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Full text of "Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution"

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Given By 



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THIRTY-SIXTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1914-1915 




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WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1921 



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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Smithsonian Institution, 
Bureau of American Ethnology, 

Washington, D. C, August 4, 1915. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the Thirty- 
sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1915. 

With appreciation of your aid in the work under riiy 
charge, I am 

Very respectfully, yours, 

F. W. Hodge, 
Ethnologist-in-charge. 
Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



CONTENTS 



REPORT OF THE ETHNOLOGIST-IN-CHARGE 

Page. 

Systematic researches 9 

Special researches 19 

Manuscripts 28 

Publications 29 

Illustrations 32 

Library 32 

Collections 33 

Property 34 

Miscellaneous 34 

ACCOMPANYING PAPER 

The Osage Tribe: Rite of the Chiefs; Sayings of the Ancient Men, by Francis 

La Flesche (pis. 1-23; figs. 1-15) 35 

Index 599 

5 



REPORT OF THE 
ETHNOLOGIST-IN-GHARGE 



THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



F. W. Hodge, Ethnologist-in-Charge 



The operations of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1915, were conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress approved August 
1, 1914, making appropriations for sundry civil expenses 
of the Government, which act contains the following item: 

American ethnology: For continuing ethnological researches among 
the American Indians and the natives of Hawaii, including the 
excavation and preservation of archeologic remains, under the 
direction of the Smithsonian Institution, including salaries or com- 
pensation of all necessary employees and the purchase of necessary 
books and periodicals, including payment in advance for subscriptions, 
forty-two thousand dollars. 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

As in the past, the systematic researches of the bureau 
were conducted by its regular staff, consisting of 9 eth- 
nologists, including the ethnologist-in-charge, and of 10 
ethnologists during part of the year. These operations may 
be summarized as follows : 

Mr. F. W. Hodge, ethnologist-in-charge, devoted most of 
his attention during the year to the administration of the 
affairs of the bureau, but opportunity was found, with the 
assistance of Miss Florence M. Poast, to add materially to 
the compilation of the bibliography of the Pueblo Indians, 
which now comprises about 2,400 titles. Mr. Hodge also 
read several extended manuscripts submitted for publica- 
tion by the bureau; he likewise continued to represent the 

9 



10 BUREAU OF AMKIUCAN ETHNOLOGY 

bureau on the Smithsonian advisory committee on printing 
and publication and the Smithsonian Institution on the 
United States Geographic Board. 

Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, ethnologist, at the beginning of the 
fiscal year brought to a close his archeological researches in 
the valley of the lower llio IMimbres, N. Mex., reference to 
which was made in the last annual report. These studies of 
the many village sites of the prehistoric people of the section 
named lead to the belief that the ancient habitations were 
not terraced community houses, such as characterize typical 
pueblos, but were of an older form, hence Dr. Fewkes 
assigns them to a period and a people which he designates 
pre-Puebloan. This conclusion is based not only on the 
character of the house structures as indicated by their 
ground plans, but also on the character and decoration of 
the pottery vessels found under the floors. The most note- 
worthy feature of this earthenware is the remarkaljle painted 
decoration on the inside of the bowls, consisting of repre- 
sentations of men engaged in various pursuits, animals, and 
geometric designs of exceptional forms, suggesting the cul- 
ture of the Keres Indians of New Mexico rather than that 
of other Pueblos. A distinctive feature of some of the 
animal pictures on the Mimbres pottery is the fusion of 
two different animal forms, as the antelope and a fish, in a 
single representation. Dr. Fewkes suggests that the almost 
constant presence of rectangular and other geometric designs 
on the l)odies of the animals depicted on the pottery may be 
considered in a sense parallel with certain very ancient 
paintings on the walls of caves in France, as described by 
Dr. Capitan and others. The special value of the study of 
the painted designs on the Mimbres pottery lies in the light 
which they cast on general problems connected with the 
culture-genesis and clan migrations of the sedentary Indians 
of the Southwest. These designs are related, on the one 
hand, to those on Pueblo painted pottery of northern New 
Mexico and Arizona and, on the other, to the decorations 
on the earthenware of the prehistoric inhabitants of the 
valleys of the southern part of the Sierra Madre Plateau, 
notably those of the celebrated Casas Grandes in Chihuahua. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 11 

An illustrated preliminary report, under the title "Arche- 
ology of the Lower Mimbres Valley, New Mexico," was pre- 
pared by Dr. Fewkcs and published in Smithsonian Miscel- 
laneous Collections (Vol. 63, No. 10, pp. 1-53, pis. 1-8. 
figs. 1-32). 

In January Dr. Fewkes visited southern Arizona, where he 
made several archeological reconnoissances, following the 
Rio Santa Cniz almost to the Mexican boundary. He visited 
the old Indian missions of San Xavier del Bac and Tumaca- 
cori, and in their vicinity examined extensive alDoriginal 
ruins, which were found to belong to the same type as Casa 
Grande, Ariz. The group of prehistoric ruins near the di- 
lapidated mission of Tumacacori (which imposing stiiicture, 
now preserved as a national monument, is greatly in need 
of repair) presents unusual advantages for thorough archeo- 
logical investigations, with promise of important collections. 
The walls of the compound can be traced readily, and if 
uncovered by excavation would reveal important informa- 
tion on the ancient culture of the Santa Cruz Valley. Sim- 
ilar remains were noted in other parts of this valley and 
elsewhere in southern Arizona. While in this general area 
Dr. Fewkes ol)served that the Papago Indians of the desert 
have been little affected by civilization, retaining many of 
their original customs, beliefs, and ceremonies, and a wealth 
of folklore. 

Dr. Fewkes visited also the ruins of a large pueblo com- 
pound on the road l^etween Phoenix and Tempe, chiefly for 
the puipose of determining the advisability of its excavation 
and repair, as an effort is being made by citizens of Phoenix 
to preserve the ruins with a view of having the compound 
created a national monument and receiving adequate scien- 
tific treatment. 

Leaving Arizona in Febniary, Dr. Fewkes proceeded again 
to the Mimbres Valley, but found the weather unpropitious 
for field work except for excursions with the view of locating 
sites for possible future excavation. He returned to Wash- 
ington about the middle of the month and continued the 
preparation of his memoir on "Antiquities of the West 
Indies," which is to include the results of archeological 



12 BUREAU OF AMEUICAN ETUNOI^OGY 

research conducted in the Greater and the Lesser Antilles 
under the joint auspices of the bureau and the Hej^e Museum 
of New York, as referred to in a previous report. In con- 
nection with this work Dr. Fewkes visited New York for 
the pm-pose of studying recently acquired collections, in the 
Heye Museinn, illustrating the culture of the ancient inhabit- 
ants of the West Indies. 

The greater part of May was devoted by Dr. Fewkes to 
the completion of a paper on " Prehistoric Hopi Pottery De- 
signs," which comprises 138 manuscript pages, 12 plates, and 
105 figures. In this article the author treats of the pictog- 
raphy on the ceramics of the ancient village dwellers of the 
East Mesa of the Hopi of northwestern Arizona, including 
the Keres and Tewa colonists of early times, as well as the 
designs of the more modern period. The memoir considers 
in detail the probable genesis of modern Hopi symbolic fig- 
ures, and devotes attention also to their connection with clan 
and other sociologic groups. 

The opening of the fiscal year found Mr. James Mooney, 
ethnologist, engaged in field studies among the Cherokee 
Indians of North Carolina, which were continued until the 
middle of September. Mr. Mooney devoted his efforts es- 
pecially to the further collection and translation of the 
sacred formulas of the Indians named, together with the col- 
lection, for botanical identification, of the plants mentioned 
in the formulas, with others of Indian economic importance. 
The remainder of the fiscal year was spent by Mr. Mooney in 
the office, most of the time being devoted to the final elabo- 
ration of the Cherokee formulas, of varying length, originally 
written down by the priests of the tribe in the native Cherokee 
alphabet and used by them for purposes of medicine, love, 
hunting, fishing, agriculture, protection, etc. Each formula 
consists usually of a prayer or a song, or both, in an archaic 
and highly figurative form of the language, followed by brief 
directions couched in the everyday language, and relating to 
the manner of the ceremony or the plants to be used in the 
prescription. The printed formula will consist of three parts, 
namely, transliteration, translation, and explanation. The 
glossary will comprise perhaps 4,000 words, largely archaic 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 13 

and otherwise unusual in form. The botanical appendix 
will deal with the names and uses of from 500 to 700 plants 
mentioned in the formulas, nearly all of which have already 
been collected and botanically identified. There will also 
be an extended chapter on Cherokee religion and mythology. 
Approximately a third of the transliterations and trans- 
lations have been written in final form from the interlinear . 
notebooks, and half of the work has been glossarized on cards. 

Considerable time was spent by Mr. Mooney in furnishing 
special information for use in answering inquiries of corre- 
spondents. 

Dr. John R. Swanton, ethnologist, in addition to super- 
vising the final work incident to the publication, as Bulletin 
45, of "Byington's Choctaw Dictionary," edited by himself 
in conjunction with Mr. H. S. Halbert, devoted attention to 
the study of the Creek Indians, to which reference is made 
in former reports. The first draft of his memoir on the 
Creeks is practically completed, but the amount of material 
was found to be so great that it has seemed best to separate 
it into two, if not three, sections. The first of these, em- 
bracing a discussion of the location and classification of the 
southern tribes, their early history, and their population, Dr. 
Swanton is now revising, incorporating new material and 
making such changes as fuller information has shown to be 
necessary. It is hoped that this section may be ready for 
publication at a comparatively early date. 

Through an Alibamu Indian living in Texas the bureau 
has been able to add several hundred words and a few pages 
of text to the Alibamu material gathered by Dr. Swanton. 

During the first three months of the year Mr. J. N. B. 
Hewitt, ethnologist, completed the translating and editing 
of a collection of texts and legends for the memoir on " Sen- 
eca Myths and Fiction" to be published in the Thirty- 
second Annual Report, consisting of material originally col- 
lected in native texts and in English by the late Jeremiah 
Curtin and Mr. Hewitt. This material, aggregating 2,300 
pages, besides 350 notes and additions by Mr. Hewitt, was 
submitted early in October for publication. Subsequently, 
and as opportunity was afforded throughout the year, Mr. 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Hewitt devoted special attention to the preparation of ma- 
terial for a grannnatical sketch of the Iroquois languages, 
especially as spoken by the Mohawk, Onondaga, and Cayuga, 
for incorporation in the " Handbook of American Indian 
languages." 

In December Mr. Hewitt visited the Grand River Reser- 
vation in Canada for the purpose of prosecuting his studies 
among the Indians dwelling thereon. A serious epidemic 
of smallpox interfered somewhat with his work, but with 
the efficient assistance of Mr. AVilliam K. Loft, a Mohawk 
speaker, Mr. Hewitt was able to make a critical phonetic and 
grammatic study of portions of the Mohawk texts relating 
to the league of the Iroquois, recorded by him in former 
years. Work was also done in recording a selected list of 
Mohawk verbs for comparative use, and with the painstaking 
aid of Mrs. Mary Gibson, widow of the late noted chief John 
Arthur Gibson, Mr. Hewitt M^as able to supply the Cayuga 
equivalents to this list, as well as to record other vocabulary 
terms of the Cayuga. From Mrs. Gibson also was obtained 
an extended text in Cayuga relating to the origin and the 
ritual of the death feast of the women. On the same reserva- 
tion Mr. Hewitt, with the aid of Mr. Hardy Gibson, a Cayuga 
chief, elucidated certain mooted points in regard to the 
ritual significance of a number of words and phrases em- 
ployed in the chants of the condoling and installation council 
of the Iroquois league. From Miss Emily Carrier, a mixed- 
blood Nanticoke, he obtained a list of 50 Nanticoke words. 
This short list is of singular interest, as the Nanticoke dialect 
of the Algonquian stock has become practically extinct 
through absorption of its speakers by the Iroquois-speaking 
peoples. Mr. Hewitt also made about 70 photographs, 
principally of persons. 

On his return to Washington on January 15 Mr. Hewitt at 
once resumed his analytic study of the Mohawk, Onondaga, 
and Cayviga dialects for the purpose of obtaining proper 
material for the preparation of the grammatic sketch above 
referred to. 

In addition to these investigations, Mr. Hewitt furnished 
much information for use in {)reparing replies to inquiries 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 15 

from correspondents, some of them requiring consideraljle 
research. No fewer than 130 such letters were answered ])y 
means of data supphed )jy Mr. Hewitt. As in the past, he 
performed the duties connected with the custodianship of 
manuscripts, which recjuired more than tlie usual time and 
effort owing to the preparation of more thoroughly fireproof 
quarters and transfer of the manuscripts thereto, as will 
later be mentioned. During June Mr. Hewitt was engaged 
in reading the first proofs of "Seneca Myths and Fiction." 

Mr. Francis La Flesche, ethnologist, was engaged during 
the year chiefly in assembling his notes on the No" 'zhizho", 
or fasting degree, of the trijjal rites of the Osage called No"'- 
ho°zhi°ga le Ita, or Sayings of the No"'ho°zhi°ga. Of the 
seven degrees, the No'^'zhizho'' is said to be the longest and 
the next in importance to the Ni'kie degree ; it is also said 
that this degree contains nearly all the symbols and cere- 
monial forms (we'gaxe), for which reason it is regarded as 
higher in rank than the other degrees, excepting the Ni'kie. 
From information given by Watse'ino^i" of the Black Bear 
gens and by Waxthi'zhi of the Puma gens, both of the Ho°'- 
ga dual division, their version of the ritual of the No^'zhizho" 
degree is composed of 116 songs, 14 wi'gie (parts of the ritual 
that is spoken), and a number of ceremonial acts and forms. 
Waxthi'zhi, from whom the songs and wi'gie were obtained, 
gave 14 wi'gie and 74 songs ; he was unable to give the entire 
116 songs, having lost some of them by reason of long disuse 
of the ritual. To the close of the year 206 pages of this 
ritual have been completed by Mr. La Flesche ; these comprise 
9 wi'gie with literal and free translations, 25 songs with trans- 
lations, and explanations of the songs, ceremonial acts, and 
movements, as well as of the various symbols and parapher- 
nalia used in the ceremonies. 

Mr. La Flesche's work on the No"'zhizho" ritual has twice 
been internipted by visiting Osage, from whom, however, 
further information has been obtained concerning the great 
war rites of the Osage people. First, Wa'thuxage, who 
visited Washington in the autumn of 1914, gave the ritual of 
the Wax'obe degree of theTsi'zhu Wash tage gens, of which he 
was a memljer. The wi'gie and songs of this ritual cover 76 



16 nURKAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

typewritten pages, including the music, which has Vjeen 
transcribed from the dictaphone. Besides the Wax'obe 
ritual, Wa'thuxage gave, in fragmentary form, the Ni'kie 
ritual of his gens; this covers 20 typewritten pages, includ- 
ing the music of the songs, which also have been transcribed 
from the dictaphone. The translations of the songs and 
wi'gie of these rituals have yet to be made and the explana- 
tory texts written. Wa'thuxage died in May, 1915. 

The second interruption was by Xutha Wato"i° and 
Watse'mo°i",from whom additional information was obtained. 
The former gave three of the wi'gie : Wi'gie Tonga or Great 
Wi'gie, Ki'no" Wi'gie or Symbolic Painting Wi'gie, and Waz- 
ho'igathe Wi'gie or Gentile Symbol Wi'gie, which it was his 
part to recite at the tribal ceremonies. These cover 37 
typewritten pages. Besides the three wi'gie, Xutha' Wato°i° 
gave the ritual of the Ni'kie degree of his gens. The wi'gie 
and songs of the ritual, including the music, comprise 15 
pages. The translations of the three wi'gie, and the wi'gie 
and songs of the Ni'kie ritual, have yet to be made and the ex- 
planatory notes assembled. Watse'mo°i° gave another ver- 
sion of the Ni'dse Wagpe Wi'gie, or Black Bear Wi'gie, which 
he had ah-eady given some time ago. This new version is 
the one recited when the widow of a deceased member of 
the No°'ho°zhi°ga is admitted to take his place in the order; 
it comprises 6 typewritten pages and will form a part of the 
No°'zhizho" ritual. This informant also gave some informa- 
tion concerning his great grandfather, who was a prominent 
"medicine-man." The notes recorded from the dictation of 
Watse'mo"i° have yet to be transcribed. The story will form 
a part of the chapter on the Wako°dagi, or " medicine-men." 

Mrs. M. C. Stevenson, ethnologist, continued her researches 
among the Tewa Indians of New Mexico, but failing health 
prevented her from completing the final revision of the manu- 
script of her memoir as she had hoped, and it remained un- 
finished at the time of her unfortunate death, on June 24, 
in the suburbs of Washington. It is believed, however, that 
when an opportunity of fully examining Mrs. Stevenson's 
completed manuscript and notes is afforded it will be found 
in condition for publication after the customary editorial 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 17 

treatment. Mrs. Stevenson was an efficient and industrious 
investigator of the ethnology of the Pueblo Indians, to which 
subject she had devoted many years of her life, giving special 
attention to the Sia, the Zuni, and the Tewa tribes. Three 
memoirs on these Indians, published in the annual reports, 
are replete with information on the subjects of which they 
treat, and there is no doubt that when Mrs. Stevenson's 
memoir on the Tewa Indians finally appears much valuable 
knowledge will be added to that which she has already given 
on the sedentary Indians of the extreme Southwest. 

With the opening of the fiscal year Dr. Truman Michelson 
proceeded to Wisconsin in the hope of obtaining ethnologic 
and linguistic information regarding the Stockbridge Indians 
residing in that State. It was found that, with respect to 
the language of this remnant tribe, about a dozen members 
remembered isolated words, but only one could dictate 
connected texts, half a dozen of which were recorded. 
Although knowledge of the language is now too limited to 
enable restoration of the grammar, enough material was 
obtained to show that Stockbridge was intimately related 
to Pequot and Natick, as well as to Delaware-Munsee. 
The Stockbridges have long since abandoned all their native 
customs and beliefs, consequentlj^ their ethnology may be 
regarded as beyond recovery. 

While in Wisconsin Dr. Michelson procured also ethnologic 
and linguistic notes on the Menominee. A visit to the 
Brotherton Indians resulted in the acquirement of little 
information excepting historical data, as these people have 
become greatly modified. 

Dr. Michelson next visited Tama, Iowa, for the purpose 
of renewing his researches among the Fox Indians, to which 
he has been devoting his energies for some time. He was 
especially successful in obtaining accounts of the mythical 
origin ascribed to the Fox people, given in the form of 
rituals, and he gave attention also to the phonetics of the 
Fox language. A noteworthy result of Dr. Michelson's Fox 
investigations was the acquirement, through Horace Powa- 

2786—21 2 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETITNOI.OGY 

shiek, of a complete translation of the two most important 
Fox myths — the C-ulture Hero and Mother of All the Earth. 
At the request of the Davenport Academy of Sciences, 
Dr. Michelson conducted some archeological excavations for 
that institution at its own expense, leave of absence having 
been granted him for that purpose. En route to Washington, 
he examined the Sauk and Fox collections in the Field 
Museum of Natural History at Chicago. 

In the office Dr. Michelson paid special attention to the 
observations on the Sauk and Fox by early writers, especially 
by the authors in the Annals of the Propaganda Fide, and by 
Marston, Long, Carver, Beltrami, and others. With the 
view of definitely settling the question of the relationship of 
the Yurok and Wiyot languages of California to the Algon- 
quian linguistic stock, Dr. Michelson devoted further study 
to the subject, reaching the conclusion that whether or not 
further material would prove these languages to be divergent 
members of Algonquian, the existing data do not warrant 
such a classification. Dr. Michelson also devoted attention 
to the linguistic classification of Potawatomi, based on cer- 
tain grammatical treatises by the late Father Gailland in 
possession of St. Mary's College at St. Marys, Kans., which 
the bureau was permitted to copy through the courtesy of 
Rev. George Worpenberg, S. J., librarian of the college. By 
these studies Dr. Michelson concludes from the verbal pro- 
nouns of Potawatomi that it belongs to the Ojibwa division 
of the central Algonquian languages, but that the language 
is further removed from Ojibwa, Ottawa, and Algonkin than 
any of these is from the others. 

Mr. John P. Harrington, ethnologist, became a member of 
the staff of the bureau, with the approval of the Civil Service 
Commission, on February 20, from which time until the close 
of May he finished 600 pages of manuscript and more than 
3,000 slips of linguistic information regarding the Chumash 
Indians of California, the result of researches conducted by 
him before entering the service of the bureau. He also has, 
in various stages of elaboration, a quantity of other Chumash 
ethnologic and linguistic material in the preparation of 
which for publication satisfactory progress is being made. 



ADMINISTRATIVE EEPORT 19 

At the end of May Mr. Harrington proceeded to Santa Ines 
Mission, where, among its documents, he found an old man- 
uscript liearing the title "Padron que contiene todos las 
Neofitas de esta Mision de la Purisima Concepcion con ex- 
presion de su edad, y partida de Bautismo segun se halla hoy 
dia 1° de Enero de 1814," by Father Mariano Payeras, of the 
greatest importance to the study of the former Chumash 
Indians of La Purisima and Santa Ines. A complete copy 
of this splendid manuscript, which does not seem to have 
been known to historians, was made by Mr. Harrington, who 
also extracted a considerable amount of other material from 
the mission records. While at Santa Ines Mr. Harrington 
located the site of the former large rancheria of Nojogui 
(which had not before been known), and also the site of the 
rancheria of Itias, mentioned in the records. On June 19 
Mr. Harrington visited Arroj^o Grande, where he worked for 
a week with a poor, sick old woman, the sole survivor of the 
San Luis Obispo Indians, for which reason, to use Mr. Har- 
rington's own expression, "the words of her language are 
precious beyond the power of money to buy," especially as 
her speech is the most archaic of all the Ghumashan dialects. 
For the convenience of his field studies Mr. Harrington has 
established headcjuarters at Los Angeles, where he has been 
granted the facilities of the Southwest IMuseum by the cour- 
tesy of its officials. 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES 

The preparation of the second volume of the " Handbook 
of American Indian Languages," under the editorship of Dr. 
Franz Boas, honorary philologist, has progressed slowly, on 
account of the impossibility of sending proofs to Russia, 
where the author of the section on the Chukchee and Eskimo 
resides. The chapter on Siuslaw, by Dr. Frachtenberg, has 
been corrected and made up in pages, forming pages 431 to 
605 of the second volume. At the beginning of the year Dr. 
Boas concluded his collection of Kutenai material, which was 
studied preliminary to the writing of the grammar of this 
language. The texts collected by him were written out, and 
the completed manuscript, consisting of 263 pages of Indian 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

texts and 269 pages of translation, has been submitted and set 
in type, forming 125 galleys. The texts include some mate- 
rial collected by the late Dr. A. F. Chamberlain, which was 
acquired by the bureau and was revised by Dr. Boas. 

Much time has been spent by Dr. Boas in work on his me- 
moir, "Tsimshian Mythology," to accompany the thirty-first 
annual report. During the fiscal year 1913-14 the tales them- 
selves had been set up. During the year now under considera- 
tion the manuscript of the discussion of this material was 
completed and put in type; it forms pages 394 to 867 of the 
annual report. In the mechanical work of preparing the 
manuscript Dr. Boas was assisted by Miss H. A. Andrews, 
who, besides the preparation of manuscript and proof reading, 
did much of the laborious work of extracting and collating 
material needed for the investigation. 

The manuscript on Eskimo mythology, intrusted to Walde- 
mar Bogoras and accepted for publication, together with an 
introduction by Mr. Ernest Hawkes, is held in abeyance, 
owing to the impossibility at the present time of communicat- 
ing with the author in Russia. 

Dr. L. J. Frachtenberg, special ethnologist, left Washington 
on July 6, 1914, going directly to Oregon for the purpose of 
concluding his investigations of the language, mythology, 
and culture of the Kalapuya Indians, commenced during 
the previous fiscal year. After a short trip to the Siletz 
and Grande Ronde Agencies in northwestern Oregon for the 
pui*pose of interviewing all available informants, he pro- 
ceeded to Chemawa, Oreg., where he conducted his Kalapuya 
investigations until December, and completed them at the 
Grande Ronde Agency between December 13 and 20, which 
time was spent chiefly in the collection of linguistic material 
for a comparative study of the Kalapuya dialects. Special 
attention was given to the Yamhill and Yonkalla variations. 
Dr. Frachtenberg's field work proved highly successful. He 
obtained 30 myths, tales, historical narratives, and ethno- 
graphic descriptions, told in the various Kalapuya dialects, 
an unusually large amoimt of grammatical notes, sufficient 
material for a linguistic map showing the original distribu- 
tion of the several Kalapuya dialects, and some data on 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 21 

Kalapiiya ethnology. A glance at this material reveals 
some interesting facts: The Kalapuya Indians in former 
times were the most powerful and mimeroiis family of 
Oregon. They claimed the whole of the fertile valley of the 
Willamette, extending from the Coast Range to the Cascade 
Mountains, their settlements reaching as far north as the 
present Portland and as far south as the middle course of 
Umpqua River, an area of approximately 12,000 square 
miles. These Indians were placed on the Grande Ronde 
Reservation in 1857, at the close of the Rogue River war. 
Previous tribal wars and frequent epidemics of smallpox 
and other infectious diseases have reduced the Kalapuya 
tribes to such an extent that Dr. Frachtenberg has found 
but a mere handful of survivors; hence the time is not far 
off when the stock will become extinct. 

The Kalapuya family embraces a large number of tribes, 
the most important of which are: (1) Atfalati (or Wapato 
Lake), living formerly on the banks of the Tualatin River; 
(2) Yamhill, claiming the banks of the river of the same 
name; (3) Lakmayuk, who obtained their name from the 
river Luckiamute; (4) Marys River (Calapooia proper), 
whose settlements were situated along the banks of the 
Calapooia and Marys Rivers ; (5) Yonkalla, the most south- 
erly Kalapuya tribe; (6) Ahantsayuk, also called Pudding 
River Indians; and (7) Santiam, who formerly lived on 
the banks of Santiam River. These tribes speak varieties 
of the Kalapuya language, which show remarkable lexi- 
cographic diversities. Morphological differentiations exist 
also, but are chiefly of a phonetic nature. All differences 
between the dialects seem to have been caused by a geo- 
graphic distribution, resulting in the three subdivisions men- 
tioned in the last annual report. Long and continued con- 
tact of the Kalapuya Indians with white settlers has resulted 
in a complete breaking down of the native culture and mode 
of living; consequently the ethnologic data obtainable were 
very meager and in most cases were given as information 
obtained through hearsay. 

In the early part of January Dr. Frachtenberg made a 
short trip to the Siletz Agency for the purpose of settling a 



22 BURKAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

few questions pertaining to Alsea phonetics. In view of the 
fact that the allotment made for his field researches during 
the fiscal year became exhausted, Dr. Frachtenberg was 
obliged to remain in the field until the close of June. On 
January 15 he resumed the work of preparing a grammatical 
sketch of the Alsea language, which was finished late in 
May; this consists of 158 sections, approximating 600 manu-r 
script pages. During June he was engaged in typewriting 
this grammatical sketch, which will be published in part 2 
of the "Handbook of American Indian Languages." 

In addition to his field investigations Dr. Frachtenberg 
corrected the proofs of his grammatical sketch of the Siuslaw 
language, special attention being given to the insertion of 
the proper references taken from his Lower Umpqua texts, 
printed in the Columbia University Contributions to An- 
thropology. 

Mr. W. H. Holmes continued the preparation of the 
"Handbook of American Antiquities" whenever his exact- 
ing duties in behalf of the National Museum permitted. 
Part 1 of this work is well advanced toward completion; 
much attention has been given to part 2, and the preparation 
of the numerous illustrations is well in hand. 

During the month of July Mr. Gerard Fowke was engaged, 
under instructions from the bureau, in making limited arche- 
ological investigations in northeastern Kansas and south- 
eastern Nebraska, the purpose of which was to ascertain the 
value of certain recent determinations regarding the age of 
the prehistoric aboriginal occupancy of this region. Respect- 
ing the large mounds, the age of which has been under dis- 
cussion, Mr. Fowke reports that three points must be taken 
into consideration in fixing a definite age for these remains, 
as follows: 

1. The relics found in and around the lodge sites, except for the 
markings on some of the pottery, are in no wise different from those 
found on the sites of villages which were occupied when Lewis and 
Clark came through here. 

2. Fairly sohd bones of animals, and occasionally human bones, are 
found in the bottoms of the lodge sites, even where these are damp 
most of the year. In the pits, where such remains are preserved by 
ashes, this would not mean much; but where they are found in clayey 



ADMINISTRATIVK REPORT 23 

earth it is evident that "thousands of years" is a meaningless term 
to apply to them. 

3. Persons who claim these "thousands of years" for pretty much 
everything they find in the ground, must explain why it is that while 
the hones and implements of these assumed "ancients" are found in 
such quantities and in such good preservation, those of later Indians 
should have entirel}^ disappeared. 

The only tenable theory of age is the amount of accumulation in 
the depressions of the lotlge sites. Above the clay which formed the 
roof, and is next to the floor now, is a depth of material sometimes, it 
is said, as much as 20 or even 22 inches of mingled silt, decayed vege- 
tation, and soil from the surrounding wall. It is used as an argu- 
ment of age; that as these sites are on hilltops where there can be no 
inwash, this depth must indicate a very remote period for their con- 
struction. But a large amount of the earth thrown out into the sur- 
rounding ring or wall will fintl its way back into the depression. Tlae 
water will stand in them a good part of the year, and the soil remain 
damp even in prolonged drought; vegetation is thus more luxuriant 
than on the outside, and its decay will fill up rather rapidly. In addi- 
tion, much sand blows from the prairies as well as from the bottom 
lands, and whatever finds its way into the pit will stay there; it will 
not blow away agaui, as it would in open ground. Weeds also will 
catch and retain much of this dust, which would pass on over a dry 
surface. Conseciuently the allowance of an inch in a century, which 
is tlie most that advocates of great age will allow for accumulation, 
is too small. 

The topography of the region was essentially the same when these 
remains were constructed as it is now. Tire hills and valleys were as 
they now exist; the erosion has been very slight as compared with 
that which has taken place since the loess was brought above the 
water to which it owes its origin. This statement is fully proved by 
the position of the mounds and lodge sites. Any estimate of age 
must be only conjecture at best; but it is safe to say that no earth- 
work, mound, lodge, site, or human bones along this part of the 
Missouri River has been here as long as 10 centuries. 

With regard to the discoveries of human remains at ex- 
ceptional depths in loess formations on Longs Hill, near 
Omaha, Mr. Fowke states that excavation of the site has been 
so exhaustive that further investigations are out of the ques- 
tion, and that determinations of age, therefore, must rest, 
in the main at least, with the published statements of the 
original explorers. 

During recent years observers have reported the existence 
of mounds and other evidences of prehistoric occupancy in 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

western Utah; these reports, however, contained little defi- 
nite information regarding the character of existing ruins 
and described only briefly the artifacts associated with them. 
The possible relationship of such remains with those of the 
ancient pueblo dwellers of Arizona, New Mexico, and Colo- 
rado suggested the necessity of a preliminary examination 
of the western Utah field, with the view of determining the 
nature and range of former settlements, and also the de- 
sirability of more detailed investigations. This work of 
reconnoissance was commenced by the bureau in May and 
extended through the close of the fiscal year, the field obser- 
vations being made by Mr. Neil M. Judd, of the National 
Museum. A group of small mounds near Willard, on the 
northeastern shore of Great Salt Lake, were first examined. 
Many other mounds in this locality have been completely de- 
stroyed by cultivation during recent years, and of those re- 
maining all show modifications resulting from recent tillage. 
Four mounds were selected for special investigation, and 
from these sufficient information was gathered to indicate 
the chief characteristics of the primitive dwellings over which 
the mounds had accumulated. 

Following the work at Willard, an examination was made 
of certain well-defined mounds on the outskirts of Beaver 
City, in Beaver County, where three house sites of the Willard 
type were fovmd in close proximity to larger movmds con- 
taining groups of dwellings. Two weeks' work resulted in 
the complete excavation of one house group comprising 16 
rooms and the partial examination of a still larger group. 
The Beaver mounds, like those at Willard, have resulted from 
the gradual accumulation of drifting sand and dust over the 
fallen walls of more or less permanent dwellings. Unlike 
the isolated structures at Willard, however, the mounds at 
Beaver City disclosed groups of associated rooms, arranged 
with some degree of regularity and exhibiting a certain unity 
of purpose. In each of the two groups studied, small series 
of contiguous rooms were uncovered, but the majority were 
single compartments separated from the other dwellings by 
varying distances. The walls of these primitive dwellings 
at Beaver were built of adobe, sometimes placed in wide 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 25 

layers but more often forming a solid mass. No openings 
that could be identified definitely as doors were found in any 
of these walls; this fact, together with the comparative abun- 
dance of circular stone slabs, leads to the belief that entrance 
to the dwellings was gained through roof openings which 
could be closed with the stone disks. Post holes in several 
floors, with charred fragments of cedar logs, and masses of 
clay bearing impressions of logs, willows, and grass, give a 
fairly complete indication as to the nature of the roof con- 
struction. Large timbers crossed in the direction of the 
shorter dimensions, their ends resting upon the side walls of 
the rooms; when necessary these were supported by upright 
timbers. The roof beams in turn supported lesser timbers 
with layers of willows and grass. Layers of clay, varying in 
thickness from 1 inch to 6 inches with the unevenness of 
roof materials, covered the grass, thus completing a truly 
substantial shelter. 

Four small mounds, s-imilar to those at Beaver City, were 
excavated at Paragonah, in Iron County. These contained 
one room only, but there are larger mounds in the vicinity 
whose superficial indications suggest as many if not more 
rooms than the group at Beaver. Twenty years ago, it is 
reported, there were about 100 mounds in this vicinity; 
to-day more than half of them have disappeared through 
cultivation of the soil. 

A brief examination was made by Mr. Judd of several 
house sites overlooking the Rio Virgen, near St. George, in 
the extreme southwestern corner of the State. From this 
village eastward to Kanab only a few mounds were noted, 
although cowboys reported the existence of others in the 
vicinity of Short Creek, on the Utah- Arizona line. 

From Kanab as a base, the mounds in Johnson Canyon 
and the small cliff houses in Cottonwood Canyon were visited 
and partially examined. From superficial observations the 
former were judged to contain the remains of house structures 
similar to those at Beaver and Paragonah, although the 
availability of suitable stone for building purposes has re- 
sulted in its partial substitution for adobe, with certain 
accompanying structural modifications. 



26 BUREAU 01'' AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Several caves in Cottonwood Canyon 12 miles westward 
from Kanab contained evidences of human occupancy. The 
walls of nearly all bear pictographs of more than ordinary 
interest, and three of the caves visited sheltered the remains 
of small dwellings, the most interesting of which is a group 
of four detached rooms and one circular kiva. The walls 
of these are of stone with a rather greater proportion of mud 
plaster than is common in cliff dwellings of the Southwest. 
The ceremonial room measures 14 feet in diameter, but, 
except in its lack of recesses, does not differ greatly from 
similar stnictures in ruins previously reported throughout 
the San Juan drainage. 

Mr. Judd's preliminary ol:)servations among a limited 
number of ruins in western Utah indicate the former exist- 
ence of a people whose dwellings developed in natural 
sequence from single earth-covered shelters, such as those 
at Willard, to groups of more permanent stnictures like 
those at Beaver, Paragonah, and elsewhere, and finalty to 
allied cliff houses similar to those in Cottonwood Canyon. 
The construction of these several types of houses and the 
character of the artifacts found in them point to close rela- 
tionship between their builders and the better-known pre- 
Puebloan peoples of New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado. 
Whether these primitive structures in Utah actually ante- 
date the communal dwellings in the States named or whether 
they represent an offshoot from the more highly developed 
Pueblo culture is a point not yet determined. The relation- 
ship is certain, however, and future investigation may be 
expected to determine its limits. It is hoped that the op- 
portunity to continue this investigation may soon be af- 
forded, as the progress of agriculture in most of the areas 
investigated by Mr. Judd is resulting in the rapid disappear- 
ance of all superficial evidences of aboriginal occupancy. 

En route to Washington from Utah, Mr. Judd spent a day 
at the so-called "Spanish diggings," the ancient quarries in 
Wyoming where generations of western Indians quarried the 
flint and chert utilized in the manufacture of various 
weapons and household implements. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 27 

Excellent progress has been made in the study and analy- 
sis of Indian music, to which subject Miss Frances Dens- 
more has devoted special attention. The principal work 
in this direction has been the completion of the manuscript 
on "Teton Sioux Music," consisting of 1,067 pages, in addi- 
tion to transcriptions of 240 songs and about 100 illustra- 
tions. This material was submitted in June for puljlica- 
tion. Miss Densmore also made consideralile progress in the 
preparation of a paper on the music of the Ute Indians, 92 
pages of manuscript, 28 transcriptions of songs, 11 analyses 
of songs, and 8 original photographic illustrations being sub- 
mitt'ed. This work is not yet finished. 

Mr. D. I. Bushnell, jr., has continued the preparation of 
the "Handbook of Aboriginal Remains East of the Missis- 
sippi, " under a small allotment by the bureau for this pur- 
pose, and has made steady progress. During the year 
circulars were addressed to county officials in those sec- 
tions from which no information had been received, and 
good results were obtained. The thanks of the bureau are 
due Mr. Arthur C. Parker, State archeologist of New York, 
for a large body of valuable data regarding the archeological 
sites in New York, and to Mr. Warren K. Moorehead, of 
Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., for similar information 
respecting aboriginal remains in the State of Maine, derived 
from his personal observations. 

Mr. James R. Murie, as opportunity offered, continued 
his studies of the ceremonies of the Pawnee Indians, under 
a small allotment by the bureau. During the year Mr. 
Murie submitted, as a result of these investigations, a manu- 
script of 266 pages on "The New Fire Ceremony" of the 
Pawnee. 

Dr. A. L. Kroeber, of the University of California, has 
made good progress in the preparation of the "Handbook 
of the Indians of California." At the inception of this 
work it was believed practicable to confine the treatment 
to a very limited number of pages. By reason of the great 
diversity in the languages and the culture of the Indians of 
California, past and present, however, it was found that no 



28 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

adequate treatment of the subject was possible within the 
limits originally prescribed, consequently the handbook 
when pul)lished will comprise approximately 200 pages. Dr. 
Kroeber expects to submit the manuscript in readiness for 
publication in the early part of 1916. 

The "List of Works Relating to Hawaii" has been added 
to from time to time by the surviving compiler, Prof. Howard 
M. Ballou, of Honolulu. Mr. Felix Neumann has devoted 
attention to its editorial revision, but it was found at the 
close of the year that much work of a mechanical nature 
remained to be done before plans for publication could be 
completed. 

MANUSCRIPTS 

As in the past, the valuable collection of manuscripts of the 
bureau has been in the immediate custody of Mr. J. N. B. 
Hewitt, whose work in this direction was considerably in- 
creased by reason of the necessity of returning the manu- 
scripts to the newly fireproofed room in the north tower of 
the Smithsonian building and reclassifying them. For the 
first time the manuscripts of the bureau, which now number 
about 1,700 items, many of which are of priceless value, are 
believed to be safe from possible fire, being contained in 
steel cases or on steel shelves, sm-rounded by brick, cement, 
and terra-cotta walls, floor, and ceihng. In addition to 
manuscripts submitted for immediate publication or else- 
where referred to in this report, the following accessions 
were made during the year: 

Laguna Indian Dictionary. Deposited b}' the wife and son of the 
late John B. Dunbar, of Bloonifield, N". J. 

Dr. A. L. Kroeber. Forty-nine Arapaho and Gros Ventre note- 
books, six packages of slips containing an Arapaho vocabulary, and a 
carbon copy of a study of Arapaho dialects. 

War record of Sitting Bull, depicted in 55 pictographs, with a 
letter of authentication. Deposited by Dr. D. S. Lamb, of the Army 
Medical Museum. 

J. P. Dunn. The third part of the translation of the anon\'mous 
Miami-Peoria Dictionary, the original of which is in the John Carter 
Brown Library at Providence, R. I.; 36 pages, Assomer to Bercer. 



ADMINISTKATIVE REPORT 29 

Photostat copj- of "A Grammar of the Pottewatomy Language," 
by Rev. Maurice Gailland, the original of which is in possession of 
St. Mar3's College at St. Mark's, Ivans.; 452 pages. 

Note should here be made of the great usefulness of the 
photostat apparatus acquired by the bureau during the last 
fiscal 3^ear, which has enabled the photographic copying at 
slight cost of various mam scripts, field notes, and rare books 
and pamphlets needed for reference in the researches of the 
bureau. These copies have been made in the photographic 
laljoratory of the bureau l^y Mr. Albert Sweeney, assistant 
to Mr. De Lancey Gill, illustrator. 

PUBLICATIONS 

The editorial work of the bureau has been continued by 
Mr. J. G. Gurley, editor, who from time to time has been 
assisted by Mrs. Frances S. Nichols. The publications 
issued during the year were: 

Bulletin 46. "Byington's Choctaw Dictionary," edited by John 
R. Swan ton and Henry S. Halbert. 

Bulletin 58. "List of Publications of the Bureau," wMch ap- 
peared in August, 1914, with a second impression in May, 1915. 

Miscellaneous publications : 

No. 10. Circular of Information Regarding Indian Popular Names. 

No. 11. Map of Linguistic Families of American Indians North of 
Mexico. This map, which is a revision of the linguistic map pub- 
lished in Bulletin 30 (Handbook of American Indians), was reprinted 
in advance from the plate in the report on "Indian Population in 
the United States and Alaska," subsequent!}' pubUshed by the 
Bureau of the Census. 

No. 12. List of Indian words denoting "man," prepared in placard 
form for use in the Smithsonian exhibit at the Panama-Pacific 
Exposition. 

The status of other publications now in press is as follows : 

Twenty-ninth annual report. The "accompanying paper" of this 
report is "The Ethnogeography of the Tewa Indians," by J. P, 
Harrington, a work presenting many technical difficulties. The 
solution of these was retarded by the illness of the author, which 
resulted in his incapacity for several months to deal with the various 
questions arising in connection -with the text. The reading of the 
proof has been carried forward as rapidly as circumstances would 



30 BUKKAU OF AMKRIOAN ETHNOLOGY 

permit, and at this time the entire report is paged with exception 
of the list of phicc names, 2,650 in number, and the index. Consid- 
erable progress has been made in the final reading of the page proof. 
The number of pages in the volume (estimated) will be 660, with 21 
plates, 31 maps, and 1 diagram. 

Thirtieth annual report. This report, which contains as "accom- 
panying papers" "The Ethnobotany of the Zuni Indians," by Mrs. 
M. C. Stevenson, and "Animism and Folklore of the Guiana Indians," 
by Walter E. Roth, has been "made up" and read through three 
page proofs. At the end of the year the report (453 pages) was prac- 
tically ready for the bindery. 

Thirty-first annual report. With this report is incorporated a 
memoir on "Tsimshian Mythology," by Dr. Franz Boas. Of this 
material less than half (365 pages) had been paged at the beginning 
of the fiscal year. With the progress of the work a large amount of 
new matter has been inserted, necessitating considerable revision 
from time to time and the reading of several galley and page proofs 
of the greater part of the memoir. At this writing the make-up has 
been carried through page 682, and Dr. Boas looks fonvard to paging 
the remaining material at an early day. The memoir will contain in 
all about 850 pages, with 3 plates and 24 text figures. 

Thirty-second annual report. The memoir accompanying this 
report is entitled "Seneca Fiction, Legends, and Myths," the mate- 
rial of which was collected by the late Jeremiah Curtin and J. N. B. 
Hewitt and edited by the latter. The manuscript reached the 
bureau for publication about the middle of October and when the 
fiscal year closed more than one-fourth (82 galleys) had been set up. 
The number of pages will approximate 900. 

Bulletin 40. "Handbook of American Indian Languages," part 
2 (Boas). During the year two sections of the above-named hand- 
book have received attention — the Chukchee (Bogoras) and the 
Siuslaw (Frachtenberg) . After the former had been put mto page 
form to the extent of 50 pages work thereon had to be suspended by 
reason of the impossibility of communicating with the author of the 
section, who is in Russia. The Siuslaw section (75 galleys) is now 
at the Government Printing Office for paging. Two of the "illustra- 
tive sketches" of part 2 of this bulletin, namely, Takehna (Sapir), 
298 pages, and Coos (Frachtenberg), 133 pages, have already appeared 
in separate form. 

Bulletin 55. "The Ethnobotany of the Tewa Indians" (Robbins, 
Harrington, and Freire-Marreco). After the manuscript of this 
bulletin had been prepared by the other authors here named and had 
passed into galley proof, Miss Freire-Marreco incorporated therewith 
additional material to the extent of greatly enlarging and practically 



ADMINISTRATIVE KEPORT 31 

recasting the memoir. Subsequently, on account of the European 
war it was found impracticable to get from Miss Freire-Marreco the 
proof sent to her for correction and in the absence of her revision the 
task of putting the bulletin mto final form has proved difficult. Half 
of the material, however, has been paged and it will be possible to 
complete the work in the near future. 

Bulletin 57. "An Introduction to the Study of the Maya Hiero- 
glyphs" (Morley). The first proof of this publication bearing the 
author's corrections reached the bureau the middle of September. 
Since then two additional proofs have been revised, the character 
of the material being such as to require great care and exactness in 
the work. The author is now engaged in a final reading of the pages. 
Unfortunately the progress of the work has been delayed several 
months by his absence in Central America. The volume will contain, 
when completed, about 320 pages, with 32 plates and 85 figures. 

Bulletin 59. "Kutenai Tales" (Boas and Chamberlain). The 
manuscript of this bulletin was received in March and, after being 
edited, was placed in the hands of the Public Printer. By the middle 
of June the first proof, complete (125 galleys), had been forwarded 
to Dr. Boas. 

Bulletin 61. "Teton Sioux Music" (Densmore). The material of 
this bulletin, comprismg 1 ,067 pages of manuscript, and copy for 80 
plates, 20 text figures, and 263 folios of music, was approved for 
publication in June, too late for hiclusion by the Prmtmg Office 
under the bureau's allotment for this fiscal year. 

As dui'ing the last few years, the correspondence arising 
from the large demand for the publications of the bureau 
has been in the immediate charge of Miss Helen Munroe and 
Mr. E. L. Springer, of the Smithsonian Institution, assisted 
during part of the year by Mr. Thomas F. Clark, jr., and 
later by Mr. William A. Humphrey. The distribution has 
been made, in accordance with law, by the superintendent 
of documents on order of the bureau. The total number of 
publications issued during the fiscal year was 10,185, dis- 
tributed as follows: 

Annual reports 1, 239 

Bulletms _ 8, 51 5 

Contributions to North American Ethnology 25 

Introductions 8 

Miscellaneous 398 

Total... 10,185 



32 BUREAU OF AMEEICAN ETHNOLOGY 

This total shows a decrease of 2,634 volumes in compari- 
son with the year 1913-14, due largely to the retention in 
the transmission of certain publications to Europe by reason 

of the war. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

The preparation of illustrations for the publications of the 
bureau and of photographic portraits of the members of vis- 
iting Indian deputations has continued in charge of Mr. De 
Lancey Gill, illustrator, assisted by Mr. Albert Sweeney. 
The photographic work during the year may be classed as 
follows: 

Portrait negatives of visiting delegations (Crow, Osage, Chip- 
pewa, and Sioux tribes) 10 

Negatives of ethnologic subjects to illustrate publications 52 

Development of negatives exposed by field parties 548 

Photographic prints for distribution and for office use. 690 

Photographic prmts for publication and for office use 120 

Pho tographic prints for exhibition purposes 115 

Small jiho tographic prints distributed chiefly for scientific pur- 
poses. 350 

Drawings prepared for illustrations 30 

Photostat copies (pages) of books and manuscripts 1, 452 

In addition, Mr. Gill gave the usual attention to the 
critical examination of engraver's proofs of illustrations 
designed for the publications of the bureau, submitted by 
the Public Printer. 

In the last report mention was made of a series of photo- 
graphs of Indian subjects that has been exhibited succes- 
sively by the New York Public Library, the Library Commis- 
sion of Indiana, and the Providence Public Library. In 
September, 1914, in response to the request of the Public 
Library of Haverhill, Mass., this series of pictures was sent 
for public exhibition in that library. In addition, collec- 
tions of photographs of Indian subjects, designed to illustrate 
in part the work of the bureau, were sent for exhibition at 
the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco and at the 
Panama-California Exposition in San Diego. 

LIBRARY 

The reference library of the bureau has been in the con- 
tinuous charge of Miss Ella Leary, librarian, assisted by 
Mrs. Ella Slaughter until her death on November 1, 1914, 



AOMINISTRATIVE REPOET 33 

and sul)sequont]y l)y Charles B. Newman, messenger boy. 
During tlie year 997 l)()()ks were accessioned, but of this 
number only 448 were newly ac'cjuired, the remainder being 
represented by the binding and by entry on the records of 
serial publications that had been in possession of the bureau 
for some time. Of these accessions 138 volumes were 
acquired by purchase and 310 by gift or through exchange. 
The serial publications currently received number about 700, 
of which only 17 are obtained by subscription, the remainder 
being received by exchange of the bureau's reports and 
bulletins. Of pamphlets, 294 were acquired. The number 
of volumes bound was 678. The library contained 20,237 
volumes, 13,188 pamphlets, and several thousand unbound 
periodicals at the close of the year. The number of books 
borrowed from the Library of Congress for the use of the 
staff of the bureau in prosecuting their researches was about 
450. 

The new steel bookstacks in the eastern end of the main 
hall of the Smithsonian building, referred to in the last 
annual report, were finished and placed at the disposal of the 
bureau in August, when the work of reinstallation of the 
library was undertaken by the librarian and promptly 
carried to completion. The facilities afforded by the new 
stacks are an improvement over those of the old library 
equipment, while safety is greatly increased. 

COLLECTIONS 

The following collections were acquired by the bureau or 
by members of its staff and transferred to the National 
Museum, as required by law: 

Model of Cherokee packing basket from the East Cherokee Reserva- 
tion, Swain Count}', N". C. Collected by James Mooney, Bureau 
of American Ethnology. (57099.) 

179 archeological objects from the lower Mimbres Valley and an 
earthenware vase from Casas Grandes, Chihuahua, Mexico. 
Collected by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, Bureau of American Eth- 
nology. (57777.) 

Three stone figurines from the Tewa Indians of New Mexico. Col- 
lected by Mrs. M. C. Stevenson, Bureau of American Ethnology. 
(58129.) 
2786—21 3 



34 BUItKAU ()!■' AMERK^AN KTll N()L(Ki Y 

Sni|K- lliitc (if tlic Sioux liulinns. Kcccivod from l\ov. A. Mc(J. 

J5("C(le, of Xorth Dakota. {r)cSL>-)4.) 
Kivc airhcologicat objects from Virj^iiiia. (iift of Dr. W. B. Barham, 

of Ncwsoms, Va. ; ami a iiocHliifc presented by Mrs. J. H. Kello 

and lier (h\ii<j;liter, Miss Hattie Kello. (5S177.) 

PROPERTY 

The most valua])le property of the Inireaii consists of its 
U!)rary (of which jjrief statistics have been given), a collec- 
tion of unpublished manuscripts, and several thousand pho- 
tographic negatives. Comparatively little of this material 
could be duplicated. The other property of the bureau is 
described in general terms in the last annual report. The 
total cost of furniture, typewriters, and other apparatus ac- 
cjuired during the fiscal year was $553.35. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

QUARTERS 

The quarters of the bureau liave been improved by the 
completion of the library bookstacks, previously referred to, 
and the installation of additional electric lights in the library 
and in one of the office rooms. 

PERSONNEL 

The personnel of the bureau has been changed by the ap- 
pointment of Mr. John P. Harrington, ethnologist, on Feb- 
niary 20; the death of Mrs. Matilda Coxe Stevenson, ethnol- 
ogist, on June 24; the death of Mrs. Ella Slaughter, classified 
laborer, on November 1, 1914; the transfer of Thomas F. 
Clark, jr., to the National Museum; the appointment of 
William Humphrey, stenographer and tj^jewriter ; and the 
appointment of Dennis Sullivan, messenger boy. The corre- 
spondence of the bureau and other clerical work has been 
conducted with the assistance of three clerks and a stenog- 
rapher and typewriter. 

Respectfully submitted. 

F. W. Hodge, 
Ethnologist-in- Charge. 

Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



ACCOMPANYING PAPER 



35 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 

RITE OF THE CHIEFS; SAYINGS OF THE ANCIENT MEN 



By FRANCIS LA FLESCHE 



CONTENTS 



Page. 

Introduction .(;{ 

Ancient home of the Osage 43 

Influence of traders 43 

Visit of Captain Pike 44 

Present home and condition of the Osage 44 

Rites given in this volume 47 

Symbolic organization of the tribe 51 

Gentile organization 51 

Gentes of the Ho'''-ga Great Division 52 

Wa-zha'-zhe Subdivision 52 

Ho^'-ga Subdivision 52 

Gentes of the Tsi'-zhu Great Division 63 

Sacred fireplaces 53 

Sanctuaries 54 

Rituals presented in three forms 54 

Acknowledgments 55 

Part I. The Osage Tribal Rites. Free Translation 

Rite of the chiefs 59 

Allegorical story of the organization 59 

Summary: Development of the military Ijranch of the Government 65 

Civil government: Chieftainship and duties G7 

The Wa-xo'-be To"-ga, the Great Portable Shrine 71 

Initiation into the rite of the chiefs 73 

The Ki'-no", or ceremonial painting of the Xo'-ka 74 

Xo'ka Wi'-gi-e 74 

Wi'-gi-e of the Chief's vigil 84 

Wa-the'-the, or ceremony of Sending 91 

Simultaneous recital of the T\'i'-gi-ee of the gentes '. 92 

U-dse'-the A-do°-be, Keeper of the Fireplace 1 39 

Instructions to the wife of the Initiate 140 

The Mo^'-gthu-stse-dse (Arrow ceremony) 145 

The To'"-wo° A-do°-be (Overseer of the Village) 146 

Xi'-ki No^-Vo" rite (Hearing of the Sapngs of the Ancient Men) 152 

Place of the Ni'-ki Noo-k'o" in the Order of the Rites. .' 152 

Requirements for initiation 154 

Wa-the'-the, or ceremony of Sending 155 

Xi'-ki Wi'-gi-es 15G 

Version of the Puma gens 1 57 

Deer songs 185 

Songs of setting up the house of m> stery 198 

Songs of the gathering 200 

The Hi'-ga-da story of the Finding of the Foe 211 

Ni'-ki Wi'-gi-e, version of the Black Bear gens 219 

39 



40 CONTENTS 

Page 

Ni'-ki Wi'-gi-es of the Tsi'-/,hu Wa-no" and Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gentes 238 

Ni'-ki Wa-tho" of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no"... 238 

Moccasin Wi'-gi-e 239 

Kli'-no", or Painting Ceremony 242 

ICi'-no" Wi'-gi-e 242 

]Ki'-no" Wi'-gi-e 247 

Wi'-gi-e of the Ceremonial .Approach 249 

The Song of Death '.... 252 

The Little Song of the Gathering 253 

The Great Wi'-gi-e 254 

Instructions to the wife of the Initiate 270 

Paraphrase of the Ni'-ki ritual of the Ci^'-dse-a-gthe gens 272 

Ni'-ki Wi'-gi-e of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gens 274 

A fragmentary Ni'-ki Ritual of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gens 285 

Pabt II. Osage Version 

The two rites as given in the Osage language 303 

Pakt III. Literal Translation 

Literal translation of the two rites into English 461 

Index 599 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATES 

Page 

1 . Map of [jarts of Veriiou and Bates Counties, Missouri 44 

2. Photograph of Sho^'-to^-ja-be 45 

3. The Wa-xo'-be 64 

4. 17, Portable shrine, outer case, h, Complete portable shrine 65 

5. Portable shrine, inner case 72 

(!. Fresh-water mussel and shell norgot 73 

7. a, Cedar; b. Deer 96 

8. a, Otter; 6, Beaver; c, Buffalo bull 97 

0. a, Golden eagle; 5, Hawk 104 

10. Black bear 105 

11. a, Puma; b, Male elk 108 

12. a, Sagittaria latitolia; 6, Nelumbo lutea; c, Glycine apios; d, Falcata comosa. 109 

13. a. Crawfish; 6, Pileated woodpecker; c, Buffalo bull face 116 

14. Ratibida columnaris 117 

15. Photograph of Wa-xthi'-zhi 152 

L6. Photograph of Wa-thu'-ts'-a-ga-zhi 153 

17. a, Pipe; b, War club 196 

IS. Photograph of Wa-tse'-mo''-i'' 197 

19. Photograph of Xu-tha'-wa-to°-i° 238 

20. Heart-sack pouch and captive strap 239 

21. The Poppy Mallow and the Blazing Star 280 

22. Photograph of Mo°-zho°-a'-ki-da 284 

23. Photograph of Wa'-thu-xa-ge 285 

TE.\T FIGURES 

1. Map of Osage County, Oklahoma, showing locations of ^dllages 46 

2. Movements of tribal divisions and gentes 60 

3. Camps of the two great di\isions of the tribe 69 

4. Pelican 85 

5. Snapping turtle 92 

6. Cat-tail 93 

7. Bow and two arrows 99 

8. Conventional Osage design of the spider 102 

9. Rising sun, showing sjTnbolic rays 119 

10. Burden-strap 153 

11 . The water beetle 222 

12. The water spider 223 

13. The water strider 223 

14. The leech 224 

15. White swan 230 

41 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 



By Francis La Flesche 



INTRODUCTION 

Ancient Home of the Osage 

According to data gathered from the hrief references to the Osage 
people made by the early travelers it appears that during the seven- 
teenth century these Indians were living on the banks of the Little 
Osage near its cQnfluencc with the main Osage River. Marquette 
(1673) was the first traveler to mention the Osage. He did not visit 
the people in their villages, but, guided by information obtained from 
members of other tribes, he located the Osage upon liis map as living 
at the head of the river bearing their name. How long prior to that 
time the Osages had made that particular locality their home, held 
it and the surrounding country by their valor while they lived upon 
its natural products, is not known, but it is certain that for more than 
a century since this first mention of them they had made this 
place their fixed abode. From this locality they went forth upon 
their hunting excursions and to this spot they returned. From here 
their war parties, both great and small, started when they went against 
their enemies, and when the fighting was over the war parties came 
back to this place. It was here that all their various ancient tribal 
ceremonies were held, and the hills that surrounded their villages were 
hallowed to the people by the graves of their ancestors, who were 
always remembered in the daily orisons of the tribe. 

Influence of Traders 

As trading relationship was established with the Osage by the 
Spanish and French traders they introduced among the people woven 
goods, such as blankets and strouding, also implements of iron, which 
changed to a large extent the native industries and even crept into 
the ancient ceremonials of the tribe. No serious interference, how- 
ever, was made in the social organization of the Osage until there 
came about a trade rivalry between certain traders, who, to further 
their own enterprises, recognized as chiefs certain influential and 
ambitious men who were not within the established order of chieftain- 
ship. In this way a breach was made in the tribal organization — an 

43 



44 THE OSAGK TRIBE Ietii. ann. 36 

organization that was interwoven with the religious rites of the 
peo])lo — and thus gradually the authority of the real chiefs was 
weakened. 

Visit of Captain Pike 

In 1S06 Capt. Zebulon M. Pike visited the Osages in their villages 
on the Little Osage River, where he stayed about a fortnight and 
beeame personally acquainted with the people find their condition. 

The year of this visit (1806) is epochal in the history of the Osage. 
It marks the beginning of a gradual process by which this people 
relinciuished from time to time to the United States their territorial 
possessions. By the treaties of 1808 and 1818 they ceded large por- 
tions of their land. The treaty of 1825 followed, by which they were 
obliged to give up their ancient home along the Little Osage River and 
take a reservation in Kansas. The treaties of 1834 and 1865 followed, 
and then, by an act of Congress passed in 1870, they gave up their 
homes in Kansas to remove to what was then the Indian Territory. 

The ancient home of the Osage is now a part of Vernon County, 
Missouri.' (PI. 1.) The sites of the two villages may be located as 
follows : 

The Great Osage village was on the east side of the Little Osage 
River near the confluence of the Marmaton; the Little Osage village 
was 6 miles farther up on the west side of the Little Osage River. 

In letters written by missionaries in 1821, while these villages were 
still in existence, the following statements appear: 

Harmony (the name of the mission) is situated upon the Marias de Cein (Marais des 
Cygnes) River about 6 miles above its junction with the Osage. We (the mission) are 
within 15 miles of the Great Osage village.^ 

Present Home and Condition of the Osage 

The present home of the Osage tribe is in Osage County, Oklahoma, 
to which the people movetl from their old reservation in Kansas in 
1872 and took possession of the land. The Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs, in his report for the year 1872, speaking of the Osage and their 
new home, says: 

Their reservation is bounded on the north by the south line of Kansas, east by the 
ninety -sixth degree of west longitude, and south and west by the Arkansas River, and 
contains approximately 1,760,000 acres. » » * By the act of July 15, 1870, pro- 
vision was made for sale of all the lands belonging to the Osages within the limits of 
Kansas and for their removal across the line into the Indian Territory. * * » They 
still follow the chase, the buffalo being their main dependence for food.* * * They 
have since their removal begun farming to some extent, having already about 2,000 
acres under cultivation. Their agent reports the reservation "poorly adapted for 
civilizing piu'poses," there being only one small valley of fertile soil, barely affording 
enough good farming land for 4,000 Indians. Having just located, they have at pres- 
ent but one school in operation, with an attendance of 38 scholars. 



I " Expeditions of Zebulon M. Pike," Coues's edition, pp. 385, 389, notes ■11, 42, 45. 
•Morse's Report on Indian Affairs, pp. 222, 223. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 1 




O / 2 J 4- s 



MAP OF PARTS OF VERNON AND BATES COUNTIES 

Ilomcs of the Great and Little I )sages on the Lil tic OsaRe River at the time of the visit of Capt. Zebuloii 
M. Pike in l,S{jti. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 2 




SHON'-TON-QA-BE (BLACK DOG i 



iIinilHT uf llie Ho"'-f;ii ^MoUlcd Eunk) Kens uf tliu Uo"'-i;a si 
Also known by hi.s people as Zlu"-j;a'-\va-^'a, whii-h is his 
latable, as Ihe lasl pari is archaic and Ihc meaning is losr. 



i^ PLESCiiE] INTRODUCTION 45 

Since that time it has been discovered that the land reported to be 
■'poorly adai)ted for civilizing purj)Oses" is rich in minerals, particu- 
larly in oil, which has of lato yeai"s been developed. The royalties 
received by the Osages on their oil leases have greatly increased their 
wealth, so that they are now reputed to be the richest people in this 
country as a community. They live in well-built houses, furnished 
with the best of furniture the stores can supply, and many of them 
have automo])iles, which they have learned to drive themselves. 

Up to the preiient time the Osages have lived upon their new reser- 
vation in three village communities, thus perpetuating the story of a 
division of the tribe that was forced by accident. The story handed 
down concerning this division is as follows: The Osage people had 
built their village upon the banks of a large river (perhaps the Missis- 
sippi), where they dwelt for a long period of time. It happened that 
the river overflowed its banlcs, forcing the people to flee in a panic 
toward a high hill for safety, taking with them only the things 
necessary for their living. A large group continued its flight until it 
reached the summit of the hill, where the people established their 
temporary camp. From that time this group was spoken of as 
Pa-fiu'-gtlii", Dwellers-Upon-the-Hilltop. Anotlicr group halted at 
a forest where the people pitched their camp. These were spoken of 
as the ^'o°-dseu'-gtlii", Dwellers-in-the-Upland-Forest. A third 
group was caught in a thicket of thorny trees and buslies, where the 
people set up their temporary dwelhngs and became known by the 
name Wa-xa'-ga-u-gthi°, Dwellers-in-the-Thorny-Thicket. A fourth 
group stopped near the foot of the hill, where they camped and were 
known by the name lu-dse'-ta, The-Dwellers-Below. In later times 
the people of this group united with the Dwellers-in-the-Thorny- 
Thicket, and now their identity as a distinct group is practically lost. 
To-day the Dwellers-Upon-the-Hilltop have their village at Gray- 
horse; the Dwellers-in-the-Upland-Forest at Hominy; and the 
Dwellers-in-the-Thorny-Thicket at Pawhuska. (See fig. 1.) 

This accidental division of the tribe into separate village groups, 
made permanent by tacit agreement, in no way disturbed the tribal 
and gentile organizations, and the tribal rites were continued by all 
three groups, although at times the villages were located long dis- 
tances apart. It is said that in each of the villages all the gentes 
Avere represented, so that there was never any difficulty in making 
up the number of gentes required in a ceremony. In recent times, 
however, as the people were reduced in numbei"s from various causes, 
the three groups became dependent upon each other for a full gentile 
representation in a ceremony. 

The Osage tribe belongs to the great Siouan linguistic family. Its 
nearest kindred tribes are the Omaha, Ponca, Quapaw, and Kaw. 
For many years the Quapaw and the Kaw have been intimately 



46 



THE OS AUK TRIHE 



I ICTII. ANN. 30 



associatoil witli tlu> Osa^o, l)iil tlio Poncas did not, have iriondly 
intercourse with tlioni uiilil tlioir removal from Nebraska to the 
Indian Territory in the hxto seventies, and it is only within the last 
live or six years that the Omahas came into close touch with them. 
Owing to the similarity of the languages the Omaha, Ponca, and 
Osagos find little difficulty in understantling each other. 

The Osage tribe is rapidly approaching extinction, not by death 
but by absorption into the white race. The census taken by the 




Fig. 1,— Map of Osage county, Oklahoma (1920), showing locations of the villages of the Pa-ciu'-gthi» 
C'of-dse-u'-gthi", and tho AVa-xa'-ga-u-gthi^ in the present Osage reservation. In English these names 
arc: Dwellers-on-the-niUtop, Dwellcrs-in-the-Forest, and D\vellers-in-the-Thorny-Thickct. 

agent in 1910 shows that out of the 2,100 persons enrolled as Osages 
only 825 are full-bloods, but it is stated by reliable authority that 
many of those counted as full-bloods are mixed-bloods. The Census 
Bureau in its report on the Indian Population in the United States 
and Alaska for 1910 (p. 145) gives the entire population of the Osage 
tribe as 1,373 and that of the full-bloods as 591. Along with the 
process of absorption is also carried the gradual obsolescence of the 
language. Most of the people can speak English, but in their con- 
versation they prefer to use the native language. This, however, 
offers only a feeble resistance and will in time pass away. Many of 



LA FLESCHE] INTKODUOTION 47 

the cliildren are attending tlie public schools, where they freely 
a-isociate with the white scholai-s and s])eak with them in English. 
When at home the little ones use both languages, often dropping 
from one to the other in their conversation without a break in the 
sentence or flow of thought, both languages being spoken with equal 
fluency. 

Rites Given in this Volume 

The Osage tribal rites, wliich for generations running back beyond 
the historic period were to the Osage people their law and their 
religion, which kept them in constant touch with Wa-ko°'-da, are 
now rapitlly dying, as are the few old men to whom these rites were 
transmitted with reverent care. Under the new conditions and the 
new ideas introduced among the people by the white race these rites 
will soon fade from the memory of the coming generations and be 
lost beyond recovery. It was because of these rapid changes that 
the ceremonial life of the people was given immediate attention when 
taking up the study of the Osage tribal life. 

In this volume of the study of the Osage tribe the fii'st place is 
given to the rite called Ga-hi'-ge 0-k'o°, Rite of the Chiefs, for the 
reason that in this rite is perpetuated the story of the vital changes 
that took place in the ceremonial life of the Osage people during 
the protracted transitional period through which the tribe passed. 
Although the ancient No^'-ho^-zlii^-ga (the Seers) handed down the 
story of the tribe's experiences in cryptic form, the story revealed 
clearly to the studious members of the tribe that these men of the 
ancient days were well aware of the historic fact that the tribal life 
of the people, as well as their tribal institutions,. were developed 
gradually; that this gradual development was a process continually 
stimulated not only by the desire for the preservation of the tribal 
existence, but by actual hard experiences that taxed both the 
physical and mental powers of the people and their leaders. This 
rite also points back to the time when the life of the people as a 
tribe was in a chaotic state; to their emergence therefrom; and to 
their achievement of a tribal government well suited to safeguard 
the people, as an organized body, from internal as well as from 
extei'iial perils. Under this peculiar form of government the people 
lived contentedly until within the last few decades. 

The second rite given in this volume is the Ni'-ki No°-k'o°, Hear- 
ing of the Sayings of the Ancient Men. In this rite is recorded the 
thoughts that occupied the minds of the No°'-ho°-zhi''-ga when they 
were formulating the external forms set forth in the preceding i-ite. 
These thoughts were regarded by the ancient men as fundamental 
to the tribal organization, which was to constitute the means by 
which the people must meet the various demands of tribal existence. 



48 THE OSAGE TRIBE [etii. ann. aC 

The theme of the rite is abstract; it deals witli life, not only in its 
diverse nianifostatious, but, in ])arti('ular, with that mysterious 
power known to the people as Wa-ko"'-da, which gives life to all 
things and whose abode is believed to be within everything and in 
every place, both celestial and terrestrial. 

It would appear from the story handed down by the old men, in 
mythical form, of the origin of the people, that the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga 
arrived at the idea that life was conceived between two great fructi- 
fying forces — namely, the sky and the earth — and continued forever 
to proceed therefrom. This conception the No'"-ho°-zhi''-ga not 
only expressed in the mythical story mentioned above, but also in 
dividing the tribe in two parts — one to represent the sky and the 
other the earth — they further emphasized this symbolic expression 
by requiring the men belonging to one division to take wives from 
among the women belonging to the other division. This tribal 
arrangement did not arise from an idle thought, but from a belief, 
born of a long study of nature, that such was the means employed 
by Wa-ko^'-da to bring forth life in bodily form. 

The mythical story, telling of the origin of the people, the No°'-ho°- 
zhi°-ga distributed in modified versions among the various gentes of 
the tribe. The version given to a gens was made to conform to that 
part of nature which the gens represented in the tribal and the 
gentile organizations, for the tribe in its entirety symbolized the 
visible universe in all its known aspects. 

In the course of this study of the Osage tribe, covering a number 
of years, it was learned from some of the older members of the No"'- 
ho^-zhi^-ga of the present day that, aside from the formidated rites 
handed down by the men of the olden days who had delved into the 
mysteries of nature and of life, stories also came down in traditional 
form telling of the manner in which these seei's conducted their 
deliberations. The story that seemed most to impress the No°'- 
ho"-zhi"-ga of to-day is the one telling of how those men, those stu- 
dents of nature, gradually drifted into an organized association that 
became known by the name No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga, Little-Old-Men. As 
time went on this association found a home in the house of a man who 
had won, by his kindness and hospitality, the affection of his people. 
It was at the house of this big-hearted man that the Little-Old-Men 
assembled for their discussions. Since that time it has been regarded 
by prominent men as an honor to entertain the No'^'-ho°-zhi°-ga. 
There were times in the long career of these holy men — for they were 
sometimes designated by that term of reverence — when, as they sat 
around the fire of their home, they were confronted with perplexing 
questions, questions that affected their conclusions or the application 
of their conceptions to human affairs. At such times of doubt they 
would choose two of their number to go and seek divine aid and guid- 



i.v FLESCHE] INTRODUCTION 49 

ance. The men chosen performed this sacred duty by secluding 
themselves from all human associations and by taking upon them- 
selves the rite of No^'-zlii^-zho" (vigil), which usually lasted four 
days, or at the longest seven days. The report made by the men 
taking this rite usually decided the action to be taken by the No"'- 
ho"-zhi°-ga as a body. 

Ever}' rite to which the Osage people clung from the earliest times 
of their tribal existence is regarded by them as religious and suppli- 
catory in character. Those relating to war, to peace, and to life are 
held with eciual veneration. The thoughts embodied in the symbolic 
tribal organization and in the formulated rites were gathered by the 
"holy men" from the open book of nature, not in a single season nor 
in a single lifetime but through years of patient mental toil. 

From these ancient tribal rites the Osage people learned to depend 
always upon Wa-ko°'-da for continued existence. Although they 
were a peace-loving people, they were often forced to the necessity of 
marching against their enemies in defensive or offensive warfare. 
At such times the warriors did not rely solely upon their personal 
prowess, but, vicariously, they cried without ceasing for divine aid 
in overcoming their foes. Therefore their first act in preparing for 
war was to choose a man upon whom devolved the duty of making a 
constant appeal to Wa-ko°'-da. This officer was called Do-do°'- 
ho^-ga, a title which may be freely translated as The-sacred-one-of- 
the-war-movement. If the war party achieved success, all the honors 
were accredited to this mediator. 

The people also learned that as a tribe they must daily appeal to 
Wa-ko°'-da for a long and healthful life. Therefore at dawn, when 
they saw the reddened sky signaling the approach of the sun, men, 
women, and children stood in the doors of their houses and uttered 
their cry for divine help ; as the sun reached midheaveu they repeatetl 
their prayer; and their supplications agahi arose as the sun touched 
the western horizon. 

Mention was made of these daily orisons from actual observation 
by men who traveled in the far West in 1806 and 1811. Later, in 
the year 1820, Governor Miller, in a letter addressed to the Rev. 
Jedidiah Morse, says: 

These Indians have a native religion of their own and are the only tribe I ever knew 
that had. At break of day every morning I could hear them at prayer for an hour. 
They appeared to be as devout in their way as any class of people. 

In 1840 the Rev. Isaac McCoy, a Baptist missionary, in mentioning 
this custom, says: 

It has been reported that the Osages did not believe in the existence of the Great 
Spirit. I was astonished that anyone who had ever been two days among them or 
the Kanzas, who are in all respects similar, should be so deceived. I have never 
before seen Indians who gave more undoubted evidence of their beUef in God. 
2786—21 4 



50 THE OSAGE TRIBE [etii. ann. 38 

Other writers of those early times have also mentioned this custom 
of devotions, but none of them with the human sympathy and under- 
standing manifested by Thomas Asche, Governor Miller, and Isaac 
McCoy. Recently an Omaha Indian, in speaking of the Osages, said: 

My father and I visited them when they had moved to their new reservation (in 
the early seventies). Before sunrise in the morning following the first night of our 
visit I was awakened by the noise of a great wailing. I arose and went out. As far 
as I could see men, women, and cMldren were standing in front of the doors of their 
houses weeping. My parents explained to me that it was the custom of the people to 
cry to Wa-ko"'-da morning, noon, and evening. When I understood the meaning of 
the cry I soon learned not to be startled by the noise. 

Such was the manner in which the Osage kept in touch with Wa- 
ko^'-da, whom they believed to be present in all things. To-day the 
voices of only a few old men like Ku'-zhi-wa-tse and ^'o°-dse'-ko°-ha 
can be heard in the summer mornings appealing to the All-con- 
trolling Power. 

There is another rite to which a number of the mixed-bloods and 
all of the full-bloods still cling, a rite which seems to have escaped 
the notice of travelers. It is the ceremonial bestowal of a gentile 
name upon a child. The giving of the gentile name installs the 
child in his proper place in the tribal organization and entitles him 
to recognition as a person. The ceremonies of this rite are supplica- 
tory, inasmuch as they are an appeal for help that the little one 
may successfully reach maturity, even to old age, and that he may 
be blessed with an abundance of the foods necessary to his comfort 
and existence. Parents who love their children (and all do) make 
many personal sacrifices in order to have their children given a 
proper place in the tribe and blessed with a long and fruitful life. 

Trifling is frowned upon and is not permitted in the ceremonies. 
If a mistake occurs, which under ordinary circumstances would pro- 
voke merrunent, such an incident is ignored and the exerci-es are 
continued with due solemnity. The tribal rites of the Osage, all of 
which deal with serious matters,' have been kept pure and free from 
meaningless, vidgar tales, such as are found among civilized as well 
as uncivilized peoples. 

The thoughts of the ancient seers, the continual theme of which 
is life, are given expression not only in formulated rites, but also in 
symbols which are often more expisessive than words. The tribal 
organization, for instance, symbolically expresses the idea con- 
ceived by those old men, that the part of the universe visible to 
them is a great unit; also that life issues from the combined force 
and influence of the various bodies that compose the unit. This 
expression is emphasized in the recited parts of some of the rituals 
of the tribal rites which tell of the descent of the people from the 
sky to take possession of the earth and make it their abode. In 
the rituals those old men have even gone so far as to personify and 



LA FLESCHE] INTRODUCTION 51 

to pair some of the visible bodies, as the sky and earth, sun and 
moon, morning and evening stars, and some of the constellations, 
implying a proeroative relationship. 

Syaibolic Organization of the Tribe 
The symbolic organization of the tribe is as follows: 















Tsi 


-Jhu Great Division 












B 




A 




7 




6 


5 


4 




3 


2 




1 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 


C 


7 


6 


5 4 


3 


2 


1 




Ho- 


-ga Subdivision 










Wa-zha'-zhe Subdivision 
















Ho» 


-ga Great Division 













The tribe is divided into two great divisions, one to symbolize the 
sky and the other the earth. The division symbolizing the sky is 
called Tsi'-zhu, a word which may be interpreted as Household. 
The division symbolizing the earth is called Ho°'-ga, the Sacred One. 

The great division symbolizing the earth is subdivided so that one 
part is made to represent the dry land of the earth and is dignified 
with the name Ho°'-ga. The other part represents the waters of 
the earth, the great lakes, the rivei"s and their tributaries, and is 
called Wa-zha' -zhe — a name by which the whole tribe is known. 

In accordance with the religious significance of these two great 
divisions, a rule was prescribed which required the men of one 
division to take wives only from the women belonging to the opposite 
division. This rule was strictly and religiously observed until the 
people were reduced in numbers from various causes and in recent 
times by the disturbing influences of the white race. 

It is clear from the reUgious thoughts embodied in the symbolisms 
of the two great divisions, and from the mythical stories told of the 
appeals of the people to some of the heavenly bodies for long life 
when about to descend to the earth, that the old men intended the 
organization to stand as a perpetual supplication, not only for long 
life to the individual member, but to the tribe as well, and for an 
orderly marital relationship between the peoples of the two great 
divisions. 

Gentile Organization 

For ceremonial purposes, and for completing the tableau depicting 
the sky with its celestial bodies, the earth with its water and the 



52 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

various forms of life belonging to it, together with the dry land and 
its many kintls of animals, the tribe was further divided into gentes 
and subgentes. Each gens or subgens had its own mythical life- 
story, its life-symbol or set of life-symbols, its sacerdotal functions, 
and a definite part or parts to perform in the great tribal rites, all 
of which are composite in character. As a rule a subgens is that 
part of a gens segregated for the purpose of choosing therefrom a 
priestly messenger called Sho'-ka — an office necessary for conomuni- 
cating with the other gentes in a ceremonial and authoritative manner. 
The names of the gentes of the two great divisions, in their sequen- 
tial order, was obtained from several men, but none of the lists 
agreed in every particular, due, possibly, to the fact that each gens 
had its own way of telling of the rites. Some of the men said: "We 
tell the same story, but each one tells it in a little different way," 
meaning that each gens had its own version of the mythical story. 
The list obtained by Miss Alice C. Fletcher m 1896 from Chief Sho"'- 
to°-pa-be (pi. 2), better known as "Black-dog," of the Eagle gens, is 
the nearest approach to a complete list and is here given. 

Gentes of the Ho^'-ga Great Division 

wa-zha'-zhe subdivision 

1. Wa-zha'-zhe pka; Wliite Wa-zha'-zhe. Refers to its gentile life- 

symbol, the mussel with its shell. 

I°-gtho°'-ga Ni Mo°-tse; Puma-in-the-Water. Sho'-ka. 

2. Ke'-k'i°; Carrier-of-the-Turtle. 

Ba-k'a Zho-i-ga-the; Cotton-tree People. Sho'-ka. 

3. Mi-ke'-the-stse-dse; Cat-tail {Typha latifolia) . 

Ka'-xe-wa-hu-pa; Youngest brother. Sho'-ka. (See foot- 
note, p. 278.) 

4. Wa'-tse-tsi; Star-that-came-to-Earth. 

Xu-tha' Pa-fo" Zho-i-ga-the; Bald Eagle People. Sho'-ka. 

5. 0-9u'-ga-xe; They-who-make-Clear-the-Way. 

Mo^-sho'-dse-mo^-i" ; Travelers-in-the-Mist. Sho'-ka. 

6. Ta-tha'-xi"; Deer's Lungs, or Ta-fi^'-dse-fka; Wliite-tailed-Deer. 

Wa-dsu'-ta-zhi°-ga; Small-Animals. Sho'-ka. 

7. Ho I-ni-ka-shi-ga; Fish-People. 

E-no°' Mi°-dse-to°; Exclusive-Owners-of-the-Bow. Refers to 
its office of making the ceremonial bow and arrows that 
symboUze night and day. Sho'-ka. 

C Ho^'-ga U-ta-no''-dsi; The-Isolated-HC-ga. The Earth. 
Mo°'-hi''-pi; Flint-Arrow-Point. Sho'-ka. 

ho^"'-ga subdivision 

1. Wa-^a'-be-to"; They-Who-Own-the-Black-Bear. 
Wa'-(?a-be-?ka; The-White-Bear. Sho'-ka. 



LA FLBSCHE] INTRODUCTION 53 

2. I°-gtho°'-ga; Puma. 

Hi°-wa'-xa-ga ; The Porcupine. Sho'-ka. 

3. O'-pxo"; Elk. 

TaHeSha-be; Dark-horned Deer. Sho'-ka. 

4. Mo°'-i°-ka-ga-xe; Maker-of-the-Earth. 

5. Ho^'-gaGthe-zhe; The-Mottled-Sacred-One (the immature golden 

eagle) . 

6. Xu-tha', Eagle (The adult golden eagle). 

7. Ho^'-ga Zhi°-ga; The Little-Sacred-One. 

I'-ba-tse Ta-dse; The-Gathering-of-the-Winds. Sho'ka. 

Gentes of the Tsi'-zhu Great Division 

1. Tsi'-zhu Wa-no°; Elder Tsi'-zhu, or Wa-ko°'-da No°-pa-bi; The- 

God-Who-is-Feared-by-All. Eefers to its life symbol, the Sun. 
Wa-ba'-xi; The-Awakeners. Refers to its office of urging the 
messengers to prompt action. Sho'-ka. 

2. pi°'-dse A-gthe; Wearers-of -Symbolic-Locks. 

Sho^'-ge Zho-i-ga-the; Dog-People. Refers to its life-symbol, 
the dog star. The name Sho^'-ge includes coyotes, gray 
wolves, and all other kinds of dogs. Sho'-ka. 

3. Pe'-to° To°-ga Zho-i-ga-the; Great-Crane-People. 

Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta-ge; The-Gentle-Tsi'-zhu. Refers to its office 
of Peacemaker. 

4. Tse-do'-gal^-dse; Buffalo-Bull-Face-People. Related to the Tsi'- 

zhu Wa-no°. 
Tse-a'-ko°, corruption of fse-tho^'-ka; Buffalo-Back. Sho'-ka. 

5. Mi-k'i°' Wa-no"; Carriers-of-the-Sun-and-Moon. Refers to its life 

symbols, all the heavenly bodies. 

6. Ho°' Zho-i-ga-the; Night-People. Refers to its life symbol, the 

Night, 
fa-pa' Zho-i-ga-the; Deer-head or Pleiades People. Sho'ka. 

7. Tsi'-zhu U-thu-ha-ge; The-Last-Tsi'-zhu, or the last in the order. 

The Tsi' Ha-shi (Those-Who-Were-Last-to-Come) 

A Ni'-ka Wa-ko"-da-gi; Men of Mystery, or Thunder People. 

Xo^'-dse Wa-tse; Cedar Star. Sho'-ka. 
B Tho'xe; Buffalo Bull (archaic name for the buffalo bull). 

sacred fireplaces 

The three groups of seven gentes each are spoken of as: The 
Wa-zha'-zhe, who possess seven fireplaces; The Ho°'-ga, who possess 
seven fireplaces; The Tsi'-zhu, who possess seven fireplaces. All of 
these 21 fireplaces are war fireplaces, for the people of these three 
groups were organized as military bodies for defensive purposes. At 



54 THE OSAGE TRIBE Ihth. ann. 30 

tho war ceromonios of those three groups of geiites the recited parts 
of the rituals are usually prefaced with the lines: 

The Wa-zha'-zhe (or Ho^'-ga or Tsi'-zhu), a people who poBsess seven fireplaces, a 
people among whom there are none that are craven. 

The Ni'-ka Wa-ko^-da-gi, marked A on the diagram; the Tho'-xe, 
marked B; the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi, marked C, each has a war 
fireplace; but these war fireplaces are kept separate when speaking 
of the gentile order for the purpose of commemorating certain portions 
of the story of the tribe. 

In course of time and as governmental ideas developed two special 
fireplaces were established and given the title U-dse-the Wa-shta'-ge, 
Gentle or Peace Fireplace. A new gens was also created within the 
Tsi'-zhu Great Division, to which was given one of these Peace 
Fireplaces, the office of Peacemaker, and the name Tsi'-zhu Wa- 
shta'-ge, Gentle Tsi'-zhu. Within the Ho^'-ga Great Division was 
also created a new gens out of the Wa'-tse-tsi gens and called Po°'-ka 
Wa-shta'-ge, Gentle Po^'-ka, and to it was given the other Peace 
Fireplace together with the office of Peacemaker. Two hereditary 
chiefs were chosen out of these new gentes, one for the Tsi'-zhu 
Great Division, the other for the Ho^'-ga Great Division. To the 
Tsi'-zhu chief was given precedence in official rank. The duty of 
these hereditary chiefs was to enforce peace within the tribe. 

SANCTUARIES 

The houses of these two chiefs became sanctuaries not only for the 
people of the tribe but also for members of other tribes, including 
enemy tribes, who were allowed to seek refuge there. These two 
houses were made to represent the earth and all life contained 
therein. Two doors were given to each of these sacred houses, one 
facing east and the other west, and an imaginary line running from 
door to door symbolized the path of the sun, which daily traverses 
the middle of the earth. The story of these two chiefs is given in 
the first ritual of this volume. 

Rituals Presented in Three Forms 

The rituals of the two tribal rites presented in this volume are 
given in three forms, as follows: 

The first form is in a free English translation of the intoned or 
recited parts of the rituals. For convenience in reading, and to 
avoid the monotony of constant repetition, the refrain, "it has been 
said, in this house," that occurs at the end of every line in the original 
is generally omitted from the line< of the free translation. 

The second form is in the Osage language as transcribed from the 
dictaphone records made by Wa-tse'-mo°-i° and other members of 



LA FLESCHE] INTRODUCTION 55 

the tribe versed in the tribal rites. The refrain, "it has been said, 
in this house," is retained throughout the rituals as originally given, 
for the reason that to the Osage it is necessary to show that every 
line intoned is authoritative and originated in the house where the 
ancient No°'-ho"-zhi°-ga (the Little-Old-Men) gathered to formulate 
the rites. This original form is included in this volume in order that 
the educated Osage may read the rituals of his ancestors in his own 
language unconfused by the English translations. 

The third form is an English translation given as literally as it 
could be made under certain difHculties. The language employed in 
these rituals is not that in ordinary use, but tropes, figures of speech, 
and metaphorical expressions were freely used by the No°'-ho''- 
zhi°-ga to convey their ideas, thus making it difficult for the uniniti- 
ated to fully understand the ritualistic language. This peculiar 
mode of expression is characterized by the Indians as No°'-ho°- 
zhi°-ga I-e, Language of the Little-Old-Men. 

All the songs included in the two rituals presented in this volume 
were sung b}^ Osages into the dictaphone and transcribed from the 
records thus made by Alice C. Fletcher. 

Acknowledgments 

Acknowledgment is here made of the assistance given by Dr. Fred- 
erick V. CovUle and Mr. Paul C. Standley in identifying the plants 
mentioned in some of the rituals; also of the courtesy of Dr. Chas. W. 
Richmond in identifying certain birds that figure in the rites. The 
writer is indebted to Dr. William E. Safford for valuable assistance 
given by him in identLfymg certain food plants and water insects that 
have important places in the sacred rituals and in the assembling of 
the illustrations showing these symboUc plants and insects. 



PART I.-THE OSAGE TRIBAL RITES 

FREE TRANSLATION 



57 



THE GA-HI'-GE O-K'O", RITE OF THE CHIEFS 

The title Ga-hi'-ge O-k'o", freely translated, means the Rite of the 
Chiefs. To understand its significance in the tribal development the 
following statement is necessary: 

The ancient No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga (The Little-Old-Men) who formulated 
the organization of the people made it religious in character and based 
it upon the duality they observed throughout nature. These thought- 
ful seers had arrived at the conception that all life issues which take 
on manifold forms result from the combined influence of two great 
physical forces — namely, the Sky, including all the heavenly bodies, 
and the Earth, including the waters distributed over it. This 
duality they represented in the tribal organization, the Tsi'-zhu 
great division representing the Sky, the Ho^'-ga great division the 
Earth. The duality was also reflected in all the tribal rites, those 
which pertained to war and those which related to peace and civil 
government. During the early stages of the tribal life it appears 
that the Osage were mainly under a military form of government, 
which had passed through certain experimental stages, all of which 
occupied a long period of time. Although this form had served the 
tribe well in defending it against external dangers, yet it was not 
considered as a completed form of goverimient, for it lacked the civil 
branch necessary for the welfare of the people as a whole. 

It is this stage of the tribal organization that is dealt with in the 
following story of the Rite of the Chiefs. The first part of the story 
as told by four different members of the No'"-ho°-zhi°-ga is alle- 
gorical in form and about the same in substance, from which the 
element of time and the details of many experiences are omitted. 
The story is as follows : 

Allegorical Story of the Organization 

In the beginning the peoples of the Wa-zha'-zhe, the Ho°'-ga, and 
the Tsi'-zhu came from the sky to the earth. After these three 
groups of people had descended they started forth to wander over 
the earth, observing, as they marched, the sequence in which they 
had reached the earth; first the Wa-zha'-zhe, then the Ho°'-ga, and 
last the Tsi'-zhu. One day, after they had wandered for a great 
length of time, the Wa-zha'-zhe suddenly halted, and the leader 
looked back over his shoulder to his followers, who had also halted, 
and in an undertone said : " We have come to the village of a strange 
people." (See chart, fig. 2.) The leader of the Ho^'-ga looked back 

59 



60 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 



[BTH. ANN. 36 



over his shoulder and in the same manner jiasscd the word to the 
Tsi'-zhu. 

Overhearing the words cautiously spoken by the Wa-zha'-zhe 
leailer and his followers, the people of the village sent a messenger 
to inquire who these strangers were and what was their mission. On 
the invitation of the messenger the Wa-zha'-zhe alone entered the 
village, for the Ho^'-ga and the Tsi'-zhu declined to follow because 
they had noticed with revulsion that the bones of animals and of 




ri8. 2.— Movements of tribal divisions and gentes. This chart is from a rough sketch drawn by Wa- 
xthl'-zhi to illustrate the allegorical story of the organization of the Osage tribal government. 

No. 1 in the diagram indicates the place occupied by the Ho»'-ga U-ta-no»-dsi where they were found by 
the group called Wa-zha'-zhe who possess Seven Fireplaces. 

No. 2 indicates the place to which the Ho^'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi moved at the request of the Wa-zha'-zhe who 
possess Seven Fireplaces; at this place came the people called no»'-ga who possess Seven Fireplaces. 
Later came the people called Tsi'-zhu, including the Tho'-xe and the Ni'-ka Wa-koo-da-gi. These six 
groups here formed a council that established the military branch of the government and the great 
warpath. 

No. 3 mdicates the place to which all the people moved and at which the war rites were reorganized and 
the small warpath established. 

Nos. 4 and 5 indicate another place to which all the people moved and where the civil branch of the 
government was organized. Hero were formed two new gentes from which two hereditary chiefs 
were to be chosen, one for the Tsi'-zhu and the other for the Ho^'-ga Great Division. Rules and rites 
were also formulated for the maintenance of peace and order within the tribe. 

men lay scattered and bleaching around the village. It was the 
village of death to which they had come, when they had been seeking 
for life. 

The Wa-zha'-zhe leader was conducted to the house of the leader 
of the strange people and there the two men exchanged words in 
friendly terms. The Wa-zha'-zhe presented a ceremonial pipe to 
the leader of this strange village, who in turn gave a pipe to the 
Wa-zha'-zhe, and then the two leaders conversed freely about the 
life and customs of their peoples. In the course of their conversa- 
tion the Wa-zha'-zhe said that he belonged to a people who called 
themselves Ho°'-ga, whereupon the stranger said: "I also am a 



LA FLESCHB] TRIBAL RITES — FREE TRANSLATION 61 

Ho°'-ga." He then told the Wa-zha'-zhe the manner in which his 
people destroyed life wherever it appeared on the earth, using for 
their weapons the four winds, and tliat whichever way the people 
turned the winds, the animals and men stricken by them fell and 
died. It was at this point that the Wa-zha'-zhe leader made known 
to his host that the Ho°'-ga and the Tsi'-zhu desired to dwell with 
him and his people, but did not like their habit of destroying life. 
The Wa-zha'-zhe leader then suggested that his host and his people 
move to a new country, where the land was pure and free from the 
signs of death. The Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi (the Isolated Ho°'-ga), as 
the Wa-zha'-zhe called these strange people, willingly accepted the 
invitation and moved with the Wa-zha'-zhe to a "new country," 
where they joined the Ho^'-ga and the fsi'-zhu. 

All the four groups, the Wa-zha'-zhe, the Ho°'-ga, the Tsi'-zhu, and 
the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no"-dsi, thereupon moved to a new country, where 
the land was undefiled by decaying carcasses and where there were no 
visible signs of death. There they united themselves in friendship, 
each pledging to the other its strength and support in resisting the 
dangers that might beset them in the course of their united tribal life. 
It was at this tune that the following dramatic incident took place 
between the Wa-zha'-zhe and the Ho°'-ga. The Wa-zha'-zhe 
offered to the Ho^'-ga a symbolic pipe, but before accepting it the 
Ho^'-ga asked, "Who are you?" The Wa-zha'-zhe replied: 

I am a person who has verily made of a pipe his body, 

When you also make of the pipe your body, 

You shall be free from all causes of death, O, Ho^'-ga. 

The Ho^'-ga took the pipe and said in response: 
I am a person who has made of the red boulder his body, 
When you also make of it your body, 
The malevolent gods in their destructive course, 
Shall pass by and leave you unharmed, , Wa-zha'-zhe. 

The expression of the Wa-zha'-zhe, "I am a person who has made 
of a pipe his body," is figurative and means that the pipe is the life 
symbol of his people, the medium through wlTich they approach 
Wa-ko°'-da with their supplications. The words used by the Ho^'-ga 
in his response, "I am a person who has made of the red boulder his 
body," are also figurative and mean that the red boulder is the life 
symbol of the Ho^'-ga people. The red boulder has a dual symbol- 
ism; it is the symbol of endurance and is also a symbol of the sun, 
the emblem of never-ending life. 

It was thus that the two groups, the Wa-zha'-zhe and the Ho^'-ga, 
pledged support to one another in times of danger so long as tribal 
life shouM last. The words of the Wa-zha'-zhe and those of the 
Ho°'-ga were put in the wi'-gi-e form and are embodied in the rite 



62 THE OSAGE TRIBE [lOTti. ANN. 38 

called Ni'-ki-e, Tho Words of the Ancient Men, where the wi'-gi-es 
will be found in full (pp. 195-197). These two wi'-gi-es are also used 
in a certain part of the Wa-sha'-be A-thi°, a war ceremony that will 
appear in a later volume, where it is intimated that the Wa-zha'-zhe 
also presented a ceremonial pipe to the Tsi'-zhu. The narrator of the 
foregoing paraphra'^e offered no information concerning the part of 
the Tsi'-zhu in this council of alliance, as he was not a member of 
that division. 

At the time of this council the people of the three groups gave to 
the Ho^'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi a house wliich they called fsi' Wa-ko°-da-gi, 
House of Mysteries. Both the house and its fireplace they conse- 
crated to ceremonial uses and made them to represent the life-giving 
earth. To this House of Mysteries were to be brought all the infants 
of the four groups to be ceremonially fed upon the sacred foods of life 
that they might arrive safely at the age of maturity, and the children 
were here to be given their gentile names in ortler to take their estab- 
lished places in the tribal organization. 

The council at this time also established another house, Tsi' Wa-ko°- 
da-gi. House of Mysteries, which they called Ho^'-ga fsi, and placed it 
in the keeping of the Wa-pa'-be gens of the Ho'^'-ga group. In this 
house were to be performed the ceremonies that pertain to war. 
Within its fireplace, which was called Ho'-e-ga, Snare, were placed 
four stones, arranged at the cardinal points, one for each of the four 
winds. Upon these four stones was placed the Tse'-xe Ni-ka-po, a 
caldron for the boilmg of certain plants that represented certain per- 
sons belonging to enemy tribes. 

Wlien the 'Tsi'Wa-ko^-da-gi of the Wa-pa'-be gens and its fireplace 
had been consecrated, each of the gentes of the four groups placed 
within the house its life symbol. This statement is not meant to be 
understood in a literal sense, as some of the gentile life symbols are 
of the great objects in nature, such as the sun, moon, stars, earth, 
while there are others that are intangible, as the day, the night, and 
the sky. Therefore the act of placing the sacred. life symbols in the 
House of Mysteries, was represented by the reciting of the wi'-gi-es 
that relate to these various sacred life symbols. 

These four warrior groups conducted both the war and hunting 
movements of the people, and no one group could act independently 
of the others. A war party thus ceremonially organized by all of 
these four groups was called Do-do" '-hi°-to°-ga. War Party in Great 
Numbers. 

After living for a long period of time under this form of government 
the people were again seized with a desire to "move to a new country " 
(a term expressive of a slow movement that preceded a change in the 
government of the tribe). It was while the tribe was in the "new 



LA FLESCHE] TKIB;U. RITES FREE TRANSLATION 63 

country " that the people made the Wa-xo'-be Zhi°-ga (pi. 3) , the Little 
Wa-xo'-be, one for each of the seven fireplaces of the Tsi'-zhu great 
division; one for each of the seven fireplaces of the Ho^'-ga subdivi- 
sion; and one for each of the seven fireplaces of the Wa-zha'-zhe sub- 
division of the great Ho^'-ga division. 

These wa-xo'-be were made of hawk skins and symbolized the 
courage of the warriors of each fireplace. The choice of the hawk to 
symbolize the courage and combative nature of the warrior proved 
satisfactory to aU the people, for the courage of the hawk was con- 
sidered as equal to that of the eagle, while the swift and decisive man- 
ner in which the smaller bird always attacks its prey ever excited the 
admiration of the warrior. 

From the story relating to the adoption of the hawk as the warrior 
symbol, given in wi'-gi-e form by a member of the I^-gtho^'-ga gens 
and by a member of the Tho'-xe gens in a paraphrase of the wi'-gi-e, 
it would appear that the ceremonies of the formal adoption and the 
acts of preparing the hawk skin for preservation were accompanied 
by dramatic action. 

In the version of the I°-gtho°'-ga, a gens belonging to the Ho°'-ga 
Great Division, the principal characters of the drama are left vague 
as to identity. But in the version of the Tho'-xe, a gens belonging 
to the Tsi'-zhu Great Division that symbolizes the sky, it becomes 
clear that the warrior whom the hawk typifies is a child born of the 
god of day and the goddess of night. In this version the principal 
characters are four brothers (stars), their sister (the moon), and 
the sun. 

The supernatural birth of the wa-xo'-be, the symbolic hawk, is 
referred to in the words of three songs belonging to the ritual of the 
Wa-xo'-be degree of the Tho'-xe gens. The three songs bear in com- 
mon the title "Little Songs of the Sun." (These songs, with their 
music, will appear in a later volume.) 

Song 1 

1 
I go to the call of those who are assembled, 
To the call of those who are gathered around the hawk. 

I go to the call of those who are assembled, 

To the call of those who are gathered around the black bird. 

3 
I go to the call of those who are assembled, 
To the call of those who are gathered around the One of the Night. 

4 
I go to the call of those who are assembled, 
To the call of those who are gathered around the One of the Day. 



64 THE OSAGE TRIBE [mn. ann. 36 

SoNQ 2 



He is born I He is born ! 
Behold, the hawk, he is born. 
They have said. They have said, 
He is bornl 

2 
He is born ! He is born ! 
. Behold, the black bird, he is born. 
They have said. They have said, 
He is born ! 

3 
He is born ! He is born ! 
Behold, he is born of the One ol the Night, 
They have said. They have said, 
He is born ! 

4 
He is born ! He is born! 
Behold, he is born of the One of the Day, 
They have said. They have said. 
He is born! 

Song 3 

1 
Lo, it has come to pass, 
Behold, the hawk that lies outstretched. 
Is now born they proclaim. Is now born they proclaim. 
Welcome! be it said. Lo, it has come to pass. 

2 
Lo, it has come to pass, 
Behold, it is of the One who is of the Day, 
He is born they proclaim. He is born they proclaim. 
Welcome! be it said. Lo, it has come to pass. 

3 
Lo, it has come to pass, 

Behold, the black bird that lies outstretched, 
Is now born they proclaim. Is now born they proclaim. 
Welcome! be it said. Lo, it has come to pass. 

4 
Lo, it has come to pass. 
Behold, it is of the One who is of the Night. 
He is born they proclaim. He is born they proclaim. 
Welcome! be it said. Lo, it has come to pass. 

The No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga sat within their king house as they worked 
on the wa-xo'-bes. Their heads were still bent over the last one 
when they were startled by the angry bellowing of an animal. All 
eyes turned upon the Sho'-ka, who hastened to the door and quickly 
threw aside the flap. There stood an angry buffalo with his head 
lowered and his tail tremblmg in the air, pawing the earth and 
throwing clouds of dust toward the sky. Stricken with fear, the 
Sho'-ka asked with unsteady voice, "Who are you?" The bull 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 3 




THE WA-XO-BE 

I. Till' V i--'.'-Li , 111 pI.- I if I In I f ;i luiwk, IS 11 svmlldl llf culiniCP.aiHl i-rallinl li\ ,1 r.iliiiiLiiHl- 

ill); .illiM ., h; ^nl. ■!:. ■■ ,.|,: J Ills miMi ill ;in :ltl:u-k. (i. Tllo dr.rskui |i..iii li in u liirli l liu 

w:i-\.- I.> I ciii,-l ■ ..: ' Kihisc. c. Tllccloi-rKkinsli-apriiri-anMiiMli.' «.i-s'i'-lir ulii'ii 

itisiiiii iHiurii jhi iiihi pill aroMMd llio iioi'kcif llici-iirn.Tiiii.l ilir « i-\(.-lir II, II, ],iiii,-li 
hancson his lack, sii.siK.icieii inmi i lie strap. Perinissinn louse the dciTskiii ini iiiiikiii;; iliosiiaij 
and pniich must be ceremonially (iblained from the Deer gens. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 4 




a. PORTABLE SHRINE, OUTER CASE 

The outer case of the portable shrine of the t attoouig rite. The case is made of buffalo hair. Per- 
mission for the use of the bulTalo hair must be ceremonially obtained from the Tho'-xe gens. 




6. COMPLETE PORTABLE SHRINE 

The eagle's le^ attached to the hanging strap of the portable shrine is a symbol commemorative 
of the "finding of the foe" and belongs to the Hi'-<;a-da (Leg Stretched) subgcns of the Ho'>'-ga 
A-hiu-to" gens of the Hon'-ga groat division. 



iji rLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 65 

iitiswered, "I am Tho'-xe, lift ye your heads!" (See p. 134, 
Name of gens.) At that moment there came a crash of thunder 
that seemed to issue from the end of the ridgepole of the house. In 
an excited manner the No"'-ho°-zhi''-ga gathered up all the wa-xo'-bes 
and threw them toward the bull, who at once lowered his tail, ceased 
pawing the oartli, and became friendl}^ 

The-ie two angry visitors, the bull and the thunder, were repre- 
sentatives of the Tho'-xe and the Ni'-ka Wa-ko°-da-gi gentes. It was 
in this dramatic manner that these two gentes were jointly given the 
office of caring for the wa-xo'-bes. At an initiation of a member of 
one of the various gentes into the mysteries of the war rite, the heredi- 
tary caretaker of the wa-xo'-be, who belongs to the Ni'-ka Wa-ko°- 
da-gi gens, is given the bird to redecorate, an act equivalent to its 
reconsecration for the benefit of the initiate. If the hereditary 
caretaker happens to be absent from the initiation, this duty is 
performed by the second official caretaker, who belongs to the 
Tho'-xe gens. It is said that all the wa-xo'-bes belong to these two 
gentei because the No°'-ho°-zhi''-ga had given them to the two gentes 
through fear; also that the Tho'-xe and the Ni'-ka Wa-ko°-da-gi had 
originalh- brought the birds from the sky and given them to the 
people.^ 

The Tho'-xe and the Ni'-ka Wa-ko°-da-gi were also spoken of as 
the Tsi Ha-shi, Those Last to Come — that is, those of the gentes 
who were last to take part in the formulating of the war rite. 

Summary: Development op the Military Branch of the 
Government 

From the foregoing story it appears that the military branch of the 
tribal government in the course of its development passed through 
two stages, each one of which was spoken of as a '' departure to a new 
country." The introductory statement that the jieoples of the 
Wa-zha'-zhe, the Ho^'-ga, and the fsi'-zhu came from the sky to 
the earth expresses the conception that all life descends from the 
sky to the earth. The story that immediately follows has a historical 
basis and indicates the point of departure from a chaotic to an orderly 
state of tribal existence. 

It also appears that at the beginning the affairs of the tribe were 
under the control of the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no^-dsi, a division representing 



' There is, however, teason to suspect that these two gentes, feeling that they were slighted in the dis- 
tribution of the sacred articles, threatened to depart, and in order to prevent the rupture the Non'-hon-zhit»-ga 
gave them the office of official keeper. An incident of that Icind occurred among the Omaha at the time 
of their reorganization, when the seven ceremonial pipes were distributed among certain gentes of the 
tribe. The distnlmtors of the sacred pipes passed by an important and influential subgens of the Tha'-ta-da 
without leaving a pipe. This subgens. talcing offense at the slight, prepared to leave the tribe, when the 
leading men presented to the subgens a buffalo head for a wa-xo'-be. As a result the gens remained, the 
buffalo head became sacred to the members, and from that time they were known as the Te-pa' I-Ja-zhi 
They Who do not Touch Buflalo Heads. 

2780—21 .5 



66 THE OSAGE TBIBB [bth. ann. 36 

the earth. During tliis period tlie tribe was in a continual state of 
confusion from oxternal and internal disturbances. In order to pre- 
serve the tribal existence, a movement toward reorganization became 
necessary, and in time such a movement was initiated by the Wa-zha'- 
zhe, a subdivi-ion of the great Ho°'-ga division. 

In this reorganization certain offices were established and distrib- 
uted as follows: To the Ho^'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi was given the priestly 
office of keeping the house wherein the children of all the people were 
initiated into the tribal life and given their gentile personal names. 
To the Ho°'-ga, a subdivision of the great Ho°'-ga division, was given 
the office of keeping the house wherein the ceremonies pertaining to 
war were to be conducted. This house was placed in the direct keep- 
ing of the Wa-?a'-be gens and the I°-gtho'"-ga gens, both of which 
were related gentes. The authority for the initiation of all war move- 
ments was conferred upon these four tribal divisions: Wa-^a'-be, 
Wa-zha'-zhe, Tsi'-zhu, Ho^'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi, each having an eagle 
for its war symbol. The authority with which they were vested in- 
cluded the management of the tribal hunting expeditions. Such 
was the first stage of the development of the military branch of the 
tribal government. 

The reorganized government proved effective in the maintenance 
of peace and order within the tribe and in upholding the dignity of 
the people as an organized body, but it was burdened with ceremonial 
forms which did not admit of the prompt action often necessary for 
moving against aggressive and troublesome enemies. 

The No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga, becoming conscious of this defect, again made 
a "move to a new country" to bring their organization to final com- 
pletion. In this second move the various gentes of the tribe were 
empowered to organize war parties in three classes, as follows: 

1. A war party composed of the warriors from the gentes of one of 
the two great divisions. 

2. A war party made up of two or more of the gentes of one of the 
two great divisions. 

3. A war party organized by one gens. 

War parties of the first two classes were called Tsi'-ga-xa Do-do"; 
Tsi'-ga-xa probably meaning Outside of the House of Mystery; 
Do-do", War Party — i. e., war party organized outside of the House 
of Mystery. War parties of the third class were called Wa-xo'-be 
U-ko"-dsi; Wa-xo-be, the Sacred Hawk; U-ko°-dsi, Isolated ; An Iso- 
lated Wa-xo'-be. War parties of the-e three classes were not required 
to observe the tedious ceremonial forms prescribed for the war parties 
organized under the rule of the four divisions. Under this new move- 
ment each gens of the tribe was given a hawk wa-xo'-be for cere- 
monial purposes. This was the second stage in the development of 
the military branch of the tribal government. (See chart, fig. 2.) 



LA FLBSCHB] TRIBAL RITES — FREE TRANSLATION 67 

For the perpetuation of the memory of these events, as well as for 
the guidance of the people in organizing their forces for defensive or 
aggressive warfare, the No°'-ho''-zhi°-ga formulated rites and cere- 
monial acts which were memorized by men capable of such a task 
and handed down by them to the successive generations. 

Civil Government: Chieftainship and Duties 

In the progress of time the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga made a third "move 
to a new country." (See chart, fig. 2.) At this time the civil branch 
of the tribal government was instituted. It was then agreed that the 
people should be governed by two men, one for each of the two great 
tribal divisions, who should bear the official title of Ga-hi'-ge, Chief. 
The duties assigned to these two chiefs were as follows: 

1. When two men quarrel, come to blows, and threaten to kill each 
other, the chief shall compel them to cease fighting. 

2. When a murder is committed and a relative of the person slain 
threatens to take the life of the murderer in revenge, the chief shall 
compel the relative to keep the peace. 

3. If the relative persists in his effort to take the life of the slayer, 
the chief shall expel him from the tribe. 

4. If the relative takes the life of the slayer when the chief had 
already offered him the sacred pipe to smoke, the chief shall give the 
order for him to be put to death. 

5. The chief shall require the murderer to bring gifts to the rela- 
tives of the man he has slain as an offering of peace. 

6. If the murderer refuses to do this, the chief may call upon the 
people to make the peace offering and then expel the murderer from 
the tribe. 

7. If a man's life is threatened by another and he flees to the house 
of the chief, he shall protect the fleeing man. 

8. If a murderer pursued by the relatives of the slain man flees 
into the house of the chief, he shall protect the man. 

9. If a stranger, although he be from an enemy tribe, enters the 
house of the chief for safety, the chief shall protect him. 

10. Wlien a war party comes home with captives, the chief shall 
give them their lives and have them adopted into the tribe.* 

When the tribe goes out for the annual buffalo hunt it shall bo the 
duty of the chief to designate the route to be taken and the site in 
which the camp is to be pitched, and the order shall be proclaimed 
by a crier. The two chiefs shall take turns each day in conducting 
the journey, both when going forth and when returning to the home 
village. 

< It is from this sacred duty that the T^■i'-zhu Wa-shta-ge gons have as one of their gentile personal names 
the name Ni'-wa-the, The Giver oi Life; also Wa-ni'-e-to", which has the same meaning. 



68 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

For the enforcement of their orders the two cliiefs shall bo empow- 
ered to select and appoint 10 ofhcens, one from each of the following 
gente-i: 

On the Ho°'-ga side: Wa-(?a'-be or I°-gtho°'-ga; Ta I-ni-ka-shi-ga ; 
0'-pxo°; Ho°'-ga A-hiu-to°; Ho°'-ga U-ta-no''-dsi. 

On the Tsi'-zhu side: Ni'-ka-wa-ko^-da-gi ; Tho'-xe; Tsi'-zhii 
Wa-no"; Mi-k'i" Wa-no°; Tse-do'-ga-in-dse. 

These officers shall bear the title A'-ki-da, Soldier, and shall be 
chosen because of the military honors that they had won as well as 
for their personal friendship for the chief. The chief in selecting his 
officers shall not be restricted to his own division, but he may, 
according to his own preference, choose his officers from any of the 
designated gentes of the opposite division. These officers shall have 
their houses close to that of the chief. 

The officers selected from three of these designated gentes were 
honored with special titles, which afterwards became in these gentes 
personal names. These titles, and later the names, were: A'-ki-da 
To°-ga, Great Soldier, for the officer chosen from the Wa-pa'-be gens 
or the related I°-gtho°'-ga gens; A'-ki-da Zhi°-ga, Little Soldier, for 
the one chosen from the Ta' I-ni-ka-shi-ga gens; and A'-ki-da 
Ga-hi-ge,^ Chief Soldier, for the one from the Ni'-ka-wa-kC-da-gi gens. 

It was agreed at this time that the office of the chief shall descend 
to the lineal male heirs. In case the heir is disqualified for the office 
owing to mental infirmity or indifference to the customs held sacred 
by the people, the A'-ki-da in council shall determine who of the 
nearest kin to the former chief shall succeed to the office. 

The gentes from which the two Ga-hi-ges or chiefs were chosen 
were the Wa'-tse^tsi gens (the people who descended from the stars), 
of the Wa-zha'-zhe subdivision of the Ho°'-ga great division; and the 
fsi'-zhu gens of the Tsi'-zhu great division. The title Wa-shta'-ge, 
Gentle, was at that time added to the names of these two gentes, so 
that in speaking of them both the name and the title were men- 
tioned, as Wa'-tse-tsi Wa-shta'-ge (sometimes called the Po^'-ka 
Wa-shta'-ge), and the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge. This gens was some- 
times called 'Tsi'-zhu Wa-bi°' I-ta-zhi, the fsi'-zhu who do not 
touch blood, because the people of that gens are supposed to refrain 
from the shedding of blood. The rule that required the chief to 
protect a man fleeing to his house for refuge applied to all the families 
of this gens. 

It was also agreed that the house of the chief should be held as 
sacred as it repre-ents two life-giving powers — the Earth and the 
Sun. The house stands for the earth and must have two doors, one 
opening toward the rising sun and the other toward the setting sun. 

5 This title appears as a personal name in the Omaha Ta-pa' gens. See 27th Ann. Kept. Bur. Amer. 
F,thn..p. 182. 



IJ. FLKSCHE] TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 69 

The fire that is phiced midway between the two doors represents the 
sun, whose pathway symbohzes endless life, and thus passes through 
the middle of the house that stands for the earth. The fireplace was 
also consecrated and the fire taken therefrom bj- the people to start 
their home fires was thought of as holy and as having power to give 
life and health to those who 
use it.' It was also declared 
that the two doors, which 
represent the continual flow 
of life, shall be closed to the 
man who approaches them 
when contemplating mur- 
der. 

The ceremonial position of 
the chief's house in the vil- 
lage was also established at 
this time. (See diagram, 
fig. 3.) 

Some time after the crea- 
tion of the office of chief for *v^3r 
each of the two great divi- 
sions, and the men chosen 
had been inducted into their 

office, the two chiefs went P P P P P P P 

out separately to seek for U U U U O U U 

some sign of approval from C C C 

theSupernatural. l^orseven 
days and sLx nights the men 
fasted and cried to Wa- 
kC'-da. 

As the darkness of even- 
ing spread over the land, on 
the sixth day of his vigil, the 
Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge chief 
removed from his face the south 

sign of vigil and sat down to ^'°' 3— ceremonially arranged camps of the two great divi- 
*f fT • 1,+ \Kr\\ \ sions of the tribe, the Tsi'-zhu and the Ho"'-ga. A dot in- 
Test I or tne nignt. WnUe he dlcates the houses of the chiefs. The Tsi'-zhu represent 
was yet awake and in deep t^e sky and the Ho»'-ga the earth. 

thought he heard approaching footsteps, and as he looked up 
he beheld a man standing before him, as though in the light of 
day. The stranger spoke, saying: "I have heard your cry. I am 
a person who can heal all the pains and the bodily ailments of 
your people. When the little ones make of me their bodies they 

« Xu-tha'-wa-to»-io of the Tsi-zhu Wa-no" gens said that "the fireplaces of the houses of the two chiefs 
were called U-dse'-the Wa-shta'-ge." Gentle or Peaceful Fireplaces, in contradistinction to the seven fire- 
places of each of the Hc'-ga, Wa-zha'-zhe, and the fsi'-zhu divisions that were dedicated to warfare and 
were associated with violence and death. 



AfOf^TH 

ccccccc 


ccccccc 


occcccc 


ocooccc 


ccccccc 


ccccccc 


cccGccc 

7~SI'- ZHU 


OCCGCCG 



COCOCGC 


CCCCCCC 


CCGCCCO 


ccccccc 



70 THE OSAGE TRIBE [btii. ann. 36 

shall always live to see old age. In the morning when the mists 
have cleared away go to yonder river, follow its course until you 
come to a bend, and there, in the middle of its bank, you will see me 
standing in the miilst of the winds." 

When morning came the chief followed the course of the river, as 
the stranger bade him, until he came to a sharp bend, where the 
waters had washed away the earth, leaving a high bank. The chief 
looked up and there, in the middle of the bank, he saw the stranger, 
who was Mo°-ko'' Ni-ka-shi-ga,' the Man Medicine {Cucurbita per- 
ennis). The chief removed from its jilace the strange man-shaped 
root, being careful not to break any part of it. As this was the 
seventh and the last day of his fast, the chief then started toward 
liis home, following the course of the river. He had not gone far 
when he came to another bend of the stream where there was a high 
bank. In the middle of it he beheld another root which he examined 
and found to be of the female sex. The chief carried home these two 
roots, which afterwards were used to cure bodily ailments. 

For ceremonial purposes a portable shrine was made for these two 
roots and wi'-gi-e? relating to their revelation, but as they did not 
belong to the gens of the narrator, Wa-xthi'-zhi, he declined to give 
further details of the ceremonies. 

Old Sho^'-ge-mo^-i" said that Ni'-ka-wa-zhi°-to°-ga's wife had the 
shrine, but she had given it to Ni'-ka-u-kC-dsi, and it is supposed 
that when he died the shrine was buried with him. 

The story of the vigil of the Wa'-tse-tsi chief is given in three 
wi'-gi-es. The first is entitled No^'-zhi^-zho" Wi-gi-e, The Wi'-gi-e 
of the Vigil: the second, Ho°'-ga Wa-gthi° Ts'a-ge, The Aged 
Eagle; the third, Mo°'-9e Wi'-gi-e, The Wi'-gi-e of the Metal. These 
wi'-gi-es form a part of the ritual relating to the tattooing ceremony 
and will follow later, but a paraphrase of the story given by the nar- 
rator is here repeated because it supplies two omissions in the wi'-gi-es 
presented : 

On the evening of the sixth day of his vigil the Wa'-tse-tsi chief 
removed from his face the sign of vigil and sat down to rest for the 
night. While he was yet awake there appeared before him a very 
aged man, who spoke to him, saying,' I have heard your cry and have 
come to give myself to your people. I am Old Age. When the little 
ones make of me their bodie^ they shall always live to see old age. 
When morning comes, go to yonder river, and in a bend where the 
water, sheltered by a high bank, lies placid you will find me. Take 
from my right wing seven feathers. Let your people make of them 
their bodies and they shall always live to see old age." In the dawn 
of the morning which was the seventh day of his vigil the chief arose 
and again put upon his face the sign of vigil. He went to the river, 

'The Omahas also use this root for medicine. See 27th Ann. Rcpt. Bur. Amer. Etbn., p. 585. 



LA FLESCHEl TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 71 

and in a bend where the water was sheltered from the winds by a high 
bank he saw, on the water's edge, a white pehcan so old that he could 
not move. In this bird the chief recognized his visitor of the night 
before. From the right wing of the bird the chief plucked seven 
feathers and started for home. As he was approaching a brook he 
met an eagle, who gave him a downy feather as a symbol of old age. 
When he was nearing home he beheld lying on the ground a piece of 
black metal, wliich ho also took as a symbol of old age. 

Lines 121 to 127 of the Wi'-gi-e of the Vigil and lines 39 to 46 
of that of The Aged Eagle refer to healing by scarification and cup- 
ping as revealed by the two birds to the chief and the material to be 
used as instruments. The Wi'-gi-e of the Metal indicates the aban- 
donment of the use of the wing bones of the pelican and the eagle 
and the adoption of metal upon its introduction by Europeans for 
the making of the instruments required for scarifying. 

From these stories it would seem that the two chiefs directed their 
efforts toward the understanding of bodily ailments and the finding 
of stiitable remedies. The chiefs thus sought by combating disease 
to niiuntain the numerical strength of the tribe. The people on their 
part put faith and confidence in the healing powers of the chiefs, 
which led to the adoption of "' Wa-stse'-e-do°," The Good Doctor, by 
the two Wa-shta'-ge gentes for a gentile personal name. 

On his return to the village the chief assembled the people of both 
great divisions, to whom he told the story of his vigil. The people 
were well pleased and formally consecrated the Pelican to be thence- 
forth their sacred symbol of old age, and it thus became wa-xo'-be. 
The portable shrine which held the sacred symbols and the symbols 
them-elves are spoken of collectively as wa-xo'-be. 

The Wa-xo'-be To'*-ga, The Great Portable Shrine 

The portable shrine, called Wa-xo'-be 'ro°-ga, held not only the 
sacred object, the symbol of the older rite, the skin of the cormorant, 
but in it was placed the sacred object and symbols of the newer rite 
which was born of the visions of thb chief — namely, the skin of the 
pelican, seven feathers of that bird, a downy feather of the eagle, 
and a piece of black metal. This composite shrine, called the 
Wa-xo'-be 'ro°-ga, when completed was consecrated in the same man- 
ner as was the portable shrine of the older rite, by the simultaneous 
re ital by each of the gentes of the tribe of the wi'-gi-e which related 
to certain life symbols called Wa-zho'-i-ga^the, a term which, freely 
translated, means the object of which they made their bodies. At 
ea 'h initiation and tran fer of a Wa-xo'-be 'TC-ga the shrine was in 
like manner reconsecrated. The wi'-gi-e? used at such a ceremony will 
be given in the order in which they are recited at the ritual of the 



72 THE OSAG.E TRIBE [dth. ann. 36 

chief, which is also the order in which they are recited at the tattooing 
ceremony. 

For the purpose of initiation into the mysteries of these combined 
rites a number of the Wa-xo'-be To°-ga were made and consecrated. 
These, in contrast with the other shrines, were circulated by transfer 
among the members of the tribe without regard to the tribal divisions 
or to the gentes to which the candidates may belong. 

In the month of February, 1911, one of these wa-xo'-bes was 
secured for the National Museum from the widow of Wa-^e'-to"- 
zhi^-ga. The outer case, like those of the hawk wa-xo'-bes, was made 
of woven buffalo hair (pi. 4, a). The inner case, within which are 
kept the pelican and the cormorant wa-xo'-be and other sacred 
articles, was made of woven rush, with symbolic designs similar to 
those on the rush cases of the hawk wa-xo'-bes (pi. 5). 

The two wa-xo'-bes were folded one inside of the other, so as to 
make one roll. The tattooing wa-xo'-be, which is the skin of a cor- 
morant {Phalacrocorax atintus) is split down the entire length of the 
back. Around the base of the tail is wound a string of scalp locks, 
10 or 12 in number, that hang down like a skirt. Within the body 
of the skin are placed eight tattooing instruments, the points toward 
the head and the tops toward the tail. The shafts of some of the 
instruments are flat, others round, and about the length of a lead 
pencil. To the lower ends of the shafts are fastened steel needles, 
some in straight rows and others in bunches. To the tops of some of 
the shafts are fastened small rattles made of pelican or eagle quills. 
The needle parts of the shafts are covered with buffalo hair to protect 
them against rust. The skin of the cormorant was folded over the 
tattooing instruments, the neck of the bird doubled over the back 
and tied down. The skin of a pelican, split down the back, is wrapped 
around the cormorant and tied around the middle with a band of 
woven fiber. The bill, head, and neck of the pelican are missing. 

Within the woven rush case, placed without any particular order, 
are seven weasel skins; one tobacco pouch made of a buffalo heart- 
sack; bits of braided sweet-grass; half of the shell of a fresh-water 
mussel for holding the coloring matter; four tubes, one of bamboo and 
three of tin, worn by the operator on his fingers as guides for the in- 
struments when he is at work; two bunches of the wing-feathers of 
small birds used in applying the coloring matter; an old burden- 
strap; four wing-bones of a pelican or an eagle, tied together with a 
twisted cord of wood or nettle fiber; two rabbits' feet, used for 
brushing the skin of the parts that have been gone over with the 
instruments when the subject becomes nervous by the irritation of 
the wounds; and a large brass ring worn by the operator around his 
neck as a part of his symbolic paraphernalia. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



THIRTY^SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 5 




PORTABLE SHRINE. INNER CASE 



riiisis tlK- t-asc which form- t 
dark and red linos niniiinLr 
geometrical designs and whi 
such as the Great Bear, ( >i u 
the other seven, each representing ( 



cylindrical rush (Eleocharis iTiteratincta). 



' for the sacred an 
s width represent- 
the flap syinboli/r 
,cs, the Galaxy, cu 
i ol the two greai 



fiirming the pocket with 
The part covered with 
Is with itsstarry figures, 
k<'t has sLx fastenings and 
case is made of a slender 



LA FLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 73 

These articles will be described in detail and their pictures given, 
together with that of the cormorant skin, in the tattooing rite, which 
will be included in a later volume. 

The Wa-xo'-be To°-gas that have been seen and remembered 
within recent years are as follows: 

The one owned bj^ Wa-(;'e'-to°-zhi"-ga was secured for the United 
States National Museum in 1911. 

That owned by Wa-thu'-ts'a-ga-zhi, AYa-xthi'-zhi's father, was 
buried with him when he died in 1910. 

The one that was owned by Wa-zhi°-pi-zhi, Btho'-ga-hi-ge's father, 
is now in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 
New York City (No. 4/776). 

The one owned by To°-wo°-i'-hi-zhi''-ga was sold by him several 
years ago to a traveler and its whereabouts is unknown. 

The one that was owned by To^-wo^-i'-hi-to^-ga is now in the 
private collection of Mr. Charles Evanhoe, of Ralston, Oklahoma. 

The general description of the Wa-zhi°'-pi-zhi wa-xo'-be in the 
Museum of the American Indian, obtained through the courtesy of 
Dr. George H. Pepper, is about the same as the Wa-9e'-to"-zhi"-ga 
wa-xo-be in the National Museum. 

IxiTiATioN Into the Rite of the Chiefs 

The transfers of the Wa-xo'-be fo^-gas and the initiation of candi- 
dates into the mysteries of this composite rite do not occur as fre- 
quently as the transfers of the Hawk wa-xo'-bes and the accom- 
panying initiations into the mysteries of the rites pertaining to war. 
The man who has a Wa-xo'-be To°-ga is apt to keep it until he is 
incapacitated for tattooing work by old age or loss of eyesight. 
For this reason there is less opportunity' through frequent use for a 
man to carry accurately all the details of this rite and the sequence 
of the ceremonial acts than there is those of the war rites. 

When a man has been ceremonially presented with a Wa-xo'-be 
To°-ga he becomes an involuntary candidate for initiation into the 
mysteries of the rite of which the Wa-xo'-be To°-ga is the central 
figure. He will ask his wife and his relatives for permission to accept 
the offer, and these persons readily grant the request, because it is 
an honor in which they also have a share. 

The man and his relatives having agreed to accept the Wa-xo'-be 
To°-ga, the candidate, with the help of his relatives, proceeds to 
collect the various symbols, such as a buffalo robe, an elk skin, a 
turtle shell, a mussel shell, an eagle skin, a deer skin, a swan skin, 
all of which are necessary for use in the ceremonies. They also store 
away food supplies, such as buffalo meat, sweet corn, dried squash, 
roots of the lotus, and, in recent years, beef, flour, coffee, and sugar 



74 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

for entertaining the members of the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga order during 
the initiatory ceremonies. Fees are also collected for the members 
who are to take part in the performance of the ceremonies. In 
early days these fees consisted of buffalo robes, articles of clothing, 
weapons, and, in recent times, of horses, woolen blankets, broadcloth, 
silks, calico, and articles of clothing made of manufactured goods. 

When all of these preparations have been made the candidate sends 
his Sho'-ka,' who carries a pipe as his badge of office, to give notice 
to his Xo'-ka° (Initiator), whom the candidate has selected, that he 
will be ready to take his initiation on a certain day. The Sho'-ka 
then gives notice to the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga of all the gentes of the 
tribe to attend the ceremonies and to take part in their performance. 

The Ki'-non, or Ceremonial Painting of the Xo'-ka 

At dawn of the day appointed for the initiation the candidate goes 
with his Sho'-ka to the house of the Xo'-ka. The Sho'-ka carries 
with Mm the skin of a black bear, the skin of a swan, a shell gorget, 
and a woven belt, all of which articles are to be worn by the Xo'-ka 
as his sacerdotal apparel. The Sho'-ka also takes with him a wooden 
bowl, in which is put pulverized charcoal mixed with water, the 
ceremonial paint to be used by the Xo'-ka. When the candidate 
and liis Sho'-ka have entered and are assigned to their places m the 
lodge, the Xo'-ka strips himself of his own clothing, preparatory to 
putting on his official apparel. When about to paint himself with 
the charcoal the Xo'-ka recites the following wi'-gi-e, called Xo'-ka 
Wi'-gi-e, which is in three parts. The first relates to the Black Bear 
and to certain symbols given by that animal to the people. 

The Xo'-ka Wi'-gi-e 

(Osage version, p. 305; literal translation, p. 403) 
PART I 

1. Verily, at that time anil place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Ho""-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

4. We have nothing that is fit to use as a symbol. 

5. Then to the male Puma, who stood by, they turned 

6. And spake, saying: O, younger brother, 

7. We have nothing that is fit to use as a symbol. 

8. Then, in quick response, the Puma went forth, 

9. Verily, to the brow of a hill, 

8 Sho'-^ais the title of a gentile ceremonial messenger. Inthelist of gentes given on page 52 of the intro- 
duction certain subgentes are given the title Sho'-lja. This means that from a subgens bearing this title 
must be chwen a man or a woman to act as ceremonial messenger in the initiatory ceremonies of a rite. 

' Xo'-^a is the title of a man who acts as initiator in the initiatory ceremonies of a tribal rite. Such a 
man must be one who has talcen the degree he confers. He may choose his own candidate or he may be 
chosen by a man offering himself as a candidate for initiation into the degree. 



LA FLESCHEl TRIBAL RITES — FREE TRANSLATION 75 

10. Where stood the Bhick Bear that is without blemish, 

11. And, standing in his presence, spake to him, 

12. Saying: O, grandfather, 

13. We have nothing that is fit to use as a symbol. 

14. Then quickly the Bear spake, saying: O, little one, 

15. You say you have nothing that is fit for use as a symbol. 

16. I am one who is fitted for the little ones to use as a symbol. 

17. Verily, I am a person who is never absent from any part of life. 

18. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

19. The Bear came to a bunch of grass, 

20. Which he plucked and threw to the ground, where it lay in a 

twisted shape, 

21. And spake, saying: The grasses also 

22. The little ones shall use as a symbol as they travel the path of life. 

2.3. With quickened footsteps, the Bear went forth 

24. To a b\mch of stunted oaks, 

25. Which he also tore up 

26. And threw to the ground, where it lay in a twisted shape, 

27. Then spake, saying: The stunted oaks also 

28. The little ones shall use as a symbol as they travel the path of life. 

29. Again, with quickened steps, the Bear went forth 

30. To a brook, along the banks of which grew groves of trees, 

31. To a bush of red-bud trees which stood in their midst, 

32. And spake, saying: The red-bud trees also 

33. The little ones shall always use as a symbol. 

34. Out of their branches they shall make their charcoal. 

35. When they use the branches of this tree to make their charcoal, 

36. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

37. Again the Bear went forth, with quickened footsteps, 

38. To a bush of arrowshaft trees {Cornus circinata L'Hor), 

39. Where he sat down to rest, 

40. Then spake, saying: These trees also 

41. The little ones shall use as symbols as they travel the path of life. 

42. Again the Bear went forth, with quickened steps, 

43. To a bunch of grapevine roots, 

44. Which he tore up and threw to the ground, where it lay in a 

twisted shape, 

45. Then spake, saying: The roots of the grapevine also 

46. They shall use as a symbol as they travel the path of life. 

47. When the little ones put to use the grapevine roots, 

48. They shall be as cords with which to tie their captives. 

49. Symbolic cords they shall make of the grapevine roots. 



76 THK OSAOE TRIBE Imth. ann. 30 

oO. The Bear went forth again, with qnickciifd steps, 

51. To the summit of a liill, 

52. To a stony point, 

53. From wliich he selected four stones, 

54. Gathered them together, and placed them in a pile 

55. As he said: Stones such as these 

56. They shall use as symbols as they travel the path of life. 

57. The little ones shall use them to purify their bodies, as with the 

heat of fire. 

58. They shall thus make use of these stones as they travel the path 

of life. 

59. The little ones shall also use them as weights to support the frame 

of their house, 

60. Then the frame of their house shall never loosen but stand firmly 

as they travel the path of life. 

61. Their house is the house of Wa-ko^'-da. 

62. The frame of my house 

63. Is the frame of the house of Wa-ko^'-da. 

64. When the little ones make of it their bodies as they travel the 

path of life 

65. They shall become the owners of a house of Wa-ko°'-da. 

66. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

67. The Bear made a line of footprints. 

68. A line of seven footprints he placed upon the earth, 

69. Leading from the right side of the door of his house. 

70. A line of seven footprints he made 

71. And spake, saying: These footprints also 

72. I have made to be symbols. 

73. Symbols of seven o-do"' (military honors) to be won by the 

warrior. » 

74. I have made them all to be symbols of the o-do"'. 

75. The Bear made another line of six footprints 

76. Leading from the left side of the door of his house. 

77. A line of six footprints he made upon the earth 

78. And spake, saying: These footprints also 

79. I have made to be symbols, 

80. Symbols of the six o-do°' to be won by the warriors. 

81. Symbols I have made them to be. 

82. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

83. He said: Of these footprints the little ones shall make their 

bodies, and for that purpose the footprints shall stand. 



LA FLF.scHEl TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 77 

84. Tlio people spake to one another, saying: There is also the great 

white swan, 

85. Of which the little ones, O, younger brothers, shall make their 

bodies. 

86. Then spake the swan, saying: Wlien the little ones make of me 

their bodies, 

87. Let them know that of all living creatures 

88. None are my equal in strength of wings. 

89. Wlicn I make my flight, even before half of the day has passed, 

90. I am on the farther side of the great lake, 

91. Swinging up and down upon the waves of its waters. 

92. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

93. Their arms shall become strong as are my wings as they travel 

the path of life. 

94. To the four great divisions of the days (stages of life) 

95. They shall succeed in bringing themselves as they travel the path 

of life. 

96. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age. 

97. Wlien the little ones make of me the means of reaching old age, 

98. Then they shall live to see old age as they travel the path of life. 

After a short pause the Xo'-ka recites the next wi'-gi-e, which 
relates to the actions of the female Black Bear when about to hyber- 
nate and to her awakening after her long sleep when she appeals to 
the god of day for long life for her little ones born during the long 
period of rest. This wi'-gi-e is also entitled Ki'-no° Wi'-gi-e, The 
Painting Wi'-gi-e, and it is introductory to the next part, which is 
recited when the Xo'-ka paints himself preparatory to making his 
ceremonial approach to the house of meeting. 



(Osage version, p. 307; literal translation, p. 466) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Black Bear that is without a blemish, 

3. When the moon of the mating of the deer was still young 

(October), 

4. Was seized with a sudden desire to rest her body. 

5. Being perplexed by this sudden desire, 

6. She ran to each of the four winds, 

7. Returning again and again to the starting point. 

8. After a time she paused and stood, 

9. Then quickly went forth, with hurried footsteps, 

10. And came to a patch of bunch grass. 

11. Verily, at that time and place. 



78 THE OSAGE TRIBE I btu. ann. ;tG 

12. She guthered together the bundles of grass iitid hxid them u])on 

tlie ground. 

13. But she rested not her body thereon. 

14. She then quickly went forth, with hurried footsteps, 

15. And came to a patch of stunted oaks. 

16. She gathered together the stunted oaks and hiid them upon the 

ground, 

17. But she rested not her body thereon. 

18. Again slie went forth, with hurried footsteps, 

19. And came to a rivulet on the banks of which were groves of trees 

20. Among which grew bushes of red-bud trees. 

21. These she gathered together and placed upon the ground, 

22. But she rested not her body thereon. 

23. Again she went forth, with hurried footsteps, 

24. And came to a rivulet on the banks of which were groves of trees, 

25. Among which grew vines of grapes. 

26. The roots of the vines she gathered together and placed upon the 

ground, 

27. But she rested not her body thereon. 

28. Again she went forth, with hurried footsteps, 

29. And came to the summit of a chff, 

30. Where she found a number of stones. 

31. She gathered them together, 

32. But she rested not her body thereon. 

33. Verily, at that time and place, 

34. She quickly went forth, with hurried footsteps, 

35. And came to the summit of another cliff, 

36. Where were a number of stones. 

37. These she arranged in the shape of a house. 

38. She entered, placing over her head a slab, 

39. And between these walls she sat to rest her body. 

40. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

41. Close to the period of seven moons, 

42. The Black Bear sat to rest her body. 

43. Verily, at that time and place, 

44. She thought as she sat: Even now I have reached the end of u 

great division of the days. 

45. Verily, in every direction she heard the voices of the birds, 

46. Heard them calling to one another as she sat. 



LA PLESCHB] TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 79 

47. Again slic thought: Even now I have reached the end of a great 

division of the days. 

48. Swarms of httle insects 

49. She saw swiftly flying hither and tliither in the air as she sat. 

50. Again she tliought; Even now I have reached the end of a great 

division of the daj'S. 

51. Verily, at that time and place, it has heen said, in this house, 

52. She thought: Behold, I have come to Wa-ko'"-da. 

53. These little ones 

54. Must dwell in the great divisions of the days. 

55. Then she gathered up her little ones in her arms 

56. And to the great god of day, newly risen, 

57. She held them up 

58. As she said: O, Venerable Father! These little ones have now 

become persons. 

59. Give them strength to bring themselves to see old age, O, Ven- 

erable Father ! as they travel the path of life. 

lifter a slight pause the Xo'-ka recites the third part of the Ki'-no" 
wi'-gi-e, which prescribes the manner in which certain symbols are 
to be put upon his face and body. All these acts are called Ki'-no°, 
a name given to the entire wi'-gi-e. 



(Also Called Ki'-non Wi'-gi-b) 
(Osage version, p. 309; literal translation, p. 46S) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. They (the people of the gentes) said: The little ones have nothing 

with which to paint their faces. 

3. And he (the Priest representing the Black Bear) replied: When 

the little ones paint their faces, 

4. They shall use for their paint the god that appears first in the day, 

5. The god that strikes the sky with a red glow. 

6. It is the color of that god the little ones shall put upon their faces. 

7. When the little ones put upon their faces this color, 

8. They shall always live to see old age as they travel the path of life. 

9. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

10. The Black Bear that is without a blemish (pi. 10, a). 

11. By that animal also 

12. The little ones shall cause themselves to be identified by 

Wa-ko°'-da. 

13. It was he who said: My body which is black in color 



80 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

14. I have made to be as my charcoal. 

15. Wlien the little ones also make it to be as their charcoal, 

16. They shall always be identified by Wa-kC'-da, as they travel the 

path of life. 

17. Behold the white spot on my throat. 

18. Behold the god of day who sitteth in the heavens. 

19. Close to this god (as its symbol) we shall place this spot. 

20. When we place this spot close to the god of day as its symbol, 

21. The Uttle ones shall always live to see old age as they travel the 

path of life. 

22. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

23. They spake to the great white swan, 

24. Saying: O, grandfather, 

25. The httle ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

26. Verily, at that time and place, 

27. The swan spake, saying: You say the little ones have nothing of 

which to make their bodies. 

28. The little ones shall make of me their bodies. 

29. When the httle ones make of me their bodies, 

30. They shall always live to see old age. 

31. Behold my feet that are dark in color. 

32. I have made them to be as my charcoal. 

33. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

34. When they make my feet to be as their charcoal, 

35. They shall always be identified by Wa-ko°'-da as they travel the 

path of life. 

36. Behold the tip of my beak, which is dark in color. 

37. I have made it to be as my charcoal. 

38. When the little ones make the tip of my beak to be as their 

charcoal, 

39. They shall cause themselves to be identified by Wa-ko^'-da as 

they travel the path of life. 

40. Behold also my wings. 

41. The feathers of my wings the little ones shall use as plumes. 

42. When they use the feathers of my wings as plumes, 

43. The days of cloudless skies 

44. Shall always be at their command as they travel the path of life. 

45. The four great divisions of the days 

46. They shall always be able to reach as they travel the path of hfe. 

At the close of the recitation the Xo'-ka puts upon himself the 
sacred symbols, following the order in which they were mentioned 



LA FLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES — FREE TRANSLATION 81 

throughout the wi'-gi-e: First, he colors his face with red paint, the 
symbol of the dawn that promises a peaceful day. Second, he black- 
ens his face with charcoal, that color being the emblem of an unquench- 
able fire and a never-ending life. It represents the bear and also the 
feet and beak of the swan, as both these animals gave the symbol. 
Third, he suspends at his throat a gorget made of the shell of th« 
fresh-water mussel as a symbol of the god of day, who possesses never- 
ending life. The gorget also represents the white spot on the chest 
of the black bear who gave the symbol. Fourth, he plucks from the 
swan skin some of the down and scatters it upon his head as a symbol 
of his priestly office. He strips the barbs from some of the wing- 
feathers of the swan, ties the lower ends together, and fastens the 
tuft to the base of the braided lock of hair which hangs from the 
crown of his head. This tuft of feathers symbolizes the days of cloud- 
less skies, the days of perpetual peace. 

TSI TA-PE, PROCESSIONAL APPROACH TO THE HOUSE OF MYSTERY 

When about to rise, the Xo'-ka says to the candidate and to the 
Sho'-ka: 

Ha! m-fo^-ga e', 

A-no^'-zhi" ta a-to" he a', wi-fo^-ga e'! 

Wa-fa'-be u-fa'-ka thi^-ge kshe. 

E'-ki-go" xtsi a-no"'-zhi'^ ta a-to° he a, wi-co''-ga e'l 

Zhi°-ga' zho-i-ga tha bi do", 

U'-no" a bi i'-the ki-the mo^-thi"' ta ba do". 

A-no^'-zhi" ta a-to" he a', wi-fo^-ga e'! 

FREE TRANSLATION 

O, my younger brother, 

I am about to rise, my younger brothers! 

As the Black Bear that has no blemish, 

Verily, a.s his likeness I shall rise, O, younger brothers' 

So that when the little ones make of liim their bodies. 

They shall ahvays live to see old age as they travel the path of life. 

I am about to rise, my younger brothers! 

The Xo'-ka rises and, followed by the candidate and the Sho'-ka, 
goes out of the door of his house, where he pauses for a moment; 
then starting from the right side of the door he takes seven steps 
forward. He then returns to the house and from the left side of the 
door he takes six steps forward. These 13 steps represent the seven 
and six o-do°' (military honors) to be won by the warriors. 

When the 13 steps have been taken, the Xo'-ka sings the following 
song, wliile the candidate and the Sho'-ka take their places at his 
right side. 

2786—21 6 



82 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 



lETH. ANN. 36 



Tranecribed by Alioo C. Fletcher. 




Hnie beats f T 

Tsi wi" e - dsi tse do" dsi the he 




r ' r r --r r 

wi° e-dsi tse do" dsi the he no° a,Tsi wi° e-dsi tse do° dsi the he no° ha, Dsi 




r r r r r r r - 

the he no" ha a, Qa be to" ga e-dsi a-ka do" dsi the he no" a, Tsi 



J r r r "T r r 

wi" e-dsi a-ka do" dsi the he no" a,Tsi wi" e-dsi a-ka do" dsi the he no". 

1. Tsi wi" e-dsi tse do" dsi the he no" a, 

2. Tai wi" e-dsi tse do" dsi the he no" a, 

3. Tsi wi" e-dsi tse do" dsi the he no" ha, 

4. Dsi the he no" ha a, 

5. C^'-be to°-ga e-dsi a-ka do" dsi the he no" a. 

6. Tsi wi" e-dsi a-ka do" dsi the he no" a, 

7. Tsi wi" e-dsi a-ka do" dsi the he no". 

FREE TRANSLATION 

To a house that sta.nds yonder I go forth, etc. (lines 1-4, 6, 7). 

To the house where dwell the great black ones (bears ~l I go forth (line 5). 

At the close of the song the Xo'-ka says: 

Wi-tsi'-go wa-fa'-be u-fa-ka thi"-ge e do" 

Wa-shko" no"-pe-wa-the e thi" a bi a, wi-fo"-ga. 

Wa-zha'-zhe, Tsi-zhu e-tho"-ba e, 

No"-be'-hi the nio"-thi" bi do" shki, 

U-no" a' bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a, wi-<;o°-ga e'. 

FREE TRANSLATION 

My grandfather is the Black Bear that is without a blemish, 

A person of amazing power. O. younger brothers ! 

When the Wa-zha'-zhe and the Tsi'-zhu 

Make use of his strong hands, 

They shall have the means by which to reach old age. 

At the close of this recitation the Xo'-ka touches the ground with 
the palm of his right hand, and then the three men, walking side by 



LA FLESCHB] TRIBAL RITES — FREE TRANSLATION 83 

side, march toward the house prepared for the ceremony. At the 
second stop, as they approach the ceremonial house, the song and 
accompanying talk are repeatetl and the Xo'-ka touches the ground 
with the palm of his left hand. The three then continue their march 
toward the house, making two more ceremonial stops before they 
arrive. The No""-ho°-zhi°-ga of all the gentes of the Ho^'-ga division 
follow the three men in a procession to the house in the order of their 
positions in the lodge. The three men enter, take their places at 
the east entl of the lodge, and the members of their gens sit on either 
side of them. Then the other gentes of the Ho°'-ga and of the 
Tsi'-zhu Divisions enter and take their established places. 



c 




B 







7 6 

Tsi'zhu Great Division 
Ho'''-ga Great Division 


5 4 3 



2 


1 
X 


7 


6 


5 4 


3 


2 


1 A 7 


6 5 4 3 


2 


1 




Ho»- 


'ga Subdivision 






Wa-zha'-zhe Subdivision 


1 



This diagram, drawni under the direction of Wa-xthi'-zhi, shows 
the established ceremonial positions of the two Great Tribal Divi- 
sions, the Tsi'-zhu and the Ho^'-ga. The lodge in which the cere- 
monies of the tribal rites are performed is erected so that its length 
extends from east to west. The place of the Tsi-zhu, which sym- 
bolically represents the sky, is on the north side of the lodge and is 
indicated by figures and the letters A and B. The, place of the 
Ho^'-ga, which symbolically represents the earth, is on the south 
side of the lodge, and is indicated by two groups of figures, for this 
Great Tribal Division is subdivided into two parts, one to represent 
the waters of the earth and called Wa-zha'-zhe, the other to represent 
the dry lands and called Ho°'-ga. The space, indicated bj- the letter 
A, between the Wa-zha'-zhe and Ho°'-ga subdivisions, belongs to a 
gens called Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi, the Isolated Ho^'-ga. This gens 
symbolizes the earth in its entirety, and the name expresses the 
tribal belief that the earth is isolated from the other cosmic bodies. 
A gens belonging to either one of the two great tribal divisions, 
when initiating one of its members into the tribal rites, shifts its 
regular gentile position to the eastern end of the lodge and occupies 
all of the space marked X on the diagram. The two fireplaces, one 
at each end of the lodge, are indicated by the letter O. 



84 THE OSAGE TRIBE Ieth. ann. 3R 

The Tsi'-zliu Great Division — I(s Gentes 

1. Tsi'-zhu Wa-no", Klder Tsi'-z.hu. 

2. Tse-do'-ga I"-flse. Buffalo Bull Face. 

3. Mi-k'i"' Wa-no", Elder Sun Carrier. 

4. Ho"' I-ni-ka-shi-ga. Night People. 

5. Xu-tha' Zhu-dse, Red Eagle. 

6. Tsi'-zhu We-ha-ge, The Last Tsi'-zhu. 

7. Tse-tho'-'-ka, Buffalo Back. 

B. Ni'-ka Wa-ko^-da-gi, Men of Mystery. 

C. Tho'xe, Buffalo Bull (archaic). 

Eon'-ga Great Division 
Wa-ztia'zhe Subdivision — Its Gentes 

1. Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no", Elder Wa-zha'-zhe. 

2. Wa-ke'-stse-dse, Typha Latifolia. 

3. Wa-zha'-zhe Qka. White Wa-zha'-zhe. 

4. Po^'-ka Wa-shta'-ge, Peace Po^'-ka. 

5. Ta' I-ni-ka-shi-ga, Deer People. 

6. E-no"' Mi^-dse-to", Bow People. 

7. Ga-tsiu, Turtle with Serrated TaU. 

A. Ho^'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi, Isolated Ho^'-ga. 

Ho'i'-ga Subdivision — its Gentes 

1. Ho^'-ga A-hiu-to", Winged Ho^'-ga. 

2. Wa-?a'-be, Black Bear. 

3. I^-gtho^'-ga, Puma. 

4. Mo'^-(;e Ba-tse, Metal Bunched. 
5.' O'-pxo", Elk. 

6. Mo^'-shko", Crawfish. 

7. I'-ba-tse Ta-dse, Wind People. 

When the No'"-ho''-zhi°-ga has come to order the Xo'-ka recites 
the No°'-zhi°-zho° Wi-gi-e, The Wi'-gi-e of the Vigil. (Referred 
to on pp. 70, 71.) This wi'-gi-e is in three parts, each one relating 
to a mystical revelation during the vigil. The first part bears the 
subtitle Mo°-tlii°'-the-do°-ts'a-ge, He-Who-Becomes-Aged-While-yet- 
Travehng (a Pelican) (fig. 4) ; the second part is called Ho°'-ga Wa- 
gthi"-ts'a-ge, The-Very-Aged-Eagle; the third part is the Mo°'-9e 
Wi'-gi-e, The Metal Wi'-gi-e. The third wi'-gi-e indicates a foreign 
influence, the substitution of steel needles or awls as scarifiers in 
place of the wing-bones of the pelican and eagle. 

Wi'-Gi-E OF THE Chief's Vigil 

PART I. VISION OF THE AGED PELICAN 

(Osage version, p. 310; literal translation, p. 470) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Wa-zha'-zhe, a people who possess seven fireplaces, were 

gathered together. 

3. One of the Wa-zha'-zhe (of the Po^'-ka gens) 

4. Fell into deep meditation (upon his future course). 



TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 



85 



5. Verily, at theend of the lodge he sat, 

6. Wliere he fell prostrate and lay with head bowed low. 

7. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said in this house, 

8. He took that which was made sacred by the people (the soil of 

the earth) 

9. And put it upon his face (the forehead). 

10. Then, in the early dawn, 

11. He cried without ceasing as he moved 

12. And walked away forthwith (toward the unfrequented parts of 

the land). 

13. Verily, he arrived at 

the borders of the 
village, where he 
sat to rest, 

14. While the god of day 

(the sun) reached 
mid-heaven. 

15. As the darkness of 

the evening came 
upon him, 

16. Verily, m the midst 

of an open prairie, 
where trees grow 
not, 

17. He inclined his head 

toward his right 
side, 

18. Sat to rest upon the 

earth, with his 
body bent low, 

19. And Wa-ko^'-da 

made him close his 

eyes in sleep. 
Night passed while 

he yet sat. 
He woke and saw the 




20. 

21. 

22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 



Fig. 4.— Do'-dse-to"-ga (Pelican). Life symbol of the Chief of 
the Ho°'-ga great tribal division. In the ritual the pelican is 
called "He-who-becomcs-aged-while-yet-traTeling," a title 
which refers to its symbol of great age. The office of chief is 
hereditary, and must be kept within the Wa'-tse-tsi (Star) 
gens of the Wa-zha'-zhe subdivision of the great Hc'-ga tribal 
division. 



signs of the approach of the God of Day. 
Then he took that which was made sacred by the people 
And put it upon his face. 
At break .of day 

He cried witliout ceasing as he wandered away. 
Then, as he paused and stood to rest. 
The God of Day reached mid-heaven. 
The darkness of evening came upon the man, 
Yet he ceased not his cry as he wandered. 
In the raidst'of the open prairie, wliere trees grow not, 



86 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

31. As he sat upon the earth to rest he thought: This spot, also, may 

bo Wa-ko^'-da's abode. 

32. Theu he iufhiieil his head toward iiis right side, 

33. Bent his body low, 

34. And Wa-ko^'-da made him close his eyes in sleep. 

35. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

36. He awoke and thought: The light of the God of Day is spreading 

over me. 

37. Then he took that which was made sacred by the people, 

38. Put it upon his face, 

39. And in the early dawn 

40. He cried, without ceasing as he moved, 

41. Even as he went forthwith to wander. 

42. As he sat down upon the earth to rest the God of Day reached 

mid-heaven. 

43. The darkness of evening came upon the man, 

44. Yet he ceased not his cry as he wandered. 

45. In the midst of the open prairie, where trees grow not, 

46. As he sat down upon the ground he thought: This spot may, also, 

be Wa-ko^'-da's abode. 

47. Then he inclined his head toward his right side, 

48. Bent his bod)' low to rest, 

49. And Wa-ko^'-da made him close his eyes in sleep. 

50. He awoke while yet he sat and thought: 

51. Even now the light of the God of Day is spreading over me. 

52. He raised his head and arose, 

53. Took that which was made sacred by the people, 

54. Put it upon his face. 

55. Then, in the early dawn, 

56. He cried without ceasing as he wandered. 

57. He sat down upon the earth to rest. 

58. The God of Day reached mid-heaven. 

59. The darkness of evening came upon the man, 

60. Verily, in the midst of the open prairie, where trees grow not, 

61. And he thought: In this spot, also, 

62. Wa-ko^'-da must make his abode, and he sat upon the earth to 

rest. 

63. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in tliis house, 

64. He inclined his head toward his right side, 

65. Bent his body low for rest, 

66. And Wa-ko°'-da made him close his eyes in sleep. 

67. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

68. He arose as day approached, took that which was made sacred 

by the people, 

69. Put it upon his face. 



LA FLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 87 

70. Then, in the early dawn, 

71. He cried without ceasing as he wandered. 

72. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

73. While he yet cried and wandered, 

74. Tlie God of Day rea'-hed mid-heaven. 

75. In the evening of the sLxth tlay (of his vigil) 

76. He approarhed the head of a stream. 

77. Close to its banks he stood and thought: 

78. Here, in this spot, also, Wa-ko°'-da must make his abode. 

79. Here, in this very spot, I shall rest and sleep. 

80. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

81. Wa-ko^'-da made him close his eyes in sleep. 

82. He awoke, saw that night had passed, and he thought: The 

light of the God of Day is spreading over me. 

83. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

84. He raised his head and arose, 

85. Took that which was made sacred by the people, 

86. Put it upon his face. 

87. Then, in the early dawn, 

88. He cried without ceasing as he wandered. 

89. He came to the head of a stream 

90. And stood close to it. 

91. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

92. There sat thePeUcan, He-who-becomes-aged-while-yet-traveling. 

93. The man stood near to him and spake, saying: 

94. O, grandfather, 

95. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies! 

96. In quick response, the Pelican said: O, little one, 

97. You have said the little ones have nothing of which to make 

their bodies. 

98. The little ones shall make of me their bodies. 

99. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

100. Thej^ shall always live to see old age. 

101. Behold, the skin of my feet, 

102. Which I have made to be the means to reach old age. 

103. They (the little ones), also, shall always live to see old age by 

its means. 

104. Behold, the muscles of my jaws, 

105. Wliich I have made to be the means by which to reach old age. 

106. When the little ones, also, make of them the means by which to 

reach old age, 

107. They shall always live to see old age. 

108. Behold, the inner muscles of my tliighs, 

109. Which I have made to be the means by which to reach old age. 

110. When the httle ones make of them the means by which to 

reach old age, 



88 THE OSAGE TRIBE Ieth. ann. 3« 

111. They shall always live to see, in the muscles of their thighs, the 

signs of old age. 

112. Behold, the muscles of my breast, gathered in folds by age, 

113. Which I have made to be the means by which to reach old age. 

114. When the little ones, also, make of them the means by which 

to reach old age, 

115. They shall always live to see old age. 

116. Behold, the flaccid muscles of my arms, 

117. Which I have made to be the means to reach old age. 

118. When the little ones, also, make of them the means to reach 

old age, 

119. They shall always live to see, in the muscles of their arms, the 

signs of old age. 

120. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

121. He said: Behold, my wings. 

122. They, also, 

123. Are not without meaning. 

124. I offer them for use as awls. 

125. When the little ones make use of them as awls, 

126. They shall always have awls that are sharp, indeed. 

127. Wlien they make use of them as awls, 

128. The little ones shall always live to see old age. 

129. Even though they pass away to the realm of spirits, 

130. They shall, by the use of the awls (as scarifiers), bring them- 

selves back to consciousness. 

131. Behold, the stooping of my shoulders, 

132. That I have made to be the means by which to reach old age. 

133. When they, also, make it the means by which to reach old age, 

134. They shall always live to see old age. 

135. Behold, the muscles of my throat, 

136. Which I have made to be the means to reach old age. 

137. When they make of them the means by which to reach old age, 

138. They shall always live to see, in the flaccid muscles of their 

throats, the sign of old age. 

139. Behold, the locks on the crown of my head that have grown 

scant with age. 

140. When they make of them the means by which to reach old age, 

141. They shall always live to see, in their thinned locks, the sign of 

old age. 

PART II. HO'"-GA-WA-GTHI''-Ts'a-GE (AGED EAGLE) 

(Osage version, p. 314; literal translation, p. 473) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. He (the Chief), with the close of the words (of the pelican), arose 

to his feet 



LA FLBSCHE] TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 89 

3. And thought as he stood: I will now go to my home, 

4. It being the seventh day (of his vigil). 

5. He approached a small stream as he moved homeward. 

6. As he drew near to it 

7. He came face to face with Ho'''-ga-Wa-gthi°-ts'a-ge (The Very 

Aged Eagle). 
S. He stood close to him and spake, saying: 
9. O, my grandfather, 

10. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

11. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

12. The Aged Eagle made reply: The little ones shall make of me 

their bodies. 

13. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

14. They shall always live to see old age. 

15. Behold, the skin of my feet, 

16. That I have made to be the means to reach old age. 

17. When the little ones, also, make of it the means to reach old age, 

18. They shall always live to see old age. 

19. Behold, the wrinkles upon my ankles, 

20. Which I have made to be the means to reach old age. 

21. Wlien they, also, make of them the means to reach old age, 

22. They shall always live to see, upon their ankles, the signs of old 

age. 

23. Behold, the inner muscles of my thighs, 

24. Which I have made to be the means to reach old age. 

25. When they make of them the means to reach old age, 

26. They shall always live to see, in the inner muscles of their thighs, 

the signs of old age. 

27. Behold, the muscles of my breast, gathered in folds, 

28. Which I have made to be the means to reach old age. 

29. When they, also, make of them the means to reach old age, 

30. They shall always live to see, in the folds of the muscles of their 

breasts, the signs of old age. 

31. Behold, the flaccid muscles of my arms, 

32. Which I have made to be the means to reach old age. 

33. When they, also, make of them the means to reach old age, 

34. They shall always live to see old age. 

35. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

36. He said: Behold, my wings ! 

37. The little ones shall make awls (of the bones) of my wings. 

38. When they take to making awls of my wings, 

39. They shall have awls that will be sharp, indeed. 

40. Even if any of the little ones pass into the reahn of spirits, 

41. They shall, by the use of the awls (as scarifiers), bring them- 

selves back to consciousness. 



90 TUP OSAGE TRIBE (btii. ank. 38 

42. When they use the awls to bring the Httlo ones back to hfe, 

43. They shall always live to see old age. 

44. Behold, the stooping of my shoulders, 

45. That I have made to be the means to reach old age. 

46. When they, also, make of it the means to reach old age, 

47. They shall always live to see old age. 

48. Behold, the muscles of my throat, 

49. Which I have made to be the means to reach old age. 

50. When the little ones make of them the means to reach old age, 

51. They shall always live to see, in the flaccid muscles of their 

throats, the signs of old age. 

52. Behold, the locks on the crown of my head that are thinned with 

age. 

53. These locks, also, 

54. I have made to be the means to reach old age. 

55. Wlien they, also, make of them the means to reach old age, 

56. They shall always live to see, in their scant locks, the sign of old 

age. 

PART III. MON'-QE (metal) WI'-GI-E 
(Osage version, p. 315; literal translation, p. 475) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. On the seventh day (of his vigil) 

3. He (the Chief) came to the borders of the village 

4. And he paused and stood. 

5. There, upon the ground, lay a piece of metal. 

6. Close to it he stood and spake, saying: 

7. O, grandfather, 

8. The httle ones have nothing of wliich to make their bodies, O, 

grandfather. 

9. The metal spake, in quick response: O, httle one, 

10. You say the little ones have nothing of which to make their 

bodies. 

11. They shall make of me their bodies. 

12. I am difficult to overcome by death. 

13. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

14. They shall be as I, difficult to overcome by death. 

15. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

16. He also said: The httle ones shall make awls of me. 

17. When the little ones take to making bone awls of me, 

18. They shall have awls that will be sharp, indeed. 

19. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

20. When they take to making awls of me, 

21. And should any of them pass, even to the realm of spirits, 

22. They shall, by the use of the awls (as scarifiers), bring them- 

selves back to consciousness. 



LA FLBSCHE] TRIBAL RITES — FREE TRANSLATION 91 

23. When, by this means, they bring themselves back to Ufe, 

24. They shall always live to see old age. 

25. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

26. They shall always be free from all causes of death. 

27. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

28. They shall know that there is no god whose skin is as hard as 

mine. 

29. I am the only god whose skin is hard. 

30. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

31. Their skins shall become as hard as mine. 

32. Tlie four great divisions of the days (stages of life) 

33. Tliey shall always successfully reach. 

34. The day that is free from anger and violence, 

35. I, as a person, can bruag to your presence. 

36. The little ones shall, as a people, dwell in the days that have no 

anger as they travel the path of life. 

Wa-the'-the, or Ceremony of Sending 

At the close of the recitation of the "Wi'-gi-e of the Vigil" the 
Xo'-ka takes up the ceremonial act next in order, called Wa-the'-the 
(The Sending) — i. e., the sending to the various gentes of the two 
great tribal divisions the life symbols belonging to each. The candi- 
date, in his preparations for initiation, is required to collect such of 
the life symbols of the various gentes as are of a tangible character. 
At the beginning of the Wa-the'-the ceremony these symbolic 
articles are brought by the Sho'-ka and placed in a pile before the 
Xo'-ka. While these symbolic articles are not actually sent to 
each gens, yet they must be present. The sjnnbols that are of an 
intangible nature and therefore not collectible, such as the earth, 
sun, moon, stars, sky, night, and day, are borne in mind by the 
Xo'-ka and are counted by him as being actually present. Before 
the Wa-the'-the ceremony begins the heads of the gentes having 
symbols that arc collectible ask of the Sho'-ka if the symbolic articles 
are actually present. Wlien all the gentes are satisfied that such is 
the case, the Xo'-ka begins the ceremony. He sends to each of the 
gentes the fees collected and offered by the candidate for his initia- 
tion. Ceremonial etiquette requires the Xo'-ka to begin the "send- 
ing" with the gens sitting nearest to him but belonging to the divi- 
sion opposite to his own, then to the gens nearest to him belonging 
to his own division, after which the distribution proceeds in sending 
alternately to the gentes of the two great divisions. (See dia- 
gram, p. 83.) When all the fees have been thus distributed the mem- 
bers of each gens recite simultaneously the wi'-gi-e which tells of the 
meaning of some of its own life symbols. 



92 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 



IBTH. ANN. 36 



Simultaneous Recital of the Wi'-gi-es of the Gentes 

Tliis simultaneous recitation by all the gentes is not in unison. 
The members of one gens pay no attention to the recitation of those 
of another gens. Each person is busy with his own part of the cere- 
mony. The result is a confused sound of words, and the sight is 
expressive of individual devotion to the task in hand. 

THE WA-ZHa'-ZHE SUBDIVISION 

The Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-kon Gens 
(Osage version, p. 31f) literal translation, p. 477 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Wa-zha'-zhe, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no° (gens). 




Fig. 5. — Ke Qin-dse Ga-tse (Turtle with Serrated Tail). A life symbol of the Wa-zha -zhe Wa-no" 
(Elder Wa-zha'-zhe) gens, the war gens of the Wa-zha'-zhe subdivision of the Ho"'-ga great tribal 
division. The seven willow saplings used by the warriors in recounting their military honors are 
made to symbolize an equal number of serrations on the turtle's tail. 

4. Saying: O, grandfather, 

5. The little ones have nothing fit for their use as symbols^ 

6. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

7. The Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no° replied, saying: 

8. Behold the turtle that has a tail with seven serrations (snapping 

turtle) (fig. 5). 

9. That turtle 

10. The little ones shall always use as a symbol. 

11. Behold the seven serrations on the tail of the turtle. 

12. Those also 

13. I have made to be symbols. 

14. The o-do°', spoken of as the seven o-do"' (military honors), 

15. I have made them to symbolize. 

16. Six of the serrations on the tail of the turtle 

17. I have also 

18. Matle to symbolize 



TRIBAL RITES — FRKE TRANSLATION 



93 



19. The o-do"', spoken of as the six o-do"'. 

20. Tlie o-do"' of every description I have made them to symbolize 

21. Verily at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

22. He continued: Bi:>hol(l the figures on the back of the turtle. 
2.3. I have not made them without a purpose. 

24. The little ones shall use them as a means to 

reach old age as thev travel the path'[<>f 
life. 

25. When they use these figures as a means to 

reach old age, 

26. They shall always live to see old age. 

27. When the little ones make of me their 

bodies, 
•28. Their skins shall become impenetrabh^. 

29. Behold the figures on my breast ftlie tur- 

tle). 

30. Those figures also 

31. I have made to be a s3-mbol. 

32. A symbol of the god of the upper regions (the 

arch of the sky) , 

33. The gray line that lies across m\- breast, 

34. A god of the upper regions (the galaxy), 

35. I, as a person, have verily made to sjtu- 

bolize. 

36. Wlien the little ones make of me their 

bodies, 

37. They shall enable themselves to live to see 

old age. 

38. When the little ones of the Ho°'-ga and those 

of the Tsi'-zhu (divisions) 

39. Make of me their bodies, 

40. They shall enable themselves to live to see 

old age. 

41. The four great divisions of the davs (stages 

of life) 

42. The}' shall always successfully reach and enter, as they travel 

the path of life. 

Thk Wa-ke'-.stse-dsf. Gens 

The Wa-ke'-stse-dse gens is brought to this ceremony to take its 
place as a mute representative of an aquatic plant, its gentile symbol — 
namely, the Typha latifolia, commonly called cat-tail (fig. 6). The 
presence of this gens is necessary to complete the tableau representing 
the water part of the earth, for the reason that the plants which draw 




IG. 6.— Wa-kc'-stse-dse 
(Typha lalifolia). Life 
symbol of the Wa-ke'stse- 
dse (Cat-tail) gens of the 
Wa-zha'-zhe subdivision 
of the Ho"'-ga great divi- 
sion. (From a drawing 
by F. C. Walpole.) 



94 THE OSAGE TRIBE I kth. ann. 36 

tlieir nourishment from within the water are regarded as a part of 
that element. Althougii the No'"-lio"-zhi"-ga of this gens remain 
silent throughout the ceremony, a fee is sent to its head, and the 
members share in the distribution of the supplies furnished by the 
candidate. This silent representation by a gens of its gentile symbol 
explains the statement that each gens is a we'-ga-xe (we, that with 
which; ga-xe, to make) — i. e., that part which is used to make a 
whole; in this instance the universe is the whole. This gens takes a 
more active part in some of the other tribal rites. 

The Wa-zha'-zhe (^ka Gens 

(Osage version, p. 317; literal translation, p. 479; 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Wa-zha'-zhe, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to the Wa-zha'-zhe ^ka (gens), 

4. Saying: O, grandfather, 

5. The little ones have nothing that is fit for their use as symbols. 

6. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in tliis house, 

7. The Wa-zha'-zhe ^ka replied, saying: You say the little ones 

have notliing that is fit for their use as symbols. 

8. I am one who is fit for use as a symbol. 

9. Behold the tsiu'-ge (the mussel) that sitteth in the water (pi. 6) 

10. Verily, I am the person who has made of the tsiu'-ge his body. 

1 1 . Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

12. They shall always live to see old age. 

13. Behold the wrinkles upon my skin (shell), 

14. Wliich I have made to be the means of reaching old age. 

15. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

16. They shall always live to see the signs of old age upon their skins. 

17. The seven bends of the river (river of life) 

18. I always pass successfully, 

19. And in my travels the gods themselves 

20. Have not the power to see the trail I make. 

21. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

22. No one, not even the gods, shall be able to see the trails they 

make. 

23. Behold the god of day that sitteth in the heavens. 

24. Verily, I am a person who lias made of that god his body. 

25. Behold, the god of day that sitteth in the heavens. 

26. The little ones also shall make of that god their bodies. 

27. Then the four great divisions of the days (stages of life) 

28. They shall always reach and enter, as they travel the path of life, 

29. And they shall always live to see old age as they travel the path 

of life. 



LA FLISCHE] TRIBAL KITES — FBEE TRANSLATION 95 

The Wa'-tse-tsi (Star People) Gens 

(Osage version, p. 318; literal translation, p. 480) 

1. Verily, at that time and plaoo, it has been said, in tliis house, 

2. The Wa-zha'-zhe, a people who possess seven fireplaces. 

3. Spake to one of the Wa-zha'-zhe (gentes), 

4. The Wa'-tse-tsi (They who came from the stars'). 

5. Saying: O, grandfather, 

6. We have nothing that is fit for use as a symbol. 

7. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

S. He replied, saying: You say you have nothing that is fit for 

use as a symbol. 
9. I am a person who is fit for use as a symbol. 

10. Behold, the female red cedar (pi. 7, a). 

11. Verily, I am a person who has made of that tree my^body. 

12. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

13. They shall always live to see old age. 

14. Behold, the male red cedar. 

15. The little ones shall always use the male red cedar as a symbol. 
1'6. Behold the male red cedar. 

17. Wlien the little ones use that tree for a symbol, 

18. They shall always live to see old age. 

19. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

20. He said to them: Behold these waters, 

21. That we shall make to be companions to the red cedar. 

22. Wlien the little ones make use of these waters 

23. The means by which to reach old age, 

24. They shall alwaj^s live to see old age. 

25. Behold the grass that never dies (the sedge). 

26. When' the little ones make of it the means to reach old age, 

27. The}" shall always live to see old age. 

28. I, myself, have made it to be the means to reach old age. 

29. Behold the bend of my shoulders (refers to the drooping of the 

sedge), 

30. That I have made to be the means to reach old age. 

31. Behold, the white blossoms on the top of my stalk, 

32. Which I have made to be the means to reach old age. 

33. The little ones shall reach old age 

34. And see their scanty locks turn yellowish with age as have these 

blossoms. 

The Ta' I-ni-ka-shi-ga (Deer People) Gens 

(Osage veision, p. 319; literal translation, p. 481) 

1 . Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Wa-zha'-zhe, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to a Wa-zha'-zhe (a gens of the Wa-zha'-zhe subdivision), 



96 THE OSAGE TRIBE [kth. ann. 30 

4. Called Ta-tlia'-xi° (the Lungs of the Deer), 

5. Saying: O, grandfather, 

6. Wo have nothing that is fit to use as a symbol. 

7. The Ta-tha'-xi° hastened to say: O, Uttle ones, 

8. You say you have nothing that is fit to use as a symbol. 

9. I am a person who is fit for use as a symbol. 

10. There is a little animal (the deer) (pi. 7, b), 

11. Of which I have always made my body. 

12. The little ones shall use that animal as a symbol. 

13. When they use that little animal as a symbol, 

14. They shall have a symbol that will satisfy their desires. 

15. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

16. He said to them: Behold the color of my hoofs, that is black in 

color. 

17. I have made that color to be as my charcoal. 

18. When the little ones also make that color as their charcoal, 

19. They shall have charcoal that will easily sink into their skin. 

20. Behold the tip of my nose, that is black in color. 

21. I have made that color to be as my charcoal. 

22. Wlaen the little ones make that color as their charcoal, 

23. They shall have charcoal that will easily sink into their skin. 

24. Behold the color of the tips of my ears, that are black. 

25. I have made that color to be as my charcoal. 

26. When the little ones make of that color their bodies, 

27. They shall have charcoal that will easily sink into their skin. 

28. All these shall stand as symbols for the little ones. 

29. Behold the young male deer whose horns are still of a dark gray 

hue. 

30. That animal shall always be a symbol to the little ones. 

31. They shall have power, even as I have, to evade all dangers. 

32. When my enemies hurl at me their shafts that fly around me in 

forked lines 

33. As they pursue and surround me and my companions, 

34. Yet with the power (of fleetness) I possess I can escape these 

dangers. 

35. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

36. They also shall, have power to overcome the dangers that lie in 

their life's pathway. 

37. The four successive days (stages of life) 

38. I successfully reach and cause myself to enter. 

39. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

40. The four successive days (stages of life), 

41. They also shall successfully reach and enter. 

42. When they make of me the means to reach old age, 

43. They shall always live to see old age. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TH I RTY-SIXTH ANN UAL REPORT PLATES 




a. TO-SHNON'-GE (OTTER) 

A life symbol of the E-no"' Min-dse-to" (Bow) gens of the 
Wa-zha'-zhe subdivisioii of the Ho"'-ga great tribal divi- 
sion. The otter is one of the animals used to represent 
the water part of the earth. (Courtesy of Dr. E. W. Nelson .) 




6. ZHA'-BE DO-GA (MALE BEAVER) 

A Ufe symbol of the E-uo»' Mi"-dsc-to" (Bow) geus. This 
water animal gave to the people thirteen willow saplings 
for the use of the warriors in counting their o-do"' (miUtary 
honors) at the initiatory war ceremonies. (Courtesy of 
Dr. E, W. Nelson.) 




c. TSE -DO-GA (BUFFALO BULL) 

The buffalo bull is the hte symbol of the Tho'-xe (archaic 
name for the bull) geus of the Tsi'-zhu great division. This 
animal gave to the people medicines, corn, and squashes. 
The Buffalo and the Corn songs belong to this gens. (Cour- 
tesy of Dr. E. W. Nelson.) 



LA PLESCHE] TRIBAL. RITES FREE TRANSLATION 97 

44. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

45. He said: Why should they make of this little animal a symbol? 

46. It is for the little ones to use for making the animals to appear. 

47. When they use it for making the animals appear, 
4S. The animals shall not fail to appear. 

49. Uniler the branches of the white oak, 

50. Where the earth is trodden soft by many hoofs, 

51. I have made a pla5'ground for the little animals (the deer). 

52. When the little ones use this playground to make the animals 

appear, 

53. The animals shall not fail to appear. 

54. Verih', at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

55. He contmued: Under the branches of the red oak, 

56. Where the earth is trodden soft by many hoofs, 

57. I have made a playground for the little animals. 

58. When the little ones use this playground to make the animals 

appear, 

59. There, under the branches of the red oak, the animals shall not 

fail to appear. 

60. Under the branches of the long-acorn tree, 

61. Where the earth is trodden soft by many hoofs, 

62. I have made a playground for the little animals. 

63. When the little ones use this playground to make the animals 

appear, 

64. There, under the branches of the long-acorn tree, the animals 

shall not fail to appear. 

65. Under the branches of the gray- acorn tree, 

66. Where the earth is trodden soft by many hoofs, 

67. I have made a playground for the little animals. 

68. When the little ones use the playground to make the animals 

appear, 

69. There, under the branches of the gray-acorn tree, the animals 

shall not fail to appear. 

70. Under the branches of the twisted oak, 

71. Where the earth is trodden soft by many hoofs, 

72. I have made a playground for the little animals. 

73. There, under the branches of the twisted oak the animals shall 

not fail to appear. 

74. Under the branches of the dark-acorn tree, 

75. Where the earth is trodden soft by many hoofs, 

76. I have made a playground for the little animals. 

77. When the dark-acorn tree is 

78. Approached by the little ones when hunting, 

79. There the animals shall not fail to appear. 

2786—21 7 



98 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

80. Under tlie branches of the low stunted oaks, 

81. Where the earth is trodden soft by many hoofs, 

82. I have made a playgrountl for the Httle animals. 

83. When the low stunted oaks 

84. Are approached by the little ones, 

85. There the animals shall not fail to appear. 

86. These (the playgrounds) 

87. I have not made without a purpose. 

88. I have made them to be ho'-e-ga (places in which the little 

animals are ensnared). 

89. Wlien the little ones also make ho'-e-ga of the playgrounds, 

90. The animals shall not fail to appear. 

91. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

92. He said to them: Behold, this bunch of grass, 

93. Which is also not without a purpose. 

94. When the little ones approach the grasses of the earth, 

95. The animals shall not fail to appear. 

96. Even before the beginning of the day 

97. The animals shall not fail to appear, 

98. And in the evening of the day 

99. The animals shall not fail to appear. 

100. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

101. Those of the Ho°'-ga, 

102. And those of the Tsi'-zhu, 

103. The animals shall not fail to appear. 

The E-no"' MiJ'-dse-to'' (Owners of the Bow) Gens 
(Osage version, p. 322: literal translation, p. 4S4) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Wa-zha'-zhe, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to the E-no°' Mi°-dse To" (the Bow gens of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

subdivision) (fig. 7), 

4. Saying: O, Wa-zha'-zhe, 

5. We have nothing that is fit for use as a symbol. 

6. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

7. The E-no°'-Mi°-dse To" replied: You say you have nothing that 

is fit for use as a symbol. 

8. I am a person who is fitted for use as a symbol. 

9. Verily, in the midst of the rushing waters (in the midst of the 

shallow rapids) 

10. Abides my being. 

11. Verily, I am a person who has made of the waters his body. 

12. Behold the right side of the river. 

13. Of it I have made the right side of my body. 



LA FUiscHB] TRIBAL KITES— FREE TRANSLATION 99 

14. WUon the little ones make of me their bodies 

15. And use the right side of the river 

16. To make their bodies, 

17. The right side of their bodies shall be free from all causes of death. 

18. Behold the left side of the river. 

19. Of it I have made the left side of my body. 

20. When the little ones also make of that the left side of their bodies, 

21. That side of their bodies shall always be free from all causes of 

death. 

22. Behold the chaiuiel of the river. 

23. Of it I have made the hollow of my body. 

24. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

25. The hollow of their bodies shall always be free from all causes of 

death. 




FiQ. 7.— Min'-dse (Bow). Life symbol of the E-no' Mi"-dse To" (Sole Owners of the Bow) gens of the 
Wa-zhfl'-zhe subdivision of the Ho«'-ga great division. Tliis gens has the office of making a bow and 
two arrows for use at the initiatory ceremony. The three symbolize night and day, and also long life. 
The back of the bow is painted black and the front red; one arrow is painted red and the other black. 

26. There is also an animal of which I have made my body. 

27. It is the redfish 

28. Of which I have made my body, 

29. That I might be free from all causes of death. 

30. When the little ones make of the redfish their bodies, 

31. They shall always live to see old age. 

32. Behold the blackfish. 

33. Of it I have made my body. 

34. When the little ones make of it their bodies, 

35. They shall always five to see old age. 

36. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

37. He said to the people: Behold the otter (pi. 8, a). 

38. Of it also I have made my body. 

39. When the little ones make of the otter their bodies, 

40. They shall always live to see old age. 

41. When the people of the Tsi'-zhu 

42. And of the Ho^'-ga 

43. Make of the otter their bodies, 

44. They shall always be free from all causes of death. 



100 THE OSAGE TRIBE [dth. ann. 86 

45. Behold the mule heaver (pi. 8, b). 

46. Of it also I, }xs a person, have, verily, made my body. 

47. When the little ones make of the beaver their bodies, 

48. They shall always live to see old age. 

49. Seven willow saplings 

50. The beaver brought to the right side of his house, 

51. Dragging them with his teeth to his house, laying them down in 

a pile. 

52. Then he spake, saying: These saplings 

53. I have made to represent certain tilings, 

54. The things spoken of as o-do°' (military honoi:s). 

55. Verily, I, as a person, have made them to represent the o-do"'. 

56. Against the current of the river the beaver went forth, 

57. Rippling the surface of the water as he made his way, 

58. Saying as he did so: Behold the parting of the waters in forked 

Unes as I push forth. 

59. The ripples of the waters I have made the means to reach old age. 

60. When the little ones make of me their bodies 

61. The gods shall always make way for them as do these waters 

for me. 

62. He struck the surface of the water with his tail, making a cracking 

noise, as he pushed forth, 

63. And he said: These strokes 

64. I make not without a purpose. 

65. Toward the setting of the sun are our enemies. 

66. In striking the waters I strike our enemies. 

67. The beaver went again against the current and came to the sec- 

ond bend of the river, 

68. Where stood a sapling of the never-dying willow. 

69. He cut down the sapling and dragged it to his house, 

70. Then he spake, saying: When the little ones use this for counting, 

71. They shall always count their o-do"' with accuracy. 

72. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

73. The beaver went again against the current and came to a third 

bend of the river, 

74. Where stood a sapling of the never-dying willow. 

75. He cut down the sapling and dragged it to his house, 

76. Then he spake, saying: When the little ones use this for counting, 

77. They shall always count their o-do"' with accuracy. 

78. The beaver went again against the current and came to the 

fourth bend of the river, 

79. Where stood a sapling of the never-dying willow. 



LA FLESCHB] TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 101 

80. He cut down the sapling and dragged it to his house, 

81. Then he spake, saying: Wlien the little ones use this for counting, 

82. They shall always count their o-do"' with accuracy. 

83. The beaver went again against the current and came to the fifth 

bend of the river, 

84. Where stood a sapling of the never-dying willow. 

85. He cut down the sapUng and dragged it to his house, 

86. Then he spake, saying: When the little ones use this for counting, 

87. They shall always count their o-do"' with accuracy. 

88. The beaver went again against the current and came to the sixth 

bend of the river, 

89. Wliere stood a sapling of the never-dying willow. 

90. He cut down the sapling and dragged it to his house, 

91. Then he spake, saying: When the little ones use this for counting, 

92. They shall always count their o-do"' with accuracy. 

93. The beaver went again against the current and came to the 

seventh bend of the river, 

94. Where stood a sapling of the never-dying \villow. 

95. He cut down the sapling and dragged it to his house, 

96. Then he spake, saying: This also the little ones shall use. 

97. When the little ones use this for counting, 

98. They shall always count their o-do°' with accuracy. 

In bringing this wi'-gi-e to a close, Wa-xthi'-zhi remarked that he 
omitted the section relating to the six willow saplings for counting 
o-do°', it being the practice of the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga to omit it when 
giving this ritual. It seems that where a practice of this kind is 
established it is not necessary to ask the customary permission to make 
such omission. The candidate or his relatives may, however, insist 
upon the reciting of the wi'-gi-es without any omissions, although 
tlie lines may be merely tiresome repetitions. Wa-xthi'-zhi remarked, 
further, that to recite the section relating to the six wUlow saphngs 
would be a repetition of the first six lines, word for word, of the 
section relating to the seven willow saplings. Wa-tse'-moM", of the 
Black Bear gens, gave the willow sapling wi'-gi-e in full. It is 
included in the description of the No°'-zhi°-zho° degree of the war 
rite, to a])pear in a later volume. 

The Ga-tsiu' Gens 

According to Wa-xthi'-zhi, this gens has no gentile symbol of its 
own: nevertheless it is given a place in this ceremony as a we'-ga-xe 
and counted as the seventh gens of the Wa-zha'-zhe subdivision, 



102 THE OSAGE TRIBE Ieth. ann. 36 

because of its office of Sho'-ka. It is the Sho'-ka of both the Ta' 
I-ni-ka-shi-ga (Deer people) and the Ho' I-ni-ka-shi-ga (Fish people) 
gentes. Wa-xthi'-zhi hesitated to give the meaning of the name 
Ga-tsiu', but suggested that possibly it means Ke-ga'-^siu, or Ke'-^i"- 
dse-ga-tsiu, Turtle with a serrated tail. (See line 8, wi'-gi-e of the 
Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no°, p. 92.) 

The Ho"'-ga U-ta-nqN-dsi Gens 
(Osage version, p. 324; literal translation, p. 487) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. They (the people) spake to the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no^-dsi, 

3. Saying: O, grandfather, 

4. We have nothing that is fit to use as a symbol. 

5. The Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi replied: O, httle ones, 

6. You say you have nothing fit to use 
as a symbol. 

7. I am one who is fitted for use as a 
symbol. 

Verily, at that time and place, it has 

been said, in this house. 
He set up a house. 
And then he said: I have not set up 

this house without a purpose. 
I have set it up so that within it the 

necks of living creatures shall be 

broken. 
I have not set up this house without 

Fio. 8.— Tse'-xo-be (Spider). Conventional rtin«A 

design of the spider, one of the life syra- ^ purpOSe. 

bois of the Ho»'-ga u-ta-no«-dsi (Isolated 13. I have made it to represent and to 

Ho»'-ga) gens. This design is tattooed on -i vifiii/ u /ti 

the back of both hands of a woman to be a Symbol of the tse -xo-be (the 

whom is accorded the honor. Spider) (fig. 8). 

14. Verily, this house, Uke a snare, draws to itseK 

15. All Uving creatures, whosoever they maybe. 

16. Into it they shall throw themselves and become ensnared. 

17. When the Uttle ones use its power to make the animals appear, 

18. Even before the break of day 

19. The animals shall not fail to appear; 

20. And in the evening of the day 

21. The animals shall not fail to appear. 

22. The oldest of all animals (the buffalo bull), 

23. That lies upon the earth, 

24. The Uttle ones shall use its power to make the animals appear. 

25. With the life blood of that animal, 

26. Even before the break of day, 




Li. FLBSCHK) TRIE AX, RITES FREE TRANSLATION 103 

27. They shall always renew their own life blood. 

28. And in the evening of the day 

29. The little ones shall renew their life blood with that of this animal. 

30. Voril}^, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

31. He spake again, saying: These are the things that shall stand as 

symbols for the little ones: 

32. The short snake (the spreading adder) 

33. Shall always be a symbol to the little ones. 

34. Then above the bunches of tall grass 

35. The short snake Ufted his head and spake, saying: 

36. Even though the little ones pass into the realm of spirits, 

37. They shall, by the use of my fangs, bring themselves back to life 

and consciousness. 

38. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

39. The four successive days, 

40. They shall always successfully reach and enter. 

41. The Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi continued, saying: The little ones shall 

use for a symbol 

42. The long snake dotted with yellow spots (the bull snake). 

43. The httle ones shall always use this snake for a symbol. 

44. Then above the bunches of tall grass 

45. The long snake with yellow spots lifted his head. 

46. This snake also 

47. The little ones shall always use as a symbol. 

48. Then spake the snake, saying: Even though the Uttle ones pass 

into the realm of spirits, 

49. They shall by the use of my strength recover consciousness. 

50. The four successive days, 

51. They shall always successfully reach and enter. 

52. The Ho'"-ga U-ta-no°-dsi continued, saying: The little ones shall 

use for a symbol 

53. The black snake. 

54. The little ones shall always use it as a symbol. 

55. Then above the bunches of tall grass 

56. The black snake lifted his head. 

57. This snake also spake, saying: 

58. Even though the little ones pass into the realm of spirits, 

59. They shall by my aid bring themselves back to consciousness. 

60. The four successive days 

61. They shall always successfully reach and enter. 



104 THE OSAGE TRIBE Ibtu. ann. 36 

62. The Ho°'-ga U-ta-iio''-dsi continued, saying: The little ones shall 

use as a symbol 

63. The great snake (the rattlesnake). 

64. From amidst the bunches of tall grass 

65. The snake caused itself to be heard by making a buzzing sound. 

66. Tliat snake also spake, saying: 

67. Even though the little ones pass into the realm of spirits, 

68. They shall, by clinging to me and using my strength, recover 

consciousness. 

69. The great snake, 

70. Making a sound like the blowing of the wind, 

71. Close to the feet (of the sick), 

72. He repeatedly sounded his rattle as he stood. 

73. Close to the head (of the sick) 

74. He repeatedly sounded his rattle. 

75. Toward the east winds 

76. He repeatedly sounded his rattle. 

77. Toward the west winds 

78. He repeatedly sounded his rattle 

79. Toward the winds from the cedars (the north) 

80. He repeatedly sounded his rattle. 

81. Then spake, saying: Even though the little ones pass into the 

realm of spirits, 

82. They shall always with my aid bring themselves back to con- 

sciousness. 

83. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

84. The four great divisions of the days 

85. They shall reach successfully, 

86. And then into the. days of peace and beauty 

87. They shall always make their entrance. 

THE HO'"-GA SUBDIVISION 

HoN'-oA A-Hiu-To" Gens 
(Osage version ,p. 326; literal translation ,p. t90 ) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Hc'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to the Ho°'-ga A-hiu-to" (the Winged Ho°'-ga), 

4. Saying: O, grandfather, 

5. The little ones have nothing that is fit to use as a symbol. 

6. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

7. The Ho°'-ga A-hiu-to° replied, saying: You say the little ones 

have nothing that is fit to use as a symbol. 

8. I am one who is fitted for use as a symbol. 

9. Of the bird that is without stain (evil disposition, the golden 

eagle) (pi. 9, a) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 10 




a. WA-QA-BE tBLACK BEAR) 

In the Ki'-no" ceremony of the Chief's ritual the white-throated black bear becomes em- 
blematic of the sun. the groat ST,Tnl)ol of life. (Courtesy of Dr. C. Hart Merriam.) 




Life symbol of 1 ho W 
great tribal ilivisioi 
Merriam.) 



b. WA-QA'-BE (BLACK BEAR) 

l-(,'a'-bo-lu- (Bhvok Bo 



Tliis animal svmbolLZOslii 



ilio Iliiii'-aa subdivision of the IIo"'-ga 
1(1 charcoal. (Courtesy of Or. ('. Harl 



LA FLBSCBE) TRIBAL RITES — FREE TRANSLATION 105 

10. I, as a person, have, verily, made my body. 

11. I am continually watched over by all the gods as one worthy of 

their notice. 

12. Wlien the little ones make of mo their bodies, 

13. They too shall be watched over by all the gods as worthy of their 

notice. 

14. I am fitted for the use of the little ones as a means to reach old age. 

15. Behold the skin of my feet. 

16. I have made it to be the means to reach old age. 

17. When the little ones make of it the means to reach old age, 

18. They shall always live to see old age. 

19. Behold the skin of my feet where they are dark in color. 

20. I have made these dark parts of my feet to be as my charcoal. 

21. When the little ones make them to be as their charcoal, 

22. They shall have charcoal that will easily sink into their skin. 

23. Behold the tip of my beak is black in color. 

24. My black beak I have made to be as my charcoal. 

25. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

26. The}' shall have charcoal that will easily sink into their skins. 

27. Behold the parts of my body that are black. 

28. I have made the parts of my body that are black to be as my 

charcoal. 

29. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

30. They shall have charcoal that will easily sink into their bodies. 

31. Behold the tip of my tail, that is dark in color. 

32. I have made the black tip of my tail to be as my charcoal. 

33. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

34. They shall have charcoal that will easily sink into their skin. 

The Wa-pa'-bb-to" (Black Bear) Gens 
(Osage version, p. 327; literal translation, p. 491) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to the Wa-^a'-be-to", the gens whose symbol is the Black 

Bear (pi. 10, h), 

4. Saying: O, grandfather, 

5. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

6. The Wa-fa'-be-to° made quick response: O, little ones, 

7. You say the little ones have nothing of which to make their 

bodies. 
S. Let the little ones make of me their bodies. 
9. Let them also make of me their charcoal. 



106 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 86 

10. Behold the skin of my feet, that is dark in color. 

11. I have made my feet to be as my charcoal. 

12. Behold the tip of my nose, that is dark in color. 

13. I have made the tip of my nose to be as my charcoal. 

14. When the little ones make the tip of my nose to be as their 

charcoal, 

15. They shall always have charcoal that will easily sink into their 

skin as they travel the path of life. 

16. Behold my body that in all its parts is black in color. 

17. I have made my body to be as my charcoal. 

18. When the Uttle ones also make my body to be as their charcoal, 

19. They shall always have charcoal that will easily sink into their 

skin as they travel the path of life. 

20. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

21. The people spake again to the Wa-^a'-be-to", saying: O, grand- 

father, 

22. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

23. The Wa-pa'-be-to" repUed: The little ones shall make of me their 

bodies. 

24. Of the male puma that lies upon the earth, 

25. I, as a person, have, verily, made my body. 

26. Of the god of day that sitteth in the heavens, 

27. I, as a person, have, verily, made my body. 

28. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

29. He continued (speaking as the puma) : Behold the soles of my 

feet, that are black in color. 

30. I have made the skin of the soles of my feet to be as my charcoal. 

31. When the little ones also make of the skin of the soles of my feet 

to be as their charcoal, 

32. They shall always have charcoal that will easily sink into their 

skin as they travel the path of life. 

33. Behold the tip of my nose, that is black in color. 

34. I have made the tip of my nose to be as my charcoal. 

35. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

36. They shall always have charcoal that will easily sink into their 

skin. 

37. Behold the tips of my ears that are black in color. 

38. I have made the tips of my ears to be as my charcoal. 

39. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

40. They shall always have charcoal that will easily sink into their 

skin. 



IJ Fi-BSCHE] TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 107 

41. Behold the tip of my tail that is black in color. 

42. I have made the tip of my tail to be as my charcoal. 

43. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

44. They shall always have charcoal that will easily sink into their 

skin as they travel the path of life. 

45. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

46. The people spake to the great white swan (a subgens of the 

Wa-cj-a'-be-to"), 

47. Saying: O, grandfather, 

48. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

49. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

50. The great white swan replied: Behold the skin of my feet that 

is dark in color. 

51. I have made the dark skin of my feet to be as my charcoal. 

52. When the little ones make the dark skin of my feet to be as their 

charcoal, 

53. They shall always have charcoal that will easily sink into their 

skin as they travel the path of life. 

54. Behold the tip of my beak that is dark in color. 

55. I have made the dark tip of my beak to be as my charcoal. 

56. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

57. They shall always have charcoal that will easily sink into their 

skin as they travel the path of life. 

58. Thus shall it be with the little ones when they make of me their 

bodies. 

59. Even within half of a day 

60. I reach, when making my flight, the farther side of the great lake, 

61. Where I sit upon its waves swinging up and down. 

62. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

63. Their arms, like my wings, I shall cause to become strong as 

they travel the path of life. 

64. When all animals are gathered together for a test of endurance, 

65. They become breathless sooner than I on my life's journey. 

66. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

67. Verily, none of the living creatures shall surpass them 

68. In power of strength and endurance as they travel the path of life. 

The IK-gthoN'-ga (Puma) Gens 
(Osage version, p. 329; literaltranslation, p. 493) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Ho^'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to the one who had made of the Puma his body, 

4. Saying: O, grandfather. 



108 THE OSAGE TRIBE (btii. ann, S6 

5. Wo liavo nothing that is lit to use as a symbol. 

6. Till? Pinna ([uirkly replied: O, little ones, 

7. You say you have nothing that is fit to use as a symbol. 

8. I am one who is fitted for use as a symbol. 

9. Behold the male puma, that lieth upon the earth. 

10. Verily, I am a person who has made of the male puma his body 

(pi. 11, a). 

11. The knowledge of ray courage has spread over the land. 

12. Behold the god of day, that sitteth in the heavens. 

13. Verily, I ara a person who sitteth close to the god of day. 

14. When the little ones make of mo their bodies, 

15. They shall always be free from all causes of death as they travel 

the path of life. 

16. Behold the great red boulder, that sitteth upon the earth. 

17. Verily, I am a person who draws to himself the power of the great 

boulder. 

18. Behold the great red boulder, that sitteth upon the earth. 

19. Even the great gods themselves 

20. Stumble over me as I sit immovable as the great red boulder. 

21. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

22. Even the great gods shall stumble over them and fall. 

23. Even the great gods themselves 

24. As they move over the earth pass around me as I sit immovable 

as the great red boulder. 

25. When the little ones make of nie their bodies, 

26. Even the great gods themselves shall pass around them in forked 

lines as they travel the path of life. 

27. Even the great gods themselves 

28. Fear to stare me in the face with insolence. 

29. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

30. Even the gods themselves 

31. Shall fear to stare them in the face, as they travel the path of life. 

32. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

33. He said to them: Behold the Black Bear, that is without a blem- 

ish, that lieth upon the earth. 

34. Verily, I am a person who has made of the Black Bear his body. 

35. Behold the god of night, that sitteth in the heavens. 

36. Verily, I am a person who maketli the Black Bear to draw from 

the god of night its power. 

37. Behold the great black boulder, that sitteth upon the earth. 

38. Verily, I am a person who sitteth close to the great black boulder. 

39. Behold the great black boulder, that sitteth upon the earth. 

40. When the little ones make of the great black boulder their bodies, 

41. Even the great gods themselves 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE II 




a. IN-GTHC^'-GA iPUMA) 

A lire symbol of Iho I"-gtho"'-ga (Puma) gens of Iho Ho"'-ga great Irilial division. This 
animal is closely associated with the sun, the great Ufe symbol, and the relentless fire of 
which the charcoal is emblematic. (Courtesy of Dr. N. Hollister.) 




6. O'-PXON (ELK) 

The elk is the life svmbol of the O'-pxo" (Elk) gens of the Ho"'-ga subdivision of the great Hon'-ga tribal 
division. The elii svmbolizes the enl ire earth and was instrumental in making it a suitable abode. He 
it was who caused t'he waters to recede and the land to appear and become habitable. He made the 
grasses to grow so that the animals might thrive and become plentiful for the benefit of man. The elk 
figures in the rites pertaining to both peace and war. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 




k^^ 


1 


^W^*^ 






l| 


w^f 


1 


IR 





THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 12 




a. Qi" ISAGITTARIA LATIFOLIA) 



h. TSE'-WA-THE iNELUMBO LUTEAi 




c. Do iGLYCINE APIOjI 



rf. HO^-BTHI" -QU ' FALCATA COMOSAI 



FOOD PLANTS OF THE OSAGE 

The roots of t hese plants were used a^ fin)M. Those of r and (/ were aLso used eerenionially. 
(Courtesy of Dr. W in. K. Sall'ord.) 



I.A FbBSCHB] TRIBAL, RITES FREE TRANSLATION 109 

42. Shall stumble over them and fall. 

43. Even the gods themselves 

44. As they move over the earth pass around me in forked lines as I 

sit immovable as the great black boulder. 
4o. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

46. Even the gods themselves 

47. Shall pass around them in forked lines as they travel the path 

of Ufe. 

48. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

49. He said to them: Behold the great white swan. 

50. Verily, I am a person who has made of the great white swan his 

body. 

51. Behold, the god of night (the Wa'-tse Do-ga, The Male Star, the 

morning star). 

52. Verily, I am a person who has made of the god of night his body. 

53. Behold, the great white boulder, that sitteth upon the earth. 

54. Verily, 1 am a person who has made of the great white boulder 

his body. 

55. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

56. Even the gods themselves 

57. Shall stumble over them and fall. 

58. Even the gods themselves 

59. As they move over the earth pass around me as I sit immovable 

as the great white boulder. 

60. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

61. Even the gods themselves 

62. Shall pass around them as they pass around the great white 

boulder. 

63. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

64. He said to them: Behold the male elk, that lieth upon the earth. 

65. Behold, the yellow boulder, that sitteth upon the earth. 

66. Verily, I am a person who maketh the male elk to draw from the 

yellow boulder its power. 

67. Behold Wa'-tse Mi-ga (the Female Star, the evening star). 

68. Verily, I am a person who maketh the 3-ellow boulder to draw 

from the evening star its power. 

69. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

70. Even the gods themselves 

71. Shall stumble over them and fall. 

72. Even the gods themselves 

73. As they move over the earth pass around me as I sit immovable 

as the great yellow boulder. 

74. When the little ones make of me their bodies. 



110 THE OSAGE TRIBE (btii. ann. 36 

75. Even the gods themselves 

76. Shall pass around them as they pass around the great yellow 

boulder. 

77. Even the gods themselves 

78. Fear to set teeth upon me in anger. 

79. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

80. The gods themselves shall fear to set teeth upon them in anger. 

81. Verily, at that time and plaoe, it has been said, in this house, 

82. He said to them: Even the gods themselves 

83. Fear to stare me in the face with insolence. 

84. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

85. Even the gods themselves 

86. Shall fear to stare them in the face with insolence. 

87. I am difficult to overcome by death. 

88. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

89. They also shall always be difficult to overcome by death. 

90. The four successive days 

91. They shall cause themselves to reach and to enter. 

92. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

93. And those of the Tsi'-zhu 

94. Shall make of me their bodies. 

95. When they make of me their bodies, 

96. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by death. 

97. The gods themselves shall fear to set teeth upon them in anger. 

98. They shall always live to see old age. 

99. The four successive days 

100. They shall always reach and enter. 

101. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

102. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

103. Spake to the one who had made of the Puma his body, 

104. Saying: O, grandfather, 

105. We have nothing that is fit to use as a symbol. 

106. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

107. The Puma rephed: You say you have nothing that is fit to use 

as a symbol. 

108. I shall go forth and make search. 

109. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

110. He strode away forthwith to make search, 

111. And he came to the margin of a lake, 

112. Where, within its bed of mud, sat the pi" (the bulbous root of 

Sagittaria latifolia) (pi. 12, a). 

113. He dug it up and sent it rolling on the bank, where he stood. 

114. Then in haste he carried it home to the people 



LA FLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION HI 

115. And standing before them said: How will this serve as a symbol, 

O, elder brothers? 

116. With eager haste the people munched the bulbous root, 

117. Then said: It can not be used as food. 

118. Verily, it is not what we desire, O, younger brother. 

119. Although that be true, nevertheless 

120. We shall put it to use in other ways, O, younger brother, as we 

travel the path of life. 

121. Again he strode away forthwith 

122. And came to the middle of a lake, 

123. Wliere, within its bed of mud, lay the tse'-wa-the (the root of 

the Nelumho lutea) (pi. 12, b). 

124. With a quick movement of his foot he lifted the root from its 

bed of soft earth. 

125. Then in haste he brought it home to the people, 

126. To whom he said: How will this serve as a symbol, O, elder 

brothers 1 

127. With eager haste the people munched the root, 

128. And, like milk, its juice squirted out as they pressed the root 

between their teeth, 

129. And they spake, saying: It is fit for the little ones to use as food. 

130. It is fit for them to use as a symbol, O, younger brother. 

131. The little ones shall use this for food in their life's journey. 

132. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

133. And those of the Tsi'-zhu 

134. Shall always use this root for food. 

135. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

136. The people said to one another: Verily, we shall make the 

young bull 

137. And this plant to be companions, O, younger brothers. 

138. The httle ones shall use the two together as food. 

139. When the little ones eat of these foods, as they travel the path 

of Ufe, 

140. Their limbs shall always stretch in growth. 

141. Again the Puma went forth and came to the farther margin of 

the lake, 

142. Where, within the soft earth of its borders, sat the Do (the 

root of the Glycine apios) (pi. 12, c). 

143. He dug it up and sent it rolling upon the earth. 

144. Then in haste he brought it home to the people, 

145. Who said to him: This is what you have been continually 

searching for, 0, younger brother. 

146. They munched it, and, like milk, its juice squirted within their 

mouths, 



112 THE OSAGE TRIBE Ibth. ann. 36 

147. And thoy said: The little ones shall use this root as food in their 

life's journey. 

148. When the little ones use this root as food, 

149. Their limbs shall always stretch in growth. 

150. Verily, at that time and plai'e, it has been said, in this house, 

151. The people said to one another: Tlie deer with dark horns 

152. We shall make this plant to draw, O, younger brothers. 

153. When we make this plant to draw to us the dark-horned deer, 

154. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

155. And those of the Tsi'-zhu 

156. Shall always use these two foods together in their life's journey. 

157. When they use these two foods together, 

158. Their limbs shall always stret':'h in growth. 

159. When they use these two foods to make their limbs to grow, 

160. They shall always live to see old age. 

161. Again the Puma went forth to the farther bank of the lake. 

162. Verily, to a lowland forest, 

163. Where, in the mellow earth, sat the Ho°-bthi°'-Qu (a wild bean, 

Falcata comosa) (pi. 12, d). 

164. He dug it up antl sent it rolling upon the earth. 

165. This root also, the people said, 

166. The little ones shall use as food in their life's journey. 

167. When the little ones use this root as food in their life's journey 

168. They shall always live to see old age. 

169. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

170. The people said: The turkey 

171. Shall be drawn toward us by this plant, O, younger brothers. 

172. When the little ones use the two together for food, 

173. They shall always live to see old age. 

174. When the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

175. And those of the Tsi'-zhu 

176. Use the bean and the turkey as food, 

177. They shall always live to see old age. 

178. The four great divisions of the days 

179. They shall always reach and cause themselves to enter. 

The O'-pxqn (Elk) Gens 
(Osage version, p. 334; literal translation, p. 497) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to the gens who made of the Puma his body, 

4. Saying: O, younger brother, 

5. We have nothing that is fit to use as a symbol. 

6. Whereupon the Puma with hastened steps went forth 



la FLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 113 

7. And came suddenly upon the male elk, (pi. 11, b), 

8. Who stooil upon the earth. 

9. The Puma returned in haste to his elder brothel's, 

10. Who said to him: O, younger brother! 

11. The Puma replied, saying: O, elder brothers, I went forth and 

came upon a man who stands yonder. 

12. The people spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

13. Whoever the man may be who stands yonder, 

14. We will send him to the abode of spirits. 

15. With heads bent thitherward they hastened to the man, 

16. The oldest of the brothers moistening in his mouth his index 

finger in readiness to slay the stranger. 

17. With quickened footsteps they set forth 

18. Toward the male elk. 

19. They came upon him and stood with heads inclined toward him. 

20. The male elk hastened to say: O, elder brothers, 

21. I am a Ho^'-ga (a sacred person), he stood saying. 

22. I am O'-pxo" To°-ga, the Great Elk, O, elder brothers. 

23. I am a person who is never absent from any important act. 

24. I am a person who can be of use to you as a sjrmbol. 

25. 0'-pxo° To°-ga, Great Elk, 

26. Is a name that I have taken to myself, O, elder brothers. 

27. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

28. He repeated: I am a person who can be of use to you as a symbol. 

29. When the little ones use me as an instrument for making the 

animals to appear, 

30. The animals shall always appear for them. 

31. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

32. The Great Elk started to perform some mysterious acts. 

33. In the midst of each of the four winds 

34. He threw himself upon the earth. 

35. In the midst of the east wind 

36. He threw himself upon the earth, 

37. And as he stood the sky of the day became calm and peaceful. 

38. In the midst of the north wind 

39. He threw himself upon the earth, 

40. And the sky as though touched with gentle hands became per- 

meated with gentleness and peace, as he stood. 

41. In the midst of the west winds 

42. He threw himself upon the earth, 

43. And from the god above (the overarching heaven) 

44. As he stood he swept awaj- all traces of anger. 

2786—21 8 ' 



114 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

45. In the midst of the south wind 

46. He threw liimself upon the earth, 

47. And as he stood from every part of the earth 

48. He verily cleansed the land of all anger. 

49. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

50. He spake to the people, saying: I am a person who is suitable 

to be used by you as a symbol. 

51. Then again he threw himself upon the earth. 

52. As he arose to his feet he left the surface of the earth covered 

with the hairs of his body, 

53. And he spake again, saying: These hairs 

54. I have scattered upon the earth so that the animals may appear 

in their midst. 

55. They are the grasses of the earth. 

56. I have made them for you for making the animals to appear, 

in order that you might live. 

57. The little ones shall always see the animals appear in the midst 

of the grasses of the earth. 

58. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

59. The Great Elk threw liimself once more upon the earth, 

60. And as he arose to his feet he stood with his buttocks toward 

the people, 

61. And he spake, saying: Behold the ball-like muscles of my 

buttocks. 

62. They are the round hills of the earth. 

63. I have made them to represent all the round hills of the earth. 

64. Amidst the round hUls of the earth the little ones shall always 

see the animals appear. 

65. Behold the right side of my body. 

66. It is the level lands of the earth. 

67. I have made it to represent all the level lands of the earth. 

68. Behold the ridge of my back. 

69. It is the ridges of the earth. 

70. I have made it to represent all the ridges of the earth. 

71. When the little ones approach the ridges of the earth, 

72. They shall always see the animals appear in their midst. 

73. Behold the curve of my neck. 

74. It is the gaps in the ridges of the earth. 

75. I have made it to represent all the gaps in the ridges of the 

earth. 

76. When the little ones approach these gaps of the ridges, 

77. They shall always see the animals appear in the gaps. 



LA PLESCHB] TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 115 

78. Behold also the tip of my nose. 

79. It is the peaks of the earth. 

80. I have made it to represent all the peaks of the earth. 

81. When the little ones approach the peaks, 

82. They shall always see the animals appear in the midst of the 



83. Behold the bases of my horns. 

84. They are the loose rocks of the earth. 

85. When the little ones approach the loose rocks, they shall always 

see the animals appear in their midst. 

86. Behold the branches of my horns. 

87. They are the branches of the rivers. 

88. The little ones shall always see the animals appear along the 

branches of the rivers. 

89. Behold the smaller tines of my horns. 

90. They are the creeks of the earth. 

91. The little ones shall always see the animals appear along the 

creeks of the earth. 

92. Behold the large tines of my horns. 

93. They are the large streams that are dotted here and there with 

forests. 

94. I make them to represent all the large streams of the earth. 

95. When the httle ones approach one of these streams in their life's 

journey, 

96. They shall always see the animals appear along the banks. 

97. Behold the largest parts of my horns. 

98. They are the rivers. 

99. I have made them to be the places where the animals shall 

appear. 

100. When the Uttle ones approach one of these rivers, 

101. They shall always see the animals along the banks. 

102. When the little ones go forth to hunt, 

103. Even before the break of day, 

104. They shall always see the animals appear, 

105. And in the evening of the day 

106. They shall always see the animals appear. 

107. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

108. And those of the Tsi'-zhu 

109. Shall always make use of me as a symbol as thev travel the path 

of life. 



116 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 38 

The MqN'-shkon (Crawfish) Gens 
(Osage version, p. 337; literal translation, p. 502) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to the gens who had made of the Puma his body, 

4. Saying: O, younger brother, 

5. We have nothing that is fit to use as a symbol. 

6. Verily, upon the utterance of these words by the people, 

7. The Puma went forth to an open prairie, where trees grow not, 

8. Where he came face to face with a man who stood upright 

9. In the midst of the prairie with uplifted hand. 

10. The Puma turned and hastened toward home. 

11. The people spake to one another, saying: Our younger brother is 

returning. 

12. His manner indicates that he bears great tidings. 

13. Soon he stood before the people, saying: A man stands yonder, 

O, elder broth ei"s. 

14. What sayest thou ? O, younger brother, they said to him. 

15. And he repeated: A man stands yonder, O, elder brothers, 

16. With a cloven hand uplifted. 

17. Then the people spake to one another, saying: O, younger 

brothers, 

18. Wliatever man he may be who stands yonder 

19. We shall send him to the abode of spirits, O, younger brothers. 

20. Then with heads bent toward the man 

21. The people strode forth in haste, 

22. And soon came face to face with the man who stood in the prairies. 

23. Stood with a cloven hand uplifted. 

24. Ho! younger brother, they said to him, 

25. What man art thou that stands before us? 

26. The man replied: I am a Ho°'-ga (a sacred person). 

27. I am Mo^'-shko"* (the Crawfish) (pi. 13, a). 

28. I am Mo''-i'"-ka-zhi''-ga (the Little Earth), O, elder brothers. 

29. The man continued quickly: O, elder brothers, 

30. I am a person who is ever present at any important movement. 

31. I am a person who, in truth, is a symbol. 

32. A person who holds himself ready to be used as a symbol, O, elder 

brothers. 

33. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

34. Within a hillock of soft mud 

35. He disappeared as though sucked into his home 

36. And quickly reappearetl with a bit of dark soil 

37. Which he held aloft as he stood offering it to the people, and he 

spake to them, saying: 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 14 




RATIBIDA COLUMNARIS 



LA FLKSCHE] TRIB.\L RITES FKEE TRANSLATION 117 

38. This bit of dark earth, O, elder brothers, 

39. You shall use as a symbol when offering your suppUcations. 

40. Then, even before the sun rises to the height of your houses, 

41. You shall never fail to have your prayere granted in your life's 

journey, O, elder brothers. 

42. I have bestowed upon you a gift that will make you gratefully 

happy, O, elder brothers. 

43. Then, gently and slowly, 

44. The man again descended into the earth 

45. And reappeared with a bit of blue clay, 

46. Which he stood offering to the people as he spake to them, saj'ing: 

47. This bit of blue clay, O, elder brothers, 

48. You shall always use as a symbol, O, elder brothers. 

49. When you use it as a symbol while offering your supplications, 

50. You shall never fail to have your prayers granted, O, elder 

brothers. 

51. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

52. He continued: You shall always use the blue clay as a symbol, 

O, elder brothers. 

53. For a third time 

54. The man descended into the earth 

55. And reappeared with a bit of red clay, 

56. Which he stood offering to the people as he spake to them, saying: 

57. This bit of red clay also 

58. You shall always use as a symbol, O, elder brothers. 

59. By its aid you shall with ease excite compassion and your prayers 

shall be granted, O, elder brothers. 

60. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

61. The man for the fourth time 

62. Descended into the earth 

63. And brought forth a bit of yellow clay, 

64. Which he stood offermg to the people as he spake to them, saying; 

65. This bit of yellow clay also 

66. You shall always use as a symbol. 

67. When you use it as a symbol while offering your supplications, 

68. Then, even before the sun rises to the height of your houses, 

69. You shall never fail to have your prayers granted on your life's 

journey, O, elder brothers. 

70. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

71. He spake again, saymg: Behold my cloven hand. 

72. My cloven hand also 

73. You shall always use as a symbol, O, elder brothers. 



118 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

74. There are poles that are spoken of as forked poles. 

75. My cloven hand shall be represented by the forked poles that you 

may use for any purpose, O, elder brothers. 

76. When toward the setting sun you go against your enemies, 

77. With a craving for success to vanquish them, 

78. By the aid of this symbol you shall not fail to win success, O, elder 

brothers. 

The I'-ba-tse Ta-dse (The Winds) Gens 
(Osage version, p. 339; literal translation, p. 504) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The people spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

3. We have nothing that is fit to use as a symbol. 

4. Then he who had made the Puma to be his body 

5. Hastened forth to make search. 

6. In the midst of an open prairie, where trees grow not, 

7. There stood the Ho^'-ga We-ha-ge (The youngest, or the last of 

the Ho^'-ga subdivision in the tribal order), 

8. With whom he stood face to face. 

9. The Ho°'-ga We-ha-ge spake quickly, saying: O, elder brother. 

10. The Puma asked: What man art thou ? 

11. Ho^'-ga We-ha-ge replied: I am Ho°'-ga Gthe-zhe (the sacred 

spotted eagle). 

12. I am a Ho°'-ga (a sacred person), O, elder brother, 

13. A person who is fitted for use as a symbol. 

14. The people shall always use me as a sjonbol as they travel the 

path of life. 

15. When they so use me, 

16. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

17. And those of the Tsi'-zhu 

18. Shall always use me as a symbol. 

19. When they so use me, 

20. Even before the sun rises to the height of their houses, 

21. They shall easily win compassion and their prayers shall be 

granted as they travel the path of life. 

22. I, who stand here, have given you that which will make you 

gratefully happy. 

THE tsi'-zhu division 

The Tsi'-zhu Wa-nqn (Elder Household) Gens 

(Osage version, p. 340: literal translation, p. 505) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Tsi'-zhu, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to the fsi'-zhu Wa-no" (Elder Tsi'-zhu gens), 



TRIBAL KITES FREE TRANSLATION 



119 



4. Saying: O, grandfather, 

5. We have nothing that is fit for use as a symbol. 

6. The Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° replied: 

7. You say you have nothing that is fit to use as a symbol. 

8. I am a person who is fit to use as a symbol, 

9. For of the god of day who sitteth in the heavens (fig. 9), 

10. I, as a person, have verily made my body. 

11. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

12. Even of the god of day who sitteth in the heavens, 

13. The little ones as a people shall make their bodies. 

14. Wlien the little ones make of the god of day their bodies, 

15. They shall be free from all causes of death. 

16. Wlien they make of the god of day the means of reaching old age, 

17. They shall always live to see old age as they travel the path of life. 




Fig. 9.— Mi Ga-gthe'.^e (Sun rays). In certain atmospheric conditions the sun as it rises throws up 
broad spreading rays. Thirteen of these rays are the war symbols of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" gens. The 
rods used by the warriors in recounting their military honors are made to symbolize these thirteen 
rays. 

18. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

19. Of these gods the Httle ones shall make their bodies, 

20. Of the god of night who sitteth in the heavens, 

21. I, as a person, have verily made my body. 

22. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

23. Even I, who am difiicult to be overcome by death, 

24. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

25. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by death 

as they travel the path of life. 

26. Of the male star, who sitteth in the heavens (the morning star), 

27. That god also, 

28. The little ones shall make their bodies. 



120 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

29. When tho little ones make of tho morning star their bodies, 

30. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

tho j)atii of life. 

31. The female star, who sitteth in the heavens (the evening star), 

32. Of that god also 

33. The little ones shall make their bodies. 

34. Then they shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by 

death. 

35. When they make of her the means of reaching old age, 

36. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

37. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

38. There is a god who never fails to appear at the beginning of day. 

39. Upon the left side of this god 

40. There stand six rays (stripes, as though made by strokes). 

41. These six rays 

42. I have made to be symbols, 

43. Sjonbols of the acts spoken of as o-do°' (valorous or warlike acts). 

44. When they make of these rays the symbols of their o-do°', 

45. They shall enable themselves to count with accuracy their o-do"' 

as they travel the path of life. 

46. Upon the right side of this god 

47. There stand seven rays (rays of like appearance to the six rays). 

48. Those seven rays also 

49. I have made to be symbols, 

50. Symbols of the acts spoken of as o-do°' I have made them to be. 

51. Verily, I have made them all to stand as the o-do°' of the people. 

52. When the little ones use these rays for counting their o-do"', 

53. They shall enable themselves to account with accuracy the deeds 

by which they won their o-do"' as they travel the path of life. 

54. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

55. It was said: Of what else shall the little ones make their bodies? 

56. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

57. The Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° replied: 

58. There is a bird that has a long bill (the pileated woodpecker) 

(pi. 13, h), 

59. Of that bird also 

60. I, as a person, have verily made my body. 

61. The god of day, who sitteth in the heavens, 

62. I have made the bird to symbolize. 

63. The god of night, who sitteth in the heavens, 

64. I have made the bird to symbolize. 



LA FLESCHE] TRIB.\L RITES — I'REE TRANSLATION 121 

65. Tiie male star, who sitteth in the heavens, 

66. I liavc made that bird to symbohze. 

67. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

6S. They shall always find a plentiful supply of the earth's riches. 

69. When they go toward the setting sun against their enemies, 

70. Taking with them the bird as a symbol through which to offer 

their supplications, 

71. They shall never fail to succeed as they travel the path of life. 

72. The female star, who sitteth in the heavens, 

73. I have caused that bird to symbolize. 

74. When the little ones go toward the setting sun against their 

enemies, 
7.5. Tiiking with them the bird as a symbol through which to offer 
their supplications, 

76. They shall never fail to succeed as they travel the path of life, 

77. They shall always find a plentiful supply of the earth's riches. 

78. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

79. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life; 

80. The four great divisions of the days 

81. They shall enable themselves to reach and enter. 

82. When the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

83. And those of the Ho°'-ga 

84. Make of me their symbol throughout their life's journey, 

85. They shall never fail to succeed as they travel the path of life. 

The Tse-do'-ga I^-dsb Gens 

The presence of the Tse-do'-ga I°-dse (Buffalo-face Gens) (pi. 13, c) 
is necessary in this ceremony in order to complete the tableau of the 
sky, the great bodies that move therein, and the animal life in the 
earth to which they are related. This gens occupies the second place 
in the ceremonial order of the gentes composing the fsi'-zhu division, 
but, as in the case of the Wa-ke'-stse-dse (Cat-tail) gens (see p. 93), 
its members remain silent throughout the ceremony. The head of 
the gens, however, is given a fee for his services, and the members 
share in the distribution of the provisions provided by the candidate. 

The office of this gens in certain degrees of the war rites is to per- 
form the ceremony of cutting into shape the symbolic buffalo-skin 
moccasins to be worn by the Xo'-ka and the Sho'-ka and to recite 
the wi'-gi-e relating to the moccasins. 



122 THE OSAGK TRIBE [bth. anm. 36 

The Mi-k'i^' Wa-no'' (Sun Carrier) Gens 
(Osage version, p. 342; literal translation, p. 508) 

1 . Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Tsi'-zhu, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to the Mi-k'i°' Wa-no" (Elder Sun Carrier), 

4. Saying: O, grandfather, 

5. We have nothing that is suitable to use as a symbol. 

6. The Mi-k'i"" Wa-no° quickly replied: 

7. You say you have nothing that is suitable to use as a symbol. 

8. I am a person of whom you may well make your bodies, 

9. For of the god of day who sitteth in the heavens, 

10. I, as a person, have verily made my body. 

11. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

12. Of the god of day who sitteth in the heavens, 

13. They, as a people, shall verily make their bodies, as they travel 

the path of life. 

14. When they make of the god of day their bodies, 

15. They shall be free from all causes of death; 

16. When they also make of him the means of reaching old age, 

17. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age, as they travel 

the path of life. 

18. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

19. He said to them: Of the god of night who sitteth in the heavens 

(moon), 

20. I, as a person, have verily made my body. 

21. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

22. Of the god of night who sitteth in the heavens, 

23. They, as a people, shall make their bodies, as they travelthe path 

of life. 

24. I am difficult to be overcome by death. 

25. When of the god of night 

26. The little ones also make their bodies, 

27. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by death; 

28. When they make of the god of night the means of reaching old age, 

29. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age, as they travel 

the path of life. 

30. Of the male star (the morning star), 

31. Who sitteth in the heavens, 

32. I, as a person, have verily made my body; 

33. When the little ones also make of him their bodies, 

34. When they make of the morning star 

35. Their bodies as they travel the path of life, 

36. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by death. 



!.\ FLBSCHB] TRIBAL, RITES — FREE TRANSLATION 123 

37. When they make of him the means of reaching old age, 

38. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age, as they travel 

the path of life. 

39. Of the female star (the evening star) 

40. I, as a person, have verily made my body. 

41. When the little ones also make of her their bodies 

42. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by death; 

43. When they make of her the means of reaching old age, 

44. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

45. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

46. He said to them: Of these gods the little ones shall make their 

bodies. 

47. The god who never fails to appear at the beginning of day (the 

sun), 

48. Has upon his left side (see lines 37 to 53 of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" 

Wi'-gi-e) 

49. Six rays (stripes) that stand upright. 

50. These six rays 

51. I have made to be symbols (of warhke acts). 

52. When the little ones use these six rays for counting their o-do°' 

53. They shall count with accuracy their o-do°' as they travel the 

path of life. 

54. The god who never fails to appear at the beginning of day 

55. Has upon his right side 

56. Seven rays that stand upright. 

57. These seven rays (stripes) 

58. I have made to be symbols. 

59. When the Uttle ones use these seven rays for counting their o-do"' 

60. They shall count with accuracy their o-do°' as they travel the 

path of Ufe. 

The HqN' I-ni-ka-shi-oa (Night People) Gens 
(Osage version, p. 343; literal translation, p. 510) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Tsi'-zhu, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to the Ho°' I-ni-ka^shi-ga (People of the Night) gens, 

4. Saying: O, grandfather, 

5. We have nothing that is suitable to use as a symbol. 

6. He hastened to reply, saying: O, little ones, 

7. I am a person who is suitable for use as a symbol. 

8. Of the Black Bear, who is without a blemish, 

9. I, as a person, have verily made my body. 



124 THE OSAGE TRIBE Iktii. ann. 3C 

10. When the httle ones also make of him their bodies 

11. They shall always be free from all (causes of death, 

12. And they shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they 

travel the path of life. 

13. Behold the skin of my feet wherein it is dark in color. 

14. The dark soles of my feet I have made to be as my charcoal; 

15. When the little ones also make it to be as their charcoal 

16. They shall have charcoal that will easily sink into their skin as 

they travel the path of life. 

17. Behold, the tip of my nose is dark in color. 

18. The dark tip of ray nose I have made to be as my charcoal; 

19. When the little ones also make it to be as their charcoal 

20. They shall have charcoal that will easily sink into their skin. 

21. Behold my body that is black in color. 

22. My body that is black in color I have made to be as my charcoal; 

23. When the little ones also make it to be as their charcoal 

24. They shall have charcoal that will easily sink into their skin. 

25. When the little ones make of me the means of reaching old age 

26. They shall always live to see old age; 

27. And the four great divisions of days 

28. They shall not fail to reach and to enter as they travel the path 

of life. 

The Xu-tha' Zhu-dse (Red Eagle) Gens 
(Osage version, p. 344; literal translation, p. 5U) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Tsi'-zhu, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge (Tsi'-zhu Peace gens), 

4. Who had made of the Red Eagle their body (red is here used 

as a trope), 

5. Saying: O, grandfather, 

6. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

7. The fsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge quickly replied: O, little ones, 

8. You say the little ones have nothing of which to make their 

bodies. 

9. I am a person of whom the little ones may well make their 

bodies. 

10. When they make of the Red Eagle 

11. Their bodies in their life's journey, 

12. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 



Ui. FLBSCHE] TRIBAI. RITES FREE TRANSLATION 125 

13. The folds of the skin of my feet 

14. I have made to be the means of reaching okl age. 

1.5. Wlien the Uttle ones also make of them the means of reaching old 
age, 

16. The_v shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

17. Tlic wrinkles of the muscles of my ankles also 

18. I have made to be the means of reaching old age. 

19. When the little ones also make of them the means of reaching old 

age, 

20. They shall enable themselves to live to see in the muscles of their 

ankles the signs of old age. 

2 1 . The loose muscles of my legs 

22. I have made to be the means of reaching old age. 

23. When the little ones also make of them the means of reaching old 

age, 

24. They shall enable themselves to live to see in the loose muscles 

of their legs the signs of old age. 

25. The loose inner muscles of my thighs 

26. I have made to be the means of reaching old age. 

27. When the little ones also make of them the means of reaching old 

age, 

28. They shall enable themselves to see old age as they travel the 

path of life. 

29. The skin of my breast, gathered into folds, 

30. I have made to be the means of reaching old age. 

31. When the little ones also make of them the means of reaching old 

age, 

32. They shall enable themselves to live to see in the skin of their 

breasts the signs of old age. 

33. The loose muscles of my arms 

34. I have also made to be the means of reaching old age. 

35. When the little ones also make of them the means of reaching old 

age, 

36. They shall enable themselves to hve to see the muscles of their 

arms loosen with old age. 

37. Behold my shoulders, that are bent with age, 

38. Which I have also 

39. Made to be the means of reaching old age. 

40. When the little ones make of them the means of reaching old age, 

41. They shall enable themselves to live to see in their shoulders the 

signs of old age. 



126 THE OSAGE TRIBE Ibtu. ann. 36 

42. The loose muscles of my throat 

43. I have also 

44. Made to be the means of reaching old age. 

45. When the little ones make of them the means of reaching old age, 

46. They shall enable themselves to live to see in the loosened muscles 

of their throats the signs of old age. 

47. The hair on the crown of my head, grown thin with age, 

48. I have also 

49. Made to be the means of reaching old age. 

50. When the little ones also make of my thin hair the means of 

reaching old age, 

51. They shall enable themselves to live to see in the thinned hair of 

the crown of their heads the signs of old age. 

52. The white hair on my head 

53. I have also 

54. Made to be the means of reaching old age. 

55. When the little ones also make of my white hair the means of 

reaching old age, 

56. They shall enable themselves to live to see that the hair on their 

heads has grown yellowish with age. 

57. Of the god of day 

58. I, as a person, as a people, have verily made my body. 

59. Verily, there is a god who never fails to appear at the beginning 

of day, 

60. The god who lies as though dipped in red (the dawn). 

61. Of that god also 

62. I, as a person, as a people, have verily made my body. 

63. By the side of the god who never fails to appear at the begin- 

ning of day (the sun), 

64. Even at his left side, 

65. Stands a plumelike shaft of light. 

66. I, as a person, as a people, have made my body of this plume. 

67. When the little ones make their plumes like this shaft of light, 

68. They shall always live to see old age. 

69. When the little ones approach old age, 

70. Having made their plumes like to the shaft of light, 

71. Their symbolic plumes shall never droop as they travel the path 

of life. 

72. By the side of the god who never fails to appear at the begin- 

ning of day (the sun), 

73. Even at his right side, 

74. There stands a plumehke shaft of light. 



LA FLBSCHE] TRIBAL RITES — FREE TRANSLATION 127 

75. Of that shaft of light I have made my symbolic plume. 

76. When the little ones make of that shaft of light their sjrmbolic 

plumes, 

77. They shall always live to see old age. 

78. When the little ones approach old age, 

79. Having made of that shaft of light their symbolic plumes, 

80. Their symbolic plumes shall never droop as they travel the path 

of life. 

HON'-B.A. THA-GTHl" (PEACEFUL DAY)'" 

81. I, as a person, verily make my abode in the days that are calm 

and peaceful. 

82. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

83. They shall enable themselves to dwell as a people in the days 

that are calm and peaceful as they travel the path of life. 

84. Verily, from all the gods 

85. I, who stand here, have removed all signs of anger. 

86. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

87. They shall enable themselves to remove from the gods 

88. All signs of anger as they travel the path of life. 

89. From the god who hes below (the earth) 

90. I have removed all anger and violence. 

91. From the god of dayhght, who stands in the midst of the 

heavens, 

92. I have removed all anger and violence. 

93. From the god who lies above (the overarching sky) 

94. I have removed all anger and violence. 

95. Verily, from all the gods, 

96. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

97. They shall enable themselves to remove all anger and violence 

as they travel the path of life. 

98. When the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe, 

99. Together with those of the Ho^'-ga, 

100. Make of me their bodies, 

101. Verily, from over all the land, 

102. They shall enable themselves to remove all anger and violence 

as they travel the path of life. 



" Wa-xthi'-zhi gave this subtitle, but he offered no explanation as to its meaning. However, it gives 
reason for the belief that it is the title of a subgens of the Red Eagle gens. This title appears as a personal 
woman's name in the Omaha I^-shta-ccMla gens. (See 27th Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 194.) 



128 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

U'-XTHI THl'*-GE (no ANGER) 

103. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

104. The Tsi'-zhu, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

105. Spake to one of the Tsi'-zhu (gentcs), 

106. Verily, a person (gens) who stands having no anger or violence, 

107. Saying: O, my grandfather, 

108. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

109. "No Anger" (the subgens of that name) replied, saying: 

110. You say the little ones have nothing of which to make their 

bodies. 

111. I am a person (a people) of whom the little ones may well make 

their bodies. 

112. I am a person whose being abides in the moist, vibrating air of 

the earth. 

113. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

114. They shall enable themselves to become a people of the moist, 

vibrating air of the earth as they travel the path of life. 

115. Verily, in the days that are calm and peaceful, 

116. I, as a person, make my abode. 

117. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

118. They, as a people, shall abide in the days that are calm and 

peaceful as they travel the path of life. 

119. The Peaceful Day 

120. Is a personal name that I have taken. 

121. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

122. They, as a people, shall abide in the days that are calm and 

peaceful, as they travel the path of life. 

123. Of a little pipe (the Peace Pipe) I have made my body. 

124. When the little ones also 

125. Make of it their bodies, 

126. They shall live without anger or violence as they travel the 

path of life. 

127. When they use the pipe in seeking earthly riches, 

128. They shall enable themselves to find riches in abundance. 

129. It (the Pipe) shall also be the means by which they may obtain 

food. 

130. Wlien they use it as a means to obtain food, 

131. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

132. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

133. He (No Anger) said to them: Of a little yellow flower 



LA PLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 129 

13-4. I, as a person, have, verily, made my body. 

135. The little Ba-shta'-e-go" (RatiMda columnaris^^) (pi. 14) 

136. I, as a person, have, verily, made my body. 

137. When the little ones make of it their bodies, 

138. They shall cause themselves to live together without anger or 

violence, 

139. And they shall live to see old age as they travel the path of life. 

140. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

141. He further said to them: And when the little ones eat of this 

plant 

142. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they trave 

the path of life. 

143. Of the red corn 

144. I, as a person, have, verily, made my body. 

145. The little ones shall at all times make of the red corn their food. 

146. When they make of it their food, 

147. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as thej' travel 

the path of life. 

148. The blue corn 

149. They shall also 

150. Make to be their food at all times. 

151. When they make the blue corn to be their food, 

152. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

153. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

154. The speckled corn 

155. They shall also 

156. Make to be their food at all times. 

157. When the little ones use the speckled corn for food, 

158. They shall enable themselves to Uve to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

159. Wlien the httle ones make the speckled corn to be their food, 

160. They shall live to see their limbs stretch in growth as they travel 

the path of life. 

161. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

162. He said to them: The yellow corn 

163. They shall also 

164. Use for food at all times. 

165. When they use the yeUow corn for food, 

u The beads of the children belonging to the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gens are ceremonially shorn so as 
to resemble this sacred flower. 

2786—21 9 



130 THK OSAGE TRIBE [loru. ann. 30 

166. Thoy shall enable themselves to live to see old age. 

167. When the little ones use the yellow corn for food, 

168. They shall live to see their limbs stretch in growth as they travel 

the path of life. 

169. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

170. And those of the Ho^'-ga 

171. Shall use the corn for food at all times. 

172. When they use it for food, 

173. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

174. The four great divisions of the days, 

175. They shall always cause themselves to reach and to enter, 

176. Even to the days that are calm and peaceful 

177. They shall bring themselves as they travel the path of life. 

The Tsi'-zhu We-ha-ge (The Last Tsi'-zhu) Gen8 
(Osage version, p. 349; literal translation, p. 516) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Tsi'-zhu, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to the Tsi'-zhu We-ha-ge (The Last Tsi'-zhu), 

4. Saying: O, grandfather, 

5. We have nothmg that is suitable to use as a symbol. 

6. 'Tsi'-zhu We-ha-ge hastened to reply, saying: O, little ones, 

7. You say you have nothing that is suitable to use as a symbol. 

8. I am a person who may well be used as a symbol. 

9. Of the Red Black Bear (red is here used as a trope), 

10. I, as a person, have verily made my body. 

11. When the little ones seek refuge in me as they travel the path 

of life, 

12. They shall always live to see old age. 

13. When they make of me the means of reaching old age, 

14. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

1 5 . The skin of my feet that is dark in color 

16. I have made to be as my charcoal. 

17. When the little ones make it to be as their charcoal, 

18. They shall have charcoal that will easily sink into their skin as 

they travel the path of life. 

19. The tip of my nose, that is dark in color, 

20. I have made to be as my charcoal. 

21. When the little ones make it to be as their charcoal, 

22. They shall have charcoal that will easily sink into their skin as 

they travel tb ipath of life. 



I.AKLESCHB] TRIBAL RITES FREE TRAJSfSLATION 131 

23. My body, that is black in color, » 

24. I have inailo to be as my charcoal. 

25. When the little ones make it to be as their charcoal, 

26. They shall have charooal that will easily sink into their skin. 

27. They shall also find in it the means of reaching old age. 

28. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

29. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

30. The skin of my feet, that is gathered in folds, 

31. I have made to be the means of reaching old age. , 

32. When the little ones also make it to be the means of reaching 

old age, 

33. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

34. The muscles of my ankles, that are wrinkled, 

35. I have made to be the means of reaching old age. 

36. When the little ones also make them to be the means of reaching 

old age, 

37. They shall always live to see in the muscles of their ankles the 

signs of old age. 

38. The inner muscles of my thighs, that are gathered in folds, 

39. I have made to be the means of reaching old age. 

40. When the little ones make them to be the means of reaching old 

age, 

41. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age. 

42. The muscles of my breast, that are gathered in folds, 

43. I have made to be the means of reaching old age. 

44. When the little ones make of them the means of reaching old age, 

45. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

46. The muscles of my arms, that are gathered in folds, 

47. Shall be to them the means by which they shall see old age as 

they travel the path of life. 

48. My shoulders also that are bent with age 

49. I have made to be the means of reaching old age. 

50. When the little ones make them to be the means of reaching okl 

age, 

51 . They shall always live to see in their shoulders the sign of old age. 

52. The muscles of my throat, that are loosened with age, 

53. I have made to be the means of reaching old age. 



132 THE OSAGE TRIBE |etu. an.n. 36 

54. When the httlc ones also nuike of thera the means of reaching okl 

age, 

55. Thoy shall always live to see in the loosened muscles of their 

throats the sign of old age. 

56. The thin hair on the crown of my head also 

57. 1 have made to be the means of reaching old age. 

58. The little ones in their old age 

59. Shall always see the hair on the crowns of their heads thinned with 

age. 

60. The thin, yellowish hair of my head 

61. I have also 

62. Made to be the means of reaching old age. 

63. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

64. They shall always Uve to see the hair of their heads thinned and 

yellowish with age. 

65. The four great divisions of the days 

66. They shall always enable themselves to reach and to enter. 

67. When the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

68. And those of the Ho°'-ga 

69. Make of me their bodies, 

70. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

The Tse Thon'-ka (Buffalo Back) Gens 
(Osage version, p. 351; literal translation, p. 518) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Tsi'-zhu, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to one of their number, the Tse Tho°'-ka (Buffalo Back), 

4. Saying: O, grandfather, 

5. We have nothing that is suitable to use as a symbol. 

6. Tse Tho°'-ka quickly replied, saying: O, Uttle ones, 

7. You say you have nothing that is suitable to use as a symbol. 

8. I am a person who is suitable to use as a symbol. 

9. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

10. And those of the Ho°'-ga 

11. Shall always use me as a symbol. 

12. On their account I shall always be burning my fingers (referring 

to his duties as Sho'-ka, kindling fires, etc.). 

13. When they cause me to burn my fingers by calling me to their 

service, 

14. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they trave 

the path of life. 



i,A FLEscHK] TRIBAL RITES — -FREE TRANSLATION 133 

15. When they make of me the means of reaching old age, 

16. The four great divisions of days 

17. Tlie}' shall enable themselves to reach and to enter as they travel 

the path of life. 

The Ni'-ka Wa-ko^-da-oi (Men of Mystery) Gens 
(Osage version, p. 352; literal translation, p. 519) 



1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Tsi'-zhu, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to one of their number, the Ni'-ka Wa-ko°-da-gi (Men of 

Mystery), 

4. Saying: O, grandfather, 

5. We have nothing that is suitable to use as a s3rmbol. 

6. The Ni'-ka Wa-ko^-da-gi quickly replied, saying: O, little ones, 

7. You saj' you have nothing that is suitable to use as a sjTnbol. 

8. I am a person who is suitable to use as a symbol. 

9. Of the red metal 

10. I, as a person, have verily made my body. 

11. Wlien the little ones make of it their bodies, 

12. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

13. Wlien they make of it the means of reaching old age, 

14. They shall be free from all causes of death as they travel the 

path of life. 

15. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

16. He spake again, saying: Of the black metal 

17. I, as a person, have, verily, made my body. 

18. Wlien the little ones make of it their bodies, 

19. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

20. Wlien of the black metal 

21. They make their bodies in their life's journey, 

22. Their skin, Uke that metal, shall be difficult to penetrate. 

23. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

24. He spake again, saying: Of the loose, rough metal 

25. I, as a person, have, verily, made my body. 

26. When the little ones make of it their bodies, 

27. When of the loose rough metal, 

28. They make their bodies, 

29. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by death. 

30. When they make of it the means of reaching old age, 

31. They shall live to see old age, as they travel the path of life, 



134 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

32. Veril3% at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

33. He spake again, saying: Of the yeUow metal, 

34. I, as a person, have verily made my body. 

35. When the little ones make of it their bodies, 

36. They shall be free from all causes of death. 

37. They shall enable themselves to be difhcult to overcome by death. 

38. When they make of it the means of reaching old age, 

39. They shall live to see old age, as they travel the path of life. 

40. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

41. To the four great divisions of the days 

42. They shall cause themselves to reach and to enter as they travel 

the path of life. 

43. These shall stand for the bodies of the little ones. 

44. Of the hard hailstone, 

45. Also, 

46. I, as a person, have verily made my body. 

47. Of the hard corn (the flint com), 

48. Together with the hailstone, I have made myself to be a person. 

49. Wlien the little ones make of these their bodies, 

50. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

51. Wlien the little ones use the hard corn for food, 

52. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

Tho'-xe Pa Thi-ho'' (Bufkalo Bull) (Iens 
(Osage version, p. 353; literal translation, p. 521) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 
2 The Tsi'-zhu, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Spake to the Tho'-xe Pa Thi-ho° (Tho'-xe, archaic name for buf- 

falo bull; Pa Thi-ho°, Lift ye your heads, refers to story, p. 64), 

4. Saying: O, grandfather, 

5. We have nothing that is suitable to use as a sjTnbol: 

6. Come down to us, O, grandfather! they said to him (the Tho'-xe 

are a sky people). 

7. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

8. The fsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge (here personified), who sat with the 

'Tsi'-zhu of the seven fireplaces, 

9. Had with him his red plume (symbol of the dawn and of peace), 

10. Which he quickly took from its coverings 

1 1. And shot into the mouth of the angry bull; it lodged by the left 

side of liis tongue, 

12. Wliere it lay lengthwise by the side of the tongue. 



LAPiBSCHB] TRIBAL RITES — FREE TRANSLATION 135 

13. Thereupon the Bull lowered his tail, which he had lifted in anger, 

and stood subdued by the magic of peace. 

14. Then the Tho'-xe spake, saying: O, Tsi'-zhu, 

15. You say you have nothing that is suitable to use as a symbol. 

16. I, who stand here, am a person who is suitable to use as a symbol. 

17. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

18. The Bull, preparatory to an extraordinary effort, expanded with 

a quick motion the hairs of his tail 

19. And tossed into the air a cloud of dust that obscured the scenes, 

20. And he spake, saying: I am a person who is never absent from 

the activities of life, O, Tsi'-zhu. 

21. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

22. The Bull threw himself with a quick motion upon the earth, 

23. And the bulbous root of the little great medicine (the poppy 

mallow, pi. 21), 

24. Rolled forth from his body upon the earth. 

25. Whereupon he said : This root 

26. Shall always be a medicine to the people. 

27. When the little ones use it for medicine, 

28. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

29. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

30. The Bull again threw himself, with a quick motion, upon the 

earth, 

31. And the root of the Ha'-ba-ko°-9e pi-da, " Ripens-with-the-corn " 

(Laciniaria pycnostachya), 

32. Rolled forth from his body upon the earth, 

33. And the people said: Shall this root also 

34. Be used by the people as medicine, O, grandfather? 

35. Then hastily they put pieces of it into their mouths to test its 

taste, 

36. And said: It is bitter within the mouth, O, grandfather! 

37. It is astringent, O, grandfather! 

38. From this sacred plant we shall take a personal name, O, grand- 

father, that it may ever be remembered. 

39. The name " Astringent " 

40. Shall have a place among our sacred names, O, grandfather. 

41. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

42. He (the Buffalo) led them to the Mo°-ko°-to°-ga, Great Medicine 

( Cucurhita foetidissima) , 

43. Before which they stood, and they said: 

44. Shall this plant be a medicine to the people, O, grandfather? 



136 THE OSAGE TRIBE (kth. ann. 86 

45. Ami the Bull spake, saying: When the little ones use this plant 

as medicine, 

46. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

47. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

48. In the presence of the Mo°-ko°' Ni-ka-shi-ga, Man Medicine 

{Cucurhita perennis), 

49. They came and stood, 

50. And the people said: Shall this plant be a medicine to the little 

ones, O, grandfather? 

51. The Bull replied : Wlien the little ones use this plant as medicine, 

52. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

53. When the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

54. And those of the Ho^'-ga 

55. Use this plant also for medicine, 

56. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

57. Verily, at that time and jjlace, it has been said, in this house, 

58. The people said: Of what shall the little ones make their bodies? 

59. And, in response, the Bull caused the red corn 

60. To roll forth upon the earth. 

61. In like manner he sent forth the red squash 

62. To accompany the red corn. 

63. Then the red-haired animal also 

64. He made to accompany them. 

65. All these he sent rolling forth upon the earth, out of sight (refers 

to the creation), 

66. And he said: When the little ones use all of these as medicine, 

67. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

68. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

69. The people said: What else shall the people use as medicine? 

70. Then the Bull spake, saying: The blue corn 

71. Shall also 

72. Be used by the little ones as medicine. 

73. And the people said to one another: The black squash 

74. We shall make to accompany it, O, younger brothers. 

75. The dark-haired animal, 

76. We shall make to accompany it, O, grandfather. 

77. The Bull spake, saying: When the little ones use these as medicine, 

78. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 



!.A Fi.ESCHBl TEIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION ] 37 

79. Verily, at that tirao and place, it has been said, in this house, 

80. The Bull caused a s])eckled corn 

81. To roll forth upon the earth, 

82. Saying, as he did so: The speckled corn also 

83. The little ones shall use as medicine. 

84. When they use this corn as medicine, 

85. They shall cause their limbs to stretch in growth as they travel 

the path of life. 

86. And the people said: The speckled squash 

87. We shall make to accompany it, O, grandfather. 

88. The speckled animal 

89. We shall make to accompany it. 

90. The Bull spake, saying: Wlien the little ones use all of these as 

medicine, 

91. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

92. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 
9.3. The Bull spake, saying: These shall stand as medicine for the 

little ones. 

94. The yellow corn, 

95. The little ones shall use as medicine. 

96. Wlien the little ones use the yellow corn as medicine, 

97. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

98. The people spake, saying: The yellow sc^uash, 

99. We shall make to accompany it, O, grandfather, 

100. The animal with yellow hair, 

101. We shall make it to be the means of bringing, O, grandfather, 

102. And the Bull spake, saying: When the little ones use all of these 

as medicine, 

103. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age. 

104. When the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe, 

105. And those of the Ho^'-ga, 

106. Use all of these as medicine, 

107. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

108. All of these they shall use to make their limbs to stretch in 

growth. 

109. The four great divisions of the days, 

110. Verily the four great divisions, 

111. They shall enable themselves to reach and to enter, 

112. To the days that are calm and peaceful, 

113. They shall enable themselves to come and to enter as they travel 

the path of life. 



138 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

114. Verily, at that timo and place, it has been said, in this house, 

115. The people said: What shall the little ones use as medicine? 

116. The Bull replied: The aged animal (the buffalo bull), 

117. The little ones shall use as medicine (the fat of the buffalo is used 

in various ways for medicine, and also for ceremonial pur- 
poses). 

118. Wlien the little ones use the aged animal as medicine, 

119. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

120. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

121. The Bull spake, saying: Behold the thick ball-like muscles of 

my hind quarters. 

122. When the little ones use this part of my body as medicine, 

123. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

124. Behold, the left side of my body, 

125. Which I have made for use as medicine. 

126. When the little ones use this part of my body as medicine, 

127. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they 

travel the path of life. 

128. Behold, the muscles of my spine (one side), 

129. Which I have made for use as medicine. 

130. When the little ones use this part of my body as medicine, 

131. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

132. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

133. The Bull spake, saying: Behold, the muscles of my spine (the 

other side), 

134. The fat of which I, who stand here, have made for use as a 

healing ointment, and oil for ceremonial purposes. 

135. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

136. And those of the Ho°'-ga 

137. Shall use the fat of this part of my body as ointnient. 

138. When they use the fat of this part of my body as a healing oint- 

ment, and oil for ceremonial purposes, 

139. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

140. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

141. He said to the people: Behold, the right side of my body, 

142. Which I, who stand here, have made for use as medicine. 



LAFLESCHB] TRIBAL RITES— FREE TRANSLATION 139 

143. When the Uttle ones use this part of my body as medicine, 

144. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

145. Behold, the muscles of my breast, 

146. Wliich I have made for use as medicine. 

147. When the little ones use this part of my body as medicine, 
14S. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

149. Behold also my heart sack, 

150. Which I have made for use as medicine (used as a receptacle 

for the medicinal fat). 

151. When the little ones use this part of my body as medicine, 

152. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

153. The muscles of my limbs, 

154. Those of the various parts of my body, 

155. Verily, the muscles of every part of my body, 

156. The little ones shall use as medicine. 

157. When thej' use my body in all its parts as medicine, 

15S. Verily they shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they 
travel the path of life. 

159. When the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

160. And those of the Ho°'-ga 

161. Use my body in all its parts as medicine, 

162. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

U-dse'-the A-do^-be, Keeper of the Fereplace 

At the beginning of this ceremony the man who was the last to be 
initiated into the mysteries of this rite is chosen to act as U-dse'-the 
A-do°-be, Keeper of the Fireplace. As the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga enter 
the lodge to take their places this officer takes his appointed seat 
near the door, where he does not represent any gens but, rather, all 
of the people. When the A'-ki-ho" Xo-ka performs the ceremony of 
Wa-the'-the, The Sending (of the Symbolic Articles), he sends with 
a fee a bundle of counting sticks to the U-dse'-the A-do^-be. The 
Sho'-ka, who carries the bundle of sticks, divides it into two parts, 
one containing 70 and the other 60 sticks. He holds in his right 
hand the bunch containing 70 sticks and in his left the bunch having 
60. He crosses his forearms at the wrists and in this manner carries 
the counting sticks to the U-dse'-the A-do''-be, who receives and 



140 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

holds the sticks in the same ceremonial manner. Wlicn the No"'- 
ho"-zhi"-ga begin to recite the wi'-gi-es, this officer sings a song, 
boating from time to time the two bundles of sticks against each 
other. (Wa-xthi'-zhi, the informant, declineil to give the song but 
offered no reason for declining.) 

When the reciting of the wi'-gi-es had come to a close, theU-dse'- 
the A-do''-be speaks, saying: "I am about to return these counting 
sticks to the Xo'-ka, but before doing so I wish to give to all the 
No°'-ho''-zhi°-ga present a word of warning before they rise to 
depart. These counting sticks are now to be put in the care of the 
wife of the Initiate (his ceremonial title is Wa-tho°', Singer), and as 
long as these sticks are in her keeping she shall be exempt from the 
seizure of any of her property for ceremonial use — namely, her wood; 
her tent frames; stores of meat, fresh or dried; stores of corn; dried 
squash; or any other food supplies. If an officer, notwithstanding 
her claims to exemption, persists in seizing her property, then she 
shall present to him this bundle of counting sticks and challenge 
hun to count the seven and six o-do°' he may have won in battle in 
defending the homes of his people. Should the officer accept the 
challenge and count the prescribed number of o-do°', she shall then 
yield to him the property he demands, but let the officer beware of 
speaking falsely in counting his o-do"'." 

Having given his word of warning, the U-dse'-the A-do°-be beckons 
to the Sho'-ka to come and take the counting sticks, which he hands 
to him in the same ceremonial manner as they were received. 

The U-dse'-the A-do^-be, in addition to the fee that accompanied 
the counting sticks, later receives two shares of the provisions fur- 
nished by the candidate. 

Instructions to the Wife of the Initiate 

The Sho'-ka, after presenting the bundle of counting sticlis to the 
Xo'-ka, goes out of the lodge. In a short time he returns with the 
wife of the Initiate and conducts her to a place where she sits facing 
the Xo'-ka, his assistant, and the Initiate. The Sho'-ka then takes 
the counting sticks from the Xo'-ka, in the ceremonial manner in 
which he gave them to the U-dse'-the A-do^-be, and presents them to 
the woman with the same ceremony. After the counting sticks have 
been thus ceremonially presented to the woman the Xo'-ka begins 
the next ceremonial act, called Ki'-no° U-tha-ge, the Symbolic 
Painting — that is, the instructions to be given the woman as to how 
she shall paint herself when seeking food for her children and in 
caring for their bodily comfort. This ceremony opens with two 
songs, called Tse Wa'-tho", Buffalo Songs. 



I.A FI.ESCHEJ 



TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 



141 



TSE WA -THO" 



Song 1 



Transcribed by Alice C. Flotehei 




Wi-tsi-go a, i-no^-ga, 
Wi-tsi-go, Wi-tsi-go, 
Tse-zhi" hi" 5i i-no^-ga, 
Wi-tsi-go, Wi-tsi-go. 



Wi-tsi-go a, i-no^-ga, 
Wi-tsi-go, Wi-tsi-go, 
Tse-zM" hi" sha-be i-no°-ga, 
Wi-tsi-go, Wi-tsi-go. 

3 

Wi-tsi-go a, i-no°-ga, 
Wi-tsi-go, Wi-tsi-go, 
Tse-he-xo-dse i-no°-ga, 
Wi-tsi-go, Wi-tsi-go. 



Wi-tsi-go a, i-no°-ga, 
Wi-tsi-go, Wi-tsi-go, 
T8e-do-zhi''-ga i-no"-| 
Wi-tsi-go, Wi-tsi-go. 



Wi-tsi-go a, i-no^-ga, 
Wi-tsi-go, Wi-tsi-go, 
Tse-no''-xtsi-no'' i-no^-ga, 
Wi-tsi-go, Wi-tsi-go. 



Wi-tsi-go a, i-no^-ga, 
Wi-tsi-go, Wi-tsi-go, 
Tse-do-ts' a-ge i-no^-ga, 
Wi-tsi-go, Wi-tsi-go. 



142 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 



[KTH. ANN. 36 



FREE TRANSLATION 
1 



Grandfather, come hither, 
Grandfather, 0, Grandfather, 
Little yellow-haired buffalo, come hither. 
Grandfather, O, Grandfather. 



Little dark-haired buffalo, come hither, etc. 

3 
Little gray-horned buffalo, come hither, etc. 

4 
Young male buffalo, come hither, etc. 

5 
Young female buffalo, come hither, etc. 

6 
Thou aged male buffalo, come hither, etc. 
Song 2 



Transcribed by AUce C. Fletcher. 



.\I..M. 
Time beats 



1 



:tirdrr 


— 1 


-f 


?^_ 


-i— 


K-r 


i-l- 


-zJ 


F~r"*^ 


-i— 


— H- 
















4 






• 




14 4* 






> J 








r r r '^'^'prfr 

I 1 I I I 1 I I I I 1 

Tse-zhi" hi" gi hiu-gthe, Do - ba no°-no" - ga, Wi - tsi 
1 



Wi-tsi-go a, i-no^-ga, 
Wi-tai-go, Wi-tsi-go, 
Tse-zhi" hi" gi hiu-gthe, 
Do-ba no^-no^-ga, Wi-tsi-go. 



Wi-tsi-go a, i-no^-ga, 
Wi-tsi-go, Wi-tsi-go, 
Tse-zhi" hi" sha-be hiu-gthe, 
Do-ba no°-no''-ga, Wi-tsi-go. 

3 

Wi-tsi-go a, i-no''-ga, 
Wi-tsi-go, Wi-tsi-go, 
Tse-he-xo-dse hiu-gthe, 
Do-ba nC-no^-ga, Wi-tsi-go. 



TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 143 



Wi-tsi-go a, i-no°-ga. 
Wi-tsi-go, Wi-tsi-go, 
Tse-do-zhi^-ga hiu-gthe 
Do-ba no^-no^-ga, Wi-tsi-go. 



Wi-tsi-go a, i-no°-ga, 
Wi-tsi-go, Wi-tsi-go, 
Tee-no''-xtsi-no'' hiu-gthe 
Do-ba no''-no°-ga, Wi-tsi-go. 



Wi-tsi-go a, i-nC-ga, 
Wit-si-go, Wi-tsi-go, 
Tse-do ts' a-ge hiu-gthe 
Do-ba no^-nC-ga, Wi-tsi-go. 

FREE TRANSLATION 



Grandfather, come hither, 
Grandfather, 0, Grandfather, 
Little yellow-haired buffalo, with four 
Legs, come running, O, Grandfather. 



Little dark-haired buffalo, with four 
Legs, come running, O, Grandfather. 



Young gray-horned buffalo, with four 
Legs, come running, O, Grandfather. 



Young male buffalo, with four 
Legs, come running, O, Grandfather. 



Young female buffalo, with four 
Legs, come running, 0, Grandfather. 



Aged male buffalo, with four 

Legs, come running, 0, Grandfather. 



As in the songs and wi'-gi-es of other tribal rites, the preceding 
two songs hold a deeper meaning than the mere words convey. The 
kinship term " Wi-tsi'-go" (grandfather) frequently mentioned in the 
songs is not used in its ordinary sense, but as an expression of vener- 
ation when contemplating the mystery of life, which is the actual 



144 THE OSAGE TRIBE [e-iu. ann. 3G 

tliorao of the songs. The Indian is thinking tJuit upon these animals 
his own boilily sustenance depends, and the song is a call to that 
mysterious power of animal life so needed by man to come to his 
help and to come in an endless and constant succession. The stanzas 
of the song are arranged so as to suggest the growth of the animal 
from birth to old age, beginning in the first stanza with the yellowish 
color of the hair of the newborn, through the changes in the coloring 
of the hair, the growth of the horns, to the full maturity of the 
animal, when the mating with the female occurs and the perpetua- 
tion of the species is assured, until finally the animal reaches old age, 
when all its functional powers are at an end. 

The second song relates to the activities of the animal when it has 
attained all its capabilities. The call in these songs is not only to 
the mysterious life embodied in the animal but to that of the human 
race as well and represented by the Initiate and his wife. 

In this connection it is of historic interest that the Omaha in their 
call to the life of the buffalo begin with the bodily formation of the 
animal while in its embryonic state, brmging it to its actual birth, 
when it rises and places the imprints of its feet upon the bosom of 
the earth. (See Twenty-seventh Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethn., 
p. 289.) 

At the close of the songs the A'-ki-ho° Xo-ka gives the mstructions 
to the woman as to certain supplicatory ceremonies to be performed 
by her on behalf of her children as each one is born. These instruc- 
tions are the same as those in the Tse Wa'-tlio° given by Wa-xthi'-zhi 
in his description of the No^'-zhi^-zho" degree of the war rites, and 
those given by Xu-tha'-wa-to"-!" in his description of the Ni'-ki-e 
degree of his gens. (See p. 270.) 

When the A'-ki-ho° Xo-ka has finished his instructions the woman 
returns the counting sticks to him and then goes out of the lodge. 
The leader of the Crawfish gens then speaks, saying: "0,No'"-ho°- 
zhi°-ga, you may now remove from your faces the symbolic paint- 
ings." The women bring water and aU the men, excepting those of 
the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no°, the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi, and the gens of the 
Initiate, wash their faces, while the men appointed to distribute the 
provisions furnished by the Initiate perform their duties. Then, as 
the women carry away the portions given to the famUies, all the 
No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga, excepting those of the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no''-dsi, the 
Tsi'-zhu Wa-no°, and the initiating gens, go out of the lodge, those 
of the Tsi'-zhu Division passing out by the south door and those of 
the Ho°'-ga by the north. Each No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga as he passes the 
Initiate addresses him by the name of his gens and greets him with 
the words, "O, Ho^'-ga, living creatures shall come to you," meaning 
that children will be born to him and to his wife and that they shall 
have plenty of animal food on which to live. 



LA FLESCUBl TIMIiAl. IMTliS FREE TRANSLATION 145 

The Mo'"-GTnu-sTSE-DSE (Auuow Cekemony) 

When the N()°'-ho"-zhi"-ga has left the lodge, the Sho'-ka 
approaches the A'-ki-ho" Xo-ka and places in his hands a small bow, 
th(> front of which is painted red to symbolize the day and the back 
l)lack to symbolize the night. The bow is accompanied by two 
arrows, each of wliich has a dual significance — namely, the arrow 
painted red symbolizes day and the ])osterity of the Initiate; the one 
painted black symbolizes night and also the posterity of the Initiate. 
(See ]). 99 for illustration.) 

Tliese symbolic weapons are in turn put by the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka 
into the hands of the Xo'-ka. The Initiate rises and with him the 
Xo'-ka, who is to fit the arrows to the bow and to speed them one 
after the other on an eternal course, even as the days and the nights 
move on in endless succession. 

The Xo'-ka addresses the members of the two gentes who remained 
to lend themselves for use as symbols, one as the sky and the other 
as the earth, in this ceremony relating to the life force, and says, 
''I call upon you, O, fsi'-zhu and Ho"'-ga, to assist me" (in the 
speeding of this life). He then adjusts the red arrow to the string 
of the bow, and as he does so he speaks to the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no°, 
saying, ''O, Tsi'-zhu, I am about to set in flight this arrow toward 
you, and it shall not be without success. Toward the setting of the 
sun there are seven villages; it is the seventh one at which I aim this 
arrow." At this the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° begin 
to recite their wi'-gi-e relating to life (seep. 118). The Xo'-ka points 
the arrow over the heads of the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga and goes through 
the motion of releasing it. At the same time he cries, "A-tha-tha 
tha tha-tha . . .!" a cry uttered by a person when suddenly 
stricken with pain, and follows the cry with the words, "Tsi'-zhu 
o-xo-be xtsi e-dsi a-ka, we-to"-i° da!" "It is apparent the fsi'-zhu 
(the Sky) sits yonder in mystery!" It was explained that the cry 
is a mimicking of the cries of the persons tattooed, but most likely 
this statement is to misleatl the uninitiated, and the act undoubtedly 
has a deeper significance, one touching closely upon the coming of 
life into bodily form. The Xo'-ka then takes the black arrow, 
adjusts it to the string of the bow, turns to the No"'-ho"-zhi°-ga of 
the Ho'''-ga U-ta-no°-dsi (the Earth) and addresses them in the same 
words he used to the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no". These also reply by reciting 
their wi'-gi-e (see p. 102), while the Xo'-ka goes through the motion 
of releasing the arrow over their heads and utters the cry of pain. 
Each of these acts is repeated, and the last brings the ceremony to a 
close. 

2786—21 10 



14(1 THE OSACIO TlllIllC I Kin. anx. 3(1 

'I'liK T()^'-\\()^ A-no^-Hh; (OvKiisi'.Ki; ok iiii'. \ ii,i.a(ik) 

Initiation into this rite confers upon tlic Initiate the ollice of coii- 
(hictinf>: the ceremonies connected witli the tattooing (to lie jiivcn in 
a later volume), as well as bestowing upon him an oflice bearing the 
title of To"'-wo" A-(lo"-])e, The Overseer of the Villag(\ The cere- 
monies connecteil with the latter (a priestly oliice) arc dcsc ribcil as 
follows; 

At the beginning of the month of Ta' We-da-tha-bi, When-the- 
Deei'-give-l)irth-to-the-young (April), theNo'''-ho"-zhi"-ga of the Tsi'- 
zhu Wa-shta'-ge and those of the Wa'-tse-tsi Wa-shta'-ge gentes 
assemble at the house of the Chief of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge to con- 
sitler the ceremonies incident to that month when the people entei- 
upon a new year. 

When all the No"'-ho"-zhi°-ga have taken their places, the Tsi'-zhu 
Wa-shta'-ge Chief aikiresses them, saying: ''O, No'"-ho"-zhi''-ga, we 
have just passed through a great division of the days (year). We 
have been free from any serious misfortune, free from disturbances 
from without or within the tribe. The days just passed have been 
calm and peaceful, and all the people have been happy, for there has 
been no hatred among them. We are now entering a new period 
(year), and we assemble, according to custom, to prepare for the 
ceremonies by which we call upon certain great gods to help us so 
that we may enjoy another period (year) of tranquillity, another term 
(year) of happiness. It is our duty at this time to make the neces- 
sary arrangements for the performance of these ceremonies." 

The No"'-ho"-zhi"-ga members of both gentes then offer contribu- 
tions toward the fees that are to be paid to the To'^'-wo"" A-do°-be for 
his priestly services. These fees consist of articles of value — clothing, 
weapons, household goods, and in later times of horses. When most 
or all of the members present have made their contributions, the 
No°'-ho''-zhi°-ga form a procession and approach the house of the 
"To^'-wo" A-do"-be, taking with them the goods they have collected for 
fees. When all have entered and taken their places the Chief of the 
Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gens addresses the priest as Grandfather and 
asks him to perform the supplicatory ceremony. The To°'-wo° 
A-do°-be is addressed as Grandfather because he represents the Power 
to be appealed to for tiul. When the To"'-wo° A-do°-be has given 
his formal assent to act, he is conducted to the western end of the 
lodge to a place and seat always reserved for the W^a'-do°-be at the 
ceremonies of the No"'-zhi"-zho" and the Wa-xo'-be degrees of the 
war rites (see diagram, p. 83). At this ceremony the last Initiate 
into the mysteries of the rites of the Mo^-ko^'-to^-ga Wa-xo'-be, the 
Great Medicine Wa-xo'-be, is also given a seat beside the To°'-wo" 
A-do"-be, so that the two great tribal divisions, the Tsi'-zhu and the 
Ho^'-ga, may be represented in this supplicatory ceremon\-. 



i,.M.-i,KsriiKl TUIllAl, KITKS KI!KE TRANSLATION 147 

W'licii llic t\vn priests have taken their pl.-K es tlie 'r(i"'-\vn" A-(l(i"-])(' 
puts iijiiui hiniseir a i)iiiralii nil)e witli the hair ontsich", and upon his 
head a hiiiicli (if I'eather harhs stri])j)C(l h'om the siiafls t.l' the winfi' 
feathers of the j)eUeaii, tlie l)inl symbolizing long life. Tiiese syiii- 
bolic articles make up his sacerdotal apparel. 

Having put on this ])riestly attire, the To"'-wo" A-do"-l)e lei ites a 
wi'-gi-e. which is divided into Hve sei tions. Tiie lirst relates to the 
jiriestly oHice. The se--ond is an a])])eal to lIo"'-l)a Wa-(,-u, the god 
of the cloudless day: this god is ])ure and free from tlie destructive 
iidluences of anger and hatred; to him the peoj)li' of the Wa'-tse-tsi 
Wa-shta'-ge and of theTsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gentes appeal for aid in 
hel])iiig all the people to ])ass through another ])eriod (year) of peai e 
and good will. The third is an address to Wa-ko"'-(la Ho^'-no^-pa-vc 
the goddess of darkness; she is not only benevolent, but ]iossesses the 
])ower of rei^roduction, and to her these people of peace a])i)eal for 
aid in leading all the peo])le along the paths of peace so that the little 
ones may successfully be brought to maturity. Tlu' fourth is an 
appeal to AVii-ko"'-da Mo"-shi'-ta, god of tlie upper region (sky), who 
also exei-ts his jiowcr towal'd the produitioii of life; to him these 
people a])pcal for aid iu leading the peojile along the jiaths of peace. 
Tlir hfth is an appeal to Wa-ko"'-(la Hiu-dse-ta, the go(hless of the 
lower region (the earth), she who j)ossesses power to liring forth life; 
to her the two chiefs and their followers appeal for aid in their task 
of leading all the people safely along the paths of peace and prosj)erity. 

The choice of the month in which the deer bring forth their young 
for the beginning of this ceremonial year is in itself an implied supjili- 
cation for the natural increase of the tribe. It is during that month 
that the "' goddess of the lower region " begins to put forth her ei^ergy 
and brings into botlily existence both vegetable and animal life in all 
its variety of forms. 

Tile two pairs of gods addressed in this wi'-gi-e are ])ersonitied 
attributes of the unseen Wa-ko"'-da. 

Wl'-(il-?: OF THE TO^'-WO"' A-DO^-BF. 

(Osage version, p. ;i.')7: lileral Iranslation. p. .'i2j) 

1 . Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The j)eople spake to him (the To"'-wo'' A-do"-be), saying: O. 

grandfather, 

3. We have nothing suitable for use as a symbol, (), grandfather. 

4. Verily, at that time and jjhfe, 

n. He made haste to reply: You say you have nothing suitable for 
use as a symbol, 

6. O, little ones, 

7. There are four great gods. 



148 THK ()SA(;K THlllE I ktii. ann. 30 

S. TluMi they spake ngaiii, siiyin^;; Let these lour ^reiit jiods 
U. Bo iissembhjd, O, graiullatlier. 

10. Verily, at that time and ])hice, 

11. They beheld standinj>- H()"'-ba Wa-(,'u, (he ^iod of the eloudless 

days, to whom they spake, 

12. Saying: O, grandfather, 

13. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

14. The god of cloudless days replied: O, little ones, 

15. I am the only great god. 

16. The little ones shall make of me their bodies. 

17. When they make of me their bodies, 

IS. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 
the path of life. 

19. The four divisions of the days 

20. They shall enable themselves to reach and enter as they travel 

the path of life. 

21. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe, 

22. Those of the Ho^'-ga, 

23. And those of the Tsi'-zhu, 

24. The four great divisions of the days, 

25. They shall enable themselves to reach and enter as they travel 

the path of life. 

26. Verily, the days that are calm aiul peaceful, 

27. They shall enable themselves to reach and enter as they travel 

the path of life. 

28. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

29. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

30. Then to Wa-ko°'-da H()"-no"-pa-9e, the godtless of darkness 

standing there, 

31. They spake, saying: O, grandmother, 

32. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

33. Quickly the goddess of darkness replied: O, little ones. 

34. You say the little ones have nothing of which to make their 

bodies. 

35. The little ones shall make of me their bodies as they travel the 

path of life. 

36. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

37. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

38. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe, 

39. Those of the Ho^'-ga, 



i.AFLESciiEl TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 149 

40. And tliose of the Tsi'-zhu 

41. Shall make of me their bodies as they travel tlie ])ath of life. 

42. When they make of me their bodies, 
4.3. The four great divisions of the days 

44. They shall enable themselves to reach and enter as they travel 

the path of life. 
4.5. Little ones, 

46. Verily, an unbroken line of descendants they shall live to see as 

they travel the path of life. 

47. In the days that are calm and peaceful 

48. They shall abide as a people as they travel the path of life. 

49. I am not the only great god. 

50. Then to Wa-ko°'-da Mo"-shi-ta, god of the upper region (sky), 

they spake, 

51. Saying: O, grandfather, 

52. The little ones have become a ])e<iple, O, grandfather. 

5.3. The god of the sky replied: The little ones shall make of me their 
bodies. 

54. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

55. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

56. When the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe, 

57. Those of the Ho^'-ga, 

58. And those of the Tsi'-zhu 

59. Make of me their bodies as they travel the path of life, 

60. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

61. The four divisions of the days 

62. They shall enable themselves to reach and enter as they travel 

the path of life. 

63. I am not the only great god. 

64. To Wa-ko°'-da Hiu-dse'-ta, the goddess of the lower region 

(earth), they spake, 

65. Saying: O, grandmother, 

66. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

67. The goddess of the lower region replied : The little ones shall make 

of me their bodies. 

68. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

69. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as the}' travel 

the path of life. 

70. Little ones, 

71. Verily, an unbroken line of (l(\scendants they shall live to see as 

they travel the path of life. 



150 TIIK OSAdK TIUBE | i;iii. ann. 3G 

72. Wlion the pooplo of tlic Wa-zlia'-zlu-, 
7o. Those of (ho IIo"'-f?a, 

74. .\.ii(l llioso of the Tsi'-zhu 

7.'). Make of mo thoir bodies as thov travel ihe path of hfe, 

76. C^hilih'eii, in an unbroken hne of l)irlhs, they shall live to S(^(^, as 

they travel the ])ath of life, 

77. The four great divisions of the days, 

75. Tliev sliall enable tliemselves to reach and enter, as they travel 

the i)ath of life, 
70. The days that are calm and peaceful, 
<S(). They shall enable themselves to reach and entei', as they travel 

the ])ath of life. 

SI. Verily, all the gods, 

82. 1, who stand hei'e, have made to lie jiui'itied of anger and of 

Tiolence. 
S;5. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 
S4. Children, in an unbroken line of births, they shall live to see, as 

they travel the ])ath of life. 

At the close of the wi'-gi-e the To"'-wo" A-(lo"-be rises, lie goes 
out, stands in front of the door, and calls in a loud voice; 

1. Wa-ko°-da ho"-ba tha-gthi'^ ga-xe ta a-l<a i" da. 

2. Tsi-zhu a-ka Wa-ko"-da ho"-ba tha-gthi" tse e a-ka tha, 

3. Zhi"-ga-zhi"-ga- u-ki-wa-wa-the xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga tse e a-ka i" da. 

He then walks to the eastern part of the village, where he jiroclaims. 
■1. \Va-ko"-da lio"-ba tha-gthi" xtsi ta a-ka i" da, 
b. 'fa-dse mi-hiu-dsi ho''-ba tha-gthi" xtsi ta a-ka i" da! 

He then turns and walks to the southern ]iart of the village, where 
he pauses and cries: 

6. Ta-dse a-k'a dsi Wa-ko"-da ho"-ba tha-gtlii" ga-xe ta a-ka i" dal 

He then turns and walks to the western part of the village, when 
he ])auses and calls: 

7. Ta-dse ga-xpa dsi Wa-ko"-da h()"-lia tha-gthi" ga-xe ta a-ka i" da! 

Then he walks to the northern ]iart of the village, where he stands 
and cries: 

8. Ta-dse ba-fo" dsi \Va-l5ii"-da ho"-l)a tha-gthi" ga-xe la a-ka i" da! 

FREE TKANSL.VTION 

1. \Va-ko"'-da will cause the coming days to be calm and ]ieacel'ul. 

'J. Tlie Tsi'-zhu have called ii|>oii \Va-k()"'-da to make the days calm and 

])eaceful, 
:'.. That little one,-; may come In us in unlimken suecession an<l we hecume a 

people. 

4. \Va-ko"'-da will make the days Ijeautifid. 



i.AiT.r.scHKl TRIBAL RITES FREE TRANSLATION 151 

."). Tcnvarcl tho wiiiils of the rising of the sun the days will surely be calm and 

peaceful. 
<). Toward the winds of the south Wa-ko"'-da will make the days to be calm 

and peaceful. 

7. Toward the winds of the setting sun Wa-ko"'-da will make the days to be 

calm and peaceful. 

8. Toward the winds of the land of cedars (the north) Wa-ko"'-da will make 

the days to be calm and |)eaceful. 

Tluis coiicIikU's th('sui)j)liciiti(>ii of thoTsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-go ami tho 
Wa'-tso-tsi Wa-shta'-ge gentes to the four great gods. In this cere- 
mony is also an implied appeal to all the members of the tribe to 
exercise self-control, so that no contentions may arise to excite anger 
antl hatred among the people but that all may live peacefully as in 
days of cloudless skies. 

Old men of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gens, familiar witli the 
tribal traditions, say, in speaking of the office of chief, "When we 
(the Tsi'-zhu) were called to the great council we were given a place 
and the spokesman of the council said to us: "We have completed 
the organization and have distributed the offices necessary for the 
management of our government. You. are the last to come into the 
organization, but you shall have an office that shall be greatest in 
sanctity and in tlignity. The little ones (the people) shall be yours 
to govern, and the title of your office shall be Ga-hi'-ge (Chief) 
Your office shall be one of kindliness, and within your house there 
shall be no anger, no hatred. You shall lead, and the people shall 
follow you in the paths of peace that they may live long and increase 
in niimbers." (See fig 2, No. 4.) 

The hereditary ofhce then established was religious in character 
ami was held through centuries in reverence by the people, even with 
superstitious awe. The advent of the European trader introduced a 
strange element, one that in time interfered with tribal affairs and 
opened the way to changes that finally led to the abandonment of 
the consecrated office. These historic changes will be treated in a 
later volume. 



NI'-KI NO^-K'O'' KITE (HEARING OF THE SAYINGS OF 
THE ANCIENT MEN) 

ITHE SEVENTH DEOREE OF THE OSACE RlTEs") 

The second Rite here presented is called by some of the gentes 
Ni'-ki No"-k'o", Hearing of the Sayings of the Ancient Men, and by 
other gentes Ni'-ki Wa-tho", Songs of the Sayings of the Ancient Men. 

As has been previously pointed out (see introduction), this rite 
tleals with life in the abstract. It sets forth in particular the tribal 
belief in the mysterious power known to the people as Wa-ko°'-da 
and of the conception concerning the close relationship between 
Wa-ko"'-da and all celestial and terrestrial forms. 

Place of the Ni'-ki No''-k'o'' in the Order of the Rites 

The Osage rites are divided into seven ceremonial divisions that 
partake of degrees. According to the statements of certain men 
familiar with the tribal rites i't appears that the various gentes of the 
tribe do not follow in an initiation a single fixed order of the seven 
divisions, but that each gens has its own order, which it observes inde- 
])endently of the others. Whatever may be the differences in the 
order of six of the degrees, the one about to be described is by all the 
gentes placed last, and thus becomes the seventh degree. 

The following example will illustrate this tribal custom: 

()UIIEI! KlXEll liV THE Th<)-XK (JKN.'i 

1. Wa-xo'-be A-wa-tho", The Singing of the Wa-xo'-be Songs. (The 

Wa-xo'-be is the sacred hawk, the symbol of courage.) 

2. ^'a Tha-dse Ga-xe, The Making of the Rush Mat Shrine for the 

Sacred Hawk. 

3. Mo"'-sha-ko" U-gtho", The Placing of the Sacred Burden-Stra]) 

Within.'= 

4. No^'-zhi^-zho" Wa-tho", The Songs of the Vigil Rite. 

5. Wa-zhi"'-ga-o, The Rite of the Shooting of a Bird. 

6. Wa-do'-ka We-ko, The Call to the Ceremonial Distribution of 

Srali:)s. 

7. Ni'-ki Wa-tho", Songs of the Sayings of the Ancient Men. 



1- No intimation is given as to what the words "placing witliin" refer to, but possibly they mean the 
))lacing of the rite pertaining to the symbolic burden-strap within the list of the tribal rites. A man who 
desires to honor his wife and to give her social standing, has a symbolic biirdeu-strap ceremonially made 
for her. This sacred article she is enjoined to give a conspicuous place in her house — to the left of the door 
if her father belongs to the Tsi'-zhu tribal division, or to the right of the door if her father belongs to the 
Ho""-ga division. 
1.52 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 15 




WA-XTHI'-ZHI 

Mi-inlxT otthc ln-Klho"'-s;a ( I'limo) Rons, son of Wa-thu'-ls'a-Ra-zlii, from whom ho cii i|uircil liis wide kiiowlecl;;!' 
ofihe IrilialriU's, Wa-xlhi'-zhi isKiflcil with arolomivo mi'morv.aml in Mav, l!)ls. at nvocoTisi'culivrsiiliiius 
ofsfViTal hours oatli. rccilcii tlif «i'-f;i-(\-^ of Hi niMUcs, aiul I liai of i he cpri'monv of llio To"'-W(]n A-tl(]i.-h,.. mak- 
ing in all 1,537 linos. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 16 




WA-THU -TS'A-GA-ZHI < NE VER-FA I LS ' 

Member of the li-gtho^'-ga (Puma) gens, father of Wa-xtlii'-zhi. It is said that Wa-thu'-ts'a-ga-zhi 
was well versed in all of the tribal rites and that ho communicated much of his knowledge of the 
rites to his son. He died in 1910 at about SO years of age. 



Nl -KI NO-^-K O" RITE 



153 



OkDEK FiXKI> by the l^-GTHO'^'-fiA CiKNK 

1. Wa-zlu"'-ga-(), The Rite of the Shooting of a Bird. 

2. No-'-zhi-'-zho" Wa-tho", The Songs of the Vigil Rite. 

3. Wa-xo'-be A-wa-tho", The Singing of the Wa-xo'-be Songs 

4. ^'a Tha-dse Ga-xe, The Making of the Rush Mat Shrine. 

5. Mo"'-sha-ko" Ga-xe, The Making 

of the Sacred Burden-Strap (fig. 
10). 

6. Wa-do'-ka We-ko, The Call to 

the Ceremonial Distribution til' 
Scalps. 

7. Ni'-ki No"-k'o", The Hearing ol' the 

Sayings of the Ancient Men. 

The word Ni'-ki, the first part of the 
title of the seventh degree, is a i oin- 
bination of two words, Ni'-ka, men, 
and i'-e, words or sayings. The last 
part of the title used by the Tho'-xe 
(Buffalo) gens is Wa-tho"'. songs, 
"Songs of the Sayings of the Ancient 
Men." In the title used by the I"- 
gtho^'-ga (Puma) gens the word used 
is No"-k'o", to hear, making the full 
title Ni'-ki No"-k'o", The Hearing of 
the Sayings of the Ancient Men. 

As the version about to be presented 
of the Ni'-ki degree is that belonging 
to the I°-gtho"'-ga (Puma) gens, the 
title given by that gens to the degree 
will be used in the rendition given by 
Wa-xthi'-zhi (pis. 15, 16), who is a 
member of that gens and a recognizeil 
authority on the tribal rites. 

Both Wa-xthi'-zhi and Tse-zhi"'- 
ga-wa-da-i"-ga stated that a candi- 
<late taking the Ni'-ki tiegree of the war 
rites is entitled to sit at the initiatory ceremonies of all the other six 
degrees, for the reason that the Ni'-ki contains all the ceremonial forms 
embodied in each of those degrees. An initiate into one of the seven 
degr(>es who wishes to learn the ritual is required first to memorize the 
titles of these degrees in the order as fixed by his own gens. 

For some unexplained cause Wa-xthi'-zhi did not give a detailed 
descri])tion of the ])reliminary ceremonies of the Ni'-ki degree — 
namely, the Ki'-no", the symbolic painting of the face and body of 
the Xo'-ka; the putting on of his sacerdotal attire in a prescribed 
manner; and the Tsi Ta'-pe, the ceremonial approach of the candi- 




IG. 10.— Mo"'-sha-kon (Burdon-strap). The 
burden strap is thewa-xo'-beof the woman. 
It is the emblem of her duty as a home- 
builder. The Mo"'-sha-kon ceremonially 
made for a woman must never be used for 
ordinary purposes. Its place is at the right 
nf the door of her house if she is by birth a 
llon'-ga, and at the left if she was born a 
'Psi'-zhu. The Mon'-sha-ko" was made of 
untanned buttalo skin. 



154 THK OSAOK THIBK Iktii.ann. 30 

ilatf, liis initiator, tho muster of (■cioiiioiiics. and the ofTicinl messenger 
to llu> House of Mystery. He made, liowever, the general statement 
tliat a man wishing to be initiated into the degree sends the Sho'ka 
(ollieial messenger) of his gens for the No'"-ho"-zhi"-gavvhom lie (h'sires 
to aet as Xo'-ka (initiator) and to eonfer llie degree. On the arrival of 
the ehosen Xo'-ka the candidate makes his formal application for 
initiation. During the formal conversation the two address each 
other by the ceremonial kinship terms, elder brother an<l younger 
brother. 

Requirements for Initiation 

Having come to an understandhig as to the initiation, the two send 
their Sho'-ka to summon the members of the order behniging to two 
gentcs — namely, the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no", the principal war gens of the 
Tsi'-zhu division, and the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no", the principal war 
gens of the Ho°'-ga (Uvision. On the arrival of the No"'-ho"-zhi"-ga 
summoned, the Xo'-ka, in a formal address, tells them that the 
cancUdate wishes to be initiated into the mysteries of the Ni'-ki 
(k>gree of the war rites and asks permission to initiate him. Wlien 
the No"'-ho"-zhi°-ga of these two gentes have given their consent, a 
matter of mere formality, the Xo'-ka himself, or a man chosen to 
assist him, recites, for the benefit of the candidate, the Wa-dsu'-ta 
I-hi-tho"-be Wi'-gi-e, " Wi'-gi-e of the Appearance of the Animals" 
(the appearance of life in bodily form), which is given in lines 341 
to 427 of the Ni'-ki Wi'-gi-e (p. 167). This act binds the candidate 
to carry out his determination to take the degree and the Xo'-ka to 
confer it upon him. The candidate is given seven years witliin 
which to prepare himself for the initiation. This he does by hunting 
for the animal skins to be used as symbols in the ceremonies. 

When the candidate has collected the animal skins re(iuired for the 
ceremony, the fees for the Xo'-ka, the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka, the leailers 
of the gentes that take an active part in the ceremonies, a«d the pro- 
visions for the entertainment of all the membei-s of the order, he is 
then ready to take the degree. Having thus prepareil himself for 
the initiation, the candidate sends his Sho'-ka to give formal notice 
to the Xo'-ka that he is ready to "sing" the "Ni'-ki Songs." 

The following ilay, before sunrise, the Sho'-ka, A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka. 
and the candidate go together to the house of the Xo'-ka, the Sho'-ka 
carrying the Xo'-ka mi, ceremonial robe for the Xo'-ka, which is 
a dressed ImfTalo skin, and also other ceremonial articles to be worn 
by the Xo'-ka ihroughovit the ceremony. The symbolic painting and 
dressing of the Xo'-ka having been finished, the foiu' men make the 
'rsi-ta'-|>c, the ceremonial a])proach, to the house of the candidate, 
which, for the time, is the House of Mystery. 



Nl'-KI NO^-k'o^' IflTH 



155 



Onliiianly i\xe cVoawny l)ogins from the Ki-pto' Songs, wliich 
inchulo the Tsi-?;''-k!y.,,\Songs of Sotting up tho House of Mystery 
{pp. 198-201), but whh tKo Xo'-ka, on examining tiiefees flncis that 
his .•andulate has been W Hberal lie shows his pleasure by beginning 
witli line 1 of the wi'-A,> and reciting it to thi> end. " A Xo'-ka 
will also do this if his c'ai\ji,jnte is a personal friend 

When the No"'-ho"-zhiVa of the Wa-^a'-be or the l"-gtho"'-aa 
gens, who are the first to Ue,, have taken then- phue at the ea'st 
en<l of the lodge, the Xo -ka V,i hi^ assistant sing the Ki-^to' Wa-tho 
Songs of the Gathenng of the\„n^i,„„.2hin.,^ ^Vs before stated the 
version here given ol this degV,, i^ Uuit of the I"-gtho"'-ga (Puma) 
gens, who use it m common v.\ ti,p Wa-^a'-be (Black Bear) oens 
When the singing of the songs h\ i,,.g^,„_ jj^^, No"'-ho°-zhi"-o-a „? th.^ 
Tsi'-zhu division, being in this cV "^ 

gentes, in single file and take y,, j,i,,,^g ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^,^^^^^ 

according to gentes the Non'-ho"-zkga of the Ho--ga .livision enter 
m single hie and take their places iL,„, ^„^,j,j ^;,,^, ,,,. j,^^. j^^^,^^^ 
diagram, p. S.'i). ^ 

When all have taken tiieir i)laces \\ fi,,, „,„,„, , , 

1 XI tne songs come to a close 

tiie A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka performs the WaL^.^i.^^ g^,^^,; c^rp^,,, . J 
that is, the sending to the various genV j,, ^^^^^ ^,^^^^. t,,,,,„„, 'j,,,, 

animal skins and the other articles colleV,i k,- +i, ' i- i . '"" ^ 

. , W oy the candidate lo be 

used as symbols. \ 

Wa-xthi'-zhi did not give the details of V -iir, .i , ,, 

r.l AT-'l-W „ nU^T- 1 -n/ ^ ^^ '^"^ '"^^ "^ 'iC CerCIll Ol 1 \ 

of theJNi -ki Wa-tho", but Ise-zhi" -ga-wa-(Uh „„ „, .1 , , ' 

ur 1 ■ "i .1 iw / n -n .. \-gag'^^t'tb(.miuithiny,' 

before his tleath and W a-tse-mo°-i° recently 

Wa-tiie'-the, or Ceremony of 

Given by TsE-/.!n"'-ri A-vvA-DA-i"-<iA (Tiio 
a. (Deer ])eo])le). Mo"'-(;-a 



Ta' I-ni-ka-shi-ga (l)(>er ])eo])le). M( 

number. 
Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" (War gens of the Tsi'-zlui ) . M 
Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge CTsi'-zhu Peace gens). K 

feather. 
Ho"'-ga A-hiu-to" (IIo"'-ga Eagle gens). Wiite])L,,, 

feather. 
Wa-Qa'-be (Ho"'-ga Black Bear gens). Mo"'4i", I 

1391 to 1439 of this ritual.) 
Ho"'-ga F-ta-no"-(lsi (Isolat(>d Ho"'-ga). I'-gi-n 

eagle. 

Cni'.N- nv WA-rsE'-Mo^'-i^' (WA-i'A-iiB Ien.s 




■hattie-ax. 
me, downy eagle 



ownv eagle 



Tsi'-zhu Wa-ii< 
Breast shield. 



Tsi'-zhu War gens). Mo°'-^e ts 



156 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 



Wa-zha'-zhc Wa-no" (Wa-zba'-zhe War goi.s). Arrow sliafts, seven 

in number. „ i i • ,• • , 

Tsc'-d(vga P-dse (Buffalo face gens). lUiffaJo skin lor C'eronionial 

moccasins. t^ i • , xi „ •. 

Wa'-tse-tsi Wa-shta'-ge (Ho"'-ga Peace ge'«). E-dsi-u -gtln°, sit as a 

symbol. 
Mi-k'i"' (Sun and moon people). E-dsi--g^ni . 
Ho"'-ga IT-ta-no"-dsi (Isolated Ho"'-ga^ E-dsi-u'-gtlii". 
Ho- I-ni-ka-shi-ga (Night people), rdsi-u'-gthi" 
Ho"'-ga U-ga-sho° (Ho°'-ga Eagle ge")- Wliite plume, downy eagle 

feather. 17 i • / ,i „ 

Ni'-ka Wa-ko"-da-gi (Men of Myst'.y)- E-, si-u -gtlu". 
Wa-ca'-be (Ho-'-ga Black Bear g's)- Mo" -hi", Knife. 
Tho'-xe (Buffalo Bull gens). W'to" -?i wa-mo"-dse, seed corn. 
O'-pxo- (Elk gens). Mo-'-fe-e, «'^ hoe, and I'-ga-mo", eagle down. 

The enumerations given by -e-zhi-'-ga-wa-da-i^-ga (Tho'-xe gens) 
and by Wa-tse'-mo°-i'' (Wa-r^^^ S*^^^) ™<l>^'^t« ^^at each gens has 
its own version of the Wa-t^'-^^e ceremony. In the enumeration 
given by Tse-zhi-'-ga-wa-dr'-g*! ^he symbol he sends to the Tsi'-zhu 

S,r „ ■ ■ Af.^n' i,;n nrvo >ttle-ax, a modern weapon substituted for 
Wa-no° is a Mo" -hi°-ppe, ^ ' i 

^\. ■ + ^„„ ,.oiu,i T' < , a club to strike witn. (b or cxplana- 

the ancient one called i - ' „ , x, ■ i- ; „ 

c ,1 u,t;f,,f;r..T ^1 lor the story ot the 1 -tsi°, see lines 182 to 
tion of the substitution r rp ■, 1 w n 1 r lor. * 

29'' of the Wi'-'^i-e Tov^ «^ ^^e Tsi -zhu Wa-no"; also lines 139 to 
292 of the Wa-sha'-be--thi° version of the same wi'-gi-e, to be given 
1 i. „i ,„.^ ti-tse'-mo°-i°, in his enumeration, sends to the 
m a later volume. • ^ , .1 „ 1 ..11 ,t^ ^, 

Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" a " g^ tse-ha-wa-gtho°, breast shield. (For the 
f ,1 .vmb*-' breast-shield, see Ki'-no" Wi'-gi-e, lines 24 to 
story ot tne sjm j ^^ the Wi'-gi-e To»-ga of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no".) 
44, and lines 529 tf o . & . / 

N ' Wl' dl-ES^^ "^H® P-GTHO^'-GA, Wa-^a'-BE AND THE Ho'*'-GA 



A-HIU- 



■* GeNTES of THE Ho^'-GA SUBDIVISION 



T 7hi°'-2a-rd*"i°'g*^ sends to the Ta' I-ni-ka-shi-ga, Deer gens, 
f th > Wa-zha^he subdivision seven sj'mbolic arrow shafts. Wa- 

/ „„n ;n oQ» the arrow shafts to the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no" gens, 
fse'-mo -1 sei' ^ 

:i 1 \,;^t „rar- <is of tte Wa-zha'-zhe subdivision. (For story of the 
thecmei wai ; : . , ,, tt n^ » 1 ^ ^ i^ i 

seven svmbo' arnWs, see wi'-gi-e of the Ho"'-ga A-hiu-to", Eagle 
gens, given lWa-t^'-mo"-i", lines 237 to 527.) 

At the do of theWa-the'-the ceremony the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka and 
■ ^ rnembe ^^ ^'^t ^'^ ^^p gentes to whom fees were sent recite, 
li „„^lv. thar wi'-gl-cs. The A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka, when the 
simultanec^*' ],,'',, , , " il i ■ • 1 

d ,eree is t'^S conf rred by the l"-gtlio" -ga gens, usually begins with 
.. wqa his wi'ki-e, but if he is a personal friend of the candi- 
j (. or he is piped with the quality of his share of the fees, he 

•11 J. pi from lit] 1 of the wi'-gi-e and continue to the cm\, thus 
tfiving tthe candJate the full story. 



I.A KI.ESl-HF.l m'-KI No'*-k'()'* lilTE 157 

VERSION OF THE Pl'MA ([ENS 
(Osago version, p. 359; litcriil trdiisUition, p. o27j 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Ho"'-ga, a peo]dc who possess seven fireplaces, were gathered 

together; 

3. Verily, at that time ami j)lace, it has been said, in this house, 

4. They spake to one anoliier as they stood, saying: (), my younger 

brothers, 

5. Should not the little ones go below (to the earth) to become a 

j)eople ? they said, as they stood facing one another. 

6. Then, verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

7. They turned to four great gods in appeal for aid; 

S. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 
9. They spake first to the god of Day, who sitteth in the heavens, 

10. Saying: O, my grandfather, 

11. Should not the little ones go below to become a people* 

12. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

13. The god of Day replied, saying: You have said the little ones 

have become persons; 

14. You have said the little ones should go below to become a people. 

15. The little ones shall make of me their bodies. 

16. When the little ones go below and become a people, 

17. They shall find in me the means of reaching old age. 

IS. Behold my toes that are gathered in a cluster, 

19. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

20. Behold my ankles, that are wrinkled with age, 

21. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

22. Behold my knees, that are wrinkled with age, 

23. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

24. Behold the inner muscles of my thighs, 

25. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

26. Behold also the muscles of my breast, that are gathered in folds, 

27. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

28. Behold the muscles of my arms, they have grown flabby with age. 

29. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

30. Behold the muscles of my throat, that have grown flabby with age, 

31. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

32. Behold my hair, that has grown scant and yellowish with age, 

33. In these scant locks of hair also 

34. The little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

35. Wlien the little ones make of me the means of reaching old age, 

36. They shall always live to see their hair grown scant and yellowish 

with age. 



158 THK OSAdlO TIJIHE |i:] ii. a.vx. 30 

.'57. 15('li()|(| the hair on tlic cniwn iiT my licail, that lias <;'r()\vii scant 

witli ajj,i', 
:!S. la wliirh the little ones sliall linii tlic means nf reaeliins;' old aji'e. 
:\\). When the little imes make oi' nu' the me.'Uis nl' i-ea/'hinj;' old aii'ii, 
II). Tliev shall always live to see ttie hair on the ( rown of tlieii- lieads 

iiTown scant with af;e. 

41. In the four great divisions of tlie days (stages of life) 

42. I dwell as a person. 

43. Wtiou the lit.tle ones make of me their boilies 

44. These four great divisions of the days 

45. They shall enable themselves to reach and enter as they travel 

the i)ath of life. 

46. And in the days that are calm and peaceful 

47. The little ones shall al)ide as a ]n'o]ile as tliev journey u])on life's 

pathway. 

48. Verily, at that time and i)laee, it has been said, in this house, 

49. The Ho"'-ga, a peojtle who ])ossess seven tii'cplaces, were 

gathered together. 
.50. Verily, at that time and place, it has been sai<l. in this lionse. 
.51. They spake to one another as they stood, saying: (), youngc-r 

brothers, 

52. Should not the little ones go below to become a ]ieo]ile, they said 

as they stood facing one another. 

53. Then, verily, at that time and place, it has been said, iii this house, 

54. They turned to four great gods in appeal for aid. 

55. Verily, at that time and ])lace, it has been said, in this house, 

56. They next spake to the god of Night, who sitteth in the heavens, 

57. Saying: O, my grandmother, 

58. Should not the little ones go below to become a people? 

59. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 
1)0. The god of Night replied, saying: You say the little ones should 

go below to become a people. 

61. When the little ones go below and become a people, 

62. They shall find in me the means of reaching old age. 

63. Behold my toes, that are gathered in a cluster, 

64. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching okl age. 

65. Behold my ankles, that are wrinkled with age, 

66. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

67. Behold my knees, that are wrinkled with age. 

68. In -which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

69. Behold the inner muscles of my thighs, 

70. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 



NI-KI N()"-K (>' HI IE 



159 



71. HcIidIiI ;iIs(i the inusclcs of my breast, 11i;i( mtc u'athcrcd in I'lilds, 
11. In \vlii<'li llu' liltic (incs sliiill lind (1\(' means (if rcacliin^- iild aii'e. 

7;i. Behold the museles of my arms, that havcgiDwii llal)l>y wif li ap,e, 
71. In wliieh lli(> little on(>s shall find the means of reaching old a,2:e. 

75. Behold my hair, thai has grown seant with age, 

76. The little ones 

77. Shall always lire to see tlieir hair grown seant with age. 

78. Behold the hair on the crown of my head, that has grown scant 

witlr age, 

79. These locks of hair also 

80. The little ones 

51. Shall always live to see the hair on the crown of their heads 

grown seant with age. 

52. The four great divisions of the days, 

83. They shall enable themselves to reach and enter. 

84. In the four great divisions of the days 

8.5. The little ones shall always dwell as a people, 

86. And in the days that are calm and peaceful, 

87. The little ones shall always abide as a people. 

88. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

89. The Ho°'-ga, a peoj^le who possess seven fireplaces, were gathereil 

together. 

90. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

91. They spake to one another as they stood, saying: O, younger 

brothers, 

92. The little ones have become persons; O, younger brothers, they 

stood saying to one another, 

93. Should not the little ones go below to become a people? 

94. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

95. They turned to four great gods in appeal for aid. 

96. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

97. They spake to the Male Star (Morning Star), who sitteth in the 

heavens, 

98. Saying, O, grandfather, 

99. Should not the little ones go below to become a people? 

100. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

101. The Male Star replied, saying. You say the little ones should go 

below to become a people. 

102. When the little ones go below and become a people, 

103. The little ones shall find in me the means of reaching old age. 

104. Behold my toes, that are gathered in a cluster. 

105. In which the little ones shall find the means of reachmg old age. 



160 THE OSAC.K TKir.K 



106. Uoliold my aiiklos, tliat aro wririklcvl with a<i;(\ 

107. Ill wliicli iho littlo ()ii(>s shall find tiio moans of rcacliinii' ohi a<ie. 

lOS. W-rily, at tiiat time and ])la( c, it has boon said, in this house, 

109. He foiitiiuiod: Behold my knees, that are wrinkled with age, 

1 10. In which the httl(> ones shall find the means of reaching ohl age. 

111. Behold the inner mnscles of my thighs, 

112. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

113. Behold the muscles of my breast, that are gathered in folds, 

114. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

11.5. Behold also the muscles of my arms, that have grown flabby 

with age, 
1 Hi. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

117. Behold the muscles of my throat, that have grown flabby with 

age, 
lis. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

11 U. Behold my shoulder, that is bent with age, 

120. In which the little ones shall find the means of reacliing old age. 

121. Behold my hair, that has grown scant antl yellowish with age. 

122. The little ones 

123. Shall always live to see their hair grown scant and yellowish 

with age. 

124. Behokl the hair on the crown of my head, that has grown scant 

with age. 

125. The little ones 

126. Shall always live to see the hair on the crown of their heads 

grown scant with age. 

127. Verily, at that time and j)lace, it lifts been said, in this house, 

128. He said to them: The four great divisions of the days 

129. The little ones shall enable themselves to reach and enter. 

130. In the four great divisions of the days 

131. The little ones shall always abide as a people, 

132. And in the days that are calm and peaceful 

133. The little ones shall always abide as a people. 

134. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

135. The Ho"'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, were gathered 

together. 

136. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

137. They spake to one another as they stood, saying: O, younger 

brothers. 



LAFLESCUB] Nl'-KI NQN-k'on RITE 161 

138. The little ones have become persons; O, younger brothers, they 

stood saying to one another, 

139. Should not the little ones go below to become a people? 

140. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

141. They turned to four great gods in appeal for aid. 

142. Veril}^, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

143. They spake to the Female Star (the Evening Star), who sitteth 

in the heavens, 

144. Saying: O, grandmother, 

145. The little ones have become persons; O, grandmother, they said 

to her, 

146. Should not the little ones go below to become a people? 

147. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

148. The Female Star replied: You say the little ones have become 

persons. 

149. Wlien the little ones go below and become a people, 

150. They shall find in me the means of reaching old age. 

151. Behold my toes that are gathered in a cluster, 

152. In wliich the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

153. Behold my ankles that are wrinkled with age, 

154. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

155. Behold my knees that are wrinkled with age, 

156. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

157. Behold the inner muscles of my thighs, 

158. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

159. Behold the muscles of my breast that are gathered in folds, 

160. In which the little ones shall find the means of reaching old age. 

161 . Behold the muscles of my arms that have grown flabby with age, 

162. The little ones shall always live to see the muscles of their arms 

grown flabby with age. 

163. Behold the muscles of my throat, that have grown flabby with 

age, 

164. The little ones shall always live to see the muscles of their throat 
. grown flabby with age. 

165. Behold my shoulder that is bent with age, 

166. The little ones shall always live to see their shoulder bent with 

age. 
2786—21 11 



162 THE OSAGE TRIBE (bth. ann. 36 

167. Boh old my hair that has grown scant and yellowish with age, 

168. The little ones 

169. Shall always live to see their hair grown scant and yellowish 

with age. 

170. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

171. She said to them: The four great divisions of the days 

172. The little ones shall enable themselves to reach and enter. 

173. In the four great divisions of the days 

174. The little ones shall always abide as a people. 

175. In the days that are calm and peaceful 

176. The little ones shall always abide as a people. 

177. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

178. The people spake to one another, saying: Should not the little 

ones go below to become a people ? 

179. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

180. They spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers. 

181. Then they turned to Ho°'-ga A-hiu-to°, the Ho°'-ga with wings 

(the immature golden eagle), 

182. To whom they spake, saying: O, younger brother, 

183. Let the little ones go below to become a people; O, younger 

brother, they said to him. 

184. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

185. The Ho°-ga A-hiu-to° replied, saying: You say the little ones 

should go below to become a people. 

186. I shall make search for a way and lead them thither, O, elder 

brothers, he said, in quick response. 

187. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

188. He led the people downward, passing through four heavens as 

he descended, 

189. Soaring swiftly in wide circles. 

190. Four times he soared. 

191. Without a pause he sped downward. 

192. Verily, at that time and place, it has bt,^n said, in this house, 

193. He came within sight of the tops of seven trees. 

194. Close to these tree tops he soared and paused. 

195. Then on the tops of the seven rees 

196. The people alighted. 

197. The people who possess seven fireplaces 

198. Alighted upon the tops of the seven trees. 

199. And set their feet firmly upon them. 

200. They spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

201. Behold it is not possible for the Uttle ones to become a people 

here below, O, younger brothers, they said to one another. 



LAF1.ESCHB] Nl'-KI NQN-KON RITE 163 

202. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

203. They spake again to one another, saying: O, younger brothers. 

204. Then they turned to the Ho^'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa (Star-radiant), 

205. To whom they spake, saymg: 0, younger brother, 

206. It is not possible for the little ones to become a people here 

below, O, younger brother, they said to him. 

207. Then the Ho^'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa 

208. Hastened, as these words were spoken, 

209. To the Spider-like (the water-spider) 

210. And spake to him, saying: O, grandfather, 

211. It is not possible for the little ones to dwell upon the surface of 

the water, O, grandfather. 

212. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

213. The Spider-like replied, saying: You say it is not possible for 

the little ones to dwell upon the surface of the water. 

214. I shall make search for a way to help them, O little one. 

215. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

216. Verily, against the current, 

217. The Spider-like ran upon the surface of the water, 

218. And he spake, saying: Even Wa-k6°'-da himself 
'219. Is not able to see my footprints, 

220. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

221. Even Wa-ko°'-da hunself 

222. Shall not be able to see their footprints. 

223. Behold the parting of the waters in forked lines as I push onward. 

224. It is the parting of the gods of the waters to make way for me as 

I push onward. 

225. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

226. The gods themselves shall make way for them as they push 

onward. 

227. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

228. Wa'-tse-ga-wa hastened to the Black-bean-like (the water- 

beetle, the whirligig), 

229. To whom he spake, sajnng: O, grandfather, 

230. It is not possible for the little ones to dwell upon the surface of 

the water. 

231. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in tliis house, 

232. The Black-bean-like replied, saying: You say it is not possible 

for the httle ones to dwell upon the surface of the water. 

233. I shall make search for a way to help them, O, little one. 

234. Verily, as he spake these words, 

235. He pushed forth, even against the current, 

236. Rippling the waters as he sped onward, 

237. And he spake, saying: Behold the parting of the waters as I 

push onward. 



1G4 THE OSAC'.K TRIBE lirrn. ann. 36 

238. It is the parting of the f;;o(ls of the waters to make way forme as 

I push onward. 

239. Wlieii the Uttle ones make of me their bodies, 

240. Tlie gods themselves shall make way for them as they push 

onward. 

241. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

242. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, were gathered 

together. 

243. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

244. They spake to one another, saying: The little ones have nothing 

of which to make their bodies, O, younger brothers, they said 
to one another. 

245. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

246. The Ho°'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa, 

247. Even as these words were spoken, 

248. Hastened to the Wlntleather-like (a white leech), 

249. To whom he spake, saying: O, grandfather, 

250. It is not possible for the little ones to dwell upon the surfac e of 

the water, O, grandfather. 

251. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, . 

252. The Whitleather-like replied, saying: You say it is not possible 

for the little ones to dwell upon the surface of the water. 

253. I shall make search for a way to help them, O, little one. 

254. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

255. Even as he spake these words he pushed forth 

256. And said to Wa'-tse-ga-wa: Behold the parting of the waters as 

I push onward. 

257. It is the parting of the gods of the waters to make way for me 

as I push onward. 

258. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

259. The gods themselves shall make way for them as they push 

onward. 

260. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

261. The Wa'-tse-ga-wa, 

262. Even as these words were spoken, 

263. Hastened to the Leech, 

264. To whom he spake, saying: O, grandfather, 

265. It is not possible for the little ones to dwell upon the surface of 

the water, O, grandfather. 

266. Verily, at that time and place, it has been saitl, in this house, 

267. The Leech replied, saying: You say it is not possible for the 

little ones to dwell upon the surface of the water. 

268. I shall make search for a way to help them, O, little one. 

269. Even as he spake these words he pushed forth, 



LAFLKSCHE] Nl'-KI NQN-k'qn RITE 165 

270. And he said to Wa'-tse-ga-wa: Behold the parting of the waters 

as I push onward. 

271. It is tlio parting of the gods of the waters to make way for me 

as I push onward. 

272. When the httle ones make of me their bodies, 

273. The gods themselves shall make way for them as they push 

onward. 

274. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

275. The people spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

276. It is not possible for the little ones to dwell upon the surface of 

the water, O, younger brothers, they said to one another. 

277. Then they turned to Wa'-tse-ga-wa, 

278. To whom they spake, saying: O, younger brother, 

279. It is not possible for the little ones to dwell upon the surface of 

the water, O, younger brother, they said to him. 

280. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

281. Even as these words were spoken, 

282. The Wa'-tse-ga-wa hastened forth and came to O'-pxo" To°-ga 

(the Great Elk), 

283. With whom he stood face to face. 

28-1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

285. He quickly returned and, standiiig before his elder brothers, 

286. Spake to them, saying: Behold, elder brothers, a man stands 

yonder. 

287. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

288. The elder brothers spake, saying: In truth, what man's son is he ? 

289. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

290. The Great Elk himself replied, saying: I am a Ho°'-ga (a sacred 

person), O, elder brothers. 

291. I am O'-pxo" 'ro°-ga, O, elder brothers. 

292. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

293. The elder brothers spake to him, saying: O, younger brother, 

294. It is not possible for the little ones to dwell as a people upon 

the surface of the water, O, younger brother, they said to him. 

295. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

296. 0'-pxo° fo^-ga replied, saying: You say it is not possible for 

the little ones to dwell as a people upon the surface of the 
water. 

297. I am a person who is never absent from any place or any 

important movement. 

298. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

299. 0'-pxo° 'ro°-ga suddenly threw himself violently upon the earth 

300. And disturbing the water in all its vastness. 

301. For a second time 



166 THE OSAGE TRIBE Ieth. ann. 30 

302. He threw himself violently upon the earth, 

303. And the depth of the waters began to lower. 

304. The elder brothers then spake to oiie another, saying: O, younger 

brothers, 

305. It is certain from the signs that our younger brother is about to 

perform some great deed, O, younger brothers. 

306. For the third time 0'-pxo° To°-ga 

307. Threw himself violently upon the earth, 

308. Again making the depth of the waters to lower. 

309. For the fourth time 

310. He threw himself violently upon the earth, 

311. And he made the land of the earth to appear, to become dry 

and habitable. 

312. The elder brothers again spake to one another, saying: Behold, 

younger brothers, 

313. It is certain from the signs that our younger brother is about 

to perform another great deed. 

314. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

315. The Great Elk stood and faced the winds of the four corners of 

the earth, 

316. Faced each in turn in sacred sequence. 

317. First the winds that come from the rising sun 

318. He approached as in a hollow, stood therein, 

319. And called loudly over the lands of the earth. 

320. At the second movement 

321. The winds that come from the land of cedars, the winds of the 

north, 

322. He approached as in a hollow and stood facing. 

323. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

324. He called loudly over the lands of the earth. 

325. Then the winds that come from where drops the sun (the west) 

326. He approached as in a hollow, stood therein, 

327. And called loudly over the lands of the earth. 

328. At the fourth movement 

329. The winds that come from A-k'a (A-k'a, the name for the south 

winds, is archaic and can not be interpreted) 

330. He approached as in a hollow, stood therein, 

331. And called loudly over the lands of the earth. 

332. Thus, for the winds of the four comers of the earth, 

333. For the winds of each of the four corners, 

334. He made and gave the breath of life. 

335. Then he spake, saying: In this manner the little ones shall call 

to the winds when in distress. 

336. Verily, in this manner they shall call to the winds, 



LAKI.BSCHBJ Nl'-KI NON-k'o" RITE 167 

337. And their voice shall always be heard by Wa-k()'''-(la. 

338. It is my breath of life. 

339. \Vlicn the little ones seek protection therein, 

340. The}' shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

341. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

342. The elder brothers spake to one another, saying: Behold, younger 

brothers, 

343. It is certain that our younger brother is about to perform another 

great deed. 

344. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 
34.5. The Great Elk 

346. Again threw himself violently upon the earth. 

347. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

348. He strew upon the earth the hairs of his body, where they lay 

in profusion. 

349. Then the Great Elk spake, saying: Behold these hairs of my 

body, 

350. I have not scattered them upon the earth without a purpose. 

351. Grasses of the earth, 

352. Of every kind I have made them to be. 

353. Wlaen the little ones approach the grasses of the earth (in search 

for food), 

354. There, in their midst the animals shall always appear for them 

in abundance. 

355. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

356. The Great Elk turned his head away from the elder brothers 

357. And spake, saying: Behold the ball-like muscles of my rump, 

358. The rounded hills of the earth. 

359. Verily, all the rounded hills of the earth I have made them to be. 

360. Wlien the little ones approach the rounded hills of the earth, 

361. There the animals shall always appear for them in abundance. 

362. Behold the side of the upper part of my body. 

363. This also shall be 

364. The wide plains of the earth. 

365. Verily, all the plains of the earth I have thus made them to be. 

366. When the little ones approach the plains of the earth, 

367. There the animals shall always appear for them in abundance. 

368. Behold the middle of my back, my spine, 

369. That also shall be 

370. The ridges of the earth. 

371. Verily, all the ridges of the earth I have made my spine to be. 



168 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

372. When they approach the ridges of tlie earth, 

373. For the use of the little ones, 

374. The animals shall always appear on the ridges of the earth. 

375. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

376. He spake again to the elder brothers, saying: Behold the inward 

curve of my neck. 

377. This is the gaps in the ridges of the earth, 

378. Verily, all the gaps of the ridges of the earth I have made to be 

as the curve of my neck. 

379. Wlien the little ones approach the gaps of the ridges of the earth, 

380. There the animals shall always appear for them in abundance. 

381. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

382. He spake again, saying: Behold the tip of my nose, 

383. That is not in its place without a purpose, 

384. The ends of the ridges of the earth, 

385. Verily, all the ends of the ridges of the earth I have made it to be. 

386. When the little ones approach the ends of the ridges, 

387. There the animals shall always appear for them in abundance. 

388. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

389. He said to them: Behold the topmost tines of my bonis. 

390. These are the small creeks of the earth. 

391. Verily, all the small creeks of the earth I have made them to be. 

392. When the small creeks of the earth 

393. The little ones approach, 

394. There the animals shall always appear for them in abundance. 

595. Behold the branch of my horn next in line below. 

396. They are the larger branches of the streams of the earth. 

397. Verily, all the larger branches of the streams I have made them 

to be. 

398. When the little ones approach the larger branches, 

399. There the animals shall always appear for them in abundance. 

400. Behold the largest of the tines, 

401 . The branches of the rivers on whose banks stand groves of trees. 

402. Verily, all the branches of the rivers on whose banks stand groves 

of trees I have made them to be. 

403. Wlien the little ones approach the branches of these rivers, 

404. Along the banks of these branches also 

405. The animals shall appear for them in abundance. 

406. Behold the main beams of my antlers, 

407. They are also 

408. The great rivers of the earth. 



LAFUESCHE] Xl'-KI NQN-KON RITE 169 

409. Verily, all the great rivers of the earth I have made them to be. 

410. When the little ones approach the banks of the rivers of the earth, 

411. There also, 

412. The animals shall always appear for them in abundance. 

413. Behold the bases of my horns, 

414. The loose rocks of the earth. 

415. Verily, all the loose rocks of the earth I have made them to bo. 

416. When the little ones approach the loose rocks of the earth, 

417. The animals shall alwa3's appear for them in abundance; 

418. When they approach the loose rocks of the earth, 

419. The little ones shall always cause the animals to appear in 

abundance. 

420. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

421. He continued: Behold the center of my forehead, 

422. It is not in its place without a purpose, 

423. I have made it to be a snare (for all creatures) for my own use; 

424. When the little ones also make of it a snare for their use, 

425. They shall always make use of it when they go against their 

enemies toward the setting of the sun, 

426. To overcome their foes and make them to fall. 

427. Behold my brow antlers, that are curved downward. 

428. They are not curved without a purpose. 

429. I have made them to be standards for my own use. 

430. Toward the setting of the sun are my enemies. 

431. It is toward them that I have menacingly turned my curved 

antlers. 

432. They shall be used by the little ones when they go against their 

enemies toward the setting of the sun, 

433. To overcome their foes and make them to fall. 

434. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

435. The Ho^'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

436. Spake to one another, sajnng: O, younger brothers, 

437. It is not possible for the little ones to dwell upon the surface of 

the water. 

438. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

439. The Ho^'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa 

440. Set forth with quickened footsteps 

441. Toward an open prairie where trees grow not, 

442. And there, before the open prairie, he paused and stood. 

443. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

444. He beheld there a man, 

445. Standing plainly in sight, 



170 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. Ann. 36 

446. Standing with uplifted hand, 

447. With the fingers (hvided, giving tlic hand a ck)ven, a forked 

appearance. 

448. Wa'-tse-ga-wa returned in haste 

449. And spake to liis eklcr brothers, saying: O, ekler brotliers, 

450. A man stands yonder in the open prairie. 

451. Then the ekler brothers spake, saying: O, younger brothers, 

452. It matters not what man's son he may be. 

453. Let us send him to the abode of spirits, O, younger brothers. 

454. Verily, at that time and place, it lias been said, in this house, 

455. With heads bent forward and with firm resolve, 

456. They hastened thitherward with quickened footsteps. 

457. His index finger the leader 

458. Moistened between his lips to slay the man by pointing at him 

with it. 

459. It matters not what man's son he may be, 

460. Let us send him to the abode of spirits, O, younger brothers, 

they said to one another. 

461. The brothers came close to the man and paused, 

462. Wliereupon the man spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

463. I am a Ho^'-ga, 

464. I am Ho"'-ga Mo°-i°'-ka-zhi°-ga, The Little Earth. 

465. I am he, O, elder brothers. 

466. I am a person who is never absent from movements of impor- 

tance. 

467. I am about to give you the things that will cause you to be 

heartily grateful, O, elder brothers. 

468. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

469. The elder brothers spake to one another, saying: O, younger 

brothers, 

470. It is certain by the signs that our younger brother 

471. Is about to perform some important deed. 

472. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

473. A bit of the dark soil of the earth, 

474. The Little Earth brought forward and stood holding it aloft and 

offering it to the brothers, 

475. Saying, as he did so: This bit of the earth's soil 

476. I give to you; it is a gift that will satisfy your hearts' longings, 

O, elder brothers. 

477. When you use it (as a sacred symbol), when tiffering your suppli- 

cations, 

478. Your prayers shall always be readily granted, O, elder brothers. 



tAFLESCHB] Nl'-KI NQN-K'on RITE 171 

479. Wlien, in the dawiiing of the day, 

■480. You put upon your face a bit of the dark soil of the earth 

481. And shed your tears of longing, 

482. Even before the sun has risen to the height of your houses, 

483. Your prayers shall always be readily granted, O, elder brothers. 

484. Although this be true, 

485. When you have put upon your face the dark soil of the earth 

486. Beware of closing your eyes in sleep, O, elder brothers, 

487. For when you close your eyes in sleep, while yet this sign is upon 

your face, 

488. You shall cause yourself to fail to reach old age, O, elder brothers. 

489. Verily, at that time and place; it has been said, in this house, 

490. The Little Earth brought forward a bit of the blue soil of the 

earth 

491. And stood offering it to the brothers, 

492. Saying, as he did so: This bit of the earth's soil, I also, 

49.3. Give to you, it is a gift that will satisfy your hearts' longings. 

494. When you use it when offering your supplications, 

495. Your prayers shall always be readily granted, O, elder brothers, 

496. Wlien, in the dawning of the day, 

497. You put upon your face a bit of the blue soil of the earth, 

498. Even before the sun has risen to the height of your houses, 

499. You shall never fail to secure fulfillment of your desires, O, elder 

brothers. 

500. Verily, at that time and place; it has been said, in this house, 

501. Little-earth sank into the ground as though gulped in by it, 

502. And quickly reappeared with a bit of the red soil of the earth, 

503. Which he stood offering to the brothers, 

504. Saying as he did so: This bit of the earth's soil also, 

505. I give to you, it is a gift that will satisfy your hearts' longings, 

0, elder brothers. 

506. When you put upon your face a bit of the red soil of the earth, 

507. You shall not shed tears, O, elder brothers, 

508. For when you shed tears while yet this sign is upon your face, 

509. There are penalties which I shall make you to suffer, O, elder 

brothers, 

510. Although this be true, 

511. When you go forth toward the setting of the sun, 

512. You shall surely succeed in making your enemies to fall in death, 

O, elder brothers, 

513. You shall always succeed with ease in making your enemies to 

fall in death, O, elder brothers, 



172 THE OSAGE TRIBE 1i:th. an.n. 36 

514. Verily, at tliat time and place; it has been said, in this house, 

515. He again sank into the earth as though gulped in, 

516. And ([uickly reaj>])earcd with a bit of the yelk.w soil of the earth, 

517. Which he stood offering to the brothers, 

518. Saying, as he did so; This bit of the earth's soil also, 

519. You shall carry with you as you offer your supi)li( ations, 

520. When you go forth toward the setting of the sun, 

521. And when the fair captive, 

522. You cause yourself to find and take, 

523. You shall put upon his face this bit of earth as a captive sign, 

O, elder brothers, 

524. The fair captive you shall always succeed in finding and taking, 

O, elder brothers, he said to them. 

525. Verily, at that time and place; it has been said, in this house, 

526. He further said to them: Behold my cloven hands, 

527. Which I hold up not without a purpose. 

528. It is toward the setting of the sun, 

529. That I raise these cloven hands in menace; 

530. Wlien the little ones turn to these hands for protecting aid, 

531. They shall always succeed in making their enemies to fall. 

532. I have made these cloven hands to be the forked poles, 

533. Verily, every kind of forked pole afld for every use; 

534. Verily, at that time and place; it has been said, in this house, 

535. He said to them: When the little ones turn to these hands for 

protecting aid, 

536. The little ones shall always find with ease a protecting aid, 

O, elder brothers, he said to them. 

537. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

538. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, spake to one 

another, 

539. Saying: O, younger brothers, 

540. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies, 

541. Whereupon the Ho^'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa, 

542. Quickly went forth to the great red boulder, that sitteth firmly 

upon the earth. 

543. Close to the red boulder he paused and stood; 

544. Then in haste he returned to his elder brothers, to whom he said: 

545. O, elder brothers, 

546. A grandfather of ours sits yonder, O, elder brothers. 

547. Then the elder brothers spake to one another, saying: O, younger 

brothere, 

548. Our younger brother 

549. Tells us a grandfather of ours sits yonder. 



LAFLESCHK] Nl'-KI NON-k'qn RITE 173 

550. Then with heads bent thitherward 

551. They set forth with quickened footsteps 

552. To the red boulder that sitteth firmly upon the earth. 

553. Around it they gathered, close to it they stood and spake rev- 

erently, 

554. Saying: O, grandfather. 

555. O, grandfather, they said to him, 

556. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

557. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

558. The red boulder spake, saying: You say the little ones have 

nothing of which to make their bodies. 

559. I am a person of whom the little ones may well make their bodies. 

560. I am difficult to be overcome by death. 

561 . Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

562. They also shall always be difficult to overcome by death. 

563. Verily, at that time and j^lace, it has been said, in this house, 

564. He spake again, saying: Even the malevolent gods in their 

destructive couree 

565. Pass by me in divergent lines, leaving me unmolested. 

566. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

567. The malevolent gods shall pass by, leaving them unmolested. 

568. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

569. He continued: Even the malevolent gods 

570. Stumble and fall when they happen to strike against me. 

571. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

572. Even the malevolent gods 

573. Shall stumble and fall when they happen to strike against the 

little ones. 

574. Veril}', at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 
.575. He said: Even the malevolent gods 

576. Fear to set teeth upon me in anger. 

577. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

578. Even the malevolent gods 

579. Shall fear to set teeth upon the little ones in anger. 

580. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

581. He continued: Even the malevolent gods 

582. Are stricken with pain when they dare to set teeth upon me. 

583. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

584. Even the malevolent gods 

585. Shall draw in their breath as when stricken with pain when they 

dare to set teeth upon the little ones. 

586. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

587. He said: Even the malevolent gods 

588. Break their teeth when they set them upon me in anger. 



174 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

589. When tho little ones mako of me their bodies, 

590. Even the malevolent gods 

591. Shall break their teeth when they set them upon the little ones 

in anger. 

592. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

593. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, spake to one 

another, 

594. Sapng: O, younger brothers, 

595. The little ones have notliing of which to make their bodies, 

596. Whereupon the Ho^'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa 

597. Quickly went forth 

598. To the great black boulder that sitteth firmly upon the earth. 

599. Close to the black boulder he paused and stood. 

600. Then, in haste, he returned to his elder brothers, to whom he 

said: O, elder brothers, 

601. A grandfather of ours sits yonder, O, elder brothers. 

602. Then the elder brothers spake to one another, saying: O, younger 

brothers, 

603. Our younger brother 

604. Tells us a grandfather of ours sits yonder. 

605. Then with heads bent thitherward 

606. They set forth with quickened footsteps 

607. To the black boulder, that sitteth firmly upon the earth. 

608. Around it they gathered ; close to it they stood and spake 

reverently, 

609. Saying: O, grandfather, 

610. O, grandfather, they said to hun, 

611. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

612. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

613. The Black Boulder spake, saying: You say the little. ones have 

nothing of which to make their bodies. 

614. I am a person of whom the little ones vaay well make their bodies. 

615. I am difficult to be overcome hj death. 

- 616. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

617. They also shall always be difficult to overcome by death. 

618. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

619. He spake again, saying: Even the malevolent gods in their 

destructive course 

620. Pass by me in divergent lines, leaving me umnolested. 

621. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

622. The malevolent gods shall always pass by, leaving them 

unmolested. 

623. Verily, at that tune and place, it has been said, in this house, 

624. He continued: Even the malevolent gods 



LATLESCHB] Nl'-KI NON-k'on RITE 175 

625. Stumble and fall when they happen to strike against me. 

626. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

627. Even the malevolent gods 

628. Shall stumble and fall when they happen to strike against the 

little ones. 

629. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

630. He said: Even the malevolent gods 

631. Fear to set teeth upon me in anger. 

632. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

633. Even the malevolent gods 

634. Shall fear to set teeth upon the little ones in anger. 

635. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

636. He contmued: Even the malevolent gods 

637. Are stricken with pain when they dare to set teeth upon me. 

638. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

639. Even the malevolent gods 

640. Shall be stricken with pain when they dare to set teeth upon 

the little ones in anger. 

641. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

642. He said: Even the malevolent gods 

643. Break their teeth when they set them upon me in anger. 

644. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

645. Even the malevolent gods 

646. Shall break their teeth when they set them upon the little ones 

in anger. 

647. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

648. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, spake to one 

another, 

649. Saying: O, younger brothers, 

650. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

651. Wliereupon the Ho°'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa 

652. Quickly went forth 

653. To the White Boulder, that sitteth firmly upon the earth. 

654. Close to the Wliite Boulder he paused and stood. 

655. Then in haste he returned to his elder brothers, to whom he said : 

O, elder brothers, 

656. A grandfather of ours sits yonder, O, elder brothers. 

657. Then the elder brothers spake to one another, saying: O, younger 

brothers, 

658. Our younger brother 

659. Tells us a grandfather of ours sits yonder, O, younger brothers. 

660. Then, with heads bent thitherward, 

661. They set forth, with quickened footsteps, 

662. To the Wliite Boulder, that sitteth firmly upon the earth. 



176 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eih. ANN. 36 

663. Around it they gathered; close to it they stood and spake rev- 

erently, 

664. Saying: O, grandfather, 

665. O, grandfather, they said to it, 

666. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

667. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

668. The White Boulder spake, saying: You say the little ones have 

nothing of which to make their bodies. 

669. I am a person of whom the little ones may well make their bodies. 

670. 1 am difficult to be overcome by death. 

671. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

672. They also shall always be difficult to overcome by death. 

673. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

674. Even the malevolent gods, in their destructive course 

675. Pass by me in divergent lines, leaving me unmolested. 

676. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

677. The malevolent gods shall always pass by, leaving them unmo- 

lested. 

678. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

679. He continued: Even the malevolent gods 

680. Stumble and fall when they happen to strike against me. 

681. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

682. Even the malevolent gods 

683. Shall stumble and fall when they happen to strike against the 

little ones. 

684. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

685. He said: Even the malevolent gods 

686. Fear to set teeth upon me in anger. 

687. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

688. Even the malevolent gods 

689. Shall fear to set teeth upon the little ones in anger. • 

690. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

691. He continued: Even the malevolent gods 

692. Are stricken with pain when they dare to set teeth upon me. 

693. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

694. Even the malevolent gods 

695. Shall be stricken with pain when they dare to set teeth upon 

the little ones. 

696. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

697. He said: Even the malevolent gods 

698. Break their teeth when they set them upon me in aTiger. 

699. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

700. Even the malevolent gods 

701. Shall break their teeth when they set them upon the little ones 

in anger. 



i-AFLESCHE] Nl'-KI NON-K'o^ RITE 177 

702. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

703. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, spake to 

one another, 

704. Saying: O, younger brothers, 

70,5. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

706. Whereupon the Ho^'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa 

707. Quickly went forth 

705. To the Yellow Boulder, that sitteth firmly upon the earth. 

709. Close to the Yellow Boulder he paused and stood. 

710. Then, in haste, he returned to his elder brothers, to whom he 

said: O, elder brothers, 

711. A grandfather of ours sits yonder, O, elder brothers. 

712. Then the elder brothers spake to one another, saying: O, younger 

brothers, 

713. Our younger brother 

714. Tells us a grandfather of ours sits yonder. 

715. Then with heads bent thitherward 

716. They set forth with quickened footsteps 

717. To the Yellow Boulder that sitteth firmly upon the earth. 

718. Around it they gathered, close to it they stood and spake rev- 

erently, 

719. Saying: O, grandfather, 

720. O, grandfather, they said to it, 

721. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

722. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

723. The Yellow Boulder spake, saying: You say the little ones have 

nothing of which to make their bodies. 

724. I am a person of whom the little ones may well make their 

bodies. 

725. I am difficult to be overcome by death. 

726. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

727. They also shall always be difficult to overcome by death. 

728. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

729. He spake again, saying; Even the malevolent gods in their 

destructive course 

730. Pass by me in divergent lines, leaving me unmolested. 

731. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

732. The malevolent gods shall always pass by, leaving them 

unmolested : 

733. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

734. He continued: Even the malevolent gods 

735. Stumble and fall when they happen to strike against me. 

736. When the little ones make of n:o their bodies, 
2786—21 12 



178 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eih. ann. 36 

737. Even the malevolent gods 

738. Shall stumble and fall when they happen to strike against the 

little ones. 

739. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

740. He said to them: Even the malevolent gods 

741. Fear to set teeth upon me in anger. 

742. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

743. Even the malevolent gods 

744. Shall fear to set teeth upon the little ones in anger. 

745. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

746. He continued: Even the malevolent gods 

747. Are stricken with pain when they dare to set teeth upon me. 

748. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

749. Even the malevolent gods 

750. Shall be stricken with pain when they dare to set teeth upon 

the little ones. 

751. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

752. He said to them: Even the malevolent gods 

753. Break their teeth when they set them upon me in anger. 

754. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

755. Even the malevolent gods 

756. Shall break their teeth when they set them upon the little ones 

in anger. 

757. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

758. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, spake to 

one another, 

759. Sajdng: O, younger brothers, 

760. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

761. Whereupon the Ho°'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa, 

762. Even as these words were spoken, 

763. Hastened to the Soft Yellow Kock, who sitteth firmly upon the 

earth. 

764. Close to the Soft Yellow Rock he paused and stood, 

765. As he spake, saying: O, grandfather, 

766. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

767. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

768. Then Wa'-tse-ga-wa hastened back to his brothers, to whom he 

spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

769. A grandfather of ours sits yonder, O, elder brothers. 

770. Then the elder brothers spake to one another, saying: O, younger 

brothers, 

771. Our younger brother tells us that a grandfather of ours sits 

yonder. 

772. Then, with heads bent thitherward, 



i.AFi.ESCHE] Nl'-KI NOn-k'on rite 179 

773. The brothers set forth with quickened footsteps, 

774. To the Soft Yellow Rock, who sitteth firmly upon the earth. 

775. Arovind it they gathered, close to it they stood and spake 

reverenth', 

776. Saying: O, grandfather, 

777. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 
77S. Then the Soft Yellow Rock spake, saying: O, little ones, 

779. I am a person of whom the little ones may well make their bodies. 

780. I am difficult to be overcome by death. 

781. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

782. They also shall always be difficult to overcome by death. 

783. When the little ones sicken and their bodies burn witli fever, 

784. They shall always make of me the means of removing the heat 

of fever (the vapor bath). 

785. When the little ones fall ill and are fretful, 

786. They shall always make of me the means of curing their illness, 

removing their fretfulness. 

787. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

788. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age, 

789. And they shall abide as a people in the days that are calm and 

peaceful. 

790. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

791. The Ho°'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa 

792. Went forth, with quickened footsteps, 

793. To the Friable Rock. 

794. Close to the Friable Rock he stood and spake, 

795. Saying: O, grandfather, 

796. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

797. The Friable Rock replied: I am a person of whom the little ones 

may well make their bodies. 

798. Then Wa'-tse-ga-wa hastened back and standmg before his 

brothers said to them: 

799. O, elder brothers, 

800. A grandfather of ours sits yonder, O, elder brothers. 

801. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

802. The elder brothers spake to one another, sajnng: Our younger 

brother 

803. Tells us a grandfather of our sits yonder. 

804. Then with heads bent thitherward 

805. They set forth, with quickened footsteps, 

806. To the Friable Rock, who sitteth firmly upon the earth. 

807. Around liim they gathered, close to him they stood and spake 

reverently, 

808. Saying: O, grandfather, 



180 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

809. The little ones have nothing of which to make Mieir bodies. 

810. The Friable Rook rephed: O, little ones, 

811. You say the little ones have nothing of which to make their 

bodies. 

812. I am a person of whom the little ones may well make their bodies. 

813. I am difficult to be overcome by death. 

814. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

815. They also shall always be difficult to overcome by death. 

816. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

817. When the little ones fail in health, 

818. They shall always make of me the means of restoring their 

strength. 

819. Wlien the little ones sicken and their bodies burn with heat of 

fever, 

820. They shall always make of me the means of removing the 

burning of fever. 

821. When the little ones make of me the means of reaching old age, 

822. The little ones shall enable themselves to live to see old age. 

823. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

824. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, spake to 

one another, 

825. Saying: O, younger brothers, 

826. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

827. Then turning to the Ho°'-ga A-hiu-to" (Ho°'-ga with wings, the 

dark-plumaged eagle), they spake to him, 

828. Saying: O, elder brother, and stood in mute appeal. 

829. Then, in quick response, Ho°'-ga A-hiu-to° set forth in haste 

830. To a deep miry marsh, 

831. To the Little Rock, who sitteth firmly upon the earth. 

832. Close to the Little Rock he stood and spake reverently, 

833. Saying: O, grandfather, 

834. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

835. The Little Rock spake in quick response: O, little one, 

836. I am a person of whom the little ones may well make their bodies. 

837. Then Ho°'-ga A-hiu-to° hastened back to his younger brothers, 

to whom he spake, saying: Q, younger brothers, 

838. A Little Rock sits yonder, O younger brothers, he said to them. 

839. The younger brothers spake to one another, saying: Our elder 

brother 

840. Tells us a Little Rock sits yonder, O, younger brothers. 

841. Then, with heads bent thitherward, 

842. They set forth in haste 

843. To the Little Rock, who sitteth finnly upon the earth in the 

marsh. 



LAFLESCHE] Nl'-KI NQN-k'qn RITE 181 

844. Around him they gathered, close to him they stood as they spake 

reverently, 

845. To the Little Rock, sitting with algiB clinging to him and 

floating about him, like looks of hair blowing in the wind. 

846. O, grandfather, they said to him, 

847. The little ones have nothing of which to make their bodies. 

848. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

849. The Little Rock made reply: You say the little ones have 

nothing of which to make their bodies. 

850. I am a person who is difficult to be overcome by death. 

851. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

852. They also shall always be difficult to overcome by death. 

853. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

854. He said to them: Behold my locks, that float about the edges of 

my head. 

855. Wlien the little ones reach old age, 

856. Their locks shall float about the edges of their heads. 

857. The little ones shall always live to see their locks grown scant 

with age. 

858. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

859. He continued: When the little ones become aged 

860. They shall always see the locks of their heads grown scant 

with age. 

861. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

862. The brothers spake to one another, saying: Close to the God of 

Day, who sitteth in the heavens, 

863. We shall place the Little Rock, O, younger brothers. 

864. When the little ones make of the Little Rock their bodies, 

865. Of the God of Day who sitteth in the heavens, 

866. The little ones as a people shall surely make their bodies, O, 

younger brothers. 

867. The four days, 

868. The four great divisions of the days, 

869. The little ones shall always reach and enter. 

870. They shall always live to see old age, O, younger brothers.'^ 

871. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

872. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, spake to 

one another, 

873. Saying: O, younger brothers, 

874. The little ones have nothing that will serve them as food. 

•3 The Little Rock of the marsh is spolcen ol as I'"' Wa-shta-ge, the Gentle Rock, because it is a special 
symbol of the lile of the people for whom there must always be peace. As a memorial of the finding of 
the Little Rock of the marsh the members of the Ho^'-ga A-hiu-^o° gens in cutting the hair of their little 
ones leave a fringe around the entire edge. 



182 THE OSAGE TRIBE [kth. ann. 36 

875. Then they turned to the Ilo^'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa, to whom they 

spake, 

876. Saying: (), younger brother, 

877. The little ones have nothing that will servo them as food. 

878. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

879. Wa'-tse-ga-wa set forth with quickened footsteps 

880. To the margin of a lake, 

881. To the Ho'-xtho°-ta-xe hi {Sparganium). 

882. Close to it he came and paused, 

883. Then plucked it root and stalk and hastened back to his brothers, 

to whom he spake, 

884. Saying; O, elder brothers, 

885. How will this plant serve as food for the little ones? 

886. With eager haste they tested the taste of the root, 

887. With noisy smacking of the lips, 

888. Then they spake to Wa'-tse-ga-wa, saying: O, younger brother, 

889. This plant is not fit for use as food, O, younger brother, 

890. Though this may be, O, younger brothers, they said to one 

another, 

891. We shall put it to use when we go forth toward the setting of 

the sun, 

892. To overcome our enemies and make them to fall in death, 

O, younger brothers. 

893. The elder brothers spake to Wa'-tse-ga-wa, saying: Behold, 

younger brother, 

894. The little ones have nothing that will serve them as food. 

895. Then Wa'-tse-ga-wa set forth with quickened footsteps, 

896. To the margin of a lake, 

897. To the 9i°'mo°-no°-ta-hi {Nymphaea advena). 

898. Close to it he came and paused, 

899. Then plucked it root and stalk and hastened back to his brothers, 

to whom he spake, 

900. Saying: How will this plant serve, O, elder brothers, as food for 

the little ones ? 

901. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, m this house, 

902. The elder brothers with eager haste tested the taste of the root, 

903. Then they spake to one another, saying: This plant is not fit 

for use as food, O, younger brothers, 

904. Though this may be, 

905. We shall put it to use when we go forth toward the setting of 

the sun, 

906. To overcome our enemies and make them to fall in death, O, 

younger brothers. 

907. The elder brothers spake to Wa'-tse-ga-wa, saying: Behold, 

younger brother, 



i.A FLESCHB] Nl'-KI NC-k'on RITE 183 

908. The little ones have nothing that will serve them as food, O, 

younger brother. 

909. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

910. Wa'-tse-ga-wa hastened to the middle of the deep waters of a 

lake, 

911. To the tse'-wa-the {Nelumbo lutea) (pi. 12, h). 

912. With his foot he pried into the soft bed of the lake and brought 

to the surface a root, 

913. Which he carried in haste to his brothers, to whom he spake, 

914. Saying: How will this plant serve, O, elder brothers, as food for 

the little ones ? 

915. O, younger brother, they said to him, with hopeful expectation, 

916. Then, with eager haste, they tested the taste of the root. 

917. Like milk, it has been said, in this house, 

918. The juice of the succulent root squirted within their mouths. 

919. Then they spake to Wa'-tse-ga-wa, saying: O, younger brother, 

920. This, indeed, is the object of your continual search, O, younger 

brother, 

921 . And, speaking to one another, the elder brothers said: This plant 

will serve as food for the little ones in their life's journey, O, 
younger brothers. 

922. When the little ones use this plant as food, 

923. Their limbs shall stretch in growth as they move onward in their 

life's journey, O, younger brothers. 

924. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

925. The elder brothers spake to Wa'-tse-ga-wa, saying: 

926. Look you, O, younger brother, 

927. We bid you go forth again in quest of food, O, younger brother, 

928. Whereupon Wa'-tse-ga-wa set forth, with quickened footsteps, 

929. To the farther margin of the lake 

930. To the do (Glycine apios) (pi. 12, a). 

931. Close to it he came and paused. 

932. Then he plucked it, root and vine, and hastened back to his 

brothers, to whom he spake, 

933. Saying: How will this plant serve, O, elder brothers, as food for 

the little ones 1 

934. Then, with eager haste, they tested the taste of the root. 

935. Like milk, it has been said, in this house, 

936. The juice of the succulent root squirted within their mouths. 

937. Then they spake to Wa'-tse-ga-wa, saying: O, younger brother, 

938. This, indeed, is the object of your continual search, O, younger 

brother, 

939. And, speaking to one another, the elder brothers said: This plant 

will serve as food for the little ones in their life's journey, O, 
younger brothers. 



184 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

940. Whon the little ones use this plant as food, 

941. Tlioy sluill enable themselves to live to see old age. 

942. Their limbs shall stretch in growth as they move onward in their 

life's journey, O, younger brothers. 

943. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

944. The elder brothers spake to one another, saying: Behold, 

O, younger brother, 

945. The little ones have nothing that will serve them as food, O, 

younger brother. 

946. They turned to the Ho"'-gaWa'-tse-ga-wa, to whom they spake, 

947. Saymg: O, younger brother, 

948. We bid you go again in quest of food. 

949. Wa'-tse-ga-wa set forth, with quickened footsteps, 

950. To the (?i° {Sagittaria latifolia) (pi. 12, c), 

951. To the farther margin of the lake, 

952. Where sat the fi" within the soft bed. 

953. He plucked it up, root and stalk, and hastened back to his ■ 

brothers, to whom he spake, 

954. Saying: How will this serve, O, elder brothers, as food for the 

little on,es ? 

955. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

956. The elder brothers tested the taste of the root with eager haste. 

957. Like milk the juice of the succulent root squirted within their 

mouths. 

958. Then in tones of pleasure they spake to Wa'-tse-ga-wa, sajdng: 

O, younger brother, 

959. This plant will serve as food for the little ones, O, younger 

brother. 

960. When the little ones prepare this plant for use, 

961. They shall always immerse it in boiling water, O, younger 

brother, 

962. Though this may be, 

963. We shall always put it to use when we set forth against our ene- 

mies toward the setting of the sun, 

964. To overcome them and make them to fall in death, O, younger 

brothers. 

965. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

966. The elder brothers spake to Wa'-tse-ga-wa, saying: O, younger 

brother, 

967. Look you, we bid you go once more in quest of food. 

968. Then Wa'-tse-ga-wa set forth, 

969. To the farther margin of the lake, 

970. To a lowland forest, beyond, 

971. Where sat the ho°'-bthi'''-(;u (Falcata camosa) (pi. 12, d). 

972. Close to it he came and paused; 



LAPLESCHB) Nl'-KI NOn-k'on rite 185 

973. Then plucking it, root and vine, he hastened back to his brothers, 

to whom ho spake, 

974. Saying: How will this plant serve, O, elder brothers, as food for 

the little ones ? 

975. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

976. The elder brothers tested the taste of the bulbous root with 

eager haste, 

977. Then spake to Wa'-tse-ga-wa, saying: This plant will serve as 

food for the little ones, O, younger brother, 

978. Though this may be, 

979. When the little ones prepare the plant for use, 

980. They shall always immerse it in boiling water, O, younger 

brother, 

981. Though this may be, 

982. We shall put it to use when we set forth against our enemies 

toward the setting sun, 

983. To overcome them and make them to fall, O, younger brothers. 

DEER SONGS 

Following the wi'-gi-e relating to the quest of food are the Ta 
Wa'-tho°, Deer Songs, six in all, arranged in sequence of action. The 
first song pictures the hunter as he stands in wait for the deer, while 
his sister who remains at home follows him with expectant wish that 
a stag or a doe might approach the spot where her brother stands 
and be shot by him. These kinship terms, brother and sister, are 
here used in the generic sense. The second song depicts the anxiety 
of the sister as time passes and the strengthening of her hope that 
her brother will succeed. The third song refers to the mind relief 
of the sister as she divines the actual shootmg of a deer bj' her brother. 
The fourth song refers to the wounding of a deer by the hunter and 
the pursuit of it. The fifth song recounts the cutting of the skui of 
the caught deer in such a manner as to make it convenient for shaping 
into clothing. The sixth song deals with the attributing by the hunter 
of his success to the sacred wi'-gi-e that describes the haunts of the 
deer. (See p. 97, lines 49 to 103, wi'-gi-e of the Deer gens.) 

The order in which the wi'-gi-e relating to the food plants and the 
deer songs appear may have some historical value. At any rate the 
sequence implies that the natural products of the earth were depended 
upon by the Wa-zha'-zhe for sustenance, and that the first to be pro- 
tected by force as against intrusion by unfriendly tribes were the food 
plants. Later, when the people became possessed of an effective 
weapon, as the bow and arrow, the deer was given a place among 
the natural food products and figured prominently in both the religious 
and practical life of the tribe. There are two titles to the Deer 
Songs — fa Wa'-tho", Deer Songs; and Ta Gi'-bo° Wa'-tho", Songs of 
Calling the Deer. 



186 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 



THE WORDS OF THE DEER SONGS 

SONO 1 
(Osage version, p. 386) 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



M.M. J=il52 



Tfhie beats f f f fT ''"ff 

Wi - tsi" - do no" she-tho to" no", Wi - tsi" - do no" she -tho to" no", 



-0- ^ m -0- ••• -•- -•- • • p 



Dsi no"-no" - ge he, 



dsi no"-no" e, Dsi no"-no°-ge he, Wi-tsi" ■ 



r r r r r r r f " r r 

do no" she-tho to" no", Wi-tsi"-do no" she-tho to" no", Dsi no" no"-go he. 



r 



.0. -0. 

r r r 

dsi no"-no" e, Dsi no°-no" ge he, 



r 



Wi-tsi" - do no" she-tho to" no" 



Wi-tsi"-do no" she-tho to" no°, 

Wi-tsi ""-do no" she-tho to" no", 

Dsi no"-no"-ge he, dsi no"-no° e, 

Dsi no"-no"-ge he, 

Wi-tsi "-do no" she-tho to" no", 

Wi-t8i°-do no" she-tho to" no", 

Dsi no"-no"-ge he, dsi no"-no" e, 

Dei no"-no"-ge he, 

Wi-tsi "-do no" she-tho to" no". 



Yonder stands my elder brother waiting. 
Yonder stands my elder brother waiting. 
Run thither upon thy feet, run thither. 
Run thither upon thy feet, etc. 



Yonder stands my elder brother waiting, 
Yonder stands my elder brother waiting. 
Run thither with thy horns, run thither, 
Run thither with thy horns, etc. 



I.A FLESCHE} 



Nl'-KI NON-k'on rite 

Song 2 
COsage version, p. 387) 



187 



Transcribed l)j- Alice C. Flotchei 




Time heats ' f f f f f 

Tsi" - do he <jka gthe he, Tsi" - do he <jkii gthc he, 




Qi no"-no"-e, (,U - no°-no" - ge he, Tsin - do he gka gthe he, 




I f r r 

Tsi°-do he gka gthe he, (,"i no"-no"-e, Q\ no"-no"-ge he, 



r r f f f r 

Tsi" - do he gka gthe he, Tsin - do he ?ka gthe he. 

Tsi "-do he ^ka gthe he, 

Tsi "-do he gka gthe he, 

Qi no" no^-e, Qi no^-nC-ge he, 

Tsi°-do he gka gthe he, 

Tsi°-do he gka gthe he, 

Qi no''-no''-e, <^i no''-no''-ge he, 

Tsi°-do he gka gthe he, 

Tsi''-do he gka gthe he. 



To my brother, thou with white horns, thou with white horns. 
Run thither upon thy feet, run tnither upon thy feet, etc. 



To my brother, thou with white horns, thou with white horns. 

Run thither with thy white horns, thou with white horns run thither, etc. 

The words of these songs are figurative. Nevertheless they reveal 
the many thoughts that played upon the minds of the ancient 
No'''-ho°-zhi°-ga, who composed them. The words convey the sup- 
plicatory wish for the success of the hunters, as upon their success 
depends the very life of all the people. They pray for the continual 
reproduction of this animal, so necessary to man's physical existence. 
This thought is expressed in the sequence of the stanzas, in which are 
mentioned the various parts of the deer, beginning with the feet, the 
hind legs, the body, the forelegs, and closing with the antlers, used 



188 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 



as a tropo for the head. (When giving these songs, Wa-xthi'-zhi 
took advantage of the privilege granted to the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka and 
omitted all stanzas but the first and last in order to shorten the 
monotony of repetition.) In the sequence of the stanzas is not only 
indicated the physical growth of the animal and the endless repro- 
duction of that particular form of life, but as the call to the animal 
is made by a woman, this call is not only for the continued life of 
the animal but is a prayer for the continuity and the perpetuation of 
the people of the tribe. 

Song 3 



(Osage version, p. 387) 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletche: 



Time beats r T f f f f f * f ' 



Wi-tsi" tlo no" ku - dse to" no", Wi-tsi" do no" ku-dse to" no", 




^^ 



r I ' r r " r ' ^ 

O-e no°-no" - ge he, O-e no"-no"-e, 0-e no"-no" - ge he, Wi-tsi" - 



r Tr"' " r r r r - -^^ r ■ r 

do no" ku-dse to" no", Wi-tsi"-do no" ku-dse to" no", O-e no"-no"-ge he, 



r r r 



-•- -•- -•- 

r r 

O-e no"-no"-e, O-e no"-nD"-gc he. 



r r r r 

Wi-tsi" do no" ku-dse to" no". 



Wi-tei '-do no" ku-dse to" no", 
Wi-tsi"-do no" ku-dse to" no", 
O-e no"-no"-ge he, o-e no"-no°-e, 
O-e no"-no"-ge he, 
Wi-tsi"-do no" ku-dse to" no", 
Wi-tsi"-do no" ku-dse to" no", 
O-e no°-no"-ge he, o-e no" no°-e, 
O-e no°-no"-ge he, 
Wi-tsi "-do no" ku-dse to" no". 

My brother shoots from where he stands. 

My brother shoots from where he stands. 

He wounds the deer, it runs, he wounds the deer, it runs. 

He wounds the deer, it runs, etc. 



NI -KI NOM-K O RITE 



189 



Song 4 
(Osage version, p. 387) 




Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



' r '^ r r 

O - da the ha o - da 



-^ 



r r r 

Wa-dsi tha-the ho-tha-dse, 



r r r 

Wa-dsi tha - the ho- tha-dse wa-to. 



' r r r 

O - da the, o - da ni - wa, 



O - da the ha o - da ni - wa tck 



0-da the, o-da ni-wa, 
0-da the ha o-da ni-wa, 
Wa-dsi tha-the ho-tha-dse, 
Wa-dsi tha-the ho-tha-dse wa-to, 
O-da the, o-da ni-wa, 
O-da the ha o-da ni-wa to. 



It is stricken, it still lives and flees. 

It is stricken, it still lives and flees, 

I shall pursue and find it, wherever it goes, 

I shall pursue and find it, wherever it goes, etc. 



It is stricken, it stil. lives and flees, 
It is stricken, it still lives and flees. 
Though it has gone afar I have found it, 
Though it has gone afar I have found it, etc. 



190 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 

So NO 5 
(Osago version, p. 388) 



Iltii. ANN. 36 



Tranncribi^d by Alice C. KlolchiT 



r r ^ r r r r r • 



E - giu" h)rt - ha i,'U-vva, E - giu" ba - ha (;u-wa, Zho 



-I ^^ -^ — I ! 

^ ' r r 




giu" ba-ha ^'u-wa.Zhe-ga ba-ha gu-wa, E - giu° ba-ha gu-wa a. 

E-giu" ba-ha fu-wa, E-giu" ba-ha gu-wa, 
Zhe-ga ba-ha fu-wa, E-giu° ba-ha 9u-wa, 
E-ghi° ba-ha fu-wa a, 
E-giu" ba-ha gu-wa, E-giu" ba-ha fu-wa, 
Zhe-ga ba-ha ?u-wa, E-giu" ba-ha fu-wa. 



I cut with care the skin, I cut with care the skin, 
Down the legs I cut the skin with care, 
I cut with care the skin, etc. 



I cu,; with care the skin, I cut with care the skin, 
Up the breast I cut the skin with care, 
I cut with care the skin, etc. 



I cut with care the skin, I cut with care the skin, 
Around the head and neck I cut the skin with care, 
I cut with care the skin, etc. 



Nl -KI NON-K ON RITE 

Song 6 

(Osage version, p. 389) 



191 



ibed by Alici.- C. FIctdit 




pi - gi ga- be hi-dsi to°, I - \vi - the tho° dse, ta - xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 

Ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e wa-dsu-ta zhi''-ga, 
I-wi-the tho^-dsi-e, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e, 
Ta-xtsi-e wa-dsu-ta zhi^-ga, pi-fi fa-be hi dsi to", 
I-wi-the tho°-dsi-e, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 



Ta-xtsi-e," ta-xtsi-e, you little creature, 
Where did I fiild you, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 
Ta-xtsi-e, you little creature. 
Beneath the black oak, 
I have found you, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-p. 



Beneath the red oak, 

I have found you, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 



Beneath the white oak, 

I have found you, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 



Amidst the bunch gress, 

I have found you, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 

'< The archaic name for the deer. 



192 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

(ni'-ki wi'-oi-e — -continued) 

984. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

985. The Ilo^'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, spake to 

one another, 

986. Saying: O, younger brothers, 

987. There is yet one thing lacking, O, younger brothers. 

988. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

989. The little ones have nothing that will serve them as a symbol 

of their courage, they said to one another. 

990. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

991. The Ho"'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa (Radiant Star) 

992. Went forth, with quickened footsteps, 

993. To the very summit of a hill, 

994. To the Male Puma, 

995. With whom he stood face to face, as he spake to him, 

996. Saying: O, grandfather, 

997. The little ones have nothing that will serve them as a symbol 

of their courage. 

998. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

999. The Puma replied, saying: You say the little ones have nothing 

that will serve them as a symbol of their courage. 

1000. I am a person whom the little ones may well choose to be a 

symbol of their courage. 

1001. Thereupon he expanded his tail as though in great anger and 

spake, 

1002. Saying: Behold the dark tip of my tail. 

1003. The little ones shall make of it a symbol of fire. 

1004. When they make of it a symbol of fire, 

1005. They shall have fire that can not be extinguished. 

1006. Behold the soles of my feet, that are dark in color. 

1007. I have made them to be as my charcoal. 

1008. Behold the tip of my nose, that is dark in color. 

1009. I have made it to be as my charcoal. 

1010. Behold the tip of my ears, that are dark in color. 

1011. I have made them to be as my charcoal. 

1012. When the little ones make the soles of my feet, the tip of my 

nose, and the tips of my ears to be as their charcoal, 

1013. They shall always have charcoal that is dark indeed. 

1014. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1015. The Ho"'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa, 

1016. When the elder brothers had thus spoken. 



I.A FLESCHE] Nl'-KI NQX-Ic'ON RITE 193 

1017. Went forth to an open prairie, where trees grow not, 
lOlS. To the Bhxck Bear, that is without a blemish, 

1019. Who stood in its midst, 

1020. Who stood as in flames of lire, 

1021. With hands uphfted, with whom (the Sacred Radiant Star) 

stood face to face as he spake, 

1022. Saj'ing: O, grandfather, 

1023. Tile little ones have nothing that will serve them as a symbol 

of their courage. 

1024. Verih", at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1025. The Black Bear spake, saying; I am a person whom the little 

ones may well choose to be a symbol of their courage. 

1026. Behold my outspread claws. 

1027. I have made them to be as my flames of fire. 

1028. When the little ones make them to be their symbols of fire, 

1029. They shall always have fire that can not be extinguished. 

1030. Behold the soles of my feet, that are dark in color. 

1031. I have made them to be as my charcoal. 

1032. Wlien the little ones make them to be as their charcoal, 

1033. They shall always have charcoal that is black mdeed. 

1034. Behold the tip of my nose, that is dark in color. 

1035. I have made it to be as my charcoal. 

1036. Wlien the little ones make it to be as their charcoal, 

1037. They shall always have charcoal that is dark indeed. 

1038. Behold my body, that is black in color. 

1039. I have made it to be as my charcoal. 

1040. When the little ones make it to be as their charcoal, 

1041. They shall always have charcoal that is black indeed. 

1042. ThcHo^'-gaWa'-tse-ga-wa 

1043. Went forth, with quickened footsteps, 

1044. To an open prairie, where trees grow not, 

1045. To the Great White Swan, who sat in its midst. 

1046. Close to the Great White Swan (the Radiant Star) stood and 

spake, 

1047. Saying: O, grandfather, 

1048. The little ones have nothing that will serve them as a symbol 

of their courage. 

1049. The Great White Swan replied, saying: O, little one, 

1050. You say the little ones have nothing that will serve them as 

a symbol of their courage. 
278&— 21 13 



194 THE OSAGE TRIBE f mn. ann. 36 

1051. I am a person whom the littlo ones may well choose to bo a 

symbol of their coiirajje. 

1052. Behold the edges of my feet, that are dark in color. 

1053. I have made them to be as my fire. 

1054. Behold also the tip of my bill, that is dark in color. 

1055. I have made it to be as my fire. 

1056. When the little ones make these to be as their fire, 

1057. They shall always have fire that can not be extinguished. 

1058. Wlien the little ones make me to be a symbol of their courage, 

1059. Even the gods 

1060. Are not my equals in strength and endurance. 

1061. When the little ones make me to be a symbol of their courage, 

1062. No one shall be their equal in strength and courage. 

1063. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1064. The elder brothers spake, saying: The little ones have nothing 

that will serve them as a symbol of courage. 

1065. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1066. The Ho°'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa 

1067. Went forth, with quickened footsteps, 

1068. To the Male Puma, 

1069. With whom he stood face to face and spake, 

1070. Saying: The little ones have nothing that will serve them as a 

symbol of their courage, O, grandfather. 

1071. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1072. The Puma replied, saying: 1 am a person whom the little ones 

may well choose to be a symbol of their courage. 

1073. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1074. The brothers spake to one another in muffled tones, saying: 

O, younger brothers, 

1075. He is a Puma, 

1076. We shall take personal names from him, O, younger brothers. 

1077. The Great Puma 

1078. Shall be our name, O, younger brothers. 

1079. Young Puma 

1080. Shall be our name, O, younger brothers. 

1081. Young Puma 

1082. Shall always be our name, O, younger brothers, they said to 

one another. 

1083. The Ho^'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa 

1084. Went forth, with quickened footsteps, 

1085. To the Black Bear, that is without a blemish. 



I.A KLESCUE] Nl'-KI NON-k'On RITK 195 

1086. Who stood as in flames of fire, to him he (the Radiant Star) 

spake, 
10S7. Saying: Tlie little ones have nothing that will serve them as a 

symbol of their courage, O, grandfather. 

1088. The Black Bear replied, saying: I am a person whom the little 

ones maj' well choose to be a symbol of their courage. 

1089. Then spake the elder brothers, saying: O, younger brothers, 

1090. And all spake to one another, saying: He is a Black Bear, O, 

younger brothers. 

1091. He is very dark in color. 

1092. We shall take from him personal names, O, younger brothers; 

1093. The Dark One 

1094. Shall always be our name, O, younger brothers. 

1095. You have found the Dark One, O, younger brothers, 
•■096. Finder-of-the Dark One, 

1097. Shall always be our name, O, younger brothers. 

1098. Look you, O, younger brothers, they said to one another, 

1099. The little ones have nothing that will serve them as a sjonbol 

of courage. 

1100. They went forth in a body to an open prairie, where trees grow 

not, 

1101. Where sat the Great White Swan. 

1102. Face to face with him they stood and spake, 

1103. Saying: The little ones have nothing that will serve them as a 

symbol of their courage, O, grandfather. 

1104. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house 

1105. The brothers spake to one another in low tones, saying: O, 

younger brother, 

1106. We shall take from him personal names, O, younger brothers. 

1107. How white he is, O, elder brothers, the younger ones said. 

1108. He is a bird, O, younger brothers, 

1109. A White Swan. 

1110. White Swan also 

1111. Shall be our name, O, younger brothers. 

1112. He is a bird, O, younger brothers. 

1113. How white he is, they said to one another. 

1114. White-bird, also, 

1115. Shall be our name, O, younger brothers. 

1116. Verily' at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1117. The Wa-zha'-zhe, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

1118. Verily, a people among whom there are none that are craven, 

1119. A people who show no mercy and spare none of their enemies, 

1120. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1121. Had made of a pipe (pi. 17, a), 



196 THE OSAGE TUIBE [etii. Ann. 36 

1122. Their bodies, a pipe by which they had become a people. 

1123. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1124. These people spake to the IIo°'-ga, saying: O, Ho^'-ga, 

1125. I have made of a pipe my body, O, Ho"'-ga. 

1126. When you also make of the pipe your body, 

1127. Your body shall be free from all causes of death, O, Ho°'-ga. 

1128. Behold the joint of its neck, 

1129. I have made of it the joint of my own neck. 

1130. When you, likewise, make of it the joint of your own neck, 

1131. The joint of your neck shall be free from all causes of death, 

O, Ho^'-ga. 

1132. Behold the hollow of its mouth (bowl), 

1133. I have made of it the hollow of my own mouth, 

1134. As of all the bowl also, 

1135. When you make of it the hollow of your own mouth, 

1136. The hollow of your mouth shall be free from all" causes of death, 

O, Ho°'-ga. 

1137. Behold the right side of its body, 

1138. I have made of it the right side of my own bod}'. 

1139. When you, likewise, 

1140. Make of it the right side of your own bod}-, 

1141. The right side of your body shall be free from all causes of 

death, O, Ho°'-ga. 

1142. Behold the muscles of its spine, 

1143. I have made of them the muscles of my own spine. 

1144. When you, likewise, make of them the muscles of your own 

spine, 

1145. The muscles of your spine shall be free from all causes of death, 

O, Ho°'-ga. 

1146. Behold the left side of its body. 

1147. I have made of it the left side of my own bod}-. 

1148. When you, likewise, make of it the left side of your own body, 

1149. The left side of your body shall be free from all causes of death, 

O, Ho^'-ga. 

1150. Behold the hollow of its body (the stem"), 

1151. I have made of it the hollow of my own body. 

1152. When you, likewise, make of it the hollow of your own body, 

1153. The hollow of your body shall be free from all causes of death, 

O, Ho°'-ga. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TH I RTY-SIXTH AN NU AL REPORT PLATE 18 




WA-TSE'-MO 



Member of Ihe \Va-?a'-be (Black Bear) gens (i( Uie llo-'-ga .Milxlivi^iuii i.f lUe IIo"'-ga great tribal divi- 
sion. This mau is an oral or of the tribe and is well versed in the rites of his people. He is better known 
as Wa-shi«'-ha, a name that has been misinterpreted as "Bacon Rind." The name refers to the fat 
that adheres to the skin of the black bear. (Courtesy of Mr. B. H. Love.) 



LAFLESCHE] Nl'-KI NON-k'qn EITE 197 

1154. Behold its windpipe (the tliong that holds bowl and stem 

together), 

1155. I have made of it my own windpipe. 

1156. When you, likewise, make of it your own windpipe, 

1 157. Your windpipe shall be free from all causes of death, 0,Ho°'-ga. 

1158. When you go toward the setting of the sun against your 

enemies, 

1159. And carr}' the pipe as an offering when you make your sup- 

plications for aid, 

1160. Your prayers shall always be readily granted, 

1161. Even before the sun rises to the height of your houses, 

1162. Your prayers shall always be readily granted, O, Ho'^'-ga. 

1163. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1164. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

1 165. Verily, a people among whom there are none that are craven, 

1166. A people who show no mercy and spare none of their enemies, 

1167. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 
116S. These people made reply, saying: O, Wa-zha'-zhe, 

1169. Of the I'ed boulder, that sitteth firmly upon the earth, 

1170. I have made my body and become a people, O, Wa-zha'-zhe. 

1171. As of the God of Da}^, who sitteth in the heavens, 

1172. I have made my body and become a people, O, Wa-zha'-zhe. 

1173. The red boulder, that sitteth firmly upon the earth, 

1174. When you likewise make of it your body, 

1175. Even the malevolent gods in their destructive course 

1176. Shall pass by you in divergent lines and leave you unmolested, 

O, Wa-zha'-zhe. 

1177. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1178. Of the red boulder, that sitteth firmly upon the earth, 

1179. I have verily made my body and become a people, 0, Wa- 

zha'-zhe. 

1180. When you likewise make of it your body, 

1181. Even the malevolent gods in their destructive course 

1182. Shall stumble and fall when they happen to strike agamst you. 

1183. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1184. The red boulder, that sitteth firmly upon the earth, 

1185. When you likewise make of it your body, 

1186. Even the malevolent gods in their destructive course, 

1187. And none of them set teeth upon me in anger, 

1188. Even the malevolent gods in their destructive course 

1189. Shall fear to set teeth upon you in anger, O, Wa-zha'-zhe. 

1190. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, m this house, 

1191. The red boulder, that sitteth firmly upon the earth. 



198 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 



1192. When y<><i likewise make of it your body, 

1193. Even the malevolent gods in their destructive course, 

1194. And they break their teeth when they set them upon me in 

ajiger. 

1195. The red boulder, that sitteth firmly upon the earth, 

1196. When you likewise make of it your body, 

1197. Even the malevolent gods in their destructive course 

1198. Shall break their teeth when they set them upon you in anger, 

O, Wa-zha'-zhe. 



tsi gl'-ka-xe wa-tho" (songs of setting up the house of 
mystery) 



Song 1 
(Osage version, p. 395) 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



M.M. 2~ 116 



a=5=3^=:=il^-_||:ar^=q=f|^ 



E^^ 




r ^ 

Ga - xa thi"-e e, tsi wi - ta no" pa- xathi"-e, 




Wi-p tsi wi" }ju - xa thi"-e 



r r 

tsi wi" ga - xa thi"-e.. 



Wi-e tsi vvi" ga-xa thi''-e, 

Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi°-e he the, 

Ga-xa thi"-e e, tsi wi-ta no" ga-xa thi"-e, 

Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi°-e e, 

Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi"-e. 

1 
Make ye a house for me. 
Make ye a house for me, 
Make ye 

A house that shall be my own, 
Make ye a house for me, 
Make ye a house for me. 



Make ye 
A House of Mystery tor me. 



I.A FI.ESCHE] 



NI -KI NON-K ON RITE 
3 



199 



Make ye 

The frame of my house. 



Make ye 

A fireplace therein that shall be mine. 

Song 2 
(Osage version, p. 396) 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




T.si \vi" ga - xa thi",ga - xa thi^e he the, Tsi wi" ga - xa,thi", ga-xa 




thi"-e he the, T.si wi - ta no" ga - xa thi", ga - xa thi"-e he the, Tsi vvi" 



r r rr ' ' ■ ' - i r 

ga -xa thi",ga - xa thi°-e he the, Tsi \vi"ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi°-e he the. 

Tsi wi" ga-xa thi°, ga-xa thi" e he the. 
Tsi wi° ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi°-e he the, 
Tsi wi-ta no" ga-xa thi" ga-xa thi^-e he the, 
Tsi wi" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi"-e he the, 
Tsi wi" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi"-e he the. 

1 

Make ye a house, make ye a house. 

Make ye a house, make ye a house, 

A house that shall be my own, make ye a house, 

Make ye a house, make ye a house. 



Make ye a House of Mystery, make ye a house. 

3 
Make ye the frame of the house, make ye the frame. 

4 
Make for me a fireplace, make a fireplace. 



200 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 



KI-^TO WA-TIK)^ (songs OF THE GATHEIUNC;) 

Song 1 
(Osage version, p. 397) 



Transtribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



» 



m^ 



s? r r' r r7 r r r r ,^ r ^ ? *t ^-^ 



Ki-Qto-ba do" tsi- tha, ki-gto Da-do" tsi-tha, Ifi-(;to ba do" t«i -tha, 



m^^^^- 



•—- •—• — s — i.-^ 



SiEErfifefei 



r ' r r r-r 

15 Ho"-ga ki-fto ba do" tsi - tha, 



ki - yto ba do" tsi-tho. 



Ki-fto ba do" tsi-tha, ki-fto ba do" tsi-tha, 

Ki-fto ba do" tsi-tha, 

Ho°-ga ki-gto ba do" tsi-tha. ki-rto ba do" tsi-tho. 



Go ye to the gathering, 

Go ye to the gathering, 

Go ye to the gathering of the Ho°'-ga. 

Go ye to the gathering. 



Go ye to the gathering of the eagles. 

3 
Go ye to the gathering of the white eagles. 

4 
Go ye to the gathering of the mottled eagles. 



Song 2 
(Osage version, p. 397) 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 






TTme beats I 1 | rffrrff ffTr ^'~*' '*" 

Ts'a-gedo-ba ki-{,'to ba do". E-dsi u - \vi ha tin" he, E-dsi ii wi-lia thi" 




-0 -gr -^ -7S- 

he he, E-dsiu - wi -ha thi" he, E-dsiu - \vi - ha thi" lie, 
-# ^ ^ f 0f P- 



r r r r r r r r r r r 

Ts'a-ge do - ba ki - gto ba do", e - dsiu - wi - ha thi" he. 
" In third stanza one note added to bar. In fourtli stanza two notes added to bar. 



Ni'-Ki non-k'o" rite 201 

Ts'a-ge do-ba ki-fto ba do', 
E-dsi u-wi-ha tM° he, E-dsi u-xn-ha thi° he he, 
E-dsi u-wi-ha thi" he, E-dsi u-wi-ha thi" he, 
Ts'a-ge do-ba ki-gto ba do", e-dsi u-wi-ha thi" he. 

1 

The aged men are gathering, 
I walk \vith the aged men. 



The men are now gathering, 
I walk with the men. 

(ni'-ki wi'-gi-e — continued) 

1199. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1200. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

1201. Verily, a people among whom there are none that are craven, 

1202. There was among the Ho°'-ga a man, 

1203. A man who had made of the elk his body, 

1204. And of the forehead of the elk, 

1205. A snare, verily, he was a person who possessed a snare. 

1206. Of this snare the Ho°'-ga spake to one another, saymg: What- 

ever strange beings they may be, or whosesoever offspring 
they may be, 

1207. We shall make them to fall into this snare, O, younger brothers. 

1208. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe, 

1209. And those of the Tsi'-zhu, 

1210. Shall always use this snare, 

1211. Wliatever strange beings they may be, or whosesoever offspring 

they may be, 

1212. We shall always make them to fall into this snare, O, younger 

brothers. 

1213. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1214. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

1215. Gathered together some small stones, 

1216. Seven small stones they gathered together, 

1217. Of which they verily made their bodies and became a people. 

1218. Four of these stones, 

1219. They brought to the fireplace of their House of Mystery, 

1220. And within each corner, 

1221. They placed one of these stones, 

1222. And they spake, saymg: Let each of these stones be to the 

people of the Wa-zha'-zhe, • 

1223. And to those of the Tsi'-zhu, 

1224. As a place of refuge in their life's journey, 

1225. Then we shall always easily find a place of refuge in times of 

danger, O, younger brothers. 



202 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

1226. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1227. Among the Ho"'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 
122S. There was a man, 

1229. Whose name was Little Earth. 

1230. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, m this house, 

1231. He appeared before the people with a cloven hand uplifted, 

1232. In which he held a bit of the dark soil of the earth, 

1233. Which he offered to the people as he spake, 

1234. Saying: This bit of the dark soil of the earth 

1235. They shall carry when they go to offer their supplications, 

1236. Then shall their prayers be readily granted, O, elder brothers. 

1237. When the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

1238. And those of the Tsi'-zhu 

1239. Put it upon their faces as they offer their supplications, 

1240. Then, even before the sun has risen to the height of their houses, 

1241. Their prayers shall always be readily granted, O, younger 

brothers, they said to one another. 

1242. Although that may be, 

1243. When they put it upon their faces, 

1244. They shall not close their eyes in sleep, O, younger brothers, 

they said to one another. 

1245. When they close their eyes in sleep, 

1246. They shall shorten their Uves as men, O, younger brothers, they 

said to one another. 

1247. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1248. A bit of the blue soil of the earth 

1249. He brought forth and stood offermg it to the people. 

1250. This bit of the blue soil of the earth 

1251. They shall carry when they go to offer their supplications, 

O, younger brothers, they said to one another. 

1252. When they carry this bit of blue earth as they offer their sup- 

plications, 

1253. When they go forth toward the setting of the sun against their 

enemies, 

1254. Their prayers shall always be readily granted, O, younger 

brothers, they said to one another. 

1255. When they carry this bit of blue earth as they offer their 

supplications, 

1256. Even before the sun has risen to the height of their houses, 

1257. Their prayers shall always be readily granted, O, younger 

brothers, they said to one another. 



l.AKi.ESCHE) Nl'-KI NO!<-K'on RITE 203 

1258. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1259. He brought forth a bit of the red soil of the earth 

1260. And stood offering it to the people. 

1261. This bit of the red soil of the earth 

1262. They shall carry- when they go to offer their supplications, 0, 

younger brothers, they said to one another. 

1263. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

1264. Aad those of the Tsi-'-zhu 

1265. Shall use this bit of red earth as they offer their supplications, 

O, younger brothers, they said to one another. 

1266. When they use it as they offer their supplications, 

1267. Even before the sun has risen to the height of their bourses, 

1268. Their prayers shall always be readily granted, O, younger 

brothers, they said to one another. 

1269. Although that may be, 

1270. When they put it upon their faces, 

1271. They shall not shed tears, O, younger brothers, they said to one 

another. 

1272. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1273. He brought forth a bit of the yellow soil of the earth 

1274. And stood offering it to the people. 

1275. This bit of the yellow soil of the earth 

1276. Shall be used in offering their supplications 

1277. By the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

1278. And those of the Tsi'-zhu, 

1279. So that their prayers may always be readily granted, O, 

younger brothers, they said to one another. 

1280. When they go to seek for fair captives 

1281. They shall put this bit of yellow earth upon his face, O, younger 

brothers, they said to one another. 

1282. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1283. Behold the flaring rim of the entrance of my house, 

1284. That also is not made without a purpose. 

1285. It is the Tse'-xe ni-ka-pu, the vessel in which men are seethed. 

1286. I have made it to represent all such vessels. 

1287. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

1288. And those of the Tsi'-zhu 

1289. Shall use it for seething the bodies of men, 

1290. When they go forth toward the setting of the sun against their 

enemies, 

1291. And use it in their supplications for aid, 

1292. Their prayers shall always be readily granted, O, younger 

brothers, they said to one another. 



204 THE OSAGE TRIBE [Rin. ann. 36 

1293. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1294. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

1295. A people among whom there arc none that are craven. 

1296. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1297. Spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

1298. There is yet lacking a necessary article, O, younger brothers. 

1299. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 
1.300. TheTse'-xe ni-ka-pu, the vessel in which the bodies of men are 

seethed, 

1301. They quickly brought forth 

1302. And spake to one another, saying: 

1303. This is an article that we shall always use as a symbol in our 

ceremonies, O, younger brothers. 

1304. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1305. They said to one another: Let us now put water into the 

sacred vessel to boil. 

1306. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1307. They placed the vessel of water upon the fire to boil. 

1308. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1309. They spake to one another, saying: What shall we put into the 

boiling water to seethe, 

1310. O, younger brothers? 

1311. There are four kinds of food plants, '' 

1312. That we have dedicated to use for ceremonial purposes, O, 

' younger brotliers. 

1313. Those we shall put into the vessel of boiling water to seethe, 

O, younger brothers. 

1314. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1315. They brought forth the Bfarganmm 

1316. And said to one another: This, O, younger brothers, 

1317. We shall put into the vessel to seethe, O, younger brothers. 

1318. Although that may be, 

1319. We shall not put it into the vessel to seethe without a purpose. 

1320. Toward the setting of the sun there is, among our enemies, 

1321. A young man in his adolescence, whose voice is broken. 

1322. With this plant we shall put the young man into the vessel to 

seethe, O, younger brothers. 

1323. In this manner the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

1324. And those of the Tsi'-zhu 

1325. Shall always make their enemies to fall in death. 

1326. There is yet one more lacking, O, younger brothers, they said 

to one another. 

1327. Then they brought forth the Nymfliue. advena 



L\ FLESCHE] 



m'-ki non-k'<)n rite 205 



1328. And said: This plant also 

1329. Wo shall put into the vessel to seethe, O, younger brothers. 

1330. Although that may be, 

1331. We shall not put it into the vessel without a purpose. 

1332. Toward the setting of the sun there is, among our enemies, 

1333. A maiden in her adolescence. 

1334. With this plant we shall put the maiden into the vessel to 

seethe, O, younger brothers. 

1335. In this manner the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 
1336.- And those of the Tsi'-zhu 

1337. Shall always make their enemies to fall in death. 

1338. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1339. They said to one another: There is yet one more lacking, 0, 

younger brothers. 

1340. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1341. They brought forth therootof thewnterlilj {Sagittarialatifolia) . 

1342. And said to one another: This we shall put into the vessel to 

seethe, O, younger brothers. 

1343. Although that may be, 

1344. We shall not put it into the vessel to seethe without a purpose. 

1345. Toward the setting of the sun there is, among our enemies, 

1346. A man who is honored for his deeds of valor. 

1347. With this plant we shall put the valorous man into the vessel 

to seethe, O, younger brothers. 

1348. In this manner the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

1349. And those of the Tsi'-zhu 

1350. Shall always make their enemies to fall in death. 

1351. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1352. They said to one another: There is yet one more lacking, 0, 

j^ounger brothers. 

1353. Then they brought forth the Falcata comosa, 

1354. And they said: This plant also 

1355. We shall put into the vessel to seethe, O, younger brothers. 

1356. Although that may be, 

1357. We shall not put it into the vessel to seethe without a purpose. 

1358. Toward the setting of the sun there is among our enemies 

1359. A woman who has given birth to her first child. 

1360. With this plant we shall put the woman who has given birth 

to her first child into the vessel to seethe, O, younger 
brothers. 

1361. In this manner the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

1362. And those of the Tsi'-zhu 

1363. Shall alwavs make their enemies to fall in death. 



206 THE OSAGE TRIBE [etii. ann. 36 

1364. Verily, at that time and ])la('e, it has been said, in this house, 

1365. The Ho"'-ga, a peojdc who possess seven fireplaces, 

1366. Verily, a people among whom there are none that are craven, 

spake to one another, 

1367. Saying: O, younger brothers, 

1368. There is yet lacking a necessary article, O, younger brothers. 

1369. Then they turned to the Ho°'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa, to whom 

they spake, 

1370. Saying: O, younger brother, 

1371. There is yet lacking a necessary article, O, younger brother. 

1372. Thereupon Wa'-tse-ga-wa set forth, with quickened footsteps, 

1373. To an open prairie where trees grow not, 

1374. To the stone that bursts when heated. 

1375. Close to the stone he paused and stood; 

1376. Then hastened with it to his brothers, to whom he spake, saying: 

How will this serve, O, elder brothers? 

1377. The elder brothers replied: O, younger brother, 

1378. The stone can not be used for any purpose, O, younger brother. 

1379. Wa'-tse-ga-wa set forth again, with quickened footsteps, 

1380. To the conglomerate stone. 

1381. Close to the stone he paused and stood; 

1382. Then hastened with it to his brothers, to whom he spake, 

1383. Saying: How will this stone serve, O, elder brothers'? 

1384. The elder brothers replied: It can not be used for any purpose, 

O, younger brother. 

1385. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, m this house, 

1386. He went forth again to an open prairie, where trees grow not, 

1387. To the fragment of a rock. 

1388. He returned with it in haste and spake to his brothers, 

1389. Saying: How will this stone serve, O, elder brothers? 

1390. The elder brothers replied: Verily, it is not the right kind of 

stone, O, younger brother. 

1391. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1392. He went forth again to the side of a hill, 

1393. Where he found a round-handled flint knife. 

1394. With this he returned to his brothers, to whom he spake, 

1395. Saying: How will this article serve, O, elder brothers? 

1396. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1397. The elder brothers replied: It will be a useful article, O, younger 

brother. 

1398. Then the brothers spake to one another, saying: From this 

article we shall take a personal name, O, younger brothers. 

1399. Round-handled knife 



LAFLESCHE] Nl'-KI NON-K'O" RITE 207 

1400. We shall take for our personal names, O, younger brothers. 

1401 . Although that may be, 

1402. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

1403. And those of the Tsi'-zhu 

1404. Shall not use the round-handled knife for cutting, O, younger 

brothers, thej^ said to one another. 

1405. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, m this house. 

1406. He went forth again, to the summit of a hill, 

1407. To the black flint knife. 

1408. Close to the knife he paused and stood, 

1409. Then returned with it in haste, 

1410. Returned with it to his elder brothers, to whom he spake, 

1411. Saymg: How will this article serve, O, elder brothers'? 

1412. Then the elder brothers spake to one another, saymg: It will 

be a useful article, O, younger brothers. 

1413. However, for the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

1414. And those of the Tsi'-zhu, 

1415. It is not suitable for use m cutthag, O, younger brothers, they 

said to one another. 

1416. Wa'-tse-ga-wa set forth again to the summit of a hill, 

1417. To the flint knife that is sacred. 

1418. Close to it he paused and stood, 

1419. Then returned with it in haste to his brothers, to whom he 

spake, 

1420. Saying: How will this article serve, O. elder brothers? 

1421. The elder brothers replied: O, younger brother, 

1422. It will be a useful article, O, younger brother. 

1423. Then the brothers spake to one another, saymg: We shall take 

a personal name from this article, O, younger brothers. 

1424. The-sacred- knife 

1425. We shall take to ourselves as a personal name, O, younger 

brothers. 

1426. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

1427. And those of the Tsi'-zhu, 

1428. When they go forth toward the setting sun against their ene- 

mies, 

1429. They shall always use this sacred knife, O, younger brothers, 

they said to one another. 

1430. Wa'-tse-ga-wa went forth again to the farther side of a hill, 

1431. To the red fUnt knife. 

1432. Close to the red flint knife he paused and stood, 

1433. Then returned with it in haste to his brothers, to whom he 

spake, 



208 THE OSAGE TRIBE [m-H. ann. 36 

1434. Saying: How will this article serve, O, elder brothers? 

1435. The elder brothers replied: O, younger brother, 

1436. Verily, that has been the object of your contiiuial search, O, 

j^ounger brother. 

1437. It will be a useful article, O, younger brother. 

1438. Then the elder brothers spake to one another, saying: From 

this article we shall take a personal name, 0, younger 
brothers. 

1439. The-red-knife 

1440. Shall be to us a personal name, O, younger brother, they said 

to one another. 

1441. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

1442. And those of the Tsi'-zliu 

1443. Shall always use this knife for cutting, 0, younger brothers, 

they said to one another. 

1444. When they go forth toward the settmg sun against their 

enemies 

1445. And use this knife for cutting 

1446. They shall have a knife that is sharp, indeed, O, younger 

brothers, they said to one another. 

1447. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1448. The Ho°'-ga, a people who^possess seven fireplaces, 

1449. A people among whom there are none that are craven, spake 

to one another, 

1450. Saying: There is yet lacking a certam part, O, younger 

brothers. 

1451. Then they turned to Ho°'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa, to whom the}" 

spake, 

1452. Saying: O, younger brother, 

1453. There is yet lacking a certain part, O, younger brother. 

1454. Then, at the beginning of day, 

1455. Wa'-tse-ga-wa went forth into the far-off lands 

1456. And came to a valley, where he paused and stood. 

1457. In the evening of the day 

1458. He stood before his elder brothers, his bare legs worn with the 

grasses of the earth. 

1459. The elder brothers spake to him, sajing: How has it been with 

you, O, younger brother? 

1460. And he replied: I have traveled to a valley in the far-off lands, 

O, elder brothers. 

1461. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1462. The elder brother spake to Wa'-tse-ga-wa, saying: Look you, 

O, younger brother. 

1463. We bid you go once more and make search. 



LAPLESCHE] Nl'-KI NOn-k'on rite 209 

1464. Then, at the beginning of day, 

1465. He went forth to the far-off hxnds 

1466. And came to a second valley, 

1467. Where he paused and stood. 
146S. In the evening of the day 

1469. He stood before his brothers, his bare legs worn with the grasses 

of the earth. 

1470. The elder brothers spake to him, saying: O, younger brother, 

how has it been with you ? 

1471. Wa'-tse-ga-wa replied: O, elder brothers, 

1472. I have traveled to a second valley m the far-off lands, 0, elder 

brothers. 

1473. The elder brothers spake again to Wa'-tse-ga-wa, saying: Look 

you, 0, younger brother, 

1474. We bid you go once more and make search. 

1475. Then, at the beginning of day, 

1476. He went forth to the far-off lands 

1477. To a tliird valley, 

1478. Where he paused and stood. 

1479. In the evenmg of the day 

1480. He stood before his brothers, his bare legs worn with the grasses 

of the earth. 

1481. The elder brothers spake to him, saying: How has it been with 

you, 0, younger brother? 

1482. Wa'-tse-ga-wa replied: O, elder brothers, 

1483. I have traveled to a third valley, O, elder brothers, into the 

• far-off lands. 

1484. Again the elder brothers spake to Wa'-tse-ga-wa, saying: Look 

you, O, younger brother, 

1485. We bid you go once more and make search. 

1486. Then, at the beginnmg of day, 

1487. He went forth to the far-off lands 

1488. To a fourth valley, 

1489. Where he paused and stood. 

1490. There he beheld the seven bends of a great river, 

1491. Enwrapped in a cloud of white smoke from many fires. 

1492. He stood gazing, with close attention 

1493. Upon the seven bends of the river, 

1494. And he saw through the smoke the dwellings of men, seven vil- 

lages, one in each bend of the river. 

1495. I must take a closer view of the people of these villages, he 

thought. 



210 TPIE OSAGE TRIBE [iciir. ann. 36 

1496. Tlien ho cautiously approached a watering place. 

1497. Close to it he stood concealed 

1498. And watched the movements of the people. 

1499. As they came near to his place of concealment, to fetch water 

for themselves 

1500. He noticed the tattoo marks upon their foreheads, 

1501. The tattoo marks upon their jaws, 

1502. And the closely cut hair of their foreheads he saw distinctly. 

1503. Verily, a,t that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

1504. He concealed himself from these strange people with care and 

skill. 

1505. As he hastened homeward with the tidings 

1506. In the evening of the day 

1507. He approached his village with quickened footsteps. 

1508. Then the elder brothers sj^ake to one another, saymg: O, 

younger brothers, 

1509. Our younger brother is returning; the manner of his approach 

betokens his bearing of important tidings. 

1510. They arose and ran to meet him. 

1511. They spake to him, saying: How has it been with you, O, 

younger brother? 

1512. And he replied, as he stood: O, elder brothers, 

1513. I have traveled to four valleys in the far-off lands, O, elder 

brothers. 

1514. At the fourth valley 

1515. I beheld seven bends of a river, 

1516. Enwrapped with a white cloud of smoke from many hres. 

1517. Among the seven bends of the river 

1518. I saw villages, O, elder brothers, 

1519. Villages of people, O, elder brothers. 

1520. Very closely I watched the people of those villages, 

1521. And saw the tattoo marks upon their foreheads, 

1522. The tattoo marks upon their jaws, 

1523. And the closely cut hair of their foreheads, O, elder brothers. 

1524. Then the elder brothers spake to one another, saying: O, 

younger brothers, 

1525. Let the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

1526. And those of the Tsi'-zhu 

1527. Come together, O, younger brothers. 

1528. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house. 

1529. The people came together as bidden. 

1530. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

1531. And those of the Tsi'-zhu 

1532. And those of the Ho°'-ga spake, saying: Our 30ungor brother 



LAFLKSCHE] Nl'-KI NQN-k'on RITE 211 

1533. Has traveled to four valleys in the far-off lands, O, Wa-zha'-zhe. 

1534. In the fourth valley 

1535. He beheld seven bends of a great river 

1536. Enwrapped in a cloud of white smoke from many fires. 

1537. Seven villages he saw among the seven bends of the river 

1538. Enwrapped in a cloud of white smoke from many fires. 

1539. Very closely he watched the people 

1540. And saw the tattoo marks upon their foreheads, 

1541. The tattoo marks upon their jaws, 

1542. Saw that they wore the hair of their foreheads cut short. 

The Hi'fA-DA Story of the Finding of the Foe 

The preceding mythical stor\' (lines 1447 to 1542) ends abruptly, 
leaving the impression that an essential part of the story has been 
omitted. This impression might have remained but for a casual 
question asked of Wa-tse'-mo"-i° in May, 1916, relatmg to the 
significance of the leg of an eagle attached to the suspending strap 
of the portable shrine belonging to each gens of the tribe. (See 
pi. 4, b.) The question had been asked without a thought that the 
reply might have a bearing upon the story of the finding of the 
foe, which is necessary to the completion of the original war rite 
which forms the concluding part of the Ni'-ki Wa-tho" ritual. 
Wa-tse'-mo^-i" said in reply: "The Hi'-^a-da put the eagle's leg on 
the wa-xo'-be as a memorial of their finding of the foe, a service 
performed by a member of the gens chosen for that purpose and to 
act as an official messenger." Wa-tse'-mo"-!" made it clear that the 
full story of the finding of the foe is the exclusive property of the 
Hi'-Qa-da gens. The In-gtho"'-ga and other gentes of the Ho°'-ga 
subdivision were permitted to use it in an epitomized form in order 
to complete their own version of the ritual. Thus was explained the 
reason for the abrupt ending of the story as given by Wa-xthi'-zhi. 
The literal translation of Hi'-^a-da is "Leg-outstretched," a name 
referring directly to the eagle leg attached to each wa-xo'-be belong- 
ing to the various gentes of the ti'lbe. The Hi'-^a-da is a subgens 
of the Ho°'-ga A-hiu-to" gens which has for its gentile life symbol the 
dark-plumaged golden eagle. The name Ho°'-ga signifies the Sacred 
or Consecrated One. 

Wa-tse'-mo°-i°, whose gens is closely related to the I°-gtho°'-ga, 
hesitated for some time before he made up his mmd to give the 
wi'-gi-e of the Hi'-^a-da gens which tells of the Findmg of the Foe. 
He justifies his final decision upon the facts that he belonged to the 
division that originated the story and that, owing to the present 
inevitable changes, these great tribal rites have now practically come 
to their end. 



212 THE OSAGK TRIBE [i:ni. ann. 36 

Hl'-9A-DA Wl'-GI-E, FINDING OF THE FOE 

(Osage version, p. 407; literal translation, p. 556) 

1. It lias been said, in this house, 

2. That from among the Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fire- 

places, 

3. A younger brother went forth upon a sacred errand. 

4. The elder brothers knew, from their divining sense, of his home- 

ward journey, though yet out of range of ordinary vision. 

5. What tidings doth he bring? 

6. Wliat sufferings has he endured 1 the elder brothers said to one 

another. 

7. Then as he appeared before them they said: Receive him and 

speak to him, some of you, 

8. And in haste they received him and spake to him. 

9. Then the younger brother spake, saying: I have been to a valley, 

O, elder brothers. 

10. I have been as far as the first valley, but 

11. Saw nothing worthy of my notice. 

12. Then they made room for them at the fireplace and the messengers 

spake, 

13. Saying: Our younger brother 

14. Tells us he has been as far as the first valley, but 

15. Saw nothing worthy of his notice. 

16. It has been said, in this house, 

17. The return of the younger brother, who had gone forth again upon 

his errand, 

18. Was known to the elder brothers, through their divining sense, 

though yet out of range of ordinary vision. 

19. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

20. The younger brother was Hearing his home 

21. When the elder brothers said to one another: Our younger 

brother is nearing his home. 

22. What sufferings has he endured? 

23. Then as he appeared before them thej' said: Receive him and 

speak to him, some of you, 

24. And in haste they received him and spake to him. 

25. Then the younger brother spake, saying: I have been to a second 

valley, O, elder brothers. 

26. I have been as far as the second valley, but 

27. Saw nothing worthy of my notice. 

28. Then they made room for them at the fireplace and the mes- 

sengers spake, 

29. Saying: Our younger brother 

30. Tells us he has been as far as the second valley, but 

31. Saw nothing worthy of his notice. 



LAFLESCHE] Nl'-KI NQN-K'on RITE 213 

32. Verilj-, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

33. The return of the younger brother, 

34. Wlio had gone again upon his sacred errand, 

35. Was known to the elder brothers, through their divming sense, 

though yet out of range of ordinary vision. 

36. The sun had reached midheaven 

37. When the younger brother was nearing his home, 

38. And the elder brothers said to one another: We know our younger 

brother is returning. 

39. What sufferings has he endured? they said to one another. 

40. Then as he appeared before them they said: Receive him and 

speak to him, some of you, 

41. And in haste they received him and spake to him. 

42. Then the younger brother spake, saying: I have been to a third 

valley, O, elder brothers. 

43. I have been as far as the third valley 

44. And saw nothing worthy of my notice. 

45. Then they made room for them at the fireplace. 

46. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, m this house, 

47. The return of the younger brother, 

48. Who had gone agam upon his sacred errand, 

49. Was known to the elder brothers, through their divining sense, 

though yet out of range of ordinary vision. 

50. As he was nearing his home 

51. The elder brothers said to one another: We know our younger 

brother is returnmg, 

52. Keturnmg with swift strides, we know. 

53. Then as he appeared before them they said: Receive him and 

speak to him, some of you, 

54. And in haste they received him and spake to him. 

55. Then the younger brother spake, saying: I have been to a fourth 

valley, O, elder brothers. 

56. I have been as far as the fourth valley and 

57. There I saw the footprmts 

58. Of some strange animal. 

59. The remains of the grasses where it had fed, had cut the grass 

with its teeth. 

60. Verily, there are signs of some strange animal. 

61. It has been said, in this house, 

62. The elder brothers spake to one another, saying: O, younger 

brothers, 

63. Our younger brother, 

64. Who has been upon a journey, 

65. Tells us he has been to a fourth valley. 



214 THE OSAGK TRIBE [E-rii. ann. 3<i 

66. Tliat lie has boon as far as the fourth valley, 

67. Where ho saw signs of some strange animal, 

68. Saw the footprints of the animal, 

69. The remains of the grasses where it had fed, had cut the grass 

with its teeth. 

70. He tells us they are surely the signs of some strange animal. 

71. It has been said, m this house, 

72. The elder brothers spake to one another, saying: O, younger 

brothers, 

73. Let the people of the Tsi'-zhu and those of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

74. Come together, they said to one another. 

75. The people of the Tsi'-zhu and of the Wa-zha'-zhe came together 

forthwith. 

76. Then the Ho"'-ga spake to them, saying: O, Tsi'-zhu and Wa- 

zha'-zhe, 

77. Our younger brother, 

78. Who has been upon a journey, 

79. Tells us he has been to a fourth valley, 

80. That he has been as far as the fourth valley, where 

81. He saw the footprints 

82. Of some strange animal 

83. And the remains of the grasses where it had fed. 

84. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, m this house, 

85. The people arose and departed without order and as though in 

swarms, 

86. Whereupon the speaker of the Ho"'-ga said: I had thought the 

fsi'-zhu and the Wa-zha'-zhe 

87. Would make some reply, 

88. But without speaking, without a word, 

89. They departed in disorder and as though m swarms. 

90. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

91. It came to pass 

92. That the return of the younger brother who had gone again 

upon his errand 

93. Was known to the elder brothers through their divining sense, 

though yet out of range of ordinary vision, 

94. And they spake to one another, saying: We know our younger 

brother is returnmg, 

95. Returnmg with swift strides. 

96. Verily, with swift strides he is returnmg, we know. 

97. Then as he appeared before them they said to one another: 

Receive him and speak to him, some of you. 

98. What sufferings has he endured? they said to one another. 

99. The younger brother spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 



l.AFLESCHE] Nl'-KI NON-K'on RITE 215 

100. I have been to a fifth valley, 

101. Where I saw the footprints 

102. Of some strange animal, 

103. Footprints that show the animal to have cloven feet 

104. And to be an animal of formidable size. 

105. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

106. The Ho°'-ga spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

107. Let the people of the Tsi'-zhu and those of the Ho°'-ga 

108. Come together, they said to one another. 

109. The people of the Tsi'-zhu and of the Wa-zha'-zhe came together 

forthwith. 

110. Then the Ho°'-ga spake to them, saying: O, Tsi'-zhu and 

Wa-zha'-zhe, 

111. Our younger brother, 

112. Wlio has been upon a journey, 

113. Tells us he has been to a fifth valley, 

114. That he has been as far as the fifth valley, where 

115. He saw the footprints 

116. Of some strange animal, 

117. Footprmts that show the animal to have cloven feet 

118. And to be an animal of formidable size. 

119. It has been said, in this house, 

120. The people of the Tsi'-zhu and of the Wa-zha'-zhe, 

121. Without making a reply, without a word, 

122. Arose and departed without order and as though in swarms. 

123. Whereupon the speaker of the Ho°'-ga said: I had thought the 

fsi'-zhu ami the Wa-zha'-zhe 

124. Would make a reply; and this they repeated to one another: 

125. They made no reply. 

126. Verily, at that time and place, it has been saiil, in this house, 

127. The return of the younger brother, 

128. Who had gone forth again upon his errand, 

129. Was kno\^^l to the elder brothers, through their divining sense, 

though yet out of range of ordinary vision. 

130. He was nearing home, 

131. When the elder brothers said to one another: We know our 

younger brother is returning. 

132. He is returning with cpiickened strides, they said to one another. 

133. Then as he appeared before them they said to one another: 

Receive him and speak to him, some of you, 

134. And in haste they received him and spake to him. 

135. Then the younger brother spake, saying: I have been to a sixth 

valley, 

136. Where I saw the footprints 



216 THE OSAGE TRIBE I inii. ann. 30 

137. Of some strange animals, 

138. Whose paths led hither and thither, in eveiy direction. 

139. Verily, they appear to be strange animals. 

140. The foam of the water passed by them to the ground indicated 

their recent presence at this place. 

141. Verily, they must be animals of formidable size. 

142. It has been said, in this house, 

143. The Ho°'-ga spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

144. Let the people of the Tsi'-zhu and those of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

145. Come together, they said to one another. 

146. The people of the Tsi'-zhu and of the Wa-zha'-zhe came together 

forthwith. 

147. Then the Ho^'-ga spake to them, saying: O, Tsi'-zhu and 

Wa-zha'-zhe, 

148. Our younger brother, 

149. Who has been upon a journey, 

150. Tells us he has been to a sixth valley, 

151. That he has been as far as the sixth valley, 

152. Where he saw footprints 

153. Of some strange animals, 

154. Whose paths led hither and thither, in every direction. 

155. Even the foam of their urine still lay upon the ground and indi- 

cated their recent presence at that place. 

156. Verily, they must be animals of formidable size. 

157. It has been said, in this house, 

158. The people arose without making a reply and departed in dis- 

order and as though in swarms. 

159. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

160. The return of the younger brother, 

161. Who had agam gone forth upon his errand, 

162. Was known to the elder brothers, who said: We know he is 

returnmg though he is yet out of range of ordinarj- vision. 

163. Then as he was nearing home 

164. They said to one another: We know our younger brother is 

returning. 

165. Then as he appeared before them he said to them: O, elder 

brothers, 

166. I have been to a seventh valley, 

167. I have been as far as the seventh valley, and 

168. There I saw the signs of some strange animals. 

169. The grasses, that had been trampled by their feet, lay pointing 

where their trail led, 

170. Their dung that lay scattered upon the land. 

171. Verily, they appear to be animals of formidable size. 



LAKI.ESCHE) Nl'-KI NON-K'qn RITE 217 

172. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

173. The Ho°'-ga spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

174. Let the people of the Tsi'-zhu and those of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

175. Come together, they said to one another. 

176. The people of the Tsi'-zhu and of the Wa-zha'-zhe came together 

forthwith. 

177. Without sjjeaking 

178. The people arose and departed as though in swarms. 

179. Then the speaker of the Ho"'-ga said: I had thought the people 

of the Tsi'-zhu and those of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

180. Would make some reply, but 

181. Without a word they arose and departed as though in swarms."* 

182. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

183. The Ho°'-ga spake to one another, sa^'ing: Our younger brother, 

184. Who has been upon a journey, 

185. Has been to a seventh valley, 

186. Where herds of animals, 

187. Seven in number, 

188. He tells us he has seen. 

189. He continued his journey beyond the seven herds of animals 

190. To a prominent hill, 

191. Upon the summit of which he stood, 

192. From which place he beheld a line of groves cut here and there 

by intervening spaces. 

193. In each of these groves he saw people. 

194. He tells us he saw smoke constantly shooting upward from their 

dwellings among these groves, 

195. That these strange people 

196. Are formidable in their personal appearance and in their num- 

bers. 

197. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

198. They said to one another: O, younger brothers, 

199. Let the people of the Tsi'-zhu and those of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

200. Come together, they said to one another. 

201 . The people of the Tsi'-zhu and of the Wa-zha'-zhe came together 

forthwith, 

202. And the Ho^'-ga spake to them, saying: O, Tsi'-zhu ami Wa- 

zha'-zhe, 

203. Our younger brother 

204. Has returned from his journey in a great state of alarm. 

205. He has traveled to a seventh valley, 

206. Where, he tells us, he saw herds of animals, seven in number, 

1" Lines 172 to 181 were evidently repeated unintentionally and should be skipped and the reading con- 
tinued from line 1S2 in order to complete the sense. 



218 THE OSAGE TIUBE |i:th. ann. 38 

207. Which ho observed with care. 

208. The animals, he tolls us, are formidable in size, 

209. Having sharp, curved horns upon their heads. 

210. He continued his journey beyond these herds 

211. To a prominent hill, 

212. Upon the summit of which he stood, 

213. From which place he beheld a line of groves of trees. 

214. Smoke constantly shot upward therefrom, he tells us, O, Tsi'- 

zhu and Wa-zha'-zhe. 

215. Among these groves of trees dwell people, 

216. Formidable in their personal appearance and in their numbers, 

217. Our younger brother tells iis. 

218. These strange people 

219. Wear the hair of their foreheads cut short, 

220. That upon their foreheads are tattoo marks, 

221. As also around their mouths. 

222. They are a people 

223. Abundantly supplied with sharp-pointed weapons, 

224. A people whose arrows bristle and radiate in their grasp. 

225. They are a people 

226. Who possess shields of buffalo hide for the protection of their 

bodies. 

227. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

228. The Tsi'-zhu and the Wa-zha'-zhe replied, saying: That is well. 

229. Then, speaking to one another, they said: O, younger brothers, 

230. Let the Tsi'-zhu (gens) Who are Feared by the Gods 

231. Be spoken to concerning this report. 

232. Then quickly the Ho^'-ga spake to the Tsi'-zhu, Who are Feared 

by the Gods, 

233. And as promptly the fsi'-zhu replied: O, Ho'"-ga, 

234. I am not abundantly supplied with weapons; therefore 

235. Let me bid you, O, Ho°'-ga, 

236. To speak to the Wa-zha'-zhe concerning this report. 

237. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

238. The Ho^'-ga approached the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no° (the war gens 

of the Wa-zha'-zhe), 

239. And, standing over them with bowed heads, spake to them, 

240. Saying: Our younger brother 

241. Has returned from his journe}^ in a great state of alarm, O, 

Wa-zha'-zhe. 

242. He saw a people, 

243. Who are very formidable in their personal appearance and in 

their numbers, 

244. A people who wear the hair of their foreheads cut short, 



LAFLKSCHEJ Nl'-KI NON-K'on UITE 219 

245. Upon whose foreheads are tattoo marks, 

246. As also around their months 

247. And upon their breasts they have tattoo marks. 

248. Verily, they are a people well supplied with weapons, 

249. A people who have shields to protect their bodies. 

250. It has been said, in this house, 

251 . The Wa-zha'-zhe promptly replied, saying: It is well, O, Ho°'-ga. 

252. You shall overcome these strange people anil make them to fall. 

O, Ho"'-ga. 

253. Seven tmes of the antlers of the deer 

254. I have made to be mj^ weapons, mysterious and sacred. 

255. Even the small tip of a tine of the deer's antlers 

256. I can split with one of these arrows, O, Ho^'-ga, so accurate are 

their flight. 

257. These mysterious arrows you shall use, O, Ho°'-ga, to overcome 

these strange peoj^le and make them to fall. 

Ni'-Ki Wi'-Gi-E, Version of the Black Be.vr Gens 

(Osage version, p. 414; literal translation, p. 562) 

In April, 1919, the following wi'-gi-e, another version of the Ni'-ki 
No°k'o° of the Ho^'-ga Division, was obtained from Wa-tse'-mo°-i° 
(pi. 18). This version is used by the Wa-^a'-be-to" (Black Bear) 
gens, of which Wa-tse'-mo°-i° is a member. The Black Bear and 
the Puma gentes are closely related, and it is stated by members of 
the two gentes that they use in common their set of rituals. It 
appears, however, that each gens has its own version of the Ni'-ki 
No°-k'o°, and that in ceremonial rank the Black Bear gens has pre- 
cedence over the Puma gens. 

In 1896, while on a visit in Washington City, Wa-tse'-mo°-i° gave 
to Miss A. C. Fletcher a paraphrase of this wi'-gi-e. At that time 
very little was known of the elaborate tribal rites of the Osage, and 
while the information gathered was interesting there were no means 
then available for further and complete studj' of the rites of that tribe. 

The important differences between the two wi'-gi-es are as follows: 

The four great gods to whom the Puma people appealed for aid 
when about to descend from the sky to the earth are ignored by the 
Black Bear people. 

The Black Bear gens make no mention of the eagle spoken of by 
the Puma gens as leading the people down to the earth, under whose 
guidance the people alighted on seven trees. In the Black Bear storj- 
the people alighted by their own volition upon seven rocks. 

In the wi'-gi-e of the Puma gens Wa'-tse-ga-wa, The Radiant Star, 
the sky name of the Black Bear gens, acts as messenger, while in the 
Black Bear gens wi'-gi-e the Puma acts as messenger. 



220 THE OSAGE TRIBE Ietii. ann. 36 

Tho Black Boar gons mention the Elk as tho being who made the 
waters to depart and exposed the four different colored soils of the 
earth —namely, the dark, the blue, the red, and the yellow. The 
wi'-gi-e of the Puma gens tells of the Crawfish as tho being who gave 
the people the four symbolic soils of the earth. 

The wi'-gi-e of the Puma does not mention Wa'-tse-gi-tsi, He-Who- 
is-from-the-Stars, met by the Black Bear people in their wanderings. 
This person, in accordance with his office, bestowed upon the gens a 
group of chief names, and he also exercised a definite peaceful influ- 
ence over the people, so that they agreed to banish from their acts 
as a gens all anger and hatred. It may here be suggested that this 
story offers a possible clew to the meaning of the name Wa-zha'-zhe, 
which, literally translated, would be, wa-, an act; zha-zhe, name. 
The word freely translated would be "The-Name-Giver." 

No mention is made in the Black Bear wi'-gi-e of the Elk giving 
the breath of life to the four winds, as described in the Puma wi'-gi-e. 

The Black Bear wi'-gi-e makes the neck of the white swan to be 
the war standard of the people, while the Puma wi'-gi-e makes the 
brow antlers of the Elk to be the war standard. 

In the month of December, 1919, Wa-tse'-mo°-i° conferred upon 
Mo°'-zhi (better known as William Pryor) the Ni'-ki degree in the 
version belonging to the Wa-^a'-be or Black Bear gens, both of the 
men being members of that gens. 

THE Wl'-GI-E 

1. What said they, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The little ones were to become a people, it has been said, m this 

house, 

3. A thought which threw the people into profound meditation. 

4. They sat in great perplexity, 

5. For in the first of the great divisions of the heavens ' 

6. They thought to make the abiding place of the little ones. 

7. They sat in great perplexity, 

8. For in the first divisions of the heavens it was not possible for 

the little ones to abide. 

9. They had made their first downward soaring. 

10. They gathered together, it has been said, in this house, 

11. The little ones had not yet become a people. 

12. They gave their thought to making the second division of the 

heavens 

13. The abiding place of the little ones. 

14. It was not possible for the little ones to abide therein. 

15. They had made their second downward soaring. 



l-AFLESCHKl Nl'-KI NON-k'Qn RITE 221 

16. Again they meditated ujion a tlescent, 

17. And they sat in great perplexity, 

IS. For in the third division of the heavens 

19. They thought the little ones might become a people and abide. 

20. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

21. The little ones did not become a people in the third heaven. 

22. The little ones failed to become a people. 

2.3. They had made their third downward soaring. 

24. The people spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers. 

25. Look you, it is not possible for the little ones to become a people. 

26. Let search be made for a way. 

27. They meditated upon contmuing the descent, 

28. They sat in great perplexity, 

29. Then they took the downward course to earth. 

30. They found the earth engulfed m water that lay undisturbed. 

31. They paused, then asked one another: What shall we do? 

32. They descended and upon the tops of seven great rocks 

33. They alighted. 

34. The seventh rock, 

35. The rock that was black in color, 

36. Spake to the little ones of its great age, 

37. Spake to them, saying: Verily, my little ones shall come closely 

to me for protection as they travel the path of life. 

38. When my little ones come close to me for protection, 

39. There shall be no death among them as they travel the path of life. 

40. When my little ones come close to me for protection, 

41. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by death. 

42. When my little ones come close to me for protection, 

43. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

44. The red rock spake to the little ones, 

45. Spake to them of its great age, 

46. Then said to them: My little ones shall come close to me for pro- 

tection as they travel the path of life. 

47. When my little ones come close to me for protection, 

48. There shall be no death among them as they travel the path of life. 

49. When the little ones come close to me for protection, 

50. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to be overcome bj- 

death. 

51. When the little ones come close to me for protection, 

52. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

53. The people spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

54. What shall we do? they said to one another. 



222 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 



55. It is iinpossiblo for the littU; ones to dwell ui)on the surface of the 

water. 

56. Let us cause search to be matle. 

57. The Sho'-ka, who stood near, 

58. Even as these words were spoken, 

59. Hastened to the Black-bean-like (the Water-beetle, the whirligig) 

(fig. 11), 

60. And quickly returned with him. 

61. The people spake to the Water-beetle, saying: O, grandfather, 

62. It is not possible for the little ones to dwell upon the surface of 

the water. 

63. We ask of you to make search for a way out of our difficulty. 

64. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

65. The Water-beetle replied: O, my grandchildren, 

66. You say it is not possible for the little ones to dwell upon the 
surface of the water. 

67. You ask me to search for a way out of your 
difficulty. 

68. I shall make search for a way. 

69. Thereupon he pushed forth, even against 
the current. 

70. Running swiftly upon the surface of the 
water, 

71. He came to a bend of the water, 

72. Then spake, saying: It is impossible for 
me to give you help, O, my grandchildren. 

73. Although it is not possible for me to help 
you , 

My walk of life is upon the surface of the water. 

75. The little ones shall make of me their bodies. 

76. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

77. They shall be free from all causes of death as tliej' travel the 

path of life. 

78. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

79. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by death. 




Fig. U.— The water beetle. 



74. I will say to jou : 



81. 



83. 

^4. 

85. 
86. 
87. 



What said they? It has been said, in this house. 

They spake to the Spider-like (Water-spider) (fig. 12), it has been 

said, in this house, 
Saying: O, grandfather. 
It is not possible for the little ones to dwell upon the sui'face of 

the water. 
You are asked to search for a way out of the difficulty. 
It is the people who ask this of j'ou, O, grandfather. 
The Water-spider spake, saying: O, my grandchildren, 
You say it is not possible for the little ones to dwell ujxm the 

surface of the water. 



NI-KI NON-K ON RITE 



223 



89. 
90. 
91. 
92. 
93. 

94. 

95. 



96. 
97. 
98. 
99, 

100. 

101. 
102, 
103. 



You ask mo to search for a way out of the difficulty. 

I shall make search for a way. 

Thcreupn lie pushed forth even against the current of the water. 

Walking swiftly upon the surface, 

Ho came to a second bend of the current. 

Ho paused at this bend 

and spake, 
Saymg: It is not possible, 

O, my grandchildren. 
Although it is not possible 

to find a way out of the 

difficulty, 
The little ones shall make 

of me their bodies. 
My walk in life is upon the 

surface of the water. 
When the little ones make 

of me their bodies, 
Thej' shall be free from 

all causes of death as 

they travel the path of 

life. 
When the little ones make 

of me their bodies. 
They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by death. 
When the little ones make of me their bodies, 
They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the patli of life. 




Fig. 12.— The water spider. (Courtesy of Dr. Wm. E. 
Saflord.) 



104. It is well, the people replied, 
105. 




What is said here shall stand. 



To the Sho'-ka, who stood near, 
The people spake, saying: O, 

younger brother. 
Then, verily, at that time and 

place, 
109. The Sho'-ka hastened to the 

Walker-on-the-water (Water- 

strider) (fig. 13), to whom he 

spake, 

110. Saying: O, my grandfather, 

111. It is not possible for the little ones to dwell upon the surface of 

the water. 

112. The people ask you to search for a way out of the difficulty. 

113. The Water-strider replied: You say it is not possible for the 

little ones to dwell upon the surface of the water. 

114. You ask me to search for a way out of the difficulty. 



Fig. 13.— The water strider. (Courtesy 
Dr. Wm. E. Saflord.) 



224 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

115. I shall make search for a way. 

116. Thereupon, even against the current, 

117. He pushed forth in a zigzag line. 

118. He came to a third bend in the current, 

119. Where he paused and spake, saying: It is not possible, O, my 

grandchildren. 

120. Although it is not possible for me to give you help, 

121. I will tell you that my walk in life is upon the surface of the 

water. 

122. The little ones shall make of me their bodies. 

123. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

124. They shall be free from all causes of death as they travel the 

path of life. 

125. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

126. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to over- 
come by death. 

127. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

128. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as 
they travel the path of life. 

129. What is here said shall stand. 

130. What said they? it has been said, m this house. 

131. The people said: It is not possible for the little ones 
to dwell upon the surface of the water. 

Fig. 14. — The 132. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in 

leech. (Cour- ^j^j^ j^^^^g^ 

tesy of Dr. ' 

wm. E. Sat- 133. The Sho'-ka hastened to the Red-breasted leech 
'o^^' (fig. 14) ' 

134. And quickly returned with him. 

135. To the Red-breasted-lcech the people spake, saying: O, grand- 

father, 

136. It is not possible for the little ones to dwell upon the surface of 

the water. 

137. We ask you to make search for a way out of our difficulty. 

138. The Leech replied: You say it is not possible for the little ones 

to dwell upon the surface of the water. 

139. You ask me to search for a way out of your difficulty. 

140. I shall make search for a way. 

141. Thereupon he pushed forth, even against the current, 

142. Pulling himself repeatedly as he pushed on. 

143. He came to a fourth benil in the current, 

144. Where he paused and spake, saying: It is not possible, O, my 

grandchildren. 

145. Although it is not possible for me to give you help. 




LA PLESCHE] Nl'-KI NON-KO*' RITE 225 

146. I will tell you : My walk in life is on the surface of the water. 

147. Tile little ones shall make of me their bodies. 

148. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

149. Tiiey shall be free from all causes of death. 

150. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

151. Tliey shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by death. 

152. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

153. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

154. The days that are calm and beautiful 

155. The little ones shall also enable themselves to live to see. 

156. What said they? it has been said, in this house. 

157. The people spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

158. It is not possible for the little ones to become a people. 

159. It is not possible for the little ones to dwell upon the surface of 

the water, 

160. O, younger brothers, they said to one another, 

161. Make search for a way out of our difficulty. 

162. Then they spake to the Great Elk, 

163. Saying: O, grandfather, 

164. It is not possible for the little ones to dwell upon the surface of 

the water, O, grandfather. 

165. It is not possible for the little ones to make the waters to become 

drj-. 

166. We ask you to seek for a way out of our difficulty. 

167. It is not possible for the little ones to dwell upon the surface of 

the water. 

168. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

169. The Great Elk 

170. Threw himself suddenly upon the water, 

171. And the dark soil of the earth 

172. He made to appear by his strokes. 

173. Then he spake to the people, saying: O, elder brothers, 

174. I have given you cause to be grateful and happy. 

175. When the little ones go toward the setting sun against their 

enemies 

176. And take with them this dark soil as a sign of their supplications, 

177. Their prayers shall never fail to be heard as they travel the path 

of hfe. 

178. For a second time 

179. The Great Elk threw himself upon the water, 

180. And the blue soil of the earth, 
2786—21 15 



226 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

181. He made to appear by his strokes. 

182. Then he spake to the people, saying: O, elder brothers, 

183. I have given you cause to be grateful and happy. 

184. When the little ones go toward the setting sun against their 

enemies, 

185. They shall take with them this blue soil as a sign of their sup- 

plications. 

186. vVhen they use this soil as a sign of their supplications, 

187. Their prayers shall never fail to be heard as they travel the path 

of life. 

188. For a third time 

189. The Great Elk threw himself upon the water, 

190. And the red soil of the earth, 

191. He made -to appear by his strokes. 

192. Then he spake to the people, saying: O, elder brothers, 

193. I have given you cause to be grateful and happy. 

194. When the little ones go toward the setting sun against their 

enemies, 

195. And take with them the red soil as a sign of their supplications, 

196. Their prayers shall never fail to be heard as they travel the path 

of life. " 

197. For a fourth time 

198. The Great Elk threw himself upon the water, 

199. And the yellow soil of the earth, 

200. He made to appear by his strokes. 

201. Then he spake to the people, saying: O, elder brothers, 

202. I have given you cause to be grateful and happy. 

203. When the little ones go toward the setting sun against their 

enemies, 

204. And take with them the yellow soil as a sign of their suppli- 

cations, 

205. Their prayers shall never fail to be heard as they travel the 

path of life. 

206. O, elder brothers, 

207. I, who stand here, am a Ho°'-ga, a sacred person. The Great 

Elk by name, 

208. I, who stand here, am a Ho^'-ga, a sacred person, The Little 

Earth by name, 

209. I, who stand here, am a Ho^'-ga, a sacred person, Maker-of-the- 

Earth's-Soil by name." 

" There is in the Omaha gentile organization a gens having this name, Mo"'-thi"-ka-ga-xe, Mater-o(-the- 
Earth's-Soil. See Twenty-seventh Annual Report, B. A. E., p. 171. Long, in referring to this gens, says 
the "Mon-eka-i^oh-ha or Earthmakers * * * are said to have originated the present mode of mourning 
by rubbing the body with whitish clay" (Long's Expedition, Vol. 1, p. 327). While Mr. Long's state- 
ment is not strictly accurate, it is interesting in so far as it bears testimony to the fact that the Omaha 
clung to the supplicatory rite they call "No'''-zhi'>-zho''" when long ago they separated from the Osage. 
The Osage also still call this rite by the same name, "No«'-zhi»-zho»." 



i.ArLKSCHB] Nl'-KI NOn-k'on RITE 227 

210. I am a Ho°'-ga, Maker-of-the-land by name. 

211. The (lark soil of the earth,'' 

212. He held up to view 

213. And spake to the people, saying: This dark soil of the earth 

214. I have not made without a purpose. 

215. When the little ones use it as a sign of their supplications, 

216. When they put it upon their faces as a sign of their suppUcations, 

217. And moisten, with their tears, 

218. Even so much as their eyelids, 

219. Their prayers shall never fail to be heard as they travel the path 

of life. 

220. Then he held to view the blue soil of the earth,'" 

221. And spake to the people, saying: This blue soil also 

222. I have made for you to put upon your faces. 

223. When the little ones go toward the setting sun against their 

enemies 

224. And take with them this blue soil as a sign of their supplications, 

225. Their prayers shall never fail to be heard as they travel the path 

of life. " 

226. What said they? it has been said, in this house. 

227. The red soil of the earth 

228. He held to view and spake to the people, 

229. Saying: In making this soil I have given you cause to be grate- 

ful and happy. 

230. When the little ones go toward the setting sun against their 

enemies, 

231. When you take the red soil with you as a sign of your supplica- 

tions, 

232. Your prayers shall never fail to be heard. 

233. The yellow soil of the earth 

234. He held to view and spake, saymg: This soil also 

235. The little ones, when they go toward the setting sun against 

their enemies, 

236. They shall take with them as a sign of their supplications. 

237. Their prayers shall never fail to be heard as they travel the path 

of life. 

'8 The dark soil of the earth must be used only in the rite of Non'-zhin-zhoo, or vigil. 

'• The blue soil of the earth is for the use of the woman who takes upon herself the rite of Wa-zhi^'-the- 
the, the sending of strength and courage to her brothers and other kindred who had gone to war. A cere- 
mony of the same name and meaning was performed by the women of the Omaha, but in a different form 
and without the blue soil. {Pee Twenty-seventh Annual Report, B. A. E., p. 583.) The blue soil must 
also be used to paint the seven and six stars on the face of the warrior chosen to act as Wa'-do^-be In the 
ceremonies of certain degrees of the war rites. This oflficer must be able to count seven and six o-do»' 
(military honors) won by himself. 



228 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

238. What said theyl it has been said, in this house. 

239. The people spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

240. We are a people who spare none of our foes, 

241 . A people who are never absent from any important movement, 

242. And they spake to the one who had made of the Puma his body, 

243. Saying: O, younger brother. 

244. Even as these words were spoken the Puma went forth. 

245. Then after a time the people said to one another: There are 

signs that our younger brother is returning, 

246. Stumbling, tripping again and again as he hastens 

247. Running repeatedly as he hurries homeward. 

248. Go, some of you, and speak to him, 

249. And some of the brothers hastened to meet him and to speak to 

him. 

250. In response to their inquiries, the Puma spake, saying: O, elder 

brothers, 

251. Yonder stands a man, O, elder brothers, 

252. Verily, a man whose appearance excites fear, 

253. A man who is like us in form. 

254. Then the people spake, saying: O, younger brothers, 

255. Look you, I have said, we are a people who spare none of our 

foes, 

256. A people who are never absent from any important movement. 

257. Whoever this man may be, 

258. We shall send him to the abode of spirits. 

259. It matters not whose little one he may be, 

260. We shall make him to lie low. 

261. In the direction of the man they hastened, 

262. They made one ceremonial pause, 

263. Then, at the fourth pause, 

264. The Puma spake, saying: There he stands, O, elder brothers. 

265. It is well, the people rephed, 

266. We shall send him to the abode of spirits. 

267. Their index fingers 

268. They thrust into their mouths, 

269. To moisten them and to give them killmg power. 

270. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, m this house, 

271. The man spake, saying: 

272. I am a Ho^'-ga (a sacred person), O, elder brothers, he stood 

saymg. 

273. Then the Puma spake, saymg: O, elder brothers, 

274. He speaks clearly our language. 

275. I am a Ho^'-ga, the stranger continued, who has come from the 

midst of the stars. 



LAFLBSCHE] Nl'-KI NQn-k'ON RITE . 229 

276. O, elder brothers, 

277. Young-chief is my name, I who stand here, 

278. Star-chief is my name, I who stand here, 

279. Radiant-star is my name, I who stand here, 

280. Star-that-travels is my name. 

281. Then the people replied: It is well. 

282. The stranger continued: Young-chief 

283. Is a name you shall use as you travel the path of hfe. 

284. The Radiant star also 

285. Is a name you shall use as you travel the path of life. 

286. In giving you these names I give you cause to be grateful and 

happy, O, elder brothers. 

287. It is well, the people replied. 

288. Then the people spake to one another, saying: O, younger 

brothers, 

289. It is well, 

290. We shall henceforth banish from our midst all anger and hatred, 

O, younger brothers, 

291. We shall accept the names thus offered to us. 

292. Young-chief, 

293. Is a name that we shall make to be ours, 

294. Radiant-star, 

295. Is a name that we shall make to be ours. 

296. This man 

297. Speaks our language fluently, 

298. And the name, Speaks-fluently, 

299. We shall also use, O, younger brothers, they said to one another. 

300. You say the man is like a stranger. 

301. From that also, 

302. We shall make a name for ourselves. 

303. Sacred-stranger, also, 

304. We shall make to be our name, O, younger brothers, they said 

to one another. 

305. What said they? it has been said, in this house. 

306. They spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

307. We have no ceremonial articles, they said to one another, 

308. Let search be made for materials to be used in making them. 

309. They moved forward to make the search, 

310. Then they spake to the one who had made of the Puma his body, 

311. Saying: O, younger brother, 

312. Go thou and make search. 

313. Even as these words were spoken the Puma hastened away. 

314. Then in a short time he was hastening toward home. 



230 



THE OSACE TRIBE 



315. Tlic poo])le spake to one another, saying: There are signs that 

our younger brother is returning. 

316. Go, some of you, and speak to him. 

317. Then some of the brothers hastened out to speak to him. 

318. In response to their inquiries, the P.uma said: O, elder brothers, 

319. Verily, there is an animal of some kind 

320. In yonder place, O, elder brothers. 

321. It is well, the elder brothers replied. 

322. Then they spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

323. Our younger brother has said 

324. That an animal of some kmd is in yonder place. 




FiQ. 15.— Mi'-xa-5ka (White swan). A life symbol of the Wa-?a'-be (Black Bear) 
gens of the Hon'-ga great tribal division. From the skin of this bird are made 
the standards for a ceremonially organized war party. 

325. It is well, the people said. 

326. Make haste 

327. That we may send him to the abode of spirits. 

328. It matters not whose little one this animal may be, 

329. We shall send him to the abode of spirits. 

330. Look you, verily we are a people who spare none of the enemy. 

331. They moved forward with quickened footsteps; 

332. They made one ceremonial pause. 

333. At the fourth pause 

334. They came near to the place. 

335. Then the Puma spake, saying: There he stands, O, elder brothers. 



I.AFLESCHE) Nl'-KI NQN-K'ON RITE 231 

336. An elder brother exclaimed: I have spoken, we shall send him 

to the abode of spirits ! 

337. Then his index finger 

338. He thrust into his mouth, 

339. Quickly withdrew it, and pointed it at the animal. 

340. The bird fell in death to the ground, its feathers strewing the 

earth. 

341. The people hastened to the bird 

342. And spake to one another, saying: O, elder brothers. 

343. It is a swan (fig. 15), O, elder brothers, 

344. A white swan, O, elder brothers, 

345. A bird fit for a symbolic article. 

346. We shall use it for our ceremonial article. 

347. Behold its feet are dark in color. 

348. The tip of its bill is also dark. 

349. Its feathers are white. 

350. From this bird also 

351. We shall take personal names, O, elder brothers, they said to 

one another. 

352. White-swan 

353. Shall be to us a personal name. 

354. White-bird also 

355. Shall be a personal name to us. 

356. This shall be the name of the little ones as they travel the path 

of life. 

357. White-feather also 

358. We shall use as a personal name. 

359. Behold the dark color of the skin of the feet of the bird. 

360. That also 

361. We shall use as a symbol. 

362. When we go toward the setting of the sun against our enemies, 

363. That color shall be represented by charcoal. 

364. When the little ones use the charcoal as a sign of their supplica- 

tions, 

365. Their prayers shall never fail to be heard as they travel the path 

of life. 

366. Look you, we had nothing of which to make our ceremonial 

articles. 

367. We have killed a white swan. 

368. Behold the curved neck of the bird. 

369. That also we shall use. 

370. We shall make of it a standard. 

371. When we use it as a standard, as we travel the path of life. 



232 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

372. Aiid when we go toward the setting sun against our enemies, 

373. The little ones shall not fail to overcome their enemies, as they 

travel the path of life. 

374. Behold the dark tip of the bird's bill. 

375. That also shall be represented by charcoal. 

376. When we use that color as our charcoal, 

377. When we go toward the setting sun against our enemies, 

378. We shall not fail to overcome our enemies, as we travel the path 

of life. 

379. The people spake to one ajiother, saying: O, younger brothers, 

380. Look you, the little ones have nothing of which to make their 

ceremonial articles. 

381. Let search be made for materials for such articles, 

382. O, younger brothers, they said to one another. 

383. Then to the one who had made of the Puma his body they spake, 

384. Saying: O, younger brother. 

385. Even as these words were spoken, 

386. The Puma hastened to the side of a hill, 

387. To the fragment of a rock, 

388. With which he returned in haste, 

389. And he spake to the people, saying: What think you of this? 

390. Let us use this for a ceremonial article. 

391. It is well, the people replied, 

392. It is not suitable for the little ones to use as a ceremonial article. 

393. Although the stone is not suitable for use as a ceremonial article, 

394. The little ones shall make of it their bodies. 

395. When the little ones make of it their bodies, 

396. The little ones 

397. Shall be free from all causes of death, as they travel the path 

of Hfe. 

398. When the little ones make of it their bodies, 

399. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by death. 

400. When the little ones make of it their bodies 

401. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

402. What is said here shall stand. 

403. To the one who had made of the Puma his body they spake, 

404. Saying: O, younger brother, 

405. Look you, the little ones have no ceremonial articles. 

406. We bid you go and make search for material for the making of 

the articles. 

407. Even as these words were spoken. 



LAFLESCHB] Nl'-KI NON-K'qn BITE 233 

408. The Puma hastened to the top of a hill, 

409. To the rock that explodes with heat, 

410. With which he returned in haste, 

411. And he spake to the people, saying: What think you of this, 

O, elder brothers? 

412. It is well, the people replied. 

413. It is not suitable for the little ones to use as a ceremonial article. 

414. Although the rock is not suitable for the little ones to use, 

415. They shall make of it their bodies. 

416. When the little ones make of it their bodies, 

417. They shall be free from all causes of death as they travel the 

path of life, 

418. When the little ones make of it their bodies, 

419. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by death. 

420. When the little ones make of it their bodies, 

421. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age. 

422. The people spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

423. We have no ceremonial articles. 

424. Then to the one who had made of the Puma his body they spake, 

425. Saying: O, younger brother, 

426. We bid you go and make search for the material for ceremonial 

articles. 

427. Then the Puma hastened to a gap in a ridge, 

428. To the white rock, 

429. With which he returned in haste, 

430. And he spake to the people, saying: What think you of this, O, 

elder brothers ? 

431. Is not this suitable for ceremonial articles, O, elder brothers? 

432. It is not suitable for such purpose; nevertheless 

433. The little ones shall make of it their bodies. 

434. When the little ones make of it their bodies, 

435. They shall be free from all causes of death as they travel the 

path of life. 

436. When the little ones make of it their bodies, 

437. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by death 

as they travel the path of life. 

438. When the little ones make of it their bodies, 

439. They shall enable themselves to see old age as they travel the 

path of life. 

440. The people spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers. 

441. Then to the one who had made of the Puma his body they spake, 

442. Saying: O, younger brother, 

443. The little ones have no ceremonial articles. . 



234 THE OSAGE TRIBE (exh. ANN. 36 

444. Wo bid you go and make search for material for making them. 

445. Even as these words were spoken the Puma hastened 

446. To the yellow rock, 

447. With which he returned in haste. 

448. And he spake to the people, saying: What think you of this, O, 

elder brothers? 

449. It is not suitable for use, the people I'eplied; nevertheless 

450. The little ones shall use it to make their bodies, 

451. The little ones shall make of it their bodies. 

452. When the little ones make of it their bodies, 

453. They shall be free from all causes of death as they travel the 

path of life. 

454. When the little ones make of it their bodies, 

455. They shall cause themselves to be tlifficult to overcome by death. 

456. When the little ones make of it their bodies, 

457. They shall also enable themselves to live 
.458. To see old age as they travel the path of life. 

459. The people spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

460. Look you, the little ones have no ceremonial articles. 

461. Then to the one who had made of the Puma his body they spake, 

462. Saymg: O, younger brother, 

463. We bid you go and make search for material for making them. 

464. Even as these words were spoken the Puma hastened away 

465. And was soon returning. 

466. The people spake to one another, saying: There are signs that 

our younger brother is returning, 

467. Stumbling again and again in his haste, 

468. Running from time to time as he hastens homeward. 

469. Go, some of you, and speak to him. 

470. Then some of the brothers hurried to him and spake to him, 

471. Saying: O, younger brother. 

472. To their inquiries the Puma replied: O, elder brothers, 

473. Verily, an animal of some kind 

474. Stands yonder, O, elder brothers, 

475. An animal that is formidable in appearance, 

476. An animal with (rloven feet. 

477. O, elder brothers, 

478. The animal has horns upon its head, 

479. That make it formidable in appearance. 

480. Then the people spake to one another, saymg: O, elder brothers, 

481. Our younger brother 

482. Has come home in great alarm. 

483. He has seen an animal standing yonder. 

484. Verily, an animal that is fear-inspiring in appearance, 



I.AKi.BSCHKj Nl'-KI XON-KON RITE 235 

485. An animal with cloven feet. 

486. Tiic animal has horns upon his head. 

487. It is well! the people exclaimed. 

488. Make haste, they said to one another. 

489. Look you, we are a people who spare none of the foe, 

490. A people who are never absent from any important movement. 

491. It matters not whose little one that animal may be, 

492. We shall send him to the abode of spirits. 

493. They moved forward with quickened footsteps, 

494. The}' made one ceremonial pause, 

495. At the fourth pause they came near to the place, 

496. Then the Puma spake, saying: There it stands, O, elder brothers. 

497. The people drew near 

498. To the animal, and stood in line, 

499. Then spake, saying: It is a female, O, elder brothers. 

500. Verily at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

501. The people spake, saying: We shall make of the animal the 

sacred articles we need, O, elder brothers. 

502. Even its skin 

503. We shall consecrate to ceremonial use, O, elder brothers. 

504. Behold the length of its back. 

505. Even the back of this animal 

506. Is fit for ceremonial use. 

507. Out of its skin we shall make ceremonial robes, 

508. To commemorate the consecration of the skin to ceremonial use. 

509. We shall take from it a personal name. 

510. The-sacred-robe 

511. Shall be a name that shall be bestowed upon our little ones, 

512. Woraan-of-the-spine, 

513. We shall also make to be a personal name, 

514. The horns also, that spread out, 

515. We shall make to be a personal name. 

516. Even its head 

517. Shall be referred to in a personal name. 

518. Maker-of-the-head, 

519. We shall use as a personal name. 

520. What saiil they? It has been said, in this house, 

521. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

522. A people among whom there are none that are craven or timid, 

523. Spake to one another, saying: The little ones have nothing of 

which to make a knife, O, younger brothers. 

524. Then to one who had made of the Puma his body, they spake, 

525. Saying: O, younger brother. 

526. Even as these words were spoken the Puma hastened forth. 



236 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

527. And, with the stone that flakes, 

528. He hurried home. 

529. Then he spake, saying: Wliat think you of this, O, elder brothers ? 
5.30. Let the little ones make of this stone a knife, 

531. The people replied: It is not fit for the little ones to use as a 

knife, 

532. Verily, it is not the right kind of stone for the little ones to use, 

O, younger brother. 

533. The people spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

534. Look you, the little ones have nothing of which to make a knife. 

535. Then the one who had made of the Puma his body went forth, 

536. Even as these words were spoken, 

537. And with the hard fhnt 

538. He soon returned in haste, 

539. And spake to the people, saying: What think you of this, O, 

elder brothers ? 

540. Let the little ones make of this stone a knife, O, elder brothers. 

541. The elder brothers replied: Verily it is not the right kind of 

stone for the little ones to use, O, younger brother. 

542. The little ones have nothing of which to make a knife, they said. 

543. The people spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

544. Look you, the little ones have nothing of which to make a knife. 

545. Then to the one who had made of the Puma his body, they spake 

546. O, younger brother. 

547. Then, even as these words were spoken, the Puma hastened 

forth, 

548. And, with the red, round-handled knife,^° 

549. He returned in haste, 

550. Then spake, saying: What think you of this, O, elder brothers? 

551. It is well, the people replied. 

552. That has been the object of your continual search. O, younger 

brother. 

553. It is fit for the little ones to use as a knife. 

554. The little ones shall use this as a ceremonial knife, O, younger 

brother, as they travel the path of life. 

555. When the little ones go toward the setting sun, against their 

enemies, 

556. And when they take with them this knife, 

557. Sharp, indeed, shall be their knives as they travel the path of life. 

558. The little ones of the Tsi'-zhu 

2" In the Omaha tattooing rite (See Twenty-seventh Annual Report, B. A. E., pp. 503, 613) the preference 
given to a red-handled knife for ceremonial purposes may have some relation to the "red knife" mentioned 
in this Osage wi'-gi-e. 



I.AFLBSCHB] Nl'-KI NON-K'ON RITE 237 

559. And those of the Wa-zha'-zhe 

560. Shall use this knife as they travel the path of life. 

561. When they use this as a knife, 

562. They shall have a knife that will never he loose-jointed or broken. 

563. When they use this as a sacred knife, 

564. They shall be free from all causes of death as they travel the 

])ath of life. 

565. When they use this as a sacred knife, 

566. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by death. 

567. When they use this as a sacred knife, 

568. The little ones shall enable themselves to live to see old age as 

they travel the path of life. 

569. Behold the red knife. 

570. In commemoration of the consecration of this knife, 

571. We shall take from it personal names, O, younger brothers, 

572. Personal names that shall be bestowed upon our little ones. 

573. The-red-knife 

574. We shall use as a personal name, O, younger brothers, they said 

to one another. 

575. A personal name that shall be bestowed upon our little ones 

shall be 

576. The-sacred-knife. 

577. That name we shall make to be ours, O, younger brothers, they 

said to one another. 



NI'-KI WI'-GI-ES OF THE TSI'-ZHU WA-NO-^ AND THE TSl'- 
ZHU WA-SHTA'-GE GENTES OF THE TSI'-ZHU DIVISION 

Ni'-Ki Wa-tho'' of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no'^ 

The Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° is the war gens of the Tsi'-zhu tribal division 
called by the Osage fsi-zhu U-dse-the Pe-tho°-ba, The Tsi'-zhu who 
Possess Seven Fireplaces. According to the mythical story of the 
origin of the people of this division, the people came to a knowledge 
of their existence as human beings within the sun, the place of their 
origin. It was while the people of this division were still in the sun 
that they established their Seven Fireplaces, an act that marked the 
starting point of their traditions and tribal career. From the sun 
they descended to the earth, upon which they were to make their 
permanent abode. The manner of their descent, the story of their 
subsequent movements which served as their guide in their cere- 
monial life, were transmitted by the wi'-gi-e, entitled Wi'-gi-e 
To°-ga, The Great Wi'-gi-e, a wi'-gi-e that forms the principal part 
of this ritual and has for its theme the entrance of the people into 
life-^a life that touches all forms, including the sun and the earth. 
This wi'-gi-e will be given in its proper place farther on. 

The Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° version of the Ni'-ki Wa-tho" as given by 
Xu-tha'-wa-to"-i" (pi. 19), a member of that gens, is as follows: 

When a candiilate has prepared himself to take the Ni'-ki Wa-tho° 
degree of the war rites by securing certain symbolic articles, fees to 
be paid to the Xo'-ka and other officials, and the provisions necessary 
for entertaining the members of the order during the initiation, he 
sends for the Sho'-ka of his gens. On the arrival of the Sho'-ka the 
candidate hands to him a pipe and some tobacco, telling him at the 
same time that he is ready to take the degree and that he is to go 
after the Xo'-ka. The Sho'-ka fills the pipe with tobacco and carries 
it to the house of the Xo'-ka and in presenting the pipe tells him 
formally that the candidate is prepared to take the degree. The 
Xo'-ka then takes a particle of the tobacco from the bowl of the 
pipe and tosses it over his left shoulder; he takes a second piece and 
tosses that over his right shoulder; the third piece he ilrops on his 
left foot, the fourth on his right ; and the fifth piece he offers to the 
sky. The Xo'-ka then lights the pipe and takes a few whiffs as a 
supplicatory act on behalf of his candidate, at the close of which he 
follows the Sho'-ka to the candidate's house. On entering and taking 
their places, the Xo'.-ka instructs the Sho'-ka to assemble the No"'- 
ho°-zhi°-ga of both the Tsi'-zhu and the Ho°'-ga tribal divisions. 
238 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 19 




XU-THA-WA-TCJ-lfJ .CONSPICUOUS EAGLEi 

Member of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" gens, principal war gens of tlie Tsi'-zhu great tribal division. This man willijigly 
gave information concerning versions of the tribal rites as usecl by his gens. He made no omissions, as he said 
his Initiator bade him make none, no matter how small a fee he received, in order that the rite might not be pro- 
faned. Xu-tha'-wa-ton-i" died in December, 1913, not long alter he had given the rituals of his gens. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 20 




■^^ 





HEART-SACK POUCH AND CAPTIVE STRAP ^ ^^ ^ ^^ 



a war party carries to 1 



r.AFLEScHE] Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ER 239 

The No°'-ho''-zhi"-ga come in the evening, at which time they per- 
form the ceremony of cutting the buffalo skin and making two pairs 
of symboUc moccasins, each to be worn by the Xo'-ka at certain 
stages of the great ceremony. The details of the acts of cutting the 
skin were not given by the narrator. Each act of the cutting is pre- 
ceded by the reciting of a section of the following wi'-gi-e, partly 
made up from Unes 51 to 100 of the Wi'-gi-e To''-ga, the Great 
Wi'-gi-e (p. 254). 

Ho^-BE'-gu (Moccasin) Wi'-gi-e 

(Osage version, p. 428; literal translation, p. 574) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. Of what shall the httle ones make their foot? they said to one 

another. 

3. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

4. They spake to tlie principal Sho'-ka, 

5. Saying: O, my younger brother, 

6. Of what shall the little ones make their foot? 

7. We bid you go make search for some object suitable for use as 

a foot. 

8. The principal Sho'-ka 

9. Went forth in haste to make search, 

10. And in time returned, carrying with him a red boulder. 

11. Then standing before his elder brothers he said to them: O, elder 

brothers, 

12. This red boulder shall henceforth be as a foot to the little ones. 

13. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

14. When the little ones make of the red boulder their foot, 

15. Their foot shall not be pierced by thorns and harmful grasses as 

they travel the path of life. 

16. They shall be able to trample down and crush all harmful grasses 

as they travel the path of life. 

17. When the little ones make of the red boulder their foot, 

18. They shall have a foot that will cause them to be free from all 

causes of death as they travel the path of life. 

19. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

20. They said to one another: What shall the little ones use for a 

moccasin string? 

21. The red-breasted leech 

22. The little ones shall use as a moccasin string, they said to one 

another. 

23. When the little ones use the red-breasted leech as a moccasin 

string, 



240 THE OSAGE TRIBE (bth. ann. 36 

24. They shall have a moccasin string that will cause them to be free 

from all causes of death. 

25. They shall have a moccasin string that will never break. 

26. They shall have a moccasin string that will cause them to be free 

from all cauises of death. 

27. Of what shall the little ones make their foot? they said to one 

another. 

28. Of the black boulder 

29. The little (mes shall make their foot as they travel the path of life, 

they said to one another. 

30. When the little ones make of the blaok boulder their foot, 

31. They shall have a foot that will cause them to be free from all 

causes of death as they travel the path of life. 

32. When the little ones make of the black boulder their foot, 

33. Their foot shall not be pierced by thorns and harmful grasses as 

they travel the path of life. 

34. They shall be able to trample down and crush all harmful grasses 

as they travel the path of life. 

35. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

36. They said to one another: What shall the little ones use for a 

moccasin string? 

37. The black-breasted leech 

38. The little ones shall use as a moccasin string, they said to one 

another. 

39. When the little ones use the black-breasted leech as a moccasin 

string, 

40. They will have a moccasin string that will never break. 

41. When the little ones use the black-breasted leech as a moccasin 

string, 

42. They shall have a moccasin string that will cause them to be free 

from all causes of death. 

43. Of what shall they make their foot? they said to one another. 

44. Of the soft yellow boulder 

45. The little ones shall make their foot as they travel the path of life. 

46. When the little ones make of the soft yellow boulder their foot, 

47. They shall have a foot that will cause them to be free from all 

causes of death. 

48. When the little ones make of the soft yellow boulder their foot, 

49. They shall be able to trample down and crush all harmful grasses 

as they travel the path of life. 

50. Their foot shall not be pierced by thorns and harmful grasses as 

they travel the path of life. 



LAFLESCHE] NI'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 241 

51. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in tliis house, 

52. Wliat shall the little ones use for a moccasin string? they said to 

one another. 

53. The yellow-breasted leech 

54. The little ones shall use as a moccasin strmg, they said to one 

another. 

55. When the little ones use the yellow-breasted leech as a moccasin 

string, 

56. They shall have a moccasin string that will cause them to be free 

from all causes of death. 

57. When the little ones use the yellow-breasted leech as a moccasin 

string, 

58. They shall have a moccasin string that will never break. 

59. Of what shall the little ones make their foot? They said to one 

another. 

60. Of the soft dark boulder 

61 . The little ones shall make their foot as they travel the path of life, 

they said to one another. 

62. When the httle ones make of the soft dark boulder their foot, 

63. They shall have a foot that will cause them to be free from all 

causes of death. 

64. When the little ones make of the soft dark boulder their foot, 

65. Their foot shall not be pierced by thorns and harmful grasses as 

they travel the path of life. 

66. They shall be able to trample down and crush all the harmful 

grasses as they travel the path of life. 

67. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, m this house, 

68. They said to one another: What shall the little ones use for a 

moccasin string? 

69. The dark-breasted leech 

70. The little ones shall use for a moccasin string, they said to one 

another. 

71. When the little ones use the dark-breasted leech as a moccasin 

string, 

72. They shall have a moccasin string that will never break. 

73. When the little ones use the dark-breasted leech as a moccasin 

string, 

74. They shall have a moccasin string that will cause them to be free 

from all causes of death. 

At the close of the wi'-gi-e the moccasins are roughly made, the 
left foot of each pair being given six fastenings to correspond with 
the number of the Six Songs of the Tsi'-zhu division and seven 
2786—21 16 



242 THE OSAGE TRIBE [EffH. ann. 36 

fastenings to the right foot to correspond witli the Seven Songs of 
the Ho^'-ga division. When the symbolic moccasins have been 
finished moat and other provisions are distributed among the 
No°'-ho"-zhi''-ga, who then adjourn until the following iporning. 

Ki'-No", OR Painting Ceremony 

Before sunrise of the next morning the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga assemble 
at the house of the candidate for the Ki'-no", or Painting Ceremony. 
The No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga paint their faces according to the oustom of 
their respective divisions and subdivisions. The No°'-ho°-zhi''-ga of 
the Tsi'-zhu Division first paint their faces red, after which they put 
upon their foreheads a bit of the soil of the earth. 

The ceremonial attire of the Sho'-ka at this time consists of a 
buffalo robe, which he wears with the hair outside and fastened with 
a thong to his waist, and wears a pair of moccasins of buffalo skin, 
cut and fashioned in the same manner as those made for the Xo'-ka. 
When the Sho'-ka had put on his ceremonial attire, he and the can- 
didate go to the house of the Xo'-ka, carrying with them a buffalo 
robe, a woven band of buffalo hair, a shell gorget, a woven girdle of 
buffalo hair, and a pair of the moccasins that were made ceremonially. 
The Sho'-ka leads the way, carrying on his arm his little pipe, the 
badge of his office. The candidate is accompanied by the A'-ki-ho" 
Xo'-ka chosen by him to recite the wi'-gi-es, to sing the songs, and to 
conduct the ceremonies. 

When the three men have entered the Xo'-ka's house and taken 
their places, the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka recites the following wi'-gi-e, 
entitled : 

Kl'-NON Wl'-GI-E 

(Osage version, p. 431; literal translation, p. 575) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. They spake to one another, saying: What shall the little ones use 

to paint their bodies ? 

3. Verily, at that time and place, 

4. They gathered together four stones, 

5. Which they arranged in a pile, leaning one against the other. 

6. Verily, at that time and place, 

7. They gathered together the small dead branches of the surround- 

ing trees 

8. And broke them to pieces, making a din of crackling sounds. 

9. Verily, at that time and place, 

10. They thrust the pieces of dead branches underneath the stones 

and in the spaces between them. 

1 1 . Verily, at that time and place, 

12. They set fire to the pile of dead branches and the stones 



LAFLESCHE) Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 243 

13. And made the air to tremble and vibrate with the flames and heat. 

14. The darkened sides of the heavens. 

15. They made to redden with the glow of the flames and heat. 

16. Verily, at that time and place, 

17. They spake to one another, saying: Let the little ones use the 

fiery glow upon yonder heavens as paint for their bodies. 

18. Verily, at that time and place, 

19. The people of the Tsi'-zhu Who Possess Seven Fireplaces 

20. Became stricken with the fiery glow, that left no part of their 

bodies untouched.^' 

21. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

22. They spake to one another, saying: What beneficent power shall 

this sacred fire draw toward us ? 

23. Verily, at that time and place, 

24. They said: The red shield, 

25. Let the sacred fire draw toward us. 

26. When the sacred fire draws toward us the red shield, 

27. Then, when our enemies who dwell toward the setting sun, 

28. Come against us with weapons in countless numbers, 

29. Their weapons shall fail to strike the little ones, they said to one 

another. 

30. The red shield, 

31. Let the sacred fire draw toward us. 

32. Then, when our enemies who dwell toward the setting sun, 

33. Come against us with sharp weapons standing out from their 

bodies in countless numbers, 

34. The little ones shall always be able to ward off the weapons, send- 

ing them away in forked lines, they said to one another. 

35. The red shield, 

36. Let the sacred fire draw toward us. 

37. Then, when our enemies who dwell toward the setting sun, 

38. Come against us with shai'p weapons in countless numbers, 

39. The little ones shall always be able to ward off the weapons, 

making them to glance away on either side, they said to one 
another. 

40. The red shield, 

41. Let the sacred fire draw toward us. 

42. Then, when our enemies who dwell toward the setting sun, 

'< Here the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka pauses while he puts red paint on the face and entire body of the Xo'-^a. 
The preceding lines of the wi'-gi-e explain that the red paint symbolizes the reflection of the sacred fire. 
The No"'-ho»-zhin-ga of the Tsi'-zhu division who are gathered at the house of the candidate to make them- 
selves ready to attend the meeting at the same time perform their act of painting. In heu of the entire 
body they paint only the face red. The color symbolizes the fiery glow cast upon their faces by the hght 
of the fire which has been ceremonially kindled. 



244 



THK OSAGE TRIBE 



43. Come against us with sharp weapons in countless numbers, 

44. We shall always be able to ward off the weapons of our enemies, 

they said to one another. 

45. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

46. They spake to one another, saying: What other beneficent power 

shall the sacred fire draw toward us ? 

47. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

48. The God of Day that sitteth in the heavens 

49. The sacred fire shall draw toward us. 

50. When the God of Day that sitteth in the heavens 

51. The sacred fire draws toward us, 

52. Then all the gods shall always fear us, they said to one another. 

53. When the God of Day that sitteth in the heavens 

54. The sacred fire draws toward us, 

55. Even the gods themselves 

56. Shall always fear to stare us in the face, they said to one another. 

At the close of the wi'-gi-e the following songs are sung. They 
relate to the actions of the person going through the ceremony 
called No°'-zhi°-zho°, a supplicatory rite, by which an appeal is made 
to the Life-Giving Power residing witliin the earth : 

Song 1 
(Osage version, p. 432) 



TrBDSaribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




Tlmebeatsf f (* r ff^r ff ff 

Wi-tsi- go ho ga-k'o-ga bi the the, E hi - thi - k'o - bi the the, 




^ ' r r r r r r 

E hi- hi-k'o-bi the the the the, Wi-tsi -go ho ga-k'o-ga bi the the, 



m 



^m 



m 



' r r 

E hi -thi - k'o 



■^->^-4 



bi the 



r 

the. 



E 



r 

■ thi - k'l 



r 

bi the 



r 

the. 



Wi-tsi-go ho ga-k'o-ga bi the the, 
E hi-thi-k'o bi the the the the, 
Wi-tsi-go ho ga-k'o-ga bi the the, 
E hi-thi-k'o-ga bi the the, 
E hi-thi-k'o-ga bi the the. 



NI -KI WI-GI-ES 



245 



Into the earth my grandfathers dug, 

In the palms of theix hands they gathered its soil, 

In the palms of their hands they gathered its soil, 

Into the earth my grandfathers dug. 

In the palms of their hands they gathered its soil, 

In the palms of their hands they gathered its soil. 



Into the earth my grandfathers dug, 

In the palms of their hands they moistened its soil, etc. 



Into the earth my grandfathers dug, 

In the palms of their hands they rubbed its soil, etc. 

Song 2 

(Osage version, p. 433) 



TraoBcribed by Alice C. Flet^;hel 




100 



p *• f 



^^ 



■3 — r 



* 4 



^ — • — •= 



T^iebeatsf f (* f rrrrff rr 

Wi-tsi-go ho ga-k'o-gabi the the, E hu-bi - ka bi the the, 




r r 

hu-bi - ka 



r ^ 

hi the the. 



Wi-tfii-go ho ga-k'o-ga bi the the, 

E hu-bi-ka bi the the, 

E hu-bi-ka bi the the the the, 

Ho^-ga wi" wa-no" no" ga-k'o-ga bi the the, 

E hu-bi-ka bi the the. 

1 

Into the earth my grandfathers dug. 

In the palms of their hands they rubbed its soil, 

In the palms of their hands they rubbed its soil, 

Into the Sacred One, the Aged One, 

They dug, 

in the palms of their hands they rubbed its soil. 



Into the earth my grandfathers dug, 
Upon their faces they put its soil, etc. 



Into the earth my grandfathers dug. 
Upon their foreheads they put its soil, eto. 



I 



246 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 



Song 3 
version, p. 433) 



Ttansoribed by Alico C. Fletcher 







rr 






r 

I. -thi-k'ono° themo°the gi-do°-ba, ^i - no° the moMhe gi-do° - ba. 

Ki-no" the mo" the gi-do''-ba, 
^i-no" the mo" the gi-dC-ba, 
I-thi-k'o no" the mo''-tlie gi-do''-ba, 
^i-no" the mo "-the gi-do^-ba, 
I-thi-k'o no" the mo" the gi-do"-ba, 
Ki-no" the mo "-the gi-do"-ba. 

1 

Behold, I have put upon myself thy sj-mbol, 
Behold, I have put upon myself thy symbol, 
That which is gathered in the hollow of the hands, 
Behold, I have put upon myself thy symbol, 
That which is gathered in the hollow of the hands. 
Behold I have put upon myself thy symbol. 



Behold I have put upon myself thy symbol. 
Behold I have put upon myself thy symbol, 
That which is moistened in the hollow of the hands, etc. 



That which is rubbed in the hollow of the hands, etc. 



That which is put upon the face, etc. 

5 
That which is put upon the forehead, etc. 

At the close of these songs the Xo'-ka puts upon his face and fore- 
head the dark soil dug up from the earth, while the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka 
recites the following wi'-gi-e, that relates to the woven girdle to be 
used bv the Xo'-ka in fastening his symbolic buffalo robe, and the 



LAFLESCHE] Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 247 

woven neckband to which is attached as a pendant a shell gorget, a 
symbol of life. In the early days the material used in these woven 
articles was the soft hair of the buffalo calf. In modern times these 
sjTnbolic girdles and neckbands were made of manufactured yarn 
hitrotluced by traders, but the ancient name, " Buffalo calf hair, " was 
retained. 

Kl'-NO" Wl'-GI-E 

(Osage version, p. 433; literal translation, p. 577) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. Thej' spake to one another, saying: What shall the little ones 

use for a girdle ? 

3. The hair of the young buffalo 

4. They shall use as a girdle, they said to one another. 

5. When the little ones use the hair of the young buffalo as a girdle, 

6. They shall free themselves from all causes of death. 

7. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

8. They spake to one another, saying: What shall the little ones use 

for a neckband ? 

9. The hair of the young buffalo 

10. They shall use as a neckband, they said to one another. 

11. When the little ones use the hair of the young buffalo as a neck- 

band, 

12. They shall have a neckband that will free them from all causes 

of death. 

13. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

14. They spake to one another, saying: Behold this mussel shell, 

15. Which the little ones shall use as a gorget pendant. 

16. It was the mussel 

17. Who traveled up the river, forcing his way against the current, 

18. When coming to a shallow part of the river he said: Behold these 

rushing waters, 

19. I have not made them without a purpose. 

20. I have made them to be the means of reacliing old age. 

21. When the little ones use these waters they shall free themselves 

from all causes of death. 

22. Behold the waves of the river, 

23. I have made them to be the means of reaching old age. 

24. When the little ones make of me their bodies 

25. They shall always live to see old age. 

26. Behold the hollow bed of the river, 

27. I have not made it without a purpose. 

28. When the little ones make of it the hollow of their own bodies, 

29. They shall free the hollow of their bodies from all causes of death. 



248 THE OSAGE TRIBE (eth. ann. 36 

30. Behold the swift current of the river, 
31.1 have not made it without a purpose. 

32. When the httle ones make of it their windpipe, 

33. They shall free their windpipe from all causes of death. 

34. Behold the ripples upon the surface of the river, 

35. I hare not made them without a purpose. 

36. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

37. They shall always live to see their breasts wrinkled with age. 

38. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

39. He spake again, saying: And it so happens, 

40. That in my travel I come to the days that are calm and peaceful. 

41. So shall it happen with the little ones; they also shall reach and 

enter the days that are calm and peaceful. 

When the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka has finished reciting the wi'-gi-e the 
Xo'-ka puts upon himself a pair of the symbolic moccasins, the 
buffalo robe, the woven girdle, and the woven neckband with the 
pendant shell gorget, and he is thus fully clothed as Initiator or 
Priest. The candidate rises, takes the Xo'-ka by the arm and con- 
ducts him to the door, and when they are outside the ceremonial 
approach to the "Little House," the place of meeting, begins. The 
Sho'-ka takes his place a few paces ahead of the candidate, the 
Xo'-ka, and the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka, who stand abreast. The Xo'-ka, 
being obliged to do so, now himself recites the Wa'-fi-thu-pe Wi'-gi-e, 
literally Footsteps Wi'-gi-e, freely translated, Wi'-gi-e of the Cere- 
monial Approach to the "Little House." At the close of the first 
section of the wi'-gi-e the Xo'-ka takes from the bowl of the pipe 
he carries a bit of tobacco and tosses it backward over his left shoulder; 
he next tosses a similar bit over his right shoulder; then he drops a 
bit on his left foot, then a bit on his right foot. After these acts the 
procession moves forward, during which the Sho'-ka calls to the 
people that the Xo'-ka and his candidate are approaching the "Little 
House." Four pauses are made in the ceremonial march, at each of 
which a section of the wi'-gi-e is recited and the tobacco ceremony 
performed. At the fourth pause the four men have reached and 
stand at the door of the "Little House." 

From the allegorical story of "Finding the Enemy," of which the 
wi'-gi-e of the Ceremonial Approach to the "Little House" is an 
epitome, it woidd appear that the ultimate purpose of the move- 
ments toward a tribal military organization was not solely for acquir- 
ing territory (valleys and river bends) or for monopolizing the bujffalo 
herds but for the all-important aim of perfecting the most effective 
means of protecting the individual as well as the tribal life, wherever 
the people may be and whatever their pursuits. The safety of the 



LAFLESCHB) Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 249 

people as an aggregate body must always be regarded as of the first 
importance. The perpetuity of the tribal existence must depend 
upon the bodily strength and valor of the warrior. 

The first movement of the people, in the allegorical story, in the 
perfecting of their military organization, was toward a "little 
house" — a ''little house" in which certain prescribed ceremonies 
must be performed not only for the orderly and authoritative organ- 
ization of war parties but as supphcatory acts, for the people must 
not depend wholly upon their own physical strength and courage; 
they must also call to their aid the Power that abides within the vast 
universe. In that Power the people must place their abiding faith 
and cry to it continually for aid when necessity compels them to 
move against the foe. The crying of the people to the All-Powerful 
for aid when going to war is done vicariously and must be a con- 
tinuous cry from the beginning to the end of the war. This is one 
of the prescribed ceremonial acts. 

While the Xo'-ka was preparing himself for the ceremonial approach 
with his candidate to the "Little House," the No'"-ho°-zhi°-ga of the 
Ho^'-ga U-ta-no''-dsi gens were taking their places in the lodge in 
order to represent the "strange people" spoken of in the story; in 
other words, the enemy, which the candidate some day might meet 
as the leader of a war party. 

In hne 2 of the following wi'-gi-e the No'"-ho''-zhi°-ga used the 
term "Wa-xo'-be pi-zhi." The word "pi-zhi" in its ordinary sense 
and usage would characterize the wa-xo'-be as bad or evil. But in 
this instance the word is used metaphorically to express the mys- 
terious character of the consecrated article, the mystic power it 
possesses to bring success to the warrior, and the evil consequences 
that follow its misuse or desecration. Therefore the meaning 
intended to be conveyed by the use of the word "pi-zhi" is not that 
of its literal or ordinary sense. Wa-xo'-be Pi-zhi, Mysterious 
Wa-xo'-be, is the correct interpretation. The same metaphorical 
expression is used by the Omaha to characterize as mysterious the 
seven divining arrows that are attached to their sacred pole. This 
characterization of the sacred arrows is expressed in a personal 
gentile name of the Ho°'-ga gens, Mo°'-pi-zhi, Mysterious Arrows. 
(See Twenty-seventh Annual Report, B. A. E., p. 156.) 

Wi'-Gi-E OF THE Ceremonial Appkoach 

(Osage version, p. 435; literal translation, p. 579.) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The people assembled the power of their mysterious Wa-xo'-be 

3. To put to the test. 

4. For this purpose they searched for a waj- by which they could 

guide their footsteps. 



250 THK OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

5. Thoir footsteps led them to a valley, 

6. But it was not a valley for which they made search. 

7. Their footsteps led them to an animal (buffalo), 

8. But it was not an animal for which they made search. 

9. There are animals that keep together in a single herd. 

10. Their footsteps led them to such a herd, 

1 1 . But it was not a single herd of animals for which they made search. 

12. Toward the setting of the sun 

13. There is a bend of a river. 

14. Their footsteps led them to this river bend, 

15. But it was not a river bend for which they made search. 

16. Their footsteps led them to a "Little House." 

17. When the little ones direct their footsteps to this "Little House," 

18. Then their footsteps shall always be guided and made easy as 

they travel the path of life." 

19. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

20. Toward what shall we direct our footsteps? they said to one 

another. 

21. Their footsteps led them to two successive valleys, 

22. But it was not two valleys for which they made search. 

23. Their footsteps led them to two animals, 

24. But it was not two animals for which they made search. 

25. There are animals that keep together in two herds. 

26. Their footsteps led them to such herds, 

27. But it was not two herds of animals 

28. For which they made search. 

29. Toward the setting of the sun 

30. There are two bends of a river. 

31. Their footsteps led them to those river bends, 

32. But it was not two river bends for which they made searcn. 

33. Their footsteps led them to a "Little House." 

34. When the little ones direct their footsteps to this " Little House," 

35. Then their footsteps shall always be guided and made easy as they 

travel the path of life. 

36. Toward what shall we direct our footsteps? they said to one 

another. 

37. Their footsteps led them to three successive valleys, 

38. But it was not three valleys for which they made search. 

39. Their footsteps led them to three animals, 

40. But it was not three animals for which they made search. 

41. There are animals that keep together in three herds. 

» Here Xu-tha'-wa-to" paused to say that the Xo'-ka is always obliged to recite this wl'-gi-e himself, 
but the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka may prompt him. Therefore the wi'-gi-e is given the subtitle Xo'-ka Wi'gi-e 
tlie Wl'-gi-e of the Xo'-ka. 



LA FLEscnE] Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 251 

42. Their footsteps led them to such herds, 

43. But it was not three herds of animals for which they made search. 

44. Toward the setting of the sun 

45. There are three bends of a river, to which their footsteps led them, 

46. But it was not three river bends for which they made searcih. 

47. Their footsteps led them to a "Little House." 

48. When the little ones direct their footsteps to this "Little House," 

49. Then their footsteps shall always be guided and made easy as 

they travel the path of life. 

50. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

51. They spake to one another, saying: Toward what shall we direct 

our footsteps ? 

52. Their footsteps led them to four successive valleys, 

53. But it was not four valleys for which they made search. 

54. Their footsteps led them to four animals, 

55. But it was not four animals for which they made search. 

56. There are animals that keep together in four herds. 

57. Their footsteps led them to such herds, 

58. But it was not four herds of animals for which they made search. 

59. Toward the setting of the sun 

60. There are four bends of a river. 

61. Their footsteps led them to those river bends, 

62. But it was not four river bends for wluch they made search. 

63. Their footsteps led them to a "Little House." 

64. When the little ones direct their footsteps to this "Little House," 

65. Then their footsteps shall always be guided and made easy as 

they travel the path of life. 

When the Xo'-ka has performed the tobacco ceremony at the 
close of the wi'-gi-e, the candidate again takes him by the arm and 
enters the lodge with him. The Xo'-ka puts his feet upon the second 
pair of moccasins that had been carefully placed at the door so that 
the toes pointed inward, and a pause is made, during which a wi'-gi-e 
is recited by the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka, which is addressed to the Ho^'-ga 
U-ta-no°-dsi representing the enemy of the tribe. The Ho°'-ga 
U-ta-no°-dsi at once begin to recite their wi'-gi-e in response. 
Xu-tha'-wa-toM" declined to give the wi'-gi-e recited by the A'-ki-ho" 
Xo'-ka, for the reason that it would not be proper for him to do so 
without the responding wi'-gi-e of the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi. He 
said, however, that both wi'-gi-es pertain to death and neither one 
should be recited unless at a regular initiation. 

At the close of the two wi'-gi-es the candidate, the Xo'-ka, and 
the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka resume their march, moving slowly toward 
their appointed seats at the east end of the lodge, while the A'-ki-ho" 
Xo-ka sings the — 



252 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 



Wa-ts'e'-the Wa-tho" (Song of Death) 

(Osage version, p. 436) 
M.M. J^ 138 



bed by Alice C. Fletcher 



-s — #- 



Tfe^-beatsf r " r r r ' ^ ,^ r r " '"^f 

O ho da-ge a wa-the a-thi" he iio°, Wi-e-wa-mo" a-thi" hi- no", 



r" r 

da-ge a -wa-the a-thi" he 




aj H^j^^ ^ 



r r r 

no°, Wi-e-wa 



mo" a - thi" he iio° 



r r 

A ho-o 



rr 

ho-o, 



r r r 

A - ho-o ho-o. 



ho da-ge a- wa-the a-thi ° he no° 
Wi-e-wa-mo" a-thi" he no", 
A ho-o ho-o, A-ho-o ho-o, 
O ho da-ge a- wa-the a-thi" he no" 
Wi-e-wa-mo" a-thi" he no", 
A ho-o ho-o, A ho-o ho-o. 

FREE TRANSLATION 



0-ho, It is I who fall upon them unawares, 

It is I who attack them thus, 

A-ho ho, A-ho ho, 

0-ho, it is I who fall upon them unawares, 

It is I who attack them thus, 

A-ho ho, A-ho ho. 



0-ho, it is I who serves them thus, 

I who brought these deeds to pass, 

A-he the he, A-he the he, 

It is I who cause them to lie blackening on the earth, 

I who brought these deeds to pass, 

A-he the he, A-he the he. 



It is I who cause them to lie yellowing on the earth, etc. 

4 
It is I who takes from them their remaining days, etc. 

The Xo'-ka takes his seat at the east end of the lodge; the candi- 
date sits at his right and the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka at his left. The 
A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka sings the Ki-fto' Wa-tho° Zhi°-ga, The Little Song 



Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 



253 



of the Gathering, during which all the No'"-ho''-zhi°-ga enter the 
lodge, those of the Tsi'-zhu division taking their places by gentes at 
the north side and those of the Ho^'-ga at the south. The song has 
but one stanza, which is repeated four times. 

The Little Song of the Gathering 



(Osage version, p. 437) 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletober 



w^^i^^^Sig 




He no° hi - ga-gko^-the a-tho'^ka, 



r 

He 



r r r 

no° hi - ga - gko^-the a 



^ 



^=i 



S^ 



^5 



r 



r 



tho" - ka, He no° 



r r r - 

hi -ga-^koMhe a-tho°-ka 



r 

he 



r r 

he - e, 




ia^lS^isii 



5=i 



It it -&-ti- 

r r r r r 

Hi-ga-^ko^-the a-t hon-ka, He no" - hi-ga-<jko°-the a-tho°-ka, he - e he-e. 



He no° hi-ga-9ko°-the a-tho°-ka, 

He no" hi-ga-5ko°-the a-tho^-ka, 

He no" hi-ga-fkoMhe a-tho^-ka he-e he-e, 

Hi-ga-fkC-the a-thC-ka, 

He no" hi-ga-fkc-the a-tho°-ka he-e he-e. 

They gather, its power (their wa-xo'-be), to test, etc. 

At the close of the song and when all the No'"-ho°-zhi''-ga are 
seated the Xo'-ka speaks, saying: "O, Wa-zha'-zhe and Ho^'-ga, I 
have now come to that part of the ceremony called U'-wa-the-the" 
(the act of sending certain symbolic articles to the various gentes 
owning them). The Wa-zha'-zhe and the Ho°'-ga reply: "O, 
Tsi'-zhu, you will now perform the Wa-the'-the." The Xo'-ka then 
sends by his Sho'-ka the articles to the various gentes in the following 
order, in which the two divisions are taken alternately: 

1. Arrow shafts, sinew, and feathers, with fee (Wa-zha'-zhe 

(Wa-no")). 

2. Red downy eagle feather, with fee (Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge). 

3. Fee only (Wa'-tse-tsi Wa-shta'-ge). 

4. Seed corn, with fee (Tho'-xe). 

5. White downy eagle feathers, with fee (Ho°'-ga). 

6. Fee only (Ni'-ka Wa-iio°-da-gi). 

7. Knife, with fee (Wa-fa'-be). 

8. Red paint and eagle down, with fee (O'-pxo"). 



254 THE OSAC.E TRIBE [eth. ann. 38 

9. Corn uiul hoo, with foe (no"'-ga-zlu"-ga, or I'-ba-tse). 

10. Fee only (Last Keeper of the Tattooing shrine). 

11. Fee only (Last Keeper of the Great Healing Plant slunne). 

The rites of the Tattooing and of the Great Healing Plant shrines 
being tribal, the last keepers may be of any one of the gentes. 

When all the articles had been "sent" the No°'-ho"-zhi°-ga of the 
gentes, to whom the articles were sent, and the two keepers of the 
Tattooing and the Great Healing Plant shrines begin, simnltaneously, 
to recite their wi'-gi-es. The Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° recite the following 
wi'-gi-e, called Wi'-gi-e To°-ga, The Great Wi'-gi-e: 

The Great Wi'-gi-e 

(Osage version, p. 437; literal translation, p. 581) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Tsi'-zhu, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Verily, at that time and place, 

4. Spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

5. It seems certain that it is not possible for us to go below to dwell, 

they said to one another. 

6. Verily, at that time and place, 

7. They spake to the principal Sho'-ka, 

8. Saying: O, younger brother, 

9. Is it not possible for us to go below to dwell? 

10. We bid you go and make search for a way. 

11. Verily, at that time and place, 

12. The principal Sho'-ka 

13. Hastened forth to make search for a way, 

14. And found the bird that has no evil (the golden eagle). 
1.5. Quickly he returned with it to his elder brothers. 

16. Verily, at that time and place, 

17. He spake to his brothers, saying: O, elder brothers, 

18. By the aid of this bird we shall go downward. 

19. The elder brothers replied: That is the person who shall lead us 

downward. 

20. Verily, at that time ami place, 

21. By the aid of the bird that has no evil, 

22. They came downward, 

23. Verily, at that time and place, 

24. And came to earth in four soarings. 

25. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

26. They moved onward over the earth, 

27. Then upon the tops of seven trees 



LAFLESCHE] Xl'-KI AVi'-GI-ES 255 

28. They alighted and stood, it has been said, in this house. 

29. Verily, at that time and place, 

30. They moved onward over the earth. 

31. Verily, at that time and place, 

32. They came to a valley that was of no particular size, 

33. In which there stood a willow, a tree that never dies. 

34. Close to it they came and paused. 

35. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

36. They moved onward over the earth. 

37. They came to the top of a rocky cliff that was of no particular size. 

38. Close to it they came and paused. 

39. Verily, at that time and place, 

40. They spake to one another, saying: White-Rock 

41. We shall make to be a personal name for ourselves. 

42. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

43. They moved onward, 

44. And came to the seventh division of the heavens, 

45. Where they paused and stood. 

46. Verih', at that time and place, 

47. They spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

48. In this unorganized state it is not possible for us to take, with 

certainty, our footsteps. 

49. Verily, at that time and place, 

50. They said to one another: Let search be made for a way. 

51. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

52. The principal Sho'-ka 

53. Hastened forth to make search for a way, 

54. And found the red boulder that sitteth upon the earth. 

55. He quickly returned with it to his brothers, 

56. To whom he spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

57. Let this red boulder be as a foot to us, he said to them. 

58. Verily, at that time and place, 

59. The elder brothers replied: That has been the object of your 

continual search, O, younger brother. 

60. This red boulder shall be as a foot to the little ones as they 

travel the path of life. 

61. When they use this red boulder as their foot, 

62. Their foot shall never be pierced and wounded as they travel 

the path of life. 

63. Verily, at that time and place, 

64. They shall crush the harmful grasses of the earth as they travel 

the path of life. 



I 



256 THE OSAGK TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

65. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this honse, 

66. The principal Sho'-ka 

67. Hastened forth to make search for a way 

68. And found the black boulder, that sitteth upon the earth. 

69. He ({uickly returned with it to his brothers, 

70. To whom he spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

71. Let this black boidder be as a foot to the little ones. 

72. The elder brothers replied: The black boulder shall be as a foot 

to the little ones as they travel the path of life. 

73. When the little ones use this black boulder as their foot, 

74. Their foot shall never be pierced and wounded as they travel the 

path of life. 

75. They shall crush the harmful grasses of the earth as they travel 

the path of life. 

76. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

77. The elder brothers spake, saying: We bid you go once more and 

make search for a way. 

78. The principal Sho'-ka 

79. Hastened forth to make search for a way. 

80. Verily, at that time and place, 

81. He found the boulder streaked with yellow, that sitteth upon 

the earth, 

82. And returned with it to his brothers, 

83. To whom he spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

84. Let this boulder be as a foot to the little ones. 

85. The elder brothers replied: This boulder shall be as a foot to 

the little ones as they travel the path of life. 

86. When the little ones use this boulder as their foot, 

87. Their foot shall never be pierced and wounded as they travel the 

path of life. 

88. They shall crush the harmful grasses of the earth as they travel 

the path of life. 

89. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

90. The principal Sho'-ka 

91. Hastened forth to make search for a way 

92. And found the dark boxdder, that sitteth upon the earth. 

93. He quickly returned with it to his brothers, 

94. To whom he spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

95. Let the dark boulder be as a foot to the little ones. 

96. Verily, at that time and place, 

97. The elder brothel's replied: The dark boulder shall be as a foot 

to the little ones as they travel the path of life. 

98. Wten the little ones use the dark boulder as their foot. 



UFLESCHB] Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 257 

99. Their foot shall never be pierced and wounded as they travel 
the path of life. 

100. They shall crush the harmful grasses of the earth as they travel 

the path of life. 

101. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

102. The brothers spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

103. Our mysterious Wa-xo'-be 

104. Lacks the means necessary for the accomplishment of its pur- 

poses. 

105. Let search be made for these means, they said to one another. 

106. Verily, at that time and place, 

107. They spake to the principal Sho'-ka, 

108. Saying: 0, younger brother, 

109. We bid you go and make the search. 

110. Verily, at that time and place, 

111. The principal Sho'-ka 

112. Hastened forth to make the search. 

113. Verily, at that time and place, 

114. He found the red flint 

115. And quickly returned with it to his brothers, 

116. To whom he spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

117. Let the little ones use this flint for a knife. 

118. Verily, at that time and place, 

119. The elder brothers replied: The red fhnt is not suitable for the 

little ones to use for a knife, O, younger brother. 

120. Verfly, it is not the right kind of flint for them to use. 

121. We bid you go forth and make further search. 

122. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

123. The principal Sho'-ka 

124. Hastened forth to make search 

125. And found the blue flint. 

126. He quickly returned with it to his brothers, 

127. To whom he spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

128. Let the little ones use this fhnt for a knife. 

129. The elder brothers rephed: The blue flint is not suitable for the 

httle ones to use for a knife, O, younger brother. 

130. Verily, it is not the right kind of fhnt for them to use. 

131. We bid you go forth and make further search. 

132. The principal Sho'-ka 

133. Hastened forth to make further search 

134. And found the flint that is streaked with yellow. 

135. He quickly returned with it to his brothers, 

2786—21 17 



258 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eih. ann. 38 

136. To whom he spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

137. Let the httle ones use this flint for a knife. 

138. The elder brothers replied: The streaked flint is not suitable for 

the little ones to use for a knife, O, younger brother. 

139. Verily, it is not the right kind of flint for them to use. 

140. We bid you go forth and make further search. 

141. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

142. The principal Sho'-ka 

143. Hastened forth to make further search 

144. And found the black fUnt. 

145. He quickly returned with it to his brothers. 

146. Verily, at that time and place, 

147. The elder brothers spake to one another, saying: O, younger 

brothers, 

148. Our mysterious Wa-xo'-be 

149. Lacks the means necessary for the accomplishment of its pur- 

poses. 

150. Let search be made for them, they said to one another. 

151. Verily, at that time and place, 

152. They spake to the principal Sho'-ka, 

153. Saying: O, younger brother, 

154. We bid you go and make search for the means required. 

155. Verily, at that time and place, 

156. The principal Sho'-ka 

157. Hastened forth to make search 

158. And found the white fhnt. 

159. He quickly returned with it to his brothers, 

160. To whom he spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

161. Let the little ones use this fUnt for a knife. 

162. Verily, at that time and place, 

163. The elder brothers replied : The white flint is not suitable for||the 

little ones to use for a knife, O, younger brother. 

164. Verily, it is not the right kind of flint for them to use. 

165. Verily, at that time and place, 

166. They said to him: We bid you go forth and make further search. 

167. The principal Sho'-ka 

168. Hastened forth to make further search 

169. And found the round-handled knife. 

170. He quickly returned with it to his brothers, 

171. To whom he spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

172. Let the little ones use this for a knife. 

173. Verily, at that time and place, 

174. The elder brothers replied: That is suitable. 



L4 FLESCBE] Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-E8 259 

175. That has been the object of your continual search, O, younger 

brother. 

176. Verily, at that time and place, 

177. They said: The little ones shall use this for their knife. 
17S. When the little ones make use of the round-handled knife, 

179. Nothing shall sUp away from them that they undertake to cut 

as they travel the path of life. 

180. Verily, at that time and place, 

181. Their knife shall always be sharp and ready for use as they travel 

the path of life. 

182. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

183. The brothers spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

184. Our mysterious Wa-xo'-be 

185. Lacks the means necessary for the accomplishment of its pur- 

poses. 

186. Let search be made for them, they said to one another. 

187. Verily, at that time and place, 

188. They spake to the principal Sho'-ka, 

189. Saying: O, younger brother, 

190. Our mysterious Wa-xo'-be 

191. Lacks the means necessary for the accomplishment of its pur- 

poses. 

192. We bid you go and make search for them, they said to him. 

193. Verily, at that time and place, 

194. The principal Sho'-ka 

195. Hastened forth to make search 

196. And found the hickory tree. 

197. He quickly returned with it to his brothers, 

198. To whom he spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

199. Let the little ones use this as a club, he said to them. 

200. Verily, at that time and place, 

201. The elder brothers repled: The hickory tree is not suitable for 

the little ones to use as a club. 

202. Verily, it is not the right kind of tree for them to use as a club. 

203. We bid you go and make further search. 

204. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

205. The principal Sho'-ka 

206. Hastenetl forth to make further search 

207. And found the thick-barked hickory tree. 

208. He quickly returned with it to his brothers, 

209. To whom he spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

210. Let the little ones use this as a club, he said to them. 

211. The elder brothers replied: The thick-barked hickory tree is not 

suitable for the little ones to use as a club, O, younger brother. 



I 



260 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

212. Verily, it is not the right kind of tree for them to use as a club. 

213. Verily, at that time and place, 

214. They said to him: We bid you go and make further search. 

215. The principal Sho'-ka 

216. Hastened forth to make further search 

217. And found the shagbark hickory tree. 

218. Quickly he returned with it to his brothers, 

219. To whom he spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

220. Let the little ones use this as a club, he said to them. 

221. The elder brothers replied: The shagbark hickory tree is not 

suitable for the little ones to use as a club, O, younger brother. 

222. Verily, it is not the right kind of tree for them to use as a club. 

223. We bid you go and make further search. 

224. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

225. The principal Sho'-ka 

226. Hastened forth to make further search. 

227. And found the red-oak tree. 

228. He quickly returned with it to his brothers, 

229. To whom he spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

230. Let the little ones use this as a club, he said to them. 

231. The elder brothers replied: The red-oak tree is not suitable for 

the little ones to use as a club, O, younger brother. 

232. Verily, it is not the right kind of tree for them to use as a club. 

233. Verily, at that time and place, 

234. They said to him: We bid you go forth and make further search. 

235. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

236. The principal Sho'-ka 

237. Hastened forth to make further search 

238. And found the red-wood tree (the red oak). 

239. He quickly returned with it to his brothers, 

240. To whom he spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

241. Let the little ones use this as a club, he said to them. 

242. The elder brothers replied: The red-wood (red oak) tree is not 

suitable for the little ones to use as a club, O, younger brother. 

243. Verily, it is not the right kind of tree for them to use as a club. 

244. We bid you go and make further search. 

245. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

246. The principal Sho'-ka 

247. Hastened forth to make search 

248. And found the dark-wood tree (the redbud tree). 

249. He quickly returned with it to his brothers, 

250. To whom he spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 



LAFLKSCHBl Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 261 

251. Let the little ones use this as a club, he said to them. 

252. The elder brothers replied: The dark-wood tree is not suitable 

for the little ones to use as a club, O, younger brother. 

253. Verily, it is not the right kind of tree for them to use as a club. 

254. We bid you go and make further search. 

255. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

256. The principal Sho'-ka 

257. Hastened forth to make further search 

258. And in a valley, that was of no particular size, 

259. He found a willow tree, a tree that never dies. 

260. He quickly returned with it to his brothers, 

261. To whom he spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

262. Let the little ones use this as a club, he said to them. 

263. The elder brothers replied: That has been the object of your 

continual search, O, younger brother. 

264. The little ones shall use the never-dying willow as their club as 

they travel the path of life. 

265. When the little ones use the willow as a club, 

266. They shall always succeed in making their enemies to fall as 

they travel the path of life. 

267. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

268. Their round-handled knife 

269. They quickly took from its resting place. 

270. Verily, at that time and place, 

271. They spake to one another, saying: It is a fear-inspiring knife. 

272. Verily, it is a mysterious knife, they said to one another. 

273. Mysterious-knife 

274. The little ones shall take as their personal name, they said to 

one another. 

275. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

276. They lifted the round-handled knife 

277. And quickly stabbed with it the body of the willow tree. 

278. Then from its wound its lifeblood streamed forth. 

279. Verily, at that time and place, 

280. They cut with the knife the bark from the body of the tree, 

281. First cutting from it four nan-ow strips, one strip for each of the 

cardinal points. 

282. Verily, at that time and place, 

283. They cut down the tree and cut the body into the desired length. 

284. Verily, at that time and place, 

285. They hewed the body to the desired size. 

286. Verily, at that time and place. 



262 TILE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ANN. 36 

287. They fashioned out of the body of the tree a long club that 

resembled the back of a fish (pi. 17, b), 

288. And their task was done. 

289. Verily, at that time and place, 

290. They caressed the club with their hands, 

291. And at each stroke it uttered a cry of exultation. 

292. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

293. They spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

294. Our mysterious Wa-xo'-be, 

295. Still lacks the means necessary to accomplish its purpose. 

296. Let search be made for them, they said to one another. 

297. Verily, at that time and place, 

298. They spake to the principal Sho'-ka, 

299. Saying: O, younger brother, 

300. Our mysterious Wa-xo'-be 

301. StLU lacks the means necessary to accomplish its purpose. 

302. We bid you go and make search for them. 

303. Verily, at that time and place, 

304. The principal Sho'-ka, 

305. At the beginning of day, 

306. Hastened forth to make search, his figure swaying from side to 

side as he sped over the prairie. 

307. Verily, at that time and place, 
30S. In the evening of the same day, 

309. The elder brothers spake to one another, saying: Our younger 

brother is returning. 

310. Verily, at that time and place, 

311. They said: Go, some of you, and speak to him. 

312. Verily, at that time and place, 

313. The Sho'-ka came and stood before his elder brothers, his bare 

ankles worn by the grasses of the earth. 

314. The elder brothers spake to liim, saying: O, younger brother, 

315. How has it fared with you ? 

316. It has not been your wont to suffer such hardship. 

317. Verily, at that time and place, 

318. The Sho'-ka replied: O, elder brothers, 

319. I have been to one valley, 

320. And have seen nothing worthy of my notice. 

321. Verily, at that time and place, 

322. The elder brothers spake, saying: O, younger brother, 

323. We bid you go and make further search. 



LiFLESCBE] Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 263 

324. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

325. The principal Sho'-ka, 

326. At the begmning of day, 

327. Hastened forth to make search, his figure swaying from side to 

side as he sped over the prairie. 

328. Verily, at that time and place, 

329. In the evening of the same day, 

330. The elder brothers spake to one another, saying: Our younger 

brother is returning. 

331. Verily, at that time and place, 

332. They said: Go, some of you, and speak to him. 

333. Verily, at that time and place, 

334. They said to Mm: O, younger brother, 

335. How has it fared with you 1 

336. It has not been your wont to suffer such hardship. 

337. Verily, at that time and place, 

338. The Sho'-ka spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

339. I have been to a second valley, 

340. And I have seen nothing worthy of my notice. 

341. Verily, at that time and place, 

342. The elder brothers spake, saying: O, younger brother, 

343. We bid you go and make further search. 

344. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

345. The principal Sho'-ka, 

346. At the beginning of day, 

347. Hastened forth to make search, his figure swaying from side to 

side as he sped over the prairies. 

348. Verily, at that time and place, 

349. In the evening of the same day, 

350. The elder brothers spake to one another, saying: Our younger 

brother is returning. 

351. Go, some of you, and speak to lum. 

352. Verily, at that time and place, 

353. They spake to him, saying: O, younger brother, 

354. How has it fared with you ? 

355. It has not been your wont to suffer such hardship. 

356. Verily, at that time and place, 

357. With his bare knees worn by the grasses of the earth, 

358. The Sho'-ka stood before his elder brothers. 

359. Verily, at that time and place, 

360. He spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

361. I have been to a third valley. 

362. Verily, at that time and place, 

363. He continued: O, elder brothers. 



264 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eih. ann. 38 

364. There, in that valley, I have seen upon the ground the signs of 

a man. 

365. The elder brothers asked: What were those signs? 

366. Verily, at that time and place, 

367. The Sho'-ka replied: O, elder brothers, 

368. Verily, the footprints show him to be a man with cloven feet. 

369. The grasses he had trodden upon were crushed by his weight. 

370. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

371. The elder brothers spake to the Sho'-ka, saying: O, younger 

brother, 

372. Our mysterious Wa-xo'-be 

373. Lacks the means necessary for the accomplishment of its pur- 

pose. 

374. Therefore we bid you go forth and make further search. 

375. Verily, at that time and place, 

376. The principal Sho'-ka ' 

377. Hastened forth to make further search. 

378. Verily, at that time and place, 

379. At the beginning of day, 

380. His figure was seen swinging from side to side as he sped over 

the prairie. 

381. VerUy, at that time and place, 

382. In the evening of the same day, 

383. The elder brothers spake to one another, saying: Yonder comes 

our younger brother. 

384. His rapid strides indicate that he bears good tidings. 

385. Verily, at that time and place, 

386. They said to one another: Go, some of you, and speak to him. 

387. Verily, at that time and place, 

388. They spake to the Sho'-ka, saying: O, younger brother, 

389. How has it fared with you ? 

390. It has not been your wont to suffer such hardship. 

391. Verdy, at that time and place, 

392. The Sho'-ka replied: O, elder brothers, 

393. I have been to a fourth valley, 

394. And there I saw the man whose footprints I saw in the third 

valley, O, elder brothers. 

395. Verily, at that time and place, 

396. The elder brothers asked: What is he like in appearance and 

disposition ? 

397. Verily, at that time and place, 

398. The Sho'-ka replied: O, elder brothers, 

399. The man is formidable in appearance, O, elder brothers. 

400. Verily, at that time and place, 

401. He continued: The man has weapons. 



LAPLBSCHE] Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 265 

402. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

403. The elder brothers spake to one another, saying: O, younger 

brothers, 

404. Our mysterious Wa-xo'-be 

405. Lacks the means necessary for the accomplishment of its purpose. 

406. Let us make haste, they said to one another. 

407. Verily, at that time and place, 

408. Their sacred club that resembles the back of a fish 

409. They quickly took from its resting place. 

410. Verily, at that time and place, 

411. They hastened forth, making a single path. 

412. Verily, at that time and place, 

413. Four ceremonial pauses they made in their approach. 

414. Verily, at that time and place, 

415. At the fourth pause 

416. They stood abreast in a single line. 

417. Verily, at that time and place; it has been said, in this house, 

418. The Sho'-ka spake, saying: 0, elder brothers, 

419. Yonder stands the man of whom I spake, O, elder brothers. 

420. Verily, at that time and place, 

421. The elder brothers asked: What is he like in appearance and dis- 

position ? 

422. Verily, at that time and place, 

423. The Sho'-ka replied: O, elder brothers, 

424. The man is formidable in appearance. 

425. He appears to me to be a man who, having no mercy, will permit 

no enemy to live, O, elder brothers, 

426. And he has weapons. 

427. Verily, at that time and place, 

428. He has small horns, O, elder brothers. 

429. Verily, at that time and place, 

430. The Sho'-ka said: He is formidable in appearance. 

431. Verily, at that time and place, 

432. He appears to be a man of great coura>ge, O, elder brothers. 

433. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

434. The elder brothers spake to one another, saying: Let us make 

haste. 

435. Verily, at that time and place, 

436. Their club that resembles the back of a fish 

437. They quickly took from its resting place, 

438. And they caressed it with their hands, 

439. And at each stroke it uttered an exultant cry. 



266 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

440. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

441. The Sho'-ka spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

442. Yonder stands the man of whom I spake. 

443. Verily, at that time and place, 

444. The elder brothers asked: What is he like in appearance and 

disposition I 

445. The Sho'-ka replied: O, elder brothers, 

446. He has weapons. 

447. He is formidable in appearance, O, elder brothers. 

448. Verily, at that time and place, 

449. He appears to be a man of great courage, O, elder brothers. 

450. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, m this house, 

451. The elder brothers spake to one another, saying: O, younger 

brothers, 

452. Let us make haste. 

453. The Tsi'-zhu, a people possessing seven fireplaces, 

454. Are a people who have none among them that are craven or 

timid. 

455. Verily, at that time and place, 

456. They said to one another: It matters not what man he is, 

457. He shall go to the abode of spirits. 

458. Verily, at that time and place, 

459. It matters not what animal's son he may be, 

460. He shall go to the abode of spirits. 

461. Verily, at that time and place, 

462. It matters not who he may be of the beings that stand erect, 

463. He shall go to the abode of spirits, they said to one another. 

464. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

465. Their club, that resembles the back of a fish, 

466. They quickly took from its resting place. 

467. Verily, at that time and place, 

468. And caressed it with their hands, 

469. And at each stroke it uttered an exultant cry. 

470. Verily, at that time and place, 

471. The elder brothers spake to one another, saying: Let us make 

haste. 

472. Verily, at that time and place, 

473. Their club, that resembles the back of a fish, 

474. They quickly brandished in the air, 

475. And our grandfather plunged forward with a sudden shock. 

476. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

477. Their club, that resembles the back of a fish, 

478. For a second time 



LAFLBSCHE] Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 267 

479. They quickly brantlished in the air. 

480. Verily, at that time and place, 

481. Our grandfather staggered with the sudden shock. 

482. Veril}', at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

483. For a third time 

484. Their club, that resembles the back of a fish, 

485. They quickly brandished in the air, 

486. And our grandfather dropped to his knees stunned by the sudden 

shock. 

487. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

488. For the fourth time 

489. Their club, that resembles the back of a fish, 

490. They quickly brandished in the air, 

491. And our grandfather whirled around 

492. And fell to the ground in death, blood gushing from his mouth. 

493. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

494. The brothers spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

495. Let us make haste. 

496. Verily, at that time and place, 

497. And they put their hands upon the body. 

498. Verily, at that time and place, 

499. The skin of the left hind leg 

500. They cut with eager haste, 

501. And the fat issued forth from the incision. 

502. Verily, at that time and place, 

503. They quickly tasted of the fat. 

504. Verily, at that time and place, 

505. They said to one another: It is sweet and pleasant to the taste. 

506. It shall be food for the little ones as they travel the path of life. 

507. When the Uttle ones use this fat as food, 

508. Their limbs shall stretch and lengthen in growth. 

509. Verily, at that time and place, • 

510. To prepare it for use the little ones shall seethe it in boiling 

water. 

511. The skin of the left leg 

512. They cut into a narrow strip, 

513. Verily, at that time and place, 

514. And they said to one another: Verily, the skin is not elastic. 

515. We shall always make use of it as we travel the path of life. 

516. Verily, at that time and place, 

517. They said to one another: Verily, it is a strong strap (pi. 20). 



268 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann 36 

518. Verily, at that time and place, 

519. They said to one another: We shall consecrate it for ceremonial 

use, 

520. Therefore, strong-strap 

521. We shall make to be our sacred personal name. 

522. Verily, at that time and place, 

523. Strap-maker, also, 

524. We shall make to be our sacred personal name. 

525. Verily, at that time and place, 

526. They said to one another: Slender-strap, also, 

527. We shall make to be our sacred personal name. 

528. They said to one another: Behold the remaining center, 

529. We shall consecrate that for ceremonial use. 

530. We shall always make of it a shield as we travel the path of life. 

531. It shall be to the little ones a protection as they travel the path 

of life. 

532. Verily, at that time and place, 

533. When our enemies who dwell toward the setting sun 

534. Come against us with sharp weapons in countless numbers, 

535. The little ones shall always succeed in making those weapons 

ineffective as they travel the path of life. 

536. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

537. When our enemies who dwell toward the setting sun 

538. Come against us with sharp weapons in countless numbers, 

539. None of those weapons shall penetrate our bodies as we travel 

the path of life. 

540. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

541. When our enemies who dwell toward the setting sun 

542. Come against us with sharp weapons in countless numbers, 

543. We shall succeed in warding off the weapons so that they shall 

pass by us in forked lines, on either side, as we travel the 
path of life. 

544. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

545. When our enemies who dwell toward the setting sun 

546. Come against us with sharp weapons in countless numbers, 

547. We shall succeed in warding off the weapons so that they shall 

pass by us in forked lines, as we travel the path of life. 

548. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

549. The skm of the left side, 

550. They quickly cut in a circle, 

551. Verily, at that time and place, 



LA FI.BSCHB] Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 269 

552. And seven slender straps, 

553. They made of it for the Tsi'-zhu who possess seven fireplaces, 

554. One for each fireplace. 

555. Verily, at that time and place, 

556. They said to one another: We shall consecrate these straps for 

ceremonial use. 

557. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

558. They said to one another: Behold the left horn, 

559. We shall consecrate it for ceremonial use. 

560. Verily, at that time and place, 

561. They said to one another: Curved-horns, also, 

562. We shall make to be our sacred personal name. 

563. Verily, at that time and place, 

564. Outspread-horns, also, 

565. We shall make to be our sacred personal name. 

566. Verily, at that time and place, 

567. They said to one another: Behold the left horn, 

568. We consecrate it for ceremonial use, they said to one another. 

569. Verily, at that time and place, 

570. They said to one another: Behold the tail, 

571. We consecrate it for ceremonial use. 

572. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

573. They said to one another: Behold the bladder, 

574. We consecrate it for ceremonial use. 

575. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

576. They said to one another: Behold the heart sack, 

577. We consecrate it for ceremonial use. 

578. Behold the hair of the head, 

579. We consecrate it for ceremonial use. 

580. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

581. They said to one another: Behold the chin, 

582. We consecrate it for ceremonial use. 

At the close of the recitation of the wi'-gi-es the A'-ki-ho", Xo'-ka 
tells the Sho'-ka to bring water for the No'"-ho°-zhi°-ga, which he pro- 
ceeds to do with the aid of the women, the wives and daughters of 
the members. When water has been set before each member, the 
head of the O'-pxo" (Elk) gens speaks, saying: "O, Wa-zha'-zhe, 
Ho'''-ga, and Tsi'-zhu, you may now wape from your faces the sign 
of the No°'-zhi°-zho°." This office was given to the 0'-pxo° gens 
because it was the 0'-pxo° who exposed the soil of the earth and made 



270 THE OSAGE TRIBE liorii. ann. 36 

it habitable for all living creatures. He also gave to the people the 
four clays of various colors for ceremonial use, and in this ceremony 
two of these clays were used as signs of the No°'-zhi°-zho°. The 
No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga respond by saying, "Hau," and begin to wash their 
faces. Xu-tha'-wa-to°-i" remarked, with a smile, "If the head of 
the 0'-pxo° gens should neglect his duty, the No"'-ho''-zhi''-ga, to 
this day, would be obliged to go about having on their faces the signs 
of No°'-zhi''-zho''." 

At this stage of the ceremony the three men appouited to the duty 
of dividmg into equal shares the food provided by the candidate 
busy themselves with this task and place a share before each member 
of the order. Afterwards the wife or daughter of each member enters 
to take home the food. 

The division of the food supply being finished, all the members of 
the No'"-ho°-zhi''-ga, excepting those who belong to the particular 
gens that is conferring the degree, rise to go to their homes, having 
performed their part of the ceremony. The No'"-ho°-zhi''-ga of the 
Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° gens, who, in this instance, are supposed to confer 
the degree, remain seated as the members of the other gentes file out 
in an orderly procession. 

Instructions to the Wife of the Initiate 

The A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka then directs the Sho'-ka to conduct the wife 
of the candidate into the lodge, that she may receive instructions as 
to the performance of certain ceremonial rites which she may desire 
to observe in the course of her life. As she enters she is followed by 
a number of women, most of whom are her relatives. Each one 
brings her fees tied in a bundle, as does the wife of the candidate. 
The Sho'-ka now hands each woman a digging pole and a woven 
bag, symbolic of her vocation. Seats are assigned the women in a 
row facing the initiator, the candidate, and the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka. 
When all have taken their places, the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka, addressing 
only the candidate's wife, begins his instructions as follows (Osage 
version, p. 452) : 

Ho! my daughter-in-law, I shall now tell you of the rite of Ki'-nC. 

The first part of the Ki'-no° rite, which you may wish to observe 
in order to successfully bring up your little ones to maturity, is this: 
If it so happens that the animal brought home to your house is a 
result of the first chase and the animal is a mature female buffalo 
and you think the skin suitable for a covering for 3-our little ones, 
you shall dress the skin, making it pleasing to look upon, and make 
it soft and pleasant to the touch. You shall then say: My father- 
in-law has sanctioned the act I am about to perform and has said 
that it shall not be without a purpose. You shall take red clay 
that has been gathered from a cliff and with it redden the sides and 



LAFLBSCHB] Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 271 

the leg parts of the robe, as also the full length of the back from the 
head to the tail. Again you shall say: My father-in-law has sanc- 
tioned this act and has said that it shall not be without a purpose, 
for in thus consecrating this robe I shall successfully bring to maturity 
mj' little ones for whom it is made. 

The next act in order is: That if the animal brought home to your 
house happens to be a mature male buffalo you shall dress the skin, 
make it pleasing to look upon, and make it soft and pleasant to touch. 
You shall say: My father-in-law has sanctioned the act I am about 
to perform and has said that it shall not be without a purpose. You 
shall then redden the sides of the robe, as also the full length of the 
back, and shall saj^: This act is not without a purpose, for it is 
sanctioned. My father-in-law has said that by performing this act 1 
shall successfully bring my little ones to maturity. This act shall 
not be without a purpose, for it is sanctioned. My father-in-law has 
said that by thus consecrating this robe I shall make my little ones 
to be difficult to overcome by death. 

The next act in order is: That if the animal brought home to your 
house happens to be an immature female buffalo, and you think the 
skin suitable for a covering for your little ones, then you shall dress 
the skin, make it pleasing to look upon, make it soft and pleasant 
to the touch. You shall redden only the leg parts of the robe. Then 
you shall say: My father-in-law has sanctioned this act and has said 
that it shall not be without a purpose; that by thus consecrating 
this little robe I shall successfully bring to maturity my little ones; 
that by this act I shall make my little ones to be difficult to overcome 
by death. 

The fourth act is: That if the animal brought home to your house 
happens to be an immature male buffalo, you shall take particular 
pains in dressing the skin, make it pleasing to look upon, and make 
it soft and pleasant to the touch ; then you shall redden the leg parts 
and the entire length of the back. When you have finished this, 
you shall say: My father-in-law has sanctioned this act and has said 
that it shall not be without a pui-pose; that by thus consecrating this 
robe I shall successfully bring to maturity my little ones ; and I shall 
by this act make my little ones to be difficult to overcome by death. 

Hau ! This is all. " 

By the observance of this supplicatory rite the young mother 
appeals to the Power whence issues all forms of life to give to her little 
ones the same thoughtful care that is bestowed upon the animals 
that wander, shelterless, over the earth. The color put upon the 
little robe is the sacred color of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° people; it sym- 
bolizes the fire that draws its strength from the sacred fire of heaven 
(the sun), which sheds upon all earthly life its animating heat. 



272 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 38 

The right to use this suppUcatory ceremony must be formally 
sought by a woman and the right conferred by a person having due 
authority. The priest confers this right not only upon the wife of 
the initiate but also upon all the women who accompanied her as she 
entered the sacred lodge. 

Paraphrase of the Ni'-ki Ritual of the ^i^'-dse-a-gthe Gens 

TSl'-ZHU DIVISION 

The following paraphrase of the Ni'-ki Wi'-gi-e of the ^i°'-dse-a- 
gthe gens was given by Pa'-thi^-wa-we-xta, a member of the Tsi'-zhu 
Wa-no° gens. This old man was regarded as one of the best authori- 
ties on the tribal rites. He initiated Xu-tha'-wa-to^-i", from whom 
was obtained the Ni'-ki Ritual of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° gens (see 
pp. 238-272). At the time Pa'-thi^-wa-we-xta promised to give the 
ritual in full he was very feeble, and before arrangements could be 
made for him to record the rite in the dictaphone he was dead. The 
old man regretted when he gave the promise that he could then give 
only a brief paraphrase of the ritual, "for," he said, "no part of the 
rite should be given in that form." The paraphrase is as follows: 

The people, whose abode was in the heavens, assembled that they 
might meditate upon the means by which they would descend to the 
earth to come mto bodily existence. Thej' decided that the eagle 
was the only person who could safely conduct them to the earth. 
They, therefore, appealed to him and he led them downward. The 
people, led by the eagle, came to the earth and alighted upon seven 
trees: P o^'-to^-ga-hiu , the fuU-grown shagbark liickory; Po°'-to°-ga- 
hiu zhi°-ga, the young shagbark; Pi-pi' or Zho°'-zhi-hi (Pi-pi', acorn; 
zho°'-zhi-hi, redwood), the red oak; ^-a'-gthu-hi ha shu-ga, the thick- 
barked bitter hickory; ^^a'-gthu-hi, the smooth-bark bitter hickory; 
Thiu'-xe, the willow. (The old man said seven trees, but he gave the 
names of only six.) 

The people found that in the willow tree there was a mystical 
power — a power for resisting the forces inimical to life. They wished 
to cut the tree to make of a part of its body a wa-xo'-be, a sacred 
article for ceremonial use. They sent their Sho'-ka (official mes- 
senger) to find the material out of which to make a knife. Four times 
he went out to make search, but without success. At the fifth time 
he brought home a knife which he had made out of a stone of a grayish 
color. He had made for it a handle that was round. The people 
accepted the knife, consecrated it for ceremonial use, and called it 
Mo°'-hi''-i-ba-btho-ga, the round-handled knife. With this sacred 
knife they cut out of the body of the tree four small pieces, which 
they threw into the air as sacred offerings, one to each of the four 
wmds. Blood flowed from each of the four wounds made with the 
ceremonial knife. 



LAFLESeHB] Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 273 

Then the people, usuig their sacred knife, proceeded to cut down 
the tree, to shave the trunk to a proper size, and to shape it for a club. 
This club they called wa-xo'-be (sacred) and consecrated it for cere- 
monial use. The natural color of the wood did not satisfy the people 
and they regarded the sacred article as incomplete. Then, as though 
by a common understandmg and consent, they hastened to gather 
leaves and dry twigs. These they placed in a great pile, to which 
they set fire, and the 3moke and flames tinged the darkened heavens 
with a reddish hue — a color pleasing ami satisfying to the minds of 
the people. It resembled the color cast upon the eastern sky as it 
rises and which the people always hailed with joy with uplifted hands. 
It was this color they put upon the symbolic club to add to it the 
life-giving power of the sun. 

The weapon was thus finished, and there remained nothing more 
to do with it but to test its magical power. For this purpose the 
people sent their official messenger to a far-off country to search for 
some creature upon which to make the test. The messenger returned 
in the evening of the day, weary and footsore, to report that he had 
been to a valley where he saw nothing worthy of notice. Again he 
went out and returned from a second valley to report that he had 
found nothmg. He was bidden to go again, and in the evening of 
that day he came home to report that he had been to a third valley, 
where he had seen the footprints of a person (a buffalo bull). The 
footpruats showed the person's feet to be cloven, and the grasses upon 
which he had trodden were crushed. To commemorate this event, 
the people agreed to name their children No°-xtho'"-zhe, Crushed- 
with-his-feet. For the fourth time the messenger was sent out, and 
in the evening of the day he came home to report that he had been 
to a fourth valley, where he saw the person of the footprints, whom 
he described as a person of formidable appearance and bearing upon 
his head curved horns. To make this report memorable, the people 
agreed to name their children He-thi'-shi-zhe, Curved-horns. The 
messenger gave a graphic description of the face of the person, and 
from this the people agreed to name their children Tse-do'-ga-i°-dse, 
Buffalo-bull-face. 

Upon hearing the last report, the keeper of the new weapon picked 
it up and caressed it with four downward strokes of his hand. At 
each stroke he uttered a word: We'-tsi°-pi-zhi, Mysterious-weapon; 
We'-tsi°-zhi°-ga, Little-weapon; We'-tsi°-hu-to°, Weapon-that-cries- 
out; We'-tsi^-do^-a-thi", Possessor-of-a-good-weapon. These words 
also became sacred names given to the children of the gens. 

Then speaking to the messenger, the keeper of the sacred weapon 
said: "That is the very person for whom we have been in search. 
Whoever he may be, we shall send him to the abode of spirits." 
2786—21 18 



274 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 86 

"What course shall we take in approaching that person?" the people 
asked, and the keeper of the sacred weapon replied: "We will take 
the path always taken by the sun." 

The people approached the person, moving in a westerly direction 
in imitation of the sun. They made four ceremonial pauses on their 
way. At the fourth pause the keeper of the sacred weapon lifted 
the club, brandished it in the air, and the bull suddenly bellowed as 
though stricken with instant pain. Again the keeper brandished the 
weapon and the animal started to flee. A third time the keeper 
brandished the club and the beast was stricken with mortal pain in 
the liindquarters. At the fourth brandishing of the weapon the buU 
whirled around and fell in death, his blood gushing from his mouth. 

The people hastened to the fallen animal. They made a slight cut 
in its skin, using the sacred knife, that with which they had cut the 
willow tree, and from the cut fat protruded. They tasted of the fat 
and said: "It is good; it shall be food for the little ones; they 
shall seethe it in boiling water to prepare it for use." Out of the 
skin of the left hind leg they cut a round piece, which they called 
Mo°'-ge-tse-ha-wa-gthe, Breast-shield; also two long narrow straps, 
which they named We'-thi°-zhu-dse, Red-strap, and We'-thi°-Qa-gi, 
Strong-strap, which names they subsequently used as personal names. 
From the skin of the left side of the body they cut seven narrow 
straps, which they painted red. The straps thus cut they called 
mo°'-sha-ko°, and these served as the original types of similar straps 
to be ceremonially made whenever the warriors are about to go to 
war, and to be used by them for tying their captives should they 
succeed in taking any. The round piece of skui called breast-shield 
and which symbolized the sun they also painted red, and it too 
served as a type for similar shields to be ceremonially made for the 
warriors and worn by them as symbolic shields as well as charms. 
At the same time that they made these sacred articles they dedicated 
the tails, the bladders, and the heart sacks of buffalo bulls to 
ceremonial use and made them to be sacred types. 

Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-E OF THE Tsi'-ZHU Wa-SHTa'-GE GeNS 

MoN-zhqN-a'-ki-da 

The following Ni'-ki wi'-gi-e of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge, given by 
Mo°-zho''-a'-ki-da (pi. 22) of that gens, may have lost, in its trans- 
mission, some of its unimportant parts, but it has retained all of the 
life symbols considered important by that gens. As old Tse-zhi°'- 
ga-wa-da-i°-ga used to say to the writer, "My son, you may think 
that parts of these great rites have become lost as they were handed 
down. That is quite possible, but what is lost are the parts that are 
unimportant; those that are of real value have come down to us." 



LAFLBSCHB] Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 275 

Like the other Ni'-ki wi'-gi-es given in this volume, this wi'-gi-e 
opens the life scene of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge in midheaven, where 
the people come into spiritual, bodiless existence and contemplate the 
finding of some place where thej- can take on bodily form and abide 
as a living people. They send a "younger brother" (Sho'-ka, or 
Messenger) downward to make search for the place of abode. He 
descends to the first division of the skies, as counted from the starting 
point, and seeing that the "little ones" can not make an abiding 
place there he returns to the "elder brothers" just as the heavens 
are darkened by the god of darkness and reports to them the result 
of his search. 

At the second command of the "elder brothers" Ka'-xe-wa-hu-^a 
(this title, most likely, is the archaic term for youngest of the broth- 
ers) descends to the second division of the heavens and as the god 
of darkness strikes the heavens with a dark shadow the messenger 
returns to the "elder brothers" to report his failure to find an abid- 
ing place for the "little ones." 

A third command is given by the "elder brothers" for a further 
search, and a younger brother descends to the third division of the 
skies, and when the god of darkness strikes the heavens with a dark 
shadow the messenger returns to his "elder brothers" to report his 
failure to find an abiding place for the "little ones." 

Again the elder brothers commanded that a further search be 
made and Ka'-xe-wa-hu-ya descended to the fourth division of the 
skies, where he came face to face with Ni'-ka-wa-ko°-da-gi (the god 
of the clouds). This section of the wi'-gi-e intimates that all the 
brothers followed closely their messenger, so that on discovering 

i'-ka-wa-ko^-da-gi the messenger turns to them and says: "Here 
stands a person, O, elder brothers." Ni'-ka-wa-ko°-da-gi promises 
that the little ones shall make of him their bodies, meaning that 
from him they shall receive the means by which to sustain and pro- 
long life. He also gives them certain sacred names to use in the course 
of their life. 

The brothers move on and they come upon Tho'-xe, Buffalo, who 
gives them two kinds of medicines, four kinds of corn, and three 
kinds of squashes, aU of which shall be used by the little ones in 
making their bodies. In lines 107 and 108 in this section reference 
is made to the sanctity of the reproduction of life. 

The brothers continue their journey, tins time upon the earth, 
and come upon the red-oak tree, which they consecrate to be their 
Ufe symbol. They also take from it certain sacred gentile names. 

They pass on and come to the red cedar, who promises them long 
life. (In the ceremonial naming of the children the fronds of this 
tree are used as a symbol of the tree itself and of life's persistency.) 



I 



276 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

They move on and come to the shallows of a river whei'e the waters 
tumble noisily over the rocky bed. They speak of the water as a 
person and apply to him the name Wa-zha'-zhe. From this person 
of the waters they receive promise of long life. (Water is also used 
as a symbol of long life in the child-naming ceremonies, and the cedar 
is associated with it.) 

The brothers continue their journey and come to the sedge, a 
"grass that never dies." From it they receive promise of long life. 
(This grass is used as a life symbol in some of the ceremonies.) 

They pass on and come to the Shi°'-zha-hi, an evergreen water 
plant, from which they also receive promise of long life. (This plant 
is also used ceremonially.) 

From the Shi°'-zha-hi the brothers go on and suddenly come upon 
an animal that had just been slain. Mo°-zho°-a'-ki-da could not 
explain the symbolic significance of this scene; therefore it must 
remain obscure until by some chance it is revealed by a person who 
may happen to know its meaning. 

The journey brings the brothers to " the greatest part of the earth." 
The word earth is here used as a trope for a season or a particular 
month (probably August), when the yellow blossoms begin to give 
color to the earth. A part of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge are people of 
the flowers, particularly the yellow flowers. The brothers consecrate 
this month as a life symbol and take from it a sacred gentile name. 

The next move brings the brothers to a "beautiful house." This 
is a cryptic reference to the principle for which the symbolic dwelling 
stands — that of peace, which is beautiful. They refer to the occu- 
pant as a "fear-inspiring person." This really has reference to the 
respect and the reverence that is manifested by all the people for the 
office of Peacemaker — an ofhce that belongs to this gens. The 
brothers consecrate the House of Peace and take from it a sacred 
gentile name. 

The brothers move on quickly and come again to a dead animal 
(an elk). Mo°-zho°-a'-ki-da could not explain the meaning of this 
finding. 

The brothers continue their journey and come again to the " greatest 
part of the earth." This refers, probably, to the month of Sep- 
tember, when the earth displays all of its j^ellow blossoms. These 
two months make the middle of the seasons the "greatest part of the 
earth." In the midst of its warm, moist, and vibrating air stands a 
person as in his own abiding place. The brothers take from him a 
personal gentile name, which they hope will bring them to the days 
that are boaTitiful, fruitful, and peaceful. 

They continue their journey and come to the bend of a river, where 
stands a little house with many openings. The brothers gather closely 



LAFLBsrHE] Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 277 

arouml the house and find that the occupant is a Ho°'-ga, a sacred 
person. They speak to him, addressing him as ''grandfather," and 
he rephes, as though to anticipate a request to be made, and says: 
"The httle ones shall make of me their bodies." This scene is also 
a cryptic reference to the house of the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no^-dsi, the only 
gens that did not descend from the sky, but that belongs to the earth 
and represents its power. In this house, the "house of many open- 
mgs," the cliildren of all the people are ceremonially named and by 
that act are initiated into the tribal life. At the ceremonies of the 
naming of a child a representative of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gens 
is brought to the "house of many openings" that is in the keeping of 
the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi gens, to take the leading part in the act of 
sending the little ones forward upon the path of life. 

The objective point of the mythical journey of the Tsi'-zhu Wa- 
shta'-ge from the sky to the earth appears to be the two houses of 
mystery, the sanctuary (the house of peace), and the house from 
which the little ones are sent ceremonially upon their life journey. 
Both of these houses occupy an important place in the ceremonial 
life of the tribe. This mythical story is but another expression of 
the belief that life is conceived in the sky and descends to earth to 
take material form. 

THE Wl'-GI-E 
(Osage version, p. 453; literal translation, p. 591) 

1. Ha' tha tsi ta', a bi" da, tsi ga.^' 

2. The little ones have not become a people, O, younger brothers, 

they said to one another. 

3. The elder brothers spake, saying: O, younger brothers, 

4. We bid you go and make search for a place wherein the little ones 

may become a people. 

5. Then, even as these words were spoken, a younger brother 

hastened forth 

6. To the first great divisions of the heavens, 

7. Where he stood and paused. 

8. Then he returned to his elder brothers, to whom he spake, saying: 

O, elder brothers, 

9. Verily, nothing of importance has come to my notice. 

10. The elder brothers spake, saying: Makefurthersearch,0, younger 

brothers, 

11. The little ones have not become a people. 

•3 The meaning of the words of this line has become obscure and can not be translated. Therefore the 
line is given only in the first section of the translation of the wi'-gl-e. However, it appears in every section 
of the original (the Osage version). 



278 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 86 

12. Then Ka'-xe-wa-hu-pa " 

13. Wont forth in haste, even as the elder brothers spake, 

14. To the second of the great divisions of the heavens. 

15. Then, as the god of darkness struck the heavens with a dark 

shadow, 

16. He returned to his elder brothers and stood before them, 

17. Who spake, saying: How has it been with you, O, younger 

brother? It has not been your wont to suffer so. 

18. Ka'-xe-wa-hu-pa replied: I have been to the second division of 

the heavens, 

19. Where it is not possible for the little ones to exist, O, elder 

brothers. 

20. The elder brothers spake, saying: O, younger brothers, 

21. Look you, we bid you go and make further search, O, younger 

brothers. 

22. Verily, as the elder brother uttered these words, 

23. A younger brother went forth to the third division of the heavens. 

24. Verily, he came close to the third heaven, where he paused and 

stood. 

25. Then the younger brother, 

26. Even as the god of darkness struck the heavens with a dark 

shadow, 

27. Returned to his elder brothers before whom he stood. 

28. And they spake, saying: How has it been with you ? It has not 

been your wont to suffer so. 

29. It is not possible for the little ones to exist in the third heaven, 

O, elder brothers, the younger brother replied. 

30. The elder brothers spake, saying: O, younger brothers, 

31. We bid you go forth and make further search. 

32. The Ka'-xe-wa-hu-^a 

33. Then hastened away, 

34. To the fourth division of the heavens. 

35. Close to it he stood and paused. 

36. Then the Ni'-ka-wa-ko°-da-gi, the Man-of-mysteries (god of the 

clouds), 

37. Appeared and stood before him. 

38. The Ka'-xe-wa-hu-9a turned and spake to his elder brothers, 

saying: Here stands a person, O, elder brothers, 

39. Verily, a fear-inspiring person, O, elder brothers, 

" Careful inquiry concerning this name or title failed to bring any explanation from old Osage men as 
to its meaning. J. Owen Dorsey, in his "Osage Traditions" (Sixth Annual Report, B. A. E.. p. 3S4), 
translates this title as "Crow bone white," but it is doubtful if this is the true meaning. Ka-xe-wa-hu-^a 
may be a corruption of the title Ka'-ge-wa-hu-stsa,Youngest-of-the-brothers. In a Child Naming wi'-gi-e 
given by shc'-ge-mo"-!" he uses the title Ka'-(g)e-ha-ge, Last-of-the-brothers. This title is frequently used 
in the wi'-gi-es. (See list of gentes given by Black-dog, p. 52.) 



LA FLGSCHE)] 



Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 279 



40. Fear-inspiring -° is his name, I verily believe. 

41. Tlien they spake to the person, saying: O, grandfather. 

42. He replied: I am a person of whom the little ones may well make 

their bodies. 

43. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

44. They shall free themselves from all causes of death, as they travel 

the path of life. 

45. When they make the name Little-hawk (pi. 9, b) 

46. To be their personal name, as they travel the path of life, 

47. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age. 

48. The-hawk-woman 

49. Is also a name that is mine. 

50. That name, too. 

51. The little ones shall make to be their name as they travel the 

path of life. 

52. Then shall they enable themselves to live to see old age as they 

travel the path of life. 

53. I am not the only being. 

54. The elder brothers spake: O, younger brothers. 

55. Then a younger brother quickly went forth, 

56. To the Buffalo-lift-ye-your-heads (for story of the origin of this 

name see p. 65.) 

57. Verily, the younger brother stood close to him and spake, 

58. Saying: O, grandfather. 

59. Then turning to his brothers he spake: Here stands a person, 

60. Verily, a person who is fear-inspiring, O, elder brothers. 

61. Then the Buffalo spake, saying: I am a person of whom the little 

ones may well make their bodies (pi. 8, c). 

62. Thereupon he threw liimseK upon the earth, 

63. And the blazing star {Lacinaria pycnostachya) (pi. 21) 

64. Sprang up from the soil and stood pleasing to the sense of sight 

with its beauty. 

65. Then the Buffalo spake, saying: Of this plant also the little ones 

shall make their bodies. 

66. The brothers quickly tasted the root of the plant, 

67. And they said: It is bitter to the taste. 

68. The Buffalo spake: This plant shall be medicine for the little ones. 

69. When the little ones use it for medicine, 

70. It shall be of value to them, it shall make their limbs, to lengthen 

in growth. 

71. Then shall they be enabled to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

> The name No°'-R«-wa-tlie, Fear-Inspiring, is used to tUs day by the Ni'-ka-wa-ko^da-gl gens. 



280 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

72. For a second time the Buffalo threw himself upon the earth, 

73. And the poppy mallow {Callirrhm triangulata) (pi. 21) 

74. Sprang from the soil and stood, beautiful, in its reddened 

blossoms. 

75. The Buffalo spake, saying: Of this plant, also, 

76. The little ones shall make their bodies. 

77. When the little ones use it as medicine as they travel the path 

of life 

78. It shall be of value to them; they shall use it to make their 

limbs to lengthen in growth. 

79. To the taste it is astringent. 

80. Therefore your little ones shall be named Astringent. 

81. When the little ones make of this plant their bodies, 

82. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

83. Then the Buffalo 

84. Again threw himself upon the earth, 

85. And the red com 

86. He tossed into the air, 

87. Then spake, saying: The little ones shall make of the red com 

their bodies. 

88. When the little ones make of the red corn their bodies, 

89. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

90. For a second time the Buffalo threw himself upon the earth, 

91. And the blue corn, 

92. Together with the blue squash, 

93. He tossed into the air, 

94. Then spake, saying: These plants also 

95. The little ones shall use as food as they travel the path of life. 

96. Then shall they enable themselves to live to see old age as they 

travel the path of life. 

97. For a third time the Buffalo threw himself upon the earth, 

98. And the white corn, 

99. Together with the white squash, he tossed into the air, 

100. Then spake, saying: These plants the little ones shall use as 

food as they travel the path of life. 

101. They shall thus cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by 

death as they travel the path of life. 

102. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 21 




THE POPPY MALLOW AND THE BLAZING STAR 



LAFLESCHE) Nl'-KI W'i'-GI-ES 281 

103. For the fourth time the Buffalo threw himself upon the earth, 

104. And the speckled corn, 

105. Together with the speckled squash, 

106. He tossed into the air, 

107. Then spake, saying: What living creature is there that has no 

mate? 

108. And thus he wedded together the speckled corn, a male, to the 

speckled squash, a female. 

109. He continued: The little ones shall use these plants for food as 

they travel the path of life. 

110. Thus they shall make themselves to be free from all causes of 

death as they travel the path of life. 

111. The elder brothers spake, saying: O, younger brothers, we bid 

you go and make further search. 

112. Then the j^ounger brothers arose and went forth 

113. To a place where stood a red oak tree. 

114. Close to the tree they gathered and stood, 

115. And they spake, saying: Of this tree also 

116. We shall make our bodies. 

117. As they put their feet upon the branches of the tree the acorns 

fell to the earth in profusion.^" 

118. Whereupon they spake, saying: Of this act also (the falling of 

the acorns to the earth in profusion) 

119. The little ones shall make their bodies 

120. And enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel the 

path of life. 

121. The brothers passed on and came to the red cedar tree" (an 

evergreen) . 

122. Close to the tree they gathered, 

123. Then the tree spake, saying: I am a god who is difficult to be 

overcome by death. 

2» At the close of the recitation of this wi'-gi-e Mo»-Eho»-a'-ki-da explained that the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge 
in order to perpetuate the memory of the story of the people ahghting on the red oak tree, adopted three 
gentile names to be ceremonially given to their children: Pi -^i', U-bu'^lse, and No^-bu'-dse: Ti-gi', Acorn, 
the fruit of the red oak tree: U-bu'-dse, Profuse: No^-bu'^lse, composed of Noo, action of the feet, referring 
to the mythical story of the alighting of the people upon the acorn tree, bu-dse, a part of the word u-bu^dse, 
meaning profuse. The story as given in paraphrase tells that the people of this gens on their descent from 
the sky alighted upon a red oak, the shock of their weight on the branches sending down a shower of acoms 
from the tree, where they lay on the earth in profusion. This incident was regarded as prophetic of the 
great number of children to be bom to the gens. Centuries ago, when the break occurred which resulted 
in the Osage and the Omaha becoming two distinct tribes, the Omaha preserved in the name they 
retained for the red oak tree, "Bu-de," a memory of this ancient myth, which gave a prophetic promise, 
to the people that their craving for a prolonged tribal Ufe should be fulfilled through an abundant posterity. 

3? Tradition is silent as to the origin of the sacred pole that belonged to the Omaha We'-zhio-ste gens 
and as to the time when the rites connected with it ceased to be observed. To the lower part of the cere- 
monial pole is fastened a piece, which is called zhi'-be, the leg. (See Twenty-seventh Annual Report, 
B. A. E., p. 229.) The ceoar figures prominently in the rites of the Osage as a symbol of life persistency, 
and it may be that the We'-zhin-ste sacred pole which was made of red cedar is a vestige of one of the rites 
the Omaha took with them when tbey separated from the Osage. "Whether this be so or not, it is certain 
that the red cedar is a sacred tree to both the Omaha and the Osage and that both had rites relating to that 
tree which may at some time in the past have been in common use between them. 



282 THE OSAGE TEIBE [bth. ann. 36 

124. When the little oaes make of me their bodies, 

125. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life, 

126. They shall live to see their hair grown scant and yellowish with 

age as they travel the path of life. 

127. Behold the wrinkles upon my skin, 

128. Which I have made to be the means of reacliing old age. 

129. The little ones shall make of me the means of reaching old age 

as they travel the path of life. 

130. Behold the base of my trunk from which spread my roots, 

131. It is that part of me that is called the ankle. 

132. The little ones shall live to see in their ankles the sign of old age, 

133. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

134. O, my grandchildren, 

135. I am not the only being. 

136. The brothers passed on, verily to the shallows of a river where 

the waters rush on noisily. 

137. Close to the shallows they stood, 

138. Then one spake, saying: Behold a Wa-zha'-zhe stands before us, 

139. Verily, a person who has made of the waters his body. 

140. Then the Wa-zha'-zhe spake, saying: O, my grandchildren, 

141. You say the little ones have nothing of which to make their 

bodies. 

142. When the little ones make of me their bodies 

143. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by death 

as they travel the path of life. 

144. When the little ones make of me their bodies 

145. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age as they travel 

the path of life. 

146. They shall enable themselves to reach and enter the days that 

are beautiful and peaceful as they travel the path of life. 

147. I am not the only being. 

148. The elder brothers spake, saying: Make haste, O, younger 

brothers. 

149. Then, even as these words were spoken, the younger brothers 

hastened forth, 

150. To the sedge (Carex), the grass that never dies, who spake, 

151. Saying: O, my grandchildren, I am a god that is difficult to 

overcome by death. 

152. When the little Ones make of me their bodies 

153. Thqy shall make themselves to be difficult to overcome by death 

as they travel the path of life. 

154. I am not the only being. 



LA FLBSCHE] Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 283 

155. Then spake the Shi^'-zha-hi (an unidentified evergreen water 

plant) , 

156. Saying, I, also, 

157. Am difficult to overcome by death. 

158. When the little ones make of me their bodies 

159. They shall make themselves to be difficult to overcome by death 

as they travel the path of life. 

160. I abide in the days that are beautiful and peaceful. 

161. The little ones shall enable themselves to reach and enter into 

the days that are beautiful and peaceful as they travel the 
path of life. 

162. The elder brothers spake: O, younger brothers, 

163. Make haste, O, younger brothers. 

164. The younger brothers moved quickly on, 

165. Then one spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

166. Yonder lies an animal that has just been slain. 

167. The elder brothers repUed: O, younger brothers, 

168. It is fit that the little ones make of the slain animal their bodies. 

169. The little ones shall make of it their bodies. 

170. When the little ones make of the slain animal their bodies, 

171. They shall enable themselves to see old age as they travel the 

path of life. 

172. The elder brothers spake: O, younger brothers, 

173. Make haste, O, younger brothers. 

174. Then the younger brothers quickly moved on 

175. To the greatest part of the earth. ^' 

176. Close to this place the brothers gathered and stood. 

177. Then one spake, saying: Of this also 

178. The little ones shall make their bodies, 

179. And we shall take from it a personal name; Mid-earth shall be 

our name. 

180. Then the little ones shall make themselves to be difficult to 

overcome by death as they travel the path of life. 

181. The elder brothers spake, saying: O, younger brothers, 

182. Make haste and move on quickly. 

183. Then one spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

184. There is a person in yonder place 

185. Who dwells in a beautiful house. ^' 

186. The person 

187. Dwells in a house that has an opening at the top (smoke vent). 

=» This is figurative and means that part of the summer season when the greatness of the earth Is 
manifested by the ripeness of its fruits. 
" This is figurative and refers to the House of Peace, the sanctuary of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge. 



284 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

188. From this also 

189. lie may have taken a jiersoiial name. 

190. He seems pleased with the beauty of his home, O, elder brothers. 

191. It is a very beautiful house, O, elder brothers. 

192. The little ones shall make of it their bodies. 

193. They shall take from it the name House-beautiful. 

194. Then the little ones shall enable themselves to live to see old 

age as they travel the path of life^. 

195. The person 

196. Is verily a fear-inspii-ing person. 

197. House-covering is also his name, I verily believe. 

198. Of this also 

199. The little ones shall make their bodies. 

200. When the little ones make of it their bodies 

201. They shall enable themselves to live to see old age. 

202. They shall enable themselves to reach and enter the days that 

are beautiful and peaceful as they travel the path of life. 

203. The younger brothers spake, 

204. Saying: The little ones have nothing of wlrich to make their 

bodies, O, elder brothers. 

205. The elder brothers spake: O, younger brothers, 

206. Make haste and move quickly on. 

207. Then the younger brothers 

208. Quickly moved on. 

209. Then one spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

210. Yonder lies an animal (an elk) 

211. That has just been slain, O, elder brothers. 

212. The elder brothers replied: O, younger brothers, 

213. The little ones shall make of it their bodies. 

214. When they make of it their bodies 

215. They shall make themselves to be difficult to overcome by death 

as they travel the path of life. 

216. The elder brothers spake: Make haste, O, younger brothers. 

217. Then the younger brothers hastened on 

218. To the greatest part of the earth, 

219. Where stands a person. 

220. Even at the greatest part of the earth 

221. There the person stands, 

222. As in his own abiding place, in the midst of the moist vibrating 

warmth of the air. 

223. The brothers spake, saying: The little ones shall make of this 

person their bodies. 

224. They shall take to themselves the name Mid-earth. 

225. Earth also shall be their personal name. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 22 




MON-ZHON-A'-KI-DA 

A member of one oi the subpenrcs of the Tsi'-zhu \Va-shta'-ge (Peace) gens of the Tsi'-zhn great tribal 
division. This man willingly gave the Ni'-ki \Vi'-gl-e of his gens because he said it should be preserved 
as the ancient rites will soon be forgotten. His name means Guardian of the Land. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 23 




WA-THU-XA-GE 

1 /hii \Va-slita'-gc (Peace) gens of tho Tsi'-zhu groat tribal division. He was said to be well 
11. . mI his people but he was in poor health when he gave his information concerning them, 
ii uals he gave were fragmentary. Wa'-thu-xa-ge died not long after his visit to Washington 
Ilic Mies of his gens. 



LAFLESCHB] Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 285 

226. Then shall they enable themselves to live to see old age. 

227. The days that are beautiful and peaceful they shall be able to 

reach, 

228. The four great divisions of the days they shall be able to reach, 

as they travel the path of life. 

229. The brothers spake to one another, saying: O, elder brothers, 

230. Make liaste, O, elder brothers. 

231. Then they spake, saying: O, younger brothers. 

232. Then the yovinger brotliers moved hastily on, 

233. To a bend in the river. 

234. Verily, at that time and place. 

235. The younger brothers spake, saying: Yonder stands a little 

house, O, elder brothers. 

236. Then all the brothers gathered close to the little house, 

237. When one spake, saying: The occupant is a Ho°'-ga, O, elder 

brothers. 

238. Then they spake to the Ho^'-ga, saying: O, grandfather. 

239. The Ho^'-ga replied; The little ones may well make of me their 

bodies. 

240. A younger brother exclaimed: 

241. The person dwells in a beautiful house, O, elder brothers.'" 

242. The elder brothers replied: Of this house, also, 

243. The little ones shall make their bodies as they travel the path 

of life. 

244. A younger brother spake: The house has many entrances, O, 

elder brothers. 

245. The elder brothers replied: Of that, also, 

246. The little ones shall make their bodies. 

247. Then shall the little ones enable themselves to live to see old age, 

248. They shall enable themselves to reach and to enter into the four 

great divisions of the days as they travel the path of life. 

A Fragmentary Ni'-ki Ritual of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge Gens 

At the time that Wa'-thu-xa-ge (pi. 23) gave the following initia- 
tory Ni'-ki Ritual of his gens, the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge, he was quite 
sick and scarcely able to give it his entire attention. Therefore his 
rendition is somewhat fragmentary. The death of this old man 
occurred not long after his return to his home. 

Wa'-thu-xa-ge began the ritual from the Ki'-no° Wi'-gi-e, which 
relates to the symbolism of the ceremonial paintmg and dressing of 
the Xo'-ka. The first section refers to the red paint used, which is 
symbolic of the sacred fire built by the fsi'-zhu people and reddening 
of the heavens by its leaping flames. (See wi'-gi-e of the Tsi'-zhu 
Wa-no° gens given by Xu-tha'-wa-to^-i", p. 242.) 

" This is figurative and refers to The Hoi'-ga bouse in which children ar« ceremonially named. 



286 THE OSAGE TRIBE [etu. ann. 36 

The second section refers to the red paint as a syinbol of tlie eastern 
sky when struck with a red glow by the approaching sun. 

The tliird section rehites to the red downy feather to be worn by 
the Xo'-ka on the crown of his head as a sjanbol of the eastern sky 
reddened by the rising sun; also the peculiar shaft of light that stands 
at the left of the sun as it rises. 

From the words of the wi'-gi-e it would appear that the Xo'-ka 
personates the sun, the dawn, and the candidate in the mitiatory 
ceremony. At the close of the second section the Xo'-ka is painted 
so that every part of his face and his entire body is reddened. 

At the close of the third section the symbolic plume is fastened to 
the base of the braided lock on the crown of the Xo'-ka's head. 
Ceremonial moccasins are put upon his feet, a buffalo robe with the 
hair outside is wrapped around his body, and thus he is clothed in 
his sacerdotal attire. 

Kl'-NO" Wl'-GI-E 

1. What shall the little ones use for the painting of their bodies? 

they said, it has been said, in this house. 

2. Then four small stones they gathered together, 

3. And arranged them so that one stood leaning against the others. 

4. This pile of stones they set on fire, 

5. So that the darkened heavens above 

6. Was reddened by the leaping flames. 

7. Then they spake to one another, saying: The reddened heavens 

shall be for the painting of the bodies of the little ones, 

8. It shall be to them a refuge from all dangers as they travel the 

path of life. 

9. What shall the little ones use for the painting of their bodies? 

they said, it has been said, in this house. 

10. The God of Day, as he approaches, 

11. Strikes the heavens with a bright red glow. 

12. That red glow shall be for the painting of the bodies of the little 

ones. 

13. When they seek refuge in its power, as they travel the path of life, 

14. They shall make themselves free from all causes of death. 

15. The words here spoken shall forever stand. 

16. What shall the little ones use for the painting of their bodies? 

they said, it has been said, in this house. 

17. The God of Day, as he approaches, 

18. Strikes the heavens with a bright red glow. 

19. At his left side there stands 

20. A light resembling a plume. 

21. That light shall be a sacred plume for the little ones. 

22. When they wear this plume as they travel the path of life, 

23. They shall make themselves free from all causes of death. 



NI -KI WI -GI-ES 



287 



The Xo'-ka, having thus been symboUcally painted and dressed, 
rises to make his ceremonial approach to the Mysterious House of 
the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no''-dsi, the gens that at all times represents the 
earth with all its life-giving power. The Xo'-ka, his candidate, and 
the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka (Master of Ceremonies) stand abreast, the Xo'-ka 
in the middle in front of the door of the house, while the Sho'-ka takes 
his place a few paces in advance. Then the Xo'-ka himself sings the 
following song and recites the first section of the wi'-gi-e relating to 
the approach to the House of Mystery. The song is sung before the 
recitation of each of the four sections of the wi'-gi-e. At the close of 
the recitation of each section of the wi'-gi-e the four men move toward 
the House of Mystery, followed by the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga, who arrange 
themselves in groups according to gentes. The movement toward 
the ceremonial house is arranged so that at the end of the fourth halt 
the procession will be at the door of the house. The following song 
is sung at each halt before the sections of the wi'-gi-e relating to the 
ceremonial approach to the House of Mystery is recited. The music 
of the song is not here repeated, it being understood that the song is 
sung before each section during the halts. 

Tsi ta'-pe wa-tho" (song of approach to the house) 

Tranaoribed by Alice C. Fletcher 

M.M. J_138 




r r r r r 

bthe do" he no" tho° a, 



r r r r ^ 

Ho" ga e-dsi a - ka do° bthe do° 




bthe do" 



Ho''-ga tsi a-dsi bthe do" he no", 
Ho''-ga tsi a-dsi bthe do" he no" tho" a, 
Hoo-ga e-dsi a-ka do" bthe do" he no" a, 
Ho°-ga e-dsi a-ka do" bthe do" he no". 



FREE TRANSLATION 



Toward the House of the Ho"'-ga I am traveling, 
Toward the House of the Ho"'-ga I am traveling, 
To the Hoi'ne where dwell the Ho"'-ga, 
Toward the House of the Ho"'-ga I am traveling. 



288 THE OSAGE TRIBE 

THE Wl'-GI-E 



1. Toward what shall they direct tlicir footsteps as they travel the 

path of life? they said, it has been said, in this house. 

2. It is toward a little valley that they shall direct their footsteps. 

3. Verily, it is not a little valley that is meant. 

4. It is toward a herd of animals that they shall direct their foot- 

steps. 

5. Verily, it is not a herd of animals that is meant. 

6. It is a little house toward which they shall direct their footsteps 

as they travel the path of life. 



7. Toward what shall they direct their footsteps as they travel the 

path of life? they said, it has been said, in this house. 

8. It is toward two little valleys that they shall direct their footsteps. 

9. Verily, it is not two Uttle valleys that is meant. 

10. It is toward two herds of animals that they shall direct their 

footsteps. 

11. Verily, it is not two herds of animals that is meant. 

12. It is toward a little house toward which they shall direct their 

footsteps as they travel the path of life. 

3 

13. Toward what shall they direct their footsteps as they travel the 

path of life? they said, it has been said, in this house. 

14. It is toward three little valleys that they shall direct their foot- 

steps. 

15. Verily, it is not three little valleys that is meant. 

16. It is toward three herds of animals that they shall direct their 

footsteps. 

17. Verily, it is not three herds of animals that is meant. 

18. It is a little house toward wliich they shall direct their footsteps 

as they travel the path of life. 

4 

19. Toward what shall they direct their footsteps as they travel the 

path of life? they said, it has been said, in this house. 

20. It is toward four little valleys that they shall direct their foot- 

steps as they travel the path of life. 

21. Verily, it is not four little valleys that is meant. 

22. It is toward four herds of animals that they shall direct their foot- 

steps. 

23. Verily, it is not four herds of animals that is meant. 

24. It is a little house toward which they shall tlirect their footsteps 

as they travel the path of life. 



NI -KI WI -GI-ES 



289 



This wi'-gi-e is also sometimes called Wa'-fi-thu-fe Wi'-gi-e, Foot- 
steps Wi'-gi-e, following the term used in some of the lines of the 
wi'-gi-e. 

From the sequential arrangement of the lines relating to the valleys 
and to the herds of animals, which means buffalo, it would appear 
that this wi'-gi-e is an epitome of the Hi'-^a-da wi'-gi-e relating to 
the finding of the foe. (See p. 212, and lines 1447 to 1542 of the 
wi'-gi-e given by Wa-xthi'-zhi, p. 208; also Wi'-gi-e of the Cere- 
monial Approach given by Xu-tha'-wa-to^-i", p. 249.) 

The fourth movement brings the procession to the door of the 
house and the members of the Ho^'-ga U-ta-no"-dsi gens enter and 
take their places at the east end of the long room on the south side. 
TheXo'-ka sings the following song as he and his candidate and the 
No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga stantl at the door: 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




Tune beats ' T f ■ |* T 

Tsi wi" e- dsi tsi do° dsi the he no° tho° 



r r 

o", Tsi wi° e-dsi 




r r , , 

tse do° dsi the he no" tho" 



r ^ r 

o", Tsi wi° e-dsi tse do" dsi the 




dsi the he no° tho° 



-4- -& 

r ^ r r 

0°, Da - ko° ge ge do" dsi the he no°. 



Tsi wi" e-dsi tse do" dsi the he no"" tho" o°, 
Tsi-wi" e-dsi tse do" dsi the he no" the" o", 
Tsi wi" e-dsi tse dc dsi the he no° tho° ho", 
Dsi the he no" tho° o", 
Da-ko" ge ge do" dsi the he no" tho" o", 
Da-ko" ge ge do" dsi the he no". 

The first four lines are repeated at the beginning of all the stanzas. 
Therefore one translation will suffice for the entire song. 
2786—21 19 



290 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

FREE TRAK8LATI0N 
1 

To the house that stands yonder 1 am going, 
To the house that stands yonder I am going, 
To the house that stands yonder I am going. 
To that house I am going, 
Where there is a light I am going. 
Where there is a light I am going. 



Where lie the moccasins I am going, 
Where lie the moccasins I am going. 



Where lies a plume I am going. 
Where lies a plume I am going. 



Where lie the property (the moccasins) I am going, 
Where lie the property I am going. 



Where lies a feather I am going. 
Where lies a feather I am going. 

At the close of the song all the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga enter the house, 
the gentes belonging to the Ho^'-ga Division taking their places at the 
south side of the room and those of the Tsi'-zhu Division at the north 
side. Then the Xo'-ka, his candidate, and the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka 
enter, pause within, and close to the door, while the Xo'ka recites 
the following wi'-gi-e, which relates to the defending of the tribe 
against its enemies by organized force. 

MOCCASIN Wl'-GI-E 

1. Upon what shall they slip off their moccasin as they travel the 

path of life? they said, it has been said, in this house. 

2. Toward the setting of the sun 

3. There dwells a man who is honored for his valorous deeds. 

4. It is upon that man they shall slip off their moccasin. 

5. When they slip off their moccasin upon this man, 

6. It shall always be easy for them to slip off their moccasin as they 

travel the path of life." 

7. Upon what shall they slip off their moccasin as they travel the 

path of life? they said, it has been said, in this house. 

8. Toward the setting of the sun 

" Here the Xo'-ka slips ofl the left foot of his ceremonial moccasins and puts on one of a pair that had 
been placed at the door for him. 



NI -KI WI -GI-ES 



291 



9. There dwells a woman who has given birth to her first child. 

10. It is upon that woman they shall shp off their moccasm. 

11. When they shp off their moccasin upon this woman, 

12. It shall always be easy for them to shp off their moccasins as they 

travel the path of life.^^ 

This act of changing the sjmibolic moccasins and the feather marks 
the beginning of the second stage of the sun's westward course, which 
the Xo'-ka is personating and dramatically enacting. The first 
movement of the change of moccasins represents the rising sun, the 
second indicates the sun's onward and westward course over the earth. 

When the Xo-ka has put on the new moccasins and feather he 
sings the following song: 



ibed by Alice C. Fletcher 




xtme beats [ 1 

Wa-ko°-da ha tsi a - dsi 



r r r 

thi bthe do" he 



rr 

no°, 



r 

i;Va-ko° 



^J. 




dsi thi bthe do" he no" tho" o", Xi-tha do° e tho wi a-thi° he no" 



m^^ 



r 



r r 

Wa-ko°-da 



ha 



r 

dsi 



r 

thi 



bthe do" 



r 

no°. 



Wa-ko''-da ha tsi a-dsi bthe do" he no°, 
Wa-ko°-da ha tsi a-dsi bthe do" he no" tho" o°, 
Xi-tha do" e tho wi a-thi" he no" o", 
Wa-ko"-da ha tsi a-dsi bthe do" he no". 

The words of lines 1, 2, and 4 are alike in all the stanzas. The 
translation given for the first stanza will suffice for all the others. 

FREE TRANSLATION 
1 

The House of Mystery I now enter, 
The House of Mystery I now enter, 
It is I, Good-eagle, who now enters, 
The House of Mystery, I now enter. 



It is I, Red-eagle, who now enters. 

3 
It is I, Good-eagle-woman, who now enters. 

4 
It is I, Mid-earth, who now enters. 



" The Xo'-ka slips off Us right foot its moccasin and puts on the other one of the pair placed for him 
at the door. He also removes the feather from the crown of his head and puts on a new one in its place . 



292 THE OSAOK TRIBE [kth. ann. 36 

In this part of the ceremony the Xo'-ka represents tlie candidate, 
so it is he who now enters the House of Mystery in the name of 
Good-eagle, Red-eagle, Good-eagle-woman and Mid-earth. At the 
close of the song the three men take their places at the middle of 
the eastern end of the room, where they sit facing the west. 

Here the Wa-the'-the ceremony is performeti, but Wa'-thu-xa-ge 
was in so much physical suffering that he was not in a condition to 
remember the tietails of this elaborate ceremony. A description of 
it has, however, been given in the Ni'-ki degree described by Wa- 
xthi'-zhi on page 155; also in that given by Xu-tha'-wa-to"-i° on 
page 253. At the conclusion of the Wa-the'-the ceremony the No" '- 
ho°-zhi°-ga of the various gentes simultaneously recite their wi'-gi-es 
relating to the life symbols of their gentes, while the members belong- 
ing to the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gens recite the wi'-gi-e relating to the 
gentile names mentioned in the song of the candidate's entering the 
lodge. 

When all have recited their wi'-gi-es a recess is taken, during which 
the men appointed to the task busy themselves distributing among 
the No°'-ho''-zhi"-ga in equal portions the provisions supplied by the 
candidate for the entertainment of all who had taken part in the 
ceremony. When the women have entered and carried away the 
provisions, a No°'-ho"-zhi°-ga speaks, saying: " O, Tsi'-zhu (addressing 
the initiating gens by name), we have performed the parts you have 
required of us and now we will rise, leaving you to perform that part 
of the ceremony that belongs individually to you." Thereupon the 
members of the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no° gens rise and in single file 
march out of the door at the north side while those of the fsi'-zhu 
Wa-no° rise soon after and go out of the door at the south side. 

When the No"'-ho"-zhi°-ga have left the Xo'-ka sings the Buffalo 
Songs. These songs are supplicatory anil express a craving for the 
continuous coming of the buffalo into bodily existence, for upon that 
animal the Osage man depends for the prolongation of his own 
bodily existence. In the first of these songs the buffalo is personified 
and made to say that they are about to come from the unseen world 
to the earth where all life takes on bodily form. The female buffalo 
is first to speak, the male follows, then is heard the little ones, and, 
lastly, the aged male who has reached that stage of life when he can 
no longer perform the functions of life. The fifth stanza refers to 
the light of day into which all life ultimately comes that it may fulfill 
its existence. 



NI -KI WI -GI-ES 
THE BUFFALO SONGS 

Song 1 



293 




r r ^ r r " r r " r r r r r 

Mo° ho° bthi" da he he-tho°-be the, Mo" ho° bthi° da a he the he 

Mi-ga do" ho" mo" ho" bthi" da he, 

E he mo" ho" bthi" da he the he-tho°-be the. 

Mo" ho" bthi" da he he-tho"-be the, 

Mo" ho" bthi" da a he the he the. 

FREE TRANSLATION 
1 

I, the female, go forth, 
Go forth from the unseen to the visible, 
I go forth from the unseen to the ■N'isilile, 
I go forth. 



r 
the. 



I, the male, go forth, etc. 

3 
I, the little one, go forth, etc. 

4 
I, the aged one, go forth, etc. 



Into the light of the da>'. I go forth, etc. 



294 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 
Song 2 



M.M. J= 112 



[DTH. ANN. 36 



Transcribed by Ailce C. Fletcher 




:^3E3: 



-J ^ *'.-..-+^— 4 



S 



t=r 



•" ^ "r ^ r r r • r r t ' 

ha mo° ho° thi° be, E he the the he the, Mi-ga tha 



Tmie beats 

Mi - 



frntizm fs^^^m^ 



ha mo° ho° thi° be, 



r r r ^ ^ r 

Mi- ga tha ha mo" ho'' thi° be. 



r r r 

E he the the 



n ^- r ^ r ' ^ r r r r r 



he the, Mi-ga tha hamooho" thi°be, A he the the the the the he. 

Mi-ga ha mo" ho" ihi° be, 

E he the the he the, 

Mi-ga tha ha mo" ho" thi" be, 

Mi-ga tha ha mo" ho" thi" be, 

E he the the he the, 

Mi-ga tha ha mo" ho" thi" be 

A he the the the the the he. 

FREE TRANSLATION 
1 

The females now go forth, etc. 

2 
The males now go forth, etc. 

3 
The little ones now go forth, etc. 

4 
The aged ones now go forth, etc. 

5 
They go forth into the light of day, etc. 

The second song speaks objectively of the food-giving buffalo as 
going forth upon their life journey, having come from the unseen 
into the visible world. The translation of the first line of each 
stanza is sufficient, as the other lines are composed of repetitions 
of the first and of vocables. 

The song next in order is the U'-zhi Wa-tho°, Planting Song. 
Before the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka sings this song the Sho'-ka conducts the 
wife of the candidate, together with her women companions, most 
of whom are her relatives, into the lodge and gives them a place in 
front of the Xo'-ka. The Sho'-ka puts into the hands of each of the 
women a woven bag and a planting pole. Each woman throws upon 



Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-ES 



295 



her back the bag, drawing the carrying strap around her shoulders, 
and stands with the pole in her I'ight hand. The woman is the 
planter, the cultivator, the harvester of the corn, and this little scene 
is meant to portray the important part she plays in the drama of life. 
In the song she is made to speak of her own actions as she plants the 
grains that are to spring into life and bear the fruit that will feed 
her people. As the season for planting draws near she clears the field 
of dead stalks and weeds, mellows the earth with her crude hoe, and 
then builds the little hills that stand with their faces looking upward 
to the sun to receive its animating rays. When all the little hills 
have been made, she begins her planting by thrusting a sharpened 
pole into the center of the sunny side of a hill, and into the hole thus 
made she drops five, six, or seven grains of com. Then she performs 
the last act, which is regarded as the most significant and sacred; she 
places upon the mound, over the hole, the imprint of her foot. It 
must be her right or her left foot, according to the tribal division to 
which she belongs. It is this particular act to which each of the 
11 stanzas of the song refers. As the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka sings the 
women stand beating time upon the ground with the lower ends of 
their planting poles. 



THE PLANTING SONG 



Traaseribed by Alios C. Fletcher 



„M.M. J- 112 


"^ r— * 


p 


l- 




v^ r^\ 1 


-* — ^ — j — J-^ 


-* — i — J — 



Time beats i j j | p f ; ' 

A - ?i - gthe no" do° - ho° no°, A - 9! - gtho no" do" - ho" no" 



r r r r 

A - gi-gthe no" do°-ho°, 



^ r , 

■ ji-gthe no° do" - ho" no". A - fi-gthe no" 




^ ' r r " 

do" -ho" no", A-ji-gtheno" 



r r 

do" - ho" no", A 



he the the the he. 



Only the first line of each stanza will be translated, as all the other 
lines are repetitions or vocables : 

A-fi-gthe no" dC-ho" no", A-ji-gthe no" do"-ho" no", 
A-fi-gthe no" do "-ho", 

A-yi-gthe no" do"-ho" no". A-fi-gthe no" do"-ho" no", 
A-(pi-gthe no" dC-ho" no" A he the the the he. 



296 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

FREE TRANSLATION 
1 

1 have made a footprint, a sacred one. 

2 

1 have made a footprint, through it the blades pnsh upward. 

3 
I have made a footprint, through it the blades radiate. 

4 
I ha\ e made a footprint, over it the blades float in the wind. 

5 
I have made a footprint, over it the ears lean toward one another. 

G 
I have made a footprint, over it I pluck the ears. 

7 
I have made a footprint, over it I bend the stalk to pluck the ears. 

8 
I have made a footprint, over it the blossoms lie gray. 

9 
I have made a footprint, smoke arises from my house. 

10 
I have made a footprint, there is cheer in my house. 

11 
I have made a footprint, I live in the light of day. 

At the close of this song the women put away their bags and poles 
and sit down, facing the.Xo'-ka, who instructs them in the details of 
certain supplicatory rites to be observed by them in dressing a sym- 
bolic robe for their little ones, in planting the corn, and in gathering 
the roots of the water lily (Nelumbo lutea) to be used for food. 
Wa'-thu-xa-ge made only this general statement concerning these 
rites, being too ill to go into all their details. (Examples of these 
instructions will be found in other initiatory rituals.) Wa-no^'-she- 
zhi°-ga, who was present, made the remark that this ceremony con- 
ferred upon the wife of the candiilate the right to jiaint her face when 
attending an initiation in this fashion: Two narrow parallel lines, one 
red, the other blue, running across the width of the forehead; two 
short narrow lines, one red, the other blue, upon each cheek running 
upward. After the instructions the women go out of the lodge, 
leavmg m their seats the fees for the Xo'-ka. 

The title of the next group of songs is Wa-tsi'-a-dsi Wa-tho°, which 
may be freely interpreted as Songs of Triumph. This title and the 
words of the songs are in cryptic form, and the uninitiated or even 
an initiated person who gives no special attention to the meaning of 
these complex rites is not able to explain their true significance. 

Song 1 voices the triumph of the initiating gens and is anticipatory 
of the success to be achieved through the initiation of a new member 
into the mysteries of life. The success particularly desired is an 
unbroken line of descendants to be granted to the initiate. 



NI -KI WI -GI-ES 



297 



SONGS OF TRIUMPH 
Song 1 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




rrr ^ ^ ^ r 

wa-to he-wa - to he wa, A -wa- to he - wa-to he wa, A - 



-j ^_ :p!fp [|:8= 1— r[|- a -N-^ _ =A=Hp^ =b 



r r 



wa - to he -wa - to 



he wa, A - wa - to he - wa - to 



A-wa-to he-wa-to he wa, 
A-wa-to he-wa-to he wa, 
A-wa-to he-wa-to he wa, 
A-wa-to he-wa-to a. 

The words composing the title may be analyzed thus: Wa-tsi', a 
meaningless word save to one well versed in the rites, when it becomes 
wa-tse', triumph: a-ilsi, there: Wa-tho°, Song. All four lines of the 
song have the same words, as follows: A, I; wa-to'. In ordinary 
usage the word would be wa-tse, triumph, but in the song it is veiled 
under the meaningless term wa-to. 

The burden of the second song is the same as that of the first and 
the words may be given the same interpretation, but to it are added 
words of praise of the Xo'-ka and the Sho'-ka for the parts they took 
in the initiation. The first two lines of each of the two stanzas, the 
rest being repetitions, may be freely translated thus: 



M.M. J = 96 



ribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




to he 



to tho ha 



r ' 

Xo - ka hi - wa he 



r '* r r r T "* r 




r ' 

the, He -.wa-to he-wa-to tho ha Xo-ka he-wa he the. 

He-wa-to he-wa-to tho ha Xo-ka hi-wa he the. 
He-wa-to he-wa-to tho ha Xo-ka hi wa-he the, 
He-wa-to he-wa-to tho ha Xo-ka he-wa he the. 



298 THE OSAGE TRIBE 

FREE TRANSLATION 
1 

I have triumphed, I have triumphed, 
With the aid given by the Xo'-ka, etc. 



I have triumphed, I have triumphed, 
With the aid given by the Sho'-ka, etc. 

The song next in order is not as easily translated because most of 
the words are purposely corrupted in order to hide their meaning 
from the uninitiated. This practice of disguising the significance of 
the words of a song, particularly one that is of a sacred nature, is 
common not only among the Osage but also among the Omaha and 
the Ponca. Two phrases of an Omaha Song of Peace will serve as 
an illustration: 

Traaacribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



Ya the ho o tha Ya the ho 

The corrupted words, "Ya the ho-o tha," have absolutely no sig- 
nificance to a person not familiar with the inner meaning of the rite. 
But to one who knows, the undisguised words of these two phrases 
are: The-thu ha-i ba, the-thu ha i ba: The-thu, here, at this house; 
ha-i, coming; ba, they. The full meaning of these words and of the 
song as explained by a man versed in the rites is as follows: When 
the messengers of a peace-making party approach the village of the 
tribe to be visited, the people hasten out of their houses and stand 
watching to see whose house the strangers are approaching. The 
song portrays this general scene and also that in front of the house 
toward which the messengers are moving. The family give the glad 
exclamation: "They are coming here! they are coming here!" (to 
our house). The exclamation signifies that the messengers will be 
hospitably received and that the family feels itself honored in the 
choice of their house by the messengers of peace to be the place of 
ceremony. (See Twenty-seventh Annual Report, B. A. E., p. 382.) 

When the following song was sung in its sequential order by 
Wa'-thu-xa-ge into the dictaphone, the opening lines of five 
stanzas were unintelligible to the writer, and he asked what they 
meant. With a slight frown Wa'-thu-xa-ge said: "O, they mean 
nothing; they are only o'-ni-o°" (vocables). The writer, being 
unsatisfied and knowing the native custom of hiding the true meaning 
of the words of sacred songs from an uninitiated person, remarked: 
"The words to me sound like A ha a-tsi° da ha the ka we." There- 
upon the old man, with a hearty laugh, said: "That's just what they 



I 



NI -KI WI-GI-ES 



299 



The cryptic words sung are "A ha wa-^i" da ha we ka we;" but 
the true words as acknowledged by Wa'-thu-xa-ge are put with the 
music and may be interpreted as follows: First line, A ha, an excla- 
mation; a tsi° da, I have come; ha, vocable; the ka, here, in this 
place; we, vocable. Second line: E the, vocables; ^i, feet; ta ha, in 
the direction of; we the, vocables. 



Song 3 



M.M. J -92 



Tranacribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




the gi ta ha we the, Ka - xa wa ci" da ha we ka we. 

Ka-xe wa (^i" da ha we ka we, 
E the fi ta ha we the, 
Ka-xe wa-^i" da ha we ka we, 
E the c;! ta ha we the, 
Ka-xa wa gi" da ha we ka we. 

FREE TRANSLATION 
1 

A ha! I have come, here to this place, 

To my feet I have come ! 

A ha! I have come, here to this place. 

To my feet I have come! 

A ha! I have come, here to this place! 

The first, third, and fifth lines of each stanza are the same and are 
not repeated in the following translation. The second and fourth 
lines of the stanzas are also alike; therefore only the second line is 
given. 

2 
To my legs I have come. 

3 
To my body I have come. 

4 
To my arms I have come. 

5 
To my head I have come. 

6 
To my mouth I have come. 



300 



THE OSAGE TKIBE 



This song and otluir songs in which aro used similar words to express 
the same meaning, Wa'-thu-xa-ge said, arc given tlie title "I'-ki 
Wa-tho"" — I, of; ki, themselves; Wa-tho", Sing; that is to say, the 
members of the gens, having completed their task of the initiation 
of a new member into the mysteries of life, sing of their owii coming 
to the earth, wher^ they took bodily form and where their bodies 
developed from infancy to maturity. First, the infant must achieve 
the power of walking; second, he must learn to use his legs; third, 
he must learn to care for the body; fourth, he must learn to use his 
arms; fifth, then in his young manhood he must learn to use his head, 
to formulate his thoughts; sixth, with his power of utterance he must 
learn to express his thoughts through speech. 

In the next song only one word stands out clearly, the word 
" Wa-ko°'-da." All the rest of the words are cryptic and unin- 
telligible. Even Wa'-thu-xa-ge could make no explanation concern- 
ing them or as to the purport of this song. However, there is strong 
probability that it refers to the future success of the candidate as a 
warrior. This very song was given by Sho°'-ge-mo"-i° in a ritual 
entitled "No"'-zhi''-zho° No"-k'o'',"' Hearing of tlie Vigil. It is the 
fourth in a group of songs called " Wa-tsi'-a-dsi Wa-tho°," Songs of 
Triumph or of Victory. The songs and the ritual to which they 
belong will be published in a later volume. The oiu' word in the song, 
" Wa-ko°'-da," probably is to direct the thoughts of the candidate to 
that unseen source of all power which enables man to act his part in life. 

Song 4 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




r r 

ha tho ka we da da, E da tha 

E da wa-ko'i-da ta ha we ha, 
Tho ka we da da ha tho ka we da da. 
Ha tho ka we da da. tha ho ka we da da. 
Ha tho ka we da da, ha tho ka we da da, 
E da wa-ko°-da ta ha we. 



t.A KLESCHE) 



NI -KI WI -GI-ES 



301 



The fifth song is also given by Sho"'-ge-mo"-i" in his No^'-zhi^-zho" 
ritual, in the Wa-tsi'-a-dsi group. It refers to certain ceremonial acts 
to be performed J)y the candidate should he ever be chosen as a war 
leader and return trium])hant from a war expedition. The meaning 
of these two songs will be explained in detail in the Vigil Rituals 
in another volume to be published later. 



Song 5 



rihed by Alice C. Fletcher 



M.M. J = 104 




^ 



:j^3=:^5^ 



m 



Es 



[4=t 



Time beats' f f ' ' 

Da the the da we the sho-the the da we ni 



da ho, 



|i 



^ 



r r • r ^ r 

Da the the da we the sho-the the da we ni 



da ha, 




r r r 


r 


sho-the the da we ni 


da. 



Da the the da we the 

Da the the da we the sho-the the da we ni da ho, 
Da the the da we the sho-the the da we ni da ha, 
Da the the da we the sho-the the da we ni da. 

The sixth and last song in this ritual belongs to the class of songs 
called I'-ki Wa-tho", the meaning of which is explained on page .300. 
Only the words "My feet, legs, bo.dy, arms, head, and mouth" are 
intelligible. The rest of the words composing the song are disguised, 
and thus rendered unrecognizable. 

This class of songs refers not only to the initiating gens in the cere- 
mony and the mythic origin of all the gentes of the tribe, but they 
also refer to the warriors as an organized body, which is here and 
elsewhere in the tribal rites likened to a man perfect in all his physical 
structure and capable of putting to effective use all his strength. 



302 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 
Song G 



Traasoribed by Alioe C Fletcher 



M.M. J =104 




Qi wi - ta hi-a ka 



r r r 

Ha ge ke no" ke no" 



gi wi - ta. 



Ha ge ke no" ke no" fi wi-ta hi-a ka wo ho, 
Ha ge ke no" ke no" <;i wi-ta hi-a ka wa, 
Qi wi-ta hi-a ka wo ho, 
Ha ge ke no" ke no" ^i wi-ta. 

What has been gathered and here presented of the Ga-hi'-ge O-k'o" 
and the Ni'-ki-e rites is but a small portion of the Osage tribal rites 
as a whole. Were the 21 versions of these two rites to be recorded 
and presented, years of labor would be required and many volumes 
filled. However, the rituals of these two rites as here recorded, both 
in the Osage and the English languages, give a fair idea of what the 
other versions would be like. 

The ancient No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga in their years of pondermg over life 
attempted to embrace in their mental vision not only the visible part 
of Nature, but even Wa-ko°'-da, whom no man can see, but whom 
they came to conceive of as a creative Power, a power that abides in 
and moves among the great cosmic bodies, as well as the various forms 
of life in and upon the earth. 



I 



PART II —OSAGE VERSION 



303 



KEY TO PRONUNCIATION 

a as in father. 

b as in bad. 

5 as in thin, thong. 

d as in dog. 

e as in prey. 

'e exploded e. 

g as in go. 

h as in he. 

i as in pierce. 

'i exploded i. 

i" nasalized i. 

'i" nasalized exploded i. 

j as in joy, jade. 

k as in kin, kind. 

k a medial k (between k and g). 

m as in man, mine. 

n as in no, nap. 

hn The sound of the initial letter is expelled from 

the nostrils and is scarcely audible. 

o as in note. 

'o exploded o. 

o" nasalized o. 

p as in pipe. , 

p a medial p (between p and b). 

r as in road, rope. 

s as in sit, sing. 

Bh as in shun. 

t as in ten. 

t a medial t (between t and d). 

th as in then, thou. 

u as in rule. 

'u exploded u. 

w as in wet, win. 

X rough German ch. 

zh ae in azure. 

304 



I 



THE WI'-Gl-ES OF THE GA-HI'-GE O-K'O" 
The Xo'-ka Wi'-gi-k 

(Free translation, p. 74; literal translation, p. 463) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Ho°'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi 

ga, 

3. Ha! wi-(?o°-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse thi'°-ge a-tha, wi-(?o°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

5. I^'-gtho^-ga Do'-ga to° a', a, bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. Ha! wi-90°-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. We'-ki-k'o° tho^-tse thi^-ge a-tha, wi-^o^-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

8. Tho'-e xtsi hi the do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. A'-ba-do a-ga-ha dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Wa'-fa-be u-^a-ka thi^-ga to" no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. Tho' to" hi no°-zhi° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Ha! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. We'-ki-k'o° tho"-tse thi°-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go-e', e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

14. Ha! zhi°-ga, e'-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse thi°-ge' e-she do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

16. We'-ki-k'o° tho''-tse a-to°-he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. E'-dsi zhi the thi°-ge xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

18. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. Xa'-dse ba-tse ho"' ^ka do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. Thi'-thi-shi-zhe gthi no°-the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

21. Ga' tse shki a, a bi"" da, tsi ga, 

22. We'-ki-k'o" the mo^-thi" ta bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

23. Tho-e' xtsi fi-thu-^e the do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Ba'-xpe ba-tse ho° ^ka do° a', a bi°, tsi ga, 

25. Ga' thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Thi'-thi-shi-zhe gthi no°-the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

27. Ga' thi''-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. We'-ki-k'o" the mo^-thi" ta bi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Tho-e' xtsi Qi-thu-(?e the do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Ga'-xa zhi''-ga pe'-gtha-gtha the xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Zho°'-sha-be-the hi ba-tse ho'"-9ka do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2786—21 20 305 



306 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

32. Ga' thi"-kslic shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

83. We'-ki-k'o" the mo"-!!!!" ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. No"'-xthe gi the mo°-thi° ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. No"'-xthe gi the ino"-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the ino"-thi" ta bi" ila', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Tho-e' xtsi (?i-thu-?e the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Mo"'-Qa ba-tse ho"' fka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. E'-dsi xtsi hi gthi" thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Ga' thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. We'-ki-k'o" the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Tho-e' xtsi fi-thii-f e the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. Ha'-fi-hi ko" ba-tse ho"' ^ka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. Thi'-thi-shi-zhe gthi no"-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Ga' thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. We'-ki-k'o" the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. Zhi"'-ga we-ki-k'o" tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Da'-gthe i-thi-sha-wi" e' no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. Sho"' xtsi ga-xe mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Tho-e' xtsi pi-thu-^e the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. A'-ba-do a-ga-ha dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. I'"'pa-Qi ho"' fka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. I'"' zhi°-ga do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. ^^to'-the zhu gthi no"-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Ga' thi"-kshe sliki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. We'-ki-k'o" the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi, ga, 

57. Zhi"'-ga da-fi-hi ki-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. We'-ki-k'o" the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. Zhi"'-ga tsi-hi u-gthe the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga^ 

60. "Tsi'hi-u-gthe gi-sho"-tha zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

61. Wa'-ko"-da tsi i"-da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. Tsi'hi-u-gthe wi-ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. Wa'-ko"-da tsi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga the mo"-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. Wa'-ko°-da tsi to" ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. U'-fi-gthe wi" i-tse-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. U'-fi-gthe pe-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. Thi'-u-ba-he i-shdu-ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. U'-f.i-gthe pe-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. Ga' tse shki a' a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. Wa'-we-a-ga-pko"-the i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. O'-do" pe-tho°-ba e' no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



I 



LAFLESCHE] TKIBAL. RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 307 

75. U'-pi-gthe sha-pe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

76. Thi'-u-ba-he tha-ta dsi a', a bi° da, (si ga, 

77. U'-fi-gthe sha'-pe ha i-tse-the to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

78. Ga'-tse shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

79. Wa'-we-a-ga-pko^-the i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

80. O'-do" sha-pe e' no" bi no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

81. I'-tha-ga-9ko''-the i" da', e to° a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

82. He'-dsi xtsi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

83. Zhi'"-ga zho-i-ga tha bi ga' no^-zhi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

84. Mi'-xa-(?ka to^-ga thi°-kshe no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

85. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga the ta bi a', wi-po^-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da 

tsi ga, 

86. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga o^-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

87. Wa'-dsu-ta sho°-e-go° xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

88. Wi'-no° a-hiu fa-gi bthi" da, e' to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 
89- Ho^'-ba he-be a', a bi" da', tsi ga, 

90. fse'-do" go-da-ha xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

91. Ga-ha'-ha a-hi-gthi° a-thi^-he no" i" da, e to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

92. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do°-a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

93. A'-hiu-ha ?a-gi a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

94. Ho^'-ba u-fa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

95. U'-hi ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

96. U'-no° a bi shki i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

97. Zhi^'-ga u-no" o^-gi-the m()"-thi'' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

98. U'-iio° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

Kl'-NO" Wl'-GI-E 

(Free translation, p. 77; literal translation, p. 466) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa'-9a-be u-pa-ka thi°-ge kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. Ta' ki-thi-xa bi u-zhi°-ga xtsi thi°-kshe dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Ni'-dse ki i-no^-the ta do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. U'-k'o° wa-no°-tha zhi xtsi thi" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. Ta'-dse e-no° ha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. Ha'-shki-pa a-gthi no^-zhi^-zhi" the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. Sho°' to° i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. Thu-e' xtsi pi-thu-pe the do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Xa'-dse ba-tse ho°'-fka do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Thi'-thi-pki gthi no"-the thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-tha zhi the a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



308 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 



14. Thu-e' xtsi pi-thu-^e the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. Ba'-xpe zhi"-ga ho°'-pka do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

16. Thi'-thi-pki gthi iio°-the thi^-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. Ni'-dse ki i-no^-tha zhi the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Thu-e' xtsi pi-thu-(?e the do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. Ga'-xa zhi°-ga i?e gtha-gtha xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Zho^'-sha-be the hiu ba-tse hc'-pka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Thi'-thi-pki gthi i-no°-the thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Ni'-dse ki i-nC-tha zhi the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

23. Thu-e' xtsi pi-thu-<?e the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Ga'-xa zhi°-ga pe' gtha-gtha xtsi ge dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. Ha'-pi hi ko" thi°-kshe no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

26. Thi'-thi-pki gthi i-no^-the thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Ni'-dse ki i-no°-tha zhi the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Thu-e' xtsi pi-thu-pe tha do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

29. Mo°'-ha pa-^;i ho^'-pka do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

30. '1°' zhi°-ga do-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

31. Thi'-ta-the gthi i-no°-the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

32. Ni'-dse ki i-no°-tha zhi the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

33. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Thu-e' xtsi pi-thu-pe the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

35. '1°' pa-pi a-ga-ha dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

36. '1°' z^°-ga do-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

37. Thi'-po°-tha gthi i-tse-the to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

38. 'P' ta-xpi a-gtho° xtsi hi gthi" thi^-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

39. Ni'-dse ki i-no°-the thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

40. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Mi' pe-tho°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. He'-dsi xtsi hi gthi° thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

44. Ho°'-ba u-pa-ki-ba wi" u-pshi sho° e'-ki-the thi^-kshe a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

45. Wa'-zhi°-ga ho-wa-gi ki-he sho° e'-go° xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

46. Ho'-to° wa-no°-k'o'' thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

47. Ho^'-ba u-pa-ki-ba wi° u-pshi sho° e'-ki-the thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

48. Wa'-gthu-shka zhi^-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

49. Kia'-hi-hi the xtsi wa-do^-be thi^-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

50. Ho°'-ba u-(?a-ki-ba wi° up-shi she" e'-ki-the thi"-kshe a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 



LAFLKSCHE] TRIBAL RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 309 

51. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

52. Wa'-ko°-da u-pshi sho° e'-ki-the thi^-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

53. Zlii°'-ga-zlii°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

54. Ho°'-ba u-i?a-ki-ba u-ni-ka-shi-ga ta bi e'-ki-the thi°-kshe a', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

55. Zhi°'-ga-zhi°-ga gthu-pe do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

56. Wa'-ko^-da tse-ga xtsi e-tho°-be hi no° bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 
67. Ba'-ha tsi no°-zhi" to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

58. Zhi°'-ga ni-ka-shi-ga bi a', wi-tsi-go e', e to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. Zhi^'-ga u-iio° i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', wi-tsi-go e', e to" 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

Kl'-NO" Wl'-GI-E 

(Free translation, p. 79; literal translation, p. 468) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Zhi^'-ga ki-no° gi-tha bi thi^-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e to° a, a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

3. Zhi^'-ga ki-no° gi-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Wa'-ko°-da tse-ga xtsi e-tho^-be hi no" bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. Wa'-ko°-da u-ga-zhu-dse hi no" no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Ga' ki-no° gi-the mo°-thi° ta bi" da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. Ki'-no° gi-the mo^-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. Wa'-pa-be u-fa-ka thi°-ge kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. E'-shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. Wa'-ko°-da u-to°-ba bi ki-the mo^-thi" ta bi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Zhu'-i-ga ^a-be ga ge a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. No°'-xthe gi-the mo^-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. Wa'-ko°-da u-to"-be bi ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. The'-shka pka ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Wa'-ko°-da ho"-ba do" thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. I'-bi-90"-dse o"-kshi-the ta i tse a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. I'-bi-?o"-dse o°-kshi-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Mi'-xa fka to"-ga thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Ha! wi-tsi-go e' e-gi-a-bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi°-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge' e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



310 THE OSAGE TRIBE [kth. an-s. 36 

28. Zhi"'-g!i zh()-i->^a <)"-tha ba tlio" tse mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga 

29. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. U'-iio° a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. ^^'-ha u-sha-be ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. No"'-xthe gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Wa'-ko"-da u-to"-ba bi ki-the mo"-tlii° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Pa'-zhu-zhe i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Zhi°'-ga no"-xthe gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Wa'-ko"-da u-to"-ba bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

40. A'-hiu ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Wa'-gthe gi-the rao"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, ts' ga, 

42. Wa'-gthe gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. Ho"'-ba wa-gu ga to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. I'-tha-thu-pe o"-ga-xe o°-mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Ho°'-ba u-pa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. U'-hi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

I. Mo''-thi'"-the-do'*-ts'a-ge 

(Free translation, p. 84; literal translation, p. 470) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa'-zha-zhe U-dse-the iie-tho°-ba ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Wa'-zha-zhe wi°' a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Wa'-ki-gthi-gtho" tsi-the thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

5. 'rsi'-xi"-dse xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Ba'-mo°-xe hi-the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Ho°'-ga wa-ga-xa bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. I"'-dse-ha ga-xe to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Xa'-ge tha-shto" a-zhi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Thu-e' xtsi 9i-thu-(;'e the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. 'rsi-u'-ho°-ge xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Wa'-ko"-da tho-to" a-thi" hi thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. U'-pa-^e tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. 'Tse'-xe xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. I'-sdo-ge jia-gthe xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Ba'-mo"-xe hi-the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Wa'-ko°-da i"-shta a-ga-pta ga-xe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Sho"'-thi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Wa'-ko"-da ho°-ba do" thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 311 

22.^ Ho°'-ga wa-ga-xa bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. I°'-dse-ha ga-xe do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

24. Ho^'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. Xa'-ge wa-tha-shto° a-zhi thi" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

26. Sho°'-to° i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

27. Wa'-kC-da tho-to" a-thi" hi tlii° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. U'-pa-^e tho" dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

29. Xa'-ge wa-tha-shto° a-zhi thi° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Tse'-xe xtsi ge dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

31. The' shki Wa-kC-da e-dsi a-ba tho°-ta sho" e'-the thi°-kshe a', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

32. I'-sdo-ge pa-gthe xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Ba'-rao°-xe hi- the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Wa'-ko°-da i°-shta a-ga-^ta ga-xe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

36. Wa'-ko^-da o°-thi-do° hi-the mi-kshe sho" e'-ki-the kshe a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

37. Ho°'-ga wa-ga-xa bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

38. I°'-dse-ha ga-xe do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Ho°'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Xa'-ge wa-tha-shto° a-zhi thi° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

41. Thu-e' xtsi pi-thu-^e the do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

42. Wa'-ko"-da tho-to° a-thi° hi thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. U'-pa-pe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. Xa'-ge wa-tha-shto" a-zhi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Tse'-xe xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. Tlie' shki wa-ko"'-da e-dsi a-ba tho" ta sho" e'-the thi°-kshe a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. I'-sdo-ge pa-gthe xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Ba'-mo"-xe hi-the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. Wa'-ko°-da i°-shta a-ga-?ta ga-xe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Sho"' thi°-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Wa'-ko"-da o°-thi-do° hi-the mi-kshe sho" e'-ki-the thi"-kshe a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. Pa' thi-ho° tsi-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Ho"'-ga wa-ga-xa bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. I"'-dse-ha ga-xe do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. Xa'-ge wa-tha-shto" a-zhi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Sho"' thi"-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Wa'-ko°-da tho-to" a-thi" hi thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. U'-pa-(?e tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. fse'-xe xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. The' shki do" a, a bi" da, tsi ga. 



312 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

62. Wa'-ko"-cla e-dsi a-ba tho" ta sho° e'-the thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

63. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, (si ga, 

64. I'-sdo-ge pa-gthe xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

65. Ba'-mo°-xe hi the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. Wa'-ko°-da i°-shta a-ga-fta ga-xe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. Ho^'-ga wa-ga-xa bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

69. I°'-dse-ha ga-xe do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

70. Ho^'-ba i-ta-xe tho° dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

71. Xa'-ge wa-tha-shto° a-zhi thi° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

72. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. Sho°' the i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

74. Wa'-ko°-da tho-to° a-thi" hi thi^-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

75. U'-zho" we-sha-pe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. Ni'u-ho°-ge wi" e-dsi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

77. He'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi° to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

78. The' shki wa-ko^-da e-dsi a-ba tho° ta sho° e'-the thi°-kshe a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. The' ga xtsi a-zho° tse e'-the thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

81. Wa'-ko°-da i°-shta a-ga-^ta ga-xe kshe a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

82. Wa'-ko°-da o°-thi-do° hi- the mi-kshe sho" e'-ki-the kshe a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga 

83. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

84. Pa' thi-ho° tsi-the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

85. Ho°'-ga wa-ga-xa bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

86. I^'-dse-ha ga-xe do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

87. Ho^'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

88. Xa'-ge wa-tha-shto° a-zhi thi° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, . 

89. Ni'u-ho^-ge wi° e-dsi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

90. He'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi° to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

91. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

92. Mo°'-thi°-the-do°-ts'a-ge do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

93. He'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi'' to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

94. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e', e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

95. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga-tha bi thi^-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-e to° a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

96. Ha' ! zhi°-ga e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

97. Zhi'"-ga zho-i-ga-tha bi thi''-ge' e-she do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

98. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha ba tho° ta mi-kshe i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

99. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

100. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

101. pi'-pa-ha ga thi''-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

102. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to" he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 313 

103. U'-no" a bi i-tlie ki-tlie mo°-thi° ta bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

104. Hi'-zhu-ga-wa ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

105. U'-no° a-gi-the a-to° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

106. Zhi°'-ga u-no" gi the mo^-thi" bi do" ski a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

107. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

108. 'Tse'-wa-tse-u-ga-wa ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

109. U'-no° a-gi-the a-to° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

110. Zhi"'-ga u-no° gi-the mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

111. Tse'-wa-tse-u-ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta bi" da', a' bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

112. Mo^'-ge thi-(?to-the ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

113. U'-no° a-gi-the a-to° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

114. Zhi°'-ga u-no° gi-the mo°-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

115. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta bi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

116. A'-zhu-ga-wa ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

117. U'-no° a-gi-the a-to" he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

118. Zhi°'-ga u-no° tlia bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1 19. A'-zhu-ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

120. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

121. A'-hiu ga tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

122. E'shki do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

123. Wa'-thi°-e-9ka zhi i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

124. Wa'-hiu-k'a a-gi-the a-to° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

125. Zhi°'-ga wa-liiu-k'a gi-the mo°-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

126. Wa'-hiu-k'a gi-pa-hi ki-the mo"-thi° ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

127. Wa'-hiu-k'a gi-the nio"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

128. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the ino"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

129. Zhi°'-ga wa-no"-xe i-thi-shto" kshe shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

130. I'-ki-pa-no"-xe-fka mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga, e-to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

131. A'-ba-t'o-xa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

132. U"'-no" a-gi-the a-to" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

133. U'-no" tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

134. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

135. Do'-dse-u-ga-wa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

136. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

137. U'-no" tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

138. Do'-dse u-ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta bi" da', a bi" da 

tsi ga, 

139. fa'-xpi hi" ?a-dse ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi"da, tsi ga, 

140. U'-no" tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

141. fa'-xpi hi" ^a-dse a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', zhi"-ga' 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 



314 THE OSAGE TKIBE [bth. ann. 36 

II. Ho*"-OA Wa-gthi^-ts'a-ge (The Aged Eagle) 

(Free translation, p. 88; literal translation, p. 473) 

1 . He-dsi xtsi a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. He'-dsi xtsi i-no^-zhi" do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Hi°'-da a-gthe tse e'-ki-the to° a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

4. U'-zho° we-pe-tho°-ba tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. Ga'-xa zhi°-ga xtsi ge dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. He'-dsi xtsi gi thi° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. Ho°'-ga Wa-gthi°-ts'a-ge do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. He'-dsi xtsi gthi no°-zhi° to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e', e gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga-tha bi thi°-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha ba tlio" ta mi-kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the ino°-tlii° ta bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. yi'-R^-li^ g^ thi"-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

16. U'-no° a-gi-the a-to" he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. Zhi°'-ga u-no° tha bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

18. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. Hi'-ko° ba-(;'i°-tha ga ge shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. U'-no° a-gi-the a-to° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

21. U'-no° tha bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. Hi'-ko°-ba-9'i°-tha a' bi i-the ki-the ino°-thi° ta bi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

23. fse'-wa-tse u-ga-wa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. U'-no° a-gi-the a-to° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. U'-no° tha bi do° shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. fse'-wa-tse-u-ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi° da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

27. Mo°'-ge thi-ftu-the ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

28. U7no°' a-gi-the a-to° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. U'-no° tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Mo"'-ge thi-gtu-the a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da^ 

tsi ga, 

31. A'-zhu-ga-wa ga tlii"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. U'-no" tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi".da, tsi ga, 

36. A'-hiu ga tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Wa'-hiu-k'a o"-gi-tha ba the" ta a-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Wa'-hiu-k'a gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 315 

39. Wa'-hiu-k'a gi-jia-hi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

40. Zhi°'-ga wa-n()"-.xo i-thi-shto" kshe shki do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

41. I'-ki-pa-no"-xe-(;ka mo"-thi'' ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. I'-ki-pa-no^-xe-fka mo"-thi° bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mC-thi" ta bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

44. A'-ba-ku t'o-xa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

45. U'-no° a-gi-the a-to° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. U'-no" tha bi do° shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Do'-dse u-ga-wa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Zhi°'-ga u-no" gi-the mo°-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Do'-dse u-ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

52. Ta'-xpi hi" <?a-dse ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. E'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to" he i°-da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. U'-no" tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. Ta'-xpi hi" ?a-dse a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

III. Mo^'-fE (Metal) Wi'-gi-e 

(Free translation, p. 90; literal translation, p. 475) 

1. He-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. U'-zho" we-pe-tho"-ba tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Tsi-u'-ho"-ge xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. He'-dsi xtsi a-gthi-no"-zhi" e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Mo"-pe u-shpe ho"-(;-ka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. He'-dsi xtsi a-gthi-no°-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. Ha'! wi-tsi-go e', e tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Ha' ! zhi"-ga e', c tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

LO. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha ba tho" ta mi-kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. fs'e wa-tse-xi mi-kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. fs'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi° ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. Zhi°'-ga wa-hiu-k'a o"-gi-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Zhi"'-ga wa-hiu-k'a o°-gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Wa'-hiu-k'a gi-pa-hi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga 

19. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Wa'-hiu-k'a o°-gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Zhi°'-ga wa-no"-xe i-thi-shto" kshe shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



316 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

22. 0°-tho°'-ki-pa-no''-xe-9ka mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

23. 0"-tho'"-ki-pa-no°-xe-fka mo''-tbi'' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. U'-no" a-bi i-the ki-the ino''-thi" ta bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

26. I'-ts'a thi°-ge mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

27. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o''-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

28. Wa'-ko°-da xi"-ha 9a-gi thi"-ga i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Wi'-no° Wa-ko°-da xi^-ha fa-gi bthi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

30. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

31. Xi°'-ha fa-gi a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

32. Ho°'-ba u-pa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

33. U'-hi-ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

34. Ho°'-ba wa-tha-xthi thi^-ge to" no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

35. I'-tha-thu-fe xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga a-to" he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

36. Ho^'-ba u-xthi thi°-ge xtsi u-ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', 

zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

The Wi'-gi-es of the Gentes 
wa-zha'-zhe subdivision 

Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-nqn Gens 
(Free translation, p. 92; literal translation, p. 477) 

1. He-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa'-zha-zhe u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

3. Wa'-zha-zhe Wa-no" thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. Zhi°'-ga we-ki-k'o° tha ba tho° tse thi^-ge a-tha, vsd-tsi-go e', e-gi-a 

bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. Wa'-zha-zhe Wa-no° thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Ke' fi°-dse ga-tse pe-tho°-ba thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Ga' thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. We'-ki-k'o° the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. ^°'-dse ga-tse pe-tho"-ba ga tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. E' shM do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Wa-we-a'-ga-fko°-the i"-da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. O'-do" pe-tho°-ba e' no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. I'-tha-ga-pko°-the i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. ^"'-dse ga-tse sha-pe ga tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. E'shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Wa-we-a'-ga-9ko"-the i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. 0'-do° sha-pe e no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Sho"' xtsi i-tse-a-the i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



WFLBSCHK] TRIBAL RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 317 

22. No°'-ka ga-gthe-zhe ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

23. Wa'-thi''-e-9ka she-mo" rao''-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. U'-no^-tlie mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. U'-no° tha bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

26. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the ino"-thi'' ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

27. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Xi°'-ha fa-gi ki-the mo"-thi'' ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

29. Mo^'-ge ga-gthe-zhe ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

30. E'shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Wa'-we-a-ga-9ko"-the i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Wa'-ko"-da mo°-shi ta ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. A'-ki-thi-tse xo-dse ga thi°-kslie shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Wa'-ko°-da nio"-shi ta ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. I'-tha-ga-9ko"-the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Ho"'-ga, fsi-zhu e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Zho'-i-ga o°-tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Ho"'-ba u-pa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. U'-hi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

Wa-zha'-zhb Qka Gens 

(Free translation, p. 94; literal traDSlation, p. 479) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa'-zha-zhe u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da 

tsi ga, 

3. Wa'-zha-zhe ^ka thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Zhi"'-ga we-ki-k'o° tha ba tho"-tse thi°-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', 

e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. Zhi°'-ga we-ki-k'o" tha ba tho"-tse thi°-ge e-she do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

8. We'-ki-k'o" tho"-tse mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. fsiu'-ge tlii"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Zhii'-i-ga-the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Ha' ba-k'i°-tha ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. U'-no° pa-xe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tlia bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. Ha' ba-k'i"-tha a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 



318 THE OSAGE TRIBE [kth. ann 30 

17. Ni' u-ba-sho° pe-tlio^-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

18. U'-pshi a-thi" he no" i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Wa'-k(>"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Be' u-zho°-ge o"-tho°-kshi-tha mo"-zhi a-thi° he i" ihi', a l)i" da, 

tsi ga, 

21. Zhi"-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Be' u-zho°-ge i-kshi-tha ba zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

23. Wa'-ko"-da ho"-ba do" thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Zh\i'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Wa'-ko°-da ho"-ba do" thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga iii-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

27. Ho"'-ba u-^a-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. U'-hi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. U'-no" a bi shki i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

Wa-tse-tsi Gens 
(Free translation, p. 95; literal translation, p. 4S0) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa-zha-zhe u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

3. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Wa'-tse-tsi thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e', e gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. We'-ki-k'o" tho"-tse thi"-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

7. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. We'-ki-k'o" tho"-tse thi"-ge e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. We'-ki-k'o" tho"-tse mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Xo"'-dse mi-ga to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Xo"'-dse do-ga to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. We'-ki-k'o" the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. Xo"'-dse do-ga to" no" a', a bia da, tsi ga, 

17. We'-ki-k'o" the mo"-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Ni' ga ge shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. I'-tha-ki-tho"-be xtsi o"-ga-xe o°-rao" thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

22. Ni' ga ge shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. U'no" tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 319 

25. Mo°'-hi" ts'a-zbi ga to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

26. U'-no° tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

28. U'-no° a-gi-the a-to° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

29. A'-ba t'u-xa ga ge a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. U'-no° a-gi-the a-to" he i° da', a bi" da tsi ga, 

31. I'-ta-xe xtha fka ga thi°-kslie shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. U'-no° a-gi-tlie a-to" he i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

33. Zhi°'-ga no° hi bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

34. Pa'-xi° 9a-dse fi-e-go" i-the ki-the mo°-thi'' ta i tsi° da', a bi° 

da, tsi ga. 

Ta I-ni-ka-shi-ga Gens 

(Free translation, p. 95; literal translation, p. 481) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa'-zha-zhe u-dse-the pe-tho^-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do° a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

3. Wa-zha-zhe wi°' a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Wa'-zha-zhe Ta-tha-xi° thi^-kshe no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse thi°-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

7. Ha' ! zhi^-ga e', e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse thi°-ge e-she do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse mi-kshe i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. Wa'-dsu-ta zhi°-ga wi° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Zhu'-i-ga a-tlie a-thi" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. We'-ki-k"o° the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. We'-ki-k'o° the mo"-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. We'-ki-k'o° gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

15. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. ^I'-ha u-sha-be ga-thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Zhi°'-ga no°-xthe gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. No°'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo"-tlii° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Pa'-zhu-zhe sha-be ga thi"-kshe slaki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i"-da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Zhi"'-ga zliu-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. No°'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo"-tlii" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. No"'-ta i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. No"'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. We'-ki-k"o° ga no"-zhi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



820 THE OSAGK TRIBE [eth. ANN. 36 

29. Wa'-clsu-ta tse-he-xo-dse kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Zhi"'-ga we-ki-k'o" the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Tse'-xi a-shi-be a-thi" he no° i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Wa'-pa-hi o"-bo-zha-zha-ga bi a-thi° he shki do° a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

33. Xthi' bi u-thi-?o°-ha a-thi^-he shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

34. Tse'-xi a-shi-be a-thi" he no° i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

35. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Tse'-xi ga-shi-be ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da. tsi ga, 

37. Ho"'-ba u-pa-ki-ba do-ba, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. U'-hi a-ki-the a-thi" he no" i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Ho°'-ba u-^a-ki-ba do-ba', a-bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. U'-hi ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. U'-no" tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Ho°'-a-do° we-ki-k'o" tha bi go" no" shki a, hi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

46. Zhi"'-ga wa-dsu-ta i-hi-tho"-be the mo"-thi" ta i-tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

47. Wa'-dsu-ta i-hi-tho"-be tlie mo°-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

48. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. fa'-shka-hi to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. lu'-dse mo°-no"-to-ba bi thi°-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Wa'-dsu-ta zhi°-ga a-gi-shka-de pa-xe i"-da', a bi" da', tsi ga, 

52. Zhi"'-ga wa-dsu-ta i-hi-tho°-be tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Zhiu'-dse-hi to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. lu'-dse nio"-no"-to-ba bi thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Wa'-dsu-ta zhi°-ga a-gi-shka-de pa-xe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Zhi"'-ga wa-dsu-ta i-hi-tho°-be tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho°-be mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. Pi'-pi-stse-dse hi to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. lu'-dse thi"-kshe mo"-no"-to-ba bi thi"-kslie no" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

62. Wa'-dsu-ta zhi"-ga a-gi-shka-de pa-xe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. Zhi"'-ga wa-dsu-ta i-hi-tho"-be tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. Pi'-^i-xo-dse hi to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. lu'-dse thi"-kshe mo"-no"-to-ba bi thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 



i^FLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 321 

67. Wa'-dsu-ta zhi^-ga a-gi-shka-de pa-xe i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

68. Zhi^'-ga wa-dsu-ta i-hi-tho^-be tha bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

69. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-lii-tho"-be mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Zho^'-fa-ki-ba hi to"" no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

71. lu'-dse thi°-kshe ino°-iio°-to-ba bi thi°-kshe uo° a', a bi' da, 

tsi ga, 

72. Wa'-dsu-ta zhi°-ga a-gi-shka-de pa-xe i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

73. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-thC-be nio°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

74. Pi'-fi-sha-be lii to° no° a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

75. lu'-dse thi°-kshe mo°-no°-to-ba bi thi^-kshe qo"» a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

76. Wa'-dsu-ta zhi°-ga a-gi-shka-de pa-xe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

77. Pi'-pi-sha-be hi wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

78. Gi'-ta-pe mo°-thi'' bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

79. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho^-be mo^-thi" ta i-tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. Pa'-xpe tse-shka to" no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

81. lu'-dse thi°-kshe ino°-iio°-to-ba bi thi°-kshe no° a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

82. Wa'-dsu-ta zhi^-ga a-gi-shka-de pa-xe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

83. Pa'-xpe wi° a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

84. Gi'-ta-pe mo°-thi" bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

85. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho°-be mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

86. Ga' thi^-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

87. Wa'-thi°-e-9ka she-mo" mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

88. Ho'-e-ga i-no°-a-the i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

89. Ho'-e-ga tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

90. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

91. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

92. Xa'-dse ba-tse ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

93. E'shki wa-thi°-e-9ka zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

94. Xa'-dse ba-tse wi" gi-ta-pe mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

95. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

96. U'-ga-90"-thi" xtsi thi"-ge a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

97. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

98. U'-pa-fe tho" dsi shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

99. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be ino°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

100. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

101. Ho"'-ga, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

102. Tsi'-zhu e-tho°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

103. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be ino°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 
278&— 21 21 



322 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bih. ann. 36 

E-NoN' MiN-DSE Tqn Gens 

(Free translation, p. 98; literal translation, p. 484) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa'-zha-zhe u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do° a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

3. Wa'-zha-zhe E-no°-Mi°-dse To" thi^-kshe no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Ha' ! Wa-zha-zhe', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. We'-ki-k'o" tho''-tse thi°-ge a- tha, Wa-zha-zhe', e-gi-a bi a', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. We'-ki-k'o" tho°-tse thi°-ge e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Niu'-i-xa-xa xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. A-ni'-ka-shi-ga mi-kshe i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. Ni' zhu-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Ni thi'-u-ba-he i-sdu-ge ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. Thi'-ii-ba-he a-gi-the a-tlii° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. Ni thi'-u-ba-he i-sdu-ge ga-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

16. Thi'-u-ba-he gi-the mo°-thi° bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. Thi'-u-ba-he i-ts'a thi^-ge ki-the mo^-thi" ta i-tsi° da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

18. Thi'-u-ba-he tha-ta ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Thi'-u-ba-he a-gi-the a-thi° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Thi'-u-ba-he gi-the mo^-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Thi'-u-ba-he i-ts'a thi^-ge ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

22. Ni'-u-thu-ga ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

23. Thiu'-thi xthu-k'a a-gi-the a-thi° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

24. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. Thi-u'-thi-xthu-k'a i-ts'a thi°-ge ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Wa'-dsu-ta wi° zhu-i-ga a-the a-thi" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Ho' zhu-dse kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Zhu'-i-ga a-the a-thi° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. I'-ts'a thi"-ge a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Zhu'-i-ga the mo°-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Ho' ?a-be ga kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Zhu'-i-ga a-the a-thi" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Zhu'-i-ga the mo°-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. U'-no" a bi i the ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da', tsi ga. 



I 



LAFLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 323 

36. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

37. To'-shno''-ge kshe no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3S. E'-shki do" zhu-i-ga a-the a-thi° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Zhi'"-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

40. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Tsi'-zhu a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

42. Ho^'-ga e-tho°-ba, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. Zhu'-i-ga the mC-thi" bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

44. I'-ts'a thi°-ge mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Zha'-be do-ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

46. Zhii'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. Zhu'-i-ga the mo°-thi" bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

48. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

49. Thiu'-xe zhi°-ga pe-tho°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Tsi'-u-ba-he i'-sdu-ge dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

51. Tha'-xu-e gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

52. Ga' tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Wa'-we-a-ga-fkC-the a-to" he i° da', a bi" da, tsijga, 

54. 0'-do° e-shno" bi no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

55. I'-tha-ga-fkC-the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga a-to" he i° da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

56. Ni' ki-mo^-ho" dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

57. Ba'-btha-btha-xe zho" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Ni' a-ki-tha-zha-ta ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. U'-no° pa-xe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Wa'-ko"-da a-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

62. ^"'-dse ni i-ga-po-ki o°-ha the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. Ga' tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. Wa'-thi"-e-9ka a-po-ki mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. Mi'hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. Wa'-a-ga-po-ki the a-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. Ni'-u-ba-sho" we-tho"-ba thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. Thiu'-xe-ts'a-zhi ho"' (jka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. Tlia'-xu-e gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Zhi"'-ga we-tha-wa mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. O'-do" gi-tsi-pa ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. He-dsi xtsi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. Ni'-u-ga-xthi we-tha-bthi" thi°-kshe dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. Thiu'-xe-ts'a-zhi ho"' ^ka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

75. Tha'-xu-e gtlu i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. Zhi"'-ga we-tha-wa mo"-thi" bi do" shkd a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

77. O'-do" gi-tsi-?a ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



324 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 38 

78. Ni'-ii-ba-sho" we-do-ba tlii^-kshe dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. Thiu'-xe-ts'a-zhi ho°' fka do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

80. Tha'-xii-e gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

81. Zhi^'-ga we-tha-wa mo^-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

82. O'-do" gi-tsi-?a ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

83. Ni'-u-ba-sho" we-pa-to" thi°-kshe dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

84. Thiu'-xe-ts'a-zhi ho"' fka do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

85. Tha'-xu-e gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

86. Zhi°'-ga we-tha-wa mo°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

87. 0'-do° gi-tsi-pa ki-the mo°^thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

88. Ni'-u-ba-sho° we-sha-pe thi^-kshe dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

89. Thiu'-xe ts'a-zhi ho° ^ka do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

90. Tha'-xu-e gthi i-he-the to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

91. Zhi^'-ga we-tha-wa mo°-thi° bi do° shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

92. O'-do" gi-tsi-pa ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

93. Ni'-u-ba-sho" we-iie-tho"-ba thi°-kshe dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

94. Thiu'-xe-ts'a-zhi ho" ^ka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

95. Tha'-xu-e gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

96. Ga'-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

97. Zlii"'-ga we-tha-wa mo^-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

98. O'-do" gi-tsi-pa ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

HoI<''-GA U-TA-NO''-DSI 
(Free translation, p. 102; literal translation, p. 487) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

2. Ho"'-ga U-ta-no"-dsi thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. We'-ki-k'o" tho"-tse thi°-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Ha'! zhi"-ga e', e- tsi- the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. We'-ki-k'o" tho°-tse thi"-ge e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi.ga, 

7. We'-ki-k'o" tho"-tse mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Tsi'-zlu"-ga wi" i-tse-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Wa'-thi"-e-pka i-tse-a-tha mo°-zhi i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Wa'-dsu-ta pa u-thi-xo" i-tse-the i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Wa'-thi°-e-?ka i-tse-a-tha mo" zhi i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. fse'-xo-be wa-ga-xe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. I'-tha-thu-^e xtsi i-tse-a-the i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Wa'-dsu-ta be zhi"-ga i-ta i shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. U-ki'-o"-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Zhi"'-ga wa-dsu-ta i-hi-tho"-be tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LATLBSCHK] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 325 

18. U'-ga-fo^-thi" xtsi thi^-ge a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. Wa'-dsii-ta gi-hi-tho°-be mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. U'-pa-fe tho° dsi shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho^-be mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. Wa'-dsu-ta wa-no° kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

23. Ga' kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

24. Wa'-dsu-ta i-hi-tho°-be the mo°-thi'' ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. Wa'-dsu-ta wa-bi° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

26. U'-ga-fO°-thi° xtsi thi°-ge a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

27. Wa'-bi" gi-tse-ga ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. U'-pa-^;e tho" dsi shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

29. Wa'-dsu-ta wa-bi° i-gi-tse-ga mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

30. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi'' da, tsi ga, 

31. We'-ki-k'o° tho^-tse ga no''-no°-zhi da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. We'-ts' a-da-pa kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Zhi'"-ga we-ki-k'o° the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

34. Xa'-dse ba-tse xtsi ge dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

35. Pa' thi-ho" tsi-the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

36. Zhi^'-ga wa-no°-xe i-thi-shto" kshe shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

37. 0°'-tho°-ki-pa-no''-xe pka mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Zhi'''-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

39. Ho°'-ba u-fa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

40. U'-hi ki-the nio°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

41. Ho^'-a-do" we-ki-k'o° tha bi go° no"" shki a', hi° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. We'-ts'a-fi-fi-e stse-dse kshe no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. Zhi°'-ga we-ki-k'o° the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

44. Xa'-dse xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Pa' thi-ho" tsi-the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. Ga' kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. We'-ki-k'o" the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Zhi"'-ga wa-no"-xe i-thi-shto° shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. 0"'-tho"-no°-xe pka mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Ho"'-ba u-fa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. U'-hi-ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. Ho"'-a-do" we-ki-k'o° tha bi go" no" shki a, hi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. We'-ts'a ^a-be kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. Zhi"'-ga \ve-ki-k'o" the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Xa'-dse xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. Pa' thi-ho" tsi-the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Ga' kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Zhi"'-ga wa-no"-xe i-thi-shto" xtsi bi shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



326 THE OSAGE TRIBE [kth. ann. 36 

59. 0°'-tho"-no"-xe (?ka nio''-thi'' ta i tsi" da', a bi° da tsi ga, 

60. Ho'''-ba ii-(;^a-ki-ba do-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

61. U'-hi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

62. Ho°'-a-do° we-ki-k'o" tha bi go" no° shki a, hi" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

63. We'-ts'a-to°-ga kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. Xa'-dse xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. ^'u'-tlie tsi-gthe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. Ga' kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. Zhi°'-ga wa-no°-xe i-thi-shto" bi shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. 0"'-tho"-ki-gthi-no"-xe ?ka mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. We'-ts'a-to"-ga kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Thi'-xo-e o°-ha-ha-e kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. U'-pi-gthe tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. Thi'-k'a-xe o°-ha-ha-e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. Pa' u-gthe ta ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. 'Thi'-k'a-k'a-xe to"-a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

75. Ta'-dse ga-xpa dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. Tlii'-k'a-k'a-xe to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

77. fa'-dse mo°-ha dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

78. Thi'-k'a-k'a-xe to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. fa'-dse ba-fo" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. Thi'-k'a-k'a-xe to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

81. Zlii"'-ga wa-no"-xe i-thi-shto" shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

82. 0°'-tho"-no"-xe pka mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

83. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

84. Ho"'-ba u-^a-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

85. U'-hi ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

86. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

87. U'-hi ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

THE HO^'-GA SUBDIVISION 

HoN'-QA A-Hiu-To" Gens 

(Free translation, p. 104; literal translation, p. 490) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Ho"'-ga u-dse-the pe-tlio"-ba ni-ka-slii-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

3. Ho"'-ga A-hiu-to" thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Ha'! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Zlu"'-ga we-ki-k'o" tha ba tho" tse thi°-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', 

e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. We'-ki-k'()° tho" tse thi"-ge' e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. We'-ki-k'o" tlio"-tse mi-kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Wa'-zhi"-ga wa-tha-xthi thi"-ge thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] TRIBAL, RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 327 

10. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi-kshe i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. Wa'-kC-da u-to^-ba bi mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Zlii^'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. Wa'-kC-da u-to°-ba bi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', abi° da, tsiga, 

14. U'-no° o^-gi-tha ba tho°-tse mi-kshe i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. ^"^i'-ha ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

16. U'-no° a-gi-the a-thi" he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. Zhi°'-ga u-no° o^-tha bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

18. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. ^'-ha u-sha-be ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. No^'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi° he i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

21. Zhi°'-ga no°-xthe gi-the mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. No^'-xthe gi-a da-xe ki-the mo°-thi'' ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

23. Pa'-zhu-zhe i-ta-xe sha-be ga-thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o^-tha bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. No°'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo°-tlii° ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Zhu'-i-ga ^a-be ga kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. No°'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. I"'-be i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. No"'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

Wa-pa'-be-ton (Black Bear) Gens 

(Free translation, p. 105; literal translation, p. 491) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Ho"'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

3. Wa'-ga-be-to" thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi thi°-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Ha'! zhi"-ga e', e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge' e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha ba tho°-tse mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. No"'-xthe o"-gi-tha ba tho"-tse mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. yi'-ha u-sha-be ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



328 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

12. Pa'-zhii-zlie i-ta-xc sha-be ga thi^-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi°-he i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. Zhi^'-ga no°-xthe gi-the mo^-thi" bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. No^'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

16. Zhu'-i-ga fa-be ga ge shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 
IS. No°'-xthe gi-the mo^-thi" bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. No°'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

20. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga-tha bi thi^-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', a-gi-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha ba tho°-tse mi-kshe i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

24. I^'-gtho^-ga do-ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi-kshe i" da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Wa'-ko'^-da ho°-ba do° thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

27. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi-kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

29. ^^i'-ha u-sha-be ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

30. No^'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

31. Zhi^'-ga no°-xthe gi-the mo°-thi° bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

32. No^'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

33. Pa'-zhu-zhe sha-be ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

35. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

36. No°'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

37. No°'-ta i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

38. No^'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

39. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga o^-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

40. No^'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

41. ^"'-dse i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi^-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

42. No^'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o^-tha bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. No°'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

45. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. Mi'-xa-fka to°-ga thi°-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

48. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi thi°-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', 

a bi° da tsi ga, 

49. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. ^^'-ha u-sha-be ga thi^-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHE] TRIBAL KITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 329 

51. Xo°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

52. Zhi^'-ga no°-xthe gi-the mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

53. Xo°'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo''-thi'' ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

54. Pa'-zhii-zhe i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

55. Xo°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

56. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

57. No°'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5S. Zhi°'-ga zhii-i-ga C-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

59. Ho°'-ba he-be a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

60. Dse'-do" go-da ko°-ha dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

61. Ga-ha'-ha a-hi-gthi° a-thi°-he no" i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. Zlai°'-ga zhu-i-ga o''-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

63. A'-iiiu-ha fa-gi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. Wa'-dsu-ta sho^-e-go" bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. Ni' o°-wo''-ta-thi'' bi a-thi° he i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

66. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

67. Wa'-dsu-ta sho°-e-go° xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

68. Ni' u-ta-thi° bi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da, a bi" da, tsi ga. 

IN-GTHO^'-GA Gens 
(Free translation, p. 107; literal translation, p. 493) 

1. He '-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Ho^'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. I^'-gtho^-ga zhu-i-ga the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi°, da, tsi ga, 

5. We'-ki-k'o°-tho''-tse thi°-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

6. Ha' ! zhi"-ga e', e-tsi-the a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse thi^-ge e-she do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. We'-ki-k'o° tho^-tse a-to° he i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. I^'-gtho^-ga do-ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga a-to° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Wa'-zhi° o^-wo^-ta-thi" bi a-thi° he i°-da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. Wa'-ko^-da ho°-ba do° thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. I'-bi-90°-dse xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. I'-ts' a thi°-ge mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. '1°' zhu-dse thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. I'-tha-thu-fe xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. "I"' zhu-dse thi^-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. Wa'-ko°-da e-shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. O" '-ta-kshi° bi a-thi" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o^-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 



330 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

22. A'-ta-kslii" bi ki-tlie nio-°-tlii° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

24. 0°'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi a-thi" he i^-da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. Zhi°'-ga zhii-i-ga o^-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Wa'-ko°-da a-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-the ino''-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

27. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. I"'-dse o"-wo''-kia-ta thi"-ge i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. I"'-dse u-kia-ta ba zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Wa'-fa-be u-^a-ka thi"-ge kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i"-da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Wa'-ko"-da ho" do" thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. I'-tha-thii-(?e xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. '1°' <?a-be thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. I'-bi-90"-dse xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. '1° fa-be thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Wa'-ko°-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. A'-ta-kshi° bi ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. 0"'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi a-thi" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. Wa'-ko°-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. A'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. Mi'-xa-Qka to"-ga thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Wa'-ko"-da ho"-do" tlii"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. 'I"'-zhu-9ka thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. Zhu'- i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. A'-ta-kshi° bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. 0°'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi a-thi" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. A'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi"' da, tsi ga, 



r.A FLBSCHB] TRIBAL, RITES- — OSAGE LANGUAGE 331 

63. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

64. O'-pxo" do-ga kshe no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

65. 'I°'-zhii-f,i thi''-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

66. I'-tha-thu-fe xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. Wa'-tse mi-ga thi^-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. I'-tha-thu-pe xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Wa'-ko°-da e-shki do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

71. A'-ta-kshi" bi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

72. Wa'-ko^-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. 0"'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi a-thi° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

75. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. A'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-the ino"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

77. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

78. Be' hi o"-gtha mo"-zhi i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. Be' hi a-gtha ba zhi ki-tlie mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

81. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

82. Wa'-ko°-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

83. I°'-dse o"-wo°-kia-ta thi"-ge i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

84. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

85. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

86. I°'-dse u-kia-ta ba zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

87. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi mi-kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

88. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

89. fs'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

90. Ho"'-ba u-fa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

91. U'-hi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

92. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

93. Tsi'- zhu e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

94. Zhu'-i-ga o°-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

95. Zhu'-i-ga o°-the mo"-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

96. fs'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

97. Be' hi a-gtha ba zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

98. U'-no" a bi shki i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

99. Ho"'-ba u-?a-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

100. U'-hi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

101. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

102. Ho"'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

103. I"'-gtho"-ga zhu-i-ga the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

104. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



332 THE OSAGE TRIBE [kth. ann. 38 

105. We'-ki-k'o" tho"-tse thi^-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" 

(la, tsi ga, 

106. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

107. We'-ki-k'o° tlio"-tse thi°-ge e-she do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

108. 0'-to"-be pa-xe ta mi-kslie, e'-tsi-tlie a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

109. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

110. Thu-e' xtsi (ii-thu-cj-e the do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

111. Dse' kC-ha dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

112. (jH"' thi°-kshe no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

113. O'-ga-toMha tsi-the to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

114. E'-dsi xtsi a-tlii° gthi-e do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

115. The' ho°, wi-zhi''-the, e a'-gthi no°-zhi° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

116. I'-ii-tha-btho°-9e a-tsi-a-tha ba do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

117. No^'-bthe thoMa zhi a, wi-90°-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

118. E'-zhi-zhi-fka u-to°-ga, wi-fO°-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

119. E tho^-zha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

120. We'-ki-k'o° o°-the o°-mo°-thi'' ta i tse a', wi-po^-ga, e'-gi-a bi 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

121. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-pe the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

122. Dse' u-f,ko°-gka dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

123. "Tse'-wa-the kshe no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

124. No^'-fi-ge tsi-the to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

125. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi e do° a', a bi° do, tsi ga, 

126. The ho"', wi-zhi°-the, e-a-gthi-no°-zhi° to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

127. I'-u-tha-btho"-pe a-tsi-a-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

128. Ba'-pe-ni e-go° tha-dsu-zhe the-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

129. Zhi"'-ga no°-bthe tha ba tho"-tse a, wi-90"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

130. We'-ki-k'o" tho"-tse a-ka, wi-po°-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

131. Zhi"'-ga no"-bthe the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

132. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

133. fsi'-zhu e-tlio°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

134. No"'-bthe the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

135. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

136. Wa'-dsu-ta shi°-to-zhi"-ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

137. E'-ki-tho"-ba xtsi o°-ga-xe ta bi a', wi-9o"-ga, e'-lti-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

138. Zhi"'-ga uo"-bthe the ino"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

139. No"'-bthe the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

140. A'-dsu-ta i-ga-fi-ge ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 333 

141. Dse' go-da kC-ha dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

142. Do' thi^-kshe no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

143. U'-ga-to''-tha a-tsi-a-tha ba do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

144. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi-e do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

145. She' e shno° u-tha-dse tha-thi°-she a', wi-50°-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

146. Ba'-^e-ni e-go° tha-dsu-zhe the-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

147. Zhi°'-ga no°-bthe the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

148. Zhi°'-ga no^-bthe the mo^-thi" bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

149. A'-dsu-ta i-ga-fi-ge ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

150. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

151. Ta he sha-be kshe no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

152. I'-tha-thu-pe o''-ga-xe ta bi a', wi-?o°-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

153. I'-tha-thu-pe o°-ga-xa bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

154. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

155. Tsi'-zhu e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

156. No°'-bthe the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsrga, 

157. No°'-bthe the mo°-thi''bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

158. A'-dsu-ta i-ga-pi-ge ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

159. No'"-bthe the mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

160. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the ino°-thi° ta i tsi" da, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga. 

161. Dse' go-da ko°-ha dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

162. U'-Qu u-gtho" xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

163. Ho°'-bthi-9u thi°-kshe no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

164. U'-ga-to^-tha a-tsi-a-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

165. Ga' thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

166. No^'-bthe the moMhi" ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

167. Zhi°-ga no°-bthe the mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

168. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

169. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

170. ^"iu'-ka to°-ga thi°-kshe no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

171. I'-tha-thu-fe o°-ga-xe ta bi a', wi-^o^-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

172. Zhi^'-ga no°-bthe tha bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

173. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

174. Wa'-zlia-zhe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

175. fsi'-zhu e-tho°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

176. No°'-bthe the mo°-thi° bi do° shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

177. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

178. Ho"'-ba u-pa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

179. U'-hi ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



334 THE OSAGE TRIBE [kth, ann 38 

O'-i'xqN (Im.k) Gens 
(Free translation, p. 112; literal translation, p. 497) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Ho°'-ga ii-ilse-tlie pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

3. I°'-gtho"-ga zhu-i-ga the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Ha' ! wi-po"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. We'-ki-k'o" tho"-tse thi°-ge a-tha, wi-90"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

6. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-^e the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. 0'-pxo° do-ga to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Tho' to" hi no"-zhi° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Tho-e' xtsi gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Ha' ! wi-f0"-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Ni'-ka wi" e-dsi a-ka, wi-zhi"-the, e' a-gthi no"-zhi° a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

12. Ha' ! wi-fo"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Ni'-ka be' the shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Wa'-no"-xe a-dsi the o"-the ta bi a', •wi-(!0"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

15. E'-ta pa mo"-gthe xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. We-a'-ba-fu i-ii'-gtha-zhu-zhu-the tsi-the thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

17. Tliu-e' xtsi fi-thu-pa ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. 0'-pxo° do-ga to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. E'-ta pa mo°-gthe xtsi hi no"-zhi° ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Ha'! wi-zhi"-the, e'-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Ho°'-ga bthi" a, wi-zhi"-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. 0'-pxo"-to"-ga wi a-to" he a', wi-zhi°-the e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. E'-dsi zhi the thi"-ge xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga', wi-zhi"-the, e' to" a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. We'-ki-k'o" tho"-tse a-to" he a', wi-zhi"-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

25. 0'-pxo"-to°-ga shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Zha'-zhe a-ki-to" a-to" he a', wi-zhi°-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. We'-ki-k'o" tho"-tse a-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Zhi°-ga wa-dsu-ta i-hi-tho"-be o"-tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

30. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. U'-k'o" tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. fa'-dse e-no°-ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Mo"'-ki-pi"-dse tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLBSCHE] TRIBAL, RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 335 

35. Ta'-(lse ga-xpa dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

36. M()°'-ki-9i"-dse tsi-the to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

37. Ho°'-ba tha-gthi" i-he-the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

38. Ta-dse ba-QO° dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

39. Mo^'-ki-fi^-dse tsi-the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

40. Mo^'-xe ha-xpa-the tse e-go° i-he-the to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

41. Ta'-dse mo°-ha dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

42. Mo°'-ki-fi°-dse tsi-the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. Wa'-ko°-da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

44. U'-xthi thi''-ge i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Ta'-dse a-k'a dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

46. Mo°'-ki-^i°-dse tsi-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. Mo°'-zho° sho°-e-go° xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

48. U'-xthi thi°-ge i-he-the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

49. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

50. We'-ki-k'o° tho^-tse a-to° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Mo°'-ki-fi°-dse tsi-the do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

52. Hi°' u-bi-bu-dse i-he-the to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

53. Ga' tse shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

54. Wa'-dsu-ta i-hi-tho°-be pa-xe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Xa'-dse wi° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

56. Wa'-dsu-ta i-hi-tho°-be wi-kchi-xe i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

57. Zhi°'-ga wa-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be ino''-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga. 

58. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

59. Mo°'-ki-9i°-dse tsi-the do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

60. Go'-da pa-gthe i-no°-zhi° to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Ni'-dse ta-be ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. To"'-dse da-pa e' no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. To"'-dse wi" wa-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

65. Thi'-u-ba-he i-sdu-ge ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. 'ro°'-dse e no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. No°'-ka o"-he ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. A'-thi" wi" she kshe e' no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. A'-thi" wi" gi-ta-pe mo°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



336 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

73. Ta'-hi u-k'a-be ga tse shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

74. A'-thi" ii-k'a-be e' no" bi no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

75. Sho°' xtsi pa-xe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. A'-thi° u-k'a-be wi° gi-ta-pe nio°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

77. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tlio''-be mo°-thi'' ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

78. Pa pa-pi ga tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. A'-thi" pa-?i wi" she tse e' no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

81. A'-thi" pa-pi wi" gi-ta-pe mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

82. A'-thi" pa-pi wi" wa-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho°-be mo°-tlii° ta i tsi" da', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

83. He' ga-xa u-dse ga thi°-kshe, shki a bi" da, tsi ga. 

84. 'I"' pa-ka e no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

85. 'I"' pa-ka wi" wa-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho°-be mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', abi" 

da, tsi ga, 

86. He' ga-xa u-ho"-ge ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

87. Ga'-xa zhi"-ga wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

88. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo"-thi" ta, i tsi"' da', a bi", da, tsi ga, 

89. He' ga-xa u-wa-to" ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

90. Wa'-tsi-shka e' no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

91. Wa'-tsi-shka wi" wa-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

92. He' ga-xa u-gtho°-the ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

93. ^o°'-pa"-ga wi" e no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

94. Sho"'xtsi pa-xe i"-da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

95. ^o"'-po"-ga wi" gi-ta-pe mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

96. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

97. He' ga-xa u-gtho°-the kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga.- 

98. Ga'-xa gtho°-the ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

99. Wa'-dsu-ta i-hi-tho"-be pa-xe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

100. Ga'-xa wi" gi-ta-pe mo"-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

101. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho°-be mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

102. Zhi"'-ga ta-bthe tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

103. U'-ga-po"-thi" xtsi thi"-ge a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

104. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho°-be mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

105. U'-pa-pe tho°-dsi shki a', a bi» da, tsi ga, 

106. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da tsi ga, 

107. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

108. fsi-'zhu e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

109. We'-ki-k'o" the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LArLBSCHB] TRIBAJL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 337 

MO^'-SHKO" 
(Free translation, p. 116; literal translation, p. 502) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Ho^'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho^-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. I°'-gtho°-ga zhu-i-ga the to° no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Ha' ! wi-9a°-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. We'-ki-k'o" tho"-ts6 thi^-ge a-tha, wi-?o''-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

6. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. fse'-xe xtsi ge dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. Ni'-ka wi° tlio to° hi no°-zhi° bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. Sha'-ge ba-ha to" hi no^-zhi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. E'-dsi xtsi gi-e do° a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. Wi'-90°-ga ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. 0'-k'o° xtsi a-gi a-ba, wi-^o^-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Ni'-ka wi° e-dsi a-ka, wi-zhi°-the, e'-a-gthi no°-zhi° a', a bi° da> 

tsi ga, 

14. Ha' ! wi-^o^-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. Ni'-ka wi° e-dsi a-ka, wi-zhi°-the, e'-a-gthi-no°-zlu° to" a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

16. No^'-be zha-ta ga-xe a-ka, wi-zhi°-the, e' a-gthi-na^-zhi" to° a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Ha' ! wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Ni'-ka be to° shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. Wa'-no''-xe a-dsi the o°-the ta bi a', wi-QO°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

20. E'-ta pa-mo°-gthe xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

21. ^"i'thu-^a ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. Ni'-ka wi" tho to° hi no°-zhi° bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

23. No°'-be zha-ta ga-xe no^-zhi" to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

24. Ha' ! wi-fC-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bil da, tsi ga, 

25. Ni'-ka be tha to" she, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Ho^'-ga bthi" a, wi-zhi°-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Mo°'shko'' wi a'-to° he a', wi-zhi^-the, e to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Mo^'-thi^-ka zhi°-ga wi a'-to" he a', wi-zhi°-the, e' to" a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

29. Wi'-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. E'-dsi zhi the thi°-ge a-ni-ka-shi-ga', wi-zhi^-the, e' to° a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

31. We'-ki-k'o° a-to° he a', wi-zhi°-the, e' to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

32. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse a-to° he i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2786—21 22 



388 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

33. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Mo^'-to-to-be ho°'-Qka do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

35. K'u'-shi kshi-gthe do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

36. Mo°'-thi°-ka sha-be thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Ba'-ha tsi no^-zhi" to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

38. The', wi-zlii°-the, e tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

39. We'-ki-k'o° shka-xe tse a', wi-zhi°-the, e' to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

40. ThC'-dse ba-he e'-to°-ha no" shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Da' i-sdu-ts'a-ga zhi tha thi°-she ta tse a', wi-zhi^-the, e' ton a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. We'-shno° wi-gi-the a-to" he a', wi-zhi°-the, e' to° a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

43. I'-tha-pi-thi° xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

44. K'u'-shi kshi-gthe do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

45. Mo°'-thi°-ka to-ho thi^-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

46. Ba'-ha tsi-no°-zhi° to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

47. The', wi-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

48. We'-ki-k'o° tha the tha thi^-she ta tse a', wi-zbi''-the, e' tsi-the 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

49. We'-go°-tha a-ni tha thi°-she do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

50. Da' i-sdu-ts'a-ga zhi tha thi°-she ta tse a', wi-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the 

a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

51. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. We'-ki-k'o° tha the tha thi°-she ta tse a', wi-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. I'-tha-bthi° o° xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. K'u'-shi kshi-gthe do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

55. Mo^-thi^'-ka zhu-dse thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

56. Ba'-ha tsi no^-zhi" to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

57. Ga' thi^-kshe shki a', a bi^.da, tsi ga, 

58. We'-ki-k'o° tha the tha thi^-she ta tse a', wi-zhi^-the, e' tsi-the 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. We'-mo^-ka the thi'-o-ts'e-ga tha thi^-she, ta tse a', wi-zhi^-the, 

e' tsi-the a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

61. I'-do-ba 0° xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. K'u'-shi kshi-gthe do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

63. Mo°-thi'"-ka fi thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

64. Ba'-ha tsi no°-zhi° to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

65. Ga' thi-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

66. We'-ki-k'o° tha-the tha thi°-she ta tse a', wi-zhi°-the, e' ton a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. We'-ki-k'o° tha-the tha thi°-she do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHB] TRIBAL KITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 339 

6S. Tho°'-dse ba-he' e-to"-ha no" shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

69. Da' i-sdu-ts'a-ga zhi tha thi°-she ta tse a', wi-zhi°-the, e' to° a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. No°'-be zha-ta ga tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

72. E'shki do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

73. We'-ki-k'o° tha-the tha thi^-she ta tse a', wi-zhi^-the, e' to° a', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

74. Zho°'-xa zha-ta e' no" bi no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

75. Sho"' xtsi wi-kshi-the i° da, wi-zhi°-the, e' to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

76. Mi'lii-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

77. We'-gC-tha a-ni tha thi°-she do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

78. Da' i-sdu-ts'a-ga zhi tha thi°-she ta tse a', wi-zhi^-the, e' to" a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga. 

I'-BA-TSE Ta-dse Gens 
(Free translation, p. 118; literal translation, p. 304) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Ha' ! wi-fo^-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. We'-ki-k'on tho"-tse thi°-ge a-tha, wi-(!0"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

4. I"'-gtho°-ga zho-i-ga the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-^e the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. "Tse'-xe xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

\ 7. Ho"'-ga we-ha-ge to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Tho' to" hi no"-zhi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Ha' ! wi-zhi"-the, e'-tsi-the a', a bin da, tsi ga, 

10. Ni'-ka be tha-to"-she a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Ho"'-ga Gthe-zhe wi a'-to"-he a', wi-zhi"-the, e to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

12. Ho°'-ga bthi" a', wi-zhi°-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. We'-ki-k'o° tho"-tse a-to"-he a', wi-zhi°-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

14. We'-ki-k'o° o"-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. We'-ki°k'o" o°-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Tsi'-zhu e-tho°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. We'-ki-k'o" o°-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. We'-ki-k'o" o°-the mo°-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Tho"'-dse ba-he e-to"-ha no" shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. We'-ki-k'o" gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

22. We'-shno" wi-gi-the a-to°-he a', wi-zhi"-the, e to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 



340 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

TSl'-ZHU DIVISION 

The Tai'-ZHU Wa-no"* Gens 
(Free translation, p. US; literal translation, p. 505) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Tsi'-zhu u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do° a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

3. Tsi'-zhu Wa-no"-thi"-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse thi^-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go, e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

6. Ha'! zhi^-ga, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse tlii^-ge' e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Wa'-ko°-da Ho°-ba do° thi"-kslie a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi-kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o^-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. Wa'-ko^-da Ho°-ba do" thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the moMhi" ta i tsi° da', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

14. Zhu'-i-ga the mo^-thi" bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. I'-ts'a thi^-ge mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. U'-no° tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi'' ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

18. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi ga' no°-zhi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Wa'-ko°-da Ho^-do" thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi-kshe i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

23. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. Ts' e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, (si ga, 

26. Wa'-tse Do-ga thi^-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Ga' thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" -da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

29. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

30. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Wa'-tse Mi-ga thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Ga' thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga the mo°-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. fs'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. U'-no" tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAPLBSCHE] TRIBAL RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 341 

37. He'-clsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

38. Wa'-ko°-da tse-ga xtsi e-tho°-be hi no" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Tha'-ta dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Ga'-gthe-zhe sha-pe tse no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

41. E'-shki do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

42. Wa'-we-a-ga-pko°-the i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. 0'-do° e no" bi no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. O'-do" tha bi do° shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. O'-do" a bi gi-tsi-fa ki-the mC-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

46. Thi'-u-ba-he i-sdu-ga dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

47. Ga'-gthe-zhe pe-tho°-ba ha tse no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Ga' tse shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

49. Wa'-we-a-ga-9ko°-the i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

50. O'-do" e no° bi no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

51. Sho"' xtsi i-tse a-the i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

52. Zhi°'-ga we-tha-wa mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. O'-do" a bi gi-tsi-^a ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

54. He-dsi xtsi a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

55. Ho°' a-do° zhi°-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi go° no" shki a, hi° a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

56. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. fsi'-zhu Wa-no° thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Wa'-zhi"-ga pa stse-dse do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. Ga' thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Wa'-ko"-da Ho"-ba do" thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. I'-tha-thu-pe xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. Wa'-ko''-da Ho"-do° thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. I-tha-thu-fe xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. Wa'-tse Do-ga thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. I'-tha-thu-fe xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. Wa'-shi-shi u-bu-dse xtsi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

69. Mi'hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. We'-go"-tha a-thi" mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. Da' thu-ts'a-ga zhi ki-the mo"-tlii" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. Wa'-tse Mi-ga thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. I'-tha-thu-fe xtsi a-ni-ka-slii-ga i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. Mi'hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

75. We'-go"-tha a-thi" mo°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



342 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

76. Da' thii-ts'a-ga zhi ki-the mo''-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

77. Wa'-slii-slii u-bu-dse xtsi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a 

bi" da, 

78. ZW^'-ga zhu-i-ga o^-tha bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo''-thi'' ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

80. Ho°'-ba u-fa-ki-ba do-ba shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

81. U'-hi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

82. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

83. Ho°'-ga e-tho°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

84. We'-ki-k'o° o^-the mo°-thi° bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

85. Da thu-ts'a-ga zhi ivi-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

Mi-k'in' Wa-non 

(Free translation, p. 122; literal translation, p. 508) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Tsi'-zhu u-dse-the pe-tho^-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi° dai 

tsi ga, 

3. Mi'-k'i" Wa-no° thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go-e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. We'-ki-k'o° tho^-tse thi°-ga a-tha, wi-tsi-go-e', e-gi-a bi a, a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

6. Ha' ! zhi°-ga, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

7. We'-ki-k'a" tha''-tse thi°-ge' e-she do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse mi-kshe i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. Wa'-ko^-da Ho°-ba do° thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi-kshe i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Wa'-ko°-da Ho°-ba ilo" thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo°-tlii'' ta i tsi" da', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

14. Zhu'-i-ga the mo^-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. I'-ts'a thi^-ge mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

16. U'-no° tha bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Wa'-ko°-da Ho^-do" thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi-kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. Wa'-ko°-da Ho° do" thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

23. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a 

bi" da, 

24. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi mi-kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Wa'-ko"-da Ho" do" thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Ziiu'-i-ga the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHBl TRIBAL RITES" — OSAGE LANGUAGE 343 

27. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° Ja', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

28. U'-no" tha bi do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

29. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo''-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

30. Wa'-tse Do-ga thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

31. Ga' thi°-kse shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

32. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-iii-ka-shi-ga mi-kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Wa'-tse Do-ga tlii°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

35. Zhu'-i-ga the mo°-thi'' bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

36. fs'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

37. U'-no" tha bi do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

38. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

39. Wa'-tse Mi-ga thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi-kshe i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

41. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

42. Ts'e wa-tse-xi ki-the mC-thi'' ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. U'-no° tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. Zlu°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi ga no"-zlu" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. Wa'-ko°-da tse-ga xtsi e-tho"-be hi no" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Tha'-ta dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. Ga'-gthe-zhe sha-pe tse no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Ga' tse shki a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Wa'-we-a-ga-9ko"-the i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. Zhi"'-ga we-tha-wa mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. O'-do" gi-tsi-9a a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

54. Wa'-ko"-da tse-ga xtsi e-tho"-be hi no" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Thi'-u-ba-he i-sdu-ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

56. Ga'-gthe-zhe pe-tho°-ba tse no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Ga' tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Wa'-we-a-ga-9ko"-the i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. Zlu"'-ga we-tha-wa mo°-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. O'-do" gi-tsi-^a a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

Hqn' I-ni-ka-shi-oa 

(Free translation, p. 123; literal translation, p. 510) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Tsi'-zhu u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

3. Ho"' I-ni-ka-shi-ga thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



344 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

4. Ha' ! wi-(si-go e', e-gi-ii bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse thi°-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

6. Ha'! zhi"-ga, e'-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Wa'-pa-be u-pa-ka thi°-ge kshe no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. Zhii'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga nii-kshe i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. Zhu'-i-ga the mo^-thi' bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. I'-ts'a thi^-ge mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. U'-no° a bi shki i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. ^'-ha u-sha-be ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. No'"-xthe gi-the mo°-thi'' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. No"'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Pa'-zhu-zhe sha-be ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. No"'-xthe gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. No"'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Zhu'-i-ga ^a-be ga kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Zhi°'-ga no"-xthe gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. No"'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Zhi"'-ga u-no" gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Ho"'-ba u-pa-ki-ba do-ba shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. U'-hi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

XU-THA Zhu-dse 
(Free translation, p. 124; literal translation, p. 511) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Tsi'-zhu u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

3. Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta-ge thi°-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Xu'-tha zhu-dse zhu-i-ga the thi°-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. Ha' ! zhi°-ga, e'-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi thi°-ge' e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha ba tho°-tse mi-kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Xu'-tlia zlui-dse thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Zhu'-i-ga the mo"-thi° bi do"', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" chi, tsi ga, 



LAFLBSCHE] TBIBALi RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 345 

13. pi'-ha u-thi-9tu-be ga tbi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. U'-no° a-gi-the a-thi° he i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. Zhi°'-ga u-no° tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

17. Hi'-ko° ba-k'i°-tha ga ge shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

18. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. U'-no° tha bi do° shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Hi'-ko" ba-k'i°-tha' a bi i-the ki-the ino°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

21. Hi'-zhu-ga-wa ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. U'-no° tha bi do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

24. Hi'-zhu-ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

25. fse'-wa-tse u-ga-wa ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. U'-no° a-gi-the a-to° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. U'-no" tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Mo°'-ge u-thi-ptu-the ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. U'-no" a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. U'-no" tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Mo"'-ge u-thi-ftu-the a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a 

bi" da, tsi ga. 

33. A'-zhu-ga-wa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. U'-no" gi-the mo°-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. A'-zhu-ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

37. A'-ba-t'u-xa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi, ga, 

38. E'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Zhi"'-ga u-no" gi-the mo°-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. A'-ba-t'u-xa a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

42. Du'-dse u-ga-wa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. E'-shM do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to" he i"-da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. U'-no" gi-the mo"-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. Du'-dse u-ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 



346 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

47. Ta'-xpi lii" fa-dse ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

48. E' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. U'-no" a-gi-tlie a-to° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

50. U'-no° tha bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

51. Ta'-xpi hi° pa-dse a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi'' ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

52. Pa'-xi° fka ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

53. E' shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

54. U'-no° a-gi-the a-to° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. U'-no° tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. Pa'-xi° pi e-go" a bi i-the ki-the mo''-thi'' ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga. 

57. Wa'-ko°-da Ho°-ba-do'' thi''-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga a-to° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

59. Wa'-ko^-da tse-ga xtsi e-tho°-be hi no" bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

60. Wa'-ko°-da zhu-dse u-ga-to° e'-go° kshe no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Ga' kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

62. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-slii-ga i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. Wa'-ko°-da tse-ga xtsi e-tho^-be hi no" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. Tha'-ta ta-thi-sho° dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. Wa'-gthe to" e-go° to" no" a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. Wa'-gthe a-gi-the a-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. Zhi"'-ga wa-gthe gi-the mo"-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. Ni'-ka no" hi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Wa'-gthe gi-the mo"-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71 . Wa'-gthe gi-xi-tha zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga . 

72. Wa'-ko"-da tse-ga xtsi e-tho"-be hi no" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. I'-sdu-ga dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. Wa'-gthe to" e-go" to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

75. Ga' wa-gthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. Zhi"'-ga wa-gthe gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

77. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

78. Ni'-ka no" hi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. Wa'-gthe gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. Wa'-gthe gi-xi-tha zhi ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

HO^'-BA THA-GTHi'"' 

81. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" xtsi u-wa-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

82. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

83. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" xtsi u-ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLBSCHE) TRIBAL BITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 347 

84. Wa'-ko"-da sho" e-go" xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

85. U'-xthi thi°-ge i-he-a-the a-to° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

86. Zhi°'-ga zhii-i-ga o"-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

87. Wa'-ko°-da sho" e-go° xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

88. U'-xthi thi°-ge i-hc-the mC-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

89. Wa'-ko°-da hiu-dse ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

90. U'-xthi thi°-ge i-he-a-the a-to" he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

91. Ho°'-ba wa-fu ga to° a', bi° da, tsi ga, 

92. U'-xthi thi"-ge i-he-a-the a-to° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

93. Wa'-ko°-da mo°-shi ta ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

94. U'-xthi thi°-ge i-he-a-the a-to° he i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

95. Wa'-ka°-da sho° e-go" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

96. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

97. U'-xthi thi°-ge i-he-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

98. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

99. Ho^'-ga e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

100. Zhu'-i-ga o°-the mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

101. Mo^'-zho" sho" e-go" xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

102. U'-xthi thi°-ge i-he-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

u'-xthi thiN-qe 

103. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

104. Tsi'-zhu u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

105. fsi'-zhu wi" a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

106. U'-xthi thi°-ge xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

107. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

108. Zhi'"-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi thi°-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

109. Ha'! zhi°-ga, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

110. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi thi°-ge e-she do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

111. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga tha ba tho°-tse a-to" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

112. U'-da-bthu-bthu-e xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

113. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o^-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

114. U'-da-bthu-bthu-e xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the nio°-thi° ta i tsi° da', 

a bi° da, tsi ga. 

115. Ho°'-ba tha-gthi° xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

116. U'-wa-ni-ka-shi-ga i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

117. ZW'-ga zhu-i-ga o^-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

118. Ho°'-ba tha-gthi° xtsi u-ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', 

a bi° da, tsi ga. 



348 THE OSAGE TRIBE [kth. ann. 36 

119. llC'-ba Tha-gthi" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

120. Zha'-zhe a-ki-(o" a-thi" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

121. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o^-tha bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

122. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi° xtsi u-ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo°-tlii° ta i tsi" da, 

a bi° da, tsi ga. 

123. No^'-ni-o^-ba zhi°-ga wi° zhu-i-ga a-the a-to° he i" da', a bi° da', 

tsi ga, 

124. Zhi°'-ga, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

125. Ziiu'-i-ga tha bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

126. U'-xthi thi°-ge a-ki-gtha-thi° mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

127. Wa'-shi-shi u-dse a-thi" mo°-thi° bi do"* shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

128. Wa'-shi-shi u-bu-dse i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

129. We'-no°-bthe mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

130. We'-no^-bthe mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

131. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

132. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

133. Xtha'-?i zhi°-ga wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

134. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

135. Ba'-shta e-go" to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

136. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

137. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

138. U'-xthi thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

139. U'-no" a bi shki i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

140. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

141. Zlii"'-ga no"-bthe tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

142. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

143. Ha'-ba zhu-dse kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

144. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

145. Zhi°'-ga no"-bthe mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

146. No"'-bthe the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

147. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ^a i tsi" da', a bi" da, {si ga. 

148. Ha'-ba to-ho kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

149. Ga' kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

150. No"'-bthe the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

151. No"'-bthe the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

152. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

153. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

154. Ha'-ba gthe-zhe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

155. Ga' kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLBSCHE] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 349 

156. No°'-bthe the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

157. Zhi°'-ga no"-bthe gi-the mo"-thi'' bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

158. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi'' ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

159. Zhi°'-ga no°-bthe the mo°-thi" bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

160. A'-dsu-ta i-ga-gi-ge a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi" 

da, tsi ga. 

161. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

162. Ha'-ba fi kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

163. Ga' kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

164. No°'-bthe the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

165. No"'-bthe the mo°-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

166. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

167. Zhi°'-ga no°-bthe the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

168. A'-dsu-ta i-ga-fi-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

169. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

170. Ho"'-ga e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

171. No"'-bthe the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

172. No"'-bthe the mo"-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

173. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

174. Ho°'-ba u-pa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

175. U'-hi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" tsi ga, 

176. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

177. U'-hi ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

Tsi'-ZHU We-ha-ge (The Last Tsi'-zhu) Gens 

(Free translation, p. 130; literal translation, p. 516) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Tsi'-zhu u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

3. Tsi-'zhu We-ha-ge thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Ha! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. We'-ki-k'o° tha"-tse thi"-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

6. Ha' ! zhi"-ga, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. We'-ki-k'o" tho°-tse thi"-ge e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. We'-ki-k'o" tho"-tse mi-kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Wa'-pa-be hi" zhu-dse kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Zhi"'-ga o"-tlio°-gi-ni-tha mo"-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. U'-no" o"-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the ino"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



350 THE OSAGE TRIBE [kth. ann. 36 

15. ^I'-ha ii-sha-be ga thi^-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Zhi"'-ga no°-xthe gi the mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

18. No°'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. Pa'-zhu-zhe sha-be ga-thi°-kslie shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. No^'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi° lie i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

21. Zhi^'-ga no^-xthe gi-the ino"-thi° bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. No^'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

23. Zhu'-i-ga pa-be ga kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Zhi^'-ga no°-xthe gi-the mo^-tlii" bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Nc'-xthe gi-a-da-xe ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. U'-no" a bi shki i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. ^'-ha u-thi-ftu-the ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. U'-no° a-gi-the a-to° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Zhi°'-ga u-no" tha bi do" sliki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Hi'-ko" ba-k'i-tha ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. U'-no" gi-tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Hi'-ko" ba-k'i"-tha a bi i-the ki-the ino"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a 

bi" da, 

38. Tse'-wa-tse u-ga-wa ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. U'-no" gi-the mo°-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Mo"'-ge u-thi-ftu-the ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. Zhi"'-ga u-no" tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. A'-zhu-ga-wa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. A'-ba-t'u-xa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. U'-no" tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. A'-ba-t'u-xa a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES^OSAGE LANGUAGE 351 

52. Du'-dse-u-ga-wa ga thi°-kslie shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. U'-no° a-gi-the a-to° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

54. U'-no° gi-the mo°-thi° bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

55. Du'-dse-u-ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the mo''-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

56. fa'-xpi hi° ^a-dse ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

57. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to" lie i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Zhi°'-ga no° hi bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

59. fa'-xpi hi" ?a-dse a bi i-the ki-the nio°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

60. Pa'-xi° Qa-dse fi e-go" ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

61. E'shki do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

62. U'-no° a-gi-the a-to° he i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

63. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

64. Pa'-xi" pa-dse ^i e-go° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. Ho°'-ba u-^a-ki-ba do-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

66. U-hi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

67. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

68. Ho°'-ga e-tho^-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

69. Zhu'-i-ga o^-the mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

70. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

TSE ThoN'-KA 
(Free translation, p. 132; literal translation, p. 518) 

1. He-dsi xtsi a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

2. fsi'-zhu u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

3. Tse' Tho°-ka to° no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Ha! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse thi^-ga a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi a, bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Ha' ! zhi°-ga, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse thi^-ga e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse a-to° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. Tsi'-zhu e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. We'-ki-k'o° o°-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. Xo^'-be dsu-dse o"-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. No^'-be dsu-dse o°-the ino''-thi° bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. U'-no° o^-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

16. Ho°'-ba -Ufa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. U'-hi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



352 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

Ni'-KA Wa-koN-da-qi 
(Free translation, p. 133; literal translation, p. 519) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Tsi'-zhu u-dse-the pe-tho''-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

3. Ni'-ka Wa-ko^-da-gi thi^-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. We'-ki-k'o" tho°-tse thi^-ga a-tha, wi-tsi-go e, e-gi-a bi a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

6. Ha' ! zhi°-ga, e'-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse thi°-ge e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse mi-kshe i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. Mo°'-pe zhu-dse thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. I'-ts'a thi°-ge mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. Mo°'-fe fa-be thi^-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni ka-shi-ga i" da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Mo^'-pe fa-be thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Zhu'-i-ga the mo°-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Xi"'-ha fa-gi a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

23. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Mo"'-pe fa-tha-ge thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Mo"'-9e pa-tha-ge thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Zhu'-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. fs'e wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. U'-no° tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Mo"'-pe fi thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. I'-ts'a thi°-ge mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Ts'e wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. U'-no° tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. U'-no" a bi i-the ici-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLBSCHE] TRIBAL RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 353 

40. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

41. Ho°'-ba do-ba shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

42. U'-hi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi ga no°-zhii° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. Ba'-pi Qa-gi thi°-kshe no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

45. Ga' thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

46. Zhu-i-ga the xtsi a-ni ka-shi-ga i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

47. Wa'-to°-fi fa-gi thi°-kshe no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. I'-tha-ki-tho°-ba xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. Zlii°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

50. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" ila, tsi ga, 

51. Zlu°'-ga no°-bthe gi-the mo^-thi" bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

52. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

Tho'-xb Pa Thi-hon 
(Free translation, p. 134; literal translation, p. 521) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Tsi'-zhu u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do° a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

3. Tho'-xe Pa Thi-ho" to° no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Ha'! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse thi^-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

6. Hiu'-dse shi tse a, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta-ge thi°-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. ^'ka'-gthe zhu-dse kshe no" a', a bi" da, ^si ga, 

10. Gthiu'-fe tsi-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. The'-(?e tha-ta dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. U'-ha i-tse-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. ^"'-dse u-thi-xpa-the i-no"-zhi" ga-xe a', a bi" da, (si ga, 

14. Ha' ! Tsi'-zhu e', e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. We'-ki-k'o" tho"-tse thi"-ge e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. We'-ki-k'o" tho"-tse a-to° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. ^l"'-dse thi-bo-xa tsi-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Mo"'-sho-dse the-to°-ha shki wa-to"'-i" a-zhi i-no"-zhi" ga-xe to" 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. E'-dsi zhi the thi"-ge a-ni-ka-shi-ga, 'Tsi-zhu e', e-to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

21. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Mo°'-ki-9i°-dse tsi-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Mo°'-ko°-to"-ga zhi"-ga thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2786—21 23 



354 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

24. U'-ga-to"-tha tsi-the to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. Ga' thi°-kslie shki a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Mo°'-ko° the mo"-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

27. Zhi^'-ga mo^-ko" the rao^-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. U'-no° a bi i-the iji-the rao^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Mo°'-ki-Qi°-dse tsi-the do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

31. Ha'-ba-ko°-9e-Qi-da to° no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

32. U'-ga-to''-tha tsi-the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

33. Ga' thi^-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Mc'-ko" tha ba tho^-tse a, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

35. I-u'-tha-btho^-^e a-tsi-a-tha ba da° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

36. I'u-wa-pa xtsi a, wi-tsi-go e', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. fs'ii'-xe a, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Zha'-zhe o°-ki-to° ta bi a, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. fs'ii'-xe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Zha'-zhe o°-ki-to° ta bi a', wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

41. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

42. Mo'"-ko°-to°-ga to° no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. Tho' to" hi no^-zhi" ga-xe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

44. Zhi^'-ga ino°-ko'' the mo°-thi° ta bi a', wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

45. Zhi'"-ga mo^-ko" tha bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

46. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

47. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Mo°'-ko° ni-ka-shi-ga to" no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

49. Tho' to° hi no°-zhi° bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

50. Zhi°'-ga mo^-ko" the mo°-thi'' ta bi a', wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Zhi^'-ga mo°-ko° tha bi do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

52. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, ^si ga, 

53. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

54. Ho^'-ga e-tho°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Mo^'-ko" the mo°-thi° bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

56. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the ino°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

57. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

58. Ho°-a'-do° zhi''-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi go" no" shki a, hi" a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

59. Ha'-ba zhu-dse kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. U'-ga-to°-tha tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Wa'-to" zhu-dse thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. E'-ki-tho°-ba xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLBSCHB] TRIBAL EITKS — OSAGE LANGUAGE 355 

63. Wa'-dsu-ta hi° zhiu-dse kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

64. E'-ki-tho"-ba xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. U'-ga-to°-tha i-the-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. Zhi^'-ga mo°-ko° the mo°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mC-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

68. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

69. Ho^'-a-do" mo^-ko" tha bi go° no° shki a', hi" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

70. Ha'-ba to-ho kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

71. Ga' kshe shld a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

72. ZW'-ga mo°-ko° the rnoMhi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

73. Wa'-to° fa-be tlii°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

74. E'-ki-tho^-ba o^-ga-xe ta bi a', wi-go°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

75. Wa'-dsu-ta hi" sha-be kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

76. E'-ki-tho°-ba o°-ga-xe ta bi a', wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

77. Zhi^'-ga mo°-ko'" the moMhi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

78. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

80. Ha'-ba gthe-zhe kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

81. U'-ga-to°-tha tsi-the to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

82. Ga' kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

83. Mo°'-ko'' the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

84. Mo°'-ko° the mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

85. A'-dsu-ta i-ga-?i-ge ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

86. Wa'-to° gthe-zhe thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

87. I'-tha-ki-tho°-ba o°-ga-xe ta bi a', wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

88. Wa'-dsu-ta gthe-she kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

89. I'-tha-ki-tho°-ba o°-ga-xe ta bi a', wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

90. Zlii°'-ga mo^-ko" the mo°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

91. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

92. He-dsi xtsi a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

93. Zhi°'-ga mo°-ko° tha bi ga no°-zhi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

94. Ha'-ba fi kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

95. Zhi°'-ga mo°-ko° tlie mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

96. Zhi°'-ga mo^-ko" the mo°-thi° bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

97. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the nio°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

98. Wa'-to" 9i thi°-kshe no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

99. I'-tha-ki-tho° ba o°-ga-xe ta bi a', wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 
100. Wa'-dsu-ta hi° fi kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



356 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 38 

101. I'-tha-thu-pe o°-ga-xe ta bi a', wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

102. Zhi°'-ga mo^-ko" the ino"-thi" bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

103. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

104. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

105. Ho^'-ga e-tliC-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

106. Mo"'-ko" the mo°-thi" bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

107. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

108. A'-dsu-ta i-ga-pi-ge ki-the rao°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

109. Ho°'-ba u-pa-ki ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

110. Ho"'-ba u-^a-ki-ba do-ba shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

111. U'-hi ki-the ino"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

112. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

113. U'-hi ki-the mo"-tlii" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

114. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

115. Ho"-a'-do° zhi"-ga mo"-ko" tha bi go" no" shki a', hi" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

116. Wa'-dsu-ta wa-no" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

117. Zlii"'-ga mo°-ko" the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

118. Zhi°'-ga mo°-ko° the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

119. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

120. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

121. Ni'-dse sho-ga ta-be ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

122. Mo"'-ko" the mo°-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

123. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

124. Thi'-u-ba-he tha-ta ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

125. Mo"'-ko" a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

126. Mo"'-ko" the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

127. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

128. No°'-ka-o°-he ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

129. Mo"'-ko° a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

130. Zhi"'-ga mo"-ko" the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

131. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

132. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

133. No"'-ka-o"-he ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

134. We'-(?da-the a-gi-the a-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

135. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

136. Ho"'-ga e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

137. We'-pda-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

138. We'-pda-gi-tlie mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

139. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAPLBSCHE] TRIBAL, RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 357 

140. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

141. Thi'-u-ba-he i-sdu-ge ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

142. Mo°'-ko° a-gi-the a-to" he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

143. Zhi°'-ga mo°-ko'' the mo°-thi'' bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

144. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the moMhi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

145. Mo°'-ge-o°-he ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

146. Mo^'-ko" a-gi-the a-to" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

147. Mo°'-ko° gi-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

148. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

149. Tho^'-dse u-thi-xi° ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

150. Mo°'-ko° a-gi-the a-to" he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

151. Zhi°'-ga mo°-ko° the mo^-thi" bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

152. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

153. A'-hiu-ha wi-ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

154. Zhu'-i-ga wi-ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

155. Zhu'-i-ga shC-e-go" xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

156. Mo^'-ko" gi-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

157. Mo^'-ko" gi-the nio°-thi° bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

158. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

159. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

160. Ho°'-ga e- tho^-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

161. Mo^'-ko" gi-the mo^-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

162. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

TO*"-WO'* A-DO^-BE Wl'-GI-E 

(Free translation, p. 147; literal translation, p. 525) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. We'-ki-k'o° thC-tse thi°-ge' a-tha, Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

4. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-tse thi°-ge' e-she do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Ha' ! zhin-ga, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. Wa'-ko°-da gthoMhe do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

8. Wa'-kC-da gtho^-the do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Ki'-fto tse a', wi-tsi-go e', e tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Ho°'-ba Wa-9u ga to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi''-ge a-tha, Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga. 



358 THK OSAGE TEIBE [mn. ann. 36 

14. Ha' ! zhi^-ga, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. Wa'-ko°-da gtho^-the wi no° bthi" i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha ba tho°-tse ini-kske i° da', a bi" da, (si ga, 

17. Zhi'''-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. Ho^'-ba u-pa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. U'-hi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

21. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Ho°'-ga i-da-be a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. fsi'-zhu i-da-be a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Ho°'-ba u-fa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. U'-hi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

26. Ho°'-ba tha-gthi" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. U'-hi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

28. Zlu°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

30. Wa'-ko^-da Ho^-no^-pa-ge ga to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Ha' ! I-ko e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi°-ge a-tha, I-ko e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

33. Ha' ! zhi"-ga, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Ho"'-ga i-da-be a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. fsi'-zhu i-da-be a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Zho'-i-ga o"-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Zho'-i-ga o"-the mo"-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. Ho"'-ba u-pa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. U'-hi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Zhi°'-ga-zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. U'-ki-wa-wa-the xtsi i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

47. Ho°'-ba tha-gthi" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. U'-ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. Wa'-ko"-da gtha"-the wi-no° bthi" mo"-zlu i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

50. Wa'-ko"-da Mo"-shi-ta ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. Zhi"'-ga ni-ka-shi-ga bi a, Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Zlii"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha ba tho" tse mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the nio"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCBK] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 359 

56. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

57. Ho'''-ga i-da-be a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

58. Tsi'-zhu i-da-be a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

59. Zho'-i-ga o''-the nao"-thi" bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

60. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

61. Ho°-ba ii-9a-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. U'-bi ki-the ino°-thi° tai tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. Wa'-ko''-da gtho°-the wi no° bthi° mo^-zlii i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

64. Wa'-ko°-da hiu-dse ta ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

65. Ha' ! I-ko e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi°-ge a-tha, I-ko-e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

67. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga tha ba tho°-tse mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha' bi do"" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Zhi°'-ga-zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. U'-ki-wa-wa-the xtsi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

72. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

73. Ho°'-ga i-da-be a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. Tsi'-zhu i-da-be a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

75. Zho'-i-ga o°-the mo°-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. Zhi°'-ga-zhi°-ga u-ki'-wa-wa-the xtsi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i 

tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

77. Ho°'-ba u-pa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

78. U'-hi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

79. Ho°'-ba tha-gthi° xtsi shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

80. Ho°'-ba tha-gthi° u-hi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

8^. Wa'-ko°-da sho" e-go" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

82. U'-xthi thi°-ge i-he' a-the a-to° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

83. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

84. Zhi°'-ga-zhi°-ga u-ki'-wa-wa-the xtsi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i 

tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

The Wi'-gi-es of the Ni'-ki No^-k'o" 

THE Wl'-GI-E OF THE l^-GTHO^'-GA GENS 

(Free translation, p. 157; literal translation, p. 527) 

1 . He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Ho°'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho^-ba ni-ka-shi-ga bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Ha' ! wi-90''-ga, e'-ki-e no^-zhi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Zhi^'-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-shi-ga ba tho^-ta zhi-a', wi-po°-ga, 

e'-ki-e no^-zhi" bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 



360 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

6. He'-dsi xtsi a', a hi" da, t.si ga, 

7. Wa'-kC-da gtho°-the do-ba bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. Hc'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Wa'-ko°-da Ho°-ba do" tlii^-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go-e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. Zhi^'-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-shi-ga ba tho°-ta zhi a', Wi-tsi-go-e', 

e-gi-a bi a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. Zhi^'-ga ni-ka-shi-ga bi e'-sha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. Zhi°'-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-shi-ga ta bi e'-sha i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha ba tho" ta mi kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. Zhi^'-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-shi-ga bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. ^^'-pa thi-ftu-the ga thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. U'-no" o°-gi-the mo"-thi° ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. Hi'-ko" ba-pi'^-tha ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. U'-no" o"-gi-the mo°-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Shi'-no"-dse ba-fi'"-tha ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. fse'-wa-tse u-ga-wa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta bi a', zhi"-ga, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Mo"'-ge thi-Qtu-the ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. A'-zhu-ga-wa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Do'-dse-u-ga-wa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Pa'-hi" ?a-dse fi e-go" ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. E'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta bi a' zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. U'-no" o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Pa' hi" pa-dse pi e-go° a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Ta'xpi hi" pa-dse ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta bi tse a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsiga 

39. U'-no" o"-tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Ta'-xpi hi" pa-dse a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 



LA KLESCiiK] TRIBAL RITES — OSAGE LANGVAGE 361 

41. Ho°'-ba do-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

42. Ho°'-ba do-ba u-wa'ni-ka-shi-ga a-thi" he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga C-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

44. Ho°'-ba u-f a-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. U'-hi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi° ga, 

46. Ho°'-ba tha-gthi" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

47. U'-ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. Ho°'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga bi a', a bi" da, (si ga, 

50. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

51. Ha' ! wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-e no°-zhi° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. Zhi^'-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-shi-ga ba tho°-ta zhi a', wi-go°-ga, e'-ki-e 

no°-zhi° bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

53. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

54. Wa'-ko°-da gtho°-the do-ba bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

55. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

56. Wa'-ko°-da ho^-do" thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Ha' ! I-ko-e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Zhi"'-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-slii-ga ba tho"-ta zlii a', I-ko-e', e-gi-a 

bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

59. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

60. Zhi^'-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-shi-ga ta bi e'-sha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

61. Zhi°'-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-shi-ga bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

63. ^"i'-pa-hi thi-ftu-the ga thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. U'-no° o°-gi-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. Hi'-ko" ba-pi'"-tha ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

67. Shi'-no"-dse ba-9i'"-tha ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. Tse'-wa-tse u-ga-wa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. Mo"'-ge-u-thi-Qtu-the ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a'-zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. A'-zhu-ga-wa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

75. Pa'-hi" pa-dse ^i e-go" ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. Zhi°'-ga, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

77. Pa'-hi" ^a-dse ^i e-ga" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 



362 THK OSAGE TRIBE • [eth. ann. 30 

78. Ta'-xpi hi° fa-dse ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. E'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. Zhi"'-ga, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

81. Ta'-xpi hi° (sa-dse a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', zhi"-ga', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

82. Hc'-ba u-f.a-ki-ba do-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

83. U'-hi ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

84. Ho^'-ba ii-f,a-ki-ba do-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

85. U'-ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

86. Ho^'-ba tha-gthi° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

87. U'-ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi^-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

88. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

89. Ho°'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

90. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

91. Ha' ! wi-po"-ga, e'-ki-e no°-zhi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

92. Zhi°'-ga ni-ka-shi-ga bi a', wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-e no°-zhi" bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

93. Zhi"'-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-shi-ga ba tho°-ta zhi a', wi-90°-ga, 

e'-ki-e no"-zhi° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

94. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

95. Wa'-ko"-da gtho"-the do-ba bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

96. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

97. Wa'-tse Do-ga thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

98. Ha'! Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

99. Zhi"'-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-shi-ga ba tho"-ta zhi a', Wi-tsi-go e', 

e-gi-a bi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

100. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

101. Zhi"'-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-shi-ga ta bi e'-sha i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

102. Zhi"'-ga hiu-dse ta ni-iva-shi-ga bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

103. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the ino"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

104. ^'-pa-hi thi-Qtu-the ga thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

105. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

106. Hi'-ko" ba-pi'"-tha ga ge a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

107. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

108. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

109. Slii'-no°-dse ba-9i'"-tha ga ge a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

110. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi"-ga', abi" da, tsi ga, 

111. Tse'-wa-tse u-ga-wa ga tlii"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

112. U'-no" a bi i-tlie ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLBSCHE] TRIBAL RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 363 

113. Mo°'-ge u-thi-(?tii-the ga thi^-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

114. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

115. A'-zhu-ga-wa ga thi^-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

116. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mC-thi" ta bi a', zhi''-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

117. Do'-dse u-ga-wa ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

118. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi^-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

119. A'-ba t'u-xa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

120. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mC-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi° da, ^si ga, 

121. Pa'-hi° pa-dse pi e-go° ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

122. Zhi°'-ga, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12.3. Pa'-hi° ^a-dse fi e-go° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi°-ga', 
a bi" da, tsi ga, 

124. Ta'-xpi hi° fa-dse ga tlii"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

125. Zhi°'-ga, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

126. Ta'-xjii hi" ^a-dse a bi i-the ki-the nio^-thi" ta bi a', zhi^-ga', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

127. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

128. Ho"'-ba u-pa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

129. U'-lii ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

130. Ho°'-ba u-pa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

131. U'-ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

132. Ho°'-ba tha-gthi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

133. U'-ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

134. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

135. Ho°'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

136. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

137. Ha' ! wi-po"-ga, e'-ki-e no"-zlii" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

138. Zhi°'-ga ni-ka-shi-ga bi a, wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-e no"-zhi" bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

139. Zhi"'-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-shi-ga ba tho°-ta zhi a', ■wi-90°-ga, 

e'-ki-e, no"-zlu" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

140. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

141. Wa'-ko"-da gtho"-the do-ba bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

142. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

143. Wa'-tse mi-ga thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

144. Ha! I-ko e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

145. Zhi"'-ga ni-ka-shi-ga bi a, I-ko e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

146. Zhi"'-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-shi-ga ba tho"-ta zhi a', I-ko e', e-gi-a 

bi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

147. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



364 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 30 

148. Zhi°'-ga ni-ka-shi-ga bi e-sha i° <la', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

149. Zhi"'-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-shi-ga bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

150. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-tho mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

151. ^'-pa-hi u-thi-ptu-the ga thi^-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

152. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi^-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

153. Hi'-ko° ba-pi'^-tha ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

154. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

155. Shi'-no°-dse ba-^i'^-tha ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

156. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

157. Tse-wa-tse u-ga-wa ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

158. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta bi a', zlii°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

159. Mo°'-ge u-tlii-ptii-the ga tlii"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

160. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

161. A'-zhu ga-wa ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

162. A'-zhu-ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the nio°-thi° ta bi a', zhi^-ga', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

163. Do'-dse u-ga-wa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

164. Do'-dse u-ga-wa' a bi i-the ki-the mo°-tlii° ta bi a', zhi°-ga', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

165. A'-ba-t'u-xa ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

166. A'-ba-t'u-xa a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta bi a', zhi^-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

167. Pa'-hi° pa-dse pi e-go° ga thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

168. Zhi°'-ga, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

169. Pa'-hi° ^a-dse pi e-go° a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta bi a', zhi^-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

170. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

171. Ho°'-ba u-?a-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

172. U'-hi ki-the mo"-thi° ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

173. Ho"'-ba u-^a-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

174. U'-ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, (si ga, 

175. Ho"'-ba tlia-gthi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

176. U'-ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo"-thi° ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

177. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

178. Zhi"-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-shi-ga ba tho°-ta zhi a', wi-9o"-ga, 

e'-ki-e no°-zhi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

179. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

180. Ha'! wi-?o"-ga, e'-ki-e no"-zhi° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

181. Ho"'-ga A-hiu-to" to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



I.AFLBSCHB] TRIBAL. RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 365 

182. Ha' ! wi-^o^-ga, e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

183. ZW'-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-shi-ga ta bi a', wi-90°-ga e', e-gi-e no"- 

zhi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

184. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

185. Zlu°'-ga bdu-dse ta ni-ka-shi-ga ta bi e'-sha i° da', a bi" da, (si ga, 

186. 0'-to°-be pa-xe ta mi kshe a', wi-zhi^-the', e-tsi-the a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

187. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

188. Mo°'-xe u-Qa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

189. 0'-ga-wi°-xe no°-zlii° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

190. 0'-ga-wi°-xe do-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

191. 0'-ga-wi°-xe no^-zhi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

192. He'-dsi xtsi a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

193. Zho^'-pa-fi pe-tho°-ba' a bi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

194. E'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi° to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

195. Zho°' pa-pi pe-thC-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

196. A'-hiu-he a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

197. Ho^'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

198. Zho°'-pa-9i pe-tho°-ba ha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

199. A'-to° i-he a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

200. Ha' ! wi-90°-ga, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

201. No"' zhi''-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-slii-ga ba tho^-ta zhi a', wi-QO°-ga, 

e-ki-e no^-zhi" bi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

202. He'-dsi xtsi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

203. Ha' ! wi-fo°-ga, e'-ki-e no^-zhi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

204. Ho"'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

205. Ha' ! wi-QO"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

206. Zhi"'-ga hiu-dse ta ni-ka-shi-ga ba tho"-ta, zhi a', wi-90"-ga, 

e'-gi-e no"-zhi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

207. Ho°'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

208. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

209. fse'-xo-be e-go° e-de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

210. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

211. Zhi"'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tho"-ta zhi a', Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

212. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

213. Zhi°'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tho"-ta zhi e-sha i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

214. 0'-to"-be pa-xe ta mi-kshe a' zhi"-ga, e' to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

215. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

216. Ni' ki-mo"-ho" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

217. Ni' a-ga-ha a-to"-thi° e-go" zho" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

218. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

219. Be' fi-gthe o"-tho"-gi-tha mo"-zhi a-thi° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

220. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



366 THE OSAGE TRIBE [hth. ann. 36 

221. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

222. Be' ^;i-gthe i-kshi-tha ba zlii Ijd-the mo°-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

223. Ni' a-ki-tlia-zha-ta ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

224. Wa'-ko"-da o"-ki-tha-zlia-ta bi a-tlii" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

225. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

226. Wa'-ko"-da a-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-the mo"-tlii" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

227. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

228. Ho°'-bthi° sha-be' e-go" e de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

229. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

230. Zhi"'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tho"-ta zhi a, Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

231. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

232. Zhi"'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tho"-ta zhi e'-sha i° da', a bi" da, tsiga, 

233. 0'-to°-be pa-xe ta mi-kshe a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

234. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

235. Ni' ki-mo"-ho" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

236. Ba'-btlia-btha-xe zho" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

237. Ni'a-ki-tha-zha-ta ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

238. Wa'-ko°-da o"-ki-tha-zha-ta bi a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

239. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

240. Wa'-ko"-da a-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

241. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

242. Ho"'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

243. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

244. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi°-ge a-tha, wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-e no°-zhi" 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

245. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

246. Ho"'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

247. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

248. fa'-biu-fka e-go" e-de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

249. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

250. Zhi°'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tho"-ta zhi a', Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

251. He-dsi xtsi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

252. Zhi°'-ga ni a-ga-ha ta bi e'-go" a-zhi e'-she do" a', a bi" da, (si ga, 

253. 0'-to"-be pa-xe ta mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

254. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

255. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

256. Ni'a-ki-tha-zha-ta ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

257. Wa'-ko°-da o"-ki-tha-zha-ta bi a'-thi" lie i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHB] TRIBAL. KITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 367 

258. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga oMha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

259. Wa'-ko°-(la a-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-the ino°-thi° \,a, bi° da', zhi°-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

260. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

261. Ho^'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

262. Ga' xtsi lii tha i do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

263. Ki'-fda e-de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

264. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-e to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

265. Zhi°'-ga ni a-ga-ha ta bi e'-go° a-zhi a', Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-e to° 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

266. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

267. Zlii^'-ga ni a-ga-ha ta bi e'-go° a-zhi e'-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

268. 0'-to°-be pa-xe ta a-to° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

269. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

270. Ni'a-ki-tha-zha-ta ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

271. Wa'-ko°-da o°-ki-tha-zha-ta bi a-thi° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

272. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha' bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

273. Wa'-ko°-da a-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi''-ga', 

a bi° da, tsi ga. 

274. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

275. Ha' ! wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-e no^-shi" bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

276. Zhi^'-ga ni a-ga-ha ta bi e'-go" a-zhi a', wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

277. Ho^'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

278. Ha' ! wi-90°-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

279. Zhi°'-ga ni a-ga-ha ta bi e'-go" a-zhi a', wi-po^-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

280. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

281. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

282. 0'-pxo°-to°-ga to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

283. Tho' to" hi no°-zhi° to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

284. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

285. No"', wi-zhi''-the, e a'-gthi-no^-zhi" to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

286. Ni'-ka wi" e-dsi a-ka', wi-zhi°-the, e a'-gthi no°-zhi° to" a', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

287. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

288. Ni'-ka be i-zhi^-ge xtsi to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

289. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

290. Ho°'-ga bthi" a', wi-zhi°-the', e to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

291. 0'-pxo°-to''-ga wi-e a'-to° he a', wi-zhi^-the, e'-to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

292. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

293. Ha' ! wi-po''-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



868 THE OSAGE TRIBE [kth. ann. 36 

294. Zhi°'-ga ni a-ga-ha ni-ka-shi-ga ba tlW-ta zhi a', wi-go^-ga, 

e'-gi-a, bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

295. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

296. Zhi^'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tiao^-ta zhi e'-she do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

297. E'-dsi-zhi the thi°-ge a-ni-ka-shi-ga a-to" he a', wi-zhi^-the', e 

to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

298. He'-dsi xtsi a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

299. Mo°'-ki-Qi°-dse tsi-the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

300. Ni' ga-shko° he to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

301. I'-tho°-be-o° tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

302. Mo'''-ki-pi°-dse tsi-the do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

303. Ni' a-tha-do" i-he-the to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

304. No"', wi-50°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

305. Wi'-po°-ga u-k'o° ta a-ka we-to°-i° a'-tha, wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

306. We'-tha-bthi" o" tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

307. Mo^'-ki-pi^-dse tsi-the do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

308. Ni' a-tha-do" i-he-the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

309. We'-do-ba o° tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

310. Mo°'-ki-9i°-dse tsi-the do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

311. Mc'-zho" a-bi-fe i-he-the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

312. No"', wi-fC-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

313. Wi'-90°-ga u-k'o° ta a-ka we-to^-i" a-tha, wi-po^-ga, e'-ki-e no°- 

zhi°, bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

314. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

315. fa'-dse do-ba ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

316. E'-no°-ha hi no^-zhi" to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

317. fa'-dse mo^-ha tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

318. U'-hi no°-zhi° to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

319. Mo^'-zho" u-hu-pa-gi to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

320. I'-tho°-ba o° tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

321. fa'-dse ba-fo" tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

322. U'-hi no°-zhi° to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

323. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

324. Mo°'-zho° u-hu-pa-gi to° a', a bi" da, (si ga, 

325. fa'-dse ga-xpa tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

326. U'-hi no^-zhi" to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

327. Mo^'-zho" u-hu-pa-gi to" a', a bi° da, (si ga, 

328. We'-do-ba-o° tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

329. fa'-dse a-k'a tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

330. U'-hi no°-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

331. Mo"'-zho" u-hu-pa-gi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

332. fa'-dse we-do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



Li KI.KSIHE] TRIBAL RITES— OSAGE LANGUAGE 369 

333. E'-no''-li!i', a bi" ila, tsi ga, 

334. U'-niu ga-xe to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

335. Zhi^'-ga mo^-zho" u-hu-pa-gi bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

336. Ga'-xto" mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

337. Wa'-ko"-da hu a-no"-k'o° bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

338. Niu' wi-ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

339. I'-gi-ni-tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

340. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

341. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

342. No"', wi-90"-ga, e'-ivi-e no"-zhi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

343. Wi'-90"-ga u-k'o" ta a-ka we-to"-i" a-tha, wi-9o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi 

a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

344. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

345. 0'-pxo"-to°-ga to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

346. Mo"'-ki-f,i"-tlse tsi-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

347. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

348. Hi"' u-ga-bu-dse i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

349. Ga' tse shki a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

350. Wa'-thi"-e fka she-nio"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

351. Xa'-dse e shno" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

352. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

353. Xa'-dse wi" gi-ta-pe mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

354. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

355. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

356. Gu'-da pa-gthe i-no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

357. Ni'-dse ta-be ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

358. To"'-de da-pa e no" bi no" a', a bi" ila, tsi ga, 

359. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

360. 'ro"'-de da-pa wi" gi-ta'-pe mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

361. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

362. Thi'-u-ba-he ga kshe a', a bi" (h\, tsi ga, 

363. He'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

364. To" '-de wi" she kshe e no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

365. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

366. 'ro"'-de wi" gi-ta-pe mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

367. 'ro"'-de wi" wa-tlsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a 

bi" da, tsi ga. 

2786—21 24 



870 THE OSAGE TRIBE [kth. ann. 36 

368. NC'-ljca o°-he ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

369. He'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

370. A'-thi° wi° ga-kshe e' no° bi no" a', a bi° da, (si ga, 

371. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

372. A'-thi" wi" gi-ta-pe mo°-thi'' bi do° shki a', a bi° da, (si ga, 

373. Zhi^'-ga, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

374. A'-thi" wi° wa-dsu-^a gi-hi-thC-be mo°-thi'' ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a 

bi° da, (si ga. 

375. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

376. Ta'-hiu-ga-9ta ga tse shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

377. A'-thi° u-k'a-be wi" she tse e' no" bi no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

378. Sho°' xtsi pa-xe i" da', a bi" da, (si ga, 

379. A'-thi° u-k'a-be wi° gi-ta-pe mo^-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

380. Wa'-dsu-(a gi-hi-tho°-be mC-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

381. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

382. Pa' pa-fi ga tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

383. He'-shki wa-thi°-e fka zhi i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

384. A'-thi° pa-pi wi"" e no° bi no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

385. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

386. A'-thi" pa-pi wi° gi-ta-pe mo^-thi" bi do° shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

387. A'-thi° pa-pi wi° wa-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho°-be mo^-thi" ta bi a', 

zhi°-ga, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

388. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

389. He' ga-xa u-gtho°-the ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

390. Wa'-tsi-shka zhi''-ga e' no° bi no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

391. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

392. Wa'-tsi-shka zhi^-ga wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

393. Gi'-ta-pe mo°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

394. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho°-be mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

395. He' ga-xa u-wa-to° ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

396. Ga'-xa zhi^-ga wi" she kshe e' no" bi no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

397. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

398. Ga'-xa zhi°-ga wi° gi-ta-pe mo^-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

399. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-lii-tho^-be mo°-thi° ta bi a', zlii°-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

400. He' ga-xa u'-gthC-the ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

401. ^o°'-po°-ga wi" she kshe e' no" bi no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

402. Sho°' xtsi pa-xe i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

403. f!o°'-po°-ga wi° gi-ta-pe mo°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

404. He'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

405. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, (si ga. 



LAFI.B8CHII] TBIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 371 

406. He' ga-xa u'-gtho''-the ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

407. He' shki do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

408. Wa'-tsi-shka e no° bi no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

409. Sho°' xtsi pa-xe i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

410. Wa'-tsi-shka wi° gi-ta-pe mo°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

411. He' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

412. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho^-be mo^-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, 

tsiga. 

413. He' ga-xa u'-gtho°-the ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

414. '1°' ga-ka e no" bi no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

415. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

416. '1°' fa-ka wi° gi-ta-pe mo°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

417. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho°-be mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi"-ga', bi" da, tsi ga, 

418. '1°' 9a-ka wi" gi-^a-pe mo"-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

419. Wa'-dsu-ta gi-hi-tho"-be mo"-thi° ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

420. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

421. Pe'-o-to" ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

422. Wa'-thi°-e fka she mo" mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

423. Ho'-e-ga a-gi-the a-to° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

424. Zlxi"'-ga ho-e-ga gi-the mo°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

425. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

426. We'-ki-i-he-the rQ0°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

427. He' a-thi-ku-sha ga tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

428. E' shki wa-thi"-e fka zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

429. Wa'-xthe-xthe a-gi-the a-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

430. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

431. Wa'-bthi-ku-sha a-to° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

432. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

433. We'-ki i-he-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

434. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

435. Ho"'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

436. Ha' ! wi-fo"-ga, e'-ki-e no°-zhi° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

437. Zhi"'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tho"-ta zhi a', wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

438. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

439. Ho"'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

440. Thu-e' xtsi pi-thu-^e the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

441. Tse'-xe xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

442. He'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhin to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

443. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



372 THE OSAGE TKIBE [kth. ann. 36 

444. Ni'-ka wi" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

445. Tho' to" hi iH)"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

446. No"'-be ])a-ha hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

447. No"'-be zha-ta ga-xc to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

448. He'-dsi xtsi gi-o do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

449. Ha'! wi-zlii"-tlio', e a-gthi-no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" (h), ^si ga, 

450. Ni'-ka wi" o-dsi a-ka', wi-zhi"-the, o a'-gthi-no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

451. Ha' ! wi-(;'()"-ga, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

452. Ni'-ka be zhi"-ga i-ta shki do" a', a bi" dn, tsi ga, 

453. Wa'-no"-xe a-dsi the o"-the ta bi a', w-i-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

454. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

455. E'-ta pa-mo"-gthe xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

456. ^'i' thu-fe tsi-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

457. We'-a-ba-cu a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

458. I'-u-tha-zhu-zhu the hi-the thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

459. Ni'-ka be zhi"-ga i-ta' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

460. Wa'-no"-xo a-dsi the o"-the ta bi a', wi-fo^-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

461. He'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

462. Ha'! wi-zhi"-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

463. Ho"'-ga bthi" a', wi-zhi"-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

464. Ho"'-ga Mo"-i°-ka-zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

465. Wi a'-to" he a', wi-zhi"-the, e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

466. E'-dsi-zhi the thi"-ge a-ni-ka-shi-ga a-to" he a', wi-zhi"-thc, e 

to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

467. We'-shno" wi-gi-the a-to" he a', wi-zhi"-the, e to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

468. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

469. Wi'-fO°-ga, e'-ivi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

470. Wi'-9.o"-ga a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

471. O'-k'o" ta a-ka we-to"-i" a-tha, wi-fO"-ga, e'-ivi-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

472. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

473. Mo"'-thi°-ka sha-be thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

474. Ba'-ha a-tsi-no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

475. Ga' thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

476. We'-shno" wi-gi-the a-to" he a', wi-zhi"-the, e to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

477. We'-go"-tha a-ni tha-thi"-she do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

478. We'-go"-tha thi-wa-ts'e-ga tha-ki-the tha-thi"-she ta tso a'^ 

wi-zhi"-the e to" a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

479. Ho"'-ba i-^a-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 873 

480. P'-dse-ha tha-tho do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

481. I°'-shta-bthi a-tha-ga-xto" do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

482. Tho°'-dse ba-he e'-to"-ha no" shki do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

483. We'-go°-tha thi-wa-ts'e-ga tha-ki-thc tha thi"-sho ta tse a 

wi-zhi^-the e to" a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

484. E'tho°-zha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

485. I"'-dse-ha tha-the do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

486. I"'-shta-ha a-tha ga-fta zhi ta tsi" da', \vi-zhi"-the', e-to" a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

487. I"'-shsa-ha a-tha ga-fta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

488. U'-no" u-tha-xtha zhi tha-ki-the tha thi°-she ta tse a', wi-zhi"- 

the, e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

489. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

490. Mo"'-thi"-ka to-ho thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

491. Ba'-ha a-tsi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

492. The' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

493. We'-shno" wi-gi-the a-to" he a', wi-zhi°-the, e to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

494. We'-go"-tha a-ni'tha shi"-she do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

495. We'-go"-tha thi-wa-ts'e-ga tha-ki-the tha thi"-she ta tse a', 

wi-zhi"-the, e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

496. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

497. I"'-dse-ha tha-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

498. Tho"'-dse ba-he' e-to" no" shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

499. Da' thu-ts'a-ga zhi tha-ki-the tha thi"-she ta tse a', wi-zhi"-the, 

e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

500. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

501. K'li'-shi kshi-gthe do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

502. Mo"'-thi"-ka zhu-dse thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

503. Ba'-ha a-tsi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

504. The' shki do" e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

505. We'-shno" wi-gi-the a-to" he a', wi-zhi"-the', e to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

506. I"'-dse-ha tha-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

507. I"'-shta, bthi a-tha-ga-xto° a-zhi ta tse a, wi-zhi"-the', e to" a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

508. I"'-shta-bthi a-tha-ga-xto" do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

509. U'-hu-shi-ge wi-kshi-the a', wi-zhi"-the, e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

510. E'tho°-zha, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

511. Mi'hi-e ga ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

512. We'-ki-i-he-the tha the ta tse a', wi-zhi"-the, e to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

513. We'-ki-i-he-the thi-wa-ts'e-ga tha-ki-the tha thi"-she ta tse a', 

wi-zhi"-the', e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



874 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 38 

514. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

515. K'u'-shi kshi-gthe do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

516. Mo'''-thi°-ka pi thi^-kshe no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

517. Ba'-ha a-tsi-nC-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

518. Ga' thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

519. We'-go^-tha a-ni'tha thi''-she do° shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

520. Mi'iii-e ge {&', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

521. Da'-gthe u-k'u-pi e' no" bi no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

522. I'the tha-ki-the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

523. I°'-dse-ha tha kshi-the tha thi°-she ta tse a', wi-zhi^-the, e to 

a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

524. Da'-gthe ii-k'u-pi a' bi i-the tha-ki-the tha thi°-she ta tse a', 

•wi-zlii°-the, e to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

525. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

526. No°'-be zha-ta ga tse shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

527. Wa'-thi-e fka she mo° mo°-zhi i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

528. Mi' hi-e ge ta, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

529. No^'-be zlia-ta pa-xe a-to° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

530. Zhi'"-ga.i-gi-iii-tha mo°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

531. We'-ki-i-he-the ino°-thi'' ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

532. Zho°'-xa zha-ta e no° bi no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

533. Sho°' xtsi pa-xe i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

534. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

535. Zhi^'-ga i-gi-ni-tha ino°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi'' da, tsi ga, 

536. I'-gi-ni-tha gi-wa-ts' e-ga ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tse a', zhi^-ga', a 

bi" da, tsi ga. 

537. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

538. Ho^'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

539. Ha' ! wi-po^-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

540. Zlii°'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi^-ge a-tha, wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

541. Ho°'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

542. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-pe the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

543. 'I°'-zhu-dse thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

544. He'-dsi xtsi hi no^-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

545. Ha' ! wi-zhi°-the, e a'-gthi-no^-zhi" to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

546. Wi'-tsi-go wi° e-dsi a-ka', wi-zhi^-the, e a'-gthi-no^-zhi" to" a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

547. Ha' ! wi-90''-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

548. Wi'-po°-ga a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

549. Wi'-tsi-go wi" e-dsi thi°-kshe e a-ka', wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 



LAFLB8CHE] TBIBAL BITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 375 

550. E'-ta |)a-mo°-gthe xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

551. ^'-thu-pa ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

552. 'I°'-zhu-dse thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

553. He'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

554. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

555. Wi'-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

556. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi^-ge a-tha, Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

557. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

558. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi°-ge' e-she do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

559. ZW'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tho ba tho" ta mi'-kshe i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

560. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi mi-kshe i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

561. ZW'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

562. fs'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

563. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

564. Wa'-ko°-da e-shki do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

565. Wa'-ko^-da o°-ki-tha-zha-ta bi a-thi° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

566. Zhi'"-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha' bi do° a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

567. Wa'-ko°-da a-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-the mo^-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

568. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

569. Wa'-ko°-da e-shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

570. 0°'-ta-kshi° bi a-thi° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

571. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

572. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

573. A'-ta-kshi" bi ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

574. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

575. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

576. Be' hi o°-gtha mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

577. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

578. Wa'-ko°-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

579. Be' hi a-gtha ba zhi bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

580. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

581. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

582. Hi' o"-wo"-ga pi-da bi a-thi" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

583. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

584. Wa'-ko"-da e'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

585. Hi' u-pi-da bi ki-the ino"-thi° ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

586. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

587. Wa'ko"-dae-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

588. Hi' o"-ki-tha-sho" bi a'-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, ^si ga. 



,376 THE OSAGE TRIBE tETH.ANN.38 

5S9. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-uja o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

590. Wa'-ko"-(la o-shki do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

591. Hi' a-ki-tlia-slui" bi ki-th(> m<)"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

592. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

593. Ho"'-ga u-dsc-the ]7e-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

594. Ha' ! wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

595. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi°-ge' a-tha, wi-fo"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

596. Ho"'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

597. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-fe the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

598. I'"'-9a-be thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

599. He'-dsi xtsi lii no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

600. Ha'! wi-zhi"-the, e a'-gthi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

601. Wi'-tsi-go wi" e-dsi a-ka', wi-zhi"-the, e a'-gthi no"-zhi" to" a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

602. Ha' ! wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

603. Wi'-f0"-ga a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

604. Wi'-tsi-go wi" e-dsi thi"-kshe e a-ka', wi-co"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

605. E'-ta pa-mo"-gthe xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

606. ^"i' thii-^a ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

607. 'I"'-pa-be thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, (si ga, 

608. He'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

609. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

610. Wi'-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

611. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge a-tha, Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

612. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

613. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge' e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

614. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha ba tho"-ta mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

615. Ts'e' wa-tse mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

616. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

617. fs'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the ino"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da^ tsi ga, 

618. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

619. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

620. Wa'-ko°-da o"-ki-tha-zha-ta bi a-tlii" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

621. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

622. Wa'-ko"-da a-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

623. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, (si ga, 

624. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

625. 0"'-ta-kshi" bi a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LA FLESCHE] TRIBAL, RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 37'7 

626. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' hi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

627. Wa'-k<)"-(ia e-shki do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

628. A'-ta-kshi" bi ki-the mo°-tlii° ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi"^ da, tsi ga, 

629. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

630. Wa'-ko"-tia e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

631. Be' Hi o^-gtha nio"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

632. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

633. Wa'-ij;o"-da e'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

•534. Be' hi a-gtha ba zhi bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, 
tsi ga, 

635. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

636. Wa'-ko"-da e'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

637. Hi' o°-wo"-ga-fi-da bi a-thi° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

638. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

639. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

640. Hi' u-fi-da bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

641. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

642. Wa'-ko"-da e'-shki do" a', a bi" ihi, tsi ga, 

643. Hi' o"-ki-tha-sho" bi a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

644. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 
64.5. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

646. Hi' a-ki-tha-sho" bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

647. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

648. Ho"'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

649. Ha' ! wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

650. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge a-tha, wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

651. Ho"'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

652. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-fe the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

653. 'I"'-zho-9ka thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

654. He'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

655. Ha' ! wi-zhi"-the, e-a'-gthi no"-zhi° to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

656. Wi'-tsi-go wi" e-dsi a-ka', wi-zhi"-the, e a'-gthi no"-zhi" to" a', 

a bi" da, 'tsi ga, 

657. Ha' ! wi-po"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

658. Wi'-fO"-ga a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

659. Wi'-tsi-go wi" e-dsi thi"-kshe e a-ka', wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

660. E'-ta ]3a-mo"-gthe xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

661. ^'-thu-fa ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

662. 'I"'-zho-(;'ka thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



378 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 3(5 

663. He'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

664. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go e, e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

665. Wi'-tsi-go-e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

666. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi°-ge a-tha, Wi-tsi-go-e', e-gi-a bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

667. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

668. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi°-ge' e-she do"" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

669. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga o^-tha ba tho° ta mi-kshe i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

670. fs'e' wa-tse-xi mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

671. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

672. fs'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

673. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

674. Wa'-ko°-da e'-shki do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

675. Wa'-ko°-da o°-ki-tha-zha-ta bi a-thi" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

676. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha' bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

677. Wa'-ko°-da a-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-the moMhi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

678. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

679. Wa'-ko°-da e'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

680. O^'-ta-kshi" bi a-thi° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

681. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga o^-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

682. Wa'-ko°-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

683. A'-ta-kshi" bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

684. He'-dsi xtsi a', a' bi" da, tsi ga, 

685. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

686. Be' hi o"-gtha ina°-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

687. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

688. Wa'-ko"-da e'-shki do" a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

689. Be' hi a-gtha ba zhi bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

690. He-dsi xtsi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

691. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

692. Hi' o"-wa"-ga-fi-da bi a-thi° he i° da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

693. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

694. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

695. Hi' u-pida bi ki-the ino°-thi° ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

696. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

697. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

698. Hi' o"-ki-tha-sho° bi a-thi°-he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

699. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

700. Wa'-ko°-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

701. Hi' a-ki-tha-sho° bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 



LAFLBSCHB] TKIBAL. RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 379 

702. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

703. Ho'"-ga u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

704. Ha' ! wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-a, bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

705. Zhi'"-ga zho-i-ga tha bi tlii^-ge a-tha, wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

706. Ho^'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

707. Thu-e' xtsi pi-thu-pe the do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

708. 'P'-zho 9i thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

709. He'-dsi xtsi hi no^-zhi" to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

710. Ha' ! wi-zlii°-the, e a'-gthi no^-zhi" to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

711. Wi'-tsi-go wi° e-dsi a-ka', wi-zlii°-the, e a'-gthi no°-zhi° to" a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

712. Ha' ! wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

713. Wi'-po°-ga a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

714. Wi'-tsi-go wi° e-dsi thi°-kshe, e a-ka', wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-a', bi a', 

a' bi" da, tsi ga, 

715. E'-ta pa-mo°-gthe xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

716. (^' thu-pa ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

717. 'P'-zho (;i thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

718. He'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

719. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

720. Wi'-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

721. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge a-tha, Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

722. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

723. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi°-ge' e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

724. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha ba tho°-ta mi-kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

725. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

726. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

727. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

728. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

729. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

730. Wa'-ko"-da o"-ki-tha-zha-ta bi a-thi°-he i"-da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

731. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

732. Wa'-ko"-da a-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

733. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

734. Wa'-ko"-da e'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

735. 0"'-ta-kshi° bi a-thi" he i°-da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

736. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

737. Wa'-ko"-da e'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

738. A'-ta-kshi" bi ki-the mo°-thi° (a bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

739. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, (si ga, 



380 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 



740. Wa'-ko''-da e'-shki do" a', a ])i" da, tsi ga, 

741. Be' hi o"-gtha mo"-zhi i" da', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

742. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' hi do" a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

743. Wa'-ko"-da o'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

744. Be' hi a-gtlia ba zhi bi i\i-tho mo"-tlii" tn bi a', zlii"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

745. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

746. Wa'-ko"-da e'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

747. Hi' o°-wo°-ga-9i-da bi a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, ^ 

748. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

749. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

750. Hi' u-pi-da bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" ila, tsi ga, 

751. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" thx, tsi ga, 

752. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

753. Hi' o°-ki-tha-sho" bi a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

754. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

755. Wa'-ko"-da e'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

756. Hi' a-ki-tha-sho" bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

757. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

758. Ho"'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

759. Ha' ! wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

760. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge' a-tha, wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

761. Ho"'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

762. Ga' xtsi hi tha i-do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

763. 'I"'-xe shto"-ga thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

764. He'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

765. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go e', e tsi-the a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

766. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge a-tha, Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

767. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

768. Ha'! wi-zhi"-the, e agthi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

769. Wi'-tsi-go wi" e-dsi a-ka', wi-zhi"-the', a a-gthi no°-zhi° to" a', 

a bi" tla, tsi ga, 

770. Ha' ! wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

771. Wi'-tsi-go wi" e-dsi thi"-kshe e a-ka', ■wi-po"-ga a-ka', a bi" da, 

tsiga, 

772. E'-ta pa-mo"-gtlie xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

773. ^'i' thii-fa ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

774. 'I"'-xe shto"-ga thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

775. E'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHE] TRIBAL. RITKS OSAGE LANGUAGE 381 

776. Ha'! Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

777. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge a-tha, Wi-tsi-go e'. c-gi-a bi a' 

a bi" (la, tsi ga, 

778. Ha' ! Zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

779. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha ba tho"-ta mi-kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

780. fs'e' wa-tse-xi mi-kshe i" da', a' bi" da, tsi ga, 

781. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

782. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

783. Zhi"'-ga zho da-iia-chi bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

784. Zhi°'-ga zho (hi-ka-de da-fi-ge o"-ki'-gtha-thi" mo"-thi" ta i tsi" 

da', zhi"-ga, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

785. Zhi"'-ga o-ho-shi-ga bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

786. O'-ho-shi-ge da-pi-ge o"-ki'gtha-thi" mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', 

zhi"-ga, a bi" da, tsi ga. 

787. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

788. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

789. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" shki u-ni'-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" 

da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

790. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

791. Ho°'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

792. Thu-e' xtsi ^i-thu-fc the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

793. '!"' shu-shu-dse thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

794. He'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

795. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go e', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

796. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge' a-tha, Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a' 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

797. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha ba tho" ta mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da. tsi ga, 

798. He'-dsi xtsi a-gthi no"-zhv" ^^i" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

799. Wi'-zhi"-the, e a', a bi" da. tsi ga, 

800. Wi'-tsi-go wi" e-dsi a-ka', \vi-zhi"-tiie, e a'-gthi no"-zhi" to" a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

801. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

802. Wi'-90°-ga a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

803. Wi'-tsi-go \vi" e-dsi tlii"-kshe e a-ka'. wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a, 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

804. E'-ta pa-mo"-gthe xtsi a, a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

805. ^'i'-thu-9a ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

806. '1° '-shu-shu-dse thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

807. He'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

808. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go e, e a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

809. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge' a-tha, Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

810. Ha'! Zhi°-ga, e'-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

811. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge' e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



382 THE OSAGE TRIBE [BTH.ANN.3fl 

812. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha ba tho" ta mi-kshe i" da', a bi° da, i/si ga, 

813. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi mi-kshe i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

814. Zhi°'-ga zlio-i-ga oMha' bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

815. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tse a', zhi''-ga', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

816. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

817. Zhi^'-ga a-ho-shi-ga bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

818. O'-ho-ski-ge da-pi-ge o°-ki'-gtha-tlii'' mo°-thi° ta i tse a', zhi^-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

819. Zhi^'-ga zho da-ka-da bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

820. Zho'-da-ka-de da-fi-ge o°-ki'-gtha-thi'' mo^-thi" ta i tse a' 

zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

821. Zhi"'-ga u-no" o°-gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

822. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

823. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

824. Ho°'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

825. Ha' ! wi-fo°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

826. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge a-tha, wi-fO"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

827. Ho"'-ga A-hiu-to" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

828. Ha' ! wi-zhi°-the, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

829. Thu-e' xtsi pi-thii-pe the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

830. Ni' mo"-ho" dsi xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

831. 'I"'-zhi"-ga thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

832. E'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

833. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go e', a bi" da, tsi g^, 

834. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge' a-tha, Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

835. Ha' ! zhi"-ga, e'-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

836. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha ba tho" ta mi-kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

837. Ha' ! wi-90°-ga, e' a-gthi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

838. 'I"'-zhi"-ga wi" e-dsi a'-ka, wi-?o"-ga, e' a-gthi no"-zhi° to" a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

839. Wi'-zhi"-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

840. 'I"'-zhi°-ga wi" e-dsi thi"-kshe e a-ka', wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

841. E'-ta pa-mo"-gthe xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

842. pi' thu-?a ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

843. 'I"'-zhi°-ga thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

844. He'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

845. Ni'-ha ga-mi'-mi-tha xtsi thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

846. Ha' I Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLBSCHB] TRIBAL. RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 883 

847. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi^-ge' a-tha, Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

848. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

849. Zlii°'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi thi^-ge' e-she do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

850. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

851. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o^-tha' bi do" a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

852. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo^-thi" ta bi a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

853. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

854. Ko°'-ha ga-mi-mi-the ga ge shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

855. Ni'-ka no" hi tlo" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

856. Ko°'-ha ga-mi-mi-the ga ge shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

857. fa'-xpi hi° fa-dse a bi i-the ki-the moMhi" t* bi a', zhi°-ga', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

858. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

859. Ni'-ka ts'a-ge hi bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

860. Ta'-xpi hi" fa-dse a bi, i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi°-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

861. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

862. Wa'-ko°-da Ho°-ba do° thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

863. I'-bi-90°-dse o°-kshi-the ta bi a', wi-f0°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

864. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o^-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

865. Wa'-ko"-da Ho°-ba do" tlii"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

866. Zho'-i-ga the xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-fo°-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

867. Ho"'-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

868. Ho"'-ba u-pa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

869. U'-hi ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi a', wi-9o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

870. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-po"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

871. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

872. Ho°'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

873. Ha' ! wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

874. Zhi"'-ga no"-bthe tha ba tho°-tse thi"-ge' atha, wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

875. Ho"'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

876. Ha' ! wi-po"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

877. Zhi"'-ga no"-bthe tha ba tho"-tse thi°-ge' atha, wi-fo"-ga, e'-gi-a 

bi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

878. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

879. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-pe the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

880. Dse' ko°-ha dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



384 THE OSAGK TRIBE [bth. ann :'.0 

881. Ho'-xtho"-ta-xe hi to" no" a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

882. Hc'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

883. He'-tlsi xtsi a-thi" gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

884. Ha'! wi-zhi"-tlie', e a-gthi-no"-zhi'' to" a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

885. Tlie' ho", wi-zhi°-the', e a-gthi no"-zhi" to" a', a ])i" (hi, tsi ga, 

886. I'-k'u-tse a-tsia-tha ba do" a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

887. I'-u-tha-mo"-9e a-tsia-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

888. Ha' ! wi-fo"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

889. No"'-bthe tho°-ta zhi a', wi-(?o"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

890. E' tho"-zha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

891. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

892. We'-ki-i-he-o"-the ta bi a', wi-9o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

893. No"', wi-(?o"-ga, e'-gi-a, bi a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

894. Zhi"'-ga no°-bthe tha ba tho"-tse thi"-ge' a-tha, wi-90°-ga, e'-gi-a' 

bi a, a hi" da, tsi ga, 

895. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-pe the do" a', a bi" ihi, tsi ga, 

896. Dse' ko"-ha dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

897. i^"' mo"-iio" ta hi to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

898. E'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

899. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi-e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

900. The ho"', wi-zhi°-the', e a-gthi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

901. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

902. I'-k'u-tse a-tsia-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

903. No"'-bthe tho"-ta zhi a', wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

904. E' tho" zha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

905. Mi' hi-e ge ta, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

906. We'-ki-i-he-o"-the ta bi a, wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

907. No"', wi-9o"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

908. Zhi"'-ga no"-bthe tha ba tho"-tse thi"-ge' a-tha, \vi-fa"-ga, e'-gi-a 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

909. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

910. Dse' u-9ko"-9ka dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

911. fse'-wa-the kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

912. No"'-pa-ho" a-tsia-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

913. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi-e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

914. Tlie ho"', wi-zhi"-the', e a-gthi-no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

915. Ha' ! wi-(?o"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

916. I'-k'u-tse a-tsi a-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

917. Ba'-9e-ni e-go" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

918. Tha'-dsu-zhe gthe a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

919. Ha' ! wi-fo"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

920. The e' shno" u-tha-dse tha to" she a', wi-90"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFI.ESCHE] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 385 

921. Zlu"'-ga no°-btlic the m()"-thi" ta bi a', wi-9.o°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a, a 

bi° da tsi ga, 

922. Zhi°'-ga no°-bthe the mo^-thi" bi clo° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

923. A'-dsu-ta i-ga-f i-ge ki-the mo°-thi" i^a, bi a', wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi 

a, a bi" tla, tsi ga, 

924. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

925. No"', wi-fo^-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

926. U'-to''-bc tlia-the tse a', wi-po°-ge, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

927. Ho^'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

928. Thu-e' xtsi gi-thu-^e the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

929. Dse' go-da ko°-ha dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

930. Do' thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

931. He'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi° to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

932. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi-e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

933. The ho"', wi-zhi"-the', e a-gthi-no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

934. I'-k'u-tse a-tsia-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

935. Ba'-pe-ni e-go" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

936. Tha'-dsu-zlie gthe a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

937. Ha' ! wi-fO°-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

938. The e'-shno" u-tha-dse tha-to"-she a', \vi-90°-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

939. Zhi"'-ga no"-bthe the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

940. Zhi"'-ga no"-bthe tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

941. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-tlii" ta bi a', wi-QO"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

942. A'-dsu-ta i-ga-gi-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-po"-ga, e'-ki-a bi 

a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

943. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

944. No"' wi-9o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

945. Zhi"'-ga no"-bthe tha ba tlio" tse thi"-ge' a-tha, wi-Q0"-ga, e'-ki-a, 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

946. Ho"'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

947. Ha' ! wi-(?o"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

948. U'-to°-be tha-the tse a', wi-po"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

949. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-^e the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

950. ^"' thi"-kshe dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

951. Dse' go-da ko"-ha dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

952. ^'i°' thi°-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

953. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi-e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

954. The ho"', wi-zhi"-the, e a'-gthi no"-zhi° to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

955. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

956. I'-k'u-tse a-tsia-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2786—21 2.5 



386 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

957. Ba'-pe-ni e-go" thii-dsii-zhe gtha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

958. Ha'! wi-90''-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

959. Zhi°'-ga no°-btlie tha ba tho" ta a-ka', wi-^o^-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

960. Zhi"'-ga no"-bthe tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

961. Ni' da-ka-dse u-bi-do" mo^-thi" ta bi a', wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-a, bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

962. E'thC-zha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

963. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

964. We'-ki-i-he-the o°-mo°-thi° ta bi a', wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

965. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

966. No"', wi-90°-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

967. U'-tC-be tha-the ta tse a', wi-fo^-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

968. Hc'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

969. Dse' go-da ko^-ha dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

970. U'-pu-u-gtho" xtsi ge dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

971. Ho^'-bthi^-fu thi°-kshe no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

972. He'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi° to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

973. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi-e do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

974. The ho°', wi-zhi°-the, e a'-gthi no°-zhi° to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

975. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

976. I'-k'u-tse a-tsia-tha ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

977. Zhi°'-ga no°-bthe the ta a-ka', wi-fo°-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

978. E'tho°-zha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

979. Zhi°'-ga no°-bthe tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

980. Ni' da-ka-dse u-bi-do° mo°-thi" ta bi a', wi-QO^-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

981 E'tho°-zha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

982 Mi' hi-e ge ta, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

983 We'-ki-i-he-o°-the ta bi a', wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a, bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

THE TA WA'-THO'' (DEER SONGS) 

Song 1 

(Free translation and music, p. 186) 

1 

Wi-tsi''-do no" she-tho to" no", 
Wi-tsi^-do no" she-tho to" no", 
^i no°-no°-ge he, fi no''-no°-e, 
Qi no°-no°-ge he, 
Wi-tsi°-do no" she-tho to" no", 
Wi-tei"-do no" she-tho to" no", 
Qi no"-no"-ge he, fi no"-no"-e, 
^i no°-no"-ge he, 
Wi-tsi° do no" she-tho to" no". 



TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 387 



Wi-t8i°-do no" she-tho to" no", 
Wi-tsi^-do no" she-tho to" no", 
He no°-no°-ge he, he no"-no"-e, 
He no"-no"-ge he, 
Wi-tsi"-do no" she-tho to" no", 
Wi-tsi°-do no" she-tho to" no". 
He no"-no"-ge he, he no"-no"-e. 
He no"-no"-ge he, 
Wi-tsi"-do no" she-tho to" no". 

Song 2 

(Free translation and music, p. 187) 



T8i°-do he ?ka gthe he, tsi"-do he fka gthe he, 

^i no"-no"-e, gi no"-no"-ge he, 

Tsi"-do he fka gthe he, tsi°-do he fka gthe he, 

Qi no"-no"-e, fi no"-no"-ge he, 

T8i°-do he f ka gthe he, tsi"-do he fka gthe he. 



Tsi"-do he gka gthe he, t8i°-do he ?ka gthe he, 

He no"-no°-e, he no"-no"-ge he, 

Tsi"-do he gka gthe he, tsi"-do he gka gthe he. 

He no"-no°-e, he no"-no"-ge he, 

T8i"-do he gka gthe he, tsi"-do he <;ka-gthe he. 

Song 3 

(Free translation and music, p. 188) 

1 

Wi-tsi"-do no" ku-dse to" no", 
Wi-tsi"-do no" ku-dse to" no", 
0-e no"-no"-ge he, o-e no"-no"-e, 
0-e no"-no"-ge he, 
Wi-tsi"-do no" ku-dse to" no", 
Wi'-tsi"-do no" ku-dee to" no", 
0-e no"-no"-ge he, o-e no"-no"-e, 
0-e no"-no"-ge he, 
Wi'-t8i"-do no" ku-dse to" no". 

Song 4 

(Free translation and music, p. 189) 



O da the, o da ni-wa, 

O da the ha, o da ni wa, 

Wa-dsi-tha the ho-tha-dse, 

Wa-dsi-tha the ho-tha-dse wa-to, 

O da the, o da ni wa, 

da the ha. o da ni wa to 



388 THE OSAGE TRIBE 



O da the, o da ni wa, 

O da the ha, o da ni wa, 

Wa-dsi tha the hi-tha-the, 

\Va-<lsi-tha the hi-tha-the wa-to, 

O da the, o da ni wa, 

O da the ha, o da ni wa to. 

Song 5 

( Free translation and music, p. 190) 



E-gi-u" ba ha gu wa, e-gi-u° ba ha gu-wa, 
Zhe-ga ba ha fu-wa, e-gi-u" ba ha fu-wa, 
E-gi-u" ba ha fu-wa, 

E-gi-u" ba ha gu-wa, e-gi-u" ba ha 5U-wa, 
Zhe-ga ba-ha gu-wa, e-gi-u° ba ha gu-wa 



E-gi-u" ba ha fu-wa, e-gi-ii" ba ha gu-wa, 
Mo°-ge ba ha ?u-wa, e-gi-u° ba ha fu-wa, 
E-gi-u" ba ha gu-wa a, 
E-gi-u" ba ha gu-wa, e-gi-u" ba ha gu-wa, 
Mo°-ge ba ha gu-wa, e-gi-u" ba ha gu-wa, 



E-gi-u° ba ha gu-wa, e-gi-u" ba ha gu-wa, 
Pa nu" ba ha gu-wa, e-gi-u" ba ha gu-wa, 
E-gi-u° ba ha gu-wa a, 
E-gi-u" ba ha gu-wa, e-gi-u° ba ha gu-wa. 
Pa no° ba ha gu-wa, e-gi-u° ba ha gu-wa. 

Song 6 

(Free translation and music, p. 191) 

No. 9 

1 
Ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e wa-dsu-ta zhi^-ga, 
I-wi-the tho^-dsi-e, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e, 
Ta-xtsi-e wa-dsu-ta zhi''-ga, 
Pi-gi ga-be hi dsi to", 
I-wi-the tho^-dsi-e, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 



Ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e wa-dsu-ta zhi^-ga, 

I-wi-the tho^-dsi-e, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e, 

Ta-xtsi-e wa-dsu-ta zhi^-ga, 

Pi-gi hi dsi to", 

I-wi-the tho° dsi-e, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 



TRIB.VL KITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 389 



Ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e iva-dsu-ta zhi"-ga, 
I-wi-the tho° dsi-e, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e, 
Ta-xtei-e wa-dsu-ta zhi° ga, 
Ta-shka hi dsi to", 
I-wi-the tho" dsi-e, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 



Ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e wa-dsu-ta zhi" ga, 
I-wi-the tho" dsi-e, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e, 
Ta-xtsi-e wa-dsu-ta zhi°-ga, 
Xa-dse ba-tse he dsi to°, 
I-wi-the tho° dsi-e, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 

984. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

985. Ho"'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho°-]ja ni-ka-shi-ga ba do° a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

986. Ha' ! wi-fO°-ga, e'-ki-e no^-zhi" bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

987. We'-ki-k'o° wi° thi°-ge a-tha, wi-fo^-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

988. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

989. Zhi°'-ga wa-zhi" gi-tha bi thi°-ge a-tha, wi-i;'0°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

990. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

991. Ho"'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

992. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-fe the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

993. A'-ba-do a-ga-ha dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

994. I"'-gtho°-ga do-ga to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

995. The' to" hi no"-zhi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

996. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go-e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

997. Zhi"'-ga wa-zhi" gi-tha bi thi"-ge a-tha, Wi-tsi-go-e', e-gi-a bi 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

998. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

999. Zhi°'-ga wa-zhi" gi-tha bi thi"-ge' e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1000. Zhi"'-ga wa-zhi" gi-tha ba tho" ta a-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1001. ^'i°'-dse tlxi-bo-xa tsi-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1002. ^'i"'-dse i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1003. Pe'-dse gi-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1004. Pe'-dse gi-the mo"-tlii" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1005. Pe'-dse gi-sho"-tha zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1006. ^i'-ha u-sha-be ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1007. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da, e'-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1008. Pa'-zhu-zhe i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1009. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi° he i" da' e to", a bi" da, tsi ga. 



390 THE OSAGE TRIBE [kth. ann. 36 

1010. No''-ta i-ta-xc slui-be ga-thi"-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1011. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-to" he i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1012. Zhi^'-ga no"-xtho tha l)i do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1013. No"'-xthe gi-sha-be ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi" da', a bi° da tsi ga, 

1014. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1015. Ho°'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1016. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1017. Tse'-xe xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1018. Wa'-pa-be u-pa-ka thi"-ge to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1019. Tho' to" hi no"-zhi° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1020. Po'-e to" hi no°-zhi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1021. No"'-be ba-ha to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1022. Ha! Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1023. Zhi"'-ga wa-zhi° gi-tha bi thi"-ge' a-tha, Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi a bi 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1024. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1025. Zhi"'-ga wa-zhi" gi-tha ba tlio" ta a to" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1026. No"'-be zha-ta ga ge a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1027. Pe'-dse a-gi-the a-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1028. Zhi"'-ga pe-dse gi the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1029. Pe'-dse gi-sho"-tha zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1030. ^i' lia u-sha-be ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1031. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1032. Zhi°'-ga no"-xthe gi tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1033. No"'-xthe gi-pa-be ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1034. Pa'-zhu-zhe i-ta-xe sha-be ga tlii°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1035. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1036. Zhi"'-ga no"-xtlie gi tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, ■ 

1037. No"'-xthe gi-sha-be ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1038. Zhu'-i-ga pa-be ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1039. No"'-xtlie a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1040. Zhi"'-ga no"-xtlie gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1041. No"'-xthe gi-pa-be ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1042. Ho"'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1043. Thu-'e xtsi fi-thu-pe the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1044. fse'-xe xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1045. Mi'-xa pka to"-ga thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1046. He'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1047. Ha' ! Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1048. Zhi"'-ga wa-zhi" gi-tha bi thi"-ge a-tha, Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 391 

1049. Ha'! zhi°-ga, e'-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1050. Zhi°'-ga wa-zhi" gi-tha bi thi°-ga hi e'-she do" a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

1051. Zhi^'-ga wa-zlii° gi-tha ba tho" ta a-to" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1052. pi' ko°-ha sha-be ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1053. Pe'-dse a-gi-the a-thi° he i"^ da, e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1054. Pa'-zhu-zhe i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi°-kslie shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1055. Pe'-dse a-gi-thc a-thi" he i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1056. Zhi°'-ga pe-dse gi-the mo^-thi" bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1057. Pe'-dse gi-sho°-tlia zlii ki-the mo^-thi" ta bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1058. Zhi°'-ga vva-zhi" gi-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1059. Wa'-ko°-da e-shki do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1060. Ni' o"-wo"-ta-thi° bi a-thi" he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1061. Zhi°-ga wa-zhi" gi-tha bi do" a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1062. Ni' u-ta-thi° bi ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi°-ga, a bi" da, tsi ga. 

1063. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1064. Zhi°'-ga wa-zhi" gi-tha bi thi"-ge a-tha- wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga 

1065. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1066. Ho"'-ga wa-tse ga-wa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1067. Tliu-e' xtsi pi-tliu-^e the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1068. I"'-gtho"-ga do-ga to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1069. Tho' to" hi no"-zhi° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1070. Zhi"'-ga wa-zhi" thi-gi-the ta bi a', Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

1071. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1072. ZhLi°'-ga wa-zhi" gi-tha ba tho" ta a-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1073. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1074. Wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1075. I°'-gtho"-ga bi a, wi-?o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1076. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to° ta bi a', wi-f.o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1077. I°'-gtho"-ga to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1078. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to° ta bi a', wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1079. I°'-gtho"-ga zhi°-ga, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1080. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to" ta bi a', wi-po"-ga, e'-kia bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1081. I"'-gtho°-ga zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1082. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to° o"-mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-9o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a' 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 



392 THK OSAGE TRIBE [nm. ann. 30 

10S3. IIo"'-ga wa-tsc-ga-wa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1084. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-pe tho do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1085. Wa'-pa-be u-^a-ka tlii^-ge to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1086. Po'-e to" hi no"-zhi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1087. Zhi"'-ga wa-zhi" gi-tha bi thi"-ge a-tha, Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a' bi 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1088. Zhi"'-ga wa-zhi" gi-tha ba tho" ta a-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1089. Ha' ! wi-po"-ga, e' to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1090. Wa'-fa-ba bi a', wi-50"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1091. Sha'-ba bi a, wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1092. Zha'-zhe o°-ki-to° ta bi a', wi-go"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1093. Sha'-be tsi-gthe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1094. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to" o"-mo"-thi'' ta bi a', wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1095. Sha'-be i-tha-tha bi a', wi-f0"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1096. Sha'-be i-the shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1097. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to" ta bi a', wi-9,o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1098. No"', wi-fo"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1099. Zhi"'-ga wa-zhi" gi-tha bi thi"-ge' a-tha, wi-fO"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1100. Tse'-xe xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1101. Mi'-xa-fka to"-ga thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1102. Tlio' tlii"-kshe hi no"-zhi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1103. Zhi°'-ga wa-zhi" gi-tha bi thi"-ge' a-tha, Wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1104. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1105. Ha'! wi-po"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1106. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to" ta bi a', wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1107. ^ka' bi a, wi-zhi"-the, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1108. Wa'-zlii"-ga bi a', wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1109. Mi'-xa-fka bi a, wi-9.o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1110. Mi'-xa-fka shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1111. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to" ta bi a', wi-fo"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1112. Wa'-zhi"-ga bi a, wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1113. ^ka' bi a, wi-f0"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1114. Wa'-zhi°-9ka shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1115. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to° ta bi a', wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 



I.AFLESCIIE] TRIBAL RITES — -OSAGE LANGUAGE 393 

1116. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1117. Wa'-zha-zhe u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do° a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 
Ills. Xtha'-xtha thi°-ge xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga th()°-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1119. Da' ni-tlie thi''-ge xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga tho"-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1120. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1121. No°'-ni-o°-ba w'l" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1122. Zho'-i-ga the xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga tho°-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1123. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1124. Ha'! Ho"-ga e', e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1125. No°'-ni-o°-ba wi° zho-i-ga a-the a-thi° lie a', Ho°-ga e', e-tsi-the 

a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1126. Zho'-i-ga tha-the tha-thi°-she do"^ shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1127. Zho'-i-ga i-ts'a thi^-ge tha-thi°-she ta tse a', Ho°-ga e', e-to" 

a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1128. Pa' u-sho° ga tlii''-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1129. Pa'-u-sho°-sho° a-gi-the a-thi° he a', Ho°-ga a', e-to° a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

1130. Pa' u-sho^-sho" tha-the do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1131. Pa' u-sho°-sho° i-ts'a thi^-ge' tha ki-the tha-thi°-she ta tse a', 

Ho^-ga e', e to" a', a bi" da, (si ga, 

1132. U'-thu-ga ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1133. I'-u-thu-ga a-gi-the a-thi" he a', Ho°-ga e', e to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1134. No"'-ni-o°-ba ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1135. I'-u-thu-ga tha-the tha-thi°-she do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1136. I'-u-thu-ga i-ts'a thi"-ge tha-thi"-she ta tse a', Ho"-ga e', e to" 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1137. Thi'-u-ba-he i'-sdu-ge ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

113S. Thi'-u-ba-he a-gi-the a-thi" he a', Ho°-ga e', e to" a', a bi" da, 
tsi ga, 

1139. Tlii'-u-ba-he i'-sdu-ge ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1140. Thi'-u-ba-he tha-gi-the tha-thi"-she do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1141. Thi'-u-ba-he i-ts'a thi°-ge tha-thi"-she ta tse a', Ho"-ga e', e 

to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1142. No"'-ka o°-he ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1143. No"'-ka o"-he a-gi-the a-thi" he a', Ho°-ga e', e to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1144. No°'-ka o"-he tha-the tha-thi"-she do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1145. No°'-ka o°-he i-ts'a thi°-ge tha-thi"-she ta tse a', Ho"-ga e', e 

to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



394 THE OSACiK TRIBE tKTH. ann. 36 

1146. Tlii'-u-ba-he tha-ta ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1147. Thi'-u-ba-hc a-gi-thc a-tlii" he a', Ho°-ga c', e to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 
114S. Thi'-u-ba-hc tha gi the tha thi"-she do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1149. Thi'-u-ba-he i-ts'a thi"-ge tha thi"-she ta tse a', Ho"-ga e', e 

to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1150. U'-xtho-k'a ga kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1151. Thi'-u-thi-xthii-k'a a-gi-the a-thi" he a tha, e' to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1152. Thi'-u-thi-xtho-k'a tha the tha thi"-she do" shki a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1153. Thi'-u-thi-xtho-k'a i-ts'a thi"-ge tha-thi"-she ta tse a', Ho"-ga 

e', e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1154. We'-thi" zhi"-ga i-thi-do" ga kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1155. Ni' a-ko°-gthe a-gi-the a-thi° he a-tha, e' to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1156. Ni' a-ko"-gthe tha-gi-the tha-thi°-she do" shki a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1157. Ni' a-ko" i-ts'a thi°-ge tha-thi"-she ta tse a', Ho°-ga e', e to" 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1158. Mi' hi-e ge ta, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1159. We'-go"-tha a-ni tha-thi°-she do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1160. We'-go"-tha thi-wa-ts'e-ga tha ki-the tha thi"-she ta tse a', 

Ho"-ga e', e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1161. Tho"'-dse ba-he e-to"-ha no" shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1162. We'-go"-tha thi-u-mo"-ka tha-ki-the tha-thi"-she ta tse a', 

Ho°-ga e', e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

1163. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1164. Ho"'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1165. Xtha'-xtha thi"-ge xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1166. Da' ni-the thi"-ge xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1167. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1168. Ha'! Wa-zha-zhe', e tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1169. 'I"' zhu-dse thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1170. Zho'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga a-to" he a', Wa-zha-zhe', e to" 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1171. Wa'-ko"-da Ho"-ba do" thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1172. Zho'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga a-to" he a', Wa-zha-zhe', e to" 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1173. 'I"' zhu-dse thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1174. Zho'-i-ga tha the tha thi"-she do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1175. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] TEIB.\L, RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 395 

1176. A'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi tha-ki-the tha-thi°-she ta tse a', Wa-zha- 

zlie', e-gi-a bi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1177. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1178. 'P' zhu-dse thi°-kslie a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1179. Zho'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga a-thi" he a', Wa-zha-zhe', e 

to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 
IISO. Zho'-i-ga tha the tha thi°-she do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1181. Wa'-ko°-ihx e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1182. A'-ta-kshi° bi tha-ki-the tha-thi"-she ta tse a', Wa-zha-zhe', e 

gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1183. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1184. 'I"' zhu-dse thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1185. Zho'-i-ga tha the tha thi°-she do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1186. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1187. Be' hi o"-gtha mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1188. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1189. Be' hi a-gtha ba zhi tha-ki-the tha-thi"-she ta tse a', Wa-zha- 

zhe', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1190. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1191. '1°' zhu-dse thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1192. Zlio'-i-ga tha-the tha-tlii°-she do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1193. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1194. Hi' o"-ki-tha-sho" bi a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1195. '1°' zhu-dse thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1196. Zho'-i-ga tha-the tha-thi"-she do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1197. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1198. Hi' a-ki-tha-sho" bi tha-ki-tlie tha-thi"-she ta tse a', Wa-zha- 

zhe', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

tsi gl'-ka-xe ava-tiio'"' (songs of setting up the house of 
mystery) 

Song 1 

(Free translation and music, p. 198) 
1 
Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi''-e, 
Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi°-e he the, 
Ga-xa thi^-e e, 
Tsi wi-ta no" ga-xa thi°-e, 
Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi°-e e, 
Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi^-e. 



Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi^-e, 
Wi-e tsi wi° ga-xa thi^-e he the, 
Ga-xa thi°-e e, 
Wa-ko^-da tsi ga-xa thi^-e, 
Wi-e tsi wi° ga-xa thi^-e e, 
Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi^-e. 



396 



THE OSAGK TRIBE 



Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi"-e, 

Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa tlu"-e he the, 

Ga-xa thi°-e e, 

Tsi hiu-gthe wi-ta no" ga-xa thi"e 

Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi^-e e, 

Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi°-e. 



Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi°-e, 

Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi^-o he the, 

Ga-xa thi^-e e, 

U-zhe-tsi wi-ta no" ga-xa thi"-e, 

Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi°-e e, 

Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi^-e. 

Song 2 
( Free translation and music, p. 199) 



Tsi wi" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi°-e he the, 
Tsi wi° ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi^-e he the, 
Tsi wi-ta no" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi"-e he the, 
Tsi wi" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi^-e he the, 
Tsi wi" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi"-e he the. 



Tsi wi" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi"-e he the, 
Tsi wi" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi"-e he the, 
Wa-ko^-da tsi ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi"-e he the, 
Tsi wi" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi°-e he the. 
Tsi wi" ga-xa thi°, ga-xa thi"-e he the, 



Tsi wi" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi"-e he the, 

Tsi wi" ga-xa thi" ga-xa thi^-e he the, 

Tsi hiu-gthe wi-ta no" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi"-e he the, 

Tsi wi" ga-xa thi" ga-xa thi"-e he the, 

Tsi wi" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi°-e he the. 



Tsi wi" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi°-e he the, 
Tsi wi" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thin-e he the. 
U-zhe-tsi wi-ta no" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi"-e he the, 
Tsi wi" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi''-e he the. 



LAFLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 397 

KI-(7TO' WA-THO^ (songs OF THE GATHERING) 



Song 1 

(Free translation and musie, p. 200) 

1 

Ki-gto ba do" dsi tho, 
Ki-gto ba do" dsi tho, 
Ho°-ga ki-fto ba do" dsi tho, 
Ki-9to ba do" dsi tho. 



Ki-fto ba do" dsi tho, 
Ki-fto ba do" dsi tho, 
Xi-tha ki-fto ba do" dsi tho, 
Ki-fto ba do" dsi tho, 



Ki-fto ba do" dsi tho, 

Ki-fto ba do" dsi tho, 

Xi-tha fka ki-fto ba do" dsi tho, 

Ki-fto ba do" dsi tho. 



Ki-fto ba do" dsi tho, 

Ki-fto ba do" dsi tho, 

Xi-tha gthe-zhe ki-fto ba do" dsi tho, 

Ki-fto ba do" dsi tho. 

Song 2 

(Free translation and music, p. 200) 

1 

Ts'a-ge do-ba ki-fto ba do", 
E-dsi u-wi-he a-tlii" he, 
E-dsi u-wi-he a-thi" he, he, 
E-dsi u-wi-he a-thi" he, 
E-dsi u-wi-he a-thi" he, 
Ts'a-ge do-ba ki-fto ba do", 
E-dsi u-wi-he a-thi" he. 



Ni-ka do-ba ki-fto ba do", 
E-dsi u-wi-he a-thi" he, 
E-dsi u-wi-he a-thi" he, he, 
E-dsi u-wi-he a-thi" he, 
E-dsi u-wi-he a-thi" he, 
Xi-ka do-ba ki-fto ba do", 
E-dsi u-wi-he a-thi" he. 



398 



THK OSACiK TRIHE 



[ETH. ANN. ;i6 



1199. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1200. Ho"'-ga u-dsc-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba da" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1201. Xtha'-xllia thi"-ge xtsi ni-ka-sbi-ga tbo"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1202. Ho"'-ga wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1203. 0'-pxo° zho-i-ga the xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1204. Pe'-o-to" thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1205. Ho'-e-ga gi-the xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1206. Wa'-gthii-shka be zhi"-ga i-ta-i shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1207. U-ki'-o"-the o°-ga-xe o"-mo"-thi° ta bi a', wi-po"-ga, e'-ki-a bi 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1208. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1209. Tsi-zhu e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1210. Ho'-e-ga gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1211. Wa'-gthu-shka be zhi"-ga i-ta i shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1212. U'-ki-o"-the o°-ga-xe o"-mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-9o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1213. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1214. Ho"'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1215. 'I"'-zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1216. 'I"'-zhi"-ga pe-tho°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1217. Zho'-i-ga the xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1218. 'I°'-zhi"-ga do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1219. U'-she-tsi do-ba ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1220. E'-no"-ha, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1221. U'-tsi i-no°-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1222. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1223. TTsi'-zhii e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1224. I'-ni-tha mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1225. I'-ni-tha gi-wa-ts'e-ga o"-ki-the o"-mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-90°-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1226. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1227. Ho"'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1228. Ho°'-ga wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1229. Mo°'-i"-ka zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1230. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1231. No"'-be zha-ta ga-xe to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1232. Mo"'-thi°-ka sha-be thi"-k;she a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1233. Ba'-ha a-tsi-no"-zhi° to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1234. The' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1235. We'-go"-tha a-thi" mo"-thi" bi do" sliki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



i^FLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 399 

1236. We'-go^-tha gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the ino°-thi° ta bi a', wi-zhi^-the 

a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1237. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1238. Tsi'-zhu e-tho°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1239. I°'-dsc-ha ga-xa bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1240. Tho°'-dse ba-he' e-to°-ha no" shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1241. We'-go°-tha gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the nio°-thi" ta bi a', wi-fo^-ga, 

e'-ki-a, bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1242. E'tho"-zha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1243. I°'-dse-lia ga-xa bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1244. I^'-shta-ha a-ga-fta zhi ta tse a', wi-fo^-ga, e'-ki-a, bi a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

1245. I^'-shta-ha a-ga-fta do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1246. Ni'-ka no" da-pa ki-the mo"-thi° ta bi a', wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-a bi 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1247. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1248. Mo"'-thi"-ka to-ho thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1249. Ba'-ha a-tsi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1250. Tlie' wi-fo°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1251. We'-go"-tha a-thi° mo°-thi" ta bi a', wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

1252. We'-go"-tha a-thi" mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1253. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1254. We'-go"-tha gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-fo"-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1255. We'-go"-tha a-thi" mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1256. Tho"'-dse ba-he' e-to" ha no" shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1257. We'-go"-tha gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi a', wi-po"-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1258. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1259. Mo"'-thi"-ka zhu-dse thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1260. Ba'-ha a-tsi-no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1261. The' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1262. We'-go"-tha a-thi" mo"-thi° ta bi a', wi-f0"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1263. Wa'-zlia-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1264. Tsi'-zhu e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1265. We'-go°-tha a-thi" mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-go"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1266. We'-go"-tha a-thi" mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1267. Tho"'-dse ba-he' e-to"-ha no" shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1268. We'-go"-tha gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-r'o°-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1269. E'tho"-zha', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



400 



TilK OSAGK TIUUIO 



[ETII. ANN. ;i6 



1270. I"'-dso-h)i ga-xa bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1271. I"'-shta-bthi a-ga-xto" a-zhi ta tse a', ■wi-fo°-ga e'-ki-a bi a',. 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1272. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1273. Mo^'-thi^-ka pi thi^-kshe no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1274. Ba'-ha a-tsi-no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1275. The' shki do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1276. We'-go"-tha a-thi° mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1277. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1278. Tsi'-zhu e-tho"-ba, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1279. We'-go"-tha gi-wa-ts' e-ga ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi a', wi-90°-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1280. Da'-gthe u-k'o-pi a-tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1281. I"'-dse-ha kshi-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

1282. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1283. Mo°'-thi°-ka ko"-ha be-shi" ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1284. E'-shki do" wa-thi"-e-^;ka zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1285. Tse'-xe ni-ka-pu e-no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1286. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1287. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1288. fsi'-zhu e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1289. Tse'-xe ni-ka-pu tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1290. Mi'hi-e ge ta, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1291. We'-go"-tha a-thi" mo"-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1292. We'-go"-tha gi-wa-ts' e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-po°-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1293. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1294. Ho°'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" n', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1295. Xtha'-xtha thi"-ge xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga tho"-ka', a hi" chi, tsi ga 

1296. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1297. Ha' ! wi-po"-ga, e'-ki-e no"-zhi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1298. We'-ki-k'o" wi" thi"-ga a-tha, wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da. 

tsi ga, 

1299. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1300. Tse'-xe ni-ka-pu e-go" to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1301. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1302. Wi'-po"-ga e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1303. The' we-ki-k'o" o"-gi-the ta bi a', wi-go"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

1304. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLBSCHE] TKIB^VL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 401 

1305. Ni' da-ka-dse e-tisi o"-gthe ta bi a', wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" 

ila, tsi ga, 

1306. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1307. Ni' da-ka-dse e-dsi-gtha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

130S. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1309. Da'-do° u-ho° u-pa-ha i-the o''-the ta ba do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1310. Wi'-fo°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1311. No°'-bthe do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1312. We'-ki i-he-o°-the tse o°-tho° bi a', wi-fo^-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

1313. U'-ho° u-pa-ha i-the o"-the ta bi a', wi-fo°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

1314. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1315. Ho'-xtho°-ta-xe thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1316. The', wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1317. U'-ho° u-pa-ha i-the o"-the ta bi a', wi-9o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

1318. E' tho°-zha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1319. Wa'-thi"-e-pka u-pa-ha i-the o"-tha ba zhi tse a', ■wi-po"-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1320. Mi'hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1321. Shi°'-to ho btho°-xe do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1322. E'-ki-tho"-ba xtsi u-pa-ha i-the o°-the ta bi a', wi-90"-ga, e'-ki-a 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1323. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1324. fsi'-zhu e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1325. We'-ki i-he-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1326. Shi' wi" thi"-ge a-tha, wi-po"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1327. ^'i°' mo"-no"-ta hi tlu°-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1328. E'shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1329. U'-ho° u-pa-ha i-the o°-the ta bi a', wi-po"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

1330. E'tho°-zha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1331. Wa'-thi"-e-9ka u-pa-ha i-the o°-tha ba zhi tse a', wi-90°-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1332. Mi'lii^ ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1333. Slii'-mi ho btho"-xe do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1334. E'-ki-tho"-ba xtsi u-pa-ha i-the o"-the ta bi a', wi-po°-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1335. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1336. fsi'-zhu e-tho°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1337. We'-ki i-he-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 
2786—21 26 



402 THE OSAGK TRIBE [eth. ann. oG 

1338. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1339. Shi' wi° thi^-ge a-tha, wi-fC-ga, c'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1340. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1341. ^°' thi"-kshe no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1342. The' ii-ho° u-pa-ha i-the o°-tlie ta bi a', wi-fo"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a' 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1343. E'tlio°-zha', a bi° da, tsi ga, ♦■ 

1344. Wa'-thi°-o-9ka u-pa-ha i-the o"-tha ba zhi tse a', wi-fo^-ga 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1345. Mi'hi-c ge ta, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1346. Ni'-ka wa-k'o° o-tha'-ha kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1347. E'-ki-tho"-ba xtsi u-pa-ha i-the o°-the ta bi a', wi-po°-ga 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1348. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1349. fsi'-zhu e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1350. We'-ki i-he-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" d*', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1351. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1352. Shi' wi" thi°-ge a-tha, wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1353. Ho°'-bthi"-Qu thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1354. E'shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1355. U'-ho" u-pa-ha i-the o"-the ta bi a', wi-po"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

1356. E'tho°-zha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1357. Wa'-thi"-e-9ka u-pa-ha i-the o"-tlia ba zhi tse a', wi-f0"-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1358. Mi'hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1359. Wa'-k'o wo" we-da-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1360. E'-ki-tho"-ba xtsi u-pa-ha i-the o°-the ta bi a', wi-Q0"-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1361. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1362. fsi'-zhu e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1363. We'-ki i-he-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1364. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1365. Ho"'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1366. Xtha'-xtha thi"-ge xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1367. Ha' ! wi-f0"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1368. We'-ki-k'o" wi" thi°-ge a-tha, wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1369. Ho"'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1370. Wi'-(!0"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1371. We'-ki-k'o" wi" thi°-ge a-tha, wi-?o"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1372. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-fe the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHB] TRIBAL, RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 403 

1373. Tse'-xe xtsi ge dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, . 

1374. 'I°'-da-po-ki thi^-kshe no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1375. E'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi° to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1376. Tlie' ho", wi-zhi°-the, e a'-gthi no"-zhi° to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1377. Wi'-90°-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13^8. AVe'-ki-k'o" tho°-ta zhi a, wi-po"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1379. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thii-fe the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1380. 'I"'-da-da-be thi°-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1381. He'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1382. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1383. The' ho", wi-zhi°-the, e a'-gthi no°-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1384. We'-ki-k'o" tho"-ta zhi a', Jvi-90"-ga,- e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1385. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1386. Tse'-xe xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

1387. 'I"' sha-gtha zhi"-ga thi°-kshe no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1388. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi-e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1389. The ho"', wi-zhi"-the, e a-gthi no°-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1390. E'-zlii-zlii-fka u-to°-ga, wi-po"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1391. He'-dsi xtsi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1392. A'-ba-do a-tha-k'a-be dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1393. Mo"'-hi°-pi i-ba btho-ga kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1394. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi-e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1395. The ho"', tvi-zhi"-the, e a'-gthi no°-zhi° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1396. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1397. We'-ki-k'o" tho"-ta a-ka', wi-po°-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1398. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to" ta bi a', wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1399. Mo"'-hi°-pi i-ba btho-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1400. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to° ta bi a', wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1401. E' tho"-zha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1402. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1403. Tsi'-zhu e-tho°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1404. We'-ba-pa ba tho°-ta zhi a', wi-go°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1405. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1406. A'-ba-do a-ga-ha dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1407. Mo"'-hi"-(?a-be kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1408. He'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1409. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi-e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1410. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gthi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1411. The' ho"; wi-zhi"-the, e a'-gthi no"-zhi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



404 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

1412. We'-ki-k'o" tho" ta a-ka', wi-^'o"-ga, c'-ki-a hi a', a bi° da, tsi ga 

1413. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1414. Tsi'-zhu c-thoM)a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1415. We'-ba-pa ba tho"-ta zhi a', wi-fC-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da. 

tsi ga, 

1416. A'-ba-do a-ga-ha dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1417. Mo^'-hi" ho°-ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1418. He'-dsi xtsi hi no^-zhi" to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1419. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi-e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1420. The ho°', wi-zhi°-the, e a'-gthi no^-zhi" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1421. Ha' ! wi-(?o°-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1422. We'-ki-k'o° tho" ta a-ka', wi-90''-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1423. Zha'-zhe o^-ki-to" ta bi a', wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

1424. Mo'"-hi°-ho''-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1425. Zha'-zlie o^-ki-to"^ o"-mo°-thi° ta bi a', wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1426. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1427. Tsi'-zhu e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1428. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1429. We'-ba-fe mo°-thi° ta bi a', wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

1430. A'-ba-do go-da a'-tha-k'a-be dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1431. Mo°'-hi° shu-dse kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1432. He'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi° to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1433. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi-e do° a,', a bi'^ da, tsi ga, 

1434. The ho°', wi-zhi°-the, e a'-gtlii no°-zhi° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1435. Ha' ! wi-fo^-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1436. She e'-shno° u-tha-dse tha-to^-she-a', wi-(?o°-ga, e'-gi-a, bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1437. We'-ki-k'o° tho°-ta a-ka', ■wi-fo"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1438. Zha'-zhe o"- ki-to" ta bi a', wi-f o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1439. Mo^'-hi^-zhu-dse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1440. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to" ta bi a', wi-po"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1441. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1442. Tsi'-zhu e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1443. We'-ba-fe mo°-thi" ta bi a', wi-fo"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1444. Mi'hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1445. We'-ba-fe mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1446. Mo"'-hi" gi-pa-hi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLBSCHB] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 405 

1447. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1448. Ho°'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho''-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

1449. Xtha'-xtha thi°-ge xtsi ni-ka-slii-ga tho°-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1450. We'-ki-k'o° wi° thi°-ge' a-tha, wi-Qo°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 
14.51. Ho^'-ga wa-tse-ga-wa to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1452. Wi'-po°-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1453. We'-ki-k'o° wi° tlai°-ge' a-tha, -wi-po^-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1454. Ho^'-ba i-ta-xe tho°-dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1455. Mo°'-zlio° ga-shi-be xtsi the do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1456. U'-k'u-be wi° lii no°-zhi° to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1457. U'-pa-fe tho° dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1458. Hi'-ko° ga-xo-dse xtsi a-gthi no°-zhi° to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1459. Ha'-go° zhi°-tha, wi-^o^-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1460. U'-k'u-be wi" pshi' a-tha, wi-zhi°-the, e to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1461. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1462. No"', wi-90°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1463. U'-to"-be tha-tlae tse a', wi-po^-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1464. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tlio° dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1465. Mo°'-zho° ga-shi-be xtsi the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1466. U'-k'u-be we-tho"-ba kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1467. He'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi° to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1468. U'-pa-pe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1469. Hi'-ko" ga-xo-dse xtsi a-gthi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1470. Ha'-go" zhi"-tha, wi-90°-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1471. Wi'-zhi°-the, e a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1472. U'-k'u-be tho°-ba pshi' a-tha, \vi-zhi°-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1473. Wi'-po"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1474. U'-to"-be tha the tse a, wi-po"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1475. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tho"-dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1476. Mo°'-zho" ga-shi-be xtsi the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1477. U'-k'u-be we-tlia-bthi" kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1478. E'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi" e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1479. U'-pa-pe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1480. Hi'-ko" ga-xo-dse xtsi a-gthi no"-zlii" e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

1481. Ha'-go" zhi"-tha, wi-po"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1482. Wi'-zhi"-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1483. U'-k'u-be tha-bthi" pslii a-tha, wi-zlii°-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 



406 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

1484. No°'-wi-po°-ga', a l)i° da, tsi o;a, 

1485. U'-to°-be tha the tse a', wi-fo"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1486. Ho°'-ba i-ta-xe tho° dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1487. Mo^'-zho" ga-shi-be xtsi the do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1488. U'-k'u-be we-do-ba kslie a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1489. E'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi° e do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1490. Ni'u-ba-sho° pe-tho"-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1491. Sho'-dse ?o"-ho° kshe hi no°-zhi° to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1492. Wa'-do"-be xtsi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1493. Ni'u-ga-xthi pe-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1494. To"'-wo°-gtho" pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1495. E'-dsi xtsi wa-to"-be tse e'-ki-the thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1496. Ni'a-ki-gtha-gi hi bi tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1497. E'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi° e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1498. Wa'-do"-be to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1499. A'-shka xtsi wa-do°-be to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1500. Pe' ba-xthe xtsi wa-do"-be to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1501. The'-ba ba-xthe-xthe xtsi wa-do"-be to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1502. Pe' ga-tsii-9a xtsi wa-do"-be to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1503. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1504. I'-ki-no"-xthe xtsi gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1505. Wa'-no°-xthi° xtsi gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1506. U'-pa-pe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1507.' No"'-ni-ni-tha'xtsi gi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1508. Wi'-fo"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1509. Wi'-fo"-ga a ba u-k'o" xtsi a-gi a-ba, .wi-(;o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

1510. A'-gi-ki-ba-no" ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1511. Ha'-go" zhi"-tha, ■wi-po"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1512. Wi'-zhi°-the, e a-gthi no°-zhi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1513. U'-k'u-be do-ba pshi a-tha, wi-zhi"-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1514. U'-k'u-be do-ba pshi e-de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1515. Ni' u-ga-xthi pe-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1516. Sho'-dse po"-ha" kshe wa-to"-be a', \vi-zlu"-the, e' to" a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

1517. Ni' u-ga-xthi pe-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1518. To"-\vo"-gtho" wa-to"-be a', wi-zhi°-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1519. Ni'-ka-shi-ga bi a', \vi-zlii°-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1520. A'-shka xtsi wa-to"-be a' wi-zhi°-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1521. Pe' ba-xthe-xtha bi a', wi-zhi"-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1522. The'-ba ba-xthe-xthe xtsi bi a', wi-zhi"-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1523. Pe' ga-tsu-pa bi a, wi-zhi"-the, e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHi:] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 407 

1524. Ha' ! wi-fo^-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1525. Wa'-zha-zlie a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1526. Tsi'-zhu e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1527. Ki'-ftu tse a, wi-po°-ga, e'ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1528. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1529. Ki'-ftu a-tsi a tha ba do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1530. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1531. Tsi'-zhu e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

1532. Wi'-po"-ga a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1533. U'-k'u-be do-ba a-hi bi e a-ka', Wa-zha-zhe, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

1534. U'-k'u-be do-ba a-hi ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1535. Ni' u-ga-xthi pe-tho"-ba', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

1536. Sho'-dse po°-ho" kshe wa-do°-ba bi e a-ka', wi-90°-ga a-ka', a 

bi" da tsi ga, 

1537. 'ro"'-\vo"-gtho" pe-tho°-ba ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1538. Sho'-dse 90"-ho° kshe wa-do"-ba bi e a-ka', wi-Qo"-ga a-ka', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

1539. A'-shka xtsi wa-do°-ba bi e a-ka', wi-90°-ga a-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1540. Pe ba-xthe-xthe xtsi bi e a-ka', wi-fO°-ga a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

1541. The'-ba ba-xthe-xthe xtsi bi e a-ka'. wi-po"-ga a-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

1542. Pe ga-tsu-pa xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga bi e a-ka', wi-po°-ga a-ka', a bi" 

da, tsi ga. 

The Hi'-^a-da Wi'-gi-e 

(Free translation, p. 212; literal translation, p. 556) 

1. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Ho"'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

3. Wi'-?o°-ga wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. 'ro°'-i° a-zhi xtsi we-to°-i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Ho"' xtsi gi thi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Ha'-ta-ha xtsi wa-xpa-thi" thi" e-do", e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. U'-gi-ki-a ba thi" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. U'-gi-ki-e a-tsi-a tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. U'-k'u-be wi" pshi a tha, ■wi-zhi"-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. U'-k'u-be wi" pshi tho"-zha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. 0"'-ha-go° ma°-zhi xtsi i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. U'-dse-the u-ko" i-he-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Wi'-90°-ga a-ka, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. U'-k'u-be wi" a-hi bi tho"-zha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Gi'-ha-go° ba zhi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



408 THE OSAGE TRIBE [kth. a\n. 86 

16. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Wi'-po°-ga', a bi" tla, tsi ga, 

IS. To°'-i" a-zhi xtsi we-to"-i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. He'-dsi xtsi gi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Wi'-fo"-ga gi thi° we-to^-i" da, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

22. Ha'-ta-ha xtsi wa-xpa-thi" thi" e-do", e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a l)i'' da, 

tsi ga, 

23. U'-gi-ki-a ba thi" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. U'-gi-ki-e a-tsi-a-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. U'-k'u-be we-tho"-ba pshi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. U'-k'u-be we-tho"-ba pshi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. 0"'-ha-go" mo"-zhi xtsi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. U'-dse-the u-ko" i-he-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Wi'-90"-ga a-ka, a bi" da, tsi ga, ^ 

30. U'-k'u-be tho"-ba a-hi bi e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Gi'-ha-go" ba zhi xtsi bi e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, ^ 

33. Wi'-QO"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. U'-ga-sho" a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. To"'-i" a-zhi xtsi we-to"-i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

36. Mi'tho-to" xtsi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. He'-dsi xtsi gi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Wi'-po"-ga gi thi" we-to"-i" da, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Ha'-ta-ha xtsi wa-xpa-thi" thi" e-do", e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

40. U'-gi-ki-a ba thi" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. U'-gi-ki-e a-tsia-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. U'-k'u-be tha-bthi" pshi i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. U'-k'u-be tha-bthi" pshi e-de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, ■ . ^ 

44. 0"'-ha-go° mo"-zlii xtsi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. U'-dse-tlie u-ko" i-he-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. He-dsi xtsi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. Wi'-po"-ga wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. U'-ga-sho" a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

■ 49. 'ro"'-i" a-zhi xtsi we-to"-i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. He'-dsi xtsi gi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Wi'-?o°-ga gi thi" we-to"-i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. Hi' shno"-shno" thi" ■we-ta"-i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. U'-gi-ki-a ba thi" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. U'-gi-ki-e a-tsia-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. U'-k'u-be do-ba pshi a-tha, wi-zhi"-the, e' to" a', a bi" ila, tsi ga 

56. U'-k'u-be do-ba pshi e-de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. ^-u'-gthe e-dsi wa-to"-be i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAPLKSCHB] TRIBAL rJTES OSAGE LANGUAGE 409 

58. Wa'-dsu-ta tho"-tse xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

59. Mo^'-hi" tha-ba-xa bi ge i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

60. Wa'-dsu-ta xtsi bi tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Dji', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

62. Ha' ! wi-fo^-ga, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

63. Wi'-po^-ga, a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

64. U'-ga-sho" a-ka do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

65. U'-k'u-be do-ba a-hi bi e' a-ka i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

66. U'-k'u-be do-ba a-hi bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. Wa'-dsu-ta tho"-ta xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

68. ^"i-u'-gthe e-dsi wa-do°-ba bi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. Mo°'-hi° tha-ba-xa bi tse e' a-ka i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

70. Wa'-dsu-ta tho°-ta xtsi e' a-ka i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

71. Da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

72. Ha'! wi-po^-ga, e'-ki-e tho^-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

73. Tsi'-zhu Wa-zha-zhe e-tho°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. Ki'-fto tse a-tha, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

75. Ki'-fto a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

76. Ha' ! Tsi-zhu, Wa-zha-zhe e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

77. Wi'-po"-ga a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

78. U'-ga-sho° a-ka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. U'-k'u-be do-ba a-hi bi e' a-ka i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

80. U'-k'u-be do-ba a-hi bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

81. ^^-u'-gthe e-dsi wa-do°-ba bi e do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

82. Wa'-dsu-ta tho^-ta xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

83. Mo°'-hi" tha-ba-xa bi tse e' a-ka i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

84. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

85. Bo'-bthi a-tsia-tlia bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

86. Wi-e' Tsi-zhu, Wa-zha-zhe e-tho°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

87. Wa'-da ta tho^-ka he-bthe no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

88. Wa'-da ba zhi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

89. Bo'-bthi a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

90. He-dsi xtsi a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

91. Wo°'-pka xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

92. Wi'-90°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

93. To°'-i° a-zlii xtsi we-to°-i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

94. Wi'-po°-ga gi thi° we-toM" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

95. Hi' shno°-shno° tha xtsi thi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

96. Hi' shno^-slmo" tha xtsi thi° we-toM" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

97. U'-gi-ki-a ba thi" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

98. Ha'-ta-ha xtsi wa-xpa-thi" thi° e-do°, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi° da 

tsi ga, 

99. Ha' ! wi-zhi°-the, e' to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



410 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 30 

00. U'-k'u-be pa-to° pshi i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

01. ^'i-u'-gtho c-dsi xtsi wa-to"-be i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

02. Wa'-dsu-ta tho°-tse xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

03. (^/i'ba-zha-ge i-tse-tha bi tse i" da', a bi°da, tsi ga, 

04. Wa'-dsu-ta no°-pe-wa-the xtsi bi tse, i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

05. Hc'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

06. Ha'! wi-fo°-ga, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

07. Tsi'-zlm Wa-zha-zhe o-tho^-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

08. Ki'-9to tse a-tha, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

09. Ki'-f.to a-tsia-tha ba do"^ a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. Ha'! Tsi-zhu Wa-zha-zhe e-tho°-ba, e'-ki-o tho°-ka', a bi" da 

tsi ga, 

11. Wi'-QO^-ga a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. U'-ga-sho° a-ka do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. U'-k'u-be ^a-to" a-hi bi e' a-ka i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. U'-k'u-be pa-to" a-lii bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. ^'i-u'-gthB e-dsi wa-do"-ba bi e do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

16. Wa'-dsu-ta tho"-tse xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. ^'i'ba-zha-ge i-tse-the tse a' bi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Wa'-dsu-ta iio°-pe-wa-the xtsi tse a' bi° da', 'a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. Da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. Tsi'-zhu Wa-zha-zhe e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

21. Wa'-da zhi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. Bo'-bthi a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

23. Wi-e' Tsi-zhu Wa-zha-zhe e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

24. Wa'-da ta tho°-ka he bthe no°, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga 

25. Wa'-da ba zhi xtsi i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

26. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

27. Wi'-po°-ga wi° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

28. U'-ga-sho° a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. fo^'-i" a-zhi xtsi we-to°-i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. He'-dsi xtsi gi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Thi'-90°-ga gi thi" we-to°-i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Hi' zhu-zhu-ba xtsi thi" da, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga 

33. U'-gi-ki-a ba thi" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. U'-gi-ki-e a-tsia-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. U'-k'u-be sha-pe pshi i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. (^i u'-gthe e-dsi wa-to"-be i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Wa'-dsu-ta tho"-tse xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. U'-zho"-ge o" ha-ha bi ge i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Wa'-dsu-ta tho°-tse xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. 'Tse'-zhe-ni bo-ta-to-xa bi ge i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



APLESCHB] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 411 

41. Wa'-dsu-ta no°-pe-\va-the xtsi bi tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

42. Da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. Wi'-90°-ga, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. Tsi'-zhu, Wa-sha-zhe c-tho°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Ki'-fto tse a-tha, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

46. Ki'-fto a-tsia-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. Ha' ! 'Tsi-zhu, Wsi-zha-zhe e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Wi'-po"-ga a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. U'-ga-sho" a-ka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5Q. U'-k'u-be sha-pe a-hi bi e a-ka i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. U'-k'u-be sha-pe a-hi bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. (^ u'-gthe e-dsi wa-do"-ba bi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Wa'-dsu-ta tho"-tse xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. U'-zho"-ge o"-lia-ha bi ge e' a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. fse'-zhe-ni bo-ta-to-xa i-tse-tha bi ge e' a-ka i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

56. Wa'-dsu-ta no"-pe-\\"a-the xtsi bi ge e' a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Wa'-da zhi xtsi bo-bthi a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. Wi'-po"-ga wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. U'-ga-sho" a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. 'ro"'-i" a-zhi xtsi we-to°-i" da, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. E'-dsi xtsi gi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. Tlai'-90"-ga gi thi" we-to"-i" da, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga 

65. Ha'! wi-zhi°-tlie, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. U'-k'u-be pe-tho"-ba pshi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. U'-k'u-be pe-tho"-ba pshi e-de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. Wa'-dsu-ta tho"-tse xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. Mo"'-hi" no"-fu-ge i-he-tha bi ge i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. I"'-gthe ga-ta-ta-tlia bi ge i"-da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. Wa'-dsu-ta iio"-pe-wa-the xtsi bi tse i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. Ha' ! wi-?o"-ga, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. Tsi'-zhu, Wa-zha-zhe e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

75. Ki'-pto tse a-tha, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. ICi'-pto a-tsia-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

77. Wa'-da zhi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

78. Bo' bthi a-tsia-tlia bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. Wi-e' fsi-zhu, Wa-zha-zhe e'-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. Wa'-da ta tho"-ka he-bthe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

81. Wa'-da zhi xtsi bo-bthi a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



412 THE OSAGE TRIBE Ieth. ann. 36 

182. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

183. Wi'-Qo"-ga a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

184. U'-ga-sho" a-ka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

185. U'-k'u-be pe-tho"-ba a-hi bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

186. Wa'-dsu-ta u-ba-tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

187. Pe-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

188. Wa'-do"-ba bi e' a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

189. E'-dsi a-ta dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

190. A'-ba to-xa do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

191. A'-hi-no"-zhi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

192. Ba'-tse pe gtha-gtha-the xtsi e-de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 
19.3. Ni'-ka-slai-ga' , a bi" da, tsi ga, 

194. Sho'-dse bo-fi-fi-dse kshe wa-do"-ba bi e' a-ka i° da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

195. Ni'-ka-sHi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

196. No"'-pe-wa-the xtsi bi e' a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

197. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

198. Ha'! wi-po"-ga, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

199. Tsi'-zhu, Wa-zha-zhe e'-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

200. Ki'-pto tse a-tha, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

201. Ki'-ft'O a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

202. Ha'! Tsi-zhu, Wa-zha-zhe e'-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

203. Wi'-Q0"-ga a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

204. Wa'-no"-pe xtsi a-gthi a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

205. U'-k'u-be pe-tho"-ba a-hi bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

206. Wa'-dsu-ta u-ba-tse pe-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

207. He'-dsi xtsi wa-do"-ba bi e' a-ka i" da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

208. Wa'-dsu-ta no"-pe-wa-the xtsi bi e' a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

209. He' thi-stse-do" bi e' a-ka i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

210. E'-dsi a-ta dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, » 

211. A'-ba to-xa do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

212. E'-dsi xtsi hi-no°-zhi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

213. Ba'-tse (?e gtha-gtha-the xtsi e-de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

214. Sho'-dse bo-fi-fi-dse kshe ■wa-do"-ba bi e' a-ka i° da', Tsi-zhu, 

Wa-zha-zhe e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

215. Ni'-ka-shi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

216. No°'-pe-wa-the xtsi bi e' a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

217. Wi-fo"-ga a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

218. Ni'-ka-shi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

219. Pe' ga-tsu-pa bi e' a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

220. Pe' ba-sha-ba bi e' a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

221. I'ba-slia-ba bi e' a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 413 

222. Ni'-ka-shi-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

223. Wa'-}]a-hi ki-sha-no° the xtsi bi e' a-ka i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

224. Mo"' thi-ki-slino° bi e' a-ka i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

225. Ni'-ka-slii-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

226. fse'-ha-wa-gthe to° bi e' a-ka i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

227. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

228. She' sho" i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

229. Ha'! wi-po"-ga, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

230. 'Tsi'-zhii, Wa-ko"-da No"-pa-bi thi"-kslie no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

231. U'-gi-ki-e tse a-tha, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

232. U'-gi-ki-e a-tsia-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

233. Ha'! Ho"-ga, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

234. Wa'-pa-hi o"-wa-sha mo"-zhi mi kshe i" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

235. Ha'! Ho°-ga, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

236. Wa'-zha-zhe u-gi-ki-a tlii" ha, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

237. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

238. Wa'-zha-zhe Wa-no° thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

239. A'-gi-pa-mo"-gthe i-no"-zhi" a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

240. Wi'-fO°-ga a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

241. Wa'-no"-pe xtsi a-gtlii a-ka', Wa-zha-zhe, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

242. Ni'-ka-shi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

243. No"'-pe-wa-the xtsi bi e' a-ka i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

244. Pe' ga-tsu-fa bi e' a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

245. Pe' ba-sha-ba bi e' a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

246. I'ba-sha-ba bi e' a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

247. Mo"'-ge xthe-xtha bi e' a-ka i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

248. Wa'-pa-hi ki-sha-no" the xtsi bi e' a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

249. fse'-ha-wa-gthe to" bi e' a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

250. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

251. She' sho" a-tha, Ho"-ga, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

252. Ki' i-he-wa-tha-the ta tse a', Ho"-ga, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

253. Ta' he pe-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

254. Wa'-pa-hi a-gi-the a-thi" he a', Ho"-ga, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

255. 'Ta' he e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

256. Ga'-stse a-gi-gthe a-thi" he no", Ho"-ga, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

257. I'-ki-i-he-wa-tha-the ta tse a', Ho"-ga, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 



414 THE OSAGE TRIBE [.:iii. ann. 36 

Nl'-KI Wl'-GI-E 

(Free translation, p. 220; literal translation, p. 5112) 

1. Da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Zlu"'-ga ni-ka-shi-ga ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. \Va'-ki-gthi-gtho" a-tsia-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. U'-k'o" wa-no°-tha zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Mo"'-xe u-pa-ki-ba wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. U'-ni-ka-shi-ga ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. U'-k'o" wa-no"-tlia zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Zhi"'-ga ni-ka-shi-ga ba tho"-ta zhi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. U'-ga-wi°-xe wi" ga-xe a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Ki'-fto a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Zlii"'-ga ni-ka-slii-ga zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Mo"'-xe ii-(?a-ki-ba we-tlio"-ba kshe a', a bi" da, tsi'ga, 
1.3. Zhi°'-ga ni-ka-shi-ga ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Ziii"'-ga ni-ka-shi-ga ba tho"-ta zhi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. U'-ga-wi"-xe tho"-ba ga-xe a-ka', a bi" da, tei ga, 

16. Hiu'-dse a-the ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. U'-k'o" wa-no°-tha zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Mo"'-xe u-pa-ki-ba we-tha-bthi" kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. U'-ni-ka-shi-ga ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. U'-ni-ka-shi-ga zlii a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Zhi"'-ga ni-ka-shi-ga ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. U'-ga-wi°-xe tha-bthi" ga-xe a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Wi'-90°-ga, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. No"', zhi"-ga ni-ka-shi-ga ba tho"-ta zhi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. U'-to"-be ga-xa ba thi" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Hiu'-dse a-tlie ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. U'-k'o" wa-no",-tha zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga,^ 

29. Hiu'-dse a-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Ni' ga-thi-da zhi xtsi kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Ho"' ta do", e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. 'I"' pa-pi ]ie-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. A'-hiu-he a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. 'I"' we-pe-tho"-ba thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. 'I"' pa-be thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. 'I"' wa-no" u-ki-gtha-ge thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Zhi"'-ga o"-tho"-gi-ni-tha xtsi mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

38. Zhi"'-ga o"-tho"-gi-ni-tha mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. I'-ts' a thi"-gc mo"-thi" ta i tsi" (hi, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Zlii"'-ga o"-tli()"-gi-ni-tha ni(i"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi-ga, 



LABLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 415 

41. Ts'e wa-tse-xi ki-the mo°-tlii° ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Zhi°'-ga o"-tho"-gi-ni-tlia m()"-thi° bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. U'-no° \vi° shki i-tlie ki-the m()°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

44. 'I"' zhu-dse thi°-kshc a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. 'I"' wa-no° u-ki-gtha-ge tlii"-kslie a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

46. Zhi°'-ga o^-tliC-gi-ni-tlia mo^-tlii" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

47. Zhi^'-ga o°-tlio"-gi-ni-tha mo°-thi° bi do"^ a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

48. I'-ts'a tlii°-ge mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

49. Zhi°'-ga o°-tho"-gi-ni-tha mo^-thi" bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

50. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo^-thi" ta bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

51. Zhi"'-ga o"-tho"-gi-ni-tha mo°-thi° bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

52. U'-no" sliki i-tl^e ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Wi',po°-ga, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. Ho"' tse do", e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Zhi°'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tlio"-ta zhi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. U'-to"-be ga-xa ba tlii" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Sho'-ka to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Ga' xtsi hi tlia i do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. Ho"'-bthi"-sha-be e'-go" to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. E'-dsi xtsi zho-gthe a-gi bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. Zhi"'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tho"-ta zhi" da, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

63. Ho'-to"-be tha-the tse i° da, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. Ha' ! wi-tsu-shi3a, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. Zhi"'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tho"-ta zhi e-slia bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. Ho'-to°-be pa-xe tse e-sha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. Ho'-to°-be pa-xe ta mi kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. Ni'ki-mo"-ho" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Ni'a-to°-thi° e-go" kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. Ni'u-ba-sho" wi" hi kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. He'-go" a-zhi a, wi-tsu-shpa, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. He'-go" a-zhi tlio"-zha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. Ni'a-ga-ha no" mo"-bthi" a-thi" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

75. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-the ta i tse a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

T7. I'-ts'a tlii°-ge mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

78. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. fs'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

81. fse'-xo-be e-go° kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

82. Wi'-tsi-go e', e gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



416 THE OSAGK TRIBE [eth. ann, 36 

83. Zhi"'-ga ni a-ga-ha l)a th()"-ta zhi a', wi-tsi-go o', c-gi-e a-ka', a 

bi° d'h, tsi ga, 

84. U'-to°-be tha-tho ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

85. E'-gi-a bi a', wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

86. Ha' ! wi-tsu-shpa, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

87. Zhi°'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tho°-ta zhi e'-sha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

88. U'-tC-be pa-xe te e'-sha ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

89. U'-to°-be pa-xe ta mi kshe i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

90. Ni'ki-mo°-ho° xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

91. Ni'a-moMhi" e'-go° kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

92. Ni'u-ba-sho° wc-tho°-ba thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

93. E'-dsi xtsi hi thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

94. E'-go° a-zhi a', wi-tsu-shpa, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

95. E'-go° a-zhi tho°-zha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

96. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-the ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

97. Ni'a-ga-ha no" mo°-bthi" a-thi" he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

98. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o°-the mo"-thi° bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

99. I'-ts'a thi°-ge mo°-thi" ta i tse a-tha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

100. Zhi°'-ga zlio-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

101. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tse a', zhi°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

102. Zhi°'-ga zlio-i-ga o°-tlia bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

103. U'-no° a bi shki i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

104. She' sho° i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

105. Ga' no°-zlii° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

106. Sho'-ka to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

107. Wi'-po"-ga, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

108. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

109. Ni'-a-mo"-thi" e-de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

110. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

111. Zhi"'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tho°-ta zhi a, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a a-ka', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

112. U'-to"-be tha-the ta do" e'-gi-a bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

113. Zhi°'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tho"-ta zhi e'-sha bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

114. U'-to"-be pa-xe tse e'-sha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

115. U'-to"-be pa-xe ta mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

116. Ni' ki-mo°-ho" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

117. Ba'-sho°-sho° the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

118. Ni'-u-ba-sho" tha-bthi" hi kslie a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

119. E'-go" a-zhi a, wi-tsu-shpa, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

120. E'-go" a-zhi tho"-zlia', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

121. Ni' a-ga-ha no" mo"-bthi" a-thi"-he a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

122. Zhi"'-ga-zhu-i-ga o"-the ta i tse a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLKSCHE] Tl'.lBAL KITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 417 

123. Zhi°'-ga zhii-i-ga o"-tlia bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

124. I'-ts'a tlii°-ge mo^-thi" ta i tse a-tha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

125. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha' bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

126. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-tlie rao°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

127. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

128. U'-no° a bi sliki i-the ki-tlie ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

129. Ga' no"-zhi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

130. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

131.« Zhi"'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tlio"-ta zlii" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

132. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

133. Ki'-fda mo"-ge zhu-dse kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

134. E'-dsi xtsi zhu-gthe a-gi bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

135. Wi'-tsi-go-e', e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

136. Zhi"'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tlio"-ta zhi a', wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-e a-ka', a 

bi" da, tsi, ga, 

137. U'-to°-be tha-the tse a', wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

138. Zhi"'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tho"-ta zhi e'-sha bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

139. U'-to"-be pa-xe tse' e-sha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

140. U'-to"-be pa-xe ta mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

141. Ni' ki-mo"-ho° xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

142. Ki'-gtlii-do°-do" the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

143. Ni'-u-ba-sho" do-ba hi kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

144. E'-go" tho"-ta zhi a', wi-tsu-shpa, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

145. E'-go" tho"-ta zhi tho°-zlia', a bi" da, tsi. ga, 

146. Ni' a-ga-ha no" mo"-bthi" a-thi° he a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

147. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-the ta i tse a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

148. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

149. I'-ts'a thi"-ge mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

150. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

151. fs'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

152. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

153. U'-no° a bi shki i-tlie ki-the ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

154. Ho°'-ba tha-gtlii" xtsi shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

155. I'-the ki-the ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

156. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

157. Wi'-90"-ga, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

158. Zhi"'-ga ni-ka-shi-ga ba tho"-ta zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

159. Zhi"'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tho"-ta zhi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

160. Wi'-Q0"-ga, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

161. U'-to"-be ga-xa ba thi" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

162. O'-pxo" to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

278&— 21 27 



418 THE OSAGE TRIBE [etii. ann. SO 

163. Wi'-tsi-tjo e', e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

164. Zhi^'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tho°-ta zhi a, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-e a-ka', a 

bi" (la, tsi ga, 

165. Zhi°'-ga ni a-bi-pe tha ba tho°-ta zlii a', wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-e a-ka', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

166. U'-tC-be tlia-the tse a', wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

167. Zlii°'-ga ni a-ga-ha ba tlio°-ta zhi i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

168. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

169. 0'-pxo° to" no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

170. Mo°'-ki-Qi°-dse tsi-the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

171. Mo°'-thi°-ka slia-be thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

172. Ga'-wa-to°-i° thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

173. Ha' ! wi-zhi°-tlie', e to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

174. We'-shno" wi-gi-tha bi a', wi-zhi°-tlie, e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

175. Zhi°'-ga mi hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

176. We'-go^-tha a-thi° mo°-thi" bi do" sliki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

177. We'-go"-tha da-do" i-tliu-ts'a-ga zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

178. We'-tho°-bi o° xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

179. Mo°'-ki-Qi"-dse tsi-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

180. Mo"'-thi"-ka to-ho thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

181. Ga'-hi-tho"-be to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

182. Ha' ! wi-zhi"-the', e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

183. We'-shno" wi-gi-tha bi a', wi-zhi°-the', e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

184. Zhi"'-ga mi hi-e' ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

185. We'-go"-tha a-thi° mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

186. We'-go"-tlaa a-thi" mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

187. Da' i-thu-ts'a-ga zhi ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a hi" da, tsi ga. 

188. We'-tha-btlii" o" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

189. Mo"'-ki-fi"-dse tsi-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

190. Mo°'-lia shii-dse tlii°-kslie a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

191. Ga'-hi-tho"-be to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

192. Ha' ! wi-zhi°-the', e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

193. We'-shno" wi-gi-tha bi a', wi-zhi"-the', e tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

194. Mi'hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

195. Zhi"'-ga we-go"-tha a-thi° mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

196. Da'-do° i-thu-ts'a-ga zhi ki-the mo"-tlii" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

197. I'-do-bi-o" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

198. Mo"'-ki-pi"-dse tsi-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

199. Mo"'-thi"-ka pi thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

200. Ga'-hi-tho"-be to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] TKIHAI, RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 419 

201. Ha' ! wi-zhi"-tlie', e to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

202. We'-shno" wi-gi-tha bi a, wi-zhi°-the', e to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

203. Mi'hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

204. We'-go°-tha a-thi" mo°-thi° bi do° sliki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

205. Da'-do° i-tliu-ts'a-ga zhi ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

206. Wi'-zhi°-the, e to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

207. Ho°'-ga Opxo"-to"-ga wi a'-to"-he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

208. Ho"'-ga Mo"-thi"-ka-zhi°-ga wi a'-to°-he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

209. Ho°'-ga Mo"'-thi"-ka-ga-xe wi a'-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

210. Ho"'-ga Mo"-zho°-ga-xe wi a'-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

211. Mo"-thi"'-ka sha-be thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

212. Ba'-ha to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

213. Ga' thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

214. Wa'-thi"-e-9ka she mo" mo"-zhi i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

215. Zhi"'-ga we-go"-tha a-thi° mo°-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

216. I'-ki-k'o° mo°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

217. I"'-shta i-ga-bi-zhe kshe no" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

218. Do'-ka ga-xe the no" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

219. Da'-do" i-thu-ts"a-ga zhi ki-the mo°-thi" ta tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

220. Mo"'-thi"-ka to-ho thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

221. The' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

222. We'-ki-k'o" wi-kchi-xa bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

223. Zhi"'-ga mi hi-e' ge ta, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

224. We'-go°-tha a-thi° mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

225. Da' i-thu-ts'a-ga zhi mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

226. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

227. Mo°-thi"'-ka zhu'-dse thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

228. Ba'-ha to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

229. The' we-shno" wi-gi-tha bi a', wi-zhi°-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

230. Mi'hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

231. We'-go"-tha a-shni ba she do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

232. Da'-do" i-sdu-ts'a-ga zhi ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

233. Mo"-thi"'-ka fi thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

234. He' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

235. Zhi°'-ga mi hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

236. We'-go"-tha a-thi° mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

237. Da' i-thu-ts' a-ga zhi mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



420 THE OSAGE TRIBE [kth. ann. ISO 

238. Da', a bi" 3a, tsi ga, 

239. Wi'-po"-ga, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

240. Da' lai-thc thi°-ge C-ni-ka-shi-ga bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

241. E'-dsi-zhi the thi°-ge o°-ni-ka-shi-ga bi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

242. I°'-gtho°-ga zhu-i-ga the to° no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

243. Wi'-po"-ga, e'-gi-e a-ka, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

244. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

245. Thi'-po°-ga gi thi° we-to^-i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

246. I'-shno°-shno°-the xtsi thi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

247. I'-to°-thi"-thi°-ga-ga thi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

248. U'-gi-ki-a ba thi° ha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

249. U'-gi-ki-e a-tsia-tha ba do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

250. Ha' ! wi-zhi°-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

251. Ni'-ka-shi-ga wi° e-dsi a-ka', wi-zhi°-the, e to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

252. Nc'-pe-wa-the xtsi bi a', wi-zhi°-the, e to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

253. Ni'-ka-shi-ga the o°-ga thi° e'-go° xtsi bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

254. Ha' ! wi-po^-ga, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

255. No°', da ni-the thi°-ge o°-ni-ka-shi-ga bi e'-pshe i° da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

256. E'-dsi-zhi the thi°-ge o°-ni'-ka-shi-ga bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

257. Ni'-ka-shi-ga be' thi° shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

258. Wa-no^'-xe a-dsi the o°-the ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

259. Ni'-ka-shi-ga be' zhi°-ga i-ta the shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

260. Ki' i-he-o°-the ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

261. T&' xtsi a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

262. U'-ba-no° the wi° ga-xe a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

263. U'-ba-no° the do-ba hi he'-the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

264. The a-ka, wi-zhi°-the, e to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

265. She' sho° in da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

266. Wa'-no°-xe a-dsi the o°-the ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

267. We'-a-ba-fu a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

268. I'-u-gthe a-tsia-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

269. I'-u-gtha-kshi" a tsia-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

270. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

271. Ni'-ka-shi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

272. Ho°'-ga bthi" a', wi-zhi°-the, e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

273. Wi'-zhi"-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

274. I'-e wa-fka bi a', wi-zhi°-the, e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

275. Ho"'-ga-wa-tse-gi-tsi wi a'-to" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

276. Wi'-zhi"-the, e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

277. Zhi"'-ga-ga-hi-ge wi a'-to"-he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

278. Wa'-tse-ga-hi-ge wi a'-to"-he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

279. Wa'-tse-ga-wa wi a'-to"-he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

280. Wa'-tse-mo"-i" wi a'-to" he i" da', a oi" da, tsi ga, 

281. She' she" i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAPLESCHK] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 421 

282. Zhi°'-ga-ga-hi-ge a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

283. Zha'-zhe tlia-ki-to° mo^-ni ta tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

284. Wa'-tse-ga-wa shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

285. Zha'-zhe tha ki-to° mo^-ni ta tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

286. We'-shno° wi-gi-the a', wi-zhi°-the, e', tsi the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

287. She' sho° in da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

288. Wi'-90°-ga, e'-ki-e thc-ka, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

289. She' sho° i° da, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

290. U'-xthi thi°-ge o"-ki-the ta i tse a', wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-e tho"-ka, a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

291. Zha'-zhe o°-ki-to° ta i tsi"- da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

292. Zhi°'-ga-ga-hi-ge a', a'bi" da, tsi ga, 

293. Zha'-zhe o°-ki-to° ta i tse a', wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

294. Wa'-tse-ga-wa shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

295. Zha'-zhe C-ki-to" ta i tse a', wi-fC-ga, e'-ki-e tho^-ka', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

296. Ni'-ka-shi-ga, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

297. I'-e-wa-fka e'-sha bi no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

298. I'-e-fka-wa-the shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

299. Zha'-zhe o°-ki-to° ta i tse a', wi-po°-ga, e'-ki-e tho^-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

300. Pa'-thi° e-go° e'-sha bi no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

301. E'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

302. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

303. Pa'-thi"-ho"-ga shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

304. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to" ta i tse a', wi-90.°-ga, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

305. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

306. Wi'-QO"-ga, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

307. We'-ki-k'o" wa-thi"-ga bi" da, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

308. U'-to°-be ga-xa ba thi" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

309. ^'-thu-pe a-tsia-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

310. I"'-gtho°-ga zhu-i-ga the to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

311. Wi'-90"-ga, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

312. U'-to"-be ga-xa ba thi" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

313. Ga'-xtsi hi tha i do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

314. He'-dsi xtsi gi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

315. Thi'-90"-ga gi thi" •we-to°-i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

316. U'-gi-ki-a ba thi" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

317. U'-gi-ki-e a-tsia-tha bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

318. Wi'-zhi"-the, e to" a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

319. Wa'-dsu-ta tho"-tse xtsi wi° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

320. He'-dsi a-ka, wi-zhi"-the, e' to" a, a bi" da, tsi ga. 



422 



TIIK OSACK TKIHK 



321. She' sho" i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

322. Wi'-9,o"-ga, e'-ki-e tho^-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

323. Wi'-f.o"-ga a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

324. Wa'-dsu-ta tho°-tse xtsi wi" e-dsi a-ka' bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

325. Slie' sho° i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

326. Thi'-to-ge gtha ba thi" ha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

327. Wa'-no°-xe a-dsi the o°-the ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

328. Wa'-dsu-ta be zhi°-ga i-ta i shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

329. Wa'-no°-xe a-dsi the o°-the ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

330. No"', da ni-the thi°-ge xtsi o°-ni'-ka-shi-ga bi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

331. yi'-thu-pe a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi"da, tsi ga, 

332. Ho'-ba-no"-the wi° ga-xe a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

333. U'-ba-no"-the do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

334. Hi'-i-he a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

335. The' a-ka, wi-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

336. Wa'-no°-xe a-dsi the o"-the ta bi e'-pshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

337. We'-a-ba-Qu a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

338. I-u'-gtha-ksho" a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

339. A'-ba-pu a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

340. Hi"' ga-ta-the i-he-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

341. He'-dsi xtsi hi-e-ha a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

342. Wi'-zhi"-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

343. Mi'-xa bi a', wi-zhi"-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

344. Mi'-xa-pka-bi', a', wi-zhi"-the, e', tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

345. We'-ki-k'o" o°-tha ba tho" tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

346. We'-ki-k'o" o"-the ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

347. pi' sha-ba bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

348. Pa' sha-ba bi" da', a bi", da, tsi ga, 

349. Hi"' ^ka ga ge shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

350. E' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

351. Zha'-zhe o°-ki-to° ta i tse a', wi-?o"-ga, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

352. Mi'-xa-fka shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

353. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

354. Wa'-zhi"-ga-9ka shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

355. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

356. Zhi"'-ga zha-zhe ki-to" mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

357. Mo"'-sho"-9ka shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

358. Zha'-zhe o" -ki-to" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

359. ^^'-ha sha-be ga ge shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

360. He' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

361. We'-ki-k'o" o°-the ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

362. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

363. No°'-xthe o"-gi-the ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

364. We'-go"-tha a-thi" mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



r.AFLESCHB] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 423 

305. Da' i-thu-ts' a-ga zhi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

366. No°' \ve-ki-k'o° wa-thi°-ga bi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

367. Mi'-xa-fka wi° ts' e'-o°-tha bi no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

368. Ta'-hi-u-sdo-zha ga thi"-kslie a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

369. He'-shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

370. Wa'-xtlie-xtlie o"-gi-the ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

371. Wa'-xthe-xthe o°-gi-the o°-mo°-thi'' bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

372. Mi' hi-e ge ta, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

373. Da'-do" i-thu-ts' a-ga zhi ki-the mo°-tlii° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga 

374. Pa' sha-be ga tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

375. He'-shki no°-xthe o^-gi-the ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

376. No°'-xthe o"-gi-the o°-mo°-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

377. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

378. Da' i-thu-ts' a-ga zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

379. Wi'-90°-ga, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

380. No" zhi"-ga we-ki-k'o" wa-thi"-ga' bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

381. U'-to"-be ga-xa ba thi" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

382. Wi'-Q0"-ga, e'-ki-e tlio"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

383. I"'-gtho"-ga zhu-i-ga tlae to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

384. Wi'-po°-ga, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

385. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

386. A'-ba-do a-tha-k'a-be dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

387. 'I"' sha-gtha thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

388. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

389. The ho"' a-zhi"-tha, \vi-zhi"-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

390. The we'-ki-k'o° o"-tha ba tho" tse i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

391. She' sho" i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

392. Zhi°'-ga we-ki-k'o" tha ba tho" ta zhi a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

393. Zhi"'-ga we-ki-k'o" tha ba tho°-ta zhi tho"-zha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

394. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga the ta i tse a-tlia', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

395. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga the mo"-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

396. Zhi"'-ga, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

397. I'-ts' a thi°-ge mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

398. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

399. "Js'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tse a-tlia', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

400. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

401. U'-no" a bi shki i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a-tha', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

402. Ga' no"-zhi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

403. I°'-gtho°-ga zhu-i-ga the to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

404. Wi'-(?o"-ga, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

405. No"' zhi°-ga we-ki-k'o" wa-thi"-ga bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



424 THE OSACH TrUBE tHTH. ANN. .-iG 

406. U'-to°-be ga-xa ba thi° ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

407. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 
40S. A'-ba-do a-ga-ha xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

409. 'I"'-da-po-ki thi"-kshe no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

410. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

411. The, ho"' a-zhi^-tha, wi-zhi°-the, e' to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

412. She' sho" i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

413. Zhi°'-ga we-ki-k'o° tha ba tho" ta zhi a', wi-QO°-ga, e'-gi-a a-ka', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

414. Zhi^'-ga we-ki-k'o° tha ba tho°-ta zhi tho°-zha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

415. Zlii°'-ga zhu-i-ga the ta i tse a-tha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

416. Zhi°'-ga zhii-i-ga tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

417. I'-ts'a thi°-ge mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

418. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

419. fs'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

420. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

421. U'-no° a bi shki i-the ki-the ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

422. Wi'-po"-ga, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

423. We'-ki-k'o" wa-thi°-ga bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

424. I"'-gtho"-ga zhu-i-ga the to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

425. Wi'-90°-ga, e'-gi-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

426. U'-to"-be ga-xa thi" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

427. A'-thi" u-ta-no" xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

428. 'I"'-zhu-9ka tlii°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

429. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

430. The, ho"' a-zhi"-tha, wi-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

431. The' we-ki-k'o° tha ba tho" tse a', wi-zhi"-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

432. We'-ki-k'o" tha ba tho"-ta zhi tho"-zha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

433. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga the ta i tse a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

434. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

435. I'-ts'a thi°-ge mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

436. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

437. fE'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

438. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

439. U'-no" a bi shki i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

440. Wi'-(;'o"-ga, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

441. I°'-gtho"-ga zhu-i-ga the to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

442. Wi'-?o"-ga, e'-gi-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

443. Zhi"'-ga we-ki-k'o" wa-thi°-ga bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

444. U'-to"-be ga-xa thi" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

445. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

446. 'I°'-zhu-(;'i thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHB] TRIBAL EITES OSAGE LANCUAGE 425 

447. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

448. The, ho"' a-zhi^-tha, wi-zhi^-the, e' to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

449. Zhi°'-ga we-ki-k'o" tlia ba tlio° ta zlii 1,lio°-zha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

450. Zlii°'-ga zhu-i-ga tlia ba tho° tse a-tha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

451. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga the ta i tse a-tha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

452. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga the mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

453. I'-ts'a thi°-ge mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

454. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga tha' bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

455. 'Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo''-thi° ta i tse a', zhi°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

456. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha' bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

457. U'-no° a bi shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

458. I'-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tse a', zhi°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

459. Wi'-po°-ga, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

460. No"' zhi°-ga we-ki-k'o° wa-thi^-ga bi" da, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

461. I°'-gtho°-ga zhu-i-ga the to° no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

462. Wi'-9.o°-ga e'-gi-e tho°-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

463. U'-to°-be ga-xa thi° ha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

464. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

465. He'-dsi xtsi gi thi" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

466. Wi'-oo^-ga gi thi" we-to°-i° da, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

467. Thi'-fo°-ga i-shno"-shno° the xtsi thi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

468. Hi'-to°-thi°-thi°-ga-ga thi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

469. U'-gi-ki-a ba thi" ha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

470. U'-gi-ki-e a-tsia-tha bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

471. Ha'! wi-fC-ga, e'-gi-e tho°-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

472. Wi'-zhi^-the, e' to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

473. Wa'-dsu-ta tho^-tse xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

474. E'-dsi a-ka', wi-zhi°-the, e to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

475. Wa'-dsu-ta no°-pe-wa-the xtsi bi a', wi-zhi°-the, e to° a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

476. pi'zha-ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

477. Wi'-zhi"-the, e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

478. He' a-gthe a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

479. No"'-pe-wa-the xtsi bi a', wi-zhi"-the, e' to" a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

480. Ha' ! wi-zhi"-the, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

481. Wi'-90"-ga a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

482. Wa'-no°-pe xtsi a-gthi a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

483. Wa'-dsu-ta wi" e-dsi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

484. No"'-pe-wa-the xtsi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

485. ^'zha-ta e' a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

486. He' ge e'-to" a-gthe e' a-ka i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

487. She' sho" i" da, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

488. Thi'-to-ge gtha ba thi" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

489. No"', da iii-the thi"-ge o"-ni'-ka-shi-ga bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



420 THE OSAGE TPaBE [eth. ann. 36 

490. E'-dsi-zlii the thi°-ge o"-ni'-ka-shi-ga bi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

491. Wa'-dsu-ta be zhi°-ga i-ta' thi° shki do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

492. Wa'-no°-xe a-dsi the o°-the ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

493. pi'-thu-fo a-tsia-tlia bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

494. U'-ba-no"-the wi^-a'-ha i-he-the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

495. U'-ba-no°-the do'-ba hi he a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

496. The' a-ka, wi-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

497. E'-dsi hi he-tha bi no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

498. Wa'-dsu-ta, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

499. Mi'-ga a-ka', wi-zhi°-the, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

500. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

501. We'-ki-k'o° o°-tha ba tho° tse a', wi-zhi^-the, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

502. Xi°'-ha ge e-to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

503. We'-ki-k'o° o°-tha ba tho°-tse a', wi-zhi°-the, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

504. No°'-ka u-pa ga kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

505. E'-shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

506. U'-we-tC-i" xtsi a-ka', wi-zhi"-the, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

507. Mi°' ga thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

508. He' shki do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

509. Zha'-zhe o^-ki-to" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

510. Zhi°'-ga Mi°-tse-xi shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

511. Zha'-zhe o°-ki-to° ta i tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

512. Nc'-ka-dsi-wi" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

513. Zha'-zhe o°-ki-to° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

514. He' ga-xa zhi°-ga ge shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

515. Zha'-zhe C-ki-to" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

516. Pa' thi°-kshe e'-to° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

517. Zha'-zhe o°-ki-to° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

518. fse'-pa-ga-xe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

519. Zha'-zhe o^-ki-to" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

520. Da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

521. Ho°'-ga U-dse-the Pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga bi" da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

522. Xtha'-xtlia thi"-ge xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

523. Zhi"'-ga mo"-hi" tha ba tho"-tse tlai"-ge' i" da, wi-fO"-ge, e'-ki-e 

tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

524. 'I"'-gtho°-ga zhu-i-ga the to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

525. Wi'-po"-ga, e-gi-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

526. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

527. 'I"'-ba-xtha kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

528. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAKLESCHE] TRIB.\1, KITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 427 

529. The hc'-a-zhi" tha, wi-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

530. Zlii^'-ga ino°-lii° tha ba tho° tse a', wi-zhi^-the, e' to" a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

531. Zhi°'-ga mo^-hi" tha ba tho" ta zhi i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

532. E'-zhi-zhi-fka u-to°-ga', wi-fo°-ga, e'-gi-e tho"-ka', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

533. Wi'-(?o°-ga, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

534. No"', zhi°-ga mo°-hi° tha ba tho°-tse thi°-ge e'-pshe i° da', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

535. I°'-gtho°-ga zhu-i-ga the to" no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

536. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

537. Mo°'-hi''-fi pa-gi kshe no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

538. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

539. The ho°'-a-zhi° tha, wi-zhi°-the, e' to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

540. Zhi°'-ga mo"-hi° tha ba tho" tse a', wi-zhi"-the, e to° a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

541. E'-zhi-zhi-fka u'-to°-ga', wi-QO°-ga, e'-gi-e tho''-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

542. Zhi"'-ga mo°-hi" tha ba tho°-tse thi"-ge' e-pshe i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

543. Wi'-fO°-ga, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

544. No"', zhi"-ga mo°-hi° tha ba tho"-tse thi"-ge' e-pshe i" da', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

545. I"'-gtho"-ga zhu-i-ga the to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

546. Wi'-?o"-ga, e'-gi-e tho°-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

547. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

548. Mo"'-hi"-9i i-ba btlio-ga zhu-dse kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

549. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

550. The ho"'-a-zhi"-tha, wi-zhi°-the, e' to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

551. She' sho" i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

552. She' e-shno" u-tha-dse tha to" she a', wi-fo°-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

553. Zhi"'-ga mo°-hi° tha ba tho" tse i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

554. Zhi"'-ga mo"-hi" the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', wi-fo"-ga, e'-ki-e 

tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

555. Zhi"'-ga mi hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

556. Mo"'-hi" gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

557. Mo"'-hi" gi-pa-hi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

558. fsi'-zhu zhi°-ga i-ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

559. Wa'-zha-zhe zhi"-ga i-ta e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

560. Mo"'-hi" gi-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, t.si ga, 

561. Mo"'-hi" gi-the mo"-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



428 TIIK OSAGE TRIBK Ietii. 



562. Mo"'-hi" fii-sho"-tlui zlii ki-tlio mo"-thi" ta i tsi" ila', a ])i" da, 

tsi ga, 

563. Mo"'-hi° gi-the mo°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

564. I'-ts'a thi"-ge mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

565. Mo"'-hi° gi-the mo"-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

566. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

567. Mo°'-hi" gi-the mo°-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

568. U'-no° shki i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

569. Mo" '-hi" zliu-dse ga kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

570. E'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

571. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to" ta i tse a', wi-(;"o"-ga, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a hi" da, 

tsi ga, 

572. Zhi"'-ga wo" shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

573. Mo"'-hi"-zhii-dse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

574. Zha'-zhe o"-ki-to" ta i tse a', wi-fo"-ga, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

575. Zhi°'-ga wo" shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

576. Mo"'-hi"-ho"-ga shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

577. Zha'-zhe o^-ki-to" ta i tse a', wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-e tho"-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

Ho^-BE'-gU Wl'-GI-E 

(Free translation, p. 239; literal translation, p. 574) 

1. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Zhi"'-ga da-do" fi ki-the ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Sho'-ka Wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Wi'-90"-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Zhi"'-ga da-do" pi ki-the ta ba do" a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

7. 0-to"-be ga-xa th'i" ha, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, • 

8. Sho'-ka Wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Thii-e' xtsi the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. 'I^'zhu-dse thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Wi'-zhi"-the, e tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. The' zhi"-ga pi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da e'-tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

13. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Zhi"'-ga pi ki-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. (^' gi-ba-xtho-ga zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. Xa'-dse no"-sha-tha-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da, c' tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Zhi"'-ga pi ki-the mo"-thi" In do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. pi' i ki i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-tho mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da c' tsi-the a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] TRIB.VL lUTES OSAGE LANGUAGE 429 

19. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. Zlii°'-ga da-do° ho"-be-ko° the mo"-thi° ta ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

21. Ki'-fda mo°-ge zhu-dse kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. Zhi°'-ga ho°-be-ko° the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

23. Zhi°'-ga hC-be-ko" the mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Ho"'-be-ko'' i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Ho"'-be-ko" gi-ba-xa zhi ki-the mo°-tlii° ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Ho"'-be-ko" i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-tlii" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

27. Ho"' a-do" f.i ki-tha bi go" no" sliki a, hi" a, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

28. 'I"' fa-be tlii"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Ga' zhi"-ga fi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

30. Zhi"'-ga ?i ki-the mo"-tlii° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. pi' i ki i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Zhi"'-ga fi ki-the mo"-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. ^1' gi-ba-xtho-ga zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Xa'-dse no"-sha-tha-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" thi e' tsi-tlie a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

35. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Zhi"'-ga da-do" ho"-be-ko" the mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

37. Ki'-fda mo"-ge f.a-be kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Ga' zhi"-ga ho"-be-ko" the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

39. Zhi"'-ga ho"-be-ko° the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Ho"'-be-ko" gi-ba-xa zhi ki-the mo"-tlii" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Zhi"'-ga ho°-be-ko° the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Ho"'-be-ko" i-ts'a tlii"-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

43. Ho"' a-do" pi ki-tha bi go" no" shki a', hi" a, e'-ki-a' bi a, 

abi" da, tsi ga, 

44. 'I"' shto°-ga pi-hi tlii"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Ga' zhi°-ga pi ki-the mo"-tlii" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. Zhi"'-ga pi ki-the mo"-tlii° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



430 THE OSAGE TEIBE [inii. ann :Ui 

47. ^i'i ki i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the nio"-tlii° ta i tsi" da e' tsi-tlio a', a hi" 

da, tsi ga, 

48. Zhi"'-ga (?i ki-the mo°-tlii° bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. Xa'-dse no"-sha-tlia-ge ki-tlie mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da e' tsi-the a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

50. ^^'gi-ba-xa zhi ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi° da e' tsi-the a', a bi° da; 

tsi ga. 

51. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

52. Zhi°'-ga da-do"* ho° be-ko" the mo°-thi° ta ba do" a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

53. Ki'-pda mo°-ge 91 kshe no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

54. Ga' zhi°-ga ho°-be-ko° the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

55. Ho^'-be-ko" the mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. Ho°'-be-ko° i-ts'a thi°-ge ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da e' tsi-the a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

57. Zhi^'-ga ho^-be-ko" the mo°-thi° bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

58. Ho°'-be-ko° gi-ba-xa zhi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga. 

59. Ho°' a-do° fi ki-tha bi go° no" shki a, hi" a, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

60. 'I"' shto°-ga sha-be thi°-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Ga' fi ki-the mo°-thi" tse a-tha e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. Zhi"'-ga fi ki-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. pi'i ki i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

64. Zhi"'-ga fi ki-the nio"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. (^ gi-ba-xtho-ga zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. Xa'-dse no"-sha-tha-ge ki-tlie mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-tiie a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

67. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. Da'-do" ho"-be-ko" the mo°-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. Ki'-fda mo"-ge sha-be kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Ga' ho"-be-ko" the tse a-tha e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. Zhi"'-ga ho"-be-ko" the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. Ho"'-be-ko" gi-ba-xa zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. Zhi"'-ga ho"-be-ko" the mo"-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. Ho"'-be-ko° i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 431 

Kl'-NO" Wl'-GI-E 

(Free translation, p. 242; literal translation, p. 575) 

1. He-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Zhi°'-ga da-do° ki-no" gi-the ta ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. 'I"'-zhi°-ga do-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. A'-ki-ko° i-tse-the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. ^'a'-zhi^-ga lia-tho^-^ka ha do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

S. Thi'-btho°-btho°-xe a-tsi-a-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 
9. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. U'-ba-mo°-xe i-tse-the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

11. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. Da'-k'o i-the ga-xe a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. O'-da-bthu i-the ga-xe a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

14. Mo^'-xe a-tha-k'a-be do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. Da'-zliu-dse i-no°-the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

16. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. Zhi°'-ga ki-no" gi-the tse a-tha e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

18. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Tsi'-zhu u-dse-the Pe-tho^-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. U'-pa-ka thi°-ge i-he-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. Da'-do° i-tha-thu-pe tse do" e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

23. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

24. fse'-ha-wa-gthe zhu-dse thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. I'-tlia-thu-f e tse a-tha e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. I'-tha-thu-fe kshi-tlia bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

27. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Wa'-pa-hi u-kia-sha thi"-ge a-thi° a-hi bi shki do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

29. Wa'-pa-hi a-gtha ba zhi ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. fse'-ha-wa-gthe zhu-dse thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. I'-tha-thu-fe o"-gi-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Wa'-pa-hi u-kia-sha thi"-ge a-thi" a-hi bi shki do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

34. Wa'-pa-hi a-bu-zha-ga bi ki-the ino"-thi" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

35. fse'-ha-wa-gthe zhu-dse thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. I'-tha-thu-pe o°-gi-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Mi'hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



432 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eih.ann.3G 

38. Wa'-pa-lii u-kia-sha thi°-gc a-thi" a-hi l)i sliki do° a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

39. Wa'-pa-hi a-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-tlie mo''-thi" ta i tsi° da e' tsi-the 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40.Tse'-ha-wa-gthe zliu-dse thi"-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

41. I'-tha-thu-pe o°-gi-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

42. Mi' lii-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. Wa'-pa-hi u-kia-sha thi°-ge a-thi" a-hi bi shki do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

44. Wa'-pa-hi ge-go" bi o"-ki-the o"-mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

45. He'-dsi xtsi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. Sho"' da-do" i-tha-tliu-ge tse do" e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Wa'-ko"-da Ho"-ba do" thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. I'-tha-thii-pe tse a-tha e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Wa'-ko"-da Ho"-ba do" thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. I'-tha-thu-pe o"-gi-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52 Wa'-ko°-da no"-wa-pa bi o"-mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', a bi" 
da, tsi ga, 

53. Wa' ko"-da Ho"-ba do" thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. I'-tha-thu-pe o"-gi-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Wa'-ko"-da e'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. I"'-dse u-wa-kia-ta ba zlii o°-mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

Song 1 

(Free translation and music, p. 2ii) 

1 

Wi-tsi-go ho ga-k'o-ga bi the the, 

E hu-thi-k'o bi the the, 

E hu-thi-k'o bi the the he the, 

Wi-tsi-go ho ga-k'o-ga bi the the, 

E hu-thi-k'o bi the the, 

E hu-thi-k'o bi the the. 



Wi-tsi-go ho ga-k'o-ga bi the the, 
E hu-thi-xthi bi the the, etc. 



Wi-tsi-go ho ga-k'o-ga bi the the, 
E hu-bi k'u bi the the, etc. 



LAPLKSCHE] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 433 

Song 2 

(Free translation and music, p. 245.) 

1 

Wi-tsi-go ho ga-k'o-ga bi the, 

E hu-bi-ka bi the the, 

E hu-bi-ka bi the the he the, 

Ho°-ga wi° wa-no" no", 

Ga-k'o ga bi the the, 

E hu-bi-ka bi the the. 



Wi-tsi-go ho ga-k'o-ga bi the, 
E i-bi-ka bi the the, etc. 



Wi-tsi-go ho ga-k'o-ga bi the, 
E i-bi k'o bi the the, etc. 

Song 3 

( Free translation and music, p. 246) 
1 

Ki-no° the mo" the gi-do°-ba, 
K i-no° the mo" the gi-do^-ba, 
U-thi-k'o no" the mo" the gi-do° ba, 
Ki-no" the mo" the gi-do^-ba, 
U-thi-k'o no° the mo" the gi-do°-ba, 
Ki-no° the mo° the gi-do^-ba. 
2 

If i-no" the mo° the gi-do'-ba, 
^i-no" the mo" the gi-do" ba, 
0-thi-xthi no" the mo" the gi-do"-ba, etr. 

3 
0-bi-ka no" the mo" the gi-do"-ba, etc. 

4 
I-bi-ka no" the mo" the gi-do°-ba, etc. 

5 
I-bi-k'o no" the mo" the gi-do"-ba, etc. 

Kl'-NO'* Wl'-GI-E 

(Free translation, p. 247; literal translation, p. 577) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Zhi°'-ga da-do° pi-tha to" mC-thi" ta ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. Tse'-hi° slii°-ga tlii°-kshe no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Ga' pi-tha to° a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. Zhi^'-ga pi-tha to° ki-the mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. I'-ts'a thi°-ge ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 
2788—21 28 



434 THE OSAGE TBIBE Ikth. ann. 36 

7. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. Zhi"'-ga da-do° wa-no°-p'i° the mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

9. Tse-lii" zhi"-ga thi°-kshe no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Ga' wa-no°-p'i° the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. Wa'-no"'-p'i° the mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. Wa'-nC-p'i" i-ts'a thi^-ge ki-the mC-thi" ta i tsi° da', e tsi-the a, 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. Tsiu'-ge thi°-kshe no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Ga' wa-no^-p'i" the ta a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. Tsiu'-ge thi°-kshe no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. Ni'ki-mo^-ho" the do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Niu'-i-xa-xa ga thi"-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. Wa'-ni-e-pka she mo" mo°-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Ho'-uo° pa-xe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Zhi°'-ga wo" shki i'-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da e' tsi- 

the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Ni'ba-btha-xe ga ge a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. O'-no" pa-xe i° da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. O'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

26. Niu'-thu-ga ga thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Wa'-ni-e-fka she mo" mo"-zhi i"-da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Zhi"'-ga thi-e u-thi-xthu-k'a the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Thi-e' u-thi-xthu-k'a i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da, 

e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Ni'u-?a-gi ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Wa'-ni-e-fka she mo" mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga,' 

32. Zhi"'-ga ni-a-ko" the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Ni'-a-ko° i-ts'a thi°-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

34. Ni' i-to"-thi"-a-ha ga-gthe-^e ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Wa'-ni-e-fka she mo" mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Mo"'-ge ga-gthe-pe a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da e' tsi-the 

a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Wo"' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" shki u-hi a-ki-the a-thi" he no" i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

41. Zhi"'-ga ho"-ba tha-gthi" shki u-hi ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da e 

tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



laflesche] tribal rites osage langiuge 435 

Wa'-C'i-thu-^e Wi'-gi-e 

(Free translation, p. 249; literal translation, p, 579) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa'-xo-be i]i-zhi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. I'-gi-k'u-tse ta ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Wa'-fi-thu-pe u-ki-dse ta a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. U'-k'u-be wi° a-^i-thu-pa ba do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. U'-k'u-be wi° e-fka e-wa-ka zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. Wa'-dsii-ta wi° a-pi-thu-pa ba do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Wa'-dsu-ta wi° e-pka e-wa-ka zhi a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. 'Wa'-dsu-ta u-ba-tse wi° a-ki-gtha-thi° no" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Ga' a-pi-thu-fe a-tsia-tlia bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. Wa'-dsu-ta u-ba-tse wi" e-fka e-wa-ka zhi a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. Mi'hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. Ni'u-ga-xthi wi° e-dsi no" no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Ga' a-pi-thu-?e a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. Ni'u-ga-xthi wi° e-fka e-wa-ka zhi a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

16. fsi'-zhi^-ga wi° a-pi-thu-(?e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Zhi°'-ga wa-fi-thu-pe mo"-thi° bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

18. Wa'-pi-thu-fe gi-o-ts'e-ga mo°-thi° ta ba sho° a-ka', a bi° da, 

tsi ga. 

19. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. Wa'-pi-thu-pe ga no° shki a, hi" a, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. U'-k'u-be tho"-ba a-pi thu-pa ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. U'-k'u-be tho"-ba e-pka e-wa-ka zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Wa'-dsu-ta tho"-ba a-pi-thu-fa ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Wa'-dsu-ta tho"-ba e-fka e-wa-ka zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Wa'-dsu-ta u-ba tse tho"-ba a-ki-gtha-thi" no" no" a', a bi" tsi ga, 

26. Ga' wa-fi-thu-pe a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Wa'-dsu-ta u-ba-tse tho°-ba a-ki-gtha-tlii" no" no" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

28. E'-fka e-wa-ka zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Ni' u-ga-xthi tho"-ba e-dsi no" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Ga' wa-^i-thu-^e a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Ni' u-ga-xthi tho"-ba e-pka e-wa-ka zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Tsi'-zhi"-ga wi" a-fi-i-thu-pa bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Zhi"'-ga wa-pi-thu-(;e mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da tsi ga, 

35. Wa'-fi-thu-fe gi-u-mo"-ka ta ba sho" a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Ho"-a'-do" wa-pi-thu-fa ga no" shki a, lii" a, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

37. U'-k'u-be tha-bthi" a-pi-thu-fa ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. U'-k"u-be tha-bthi" e-cka e-wa-ka shi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



436 THli OSAGE TKIBE [eth. ann. liG 

39. Wa'-dsii-ta tha-bthi" a-(?i-thu-va bi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

40. Wa'-dsu-ta tha-bthi'' e-fka e-wa-ka zhi a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

41. Wa'-dsu-ta u-ba-tse tha-bthi" a-ki-gtha-thi° no° no" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

42. Ga' wa-fi-thu-fe a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. Wa'-dsu-ta u-ba-tse tha-bthi" e-^ka e-wa-ka zhi a-ka', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

44. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

45. Ni' u-ga-xthi tha-bthi" a-pi-thu-^a bi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. Ni' u-ga-xthi tha-bthi" e-pka e-wa-ka zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. 'rsi'-zhi"-ga wi" a-pi-thu-f a bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, ^ 

48. Zhi"'-ga wa-pi-thu-pe the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. Wa'-9i-thu-?e gi-o-ts'e-ga ino"-thi" ta ba sho" a-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

50. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Wa'-fi-thu-^e ga no" shki a, hi" a, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. U'-k'u-be do-ba a-pi-thu-fa bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. U'-k'u-be do-ba e-pka e-wa-ka zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. Wa'-dsu-ta do-ba a-pi-thu-?a bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Wa'-dsu-ta do-ba e-^ka e-wa-ka zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. Wa'-dsu-ta u-ba-tse do-ba a-ki-gtha-thi" no" no" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

57. Ga' wa-f,i-thu-pe a-tsia, tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Wa'-dsu-ta u-ba-tse do-ba e-pka e-wa-ka zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. Ni' u-ga-xthi do-ba e-dsi no" nro" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Ga' a-pi-thu-fe a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. Ni' u-ga-xthi do-ba e-^ka e-wa-ka zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. Tsi'-zhi" ga wi" a-pi-thu-f a bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. Zhi"'-ga wa-^i-thu-fe mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. Wa'-pi-thu-pe gi-o-ts'a-ga mo"-thi" ta ba sho" a-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

Wa-ts'e'-the Wa-tho" 

(Free translation and music, p. 232) 
1 

0-ho da-fe a-wa-the a-thi° he no", 
Wi-e wa-mo" a-thi" he no", 
A-ho ho, A-ho ho, 
0-ho da-fe a-wa-the a-thi" he no", 
Wi-e wa-mo" a-thi" he no", 
A-ho ho, A-ho ho. 



TRIBAL RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 437 



0-ho ga-gi-wa-mo° a-thi" he no". 
Wi-e wa-mo" a-thi° he no°, 
A-he the he, A-he the he, 
Qa-be a-wa-the a-thi° he no", 
Wi-e wa-mo° a-thi" he no°, 
A-he the he, A-he the he. 



^i-hi a-wa-the a-thi" he no°, etc. 

4 
Ho°-ba e-nC-she a-thi" he no", etc. 

The Little Song of the Gathering 

(Free translation and music, p. 253) 
1 

He-no" hi-ga-fko"-the a-tho"-ka, 

He-no" ni-ga-fko"-the a-tho"-ka, 

He-no" hi-ga-5ko"-the a-tho"-ka he-e, he-e, 

Hi-ga-5kn"-the a-t.ho"-ka. 

He-no" hi-ga-9ko"-the a-tho"-ka he-e, he-e. 

Wl'-GI-E To'^-GA 

(Free translation, p. 254; literal trajislation, p. 581) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Tsi'-zhu u-dse-the Pe-tho°-ba bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Wi'-po°-ga, e-ki-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. WC'-da hiu-dse ta o°-ga-tha ba tho°-ta zhi i" da, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. Wi'-po°-ga, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. Wo°'-da hiu-dse ta o°-ga-tha ba tho° ta zhi i° da, e'-gi-a bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi° ha, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. Thu-e' xtsi the-e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Wa'-zhi"-ga wa-tha-xthi thi°-ge thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Wi'-zhi"-the, e tsi-the a', a bi^ da, tsi ga, 



438 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

18. The' i-hiu-dse o°-g!i-tlie ta bi thi"-kslie, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

19. She' e to" a-tha, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

21. Wa'-zhi°-ga wa-tha-xthi thi^-ge thi''-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. I'hiu-dse a-hiu bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

23. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. 0'-ga-wi°-xe do-ba ga-xe no°-zhi° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. ^'thu-pa ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Zho"' Ra-(?i pe-tho°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Ga' a-to" a-ti a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. ^^'thu-pa ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. U'-k'u-be ha-tho°-9ka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Tliiu'-xe-ts'a-zhi to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. E'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zlii" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. He'-dsi xtsi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. ^'thu-(?a ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. 'I'-pa-pi ha-tho°-pka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. E'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. 'I"'-pka shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Zha'-zlie o°-ki-to" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

42. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. ^l'thu-?a ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. Mo"'-xe pe-tho"-ba ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Hi'-no"-zhi" a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. Wi'-50°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Wo"'-da ga-ni-tha fi o"-thii-fa ba tho" ta zhi i" da, e'-ki-c a-ka, 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. 0'-to"-be ga-xe tse a-tha, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

51. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Thu-e' xtsi the e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. 'I"'-zhu-pka zhu-dse thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. Wi'-zhi°-the, e tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. The' fi o"-ki-tha ba tho" tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAKLESCHE] TRIBAL KITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 439 

5S. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. She' e-shno" u-tha-dse tha-to" she a', wi-(?o°-ga, e'-gi-e a-ka', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

60. Zhi°'-ga pi ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

61. ^'ki-the mo°-thi° bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

62. ^'ba-xtho-ga zhi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

63. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. Xa'-dse no°-sha-tha-ge ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da, e' tsi-the a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga. 

65. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. Thu-e' xtsi the e do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

68. 'I°'-zhu-9ka pa-be thi^-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Wi'-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71 . The' zhi"-ga pi gi-tha ba tho" tse i" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. Zhi"'-ga pi gi-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', abi" da,, tsi ga, 

73. Zhi°'-ga pi gi-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. (^' ba-xtho-ga zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

75. Xa'-dse no°-sha-tha-ge ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

77. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi" ha, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

78. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. Thu-e' xtsi the e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

81. 'I°'-zhu-pka pi-ga-xu thi°-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

82. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

83. Wi'-zhi"-the, e tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

84. The' zhi°-ga pi gi-tha ba tho" tse i° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

85. Zhi°'-ga pi gi-the ta i tse a-tha, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

86. Zhi°'-ga pi gi-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

87. (^' ba-xtho-ga zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

88. Xa'-dse no"-sha-tha-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

89. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

90. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

91. Thu-e' xtsi the e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

92. 'I"'-zhu-pka sha-be thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



440 THE OSAGE TKII5E limi. ann 3G 

93. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi c do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

94. Wi'-zhi"-the, e tsi-thc a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

95. The' zhi°-ga ^i gi-tha ba tho" tse i° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

96. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

97. Zhi^'-ga fi gi-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

98. Zhi°'-ga fi gi-the mC-thi" bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

99. pi' ba-xtho-ga zhi ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

100. Xa'-dse no"-sha-tha-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga. 

101. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

102. Wi'-po"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

103. Wa'-xo-be pi-zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

104. We'-ki-k'o" thi"-ge i° da, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

105. 0'-to"-be ga-xe tse a-tha, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

106. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

107. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

108. Wi'-f o°-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

109. 0'-to°-be tha-the tse a-tha, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

110. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

111. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

112. Thu-e' xtsi the e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

113. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

114. Mo"'-^"-?! zhu-dse thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

115. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

116. Wi'-zhi"-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

117. The' zhi°-ga mo°-hi" tha ba tho" tse i° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

118. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

119. Zhi"'-ga mo"-hi" tha ba tho" ta zlii a', wi-90"-ga, e'-gi-e a-ka', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

120. E'-zhi-fka u-to"-ga xtsi i° da, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

121. 0'-to"-be ga-xa thi" ha, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

122. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

123. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

124. Thu-e' xtsi the e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

125. Mo"'-hi"-pi to-ho thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

126. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

127. Wi'-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

128. The' zhi°-ga mo"-hi" tha ba tho" tse i" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] TRIBAL KITES" — OSAGE LANGUAGE 441 

129. Zhi°'-ga moMii" thii ba tlio° ta zhi a', wi-?o°-ga, e'-gi-e a-ka', 
a bi° da, tsi ga, 

30. E'-zhi-fka u-to°-ga xtsi' i" da, e'-gi'-e, a-ka', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

31. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi" ha, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Thu-e' xtsi the e do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

34. Mo°'-hi"-9,i fi i-ga-xu thi^-kshe no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

35. E'-dsi xtsi a thi° gi e do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

36. Wi'-zhi°-the e tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

37. The' zhi"-ga mo°-hi" tha ba tho° tse i° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

38. Zhi^'-ga mo°-hi° tha ba tho° ta zlii a', wi-QO°-ga, e'-gi-e a-ka', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. E'-zhi-fka u-to°-ga xtsi i" da, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

40. O'-tC-be ga-xa thi" ha, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

41. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

42. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. Thu-e' xtsi the e do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

44. Mo°'-hi°-9,i ^a-be thi°-kshe no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

45. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi e do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

46. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

47. Wi'-po^-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

48. Wa'-xo-be pi-zhi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

49. We'-ki-k'o° thi"-ge i° da, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. 0'-to°-be ga-xe tse a-tha, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

52. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Wi'-90"-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. 0'-to"-be tha-the tse a-tha, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Thu-e' xtsi the e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Mo°'-hi"-fi pka thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. Wi'-zhi"-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. The' zhi"-ga mo"-hi" tha ba tho" tse i" da, e tsi-the a', a bi" d;i, 

tsi ga, 

62. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. Zhi°'-ga mo"-hi° tha ba tho" ta zhi i" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

64. E'-zhi-fka u-to"-ga xtsi i" da, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi" ha, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



442 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth.ann.3G 

167. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

168. Thu-e' xtsi the e do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

169. Mo°'-hi° i-ba-btho-ga kshe no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

170. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

171. Wi'-zhi^-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

172. The' zhi°-ga mo°-hi° tha ba tho" tse i° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

173. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

174. She' sho° e tho, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

175. She' e shno" u-tha-dse tha to° she a', wi-po°-ga, e'-gi-e a-ka', 
a bi° da, tsi ga, 

176. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

177. Zhi^'-ga mC-hi" the ta i tsi° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

178. Zhi°'-ga mo^-hi" tha bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

179. Da' i-ba-kshi''-da zhi ki-the nio°-thi° ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

180. He-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

181. Mo^'-hi" gi-pa-hi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga. 

182. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

183. Wi'-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga' 

184. Wa'-xo-be pi-zhi a', a bin da, tsi ga, 

185. We'-ki-k'o° thi°-ge i" da, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

186. 0'-to°-be ga-xe tse a-tha, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

187. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

188. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

189. Wi'-(?o°-ga, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

190. Wa'-xo-be pi-zhi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

191. We'-ki-k'o° thi°-ge i° da, e'-gi-e a-ka' a bi" da, tsi ga, 

192. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi° ha, e'-gi-e a-ka, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

193. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

194. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to° a', a bi° da tsi ga, 

195. Thu-e' xtsi the e do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

196. ^a'-gtho-hi to" no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

197. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi-e do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

198. Wi'-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

199. The' zhi^-ga we-ga-thu-^a ba tho° tse a-tha, e' tsi-the a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

200. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

201. Zhi^'-ga we-ga-thu-fa ba tho° ta zhi i° da, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi° 

da, tsi ga 

202. E'-zhi-fka u-to^-ga xtsi i° da, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

203. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi° ha, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



t^PLBSCHB] TIUBAL KITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 443 

204. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

205. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

206. Thu-e' xtsi the-e do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

207. ^'a'-gtho-ha-sho-ga to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

208. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi-e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

209. Wi'-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

210. The zhi^-ga we-ga-thu-fa ba tho" tse i° da, e tsi-the a, a hi" da, 

tsi ga, 

211. Zhi^'-ga we-ga-thu-fa ba tho° ta zhi a, wi-fC-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

212. E'-zhi-fka u-tC-ga xtsi i° da, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

213. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

214. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi" ha, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

215. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

216. Thii-e' xtsi the-e do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

217. Po°'-to°-ga hi to" no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

218. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi-e do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

219. Wi'-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

220. The' zhi°-ga we-ga-thu-pa ba tho° tse i" da, e', tsi-the a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

221. Zhi°'-ga we-ga-thu-^a ba tho° ta zhi a', wi-po°-ga, e'-gi-e a-ka', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

222. E'-zhi-pka u-to°-ga xtsi i° da, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

223. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi'' ha, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

224. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

225. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

226. Thu-e' xtsi the-e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

227. Pi'-fi-hi to° no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

228. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi-e do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

229. Wi'-zhi^-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

230. The' zhi°-ga we-ga-thu-?a ba tho° tse i° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

231. Zhi°'-ga we-ga-thu-fa ba tho° ta zhi a', wi-Q0''-ga, e'-gi-e a-ka', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

232. E'-zhi-fka u-to°-ga xtsi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

233. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

234. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi" ha, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

235. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

236. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

237. Thu-e' xtsi the-e do"" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 
2S8. Zho°'-zhi-hi to" no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 
239. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi-e do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



444 



THK OSACK TKIHE 



240. Wi'-zhi"-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

241. The' zhi"-ga we-ga-thii-(;"a ba tho" tse i" da, e' tsi-tlic a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

242. Zhi°'-ga we-ga-thu-fa ba tho" ta zhi a', wi-?o"-ga, e'-gi-e a-ka' 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

243. E'-zhi-pka u-t.o°-ga xtsi i" da, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

244. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi" ha, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

245. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

246. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

247. Thu-e' xtsi the-e do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

248. Zho°'-sha-be to° no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

249. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi-e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

250. Wi'-zhi"-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

251. The' zhi"-ga we-ga-thu-^a ba tho" tse i" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

252. Zhi°'-ga we-ga-thu-pa ba tho" ta zhi a', wi-90"-ga, e'-gi-e a-ka', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

253. E'-zhi-fka u-to"-ga xtsi i" da, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

254. 0'-to"-be ga-xa thi" ha, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



255. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

256. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

257. Thu-e' xtsi the-e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

258. O'-k'ii-be ha-tho"-9ka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

259. Thiu'-xe ts'a-zhi to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

260. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi-e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

261. Wi'-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

262. The' zhi"-ga we-ga-thu-f a ba tho" tse i" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

263. She' e-shno" u-tha-dse tha to" she a', wi-fO"-ga, e'-gi-e a-ka' 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

264. Zhi"'-ga we-ga-tbii-^a mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

265. Zhi"'-ga we-ga-thu-pa mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

266. We'-ki-i-he-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

267. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

268. Mo°'-hi" i-ba-btho-ga kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

269. Gthu'-^e a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

270. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

271. Mo"'-hi" no"-pe-wa-the xtsi i" da, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da. tsi ga, 

272. Mo"'-hi" wa-ko"-da xtsi i" da, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

273. Mo°'-hi"-wa-ko"-da shki a', a bi" da,' tsi ga, 

274. Zhi"'-ga zha-zhe ki-to" ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



Lit-LESCHE] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 445 

275. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

276. Mo"'-lii° i-ba btho-ga do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

277. I'-ba-Qpo" a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

278. Wa'-bi" ba-dsu-she gthe to"" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

279. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

280. Ba'-zlia-be a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

281. Ta'-dse e-no°-ha xtsi kshi-the to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

282. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

283. Ba'-xo° a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

284. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

285. Ba'-pke-be a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

286. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

287. We'-tsi" ho-no"-ka e'-go" kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

288. Gthi'-shto" a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

289. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

290. No"'-be u-bi-zhu-zhu-e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

291. Bi'-hu-to" u-ha-ha-e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

292. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

293. Wi'-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

294. Wa'-xo-be pi-zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

295. We'-ki-k'o" thi°-ge i" da, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

296. 0'-to"-be ga-xe tse a-tha, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

297. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

298. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

299. Wi'-po"-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

300. Wa'-xo-be pi-zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

301. We'-ki-k'o" thi"-ge i" da, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

302. 0'-to"-be ga-xa thi" ha, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

303. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

304. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

305. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tho"-dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

306. Ga'-gi-gi-dse hi-the no°-zhi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

307. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

308. O'-pa-fe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

309. Wi'-90°-ga gi thi" da, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

310. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

311. O'-gi-ki-a ba thi" ha, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

312. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

313. Hi'-ko" ga-xo-dse xtsi gthi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

314. Wi'-9o"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

315. Ha' ta ha xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

316. Wa'-xpa-thi" tha thi°-sha zlii no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

317. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



446 THE OSAGE TRIBE [etii. axn. 30 

318. Wi'-zhi°-the, e' tsi-tho a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

319. U'-k'u-be wi" pshi a'-tha, wi-zhi''-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

320. 0"'-ha-g()° mo"-zhi xtsi i° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

321. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

322. Wi'-fo"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

323. Ho'-to°-be ga-xa thi° ha, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

324. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

325. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

326. Ho°'-ba i-ta-xe tho°-dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

327. Ga'-gi-gi-dse hi-the no^-zhi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

328. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

329. 0'-pa-?e tho°-dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

330. Wi'-?o"-ga gi thi" i" da, e'-ki-a bi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

331. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

332. U'-gi-ki-a ba thi" ha, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

333. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

334. Wi'-90"-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

335. Ha' ta ha xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

336. Wa'-xpa-thi" tha thi°-sha zlii no", e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

337. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

338. Wi'-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

339. U'-k'u-be tho"-ba pshi a-tha, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

340. 0"'-ha-go" ino°-zhi xtsi i" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

341. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

342. Wi'-90°-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

343. Ho'-to"-be ga-xa thi" ha, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

344. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

345. Slio'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

346. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe the" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

347. Ga'-gi-gi-dse hi-the no"-zhi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

348. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

349. O'-pa-fe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

350. Wi'-?o"-ga gi tlii" i" da, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

351. O'-gi-ki-a ba thi" ha, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

352. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

353. Wi'-90°-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

354. Ha' ta ha xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

355. Wa'-xpa-thi" tha thi"-sha zhi no", e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

356. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

357. Shi'-no"-dse ga-xo-dse xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

358. Gthi'-no"-zhi° to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

359. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

360. Wi'-zhi"-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

361. U'-k'u-be tha-bthi" pshi a-tha. e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHE] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 447 

362. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

363. Wi'-zhi°-tlie, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

364. Ni'-ka wi° u-shko" bi tse a-tha, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

365. 0'-shko° lio° to°, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi'' da, tsi ga, 

366. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

367. Wi'-zlu°-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

368. ^'-pa zha-ta xtsi bi tse a', m-zhi^-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

369. Xa'-dse no^-xtho^-zhe i-tse-tha bi tse a tha, e' tsi-the a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

370. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

371. Wi'-fo°-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

372. Wa'-xo-be pi-zhi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

373. We'-ki-k'o° thi°-ge i° da, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

374. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi° ha, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

375. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

376. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

377. Thu-e' xtsi the-e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

378. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

379. Ho°'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

380. Ga'-gi-gi-dse hi-the non"zhi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

381. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

382. Ho'-pa-^e tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

383. Wi'-90"-ga she-gthi i° da, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

384. I'-zhu-zhu-ba xtsi gi thi" i" da, we-to"-i" i" da, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

385. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

386. O'-gi-ki-a ba thi" ha, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

387. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

388. Wi'-90"-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

389. Ha'-ta-ha xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

390. Wa'-xpa-thi" tha tlii"-she zlii no", e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

391. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

392. Wi'-zhi"-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

393. U'-k'u-be do-ba pshi a-tha, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

394. Ni'-ka wa" u-shko" bi tse e-pshe no" e-dsi, a-ka', wi-zhi"-the, e' 

tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

395. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

396. O'-shko" ho" to", e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

397. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

398. Wi'-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

399. No"'-pe-wa-the xtsi a-ka', wi-zhi"-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

400. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

401. Wa'-pa-hi to" a-ka tha, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



448 THE OSAGE TRrBE lETH. ANN. 36 

402. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

403. Wi'-?o°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

404. Wa'-xo-be pi-zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

405. We'-ki-k'o" thi"-ge i° da, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

406. Thi'-to-ge gtha ba thi'^ ha, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

407. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

408. We'-tsi" ho no"-ka e'-go° kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

409. Gthu'-pe a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

410. E'-dsi xtsi a', a' bi" da, tsi ga, 

411. U'-zho"-ge wi°-a-ha pi-thu-fe to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

412. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

413. U'-ba-no° the do-ba kshi the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

414. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

415. We'-do-ba o"-tse dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

416. I'-ga-dsi-o" i-he-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

417. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

418. Wi'-zhi"-the, e'-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

419. Ni'-ka wi" e-dsi a-ka e-pshe no" the a-ka', wi-zhi"-the, e' tsi- 

the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

420. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

421. U'-shko" ho" to", e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

422. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

423. Wi'-zhi"-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

424. No"'-pe-wa-the xtsi bi a', wi-zhi"-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

425. Da'-do" ni the thi"-ge a-ka e-zha mi a', wi-zhi"-the, e' tsi-the 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

426. Wa'-pa-hi to" a-ka tha, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

427. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

428. He' zlu"-ga to" a-tha, wi-zhi"-the, e' tsi-the a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

429. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

430. No"'-pe-wa-the xtsi bi a', wi-zhi"-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

431. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

432. Wa'zhi" pi-zlii xtsi bi a', wi-zlu"-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

433. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

434. Thi'-to-ge gtha ba thi" ha, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

435. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

436. We'-tsi" ho no"-ka e'-go" kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

437. Gthu'-pe a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

438. No°'-be u-bi-zhu-zhii the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

439. Bi'-hu-to" u-ha-ha e a-ka', a bi" chi, tsi ga, 

440. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

441. Wi'-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

442. Ni'-ka wi" e-dsi a-ka e-pshe no" e-dsi a-ka', wi-zhi°-the, e' tsi- 

the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLB8CHE] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 449 

443. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

444. U'-sliko° ho° to°, e'-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

445. Wi'-zhi^-the, e' tsi-the a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

446. Wa'-pa-hi to" a-ka tha, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, ^si ga, 

447. No°'-pe-wa-the xtsi a-ka', wi-zhi°-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

448. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

449. Wa'-zhi° pi-zhi xtsi a-ka', wi-zhi''-the, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

450. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

451. Wi'-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

452. Thi'-to-ge gtha ba thi" ha, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

453. Tsi'-zhii ii-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do° a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

454. Xtha'-xtha thi°-ge xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

455. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

456. Ni'-ka wi-o°-wo° the e'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

457. Wa'-no^-xe a-dsi the ta tsi" da, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

458. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

459. Wa'-dsu-ta be i-zhi°-ge shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

460. Wa'-no^-xe a-dsi the ta tsi" da, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

461. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

462. To'-ka no°-zhi° wi-o°-wo° the e'-shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

463. Wa'-no°-xe a-dsi the ta tsi° da, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

464. E'dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

465. We'-tsi" ho no°-ka e'-go° kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

466. Gthu'-pe a -tsia-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

467. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

468. No°'-be u-bi-zhu-zhu the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

469. Bi'-hu-to° u-ha-ha e' a-ka, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

470. E'dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

471. Thi'-to-ge gtha ba thi° ha, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

472. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

473. We'-tsi" ho no°-ka e'-go° kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

474. Gthi'-u-bthi° a-tsia-tha ba do", a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

475. Wi'-tsi-go ga-ho'-sho" u-ha ba do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

476. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

477. We'-tsi° ho no°-ka e'-go" kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

478. I'-tho°-bi-o° tse dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

479. Thi-u'-bthi° a-tsia-the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

480. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

481. Wi'-tsi-go ga-ta-kshi" i-the-tha bi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 
2786—21—29 



450 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 30 

4S2. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

483. I'-tha-bthi°-o° tse dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

484. We'-tsi° ho no"-ka e'-go° kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

485. Gthi'-ii-bthi° a-tsia-tha ba do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

486. Wi'-tsi-go ni-dsc a-ta mo"-gthe thi^-kshe ga-xe a-ka', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

487. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

488. We'-do-ba o" tse dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

489. We'-tsi° ho no°-ka e'-go" kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

490. Gthi'-u-bthi" a-tsia-tha ba do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

491. Ha'-shi pa-gthe xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

492. Wa'-bi° ga-ta-the gthi i-he-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

493. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

494. Wi'-po°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

495. Thi'-to-ge gtha ba thi° ha, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

496. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

497. A'-bi-ta-ta a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

498. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

499. Zhe'-ga tha-ta kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

500. Ga'-wi" a tsia-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

501. Wa'-shi° u-ba-zhi° tsi-the ga-xe a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

502. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

503. I-u'-tha-btho°-9e a tsia-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

504. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

505. I' u-wa-no°-be xtsi i° da, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

506. Zhi°'-ga no°-bthe the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

507. Zhi^'-ga no°-bthe the mo^-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

508. A'-dsu-ta i-ga-pi-ge ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

509. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

510. Ni' da-ka-dse u-bi-do° mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

511. Zhe'-ga tha-ta thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

512. Ga'-wi" a-tsia-tha bi a', a bi" da, ^si ga, 

513. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

514. ^^'-pi-ga zhi xtsi i° da, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

515. We'-ki-k'o" the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

516. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

617. We'-thi" fa-gi xtsi i" da, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

618. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

619. Wa'-xo-be o"-gi-the ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

620. We'-thi"-pa-gi shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



WFLBSCHE] TRIBAL RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 451 

521. Zha'-zhe o^-ki-to" ta i tsi" da', e tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

522. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

523. We'-thi''-ga-xe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

524. Zha'-zhe o°-ki-to° ta i tsi° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

525. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

526. We'-thi°-zhi°-ga shki a', a bi" da tsi ga, 

527. Zha'-zhe o^-ki-to" ta i tsi° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

528. O'-tho^-da ga thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

529. Wa'-xo-be o°-gi-the ta i tsi° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

530. Tse'-ha-wa-gthe C-gi-the o°-mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da, e' tsi-the a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

531. Zhi'"-ga i-gi-ni-tha mo''-thi'' ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

532. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

533. Mi' hi-e ge ta, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

534. Wa'-pa-lii a-kia-sho° thi°-ge a-thi° a-hi bi shki do° a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

535. Wa'-pa-hi ge go" bi ki-the mo^-tlii" ta i tsi° da, e' tsi-the a', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

536. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

537. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

538. Wa'-pa-hi u-kia-sho" tlii°-ge a-thi° a-lii bi shki do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

539. Wa'-pa-hi a-gtha ba zhi o°-ki-the o''-mo°-thi° ^^ i tsi° da, e' 

tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

540. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

541. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

542. Wa'-pa-hi u-kia-sho° thi^-ge a-thi" a-hi bi shki do" a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

543. Wa'-pa-hi a-ki-tha-zha-ta bi o°-ki-the o°-mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da, 

e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

544. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

545. Mi'hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, (si ga, 

546. Wa'-pa-M u-kia-sho° thi°-ge a-tlii° a-hi bi shki do" a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

547. Wa'-pa-hi a-bu-zha-zha-ta bi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da, e' 

tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

548. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

549. Thi'-u-ba-he tha-ta ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

550. Ga'-wi" a-tsia, the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

551. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 



452 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 86 

552. We'-thi° zhi°-ga pe-thC-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 
653. Tsi'-zhu U-dse-the Pe-tho°-ba', a bi" da, i^si ga, 
554. E'-no°-ha kshi-the a-ka', a bi" da, (si ga, 
655. E'-dsi xtsia', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

556. Wa'-xo-be o°-gi-the ta i tsi" da, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, (si ga, 

557. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

558. He' tha-ta ga tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

559. Wa'-xo-be o^-gi-the ta i tsi° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

560. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

561. He'-thi-shi-zhe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

562. Zha'-zhe o°-ki-to° ta i tsi° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

563. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

564. He'-thi-zha-ge shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

565. Zha'-zhe o^-ki-to" ta i tsi° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

566. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

567. He' tha-ta ga tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

568. Wa'-xo-be o°-gi-the ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

569. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

570. ^"'-dse ga tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

571. Wa'-xo-be o^-gi-the ta i tsi° da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, (si ga, ■ 

572. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

573. fse'-dse-xe ga thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

574. Wa'-xo-be o"-gi-the ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

575. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

576. No"'-dse u-thi-xi" ga thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

677. Wa'-xo-be o"-gi-the ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

578. Pa'-xi" ga thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

579. Wa'-xo-be o"-gi-the ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

580. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

581. I'-ki ga tlii"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

582. Wa'-xo-be o"-gi-the ta i tsi" da, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

(Free translation, p. 270) 

Hau ! ki'-no" u-tha-ge u-wi'-btha-ge ta mi-kshe i° da no", 
wi-tsi-ni e'. 

Ki'-no" pa-ho"-gthe tse wa-dsu'-ta pa-ho"-gthe k'i" gthi' no" bi 
no", e-go" kshe', wa-dsu'-ta tse-no"' e-kshe tha'-ha, zhi"-ga'-zhi"-ga 
u-no"' wa-the tho"-tse e'-stse tiia'-ha, mi ga' thi"-kshe, to"-tha-the 
a-do", shto"-ga, tha'-gthi" tha-the a-do" ha, wi-tsi'-go a-ka e'-gi-a be 
the, e-she ta ki° do. Do"-e', wo"'-shki do" wa-ni'-e-fka she'-mo" 
mo"-zlii ta tse' a-be the, e-she ta ki" do. Mo"'-ha zhi-hi a'-dsu-ta 
thi'-u-ba-he kshe i'-stsi-zhi hi a-do", pa'-xi" shto°-ga thi"-kshe shki 



LAFLESCHB] TRIBAL RITES — OSAGK LANGUAGE 453 

i'-shtsi-zhi-hi, no°'-ka u-pa shki i-shtsi-zhi-hi ta ki^-do'. Wi-tsi'-go 
a-ka wo°'-shki do", wa-ni'-e-fka she'-mo° mo°-zhi mi-kshe a'-be the, 
zhi°-ga'-zlii°-ga mi the' u-no°' a-wa-the ta tse' a-be the e-she ta ki° do. 

Hail! u-wa-to° tse', wa-dsu'-ta, tse-do'-ga no°' kshe tha'-ha, k'i" 
gtlii bi kshe a'-ha-ha, xi°-ha' thi°-kshe shi, tha'-gthi° shka-xe a-do°, 
to"' tha-the a-do° shto^-ga tha'-gthi" shka-xe ta ki" do. Wi-tsi'-go 
a-ka e'-gi-a be the, e-she ta ki° do'. Wo°' shki do" wa-ni'-e-pka 
she'-mo° mo°-zhi ta tse a' be the, e-she a-do", i'-stsi-zhi-hi ta ki° do, 
thi-u-ba-he kshe sho°-e'-go'', no°'-k;a u-pa kshe shki e', wa-ni'-e-?ka 
she'-mo° mo^-zhi a-thi" he ta tse a' be the, e-she ta ki° do. Wo°' 
shJd do° mi the zlii°-ga' u-no° a-wa-the a-thi° he ta tse a' be the, 
wi-tsi'-go a-ka, e-she ta ki" do'. Wa-ni'-e-pka she'-mo° mo^-zhi (a 
tse a' be the, e-she ta ki" do'. Wo°' shki do° zhi^-ga ts'e' wa-tse-xi 
a-wa-gi-the a-thi° he ta tse a' be the, wi-tsi'-go a-ka, e-she ta ki° do'. 

Hau ! shi u-wa-to° tse', wa-dsu'-ta tse-he'-xo-dse kshe a-tha'-ha, 
shi zhi°-ga u-no"" a-wa-the tse e-dsi e'-stse tha'-ha, Hau ! to^'-tha 
the a-do", shto°-ga tha'-gthi" tha the a-do°, ha, a'-hi^-u-ha-ge i'stsi- 
zhi-hi ta ki° do. Wo"' shki do°, wa-ni'-e-fka she-mo" mo°-zhi mi- 
kshe a' be the, wi-tsi'-go a-ka, e'-she ta ki° do. Zhi°-ga mi the u-no°' 
a-wa-the ta tse a' be the, wi-tsi'-go a-ka, e'-she ta ki° do. Zhi^-ga 
ts' e' wa-tse'-xi a-wa-gi-the a-tlii" he ta tse a' be the, e'-she ta kin do. 

Hau! we-do-ba tse', wa-dsu'-ta tse-do'-zhi°-ga kshe tha'-ha, shi 
wa'-tho-to° a-ni' a-do°, tha'-gthi° tha-the a-do", shto°-ga shka'-xe 
a-do° e', ha, shi no^-ka u-pa' kshe i'-stsi-zhi-hi ta ki° da, a'-hi°-u- 
ha-ge shki e'. Wi-tsi'-go a-ka, wa-ni'-e-pka she'-mo° mo^-zhi a-thi° 
he ta tse a' be the. Mi the zlii°-ga' u-no° a'-wa-the ta tse a' be the, 
e-she ta ki" do'. Wo°' shki do° zlii^-ga ts'e' wa-tse'-xi a-wa-gi-the 
a-thi° he ta tse a' be the, e-she ta ki° do'. 

Hau ! ga she'-no° a no"* e'. 

Xl'-KI Wl'-GI-E OF THE Tsi'-ZHU Wa-SHTA'-GE 
(Free translation, p. 277; literal translation, p. 591) 

By MoN-zhon-a'-ki-da 

1. Ha' tha tsi ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Zhi°'-ga ni-ka-shi-ga ba zhi a-tha', wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

3. Wi'-fC-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. U'-to^-be tha-the ta bi a', wi-QO°-ga', a bi" da, (si ga, 

5. Wi'-90°-ga ga xtsi hi tha i do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Mo"'-xe u-pa-ki-ba wi° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. E'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Wi'-zhi°-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. 0°'-ha-go° mo°-zhi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



454 THE OSAGE TRIBE turu. ann. :tB 

10. U'-to°-be tha-the ta bi a', wi-po^-ga', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Zhi^'-ga ni-ka-shi-ga ha zhi a-tha', wi-pC'-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

Ha' tha tsi ta, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Ka'-xe-wa-hu-pa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. Mo°'-xe u-^a-ki-ba wi" lii-no^-zhi" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. Wa'-ko°-da u-ga-sha-be xtsi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. He'-dsi xtsi a-gthi-no^-zlii" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. Wi'-?o°-ga ha'-ta-ha xtsi wa-xpa-thi° tha thi° sha zhi no" a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

18. Mo°'-xe u-pa-ki-ba wi° pshi a-tha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. E'-go° tho°-ta zhi a', ■wi-zhi°-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

Ha' tha tsi ta, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Wi'-po^-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

21. No° u'-to°-be tha-the ta bi a', wi-QO°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. Wi'-zhi°-the ga' xtsi hi tha i do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Mo°'-xe u-pa-ki-ba wi" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

24. E'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Wi'-90°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

26. Wa'-ko°-da u-ga-sha-be xtsi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

27. He'-dsi xtsi a-gthi-no^-zhi" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

28. Ha'-ta-ha xtsi wa-xpa-thi° tha thi" sha zhi no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

29. E'-go" tho^-ta zhi a', wi-zhi°-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

Ha' tha tsi i/&', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

30. Ha' ! wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-e tho°-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. U'-to°-be tha-the tse a', wi-po°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

32. Ka'-xe-wa-hu-pa to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

33. Thu-e' xtsi lii the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

34. Mo°'-xe u-pa-ki-ba we-do-ba kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

35. He'-dsi xtsi hi no^-zhi" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

36. Ni'-ka-wa-ko°-da-gi thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

37. Tho' to° hi non-zhi° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

38. Ni'-ka-shi-ga wi° the a-ka', wi-zhi°-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

39. No°'-pe-wa-the xtsi a-ka', wi-zhi°-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

40. Nc'-pe-wa-the shki zha-zhe ki-to° a-ka' e-zha-mi i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

41. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go-e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Zlii^'-ga zhu-i-ga tha ba tho° tse mi-kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha' bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

44. I'-ts'a tlii^-ge ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

45. Gthe'-do''-zhi°-ga shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 



LAFLBSCHH] TRIBAL RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 455 

46. Zha'-zhe ki-to° mo°-thi" bi do° a', a bi" da, (si ga, 

47. U'-no° a bi i'-the ki-the mo°-tlii° ^s. i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Gthe'-do^-wi" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

49. Zha'-zhe a-ki-to° a-thi" he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

50. E'-shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

51. Zhi°'-ga zha-zhe ki-to" mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

52. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-tlie mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Wi-no° bthi" mo°-zhi i" da, a bi° da, tsi ga. 

Ha' tha tsi ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

54. Ha' ! wi-90°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

55. Wi'-90°-ga tho-e' xtsi hi the do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

56. Tho'-xe Pa-thi-ho° to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

57. E'-dsi xtsi hi-no°-zhi'' a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

58. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go-e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

59. Ni'-ka-shi-ga wi° the a-ka tha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

60. No^'-pe-wa-the xtsi a-ka', wi-zhi°-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

61. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o^-tha ba tho" tse a-to° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. Mo°'-ki-9i°-dse tsi-the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

63. Ha'-ba-ko°-9e-9i-da e-go° to° no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

64. U'-do°-be tha-gthi° xtsi hi-tse-the to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. Ga' tse shki zhu-i-ga tha ba tho° tse i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. I'-u-tha-btho^-pe a-tsia-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. I'u-wa-pa no° a-tha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

68. Zhi°'-ga mo°-ko° tha ba tlio° tse no" a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. Zhi°'-ga mo^-ko" the mo^-thi" bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

70. A'-dsu-ta i-ga-pi-ge a-ki-gtha-tlii" mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

71. U'-no° a bi shki i-the ki-the mo°-tM'' ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

Ha' tha tsi ta', a bi° da, ^si ga, 

72. I'-tho°-bi-o° xtsi rQO°-ki-pi°-dse tsi-the do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

73. Mo'"-ko°-to°-ga zhi°-ga tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

74. Xtha' zhu-dse i-tse-the to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

75. Ga' tse shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

76. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga tha ba tho° tse i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

77. Zhi°'-ga mo°-ko° tlie mo^-tlii" bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

78. A'-dsu-ta i-ga-fi-ge a-ki-gtha-thi" mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

79. I'u-wa-ts'u-xa no° a-tha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

80. fs'o'-xe shki zha-zhe ki-to° mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

81. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

82. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo^-tlii" ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

Ha' tha tsi ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 



456 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

83. Tho'-xe Pa-thi-ho" to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

84. Mo°'-ki-Qi°-dse tsi-the do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

85. Ha'-ba zhu-dse kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

86. He'-dsi xtsi ga-^;i-ge tsi-the to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

87. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha ba tlio" tse i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

88. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

89. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi gii, 

Ha' tha tsi ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

90. I'-tho°-bi-o° xtsi mo''-ki-pi''-dse tsi-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

91. Ha'-ba to-ho kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

92. Wa'-to° to-ho tlii°-kshe e'-ki-tho°-ba xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

93. Ga'-fi-ge tsi-the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

94. Ga' tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

95. No°'-bthe mo^-thi" bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

96. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

Ha' tha tsi ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

97. We'-tha-bthi"-©" xtsi mo^-ki-^i^-dse tsi-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

98. Ha'-ba ^ka kshe no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

99. Wa'-to° pka thi°-kshe e'-ki-tho°-ba xtsi ga-fi-ge tsi-the to° a', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

100. Zhi°'-ga no°-bthe the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

101. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

102. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

Ha' tha tsi ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

103. We'-do-bi-o° xtsi mo°-ki-9i°-dse tsi-the do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

104. Ha'-ba gthe-zhe kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

105. Wa'-to" gthe-zhe thi°-kshe e'-ki-tho°-ba xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

106. Ga'-fi-ge tsi-the to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

107. Be' wa-dsu-ta don mi-ga thi°-ge tse a', hi° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

108. Wa'-dsu-ta mi-ga zhu-gthe kshi-the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

109. No^'-bthe the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

110. No^'-bthe ki i-ts'a thi^-ge ki-the moMhi" ta i tsi° da, a bi° da, 

tsi ga. 

111. Wi'-90°-ga u-to°-be tha the ta bi a tha', a bi° da, tsi ga, . 

112. He'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

113. Pi'-pi-hi to" no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

114. E'-dsi xtsi hi no^-zhi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

115. Ga' tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

116. Zho'-i-ga o°-tha ba tho° tse i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHB] TRIBAL RITES — OSAGE LANGUAGE 457 

117. Pi'-fi u-no''-bii-dse xtsi a-ka', a bi° da, (si ga, 

118. Ga' tse shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

119. Zhi^'-ga zho-i-ga the ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

120. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mC-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, ^si ga, 

Ha' tha tsi ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

121. Xo°'-dse hi to° no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

122. E'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhin a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

123. Wi'-no° wa-ko°-da ts'e wa-tse-xi a-to° he i" da', a bi" da, (si ga, 

124. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga C-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

125. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo''-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

126. Pa-xi° pa-dse fi e-go" a' bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

127. Xi°'-ha ba-p'i°-tha ga ge a', a bi" da, ^si ga, 

128. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

129. Zhi°'-ga u-no° the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

130. Ko°' thi-lii-da ga thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

131. ^"i'-ko" tlii-hi-da e' no" bi no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

132. ^^i'-ko" thi-hi-da i-the ki-the mo''-tlu° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

133. Zhi^'-ga u-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

134. Wi'-tsu-shpa', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

135. Wi'-no" bthi° mo°-zhi i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

Ha' tha tsi ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

136. Ni'-u-thi-xa-xa xtsi ge dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

137. E'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

138. Wa'-zha-zhe wi" the a-ka i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

139. Ni' zhu-i-ga the xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga a-ka i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

140. Wi'-tsu-shpa', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

141. Zlii^'-ga zhu-i-ga the thi^-ga bi e'-sha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

142. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha' bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

143. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

144. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha' bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

145. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

146. Ho°'-ba tha-gthi" shki u-hi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

147. Wi'no" bthi° mo"-zi i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

Ha' tha tsi ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

148. Wi'-po°-ga thi-to-ge gtha ba thi° ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

149. Ga' xtsi hi tha i do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

150. Mo'"-hi''-ts'a zhi thi°-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



468 THE OSAGE TRIBE [eth. ann. 36 

151. Wi'-tsu-shpa wi-shno" wa-ko°-(la ts'e wa-tse-xi a-to" he i° da', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

152. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, ^si ga, 

153. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

154. Wi'-no" bthi° mo°-zhi i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

Ha' tha tsi ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

155. Shi^'-zha-hi to° no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

156. Wi'-shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

157. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi a-to° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

158. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o^-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

159. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

160. Ho°'-ba tha-gthi" u-wa'-ni-ka-shi-ga a-to" he i° da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

161. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" shki u-hi ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

Ha' tha tsi ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

162. Wi'-QO"-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

163. Tlii'-to-ge gtha ba thi" ha', wi-po"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

164. Thu-e' xtsi hi the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

165. Wi'-zlu"-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

166. Wa'-dsu-ta wi" ts'e tha bi kshe a', wi-zhi"-the, e'-ki-e a-ka', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

167. Wi'-90°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

168. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga tha ba tho" tse i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

169. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga the ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

170. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

171. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

Ha' tha tsi ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

172. Wi'-Q0°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

173. Thi'-to-ge gtha ba thi" ha, wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

174. Thu-e' xtsi hi the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

175. Mo"'-zho° u-to"-ga xtsi thi"-kshe dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

176. E'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

177. Ga' tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

178. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga the ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

179. Mo"'-zho°-u-ko"-pka shki zha-zhe o°-ki-to" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

180. Zhi"'-ga ts'e wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

Ha' tha tsi ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFI.ESCHB) TRIBAL, RITES OSAGE LANGUAGE 459 

ISl. Wi'-9o''-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

182. Thi'-to-ge gtha ba thi" ha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

183. Wi'-zhi°-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

184. Ni'-ka-shi-ga wi° e-dsi a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

185. Tsi'u-ta-pa xtsi a-ka tha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

186. Ni'-ka-shi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

187. fsi'-hu-ko" u-k'u-dse a-ka tha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

188. Ga' tse shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

189. Zha'-zhe ki-to° a-ka e-zha-mi i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

190. Tsi'u-ta-fa go°-tha a-ka', wi-zhi°-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

191. Tsi'u-ta-pa wa'-gthi° a-tha, wi-zliiMhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

192. Zhi^'-ga zhii-i-ga the ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

193. Tsi'-u-ta-pa shki zha'-zhe ki-to" ta i tse a-tha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

194. Zhi°'-ga u-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

195. Ni'-ka-shi-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

196. No°'-pe-wa-the xtsi a-ka i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

197. 'Tsi-u'-ki-a-pe shki zha-zhe ki-to° a-ka e-zha-mi i° da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

198. Ga' tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

199. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga the ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

200. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

201. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

202. Ho°'-ba tha-gtlii° shki u-lii ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi" 

da, tsi ga. 

Ha' tha tsi ta, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

203. Wi'- 9o°-ga, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

204. Ziai°'-ga zhu-i-ga the wa-thi°-ga bi a-tha, wi-zhi°-the, e'-ki-e 

a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

205. Wi'-po°-ga, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

206. Thi'-to-ge gtha ba tlii° ha, wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

207. Wi'-po°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

208. Thu-e' xtsi hi the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

209. Wi'-zhi"-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

210. Wa'-dsu-ta wi" the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

211. Ts'e' tha bi kshe a', wi-zhi°-the, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, (si ga, 

212. Wi'-po°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

213. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga the ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

214. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

215. fs'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the rao°-thi" ta i tsi" da, a bi" da, tsi ga. 

Ha' tha tsi ta', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



460 THE OSAGE TRIBE Tbth. ann 36 

216. Thi'-to-ge gtha ba thi° ha', wi-90°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

217. Thu-e' xtsi hi the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

218. Mo^'-zho" u-to°-ga xtsi thi°-kshe dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

219. Ni'-ka-shi-ga to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

220. Mo°'-zho° u-to"-ga xtsi thi^-kshe dsi a', a bi° da, ^si ga, 

221. E'-dsi xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

222. U'-da-bthii-bthu-e xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

223. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga the ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

224. Mo°'-zho°-u-pko°-fka shki zha-zhe ki-to" \a, i tsi° da, a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

225. Mo°'-zho° shki zha-zhe ki-to° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

226. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

227. Ho°'-ba tha-gthi° shki u-hi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

228. Ho°'-ba u-pa-ki-ba do-ba u-hi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

Ha' tha tsi ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

229. Wi'-zhi°-the, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

230. Thi'-to-ge gtha ba thi° ha', wi-zhi°-the, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

231. Wi'-po°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

232. Thu-e' xtsi hi the do" a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

233. Ni' u-ga-xthi wi" e-dsi no" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

234. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

235. fsi' zhi°-ga wi° the tse a', wi-zlu°-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

236. E'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi° bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

237. Ho°'-ga bi a, wi-zhi°-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

238. Wi'-tsi-go-e', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

239. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha ba tho" tse a-to° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

240. Wi'-zlii"-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

241. Tsi' u-ta-pa wa-gthi° wi° u-gthi° a-ka', wi-zlii°-the a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

242. Ga' tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

243. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

244. Tsi' u-k'u-k'u-dse a-ka', wi-zhi°-the, a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

245. E'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

246. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

247. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

248. Ho"'-ba u-pa-ki-ba do-ba u-hi' ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a 

bi" da, tsi ga. 



Part III -literal translation 



461 



The Xo'-ka Wi'-gi-e« 

(Free translation, p. 74; Osage version, p. 305) 

1. He-dsi, at that time and place: xtsi, verily; a, they said; a bi° da, 

it has been said; tsi, house; ga, in this, 18, 66, 82. 

2. Ho°-ga, the Ho°-ga subdivision; u-dse-the, fireplaces; pe-tho''-ba, 

seven; ni-ka-slii-ga, a people; ba do", they were; a, they said. 

3. Ha, O; wi-90°-ga, my younger brothers; e-ki-a, said to one 

another; bi, they; a, they said. 

4. We-ki-k'o°, ceremonial articles, or symbols; tho°-tse, suitable 

for use; thi°-ge, none; a-tha, there is; wi-fo°-ga, my younger 
brothers; e-ki-a, said to one another; bi, they; a, they said. 

5. I°-gtho°-ga, Puma; do-ga, the male; to", standing; a, they said. 

6. Ha, Ho; wi-po^-ga, my younger brother; e-gi-a, said to him; bi, 

they; a. they said. 

7. We-ki-k'o°, ceremonial articles, or symbols; tho°-tse, suitable 

for use; thi°-ge, none; a-tha, there is; wi-fo°-ga, my younger 
brother; e-gi-a, said to him; bi, they; a, they said. 

8. Tho-e, in haste; xtsi, verily; hi-the, he went forth; do°, did; a, 

they said. 

9. A-ba-do, a small hill; a-ga-ha, upon the brow of; dsi, there; 

xtsi, verily; a, they said, 51. 

10. Wa-fa-be, the black bear; u-pa-ka, without blemish, without 

spots; thi^-ge, none; that has none; to° no", the standing; a, 
they said. 

11. Tho, in his presence; to", where he stood; hi, having arrived 

there; no^-zhi", stood; bi, they; a, they said. 

12. Ha, O; wi-tsi-go-e, my grandfather; e-gi-a, said to liim; bi, they; 

a, they said. 

13. We-ki-k'o°, ceremonial article, or symbol; tho°-tse, suitable; 

thi''-ge, none; a-tha, there are; wi-tsi-go-e, my grandfather; 
e-gi-e, said to him; a-ka, they. 

14. Ha, Ho; zhi°-ga, little ones; e, to say; tsi-the, he hastened; 

a, they said. 

15. We-ki-k'o", ceremonial articles, or symbols; tho°-tse, suitable; 

tlii''-ge, you have none; e-she, you having said; do°, because; 
a, they said. 

M Many of the lines of the wi'-gi-es are used again and again. Where such repetitions of a line occur 
the sequential numbers of the lines having the same words and meaning will be grouped together so 
that the translation of one line will suffice for all, in order that much labor and space may be saved. 
For the same reason the refrain at the end of every line, " .\. bi"* da, tsi ga," will be omitted save in the 
opening line of the wi'-gi-e. 

463 



464 THE OSAGE TRIBE Ibih. ann. 36 

16. We-ki-k'o", ceremonial article, or symbol; tho''-tse, suitable; 

a-to°-he, I stand. 

17. E-dsi, there, in the activities of life; zhi, absent; the, moving; 

thi°-ge, none, never; xtsi, verily; a-ni-ka-slii-ga, I am a person; 
i" da, I am. 

19. Xa-dse, grass; ba^se, a bunch of; ho°-fka, one of any kind; 

do", the; a, they said. 

20. Thi-thi-shi-zhe, plucked and twisted it; gtlii, drew toward him- 

self; no°-the, placed it upon the ground; to", as he stood; ^', 
they said, 26, 44. 

21. Ga, these grasses; tse, that lay upon the ground; shki, also; a, 

they said, 71, 78. 

22. We-ki-k'o°, ceremonial article; the, make of it;mo°-thi''," as they 

travel the path of life; ta bi° da, they shall, 28, 41, 46, 58. 

23. Tho-e, in haste; xtsi, verily; pi-thu-fe, took footsteps, went 

forth; do°, did; a, they said, 29, 37, 42, 50. 

24. Ba-xpe, small stunted oaks; ba-tse, a bunch of; ho°-?ka, any 

kind; do", the; a, they said. 

25. Ga, this, bunch of stunted oaks; thi^-kshe, sitting here; shki, 

also; a, they said, 27, 32, 40, 45, 55. 

30. Ga-xa, a branch, a creek; zhi^-ga, small; pe-gtha-gtha the, a 

hne of groves along its banks; xtsi, verily; ge, dsi, there 
amongst; a, they said. 

31. Zho°-sha-be-the hi, dark-wood tree, the red-bud; ba-tse, a bunch 

of; ho^-pka, any kind; do°, the; a, they said. 

33. We-ki-k'o°, ceremonial articles or symbol; the, make of; mo"- 

thi", as they travel the path of life; ta i tsi° da, they shall. 

34. No°-xthe, charcoal; gi-the, they shall make of it; mo^-tlii", as 

they travel the path of life; ta bi" da, they shall. 

35. No°-xthe, charcoal; gi-the, they make of it; bi, they; do°, when, 

a, they said. 

36. U-no°, old age; a bi, spoken of as; i-the, live to see; mo°-thi'', as 

they travel the path of life; ta bi° da, they shall, 98. 

38. Mo^-^a, arrow-shaft trees; ba-tse, bunch: ho°-pka, any kind; do", 

the; a, they said. 

39. E-dsi, there, close to it; xtsi, verily; hi, having arrived at; gthi", 

he sat doyn; thi"-kshe, sitting; a, they said. 
43. Ha-fi-hi, grapevine; ko°, the root; ba-tse, bunch; ho°-fka, any 
kind; do°, the; a, they said 

47. Zhi^-ga, the little ones; we-ki-k'o°, ceremonial articles or symbols; 

tha, they make of; bi, they; do", when; a, they said. 

48. Da-gthe, captives; i-thi-sha-wi", they shall tie up as with cords; 

e no° bi no", and spoken of as cords; a, they said. 

** The word mo^thi", used colloquially, mean!^, to walk. When the word is used figuratively and cere- 
mooisny it denotes the continuation of an important act during the life journey of the tribe. 



LArLBSCHB] TRIBAL BITES — LITEKAL TRANSLATION 465 

49. Sho", for all time; xtsi, verily; ga-xe, they shall make of it: 
mo"-thi°, as they travel the path of life; ta i tsi" da, they shall. 

52. '1°, stony; pa-fi, point; ho°-fka, of any kind; do", the; a, they 

said. 

53. 'I°-zlu°-ga, small stones; do-ba, four. 

54. ^^o-the shu, gathered them together; gthi, brought them toward 

himself; no^-the, placed them in a pile; to", as he stood; a, 
they said. 

56. We-ki-k'o", ceremonial articles or symbols; the, make of them; 

mo^-thi", as they travel the path of life; ta i tsi° da, they shall. 

57. Zhi''-ga, the little ones; da-^i-hi, cleanse themselves with heat; 

ki-the, cause themselves; mo^-thi", as they travel the path of 
life; bi, they; do", when; shki, and; a, they said. 

59. Zhi°-ga, the little ones; tsi-hi, frame of their house; u-gthe, use 

as supports for; the, use them; mo°-thi°, as they travel the 
path of life; bi, they; do°, when; shki, and; a, they said. 

60. Tsi, house; hiu-gthe, frame ; gi-shoMha, loosen ; zhi, not; ki-the, 

cause for themselves; mo^-thi", as they travel the path of life; 
ta i tsi" da, they shall. 

61. Wa-ko°-da, god's; tsi, house; i° da, it is. 

62. Tsi, house; hi-u-gthe, frame; wi-ta, is mine. 

64. Zhi^-ga, the little ones; zho-i-ga, their bodies; the, make of it; 

mo°-thi°, as they travel the path of life; bi, they; do", when; 
a^ they said. 

65. Wa-ko°-da, god's; tsi, house; to", possess; ki-the, cause them- 

selves to; mo^-thi", as they travel the path of life; ta i tsi" da, 
they shall. 

67. U-fi-gthe, a line of footprints; wi", one; i-tse-the, he placed ; to", 

as he stood; a, they said. 

68. U-fi-gthe, a line of footprints; jie-tho^-ba, seven in number. 

69. Thi-u-ba-he, from the side of the door; i-sdu-ge, the right side; 

dsi, there; a, they said. 

72. Wa-we-a-ga-9ko°-the, I have made to be symbols; i° da, I have; 

79. 

73. 0-do", military honors; pe-tho''-ba, the seven; e no" bi no", that 

are spoken of as; a, they said. 

74. Sho°, all of them, and for all time; xtsi, verily; pa-xe i" da, I 

have made them to be. 

75. U-pi-gthe, a line of footprints; sha-ge, six in number; a, they said. 

76. Thi-u-ba-he, side of the door; tha-ta, the left side; dsi, there; a, 

they said. 

77. U-pi-gthe, a hne of footprints; sha-pe ha, six in number; i-tse-the, 

he placed; to", as he stood; a, they said. 
2786—21 30 



466 THE OSAGE TRIBE [Bin. ann. 36 

80. 0-do°, military honors; slia-pe; e no° bi no", that are spoken of 

as; a, they said. 

81. I-tha-ga-Qko°-the, I have made them to symbolize; i° da, I have 

e, saying; to°, he stood; a, they said. 

83. Zhi°-ga, the little ones; zho-i-ga, their bodies; tha, they make of 

bi, they; ga, thus; no°-zhi° da, they shall stand. 

84. Mi-xa pka, wliite swan; to°-ga, the great; thi^-kshe, the sitting 

no", the; a, they said. 

85. Zhi^-ga, the little ones; zho-i-ga, their bodies; the, they make of 

ta bi a, they shall; wi-po"-ga,~ my younger brothers; e-ki-a, 
said to one another; bi, they; a, they said. 

86. Zhi°-ga, the little ones; zho-i-ga, their bodies; o^-the, they make 

of me; bi, they; do", when; a, they said, 92. 

87. Wa-dsu-ta, living creatures; sho"-e-go°, all, whatever kind they 

may be; xtsi, verily; a, they said. 

88. Wi-no", I alone; a-liiu, wings; fa-gi, strong; bthi" da, I am; e, 

saying; to", he stood; a, they said. 

89. Ho°-ba, a day; he-be, the half of; a, they said. 

90. Tse-do°, the great lake; go-da-ha, on the farther side of; xtsi, 

verily; a, they said. 

91. Ga-ha-ha, swinging up and down; a-hi-gthi°, having arrived 

there I sit upon the waves; a-thi° he, in my life movements; 
no" i" da, it is my habit; e, saying; to", he stood; a, they said. 

93. A-hiu-ha, their arms; pa-gi a bi, spoken of as strong; i-the, live 

to see; mo"-thi", as they travel the path of life; ta i tsi" da, 
they shall. 

94. Ho°-ba, the days; u-pa-ki-ba, the divisions of; do-ba, the four. 

95. U-hi, to arrive there and enter; ki-the, they shall cause them- 

selves to; mo"-thi", as they travel the path of life; ta bi" da, 
they shall. 

96. U-no°, old age; a bi, spoken of as; shki, and; i-the, hve to see; 

ki-the, they shall cause themselves to; mo°-thi°, as they travel 
the path of life; ta bi" da, they shall. 

97. Zhi"-ga, the little ones; u-no", the means of reaching old age; 

o°-gi-the, make of me; mo"-thi°, as they travel the path of 
life; bi, they; do", when; a, they said. 

Kl'-NO*" Wl'-GI-E 

(Free translation, p. 77; Osage version, p. 307) 

1. He-dsi, at that time and place; xtsi, verily; a, they said; a bi" da, 

it has been said; tsi, house; ga, in this, 11, 33, 40, 43, 51. 

2. Wa-pa-be, the black bear; u-pa-ka, blemish, spots; tlii"-ge, that 

has none; kshe, that lies; a, they said. 

3. Ta, the deer, ki-thi-xa, mate; bi, they; u-zhi°-ga, when it was 

yet small, young; xtsi, verily; thi°-kshe, sitting; dsi, then; a, 
they said. 



LAPLB8CHE] TRIBAL RITES LITERAL, TRANSLATION 467 

4. Ni-dse, haunch, body; ki, to lay down as to rest; i-no^-the, to put 

upon the ground; ta do", to do so, pressed with the desire to 
rest, hibernate; a, they said. 

5. U-k'o" wa-no^-tha zhi, perplexed, bewiklered; xtsi, verily; thi°, 

he was; a, they said. 

6. Ta-dse, the winds, the four quarters; e-no°-ha, to each one. 

7. Ha-shki-pa, returning to the starting point; a-gthi, returning; 

no^-zhi^-zhi", repeatedly, to stand; the, as he moved about; 
a, they said. 

8. Sho°, while yet acting in this manner; to° i° da, and as she stood. 

9. Thu-e, quickly; xtsi, verily; ?i-thu-pe, taking footsteps; the, 

went forth; do°, did; a, they said, 14, 18, 23, 28, 34. 
10. Xa-dse, grass; ba-tse, bunch; ho^-pka, of any kind; do", the; a, 
they said. 

12. Thi-thi-pki, gathered compactly together; gthi, toward himself; 

no^-the, placed upon the ground; tlii°-kshe, as she sat; a, they 
said, 16, 21, 26. 

13. Ni-dse, haunch, body; ki, down; i-no°-tha, upon the ground as to 

rest; zhi, not; the, went away; a, they said, 17, 22, 27, 32. 
15. Ba-xpe, stunted oaks; zhi''-ga, small; ho^-pka, of any kind; do", 
the; a, they said. 

19. Ga-xa, a branch, stream; zhi''-ga, small; pe gtha-gtha, with a line 

of groves upon its banks; xtsi, verily; ge, amongst; dsi, there; 
a, they said, 24. 

20. Zho°-sha-be-the hiu, dark-wood trees, the red-bud; ba-tse, a 

bunch; ho°-fka, any kind; do", the; a, they said. 
25. Ha-fi-hi, grapevine; ko", root; thi°-kshe, the sitting; no", the; 
a, they said. 

29. Mo°-ha, a cliff; pa-pi, to the summit of; ho^-pka, any kind; do°, 

the; a, they said. 

30. 'I°-zhi°-ga, small stones; do-ba, four. 

31. Thi-ta-the, gathered them together; gthi, toward herself; i-no°_ 

the, placed them upon the ground; to", as she stood; a, they 
said. 

36. '1°, rocky chff ; pa-pi, to the summit of; a-ga-ha, upon; dsi, there; 

xtsi, verily; a, they said. 

37. Thi-90°-tha, turned over; gthi, and drew toward herself; i-tse-the, 

and placed them upon the ground; to°, she stood; a, they said. 

38. '1°, a stone; ta-xpi, upon the crown of her head; a-gtho°, placed 

thereon; xtsi, verily; hi, having arrived there; gthi", sat; thi°- 
kshe, sitting; a, they said. 

39. Ni-dse, haunch; ki, down; i-no°-the, placed upon the ground; 

thi°-kshe, sitting; a, they said. 
41. Mi, moons; pe-tho°-ba, seven. 



468 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 36 

42. He-dsi, close to; xtsi, verily; hi, having arrived at; gthi", she sat; 
thi"-kshe, sitting; a, they said. 

44. Ho°-ba, days; u-^a-ki-ba, the divisions of; wi°, one; u-pshi, I 

have arrived at and am entering; sho°, verily; e-ki- the, thought 
of herself; thi°-kshe, as she sat; a, they said, 44, 50. 

45. Wa-zhi°-ga, the birds; ho-wa-gi ki-he, in every direction; sho° 

e-go", verily in all directions; xtsi, verily; a, they said. 

46. Ho-to°, calling, singing; wa-no^-k'o", hearing them; thi''-kshe, as 

she sat; a, they said. 
48. Wa-gthu-shka zhi°-ga, the little bugs, insects. 
42. Kia-hi-hi the, flying hither and thither in swarms; xtsi, verily; 

wa-do°-be, she saw; thi''-kshe, as she sat; a, they said. 

52. Wa-ko^-da, god, used here figuratively for season; u-pshi, I have 

arrived at and am entering; sho", verily; e-ki-the, she thought 
of herself; thi°-kshe, as she sat; a, they said. 

53. Zhi°-ga-zhi°-ga, the children. 

54. Ho°-ba, days; u-pa-ki-ba, divisions of; u-ni-ka-shi-ga, dwell 

therein as persons; ta, shall; bi, they; e-ki-the, thought of her- 
self; thi°-kshe, as she sat; a, they said. 

55. Zhi^-ga-zhi^-ga, her child; gthu-pe, she took up; do°, then; a, 

they said. 

56. Wa-ko°-da, and to the god; tse-ga, that early; xtsi, verily; 

e-tho^-be, rises and appears; hi, comes; no", habitually; bi, 
they, a, they said. 

57. Ba-ha, exhibit, hold up to view; offer; tsi, come, having come to 

the door; no°-zhi°, stood; to", standing; a, they said. 

58. Zhi^-ga, the httle ones; ni-ka-slii-ga, persons, people; bi a, they 

now are; wi-tsi-go-e, O, grandfather; e, saying; to", she stood; 
a, they said. 

59. Zhi°-ga, the little ones; u-no°, old age; i-the, Uve to see; ki-the, 

enable themselves; mo^-tlii", as they travel the path of life; 
ta bi a, help them to; wi-tsi-go-e, O, grandfather; e, saying; 
to", she stood; a, they said. 

Kl'-NO" Wl'-GI-E 

(Free translation, p. 79; Osage version, p. 309) 

1. He-dsi, at that time and place; xtsi, verily; a, thej^ said; a bi° 

da, it has been said; tsi, house; ga, in this, 9, 22, 26. 

2. Zhi°-ga, the little ones; ki-no", symbolic paintings; gi-tha, to 

make of; bi, they; thi°-ge, they have none; a-tha, they have; 
wi-tsi-go-e, O, grandfather; e, saying; to", he stood. 

3. Zhi°-ga, the little ones; ki-no", symbolically paint; gi-tha, them- 

selves; bi, they; do", when; a, they said. 

4. Wa-ko°-da, the god; tse-ga, early; xtsi, verily; e-tho°-be, arises 

and appears; hi, comes; no°, habitually; bi, they; a, they said. 



LAPLBSC&E] TRIBAL RITES LITERAL TRANSLATION 469 

5. Wa-ko''-da, the god ; u-ga-zhu-dse, that strikes the heavens with 

red; hi, as he comes; no" no", regidarly; a, they said. 

6. Ga, that god; ki-no", symbohcally paint; gi-the, make of; mo"- 

tlii", as they travel the path of life; ta bi" da, they shall. 

7. Ki-no°, paint symbohcally; gi-the, make of; mo°-thi°, as they 

travel the path of life; bi, they; do°, when. 

8. U-no", old age; a bi, spoken of as; i-the, live to see; ki-the, cause 

themselves to; mo^-thi", as they travel the path of life; ta 
bi" da, they shall, 21, 30. 

10. Wa-^a-be, the black bear; u-pa-ka, blemish, spots; thi°-ge, that 

has none; kshe, that lies; no", the; a, they said. 

11. E-shki do", that animal also. 

12. Wa-ko°-da, god; u-to^-ba, to be noticed, identified; bi, they; 

ki-the, cause themselves to be; mo^-thi", as they travel the 
path of life; ta bi° da, they shall, 16, 35, 39. 

13. Zhu-i-ga, my body; pa-be, the black; ga ge, these; a, they said. 

14. No''-xthe, as charcoal; a-gi-the, I have made it to be; a-thi°-he, 

in my life activities; i° da, I have, 32, 37. 

15. No°-xthe, charcoal; gi-the, they make of it; mo°-thi°, as they 

travel the path of life; bi, they; do°, when; a, they said, 34. 

17. The-shka, the throat; pka, the white spot; ga, this; thi°-kshe, 

sitting; shki, also; a, they said. 

18. Wa-ko°-da, the god; ho°-ba, day; do°, of; thi^-kshe, sitting; a, 

they said. 

19. I-bi-po^-flse, pressing close against him; o^-kslii-the, we shall make 

it to be; ta i tse a-tha, we shall. 

20. I-bi-90°-dse, press closely to him; o°-kshi-tha, we make him to 

be; bi, we; do°, when; a, they said. 

23. Mi-xa, swan; pka, white; to°-ga, the great ; thi°-kshe, the sitting; 

no", the; a, they said. 

24. Ha, O; wi-tsi-go-e, my grandfather; e-gi-a, they said to him; bi, 

they; a, they said. 

25. Zhi°-ga, the little ones; zho-i-ga, their bodies; tha, of which to 

make; bi, they; thi^-ge, there is none; a-tha, it is so; wi-tsi- 
go-e, my grandfather; e-gi-a, they said to him; bi, they; a, they 
said. 

27. Zhi''-ga, the httle ones; zho-i-ga, their bodies; tha, to make of; 

bi, they; thi°-ge, there is none; e-she do", when you say; a, 
they said. 

28. Zhi°-ga, the httle ones; zho-i-ga, their bodies; o°-tha, make of 

me; ba, they; thoMse, they shall, being fit for such purpose; 
Mi-kshe, i° da, I am. 

29. Zhi^-ga, the little ones; zho-i-ga, their bodies; o°-tha, they make 

of me; bi, they; do", when; a, they said, 33. 



470 THE OSAGE TRIBE .[bth. ann. 36 

31. ^-ha, the skin of the feet; u-sha-be, in which the color is dark; 

ga, this; thi°-kslie, sitting; a, they said. 
36. Pa-zhu-zhe, the bill; i-ta-xe, the tip of; sha-be, dark in color; 

ga, tliis; tln°-kslie, sitting; a, they said. 
38. Zhi^-ga, the little ones; no^-xthe, charcoal; gi-the, make of it; 

mo°-tlu°, as they travel the path of life; bi, they; do°, when; 

shki, and; a, they said. 

40. A-hiu, wings; ga, these; thi°-kshe, sitting; shki, also; a, they 

said. 

41. Wa-gthe, plumes; gi-the, make of them; mo°-thi°, as they travel 

the path of life; ta i tsi" da, they shall. 

42. Wa-gthe, plumes; gi-the, they make of them; mo°-thi°, as they 

travel the path of Ufe; bi, they; do", when; shki, and; a, they 
said. 

43. Ho°-ba, the day; wa-pu, that is clean, spotless, cloudless; ga, this; 

to°, standing; a, they said. 

44. I-tha-thu-?e, to bring with their strength; o°-ga-xe, we shall make 

them to; o''-mo°-thi'', as we travel the path of life; ta i tsi" da, 
we shall. 

45. Ho°-ba, days; u-pa-ki-ba, the divisions of; do-ba, the four. 

46. U-hi, to reach and to enter; ki-the, cause themselves to; mo"- 

thi", as they travel the path of life; ta bi a, they shall; zW-ga, 
the little ones. 

Mo''-THI*"-THE-DO'' Ts'a-GE 

(Free translation, p. 84; Osage version, p. 310) 

1. He-dsi, at that time and place; xtsi, verily; a, they said; a bi" da, 

it has been said; tsi, house; ga, in this, 7, 35, 63, 67, 72, 80, 
83, 91, 120. 

2. Wa-zha-zhe, name of the Wa-zha-zhe subdivision; u-dse-the, fire- 

places; pe-tho°-ba, seven; ba, they were; do°, were; a, they 
said. 

3. Wa-zha-zhe, man of the Wa-zha-zhe subdivision; wi°, one; a, 

they said. 

4. Wa-ki-gthi-gtho", to meditate for himself; tsi-the, he proceeded; 

thi°-kshe, as he sat; a, they said. 

5. Tsi-xi°-dse, at the end of the lodge; xtsi, verily; ge, there; dsi, at 

that place; a, they said. 

6. Ba-mo^-xe, bowed, bent low, prostrate; hi-the, he fell; kshe, he 

lay; a, they said, 18, 33, 48, 65. 

8. Ho°-ga, sacred, that which was consecrated; wa-ga-xa, was made; 

bi, they, the people; a, they said, 22, 37, 53, 68, 85. 

9. I°-dse-ha, the skin of the face, the forehead; ga-xe, he made of 

it, put it upon the skin of his face; to", as he stood; a, they 
said, 23, 38, 54, 69, 86. 



LAFLESCHB] TRIBAL, KITES — LITERAL, TRANSLATION 471 

10. Ho^-ba, the day; i-ta-xe, at the beginning of; tho° dsi, there, at 

that time; a, they said, 24, 39, 55, 70, 87. 

11. Xa-ge, weep, cry; tlia-shto°, cease; a-zhi, he did not; thi", as he 

moved about; a, they said, 25, 29, 40, 44, 56, 71, 88. 

12. Thu-e, quickly, forthwith; xtsi, verily; fi-thu-pe, he took foot- 

steps; the, and went forth; do", did; a, they said, 41. 

13. Tsi-u-ho^-ge, as he came to the edge of the village; xtsi, verily; 

ge dsi, there; a, they said. 

14. Wa-ko°-da, the god of day, the sun; tho-to", straight, in the 

middle of the heaven; a-thi", he brought him to or followed 
him; hi, arriving there; thi°-kshe, he sat to rest; a, they said, 
27, 42, 58, 74. 

15. U-pa-pe, the time wherein darkness comes, the evening; tho° 

dsi, at that time; a, tliey said, 28, 43, 59. 

16. Tse-xe, the open prairie; xtsi, verily; ge dsi, there in the midst 

of; a, they said, 30, 45, 60. 

17. I-sdo-ge, toward his right side; ija-gthe, placing his head; xtsi, 

verily; a, they said, 32, 47, 64. 

19. Wa-ko°-da, god; i^-shta, his eyes; a-ga-fta, to close; ga-xe, he 

made them; kshe, as he lay down to rest; a, they said, 34, 49, 
66, 81. 

20. Sho° thi^-kshe i° da, even as he sat, wliile yet he sat, 50, 57. 

21. Wa-ko°-da, god; ho°-ba, day; do°, of; thi°-kshe, sitting; a, they 

said. 
26. Sho", then, even as he; to" i° da, paused, stood to rest. 
31. The, in this spot; shki, also; wa-ko^-da, god; e-dsi a-ba, resides 

and moves therein; tho°-ta, it is possible; sho°, after all; e-the, 

he thought; thi°-kshe, as he sat; a, they said, 46, 78. 
36. Wa-ko°-da, god, used here as a trope for the light of day; 

o°-thi-do°, drawn over me; hi-the, has passed over; mi-kshe, 

me; sho°, even now; e-ki-the, he thought; kshe, as he lay 

upon the ground; a, they said, 51, 82. 
52. Pa, his head; thi-ho", raised; tsi-the, he hastened to do; do", 

and; a, they said, 84. 
61. The, in this spot; shki do°, also; a, they said, 62. « 
73. Sho°, while yet he cried; the i° da, as he wandered about. 

75. U-zho°, time for going to sleep, the evening; we-sha-pe, the 

sixth ; kshe, the length of time from the beginning of the vigil ; 
a, they said. 

76. Ni, water, stream; u-ho^-ge, the head of, the source; wi", one; 

e-dsi do°, there was; a, they said, 89. 

77. He-dsi, there, at the place; xtsi, verily; hi, having arrived there; 

no", zhi°, paused; to", stood; a, they said, 90, 93. 
79. The, ga, here, in this spot; xtsi, verily; a-zho", I sleep; tse, shall; 
e-the, he thought; thi°-kshe, as he sat; a, they said. 



472 THE OSAGE TRIBE [hth. ann. 36 

92. Mo°-thi''-the-do° Ts'a-ge, He-who-becomes-aged-while-yet-travel- 
ing, the pelican; tio", a; a, they said. 

94. Ha, O; wi-(si-go-e, my grandfather; e, to say; tsi-the, he hastened; 

a, they said. 

95. Zhi°-ga, the Uttle ones; zho-i-ga, their bodies; tha, of which to 

make; bi, they; tlu°-ge, tlaere is none; a-tha, there is; wi-tsi-go-e, 
my grandfather; e-gi-e, said to him; to°, as he stood; a, tlaey 
said. 

96. Ha, O; zhi^-ga, little one; e, to say; tsi-the, he hastened; a, they 

said. 

97. Zhi^-ga, the little ones; zho-i-ga, their bodies; tha, of which to 

make; bi, they; thi°-ge, there is none; e-she do°, you having 
said; a, they said. 

98. Zhi°-ga, the little ones; zho-i-ga, their bodies; o°-tha, make of 

me; ba, they; tho°-ta, they shall; mi-kshe i° da, they shall of 
me. 

99. Zhi°-ga, the little ones; zho-i-ga, their bodies; o°-tha, make of 

me; bi, they; do°, when; a, they said. 

100. U-no", old age; a bi, which is spoken of as; i-the, live to see; 

ki-the, cause themselves to; mo°-thi°, as they travel the path 
of life; ta bi° da, they shall, 103, 107, 115, 134. 

101. ^-pa-ha, the skin of my feet; ga, tliis; tlii^-kshe, sitting; shki, 

and; a, they said. 

102. U-no°, the means of reaching old age; a-gi-the, I have made it 

to be; a-to-'-he i° da, as I stand, 105, 109, 113, 117, 132, 136. 
104. Hi-zhu-ga-wa, the muscles of my jaws; ga, this; thi''-kshe, sitting; 

shki, and; a, they said. 
106. Zhi°-ga, the httle ones; u-no", the means of reaching old age; 

gi-the, they make of them; mo°-thi°, as they travel the path 

of life; bi, they; do°, when; shki, and; a, they said, 110, 114. 
108. Tse-wa-tse u-ga-wa, the inner muscles of my thighs; ga, this; 

thi°-kshe, sitting; shki, also; a, they said. 

111. Tse-wa-tse u-ga-wa, inner muscles of the thighs; a bi, that is 

spoken of as; i-the, live to see; mo^-tlii", as they travel the 
path of life; {& bi" da, they shall. 

112. Mo°-ge tlu-plo-the, the muscles of my breast gathered in folds 

with age; ga, these; thi°-kshe, sitting; shki, also; a, they said. 
116. A-zhu-ga-wa, the flaccid muscles of my arms; ga, these; thi°- 
kshe, sitting; shki, also; a, they said. 

118. Zhi°-ga, the little ones; u-no", a means of reaching old age; tha, 

they make of them; bi, they; do", when; shki, and; a, they 
said, 133, 137, 140. 

119. A-zhu-ga-wa, flaccid muscles of the arms; a bi, spoken of as; 

i-the, hve to see; ki-the, cause themselves to; mo°-thi°, as 
they travel the path^of life; ta bi° da, they shall. 



LAFLBSCHE] TRIBAL RITES — LITERAL TRANSLATION 473 

121. A-hiu, my wings; ga, tse, these; a, they said. 

122. E, those; shki do°, also; a, they said. 

123. Wa-thi°-e-pka, without meaning; zhi i" da, are not. 

124. Wa-hiu-k'a, bone awls or scarificators; a-gi-the, I have made 

them to be; a-to°-he i" da, as I stand. 

125. Zlii°-ga, the little ones; wa-hiu-k'a, bone awls; gi-the, they make 

of them; mo°-thi'', as they travel the path of life; bi, they; 
do", when; a, they said, 127. 

126. Wa-luu-k'a, bone awls; gi-pa-hi, sharp for use; ki-the, cause 

them to be; mo"-thi°, as they travel the path of life; ta bi" da, 
they shall. 

127. Wa-liiu-k'a, bone awls; gi-the, they make of them; nio°-tlu'', as 

they travel the path of life; bi, they; do", when; shki, and; 
a, they said. 

128. U-no", old age; a bi, spoken of as; i-the, hve to see; ki-the, 

cause themselves to; mo°-thi°, as they travel the path of life; 
ta bi a, they shall; zhi°-ga, the little ones. 

129. Zhi°-ga, the little ones; wa-no°-xe, spirit; i-thi-shto°, has already 

become one and passed into the spirit world; kshe, one lies; 
shki do°, even though; a, they said. 

130. I-ki-pa-no"-xe-9ka, with the use of the bone awl as a scari- 

ficator they shall bring themselves back to consciousness; 
mo°-thi°, as they travel the path of life; ta bi a, they shall; 
zhi°-ga, the little ones; e, saying; to°, he stood; a, they said. 

131. A-ba t'o-xa, my stooping shoulder; ga, this; thi° kshe, sitting; 

shki, also; a, they said. 
135. Do-dse u-ga-wa, the muscles of my throat; ga, these; thi°-kshe, 
sitting; shki, also; a, they said. 

138. Do-dse u-ga-wa, flaccid muscles of their throat; a bi, spoken of 

as; i-the, live to see; mo°-thi", as they travel the path of life; 
ta bi" da, they shall. 

139. Ta-xpi, crown of the head; hi", the hairs of; pa-dse, grown scant 

with age; ga, this; thi°-kshe, sitting; shki, also; a, they said. 
141. Ta-xpi, the crown of their heads; hi", the hair of; ga-dse, grown 
scant with age; a bi, spoken of as; i-the, live to see; mo"-thi", 
as they travel the path of life; ta bi" da, they shall; zlu°-ga, 
the little ones. 

Ho^'-GA Wa-gthi" Ts'a-ge 

(Free translation, p. 88; Osage version, p. 314) 

1. He-dsi, at that time and place; xtsi, verily; a, they said; abi"da, 

it has been said; tsi, house; ga, in this, 11, 35. 

2. He-dsi, then and there; xtsi, verily; i-no°-zhi°, with the close of 

the words (of the pelican) he arose; do", he did; a, they said. 

3. Hi°-da, now; a-gthe tse, I shall go home; e-ki-the, he thought of 

himself; to", as he stood; a, they said. 



474 THE OSAGE TRIBE [bth. ann. 3(5 

4. U-zho°, sleeps; we-pe-tho°-ba, seventh; tse, on the; a, they said. 

5. Ga-xa zhi"-ga, a small stream; xtsi, verily; ge, the; dsi, there; 

a, they said. 

6. He-dsi, near to; xtsi, verily; gi, he approached; thi°, as he 

moved liomeward; a, they said. 

7. Ho^-ga, the sacred eagle; Wa-gtlii°, very; Ts'a-ge, aged; do", a; 

a, they said. 

8. He-dsi, close to him; xtsi, verily; gtlii, he came; no°-zhi°, paused; 

to", and stood; a, they said. 

9. Ha, O; wi-tsi-go-e, my grantlfather; e-gi-a, bi a, he said to him. 
10. Zhi^-ga, the little ones; zho-i-ga, their b