 
church at San Ildefonso Bandelier says: 

The church ... of San Ildefonso is posterior to 1700.' After the uprising 
of 1696, when the church was ruined by fire, the village was moved a short 
distance farther north, and the present churt^h is located almost in fi'ont of the 
site of the older one, to the north of it.^ 

The present church faces southward. About the front of the 
church is the graveyard, few of the graves of which are marked 
in any way. In interring a body bones of other bodies are usu- 
ally dug up. The San Ildefonso call the graveyard by the usual 
word: joenibe'e 'little corner of the corpses' (peni 'corpse'; 6g'e 
'small low roundish place' 'corner'). 

Mr. Dioni.sio Ortega, of Santa Fe, informed the writer that sev- 
eral years ago at Ranchos [19:50] he obtained some religious images 
which were said to have come from the old church of San Ilde- 
fonso, the one destroyed in 1696. That they came from the old 
church seems improbable. Indians have said that carved beams 
from the old church were in possession of some of the Indians a 
few years ago. The site of the old church, south of that of the 
present church, is known to many of the Indians. See [19:22]. 
[19:26] San Ildefonso Tadawc, TadawebuH 'where it is curled up 
when it dries,' 'corner where it is curled up when it dries,' 
referring to mud (te 'to dry' 'dryness' 'dry'; ^awe 'to be curled 
up' 'to have risen up curlingly'). The name refers to the crack- 
ing and curling up of the surface layer of drying mud such as 
one often sees in New Mexico and elsewhere and sees in drying 
puddles at this very place. One says commonly of this phe- 
nomenon 7i4po nqta 'the mud is dry' {nqpo 'mud' <nn unex- 
plained, fo 'water'; nq, 'it'; ia 'to be dry'); nqpo nqtadnwe 'the 
mud is dry and curled up' {nqpo 'mud' <nq unexplained, po 
•water"; na 'it'; ta 'to dry' 'to be dry'; dawe 'to be curled up'). 

The name is applied to all the locality immediately south of the 
southern houscrow of the pueblo alwut the southern estufa [19:24]. 
The place is entirely west of the main wagon road which leads 
south from San Ildefonso and extends indefinitely to the west to 
a point perhaps about south of the church [19:2.5]. A large Cot- 
tonwood a couple of hundred yards south of the southern house- 
row marks the southern extremity of the locality. This locality 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. i, p. 267, 1890. »Ibid, pt. n, p. 82, 1892. 



308 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

was the former site of San Ildefonso. When at ths site the 
pueblo was only slightly north of a point dne west of the shrine 
hilij 19:27]. See [19 -.22], [19:24]. 

[19:27] San Ildefonso '' Okutuijwsejo 'the very high hill' {^ohu 'hill'; 
ty,i)trcejo 'great height' 'very high' Kty^ywx 'height' 'high',j/o 
augmentative). 

This symmetrical high round hill is the shrine hill of San 
Ildefonso. A well-worn trail leads from the southeast corner of 
the pueblo to the shrine [19:28] on the summit of the hill. See 
[19:28]. 

[19:28] San Ildefonso '' Ol'utiiJjwse.jokeireF ajehuho.ii 'hol}^ rock-pile on 
top of the very high hill' {Wkuty,i]iVcgjo^ see [19:27]; hrwe 'peak' 
'on the very top of a pointed thing'; Jcaje 'fetish' 'holy thing' 
'holy'; IcubfUi 'pile or group of stones' <%u 'stone', hodi 'large 
and roundish like a pile'). See [19:27]. 

[19:29] San Ildefonso 'Ohncri 'the gap in the hills' {'oJai 'hill'; wPi 
'gap'). 

This refers to the gap between '' OTcut^ijwsejo [19:27] and ^ Oln- 
p'agi'iyf [19:33]. Out from the gap runs the arroyo [19:30], 
which takes its name from the gap. Just east of the gap lies the 
claj'pit [19:31] which also takes its name from the gap. The lower 
part of the western side of the gap is used by the villa^'ers as a 
latrine. At daybreak on the day of the buffalo dance (January 24) 
the dancers tile down thi-ough this gap from the east. 

[19:30] San Ildefonso '' Ohuwi'xyfhxCu 'arroyo of the gap in the hills' 
referring to [19:29] (' OJiuwPi, see [19:29]; 'iy,^ locative and adjec- 
tive-forming postfix; Aw'm 'large groove' 'arroyo'). See [19:29]. 

[19:31] San Ildefonso ' Okuwmuijk' onduce 'place at the gap in the 
hills where the earth or clay is dug' COkuioPi, see [19:29]; ngyy 
'earth'; Z'o7;y 'to dig'; 'i»'e locative). 

This deposit is the chief, indeed practically the only, source of the 
clay from which San Ildefonso women make their pottery. The 
clay is reddish, and both the red and the black ware of San Ilde- 
fonso are made from it. See Nqpi'i, under Minekals. 

[19:32] San Ildefonso ''OkubiPu, ^Okupseijge 'corner of the hills' 
' corner back of the hills' Col-u 'hill'; buy 'large low roundish 
place'; pff'ij[/e 'beyond'). This name applies to the dell or low 
place back of the hills immediately southeast of San Ildefonso. 

[19:33] San l\deionsoVJkuj/ag./"iyj' 'the two broad flat hills' (W-m 
'hill'; p'agi ' broadness and flatness' 'broad and flat'; 'f/;y loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix). 

There are two of these hills which appear nearly flat when 
compared with ^ Oluty,tjwsejo [19:27]. 



HARBINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 309 

[19:o4] San Ildefonso Supol'f 'where the arrow water starts' {su 
'arrow'; po 'water'; ¥e 'to start to move'). Whj^ this name, 
which seems peculiar even to the Indians, is applied, is not 
known. No water starts at the place. The name is given to the 
locality west of [19:33] and south of [19:26]. 

[19:35] San Ildefonso ffuma'ohi oi obscure et.ymology (^M?«a unex- 
plained; \>ku ' hill'). A number of unanalyzable place-names end 
in ma. This name is applied to the long ridge, extending north 
and south, which has a horizontal streak [19:36] on its western side. 
It is much higher than the low chain of hills between it and the 
Rio Grande. There is no other hill as near San Ildefonso as 
Tfinna, which is nearly as high as ffuina. The northern end of 
'ffuma rises immediateh' south of TaboHa [19:41]. See [19:36], 
[19:70], to which this place gives names. 

[19:36] San WdiQionao fj'umapvpccud, Piqv^cuii 'the large red line of 
[19:35]' 'the large red line' {ffuma, see [19:35]; pi 'redness' 
'red'; qwadi 'large or broad line', contrasting with qwUi 'small 
or thin line'). 

This horizontal reddish line on the west side of Tfuma is very 
conspicuous. See [19:35]. 

[19:37] San Ildefonso Netoqansalebiteqwdiwe ' place by Nestor Gon- 
zales' house' {Neto^onsale < Span. Nestor Gonzales; fti possessive; 
teqwa 'house' < te 'dwelling place', qwO' denoting state of being 
a receptacle; ''iwe locative). 

Mr. Nestor Gonzales, a Mexican about 40 years of age, has 
lived here with his family for years. Mr. Gonzales speaks Tewa 
to some extent and is especially liked by the Indians. This desig- 
nation of the locality is much used. 

[19:38] San Ildefonso Potsifii'a 'muddy point' (potsi 'mud' < po 
'water', tsi 'to cut through' 'to ooze through'; /m'w 'horizon- 
tally projecting point or corner'). It is said that the marsh is 
called thus because it runs out in a point toward the east. This 
marsh is just south of [19:14] and entirelj' on the south side of 
the creek. There is a pool or spring almost in the middle of the 
marshy place; see [19:39]. 

[19:39] (1) San Ildefonso Potsi fupopi 'spring of the muddy point' 
referring to [19:38] {Pots.ifu''n, see [19:38]; popi 'spring' < po 
' water', pi ' to issue'). 

(2) San Ildefonso T'q/npijepokwi 'lake of the east' (i'qinpije 
'east' < t'q)j'^ 'sun', pije 'toward'; pohvi 'lake' 'pool' < po 
'water', Jcv'i unexplained). For the reason that this n^^me is ap- 
plied, see below. These names refer to a small pool of water on 



310 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

the south side of Pojoaque Creek, almost in the middle of the 
iiiarsliy meadow [19:38]. This pool oi' spring is never dry. Live 
stock drink there. The pool is the ' lake of the east' of the San 
Ildefonso sacred water ceremony; see pages 44-45. 
[19:i0] San Ildefonso Tabaqijioikeji 'live belt pueblo ruin' {T'aha'a 
see [19:41]; \ywikejl 'pueblo ruin' <'Qijwi 'pueblo', leji 'old', 
postpound). "I'ha-mba."' The "I" is evidently a misprint for 
"T." "Ihamba."^ 

All that could be learned of this pueblo is that it is very old 
and probably was formerly inhabited by some of the ancestors of 
San Ildefonso people. It was constructed of adobe. Bandelier 
sa3's of it: 

On the south side of the Pojuaque River, between that village [21:29] and 
San Ildefonso, two ruins are known to exist; Jacona, orJSacona [21:9], a small 
pueblo occupied until 1696, and I'ha-mba, of more ancient date. I have not 
heard of any others in that vicinity. ' 

Hewett says : 

Prfis Je la riviere [19:3], au-dessus de San Ildefonso, on trouve les mines 
de Sacona [21:9] et d'lhamba . . . Toutes ces ruines sont historiques.^ 

See [19:41]. 

[19:41] San Ildefonso T'aba'a 'live belt' 'belt where they live' {t'a 
'to live' 'to dwell'; ia^n 'woman's belt', applied also sometimes 
to a belt of country). The etymology of the name is not very 
clear to the Indians. For quoted forms see under [19:40]. 

This name is applied to a strip of country at the foot of the 
north end of ffumaol'ii [19:35]. The place gives names to the 
pueblo ruin [19:40] and the arroyo [19:42]. 

[19:42] San Ildefonso T'abako/iu'u 'live belt arroyo' {T'aWa, see 
[19:41]; ]>-qhu''u 'arroyo with barrancas' <lo 'barranca', hii'u 
'large groove' 'arroyo'). The gulch takes its name from [19:41]. 

[19:43] San Ildefonso Sife\', Sifepo 'vagina estufa' 'vagina estiifa 
water' {si 'vagina' 'vulva'; te''e 'estufa' 'kiva'; po 'water'). 
There is a spring near Ziiiii called by the Zufii "vulva spring."^ 
For the use of tee cf. [24:11]. 

Although in a dry dell of the hills, there is always water in this 
spring. There is a roundish pool about 15 feet across, from one 
side of which two long narrow arms extend 10 feet or more, each 
arm ending in a small roundish pool. The large pool is the 
'vagina estufa' proper; the arms are called /,'o 'arm'). The 
water is clean and tastes good. Mexican women come to the pool 

> Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 85, 1892. 

2 Hewett, Communautes, p. 33, 1908. 

'Stevenson, The Zufii Indians, Twenly-third Kcp. Bur. Amcr. Etiin., p. 87. 1904. 



HARKIXGTO.N] PLACE-NAMES 311 

regularly to wash clothes. Sometimes Mexicans of Ranches 
[19:50] fetch barrels of water from the spring fox*, domestic use at 
Ranches. Indian and Mexican Ywe stock water at the place. The 
water flows into and soon sinks beneath the sands of [19:44], to 
which the spring gives the name. The name and place are curi- 
ous; whether any religious signiticance is or was attached to this 
spring has not been learned. The spring is a short distance north 
of the curious place [19:70] and is sometimes said to be, loosely 
speaking, at [19:70]. The spring gives names to [19:44], [19:45], 
and [19;4G]. 

[19:44] San Ildefonso Sitehqhii'u 'vagina estufa arroyo', referring to 
[19:43] (Siie'e, see [19:43]; kohu'u 'arroyo with barrancas' <kQ 
'barranca', /luUi ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

The lower part of the gulch passes just east of a Mexican farm- 
house. Below the farmhouse the gulch is lost in cidtivated 
fields. The water of the spring [19:43] sinks under the sand a 
few feet below the pools of the spring; in dry times the water 
sinks at the pools themselves, so that there is no outflow. 

[19:45] San Ildefonso Sitelnvaje 'height by vagina estufa', referring 
to [19:43] {S'itee, see [19:43]; kioaje 'height'). This name is ap- 
plied to the high land immediately south and east of Siie'e spring 
[19:43], but not to the hill [19:47]. 

[19:4til San Ildefonso SiJe'a/t'Qiinu " vagina estufa plain ', referring to 
[19:43] {Siie'e, see [19:43]; ''akqnnu 'plain' <'al:q))f 'plain', nu 
locative). This name is applied to the large, nearly level area south 
of Site'e spring [19:43] and between it and the northern limits 
of the broken country called Saywxjjyjqe [19:70]. 

[19:47] San Ildefonso PefxCr*''oku, PefiCl'^ of obscure etymology 
{pe unexplained; /w'l* apparently fuu 'horizontally projecting 
point or corner'; T' locative and adjective-forming postfix; 'oZ-m 
'hill'). This name is applied to the hill or hills immediately east 
of Sitee [19:43] and directly south of Tej)\i)hewe [19:49]. The 
hills [19:51] are never called by this name and are carefully 
distinguished. 

[19:48] San Ildefonso Kios^'k^penihie ' little corpse corner of the ^X^yi- 
'\Q,vca.'i^ {Kv;stk^ 'Mexican', of obscure etymology; of. hwstkii.yf 
'iron'; /?«<^ 'corpse'; Se'e 'small low roundish place'). This name 
refers to the Mexican graveyard which lies just south of the main 
wagon road that leads up Pojoaque Creek from San Ildefonso. 
The place where the graveyard is situated can also be included as 
a part of the locality [19:49]. 

[19:49] (1) San Ildefonso Tep\ninCu, Tej? e'rj%eive 'below the black 
dwelling-place' 'black dwelling-place height' (te 'dwelling-place' 



312 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OP THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ann. 29 

'house'; p'^gf 'blackness' 'black"; nan "below'; Ictnoe 'top' 
'peixk' 'height"). The former of the two names refers to the low 
lands beside Pojoaquo Creek; the latter refers to the hilly land a 
few rods south of the creek. 

(2) Eug. Ildefonso. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Ildefonso, so called because of its proximity to San 
Ildefonso Pueblo [19:22]. =Eng. (2). The Eng. and Span, 
names are very I'ecent; see below. 

There are a few Mexican houses at this place. The post-office, 
formerly at San Ildefonso Pueblo under the name San Ildefonso 
Pueblo, has recently been moved to this place and is now called 
Ildefonso. This name has not come into use, however, and most 
of the letters received at the post-office are addressed to San Ilde- 
fonso Pueblo or San Ildefonso. The official list of New Mexican 
post-offices spells the name Ildefonzo. With the names San Ilde- 
fonso and Ildefonso cf. Santo Domingo [29:61] and Domingo 
[29:60]. This syjstem of place-naming is confusing. The name 
Tep eylceioe may be applied so as to include the locality of the 
• graveyard [19:48]. 
[19:.50] (1) San Ildefonso iroso'o, probably 'large legging' but possi- 
bly 'large arm' (Z'"o 'legging' 'arm'; so'o 'largeness' 'large'). 
This is the old name of the place and is still frequently applied. 
It refers especially to the locality where Ranchos village is the 
biggest. Why the name is applied is no longer remembered. 
One should compare with this name ICoso'iijfi^. 561), the Tewa 
name for the Hopi. 

(2) San Ildefonso Iurxk-y,'i'^ 'place of the Mexicans' (lurieky, 
'Mexican', of obscure etymology; cf. l-wxlcij,i)f 'iron'; T' loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix). This name is used perhaps 
more commonly than (1), above. This is the largest Mexican set- 
tlement in the immediate vicinity of San Ildefonso, hence there is 
no misunderstanding. 

(3) Eng. Ranchos. (<Span.). =Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Ranchos, Ranchos de San Antonio 'ranches' 'ranches 
of Saint Anthony'. =Eng. (3). According to ^Ir. Dionisio 
Ortega of Santa Fe the only proper name of the place is Ranchos 
de San Antonio. 

The settlement extends for some distance along the south side 
of the creek as a row of small Mexican farms. The place gives 
names to [19:51] and [19:52]. 
[19:51] (1) San Ildefonso ICoso'oln 'hills of [19:50]' {iroso''o, see 
[19:. 50]; \>h( 'hill'). 

(2) San Ildefonso Kwss.lcy,''i'^^oku ' hills of the place of the Mexi- 
cans', referring to [19:50] {Kwseky,T\ see [19:50]; ^ohi 'hill"). 



nARBiNGTOx] PLACE-NAMES 313 

[19:52] (1) San lldefonso IComlcqhu'u 'arroyo of [19:50]' {IToso'o, 
see [19:50]; l-qJathi 'arroyo with barrancas' kJcq 'barranca', JnCu 
'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

(2) San lldefonso KumJciiiykohu-u 'arroyo of the place of the 
Mexicans', referring to [19:50] {IuDseky,''r', see [19:50]; kqhuu 
'arroyo with barrancas' </iO 'barranca', hii'ii 'large groove' 
'ari'oyo'). 

[19:53] San lldefonso Knhee 'small rocky corner' {leu 'stone' 'rock'; 
he'e 'small low roundish place'). 

The dell called by this name is on the south side of the creek, 
about a mile east of Ranches [19:50]. There are some Mexi- 
can farms at or near the place. The place gives the name to the 
hills [19:54]. 

[19:54] San lldefonso Euhvol-n ' hills of the small rocky corner', refer- 
ring to [19:53] {Kuhee, see [19:53]; 'ohi. 'hill'). 
These hills are low and scattering. 

[19:55] San lldefonso Pots{qwajeg.e of obscure etymology {pofsi 
'marsh' <po 'water', tsi 'to cut through' 'to ooze through'; 
^W(7p apparently identical with qwaje 'to hang' intransitive; g.e 
'down at' 'over at'). 

The name refers to the large marshy place on both sides of 
Pojoaque Creek, east of [19:53]. It is said that Mr. Felipe Roybal 
is one of the Mexicans who have farms at or near this place. 
The place gives the name to [19:5(3]. 

[19:57] San lldefonso Wajima'oku of obscure etymology ( Wajitita the 

abode of spirits in the underworld; 'olu 'hill'), see pages 571-72. 

This small roundish hill is south of the two - Ol-up'ag.iii)j> 

[19:33] and is separated from them by the WajimawiH [19:58]. 

Cf. [19:58] and [19:59]. 

[19:58] San lldefonso WajimawPi of obscure etymology {Wajima, see 
[19:57]; wi'i 'gap'). 

This gap is between [19:33] and [19:57]. From it Wajiwakq- 
hiiu [19:59] runs westward. 

[19:59] San lldefonso Wajiviakq/tu'n of obscure etymology ( Wajhna, 
see [19:57]; kq/iiiu 'arroyo with barrancas' <lq 'barranca', kii'u 
'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

This arroyo runs westward from Wajimawi" i [19:58] until its 
course is obliterated in the cultivated lands about midwaj' Itetween 
the hills and the Rio Grande. 

[19:60] San lldefonso Tamnkqqe of obscure etymology {tama unex- 
plained, but note that a number of unexplained Tewa place-names 
end in ma; ko 'barranca'; gt; ' down at' 'over at'). 

This is a pkce that is much spoken of. The name refers espe- 
cially to the higher level land just west of the hills [19:(52], both 
north and south of the arroyo [19:64]. Wheat is threshed at this 



314 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIAKS [bth. ann. 29 

place. It is hore that one of the chief aucient foot-trails con- 
iiocting San Ildefonso and Cochiti Pueblos leaves the lowlands by 
the Rio Grande. This trail runs directly south from San Ilde- 
fonso Pueblo up through the gap [19:63] and southwestward 
through the hills [19:102]. Clay similar to that dug at [19:31] is 
obtained at this place; just where could not be learned. At this 
place, or more precisely at the western foot of [19:63], is a ledge 
of rock which is used for making the handstones (manos) for 
metates; see [19:63]. A large cottonwood tree stands just soutli 
of the place on the north Itank of the arroj^o [19:68]. The place 
has given names to [19:61], [19:62], [19:63], and [19:64]. 

[19:61] Sau Ildefonso Tamal'qfjeijnhu''u 'corner by [19:60]' {Tamakqqe, 
see [19:60]; ^??y locative and adjective-forming postfix; Jt^'w 'large 
low roiuidish place'). This name is given to the low, cultivated 
land immediately west of [19:60]. 

[19:62] San Ildefonso Tamahqqe^oku 'hills of [19:60]' {Tmnakqge, see 
[19:60]; 'o^w,' hill'). 

These hills lie south of the gap [19:65]. Somewhere at the 
western foot of the hills, called in Tewa TamahqqdokiiniCu (n uhc 
'below' 'at the foot of) is a ledge of rock which is used by 
the San Ildefonso Indians for making manos for metates. This 
kind of stone is called merely s^t^w^^;* '.sandstone' {sqywc^ 'sand- 
stone'; Tea 'stone'). 

[19:63] San Ildefonso TaynakqqemPi 'gap by [19:60]' (Tamal-qg.e, see 
[19:60]; wiH 'gap'). 

This gap is north of the hills [19:62] and through it the San 
Ildefonso-Cochiti trail passes; see under [19:64]. Through this 
gap runs the arroyo [19:6i]. 

[19:6-1] San Ildefonso Ta?nal-qqekq/niu 'arroyo by [19:60]' {Tcivia- 
hqge, see [19:60]; kqhuu 'arroyo with barrancas' <]cq 'barranca', 
hu^u 'large groove' 'ari'oyo'). 

[19:65] San Ildefonso Tefu^n, J(?/?/6m'» 'cottonwood tree point' 'cor- 
ner by cottonwood tree point' {Te 'cottonwood' 'Populus wisli- 
zeni'; fv!u 'horizontally projecting corner or point'; hu^u 'large 
low roundish place'). The name and place are said to be distinct 
from [19:16]. 

The land at this place is low and is cultivated. A house belong- 
ing to Mr. Ignacio Aguilar of San Ildefonso stands in TainaJioqe 
[19:60] verj' near where the latter joins 7^efwu. 

[19:66] San Ildefonso Pojag.e 'the island' 'in the midst of the waters' 

{po 'water'; jage 'in the middle of). It is said that after heavy 

rains the land at this place is more or less flooded; hence the name. 

This place consists of low, cultivated land. The place probably 

gives the name to [19:67]. 



HiRKiN'GTOx] PLACE-NAMES 315 

[19:67] San Ildefonso P//Jag.ebii''i( 'corner by the island', referring 
probably to [19:00] {Pojag.e, see [19:06]; ha'u 'large low roundish 
place ') 

The arrowy OS [19:87] and [19:95] end at this place. The boundary 
between this place and [19:98] is indehnite. See [19:06]. 

[19:08] San Ildefonso K'linsxkohuu 'arroyo of the boiled or stewed 
maize' {k'y.ijf 'maize' 'corn' 'Zeama3^s'; sx ' boiled stuii'' 'stew', 
'to boil' 'to stew'; Iq/iiiu 'arroyo with barrancas' <7i-o 'bar- 
ranca', hii'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Why this name is applied 
is not known. The arroyo is called by this name as far up as the 
point at which the arroyos [19:09], [19:71], and [19:71] come 
together to form it. 

The arroyo is lost in the lowlands at [19:60]. 

[19:69] (1) San Ildefonso SgyiKrpirjdeko/tiiu 'arroj'o in the midst of 
the sandstone,' referring to [19:70] (Sqyws^piyffe, see [19:70]; 
koku''u 'arroyo with barrancas' <ko 'barranca', h)i\i 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 

(2) San Ildefonso Tfumapsei)gekohu\t ' arroyo beyond Tj'itnia 
[19:3.5]' {ffumapxyfje, see [19:70]; kohiiu 'arroyo with barran- 
cas ' < X'o ' barranca ', hu''u ' large groove ' ' arroyo '). 
See [19:70]. 

[19:70] (1) San Ildefonso Sqywigjnij^e 'in the midst of the sandstone' 
{sqijwse 'sandstone'; jny^e 'in the midst of). The place is a 
maze of curiously eroded sandstone; hence the name. 

(2) San lldcionso 'ffuinap^ij^e 'beyond ffuma[ld:35y {Tfwna, 
see [19:.35]; psetjr/e ' beyond'). 

The place drains into the arroyo [19:69], to which the same 
name is applied. It was at this place that a crazy man used to try 
to kill himself by wrapping himself completely in his blanket and 
rolling over the cliffs, but he was rescued every time by the 
Water-Wind Spirits {Powq,h4yf), who caught him in the air and 
made him fall gently. [19:70] is a weird place at night, when the 
whole region looks mottled and streaked and the little cliffs throw 
their shadows. 

[19:71] San Ildefonso TfepelqJuin of obscure etymology {tfepe unex- 
plained, but see under [19:72]; A'ohu^ii 'arro_yowith barrancas' 
<l-o 'barranca', hu^i 'large groove' 'arroyo'). The arroyo 
designated thus is known by a different name in the uppermost 
part of its course [19:83] and by a still different name in its lower 
course [19:68]. See [19:72]. 

[19:72] San Ildefonso Tfepe''i'' of obscure etymology (tfepe unex- 
plained, but perhaps from Span, chepa 'hunch' ' hump', referring 
to the hillock}^ land at the place; '*"* locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix). The writer has recorded the name Tsepe'P^ a couple 



316 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ann. 29 

of times, but this is probably not correct. The name is applied, 
it is said, to the locality in the iiumediate vicinity of the spring 
[19:73] and is not equivalent to [19:70j. Cf. [19:71], [19:73]. 

[19:73] San Ildefonso Tfeper^po 'the water at [19:72]' {Tfepe'P\ 
see [19:72]' po 'water'). This name refers to a spot in the bed 
of [19:71] where water can always be obtained l)y digging in the 
sand a few feet. Since the water at most times of the year does 
not flow forth of its own accord, the place is not called a spring. 
See [19:72]. 

[19:74] San Ildefonso Pimpije^iTnp' op^ awekqhu\i 'northern arroyo of 
the place, with the hole through it' {pijnpije 'north' < pirjf 
'mountain' 'up country', i)ije 'toward'; ''iijf locative and adjec 
tive-forming postfix; P' op awe, see [19:75]; l-qhiiu 'arroyo with 
barrancas' < Iq 'barranca', hii'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). For 
the southern F' op awekqJaC u^ see [19:87]. 
The arroyo must not be confused with [19:77]. 

[19:7.5] San Ildefonso P' op' awe, P'op'awe'i'''' 'the hole which goes 
through' 'place of the hole which goes through' {p'o 'hole';- 
p' awe ' to go completely through'; T' locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix). 

At the spot indicated, at the western end of the ridge, near 
the summit, a small eroded hole passing completely through the 
ridge was formerly to be seen. There was a cave-in here many 
years Jigo (more than fifty according to one informant) but the 
place where the hole was is still remembered and the name is 
still used. The site of- the hole is a short distance southeast 
of Poqwawi'i [19:70]. The hole gives names to [19:74], [19:76], 
[19:87], and [19:91]. 

[19:76] San Ildefonso P'op'awe''oku 'hills of the hole which goes 
through', referring to [19:75] {P'op'aice, see [19:75]; "ol'u 'hill'). 
There are two chief ridges, parallel to each other, called by this 
name. The hole [19:75] from which the name is taken is at the 
western end of the more northerly of these two hills. See [19:91]. 

[19:77] San Ildefonso Poqxoaioikqlni^u 'arro3'o of water reservoir gap' 
referring to [19:78] (Poqwawi^i, see [19:78]; kqlaHu 'arroyo with 
barrancas' < kq 'barranca', huu 'large groove" 'arroyo'). 
This small arroyo runs into [19:71] from the south. 

[19:78] San Ildefonso PoqwawiH 'gap of the water reservoir' {poqwa 
'water reservoir' 'hollow where water collects' < fo 'water', 
qwa denoting state of being a receptacle; «v"/ 'gap'). 

No reservoir or water-hole of any kind could be foimd at the 
place, and the informants said that they had never heard of the 
existence of any. Why the place is called thus is not known. 
The place gives names to [19:77] and [19:79]. 



HAKmxGTOx] PLACE-NAMES 317 

[19:7S>j San Ildefon.so PoqiLxiwioku, PoqvoawVokiCe 'hills by water 
reservoir gap" 'little hills by water reservoir gap' {Poqwawi'i 
see [19:78]; \ilvu 'hill'; V diminutive). 

The gap [19:78], from which the hills take their name, is in the 
range of hills. 

[19:80] San Ildefonso Qwxty^'iol'u of obscure etymology (jw^ appar- 
ently qv:x 'mountain mahogany' 'Cercocarpus parvifolius', called 
b}' the Mexicans palo duro; t^, sounds exactly like t^ 'to say"; 8« 
apparently the possessive %'i; ''ohu 'hill'). 

This roundish hill is much higher than any other hill east of 
San Ildefonso Pueblo shown on this sheet. The hill either gives 
the name to [19:81] or vice versa. 

[19:S1] San Ildefonso Qicietuii'oluhu'u, Qmsety,bibuii of obscure ety- 
mology {Qwietiiii'okii, see [19:80]; bu'ti'lavge low roundish place"). 
Whether the name Qwigty,ii was originally applied to the hill 
[19:80] or to this low corner can not be determined. 
The hill is far more conspicuous than the corner. 

[19:82] San Ildefonso Poiibandl'', Poilba>i4i'^oku of obscure ety- 
mology {poi\ 'flower'; 6a;i(^r' unexplained, apparently <bai)f 
unexplained, "/"' locative and adjective-forming postfix; 'oAm 
'hill"). AYhether ''okuxs, added or not, the name refers to the two 
hills of roundish shape slightly northeast of the high hill [19:80], 
The hills give rise to the name [19:83]. 

[19:83] San Ildefonso PiMibaniikqimu 'arroyo of [19:82]" {PoVi- 
band"\ see [19:82]; Iqhuu 'arroyo with barrancas' <lcq 'bar- 
ranca," huu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). The uppennost part of 
the course of the arroyo [19:71] is so designated. 

[19:84] San Ildefonso Kibuht 'prairie-dog corner' {ki 'prairie-dog'; 
biCu 'large low roundish place'). 

This buu is bounded on the east by the jywsentsa'okH [19:85]. 
There is an abandoned Mexican house at the place. 

[19:85] San Ildefonso ]^wsentsrio/i->i 'hills where the rock-pine trees 

are or were cut' {ywaeyy ' rock-pine' 'Pinus scopulorum'; tsa 'to 

cut across the grain' ' to cut down', said of a tree; 'tA'u 'hill"). 

No rock-pine trees were to be seen on the hill. The hills give 

the name to [19:86]. 

[19:86] San Ildefonso lyuisenf-m^/A-uko/ur >i 'arroyo of the hills where 
the rock-pine trees are or were cut", referring to [19:85] 
(ywsptitsa'oku, see [19:85]; kohicu 'arroyo with barrancas' <lq 
" l)arranca,' huu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

This gully discharges over the lowlands just south of Kibu'u 
[19:Ni]. 

[19:87] San Ildefonso "* Akqmpije'imp' op (iwekqhu u, P' oj) awelohu' u 
'southern arroyo of the place with the hole through it' 'arroyo 



318 ETHNOGEOGKArnV OK THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. axn. 20 

of the place with the hole throuj^'h it", referring to [19:75] 
(\dQmpije 'south' <'al\Ojjf 'pliiin' 'down country ',/j»//6' 'toward'; 
''yjf locative and adjective-forming posttix; P'o2)'awe,see [19:75]; 
kqhuhi, 'arroyo with barrancas' <kq 'barranca', hiCu 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. [19:71]. 

This arroyo is very large. Its lower end is at [19:67]. 
[19:88] San Ildefonso T"yw.fo^.'M, said to mean 'white earth hills' 
{t'y,»h said to be for t'y,\t a kind of white earthj' mineral, see 
Minerals, page 583; ^oku 'hill'). The name is not clear in its 
meaning. It may have referred originally to the arroyo [19:89] 
instead of to these hills, or it may have referred originality to 
both arro5^o and hills. 

A wagon road connecting Ranchos [19:50] and Buckman passes 
just east of these hills. A trail follows the wagon road, making 
short cuts, being in some places identical with the wagon road. 
No kind of whitish earth or rock was to be seen at the hills. The 
hills clearlj^ give name to [19:90]. 
[19:89] San Ildefonso T'y,/iikohwu, said to mean 'white earth arroyo' 
{T'y,?>i, see [19:88]; I'ohuu 'arroyo with barrancas' <l'q 'bar- 
ranca', /m'M 'large groove' 'arroyo'). The name T'yni may 
have been applied originally to the arroyo instead of to the hills 
[19:88], vice versa, or to both. No white earth was to be seen 
at either hills or arroyo. 
[19:90] San Ildefonso T'y,!)i'okuhi^u 'corner by the white earth hills' 
referring to [19:88] {T'y,}ii^ol"u, see [19:88]; bu'ii 'large low 
roundish place'). 

This bun is just south of the hills [19:85]. 
[19:91] San Ildefonso P'op'ciweokuiau, P'opmi}e'o1cupseTDgehu''u 'cor- 
ner by the hills of the hole that goes through' 'corner beyond 
the hills of the hole that goes through', referring to [19:76] 
{P'ojp'awe'oku, see [19:76]; hu'it 'large low roundish place'; 
ps^yge 'beyond'). 

At this corner is the spring Pxpopi [19:92]. 
[19:92] San Ildefonso Ps^pojn 'deer spring' {px 'mule deer'; popi 
'spring' <po 'water', pi 'to issue'). 

This spring, which is sometimes dry, is situated at the corner 
[19:91]. 
[19:93] San Ildefonso Nqyk^ndiwe 'where the earth is or was dug' 
{luhjf 'earth'; Fg??,/ ' to dig'; '/?w 'locative'). Cf. [19:94-] and 
[19:95]; also JVqijk'oijwi'i under [19: unlocated]. 

A hole in the ground is still clearly seen at this place. It is 
said that earth was removed long ago for the purpose of making 
a thin layer of clay or plaster on the walls of rooms. 
[19:94] San Ildefonso jVQyk'qywi^oku 'hills of the gap where the 
earth is or was dug' {NqyF qyw^ , see [19:93]; ^oku 'hill'). 



HARRINOTON-l PLACE-NAMES 319 

[19:95] Sail Ildefonso Ndijk'Qijwi'kqku'' u 'arroyo of the gap where 
the earth is or was dug" {MjrjJ/oijioi''/, see [19:93]; Jcoku'it. 'arroyo 
with barrancas' <kQ 'barranca", /ia>i "hirge groove' 'arroyo'). 

[19:96] San Udcfomo JVntjk'ouwi'okti't'.hi • threshing floor of the hills 
by the gap where the earth is or was dug', referring to [19:94] 
{]V^njk'o}jwi\>ki/., see [19:94]; 'e^« <Span. era 'threshing Hoor'). 
This threshing floor is on a low, flat hilltop. 

[19:97] San Ildefonso 'Omapiyf, see [16:42]. 

[19:98] San Ildefonso '6'w/flAw'w, see [16:l'2(i]. 

[19:99] San Ildefonso pumaniCu 'at the foot of [19:112]' {puma, see 
[19:112]; hw'(/ ' below' 'at the foot of '). The name refers to 
quite a definite locality as it is usually applied; this localit\^ is 
indicated by the number on the sheet and is equivalent to the 
lower drainage of the arroyo [19:100], to which piimanuht, gives 
the name. 

[19:100] San Ildefonso fumamt'ij)fhi('u 'arroyo at the base of 
[19:112]', referring to [19:99] {fvmamt'v, see [19:99]; {tjj' loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix; /iti'ii 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
This large arroyo has several large tributaries. 

[19:101] San Ildefonso Pyiipijeijifuhiauul-qhuv, fummcihohiru 
'northern ari'oyo of [20:9]' 'arroyo of [20:9]' [pimpije 'north' 
< p^?;y ' mountain ' ' up country 'j/ii/c 'toward'; 'r?;./' locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; fumawPi, see [20:9]; l"o/iut/ 'arroyo 
with barrancas' </.o 'barranca', hu''u ' large groove' 'arroyo"). 
Cf. [20:11] and [18:14]. 

[19:102] San Ildefonso Mcuiwe. lliuiwe'iil'u, Mcuiwehvaje of oljscure 
etymology {mcuiwe unexplained but apparently ending in the 
locative 'we/ 'o^'m 'hill'; Zwa/e 'height'). 

This ridge is ver}' long, stretching far toward Tesuque. It is 
crossed by a number of trails, notably by tiie old trail connecting 
San Ildefonso and Cochiti, which leaves the lowlands by the Rio 
Grande at Taw.nkojje [19:60]. This trail crosses [19:102] about 
two miles east of Buckman Mesa [19:112], it is said. Cf. [19:103], 
[19:104], and [19:105]. 

[19:ln:3] San Ildefonso Ma^iiweta'a of obscure etymology {ma^iiwe, see 
[19:lu2]; tahi 'gentle slope'). This name is given to the gentle 
slope to Ifa.iivje'olcu just south of the arroyo [19:105]. 

[19:104] San Ildefonso Ma,iiwefxrjg,\ dfa.if'wepserjgebu'u, M(Uiioehv\i 
'beyond [19:102]' 'corner beyond [19:102]' 'corner by [19:102]' 
{ma-iiwe, see [19:102]; pxrige 'beyond'; 6«'« 'large low roundish 
place'). 

The locality is better shown in [20:13]. 

[19:11)5] San Ildefonso McuiwehiCu 'arroyo of [19:102]' {mculuh', see 
[19:102]; hiCu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. [20:26]. 



320 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. an.\. 29 

This is the chief tributary of [19:10n], or, in other words, it 
may be said that the upper course of [19:100] is known by this 
uunie. 
[19:106] San Ildefonso ^'aAw'w 'fence arroyo' 'corral arroyo' {k'a 

'fence' 'corral'; hiu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
[19:107] San Ildefonso PoUhe'e 'little corner of the flowers' {poVi 
'flower'; hee 'small low roundish place'). 
The corner gives the name to the arroyo [19:107]. 
[19:108] San Ildefonso PoilbeAuu 'arroyo of the little corner of the 
flowers', referring to [19:107] [PoVibe'e, see [19:107]; hu'u 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 
[19:109] San Ildefonso PonfihiCu 'corner of the plumed arroyo shrub' 
{ponfi 'plumed arroyo shrub' ' Fallugia paradoxa acuminata'; 
h)Cu 'large low roundish place'). 

This large corner gives the name to [19:110]. 
[19:110] San Ildefonso Poiifihahii'u 'arroyo of the corner of the 
plumed arroyo shrub', referring to [19:109] {Ponfihu^u, see 
[19:109]; huu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
[19:111] ^-AnWAQioniio Kutsiiijwsehu''u 'blue rock arroyo' 0cu 'stone' 
'rock'; tsqywfe 'blueness' 'blue' 'greenness' 'green'; hiiii 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). It is said that there are bluish rocks at the 
arroyo; hence the name. 
[19:112] San Ildefonso y^M/«ffpi?;./', see [20:5]. 

[19:113] San WOieionso fumavmM 'slope of [19:112]' 'talus slope of 
[19:112]' {puma, see [19:112]; waki 'slope' 'talus slope at the ba.se 
of a cliff'). This name is applied to the talus slope at the foot of 
the cliffs of [19:112]. ^See [19:115] and [19:116]. 
[19:11-1] San Ildefonso ^Aywowapo 'tickle-foot trail' (uyf 'foot'; 
woim 'to tickle'; po 'trail'). The trail is so called because it is 
gravellj' and the gravel tickles one's feet through the moccasins. 
This trail ascends the mesa [19:112] west of trail [19:117], pass- 
ing the cave [19:116] about half-way up. Cf. [19:11.5]. 
[19:11.5] San Ildefonso '4?;»^'':>wa'a'a 'tickle-foot slope' {Aywowa-, sqq 
[19:111]; 'rt'a 'steep slope'). This name is given to the gravelly 
foot-tickling slope where the trail of like name [19:114] ascends 
the mesa [19:112]. 
[19:116] (1) San Ildefonso fumawakipo, pumawakipo'i'^ "hole of 
[19:113]' 'place of the hole of [19:113]' {pwnawali, see [19:113]; 
j)o 'hole'; T' locative and adjective-forming posttix). 

(2) San Ildefonso NqyketQier', Niiyketqiep o" i* 'place where 
the earth tumbles down quickly' 'place of the cave where the 
earth tumbles down quickly' {nnyf 'earth'; kdqie, said to mean 
'to tumble quickly'; 'f' locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
j?'o 'hole' 'cave'). 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 321 

On the east .side of a small ^ulch near the top of the talus there 
is a cliff of earth aljout 15 feet in height. It is saicl that in former 
times there was a cave at the bottom of the cliff. Large frag- 
ments of the earthen cliff have broken off from time to time, until 
now not a trace of the cave can be seen. The cave was in ancient 
times, it is said, one of the places from which fire and smoke 
issued. The other places were '' Or/uJigtnn [20:7], Toma [29:3], 
and Tunfjoi)<9r^ [18:21] according to San Ildefonso tradition. 

[19:117] San Ildefonso Tajefo 'the straight trail' (taje 'straight'; |»o 
'trail"). The name is applied to distinguish this trail from the 
more devious trail [19:114]. 

This trail goes straight up the mesa [19:112]. Either [19:117] 
or [19:112] is often used when traveling down the river on foot 
or horseback. 

[19:118] San Ildefonso Tsabijotip'o, Tsdbijdbip'd'i'^ 'the hole of the 
giant' 'the place of the hole of the giant ' {fsai/jo 'a kind of giant'; 
5z pos.sessive; p'o ' hole ' ' cave '; T' locative and adjective-forming 
postfix). 

This is a large but shallow cave at the base of the cliff above 
the talus. It is said to have been one of the caves frequented by 
the giant who lived within the Black Mesa; see under [18:19]. 

[19:119] San Ildefonso VJdotefmoUi ' projecting corner of the crow 
dwelling-place' {'odo 'crow' 'raven'; i!d 'dwelling place', here 
almost equivalent to ' nest' in the vaguer sense of the word; fti'n, 
wifi ' horizontally projecting corner "). The name is applied to 
a projecting corner of blackish cliff'. 

[19:120] Pofsijfowui 'projecting corners at the hole or mouth of the 
river canyon ', referring to the canyon of the Rio Grande south of 
the place {potsPi 'river canyon' <po 'water' 'river', fsPi 'can- 
j^on '; p'o ' hole ', here referring to the ' mouth ' of a canyon ; witi 
' horizontally projecting corner '). The name refers to the pro- 
jecting corners of higher land at each side of the mouth of the 
canyon. See special treatment of the Rio Grande [Large Fea- 
tures], pages 100-102. 

[19:121] San IkU'ionso KivseJcy,mpokop'e 'the railroad bridge' {hvxk^yf 
'iron' 'metal'; po 'road' 'trail'; hjp'e 'boat' 'bridge' <Ao 'to 
bathe ', j/e ' stick ' ' log '). 

This bridge is the only railroad bridge across the Rio Grande 
north of Albuquerque, New Mexico. 

[19:122] San Ildefonso KwsElc\impo 'the railroad' {Iw^hirjf 'iron' 
'metal;' po 'road' 'trail') — the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. 

[19:123] (1) San Ildefonso Potsin4^eg.e 'down at the little muddy 
place ' (potsinq ' it is muddy ' < potsl ' mud ' < po ' water ', tsi ' to 
cut through' 'to ooze through'; tiq. 'to be'; 'e diminutive; g.e 
87584°— 29 eth— 16 21 



322 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

■ down at' ' over at'). The uso of ml in this name is iinusuiil and 
its force is obscure. 

(2) San Ildefonso '' AJcqmpijepolcwi ' lake of the south ' ( \ikqm- 
pije 'south' <\t,l'q'r)f 'plain' 'down country', plje 'toward'; 
pokwi 'lake' 'pool' <.po ' water', ^Wi unexplained). For the 
origin of this name see below. 

(3) Eng. Kio Grande station. =Span. (i). 

(i) Span, estacion Rio Grande (named after the Ivio Grande). 

These names refer to the locality of a sliort gulch which has its 
head near the top of the mesa and forms a junction with the Rio 
Grande. It is crossed at its mouth by the railroad. A tank 
[19:124] for supplying engines with water stands at the mouth 
just east of the track. The water for the tank comes from a spring 
near the head of the gulch. There was formerly a pool at this 
Tplnce called Pot.'^imfeg.epokwi {pokwi 'lake' 'pool' <p(? 'water', 
Iwi unexplained). This pool was the "lake of the north" of the 
San Ildefonso; see page 2.51. Hence the name San Ildefonso (2), 
above. Some ^Mexicans live at Rio Grande. See [19:124J. 
[19:124:] (1) Sau Ildefonso IiwspJcy,//>popoqwa ' the railroad tank' {kw9- 
I'U/npo, see [19:122]; poijwa 'tank' 'reservoir' <po 'water', qwa 
denoting state of being a receptacle). 

(2) San Ildefonso Kivse.lcy.mpotqyl-e 'the railroad tank' {kws^- 
Iciimpo see [19:122]; tqyl-e <Span. tanque 'tank'). 

It is at this tank that the train drinks (tiqsy,ywx ' it drinks'), as 
the San Ildefonso express it. 
[19:125] Foisijy'owLoi, Posoge'impotslpoioUl 'mouth of the water 
canj'on' 'mouth of the water canyon of the Kio Grande' {Potsi'i, 
Posog.e'impoisi'i, see [Large Features], pp. 102-03; foioiii 'hori- 
zontally projecting point or points of high land at the mouth of a 
canyon' <^'w 'hole', wUl 'horizontally projecting point'). 

This is the northern mouth of White Rock Canyon. See 
PotsiH [Large Features], pp. 102-03. 

Unlocatep 

San Ildefonso NqyVoywi^l 'gap where the earth is or was dug', 
referring to [19:93] {A'qy¥oyj' as in [19:93]; wPi 'gap'). 

This gap is situated somewhere near [19:93], [19:94], and [19:9.5]. 

[20] HUCKMAN SHEET 

The sheet (map 20) shows places with Tewa names about Buckman, 
Mexico. No pueblo ruin is known to exist in this area west of the New 
Rio Grande. The territory is claimed by the Sau Ildefonso Indians 
and the names of places were obtained from them. The whole region 
is known to the San Ildefonso and other Tewa m fumaps^yge 'beyond 
Buckman Mesa [20:5]' {fmna, sec [20:5]; pseyge 'beyond'). 



MAP 20 
BUCKMAN REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



/'•,*• 

'/',... 



'.H> 




TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 20 



.„ -:. .-v"'//''-vi'"//,\>(///i'// St 

'* ■•>M.>.>"''/^;-\v""'/, oi/'/."C-^ V. 

' ^ .- :'WI<\- - .1//,, v»"" 









■ ^tittr - ^11*. 



•//I'' 










30 



- o 

31 - c 






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29 



3 Miurs 



MAP 20 
BUCKMAN REGION 



HARRINGTON] 



PLACE-NAMES 323 



[20:1] San Ildcfonso " OmahiCu, see [16:12f]]. 

[20::i] San Ildefouso N<inrsewoi ' yellow earth gap' {myf 'earth'; 
tse 'yellowness', absolute form of tsejP'' 'yellow'; wVi 'gap'). 

This is a little o-ulcli about 400 yards south of [19:123]. In it 
lumps of yellow mineral (probably ocher) are picked up, which are 
ground and used as yellow paint. See under Minerals. 

[20:o] White Rock Canyon of tlie Rio Grande (pi. 13), see special 
treatment of the Rio Grande [Large Features: 3J, pages 100-102. 

[20:-l] San Ildefonso folaiss^UP^ 'the white cliff or rock' (tola 'cliti'' 
'large cliff-like rock'; Tssp. 'whiteness' 'white'; V^ locative and 
adjectiv'e-forming postfix). 

It is not certain that this "white rock" exists except in the 
minds of some of the Indians, who claim that White Rock Canyon 
of the Rio Grande must be named after it. See special treatment 
of Rio Grande [Large Features: 3], pages 100-102. One Indian 
describes the "white rock" as a "ledge as white as snow in 
the middle of a black cliff." Mr. F. W. Hodge suggests that 
the white rock referred to may be a perfectly white "patch" in 
a cliff on the east side of the river, which may be seen from the 
road out of Buckman leading to the Rito de los Frijoles. 

[20:5] (1) San Ildefonso fmnapiyf of obscure etymology {fuma un- 
explain'ed, but containing -ina. in common with many other unana- 
lyzable Tewa place-names, as for instance ^Uina [16:42] across the 
river from fuma.; piijj' 'mountain'). Mr. W. M. Tipton, of 
Santa Fe, informs the writer that " cuma" is given in an old Span, 
document as the name of a hill or mountain west of Santa Fe; see, 
however, Toma [29:3]. '" 'Gigantes', or the black cliff of Shyu- 
mo south of San Ildefonso." ' " The Teh uas call . . . the gigan- 
tic rocks forming the entrance to the Rio Grande gorge south of 
their village, Shyu-mo."' The o at the end of these forms of 
Bandelier is probably a misprint for a. 

(2) Eng. Buckman Mesa (named from Buckman [20:19]). This 
name seems to be rapidly coming into use. 

(3) Span. Mesa de los Ortizes 'mesa of the Ortizes (family 
name)'. This is the common Span, name; why applied is not 
ascertained. 

(4) Span. "Gigantes."' Probably so called because of the tra- 
dition of the giant; see [20:7], [19:118]. 

This high basaltic mesa puma forms, as it were, the eastern 
pillar at the mouth of ^^'hite Rock Canyon of the Rio Grande; 
the smaller but equally dark ''Oina [16:42] forms the western 
pillar. The mesa is crossed by an ancient trail connecting San 
Ildefonso with the more southern pueblos. From two places on 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 81, 1892. 



324 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OP THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

fuma fire and smoke wore bo.Icbed forth in ancient times, it is said, 
namely, from [20:78] and [19:116], q. v. Many other features 
of interest in the vicinity of piuiia will be noticed on the maps. 
[20:*)] San \[di&iox\so'' OQ.uhewe,'' Ogxiliewekewe of obscure etymology 
(^oguhewe unexplained, except that -we is apparently locative; 
Iceuie 'peak' 'height'). 

The top of Buckman Mesa [20:5] is flattish; ''Ogiihewe rises like 
a hillock on the western side of the mesa top. It contains the 
hole '' Oguhewepo [20:7] from which fire and smoke used to belch 
forth. See [20:7]. 
[20:7] San Ildefonso ' Oguheioep'o, ' Oguhewep a P^ 'hole at [20:6]' 
'place of the hole at [20:6]' (' Oguhetoe, see [20:6]; //o 'hole'; T* 
locative and adjective-forming postfix). 

This is described as a hole 10 feet or so deep which goes verti- 
tically into the earth at the summit of [20:6]. According to San 
Ildefonso tradition this is one of the four places from which 
fire and smoke came forth in ancient times; the other places 
•WQTG, finnawakq)' [19:116], Tomn [29:3], and T'ii,nfjopo [18:21]. 
Bandelier ' mentions this tradition, but names only three of the 
places: "To-ma", "Shyu-mo", and "Tu-yo." 
[20: S] SanlldefonsoyMTOaw*'*' 'gap by [20:5]' (y^!^?wrt, see [20:5]; wHi 
'gap'). 

This is the pass east of yw?n a Mesa just as J"itny</u>«'/ [18:32] 

is the pass east of T'y,nfjo Mesa [18:19]. The main wagon road 

between San Ildefonso and Buckman runs through this pass. 

See [20:9] and [20:10]. 

[20:9] San Ildefonso Pimpije^hifiimawikqhv^u, fumawikqhv^u, see 

[19:101]. 
[20:10] San Ildefonso '' Akqmpije^inf amawil-qhu\i, 'southern arroyo 
of [12:8]' {^akqmpije 'south'< ''akqrjf 'plain' 'down coun- 
try', />(/e 'toward'; Hyf locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
fumawVi^ see [20:8]; kqhiCu 'arroyo with barrancas '< kq 'bar- 
ranca', hxC-u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

This arroyo runs into the Kqho^iuwag.e [20:11]. It is not as 
important or as well known as [20:9]. 
[20:11] San Ildefonso Kqh(Uuwag.e of obscure etymology {kq 'bar- 
ranca'; lioMt. unexplained; w« apparently as mwcui 'wide gap'; 
ge apparently the locative 'down at' 'over at'). It has not been 
found possible to analyze the name. 

This arrojo is deep and narrow; its walls are in many places 
vertical cliffs, its bed sandy. One can walk through it, and to do 
so is a strange experience, so narrow and shut in is it. The arroyo 
discharges into the Rio Grande just below the spring [20:17]. Its 

1 Final Report, pt. II, p. 81, 1892. 



HARRINGTON'] PLACE-NAMES 325 

lower-course is spanned by a wooden railroad bridge. Its upper- 
most course, or what may be termed an upper triliutarv, is 
[20:10]. 

[20:12] San Ildefonso M<ume, Miuiwe,>l-u, see [19:102]. 

[20:13] San Ildefonso McuhveppRijge, see [19:104:]. 

[20:14:] Kujt.'iniig.eii)kqlttiii, see [21:22]. 

[20:15] San Ildefonso Posugehu'ii, see [17:17]. 

[20:16] San Ildefonso Inuse/ciimpo 'the railroad' {hwce.lcy,yj' 'iron' 
' metal ' ; po ' trail ' ' road '). 
This is the narrow-gauge Denver and Kio Grande Railroad. 

[20:17] San Wdeionso puinaprgyrjfpotsip'owUl 'projecting corners at 
the mouths of the canyons of the river beyond Buckman Mesa 
[20:5]' {pumapc^yge, see introduction to sheet [20]; pofsPi 'river 
canyon' <po 'water' 'river', here referring to the Rio Grande; 
isi'i ''cany on'; po 'hole' 'mouth of can^'on'; w/.'/ 'horizontally 
projecting corner or point'). This name is applied to the vicinitj' 
of the projecting corners of higher land at the mouth of the can- 
yons of the Rio Grande both north and south of Buckman. These 
are called merely 'the canyon mouths at Buckman', to translate 
freely. 

[20:lSi] San lldetonso /'limaps^yge^iinpopi 'the spring beyond Buck- 
man Mesa' [20:12] {fumaps^yge, see introduction to sheet [20]; 
1777" locative and adjective-forming postfix; pojji 'spring' < po 
'water', pi 'to issue'). 

This spring is most peculiarly situated. It is near the top of a 
steep earthen bank beside the Rio Grande and perhaps 20 feet 
above the bed of the river. There are two little basins for water, 
one of which has been recently boxed in with boards. Although 
it is hard to determine the source of the water, the spring runs 
the year round and probably contains the best water for drinking 
purposes in the vicinity of Buckman. The San Ildefonso Tewa 
say that it is a very old and good spring, and frequently go to 
it to drink when at or passing through Buckman. 

[20:19] (1) fumapseygeteqwa'i''^ 'place of the houses beyond Buck- 
man Mesa' (/•M;/ir//^^/;^7e, see introduction to sheet [20]; teqiva 
'house' <te 'dwelling-place', qwa denoting state of being a 
receptacle; '»'*' locative and adjective-forming postfix). Indian 
purists use this name. It is also used sometimes so that Mexicans 
and Americans will not understand that Buckman is referred to. 

(2) San Ildefonso Bakamxijf, Bakamqyf. The first of these 
forms is evidently from the Eng., the second from the Span., pro- 
nunciation of the name; see below. 

(3) Eng. Buckman. Named, it is said, from " old man Buck- 
man,'' now dead, who operated a sawmill in the mountains west 



326 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

of Buckniiui, in the eighties. The railroad station and settle- 
ment wore mimed after him 20 or 30 years ag-o. The name is 
applied also to se\eral surrounding- geographical features, as 
Buckman Mesa [30:5]. One San Ildefonso Indian had curiously 
enough determined that this name must mean ' male deer '; he took 
'"buck"' a,sjjse 'deer' and '"man" as scyy, meaning 'man' 'male', 
since pses^y J' means ' male deer ' in Tewa. =Tewa (2), Span. (4). 
(i) Span, pronounced Bakman, Bakaman. (<Eng.). =Tewa 
(2), Eng. (3). 

The settlement of Buckman consists at present of several small 
houses and shacks mosth' south of the railroad, and a large lum- 
ber yard. The lumber sawed in the territory west of the Rio 
Grande is hauled to Buckman in wagons and thence shipped by 
train. Buckman is only a stone's throw from the two arroyos 
[20:11] and [20:25]. The vicinity of Buckman itself and of 
places designated by Buckman used in compounds is usually 
rendered in Tewa by fumapieyf/e, literally ' beyond Buckman 
Mesa' [20:5]; see introduction to sheet [20], page 322. 

[20:20] San Ildefonso j^umaps^ygeteA-oj/ e 'wagon bridge beyond Buck- 
man Mesa' [20:5] (fumapsey^e, see under introduction to sheet [20]; 
i;^' wagon'; kop''e 'bridge" boat' <ko 'to bathe', p'e 'stick' 
'log'). 

This is the only wagon bridge across the Rio Grande between 
Espaiiola and Cochiti. 

[20:21] San Ildefonso Ifwqwihu'u, see [17:25]. 

[20:22] San Ildefonso 'Aitieku'u, see [17:29]. 

[20:23] San Ildefonso T><ueg.ehu'u, see [17:30]. 

[20:2Jr] Rio Grande, see [Large Features], pages 100-102. 

[20:25] San Ildefonso Eosog.c', KqsoQfiiijfhiCu, 'down at the large bar- 
ranca or arroyo ' ' arroyo down by the lai'ge barranca or arroyo ' (l-q 
' barranca' 'arroyo with barrancas'; son 'largeness' 'large'; ^e 
'down at' 'over at'; ' ^^y locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
A«'w 'large groove ' 'arroyo'). Some individuals appear to use 
Kosog_e2inA Kqsog.e'iyj'hu^u indiscriminately; others insist that a 
certain locality in the arroyo is called Kqsog.e and that the whole 
arroyo must be called Kqsog.e'irifhii''u. There are very large and 
high barrancas at several places in the arroyo and although the 
writer was accompanied by an Indian at Buckman who had ad- 
vocated the two-name, two-place theory, he did not know to 
which barranca Kqi^oge should be applied. 

This arroyo is very large and in the neighborhood of the mesa 
[20:33] wildly picturesque. It is known by the Americans as 
"Buckman Arroyo", but since [20:11] also can be so designated, 
this cannot be given as an established name. 



HAKRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 327 

[20:26] San Ildefonso MaJh(vpieyge''ir)fhu''u, Mcuiwehii' u 'arro}-© of 
|20:13]' 'arroyo of [20:12]' {MnMwefss^rjqe^ see [20:13]; Mcuiiwe, 
see [20:12]; ^yjf locative and adjective-forming postfix; Jui'u 
•lari^e groove' 'arro^yo'). Cf. [19:105]. 

This flows from the vicinity of [20:13] and enters [20:25] not 
verj' far above Buckman settlement [20:19]. 

[20:27] San Ildefonso Ss^isse.bu'u 'white I'ound-cactus corner' (see 
'round-cactus' of several species, as 'Opuntia comanchica' and 
'Opuntia polyacantha'; fsse ' whiteness' 'white'; bu'u 'largo low 
roundish place'). 

It is said that the cactus plants look whitish or dusty at this 
place, hence the name. The corner is believed to be accurately 
located on the sheet. 

[20:28] San Ildefonso P'aim/pubeiyj'kuhi 'arroyo of the little cor- 
ner of .the roots of Yucca glauca', referring to [20:29] (P'amu- 
j)ubee, see [20:29]; Htjy locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
Am'm. 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[20:29] San Ildefonso P'amiqntbee 'little corner of the roots of 
Yucca glauca (//'/»; '^ 'Yucca glauca 'a small species of Spanish 
bayonet the roots of which are used for washing people's hair 
and for other purposes; pu 'root'; be'e 'small low roundish 
place'). 
This small corner gives the name to the large arroyo [20:28]. 

[20:30] San Ildefonso Pa^ilcebu'' u ' corner where the thread or fila- 
ment is on top' (/?«'- 'thread' 'filament'; Ice said to be the same 
as in Icewe and to mean 'on the very top'; bio'io 'large low round- 
ish place'). To what the name refers is not clear to the modern 
Indians. It may be that the name was originally applied to 
[20:31], q. V. _ 

[20:31] San Ildefonso Pa'^kekwaje 'height where the thread or fila- 
ment is on top' {Pq'-h', see [20:30] ; kwaje 'height"). It may be 
that Pq'^ke- was applied originally to the height instead of to the 
dell [20:30], or more probabl}'. originall}^ to both. 

[20:32] Tesuque ' Aty.ywseps^yge'iykohuu, see [26:2]. 

[20:33] San Ildefonso MdnWi^, Mqntipiyf 'place of the swollen 
hand' 'swollen hand mountain' {m/iyf 'hand'; // 'swoUenness' 
'swollen'; T' locative and adjective-forming postfix; piyf 'moun- 
tain'). Why this name is applied is unknown to the informants. 
The little mountain bearing this name is clearly visible from the 
railroad. It has a flattish top and is very picturesque. The 
common form of the name is said to be 3Iqnt !'!'''. It appears 
that Tewa usually use the word without thinking of its etymology. 
The mountain appears to give names to [20:34], [20:35], and 
[20:36]. 



328 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ANN. 20 

[20:.'J4] Sun Iklot'oiiso J/(i/((!r/''V«t''(' 'liltli^ arroyo of the pliicc of the 
swollen hand \ relVrrin},' to |20::3:3j (AlintPi''^, see [20:3:!]; /le'e 
'small i;roovo' 'little ai'i'oyo"). 
This arroyito runs into 1 20:25 1. 

[20:8o] Sun Ildefonso Jlq/if.rr'isi'l 'canyon at the place of the swollen 
• hand', refin-riiij;- to [20::33] {Mii/i/ri'', see [20:;:!;J| ; tsi'l 'canyon"). 
This name is given to the beautiful canyon of |20:25J opposite 
Mii7itir' Mountain |20:33]. 

It is at tiie lower part of the canyon in the bed of the arroyo 
(hat the sprino- [20:3(5] discharges. 

[20:36J San Ildefonso Mqntii^popi 'spring by the place of the 
swollen hand ', referring to [20:33] {Mqnf,i^i'\ see [20:33j; popi 
'spring' <po 'water', j9* 'to issue'). 

The spring is situated as described under [20:3.5], above. It is 
said that it is never dry. 

[20:37] San Ildefonso Tsse.)ifutaH_yfhu''u ' arroyo of the whitish gentle 
slope', referring to [20:38] (Ts^nfutiCa, see [20:38] ; -iyf locative 
and adjective-forming postfix ; hau 'large groove' "arroyo"). 
This arroyo joins [20:40] and the two form the canyon [20:35]. 

[20:38] San Ildefonso TssenftitcCa ' whitish gentle slope' {fsxnj'u, said 
to be an old form of fspe 'whiteness' 'white' now used only in 
this place-name and in the name of the White Corn Maiden 
{K'y,ntsse7ij'H\t'''nfy, K^'iiyy ^corn\fssenj'u ' whiteness' 'white', 
'a'"«yw 'maiden"); ta\i 'gentle slope'). Why the sloping plain 
is called thus was not known to the informants. It may be said 
to be whitish. 

The plain gives names to [20:37] and [20:39]. 

[20:39] San Ildefonso Tsxnfutaoka 'hills by the whitish gentle 
slope', referring to [20:38] (flif.nfuta'a, see [20:38]; 'oku 'hill'). 

[20:-l:0] San Ildefonso TehxCu 'cottonwood tree arro_yo' (te 'cotton- 
wood' 'Populus wislizeni'; luCu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[20:41] San Ildefonso KaUpCewfhCu, see [17:42]. 

[20:42] San Ildefonso PiMepopq'Hsii, see [17:58]. 

[20:43] San Ildefonso Tunaiahu'u, see [17:62]. 

[20:44] San Ildefonso fohn'u, see [17:66]. 

[20:45] Tsihwaje, see [29:1]. 

[20:46] San Ildefonso P'tful-wiije, see [29:2]. 

[20:47] San Ildefonso P'efuta'a 'gentle slope of timber point' 
(P't^/w't/, see under [20:unlocated]; tc/a 'gentle slope'). 
A large sloping part of the mesa top is called thus. 

[20:48] San Ildefonso F'cfuho.ii. 'roundish hill of the timber point' 
{P't'fuu, see under [20:unlocated]; io,ii 'large roundish thing or 
pile'). 

[20:49] San Ildefonso ICy,mp'ihiu 'shin corner' (k'ump'i 'shin' 
<^-''(i9y 'leg'; j/i 'narrowness' 'nari'ow' as in j)'ili of same 
meaning; 6m'm 'large low roundish place'). 



MAP 21 
JACONA REGION 




z 
g 
o 
a. 

< 

z 
o 
o 

< 



MAP 21 
JACONA REGION 



HAKKIXGTON] PLACE-NAMES 329 

The place gives the name to [20:50]. Why the name is given 
is not known to the informants. 
[20:50] (1) San lldefonso K'\itNp'ihu^'waj^ 'height by shm corner' 
{ICy.mj)'ibu''u, see [20:49]; kwaje 'height'). 

(2) Span. Mesa del Cuervillo, Mesa del Cuervo 'crow mesa'. 
Why this name is applied is not known. Mesa del Cuervo is 
erroneously identified with [29:3] by Bandelier. 

This name is given to the northern extremity of the great mesa 
[29:1], especially to the portion that towers above the dell [20:49]. 

Unlocated 

Jacona station, Jacona section. This is a place on the railroad a few 
miles east of Buckman. There are no buildings thei-e. The nanie 
is but recently applied and is taken from [21:6], q. v. 

San lldefonso P'efuu 'timber point' {pe 'stick' 'log' 'timber'; 
f It'll 'horizontally projecting point'). Cf. P'efu^u, the Tewa 
name for Abiquiu; see [3:36]. 

Just where this point is and of just what nature it is the infor- 
mants did not know. It gives names to [29:2], [20:'48], and 
[20:47]. 

[21] JACONA SHEET 

The sheet (map 21) shows the vicinity of the Mexican settlements 
Jacona and Pojoaque, also three pueblo ruins about which definite 
traditions have been i^reserved. It is not certain w'hat kind of Tewa 
formerly occupied this area. 

[21:1] San lldefonso /'M?iyffi'o9wf/, see [18:5]. 

[21:2] San lldefonso and Nambe PiJog.e, PiJog.e^oku 'down at the very 
red place' 'hills down at the very red place' {pi 'redness' 'red'; 
jo augmentative; g.e 'down at' 'over at'; ''oku 'hill'). 

This is a high, long, and much eroded reddish range of hills. 
It is the highest and most conspicuous range between Nambe 
Pueblo and the Black Mesa [18:19]. Pljoge is separated from 
Nqmpiheg:i [18:3] by the gap punj'xFoywVi [18:6]. Pijoge is 
nearly as conspicuous as the Black Mesa [18:19]. According to 
a San lldefonso storj', a Santa Clara man once loved a Cochiti 
woman. The woman had a Cochiti husband. A penita 'dry 
corpse' {pe)ii 'corpse'; ta 'dryness" 'dry') volunteered to kill 
the husband. The story ends by saying that the i^im'ia went to 
sleep in a cave somewhere in P'tjog.e, where he is still sleeping. 

[21:3] Nambe T' qtuge, T'qtuhii'u 'down at the place of the pure 
white earth' 'white earth corner' {T'o'^ Nambe form of fy,'- 
'white earth', see under Minerals; tit said to be for tuJa'^ 
'pureness' 'pure'; g.e 'down at' 'over at'; bi(\i 'large low 
roundish place'). 



330 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OK THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

There is iiiucli "•tierra bliuica" at this place, as can be seen 
from far off. Cf. [21:4]. 

[21:4J Nambe T'ofi/bidwaje 'heights liy white earth corner', referring 
to [21:;]] {r'ofubu'u., see [21:3]; kwaje 'height'). 

[21:.5] Pojoaque Creek, Nambe Creek, see [19:3]. 

[21:6] (1) Sal'onse, S(dv)isekwseJcy,''P^ 'at the tobacco barranca' 'Mexi- 
can place at the tobacco barranca' (Std'onse, see [21:9]; KwseJcy, 
'Mexican', modxQedirom kivseky,7jj' 'iron' 'metal'; '*"» locative and 
adjective-forming postfix). =Eng. (2), Span. (3). For quoted 
forms of the name see under (9) below. 

(2) Eng. Jacona settlement. (<Span.). =Tewa(l), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Jacona. (<Tewa SaJconx). =Tewa (1), Eng. (2). 
The change from s to Span, j is peculiar. 

This is quite a large Mexican settlement. The main road 
between Pojoaque and San Ildefonso runs through it. See espe- 
cially Jacona under [20:unlocated] and Jaconita [21:7]. 
[21:7] (1) Sakq?ise^e, SakQnsekwsehy,^i^*^e 'little place at the tobacco 
barranca ' ' little Mexican place at the tobacco barranca ' 
{Sakonse, SakqncekwxhiiT^, see [21:6]; 't; diminutive). Cf. Eng. 
(2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Jaconita. (<Span.). = Span. (3). Cf. Tewa (1). 

(3) Span. Jaconita, diminutive of Jacona [21:0]. =Eng. (2); 
cf. Tewa (1). 

Jaconita is nearly a mile west of Jacona [21:6] and like the lat- 
ter is a Mexican settlement through which the main road between 
Pojoaque and San Ildefonso passes. 

[21:8] Sal'oncenugepotsa 'marsh below the place of the tobacco bar- 
ranca', referring to the vicinity of [21:6] {Sal'qnir, see [21:6]; 
nu^u 'below'; g.e 'down at' 'over at'; potsa 'marsh' < po 
' water ', tsa ' to cut through ' ' to ooze through '). 

The bed and vicinity of Pojaque Creek are meadow^' at this 
place. 

[21:9] Sal-onx'orjivilieji 'pueblo ruin by the tobacco barranca' (sa 
'tobacco'; ko 'barranca'; )ise locative; 'oijwikeji 'pueblo ruin'< 
^oywi 'pueblo', keji 'old' postpound). "Xacona."^ '"Xacono."^ 
" S. Domingo de Xacona."^ " S. Domingo de Xacomo."* 
"S. Domingo de Xacoms."^ "Jacoma.'"" "lacona.'"' "Sa'- 
kona."* "Jacona, or Sacona."' "Saeona.""' "Sacoma."" 
" There is also one [a ruin] near Jacona." '- 

1 De I'Isle, carte M^xique et Floride. 1703. 'Hodge, field notes. Bur. Amer. Etlin., 1886 

2 De I'Isle, Atlas Nouveau, map 60, 1733. (Handbook Inds., pt. 1, p, 627, 1907). 

' D'Anville, map Amdrique Septentrionale, ' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 85, 189.3. 

1746. '0 Hewett; General View, p. 697, 1905; Com- 

* Jefferys, Amer. Atlas, map 5. 1776. mnnaut(5s, p. 33, 1908. 

6 Walcb, Charte America, 1S05. " Hewett, Antiquities, pi. xvii, 1906. 

6 Davis, El Gringo, p. 8S, l.s.i7. '2 Twitchell in Santa Fe New Mexican, Sept. 22, 

' Buschmann, Neu-Mex., p. 230, 1S58. 1910. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 331 

This is the ruin of a historic pueblo, as is evident from the 
quoted names given above. Bandelier says of it: 

On the south side of the Pojuaque River [21:5], between that village 
[21:29] and San IMefonso, two ruins are known to exist; Jacona, or Sacona, a 
small pueblo occupied until 1696, and I'ha-niba, [19:40], of more ancient 
date. I have not heard of any others in that vicinity.' 

In a note Bandelier' adds: 

In 1680 Jacona was an 'aldea '[village] only. Vetancurt, Cronica, p. 317. 
It belonged to the parish of Namli^. After its abandonment it became the 
property of Ignacio de Roybal in 1702. Merced de Jacona, MS. 

The ruin is evidently still in possession of the Koybal family, 
for its southern end is on land owned by Mr. Juan Bautista 
Koybal while the remainder is on land belonging- to Mr. Remedios 
Roybal. The pueblo was of adobe, and the ruins consist of low 
mounds altogether about 200 feet long. The site is well known 
to Tewa and Mexicans of the vicinity and the writer was informed 
by Mexicans at Jacona settlement [21:6] that some good pottery 
has been found at the ruin. The Mexicans added Santo Domingo 
'holy Sunday' or 'Saint Dominick' to the Indian name, as will be 
noticed in the quoted forms above. There is no record of a church 
or chapel ever having been built at the place. Just why the name 
Salconx was originally applied is no longer known to the Tewa, 
so it seems. One myth has been obtained at San Ildefonso, the 
scene of which is laid at Snl'ons^. The informants do not know 
whence the Sakonse people departed, except that they went to 
live at other Tewa villages. Sakonse gives rise to the names of 
[21:6], Jacona [20:unlocated], [21:7], and [21:10]. 

[21:10] San Ildefonso Sakqn$''olc w'hiWs by the place of the tobacco 
barranca', referring to the vicinity of [21:6] {Sakonie, see [21:9]; 
^oku 'hill'). This name is in common use and is found also in a 
San Ildefonso myth, above mentioned. When the Parrot Maiden 
brought her husband liack to Siiko?ise, the home of his parents, 
she alighted on the Sukonx^oku. The maiden and her husl)and 
remained there till after nightfall, when they went to the pueblo. 

[21:11] Nambe K^/p'ejjj'/in'ii 'arroyo of the black rocks' (kii 'rock' 

'stone'; p\tjj' 'blackness' 'black'; hiiu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

This arroyo is formed bj"^ the joining of [15:20] and [21:20]. It 

discharges into Pojoaque Creek at the upper end of the marsh 

[21:8]. Cf. [21 :!!»]. 

[21:12] Nambe T'ake/iuu, T'akebuhun 'arroyo where they live on 
top' 'arroyo of the corner where they live on top', said to refer to 
[21:13] {Take-, T'akehii'u, see [21:13]; hii'u 'large groove' 
'arroyo'). 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. II, p. 85, 1892. 



332 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

[21:13] Nambc T'ffh'bii'u 'the corner where they live on top' {t'a 'to 
live'; he 'on top' as in fcewe 'on top'; bii\i 'large low roundish 
place'). Why the name was given is not known; the informants 
presume that some people used to live "on top" somewhere near 
this low place. 

The place extends both north and south of Pojoaque Creek 
and all about the lower course of [21:12]. On the south side of 
Pojoaque Creek there are man}' Mexican farms and a Roman 
Catholic chapel [21:15]. The Mexicans include this locality under 
the name Pojoaque, it seems. The locality gives names to [21:12] 
and [21:1-1]. 

[21:14] Nanibe T'al-rhvaje, T'alcebukwaje 'height of the place where 
they live on top' 'height of the corner where they live on top' 
referring to [21:13] {T'alce-, T'ahebu^u, see [21:13]; Iwaje 'on 
top'). The name refers to the high lands north of Pojoaque 
Creek in the vicinity of [21:13]. 

[21:15] Nambe Mlmte'e, T'akebunumte'e 'the little church' 'the little 
church of the low corner where they live on top', referring to 
[21:13] (misate 'church', literally 'mass house' <misa <Span. 
misa 'Roman Catholic mass'; te 'dwelling-place' 'house'; 'e 
diminutive; T'aJcebuii, see [21:13]. 
This is the Roman Catholic chapel mentioned under [21:13]. 

[21:10] Nambe Tse<2U^seywaihu^u, see [24:8]. 

[21:17] Nambe TapvhuhiHu 'grass root corner arroyo', referring to 
[21:18] {TajmhiHu, see [21:18]; laHu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[21:18] Nambe TtqnibiHu 'grass root corner' (ta 'grass'; ^i« 'root'; 
bi/u 'large low roundish place'). 

[21:19] Nambe Kupiyflvridwaje-^hei^i of the arroyo of the black 
stones', referring to [21:11] {Kup'i.yfhuht, see [21:11]; kwaje 
'height'). 

[21:20] Nambe Husog.e, see [24:1]. 

[21:'21] Tesuque Creek, see [26:1]. 

[21:22] San Ildefonso, Nambe, Tesuque, and Santa Q\?iVi\ Knjemug.e'irj- 
l-qhuhi 'arroyo of the place where the_v threw the stones down' 
refei'ring to [21:24] {KujeinuQ.e, see [21:24]; ''iyf locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; kohnhi 'arroyo with barrancas' <Jcq 
'barranca', Itini " large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

[21:23] Nambe Kqsoge, HusoQfi, ^ Okups^ygelcqsog.e, '' OkupSR'ogehvsog.e, 
see [23:48]. 

[21:24] San Ildefonso, Nambe, Tesuque, and Santa Clara Ki(jennig.e- 
^qywih'ji 'pueblo ruin where they threw down the stones' {Jcu 
'stone'; _;'e»iw 'to throw down three or more objects': Q.e 'down 
at' 'over at'; 'qijwih'ji 'pueblo ruin' <^qijwi 'pueblo', kejl 'old' 
postpound). 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 333 

Tlu'owing down stones from a height was a common means of 
defense in Pueblo warfare. Under what circumstances the stones 
were hurled down at [21:2i] has apparently l)cen forgotten. 
"Cu3'ammique."' "Cuyo, Monque."^ "Cuyaraungue."' "Cuya- 
manque."* "Cuya Manguc."^ "Coyamanque."" "Cuyamun- 
que.''' "Cuya-mun-ge."' ''Cuyamonge.'" "Cuyamunque."" 
"Cu-ya-mun-gue."" "KuYa-mung-ge."'^ "Kyamunge."" See 
[21:25]. 

The Tewa retain memory of this pueblo much as the}- do of 
Salonse. [21:9], with which they often couple its name. Like 
[21:9], it is a historic ruin. Bandelier says of it: 

Near Pojuaque [21:29] the Tezuque stream [21:21] enters that of Pojuaque 
[21:5] from the southeast. On its banks, about three miles from the mouth, 
stand the ruins of Ku Ya-mung-i;e. This Tehua village also was in existence 
until 1696, when it was finally abandoned.''^ 

In a note Bandelier adds: 

In 1699 the site of the pueblo was granted to Alonzo Rael de Aguilar; in 1731 
it was regranted to Bernardino de Sena, who had married the widow of Jean 
I'Arch^v&que or Archibeque'^ [the murderer of La Salle]. 

According to Hewett,'* the land where the ruin stands is part of 
an Indian reservation (the Tesuque grant) at the present time. 
The Indian informants agree that the people of Kajemvg,e were 
Tewa, who, after the abandonment of the place, went to live at other 
Tewa pueblos, but one old man at Nambe insisted that Kujemugfi 
was a Tano pueblo. The ruin is on a low mesa and is said to con- 
sist of mounds of disintegrated adobe. Kujemug.e gives the names 
to [21:22] and [21:25]. 
[21:25] (1) San Ildefonso Kujermtgel-wae'kuH''^ 'place of the Mexicans 
hy the place where they threw the stones down ', referring to 
[21:2-1] {Eujemuge, see [21:24]; Kwselcy, ' ]\Iexican\ modified from 
l-wxhy,yf 'iron' 'metal' Kkwse 'oak,' kti 'stone'; THocative 
and adjective-forming postfix). =Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng.Callamongue and other spellings. (<Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Callamongue and various other spellings, as will be 
noticed in the quoted forms under [21 :24]. ( < Tewa). = Tewa (1), 
Eng. (2). Although the spelling of the name varies so much, the 
pronunciation among Mexicans appears to be quite uniform. It 

'Vargas. 1692, quoted by Bancroft, Ariz, and ^Bandelier in Ritch, New Mexico, p. 201,1885. 

X. Mex., p. 199. 1889. 9 Pullcn in Harper's Weekly, p. 771, Oct. 4, 1890. 

2 Davis, El Gringo, p. 88, 18.57. '"Bandelier in An-h. Inst. Papers, i, p. 23, 1881. 

SBuschmann, Neu-Mexico, p. 230, 1858. "Bandelier, Final Report, pt.i, p. 123, note, 1890. 

iDonieneoh, Deserts, i, p. 443, ls60. '2 Ibid., pt. 11. p. 8.'i, 1S92. 

' Vetancurt, Teatro Me.xicano, ni, p. 317, 1871. ■' Hewett: General View. p. 597, 1905; Antiqui- 

•Copein Ann. Rep. Wheeler Surrey, app. LL. p. ties. pi. xvii, 1900; rommunautfe, p. 33, 1908. 

'6, 187.5. ''General View. p. 597, 1905. 

'Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, i, p. 23, note, 
1881. 



334 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

is kajamoyge. This pronunciation has been obtained from a num- 
ber of Mexicans, and from a Cochiti Indian who had heard only 
the Span, form of the name, with considerable uniformity. Such 
pronunciations as Jcajamoyke, kajamoyl'e and kujamoyke ai-e prob- 
ably also to be heard. Mr. Antonio Royl)al and some of his 
friends who live at Callamoiigue were (juestioned as to the spell- 
ing of the name by I'esidents of the place. Mr. Roybal wrote 
"Callamongue,"' which was approved by the others. This spell- 
ing has been chosen therefore from among many current ones. 

[21:26] Nambe Pojege 'down where the waters or creeks meet' {po 
'water' 'creek'; _/(? 'to meet'; ge 'down at' 'over at'). This 
name refers to tlie coniiuence. 

[21:27] Nambe Posy^ywsgg.enii'u, Posy,ywseg.enug.epotsa 'place below the 
drink water place' 'marsh below the drink water place', referring 
to [21::i9] (Fosy.yw^g.e, see [21:29]; nii'u 'below'; ge 'down at' 
'over at'; potsa 'marsh' <po 'water,' tsa 'to cut through' 'to 
ooze through '). 

The author once tried to cross this marshy place at a time when 
it looked like a dry meadow, but he slumped in up to his knees, 
much to the amusement of some Mexicans who live near. Of 
course P(>sy,ywsegenuu is a more inclusive name than the other, 
but the two names seem to be used by the Indians indiscriminately. 
There are a number of Mexican houses at the plate. 

[21:28] Nambe Po-yii7jwseg.ekwaje 'height of the drink water place', 
referring to [21:29] {Posy,r)wxg.e, see [21:29]; hvaje 'height'). 
This name is given to the whole height or hill on which Pojoaque 
stands. 

[21:29] (1) Posy,yw^g.i' 'drink water place' (po 'water'; sy,yws^ 'to 
drink'; g.e 'down at' 'over at'). Why the name was originally 
applied appears to have been forgotten. All the forms in vari- 
ous languages given below seem to be either corrupted from or 
cognate with this name. "San Francisco Pajagiie".' "Pojua- 
que'".- "Pujuaque".^ ''Pasuque".* "Pusuaque".^ "Ojuaque"." 
"Ohuaqui".' " Ohuqui"'.^ "Pojaugue".' "Pojodque''.'" " Po- 
godque"." "Payuaque"." "Pejodque"." "Pajuagne". "* "Pa- 
juaque".'* "Projoaque".'" ''Pozuaque"." "Pofuaque"'.'* "Nues- 

1 Villagran (1610), Hist. Nueva M&xico, app. 3, sPiirke, Jlap of Sew Mexico, 1861. 

p. 96, 1900. 10 Calhoun (1861) in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, VI, 

2 MS. ca. 1715 quoted by Bandelier in .4rcA, Iimt. p. 709. 1857. 

Papers, V, p. 193, 1890. " Ibid., ill. p. 633, 1863. 

3 ViUa-Senor, Tlieatro Amer., ii, p. 418, 1748. 12 Meriwether (1856) in H. R. Ex. Poc. 37, 34th 
< Alcedo, Die. Geogr. , iv, p. 114, 1788. Cong.. 3d sess., p. 146, 1857. 

5 Hezio (1797-98) quoted by Meline, Two Thou- » Schoolcraft, op. cit., vi, p. 688. 

sand Mile-s, p. 208, 1867. » Domenech, Deserts N. A., u, p. 63, 1860. 

6 Eseudero, Noticias Estad. Chihuahua, p. 180, '= Ibid., i,p. 183. 

Mexico, 1834. is Taylor in Cat. Farmer, June 19, 1863. 

' Ruxton, Adventures, p. 196, 1848. i' Ind. Aff. Hep. for 1864, p. 193, 1865. 

8 Ruxton in Nouv. Ann. Voy.,5th s., xxi, p. 84, is Ibid., p. 191. 
18.50. 



HABBiNGTON] PLACE-NAMES 335 

tra Senora de Guadalupe de Pojuaque''.' "Poujuaque".^ "Pa- 
joaque".^ "'Pojoague"'.* ''Pojoaque".'' "Pojanquiti"." "Po- 
jake".^ '"Pojanque".* "Po-zuan-ge"." "" Pojuague".'" 

"Potzua-o-e"' (given here a.s "native name " according to Hand- 
booli Inds., pt. 2, p. 27-i, 1910)." ••Pojouque'\'= '' Pohuaque".i^ 
'■Pojuaque, or more properly Pozuang-ge"." "Pojuaque, P'Ho 
zuang-ge''.'° "■P'o-zuang-ge, or Pojuaque".'" ''Pojuaque, or 
P'o-zuang-ge'\^' "Phojuange"." " Posonwti ". '° This form was 
obtained by Fewlies from the Hano Tewa. It is clearly for 
Posy,r)Wce-, the g.e being for some reason omitted. " Pojoaque".-" 
"Po-suan-gai".-' 

(2) Picuris "'A'sona', Pojoaque Pueblo. Last syllable hard to 
get — seems to have a sound before the a, but not clear." ^" Prob- 
ably identical or cognate with '"Tigua" "P'asuiap", below. 

(3) "Tigua" (presumably Isleta) " Fasuiap \ =' Cf. Picuris 
"A'sona' "', above. 

(i) "Po;^uaki".-* Clearly <Span. Pojuaque. 

(5) Cochiti Pohwdke, Pohwdhetase {tsx locative). Clearly < Span, 
Pojuaque. 

(6) Eng. Pojoaque, also other spellings. (<Span.) 

(7) Span. Pojoaque, also other spellings; see under Tewa (1) 
above. (<Tewa). Span. / for Tewa « is the same ('hange as 
in the name Jacona [21:6] {<Sakonse) and some other words. 
Notice also that under Tewa (1), above, names are quoted showing 
that attempts have been luade to attach the saint-names Nuestra 
Senora de Guadalupe and San Francisco to Pojoaque, but they 
have not remained. The name Pojoaque must not be confused 
with Pohuate, name of a subpueblo of the Laguna Indians. 
The Handhook of Indians c[uotes " Pokwadi " -^ and " Po'kwoide " -° 
as Hano forms meaning Pojoaque, but this is erroneous- 

1 Ward iiilni. Aff. Rep. for 1867, p. 213, 1868. '« Ibid., pt. n, p. 83, 1.S92. 

2 Amy, ibid., 1871, p. 383, 1S72. " Ibid., p. 84. 

' Loew (187.5) in nHieeler Survey Rep., vii, p. 345, " Cashing in Johnson's Univ. Cyclopedia, viii, 

1879. p. 3, 1896. 

< Morrison, ibid., app. NN., p. 1276, 1877. '^ Fewlies, Tu.sayan Migration Traditions, in 

5 GatsclU't, ibid., vii, p. 417, 1879. Nimtecnth Rep. Ilur. Amcr. Ethn., pt. i, p. 614, 1900. 

'Stevenson in Smithsonian Rep. 1880, p. 137, 20 Hewett, Antiquities, pi. xvii, 1906. 

1881. 21 .Jftuvenceau in Catholic Pioneer, 1, No. 9, p. 

' Steven.son in Seccmd Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 12, 1906. 

328, 1883. 22 gpinden, Picuris notes, MS., 1910. 

8 Curtis, Children of the Sun, p. 121, 1883. « Hodge, field notes. Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 

9 Bandelier in Ritcli, New Mexico, p. 201, 188.5, (Handbook Inds.. pt. 2. p. 274, 1910). 
■"Bandelierin JfeTOed'£</i?io(;., p. 203, 1886. 2< Gatschet, Isleta MS. vocabulary, 1885, cited 
" Bandelier, ibid. in ibid. 

'- Wallace. Land of the Pueblos, p. 42, 1888. 2= Stephen in Eighth Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 

" Bruhl in (ilohus, lv, No. 9, p. 129, 1889. 37, 1891. 

" Bandelier, Final Report, pt. i, p. 121, 189U. "Fewkes, op. cit. 
'5 Ibid., p. 260. 



336 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ann. 29 

" Pokw&di" and " Po'kwoide" are both for Tewa PoqwoJ-e ' San 
Uldefonso people' (see [19:22]). 

Pojoaque has changed gradually from an Indian pueblo to a 
Mexican settlement. 

It became the seat of the Spanish mission of San Francisco early in the 
seventeenth century. After the Pueblo rebellions of 16.S0 and 1696 it was 
abandoned, but was resettled with five families, by order of the governor of 
New Mexico, in 1706, when it became the mission of Nuestra Senora de Guada- 
lupe. In 1760 it was reduced to a visita of the Nambe mission; but in 1782 it 
again became a mission, with Nambe and Tesaque as its visitas. In 1712 its 
population was 79; in 1890 it was only 20; since 1900 it has become extinct as 
a Tewa pueblo, the houses now being in possession of Mexican families. ' 

In 1909 the writer could not find an Indian at Pojoaque, although 
a girl was found who said she was partly Indian but did not know 
the Indian language. At Pojoaque were obtained the names of 
three men said to be Pojoaque Indians. The family names of 
these men is Tapia. One was said to be living at Nambe and two 
at Santa Fe. The history of Pojoaque is well known to the 
Indians of other pueblos. When at Santo Domingo in 1909 the 
writer was told that he could not be permitted to sleep at that 
pueblo and was reminded by an old Indian of the fate of Pojoaque. 
Cf. especially [21:30] and [21:.31]. 
[21:30] (1) Pos'iiijw^.ge'e 'little drink water place' {Posy,ywseg.e, see 
[21:29]; 'e diminutive). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Pojoaquito. (<Span.). = Span. (3). Cf. Tewa (1). 

(3) Span. Pojoaquito (diminutive of Pojoaque [21:29]). =Eng. 
(2). Cf. Tewa (1). 

The eastern group of houses on Pojoaque height is called thus. 
The church is at this place. Both Mexicans and Indians are care- 
ful to distinguish between Pojoaque and Pojoaquito. 
[21:31] (1) Teli'e'oywil'eji, TrFeoyvnl'ejroywipijjfje^ Tel-'eqrjivipiijge- 
'qrjwikeji. ' Cottonwood bud pueblo ruin' 'cottonwood bud pueblo 
ruin centrally situated among the (Tewa) pueblos' {tel'e bud of 
male tree of Populus wislizeni, Populus acuminata, or Populus 
angustifolia < tens in fe-iQ, see under [15:16], k'e 'kerner 'grain'; 
''qywikejl 'pueblo ruin' < 'orjivi 'pueblo', keji ''old' postpound; 
fivge 'in the middle of 'in the midst of). Why the pueblo was 
given the name 'cottonwood bud(s)" seems no longer to be known. 
It was designated '' oywipiyge 'centrally situated among the pueblos' 
because it and the historic Pojoaque [21:29] are actually so situ- 
ated. San Juan is north, Santa Clara northwest, San Ildefonso 
"west, Tesuque south, and Nambe east of this place. No other 
pueblo is so situated. This was stated independently by several 

> Handbook luds., pt. 2. p. 274, 1910. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 337 

Indians at San Ildefonso, Nambe, and San Juan. When the 
writer objected that other pueblos, as Jaeona [21:9] for ex- 
ample, when inhabited also occupied a central position, the in- 
formants answered that that might be true, but that it did not 
alter the fact that the pueblo ruin [21:31] used to be called 
"'qywiphjfie. One San Ildefonso Indian said that [21:31] was the 
middle of the Tewa country. It is not known what importance 
should be attached to his statement. Bandelier writes of the 
pueblo ruin: 

The Tehuas [Tewa] claim that this pueblo marks the center of the range of 
their people, and that the division into two branches, of which the Tehuas 
became the northern and the Tanoa the southern, took place there in very 
ancient times. Certain it is that in the sixteenth century the Tehuas already 
held the Tesuque valley ten miles south of Pojuaque, as they still hold it today.' 

San eluan "Te-je Uing-ge 0-ui-ping".' This is evidently for 
the locative form TeVeqywirieqijwipiyge. "Tchauiping".^ 

(2) rosy,yiDcRgeQi]wil-eji 'drink water place pueblo ruin', refer- 
ring to the vicinity of [21:29] {Posy,ijwxge, see [21:29]; 'otjwikeji 
'pueblo ruin' <'oywi 'pueblo', keji 'old' postpound). The 
informants say that this name is descriptive and that the name 
given under (1) above is the real, old name of the pueblo ruin. 
Bandelier, Hewett, and the Ilandhool: cf Indians incorrectly locate 
the pueblo ruin. Bandelier writes: 

Around the Pojuaque [21:29] of today cluster ancient recollections. A 
large ruin, called by the San Juan Indians Te-je Uing-ge 0-ui-piug, occupied 
the southern slope of the bleak hills [21:28] on which stands the present vil- 
lage [21:29]' 

The writer's Indian and Mexican informants knew of no pueblo 
ruin on the southern slope of [21: 28]. Tel''e\'Dwikeji'q'tjwipiij(ie, 
as is well known to the Tewa and many Mexicans, is situated as 
located on sheet [21] on the northern slope overlooking Pojoaque 
Creek. Bandelier's mention of San Juan informants makes it 
probable that his information was obtained at San Juan Pueblo and 
that he did not visit the ruin. Bandelier's mention of San Juan 
in f ormants gives rise to a mistake in the Ilandhool: of Indians; see 
below. Hewett and the Handbook evidently follow Bandelier: 

Le village de Pojoaque [21:29] s'est d6peupl6 r6cemment; il tombe en 
ruines. Sur la collme, au sud, sent les restes d'un ancien village appel6 
Tehauiping.^ 

The ruins of a prehistoric Tewa pueblo on the s. slope of the hills on which 
stands the present pueblo of San Juan, on the Rio Grande in New Mexico.^ 

1 Bandolier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 84, 1892. " Handlwok luds, pt. 2, p. 724, 1910. 

'Hewett, Commiiniiutes, p. 33, 1908. 

87584°— 29 eth— 16 22 






















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tA 







.-.:;;;/;'' <- 






^^ N ^^^ 






A'", ' 











■t 



CM 



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MAP 22 
SANTA FE MOUNTAIN REGION 



HAKRINGTON] 



PLACE-NAMES 339 



pueblos. The located ruins on the sheet proper are all claimed 
1)}' the Nanibe Indians as the villages of their ancestors. The 
greater part of the area shown is at present comprised in the 
Pecos National Forest (formerly known as Pecos River Forest 
Reserve). 

[22:1] Rio Grande, see special treatment [Large Features], pp. 100-102. 

[22:2] Eiubudo Creek, see [8:79]. 

[22:3] Trampas Creek, see [8:80]. 

[22:4] (1) Eng. Trampas settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Trampas, Las Trampas 'the traps'. =Eng. (1). 
"Trampas."' 

It appears that no Tewa name for the settlement exists. Cf. 
[22:3]. 

[22:.5] Penasco Creek, see [8:85]. 

[22:6] Penasco settlement, see [8:98]. 

[22:7] Picuris Pueblo, see [8:88]. • 

[22:8] Pueblo Creek, see [8:86]. 

[22:9] (1) Ty./npiijj' 'basket mountain' (ty^yf 'basket'; fiyj' ' moun- 
tain'). It is said that the name is applied to the mountain because 
of its shape. Cf. Eng. (3), Span. (i). 

(2) Picuris " Jicarilla or Jicarita peak is called Qayaitha, which 
means mountain. Jicarilla or Jicarita is called jMUpi'^eino, 'eat- 
ing basket"".^ 

(3) Eng. Jicarita Mountain, Jicarita Peak. (<Span.). = 
Span. (I). Cf. Tewa (1). 

(4) Cerro Jicara, Cerro Jicarita, Cerro Jicarilla 'mountain of 
the basket' 'mountain of the cup-shaped basket'. =Eng. (2). 
Cf. Tewa(l). "Jicarilla Peak". ^ " Jicarrita".^ 

The peak is roundish like an inverted basket; it is not heavilj' 
wooded; Bandelier^ calls it "the bald Jicarrita." The altitude of 
the mountain has been determined by the United States Geolog- 
ical Survey to be 12,944 feet.^ It is well known to the Tewa that 
Jicarita Peak is a sacred mountain of the Picuris Indians. The 
Picuris have a shrine on its summit, it is said, and members of 
certain fraternities of Picuris frequently visit the top of Jicarita 
in a body. 

[22:10] Truchas Creek, Las Truchas Creek, see [9:9]. 

[22:11] (1) Eng. Truchas settlement, Las Truchas settlement. 
(<Span.). = Span. (2). 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 35, 1892. 
' Spinden, Picuris notes, MS., 1910. 

' U. S. Geog. Surveys \V. of the 100th Merid., Parts of Southern Colorado and Northern New Mexico, 
atlas sheet No. 69, 1873-77. 
* Bandelier, op. cit., p. 34. 
' Gannett, Dictionary of Altitudes, p. 645, 19flC. 



340 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

(2) Span. Truchas, Liis Tnichas 'the trout', probably called so 
from Truchas Creek [22:101. "Truchas". ' There is no Tewa 
name for the settlement. 

This is a small Mexican town. Sheep and other stock are 
raised on the hills in the vicinity. The grandfather of one San 
Juan informant used to herd his sheep up by Truchas, make 
cheese from the milk at Truchas town, and bring it to San ,Iuan 
Pueblo to sell. The important claypit [22:12] is near Truchas. 

[22:12] San Juan ' Oni^y'je^iijf]iug,<"nuyl:'ondlwe ' where the earth is dug 
down by crooked chin place arroy o ', referring to [22 : 10] (' Omsbi)- 
qiir)fhuhi^ see [22:10]; ge'down at' 'over at'; nt'iyf 'earth' 
'clay'; k'qyf 'to dig'; ''iwe locative). 

It is said that at this place the best red pottery clay known to 
the Tewa is obtained. It is pebbly, but makes very strong 
dishes, and it is used especially for oUas. It is said that Tewa of 
various pueblos visit this plac^ frequently and carry away the clay. 
See under Minerals, page 581. The clay deposit is a mile or 
two southeast of Truchas town [22:11]. 

[22:13] (1) Kmimpiyf, Kus^nnx apparently "rock horn mountain' 
'place of the rock horns', but .ve/;y has the intonation of s^ijf 
'man in prime' rather than that of styf 'horir although some 
Indians recognize it as the latter word and feel sure of the mean- 
ing given above {Jcu 'stone' 'rock'; sejjf 'horn'; piijf 'moun- 
tain'; nse. locative). If this etymology is correct, as several 
Indians have assured the writer, the name doubtless refers to the 
upward-projecting rocks of the summit described by Bandelier: 
"The summit of the Truchas is divided into sharp-pointed peaks, 
recalling the 'Horner Stocke' or 'Dents' of the Alps".^ 

(2) Eng. Truchas Mountain(s), Truchas Peak. (<Span.). 
= Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Sierra Truchas, Sierra de las Truchas 'mountain or 
mountain range of the trout'. = Eng. (2). This name appears 
to be taken from Truchas Creek [22:10], which rises at this 
mountain. "Trout mountains (Sierra de la Trucha)".^ "Sierra 
de las Truchas."* Of the height of Truchas Peak Bandelier says: 

The highest point of the wliole region [i. e., the whole southwestern United 
States], as far as known, lies in northern New Mexico. The 'Truchas', north 
of Santa Fe, ascend to 13,1.")0 feet above sea level. None of the peaks of the 
Sierra Madre reach this altitude; they do not even attain the proportions of 
lesser mountains in New Mexico like the Sierra Blanca . . . [11,892 according 
to official maps], 'Baldy' [22:53] (12,661), the Costilla (12,63-1) or the Sierra 
de San Mateo [29:115] (11,200). The same may be said of Arizona, where 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. Ii, pp. 35, 45, 1892. 

2 Ibid,, p. 35. 

s Bandelier in Papers Arch. Inst. Amer., Amer. ser., i. p. 39, 1881. 
<See Bandelier, Final Report, pt. u, pp. 34, 35, 63, 1892. 



HARRINGTON) PLACE-NAMES 341 

only the northern ranp;es of the Sierra de San Francisco and tlie Sierra Blanca, 
rise above 12,000 feet.' 

Ag'ain: 

The Truchas are slightly higher than Taos Peak [8:51]. The latter is 1.3,145 
feet, the former 13,150, — both according to Wheeler. The altitnde of the 
Jicarrita [22: 9] has not, to my knowledge, been determined; but the impres-sion 
of those who have ascended to its top is that it exceeds the Truchas in height.^ 

The United States Geological Survey ha.s established the altitude 
of Truchas Peak as 13,275 feet, and that of " Jicarilla" Peak as 
12,944 feet. See [22:14]. It is said that nuhu is found on this 
peak; see under Minerals. 

[22:14] ' Ol:'ij.'ij)ge.ii, Kui^impimpseyge'ok'y/iygeJ'i, EusinnE^fs^7)(je^ok'u- 
'iygeJ'i 'the shadowy side or place' 'the shadowy side beyond 
rock horn mountain ' ' the shadowy side beyond the place of the 
rock horns" (^oh'ii 'shadow'; 'ijyje.il 'side'; K'l.sim pitjj', Ens^njise, 
see [22:13]; ps^yf/e 'beyond'). It is said that on the other side of 
the great mountain [22:13] the sun rarely shines. On that side 
near the moimtaiu top all the place is like smokj' ice {'<>Jl j>\ndi'^ 
'black ice' < ''oji '' icG,\ j) i.ri f 'blackness' 'black', 'i'' locative and 
adjective-forming posttix). On the mountainside below this ice 
are flowers, white, red, yellow. See [22:13]. 

[22:15] San Juan Tasint^yw^jo'ol-u, see [12:19]. 

[22:16] San Juan Sapobuu, see [12:3S]. 

[22:17] Santa Cruz Creek, see [15:18]. 

[22:18] (1) Tsimajo, Tsimajobu' u 'flaking stone of superior quality' 
'town of the flaking stone of superior quality' {tsi'l 'flaking 
stone" of any variety; majo 'superior' 'chief, apparently <;/(« 
unexplained, j£> augmentative; iii^n 'town"). With the name cf. 
jTowiff/o 'piiion of superior quality " [3:11]. Just why the name 
was originally applied has been forgotten. No ob.sidian or other 
flaking stone is known to exist at the place. = Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Chimayo settlement. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Chimayo. ( < Te wa). = Tewa (1), Eng. (2). The pho- 
netic condition of the Tewa name is well adapted to be taken over 
into Span.; cf., for general .sound, Chumayel, a place in the 
country of the Maya Indians. "Chimayo".^ The Indian.s of 
Taos (according to infoi-mation obtained by the writer) and of 
Picuris (according to information obtained b\^ Doctor Spinden) 
know the place well, but call it by its Span. name. 

The Indians say that Chimayo u.sed to be a Tewa Indian pueblo, 
then called Tsimajo'orjwiCoTjwi 'pueblo"). This pueblo was situ- 
ated where the church now is, the informants stated. The church 
is on the south side of the creek. Where the church now is there 

■Bandelier, Final Report, pt. i, pp. 7-8 and notes, 1890. 
■Ibid., pt. H, p. 34, note, 1892. 
aibid. ,p. 83. 



342 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEV/A INDIANS Ieth. ann. 29 

used to be a pool, thoy say, called Tsimajopokwi (pokwi 'pool' 
< po 'water', hvi iinexplainod). The earth or mud of this pool 
has healing properties; see below. Doctor Hewett furnishes the 
following information about Chimayo: 

Chimayo was orifjinally an Indian pueblo, a pueblo of blanket weavers. 
There is a famous old shrine at the place. It was originally an Indian shrine. 
After the pueblo became Mexicanized a church was built by the shrine and 
pilgrimages were made to the shrine from all over the Southwest. The church 
built at the shrine is in the custodianship of the people of purest Indian descent. 
In a grotto is- the curative earth. Boards in the floor are taken up in order 
to get at the earth. People used to carry the earth away with them. Articles 
of silver, brass, and glass were deposited at the place. The earth was con- 
secrated. 

The Mexican inhabitants of Chimayo are famous for the beau- 
tiful blankets which they weave. The blankets are of a thin 
texture and have attractive designs in colors. Himdreds of dol- 
lars' worth of these blankets are purchased from the makers every 
year. "Chimayo blankets made by Chimayo Indians of northern 
New Mexico, who are now practically extinct, are thought to be 
the connecting link between Navajo and Saltillo weaving." ^ It 
is probable that the Chimayo blankets are a development of 
ancient Tewa weaving. No blankets are now woven by the Tewa 
Indians, this art probably having been lost since the Mexicaniza- 
tion of the Tewa country. It is said that Chimayo blankets are 
woven also by Mexicans living at Santuario [22::i0] and at other 
places in the vicinity of Chimayo. 

Chimayo lies in a deep canyon or cafiada. Bandelier ^ mentions 
the "gorges of Chimayo." He probablj' refers to a number of 
gorges, as tho.se of L22:1TJ, [22:22], and [22:2(5]. It is said 
that a large part of the settlement is on the north side of the creek; 
the church and some houses are, howev'er. on the south side. 
There is very little published information about Chimayo. Ban- 
delier merely mentions the name, and no information is given in 
Hewett's publications. Tsimajo gave the creek [22:17] its old 
Tewa name. It gives the name also to a mountain or hill [22:19]. 
According to information obtained by an investigator at Santa 
Clara Pueblo, Chimayo was one of the places at which fire and 
smoke were belched forth in ancient times. 
[22:19] Tsimajopir) f 'mountain of the flaking stone of superior qual- 
ity', referring to {22 -.IS] {Tsimajo, see [22:18]; piyf 'mountain"). 
. This name is given to a mountain or hill north of Chimayo 
[22:18]; it was seen and located from the heights between Nambe 
and Cundayo [25:7]. 

1 Amrr. Museum Journal, xil, no. 1, p. 33, Jan., 1912. 
" Final Report, pt. n, p. 74, 1892. 



HARBIXGTOX] PLACE-NAMES 343 

[22:20] (1) Eng. Santuario settlement. (<Span.). =Span. CI). 

(2) Span. Santuario 'sanctuarjr'. =Eng. (1). There is no 
Tewa name for this Mexican settlement. 

See under [22:41] and Santuario Mountains under [22:un- 
located]. 

[22:21] Nambe Ponfity.ywse.h^i'u 'corner of the tall plumed arroyo 
shrub' {jponfi ' plumed arroyo shrub' 'Fallugia paradoxa acu- 
minata'; tuijwx 'tallness' 'tall'; b)P}( 'large low roundish place'). 
It is said that this low place is so named because the plumed 
arroyo shrub actually grows tall there. 

[22:22] (1) Nambe and San Juan Po^jpohu'n 'little water creek' 
'creek of the small stream of water' {po 'water'; 'e diminutive; 
pohii'u 'creek with water in it' <po 'water', hiCii 'large groove' 
'arroyo'). Cf. Picuris (2), Eng. (.3), Span. (i). 

(2) Picuris "Pat/ilcieone, RioChiquito, literally 'littleriver'."' 
Cf . Tewa (1), Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. RioChiquito. (<Span.). = Span. (-4). Cf. Tewa (1), 
Picuris (2). 

(4) Span. Rio Chiquito ' little river '. = Eng. (3). Cf . Tewa (1), 
Picuris (2). There is reason to believe that the Tewa form is the 
original one, and that the Span, form is an attempt at translating 
it, while the Picuris foi'm is a mere translation of the Span. form. 

It is said that the creek is called by its Tewa name because the 
stream of water in it is very small. Cf. Rio Chiquito settlement, 
also Rio Frijoles, under [22 : unlocated]. 
[22:23] SapapiijwPi of obscure etymology {Sapapitjf, see under [22: 
unlocated]; wii 'gap'). 

This pass drains into the Pecos River [22:62] and Medio Creek 
[22:28]. 
[22:24] Nambe Pug.apWf 'mountain of an unidentified species of 
bird' (puga a large species of bird the description of which indi- 
cates that it is probabl}' the sandhill crane'; piijf 'mountain'). 

It is said that the Pecos River [22:63] has its origin at this 
mountain. 
[22:2.5] (1) Nambe ITumatopiyf of obscure etymology {humato unex- 
plained; piijf 'mountain'). 

(2) Span. Cerro del Cuballe 'mountain of the notch.' 

This is a very high peak. It can be distinguished by its yel- 
lowish color. 



[22 

[22 
[22 



26] Nambe Topiyf, see [25:14]. 

'] Nambe Topi7npaP7j[/eimpohi<^ii, see [25:15]. 
28] Medio Creek, see [25:3]. 



'Spinden, Picuris notes, MS., 1910. 



344 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 20 

[22:29] Wijo 'the great gap' {wi-i 'gap'; jo augmentative). 

This gap is well known to all the Tewa. It is large and wide 
and can be clearly seen from most parts of the Tewa country. At 
Santa Clara Pueblo the sun appears to rise through this gap, a 
fact which has been mentioned by Santa Clara Indians both to 
another investigator and to the writer. Somewhere at or near 
the gap is the ruin of the ancient pueblo Wijo'Qywi 'pueblo of 
the great gap' ( Wijo, see above; 'g/;wi 'pueblo'), which was built 
by the united Summer and Winter people after they had wan- 
dered separately for generations. See Wljo^Qywikeji under [22: 
unlocated]. 

[22:30] 'Namhe/'y.kwaje ' locust height' {fy, 'locust'; Iwaje 'height'). 
Cf. [2:10]. ^ 

[22:;31] Nambe Ki/Jotfa, Kojoffa apparently 'big rock there' {hu, ho 
'stone' 'rock'; jio augmentative; tfa 'to be there' 'to be at a 
place ', the dual and plural forms being so). 

[22:32] Nambe kup\vfJm'u, see [21:11]. 

[22:33] Nambe Johu'u, see [15:29]. 

[22:34] Nambe JohiCokiHe, JohuJcwaje ' little hills of cane-cactus 
arro3'o' ' height of cane-cactus arroyo', referring to [22:33](t7oAw'M, 
see [22:33]; 'oAw 'hill'; 'e diminutive; kwaje 'height'). 

[22:35] Nambe Psetehuhc 'deer dwelling-place arroyo' {Peete-, see 
[22:36]; Jiuu 'large groove' 'arroyo"). The name is probably 
taken from [22:36], q.v. 

This arroyo flows into HusoQe [24:1]. 

[22:36] Nambe Pattehuoaje 'deer dwelling-place heights' (p^ 'mule- 
deer'; ^d 'dwelling-place'; ^wa/^ ' height'). This place probably 
gives the name to [22:35]. It is said that there is good deer 
hunting on these heights, hence the name. 

[22:37] Nambe Creek, see [19:3]. 

[22:38] Nambe P^fJo'deer water' {pse. 'mule-deer'; fo 'water'). The 
lower course of this arroyo is called 'Obipowe, see [23:25]. 

[22:39] Nambe J/g/iyp(we 'owl water' 'owl creek' (wja^y 'owl'; po 
'water'; we locative). 

[22:40] Nambe Kekwaje ^oijwikeji ' pueblo ruin of the sharply pointed 
height' {he 'peak' 'sharpness' 'sharp'; hvaje 'height'; 
''qywil-eji 'pueblo ruin' K'oywi 'pueblo', l-eji 'old' postpound). 
" Ke-gua-yo".^ "Keguaya".^ 
Of this pueblo ruin Bandelier says: 

Meaas with abrupt sides border upon the valley [of Nanib#] in the east, and 
on these there are pueblo ruins. The Indians of Namb6 assert that they were 
reared and occupied, as well as abandoned, by their ancestors prior to the 
establishment of Spanish rule in New Mexico. They also gave me some of the 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 84, 1892. "Hewett, Communautfe, p. 33, 1908. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 345 

name's: . . . Ke-gua-yo, in the vicinity of the Chupaderos [probably 
[22;51]], a ehister of springs about four miles east of I^auib^ in a narrow 
mountain gorge. ' 

Hewett saj's: 

Plus loin, ce sent lea ruines de Keguaya, a quelques milles a Test de 
Nambe ... on suppose que ce sont cellea des villages historiques des Nambe.^ 

All that could be learned is that this is a very ancient village of 
the Nambe people. 
[22:41] Nambe ■ Ag.aW(>nw oywikej i of obscure etymology, perhaps 
' pueblo ruin where the cowrie or olivella shells are or were hang- 
ing down ' (^aga unexplained, but occurring in several Tewa place- 
names, e. g. 'Agatfanupiijf [22:5-i], possibly an old form of 'vg.a 
' cowrie shell', 'olivella shell', it is said; wo 'to hang'; nu loca- 
tive; 'orjwihji 'pueblo ruin' <'o9wi 'pueblo', keji 'old' post- 
pound). Since the etymology above was given by a very reliable 
informant, an aged cacique, considerable weight is to be attached 
to it. "A-ga Uo-no".' "Agauono". This is given^ both as 
the name of the pueblo ruin and, by mistake, as the name of 
Juan B. Gonzalez^ of San Ildefonso, whose Indian name is 
^Ag."Jo\rnfse ' shaking star ' (^agojo 'star'; q''nj'se 'shaking'), not 
'Agawonu. 

Bandelier has already been quoted with regard to this pueblo 
ruin (see under [22:40]). He speaks further of — 

A-ga TJo-no and Ka-ii-yu [22:42], both in the vicinity of the Santuario in 
the mountains.' 

The location of " the Santuario" has not been ascertained. 
[22::2t)] is the Mexican settlement called Santuario. Hewett 
writes as follows: 

Plus loin, ce sont les ruines de Keguaya [22:40], a quelques milles a Test 
de Nambe et de Tobipange [25: 30], a 8 milles au nord-est; on suppose que ce 
sont cellea des villages historiques des Nambe. Les ruines d' Agauono et de 
Kaayu [22:42] sur le Santuario [see above], il quelques milles plus loin au 
nord-est, indiquent probablement I'ancienne residence de certains clans des 
Nambe. ^ 

^Agawonu is said to have been a very ancient pueblo of the 
Nambe people. 
[22 :42] Nambe K\l'' s^wi' oywikeji ' pueblo ruin of an unidentified species 
of bird called Ic'ci'sewi"' (k'd'fcwi'i an unidentified species of bird 
of bluish color which cries l-qlm\ 'oywikeji 'pueblo ruin' <\r)wi 
'pueblo', l-eji ' old' postpound.) For Bandelier's spelling of wiH 
as "ye" or "yu", see [16:105] and [16:114]. 

' Bandelier. Final Report, fit. ii. p. 84, 1892. 'Ibid., pi. xvii. 

2 Hewett, Communautfe, p. 33, 1908. 



346 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [urn. ANN. 29 

For quoted information about K'q'xtvi'i see under \lg^aironi/ 
[22:41], above. As in the case of 'Ag.awonu, it could bo learned 
only that /{'(i's^wTi was a very ancient pueblo of the Nanibe 
people. 
[22:43] (1) Nambe Nqinbepohupojeniu'hDe 'place of the waterfalls of 
Nambe Creek' {JVqnibepo/ni'')/, see [19:3]; pojemu^iwe ' waterfalls' 
<.po 'water', jernu 'to fall', said of 'd+,'iwe locative). This is 
the descriptive name current at all the Tewa pueblos. 

(2) Nambe Pojeniu'iwe ' the waterfalls ' [po ' water'; ^V/ii< to 
fair said of 3+; ''Iwe locative). When this term is used at Nambe 
it is understood which waterfalls are meant. 

(3) '^axnhePotfunx 'where the water dies' (po 'water'; tfn 
'to die'; oisg. 'at' locative postfix). Cf. [22:44], [22:45], [22:4(3]. 

(4) Eng. Nambe Falls. 

(5) Span. Salto de Agua de Nambe, Caida de Agua de Nambe, 
'Nambe Falls'. 

These are the well-known waterfalls of Nambe Creek. Three 
portions of the falls have distinct names; see [22:44], [22:45], 
and [22:46]. The Nambe name Potfunis. appears to refer espe- 
cially to the two lower falls; see [22:46]. 

[22:44] Nambe Potfuiiu 'below where the water dies' {Poffu, see 
[22:43]; titrii. 'below'). This name is given to the first water- 
fall met when going up Nambe Creek, the lowest of the Nambe 
Falls. See [22 :43], [22 :45], and [22 :46]. 

[22:45] Nambe Potfuk'^?iiabe(/e 'meal -drying jar place where the 
water dies' {Potfii, see [22:43]; I'xntabe 'meal-drying jar', for 
drying meal for preservation <l:' xi]f ' meal" 'flour", }a ' to dry"; 
he 'vessel' 'pottery"; g,e 'down at" 'over at'). It is said that the 
name is applied because of the bowl-like shape of the canyon at 
the base of this fail. This name is given to the middle one of 
the Nambe Falls, situated between [22:44] and [22:46]. See 
[22:43], [22:44], [22:46]. 

[22:46] ^axabe, Potfupxnnse, Potfulcewe, Potfuhwaje 'waterfall or 
place beyond or above the place where the water dies' {Potfn, 
see [22:43]; pcennx 'beyond' < pseyf unexplained, nx locative; 
TcinDe 'above' < he 'top", wv' locative; kwaje 'above'). This name 
is applied to the uppermost of the Nambe Falls. See [22:43], 
[22:44], [22:45]. 

[22:47] Nambe Pimpijeimpowe 'the northern creek' {pimpije 'north' 
< vivf 'mountain' 'up country', pije 'toward'; iyf locative 
and adjective-forming postfix; powe 'creek' < po 'water", loe 
iocati\e). 

This is the north branch of upper Nambe Creek. See [19:3], 
[22:48]. 



HARRixcTON] PLACE-NAMES 347 

[22:48] Namb^ \^J:qinpi'fe'ii)ipowe 'the southern creek' {^al-ompije 
'south' < ''aJtoyf 'plain' 'down countr}-'; prje ' toward'; i?;y 
locative and adjective-forming postfix; powe 'creek' < po 'water', 
we locative). 

This is the south branch of upper Kanilje Creek. See [19:3] 
and [22:47]. 

[22:4!t] (1) Nambe Piblwe ' little red pile of roundish shape' {pi 'red- 
ness' 'red'; hi as in biri, 'small and roundish like a ball'; we 
locative). 

(2) Span. Cerrito de la Junta ' little mountain of the joining', 
said to refer to the joining of [22:47] and [22:48]. 

This small mountain is a short distance southwest of [22:50]. 

[22:50] Kambe Kawi'i'* 'place of the twisted loaf or leaves' {ka 'leaf; 
wi for qwi of San Ildefonso and Santa Clara dialects, meaning ' to 
twist'; '^'* locative and adjective-forming postfix). 

This place is described as a high, level locality a short distance 
northeast of the little mountain [22:41*]. 

[22:51] (1) Nambe and San Ildefonso Tcepobi/u, Tsepoko(/e ' corner of 
the seven waters ' ' place down by the barranca of the seven 
waters' {ise 'seven'; po 'water', here evidentlj^ referring to 
springs of water; btiu 'large low roundish place'; ^o 'barranca'; 
g.e ' down at ' ' over at '). 

(2) Span. Los Chupaderos, Chupaderos 'the sucking places' 
meaning where water is sucked up. For the name cf. [23:25], 
[22:5s], [14:87]. It is prohable that the Tewa and Span, names 
refer to a single place. Bandelier says: '"Ke-gua-yo [22:40] in 
the vicinity of the Chupaderos, a cluster of springs about four 
miles east of Nambe in a narrow mountain gorge." ' See [22:52]. 

[22:52] Nambe Tsepopowe 'creek of the seven waters' {Tsepo, see 
|22:51]; powe ' creek' < po 'water', we locative). 

[22:53] (1) Nambe PiJb^ipiijf 'flower mountain' {pobi 'flower'; piyf 
'mountain'). Why it is called thus is not known, unless it be 
because it is bare on top, with flowery meadows in the summer 
time. This name refers to the very high peak just north of 
[22:54]. Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3), Span. (4). 

(2) Eng. Baldy Peak, Santa Fe Baldy. Cf. Tewa (1), Span. 
(3), Span. (4). '"' Baldy." ^ " Santa Fe Baldy." = 

(3) Span. Cerro Pelado ' bald mountain '. Cf . Tewa (1), Eng. (2), 
Span. (4). The mountain is so called because of its bald top, 
snow-capped in winter, grassy in summer. 

(4) Span. Cerro del Zacate Blanco ' mountain of the white 
grass'. This evidently refers to its grassy top. Cf. Tewa (1), 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 84, 1892. 

• Ibid., p. 88, note. 

'The Valley Ranch (pamphlet on the Valley Ranch, Valley Ranch, N. Me.x., n. d.). 



348 ETIINOGROGPArTTY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

Eng. (2), Span. (3). This iKinie iippear.s to he considerably used 
by Mexicans who live about Nambe. 

This great peak seems to be better known to Mexicans and 
Americans who reside in the Tewa country or about Santa Fe 
than it is to the Tewa Indians. The chief attention of the Tewa 
is directed to the sacred Lake Peak [22:54], and many Tewa of 
San Ildefonso, Santa Clara, and San Juan do not know Baldy 
Peak by any name. Bandelier says of Baldy Peak' and Lake 
Peak: 

Two of the highest peaks of the southern Rocky Mountains rise within a 
comparatively short distance of Santa Fe,— Baldy, 12,661 feet, and Lake Peak 
[22:54], at the foot of which the Santa F^ River [22:56] rises, 12,405 feet.' 

Subsequent measurement by the United States Geological Sur- 
vey determines the height of Baldy as 12,623 feet, and that of 
Lake Peak as 12,380 feet. Somewhei'e immediately north of 
Baldy Peak rises the unlocated Tfn'jopiijf, see under [22:unlo 
cated]. Tfu^joj>\rjf is a large mountain, it is said, but not so 
large nor so high as Baldj' Peak. Cf. Grass Mountain [22: 
unlocated] and Pecos Baldy [22:unlocated]. 
[22:54] (1) WQcdf^nufiyfoi obscure etymology ('«gfl' unexplained, 
but possibly an old form of 'oga 'cowrie shell', 'olivella shell'; it 
is found in several unetymologizable Tewa place-names, as Nambe 
\ig.awo-nu [22:41]; ^'/cT unexplained; nu apparently locative). One 
San Ildefonso Indian pronounced the name ''Ag.affansi., but others 
asserted that this form is not correct. The lake "'Agatfxnupir)- 
Ictinepol-wi [22 :un located] is sometimes designated merely '^-Iga^- 
fxnupol'wi, and this usage may shed some light on the origin of 
the name Ag.atfsenu-. 

(2) T'qmpijeimpwj' 'mountain of the east' {T'qmptje 'east' 
<t'<iVJ' 'sun', pije 'toward'; Hjjf locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; piyf 'mountain'). This is the ceremonial name, the 
mountain being the Tewa sacred mountain of the east. See 
Cardinal Mountains. 

(3) Piylcewe 'the mountain peak', abbreviated from (I) and (2), 
above {piyj' 'mountain'; Jcewe 'peak' 'top' <ke 'point', we 
locative). 

(4) Eng. Lake Peak, referring to the lake [22:55]. Cf. Span. 
(5). "Lake Peak." ^ 

(5) Span. Cerro de la Laguna, referring to a lake or lakes on 
its summit; see below. Cf. Eng. (4). 

Bandelier writes: 

The elevation ... of Lake Peak [is given] at 12,405. . . ., The lagune on 
Lake Peak is of course lower than the summit.^ 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. u, p. 88, note, 1892. "Ibid., pp. 12, 88. ' Ibid., p. 12, note. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 349 

See also excerpt from Bandelier with regard to Baldy and Lake 
Peaks, under [22:53]. 

For the height of the two peaks as subsequently determined by 
the United States Geological Survey, see page 348. 

The trail to Spirit Lake [22:unlocated] follows a charming little stream ten 
miles through the woods, up an appropriate canon, to where the little lake lies 
hidden away in the woods, surrounded by high rock walls, some 11,000 feet 
above sea level. A few miles beyond the white, sign which points to Spirit 
Lake, the trail emerges from the trees into an open glade. On the right. ia 
Santa Fe Baldy [22:53], 12,623 feet above the sea, snowcapped the greater 
part of the year; on the left, but a little lower, is Lake Peak, a crater long 
burnt out, which now holds the Crystal Lakes [22:unlocated], the sources of 
the Santa Fe and Xambee Kivers. Far below, between the peaks, lies the 
Rio Grande Valley, through which the Rio Grande River is traceable to its 
very source liy its fringe of trees.' 

As is stated above, Lake Peak is the Tewa sacred mountain of 
the east. Somewhere at or near the top of this peak is a lake 
which is called ''Ag.atJ'iTnapiijIcewepoli'wi q. v. under [22:uiilo- 
cated], page 351. 

Certain secret societies of some of the Tewa pueblos hold 
summer ceremonies on top of this peak at this lake, just as the 
Picuris do on top of Jicarita Peak [22 :9] and the Taos do at the 
sacred lake [8 :50J near Pueblo Peak [8 :40]. This information is 
confirmed by Bandelier: 

Prayer-plumes are found on the Sierra de San ]\Iateo (Mount Taylor) [29: 
115], as well as at the lagune on Lake Peak, near Santa F(5.^ 

See ' A^atfsenv piyk'Wcpolwi, Crystal Lakes, Lagoon on Lake 
Peak, Spirit Lake, all under [22:unIocated], [22:51], and [22:52]. 

[22:55] Santa Fe Creek, see [29:8]. 

[22:56] Santa Fe city, see [29:5]. 

[22:57] Nambe Paqwsempirjf 'fish-tail mountain' (/?« 'fish'; qtoseyf 
'tail'; pirjf 'mountain'). The mountain is said to be so named 
because in form it resembles a fish's tail. 

The location of this peak given on the sheet is only approxi- 
mately correct. 

[22:.58] Eng. Chupadero Creek, see [26:4]. 

[22:59] Tesuque Creek, see [26:1]. 

[22:60] (1) Namb^ and Tesuque Fogepi^y, '(9ga|iogfp^9y 'mountains 
down b}- the place of the water' 'mountains down by the place of 
the olivella shell water', referring to Santa Fe {P<>g.e, 'Og.apog.e, 
see [29:5]; |»i/;y 'mountain'). This name includes Atalaya IVIoun- 
tain [22:60], Thompson Mountain [22:61], and other peaks in the 
neighborhood of the citj-^ of Saiitii Fe. 

1 The Valley Ranch, op. cit. > Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 12, note, 1S92. 



350 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ann. 29 

(2) Eng. Atalaya Mountain. (<Span.). =.Span. (3). 

(3) Span. CeiTo Atalaya, Ccrro de la Atalaya ' mountain of the 
watchtower'. = Eng. (2). This name is known to some Mexicans 
at Santa Fe. It appears on the Santa Fe sheet of the United States 
Geological Survey, 189-i, as "Atalaya Mt." 

The mountain lies south of Santa Fe Creek Canyon, east of 
Santa Fe. 
[22:61J (1) 'Na.mhe and Tesnque Pog.epirjf, ^ Og.apog.epirjf. =Nambe 
and Tesuque [22:60]. 

(2) Eng. "Thompson Peak".' This name appears to be un- 
known locally. The writer is informed that the mountain was so 
named by Mr. Arthur P. Davis, of the United States Geological 
Survey, in honor of the late A. H. Thompson, geographer of the 
Survej-. 

The United States Geological Survey determined the altitude 
of Thompson Peak to be 10,546 feet. The mountain is east of 
[22:60]. It is about the same size as [22:60]. 
[22 :62] Pecos River, see [29 :32]. 
[22:63] (1) Eng. El Macho settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. El Macho ' the jack-mule' 'the male mule'. = Eng. (2). 

This is a small Mexican hamlet on Pecos River. There is no 
Tewa name for it. 
[22:64] (1) San Juan and Nambe PPag.e'impiyj' 'mountains of the red 
slope' (pi 'redness' 'red'; 'a'a 'steep slope'; g.e 'down at' 'over 
at'; 'i??y locative and adjective-forming posttix; piyj" 'moun- 
tain'). AVhy this name is applied was not known to the inform- 
ants. They stated definitely that the name applies to the entire 
range east of the headwaters of the Pecos Rivar [22:62]. 

(2) Nambe and San Ildefonso T'anupopseijge'impiijf 'moun- 
tains beyond the Tano river', referring to the Pecos River [22:62] 
{T'anupo, see [29:32]; pxi)(}e 'beyond'; 'z/;j<' locative and adjec- 
tive-forming posttix ; piyf^ mountain '). This name is descriptive 
and refers to the whole range east of the river. 

(3) T'qmpije'impiijf 'eastern mountains' {fampije 'east' 
<fqT)f '' sun\ pije 'direction'; 'iijj" locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix; piyj' 'mountain'). This name applies to all the 
mountains east of the Tewa country, including of course this 
range east of the headwaters of Pecos River. See the special 
treatment of Santa Fe Mountains, pages 104-05 [Large Fea- 
tures:?]. 

(4) Eng. Mora Mountains. (<Span.). = Span. (5). 

(5) Span. Sierra Mora 'mulberry range of mountains'; llora is 
applied also to blackberries, in the Span, of the Southwest. The 
mountains are evidently so named from Mora town [Unmapped], 
Mora grant, etc. 

' Santa Fe sheet of the U. S. Geological Survey, 1894. 



HARRixoTON] PLACE-NAMES 351 

[22:65] (1) Eng. Toro Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rio del Toro 'bull river'. =Eno-. (1). "Rio El 
Toro".i 

This creek joins Vao Creek [22:<;6], forming a creek tributary 
to Pecos River [22:62]. 
[22:66] (1) Eng. Vao Creek. (< Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rio La Vao 'breath river'. =Eng. (1). "Rio la 
Vao".i 

This creek joins Toi-o Creek [22:65], forming a creek tributary 
to Pecos River [22:62]. 

Unlocated 

''Ag.atfxnupiylcewepohjoi, ^Ag.atfiennpol-wi, Piylcewepokwi 'lake of 
[22:54]' (\-ig.atfsenupiT)%ewe, see [22:54]; pohvi 'lake' <po 
'water', hci unexplained). 

This is the sacred lake on or near the top of Lake Peak [22:54] 
at which summer ceremonies of secret societies are held; see 
under [22:54]. It is probably identical with the Crystal Lakes 
[22: unlocated] and with the Lagoon on Lake Peak [22:unlo- 
cated]. See ^Ag.atfsemipiyf [22:54], and Crystal Lake, Lagoon 
on Lake Peak, and Spirit Lake, all under [22:unlocated]. 

Arnold Ranch. This is a ranch in Pecos River Valley [22:62] above 
Valley Ranch [29 :unlocated]. 

Aztec Mineral Springs. 

Four miles east of Santa Fe, in the foothills of the Sangre de Cristo range 
[Santa Fe Mountains], and a few hundred yards from the Scenic Highway, 
are the Aztec mineral springs ... of late they have been abandoned, owing 
to the removal of their owner to the city of Mexico.^ 

There are two "scenic highways" leading toward the east from 
Santa Fe. The exact location of the springs has not been deter- 
mined bj^ the writer. 
Span. Cangilon ' horn '. This is said by San Juan Indians to be the 
Span, name of some hills far up the arroyo [9:37]. 

There is no Mexican settlement at the place, it is said. A 
wagon road passes through the hills. 
"Crystal Lakes". 

A few miles beyond the white sign which points to Spirit Lake [22: unlo- 
cated], the trail emerges from the trees into an open glade. On the right is 
Santa Fe Baldy [22:53], 12,623 feet above the sea, snowcapped the greater 
part of the year; on the left, but a little lower, is Lake Peak [22:54], a crater 
long burnt out, which now holds the Crystal Lakes, the sources of the Santa 
F6 [22:55] and Xambee [22:37] Rivers.' 

"Crystal Lakes" appear to be identical with the Lagoon of 
Lake Peak [22:unlocated] and \ig.atfsemipiy'kewepohci [22: 
unlocated], although the description is not definite enough to 

• The Valley Ranch , op. cit. 

'The Land o£ Sunshine, a Handbook of Resources of New Mexico, p. 173, 1900. 



352 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS (btii. ann. 29 

make this identitidiition certain. See - Ag.af fxmipii) f [22:5-±], 

and 'Ag.aff;eniipi)jkewepokwi "Lagoon on Lake Peak' 'Spirit Lake', 

all under [22:unlocated]. 
Elk Mountain. Tliis is ^;ho\vn as a mountain east of Pecos River 

L22:()2].i 
Span. Rio de los Frijoles, Rito de los Frijoles 'bean creek', given by 

Nanibe Indians as the name of a creek somewhere by the Rio 

Chiquito [22:22]. 
Grass Mountain. This is a mountain in the territory included in 

this sheet. 

There is a trip to Grass Mountain, partly over good roads and partly over 
trails, but always in the midst of a splendid country. The top of Grass Moun- 
tains is a plateau remarkably level for this country, covered with velvety grass, 
and gay with wild-flowers. - 

This is evidently distinct from Bald}' Peak [22:53], which is 
mentioned as distinct from Grass Mountain on the same page of 
the pamphlet. 
Namb^ Jqnniku'u 'willow arroyo' {j<iyf 'willow'; jjj Nambe and San 
Juan form sometimes used instead of 'i/;y, locative and adjective- 
forming postfix ; huu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

This is a large arroyo north or east of Topiijf [25:14]. See 
JqnnihiC qijwihej i [22:unlocated], below. 
Nambe Jqnniliu'' otjiuihej i 'willow arro3'o pueblo ruin' {Jinnihti'u, see 
under [22 runlocated], above; 'qrjwikeji 'pueblo ruin' <^qrjwi 
'pueblo', heji 'old' postpound). 

This is a pueblo ruin on the Jqnnihuu; see under [22 :unlocated], 
above. 
Nambe luuiikivaje of obscure etymology (ka.ii, unexplained, sounds 
like the latter part of \>kadl 'coldness' 'cold'; Iwuje 'heiglit'). 
This is the name of a height east of Nambe. 
Nambe Katepolwi 'leaf dwelling-place lake' {l:a 'leaf; te 'dwelling- 
place'; pohvi 'lake' <po 'water', ^wi unexplained). 

This is a small lake somewhere in the mountains east of Namb^. 
(1) Nambe Kepo 'bear water' (ke 'bear'; po 'water'). Cf. Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Rito Oso, Rio Oso 'bear creek' 'bear river'. Cf. 
Tewa (1). 

This is the name of a creek somewhere near the headwaters of 
[22:28]. 
Nambe Kojajepo ' water of an unidentified species of plant' {kojaje a 
small yellow-flowered plant which the Mexicans call 3'erba de la 
vibora 'rattlesnake weed'; po 'water' 'creek'). 
This is the name of a creek near Chimayo. 
Nambe Kwsep'ug.ii)iip>ii)j' ' flat oak-grown mountain ' {l-wse 'oak'; p'ag.i 
'flatness' 'flat', referring to large flat surfaces; Hrjj' locative and 

'The Valley Kanch op. cit. (see map therein). * Ibifl. 



HARKIXOTON] 



PLACE-NAMES 353 



adjective forming postfix: phjf 'uiountiiiir). The word piijf 
is sometimos omitted. 

This mountain is somewhere near the upper course of the Rio 
Chiquito [22:'_'2j. 

Nam1)e Kusx'aewtg.c 'place of the rock bowl'(l:M 'stone' 'rock'; sx^sewe 
'bonl'; g.e 'down at" 'over at'). 
This is a dell in the mountains east of Namb^. 

Lagoon on Lake Peak. "The lagune on Lake Peak is of course lower 
than the summit."' "Prayer-plumes are found on the Sierra de 
San Mateo (INIount Taylor) [29:115], as well as at the lagune on 
Lake Peak [22:54], near Santa Fe."- This lake is probably iden- 
tical with '' Agaffxnupirjkewepoltwi [22:unlocated] and Crystal 
Lakes [22:unlocated]. See ^Agaifs^nupiyf [22:54], and Aga 
tfxnupitjkewepokwi ' Crystal Lakes ' 'Spirit Lakes', all under [22: 
unlocated]. 

Nambe Mountains. Bandelier mentions "the high mountains of 
Nambe"^ and ''Sierra de Nambe.'" ^ He evidently refers to the 
section of the Santa Fe Range near Namlie. 

Nambe NQ.mpihii'u 'red earth corner' (nqyf 'earth'; pi 'redness 
'.red'; hau 'large low roundish place'). 
This is a locality in the mountains east of Nambe. 

Nambe J^ws^rjlcepo 'sharp rock-pine water' {yrvserif 'rock-pine' 
'Pinus scopulorum'; Ice 'sharpness' 'sharp'; po 'water' 'creek'). 
The name refers to sharp pine-needles. 

This is given by the old cacique of Nambe as the Nambe name 
for the creek which the Mexicans call Rio Panchuelo. It is 
doubtful, however, whether this information is correct. The creek 
is said to be somewhere in the mountains northeast of [25:15] and 
to be tributary to Santa Cruz Creek [22:17]. For discussion of 
this perplexing matter see [25:15]. 

(1) Nambe '' Okqywsetdsi'i 'canyon of the dwelling-place of an uniden- 
tified species of medicinal weed called by the Mexicans contra 
yerba' (^ OJcdyiose. ' contra yerba'; te 'dwelling-place'; tsVi 'can- 
yon'). 

('2) Span. El Rito 'the creek'. 

This place is in the mountains northeast of Nambe. 

(1) San Juan '' OmsP-.rjq^, '' Omxygeimpopl^ said to mean 'crooked chin' 
'crooked chin springs' ("o 'chin"; 7ufeyqe 'crookedness' 'crooked'; 
'ir^y locative and adjective-forming postfix; popi 'spring' <po 
'water', pi 'to issue'). 

(2) Span. Los Ojitos 'the little springs'. 

This is a locality on the lower course of [22:10] but not found 
on sheet [9]. 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 12, note, 1892. » Ibid., p. 64. 

•Ibid., p. 12. <Ibld., p. 83. 

87584°— 29 eth— 16 23 



354 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

Naniho J'<i4t(bn'ii 'corner where the tish was dcsiiecr {pa 'tish'; dda 

'to wish' 'to want' 'to desire'; bun, 'large low roundish place'). 

For the name cf. San Ildefonso Ke^awii [17:unlocated]. The 

circumstances under which the name was originally applied were 

not known to the informant. 

The place is said to be a large dcll in the mountains near the 

upper course of the MaJiy,powe [22:39]. 
Span. Rio Panchuelo. See J^hoceyJct-po under [22: unlocated], above, 

and Topimps^tjgei'r) fhu \t [25:1.5]. 
Pecos Baldy. This is a high peak somewhere in the mountains east 

of Nambe. 

A three days' jaunt [from Valley Ranch] will take you to the headwaters 
of the Pecos [22:62] — Pecos Baldy, 13,000 feet above the sea, and the Truchaa 
Peaks [22:13], towering still higher.' 

Nambe "Po-nyi Num-bu."^ 

Higher up [than Santa Cruz [15:19] ] toward Chimayo [22:18], there are 
said to be well delined ruins on the mountain sides, the names of two of which 
are Po-nyi Num-bu and Yam P'ham-ba.^ 

For " Yam P'ham-ba" see [29:45]. The writer's Nambe inform- 
ants had never heard this name Po-nyi Num-bu and were sur- 
prised to hear that there is a pueblo ruin by this name. They 
thought the name may be a mistake for Ponfity,ywsEMu [22:21], 
but they knew of nt) ruin at the latter place. It is not clear from 
Bandelier's text from which Tewa village he obtained the name. 
Cf. Nambe S^ntineua' oywikeji xxwdi^v \22:\in\oc&ted'\, below. 
Nambe PutPa'a 'swollen buttocks slope' {pu 'region about the anus 
'buttocks'; ti 'swollenness' 'swollen'; '«'« 'steep slope"). 

This place is somewhere near the upper course of Nambe Ci'eek 
[22:37]. Cf. Nambe Puti'apo [22: unlocated], below. There are 
springs at the place, it is said. 
Nambe Putrapo 'swollen buttocks slope water', referring to PutTa'a, 
above; po 'water' 'creek'. 

Tliis is a creek which takes its name from I'utl'a'a (see above), 
but under what name is not known to the writer. 
Pii'on4t'we 'place where the red paint is dug' {pi 'redness' 'red'; 
Z;" 09./ 'to dig'; 'iwe locative). 

This is a deposit of bright red paint situated al)out 2 miles east 
of Santa Fe, the informants think north of Santa Fe Creek [22:5.5] 
in high land a few hundred yards from that creek. This paint 
was used for body painting. It is said that Jicarilla Apache still 
go to the deposit to get this paint and sometimes sell it to the 
Tewa. See pi (under Minekals). 

* The Valley Ranch, op. eit. 

sBandelier, Final Report, pt. n. p. 83, 1892. 



II.VKBINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 355 

(1) Eng. Rincon. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rincon 'the corner". = Eng. (1). 
This is a mountain about 10 miles northwest of Pecos Pueblo 
ruin [29:33] and due east of Santa Fe. 

The Rincon, upon whose peak the cross [of the Penitentes] is set, is only a 
half day's ride from the Valley Ranch [29:unlocated], and the trip is worth 
making for the view, as well as to get an idea of the terrible climb it must be 
for the suffering and laden Penitentes, who choose always the steepest, roughest 
way.' 

(1) Eng. Rio Chiquito settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Rio Chiquito 'little river', see [22:22]. 
This is a small Mexican town on the Rio Chiquito near Chimayo 
[22:18], Some Cliimayo blankets are woven there, it is said. Cf. 
[22:22]. 

Span. "Sierra de Santa Barbara"^ 'the mountains of Saint Barbara', 
the name referring perhaps to the part of the Santa Fe Mountains 
near Santa Barbara settlement [8:99]. 

?Santuario Mountains. Bandelier mentions "the Santuario".^ Hew- 
ett, perhaps following Bandelier, uses the expression "Sur le 
Sautuario."* Whether there are mountains by this name has not 
been learned; Hewett understands that there are. No map known 
to the writer shows any place named Santuario other than Santu- 
ario settlement [22:20]. 

Sapapiyf of obscure etymology {sa apparently the same as sa of 
nqsaty, 'it makes a rushing sound', said of water <n<i 'it', sa 'to 
make a rushing sound', ty, 'to say'; pa apparently 'to crack' 
'state of being cracked' 'cracked'; piyj' 'mountain'). The verb 
pa is used of unfolding leaves, but the word can not be explained 
as referring to unfolding tobacco leaves because sa 'tobacco' has 
a different intonation. Nor can it mean 'cracked excrement' for 
sa 'excrement' has still a different intonation. 

The mountain is somewhere near the pass [22:23], to which it 
appears to give the name. The mountain is well known to the 
Tewa and is said to be one of the highest of the range. One of 
the boys of San Ildefonso Pueblo is named Sapupirjf. 

Nambe S(lrjwse,p' y,kwaje 'height of the sandstone and the rabbitbrush' 
{sqywx ' sandstone ';^''!X 'rabbitbrush' 'Chrysothamnusbigelovii'; 
kwaje ' height'). 

This mountsiin is between ''Ag.atfs^nupiyf [22:54] and 
Paqvosernpiij f [22:57]. 

> The Valley Ranch, op. cit. The pamphlet contains an illustration of the cross and a map showing 
the location of Rincon. 

2 Bandelier in Papers A rch. Inst. Amer., Amer. ser., i, p. 37, 1881. 

3 Final Report, pt. ii, p. 84. 1892. 
* Communaut^, p. 33, 1908. 



356 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [btii. ann. 29 

Nainb6 SintinedcC qywilej i. of obscure ctymoloj^y (>i(inf/ne-ia apparently 
<S])an. sentinela 'guard' although the writer learned of no snoh 
Span, plai'e-name; 'oi/wikc// 'pueblo ruin ' <''o?;wi 'pueblo,' ^vji 
'old' postpound). A Nambe informant gave this as the name of 
a pueblo ruin, which he located a short distance north of [22:21]. 

(1) Eng. Spirit Lake. (<Span.). =Span. (2). "Spirit Lake.'" 
(2) Span. Laguna del Espiritu Santo ' Holy (ihost lake.' 
= Eng. (1). "Espiritu Santo Lake."^ 

The trail to Spirit Lake follows a charming little stream ten miles through 
the woods, up an appropriate canon, to where the little lake lies hidden away 
in the woods, surrounded by high rock walls, some 11,000 feet above sea level. 
A few miles beyond the white sign which points to Spirit Lake, the trail 
emerges from the trees into an open glade. On the right is Santa Fe Baldy 
[22:5.3], 12,623 feet above the sea, snowcapped the greater part of the year; 
on the left, but a little lower, is Lake Peak [22:. 54], a crater long burnt out, 
which now holds the Crystal Lakes, the sources of the Santa Fe [22:. 5.5] 
and Nambee [22:37] Rivers. Far below, between the peaks, lies the Kio 
Grande Valley, through which the Rio Grande River is traceable to its very 
source by its fringe of trees. ^ 

The map given in the pamphlet cited shows Spirit Lake about a mile and 
a half southeast of the summit of Baldy Peak [22:.53]. The data available 
do not warrant identifying "Spirit Lake" with any of the Tewa lake names 
of this region. Illustrations of this beautiful little lake have been published.^ 

See ^Ag.atfsp7iupiyf [22:5-1:] and ^AgatfE^nupiylcewepohvi 
' Crystal Lakes ' ' Lagoon on Lake Peak', all under [22 : unlocated]. 
"Stewart Lake."' 

This lake is mentioned in connection with Spirit Lake [22: 
unlocated], and is probably situated in the mountains east of 
Nambe. 
Namb6 TahuPgywikeji 'pueblo ruin of the little pile of grass' {fa 
'grass'; bU/' 'small roundish pile'; "'qywikeji 'pueblo ruin' Koywi 
'pueblo', Iceji 'old' postpound). 

This is said to be a pueblo ruin in the hills southeast of Namb6. 

T'a7m/ji)g.e, T'a)iiujog.epokwi 'place of the great dawn' 'lake of the 

place of the great dawn' {i'amii 'dawn' <it'a 'day', ?hm 'heat 

lightning' 'northern lights'; jo augmentative; g,e 'down at' 

'over at'; poJcwi 'lake' <po 'water', Arwi unexplained). 

This place and lake are most sacred to the Tewa, being men- 
tioned in songs connected with cachina worship. Most of the 
informants said that they had heard the name of the lake and 
place, but do not know the location. Several, including one very 

• The Valley Ranch, op. cit. 

3 Land of Sunshine, a Handbook of Resources of New Mexico, p. 2-, 1906. 

3 Ibid., opp. p. 23; also in tbe pamphlet on the Valley Ranch, op. cit. 



MAP 23 
NAMBE REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 23 




MAP 23 
NAMBE REGION 



HARKixr.TON] PLACE-NAMES 357 

tnistwoi'thv San Ildefonsoiiiforniaiit, place. 7"cr»?;yV>g<'somewliore 
in the monntains east of Nambe, as indeed the name might sug- 
gest the location to be. The informant referred to insists that it 
is a real place, not mytliical. 

Nambe T.ubdgrbii'u 'bowed liacis corner' {Tubag.e, sec Tuhag.e' oyioilej I 
[22:uniocated], below; huu 'large low roundish place'). 

This is a corner in the hills near the upper course of 3lahy,powe 
[22:39]: see fiibagt'oyirU-eJi [22:unlocated], below. 

Nambe Tub'fg.eoijwikeji 'bowed back pueblo ruin' (tu 'back'; bag.e 
state of being 'bowed' 'bent as luider a load'; 'qijwil-ej! 'pueblo 
ruin' < 'oijii'i 'pueblo', l\'ji 'old' postpound). 

This is a pueblo ruin at Tub(ig.i'bu''u, a. A&\\ in the hills some- 
where near the upper course of 2fahy,powe [23:46]. See Titbage- 
bii'u [22:unlocated], above. 

Nambe Tfu])opiyj', Tfu'jokewe, Tfu'jo, Tfii'jo'e of obscure etymol- 
ogy (fftrjo said by the old Indian who gave the name to refer to 
some kind of black material; this is all he would explain, and no 
other informant of whom inquiry was made was able to ex- 
plain it at all; piy,/ 'mountain';* ^(?u'd 'peak'; \' diminutive). 
This is a mountain north of Baldy Peak [22:53] and south of 
Kujotfa [22:31]. It is a high mountain, it is said, but not §o high 
as Baldy Peak. 

San Juan, San Ildefonso, and Nambe WijcP qriwileji 'pueblo ruin of 
the great gap,' referring to [22:29] {Wijo, see [22:29]; 'oywikcji 
'pueblo ruin' < ^oywi 'pueblo,' keji 'old' postpound). 

This pueblo plays an important role in one version of the Tewa 
migration legend. It was built, so it is related, by the united 
Summer and Winter people after they had wandered separated 
for generations. It was here that two-cacique government was 
first instituted. So far as the writer is aware, this ruin has not 
hitherto been mentioned in print. It has not been possi))le to 
learn of its location more definitely than that it is somewhere in 
or near the great gap [22:29]. It is said that the ruin is not very 
large. See [22:29]. 

Nameless mineral spring. It is said that Mr. Fritz Miiller, of Santa 
Fe, owns a mineral spring situated in the hills south of Nambe 
and east of Tesuque. The water is cold. Some of it has been 
bottled and sold in Santa Fe. 

[23] nambJo sheet 

This sheet (map 23) shows some of the country around Nambe 
Pueblo, especially to the south. The region is claimed bv the 



358 KTIINOGEOGRAPHV OF THE TEWA INDIANS turn. ann. 29 

Nambi'i Indians and nearly all the place-names were obtained from 
them and are in the Nanil)e dialect. 

[23:1J Nanibe Creek, .see [19:;il. 

[23:2] '^i\.xnh&'' Ohipseycjelojui" II 'arroyo behind the hill.s", referrino- to 
[23:8] (' Okupse7j[U', see [23:3]; ^-o/iv'u 'arroyo with barrancas' 
< to 'barranca,' hun 'lari;e groove' 'arroyo'). 

The Mexican water-mill [23:4] is a short distance east of the 
mouth of this arroyo. 

[23:3] Narabe 'Oka, ' Okukwaje 'the hills' 'the hill heights' ('o/ai 
' hill'; kwaje ' height'). This name refers definitely to the heights 
indicated, southwest of Nambe Pueblo and between the latter and 
the arroyo [23:2]. The name refers also vaguely to all the hills 
south of Nambe or even to hills anywhere. The region bej'ond 
[23:3] or beyond the hills in general is caWed ''okups^yf/e ov ''ok u- 
kwajepseyf/e (pseyije ' beyond '). An old trail leads from Nambe 
Puel)lo across [23:3] to [23:49]. 

[23:4] Narab^ Po'o, N'imhe'i'^po'o, Nqmhit'^po' oHwe 'the water-mill' 
' the water-mill by Nambe * ' place of the water-mill by Nambe ' 
(j'o 'water'; 'o 'metate'; NqiiiWe, see [23:5]; T* locative and 
adjective-foi'ming postfix; ''ivoe locative). 

This Mexican water-mill is situated on the south side of Nambe 
Creek [23:1] and a short distance east of the mouth of the arroyo 
[23:2]. Indians and Mexicans living about Nambe have much 
wheat and maize ground at this mill. 

[23:5] (1) Nqinbe ojyivi, Niimhee 'pueblo of the roundish earth' 'the 
roundish earth', referring probablv to a mound of earth {Nqmhe'e, 
see [25:30]; qywi 'pueblo'). This name was originally given 
to the pueblo ruin [25:30] which is now distinguished as 
Nqmheoywikeji or Nqmhekeji (keji 'old' pcstpound); for the 
etymology of the name see [25:30]. All of the forms of the 
name quoted below are with exception of one of the Oraibi names 
and one of the Span, names either identical or akin. "San 
Francisco Nambe. "' "Nambe."= "Nanil)e.''^ "Vampe."* 
"Namba."^ "NamlTe."*' "Nampe."' "Mambo."* "Mambe."» 

1 Vetancurt (eo. 1693) in Teatro Mex., m, p. 317, 1871. 

' MS. ca. 1715 quoted by Baudelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, v, p. 193, 1890. 

3 D' Anville, map Am^rique Septentrionale, 1746. 

< Pilie, Exped., 3d map, 1810. 

5 Bent (1849) in Cal. Mess, and Corres., p. 211, 1850. 

6 Simpson, Report to Sec. War, 2d map, 1850. 

' Domenech, Deserts North Amer., ii, p. (i3, ISC.O. 
s Ward in Ind. Aff. Jirp. for 1,864, p. 191, 1.S65. 
s Ibid, for 1867, p. 212, 1868. 



HARHIXRTON] PLACE-NAMES 359 

"San Francisco de Nanibe."' ■'Nambi."- "Na-imbe,"^ giv^en as 
Tewa name. " Na-im-be," ■* given as Tewa name. " Nambe " or 
"Nambe."^ Bandelier uses these forms promiscuously through- 
out his Final Rejwrt. " Numi;" " this is given as the Hano Tewa 
form; it is evidently merely a poor spelling of Nqvihee; cf. 
Fewkes' spelling of the Hano form given below. "Na-i-mbi;"' 
given as the Tewa form. On hearing a pronunciation of this 
spelling a Tewa Indian said. " Mr. Bandelier didn't hit it as neai'ly 
as the old Mexicans did." The name has two, not three S3^11ables. 
" Na-i-mbi " sounds like Tewa nq'imii ' our ' {nq I; 'iijf 2+ plural 
sign; 6/ possessive). ''Nambe;"* given as the Hano Tewa form; 
cf. Stephen's spelling of the Hano Tewa form, given above. 
" Na-im-bai." " " Nambe (from Nam-be-e, the native name, prol)a- 
bly referring to a round hill or a round valley)." '" " Nambee." " 

(2) Picuris "Nammo'lona 'little mound of earth.'"''- This is 
important as a corroboration of the meaning of the Tewa name. 
"With the sj'llable -7nbl- cf. Tewa -he's and Isleta -Inir- in the 
Isleta form quoted below. 

(3) Isleta "Namburuap",'^ given as the Isleta form. This is 
undoubtedly the old Isleta name. With the syllable -T)ur- cf. 
Tewa he^e, Picuris -mol-. 

(4) Isleta sing. "Nambe-huide", plu. " Nam behun";'* given as 
Isleta name for the Nambe people. The first part of the name is 
merely a Span, loanword. 

(5) Jemez Ndmht^e. The Nambe people are called JVdmhe'e- 
fsa'df {fsaaf 'people'). 

(6) Cochiti N^amhx'se. This is the old name. The people are 
• called Namhce'semse {mpe 'people'). Cf. especially Acoma (8). 

(7) Cochiti Namhe. This is merely a Span, loanword. 

(8) Acoma "Nome'e".'^ Cf. especially Cochiti (6). 

(9) Oraibi Hopi Tvlwive'eteioa 'Tewa near the mountains' 
{tokwi 'mountain' 'mountain range'; ve'e 'at' 'near'; tewa 
<Tewa TeiM 'Tewa'). This name is applied by the Hopi to the 
the Nambe and Tesuque Tewa. 

" Ind. Af. Rtp. for 1867, p. 213, 1868. 

2 Cooper in Ind. Aff. Sep., p. 161, 1870. 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. i, p. 124, 1890. 

< Ibid., p. 260. 

6 Ibid., passim. 

•Stephen in Eighlk Sep. Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 37, 1891. 

' Bandelier, op. cit., pt. ii, p. 83, 1892. 

> Fewke-s in Mnclrentli Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn., pt. i, p. 611, 1900. 

9 Jouveneeau in Cath. Pioneer, i. No. 9. p. 12, 1906. 

'» Hodge in Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 15, 1910. 

" The Valley Ranch, op. cit. 

"Spinden, Picuris notes, .MS., 1910. 

"Hodge, op. cit., p. 16. 

"Gatschet. Isleta MS. vocab. in Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1885, cited in Handbook Inds,, pt. 2, p. 15, 1910. 



360 ETHNOGEOGRAPHV OF THE TEWA INDIANS Ietii. ann. 20 

(10) Oraibi Hopi JVaiahe. This is merely a Span, loanword. 

(11) Eng. Naml)^ Pueblo, Nambe Pueblo, Karabe, Nambe. 
(<Span.). 

(12) Span. Nambe. (<Tewa iVc/«tJe'e). 

(13) Span. "San Francisco Nanibe"'.' "San Francisco ".^ "St. 
Francis".^ "San Francisco de Nambe".* This saint-name is no 
longer in use, although it is well known to the Indians that St. 
Francis is the patron saint of the pueblo. 

Nambe is the second village known by the x\&vaQ]}fqmhe'e. The 
first village called Nqmhee is the pueblo ruin [25:30], which ac- 
cording to Mr. A. V. Kidder, is a very ancient pueblo. Cf. Namb6 
settlement under [23:unlocated]. 

Of the origin of the Indians now inhabiting Nambe Pueblo, 
Bandelier says: "The people of Nambe are a compound of origi- 
nal Tehuas [Tewa], of Navajos, and of Jicarilla Apaches".^ The 
writer's Nambe informants, who were reliable, stated that they 
had never heard of any appreciable amount of Navaho or Jicarilla 
Apache blood existing in the Nambe body of Indians. They said 
fm'ther that there is not a single Athapascan Indian settled at 
Nambe at present, but that one of the former caciques of the 
pueblo was of Navaho extraction. Bandelier mentions as former 
pueblos of the Nambe Indians: "T"o B'hi-piing-ge" (a name which 
means merely 'beyond the mountain' [25:14] and could be applied 
to any or all of the pueblo ruins [25:1S], [25:23], and [25:30] and 
perhaps to other pueblos; see introduction to sheet [23]); "Ke 
gua-yo" [22:40]; "A-ga Uo-no" [22:41]; and "Ka-a-yu" [22:42].° 

Hewett' mentions as former pueblos of the Nambe these same 
four village names given by Bandelier, and adds Ssep^we [4:8]: 

Plus loin, ce sont les ruines de Keguaya [22:40], a quelques milles a I'est de 
Nambe et de Tobipange [see above], ii 8 milles au nord-est; on suppose que ce 
sont celles des villages historiques des Nambe. Les ruines d'.^gauono [22:41] 
et de Kaayu [22:42] sur le Santuario, il quelques milles plus loin au nord-est, 
indiquent probablement I'ancienne residence de certains clans des Nambe, et 
les traditions rattachent cette tribu ii celle des Sepawi sur I'oued El Rito, dans 
la vallee du Chama. 

'Vetancurt (ra. 1693) in Teatro Mex., iii, p. 317, 1871. 

sVilla-Seflor, Theatre Amer., ii, p. 425, 1748. 

'Sliea, Cath. Miss., p. 80. 1S.55. 

< Ward in Ind. Aff. Rep. for 1867, p. 213, 1868. 

'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. i, p. 261. 1890. 

*Ibid., pt. II. p. 81. 1892. Mr. Hodge informs the writer that he made special inquiry regarding 
these names while at Namb^ in 1895 and was informed that " T'o B'hi-pang-ge' ' is a ruin in the Mora 
Mountains about 5 miles east of Namb6; "Ke-gna-yo" is about 3 miles southeast of Namb6, and 
"A-ga Uo-no" (pronounced AgAwano by the Namb6 informant) about 4 miles to the eastward, in 
the Mora Mountains. The exaet localtiy of " Ka-ii-yu " could not be given, although the name was 
known to the Indians. A ruin called Kekwali is situated near Ag4wano, and another, known as 
Kopiw^ri, lies about 5 miles north of the present Namb6. 

'Communaut^s, p. 33, 1908. 



HARRi.vuTON] PLACE-NAMES 361 

Jean^'on' writes: 

I have licanl some stories that the people of \ambe liveil in Pesede-uinge 
[5:37] at one time, Imt liave not been able to coiToborate them as I have not 
had the time. 

Nambe Indians informed the writer that the ruins [22:40], 
[22:-il], [22:42], [23:36], [25;S], [25:1S], [25:-23], and [25:30J 
were built and inhabited b}' their ancestors at various times in 
the past. The unlocated Wijo'qywilejl [22:unIocated] was in- 
habited by their ancestors with tlie ancestors of all the Tewa 
Indians of other villages. The old Winter cacique of Nambe 
knew the name and location of Ss^psewe [4:8] and said the Namb^ 
or Tewa people used to live at that pueblo, but the latter infor- 
mation was gained onl3' as an answer to a leading question. A 
number of Tewa knew of Ssepsexoe ruin, but not one seemed to 
know definitely that Nambe people used to live there. Oppor- 
tunity has oti'ered to ask onl}' one San Ildefonso and one Santa 
Clara Indian about the tradition that the ancestors of the Nambe 
Indians formerly iiihal)ited P'ese.ieorjwikeji [5:37]. They had 
not heard of such a tradition. It appears that Mr. Jeanfon ob- 
tained his information at Santa Clara Puel)lo. 

There is at present only one estufa (kiva) at Nambe, and this is 
a Winter estufa. The only cacique is a Winter cacique. This 
estufa is of the round a])ove-ground type, like the south estufa of 
San Ildefonso. It contains some faces of Icosa crudely painted on 
the pillars of its interior. The estufa is in the somewhat irregular 
courtyard of the village about 200 feet east of the Government 
.schoolhouse. The old cacique .says that he has been told by 
Indians now dead that the high land where the church [23:10] 
stands was covered in earlier times with houses of the pueblo. 
See [25:30], [23:10], [23:11], [23:12], [23:6], [23:7], [23:8], [23:lt]. 

[23:6J Nambe Ts''huu 'eagle arroyo' {tse 'eagle' of any species; hii'u 
'large groove' 'arroyo'). The whole arroyo is called thus. Cf. 
the names [24:15], [24:6], [24:7], and [24:S]. The part of this 
arr03o immediately west of Nambe Pueblo is called by the Nambe 
Indians 'west arroyo', the part immediately north of Namb^ 
Pueblo 'north arroyo'; see [23:7], [23:8]. 

[23:7] Nambe Tsimpijeiyfhuu "west arroyo' {tsqmpije 'west' 
<ts(ivj' 'to set', pije 'toward'; ^iyf locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix; hii\i 'large gi'oove' 'arroyo'). The part of the 
arroyo [23:<;j immediately west of Nambe Pueblo is called thus. 
See i23:(i], [23:8]. Cf. [23:12]. 

' Explorations in Chama Basin, New Mexico, Records of the Past, Mar.-Apr., p. 108, 1911. 



362 ETUNOGEOGRAPHY OF TUE TEWA INDIANS [bth. Ann. 29 

[23:8j Namb6 Pi/np?'jeH_yy/iii'u 'north arroyo' {pimpije 'north' 
<piv./' 'mountain' 'up country', jnje 'toward'; 'i??y locative 
and adjective-forming postfix; hit'u 'large groov^e' 'arroyo'). 
The part of the arroyo [23:6] immediately north of Nambe 
Pueblo is called thus. See L23:<;J, [23:7J. Cf. [23:1:.']. 

[23:9] 'Namb6 j^po,'^pog.e 'the race-track' 'place down at the race- 
track' ('a 'to run'; po 'track' 'trail' 'road'; g./' 'down at' 
'over at'). 

This track for ceremonial foot-racing is now seldom used. It 
extends several hundred feet in an east- west direction on the level 
land north of the part of the Tsehu' u [23:6] caWcd Pynpije'iy j'- 
/nt'K [23:S] and due north of Nambe Pueblo. This is the only 
race-track which at present exists at Nambe, so far as could be 
learned. 

[23:10] Nambe Misate, Mlmhe'immisate 'the church' 'Nambe church' 
{mi'safe 'church' < misa < Span, misa 'Roman Catholic mass', fe 
'dwelling-place' 'house': WCimbee, see [23:.5]; 'i?;y locative and 
adjective-forming postfix). 

[23:11] Nambe JVn'u, JVipnbenu^a 'below' 'below the roundish earth' 
referring to [23:6] («?f'« 'below'; iV4mbe'e, see [23:5]). This 
name is applied to a strip of low land about a hundred feet wide 
extending along Nambe Creek [23:1] at Nambe Pueblo. It is 
applied especially to the part of this low land due south of Namb^ 
estufa (see [23:. 5]) and just west of the guleh [23:12]. 

There is a spring at this place which is thought to contain better 
water than that obtained from the creek or from the irrigation 
ditches. 

[23:12] Nambe T'q77ipijeiykohu^u 'eastern arroyo' {Cqmpije 'east' 
<t'qr)j' '■snn\pije 'toward'; 'rz/y locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; kohuhi 'arroyo with barrancas' < ko 'barranca', /h/'w 
' large groove ' ' arroyo'). 

This is a small gulch just east of Nambe Pueblo. Cf. [23: T] 
and [23:8]. 

[23:13] Nambe ' O'eviijj' of obscure etymology ('o'e unexplained, possi- 
bly meaning 'little metate' or 'little scar' but the intonation is 
wrong for either of these interpretations; piyj' ' mountain'). 

The two circles on the map indicate the location and extent of 
the hill or hills thus called. 

[23:14] Nambe PoqwawPi 'drag water gap' (po 'water'; qiua 'to 
drag'; wPi 'gap'). Why the gap is thus called was not under- 
stood by the informants. A San Ildefonso Indian said that it 
refers perhaps to the sluggish manner in which water flows through 
the sand. 

The main wagon road connecting Nambe with Santa Fe passes 
through this gap. 



HARKINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 363 

[23:15] Nambe P'ab»d/l-/rajf, P'abo.ii 'height of the roundish hill of 
the j'ueoa' 'roundish hill of the yucca' {pa yucca 'Yucca bac- 
cata'; &<w?' 'roundish hilP of large size; hwaje 'height'). 

The ends of T'qiifehrKJ^ [23:10] tapering toward the south and 
east are called thus. See [23:10]. 

[23:16] Namb^ T'qntekwaje 'sun dwelling-place height' {t'qijf 'sun'; 
^<; ' dwelling-place ' 'hou.se'; l-waje 'height') For the name cf. 
T'qvfal'irai<' [17:!»]. The name i.s peculiar and poetic. 

This great bare hill has a high rounded point to the northwest. 
To the south and ca.st it runs out into I^aiO'H'hiyjjA [23:15]. See 
also [23:17]. 

[23:17] Nambe T'qntebuu ' sun dwelling-place corner' {T'qnte-^ see 
[23:10]; 6«'m 'lai"ge low roundish place'). 

This large dry corner is west of and sheltered bj' [23:16], from 
which it takes its name. 

[23:18] Nambe ^^<a//to'a ' gentle slope where the prairie-dogs move 
aljout" (t/.<f/, said to be an old form equivalent to M 'prairie- 
dog', just as one hears in modern Tewa both pe and peua applied 
to what is apparently but one species of rodents, resembling kan- 
garoo rats; jl 'to moveabout,at, or in a jilace'; ta'a 'gentle slope'). 
Prairie-dogs actually live at the place. The prairie a short dis- 
tance east of Naml)e Pueblo is called thus. Cf. [23:22]. 

[23:11)] :Sa,mhe P;buhu>u see [24:^9]. 

[23:20] Nambe Tajehu'u, see [24:43]. 

[23:21] Nambe P'airopi>j,f, see [24:44]. 

[23:22] Nambe Woie 'high plain' (unanalyzable). 

The name refers to a large, level, barren area exceeding a mile 
square. 

[23:23] 'i^dimhi Pxnfwjwx'kabo'iriyj'huht 'arroyo by the round hills 
of the snaky mountain-mahogany thickets', referring to [23:24] 
{PtenfuqwiekahoM^ see [23:24j; 'i^y locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix; hxCu 'large groove' 'arroj'o'). 

This arroyo runs down between the little hills [23:24] and the 
height [23:16]. 

[23:24] Nambe Pcrnjuqwcelcahodi 'the round hills of the snaky moun- 
tain-mahogany thickets' {ps^nfu 'snake'; qvc^p 'mountain mahog- 
any' 'Cercocarpus parvifolius"; ^r/, 'denseness' 'dense' 'forest' 
'thicket'; hodl 'large roundish pile' "round hill'). 
These hills give the name to the arroyo [23:23]. 

[23:25] (1) Nambe ^(/bipows 'duck creek' ("oSi 'duck'; powe ^ water' 
'creek' <po 'water', we locative). 

(2) Tesuque Kutqnilni'u 'pointed rock arroyo', referring to 
[23:37] {Kutq''^-, see [23:37]; ni a Tesuque form of 'f^y locative 



364 ETHNOUEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA IXDIANS turn. axn. 29 

and udjeotive-foniiin*^ poHtfix; Jma 'large groove' 'arroyo'). It 
is well known at \anib6 and Tesuque that the names dill'er. 

(3) Span. Chupadero Creek 'sucking place creek'. For the 
name cf. [14:87], [22:51], [22:58]. The upper course of this 
arroyo is called by the Nambe Pifpo, see [23:34]. Kiime [23:25] 
and name [23:34] begin to be applied about where [23:33] joins 
the waterway. Whether tiie Tesuque and Span, names apply like 
the Nambe name to the lower course onl}- or include [23:34] has 
not been determined. On the writer's first visit to Nambe it was 
learned that '' Obipowe is sometimes also called ^Upmve 'awl creek' 
Cli 'awl' 'punch') but this information is probably incorrect. 
See [23:37], [23:34]. 

[23:26] 'Siimhe Jqm J}' a g.PPVjlu 'hills of the broad, flat place of the 
willows', referring to [23:27] {■/(j.mp'agi, see [23:27]; T* locative 
and adjective-forming postfix; 'oA'w 'hill'). These low hills are 
evidently named from the arroyo [23:27]. 

[23:27] Nambe Jqntp'agil'qlniu 'broad, flat arroyo of the willows' 
(jqyf 'willow'; /)"ag* 'largeness and flatness' 'large and flat'; 
l-qhuu 'arroyo with barrancas' <lq 'barranca', ]n(\i. 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 

There appear to be now no willows in this arroyo. 

[23:28] Nambe Sqywiel'wag.e 'sandstone mesa' {st'iywie. 'sandstone'; 
hwag.6 ' mesa' ' height'). It is said that the Nambe people say also 
Sclyws^'wag.e; the last two syllables they do not understand, but 
take them to be equivalent to -hoage. 

This is a flattish hill. It gives the name to the arro3'o [23:2!>]. 

(23:29] Nambe Sdr)wse]cwage''ir)sehu''u,S(iy'wselcwag.eiyj'hu''}t 'arroyo of 
sandstone mesa', referring to [23:28] {Sq^wsehi-age, SqywmiJtig.e, 
see [23:28]; ^iy/ locative and adjective-forming postfix; /iu''u 
'large groove' arroyo'). 

[23:30] Nambe Tsewiui 'great yellow gap' {tse 'yellowness' 'yellow'; 
vxi.ii 'widegap'). Cf. Ts^wt/.^/ [15:23]. A yellowish hill appears 
to be called by this name. The name gives rise to that of [23 :31]. 

[23:31] Nanilie Tsewauihua 'great yellow gap arroyo', referring to 
[23:3<>] (Tsewcui, see [23:30]; /ni'u 'large groove' arroyo'). 

[23:32] Nambe '' In fs^.teb^ e 'round smoke house' i^lnfss, 'smoke'; te 
'dwelling-place' 'house'; hee 'roundishness' 'roundness like a 
balT). Wh}^ the name is given was not known to the writer's 
informants. 

[23:33] Nambe Toity,wx^iyqwog.e 'flute talk delta' {tejjf 'hollow tube' 
'flute'; t'lLiVc^ said to mean 'to talk' 'to whistle", the ordinary 
word meaning ' to talk' being simply ty,\ '^^y locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; ^(/'oge 'delta' 'down where it cuts through "<7«'o 
'to cut through", g.e 'down at' 'over at"). Why the name is 
given was not known to the informants. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 365 

[23:34] Namlie /V;V, .soe [22:38]. 

[23:35] Nanibe Puijwxkwaje 'buttocks thorn height' (jm ' j-egion 

about the anus' 'buttocks'; ywse 'thorn'; hwaje 'height'). 
This is (juite a high mesa; its sides thoufi;h steep are not cliffs. 

Why the name is given was not known to the informants. Cf. 

[23:3ti]. [23:38]. 
[23:30] Nanibe Pidjiose-lwaje' qyv'il-ej i ''h\\t\.oc\\S thorn height pueblo 

ruin' {J^injwxkwaje, see [23:35]; 'Qijwikeji 'pueblo ruin' < 'oywj 

'pueblo', i^'ejl 'old' postpound). 

This is an ancient adobe pueblo ruin, said to have been inhab- 
ited by some of the ancestors of tiie Nambe people. 
[23:37] Namb6 Kutqdiwe, Kutqdi^ 'place of the painted rock' 'the 

painted rock' Qcu 'rock' 'stone'; ta'^ 'a painting-'; ''iwe locative; 

T' locative and adjective-forniing postpound). 

This is a large isolated rock, on the west face of which faint 

Indian.pictographs as well as partially obliterated Mexican letters 

are still to be seen. This rock gives the waterwaj^ [23:25] its 

Tesuque name. 
[23:38] Namlie P>iyuiseliLiaje'infn''u 'projecting point of buttocks 

tliorn height', referring to [23:35] {Puyii^sel-waje, see [23:35]; 

ivf locative and adjective-forming postfix; fu\i ' horizontally 

projecting corner or point'). 
[23:39] Naml)e Tanaiabuhu' u ^axvoyo oi dry field corner', referring 

to [23:4:0] {Tanaiabu'u, see [23:40]; hu'u 'large groove' 

'arroyo'). 
[23:40] Nambe T<niatab>i^>i 'dry field corner' {ia 'dryness' 'dry'; 

M(z5(? 'cultivable field'; bu'u 'large low roundish place'). 
It is said that this arid corner was cultivated long, long ago. 

The place gives the name to the gulch [23:39]. 
[23:41] Nambe 'Ofea/ato'a 'gentle slope of an unidentified species of 

weed called ''libaja^ {'obaja a kind of weed; ia'a 'gentle slope'). 
There were none of the ^(Jbaja weeds on the slope when the 

writer visited it. 
[23:42] Nambe P'e])apqn4P^ 'place of the half -burnt wood' {j>'e 

'wood' 'timber' 'log'; pa 'to burn' 'state of being burnt' 

'burnt'; pirjf 'half in the sense of 'not thoroughly or com- 
pletely'; T' locative and adjective-forming postfix). The name 

refers to the height south of Nambe Creek opposite [23:43]. No 

burnt wood was seen at the place. 
[23:43] Nambe Teiyj'hu''u 'cottonwood arroyo' (^e ' cottonwood tree' 

' Populus wislizeni'; 'ir^y locative and adjective-forming posttix; 

hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
This dry gulch enters Nambe Creek just below the localit}' 

[23 : 45]. The gulch begins at the locality [23 : 44]. 



366 ETHNOGEOGHAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. Ann. 29 

[23:44] Namlx^ Kid-';rjiay.e ' fjravelly fliit place' QcuJcrr. 'gravel' <ku 
'stone', Yse. as in ''ok'x. ' sand'; pa ' largeness and llatness' 'large 
and Hat'; Q.e 'down at' 'over at'). 

Tliis is a high, arid, somewhat sandy and gravelly place. Here 
[23:43] begins. 

[23:45] Nambe Pofsejihe'e 'small corner of the yellow squash(es)' {po 
'squash' 'pumpkin'; tsejl 'yellowness' 'yellow'; he'e 'small low 
roundish place'). 

This is a little dell on both sides of Namb^ Creels at a sharp 
turn in the creek. There are some cottonwood trees there, also 
cultivated fields. 

[23:46] Nambe 2fahy,f(ywe, see [22:. 39]. 

[23:47] Nambe Tsyjtsenfihu'u 'arroyo of the yellow tsy,,'' an unidenti- 
tied weed {Tsyisenfi-, see [25:58]; Am'w 'large groove' 'ar- 
royo'). Whether the name Tsyisenfi- referred originally to this 
arroyo or to the mountain [25:58] is uncertain. 

[23:48] Nambe KQsog.e, ^ OhupxygelcQsog.e 'place of the big arroyo' 
■place of the big arroyo beyond the hills' (ko 'barranca'; so 
'largeness' 'large'; ge 'down at' 'over at'; '' Okupxyfje, see 
under [23:3]). 

The upper course of this large arroyo is called PxtqdalnCu 
see [23 : 58]. 

[23:49] Nambe 7e/s^tofffe ' height of a kind of whitish earth called 
tetsce. ' found at this place and of which no use is made < te un- 
explained, tss^ 'whiteness' 'white'). Cf. [23:50]. 

There are many small piles of stones on top of this height, 
seemingly placed there for some religious purpose. See [23 : 50], 
[23:51], [23:52], 

[23:50] Nambe Tdsiehu^u 'corner of a kind of whitish earth called 
tdss^'' {Tefsx-, see [23:49]; buhc 'large low roundish place'). Cf. 
[23:49]. This name is applied to the locality between [23:49] and 
the arroyo [23 : 4cS]. See [23 : 49], [23 : 51], [23 : 52]. 

[23:51] A large artificial pile of earth. 

[23 : 52] Several small piles of stones. 

[23 :53] Old and partially obliterated wagon road connecting Namb^ 
Pueblo and Callamongue [21:25]. 

[23:54] Nambe Qwaepupd'okii 'mountain mahogany roots water hill' 
{qwse. 'mountain mahogany' 'Cercocarpus parvifolius' called by 
the Mexicans palo duro; jy« ' base' 'root'; po 'water' 'spring'; 
'oiw'hiH'). It was said that there is no place called merely 
Qwsepupo. 

This small hill is correctly located on the sheet. The old 
wagon road [23 : 53] passes between this hill and [23 : 49]. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 367 

[23 : 55] Nanibe PetKpa''a ' lean coyote slope ' {de ' coyote ' ; tsi ' leanness' 
"lean'; -</(( 'steep slope'). 

This slope runs up high toward the south. In summer it is 
grassy and green. The white stratum [23:56] is at this place. 

[23:56] 'Na,mh6funysfffsx,/')mj'ie^i¥''iwt! ' the white white-earth' 'place 
of the white white-earth' (funj'se 'a kind of white earth', see 
Minerals; fsfp. 'whiteness' 'white'; 'iwe locative). 

This is a broad stratum of white at a place [23 :55], marked by 
the presence of cliifs. 

[23:57] Nambe Piffadapo, P^fqdapopi 'spring of the deer wanting 
to tremble' [px 'mule-deer'; fqda 'to want to tremble' 'to be 
about to tremble' <t'q, usually t'qt'q, 'to tremble', dii'a 'to 
want'; po 'water' 'spring'; po/>/ 'spring' <po 'water', pi ^ to 
issue'). The meaning of the name was not very clear to the 
informants. 

This is a perennial spring of good water at the foot of a cliff of 
soft rock on the south side of the arroyo bed. The spring gives 
the name [23 :58] to the upper part of the arroyo. 

[23:58] Nambe Pcpfadahu^u 'arroyo of the deer wanting to tremble' 
said to refer to the spring [23:57] {Pset'qda, see [23:57]; ku'u 
' large groove ' ' arroyo '). 
The upper part of the Ko»nge [23:48] is called thus. 

[23:59] Nambe N(impiJieg.i 'red earth with many little gulches' {mlyj' 
'earth'; ^j 'redness' 'red'; Aeg/ 'gulched' < Ae'e ' little groove ' 
'gulch' 'arroyito', g.i as in many adjectives which denote shape). 
Cf. [18:3]. 

The large region bearing this name is reddish in color and much 
cut by small gulches. It is bordered on the east by Nqmp/'bu'u 
[23:60]. All the vague region Ijeyond. i. e. south of Nqvipihegi, 
is called N^mpipss.'rjge 'beyond the red earth' {fiseyge 'beyond'). 

[23:60] Namb^ ]V<!mp/bu\( ' large, low, roundish place of the red earth' 
{ndmpi-, as in [23:59]; bu'u 'large, low, roundish place'). 

[23:61] Tesuque Creek, see [26:1]. 

[23:62] Tesuque ^Atityws^p^yge'iyy'kQhuhi, see [26:2]. 

Unlocated 

Nambe names of places not at all definitely located are included 
here. 

PihiHifeqwa ' the houses of the Vigils' {Bihil <Span. Vigil, family 
name -|- Si possessive +teqwa 'house' <^e 'dwelling-place,' ^rwa 
denoting state of being a receptacle). The name refers to a group 
of four or five houses near Nambe Creek, about a mile east of 
Nambe Pueblo. The houses are the homes of Nambe Indians the 
Mexican family name of most of whom hajipens to be Vigil. 



368 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OP THE TEWA INDIANS [bih. ann. 20 

Hence the name. The place is sometimes called in Eng. Upper 
Naniln'. 

Nambe B uioataku^iwe 'dry bread stone place' {b/iwa 'bread'; ia 'dry- 
ness' 'dry'; ^m, ho 'stone'; ^iwe locative). 

A place east of Nambe. Why the name is given was not known 
to tiie informant. 

Nambe Johekewe 'cane-cactus arroyito height' (jo 'cane-cactus' 
'Opuntia arborescens'; hee 'little groove' 'arroyito' 'gulch'; 
hewe 'height' 'peak'). The name may refer to one or more than 
one ari'03'ito. 

The place is somewhat east of Nambe. 

Nambe Kafuwui 'leaf point' (lea 'leaf; /'«'« 'horizontally project- 
ing corner'; wLtl 'horizontally projecting corner'). 
This is a height east of Nambe. See Kaf uwLii oywikeji, below. 

Nambe Kafuw!,(Poit)W\keji 'leaf point pueblo ruin' {Kafuwi,'!^ see 
next item above; ^oywikeji 'puel)lo ruin' <'o>jwi '' pueblo', Jceji 
'old' postpound). This is the name applied to a small pueblo 
ruin said to exist on top of Kafuwui. The informant knew no 
details concerning it and nothing about its history. 

Nambe Kwss.''ii)lcq(je 'oak arroyo' {kwss. 'oak'; Hyf locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; kq 'barranca'; g.e 'down at' 'over at'). 
This is a gulch east of Nambe. 

Nambe Kowag.e, K<)wagenu'''a 'place down where the hair is or was 
dressed' 'place down beneath where the hair is or was dressed' 
(Jcowa 'to dress hair'; ge 'down at' 'over at'; nuu 'beneath'). 
This is a place east of Nambe. 

Nambe Kuhaje, Kulmj? iwe 'the hanging rock' 'place of the hanging 
rock' Qcu 'stone' 'rock'; Jiajs 'to hang' intransitive; 'iwe 
locative). 

Nambe Eufibodi 'round hill of the red rock(s)' 0cii 'stone' 'rock'; pi 
'redness' 'red'; bo.ii 'round hill'). Cf. [25:40]. 

A place sevei-al miles southwest of Nambe; some Mexicans live 
there, it is said. 

Nambe E^pokua 'cob creek' (i-y 'cob' 'corncob'; poJiuu 'creek 
with water in it' <po 'water', Aw'm 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
A place in the mountains east of Nambe. 

Span. Rio de en Medio, Rio en el Medio, 'middle river', said to be a 
southern tributary of Nambe Creek. Cf. [22:28]. 

Eng. and Span. Nambe settlement. The name Nambe is applied 

rather vaguely to all the country about Nambe Pueblo. Nambe 

post-ofEce is at present in a store kept by a Mexican about half a 

. mile west of Nambe Pueblo. Some Mexicans who live a short 

distance east of Pojoaque say that they live at Nambe. 



HAttRI.NGTO.N] PLACE-NAMES 369 

Nanibe l^\oxi}fTcog>', I^wpcijfhn^u 'rock-pine arroyo' (rj-umyf 'rock- 
pine' Tinu.s scopuloruna'; Icq 'barranca'; Qii 'down at' 'over at'; 
InCu ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 
This is an arroyo in the mountains east of Nambe. 
Narabe Po''a''t'^ 'place of the steep slope by the water' {po 'water'; 
\i'a 'steep slope'; '/"' locative and adjective-forming postfix). 

This is a place in the mountains east of Nambe. Tt is north of 
Podendhve; see next item below. 
Nambe Podt^idiwe 'empty water place' {pc 'water'; ^f^y 'emptiness' 
'empty'; '/w<Uocative). 

This place is in the mountains east of Nambe, south of Po'a'*'*/ 
see above. 
Nambe PoHi^ya'a ' cane slope ' {po ' cane ', probably ' Fhragmites 
communis', called by the Mexicans carrizo; 'iuj" locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; 'a'a 'steep slope'). 
This place is several miles southeast of Nambe. 
Nambe Pomawi, said to mean 'where the water gouges out' {po 
'water'; inawi said to mean 'to gouge out', but this is doubtful). 
This is a place in the mountains east of Nambe. 
Namb6 P'^ywPi 'black gap' {ptyf 'blackness' 'black'; wVi 'gap' 
'pass'). 

This is a gap in the hills south of Nambe. It is said that the 
road connecting Nambe and Santa Fe which passes through [23 :14] ■ 
passes also through this gap. 
Nambe Qwxijfjopo 'water or creek of an unidentified species of rodent 
resembling the woodrat' (qwce.yj'jo a species of rodent < (iwxyf 
a species of rodent, ^o augmentative; po 'water' 'creek'). 
This is a creek in the high mountains east of Nambe. 
Nambe QwsenisiJcewe 'peak of the eye of an unidentified species of 
rodent resembling the woodrat' {qios^yf a species of rodent; tsi 
'eye'; Iceioe 'peak' 'height'). 
This is a small peak in the high mountains east of Nambe. 
Nambe Sxyh' ohu u 'arroyo of an unidentified species of bush' {ss^yTc'o 
an unidentified species of bush the wood of which is very hard; 
hxiii 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
This is an arroyo east of Nambe. 
Nambe Sq'ywspfitJcwaje 'squirrel point height' {.%''' ywse a kind of 
squirrel; /'«'w 'horizontally projecting point'; hwaje 'height'). 
This is a height in the high mountains east of Nambe. 
Nambe Sipohii n ' bluebird creek' {se 'bluebird' of several species; 
pohn'u 'creek with water in it' < po 'water', Am'w 'large groove' 
'arroyo'). 

This is an arroyo situated along the eastern boundary of sheet 
[23]. Cf. Sepolce.ie, next below. 
87584°— 29 eth— 16 24 



370 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. axn. 29 

Nanib^ S<'polwe 'bluebird water height' {sepo-, see next above; IceU'e 

'height'). 
This is a place near Sefohu'u; see next item above. 
Nambe SiJteiyTcq 'bolly-ache arroyo' (.v* 'belly'; he 'ache' 'aching'; 

''ivf locative and adjective-forming postfix; Tcq 'barranca'). 
This is a gulch somewhere near the eastern boundary of sheet 

[23]. 
Nambe Tsepo.ie 'eagle's head' {tse 'eagle' of any species; poJ-e said to 

mean 'head' < po 'head', J-e unexplained). Cf. [24:37]. 

This is a hillock south of Nambe, in plain sight of the pueblo, 

probably somewhere near [23:13]. The name was not known to 

the informants with whom the author took walks in the hills south 

of Nambe. 
Nambe TsiwPi 'flaking-stone gap' {tsPi 'flaking-stone'; wi^i 'gap'). 
This is a gap in the hills or mountains far east of Nambe. Cf. 

TsiwiioJ-i, next below. 
Nambe Taiw'ihoM 'round hill by flaking-stone gap', referring to 

TsiwPi, next above (boM 'roundish pile or hill '). 
Upper Nambe, see BihiTbifeqwa under [23:unlocated], above. 
Vigil's place. See BlhUiifeqwa under [23:unlocated], above. 

[24] NAJIBE NORTH SHEET 

This sheet (map 24) shows the country immediately north of Nambe 
Pueblo. No ruins are known to exist in the area. The place-names 
were all obtained at Nambe. 

[24:1] 'Nambe JIusog.e ' the large arroyo ' (Am'?< 'large groove' 'arroyo'; 
so 'largeness' 'large'; g.e 'down at' 'over at'). 

The uppermost course of this arroyo, which is canj^on-like, is 
called Kupifsi^i; see [25:40]. The Musoge ^owsinto Kiip'^yyhu^u 
[21:11]. 

[24:2] Nambe JTy.baheg.i 'one-seeded juniper belts gulched' (ky, 'one- 
seeded juniper' 'Juniperus monosperma'; 6a'a 'woman's belt', 
probably here referring to belts of jimiper; ht'g.1 'gulched'). 

A large high area of broken land lying north of the central 
course of the Husoge is called thus. It is said that until a few 
years ago the northern line of the Naml)e Pueblo land grant ran 
through the llihhaheg.i; now the line extends south of this place, 
it is said. 

[24:3] Nambe P^tehu'u, see [22:85]. 

[24:4] Nambe Pelcehuu 'sharp fruit arroyo' {pe 'ripeness' 'ripe' 
'fruit.'; Ice 'sharpness' 'sharp', said, e. g., of cactus thorns; hti'u 
'large groove' 'arroyo'). 



MAP 24 
NAMBE NORTH REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 24 




NAMBE NORTH REGION 



MAP 24 



NAMBE NORTH REGION 



HARRIXGTON] PLACE-NAMES 371 

[24:5] (1) Nambe ' Os<rwe ' place of the unidentified weed species called 
'osae' (^osx a species of weed; we locative). 

(2) Span. Gallinero 'place for keeping chickens' 'chicken house 
or yard ', probably so called Ijecause of fancied resemblance in shape 
between the ridge and a chicken house. 

Both Namb6 and Span, names seem to refer rather vaguely 
to the whole arid locality. 

[24:6] 'iia.\i\hQ Tseqw^ywui 'eagle-tail point' (^.fe 'eagle 'of any species^ 
qwseijf 'tail'; wwi 'horizontally projecting point', here referring 
to the westward projecting end of the little hill). There are sev- 
eral names on the sheet which contain tse 'eagle.' 

The hill by this name gives the names to [24:7] and [24:8]. 

[24:7] Nambe Tsiqwc^ywiiipxyfje 'beyond eagle-tail point', referring 
to [24:6] {Tseqwxtjwui, see [24:0]; psetjge 'beyond'). This name 
seems to be applied rather definitely to the locality just north of 
the hills [24:6]. 

[24:8] Nambe TaeqwxywUVirjfKxCu ' arroyoby eagle-tail point', refer- 
ring to [24:6] [TseqwsE.TjwtJ'i, see [24:6]; iyj" locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; hu^u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

This arroyo flows into Kuj>\'r}fhu'u [21:11]. Notice the places 
with names in its upper course. 

[24:9] Nambe ^OFawPi 'sandy gap' {^oVq 'sand'; wiH 'gap'). This 
name refers definitely to a gap through which the arroyo [24:8] 
passes, and vaguely to the whole region about the gap. 

[24:1<)] Nambe JVqnfsieyj'ig.e 'place of the white earth' {nqijf 'earth'; 
tsxnfi 'whiteness' 'white', applied to the White Corn Maiden 
and found in some other place-names <.tsx 'white', nfi un- 
explained but occurring with some other color names; g.e 'down 
at ' ' over at '). 

The earth is whitish at this place. There are low hillocks on 
the northern side of the arroyo [24:8]. 

[24:11] Nambe P'ete^e 'trap estufa' (//e 'trap' of any kind; t^e 
'estufa'). For the name of. Site'e [19:43]. This name is applied 
to two little springs in the bed of the arroyo [24:8] near the 
source of the arroyo. 

[24:12] Nambe Mig.elkohij!!u, see [21:32]. 

[24:13] Nambe Creek, see [19:3]. 

[24:14] Nambe Tsehuu, see [23:6]. 

[24:15] Nambe Tseqioajo, Tseqwajo'oku said to mean ' where the eagle 
dragged very much' 'hill where tiie eagle dragged very much' 
(foe 'eagle'; qira'' to drag'; _/o augmentative). The reason for 
applying the name was not known to the informants. There are 
several other names on the sheet in M'hich tse 'eagle' appears. 
The name applies to a small hill somewhat farther west than the 



372 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY 01'' THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

other hills shown on this part of the sheet. The old trail from 
Nambe to CiiiKlaj'6 passes east of this hill. 
[24:10] Nambe PonfiFe^, PonfiFe'"'kwa)h 'dodge plumed arroyo 
shrub place' 'dodye plumed arroyo shrub height' {ponfi 'plumed 
arroyo shrub' ' Fallugia paradoxa acuminata'; ¥^^ 'to dodge'; 
kwaje 'height'). The verb h'e''' appears to be used much as is 
Eng. 'to dodge.' The exact meaning of the name was not under- 
stood by the informants. This name is applied to two ridges, the 
more southerly one havmg a dejiression in its middle. 

An old trail leading to P'ojo [24:21] passes east of Ponfik'e^". 
[24:17] Nambe Ua-istpiC^lccine 'fasting thread peak or height' 
{ILusepq''^-, see [24:19]; Tcewe 'peak' 'height'). Perhaps the 
name Hcusejxi'i- was originally applied to the arroyo [24:10]. 
See [24:18]. 
[24:18] ^ambi Tobapupi, Tdbapwpi'iwe 'cliff roots come out ' 'place 
where the cliff roots come out' (^o%a 'cliff''; fv, 'base', here 
'root';jOi 'to come out' 'to issue'; ''iwe locative). 

A peculiar mineral formation, probably of fossil origin, is found 
at this place. Straight pieces of brownish stone resembling 
fragments of human ribs are found protruding from the ground, 
'coming up', here and there on the southern slope of [24:17] 
near the base of some low cliffs. These pieces of stone are said 
by the Nambe Indians to be the ^w 'roots' of the cliff, which is 
conceived of as having roots as does a plant. Earl and Archie 
Bolander, sons of the teacher of the Government Indian school at 
Namlje, had also noticed this formation and had supposed it to 
consist of fossilized bones. 
[24:iy] (1) Namb6 Z^<u^/>4'-S^■'^ 'fasting thread canyon' (hcuse, 'to 
fast' 'to hold a religious fast'; ^4'^ 'thread'; tsPl 'canyon'). 
The meaning of the name was not fully understood by the 
informants. It is not clear what 'fasting' has to do with 
' thread '. 

The locality would be a good place to fast since it is absolutely 
devoid of food and water. There is ordinarily not even a thread- 
like stream of water in the bed of the ' canyon '. This waterway 
should be called a Am'w rather than a TsUi, as the informants re- 
marked; cf. -t^/m'if in Nambe (2), below. Cf. [24:17] and [24:21]. 

(2) Nambe !foS«6i/'ir;y/iO/^»'« 'cliff' corner arroyo' (J'otahi'u, 
see [24:20]; 'iijf locative and adjective-forming postfix; Lqhii'u 
'arroyo with barrancas' <A-o 'barranca', hihi 'large groove' 
'arroyo'). This name is applied because the arroyo is conceived 
of as flowing about the low place [24:20]. 

This arroyo and the arroyo [24:25] are the ciiief tributaries of 
the Tsehu'u [24:1-4]. Cf. [24:20]. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 373 

[24:ii0] (1) Nambe Hcuxjxj'^bau 'isistening thread covrcv\ probablj' 
referrinjf to [24:19] {H(M3pp(i^i-, see [24:19]; bii-u 'large low 
roundish place'). 

(2) Nambe roSaJM'w 'clitf corner' (foSa 'clifl'; 6 m'w 'largo low 
roundish place '). The corner is called thus because it is surrounded 
on the north and west by the named little hills with cliffs [24:17], 
[24:10], [24:27], and [24:28]. The arroyos [24:19] and [24:25] 
may be called after this low place. 

[34:21] Kiimhe P'ojo 'the big hole' {p'o 'hole'; jo augmentative). 
This hole is merely a natural pit or cave at the base of a tall 
cliff. Coyotes sleep and raise their young at this place according 
to an old informant. An old trail leads between [24:16] and 
[24:17] to the place. The gulch by the hole drains into the 
arroyo [24:19]. See [24:22]. 

[24:22] Nambe P'ojohu''u, P'ojofSRygebu^u 'corner by the big hole' 
'corner beyond the big hole', referring to [24:21] ijn'ojo, see 
[24:21]; 6m'w 'large low roundish place'; yi«?;[/(^ 'beyond'). The 
two forms of the name refer to the same locality. 

[24:23] IsAVuhe Ilodewe 'gray coyote place' (/;o 'grayness' 'gray';<?(S 
'coyote'; W;? locative). 

This place is a short distance northwest of [24:32]. It gives 
names to [24:24] and [24:25]. The arroyo [24:25] begins at this 
place. 

[24:21] Nambe Hodewefseyfie ' beyond gray coyote place', referring to 
[24:23] {IIodeiDe, see [24:23]; pa;??f/<? 'beyond'). 
The arroyo [24:19] is said to commence at this place. 

[24:25] (1) Nambe HodeweJm'u 'gray coyote place arroyo', referring 
to [24:23] {Iloclewe, see [24:23]; hit^u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
So called because it begins at Ilodmoe [24:23]. 

(2) Tdbatuhuht 'cliff' corner arroyo', referringto [24:20] {Toia- 

bu'u, see [24:20]; hu\i 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. [24:19]. 

This arro\^o and the arroyo [24:19] are the chief tributaries of the 

T><ehit'u [24:11:]. The little arroyo [24:26] is tributary to [24:25]. 

[24:26] Nambe Nqmp'Xndlhv! u 'black earth arroyo' {nayy 'earth'; 
JP'CZ?/' blackness' 'black'; 'i'' locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix; hxHu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

This gulch runs into the arroyo [24:25]. 

[24:27] Nambe Tsxhe-i^iri f 'white morning' (tea? 'whiteness' 'white'; 
he'^ti.yf 'morning', cf. the common expression lic<i^ndi'^ 'in the 
morning' <lie-KVf 'morning', '*'' locative and adjective-forming 
postfix). 

This little arid knob of a hill has a very pretty and poetic name. 
The old trail north from Nambe passes between it and [24:15]. 

[24:28] ^M\CnQ ^nmfxVondv^, punfscMojidi^^Tiwajl 'place where the 
white earth called /wwy^ is dug' 'height where the white earth 



374 ETIINOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

called fun. fir. is cliii;-' (fun. fir a kind of white earth used in pottery 
making-, see under Minerals; h'qyf 'to dig'; '/'' locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; hwaje 'height'). 

A horizontal laj-er of pure white funfx, runs near the top of the 
hill. The hill contains two peculiar cave-dwellings [24:29] and 
east of it are the ' water-jar on the head' rocks [24:30]. 
[24:29] (1) Nambe TiJbaqioa, Tdbaqwa^lwe 'the clifl'-dwellings' 'the 
place of the clili'-dwellings' (iota 'cliff'; qioa denoting state of 
being a receptacle, hereabout equivalent to 'cave' or 'house'; 
^iwe locative). 

(2) Nambe Sxmiahuwate, Ss^saiajiqnte 'ovens of the Sxsaia^ 
(Ssesaia, a being personated on certain occasions by a; masked 
man who goes a.bout Nambe Pueblo flogging children with a whip 
of yucca; Ixwaie, pqnte 'oven' <buwa 'bread', te 'dwelling- 
place' 'apartment'; payf 'bread' <Span. pan 'bread'). The 
caves are said to have something to do with the Sxsaba cere- 
mony; hence the name. 

These are large caves with flat floors and roundish roofs, seem- 
ingl^'^ artificiallj^ excavated. Traces of smoke can be seen on the 
roofs. These caves closely resemble the typical dwelling-caves of 
the Pajarito Plateau. The caves are part way up the steep side of 
the hill [24:28]. The hillside forms a fold, so that the two caves 
face each other. The eastern cave is high enough for a man to 
stand upright in it; the western cave is only about 3 feet high. 
See [24:28]. 
[24:30] (1) Nambe Pobe'qiifse.g.i 'water-jar on the head' {pohe 'water- 
jar' 'olla' <po 'water', he 'jar' 'pottery'; '(jnj'segi 'on the 
head'). 

(2) Nambe SqrjwiE'qnfse.g.i 'sandstone on the head' (sqijws^ 
'sandstone'; ''tpifxg.i 'on the head'). 

(3) Nambe Sqigwxke' !''■ 'the sandstone necks' 'place of the sand- 
stone necks' [sqyiox 'sandstone'; Ice 'necks' 'necked'; T' loca- 
tive and adjective-foi'iuing postfix). 

These names are used indiscriminately in referring to some 
eroded rock pillars the slender base of which supports a large 
and heavy top, suggesting the figure of a woman carrying an olla 
on the head. 

[24:31] Nambe Wdbe, see [23:22]. 

[24:32] Nambe ^Awap'iwe, 'Awap'iwehu'u 'place of a kind of cattail 
called ''awap'i'' 'corner of the place of a kind of cattiiil called 
''awapV (^awap'i an unidentified species of cattail with narrow 
leaves <\cwa 'cattail', p' i 'smallness and flatness' 'small and 
flat', cf. ^awaj)'a 'broad-leaved cattail'; W(g locative; bu'u 'large 
low roundish place'). 



HAERIXGTON] PLACE-NAMES 375 

This name refers to a large region. Just where the cattails 
which gave rise to the name grow or grew was not known to the 
informants. The place mentioned gives names to [24:33], [24:34], 
and [24:35]. 

[24:33] Nambe ^Awap^iwehu^u 'arroyo by the place of a kind of cat- 
tail called ''awap^i\ referring to [24:32] (^AwapHwe, see [24:32]; 
hv^n 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

This little dr}' gulch proceeds from ^Awapiwe [24:32] north of 
the little mesa [24:34] and disappears in the high plain of Woie 
[24:81]. 

[24:34] Nambe ^Awap'iwekewe 'mesa or height of the place of a kind 
of cattail called ^awaj)'i\ referring to [24:32] {'Awap'iwe, see 
[24:3'2]; kewe 'height' 'mesa' 'peak'). 

This little mesa rises abruptly from the plain with cliff walls to 
a height of 30 feet or more. It can be scaled without the help of 
tackle only in two or three places. Its top is flat and 30 or 40 feet 
in diameter. There is a little water hole in the top at its south- 
west extremity which contained good water in October, although 
it was said that no rain had fallen for several days. There is a 
cave in the cliff at the southern end of the mesa; see [24:35]. 
The little mesa is very conspicuous from Nambe Pueblo and from 
all the plain about. 

[24:35] Nambe ^Awap'iwekewe'imp'o 'the hole in the mesa or height 
of the place of a kind of cattail called ^awap'P, referring to [24: 
34] {^Awaj/iweJceice, see [24:34]; 'i>j,f locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix; p'o 'hole'). 

This cave of [24:35], unlike the caves of [24:2S], appears to be 
of natural origin and shows no signs. of having been inhabited. 

[24:36] (1) "Samhe'Aimfrijahuhi.. (<Span.). Cf. Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Arrovo del Agua Fria 'cold water aiToyo'. Cf. 
Tewa (1). ' 

There appears to be no name for this gulch in the Nambe 
language. It is distinguished by running in front of, i. e., just 
south of the mesa [24:34]. Why the name 'cold water' should 
be applied to this dry gulch is not clear. 

[24:37] Nambe Tscfoh.iCu "eagle's head arroyo' (fee 'eagle of any 
species'; ^o 'head'; hu\v 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Several 
place-names on the sheet contain the word tse 'eagle'. Cf. espe- 
cially 7«epa/d under [23:unlocated]. 

This gulch runs from Txfipohwajii [24:38], to which it appears 
to give the name, until it is lost in the arid plain. 

[24:38] Nambe Ti^epoTcwaje 'eagle head height' (Tsepo-, see [24:37]; 
Tcwaje. 'height'). 

The Tsepohuu [24:37] begins at this place. 




z 
g 

C3 

u 

oc 

> 
< 

o 

z 

o 



MAP 25 
CUNDAYO REGION 



^1 



HARHixoTON'] PLACE-NAMES 377 

[25] CUNDAT6 SHEET 

This sheet (map 25) sliows Tupiyf mountain [25:14] and the country 
about the mountain, including the Mexican settlement of Cundayo. 
Cunda^'o is the only ^lexican settlement known to exist in the area 
shown on this sheet, and is indeed the only place with a well-known 
Span. name. Hence the sheet has been called the Cundayo sheet. 
The region east of the mountain Topiyf [25:14] is called by the 
Nambe Indians Tof}hipne7j[/e {Topiijf, see [25:14]; pse7j(/e 'be_yond'). 
Topi}npseyf/ti is Bsmdeliei-'a "T'o B'hi-piing-ge, the former village "of 
the Nambe tribe, 8 miles northeast of the present pueblo"^ and Hew- 
ett's "Tobipange, a 8 milles au nord-est [de Nambe]."- As a mat- 
ter of fact Topimpieyfje can be applied to any one of the pueblo 
ruins at fofnmpxyge— to [25:18], [25:23], [25:30], and even to [25:8]. 

r?'' a.] Santa Cruz Creek, see [15:18]. 

,^5:2] Rio Chiquito, see [22:22]. 

[25:3] (1) Nambe EoTsi-i^KursPi 'stone canyon' Qco, ku 'stone' 'rock'; 
fsPi 'canyon'). This name is given to the creek canyon both be- 
low and above the junction of [25:15]. 

The walls are in many places high rocli-cliffs. 

(2) Medio Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Cundayo Creek. {<Span.). =Span. (5). 

(4) Span. Rio de en Medio, Rio Medio 'creek in the middle' 
'middle creek'. It appears that this name is given because the 
upper part of the creek lies between [25:2] and [25:15]. =Eng. 
(2). This name appears to be given especially to that part of the 
creek above the confluence of [25:15]. 

(5) Span. Rio de Cuuda}'6, Rio Cundayo (named after Cundayo 
ettlement [25:7]). This name was obtained from a Mexican at 

Cundayo; it appears tliat it is given especially to the part of the 

creek below the confluence of [25:15] in the vicinity of Cundayo 

settlement. See [25:7]. 

This creek rises at Wijo [22:29]. The canyon is large and 

beautiful. Whether the creek has any established Span, or Eng. 

name is doubtful. 
[25:4] Nambe PojeQephjf 'mountain down where the waters or creeks 

come together', referring to [25:5] {Pojeg.e, see [25:5]; piijj' 

'mountain'). 
[25:5] Pojeg.'' ''down where the waters or creeks come together' (po 

'water' 'creek'; _/<? 'to meet' 'to come together'; g^e'downat' 

'over at'). 
The locality of the confluence of the creeks [25:2] and [25:3] 

is called thus. Cf. [25:4]. 

'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. II, p. 84, 1892. >Hewett, Communautfe, p. 33, 1908. 



378 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS turn. ann. 29 

[25:(iJ Nambe Pxfofiin, Px.pofuQ.e 'deer water point' 'place down 
by deer water point' {psg, 'mule-deer'; po 'water'; f it'll 'liori- 
zontally projecting point'; ge 'down at' 'over at'). 

This is a projecting corner of a hill on the northeast side of the 
canyon a short distance below Cundayo settlement [25:7]. There 
are Mexican farms on the bottom lands about this place. The 
Mexicans pi'obably include this place under the name Cundayo. 

[25:7] (1) Nambe ^u4/jo]cwsc]cy,''P^ 'Mexican settlement at [25:8]' 
{Kudijo, see [25:8]; Kwxlcy, 'Mexican', modified from TnoxTcy^'i) f 
'iron' 'metal'; '*'* locative and adjective-forming postfix). Cf. 
Eng. (2), Span. (3).^ 

(2) Eng. Cundayo settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cundayo, a corruption of Tewa J^ii^/Jo, see [25:8]. 
= Eng._(2). 

This is a small Mexican settlement on the level land of the can- 
yon bottom. It is mostly on the south side of the creek. The 
name Cundayo was obtained from a Mexican living there. The 
Santa Fe Sheet of the United States Geological Survey, iNIarch, 
1894, locates a Mexican hamlet at the site of Cundayo, but calls 
it "Escondillo." This is a mistake. A Mexican hamlet consist- 
ing of two or three houses situated somewhere in the canyon 
[25:3] is called Escondido 'hidden'. Just where this Escondido 
is situated seems not to be generally known even by Mexicans 
living about Nambe. 

[25:8] Nambe Kudijo'' oywikeji of obscure etymology Qcudijo unex- 
plained, but evidently containing the augmentative jo as its last 
syllable as in the name Tsimajo [22:18]; ^qijwikejl 'pueblo ruin' 
•C^qijwi 'pueblo', Tceji 'old' postpound). This name refers to 
the ruins of a large adobe pueblo on a level height west of and a 
hundred feet or more above the present Mexican hamlet of Cun- 
dayo [25:7]. 

This is claimed by the Nambe Indians as one of the ancient 
villages of their people. No published reference to the ruin has 
been found. The ruin gives the name to [25:7]. 

[25:9] Nambe TUUihodi 'round hill of the little bells' {tiiUi said by 
the old cacique to be an ancient form or mutilated form of tinini 
'little bell'; hui 'large roundish pile' ' round hill'). 
Tidlul appears also in the names [25:10] and [25:11]. 

[25:10] Nambe TUiiihu\i 'arroyo of the little bells" {TUUi, see 
[25:9]; huht, 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. [25:9] and [25:11]. 

This gulch begins at [25:11] and discharges into Santa Cruz 
Creek [25:1], it is said. 

[25:11] Namb6 Tiiumi'''i 'little bells gap' {T!.iui, see [25:9]; wpi 
'gap'). Cf. [25:9] and [25:10]. 
This gap is between the hills [25:9] and [25:12]. 



HARRI.VGTON] PLACE-NAMES 379 

[25:12] Nambo ' Obuhvaje 'height of 'dhu'u [25:urilocated]' {'obn^K, 
see und(M' [25:uiilociitedJ; kwaje 'height'). 

[25:13] Nambe Johuhwaj^, see [22:34]. 

[25:14] Nambe Topiij,f 'piiion tree mountain ' (to 'piiion tree' 'Pinus 
edulis'; piyf 'mountain'). There is a considerable growth of 
piiion on the mountain, hence it is easy to understand why the 
name is given. 

This is a verA' high, large, isolated mountain, farther west than 
the other high mountains. It gives the name to the lai'ge and 
vaguely defined region east of the mountain, which is called 
Topimpxyrje 'beyond pifion mountain' {psffij[fe 'beyond'); see 
under introduction to sheet [25], page 377. Cf. [25:1.5]. 

Although several Mexicans and Indians were questioned, no 
Span, name for this mountain could be learned. The Indian 
informants said that there is none. Although the mountain is 
clearly shown on the Santa Fe Sheet of the United States Geologi- 
cal Survey, March, 1894, no name is given. Mr. Cosme Herrera 
of Nambe states that the Mexicans do not pretend to have any 
names for most of the mountains and creeks in the wild country 
east of Nambe. 

[25:15] (1) Nambe Topini.pceTjrjeiijfhu^u, Topynpxygehii'u 'arroyo be- 
yond pifion mountain', referring to [25:14] {fopimpigyge, as 
explained in the introduction to sheet [25], above; ''iyf locative 
and adjective-forming postfix; hiCu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
The creek is called thus because of its location with reference to 
Topiijf mountain. 

(2) Span. Rio Panchuelo ? Panchuelo is aug. of Pancho, familiar 
form of Francisco, but how it came to be applied to a creek in this 
region is not known to the writer. Again, it may be a corruption 
of panzuelo, ' big belly '. Mr. Cosme Herrera of Nambe, who 
knows the country well, says that [25:15] is the Rio Panchuelo of 
the Mexicans. The Santa Fe Sheet of the United States Geologi- 
cal Survey, March, 1894, gives what is unmistakably this creek 
as "Panchuelo Creek." The Indian informants, however, who 
accompanied the author on the foot tour back of Topiijf Moun- 
tain, declared that [25:15] is not the Rio Panchuelo, which they say 
lies somewhere northeast of [25:15]. The old cacique pointed out 
a trail that leads from [25:15] to the Panchuelo. The Nambe 
name of the Panchuelo, according to the old cacique, is J^wstykepo 
'sharp rock-pine water'; see under [23:unlocated]. The state- 
ments are seriously perplexing. 

There are three pueblo ruins and many places with names 
along the lower course of [25:15]. The creek forms a deep can- 



380 ETIINOGEOGKAPHV OF THE TEWA INDIANS Ieth. axn. 29 

yon ill pliicos. Tlic region is quite wc^U wooded: it is wild and 
very beiuitiful. 

The portion of tiie creelc in the vicinity of Old NamW Pueblo 
[25::iu] is said to be called Desewihti'u.; see [25:28]. 

[25:1(,)| Naiubc Kiitnijwfr.boM 'round hill of the high stone(s)' {hu 
'stone'; tiiywse 'highness' 'high'; biui 'large roundish pile'). 
This little mountain gives the name to [25:17]. 

[25:17] Nambe Kutuywcehodi'iinhuu, Kutiiywxbu^u 'corner by the 
round hill of the higli stone(s)' 'corner by the high stone(s)', 
referring to [25:16] (Kidij,rjwsebod/\ Kiity,r}'wse, see [25:16]; 6m'w 
'large low roundish place'). 
This low place is between [25:16] and [25:14]. 

[25:18] 'Niimhe PibuPoyiviJceji 'pueblo ruin of the little red mound' 
{pi 'redness' 'red'; bi.ii, 'small roundish pile"; otjwijcfj i '■pu.ehlo 
ruin' <-oywi 'pueblo', ^Iceji 'old' postpound). Perhaps the 
name refers to the reddish hill on which the ruin stands. Cf. the 
designation of [25:3i>], which is also named after a mound. 

This is the ruin of a very ancient pueblo, largely obliterated. 
The potsherds found are commented on by Mr. A. V. Kidder 
as being of a very archaic type. It is said that the pueblo was 
inhabited b}' ancestors of the Namb^ Indians. The place gives 
the name to [25:'2()]. See [25:19]. 

[25:10] Nambe T'tj,'^k'o>idhve 'where the liind of earth called ^'tt'" is 
or was dug' {fy,'^-, see under Minerals. l:'qyf 'to dig'; Hwe 
locative). 

[25:20] Nambe PibUih.u?i(, 'little red mound urroyo', referring to 
[25:18] {Pibidi, see [25:18]; hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[25:21] (1) Nambe KuotsiCi^ 'place of the sparkling stones' {Jcu 
'stone'; -otsa 'sparkling'; '/'' locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix). Cf . Nambe (2). 

(2) Nambe Nqy/'otsci^v^ 'place of the sparkling earth'; (imyf 
'earth'; ''otsa 'sparkling'; '<J'' locative and adjective-forming 
postfix). 

The ground on both sides of the creek at this locality contains a 
sparkling substance like mica. This is not utilized in any wav. 

[25:22] Nambe Tsikwijcwaje of obscure etymology (foe^ said to sound 
like fei 'eye"; i'l/ri imexplained; hioaje 'height"). 

[25:23] Nameless jjueblo ruin. It closelj- resembles [25:18] in appear- 
ance, being on a slight elevation on the south side of the creek. The 
old cacique tried hard to think of its name but it had slipped his 
memory. He said that he had known the name but had not 
thought of it for years. 

The ruin is claimed as one of the homes of the ancestors 
of the Nambe people. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 381 

[25:24] Nainbe fi/'inikwaje 'height of the sparkling black miueral 
called /ii'-' (/y"", see under Minerals; n\ said to be for ^{ijf 
locative and adjective-forming postfix; Tcwaje 'height'). Cf. 
[25:25]. 

This is a height or mesa at which the black pigment called 
fit''-\ used for body painting, is found. See Tsifykwaje under 
[25:unlocated]. 

[25:25] Nambe/-^'"ni nu^u 'place below the sparkling black mineral 
called fij:^:', referring, it is said, to [25:24] {fli'^ni-, see [25:24]; 
nu'ti 'below' 'at the foot of). 

[25:26] Nambe Pr^it^w/w'a'a', Pokxyfii'apiyf 'bitumen slope' 'bitu- 
men slope mountain', i-eferring to [25:27] {Pokxnfu, see [25:27; 
'«'« 'steep slope'; piyf 'mountain'). The deposit of bitumen 
or tar-like earth [25:27] about half way up the southern slope of 
this mountain gives the name. 

[25:27] Nambe Pokcenfu^i'- 'place of the bitumen or tarry earth' 
{p(ikxi)fu 'bitumen', see under Minerals; 'i'* locative and ad- 
jective-forming postfix). 

[25:2S] Nambe Pesewi'l of obscure etymology {4e 'coyote'; se unex- 
plained ; ^oi'^■ ' gap '). This name refers to a narrow place in the 
canyon. The creek at this place may be called Desewihu'u or 
Dcsewipo {hu^u 'large groove' ' arroyo'; po ' water'). 
The place is north of the pueblo ruin [25:30]. 

[25:29] Nambe Potsse^hve ' place of the white water' {po ' water'; fss^ 
'whiteness' 'white'; 'iwe locative). This name is given to the 
locality of a spring on the north side of the creek. 

The informants were not sure whether they found the spring, 
but the place is certainly correctlj' located. 

[25:30] Nambe Nqinie' oywijieji, Nqmhe'e ' pueblo ruin of the roundish 
earth', probablj' I'ef erring to a mound oi eAvth {nqy f 'earth'; 
iee equivalent to heg.i ' smallness and roundishness ' ' small and 
round'). The name is said to refer to a small mound of earth, 
and this meaning is confirmed by the Picuris form [23:5], (2). It 
is possible, however, that the name refers to a number of small 
mounds or humps of earth, or even to roundish clods or balls of 
earth. The informants stated that the mound-like height on 
which the ruin lies might be called a nqmhi^e. This pueblo ruin 
gives the name to Nambe Pueblo [23:5]. For quoted forms of 
the name see [23:5]; all of these forms refer to [23:5]. Cf. the 
name Fibiiioywiheji |25:18], which also refers to a mound. 

The remains of the village can be traced as disintegrated adobe 
mounds on top of a slight elevation on the south side of the creek. 
This is Old Nambe, one of the ancient villages of the Nambe peo- 
ple. The ruin gives the names to the gulches [25:31]. 



382 ET11N0(1E0(!RA1'11V OF THE TEWA INDIANS Ikth. ANN. 29 

[25:;J1J NambeiV«??(Mw'« 'iirroyosof [25:30]' (iVc'wJeV, see [25:30]; 

Jui'u ' lai'ge groove ' ' arroyo '). 
These gulches are respectively on each side of the height on 

which the ruin [25:30] lies. 
[25:3:.'] Nambe fs<'jl7ui'u. 'below the yellow', referring to [25:33] 

('fscji-, see [25^33]; nw'w ' below'). 
[25:33] Nambe Tsejipiijf 'yellow mountain' ifseji 'yellowness' 

'yellow'; firjf 'mountain'). Cf. [25:32]. 
[25:34] Nambe Kuwa.ii'e 'little place of the strewn stones' (lev., "ko 

'stone'; waJ-i 'strewn'; 'e diminutive). One informant called 

the place also KuwaJ'/'uu^ii, which would presuppose a Kuwcuv- 

Jcwaje {jui'u 'below'; Tcwaje 'above'). 
[25:35] Nambe Tst-vmie'e of obscure etymology (fse 'yellowness' 

'yellow'; wa unexplained; he'e 'small low roundish place'). 
This dell is east of [25:26]. 
[25:36] Nambe Qwset'ipijjf of obscure etymologv (^w« 'mountain 

mahogany' 'Cercocarpus parvifolius'; t'i unexplained, it is said 

to sound like t'i 'fragment' and may well be this word; piijf 

' mountain ') . 
[25:37] Nambe Simitahvaje 'coarse flour height' {svmita 'a kind of 

coarsely ground liour"; Iwaje 'height'). 
[25:38] ^•Ambe PiyTc'ybomf 'dark round mountain' (pi^./ 'mountain'; 

Tc'y, 'darkness' 'dark'; ho 'roundisliness' 'roundish'; 7Vcr locative). 
[25:39] Nambe Qwxteiikewe of obscure etymology {qivse 'mountain 

mahogany' 'Cercocarpus parvifolius'; teti unexplained; ^eu^e 

'height' 'peak'). 
[25:40] Nambe KiipifsiH, Kiipiweuii 'red rock canyon' 'red rock gap' 

{hu 'rock' 'stone'; /)*' 'redness' 'red'; fsPi 'canyon'; wadi 'wide 

gap'). The uppermost course of the IIusog.e [24:1] is called by 

this name. See [25:41], [25:42], and Nambe KitpifspQywilceJi, 

Kupiwadfqywikc'ji [25 :unlocated]. 
[25:41] Nambe Ojitsseniiu 'at the base of the white ice' (^oji 'ice'; 

tsse, 'whiteness' 'white'; nu\i 'below'). 
This is a spring. Cf. [25:42]. 
[25:42] Nambe ]Qeka7nt'u 'below coyote thicket' {de 'coyote'; lea 

'denseness' 'dense' 'thicket' 'forest'; nuhi 'below'). 
This is a spring. Cf. [25:41]. 
[25:43] Nambe P/'buhiiu, see [24:39]. ' 
[25:44] Nambe Pibukwqje, see [24:42]. 
[25:45] Nambe P't'^.swwr? 'cut wood gap' (/»'t? 'wood' 'timber' 'log'; 

tsa 'to cut across the grain'; ici'i 'gap'). Firewood is or was 

cut at this gap; hence the name, it is said. Cf. [25:46]. 
[25:46] 'Kumhe P't't-mivihiiu 'arroyo of cut wood gap' {P'etsawiH, 

see [25:45]; huu ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 



HARRINGTON] 



PLACE-NAMES 383 



A w:ii;on road passes along this airo\'o; this is said to be used 
for getting wood. 

[25:47] Nanil.e 7^/eAw'«, see [24:43]. 

[25:4S] Nambe Tse'e/iu^u 'arroyo of the little Douglas sprucc(s)' {the 
"Douglas spruce' 'Pseudotsuga raacronata'; 'e diminutiv^e; /ui'u 
"large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[25:49] Nambe Topwipxijffe^wipo ' trail going back of piiion mountain' 
referring to [25:14] {T(qn)iipf!p.y[/i\ see under introduction to sheet 
[25], page 377; ^iyy locative and adjective-forming postfix; po 
'trail'). 

This old trail follows the creek [25:15] closely, here on one 
side, there on the other, until somewhat east of the ruin [25:30]. 
It then passes through [25:45] and along [25:40] until it reaches 
the place indicated bj^ the number [25:49]. It proceeds straight 
toward [25:54] until it strikes the Tajehuu [25:47] the bed of 
which it follows for the greater part of the distance to Nambe 
Pueblo [23:.5]. 

[25:50] Nambe ZyJw'w 'skunk-bush corner' {hj. 'skunk bush' 'Rhus 
trilobata'; iuhi 'large low roundish place'). One informant said 
Kij,iee {he^e 'small low roundish place') instead of Kiibiiu, but 
this may have been a mistake. 

This dell is north of the ruin [25:53]. It gives the name to 
[25:51]. 

[25:51] Nambe Kij,iuhti'u 'arroyo of skunk bush corner', referring to 
[25:50] (K^biihi, see [25:50]; hu^u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[25:5i] Nambe Kosatmhe' e 'chifonete e_ye corner' (jcosa 'chifonete'; 
tsi 'eye'; hee 'small low roundish place'). 

Chifonete's eyes are sometimes represented in Tewa drawings 
by concentric circles, sometimes by two small circles from the 
circumferences of which lines radiate. Why the place is called 
thus is not known. It appears to give the name to the little 
ruin [25:53]. 

[25:53] Nambe Kosatsibetekeji 'ruined dwelling-place at chifonete 
eye corner', referring to [25:52] {Kosatslhe'e, see [25:52]; tekiji 
'ruined dwelling-place' < !!e 'dwelling place' 'house', /.v/i 'old' 
postpound). 

A small ruin is said to exist in this little low dell, but the writer 
has not seen it, and no details about it or its history could be 
learned. 

[25:54] Nambe "* (Tjawui 'checkpoint' ("o'Ja 'cheek'; wui 'horizon- 
tally projecting point'). 

The trail [25:49] leaves the Tajehuu [25:47] opposite this hill. 



384 ETHNOGEOGRAPIIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

[25:55] Namb^ KiiVvrd,'''^ '■^yhyqX points' 'gravel turrets' {ktiFs^ 
'gravel' 'coarse sand' < kn 'stone', k'^ as m\/ks^ 'sand'; ^e'' 
'small cone' 'upward projecting cone of small size' 'turret'). 

The hill has gravelly turrets, hence the name. It is quite a 
long ridge. 

[25:56] Nambe Tsij/ahu'u ' flaking-stone fire arro3'o' {tsi'i 'iiaking- 
stone'; ''p'a 'fire'; hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. [25:57]. 

[25:57] Nambe Tsij/akwaje 'flaking-stone fire height' {Tsiji'a-. see [25: 
56]; hwaje 'height'). 

This height is for the greater part north of the TfiijiaJmu [25:56]. 

[25:58] Nambe Tsyisenfipiyf 'mountain of the j-ellow weed called 
tsy,'' {tsy, 'an unidentified weed said to bear yellow flowers'; tsenfi 
an old form meaning 'yellowness' ' j-ellow', used in the name of 
the Yellow Corn Maiden and in some place-names; piijf 'moun- 
tain'). 

This long narrow range of hills extends from [25:55] to [25:62]. 
Cf. [25:59]. 

[25:59] Nambe TsyitsenfipowiH 'road gap of the yellow weed called 
tsy,'' {TsyTsenfi; po 'trail' 'road'; wPi 'gap'). Cf. [25:5S]. 
An old wagon road passes through a gap at this place. 

[25:60] Nambe Johu'u, JohxihUu 'cane-cactus aiToyo' 'cane-cactus 
corner arroyo' {jo 'cane cactus' 'Opuntia arborescens'; hxru 
' large low roundish place'; Aw'm 'large groove' 'arroyo'). The 
name presupposes a JohiCu\ see under [25:unlocated]. 

[25:61] Nambe Pop'ewe<t!lcewe of obscure etymology {po 'water'; 
7j'ei/;<v./ unexplained; Icewe 'height' 'peak'). 

[25:62] Nambe 2fqhy,tenu]cwaje, see [24:46]. 

Unlocated 

Nambe ^Abepiyy of obscure etymology ('a6e unexplained; piyy 'moun- 
tain'). This appears to be the name of a mountain situated some- 
where in the area covered by the eastern part of this sheet. Cf., 
however, [25:12] with which it may be identical, 'a being for 'o 
and be'e the counterpart of Jm'm. 

Nambe JohiCu 'cane-cactus corner' {jo 'cane cactus' 'Opuntia arbor- 
escens'; &?('?( 'large low roundish place'). The designation Joiu- 
hi/u [25:60] presupposes this name. 

Nambe KehowatsPi of obscure etymology (kehowa unexplained; fsPi 
'canyon'). 
This is a canyon not very far east of [25:24], it is said. 

Nambe KupiisPoijwikejf, Kupiwcuii'oywikeji ' red rock canyon pueblo 
ruin' 'red rock gap pueblo ruin', referring to [25:40] {knpitsi'i, 
Kupiwa.ti, see [25:40]; ^qywikeji 'pueblo ruin' < ^qywi 'pueblo', 
keji 'old' postpound). 



MAP 26 
TESUQUE REGION 



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MAP 26 
TESUQUE REGION 



HAERIXGTO.N] PLACE-NAMES 385 

This evidently i.s the ruin ''Kopiwiiri" previously mentioned 
(page 360, note 6) as recorded by Mr. Hodge in 1895, and noted 
l)y bini as situated about 5 miles north of Nambe Pueblo. 

Nambe ^Obu-'ii of obscure etymolosj'v Co said to sound like neither 'o 
'handquern' nor 'o 'scar'; perhaps it is the demonstrative 'o 
'there'; 6?/.' (/ 'larg-e low roundish place'). The name of the little 
mountain [25:l:iJ presupposes tliis name, but the informants did 
not know to which corner this name should be applied. 

Kambe Tsifiikwoje 'ej^e sparkling black stuff height, {^tsi 'ej'e'; /y'" 
'a sparkling blaclc mineral used as face paint'; hwaje 'height'). 
It is said that ^.sv' 'eye' is prepounded because daubs of the min- 
eral are put at the corners of the eyes in face painting. This may 
be a second name for the place [35:24]. 

[26] TESUQUE SHEET 

This sheet (map 26) shows some of the places with Tesuque names 
in the immediate vicinity of Tesuque Pueblo. Owing to the atti- 
tude of the Tesuque Indians the author's work was made difficult and 
after a short time forbidden altogether, so that it was impossible to 
collect the place-names known to the Tesuque as completely as in 
the case of the other Rio Grande Tewa Pueblos. It is regretted 
especially tliat permission to study the place-names of the wild 
country east and southeast of the Tesuque Pueblo was withheld. 

No pueblo ruins are shown on the sheet. Pueblo ruins are known 
to exist in the area, but their names and sites have not been learned. 
Bandelier ' saj^s: " Higher up [than Kiije/uug.>'\ see [21:24:] ], in the Tezu- 
que A^alley proper, are various sites which the Indians of Te-tzo-ge 
(Tezuque) state are those of settlements of their forefathers. I have 
not been able to learn their names of these ruins, most of which are 
almost obliterated." Hewett^ says: "Dans la vallee de Tesuque, au- 
dessus du village, on traverse quelques mines prehistoriques qui u'ont 
pas de noni." So far as known, Twitchell is the only writer who pub- 
lishes the name of one of these ruins; see "Pio-go" under [26:unlo- 
cated]. Mr. Hodge states that he "was informed by the Tesuque In- 
dians in 1895 that the site of the original Tesuque — t!ie pueblo occu- 
pied at the first coming of the Spaniards and bearing the same name 
(Tet-su'-ge) — was situated about 3 miles east of the present village," 
See [26:8]. 

[26:1] (1) Tat'y,'ogepohu''u 'dry spotted place creek', referring to 
[26:8] {Tat'y,r)()e, see [26:8]; pohii'u 'creek with water in it' <po 
'water', hit'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). This is the old Tewa 
name. Cf. Tewa (2), Eng. (3), Span". (1). 

' Final Report, pt. II, p. 85, 1892. 2 Communautfe, p. 33, 1908. 

87584°— 29 eth— Ifi 25 



38G ETHNOGEOGRAPUV OK THK TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

(2) Tetting.t"pohu,\i 'T(!suque creek' {Tetsng,e, see [26:S]; polni'a 
'crook with water in it' <po 'water', hu'u 'large groove' 
' arroyo'). Cf. Tewa (1), Eng. (:3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Tesuque Creek. (<Span.). =Span. 4. Cf. Tewa 
(1), Tewa (2). 

(4) Span. Rio de Tesuque 'river or creek of [36:S]\ =Eng. 
(3). Cf. Tewa (1), Tewa (2). 

This great creek is the largest tributary of Pojoaque Creek 
[19:3]. It flows past the pueblo of Tesuque and the greater part 
of its drainage was formed}' held by the Tesuque Indians; hence 
the name. Cf. [26:6]. 

[26:2] TQsn(\\xe.''Afy,r)wi^fx.r)<je'iyl>:qhu'to 'arroyo beyond the tall steep 
slope', referring to [26:3] CAfiiyWcg, see [26:3]; pxyf/e 'beyond'; 
'iUf locative and adjective-forming postfix; kqhii'a 'arroyo with 
barrancas' <lcq 'barranca', hn' n ' large groove ' 'arroj^o'). 
This dry arroyo is tributary to Tesuque Creek [26:1]. 

[26:3] Tesuque ''Atitywie 'tall steeiJ slope' ('«'« 'steep slope'; ty,yi03^ 
'tallness' 'tall'). This name applies to the ridge as a whole. 
Portions of the ridge are also known by separate names; see 
[26:11] and [26:12]. All the vague I'egion beyond, i, e. west of, 
the ridge is known as 'Aty,7)ws^pigij(/e ' beyond the tall steep 
slope' {^Aty,ywsp., see above; p^yge 'beyond'). Cf. [26:2]. 

[26:4] (1) Tesuque TseJui'u, TsepoJai^u 'eagle arroyo' 'eagle creek' 
{tse 'eagle'; hu\i. 'large groove' 'arroyo'; pohu'u 'creek with 
water in it' <po 'water', huu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

(2) Span. Rio Chupadero 'sucking place river or creek'. For 
the name cf. [22:51], [23:25], [14:87]. This may be a mistake; at 
any rate notice the proximity of this creek to the upper course 
of [23:25], the latter being called witli certainty Rio Chupadero. 

[26:5] Tesuque TopoVt'oTcu 'piiion flower hill' (to 'pinon tree' 'Pinus 
edulis'; jxJbi 'flower'; ^oku 'hill'). 

[26:6] (1) fat'y,r)gekohu\i 'dry spotted place arroyo', referring to 
Tesuque [26:8] {Taf'y,yc/e^ see [26:8]; Tcohri'it, 'arroyo with bar- 
rancas' <lcq 'barranca', hu^u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

(2) 7t'fe»fi[(sto/4«'w. 'Tesuque Arroyo' {Tetsug.e,seQ\2Q:^'\\ Tcqhau 
'arroyo with barrancas' <to 'barranca', Aw'm 'large groove' 
'arro}'o'). 

This dry arroyo has its coui'sc just west of Tesucjue Pueblo. 
Notice the tributaries [26:21], [26:24], and [26:23]. Cf. [26:1]. 

[26:7] {l)Tat'ij.y</ebu''u 'dry spotted place corner', i-eferring to Tesuque 
[26:8] (Tafy,yge, see [26:8]; 6«'« 'large low roundish place'). 

(2) Tetsugehu^u 'Tesuque corner' {Tetsiig.e, see [26:8]; biPit 'large 
low roundish place'). 



HAKRIXGTON] PLACE-NAMES 387 

The cultivated dell or locality where Tesuque Pueblo is situated 
is called thus. 
[26:'^] (1) Tat'uijfjeoijwi 'pueblo down at the di'y spotted place' (ta 
•dryness' 'di'}''; t\i 'spottedness' 'spotted'; ge 'down at' 'over 
at'; 'oywi 'pueblo'). This is the old Tewa name of the pueblo. 
Why the name was originally given is not known. All the forms 
given l)elow, with exception of Orailii Hopi (9) and the saint- 
names, arc probablv corruptions, adaptations, or dialectic forms 
of Tal'iiy(je. Span. Tesuque is probably a corruption of Tafuy^e 
or of a Keresan form. At the present time there are many Tewa 
who know only tlie Span, corruption and the Tewa corruption of 
the Span, corrupt form: see Tewa (2), below. "San Lorenzo 
Tezuqui".^ "San Lorenzo de Tezmpii".- ''Thezuque".^ "Te- 
zuque".'' "Tesuque".^ "Tesuqui".« "Tusuque".' "Zesu- 
qua".* "Temque''." "San Diego de Tesuque"." "Tosugui"." 
'■Tersuque".'- "Tesuke".'^ "Tejugne".'* "Teseque".'^ "Te- 
suki"." 

(2) Tt'tsvg.e. (<Span. (12), below). This is the current Tewa 
corruption of Span. Tesuque, Tezuque (pronounced tesulce or 
te»uke), which in turn is a corruption of Tewa Tat'y,'r)ge. At- 
tempts to etymologize Tetsug.<; in its corrupted form lead of 
course to error. "Te-tzo-ge."'' "Tetsogi'",'* given as the Hano 
Tewa form of the name. " Tet-su'-ge"," given as the Tewa nafne, 
meaning ' cottonwood-tree place'. "Tet-su-ge"', '^ given as the 
San Juan pronunciation of the Tewa name. " Tetsogi'^, -" given 
as the Hano Tewa form of the name. " Tai-tzo-gai." ^' 

(3) Taos " Tutsuiba"/" given as meaning 'small pueblo.' = 
Picuris (4). 

'Vetancurt (1696) in Teatro Mex., ill, p. 316, 1871. 

s Ibid., IV, p. 274. 

3 Vargas (1704) quoted by Bandelier in Final Ileport, pt. i, p. 144, 1S90. 

' Villa-Senor, Tbeatro Amer., ii, p. 41S, 1748. 

s Alcedo, Die. Geog., v, p. 101, 17S9. 

6 Simpson in Rep. See. War, 2d map, 1850. 

'Sehoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, III, p. 406, 1853. 

8 Lane (1S>1) in ibid., v, p. 6S9, 1855. 

8 Domenech, Deserts N. Amer., ii, p. 63, 1860. 
invard in In<l. Aff. Rep. for 1867, p. 213, 1«68. 
" .Morgan in .V. Ainer. Rev., map, Apr., 1S69. 
"2 Cooper in Ind. Aff. Rep. for 1870, p. 161, 1870. 
"Stevenson in Smmd Rep. Bar. Amer. Ethn., p. 328, 1883. 
■< Dufouri in fa^A. W'urld, .\pr., p. 75, 1884. 
'i Ind. Aff. Rep. for 1889, p. 506, 1889. 

>6Fewkes in Turntn-second Rep. Bur. Am^er. Ethn., p. 18, 1904. 

" Bandelier; in Eitch, Xew Mexico, p. 201, 1885: in Rev. d'Elhnogr., p. 203,1886; Final Eeport, pt. i, 
p. 2G0, 1890; pt. II, p. 85, 1892. 
'8 Stephen in ElgUh Rep. Bar. Amer. Ethn., p. 37, 1891. 

i» Hodge, field notes. Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 (Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 735, 1910). 
» Fewkes in Nineteenth Rep Bur. Amer. Ethn., pt. I, p. 614, 1900. 
" Jouveneeau in Calh. Pion., I, No. 9, p. 12, 1906. 



388 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ioth. ann. 29 

(-t) Picuris " Ta-tsiir-ma'."" "Totsema."^ These two Picuris 
forma are evidently equivalent to Taos (3), above. 

(5) Isleta "Tuclicai'ip."' 

(6) Jemez and Pecos "Tso'-ta."^ 

(7) Cochiti Tfutsiiko, ■ Tfutsulcotss^ {tsse locative). " Tyn'- 
tso-ku:'''^ this toini, like Santa Ana (8), appears to be derived 
from the Tewa dialect of Tanoau or from some very ancient 
Tewa form. The Cochiti and other Keresan Indians also use the 
Span, form 2'esulce. 

(S) Santa Ana "Tiotsokoma:"^ this form is evidently the same 
as Cochiti (7); ma for mse 'people.' 

(y) Oraibi Hopi Tokwive^etewa 'Tewa near the mountains' 
{tokwi 'mountain' 'mountain ran^e'; v^e 'at' 'near'; Tewa 
<Tewa Tewa 'Tewa'). This name is applied by the Hopi to the 
Nambe and Tesuque Tewa. 

(10) Oraibi Hopi r(?s(a-e. (<Span.). = Span. (12). 

(11) Eng. Tesuque. (<Span.). = Span. (12). 

(12) Span. Tesuque. (<Tewa). See Tewa (1). 

(13) Span. '"San Lorenzo Tesuqui."^ "San Lorenzo de 
Tezuqui:"^ the name means Saint Lawrence; this appears to be 
the .saint-name of the Span, mission established at Tesuque Pueblo 
eaidy in the seventeenth century. 

(14) Span. " San Diego de Tesuque." ■• "S. Diego :"^ the name 
means Saint James. 

Interesting facts about Tesuque Pueblo are that it is the most 
southerly of the present Tewa pueblos'* and that it and a pueblo 
near Cienega [29:21] were the Indian villages nearest to the site 
of Santa Fe when the Spaniards lirst came to New Mexico.' For 
information furnished by j\Ir. Hodge regarding a pueblo ruin by 
the same name, located three miles from Tesuque, see page 385. 

[26:9] Tesuque Potvlhe'e 'marshy corner' {pots! 'marsh' < po 'water', 
tsi 'to cut through'; he'e 'small low roundish place'). 

[26:10] Tesuque HiCiahvUu 'dry gulch arroyo' (Aw'w 'large groove' 
'arroyo'; ia 'dryness' 'dry'). 

[26:11] Tesuque Kwa^apiyf 'bead mountain' (ktva'a 'bead'; piyj' 
' mountain '). 

[26:12] Tesuque T q.)itefu''a, T'q7iiefy^olcu 'sun dwelling-place point' 
' sun dwelling-place point hill' {Cqyf 'sun'; te 'dwelling-place' 
'house'; faho 'horizontally projecting point'; 'oTcu 'hill'). 

1 Hodge, field notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 < Ward in /nd. .4/. i?ep. for 1807, p. 213, 1868. 
(Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 735, 1910). ' Bancroft, Kt\z., and N. Hex., p. 281, 1889. 

2 Spinden, Picuris notes, MS., 1910. « Hewett, Communautds, p. 33, 190,>. 

:■ Vetancurt (169C) in Teatro Mex., HI. p. 316, ' Twiteliell, in Sa-nta Fe Aew Mexican, Sept. 22, 

1871. 1910. 



HARRixGTO.v] PLACE-NAMES 389 

[26:13] Tesuque P'apimiis- 'yucca mountain' (/>'« 'yucca' 'Yucca 
baccata'; j)i/;y 'mountain'; ?;« locative). 

[26:14] Tesuque ' Ol-ufuijwprjo 'the very high hill' ('otw 'hill'; fiiywse 
'higheris' 'high'; jo augmentative). 

This is the sacred hill of the Tesuque. There is a stone shrine 
on top and a well-worn path leads from the pueblo to the summit. 
See [26:15]. 

[26:15] Tesuque Knhori 'the rock pile' ijcu 'stone'; hori 'large round- 
ish pile'). 
This is the stone shrine mentioned under [26:14]. 

[26:16] Tesuque <7o^«6c'e 'cane-cactus thicket corner' {jo 'cane cactus' 
' Opuntiaarborescens'; hi 'denseness' 'dense' 'thicket' 'forest'; 
he's 'small low roundish place'). 

[26:17] Tesuque Scpinnse 'bluebird mountain' {se 'bluebird' of sev- 
eral species; piijf 'mountain'; nx locative). 

[26:18] Tesuque Tsinvcuinu^u 'below eagle point', referring to [26:19] 
{Tsewaui, see [26:19]; nuhi 'below'). 

[26:li>] Tesuque Tsrwcui ^ e&gle point' {tse "eagle'; wau^l 'horizontally 
projecting point'). 

[26::i0] Tesvique Jlahuf fa >id/\ said to mean 'where the owl is' {mqhy, 
'owl' of any species; tj'qyf 'to be in a place'; '/'* locative and 
adjective-forming postiix). 

A Mr. Miller had a ranch at this locality in 1910, it was said. 

[26:i'l] Tesuque Qwxnfjot'ctbe'e ' corner where an unidentified kind of 
rodents resembling wood-rats live' {t^wsen/jo an unidentified 
species of rodent ^qwseyf an unidentified species of rodent, _;o 
augmentative; fa 'to live'; be'e 'small low roundish place'). 
This corner gives the name to the arro3-o [26:22]. 

[26:22] Tesuque QwxnfjofahiCu 'arroyo of the corner where an uni- 
dentified species of rodents I'escmbling wood-rats livo', referring 
to [26:21] (<2ii'^?i.^'o'i''(?-, see [26:21]; /'?;,';« 'large groove' 'arroj-o'). 

[26:23] Tesuque Sseisx'i'^ 'place of the white pricklv-peur cactus' 
{sx ' prick] j^-pear cactus ' of the species ' Opuntia comanchica ' 
and ' Opuntia poly acantha'; tsae 'whiteness' 'white'; T' locative 
and adjective-forming postfix). 

[26:24] Tesuque Kuniahuu of obscure etj^mology (ku 'stone'; ma 
unexplained; liiCu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[26:25] Tesuque Pi/ity,7)wxhwag.e 'high mountain height' {piyf 
'mountain'; txirjws^ 'highness' 'high'; Icwage 'height' 'flat- 
topped height '). 
This is a large, rather Hat hill. 



390 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

Unlocatkd 

Tesuque (?) " Pio-go ".' This appears to be the only one of numerous 
pueblo ruins in the vicinit}' of Tesuque Pueblo the name of which 
has been published. Mr. Twitchell says: " Eastward and south- 
east of Tesuque, toward the mountains there is the ruin of 
Pio-go." This may be merely a mistake which Mr. Twitchell has 
made. See the mention of pueblo ruins in the introduction to 
sheet [26], page 385. 

Tesuque '' Okuhenfi 'the long hill' (^oka 'hill'; henfi 'length' 
' long '). 
This is a hill about three miles south of Tesuque. 

Tesuque '6»jt;/p/'r' 'the red hill' {^olu 'hill'; ft 'redness' 'red'; 'i'' 
locative and adjective-forming postfix). 
This is a hill about three miles south of Tesuque. 

Tesuque Ssehodl ' round hill of the prickly-pear cactus ' isse. ' prickly- 
pear cactus' of the species 'Opuntia comanchica' or ' Opuntia 
polyacantha'; hhol 'large roundish pile'). 

This is a hill not far south of Tesuque Pueblo. 

Tesuque settlement. In Span, and Eng. Tesuque is applied rather 
vaguely to the whole region about Tesuque Pueblo, and especially 
to the locality along Tesuque Creek [26:1] above Tesuque Pueblo, 
where there are a number of good farms belonging to Americans 
and Mexicans. 

[27] JEMEZ SHEET 

This sheet ( map 27) shows, roughly speaking, the country of the Jemez 
Indians. These Indians, together with the remainder of the Pecos 
Tribe, who spoke a closely related dialect of the same language, live at 
Jemez Pueblo [27:35]; in this connection see pages 477-78. The 
names of the places shown on the sheet are mostly in the Jemez, Cochiti, 
and Tewa languages. The whole country of the Jemez is called by 
the Tewa WCiyge'intowail myge 'country of the Jemez people' 
{^VtlyfjcHjitfrwa, see under [27:35]; il possessive; n<ly<je ' country '< 
ndyf 'earth', g.e 'down at' 'over at'). All the mountains about 
Jemez Pueblo are called vaguely by the Tewa Wi'impiijf 'Jemez 
mountains" {Wnyf-, see [27:35]; iriijf 'mountain'). 

The numerous puel)lo ruins shown are all claimed as ancestral 
homes by the Jemez people. 

[27:1] (1) Eng. Guadalupe Canyon. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Cafion de Guadalupe ' Guadalupe Canyon'. =Eng. 
(1). "Kio de Nuestra Seiiora de Guadalupe.''^ 

'R. E. Twitchell in Santa Fe New Mexican, Sept. 22, 1910. 
2Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 201, 1892. 



MAP 27 
JEMEZ REGION 



1^ 




z 
o 

C3 

Ul 

oc 

N 

UJ 






MAP 27 
JEMEZ REGION 



HARKINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 391 

[27:2] (1) Eny. Tviicimiento Mountains. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(-*) Span. Siena del Nacimionto, Sierra Naciniiento 'mountain 
range of tlie birth (of Jesus) '. =Eng. (1). 
[27:3] (1) Eng. Cebollo Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(-2) Span. Kito del Cebollo 'onion creek'. =Eng. (1). Cf. 
[27:24]. 
[27: -1] Jemez Wdveyiuj of obscure etymology. 

This is a very large mountain north of the \'iille de San Antonio 
[27:. i]. 
[27:5] Santa Rosa Valley, see [16:44]. 
[27:0] (1) Eng. San Antonio Valley. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Valle de San Antonio ' Saint Anthony's valley.' 
= Eng. (1). "Valle de San Antonio."^ Cf. San Antonio hot 
springs [27:unlocated]. 

This is one of the high grassy meadow-valleys like [27:5] and 
[27:7]. See [27:11]. 
[27:7] Grande Valley, Valle Grande, see [16:131]. 
[27:8] (1) PosaJin4iwt' 'place of the boiling water' {po 'water'; 
sajejjf 'to boil'; ^Iwe locative). 

(2) Jemez Pdtfofulun\L 'place of the boiling water' {pd 
'water'; tfofnlu said to mean 'to boil'; hi/ locative). Cf. 
[27:13.]. 

(3) Eng. Sulphur springs, The Sulphurs. (<Span.). =Span. 

(4). 

(4) Span. Los Azufres 'the sulphurs'. =Eng. (3). 

These springs are described in The Land of Satwhine.^ There 
is a hotel at the springs. Cf. San Antonio springs; see under 
[27:unlocated]. 
[27:9] Jemez §wod6f^ 'chicken-hawk mountain' (cfiwodo 'chicken- 
hawk ' or some species of hawk called by the name chicken hawk; 
fji ' mountain'). 

This mountain is just noi-th of the great mountain [27:10]. 
[27:10] (1) Jemez I'dim'fiify, of obscure etymology (pa 'Hower' akin 
to Tewa^)'>6t •flower'; mtVii unexplained; fy, 'mountain'). 

(2) (^ochitAfawatolcoiJu ' bald mountain' (/a' w«^p 'bald'; ko^u 
'mountain'). This is probably a mere translation of the Span, 
name (7). 

(3) Eng. Mount Redondo. (<Span.). = Span. (6). 

(4) P2ng. Pehido Mountain, Bald Mountain. C<Span.). =Span. 

(T). 

(5) Eng. Jara Mountain. (<Span.). =Span. (8). 

(t!) Span. Ccrro Redondo 'round mountain'. =Eng. (4). This 
is a popular name for the mountain; it is given because of its 
round shape. 

I BandclitT, Final Report, pt. II, p. 201, 1892. 

' The Luiid of Suushiiie, Uuudbook of Resources of New Mexico, p, 169, l'.)U6. 



392 ETHNOGEOGRAPnY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

(7) Spun. CoiTo Pelade 'Ijiild mountain'. = Eng. (5). It is 
probably to this mountain that Bandolier' refers when he writes: 
"Tlio Jara Mountain, called also Cerro Pelado, is 11,260 feet 
high ". Both the Wheeler Survey map and the Jemez sheet of 
the United States Geological Survey, 1S9U, give "Pelado" as the 
name of this mountain. Wheeler gives the height as 11,260 feet, 
as Bandelier quotes.^ The Jemez sheet merely shows b}^ con- 
tour that the mountain exceeds 11,000 feet in altitude. The 
Jemez Indian informants gave Pelado as the Span, name of the 
mountain, which they call Pam^qjy, for the name Pelado. Cf . 
[2:13]. 

(8) Span. Cerro de la Jara, Cerro Jara ' willow mountain', per- 
haps taken from Jara Creek [27 :unlocated]. =Eng. (5). This 
name was not known to the Jemez informants as a name for this 
mountain; but Bandelier writes: "The Jara Mountain, called 
also Cerro Pelado, is 11,260 feet high".^ 

(y) Span. "Sierra de Jemez".* This means 'Jemez Mountains'. 
See Tiifimpije! l-'-'pv) f [Large Features: 8], pages 105-06, where 
another application of the Eng. equivalent of this name will be 
found. " The high Sierra de la Jara, sometimes called Sierra de 
Jemez, because the Jemez region lies on its western base".* 

This is a very high and conspicuous mountain. The Jemez 
pueblo ruin called Sefokwci (27: un located] is said to lie at its base. 
See Jara Creek [27:unlocated], and Tsqmjjije'P'piijf [Large 
Features: 8], page 105. 
[27:11] (1) Eng. San Antonio Creek, San Antonio Canyon. 
(<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Rio de San Ant9nio, Canon de San Antonio, 'Saint An- 
thony's Creek', 'Saint Anthony's Kiver'. Cf. Vallede San Antonio 
[27:6] through which the creek flows. 

This name Is given to the north fork of San Diego Canyon 
[27:13] above the junction of the south fork [27:12]. Bandelier^ 
says of it: 

While the mountainous parts of the Queres [Keresan] range are dry, the 
Valles constitute a water supply for the Jemez country. Two streams rise in 
it [the Valles?], the San Antonio on the eastern Hank of the Jara mountain 
[27:10], and the Jara [27:unlocated] at the foot of the divide, over which 
crosses the trail from Santa Clara. These unite to form the San Antonio ' river ', 
which meanders through the Valles de Santa Rosa [27:5] and San Antonio 
[27:6] for 7 miles in a northwesterly direction, and enters a picturesque gorge 
bearing the same name [San Antonio Canyon par excellence], and then gradu- 

1 Bandelier, Fiual Report, pt. ii, p. 202, note, 1892. 

2 See U. S. Geographical Surveys West of the 100th Meridian. I'arts of SouUiern Colorado and 
Northern New Mexico, atlas sheet No. 69, 18T3-1S77. 

3 Bandelier, op. cit. 
* Ibid., p. 72, note, 
sibid., pp. 201-2. 



HAKRIXGTOX] PLACE-NAMES 393 

ally curves around tlirough groves until, at l^a Cueva, it assumes an almost due 
southerly direction. One or two more brooks increase its volume on the way, 
descending directly from the mesa pedestal of the Jara Mountain [27:10], and 
its name is changed from San Antonio to the Rio de San Diego [27: 13]. 

Just where the change in name occuns is indefinite. See [27:6], 

[27:13]. 
[27:1l'] South fork of San Diego Canyon [27:13]. 
[27:13] (1) J emez Pi'itj'ofi(h()ty,wdmy, 'boiling water canyon' (Pdtyo- 

fuhtny, see [27:8]; tcamy, 'canyon"). Since this is the canyon 

that has hot springs iit various places in it, it is naturallj' enough 

called 'boiling water canyon'. 

(2) Eng. San Diego Canyon. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cailon de San Diego, ' Canyon of Saint James '. = Eng. 
(2). "Rio de San Diego '".' 

This canyon is very deep in its lower portion. The north fork 
of its upper part is called San Antonio Can3'ou, San Antonio 
Creek; see [27:11]. 
[27:14] Jemez 'Ufdgn 'place where the one-seeded juniper trees are' 
(u. 'one-seeded juniper' " Juniperus monosperma', akin to Tewa 
hy,; fd 'to be at a place'; gPi locative, akin to Tewa g.e). 

This is an ancient pueblo ruin, north of the Soda Dam [27:16] 
and on the western side of the creek.. It is separated from the 
pueblo ruin [27:15] by an arroyo. See [27:15]. 
[27:15] Jemez NiinifCigPi 'place where the cottonwood trees are' 
{wini 'cottonwood', species undetermined but probabh' Populus 
wislizeni; fd 'to be at a place'; giH locative). Nqni is probably 
. cognate with Tewa nana 'aspen' but is not applied to the aspen. 
"No-ny]sh'-a-gi'".= 

This pueblo ruin is situated a short distance south of ruin 
[27:14], from which it is separated by an arroyo. 
[27:16] The Soda Dam (pi. 14). This is what the place is called com- 
monly in Eng. No Span, or Jemez name was learned. Bandelier 
says of the place: 

In that gorge [San Diego Canyon], ice-cold soda springs issue near the river 
bed, and a short distance above the bathing establishment [27:18] a huge cyl- 
indrical dam traverses the stream, in which steaming currents and cold streams 
flow parallel to each other, neither affecting the temperature of the others, 
although only a few inches of rock separate them.^ 

[27: IT] (1) Jemez Gi]isewdtdwd, said to mean 'pueblo at the hot place' 
referring to Jemez springs [27:18] {Giy„wwd, see [27:18]; iowd 
'pueblo'). "Qicinzigua."^ "Qui-umzi-qua."° 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt, u, p, 200, 1892, 

' Hodge in Handbook Inds,, pt, 2, p. 81, 1910. 

'Bandelier, op. cit., pp. 202-203. 

< Ziirat«Salmeron (en. 1629) quoted by Bancroft, Native Races, I, p, 600, 1882. 

'Zirate-Salmeron (m. 1629) Rel., in Land of Sunshine, Los Angele-s, p. 183, Feb., 1900. 



394 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

•■(^uunsiora.'"' "Quicinzioiia.''^ "Guin-sc-ua.''' "Gin-,se-uii.''^ 
''Ciiusowa."^ 

(2) Span. "San^iego de los EmeK."" "S. Diego."' "San 
Diogo do Jemez."* "Sun Diego de Jemes."' "San Diego de 
James."" "San Diego de Ics Hemes."" "SanDiego."!^ "San 
Diego de los Temes."" "San Diego de Jemez."" 

For a good account of the Pueblo ruins see Handbook Inds., 
pt. 1, p. 514, 1907. 
[27:18] (1) WqygeposnwaH''^ ' hot water i^lace by Jemez' {Wurjcje, h&q 
[27:35]; fo 'water'; suwa 'hotness' 'hot'; '-/''locative and adjec- 
tive-forming postfix). 

(2) Jemez C^iysewd, said to mean 'hot place' ((7^'ysf, said to mean 
'hot'; wd locative). For quoted forms ai^plied to the pueblo ruin 
near the springs, see [27:17]. 

(3) Eng. Jemez springs. (<Span.). =Span. (6). "Jemez 
Springs."" The name of the post oflice was recently changed 
from Archuleta to Jemez Springs. 

(4) Eng. San Diego springs. (<Span.). =Span. (7). "Hot 
springs of San Diego."'' 

(5) Eng. Archuleta. (<Span.). =Span. (8). Until recently 
this was the name of the post office; see Eng. (3), above. 

(r.) Span. Ojo Caliente de Jemez 'hot springs of Jemez.' 
= E^ng. (3). This is the commonest Span. name. 

(7) Span. Ojos de San Diego 'Saint James' springs.' This uses 
the saint-name of the pueblo ruin [27:17]. 

(8) Span. Archuletti (a Span, family name). There are Mexi- 
cans named Archuleta still living about the springs. 

Jemez springs are described by Bandelier," also in The Land 
of Sunshine.^^ 
[27:19] (1) Jemez TUtdsekrvmy, 'place of the priests standing' {tiitdse 
'priest'; kwi 'to stand,' cognate with Tewa ywi 'to stand'; ny, 
locative). Cf. Span. (2). 

'Orozco y Berra in Anales Minis. Fom. Mir., p. 196, 1882. 

^Iliid., p. 190 (quoting Vargas). 

aBandelier, Final Report, pt. i, p. 126, 1890. 

Ubid , pt. II, pp. 204, 20.5. 210, 21G, 1S92. 

sHewett, General View, p. 599, 1905. 

» JIS. of 1613 quoted by Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 206, note, 1892. 

'D'Anville, Map Amer., Sept., 1746. 

sAlencaster (1.H0.5) quoted by Prince. New Mexico, p. 37, 1?83. 

9 .Aleneaster (1805) quoted by Meline, Two Thousand Miles, p. 212, 1867. 
i» Ind. Aff. Kep. for 1867, p. 213, 1868. 
" Vetancurt, Menolog. Fran., p. 275, 1871. 

'=BandcHer in An-h. Inst. Papers, i, pp. 23, 27, 1881: Hewett, General View, p. 599, 1905. 
"Orozco y Berra, op. cit., p. 255. 
"Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, pp. 20-1, 210, 1892. 
"Ibid., pt. I, p. 11, note, 1890, 
"Ibid., p. 126; ].t. II, p. 202. 
" Ibid., pt. I, p. 11, note; pt. ii, pp. 202, 203. 
"The Land of Sunshine, a Handbook of Resources of New Mexico, pp. 167, 169. 1906. 



HAKEINOTON) PLACE-NAMES 395 

('2) Span. Los Tros Padres 'the three priests.' 

These names refer to three projections at the top of the red- 
colored cliff of the east wall of San Diego Canj^on [27:13] 
slightly south of east of Jemez springs [27:18]. 
[27:20] Jemez KwastrjiiTcwd 'place of the rock- pine locust' QcwdstPju 
'rock-pine locust,' a kind of locust which is said to sing as loud 
as a rattlesnake rattles <]cwd 'rock pine' 'Pinus scopulorum,' 
cognate with Tewa ijwsey^f 'rock pine'; stPjii any species of locust; 
lewd locative). 

This is the pueblo ruin on the high mesa-top nearest to Jemez 
Springs [27 :18]. It was at this ruin that excavation was conducted 
jointly b}^ the Bureau of American Ethnology and the School of 
American Archseology in the summer of 1911. By mistake this 
ruin has been confused by some persons with [27:23]. The name 
given above was obtained from four Jemez Indians independentlj-. 
[27:21] Jemez ToirP'^Jcwd 'place of tova^"-'' {tovcC^ a word said when in 
certain ceremonies a cigarette is touched by one person to the 
foot of another; A;wd locative). "To-ua-qua".^ "To-wa-kwa".^ 

This pueblo ruin gives the name to the arroyo [27:22]. 
[27:22] Jemez Tova'^wdwd 'arroyo of [27:21]' {TovcC, see [27:21]; 

wdwd 'arroyo' 'canyon'). 
[27:23] (1) Jemez A'miify,lcwd 'ant-hill place' (oniy, 'ant' of any 
species; fy, 'mountain' 'hill', here referring to an ant-hill or to 
ant-hills; ^«'d locative). " Amoxunqua".^ " Amo-xium-qua".* 
" Amo-shium-qua".* " Amoxunque",^ apparently misquoting 
Ziirate-Salmeron. " Amushungkwa"." 

Bandelier locates Amy,fy,lc\cd indefinitely: "There was Amo 
xium-qua, on the mesa above the mouth of the great gorge 
[27:13]".' Again: " Amoxiumqua lies on the mesa that rises west 
of the springs [27:18]".^ Hewett writes: "Amoxiumqua — on 
the high mesa overlooking Jemez Hot Springs [27:18]".^ 

Of the traditional origin of the people of Afity,fy,Tiwd Bandelier 
writes: "But they [the Jemez Indians] also say that the people of 
Amoxiumqua first dwelt at the lagune of San Jose, 75 miles to 
the northwest of Jemez, and that they removed thence to the 
pueblo of Ailu-quil-i-jui, between the Salado [29:92] and Jemez 
[27:34:]".^° In a footnote Bandelier adds: " Auu-quil-i-gui lies 

' Bandelier. Final Report, pt. ir, p. 207, note, 1S92. 

» Hodge, field notes. Bur, Amer. Ethn., 189.5 (Handbook Inds., pt- 2. P- ''-'6, 1910.) 

3 zaratc-Salmeron (ea. 1629) in Land ofSuiuhiuF, p. 183, Feb., 1900. 

< Bandelier (XS&s) in Prnc. Internal. Cong. Amer., vii, p. 452, 1890. 

n Bandelier, Final Report, pt. i, p. 127, note, 1890. 

«nodge, op. eit., pt. 1, p. 51, 1907. 

' Bandelier, op. cit,, p. 126. 

8 Ibid., pt. II, pp. 20.V206, 1S92. 

8 Hewett, Anticinities, p. 48, 1906. 

"> Bandelier, op. cit., pt. ii, p. 207. 



396 ETHNOGEOGRAPHV OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etu. ann. 29 

north of .Tcmoz". See "Anyukwinu" under [27:unlocatc(lJ and 
J'dfiihwd [27:'i'.»]. Bandolier's and llewett's statements niio'ht lead 
one to suppose that Anty,fy,him. is Kwastrji'ikwd [27:20], which 
according to four reliable J emez informants, asked independently, 
is not correct. 

i^I) Span. Cebollita 'little onion'. According to a reliable old 
Jemez informant this is the Mexican name for Amy^fiilcwa. Cf. 
[27:3]. 

(3) Span. San Jos^ (?). Bandelier, after studying the writings 
of BenavidesandZarate-Salnieron. concludes: " It seems probable 
that Amoxiuraqua was San Joseph de los Jemez. "^ Again: "As 
to San Joseph de los Jemez I incline to the belief . . . that it 
was Amoxiumqua."^ 

From studying the documents of Zarate-Salmeron, who lived 
among the Jemez in 1618, Bandelier concludes: "It seems that 
Ginseua [27:17] and Amoxiumqua were then the principal pueblos 
of the Jemez tri))e [in 1618]."^ For accounts of A/ny.fy,]twd, see 
the writings of Bandelier and Hewett above cited. 
[27:25] Jemez JTandl~v:d 'horned toad place' {/umd 'horned toad' 
'horned lizard'; twd locative). "Ham-a-qua."* "Han-a-kwa."° 

It is said that there are two ruined pueblos by this name, and 
that they may be distinguished by Indian words which mean 
'great pueblo of the horned toad' and 'little pueblo of the horned 
toad'. The two pueblo ruins ai'e not very far apart, and it is not 
certain whether it is the great or the little one which we show on 
the sheet. 
[27:26] Jemez KfdTsiikiod 'mountain-sheep place' (kj-dPso 'mountain- 
sheep'; ^wd locative). "Quia-tzo-qua."'* "'Kiatsukwa."^ 

This pueblo ruin is north of Odafii [27:27]. 
[27:27] Jemez Odafib 'occipital-bone mountain' {oda 'occipital bone' 
'process on occipital bone' where head and neck join; /y 'moun- 
tain'). 

This large hill is on the west side of Guadalupe Canyon [27:1]. 
[27:28] (X)ii&m&z''Astfdld%fokwA, ^Astf&ldTcwd of obscure etymology 
(^dutfdld unexplained; Icfo apparently meaning 'to lie'; Tcwd loca- 
tive). The full form of the name contains the syllable %fo^ but 
this syllable is frequently omitted. "Ateyala-keokva."' "Ate- 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 205, note, 1892. 

2 Ibid., p. 206, note. 

3Ibid., p. 20.5, note. 

<Ibid.,p. 207, note. 

5 Hodge, field notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1S9.T (Handbook Inds., pt. 1, p. 530. 1907). 

6 Ibid., p. 682. 

'Gatschet, Zwolf Sprachen aus dem Siidwesten Xordamerikas, p. 45, 1870. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 397 

yuLi-keokvii."' "Asht-i:i-la-quu."- "Asht-ya-laqua.'" "'Ash- 
tyal-a-qua.'" ^ '"Asht-yalaqua"'^ (confounding ■Astj'dld(]cfo)lcwa 
with I'dtuku'd [27::i9]. ''Astialakwii."" According to Hodge' 
the Jeniez assort that there is another pueblo ruiu, distinct from 
^Astj'dld(kyo)kwd, which is called "'Ost'-yal-a-kwa.'" Hodge thinks 
that this is the same as Bandolier's "Osht-yal-a."* 

(2) ,]emez Jlqtj'ii fill- j'okwd oi obscure etymology (»<a^yr? unex- 
plained; fy, 'mountain'; hj'o apparently meaning "to lie'; hivd 
locative). This name was given by several Indians independenth' 
as rcfeiTing to the same pueblo ruin as the name 'Astj'dld{kj'o)hwd, 

(3) Span. San Juan 'Saint John'(^). See below. 
Hodge writes of the ruin: 

A former puelilo of the Jemez, on the summit of a mesa that separates San 
Diego [27:13] and Guadehipe [27:1] canyons at their mouths. It was proba- 
bly the seat of the Franciscan mission of San Juan, established early in the 
17th century." 

[27:2'J] (1) Jemez Pdtok\vd of obscure etymology {pd apparently jpd 
'tlower'; ti) 'pueblo' 'dwelling-place", akin to Tewa ?*('.• kwd loca- 
tive). "Batokva".'" "Bato-kva"." '"Patoqua"^ (confounding it 
with ^Astj'd1d{kfo)kwd [27:2s]). " Patoqua ('village of the 
bear')'".'- The meaning "village of the boar" is not correct, nor 
does '"Walatoa", one of the Jemez names of Pueblo, mean "village 
of the bear' as is stated by Hodge." 

(2) Jemez Wcfii/ekwd 'place where they both are,' referring to 
San Diego Canyon [27:29] and Guadalupe Can^-on [27:1] {we 
'both,' akin to wif 'two'; fii/e 'to be at a place'; kwd locative). 
This is an old name of Pdtokwd, applied because the pueblo was 

at the confluence. 

(3) Jemez A'y»«'a^lisetwd 'place where they hit or ring the stones' 
Qcfa^d 'stone'; t]ise "to hit"; kwd locative). A slab of stone 
was suspended by a deerskin thong and struck with some hard 
object, producing a clear metallic tone. Such bell-stones used 
to be struck at Pdfokwd in connection with certain dances; hence 
this name, we are told. 

(4) Span. "S. Josef".'* 

iLoew in Wh((hr Survey Btp., vii, p. 843. 1S79. 

'Bandclier, Fimil Report, pt. i, p. 126, 1890. 

'Bandelier in Proc. Cong. Internal. Amir., vii, p. 452, 1890. 

<Bandelier, op. cit., pt. ii, p. 206, 1892. 

'Ibid., p. 207, note. 

6Hodge, field notes. Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 (Handbook Inds., pt. 1, p. 106, 1907). 

' Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 162, 1910. 

^Bandelier, op. cit., p. 207, note. 

'Hodge, op. cit., pt. 1, p. 106. 

•"Loew (187.5), op. cit. 

"Gatschet, Zwolf Sprachen aus dem Siidwesten Xordamerikas, p. -15, 1876. 

'2 Hodge, op. cit., pt. 2. p. 210. 

"Handbook Inds., pt. 1, p. 6;i0, 1907. 

"D'Anville, Map Amer. Sept., 1746. 



398 ETHNOGEOOKAl'll V OF THE TEWA INDIANS fETiI. ANN. 2» 

"S'. Josef".' "S. Josefo".^ "S. Iosepho".= ''St. Joseph".* 
"Sail .loscph do Jcmez".''' 
Hodge summarizes the history of PatuTcwd iis follows: 
"It seems to Inive Ihxmi the scat of the Spanish mission of San 
Joseph de los Jemez (which contained a church as early as 1(317), 
but was abandoned in 1622 on account of the hostility of the Nav- 
aho. In 1627, however, it and Gyusiwa [27:1.S] were resettled 
b}^ Fray Martin de Arvide with the inhabitants of a number of 
small pueblos then occupied by the Jemez. It was permanently 
abandoned prior to the Pueblo revolt of 1680. The people of this 
pueblo claim to have dwelt at the lagoon of San Jose, 75 miles 
northwest of Jemez, and that they removed thence to a place be- 
tween Salado |29:H:2] and Jemez [27:34] rivers, where they built 
the pueblo of Anyukwinu."" 

The migration tradition which Hodge here relates of Pdtohwd is 
strangeW similar to what Bandelier says of Amvfij,hwa : 

But they [the Jemez Indians] also say that the peojile of the Amoxiumqua 
dwelt first at the lagune [lagoon] of San Jos6, 75 miles to the northwest of 
Jemez, and tluit they removed thence to the pueblo of x\fm-quil-i-jui, between 
the Salado [29:92] and Jemez [27:34].' 

In a footnote Bandelier adds: "Anu-quil-i-gui lies north of 
Jemez". See "An5'ukwinu" under [27:unlocated]. 
[27:30] (1) Jemez Ga}{t. (<Span. Canon). =Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Canon settlement. (<Span.). = Jemez (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Caiion 'canyon'. = Jemez (1), Eng. (2). 

This is a small Mexican settlement below the confluence of San 
Diego [27:13] and Guadalupe [27:1] can3'ons, mostly on the east 
side of Jemez Creek [27:.34]. 
[27:31] (1) Kfa''d<j)Wo 'red rock' {]cfa'd 'stone' 'rock'; ^wo 'red- 
ness' 'red'). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. lied Rock. Cf. Jemez (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Feiia Colorada 'red rock'. Cf. Jemez (1), Eng. (3). 
This is a large red rock on the east side of Jemez Creek [27:34]. 

The main wagon road passes through the gap between the rock 
and the red clitls east of the rock. Wild bees have large nests in 
crev'ices of the rock. On the east face of the rock are some inter- 
esting old pictographs repi'csenting deer. 

iD'Anville, Map N. Amer., Bolton's edition, 17.5'2. 

2 Jefferys, Amer. Atlas, map 5, 1776. 

8 Crimpy, Map Amer. Sept., ra. 1783. 

<St]iea, Oath. Missions, p. «0, 1870. 

'Bandelier (1888) in Compte-rcndu Cong. Amer., vii, p. 462, 1890. 

'Hodge in Handbook In<ls., pt. 2, p. 210, r.ilO. 

'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 207, 18y2. 



nAUni.NGTOX] 



PLACE-NAMES 399 



L27:;32j (i) Jemez Hqjqjq of obscure etymology. 

(2) Eno-. Vallecito Creek, Vallecito. (<8pan.). =Span. (8). 
(:-)) Span. Vallecito, Rito del Vallecito 'little valley' 'creek of 
the little valley '. = Eng. (2). 

There are a number of Mexican farms in the valley of this 
creek. The same names are applied to the settlement as to the val- 
ley itself. 

[27:33] Jemez TTywyf^^wd 'place of the owl water' {/lu/iy, 'owl"; pa 
'water'; ird locative). The name is applied to springs and to a 
gulch on the west side of Jemez Creek [27:34] northwest of Jemez 
Pueblo. 

[27:3i] (1) Wqyge'impo, Wqy(/e'impo/m'n 'creek of [27:35]' ( TTTi??^^^', 
see [27:35]; 'ioy locative and adjective-forming postfix; po 
'water'; pohii'u 'creek with water in it' <p)o 'water', hii^u 
'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

(2) Picuris "Heraepane" 'Jemez River'. ^ Evidently "pane" 
means 'river'. 

(3) Cochiti Ponfetfena 'western river' {ponfe 'west'; tfena 
'river'). 

(3) Pd^ Pdwdhvd, H^pd, Ilipdwa'wd, Il^wffu^d 'the river' 
'the river cafiada' 'Jemez River' 'Jemez River Canada' 'Jemez 
Canada' {pd 'water' 'river'; pdwd'wd 'caiiada with a stream 
in it' <pd 'water', wd'wd 'cafiada'; 11^- Jemez; wwwd 'ai'royo' 
'cafiada"). 

(i) Eug. Jemez Creek, Jemez River, 

(5) Span. Canada de Jemez, Rio de Jemez, Rito de Jemez 
'Jemez Cafiada' 'Jemez River' 'Jemez Creek'. '' Rio de Jemez". ^ 
"La Canada de los Xemes".^ 

The name Jemez Creek is given because Jemez is the principal 
pueblo situated on it. The Keres pueblos Sia [29:94] and Santa 
Ana [29:95] are on the lower course of the creek. Bandelier^ 
notes: "The Queres [Keres] held and hold to-day about one-half 
of the course of the Rio de Jemez." 
[27:35] (1) ^Yllr)ge^qywi of obscure etymology ( Wqrjf 'Jemez Indian' 
unexplained; g.e 'down at' 'over at' since the settlement is 
thought of as being over beyond or down beyond the mountains; 
^Qijwi 'pueblo'). Jemez Indian is called Wqr/,/, a word of uncer- 
tain et3"mology. It sounds almost like wqyf 'to descend' but the 
vowel sounds of the two woi'ds are distinct. Jemez people are 
called either Wurdowa or WdyfjeinUjwd (tinixt 'people'; 'iyf loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix). Wq'Qf'intowa is never used, 
perhaps because it is not euphonic. The Kavaho are called by the 

1 Spinden, Picuris notes, 1910. 3 ibid., p. 213, note. 

>Bandelier, Fiual Report, pt. ii, p. laa, imi. 



400 ETHNOGEOGKAiniV OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. amn. 29 

Tewa W(j7imi(\ literally Memez Athapascan' (ITTj^y 'Jemez In- 
dian'; Saie 'Athapascan Indian' 'Apache' 'Navaho'). "Wong'- 
gg'".i giyen as the Santa Clara and San Ildefonso Tewa name; 
erroneously said to mean "Navaho place." 

(2) Hano Tewa "Jemesi, or Jemez. "^ The former name 
is probably borrowed from (Oraibi) Hopi (18), the latter from 
Span. ('22). No doubt the name WiJTjge exists also among the 
Hano Tewa. 

(3) Picuris "He-mi-ma'. "^ "Hemema'."^ These Picuris forms 
are evidently some form of the name Jemez plus the locative -id. 

(4) Islota Illemal of obscure etymology (fllem- as in Hiemue 
'Jemez Indian', evidently a form of the Jemez word H^-; ai 
locative). Jemez Indian is called. II iemue/ 2 + plu. Hiemnin{i-'e, 
nin number-denoting postfixes). "Hiem-ai."^ Gatschet also 
gives "Hiemide" meaning Isleta Indian, plu. "Hiemnin"; see 
forms obtained by the writer, above. "He'-mai."^ 

(5) Jemez Iliiva, Il^hwd, II^jo of obscure etymology {11^ 
Jemez Indian; wa 'at'; Tcwd 'at' 'to'; jo 'at' 'about'). Jemez 
Indian is called He^; 2 -i- plu. II^m\J {lit unexplained; mif plu. 
ending as in y,m\f 'you 2 h-', plu. of y, 'you 1'). It is from the 
form Ilejnif meaning 'Jemez Indians' 'Jemez people' that the 
Span, and probably all the forms in the other languages with the 
exception of the Tewa and Navaho forms are deriv^ed. 

(6) Jemez Towd, Tokwd, Tojo ' at the pueblo ' ' to the pueblo ' 
'the pueblo' {to- 'dwelling-place' 'pueblo,' akin to Tewa te 
'dwelling-place'; wd 'at'; kwd 'at' 'to';yV> 'at' 'about'). This 
is the commonest name applied to Jemez Pueblo hy the Jemez 
Indians. "Tuhoa:"" given as meaning "houses." The name 
means "houses" only in the collective sense of 'pueblo.' 
"Tu'wa."^ 

(7) Jemez Il^tlhrd, Il^tijkwd, H^tojo 'at the pueblo of the 
Jemez ' ' to the pueblo of the Jemez ' ' pueblo of the Jemez ' (//g 
Jemez Indian; towd, tokwd, tojo as in Jemez (6), above). 

(S) Jemez Wdldtdwd, Wdldtokwd, Wdldtojo, Wd'wd/dtowd, 
Wa'wdldtdlcwd, Wd^wdldtojo, U^wd' wdldtdwd, Il^wff wdldtokwd, 
H^wa'tvdldtdjo 'at the pueblo in the canada' 'at the pueblo 
in the canada' 'the pueblo in the canada ' 'at the pueblo in 
Jemez Canada ' ' to the pueblo in Jemez Cafiada ' ' the pueblo in 
Jemez Canada,' referring to Jemez Canada [27:34], {wd, wd'wd 

'Hodse, field notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 (Handbook Inds., pt. 1, p. 631, 1907). 

2 Fewkes in Nineteenth Rep, Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. G14, 190U. 

s Hodge, op. eit., p. 630. 

<Spinden, Picuris notes, 1910. 

'Gatschet, Isleta vocabulary, 1885 (Handbook Imls., pt. 1, p. 630, 1907). 

OBandelier in Das Ausland, p. 813, Stuttgart, 1882. 



HARRINOTON] PLACE-NAMES 401 

'arroyo' 'canada'; Id 'in' 'at'; ^owd, ;!()toa, %V;, as in Jemez (6), 
above; H^ Jouiez Indian, Jcmez). Tliis name was applied to dis- 
tingiiisli Jemez Pueblo [27:35] as the pueblo in the cafiada of 
Jeniez Creek [27:34J in coutradistinetion to the former pueblos 
of the Jemez in the vicinity of San Diejio [37:13] and Guadalupe 
[27:1] Canyons. This name is not a corruption of Valladolid, 
nor does it mean "village of the bear", an etymology which is 
due to Bandelier's confusion of wdid- with (J>uk'!/d 'bear.' " Ha- 
waw-wah-Iah-too-waw,"' evidently for II^wa'waMtdwd. "Valla- 
toa."^ "AYalatoa.''^' " Uala-to-hua ('Village of the Bear,' 
and not a corruption of Valladolid, as Mr. Loew has imagined)." * 
"Ual-to-hua."'5 " Wa'-la-tu-wa."« 

(9) Jemez " Wa-Ia-nah:" 'this is certainly a mistake. 

(10) Pecos "He"-wa':"* evidently equivalent to Jemez IIewd\ 
see Jemez (o), above. 

(11) Ke resan (dialect unspecitied) "Hil-mish."' "Hae-mish."'" 

(12) Cochiti Ilseitieftfsx {Ilkmefe 'Jemez Indian or Indians', 
probably bon-owed from or akin to .Jemez Il^mif 'Jemez peo- 
ple'; Ux locative). The Cochiti call Jemez Indian or Indians 
Hxiiiefe. In all the Keresan dialects the name is practically 
identical with the Cochiti form. 

(13) Santa Ana "He' mi:"' this is perhaps a Santa Ana pro- 
nunciation of Span. (22). 

(14) Sia "He'-me-shu-tsa."« "Jemi/itse."" 

(15) San Felipe "Hemeshitse."' 

(16) Laguna "Hemeshitse."' 

(17) Acoma "Hemishitz".* The -tz is for Tsse. 

(18) Oraibi Hopi Hemid (cf. the Keresan forms). This is 
applied with postfixes or postpounds to both pueblo and people. 
Cf. the first form quoted under llano Tewa (2), above. 

(19) Southern Ute ^»i?^/i (cf. Jemez Il^uiif 'Jemez people', 
also the Keresan and Hopi forms). Applied with the various 
postfixes or postpounds to both pueblo and people. 

' Simpson in Rep. Sec. War, p. 143, 1850, 
» Loew in Whitltr Sum. Rep., vii, p. 3-14, 1879. 
s Gatscliet in Mug. Amer. HM., p. 259, Apr., 18S2. 
< Bandelier, Final Report, pt. 1, p. 260, note, 1890. 
' Ibid., pt. II, p. 203, 1892. 

6 Hodge, field notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 (Handbooli Inds., pt. 1, p. 631, 1907). 
' Jouvenceau in Calh. Pion., I, No. 9, p. 13, 1900. 
e Hodge, op. cit.,p. 030. 

9 Bandelier in N. Y. Siaaiszeitunq, June 28, 1885. 
" Bandelier in Itnt. d'FJhnog.. p. 203, 1886. 
'1 Spinden, Sia notes, 1910. 

87584°— 29 eth— 16 26 



402 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OP THE TEWA INDIANS [btii. ANN. 29 

(20) Navaho " Mai-dec-ki2;-ne"\' isaid to mean 'wolf neck'. 
"jNlai Deshkis,"- said to mean 'eoj'ote pass'. "Mu'ideshg-Izh,"' 
said to mean 'coyote pass', according to the Franciscan Fathers* 
the Navaho call the Jeiiiez people "iVIa'ideshgizhnl". 

(21) Eug. Hemes, Jemez. (<Span. 22). Spellings such as 
Hemes, Mohave, Navaho are to be preferred. The spelling 
Hemes is phonetically perfect, and at the same time happens 
to be the spelling used by Castaneda about 1565; but the form 
Jemez has become fixed geographically and officially. 

(22) Span. Jemez, Jemes. Hodge follows Bandelier (see Kere- 
san (11), above) in deriving the Span, form "form Hil-mish, or 
Hae'-mish, the Keresan name of the pueblo. — Bandelier". ° The 
writer does not see why some of the forms at least may not liave 
come directly from Jemez IIim\f 'Jemez people', a word which 
probably was found also in the Pecos language. A Zimi name for 
Jemez, so far as can be learned, has never been published. 
"Hemes"." "Emexes".' "Ameias".« "Emeges"." "Emmes".^" 
"Amejes"." "Ameies''.'^ "Emes".'^ "Emes"." "Hemeos".'^ 
"Henex".'" "Gemex"." "Hemes".^^ "Amires".'" "Xemes"." 
"Gemes".2i "Gomez".-^ "Gemez'\=' "Temez".-'' "Jemes".^' 
"Jamez''.^" "Hemez"." "Ameries".^* "Jemas''.^" "Xemez".^" 
"Yemez".^' " James ".^= " Jemez ".^^ "Djemez".^^ "Jenies"." 

' ten Kate, Synonymie, p. 6, 1884. 

2 Curtis, Amer. Ind., I, p. 138, 1907. 

3 Franciscan Fathers, Navaho Ethnol. Diet., p. 136, 1910. 
< Ibid., p. 128. 

6 Handbook Inds., pt. 1, p. 629, 1907. 

« Castaneda (m. 1565) in Ternaux-Compans, Voy., ix, p. .138, 1838. 

' Espejo (1.183) in Doc. InM., xv, p. IIG, 1871. 

» Espejo (1583) quoted by Mendoza (1586) in Hakluyt Soc. Piih., xv, p. 245, 1854. 

9 Espejo (1583) in Doc. Ined., xv, p. 179, 1871. 
'« Ofiate (1598), ibid., xvi, pp. 102, 260, 1871. 
II Mendoza in Hakluyt, Voy., Ill, p. 462, 160O. 
1' Ibid., p. 469. 

» Villagran, Hist. Nueva Mex., p. 155, 1610. 
n C6rdova (1619) in Ternaux-Compans, Voy., x, p. 444, 1838. 

IS Z&rate-Salmeron (co. 1629) quoted by Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 205, 1892. 
'8 Zilratc-Salmerou (.ca. 1629) quoted by Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, p. 206, 1892. 
1' ZArate-Salmeron (ca. 1029) quoted by Bancroft, Native Races, i, p. 600, 1882. 
18 Benavides (1030) quoted by Gallatin In Nouv. Ann. Voy., 5th ser., xxvii, p. 305,1851. 
i« Ogilby, Amer., p. 294, 1671. 
™ Rivera, Diario, leg. 950, 1736. 
'■' Villa-Seiior, Theatre Amer., pt. n, p. 421, 1748. 
" .\rrowsmith, map. N. A., 1795, ed. 1814. 
» Humboldt, Atlas Nouv. Espagne, carte 1, 1811. 
2< Alegre, Hist. Comp. .lesus, i, p. 336, 1841. 
» Mendoza, (1742) in Mcline, Two Thousand Miles, p. 213, 1867. 
'•Gallcgas (1844) in Emory, Recon., p. 478, 1848. 
" Squier in Amer. Review, p. 522, Nov. 1848, misquoting Castafieda. 
''Squier, ibid., p. 523. 
»\Vislizenus, Memoir, p. 24, 1848. 
30 Ruxton, Adventures, p. 194, 1848. 
3' Latham, Var. of Man, p. 396, 1850. 

32 Marcy in Rep. Sec. War, p. 196, 1850. 

33 Simpson in Rep. Sec. War, p. 59, 1850; Hewett, .\ntiquities, p. 44, 1906; Handbook Inds., pt. 1, p. 
629, 1907. 

3< Gallatin in Xouv. Ann. Voy,, 6th ser., xxvii, p. 280, 1851. 
85 Calhoun in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, p. 633, 1863. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 403 

"Hemes".' "Jermz".^ "Tames".' "Ameges".^ "Jenjex".^ 
"Jeures".' "Amies".' "Amios".« "Zemas"." "Jemos".'° 
"Jemes(sprich: chemes)"." "Hemes". '^ "Amayes"." "Temes"." 
"Hermes".'^ "/emcs".'" "Jumez"." "Emenes".'« "Emeaes"." 
"Euimes".=° "Jemmes".=- 

The Jemez express ' Jemez Indian' not only by Z/e, plu. Himif, 
but by postpounding tsifd 'person', plii. tsa'df 'people', to any 
of the numerous forms denoting the pueblo. The Jemez lan- 
guage' is similarly expressed by postpounding tsWdty, 'language' 
(/sa'(2 'person' 'human being'; tij, 'to speak"). 

For a good account of the history of Jemez Pueljlo and of the 
Jemez Tribe see Hodge in Handbook Inds., pt. 1, pp. 629-31, 1907. 
Some of the older men at Jemez remember the history of the 
tribe very accurately. Of the shape of Jemez Pueblo Bande- 
lier writes: "Jemez . . . adoul)lequadrangle with two squares. "^^ 
Bandelier probably exaggerates the amount of Navaho blood at 
Jemez: "Jemez is more than half Navajo, and one of their lead- 
ing men, whom unsophisticated American Indian worshippers are 
wont to admire as a typical and genuine Pueblo, the famous 
Nazle, was Navajo by birth, education, and inclination."-' "We 
ought to consider that, for instance, the Indians of Zufii have 
intermarried with and plentifully absorbed Navajo, Tigua, and 
Jemez blood."*'' 
[27:36] San Isidro, see [29:91]. 

[27:37] Span. Ojo Chamizo "spring greasewood". "Ojo Chamiso".-^ 
[27:38] Jemez luvddiy, 'rock-pine mountain' (kwd 'rock-pine' 'Pinus 
scopulorum'; fy, 'mountain'). 

■ Kern in Schoolcraft, Inri. Tribes, iv, pp. 32, 39, 1854. 

> Ibid., p. 39. 

8 Brackeiiridge, Early Span. Discov., p. 19, 1857. 

* Sigiienza quoted by Buschmann, Neu.-Mex,, pp. 2'2i^. 264, 1858. 

6 Taj-lor in Cat. Farmer, June 12, 1863. 

e Ward in Iml. Aff. Rep. for 1867, p. 210. 1868. 

' Davis, Span. Conquest New Mex., p. a52, 1869. 

8 Ibid., map. 

" Simpson in Jour. Avier. Geog. Soc, v, p, 195, 1874. 
'» Loew (1875) in Wheiier Surr. Rep., vii, p. 345, 1S79. 

" Gatschet, Zwolf Sprachen aus dem Siidwesten Nordamerikas, p. 41, 1876. 
'2 Bandelier in Papers Arch. Inst., Amer. ser., i, p. 23, 1881. 
" Duro, Don Diego de Penalosa, p. 128, 1882. 
» Gatschet in Mag. Amer. HM., p. 2.59, Apr., 18S2. 
.^ Curtis, Children of the Sun, p. 121, 1883; misquoting Castafieda. 
>« ten Kate, Synonymie, p. 6, 18S4. 
" Arch. Inst. Rip., v, p. 37, 18S4. 
■8 Bancri>ft, Ariz, and N. Mex., p. 132, 1R89. 
19 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 206, 1892. 
M Columbus Memorial Vol., p. 155, 1893. 
2' Peet in Amer. Anticj., xvii, p. 35-1, 1895. 
» Bandelier, op. cit., pt. I, p. 265, 1890. 
23 Ibid., p. 262. 
2<Ibid.,p. 261. 
»U. S. Geol. Survey, .1 ernes sheet, 1890. 



404 ETHNOGEOflRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

[27:39] Jeinez AV"'/''/"'/v "iiisicaw water iiiouiitaiir {I- fata 'macaw'; 
/)a' water'; /ii "mountain'). \Vhethci- there is a spring, lake, or 
creek called Kfdtdpd, from which the mountain takes its name, 
was not deterniinod. 

[27:-l:0] Jemcz 'V'^piyafy^, 'U'^piydbo 'cottontail rabbit courting moun- 
tains' 'cottontail rabbit courting place' ("■ji' - 'cottontail rabbit"; 
piijd 'to go courting'; fy, 'mountain'; iij ' up at' locative). The 
name refers to two little mountains. The place gives the name 
to the creek [27:41]. See ^W^piyuTcwd Pueblo ruin under [27: 
unlocated]. 

[27:41] Jemez 'U'^pir)dpd 'cottontail rabbit courting water', referring 
to [27:40] (U^'iplyd-, see [27:40]; pd 'water' 'creek'). 
This flows into Peralta Creek [27:44]. 

[27:42] Jemez (Pwu/dfy, 'bear mountain' {(^wdld 'bear'; fy, 'moun- 
tain'). Cf. [27:45] and [27:46]. 

[27:43] See [28:(i9] for the possible Cochiti name. 

[27:44] Peralta Creek, see [28:71]. 

[27:45] (1) Jemez (Dwdldpdivd 'bear spring' [^wdld as in [27:42]; 
pdwd 'water place' 'spring' <pd 'water', wd locative). Cf. 
Cochiti (2), Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(2) Cochiti yroV/a/yolrrtwe;/ 'bear spring' {t«A«{/p 'bear"; hiwef 
'spring'). Cf. Jemez (1), Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Oso Spring. (<Span.). = Span. (4). Cf. Jemez (1), 
Cochiti (2). 

(4) Span. Ojo del Oso 'bear spring'. =Eng. (3). Cf. Jemez (1), 
Cochiti (2). 

[27:46] Oso Creek, see [28:103]. 

[27:47] Span. Arroyo Hondo 'deep arroj'o'. 

It is said that the spring [27:48] is situated in this arroyo. 
[27:48] Span. Ojo del Borrego 'sheep spring'. 

The spring is in the Arroyo Hondo [27:47], it is said. It gives 
the name to a large Span, land grant situated in the vicinity, also 
to Borrego Creek [27:49]. The Cochiti sometimes call the spring 
Borrtigokdwef {kdwef 'spring'). 
[27:49] Borrego Creek, see [29:64]. 

Unlocated 

Jemez "Afiu-quil-i-jui".' "Anu-(iuil-i-gui ".= "Anyukwinu".' 

This is the name of an unlocated pueblo ruin. Bandelier says 
of it: 

But they [the Jemez Indians] also say that the people oi Amoxiumqua 
[27:23] dwelt first at the lagune of San Jose, 75 miles to the northwest of 

' Biindelier, Final Report, pt. II, p. 207, 1892. 

' DM., note. 

•Hodge, Held notes, Bur. Amcr. Etbii., 1895 (Handbook Ind.'s., pt. 1, p. 63, 1907). 



HAEKINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 405 

Jemez, and that they removed thence to tlie pueblo of Aiiu-qnil-i-jui, between 
the Salado [29:92] and Jemez [27:34].' 

Jemez Buletsokwa of obscure etymology (jAile 'abalone shell'; tso 

uiu'xplaiiipd; t(/'« locative). '" Bul-itz-e-qiia".^ 
It is said that this is one of the largest of the pueblos formerlj- 

inhabited by Jemez Indians. It is situated east of San Diego 

Canyon [27:13]. 
Jemez •"Oaatri".^ "Catroo".* Mentioned bj" Oiiate as an inhabited 

pueblo of the Jemez. 
Span. '"Cerro Colorado".' The name is given in the manuscript cited 

as designating a hill at the foot of tlie uulocated mesa where the 

Jemez and Santo Domingo Indians dwelt when visited by Vargas 

in 1692. 
Jemez "Guatitruti "." Mentioned bv Oiiate as an inhabited pueblo of 

the Jemez. 
Jemez "Guayoguia".^ Mentioned by Oiiate as an inhabited pueblo 

of the Jemez. 
Cochiti Udhinelcotfo 'ice mountain' (hdhme 'ice'; I'o- 'mountain'; 

tfn locative). It is possible that this is the Cochiti name of 

[27:10]. 
Cochiti JIotoTcawalcotfo 'willow spring mountain' {hoto 'willow'; 

Icawa 'spring'; Ico- 'mountain'; ffo locative). Cf. Cochiti 

Ilotolcawa, below. 
This is a large mountain north of [27: -15]. 
(1) Cochiti Uotolcawa 'willow spring' (llottikawa as in Hotohnrn- 

h)tfn, above). Cf. Cochiti Ilotolcawa, above. Cf. Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Ojo de la Jara 'willow spring'. Cf. Cochiti (1). 
This is a spring north of [27:-±.5]. 
Jemez 'U'^pitjdkwd 'at the rabbit courting place' (U'-ptija-, see 

[27:40]; kwd loc&tive). 

This is a pueblo ruin near [27:40]. 
(1) Eng. Jara Creek. (<Span). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rito de la Jara 'willow creek'. =Eng. (1). It is 

suggested that the creek may give the name "Jara" to the moun- 
tain [27:10]. 

"While the mountainous parts of the Queres [Keresan] range 

[territorj' held] are dry. the Valles [Pimp^yfje [Large Features: 1], 

page 98] constitute a water supply for the Jemez country. Two 

> Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 207, 1892. 

»n>id. 

»0nate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, p. 102, 1871. 

<Ibid., p. 111. 

5 Bandelier quoting Autos de Guerra, MS. (1692), op. cit., p. 212. 

'Ofiate (l.i9S) quoted by Hodge in Handbook Inds., pt. 1, p. 510, 1907. 

'Ibid..pp. 510-.'ill. 



406 ETHNOGEOGKAl'HV OF THE TEWA INDIANS |eth. anx. 29 

streams rise in it [the Vallcs^|; the San Antonio [27:11 J on the 
eastern flanlv of the Jara Mountain [27:lo] and the Jara at 
the foot of the divide, over which crosses the trail from Santa 
Chira [14:71]. These unite soon to form the San Antonio 
'River', which meanders through the Valles de Santa Ro.sa [27:5] 
and San Antonio [27:6] for 7 miles in a northwesterly direction, 
and enters a picturesque gorge bearing the same name, and then 
gradually curves around through groves until, at La Cueva, it 
assumesan almost due southerly direction. One or two more brooks 
increase its volume on the way, descending directly from the mesa 
pedestal of the Jara Mountain [27:10], and its name is changed 
from San Antonio to the Rio de San Diego [27:13]."' 

Jemez "Quia-shi-dshi."^ "Kiashita."^ 

According to Hodge this pueblo ruin is located "in Guadalupe Canyon 

[27:1]." 
Jemez Kfatsokwd of obscure etymology (kfd ' crow ' ; tso unexplained ; 

hn'd locative). ''Quia-tzo-ijua."* "Kiatsukwa."^ 

This is a pueblo ruin somewhei'e east of San Diego Canyon 

[27:13]. 
Span. La Cueva 'the cave'. See Bandelier's reference to La Cueva 

, under (1) Eng. Jara Creek, above. 
Jemez '•Leeca."" "Ceca."' Mentioned by Onate as an iniiabited 

Jemez pueblo. 
Jemez " Mecastria. " * Mentioned by Oiiate as an inhabited Jemez 

pueblo. 
Jemez '"No-cum-tzil-e-ta."- ''No-kyun-tse-le-ta'."'" Named as a 

Jemez pueblo ruin of undetermined location. 
Jemez "Pem-bul-e-qua."- "Pe'-bn-li-kwa."'° Named as a Jemez 

pueblo ruin of undetermined location. 
Jemez "Pe-cuil-a-gui."" "Pe'-kwil-i-gi-i'."!^ 
Bandelier says of the ruin: 

In conclusion, I would call attention to the name of one of the old .Teinez 
pueblos, given to me by the Indians as ' Pe-cuil-a-gui ' . 'Pii-cuil-a' [PdhdUi] 
is the name for the tribe of Pecos, and the Pecos spoke the Jemez language. It 

1 BandeUer, Kniil Report, pt. ii, pp. 201-02, 1892. 

2 Ibid., p. 207, note. 

3 Hodge, field notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 (Handbook Inds., pC I, p. 6S1, 1907). 

< Bandelier. op. cit., p. 207. 

'Hodge, op. cit., p. 682. 

« Onate (1598) quoted by Hodge, op. cit., p. 22.5. 

'aid., pp. 225, 629. 

sibid,, p. 829. 

'Hodge, op. cit., pt. 2, p. 80. 

>»Ibid.. p. 220. 

>i Bandelier, op. cit., p. 207, note, and p. 216. 

i2Hodge, op. cit., p. 223. 



HAKBiXGTO.v] PLACE-NAMES 407 

would be- well to investigate whtther Pe-euil-a-gui designates a Jemez pueblo 
inhabited previously to the secession of the Pecos.' 

Cf. [29:33]. 
Span. Cerro Pelado ' bald mountain \ It is said that a bare peak some- 
where about the headwaters of Peralta Creek [28:71] is called by 
this name. 
Jemez "Potre."^ "Poze."^ Mentioned by Oiiate as an inhabited 

pueblo of the Jemez. 
(1) Eiig. San Antonio springs. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Ojos de San Antonio 'Saint Anthonj-'s springs'. For 
the name cf. [27:6] and [27:11]. 

These springs appear to be situated somewhere in San Antonio 
Canyon [27:11]. There are a bath-house and other houses at the 
place, it is said. Bandelier sa3's: 

In the gorge of San Antonio [27:11] rises a spring, the temperature of which 
is 110° F. About five miles south of it are mud-baths [27:8?], on the heights 
that separate the Valles from the San Diego gorge.* 

If the identification of the "mud-baths" as Sulphur springs 
[27:8] is correct, San Antonio springs would appear to be some- 
where north or west of the mountain north of Sulphur springs. 
The Land of Sunshine locates them west of Sulphur springs : 

Four to six miles west of the Sulphurs [27:8] are the San Antonio Springs, 
which resemble the Jemez Springs [27:18] and are equally efficacious in liid- 
ney and stomach disorders.* 

Bandelier" gives the altitude: "The springs of San Antonio lie 

at an altitude of 8,586 feet". 
Jemez Sefol-wd 'eagle dwelling place' 'eagle nest place' (se 'eagle'; 

fo 'to live' 'todwell'; hwd locative). "Se'-shiu-qua."' "Se- 

shu-kwa."* 

This is a pueblo ruin situated somewhere south of Cerro Pelado 

[27:10]. 
Jemez "Se-to-qua."* "Setokwa."'" This is given as the name of a 

pueblo ruin, situated, according to Hodge, about 2 miles south of 

Jemez Pueblo. 

I Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 216, 1892. 
= 0nate (1598) in Due. Ined., xvi, p. 114, 1S71. 
'Ibid., p. 102. 

< Bandelier, op. cit., p. 202. 

^The Land of Sunshine, a Handbook of the Resources ... of New Mexico, p. 169, 1906. 
8 Bandelier, op. cit., p. 202. note. 
'Ibid,, p. 207, note. 

8 Hodge, field notes. Bur. .\mer. Ethn., 1895 (Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 513, 1910). 
3 Bandelier, op. cit., p. 207, note. 
"Hodge, op. cit., p. 5U. 



408 ETIINOGEOGRAPUV OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ktii. ann. 29 

Span. •' Siorni do la Bolsa". ' The iiaiiie, which means ' pocket range', 
is given as that of a mountain of the Jemez Range between Sierra de 
San IMiguel [27:unlocated] and Sierra de la Palisada [27:unlocated]. 

Span. " Sierra de la Palisada".^ The name meaning 'palisade range', 
i.s given as referring to a mountain south of Sierra de la Bolsa [27: 
uidocated]. 

Span. ''Sierra de Toledo".- The name means ' range of Toledo ' (a city 
in Spain). "Toledo range ".^ Bandelier locates the mountain 
somewhere south of the Cerro Pelade [27:10].^ See Valle de 
Toledo [27:unlocatedJ, below. 

Span. Valle de Toledo ' Toledo Valley,' referring to the " Sierra de 
Toledo" [27:unlocated]. "On the west a huge mountain mass, 
the Sierra de la Jara [27:10], interposes itself between the princi- 
pal valle\-, that of Toledo, and the Jemez country"." This is evi- 
dently a name for one of the Valles. See Fimp^iyje [Largo Fea- 
tures], page 98, and "Sierra de Toledo" [27:unlocated], above. 

Jemez "Trea".'' Mentioned by Oilate as an inhabited Jemez pueblo. 

Jemez "Tya-juin-den-a".' Given as tlie name of a pueblo ruin. 

Jemez "Tyasoliwa".'* Given as the name of an unlocated pueblo ruin. 

Jemez "Ua-hii-tza-e".' Given as the name of an unlocated pueblo 
ruin. 

Jemez ^Vdbdkwd of obscure etymology {wdht unexplained: l~^vd loca- 
tive). " Wa-ba-kwa"." The name refers to a pueblo ruin some- 
where east of San Diego Canyon [27:13]. 

Jemez Wdgikd (the name is said by the informant to mean "rubber 
weed"). It is uncertain whether this name refers to a pueblo 
ruin or merely to a locality. 

Jemez "Yjar"." Mentioned bj' Ofiateas an inhabited Jemez pueblo. 

Jemez "Zo-lat-e-se-djii".' "Zo-l;i-tu°-ze-zhi-i"." Given as the name 
' of a pueblo ruin. 

Warm springs at the head of San Diego Canyon [27:1.3]. "Warm 
springs have been located at the head of San Diego Canon above 
the Jemez springs [27:18]".'^ Just where is meant by the "head 
of San Diego Canyon" [27:13] is uncertain. Are the springs at 
the Soda Dam [27:10] intended^ 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ii, p. 72, note, 1892. 

2 Ibid., pp. 11, 64, and 72, note. 
'Ibid., p. 65. 

< Ibid., p. 72, note. 

'Ibid., p. 201. 

•OiSate (1598) quoted by Hodge in Handbook Inds., pt. 1, p. t;29, 1907. 

' Bandelier, op. cit., p. 207, note. 

' Hodge in Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 859, 1910. 

9 Ibid., p. 8S4. 

'»0nate (1598) quoted by Hodge, ibid., p. 997. 

» Hodge, Ibid., p. 1015. 

"The Land of Sunshine, a Handbook of the Resources ... of New Mexito, p. 177, 1906. 



MAP 28 
COCHITI REGION 




o 

UJ 



X 

o 
o 
o 



MAP 28 
COCHITI REGION 



HAEEIXGTON] PLACE-NAMES 409 

[28] COCHITI SHEET 

This sheet (map 28) shows the country about Cochiti Pueblo. This 
region is flaimed by the Cochiti Indians, who belong to the Keresan 
linguistic stock. Hewett refers to this I'egion as "le district de 
Cochiti".* It is said by the Tewa that the ancient boundary between 
their territory and that of the Cochiti west of the Rio Grande runs 
somewhere between Ancho Canyon [28:4] and Frijoles Canyon [28:6]. 
The northern boundary of the Cochiti sheet has been placed therefore 
in that vicinity. "The Rito de los Frijoles [28 :(>], with its numerous 
cave dwellings, forms what seems to be a boundary line dividing the 
Tehuas from the Queres [Keresan] stock". ^ "Les gorges profondes 
du Rito de los Frijoles [28:6] separent les deux districts [Cochiti dis- 
trict and Pajarito district], et la tradition en fait Tancienne ligne de 
division eutre los deux branches de Tewa et des Kercs, qui, a ce qu'il 
parait, etaient raretuent en paix Tune avec Fautre".* The Tewa in- 
form the present writer that the dividing line was north of Frijoles 
Canyon [28:6], a fact also evident from statements made by Bande- 
lier and Hewett to the effect that the pueblo village [28:12] and cliff- 
dwellings in Frijoles Canyon were built by Keresan people; see quo- 
tations under [28:12]. 

[28:1] Pajarito Canyon, see [17:30]. 
[28:2] Colt Arroyo,^ see [17:-12]. 
[28:3] Water Canyon, see [17:58]. 
[28:i] Ancho Canyon, see [17:62]. 

[28:5] (1) Tewapyjf 'Keresan Mountains' {Tenia 'Keresan Indian'; 
fiVf 'mountain'). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Cochiti Mountains. Cf . Tewa (1), Span. (3). "Moun- 
tains of Cochiti".^ 

(3) Span. Sierra de Cochiti 'Cochiti Mountains'. Cf. Tewa 
(1), Eng. (2). 

These terms apply indefinitely to the mountains west of Cochiti. 
Bandelier refers to them when he writes: "The mountainous 
parts of the Queres [Keresan] range [i. e. territory] are drj'".* 
''The arid hills that separate Jemez [27:35] from Pefia Blanca 
[28:93]".^ 
[28:6] (1) Puqwig.e'inrsri 'canyon of the place where they scrape(d) 
or wipe(d) the bottoms (of the pottery vessels)', referring to 
[28:12] {Pn^Wi'ge, see [28:12]; 'i?/y locative and adjective-form- 
ing jjostfix; fsi'l 'canyon'). (See pi. 15.) 

■ Hewett, Comniiinaut(?s, p. 46, 1908. 

» Bandelier, Fiiiiil Report, pt. ii, p. 139, 1892. 

3 Ibid. , p. 1G9 (quoting from some Span . source) . 

awd., p. 201. 

sibid., p. 203. 



410 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [kth. ann. 29 

(2) Tewa "Tupoge".* This is for Tupog,,' 'down to or at bean 
creek' {tu 'bean'; po 'water' 'creek'; g.e 'down to^ 'over to'), a 
mere translation of the Span, name, never used by the Tewa. 
Cf. [17:62]. 

(3) Cochiti T fo'onfckdllija of obscure etymology, referring 
to [28:12] {Tfo'onfe, see [28:12]; huKja 'canyon'). 

(4) Eng. Frijoles Canyon, Rito de los Frijoles. (<Span.). 
= Span. (5). 

(5) Span. Rito de los Frijoles, Canon de los Frijoles 'bean 
creek' 'bean canyon '. This is a common name in Spanish-speaking 
America. Cf. Rio de los Frijoles, Rito de los Frijoles [22:unlo- 
cated], page 352. It is quite likely that the Span, name was applied 
without influence of Tewa nomenclature. Another origin, how- 
ever, suggests itself. The Tewa give assurance that the old Tewa 
name of Ancho Canyon [28:4] is Tuna'hahxi'u 'bean field arroyo' 
'bean field cafiada', and think that the Span, name Rito de los 
Frijoles is a translation of this Tewa name applied to the wrong 
canyon. Frijoles Canyon is the next large canyon south of Ancho 
Canyon. 

This canyon is described by Bandelier- and by Hewett.^ The 
documentary history of the canyon has been studied by Mr. S. G. 
Morley, of the School of American Arch^ologj-. The canyon was 
not inhabited by Indians at the time of the Spanish conquest. 
Mexicans settled in it in early times and farmed the cultivable 
lands above the falls [28:14] nearly down to the present time. 
At one time in the eighteenth century the canyon was the rendez- 
vous of Mexican bandits. Bandelier writes : 

I have not been able to examine the papers relating to the grant of the Rito; 
but that cattle and t^heep thieves made it their hiding place is said to be men- 
tinned in them. The tale is current among the people of Cochiti and Pena 
Blanca.* 

It is said that no one lived permanently at Frijoles Canyon for 
many years previous to 1907, in which year Judge A. J. Abbott 
settled at the cultivable land about [28:12]. Judge Abbott has 
built a house from tufa-blocks of the ruin [28:12] and has made 
many improvements. He has been given a permit by the United 
States Forest Service to remain on the land temporarily. Judge 
Abbott has named his place "Ten Elder Ranch", referring to some 
box-elder trees growing there. See the various numbers indicat- 
ing places in and about the canyon for which names have been 
obtiiincd, especially [28:12]; see also plate 15. 
[28:7] North fork of Frijoles Canyon [28:6]. 

1 Banaelier, Delight Makers, p. 178, 1890. 

SFinal Report, pt. ii, pp. 13«.M9, 1S;12. 

sPiipers School Amer. Arrhavl., No. 5, 1909, and No. 10, 19C9. 

* Bandelier, op. cit., p. 142, note. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 411 

[28 :S] South fork of Frijoles Canyon [28 :<i]. 

[28:9] Pi>t^)iihii\i 'water tube corner' (po 'water'; tiyf 'tube'; 6w'?< 
' large low roundish place'). This name is given to the dell where 
[28:7] and [28 :s] juin [28:C.J. It is said that the dell and the sur- 
I'ounding canyons are tube-like; hence the name. 

[28:10] San Ildefonso K^awigeinfsn 'corral gap can^-on' {K'awPi 
see [28:unIocatedJ; ge 'down at' 'over at'; 'iijf locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; fsl^i 'canyon'). 

[28:11] Pajarito Mesa, see [17:36]. 

[28:1'2] (1) PiKjwig.c'qijicikrj! 'pueblo ruin where the bottoms of the 
pottery vessels were wiped or smoothed thin' {pu 'base' 'bottom 
of a vessel' 'buttocks' of an animal, 'root' of a plant, here being 
equivalent to hfpii 'bottom of vessel' <he, 'pottery vessel', ^;'!< 
'base'; q^oi 'to wipe smooth' 'to wipe' 'to scrape', commonly 
employed in its fuller form qwig.1 of same meaning ; g_e ' down 
where' 'over where'; '' qyii'ikej ! 'pueblo ruin' <\ijici 'pueblo, 
Iceji 'old' postpound). See plates 16, 17. It is said that the 
ancient inhabitants used to make the bottoms of their pottery 
vessels very thin ; hence the name. Several times the writer has 
heard the name so pronounced that it approximated in sound 
jPuhitge, which could be analyzed uh pu 'base'; /<?/';/ 'large groove' 
'arroyo'; g.e 'down at' 'over at'. The form Puhug.e is however 
merely a corruption of Pxiqwige, probably due to vowel harmon3\ 
A certain etymology of obscene meaning is given only by Indians 
who do not know the correct explanation. So far as is known, 
the Tewa name has not before been published. 

(2) Cochiti Tfo'onfe, Tfo'mifehd'affeta, TfSonfekffmatse- 
foiiiaot obscure etymology {T/Sonfe unexplained, it probably 
has nothing to do with Tfonfe 'immediately' 'right now'; 
ha'aftiia 'pueblo'; TciTmaUefoma 'pueblo ruin' <hriiiatm 'set- 
tlement', foina 'old'). " Yu-iiu-ye":^ the tf was probabl}' heard 
as y, or the F may be a misprint for T. "Tyuonyi".^ 

Tyuo-nyi . . . a word ha\dngasignificationakin to that of treaty or contract. 
It was so called because of a treaty made there at some remote period, by 
which certain of the Pueblo tribes, probably the Queres [Keresan], Tehuaa 
[Tewa] and perhaps the Jemez, agreed that certain ranges loosely defined 
should belong in the future to each of them exclusively.' 

The writer's Cochiti informants knew of no such etymology or 
tradition. "Tyuonyi".* "Tyuonyi (place du pacte)".^ ^^Ty'u'- 
onyl hdarcti.t<fl {ty'w'onyi, unexplained + hdardltc"-, houses)". ° 

•Powell in Fourlh Rep. Bur. Elhn.. p. xxxvi. 1886. 

^Bandelier, Delight Makers, p. 3, ct passim, 1890. 

' Bantlelier, Final Report, pt. ii. p. 145. 1892. 

■• Hcwett, General View, p. 699, 190o; Antir|uities, p. 26, 1906. 

'newett, Communauti5s, p. 40. ia08 (evidently following Bandelier, op. cit.)- 

• Harrington's information qnoted by Hevvcttin Papers School Amer. Arcliirol., No. 10, p. 670, 1909. 



412 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS Ieth. ann. 29 

(3) Ell"-. Frijolcs Gmyon pueblo ruin, puehlo ruin in the Rito 
de los Frijolos, referring to [28:6]. Cf. Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Puohlo Vic^jo del Rito de los Frijoles, rofcri'inir to 
[28: (1. J Cf. Kng. (3). 

The pueblo ruin, cliff-dwellings, and outlying- ruins of this 
ancient settlement have been desci'ibed most fulh' l)y Bandelier,' 
and b}' Ilewett.- This settlement is eluimed l)}- the ( 'oehiti Indians 
as a home of their ancestors, and two old San Ildefonso Tewa 
informants have stated positivelj^ that it was a Teiva [Keresan] 
village. Bandelier says: 

The people of Cochiti told me that the cuves of Eito [28:6], as well as the 
three pueblo ruins [situated near together on the floor of Frijoles Canyon], 
were the work of their ancestors, when the Queres [Keresans] all lived there 
together, in times much anterior to th^ coming of the Spaniards.^ 

The ancient boundary between the Tewa and Keresan territory 
is said to have been somewhat north of Frijoles Canyon; see under 
[28:6]. This settlement is claimed by the Cochiti Indians to have 
been their earliest home. Abandoning this village, they built, 
occupied, and abandoned several pueblos, now in ruins, south of 
Tyo'^nye until at last they moved to their present site [28:77]. 
For discussion of this tradition see under [28:77]. See also [28:fi], 
[28:13]; plates 16 and 17. The fields shown in the latter lie below 
the pueblo ruin and above the waterfall [28:14]. 
[28:1:3] The so-called 'ceremonial cave'. 

This great natural cave is in the north wall of the canyon [28:6], 
about 150 feet above the waters of the creek. In it are the re- 
mains of an ancient estufa, or kiva and of several small houses. 
The cavern has been described by Hcwett.'' 
[28:14] (1) Puqwlgepojemug.!' 'waterfall down by the place where the 
bottoms of the pottery vessels were wiped- or smoothed thin' 
referring to [28:1:.'] {Pu/iWfg.e, see [28:1:^]; pojemug^e 'waterfall' 
<po 'water', jernu 'to fall', said of 3+, g.e 'down at' 'over at'). 

{■!) Cochiti Tf6\)nfcftf\j'ih.mflf of obscure etymology 
{Tfooiife, see [28:12]; ftfifikanflf 'waterfall"). 

(3) Eng. Frijoles Canyon Waterfall, referring to [28:6]. 
. (4) Span. Salto de Agua del Rito de los Frijoles 'bean creek 
waterfall', referring to [28:6]. 

This waterfall is perhaps 60 feet high and the canyon is so nar- 
row at the place that there is not room to build a wagon road at 
the side of the falls. One can see the Rio Grande from the 
waterfall. 

■ Final Report, pt. ii, pp. 139^9, 1892. 

* Papers School Amer. Archsiol., Nos. 5 and 10, 1909. 
3 Bandelier, op. cit., p. 145. 

* Papers School Amer. ArchmoL, No. 10, pp. (i04-(;6, 1909. 



HAUKINGTON] PLACE-KAMES 413 

[28:15J (1) Eiig. Frijolito Puel)lo ruin. (<Span.). = Span. (-2). 

(2) Span. Pueblo Viejo Frijolito 'little bean pueblo ruin', dimin- 
utive of the name Frijoles; see [28:('i], [28:12J. The name was, 
so far as the writer knows, lirst applied 1)y Mr. A. V. Kidder in 
190S. The Tewa and Cochiti Indians apply to the ruin names 
which merely describe its location. 

This is a small pueblo ruin, of about 50 rooms, on top of the 

mesa [28:l('i] south of Frijoles Can^-on [28:0]. It is opposite the 

pueblo ruin [28:12] and about 15 yards from the ruin of the mesa. 

[28:16] Span. '"^Nlesa del Eito".* The name means 'mesa of the 

creek', referring to [28:6]. 

Bandelier says: 

The Mesa del Rito borders on the south the gorge of the 'Tyonyi', and is 
covered with bushes and with groves of taller trees like Piiion {Pinus edulis 
and i'. Marreyana). Whether there are ruins on this long and comparatively 
narrow plateau is doubtful, as I have seen none myself, and the statements of the 
Indians are contradictory on tiiis point. Across this mesa a trail from east to 
west, formerly much used by the Navajo Indians on their incursions against 
the Spanish and Pueblo settlements, creeps up from the Rio Grande, and, 
crossing the mesa, rises to tlie crest of the mountains. It seems almost 
impossible for cattle and horses to ascend the dizzy slope, yet tiie savages more 
than once have driven their living booty with merciless haste over tliis trail 
to their distant homes. I estimate the length of the Mesa del Rito at 6 miles 
from north to soutli.' 

Just where the old Navajo trail referred to runs is not known 
to the writer. The Tewa informants called [28:28] a Navajo 
trail. See Navajo trail [28 : unlocated]. Cf . [28 : 17] , [28 : 1 9]. 

[28:17] Nameless canyon. 

This can you starts as a slight ravine in the pine-grown mesa- 
top west of the ruin [28:15] and grows gradually deeper and more 
cam-on-like until it reaches the Rio Grande. A couple of hundred 
j'ards before it reaches the river its bed drops precipitously a 
hundred feet or more, thus forming the low dell [28:18] at its 
mouth. This canyon may be the "Canon del Rito'' of Bandelier; 
see reference thereto in excerpt from Bandelier under [28:19] (2). 
Bandelier's description fits [28:17] except that it can not be deter- 
mined how he makes the Potnn-o del Alamo [28:23] bound it on 
the west and southwest. The writer has walked down the canyon 
[28:17] from the vicinity of the ruin [28:15] to the Rio Grande. 
See [28:18]. 

[28:18] Nameless low dell at the mouth of the canyon [28:17]. This 
appears to be not the same as the dell described by Bandelier in 
the quotation under [28:22], q. v. See also [28:17]. 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. II, pp. 14B-47. 1892. 



414 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF TTTE TEWA INDIANS [btii. ANN. 29 

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